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LECTURES ON
THEORETICAL PHYSICS
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED
LONDON BOM HAY  CALCUTTA . MADRAS
MELUOUKNE
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
MEW YORK HUSTON . CHICAGO
DALLAS SAX FRANCISCO
THE MACMILLAN CO. OF CANADA, LTD.
TORONTO
LECTUEES ON
THEOBETICAL PHYSICS
DELIVERED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF LEIDEN
BY
H. A. LORENTZ
AUTHORISED TRANSLATION
BY
L SILBERSTEIN, Pir.I)., AND A. P. Jl. TKIVKLLl
VOLUME I
AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
EDITED UY II. BREMEKAMP, Pn.I).
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
EDITED JBY E. D. BRUINS, Pu.D., AND J. REUDLER, Pii.D.
Osmania University HYO  i.
MACMILLAN AND CO., LIMITED
ST. MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1927
COPYRIGHT
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
BY It. & K. CLARK, LIMITED, EDINBURGH
PREFACE TO THE ENGLISH TRANSLATION
A SERIES of admirably clear and instructive courses of lectures,
covering essentially almost the whole field of Theoretical Physics,
were delivered by Professor Lorenf z at the University of Leiden.
Seven of these courses, bearing on subjects of fundamental
importance, were, up to 1922, edited by Lorentz's pupils and
published in the Dutch language. During Professor Lorentz's
visit in the United States in 1922 the plan was conceived to make
these courses of lectures accessible to. English readers.
After some delay necessitated by circumstances the present
Volume I. is being issued. It contains the English version of
two of these courses of lectures, viz. Aether Theories and Aether
Models, edited in the Dutch language by Prof. H. Bremekamp,
and Kinetical Problems, edited by Dr. E. D. Bruins and Dr.
J. Heudler. To preserve the peculiar charm of Lorentz's own
style and exposition the translation of these lectures has been
made as literal as was compatible with the nature of the English
language. Only a very few changes or explanatory additions
were made in the text. The latter are placed in square brackets.
Volumes II. and III., now in preparation, will contain the
remaining five lecture courses, namely, Thermodynamics, Entropy
and Probability, Theory of Radiation, Theory of Quanta, and The
Principle of Relativity for Uniform Translations (Special Theory
of Relativity).
Recently, 1925, one more course of lectures, on Maxwell's
Theory, was brought out at Leiden, and arrangements will be
made to include its English version into this publication.
L. S.
A. P. H. T.
ROCHESTER, N.Y.,
July 1926.
CONTENTS
AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
I. ABERRATION OF LIGHT
PACK
1. Stokes 1 Theory : The Earth drags the Surrounding Aether . . 3
2. Velocity Potential in an Incompressible Aether ... 6
3. Planck's Theory. Compressible Aether .... 7
4. Fresnel's Theory. Fixed Aether ..... 12
5. Dragging Coefficient ....... 13
6. Theory of Aberration ....... 14
7. Michelson's Experiment . . . . . . .19
8. Contraction in the Direction of Motion ..... 23
II. MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES
9. Maxwell's Equations ....... 24
10. The Magnetic Force as Velocity. Neumann's Theory of Light . 26
11. The Electric Force as Velocity. Fresnel's Theory of Light . . 29
12. Theory of Elasticity. McCullagh's Aether .... 30
13. Quasirigid Aether 31
14. Quasilabile Aether ....... 35
15. Graetz's Theory ........ 36
16. The Charging of a Conductor according to the Elastic Aether
Theories ......... 37
III. KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER
17. Kelvin's Model of the Quasirigid Aether .... 40
18. Solid Gyrostat 44
19. Liquid Gyrostat ........ 48
20. Liquid in Turbulent Motion as Aether Model .... 52
IV. ATTRACTION AND REPULSION OF PULSATING SPHERES
21. Nature of the Problem 58
22. A Single Moving Sphere ....... 59
23. A Sphere at Rest in a Liquid with a given Motion ... 60
24. n Spheres ......... 61
25. Two Spheres ........ 62
26. Treatment of the Problem by means of Lagrange's Equations . 65
27. Pearson's Theory ........ 67
SOURCES AND REFERENCES ...... 70
vii
viii CONTENTS
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
PAOR
INTRODUCTION ......... 75
CHAPTER I
INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING, TREATED HYDRODYNAMICALLY
1. Hydrodynamical Equations of an Incompressible Viscous Liquid . 77
2. Effect of Sliding upon a Liquid flowing in a Tube ... 80
3. The Dragging of a Liquid by a Moving Plate .... 81
4. Effect of Sliding in the Case of Translational Motion of a Sphere in
a Liquid ......... 83
5. Liquid Motion due to an Immersed Vibrating Plate ... 87
6. Effect of Frequency in the Case of a Sphere vibrating in a Liquid . 89
7. The Question of Validity of Stokes' Law for Brownian Movement. 93
8. Deduction of Einstein's Formula for the Mean Square of the
Deviation of a Particle in Brownian Movement ... 94
CHAPTER II
FRICTION AND SLIDING, TREATED KINETICALLY
9. Friction Independent of the Density of the Gas ... 98
10. Uniformity Considerations ...... 102
11. Kundt and Warburg's Experimental Investigations . . . 107
CHAPTER III
KNUDSEN'S INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES
12. Flow of a Rarefied Gas through a Narrow Tube . . 1 10
13. Knudsen'H Experimental Investigation on the Flow of a Rarefied
Gas through a Narrow Tube . . . . . .117
14. Flow of a Rarefied Gas through a Narrow Orifice ; Knudsen's
Experiments ........ 120
15. Flow of a Rarefied Gas through a Narrow Tube whose Ends have
Different Temperatures . . . . . .122
1(5. Mutual Repulsion of Two Plates at Different Temperatures separated
by a Rarefied Gas J2f>
17. Knudsen's Manometers . . . . . . .132
18. Knudsen's Accommodation Coefficient . . . . .134
19. Heat Conduction in a Rarefied Gas contained between Two Plates
of Unequal Temperature . . . . . .136
20. The Effect of Accommodation upon Heat Conduction . . 140
21. Heat Conduction in a Gas of Greater Density contained between
Two Plates of Unequal Temperature . . . .145
CONTENTS ix
PAUK
22. Heat Conduction Coefficient Independent of Density . . .149
23. Lasareff's Experimental Investigation . . . . .150
CHAPTER IV
REMARKS ON LESAOE'S THEORY OF GRAVITATION
24. Lesage's Theory of Gravitation 151
25. An Electromagnetic Analogue of Lesage's Theory . . . 153
CHAPTER V
FRICTION AND HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE PROPAGATION
OF SOUND
26. The Effect of Friction 156
27. Effect of Heat Conduction 160
CHAPTER VI
KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS
RICHARDSON'S INVESTIGATIONS
28. Theoretical Introduction 163
29. Validity of Maxwell's Distribution Law for the Free Electrons in a
Metal 167
30. Velocity Distribution of Thermions for Different Directions . .173
31. The Work required to drive an Electron out of the Metal . . 175
32. The Density of Electrons in the Metal 177
33. Difference in Potential Energy between the Electrons inside and
outside the Metal Atoms 179
CHAPTER VII
VACUUM CONTACT OF PLATES OF DIFFERENT METALS
34. Potential Difference for Vacuum Contact . . . .182
35. Resistance at a Vacuum Junction . .184
36. Peltier Effect for a Vacuum Contact 185
37. Richardson's Measurements . . . . . .186
CHAPTER VIII
PROBLEMS IN WHICH THE MOTION OF ELECTRONS PLAYS A PART
38. Nichols 1 Experiment 189
39. Kinetic Energy of the Conductioncurrent Electrons . . .190
SOURCES AND REFERENCES ...... 193
AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
(19011902)
I
ABERRATION OF LIGHT
THE first question which presents itself when we try to form an
idea of the nature of the aether is that concerning its relations
to ponderable matter. More especially we will consider the
question whether a moving body, such as a planet, does drag
the surrounding aether. The theory of the aberration of light
may give us in this respect some information.
1. STOKES' THEORY: THE EARTH DRAGS THE SURROUNDING
AETHER
Stokes imagines the aether streaming in the neighbourhood
of a planet and determines the direction in which according
to this hypothesis a star should be seen in the following
way. If we consider a wavefront near the planet, we can
determine any of its successive positions by the Huygens con
struction, provided we take account of the velocity of the
aether at each point of the original wavefront. Since the
velocities at different points are different, the wavefront will
be slightly tilted, and since the direction in which we see the
light source is determined by the normal of the wave when it
reaches our eye, this rotation will give us an explanation of the
aberration. In order to find the amount of the rotation thus
produced, we note first of all that the translational [orbital]
velocity p of the earth is 10~ 4 times the light velocity V. Terms
of the order (p/V) 2 will be neglected.
Let the plane AB (Fig. 1) represent the wavefront at the
instant t, and let our zaxis OZ be perpendicular to this plane at
a point M. Then, if u , v , W Q be the velocity components of
3
AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
the aether at M 9 we can write for the velocity components at a
point x, y, 2 of AB chosen in the neighbourhood of M,
du du
9v do
$?+tfl'
dw div
A
B
During the time dt the point will be displaced to the new
position
du du \ i. / dv
The plane drawn through all the points thus obtained is parallel
to the new wavefront. Its equation will be
dw dw
This relation, in whose second term x and y stand for the old
coordinates, will hold, provided the differences between these and
the new coordinates are very small. The directioncosines of
this plane are
fa,. dw,.
*dt, ~ at, 1,
dx ' 3.V
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 5
so that the wave normal makes with the X axis the angle + eft,
* 2 Px
and with the Yaxis the angle *" + *  dt. The changes of the two
2 y
first directioncosines, which originally were zero, that is to say,
the magnitudes
dw jA , dw ,,
*dt and ~ at,
dx dy
can be taken as a measure of the rotation of the wavefront
about the y and the xaxis.
The wavefront propagates itself in the time dt over a distance
Vdt, so that the rotation, per unit length, has the components
1 dw 1 dw
"7 Jte' ~V~dy'
The total rotation undergone by the wavefront until it will have
reached our eye will, of course, be expressed by an integral.
The preceding reasoning gives us the contribution to that integral
for a wave front which is normal to the adopted Zaxis. The
deviations from that orientation remain, however, so small that
these results can be used for all the elements of the integral.
Thus the components of the total rotation will be
, 1
where the integrations are to be extended from a point at which .
the earth's motion is still imperceptible up to the observer's
station P.
Now, it is actually possible to account for aberration by
means of this rotation of the wavefront, provided that the
motion of the aether is assumed to be irrotational. There exists
then a velocity potential <f>, such that
?J> ty fy
u = ^ , v v , w = J
fte vy vz
Thus also flt0/ftc = 8ti/3z, dwfiy^dvpz, and our expressions for
the rotation components become
6 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
It will be readily seen that this result agrees with observation,
and with the elementary theory as well, if it be assumed that
the velocity of the aether at the observing station P is equal to
the translational velocity of the earth.
2. VELOCITY POTENTIAL IN AN INCOMPRESSIBLE AETHER
Here, however, a serious doubt arises, whether the existence
of a velocity potential is compatible with the requirement
that the velocity should be equal all over the surface of the
earth (viz. equal to the earth's velocity in its annual motion),
whereas the assumption of such a potential is indispensable for
obtaining the correct value of the aberration. As a matter of
fact, there is nothing uncommon about a motion for which a
velocity potential exists. In a frictionless liquid in which there
are, at a given instant, and therefore also at any later time, no
vortices, no other motion, in fact, is possible. But, as was just
mentioned, the assumption of a velocity potential for an incom
pressible aether cannot be reconciled with the other requirement
that the velocity at the earth's surface should be everywhere the
same, in size as well as in direction. In fact, in an incompressible
aether the motion is completely determined, if it be assumed
that a velocity potential exists and that the normal velocity
component of the aether at the surface of the earth is every
where equal to that of the translation velocity of the earth ; but
the tangential components are then found to be different. If
the origin is at the centre of the earth, the Jfaxis in the direction
of the lianslational motion of the earth, and if the velocity of
this motion is p, then all requirements are satisfied (and according
to the theory of the Laplace equation this is the only possible
solution) by the potential
. Cx
9= yS'
so that
where C is determined by the condition that the normal com,
ponent of the velocity at the surface of the earth should be
equal to the component of p in the same direction. If R be the
i ABEKRATION OF LIGHT 7
radius of the earth, and the angle between the direction r and
the 3Taxis, then, since 3</?)r= 2Ck/r*, the last condition gives
and therefore C =  1
Now, in order to see that the Velocity of the aether cannot be
the same all over the surface, viz. equal to that of the earth, it
is enough to notice that for points of the surface in a plane
through the centre and perpendicular to OX the velocity along
the Xaxis becomes \p, whereas at the intersection point of
the surface with the Xaxis we find the velocity p. In order to
avoid this difficulty, one might perhaps take advantage of the
circumstance that the velocity potential need not exist in the
whole space around the earth, since we are concerned only with
a limited region. This, however, would lead to very artificial
and improbable concepts.
3. PLANCK'S THEORY. COMPRESSIBLE AETHER
It was shown by Planck how these difficulties can be met by
giving up the incompressibility of the aether and by assuming
that the aether is subject to the earth's attractive force. To
investigate the details of the motion, it will be convenient to
attribute to the whole universe a velocity p, while consider
ing the earth to be at rest. AVe have then to investigate the
disturbance produced by the fixed sphere in the otherwise
uniform aether stream. Planck adjusts his hypotheses so that
the velocity at the surface of the sphere should be small. In
order to see how this requirement can be satisfied, it is enough
to realise that a plane through the centre of the sphere perpen
dicular to the direction of the stream must be traversed in a
given time by the same amount of aether as in the absence of
the sphere. The quantity of aether which in the latter case has
to stream through the circle cut out by the sphere from that
plane, must find its way through the remaining part of the plane
surrounding the circle, and especially through that nearest to
the circle. This is, with a small velocity, only possible if the
density in the neighbourhood of tjp sphere is large. It is
necessary, therefore, to assume that the aether [to be thus
condensed] is attracted by the earth. It must further be assumed
8 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
that the velocity of light in this very condensed aether is the
same as in the aether of normal density. Planck assumes also
that the aether while being condensed behaves like a gas.
We will now work out in detail these ideas. Let the Zaxis
be chosen in the direction of motion of the aether at infinity.
Let, as before, < be the velocity potential and, therefore, the
velocity components u=d<f>j?x, v=9$/fy, w^ty/dz. The dis
tance of a point (x, y, z) from the centre of the earth will be
denoted by r, and the radius of the earth by r . Let p be the
pressure, and k the density of the aether, and let k/p=fju
be assumed to be constant. Further, let V be the potential of
the attractive force, per unit mass, so that the components of
this force, again per unit mass, are ?V/?x 9 dVfiy, dVfiz.
Then V = qjr, and the force, which is radial, is, per unit mass,
~dVfir=qlr 2 , and therefore at the surface, ?/r 2 = g. Thus q
is determined, and we have
F=^ 2 .
r
Let us now write down the equations of motion for a stationary
state, in which the velocity find the density at every point have
always the same values. First of all, the equation of continuity,
i <\ 1 1 \
~ J 1=0. . . . (1)
?z v '
Next, the equation of motion,
~ ~ ~=  ~  7 *,
vx dy vz vx K vx
where the lefthand member represents the acceleration along the
Xaxis, since, the state being stationary, ?u^t=^0. The right
hand member is the force per unit of mass in the same direction.
Two similar equations will hold for the Y and the /directions.
Owing to the existence of a velocity potential an integral can be
found at once. In fact, the equations of motion can be written
etc., whence
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 9
Let us now assume that the term containing the square of the
velocity can be neglected. Then,
This equation shows that, to the assumed degree of approxima
tion, the density distribution in the aether can be taken to be
the same as in the state of rest. Thus we can write
1 r 2
 log p g = const.,
or also
1 r 2
 log k g = const.
The integration constant can be expressed in terms of the aether
density A* at the surface of the earth,
1 , , r 1
instead of which we can write
i * f } l \
log , al  ,
b *o Vr V
where a=W^o 2 
For r = oo we find the limit value of k,
In the next place, Planck determines the velocity potential
from the equation (1), where now k is a known function of the
coordinates. What is required is a solution representing a
motion which at large distances reduces to a stream along the
Zaxis. Let 7 be the velocity of this stream.* Then, at large
distances, 0=72. This suggests the form <f>=zf(r). Then,
ty =df 9 djjzdf^t = z*df
to r dr dy r dr' dz r dr *'
_
rdr r 3 dr r 2 cfr* 1
* This was previously denoted by p. In accordance with Planck's
notation p will now be used for the pressure.
10 AETHER THEOEIES AND AETHER MODELS
?#4fj&#.0*
fy 2 rdr r 3 dr r 2 '
&<f> = Zz<tf_**<y .#
dz* r dr r*dr r*r
and the equation (1) becomes
j/ A zdf d?f\ dk xzdf ?>k yzdf dk/z 2 df
&(4 / + 25,,)+^ ' ;/ +*' ' j+i\j +
\ rdr dr*/ fa r dr ty r dr dz\r dr J
Substituting here the value of log k just found, we have
A zdf d?f I x xzdf [yyzdf zfz*df
4 i +Sja a "La y+.a /+ai ^
rar ar 2 (r 3 r ar r 3 r ar ^Vr dr
or, after some reductions,
(Pf /4 a\df a, n
j'i + l  a)/  ^i/^ 
dr 2 \r rVrfr r 3 * 7
The solution of this equation is
The constants a and 6 will be determined by considering the
state of things at infinity and at the earth's surface. For r = oo
we must have <f>*=zy, and since <f>=~f(r),
and ba = y. At the surface of the earth the aether cannot
have any velocity perpendicular to that surface, i.e.
and since
we have, at the earth's surface, /(r) +rf'(r) =0. Substituting the
value of/(r) and putting r = r , we find

r \2r
Thus a=fe,r 2 2 + a + ]e^ (4)
2 v ;
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 11
Now for the sliding of the aether along the earth's surface.
In order to find this, we have to calculate the Zcomponent of
the velocity. From <f> = zf(r) follows
and, at the surface of the earth, where /(r) +rf'(r) = 0,
where 6 is again the angle between r and the Zaxis. If ro is
the velocity in the tangential direction, then, since fty/fe = & sin 0,
we have
=sin0./(r),
whence, by (3) and (4),
r
2r
Our aim now is to make the coefficient of sin small in com
parison with 7. This will be the case if a/r is large. For then,
in virtue of (4), the constant a will be small as compared with 6,
and therefore, since b a = y,b will be approximately equal to 7.
Planck has made some numerical estimates under different
assumptions. Let us first take p^k/p and a^=/igrr 2 as great
as for air at C. and for g the value which holds for
ordinary ponderable matter. Then the consequences hold for
the air actually surrounding the earth. Thus, fl/r 800, and
the ratio of the density at the earth's surface to that prevailing
at a large distance is
e a/r 0== g800
The result of the computation is therefore, practically, that our
atmosphere can well be kept by the earth, though at the same
time the theory shows that some residual sliding is unavoidable,
provided that friction be disregarded. Now, with reference to
the aether we need not choose our assumptions so as to be
driven to such an extravagant condensation. It can easily
be calculated how far we must go with this/^The aberra
tion constant is known only up to ^ per "'cent. In other
words, the effect of a [sliding] velocity smaller than vj^
12 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
of the velocity of the earth cannot be detected. It is enough,
therefore, that the velocity of the aether at the earth's surface
should remain below this limit. For this purpose it is only
necessary to have a/r >ll. Even so we are still left with a
condensation e 11 [or about 60,000], The natural question arises
whether such a strong condensation could not be tested in an
independent way. Notice that the condensation around the sun
and similar bodies will be considerably greater, since the attrac
tion is proportional to the mass. The aether condensation due
to the presence of the sun will also increase somewhat the con
densation e a/r at the earth's surface. A number of questions
suggest themselves here, but must be left unanswered.
4. FRESNEL'S THEORY. FIXED AETHER
We now turn to the alternative hypothesis, that of a fixed
aether. This was already assumed by Fresnel. The aether
must then be able to pass freely through the earth. The atoms
themselves may well be impenetrable, provided, however, that
they are assumed to occupy but a small fraction of the total
volume. We may also assume that the atoms are not impene
trable, following a line of thought according to which the atoms
or their constituents are but special modifications [singularities]
of the aether.
In order to explain aberration we again apply Huygens'
principle. Let us take the simple case in which the position of a
star is being determined by means of a primitive sighting appar
atus (without lenses), and let the presence of the atmosphere be
disregarded. The explanation is
^ *L then the same as on the emission
theory. The propagation of the
*  wave front which at a certain
F ICU 2. instant reaches the aperture AB
(Fig. 2) is unaffected by the
motion of AB. A simple construction gives us that portion
of the screen CD which receives the aether disturbance,
and it is manifest that in this way one falls back to the
older explanation. But this reasoning cannot be applied when
we are concerned with refracting surfaces. In this direction
many experiments on aberration were made. As a typical case
i ABERKATION OF LIGHT 13
we can consider the famous experiment of Arago. If ab (Fig. 3)
is the direction in which, with the aberration, a star would be
seen directly, then cd, the direction
in which the star is seen through a
prism, will coincide with that of the
refracted ray belonging to ba as
incident ray. Another experiment ^ F IG . 3.
[Boscovich  Airy] proves that, in
observing a star, a telescope filled with water has to be set in
the same direction as an ordinary telescope. To sum up, these
experiments show that all refraction phenomena arc the same as
if there were no aberration.
5. DRAGGING COEFFICIENT
In order to explain Arago's experiment Fresnel introduced
the dragginghypothcsis, which amounts to this :
Let W be the propagation velocity of light in a given medium,
when this is at rest. Then, if the medium is moving with a
velocity p in the direction of light propagation, the velocity of
light relatively to the aether is, according to Fresnel, not W +p
but W +kp, where k is a fraction. In other words, the ponder
able medium behaves as if it
dragged the light with a velocity
* n which is only a certain fraction
of its own velocity. The co
efficient k must then be
fc 11,
w 2
where n is the refractive index
of the medium when at rest.
Fj ' 4 ' For w = l we have fc = 0, as it
should be ; for when n tends to unity, the medium becomes
indiscernible from the aether.
This expression for the coefficient k can be easily found by
the following reasoning. Let us suppose that the position of a
celestial object is being determined by means of a sighting
apparatus consisting of a screen with an aperture AB (Fig. 4),
which is fixed in the aether, and of a second screen with an aper
ture CJD, behind which is placed some ponderable medium, as
14 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
e.g. glass, and finally of a third screen which receives the light.
Since the refraction is such as if the apparent direction of the
ray were the true one, the segment EF of the third screen which
receives the light will be found by putting
sin (ACH).
This is the result of the experiment. Now, let V Q be the velocity
of light in the aether, v l the light velocity in glass (at rest), and
p the velocity of the earth, and let us consider the case in which
the incident light is perpendicular to the first screen. Then,
since the deviation from the normal remains small,
sin (ACH) == tan (ACH) ^pjv Qt
and therefore, ^ECG^p/nv^ and EG = lp/nv , if l = CG. The
segment thus determined differs from that which we would find
if, starting with the wavefront CD, we applied Huygens' prin
ciple and used in it v l as light velocity ; for then we should find
a segment E'F' such that
E'GiCGpiv^pivJn,
and therefore, E'G = lnplv Q . To reconcile this with the experi
mental result we have to assume that within the time J/t^ the
glass has dragged the light over a distance
E'E = E'G  EG = Inpfa  lp/nv Q ,
that is to say, with the velocity
6. THEORY or ABERRATION
If this dragging coefficient is assumed, it can be proved that
all the phenomena of refraction, etc., are such as if there were no
aberration. For this purpose we use the artifice of imparting to
the whole system a velocity equal and opposite to that of the
earth. The earth is then at rest, while the aether has everywhere
the same velocity. This proof can be given for the more general
case of any motion of the aether, provided it has a velocity
potential. Our first business is to find out how the wavefronts
and the lightrays are to be determined. The elementary wave
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 15
front spreading out from a point would, after a time t, in a
stationary aether, be a sphere of radius vrf. Now, if p be the
velocity of the aether at 0, and if it varies continuously from
point to point, then, neglecting infinitesimal terms of the second
order, it can be shown that this sphere is simply displaced as a
whole over the distance pt. The successive wavefronts are the
envelopes of the spheres thus determined, every time to be con
structed around the points of the preceding wavefront as centres,
and taking account of the aether velocity at those points.
To find the wavefronts in a ponderable medium, let us
first consider the case in which the aether is at rest, while the
ponderable medium has the velocity  p. The elementary wave
front is then, after a time t, a sphere of radius vj, which is dis
placed as a whole over a distance pt(\  1/n 2 ). If we now give
to the whole system the velocity p, the elementary wavefront
will be displaced relatively to the
ponderable medium, thus brought to
rest, over the distance O^^ ^X^i*
_1
n ' TO/
where /c = l/n 2 . This coefficient can
be said to determine to what extent
the light has been dragged by the aether. Let now (Fig. 5)
be a point of a wave front. The elementary wave front
emanating from is a sphere with 0' as centre, where 00' = icpt,
and of radius vtf. Let A be the point of contact of this sphere
with the envelope which is the new wavefront. Then OA will
be an element of the lightray through 0, and we find for the
propagation velocity along this ray, relatively to the earth,
w^OAjt. Thus, if be the angle OVA, we have
v^ =w 2  2i<wp cos + K 2 p 2 ,
whence, neglecting higher powers of p 9
30S 2 01) ... (5)
w V} [ Vi 20J 2 J *
These formulae hold for any continuous spacedistribution of the
velocity p.
16 AETHEE THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
Having thus found the velocity along the ray, we can readily
determine the light path relatively to the earth. For this pur
pose we make use of a theorem according to which light follows
that path to which corresponds the shortest time, a theorem
which in the present case can also be easily deduced from
Huygens' principle. In fact, let AB be the lightray determined
by a Huygens construction, and let us consider any other path
between A and B. Both paths cut the successive wavefronts.
The intersection points of the latter with the actual lightray
may be called corresponding points. Let S and S' be two
successive positions of a wavefront separated by a very short
timeinterval, and let P', Q', etc., be points of S' corresponding
to P, Q, etc., chosen arbitrarily on S. Then the time of passage
along PP', QQ', etc., always with the ray velocity belonging to
these lines, will be the same. The time required for covering
any other path drawn from S to S', again with the ray velocity
belonging to it, that is to say, a path laid through noncorre
sponding points, will be longer. This appears from Fig. 6,
in which A is a point of the first wavefront and A'D lies in
the second wavefront, A' being the point
AL jw in which the latter wavefront touches the
elementary wave A'C circumscribed around
/A* A, so that A' and A are corresponding
FIG 6 points. Since the light time for A A' is as
long as that for AC, that for AD is evi
dently longer. Let us now imagine between the points A and
B the whole series of successive positions of the wavefront.
Then, remembering that the lightray is the locus of corre
sponding points, while this cannot be said of any other path
from A to B 9 it will* become manifest that the time along
the lightray is indeed the shortest among all paths leading
from A to B.
This being proved, the light path can be determined in the
following way. The time required for covering an arbitrary
path between A and B is I dsjw, the integral to be extended
JA
over the path. Now, this expression has to be a minimum for
the actual light path.
Let us first take the case of a nonhomogeneous (but isotropic)
ponderable medium, without surfaces of discontinuity, however.
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 17
Then tc , upon which w depends, is variable, since n as well as v l
are variable. Further, w depends also on p and 0, which in their
turn depend on the state of motion of the aether, of which we
have only assumed that it has a velocitypotential <.
Thus, taking account of (5), and neglecting terms of the order
2 , we find for our integral
I* 1  r f\ \ I
 * cos ) = / 
~~ 'A v i 'A nZv i* cte" '
Now, nv^VQ being constant throughout the space, the last
integral is (<j3<ki)> an d therefore independent of the path
between A and B. The minimum property is thus influenced
only by the first integral on the right hand, and since this con
tains no trace of motion, the light path will be the same as if
there were no motion of the aether. Notice that this proof is
based, first, on the assumption of Fresnel's dragging coefficient
and, second, upon the existence of a velocitypotential.
It follows from the Huygens construction that the minimum
property holds also for the case in which the light passes from
one to another medium. Consequently, the light path can in
this case be found by the same reasoning as before. In fact,
considering any path from A to B which cuts the refracting
surface at C, and putting l/w 2 ^ 2 ^/*, we have
*
In order that this should be a minimum, it is enough to make
the first term a minimum. Consequently, the lightrays in
reference to the earth obey the ordinary laws of refraction.
We have still to consider the relation between the lightray
VOL. J c
18 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
and the wavefront. For these are no longer perpendicular to each
other. Let (Fig. 7) be a point of a wavefront, let 00'=jM,
and let P be the corresponding point of a successive wavefront,
so that OP=wt will be an
element of the lightray, and
O'P v^t. If now the wave
front, and therefore the
wavenormal (O'P), at every
FIG. 7. / * point be given, then the
direction of the lightray
can be found by combining the velocity v l along the normal
with the velocity *p. Vice versa, if the ray be given, the direction
of the wavenormal will be found by combining the velocity w
along the ray with the velocity  up. In the latter construction,
and up to terms of the order j? 2 /v 2 , the velocity w can be replaced
by v l taken in the same direction.
Let us still consider a luminous point L in a homo
geneous medium, and let us determine the wavefronts by the
indicated construction. The lightrays being straight lines
diverging from //, it is required to find the direction of the
wavenormal at any point A. If x, y, z be the coordinates of
A, with L as origin, the components of the ray velocity v { at
the point A are
x y z
/i> /i> /i<
and these must be compounded with icp, the velocity of
dragging. The components of the latter are  /tf^/rte,  /e?)0/rty,
 icdfyfiz. Thus the components of the resultant will be
"(ty  *<), ^(vf  K</>), ^(f V  *<),
and since this resultant has the direction of the wavenormal,
the equation of the wavefront becomes
VjrK(f)= const.
In the neighbourhood of L the potential $ can be considered as
a linear function of the coordinates, so that the last equation
assumes the form
ty  K(OX + by + cz) = const.
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 19
As we already know, the wavefronts in the immediate
neighbourhood of L are spheres whose centres lie at a certain
distance from L. It is manifest that the equation agrees with
this, provided terms with p 2 are neglected, as in fact they were
in deducing it. Again, waves converging towards a point have
the same form as would have expanding ones, if the velocities
in the aether were everywhere reversed.
In order to apply this reasoning to the determination of the
direction in which we see a star through a telescope, let us
consider a wavefront arriving from a star, and let us derive
from the given wavenormal the direction of the lightray. It
is these relative lightrays which we observe in our experiments.
In the free aether, far away from the earth, the direction of the
relative ray is found by combining the velocity V Q along the
wavenormal with /cp, where # 1. In this manner we find,
obviously, the same direction as according to the elementary
theory. The further progress of these relative rays can now be
followed up by the ordinary laws of refraction, etc. And we
have now to orient the telescope so that the rays thus treated
should converge upon the intersection point of the crosswires.
In this way the theory accounts for all the experimental facts.
Also the diffraction and interference phenomena are such as
if the earth were at rest and as if we had to do with the velocity
v v If we have, for instance, two paths between A and B, the
interference will depend only on the difference of the light times
along them, and this difference can be determined by using for
each path element the velocity v r For this amounts only to
omitting, for the two paths, the term /*(</> j  (f> ), which is the
same for both. Here again it is only necessary to assume that
there exists a velocitypotential, but not that the earth is pene
trable for the aether. The latter, however, must be assumed for
all transparent media in order to have a reasonable explanation
of the dragging coefficient. The simplest, after all, is Fresnel's
theory.
7. MICHELSON'S EXPERIMENT
We have thus far neglected all terms having p 2 /v 2 as factor.
See formula (.5).
In certain interference experiments, however, the accuracy
can be pushed so far that these secondorder terms have to be
20 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS i
taken into account. Such is the famous experiment of Michelson,
already suggested by Maxwell. Let A and B be two points fixed
on the earth, and let the latter move with the velocity p along
AB. What is the time taken by light for a complete toandfro
passage ? This will depend on whether the aether shares in the
earth's motion or not. In the former case the time in question
will be independent of the velocity p, but in the latter case the
velocity of light relative to the earth will be vp in one, and
v+p in the opposite direction, and therefore the time required
for a complete toandfro passage [up to fourthorder terms],
vp v+p v
Since Michelson determines this time by means of an inter
ference phenomenon, the influence of the last term will still be
perceptible, though it amounts only to a fraction of the vibration
period. Let us see how large I must be in order to give an
observable effect. The shift of the interference fringes due to
a time lag of ^ of the vibration period T will be just detectible.
. For this purpose we must have
hence, if X be the wavelength of the light,
or I = 3 metres.
v
In Michelson's experiment a ray travers
rk ing to and fro a certain distance in the
direction of the earth's motion is made to
interfere with a ray traversing the same
distance up and down in a perpendicular direction. Fig. 8
gives a schematic representation of the apparatus. This consists
of two fixed mirrors B and B' and a dividing glass plate A,
inclined at 45 to the incident light beam. A part of this beam
passes through the plate, is reflected at B, and after a reflection
at the lower face of the plate enters the telescope. Another
part of the incident light is reflected at A towards the mirror B'
and thence through the glass plate into the telescope, where it
interferes with the first partial beam. The experiment consists
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 21
in turning the whole apparatus, including the light source and
the telescope, by 90 and comparing the interference fringes in
the new and the original orientation. The effect of the phase
difference is thus doubled. Yet no displacement of the inter
ference fringes was observed.
Let us consider the theory of this experiment somewhat more
thoroughly. We have to compare the times taken by light to
traverse two different paths be .
tween two points A and B (Fig. 9). 1
We have already seen that, if only
firstorder terms are retained, the
difference of these times is the
same as if the earth were at rest.
