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.tr ^ «» 5". 4 

llarbarb College ILitirarp 




One half the income from this Legacy, which was re- 
ceived in 1880 under the will of 

of Waltham, Massachusetts, is to be expended for books 
for the College Library. The other half of the income 
is devoted to scholarships in Harvard University for the 
benefit of descendants of 

who died at Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1686. In the 
absence of such descendants, other persons are eligible 
to the scholarships. The will requires that this announce- 
ment shall be made in every book added to the Library 
under its provisions. 












CoPTHIGHTy 1904 

Br Helen D. LoNcrruET 

Ekctrotjped and Printed bj J. B. LippfaiGott Compuiy, PhDaddphk 








This brief story of a gigantic event, and General 
Liongstreet's part therein was arranged for publica- 
tion in book form in the fall of 1908, before his death, 
which occurred January 2, 1904. It is the carefully 
sifted story of the records and contemporaneous wit- 
nesses, and for clearness I have here and there intro- 
duced General Longstreet's personal version of some 
of the disputed points. But the reader will perceive 
that at last it is the story of the records. 

For my undertaking I drew liberally from General 
Longstreet^s memoirs of the war, " Manassas to Ap- 
pomattox;" from his stores of knowledge in the mili- 
tary art, and his treasure-house of memories of the 
Titanic encounter on the field of Gettysburg. The war- 
pictures included herein are also from the above-men- 
tioned volume. And I am gratefully indebted to Cap- 
tain Leslie J. Perry, formerly of the War Records 
Office, Washington City, for valuable assistance. 

An appendix, added since General Longstreet's 
death, includes a small selection from the thousands of 
tributes from every quarter of the republic. 

One of the last of the brilliant generals of the Civil 
War, whose valor and skill in the command of great 
armies, is to-day the common glory of the restored 
Union, has contributed an introduction. No survivor 
of the great struggle has a better right to speak of 
Gettysburg than General Daniel E. Sickles. In this 
connection the following letter is appreciatively repro- 


"WAiHiiroTOir, September 19» 1909. 
'* GeNSKAI. D. £. SlCKUBS, 

" Crettysburg, Pennsylvania : 

^' My deas GsNERAii Sickles, — My plan and desire was to 
meet you at Gettysburg on the interesting ceremony attending 
the imveiling of the Slocum monument; but to-day I find myself 
in no condition to keep the promise made you when last we were 
together. I am quite disabled from a severe hurt in one of my 
feet, so that I am unable to stand more than a minute or two 
at a time. Please express my sincere regrets to the noble Army 
of the Potomac, and accept them, especially, for yourself. 

^^ On that field you made your mark that will place you promi- 
nently before the world as one of the leading figures of the most 
important battle of the Civil War. As a Northern veteran 
once remarked to me, ' General Sickles can well aBTord to leave 
a leg on that field.' 

** I believe it is now conceded that the advanced position at the 
Peach-Orchard, taken by your corps and under your orders 
saved that battle-field to the Union cause. It was the sorest and 
saddest reflection of my life for many years; but, to-day, I 
can say, with sincerest emotion, that it was and is the best that 
could have come to us all. North and South ; and I hope that the 
nation, reunited, may always enjoy the honor and glory brought 
to it by the grand work. 

"Please offer my kindest salutations to your governor and 
your fellow-conu*ades of the Army of the Potomac. 
" Always yours sincerely, 
(Signed) " James Longstbeet, 

^^ Lieutenan$-Generdl Confederate Army.** 

Early in December advance chapters were given to 
the press for January 8; by strangely pathetic coin- 
cidence that being the date on which public announce- 
ment was made of Grcneral Longstreet's death. 

This hour does not clamor for the charity of silence, 
but for the white light of truth which I reverently 
undertake to throw upon the deeds of the commander 


who, from Manassas to Appomattox, was the strong 
right arm of the Confederate States Army. 

I was writing for love of him whose dear name and 
fame had been attacked; to place before his fading 
vision enduring appreciation of his valiant deeds as a 
soldier and high qualities as a gentleman. Providence 
decreed otherwise. While the opening chapters were 
running into type, the Great Captain on High called 
him hence, where he can at last have his wrongs on 
earth forever righted. 

The warrior sleeps serenely to-day, undisturbed by 
all earthly contentions, the peace of God upon him. 
And I bring to his tomb this little leaf fragrant with 
my love, bedewed with my tears, heavy-weighted with 
my woe and desolation. 

H. D. L. 

(zAnnEsviLLB, GxoioiA, August 1, 1904. 




Iktroduction 17 / 

Thx Stort of Gxttybburo 81 - 

Ln cHANGBfl Plan of Campaign 40 

Pickett's Charge 50 

Gordon's "Establuhxd Facts" and Pendleton's Fulmi- 


Longstrebt's Version of the Operations of July 2 68 

Pendleton's Report 71 

Pendleton's Unreliable Memory 75 

General Longstreet's Americanism 85 / 


FiVALB 89 





His Bothood Days 93 


His First Romance 109 

] Heroic Citizen of the Reconstruction Period 112 

j The Christian Patriot loved the South to the Last .... 115 

v-^ Worshipped bt the Soldiers of the Confederacy 119 

His Country Home in Picturesque North Georgia 128 


The Winning of our Western Empire 127 

Peculiarities of Scott and Taylor 134 

Unpretentious Lieutenant Grant 159 

Pleasant Incidents of Camp Life at Corpus Christi .... 144 

Into the Interior of Mexico 149 

From Contrbras to Chapultepec 156 


Longstreet's Honeymoon 159 





Thx FiRfT Manassas l6S 

Williamsburg 167 

Fbatsxr's Farm 170 

March against Pope and the Second Manassas 173 

The Invasion of Maryland and the Battle of Antietam 180 

Fubdericksburo 185 

Chickamauoa 191 

In East Tennessee 194 

The Wilderness 205 

The Curtain falls at Appomattox 208 



James Longstreet 214 

The Funeral Ceremonies 217 

Tributes from the Press 226^ 

Bbsolutions bt Camps and Chapters 272 

Letter of President Roosevelt 580 

Personal Letters 831 

Letter of Archbishop Ireland 882 

Letter of General Frederick D. Grant SS^ 

Tribute from the Grand Army of the Republic 345 




General James Longstreet in 1865 (from the painting in the 

Corcoran Art Gallery^ Washington) Frontispiece 

General Robert E. Lee 82 

Major-General D. E. Sickles 40 

Second Day's Battle^ Gettysburg 68 

Retreat from Gettysburg (Accident during the Night-Crossing 

of the Potomac on a Pontoon Bridge) 78 

General Longstreet in 1901 90 

Defeat of the Federal Troops by Longstreet's Corps^ Second 

Manassas 178 

Battle of Fredericksburg (from the Battery on Lee's Hill) ... 190 
Battle of Chickamauga (Confederates flanking the Union 

Forces) 192 

The Assault on Fort Sanders^ Enozville 196 

The Wounding of General Longstreet at the Wilderness^ May 6^ 

1864 206 

General Alexander arranging the Last Line of Battle formed 

in the Army of Northern Virginia^ at Appomattox 212 

Fac-simile of Letter from President Theodore Roosevelt 830 

Fac-simile of Letter from Archbishop John Ireland 882 

Fac-simile of Letter from General Frederick D. Grant 884 


By Majob-Genebal D. E. Sickles, U.S.A. 

I AM glad to write an introduction to a memoir of 
Lieutenant-General Longstreet. 

If it be thought strange that I should write a preface 
to a memoir of a conspicuous adversary, I reply that 
the Civil War is only a memory, its asperities are for- 
gotten, both armies were American, old army friend- 
ships have been renewed and new army friendships have 
been formed among the combatants, the truth of history 
is dear to all of us, and the amenities of chivalrous man- 
hood are cherished alike by the North and the South, 
when justice to either is involved. Longstreet's splendid 
record as a soldier needs neither apologies nor eulogium. 
And if I venture, further along in this introduction, to 
defend him from unfair criticism, it is because my per- 
sonal knowledge of the battle of July 2, 1868, qualifies 
me to testify in his behalf. It was the fortune of my 
corps to meet Longstreet on many great fields. It is 
now my privilege to oflfer a tribute to his memory. VAs 
Colonel Damas says in " The Lady of Lyons," after 
his duel with Melnotte, '^ It's astonishing how much I 
like a man after IVe fought with him.""^ 
(Often adversaries on the field of battle, we became 
good friends after peace was restored. He supported 
President Grant and his successors in their wise policy 
of restoration. Longrtreet's example was the rainbow 
of reconciliation lEEat" foreshadowed real peace Between 
the North and SouthT He drew the fire of the irrecon- 
cilable South. His statesmanlike forecast blazed the 

9 17 


path of progress and prosperity for his people, im- 
poverished by war and discouraged by adversity. He 
was the first of the illustrious Southern war leaders to 
accept the result of the great conflict as finalT) He 
folded up forever the Confederate flag he had followed 
with supreme devotion, and thenceforth saluted the 
Stars and Stripes of the Union with unfaltering 
homage. He was the trusted servant of the republic in 
peace, as he had been its relentless foe in war. The 
friends of the Union became his friends, the enemies of 
the Union his enemies. 

I trust I may be pardoned for relating an incident 
that reveals the simny side of Longstreet's genial na- 
ture. (^Tien I visited Georgia, in March, 1892, I was 
toucheoby a call from the Greneral, who came from 
Gainesville to Atlanta to welcome me to his State. On 
St. Patrick's Day we supped together as guests of the 
Irish Societies of Atlanta, at their banquet. We en- 
tered the hall arm in arm, about nine o'clock in the even- 
ing, and were received by some three hundred gentle- 
men, with the wildest and loudest "rebel yell" I had 
ever heard. When I rose to respond to a toast in honor 
of the Empire State of the North, Longstreet stood 
also and leaned with one arm on my shoulder, the better 
to hear what I had to say, and tliis was a signal for 
another outburst. I concluded my remarks by pro- 

"Health and Iom life to my old adversary, Lieutenant- 
General Long8treet,'*\ 

assuring the audience that, although the General did not 
often make speeches, he would sing the " Star-Spangled 
•Banner." This was, indeed, a risky promise, as I had 
never heard the General sing. I was greatly relieved 
by his exclamation: 




And he did sing the song admirably, the company 
joining with much enthusiasm. 

As the hour was late, and we had enjoyed quite a 
number of potations of hot Irish whiskey punch, we 
decided to go to oiu* lodgings long before the end of 
the revel, which appeared likely to last until daybreak. 
When we descended to the street we were unable to 
find a carriage, but Longstreet proposed to be my 
guide; and, although the streets were dark and the walk 
a long one, we reached my hotel in fairly good form. 
Not wishing to be outdone in courtesy, I said, — 

"Longstreet, the streets of Atlanta are very dark 
and it is very late, and you are somewhat deaf and 
rather infirm; now I must escort you to your head- 

"All right,'* said Longstreet; "come on and we'll 
have another handshake over the bloody chasm." 

When we arrived at his stopping-place and were 
about to separate, as I supposed, he turned to me and 
said, — 

" Sickles, the streets of Atlanta are very dark and 
you are lame, and a stranger here, and do not know 
the way back to your hotel ; I must escort you home." 

" Come along, Longstreet," was my answer. 

On our way to the hotel, I said to him, — 

" Old fellow, I hope you are sorry for shooting oflf 
my leg at Gettysburg. I suppose I will have to for- 
give you for it some day." 

" Forgive me?" Longstreet exclauned. " You ought 
to thank me for leaving you one leg to stand on, after 
the mean way you behaved to me at Gettysburg." 

How often we performed escort duty for each other 
on that eventful night I have never been able to recall 
with precision; but I am quite sure that I shall never 
forget St. Patrick's Day in 1892, at Atlanta, Georgia, 



when LfOngstreet and I enjoyed the good Irish whiskey 
punch at the banquet of the Enights of St Patrick. 

Afterwards Longstreet and I met again, at Grettjrs- 
burg, this time as the guests of John Russell Young, 
who had invited a number of his literary and jour- 
nalistic friends to join us on the old battle-field. We 
rode in the same carriage. When I assisted the Grcneral 
in climbing up the rocky face of Round Top, he turned 
to me and said, — 

"" Sickles, you can well afford to help me up here 
now, for if you had not kept me away so long from 
Round Top on the 2d of July, 1868, the war would 
have lasted longer than it did, and might have had a 
different ending." 

As he said this, his stem, leonine face softened with a 
smile as sweet as a brother's. 

We met in March, 1901, at the reception given to 
President McKinley on his second inauguration. In 
the midst of the great throng assembled on that occa- 
sion Longstreet and I had quite a reception of our own. 
He was accompanied on this occasion by Mrs. Liong- 
street. Every one admired the blended courtliness and 
gallantry of the veteran hero towards the ladies who 
were presented to him and his charming wife. 

At the West Point Centennial Longstreet and I sat 
together on the dais, near President Roosevelt, the Sec- 
retary of War, Mr. Root, and the commander of the 
army, Lieutenant-General Miles. Here among his 
fellow-graduates of the Military Academy, he received 
a great ovation from the vast audience that filled Cul- 
lum HalL Again and again he was cheered, when he 
turned to me, exclaiming, — 

" Sickles, what are they all cheering about?" 

" They are cheering you, General," was my reply. 

Joy lighted up his countenance, the war was for- 
gotten, and Longstreet was at home once more at West 



Again we stood upon the same platform, in Wash- 
ington, on May 80, — ^Memorial Day, — 1902. Together 
we reviewed, with President Roosevelt, the magnificent 
column of Union veterans that marched past the Presi- 
dent's reviewing-stand. That evening Longstreet 
joined me in a visit to a thousand or more soldiers of 
the Third Army Corps, assembled in a tent near the 
White House. These veterans, with a multitude of 
fheir conu*ades, had come to Washington to com- 
memorate another Memorial Day in the Capitol of the 
Nation. The welcome given him by this crowd of old 
soldiers, who had fought him with all their might again 
and again, on many battle-fields, could hardly have been 
more cordial if he had found himself in the midst of an 
equal number of his own command. His speech to the 
men was felicitous, and enthusiastically cheered. In an 
eloquent peroration he said, " I hope to live long enough 
to see my surviving comrades march side by side with 
fhe Union veterans along Pennsylvania Avenue, and 
then I will die happy.'' This was the last time I met 

tXongstreet was unjustly blamed for not attacking 
earlier in the day, on July 2, 1868, at (Jettysburg. I 
can answer that criticism, as I know more about the 
matter than the critics. If he had attacked in the morn- 
ing, as it is said he should have done, he would have 
encountered Buf ord's division of cavalry, five thousand 
sabres, on his flank, and my corps would have been in 
bis front, as it was in the afternoon. In a word, all the 
troops that opposed Longstreet in the afternoon, in- 
duding the Fifth Army Corps and Caldwell's division 
of the Second Corps, would have been available on the 
left flank of the Union army in the momingp) Every 
regiment and every battery that fired a shot in the 
afternoon was on llie field in the morning, and would 
liave resisted an assault in the morning as stubbornly 



as in the afternoon. Moreover, if the assault had been 
made in the morning. Law's strong brigade of Ala- 
bamians eould not have assisted in the attack, as they 
did not arrive on the field until noon. On the other 
hand, if Lee had waited an hour later, I would have 
been on Cemetery Ridge, in compliance with General 
Meade's orders, and Longstreet could have marched, 
unresisted, from Seminary Ridge to the foot of Round 
Top, and might, perhaps, have unlimbered his guns on 
the summit. 

Grcneral Meade's telegram to Halleck, dated 8 p.m., 
July 2, does not indicate that Lee was then about to 
attack him. At the time that despatch was sent, a 
council of corps commanders was assembled at Grcneral 
Meade's head-quarters. It was broken up by the sound 
of Longstreet's artillejy. The probability is that Long- 
street's attack held the Union army at Grcttysburg. If 
Longstreet had waited until a later hour, the Union 
army might have been moving towards Pipe Creek, the 
position chosen by General Meade on June 80. 

The best proof that Lee was not dissatisfied with 
Longstreet's movements on July 2 is the fact that 
Longstreet was intrusted with the command of the 
column of attack on July 8, — ^Lee's last hope at Gettys- 
burg. Of the eleven brigades that assaulted the Union 
left centre on July 8, only three of them — ^Pickett's di- 
vision — ^belonged to Longstreet's corps, the other eight 
brigades belonged to Hill's corps. If Longstreet had 
disappointed Lee on July 2, why would Lee, on the 
next day, give Longstreet a command of supreme im- 
portance, of which more than two-thirds of the troops 
were taken from another corps commander? 
^Longstreet did not look for success on July 8. He 
toid General Lee that '* the fifteen thousand men who 
could make a successful assault over that field had never 
been arrayed for battle," and yet the command was 



given to Longstreet Why? Because the conBdence 
of Lee in Longstreet was unshaken; because he re- 
garded Longstreet as his most capable lieutenanfT^ 
rjjongstreet was never censured for the failure of the 
assault on July 8, although General Lee intimates, in 
his official report, that it was not made as early in the 
day as was expected. Why, then, is Longstreet blamed 
by them for the failure on July 2, when no fault was 
found by General Lee with Longstreet's dispositions 
on that day? JThe failure of both assaults must be at- 
tributed to insurmountable obstacles, which no com- 
mander could have overcome with the force at Long- 
street's disposal, — seventeen thousand men on July 2, 
and fifteen thousand men on July 8, against thirty 
thousand adversaries! 

rln General Lee's official report not a word appears 
about any delay in Longstreet's movements on July 2, 
although, referring to the assault of July 8, General 
Lee says, " General Longstreet's dispositions were not 
completed as early as was expected." If General Lee 
did not hesitate to point out unlooked for delay on 
July 8, why was he silent about delay on July 2? His 
silence about delay on July 2 implies that there was 
none on July 2^ Expresio urdus exclvMo alterius. 
General Lee says, in his report, referring to July 8, — 

^ Greneral Longstreet was delayed by a force occupjring the 
high, rocky hills on the enemy's extreme left, from which his 
troops could be attacked in reverse as they advanced. His 
operations had been embarrassed the day previous by the same 
cause, and he now deemed it necessary to defend his flank and 
with the divisions of Hood and McLaws." 

Another embarrassment prevented an earlier attack 
on July 2. It was the plan of General Lee to surprise 
the left flank of the Union army. General Lee ordered 
Captain Johnson, the engineer officer of his staff, to 



conduct Longstreet's column by a route concealed from 
the enemy. But the formation and movements of the 
attacking column had been discovered by my recon- 
noisance; this exposure put an end to any chance of 
surprise. Other dispositions became necessary; fresh 
orders from head-quarters were asked for; another line 
of advance had to be found, less exposed to view. All 
this took time. These circumstances were, of course, 
known to General Lee; hence he saw no reason to 
reproach Longstreet for delay. 

The situation on the left flank of the Union army was 
entirely changed by my advance to the Emmitsburg 
road. Fitzhugh Lee says, "" Lee was deceived by it and 
gave orders to attack up the Emmitsburg road, par- 
tially enveloping the enemy's left; there was much 
behind Sickles." The obvious purpose of my advance 
was to hold Lee's force in check until Grcneral Meade 
could bring his reserves from his right flank, at Rock 
Creek, to the Round Tops, on the left. Fortunately 
for me, Grcneral Lee believed that my line from the 
Peach-Orchard north — about a division front — ^was all 
Longstreet would have to deal with. Longstreet soon 
discovered that my left rested beyond Devil's Den, about 
twelve hundred yards easterly from the Emmitsburg 
road, and at a right angle to it. Of course, Longstreet 
could not push forward to Lee's objective, — ^the Em- 
mitsburg road ridge, — ^leaving this force on his flank 
and rear, to take him in reverse. An obstinate conflict 
followed, which detained Longstreet until the Fifth 
Corps, which had been in reserve on the Union right, 
moved to the left and got into position on the Round 
Tops. Thus it happened that my salient at the Peach- 
Orchard, on the Emmitsburg road, was not attacked 
until six o'clock, the troops on my line, from the Em- 
mitsburg road to the Devil's Den, having held their 
positions until that hour. The surprise Lee had planned 


was turned upon himself. The same thing would have 
happened if Longstreet had attacked in the morning; 
all the troops that resisted Longstreet in the afternoon 
— say thirty thousand — ^would have opposed him in the 

The alignment of the Union forces on the left flank 
at 11 A.M., when Lee gave his preliminary orders to 
Longstreet for the attack, was altogeilier different 
from the dispositions made by me at 8 p.m., when the 
attack was begun. At eleven in the morning my com- 
mand was on Cemetery Ridge, to the left of Hancock. 
At two o'clock in the afternoon, anticipating General 
Lee's attack, I changed front, deploying my left di- 
vision (Bimey's) from Plum Run, near the base of 
Little Round Top, to the Peach-Orchard, at the inter- 
section of Millerstown and Emmitsburg roads. My 
right division (Himoiphrey's) was moved forward to the 
Emmitsburg road, its left connecting with Bimey at 
the Orchard, and its right en echelon with Hancock, 
parallel with the Codori House. 

Longstreet was ordered to conceal his column of at- 
tack, for which the ground on Lee's right afforded ex- 
cellent opportunities. Lee's plan was a repetition of 
Jackson's attack on the right flank of the Union army 
at Chancellorsville. In the afternoon, however, in view 
of the advance of my corps, Grcneral Lee was obliged 
to form a new plan of battle. As he believed that both 
of my flanks rested on the Emmitsburg road, Lee di- 
rected Longstreet to envelop my left at the Peach- 
Orchard, and press the attack northward '^up the 
Emmitsburg road." 

Colonel Fairfax, of Longstreet's staff, says that Lee 
and Longstreet were together at three o'clock, when 
the attack began. Lieutenant-Grcneral Hill, com- 
manding the First Corps of Lee's army, says in his 
report, — 





^The corps of General Longstreet (McLaws's and Hood's 
divisions) was on my right, and in a line very nearly at ri^^t 
angles to mine. Gkneral Longstreet was to attack the left flank 
of the enemy, and sweep down his line, and I was ordered to 
oo-operate with him with such of my brigades from the right 
as could join in with his troops in the attack. On the extreme 
right. Hood commenced the attack about two o'clock, McLawa 
about 6.30 o'clock." 

Longstreet was not long in discovering, by his artil- 
lery practice, that my position at the Peach-Orchard 
was a salient, and that my left flank really rested twelve 
hmidred yards eastward, at Plum Rmi, in the valley 
between Little Round Top and the Devil's Den, con- 
cealed from observation by woods; my line extended to 
the high ground along the Emmitsburg road, from 
which Lee says, " It was thought our artillery could be 
used to advantage in assailing the more elevated ground 

General J. B. Hood's story of his part in the battle 
of July 2, taken from a communication addressed to 
General Longstreet, which appears in Hood's "Ad- 
vance and Retreat," pages 57-59, is a clear narrative 
of the movements of Longstreet's assaulting column. 
It emphasizes the firm adherence of Longstreet to the 
orders of General Lee. Again and again, as Hood 
plainly points out, Longstreet refused to listen to 
Hood's appeal for leave to turn Round Top and assail 
the Union rear, always replying, " General Lee's orders 
are to attack up the Enmiitsburg road." * 

* Hood saysy ** As soon as I arrived upon the Emmitsbnrg rood I placed 
one or two batteries in position and opened fire. A reply from the enemy's 
guns soon developed his lines. His left rested on or near Round Top, with 
line bending back and again forward, forming, as it were, a concave line^ 
as approached by the Emmitsburg road. A considerable body of troopa 
was posted in front of their main line, between the Emmitsburg road and 
Round Top Mountain. This force was in line of battle upon an eminence 
near a peach-ordiard. 

**! found that in making the attack according to orders,— vis., up the 



These often repeated orders of General Lee to 
*' attack up the Emmitsburg road" could not have been 

Bmmitslmrg road,— I sbonld have first to encounter and drive off this 
advanced line of battle; secondly, at the base and aXoag the slope of the 
mountain, to confront immense boulders of stone, so massed together as 
to form narrow openings, which would break our ranks and cause the men 
to scatter whilst climbing up the rocky precipice. I found, moreover, that 
way division would be exposed to a heavy fire from the main line of the 
enemy in position on the crest of the high range, of which Round Top was 
the extreme left, and, by reason of the concavity of the enemy's main line, 
tliat we would be subject to a destructive fire in flank and rear, as well as 
in tlie front; and deemed it almost an impossibility to clamber along the 
boulders up this steep and rugged mountain, and, under this number of 
cross fires, put the enemy to flight I Imew that if the feat was accom- 
plished, it must be at a most fearful sacrifice of as brave and gallant 
soldiers as ever engaged in battle. 

**I considered it my duty to report to you at once my opinion that it 
was unwise to attack up the Emmitsburg road, as ordered, and to urge 
that yon allow me to turn Round Top and attack the enemy in flank and 
rear. Accordingly, I despatched a staff-officer, bearing to you my request 
to be allowed to malce the proposed movement on account of the above 
stated reasons. Tour reply was quickly received: 'General Lee's orders 
are to attack up the Emmitsburg road.' I sent another officer to say that 
I feared nothing could be accomplished by such an attack, and renewed my 
request to turn Round Top. Again your answer was, ' General Lee's orders 
are to attack up the Emmitsburg road.' During this interim I had con- 
tinued the use of the batteries upon the enemy, and had become more and 
more convinced that the Federal line extended to Round Top, and that I 
could not reasonably hope to accomplish much by the attack as ordered. 
In fact, it seemed to me the enemy occupied a position by nature so strong 
— ^I may say impregnable — ^that, independently of their flank fire, they could 
easQy repel our attack by merely throwing and rolling stones down the 
monntaln-eide, as we approached. 

''A third time I despatched one of my staff to explain fully in regard 
to tlie situation, and suggest that you had better come and look for your- 
self. I selected, in this instance, my adjutant-general, Colonel Harry 
Sellers, whom you know to be not only an officer of great courage, but also 
of marked ability. Colonel Sellers returned with the same message: * Gen- 
eral Lee^s orders are to attack up the Enmiitsburg road.' Almost simul- 
taneously. Colonel Fairfax, of your staff, rode up and repeated the above 

** After this urgent protest against entering the battle of Gettysburg, 
according to my instructions, — which protest is the first and only one I 
ever made during my entire military career, — I ordered my line to advance 
and malce the assault. 

'*As my troops were moving forward, you rode up in person; a brief 
conversation passed between us, during which I agahi expressed the fears 
above mentioned, and regret at not being allowed to attack in flank around 
Roond Top. You answered to this effect: 'We must obey the orders of 



given until near three in the afternoon of July 2, be- 
cause before that hour there was no Union line of 
battle on the Emmitsburg road. There had been only 
a few of my pickets there in the morning, thrown for- 
ward by the First Massachusetts Infantry. It dis- 
tinctly appears that Lee rejected Longstreet's plan to 
turn the Federal left on Cemetery Ridge. And Hood 
makes it plain enough that Longstreet refused to listen 
to Hood's appeal for permission to turn Round Top, 
on the main Federal line, always replying, " No; Grcn- 
eral Lice's orders are to attack up the Emmitsburg 
road." Of course, that plan of battle was not formed 
until troops had been placed in positions conunanding 
that road. This, we have seen, was not done untQ 
towards three in the afternoon. 

The only order of battle announced by General Lee 
on July 2 of which there is any record was to assail 
my position on the Emmitsburg road, turn my left 
flank (which he erroneously supposed to rest on the 
Peach-Orchard), and sweep the attack "up the Em- 
mitsburg road." This was impossible until I occupied 
that road, and it was then that Longstreet's artillery 
began its practice on my advanced line. 

I am unable to see how any just person can charge 
Longstreet with deviation from the orders of General 
Lee on July 2. It is true enough that Longstreet had 
advised different tactics ; but he was a soldier, — ^a West 
Pointer, — and once he had indicated his own views, he 

General Lee.* I then rode forward with my line under a heaTy fire. In 
about twenty mimites after reaching the Peach-Orchard I was severe^ 
wounded in tiie arm and borne from tiie field. 

''With this wound terminated my participation in this great battle. As 
I was borne olF on a litter to the rear, I could but eiqwrience deep distren 
of mind and heart at the thought of the inevitable fate of my brave fellow- 
sddiersy who formed one of the grandest divisions ot tiiat world-renowned 
army; and I shall ever believe that had I been permitted to turn Round 
Top Mountain, we would not only have gained that position, but have been 
able finally to root the enemy.'* 


obeyed the orders of the general commanding, — ^he did 
not even exercise the discretion allowed to the chief of 
a corps dfarmie, which permits him to modify instruc- 
tions when an unforeseen emergency imposes fresh 
responsibilities, or when an unlooked-for opportunity 
offers tempting advantages. 

We have seen that many circumstances required 
General Lice to modify his plans and orders on July 2 
between daybreak, when his first reconnoisance was 
made, and three o'clock in the afternoon, when my 
advanced position was defined. We have seen that if 
a morning attack had been made the column would 
have encountered Buford's strong division of cavalry 
on its flank, and that it would have been weakened by 
the absence of Law's brigade of Hood's division. We 
have seen that Longstreet, even in the afternoon, when 
Law had come up and Buf ord had been sent to West- 
minster, was still too weak to contend against the re- 
inforcements sent against him. We have seen that 
Lee was present all day on July 2, and that his own 
staff-officer led the column of attack. We have seen 
that General Lee, in his official report, gives no hint 
of dissatisfaction with Longstreet's conduct of the bat- 
tle of July 2, nor does it appear that Longstreet was 
ever afterwards criticised by Lee. On the contrary, 
Lee points out that the same danger to Longstreet's 
flank, which required the protection of two divisions 
on July 8, existed on July 2, when his flank was 
unsupported. We have seen that again and again, 
when Hood appealed to Longstreet for leave to swing 
his colunm to the right and turn the Round Tops, 
Longstreet as often refused, always saying, "No; 
Grcneral Lee's orders are to attack up the Emmitsburg 
road." The conclusion is irrefutable, that whilst the 
operations were directed with signal ability and sus- 
tained by heroic courage, the failure of both assaults, 



that of July 2 and the other of July 8, must be at- 
tributed to ihe lack of strength in the columns of attack 
on both days, for which the commanding general alone 
was responsible. 

It was Longstreet's good fortune to live until he saw 
his country hold a high place among the great powers 
of the world. He saw the new South advancing in 
prosperity, hand in hand with the North, East, and 
West. He saw his people in the ranks of our army, in 
Cuba, Porto Rico, the Philippines, China, and Panama; 
he saw the Union stars and the blue uniform worn by 
Fitzhugh Lee, and Butler, and Wheeler. He witnessed 
the fulfilment of his prediction, — ^that the hearty re- 
union of the North and South would advance the wel- 
fare of both. He lived long enough to rejoice with all 
of us in a reunited nation, and to know tiiat his name 
was honored wherever the old flag was unfurled. His 
fame as a soldier belongs to all Americans. 

Farewell, Longstreetl I shall follow you very soon. 
May we meet in the happy realm where strife is un- 
known and friendship is eternal I 





Back of the day that opened so auspiciously for the Confederate 
cause at the first Manassas^ and of the four years that followed, 
lies Ixmgstreet's record of a quarter of a century in the Union army, 
completing one of the most lustrous pages in the world's war history. 
That page cannot be dimmed or darkened; it rests secure in its own 
white splendor, above the touch of detractors. 

/The detractors of General Longstreet's military in- 
tegrity assert that, being opposed to fighting an offen- 
sive battle at Gettysburg, he was " baJky and stubborn'* 
in executing Lee's orders; that he disobeyed the com- 
manding general's orders to attack at sunrise on the 
morning of July 2; that, again ordered to attack with 
half the army on the morning of July 8, his culpably 
slow attack with only Pickett's division, supported by 
some of Hill's troops, caused the fatal Confederate de- 
feat in that encounter7\ 

Greneral Gordon has seen fit, in a recent publication, / 
to revive this cruel aspersion. ' 

^Vhen General Longstreet surrendered his sword at 
Aj^pomattox his war record was made up. It stands 
imassailable — ^needing no defenders. Back of the day 


Lee and Lokgstbeet at Hioh Tide 

that opened so auspiciously for the Confederate cause 
at the first Manassas, and of the four years that fol- 
lowed, lies the record of a quarter of a century in the 
Union army?^ 

In those times Grcneral Longstreet, at Cerro Grordo, 
Molino del Rey, and Chapultepec, was aiding to win 
the great empire of the West; in subsequent hard Indian 
campaigns lighting the fagots of a splendid western 
civilization, adding new glory to American arms and, in 
the struggles of a nation that fell, a new star of the first 
magnitude to the galaxy of American valor, completing 
one of the most lustrous pages in the world's war his- 
tory. That page cannot be dimmed or darkened; it 
rests secure in its own white splendor, above the touch 
of detractors. 

General Longstreet has of late years deemed it un- 
necessary to make defence of his military integrity, save 
such as may be found in his memoirs, ** Manassas to 
Appomattox," published nearly ten years since. He 
has held that his deeds stand on the impartial pages of 
the nation's records — ^their own defender. 
NThe cold historian of our CivU War of a hundred 
years hence will not go for truth to the picturesque 
reminiscences of General John B. Gordon, nor to the 
pyrotechnics of General Fitzhugh Lee, nor yet to the 
somewhat hysterical ravings of Rev. Mr. Pendleton 
and scores of other modem essayists who have sought 
to fix the failure of Gettysburg upon General Long- 
street?; The coming chronicler will cast aside the rubbish 
of passion and hate that followed the war, and have 
recourse to the nation's official war records, and in the 
cool, calm lights of the letters and reports of the par- 
ticipants, written at the time, will place the blunder of 
Gettysburg where it belongs. Longstreet's fame has 
nol^g to fear in that hour. 

^ut for the benefit of the present — of the young, the 



The Stoey of Gettysburg 

busy, who have neither time nor inclination to study the 
records, and for that sentiment that is increasingly 
shaped by the public press, — for these and other reasons 
it appears fitting that in this hour historical truth should 
have a spokesman on the Grcttysburg contentions! \ In 
the absence of one more able to speak, this little story 
of the truth is written. The writer belongs to a genera- 
tion that has come up since the gloom of Appomattox 
closed the drama of the great '"Lost Cause" of 
American history — ^a generation that seeks the truth, 
unwarped and undistorted by passion, and can face the 

In the prosecution of my researches for the origin of 
the extraordinary calumnies aimed at Greneral Long- 
street's honor as a soldier, two most significant facts 
have continually pressed upon my attention. 
^First, not one word appears to have been published 
cptnlj accusing him of disobedience at Grcttysburg 
imtil the man who could forever have silenced all criti- 
cism was in his grave — until the knightly soul of Robert 
Edward Lee had passed into etemityr^ 
/^Second, Greneral Longstreet's operations on the field 
d€ Grcttysburg were above the suspicion of reproach 
until he came under the political ban in the South, for 
meeting in the proper spirit, as he saw it, the require- 
ments of good citizenship in the observance of his Appo- 
mattox parole, and, after the removal of his political 
disabilities, for having accepted office at the hands of a 
Bepublican President who happened to be his old West 
Point comrade, — Grant^^ 

Then the storm brok/ ^e was heralded as traitor, 
deserter of his people, desmer of Democracy, eM7 In 
tiie fury of this onslaught originated the cruel slander 
that he had disobeyed Lee's most vital orders, causing 
the loss of the Gettysburg battle and the ultimate fall 
of the Confederate cause. Most singularly, this strange 

S 83 

Lee and Longstbeet at High Tide 

discovery was not made until some years after the battle 
and Gteneral Lee's death. /Thereafter for two decades 
the South was sedulously taught to believe that the Fed- 
eral victory was wholly the fortuitous outcome of the 
culpable disobedience of Gteneral Longstreet) 

The sectional complaint that he deserted "Democ- 
racy" is about as relevant and truthful as the assertion 
that he lost Gtettysburg. /Re was a West Pointer, a 
professional soldier. He kad never cast a ballot before 
the Civil War; he had no politics. Its passions and 
prejudices had no dwelling-place in his mind. The war 
was over, and he quietly accepted the result, frater- 
nizing with all AmericansTv It was no great crime. 
rBut the peculiar circumstances favored an opportu- 
nity to make Longstreet tihie long-desired scape-goat for 
Gettysburg. There was an ulterior and deeper pur- 
y pose, however, than merely besmirching his military 
\S\ record. Short-sighted partisans seemingly argued that 
the disparagement of Longstreet was necessary to save 
the military reputation of Lee. But Lee's gre at fame 

The outrageous charges against Longstreet have 
been wholly disproved. Much of the partisan rancor 
that once pursued him has died out. Many of the more 
intelligent Southerners have been long convinced that 
he was the victim of a great wrong. 

It was unworthy of Major-General John B. Gordon, 
once of the army of Northern Virginia, to revive this 
dead controversy. He simply reiterates the old charges 
in full, produces no evidence in their support, and gra- 
tuitously endorses a false and cruel verdict. His con- 
tribution is of no historical value. It carries inherent 
evidence that General Gordon made no critical examina- 
tion of the documentary history of Gettysburg. He 
assumes to render a verdict on the say-so of others. 

Gordon's unsupported assertions would require no 


The Stoky of Gettysbukg 

attention but for one fact. Both South and North 
there is a widespread impression that Gordon was a 
conspicuous figure at Gettysburg. This is erroneous. 
He was merely a brigade commander there, stationed 
five miles from Longstreet. It is not certain that he 
personally saw either Lee or Longstreet while the army 
was in Pennsylvania. 

In his official report Gordon uses this language re- 
garding the operations of his own small command at 
Gettysburg when the heaviest fighting was going on, 
finely showing the scope of his opportunities for obser- 

** The movements during the succeeding days of the battle, 
July 2 and 8, I do not consider of sufficient importance to 

It is but just to Gordon, however, to say that in his 
subordinate capacity at the head of one of the thirty- 
seven brigades of infantry comprising Lee's army, he 
performed excellent service on the first day's battle. 
!But in estimating his value as a personal witness, the 
foregoing undisputed facts must be taken into consid- 
eration. His testimony is obviously of the hearsay kind. 
In fact, as will be observed from his own admission, it 
is no more than his own personal conclusions, wholly 
deduced from the assertions of others, based on an 
^issumed state of facts which did not exist. 

In his recent publication, " Reminiscences of the Civil 
"War," Gordon says, — 

^^It now seems certain that impartial military critics, after 
thorough investigation, will consider the following facts estab- 

** First, that General Lee distinctly ordered Longstreet to at- 
tack early on the morning of the second day, and if Longstreet 
had done so two of the largest corps of Meade's army would 
not have been in the fight; but Longstreet delayed the fight 

Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tide 

imt3 four o'clock in the afternoon, and thus lost his opportonity 
of occupying Little Round Top, the key of the position, whidi 
he might have done in the morning without firing a shot or 
losing a man.^ 

It is competent to point out that Longstreef 8 orders 
from General Lee were ** to move around to gain the 
Emmitsburg road, on the enemy's left/' In short, he 
was " to attack up the Emmitsburg road," as all the 
authorities agree. He therefore could not well 
'* occupy" Little Round Top up the Emmitsburg road, 
because it was but a fraction less than a mile to the east 
of that road. It is as dear as noonday that Lee had no 
thought at first, if ever, that Little Round Top was the 
''key to the position." Lee merely cont^nplated 
driving the enemy from some hig^ ground on the Em- 
mitsburg road from which the ** more elevated ground" 
of Cemetery Hill in its rear, more than a mile to the 
northward of Little Round Top, could be subsequently 

Lee's luminous report of the battle, dated July 81, 
1868, only four weeks after, has escaped Gordon's 
notice, or has been conveniently ignored by him. It is 
found at page 805 et seq., of Part II., Vol. XJLVll., 
of the printed War Records, easily accessible to every- 
body. At page 808, Lee's report: 

^ ... In front of Creneral Longstreet the enemy held a posi* 
tion from which, if he could be driven, it was thought our artil^ 
lery could be used to advantage in assailing the more elevate& 
ground beyond, and thus enable us to reach the crest of tli^ 
ridge. That officer was directed to carry this position. • • ^ 
After a severe struggle, Longstreet succeeded in getting po sse s- 
sion of and holding the desired ground. • . . The battle ceased 
at dark.** 

The "" desired ground" captured was that held by 
Sickles's Federal Third Corps, — ^the celebrated peach- 


The Story of Gettysburo 

orchard, wheat-field, and adjacent high ground, from 
which Cemetery Hill was next day assailed by the 
Confederate artillery as a prelude to Pickett's infantry 

It was the " crest of the ridge,'* not the Round Top, 
that Lee wished to assail. His eye from the first ap- 
pears to have been steadily fixed upon the Federal 
centre. That is why he ordered the '* attack up the £m- 
mitsburg road." 

Longstreet's official report is very explicit on this 
point. It was written July 27, 1868. On page 858 of 
the same book he says, — 

^I reoeiyed instructions from the commanding general to 
move, with the portion of my command that was up, around to 
gain the Emmitsburg road, on the enemy's left.'' 

Lieutenant-General R. H. Anderson, then of EQll's 
corps, also makes this definite statement: 

^ Shortly after the line had been formed, I received notice 
that Lieutenant-Greneral Longstreet would occupy the ground 
on my right, and that his line would be in a direction nearly at 
rij^t angles with mine, and that he would assault the extreme 
kft of the enemy and drive him towards Gettysburg." 

Just here it is pertinent to say that GScneral Long- 
street had the afternoon previous, and again that mom- 
ingf suggested to General Lee the more promising plan 
of a movement by the Confederate right to interpose 
between the Federals and their capital, and thus compel 
Grcneral Meade to give battle at a disadvantage. On 
this point General Longstreet uses the following lan- 
guage in a newspaper publication * more than a quarter 
of a century ago: 

^''llie Campaign of Gefctysbarg," by lieatenant-General James Long- 
itreet One ot a series of papers on the Civil War by different dls- 
tfagnished participants^ both Union and Confederate^ in Colond A. K. 
XcChire^s Fhiladdphia WeslOy Tim$9, 1877. 


Lee and Longstkeet at High Tide 

" When I overtook General Lee at five o'clock that afternoon 
[July I], he said, to my surprise, that he thought of attacking 
Greneral Meade upon the heights the next day. I suggested that 
this course seemed to be at variance with the plan of the cam- 
paign that had been agreed upon before leaving Fredericksburg. 
He said, ^ If the enemy is there to-morrow, we must attack him.' 
I replied: ^ If he is there, it will be because he is anxious that 
we should attack him — a good reason in my judgment for not 
doing so.' I urged that we should move aroimd by our ri^t 
to the left of Meade and put our army between him and Wash- 
ington, threatening his left and rear, and thus force him to 
attack us in such position as we might select. ... I called 
his attention to the fact that the country was admirably adapted 
for a defensive battle, and that we should surely repulse Meade 
with crushing loss if we would take position so as to force him 
to attack us, and suggested that even if we carried the heights 
in front of us, and drove Meade out, we should be so badly 
crippled that we could not reap the fruits of victory ; and that 
the heights of Gettysburg were in themselves of no more im- 
portance to us than the ground we then occupied, and that the 
mere possession of the groimd was not worth a hundred men 
to us. That Meade's army, not its position, was our objective. 
Greneral Lee was impressed with the idea that by attacking 
the Federals he could whip them in detail. I reminded him that 
if the Federals were there in the morning it would be proof that 
they had their forces well in hand, and that with Pickett in 
Chambersburg, and Stuart out of reach, we should be somewhat 
in detail. He, however, did not seem to abandon the idea of 
attack on the next day. He seemed under a subdued excitement 
which occasionally took possession of him when ^ the hunt was 
up,' and threatened his superb equipoise. . . . When I left 
General Lee on the night of the 1st, I believed that he had made 
up his mind to attack, but was confident that he had not yet 
determined as to when the attack should be made." 

But General Lee persisted in the direct attack " up 
the Emmitsburg road." Hood, deployed on Long- 
street's extreme right, at once perceived that the true 
direction was by flank against the southern slopes of 


The Stoey of Gettysburg 

Big Round Top. He delayed the advance to advise 
of the discovery he had made. Soon the positive order 
came back: " General Lee's orders are to attack up the 
Emmitsburg road." He still hesitated and repeated 
the suggestion. Again it was reiterated: "General 
Lee's orders are to attack up the Emmitsburg road." 
Then the troops moved to the attack. There was no 
alternative. Lee's orders were imperative, and made 
after he had personally examined the enemy's position. 
Longstreet was ordered to attack a specific position 
" up the Emmitsburg road," which was not Little 
Round Top, as assumed by Gordon. This point is par- 
ticularly elaborated because in it lies the " milk in the 
cocoanut" of the charges against Longstreet. Without 
consulting the records (Jordon has merely followed the 
lead of some of General Lee's biographers, notably 
Fitzhugh Lee, who asserts that his illustrious uncle " ex- 
pected Longstreet to seize Little Round Top on the 
2d of July." The records clearly show that nothing was 
f artlier from General Lee's thoughts. 

After the war it was discovered that a very early 
attack on Little Round Top would perhaps have 
found it undefended, hence the afterthought that Gen- 
eral Longstreet was ordered to attack at sunrise. But 
whatever the hour Longstreet was ordered to attack, it 
was most certainly not Little Round Top that was made 
his objective. 

Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tide 


lee changes plan of campaign 

" General, I have been a soldier all my life. I have been wUtt 
■oldiert engaged in fights by couples, by squads, companies, r^;i- 
ments, divisions, and armies, and should know as well as any one what 
soldiers can do. It is my opinion that no fifteen thoosand men em 
arrayed for battle can take that position," pointing to Cemetery 


General Longstseet's personal account of this 
magnificent battle "" up the Emmitsburg road" will not 
be out of place here. In the newspaper article pre- 
viously quoted from he very graphically describes the 
advance of the two divisions of McLaws and Hood, for 
when he went into battle it must be understood that even 
yet one of his divisions, that of Pickett, was still absent. 
He states his total force at thirteen thousand men. An 
account of this dash of arms must send a thrill of pride 
through every Southern heart: 

^ At half -past three o'clock the order was given General Hood 
to advance upon the enemy, and, hurrying to the head of 
McLaws's division, I moved with his line. Tlien was fairly com- 
menced what I do not hesitate to pronounce the best three hours* 
fighting ever done by any troops on any battle-field. Directly 
in front of us, occupying the peach-orchard, on a piece of 
elevated ground that General Lee desired me to take and hold 
for his artillery, was the Third Corps of the Federals, com- 
manded by Greneral Sickles. 

** Prompt to the order the combat opened, followed by ar- 
tillery of the other corps, and our artillerists measured up to 
the better metal of the enemy by vigilant work. • • • 

^ In his usual gallant style Hood led his troops throu^ the 
rocky fastnesses against the strong lines of his earnest adver- 



Lee changes Plan of Campaign 

tary^ and encountered battle that called for all of his power 
and skilL The enemy was tenacious of his strong ground; his 
skilfully handled batteries swept through the passes between the 
rocks; the more deadly fire of infantry concentrated as our 
men bore upon the angle of the enemy's line and stemmed the 
fiercest onset until it became necessary to shorten their work 
by a desperate charge. This pressing struggle and the cross- 
fire of our batteries broke in the salient angle, but the thicken- 
ing fire» as the angle was pressed back, hurt Hood's left and 
held him in steady fight. His right brigade was drawn towards 
Bound Top by the heavy fire pouring from that quarter, Ben- 
mug's brigade was pressed to the thickening line at the angle^ 
and 6. T. Anderson's was put in support of the battle growing 
against Hood's right. 

^ I rode to McLaws, found him ready for his opportunity, 
and Barksdale chafing in his wait for the order to seise the 
battery in his front. Kershaw's brigade of his right first ad- 
vanced and struck near the angle of the enemy's line where his 
forces were gathering strength. After additional caution to 
hold his ranks closed, McLaws ordered Barksdale in. With 
glorious bearing he sprang to his work, oTerriding obstacles and 
dangers. Without a pause to deliver a shot, he had the battery. 
Kershaw, joined by Semmes's brigade, responded, and Hood's 
men, feeling the impulsion of relief, resumed their bold fight, 
and presently the enemy's line was broken throu£^ its length. 
But his well-seasoned troops knew how to utilize the advantage 
of their ground and put back their dreadful fires from rocks, 
depressions, and stone fences, as they went for shelter about 
Xittle Bound Top. . • • The fighting had become tremendous, 
auid brave men and officers were stricken by hundreds. Posey 
luid Wilcox dislodged the forces about the Brick House. 
^ General Sickles was desperately wounded! 
^General Willard was dead! 

*' General Semmes, of McLaws's division, was mortally 
wounded! . . . 

" I had one brigade— Wofford's — ^that had not been engaged 
in the hottest battle. To urge the troops to their reserve power 
in the precious moments, I rode with Wofford. The rugged 
field, the rough plunge of artillery fire, and the piercing 


Lee and Longstseet at High Tide 

mosket-shots delayed somewhat the march, but Alexander 
dashed up with his batteries and gave new spirit to the worn 
infantry ranks. . • . While Meade's lines were growing my 
men were dropping; we had no others to call to their aid, 
and the weight against us was too heavy to carry. • . • Noth- 
ing was heard or felt but the clear ring of the enemy's fresh 
metal as he came against us. No other part of the army had 
engaged! My seventeen thousand against the Army of the 
Potomac ! The sun was down, and with it went down the severe 

Surely these are not the utterances of one who had 
been slow, balky, and obstructive on that field. The 
ring of these sentences tells no tale of apathy or back- 
wardness because his advice to pursue a different line 
of operations had been ignored by Lee. 

General (Jordon, continuing, very complacently as- 
sumes that " two of the largest corps of Meade's army 
would not have been in the fight" of the 2d had Long- 
street attacked early in the morning. He refers to the 
Union Fifth and Sixth Corps. That statement is cor- 
rect only as regards the Sixth Corps, which, it is true, 
did not arrive on the field until late in the afternoon. 
But it took only a slight part at dark on the 2d, when 
the battle was over. Indeed, as it was so slightly en- 
gaged, the hour of its arrival at Gettysburg is unimpor- 
tant. The losses of the different corps conclusively 
show what part the Sixth, which was the largest in the 
army, took in the battle of the 2d of July; as given in 
the Rebellion Records: 

Killed and wounded: First Corps, 8980; Second 
Corps, 8991; Third Corps, 8662; Fifth Corps, 1976; 
Sixth Corps, 212; Eleventh Corps, 2858; Twelfth 
Corps, 1016. 

Its non-participation strongly militates against the 
spirit of Grordon's argument, in that Meade entirely 
frustrated Lee's plans and defeated the Confederate 


Lee changes Plan of Campaign 

army, scarcely using the Sixth Corps, some fifteen thou- 
sand men, at all. This is a significant commentary on 
the anti-Longstreet assumption of how easy it was to 
win at Gettysburg if only Longstreet had obeyed 

At sunrise on the 2d, the hour at which LongstreeVs 
critics would have had this attack delivered, the Federal 
Fifth Corps was as near the battle-ground of that day 
as Longstreet's troops. Longstreet's troops were biv- 
ouacked the night previous at Marsh Creek, four miles 
west of Gettysburg. They began to arrive near Lee's 
head-quarters on Seminary Ridge not earlier than 7 
A.M. of the 2d, and the last of the column did not get in 
until near noon. Then they were still five miles by the 
route pursued from the chosen point of attack. 

The Union Fifth Corps was bivouacked five miles 
east of Gettysburg about the same hour on the 1st that 
Longstreet's tired infantry reached Marsh Creek. At 
four o'clock A.M. of the 2d they marched on Gettysburg, 
arriving about the same hour that Longstreet's troops 
were being massed near Lee's head-quarters, and were 
thereupon posted upon the extreme Federal right. 

Upon the first manifestation of Confederate move- 
ments on the right and left, we know that the Fifth 
Corps was immediately drawn in closer, and about nine 
o'clock massed at the bridge over Rock Creek on the 
^Baltimore pike, ready for developments. Meade 
thought Lee intended to attack his right. That Lee 
contemplated it is quite certain. Colonel Venable, of 
liis stafiT, was sent about sunrise to consult with Lieu- 
tenant-General Ewell upon the feasibility of a general 
attack from his front. Lee wanted Ewell's views as to 
the advisability of moving all the available troops 
around to that front for such a purpose. Venable and 
Ewell rode from point to point to determine if this 
should be done. Finally, Venable says, Lee himself 


Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tide 

came to Swell's lines, and eventuaUy the design for an 
attack on the Union right was abandoned. 

Where the Fifth Corps was finally massed, it was 
only one and a half miles in the rear of General Siddes's 
position. Moreover, it had an almost direct road to 
that point. This facility for reinforcing incidentally 
illustrates the advantages of the Union position. At 
the same hour General Longstreet's troops were stiU 
massed near the Chambersburg pike, three miles on a 
straight line from the point of attack. That is to say, 
Longstreet had twice as far to march on an air-line to 
strike Sickles "" up the Enmiitsburg road" as Sykes had 
to reinforce the threatened point. But, in fact, Sykes's 
advantage was far greater in point of time, because, l^ 
order of Lee, Longstreet was compelled to move by 
back roads and lanes, out of sight of the enemy's signal 
officers on Round Top. His troops actually mardied 
six or seven miles to reach the point of deployment. 

Longstreet eventually attacked about 4 p.m., and the 
Fifth Corps was used very effectively against him* 
But no historian who esteems the truth, with the undis- 
puted records before him, will deny that it could and 
would have been used just as effectively at seven or 
eight o'clock in the morning. The moment Longstreet's 
movement was detected it was immediately hurried over 
to the left and occupied Round Top. If Longstreet 
had moved earlier, the Fifth Corps also would have 
moved earlier. It could have been on Sickles's left and 
rear as early as seven o'clock a.m., had it been necessary. 
If Ewell and not Longstreet had delivered the general 
attack it would have been found in his front. 

It is mathematically correct to say that the troops 
which met Longstreet on the afternoon of the 2d could 
have been brought against him in the morning. The 
reports of General Meade, General Sykes, the com- 
mander of the Fifth Corps of Sykes's brigade, and regi- 


Lee changes Plan of Campaign 

mental oommanders, and various other documentary 
history bearing on the subject, are convincing upon this 

Grcneral Sickles's advance was made in consequence 
of the Confederate threatening, and would have been 
sooner or later according as that threatening was made. 
The critics ignore this fact. 

Grcneral Longstreet says on this point: 

'^General Meade was with General Sickles discussing the 
feasibility of moving the Third Corps back to the line origi- 
naOy assigned for it ; the discussion was cut short by the open- 
ing of the Confederate battle. If that opening had been de- 
layed thirty or forty minutes, Sickles's corp would have been 
drawn back to the general line, and my first deployment would 
have enveloped Little Round Top and carried it before it could 
haye been strongly manned. The point should have been that 
the battle was opaied too sooa/* 

So much for one part of Gordon's assumption, based 
upon other assumptions founded upon an erroneous 
presumption, that if Liongstreet had taken wings and 
flown on an air-line from his bivouac at Marsh Creek to 
the Federal left and attacked at sunrise he would have 
found no enemy near the Round Tops. 

In another equally unwarranted assumption of what 
the "" impartial" military critic will consider an ** estab- 
Hahed fact," Grordon declares: 

^ Secondly, that General Lee ordered Longstreet to attack at 
daylight on the morning of the third day, and that the latter 
did not attack until two or three o'clock in the afternoon, the 
artillery opening at one.^ 

Lee himself mentions no such order. In his final 
report, penned six months afterwards, he merely men- 
tions that the "general plan was imchanged," and 
Longstreet, reinforced, ordered to attack " next morn- 
ing," no definite hour being fixed. It is significant, 


Lee and Longstbeet at High Tide 

however, that in his letter to Jefferson Davis from the 
field, dated July 4, Lee uses this language: 

"Next day (July 8), the third division of Greneral Long- 
street's corps having come up, a more extensive attack was 
made," etc. 

The "third division" was Pickett's, which did not 
arrive from Chambershurg until 9 a.m. of the 8d. Li 
the same report, Lee himself states that " Pickett, with 
three of his brigades, joined Longstreet the following 
morning." There is no dispute, however, about the hour 
of Pickett's arrival. 

So that, as Pickett was selected by Lee to lead the 
charge, and as Lee knew exactly where Pickett was, it is 
morally impossible that it was fixed for daylight, five 
hours before Pickett's troops were up. 

In one place Lee remarks in his report: " The morn- 
ing was occupied in necessary preparations, and the 
battle recommenced in the afternoon of the 8d." Time 
was not an essential element in the problem of the 8d. 
The Federal army was then all up, whereas Pickett's 
Confederate division was still absent. The delay of a 
few hours was therefore a distinct gain for the Con- 
federates, and not prejudicial, as (rordon would have 
the world believe. 

But Longstreet's official report is decisive of the 
whole question. He says, — 

^^ On the following morning (that is, after the fight of the 

2d) our arrangements were made for renewing the attack by my 

right, with a riew to pass round the hill occupied by the enemy's 

left, and gain it by flank and reverse attack. A few moments 

after my orders for the execution of this plan were given, the 

commanding general joined me, and ordered a colunm of attadc 

to be formed of Pickett's, Heth's, and part of Pender's divisions, 

the assault to be made directly at the enemy's main position, the 

Cemetery Hill." 


Lee changes Plan of Campaign 

Clearly this shows that Longstreet had no orders for 
the morning of July 8. As Longstreet's report passed 
through Lee*s hands, the superior would most certainly 
have returned it to the subordinate for correction if 
there were errors in it. This he did not do, neither did 
Lee indorse upon the document itself any dissent from 
its tenor. 

As Pickett did not come up until 9 a.m., and as Gen- 
eral Lee says " the morning was occupied in necessary 
preparations," it was logistically and morally impossible 
to make an attack at daylight, and General Longstreet 
states that it could not have been delivered sooner than 
it was. 

Finally, Longstreet emphatically denies that Lee 
ordered him to attack at daylight on the 8d. He says 
that he had no orders of any kind on that morning imtil 
Lee personally came over to his front and ordered the 
Pickett charge. No early attack was possible under the 
conditions imposed by Lee to use Pickett's, Pettigrew's, 
and Pender's troops, widely separated. 

But without any orders from Lee, as is quite appar- 
ent, Longstreet had already given orders for a flank 
attack by the southern face of Big Round Top, as an 
alternative to directly attacking again the impregnable 
heights from which he had been repulsed the night 
before. That would have been " simple madness," to 
quote the language of the Confederate General Law. 
But such an act of " simple madness" was the only day- 
light attack possible from Longstreet's front on the 
morning of the 8d. Lee substituted for the feasible 
early attack projected by Longstreet the Pickett move- 
ment straight on Cemetery Heights which it required 
hours of preparation to fulminate, and which proved 
the most disastrous and destructive in Confederate 
annals. It was, in fact, the death-knell of the Southern 


Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tuxe 

In his published memoirs,* page 885, .Greneral Long- 
street makes this concise statement in regard to Lee's 
alleged orders for the early morning operations on the 
8d: *' He [General Lee] did not give or send me orders 
for the morning of the third day, nor did he reinforce 
me by Pickett's brigades for morning attack. As his 
head-quarters were about four miles from the command, 
I did not ride over, but sent, to report the work of the 
second day. In the absence of orders, I had scouting 
parties out during the night in search of a way by which 
we might strike the enemy's left and push it down 
towards his centre. I found a way that gave some 
promise of results, and was about to move the command 
when he [Lee] rode over after sunrise and gave his 

But in his paper of 1877, on Grcttysburg, herein- 
before freely quoted from, Greneral Longstreet goes 
more into detail with relation to Lee's plans and orden 
for the morning of the 8d, and more fully discloses the 
genesis of the Pickett charge. In this account his own 
opposition to a renewal of the attack on Cemetery 
Hill is developed and the obvious reasons therefor. Ab 
he is confirmed in nearly every particular by partici- 
pants and by the records, his account is here reprinted: 

** On the next morning he came to see me, and, fearing that 
he was still in his disposition to attack, I tried to anticipate hnn 
by saying, * Greneral, I have had my scouts out all night, and I 
find that you still have an excellent opportunity to move around 
to the right of Meade's army and manceuvre him into attacking 
us.' He replied, pointing with his fist at Cemetery BEill, ^ The 
enemy is there, and I am going to strike him.' I felt then that 
it was my duty to express my convictions. I said, * Greneral, I 
have been a soldier all my life. I have been with soldiers en- 

**'From Manassas to Appomatoz," by James Longstreet, Lientenanl- 
General Confederate Army. Philadelphlat J. B. Lipplncott Compsaj^ 
1896. ReiisedL 1908. 


Lee changes Plan of Campaign 

gaged in fights by couples, by squads, companies, regiments, 
divisions, and armies, and should know as well as any one what 
soldiers can do. It is my opinion that no fifteen thousand men 
ever arrayed for battle can take that position,' pointing to Ceme- 
tery Hill. 

** General Lee, in reply to this, ordered me to prepare 
Pickett's division for the attack. I should not have been so 
urgent had I not foreseen the hopelessness of the proposed 
assault. I felt that I must say a word against the sacrifice of 
my men ; and then I felt that my record was such that Greneral 
Lee would or could not misconstrue my motives. I said no 
more, however, but turned away. The most of the morning 
was consumed in waiting for Pickett's men and getting into 

To make the attitude of the superior and his subor- 
dinate more clear in relation to the proposed desperate 
throw of General Lee for victory, and to further ex- 
plain the foregoing protest of General Longstreet, quo- 
tations from a second paper of the series printed in 1877 
are here given, in which he says, — 

^ In my first article I declared that the invasion of Pennsyl- 
vania was a movement that Greneral Lee and his council agreed 
should be defensive in tactics, while of course it was offensive 
in strategy ; that the campaign was conducted on this plan until 
we bad left Chambersburg, when, owing to the absence of our 
cavalry and our consequent ignorance of the enemy's where- 
abouts, we collided with them unexpectedly, and that Greneral 
Ijee had lost the matchless equipoise that usually characterized 
him, and through excitement and the doubt that enveloped the 
enemy's movements, changed the whole plan of the campaign 
and delivered a battle under ominous circumstances." 


Lee and LoNOffrsEET at Hioh Tide 


Pickett's chabge 

** Pickett swept past our artillery in splendid style^ and the men 
marched steadily and compactly down the slope. As they started up 
the ridge over one hundred cannon from the breastworics of the 
Federals hurled a rain of canister^ g^P^f and shell down upon 
ihem; still they pressed on untQ half-way up the slope, when the 
crest of the hill was lit with a solid sheet of flame as the masses of 
infantry rose and fired. When the smoke cleared away Pidcetfa 
division was gone. Nearly two-thirds of his men lay dead on tiie 
field." — LoNGSTRXBT ON Pickxtt's Charob. 


General Longstseet's description of the Pickett 
charge itself also throws much light on these old contro- 
versies. It is confirmed in all essential particulars by 
Grcneral Alexander and others who have written on the 
subject since the war, and also by the reports : 

*' The plan of assault was as follows : Our artillery was to be 
massed in a wood from which Pickett was to charge, and it was 
to pour a continuous fire upon the cemetery. Under cover of 
this fire, and supported by it, Pickett was to charge. General 
E. P. Alexander, a brave and gifted officer, being at the head 
of the oolunm, and being first in position, and being besides an 
officer of unusual promptness, sagacity, and intelligence, was 
given charge of the artillery. The arrangonents were com- 
pleted about one o'clock. General Alexander had arranged that 
a battery of seven 11-pound howitzers, with fresh horses and 
full caissons, were to charge with Pickett, at the head of hia 
line, but General Pendleton, from whom the guns had been bor^ 
rowed, recalled them just before the charge was made, and thus 
deraoged this wise plan. 

/^Never was I so depressed as upon that day. I felt that 
myMnen were to be sacrificed, and that I should have to order 
them to make a hopeless charge!^ I had instructed General Alex- 


Pickett's Chabge 

ander, being unwilling to trost myself with the entire respon- 
sibilit J, to carefully observe the effect of the fire upon the enemy, 
and when it began to tell to notify Pickett to begin the assault* 
I was so much impressed with the hopelessness of the charge 
that I wrote the following note to Greneral Alexander: 

"'If the artilleiy fire does not hare the effect to driye off the enemy 
or greatly dcmoralke him, so as to make our efforts pretty certain, I 
would prefer that you should not advise General Pickett to make the 
charge. I shall rely a great deal on your judgment to determine the 
matter, and shall expect you to let Pickett know when the moment offers.' 

^ To my note the general replied as follows : 

*"! win ooly be able to Judge the effect of our fire upon the enemy 
by his return flrc^ for his infantry is but little exposed to view, and the 
smoke will obscure the whole field. If, as I infer from your note, there 
Is an altematiye to this attack, it should be carefully considered before 
opening our fire, for it will take all of the artillery ammunition we haye 
left to test this one thorou£^y, and if the result is unfaTorabl^ we will 
have none left for another effort, and eren if this is entirely successful it 
can only be so at a yery Uoody cost' 

^ I still desired to save my men, and felt that if the artillery 
did not produce the desired effect I would be justified in holding 
Pickett off. I wrote this note to Colonel Walton at exactly 
1.S0 P.1C. : 

*"Let the batteries open. Order great precision in firing. If the bat- 
teries at the peach-orchard cannot be used against the point we intend 
sttaddng^ kt them open on the enemy at Rocky HilL' 

** The cannonading which opened along both lines was grand. 
In a few moments a courier brought a note to General Pickett 
(idio was standing near me) from Alexander, which, after read- 
ing, he handed to me. It was as follows: 

***If yoo are coming at all yon must come at once^ or I cannot giye 
jofQ proper support; but the enemy's fire has not slackened at all; at 
least cigbteen gons are still firing from the cemetery itself.' 

rVAfter I had read the note Pickett said to me, 'General, 
■him I advance?' My feelings had so overcome me that I would 
not speak for fear of betraying my want of confidence to him. 
I bowed affirmation and turned to mount my hors^ Pickett 

Lee and Lonostbeet at Hioh Tide 

immediately said, * I shall lead my division forward, sir.' I 
spurred my horse to the wood where Alexander was stationed 
with artillery. When I reached him he told me of the disap- 
pearance of the seven guns which were to have led the charge 
with Pickett, and that his ammunition was so low that he could 
not properly support the charge. I at once ordered him to 
stop Pickett until the ammunition had been replenished. He 
informed me that he had no ammunition with which to replenish. 
I then saw that there was no help for it, and that Pickett must 
advance under his orders. He swept past our artillery in splen- 
did style, and the men marched steadily and compactly down 
the slope. As they started up the ridge over one hundred 
cannon from the breastworks of the Federals hurled a rain of 
cannister, grape, and shell down upon them; still they pressed 
on until half-way up the slope, when the crest of the hiU was lit 
with a solid sheet of flame as the masses of infantry rose and 
fired. When the smoke cleared away Pickett's division was gone. 
Nearly two-thirds of his men lay dead on the field, and the sur- 
vivors were sullenly retreating down the hill. Mortal man could 
not have stood that fire. In half an hour the contested field was 
cleared and the battle of Grettysburg was over. 

** When this charge had failed I expected that of course tlie 
enemy would throw himself against our shattered ranks and 
try to crush us. I sent my staff-officers to the rear to assist in 
rallying the troops, and hurried to our line of batteries as tiie 
only support that I could give them, knowing that my presence 
would impress upon every one of them the necessity of holding 
the ground to the last extremity. I knew if the army was to be 
saved those batteries must check the enemy." 



gobdon's "established facts" and Pendleton's 


No oflker in a position to know anything about the matter con- 
firmed Pendleton's statement^ while everybody who should have been 
aware of such an important order directly contradicted it^ as do all 
the records. 

-Continuing on the subject of Lfongstreet's alleged 
disobedience, Gordon considers the following as another 
of the '' facts established:" 

^Thirdly, that General Lee, according to the testimony of 
Colonel Walter Taylor, Colonel C. S. Venable, and General 
A. L. Long, who were present when the order was given, ordered 
Longstreet to make the attack on the last day with the three 
diTisions of his own corps and two divisions of A. P. Hill's corps, 
and that instead of doing so Longstreet sent only fourteen 
thousand men to assail Meade's army in the latter's strong and 
heavily intrenched position." 

This is the old story that Longstreet was culpable in 
not sending McLaws and Hood to the attack with 

But, in fact, Lee's own utterances show that McLaws 
and Hood were not to join in the Pickett attack, but, 
on the contrary, were excluded for other vital service by 
Lee's specific directions. It is true this was done upon 
Longstreet's strenuous representations that twenty 
thousand Federals were massed behind the Round Top 
to swoop down on the Confederate flank if Hood and 
McLaws were withdrawn. After viewing the ground 
himself Lee acquiesced. The eye-witnesses quoted by 

Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tide 

Grordon heard only the original order; they evidently 
did not know of its necessary modification, after Lee 
was made aware by his own personal observations and 
by Longstreet's explanations that it was impossible to 
withdraw Hood and McLaws. 

The official reports of both Lee and Longstreet are 
conclusive on this point, and they substantially agree. 
In the paragraph quoted in the preceding chapter, 
Longstreet states explicitly that "'the commanding 
general joined me" (on the far right on the morning of 
the 8d) "" and ordered a column of attack to be formed 
of Pickett's, Heth's, and part of Pender's divisions," 
etc If this, was a misstatement, why did not Lee cor- 
rect it before sending the report to the War Depart- 
ment? He did not; on the contrary, Lee corroborates 
Longstreet in these paragraphs of his own official re- 
port, in which he also explains in detail why McLaws 
and Hood were not ordered forward with Pickett: 

*^ Greneral Longstreet was delayed by a force occupying the 
high rocky hills on the enemy's extreme left, from which his 
troops could be attacked in reverse as they advanced. His opera- 
tions had been embarrassed the day previous by the same causey 
and he now deemed it necessary to defend his flank and rear with 
the divisions of Hood and McLaws. He was therefore rein- 
forced by Heth's division and two brigades of Pender's. • . • 
General Longstreet ordered forward the column of attack, con- 
sisting of Pickett's and Heth's divisions in two lines, Pickett 
on the right." 

Now, one of Lee*s favorite officers, Greneral Pickett, 
had personal supervision of the formation of the attain- 
ing column. Greneral Lee was for a time personally 
present while this work was going on, conversing with 
Pickett concerning the proper dispositions and making 
various suggestions. He therefore knew by personal 
observation, before the charge was made, exactly what 

Gordon's "Established Facts" 

troops were induded and what were not. He knew that 
the extreme right of Hood's division was at that 
moment fully three miles away, holding a difficult posi- 
tion in face of an overwhelming force of Federals, and 
McLaws almost equally distant. 

With these documents before him, how can Gordon 
believe it an " established fact" that Lee expected Mc- 
Laws and Hood to take part in the Pickett charge? 

It is admitted by almost if not quite all authority on 
the subject that Pickett's charge was hopeless. The 
addition of McLaws and Hood would not have in- 
creased the chances of success. The Confederates 
under Longstreet and R. H. Anderson had tested the 
enemy's position on that front thoroughly in the battle 
of the 2d, and with a much larger force, including these 
same divisions of McLaws and Hood, who had been 
repulsed. There was every reason to believe that the 
position was much stronger on the foial day than when 
Longstreet attacked it on the 2d. The troops of Hood 
and McLaws, in view of their enormous losses, were in 
no condition to support Pickett effectively, even had 
they been free for that purpose. But it has been shown 
above by the testimony of both Lee and Longstreet that 
they were required to maintain the position they had 
won in the desperate struggle of the evening previous 
to prevent the twenty-two tiiousand men of the Union 
Fifth and Sixth Corps from falling en masse upon 
Pickett's right flank, or their own flank and rear had 
they moved in unison with Pickett. 

Having proved from Lee's own official written utter- 
ances that the three foregoing points set up by Gordon 
cannot possibly be accepted as " established facts," we 
now come to his '' fourthly," which is really a smnming 
up of the whole case against Longstreet, — ^viz., that he 
was disobedient, slow, *^ balky," and obstructive at Gret- 
tysburg. He says, — 


Lee and Longstbeet at Hioh Tide 

^ Fourthly, that the great mistake of the halt on the first day 
would have been repaired on the second, and even on the third 
day, if Lee's orders had been vigorously executed, and that 
General Lee died believing that he lost Gettysburg at last by 
Longstreet's disobedience of orders/' 

The jSrst positive utterance holding Greneral LfOng- 
street responsible for the defeat at Gettysburg, through 
failure to obey Lee*s orders, came from Rev. Dr. 
William N. Pendleton, an Episcopal clergyman of Vir- 
ginia, on the 17th of January, 1878. Greneral Lee had 
then been dead more than two years. In view of ^diat 
follows it is well to bear in mind these two distinct 
dates. There had been some vague hints, particularly 
among some of the higher ex-Confederates from 
Virginia prior to Pendleton's categorical story, but 
Pendleton was the first person to distinctly formulate 
the indictment against Longstreet for disobedience 
of orders. In an address delivered in the town of 
LfCxington, Virginia, on the date mentioned, in be- 
half of a memorial church to Greneral Lee, Pendleton 
uses this language, referring to the battie of .Grettys- 

^^ The ground southwest of the town [Grettysburg] was 
fully examined by me after the engagonent of July 1. . • • Its 
practicable character was reported to our commanding general. 
He informed me that he had ordered Longstreet to attack am 
that front at sunrise next morning. And he added to myself: 
^ I want you to be out long before sunrise, so as to re-examine 
and save time.' He also desired me to communicate with Greneral 
Longstreet, as well as himself. The reconnoissance was accord- 
ingly made as soon as it was light enough on the 2d. . . . All 
this, as it occurred under my personal observation, it is nothing' 
short of imperative duty that I thus fairly state.'' 

Rev. Dr. Pendleton was a brigadier-general and chief 
of artillery on Lee's staff. He was a graduate of West 



Point, and was the cadet friend of Lee for more than 
three years in the Military Academy. After the war 
they were closely associated at Lexington, Virginia. 
His f ulmination had the effect of a bombshell. There 
was a hue and cry at once ; corroborative evidence of the 
easy hearsay sort was forthcoming from various inter- 
ested quarters, but most markedly and noisily from the 
State of Virginia, as if by preconcert. Pendleton's f ul- 
mination appeared to have been expected by those who 
had previously been pursuing Longstreet. The late 
Grcneral Jubal A. Early was particularly strenuous in 
unreserved endorsement of the Pendleton story. The 
Bev. J. William Jones, of Richmond, the self-appointed 
conservator of Grcneral Lee's fair fame, also quickly 
added his testimony to the reliability of the Rev. Dr. 
Pendleton's discovery and dramatic disclosure. Those 
who approved generally fortified Pendleton with addi- 
tional statements of their own. 

Pendleton's statement is characteristic of the whole, 
but it was for a time the more effective because it was 
more definite, in that it purported to recite a positive 
statement by Lee of an alleged order to Longstreet. If 
Pendleton's statement falls, the whole falls. 

General Longstreet was astounded when Pendleton's 
Lexington story was brought to his attention. He had 
previously paid but little attention to indefinite gossip 
of a certain coterie that he had been " slow" and even 
** obstructive" at Grcttysburg, and had never heard be- 
fore that he was accused of having disobeyed a positive 
order to attack at any given hour. That false accusa- 
tion aroused him to action. He categorically denied 
Pendleton's absurd allegations, and at once appealed to 
several living members of Lee's staff and to others in 
a position to know the facts, to exonerate him from the 
diarge of having disobeyed his chief, thereby causing 


Lee and Longstbeet at Hioh Tide 

Colonel Walter H. Taylor, a Virginian, and Oeneral 
Lee's adjutant-general, promptly responded as fol- 

** NoBFouCy VnoiiriA, April 98, 1875. 
" Deah Genekal, — ^I have received your letter of the 20th 
inst. I have not read the article of which you speak, nor have 
I ever seen any copy of General Pendleton's address; indeed, 
I have read little or nothing of what has been written since the 
war. In the first place, because I could not spare the time, and 
in the second, of those of whose writings I have heard I deem 
but very few entitled to any attention whatever. I can only 
say that I never before heard of * the sunrise attack' you were 
to have made as charged by General Pendleton. If such an 
order was given you I never knew of it, or it has strangely 
escaped my memory. I think it more than probable that if 
Greneral Lee had had your troops available the evening previous 
to the day of which you speak he would have ordered an early 
attack, but this does not touch the point at issue. I f^gard it as 
a great mistake on the part of those who, perhaps because of 
political differences, now undertake to criticise and attack your 
war record. Such conduct is most ungenerous, and I am sure 
meets the disapprobation of all good Confederates with whom 
I have had the pleasure of associating in the daily walks of life. 
" Yours very respectfully, 

** To General Longsteeet." 

Tveo years afterwards Colonel Taylor published an 
article strongly criticising Greneral Longstreet's opera- 
tions at Gettysburg, but in that article was this candid 

^ Indeed, great injustice has been done him [Longstreet] in 
the charge that he had orders from the conmianding general to 
attack the enemy at sunrise on the Sd of July, and that he dis- 
obeyed these orders. Tins would imply that he was in position 
to attack, whereas Greneral Lee but anticipated his early arrival 
on the Sd, and based his calculations upon it. I have shown 
how he was disappointed, and I need hardly add that the delay 

was fatal." 



The fact that Colonel Taylor was himself a somewhat 
severe critic of General Longstreet, through a misap- 
prehension of certain facts and conditions, gives addi- 
tional force and value to this statement. 

Colonel Charles Marshall, then an aide on Lee's staff, 
who succeeded Long as Military Secretary and subse- 
quently had charge of all the papers left by (general 
Lee, wrote as follows: 

''Baltimobb, Maetlakd, May 7, 1875. 
** Deas Genesal, — ^Your letter of the 20th ult. was received 
and should have had an earlier reply but for my engagements 
preventing me from looking at my papers to find what I could 
on the subject. I have no personal recollection of the order to 
which you refer. It certainly was not conyeyed by me, nor 
is there anything in General Lee's official report to show the 
attack on the Sd was expected by him to begin earlier, except 
that he notices that there was not proper concert of action on 
that day. . . • 

" Respectfully, 

** Chables Marshall. 
^ To General Lonostreet, New Orleans." 

Colonel Charles S. Venable, another of Lee's aides 
and after the war one of his firmest partisans, made the 
following detailed statement, which not only refutes 
Pendleton's Lexington story, but bears limiinously 
upon every other point at issue concerning the alleged 
early-attack order of the 2d: 

" UKnTEBSirr of Viboixia, May 11» 1875. 
^General James Lonostreet: 

** Dear General, — ^Your letter of the 26th ultimo, with re- 
gard to General Lee's battle order on the 1st and 2d of July 
at Grettysburg, was duly received. I did not know of any order 
for an attack on the enemy at sunrise on the 2d, nor can I believe 
any such order was issued by Greneral Lee. About sunrise on the 
2d of July I was sent by General Lee to General Ewell to ask 

Lee and Lonostbeet at EDeoh Tihe 

him what he thought of the adTantages of an attad^ on the 
enemy from his position. (Colonel Marshall had been sent with 
a similar order on the night of the 1st.) General Ewell made 
me ride with him from point to point of his lines, so as to see 
with him the exact position of things. Before he got through 
the examination of the enemy's position Greneral Lee came him- 
self to General Ewell's lines. In sending the message to G^ieral 
Ewell, Greneral Lee was explicit in saying that the question was 
whether he should move all the troops around on the rig^t and 
attack on that side. I do not think that the errand on whidi 
I was sent by the commanding general is consistent with the 
idea of an attack at sunrise by any portion of the army. 
** Yours very truly, 

'* Chas. S. Vxnablb.'' 

Greneral A. L. Long, a Virginian, was (general Lee's 
Military Secretary and aide at Grettysburg. After the 
war he wrote a book, — ** Memoirs of General Lee," — in 
which he endeavored to hold Longstreet largely respon- 
sible for the Grettysburg disaster. But in it he made 
no assertion that Longstreet had disobeyed an order for 
a sunrise attack on the 2d, or at any other specific hour 
on that or the next day. He wrote as follows : 

^ Bio IfLAXD^ Bbdfoidv VnonriA, May Sl» 1S75. 
^DsAft GsNsaAi^ — ^Your letter of the 520th ult., referring 
to an assertion of General Pendleton's, made in a lecture de- 
livered several years ago, which was recently published in the 
Southern Hitioricdl Society Magazine substantially as follows: 
* That General Lee ordered General Longstreet to attack Gen- 
eral Meade at sunrise on the morning of the 2d of July,' has 
been received. I do not recollect of hearing of an order to 
attack at sunrise, or at any other designated hour, pending the 
operations at Grettysburg during the first three dajrs of July, 

1868. . . . 

** Yours truly, 

'^ A. L. L0NO9 

" To Gene&ai. Longsteeet.'* 



The foregoing letters, all written by members of 
Greneral Lee's military family, all his close friends and 
personal partisans, are worth a careful study. They not 
only negative Greneral Pendleton's " sunrise" story, but 
as a whole they go to prove that it was not expected by 
Lee, Longstreet, Pendleton, nor any other high oflScer, 
that an early attack was to have been delivered on the 
2d of July. Both Grcnerals McLaws and Hood, Long- 
street's division commanders, made statements disclosing 
that they were totally unaware at Gettysburg of any 
order for a sunrise attack on that day. No officer in 
a position to know anything about the matter confirmed 
Pendleton's statement, while everybody who should 
have been aware of such an important order, directly 
contradicted it, as do all the records. 

The statement of Greneral McLaws appeared in a 
narrative of Grcttysburg published in a Savannah paper 
nearly thirty years ago. Besides its direct bearing on 
the Pendleton story, it furnishes valuable information 
as to some of the causes of delay encountered by Long- 
street's troops in their long mardi from Chambersburg 
on the 1st of July: 

^ On the SOtii of June I had been directed to have my division 
in readiness to follow General Ewell's corps. Marching towards 
Grettjsburg, which it was intimated we would have passed by 
ten o'clock the next day (the 1st of July), my division was 
accordingly marched from its camp and lined along the road in 
the order of march by eight o'clock the 1st of July. When the 
troops of Ewell's corps (it was Johnston's division in charge 
of Ewell's wagon-trains, which were coming from Carlisle by the 
road west of the mountains) had passed the head of my column 
I asked General Longstreet's staff-officer. Major Fairfaz, if 
my division should follow. He went off to inquire, and returned 
with orders for me to wait until Ewell's wagon-train had passed, 
which did not happen until after four o'dock p.ic. 

^ The train was calculated to be fourteen miles long, when I 


Lee and Longstbeet at Hioh Tuns 

took up the line of inarch and continued marching until I 
arrived within three miles of Gettysburg, where mj command 
camped along a creek. This was far into the night. Mj division 
was leading Longstreet's corps, and of course the other divisions 
came up later. I saw Hood's division the next morning, and un- 
derstood that Pickett had been detached to guard the rear. 

** While on the march, at about ten o'clock at night I met 
General Longstreet and some of his staff coming from the direc- 
tion of Grettysburg and had a few moments* conversation with 
him. He said nothing of having received an order to attack 
at daylight the next morning. Here I will state that until 
General Pendleton mentioned it about two years ago, when he 
was on a lecturing tour, after the death of General Lee, I never 
heard it intimated even that any such order had ever been 

The f ollovnng is an extract from a letter * of Greneral 
Hood to Greneral Longstreet on the subject of the sun- 
rise order, v^hich indirectly, though conclusively, shows 
there could have been no such order, besides being in- 
teresting and instructive as to other points: 

^ I arrived with my staff in front of the heights of Gettys- 
burg shortly after daybreak, as I have already stated, on the 
morning of the Sd of July. My division soon commenced filing 
into an open field near me, when the troops were allowed to stack 
arms and rest until further orders. A short distance in advance 
of this point, and during the early part of the same morning, 
we were both engaged in company with Generals A. P. Hill and 
Lee in observing the position of the Federals. General Lee, with 
coat buttoned to the throat, sabre belt around his waist, and 
field-glasses pending at his side, walked up and down in the 
shade of large trees near us, halting now and then to observe 

*See ** Advance and Retreat,'' General J. B. Hood's Biograpfay, page 
55. It is from this letter that I obtain the information concerning Hood's 
proposed flanlc moTcment on Rxmnd Top. It was General Hood's letter 
which informed historians that ^ General Lee's orders are to attack np tbe 
Emmitsburg road." See Hood's letter as to this; also that of Colonel 
Fairfax at page 63 of this worlc 


Gordon's "Established Facts" 

the enemy. He seemed full of hope, yet at times buried in deep 
thought. Colonel Fremantle, of England, was ensconced in 
the forks of a tree not far off with glasses in constant use 
examining the lofty position of the Federal army. 

^ General Lee was seemingly anxious that you should attack 
that morning. He remarked to me, ^ The enemy is here, and if 
we do not whip him he will whip us.' You thought it better 
to await the arrival of Pickett's division, at that time still in the 
rear, in order to make the attack, and you said to me subse- 
quently, while we were seated together near the tnmk of a tree, 
* General Lee is a little nervous this morning. He wishes me 
to attack. I do not wish to do so without Pickett. I never like 
to go into a battle with one boot off.' " 

Another letter, which in a way is still more important 
than any of the foregoing, is one from Colonel John W. 
Fairfax, a member of General Longstreet's staff. It 
tends to show that the smirise-order story was conjured 
up by Dr. Pendleton and others at Lexington after 
Lee's death; in other words, it is strong circumstantial 
confirmation of Grcneral Longstreet's belief in a con- 
spiracy. Written more than twenty-six years ago, the 
maimer in which it dovetails with all the foregoing state- 
ments and documents as to the various events involved 
is peculiarly significant. Colonel Fairfax is a Virginian 
and was always an ardent admirer of Greneral Lee, but 
not to the extent of desiring to uphold his fame at the 
expense of honor or the ruin of another: 

^ FuBfxoin P. O^ PuxcB Whuax Comrrr, Vibozkia. 
« Norember 1«, 1877. 

^Mt DSA& Genssai« Lonostseet, — . • • The winter after 

the death of General Lee I was in Lexington, visiting my sons 

at the Virginia Military Institute. General Pendleton caUed 

to see me at the hotel. Greneral Custls Lee was in my room when 

he came in. After General Lee left. General Pendleton asked 

me if Greneral Longstreet was not ordered to attack on the Sd 

of July at six o'clock in the morning, and did not attack until 


Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tide 

four in the evening. I told him it was not potsiUe. When he 
left me I was under the impression I had convinced him of his 
mistaken idea. I told Greneral Pendletcm that you and Greneral 
Lee were together the greater part of the day up to about three 
o'clock or later; that you separated at the mouth of a lane not 
long thereafter. You said to me, 'Those troops will be in 
position by the time you get there; tell Greneral Hood to attack.' 
^ When I gave the order to Greneral Hood he was standing 
within a step or two of his line of battle. I asked him to please 
delay his attack until I could communicate to Greneral Long- 
street that he can turn the enemy — ^pointing to a gorge in the 
mountain, where we would be sheltered from Ins view and attack 
by Ins cavalry. Greneral Hood slapped me on the knee, and 
said, ' I agree with you ; bring Greneral Longstreet to see for 
himself. When I reported to you, your answer was, 'It is 
Greneral Lee's order; the time is up, — attack at once.' I lost 
no time in repeating the same to Greneral Hood, and remained 
with him to see the attack, which was made instantly. We had 
a beautiful view of the enemy's left from Hood's position, whidi 
was close up to him. He gave way quickly. Greneral Hood 
charged, and I spurred to report to you; found you with hat 
in hand, cheering on Greneral McLaws's division. • • • 
" Truly your friend, 

" John W. Faiefax.** 

General Longstreet's views at the time of the Grcttjrs- 
burg operations are conveyed in a personal letter of a 
confidential nature, written only twenty days after the 
event to his unde in Georgia, upon being made aware 
that there was a sly undercurrent of misrepresentati<Mi 
of his course current in certain circles of the army: 

*'Cakf CuuPKPia ComiT-HoimB, 
<*JiUj94^ 18S3. 

'* Mt dkae Uncle, — ^Your letters of the 18th and 14th were 

received on yesterday. As to our late battle I cannot say much. 

I have no right to say anything, in fact, but will venture a little 

for you alone. If it goes to aunt and cousins it must be under 

promise that it will go no farther. The battle was not made as 


Gobdon's ''Established Facts" 

I would have made it. My idea was to throw ourselves between 
the enemy and Washington, select a strong position, and force 
the enemy to attack us. So far as is given to man the ability 
to judge, we may say with confidence that we should have de- 
stroyed the Federal army, marched into Washington, and dic- 
tated our terms, or at least held Washington and marched over 
as much of Pennsylvania as we cared to, had we drawn the 
enemy into attack upon our carefully chosen }>osition in his rear. 
General Lee chose the plans adopted, and he is the person ap- 
pointed to choose and to order. I consider it a part of my 
duty to express my views to the commanding general. If he 
approves and adopts them, it is well; if he does not, it is my 
duty to adopt his views and to execute his orders as faithfully 
as if they were my own. I cannot help but think that great 
results would have been obtained had my views been thought 
better of, yet I am much inclined to accept the present condi- 
tion as for the best. I hope and trust that it is so. Your pro- 
jpramme would all be well enough had it been practicable, and 
was duly thought of, too. I fancy that no good ideas upon 
that campaign will be mentioned at any time that did not receive 
their share of consideration by General Lee. The few things 
that he might have overlooked himself were, I believe, suggested 
by myself. As we failed, I must take my share of the respon- 
sibility. In fact, I would prefer that all the blame should rest 
upon me. As General Lee is our commander, he should have 
the support and influence we can give him. If the blame, if 
there is any, can be shifted from him to me, I shall help him 
and our cause by taking it. I desire, therefore, that all the 
responsibility that can be put upon me shall go there and shall 
remain there. The truth will be known in time, and I leave that 
to show how much of the responsibility of Grettysburg rests on 
my shoulders. . • • 

^ Most a£Pectionately yours, 


^ To A. B. LoNosTESET, LL.D., Columbus, Ga." 

Aside from all this irrefragable personal testimony 
of conspicuous participants disproving Pendleton's 
apocryphal story, there is other evidence still more 

5 S6 

Lee and Lonostbeet at High Tune 

conclusive that no sunrise order for attack by Lon^^ 
street was given by Lee, and equally strong that an 
early attack on that day was out of the question. The 
position of Longstreet's troops, all still absent from 
the field and on the march, forbade an attack by 
him at sunrise, or at any other hour much before 
noon, at the point designated by Lee. (rcneral Lee 
was well aware of its impossibility. At sunrise Long- 
street's infantry was still distant from the field, but 
rapidly coming up. One brigade (Law's) was not 
less than twenty miles away at the very hour Pendleton 
would have had Longstreet attadc. McLaws's and 
Hood's divisions had encamped at Marsh Creek, four 
miles from (rcttysburg, at midnight of the 1st, and 
did not begin to arrive on Seminary Ridge until more 
than three hours after sunrise on the 2d. 

The corps artillery did not get up until nine or ten 
o'clock, and part of it not until noon or after. Pickett's 
division did not begin its march from the vicinity of 
Chambersburg, some thirty miles away, until the 2d* 
Pendleton's report, herein quoted, shows how the artil- 
lery was delayed, and the deterrent effect that delay had 
upon Longstreet's advance after he received the order. 
Pendleton himself was the chief of artillery, and largely 
responsible for its manoeuvres. 

After their arrival upon Seminary Ridge, the in- 
fantry of Hood and McLaws was massed in a field 
within musket shot of General Lee's head-quarters, and 
there rested until the troops took arms for the mardi to 
the point of attack. From this point of rest near Lee's 
head-quarters to the point of attack, by the circuitous 
route selected by Pendleton, was between five and seven 

So that Longstreet's infantry, the nearest at hand, 
had from nine to eleven miles to march to reach the 
selected point of attack, the greater part of which mardi 

Gordon's ''Established Facts'* 

by the back roads and ravines, to avoid the observation 
of the enemy, was necessarily slow at best, and made 
doubly so by the mistakes of Pendleton's guides, who 
put the troops upon the wrong routes. The artillery, 
still back on the Chambersburg road, did not all get up 
until noon, causing a further delay of the whole column, 
as shown by the Pendleton report. General Law's 
brigade, marching from 8 a.m., arrived about noon. 

After they came up all movements were still several 
hours delayed, awaiting Lee's personal reconnoissances 
on the left and right to determine the point of attack. 

Colonel Venable says that " about sunrise" he was 
sent to General Ewell on the left to inquire if it were 
not more feasible to attack in that quarter. While he 
was riding from point to point with Ewell, Lee him- 
self came over to see Ewell in person. Lee did not 
return to Longstreet's front until about nine o'clock. 
Meanwhile, his staff -officers, Pendleton, Long, Colonel 
Walker, and Captain Johnston, by Lee's orders, had 
been examining the ground to the right. Upon Lee's 
return from the left he rode far to the right and joined 

Not until then was the attack on the enemy's left by 
Longstreet finally decided upon. Longstreet said it 
was not earlier than eleven o'clock when he received 
his orders to move; from the time consmned by Lee 
and his staff it was probably later. The front of the 
Confederate army was six miles in extent. 

Hence matters on the morning of July 2 were not 
awaiting Longstreet's movements. All that long fore- 
noon everything was still in the air, depending upon 
Lee's personal examinations and final decisions. 

It is perfectly clear from this indecision on the 2d 
that Lee could not have arrived at a decision the pre- 
vious night, as asserted by Pendleton at Lexington long 
after the war. 


Lee and Lonostbeet at Hioh Tuxb 



" General Lee nerer in his life gare me orden to open an attad^ 
at a specific hour. He was perfectly satisfied tliat wbea I had mj 
troops in position and was ordered to attadc^ no time was ever loat** 


The hour, the feasibility, and point of attack have 
now been thoroughly discussed, mainly from the stand- 
point of the official records. As supplementary to the 
recitations of the official reports of Liee, Longstreet, 
Pendleton, and others quoted on these heads, it seems 
desirable to introduce just here General Longstreet's 
version of his operations on July 2, published so long 
ago as 1877, only twelve years after Appomattox and 
two decades before he knew the tenor of Pendleton's 
report. It was given to the world long before the pub- 
lication of the official records by the government, to 
which he could therefore have had no access. How 
closely he is confirmed in all essential particulars by the 
records is marvellous. In this regard it is to be noted 
that in all these controversies his statements have always 
stood analysis in the light of all the evidence far better 
than those of his reckless critics. The following is 
useful because it comprehensively sums up from Long- 
street's stand-point all the movements relating to fixing 
the point and time of his attack, the movement and dis- 
position of his troops, and other incidents: 

(^Greneral Lee never in his life gave me orders to open an 
attack at a specific hour. He was perfectly satisfied that when I 
had my troops in position and was ordered to attack, no time 
was ever losti^ On the night of the Ist I left him without any 







LiONOSTBEet's Version of the Ofbrations of July 2 

orders at all. On the morning of the 2d I went to Greneral Lee's 
head-quarters at daylight and renewed my views against making 
an attack. He seemed resolved, however, and we discussed the 
probable results. We observed the position of the Federals and 
got a general idea of the nature of the ground. About sunrise 
General Lee sent Colonel Venable, of his staff, to Greneral Ewell's 
head-quarters, ordering him to make a reconnoissance of the 
ground in his front, with a view of making the main attack on 
his left. A short time afterwards he followed Colonel Venable 
in person. He returned at about nine o'clock and informed me 
that it would not do to have Ewell open the attack. He finally 
determined that I should make the main attack on the extreme 
right. It was fully eleven o'clock when General Lee arrived at 
tiiis conclusion and ordered the movement. Li the mean time, 
by Greneral Lee's authority. Law's brigade, which had been put 
upon picket duty, was ordered to rejoin my command, and upon 
my suggestion that it would be better to await its arrival, Gren- 
eral Lee assented. We waited about forty minutes for these 
troops and then moved forward. A delay of several hours 
occurred in the march of the troops. The cause of this delay 
was that we had been ordered by Greneral Lee to proceed cau- 
tiously upon the forward movement so as to avoid being seen 
by the enemy. General Lee ordered Captain Johnston, of his 
engineer corps, to lead and conduct the head of the column. 
My troops therefore moved forward under guidance of a special 
officer of Greneral Lee, and with instructions to follow his direc- 
tions. I left General Lee only after the line had stretched out 
on the march, and rode along with Hood's division, which was 
in the rear. The march was necessarily slow, the conductor fre- 
quently encountering points that exposed the troops to the view 
of the signal station on Round Top. At length the column 

^* After waiting some time, supposing that it would soon move 
forward, I sent to the front to inquire the occasion of the delay. 
It was reported that the column was awaiting the movements of 
Captain Johnston, who was trjdng to lead it by some route by 
which it could pursue its march without falling under view of 
the Federal signal station. Looking up towards Round Top, 
I saw that the signal station was in full view, and, as we could 

Lee and Longstbeet at Hioh Tide 

plainly see this station. It was apparent that our heavy columns 
were seen from their position and that further efforts to conceal 
ourselves would be a waste of time. 

** I became very impatient at this delay, and determined to 
take upon myself the responsibility of hurrying the troops for- 
ward. I did not order General McLaws forward because, as 
the head of the column, he had direct orders from General Lee 
to follow the conduct of Colonel Johnston. Therefore I sent 
orders to Hood, who was in the rear and not encumbered by these 
instructions, to push his division forward by the most direct 
route so as to take position on my right. He did so, and thus 
broke up the delay. The troops were rapidly thrown into posi- 
tion and preparations were made for the attack. 

^ We had learned on the night of the 1st, from some prisoners 
captured near Seminary Ridge, that the First, Eleventh, and 
Third Corps had arrived by the Emmitsburg road and had 
taken position on the heights in front of us, and that reinforce- 
ments had been seen coming by the Baltimore road just after 
the fight of the 1st. From an intercepted despatch we learned 
that another corps was in camp about four miles from the field. 
We had every reason, therefore, to believe that the Federals were 
prepared to renew the battle. Our army was stretched in an 
elliptical curve, reaching from the front of Round Top around 
Seminary Ridge, and enveloping Cemetery Heights on the left; 
thus covering a space of four or five miles. The enemy occupied 
the high ground in front of us, being massed within a curve of 
about two miles, nearly concentric with the curve described by 
our forces. His line was about fourteen hundred yards from 
ours. Any one will see that the proposition for this inferior 
force to assault and drive out the masses of troops upon the 
heights was a very problematical one. My orders from General 
Lee were * to envelop the enemy's left and begin the attack there, 
following up as near as possible the direction of the Emmitsburg 

** My corps occupied our right, with Hood on the extreme 
right and McLaws next. HilPs corps was next to mine, in 
front of the Federal centre, and Ewell was on our extreme left. 
My corps, with Pickett's division absent, numbered hardly thir- 
teen thousand men. I realized that the fight was to be a fearful 


Pendleton's Report 

one; but being assured that my flank would be protected by 
the brigades of Wilcox, Perry, Wright, Posey, and Mahone, 
moying en echelon^ and that Ewell was to co-operate by a direct 
attack on the enemy's right, and EUll to threaten his centre and 
attack if opportunity offered, and thus prevent reinforcements 
from being launched either against myself or Ewell, it seemed 
that we might possibly dislodge the great army in front of us." 


Pendleton's beport 

*' Pendleton's report will destroy many illusions of Lee's misguided 
friends who are unwittingly doing deadly injury to his military 
fame by magnifying the mistakes of Gettysburg and ascribing them 
to another." — ^Lxslob J. Pjbrrt^ formerly of the War Records De- 

There is even more positive proof than has yet been 
produced. That Lee gave no such order as described in 
Pendleton's Lexington lecture, or for an "early at- 
tack," as asserted by Gk)rdon now, is absolutely proved 
by an official report of Gettysburg, penned by General 
Pendleton himself. That Pendleton was an oral falsi- 
£er of history is established by his own hand, under date 
of September 12, 1868, only nine weeks after the battle. 

Confident in his own rectitude of purpose and con- 
duct, and far from being an expert controversialist, for 
he was without guile himself, it is not at all singular 
that the significance of Pendleton's report in connection 
with tiie Lexington story should for years have entirely 
escaped (rcneral Longstreet's notice. He knew that the 
document was printed in its sequence in the Gettysburg 
▼olumes of the War Records, and for certain purposes 
had even quoted from it regarding other questions. He 
was also fully aware that General Pendleton had long 


Lee and Lonostreet at High Tide 

been distinguished for the unreliability of his memory. 
Nevertheless (general Longstreet had never analyzed 
the report to the extent of observing that it made ridicu- 
lous the reverend gentleman's version of 1878. 

It is most striking that the extraordinary tenor of 
this old Pendletonian exhumation of the War Records 
office in Washington should so long have passed entirely 
unnoticed by everybody, despite the researches of thei 
most industrious. It remained for Mr. Leslie J. Perry, 
one of the historical experts then in charge of the 
government publication of the Union and Confederate 
records of the Civil War, to point out some nine years 
ago how glaringly the Pendleton report of 1868 stul- 
tified the Pendleton story of 1878. 

The immediate result of the exploitation of the Pen- 
dleton report was the elimination of the sunrise story 
from the repertory of the anti-Longstreet crusaders. 
In the subsequent literature of the subject a decided 
change of tone regarding other allegations was soon 
perceived, more favorable to Longstreet. Greneral 
Longstreet was astounded by this bald disclosure of 
his old military associate's tergiversation, to call it 
nothing worse. For a time after the appearance of the 
Lexington story, he had charitably presumed that, in an 
excess of zeal to protect (rcneral Lee's military fame, 
Pendleton might really have harbored in good faith the 
belief that his Lexington statements were true. But 
after reading the detailed analysis of the Pendleton 
report, and carefully studying the report itself. General 
Longstreet speedily arrived at the conclusion that he 
was the victim of a deliberate conspiracy. It is not 
strange that he found it hard to forgive the conspira- 
tors, even after becoming fully aware that the world 
was practically convinced that he had been cruelly mis- 

Let us see how " fairly" Pendleton stated the case 


Pendleton's Report 

against Cxeneral Longstreet in his Lexington lecture. 
His official report* of Grcttysburg was written only 
about sixty days after the battle. It was dated Sep- 
tember 12, 1868. It is a detailed report of the opera- 
tions of the Confederate artillery in the Pennsylvania 
campaign, embodying a minute description of (reneral 
Pendleton's personal movements on that day. That is 
its only value to this discussion. The paragraphs having 
a bearing upon the time of Longstreet's attack are as 

** From the farthest occupied point on the right and front, 
in company with Colonels Long and Walker and Captain John- 
ston (engineer), soon after swnrise 1 surveyed the enemy's posi- 
tion towards some estimate of the ground and best mode of 
attack. So far as judgment could be formed from such a view, 
assault on the enemy's left by our extreme right might succeed, 
should the mountain there offer no insuperable obstacle. The 
attack on that side, if practicable, I understood to be the pur- 
pose of the commanding general. 

^ Returning from this position more to the right and rear, 
for the sake of tracing more exactly the mode of approach, I 
proceeded some distance along the ravine road noticed the pre- 
vious evening, and was made aware of having entered the 
enemy's lines by meeting two armed dismounted cavalrymen. 
Apparently surprised, they immediately surrendered, and were 
disarmed and sent to the rear. 

^ Having satisfied myself of the course and character of this 
road, I returned to an elevated point on the Fairfield road, which 
furnished a very extensive view, and despatched messengers to 
General Longstreet and the commanding general. This front 
was, after some time, examined by Colonel Smith and Captain 
Johnston (engineers), and about midday Greneral Longstreet 
arrived and viewed the ground. He desired Colonel Alexander 
to obtain the best view he then could of the front. I therefore 

•For General Pendleton's oflldal report, see Part 11^ VoL XXVII^ 
War Records, pp. 346-854. That is the volume in which will he found 
all the other Confederate reports referred to in the text 


Lee and Lonostreet at Hioh Tibe 

conducted the colonel to the advanced point of observation pre- 
viously visited. Its approach was now more hazardous from 
the fire of the enemy's sharp-shooters, so that special caution 
was necessary in making the desired observation. Just then a 
sharp contest occurred in the woods to the right and rear of this 
forward point. Anderson's division, Third Corps, had moved 
up and was driving the enemy from these woods. These woods 
having thus been cleared of the enemy, some view of the ground 
beyond them, and much farther to the right than had yet been 
examined, seemed practicable. I therefore rode in that direc- 
tion, and when about to enter the woods, met the commanding 
general en route himself to survey the ground. 

^ There being here still a good deal of sharp-shooting, the 
front had to be examined with caution. • . • Having noticed 
the field and the enemy's batteries, etc., I returned to Greneral 
Longstreet for the purpose of conducting his column to this 
point, and supervising, as might be necessary, the disposition 
of his artillery. He was advancing by the ravine road (as most 
out of view), time having already been lost in attempting 
another, which proved objectionable because exposed to obser- 
vation. On learning the state of facts ahead, the general halted, 
and sent back to hasten his artillery. Members of my staff were 
also despatched to remedy, as far as practicable, the delay. 
Cabell's, Alexander's, and Henry's battalions at length arrived, 
and the whole column moved towards the enemy's left. . . . The 
enemy opened a furious cannonade, the course of which rendered 
necessary a change in the main artillery column. Cabell's de- 
flected to the left, while Alexander's was mainly parked for a 
season, somewhat under cover, till it could advance to better pur- 
pose. . . . Soon after, at about 4 p.m., the general assault was 

Here is the whole of Pendleton's celebrated report, 
so far as it bears upon the hour of Longstreet's attadc 
on the 2d of July. Nothing is omitted relating to the 
preliminary movements of Longstreet*s column of at- 
tack, or that in any manner modifies the tenor of the 
parts introduced. 


Pendleton's Unbeliable Memory 


Pendleton's unbell^le memobt 

All the battle worthy the name for the Southern cause at Gettys- 
burg on the Sd and 8d was made by Longstreet. The whole super- 
structure of the contentions against his honor as a soldier is based 
solely on the statements since the war, and since Lee's death, of two 
or three obscure individuals. They are easily exploded by the rec- 
ords of the battles ; they are corroborated by none. 

When the Rev. Dr. Pendleton told that dramatic 
story to his breathless hearers at Lexington in 1878, 
under " pressure of imperative duty," had he forgotten 
the tenor of his official report, made in 1868? The story 
as modijBed by the prior report forms the greatest anti- 
climax in all history. Several decisive facts are dis- 
closed by this unbiassed report. 

1. Instead of being dilatory and obstructive, Pendle- 
ton himself establishes that Longstreet was personally 
exerting himself to " hasten forward" the very artillery 
of which he, Pendleton, was the chief. 

2. As late certainly as eleven o'clock, if not noon, 
Greneral Lee and his staff -officers were still rambling 
an over a front six miles long, yet undetermined either 
as to the point or proper route of attack. According 
to both Pendleton and Venable, they did not begin this 
necessary preliminary siu^ey until " about sunrise," the 
specific hour at which General Lee on the night previ- 
ous had already ordered Longstreet to begin his attack, 
as asserted by Pendleton at Lexington. 

8. Not until Lee and Pendleton had devoted the en- 
tire forenoon to the examination of the ground, did 
Pendleton go to conduct Longstreet to the point of 


Lee and Longstbeet at High Tihe 

attack thereupon decided upon. Evidently Longstreet 
was not delaying action; he was awaiting their motions. 
The following general conclusions upon the state 
of facts disclosed by Pendleton's, remarkable report are 
therefore inevitable and unavoidable. 

1. At sunrise of the 2d, General Lee himself did not 
know where to attack. He did not know as late as ten 
or eleven o'clock. His mind was not fully made up 
until after he came back from E well's front (about nine 
o'clock, according to all authorities) , and had made liie 
•final examination on the right. General Longstreet 
says he received his orders to move about eleven o'clock, 
and this corresponds with Pendleton's report But if 
anything, it was later, rather tiian earlier. 

2. These painstaking, time-consuming reconnoia- 
sances of the commanding general and his staff-officers, 
the journey of Colonel Venable to Ewell, three miles to 
the left, and Lee's later visit to Ewell, together with 
the unavoidable absence of General Longstreet's troops 
until late in the morning, prove absolutely that Lee 
issued no order for Longstreet to attack at any specific 
hour on July 2. 

8. Longstreet's preliminary movements from start 
to finish were under the personal supervision of Lee's 
confidential staff-officer, Pendleton, and the subordi- 
nate staff -officers. So Longstreet has positively stated, 
so has General McLaws, and both are confirmed by 
Pendleton's report. The staff guide caused a loss of 
three hours by putting the head of McLaws's column 
upon a wrong road. This compelled Longstreet to 
*' hasten matters" by assuming personal direction of the 
movement, and pushing Hood's division rapidly to the 
front past McLaws. 

4. Pendleton's official utterances make it an '^ estab- 
lished fact" that (rcneral Longstreet made his tremen- 
dous and successful attack on July 2 at the earliest mo- 

Pkndleton'8 Unseliable Memoby 

ment possible after receiving Lee's orders to advance, 
under the conditions imposed by Lee, — ^viz., to be con- 
ducted to the point of attack by Pendleton himself and 
the other staff-officers. 

Thus the misapprehensions respecting Longstreet's 
great part at Gettysburg were cleared away, and a bet- 
ter general understanding of what actually occurred 
was obtained from the Rev. Mr. Pendleton's report of 
September 12, 1868. Few military students now hold 
that Longstreet was in the remotest degree culpable for 
Lee's defeat. On the contrary, most of them severely 
critidse Lee's operations from start to finish, particu- 
larly the hopeless assaults he persisted in making, and 
for the lack of concert. It is held generally now that 
the dreadful result fully justified Longstreet's protests 
against attacking the Federals in that position, and that 
his suggestion of a turning movement was far more 
promising of success. 

In all the circumstances it is not only entirely im- 
probable, but the developed facts of the battle make it 
impossible that ^' General Lee died believing that he lost 
Gettysburg at last by Longstreet's disobedience of 
orders." Longstreet disobeyed no orders at Gettys- 
burg, and Lee was well aware of the fact. General 
Grordon has simply reiterated the claque set up after 
Lee's death by his fond admirers to shift the respon- 
sibility of defeat from his shoulders upon Longstreet. 
It was necessary to the success of that folly to make the 
world believe Lee always quietly held that view, and 
only imparted it in the strictest confidence to close 
friends like the ex-army chaplain. Rev. J. WilUam 
Jones, and the Rev. William N. Pendleton. 

The evidence is totally insufficient. Its gauzy char- 
acter is fully exposed by the Pendleton report. But 
apocryphal after-war evidence of this kind was the only 

reliance of the conspirators. It is absolutely certain 


Lee and Longstbeet at High Tihb 

that there is no evidence of any such belief in any of 
Lee's official utterances during the progress of the war, 
nor a hint of it in his private correspondence then or 
afterwards, so far as has been produced. The whole 
superstructure of the contention is based solely on the 
statements since the war, and since Lee's death, of two 
or three obscure individuals. Pendleton's Lexington 
yam is an example. They are easily exploded by the 
records of the battle; they are corroborated by none. 
All the battle worthy the name for the Southern cause 
at Gettysburg on the 2d and 8d was made by Long* 

Another evidence of the falsehoods concerning Long* 
street's disobedience and Lee's alleged belief is found 
in the relations of the two men. Their personal friend- 
ship continued after Gettysburg as it was before. It 
was of the closest and most cordial description. Gren- 
eral Lee always manifested the highest regard for 
Grcneral Longstreet, and continued to manifest undi- 
minished confidence in his military capacity, fighting 
qualities, and subordination. There is no manifestation 
of a withdrawal of that confidence after Grcttysburg. 
I here cite a few illustrations of their relations after 
Gettysburg. Just after his corps was ordered to rein- 
force Bragg before Chattanooga, Longstreet wrote 
Lee from Richmond, where he had temporarily stopped 
on his journey to the new field: 

^^ If I did not think our move a necessary one, my regrets at 
leaving you would be distressing to me. . . . Our affections for 
you are stronger, if it is possible for them to be stronger, than 
our admiration for you." 

After the battle of Chickamauga Lee wrote to Long- 

** . . . My whole heart and soul have been with you and your 
brave corps in your late battle. . . . Finish the work before 


Pendleton's Unbeliable Memoby 

you, my dear General, and return to me. I want you badly, 
and you cannot get hack too toon** 

These letters, printed in the, official records, were 
written less than ninety days after the battle of Gettys- 

" I want you badly" does not indicate that Liong- 
street had ever failed (Jeneral Lee. They are signifi- 
cant words, so soon after the event wherein Longstreet, 
by mere obstinacy and obduracy, had defeated his 
chiers plans, if we may believe Gordon, Pendleton, and 
Jones. After the forlorn campaign in East Tennessee 
against overwhelming numbers, when General Long- 
street was on his way back to the Army of Northern 
Virginia with his troops to aid in repelling Grant, Lee's 
adjutant-general wrote him as follows at Gordonsville 
or Orange Court-House: 

** HsAD-QvAinEU AmMT OF NoiTHSRir VnoiinAy 
<* April 9»^ 1864. 

" My dsab General, — ^I have received your note of yester- 
day and have consulted the Greneral about reviewing your com- 
mand. He directs me to say that he has written to the President 
to know if he can visit and review the army this week, and until 
his reply is received, the General cannot say when he can visit 
you. He is anxious to see you, and it will give him much 
pleasure to meet you and your corps once more. He hopes soon 
to be able to do this, and I will give you due notice when he can 
come. I really am beside myself, Greneral, with joy of having 
you back. It is like the reunion of a family. 

** Truly and respectfully yours, 

"W. H. Tayloe, A.A.G. 

" To General Longstreet." 

After the war was over and the Southern cause lost, 
there are warm letters from General Lee, written be- 
fore Longstreet had accepted appointment at the hands 
of a Republican President. A few months after the 
surrender General Lee wrote: 


Lke and LoNGsnEBX AT HxssL Tns 

JL^^ (hi /9J^ '^ 

J /I / y r If . / • >^ 

M a^H.t^ir%%c<^ ^ ^ JL aZtui ^ a.H^-&^!(jl^^ ^>»t> g^^*Y xn^m^' 


I^aMT 4MjU^iptn< ^A.pA^^t^tA^» -^txuil/x A^gc-^iib /foL^ii.'t^ 

f cJU zfiA^CPuy^ ^25^^tu^ ^^.^^/z4/^^Lw4^ 

4r..^t^ ^/c<^ pit^O ^T^t/^^PtU/AjC^t/d^l\Ju'^^ 


Lee and Lonostbeet at High TmE 

'' If you become as good a merchant as you were a 
soldier I shall be content. No one will then excel you, 
and no one can wish you more success and more happi- 
ness than I. My interest and affection for you will 
never cease, and my prayers are always offered for your 
prosperity." Strange words from the commander to 
the subordinate whose disobedience at Gettysburg, ac- 
cording to Rev. Dr. Pendleton and others, led the way 
to Appomattox. 

While (General Longstreet held General Lee to be 
a great strategist, he thought him to be less able as an 
offensive battle tactician. Those views are shared by 
many other military officers, who have of late given 
free expression to them. The Gettysburg controversies, 
followed by such criticisms, led to the belief that LfOng- 
street was the open enemy of Lee's fame, and lost no 
opportunity to maliciously decry his military ability. 
But this is a mistake. General Longstreet's intimate 
friends know that he has always bom for General Lee 
the most profound love and respect, both as a man and 
as a commander. His views of Lee's military capacity 
are discriminating and just, and they are probably cc»-- 
rect. Longstreet saw things military with a practical 
eye. A fine professional soldier himself, who had taken 
hard knocks on many great fields, he clearly discerned 
General Lee's incomparable attributes as a commander, 
and was never loath to praise them. He also knew Lee's 
weaknesses, and has sometimes spoken of them, but 
never in malice or contemptuously. Those who read 
his utterances in that sense are very narrow indeed. He 
has never, like the mass of Soutiiemers, looked upon 
Lee as infallible, yet in one particular Longstreet has 
held him to be one of the very greatest of commanders. 

As an example of General Longstreet's estimate of 
Lee's professional place in history, one of his interviews 
when on a visit to the Antietam battle-field, published 


Pendleton's Unbeliable Memoby 

a few years ago, is quoted: " General Lee, as a rule, 
did not underestimate his opponents or the fighting 
qualities of the Federal troops. But after Chancellors- 
ville he came to have unlimited confidence in his own 
army, and undoubtedly exaggerated its capacity to 
overcome obstacles, to march, to fight, to bear up under 
deprivations and exhaustion. It was a dangerous con- 
fidence. I think every officer who served under him 
wiU unhesitatingly agree with me on this point." 

In answer to a question as to which he regarded as 
Lee's best battle: " Well, perhaps the second battle of 
Manassas was, all things considered, the best tactical 
battle General Lee ever fought. The grand strategy 
of the campaign was also fine, and seems to have com- 
pletely deceived (Jeneral Pope. Indeed, Pope failed 
to comprehend Lee's purpose from start to finish. 
Pope was outgeneralled and outclassed by Lee, and 
through improper dispositions his fine army was out- 
fought. Still, it will not do to underrate Pope; he was 
an enterprising soldier and a fighter." 

General Longstreet, in the interview at Antietam, 
summed up Lee's characteristics as a commander in the 
following succinct manner: " General Lee was a large- 
minded man, of great and profound learning in the 
science of war. In all strategical movements he han- 
dled a great army with comprehensive ability and signal 
success. His campaigns against McClellan and Pope 
fully illustrate his capacity. On the defensive (general 
Lee was absolutely perfect. Reconciled to the single 
purpose of defence, he was invincible. But of the art 
of war, more particularly that of giving offensive battle, 
I do not tibink General Lee was a master. In science 
and military learning he was greatly the superior of 
.General Grant, or any other commander on either side. 
But in the art of war I have no doubt that Grant and 
several other officers were his equals. In the field his 


Lee and Lonosireet at BEioh Tuxe 

characteristic fault was headlong oombativeness. EQs 
impatience to strike, once in the presence of the enemyt 
whatever the disparity of forces or relative conditions, 
I consider the one weakness of General Lee's military 
character. This trait of aggressiveness led him to take 
too many chances — ^into dangerous situations. At Get- 
tysburg, all the vast interests at stake and the improba- 
bility of success would not deter him. Li the immediate 
presence of the enemy General Lee's mind, at all oth^r 
times calm and clear, became excited. The same may 
be said of most other highly educated, theoretical 
soldiers, (general Lee had the absolute confidence of 
his own troops, and the most unquestioning support 
of his subordinates. He was wholesomely feared by 
the Federal rank and file, who undoubtedly considered 
him the easy superior of their own generals. These 
were tremendous advantages." 

It is very difficult to detect malice or hatred in these 
calm and dispassionate conclusions. 

It is most probable that General Longstreet would 
have never written or uttered one word concerning 
Gettysburg had it not been for the attempt of wordy 
soldiers to specifically fix upon him the whole burden 
of that battle, their rashness carrying them so far as 
to lead them to put false orders in the mouth of the 
great captain, and charge Longstreet with having 
broken them. To disprove these untrue assertions, and 
to give the world the truth concerning the battle, then 
became what General Longstreet considered an impera- 
tive duty. He has always regretted deeply that this 
discussion was not opened before the death of General 
Lee. If the charges so vehemently urged had been pre- 
ferred or even suggested in Lee's lifetime, Longstreet 
does not believe they would have needed any reply from 
him. General Lee would have answered them himself 
and set history right. 



General Longstbeet's AMEBiCANifiM 

** * The military bill and amendments are the only peace-offer- 
ings they have for us, and should be accepted as the starting- 
point for future issues. 

** * Like others of the South not previously connected with 
politics, I naturally acquiesced in the ways of Democracy, but, 
so far as I can judge, there is nothing tangible in them, be- 
yond the issues that were put to test in the war and there lost. 
As there is nothing left to take hold of except prejudice, which 
cannot be worked for good for any one, it seems proper and 
right that we should seek some standing which may encourage 
hope for the future. 

^ * If I appreciate the issues of Democracy at this moment, 
.they are the enfranchisement of the negro and the rights of 
Congress in the premises, but the acts have been passed, are 
parts of the laws of the land, and no power but Congress can 
remove them. 

^ * Besides, if we now accept the doctrine that the States only 
can legislate on suffrage, we will fix the negro vote upon us, 
for he is now a suffragan, and his vote, with the vote that will 
go with him, will hold to his rights, while, by recognizing the 
acts of Congress, we may, after a fair trial, if negro suffrage 
proves a mistake, appeal and have Congress correct the error. 
It will accord better with wise policy to insist that the negro 
shall vote in the Northern as well as the Southern States. 
y^ ^ If every one will meet the crisis with proper appreciation 
of our condition and obligations, the sun will rise to-morrow 
on a happy people. Our fields will again begin to yield their 
increase, our railways and water will teem with abundant com- 
merce, our towns and cities will resound with the tumult of 
trader and we will be reinvigorated by the blessings of Almighty 
God. \ 

" * Very respectfully yours, 

^^ * James Lonostbest.' 

'' I might have added that not less forceful than the 
grounds I gave were the obligations under which we 
were placed by the terms of our paroles, — ' To respect 
the^laws of Congress,'— but the letter was enough. 

^ The afternoon of the day upon which my letter was 


Lee and Longstbeet at High Tihb 

published the paper that had called for advice published 
a column of editorial calling me traitorl deserter of 
my friends 1 and accusing me of joining the enemyl 
but did not publish a line of the letter upon which it 
based the charges 1 Other papers of the Democracy 
took up the garbled representation of this journal and 
spread it broadcast, not even giving the letter upon 
which they based their evil attadcB upon ma 

'^ Up to that time the First Corps, in all oi its parts, in 
all of its history, was above reproach. I was in success- 
ful business in New Orleans as cotton factor, with a 
salary from an insurance company of five thousand 
dollars per year. 

""The. day after the announcement old comrades 
passed me on the streets without speaking. Business 
began to grow dull, (xeneral Hood (the only one of 
my old comrades who occasionally visited me) thought 
that he could save the insurance business, and in a few 
weeks I found myself at leisure. 

^' Two years after that period, on March 4, 1869, Gren- 
eral Grant was inaugurated President of the United 
States, and in the bigness of his generous heart called 
me to Washington. Before I found opportunity to see 
him he sent my name to the Senate for confirmation as 
surveyor of customs at New Orleans. I was duly con- 
firmed, and held the office until 1878, when I resigned. 
Since that time I have lived in New Orleans, Liouisiana, 
and in Gainesville, Georgia, surrounded by a few of 
my old friends, and in occasional appreciative touch 
with others, South and North." 




Mr. Valiant aummoned. His wilL His last worda. 

Then^ said he^ " I am going to my Father's. . . • My sword I 
give to him that shall succeed me in my pilgrimage^ and my courage 
and skill to him that can get it" . . • And as he went down deeper^ 
he said, "Grave, where is thy victory?" 

So he passed over, and all the trmnpets sounded for him on the 
other side. — Bunyan's " Pilgrim's Progress." 

The personal letters and official reports of Robert E. 
Lee, reproduced in this work, clearly established that 
from Grcttysburg to Appomattox Longstreet continued 
to be Lee's most trusted Lieutenant; their mutual 
affection and admiration had no diminution. 

The official reports of Lee and Pendleton herein 
given make it dear as noonday that Longstreet dis- 
obeyed no orders of his chief at Grcttysburg, and was 
at no time " slow" or " obstructive" on that great field. 

The man who, under the weight of official evidence 
massed in this little story, can still raise his voice to 
assert that "' Longstreet was slow and balky" at Gettys- 
burg, takes direct issue with the officii reports of 
Robert E. Lee and the Rev. Mr. Pendleton, and his 
becomes a quarrel with the war records. 

Longstreet had unhesitatingly thrown up his com- 
mission in the old army and joined the Southern cause 
at the very outset. He was a chief participant in the 
first and last great scenes of the drama in Virginia. He 
had copiously shed his blood for the South. The sum of 
General Longstreet's offending was, — 

1. When the war was over he placed himself on the 
high plane of American citizenship, where all patriots 


Lee and Lonostreet at High Tuns 

now stand. He accepted office at the hands of a Re- 
publican President (pardonable offence in this good 
day) ; these were crimes which the temper of the South 
could not condone some forty years ago. 