Now, to determine the effect of
secondorder terms we must take Fia
into account that the light path
between A and B is itself slightly changed by the motion. In
fact, the light path could be identified with that corresponding
to a fixed earth only when we confined ourselves to terms of
the order p/v. Now, however, the slight change of the path
implying secondorder terms need not be negligible. But it
can be easily shown that even with the inclusion of second 
order effects the propagation time from A to B can be
calculated with sufficient accuracy by extending the integral
/dsjw, with w given by (()), along the light path which would
correspond to a fixed earth. Let, e.g., ACB (Fig. 9) be the
light path with the earth at rest, and ADB the actual light path
for a moving earth. Then the integral j(Ls\w would have to
be evaluated for the path ADB. But since the value of this
integral is juat a minimum, it will differ from that taken along
the path ACB only by a quantity of the second order in the
deviations of the two paths, such as CD. And since, as
already mentioned, this deviation is itself of the order p 2 /v 2 9
the difference between the integrals extended over ACB and
ADB will be of the order ^ 4 /v 4 , and can thus be neglected.
The same holds also for the other light pencil, as indicated
in the figure by the lines without letters.
The propagation time from A to B, T^fds/w, can now be
calculated as in Art. 6, developing l/w into a power series of plv
and confining ourselves to the first three terms.
22 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS
Thus, T = T! + T 2 + r 3 , where, by (6),
fds
' COS
(which has no influence on the phase difference), and
In Michelson's experiment we can put K = 1, and y is, by Fresnel's
theory, the velocity of the earth. To the phase change due to
the turning of the apparatus the integral r 2 contributes nothing,
so that only r 3 has to be taken care of, where = or 180 for
the first, and = 90 or 270 for the second of the interfering
rays. If I be the doubly covered path, then, as we already saw,
for the first ray, and T 3 =/? 2 //t> 3 for the second ray. Thus also
the latter is somewhat affected by the earth's motion. This
can also be seen in the following
simple way. A ray impinging
upon the glass plate at A (Fig. 10)
returns from the mirror B and
meets it again in A', so that
the distance over which the plate
was displaced in the meantime
_ is A A' =2lpjv. Consequently the
length of the light path is
o. 10. 2VP + l 2 p 2 lv z = 2l(l +2> 2 /2v 2 ). ' The
difference, as compared with a
fixed earth, is therefore lp z /v 2 , and the difference of the corre
sponding time, J^ 2 /v 3 , which is the value just found for r 3 .
As Michelson overlooked the influence of the earth's
motion upon the light time along the path ABA', in his first
experiment he estimated the theoretical effect twice too high.
In this case the distance I was 12 metre, so that a shift of ^ of
a fringe width was expected. The corrected theory gave only
 2 V of a fringe width, and this was below the threshold of reliable
observability. Michelson, therefore, repeated the experiment
i ABERRATION OF LIGHT 23
with the modification that each of the two beams passed several
times between the mirrors. In this manner the light path was
increased to 22 metres and should have given a displacement
of , 4 rt of a fringe width (an estimate in which account was also
taken of the motion of the solar system). But even now the
result of the experiment was negative in contradiction to Fresnel's
theory. It will be kept in mind tlmt the validity of this theory
is not limited to the case of an aether at rest as a whole, but
extends also to types of motion of the aether for which there
exists a velocitypotential.
This experiment would also clash with any theory which
attributes to the relative velocity of the aether and the earth a
Vcilue not sensibly smaller than the translation velocity of the
earth. In what follows, however, we shall have in mind only
Fresnel's theory.
8. CONTRACTION IN THE DIRECTION OF MOTION
We can explain the negative result of Michelson's experiment
by assuming that the length of the arms of the apparatus is
changed by turning it through a right angle. This change can
be assumed to be just such as to give to r 3 the same value for
both rays. This calls for a contraction of the path in the
direction of motion, as compared with the perpendicular path,
such that the corresponding light time should be shortened by
j) 2 //v 3 . The path then has to be shortened by Ip 2 jv 2 , and there
v 2
fore I by \l. This dependence of the dimensions upon the
orientation with respect to the earth's motion is not as strange
as it might seem at first. In fact, the dimensions are deter
mined by molecular forces, and since these are transmitted
through the aether, it would rather be surprising if its state of
motion had no influence upon the dimensions of bodies. The
nature of the molecular forces is not known to us. Yet, if we
suppose that they are transmitted through the aether in the
same way as electric forces, we can develop the theory of this
contraction, and we then find for its amount just what is required
for the explanation of the nileffect of Michelson's experiment.
This contraction would amount for the diameter of the earth to
65 cm., and for a metre rod to oJg of a micron.
II
MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES
9. MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
WE will now consider some theories of the nature of the aether.
Such a theory must, in the first place, explain the electromagnetic
phenomena. We shall, therefore, begin with an interpretation
of Maxwell's equations. Here one can put different require
ments. One can content himself with a theory accounting for
the phenomena in isotropic and homogeneous media, or try to
include also the anisotropic and heterogeneous media, and so on.
To begin with, we shall exclude the conductors only, and shall
thus consider anisotropic as well as nonhomogeneous dielectrics.
The latter will enable us to treat the boundary conditions, and
therefore also such phenomena as reflection and refraction.
The magnitudes appearing in Maxwell's equations are : the
e'ectric force E, the dielectric displacement D, the magnetic
force H, and the magnetic induction B. The equations are
rotH = D, or
"a*"
i ao,
c ~dt
\W H
c dt
1W,
c dt
(7)
. (8)
and
]*.
24
n MECHANICAL AETHEE THEORIES 25
9 ~~ C tit
' <">
1 dB 2
~c dt e
divB = or x + + *~0. . . (10)
' ex uy vz
Further, we assume linear relations between the components of
D and E and between those of B and H,
D y
B x
By
J5,
where
12 =e 21 23 = 82 e 31 = 13 5 Ml2 ^Mai* ^23 = /*32 ^31
For isotropic bodies these coefficients are all zero, and
We note that the usual kinematics of continuous media gives
1
equations of the same form as rot H== D. In fact, if every
c
point of a medium is displaced through an infinitesimal distance,
of which the components f , 77, f along three axes can be considered,
within a small region, as linear functions of the coordinates
or, y, z, then the complete change in the neighbourhood of a
point can be represented as consisting of a displacement, a
rotation, and three dilatations or contractions in three mutually
perpendicular directions. To see this, it is enough to remember
that a sphere is transformed into an ellipsoid, whose conjugated
diameters correspond to orthogonal pairs of diameters of the
sphere. This holds also in particular for the principal axes of
the ellipsoid. We imagine the sphere to be first displaced so as
to bring its centre into coincidence with that of the ellipsoid,
then find those diameters of the sphere which coincide with the
axes of the ellipsoid, bring them by a rotation into their actual
position, and finally give to these diameters by a dilatation or
26 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
contraction the actual length of the axes of the ellipsoid. The
components of the rotation are
In a continued displacement we can compare the state at the
time t with that at t +dt, and the last formulae give us then the
connection of the components of the angular with those of the
displacement velocity.
We may now try to interpret one group of Maxwell's
equations by taking the components of the magnetic force to
be proportional to the displacements in the aether, or assuming
that the essence of that force consists in such displacements.
In symbols, let us put
nu_ *'*Sr VL'u ~ (]ju z ^
Then * = 2cmp,;!' = 2cm, * = 2cmr.
Thus, if the observed magnetic force is in its essence a displace
ment of the aether particles, proportional to it and having the
same direction, the nature of the dielectric displacement current
consists in rotations which are the result of the aether displace
ment. But we are then checked by the difficulty that there is
in such a picture no place for a constant dielectric displace
ment, such as occurs always in electrostatics. Moreover, in
a constant electric field without magnetic force the dis
placements f, 77, f vanish, so that there is nothing to
distinguish such a state of the medium from one in which
an electric field is absent.
10. THE MAGNETIC FORCE AS VELOCITY. NEUMANN'S
THEORY OF LIGHT
We can avoid this difficulty by identifying with the aether
rotations not the displacement current but the dielectric displace
ment itself. Then our equations have to be made to agree with
ii MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 27
Consequently, we have to put
H f =m 9 H v =m 9 H 9 = mJ* 9 . . . (12)
D x = 2cmp, D y = 2cmq, D 2 = 2cmr. . . (13)
Thus, wherever there is a magnetic force, we must imagine
an aether velocity in the direction of this force and proportional
to it, and we have to look for the dielectric displacement
in the rotation due to or associated with that velocity. In a
permanent magnetic field, as e.g. around a steel magnet, we have
thus to imagine the aether streaming along the lines of force.
We may also notice that in such a case of continual motion
the displacements f , 77, f would not remain infinitesimal.
It is important to keep in mind that the interpretation here
given implies necessarily that the coefficient m has also in a
nonhomogeneous medium throughout the same value. Other
wise the values (12) and (18) would not satisfy the equations (7).
The expression
m z D//,,
?// fa
for instance, would no longer have the value Snflpfit, since to
this the terms
?w ?) Pm ?TJ
dy fit dz dt
would have to be added. This difficulty would assert itself
especially at such places where the properties of the medium,
and therefore also the value of m, vary rapidly from point to
point, as at the boundary of two media. This theory, therefore,
implies that the coefficient of proportionality between the velocity
of the aether particles and the magnetic force is always and
everywhere the same.
We have still to explain the second group, (9), of equations.
Before doing so we have to consider the energy relations. The
magnetic energy is a quadratic function of the magnetic force,
and has thus to be interpreted as kinetic energy, while the
electric energy will become potential energy. The kinetic energy
per unit volume, with p as density, is
28 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
and the magnetic energy per unit volume of an isotropic medium,
with = 1 ,
Thus we have to assume p=m 2 , so that also the density will be
everywhere the same. But the case is different if p is not equal
to 1. In such media the magnetic energy per unit volume is
and therefore p=/xw 2 , i.e. the density must be proportional to
the permeability. According to this theory the characteristic
feature of iron, for instance, is a large aether density within it.
For anisotropic media the relat'ons are somewhat more compli
cated, inasmuch as for these the magnetic energy per unit
volume is
Now, if we put here II x = w^ fit, etc., then we do not obtain an
expression representing the squared velocity multiplied by a
certain factor. By a proper choice of the coordinate system the
last expression can be transformed into
and this can be interpreted as kinetic energy per unit volume, if
it be assumed that the aether behaves as if it had different mass
densities for motions in different directions.
Let us still consider the electric energy which has to be
interpreted as potential energy. This is, per unit volume of an
isotropic medium,
IDE fli 
The aether has thus to be attributed the property that its
potential energy is proportional to the square of the rotation
of its particles. The question how we have to imagine such an
aether will be taken up in the sequel.
This theory resembles the light theory of Neumann, who also
assumed that the aether density is the same in all media, and
thence deduced that in polarised light the oscillations are in the
ii MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 29
plane of polarisation. This means, with the present interpreta
tion, that the magnetic force is contained in the plane of polarisa
tion, as in fact has to be assumed in the electromagnetic theory
of light.
11. THE ELECTRIC FORCE AS VELOCITY. FRESNEL'S
THEORY OF LIGHT
As an alternative we might have interpreted kinematically
the equations
* _ .'/ P+P
*\ ~~ ^ ~~~ *" A 9 v/l/V.
dy fa c ot
This is entirely analogous to what precedes, the magnetic induc
tion being now represented by the rotation of the aether particles
and the electric force by their velocity. The formulae now
become
Jx ~ m dt 9 '"" dt' '* fa ., . (H)
B x =  2cm'p, By =  2cm' q, B z =  2cm'r
where m' is again a constant. There is something strange in
having to consider the electric force as a velocity. For an
ordinary conductor carrying a constant charge we would now
have a permanent, outward or inward, stream of aether. In
the previous theory the continuous streaming of the aether
near a magnet was at least circuitous, which state of things
it was easy to imagine to last invariably for any length of time.
The electric energy must now be correlated with the kinetic
one. Its amount per unit volume, which is iel? 2 , has to be
made equal to
so that p = w' 2 . Since w' is constant and e has for different
dielectrics widely differing values, the density of the aether which
is proportional to the specific inductive capacity must have very
different values in different substances. As the previous theory
approached that of Neumann, the present one resembles Fresnel's
theory. In the latter it is assumed that the displacements of
the aether particles are perpendicular to the plane of polarisation.
This means, with the present interpretation, that such also is the
30 AETHEE THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
orientation of the electric force. Thus on either interpretation
we remain in harmony with what is generally assumed about
the light vibrations in the electromagnetic theory. With regard
to this coincidence of the model with Fresnel's theory, we may
still notice that to different specific inductive capacities corre
spond different propagation velocities of the electromagnetic
disturbances, while Fresnel looked for the explanation of the
different propagation velocities of light in the different densities
of the aether within different media, and made this density
proportional to the square of the refractive index, which amounts
exactly to what we have assumed. With the interpretation
treated in this section the electrically anisotropic media offer the
same difficulties as did the magnetically anisotropic bodies in the
previous one.
For the interpretation of the second sot of equations, (7), we
consider the magnetic energy which has to be identified with the
potential energy of the aether. It is a quadratic function of the
rotation components p, q, r. Thus, as in the previous theory, we
have to imagine a mechanism whose potential energy is just such
a function.
12. THEORY OF ELASTICITY. MCCULLAGH'S AETHER
Tn an ordinary elastic body the relations arc entirely
different. Let , 77, be again the displacement components
(functions of the coordinates ,r, y, z). Then we have, in addition
to the displacement and rotation, the dilatations determined by
,
Cx " J ?y
and the shears expressed by
The normal tension components [stresses] are determined by
X x = 2K{x x + 0(x x + y, + z,)}, l r ?/  2/1 ! ?/?/ + 6(x x + y v + z,)} ,
Z z = 2 K \z z + 6(x x + y !f + z z )},
and the tangential components by
. (17)
ii MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 31
where K and are the coefficients introduced by Kirchhoff.
The energy per unit volume is
K(x x z + y* + 2/) + K6(x x +y y + z z ) a + 1 K(x* + y* + */). (18)
Now, for the aether this must be a quadratic function of the
components of rotation,
The next task would be (and such in fact is always the posi
tion in the older light theories) to make such assumptions as to
give the energy that form.
The most radical means for obtaining this result is to assume
for the aether the validity of a very peculiar elasticity theory, such
that the potential energy should in every case be a quadratic
function of the angles of rotation. This is McCullaglis aether.
Let us see how this can be dom*. Elasticity cannot exist if there
are no forces tending to bring back the displaced particles to
their original position (state of equilibrium). What we are con
cerned with is the potential energy opposed to these forces. If
that energy is to depend only upon the rotations, then the system
of those counteracting forces has to consist only of couples.
The components of the rotation being p, q, r, we have to assume
for the components of the moment of the restoring couple,
per unit volume,
M x =  (a n p + a 12 7 + a 13 r), M v =  (a 21 p + a 22 ? + a 23 r),
. . . ( 19)
where the a's are constants satisfying the conditions <i l2 =a 21 ,
a 23 = a 32> a 3i = i3 These formulae hold also for anisotropic
bodies. The peculiar feature of the case in hand is that this
couple of forces should not be produced by the neighbouring
aether particles. For such a couple would depend only on the
relative rotation.
13. QUASIRIGID AETHER
To explain these couples we may introduce a second medium
which remains in its place, not sharing in the rotation of the first
medium, and which exerts upon the latter those restitutive forces.
32 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
In the first medium we must then have also some inner forces
which do not all vanish. To see this let us recall how in the
ordinary cases the relations Y z = Z y , etc., are deduced. Let us
consider a parallelepipedon dxdydz and
find the couple which produces a rotation
about the Jfaxis (Fig. 11). The two forces
parallel to the Zaxis, acting
JA upon the faces dxdz, give the
!' couple Zydxdzdy, and those
parallel to the Yaxis applied to
the faces dxdy yield  Y^xdydz ;
Fia. n. in all, (Z u  Y 2 )dxdydz. Now, this
couple together with M^dxdydz
must vanish, otherwise it would give an infinite angular
acceleration, since it is of the third order, while the moment
of inertia of the parallelepipedon is infinitely small of the fifth
order. Therefore, for our aether,
Z u  Y z  M^
Thus there must exist tangential stresses. Similarly, of course,
we find
X Z Z X = My,
Moreover, we will make our assumptions as simple as possible.
To this end we make the normal stress components zero,
X x = Y y = Z 2 = Q, and take for the tangential stresses
 X Z = Zjf = *(My,
In order to see that these assumptions are in agreement with
the adopted energy expression, it is enough to calculate the
energy of the medium within a given surface for a stationary
state. Let da be an element of this surface whose outward
normal makes with the axes the angles x, //, i/. Let us imagine
that the displacements , 77, f are produced by some external
forces upon the surface elements, and that these forces as well
as the displacements and stresses gradually mount to their final
values.
u MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 33
The force acting upon the element do in the direction of the
Xaxis is
(X x cos A + X y cos p + Xg cos v)da,
and similarly for the F and Zcomponents. Since all the magni
tudes increase proportionaDy to each other, we find for the total
work upon the element da
I {(X X cos A + X y cos p +X Z cos v) +rj(Y x cos A + Y v cos ^
f Y z cos v) + (Z X cos A + Zi if cos /JL f Z z cos v)}da.
A simple reasoning will show that the energy contained within
the surface a is given by this expression integrated over the
surface. This integral can be transformed into the volume
integral
dr being the element of the enclosed volume. Thus, the energy
per unit volume is
0,
or, by (11), (15), and (16),
^+Z (20)
+ \(Z V + Y,)y, + (Z t ,  Y,)p+i(X t +Z t )t f + (X,  Z,) ? >. (21)
In fact, we have
etc., and in order to see that the remaining terms disappear, it
is enough to remember that we are dealing with a stationary
state. Thus, e.g., the coefficient of fin (20) becomes
sx <>x y dx t \_
""
Now, if the energy (21) is to depend on the rotations only,
then in the first place the terms containing the dilatations must
VOL. i D
34 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
vanish, i.e. Jf a ,= r i/ =Z 2 = 0, and in order to get rid of the in
fluence of the shears, we must have Y x +Y y =Q, Z y +Y z =Q,
X Z + Z X = Q. Thus we fall back upon the previous values of the
stresses.
The energy per unit volume now becomes
and it remains to be seen how in the two developed theories the
coefficients a are correlated with the magnitudes appearing in
the electromagnetic equations. In the first case (Art. 10) we
had
D x = %cmp, D,f = 2ciw/, D z = 2
and the aether density was p=m 2 .
The potential energy must coincide with the electric energy.
The latter is, per unit volume,
1( U D X 2 + etc. + 2 r l2 D x D u + etc.),
since S x = f ll D x + f l2 D u + 7 13 D 2 , etc.
Thus the required coincidence calls for the following relations :
a n = 4' n c 2 m 2 , a 22 = 4 / 22 c 2 m 2 , a 33 = 4' 33 c 2 m 2 ,
a = 4 /
For isotropic media we shall simply have E = e'D, a==46 / c 2 m 2 .
The second set of equations (9) now follows from the equa
tions of motion of the aether,
ax. az. ax, w
ib + ty + fa ~ p ~dt* etc 
In fact, putting here
X x =0, X v = %M lt X,*= \M U ,
, .flM, Mf \ 9 2 
we have ^^^
Now,
Af.*n)Z
etc.
ii MECHANICAL AETHEE THEORIES 35
Substituting this and replacing 9/5j by HJm, we find
3tff_a?ir__l3fl ?
dy dz c St '
which is the first equation of the second set (for the subcase
p 1 )'.
Similarly, in the second case, the set (7) of equations can be
deduced from the equations of motion of the aether by con
sidering the magnetic energy.
Attention to such an aether was drawn by Kelvin, who
called it the quasirigid aether. With its aid he proposed to
account for the magnetic phenomena, and considered, there
fore, the magnetic induction as the rotation of the aether elements,
which coincides with our second case.
14. QUASILABILE AETHER
An explanation of the phenomena can also be arrived at
without making about tho elasticity of the aether such uncommon
assumptions. It will be enough to consider the case of an isotropic
homogeneous medium. Let us substitute in the equations of
motion
Mk MT V MT,
the stress components as given by the ordinary theory of elasticity,
to wit,
Then the result will be
We have now to make such assumptions that the left
hand members of these equations should become the rotation
36 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
components of a vector. This will be the case if we pat =  1.
Thus, in fact, the last equation will become
\Sy ~
or, in terms of the rotations,
which is the required form.
With the interpretation of Art. 10 this equation is transformed
into the first of the equations (9) for an isotropic medium, and
with the interpretation of Art. 11 into the first of (7).
The medium just considered is Kelvin's quasilabile aether.
The equilibrium of this aether is labile, the potential energy in
the state of equilibrium not being a minimum. In fact, it is
not difficult to see that the potential energy can under the stated
circumstances become negative. For its expression, per unit
volume, is
and this, with = 1, is obviously negative provided that the
shears vanish and x x , y y , and z g have the same sign.
This aether is perhaps not so satisfactory as the quasirigid
one, because the corresponding theory is limited to isotropic and
homogeneous media, so that also the case of boundary surfaces
has to be left out of account.
15. GRAETZ'S THEORY
The last mechanical aether theory to be still considered is
due to Graetz. In this the second set of equations is obtained
in the same way as with the quasilabile aether. In fact, what
in the last case was achieved by putting 6 =  1 in the equation
of motion of an ordinary elastic medium,
with P written for + + and A for +
% [a
ii MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 37
Graetz obtains by adding to the righthand member a term
 2K(l + QfiPfix, which converts it into
His theory then amounts to retaining for the free aether the
ordinary elastic equations, so that in a vacuum Maxwell's equa
tions do not hold. After all, since the free aether cannot be
experimented with, we shall never be able to find out whether
these equations do hold for it or not. For a ponderable medium
Graetz assumes that the aether particles are acted upon not
only by the surrounding aether but also by the ponderable
substance. The force due to the latter gives then the term
2K(l+0)dP/dx.
Of this Graetz gives also some account, inasmuch as he deduces
the said force from a pressure exerted by the ponderable matter
upon the aether and represented by p = 2K(l + 0)P.
16. THE CHARGING OF A CONDUCTOR ACCORDING TO
THE ELASTIC AETHER THEORIES
We have just seen how it is possible, by ascribing to the
aether various properties, to account for Maxwell's equations.
We must come back, however, to a certain difficulty which
appears in all mechanical aether theories and which presents
itself when we consider a charged conductor. If we look
upon the electric force as the manifestation of a velocity in the
aether, then, as was already mentioned, we must imagine a
continuous aether stream towards or from the conductor, though
we perceive in the latter no change whatever.
How have we to picture to ourselves a charged conductor on
the theory in which the magnetic force is represented by an
aether stream ? The dielectric displacement is then a rotation
about the lines of force in the sense corresponding to that of the
lines. The components of this rotation are p = %(dldydrjldz),
etc., whence we see that the distribution of the rotation is always
solenoidal. Let through every point of space a vector be drawn,
indicating the direction of the rotation. Then the system of
curves to which these vectors are tangential will be the socalled
38 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
vortex lines, and of these, owing to the solenoidal distribution,
we can also construct vortex tubes.
Let us now consider a spherical conductor. During the
process of charging, electricity is being communicated to it
through a wire. This means that rotations are being produced
in the aether, and therefore angular velocities exist while the
conductor is being charged. Let us, then, consider the vortex
lines in the whole space surrounding the sphere. In virtue of
the solenoidal distribution these lines must either be reentrant
or extend from infinity to infinity. To each of these vortex lines
must correspond another within the wire. One would now
have to imagine that the aether fibres inside the wire are twisted
and that this twist is propagated through the conductor and
thence along the lines of force in the medium. The rotation in
the latter is opposed by the elasticity of the medium giving rise
to couples which, in absence of the rotating force, would at once
untwist the system, that is to say, discharge the conductor.
Now, the difficulty consists in finding out what happens when
the wire is removed. For the state of affairs which actually
takes place cannot exist in the picture just given.
In order to see this, we consider an arbitrary surface or,
whose normal at a point x, y, z has the direction angles a, /3, 7,
and which is bounded by a line s. Then, by Stokes' theorem,
f(p cos a + q cos j8 + r cos y)da = \ f(dx + Tjdy + dz). (23)
The field around the charged sphere after the removal of the
wire is perfectly symmetrical. Now, if we take for a a portion
of a concentric sphere, the surface integral represents, apart
from a constant factor, the quantity of electricity which passed
through this surface and is thus equal to the charge of the portion
of the spherical conductor which is cut out by the cone subtended
by s and having its vertex at the centre of the sphere. The same
charge must also be represented by the line integral in (23).
We begin with taking for cr a small portion of the concentric
sphere and we let this slowly increase. (The successive boundary
lines s may, e.g., consist of a system of parallel circles.) Then
the surface integral will continually increase, while this is
impossible for the line integral after a has become greater than
a hemisphere. Ultimately when the boundary s dwindles to a
ii MECHANICAL AETHER THEORIES 39
point, the surface integral represents the charge of the whole
sphere, while the line integral becomes nil. The point is that, as
is shown by (23), it is for purely kinematical reasons impossible
to have at each place on the surface of the sphere a rotation
around the radius which, seen from outside, has everywhere the
same sense. The difficulty arises from the fact that the rotation
is throughout solenoidal, while the dielectric displacement has
not this property wherever there are charges.
Larmor, Reiff, and others tried to save the theory by giving
up the symmetry around the sphere. They assumed that at the
place where the wire originally was the conditions are somewhat
different from the remainder of the sphere, viz. that there is a
canal K at that place within which the aether is loosened from
the surrounding aether, so that while the aether in K is fixed,
the surrounding one acquires rotations corresponding to the
electric force, with the result that the line integral of the aether
displacement along a path embracing the canal is equal to the
whole charge of the sphere. It should be possible to keep up
such a state by applying to the aether outside K, all along
the surface of the canal, appropriate tangential external forces.
Instead of this, one might think of attaching the twisted aether
to that within K, which would prevent a complete untwisting
of the medium outside of K. No objection can now be derived
from (23), since in this equation f, ?;, f are assumed to be
throughout continuous, while this condition does not hold at the
surface of K.
Ill
KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER
17. KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE QUASIRIGID AETHER
KELVIN conceived a model of a quasirigid aether built up of
gyrostats. This is a complicated problem. It amounts to
finding a system which permits all deformations but resists
such as are associated with rotations and no others. The
idea occurred to him to meet this requirement by means of
gyrostats, for these oppose themselves to any change of the
direction of their axes. Thus his task was to find a system con
taining a number of lines which remain parallel to their original
direction at every deformation devoid of rotation, and which
change their direction as soon as rotations are produced in the
system. Along these lines one had then to lay bars bearing
gyrostats.
Let us consider a homogeneous deformation in which, that is,
the components of the displacement of any of the points of the
system, jf, 17, f, are linear functions of its coordinates x, y, z,
77  a 2 + a 2l x + a 22 y + a 23 z,
If the coefficients a u , etc., are chosen arbitrarily, the deformation
thus expressed is in general associated with a rotation. This
can be found geometrically by recalling that a sphere is trans
formed into an ellipsoid and by determining those mutually
perpendicular diameters of the sphere which correspond to the
axes of the ellipsoid. The algebraic representation is found by
rewriting the formulae thus :
40
Ill
KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER
% + a n x + (a 12  a 2l )y + (a 13  a 3]
41
2 ( a !
 a
32
+ a
a 32 
2 (
Thus the deformation is split into a shift, a dilatation, a
rotation, and a shear, and we see that the conditions for an
irrotational deformation are a ]2 =a 21 , 2 3 = 32 , O"$i = a>w In such
a deformation, therefore, six coefficients, apart from the shifts,
still remain undetermined.
Now, to arrive at Kelvin's model, we construct in a plane
a system of congruent equilateral triangles fitting to each
other and erect upon these
triangles as bases, omitting
every second (as shown in
the figure), regular tetrahedra.
The corners of these tetra
hedra lie again in a plane and
form a system of points such
as those of the groundplane.
On these points, therefore,
such a system of tetrahedra
can again be constructed.
This we do so that the bases
of these tetrahedra should have the same position as those
in the first layer of tetrahedra, so that the former can be
obtained from the latter by a mere shift. That is to say, if
the nonshaded triangles of the figure were first chosen as bases,
we now take as bases the triangles PQR, RST, etc. In this
way we can proceed, and similarly the system can be in
definitely continued on the other side of the groundplane.
Thus every corner point of the system will be the common vertex
of four tetrahedra, at which also twelve edges will meet, two by
two being prolongations of each other. Kelvin imagines now
placed at every corner point a ball from which issue six bars and
as many tubes, all of these being free to assume any direction
whatever. The bars of one ball are now put into the tubes of
other balls wherein they can be freely shifted back and forth.
FIG. 12.
42 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
This system can now be built up in the form of tetrahedra as
just described. It will not oppose itself to any pure [irrotational]
deformation.
In the next place Kelvin introduces into each of our tetrahedra
a system of three rigidly connected and mutually perpendicular
bars of variable length (which may again be accomplished by the
barandtube method), and whose ends must remain in the grooves
of the bars of the first system, so that they join each time two
opposite edges of the tetrahedron. In a regular tetrahedron
these bars coincide with the lines joining the midpoints of the
opposite edges, but also in any tetrahedron whatever a set of
mutually orthogonal intersecting lines, joining pairs of opposite
A' A K C C
FIG. 13.
edges, can always be assigned.* The introduction of these
systems of bars does not prevent any deformation. We will
now prove that with an irrotational deformation of the original
system the new bars are always shifted parallel to their initial
direction.
We first consider the case in which a regular tetrahedron
undergoes an infinitesimal dilatation in the direction of one of
the edges, say AC, which leaves the plane passing through BD
and E, the midpoint of AC, in its place. It is enough to
prove that a set of mutually perpendicular joins of opposite
* To see this, notice that through a given point one and only one line can
always be drawn which joins two skew lines. If, therefore, P bo an arbitrary
point within a tetrahedron, there are through P three determined lines, each
of which cuts a pair of opposite edges. By requiring these linos to bo mutually
perpendicular we have three equations for the coordinates of P. Their
solution for the case of a tetrahedron which differs but infinitesiraally from a
regular one is implied in the following considerations of the text.
m KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 43
edges of the new tetrahedron can be found which are parallel to
the joins of the midpoints of the original tetrahedron. For this
will then be the only existing set. Now, leaving the line EH
unchanged, let us consider FO. If this is to remain parallel to
its original direction, and still cut the line EH, its intersection
point with the plane ADC must remain on the line E F and thus
be shifted along it, say to F r . It is thus enough to show that
the line through F' parallel to FG cuts BC' or, if 6?' be the point
where that line cuts EG, that F F' = GG'. Now, this follows from
the congruence of the triangles DFF' and EGG' . Similarly for
the line joining the midpoints of AB and CD ; in view of
the symmetry, it is obvious that this line will again be shifted
along EH, so that we find, in fact, three orthogonal joins of the
opposite edges, parallel to the original ones. What was j ust proved
for a dilatation in the direction of the edge AC holds, of course,
for the remaining edges, and our proposition will be completely
established by showing that every irrotational deformation can
be obtained by the superposition of six dilatations along the edges
and of a displacement of the whole system. This, however, follows
directly from what precedes, since an irrotational deformation is
just determined by six independently prescribed ones. More
over, the relation between the values of the dilatations and the
coefficients a n , etc., in the general formulae can readily be
established. In fact, if a lf /3 V yi be the direction cosines of
the first edge, d the dilatation in this direction, and similarly
with changed suffixes for the remaining five edges, we have
(apart from the shift)
+ d z a 2 (xa 2 + yfa + 2y 2 ) + . . .
whence
44 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
wherewith the efs are determined, if the a's be given.*
If now at the middlemost bars an arrangement is made of
such a kind that for rotating the bars a couple is necessary
which, for an infinitesimal rotation, is proportional to the rotation
and has its axis coinciding with the axis of the rotation, then
there is still no force opposing an irrotational deformation of the
first set of points. But if there is a rotation, a resisting couple
is produced which is proportional to the rotation and whose
axis will always concide with that of the rotation, provided
the three middlemost bars have all the explained property.
To see this we have only to consider one of the tetra
hedra. Let OP, OQ, OR be the directions of the inner bars,
and let us consider an infinitesimal rotation </> whose axis makes
the angles X, /z, v with the bars. This can be resolved into a
rotation <f> cos \ about OP, and <j> cos p, <f) cos v about OQ and
OR. In the first rotation OP remains in its place, but for the
rotation of OQ a couple is necessary of moment (7</> cos \
and with axis along OP. Similarly for the rotation of OR,
making in all 2C<f> cos X. In quite the same way the rotation
about OQ requires a couple 2C(f> cos /*, directed along OQ, and
that about OR a couple 2C< cos v. Compounding all these
couples we have, as announced, the couple 2(7< whose axis
coincides with that of the rotation.
18. SOLID GYROSTAT
As a first device to make a couple necessary for changing the
direction of a bar Kelvin proposed the ordinary gyrostat. The
bar AB (Fig. 14) carries a fixed ring in which a second ring is
mounted, free to rotate around PQ JL AB. The diameter RS of
* In fact, it can be shown that the determinant of the coefficients of
d l9 . . dt does not vanish, so that the equations are compatible with each
other. In proving this the coordinate axes can bo chosen arbitrarily. If for
these the joins of the midpoints of the opposite edges are taken, one of the
direction cosines for each edge is zero, while the others become l/\/2 with the
same or opposite signs. The absolute value of the determinant is then found
to be equal J.
ni KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 45
the second ring carries at the centre a flywheel with RS as axis.