2. He had protested against wrecking the Confeder- 
ate cause on the rocks of Cemetery Hill. In sheer self- 
defence he was c(»npelled to recapitulate in plainest 
terms General Lee's tactical mistakes and their fatal 
consequences. To many that was a crime never to be 
*f orgiven. Yet at the time and on the spot G^ieral Lee 
was morally brave enough to place the blame ^iiere it 
belonged, — on his own shoulders. Lee never sought a 
scape-goat for the mistakes of Gettysburg. 

This is the story, short enough for the busy; dear 
and straight enough for the young. It is the story of 
sentiment as well as reverence and admiration, growing 
up from childhood, of him who led the forlorn hope at 

But behind the sentiment is the unassailable truth. 
It is undeniably the story of the records, of the events 
exactly as they occurred. It is fully corroborated by 
all the probabilities; in no part disputed by one. It is 
the story told by General Longstreet himself, and no- 
body familiar with his open character and candid man- 
ner of discussing its various phases can doubt for one 
instant that he tells the details of Gettysburg exaetfy 
as they occurred, in so far as his personal part was con- 

Of him I would say, as his sun slants towards the 
west and the evening hours draw near, that his un- 
matched courage to meet the enemies of the peace 
time outshines tiie valor of the fields whereon his blood 
was shed so copiously in the cause of his country. I 
would tell him that his detractors are not the South; 
they are not the Democratic party; they represent no- 
body and nothing but the blindness of passion that 




desires not light. I would tell him that the great, loyal 
South loves him to-day as in the old days when he 
sacrificed on her altars a career in the army of the 
nation; when the thunder of his guns was heard around 
the world and the earth shook beneath the tread of his 

And as he journeys down to the Valley of Silence, 
the true sentiment of the generous South that he loves 
so weU is voiced by Hon. John Temple Graves, in the 
Atlanta, Grcorgia, News: 

'* Ab there walks ' thoughtful on the silent, solemn shore of 
that vast ocean he must sail so soon,' one of the last of the great 
figures that moved colossal upon the tragic stage of the Civil 
War, — ^Longstreet, the grim and tenacious, the bulldog of war 
whose grip never relaxed, whose guns never ceased to thunder, — 
as the eye grows dim that blazed like lightning over so many 
stormy fields, let the noble woman who bears his name read to 
her heroic soldier the message that the South of the present, the 
not ignoble offspring of the past, compasses the couch of Long- 
street with love, ahd covers his fading years with unfading 
admiration and unf orgetting tenderness." 

W^sHnroiov, D. C, December, 1908b 




The original plan of this little work was to publish 
only the short story of Grettysbnrg which was written 
while General Longstreet lived. My friends have in- 
sisted that the generous public, although it has received 
the prospectus of the work with such warm appreciation, 
will be disappointed if I discuss only the one event of 
his most eventful life. And so have been added the 
paper on the Mexican War and chapters on his famous 
campaigns of the Civil War. 

They have insisted further that I must speak of 
Longstreet the man. I have replied that I could not. 
My heart is sore. I cannot forget that he poured out 
his heroic blood in defence of the Southern people, and 
when there was not a flag left for him to fight for many 
of them turned against him and persecuted him with 
a bitterness that saddened his last years. They under- 
took to rob him of the glories of his many peerless cam- 
paigns; to convict him of treason to his cause on the 
field of battle. And when he lay dead, forty years after 
his world-famous victories, perhaps from an opening 
of the old wound received at the Wilderness, a Chapter 
of the Daughters of the Confederacy of the State be- 
neath whose sod rests his valiant dust, refused to send 
flowers to his grave, because, they said, he disobeyed 
orders at Gettysburg. And a Southern Camp of the 
Sons of Confederate Veterans refused, for the same 



alleged reason, to send a message of sympathy to his 
family. If I should now midertake to write about him 
I might speak of such things as these with bitterness; 
and I must not so speak, because I am a Southern 
woman, and the Southern people — my people — ^must 
forever be to me as they were to him, " dear as the ruddy 
drops about his heart." 

I must not write about him until I can write bravely, 
sweetly, cheerfully, and in this hour it is, perhaps, more 
than my human nature can do. And I cannot take the 
public into my confidence about the man I loved. The 
subject is too sacred. But my friends demand at least 
one page on the man as I knew him, that the South at 
last — the dear South that I love with all my heart — may 
know him and love him as I did. 

And so I undertake to string together disjointedly a 
few incidents of a life that was lived upon high levels, 
brave and blameless, and that the days give back to me 
a glorified memory, coupled with a great thankfulness 
that I had a small part in it. 

From my childhood he had been the fine embodiment 
of my ideals of chivalry and courage. The sorrows of 
his later years aroused all the tender pity of my heart 
His wounds and sufFerings enveloped him with poetic 
interest. He was fighting the battles of my country 
before I was bom. The blood of my ancestors had dyed 
the brilliant fields whereon he led. He was ever the hero 
of my young dreams ; and throughout a long and check- 
ered career always to me a figure of matchless splendor 
and gallantry. 

His life was set to serious work. His father died 
before he was old enough to understand the meaning of 
a father's care. He had but little schooling before he 
went to West Point as cadet of the Military Academy. 
From West Point he went into service in the Mexican 
War, and was in every battle, save one, of the war that 


His Boyhood Days 

gave to us an empire in wealth and territory; winning 
promotions for gallantry on the field. After the Mexi- 
can War he saw long service on the Western frontier. 
He entered the Civil War of 1861-65, and the greatest 
Confederate victories of that greatest war of civilized 
times are inscribed upon his battle-flags. The glories 
of Manassas, Williamsburg, Fredericksburg, Chicka- 
mauga, the East Tennessee campaigns, the Wilderness, 
the campaigns about Richmond, and the last desperate 
struggles on the way to Appomattox, gather about his 

After the Civil War came the most trying period of 
his life, — ^the dark days of reconstruction, the fierce dis- 
sensions between the sections, and between those hold- 
ing different views in the same section, the hot feeling 
and prejudices of the time, the struggle to repair the 
ruined fortunes of war. When he was finally gath- 
ered to his fathers, at the ripe old age of eighty-three, 
he was still in harness, holding the position under 
the government of United States Commissioner of 

This busy, exciting, and strenuous life was calculated 
to develop in him the qualities of the soldier, the man 
of affairs, the blood and iron of nature rather than her 
gentler qualities. Nevertheless, his heart was as tender 
as a woman's, the sentiment and romance of his being 
never ceased to be exerted, and he exhibited to the last 
a tenderness of feeling and thoughtfulness regarding 
others which were in singular and beautiful contrast to 
the main currents of his life. This, I think, will appear 
without any special effort to show it as this sketch goes 

Greneral Longstreet was bom in Edgefield District, 
South Carolina, January 8, 1821. His early years were 
spent in the coimtry. His father was a planter. Natu- 
ral to him was all the vigor and fire of that heroic sec- 



tion, and still there was in him a coolness, conservatism, 
and iron will tempered by justice and fair judgment 
embracing the best of his Dutch ancestry. His ances- 
tors on this side of the water were chi^y the Dents, 
Marshalls, and Randolphs, of Virginia. On the ma- 
ternal side, his grandfather, Marshall Dent, traced his 
line back to the Conqueror. His mother was Mary 
Ann Dent, of the family that furnished the lady who 
became famous as the wife of the soldier-President, 
Grant. His father was James Longstreet. His 
grandfather on his father's side was William Long- 

It is interesting here to note that this William Long- 
street was the inventor of the steamboat. He discovered 
the principle in a series of experiments about the kitchen 
and the mills, and after much care and trouble he was 
able to apply the principle. He made a rather pudgy 
steamboat, rigged it up with all necessary equipment, 
and successfully ran it for some miles up and down the 
Savannah River. He did not have the means to develop 
it to such extent as to demonstrate to the world its 
possibilities. FuUy appreciating the importance of 
the invention, he appealed to Governor Telfair, the then 
governor of Georgia, for aid. Very naturally, the aid 
was refused him, for that was a day of scepticism re- 
garding new-fangled things. He was made sport of 
by the people aroimd, and called "Billy Boy," the 
dreamer, and made the subject of doggerel poetry. As 
an authentic part of the story, I give here the letter 
which he wrote to Governor Telfair, which is still pre- 
served in the State archives of Georgia: 

"Atjoura, Gsoboia* September 96, 1790. 

'* SiK, — ^I make no doubt but you have often heard of my 

steamboat, and as often heard it laughed at, but in this I have 

only shared the fate of other projectors, for it has unifonnly 


His Boyhood Days 

been the custom of every country to ridicule the greatest inven- 
tions until they had proved their utility. In not reducing my 
scheme to active use it has been imfortimate for me, I confess, 
and perhaps the people in general; but, until very lately, I 
did not think that artists or material could be had in the place 
sufficient. However, necessity, that grand mother of invention, 
has furnished me with an idea of perfecting my plan almost 
entirely of wooden material, and by such workmen as may be had 
here; and, from a thorough confidence of its success, I have 
presumed to ask your assistance and patronage. Should it 
succeed agreeably to my expectations, I hope I shall discover 
that sense of duty which such favors always merit ; and should 
it not succeed, yoiur reward must lay with other imlucky ad- 

** For me to mention all of the advantages arising from such 
a machine would be tedious, and, indeed, quite imnecessary. 
Therefore I have taken the liberty to state, in this plain and 
humble manner, my wish and opinion, which I hope you will 
excuse, and I shall remain, either with or without your appro- 

** Your Excellency's most obedient and humble servant, 

*^Wm. Longstbeet. 


Some time afterwards Robert Fulton took up and 
developed the idea. At first he, too, was laughed at and 
discredited fully as much as was William Longstreet; 
but he finally succeeded in enlisting the patronage of 
Gouvemeur Morris, a rich New Yorker, and the success 
of the steamboat, with all its tremendous meaning to 
civilization, was the result. 

His father having died when he was but twelve years 
old. General Longstreet's mother moved shortly after- 
wards to Augusta, Georgia, where she resided a few 
years, after which she moved to Alabama. The educa- 
tion of yoimg Longstreet was then intrusted to his imcle, 
Judge A. B. Longstreet, for many years president of 
Emory College, at Oxford, Georgia, and one of the 

7 97 


most illustrious presidents of that famous old college. 
Judge Longstreet was noted as lawyer, judge, educator, 
and writer. He is a very pooriy read Grcorgian, a rather 
poorly read Southerner, who has not enjoyed and talked 
to his friends about that book of wonderful naturalness, 
humor, and human philosophy, " Grcorgia Scenes." The 
author of this book was Judge A. B. Longstreet. In 
later years its authorship has been often erroneously 
credited to General Longstreet. 

Entirely immersed in his college duties. Judge Long- 
street had but little time to give to his youthful nephew. 
Of those early days, it is only known that the boy was 
not much of a student; that the massive old oaks of 
Oxford appealed to him more than the school-room; 
that fishing in the streams around and chasing rabbits 
over the fields formed his dearest enjoyment. In his 
habits and feeling he was then and always near to na- 
ture. The flash of the lightning in mid-heaven inter- 
ested him more than the Voltaic sparks of the lecture- 
room. He was mischievous, full of fun and frolic, but 
beneath all that he was almost from babyhood planning 
for a larger career in the outside world and longing to 
be a soldier and fight his country's battles. The books 
that he loved most told of Alexander and Cassar, of 
Napoleon and his marshals, of Grcorge Washington 
and the Revolution. He wanted to do things, not to 
study about them. 

He received his West Point appointment through a 
relative in Alabama, who was a member of Congress. 
The appointment came naturally from Alabama, be- 
cause his mother was living there. He went to West 
Point at the age of sixteen. This was one of the proud- 
est days of his life; it was the beginning of the fuIfiOL- 
ment of his dreams ; he had not an idea that any human 
agency could turn him from the soldier course in whidi 
he was directed, or could delay him for an instant. And 


His Boyhood Days 

yet, while he was in New York City arranging for the 
change from the cars to the Hudson Biver boat, he was 
approached by two little boys of guileless appearance, 
who told him that their father had recently died away 
down in South Carolina, that they had no money, that 
their mother had no money, that they just must get to 
their dead father, and wouldn't he help them out. With 
a tenderness of heart characteristic of him then and 
always, he was about to open to them his purse and 
take the chances of never reaching West Point, when 
a policeman who had observed the performance ap- 
proached and prevented the innocent embryo soldier 
from being fleeced by the youthful bimco steerers of the 

Arriving at West Point, he proudly went to the hotel 
to register and take a room, and was much chagrined 
upon being told by the proprietor that they didn't " take 
in kids." He was directed to the cadets' quarters, and 
his first humiliation there was the further discovery that 
instead of being waited on as a dignified soldier should 
be by half a dozen servants, he had to keep his own room, 
make his own bed, black his own boots. 

His thoughts of war had been associated with fierce 
fighting, the killing of many enemies, the capturing of 
many prisoners. His preconceived idea of a prisoner 
was gained while a small boy in Alabama. He had 
heard that a prisoner was down at the station, and ran 
there full of expectancy to see what a " prisoner" was 
like. He discovered a big buck negro, black as mid- 
night, large as two ordinary men, with coimtenance 
ferocious. His first West Point assignment which gave 
promise of the heroic was to guard a " prisoner." He 
was given a gun for the purpose. The figure of the 
Alabama darky came to his mind, and he wondered if 
the gun were big enough to kill him in case that should 
be necessary. Examining it, he discovered, alas I that 



it was not even loaded. Sent to guard a terrible pris- 
oner with an unloaded gun! When he got to the place 
of service he was relieved, surprised, and equally dis- 
gusted by the discovery that the prisoner was a fellow- 
student who had broken the rules — a poor little weakly, 
cadaverous fellow, whom he could pick up and throw 
into the Hudson without half trying. 

As a West Point cadet, so far as the drilling, the field 
practice, the athletics, all the out-door work was con- 
cerned, he sustained himself well. He was very large, 
very strong, weU proportioned. He had dark-brown 
hair, blue eyes, features that might have served for a 
Grecian model. He was six feet two inches tall, of 
soldierly bearing, and was voted the handsomest cadet 
at West Point. As a student of books, however, he 
was not a success. They seemed to contain so much that 
did not properly belong to the life of a soldier that he 
could not become interested enough in them to learn 
them. In his third year he failed in mechanics, and did 
not " rise" until given a second trial. In scholarship, 
he always ranked much closer to the foot than to the 
head of his class. He was just a little better student 
than his friend, U. S. Grant, which was poor praise, 
indeed. But their after careers told a different story. 


I MAY be pardoned for digressing here to speak of 
the strong school-boy friendship which began at West 
Point between Grant and Longstreet and lasted 
throughout their lives. Grant was of the class after 
Longstreet, but somehow their silent serious natures 
were in spontaneous accord, and they became fast 


Life-Long Friendship of Gbant and Lonostbeet 

friends from their first meeting. That one was from 
the West and one from the South made no difference, 
just as later it made no difference in their feeling of 
personal affection that one led the army of the Union 
and the other the army of the Confederacy. 

After their graduation at West Point they were both 
stationed at Jefferson Barracks near St. Louis. The 
Dent family lived near by; Longstreet was a cousin. 
And he was particularly fond of his cousin Julia Dent! 
He took his friend Grant out to see her, and the result 
of the introduction was their marriage five years later. 
There was such a contrast between her tall cousin James 
and her short admirer, Ulysses, that her friends often 
joked her about '' the little lieutenant with the big epau- 

Grant and Longstreet went through the Mexican 
War together, and their boyhood friendship was indis- 
solubly cemented by the associations of camp life on the 
Mexican border. Longstreet went in as a lieutenant 
and came out as a major. General Worth apologized, 
giving Longstreet's youth as an excuse for not recom- 
mending him for higher promotion. Promotions in the 
army in those days were not so rapid as at the present 

The first meeting of Grant and Longstreet during 
the Civil War was not a personal meeting; it was when 
they were leading opposing forces at the battle of the 
Wilderness. It is known to all students of our Civil 
War history that the Confederate forces led by Long- 
street were getting all the better of it at the Wilder- 
ness and that the Union forces under Grant were being 
driven back, when Longstreet was shot down and car- 
ried from the field. He was leading his men, after 
his custom, — ^he never followed, never told them to go, 
but always bade them come. He was at this crucial 
point at the battle of the Wilderness far in advance 



of his men — ^so far in advance that they mistook him for 
the enemy and fired upon him. Shot through the shoul- 
der and the throat, wounded nigh unto death, he was 
taken from the field. With this calamity discovered, the 
Confederates held up in their swift advance. The im- 
pression rapidly spread that Longstreet was killed. The 
surgeons and attendants who were bearing him to the 
rear called out to the soldiers and asked that the cry be 
sent down the lines : '^ Liongstreet is not killed, he is only 
wounded." The men who had seen him fall cried out, 
"They are fooling us; he is dead." Grcneral Long- 
street has said that he heard both cries; he knew he was 
not dead, but did not know how soon he might be ; he had 
just strength enough left to lift his hat. For this pur- 
pose he exerted that strength, and waved his hat to his 
men that they might see that he still lived. But the 
genius of the battle of the Wilderness borne to the rear, 
even the ever daimtless Confederates could not follow 
up the advantage they had won. 

The next meeting of these two personal friends and 
opposing generals was at Appomattox. In the begin- 
ning of that momentous conference Grcneral Lee called 
Grcneral Longstreet to him and asked him, in case hon- 
orable terms of surrender should not be offered, and in 
the ensuing developments it should be necessary for the 
Confederates to fight their way out, if he would stand 
by him. Longstreet replied that he would fight and die 

General Longstreet often spoke of the details of the 
capitulation at Appomattox. He said that when he 
went into the conference-room, in the McLean residence, 
as one of the Confederate Commissioners, he was com- 
pelled to pass through the room occupied by Grcneral 
Grant as his head-quarters. He felt curious to know 
how Grcneral Grant would receive him. He had loved 
Grant as one of his closest boyhood friends, but times 


Life-Long Friendship of Grant and Longstreet 

were much changed. Grant was victor, he was van- 
quished. He was therefore prepared to observe the 
rigid demeanor of those between whom ceremony only 
forces recognition. But immediately he entered the 
room Grant rose, approached him with a greater show 
of demonstration than ever in the olden days, and 
slapped him on the shoulder, exclaiming, " Well, Old 
Pete, can't we get back to the good old days by playing 
a game of brag?" At West Point the nickname among 
the boys for General Longstreet was " Old Pete." No 
one ever knew why, any more than they know why 
this or that college president is designated Peleg or 

It has often been related by General Longstreet and 
by others that General Lee went into the Appomattox 
conference dressed in full uniform, and making withal 
the best appearance that this most noble soldier in his 
dire defeat could make. General Grant, on the con- 
trary, had not dressed up for the occasion. He wore 
his old fighting uniform, mud bespattered, evidencing 
no acquaintance even with a dusting-brush. The im- 
portant part of that meeting, the splendid bearing of 
the conquered Confederates, the modest demeanor of 
the Union victors, and, above all, the noble generosity 
of Grant in refusing to acept the sword of Lee and in — '. 
giving the fairest terms possible imder the existing con- 
ditions, — ^these are known to all who have read United 
States history. When General Lee rode back to his 
head-quarters from this fateful conference, his half- 
starved, ragged, worn-out, worshipful followers saluted 
him from both sides of the road. Overcome with emo- 
tion, he dared not look directly into their faces. He 
held his hat in his hand and fixed his eyes straight be- 
tween his horse's ears. The parting at Appomattox 
between Lee and his officers was most kindly, affection- 
ate, and touching in every instance. But when General 



Longstreet approached, G^eral Lee threw his arms 
about him, and, locked in each other's embrace, the two 
wept with a bitterness of regret that ordinary mortals 
can never imderstand. 

Soon after the war CJeneral Liongstreet visited Wash- 
ington and was invited to be the guest of a Union officer. 
He protested against accepting the invitation, saying 
that it was too soon after the fighting. But the insist- 
ence was so cordial as to leave no excuse for ref usaL 
Once under an officer's roof, it became his pleasant duty 
to pay his respects to the commanding general, who was, 
of course, General Grant. Grant received him with all 
his old-time cordiality, and invited him to take supper at 
his house that evening, saying quickly, as enforcement 
of the invitation, that his wife would be anxious to see 
him. The evening was pleasantly spent, and upon 
taking his leave. General Grant waU^ed to the gate with 
General Liongstreet, where he said, "" Now that it is all 
over, would you not like to have pardon?" (reneral 
Longstreet replied, with a touch of Southern fire, that 
he was imaware of having done anything in need of par- 
don. General Grant replied that he had perhaps used 
the wrong word, as he was more of a soldier than a lin- 
guist ; that he meant to ask if General Longstreet would 
like to have amnesty. Grcneral Longstreet answered 
that he was back in the Union, meant to live in the 
Union, was ready at that moment to fight for the Union, 
and would be happy if his old friend could place him in 
the way of restored citizenship. General Grant re- 
quested him to come again to his office the following 
morning, and said that in the mean time he would see 
the President and Secretary of War in Grcneral L(»ig- 
street's behalf. In the morning he gave (rcneral Long- 
street a letter to President Johnson full of warm interest 
and broad-mindedness characteristic of Grant, whidi is 
here reproduced : 


LiFE-LoNO Friendship of Gbant and Lonostbeet 

** Hbad-Quabxbbs Akmies op thb UsriTBD Statu, 
WASHnroToiTy D. C, Norcmber 7, 18d5. 

^^His ExcELUBKCY, A. Johnson, 

** President: 

** Knowing that Greneral Longstreet, late of the army which 
was in rebellion against the authority of the United States, is in 
the city, and presuming that he intends asking executive clemency 
before leaving, I beg to say a word in his favor. 

*^ General Longstreet comes under the third, fifth, and eighth 
exceptions made in your proclamation of the 29th of May, 1866. 
I believe I can safely say that there is nowhere among the ex- 
ceptions a more honorable class of men than those embraced in 
the fifth and eighth of these, nor a class that will more faithfully 
observe any obligation which they may impose upon themselves. 
General Longstreet, in my opinion, stands high among this class. 
I have known him well for more than twenty-six years, first as 
cadet at West Point and afterwards as an officer of the army. 
For five years from my graduation we served together, a portion 
of the time in the same regiment. I speak of him, therefore, from 
actual personal acquaintance. 

^ In the late rebellion, I think, not one single charge was ever 
brought against Greneral Longstreet for persecution of prisoners 
of war or of persons for their political opinions. If such charges 
were ever made, I never heard them. I have no hesitation, there- 
fore, in recommending Greneral Longstreet to your Excellency 
for pardon. I will further state that my opinion of him is such 
that I shall feel it as a personal favor to myself if this pardon is 

** Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

"U. S. GaANT, 
" Lieutenant-General.** 

Aimed with this letter. General Longstreet sought 
President Johnson. In the interview that followed the 
presentation of the letter the President was nervous, ill 
at ease, and somewhat resentful. He would not decide 
to grant the request, and he would not positively refuse. 
Pinally, he asked Greneral Longstreet to call again the 
following morning. At this next meeting he was still 



non-committal, and at length closed the interview by- 
saying, " There are three men this Union will never for- 
give. They have given it too much trouble. They are 
Jefferson Davis, Robert £. Lee, and James Long- 
street." General Longstreet said, " Those who are for^ 
given much, love much, Mr. President." Johnson an- 
swered, " You have high authority for that statement, 
Grcneral, but you cannot have amnesty." It was shortly 
afterwards granted by act of Congress, General Long- 
street's name being added to a list of prominent Con- 
federate officers by the especial request of Grant. 

These incidents in the associations of Grant and 
Longstreet come in naturally in a paper of this kind. 
I always think of them together, — ^as chums at West 
Point; as comrades in the West and on the fields of 
Mexico; as opposing forces in the mightiest war the 
world has witnessed; and after that war was ended, as 
good friends again in the stronger nation. 

President Johnson, who had started out with the plan 
of being generous to the South, and for some unknown 
reason departed from that policy, conceived the idea of 
having arrested and thrown into prison and tried for 
treason a number of the high officers of the Confederacy. 
He called for a Cabinet meeting to get an endorsement 
of this plan, and sent for General Grant to attend the 
meeting. He forcibly presented his reasons for the pro- 
cedure, and asked for the opinions of those present. 
After much discussion there was general acquiescence 
by the Cabinet. " The silent man of destiny" was the 
last member of the conference to open his lips. He said, 
" I will resign my commission in the army before I will, 
as commanding general, sign a warrant for the ar- 
rest of any of these Confederate officers as long as 
they observe the honorable terms of surrender made 
to me." 

It would be easy to write a book about a statement 


LiFE-LoNO Friendship OF Grant and Lonostreet 

like that, but the book when written would not be as good 
as the unadorned statement. 

The illustrious Union general's noble generosity to the 
conquered South is an old tale. But it is so beautiful 
that it bears repetition, and I love to repeat it. I have 
digressed from the main line of this paper to pay to 
Greneral Longstreet's boyhood friend the modest trib- 
ute of my admiration. From early childhood I rever- 
enced Grant. I always regarded him as the greatest 
man, the greatest general, the greatest hero on the 
Union side. I have now a life-size steel-engraving of 
him that I secured when a girl. This was long before I 
knew much of that side of his life which has since most 
appealed to me. My admiration of him has been in 
every way strengthened by the stories General Long- 
street told me of him, particularly the stories showing 
his generosity to his foes and his many private and offi- 
cial kindnesses to the widows and orphans of Confed- 
erate officers and privates. Of these stories I give one 
typical of many: When Grant was President, a widow 
of a Confederate officer applied for a post-office in a 
small Southern town. Hearing nothing of her appli- 
cation, she came to Washington to press it. She was 
unable to move the authorities at the Post-Office De- 
partment, and was about to go home in despair, when 
a friend suggested that it might be worth while for her 
to see the President. With much effort she summoned 
courage and appeared at the White House. The 
President received her in a most friendly manner, and 
after hearing her story took her application and wrote 
a brief but strong endorsement on the back of it. She 
hurried in triumph to the Post-Office Department. The 
official to whom she presented the application frowned 
and pondered over it for some time, and then wrote 
under the President's endorsement: "This being a 
fourth-class office, the President does not have the ap- 



pointing power." The application was handed back to 
her, and she went away in deep distress, and was again 
preparing to return home, when another friend told her 
by all means to take the paper back to the President so 
that he might see how his endorsement had been received. 
She did so. The President wrote imder the last endorse- 
ment: " While the President does not have the appoint- 
ing power in this office, he has the appointment of the 
Postmaster-Grcneral," and, summoning his secretary, 
directed him to accompany the lady to the Department 
and in person deliver her application to the Postmaster- 
Grcneral. It is needless to add that she received the 
commission before leaving the office. 

While on a tour through the West in 1899, Greneral 
Longstreet was entertained in San Diego, California^ 
at a dinner at the home of U. S. Grant, Jr. After 
dinner he requested the company to stand while he 
proposed a toast. We expected, perhaps, some pleas- 
antry or gallant compliment to the hostess. He said: 
"Thirty-odd years ago I first met Greneral Grant in 
the Civil War at the Wilderness, and there received 
the woimd that paralyzed my right arm. During the 
fiercest warfare this nation has seen, Greneral Grant 
was the strongest obstacle that stood between me 
and my people and the consummation of the dearest 
hopes that they then cherished. Now, in this day of 
peace and union, with not a cloud upon the sky of a re- 
united country, in the presence of Greneral Grant's de- 
scendants, under the roof of his namesake son, I want 
to drink this toast to the memory of Grant, revered alike 
by the brave men who fought with him and the equally 
brave men who fought him." 


His First Romance 


Fifty years before the pleasant day in San Diego, 
fresh from the fields of his honors and victories in Mex- 
ico, young Major Longstreet had come home to wed 
the daughter of his old brigade commander, Colonel 
John Garland. She was Marie Louise Garland, a very 
charming woman, and so small of figure as to be in 
striking contrast to her husband of six feet two. They 
were engaged for some time before the breaking out of 
the Mexican War. With a lofty deference, which he 
bravely overcame in later life, he had never kissed his 
fiancee. In setting out for the Mexican War, he said 
that he thought, inasmuch as he might get killed and 
never see her again, it might not be improper, under all 
the sad circumstances, to kiss her. They had ten children, 
five of whom died in infancy. A word as to the living 
five. A son bom in Virginia during the war was named 
Robert Lee, after the Southern Commander. This son 
served in the recent Spanish- American War, and was, 
by happy fortune, a member of the stafi^ of Gen- 
eral Fitzhugh Lee. He is now in the government ser- 
vice at Washington City. Another son, named James, 
after his father, was bom in Virginia not long after the 
surrender. At the time. General Longstreet wrote to 
an absent relative: " This is my Union son, but he has 
a yell like the rebel yell when trying to reach the breast- 
works. I have named him James, after myself, and I 
know he will always be as good a Union man as I am 
going to be hereafter." This son likewise saw volunteer 
service in the Spanish-iiinerican War. He afterwards 
received a commission in the regular army, and is now 
serving in the Philippines in the Thirteenth Cavalry. 
This Union officer son is a strong Democrat; his brother 
in Washington is an equally strong Republican. The 



.Grcneral always taught that political alignment should 
be based upon conviction alone. His oldest son, John, 
an architect, lives in Atlanta, the youngest son, Ran- 
dolph, a farmer, lives on the home place at Gainesville; 
the only daughter is Mrs. Whdchel, of Gainesville, 
Georgia. There are five grandchildren. 

General Longstreet said that he started out in his mar- 
ried life with the purpose of preserving military disci- 
pline in the family, — ^managing the family as he would 
manage soldiers on the field. He soon found that this 
would not work, and turned over the chief control of his 
home to his wife. 

Grcneral Longstreet was a great admirer of ladies, 
and has often said that he never saw enough of tfaem, 
never knew as many as he wanted to know. Into his 
soldier life few ladies had come. When he got into 
dvil life he wondered where all the ladies came f rcHn. 
After the Civil War he was much petted and kissed 
by the ladies of the South, as was the custom with the 
old heroes of the war. He submitted to it with some- 
thing more than willingness, particularly from the 
yoimger and prettier girls. He always had for woman 
in the abstract the tenderest love and reverence. He 
considered her the human temple of all loveliness. He 
preserved to the end of his long life the romance and 
sentiment which, having but half a chance to develop in 
his youth, had continued to develop in his later years. 
The home was ever to him the holy of holies. 

Last smnmer, at Chicago, he met the daughter of his 
first sweetheart, and told her, with beautiful nmvet6, 
that her mother had been his sweetheart before going to 
West Point; that he had meant to marry her when he 
got back, though he had not told her so ; and on return- 
ing, to his disgust, he found her married to another 

After the Mexican War General Longstreet served 


His FntsT Romance 

extensively in the Indian campaigns out West. He 
considered it his duty and made it his delight, as do all 
good soldiers, to go willingly where he was sent. When 
choice was allowed him he went where the service was 
hardest. He did not ask to dine nicely nor to sleep 
warm. A storm cloud was not too rough a covering for 
him. He did not seek Olympian sunshine. He could 
gladly make the Rocky Mountains his bed, and the war- 
whoop of the Indian seeking to disturb the peace of his 
country was music to his ears. The highest word that 
he knew was duty. His coimtry he loved above all 
things else. He served in the United States army for 
almost a quarter of a century, nearly always west of the 

When the Civil War broke out he was paymaster at 
Albuquerque, New Mexico, with the rank of major. 
The coimtry had for years been in comparative peace, 
and he had given up the cherished idea of military 
glory and high promotion. Where did his duty lie in 
this hour? He had loyally served in the Union army 
for nearly twenty-five years and through the war that 
gave to the nation a rich empire. His State and his 
people were now going to fight the Union. The Union 
Qjficers with whom he was serving and the Union sol- 
diers whom he had commanded, pleaded with him to stay 
with the Union; their wives and daughters entreated 
him and wept over him; the power of vast association 
appealed wonderfully to him; but he thought that duty 
called him to the service of the South, and no earthly 
power could keep him from that service. He sent in 
Ilia resignation, and set out at once for Richmond. His 
i-elatives and friends along the way, only taking time 
to speak to him as he passed, hastened him on to Rich- 
mond. It was a gala journey that he made through the 
Southern coimtry. The music of Southern songs was 
borne upon every breeze. The wildest enthusiasm dec- 



trified town and hamlet; from the open doon of every 
farm-house came salutations dieering the passengers 
on to Richmond. He was not allowed to pay for enter- 
tainment at any Southern hotel Everything was free 
for those who were going to join "' Jeff. Davis for Dixie 
and for Southern rights." 


LoNOSTREET entered the Confederate service as hrig- 
adier-general, and reported for duty to General Beau- 
regard at the first Manassas. After the baptism of fire 
at Antietam, in 1862, Longstreet was made lieutenant- 
general, next in rank to Lee. This rank he retained to 
the end of the war, ranking even Stonewall Jackson. 
This fact is especially mentioned, because the last gen- 
eration of the South have often confused the rank 
secured by their fathers in the war with the paper ranks 
given by the Confederacy when the war was over and 
that government, heroic in its ruins, had nothing else 
to give. 

ri have heard it said by many Union officers that Long- 
sfepeet's corps, the First Corps, was the terror of the 
Union army. I have heard it said that Longstreet was 
the only officer in the Confederate army whom Grant 
and Lincoln wholesomely feared. He was Lee's right 
arm in very truth." The morning of the battle of the 
Wilderness, while President Lincoln was at the War 
Department, some one asked him, '' What is the best 
thing that can happen to the Union to-day?" He an- 
swered, " To kill Longstreet." It nearly happened, but 
by the bullets of Longstreet's own men, because in so 
gallantly leading them he went too far in front. 

Heroic Citizen of the Reconstruction Period 

After the fall of the curtain at Appomattox Greneral 
Longstreet went to New Orleans and engaged in the 
cotton and insurance business. He developed in busi- 
ness the splendid ability that marked him as a soldier. 
He was making ten thousand dollars a year at the time 
the celebrated difference of opinion came up as to the 
course the South should pursue in the rehabilitation of 
the war-wasted land. It was then that he wrote the fa- 
mous political letter of 1867 that turned the South 
against him and made it practically impossible for 
him to do business in that section of the country. The 
idea that this letter was written to secure political pre- 
ferment from the powers in authority is perfectly ab- 
surd. He was making more in business, and would have 
made still more and more as the years went on, than he 
could make then or ever afterwards in politics, diesides, 
to me, and to any one who ever knew the real man, the 
idea of his changing his convictions a hair's breadth for 
any sort of gain is too far-fetched for serious discussion. 
The very head and front of his offending consisted in 
his belief that it was better for the South to accept the 
situation then presented; better for the high-class men 
of the South to hold the offices than to have the negroes 
and scallawags hold them; better for the South to keep 
faith with its Appomattox parole, which promised obe- 
dience to constituted authority?^ It was a few years 
after this letter that President Grant appointed him 
Surveyor of the Port at New Orleans. He never asked 
for this appointment, and was not consulted about it. 
President Grant, in the generosity of his heart, volun- 
tarily sent his name to the Senate, and the first news 
Greneral Longstreet had of it came through the press. 

General Longstreet never affiliated with the control- 
ling element of the Republican party in the South. He 
believed in a white man's Republican party in the South, 
and therefore was never in favor with the dominant 

8 113 


Republican party in that section that bdieved differ- 
entiy. The political appointments that came to him 
came because of his high character and his record of sub- 
stantial achievement, and in spite of fhe opposition of 
miscellaneous competitive place-seekers. He led a polit- 
ical movement that has had no following in the Southern 
section. It would seemingly have been easy for him to 
have acquiesced in the methods of the Republican ma- 
chinery in the Southern States whidi would naturally 
have made him the head and front of the Southern Re- 
publican party. It would have seemed easier in an 
earlier day for him to have gone with the Democracy, 
which would have made him the political idol of the 
South, as he had been its military idol. Is is so much 
easier to be a demagogue than it is to be a man. It 
requires no imusual moral caliber to take a seat on the 
band-wagon and go witii the crowd. ACk>nscience com- 
pelled James Longstreet to oppose politically, for their 
own good, as he saw it, his Southern fellow-countrymen. 
He announced his convictions and stood by them. He 
never profited, as we measure material benefits; he lost. 
The qualities he exhibited in these crucial periods of his 
life differentiated the man from the time-server and 

One who loved him and was dose to him in life said, 
regretfully, not long ago, in speaking of him, that he 
never did anything after Appomattox that '' turned out 
for his own good." I felt a sudden tightening about 
my heart at this criticism. Perhaps as we view worldly 
honors and earthly goods the things he did after Appo- 
mattox did not ** turn out for his own good." But to 
me he has always been a figure of more sublime courage 
in the gathering storms of '67 and the years that fol- 
lowed than on any of the brilliant fields of the Civil 
War. (And I love best to think of him, not as the war- 
rior leading his legions to victory, but as the grand ci^ - 

114 — — — 

LiOYED THE South to the Last 

z en after the war wa^ ^i^ded, nobly dedicating himself 
to the rehabilitating of h h T^rfffctiP J}'^]^!^* o^pjj^ 
a brave man's homage to fluei.jBag ■ of thpi eistohlishf d 
goverSSent, andstffidjng^tcadfjOjsdL^ paitinnf?j 

prejudiCS, and persecutions of that unhappy period. 
It was the hi f e and h o n o r aiid iKml of the maSTcrystid- 
lized into a being of wonderful majesty, inunovable as 

" There be things, O sons of what has deserved birth- 
right in the land of freedom, the * good of which' and 
* the use of which' are beyond all calculation of earthly 
goods and worldly uses — ^things that cannot be bought 
with a price and do not die with death ;" these, gathering 
strength and beauty in James Longstreet's character, 
through the four terrible years of warfare, assumed 
colossal proportions in the dark reconstruction era. 
And when the story of his life has finally been told, 
in all its grandeur, the finer fame will settle not about 
the valorous soldier, but about Longstreet, the patriot- 


When Grcneral Longstreet quit fighting, he quit 
fighting for good. He considered that the South was 
back in the Union to stay. There is no doubt in the 
nodnds of many with whom I have talked that Grcneral 
CXiOngstreet's conciliatory course, because of its efi^ect in 
holding thousands obedient to the laws of the govern- 
ment, prevented the confiscation of much property in 
ihe South immediately after the war, and greatly alle- 
viated the trials of that distressing period. The local 
i2fitQuaS8nofthat day and subsequently cut (yeneral 
r^nfftttrt^^ iJAApiy; ^ie loved tne g ^tli with all the 



tend erness of ^ gj^o waa^JWpHing tg jjjp for ff J In all 
tSTquiet hours that he discussed the misrepresentations 
of the Southern people, the resentment they bore him, 
the criticisms and slanders that had been hurled at him, 
I never heard him utter a word against them or give 
expression to a note of bitterness. But I think towards 
the last, exhausted by much suffering, he had a pitiful 
yearning for complete reconciliation with all his people. 
Not many months before he died an officer of the NorHi- 
em armies was calling on him at his hotel in Washing- 
ton, and in discussing the Civil War and subsequent 
events, and Grcneral Longstreet's part therein, said, 
" The Southern people have not appreciated you since 
the war, General, but when you are dead they will build 
monuments to you." General Longstreet said nothing, 
but his eyes slowly filled. While he bore unjust criti- 
cism in silence, he was visibly moved by any evidence of 
affection from the Southern people. 

I recall two very beautiful press tributes that ap- 
peared last summer while he was lying desperately ill at 
his home in Gainesville, Georgia; one was from the pen 
of Hon. John Temple Graves, in the Atlanta, Grcorgia, 
News; the other byQ^rs. W. H. Felton, an old-time 
friend, in the Atlanta Journal. Mr. Graves, a repre- 
sentative of the splendid new South, spoke of the new 
generations as worthy descendants of the heroic days, 
and the place General Longstreet would always hold 
in their hearts; and Mrs. Felton, one of the important 
figures of the old South, told of the undying love for 
him of the soldiers of the Confederacy, and of the place 
he had worthily won in the affections of all the people; 
she wanted to speak these words to him for the comfort 
they would give him; and because he had nobly earned 
the right to hear them, and ten thousand times more 
from the people whose battles he had fought^ When 
' "■ put of immediate danger, and strong enough 


LoYED THE South to the IjAst 

to understand, I read these tributes to him, and he wept 
like a child. 

The forbearance of the man and his generous feel- 
ing towards those who used him harshly finally became 
a wonder, and is to-day a joy for me to remember. I 
will here give an instance or two touchingly illustrative 
of this side of his character. General Wade Hamp- 
ton, as stoical as ever a Roman was, felt very bitterly 
against General Longstreet because of his Republican 
politics. He expressed his feelings freely both in pub- 
lic and private, and was embittered to the extent that 
he refused to speak to General Longstreet. When 
Greneral Longstreet succeeded him as United States 
Commissioner of Railroads, he would not come to the 
office to turn it over to his successor. General Long- 
street went to the office, took the oath alone, and en- 
deavored as best he could to make himself acquainted 
with the duties of the position. <^lien he came home 
that evening and told me, with evident surprise, that 
Greneral Hampton was still bitter against him, I asked, 
rather in the hope of getting a reply in criticism of 
Greneral Hampton, " What sort of a soldier was Gren- 
eral Hampton, since he seems so intractable in civil 
life?" General Longstreet replied, without a moment's 
hesitation: " There was not a finer, braver, more gal- 
lant officer in the Confederate service than Wade 
Hampton." And when General Hampton died, I think 
the most splendid tribute paid h\m came from the pen 
of General Longstreet. ) 

Years ago there were political differences between 
Greneral Longstreet and Judge Emory Speer, now of 
the Federal Bench of Georgia, then a member of 
Congress from the old Eighth District of Georgia. 
Greneral Longstreet felt that he had been wronged. 
The summer before his death we were at Mt. Airy, 
G^rgia, for a short time. One day I saw Judge 



Speer in the hotel where we were stopping, and asked 
G^eneral Longstreet how he was going to receiye him 
if Judge Speer should come to speak to him, in view 
of their past differences. The (Jeneral replied, " As I 
would receive any other distinguished American. And 
as for our past differences, that has heen a long time 
ago, and I have forgotten what it was all about." 

Greneral John B. Grordon, during recent years, did 
Greneral Longstreet injustice. I know he caused him 
much pain. At a time when Greneral Longstreet wna 
suffering horribly, — one eye had already been destroyed 
by the dreadful disease; he had long been deaf and 
paraljrzed from war service; the wound in his throat 
was giving him severest pain, — at this sad time Greneral 
Gk>rdon revived the old, threadbare story that he had 
disobeyed orders at Grcttysburg. But when a reporter 
from one of the New York dailies called to interview 
him about Greneral Giordon and his charges, he refused 
to say one word. It was then that I said, "' If you will 
not reply to Greneral Grordon, I will. And in the future, 
so long as I shall live, whenever your war record is at- 
tacked, I will make answer." And so it happened that 
the little story of Grcttysburg was written while Greneral 
Longstreet was nearing the grave. During these last, 
sorrowful days he had heard that General Gk)rdon was 
not in good health, and he asked me, with touching con- 
cern, about his condition. I expected to tell Greneral 
Gk>rdon of these occurrences, but I never saw him again. 
The Reaper gathered him in, ten days after Greneral 
Longstreet answered the call. 

Greneral Longstreet was a most devout diurdmian. 
In early life he was an Episcopalian, and he regularly 
attended that diurch in New Orleans until the political 
differences developed between himself and his friends. 
After that he noticed that even his church associates 
avoided him. They would not sit in the same pew witii 



him. Cut to the quick by such treatment, he began to 
wonder if there was any church broad enough to with- 
stand differences caused by political and sectional feel- 
ing. He discovered that the Roman Catholic priests 
extended him the treatment he longed for. He began 
to attend that church, and has said that its atmosphere 
from the first appealed to him as the church of the 
sorrow-laden of earth. He was converted under the 
ministration of Father Ryan. After accepting the 
faith of the Catholic Church he followed it with beauti- 
ful devotion. He regarded it as the compensation sent 
him by the Almighty for doing his duty as he saw 
it He clung to it as the best consolation there was in 
life. He went to his duties as devoutly as any priest of 
the church, and was on his knees night and morning, 
with the simple, loving faith of a little child. 


MThe political estrangements between General Long- 
8&eet and many of the leaders of the South never ex- 
tended to the soldiers who did any large amoimt of 
fighting for the South. There was a Confederate re- 
union in Atlanta in 1898. A camp of Confederate Vet- 
erans, of Augusta, Grcorgia, made up of his old com- 
mand, sent Grcneral Longstreet a special request to come 
down f rrai his home in Gainesville, and to wear his old 
uniform, f He replied that his uniform had been de- 
stroyed years ago in the fire which burned his home and 
practically everything else he had, but that he would 
£^ladly go down with what was left of himself — ^that 
liis old trunk of a body was the only relic of the Con- 
federacy remaining to him. They then secured his 
measure and had a new Confederate uniform made for 



him to represent the old as nearly as possible. ^iDuring 
all his stay at that reunion the old soldiers flocked about 
him with a devotion that Napoleon would have envied. 
They went wild over him. When he went to the dining- 
room at the hotel, the doors had to be closed so that he 
could take his meals without interruptionT^ One even - 
ing, in the Kimball, his old ** bo ys'^ surgro about hi m 
by^Eejffipusands ^tBTflSiiOTT^ger to t ouch 
to touch his garments, to loo£ into J^IIafi^.^aDdJlie 
teSrs-sf^umed down hir cheeksr''^Just before that, one 
day, outraged at soine imkindness that had come from 
the South, I had said to General Longstreet, ''The 
Southern people are no longer my people. I have no 
home and no coimtry." In the midst of the splendid 
demonstration at the reunion of 1898, when the thou- 
sands who had followed his colors stood with uncovered 
heads in his honored presence, I said to him, '' This is 
the South that I love, because it loves you; it is the 
magnificent, generous, loyal South that I love with 
evCTy impulse of my heart; these are my people." 

A think he never forgot the Confederate reunion in 
Atianta in 1898. His old soldiers came to his room in 
a continuous stream. '^^ One afternoon, when he was 
asleep, utterly worn out, a one-legged, one-armed vet- 
eran, poorly clad, looking poorly fed, came to his room. 
I told him of the General's exhausted condition — ^that 
he needed the rest, and I was really afraid to disturb 
him. Then he said, " Won't you let me go in and look 
at my old commander, asleep. I haven't seen him since 
Appomattox. I came all the way from Texas to see 
him, and I may never see him again." Without a word 
I opened the door, and as the worn veteran looked upcm 
his old chieftain we both cried. In the midst of it Gen- 
eral Longstreet wakened and called the veteran to him. 
They embraced like brothers and wept together. 

■ On the eve of the Spanish- American War Greneral 

k 120 

Worshipped bt Soldiers of the Confederacy 

Longstreet received hundreds of letters from his old 
soldiers in every part of the country, asking for the 
privilege of seeing service with him imder the flag of the 
Union. One of them wrote: " If this country is going 
to have another war, I want to be in it, and I want 
to follow my old commander." General Longstreet an- 
swered that he was seventy-eight, deaf, and paralyzed; 
that he had two sons he would send to fight for him, but 
that if his country needed his services, his sword was at 
its conmiand.\ 

As Commisinoner of Railroads, General Longstreet 
made a tour of the West in 1899. He was received with 
beautiful consideration everywhere, but the welcome 
which touched him most was that of his old soldiers 
who greeted him in every State. It was marvellous to 
see how the veterans of a war that was over forty years 
ago had scattered through the West, and it certainly 
seemed that every one there had heard that General 
Longstreet was coming, and came to the nearest station 
to see him. With them were many Union veterans who 
gave him an equally cordial greeting. 

I will digress here to say that General Longstreet 
could never stand on a foot of Northern soil where he 
was not received with every manifestation of earthly 
honor and esteem by the Union veterans and their de- 
scendants, and this touched him as nothing else in the 
world could have done. I wish to ojQf er the humble trib- 
ute of my love to the chivalrous section that is to-day so 
dose to my heart; the honors they paid General Long- 
street, their tributes to him, did not end with the grave. 
Two weeks after the prospectus of this little volume 
had been sent out, the first edition had been bought, 
long before it was ready for delivery, by the Grand 
Army of the Republic, and the orders were accom- 
panied by testimonials to General Longstreet as soldier 
and patriot that would make a memorial volume of rich 



value, and a brief selection, at least, I hope to give in 
future editions. 

At one place, on his Western tour in 1899, it became 
necessary for him to telegraph to an official of the Rock 
Island road to ask if he would "" pass" his car. It hap- 
pened that this official had been a Union officer who had 
received hard blows from Longstreet on many bloody 
fields. He replied that in the old days that tried the 
courage of men he was much more anxious to ** pass** 
LfOngstreet than to meet him; that now he was going 
to insist on meeting him first, and afterwards he would 
" pass" anything the General wanted him to " pass." 

Next to the pleasure of meeting his old friends on 
this Western tour, Grcneral Longstreet most enjoyed 
the wonderful development of tiie country that had 
taken place since he was chasing wild Indians across its 
wide plains. The smiling farms that greeted him, the 
magnificent cities, the marvellously fertile irrigated sec- 
tions that he had last beheld as deserts, the net-work of 
competing railroads which had taken the place of the 
trail and the half -worked wagon-roads, the evidences 
everywhere of a magnificent country built up by pro- 
gressive people, — ^all these, with all the suggestiveness 
attaching to them, appealed with mighty force to his 
heart and to his mental appreciation. The picture of 
industrial growth is a beautiful and impressive one. 
It is a story in itself that needs only a suggestion to 
make it as large a part of this as it should make. 

Genuine Americanism, a love of his country in every 
sentiment that concerns it and every line of develop- 
ment ajQfecting it, formed a very large and attractive 
phase of General Longstreet's character. And so, f rcnn 
every stand-point he enjoyed this Western trip to the 


His Country Home is North Georgia 


Next to the smoke of battle in the cause of his coun- 
try, he loved nature in her gentlest and most quiet 
moods. He was fond of the forest and farm. He 
owned a small farm near Gainesville, Georgia, which 
was one of the delights of his life. Here he set out an 
ordiard and a vineyard on a scale somewhat extensive, 
in which he f oimd much pleasure. It is a hilly, un- 
even country, this rugged Piedmont section of north 
Georgia, noted for its red clay, its rocks, its mighty 
trees, the wild honeysuckles that carpet its woods, and 
the purity of the air that sweeps over it and the water 
that gushes in abundance from its depths. Grcneral 
Longstreet made his little farm in this picturesque sec- 
tion as productive and attractive as he could. It was 
mostly hills, and had to be terraced extensively to keep 
it from washing away. He had it terraced with much 
care, and laid off something after the manner of a 
battle-field. Thereupon the people around jokingly 
called it " Gettysburg.'' 

Here he had built and lived in a splendid home of the 
old colonial style of architecture, such as has long been 
popular in the South. The house was richly furnished. 
He had one of the finest libraries in the South, and had 
collected interesting and valuable souvenirs, and fur- 
nishings from all over the world. His residence was 
situated on a lordly eminence; beyond, the everlasting 
iTiniintaing stretched in unbroken length; in the valley 
between, the placid waters of the mountain streams 
wound lazily to the sea. The location was most beauti- 
ful, and has often been called ''Inspiration Point" 
Amid these romantic surroundings Grcneral Longstreet 

dispensed a hospitality characteristic of the most splen- 



did days of the old South. He often laughingly said 
that his house became a rendezvous for old Conf ederiltes 
who were hastily going West, and needed a " little aid.*' 
They never knocked in vain at his door. He has said 
that a favorite tale of theirs was that they '' had just 
killed a Yankee, and had to go West hurriedly;" think- 
ing, of course, that this plea would strike a q^patfaetic 

Some twenty years ago General Longstreet's home 
and everything it contained, save the people, vanished 
in flames. After that he lived in one of the out-houses, 
a small frame cottage such as any carpenter mig^t build 
and any countryman might own. 

Some years ago Hamlin Garland visited Gainesville 
for the purpose of calling on General Longstreet. Af- 
ter talking with him Mr. Garland wrote a very interest- 
ing article about him. He especially marvelled that he 
should find so great a man, so colossal a character, living 
in such modest fashion, seemingly almost forgotten by 
all sections of the country in whose destiny he had played 
so important a part. He said he found a world-famous 
general pruning grape-vines on a red hiU-side of the 
picturesque mountain region of Georgia. He was de- 
lighted with his versatility, his information, and, most 
of all, with his glowing love of country and his broad 
ideas of the future greatness of America. 

When the imposing house stood and when he after- 
wards occupied the cottage, his home was still the 
boasted " show-place" of Gainesville. He was Gaines- 
ville's grand historic character, her first gentleman, and 
her best-loved citizen. Whatever resentment towards 
him because of political views may have been felt in 
other parts of the country where men were striving to be 
at the head of state processions, in his little home dty 
there was never a break in the loving and proud esteem 
in which he was held by his home people. 



His Country Home in Noeth Georgia 

Here life remained interesting to him to the last. His 
heart was ever yomig; when he died he was eighty-three 
years yomig. Only a day or two before he was taken 
away he was planning things that were to take place 
years in the future. Blindness, deafness, paralysis, the 
decay of physical faculties, failed to move his dauntless 
courage or quell his splendid determination. 

General Longstreet's last days were spent in revising 
his memoirs of the Civil War, as were Grant's in writing 
his. The two colossal characters passed away sujQf ering 
the excruciating pains of the same dread disease, — can- 
cer, — ^both disdaining death, heroic to the end. 

On the eve of the Spanish-American War General 
Longstreet was invited by the New York Herald to 
contribute to its colunms a paper on the subject of the 
threatened trouble with Spain. 

The closing paragraph of that paper comes across 
llie years a prophecy and prayer for all mankind: 

^ As the evemng hours draw near, the bugle calls of the eternal 
years sound clearer to my understanding than when drowned in 
the hiss of musketry and the roar of cannon. By memory of 
battle-fields and prophecy of coming events, I declare the hope 
that the present generation may witness the disbandment of 
standing armies, the reign of natural justice, the ushering in of 
the brotherhood of man. If I could recall one hour of my distant 
^but glorious command, I would say, on the eve of battle with a 
foreign foe, ^^ Little children, love one another.** 







Mexico will always be a land of romance. Her ruins are yet 
fragrant with memories of the mighty plans of Louis Napoleon. 

After an absence of fifty years, General Longstreet 
revisited Mexico in the eventful summer of 1898, lei- 
surely passing over some of the scenes of his early mili- 
tary experiences. Half a century had stolen away, yet 
architecturally he found Mexico but little changed. 
Pew of the old landmarks were ejQfaced. Modem ideas ^- 
and inventions have been encouraged and do prevail ii^*^^ 
our sister republic, but the dream-like strangeness of 
its civilization is still all-pervading. Mexico is not un- 
like Egjrpt in some respects. Everywhere is the poetry 
of a past age. Egypt has its sphinx and the pyramids 
to illustrate a mysterious past; in Mexico we find the 
temples of the Aztecs and the monuments of their cruel 
conquerors. The Montezumas have left the impress of 
their race and civilization on every hand. To the north- 

*SeTeral yean ago General Longstreet hastily prepared in the roagh 
quite an elaborate history of the Mexican War, the publication of wfaidi 
was forestalled by the book of a brother officer in that war, of which he 
had no hint The incidents and historical data of this short story are from 
that unpublished history, with the addition of General Longstreet*s com- 
ments on the official pwtanmsl of the armies of Taylor and Scott, and thdr 
sobseqoent careers in the Union and Confederate armies. 




em visitor Mexico will always be the land of the Aztecs, 
worshippers of the sun. 

To me the battle-fields of 1846-47 were of supreme 
interest. They are to most Americans doubtless the 
chief magnet of attraction. But the eye of an active 
participant in those glorious achievements of American 
arms sees more as it sweeps over the valley of Mexico 
than is comprehensible to the improf essional casual ob- 
server. It was my great privilege — ^to-day a cherished 
memory — ^to go over the fields that stretch away from 
Chapultepec with a war-worn soldier who fifty years 
earlier had there learned his first lessons in real war- 

Mexico will always be a land of romance. Her civi- 
lization stands apart. Her ruins are yet fragrant with 
memories of the mighty plans of Liouis Napoleon. 
From the ill-fated Maximilian empire to our own war 
with Mexico seems but a step back, and yet between 
the steps great history has been written. 

Excepting Vera Cruz and Cerro Grordo, the scene 
of all the leading events of Grcneral Scott's campaign 
lie almost within cannon-shot of the Mexican capitaL 

The four battles of Contreras, Churubusco, Molino 
del Rey, and Chapultepec, which decided the fate of 
the war, occurred within a period of four weeks and 
within a radius of a dozen miles. The Mexican G^eral 
Valencia was disastrously routed at Contreras August 
19, 1847, and Churubusco was fought and won by the 
Americans next day. Then there was a short truce be- 
tween the two belligerents, and terms of peace were 
proposed by an American plenipotentiary. These not 
proving satisfactory, hostilities were resumed. Scott 
moved with energy. On September 8 the battle of Mo- 
lino del Rey occurred, the Americans winning, but at 
heavy sacrifice in killed and wounded. The successful 
assault on Chapultepec hill was made on the 18th, five 


The Winning of oue Western Empire 

days later, and on the morning of the 14th Scott's 
splendid little army entered the Mexican capital and 
hoisted its flag over the public buildings. The belliger- 
ents engaged in these afi^airs were comparatively small 
and the losses on both sides very severe. The Mexicans 
fought well, but were execrably led. With the fall of 
Mexico Scott had conquered a nation with an army 
fewer in numbers than the single corps Longstreet com- 
manded at Gettysburg. 

Scott's army, for the most part, was composed of 
veteran troops, — regulars, with a considerable contin- 
gent of fine and well-oflScered volunteers. Most of 
them were already battle-seasoned, having participated 
in General Taylor's initiatory campaign of 1846 on the 
Rio Grande, where they had signally defeated the Mex- 
icans at Palo Alto, Resaca de la Palma, and Monterey. 
Taylor's crowning victory at Buena Vista, February 
28, 1847, did not occur until after Scott had drafted 
away the best part of his regulars for the march on 

Among them were the Fourth and Eighth Infantry 
regiments. Lieutenant Longstreet had served in both, 
— ^in the Fourth as brevet second lieutenant after grad- 
uating from the Military Academy in 1842, up to 1845, 
Tvhen he was promoted and transferred to the Eighth, 
and he was lucky enough to be with the latter in the 
action at Palo Alto, May 8, 1846, at Resaca de la Palma 
next day, and in the siege and capture of Monterey, 
September 21 to 28, of the same year. It was on these 
fields that most of the young fellows who afterwards 
became conspicuous in the Union and Confederate 
armies flashed their maiden swords. 

In the Fourth, among Longstreet's earlier official 
and social intimates at JejQferson Barracks and Camp 
Salubrity, were Captain George A. McCall, Lieuten- 
ants Augur, Grant, Alex. Hays, and David A. Russell, 

9 199 


all afterwards distinguished Union generals. Captain 
McCall was then forty-three years old, and was gradu- 
ated from West Point in 1822, just twenty years ahead 
of Longstreet's class. 

The subsequent Civil War produced some singular 
anticlimaxes to these old Mexican War friendships. It 
so happened, for instance, that sixteen years afterwards, 
at the battle of Glendale before Richmond, Long- 
street's Confederate division was pitted against Mc- 
Call's smaller Union division, and the Confederates had 
the best of it. About dusk, after the heavy fighting 
was over, McCall and his stajQf accidentally rode into 
the Forty-seventh Virginia. Curiously enough, the 
Union general alone was captured and brought to 
Longstreet's head-quarters. 

Having for a time been a brevet second lieutenant 
under McCall in the old Fourth Infantry, and really 
commiserating his personal mishap. General Longstreet 
cordially advanced, ojQfering his hand and proffering 
such hospitality as was permissible in the untoward 
circumstances. But, deeply chagrined by his defeat 
and capture, McCall sullenly repelled Longstreet's 
friendly advances. It only remained for the Union 
general to be sent back to Richmond in charge of a 
stajQP-officer and guard. It was the last meeting be- 
tween the old captain and his former lieutenant, and, 
strangely, was McCall's last appearance in battle, 
though he was exchanged in a few weeks. He some- 
how fell into disfavor with the Washington authori- 
ties, resigned in March, 1868, and died on a farm near 
Westchester, Pennsylvania, in 1868. McCall was a 
fine soldier of the old school. Grant was also a second 
lieutenant with McCall in the Fourth, and liked him 
very much. 

Alex. Hays and Longstreet had been associated in 
both regiments. Like Longstreet, Hays was promoted 


The Winning of oue Western Empire 

and transferred from the Fourth to the Eighth, though 
upward of a year subsequently. Grant never left the 
Fourth unta he resigned as captain, about seven years 
after the Mexican War. Hays and Grant had been 
friends at West Point, though not classmates, and very 
chummy afterwards while subs, in the old Fourth In- 
fantry. The official personnel of General Taylor's 
army, scant three thousand men, was so small that they 
were almost like a family. Everybody knew everybody 

Hays was detached from the Eighth when Scott ad- 
vanced into the valley of Mexico, but was engaged in 
several severe affairs in defence of convoys of supplies 
to the front, and also at Heamantle and Sequaltiplan. 
After that war was over he resigned, but in 1861 imme- 
diately sought service again, and soon rose to the com- 
mand of a Union division. His division contributed 
materially to the repulse of Longstreet's attack at 
G^ettysburg on July 8. But poor Hays was killed in 
front of Longstreet's lines at the Wilderness in 1864, 
the first battle in Virginia after his old comrade. Grant, 
had assumed command of the Union armies. Such was 
the fortune of war of the civil struggle. 

The Eighth Infantry furnished from its Mexican 
War contingent few conspicuous leaders to either side 
in the subsequent Civil War. The regiment was com- 
pelled to surrender to the local authorities of Texas 
early in 1861, and were detained at the South many 
months. Only a few of its old officers then remained. 
All those of Southern proclivities had already with- 
drawn. Longstreet left the Eighth in 1858, ten years 
after peace with Mexico, having been promoted to 
major and paymaster. By detention as prisoners of 
war the Union soldiers of the Eighth were deprived 
of the early promotion which fell to the lot of most 



Out of all the officers of the two regiments engaged 
in Mexico, only seven, it appears, espoused the South- 
em cause, and of these but three attained to any con- 
siderable rank in the Confederate armies, — ^Longstreet, 
Pickett, and Cadmus E. Wilcox. Pickett was a mag- 
nificent soldier, one of the most daring in the Confed- 
erate army. 