It is clear, first of all, that this arrangement does not oppose
itself to a rotation of the bar AB around the axis PQ. Kelvin
mounts then on every bar two such rings in mutually perpen
dicular planes. But let us first
consider a single gyrostat. Its
inner ring can spin about PQ,
and the flywheel about RS.
For every contemplated rotation
and similarly for every moment
with respect to an axis a certain
sense will be assumed as the
positive one, viz. that from which
the rotation appears to be anticlockwise. Let for the rota
tions in question the positive sense be given by OP and OR.
Let ft> be the angular velocity of the flywheel with respect to
the inner ring and let AOR = 0, and, therefore, the angular
velocity about OP. Further, let Q be the moment of inertia
of the flywheel corresponding to the axis RS, and Q' that
corresponding to the axis PQ. Suppose now that, while APE is
kept fixed, the inner ring and the flywheel are spinning. Then
Q'0 will be the moment of momentum of the flywheel along
[about] OP, and its timerate of change Q'Q. This change of
the moment of momentum can be resolved (Fig. 15) along OR
and OT perpendicular to OR and OP, and therefore in the
plane AOR. Instead of the angular
velocity o> and the moment of
momentum Qu* about the axis OR,
the flywheel has after a time dt
the angular velocity w+da) and the
moment of momentum Q(&>+da))
about the axis OR' (ROR f =d0).
Thus the components of the moment of momentum are, up to
terms of the second order, Q(a>+da>) along OR and Q&d9 along
OT, and its rate of change Qu> about OR and Q&0 about
OT. The couples produced by this change of the moment of
momentum are due to the forces exerted by the inner ring on
R and 8 which, however, can give no couple about OR.
Thus, Qci = 0, whence
01= constant.
46 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
Let us now consider the system consisting of the inner ring and
the flywheel. This is acted upon by forces applied at P and Q,
which thus are unable to produce a couple about OP. If now
q be the moment of inertia of the inner ring with respect to the
axis OP, the moment of momentum of the whole system relatively
to this axis is Q'8 + qQ, and since this cannot vary, itself is
constant.
Let us now see what happens when the bar carrying the gyro
stat is turned from its position A B Q (Fig. 16) to AB contained in
the plane A^JB^ and making with A B Q an infinitesimal angle f .
We will suppose that the bar is being kept in its new position
and that the exterior ring is held in the original plane A^P^B^
so that OP lies in this plane perpendicularly to AB. The forces
which through this change of position are brought to act upon the
inner ring have their points of
application at P and Q and can
thus produce no couple about
PQ. Let there be initially no
rotation about OP and let
RS fall initially into the direc
tion of ,4J3(0 = 0). Then we
FIG. 16. shall have only the moment
of momentum about OA Q
amounting to Qa>, which we resolve into Qco along OA and Qcoe
along OP. Now, suppose that owing to the said change of position
the inner ring which originally did not spin acquires an angular
velocity 0. (This will turn out presently to have a non vanishing
value.) This angular velocity is shared also by the flywheel, but
the moment of its momentum about the axis OR does not
depend on the angular velocity 6 but only on the angular velocity
around OR, and the latter must thus still retain its original value
&), because during the considered change of position the flywheel
was acted upon only by such forces, at R and S, whose moment
with respect to OR is nil. Thus, after the displacement, we have
the moments of momenta Qco along OA and (Q f +q)0 along OP,
and since there is no couple about OP,
Qa>c = (Q'+q)6,
whence
in KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHEE 47
Through the change of position of the bar the innermost ring is
thus set spinning, the direction and the velocity of this spin
being determined by the last formula. The subsequent course
of things can be found by applying the considerations of the
early part of this article (since these hold for every position of
the bar AB). We can thus conclude that the acquired angular
velocity will remain without change of size, so that the angle
will gradually mount to considerable values, and that the
moment of momentum of the flywheel will undergo, per unit
time, a change of which the component along OT, perpendicular
to the plane of the inner ring, is QcoO. An equal couple is
necessary to keep APB in the new position, and substituting
for the value just found, this couple turns out to be
Q'+q*
and is directed along OT. Resolving it into components along
OA and ON OA (corresponding to 6 = 90), we have, along OA 9
and along ON,
Q'+7 cos '
It is the latter component which is required for our theory.
In fact, this couple whose direction coincides with that of the
rotation from A B to AB is necessary to keep the bar in the
new position, in other words, the bar resists this rotation
with an equal couple of the opposite sense. The other com
ponent, proportional to sin 0, is due to the circumstance that
some forces are also necessary to keep the plane ABPQ in its
original position. To provide for this we can mount upon our axis
yet another gyrostat in the same plane with and entirely similar
to the first, with the only difference that its flywheel spins
originally in the opposite sense. Then will have for the two gyro
stats always opposite values, and since the initial value of is
for both, their angles themselves will be equal and of opposite
signs. The couple about ON, necessary to reset the bar, will thus,
of course, be twice as great. Similarly, the gyrostat which we
have already introduced in the plane perpendicular to that of the
first can be replaced by a set of two oppositely spinning gyrostats,
48 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS in
so that ultimately each of the bars carries four gyrostats. Then
the system resists every motion associated with a change of the
direction of the bars and no other, exactly as was required.
The serious objection against this arrangement (as an aether
model) is that the couple required
to keep the bar in the new posi
tion becomes, owing to the factor
cos 8, smaller and smaller (and
A" finally even negative).
19. LIQUID GYROSTAT
Yet another device was pro
FIG. 17. posed by Kelvin to ensure that
a couple should be necessary for
changing the direction of the bars, viz. a liquid gyrostat. This
consists of a ringshaped tube (Fig. 17) filled with a circulating
liquid and free to rotate about one of its diameters as axis.
This axis lies in one of our previous bars. Such
a single ring has the same effect as the previous
solid gyrostat.
The theory is much the same as before. Let
the axis about which the ring rotates be chosen
as Xaxis and let the position of the ring be
determined by the angle contained between the
normal of its plane, taken in
the sense appropriate to the
motion of the liquid, and the
axis OZ. For = the ring
would then have the position
shown in Fig. 17, where the
Zaxis is assumed to point
forward. The actual position of the ring at any instant follows
therefrom by a rotation about OX. Compare Fig. 18, where
OZ' is the normal to the plane of the ring, while OY' is
contained in that plane.
Let the angular velocity of the liquid be o> and the moment
of inertia of the liquid with respect to the axis of the ring Q,
and that with respect to a diameter Q' (so that, the tube being
very slender, Q'
FIQ. 18.
in KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 49
Consider first the liquid itself. This has at first the moment
of momentum Q'6 about OX and Qco about OZ', and then
Q'(8 + dO) about OX and Q(a)+do>) about OZ". The vectorial
difference between the moment Q(co+da)) about OZ" and Qo>
about OZ! can be resolved along OY' and OZ', giving as com
ponents of the rate of change of the moment of momentum Qti
along OZ' and Q&>0 along OY'. The liquid is subjected to no
other forces than the pressure of the tube walls, and in virtue of
a known property of surfaces of revolution that pressure gives
rise to a system of forces all of which cut the axis OZ' and thus
can give no couple about OZ'. Consequently, Q<w=0, and
therefore CD = constant. To consider now the system made up
of the liquid and the tube, let the moment of inertia of the
latter relatively to the axis about which it can spin be q.
Then the rate of change of tho moment of momentum of
the system along OX will be (Q f + q)6, and since the system
is acted upon only by forces exerted by the axle, this is
again zero, so that is constant. Thus, while the axis OX
is kept fixed, the ring can spin about it uniformly and
at the same time the liquid can circulate in the tube with
constant velocity. But to keep the axis in position we must
apply to it a couple QwQ about the line OY', for, as we saw,
the latter is the rate of change of the moment of momentum of
the liquid.
Suppose now that initially = and $ = 0, so that we have
to do with the case represented in Fig. 17. No work, of course,
is required to turn around the bar in the plane XOY, but a
rotation about OY is opposed by a couple. To see this, we
consider a rotation about OY through an infinitesimal angle e,
which brings the bar OX (Fig. 19) into the position OX' in which
it is again kept fixed. The normal ON of the plane of the ring has
now moved into the plane YOZ' and will first coincide with OZ'
or at the utmost include with this direction an angle of the order
of 6 ; it has acquired, however, an angular velocity about
OX' which will differ from zero though it can only be small
of the order of e (since it is the effect of a change of position
determined by e). In fact, after the readjustment we have the
moment of momentum (Q' + q)Q about OX' and Qa>' about ON,
and resolving both along OX and OZ and keeping in mind that
initially and vanished, we find for the increment along OX
VOL. i E
50 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
the value (Q f + q)6 + Qwe, and as for obvious reasons this must
vanish, we have
s\
0=,
Let us still notice that resolving the moment of momentum
of the liquid after the rotation e along the axes OX, OY, OZ,
the value of the last of these is found to be Qw', since terms of
the order e 2 can be neglected. And since the forces exerted on
the liquid during the change of the
direction of the bar give no moment
with respect to OZ, ' must be
equal to A?.
The value found for is the
angular velocity acquired by
the ring through the change
f portion of the bar, with
which it continues to spin.
For the subsequent motion holds all that was just said about
the possible motions in the original position of the bar. If OY
and OZ in Fig. 18 are taken to represent the directions denoted
in Fig. 19 by OF and OZ', it will become manifest that the bar
must be acted upon by a couple about OY' amounting to
which can again be resolved into e cos along OY and
Q 2 o> 2 ^ +?
% esinfl along OZ. The rotation of the bar about OY
Q +?
requires thus first of all a couple about OY proportional to the
rotation. But in addition to this another couple, about OZ, is
required which can again be avoided by mounting upon the axle
two gyrostats with liquids circulating in opposite senses. Then,
of course, the required couple will again be doubled, i.e. amount to
The difficulty pointed out in connection with the solid gyrostats
exists also in the present case. These models can therefore be
m KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 51
used only if the bar carrying the gyrostat is not being displaced
too long in the same direction, as e.g. in the case of periodical
motions of small amplitude.
We will consider the case in which e is a periodic function
of the time (and remains very small). Then the same property
must also hold for the couple determining the position of the
bar. This vibration about the axis OY is then associated with
an oscillation of the ringshaped tube around the bar. In other
words, also will be a periodic function of the time and the
deviations will remain small. Moreover, since the position
changes of the bar are very small, these oscillations of the tube
can be considered as taking place about the axis OX (Fig. 19).
Thus we have the following moments of momenta : (Q 1 + q)0
about OX, (Q'+q)t about OY, and Qco about the axis ON
normal to the plane of the ring. This axis changes continually
its position and makes at a given instant the angles e,  6,
with the axes OX, OY, OZ. In considering the moment Qw
about ON, the latter axis cannot be replaced by OZ, for though
these directions differ but very little, yet the moment of momentum
itself is not small. This, therefore, must still be resolved along
OX, OY, and OZ. The component along OX is Qve, that along
OY, Qco0, and that along OZ, Qw. Let us now suppose there
were no other external forces than the couple producing the
oscillations of the bar in the plane XOZ, which therefore has OY
for its axis, and let the moment of this couple be K which, of
course, is a periodic function of the time. We shall then have
the following equations of motion : first, by considering the
moment of momentum about OX,
the zero on the right hand being conditioned by the vanishing
initial values of e and 0, and, second, by considering the moment
of momentum about OY,
while the third equation of motion expresses simply that o> is
constant. Eliminating 0,
52 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
This has the form of the equation of forced vibrations. We can
also speak of proper or free vib.*ations of our system, which may
exist when K 0. The frequency of these free vibrations is
Q' + q
and their period
2<rrQ'+q
w Q"
In presence of an external force whose period is large
compared with that of the free vibrations, the state at any
instant will coincide with that in which the system would be in
equilibrium under the action of the force prevailing at that
instant. If the period of the external force is small, the phase
difference between the vibrations of the system and of the force
is TT. If the liquid is assumed to circulate in the tubes very
rapidly, we may always limit ourselves to the first case. Mount
ing then on each of the inner bars four gyrostats, in a manner
already explained, we can represent the aether quite well.
This can also be so arranged (by varying Q or CD) as to yield a
nonhomogeneous medium, by means of which also the refraction
and reflection phenomena can be represented. For the free
aether the period of the external couple K must then always be
assumed very long as compared with that of the free vibrations,
and thus also with the time of revolution of the liquid in the
tubes. Otherwise the term with e in our equation would come
into prominence, and the aether would have to be given different
densities for vibrations of different frequencies, whicli in turn
would influence the velocity of propagation.
20. LIQUID IN TURBULENT MOTION AS AETHER MODEL
Kelvin tried also to represent the aether by means of an
incompressible liquid in turbulent motion. The dimensions
characterising this medium are those of the vortices. Upon
these a coarser motion can be superposed, as e.g. a pro
pagation along the 7axis of transversal vibrations in the
XOY plane. If /(y,0 be the velocity of a particle due to
this vibration [along the JSTaxis] and u' t v', w' the velocity
m KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 53
components of the turbulent motion at the point in question,
the resultant velocity is u =f(y , t) + u' , v=v' 9 w=w'. The
velocity corresponding to the vibration can be obtained separ
ately by averaging over spaces whose dimensions are small
compared with the wavelength of the oscillatory motion
but large compared with the vortices. The average velocity
is then nil for the turbulent motion, while f(y,t) is nearly equal
throughout the domain over which we have averaged. The
averages thus defined will be expressed by bars over the letters
representing the magnitudes in question. We will now deduce
two equations which will show that transversal vibrations can,
in fact, propagate themselves and will give us also their
propagation velocity. The first of these is arrived at by con
sidering the momentum along the Xaxis carried across a
plane perpendicular to the Yaxis. In fact, such a plane is
traversed by the liquid in either direction and even in equal
amounts, but the liquid flowing in one direction can have
a different momentum from that streaming in the opposite
direction. For the excess of momentum transferred towards the
positive over that in the negative direction we find, per unit
area, p u'v\ if p be the density of the liquid.* By considering
the increase of momentum within a short cylinder having its
faces perpendicular to the Yaxis, we find as the first of the
required equations
Next, we have the usual equations of motion of a nonviscous
liquid,
du du du du dp\
 
/nf ..
(25)
v ;
where p is the pressure divided by the density.
* This can bo compared with the momentum transfer in a gas due to
the passage of molecules through a plane, as considered in the theory of
viscosity.
54 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS n
Substituting our special values, w=w'+/(y,), etc., the firsl
two equations become
u~+v~
ox oy
(V ,. 4 JDv' ( ,W frf JM
   l tt S +v a y +*
u' ,du' dp]
+w' ~ +J\
y oz dx)
whence
o
dt
,3(uV) ,3(ii
' v ^ '+D' +u ^ +v f u '
ex cy vz vx cy)
Averaging both sides, the equation can be considerably simplified,
Both /(if, t) and 3/(y,0/^ can be considered as constant over the
averaging space. Thus,
(it
since y' = 0. Again we have $ = for every magnitude < which
f'33
fluctuates over distances small compared with the dimensions
of the averaging space. We have still to take care of terms
such as u'd(u'v')ldx. If this be written
,d(uV) 3ii'(ttV) W
u~ ' = \ 7 f*V n ,
dx Sx ux
it will be seen that in the process of averaging we are left with
the average of the expression
s n . ,
dx ty dz/'
but this is everywhere zero [the liquid being incompressible],
Thus our equation becomes
in
KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER
55
Now, let pop be the pressur when f(y,t) is throughout zero,
and pQp+p'p the actual pressure, and let us assume that
f(y,t) is always very small in comparison with the velocities
of the turbulent motion. In absence of vibrations the lefthand
member of (26) and the first term of the righthand member are
zero, so that
vx
vy
We will assume that this equation holds also when u' and / are
taken to stand for the velocities of the turbulent motion accom
panying the vibratory motion. Then we can put
dy
(27)
x '
A weak point of this theory, however, is, among others, that one
does not know whether the properties of the turbulent motion
remain unaltered by the vibrations. But this and similar
difficulties need not detain us, our only purpose being to describe
Kelvin's scheme in its main lines.
In order to transform (27) we return to the equations
du
dt~
dv
di"
dw
ar
from which follows :
dw du du dv\
If now u, v t w are replaced by the values they have in the presence
of vibrations, f(y,t) affects only the term with dujdy, and thus
we find
?M
to
to
&
^ +
% +
W W Z ~
?JC
to
1
to
to
Vp
V
% +
w '(h
%
tko
j 1
dw
flW
dp
f ac
<v
W 7>z =
~fo>
(25)
The solution of this equation can be written symbolically
56 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS m
The meaning of the symbol A" 1 is known from the theory of
Poisson's equation A0 =^, whose solution is
In our case, owing to the rapid changes of sign of dv'fix, while
df(y,t)ldy varies much slower, only the nearest neighbourhood of
the point for which p' is to be evaluated contributes to the space
integral. Consequently, df(y,t)ldy can be regarded as a constant
factor, so that
.
r dy dx
Putting
Jf +&<*,
dx cy ^
and keeping in mind that df(y 9 t)jdt varies slowly, we find
V. . . (28)
. v '
Now, by averaging,
and, though this is not quite correct, we may assume that also
the third mean,
has the same value. Thus,
A V =i*/AA V = Jt/ 2 .
To find the last term of (28), we put A~ V = ^. Then
dx dx
m KELVIN'S MODEL OF THE AETHER 57
In averaging, the first term contributes nothing, so that
' ~~dw'\ t ,dv'
and by reductions similar to those just made,
If /2 2 be the mean square of the velocity in the turbulent motion,
w' a + v' 2 + w'*  Si/ 2 = 7^2, and (26) becomes
. . . . (29)
^
dt
This is the second of the required equations. Combining it with
our firstfound equation,
,1(W)_ <>f(y,t)
~ty dt''
let us eliminate u'v'. This gives
which shows that in our liquid transversal vibrations can be
propagated, with the velocity
IV
ATTRACTION AND REPULSION OF PULSATING
SPHERES
21. NATURE OP THE PROBLEM
CONSIDER an incompressible frictionless liquid in which spheres
are moving about. This motion may be either a translation or
a swelling and shrinking of the spheres, both of which may be
periodic.
We will first take up the problem of finding the motion of
the liquid if that of the spheres be given.
Particles of a nonviscous incompressible liquid which once
do not rotate will never rotate. There exists then a velocity
potential, and the velocity components can be represented by
3* fXD 3O
U = ~ V = X W = 7T
ox vy dz
Owing to the incompressibility 4> will satisfy Laplace's equation
A<1>=0. Whence it follows that the velocity at every point of
a spaceregion will be determined, if at every point of its boundary
the normal velocity is known. For then 94>/Pw all over the
boundary is known, and thus also <1> throughout that space
region is determined, since it is continuous and satisfies Laplace's
equation. Let us consider the space limited by a fixed closed
surface at infinite distance and by the surfaces of all the spheres.
Then the normal velocity all over these boundaries is known,
the motion of the spheres being given. If a, 6, c be the co
ordinates of the centre of one of the spheres and R its radius,
the motion is determined by a, 6, c, and ft. It remains to find
a suitable solution of A4> =0. This will be supplied by
68
iv PULSATING SPHERES 59
where h l9 A 2 , , . . h k are measured along arbitrarily chosen
directions [and r is the distance from the centre of the sphere].
This is a homogeneous function of the space coordinates of
degree  (k + 1). If we put
then (the spherical harmonic function) Y k is a homogeneous
function of the zeroth degree. Next, write
then H k will be a homogeneous function of the k th degree
which can be represented by a whole algebraic function of the
coordinates. For at every differentiation the highest exponent
of r in the denominator is increased by 2, so that the highest
exponent in V k is 2 + 1 , and the remaining ones are by an even
number lower. Thus in H k all denominators fall out, while in
the numerators only even powers of r occur. H k also satisfies
the equation of Laplace, but it cannot be used for representing
the velocity potential in a liquid extending to infinity, since it
becomes infinite at an infinite distance. On the other hand, V k
cannot be used if the origin of r lies' within the liquid. '
22. A SINGLE MOVING SPHERE
Consider the space outside a single sphere. Then the simplest
solutions are, for A = 0, F = l/r, y o = l, H Q = l. If we take
cl> = C/r, the velocity will be radial and equal to  C//" 2 . By an
appropriate choice of C as a function of the time this solution
can be adapted to a sphere with fixed centre and variable radius R.
In fact, since at the surface jft =  0//2 2 , we have
= 
r 2
For k = 1 , the next simple case, we find, with the Xaxis along
the direction of h,
T7 J) /1\ xa v xa u
F ifcU r" Y i = r .*i**
If we take for the velocity potential outside the sphere
n_C(xa)_C(xa)l
Nr n "* ~~ " ~ t>>
r 3 r r 2
60 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS iv
then, at its surface,
3O o^a ! 2CcosA
cto" 20 R & IP '
This can be adapted to the case in which the sphere has a
translation velocity along the Xaxis. For then the component
of this velocity along the surface normal is also proportional to
cos \. Thus,
2(7 cos A . ,
3 = a cos A,
whence
and O=d# 3 ..... (31)
Since (xa)// 8 arises from the differentiation of 1/r, this motion
of the liquid can also be obtained by a superposition of the
motions due to two spheres devoid of translation but pulsating
in opposite phases and placed at an infinitesimal distance from
each other.
Let now the liquid be in a certain state of motion and let
us ask how this motion is disturbed by the presence of a sphere.
It will appear that due to the latter a certain state of motion is
superposed over that already existing. We will call this the
reflected motion. It will be the weaker, the farther away from
the sphere.
23. A SPHERE AT REST IN A LIQUID WITH A GIVEN
MOTION
Let us consider the case in which the disturbing sphere is at
rest. We choose its centre as the origin of coordinates. The
[irrotational] motion of the liquid being given, so also is the
velocity potential 4> which can be developed around the origin
into
where the values of the derivatives of 4> prevailing at the centre
have to be taken. The state of motion thus expressed can be
interpreted as if it were due to a superposition of different
iv PULSATING SPHERES 61
motions whose velocity potentials are represented by the succes
sive groups of terms. Thus, a velocity potential <l> represents
rest, the next group,
ao ao ao\
expresses a constant flow with the velocity prevailing at the
centre, and so on. This series development can also be put
into the form
The reflected motion, combined with the original one, must give
all over the surface of the sphere the radial velocity 0. Let us
put for the reflected motion
and let us suppose that to each of the motions to be compounded
there corresponds a reflected motion. Then we must have at
the surface, for every k separately,
Consequently,
and the velocity potential of the reflected motion becomes
24. n SPHERES
Let us now turn to the problem of finding the state of motion
due to the arbitrarily prescribed motion of n spheres, of which
the positions, that is, as well as the sizes and velocities, are given
for all times. The velocity potential <f> must then satisfy
Laplace's equation and the condition that at each of the surfaces
dtf>/dn should have given values. We shall find 4> by super
posing n solutions, each corresponding to the motion of a single
sphere. Each of these solutions will be found by proceeding
first as if the sphere in question existed alone and then by taking
62 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS iv
account, in an obvious way, of the repeated reflections of the
state of motion produced by thai sphere. Suppose, for instance,
there were only two spheres, the first of which has a given
motion, while the second is at rest. Let, in terms of the
velocity potential, 4> x be the motion due to the presence of
the first sphere alone, <f> n the motion arising through the
reflection of 4> x at the second sphere, 4> m the motion produced
by the reflection of <J> n at the first sphere supposed to be at rest
in its instantaneous position, and so on. Then the actual motion
will be found to be represented by the infinite series
which will converge the more rapidly the smaller the spheres in
comparison with their mutual distance. This series gives the
solution of the problem. For the equation of Laplace is satisfied,
since each of the terms does satisfy it and the derivatives of
the series can be found by differentiating separately its terms,
and all boundary conditions are satisfied. In fact, at the surface
of either sphere r)<I>/?n is expressed by a series whose terms, as
far as the second sphere is concerned, cancel each other in pairs,
while for the first sphere the first term only survives and this
has the value which is prescribed for its surface.
25. Two SPHERES
We will now determine the forces which two pulsating spheres
exert upon each other. The equations of motion
du (hi du\
become, in terms of the velocity potential,
dp a rso
A
> etc >
and since p is constant, these give, with V written for the velocity,
. . (32)
where C is a constant. This, however, can be omitted, since a
pressure which is constant all over a surface cannot produce
any motion.
iv PULSATING SPHERES 63
Let 12 1 and R 2 be the radii of the spheres and I the distance
of their centres. Then the velocity potential due to the motion
of the first sphere is, by Art. 22,
where r' is the distance from the centre of this sphere.
If now the origin of coordinates be placed into the centre of
the second sphere and if the Jtaxis be laid along the produced
join of the centres, the last expression can be developed around
the second sphere into the series
. . .],
of which it will be enough to retain the first two terms, as
according to our assumption the radii of the spheres are small
compared with L Since the first term is constant, the motion is
determined by the second term. At the second sphere a reflected
state of motion is produced, for which the velocity potential is,
by Art. 23,
where r denotes the distance from the centre of the second sphere.
Rigorously we should take account also of the motion arising
from this through a reflection at the first sphere, and so on.
But since these reflected motions become rapidly weaker, they
may be disregarded. The velocity potential due to the motion
of the second sphere is 7Z a 2 $ 2 /r which, to the desired degree
of accuracy, need not be supplemented by any reflected motion
at all. For our purpose is to determine the force experienced
by the second sphere. This, however, requires only the know
ledge of the motion of the liquid in the neighbourhood of the
second sphere, and the reflection of the lastmentioned motion
from the first sphere would contribute only an expression con
taining a factor of the order IIP. Let us still put
then the whole velocity potential in the neighbourhood of the
second sphere will be
Ida*
64 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS iv
By (32), to determine the pressure, d/dt is required. Now,
since in differentiating with respect to the time x, etc., are kept
constant,
SO _ 1 / x\ <P ai ^x ( cPa, da l da*\ I d*a 2
dt " " I V " l) W + WV* 1 dP + dt 'dt / r dP '
To find the force upon the second sphere, we have to integrate
over its whole surface, but in doing so we may disregard the
term F 2 in (32).* Again, all terms not containing x can be
omitted, since these represent a pressure uniform all over the
surface which, therefore, as was just mentioned, gives rise to no
force upon the sphere as a whole. We are thus left with
(Pa, 3 / d*a, da, da 2 \
{3 riPaj 1 da l da 2 ]
~H2/ 2 dP + 2fti 1 dt dt}'
Now, a pressure p ==  cxp gives for the ^component of the force
upon an element da
+ cpR 2 cos 2 ft/or,
whence, the force upon the whole sphere,
JcpR 2 cos 2 Oder = $7TCpR z * = 4:7TCpa 29
and substituting the value of c,
We will suppose that the spheres pulsate rapidly, so that the
perceptible force is the average of this expression over a time
interval comprising many periods. Moreover, let both spheres
have the same pulsation period. Total derivatives with respect
to the time can then be omitted, so that the last expression
for the force upon the second sphere can be written
* For, evidently, we can limit ourselves to that part of JF 2 which
depends on the motion of the first as well as on that of the second sphere,
that is to say, to the scalar product of the velocityvector F lf which would
correspond to the motion of the second sphere alone, into r,, due to that of
the first sphere only. Now, at the surface of the second sphere F s is radial
and F! tangential, so that their scalar product vanishes.
iv PULSATING SPHERES 65
and the required average ultimately becomes
~dt dt '
Whence we see that, if the pulsations of the two spheres are
in phase, this force is negative, that is to say, we have an
attraction, and if their phases are opposite, a repulsion. Let us
consider this in more detail for the case of simple harmonic
oscillations. If the radius varies periodically, so also does the
volume of the sphere, and with the same period, and if the
changes remain small, a simple harmonic variation of the radius
is associated with a simple harmonic variation of the volume.
We can write, therefore,
0,1 = A! + G! cos (nt + e^,
where c v is small compared with A l9 and similarly,
<i 2 == A 2 +c 2 cos (nt + 2 ).
This gives for the averaged force along the 3faxis
 _______  ______
K x =  wc L c 2 n 2 sin (nt + x ) sin (nt + 2 ).
In order to find the mean over a long time, it is enough to
average over a full period. Now, since
2 sin (nt + e^ sin (nt + 2 ) =  cos (2nt + l + 2 ) + cos (ej  e 2 ),
the required average turns out to be
cos ta  e 2 ).
Thus we have an attraction for e l  e 2 < 7r/2, reaching a maximum
for j = 2 , and a repulsion for e l  2 > Tr/2, attaining a maximum
for ei  e 2 7r 
26. TREATMENT OF THE PROBLEM BY MEANS OF
LAGRANGE'S EQUATIONS
The results just found might also have been deduced from
Lagrange's equations of motion. In using these we will introduce
VOL. I F
66 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS iv
as coordinates, also for the case of a system of any number of
spheres, the Cartesian coordinates a, 6, c of the centres and the
radii R of the spheres. The kinetic energy T is then a quadratic
function of o, 6, c, tt with coefficients which are functions of the
coordinates. If X be the component of the external force upon
one of the spheres, taken along the Xaxis, we have
_
fi\aa/ <V
The kinetic energy T can be split into two parts, one due to
the liquid, the other due to the spheres, and in accordance with
this the inner force keeping equilibrium to the force X can be
divided into two parts. We then find for the force exerted upon
the sphere by the liquid along the Xaxis
<f /MV\
dt\<>dJ 9
if T v be the kinetic energy of the liquid. The latter is (owing
to
the last integral to be extended over the surface of all the spheres
(it being assumed that we need not reckon with the infinitely
distant boundary), and the normal to be taken towards the liquid,
i.e. away from the spheres (hence the negative sign). The last
integral can, of course, be divided into parts, each extended
over the surface of one of the spheres, thus :
In the case of two pulsating spheres we have for the second
sphere 9<J>/9w= < B 2 and therefore,
ft 1 *
= l{ I'd
saa R a
where a v a 2 are as explained in the preceding article. On in
tegrating, the second and the third terms contribute nothing,
iv PULSATING SPHERES 67
while the remaining ones are constant, and we are thus left
with
Similarly the integral over the first sphere is
The symbol a appearing in (34) stands in this case for our Z, and
the first term of that expression gives
This is exactly the force we have already found. With regard
to the second term in (34), notice that what we require are the
forces which act on the spheres when these have only a pulsating
motion, while their centres are fixed. Thus I ! =0. In evaluating
the first term of (34) we can, for obvious reasons, simplify T y by
putting /=0, as we did in fact. In the second term, however,
this simplification can be introduced only after the differentiation
with respect to /. The evaluation of this term, which would
lead us to the first term of (33), would thus require a further
consideration of T n into which, however, we need scarcely
enter, since we are concerned only with the time derivative of
dT v pd, and the average of 4 such a derivative over a full period
is nil.
27. PEARSON'S THEORY
Consider the case of an infinitely long period [of pulsation],
that is to say, a sphere which goes on expanding for ever. Then a
surface enclosing the sphere is traversed by the amount f ^.1. )
or ^Trdajdt of fluid. Let this be denoted by e v Then the
attraction between two such spheres will be /oe 1 e 2 /47rP.
Now, Pearson abolishes the spheres and supposes that there is
towards certain points an incessant stream of fluid (aether sources
or sinks). It is true that one cannot well picture to himself such
a state of things. But as we can imagine points spread over
68 AETHER THEORIES AND AETHER MODELS iv
a surface, towards which the aether streams from the sur
rounding space, to spread itself then over the surface, we
should also be able to place such aether sources in three
dimensional space by calling to our aid the fourdimensional
space. Similarly, there would exist points (aether sinks) where
the fluid is being annihilated.* Two such aether sources would
then attract each other, and similarly two aether sinks, while a
source and a sink would repel one another.
Apart from the strangeness of such a representation there is
also another objection. In fact, if the expanding sphere be
entirely omitted, there would still be a force upon the place
whence the aether emanates. If a small sphere be described
around the aether source, the force exerted by the aether will
be a pressure upon the sphere, and one would have to imagine
that the source is being displaced together with the sphere.
There is a striking difference between the present case and
that of electrical actions. For here we have attraction between
points [sources] of equal, and repulsion between points of opposite
signs.
A similar theory was proposed by Korn to account for
molecular forces and gravitation. He imagines a number of
pulsating spheres, all in phase with each other ; the latter
coincidence is secured by enclosing the whole space in a limiting
surface which is acted upon by a periodical external force. This
is propagated instantaneously through the incompressible fluid
and makes the volumes of all the spheres alternately increase
and diminish in the same phase.
In what precedes a description was given of some of the
attempts which were made in order to account for various
phenomena, and especially the electromagnetic ones, by means
of speculations about the structure and the properties of the
aether. To a certain extent these theories were successful, but
it must be admitted that they give but little satisfaction. For
they become more and more artificial the more cases are required
to be explained in detail. Of late the mechanical explanations
of what is going on in the aether were, in fact, driven more and
more to the background. For many physicists the essential
* [For the threedimensional beings, that is.]
iv PULSATING SPHERES 69
part of a theory consists in an exact, quantitative description of
phenomena, such e.g. as is given us by Maxwell's equations.
But even if one adheres to this point of view, the mechanical
analogies retain some of their value. They can aid us in thinking
about the phenomena, and may suggest some ideas for new
investigations.
SOURCES AND REFERENCES
G. G. Stokes, On the Aberration of Light, Phil. Mag. (3), vol. xxvii., 1845, p. 9.
H. A. Lorentz, De aberratietheorie van Stokes, Zittingsverslagen Kon. Akad. v.
Wet. Amsterdam, i., 1892, p. 97.
H. A. Lorentz, Over den invloed, dien de beweging der aarde op de lichtver
schijnselen uitoefent, Verslagen en Medcdeelingon Kon. Akad. v. Wet.
Amsterdam, (3) ii., 1886, p. 297.