In the two campaigns of Taylor and Scott the Fourth 
and Eighth lost no fewer than twelve officers killed 
and fatally woimded, and eighteen others seriously 
woimded, a very heavy percentage. This alone proves 
that the Americans had no walkover. Every foot of the 
groimd was bravely contested by the Mexicans. 

To continue this digression a little farther, it may be 
said that the genesis of the two Mexican campaigns is 
not well understood. Winfield Scott was and had long 
been the commanding general of the United States 
army, and entitled as such, aside from his military re- 
nown, to the Mexican conunand. But Scott, a Southern 
Whig, was ambitious to be President. The Democratic 
administration of Polk was quite naturally chary of 
giving Scott an opportunity to win public applause 
through a victorious military campaign. Scott had 
early submitted a plan of operations, with request for 
permission to lead an American army into Mexico. But 
Zachary Taylor, then only a colonel and brevet briga- 
dier, was chosen for the purpose, to the discomfiture of 
Scott and his coterie. Of course, the general-in-chief 
chafed because he had thus designedly been over- 
slaughed by a junior. 

The administration overreached itself. Taylor's 
small victories in northern Mexico in the Spring of 1846 
were so greatly magnified by the press of the States 
that he at once became the hero of the hour. Soon he 
was the open candidate of the Whig party for the 
Presidency; for Taylor, like Scott, was a Southern 

The Winning of cue Western Empibe 

Whig. Polk and his advisers were now between the 
devil and the deep sea. To beat back and neutralize 
the rising Taylor tide they precipitately turned to Scott. 
His original plan for bringing Mexico to terms via 
Vera Cruz was adopted, and he assigned to the com- 
mand, with fulsome assurances of ample and continued 
support, which were never fulfilled. 

Scott was thereupon given carte blanche to withdraw 
such force of regulars from Taylor as he deemed neces- 
sary to the successful prosecution of his proposed in- 
vasion, and meanwhile Taylor, with some five thousand 
volunteers and a slight leaven of regular troops, was to 
remain on the defensive. Then something happened. 
Taylor did not choose to remain stock still, but ad- 
vanced. A few weeks after the depletion of his army, 
which began in January, 1847, and before Scott had 
landed at Vera Cruz with his raw volimteers, Taylor 
worsted Santa Anna at Buena Vista. He not only sig- 
nally defeated the foreign enemy, but completed the 
rout of the Democratic administration at Washington, 
and the next year was nominated by the Whigs and 
elected President hands down, wholly on the strength 
of his military achievements. Scott, nominated in 1852, 
was disastrously beaten by the Democratic candidate, 
Franklin Pierce, one of his inconspicuous civilian brig- 
adiers in Mexico. It must have been a galling blow to 
the old Grcneral's pride. His defeat was the death-blow 
of the Whig party. 





As we gased down from Chapultepec's heights, on that fragrant 
day of 1898, across the beaatiful valley of Mexico, the war of fifty 
years agone seemed but yesterday to him who on those fields had 
added a new star of the first magnitade to the galaxy of American 

Since those old days General Longstreet often specu- 
lated on the result if Taylor and Scott had heen required 
to handle the armies of Lee and Grant and meet the 
conditions which confronted the great Union and Con- 
federate leaders at the crucial periods of their cam- 
paigns. He concluded that both would have maintained 
their high reputations at the head of much larger bodies 
of troops than they marshalled in Mexico, even though 
confronted by abler opponents than Santa Anna, sup- 
ported by stronger and better-disciplined armies than 
the half-starved, ill-appointed levies he brought against 
them at Buena Vista and Cerro Grordo. At all events, 
the young fellows of 1846-47 to a man believed Taylor 
and Scott adequately equipped to successfully meet any 
military emergency. 

They were extraordinary characters. Both were 
practised officers dating back to the war of 1812, though 
neither was a West Point graduate. Scott on the 
Canadian frontier had commanded against considera- 
ble bodies of disciplined British troops in pitched battle, 
and came off with increased reputation. He had then 
visited Europe and observed the continental armies. 
He was well educated; had studied for the bar, but by 
preference took up the military profession, of which he 
was a diligent student. Scott was thoroughly up in the 


Peculiarities of Scott and Tayloe 

literature of war. To a cultivated mind he added a 
colossal person and a fine presence. 

Gkneral Scott's chief fault was an overweening per- 
sonal vanity which often took the form of mere pedan- 
try, not unseldom bringing him into personal ridicule. 
Insufferably pompous, he invariably maintained a vast, 
unbending dignity, both of manner and speech, whether 
oral or written. The subalterns of the army looked 
upon him with absolute awe. Many a brevetted cadet 
would readily have chosen to go against a Mexican in- 
trenchment rather than into the commanding general's 
presence. He brooked no familiarity from high or low. 
While he sometimes indulged in a sort of elephantine 
affability, he was naturally dictatorial towards all sub- 
ordinates, though always within the limits of decency. 
Scott's was not at all the overbearing insolence of the 
coward. He always rode in f uU uniform, with all the 
insignia of his rank visible to the naked eye. 

Such a queer combination of bigness and littleness, 
learning, practical ability, and whimsicality formed a 
character sure to create enemies, and it must be said 
that Scott had plenty of them, both in and out of the 
army. By them he was derisively dubbed " Old Fuss 
and Feathers." Notwithstanding his weakness, the 
General was physically and morally a very brave man. 
He was cool and deliberate in forming his military 
plans, and once determined upon they were prosecuted 
with unhesitating energy and precision. Above all he 
was an honest man. Undoubtedly General Scott pos- 
sessed a comprehensive military mind. 

Equally cool and careful in planning, equally ener- 
getic in execution, and equally brave, honest, and true, 
in other respects Taylor was an entirely different type 
of man. Personally he was the antipodes of the hand- 
some giant, Scott, being only of middle stature. His 
complexion was swarthy and his face rugged and 



homely, but with a kindly expression. Unlike Scott 
again, Taylor's schooling had been limited, yet without 
any affectation of style he wrote clearly and vigorously. 
From the age of one year he had lived the life of a Ken- 
tucky frontier farmer boy up to his entry into the army 
as a lieutenant in 1808. 

Taylor's military experience, confined wholly to the 
Western border in 1812, was limited to outpost affairs 
with Indians and the few squads of British soldiers and 
borderers who supported them. As an officer he had 
never met so much as a full company of disciplined sol- 
diers until Palo Alto. Taylor never wore his uniform, 
or almost never. He dressed in rough clothes no better 
than those worn by the common soldier. He was often 
seen riding without his staff or other attendant, seeing 
things with his own eyes. He was frank and somewhat 
rough, but kindly in speech. While he was not without 
proper dignity, he talked and acted straight to the mark 
without much consideration for appearances. He 
treated his subordinates with easy consideration, and 
was often seen joking and laughing with mere sub- 
alterns. He was given the sobriquet of " Old Rough 
and Ready" by the army, in which he was dearly loved 
by all. It was a title which rang through the country 
in the political campaign of 1848. He not only in- 
spired universal good will, rough and uncultivated as 
he was, but confidence. Such were the two Mexican 

As we gazed down from Chapultepec's heights, on 
that fragrant day of 1898, across the beautiful vall^ 
of Mexico, the war of fifty years agone seemed but 
yesterday to him who on those fields had added a new 
star of the first magnitude to the galaxy of American 
valor. Memories of the glorious past rushed through 
his mind. Here Grant and Lee had taken their first 
lessons in practical warfare on a considerable scale. 


Peculiaeities of Scott and Tayloe 

Here had been won not only Texas, but the vast domain 
away to the Pacific. Since then what social, industrial, 
and political revolutions had he not witnessed. From 
the Mississippi had spread out a great republic, reach- 
ing from ocean to ocean. He had seen the Southern 
Confederacy rise and fall, and colossal history, along 
the way from Chapultepec to Manila, written in the 
blood of the nation's strong men. And Mexico has not 
been behind in the mighty changes that have swept over 
the continent since her bitter humiliation in 1847. She 
has advanced by heroic strides, espeoially under the wise 
leadership of Diaz. 

But after all it was not wholly the great events of 
half a century that crowded upon General Long- 
street's memory at this interesting juncture. Curiously 
enough, his mind persisted in fixing itself upon minor 
incidents, — social and personal relations, — on the com- 
rades who had here and elsewhere laid down their lives 
in the service, on others who had risen to distinction or 
dropped out of the running. The " boys'* of '46 and 
'47 again crowded upon him. It could hardly be other- 
wise, for they were 9, band of brothers then. When 
General Taylor's little Army of Observation was col- 
lected in western Louisiana, the whole regular estab- 
lishment of the United States consisted of no more than 
12,189 officers and men. The Army of Occupation 
whidi was concentrated at Corpus Christi, Texas, in the 
fall of 1845, numbered only three thousand men. 

The days of Corpus Christi still formed a vivid picture 
in Grcneral Longstreet's mind. The oldest officers pres- 
ent — even G^eneral Taylor himself — ^had never seen so 
large a body of the regular army together. Adjoin- 
ing the camp were extensive level prairies, admirably 
adapted to military manoeuvres. Many of the officers 
liad not taken part in even a battalion drill since leaving 
^West Point, and with most of them evolutions of the 



line had only been read in tacties. So widely had the 
troops been scattered, and in such small detachments, 
to meet the requirements of the country's extensive 
frontiers, that there were colonels who had never seen 
their entire regiments. 

This concentration afforded opportunity for practical 
professional instruction and discipline which was ap- 
preciated and availed of. But with this preparatory 
work there were amusements, and lasting friendships 
were formed; perhaps a few equally lasting enmities. 
Game and fish abounded. There were no settlements; 
the country was absolutely wild. Within a few hours' 
ride of the camps were wild turkeys in flocks of twenty 
to forty; deer and antelope were nmnerous, and not 
far afield were vast droves of wild mustangs. Wolves 
and coyotes were everywhere, and occasionally a Mexi- 
can lion (cougar) was found. Many of the young offi- 
cers became expert hunters. Muzzle-loading shot-guns 
were used mainly; there were no breech-loaders in those 
days. The camp tables fairly groaned with game 
dishes; wild turkey and venison finally so palled upon 
many of the soldiers as actually to become distasteful, 
and the old reliable beef and pork of the commissariat 
was resorted to in preference. 

Wild horses were lassoed and brought into camp by 
Mexicans and tame Indians, and sold to the Americans 
for two or three dollars a head. An extra good animal 
would sometimes bring twelve dollars, which was the 
tip-top price. A good many were piu*chased by the 
quartermaster for the use of the army, and proved very 
serviceable. These animals looked something like the 
Norman breed; they had heavy manes and tails, and 
were much more powerful than the plains ponies 
farther north of a later date. They foraged for them- 
selves and flourished where the American horse would 
deteriorate and soon die. 


Unpretentious Lieutenant Gbant 



It was not until Grant came East during the Civil War that 
Longstreet began folly to appreciate his military ability. Grant's 
sncccsses at Donelson, Shiloh^ and Vicksbnrg were but vaguely 
understood in the Army of Northern Virginia, where they were 
mainly ascribed to bad generalship on the Confederate side, and 
some blundering good luck on Grant's part 

Lieutenant Grant, of the Fourth, had acquired 
great reputation at the MiKtary Academy as an expert 
horseman. He was always the show rider upon great 
occasions. He greatly added to this reputation at Cor- 
pus Christi. He was regimental quartermaster, and had 
much to do with these horses. He bought several of 
the better class for his own use. While riding one and 
leading the others to water one day, just before the 
army moved to the Rio Grande, his colored servant 
lost the whole bunch, or perhaps sold them for his own 
account. He claimed that, throwing him off, they 
jerked loose and stampeded away. There was a joke 
among the boys that, upon being told of the incident, 
Greneral Taylor humorously remarked, " Yes, I under- 
stand Mr. Grant lost five or six dollars' worth of horses 
recently," satirically referring to their extraordinary 
cheapness. Grant declined to buy more horses for his 
private use. Soon after, the army advanced to the Rio 
.Grande, and foot officers had no use for horses. 

The unpretentious Grant was soon famous through- 
out the army as a "bronco buster,*' in the sense the 
term is now familiarly used. He would unhesitatingly 
mount and soon bring to terms the most vicious of wild 



horses. On horseback he was a very centaur. In no 
other manner could an animal unhorse Grant than by 
lying down and rolling over. A large group of inter- 
ested officers one day had opportunity to observe his 
success in dealing with an unbroken horse. An Indian 
had brought to camp a splendid specimen which had 
struck Grant's fancy, and for whidi he paid the record 
price of twelve dollars. It seemed to prance on springs 
of steel; its beautiful head was carried on high, and 
the noble eyes shot sparks of fire. While two grooms 
held it by lariats from either side. Grant blindfolded the 
stallion. Then the regulation accoutrements of Span- 
ish saddle and heavy-bitted bridle were adjusted, and 
Grant mounted, his heels armed with an enormous pair 
of Mexican spurs. 

Thus blindfolded, the beautiful animal had stood 
stock still, trembling like an aspen. The instant his 
eyes were uncovered he sprang forward like a shot. 
jGrant held his seat firmly. Then the horse began to 
'^ buck,'' — ^that is, to jiunp high into the air, at the same 
moment suddenly crooking his back upward with intoit 
to throw off his burden. This was repeated time after 
time, of course without dislodging Grant, who was up 
to that sort of thing. The proceeding was greeted by 
the by-standers with shouts of laughter and yells of 
"Hang on, Grant," "Don't let him down you, old 
boy," etc. The animal presently tired of this work, and 
at the proper juncture the cool-headed rider vigorously 
applied the spurs, at the same time loosening the rein, 
when the stallion plunged straight forward at a break- 
neck pace through the chaparral and cacti of the plain. 
The soldiers watched them until they disappeared, and 
the iminitiated wondered if they should ever see Grant 
alive again. Two hours later they returned at a slow 
walk, both exhausted, the horse's head down and his 
sides wet with sweat and foam. He was conquered, and 


Unpretentious Lieutenant Grant 

was thereafter as docile as any well-trained American 

When not on duty, Grant's chief amusement at Cor- 
pus Christi was horseback riding. He was no sports- 
man, and only occasionally played '"brag" for small 
stakes. Longstreet's classmate, Lieutenant Benjamin, 
of the Fourth Artillery, came in one day with a story 
about Grant's one attempt at gunning for turkeys. 
The two, on a short leave with other oflScers, had made 
a journey on horseback to Austin late in the fall of 
1845, accompanying a train of supplies. Returning, 
the party was reduced to three, — ^Benjamin, Grant, and 
Lieutenant Augur, afterwards major-general in the 
Union army. Augur fell sick and was left at Goliad, 
to be picked up by a train following. At Goliad Grant 
and Benjamin went out to shoot turkeys. Benjamin 
was a good shot and soon returned to camp with several 
fine birds. He found Grant already in, but without 
any game. The latter said that a large flock of turkeys 
had taken flight in twos and threes from branches of the 
pecan-trees overhead, some of them calmly looking at 
him several moments before taking wing. He had 
watched them with much interest until the last turkey 
had disappeared. Then it suddenly occurred to him 
lliat he had come out to shoot turkeys. " I concluded, 
Benjamin, from this circumstance," explained Grant, 
with mudi chagrin, " that I was not cut out for a sports- 
man, so I returned to the house, confident you would 
bring in plenty of birds." This explanation was offered 
with the utmost simplicity, and Benjamin repeated it 
with much unction. Poor Benjamin did not live to see 
the heights of fame reached by the little lieutenant who 
did not know enough to shoot wild turkeys in 1845. He 
waa killed at the storming of the dty of Mexico, Sep- 
tember 18, 1847. 

These anecdotes of a distinguished man naturally 



jBnd place in a potpourri paper of this kind, but their 
special purpose is to show Grant's personal character- 
istics, and in some sort the estimate placed upon him 
by his comrades of sixty years ago. But in those days 
the young fellows of the army fooled away no time in 
estimating upon the intellectual capacity of even the 
most promising associate. Grant was just simply an 
unobtrusive, every-day second lieutenant, without spe- 
cial promise or remarkable traits. It must be said that 
no one looked upon him then as the coming great man 
of the greatest war of civilized times. RaHier quiet, 
seldom seeking crowds. Grant nevertheless enjoyed his 
friends, and among them was both a voluble and inter- 
esting talker. The alleged taciturnity of the later time 
was assiuned to shut off busybodies — ^it was only judi- 
cious reticence. He was quickly known as a very brave 
and enterprising soldier in action, and, in fact, distin- 
guished himself under both Taylor and Scott. He and 
LfOngstreet were intimate friends from 1889 through 
the seven years ending with the Mexican War, and 
often met in friendliest relations after the Civil War. 
Grant never forgot a friend in need. 

It was not until Grant came East during the Civil 
War that Longstreet began to fully appreciate his mili- 
tary ability. Grant's successes at Donelson, Shiloh, 
and Vicksburg were but vaguely understood in the 
Army of Northern Virginia, where they were mainly 
ascribed to bad generalship on the Confederate side, and 
some blundering good luck on Grant's part. But after 
the war was over and access was had to the inside his- 
tory of those events, Longstreet soon perceived that 
the Vicksburg campaign was one of the greatest in 
military history, and that Pemberton's destruction was 
almost wholly due to Grant's bold conception of the 
military requirements to fulfil the expectations of his 


Unpketentious Lieutenant Grant 

LfOngstreet had been near by when Grant attacked 
and defeated Bragg at Chattanooga, and also thought 
that victory was largely due to overwhelming num- 
bers and Bragg's incapacity to perceive the impending 
storm. Longstreet wrote to General Lee from East 
Tennessee, some time in the winter of 1868-64, that 
he need have no fear of Grant, then presumptively 
booked for the Army of the Potomac; that he was over- 
estimated, largely from his prestige acquired against 
inferior commanders, etc. But in the very beginning 
of the Wilderness campaign in 1864 the commander of 
the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia saw 
a power displayed in manceuvring the Army of the 
Potomac which the Confederates had never met before. 
There is no doubt that G^eneral Lee himself appreciated 
that he had a new and puzzling force to deal with. At 
the Wilderness Lee assumed the offensive the moment 
Grant crossed the Rapidan, essaying the same tactics 
that had been practised upon Hooker at Chancellors- 
ville, but he failed. The Confederates withstood Grant 
in the Wilderness, but it was the last time G^eneral Lee 
attempted a general offensive. This was somewhat due 
to his inferior numbers and waning morale, but it was 
mamly because of Grant's presence. The year before, 
after what was practically a drawn battle at Chancel- 
lorsville. Hooker, with double Lee's force, withdrew^ ^ 
across the river. He had between twenty-five thousand 
and thirty-thousand men who had scarcely fired a gun 
in battle. Grant, with fewer men than Hooker, fought ^'^ 
a larger Confederate army at the Wilderness. It, too, 
was no more than a drawn battle, yet Grant had no 
thought of recrossing the river to recuperate. He 
moved forward and immediately put General Lee on 
the defensive. 

General Lee at last realized that the Confederacy's 
only hope was defensive battle, and his fame as a G^n- 



eral will rest wholly on that campaign. If he had per- 
sisted in the tactics employed against Hooker and Pope 
and McClellan, his army would have been destroyed in 
ten days after the Wilderness. Grant really had the 
Army of Northern Virginia on the go on the morning 
of the 6th of May; it was saved from utter rout only 
by the timely arrival of the First Corps, which rolled 
back Hancock's victorious lines upon the Brock road 
and beyond. 



The reanion at Corpus Christi made a deep impression upon the 
fledglings of the service. The long encampment there formed a 
green spot in the memory of the little army that bore onr colors 
in trimnph to the city of Mexico. 

Among G^eneral Longstreet's pleasant memories of 
camp life at Corpus Christi was a rude theatre erected 
by a joint stock company of the young officers, who 
acted in the plays produced on its boards, taking both 
male and female parts. Many roaring comedies were 
billed, and cheered the garrison from time to time. The 
enlisted men were of course permitted to pay the en- 
trance fee and see the best that was going. General 
Worth was always a delighted auditor, G^eneral Taylor 
occasionally honored the entertainments with his pres- 
ence, and General Twiggs rarely. After exhausting 
the field of comedy and having already reimbursed 
themselves for all outlays, the officers concluded to 
enter the more expensive and difficult field of tragedy. 
The first play chosen was the Moor of Venice. Lieu- 
tenant Porter, brother of Admiral Porter, was assigned 
the part of Othello, whilst Lieutenant Longstreet was 


Incidents of Camp Life at Coepus Cheisti 

nominated for Desdemona; but upon inspection the 
manager protested that six feet dignified in crinoline 
would not answer even for a tragic heroine. So Long- 
street was discarded and Grant substituted. Finally, 
after a rehearsal or two, Grant, too, had to give way 
under protests of Porter that male tragediennes could 
not give the proper sentiment to the play. Then the 
officers " chipped in'* and sent to New Orleans for a 
real actress, and thereafter all went well. The play was 
pulled off eventually with as much Sclat as followed 
General Taylor's first victory a few months later on the 
Rio Grande. 

A volume could be filled with incidents of those 
sunny days on the Mexican Gulf r the incipient stage 
of the first campaign in real war for the young offi- 
cers. They gave little heed of the morrow. Their pay 
was small, but their requirements were on even a less 
scale. There was a good deal of drilling, but otherwise 
their duties were far from onerous. A large propor- 
tion of the cadets Longstreet had known at West Point 
from 1888 to 1842 were there congregated, and old 
associations were renewed. Of course, all these officers 
were not intimates, but nearly all were personal ac- 
quaintances on the most friendly footing. Every one 
brought his share to the common aggregate of interest 
and pleasure. 

Among the officers there collected who afterwards 
became prominent in the Union and Confederate ar- 
mies, in addition to those already mentioned, were Wil- 
liam J. Hardee, Thomas Jordan, John C. Pemberton, 
Braxton Bragg, Earl Van Dom, Samuel G. French, 
Richard H. Anderson, Robert S. Garnett, Barnard E. 
Bee, Bushrod R. Johnson, Abram C. Myers, Lafayette 
McLaws, and E. Kirby Smith, of the Confederate ser- 
vice; and J. K. F. Mansfield, George G. Meade, Don 
Carlos Buell, George H. Thomas, N. J. T. Dana, 

10 145 


Charles F. Smith, Joseph J. Reynolds, John F. Rey- 
nolds, Abner Doubleday, Alfred Pleasanton, Thomas 
J. Wood, Seth Williams, and G^eorge Sykes, distin- 
guished Union generals in the Civil War. There were 
many others too numerous to mention. Longstreet 
afterwards met many of these officers as mortal foes 
on the field of battle. He served with others in the 
Confederate armies, and others served under him. Mc- 
Laws and Pickett were long fighting division com- 
manders in his corps. 

Robert E. Lee, G^eorge B. McClellan, G. T. Beaure- 
gard, and Joseph E. Johnston were not with Taylor, 
and they and others, notably E. R. S. Canby, Isaac L 
Stevens, and John G. Foster, did not join the army 
until Scott's campaign opened in 1847, though it ap- 
pears that Lee was with General WooFs colunm in the 
movement towards Chihuahua. They were among the 
great names of the subsequent Civil War. Jefferscm 
Davis, colonel of the Mississippi Rifles, joined Taylor 
after Scott had withdrawn the regulars, but in time to 
turn the tide of battle at Buena Vista. Altogether it 
was a brilliant roster. They were all graduates of the 
Military Academy. Of all the officers collected at Cor- 
pus Christi, it is doubtful if there is to-day a score of 
survivors. A large nimiber were killed in action. A 
far greater number died of disease in the Mexican or 
Civil War campaigns. 

Besides the long list of West Pointers, there were at 
Corpus Christi many regulars appointed from civil life, 
meritorious officers who afterwards made their mark. 
One of these was Lawrence P. Graham, a Virginian, 
already a captain in the Second Dragoons. He was 
some six years Longstreet's senior. After Mexico 
Graham stuck to the old army, rose to the colonelcy of 
the Fourth Cavalry in 1864, and was a Union brigadier 
of volunteers. He had been in the army nearly ten 


Incidents of Camp Life at Corpus Chbisti 

years when the Mexican War broke out. He still sur- 
vives at the green old age of eighty-eight, a retired colo- 
nel since 1870, thirty-three years. He has been carried 
on the rolls of the United States army nearly sixty- 
seven years. That is one of the rewards for having 
been lucky enough to espouse the winning side in 1861. 
But self-interest had little to do with the choice of sides; 
conscience pointed the way in that hour of passion. 

The reunion at Corpus Christi made a deep impres- 
sion upon the fledglings of the service. The long en- 
campment there formed a green spot in the memory 
of the little army that bore our colors in triumph to 
the city of Mexico. Those who have left memoirs of 
iheir military careers have to a man dwelt largely upon 
the various interesting, though generally unimportant, 
incidents of this delightful episode. March, 1846, 
brought the hour of their ending; on the 9th the bugles 
of the line sounded the assembly, and in obedience to 
instructions from Washington General Taylor put his 
army in motion by easy stages for the line of the Rio 
Grande River. That movement immediately produced 
a result which the government had long secretly desired, 
— ^war. Negotiations for the amicable possession of 
Texas and the territory to the Pacific had failed. 

It is not the purpose of this paper to write the history 
of the Mexican War, but a few of its salient features 
may be recounted perhaps with profit. 

Under the Texas treaty of annexation and the act 
admitting Texas into the American Union the United 
States claimed all the territory down to the Rio Grande 
and westward to the border of New Mexico. Mexico, 
on her part, denied that Texas was a free agent, al- 
though President Santa Anna, captured by the Texans 
the next day after the battle of San Jacinto in 1886, 
while in durance had consented to a treaty which ac- 
knowledged Texan independence. Texas had adopted 



a constitution and set up an independent government. 
Mexico repudiated Santa Anna's agreement, but never- 
theless had subsequently never been able to conquer the 
lost territory. The entrance of the American troops into 
Texas was therefore by Mexico considered a ccaus heJU, 
and her troops, under G^eneral Arista, crossed the river 
and began aggressive war upon the United States de- 
tachments as soon as they reached the vicinity. 

The Mexican General Torrejon captured a detadi- 
ment of United States dragoons April 25, including 
Captains Thornton and Hardee and Lieutenant Ejuie, 
besides killing Lieutenant G^rge J. Mason and six- 
teen men. Mason was a classmate of Longstreet. 
Thornton, Hardee, and Kane were well treated, and 
soon after exdianged. Small bands of Mexicans com- 
mitted other depredations. Shortly after the unfor- 
tunate incident above recited. Lieutenant Theodoric 
Porter and a small party were fired upon from an 
ambuscade in the chaparral, and Porter and one soldier 
killed. Porter had been one of the theatrical stars at 
Corpus Christi. 

The march to Point Isabel, the siege of Fort Brown 
by General Ampudia, and the stirring affairs at Palo 
Alto and Resaca soon followed. The spirit of cama- 
raderie and patriotic zeal which animated the Army 
of Occupation was vividly illustrated when Captain 
Charles May was ordered by Taylor, at Resaca de la 
Palma, to charge a Mexican battery. As May drew up 
his own and Graham's squadrons for the work. Lieu- 
tenant Randolph Ridgely, of Ringgold's artillery, 
called out, " Hold on, Charlie, till I draw their fire," 
and he " turned loose" with his six guns upon the enemy. 
The return fire was prompt, but Ridgely's wise purpose 
was accomplished. Then the invincible heroism with 
which May rushed forward at the head of a handful 
of the Second Dra]^oons signalized the qualities which 


Into the Interior of Mexico 

unerringly foreshadowed the result of that war. The 
opposing battery was secured in the twinkling of an eye, 
and the Mexican General La Vega captured amid his 
guns. May's gallant exploit was the theme of the army. 
May, Ridgely, and Longstreet were close friends, of 
the trio Longstreet being youngest in years and service. 
Ridgely was killed at Monterey that fall. May lived 
until 1864, having resigned in 1861. He took no part 
in the Civil War. The first successes of the Mexican 
War were easy and decisive. The real hardships began 
with the march over the sterile wastes towards Monte- 
rey. Monterey was equally as decisive, but it was 
found to be a much harder nut to crack, and here the 
American losses were very heavy. The general effect 
of Taylor's operations, in conjunction with WolFs cam- 
paign and the overland march of G^eneral Kearny to 
California, was demoralizing to the Mexicans. 



In after-years Lee's admirers claimed that much of Scott's glory 
on the fields of Mexico was due to Lee's military ability. Scott 
gave him great praise. 

When it was learned that two divisions of Taylor's 
army had been ordered to the coast, there was much 
speculation at the front as to the meaning of the move- 
ment. The younger contingent immediately jumped 
to the conclusion that the war was over, and that 
Twiggs's and Patterson's troops were ordered home. 
This proved not to be the case, but the army was not 
much disappointed to learn that another campaign 
farther south was projected. There was some friction 
between Taylor and Scott over the withdrawal of the 



regulars. Some of Scott's letters to Taylor miscarried, 
and Scott, pressed for time, was compelled to order the 
troops he wanted down to the coast without Taylor's 
knowledge, the latter at times being far in the interior. 
When Taylor learned that his best troops had been or- 
dered away without an hour's previous notice, the old 
general was naturally very much incensed. He was 
afterwards somewhat mollified when he received Scott's 
delayed correspondence, and saw that his chief had en- 
deavored to reach him in the proper spirit. Scott was the 
senior, and of course it was for him to order; besides, 
Scott himself had orders from the President to withdraw 
the troops. Taylor, however, made, both to Scott and tiie 
Secretary of War, a sharp protest against the manner 
of carrying out the design. Doubtless Taylor felt sore 
upon learning that the administration intended leaving 
him upon the defensive, without means to continue his 
victorious advance. Buena Vista, a few weeks later, 
probably melted the old fellow's rancor into sardonic 

Once started, the troops rapidly retrograded to the 
Bio Grande. The weather was fairly cool, and the 
marches made from twenty to twenty-eight miles per 
day. One rather warm day, while the troops were on 
this move, a burnt district was passed over, and the heat 
and flying smoke and ashes choked the tired men and 
officers. When the column camped, it was upon a beau- 
tiful mountain stream, into which all rushed for a bath. 
First Lieutenant Sydney Smith, of the Fourth, one of 
the first to start for the water, while passing through 
the timber which fringed the stream, was attacked by 
peccaries, a species of wild pig common in Mexico. They 
are not very large, but travel in droves, and are very 
fierce. They treed Smith upon a low-hanging limb 
barely out of reach of his excited pursuers. The limb 
was very slender for his weight, and as he swung to tibe 


Into the Intebiob of Mexico 

ground, the maddened peccaries reared upon their hind 
feet and snapped savagely at Smith's pendent feet and 
legs. The woods were now full of the officers and men 
going to the stream, and a party soon relieved Smith 
from his precarious perch. Smith was a brave fellow. 
He was the next year wounded at Molino del Rey, and 
within a week after killed at the attack on Belen Gate. 

There was a considerable delay at the mouth of the 
river, awaiting transports. The point of assemblage of 
the troops from New Orleans, Mobile, and Taylor's army 
was Lobos Island, some three hundred miles south of the 
Rio Grande's mouth. The march began January 9, 
1847, but it was not until about February 12 that the 
first of the regulars sailed from the Rio Grande to 
Lobos Island. Scott had expected the concentration at 
Lobos to have been completed three weeks earlier. The 
fault was in the transport service. 

The fleet did not leave Lobos Island until March 2. 
A week later a landing was effected near Vera Cruz, 
and on the 10th the first guns of the new campaign 
were heard, — shots from the castle of San Juan de 
IJlloa at Worth's troops encamped upon the sand-hills. 
The investment of the city was speedily completed and 
siege operations begun. The army heard of Taylor's 
remarkable victory at Buena Vista on the 16th of 
March. It took away their breath to learn that Santa 
Anna had marched a great army against Taylor after 
they had left, and had been defeated. It explained why 
there had been so little opposition to the landing of the 
American forces. Vera Cruz surrendered on the 29th. 

Then the march into the interior of Mexico began, 
led by Twiggs's division. The first objective point was 
Jalapa. Scott's design was to get upon the mountain 
plateau before the yellow-fever season approached on 
fhe coast. It was deadly in that region. The pre- 
cision with which Scott's plans were carried forward, 



and their uniform success, made a profound impression 
upon the army. His reputation was very hig^ before 
he had struck the first blow, but after Vera Cruz no 
one of that army doubted that he would soon enter the 
Mexican capital. The army's morale was high from 
the outset; it was small, consequently but little bothered 
with the impedimenta which make the movements of a 
large army so slow and oftentimes tortuous. It 
marched rapidly, and Scott sent it square at the mark 
every time occasion offered. 

Nevertheless there was great delay in the advance to 
the valley of Mexico. Operations were very energetic 
in the beginning. The battle of Cerro Gordo occurred 
on the 18th of April, where a complete and technically 
brilliant victory was won. It was here Santa Anna, 
already returned from his ill-fated movement against 
Taylor, undertook to defend the passage of the moun- 
tains against Scott's advance. After careful reeon- 
noissances, the American general turned his position, 
attacked his flank, and after a short fight broke up his 
army in utter rout, very nearly cutting off and cap- 
turing the whole. As it was, the Americanis captured 
about four thousand prisoners, forty-three cannon, and 
three thousand five hundred small-arms. All this was 
done with a force of less than nine thousand Americans 
against some twelve thousand Mexicans strongly for- 

This extraordinary victory opened the road to ihe 
valley. Thus within twenty days Scott had effected a 
landing, captured Vera Cruz, signally defeated the 
enemy in pitched battle, and taken the road into the 
heart of Mexico. Jalapa was entered on the 20th. At 
Jalapa seven regiments of volunteers were discharged, 
and the American force was too greatly reduced to 
attack the capital. The enforcements promised did 
not arrive. The advance, however, was pushed on to 


Into the Interiob of Mexico 

Puebla, a city then of some seventy thousand inhabi- 
tants, which was occupied by Worth on the 16th of May; 
Lieutenant Longstreet was with the division occupying 
Puebla. Here tihiere was a long wait of weeks for the 
required forces to attack the capital, now less than three 
inarches away. From Jalapa Scott set out for the 
front on May 28, arriving at Puebla on the 28th. Many 
of the higher oflScers rode out to meet and give the 
Grcneral a proper reception, and he entered the city in 
considerable state. '' El Generalissimo I El Generalis- 
simo I" was shouted by the citizens as the general-in- 
chief rode through the streets to his head-quarters. The 
army welcomed him with enthusiasm. 

It was at the siege of Vera Cruz and the operations 
at Cerro Gordo that the engineer oflScers, R. E. Lee, 
G. B. McClellan, 1. 1. Stevens, G. T. Beauregard, and 
others, began to attract the notice of the line. Taylor 
had made little use of engineers in northern Mexico. 
He largely depended upon his own practised military 
eye to determine positions, either for the oflFensive or 
defensive. Scott's methods were entirely diflFerent. 
He depended more upon reconnoissances led by his 
staff engineers, and their reports of situations, ap- 
proaches, etc. He saw largely through the eyes of these 
officers, and his fine strategy was based on their infor- 
mation. Hence under Scott the engineer officers soon 
began to fill a large space in the eyes of the army. They 
became familiar figures. 

Longstreet's personal acquaintanceship with Lee 
began in this campaign. He was graduated from the 
Academy, No. 2 of the class of 1829, nine years before 
Longstreet entered it. Lee was already a captain of 
engineers when Longstreet entered as a cadet in 1888. 
He was past forty when the American forces landed be- 
fore Vera Cruz. So in years he was much older, as in 
rank and prestige he was away above the line subalterns 



of that campaign, many of whom subsequently served 
under him and against him in 1861--65. He evinced 
great admiration, even reverence, for Scott's general- 
ship. In after-years his admirers claimed that much of 
Scott's glory was due to Lice's military ability. Scott 
gave him great praise. But while Lee was much re- 
spected in the army, it is due to say that nobody then 
ascribed the victories of American arms to him. Besides 
which. Colonel Joseph G. Totten was Scott's chief -en- 
gineer, and Lee had another superior present in the per- 
son of Major J. L. Smith. The army thought General 
Scott entitled to the full credit of leadership in the cam- 
paign of 1847. 

About August 14 sufficient reinforcements had ar- 
rived to warrant another forward movement. Scott had 
now about ten thousand men, with more coming on from 
the coast. His army was composed of four divisions, 
commanded by Generals Twiggs, Worth, Pillow, imd 
Quitman, the two latter volunteer major-generals. The 
&nny began its final advance on the 8th of August, 
1847* It had been idle nearly three months, awaiting 
the action of the government. It was General Long- 
street's opinion that with five thousand more men 
Scott could have followed Santa Anna straight into 
Mexico from Cerro Gordo. Owing to dilatoriness in 
raising troops at home, his active force at Puebla was at 
one time reduced to five thousand men. The three 
months' halt gave the demoralized enemy time to recover 
courage and recruit their numbers. 

The American advance from Puebla to the valley of 
Mexico was over the Rio Frio Mountain. The pass is 
over eleven thousand feet above the ocean. It was 
easily susceptible of successful defence, but the experi- 
ence of the Mexicans at Cerro Gordo probably led their 
generals to conclude that Scott's strategy was irresisti- 
ble in a mountain region. At any rate there was no re- 


Into the Inteeiob of Mexico 

fiistance, and after a toilsome climb of three days in the 
momitains, the Americans debouched into the beautiful 
valley without jSring a shot. 

This valley is one of the most singular of natural fea- 
tures. It is simply a basin in the mountains without any 
visible outlet. In seasons of heavy rainfall and snow- 
fall on the stupendous mountains which surround it, 
the small lakes in this basin overflow, and sometimes in- 
undate the capital itself. It is only in recent years that 
a channel, or timnel, has been cut to drain o£P the super- 
fluous water in time of need. At some time in the past 
the basin was probably a lake. There must have been 
some unknown subterranean outlet which originally 
drained it down and afterwards prevented it refilling. 
Before the artificial drain was made, however, there 
were indubitable signs that the lakes were much smaller 
than in the beginning of the sixteenth century when 
Cortes conquered the Aztec capital. The bed of this 
valley is seven thousand feet above the sea level. There 
are five shallow lakes in the basin. The capital is located 
on the west side of Lake Tezcuco. It contained about 
two hundred thousand people in 1847. 

The army entered the valley from the east, at first 
aiming to pass between Lakes Chalco and Tezcuco, but 
the fortified hill of El Penyon and other obstructions 
made that approach very difficult, if not impossible, and 
after the engineers had examined the ground, Scott 
concluded to pass around to the southward of Lake 
Chalco and Xochimilco. The movement was inaugu- 
rated on the 16th of August, four days after entering 
the valley. On the 17th, the border of Lake Xochimilco 
was skirted, and that night Worth bivouacked in San 
Augustin, the Tlalpan of Cortes, on the road approach- 
ing the capital from the south and west of the lakes. It 
became for the time the depot and base of the army. 
These preliminary movements consumed a week's time. 





While rnflhing up the heights of Chapnltepec with the regimental 
flag in his hands^ Longstreet was severely wounded by a musket- 
ball through the thigh. After Longstreet fell^ George E. Pickett 
carried the old Eighth's flag to the works on the hill and to the top 
of the castle. 

On the 18th the brilliant action of Contreras was 
fought. Here Scott outmanceuvred the enemy com- 
pletely, employing again the Cerro Gordo tactics, and 
striking him in flank and rear. The routed Mexicans 
fled back to the fortified lines about Churubusco. Many 
prisoners were captured at Contreras. The attack was 
pressed against the position of Churubusco on the lOth 
and 20th, resulting in the severest battle of the war, ex- 
cept perhaps Buena Vista. Longstreet*s regiment, the 
Eighth Infantry, of which he was adjutant, here distin- 
guished itself, aiding in the capture of many prisoners 
and some guns. At one crucial point Longstreet had 
the proUd honor to carry forward the regimental colors 
mentioned in Worth's despatches. After the surrender 
some of the prisoners attempted to escape by a rush, and 
many of them did get away. Others were shot down 
and some were recaptured. A company of Americans 
who had deserted the year before from Taylor's army 
and joined the Mexicans were here captured in a body. 
Their resistance had caused severe loss to the American 
army. They were tried for desertion, found guilty and 
a score or so of them shot to death. 

Scott won Churubusco with less than nine thousand 
men. The routed enemy fled into the city and to the 


Feom Contkebas to Chapxjltefec 

fortified hill of Chapultepec, and were followed pell 
mell by the American cavalry. It was in this charge 
that Phil Kearny lost his arm. He was afterwards 
killed at Chantilly, in Pope's campaign of 1862, a 
Union major-general. The Americans could certainly 
have entered the city that day on the heels of the flying 
foe, but Scott thought it wisest to hold back and not dis- 
perse the Mexican government, to give the American 
peace commissioner, Mr. Trist, an opportunity to pro- 
pose terms. An armistice followed, but the Mexican 
government declined the basis of peace proposed. 

The Americans were in possession of the whole coun- 
try practically; at least there was nothing left to suc- 
cessfully oppose their occupation of its territory to the 
farthest linuts. Yet after these victories, they proposed 
to take only Texas, New Mexico, and Calif omia, and to 
pay for them a large sum of money. Texas was counted 
our own before the war began. The terms of our gov- 
ernment were so liberal that the Mexicans probably sus- 
pected that there was alarm for the result of future 
operations. Perhaps they judged the terms would be 
no worse after another trial of arms. And they were 

Molino del Rey and Chapultepec followed on Sep- 
tember 8 and 18 respectively. At the first afi^air the 
Americans lost seven hundred and eighty-seven men in 
the two hours of severe fighting, but won a complete 
victory, as usual. The fight was made by Worth's 
division, and Longstreet's regiment was engaged, of 
course. Thus far he had got through without a scratch. 

Scott's army, at the outset not over-large for the con- 
tract he had undertaken, was now very much reduced, 
but its morale was still fine. It was a critical question to 
determine the point of attack on the city. On the 11th 
there was a council of nearly all the generals and en- 
gineer officers at Piedad. Major Smith, Captain Lee, 



and Lieutenants Tower and Stevens, of the engineers, 
reported in favor of attacking the San Antonio or 
southern gate. Generals Quitman, Shields, Pierce, and 
Cadwalader concurred. General Scott, on the contrary, 
favored the Chapultepec route, and General Twiggs 
supported the general-in-chief • Alone of the engineers. 
Lieutenant Beauregard favored the Chapultepec route. 
After hearing Beauregard's reasons, Grcneral Pierce 
changed his opinion. At the conclusion of the confer- 
ence General Scott said, "' We will attack Chapultepec 
and then the western gate." 

" The Hill of the Grasshopper," Chapultepec, is an 
isolated mound rising one hundred and fifty to two hun- 
dred feet above the valley. Nearly precipitous in some 
parts, it slopes ofi^ gradually to the westward. Heavy 
batteries frowned from its salient positions, siifeeping 
the approaches from all directions. To the southward 
the ground was marshy. The position was regarded by 
both belligerents as the key to the capital. 

The American batteries opened fire upon Chapulte- 
pec on the 12th, causing great destruction and killing 
and wounding many of its defenders. The Mexican 
leader, Santa Anna, a very brave fellow with only one 
leg, was under this heavy fire for a time, taking observa- 
tions of its eflFect. On the 18th this fire was resumed, 
followed by an assault of infantry. The volunteers of 
Quitman and Pillow, led by picked storming parties, 
made the assault on two fronts. The hill was carried 
with a rush after Scott gave the signal of attack. Pillow 
calling for reinforcements, Longstreet's brigade was 
ordered forward by Gteneral Worth, and he went into 
the enemy's works on the hill with the others. 

Longstreet did not quite reach the works, for while 
rushing up the hill with the regimental flag in his hands 
he was severely wounded by a musket-ball through the 
thigh. The castle, all the enemy's guns, and many pris- 


Longstbeet's Honeymoon 

oners were captured. General Scott rode to the summit 
soon after and surveyed the work of his gallant army. 
It was well done. General Worth chased the fleeing 
wiemy to the city's gates. After Longstreet fell 
George E. Pickett carried the flag to the works on the 
hiU, and to the top of the castle. The old Eighth's flag 
was hoisted from the staff which but a month before 
flaunted the Mexican banner. 

This was ihe last action in the valley. There was 
some fighting at the gates, and desultory firing from 
the houses as the American troops pushed in, but the 
dty fell without much loss after Chapultepec. The 
Mexicans evacuated the capital that night, and (rcneral 
Scott entered the next day. The Mexican War was 
practically over. In a few months a treaty was made 
giving the United States about what was demanded by 
Mr. Trist after Churubusco in August, the United 
States salving up Mexico's wounded pride with fifteen 
million dollars. 


longstbeet's honeymoon 

After reaching home from Mexico, Longstreet soon regained his 
strength. He then wrote to Colonel John Garland, of Virginia, 
his old brigade conmiander, asking for his youngest daughter. 
Colonel Garland promptly replied, " Yes, with all my heart" 

With several wounded comrades Longstreet was as- 
signed quarters with the Escandons, a kind-hearted, re- 
fined Mexican family. They could not conceal their 
deep chagrin at the defeat of their army, and were 
doubtless mortified by the enforced presence of the 
wounded Americans. Nevertheless they insisted that 
those officers confined to their beds should be supplied 



from their own table. Delicacies without stint were 
sent. The days of confinement were greatly brightened 
by their delicate attentions. On the 1st of December 
the accomplished surgeons, Satterlee and DeLiCon, 
thought that Longstreet was strong enough to travel, 
and announced that he was to be ordered out of the 
country on sick-leave. 

With others he left Mexico on December 9. A few 
days later he sailed from Vera Cruz with a large num- 
ber of sick and wounded, among whom was Brigadier- 
Grcneral Pierce, who was very popular in the army. 
After reaching home Longstreet soon regained his 
strength. He then wrote to Colonel John Garland, of 
Virginia, his late brigade commander, asking for his 
youngest daughter. Colonel Garland promptly re- 
plied, " Yes, with all my heart." He had won fame in 
Mexico and returned home on leave a month before 
Longstreet was well enough to travel, and was then 
with his family. The young lady and her soldier sweet- 
heart already had a pretty good understanding on the 
subject, and her answer was equally flattering. On the 
8th of March, 1848, the marriage occurred at Lynch- 
burg. After a brief hone3rmoon orders were received 
from the War Department detailing Longstreet for 
recruiting service, with station at Poughkeepsie, New 
York. Before autumn of that year nearly all the troops 
in Mexico were withdrawn, and the Eighth, Longstreet's 
old regiment, was ordered to JeflFerson Barracks, St. 
Louis, where he had been stationed before the war, then 
a brevet second lieutenant in the Fourth. 

After fifty years General Longstreet found that 
many of the physical details of the battle terrain in the 
valley of Mexico differed quite materially from the 
memory conveyed by his younger eyes in the heat of 
action. There was no real change in fixed landmarks, 
but the depressions were not so deep, nor the impreg^ 


Longstbeet's Honeymoon 

nable hills the Americans attacked so high, as they ap- 
peared when the Mexicans were defending them with 
sword, musket, and cannon. In instants of supreme 
danger it is very dijBBicult for the soldier or subordinate 
officer to see things exactly as they are on a battle-field. 
Sis eye and mind are inevitably and anxiously concen- 
trated on the enemy or the battery that is dealing death 
and destruction round about. 

11 161 



The armies that prepared for the first grand conflict 
of the Civil War were commanded by West Point grad- 
uates, both of the Class of 1888, — Beauregard and 
McDowell. The latter had been assigned to the com- 
mand of the Federal forces at Washington, south of 
the Potomac, in the latter part of May, 1861. The 
former had assumed command of the Confederates at 
Manassas Junction about the 1st of June. To him, 
Brigadier-Gkneral Longstreet reported for duty. 

McDowell marched on the afternoon of the 16th of 
July at the head of an^ army of five divisions of in- 
fantry, supplemented by nine batteries of the regular 
service, one of volunteers, besides two guns operating 
separately, and seven companies of regular cavalry. In 
his infantry columns were eight companies of regulars 
and a battalion of marines, — an aggregate of thirty-five 
thousand men. 

Beauregard stood behind Bull Run with seven bri- 
gades, including Holmes, who joined on the 10th, 
twenty-nine guns, and fourteen hundred cavalry, — an 
^gregate of twenty-one thousand nine hundred men, 
all volunteers. To this should be added, for the battle 

* This brief review of a few of Longstreet's famous engagements before and 
after Gettysbarg has been compiled chiefly from his war history and his 
war papers published a few years since by the Century Company, 


Gbeat Battles before and after Gettysbuso 

of the 21st, reinforcements aggregating eight thousand 
five hundred men, under (reneral Johnston, making the 
sum of the aggregate thirty thousand four hundred 

The line behind Bull Run was the best between Wash- 
ington and the Rapidan for strategy, tactics, and army 

(rcneral Longstreet always believed that by vigorous 
and concentrated work the Confederates, after the bat- 
tle of the first Manassas, might have followed McDow- 
ell's fleeing columns into Washington, and held the capi- 
tal But this is not a part of my story. 

On the eve of the battle the Confederates had occa- 
sional glimpses behind the lines about Washington, 
through parties who managed to evade the eyes of 
guards and sentinels, which told of McDowell's work 
since May, and heard on the 10th of July that he was 
ready to march. Most of the Confederates knew him 
and of his attainments, as well as those of Beauregard, 
to the credit of the latter, and on that point they were 
satisfied. But the backing of an organized government, 
and an army led by the foremost American war-chief, — 
that oonsununate strategist, tactician, and organizer, 
.Grcneral Scott, — together with the splendid equipment 
of the field batteries and the presence of the force of 
regulars of infantry, gave serious apprehension. 

A gentleman who was a boy in Washington during 
the Civil War, said not long ago, in speaking of the 
first Manassas, that he would never forget the impres- 
sion made upon his youthful mind by McDowell's anny 
in moving towards Manassas Junction. Their arms 
glistened in the sunshine; the new uniforms added to 
the splendid bearing of the ranks; the horses were gar- 
landed with flowers; the silken folds of regimental 
flags, lifted caressingly by the breezes of mid-summer, 
made an ocean of color above the noble colunms. It 


The FntST Manassas 

was an inspiring sight; every flag in the capital was a 
beckoning call to arms in the nation's defence. Mc- 
Dowell's army seemed setting out for some festal occa- 
sion, and gayly moved to the sound of music and song. 
But oh, what a different sight after Manassas, when his 
weary and routed columns straggled back to Washing- 
ton, before the victorious Confederates. Their gala day 
had been of short duration. 

On the 16th of July the Confederates learned that 
the advance of McDowell's army was under definite 
orders for next day. Longstreet's brigade was at once 
ordered into position at Blackburn's Ford, and all others 
were ordered on the alert. 

At eight o'clock a.m. on the 18th McDowell's army 
concentrated about Centerville, his immediate objective 
being Manassas Junction. His orders to General Tyler, 
conunanding the advance division, were to look well to 
the roads on the direct route to Manassas Junction and 
via the Stone Bridge, to impress an advance upon the 
former, but to have care not to bring on a general en- 

Under the instructions, as General Tyler construed 
them, he followed the Confederates to the heights of 
Centerville, overlooking the valley of Bull Run, with a 
squadron of cavalry and two companies of infantry. 
From the heights to the Run, a mile away, the field was 
open, and partially disclosed the Confederate position 
on his right. On the left the view was limited by a 
sparse growth of spreading pines. 

The enemy was far beyond the range of Confederate 
guns, his position commanding as well as his metal, so 
Longstreet ordered the guns withdrawn to a place of 
safety, till a fair opportunity was offered them. The 
guns were limbered and off before a shot reached them. 
Artillery practice of thirty minutes was followed by 
an advance of infantry. The march was quite up to 


Gbeat Battles before and after Gettysburo 

the bluff overlooking the ford, when both sides opened 

The first pouring-down volleys were most startling 
to the new troops. Fart of Longstreet's line broke and 
started at a run. To stop the alarm he rode with sabre 
in hand for the leading files, determined to give them 
all that was in the sword and his horse's heels, or stop 
the break. They seemed to see as much danger in their 
rear as in front, and soon turned and marched back 
to their places, to the evident surprise of the enemy. 
Heavy firing was renewed in ten or fifteen minutes, 
when the Federals retired. After about twenty minutes 
a second advance was made to the top of the bluff, when 
another rousing f usilade followed, and continued about 
as long as the first, with like result Longstreet rein- 
forced the front line with part of his reserve, and, 
thinking to follow up his next success, called for one 
of the regiments of the reserve brigade. 

The combat lasted about an hour, when the Federals 
withdrew to their ground about Centerville, to the de- 
light of the Confederates, who felt themselves chris- 
tened veterans; their artillery being particularly proud 
of the combat against the famed batteries of the United 
States regulars. 

General McDowell's order for the battle on the 21st 
of July was issued on the afternoon of the 20th. 

Beauregard's order for battle, approved by General 
Johnston, was issued at five a.m. on the 21st. 

The orders for marching were only preliminary, cou- 
pled with the condition that the troops were to be held 
ready to move, but to wait for special order for action. 
The brigade at Blackburn's Ford had been reinforced 
by the Fifth North Carolina and Twenty-fourth Vir- 
ginia Regiments, under Lieutenant Jones and Colonel 
Kemper. Longstreet crossed the Run under the five 
o'clock order, adjusted the regiments to position for 



favorable action, and gave instructions for their move- 
ments on the opening of the battle. 

This first clash of arms tested the fighting qualities 
of the Confederates; but the soil was Virginia, and for 
them it was to be death or victory. 

The close of the battle of the 21st found the Fed- 
erals beaten and fleeing towards the shelter of their 
capital. They had fought stubbornly. McDowell made 
a gallant effort to recover his lost power, riding with 
his troops and urging them to brave effort. Although 
his renewed efforts were heroic, his men seemed to have 
given confidence over to despair when fight was aban- 
doned and flight ensued. Over the contested field of 
the first battle of the war, Longstreet had borne the 
victorious banners of the South. 


" General Longstreet's dear head and brave heart left no apology 
for interference at Williamabiirg/' — Joseph £. Johnston. 

This battle was fairly fought and dearly won by the 
Confederacy, May 5, 1862. General Joseph E. John- 
ston was chief in command and General Longstreet had 
the active direction of the battle. 

In his official report upon the battle, General Johnston 
said, — 

*^The action graduaUy increased in magnitude until about 
three o'clock, when Greneral Longstreet, commanding the rear, 
requested that a part of Major-General Hill's troops might be 
sent to his aid. Upon this I rode upon the field, but foimd 
myself compelled to be a spectator, for General Longstreet's 
clear head and brave heart left no apology for interference." 

The battle was fought by Sickles's Federal Third 
Corps, that heroically contested every inch of the 


Gbeat Battles before and after Gettysburo 

It was at the close of the battle that Greneral Han- 
cock distinguished himself by holding his position in 
and about the forts with five regiments and two bat- 
teries against the assault of the Fifth North Carolina 
and Twenty-fourth Virginia Regiments, and it was on 
this field that he won the title of " The Superb/* given 
to him by McClellan in his report. 

The object of the battle on the part of the Confeder- 
ates was to gain time to haul their trains to places of 
safety. The effect b^des was to call two of the Fed- 
eral divisions from their flanking move to support the 
battle, thereby greatly crippling their expedition. 

General McClellan was at Yorktown during most of 
the day to see several of the divisions of his army aboard 
the transports for his proposed flanking and rear move 
up York River. Upon receiving advice that the Wil- 
liamsburg engagement was serious and unsatisfactory, 
he hastened to the battle with the divisions of Sedgwick 
and Richardson, which he had expected to send up the 

There were about nine thousand Confederates and 
twelve thousand Union troops engaged. The Confed- 
erate casualties were 1565; the Federal casualties, 2288. 
Johnston had anticipated McClellan's move up the York 
River, and considered it very important to cripple or 
break it up. Therein he used the divisions of Long- 
street, Magruder, D. R. Jones, McLaws, G. W. Smith, 
and D. H. Hill. 

There was a tremendous downpour of rain the night 
before the battle, flooding thoroughfares, by-ways, 
woodlands, and fields so that many of the Confederate 
trains were unable next day to move out of the bogs that 
were developed during the night. 

Greneral Hooker's division of the Third Corps, on the 
Federal side, came to the open on the Hampton road, 
and engaged by regiments, — ^the First Massachusetts 



on the left, the Second New Hampshire on the right. 
After the advance of his infantry in the slashes, Gen- 
eral Hooker, with the Eleventh Massachusetts and 
Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania, cleared the way for com- 
munication with the troops on the Yorktown road and 
ordered Webber's six-gun battery into action. As it 
burst from the woods through which it had come, the 
Confederate infantry and every gun in reach opened 
upon it a fire so destructive that it was immanned before 
it came into practice. New Federal troops immediately 
came to the rescue, and the guns reopened fire. Osborn's 
and Bramhall's batteries joined in, and the two poured 
an unceasing fire into the Confederate troops about the 
fort and redoubts. The Fifth New Jersey Regiment 
was added to the battery guard, and the Sixth, Seventh, 
and Eighth were deployed on the left in the woodland. 
The brigades of R. H. Anderson, Wilcox, Pryor, A. P. 
Hill, and Pickett were taking care of the Confederate 

General Longstreet, hearing the swelling noise of 
battle, rode to the front and ordered Colston's brigade 
and the batteries of Deering and Stribling to follow, 
as well as Stuart's horse artillery under Pelham. 

It soon became evident that the fight was for the day. 
D. H. Hill was asked to return with the balance of his 
division. Hooker was bracing the fight on his left. 
He directed Emory to reconnoitre on his extreme left. 
Grover was called to reinforce the fighting in the edge 
of the woods. Several New York regiments came into 
the action, but the Confederates nevertheless continued 
to gain ground until they got short of ammunition. 
While holding their line, some of the regiments retired 
a little to fill their cartridge-boxes from those of the 
fallen enemy and their fallen comrades. This move was 
misconstrued into an order to withdraw, and the Confed- 
erate line fell back, but the mistake was soon discovered 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

and the lost ground regained. The Eleventh Massa- 
chusetts, Twenty-sixth Pennsylvania, and Second New 
Hampshire came into the action. On the Confederate 
side, Colston's brigade, the Florida regiment, and the 
Mississippi battalion came to the rescue, and General 
Anderson, who was in immediate charge, grouped his 
forces, made a concentrated move upon the Federal bat- 
teries, cleared them of the gunners, and captured four 
of Webber's guns and forty horses. General Stuart 
rode up about this time, decided that the Federals were 
in retreat, and insisted upon a charge and pursuit. He 
was, however, convinced that Federal reinforcements 
were coming up and that the break was only of fheir 
front line. About three o'dodk Kearny's division came 
to the Federal aid. 

Before the reinforcements arrived for Hooker's re- 
lief, Anderson had established his advanced line of skir- 
mishers so as to cover with their fire Webber's guns that 
were abandoned. The Federal reinforcing column 
drove back his advance lines; then he reinforced and 
recovered his ground. Then he met General Peck, the 
leader of the last reinforcing brigade, who put in his 
last regiment, the Ninety-eighth Pennsylvania; but the 
night was approaching, both armies were exhausted, and 
little further aggressive work was done. 


Stonewall Jackson was in the Shenandoah Valley 
and the rest of the Confederate troops were east and 
north of Richmond. In front General McClellan's 
army was encamped, a hundred thousand strong, about 
the Chickahominy River preparing for a regular siege of 
the Confederate capital. His army was unassailable 


Fratser's Fabm 

from the front, and he had a small force at Mechanics- 
ville and a much larger force farther back at Beaver 
Dam Creek. 

A Confederate conference was called. Longstreet 
suggested that Jackson be called down from the Valley 
to the rear of the Federal right, in order to turn the 
position behind Beaver Dam, and that the rest of the 
Confederate forces who were to engage in the attack 
cross the Chickahominy and get ready for action. Gen- 
eral Lee then sent General J. E. B. Stuart on his famous 
ride around McClellan. He made a favorable report of 
the situation. Upon further conference, the 26th was 
selected as the day for moving upon the Federal posi- 
tion at Beaver Dam. There was some spirited fighting 
between the two armies, but the advance of Jackson, 
which had been some time delayed, made the Federals 
abandon their position at Beaver Dam. They were 
closely followed, and were again encountered at Gaines 
Mill, where battle followed. 

Longstreet came up with reserve forces, and was pre- 
X>aring to support Hill, when he was ordered by General 
Lee to make a demonstration against the Federal left. 
He threw in three brigades, and for a time the battle 
raged with great fierceness. General Jackson could not 
reach the point of attack, and General Lee ordered 
Longstreet to throw in all the force he could. The posi- 
tion in front of him was very strong. An open field 
led to a difficult ravine beyond Powhite Creek. From 
there the ground made a steep ascent, and was cov- 
ered with trees, slashed timber, and hastily made rifle- 
trenches. General Whiting came up with two brigades 
of Jackson's men. Longstreet's column of attack then 
was the brigades of R. H. Anderson and Pickett and 
the divisions of Law, Hood, and Whiting. They at- 
tacked and defeated the Federals on their left and cap- 
tured many thousand stands of arms, fifty-two pieces 


Gbeat Battles befose and after Getttsbubo 

of artillery, a large quantity of supplies, and many 
prisoners, among them Greneral Reynolds, who after- 
wards fell at Grettysburg. 

On the 29th General Lee ascertained that McClellan 
was marching towards the James, and decided to inter- 
cept his forces in the neighborhood of Charles City 
Cross-Roads. Liongstreet was to march to a point be- 
low Frayser's Farm with General A, P. Hill. Holmes 
was to take up position below on the New Market road; 
Jackson was to pursue the Federal rear; Huger to at- 
tend to the Federal right flank. Thus the Federal rear 
was to be enveloped and a part of McClellan's army de- 
stroyed. Longstreet found himself in due time in front 
of General McCall with a division of ten thousand Fed- 
erals near Frayser's Farm. Finally artillery firing was 
heard, which was taken for the expected signal for the 
beginning of battle, and Longstreet's batteries replied 
as the signal that he was ready. While the order was 
going around to the batteries. President Davis and Gen- 
eral Lee, with their staff and followers, were with Long- 
street in a little open field near the firing lines, but not 
in sight of the Federals. 

The Federal batteries opened up spitefully. They 
did not know of the distinguished Confederates near by, 
yet a battery had by chance their exact range and dis- 
tance, and poured a terrific fire in their midst. The 
second or third shell killed two or three horses and 
wounded several men. The little party speedily retired 
to safer quarters. Longstreet sent Colonel Micah Jen- 
kins to silence the Federal battery with his long-range 
rifles. He charged the battery, and that brought on 
a general fight between Longstreet's division and the 
troops in front. The Federal lines were broken and a 
number of batteries taken. At points during the day 
McCall several times regained his lost position. He 
was finally pushed back. At length McCall's division 


Mabch against Pope and the Second Manassas 

was driven off and fresh troops came to the Federal 
relief. Ten thousand men of A. P. Hill's division, held 
in reserve, were now brought into action. 

About dark General McCall, while looking up a frag- 
ment of his division, ran into Longstreet's arms and 
was taken prisoner. General Lee was there at the tune. 
Longstreet had served with McCall in the old Fourth 
Infantry, and offered his hand as McCall dismounted. 
The Federal general did not regard this as an occasion 
for renewing old friendships, and he was promptly 
offered an escort of Longstreet's staff to take him to 


Even as early as 1862 the Union army had been using 
balloons to examine the position of the Confederates, 
and even that early, the scanty resources of the Con- 
federates made the use of balloons a luxury that could 
not be afforded. While gazing enviously upon the 
handsome balloons of the Federals floating serenely at 
a distance that their guns could not reach, a Confeder- 
ate genius suggested that all the silk dresses in the Con- 
federacy be got together and made into balloons. This 
was done, and soon a great patch-work ship of many 
and varied hues was ready for use. There was no gas 
except in Richmond, and so the silk-dress balloon had 
to be inflated there, tied to an engine, and carried to 
where it was to be sent up. One day it was on a steamer 
down the James River, when the tide went out and left 
the vessel and balloon on a sand-bar. The Federals 
gathered it in, and with it the last silk dress in the Con- 
federacy. General Liongstreet used to say, laughingly, 
that this was the meanest trick of the war. 


Gbeat Battles befose and after Gxttyhbubo 

When G^eral Pope came down into Virginia as 
Federal commander-in-chief, with the double purpoae 
of drawing McClellan away from Westover and dieck- 
ing the advance of the new enemy approadiing f rc»n 
Washington, .General Lee sent Stonewall Jackson to 
Grordonsville and ordered Grcneral Longstreet to re- 
main near Richmond to engage McClellan if he should 
attempt an advance on that city. On the 9th of August^ 
1862, Jackson encountered the Federals near Cedar 
Mountain and repulsed them at what is known as tihe 
battle of Cedar Run. About five o'dodk in the af teiv 
noon of this fight the Federals, by a well-executed move» 
were pressing the Confederates back, when the oppor- 
tune approach of two brigades converted seeming de- 
feat into victory. The Federals were more numerous 
than the Confederates, and Jackson deemed it unwise 
to follow in pursuit, so the Confederates retired behind 
the Rapidan to await the arrival of General Lice with 
other forces. 

General Lee then began preparations for a vigorous 
campaign against General Pope. On the 18th of Au- 
gust Longstreet's corps was ordered to Gordonsville, 
and General Lee accompanied it there. General Jadk- 
son's troops were near by. The Rapidan River was to 
the north. Farther on at Culpeper Court-House was 
the army of Pope, and the Rappahannock River was 
beyond them. Clark's Mountain, rising several hundred 
feet above the siurounding hills, was a little in advance 
of Longstreet's position. The Federal situation was 
observed from the simmiit of this mountain. 

The flags of Pope's army were in full view above 
the tops of the trees around Culpeper Court-House. 
General Lee was very anxious to give battle as soon as 
possible, but operations were in some way delayed until 
General Pope captured a despatch from Lee to Stewart 
containing information of the contemplated advance* 


March against Pope and the Second Manaseas 

Pope then withdrew to a stronger position behind 
the Rappahannock River. Longstreet approached 
the Rappahannock at Kelly's Ford, and Jackson ap- 
proached higher up at Beverly Ford, near the Orange 
and Alexandria bridge. They found Pope in an almost 
unassailable position, with heavy reinforcements siun* 
moned to his aid. 

The Confederate idea was to force a passage and 
make the attack before reinforcements could reach 
Pope. Some sharp marching to this end was done by 
Longstreet and Jackson. On the 28d Liongstreet had 
a spirited artillery combat at Beverly Ford with a 
Federal force. The Federals had the superior position, 
the better guns; the Confederates had more guns, and 
fought with accustomed persistence. Before night the 
Federals withdrew. Incidentally, they set fire to a 
number of farm-houses in the locality. Henry W. 
Grady, afterwards a distinguished Georgian, who was 
a small boy during the war, frequently said that one of 
the worst things about the Union forces was the care- 
lessness with which they handled fire. 

Pope was meanwhile on the alert, and Lee found it 
impracticable to attack him in his stronghold behind the 
Rappahannock. Lee then decided to change his plan 
of operations by sending Jackson off on a long march 
to the rear of the Federal army while keeping Long- 
street with thirty thousand men in front to receive any 
attack that might be made. Jackson crossed the Rappa- 
hannock at Hinson's Hill, four miles above Waterloo 
Bridge, and that night encamped at Salem. The next 
day he passed through Thoroughfare Gap, moved on 
by Gainesville, and when the sun next set he was in the 
rear of Pope's army and between it and Washington. 
The sudden appearance of his army gave much terror 
to the Federals in the vicinity; when he arrived at Bris- 
toe Station just before night the Federal guard at that 


Gbeat Battles befose and after Gettybbubo 

point sought safer quarters, and two trains of cars 
coming from towards Warrenton were captured. Jack- 
son sent a force forward seven miles and captured Ma- 
nassas Junction. He left a force at Bristoe Station and 
proceeded himself to the Junction. During the after- 
noon the Federals attacked the Confederates at Bristoe 
Station in such force as to make it appear that Pope had 
discovered the situation and was moving upon Jackson 
with his entire army. The Confederates then hastened 
away from Bristoe Station and the Federals halted 
there. Jackson's forces then moved over to a position 
north of the turnpike leading from Warrenton to Alex- 
andria, and there awaited results. 

On the evening of the 28th King's division attained 
Jackson, but was repulsed. That same evening LcHig- 
street arrived at Thoroughfare Gap. During the time 
of Jackson's march he had been engaging Pope's army 
at different points along the Rappahannock, to impress 
them with the idea that he was attempting to force a 
passage in front and with the hope of preventing his 
discovery of Jackson's movement. Pope was not de- 
ceived, however, but turned his army to meet Jsxkaaa's 
daring and unexpected move. Longstreet decided to 
follow at once. To force a passage of the river, mudi 
swollen by recent rains, seemed impossible, and so he 
took the route by which Jackson had gone. Finding 
that Thoroughfare Gap was unoccupied, he went into 
bivouac on the west side of the mountain and sent a 
brigade under Anderson to occupy the pass. 

As the Confederates approadied from one side, Bick- 
etts's division of Federals approached from the other 
and took possession of the east side. Thoroughfare 
Gap is a rough pass in the Bull Run Mountains, in some 
places not more than a hundred yards wide. A swift 
stream rushes through it, and the mountains rise on 
both sides several hundred feet above. On the north 


Makch against Pope and the Second Manassas 

the face of the Gap is ahnost perpendicular; the south 
face is less precipitous, but is covered with tangled 
mountain ivy and projecting boulders; the position, 
occupied by a small force, was unassailable. The inter- 
position of Ricketts's division at this mountain pass 
showed a disposition to hold Longstreet back while over- 
whelming Jackson. This necessitated prompt and vig- 
orous measures by Longstreet. Three miles north was 
Hopewell Gap, and it was necessary to get possession 
of this in advance of the Federals to provide for a flank 
movement while forcing the way by foot-paths over the 
mountain heights of Thoroughfare Gap. During the 
night Longstreet sent Wilcox with three brigades to 
Hopewell Gap, while he sent Hood and his forces by a 
trail over the mountain at Thoroughfare. 

To the great delight of the Confederates, in the 
morning it was discovered that Ricketts had given up 
the east side of the Gap and was going towards Manas- 
sas Junction. Longstreet's corps then went along un- 
impeded. Hearing the artillery combat around Gaines- 
ville, they quickened their steps. As the fire became 
more spirited their movements became more rapid. 
Passing through Gainesville, they filed to the left down 
the turnpike, and soon came in sight of the Federal 
troops held at bay by Jackson. They were on the left 
and rear of the Federals; the artillery was ordered up 
for action, but the advance was discovered, and the 
Federals withdrew from attack and retired behind 
Groveton on defensive ground. The battalion of Wash- 
ington Artillery was thrown forward to a favorable 
position on Jackson's right, and Longstreet's general 
line was deployed so as to extend it to the right some 
distance beyond the Manassas Gap Railroad. 

The two great armies were now face to face, both in 
good positions, each anxious to find a point for an en- 
tering wedge into the stronghold of the adversary. 

W 177 

Gbeat Battles befose and after Getttsbuso 

What troubled the Confederates was the unknown num- 
ber of Federals at Manassas Junctbn. Eadi side 
watched the movements of the other until the day was 
far spent. Orders were given for a Confederate ad- 
vance under the cover of night until the main position 
of the enemy could be more carefully examined by the 
earliest light of the next day. It so happened that a 
similar order was issued at Hie same time by the Fed- 
erals, and the result was a spirited engagement, whidi 
was a surprise to both sides. Longstreet's corps was, 
however, successful, so far, at least, as to capture a piece 
of artillery and make reconnoissance before midnight 
The next day Longstreet did not deem an attack wise, 
and the Confederate forces were ordered back to their 
original positions. Then each side was apprehensive 
that the other was going to get away. 

Pope telegraphed to Washington that Longstreet was 
in full retreat and he was preparing to follow; ^riiile 
Longstreet, thinking Pope was trying to escape^ was 
arranging to move to the left across Bull Run, so as to 
get over on the Little River pike and between Pope and 
Washington. Just before nine o'clock that day (the 
80th) Pope's artillery began to play a little, and scnne 
of his infantry was seen in motion. Longstreet con- 
strued this as a display to cover his movements to the 
rear. Later a large division of Pope's army b^^ an 
attack on the left along the whole of Jackson's line. 
Pope evidently supposed that Longstreet was gone, and 
intended to crush Jackson with a terrific onslaught 
Longstreet was meanwhile looking for a place to get 
in. Riding along the front of his line, he could plainly 
see the Federals as they rushed in heavy masses against 
Jackson's obstinate ranks. It was a splendidly organ- 
ized attack. 

Longstreet received a request from Jackson for re- 
inforcements, and about the same time an order from 













Mabch against Pope and the Second Manassas 

General Lee to the same effect Longstreet quickly or- 
dered out three batteries. Lieutenant Chapman's Dixie 
Battery of four guns was the first to report, and was 
placed in position to rake the Federal ranks. In a mo- 
ment a heavy fire of shot and shell was poured into the 
thick colunms of the Federals, and in ten minutes their 
stubborn masses began to waver. For a moment there 
was chaos; then there was order, and they reformed to 
renew the attack. Meanwhile, Longstreet's other eight 
pieces had begun deadly work. The Federal ranks 
broke again and again, only to be reformed with dogged 

A third time the Longstreet batteries tore the Fed- 
erals to pieces, and as they fell back under this terrible 
fire Longstreet's troops leaped forward with the famous 
rebel yell. They pressed onward until, at ten o'clock 
at night, they had the field. Pope was across Bull Run 
and the victorious Confederates lay down to sleep on 
the battle-ground, while around them thousands of 
friend and foe slept the last sleep together. 

The next morning the Federals were in a strong posi- 
tion at Centerville. Longstreet sent a brigade across 
Bull Run under CJeneral Pryor to occupy a point near 
Centerville. (general Lee ordered Jackson to cross Bull 
Run near Sudley's and turn the position of the Federals 
occupying Centerville. On the next day ( September 1 ) 
Longstreet followed, but the Federals discovered the 
move, abandoned Centerville, and started towards 
Washington. On that evening a part of the Federal 
force at Ox Hill encountered Jackson and gave him a 
sharp fight. Longstreet went to Jackson's rescue. 

With the coming darkness it was difficult to distin- 
guish between the scattered ranks of the opposing armies. 
General Philip Kearny, a magnificent Federal officer, 
rode hastily up looking for the broken lines of his com- 
mand. At first he did not know that he was in the 


Great Battles befobe and afieb Gettysbuxo 

Confederate line, and the Confederates did not notice 
that he was a Federal He began quietly to inquire 
about some command, and was soon recognized. He 
was called upon to siurender, but instead of doing so 
he wheeled his horse, pressed spurs to his sides, lay flat 
on the animal's neck, and dashed away like the wind. 
A dozen shots rang out, and in less time than it takes 
to tell the story the heroic Kearny fell dead. He had 
been in the army all his life; the Confederate generals 
who had formerly been in the Union army knew him; 
Longstreet loved him well; (general A. P. Hill, who 
was standing by, said, sorrowfully, " Poor Kearny! he 
deserved a better death than this." The next day his 
body was sent over the lines with a flag of truce and a 
note from General Lee referring tenderly to the man- 
ner in which he had met his death. The Federal forces 
which had been fighting the Ox Hill battle proved to be 
the rear guard covering the retreat of the Federals into 


General Longstbeet always thought that the divi- 
sion of the Confederate army after they moved into 
Maryland proved their downfall. This, however, is not 
a part of my story. 

At this time General Pope had been relieved and 
General McClellan restored to the command of the 
Union army. With ninety thousand troops, he marched 
towards Antietam to avenge the second Manassas. 

General D. H. Hill was at South Mountain with five 
thousand men; Longstreet's First Corps was at Ha- 
gerstown, thirteen miles farther on; Grcneral Lee was 
with him, and on the night of the 18th of September, 


Invasion of Mabtland and Battle op Antietam 

1862, information was received that McCIellan was at 
the foot of South Mountain with his great army. It 
was decided to withdraw the forces of Longstreet and 
Hill from their respective positions and unite at Sharps- 
burg, which afforded a strong defensive position. On 
the afternoon of the 15th of September the commands 
of Longstreet and Hill crossed the Antietam Creek and 
took position in front of Sharpsburg, Longstreet on the 
right and Hill on the left. They soon found their weak 
point was on the left at the famous Dunkard Church. 
Hood, with two brigades, was put to guard that point. 
That night, after the fall of Harper's Ferry, General 
Lee ordered Stonewall Jackson to come to Sharpsburg 
as quickly as possible. 

On the forenoon of the 15th the blue uniforms of 
the Federals appeared among the trees that crowned the 
heights on the eastern bank of the Antietam. Their 
numbers increased in proportions distressing to their 
opponents, who were shattered by repeated battles, tired 
by long marches, and fed most meagrely. On the 16th 
Jackson arrived and took position on Longstreet's left. 
Before night the Federals attacked, but were driven 
back. Hood was ordered to replenish his ammunition 
during the night and resume his position on Longstreet's 
right in the morning. General Jackson's forces were 
extended to the left, and reached well back towards the 
Potomac, where most of the Confederate cavalry was. 
General Robert Toombs was placed as guard on the 
bridge at Longstreet's right. 

On the Federal side (general Hooker, who had been 
driven back in the afternoon, was reinforced by the 
corps of Sumner and Mansfield; Sykes's division was 
also drawn into position for battle; Bumside was over 
against Longstreet's right threatening the passage of 
the Antietam. On the morning of the 17th the Federals 
were in good position and in good condition. Back of 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysbxtro 

McClellan's line was a high ridge, upon which he had 
a signal-station overlooking every point of the field. 
D. R. Jones's brigades of Longstreet's command de- 
ployed on the right of the Sharpsburg pike, while 
Hood's brigades awaited orders; D. H. Hill was on 
the left towards the Hagerstown-Sharpsburg pike; 
Jackson extended out from Hill's left towards the Po- 

The battle opened heavily with attacks by Hooker, 
Mansfield, and Sumner against Longstreet's left cen- 
tre, which consisted of Jackson's right and D. H. Hill's 
left. So persistent were the attacks that Liongstreet 
sent Hood to support the Confederate centre. The 
Confederates were forced back somewhat; McClellan's 
forces continued the attacks; the line swayed forward 
and back like a rope exposed to rushing currents; a 
weak point would be driven back and then the Confed- 
erate fragments would be collected and the lost ground 
recovered; the battle ebbed and flowed with fearful 
slaughter on both sides. The Federals came forward 
with wonderful courage, and the Confederates heroi- 
cally held their ground, while they were mown down like 

How Lee's ragged army withstood McClellan's 
troops no one will ever be able to tell. Hood's ammu- 
nition gave out; he retired for a fresh supply; the Fed- 
erals continued to come up in great masses. At one 
point, under the crest of a hill occupying a position that 
from four to six brigades shotdd have held, there were 
only the stranded troops of Cooke's regiment of North 
Carolina Infantry, who were without s, cartridge. As 
Longstreet rode along the line of his stafi^, he saw two 
pieces of Washington Artillery (Miller's battery), but 
there were not enough men to handle them. The gun- 
ners had all been killed or wounded — ^and this was the 
Confederate centre. Longstreet held the horses of his 


Invasion of Mabyland and Battle of Antietam 

staff -officers, put them to man the guns, and cahnly sur- 
veyed the situation. He saw that if the Federals broke 
through the line at that point the Confederate army 
would be cut in two and probably destroyed. Cooke 
sent him word that his ammunition was entirely out. 
Longstreet replied that he must hold his position as long 
as he had a man left. Cooke responded that he would 
show his colors as long as there was left a man alive to 
hold them up. The two guns were rapidly loaded with 
canister by the staff-officers, and they rattled leaden hail 
into the Federals as they came up over the crest of the 
hill. That little battery, with superhuman energy, had 
to hold thousands of Federals at bay, or the whole battle 
would be lost. 

The Confederates sought to make the Federals be- 
lieve that many batteries were before them. As they 
came up, they would see the colors of Cooke's Nortti 
Carolina regiment waving as placidly as if the whole 
of Lee's army were back of them, while a shower of 
canister came from the two lonely guns. General Chil- 
ton, Grcneral Lee's chief of staff, made his way to Long- 
street and asked, " Where are the troops you are hold- 
ing your line with?" Longstreet pointed to his two 
pieces and to Cooke's regiment, and replied, " There 
they are; but that regiment hasn't a cartridge." Chil- 
ton, dumb with astonishment, rode back to tell the story 
to General Lee. Then an enfilade fire from General 
D. H. Hill's line ploughed the ground across the Fed- 
eral front and kept them back; meanwhile, R. H. 
Anderson and General Hood came to the support of 
this fearfully pushed Confederate centre. In a little 
while another Federal assault was made against D. H. 
Hill and extending far to the Confederate left, where 
McLaws and Walker were supporting Jackson. In 
this fearful combat the lines swung back and forth, 
the Federals attacking with invincible motion and the 


Great Battles befobe and after Getttsburg 

Confederates holding their positions with irresistible 

Meanwhile, General Lee was over towards the right, 
where Bumside was making the attack. Greneral 
Toombs, assigned as guard at that point, had only four 
hundred weary and footsore soldiers to meet the Fed- 
eral Ninth Corps, which pressed the brave little band 
slowly back. The delay that Toombs caused, however, 
saved that part of the battle, for at the last moment 
A. P. Hill came in to reinforce him and D. H. Hill 
discovered a place for a battery and lost no time in open- 
ing it. Thus the Confederates drove the Federals back, 
and when night settled down the army of Lee was still 
in possession of the field. But it was a victory that was 
not a victory, for thousands of Confederates were dead 
on the field and gallant conmiands had been torn into 
fragments. Nearly one-fourth of the troops who went 
into the battle were killed or wounded. This day has 
been well called the bloodiest day of the Civil War. 

CJeneral Longstreet was fond of telling how during 
the battle he and General Lee were riding along his 
line and D. H. Hill's when they started up a hill 
to make a reconnoissance. Lee and Longstreet dis- 
mounted, but Hill remained on his horse. General 
Longstreet said to Hill, " If you insist on riding up 
there and drawing the fire, give iis time to get out of 
the line of the fire when they open up anew." While 
they were all standing there viewing with their glasses 
the Federal movements, Longstreet noticed a puff of 
white smoke from a Federal cannon. He called to 
Hill, " That shot is for you." The gunner was a mile 
away, but the cannon-shot took off the front legs of 
Hill's horse. The horse's head was so low and his croup 
so high that Hill was in a very ludicrous position. With 
one foot in the stirrup he made several efforts to get 
the other leg over the croup, but failed. Lee and Long- 



street yelled at him to dismount from the other end of 
the horse, and so he got down. He had a third horse 
shot under him before the close of the battle. General 
Longstreet said that that shot at Hill was the second 
best shot he ever saw. The best was at Yorktown, where 
a Federal oflScer came out in front of the Confederate 
line, sat down to a little platting table, and began to 
make a map. A Confederate oflScer carefully sighted 
a cannon, touched it off, and dropped a shell into the lap 
of the man at the little table a mile or more away. 

After the battle closed, parties from both sides, by 
mutual consent, went in search of fallen comrades. 

After riding along the lines, giving instructions for 
the night and morning. General Longstreet rode for 
general head-quarters to make report, but was delayed 
somewhat, finding wounded men hidden away under 
stone walls and in fence-comers, not yet looked after, 
and afterwards in assisting a family whose home had 
been fired by a shell, so that all the other officers had 
arrived, made their reports, and were lounging about 
on the sod when General Longstreet rode up. General 
Lee walked up as he dismounted, threw his hands upon 
his shoulders, and hailed him with, " Here is my old war- 
horse at last 1" 


When General Lee learned that .Greneral McClellan 
had been succeeded by General Bumside, he expressed 
regret at having to part with McClellan, because, he 
said, "We always understood each other so well. I 
fear they may continue to make these changes till they 
find some one whom I don't understand." 

The Federal army was encamped around Warrenton, 
Virginia, and was divided into three grand divisions, 
under Generals Sumner, Hooker, and Franklin. Lee's 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysburo 

army was on the opposite side of the Rappahannock 
River, divided into two corps, the First commanded by 
General Longstreet and the Second by Grcneral Thomas 
J. (Stonewall) Jackson. At that time the Confeder- 
ate army extended from Culpeper Court-House, where 
the First Corps was stationed, across the Blue Ridge, 
down the Valley of Virginia, to Winchester, where Jadc- 
son was encamped with the Second Corps. Information 
was received about the 19th of November that Sunmer 
with his grand division of more than thirty thousand 
men was moving towards Fredericksburg. Two of 
General Longstreet's divisions were ordered down to 
meet him. After a forced march they arrived on the 
hills around Fredericksburg about three o'clock on the 
afternoon of the 21st (November, 1862). Sumner had 
already arrived, and was encamped on Stafford Heights 
overlooking the town from the Federal side. 

About the 26th it became evident that Fredericksburg 
would be the scene of a battle, and Longstreet advised 
the people who were still in town to leave. A previous 
threat from the Federal forces that they might have to 
shell the town had already forced many to leave. Dis- 
tressed women, little children, aged and helpless men, 
many of them destitute and with nowhere to go, trudged 
away as best they could. Soon the remainder of Long- 
street's corps came up from Culpeper Court-House, 
and it was then known that all the Army of the Potomac 
was in motion for the prospective scene of battle, when 
Jackson was drawn down from the Blue Ridge. Li a 
short time the Army of Northern Virginia was face to 
face with the Army of the Potomac. On the Confeder- 
ate side nearest the Rappahannock was Taylor's Hill, 
and South of it Marye's Hill; next. Telegraph Hill, the 
highest Confederate elevation, afterwards known as 
Lee's Hill, because General Lee was there during the 
battle. Longstreet's head-quarters in the field were 



there. Next was a declination through which Deep Run 
Creek passed on to the Rappahannock, and next was 
Hamilton's Crossing, upon which Stonewall Jackson 
massed thirty thousand men. Upon these hills the Con- 
federates prepared to receive Burnside whenever he 
might choose to cross the Rappahannock. 

The Federals occupied the noted Stafford Heights 
beyond the river, and here they carefully matured their 
plans of advance and attack. General Hunt, chief of 
artillery, skilfully posted one hundred and forty-seven 
guns to cover the bottoms upon which the infantry was 
to form for the attack, and at the same time play upon 
the Confederate batteries. Franklin and Hooker had 
joined Sumner, and the Federal army were one hundred 
and sixteen thousand strong. The Federals had been 
seen along the banks of the river investigating the best 
places to cross. President Lincoln had been down with 
Grcneral Halleck, who had suggested that a crossing 
be made at Hoop-Pole Ferry, about twenty-eight or 
thirty miles below Fredericksburg. The Confederates 
discovered this movement, and it was then abandoned. 
There were sixty-five thousand Confederates well lo- 
cated upon the various hills on the other side of the 
river. Anderson, McLaws, Ransom, Hood, A. P. and 
D. H. Hill, Longstreet, Stonewall Jackson, and the 
great Robert E. Lee himself were all there. 

On the morning of the 11th of December, 1862, an 
hour or so before daybreak, the slumbering Confeder- 
ates were awakened by a cannon thundering on the 
heights of Marye's Hill. It was recognized as the sig- 
nal of the Washington Artillery, and it told that the 
Federal troops were preparing to cross the Rappahan- 
nock and give battle. The Federals came down to the 
river and began to build their bridges, when Barksdale 
and his heroic Mississippians opened fire, which forced 
them to retire. The Federals then turned their whole 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

artillery force on Fredericksburg, demolishing the 
houses with a cyclone of fire. The only offence of the 
little town was that it was situated where the battle 
raged. The little band of Mississippians kept up their 
work, and like so many angry hornets stung the whole 
Army of the Potomac into frenzy. Liongstreet ordered 
QSarksdale to withdraw, and the Federals then con- 
structed their pontoons without molestation, and the 
next day Sumner's grand division passed over into Fred- 
ericksburg; General Franklin's grand division passed 
over on pontoon bridges lower down and massed on the 
level bottoms opposite Hamilton's Crossing, in front of 
Stonewall Jackson's corps. Opposite Fredericksburg 
the formation along the river bank was such that the 
Federals were concealed in their approaches, and they 
thereby succeeded in getting over and concealing the 
grand division of Sumner and a part of Hooker's grand 
division in Fredericksburg, and so disposing of Frank- 
lin in the open plain below as to give out the impression 
that the great force was there to oppose Jackson. 

Before daylight of the eventful 18th Longstreet rode 
to the right of his line, held by Hood's division, which 
was in hearing of the Federals who were marching their 
troops to the attack on Jackson. Longstreet ordered 
Hood, in case Jackson's line shotdd be broken, to wheel 
around to his right and strike in on the attacking bodies, 
while he ordered Pickett with his division to join in the 
flank movement. He told them at the same time that he 
himself would be attacked near his left centre, that he 
would be personally at that point, and that his position 
was so well defended that he would not need their troops. 
He returned to Lee's Hill soon after sunrise. 

There was a thick fog that morning, and the prepara- 
tions of the Federals were concealed thereby. The Con- 
federates grimly awaited the onslaught. About ten 
o'clock the sun burst through the fog and revealed the 



mighty panorama in the valley below. Franklin's forty 
thousand men, reinforced by two divisions of Hooker's 
grand division, were in front of Jackson's thirty thou- 
sand. The flags of the Federals fluttered gayly, their 
polished arms shone brightly, and the beautiful uni- 
forms of the buoyant troops gave a holiday air to the 
scene. A splendid array it was. Awaiting their ap- 
proach was Jackson's ragged infantry, and beyond was 
Stuart's battered cavalry. The majority of the Federal 
troops were in Fredericksburg almost in reach of the 
Confederate guns. There was some lively firing be- 
tween a part of Franklin's command and a part of 
Stuart's Horse Artillery under Major John Pelham. 
Franklin advanced rapidly towards Jackson; silently 
Jackson awaited his approach until within good range, 
and then opened with a terrific fire, which threw the 
Federals into some confusion. The Federals again 
massed and advanced, and pressed through a gap in 
Jackson's line. Then they came upon Gregg's brigade, 
and a severe encounter ensued in which Gregg was mor- 
tally wounded. The concentration of the divisions of 
Taliaferro and Early against this attack drove the Fed- 
erals back. 

On the Confederate side near the town was a stone 
wall, shoulder high. Behind this stone wall Longstreet 
had placed General T. R. R. Cobb's brigade and a por- 
tion of the brigade of General Kershaw, — ^about two 
thousand five hundred men in all. To reach Long- 
street's weakest point the Federals had to pass directly 
over this wall. 

Just before noon Longstreet sent orders to all his 
batteries to open fire as a diversion in favor of Jackson. 
This fire began at once to develop work for Longstreet. 
The Federal troops swarmed out of Fredericksburg and 
came in double-quick towards Cobb's wall. From the 
moment of their appearance fearful carnage began. 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysburg 

The Confederate artillery from the front, right, and 
left tore through their ranks, but the Federals pressed 
forward with almost invincible determination. Thus 
they marched upon the stone fence behind which Cobb's 
brigade was quietly waiting. When the Federals came 
within its reach they were swept from the field like diaff 
before the wind. A vast number went pell-mell into 
an old railroad cut to escape fire from the right and 
front. A battery on Lee's Hill saw this, and turned its 
fire into the entire length of the cut, and wrought fright- 
ful destruction. Though thus repulsed and scatterod 
in its first attempt to drive the Confederates from 
Marye's Hill, the determined Federal army quiddy 
formed again and filed out of Fredericksburg to an- 
other charge. Again they were forced to retire before 
the well-directed guns of Cobb's brigade and the fire of 
the artillery on the heights. 

Still again they formed and advanced, and again tbey 
were driven ofi^. Sy this time they had difficulty in 
walking over the dead bodies of their comrades. So 
persistent were they in their continuing advances that 
General Lee, who at the time was with Liongstreet on 
Lee's Hill, became uneasy and said that he feared the 
Federals would break through his line. To this Long- 
street replied, " General, if you put every man now cm 
the other side of the Potomac on that field to approach 
me over the same line, and give me plenty of ammuni- 
tion, I will kill them all before they reach my line. Look 
to your right; you are in some danger there, but not on 
my line." As a precaution. General Kershaw was or- 
dered with the remainder of his brigade down to tlie 
stone wall to carry anmiunition to Cobb and to reinf oroe 
him if necessary. Kershaw arrived just in time to suc- 
ceed Cobb, who was falling from a Federal bullet, to 
die in a few minutes from loss of blood. A fifth time 
the Federals formed, charged, and were repulsed, and 






likewise a sixth time, when they were again driven back, 
and night came to end the dreadful carnage. The Fed- 
erals then withdrew, leaving the field literally piled up 
with the bodies of their dead. The Confederate mus- 
ketry alone killed and wounded at least five thousand, 
while the artillery brought the number of those killed 
and wounded at the foot of Marye's Hill to over seven 

During the night a Federal strayed beyond his line, 
was taken up by Longstreet's troops, and on his per- 
son was found a memorandum of General Bumside's 
arrangements and an order for the renewal of the battle 
next day. Upon receiving this information General 
Lee gave immediate orders for a line of rifle-pits on the 
top of Marye's Hill for General Ransom, who had been 
held somewhat in reserve, and for other guns to be 
placed on Taylor's Hill. The Confederates were up 
before daylight on the morrow, anxious to receive Gen- 
eral Bumside again. The Federal troops, however, had 
left the field. It was at first thought that the memoran- 
dum was intended as a ruse of war, but it was after- 
wards learned that General Bumside expected to re- 
sume attack, but gave it up when he became fully aware 
of the fate of his soldiers at the foot of Marye's Hill. 


This battle marked the only great Confederate vic- 
tory won in the West, and was one of the bloodiest 
battles of the war. Indeed, the contest for the bloodiest 
day in this great war is, I believe, between Antietam and 
Chickamauga. Official reports show that on both sides 
the casualties embrace the enormous proportion of 
thirty-three per cent, of the troops actually engaged. 


Gbeat Battles befobe and aftee Gettysbubo 

On the Union side there were over a score of regiments 
in which the losses in this single fight exceeded 49.4 
per cent. The '' Charge of the Light Brigade at Balak- 
lava," immortalized by Tennyson, did not suffer by ten 
per cent, as much as did thirty of the Union regiments 
at Chickamauga; and a number of Confederate regi- 
ments suffered even more than their Federal opponents. 

Longstreet's conmiand in less than two hours lost 
nearly forty-four per cent, of its strength. Of the 
troops that received their splendid assaults, Steedman*8 
and Brannan's conmiands lost respectively forty-nine 
and thirty-eight per cent, in less than four hours. Hie 
loss of single regiments showed a much heavier per- 
centage. For instance, the Tenth Tennessee R^pment 
lost sixty-eight per cent. ; the Fifth G^rgia, 61.1 ; the 
Second Tennessee, 60.2; the Sixteenth Alabama, 58.6; 
a great number of them more than fifty per cent. 

The total Confederate losses were about 18,000 men; 
the total Federal losses, about 17,000. Viewed from the 
stand-point of both sides, Chickamauga was the fifth 
greatest battle of the war, being exceeded only by Gret- 
tysburg, Spottsylvania, the Wilderness, and Chancd- 
lorsville. But each of these battles were of a much 
longer time. The total Confederates engaged in tike 
battle were 59,242 ; the total Federals, 60,867. The bat- 
tle was fought on the 20th of September, 1868. 

The movements of both sides were too complex to be 
followed here. During a very hot part of tiie battle, 
Grcneral Hood, on the Confederate side, was fearfully 
wounded; General Benning, of his "Rock Brigade," 
lost his own horse, and thought tliat General Hood was 
killed and that everything was gone to smash. He cut 
a horse loose from a captured gun, grabbed a rope trace 
as a riding whip, mounted, and rode to meet Grcneral 
Longstreet and report. He had lost his hat in the melee, 
and everything was in terrible shape. He reported, — 






*^ Greneral Hood killed, my horse killed, my brigade torn to 
pieces, and I haven't a single man left." 

General Longstreet smiled, and quietly asked him if 
he did not think he could find one man. Quieted by the 
tone of the question, he began to look for his men, found 
quite a nimiber of them, and quickly joined the fighting 
forces at the front, where he discovered that the Con- 
federates had carried the first line, that Johnson's divi- 
sion was in the breach and pushing on, with Hindman 
spreading battle to the enemy's limits, Stuart's division 
holding bravely on, and the brigades of Kershaw and 
Humphreys coming along to help restore the battle to 
good organization. 

About one o'clock in the day lunch was ordered spread 
for a number of the oflScers. General Longstreet mean- 
while rode with General Buckner and the stafi^s to view 
the changed conditions of the battle. He could see but 
little of the enemy's line, and only knew it by the occa- 
sional exchange of fire between the skirmishers. Sud- 
denly the party discovered that they had passed the 
Confederate line and were within the fire of the Federal 
sharp-shooters, who were concealed behind the trees and 
under the brush. They came back in more than double- 
quick. General Longstreet ordered General Buckner 
to establish a twelve-gun battery on the right and enfi- 
lade the Federal works. Then he rode away to enjoy a ^ 
sumptuous spread of Nassau bacon and Georgia sweet ^ 
potatoes. They were not accustomed to potatoes of any 
kind in Virginia, and the Georgia variety was a peculiar 
luxury. While the lunch was in its first stages a frag- 
ment of shell came tearing through the woods, passed 
through a book in the hands of a courier who sat his 
horse hard by reading, and struck down the chief of 
ordnance. Colonel T. P. Manning. Friends sprang for- 
ward to look for the wound and give relief. Manning 

13 193 

Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysburg 

had just taken an unusually large bite of sweet potato, 
and was about suffocating thereby. He was supposed 
to be gasping for his last breath when General Long- 
street suggested that he be relieved of the potato and 
given a chance to breathe. This done, he soon revived, 
and was ready to be taken to the hospital, and in a few 
days he was again ready for either a Federal shell or a 
Georgia potato. 

The vicissitudes of the battle were many and varied, 
but jfinally the Federal forces quit the field and the dif- 
ferent wings of the Confederate army came together 
and greeted each other witb loud huzzas. The Army of 
the Tennessee was ready to celebrate its first grand vie- ^ 
tory, in spite of the great losses sustained. The twilight ^'j 
dews hung heavy over the trees, as if to hush the voice 
of victory in the presence of death, but nevertheless, the 
two lines, which neared as they advanced, united their 
shouts in increasing volume, not as the cannon*s violent 
noise, but as one great burst of harmony that seemed 
almost to lift from their rooted depths the great forest 
trees. Before greetings and congratulations upon the 
success had passed it was night, and the mild beams of 
the quartering moon were more suggestive of Venus 
than of Mars, as Longstreet rested in the white light 
of the one great triumph of Confederate arms in the 


About the 1st of November, 1868, it was determined 
at Confederate head-quarters that Longstreet should 
be ordered into East Tennessee against General Bum- 
side's army. 

On the 22d of October General Grant joined the 
army, and it was known that General Sherman was 
marching to join him. 


In East Tennessee 

On the 20th of October General Bumside reported 
by letter to General Grant an army of twenty-two thou- 
sand three hundred men, with ninety-odd guns, but his 
returns for November gave a force of twenty-five thou- 
sand two hundred and ninety, and over one hundred 
guns. Eight thousand of his men were on service north 
of Knoxville and about Cumberland Gap. 

To march, capture, and disperse this formidable force, 
fortified at points, Longstreet had about fifteen thou- 
sand men, after deducting camp guards and foraging 
parties. Marching and fighting had been his almost 
daily occupation from the middle of January, 1868, 
when he left Fredericksburg to move down to Suffolk, 
Virginia, until the 16th of December, when he found 
bleak winter again breaking upon him, away from 
friends, and dependent upon his own efforts for food 
and clothing for his ragged and hungry Confederates. 

It is not in the purview of this paper to more than 
briefly refer to Longstreet^s work in East Tennessee in 
the bitter winter of 1868-64. He has said that Wash- 
ington's men at Valley Forge did not suffer more than 
his command on the hard campaigns of that severe win- 
ter. Much of the time half -clad and shoeless, the snow- 
covered ground bore the bloody imprint of their naked 
feet. They were compelled to dig holes in the frozen 
ground, which were thawed out by fires to furnish their 
usual couch. They had nothing to eat but parched com. 
But the brave fellows never lost heart. They undertook 
to make a joke of their dire straits. As General Long- 
street rode out among them, they would call cheerily to 
know if they might not have a Kttle fodder to eat with 
their com. 

It is now generally conceded that no more valorous 
service was rendered the Confederate cause during the 
four years' fighting than Longstreet*s work in East 
Tennessee, cut off from supplies, improperly supported 


Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

by his government, and sent with an inadequate force 
to attack Bumside in his stronghold. 

Mrs. Grant, a few years before her death, in discuss- 
ing the events of those campaigns, said to me that Grcn- 
eral Grant had come to Nashville to spend Christmas 
with her. She had scarcely given him greeting when a 
hurried message came from Eiioxville, — ^"^ Longstreet 
is coming!" He was much perturbed at having to 
forego his Christmas with his family and return imme- 
diately to his works about Eiioxville. In parting she 
said to him, " Now, Ulysses, you know that you are not 
going to hurt Longstreet." Grant quickly replied, " I 
will if I can get him; he is in bad company." 

To " get" Longstreet or to drive him out of Temies- 
see came to be the chief concern of Grant and his gov- 
ernment. General Halleck was much concerned about 
the Confederate army in East Tennessee, the only stra- 
tegic field then held by Southern troops. It was incon- 
veniently near Kentucky and the Ohio Biver. President 
Lincoln and his War Secretary added their anxiety to 
Halleck's on account of its politico-strategic bearing. 
General Halleck urged his views upon General Grant, 
and despatched General Foster that it was of first im- 
portance to "drive Longstreet out of Tennessee and 
keep him out." General Grant ordered : " Drive Jjong- 
street to the farthest point east that you can." It was 
easier to issue that order than to execute it. And Grant 
reported to the authorities: 

" If Longstreet is not driven out of the valley en- 
tirely, and the road destroyed east of Abingdon, I do 
not think it unlikely that the last great battle of the 
war will be fought in East Tennessee. Reports of de- 
serters and citizens show the army of Bragg to be too . 
much demoralized and reduced by desertions to do any- ^ 
thing this winter. I will get everything in order here 
in a few days and go to Nashville and Louisville, and, 



In East Tennessee 

if there is still a ehance of doing anything against Long- 
street, to the scene of operations there. I am deeply 
interested in moving the enemy heyond Saltville tiiis 
winter, so as to be able to select my own campaign in 
the spring, instead of having the enemy dictate it to 

About the middle of December orders were given the 
Confederate army, which was on the west bank of the 
Holston River, to cross and march for the railroad, 
only a few miles away. 

The transfer of the army to the east bank of the river 
was executed by diligent work and the use of such flat- 
boats and other means of crossing as could be collected 
and constructed. They were over by the 20th, and be- 
fore Christmas were in camps along the railroad near 
Morristown. Blankets and clothes were scarce, shoes 
more so. But to the hungry Confederates the beautiful 
country in which they found themselves seemed a land 
of milk and honey. The French Broad River and the 
Holston are confluent at Knoxville. The country be- 
tween and beyond them contains as fine farming-lands 
and has as delightful climate as can be found. Stock 
and grain were on all farms. Wheat and oats had been 
thoughtfully hidden away by the Federals, but the fields 
were f uU of maize, still standing. The country around 
the French Broad had hardly been touched by the for- 
agers. The Confederate wagons immediately on enter- 
ing the fields were loaded to overflowing. Pumpkins 
were on the ground in places like apples under a tree. 
Cattle, sheep, and swine, poultry, vegetables, maple 
sugar, and honey were all abundant for immediate wants 
of the troops. 

When the Federals found that the Confederates had 
moved to the east bank, their cavalry followed to that 
side. They were almost as much in want of the beauti- 
ful foraging lands as the Confederates, but there was 


Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

little left for them. With the plenitude of proyisions 
for the time, and many things which seemed luxuries, 
the Confederates were not altogether happy. Tattered 
garments, blankets, and shoes (tlie latter going, many 
gone) opened ways, on all sides, for piercing winter 
blasts. There were some hand-looms in the country, 
from which there was occasionally picked up a piece of 
cloth, and here and there other comforts were received, 
some from kind and some from unwilling hands, whidi 
nevertheless could spare them. For shoes the men were 
compelled to resort to the raw hides of beef cattle as 
temporary protection from the frozen ground. Then 
soldiers were discovered who could tan the hides of 
beeves, some who could make shoes, some who could 
make shoe-pegs, some who could make shoe-lasts; so it 
came about, through the varied industries of Long- 
street's men, that the hides passed rapidly from the 
beeves to the feet of the soldiers. Thus the soldier's life 
was made, for a time, passably pleasant in the infantry 
and artillery. Meanwhile, the Confederate cavalry 
were looking at the Federals, and the Federals were 
looking at them, both frequently burning powder be- 
tween their lines. 

General Sturgis had been assigned to the cavalry of 
the other side, to relieve General Shackelford, and he 
seemed to think that the dead of winter was the time 
for cavalry work; and the Confederate General Mar- 
tin's orders were to have the enemy under his eye at all 
hours. Both were vigilant, active, and persevering. 
. About December 20 a raid was made by General 
Averill from West Virginia upon a supply depot of 
.General Sam Jones's department, at Salem, which was 
partially successful, when General Grant, under the im- 
pression that the stores were for East Tennessee, wired 
General Foster, " This will give you great advantage." 
And General Foster despatched Grcneral Parke, com- 



In East Tennessee 

manding his troops in the field, December 26, "' Long- 
street will feel a little timid now, and will bear a little 

Greneral Grant made a visit to Knoxville about New 
Year's, and remained until the 7th. He found General 
Foster in the condition of the Confederates, — ^not prop- 
erly supplied with clothing, especially in want of shoes. 
So he authorized a wait for clothing, then in transit and 
looked for in a week; and that little delay was a great 
lift for the Confederates. 

Before leaving General Foster, General Grant or- 
dered him, on receipt of clothing, to advance and 
" drive Longstreet at least beyond Bull's Gap and Red 
Bridge." And to prepare for that advance, he ordered 
the Ninth and Twenty-third Corps to Mossy Creek, the 
Fourth Corps to Strawberry Plains, and the cavalry to 

The Union army — equipped — ^marched on the 14th 
and 15th of January. The bitter freeze of two weeks 
had made the rough angles of mud as firm and sharp 
as so many freshly quarried rocks, and the bare feet of 
the Confederates on this march left bloody marks along 
the roads. 

General Sturgis rode in advance of the army, and 
occupied Dandridge by Elliott's, Wolford's, and Gar- 
rard's divisions of cavalry and Mott's brigade of infan- 
try. The Fourth and Twenty-ninth Corps followed the 
cavalry, leaving the Ninth Corps to guard at Straw- 
berry Plains. 

General Martin gave prompt notice that the march 
was at Dandridge and in full force. Dandridge is on 
the right bank of the French Broad River, about thirty 
miles from Knoxville. Its topographical features are 
bold and inviting of military work. Its other striking 
characteristic was the interesting character of its citi- 
zens. The Confederates — a unit in heart and spirit — 


Great Battles befobe and after Gettysburg 

were prepared to do their share towards making an ef- 
fective battle, and the plans were so laid. 

At the time ordered for his advance General Foster 
was suffering from an old womid, and General Parke 
became conmiander of the troops in the field. The lat- 
ter delayed at Strawberry Plains in arranging that part 
of his command, and General Sheridan, marching with 
the advance, became commander, until superseded by 
the corps conmiander. General Gordon Granger. 

The Confederate plans were laid before the army was 
all up. Their skirmish line was made stronger, and re- 
lieved the cavalry of their dismounted service. A nar- 
row, unused road, practicable for artillery, was found 
that opened a way for the Confederates to reach the 
enemy's rearward line of march. Sharp-shooters were 
organized and ordered forward by it, to be followed by 
our infantry columns. It was thought better to move 
the infantry alone, as the ringing of the iron axles of 
the guns might give notice of the Confederate purpose; 
the artillery to be called as the Confederate sharp- 
shooters approached the junction of the roads. The 
head of the turning force encountered a picket-guard, 
some of whom escaped without firing. General Gran- 
ger decided to retire, and was in time to leave the cross- 
roads behind him, his rear-guard passing the point of 
intersection before the Confederate advance party 
reached it about midnight. 

The weather moderated before night, and after dark 
a mild, gentle rain began to fall. 

When Longstreet rode into Dandridge in the gray 
of the morning the ground was thawing and hardly firm 
enough to bear the weight of his horse. When the 
cavalry came at simrise the last crust of ice had melted, 
letting the animals down to their fetlocks in heavy lime- 
stone soil. The mud and want of a bridge to cross the 

Holston made pursuit by the heavy Confederate col- 


In East Tennessee 

umns useless. The cavalry was ordered on, and the 
troops at Morristown, on the Strawberry Plains road, 
were ordered to try that route, but the latter proved to 
be too heavy for progress with artillery. 

While Gteneral Longstreet rode through the streets 
of Dandridge, giving directions for such pursuit of the 
fleeing Federals as could be made, a lady came out upon 
the sidewalk and invited him into her parlors. When 
the orders for pursuit were completed, he dismounted, 
and with some members of his staff walked in. After 
the compliments of the season were passed, the Con- 
federates were asked to be seated, and the lady told, 
with evident great enjoyment, of General Granger 
during the night before. She had never heard a person 
swear about another as General Granger did about Gen- 
eral Longstreet. Some of the officers proposed to stop 
and make a battle, but General Granger swore, and 
said, "" It's no use to stop and fight Longstreet. You 
can't whip him. It don't make any difference whether 
he has one man or a hundred thousand." Presently she 
brought out a flask that General Granger had for- 
gotten, and presented it to General Longstreet. It had 
about two horizontal fingers left in it. Though not left 
with compliments, it was accepted. Although the 
weather had moderated, it was very wet and nasty, and 
as General Longstreet had taken his coffee at three 
o'clock, it was resolved to call it noon and divide the 
spoils. Colonel Fairfax, who knew how to enjoy good 
things, thought the occasion called for a sentiment, and 
offered, " General Granger — ^may his shadow never 
grow less." 

The cavalry found the road and its side-ways so cut 
up that the pursuit was reduced to a labored walk. The 
previous hard service and exposure had so reduced the 
animals that they were not in trim for real effective cav- 
alry service. They found some crippled battery forges 


Gbeat Battles before and after Geitybburo 

and a little of other plunder, but the enemy passed the 
Holston and broke his bridges behind him, and Long- 
street's men returned to their huts and winter homes. 

To seek some of the fruits of his advantage at 
Dandridge, the roads being a little firmer, Greneral 
Longstreet ordered his leading division, under General 
Jenkins, on the 21st, to proceed to march towards 
Strawberry Plains, and the Richmond authorities were 
asked to send a pontoon bridge, tools of construction, 
and to hurry forward such shoes as they could send. 

On the 24th, as the official records show. General 
Grant sent word to General Halleck of Longstreet's 
return towards Knoxville; that he had ordered General 
Foster to give battle, if necessary, and that he would 
send General Thomas with additional troops to insure 
that Longstreet would be driven from the State. He 
also directed General Thomas to go in person and take 
command, and said, '' I want Longstreet routed and 
pursued beyond the limits of Tennessee." And he or- 
dered General Foster to put his cavalry on a raid from 
Cumberland Gap to cut in upon Longstreet's rear. 

On the 6th of February General Grant reported from 
Nashville, — 

** Majoe-Geneeal H. W. Halleck, 

*^ I am making every effort to get supplies from Knoxville for 
the support of a large force — ^large enough to drive Longstreet 

" U. S. Geant, 
** Major-^jreneral Commanding.** 

'^ Majoe-Geneeal Thomas: 

^^ Reports of scouts make it evident that Joe Johnston has 
removed most of his force from our front, two divisions going 
to Longstreet. Longstreet has been reinforced by troops from 

the east. This makes it evident the enemy intends to secure East 


In East Tennessee 

Tennessee if they can, and I intend to drive them out or get 
whipped this month. For this purpose you will have to detach 
at least ten thousand men besides Stanley's division (more will be 
better). I can partly relieve the vacuum at Chattanooga by 
troops from Logan's conmiand. It will not be necessary to take 
artillery or wagons to Knoxville, but all the serviceable artillery 
horses should be taken to use on artillery there. Six mules to 
each two hundred men should be taken, if you have them to spare. 
Let me know how soon you can start. 

" Gkant, 
" Major-General.'' 

On the 9th Major-General J. M. Schofield arrived 
at Knoxville, and assumed command of the Army of 
the Ohio. 

General Grant reported on the 11th, — 

^ Majob-Gsnsbal H. W. Halijeck, 

^^I expect to get off from Chattanooga by Monday next a 
force to drive Longstreet out of East Tennessee. It has been 
impossible heretofore to subsist the troops necessary for this 

"U. S. Grant, 
" Major-General.'* 

^ Majob-Gbnebal J. M. Schofield, 

" Knoxville, Tennessee : 
** I deem it of the utmost importance to drive Longstreet out 
immediately, so as to furlough the balance of our veterans, and 
to prepare for a spring campaign of our own choosing, instead 
of permitting the enemy to dictate it for us. Thomas is ordered 
to start ten thousand men, besides the remainder of Granger's 
corps, at once. He will take no artillery, but will take his artil- 
lery horses, and three mules to one hundred men. He will 

probably start next Monday. 

"U. S. Gbant, 
" Major-Generair 

Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

How General Grant abandoned the move against 
Longstreet, while Longstreet kept Schofield bottled up 
all through that trying winter in his works about Knox- 
ville, is old history. 

The Confederate government finally abandoned the 
plan of occupying East Tennessee, and on the 7th of 
April Longstreet was ordered, with the part of his com- 
mand that had originally served with the Army of 
Northern Virginia, to join General Lee on the Rapi- 

I have gone thus far into the East Tennessee cam- 
paigns for the pleasure it gives me to reproduce the 
following resolutions passed by the Confederate Con- 
gress during General Longstreet's arduous work in the 
ypnter of 1868-64: 

^^ No. 42. Joint Resolutions of Thanks to Lieutenant-General 
Longstreet and the officers and men of his command. 

** Resolved by the Congress of the Confederate States of 
America^ That the thanks of the Congress are due, and herdby 
cordially tendered, to Lieutenant-General James Longstreet and 
the officers and men of his command, for their patriotic services 
and brilliant achievements in the present war, sharing as they 
have the arduous fatigues and privations of many campaigns in 
Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Greorgia, and Tennessee, and 
participating in nearly every great bat^e fought in those States, 
the commanding general ever displaying great ability, skiU, and 
prudence in command, and the officers and men the most heroic 
bravery, fortitude, and energy, in every duty they have been 
called upon to perform. 

** Resolved^ That the President be requested to transmit a copy 
of the foregoing resolutions to Lieutenant-General Longstreet 
for publication to his command. 

" Approved February 17, 1864." 


The Wildeeness 


The Wilderness is a forest land about fifteen miles 
square, lying between and equidistant from Orange 
Court-House and Fredericksburg. It is broken occa- 
sionally by small farms and abandoned clearings, and 
two roads, — ^the Orange Plank Road and the turnpike, 
which are cut at right angles by the Germania road, — ^in 
general course nearly parallel, open ways through it 
between Fredericksburg and the Court-House. The 
Germania Ford road joins the Brock road, the strategic 
line of the military zone, and crosses the turnpike at 
Wilderness Tavern and the plank road about two miles 
south of that point. 

General Grant was making his head-quarters near the 
Army of the Potomac, in Culpeper County, Virginia, 
commanded by Major-General George G. Meade. The 
aggregate of the Federal command was about one hun- 
dred and thirty thousand men. 

The Army of Northern Virginia was on the west side 
of the Rapidan River. Its total number at the begin- 
ning of the campaign was then put by Colonel Taylor, 
chief of staff, at about sixty-four thousand. 

However, the numerical strength of the armies did 
not decide the merits of the campaign. The com- 
manders on both sides had chosen their ground after 
mature deliberation. They knew of each other's num- 
bers and resources, and made their plans accordingly. 
A number of their respective leaders had known each 
other personally for more than twenty years. They had 
the undivided support and confidence of their govern- 
ments and their armies. General Lee was as always the 
trusted leader of the Confederates; General Grant by 
his three years' service in the West had become known 
as an all-round soldier seldom if ever surpassed. G^n- 


Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

eral Longstreet, who thought most highly of Greneral 
Grant from every stand-point, always said that the big- 
gest part of him was his heart 

In this case General Grant had no fixed plan of 
campaign except to avoid the strong defensive line 
occupied by General Lee, and to draw him out to 
open battle. 

General Lice's orders were against a general engage- 
ment until the Federal forces should attack, but in the 
midst of varied manceuvrings the battle was begun in 
half a dozen quarters before either commanding gen- 
eral had expected it. Hancock advanced before sunrise 
ready for battle, just as Longstreet's command, which 
had come up from Mechanicsville, reported to Greneral 
Lee. Longstreet's line was formed along the right and 
left of the plank road, Kershaw on the right. Field on 
the left. Hancock's musketry was doing considerable 
damage to the forces in front, and as Longstreet's lines 
were forming the men broke files to give free passage 
for their comrades to the rear. The advancing fire was 
getting brisk, but not a shot was fired in return by Long- 
street's troops until the divisions were ready. Three of 
Field's brigades were formed in the line of the left, and 
three of Kershaw's on the right. The advance of the 
six brigades was ordered, and Hancock's lines, thinned 
by their previous fighting and weaker than the fresh 
men now coming against them, were checked and pushed 
back to their intrenched lines. Then the fighting be- 
came steady and firm. 

Finally Hancock's line began to break. As they re- 
treated and the Confederates advanced, a fire was 
started in the dry leaves and began to spread. The 
Confederate forces, in spite of the fire, moved on. As 
the battle waged, General Wadsworth, who was gal- 
lantly leading a division of the Federal forces, fell 
mortally wounded, and there was then a general break 






The Wilderness 

in the Union line. Jenkins's brigade was conspicuous 
among the Confederates in pursuit. Jenkins exclaimed 
to those around him, '' I am happy; I have felt despair 
of the cause for some months, but am relieved, and feel 
assured that we will put the enemy back across the Rapi- 
dan before night." A few minutes later he fell mortally 
wounded. In the general melee Longstreet was leading 
in advance of his troops, and in the midst of close firing 
was shot by his own men. This caused the Confederate 
lines to slow up in their advance. Orders were given 
General Field by Longstreet to push on before the 
enemy could have time to rally, but in the midst of the 
general confusion, General Lee ordered the broken lines 
to be reformed, and the advantage already gained was 
not followed up. 

General Field, in his subsequent account of the day, 
said, — 

^ I was at Longstreet's side in a moment, and in answer to 
my anxious inquiry as to his condition, he replied that he would 
be looked after by others, and directed me to take command of 
the corps and push on. Though at this moment he could not 
have known the extent or character of his wounds (that they 
were severe was apparent), he seemed to forget himself in the 
absorbing interest of the movement he was making. 

*^ Had our advance not been suspended by this disaster, I have 
always believed that Grant would have been driven across the 
Rapidan before night; but General Lee was present, and 
ordered that our line, which was nearly a right angle, should 
first be straightened out. The difficulty of manoeuvring through 
the brush made this a tedious operation, so that when we did 
advance with large reinforcements from Ewell's Corps placed 
under my orders, the enemy was found awaiting us behind new 
breastworks, thoroughly prepared." 

In a letter touching this subject to General Long- 
street, Colonel Fairfax said, — 


Gbeat Battles befobe and after Gettysburg 

^^ On reaching the line of troops you were taken off the horse 
and propped against a tree. You blew the bloody foam from 
your mouth and said, ^ Tell Greneral Field to take command, and 
move forward with the whole force and gain the Brock road/ 
but meantime hours were lost." 

A Northern historian ♦ said, on the same point, — 

^^ It seemed indeed that irretrievable disaster was upon us ; but 
in the very torrent and tempest of the attack it suddenly ceased 
and all was still. What could cause this surcease of effort at 
the very height of success was then wholly unknown to us." 

Some years after, General Hancock said to Gkneral 
LfOngstreet, — 

^* You rolled me up like a wet blanket, and it was some hours 
before I could reorganize the battle." 


In discussing the war, General Longstreet always 
dwelt with peculiar tenderness on the last days that cul- 
minated with the surrender at Appomattox. His mental 
belief for two years before the smrender was that from 
the very nature of the situation the Union forces would 
in all probability finally triumph, but his brave heart 
never knew how to give up the fight, and the surrender 
was at last agreed upon while he was still protesting 
against it. 

The incident is well known of a number of the leading 
Confederate generals, who, having decided that further 
resistance was useless, went to General Lee and sug- 
gested smrender upon the best terms that could be had 
as the wisest thing to do. General Longstreet declined 

*Swiiiton, Decisive Battles of the War, p. 378. 

The Cuetain Falls at Appomattox 

to join with them. G^eneral Pendleton wius spokesman 
for the party. His accomit of the conference is thus 
related by General A. L. Long in his Memoirs of Lee : 

^ Greneral Lee was lying on the ground. No others heard 
the conversation between him and myself. He received my com- 
munication with the reply, ^ Oh, no ; I trust that it has not 
come to that/ and added, ^ Greneral, we have yet too many bold 
men to think of laying down our arms. The enemy do not 
fight with spirit, whfle our boys do. Besides, if I were to say 
a word to the Federal commander, he would regard it as such 
a confession of weakness as to make it the condition of de- 
manding an unconditional surrender, a proposal to which I will 
never listen. ... I have never believed we could, against the 
gigantic combination for our subjugation, make good, in the 
long run, our independence, unless some foreign power should, 
directly or indirectly, assist us. . . • But such considerations 
really make with me no difference. We had, I am satisfied, sacred 
principles to maintain, and rights to defend, for which we were 
in duty bound to do our best, even if we perished in the en- 

** Such were, as nearly as I can recall them, the exact words 
of General Lee on that most pitiful occasion. You see in them 
the soul of the man. Where his conscience dictated and his 
judgment decided, there his heart was." 

No words of eulogy show up so clearly the characters 
of Lee and likewise of Grant as their own direct words 
and deeds. On the evening of April 7, 1865, General 
jGrant wrote General Lee as follows: 

*^ The results of the last week must convince you of the hope- 
lessness of further resistance on the part of the Army of North- 
em Virginia in this struggle. I fed that it is so, and regard 
it as my duty to shift from myself the responsibility of any 
further effusion of blood by asking of you the surrender of 
that portion of the Confederate army known as the Army of 

Northern Virginia." 