H. A. Lorentz, De ^influence du mouvement de la terre sur lea phenomenes
lumineux, Archives Neerlandaiscs des Sciences, xxi., 1887, p. 103.
H. A. Lorentz, De aberratietheorie ran Stokes in de onderstelling van een aether,
die niet overal deselfde dichtheid heeft, Zittingsverslagen Akad. Amsterdam,
vii., 1899, p. 528.
R. Reiff , Die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in bewegten Medien nach der elektrischen
Lichttheorie, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. (3) 1., 1893, p. 361.
A. A. Michelson, The Relative Motion of the Earth and the Luminiferous Aether,
Amer. Journ. of Science (3), xxii., 1881, p. 120.
A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, Influence of Motion of the Medium on the
Velocity of Light, ibid. (3), xxxi., 1886, p. 377.
A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, The Relative Motion of the Earth and the
Luminiferous Aether, ibid. (3), xxxiv., 1887, p. 333.
A. A. Michelson and E. W. Morley, On the Relative Motion of the Earth and the
Luminiferous Aether, Phil. Mag. (4), vol. xxiv., 1887, p. 449.
H. A. Lorentz, De relatieve beweging van de aarde en den aether, Zittingsverslagen
Akad. Amsterdam, i., 1892, p. 74.
J. MacCullagh, An Essay toward a Dynamical Theory of Crystalline Reflexion
and Refraction, 1839.
W. Thomson, Motion of a Viscous Liquid, etc., Math, and Phys. Papers, London,
1890, iii. art. 99.
W. Thomson, On the Reflexion and Refraction of Light, Phil. Mag. (4), vol. xxvi.,
1888, pp. 414, 500.
G. Green, On the Laws of Reflexion and Refraction of Light, Cambridge Trans
actions, vi., 1838, p. 400.
J. Larmor, A Dynamical Theory of the Electric and Luminiferous Medium,
London Trans., A, clxxxv., 1894, p. 719; clxxxvi., 1895, p. 695; cxc.,
1897, p. 205.
J. Larmor, Aether and Matter, Cambridge, 1900.
R. Reiff, Elastizitdt und Elektrizitdt, Freiburg and Leipzig, 1891.
A. Sommerfeld, Mechanische Darstettung der electromagnetischen Erscheinungen
in ruhenden Korpern, Ann. d. Phys. u. Chem. (3), xlvi., 1892, p. 139.
L. Boltzmann, Vber ein Medium, dessen mechanische Eigenschaften auf die
von Maxwell fur den Electromagnetismus aufgestellten Oleichungen fuhren,
ibid. (3), xlviii., 1893, p. 78.
W. Voigt, Vber Medien ohne innere Krdfte und uber eine durch sie gelieferte
Deutung der Maxwell Hertzschen Oleichungen, ibid. (3), Iii., 1894, p. 665.
70
SOUECES AND REFERENCES 71
L. Graetz, Vber eine mechanische Darstellung der dectrischen und magnetischen
Erscheinungen in ruhenden Korpern, ibid. (3), v., 1901, p. 375.
O. Lodge, Modern Views of Electricity, London, 1889.
W. Thomson, On a Gyrostatic Constitution for Ether, Math, and Phya. Papers,
1890, vol. iii. art. 100.
W. Thomson, On the Propagation of Laminar Motion through a turbulently moving
Inviscid Liquid, Phil. Mag. (4), vol. xxiv., 1887, p. 342.
V. Bjerknes, Vorlesungen uber hydrodynamische Femkrdfte, bearbeitet nach
C. A. Bjerknes' Theorie, Leipzig, 1900.
K. Pearson, Ether Squirts, Amer. Journ. of Math., vol. xiii., 1891, p. 309.
A. Korn, Eine Theorie der Gravitation und der electrischen Erscheinungen auf
Orundlage der Hydrodynamik, Berlin, 1898.
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
(19111912)
INTRODUCTION
IN these lectures some selfcontained questions concerning kinetic
theories are treated. They belong partly to the domain of the
kinetic theory of gases and partly to that of the electron theory.
Their subject was suggested by Knudsen's investigations on very
rarefied gases and by Richardson's researches on thermionic
currents.
The gases offer two extreme cases which can be treated with
comparative ease, one, in which the dimensions of the containing
vessel are very large, and another in which these are very small
compared with the mean free path of the molecules.
In the former case there will be no sliding of the gas along a
solid wall and this will have the same temperature as the con
tiguous gas layer, while in the latter case the gas is so rarefied
that the molecular collisions can be disregarded. A volume
element does then no more contain the same matter during
a certain time, as can be assumed to be the case for gases of
large density. The investigation of cases falling between these
two extremes offers considerable difficulties. In dealing with
Knudsen's investigations one can start from the second
extreme case, and this is the plan which will be here adopted.
75
CHAPTER I
INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING, TREATED HYDRODYNAMICALLY
1. HYDRODYNAMICAL EQUATIONS OP AN INCOMPRESSIBLE
Viscous LIQUID
To begin with, we consider an incompressible viscous liquid and
write down its hydrodynamical equations. In addition to inner
friction the sliding along a fixed wall will also be taken into
account.*
Let u, v, w be the velocity components of the liquid, p the
pressure, X x , X y , etc., the inner stress, including the pressure,
further, p the viscosity coefficient and, finally, p the density.
For the sake of clearness it may be mentioned that X x is the
XTcomponent of the tension exerted upon a surfaceelement
normal to the JSTaxis, Y z the Ycomponent of the stress upon a
surfaceelement perpendicular to the Zaxis, and so on.
In absence of external forces the equations of motion are
~Y +*r + ;T = (equation of continuity), . . (1)
du du du du\ dX x 3 A,/ dX z
nT + w 3~ +v~+w~)=~2+  + 
vt ox oy oz/ ox oy oz
dv dv dv\ dY x dY v c)Y z
~:+U5+V~ +^0)=^ + o + *
dt dx dy dz/ dx ay dz
c>Z
(2)
* Helmholtz and Piotrowski investigated whether there is sliding of a liquid
or not. They observed the oscillations of a hollow metallic sphere filled with
liquid and suspended on a twisted wire, and they found that the sliding at the
metal wall was not nil. Wiener Sitzungsber. zL, Abt. I., I860, p. 607
77
78
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
(3)
 ~
ty
* In deriving these formulae one considers a parallelepipcdon of edges dx,
dy, dz within the liquid. Multiplying both sides of each of the equations (2)
by dxdydz, we have on the left hand the product of an element of mass into
its acceleration, and on the right hand the force acting upon this liquid mass.
With regard to the equations (3) arid (4) we may notice that in absence of
friction X x = Y V = Z Z = ~p, while the tangential stress components are all nil.
In the presence of friction all stress components will be determined by ex
pressions depending on the manner how the velocity varies from point to point.
The equations representing these connections will be linear ; to a first approxi
mation the stress components will bo determined by the derivatives of the
velocities with respect to the coordinates.
We can thus write, in general,
X x =
v i ^ '^ /, *' w i. tM>
, cx dy (y L>Z
and so on.
To determine further these coefficients we take account of the symmetry
relations. Imagine the liquid reflected at the plane x0 and notice that for
the image the same equations must hold. It will then become plain that terms
having an odd number of references to the JTaxis change their sign through
the reflection, while those with an even number of such references retain their
sign. The reference to the Xaxis can occur in a fourfold way, to wit, as in
ox, cto, X v and Z a .
Thus, using a reflection at the plane xQ, we shall find that X x remains
unchanged, and this gives a, 2 a 21 a 13 =a sl 0. Again, Y g remains what it
was, giving 6 12 = 6 21 = & 13 = b n = 0.
Next, a reflection at the plane y=Q leaves X r unchanged, whence 23 = a 32 = 0,
while Y x changes its sign, and this gives 6 n = 6 22 = 6 33 = 0.
From the fact that the exchange of the Y with the Zdirection can have
no effect upon X x , it follows that 22 =a 33 .
The formula for X x thus becomes
which, in view of the equation of continuity, can be written
Taking into account that the couple resulting from the tensions upon an
1 INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 79
With regard to the boundary conditions we may notice that,
if there be no sliding, the velocity of the liquid in contact with a
solid body is the same as the velocity of the latter, but if there is
sliding, this equality holds only for the normal velocity com
ponents. In the latter case, therefore, the relative velocity of
the outermost layer of the liquid and the solid wall has a tangential
direction.
Let us now consider within the liquid near the solid wall a
short cylinder whose dimensions along the normal of the wall
are infinitely small compared with those in tangential directions,
and let us express the condition that the forces exerted by the
liquid upon this volumeelement are in equilibrium with those
due to the solid body.
Let h be an arbitrary direction in the tangential plane. Then
the force exerted by the liquid, per unit area, in the direction h
may be represented by H H9 and that exerted by the solid body by
\v h , where v h is the relative velocity of the liquid and the solid
wall and X a proportionality factor. Thus the boundary condition
will become H M Atfc (5)
If there be no sliding, then v h =0 and we must put X=oo.
Let the state of motion be stationary, so that Bu/ffc, vvfit,
dw/dt all vanish, and let us further assume that the velocities are
so small that their products and their derivatives can be neglected.
Then, in virtue of (1), the equations of motion (2) become

. (6)
element of liquid must be zero, if we limit ourselves to magnitudes of the third
order, we find Y n = Z y , whence 6 23 = 6 3a . Thus,
Again, since the liquid is isotropic, the expressions for Y, and Z % must
follow from that for X x by a cyclic permutation, and similarly those for Z 9 and
X v from that for 7 r Whence it follows that the coefficients in the formulae
for X x , Y v , and Z, must be equal, and similarly for Y t , Z x , and X,.
The isotropy of the liquid implies also that if the equations be transformed
to a new system of axes obtained by a rotation of the original one, the co
efficients retain their values. This gives a n  a >9 = 26 M = 2/*.
80 KINETICAL PROBLEMS , OIIAP.
2. EFFECT OF SLIDING UPON A LIQUID FLOWING IN A TUBE
As a first application we consider a liquid flowing through a
narrow tube. We put the Xaxis along the tube.
The equations of motion can be satisfied by putting v = w =0.
This amounts to disregarding small lateral motions near the ends.
The equation of continuity (1) then calls for 3w/3a;=0, so that
u and therefore also Aw become independent of x, and, by the first
of (6), the same is true of dp/dx. By the remaining two equa
tions (6) the pressure must also be the same all over the cross
section. This will also be the case of dp/fix. Consequently the
pressure varies uniformly along the tube and depends but on a
single coordinate, x. If p l and p 2 be the values of p at the
beginning and the end of the tube, and if I be its length, we have
^=2^1
dx "" "/
and, by (6),
Vu Vuj^Vi
ty* dz z pi '
Limiting ourselves to a tube of circular section, of radius /?,
transforming to polar coordinates, and noticing that, since the
motion can be assumed to be axially symmetrical, u depends
only on r, we can write the last equation
d*u 1 du^pt
dr 2 r dr p.1
whence, by integration,
an additive integration constant being omitted, since the velocity
of flow is a maximum at the middle of the tube, so that du/dr=0
for r =0. Integrating once more, we find
where C is to' be determined from the boundary condition. In
absence of sliding u  f or r = fi, whence C =  jR 2 , and therefore,
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 81
The amount (volume) of liquid streaming through a cross
f*
section is, per second, 27r; urdr. Thus, in our case,
)
which is proportional to 1Z 4 , in agreement with Poiseuille's law.
In the presence of sliding the friction force pdu/dr is equal
and opposite to the force exerted upon the liquid by the tube
walls. The boundary condition then becomes
du * t D
ft, , =AU, for r =JK,
whence
and
The corresponding amount of liquid streaming across the section
of the tube is, per second,
The term 4/i/XU gives the correction to Poiseuille's law for the
sliding. For X = oo, or no sliding, (8) reduces to (7).
3. THE DRAGGING OF A LIQUID BY A MOVING PLATE
For a second illustration of the hydrodynamical equations let
us take the case of a liquid contained between two flat plates
of infinite extension, perpendicular to the Yaxis. Let the
lower plate (y =0) be at rest, while the upper plate (y = A) moves
uniformly with the velocity a along the ^axis. Since the liquid
is dragged by the upper plate, so that its velocity increases along
the Yaxis, we will write for the velocity components
The friction upon any plane parallel to the plates is, per unit
area,
du
*qi*>*
VOL. I G
82 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
For y=0 we have u=^C l9 so that the relative velocity of the
liquid and the lower plate is C l9 and therefore the force exerted
by the latter upon the liquid \C V Thus the first boundary
condition becomes
du *~
/Av=AC 1 .
y
This gives '
For y = A, u = Cj + C 2 A, so that the relative velocity of the liquid
and the upper plate is a(C f 1 + C f 2 ^)> an d the force exerted by
this plate upon the liquid \(a C 1  C 2 A). The friction of the
liquid against this plate is /zC^ an( i the second boundary
condition thus becomes
or, substituting the value of C l9
Xa
whence the friction
For X = oo we have C 2 =a/A, so that for finite X the friction will
be somewhat smaller.
Notice that /*/X has the dimensions of a length. (This follows
from the equation fjLdu/dy=\C l9 since C l is a velocity, to wit,
C l =u for y = 0.) The physical meaning of this length can be
seen by imagining that either plate is moved away from the
other over the distance /4//\, while the liquid expands so as still to
extend from plate to plate and its state of motion remains un
changed. The velocity of the liquid relatively to either plate
is then nil at both boundaries. In fact, w=0 for y = /x/X, and
w=a for y = A+/A/X. Thus the solution of the problem with
sliding can be reduced to that of the problem without sliding,
provided the liquid is given the said expansion.
Also the result of the problem of a liquid flowing through a
tube of circular section is in harmony with this property. For,
if R in the expression (7) is replaced by JR+/i/X, the expression
(8) follows, provided /u/X is small in comparison with R so that
the square of /tt/XJK can be neglected.
INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 83
i. EFFECT OF SLIDING IN THE CASE OF TRANSLATIONAL
MOTION OF A SPHERE IN A LIQUID
We will now determine the resistance offered by a liquid to
a sphere endowed with uniform rectilinear motion. This will
lead us to the famous formula of Stokes which, among other
things, comes into play in the lately developed theory of Brownian
movement. It is still an open question how far the validity of
this formula can be upheld for very small particles and irregular
motions. This will still be discussed in the sequel (Art. 7).
In dealing with the problem in hand we will assume that not
the liquid as a whole is at rest and a sphere moves through it
but, inverting the relations, we will imagine that the sphere is
at rest and the liquid moves past it, having at infinity a uniform
rectilinear motion. We put the Zaxis along the direction of
this motion and take the centre of the sphere as the origin of
our coordinate system. Thus, if u, v, w be the velocity com
ponents of the liquid, we have at infinity w=0, v = 0, wa.
From our previous equations (6)
and from the equation of continuity (1) we derive
To solve these equations we will follow Kirchhoff and intro
duce an auxiliary function <E>, such that
To begin with, we could try as a solution
ao ao ao
w = , 0=3, w= ~ .
dx dy dz
This satisfies the equations of motion, but not the equation of
continuity. In fact, since
du dv dw
x + ~+^
dx dy dz
the equation of continuity could only be satisfied if
84 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
i.e. if the pressure were everywhere nil. We try, therefore, to
help matters by adding new terms and write
, , ,
u=*~ +u,v=*+v 9 w= ~ + w. . . (9)
fix fiy fiz ^ '
If the new terms can be so chosen that
Aw'=0, A*/=0, Aw'=0 . . . (10)
and
?)?/ fiv' fiw' A ~ v /11X
+  + =A<D=A . . . (11)
ex vy cz \t,
our solution will be ready. Now, noticing that we must have
Ap = and that this is satisfied by spherical harmonics of which
the simplest are l/r and all partial derivatives of 1 /r, we try to put
Account is here taken of the circumstance that the pressure
p must be an odd function of z, since it must have different
signs at the opposite poles of the sphere. Further, the function
of z chosen is the simplest which satisfies Ay=0. Finally, a
constant factor is inserted which will presently be given a
suitable value. An additive constant would for the problem in
hand be without significance, and is therefore omitted.
Equations (10) and (11) are now satisfied by
r
Next, we put
fi /1\ fir
( } + ttr.
i\rj vz
The first two terms do not contribute to A4>, and since
the last term gives
Notice that all three terms of 4>, though odd functions of z,
are even functions of x and y, which harmonises with the
symmetry of the liquid motion.
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 85
The first term gives at infinity, where the derivatives of the
remaining two vanish,
w<>
w ~=a.
vz
Thus is a introduced into the formula. The middle term enables
us to satisfy the boundary conditions at the surface of the
sphere. By means of these conditions the constants b and c can
be expressed in terms of the velocity a and the radius R.
Thus the solution becomes
36
w = a +
. (12)
Thus far we have followed Kirchhoff. In the boundary conditions
at the surface of the sphere we will take account of the sliding
and in that deviate from Kirchhoff. Since at the surface of the
sphere the velocity of the liquid must be tangential, the first
boundary condition is
whence
Equations (12) show that there is symmetry around the
Zaxis. Let us then consider a point P at the surface of the
sphere in the plane XZ } for which POZ = 0, and let us introduce
a new orthogonal system of axes, of which OZ' passes through
P and OX' lies in the plane XZ. The equations (12), when
transformed to the new axes, become
u' .=  (a   jsh 1 6 + ( JT  r )x'(z' cos 6 x' sin 6)
\ f f/ \r* f d /
v' = (^  )/(' cos fl  *' sin 6) . (14)
* sn
86 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAT.
The velocity of sliding at P follows from these equations for
x 9 =y' =0, z' =R. Thus, and by (13), its components are
u'  a i& sin > f0 f tf0.
Whence, the tangential tension at P exerted by the sphere upon
the liquid,
and the friction component, which must be in equilibrium with
this force,
Thus the boundary condition becomes
6 c\ .
where z' =fi and x' =0.
Evaluating the lefthand member by means of (14), one finds
f =  4 sin ,
and the second boundary condition assumes the form
Since has disappeared, this boundary condition can at once be
satisfied all over the surface of the sphere.
Formulae (13) and (15) give
i , W
Thus b and c are expressed in terms of known data, and sub
stituting these values into (12), we find also u, v, w.
The total force exerted on the sphere by the liquid will fall,
by reasons of symmetry, into the Zaxis and can thus be found
by integrating Z z < over the surface of the sphere. Now, Z z > can
be determined, in two ways, either from
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 87
or from the tangential force X t . and the normal force Z z ,
leading to
To choose the latter way, Z^ must be evaluated from the
equation
Z*' = p f 2p. , for x' =0, z' = B,
which gives
' 6/xc ,, 12u6 *
Z z > = 2 cos 6  jg cos 0,
and since we have already found
X z > =   sin 6,
we have
whence, by integration over the surface of the sphere, the required
resistance,
W = 2irR 2 l Z z > sin
i.e.
+ A72
For X == oo this expression reduces to
which is Stokes* wellknown formula.
Such, then, is the resistance experienced by a sphere moving
with velocity a through a stagnant liquid.
5. LIQUID MOTION DUE TO AN IMMERSED VIBRATING PLATE
We shall next investigate how far this resistance formula
can be assumed to hold for a sphere in nonuniform motion,
such as the Brownian movement. The problem offers con
siderable difficulties, and we shall, therefore, confine ourselves
88 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
to the simple case in which the body has a vibratory motion of
translation.
As an introduction we will consider a flat plate in the
FZplane maintained in nondamped vibration in the direction
of the"Zaxis. Let the plate be unlimited, so that the state
will be the same all along the Y and the Zaxes and thus
depend on x and t only. The velocities being again assumed to
be infinitesimal, and all relevant magnitudes being functions of
x and t only, the equation of motion
(dw div f)w dw\ r)n A
P\ n.+w~  +^r f w~ )= ' +LL&W
r \dt dx (it/ dz/ dz ^
reduces to
As its solution we take
w =
Substituting this into (16), we have
*, ..... (17)
whence
Thus,
ui
of which the real part is
representing waves which issue from the plate along the positive
Xaxis, this result being obtained by taking for /3 as solution of (17)
the negative root. The wavelength is 27r\/2///wp. That this
has the dimensions of a length is manifest by (16). The amplitude
of the oscillations of the liquid is thus decreasing considerably
when these are propagated over a wavelength, namely, to e"" 2ir
times its original value.
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 89
6. EFFECT OF FREQUENCY IN THE CASE OF A SPHERE
VIBRATING IN A LlQUID
Passing to the case of a sphere vibrating in the direction of
the Zaxis, we may represent its velocity component w by ae int ,
where n is real, corresponding to nondamped vibrations. The
motion of the liquid must satisfy the equations of motion
and the equation of continuity
Su dv_ ^_A
fix dy ?z '
while at the surface of the sphere, if sliding be disregarded,
w = v = 0, w=ae int .
Of these equations two particular solutions can be found,
whose superposition gives a solution which satisfies the boundary
conditions at the surface of the sphere.
For the first solution we put p=0. This will then exhibit
some similarity with the problem of the vibrating plate, since in
the case of the latter the equation of motion (16) was free of terms
containing p.
Let us, therefore, introduce an auxiliary function <f> satisfying
the equation
and depending on t and r only. The equations of motion will be
satisfied not only by <I> itself but by its derivatives as well, and
we can put
Of these the last is so chosen as to satisfy the equation of
continuity.
The differential equation for 4> becomes, in polar coordinates,
WrO)
"
this being of exactly the same form as the equation of motion
90 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
(16) of the liquid containing a vibrating plate. The solution is
thus
where /9   /^(l +0 and 6 is a constant which for the present
>r 2/A
may be left undetermined. Thus far the first solution.
The peculiarity of the second solution is that it annihilates
the last terms in the righthand members of the equations of
motion. As such we introduce a function ^ of 2 and r which
satisfies the equation
If then u, v, w are equalled to ^ or to any of its derivatives,
we shall have A u = A v = Aw = 0.
In order to satisfy the equations of motion and the equation
of continuity as well we put
T"T> T>
dydz r dz* ^
and we take for ^ the simplest harmonic function f ) multiplied
by the factor e ini , to express nondamped vibrations, and by the
density p, to do justice to the equations of motion ; in fine,
where the constant c is again left undetermined for the present.
Thus the general solution of our equations becomes
dxdz p dxdz'
v =3 +  % ,
oyoz p oyoz
The amplitudes of both functions can be compounded by putting
, 6 ., c
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 91
Next, if we introduce the amplitudes u', v f , w', defined by
tt=tt'e tnt , etc., these will satisfy the equations
, ,
vyoz \vx 2 oy 2 /
The boundary conditions at the surface of the sphere are, in
absence of sliding, u' =0, v' =0, w' =a, for r =R.
The first of these gives
Vr^O
dr V~ U '
whence
0. . . . (18)
The second, v'=0, gives the same equation, while the third
boundary condition leads to
. _
~fdr r* dr 'r* dr* >
or, since dfldrrd i f/dr*=0,
2df ,
rdr =a ' ioTT=R '
whence
. . (19)
From (18) and (19) we have, for b and c,
.... (20)
. . . . (21)
Thus the state of motion is determined.
In view of the symmetry with respect to the Zaxis the
resistance opposed by the liquid to the motion of the sphere can
be represented by
27rB 2 f Z n sin OdO,
Jo
where 6 is the angle between the normal n (of the sphere) at a
point of the XZplane and the Zaxis.
92 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
If we put Z n =Z n <P*, Z m tijP*, etc., then
Evaluating Z n by means of the condition df/drrd 2 f/dr 2 =Q, for
r = R 9 the equations (20), (21), and the relation (17), we find for
the required resistance, K = 2'rrR 2 f ir Z n sin 0d0 9
K = MR(  1 + IfiR  IpR^aJ*". . . (22)
For very slow vibrations, i.e. for very small values of }R, this
reduces to Stokes' formula
For any frequency of vibrations (22) can be written
The velocity of the sphere will then be
w = a cos nt y
and the force opposed to the sphere by the liquid,
K =/Lt0a cos nt /xAa sin nt. (23)
Only the first term is to be considered as a resistance, if " resist
ance " be so characterised that the work done by it over a
complete period is negative. Now, the work of K is
fKwdt =f(pg(i 2 cos 2 nt p,ha 2 sin nt cos nf)dt y
and here the first term, whose coefficient g will presently appear
to be negative, gives on integration over a complete period a
negative quantity, whereas the second term gives nothing. The
term  fJia sin nt is a force proportional to the acceleration ; the
corresponding effect is thus an apparent increase of the mass of
the sphere, which is due to the covibration of the liquid.
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 93
Let us still consider the resistance pga cos nt. Here g is the
real part of
and since
we have
and the resistance becomes, with w s written for the velocity
of the sphere,
(24)
+R I
This is again the resistance according to Stokes, but increased
by a term which for high frequencies can outweigh the Stokes
resistance.
7. THE QUESTION OF VALIDITY OF STOKES' LAW FOR
BROWNIAN MOVEMENT
We can now ask what this resistance is like when the sphere
is endowed with any variable motion. This is of importance
in connection with Brownian movement. But we must limit
ourselves to small velocities, so as to be able to neglect, as above,
all terms such as udufix, etc. If the velocity were known as a
function of the time for the whole duration of the experiment,
it could be developed into a Fourier series, and the result (24)
could be applied to each term. Thus the resistance would
be found. This, however, is not very helpful for a general
discussion.
Stokes' formula cannot be applied to the case of Brownian
movement, as this is much too quickly variable for such a
purpose. The term R n P. in (24) is to be neglected in presence
V 2//,
of unity, if the vibration time T is large compared with 7rpR 2 lfjL.
If we write TrpR 2 //* = 0, then it will be possible to apply Stokes'
law for slow vibrations, for which, that is, the vibration time T
is large in comparison with 6, and this holds also for other
94 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
motions, provided the velocity does not change much during the
time 9.
To illustrate this by an example, let us see whether Stokes'
law is applicable to the extinction of the motion of a sphere due
to the friction of the liquid. If m be the mass and v the velocity
of the sphere, Stokes' law would give
dv
m dt ~
whence
so that v would dwindle down to the eth part of V Q after the time
w/67r//,R. If p t be the density of the sphere, this time is
If p and p l are comparable with each other, 6 is seen to be of
the same order as the time r. Stokes' law cannot, therefore, be
applied to the extinction of motion here considered.
For particles in Brownian movement becomes quite small.
If # = 5 . 10 5 and ,4 = 18 . 10~ 5 , then
a 7T.25.10 10 A 1A .
u sss ' ' A x 1 o ~ 4 J.U p.
i Q in5 * '
lo . lu
approximately. Yet the motion of the suspended particles will
vary during this time considerably, so that the refinements of
the Brownian movement cannot be mastered by the law of
Stokes. In many other cases, however, the motion within the
time will change but little and the law will be applicable.
8. DEDUCTION OF EINSTEIN'S FORMULA FOR THE MEAN SQUARE
OF THE DEVIATION OF A PARTICLE IN BROWNIAN MOVEMENT
For the investigation of Brownian movement it is of import
ance to correlate the mean square 2 of the distance attained by
a particle within a given time t with the properties of the liquid,
i.e. with the viscosity coefficient p,, and with the radius R of the
particle.
Without following the particle's actual crinkly path and its
rapidly variable motion, we can find the required connection by
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 95
a roundabout way, namely, by considering the diffusion velocity
of the particles. On the one hand this can be expressed by /a,
and on the other hand by *. Evaluating thus the diffusion
coefficient by two different methods and equating the two
expressions, we shall find Einstein's formula * for f a .
First method. Suppose we had a liquid containing suspended
particles whose concentration varies in some direction or other.
Along that direction put the Jfaxis. The concentration of the
particles is given by their number n per unit volume. Thus n is
a function of x. The particles will exert an osmotic pressure.
Now, if it be assumed that the mean kinetic energy of a particle
is equal to that of a gas molecule at the same temperature T,
i.e. $kT, the osmotic pressure is
p=nkT,
this being f of the total kinetic energy of the particles per unit
volume.
The force driving the particles is equal to the difference of
their osmotic pressure in two planes perpendicular to the scaxis.
In a stationary state of diffusion this difference will be balanced
by the force exerted by the liquid upon the particles.f
Apart from the Brownian movement the particles have a
common velocity along the Xaxis if the concentration decreases
with increasing x.
Since the formulae for the stress components and the equations
of motion of the liquid are linear (products of velocities and
derivatives of velocities being omitted, as they are small), we
may say that the force exerted by the liquid upon the particles
consists of two parts, one corresponding to their common velocity,
and another to their Brownian movement. The latter will vanish
for all the particles taken together.
Thus we have ,
~ = 67r^Rnv 9
* Ann. der Physik, vol. xix., 1906, p. 371.
f The osmotic pressure is, properly speaking, the momentum along the
Xaxis transferred by the moving particles in the positive less than in the
negative direction, per unit area perpendicular to this axis and per unit time.
Consequently, the momentum of particles contained in a layer of thickness dx
undergoes the change  ^dx per unit time, i.e. as if a force of this magnitude
acted upon the particles.
96 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
where the lefthand member represents the gradient of the
osmotic pressure, and the righthand member the resistance
opposed by the liquid to n particles ; and since p=nkT,
Whence the diffusion current
dn
w Kf9
ax
where K, the coefficient of diffusion, has the value
The diffusion is thus calculated by means of the law of Stokes.
In the second method we concentrate all our attention upon
the Brownian movement. We do not consider, however, the
actual path of a particle, but its total displacement within a
certain time. Let the distance attained after a time t, reckoned
from some initial moment, be s. Then s is different for different
particles. By means of probability considerations it can be
shown that the mean value of s 2 is, for all particles, proportional
to t, say,
s 2 =#.
The coefficient ^8 can be observed, as, among others, was done
by Perrin.*
Thereupon will our diffusion theory be based. Suppose that
the concentration varies from point to point ; then the particles
from a small volumfeelement will spread after a time t over a
sphere of radius Vfit. Thus the concentration differences will be
gradually obliterated.
Now, it can be shown that
# .....
where f is the projection of s upon the Xaxis.f
* Comptes rendus, Paris, vol. cxlix., 1909. p. 477, and vol. clii., 191 1, p. 1569.
f Suppose that during the time t all particles are displaced along the Xaxis
over the same distance Z, so that for one half of the particles x is increased,
and for the remaining half diminished by 1. Next, consider a plane V, per
pendicular to the JL axis, and two layers, each of thickness I, on both sides of V.
Let N t be the number of particles contained, at the beginning of the time t
i INNER FRICTION AND SLIDING 97
From (25) and (26) follows Einstein's formula
where R is the gas constant and N the number of molecules per
gram molecule.
By means of this formula Perrin determined N from his
experiments.
and por unit area of V, in the layer on the positive side, and similarly N 2
on the negative side of V. Then the diffusion per unit time is (2V 2  NJ/t.
We can assume that within these thin layers n is a linear function of x, and shall
thus find, for the diffusion,  ~  , and, for the coefficient of diffusion,
U a
which obviously must be replaced by (20), when account is taken of the
diversity of the ^values for different particles.
It will be readily scon that * = &*.
CHAPTER II
FRICTION AND SLIDING, TREATED KINETICALLY
9. FRICTION INDEPENDENT OF THE DENSITY OF THE GAS
KETURNING to the questions concerning inner friction and sliding,
we will now treat them on the kinetic theory. Moreover, instead
of a liquid, we shall now consider a gas. ' If this be strongly
condensed, there is no sliding. Thus we can at first exclude the
sliding, to introduce it later on as a correction.
We will begin by proving that the inner friction is independent
of the gas density. For this purpose we consider a simple case
of motion, viz. a gas whose horizontal layers are, as a whole,
shifted 'over each other. Let us introduce a coordinate system
whose XZplane is parallel to these layers, the Xaxis pointing
in the direction of streaming. If u be the velocity of a layer,
the motion of the gas can be expressed by the equation
where c is a constant, it being assumed that the layer y Q is
at rest.
The state of a molecule will be determined by f, ?/, *, the
velocity components, and x, y, z, the coordinates of its centre
of gravity. The relative coordinates and velocities of the parts
of a molecule with respect to its centre of gravity can here be
disregarded, as they do not affect our problem. Let us consider
the molecules which at the instant t are contained in the volume
element dS=*dxdydz at the point P, of coordinates x, y, z, and
whose velocity components are contained between f and g + dg,
t) and rj+drj, % and ?+rff. The number of these molecules can
be expressed by ,, { . ,,
08
CHAP, ii FRICTION AND SLIDING 99
where d\=d^drjd^ and F is independent of x and z, since, by
assumption, the state is the same throughout a gas layer parallel
to the XZplane.
Further, let bdSd\dt be the number of molecules which are
thrown into this group by collisions during the time dt, and
adSd\dt the number of those which for the same reason and
during the same time leave this group. Let external forces be
absent. At the time t + dt the molecules of this group will come
to lie in a volumeelement dS' =dS [by Liouville's theorem], at
the point x + %dt, y + rjdt, z + tdt. Thus,
f(f, *), , y> WSdX + (6  a)dSdXdt
will be the number of molecules contained at the instant t + dt
in the element dS, constructed at the point x + ^dt, y + ydt,
z + fcfe, and having their velocity components within the domain
d\. Whence, ' % f ^ f
b a =^77 + ,.
cy ' M
This equation would enable us in general to find the properties
of the function F. This, however, can be accomplished only in
the simplest case. If we put J=/for y=0, then
If the whole gas is given a translation velocity cy along the
#axis, the state of motion in a plane at the height y becomes
what it was originally in the plane j/ = 0. Whence we see that,
generally,
We assume further the state to be stationary, so that
M 1 n , dF
^=0, 6a=  rj.
dt Cy '
It remains only to determine the state for j/=0. From the
preceding equation we have, for y =0,
6a04 ..... (28)
We will now compare the state of the gas in the said motion with
the state in which there is no streaming, i.e. for c=0. For this
case / can be written Nf Q (where N is the number of molecules
100 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
per unit volume). Then, in the state of motion, f^N/Q+f,
where the function /' contains all the refinement; it may
assume positive values for some groups, and negative for
others. The exact determination of /' is laborious and for
our purposes unnecessary, since it can be shown by a simple
reasoning that the friction is independent of the density. We
assume that the velocity gradient c is small, in other words,
that there is only a small departure from the state of rest, so
that /' is small compared with N/* . Then / in the righthand
member of (28) can be replaced by Nf Q , which amounts to
neglecting only terms of a higher order. This gives
For the state of rest Maxwell's velocity distribution * holds, and
&a = 0. Owing to the change brought about in the function
/ by the motion b  a does no longer vanish. We consider again
a certain group of molecules and we distribute also the remaining
molecules into groups according to their velocities and co
ordinates. Let the numbers of molecules in these groups be n l9 n z ,
etc. Owing to the collision of a molecule of the first group with
a molecule of one of the remaining groups that molecule leaves
its group. Such a collision then belongs to the type a. Collisions
of molecules of the remaining groups with each other can increase
the numerosity of the first group and will thus be of type 6.