14 909 

Great Battles befobe and after Gettysbubo 

General Longstreet was with General Lee when he 
received this note. It was handed to General Long- 
street without a word. After reading it General Long- 
street handed it back, saying, " Not yet." Greneral Lee 
replied to General Grant that same evening: 

" I have received your note of this day. Though not enter- 
taining the opinion you express on the hopelessness of further 
resistance on the part of the Army of Northern Virginia, I 
reciprocate your desire to avoid useless effusion of blood, and 
therefore, before considering your proposition, ask the terms 
you will offer on condition of its surrender.** 

While this correspondence was pending, both armies, 
under the respective directions of Grant and of Lee, 
continued their preparations for battle as if there was 
no thought of cessation. The next day, April 8, Gren- 
eral Grant wrote General Lee as follows: 

^^ Your note of last evening, in reply to mine of the same date 
asking the conditions on which I wiU accept surrender of the 
Army of Northern Virginia, is just received. In reply I would 
say that, peace being my great desire, there is but one condi- 
tion I would insist upon, — ^namely, that the men and ofllcera 
surrendered shall be disqualified for taking up arms again 
against the United States government until properly exchanged. 
I will meet you, or will designate officers to meet any officers 
you might name for the same purpose, at any point agreeable 
to you, for the purpose of arranging definitely the terms upon 
which the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia will be 

To this General Lee replied, under the same date: 

" I received at a late hour your note of to-day. In mine of 
yesterday I did not intend to propose the surrender of the Army 
of Northern Virginia, but to ask the terms of your proposition. 
To be frank, I do not think the emergency has arisen to call 
for the surrender of this army, but as the restoration to peace 


The Curtain Falls at Appomattox 

should be the sole object of all, I desired to know whether jour 
proposals would lead to that end. I cannot, therefore, meet you 
with a view to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia; 
but as far as your proposal may affect the Confederate States 
forces under my command and tend to the restoration of peace, 
I should be pleased to meet you at ten a.m. to-morrow on the 
old stage road to Richmond, between the picket-lines of the two 

That night General Lee spread his couch about a hun- 
dred feet from the saddle and blanket that were Gen- 
eral Longstreet's pillow for the night, and it is not 
probable that either had a more comfortable bed than 
the other. Of the early hours of the next day, the last 
day of active existence of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia, Colonel Venable, of General Lee's staff, has 
written a touching account, which is published in Gen- 
eral Long's " Memoirs of General Lee." When fiurther 
resistance seemed useless^ he quoted General Lee as say- 

^^Then there is nothing left me but to go and see Greneral 
Grant, and I would rather die a thousand deaths." 

Many were the wild words of passionate grief spoken 
by the officers around him. Said one, "Oh, General, 
what would history say of the surrender of the army in 
the field?" According to Colonel Venable, General Lee 
replied, " Yes, I know they will say hard things of us; 
they will not understand how we are overwhelmed with 
numbers. But that is not the question; the question is, 
Is it right to surrender this army? If it is right, then 
I will take all the responsibility." 

Presently General Lee called General Longstreet to 
ride forward with him. He said that the advance col- 
imms stood against a very formidable force which he 
could not break through, while General Meade was at 
Xiongstreet's rear ready to call for all the work that the 

Gbeat Battles befoke and after Gettysburg 

rear guard could do. He added that it did not seem 
possible for him to make further successful resistance. 
General Longstreet asked if the sacrifice of his army 
could benefit the cause in other quarters. He thought 
not. Then, said Longstreet, '" The situation speaks for 
itself." Several other leading generals were consulted, 
and all of them held the same view. 

Meanwhile, the Federal forces appeared plainly to be 
preparing for attack. The Confederates continued 
work on their lines of defence. General Longstreet 
ordered parts of the rear guard forward to support the 
advance forces, and directed General E. P. Alexander 
to establish them with part of his batteries in the best 
position for support or rallying line in case the front 
lines were forced back. 

Thus the last line of battle formed in the Army of 
Northern Virginia was by the invincible First Corps, 
twice conqueror of empire 1 

In talking over the delicate situation, G-eneral Lee 
told General Longstreet that he feared his refusal to 
meet General Grant's proposition might cause him to 
demand harsh terms. General Longstreet assured him 
that he knew General Grant well enough to be certain 
that the best terms possible would be given — even such 
terms as he himself would be willing to give a gallant 
foe under similar circumstances. How true this esti- 
mate proved all the world now knows. 

















He lies in state^ while by his flag-draped bier 

Pass the long ranks of men who wore the gray- 
Men who heard shriek of shot and shell munoved — 

Sobbing like children o'er the lifeless clay. 
Through the fair South the heroes whom he ledi^. 

Against the blue lines in the stricken field S 

Muse on the days ere Appomattox wrenched \ 

The laurel wreath from Dixie's shattered shield. ) 
The glories of Manassas^ Chancellorsyillej 

And all the triumphs those gray legions gained 
Seem gathered in a shadowy host beside 

That casket and those colors battle-stained I 
While in the f rosen North the men who strove 

Against his squadrons^ bartering blow for blow^ 
Bow silvered heads^ exclaiming lovingly^ 

'' May he rest well I He was a noble foe !" 
Genius and courage equally were his — ", 

He fought in cause his heart maintained as rig^t^ 
And when the sword clanked in the rusted sheath 

He murmured not against the losing fight^'\ 
But made endeavor^ with a loyal soul^ \ 

To heal the wounds the years of strife had wrought—^ 
And in the fields of peace more glories won 

Than in the battles his gray warriors fought! 

— ^W. A. P., in Chicago Journal. 




James Longstbset was bom in Edgefield Districty South 
Carolina^ January 8, 1821, son of James and Mary Ann (Dent) 
Longstreet, and a descendant of the Longstreets and Randolphs 
of New Jersey and the Dents and Marshalls of Maryland and 
Virginia. Richard Longstreet, progenitor of the name in 
America, settled in Monmouth County, New Jersey. 

James Longstreet, subject of this sketch, removed with his 
parents to Alabama in 1881, from which State he received his 
appointment to West Point, and was graduated from the United 
States Military Academy in 1842. He was promoted in the 
army as brevet second lieutenant of the Fourth Infantry, July 
1, 1842, and served in garrison at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, 
1842-44; on frontier duty at Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1844- 
45; was promoted second lieutenant of the Eighth Infantry, 
March 4, 1845 ; was in military occupation of Texas, 1845-46, 
and served in the war with Mexico, 1846-47. He partici- 
pated in the battle of Palo Alto; May 8, 1846; the battie of 
Resaca de la Palma, May 9, 1846 ; was promoted first lieutenant 
Eighth Infantry, February 2S, 1847, and participated in the 
seige of Vera Cruz, March 9-29, 1847; the battle of Cerro 
Grordo, April 17 and 18, 1847; the capture of San Antonio 
and the battle of Churubusco, August 20, 1847; the battle of 
Molino del Rey, September 8, 1847 ; the storming of Chapul- 
tepec, September 18, 1847, where he was severely wounded in 
the assault on the fortified convent. He was brevetted captain^ 
August 20, 1847, '^ for gallant and meritorious conduct in the 
battles of Churubusco and Contreras," and major, September 8, 
1847, ** for gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of 
Molino del Rey.** He served as adjutant of the Eighth In- 
fantry, 1847-49 ; was in garrison at Jefferson Barracks, 1848- 
49; and served on frontier duty in Texas in 1849. He was 
chief of Commissariat of the Department of Texas, 1849-51, 
and served on scouting duty in Texas, Kansas, and New Mexico, 
1851-61. He was promoted captain, December 7, 1852, and 


James Longstreet 

major of staff and paymaster July 19, 1858. He resigned his 
commission in 1861 and was appointed brigadier-general in the 
Confederate States army, and commanded a brigade at Black- 
bum's Ford, Virginia, from July 18 to and including July 21, 
1861. He was promoted major-general and commanded the 
rear guard of Joseph E. Johnston's army during the re- 
treat from Yorktown, Virginia. He commanded the Confeder- 
ate forces in the field, composed of his own and part of D. H. 
Hill's division and Stuart's cavalry brigade, at the battle of 
Williamsburg, May 5, 1862; commanded the right wing of 
Johnston's army at Seven Pines, May SI and June 1, 1862; his 
own and A. P. Hill's division, in the Seven Days' Battle before 
Richmond; and commanded the right wing of Lee's army of 
Northern Virginia in the second battle of Bull Run, August 29 
and 80, 1862; and in the Maryland campaign, September, 
1862; the First Corps (Confederate left) at the baUle of 
Fredericksburg, December IS, 1862. He was on duty south of 
the James River in April, 1863, and was ordered to rejoin 
General Lee at Chancellorsville, Virginia, but Lee, without 
awaiting his return made precipitate battle May 2 to 4, 1868. 
He commanded the right wing of the Army of Northern Vir- 
ginia at Gettysburg July 1 to S, 1863. He served under 
General Bragg in the Army of the Tennessee, and commanded 
the left wing of that army, composed of Hindman's division, 
Polk's corps, Buckner's corps, and two divisions and artillery 
of Longstreet's corps, at the battle of Chickamauga, September 
19 and 20, 1863. He was sent with part of his corps and 
Wheeler's cavalry against Bumside's army in East Tennessee, 
in November, with orders to recover possession of that part of 
the State. He drove Bumside back into his works around 
Knoxville, and held him there under seige from November 17 
to December 4, 1863, when Sherman approached with twenty 
thousand of Grant's army, near Chattanooga, for relief of the 
besieged army. Bragg ordered precipitate attack of the forti- 
fications, but they were too strong to be carried by assault. 
Just then orders came from President Davis for Longstreet to 
return to Bragg's army in distress at Chattanooga. Long- 
street held his army in possession of East Tennessee, keeping 



the Federal forces dose about their works, imt3 January, 1864, 
when he was ordered to withdraw towards General Lee's army 
in Virginia, and he participated in the battle of the Wilderness, 
May 5 and 6, 1864, when he commanded the two divisions of the 
First Corps forming the right of Lee's army, and was severely 
wounded. After convalescing he participated in all the en- 
gagements of the Army of Northern Virginia in 1864. He 
commanded the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia 
from the date of its organization until surrendered by Gieneral 
Lee at Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, April 9, 1866. He 
was called the hardest fighter in the Confederate army, and the 
fairest military critics of the century have estimated his mili- 
tary genius as second to no conunander in the Confederate '* ^ 
States service. 

He removed to New Orleans and engaged in commerce im- 
mediately after the surrender. He was Surveyor of Customs 
of the Port of New Orleans, 1869; Supervisor of Internal 
Revenue, 1878; Postmaster at Grainesville, Greorgia, 1879, and 
was appointed by President Hayes United States Minister to 
Turkey, serving 1880. He was United States Marshal of the 
Northern District of Greorgia, in 1881, and was appointed 
United States Commissioner of Railroads by President McKinley 
in October, 1897, serving until the date of his death in 1904. 

On the 8th day of March, 1848, at Lynchburg, Virginia, he 
was married to Marie Louise Grarland, daughter of General John 
Garland, U.S.A., of a noted Virginia family, hero of two wars. 
Mrs. Longstreet died at Gainesville, Greorgia, December 29, 

On the fiftieth anniversary of the battle of Molino del Rey, 
September 8, 1897, at the Executive Mansion in Atlanta, 
Greorgia, he was married to Helen Dortch, daughter of the late 
Colonel James S. Dortch, a brilliant Greorgia lawyer, of a dis- 
tinguished North Carolina family. 

Greneral Longstreet died at GainesviDe, Greorgia, January S, 
1904, and was buried at Alta Vista Cemetery, that place, with 
military honors, January 6. 


The Funeral Ceremonies 


(A. S. Hardy, in the Can$iitutioni Atlanta, Georgia.) 

GAixwmuXf GsoiaiA, Janaaiy 89 1904. 

The funeral of Greneral James Longstreet, which was held at 
eleyen o'clock to-day at the county court-house, was the most 
impressive ceremonial ever held in Grainesville. Several thou- 
sand people gathered in and around the court-house, and when 
the guards threw open the doors to the public just preceding the 
service, which occurred in the main court-room instead of in the 
rotimda as originally intended, there was a great crush, though 
every endeavor was made to handle the vast throng with every 
possible ease. Only a few minutes were consumed in filling 
every available seat, and outside there appeared to be absolutely 
no diminution in the size of the crowd. 

A few moments before twelve o'clock, the active pall-bearers 
bore the casket up the stairway from the rotunda, where it had 
lain in state from two o'clock yesterday, and placed it in posi- 
tion just in front of the judge's rostrum. It was banked in a 
profusion of exquisite floral offerings, many of which came from 
out-of-town Confederate camps, other organizations, and from 
personal friends. Across the head and foot were thrown a Con- 
federate and a United States flag, and standing near was the 
h^mdsome silk flag of the Candler Horse Guards. 
^f any should doubt that the people among whom the Gieneral 
lived did not love him and revere his memory, this doubt would 
have been dispelled to-day if they had seen the dononstration 
over his casket as the last sad rites were being said. Not a 
business house in town was open, everything in the city closing 
tight their doors from the beginning of the funeral until after 
the body was placed to rest in Alta Vista Cemetery. From 
every quarter the people came and upon every lip there was 
praise of the immortal deeds of the great Confederate com- 
mander. | 

As the body was being placed in position. Bishop Keiley, 
Father Schadewell, of Albany, and Father Gunn, of Sfltcred 
Heart Church, Atlanta, emerged from the judge's private 



chambers on the left and were escorted to a position in front of 
the casket. The burial service of the Roman Catholic Church 
was conducted by the Right Rev. Bishop Keiley, of Savannah; 
Father Schadewell, of Albany, and Dr. Gunn, of the Sacred 
Heart Church, of Atlanta. Father Schadewell read the litur- 
gical Latin service, then gave the same in EngUsh. Some of the 
beautiful prayers are given elsewhere. 

After reading the service and the blessing of the remains 
the right reverend bishop, who himself had served as a soldier 
from 1860 to 1864 in the Confederate army under Longstreet, 
spoke as follows : 

^ Had it pleased God that the cause which met defeat at Ap- 
pomattox eight and thirty years ago had been crowned with 
that success for which both its justice and the singular de- 
votedness of its defenders had given us right and warrant to 
hope, a far different scene had been witnessed here to-day. It 
might have been that Federal as well as State authorities had 
met to pay a merited tribute to this dead hero, who valiantly 
sustained on many a bloody field the imperishable principles of 
the right of self-government. 

** Had it pleased Grod to spare the precious lives of those of 
his companions in arms who have passed over the river, then 
we had seen the peerless Lee, the brave Johnston, and the dash- 
ing Hampton sharing our grief and mingling their tears with 
ours over the remains of the soldier whom Lee loved. Is there 
e'en a suggestion of irreverence in the thought which would 
people this hall with the dauntless spirits of our dead? 

** Having met defeat in an unequal struggle and having 
loyally accepted the results of that struggle; having devoted 
our time and scanty means to the upbuilding of our loved land ; 
having been blessed by a merciful Grod beyond our dreams or 
deserts, we lay aside our tasks to-day for awhile to recall the 
glories of our past and to tell of the valor of one who fought 
and bled for us. 

""The focman need not frown, 
Tbcy are all powerless now; 
We gather here and we laj them down. 
And tears and prayers are the onlj crown 
We bring to wreathe each brow. 

The Funeral Ceremonies 

** Having passed the span which Providence ordinarily allots 
as the term of human life. General James Longstreet has an- 
the roll-call of the great Grod. 
'What a brilliant page in history is filled with his grand 
er. Bom more than eighty years ago in the neighboring 
State of South Carolina, he entered West Point in his seven- 
teenth year and graduated therefrom in his twenty-first. He 
served with marked distinction in the Mexican War and was more 
than once complimented for his gallant conduct and merited 
and received promotion."^ 

** When the Southenr States withdrew from the Union by 
reason of attacks on their reserved rights which were guaranteed 
by the Constitution, and were forced into the war between the 
States, James Longstreet offered his services and sword to the 
cause of self-government. No history of the war may be written 
which does not bear emblazoned on every page the story of his 
deeds. Why need I recount them here? Assuredly no one will 
question the gross impropriety of discussing incidents of the 
career of Longstreet during the war which have been the sub- 
ject of criticism by some. 

^We who knew him forty-odd years ago; we who shared 
his convictions and in humble ways bore a part in the good 
cause ; we know what a tower of strength Longstreet was to the 
noblest knight who has graced tented field since the peerless 
Bayard passed from earth, — ^Robert E. Lee; we feel and know 
to-day that neither boundless praise nor fullest words of grati- 
tude can exaggerate the worth of James Longstreet or pay him 
what we owe.^ 

^^ By what a deem is a peculiarly fortunate coincidence, we 

are committing his remains to the tomb on a day when the 

Catholic Church commemorates the manifestation of our Saviour 

to the Gentiles in the persons of the wise men, who, led by a 

star, came from their distant homes to Bethlehem. The Bible 

tells us that they found the Child and Mary, His Mother. 

Crod has sent stars which have been beacon-lights on our pathway 

through the world, though in their gleaming we have foolishly 

failed at times to see the guiding hand of a merciful Providence. 

Joy and sorrow, sickness, and even death have been stars which 

should have led us nearer and nearer to Grod. 



^ It 18 my duty as a priest of God to call your attentioii to 
the obvious lesson of this occasion, — the vanity of mere earthly 
greatness and the certainty of death and the necessity of prepa- 
ration for it. James Longstreet was a brave soldier, a gallant 
gentleman, but better still — a consistent Christian. After the 
war between the States he became a member of the Catholic 
Church, and to his dying day remained faithful to her teadiing 
and loyal to her creed. 

<<Deep down in the heart and breast of every man when 
touched by the correcting hand of Gkxl there is a longing for 
some means of communicating with loved ones who have been 
taken from us by death. Oh that we might reach them or tdl 
them of our love or do something for them! 

^ In that familiar profession of faith, which comes down to 
us even from the days of the immediate followers of the Biaster, 
there is a clause which brings comfort to the afficted heart of 
the sorrowing and answers the longings of the grief-stricken. 
It is that solemn profession of our belief in the communion of 

'^ To the Catholic heart it tells of a golden chain of interces- 
sion longer than the ladder of the patriarch and reaching from 
the cold dead dods of earth even to the great throne of God; 
a golden chain which links and binds together the children of 
Grod here and above; a brilliant and mystic tie which binds and 
unites the blessed ones who now see Grod in heaven to us who 
yet labor and wait in this vale of tears. It tells us of their 
interest in our salvation and their prayers in our behalf. But 
it brings yet more solace and comfort to aching hearts when it 
soothes the grief of those who are in doubt as to the dead who 
have had their garments soiled with the warfare of this world 
and have left it not prepared to meet that Grod before whom 
scarce the angels are pure; for it teUs, too, that even we may 
aid by our prayers those who are yet in the conmiunion of saints. 

*' The last words of Mother Church have been said for James 
Longstreet. Softly and tenderly they fall on every Christian 
ear, for the children of the Church they have a deeper meaning. 

" May his soul rest in peace. Amen." 

This concluded the funeral services and the body was borne 


The Funeral Ceremonies 

from the court-house to the hearse by the active pall-bearers. 
The procession then formed in the following order: Queen City 
Band, Candler Horse Guards, and Governor's Horse Guards, 
honorary escort; hearse with pall-bearers, family and relatives. 
Confederate Veterans, Daughters of the Confederacy, mayor 
and council and county officers, Brenau College, Children of the 
Confederacy, citizens and public generally. The procession 
moved up North Bradford Street to Spring Street, out Spring 
Street to Grove, down Grove to West Broad, thence Broad to 
Alta Vista Cemetery. 

Father Schadewell accompanied the remains to the cemetery, 
where a short service was held, the crowd baring their heads 
when the following prayer was read : 

^ Almighty and most merciful Father, who knowest the weak- 
ness of our nature, bow down thine ear in pity unto Thy ser- 
yants upon whom Thou hast laid the heavy burden of sorrow. 
Take away out of their hearts the spirit of rebellion and teach 
them to see Thy good and gracious purpose working in all the 
trials which Thou dost send upon them. Grant that they may 
not languish in fruitless and unavailing grief, nor sorrow as 
those who have no hope, but meekly look up to Thee, the Grod 
of all consolation, through Christ our Lord. Amen. 

^ Grant, O Lord, that whilst we lament the departure of our 
brother. Thy servant, out of the life, we may bear in mind that 
we are most certainly to follow him. Give us grace to make 
ready for that last hour by a devout and holy life and protect 
us against a sudden and unprovided death. Teach us how to 
watch and pray that when the summons comes we may go forth 
to meet the bridegroom and enter with him into life everlasting, 
through Christ our Lord. Amen. Eternal rest grant unto him, 
O Lord, and let perpetual light shine upon him.'' 

A volley was then fired over the grave of the dead leader by 
the Candler Horse Guards and a detachment from the Gover- 
nor's Horse Guards, under command of Colonel A. J. West, and 
Captain W. N. Pillow, taps were sounded, and the grave closed 
over one of the greatest warriors the world has ever known. 



(From the Atlanta^ Georgia^ Cofuiilultofi.) 

(By Alan Rogers.) 

Pattetic Scenes Marked the Interment of Lee's "Old War-Hone." 

With muffled drmns and the flag that was furled 

With tlie cause tliat was lost, when the last smoke curled 

Prom the last old gun, at the last brave stand — 

His soul marched on with the old command; 

And the step was slow, as they bore away. 

To await the eternal muster day. 

Their old-time comrade, lost awhile. 

But loved long since for the brave old smile 

That cleared the way when he only knew 

His ways were Gray and their ways were Blue; 

And if for a time, he walked alone. 

He's all right now, for ** Longstreef s homer" 

Back to his old command he's gone. 

With Lee and Jackson looking on. 

And cheering him back to the ranks again 

With the Blue and the Gray aU mdted in. 

GAnmmxi, Gioboia, Janomiy 6; 190i. 

Slowly the belli of Gramesville toU a requiem, the last taps 
have soimded only to be lost again across the wiater-browned 
fields of Greorgia^ but the reveille of awakening still rings out 
clear and true that to-day old comrades in arms, citizens, soldiers, 
admirers, friends, women of the South, children of a rising gen- 
eration, Greorgia, and all Dixieland may know that Lieutenant- 
Greneral James Longstreet, the ^ war-horse" of the Confederacy, 
has at last again joined his old oonmiand. 

And the thousands who marched to the little cemetery just as 
the sun started on its sleeping journey in the west did not come 
to say a last good-by; with uncovered heads they simply said 

In the court-house which but a few months ago was a converted 
hospital for the care of those maimed by a terrible cyclone, the 
body of Greneral Longstreet rests beneath the Stars and Bars 
of the Confederacy and the Stars and Stripes of the Union. 
Old soldiers passed in a never-ending procession with xmcovered 
heads for one last look upon the face of their commander. Look 
if you will behind that curtain of mist before the eyes of that 


The Funeral Ceremonies 

Trearer of a gray uniform and you will see quite another picture. 
It is that of his beloved " Old Pete," as he was known by his 
own command, hurrying on to the support of General Jackson 
at Manassas. Or his indomitable courage on the retreat from 
Grettysburg " leading on and on as strong in the adversity of 
defeat as in the success that follows victory." Or })erhaps hur- 
rying towards the front at the Wilderness, the intrepid leader so 
far in the van that he was wounded by his own men. Or at 
the last succumbing at Appomattox to the inevitable and with 
Lee reaping the reward of honor that belonged to a surrender 
that cost more bravery than all of the battles of that blood- 
drained period of history. 

The sentinels that guard the bier are withdrawn. The body 
is carried by loving hands to the court-room above. Here in 
the presence of his nearest relatives and friends that taxed not 
alone the capacity of the building, but overflowed into an €u:re 
of mourning humanity outside. 

Here in the closely crowded hall of justice converted into a 
sanctuary by lighted candles and the priestly robes of the 
officiating clergy, the services were held. There was no music 
save the stifled sob of brave men whose hearts were awakened to 
the sacred ties of old-time memories in a way beyond their con- 
trol. Bishop Keiley, himself an old soldier of Greneral Long- 
street, and Rev. Fathers Gunn, of Atlanta, and Schadewell, of 
Albany, officiated. After the reading of the prayers of the 
impressive service of the Roman Catholic Church, Bishop Keiley 
in a beautiful eulogy revered again the memory of his old friend 
and commander. His address appears in another column, but 
the choking of his voice, the closed eyes shutting back the tears 
that would come, — ^these things are lost in the reproduction of 
printer's ink and can only remain in the memories of those who 
were so privileged as to be present. 

The picture was most inspiring. Look, if you will, at the 
one-time forest of battle-flags, hewn down and water-logged in 
the blood of many victories to a tiny grove of priceless ribbons 
that rise and fall with the wavering strength of the old soldiers 
who carry them. And in this same sweetly sad procession march 
with faltering steps the men who wore the gray and the sturdy 



step of those who, now belonging to a rising generation, wear 
the blue of the reunited union. 

But perhaps even more inspiring than the uniforms of graj 
were the women of the South, Daughters of the Revolution, 
school-girls, Daughters of the Confederacy, many of them wires 
or widows of old comrades — ^the bravest army of home-defenders, 
valor-inspiring soldiers that ever dared not only to die but to kt 
die all that was highest and dearest in one common cause. Im- 
pressive is the marching of men. But the marching of womssk 
— ^it is different, wonderfully, beautifully different. 

What was said may soon be forgotten, but what was seen by 
those who gathered at the grave will live forever in the memory 
of all those who saw. Above the oi)ening of the last resting- 
place of General Longstreet the two flags he loved so well were 
again crossed and stacked for the bivouac that knows no waking. 
Just as the near relatives and dearest friends were gathered 
about the grave, there stepped up an old veteran and delivered 
the Stars and Bars as the last, loving message from Gieneral 
Jenkins, of North Carolina. With this old flag and the Stars 
and Stripes, the Greneral was buried. 

Then, just as the body was about to be lowered, another 
figure bent with the ravages of time and trembling with the emo- 
tion that bespeaks a tender heart and brave courage made his 
way to the circle about the grave. His interruption of the 
services was beautiful beyond all hope of describing. 

*^ I want,'' he said, and he hesitated not as one who has for- 
gotten some carefully prepared speech, but rather as one whose 
heart was getting the better of his attempt at expression, ^ I 
want to bury this jacket, my old gray jacket, with my GeneraL 
Fve got my papers, too, my enlistment papers. They're all 
here, and they're all clean. I wasn't an oflScer, but I belonged 
to Longstreet's command, and I'd rather be a private in the old 

corps than, than Well, I've served my time, and the 

General, he's served his time, too. And I reckon I won't need 
my uniform and papers again. But I'd like to leave them with 
him for always. They were enlisted under his conunand, and 
as I don't ever want to be mustered out again, Fd just like to 
leave them with him always, if you don't mind." 


The Funeral Ceremonies 

And as no one minded unless it was in the most beautiful way 
possible, the faded gray jacket and the enlistment papers were 
lowered with the crossed flags of two republics and many floral 
offerings as a last loving tribute to Greneral Longstreet, who, 
with the final sounding of taps, again passed for ever and ever 
to his waiting commander and his old command. 

16 «5 



(Washington, D. C, Poit.) 
** His are as noble ashes as rest beneath the sod of any land." 

We think it safe to say that there is something in the sug- 
gestion that these late attacks on Greneral Longstreet's addon 
at the battle of Gettysburg have for their inspiration a poUticBl 
bitterness of more than thirty years' standing, /tiertainly, it 
is true that up to the dose of the Civil War, ana; indeed, for 
several years afterwards, no one ever heard a question raised 
as to his military ability. On the contrary, it was everywhere 
conceded, especially by his immediate comrades and associates, 
that he stood almost at the top of the list of Confederate war- 
riors, not only in the matter of professional equipment, but in 
that of personal integrity and character. With the exception 
of Robert £. Lee, Longstreet was regarded as the very prince 
of the fighters, strategists, and great commanders of that heroic 
episodeT^If any one had hinted, even as late as 1869, that there 
was the smallest flaw in his fame, either as a soldier or a gen- 
tleman, the author of the intimation would have had enough 
quarrels on his hands to last him to his dying day. 

Along in the later sixties, however, Longstreet was a resident 
of New Orleans. He had engaged in business there, having as 
his partner Colonel Owen, another Southern soldier of high 
standing and distinguished service. The shadow of reconstruc- 
tion was then brooding over the South, and thoughtful men, 
who had accepted the result of the war in loyal faith, consulted 
together as to the best means of averting its evils, which were 
at that time sufficiently defined. Finally, in 1870 or 1871, the 
so-called *' Unification Movement" was launched. At its head 
were numbers of the most prominent and influential men in 
Louisiana, and conspicuous among them was Beauregard. The 
project was discussed by the newspapers and generally ap- 
proved in the more substantial and responsible circles. At last 
a meeting was called for the purpose of bringing together the 

Tributes from the Press 

best representatives of both races and arranging, if possible, a 
course of action which would make for peace and order and 
avert the turmoil that afterwards succeeded to the irruption of 
the carpet-baggers and the consequent rigime of chaos. Before 
the appointed day, however, Longstreet's coadjutors experienced 
a change of heart. They abandoned the experiment which they 
themselves had devised, and Longstreet was left almost without 
countenance or sympathy. With characteristic determination, 
he adhered to the policy his judgment and conscience had origi- 
nally approved. Of course, it came to nothing, and he, stung 
by what he regarded as the desertion of the others, and still 
more deeply hurt by criticisms showered on him, often from 
the ranks of his quondam associates, went on as he had begun. 
Then began the breach which in time widened to animosity, 
ostracism, and lifelong alienation. He may have been mis- 
taken. At least he was courageous and consistent. But we 
feel sure it cannot be successfully denied that doubts as to his . 
military genius were cradled in that unhappy episode. 

We have no idea of participating in any controversy over 
the details of Grettysburg. That may be left to the survivors 
who were in a position to form intelligent opinions. /^or our 
part, we think of Longstreet now as all of his compatriots 
thought of him up to 1870 — ^that he was one of the finest 
figures on the stage of the Civil War; a spectacle of perfect gal- 
lantry ; an example of warlike force and splendor. We do not 
believe he ever received an order from Lee which he did not 
execute with instant energy. We do not believe he failed in 
anything, either there or elsewhere, that became a valorous and 
brilliant soldier/^He is dead now, and cannot answer his ac- 
cusers, but nearly forty years have elapsed since he sheathed 
his stainless sword in 1865, and, in our calm, dispassionate 
opinion, his are as noble ashes as rest beneath the sod of any 

(JachgonviUej Florida^ Thne^-Union.) 
''Peace and honor to his storm-driven sonL" 

Now that James Longstreet is no more, the South should 
forgive the estrangement that followed long years of service* 



Perhaps he was wiser than we — ^perhaps to-day we are not very 
far from the position he took a generation ago. /iPerhaps his 
greatness as a soldier was largely due to the same qtlklities whidi 
set his people in opposition to him in civil life — he had utter 
confidence in his own judgment, and he went straight for what 
he thought was right regardless of all prudential considera- 

We nave accepted the result of the war in good faith — let 
us accept all that goes with it in our hearts and minds. Others 
advised while Longstreet acted — once we hated him because he 
headed our foes to make us keep order; were the riots against 
which Longstreet stood in New Orleans to be repeated in Atlanta, 
we know Grordon or Wheeler would head the regulars to restore 
peace and order if their counsels were disregarded. The time 
makes a difference to the sufferers — ^but not to the historian 
through whose glasses we can now afford to look. Longstreet 
is dead — ^weave violets and amaranth in his wreath of laurel — 
peace and honor to his storm-driven soul. 

(Shelby 9 North Carolina^ Aurora.) 
** Hero of two wan punished for his politics in days of peace." 

A camp of United Confederate Veterans at Wilmingbm, at 

regular meeting, declined to send resolutions of condolence 
and sympathy to the family of Greneral Longstreet on his deatL 

And yet Greneral Longstreet was a 

Hero of two wars. 

He was the " War-Horse of the Confederacy .*• 

He was in the thickest of the fight from Manassas to Appo- 

He was familiarly known throughout the army as " Old Pete,** 
and was considered the hardest fighter in the Confederate service. 

He had the unbounded confidence of his troops, and ^ the 
whole army became imbued with new vigor in the presence of 
the foe when it became known down the line that ^ Old Pete' 
was up." 

Why, then, did not the Wilmington camp pass those resolu- 



Teibutes from the Pbess 

Becaiise General Longstreet was a Republican. For this 
reason he was 




He was charged with disobeying Greneral Lee's most vital 
orders at Grettysburg, causing the loss of the battle and the 
iltimate destruction of the Confederacy. ] 

(Biblical, North Carolina, Record.) 
^So long as Lee lived no one attacked Longstreet's military honor.** 

^General Longstreet was a great general. He was an able 
strategist, a hard fighter, and a faithful soldier. So long as 
Lee lived no one charged Longstreet with failure to make the 
fanciful sunrise attack on the second day at Grettysburg. But 
when Lee had died, this calumny was started, and it was used in 
hounding him to the day of his death — on that day certain 
misguided Daughters of the Confederacy refusing to send 
Bowers for his bier. Longstreet was the victim of a foul perse- 
mtion by a partisan press — ^the like of which we see nowadays 
Git ever^increasing intervals. They did not approve his ideas, 
Gmd they ruined him. He advised the South to accept the 
results of the war; his business was taken from him, his friends 
were estranged, and his life was made a burden.^ 

His magnificent services deserved better reward. But his- 
tory will give him his place ; intolerance even now is departing ; 
and as for Longstreet himself, he stands to-night before the 
Judge of all the world. 

(St. Louis Globe-Democrat.) 
''Republicanism does not necessarily involve treason to the South." 

One aspect of General Longstreet's career from Appomattox 
till his death the other day brings out a very unlovely attribute 
which was obtrusive in the South during these years. That was 
the ostracism to which he was subject because he joined the Re- 
publican party and accepted two or three offices from Repub- 
lican Presidents. This antagonism towards him by a large por- 



tion of the old Confederate element gradually diminished as a 
new generation in the South appeared on the scene. Some of 
the feeling, however, remained to the close of his days, and 
evinced itself in the obituaries of many of the Southern papen. 

A few facts are 8u£Bcient to expose the absurdity of thii 
Southern antagonism to Confederates who cast their fortunes 
with the Republicans after the Confederacy fell — this feeling 
that an adherent of the lost cause must cling everlastingly to 
the Democratic i>arty through evil and good reports under the 
penalty of eternal proscription. In the score of years from 
Longstreet's graduation from West Point to his resignatum, 
shortly after Sumter's fall, he was in the army, and a partici- 
pant in the wars in Mexico and along the frontier in which the 
army was engaged. The probability is that until after Appo- 
mattox he never cast a ballot in his life. Moreover, at the 
time of his graduation, many of the South's most prominent 
statesmen — ^Tyler, Brownlow, Toombs, Legare, Bell, Clayton, 
Upshur, Henry T. Wise, Botts, Alexander H. Stephens, and 
others — ^were Whigs. The Whig, Zachary Taylor, of Louisi- 
ana, carried more Southern States than did his Democratic 
antagonist, Cass. 

What warrant had the South for proscribing Longstreet, 
because he, a soldier who never had any politics in the old days, 
joined the Republican party just as soon as he became a civilian 
and got a chance to exercise his privileges as a citizen? Mosby, 
Mahone, and many other ex-Confederates who had been 
civilians before the war, and who, presumably, had taken some 
part in politics, also joined the Republican party, though they 
did not do this quite so promptly as did Longstreet. When 
Foote, of Mississippi, and Orr, of South Carolina, both of whom 
had been prominent in Democratic politics before the war, the 
latter of whom had been Speaker of the House in part of 
Buchanan's days in the Presidency, and both of whom had been 
in the Confederate service, became Republicans soon after the 
Confederacy collapsed, their neighbors ought to have grasped 
the fact that there must have been something in this party which 
appealed to intelligent public-spirited men of all localities, and 
that membership in it by a South Carolinian, a Greorgian, or a 
Louisianian did not necessarily and inevitably involve treason 


Tributes from the Press 

either to the South's interests or to its traditions. Mixed in 
with the many shining virtues of the people below Mason and 
Dixon's line, there was, as shown in their attitude for many 
years towards Longstreet, one very unattractive trait. 

(Vicksburg^ Mississippi, Herald.) 

"There was no more magnifloent display of heroism during the entire 
war than at Gettsyburg." 

x^Ss truly as Warwick was the last of the barons of the feudal 
mij was Longstreet the last of the great Confederate com- 
manders. He rose to prominence in the early engagements of 
the war — ^his was a household name as one of the chief hopes of 
the cause, when those of all the remaining survivors of like rank 
were colonels and brigadiers^ At the first Manassas, Williams- 
burg, Seven Pines, Seven >Days' fight, the second Manassas, 
Sharpsburg, and Fredericksburg he was the chief subordi- 
nate figure except where he divided the honors with Stone- 
wall Jackson. And after the death of that very Napoleon of 
war, until the tdtimo suspiro at Appomattox, /Longstreet was 
Lee's right hand; or, as our great commander fondly called 
him, ** my old war-horse.'?!^ How highly he was held at head- 
quarters and the war department was shown in his being made 
the senior lieutenant-general, even over Jackson, after the 186S 
test by fire. 

At Gettysburg Longstreet was in charge of the fighting line, 
of placing the divisions in action, on the second and third days 
of that Titanic struggle. /"Whatever may be said of the result, 
— K)f the errors which mismformation and sycophancy have at- 
tempted to make him the scapegoat of, — ^there w^ no more 
magnificent display of heroism during the entire warA 
/it has not been the Southern fashion of late years to praise, 
or even practise justice towards, Longstreet. But now that the 
stout warrior is dead and gone to eternal judgment, all should 
speak of his virtues, his glorious deeds of arms, without thought 
or reference to that sad error of judgment that, no smaller 
in its intent and inception than ^^ a man's hand," grew to a dark 
cloud betwen Longstreet and his peopleN /This will be appre- 
ciated by survivors of the old First Co^, no good soldier of 



which has ever failed to repeat with pride, ^ I followed Jjong- 
street." As one of that band the editor of the Herald has 
always left criticism of our old chiers politics to othcSk If 
ever the inclination came to us, there rose up two pictnes of 
the past that forbade, — ^the heroic and inspiring figure of Long- 
street as he rode up to Colonel Humphreys of the Twenty-first 
Mississippi, towards the close of that grand ^^ centre rush'' of 
Barksdale's brigade that swept Sickles and his Third Corps off 
of the '' Peach Orchard HiU,'' at Gettysburg, to tell him that 
Barksdale was killed and to take command of the brigade ; and 
Longstreet as he was borne from the front at the TTVUdemess, 
all faint and bloody from what seemed a death wound. 

Longstreet is now no more. But there is a thrill in the 
that carries his surviving followers backward forty ye 
calling the roar of cannon, the charging column, the ^ rdKr* 
yell, the groans of wounded and dying comrades. For, 

** There where Death's brief pang was qui^est. 
And the battle's wreck lay thidkcst— 
There be sure was Longstreet charging 
Hiere he ne'er shall charge again.** 

{Bainbridge^ Georgia^ Searchlight.) 
** Robbed of the laurels won in peerless campaigns.** 

The death of Greneral Longstreet at his Gainesville home the 
other day removes one of the few grand actors of the war 
drama of the sixties, ^e was known as the ^ old war-horse 
of the Confederacy," and perhaps in point of military ability 
he ranked next to the great Lee himself. His soldiers had the 
most remarkable confidence in him, and he it was who could in- 
spire them to deeds of valor unparalleled!]^ At times since there 
have been those who have attempted to cast aspersions on his 
illustrious name, saying that he disobeyed Lee's orders at 
Gettysburg. A timely article has just been published, and 
curiously in the same paper that conveyed the sad intelligence 
of his death, from the pen of Mrs. Longstreet, presumably com- 
posed with the aid of the Greneral in his last feeble days, that 
answers completely and satisfactorily all charges of stubborn- 
ness or disobedience at that famous battle. (Ti is a pity that so 

Tributes from the Press 

great a soldier and military genius should not have been allowed 
to have worn the laurels of so many peerless campaigns undis- 
turbed and without envy. Now that he is dead his memory 
should be enshrined in the hearts of a grateful people for whose 
cause he did battle, and the remembrance of his illustrious deeds 
should be handed down to future generations as those of the 
knights of the round tabk. 

(Thompson, Georgia, Progress.) 
" Would have been court-martialed for disobeying orders at Gettysburg.** 

C^It is passing strange that any one should make such a charge 
against Greneral Longstreet, in view of the fact that Greneral 
Lee never made any such charge*N and any sane man knows 
that he would have made the charge had it been true, and no 
doubt General Longstreet would have been court-martialed for 
such an offence, especially as it is charged that this probably 
lost the battle to the Confederates. 
^£eneral Longstreet was one of the greatest and bravest of the 
Confederate generals, and no man should endeavor to dim the 
lustre of his brilliant military record or cast reflections upon 
his good name as a citizen or doubt his loyalty to the South./ 
No hero that wore the gray deserves more honor and thanks than 
this gallant Southern hero, who, like Lee, Jackson, Johnston, 
and a long list of other loyal Southern sons resigned a position 
of prominence in the army of the United States and cast his 
fortunes with his Southern brethren in defense of Southern 
rights, homes, and firesides, and many of whom died for 
Southern honor. Sleep on, noble and illustrious soldier and 
patriot! Thy good name and record as a soldier is safe from 
the attacks of politicians, rivals, and so-called Daughters of the 
Confederacy of Savannah ! 

(Houston, Texas, Chronicle.) 
** He was superior to human vanity or ambition." 

It should not be forgotten that when the war began General 

Longstreet, like Greneral Lee and many others of the South's 

illustrious leaders, was an officer in the army of the United 



States. Had he adhered to the Union, high command awaited 
him ; the siren voice of ambition whispered to him of a splendid 
future of fame and honor and rich reward, while he knew more 
doubtful was the issue if he heeded the call of duty and offered 
his sword to the South. Yet he did not hesitate/jTo his mother's 
cry he responded like the faithful son and hero that he was, 
and proved superior to human vanity or ambition^ 

This being true, it is but fair to presume that whatever step 
he took afterwards was inspired by the high sense of duty, and 
that he took it only after having taken counsel with his con- 
science and with due regard for the requirements of patriotism 
and honor. 

In every position in civil life, many and responsible as they 
were, he bore himself with ability, dignity, efficiency, and with 
stainless honor; there was never a spot upon his official record, 
but the civilian, as was the soldier, was without reproach. 

/If any man or woman doubts or calls in question the record 
or James Longstreet as a soldier, let him or her ask the veteran 
Southern soldier who followed him (and there are a number 
in Houston) what they think of him, and with one voice they 
will say, ** He was Lee's * war-horse.* When we heard Long- 
street was in the lead or in command, or was coming, we knew 
that victory would follow the fighting; we trusted him; Lee 
trusted him ; the army trusted him."^ 

" Where beyond these voices there is peace," the old hero is 
at rest. Little it recks whether men praise or blame him now — 
^^The peace of Grod which passeth all understanding" is upon 
him, and history will write him down as he was, a brave, able, 
faithful soldier, who so loved his native land as to pour out his 
heroic blood in its defence. Than this he asks no higher praise. 

(Atlanta^ Georgia, Constitution.) 
''Truth will take hold upon the pen of history." 

A great soldier, in the ripeness of years and yet enduring to 
the latest breath the pangs of the wounds of four decades ago, 
has fallen upon earth's final sleep. 

In the brave days of his earlier soldiership, and then in the 
strenuous years of one of the world's most tragic wars, wherein 


Tbibutes from the Press 

his genius lifted him to the next highest rank of generalship, 
General James Longstreet was a conspicuous figure and always 
a force to be reckoned with. JThe foiest and justest military 
critics of America and Europe have pronounced him a com- 
mander in whom were combined those abilities of initiative, 
strategy, and persistent daring that make the historic general 
of any age or people>\ 

While to others who were concerned in the great campaigns 
and battles of which he was a distinguished factor there may 
have appeared in his acts some incidents for criticism, yet to his 
immediate oflBcers and men he was ever the ideal soldier and the 
peerless commander. But in the presence of his shrouded frame, 
in the revived memories of his loyalty and his heroism, and in the 
knowledge that the seeming errors of men in pivotal crises are 
often the misunderstood interferences of the Supreme Ruler, 
judgments cease and reverence, gratitude, and honor form the 
threnody at the tomb. 

The war record of General Longstreet will always remain a 
theme of laudation by the sons of Southerners. For the reward 
of it thousands refused to sanction the rebukes his subsequent 
career sometimes engendered among his compatriots. Who that 
witnessed it can forget the embrace given Longstreet by ex- 
President Davis here in Atlanta and the tremendous ovation 
that greeted the old hero in his veteran gray uniform as he 
jo^ied in the gala-day made in honor of his disfranchised chief? 
CGeneral Longstreet's taking of office under President Grant 
has been always a misunderstood transaction. It was not a 
surrender of his Southern sentiments or an act of disloyalty to 
the Southern people. At the time when Greneral Grant, feeling 
the impulses of former comradeship, tendered an office and its 
emoluments to General Longstreet, whose fortunes were in sore 
straits, the old soldier refused to consider acceptance of the 
offer until urged to it by his later fellow-soldiers in New Orleans, 
including Grenerals Hood, Beauregard, Harry Hayes, Ogden, 
and even Jefferson Davis himself. He accepted it in the belief 
that it was his duty to take any occasion for public service that 
otherwise would be held in the hands of alien carpet-baggers 
and haters of the Southern peopl^. But the^occaajpix ,waa too, 
soon — ^the passions of the peopV vft tofl i 

passions^ ^^pKI, ^^e ^ pe <^p1'* yft t^ JnflflinH Without 



full knowledge of the inwardness of his conduct the people whom 
he loved heaped upon him a penetrating scorn and livid coals 
of indignation. He was too brave to complain ; too considerate 
to expose his advisers, and his heroism was never more duvalrous 
than the long patience with which until now he has endured 
the misjudgments of his Southern fellow-men. 

But these things are naught now to the flown spirit. Here- 
after truth will take hold upon the pen of history and rewrite 
much that has been miswritten of this great son of the South. 
His stainless integrity, his devotion to the cause of his militant 
people, his incomparable bravery in battle, his superb general- 
ship on campaign, and his later chivalry in the calm conduct of 
his citizenship and public service remain as wholesome memories 
of a world-acclaimed Southern hero. 

(St. Paid, Minnesota, Pioneer Pre$$.) 
" Ostracised by men who did no flgbting." 

The pestiferous pertinacity with which certain women of the 
South seize every opportunity to fan the embers of a dying sec- 
tional animosity, and to blazon their adherence to the princi- 
ples of the ^* Lost Cause,'' is again illustrated in the refusal of 
the Savannah Daughters of the Confederacy to send a wreath 
to be laid on Greneral Longstreet's grave. Next to Robert £. 
Lee, Longstreet had the reputation of being the ablest of the 
officers who fought on the Southern side in the Great Rebellion. 
But at the close of the war, satisfied that the Lost Cause was 
lost forever, and that it was useless to attempt to keep alive a 
spirit of revenge, — ^heart-won, too, by the splendid generosity 
of Grant in his dealings with the defeated army of Lee, — ^he 
^ accepted the situation ;" accepted, too, from the Republican 
soldier-president the office of surveyor of the port of New Or- 
leans, and addressed all his powers to the work of healing the 
wounds of war and of reuniting the sections. For this he was 
ostracised by the ultra element of Southern irreconcilables — an 
element made up principally of women and of men who did no ^ y 
fighting, and which nurses its bitterness with the unsatisfied 
spirit of the child who, not having finished his cry yesterday, 
inquires to-day, ^* What was I crying about?" in order that he 


Teibutes from the Pbess 

may indulge in the luxury of tears once more. The men who 
fought under and with Longstreet honor his later loyalty to the 
Union as much as they do his steadfast courage and ability under 
the *^ Stars and Bars" in the bloody sixties. The women who 
refuse his bier a tribute dishonor only themselves. 

(Atlanta, Georgia, Journal.) 
** One of the most gallant spirits of the century." 

^With the death of Greneral James Longstreet, who was the 
first ranking general of the Confederate army, passes one of 
the most gallant spirits of the nineteenth century. 

Of all the men who fought with conspicuous valor and prowess 
for the Confederate cause, there was none who possessed more 
leonine courage or inspired in his men a greater degree of enthu- 
siastic affection than this chieftain whom Lee dubbed with the 
title of " My Old War-Horse" on the battle-field. That remark 
of Lee's was like the touch of an accolade upon his shoulders, 
and no subsequent misunderstandings or criticisms have ever 
been able to rob him of the place among the chivalrous souls of 
the South to which he was elevated by their irreproachable King 
Arthur, General LeeA 

And, in view of the fact that the most choice and master 
military spirits of his age esteemed him to possess tactical 
ability and military judgment equal in degree to his undisputed 
quaUties of persistent bravery, such criticisms as there were are 
scarcely worthy of mention and demand no refutation now in 
any backward glance at his brilliant career. The South can 
point to his record with pride, as his military associates have 
ever pointed to the man himself with a quick and affectionate 
appreciation. No note of apology should mingle with the 
praise and grief of those who look to-day with tear-blurred eyes 
upon the soldier's bier. 

And the memory of his actions on the boisterous stage of 
battle and of the single-hearted, loyal r6le he played through 
all the shifting scenes of that greatest war-drama of the cen- 
tury should in itself constitute a rebuke to those who have sought 
to rebuke him for certain generally misunderstood actions in 

his subsequent career. He became an office-holder under Greneral 



Grant, a very, very human thing to do. It was a very, very 
natural thing that Greneral Grant, who had married the cousin 
of the ^^ Old War-Horse," and who was, besides, actuated by the 
spirit of a remembered, youthful comradeship, should give his 
friend, comrade, and relative an office when Longstreet was 
walking along thorny financial paths, fijid his acceptance, 
urged as he was to accept by his Confederate comrades, was, 
under the circumstances, very human and very naturaL He 
made a good public servant — ^where could Grant have found a 
better in those reconstruction days, which were not noted for the 
excellence of their public servants? Where cou ld Longs treet 
have bette r served hi s own people t han CyTakin g im office whidi 
imgEi rgt^ wipp l^ftY^^'t yen' giVfeh lo men who were stiu so in * 
^inH try r"^^'*^n prrjui jiicg ^ ^ ^te those peopie ? His 
motives were of the highest in tbis acceptance, and his attitude 
of silently bearing the remarks of those who criticised him 
under a misapprehension stajops his moral courage with the 
golden seal of a serene nobility. ) 

He was misjudged, but he happily lived to see most of those 
who misjudged him silenced by an exposition of facts which he 
was too proud to set forth himself. 

The debtor years have rendered back to him the refined coin 
of a fixed fame for his life labor. He is dead, and his place — a 
high one in the world's history — is enduring. 

(Newport, Virginia, News.) 
"The bravest of the brave." 

/ The Savannah Daughters of the Confederacy, whose custom 
it is to send a laurel wreath for the tomb of deceased Confeder- 
ates, refused to send one upon the death of General Longstreet 
a few days ago.**^i 

The Daughters at Savannah have, we suppose, satisfactorily 
to themselves, settled the mooted question of the Grettysburg 
controversy, but we do not believe their action will find applause 
generally among the ex-Confederate soldiers. Whatever may 
have been the fact at Gettysburg, it is beyond dispute that his 
actions there did not dstrange his loyal soldiers, nor impair the 
esteem in which he was held by General Lee. The dose of the 



war found him in command of the left wing of the army, and 
he joined General Lee on the way to Appomattox. In referring 
to his death the Richmond Ttmes-DUpatch says, — 

"We recall General Longstreet as one of the bravest of the brave, one 
who stmck many blows for the Confederacy, and one on whom General 
Lee often leaned and whose name is identified with world-famous battles. 
These are things we cannot forget, nor do we wish to.** 

' Whatever may be said of the attitude of the South since the 
war towards Greneral Longstreet, the fact remains that his 
espousal of the Republican cause in politics did most to invite 
criticism, and this he always felt was unjust to him.*^ 
^J[t seems strange that Greneral John B. Grordon should have so 
bitterly attacked Greneral Longstreet, and it is charity to say 
that he did it from Dolitical reasons, and not by way of chal* 
lenging war records. ) 

With his fresh grave denied its laurel wreath at the hands 
of the Savannah Daughters, and his lifeless lips beyond reply 
to carping critics, it is refreshing to see that the loyal wife, who 
walked with him in the evening of life, brings her own wreath 
of the roses of love, dewy with her tears, and places it upon 
the grave that holds his valiant dust. 

(Btrminghamf Alabama, Ledger.) 

" In the military annals of the Anglo-Saxon race there is nothing finer 
than his fighting record.** 

The author of the article on Longstreet, which recently ap- 
peared in the Ledger and which we republish below, has been 
a close student of military history, and was personally obser* 
vant of great movements in Virginia during the war: 

''Men of Southern blood who recall the days when the civilized world 
was thrilled with the renown of those great Confederate captains, 'Lee, 
Longstreet, and Jackson,' can scarcely realise that the grave has just 
closed over all that is mortal of the stoutest, the steadiest, the most practical, 
pushing, resolute, and stolidly unimaginative fighter of that goodly and 
immortal group. In the military annals of the Anglo-Saxon race thereis 
nothing finer than the fighting record of this Old Lion oi the South. Clt 
does not need the formal observances of official commemoration to per- 
petuate the memory of a man who led the stanch legions of the Con- 
federacy in victorious fellowship with Jackson and Lee. Tradition alone 



will uplift and applaud his name long after mommients ha^e enmibled and 
Camps and Chapters have ceased to exist None knew better than the 
great Virginian leader that the nedc of the 'Old War-Horse^ was always 
clothed with thunder when ^ shock of battle came. Lee never dreamed 
that Longstreet was f aithlessT' 

** Every American who is proud of our common race most deplore 
the openly manifest disposition of Southern veterans and sons of Tcterans 
to discredit for all time the great historic soldiers of the South. It needs 
not the perspicacity of a Verulam to inform us that the highest Tirtncs 
are not visible to the common eye. Hie disposition to suspect and be- 
smirch a glorious soldier — a man whose leadership innnortaliaed tiie annies 
that he led — not only betokens a radical change in popular ideals* but 
apparently marks the decadence of that traditional sentiment of chivaliy 
¥^ch is truly 'the unbought grace of life,' and that genero us martial 
spirit which for generations has characterised tiie great Southern branch 
of the Anglo-American race. 

''The humblest dtixen of this republic has an inalienable interest in the 
heroic memories of the South. Let the Dead lion sleep in peace. Notli- 
ing is alien to the true American heart that in the least degree conce r ns 
the i^oiy of the CHd South or the interest of the New. It is precisely this 
sentiment that was expressed in the fine chivalry of Grant at AppomatlOK 
and won for that iron conqueror the lasting affection and respec t of tiie 
men that he had fought. ^Hie heroic Longstreet needs no higher eulogy 
tiian the single phrase. He was the friend of Grant and Le^^"^ 

{Macon J Georgia^ Telegraph.) 
" No reproach can be cast upon his braveiy and devotion.*' 

The Savannah Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy 
has made itself ridiculous by throwing a brick at the dead lion 
at Gainesville! 

It seems a pity that the enterprising news gatherers in the 
Forest City should have given out to the public the silly action 
of these young women. Their offence was a resolution ** re- 
fusing" to send a wreath to lay upon the grave of Greneral 
Longstreet " because he disobeyed orders at Grettysburg.'* 

The causes for the drawn battle at the critical point in the 
history of the struggle of the '60's will be debated while time 
lasts. So will the causes for the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo. 
This debate has been and will be participated in by the great 
commanders of the world. But no reproach has been, can, or 
will be cast upon the bravery or devotion of the famous old 
fighter whose courage knew no abatement in the hundreds of 
engagements participated in during the trying experiences of 
three wars. \Alexander and Caesar and Napoleon and Grant 

Tributes from the Press 

and Lee made their mistcJces. So did Longstreet. But how does 
it seem for a bevy of young women to pounce upon the cold 
remains of this battle-scarred veteran and hero lying in state 
and attempt to punish him for an alleged mistake made forty 
years ago in the midst of the roar and clash of the greatest 
battle in history! Their mothers knew better."^ 

We are not surprised that veterans in Savannah feel ag- 
grieved, as they must feel everywhere that the action is known. 

General Gordon believes that Longstreet made a mistake at 
Gettysburg, but Lee said, ** It is all my fault." The great 
chieftain in conmiand made no charge against his great fighting 
arm. rTouching this controversy. Colonel McBride, writing to 
the Atlanta Constitutiant says, ^Longstreet, although a pru- 
dent and cautious fighter, was not only always ready to fight, 
but he was always anxious and wanted to fight. On the second 
day he was not slow, but was simply putting himself in shape 
to do the bloodiest fight of the war. At least two-thirds of the 
casualties in America's greatest battle happened in front of 
Longstreet's corps. Reports show this. The records also show 
that he only obeyed Lee's orders to the letter.?^ 

^rant, however, that Longstreet made a costly mistake, there 
are times other than those at the grave to discuss them; there 
are persons other than young women unborn in those days to 
administer rebuke or punishmenCN 

If these young women who sit in judgment at the tomb could 
not lay a flower on the new-made grave of an old war-horse of 
the Confederacy, it seems as if they might have restrained their 
tongues while the muffled drum passing by rolled its last tattoo. 

(New York Journal.) 

• " After a while Soothern capitals will be adorned with stataes of Long- 
street; upon his grave ^his foeman's children will loose the rose.'" 

At the age of eighty-three General Longstreet has passed 

away — a noble character, a good soldier, one of the hardest 

fighters of the Civil War. General Longstreet was pretty badly 

treated by the people whose battles he fought with so great 

courage and capacity. He was no politician — ^just a soldier, 

and at the close of the war committed the error of ^^f rater- 
16 d4i 


nizing^ with all his countrymen. He ^^ accepted the sitoation,'' 
not wisely, but too early. With a fine and generous unwisdom 
he laid away the animosities of the war-time and put himself 
at once where all stand now, — on the broad, high ground of 
American citizenship. No part had he in the provincial conceit 
of the thing that has the immodesty to call itself a ^ Southern 
gentleman.'' It probably never occurred to him that the quali- 
ties distinguishing a gentleman from a pirate of the Spanish 
Main had so narrow a geographical distribution as the term 
implies. He paid for his breadth of mind — became a kind of 
social outlaw and political excommunicant in ^the land once 
proud of him." Briefly, his shipmates marooned him. Well, 
he has escaped — ^he has ^^ beaten the game," as, sooner or later, 
we all conquer without exertion. After a while Southern capi- 
tals will be adorned with statues of Longstreet and upon his 
grave posterity will see ^^ his f oemen's children loose the rose." 

(New York Tribune.) 

Lee and Longstreet 

The death of General James Longstreet, as was to be ex- 
pected, has revived to some extent the controversies which have 
raged over certain memorable incidents in his military career. 
For the last twenty-five years persistent efforts have been made 
to throw on Greneral Longstreet's shoulders responsibility for 
Lee's defeat at Grettysburg. Not a few Southern writers have 
gone so far as to accuse him, if not of insubordination, at least 
of culpable inattention to orders given him by the Confederate 
commander-in-chief. General John B. Grordon, in his recently 
published reminiscences, revived and amplified these charges 
against Longstreet, stating explicitly — as his own conclusion 
and as that of impartial military critics generally — ^that Long^ 
street's blunders had blasted Confederate hopes at Grettysburg, 
and that General Lee ** died believing he had lost by Long^ 
street's disobedience." Strangely enough, Greneral Longstreet's 
wife had prepared an elaborate refutation of Greneral Grordon's 
theories, and had arranged for its publication on January S— 
the day following General Longstreet's death. 

We do not think that history will sustain the contentions of 


Tributes from the Press 

Greneral Longstreet's critics. They are interesting enough as 
post-mortem demonstrations of what might have been. But they 
ignore actual conditions. They picture a situation which could 
have existed only as a military after-thought. Greneral Long- 
street cannot be made a scapegoat for all the sins of hesitation 
or omission chargeable to Confederate commanders at Gettys- 
burg. General Gordon is himself disposed to censure General 
Lee for not vigorously attacking the Federal forces in their 
new position on the evening of July 1. He condemns utterly 
Longstreet's failure to assault the Federal left wing early in the 
morning of July S. But he waves aside entirely the exhaustion 
of A. P. Hill's corps at the conclusion of the first day's battle 
and the physical impediments to forming and executing an 
attack on the Federal left wing before noon of July S. That 
Longstreet's assault suffered in effectiveness from the delays 
of July ft is greatly to be doubted. The fighting done by his 
corps far excelled in dash and brilliance anything done at Grettys- 
burg by Swell's corps or A. P. Hill's. Longstreet bore the 
brunt of both the second and third day's struggle and emerged 
from the confiict with his reputation as a corps commander un- 
impaired. There is no reason to think that he could have fought 
more brilliantly or more successfully if he had attempted the 
attack which Greneral Grordon philosophizes about in the early 
morning of the second day. 

Greneral Lee at the close of the battle justly and honorably 
assumed entire responsibility for the Confederate defeat. Lee 
lost at Gettysburg because on the offensive he seemed incapable 
of rising to the full height of his military talent. His general- 
ship in his two brief invasions of Northern territory was com- 

In Lee's own lifetime not a word of criticism was aimed at 
Longstreet. It is needless to inquire what influences have con- 
spired to foist on him the blame for the Confederate failure at 
Gettysburg. Another generation of Southern writers will do 
him more impartial justice. He will certainly be classed here- 
after by open-minded critics as one of the ablest and most in- 
* telligent of the commanders who fought under the South's flag 
in the Civil War. 



^ No Scmtbeni man suffered more or deserved it less." 

The death of Greneral Longstreet removes from the worlcTs 
stage of action one who in time of war had his name and his 
deeds sounded by the trumpet of fame throughout the dvilized 
world. He was a conspicuous figure in the eyes of the worid, 
and his name was at one time familiar to and honored in every 
Confederate household. He was Lee's Rock of Gibraltar that 
never failed to stem the tides of assault, and when he led, in 
his turn, the attack, he was a thunder-bolt of war that never 
failed to strike with terrible effect. In council he was calm and 
calculated well and closely all the chances of conflict, in scales 
well balanced, and, as a rule, with almost unerring exactness. 

He was essentially a soldier, whose education, training, and 
services for a generation in years made his enforced change 
to civil life practically the adoption of a new life at total 
variance to that in which he has always been a conspicuous and a 
noted figure. His was a lovable nature, loyal to principle and 
to truth, and when his confidence was secured his trust was sure 
to follow. 

That trait in his character was the cause of the ban noder 
which he suffered for such a long period from the Southern 
people, and, as many an old Confederate veteran will now say, 
with such injustice. 

At the time the storm of ostracism first burst in fury over 
his head I was an official of the State of Mississippi and resided 
at Jackson, the State capital, and I was then, as I am now, 
familiar with the cause of the outbreak of public sentiment 
against him. Let me explain that there had been on the part 
of the Southern people a practical nullification of the Federal 
laws regarding the negro and his rights so recently conferred, 
and it was hard for Southern people to swallow the doctrine of 
equality in anything where the negro was concerned. 