Since the number of collisions between two groups of molecules
is proportional to the numerosity of the first as well as to that
of the second, we can write
where a 12 is positive for such collisions as contribute something
to 6, and negative for such as contribute to a.
For c=0 the numbers of molecules in these groups will be
denoted by n 10 , n^, etc., so that 6a =
In general we can put
6  a
* Viz  : flt .
/.(fc* ft
where h is inversely proportional to the absolute temperature.
n FRICTION AND SLIDING 101
where the a's remain as before, since we are considering groups
which are completely determined by their velocities, so that
when we pass from the state of rest of the gas as a whole to its
streaming only the numerosity of each of the groups is changed.
Since we consider only a small departure from the state of
rest, %', n 2 ', etc., are small compared with w 10 , n^, etc., and
therefore
b  a = Sa 12 (
This leads to the equation
(29)
by means of which the variation of / or the numbers n/, n 2 ',
etc., can be determined. If the molecules are divided into K
groups, there are K equations such as (29).
If we change c, the equation (29) remains satisfied, provided
%', n 2 ', etc., are changed in the same ratio; thus the whole
disturbance, and therefore also /', will be proportional to the
velocity gradient. Now, if the density be varied, and thus also
N, the number of molecules in each group for the state of rest,
n 10 , w 20 , etc., varies in the same ratio. Then (29) is satisfied,
provided %', r& 2 ', etc., remain the same, so that also/' does not
change.
Whence we see that /' is proportional to c and independent
of N, that is to say, independent of the density.
The friction upon a plane parallel to the ZZplane is, per
unit area,
In fact, this is the momentum along the X"axis, transferred per
unit time across a unit area parallel to the X Zplane. Since in
the state of rest there is no friction,
and the last expression for the friction can also be written
This, as /' itself, is proportional to c and independent of N 9 and
can, therefore, be written
//,c,
where /A is the coefficient of friction. The latter is thus seen to
be independent of density.
102 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
10. UNIFORMITY CONSIDERATIONS
That friction is independent of density can also be proved
by another method which, though not going so deep into the
phenomena, is yet exact. We shall in this case also confine our
selves to a simple example, but taking at the same time account
of the sliding. We consider two infinitely extended horizontal
plates, of which the lower is at rest and the upper moves with a
constant velocity v horizontally, towards the right, and we pro
pose to find the motion of the gas contained between the plates.
Fig. 1 gives a graphical representation of the motion of the
gas for the case in which there is no sliding along the walls. The
abscissae are the velocities in the different layers, and the
ordinates the distances from the lower plate. The velocity
v of the upper plate is represented
* by AB. Manifestly, the line join
ing the endpoints of the velocity
vectors is a straight line.
A sliding along the walls will
have the effect that the velocity
^ FIG. 1. ^ ^ *ke 8 as l aver m contact with
the upper plate will be smaller.
If this be represented by AF (Fig. 2), then AF<AB. Similarly,
the velocity of the layer touching the lower plate will no longer
be nil, but will have some small value OE. The distribution
of velocities over the different layers will no longer be represented
by a straight line but by the line EF in Fig. 2, which, when the
plates are far enough apart, has a straight portion, but is curved
at the extremities.
To enter somewhat deeper into the sliding along the walls,
we must keep in mind that by the velocity of a gas layer is
meant the average velocity of the particles of which the layer at
a given instant consists. Among the particles of the lowermost
layer there will be some which previously belonged to a layer
with some velocity of streaming and were carried down to that
'layer by collisions. For these ascertain direction of motion,
viz. that of the streaming velocity, will be privileged. In this
layer, however, there will also be present, at the given instant,
some particles which were there before and which collided with
II
FRICTION AND SLIDING
103
the solid wall. We have, therefore, to distinguish also different
cases of collision with the wall. If the wall is a perfect reflector,
then the particles retain after the collision their tangential velo
city component. But in general even the best polished walls will
have to be considered as rough with regard to impacts of mole
cules, so that the reflection will be of a diffuse nature, and there
will be no privileged direction of motion for the rebounding
particles. But, as we just saw, there is such a direction for the
impinging particles, so that, all things being considered, the
layer in contact with the wall will have a velocity in the direction
of streaming, very much as in* the case in which there is sliding.
The precise form of the curve representing the velocity distribu
tion is hard to deduce from these considerations, at least for
points near the plate, where the state of motion is very com
plicated. Among 'other things one would have to take into
account that some of the molecules colliding with the wall
adhere to it. But the farther away from the wall, the less the
irregularities, and if we assume the mutual distance of the plates
large compared with the mean
free path of the molecules, a con
siderable portion of the curve will
be straight. If the distance were
very small, the straightline portion
would entirely disappear.
In Fig. 2 the velocity curve is
represented by EF. (Probably
its shape should be somewhat
different, such, e.g., as indicated by
the dotted line.) If the straight
line portion of the curve be pro
duced up to the points C and D,
the former being on the Yaxis and the latter having the
abscissa AB=v, then C and D will have the following signifi
cance. If the gas were replaced by an imaginary gas layer
extending also beyond the plates and having throughout the
same constant velocity gradient as that prevailing in the actual
case only between the plates, then the layers of gas at C and
D would have the same velocities as the plates, i.e. zero at C
and v at D. (Cf. Art. 3, p. 82.)
We will now prove that the segments OC and BD are
G
O
C
X
. 2.
104 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
independent of the distance of the plates. For this purpose let us
imagine a plate P inserted at the height of G and moved in such
a way that the state between G and A is not changed, except,
of course, in the immediate neighbourhood of the plate P itself.
We make the arc of the velocity curve near P congruent to that
at E. Now if HK=OE, the velocity distribution represented by
KF can prevail, provided GH is equal to the velocity of the plate P.
In fact, if the whole system is given a common velocity equal
and opposite to GH , the velocity curve retains the same shape,
but is simply shifted over the distance GH to the left. The state
at the plate P will then be exactly the same as that actually
prevailing at the lowermost wall. Whence it follows that 00
and BD are independent of the mutual distance of the plates.
In much the same way it can be shown that OC=BD. In
fact, if the whole system is given a velocity <fequal and opposite
to AB, the upper plate is brought to rest, while the lower one
will have a velocity v towards the left, and the velocity curve
will be shifted over a distance AB in the same direction. Thus,
if the figure is turned around by 180, it must be exactly the same
as that representing the actual state. The shape of the curve at
E must, therefore, coincide with that at F, and thus OE = FB
and also OC=J5D.
Further, if the velocities of the plates are supposed to be very
small compared with those of the molecules, the state of the
gas can be considered as an infinitesimal deviation from the state
of apparent rest. This deviation can then be put proportional
to the infinitesimal cause, i.e. to the velocity v of the upper plate.
All horizontal lines of the figure can thus be magnified or reduced
in the same ratio as v without changing 00 and BD. Whence
we see that 00 and BD are independent of the velocity v.
Again, as we saw before, OC and BD remain also unaffected by
the change of the distance between the plates. They can thus
depend only on the nature and the density of the gas. All this,
of course, holds only if the velocity curve has a rectilinear portion,
and ceases, therefore, to be true when the distance between the
plates is of the order of the mean free path of the molecules. If
we put OC=BD = v, then v will be characteristic for the gas.
The meaning of v is, that if the velocity gradient were constant
not only between but also at the walls, the gas at a distance v
from the plate would attain the velocity of the plate itself.
n FRICTION AND SLIDING 105
Let the velocities of the plates be zero and v, and their mutual
distance A. Then, by what precedes, the velocity gradient of
the gas (i.e. the change of velocity per unit length in the direction
of the Faxis) will be  , and, therefore, the friction per
A+2j;
unit area, parallel to the plates, ~ .
A \2iv
We will call v the coefficient of sliding and we will prove that
it is inversely proportional to the density p, while it will be
shown once more that ^ is independent of p.
For this purpose let us consider a second system which will
be denoted by II., while the original system will be denoted by
I. ; the magnitudes relating to the system II. will be distinguished
by dashes. Let tha system II. be so chosen that the correspond
ing vertical distances are k times smaller than those in I., while
the velocities at corresponding points are the same. We will
now prove that the system II. represents a possible state of
motion, provided the density in II. is k times that in I.
Let the function determining the state at a point P of the
first gas be J?\(, ?/, f), and that at a corresponding point P' of
the second gas J? 2 (, 7;, f). Then the condition for the density
will imply that ,& ^ $.&,,,, Q.
Since this holds for each group of molecules, the velocity of
streaming, i.e. the mean value of f , will, as we assumed, be the
same at P' as at P.
We have now to ascertain whether the condition of a possible
state of motion is satisfied, and for this purpose we consider the
equation for a stationary state of the gas, viz.
ap. dF IF Y
ba=~ c + ^17 +* b
dx dy ' dz
If the Jfaxis is again drawn towards the right, and the Faxis
perpendicularly to the plates, this equation becomes
It holds for the state I. and, as is easily seen, also for the
state II. In fact, for the state II. both sides of the equation
become k 2 times greater. For the lefthand member expresses
106 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
the number of collisions (and here the gas may be assumed
homogeneous around P'), and if the number of molecules in each
group is k times as large, the number of collisions is increased
k 2 times. And with regard to the righthand member, notice
that rj is the same for both systems, and that dFddy^WFJdy,
since F 2 =kF 1 and since all dimensions along the Yaxis in the
system II. are k times smaller than those in the system I. Thus
the equation of the stationary state within the gas is satisfied.
It remains, however, to consider the state at the walls. The
number of molecules of a given group which, per unit time, strike
against a wall, will for the system I. be determined by ^F^dX,
where F^ indicates the state at the considered point of the
boundary layer. Similarly, this number for the system II. will
be given by yFtflX. Suppose, further, that the two walls are
perfectly equal ; then the collisions of molecules of the group
considered will, in the system II., be k times more numerous
than, but otherwise entirely the same as, those in the system I.
Also for the molecules rebounding from the wall will the numbers,
for groups with the same values of , rj, in the system II. be k
times those in the system I. This, moreover, will be the case for
perfectly reflecting as well as for diffusedly reflecting walls, the
latter in contrast with the former being such that the molecules
after reflection retain no trace of the mean motion relative to
the wall which they had before the collision. If the above is
assumed to hold also for the case that there is an adhering gas
layer at the walls, then the system II. will represent also at tho
walls a possible state of motion.
Since the vertical dimensions in II. are k times smaller than
those in the system I., we have (Fig. 2) B r D' = *BD or
k
Thus it is proved that the sliding is inversely proportional to
the density.
The friction, per unit area, upon a plane parallel to the
YZplane will, as we saw before (p. 101), be represented by
w
whence
ii FRICTION AND SLIDING 107
Since the velocity gradient in the system II. is k times that in I.,
and since w^p times this gradient, we have
which proves that the friction is independent of the density.
11. KUNDT AND WARBURG'S EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS
In 1875 an experimental investigation on friction and heat
conduction in rarefied gases was published by Kundt and
Warburg,* confirming the preceding theoretical results.
A round horizontal disc S, in bifilar suspension, was made
to oscillate in a gas between two fixed plates S l and S 2 . The
coefficient of viscosity was determined by measuring the loga
rithmic decrement of the oscillations. This method was already
applied by Coulomb in the case of a disc oscillating in an un
limited gas mass, while Maxwell improved it by introducing the
two fixed plates, which has enabled him to make the calculation
somewhat more accurate.
Kundt and Warburg's formula is
where M is the moment of inertia of the vibrating disc, D the dis
tance between the disc and one of the fixed plates, /8 the damping
(appearing in the angular deviation w = ae~ ftt cos nt), and ft the
viscosity coefficient, while is a number which depends on the
density of the gas and the distance of the plates and which was
accurately calculated by Maxwell. The spinning disc generates
transversal friction waves. If the layer is thin enough, the air
current is everywhere in phase with the disc, and = 0. Such was
actually the ca^fe in Kundt and Warburg's experiments. Again,
A would be equal to \irR* for each plate surface (of radius R)
exposed to the friction of the gas, provided that the friction
experienced by a surfaceelement of the disc having a velocity v
is taken as equal to the friction upon a surfaceelement of
an infinitely extended plate moving with the translation velocity
v between two fixed unlimited plates placed at the same distance.
The value of A was more accurately calculated by Maxwell, j"
* Ann. Phys. und Chemie, civ., 1875, pp. 337 and 525.
f Phil Trans., London, clvi., 1866, p. 249.
108 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
In these experiments the pressure p of the gas and the
logarithmic decrement X of the oscillations were measured. The
latter decreases at smaller pressures, this being due to the
influence of sliding. In fact, if for a large gas density, for which
we can put i/=0, the logarithmic decrement is X , we have for X,
which is proportional to the friction, for smaller densities,
A D* /.
since a 2v
^ = jD'
The factor a will, for a given distance of the plates, be a constant.
Its value will vary inversely with this distance.
Here are the results of some of the experiments in which the
gas was air, and D =01104 cm. :
P x
320mm. 01318
20 01300
77 01292
76 01292
24 01256
063 01109
For a large number of observations on various gases and at
different pressures, Kundt and Warburg actually succeeded in
choosing a so that the values of X calculated by means of a, p,
and X agreed with the observed ones. Some of these results
were :
p X obs. X calc.
20 mm. 0131 0131
76 0129 0129
24 0125 0124
153 0120 0120
For different values of D the value of a appeared to be with
fair accuracy inversely proportional to D. Thus for three
different distances the values of a, when derived from the
observations, were :
0! =0149, a 2 =0070, a 3 =0061.
* cf . p. 105.
ii FRICTION AND SLIDING 109
On the other hand, starting from a and assuming that a a and
a 3 are equal to a 1 D 1 /D 2 and a^D^D.^ the result was :
a 2 = 0084, a 3 = 0059.
For still smaller pressures we are reduced to the case in which
the straight portion of the velocitycurve (Fig. 2) is absent.
According to Kundt and Warburg, the formula for X continues
to hold as long as the distance of the plates is at least 14 times
the mean free path of the molecules.
Lastly, they find for air at the pressure of 76 cm. and the
temperature of 15 C.
v = 000001 cm.,
which shows that the sliding at normal pressure is small. But
at the pressure of 1 mm. one should then still find v = 00076 cm.,
so that for a distance D = 02 crn. of the plates the effect of sliding
would already be very marked. Indeed, the term 2j/ in the
expression ^  could not be neglected in the presen.ce of D.
The mean free path of the molecules at normal pressure is
about 00000084 cm., and thus of the same order as v.
CHAPTER III
KNUDSEN'S INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES
12. FLOW OF A RAREFIED GAS THROUGH A
NARROW TUBE
WHILE in what precedes we have considered the extreme case in
which the gas density is large, we will now turn to Knudsen's
investigations * which represent the other extreme case, corre
sponding, that is, to such a small density that the effect of
collisions can be disregarded. Knudsen investigates, theoretic
ally as well as experimentally, the flow of such a strongly
rarefied gas through a cylindrical tube whose walls are sup
posed to be so rough that the rebounding molecules have no
trace left of their original streaming motion, being reflected from
the walls in all possible directions.
Obviously the problem in hand can be treated on similar lines
to that of heat radiation. Analogously to the latter we will write
A cos ddcoda
for the number of particles rebounding from an element do of the
wall within a cone of aperture do>, the axis of the cone being
inclined at an angle 6 to the surface normal. This amounts to
assuming that, with respect to the reflected particles, the normal
of the surfaceelement of the wall is privileged. The factor A
depends on the total number of particles rebounding from the
element da of the wall, and this is, for a stationary state, equal
to the number of particles striking this wallelement. Thus A
is a function of the state of the gas.
* Ann. der Physik, xxviii., 1909, p. 75.
110
INVESTIGATIONS ON BAREFIED GASES 111
Similarly as for heat radiation, the number of particles which
two elements da and da' send to each other can be represented by
A cos 0da>dcr = A cos O'dco'da' = A cos 6 cos 0'dcrdv',
if&
where r=PP' (Fig. 3).
Thus, in a space occupied by a strongly rarefied gas a state of
stationary equilibrium, analogous to that of black body radiation,
is possible, provided the walls are kept
at a constant temperature. For all ele
ments of the walls the value of A is the
same, and the last expression
holds also for the number of
particles which pass through
two surface  elements placed
within the gas.
We will assume for the gas * ^ FIG. 3.
Maxwell's law of velocity distri
bution, and consider, in the first place, the number of particles
which traverse, per unit time, a surfaceelement da at a point P
within the gas, and whose direction of motion falls within a cone
of angle dw and axis coinciding with the normal of the surface
element. This number can be written
Adada),
and, if f(v)dv be the number of particles per unit volume whose
velocity falls within the interval v to v + dv,
00
Ivd
Jo
j
vdcr A  f(v)dv=Ad<jda>.
o JX
Thus,
According to Maxwell's law,
where h is inversely proportional to the temperature and G
depends on the density of the gas. This gives
G
112
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
CHAP.
Since the gas pressure is equal to twothirds of the kinetic
energy per unit volume, we have
whence
.JL A
WWTty 7T
Q
Thus 4 is a function of the temperature [through h] and of the
pressure.
At constant pressure, A diminishes with increasing tempera
ture. This can be seen directly. In fact, at a higher temperature
the molecules strike more vigorously ; if, therefore, the pressure
is still to remain the same, there must be a smaller number of
collisions.
Let us now consider a gas flowing in a vertical cylindrical
tube downward along the axis, as in Fig. 4, where the JKaxis
is along the axis of the tube.
We will assume the temperature to
be throughout the same. If such were
also the case of the pressure, the gas
would remain in the state of equili
brium described above, and A would be
throughout the same. But in our case
the pressure increases up the tube, and
the same will also be true of A. We
suppose p to be slowly variable, so
that it can be represented by a linear
function of x, which amounts to re
taining of the Taylorseries development
of p the first term only. In accordance
with this assumption of small pressure
variations, the values of A will be the
same in all points of a crosssection of
the tube. In fact, every surfaceelement can be assumed to be
hit by as many molecules as if the pressure were everywhere
the same as in the neighbourhood of that element. For the
number of particles arriving from above is as much increased
as that of particles moving upwards is diminished, so that the
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 113
total number crossing the surfaceelement is not changed. A is
thus a function of x alone, and this holds for every tube, no
matter what the shape of its crosssection.
Let us now consider an element da of the section a? = placed
at the point P (Fig. 4), and let us find the number of particles
crossing this element per unit time in a bundle of directions
contained within the cone of angular aperture da) whose axis
makes an angle with the normal. This cone cuts the wall in
an element placed at a point Q. Thus, the particles in question
issue from an element d<r' of the wall within the cone aperture
da', the axis of this cone making an angle 6' with the normal,
so that their number can be written
A Q cos 0'da)'dcr'.
By what was said before this can be replaced by
A v cos Odtodcr.
Here A Q is the value of A at the point Q. Let Q Q be the
intersection point of the generatrix of the cylinder [passing
through Q] with the contemplated section, and let PQ = r. Then
QQ = r cot0.
Again, ^
A Q =A r cot ' 9
9 dx
where A and dA/dx are the values of these magnitudes at the
section x^=0.
Thus the required number of molecules will be
dA
A cos Odwdcr  j r cos 6 cot Odcodor.
dx
Integrating this expression with respect to da over a whole
sphere, we shall find the current through the element da. Now,
the first part contributes nothing to this integral, while the
second gives
 2 y dajr cos 9 cot Oda),
where the integral is to be extended over the upper half of the
sphere.
VOL. I I
114 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Thus we can write for the current across the whole section
where
cJA
<* dx>
cos 6 cot 6dw.
Now, if <f> be the angle contained between r and a fixed direction
in the section,
dco = sin
and
cos 2 6d0
(30)
This integral is related to the selfpotential of a substance
uniformly distributed over the section.
In fact, let p be the distance between
two elements do and dcr' placed at the
points P and P' (Fig. 5). Then the
potential at P will be
FIG. 5.
[ da ' = r I T
J p Jo h
and if this be integrated over d<r, we have
For a tube of circular section the integral is easily evaluated.
Let (Fig. 6) be the centre of the
circle and OA a fixed direction, so that
ZJLP# = </>. Put OP = Z and OA=a.
Then
In (30) r can be replaced by
provided we integrate over <j> from
to TT. Thus we find
//"
da V
_
 P sin 2 <f> d*f>.
Now, taking for da a ring of area SMI, we find
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 115
Inverting the order of integrations we have
fir/2 ra t
(} = 47T 2 1 d<f> I \/fl 2 Z 2 sin 2 <f> Idl
JQ Jo
f 1  cos tf> cos <f> sin 2 <f>] , .
i " a ^i~"~ ~^" T~ i ' t d*r
sin Q sin o I
L ~ i J
= * 3 7r 2 a 3 / f  j
/0 2cos*
+ cos < c&^ = j7T 2 a 3 tan + sin
J
7T/2
Thus the total current across the circular section becomes
**%
where
?_ /*
/
wir v^
If u* bo the mean squared velocity, then
, 3
and since the temperature is assumed to be throughout the same,
we find for the current
_8 /STT a 3 dp
3"V 2 mu dx
Here the current is expressed by the number of molecules. In
order to express it in mass units, the last expression has to be
multiplied by the mass m of a molecule. This gives
_8 /37ra 3 d/)
3 V 2 ti dx
The volume of the gas flowing across the section per unit time,
at the given temperature and pressure, will be equal to 'the last
expression divided by the density />, i.e.
3V 2
This expression can be compared with that for the current which
116 KINET1CAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
would follow by applying Poiseuille's law to these small densities.*
This would be, in terms of the volume,
_7ra 4 dp
Sp. dx
where the friction coefficient /*, is approximately Q3lpu\,1[ if p be
the density, u the root of the mean squared velocity, and X the
mean free path of the molucules. This gives for the current
according to Poiseuille's law
dp
Apart from the numerical coefficients, the currents (31) and (32)
are to each other as X to a, that is to say, as the mean free path
of the molecules to the radius of the circular section of the tube.
Since in our case X is very large compared with a, the
amount of gas flowing through the section per unit time will be
much greater than according to Poiseuille's law. In fact, it
appears from Knudsen's experiments that it may well be 50,000
times as large.
Knudsen gives the current in terms of volume, at a pressure
of 1 dyne per cm. 2 and a temperature r of the gas. If p l be
the density of the gas in these conditions, the current is expressed
by
_8 /37T a 3 dp
3 V 2 Piw dx
The relation p = $pu z gives in the present case Jp 1 u 2 = l or
u = VS/ft. Thus, if PQ be the density at the pressure 1 and the
temperature 0, and therefore pi = ,  (a = 1/273), we have
ultimately the current
,,dp
~ C dx'
where
r = ? /TT cP^/l+ar
3V 2 v "
* Cf. p. 81, equation (7).
t Cf. Maxwell, Phil. Mag. (4), vol. xix., 1860, p. 31.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAEEFIED GASES 117
13. KNUDSEN'S EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION ON THE FLOW
OP A RAREFIED GAS THROUGH A NARROW TUBE
In Knudsen's investigation this formula was tested experi
mentally. In his experiments the stream passed through a tube
joining two vessels filled with a rarefied gas. Each vessel was
connected with a MacLeod manometer by means of which it was
possible to measure very small pressures by compressing the gas
to a known small volume, measuring its pressure and thence
calculating the original pressure by Boyle's law. For pressures
smaller than 5 mm. the pressure in each vessel is in this way
measured separately, while for greater pressures the pressure
difference between the two vessels is measured directly.
Let the volumes of the vessels be v l9 v 2 and the pressures
within them p and p& and let p^ > p 2 . For a cylindrical tube of
length I
dp_]^p 1
dx~ I '
whence the current
.
dx I
The volume of gas flowing through a crosssection of the tube
per second is, when measured at the pressure 1,
these being the quantities leaving, per second, the first and
streaming into the second vessel, so that
Whence
or
log (P! p z )   j( +) t+ const.,
Pi ~ Pa
118 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Since
^2
*T " A
the constant C can be determined from the change of the pressure
difference during a given time.
Knudsen determined from his observations the quotient
whose theoretical value is
8
2~~ (33)
In his experiments the value of A/a mounted up to 6000. He
worked with hydrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
In order to find the effect of the length of the tube, different
tubes were used, of which the first was about 6 cm. long and
about 002 cm. in diameter, while the second was about twice as
long and had the same diameter. The gas in this case was
hydrogen.
The ratio of the observed values of C" thus found was 195,
while according to formula (33) it should be 205.
Next, to find the effect of the crosssection, carbon dioxide was
passed through the first and through a third tube whose length
was about twice and diameter about 1 4 times that of the first
tube. The ratio of the experimental values of C' was 120,
while th$ formula gave 115. Whence it appears that the
current is actually inversely proportional to Z and directly pro
portional to a 8 .
In order to investigate the effect of the density of the gas, a
set of 24 parallel tubes were used, each 2 cm. long and about
0006 cm. in diameter.
According to the formula C' should be inversely proportional
to Vp Q and, therefore, C'Vp* should be independent of the kind
of the gas. That such is actually the case, will be seen from the
following results :
Gas C'(obs.) V po CVpo
Hydrogen . . . 0168 1 0168
Oxygen . . . 00409 4 ' 0164
Carbon dioxide . . 00348 469 0163
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 119
To find the influence of the temperature of the gas, Knudsen
made use of the first tube and filled the vessels with hydrogen
at a mean pressure of 03 mm. In the results of the experiments
the gas volume flowing through the tube is reduced to the
temperature 0, so that
8 A 3
3V
Consequently,
G'Vl
should, according to the theory, be independent of the tempera
ture. Now, Knudsen found :
Temperature G' C\ /  1 ar 
1 Vl+22a
22 00713 00713
100 00011 00721
196 00588 00741
This table shows that also the dependence of C' on the tempera
ture is correctly represented by the formula.
Finally Knudsen proved the correctness of the constant factor
in the formula by actually determining in different cases the
absolute amount of the gas streaming through and by comparing
the results with those calculated by the formula in question.
His results were
Tubes Gas C' (obs.) C' (ealc.)
1 Hydrogen . . 0073 0080'
1 Oxygen . . . 00187 00202
1 Carbon dioxide . 00166 00172
2 Hydrogen . . 00375 00392
3 Carbon dioxide . 00199 00198
4 Hydrogen . . 0168 0161
4 Oxygen . . . 00409 00404
4 Carbon dioxide . 00348 00344
With reference to this very rarefied state of the gas Knudsen
speaks of a " pure molecular streaming." He extends also his
researches to the case of larger densities for which the collisions
of the molecules can no longer be disregarded and which offers
considerable theoretical difficulties. In the latter case Knudsen
speaks of " mixed molecular streaming."
120 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
14. FLOW OF A RAREFIED GAS THROUGH A NARROW ORIFICE ;
KNUDSEN'S EXPERIMENTS
A second investigation due to Knudsen * concerns the flow
of a gas through a narrow orifice.
We assume again that the gas is very strongly rarefied, so
that the mutual collisions of the molecules can be disregarded,
and that the dimensions of the orifice are small compared
with the free path of the molecules. We suppose, further, that
the temperature of the gas is throughout the same and that the
diaphragm with the said orifice divides the space occupied by the
gas in two portions, so that the pressure above the diaphragm is
throughout p l9 and below the diaphragm p 2 .
By what was said before the number of particles passing,
per unit time, through an element da of the orifice from the
upper to the lower chamber in a direction contained within a
cone of angular aperture da) can be written
A 1 cos 9 d<x)d<r,
where is the angle between the axis of the cone and the normal
of the surface element, and A t a factor depending on the tem
perature of the walla of the upper chamber and on the pressure
of the gas therein contained, but independent of the cone chosen.
Thus the number of particles flying downwards through d<r per
unit time will be
r/2
^irA^ cos 9 sin 9d9da = 7rA 1 dcr,
.
and therefore the total number through the whole orifice i,
Similarly the number of particles flying, per unit time, upwards is
Whence, the resultant flux downwards, measured by the number
of molecules, 
Since

7T 2U 2
* Ann. der Phys., xxviii., 1909, p 999.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 121
the last expression becomes
As before, Kundsen expresses the flux through the orifice per unit
time in terms of the volume the gas would occupy at a tempera
ture r and a pressure of one dyne per cm. 2 . If p l be in this case
the density, then w = \/3//^ 1 (cf. p. 116), and the expression for
the flux becomes
/ i
This formula was again tested experimentally by Knudsen who
used the same apparatus as in the preceding investigations, but
having replaced the original tube by a glass tube containing a
plate of platinum in which an orifice was pierced by means of
a fine needle. He worked with orifices of an area of 00005 mm. 2 .
According to the last formula the flux is proportional to p p 2
and can thus be written
the theoretical value of G being %lV%irpi. The experimental
determination of C proceeds again on the same lines as in the
previous experiments. In fact, if t? L and v 2 be the volumes of
the gas at the two sides of the orifice, the volume of the gas
streaming through per unit time, referred to the pressure of 1 dyne
per cm. 2 , is
whence
The following are some of Knudsen's results
Gas
Hydrogen
Oxygen .
Carbon dioxide
C (calculated from
observations)
. . 0225
. . 00565
. 00465
C (by theoretical
formula)
0236
00576
00491
These results give, in Knudsen's words, an experimental
confirmation of the correctness of the kinetical theory of gases,
122 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
and especially of the validity of Maxwell's law of the distribution
of velocities. If one assumed against Maxwell's theory that all
molecules have the same velocity, one would find from the
theoretical formula for the coefficient C values by 86 per cent,
greater than those of the above table. The observed values of C
would then differ from the theoretical ones by amounts which
could not be thrown upon the experimental errors.
Also in the case of a gas flowing through a narrow orifice
the phenomena are different at a higher pressure and their theory
becomes difficult. We have then to distinguish between the
case in which the mean free path is comparable with the dimen
sions of the orifice and that in which it is small compared with
the latter, which finally leads to the formation of jets.
15. FLOW OF A RAREFIED GAS THROUGH A NARROW TUBE
WHOSE ENDS HAVE DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES
We will now return to the Jlwo of a gas through a tube
in order to investigate the effect of temperature differences at
different places along the tube.
By what was said before (p. 115), the current is determined by
8 2 3 A A
rt 7T 2 tt 3 j 9
3 dx
where
A
** =
and it can therefore be written
(p
_8o 3 /3
3 m V "
3 m V "2 dx
The current is thus dependent on the pressure gradient and the
temperature gradient. Consequently, the condition for the
absence of streaming in the tube is
^ = const.,
u '
or p
= const.
Thus we see that, while in a wide tube, in comparison with
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 123
whose dimensions the mean free path of the molecules is small,
the condition of equilibrium is that the pressure should be every
where the same and, therefore, the density inversely proportional
with the absolute temperature T (since ? v = const.), in the
present case the pressure must be proportional to VT and, there
fore, the density inversely proportional to VT.
In a narrow tube whose extremities have different tempera
tures these pressure and density differences will arise by them
selves. In fact, if originally the pressure is everywhere the same,
the gas will stream, according to the above formula, towards
places of highest temperature, so that the pressure will increase
there.
This was verified by Knudsen * experimentally. He con
nected two MacLeod manometers by a set of tubes of different
crosssections. In his first experiments a single capillary tube
only was used, 9 cm. long andO6 mm. in diameter. This capillary
was placed between two tubes of 14 mrn. in diameter. The
junction of one of the wide tubes with the capillary was brought
to a temperature of about 350, which raised the other end of
the capillary to a temperature of about 100. The determination
of these temperatures, however, was uncertain. The two mano
meters could also be connected with each other directly by a
wide tube. The purpose of the observations with a direct
connection, when the pressure in the two manometers should be
found equal, was only to form an idea of the accuracy of the
measurements. The results obtained for hydrogen were :
Pi PI
For direct connection . . . 00218 00216
For connection by capillary tube . 00223 00211
There is thus, in fact, a pressure difference between the two
ends of the capillary tube. The whole system shows much
similarity to a thermoelement. If the two wide tubes are,
besides the capillary, connected also by a wide tube, the gas will
continue to flow, and in such a direction that the stream in the
capillary is from a lower towards a higher temperature. This
stream is thus analogous to a thermoelectric current. The effect
* Ann. der Phys., xxxi., 1910, p. 205.
124 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
will also here be increased by connecting the manometers by a
large number of wide and of narrow tubes, alternately arranged
(Fig. 7). At the places marked in the figure by rectangles the
tubes were heated by means of platinum wires which were brought
to glowing by an electric current. The temperature difference
between the heated and the notheated contact places of the
tubes was measured by means of a thermoelement and amounted
to about 500. The following wore the results for hydrogen :
Pi . , lv Pi (calculated
Pi V* (observed) ^ theoretically)
000978 000419 233 249
The pressure difference for different temperatures in different
parts of a tube filled with a strongly rarefied gas was demon
strated by Knudsen in yet another way.* In a glass tube of
Tb
Km. 7.
75 mm. in diameter magnesium powder is placed between
asbestum stoppers. One end of the magnesium column is heated
electrically up to a temperature of 248^ which gives to the other
end a temperature of 22. The pressures at the two ends of
the tube are measured by means of MacLeod manometers. The
equilibrium in this case sets in very slowly. Finally we should
have R _ I T \
ft~v*V
where p t and p 2 are the measured pressures.
Knudsen found for p and p 2 , after different times :
Time Pi Pz
03000 03000
18* 25' 03308 02716
23* 25' 03347 02693
46 h 50' 03414 02641
oo 03428 02628
The last values of p l and p 2 which would correspond to a perfect
* Ann. der Phya., xxxi., 1910, p. 633.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 125
equilibrium were obtained by extrapolation, it being assumed
that the relation
is valid, q being the pressure difference in the state of equilibrium
From what precedes it is clear that a porous plate should
show the following effect. If one face of the plate is warmer
than the other, air should stream from the colder to the warmer
face, and this flow should continue so long as there is a tem
perature difference between the two faces.
This phenomenon was demonstrated by Knudsen * in a simple
way. In a vessel of porous material air is heated electrically.
Thus the inner surface of the vessel is brought to a higher
temperature than its outer surface, and air is being drawn
through the walls into the vessel. If, therefore, the vessel be
fitted with a tube ending in a bottle containing water, air will
be seen to bubble up through the water. Knudsen found that
through a vessel of the capacity of 100 cm. 3 as many cubic
centimetres of air could easily be drawn. If the air cannot
escape, a pressure difference is produced. With a strong heating
the pressure within the vessel is a few centimetres (of mercury)
higher than outside.
Knudsen points out that such phenomena should happen
often, and that also in the case of greater gas densities a
temperature difference will bring about a pressure difference.
According to Knudsen this phenomenon is undoubtedly of great
importance in nature. It plays perhaps a role in the respiration
of plants and contributes to the refreshing of air in the "porous
soil, air being given out where the surface of the earth is heated
by the sun, and sucked in where no such heating takes place.
16. MUTUAL REPULSION OF Two PLATES AT DIFFERENT
TEMPERATURES SEPARATED BY A RAREFIED GAS
Knudsen f has constructed an absolute manometer based upon
radiometric action. This was suggested to him by an investiga
tion on the change of the velocity of gas molecules due to their
impact against a fixed wall differing in temperature from the
* Ann. der Phys., xxxi., 1910, p. 207.
t Ibid., xxxii., 1910, p. 809.
126 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
gas. This occurs already in Crookes' radiometer. In this
apparatus four vanes of mica, covered on one side with lampblack,
are mounted on the arms of a horizontal cross free to spin round
on a pivot. If the mutual collisions of the air molecules are
disregarded, the following explanation of the motion of the
radiometer seems to be the simplest. Both faces of each vane
are hit by equally numerous molecules and in like manner, but
those molecules which impinge against the blackened faces will
be thrown back with a greater velocity than those hitting the
clear faces (for, owing to a greater absorption, the former have
a higher temperature). As a result the vanes will revolve with
their unblackened faces turned forward. To many physicists,
however, it seemed doubtful whether this simple theory could
be here applied.
Now, Knudsen considers a case for which the theory can be
adequately developed. He takes two plates S and S' (Fig. 8)
immersed in a strongly rarefied gas and placed at a distance
from each other which is small in comparison with the mean
free path of the molecules. The plate S has the temperature of
the surrounding medium, while S' is brought to a higher tempera
ture, so that the plates will exert upon each other a repelling
force. This force is a function of the pressure. The latter can
therefore be determined by measuring the former, which gives
the principle for constructing a manometer.
We saw from the preceding discussion of the flow of a
gas through narrow tubes and small orifices that a temperature
difference gives rise to a pressure difference. Let p be the
pressure between the plates, p the pressure outside, and T and
T' the temperatures of the two plates. Then Knudsen takes for
the temperature between the plates the mean %(T + T') and
derives the relation __
P. ^v%( T + T )
Po VT
If K be the repelling force per unit area, this relation gives
jr
and p  j= ..... (34)
IT+T' '
V 2f~~ 1
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 127
The formula used by Knudsen in his experiments with the
manometer differed from this somewhat ; it was
The force K is measured by means of a torsion balance to
which the plate S is attached, while the fixed plate S' is heated
electrically.
Knudsen subjects the formula (34') to a further scrutiny,
but we shall not follow him in this and shall consider the question
in a somewhat different way.
We assume that the dimensions of the plates are large com
pared with their distance, that the molecules move from one
plate to the other in all directions according to
the cos 0rule (cf. p. 110), and that Maxwell's
velocity distribution holds.
T'
Let us now follow a molecule on its path
through a unit time, during which interval it
moves many times back and forth, and as many
times towards the right as towards the left. We
will calculate the number of flights in a certain FI. 8.
direction, say, towards the right, which we will
denote by v. The number of flights for which the velocity of
the molecule is contained between v and v+dv and the angle
of inclination of this velocity to the normal erected upon the
plates between and 0+d0, will be found by multiplying the
number v by the probability that v and should fall within
these limits, that is to say, by the fraction of all molecules
rebounding, per unit time, from one of the plates, for which the
velocity and direction of motion satisfy these conditions.
The number of molecules, per unit volume, whose velocities
lie. between v and v + dv is proportional to e~ hc *v z dv, and the
number of all such molecules leaving per unit time one of the
plates is equal to Ce~*"iMv,
where h corresponds to the temperature of that plate. The
constant C must satisfy the condition
whence
of.
Jo
128 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
The requirement has still to be satisfied that the direction of
motion should make with the plate normal an angle included
between 6 and 0+d0. The number of particles leaving the plate
is, with equal cone aperture, assumed to be proportional to
cos 0. Again, the (angular) space between two cones of apertures
6 and 9+d0 is proportional to sin Odd. Thus, the probability
that the molecules will have the required direction of motion,
C' sin 6 cos i
where C' is determined by the condition
r/2
Bin0cos0cZ0 = l,
or C"=2.
Since these two probabilities are independent of each other,
the required probability will be equal to their product, i.e. to
l
4 A 2 sin cos 6e
Multiplying this by v we shall find the number of passages
towards the right made by a molecule per unit time under the
said conditions. The same expression will be found for the
corresponding number of passages towards the left, provided h is
replaced by h', where h' belongs to the temperature T r of the
heated plate.
An expression for the number v itself will now be found by
noticing that the time taken by a single passage is lj(v cos 0),
where I is the mutual distance of the plates, and that the time
taken by all the passages under consideration is the unit of time.
Thus,
H
Since f* ~A<' 1
/ c v*dv =
JQ 4A
this gives
=  
\lv sin OMpeiMv+ sin 0de h'*e~~ h ' v 'v*dv
In order to find the pressure between the plates we have only
to take the difference of the components along the plate normal
of the momentum of all the molecules flying away, per unit of
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 129
time, from the plate S and of all those flying towards the plate S.
These two components have opposite signs. Consequently, the
pressure will be given by the sum of their absolute values.
For the number of times a molecule, within the given limits
of v and 0, rebounds from the plate S, we have found, per unit
of time,
4vh* sin cos Oe'^'iPdOdv. . . . (35)
With this direction of motion and this velocity the component of
momentum along the plate normal is mv cos 6. Thus, multiplying
the expression (35) by mv cos and integrating over all values
of v and 0, we shall find the momentum carried by a particle
which rebounds from S, per unit time. Multiplying this further
by the total number of particles, we shall have the pressure
exerted upon the plate by the molecules which move towards
the right. For the pressure due to the molecules moving towards
the left a similar expression holds, with Ji replaced by h'. Divid
ing by the area of the plate, we shall have the pressure per unit
area. Thus, if n be the number of molecules per unit volume
and Z the distance of the plates, the pressure will be
p = 4vmnl\ r ~ sin 9 cos 2 Od8 j We~ hv \\lv
sin cos 2
o
mn
Since
we have ultimately
3
In order to verify this result we can put hh r . Since A = 9 ~
wehave mn 1
which is the correct value of the pressure when both plates have
the same temperature.
Thus the pressure in the space between the plates is deter
mined. The pressure p Q outside the plates is smaller, and the
difference p p gives the repelling force K.
K
130 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
The temperature is throughout the greater part of the space
outside the plates equal T, and the density is only in a thin
layer adjacent to the plate S' smaller than in the remaining
space. If this thin layer be disregarded, the number of molecules
per unit volume can be put equal w and the pressure
Thus we find
mn
(36)
It remains to establish a relation between n and w . For this
purpose suppose first both the plates had the same temperature T.
Then the density of the gas would be everywhere the same. If
now the plate S f is heated up to the temperature T', the first
consequence will be that at the edge of the plates more particles
will pass from the space between the plates into the outer space
than vice versa, until an equilibrium is reached and as many
particles pass in one as in the other direction. A relation
between n and n Q will thus be found by equating to each other
the numbers of particles moving in one and in the opposite
direction. Since, however, the state of motion near the edges is
complicated, we will simplify the reasoning by an artifice, viz.
by supposing that there is an orifice in the plate S which is so
small as not to change the state perceptibly. Then, in the case
of equilibrium, also the number of molecules passing through the
orifice into the space between the plates will be equal to the
number of those passing through the orifice outwards. Let a)
be the area of the orifice. In the first place, the number of
particles passing through the orifice outwards, per unit time, is
equal to the number of those which per unit time strike the area
ft> of the plate S. By what precedes, this number is
wn
Next, to find the number of particles passing per unit time
inside, notice that the orifice is made in the nonheated plate, so
that in the space outside the plates and also at the surface of the
plate S the temperature can be taken to be T and the number
of particles per unit volume w . The number of particles per
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 131
unit volume having a velocity between v and v+dv and a
direction of motion between 6 and +d0 is Cn sin tie~ ho *v z d0dv,
where C is determined by the condition
fir r 00
Cn Q l amOdOl e
JQ Jo
which gives
0=2
V w'
The number of particles per unit volume satisfying the said
condition for v and is, therefore,
7T
. (37)
The number of particles striking, per unit time, the area o>
will be the product of (37) into w cos integrated over all v and
over from to \tr, i.e.
2. l h 'n^r sin cos ftfll Y%Vi, ?".
V 7T A) .'o 2v^A
Equating this number to that found above for the number of
particles passing through the orifice towards the left, we find
or n
Substituting this into (36), we have
or, since A/A' =T'/T,
 1 ..... (38)
which is the formula used by Knudsen (cf. (34'), p. 127).
ItT'T is small, this expression, as well as (34), reduces to
T' T
K= p" ..... < 39)
132 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Notice that in deducing (38) it was assumed that every
particle after striking a fixed wall acquires a velocity which
corresponds to the temperature of the wall. From Knudsen's
later investigations it appears that this is not the case, and that
the mean variation of the kinetic energy is only a fraction of
what it would be according to our assumption.
17. KNUDSEN'S MANOMETERS
Upon the formula 
is based the use of Knudsen's manometer. Here p Q is the total
pressure, including that of the mercury vapour. The formula
holds for P Q <^QQ mm. of mercury (4 to 5 dynes per cm. 2 ). For
greater pressures we can take
2K
~ If'
\ f~
where c> 1. The dependence of p Q upon the temperature
remains as in the original formula, since c is independent of
temperature.
The first apparatus used by Knudsen consisted of a platinum
strip S' which was fixed and could be heated electrically,
the temperature being determined by measuring the resistance.
At a short distance from this was placed a platinum plate
suspended on the arm of a torsion balance by means of which
the force K could be measured. The whole apparatus was
placed under a jar in communication with a Gaede mercury pump.
The following are the results of some experiments in which
the plates were placed in air :
T ..... 317 1189 1985 2745 3762
T' ..... 234 237 247 280 373
p in dynes per cm. 2 (cal
culated from K) . . 231 245 227 221 231
Since the pressure between the plates was kept constant as far
as possible, these numbers give a good verification of the formula.
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 133
The mean of the ;p values is 228 dynes per cm. 2 , while the
measurement with a MacLeod manometer gives 0'20 dyne per
cm. 2 . To the latter must be added the pressure of the saturated
mercury vapour, for which Knudsen's previous measurements,* at
a temperature of about 23, gave 204 dynes per cm. 2 . Thus the
total pressure becomes 224 dynes per cm. 2 , which agrees well
with the pressure found with the new apparatus. Knudsen has
repeated these measurements with hydrogen.
The condition that the plate distance should be small
compared with the mean free path X of the molecules was
satisfied. In fact, since at a pressure of 1 dyne per cm. 2 the
mean free path X amounts to about 10 cm., in the experiments
under discussion X was about 4 cm., while the distance of the
plates amounted only to 0055 cm.
Other forms of manometers are described in the quoted paper
by Knudsen. One of these apparatus consisted of a copper
cylinder with a polished endsurface which served as the heated
plate. The cylinder is heated by an electric current, and the
temperature is measured by means of a mercury thermometer
placed within a cavity of the cylinder. Opposite the polished
endsurface of the cylinder there is a copper plate attached to
the bulb of a thermometer which is suspended on the
arm of a torsion balance. The copper cylinder is
surrounded by sheets of copper which are not heated,
and serve as guard rings. By means of a special
system of pipettes Knudsen was able to introduce into
the testing space exceedingly small quantities of gas.
For measurements at high temperatures he used an
apparatus of platinum.
Even at very high temperatures the formula (38)
turned out to agree fairly well with the experimental
results, while this did not seem to be the case with the
approximate formula (39).
Yet another very simple apparatus consisted of a ,7" '
wide glass tube A (Fig. 9), into which a second glass F IG . 9.
tube 6 was sealed. The tube 6 had on one side, at c,
an aperture. Opposite this, in the middle of the tube, was
suspended on two cocoon threads a plate of mica, P. When the
apparatus is placed in warm water, the plate of mica experiences
* Ann. der Phya., xxix., 1909, p. 179.
\
134 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
a repulsion, due to the difference of its own temperature and of
that of the outer wall. From the positions assumed by this plate,
when the apparatus was placed in cold and then in warm water,
the repulsion, and thence also the pressure of the gas, could be
measured. After a certain time, when also the innermost tube
reached the temperature of the bath, the repulsion ceased.*
18. KNUDSEN'S ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT
In a further paper, entitled " The Molecular Heat Conduction
of Gases and the Accommodation Coefficient,"! Knudsen points
out that the velocities with which the molecules, impinging upon
a fixed wall, rebound from it do not correspond to the tempera
ture of the wall. He introduces, therefore, an accommodation
coefficient a, by which the temperature variation which the
molecules would undergo at the impact, if they assumed the wall
temperature, has to be multiplied in order to give the true
temperature variation. The accommodation coefficient depends
on the nature of the gas and of the wall. The more rough the
wall, the greater the value of a, tending to 1.
Let us once more consider the two plates S and S' (Fig. 8)
at the temperatures T and T'. Then the molecftiles which fly
away from S towards the right will not have, as previously
assumed, the temperature T but some other temperature 0, and
similarly those moving away from S' towards the left will have a
temperature 0' instead of T' 9 where 6 and 6' lie between T and T 1 .
By the definition of the accommodation coefficient we have
the relations 6' =a(0' T}
0e i =a(BT'),
whence = T + ~ a (T'  T),
2a v '
* For the sake of completeness it may be mentioned that Langmuir (Phy*.
Rev. (2), 1, 1913, p. 337) constructed a manometer based on the properties of
rarefied gases, by means of which pressures as small as 10~ 7 mm. of mercury
could be measured.
f Ann. der /%., xxxiv., 1911, p. 593.
m INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 135
The accommodation coefficient is here assumed equal for the
two plates. In calculating the pressure the velocities of the
molecules can be taken as if a 1, provided that T and T are
replaced by 6 and 0'.
Whence it follows that in the expressions
mn
A corresponds to the temperature T, while h and h' correspond
to the temperatures 9 and & respectively.
In order to determine the force K we again assume the
presence of a small orifice in the plate 8 and introduce the
condition that, per unit time, as many molecules should pass
through w into the space between the plates as cross it outwards.
This gives the equation
Thus,
and
The circumstance that the accommodation coefficient is not equal
to unity affects only the term _+ . Since h is inversely
Vh '
proportional to the absolute temperature, we can put
7 C j t
*>*?
Now, T + T' = 6 + 0'. Consequently, in the expression
and 0' can be replaced by T and T', provided the temperature
difference is small. Only for greater temperature differences must
the accommodation coefficient be taken into account.
136 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
19. HEAT CONDUCTION IN A RAREFIED GAS CONTAINED
BETWEEN TWO PLATES OP UNEQUAL TEMPERATURE
We now pass to Knudsen's investigation on heat conduction *
and, for this purpose, consider again the plates S and S' (Fig. 8).
We have to calculate how much energy (for polyatomic gases
including also the internal energy of the molecules) is transferred,
per second, from one plate to the other. We know from previous
considerations that a molecule flies away from the plate S a
number v of times per second, where
( Cf P 128 )
The probability that the velocity of such a molecule is con
tained between v and v + dv and that the direction of its motion
makes with the plate normal an angle falling 'between and
+ d0 was already deduced and amounts to
47* 2 sin 6 cos 0e~ hl \*d0dv (cf. p. 129),
where h is determined by the temperature of the plate from which
the molecule rebounds.
We now introduce the new condition that the internal energy of
the molecule should lie between e and e +rfe. Let the probability
of this be represented by f(h, e) de, where h indicates that the
function / depends on the temperature. Since, by Boltzmann's
distribution law, the function/is independent of v, the probability
for all the three conditions to be satisfied is equal to the product
of the probabilities of each of them, so that the number of times
a molecule rebounds from S under the said conditions is
4v sin cos 0A 2 T A 'V/(A, )d0dvde.
Here the function /(A, e) satisfies the condition
If h is the mean internal energy at a temperature corresponding
tO A,
* Ann. der Phya., xxxiv., 1911, p. 593.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 137
Since a molecule leaving the plate carries with it the energy
e, we find for the total energy transfer, per unit of time,
v f
JQ
/2 sin cos 0d9 C fW Al V(Jwt> 2 + )f(h, )dedv.
Q Jo o
The integration over 6 gives
/o o
and that over v,
snce
f .'Vtf.i f ""4
Finally, an integration over e gives
If w is the number of molecules per unit volume and / the distance
of the plates, the flux of energy per unit area will be
m 
The energy gained by the plate, per unit area and unit time,
from the molecules moving in the opposite direction is given by
the same expression, only with h replaced by h' in the last factor.
Ultimately, therefore, we find for the heat transfer from the
plate S' towards the plate S
n
Since u 2 = 3/2/j, the term m/h can be replaced by e oh , where e oh
is the mean kinetic energy of translatory motion at a temperature
corresponding to h. Similarly m/h' will be replaced by J oh >.
The heat transfer from S' to S can thus be written
n /4 4 _
138 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
The factor shows that in the process of heat transfer the
energy of translatory motion plays a greater role than the internal
energy, which can easily be explained, since with a quicker
translation the molecules move also more often to and fro between
the plates. If the temperature difference T  T is small, the
last expression can be written
This holds also for greater temperature differences provided 6
and e are linear functions of T, which is the case of e .
The quantities d JdT and d^dT are related to the specific
heats. If c v be the specific heat at constant volume, and c p that
at constant pressure, both per unit mass, then
whence
_
~m\3~dT
Ultimately, therefore, the expression (40) becomes
which is proportional to the number of molecules per unit volume,
and thus to the density.
Knudsen writes for this heat transfer per unit area
tf<rr)3*, f .... (42)
where p is the pressure (there being, for a small temperature
difference, no need for distinguishing between the pressures at
T and T') and e x is a coefficient introduced by Knudsen which,
by (41), has the value
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 139
Since h =pj2p and mn =p, while Vh + Vfr can be replaced by
, this expression reduces to
If M be the molecular weight of the gas and R the gas constant
per gram molecule, then
RT
*ir*
c c = R 
and therefore,
R 3 c +c
The heat transfer was thus far expressed in mechanical units.
To express it in calories, we have to take for e K the last value
divided by E 9 the mechanical equivalent of a heat unit. With
E = 419 . 10 5 and R  832 . 10* we find
With a somewhat different deduction of the formula Knudsen
finds for the numerical factor the value 4346. 10~ 6 .
We have thus found for the number of calories transferred
per unit time and unit area from the plate S' to the plate S
The heat transfer appears then to be independent of the
distance of the plates.
This formula can also be used to represent the heat transfer
in other cases, provided the temperature difference T r  T is
small. Thus, for instance, we can imagine a hot body A (Fig. 10)
kept at the temperature T' and surrounded by an enclosure B
having a lower temperature 7. Since all molecules impinging
against A arrive from B (mutual collisions of molecules are
excluded), they will have the energy corresponding to the
temperature T, while the molecules coming from A have the
energy e' corresponding to T', the accommodation coefficient
140 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
being for the present left out of account. The heat supplied by
A can thus be represented by
if N be the number of molecules received or sent out by A per
unit area and unit time. The temperature difference being
small, the distinction between the .AT values
corresponding to the temperatures T and
T' is of no account, and we can take the
number which would hold for T' = T. This
number will be proportional to the pressure
and independent of the shape and the
dimensions of A and B. The factor e'  e de
pends on the temperature difference T'  T
alone and is again independent of the shape
of A and B. Whence it follows that the
heat lost by A per unit area should be expressible by the
formula W^(T'T)p x .
This formula, however, will not hold for the heat gained per
unit area by B, since some molecules issuing from a certain part
of the enclosing walls hit another part of these walls and not the
body A. Only the total loss of heat of the whole surface of A
will be equal to the gain of the whole surface of B.
20. THE EFFECT OF ACCOMMODATION UPON HEAT CONDUCTION
It appears from Knudsen's experimental findings that the
amount of heat transferred from one to the other body and the
coefficient e K calculated therefrom are smaller than their theo
retical values. The heat conduction depends on the relative
dimensions of the surfaces and on their nature. For rough
surfaces the experimental and the theoretical values of e K differ
from each other less than for smooth ones.
To account for this Knudsen considers the effect of accom
modation.
Once more imagine the two plates S and S' (Fig. 8) at the
temperatures T and T'. Let 6 and 0' be the temperatures of
the gas molecules leaving 8 and S', and a and a' the accommoda
tion coefficients of these plates respectively.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 141
According to the definition of the accommodation coefficient
(cf. p. 134) we have the relations
0'6~a(8'T),
0e'=a'(6T'),
from which follows
In the expression (42) for the heat transfer T  T has now to be
replaced by 0'  0, which can be accomplished by writing
where
 aa
Knudsen points out that what is measured in the experiments
is this new coefficient K . Among the special cases he considers
first that in which both surfaces are of the same kind, so that
a = a', the coefficient being then denoted by e u , and then the
case in which the plate 8' is infinitely rough so that a' = 1 and
the coefficient is denoted by e lx . The coefficients e K , U , and
e lx are related to each other by the equations
a
* n ** 2  a * Ky IQO = ajr *
K being the value of the coefficient when both plates are infinitely
rough, so that it might also be written <*> , .
The magnitudes , and appear to form an arithmetical
series. 6 * i n
Knudsen determined these different magnitudes by measure
ments in which the heat transfer took place between two co
axial cylinders. It appeared that the heat transfer depended
here on the distance of the surfaces and was, for a given pressure,
greater when the cylinders differed considerably in their radii
than when they surrounded each other closely. This can be
explained by noticing that with a large distance between the
surfaces of the cylinders the molecules which leave the heated
inner cylinder C' do not return to C' after a single collision with
the outer cylinder C, as would be the case for a small distance
142 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
of the surfaces, but that between two 'collisions of a molecule
with C' several collisions with C can take place, so that the
molecule has more opportunities to give up heat to the inner
side of the cylinder C. That the nature of the surface also has
an effect upon the heat conduction will become plain by assuming
that a colliding molecule gives up the more of its energy to a
wall, the more rough the latter. In the case of a perfectly rough
wall the molecules give up at a single collision their excess of
heat, and the distance of the surfaces will, therefore, have no
influence upon the rate of the heat conduction.
We will consider, then, the two coaxial cylinders C' and (7,
kept at the temperatures T' and T respectively, and in calculating
the heat conduction we will follow Knudsen's not quite rigorous
method. A perfectly rigorous treatment would offer too great
difficulties.
Let us assume that a molecule which flies away from C'
returns to C' after n collisions with C. Further, let the tempera
ture of molecules on leaving C' be 0', after a single collision with
(7, I9 after two collisions with C, 2 , and after n such collisions O n .
If a is the accommodation coefficient for both surfaces, we have
the relation
f fl 1 =a(0'T) >
whence
0,  T  (1  a)(0'  T) = 6(0'  T),
where 6 = 1  a. After n collisions with C we have
and a collision with C' gives
0'r =
From these equations we derive
0'0 a =a
so that
This expression gives us the amount of heat carried over from
C' to C by molecules which between two collisions with C' collide
n times with C.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 143
Knudsen splits the heat transfer into parts contributed by
molecules which between two collisions with C' collide with C
once, or twice, and so on. For this purpose, however, one has
first to find the probability that a particle which flies away from
the outer cylinder C will hit the inner cylinder C'.
We have always assumed after Knudsen that the number of
particles which are sent out by a surfaceelement in directions
contained within a cone of aperture dco 9 and with an axis making
an angle a with the normal to the surfaceelement, is proportional
to cos arfw. If we now consider a surfaceelement placed at a
point P of the outer cylinder, the required probability will be
represented by
w =/' cos
/ 2 cos
the integral 1 being taken over all cones which have their
vertex at the chosen point P of the
outer cylinder and which intersect the
inner cylinder, while the integral 2
has to be extended over all cones,
with the same vertex P, within a p
solid angle 2?r. We lay through P
two planes (Fig. 11), PRA, passing
through the common axis of the "^ F IO .
cylinders, and PRB, touching the
inner cylinder. Let QR = <f>, ^QRA=0, BRA=0. Then
Since a is the spherical distance QA, cos a=sin < cos 0, and
therefore,
/ I " sin 2 </> cos 0d0d<f>
^0 ><>
where r is the radius of the cylinder C' and R that of C. Thus,
of all molecules leaving C' a fraction r/R will again return to C'
after a single collision with C. The remaining part 1  r/R of
the molecules will have collided with C more than once. Of
these again the fraction r/R will return to C' after a second
144 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
collision with C. Thus, the part of all molecules which return
to C' after two collisions with C is (l4)> an( * tlie P art
B\ K
rt r\ n ~ l
returning after n collisions,  ( 1  . )
R\ RJ
The total heat transfer can now be represented by
W = (T'
where
E
while
(43)
This formula was tested by Knudsen in a series of experiments.
He worked with two glass cylinders, of which the inner one
consisted of a thinwalled tube around which many windings of
platinum wire were coiled and fused into the glass. The radius
of this tube was r = 0340 cm. To the platinum coil two stouter
platinum wires were attached by means of which the tube could
be suspended within the wider glass cylinder. In the first
measurements the radius of the outer cylinder was JRj =0465 cm.,
and in later ones 7? 2 = 161 cm. The outer cylinder is placed in
melting ice, while the inner one is heated by an electric current
passing through the platinum coil. The resistance of the latter
and the intensity of the electric current are measured and from
these the temperature of the inner cylinder and the amount of
heat generated are calculated. Since the measurements are made
after the stationary state is established, this amount of generated
heat is equal to that of transferred heat. The loss of heat was
due partly to radiation and partly to molecular conduction. By
means of a system of pipettes equal small amounts of gas cduld
be introduced. This did not change the heat loss due to radiation
but only that due to conduction, so that from a series of readings
of the pressure, the temperature, and the amount of heat
generated the amount of transferred heat per degree of tem
perature difference, per unit of pressure and unit of area, i.e.
the coefficient e ff R , could be computed. The gas chosen was
hydrogen.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 145
Knudsen found for e r RI 187 . 10" 6 cal. and for e r Ut
245 . 10"" cal. These results show that, in accordance with
the theory, the heat conduction increases with the distance of
the cylindrical surfaces.
The ratio of e r RI and e r ^ contains only the accommodation
coefficient as unknown quantity, so that the latter can be com
puted from ^*'. One finds a =026.
*r,7? 8
With this value of a the coefficient e A  can be calculated. Its
value thus found is 111 . 10 ~ 6 , while the. formula (43) based on
the kinetic theory gives e^ = ll0 . 10~, a good agreement
testifying to the correctness of the theory.
Some further measurements undertaken by Knudsen with
the purpose of determining the change of the accommodation
coefficient with the temperature need not detain us here.
With regard to the accommodation coefficient it may still be
mentioned that from the theoretical standpoint it is not satis
factorily defined. In fact, the accommodation coefficient has a
meaning only if the state of the gas is completely determined by
the mean kinetic energy of the molecules, if, e.g., it is assumed
that Maxwell's law holds for the velocities of the molecules before
as well as after their collision with a solid wall. This is for the
gas between the two cylindrical surfaces not quite the case.
For a rigorous treatment of the question one would have to
take into account, for a given temperature of the wall and a
given velocity of the arriving molecules, the probability of a
determined state of the molecule after it rebounds from the wall.
This problem, however, is too intricate.
21. HEAT CONDUCTION IN A GAS OP GREATER DENSITY
CONTAINED BETWEEN TWO PLATES OF UNEQUAL TEMPERATURE
After this treatment of the heat conduction in strongly
rarefied gases we will now give a short account of thermal
conduction in a gas of greater density. Whereas it is known
that the coefficient of heat conduction for large gas densities is
independent of the density, the intermediate domain between
the very small densities, explored by Knudsen, and great
densities requires still a detailed investigation. We have
already touched this domain when treating of a streaming gas
o
146 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
layer,* and we have then started from large densities. It
appeared that with decreasing density next to friction also
sliding began to assert itself. We will now inquire into the
behaviour of the heat conduction coefficient in this domain.
We consider two plates kept at constant temperatures T and
T'. Let the density of the gas be such that the mean free path
of the molecules cannot be quite disregarded in comparison with
the distance of the plates, although there are still very many
collisions. The temperatures of the gas layers in contact with
the plates will differ somewhat from T and T as was already
pointed out by Kundt and Warburg.
Fig. 12 gives a graphical representation of the temperatures
of different layers. 00' is the distance of the plates, OA and
Q'A' represent the temperatures T
and T' of the plates, and OB and
O'B' those of the adjoining gas
layers as measured by the mean
kinetic energy of the molecules.
For large densities the temperature
of the gas layers may be represented
by the straight line AA'.
At some distance from the fixed
*~~~^AI plates the theory for large densities
^ I holds, so that the temperature
N// gradient is uniform and the tem
Fics. 12. perature line has there a straight
portion. We produce the latter up
to the intersection points D and D f with the vertical lines
through A and A'. We assume that T T is infinitesimal,
in case the heat conduction coefficient should depend on tem
perature. This condition enables us to assume that if the
temperatures of the plates are increased or diminished by equal
amounts, the line does not change its shape.
The whole figure can thus be shifted horizontally without
changing the length of the lines AD and A'D'. Again, the
figure can be transformed by increasing or diminishing all the
distances from AQ in the same ratio. In this case also the
lengths of AD and A'D' remain unchanged ; they are thus inde
pendent of the temperatures of the plates. If both plates are of
* Cf. Chapter II. Art. 10.
in INVESTIGATIONS ON EAEEPIED GASES 147
the same kind, we should find the same curve by interchanging
their temperatures. This curve will be found by taking the
mirror image of the original one with respect to AQ. Whence it
follows that the parts of the curve at B and B' are congruent,
and that therefore AD=A'D'.
Moreover, since the curve retains its shape when the distance
of the plates is changed,* the length AD=A'D' for a given gas
will depend only upon the nature of the plates and will be
independent of their temperature and their distance.
Let the distance of the plates be I and AD =A'D f = A.
Similarly to what was said on p. 104 about the significance of
00 and BD in Fig. 2, a physical meaning can be ascribed to A.
In fact, if the gas extended also outside of the plates and had
throughout the same temperature gradient as actually exists
within the gas, the temperatures at the points D and D' would
be equal to those of the plates, i.e. T and T' respectively.
The temperature gradient in the gas at not too small distances
f T T" T
from the plates is then and the heat transfer is k .
1 Z + 2A Z + 2A
where k denotes the conduction coefficient.
Whence it follows that if the plate distance I is increased the
amount of heat transferred does not vary inversely proportionally
to I but slower.
We will now prove that, for given temperatures of the plates,
A is inversely proportional to the density while k is independent
of the latter.
For this purpose we compare two geometrically similar cases
[systems] in one of which the gas density is n times greater and
the dimensions n times smaller than in the other. Let P t and
P 2 be two corresponding points, and let the state at these points,
apart from the density, be exactly the same. Let ds be a volume
element at P l and FdsdX the number of molecules contained in
it, whose velocity components and quantities determining jbhe
inner state fall within a given domain d\. A similar group in an
equal element at P 2 will then contain  Fdsd\ molecules. We
n
* That AD~A.'D' is independent of the distance of the plates can be seen
by inserting between these a third plate P of such a temperature as not to
change the state of the gas apart from the immediate neighbourhood of P,
and by applying a similar reasoning to that used on p. 103 to prove that the
sliding coefficient v is independent of the distance of the plates.
148 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
assume that the temperatures of the plates are the same in both
cases ; then the temperatures of gas layers at corresponding
points will also be equal. This harmonises with the assumption
that at corresponding points the number of the molecules in
different groups in one gas is the same fraction of their number
in the other gas ; therefore the averages of all quantities are
equal, and this holds then also for the temperature as the mean
energy.