The entire South was in a tempestuous turmoil that threat* 
ened the very foundations of society, by rising like the storm- 
tossed waves of tempestuous seas and sweeping away the barriers 
that had been erected against the domination of the Southern 
whites. At this juncture prominent and influential leaders of 
public thought, who saw the coming storm, at a conference held 


Tributes from the Fbess 

in New Orleans explained the situation to certain popular and 
influential ex-Confederate generals then residents of that city, 
and represented to them that an appeal by them to their old 
soldiers to accept the situation, obey the Federal laws, and main- 
tain peace and order would result in great good and assist in 
allaying the suppressed, indeed often open, excitement of the 
people. They were appealed to as patriots to come to the 
rescue of their people and lead them in peace as they had in 

The text of a letter to be written by each was then outlined, 
and at a second conference each submitted his letter. The sub- 
stance of all the letters was identical, each with the others. 
They were published in the New Orleans papers simultaneously 
to insure the object in view, the influencing oi^ public opinion. 
Their publication aroused a storm of reproach and denuncia- 
tion that was without measure. 

Instead of acting like oil on the troubled waters, they pro- 
Toked the fury of the tempest, and the authors of the letters 
were overwhelmed with letters of protest and reproach. 

Explanation after explanation by the authors (save General 
Longstreet) that amounted to public retraction, followed. 
Longstreet, firm as the rock of Gibraltar, bared his breast to 
the storm and proudly declared that he had nothing to retract. 
He explained the circumstances under which he had written the 
letter, cited its approval by leaders of public thought, and de- 
clared that the sentiment of the letter but expressed his honest 
convictions, and he stood by it. Every old veteran of Long- 
street's corps who reads this will say, ** That's just like old 
Pete." He could have saved his popularity had he sacrificed 
principle. But like the noble Roman that he was, he could, in 
weighing one against the other, defiantly proclaim 

** These walls, these columns fly 
From their firm base as soon as I.** 

I was among the few who saw nothing then in any of the 
letters to merit the disapproval of the Southern people; and 
looking through ^^ the vista of time" back to those days, I can 
say in all candor and sincerity that had the seed of Longstreet's 
advice fallen in ground ripe for it, reconstruction would have 


been shorn of many of the evils that accompanied it and blighted 
the land. Some time after these occurrences Greneral Longstreet 
made a trip through territory in Mississippi from which his 
mercantile firm derived much business. One day Governor 
Humphreys said to me, ** Greneral Longstreet is coming this 
way. If he comes here, what would you do?" Instantly I re- 
plied, '^ I would not wait for him to come, but I would insist on 
his coming, and tell him that he would be welcomed at the 
govonor's mansion.** He directed me to write the invitation, 
saying, *^ I had made up my mind to so act, for nothing could 
make me turn my back on ^ old Pete.* I served under him too 
long to do that.** He accepted the invitation and was the guest 
of the governor. In honoring him the governor set an ex- 
ample that the whole town followed, and the period of his stay 
was almost a constant levee. On me was placed the special and 
agreeable duty of attendance upon him. I was with him mudi 
of the time and participated in conversations in which the letter 
that brought to him only woe was discussed. Never did a bitter 
word pass his lips in denunciation of those who led him to the 
slaughter and themselves stepped aside and raised no hand to 
help him. He declared that the letter expressed his true senti- 
ments, and that it was written after deliberate thought. It 
proved to be unfortunate, and though he was then reaping only 
thorns from it, time would vindicate him and his course. He 
bore his fate like an ancient Stoic. I count my association with 
him at this time as among the most pleasant of a checkered life. 
I never saw him again. 

Greneral Joseph £. Johnston, of whose staff I was a member, 
told me with his own lips that the plan by which the army of 
Stonewall Jackson was withdrawn from the valley and hurled 
on the flank of McClellan was first suggested to him by Long- 
street. He said that the idea had occurred to him, but at a time 
when it was not feasible. But just previous to the battle of 
Seven Pines, Longstreet submitted a plan that he had matured, 
that met his favor and determined him to adopt it. At the 
battle that almost immediately occurred he was incapacitated 
by wounds and General Lee assumed command. Shortly after, 
Jackson's force was transferred from the valley and hurled on 

the Federal flank. We know with what result. The plan was 


Tbibutes from the Fbess 

ocnmnumcated to General Lee shortly after his accession to 
command. The plan which Greneral Lee adopted may have been 
his own, but the idea first originated in the soldierly brain of 
Longstreet. Again, at the second Manassas, when Longstreet, 
to the rescue of Jackson, debouched through ** Thoroughfare 
Gap,'' a glance at the field showed him Jackson's peril, and his 
masterful, soldierly ability needed no general in command to 
direct him as to the placing of his battallions. Like a thunder^ 
bolt of war his command struck the Federal army. Jackson 
was saved and the victory was won. Space forbids further 
prolixity, while the theme invites it. Let me say that no 
Southern man suffered more at the hands of the Southern people 
and deserved it less. I uncover my head in honor to his mem- 
ory and bid him ^^ all hail and farewell !" Little cares he now 
for the plaudits of the world or the censure of his critics. When 
a chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy refused a wreath 
to his remains, Jeff Davis, Lee, Stonewall ^'ackson, the two 
Johnstons, and a host of others gone before, were giving him 
brotherly welcome in the city of the living Grod, and his old 
corps who have crossed the river joined in shouts of welcome 
to his knightly soul. Let us all feel that 

** After Ufe's fitful fever he sleeps welL** 

Jas. M. Kennabd, 
Ex^oUmel and Chief Ordnance Officer, Army of Tennessee, 
C. S. A. 

(New Orleans Picatfwne, Special.) 
** The Confederates had no better fighter than Longstreet" 

New Yoax, January 4. — ^'^ Longstreet fought hard enough 
to suit me — ^he gave me all I wanted. I was perfectly satisfied 
when the second day's fight was over." This was General 
Sickles's comment to-day at the city hall with reference to criti- 
cism by General John B. Gordon, who seems to think that the 
defeat of the Confederates at Gettysburg was due to General 

** Gordon is a gallant gentleman, and he was a gallant 

soldier," continued General Sickles, ^^but he commanded a 



brigade, whfle Longstreet commanded a corps. Lee told Long- 
street afterwards that he had done as well as he could. He had 
no criticism to make. Gordon was in no position to judge the 
merits of the case. Longstreet was on my front. I led the Third 
Corps on the second day. The fighting was on HancodL's front 
on the third day. He was in the centre. I guess every one who 
was there knew that Longstreet fought brilliantly, ^xngstreet 
was practically in command of the Confederate fitting on both 
the second and third days. If Lee had been dissatisfied on the 
second day, he would not have let Longstreet command on the 
third day. As a matter of fact the Confederates had no better 
filter than Longstreet.'M 

(Macon, Georgia, Telegraph.) 
** His record needs no dtteace/* 

To THX EnrrOE of the Telegraph: 

The able editorial in your issue of several days ago touching 
the Savannah incident in which the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy refused to send flowers to the funeral of General Lcmg- 
street, assigning as the reason **that General Longstreet re- 
fused to obey the order of Greneral Lee at Gettysburg,^ met a 
responsive chord in the hearts of many old veterans of the Con- 
federate army. 

Longstreet's war record, like that of Stonewall Jackson's, 
needs no defence. History is replete with his grand deeds of 
chivalry, and places his name high in the ranks of the great 
commanders of the Civil War. The rank and file who fought 
under this great and intrepid commander know that he was in- 
capable of such conduct, and the only tongue that could con- 
vince them otherwise was forever stilled when our peerless Lee 
passed over the river. 

In the first battle of Manassas, at Seven Pines, when he lead 
the main attack, at Gaines Mill, Frazier's Farm, Malvern Hill, 
and at second Manassas, when the illustrious Stonewall Jackson 
was being sorely pressed by the entire army of General Pope, 
he hurried to Jackson's relief, and together gained one of the 
greatest victories of the war. He commanded the right wing 
of our army on the bloody field of Sharpsburg, and was in the 


Tributes from the Fbess 

thickest of the fight during the entire battle. At the battle 
of Fredericksburg he commanded the left wing of the army, 
where the assault proved most fatal to the enemy. In all of 
these battles, and others I do not now recall, Greneral Longstreet 
participated, winning fresh laurels in each fight. 

At Gettysburg during the second and third days of the 
battle he commanded the right wing of the army, and I never 
saw an officer more conspicuous and daring upon the battle-field. 
One of the most lasting pictures made upon my mind during 
the war, and which still lingers in my memory, was in connection 
with this officer. While in line of battle during the terrible 
cannon duel between the two armies, when at a signal our 
cannons ceased firing, I saw Greneral Longstreet as he motioned 
his staff back, sitting superbly in his saddle, gallop far out in 
our front in full view and range of more than one hundred of 
the enemy's cannon, stop his horse, and, standing up in his 
stirrups, place his field glasses to his eyes and deliberately and 
for some time view the enemy's line of battle, while shells were 
bursting above and around him so thick that at intervals he 
was hidden from sight by the smoke from exploding shells. 
His object having been accomplished, he turned his horse and 
slowly galloped back to his line of battle. No officer upon the 
battle-field of Grettysburg displayed greater courage than Long- 
street, and his presence upon the battle-field, like that of Lee 
and Jackson, was always worth a thousand men. 

Greneral Lee trusted Longstreet implicitly, and every act of 
his from the time he assumed command of the Army of Northern 
Virginia to Appomattox Court-House sustains this assertion. 
When President Davis requested General Lee to send to the 
relief of Greneral Bragg, who was hard pressed by Sherman, he 
sent his old ^^ war-horse," and, true to his mission, Longstreet 
reached Chickamauga in time to turn the tide of battle in favor 
of the South. Afterwards he was ordered to drive the Federal 
army under General Bumside from East Tennessee, which he 
ably accomplished, driving him behind his entrenchment at 
Knoxville, Tennessee. 

When General Grant attacked G^eral Lee at the Wilderness 
— ^the second battle in magnitude of the war — and by over^ 
whelming numbers was driving our army back, Longstreet by 



forced marches reached the field in tune to snatch from Grant 
a victory aknost won. Here he received a wound whidi nearly 
cost him his life, and which, perhaps, saved Grant's army from 
being driven into the Rappahannock. 

At Appomattox Court-House, ^ where ceased forever the 
Southern soldiers' hope," Greneral Lee asked his old war-horse, 
if the necessity should arise, to lead the renmant of the army 
out, and he was ready to do so, and would have done so had not 
Greneral Grant granted honorable terms of surrender. Would 
General Lee have trusted Greneral Longstreet after the battle of 
Gettysburg had he been in the least disloyal to his commands? 
Impartial history will ever link the names of Lee, Jackson, and 
Longstreet upon the brightest page of the history of the in- 
comparable Army of Northern Virginia. One word more about 
Grettysburg. I happened to be there (but at the time would 
have liked to have been elsewhere), and I decided then and am 
still of the opinion that the Yankees are to blame for our defeat. 


J. W. Matthews. 

(Raleigh, North Carolina, Post.) 
** Tlie idol of the Army ot Northern Virginia." 

If the conduct of some of our people towards Greneral Long- 
street, the great soldier, just dead, was not pitiful, it would be 

He, the stubborn fighter of all our armies, the trusted arm 
of General Lee, the idol of the Army of Northern Virginia, 
dead, forty years after his many battles and the establishment 
of his undying fame, is refused by some of the daughters and 
granddaughters of the men who fought and fell under lus ban- 
ners, a wreath of flowers for his grave — a grave that makes hal- 
lowed the land that holds it ; is refused a resolution of praise, by 
the sons and grandsons of the men who cheered his plume, as it 
waved them to victory. Why is this? C^ silly story attributed 
to Greneral Lee, published after Lee's death, by Greneral Grordon 
upon the authority of Fitz. Lee. The story contained the 
charge that the faithful "Old War-Horse," as General Lee 


Tbibutes from the Fbess 

affectionately dubbed him, failed, wilfully, or from other cause, 
to obey orders at Grettysburg. 

Can this story be true? That depends upon two contingen- 
cies, neither of which the wildest of General Longstreet's de- 
famers have dared to formulate: first, that General Lee was 
lacking in candor, or, secondly, he did not know his best soldiers. 
Can either of these propositions be true? A thousand times no?) 

We all, or at least those of us who had the honor of serving in 
the Army of Northern Virginia, recall that in September, 186S, 
it became necessary to detach a portion of that army to send 
west to relieve Bragg, then being driven south by Rosecrans 
from Chattanooga ; we also remember that, with all of his gen- 
eral officers to select from, including Grordon and Fitz. Lee, 
Creneral Lee selected General Longstreet to lead his immortal 
battalion, and the fame of how well he performed that proud 
duty is still ringing in the ears of all who love honor and glory. 

Would General Lee have selected General Longstreet, mis- 
called by malice and envy " the slow," " the disobeyer of orders,'* 
** the loser of the battle of Gettysburg," and so of the Southern 
cause, if he could have found in all his army one general braver 
or more competent? Surely not. This fact established, and 
established it is (and it also establishes Greneral Lee's imshaken 
confidence in his " Old War-Horse"), what becomes of the 
improbable story of Fitz. Lee? It is a matter of common his* 
tory that the fighting soldiers of 1861-66 have been silent since* 
This at least is true of the Southern soldiers, and pity 'tis 
true, because our own General R. F. Hoke, fighting then, silent 
since, could add rich chapters to the history of those Titanic 
days, if he would only speak. 

With this conclusive evidence of General Lee's faith in Gen- 
eral Longstreet, how pitiful is the unearned slander that has 
made the reputation of so many babblers. Longstreet a traitor 
or imbecile! Out upon it! 

One other equally conclusive refutation of this miserable 

story is: In 1866 General Lee, it seems, determined to write 

the story of his campaigns, — *^ his object to disseminate the 

truth" (would his example had been contagious), — ^at the close 

of an affectionate letter to Greneral Longstreet uses these words 

— ^words which Greneral Longstreet might have claimed as a 



charter of nobility, had he not abready had his glorioiis war 
record to ennoble him: 

^^ I had while in Richmond a great many inquiries after yon, 
and learned you intended conunencing business in New Orleans. 
If you make as good a merchant as you were a soldier, I shall 
be content. No one will excel you, and no one can wish you 
more success or more happiness than I. My interest and affec- 
tion for you will never cease, and my prayers are always <^eied 
for your prosperity. 

^ I am most truly yours, 

•*R. E. Jjem/" 

( Does any sane man, or silly woman either, bdieve the noble 
neart that inspired these words could have asked its tongue to 
utter the things of General Longstreet that have been falsdy 
attributed to it. Can argument be more cogent or oondusian 
more conclusive? 

General Gordon is, I hope, with Greneral Longstreet. Both 
are at rest, and I know the *^ Old War-Horse" of the Army 
of Northern Virginia, in the presence of his grand old diief, 
has forgiven his comrade the wrongs done him here. Peace to 
the ashes of both, the wronged and the wrong-doerT) 

W. H. Day, 
Formerly of First N. C. Inftmirg. 

(Washington, D. C, Star.) 

" Longstreet came out ot the war with a record for courage and loyattf 
second to none.** 

Greneral Thomas L. Rosser, of Virginia, who commanded a 
regiment at Grettysburg, and who was with the Army of Northern 
Virginia from the first battle to the surrender, bitterly resents 
the criticism of Greneral Longstreet's course at Gettysburg. 
General Rosser was appointed an officer in the Spanish War 
by President McKinley, and in recent years has been acting with 
the Republican party. Reviewing the work of some of the great 
Confederate generals, Greneral Rosser said to a reporter for 
the Star: 

^With the death of Greneral Longstreet passes the last of 


Tbibutes fbom the Fbess 

the great soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia. He 
fought alone the battle of the 18th of July, 1861, and won 
the first victory of that splendid army. He shared in the glory 
of the great battles that army fought. 

^ Longstreet and Lee, as soldiers, were similar in many re- 
spects. Both were great defensive generals, but neither can be 
classed among the successful offensive generals of history. 

** Take Jackson, for instance. His campaign from Kerns- 
town to Port Republic, in the Valley of Virginia, in 186S, was 
as brilliant as the first Italian campaign of the great Na- 
poleon. He drew McDowell from Fredericksburg. He left 
Shields, Fremont, and Banks confused as to his whereabouts, 
dashed across the mountains, joined Lee on the S6th of June, 
striking McClellan the surprise blow, forced him to the James, 
and raised the siege of Richmond. With the despatch of light- 
ning he wheeled around, met Pope at Cedar Mountain, stopped 
his advance upon Lee's rear and flank, held him until Lee could 
arrive with reinforcements, passed to his rear, and fought the 
battle of the SSth of September at Groveton Heights; opened 
the way for Lee to press on with his army, and crowned the 
campaign with the successful battle of the second Bull Run. 
He crossed the Potomac with Lee, was detached, sent back, 
captured Harper's Ferry, and joined Lee at Sharpsburg in 
time to stop McClellan and save Lee's army. In May, 1863, 
when Lee was hesitating in the Wilderness, believing that 
Hooker's movement below Fredericksburg was a serioua one, with 
the foresight of genius Jackson pronounced it a feint, urged 
Lee to allow him to move around Hooker's right, which, in 
audacity, boldness, and brilliancy seemed to paralyze Lee, and 
while on this wonderful march Sickles got between him and 
Lee with an army nearly equal his own. Jackson pressed on, 
turned Hooker's right, as he contemplated, dissipated the 
Eleventh Corps and all its support, and was within a half-mile 
of his goal, the Bullock house, had he gained possession of which 
Hooker's retreat would have been impossible and he would have 
been at the mercy of the Confederate army, when he was shot 
and mortally wounded by his own men. 

^ Lee, then in command of an army that knew no defeat, and 

not realizing that his great offensive general had been taken 



from tbe army, committed the fatal bhmder of ali e mpUu g an 
invasion of the North. At no time during that campaign did 
be move with celerity, mancEuvre to the surprise of the enemy, 
or do anything of a brilliant character marking him with the 
genius of war. The battle of Grettysburg was lost the first day, 
although the Confederates claimed a victory, and it might have 
been turned into a victory had Lee been a master of the art of 
aggressive warfare. But he followed up the first day wiA a 
stubborn attack of the enemy in an intrenched position, and, 
failing to dislodge him, seemed to hesitate and his plans seemed 
to be confused. Finally he ccnnmitted a great error in attaddng 
a superior enemy in an intrenched position at the strongeit 

^ In the history of battles very few generals have ever made 
an attack of the centre of the enemy's position, and histcny 
gives only one example of where sudi an attack has been suc- 
cessful. That was the battle of Wagram, where the great Na- 
poleon deceived the Archduke diaries by so threatening ik 
flank as to cause him to weaken his centre, when, quidc as a 
flash, Napoleon struck the centre of the enemy with MacDooald 
and his reserves. But then the world has aolj given us one 
Napoleon, and the Western hemisphere has given us only one 

^ When Lee's army was beaten from the fatal attack whidi 
he ordered on the 8d of July, he rode among his fleeing soldios, 
begging them to rally and reform on Seminary Ridge, telling 
them that it was his fault that they had failed and not their 
own. No criticism was made of Longstreet at that time. Long- 
street was retained in the most important corps of Lee's army 
and served honorably and faithfully under Lee to the end. 

" At Appomattox Longstreet, with Lee and the Army of 
Northern Virginia, at the close of a most glorious achievement, 
honestly surrendered. The Southern Confederacy was elimi- 
nated from the map of the world, its flag was forever furled, 
and all soldiers who surrendered there had either to return to 
the Union and become loyal to the flag of their country or 
remain hypocrites and traitors, which they could not do if thej 
had honestly surrendered and accepted the terms that Grant 

had given them. 


Teibutes fbom the Fbess 

** Longstreet came out of the war with a record for courage, 
devotion to the cause he had espoused, and loyalty to the Stars 
and Bars second to none. Disabled by wounds, his right arm 
hanging lifeless and helpless at his side, his profession, that of a 
soldier, gone, he turned his attention to civil pursuits, and was 
struggling for a living when his old friend Grant, the President 
of the United States, offered him service in the government. Lee 
was dead. Southern politicians had expected Longstreet to 
keep the fires of Southern antipathy to the North alive, and as 
they were seeking to inflame the passions pf the people as a basis 
upon which to unite the South and to fuse with the copperhead 
party in the North, as a means for repossessing themselves of a 
government they had lost by the results of the war, this action 
of Longstreet in accepting the offer of Grant tended to break 
their influence with the old soldiers of the South. 

**To counteract that they brought up the charge of dis- 
loyalty and disobedience to Lee at Gettysburg, never having 
thought of it before, and never, in fact, having had a founda- 
tion for it. This, in a measure, served their purpose, because 
the old soldiers and their sons in the South are always ready to 
resent anything said or done unfavorable to Lee. Now, I am 
mortified to see that even the ladies have taken this matter up, 
and the Daughters of the Confederacy at Savannah refused to 
lay a wreath of laurels on the tomb of the great hero. I was 
surprised that Fitzhugh Lee should have charged Longstreet 
with disobedience, for I don't believe that Greneral Lee ever 
made such a charge himself. After the war I went to Lexington 
and studied law and saw Lee every day and every night. Our 
comrades and enemies were often discussed, but I never heard 
him speak of Longstreet but in the most affectionate manner. 
Colonel Venable was professor of mathematics when I moved 
back to Charlottesville eighteen years ago, and my relations 
with him up to his death were close and intimate. I never heard 
Um suggest the idea that Longstreet disobeyed orders or failed 
to do his duty at Grettysburg or anywhere else. Greneral Lee 
relieved General Ewell, one of his corps commanders at Gettys- 
burg, from duty with his army. He criticised A. P. HiU 
severely for his failure and mismanagement at Bristow station, 
but no man ever heard him say one word against Longstreet. 



^ Now that Longstreet is laid away to rest, all old and tme 
soldiers of the Southern Confederacy will kneel around his tomb 
and pray that they may stand at the great reveille with Lee, 
Jackson, and Longstreet." 

(Macon, Georgia, Telegraph.) 

" On the historic page is blaaoned his gloiy*'* 

( From the lips of Lee no word of censure ever fell upon the 
military renown of his great corps commander, the intrepid 
and immovable Longstreet. However men may differ as to that 
last fateful day at Gettysburg, on the historic page there is 
blazoned the militarv glory of James Longstreet. No earthly 
power can blot it out7\Longstreet's corps is as inseparable from 
the glory of the vetevans of Lee as the Old Guard from the 
army of Napoleon. And when a week ago with the last expiring 
sigh of its aged commander the blood of his fearless heart broke 
from the wound which laid him prone on the first day at the 
Wilderness, at the moment when he had restored the shattered 
lines and saved the Army of Northern Virginia, each ruddy drop, 
a protest against the censure of his comrades, was like the blood 

of Caesar, — 

** As rushing oat of doors to be resolved. 
If Brutus so unldndly knoclced or no.** 

Judos Emokt Spexe* 

(McRae, Georgia, Enierprite.) 
** Only necessary to refer his critics to the oiBdal reports.** 

It is rather significant in the life of General Longstreet that 
under the storm of anathemas which have been hurled upon him, 
both by private tongue and public pen, he always observed that 
silence commensurate with his dignity of character and mag- 
nanimity of soul. It is furthermore significant, that whenever 
an attack was made upon his official conduct at any time, it was 
only necessary that he point to the official report of the matter 
as made of it at the time. In every case where unfair criticism 
was indulged in, where there was no foundation for such, and, 
of course, no official data to which recourse could be had, the kind 
offices of some distinguished friend was invariably volunteered 

It is also rather a singular fact, that although he took a 


Tributes from the Press 

prominent part in numberless engagements, among which could 
be mentioned some of the most sanguinary of the '60's, he never 
suffered serious defeat, and ahnost invariably bore off the laurels. 
This statement applies to Longstreet more truthfully than to 
any other general of either side, /it was characteristic of him, 
and at the same time evincing his great military skill and genius, 
that he very often manipulated his forces as emergencies sug- 
gested in the absence of orders from his superior. In no in- 
stance where this was done does it appear that he ever received 
a reprimand, but the approval, rather, of the commanding 

y^f ter the war, his course seems to have met with some dis- 
approbation on the part of some of his admirers South. This 
is a matter which seems rather best decided by an appeal from 
the arena of individual judgment to the forum of justice and 
right. — OU) VKTKIlANr\ 

(Chattanooga Tvme$j Special.) 
''Punished for his Americanism." 

HuNTSviLLE, Alabama, January 8. — Greneral Samuel H. 
Moore, a brave ex-Confederate soldier of this city, claims to 
know inside history concerning the career of Greneral Longstreet 
after the close of the Civil War, and in a communication written 
for the public he calls upon General Joseph Wheeler and Colonel 
W. W. Garth to tell what they know in justice to the departed 
cfaSeftain. General Moore writes: 

'^ It is due General Lee's old war-horse, who was familiarly 
known to the Army of Northern Virginia as ^ Old Pete' Long- 
street, that a statement should be made which will vindicate 
his actions soon after the surrender and reinstate him in the 
hearts of those who always felt safe in battle when he was at 
their head, and who would have been proud to shed their last 
drop of blood to shield his fair name if they had only been cog- 
nizant of the facts which impelled him to pursue the course he 
did — as he believed for the benefit of his Southern i)eople. 

** In 1866, when reconstruction hung over the South like a 
sword of Damocles, five lieutenant-generals of the Confederate 
army held a meeting in New Orleans, in General Hood's room^ 

IT 367 


to discuBS the situation and publish to the South the easiest way 
to bear the yoke sad fate had placed upon their necks. 

^ After discussing all the pros and cons, they unanimously 
decided to accept the situation as it was, return to the Union 
like good and loyal citizens, and be the recipients of the offices 
of trust which were being given to carpet-baggers because the 
government could not find in the Southern States men willing 
to accept the offices that would have gladly been given them. 

** In this caucus of generals, Longstreet was selected to write 
and publish a letter. He did it. There was a howl of protest 
from the iU-inf ormed people. The men who advised Longstreet 
to do this did not face this opposition, avoided this martyr, let 
him bear the odium alone. I ask Greneral Joseph Wheeler to 
say what he personally knows of this. I call upon Colonel W. 
W. Garth to say what he knows and the source of his infor- 

*^ Let the South beg pardon for the wrong it has done our 
greater soldier, Greneral James Longstreet." 

** Did he do his duty as a soldier? Let WiUiamsbiirg, Sharpsbor^ Fred- 
ericksburg, Gettysburg, Chidcamauga, and the Wilderness malce reply." 

We are here to-day to pay our tribute to James Longstreet, 
the soldier who faithfully and ably served, the fighter who 
fiercely fought, the leader who bravely led, the sleepless, watch- 
ful, persistent, valorous captain of a glorious host, whom his 
great chief implicity trusted in every hour of supreme and 
dangerous service, and who on many a bloody field hurled his 
bold and devoted followers like an avalanche on the serried 
ranks of his country's foes, and who, when valor could avail no 
more, bore with him from the field of strife the passionate love 
of the legions he had led, and the unstinted praise and tearful 
benediction of his great commander, who knew him best, and had 
trusted him in many an ** imminent and deadly breach.** 

Every man capable by reason of environment, character, or 
ability of exerting an influence upon affairs in any important 
field of human endeavor, is called upon at some time to act under 
such circumstances that his decision must infallibly indicate the 
character of the man and forever fix his place in the estimation 
of his contemporaries and of posterity. 


Teibutes from the Press 

That time came to James Longstrcet in 1861. He was then 
an officer in the army of the greatest and most powerful republic 
on all the earth, and had won high and deserved honor in battle 
beneath its flag. 

High commission in that army awaited him if he but adhered 
to that flag, and the future held in store for him exalted rank 
which his reputation and ability easily assured him. 

On the other hand was a young nation, scarcely emerged 
from its chrysalis stage and without moral or physical support 
among the nations of the earth. His training and education as 
a soldier, and his knowledge of the power and resources of that 
great government in whose service he had been so long enlisted, 
enabled him to appreciate and realize the odds in its favor in the 
rapidly approaching struggle. 

The conditions which confronted him required the exertion 
of all the virtues of courage, honor, consistency, and fidelity to 
conviction. He was called upon to illustrate the loftiest quali- 
ties of human character, and immolate self on the shrine of 
duty, or give heed to the siren voice of ambition, and, lured 
by the selfish hope of high reward, turn his sword against the 
land of his birth in the hour of her sorest need. 

As Daniel, Virginia's great orator, has so fitly said of Robert 
E. Lee : ^^ Since the Son of Man stood upon the Mount and saw 
* all the kingdoms of the earth and the glory thereoP stretched 
before him and turned away from them to the agony and bloody 
sweat of Gethsemane, and to the Cross of Calvary beyond, no 
follower of the meek and lowly Saviour can have undergone a 
more trying ordeal or met it in a higher spirit of heroic sac- 

In that hour of supreme test, trial, and temptation, James 
Longstreet did not hesitate. He dallied not with dishonor. He 
was deaf to every call save that of duty. Obedient to the con- 
viction that his first, highest, and holiest obligation was to the 
land of his birth, he responded to her call, and for four long 
years " feasted glory till pity cried no more." His gleaming 
Bword flashed in the forefront of the fighting, till when stricken 
and scarred with many a wound and with honor unstained he 
bowed to the stem arbitrament of battle. 

When he made his choice and upon bended knee offered his 



sword as a loving and loyal son to his native Soulhf be tlierdiy 
avouched himself unto all the ages as one who in every hoar of 
trial and in every sphere of duty would keep his ^ robes and 
his integrity stainless unto heaven/* 

He then and there gave to the world perpetual and irrefutable 
proof that his every act since that day» whether as soldier or 
civilian, was prompted by an exalted sense of duty, performed 
in obedience to the convictions of an intelligent and ddiberate 
judgment, and approved by a clear conscience, and standing 
on that high vantage ground he courted truth and defied malice. 

No man who rises superior to temptation, and offers his life 
as an offering upon the altar of duty, and freely sheds his 
blood in testimony to the sincerity of his convictions, is called 
upon to explain his conduct ^ in any sphere of life in which it 
may please Grod to place him." 

The exercises of this occasion take color and purpose from 
that tragic era in which James Longstreet was so conspicuous 
and honorable a figure ; and his record as a soldier is absolutely 
beyond impeachment. Did he do his duty as a soldier brave 
and true? Did he bear himself as became a man in the hour of 
battle? Let history unroll her proud annals and say! Let Wilr 
liamsburg, Sharpsburg, Gettysburg, Chickamauga, and the 
Wilderness make reply. 

Ask those who met him and his dauntless legion on many a 
bloody field, and they will tell how often he swept down upon 
them like an avenging whirlwind. Ask his "boys,** who for 
four years followed him with unquestioning devotion and with 
ever-increasing love and admiration, and they will with one 
accord and with voices tremulous with emotion answer that he 
never lagged, failed, or faltered. 

Hear the testimony of Robert E. Lee, his great conunander, 
who, though dead, yet speaketh : " General Longstreet (at Graines 
Mill) perceived that to render the diversion effectual the feint 
must be converted into an attack. He resolved with charac- 
teristic promptness to carry the heights by assault.** After 
Chickamauga, he says, " My whole heart and soul have been with 
you and your brave corps in your late battle. Finish your work, 
my dear General, and return to me. I want you badly, and yoa 
cannot get back too soon.*' 


Tributes from the Press 

Let Joseph E. Johnston bear witness to the world of his 
great subordinate at Williamsburg: ^^ I was compelled to be 
a mere spectator, for General Longstreet's clear head and brave 
heart left no apology for interference. The skill, vigor, and 
decision of General Longstreet (at Seven Fines) was worthy of 
the highest praise." 

We have yet further testimony, which in pathos and con- 
vincing power excels all speech or written language. It is an 
historic truth that when the end had come at Appomattox, and 
those who had so long shared the hardships of the camp and 
the peril and the glory of the battle-field were about to separate, 
Greneral Longstreet and his staff proceeded to where General 
Lee and his staff had gathered for the last time before their final 
parting, and General Lee grasped the hand and spoke a few 
kindly words to each member of the group until he reached 
General Longstreet, when each threw his arms about the other, 
and as they thus stood clasped together both sobbed like chil- 
dren. When General Lee had recovered his composure, turning 
to a member of the party who is now in this presence, he said, 
** Captain, into your care I commend my old war-horse." 

Robert E. Lee, standing on the fateful and historic field of 
Appomattox, amid the gathering gloom of that awful hour of 
defeat and disaster, with his arms about James Longstreet, while 
his majestic frame shook with uncontrollable grief, was a scene 
worthy to have been limned by genius on immortal canvas. 

The tears of Robert E. Lee falling upon the symbol and in- 
signia of Longstreet's rank converted it then and there into a 
badge of honor, grander than the guerdon of a king. 

It is known to countless thousands that only a few years 
before he passed away Jefferson Davis moved out from the 
midst of a mighty throng, which was acclaiming him with every 
manifestation of earthly honor, to greet with open arms Gren- 
eral Longstreet. Turning aside for a time from the thousands 
who pressed about him in a very frenzy of love and enthu- 
siasm, he advanced and folded the great soldier to his bosom, 
thus testifying before Grod and a multitude of witnesses to his 
faith in the fidelity to conviction and to duty of the old hero. 

Davis! Lee! Johnston! Immortal triumvirate of heroes! 

Glorious sons of a glorious land! Fortunate indeed is that 



man who by such as they is avouched unto posterity. When 
Lee and Davis laid their hands in blessing and benediction upon 
James Longstreet, he was then and there given passport unto 

The brevity of the time properly allotted me wherein to per- 
form my part in the exercises of this occasion makes impossibk 
any discussion or analysis of the campaigns of Greneral Long- 
street, even if such discussion were necessary, which it is noL 
His fame is securely fixed, and the faithful historian of the 
future will assign him to his due and fitting place in the annals 
of his age. The history of that great struggle, in which he was 
so majestic and forceful a figure, which does not bear tribute 
to his fidelity, skiU, and valor will be manifestly and unjustly 
incomplete; and if any page thereof be not lighted with the 
lines of glory reflected by his heroic deeds, it will be because 
the truth has not been thereon written. 

In the galaxy of the glorious and the great, James Long- 
street will stand through all the ages enshrined with his great 
companions in arms in the pantheon of the immortals. 

Over such a life as his, bravely, nobly lived on lofty levdi, 
death has no dominion. More than fourscore years were upon 
him, and his kingly form was somewhat bowed, but the dauntless 
and indomitable spirit which had never quailed before danger, 
however imminent or dire, shrank not before the coming of that 
conqueror to whom the lofty and the lowly alike must yield, 
but, soothed and sustained by the holy faith of the mother 
church, he passed to his eternal rest — 

•* While Christ, his Lord, wide open held the door." 

To those who loved and honored him the thought is com- 
forting that after all the battles and trials and hardships of 
his arduous and eventful life he has found that rest reserved 
for the faithful in the realm of eternal reunion. 

We can believe that when, clothed with the added dignity and 
majesty of immortality, he drew near to that eternal bivouac;:^ 
where are pitched the tents of the comrades who preceded hin^ 
to rest eternal, two, conspicuous for kingly grace, even in that= 
inunortal throng, advanced to meet him and dasp him 


Tributes from the Fbess 

again to their bosoms, and that as he stood in their arms en- 
folded there fell upon his ears the voice of the Master saying, — 
*^ Well done, thou good and faithful servant ; enter into the 
joy of thy Lord.*' — Judge Norman G. ErrTasLi., Houston, 

** No soldier of Longstreet's corps ever doubted his loyalty." 

No soldier of Longstreet's corps during the war, whether he 
was one of the boys in the trenches, or wore the stars upon his 
collar, ever doubted either the courage, or the capaxdty, or the 
loyalty of James Longstreet. No man ever heard an insinuation 
of that kind. No, he was entitled to the splendid name the im- 
mortal Lee gave him of **old war-horse," and he held in the 
very highest degree the implicit confidence of the men he com- 
manded and who loved him. 

I love to think of Lee and Jackson and Longstreet and BUll 
as the "Big Four" of the Army of Northern Virginia. 

Many years have passed since that bloody conflict; we are 
now one people, with one common flag and one country and 
one destiny. But we ought not to forget, how can we forget! 
the glorious names which became as familiar as household words 
to us during that trying time. Among all the other great 
names, that of James Longstreet, the ranking lieutenant-general 
of the Confederate army, who earned that title in the field and 
worthily wore it to the end, must shine forever in that noble 
galaxy. — Captain John H. Leathen, Second Regiment Vtr- 
ginia Infantry ^ Stonewall Brigade. 

(GainesviUe^ Georgia, Eagle.) 
** Always a plumed knight without reproach." 

Nothing but sickness and a cold drive of twenty-five miles 
could have prevented me from attending the funeral obsequies 
of my old friend and great military chieftain and placing my 
humble tribute of flowers upon his grave. 

And now, in the quiet of a sick-chamber, I undertake to weave 
a little garland to his memory. I know that nothing I may 
write will add any lustre or greatness to a name that has become 
immortal in the annals of a people who more than a third of a 



century ago, and for four long years, performed deeds of heroic 
valor that would have shed glory upon the military renown of 
any country or people that have ever lived or had a place in 

^I have never permitted any criticism or detraction that has 
been written or uttered against General Longstreet, no matter 
by whom or for what purpose the same may have been written 
or uttered, to have a feather's weight in varying my love and 
veneration for this almost incomparable command^ 

I watched him in his course from Bull Run to Appomattox, 
and to me he was always a plumed knight, without reproadi. 
I have seen him on the field of battle, and I have seen him at his 
quiet tent. The very first order I heard given to ** fire,** was 
ddivered by Longstreet at Bull Run on the 18th day of July, 
1861. It was the prelude to the great victory on the bloody 
field of Manassas, three days after. 

Bull Run may have been the beginning of battles in Northern 
Virginia — ^introductory to greater performances, but it was 
nevertheless a finished battle. A fiag of truce came in and asked 
for a suspension of hostilities, and that the Federal dead be 
buried. The Union forces had fallen back to Centreville, three 
miles. Detachments from Bonham's South Carolinians and 
Early's Lousianians were called for to bury the dead. Long- 
street's brigade had done the principal fighting, and Long- 
street's brigade rested. 

The dead were buried by those who had been fighting them 
only a few hours before. The day's battle was over, and the 
sun went down with the victors in possession of the field and its 

The battle of BuU Run (18th of July, 1861) will always 
remain in my memory a separate picture, and, like a diamond, 
however small it may be when compared with greater jewels, will 
retain its own halo and its own setting of gems. Longstreet 
was the hero of that historic field. Beauregard was higher in 
command, but Longstreet began and ended the fi^t. 

I hope to be pardoned for this reference to an almost for- 
gotten engagement, wherein nearly four thousand South Caro- 
linians and an almost equal number of Virginians and Louisi- 
anians received their " first baptism of fire." 


Tributes from the Press 

I will relate an incident that occurred after the war, to illus- 
trate the inward character of General Longstreet, and how this 
great man desired to be on friendly terms with every one, espe- 
cially old friends whom the accidents of war had estranged. It 
had come to my knowledge that in some way or other during 
the war General Longstreet and General Lafayette McLaws, 
lifelong friends and fellow-officers in the old United States army, 
had become separated in their friendships. Seventeen years 
and more had passed, and yet no healing balm had been poured 
upon these two proud hearts. General Longstreet was a patron 
of the N. G. A. College. He had two sons, Lee and James, at 
this military institution. General McLaws was contemplating 
sending a son to the school. Knowing that there was estrange- 
ment between these great military heroes, I induced Grovemor 
A. H. Colquitt to place these two men on the Board of Visitors 
to the College in the hope that they might meet each other in 
the quietude of my mountain home and become reconciled. They 
both came, and I arranged that they might be my guests, with 
others, and in some way I hoped to bring them close together. 
Their meeting was quite formal, and I thought they were very 
cold to each other. But after the supper was over, and getting 
my other guests to seats on the piazza, where they might smoke 
and talk, I gently asked the two to walk into the parlor with 
me, and seated them within easy distance of each other. I then 
began the conversation by alluding to some affair of the war 
with which they were familiar, for both of them had commanded 
Kershaw's brigade, to which I belonged. It was not long before 
the clouds began to roll away, as these old warriors passed from 
one scene to another, and their voices became friendlier. I 
then thought I could be excused and passed from the room, and 
kept others from disturbing them, and when they came out 
together, shook hands, and bade each other ** good-night," I 
thought then that they were friends again. That night I called 
at Greneral Longstreet's room and knocked, but heard no re- 
sponse. I pushed the door gently and peered in, and discoverd 
that the General was kneeling and praying. I went away as 
softly as I coidd, and the next day Greneral Longstreet thanked 
me for the quiet way in which I had brought them together. 
**For,'' said he, ** we are friends again.** If I ever knew, I 



have long since forgotten the cause of the estrangement. It 
might have occurred at Grettysburg. 

It was my pleasure to have witnessed the meeting between 
Greneral Longstreet and President Davis, so often alluded to as 
occurring at the unveiling of the Ben Hill statue in Atlanta. I 
had been given by Colonel Lowndes Calhoun on that occasion 
the command of several hundred one-armed and one-legged Con- 
federate veterans. When these two great heroes met and em- 
braced, my command ** went wild," and they never got into 
line any more. Longstreet was almost a giant in stature and 
always attracted attention and produced enthusiasm. What- 
ever his political views were after the war was over, he honestly 
and fearlessly entertained them, but he never offensively pre- 
sented them to any one, and it remains yet to be seen whether 
he was not right in many matters concerning whidi he was 
perhaps too harshly judged by some people. 

In 1896 General Longstreet's name was on the McKinley 
electoral ticket. He came to Dahlonega to address the people 
on the political issues of the day. Although not a member of 
his political party, I had the honor of introducing him to the 
people of my native county in the following words, as published 
in the Eagle, October S9, 1896 : 

** FELLOw-CouNTaYMEN AND Ladies, — ^A fcw of the sur- 
vivors of that gallant band who rushed to arms in defence of 
the Sunny South more than a third of a century ago, without 
regard to past or present affiliation with political parties, have 
with only a few moments' notice met to pay an humble tribute to 
one who, with dauntless and conspicuous bravery, led the 
Southern cohorts through many bloody battle-fields. Like the 
plumed knight, Henry of Navarre, his sword always flashed 
fiercest where the fighting was the hottest. His was the first 
voice of command to * fire' when the Army of Northern Virginia 
was receiving its * baptism of fire' at Bull Run on the 18th of 
July, 1861. And from the following Sunday, the memorable 
battle of Manassas, to Appomattox our comrades followed him. 
From Gettysburg to Chickamauga with unfaltering step they 
went wherever he led them, and from Chickamauffa to the 
Wilderness they unswervingly obeyed his conmiands.^HiB fame 
has become the common heritage of us all. No longer the sok 

Tributes from the Fbess 

cynosure of Southern hearts and eyes, he is the beloved citizen 
of a restored country and a reunited Union. Jlis patriotis m, 
h is hlstor yy >"'g fiftTnoj oy^i fVi^ f.QjT>r|ri^Ti property of all the people, 
bo th Nort liinifl HmiiIIi He is with us to-day for only a few 
hours. Possibly our eyes may never look into his again, nor our 
hands clasp his on earth, nor ever hear that voice once so potent 
to thousands of his countrymen^ That voice is feeble, but he 
raises it now only for the purpose of guiding his friends into 
what he deems to be the paths of peace and prosperity. Listen 
to him with patience. I now have the honor of introducing to 
you, my fellow-countrymen, that distinguished soldier and 
statesman, General James Longstreet." — W. P. Pkicb. 

(Washington, D. C, Star.) 
** Would have won battle. Nerer disloyal to his commander.'* 

Major J. H. Stine, historian of the Army of the Potomac, 
has this to say of General Longstreet: 

^^It would be unjust in me to keep silent after enjoying 
Greneral Longstreet's confidence, especially in regard to that 
great battle in which the blue and the gray met at Gettysburg. 
A quarter of a century after that great battle I had Longstreet 
invited here as the guest of the First Corps of the Army of the 
Potomac. He came to Washington some two days in advance, 
and was a member of my household during that time. We 
occupied a room together at Gettysburg and went over the whole 
field, when he gave me a full description of the Confederates' 

** He was never disloyal to Lee, but he feared the Pickett 
charge would not be as successful as MacDonald's at Wagram. 
Longstreet attempted to persuade Lee not to order it, but rather 
a retreat at night and take up a position on the south bank of 
Pipe Creek, where Meade wanted to fight the battle. 

^* He says, in his history : ^ I was following the Third Corps 
as fast as possible, and as soon as I got possession of the road 
went rapidly forward to join General Lee. I found him on 
the summit of Seminary Ridge, watching the enemy concentrate 
on the opposite hill. He pointed out their position to me. I 
took my glasses and made as careful a survey as I could from 


that point. After five or ten minutes I tamed to General Lee 
and said, — 

<c < « jf ^^ could have chosen a point to meet our plans of 
operation, I do not think we could have found a better one than 
that upon which they are now concentrating. All we have to do 
is to throw our army around by their left, and we shall interpose 
between the Federal army and Washington.'' ' 

cc c (c -^^n g^ General Lee, *^ the enemy is there, and I am 
going to attack him there." ' 

** Lee was a great military student. He had before him Na- 
poleon's great victory at Wagram, when he ordered MacDonaM, 
with sixteen thousand men, to charge the enemy's centre. Bat 
few of that number were alive when success crowned that daring 
military movement. If Pickett's charge had been suooessful, 
it would have crowned the Southern Confederacy as one of the 
nations of the world, for it would not only have had foreign 
recognition, but valuable assistance. Upon every field except 
one Lee had been successful, and that was a drawn battle. 

^He had great confidence in himself, and thought that it 
was impossible to defeat him with his Southern legions under 
his command. Longstreet differed from him on that diarge, 
and I am truly glad, for the sake of my country, that Lee did 
not listen to him. They are both gone forever, but it seems 
strange to me that any military mind cannot recognize the 
foresight of Longstreet at Grettysburg." 

(Lost Cause.) 

" Pendleton's charge a discharge of hot air." 

The recent death of the gallant old war-horse of the Army 
of Northern Virginia, Gkneral James Longstreet, has again 
revived some of the slanderous and unfounded reports of his 
lack of duty, unfaithfulness, and disobedience of orders at the 
battle of Gettysburg. I want to offer some thoughts in regard 
to this matter, and the first thing I want to say is that General 
Longstreet retained the love and confidence of the soldiers of 
Lee's army up to the surrender at Appomattox, on the 9th of 
April, 1865. His soldiers never for one moment questioned his 
loyalty, his courage, or his patriotism. If these late reports of 


Tributes from the Press 

his defatilt of duty at Gettysburg be true, is it not passing 
strange that he retained the love and confidence of General Lee 
until the close of the war? If Longstreet had disobeyed Lee's 
orders at Gettysburg, thereby causing the battle to fail of suc- 
cess to Southern arms, does any one pretend to believe that 
Greneral Lee would have continued to place faith and confidence 
in him (his first lieutenant) until the close of the war? No 
man who has a proper conception of the character of Robert E. 
Lee as a soldier and as a great military commander will belieye 
it* Another remarkable circumstance in connection with these 
grave charges against Greneral Longstreet is, that the men com- 
posing the Army of Northern Virginia never heard a word of 
them until long after the death of Greneral Lee, who could and 
would have refuted or confirmed them. The fame and character 
of General Lee as a great military chieftain does not need that 
the fame and reputation of another great and gallant soldier 
of the Confederate army shall be besmirched. Another remark- 
able fact is, these charges came from men that were only briga- 
dier-generals at the battle of Gettysburg. Brigadier-Greneral 
Pendleton, it seems, first made this charge against General Long- 
street in a public speech at Lexington, Virginia, in 187S, in 
which he said that General Lee told him that he had ordered 
Longstreet to attack at sunrise on the 2d of July. Longstreet 
emphatically denied that General Lee ever gave him any such 
orders, and Colonel W. H. Taylor, Colonel C. S. Venable, Colo- 
nel Charles Marshall, and General A. L. Long, all of Greneral 
Lee's staff, testified, after this charge was made by Pendleton, 
that they never heard of any such orders. Colonel Venable, 
replying to General Longstreet, said, ** I did not know of any 
order for an attack on the enemy at sunrise on the 2d of July, 
nor can I believe any such order was issued by General Lee. 
About simrise on the 2d I was sent by General Lee to Greneral 
Ewell to ask him what he thought of the advantages of an attack 
on the enemy from his position. I do not think that the errand 
on which I was sent by the commanding Greneral is consistent 
with the idea of an attack at sunrise by any portion of the 

It seems clearly by the testimony of these eminent officers 
and soldiers who were at that time members of Greneral Lee's 


crfBdal f anuly and were active participants in that suprai ie 
struggle of Gettysburg, that this diarge by General Pendkton 
was only a discharge of hot air. I think the general yiew taken 
by the best authority upon the history of the fighting at Gettys- 
burg on July the Sd, which was the second day of these battles, 
that up to 11 A.M. Greneral Lee was undecided as to idiether he 
would attack on the right or left. No matter in what eloquent 
words we may clothe our admiration for him as a soldier, the 
soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia would regard all 
these eloquent words of praise as inadequate to express the ad- 
miration we feel for the brave deeds in war, and the nnselfiiih 
and gallant service rendered the Confederate army by this grand 
old hero, General James Longstreet. Greneral Lee told Greneral 
Pickett and the Army of Northern Virginia that the lack of 
their success at Grettysburg was his fault. This man of glorious 
and immortal fame, as the greatest military leader of modem 
times, realized that he himself had overrated the ability of his 
army, and underrated the army of his enemy, who had the 
advantage of numbers and of far better position. Greneral Lee 
realized then, as the world has since, that he made a mistake in 
attacking the Union army at Grettysburg after General Meade 
had secured and to some extent had fortified an almost impreg- 
nable position. Grant made the same mistake when Lee caught 
him on the fly in the Wilderness, at Spottsylvania, and at Cold 
Harbor, with this difference. Grant was depending upon his 
superior numbers and equipment, while Lee was depending upon 
the morale and fighting qualities of his army. And while the 
morale and fighting qualities of Lee's army were never equalled in 
the history of modem warfare, even they could not accomplish the 
impossible. And the traducers of Greneral Longstreet's fidelity 
are strangely oblivious of the fact that Greneral Longstreet at 
the battle of the Wilderness made a forced march that taxed 
his soldiers to their utmost capacity to get there in time, and 
when he arrived on the field he found the Southern line was 
being driven back by superior numbers, and throwing his troops 
into line and with his accustomed impetuosity drove the Federal 
line rapidly back and saved the day and gave the Southern 
army the rictory at the Wilderness. In this fight he was 
severely wounded, and the gallant Jenkins of South Cary^ly^* 


Tributes from the Press 

at the same time was killed. Pendleton said that Greneral Lee 
died believing that but for the disobedience of Longstreet at 
Grettysburg that battle would have been a victory for the 
Southern army. How did he know that Lee died with that 
belief? Did General Lee ever tell any one so? If so, whom? It 
18 one thing to make an assertion, but quite a different thing to 
prove it. I have seen men in my day look pretty cheap in court 
when called on to prove some things they had said on the streets. 

In conclusion, I want to say that while we all regretted and 
were grieved when Greneral Longstreet joined the Republican 
party, that fact ought not to have created prejudice sufficient 
to have caused us to ignore, and belittle, and cast any reproach 
upon his character, or unjust reflection upon his long and bril- 
liant career as a soldier. He was a soldier by profession, and, 
according to his own testimony, he never cast a ballot in civil 
life prior to the Confederate war. He and General Grant were 
warm personal friends. They were school-mates at West Point, 
c<»nrades in the Mexican and some Lidian wars. General Grant 
clasped his hand and called him Jim at the surrender at Appo- 
mattox. Grant at Appomattox was a Democrat and a slave- 
holder, and he went over to the Republican party and was elected 
President of the United States. What influence General Grant 
brought to bear upon General Longstreet may have been very 
great, for all the outside world knows. Be that as it may, we 
do know that up to the close of the war he had taken no active 
part in politics in any party. We also have every reason to 
believe that if Greneral Longstreet had espoused the Democratic 
party, and become a strong partisan in that party, we never 
would have heard a word of this imaginary default at Grettys- 

The soldiers of Longstreet's corps do not believe he disobeyed 
Greneral Lee's orders at Gettysburg, or at any other time. We 
don't believe it now; we never did believe it, and we never will 
believe it. — ^W. H. Edwaeds. 




{Sterling Price Camp.) 
**Hi8 chiTaliy is as lasting as the hills of the Old Dominioo.* 

Tribute to the memory of General James Longstreet, adopted 
by Sterling Price Camp, No. SI, Dallas, Texas. 

Comrade A. W. Nowlin, in submitting the report of the com- 
mittee, said in part: 

''Comrades, we have assembled here as a camp to pay tribute to fhe 
memory of the late lieutenant-General Longstreet One of the great 
soldiers of the age has fallen. He has answered the last rcdl-calL Tqif 
has been sounded 'Ligtits out' Tlie 'War-Horse of the Coofederacy' is 
dead. Tliis great, brave, and fearless oflteer is gone. The hard flgfaicr 
of the Army of Northern Virginia has surrendered to the arch-enemy death. 
General Longstreet possessed the esteem and confidence of his troops in 
a marked degree. They were devoted to him, and when and where he led 
they were invincible. 

" His name and his deeds of daring and chivalry are coupled and inter- 
woven with that of the Army of Northern Virginia, and are as lasting as 
the hills of the 'Old Dominion.' The heroic batUe-fidds of Virginia will 
ever attest and pay tribute to the military genius of this great leader. 
History will hand down to posterity the name of James Longstreet as 
one of the great generals of the nineteenth century." 

The following was adopted as Camp Sterling Price's tribute 
to Lieutenant-General James Longstreet : 

Whereas, Lieutenant-Greneral James Longstreet recently 
passed away at his home in Gainesville, Greorgia, and was buried, 
amid the tears and regrets of thousands of those who loved him 
and had assembled from every part of this country to pay this 
last honor to him ; be it 

Reiolved^ That the comrades of Camp Sterling Price have 
heard with profound sorrow of the death of this great Southern 
soldier and comrade. 

Resolved, That, educated in the profession of arms, he gave 
many years of his young manhood to the service of his country 
in the war with Mexico and in conflicts and campaigns with the 
savages of the West, and everywhere distinguished himself for 


Besolutions bt Camps and Chapters 

courage and ability so as to win promotion and the gratitude and 
applause of his countrymen. 

Resolved^ That when wrongs and passion disrupted the nation, 
and his native State withdrew from the Union and united with 
the Confederate States of America, he felt that his allegiance no 
longer belonged to the other States of the Union, but to the one 
of which he was a citizen, and he resigned his office in the United 
States army and offered his services to the government of the 
Confederacy. He received the rank of brigadier-general, and, 
being always in the front when campaigns were most important 
and the enemy the most powerful and battles were furious, he 
was promoted for distinguished bravery, conduct, and general- 
ship to be major-general, lieutenant-general, and Rcond in com- 
mand of the great Army of Northern Virginia, under the great 
commander Lee. 

As brigadier-general at Manasses he held the left wing of the 
enemy, by his boldness, so that it could not give assistance to the 
defeated right wing. As major-general he covered General 
Johnston's retreat in the Peninsula before the advance of Mc- 
Qellan, and fought the victorious battle of Williamsburg. As 
major-general he commanded the right wing in the bloody battle 
of Seven Fines, and with D. H. Hill drove the enemy from the 
field. In the Seven Days' battle around Richmond no general 
gained greater renown, and soon thereafter, when Congress 
directed the President to appoint seven corps commanders with 
the rank of lieutenant-general, Major-Greneral Longstreet was 
made the ranking lieutenant-general and second in conmiand 
of the army under Lee, which position he held through the 
great battles and campaigns of that army for three years, until 
with Lee and the remnant of his heroes he surrendered at Appo- 

At the second battle of Manassas he commanded the right 
wing of the army, and with Jackson on the left drove Pope 
into the fortification of Washington. At South Mountain he 
held McClellan with a death grip until Jackson could storm 
Harper's Ferry, and commanded the right wing at Sharpsburg 
and fought more than double his number under McClellan from 
early dawn until dcurkness spread her sombre shadows over the 
bloodiest scene in American history. It was here that Lee 

18 273 


knighted him as his ^ War-Horse'' as the last guns were sending 
their hoarse echoes among the mountains. Next, at Frederidcs- 
burg he conunanded the left wing, and at nightfall on the ISth 
of December, 1862, eight thousand of the enemy were stretched 
out dead or bleeding in front of his corps. 

At Gettysburg, riding by the side of Lee, without expecting 
nor desiring at that time to join battle with the enemy, they 
heard the thunder of Hill's and Ewell's guns, and hastened to 
their assistance. The first day's battle was fought and won 
before Lee or Longstreet could take an active part. On the 
second day Longstreet commanded the right wing and fought 
one of the bloodiest battles of the war, driying almost the entire 
army of Meade before him, and leaving more than ten thousand 
of the eneny slain or wounded on the field. The third day of 
this great battle he exhibited the loftiest courage. 

Next, he and his corps were sent from Virginia to Georgia and 
joined Bragg in the terrible battle of Chickamauga, where he 
commanded the left wing and routed the right wing of Rose- 
crans's army. When Grant and Meade, with their forty thou- 
sand veteran soldiers, were advancing upon Lee in the Wilder- 
ness of Virginia, the great commander of the Army of Northern 
Virginia called Longstreet with his men back from Tennessee, 
and with panting breath and quick step and double ranks he 
headed the Texas brigade and rushed upon the cheering and 
triumphant enemy on the second day in the Wilderness, and 
drove them over their works amid the blazing woods, and a great 
victory was in the grasp of Lee, when a bullet from our own 
men, by mistake, crashed through his body and he was carried 
from the field desperately wounded. The guiding hand of the 
great general and fighter was gone, and victory fled as the fatal 
opportunity was lost. 

In the long siege and through the many battles around Rich- 
mond and Petersburg, lasting nearly twelve months, Longstreet 
commanded the left wing on the north side of the James, and 
stood like an immovable mountain between the enemy and the 
Confederate capital. 

When the sad day of Five Forks came, and Lee's lines were 
broken about Petersburg, Longstreet was called from Ridunond 
with his men to the assistance of his great conmiander, and 


Resolutions bt Camps and Chapters 

covered the retreat and gave blow for blow to the charging 
enemy, and when the sun rose on the day of the 9th of April, 
and Grant was about to offer terms for the surrender of the 
Southern army, Longstreet told Greneral Lee that if the terms 
were not honorable they would fight again and die fighting. 
Thus he fought and stood by his chief to the bitter end, retain- 
ing the confidence of his commander and his President to the last; 
and if they who knew him best and trusted him most, and were 
with him day and night and knew his thoughts and opinions, and 
witnessed his deeds and actions throughout all the vicissitudes 
and trials of those days that measured the souls of men, — ^if they 
believed in him, trusted him, leaned on him, and kept him second 
to Lee, who shall have the temerity to criticise, to condemn, and 
to throw stones at this imperial soldier? 

Those of us who have heard the thunder of his guns ; those 
of us who have seen him leading his warriors in battle; those of 
us who have seen him stand like a Gibraltar against the charging 
thousands of a fierce foe, will honor him as a great soldier who 
has added to the fame of Southern manhood, and who is worthy 
to stand through the ages with Lee and Johnston and Jackson 
and Stewart, and all the brave men who laid their bcure breasts 
to the storm of war in the name of freedom and independence. 
We honor ourselves by honoring such a man. 

Resdhed, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of this Camp and a copy be sent to Mrs. James Longstreet by the 

A. W. NowuN. 

J. R. Cole. 

J. W. TAYLoa. 

T. C. Bailet. 

Milton Paex. 

(Camp 436.) 
^ A Solomon in council, a Samson on the Add." 

The following resolution in memory of Lieutenant-General 
'James Longstreet, introduced by Captain Wm. Dunbar, was 
adopted by Camp 485, U. C. V., Augusta, Greorgia, by a unani- 
mous and rising vote: 



Reiclved, That we deplore the death of Lieatenant-General 
James Longstreet. We recall how, in the opening of the cam- 
paign of 1862» his stubborn gallantry sayed the Army of 
Northern Virginia for its long career of glory ; how, later in the 
same campaign, his superb strategy rescued Stonewall Jackson 
from the swarming thousands about to overwhelm him; how, in 
1868, he flew to the aid of the heroic Army of Tennessee, and 
with it won the resplendent victory of Chickamauga. In short, 
we know him by the proud title of the War-Horse of the Con- 
federacy, a title worthily bestowed by General Robert £. Lee 
himself. He was a grand soldier, a Solomon in council, and a 
Samson in the field. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be inscribed on a special page 
of our minutes, and that a copy thereof be transmitted by our 
adjutant to the family of the valiant dead. 

(Longstreet Chapter.) 
** His fame is imperishaUe." 

Verily, though dead, yet in history he will continue to live; 
be it therefore 

Resolved, That while we, the Daughters of the Confederacy, 
deplore the loss of our beloved Confederate General James Long- 
street, who was the first ranking general of the Confederate 
army, passes one of the most gallant spirits of the nineteenth 
century. In the war drama of his life he played a most im- 
portant part. At the beginning of the scene of the Civil War he 
took up the Southland's cause and began as brigadier-general a 
career of courageous fighting which won for him the admiration 
of the world. He was a comrade of Jackson and a companion of 
Lee. In personal appearance General Longstreet was well 
adapted to play this important part. So distinguished in appear- 
ance, he was indeed a veritable ** war-horse.'' His career in the 
Confederate army was a magnificent display of this loyal ad- 
herence to his views of truth and right. His fame as a soldier 
is imperishably inscribed on the scroll of history. 

Worn by recurring paroxysms of exquisite pain, the great 
warrior was weary as the evening shadows fell, and patiently 
asked his devoted wife to rearrange his couch. '^ I shall rest 


Resolutions bt Camps and Chapters 

better on the other side," he said, gently. Then the spirit took 

its flight. 

Let us cberish in our hearts the golden story. 
How the chieftain bravely lived and calmly died— 
living for his Southland's never fading glory— 
^ Resting better now upon the other side." 