We will first of all prove that the possibility of the existence
of the first state carries with it also that of the second. We
consider in the first state a group of particles and follow their
history during a certain time r. The parameters characterising
these particles are contained within a given domain, while the
particles themselves lie in a volume element ds. If there were
no collisions, we would find these particles at the end of the time
T in a volume element <fe'. Owing to the collisions some particles
will leave the group and others will join it. The condition that
the state should be stationary implies that there are in (Is' at the
beginning and at the end of the time r equal numbers of particles
whose velocities and parameters determining the inner state fall
within certain limits. We assume such to be the case for the first
state and shall prove that this holds then also for the second state.
The quantities concerning the first state will be distinguished
by the suffix 1 and those relating to the second state by the
suffix 2.
We consider in both cases a group of particles with equal
intervals for the magnitudes characterising them and contained
within equal volume elements (ds)j, = (ds) 2 placed at corresponding
points. We take the time interval r for the second system n
times as long. Then also (ds'^ and (ds') 2 will lie at corresponding
points. If collisions are disregarded, the number of particles
contained in (ds\ at the beginning of that time interval will be
n times that contained in (ds') 2 . This then will also be the case
at the end of the time intervals T X and T 2 , since all these particles
arrive from (ds^ and (ds) 2 . If there are collisions, then things
are not so simple. It may be noticed, however, that the number of
particles which leave the group owing to collisions and the number
of those that join it for the same reason amount in both systems
to the same fraction of the total number of particles. In order
to see this, the collisions may be classified according to circum
in INVESTIGATIONS ON RAREFIED GASES 149
stances. Under coinciding circumstances the number of particles
in the first system is n times, and, therefore, the number of
collisions n 2 times as large as in the second system. But since
the time interval for the second system was taken n times as
large, the number of particles leaving or joining the group in the
first system will not be n 2 but only n times as large. The ratio
of densities will thus remain in both systems the same ; also
with collisions will (<fe')i contain n times as many molecules
as (ds') 2 .
For the interior of the gas it is thus proved that if the state
of the first system is stationary, so is that of the second. And
if we further assume that the particles rebound from both plates
in the same way, this theorem will hold also for the limiting gas
layers at the plates.
Lastly, to prove that A is inversely proportional to the
density, we note that the graphical representation of the tem
perature distribution for the second case can be simply deduced
from that of the first. In fact, since we have assumed that the
respective temperatures of the plates are equal in both cases and
that this is true also of the temperatures of gas layers at corre
sponding points, the horizontal dimensions of the two figures are
equal, while the vertical ones of the second are n times those
of the first. Whence it follows that A^wA^ which proves
that A is inversely proportional to the density of the gas. It
remains only to prove that the conduction coefficient k is
independent of the density.
22. HEAT CONDUCTION COEFFICIENT INDEPENDENT
OF DENSITY
In order to prove this, we consider the number of molecules
which pass in equal times through unit area of corresponding
planes V t and V 2 parallel to the plates, and we compare again
similar groups of molecules.
This number is for the first case n times as great as that for
the second, and this holds then also for the total energy carried
across the surfaceelement. Consequently, the heat conduction
in the first case is n times that of the second, and since the
temperature gradient is also n times as great, the coefficient k
will be the same for both cases.
150 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP, m
Moreover, noticing that A and k do not change when at
constant density of the gas the plates are moved farther apart
or brought nearer to each other, we can say, generally, that A is
inversely proportional to the density and that k is independent
of density.
23. LASAREFF'S EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION
Lasareff * investigated the temperature distribution in the
immediate neighbourhood of a wall. He took a very thin gas
layer, about 9 mm. thick, and worked with highly rarefied gases.
As walls, metal plates were used which were kept at constant
_. _ __ temperatures by means of
B JJ f 12 . . , , . i .
water jackets, a cold jacket
being placed under the lower
and a warm one above the
upper plate. The tempera
tures were measured by means
of a thermoelectric pile of
which one junction was placed
near the cold plate and the
FIG. 13. G other could be moved up and
down in the space between
the plates. Fig. 13 gives a graphic representation of Lasareff's
experimental results. The abscissae represent the temperature
difference relatively to the cold plate and the ordinates the
distance from the heated plate. The curves AB, CD, EF, and
GH give the observed results at a pressure of 760, 0087, 0065,
arid 0*019 mm. mercury respectively.
Lasaxeff found for hydrogen :
p (mm. mercury) 7
45 0022
2 0055
7 is a coefficient, proportional to A. Inasmuch as it can
be assumed that the temperature of the wires of the thermopile
actually coincides with that of the gas, these experimental results
prove satisfactorily that A is inversely proportional to the
density.
* Lasareff, Ann. der Phys., xxxvii., 1912, p. 233.
CHAPTER IV
REMARKS ON LESAGE'S THEORY OF GRAVITATION
24. LESAGE'S THEORY OF GRAVITATION
KNUDSEN'S investigations on rarefied gases may be connected
with the old theory of gravity due to Lesage.* According to this
theory celestial space is full of smaJl particles or corpuscles
moving in all directions with great velocities. Material bodies
are incessantly hit by these corpuscles and throw them back. A
FIG. 14.
body placed alone in space will be hit in all directions by equal
numbers of particles and will thus experience no resultant effect.
Two bodies A and JB, however, would partly shield each other
from the impact of the corpuscles and consequently appear to
exert upon each other an attractive force (Fig. 14). If the
corpuscles are assumed to be small compared with the atoms,
this would lead to an attractive force between two atoms.
Since the number of corpuscles intercepted by one atom is
proportional to the solid angle under which it is seen from the
* Journal des savants, 1764.
151
152
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
CHAP.
other atom, the force would be inversely proportional to the
square of distance of the two atoms.
But it does not follow from the theory that the force is
proportional to the masses ; it would, instead, depend on the
dimensions of the bodies. To secure the proportionality of the
force to mass, yet another hypothesis would have to be introduced.
Meanwhile the theory of Lesage was shown by Maxwell to be
incorrect. The motion of the corpuscles is much the same as
that of gas particles, and as against the fact that the body B
intercepts corpuscles which in its absence would have reached
the body A there is this other fact, that due to reflection from B
some corpuscles will reach A which otherwise would not do so.
FIG. If).
Fin. 1C.
It is not possible to keep the space between two bodies free from
corpuscles, no more than to keep a space free from black body
radiation, even if the mean free path of the corpuscles is great
and their mutual collisions may be disregarded. In the case of
two parallel plane plates, for instance, only those corpuscles
which hit the plates perpendicularly would not reach the space
between the plates ; but this is only an infinitesimal fraction of
the total number of corpuscles.
It would be difficult to prove that a space can never remain
free from corpuscles. In fact, one can very well imagine a
particular state of motion for which a certain domain remains
free from corpuscles, if, e.g., these move originally outside a
certain sphere B and inside a second sphere B 2 concentric with B.
If the surface of J? 2 is perfectly reflecting and if there are no
collisions between the corpuscles, then the corpuscles will never
penetrate into the inner sphere (Fig. 16). But such a state of
motion will never arise.
iv LEPAGE'S THEOKY UF UKAV1TAT1OJN 153
The theory of Lesage can be saved by assuming that the
corpuscles are wholly or partially absorbed by matter. But then
the picture is deprived of its simplicity.
25. AN ELECTROMAGNETIC ANALOGUE OP LESAGE'S THEORY
It was once asked whether Lesage's theory can be given an
electromagnetic form. One would then have to assume, for
instance, that space is full of radiation of a wavelength much
shorter than that of Rontgenrays and to show that two particles
would be driven towards each other by the radiation pressure.
Such would, in fact, be the case if the particles continually
absorbed the radiation.
Consider two electrically charged particles P and Q, at a
mutual distance r, in a space traversed by electromagnetic
waves. Let E be the electric, // the magnetic force, and n the
frequency. Evidently the particle P will be set into vibrations,
whether it is free or bound to a position of equilibrium ; only
the type of vibrations will be different in the two cases. Owing
to the radiation emitted from Q the radiation field in which P
is placed will be modified.
Let us introduce a system of coordinates with P as origin,
and let the coordinates of Q be r, 0, 0.
In a first approximation the displacement components of P
can be written
z=aeE z beE z .
This is a convenient way of expressing the phase difference
between the incident waves and the oscillation produced by them.
The 'phase difference is represented by the second terms and is
caused by the resistance experienced by the particle due to
friction or emission of radiation. The coefficients a and 6 are
supposed to be constants which depend on the mass of P, on the
restituting force, etc. In E x , E y9 E z is included the field which
the particle Q, being also set vibrating, produces around itself by
its radiation.
Noticing that the work done by the electric force against the
154 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
resistance, i.e. eEyti+eEyfi+eE^, for a full period, is positive, it
will be seen that b must be positive.
As soon as P is set vibrating, the force upon it is no longer
E as at the origin [position of equilibrium]. The ^component
of the force can now be written, in a second approximation,
*(yH z zH y ) +e (x
c \y z JJ \ dx y dy dz
where for H yi H gi E x and their derivatives are to be taken the
values belonging to the original, i.e. the equilibrium position of P.
The first term is due to the velocity of the particle, and the second
due to its deviation x, y, z from the position of equilibrium.
These terms give rise to very weak oscillations with twice the
frequency of the incident waves.
Now, to find the ascomponent of the force acting upon P, the
last expression has to be averaged over a full period. The
required, rather lengthy calculations, in which account must also
be taken of the disturbance of the field by the vibrations of Q,
may here be omitted. It appears that, if terms with 1/r 3 , etc.,
be neglected (which is permitted provided r is large compared
P
with the wavelength), the term (ifH z zH y ) alone survives, and
c
this also inasmuch only as it depends on the terms beE in
the preceding equations.
As a result of these calculations one finds for the required
force
b e ^(E y H z $JBj ^ e \E y H z E,H U ),
c c
where for E and H is to be taken the field as it is in presence of
Q, but neglecting the effect of P upon it.
This result can be associated with an energy flux. In fact,
the expression c(E y H z E z H y ) represents the s&component of the
energy flux at P. Since we assume that the rays are propagated
equally in all directions, there will be in all points of a sphere
with Q as centre and of radius r the same radial energy flux. If
E be the flux of energy through the whole spherical surface,
reckoned positive when directed outwards, then
c(E y H z 
iv LESAGE'S THEORY OF GRAVITATION 155
The component of the force upon P taken along the Xaxis
will thus be represented by
E
Since Q is placed on^the negative Xaxis, this expression will
represent an attractive force if it is negative, that is to say, if
E is negative. Such will be the case if more energy streams
through the sphere inwards than outwards, and therefore, if Q
absorbs the rays.
The electromagnetic modification of Lesage's theory leads
thus to a similar result as the original corpuscular theory.
CHAPTER V
FRICTION AND HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE PROPAGATION OF SOUND
26. THE EFFECT OF FRICTION
WE will now consider the effect of inner friction and of heat
conduction upon the propagation of sound in a gas.
Let u, v, w be the velocity components of a volume element
and $ the relative condensation, i.e. if p be the actual density
and p that in the original state of equilibrium, s = (pp Q )/p Q .
Further, let + CV  + ~. =K, and let us for the present disregard
the heat conduction. Then the equations of motion for the
propagation of sound waves will be
ff + S *0 (44)
/v ^ s* v v"/
ds . dv / A ..*.,. i ^
2 ds dw _
Here a would be the velocity of propagation of sound in absence
of inner friction, and v =p/p, where p. is the friction coefficient, or
the viscosity.*
* Formula (44) is the equation of continuity for a compressible fluid, viz.
, .
It ox cy dz ~~ '
in which the terms u *, etc., are neglected, the deviations from equilibrium
being assumed infinitesimal, and the term  ^ is replaced by  ~ = fy'
156
CHAP, v PROPAGATION OF SOUND 157
Differentiating the three equations (45) with respect to z, y y z
and taking account of (44) we have an equation for s 9
9A d 2 s 4 9A A fAC >.
a2As ^V fo = (46)
This is, for v=0, the wellknown equation of propagation of
sound waves.
The problem of propagation in an unlimited gas mass can be
easily solved for the case of plane waves.
The equations (45) follow from the equations of motion
. . (a)
ex vy vzj <x cy *cz
(cf. p. 77).
The expressions for the stress components can bo found by following the
hints given in the footnote to page 78, with the only difference that our fluid is
now compressible so that ^ f ^ + ^ K (locs :iot; vaili h
Thus one finds
X* = P + Ki OM)'
and similar formulae with the same coefficients a u and 2? for the remaining
stress components. In these equations p is the pressure, as it would correspond
to the density and temperature at the given point if the gas were at rest or if
it had throughout the same velocity w, v, w.
Between a n and a 2a holds, moreover, the relation (<i u a 22 ) + 3a 22 = 0, which
can bo deduced by going deeper into the manner of arising of the stresses, but
which can be accepted here without proof.
Ultimately, putting a n a 32 =2 / u, we find
m 2 , r
and substituting these expressions for the stress components in (a),
^f,ctc. . . (b)
u = 
ex ?y czf C'X 6
Assuming Poisson's law p=C(P, wo have
P
Again, =a a , while  can be replaced by  , so that
This, substituted in (6), gives the equations (45), if we put pfp^v and
neglect products of velocities into their derivatives.
158 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
If we put 8 =$06^"**, we can find at once for every frequency
the corresponding value of q and thence the propagation velocity
and the damping of sound.
We will consider here the propagation in a gas contained
in a cylindrical tube, whose axis coincides with the aaxis. The
propagation is to proceed along the ovaxis, so that all terms will
contain the factor e int ~ qx .
Since ~ =ins and ~ = w 2 *, equation (46) becomes
ot vt A
(a 2 + *i/wi)A*+n 2 $=0 (47)
Since the state in a cylindrical tube is symmetrical about its
axis, we introduce, instead of y and z, the distance r from the
axis, so that
8 2 3 2 3 2 19
Again, = ? 2 s, and therefore, instead of (47),
8a; 2
d z s I ds
8r 2 r dr
This is the differential equation of the Bessel function 7 , so that
we have, for the condensation,
, .... (48)
2
where A 2  /
(a?
The argument of / is thus a complex number.
The value of u is now to be found from the first of equations (45),
where K =  =  ins, so that this equation reduces to
ot
rv
q(a 2 + livri)s ..... (49)
Of this a particular solution can be found by putting u = f and
by suitably choosing the constant . Substituting this in the
lefthand member of (49), we have
(ins vks),
so that $(in8v&8)=*q(a 2 + livn)8. . . . (50)
v PBOPAGATION OP SOUND 159
Since, by (47), ___ n_
we see that equation (50) is satisfied by
To this particular solution for u an arbitrary solution of the
equation 1  j/Aw = can still be added.
Since u is a function of x and r only, the last equation can
be written
d z u lou ( , in\ A
^ + x + (q w=0.
cir T or \ v /
and this is again satisfied by a Bessel function,
u = c 2 e 7W *~" Qa: / (JBr), where J3 2 = q 2 
p
Thus the solution for u becomes
. . . (51)
It remains only to determine the velocity components v and w.
Owing to the symmetry the velocity in a crosssection of the
tube will be radial, so that v and w can be represented by v=yh
and w=zh, where h will, apart from the factor e (int ~ qx \ depend
on r alone. If these values be substituted in the second and the
third of equations (45), all terms in the second equation will have
the factor yfr and all terms in the third the factor z/r. On being
divided by y and z respectively, these equations turn out to be
identical and after a multiplication by r each of them reduces to
O =0. . (52)
The third terra of (52) can be evaluated by means of the equation
of continuity (44) which can be written
dv
160 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Substituting here v=yh and w=zh and differentiating with
respect to r, we have
3A 3% . ds
and this introduced into (52) gives
/ \ L i * * \3*
 (iw  vq*)rh = (a 2 + &nv)^
Since ~ and ' follow from the solutions (48) and (51) for s and
dr dr
u, the radial velocity rh is herewith determined.
To determine the constants o t and c 2 , we have two boundary
conditions. For greater densities, when there is no sliding, the
gas is at rest at the walls, so that for r = R (radius of the cross
section of the tube), u = and rh = 0. This gives the equations
 qvc 2 BI '(BR) = 0,
where 7 ' is written for the derivative of J .
Eliminating from these two equations c^c^, we find
Here q is the only unknown. Since q is contained also in A and
B, its determination from this equation is very laborious. One
has to use approximation formulae for the Bessel function and to
assume that the effect of friction is small and thus also that
the state differs but little from the propagation in a non viscous
gas.
27. EFFECT OF HEAT CONDUCTION
This problem was treated by Kirchhoff, who has taken into
account also the influence of the heat conduction.
In deducing the equations of motion (45) use was made of
Poisson's law for adiabatic volume changes (cf. footnote on
p. 157). If, however, heat conduction is taken into account,
Poisson's law can no longer be applied, and one has to write
down the thermical equation which concerns the change of the
internal energy of a volume element due to compression and
heat conduction.
v PKOPAGATION OF SOUND 161
Kirchhoff * finds for the propagation velocity in a cylindrical
bube of diameter 2/2
> .... (53)
where n is the number of oscillations per second and a the pro
pagation velocity in an unlimited threedimensional space, in
which case the effect of friction is small ; 7 is a constant
depending on viscosity and heat conduction, viz.
^viscosity
density '
7 coefficient of heat conduction
K = r rr 3
density
while b is the propagation velocity as calculated by Newton, so
that? As.
b Ve;
Formula (53) was repeatedly tested experimentally but was
never found well corroborated. Kayser f found the deviation of
the propagation velocity from the value a about four times as
large as that required by the theory.
In a space of three dimensions everything becomes much
simpler than in a tube. The effect of viscosity is then the greater
the smaller the wavelength.
Neklepajev J investigated, in connection with Lebedew's theo
retical researches, the propagation of very short sound waves in
air. His source of sound was an electric spark produced at the
focus of a concave mirror Sj. The beam of parallel rays (for
such short waves, as e.g. 02 cm., one can speak of " sound
rays ") reflected by the mirror S x fell upon a diffraction grating
consisting of a series of silvered steel rods. Diffracted bundles
were thus produced, and one such bundle was concentrated by
a second concave mirror S 2 upon a sensitive vane which was
* Pogg. Ann., cxxxiv., 1868, p. 177 ; Ges. Abh. t Leipzig, 1882, p. 540.
t Wied. Ann., ii., 1877, p. 218.
J Ann. der Phys., xxxv., 1911, p. 175.
Ibid., xxxv., 1911, p. 171.
VOL. I M
162 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP, v
displaced by the pressure of the sound rays. The wavelengths
were measured by means of the grating, through the diffraction
angle. Neklepajev worked with wavelengths of 25 down to
0*85 mm.
By sending the sound rays through layers of air of different
thickness the absorption could be measured. This appeared to
be considerable. The experiments gave a higher value for the
absorption than was to be expected from Lebedew's theoretical
considerations. Lebedew gives for the distance in which the
intensity is reduced to (J ff of its original value, for different
wavelengths, the following figures :
X in mm. Distance in cm.
08 40
04 10
02 25
01 06
For polyatomic gases, in addition to v and k yet a third
coefficient must be introduced. In fact, when the temperature
rises while a volume element is being compressed, this will increase
the velocity of the translational motion of the molecules as well
as the intensity of their inner motion. In the state of equilibrium
the energy of translational motion bears a determined ratio to
that of the inner motion, but while the velocity of translation is
directly affected by the compression of a volume element, the
effect upon the velocity of the inner motion is not so immediate.
The internal energy remains thus in its fluctuations, so to speak,
behind the energy of translation. This gives a coefficient affecting
the propagation velocity of sound, viz. making it somewhat
smaller. It remains to be seen, however, whether this coefficient
can have a perceptible value.
CHAPTER VI
KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OP ELECTRONS
RICHARDSON'S INVESTIGATIONS
28. THEORETICAL INTRODUCTION
RICHARDSON* has made an important investigation on the
emission of negative electrons by a hot metal, and found that
this is due to the heat motion. The electrons, endowed with
great velocities, will escape in spite of the forces exerted by the
metal. The escaping electrons were found by Richardson to
have a kinetic energy agreeing with that of gas molecules.
We will, first of all, follow here Maxwell's considerations on
the velocity distribution in a monatomic gas acted upon by an
external force, as e.g. the gravity.
Let % , rj t be the velocity components and x, y, z the co
ordinates of a gas molecule. We consider the molecules whose
velocity components and coordinates are contained between the
limits f and f + d% , ij and 77 + d rj, and % + d%,x and x+dx,y and
y+dy,z and z + dz. Their number will be represented by
fdgdr)ddxdydz =fds.
The components of the external force will be denoted by X, Y,
and Z.
AJ1 this being valid for the instant t, let us now follow the
history of this particular group of particles. Mutual collisions
being excluded, these particles will be contained at the instant
t+dt within a phase element ds' placed at a point of the six
dimensional space whose coordinates are
+ ^cft, !? + <&, + &, x + gdt, y+vdt, z + dt.
b m 'mm > * f > *
* Phil Mag. (6), xvi., 1908, p. 353.
163
164 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Let the state of the gas be stationary. This implies that the
number of particles which fall within the phase element ds' is
the same at the instant t as at the instant t +dt y so that
. .)d'=fds.
But by Liouville's theorem ds' =ds, so that
/(*+*' V+#*C%^
or, since the difference of these functions is zero,
dfX dfY dfZ fif. a/
4  +^ +4+/^
0w 077 w df w PX dy
This equation can be satisfied by
where a is a function of the coordinates and h is independent of
them.
In fact, on substituting we find (with v 2 = f 2 + ^ 2 + f 2 )
3o a 9A\ ../So ,Sh
an equation which must 'be satisfied for all values of f, y, f,
x, y, z, so that the coefficients of f, f 3 , etc., must all vanish.
This gives
Thus, the external force must have a potential. If ^ be the
corresponding potential energy,
and
"
vi KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OP ELECTRONS 165
Since /=a6"^'* fl?i+ ^ ) , we find in the wellknown way 3/2A for
\3/2
O
the mean square of the velocity and a[ ) for N, the number
\*/
of particles per unit volume.
This can be written A r =^V e~ w x , if N Q be the number of
particles at such places at which the potential of the external
force is nil. This shows that the density of particles is smallest
where the potential energy is greatest.
Since in what precedes no assumption was made about the
peculiarities of the field of force, apart from the existence of a
potential, the results arrived at may be utilised in our further
considerations on the motion of electrons.
We begin with a limiting case in which the external force
acts only within a thin layer and is directed normally to the
boundary of the two media. Let Xi v
be the potential energy in the first,
and 2 th 8 ^ m *he second medium. _2
Both magnitudes are constant, while
the potential energy changes discon
tinuously across the boundary. If
the medium 1 be a metal, and the FIG. 17.
medium 2 the space above it, then the
velocity distribution of the particles in both media obeys
Maxwell's formula, the value of h being the same for both.
Thus the densities will be given by
Owing to the force in the boundary layer the velocity of the
particles will be diminished in traversing this layer. In spite
of this the mean velocity of the particles will be the same in
both media, the reason being that only those particles leave the
first medium which have the greatest velocity.
To test this result by an explicit treatment, let us intro
duce a coordinate system of which the yzplane coincides with
the boundary of the two media and the positive #axis extends
into the second medium.
We consider a particle [electron] which at the instant t is
contained in the medium 1 and whose coordinates, x, y, z, % , rj,
fall within the phase element ds. Let x', y', z' y %', rj', ' be its
166
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
CHAP.
coordinates at an instant t + T, where r is a finite time interval,
long enough for the particle to have crossed the boundary at the
instant t + r. It will be assumed that it does not collide, with
atoms or with other electrons.
The condition that the sum of the potential and the kinetic
energy should be constant gives the equations
'=
.
(54)
Again, noticing that the time required to reach the boundary is
aj/f, we find the relations
. (55)
With the aid of (54) and (55) it can be easily verified that the
state is stationary. In fact, at the instant t there are/<fa particles
within the phase element ds and these will have passed at the
instant t +r into the phase element ds 1 , while the latter contained
f'ds' particles at the instant t. The condition for a stationary
state will thus be
Now it can be readily shown that ds = efe' and/=/'. In fact,
~ds
fit
. ^000
o
S'
A o o
o
fc
rV
82
tte
vi KINETIC THEORY OP SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 167
Again,
and by (54), taking account of the values of a L and 2 , these two
expressions will be seen to be equal to each other.
We now ask how many electrons pass, in the state under
consideration, from 1 to 2. We determine first the number of
particles which, per unit time, pass through a surfaceelement do
normal to the scaxis in the first medium, and whose velocity
components are contained between f and % + dg, rj and rj+dq,
and f +d For this number we find ^fd^drjd^da. Similarly,
%'f'dg'dri'dlZ'da' will be the number of particles which pass, per
unit time, through a surfaceelement da' normal to the spaxis in
the second medium, and whose velocity components fall within
the limits f and ' + d', rj' and rj' +<fy'> f and ?' +d.
Let us now place da and da' in the immediate neighbourhood
of the boundary and assume that f ', 77', f belong to , 77, f, i.e.
that f ', 77', % are the velocities, after traversing the boundary, of
a particle which in the first medium had the velocities (f , 77, f.
It follows then from what precedes that
If, therefore, da = da' 9 then also
Herewith is also given the number of electrons which escape
from the metal. If the state of the first medium is stationary,
the number of electrons leaving it, per unit time, will be constant,
even if the state of the second medium is not stationary, which
is e.g. the case when this medium is unlimited so that the electrons
are not thrown back.
At the beginning of the heating the metal plate sends out also
positive ions, which emission ceases, however, after a certain time.
These ions come probably from a layer of gas condensed at the
surface of the plate.
29. VALIDITY OF MAXWELL'S DISTRIBUTION LAW FOR
THE FREE ELECTRONS IN A METAL
The ratio ejm for the negative particles emitted by the plate
was determined by J. J. Thomson,* who was able to ascertain
* Phil Mag. (6), xlviii., 1899, p. 547.
168 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
that its value was the same as that known to belong to the
electrons. Thus we have here the same corpuscles. Richardson
measured their velocity, the arrangement of his experiment being
as follows.
Into a quadrangular aperture cut out in a platinum plate
P (Pig. 18) was fitted the protruding part of the bent platinum
strip /S, the latter being insulated from the plate P by mica.
p The strip S was heated by an
2 electric current. Another metal
plate P 2 , connected with an electro
p meter, formed with the plate P a
r\ condenser. The plate P 2 gathered
F IG . is. the electrons escaping from the
heated strip S.
Richardson measured the potential of the plate P 2 during the
process of charging, taking at the same time the utmost care that
the centre of the platinum strip, the glowing spot from which the
electrons were emitted, should
remain at the potential zero.
The velocity with which the
potential of the upper plate
mounts in its negative value
will gradually decrease, because
owing to the electric field thus
produced not all the electrons
leaving the strip S can reach
the upper plate (Fig. 19).
Let us first assume that all Flo 19
electrons leave the strip with
the same velocity u. There is then a maximum value <J> m to
the potential of the upper plate. This will be attained when
the electrons which move normally to the plates are just able
to reach the upper plate. This gives the condition
whence
We can also find how the potential of the upper plate gradually
increases. We will assume that the electrons which at the
vi KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 169
potential $ just reach the plate have left the heated strip at an
inclination 9 to the normal. These electrons describe then a
parabola whose apex lies at the upper plate (Fig. 19), and we
have, for 4>,
iwH 2 cos 2 = e<D ..... (56)
Let now n be the total number of electrons which, per unit time,
leave the heated strip, and therefore 2n sin 9 cos Odd the number
of those among them which move in a direction contained between
9 and ff + d0 (cf . p. 128). Thus, the number of electrons for which
6 is smaller than 6 is
or, in virtue of (56),
For <I>=0 this becomes equal to w, which means that then all
electrons reach the upper plate.
If C be the capacity of the condenser, the charge acquired by
the plate P 2 , per unit time, is
n d / 2eO\
C   =ew 1 J,
dt \ mu 2 /
whence,
For t = oo this gives 4> w , while for t =0 we have assumed 4> =0.
The intensity of the current is
. dO  2ne ' t
i=C ,=nee "*.
dt
Thus, from the measured value of <i> m we can determine mu 2 /2e,
and from the rate of increase of the potential the value of
2ne*/mCu 2 . From these two magnitudes ne can be calculated
and, since e/m is known, also the velocity u can be determined.
We have thus far assumed that all the corpuscles leave the
hot strip with the same velocity. Let us now see how the above
result is modified if the velocities are distributed according to
Maxwell's formula. It will appear that under these circum
stances the potential of the upper plate does not attain a
170 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
maximum. In fact, when the potential of the plate has risen so
high that the corpuscles of mean velocity do not reach it any
more, corpuscles endowed with a much higher velocity will reach
the plate and charge it to a yet higher potential.
Let now the upper plate be a circular disc, and let us assume
the field between the plates to be homogeneous, the potential
difference of the plates being <1>. We have to calculate how many
of the corpuscles leaving an element of the heated strip placed
at a point will reach an arbitrary element of the upper plate.
In doing so we shall assume the heated element to be very small
compared with the receiving plate, so that all electrons which
can overcome the potential difference will also be picked up by
that plate. Let a be the distance of the two plates. If , 17, f
are the components of the initial velocity of an electron, the
number of electrons which, per unit time, leave the lower
plate with velocity components contained between f and
o> V an d y+drj, and +df, will be represented by
The coefficient a will be determined by integrating over f from
to oo and over rj and f from  oo to +00 and equating the
integral to w, the total number of corpuscles, which, per unit
time, leave the element of the hot strip. This gives
a = ^ h 2 n.
IT
The integrated equation of motion of a corpuscle which left the
glowing element (#=0) at the instant 2=0 with a velocity f in
the direction of the STaxis is
This gives, for x=a, the time t required by the corpuscle to
reach the upper plate. If the corpuscle actually reaches the
plate, this equation has two real roots, the smaller of which is
the required value of t.
We solve for I/t, and have therefore to take the greater of
the two roots. Thus,
t 2a V^ 2 2wa 2 '
This expression will be denoted by g.
vi KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 171
Let now a rectangular element of the upper plate be hit
whose sides are dy, dz and which is placed at a point y, z. Since
y = ^, z = f& or y^gy and ?=<7z, the element will be reached
provided that rj lies between gy and g(y+dy), and f between
gz and <7(z + <fe).
The number of corpuscles which leave the heated strip with
the JKcomponent of velocity contained between f and f + d%
and reach the given surfaceelement of the upper plate will thus be
and the total number v of corpuscles hitting that element will
be found by integrating this expression over the values of ff for
which g is real. Thus,
. . (57)
This, integrated for y and z over the upper plate, gives the
required number of electrons as a function of 4>. Multiplying this
number by the charge e of an electron we shall have the current
charging the upper plate, that is, Cd$>/dt. Richardson calls this
the thermionic current.
In Richardson's experiments the second [upper] plate was so
large as compared with the mutual distance of the two plates that
it may be considered as infinitely extended. This facilitates the
integration of (57). Inverting the order of integrations we find
/" fQ
I
/ 00
(X7T 1
" "A" 2A
= 7be =ne
where s = V2e<l>lm and n is the total number of electrons leaving,
per unit time, the hot strip.
The differential equation for the potential of the upper plate
thus becomes j<D ^* A
dt* 6
Its solution is
6^=1+2^, .... (60)
where we have assumed <l> = for t =0.
172 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
According to theory 4> should thus mount with t continually,
though exceedingly slowly, the potential tending to become
logarithmically infinite. Due to unavoidable leakages, however,
<J> will practically reach a maximum after some finite time.
For the thermionic current we find ultimately, by (59) and (60),
so that the current decreases continually, tending to zero for
= oo.
These theoretical results were tested experimentally by
Richardson. The value of en is determined from the measured
intensity of the current at the beginning of the experiment and
that of  from the time rate of change of the current, and
mC
from these two magnitudes the value of eh/m can be calculated.
Now, A = 3/2w 2 , where u* is the mean squared velocity of the
electrons, within as well as outside the metal. Whence,
m
It is now assumed that the mean energy of an electron is
equal to that of a gas molecule, so that ww a = (ikT, and therefore,
eh e
m
Again, if N be the number of molecules per gram molecule,
eA _^L =  E
m 2kNT 2RT*
where R is the gas constant per gram molecule, and E (positive)
the charge of a gram ion of a monovalent electrolyte. The value
of E is thus known from electrolysis.
Now, having derived eh/m from his experiments and measured
the temperature T of the hot metal, Richardson deduced by
means of the lastwritten formula the value of the gas constant,
for a quantity of gas, however, which at the temperature C.
and the pressure of 76 cm. occupies a volume of 1 cm. 8 .
Since the value of R per gram molecule (2 grams of hydrogen)
is 83*2 . 10 6 and since 1 cm. 8 of hydrogen at and 76 cm. weighs
vi KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 173
00000898 gram, Richardson's theoretical value of the gas con
stant, which will be denoted by R, should be 3730.
The results of the experiments, in which the wire [platinum
strip] had temperatures from 1473 to 1813 and was heated
during 16 up to 35 hours, were as follows :
A41.10 3
42. 10 3
35 . 10 3
36 . 10 3
29 . 10 3
31 . 10 3
32 . 10 3
34 . 10 3
In a later experiment 404 . 10 3 was found.
The satisfactory outcome of these experiments proves that
the free electrons in a metal have the same mean kinetic energy
as a gas molecule and that for their velocity distribution Maxwell's
law is valid.
30. VELOCITY DISTRIBUTION OF THERMIONS FOR
DIFFERENT DIRECTIONS
In the experiments described in Art. 29 it depends only upon
the velocity component perpendicular to the heated plate whether
an electron reaches the plate P 2 or not. The agreement with
Maxwell's law is thus actually proved only for the component .
In a second series of experiments * Richardson investigated the
distribution of the velocity components i) and f. The arrange
ment of these experiments was such that the charging of the
upper plate was mainly due to corpuscles which left the hot plate
in a slanting direction.
The electrons are here emitted from a long narrow metal
strip R (Fig. 20) which fills out almost completely a narrow slit
in the lower plate P lB This strip is placed perpendicularly to the
plane of the drawing. The plates are very extended. The upper
plate P 2 has a narrow slit BC parallel to that at R. The electrons
flying through this slit enter into the metal cylinder E which is
insulated from the plate. The plate P 2 and the cylinder can be
* Phil Mag. (6), xvi., 1008, p. 890 ; (6), xviii., 1909, p. 681.
174
KINETICAL PROBLEMS
CHAP.
E
alternately connected with an electrometer and both can be
shifted together in a horizontal direction. Thus it can be deter
mined in each position what
part of the total thermionic
current passes through the
p slit BC.
2 The measurements are
made while the electric field
is yet very weak.
Let us now assume that
J A Maxwell's law holds for all
~n ^ the velocity components and
FIG. 20. that for the emission of
the electrons there is the
same distribution over different directions as for gas molecules
flying through a surfaceelement. In order to calculate the
number of particles which, starting from an element dcr placed
at a point (Fig. 20) of the hot metal strip, pass through the
slit BC of the upper plate, we construct around a sphere with
OA =2, the distance of from the upper plate, as radius. Two
planes laid through and the edges of the slit BC will cut this
sphere along two great circles (Fig. 21). Let AB=x, <LAOB = i/r,
and . YOP = 0. The electrons flying across da with a velocity
u in the direction OP fill
out a cylinder with da A x B C
as base and the nor
mal velocity component
u cos (AP) as height. Their
number is thus propor
tional to cos (AP). If we
now count up the electrons
flying through da with
different velocities but all
in the direction OP, the
result will still be pro
portional to cos (AP), and if this direction falls within a narrow
cone of aperture sin 0d0dyfr, the number of electrons will
also be proportional to the latter. Since, in the triangle
APE, cos (AP) =sin cos yfr, that number can be written
c cos sin 2 d9di/j,
FIG. 21.
vi KINETIC THEORY OP SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 175
where c is a constant. Thus the total number of electrons sent
towards the slit will be
r*
c cos <b dJi I sin 2 OdO =irrc cos ifidilf.
Jo
Now, tan \lr =#/z, and therefore, ^ = ~.
cos 2 ^ z
The required number can therefore be written
, dx/ z* \ 3 / 2
2 71 " %
Richardson's measurements are in good agreement with this
result. The number of electrons hitting a narrow strip of the
upper plate attains a maximum for x =0, while for x = o> it tends
to zero.
It is thus proved that for the electrons emitted by a hot metal
the velocity distribution is the same for all directions ; otherwise
c would not be constant.
31. THE WORK REQUIRED TO DRIVE AN ELECTRON OUT
OF THE METAL
Richardson * undertook also some further investigations with
the object of measuring the work required to drive an electron
out of the metal plate. For this purpose he investigated how
the emission of the electrons depends on temperature, having
assumed in this connection the number of corpuscles per unit
volume of the metal to be independent of temperature.
Let us consider a surfaceelement of unit area placed in the
second medium near at and parallel to the boundary of 1 and 2.
In order to determine the number n of corpuscles passing through
this element per unit time, we introduce again the function /
(cf. pp. 164 and 165), viz. for the metal
2/* hu*
and for the second medium
~
e
* Phil. Trans. A, cci., 1903, p. 497.
176 KINBTICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
We consider first the corpuscles whose velocities are contained
between v and v + dv and directions of motion between 6 and
6 +d&, where is the angle between the direction of motion and
the normal of the boundary surface.
The number of these corpuscles passing per unit time across
the said surfaceelement is
2A At
a e"^ e ZTTV^ sin cos 0d0dv. . . ,(61)
Integrating this expression over and v we find for the total
number of corpuscles crossing that surfaceelement, per unit time,
2 / /* n Zh
sin cos 0d0 v*e cfo^vle"**'. (62)
.'0 dn
If jSi be the number of corpuscles per unit volume of the metal,
we have
f2A Ai> ' _2* /"a
a e *Ve efo=a e m X/^' . . (63)
whence
* 6 ""*^.    (64)
v
(65)
Now, A=  , so that
2h 3 1
m mu* KL
We introduce further the quantity ^ %le 9 which will be the
potential energy for a unit of negative charge, and we write
e ' eN E
where E is the (positive) charge of a gramion of a monovalent
electrolyte and R the gas constant.
The formula for n then becomes
Here u is proportional to
By means of this formula, n being observed as a function of
temperature, the difference ^ 2  ^, which is positive, can be
determined.
vi KINETIC THEORY OP SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 177
Richardson found from his measurements i/r 2  ^ =41 volts.
Investigations by Wilson * and by Deininger,*)" and a second
determination by Richardson, { gave a somewhat greater value.
The mean of these determinations, 554 volts, agrees well with
the value 55 volts found by Richardson in a later investigation.
32. THE DENSITY OF ELECTRONS IN THE METAL
From Richardson's experimental findings we may also derive
the number S t which is here considered as independent of
temperature. For this purpose we transform the formula for n
by making use of the relation
whence follows
e
 SBS var'" as \ EI
m V eN m V m E
The expression under the radical is positive, since e stands for
the negative charge of the electron. Thus we have
2T R e 
From the value of n that of S t can now be calculated, taking
^2 " ^i = 5'5 volts. Richardson, however, does not give the value
of n itself, so that this has to be calculated from other magnitudes
measured by him. The experimental procedure was as described
on p. 174 (cf. Fig. 20). The slit and the cylinder E were placed
at A above the middle of the heated strip R. The cylinder E
picked then up all the electrons hitting an area of the breadth of
the slit BC and of the length of 1 cm. The upper plate, the slit,
and the cylinder could now be shifted in a direction perpendicular
to the slit BC and thus also perpendicular to the heated
strip R. In each of the successive positions electrons were
collected by the cylinder during 30 seconds. The electrons which
hit the cylinder during a displacement over the full breadth of
the plate are those which would reach a strip /9, 1 cm. broad,
* Phil. Trans. A, ccii., 1903, p. 243.
f Ann. der Phys., xxv., 1908, p. 285.
J PkSL Trans. A, ccvii., 1906, p. 1.
Phil. Mag. (6), xx., 1910, p. 205.
VOL. I N
178 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
of the upper plate within 30 seconds; the hot strip R is
perpendicular to the strip ft.
From Richardson's measurements the charge carried over,
per unit of time, from R to /? is found to be 163 . 10~ 9 coulombs.
And since the charge of an electron amounts to 1 5 . 10 ~ 19 coulombs,
this gives for the number of electrons emitted by R per second
and hitting & 10 10 . In order to calculate from this number the
number n of electrons emitted by the metal strip per 1 cm. 2 and
per second, we note that the number of electrons flying from R
towards j3 is equal to that sent out by a rectangle of area
R$ cm. 2 , if R and ft be the breadth in cms. of the strips denoted
by these letters. In Richardson's experiments, as mentioned
before, /3 was equal to 1 cm., while the breadth of R amounted
in some experiments to 0*02 cm., and in some others to 0*04 cm.
Thus, taking R =003 cm., we find n = 10 10 /003 = 33 . 10 10 .
Again,
2 ^=5.5 . 10 8 electromagnetic units,
fi=832.10 6
e/w = l77.10 7
T = 1050 + 273 = 1323.
This gives for the number of electrons per unit volume of the
metal S l = 10 25 ' 7 .
The result is not very satisfactory, the number found being
E
much too large. This is due to the high value of
which we will denote by W. In fact, we have found
Now, in order that the electrons might escape freely we should
have ^2 = ^, and therefore,
n= const. tiSj.
Owing to the factor e~ iy the number of electrons escaping per
unit area and unit time will be much smaller than what by the
last formula would correspond to the number (SJ per unit
volume of the metal and will decrease considerably with decreas
ing temperature. The latter is in accordance with facts. _
W~ol_ 1 48
 .~e
[i.e. 10 25 ' 7 ]. 2 u
vi KINETIC THEORY OF SYSTEMS OF ELECTRONS 179
Such a large number of free electrons per unit volume, however,
is hard to accept. This is even much greater than the number
of platinum atoms per cm. 3 , for which one finds 8 . 10 22 .* More
over, if it be granted that the electrons take part in the heat
motion and each of them has the mean kinetic energy $kT 9
such a large number of free electrons would give a much too
high value for the specific heat of the metal.
For the number of corpuscles in the second medium we find,
per unit volume,
or by (62),
On the other hand, S can be written
*, . . . (66)
so that the density of electrons in the metal should be
times that in the second medium, as we already know.
33. DIFFERENCE IN POTENTIAL ENERGY BETWEEN THE
ELECTRONS INSIDE AND OUTSIDE THE METAL ATOMS
The conclusion of Art. 32 can be avoided by assuming that the
electrons are partly bound to the atoms and partly free. In addition
to the force in the boundary layer which hinders the electrons
from escaping freely from the metal, there is then still another
force which binds some of the electrons within the metal to the
atoms. We assume that the potential energy in the metal within
an atom has a definite value, and we denote by fa the potential
energy per unit of negative charge for an electron outside, and by
fa' that for an electron within the atom, with the understanding
that fa' is smaller than fa. Further, we denote the part of the
space occupied by the atoms by a, and therefore the remaining
part by 1  a.
* In fact, 1 gram atom of Pt weighs 195 gr. ; 1 cm. 3 of Pt weighs 215 gr.,
and thus amounts to & gram atom, while the number of atoms in a gram
atom can be put at 68 . 10 22 .
VOL. I N 2
180 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
For the number of electrons per unit volume of the metal
we thus find
2 /S
. (67)
where we have assumed that the medium 1 is in equilibrium with
the medium 2 and that the density varies with the ^'s as indi
f
cated by the expression e^ **"** . Our task is now to represent
the observed facts by means of this formula. Assuming S 1
constant, we have to find how n depends upon T, to compare
this dependence with the experimental results, and thence to
calculate fa and fa'. With these exponents we should then be
able to deduce again S l from n.
Two extreme cases may be distinguished. The first, corre
sponding to fa' =fa, has just been considered. In this case the
electrons were subjected only to forces within the boundary layer.
The second limiting case is that the electrons are acted upon
by forces only within the atoms and that there are no boundary
forces. In this case fa will tend to fa and fa  fa' will be much
greater than fa  fa, so that, even if a be small, the first term can
be omitted in a first approximation. This gives for 8 l the same
formula as in the previous reasoning, but with the factor a, and
with fa replaced by fa'. From the experiments it follows then
again that fa fa' =55 volts. This, however, gives now for S l
a value which is only the small fraction a of that found before,
as if the volume were a times smaller and as if the electrons
within it were very strongly bound. By choosing a small enough
the proper value for S can be obtained.
One might object to the formula (67) on account of its being
based upon the assumption of a large number of electrons in
each atom. That the formula is at any rate correct * can be
shown by a method of reasoning due to Gibbs.f
In fact, the number of systems in a canonic assemblage, with
coordinates contained between q l and qi+dq ly q 2 and qt+dq v . . .
q n *ndq n +dq n ,is
. . . dq n , ... (68)
* See, however, the remark at the end of this article,
f SUmentari/ Principles in Statistical Mechanics, New York, London, 1902.
vi KINETIC THEORY OP SYSTEMS OP ELECTRONS 181
where E q stands for the potential energy which corresponds to
the given conditions and is proportional to the temperature.
If all mutual action between the parts is disregarded, the potential
energy of the system is equal to the sum of the potential energies
of its parts and the expression for the number of systems is split
into factors, so that (68) assumes the form
In our case x l9 y l9 z 1 will be the coordinates of a corpuscle and E
its potential energy.
The probability that a corpuscle is situated at a given place
is thus independent of the remaining corpuscles. The ratio of
the number of systems in which the first corpuscle is within the
part a of the space to the number of systems in which it is outside
that part of the space is then
ae"^ /0 :(la)e" AVe , . . . (69)
where E i is the potential energy of the corpuscle within and E u
that outside the part a of the space. The same expression gives
for each system the ratio of the number of corpuscles contained
within the part a of the space to the number of corpuscles lying
outside, and thus formula (67) is established.
In this deduction no assumption whatever was made with
regard to the number of electrons contained within the part a
of the space, so that it could even be applied to the case in which
there are fewer electrons than atoms. What was assumed, how
ever, and what may seem objectionable, is that statistical
mechanics can be applied to the electrons within the atoms.
CHAPTER \H
VACUUM CONTACT OP PLATES OF DIFFERENT METALS
34. POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE FOR VACUUM CONTACT
IN connection with Richardson's investigations the following
considerations present themselves.
Suppose we had two metal plates, both at the same constant
high temperature, and placed in an exhausted space at a certain
distance from each other (vacuum contact). If the temperature
is high enough, electrons will be emitted by either plate. If the
two plates are of different metals, the number of these electrons
will not be the same for both, and this will produce a potential
difference of a determined equilibrium value, which must be equal
to the potential difference between the metals when placed in
direct contact. For, if such were not the case, the two plates
could be connected by a wire and, although everything is kept
at the same constant temperature, we should have an electric
current which would clash with the second law of thermo
dynamics.
Let the plates be placed horizontally and let the lower plate
A have a higher potential than the upper, B, the potential
difference being <J>.
By (58), the number of electrons leaving, per second, the
lower and reaching the upper plate at a potential difference <I>
(which diminishes the velocity of the electrons and thus prevents
some of them from reaching the upper plate) is
we
* Cf. p. 176, (65) and (65'). Tn (58) * was the potential of the upper plate
with respect to the lower one.
182
CHAP, vii VACUUM CONTACT OF PLATES 183
where n is the total number of electrons emitted, per second, by
the lower plate. In view of (66), n can be written
where ty a (the previous fa  fa) is the difference in potential
energy per unit of negative charge within and without the metal
A, and S a the number of electrons per unit volume of this metal.
This gives for the number of electrons flying, per second,
from A to B
1 W
\J Ttm
while the number of those flying, per second, from B to A is
i I IkT
% I 
\J Trm
the factor e R f ' being here left out, since the electric field does
not counteract the motion of these electrons, so that all of them
reach the plate A .
In the case of equilibrium both numbers must be equal,
hence the equation
S
This gives f er <I>
a
The ratio S h /S a is thus in the present case also given by an
exponential law in which appears the potential energy, split into
an electrostatic part and one which depends on the difference in
the attraction between the metals and the electrons.
The same law for the ratio S b /S a holds also in the case of a
direct contact between the plates A and B, and since S a and S b
have fixed values, the potential difference in the latter case is
the same as for plates separated by a vacuum.
We can introduce here the same modifications as in the
preceding investigation by dividing the electrons within the metal
into two kinds, the intraatomic and the extraatomic ones.
Let the potential energy of an electron in vacuo be by ep
184 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
greater than the potential energy of an electron in the metal
outside the atoms, and by ep' greater than that of an electron
within a metal atom. Since e is always the negative value of
the charge of an electron, both of these expressions are positive.
Let, further, E/RT=/j,.
Then, by formula (67),
For the case of the two plates A and J5 under consideration
we find, in view of the potential difference <J> (the plate A having
the higher potential),
the suffixes 1 and 2 being attached to all magnitudes belonging
to the plates A and B respectively.
In the case of a direct contact between the metals the same
formula will hold for the equilibrium value of the potential
difference.
35. RESISTANCE AT A VACUUM JUNCTION
Let us now consider a thermoelectric element with two
vacuum junctions which
are kept at the tempera
tures T and T (Fig. 22).
^ This will produce , a
current, the electromotive
force being the resultant
FIG. 22. of two potential differ
ences at the junctions
while the element is open, and of possible potential differences
in the metals due to the temperature difference.
Now, we may ask whether this current has to overcome also
a resistance at the vacuum junctions. To answer this question
vn VACUUM CONTACT OF PLATES 185
we assume that the potential difference <J> between the plates
differs very little from the equilibrium potential difference <fr .
From the preceding considerations it follows that the number
of electrons passing from the plate 1 (of higher potential) to the
plate 2 is n^"^. The number moving in the opposite direction
is n 2 , so that the electric current (reckoned positive from 1 to 2)
will be
t= eft^e  ***!!,).
Again,
so that
t
If fji (4>  <& ) is small, we have approximately
so that there is, in a certain sense, a resistance at the vacuum
junctions which is equal to
__ 1
This is positive, since e is negative.
36. PELTIER EFFECT FOR A VACUUM CONTACT
To close this subject, let us still consider the question of the
Peltier effect for the case of such a vacuum contact. If the
effect were here the same as in the case of metal plates in direct
contact, an electric current should give at the place of junction
(here vacuum) a heat generation when sent around in one, and a
cooling when sent around in the opposite sense.
Suppose that within the enclosure containing the plates
(Fig. 23) everything is kept at a constant temperature T by means
of a heat reservoir. We have then to calculate how much heat
must be supplied or absorbed by the latter when an electric
current passes through the system. Let the current flow from
the plate 1 to the plate 2. Then the negative electrons move
from 2 to 1. The heat taken up by the reservoir during a given
time will be equal to the energy of the electrons which during
this time enter into the system at P less tke energy of those
186 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
which, during the same time, leave the system at Q, both the
kinetic and the potential energy being taken into account.
Since the temperature is the same at P and Q, there will be
no difference in kinetic energy. Let the potential of the plate 1
be higher than that of the plate 2, and let their potential difference
<$> differ but little from its equilibrium value. Consider a quantity
of electricity  1 streaming from P towards
Q. Owing to the potential difference of
the plates, this negative charge has at
the entrance P into the system a greater
potential energy than at the exit Q, the
difference being just 4>. In addition to
this we have also to take account of the
Fia. 23. ^ potential energy of the electrons due to
the attraction by the metal atoms. The
state being stationary, the number of electrons contained
within the atoms will remain unaltered. Thus we can imagine
that the electrons [involved in the current] pass between the
atoms. If the potential energy of an electron in the vacuum is
higher by  ep l than that of an electron in the plate 1 outside
the atoms, and by ep% higher than that of an electron in the
plate 2 outside the atoms, then the negative unit of charge loses
in passing from P to Q the amount of energy p l p 2 . [This is
to be added to <fr.]
Thus the total amount of energy lost by the electrons and,
therefore, gained in the form of heat by the reservoir is, for each
unit of positive charge passing from 1 to 2, or of negative charge
passing from 2 to 1,
We find, therefore, for the Peltier effect TT,
37. RICHARDSON'S MEASUREMENTS
The heat generated in such a system has been measured by
Richardson.*
In a vacuum was placed a cold plate P , kept at a temperature
T , and opposite it a hot plate P, whose constant temperature T
**Phil. Mag. (6), xx., 1910, p. 173.
vn VACUUM CONTACT OF PLATES 187
was so high as to make it emit electrons. In order that all these
may reach the plate P , the potential of the latter was kept an
amount <P above that of P.
Under these conditions Richardson measured the heat
generated on the plate P .
We consider the plate P together with the vacuum next to
P and a part of the wire attached to P (and consisting of the
same metal as P ) as a system whose gain in energy has to be
determined. This will be due, in the first place, to the kinetic
energy of the electrons entering the system. In order to deter
mine this energy we require the mean squared velocity of the
electrons flying into the vacuum. Now, the number of electrons
emitted per unit time and unit area by the plate P, with velocities
contained between v and v + dv, is *
where a is a constant. Consequently, the mean squared velocity
with which the electrons enter the vacuum,
rfdv /73 o A
Trallr z 4 ,
__ . [_ . 1 1 A T
.'o 7rfle
where * a is the mean squared velocity of the electrons in the
metal. The mean velocity of the electrons is thus greater at
their arrival in the vacuum than within the metal, which is to
be explained by the circumstance that only the electrons endowed
with the greatest velocities leave the metal. J
By what precedes, in conjunction with mfih^kT, the kinetic
energy entering the system per unit time can be written 2nkT,
where n is the number of electrons passing per unit time from
P to P . As against this, the kinetic energy of the electrons
escaping through the wire amounts to  nkT Q .
Now for the potential energy of the electrons. In the first
place, owing to the potential difference <J> of the plates the energy
of the electrons entering the system exceeds by en that of
* Cf. p. 170, (61), after integration over 0. f Cf. p. 137.
J This is disregarded by Richardson. The final result, however, remains
unaffected, since the difference in kinetic energy between the electrons moving
in and out is, after all, negligible when compared with the difference in potential
energy.
188 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP, vn
the electrons leaving the system (e being always negative). In
the second place, owing to the attraction by the metal atoms,
bhe potential energy of an electron will be greater outside than
within the system. Denoting, therefore, this excess by ety we
shall have for the heat generated on the plate P
W  n(2kT  4 kT  eO  &!*).
[n Richardson's experiments e^+e^ was so much greater than
that we may as well write
The plate P was inserted in one of the branches of a Wheat
stone bridge, so that the heat generated could be measured
through the change of the resistance. Richardson made use of
the circumstance that IF is a linear function of <E>. Taking his
measurements at different values of 4> and determining the ratio
of the W's, he was able to calculate ty.
This quantity appeared to be different according to the manner
in which the piece of platinum was treated before the experiment,
and depends probably on the presence or absence of occluded
gases. The value found for ifr by Richardson was again 4 to 5
volts, and thus agreed with the value found by previous measure
ments (cf. Art. 31).
There remains, however, yet one great difficulty. We saw
(Art. 33) that the potential difference of 55 volts which was
obtained in Richardson's experiments described in Art. 31 had
to be explained mainly by the difference in potential energy of
the electrons in the vacuum and of the intraatomic ones, viz.
by assuming that the electrons are strongly bound to the atoms.
Now, in connection with the last experiments there is no question
of electrons in the atoms, so that the potential difference of 4 to
5 volts must here be explained by the difference in potential
energy of the electrons contained in the metal but between tHe
atoms and the electrons in the vacuum. Thus the agreement of
the results of the two sets of measurements is rather unintelligible,
and it must be admitted that not all is clear in these investigations.
CHAPTER VIII
PROBLEMS IN WHICH THE MOTION OP ELECTRONS PLAYS A PART
38. NICHOLS* EXPERIMENT
THE presence of free electrons in a metal suggested to Nichols *
the following experiment. He set a metal disc into rapid spinning
motion about its axis, expecting the electrons to be driven by
the centrifugal force towards the rim and thus to produce a
potential difference between the rim and the centre of the disc.
Let e be the charge and m the mass of an electron, &> the
angular velocity of the disc, and 3> the potential at a point of the
disc at a distance r from its centre. Then the condition of
equilibrium is
2 d&
ma) z r=* e J,
ar
whence, by integration,
i _
O =  ~ oj 2 / 2 + const.,
or, if <!>! be the potential at the centre and <E> 2 that at the rim
(72 being the radius of the disc),
The question is whether this potential difference can be detected.
If we take
sec. 1 ,
&
= l8 . 10 7 (electromagnetic units),
then
. O x  O a  11 electromagnetic units 11 . 10~ 8 volt.
* Phys. Zeitschrift, vii., 1906, p. 640.
189
190 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP.
Nichols spent much time in trying to detect this potential
difference, but his apparatus seems not to have been sensitive
enough. Owing to the rotation of the disc, the measurement of
the potential difference was connected with great difficulties ;
sliding contacts had to be applied. He arrived at the conclusion
that a potential difference 1000 times as great, such as should
manifest itself if the positive ions were free to move, could be
detected by his apparatus. The absence of the effect was thus a
proof that the positive ions are bound.*
39. KINETIC ENERGY OF THE CONDUCTIONCURRENT ELECTRONS
The following question suggests itself in connection with the
preceding considerations. Can the magnetic energy &Li 2 of an
electric current, which is often referred to as the [electro]
kinetic energy, be interpreted as the total kinetic energy of the
electrons, S(Jwv 2 ) ? The answer is decidedly in the negative.
For \Li* depends on the selfinduction and, therefore, on the
shape of the wire, and is in common cases much greater than
The kinetic energy of an electron, whether entirely or partly of
electromagnetic nature, is at any rate localised in the immediate
neighbourhood of the electron. The total kinetic energy of all
electrons is found by addition, since the spaces in which this
energy is located do not overlap. This gives ^(^niv 2 ). On the
other hand, the quantity \L& represents the total magnetic
energy to which every electron contributes through its weak
magnetic field which extends to a considerable distance. Tn the
case of an electric current, however, the magnetic fields of different
electrons are equally directed and will, surely, overlap. Since
the magnetic energy is a quadratic function of the magnetic
force, the total magnetic energy will not be obtained by simply.
adding up the energies due to the separate electrons. Thus, for
instance, if there are N electrons and if each of them produces
at a given point of space the same magnetic force // of exactly the
same direction, the resultant magnetic force will be NH, and the
* [This experiment has since been carried out successfully, in a modified
form and with more refined means, by II. C Tolman and others. For its
recent history and the results obtained see Physical Review, vol. viii., 1910,
p. 97 and p. 753 ; vol. ix., 1917, p. 164 ; vol. xxi., 1923, p. 525 ; vol. xxii.,
1923, p. 207.]
vni PROBLEMS IN MOTION OP ELECTRONS 191
magnetic energy will be proportional to 2V 2 , while the quantity
S(^mv 2 ) is proportional to N itself.
Since the number of electrons involved in an electric current
is very large, it will be seen that \Lfi may be much greater than
S(4it*).
For the sake of illustration let us consider a simple case in
which the conductor consists of a cylindrical wire sheathed by
a coaxial tube. Let the current i flow upwards in the wire and
downwards in the sheath. The magnetic force at a distance r
from the axis is
H
'2<rrcr
where c is a constant, the propagation velocity of light. If a t
and fl 2 t> e the radii of the wire and the tube, the magnetic energy
in the space between them is, per unit length,
/.log* (70)
47TC 2 n a l x '
On the other hand, if N t and N 2 be the numbers of the electrons,
per unit length, in the wire and the tube, respectively, and v l9 v 2
their velocities, the kinetic energy of the electrons will be
im(#iV+W) (71)
Let us now compare the expressions (70) and (71).
We have i = Jf l ev l = N^BV 2 an( i> using the electromagnetic mass,
6
m = n n  9 (if R be the radius of an electron). Thus (71) becomes
_. i i._ a ( 1 + l).
Now, if a 2 l<*i is a moderate number, (71) will be much smaller
than (70), provided that
is a very small fraction.
For that purpose RN l and RN 2 must be very large, that is
to say, the number of free electrons in the conductor, contained
between two parallel planes at a distance equal to the radius of
the electron, must be very great.
192 KINETICAL PROBLEMS CHAP, vnx
Take 5 = 15 . 10 ~ 18 cm. and consider a copper wire of 1 cm. 2
crosssection. Then the number of centres of metal atoms
contained between the said planes will be 14 . 10 9 .
This number is so great that the number of free electrons can
satisfy the requirement of making RN very large, and yet be
small compared with the number of atoms, the latter condi
tion being indispensable in order to avoid difficulties with regard
to specific heat.
Only for extremely thin wires (of a diameter of the order
of a wavelength of light) would the value of \Li* be comparable
with that of
SOURCES AND REFERENCES
CHAFTEB I
EL Helmholtz und G. v. Piotrowski, Vber Reibung tropfbarer Fliissigkeiten,
Wiener Sitzungsber. xl., Abt. I., 1860, p. 607.
\. Einstein, Zur Theorie der Brown* schen Bewegung, Ann. der Phys. xix.,
1906, p. 371.
CHAPTER II
J. C. Maxwell, On the Viscosity or Internal Friction of Air and other Gases,
Phil. Trans, clvi., 1866, p. 249.
&. Kundt und K. Warburg, Uber Reibung und Warmeleitung verdiinnter Oase,
Ann. Phys. u. Chemie, civ., 1875, pp. 337 and 525.
CHAPTER III
M. Knudsen, Die Gesetze der Molekularstromung und der inneren Reibungs
stromung der Gase durch Rohren, Ann. der Phys. xxviii., 1909, p. 75.
Die Molekularstromung der Gase durch Offnungen und die Effusion, Ann.
der Phys. xxviii., 1909, p. 999.
Eine Revision der Gleichgewichtsbedingung der Gase. Thermische Mole
kularstromung, Ann. der Phys. xxxi., 1910, p. 205.
Thermischer Molekulardruck der Gase in Rdhren und porosen Kdrpern,
Ann. der Phys. xxxi., 1910, p. 633.
Kin absolutes Manometer, ibid, xxxii., 1910, p. 809.
Eine Methode zur Bestimmung des Molekulargewichts sehr kleiner Gas
oder Dampfmengen, ibid, xliv., 1914, p. 525.
J. E. Shrader and R. G. Sherwood, Production and Measurement of High Vacua,
Phys. Rev. (2), xii., 1918, p. 70.
M. Knudsen, Die molekulare Warmeleitung der Gase und der Akkomodations
koeffizient, Ann. der Phys. xxxiv., 1911, p. 593.
M. v. Smoluchowski, Ober Warmeleitung in verdlinnten Gasen, Wied. Ann.
Ixiv., 1898, p. 101.
Vber den Temperatur sprung bei Warmeleitung in Gasen, Wiener Sitzungs
ber. cvii. Abt. Ha, 1898, p. 304, and cviii. Abt. Ho, 1899, p. 5.
P. Lasareff, Vber den Temperatur sprung an der Grenze zwischen Metall und
Gas, Ann. der Phys. xxxvii., 1912, p. 233.
CHAPTER IV
G. L. Lesage, Loi qui comprend touted lea attractions et repulsions, Journal des
Savants, 1764.
193
194 KINETICAL PROBLEMS
A. Einstein und L. Hopf, Statistische Untersuchung der Bewegung eines Resonators
in einem Strahlungsfeld, Ann. der Phys. xxxiii., 1910, p. 1105.
H. A. Lorentz, Rapport sur ^application au rayonnement du theoreme de
requipartition de Venergie. Cas particulier d'un electron libre, Rapp. Reunion
de Bruxelles, 1911, p. 37.
A. D. Fokker, Snr les mouvements browniens dans le champ du rayonnement noir,
Arch, neerl. (Ilia), iv., 1918, p. 379.
CHAPTER V
G. Stokes, Mathematical and Physical Papers, Cambridge, 1880, i. p. 100.
Rayleigh, The Theory of Sound, London, 1896, ii. p. 312.
G. Kirchhoff, Vber den Einfluss der Wdrmeleitung in einem Oase auf die
flchallbewegung, Pogg. Ann. cxxxiv., 1808, p. 177 ; Ges. Abh., Leipzig,
1882, p. 540.
H. Kayscr, Bestimmung der specifischen Warwe fur Lvft bei constantem Druck
und constantem Volumen durch Schallgeschwindigkeit, Wied. Ann. ii., 1877,
p. 218.
P. Lebedew, Die Grenzwerte der kiirzesten akustischen Wellen, Ann. der Phys.
xxxv., 1911, p. 171.
N. Neklepajev, Ober die Absorption kvrzer atustischer Wellen in der Lufl, Ann.
der Phys. xxxv., 1911, p. 175.
J. H. Jeans, The Dynamical Theory of Gases, Cambridge, 1910, second edition,
p. 374.
H. A. I^orentz, Les equations du mouivment des gaz et la propagation du son
suirani la theorie cinetique des gaz, Arch, neerl. xvi., 1881, p. 1.
CHAPTER VI
0. W. Richardson and F. C. Brown, The Kinetic Energy of the Negative Electrons
emitted by Hot Bodies, Phil. Mag. (($), xvi., 1908, p. 353.
0. W. Richardson, The Kinetic Energy of Ions emitted by Hot Bodies, Phil. Mag.
(6), xvi., 1908, p. 890, and xviii., 1909, p. 081.
The Electrical Conductivity imparted to a Vacuum by Hot Conductors, Phil.
Trans. A, cci., 1903, p. 497.
The Emission of Electricity from Hot Bodies, London, 1910.
CHAPTER VII
0. W. Richardson and H. L. Cooke, The Heat developed during the Absorption
of Electrons by Platinum, Phil. Mag. ((5), xx., 1910, p. 173
CHAPTER VIII
E. F. Nichols, Die Moglichkeit finer durch zentrifugale Beschleunigung erzeugten
elektromotorischen Kraft, Phys. Zeitschr. vii., 1900, p. 040.
A. Schuster, On Electric Inertia and the Inertia of Electric Convection, Phil. Mag.
(0), L, 1901, p. 227.
H. A. Lorentz, The Theory of Electrons, Leipzig, 1909, p. 47.
Further developments of Richardson's thermionic theory were made, among
others, by L Langmuir, W. Schottky, J. A. Fleming :
1. Langmuir, The Effect of Space Charge and Residual Oases on Thermionic
Currents in High Vacuum, Phys. Rev. (2), ii., 1913, p. 450.
SOUKCES AND REFERENCES 195
Thermionenstrdme im hohen Vakuum. I. Wirkung der Raumladung.
II. Die Elektronenemission seitens des Wolframs und die Wirkung von Gas
resten, Phys. Zeitschr. xv., 1914, pp. 348, 516.
W. Schottky, Die Wirkung der Raumladung auf Thermionenstrdme im hohen
Vakuum, Phys. Zeitschr. xv., 1914, p. 526.
Ober den Einfluss von Potentialschwellen auf den Stromiibergang zwischen
einem Gluhdraht und einem koaxialen Zylinder, Phys. Zeitschr. xv., 1914,
p. 624.
Vber Raumladungswirkungen bei Strdmen positiver lonen im hohen
Vakuum, ibidem, p. 656.
Vber den Einfluss von Strukturwirkungen, besonders der Thomson* schen
Bildkraft, auf die Elektronenemission der Metalle, ibidem, p. 872.
J. A. Fleming, The Thermionic Valve and its Developments in Radiotelegraphy
and Telephony, London, 1919.
Printed in Great Britain by R. & R. CI.ARK, LIMITED, Edinburgh.