Perish the hand and strike down the pen that would rob 
him of a people's gratitude to a brave and loyal son. 

Resolved^ SQs death caused universal sorrow among those who 
honor the chivalry, gallantry, and bravery which lent to the 
Confederate cause the lustre that can never dim, and left a 
laurelled history that will never die. 

''For he who best knows how to endure shall possess the 
greater peace." 

Resolved, That we extend our heartfelt sympathy to his be- 
reaved family in this hour of unspeakable sorrow, and pray that 
the hand of our Heavenly Father may be laid in gracious healing 
upon their broken hearts. That the Holy One may abide with 
them in comforting influence, and that the sunshine of His 
wonderful presence may brighten the present sad separation by 
the sure promise of reunion with their beloved in the land where 
suffering and death are unknown. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the city 
papers, and to the bereaved family, and that they be inscribed in 
our minutes. 

Mks. R. H. Smfth. 
Mrs. Eenest Ham. 
Mks. J. C. DoESET. 
Mes. C. C. Sandees. 

(John A. Green Camp.) 

*T1ie battle-fldds of Virginia will ever pay tribute to Longstreefs 

HBAD-QvAams Colokxl Johk A. Gbbk Camp, 

No. 1461, U. C. V^ DiCKBirSt Tixis. 

We have assembled here to pay tribute to the memory of the 

** War-Horse'* of the Army of Northern Virginia, Greneral 

James Longstreet, who died recently at his home in or near 

Gainesville, Georgia, at the ripe old age of eighty-three years. 



Greneral Longstreet earned his first laureb at the fint battk of 
Manassas, and fought his way up to lieutenant-generaL Bdng 
the ranking lieutenant-general in Lee's grand army, he serred 
with conspicuous gallantry in nearly all the battles in niiicfa that 
army was engaged, — Manassas, Williamsburg, Seven Pine^ 
under Johnston, the Seven Days' battles around Richmond, Cedar 
Mountain, Second Manassas, Sharpsburg (it was here that 
General Lee knighted him as lus ^War-Horse"), Frederida- 
burg, Grettysburg, Chickamauga, the WOdemesa, around Bich- 
mond and Petersburg, and in almost all the great battles in which 
Lee's army was engaged. However we may have differed witii 
him in the political path which he chose, when the army whidi he 
led with such conspicuous ability laid down their arms and re- 
turned to peaceful pursuits, we recognize in him a great general, 
and the battle-fields of Virginia will ever attest and pay tribute to 
his military genius. History will hand down his name to pos- 
terity as one of the great generals of the South, one who was fane 
and faithful to the Star-Spangled Banner under which he 
fought, and in whom our great commander, Greneral R. £. Lee, 
placed his confidence and trust. General Longstreet possessed 
the esteem and confidence of lus troops in a marked degree in 
camp and field, and in advance or retreat his deeds of daring 
are coupled with that of the army of General Lee, and are as 
lasting as the hills of Virginia. We extend our sympathy to 
the family of this grand old general who has passed over the 


Jno. a. GasEN, U. C. V., 

Thos. L. Woods, U. C. V., 
B. D. Glasgow, S. U. C. V., 
R. L. CoLUEE, S. U. C. v., 
W. C. Ballaed, CammUtee. 

Commander. • 

{James Longstreet Camp.) ^ 

** A patriot who commanded the admiration of the age in^ which he lived. 
One of the world's great generals." 

To the memory of General Longstreet, passed by. Camp Jamei 
Longstreet, U. C. V., at their regular meeting in liBnnis, TezaSf 
January 17, 1904: 


Resolutions bt Camps and Chapters 

Whebxas» The Commander-in-Chief has been pleased to call 
the late Lieutenant-Greneral James Longstreet across the river, 
to rest in the shade on the other shore with his former com- 
manding general, R. £. Lee, and his associates. Hood, Jackson, 
and others, who had preceded him; and 

Whebeas, In the removal of this great soldier from the walks 
of life to his future reward the military world has lost one of the 
most distinguished military characters known to the history of 
civil warfare ; America has lost a loyal patriot, whose inflexible 
devotion to duty, as he saw it from a view-point of patriotic 
loyalty to his country, commanded the admiration of the age in 
which he lived; the South has lost a son, whose distinguished 
services as a gallant soldier and whose superior ability as a 
general in the Army of Northern Virginia easily classed him 
with the greatest of the world's great generals, one whose brilliant 
record sheds an honorable lustre on the Southern soldier of which 
the American people feel justly proud; therefore be it 

Resolved^ That while we deplore with sadness the death of 
General Longstreet, who enjoyed the full confidence of his com- 
manding general and of the oflicers and men of his command 
as a gallant and prudent ofiicer, we cherish his record as a general 
in the Army of Virginia as a spotless sheen of soldierly merit and 
worth, faultless in every respect. 

Resolved^ That a page in the record-book of Camp James 
Longstreet be set apart, and that these resolutions in memory of 
our departed general be recorded thereon. 


L. A. Daffan. 
T. G. May. 


(Hatiiesburg Camp.) 

**He was the chosen leader and central figure In every great conflict 
from the first battle of Manassas to the fateful day at Appomattaz." 

Longstreet was the chosen leader and central figure in every 

great conflict from the first battle of Manassas to the fateful 

day at Appomattox. 

Sparta never had a worthier son than the South had in Gen- 



eral Longstreet. From the firing of the first gun his ardor neyer 
ceased, his courage never failed. Often in the midst of the 
greatest battle did he stand with his men when they fell around 
him like forests in a storm. Hia presence was inspiring, and his 
word talismanic No soldier was ever more loved or confided in 
than he. Who shall say that his name shall not emblazon the 
brightest page of our history? Who will deny him that great 
praise, so justly his own by reason of his great services and ter- 
rible suffering? History will be incomplete without according 
him her brightest page ; and as long as we live to recount deeds 
of valor and heroism on the battle-field, will live the names of 
Lee, Longstreet, and ^^ Stonewall" Jackson. Who that was at 
Gettysburg, Spottsylvania, and the Wilderness, when the earth 
rocked with the tramp of armed men and the roar of battle 
resounded almost to heaven, would deny him this mead of praise? 

In all these was General Longstreet a prime warrior, a caor 
spicuous actor. He rarely, if ever, was defeated. He planned 
his marches, battles, and retreats with a strategy little less than 
transcendent ; and when he made a stand he placed his back to 
the rock and bid defiance to his enemies. 

He was to Lee what Ney was to Napoleon, a guide, a friend, 
and a confidant. 

I cannot pass this occasion without recalling an incident at the 
Wilderness. On the 6th day of May, 1864, Greneral Grant had 
devastated the entire country from the Rapidan River to Fred- 
ericksburg. His soldiers were as numerous as the Assyrian hosts. 
Hancock's corps had advanced to the west side of the plank 
road that ran through that dismal swamp, and had driven both 
Pendor and Heath out of their breastworks, thus breaking 
through the centre of our line of battle. It was an awful hour — 
fear and despair could be seen in every face. In vain did Heath 
and Pendor try to repossess their works. 

Just at that moment Longstreet arrived on the ground. 
Hood's Texans were in front. Lee came in a gallop to meet 
them. With tears in his eyes and his long hair flying in the 
wind, he asked, " What troops are these?" " Hood's Texans," 
was the reply. " Follow me !" he said. When he started to lead 
them, a Texan belonging to the First Texas Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel J. R. Harding, now of Jackson, Mississippi, 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

caught the bridle of General Lee's horse and turned him back. 
Away went the Texans followed by the Mississippi, Arkansas, 
Alabama, and Louisiana brigades, and drove the enemy back 
and saved the day. This was but one of the glorious acts of 
Greneral Longstreet. 

Cold Harbor, Seven Pines, Graines Mill, Sharpsburg, Fred- 
ericksburg are not less glorious than others named, and all made 
so by the energy and courage of Longstreet and his faithful 
soldiers* At the battle of Sharpsburg for a long time our army 
was threatened with defeat ; our lines began to waver before the 
terrible iSre of the superior numbers with which we were con- 
tending, when General Longstreet, just from a hot contest on 
our left, was brought around to the centre, and for six long 
hours he repelled the assailants of this numerous host and '^ kept 
the executives at bay and drove back the Mamalukes of power." 
Forget him? No! The names of Lee and Longstreet will live 
as those of Caesar and Napoleon, and when this physical world 
shall have perished, and the heavens rolled together as a scroll, 
the names of these men will be remembered. 

Resolved, That in the death of General Longstreet the South 
has lost one of her most brilliant soldiers. 

Resolved, That in battles his name was a synonym of success, 
and his presence an inspiration to his men, a terror to lus ene- 

Resolved, That the Camp wear the usual badge for thirty days 
and a copy of this paper be sent to his family at Gainesville, 

T. B. Johnson, 

For Committee. 

Adopted by Hattiesburg, Mississippi, Camp, No. 21, U. C. V., 
February 6, 1904. 

(John Af. Stephen*s Camp.) 
"Where his flag waved his lines stood as immovable as dbraltar." 

CoMBADES, — ^At his home at Gainesville, Georgia, at 5 p.m., 
Saturday, January S, 1904, in his eighty-third year, Lieu- 
tenant-General Longstreet answered his last roll-call. If Ala- 


bama had done nothing save to give ujb Longstreet and Pelhani) 
she would have done much for herself, the Southland, and for 
fame. If with Alexander, Hannibal, and Napoleon, Robert E. 
Lee takes first rank among the world's great generals, surely 
General Longstreet may stand with those who occupy second 
rank among the world's great military men. 

If Jackson was Lee's right hand, Longstreet was his left from 
Manassas to Appomattox. 

Longstreet was a very thunder-bolt of war. When Jackson at 
the second battle of Manassas was hard pressed by Pope's whole 
army, Longstreet rushed to his aid and, striking Pope's flank, 
crushed it as an egg-shell in the hand of a strong man. Thus 
always and everywhere that Longstreet led, his men hurried to 
death as joyously as the bridegroom to greet the bride ; where 
his flag waved his lines stood as inmiovable as Gibraltar to the 
storms of the ocean, and when he moved forward, there the 
enemy were beaten or death and carnage reigned supreme. If 
after Appomattox, Longstreet made mistakes, or we imagined 
he did, the mantle of death covers them all. Remembering there 
has only One lived without fault, they are forgotten, and stand- 
ing by his grave we remember only his virtues and the heroism 
and skill which made him great in times and places where great 
men were thick as fallen leaves in Vallombrosa ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we mourn the death of our great leader, and 
tender to his bereaved family our sincere sympathy. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of this Camp, and that copies be f lunished our town papers for 
publication and a copy be sent to General Longstreet's widow. 

Silas C. Buck, 
McD. Refl, 


(Jeff Falkner Camp.) 
** His officers and men have never doubted his courage and Ipyaltj.** 

Commander John Purif oy spoke of the death of Greneral Long- 
street and introduced the subjoined resolutions which were unani- 
mously adopted. 

** In the death of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet a 


Besolutions by Camps and Chapters 

great soldier has ' passed over the river' to his final rest. No 
more will he wake to behold the splendor and fame of his men. 
He has fought his last battle. In the school of war he had 
learned courage, promptness, and determination. Its stem les- 
sons had taught him fortitude in suffering, coolness in danger, 
and cheerfulness under reverses. Every Southerner should feel 
proud of his record as a soldier. 

*' While some of those who were associated with him in the 
many great battles in which he was a conspicuous figure, have 
permitted themselves to engage in some adverse criticism of his 
conduct on one occasion only, the officers and men under his im- 
mediate conmiand never for a moment doubted his courage, his 
skiU, his integrity, his sincerity, or his loyalty to the cause for 
which he unsheathed his sword. Nor did the great Lee, whose 
confidence he retained to his death, ever intimate that Longstreet 
was not faithful, brave, and prompt in the discharge of every 
duty as a soldier. 

** As surviving comrades we will cherish his memory ; as Ala- 
bamans, we are proud of his record. His integrity, his honesty, 
and his heroic conduct are worthy of emulation. 

** Resolved, That our sincere condolence is hereby tendered his 
bereaved widow and other members of his family. 

** Resolved, That this memorial and resolutions be spread upon 
our minutes, and that they be given to the press for publication. 

** Resolved, That a copy of the same be mailed to his widow 
at Gainesville, Georgia." 

(George B. Eastin Camp.) 

** His fame will endure as long as the story of the great struggle shall be 

Whe&eas, We, the members of the George B. Eastin Camp 
of United Confederate Veterans, Louisville, Kentucky, have heard 
with profound regret of the death of our distinguished comrade, 
Lieutenant-Greneral James Longstreet, and feel that we should 
pay tribute to the memory of one who was so conspicuously asso- 
dated with the cause for which we fought ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That we recognize and testify to the valor and de- 
motion which he exhibited on so many fields made memorable by 


Confederate effort, and caused him to be worthily ranked among 
the best and bravest soldiers of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
With the history and the glory of that army his name wiU 
ever be signally and inseparably connected. His fame as a 
skilful, resolute, and sagacious commander, the honor due him 
as a dauntless defender of his native soil, his record for faithful 
performance of duty and unflinching courage from '* Manassas 
to Appomattox,'' will endure so long as the story of the great 
struggle shall be told. 

Forgetting in the presence of his death and grave all later 
differences, we remember and acknowledge his services and his 
heroism in the hour of need and trial. 

Resolved^ That these resolutions be spread on the minutes of 
this Camp, and the daily papers of this city be requested to 
publish same; also, that a copy be sent to the bereaved widow of 
our distinguished comrade. 

Respectfully submitted, 

D. Thobntok. 

Jas. S. Cabpentee. 

J. S. S. Caslbb. 

(Pat Cleburne Camp, No. 88.) 

**Ht was as tme as the needle to the pole in every position in which 
be was placed, whether in civic or military life.** 

January 17» 1904. 

Two weeks ago to-day the wires flashed the news over the 
country that Greneral James Longstreet, the soldier, statesman, 
and diplomat, died Saturday night at his home in Grainesville, 
Greorgia. He was bom in Edgefield District, South Ccurolina, 
Janu€ury 8, 1821, hence lacked only a few days of being eighty- 
three years of age. He graduated from West Point in 1842, was 
in the war with Mexico and brevetted for meritorious service at 
Churubusco and Molino del Rey. He was wounded September 8, 
1847, at the storming of Chapultepec. He was conunissioned 
brigadier-general in the Confederate army at the first battle of 
Bull Run, in 1861, where he commanded a brigade on the right 
of the Confederate army and held in check a strong force of the 
enemy in a vain effort to turn General Johnston's flank; and 
from then until the dark day at Appomattox, when the sun of the 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

Confederacy went down in gloom to rise no more, the flag of 
*' Old Pete," as he was familiarly called by his old comrades, was 
everywhere in the thick of the fight ; and he was one of Lee's most 
trusted lieutenants, and every true Confederate soldier will drop 
a tear to his memory. He has crossed the dark river and is now 
resting with Lee, Jackson, and thousands of others who have 
answered the last roll-call, heard the last tattoo, and will hear the 
roll of the drum and the call to arms no more forever. Peace 
to his ashes and sympathy to his living comrades is our sincere 
wish ; therefore be it 

Resolved^ That the death of General Longstreet takes from 
our earthly ranks another of the brave and true, one who was 
ever ready to obey the call of duty, as the writers of this resolu- 
tion can testify, having followed him through many bloody en- 
gagements where he was indeed a leader whom any might feel 
honored to follow. He was as true as the needle to the pole in 
every position in which he was placed, whether in civic or mili- 
tary life. 

Resolved^ That a copy of these resolutions be spread upon 
our minutes, a copy forwarded to the widow of our deceased com- 
rade, and that we tender her our sincere sympathy in this the 
darkest hour of her life. 

J. M. Mallett, 
Captain Commanding. 

M. S. Kahle, 


{Joseph E. Johntton Camp.) 

''His sword was one of the most trenchant ever drawn in the South*s 

At a regular meeting of Joseph E. Johnston Camp, U. C. V., 
No. 119, held at GainesviUe, Texas, on the 9th day of January, 
1904, the Committee on Resolutions as to the death of Greneral 
Longstreet presented, and the Camp unanimously adopted, the 
following resolutions : 

Resolved^ That we have heard, with deep sorrow, of the death 
of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet, late of the Confederate 



Reiolvedf That in the death of General Longstreet the world 
has lost one of her greatest military chieftains, the United States 
one of her most illustrious citizens, and the South one who in the 
darkest hours of peril boasted him among her noblest and best; 
his sword was one of the most trenchant ever drawn in her de- 
fence, and to her is left the proud heritage of his brilliant career. 

Resolved^ That as this sad news is flashed around the worid, it 
IS fitting that every ex-Confederate soldier should bow his head 
in deep sadness as his bier passes us to the silent dty of the dead. 

Reiolvedt That as our great comrade has obeyed his last tattoo, 
and after a long and useful life has gone to peaceful rest, where 
war's dread alarm is heard no longer, that we pray the reveille 
of resurrection morning will wake him to receive a crown of 
glory brighter far than heroes ever won in the battle^eld. 

Reiolvedt That we, lus comrades in arms, tender his noble wife 
and family our genuine sympathy in their sad bereavement, 
assuring them that a grateful people will lovingly cherish the 
proud military record of this wonderful soldier. 

Reiclved^ That a copy of these resolutions be mailed to lirs. 
James Longstreet, and copies be delivered to the press. 


F. A. TnjEm, 

H. Ingle, 


RoBT. Bean, 

Commander pro tern. 


Adjutant pro tern. 

(Merria E. Pratt Chapter.) 
** Years will only add lustre to his crown." 

The Merrill E. Pratt Chapter of the United Daughters of the 
Confederacy, of Prattville, Alabama, paid a tribute of respect 
to the memory of General James Longstreet, by adopting the 
following resolutions : 

Whebeas, FuUy cognizant of the fact that there will be many 
tributes of condolence offered, tributes that thrill with eloquence 

Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

and lofty sentiment, yet there will be none more sincere or more 
truly heartfelt than that offered by the Merrill £. Pratt Chapter 
of the United Daughters of the Confederacy; therefore. 

Resolved, That in the death of General Longstreet the whole 
nation lost one of its truest statesmen, while the South lost one of 
its greatest chieftains and one of its stanchest friends. 

Resolved^ That while we deplore his death, we bless and praise 
the Glorious Giver for the gift to the Southland of such a patriot 
as General Longstreet, a patriot whose fame time cannot wear 
away, and years will only add lustre to his crown. 

Mas. James D. Rise, 

Mas. J* A. Pratt, 
Corresponding Secretary. 

(Tom Smith Camp.) 
" He was the last survivor of the South's great warriors.** 

Mr. Commander and Comrades, — ^Your committee appointed 
at the last meeting of this Camp to draft resolutions expressing 
our sorrow and grief at the death of Lieutenant-Greneral James 
Longstreet, respectfully report as follows: 

Lieutenant-General Longstreet was the commander of the 
First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, and the last sur- 
yivor of the great warriors upon whom that rank was first con- 
ferred when the Confederate armies were organized into corps. 
He was known as the *^ Fighting General," and, with the excep- 
tion of the battle of Chancellorsville, was with General Lee in all 
his campaigns from the Seven Days' fight around Richmond 
until the war ended at Appomattox, save only when incapacitated 
a few months by wounds received in the battle of the Wilderness 
in 1864. He was loved and respected by his soldiers, and the 
surviving veterans of his corps have always honored their leader 
and are mourners at his grave. 

Resolved, That we who knew him and followed him through 
the dangers and trials of protracted war claim the privilege of 
paying our tribute of heartfelt sorrow to the memory of our 

dead commander. 



Resdboed, That we extend to his widow and sonriTing diildren 
our sympathy in their affiction. 

Retolvedy That this memorial be spread upon the records of 
this Camp, and that a copy be sent to his bereaved f amfly. 

Thos. M. Smith, 
J. C. Causst, 


(J. E. B. Stuart Camp.) 
"General Lee leaned on him as a strong arm of defence." 

In the death of General James Longstreet passes away one of 
the most prominent generals of the Southern Confederacy. He 
was bom in Edgefield District, South Carolina, January 8, 1821. 
When ten years old, in 1881, he moved with his mother to Ala- 
bama, and from this State he was appointed to the United States 
Military Academy, from whence he graduated in 184S. He was 
assigned to duty at Jefferson Barracks, Missouri, in 184S-44; 
on frontier duty at Natchitoches, Louisiana, 1844-46; in the 
occupation of Texas, 1846-46; and in the war with Mexico. 
Here he was wounded, was promoted several times for gallantry, 
his courage being observable on all occasions. He faithfully 
discharged his duties as an officer of the United States until 
Jime 1, 1861, when he resigned and entered the service of the 
Southern Confederacy. His career is well known to his com- 
rades, and is a part of the glorious history of our Southern cause. 
He was a brave soldier, a superior officer, brave and true, and 
one of the hardest fighters of the Army of Northern Virginia. 
Greneral Lee had implicit confidence in him, and leaned on him as 
a strong arm of defence in the most desperate fighting and 
splendid generalship. Longstreet was a man of the front, where 
he stood to execute orders the most difficult and hazardous, and 
did not lay aside his sword until his leader surrendered his shat- 
tered forces, until there was no more fighting to do. He was 
cool, deliberate, and yet generous. It became an acknowledged 
fact that where Longstreet and his brave men were, was sure 
and desperate fighting. He stood in line of battle ready for 
engagement when the surrender came, loosening his grip cm 
his faithful sword only when the war had ended. 

BjBSOLunoNS BY Camfs and Chapters 

We honor him for his works' sake, and bow our heads in 
memory of his wonderful achievements, his devotedness to duty, 
and love for our great Southland. 

Resolved, That this memorial be spread upon the minutes of 
this Camp, a copy furnished the family of our deceased comrade, 
and a copy furnished such papers as may wish to publish the 

Done by order of J. E. B. Stuart Camp, No. 45, U. C. V., 
Terrell, Texas, January 16, a.d. 1904. 

Vic. Reinhabdt, 


(Horace King Camp.) 

*^He was one of the most persistent and detennined fighters that any 
coontiy ever produced." 

Your committee appointed by Horace King Camp, No. 476, 
U. C. v., Decatur, Alabama, to prepare resolutions expressive of 
their profound sorrow at the death of Lieutenant-Greneral James 
Longstreet, of Confederate army fame, beg leave to report, — 

First, That in General Longstreet's death we have lost one of 
the bravest generals who fought on either side of the Civil War — 
one whom the great Lee called the right arm of the Army of 
Northern Virginia. He was one of the most persistent and de- 
termined fighters that any coimtry ever produced. 

Second, He was independent, self-reliant, watchful, devoted 

to the cause he espoused. He never flinched from unexpected 

difficulties, and showed his readiness to die at his post if need be. 

He was a man of superb courage. ^^ He not only acted without 

fear, but he had that fortitude of soul that bears the consequence 

of the course pursued without complaint." In the presence of 

death, the good man judges as he would be judged. In the grave 

should be buried every prejudice and passion bom in conflict of 

opinion. Fortunate are we, indeed, when we become great 

enough to know and appreciate the great. Longstreet was brave 

enough to follow the path of duty as he saw it, no matter where 

it led. In speaking words of love and praise over his grave, we 

honor ourselves. May we with gratitude remember the good 

that he has done. May he rest in peace. 
19 289 


Resclvedt That a copy of these resolutions be sent the f amfly 
of the deceased, and that they be spread upon the record of the 

W. W. LmxEJOHH, 
Samusl Blackwxix, 


The foregoing resolutions were adopted by a rising vote of the 
Camp, January 14, 1904. 

W. H. L0NO9 

W. R. Fkancis, 


(New York Highlanders.) 

" We had reason to respect him as a foe." 

HxAo-Qviksmi Ss f ss Ti - imrTH RsoiiixirT^ 

Nbw Yokk VoLmnsKB HioKuiimni^ 

VroMAx AaaooATsam. 

Wheeeas, It has come to our knowledge that our esteemed 
Honorary Member, Lieutenant-General James Longstreet, late 
of the Confederate army, has passed to that bourne from which 
no traveller has ever returned ; and 

Wh£K£A8, We had reason to respect him as a foe with whom 
we were often in conflict, and to whom we sometimes had to yield 
the palm of victory, and especially do we remember the gallant 
fight he and his tried veterans made at Fort Saunders, KnoxviUe, 
East Tennessee, on November 29, 1863, when we were victorious 
only after he had thrice been repulsed ; and 

Whereas, We also remember with pleasure the reunion of the 

Blue and the Gray held at Knoxville in 1890, where we again 

renewed our acquaintance with the General and his gallant band, 

but under far different and pleasanter circumstances — ^they were 

our foes in 1863, our friends in 1890; and we also recall the 

many hours we passed in his company when we fought our 

battles over and over again, and where we had the pleasure of 

placing upon our roll the name of General Longstreet as an 

honorary member; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That in his death we feel that there has passed away 


BjBSOLunoNS BY Camps and Chapters 

a gallant soldier and gentleman, who in the conflict and struggle 
of the Civil War, where so many gave their lives to defend the 
cause which each espoused, we learned to respect, and in peace 
we learned to love; and we therefore extend to his widow and 
family in their bereavement our heartfelt sympathy, committing 
them to the loving care of the Divine Master, who alone can 
comfort them in their affiction. 

Feancib W. Judoe, 

Chaeles Csawfokd, 


(Camp Frank Gardner.) 

" He won for our armies a world-wide rq>iitation.'' 

Camp GcmcBAL Fbavk Gaboxeb, No. 680, U. C V., 
LAFATBTiit LoumAiTA, Jaouaiy 14, 1904. 

Whbbeas, This is the first meeting of this Camp held since 
death has claimed as one of its victims the distinguished Con- 
federate soldier, Greneral James Longstreet, who departed this 
life on the 2d day of January, 1904, at Gainesville, Greorgia; 

Wheeeas, This Camp recognizes the great services rendered 
to the cause by the brilliant soldier, and desires to render its 
meed of just tribute to the memory of the gallant officer and 
conunander ; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Greneral James Longstreet we 
mourn the loss of one of the most illustrious of the great gen- 
erals who led our armies to victory on many a hard-fought field 
against almost overwhelming odds, gaining for our devoted 
armies a world-wide reputation that ranks them among the best 
soldiers of the age. 

Resolved, That these resolutions be entered in the records of 
our Camp as a memento of our admiration and appreciation 
of this distinguished general and citizen, and that a copy be sent 
to the family of the deceased. 

C. Debatllok, 

Captain Commanding. 

P. L. DeClouet, 



(Pai Clehume Camp, No. 4S6.) 

"Tbe Gettyslmrg charges are not supported bj antiientic histoij or sati»- 
factory evidence." 

Whxkeas, It has pleased Almighty God to call to him the 
immortal soul of General James Longstreet, lieutenant-genenl 
in the Army of the Confederate States of America, whose record 
as a broad-minded citizen and conscientious, upright, and honor- 
able oflScer in the various civil positions he has held, is only ex- 
celled by the great service he rendered his country, as the soldier 
and general, whose bravery, fortitude, ability, and devotion to 
duty was excelled by none whose fortunes were cast with his, 
beneath the ^^ Stars and Bars ;" and 

Whereas, There is among certain ones in the South a disposi- 
tion to reflect upon his fidelity to the trust imposed upon him at 
the battle of Gettysburg, and place upon his shoulders the blame 
for General Lee's loss of that engagement ; be it 

Resolved, That we deprecate the spirit that would induce one 
Confederate soldier to stoop from the pedestal upon which his- 
tory has placed him, to deprive another of the honor to wbkh 
he Ib justly entitled. 

Resolved, That we heartily approve of the course taken during 
his life by the late General Longstreet, — ^in ignoring the attacks 
and caliminies heaped upon him by those who were his comrades 
in arms, — as showing the true greatness of the man. 

Resolved, That we further believe, when the true facts are 
known, an admiring and grateful people will place him second 
only to the inmiortal Lee, who, though all the facts were known 
to him, exhonerated Longstreet from all blame, saying, ^The 
fault is mine." 

Resolved, That this Camp do hereby attest its belief in hb 
fidelity, ability, and high moral character, and that the so-called 
Gettysburg charges are not supported by authentic history or 
satisfactory evidence. 

Resolved, That we here extend to the family of General Long- 
street our heartfelt sympathy in this, their, and their nation's 
loss, and that one copy of these resolutions be mailed to Mrs. 


BjBSOLunoNS BY Camfs and Chapters 

James Longstreet, one be printed in our local papers, and 
another be spread on the minutes of this Camp. 
Respectfully submitted, 

James R. S[eith. 

The above resolutions were adopted by Pat Cleburne Camp, 
No. 4869 U. S. C. v., of Cleburne, Texas, at a regular meeting 
of that Camp, held on Sunday, January 24, 1904. 

Jas« R. Ketth, 

W. F. Black, 


(Pat Cleburne Camp^ No. «««.) 
** He was a tme and tried leader of men." 

To Pat Clehume Camp, No. SSS, Waco, Texas: 

Your oonmiittee respectfully recommend the following resolu- 
tions as to General Longstreet: 

Whekeas, We have heard with deep regret of the recent death 
of General James Longstreet, commander forty years ago of the 
First Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, Confederate States 
army; therefore be it 

Resolved, That in the death of Greneral James Longstreet the 
country at large has lost a true and tried leader of men, and 
the Confederate Veterans have parted with a comrade and com- 
mander in whom they reposed implicit confidence and one ever 
ready to defend his cause against any foe, foreign or domestic. 

Resolved, That the war that has been and is being waged on 
the military record of General Longstreet for failure to do his 
duty at the battle of Gettysburg is not in keeping, in our opinion, 
with the record as it is made up from the reports of Greneral Lee, 
commander-in-chief of the Confederate army in that conflict. 
If Greneral Longstreet had failed to execute the orders of Gen- 
eral Lee, and been the cause of the defeat of the Confederate 
army, as is charged, we believe he would have been court-mar- 
tialed and dismissed from the service instead of being retained 
and trusted on down to Appomattox, as he was. 

Resolved, That we deplore and deeply regret the action of the 


Savannah Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy in re- 
fusing a floral offering to be placed on the bier of General Long- 
street. His heroic conduct as a soldier of the Confederacy, his 
wounds and sacrifices in our glorious but disastrous struggle for 
freedom, would have certainly entitled him to the slight token 
of gratitude as he was passing out from among us forever. 

Geo. CLAmK. 

John C. West. 

M. B. Davis. 

{Cobb-DeUmey Camp.) 
" At the end of the nneqaal contest he sbeatiied a stainless sword." 

Whzkeas, It has pleased an all wise Providence to remove 
from this life Lieutenant-General James Longstreet, conunander 
of the First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia, and second 
ranking officer in that army ; and 

Whekeas, In all the eventful campaigns of that army, from 
Manassas to Appomattox, General Longstreet was a conspicuous 
figure, enjoying the full confidence and affection of our peerlew 
chieftain. General Robert E. Lee, whose own right arm leaned 
on him for support ; and 

Whebeas, In our second struggle for independence he dis- 
played sincere devotion, great military skill, serene courage, and 
an indomitable will and resolution, which has shed honor upon 
Southern arms and added lustre to the imperishable fame of 
Southern soldiers ; and 

Whebeas, He shed his blood freely in our behalf, and at the 
end of the unequal contest sheathed a stainless sword which for 
four years had flashed in the front of battle and victory. 

Resolved^ That we mourn with deep sorrow the death of this 
illustrious leader, and will ever cherish with gratitude and ad- 
miration the memory of his example, his sacrifices, and his heroic 

Resolvedy That we tender to his family our sincere sympathy 
in this great bereavement. 

Resolved^ That a page be set apart in our minutes upon which 
these resolutions shall be recorded, and that a copy be sent to the 
family of Greneral Longstreet. 


BjBSOLunoNS BY Camfs and Chapters 

Copy from the minutes of Cobb-Deloney Camp, United Con- 
federate Veterans, Athens, Georgia, January 14, 1904. 

Wic. G. Caaithebs, 


(Mayor and City Council^ Atlanta^ Georgia.) 
** He was ever loyal to duty and the Southern caose." 

Whekeas, Lieutenant-General James Longstreet died at his 
home in Grainesville, Greorgia, on the 2d day of January, 1904 ; 

Whereas, As a Southern soldier General Longstreet won im- 
perishable fame and glory as a corps commander in the armies 
of the Confederacy during the fateful days of the '60's, and 
was held in the highest esteem and confidence by the knightly and 
matchless Lee, and was ever loyal to duty and the cause of the 
Southern Confederacy ; be it therefore 

Resolved, That we have heard with sincere regret of the death 
of this gallant gentleman who in his lifetime exemplified in the 
highest degree the courage, chivalry and patriotism of the South, 
upon a hundred of his coimtry's battle-fields. 

Resolved, That in common with all citizens of the Southland 
we lament his demise and honor and revere his memory for his 
great service to his country and his people as a soldier of the 
Southern Confederacy. No braver heart beat beneath the Con- 
federate gray, no more heroic soul paid allegiance to the Stars 
and Bars. Honor to his memory ! Peace to his ashes ! 

Resolved, That this resolution be entered upon the minutes of 
the General Council and a copy thereof, certified to under the 
hand and seal of the clerk, be forwarded by him to the family 
of the distinguished dead, and that the City Hall flag be lowered 
to half-mast on to-morrow the 6th instant. 

Adopted by a imanimous rising vote. 

Georgia, Fulton County, 

CiTT OP Atlanta. 
I, W. J. Campbell, clerk of Council of the city of Atlanta, 
do certify that the attached is a true copy of a resolution 



adopted by the General Council of said city on Janaary 6, 1904, 
the original of which is of record and on file in the office of said 
clerk of Council. 

In witness whereof I have hereunto affixed my hand and seal 
of office, this January 11, 1904. 

W. J. Campbelx» 

Clerk of CmrndL 

(Camp WdUeer.) 
* We depkne and deeply regret the actkm of the Savannah Danghtrrs.* 

The committee appointed to express the views of Camp 
Walker, U. C. V., No. 925, on the military record of General 
James Longstreet, beg leave to report as follows: 

Whebeas, We have heard with deep regret of the recent 
death of General James Longstreet, commander forty years 
ago of the First Army Corps, A. N. Va., Confederate States 
army ; therefore 

Resalvedy That in the death of General James Longstreet the 
country at large has lost a true and tried leader of men, and the 
Confederate Veterans have parted with a conmiander in whom 
they reposed implicit confidence, and one ever ready to defend 
his cause against any foe, foreign or domestic. 

Resolved^ That the war that has been, and is being waged on 
the military record of General James Longstreet for failure to 
do his duty at the battle of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, is not 
in keeping, in our opinion, with the record as it is made up 
from the orders of Greneral Robert £. Lee, commander-in-chief 
of the Confederate army in that great conflict. If Greneral 
Longstreet had failed to execute the orders of Greneral Lee, 
and had been the cause of the defeat of the Confederate army, 
as is charged, we believe he would have been court-martialed and 
dismissed from the service, instead of being retained and trusted, 
on down to Appomattox, as he was. 

Resolved^ That we deplore and deeply regret the action of the 
Savannah Chapter, Daughters of the Confederacy, in refusing 
to supply a floral offering to be placed on the bier of Greneral 
James Longstreet. His heroic conduct as a soldier of the Con- 
federacy, his wounds and sacrifices in our glorious but dis- 


BjBSOLunoNS BY Camfs and Chapters 

astrous struggle for freedom, would have certainly entitled him 
to this slight token of gratitude as he was passing out from 
among us forever. 


J. B. McFadden, 
J. G. Ramset, 


Resolutions unanimously adopted by order of the Camp. 

J. S. Holland, 


James G. Ramsey, 

AiLMjnAf GaamiAf Jaooary II9 1904* 

(Longstreet*s " Boys.") 
"A noble^ benAc, and spotiess soldier." 

^I was a member of Longstreet's corps for three years,** 
said General McGlashan, in the preface to his resolutions, ** I 
followed the fortunes of that corps, served with it, saw its work, 
saw its sufferings, its victories, and its grandeur of behavior on 
every battle-field from Seven Pines to Appomattox, for I was 
fortunate enough to be wounded at only one fight, and if any- 
one in so humble a position as I was could say anything about 
his leader, I think I can. 

"You all know the reputation of Longstreet's corps; you 
know the glory of its service and what it accomplished on many 
battle-fields, and you cannot dissociate General Longstreet from 
the glory and reputation of his corps." Greneral McGlashan was 
here interrupted by cheers. Continuing, he said, " We are con- 
cerned with nothing that may have been said of General Long- 
street after the war; we are here to remember him as a great 
Confederate general and leader. 

"When General Longstreet, in his old gray coat, came to 
Atlanta in 1886, Jefferson Davis received him with open arms; 
there was no lack of confidence or acceptance there, and it is 
not for any others to say what Lee and Davis left unsaid.'* 



Genenl MoGlashan then introduoed the foUoiwing resohi- 

Whebsas, It hath pleased our Ahnighty Father to call to 
himself, in the fulness of years, our beloved comrade and leader. 
General James Longstreet; be it 

Resolved^ That in the death of General Lcmgstreet, we have 
lost a true and gallant comrade, an able and victorious leader 
of the Confederate hosts in the jMist, whose deeds are amcmg the 
proudest memories of the South ; the South a noble, heroic, and 
spotless son; the nation a true citizen who reflected honor on 
whatever cause he undertook; and the world a great soldier 
whose fame will survive with the annals of the Lost Cause. 

Resalvedt That we extend our deepest sympathy to the 
family of our deceased comrade in their great bereavement, and 
that a copy of these resolutions be sent them. 

(Floyd Caunttf Camp.) 

'^Tbgi patriot who gave his alL" 

RoMiy GsowiiA, Jaonaiy 19» 1904. 
Mas. James Longstkeet, 

Gainesville, Georgia: 

Madam, — ^At a meeting held to-day of Floyd County Camp, 
United Confederate Veterans, the following resolutions were 
unanimously adopted: 

Whebeas, Our honored and beloved fellow-comrade of the 
United Confederate Veterans, Lieutenant-Greneral James Long- 
street, quietly and peacefully died at his home in Gainesville, 
Georgia, on Saturday, January 2, 1904, and recognizing in 
him the true man, the good citizen, the soldier without fear, 
the patriot who willingly offered his all and shed his own blood 
on his country's altar, and the man who feared nothing but 
God ; therefore be it 

Resolvedj That the Floyd County Camp, No. 868, United 
Confederate Veterans, while bowing to the ever-wise, always 
loving decrees of God, are deeply grieved and sincerely sorry 
at this the death of another great captain of the Southern 


BjBSOLunoNs BY Camps and Chapters 

Cause; at the same time rejoicing in the confident assurance 
and abiding trust that he has, only a little in advance of us, 
passed ^^over the river and is now sweetly resting under the 
shade of the trees" with Lee, Jackson, Beauregard, Johnston, 
Polk, Gordon, and the thousands of others who grandly and 
gloriously followed the same dear flag. 

Reiolvedy That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of this Camp, that a copy be forwarded to the family of our 
deceased comrade, accompanied by our sincerest and deepest 

Thobcfson Stupes, 
G. W. Fleetwood, 
M. W- Beatt, 
A. B. S. Moseley, 
J. H. Camp, 


(Camp Niemeyer Shaw, Berkley, Virginia.) 
<" His Uf e f uU to the brim of manly principle." 

This Camp has heard with profoimd sorrow of the death of 
Lieutenant-Greneral Longstreet. 

His life had reached the full measure of human probation; 
but it was full to the brim of manly principle, heroic service, and 
daimtless courage. Loyal to his Southland and to all the in- 
terest committed to him by his country, he maintained his in- 
tegrity of character and the unbounded confidence of all right- 
minded men to the end. 

Tried in the school of civic life and in the crucible of battle, 
he filled a creditable page in the fateful and tragic incidents of 
the sixties, and then shared all the privations common to his 
fellow-comrades in helping to rehabilitate the homes of a people 
wrecked by the scourge of civil war. 

As a Camp we desire to re-express our unboimded confidence 

in his military career and in his unswerving devotion to the 

best interests of mankind. 



Having passed through the gate which is ajar for all ha- 
manity, we mournfully bid the old commander and veteran of 
the ^^ Lost Cause** a final adieu. 

J. A. Speight^ 
J. S. Whitwoeth, 
J. L. R. Haebis, 



(Camp Ben McCuttoch.) 
«< His fame and g^ory belong to the Soath.** 

Whekbas, It has pleased Almighty God to remove from this 
earth our distinguished comrade. General James Longstreet; 
therefore be it 

Resolvedt That we deeply lament the death of our comrade, 
and shall ever cherish and revere his memory. 

Resdvedf The ever memorable relief of that arch hero 
^ Stonewall'* Jackson, when hard pressed by overwhelming 
forces of the enemy at the second battle of Manassas, by whidi 
prompt action pending defeat was turned into glorious victory, 
entitles General Longstreet to a lofty pedestal in the Temple of 

Resolved^ We honor and revere our deceased comrade not only 
for his great military achievements, but for the personal solici- 
tude and care that he always had for the welfare and comfort 
of the private soldier, causing all who served under him to 
regard him with unbounded confidence and affection. 

Resolved^ The fame and glory of Greneral Longstreet, one of 
the last of the great lieutenants of the incomparable Lee, be- 
longs to the South, especially to those who, like him, fought for 
its independence, and by them it will be kept and cherished as 
one of its precious treasures. 

** Sleep, soldier, sleep, thy warfare 's o'er." 

J. B. WoLP. 
Ed. F. English. 

W. M. McGeegoe. 


BjBSOLunoNs BY Camfs and Chapters 

I certify that the above is a copy of the resolutions spread 

upon the minutes of our Camp January IS, 1904. 

Jahes B. Mooke, 

Caup Bnr McCuuxwh, U. C V., Camemlox, Texas. 

{John B. Gordon Camp.) 
" Courage and honor his diaracteristics as soldier and dtiaen." 

Resohed, That the John B. Gordon Camp, Sons of Con- 
federate Veterans, Atlanta, Greorgia, has heard with great sor- 
row of the death of Greneral James Longstreet, which occurred 
at his home at Grainesville, Greorgia, on the 2d day of January, 

His life was one of fealty and devotion to the cause for which 
he fought, while courage and honor were his characteristics both 
as soldier and citizen. 

It can truthfully be said of him: He was great among our 
many illustrious leaders of the Confederate States army, — ^than 
which there can be no higher tribute paid to man, — and after 
having bravely served his country during its darkest hours, 
accepting the arbitrament of the sword in a spirit that history 
now adjudges to have been commendable, he became a good 
citizen of our reimited country. 

Resolved, That as an expression of the high regard in which 
we, the sons of the men who followed the lead of this great 
captain, hold his services to our Southland as a soldier, and as 
a testimonial of our regard for his character as a man, direct 
that these resolutions be spread upon the minutes of our Camp, 
and further that the secretary be directed to forward a copy of 
the same to the family of the deceased, with whom we sympathize 
In the hour of sad bereavement to which Providence in His 
wisdom subjects them. 

H. F. West, Chairman, 


C. H. Essio, 
W. B. Ladvall, 
A. J. McBacDE, Je., 



k/mmi sua i^ 

nrks tad jm^r bnov 
ic » »k^ bad 


Kfi/^i v«ui th#^ ftAetul expeiienoe of oar belored Longstreet, a 
/'>/rfi« r:r/mnuiiul^r and lieutenant-general in the Army of North- 
i-rti Virginia. To him obedience to constituted authority 
ittnitUU'd and vhafK'd the ideal soldier and citizen for his dis- 
iin^iiinlii'd life wry'ice; and became the reasons for his acts in 
fi|<iilly olii»«'rving his Appomattox parole. We know that he 
WfiH oiii' of Uw bravest of the brave and truest of the true. 

l/niiniiiioiiNly luloptc^d by the Alexander H. Stephens Camp, 
1). i\ v., Oawfordvillc, Georgia. 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

{Marengo Rifles Chapter, U. D. C.) 

" One of the hardest fighters in Lee*s army." 

Whekeas, The Great Commander-in-Chief has called ^'over 
the river" the gallant Longstreet; therefore be it 

ReBolved, That Marengo Rifles Chapter, U. D. C, mourns 
with the entire Southland the death of that daring, brave, and 
fearless soldier, Greneral James Longstreet, who was one of the 
strongest supports, and one of the hardest fighters the peerless 
Lee had in his army ; that his fame will ever be cherished by this 
Chapter as well as by all who ** wore the gray." 

Reserved, That we sympathize with the widow of the great 
leader, to whom a copy of these resolutions will be sent by the 

Mbs. Geo. W. Latix)r. 
Mrs. Benjamin F. Elmosb. 
Miss Maet R. Claekb. 

(Jef Lee Camp.) 

•• The war-horse of the Confederacy." 

Hbad-Quabrib Jeff Ln Camp, Na 88, 

Ukukd Cohfedkeatb VBTsaAKS, 

AnJtncAirys OFncB, McAunn, I. T^ January 93, 1904. 

Wheeeas, The Supreme Commander of all the hosts has 
ordered our beloved comrade and friend. General James Long- 
street, the old war-horse of the Confederacy, to report at head- 
quarters a little in advance of us, his fellow-soldiers; therefore 
be it 

Resolved, That while we shall miss from our councils and 
general convention our brother and comrade, the sunlight of 
whose presence upon the hard-fought battle-fields enabled us 
to bear more easily our long marches and severe engagements of 
the four years' campaign, we know that the order came from 
One who doeth all things well, and are certain that in the dispen- 
sation of eternity we shall concur in its wisdom. 

Resolved, That so long as our little remnant of life shall hold 

out, we shall feel a pride in the military record of our brother 

and comrade. 



Reicivedf That Jeff Lee Camp, No. 68, extend its loving 
sympathy to the family of our departed comrade in the darkest 
hour of their lives. 

Resolved^ That these resolutions be entered in the record book 
of the Camp, a copy of them be presented to the daily and 
weekly i>apers for publication, and a copy sent to the surviving 
widow of our comrade. 

W. A. Tbeadweix, 
J. J. McAlestek, 
R. B. Coleman, 


(John H. Morgan and Bourbon Camps.) 

** FuU of years and hoDora/' 

At a meeting of John H. Morgan Camp, No. 96, and Bour- 
bon Camp, No. 1S68, U. C. V. A., in joint assembly, held in 
the city of Paris, Kentucky, on the 1st day of February, 1904, 
the following resolutions were adopted: 

The distinguished officers of the Confederacy are rapidly 
falling before the grim reaper. We are called upon to mourn 
the departure of one of the greatest soldiers developed in the war 
between the States, Lieutenant-Gkneral James Longstreet, dying 
full of years and of honors. As a soldier we have the estimate 
of his chieftain, — " My war-horse." With this epitaph en- 
graven on his tomb, the niche his name will occupy on " Fame's 
eternal camping-ground" is assured; therefore be it 

Resolvedy That our sincerest sympathies be extended to his 
bereaved wife. 

James R. Rogers, 
W. M. Latson, 
Russell Mann, 


(Selma^ Alabama, Chapter.) 

** A rare combination of fidelity, patriotic principle, and nnsfiHlcd 

Seima, Alabama, January 14, 1904. 

The committee appointed January 12, at a meeting of the 
Sehna, Alabama, Chapter, to prepare resolutions in memory of 

Greneral James Longstreet offer the following: 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

Resolved^ That in the shadow of this great sorrow the Sehna 
Chapter joins with the Confederate Veterans, Divisions and 
Brigades, in submission to Him who ^^doeth according to 
His will in the army of heaven and among the inhabitants of 

That we recognize in the life and character of Greneral 
Longstreet a rare combination of fidelity to patriotic prin- 
ciples, an attractive personality, and an unsullied integrity, 
calling forth from the North high estimation, from the South, 
warmest love. 

That we extend to the family and wife of the patriot soldier 
cordial sympathy in this dark hour, conmiending them to the 
tender mercies of our Heavenly Father. 

Miss Juija Clabke, 
Miss Makt Lewis, 

Corresponding Secretary , 
Miss E. F. Feeguson, 


(C. M. Winkler Camp.) 
** One of the great commanders of modem times.** 

Wheeeas, It has pleased the Almighty God to remove from 
our midst one who while in life was a brilliant soldier, courteous 
gentleman, and whose military career in the armies of the South 
marked him as one of the truly great conmianders of modem 
times; therefore be it 

Resolved^ That in the death of General Longstreet the South 
has lost a great soldier and a brilliant commander, to whose 
fame as such nothing can be added, save that he was ^ the war- 
horse*' of the great Lee. 

Resolvedy That this Camp tenders to the bereaved wife and 

family its heartfelt sympathy and condolence in the death of the 

distinguished soldier and citizen, and that the adjutant of this 

Camp forward to the wife of General Longstreet a copy of 

these resolutions, and furnish the city press with a true copy 

of the 8€une for publication. 

80 SOS 


(Company B, Confederate Veterans.) 

* A tribute of 1^017 on his graTe.** 

HxAD-QvAnos OncFAXT " B," 

NAfomu, TkifiriMBB, Jannuy Id, 190A. 

At a meeting of Company ** B,** Confederate Veterans, the 
following resolutions were adopted: 

Whekeas, We have heard with great sorrow of the death of 
General Jcunes Longstreet, under whose leadership many of us 
fought during the great war; be it 

Resolved^ That in General Longstreet the Confederacy had 
one of her greatest leaders. His ability as such, his bravery, 
and unwearied zeal won for him a place in our hearts, and we 
desire as an organization to add our testimony to his worth as a 
soldier, citizen, and man. 

We mingle our tears with those of his family and friends, 
and place a tribute of glory on his grave. 

Resolved, That we send a copy of these resolutions to his be- 
reaved wife and family. 

Spencek Eakik, 
Captain Commanding. 

Geo. H. Hows, 

O. S. 

( Camp Hampton. ) 

"His name is associated with aknost every Confederate Tictory won on 
the sou of Virginia." 

At a meeting of Camp Hampton, Columbia, South Carolina, 
Colonel R. W. Shand spoke feelingly of the life and servioes 
of General Longstreet, and offered the following resolutions: 

The sad intelligence of the death on the 2d of January last 
of James Longstreet, the senior lieutenant-general of the Con- 
federate States army, has reached us since our last regular meet- 
ing. Li the language of an impartial historian, his name is 
*^ associated with almost every Confederate victory won upon 
the soil of Virginia," and he *^ was trusted by his great leader 
and idolized by his men." His fame is gloriously connected 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

with the heroic deeds of the First Corps of the Army of Northern 
Virginia, the splendid victory at Chickamauga, and the East 
Tennessee campaign; and those who fought under this great 
fighter have always entertained for him feelings of affection and 
regard ; therefore be it 

Resolved^ That this camp has heard with most profound sor- 
row of the death of Lieutenant-General James Longstreet, of 
the Army of Northern Virginia, who bore so large a part in 
making glorious that immortal band. 

Resolved^ That we tender to his surviving family our most 
sincere sympathy, and that a copy of this memorial be sent to 
his widow. 

Resolved^ That a blank i>age on our minute-book be dedi- 
cated to his memory. 

These resolutions were heartily seconded by Comrades Jen- 
nings, Bruns, Brooks, and Mixon, and adopted by a rising 
unanimous vote. 

{Confederate Veterans* Association.) 

** No wrong to mar his memory." 

Whekeas, By the death of Lieutenant-Gkneral James Long- 
street, on the 2d day of January, 1904, in Gainesville, Greorgia, 
there is removed from our midst another of the few remaining 
of our great captains, over whose parting we sadly lament; and 

Whereas, In common with other surviving veterans who 
served in the Confederate armies where this distinguished dead 
soldier commanded, believing in the broad principles of truth, 
and cherishing a feeling of fraternal regard for each other, 
and being at the same time reminded that by his death we, too, 
are gradually, but surely, drifting nearer to the brink of eter- 
nity ; be it therefore 

Resolved^ That we who espoused the cause of the late Con- 
federacy and followed its destinies to the end, and being en- 
dowed with a high sense of right and justice towards a departed 
brother, feel it a duty that is owing to posterity, as well as to 
ourselves, to look well to future history that no wrong be done to 
mar the memory of a comrade, be he ever so high or so humble, 

who served his chosen cause so devotedly and ably as Longstreet 



did during the four eventful and trying yean from 1861 to 

Resolved^ That we deeply deplore the death of General Long- 
street, and do hereby extend to the bereaved family of the de- 
ceased the most sincere and heartfelt symi>athie8 of this Asso- 

Re$olved, That a copy of these resolutions be furnished the 
family of the deceased. 


Secretary^ C. F. A. 
WASHnroxoVy D. C 

{Camp Tige Anderton.) 

" His heroic and Tallant seirices will be remembered.'* 

Atuutta* Gsobqxa, Jannaij 5^ 190A. 

The following resolutions were read and adopted at a meeting 
of Camp Tige Anderson, January 6, 1904. 

Whekeas, This Camp has heard with sincerest regret of the 
death of our lamented comrade General James Longstreet; and 

Whekeas, We recognize and remember General Longstreef s 
heroic and valiant services to our beloved cause. 

Resolved^ That we will revere his memory as one of the best 
of the friends of the South, one of her best warriors bold — one 
of her truest sons. 

Resolved, That we bow with uncovered heads at the Reaper's 

Resolved, That in the death of our comrade we have lost a 
true and tried friend, and while the majority of us were of an 
averse political opinion to that of the General, yet we are gener- 
ous enough to accord him the right and the fidelity of party 
affiliation, particularly so when we believe that environments 
when times tried men's souls were a terrific pressure brought to 
bear upon him. 

As a Camp and as individuals our prayer is that our late 
commander may " requiescat in pace.** 

Resolved, That our commander appoint a delegation to at- 
tend the funeral of General Longstreet, at Grainesville, Greorgia, 

to-morrow, as an official escort from this Camp. 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent by our 
adjutant to the family of our deceased comrade. 

H. P. Foster, 

Sam'l Fulton, 

(Sidney Lanier Chapter, V. D. C.) 
** We will teach the children of the South the story of his sublime courage." 

Macok, Gsoboia, January 7, 19M. 
Mrs. James Lonostkeet: 

Deab Madam, — ^The Sidney Lanier Chapter, No. 26, U. 
D. C, mourn with you and yours over the loss of your illus- 
trious husband. We tender to you and his children our heart- 
felt symjMithy, and promise that we will do all in our power 
to teach the children of our dear Southland the story of his 
sublime courage, his devotion to duty, of the willingness of his 
men to follow wherever he led. 

"^The strife is o*er, the battle done, 
The victory of Life is won." 

Faithfully yours, 

Anna Holmes Wilcox, 


(Troy Chapter, V. D. C.) 
** Reyerenoe and esteem for the soldier and gentlanan.** 

TaoTy Alabama, January 10, 1904. 
Mrs. Lonostkeet, 

Gainesville, Georgia: 
My deae Madam, — ^The members of Troy Chapter, Alabama 
Division, U. D. C, desire that you should learn through us of 
our deep sympathy in your late bereavement. We feel that we 
have sustained a personal loss in the death of your noble hus- 
band, and would convey to you some sense of our reverence and 
esteem for the gallant Confederate general and honorable 
Southern gentleman. 

To us the memory of the Confederacy is a sacred trust, and 

for the men who made its history we entertain an unalterable 



▼aieration. For General Longstreet, one of its difltingtiiBhed 
heroes, we feel an abiding affection. 

That Grod will bless and sustain you in this trying ordeal is 
the prayer of the united Chapter. 

Sincerely yours, 

Mrs. L. H. Bowhs. 

MkS. JnO. p. HlTBBABD. 

(WSUanuburg Chapter, D. of-C.) 

** The defender of our homes." 

The Williamsburg, Virginia, Chapter of the Daughters of 
the Confederacy, wishing to do honor to the eminent soldier 
Lieutenant-Gkneral James Longstreet, do unanimously resolve: 

1. That we can never forget that on the 5th of May, 186S, 
Greneral Longstreet held back the advance of the Federal army 
and protected our homes and firesides from the overwhelming 
forces of the enemy, as he marched towards the Confederate 

2. That at his grave we forget all political differences and 
remember him as the defender of our homes and as the ^' Old 
War-Horse" of the great conmiander. 

S. That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the press and 
another to Mrs. Longstreet. 

Mrs. Makgabet Custis Havebfobd, 

Mrs. L Lesslieb Hall, 
Mks. W. L. Jones, 


{Mobile Chapter, U. D. C.) 
** His great name and fame precious to Southern hearts.** 

MoBiLB, January 19, ISOi. 
My deab Mrs. Longstreet: 

At a recent meeting of the Mobile Chapter, Alabama Di- 
vision, U. D. C, I was instructed by a rising vote to express 
to you the affectionate sympathy of the members of the Chapter, 
in the recent great bereavement which has befallen you in the 
death of your distinguished husband, General James Long- 


Resolutions by Camps and Chaptebs 

In this bereavement you have the sympathy of every Daugh- 
ter of the Confederacy, who in unison with you weep the great 
and honored dead. 

The conspicuous courage and heroic gallantry of General 
Longstreet on many a hard-fought battle-field, his never-failing 
devotion to the Southland, and his eminent services in her cause 
during the four long years of cruel war will ever render dear 
and precious to our hearts his great name and fame. Among 
the many condolences that have come to you from all over the 
South, none are more loving and heartfelt than those of the 
Mobile Chapter, whose words of love and sympathy I have been 
directed to express to you. 

In giving expression to their grief and sorrow at the great 
loss which touches you so vitally, may I venture to add my own 
personal expression of admiration for your great husband, and 
of symjMithetic love for yourself. 

I am, with great respect, yours truly, 

EuscTKA Semmes Colston, 


(T. D. Smith Chapter, V. D. C.) 

** Always true to his cQnvictions." 

DuBUK, GsoioiA, January IS, 1904. 


The Dublin Chapter of the Daughters of the Confederacy 
wish to extend to you and yours their sincerest sympathy, which 
we, as well as the entire South, feel in the loss of one of her 
greatest chieftains, General James Longstreet. In his death the 
South has lost a noble, heroic son, whose deeds will live in the 
hearts of her people, a soldier, a general whose brave acts have 
caused every child of the South to honor, love, and revere his 
memory ; a hero in whom the *^ elements were so mixed that 
Nature might stand up and say to all the world, this is a man." 

True to his convictions, he acted always after careful con- 
sideration as his judgment has shown him was best. 

Miss Adeijne Baum, 

Far the T. D. Smith Chapter of the Daughters of Conr 




(Cobb County, Georgia, Camp.) 
** His knightly valor woo for him a diadem of f^Ofry,^ 

The committee appointed to give some appropriate ezpreanoo 
of its high appreciation, love, and honor for General James 
Longstreet, the great leader of Longstreefs corps, C.S^, and 
of our deep sorrow at his death, and to report and recommend 
suitable action by this Camp, respectfully submit the following: 

General Jcunes Longstreet was a native of South Carolina, 
bom of an illustrious family, distinguished alike for inteUectual 
strength and nobility of character. His love for his native State 
and the South was inherent and strengthened by associations, 
early education, and environments. In keeping with his natural 
tastes and fitness for his chosen profession, his education was 
completed at the military school of the United States at West 
Point, where he developed that strong and wonderful intellectual 
power of perception, combination, and comparison, coupled with 
cool self-possession, knightly valor, and lofty cunbition, which in 
the field of terrific war and deadly battle won for him, the armies 
he led, and the Southern Confederacy his diadem of glory, as 
enduring as the history of the struggles of nations in freedom's 

Greneral James Longstreet was the friend, comrade, and com- 
panion of the matchless Lee, Generals Joseph £. and Albert 
Sidney Johnston, of the incomparable Stonewall Jackson, Leoni- 
das Polk, John B. Gordon, and the other great leaders of the 
Confederate army; and was inspired with the same love of 
his native State and the South. 

His love for his subalterns and privates of his army was as 
true and sincere as that of father to son. Many of the mem- 
bers of this camp knew him personally in the tent and on the 
march, on the battle-field, and in the dreadful charge ; heard his 
commands, witnessed his noble deeds, and listened to his kind 
words of encouragement and sympathy. He was our comrade, 
our friend, and our great leader, and there is a sting, a sense of 
bereavement, which finds some solace in the flowing tear and the 
glorious hope that we shall meet again. He was a Christian 



Resolutions by Camps and Chaptebs 


Resolved, That we regard it a duty which we owe to pos- 
terity that the State of Greorgia, all surviving Confederate 
veterans, and especially those of Longstreet's corps, should pro- 
vide an equestrian statue of General Longstreet, to be erected on 
the Capitol grounds at Atlanta. 

Resclvedj That a committee be appointed by the Commander 
of this camp to inaugurate the movement and take all necessary 
steps to secure such a statue. 

Resolved, That Camp No. 768, U. C. V., tenders to the 
widow and family of our beloved chieftain our heart-felt sym- 
pathy in the hour of their bereavement and sorrow. 

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing be forwarded to the 

Resolved, That the action of the Camp be published in the 
Cobb County papers. 

J. A. L. BoKN, 
W. J. Maknino, 


L. S. Cox, 
Wm. Phillips, 


(Atlanta Camp.) 
** His name and fame are the heritage of the American people." 

Atlanta Camp, No. 169, United Confederate Veterans, in the 
following report pays glowing tribute to the memory of the 
late Greneral James Longstreet, who died on January 2, at his 
home in Gainesville, Greorgia. 

In the death of General James Longstreet, there passed away 
a notable and commanding figure of the Army of Northern 
Virginia in the late Civil War. 

His history and service are indissolubly connected with all 
of the great movements of that army. 

It would not be within the purview of this memorial to attempt 

to even epitomize the p€urt he took in the many great battles. 

Coming into that struggle with a prestige and honor which 



ghone with brilliant lustre cm account of his intrepid faravery 
and gallantry as an officer of the army of the United States on 
many fields in Mexico, and being withal an educated and trained 
soldier, a majestic man, of mild manners and speech and of 
leonine courage, his very name throughout the army and the 
whole country was a tower of strength. From first Mansssss to 
Appomattox, his conunand and leadership held the first place 
among the great army corps of the greatest army that was evtf 
marshalled in tins or in any other country. Made a lieutenant- 
general in the early part of the war, the omspicuous bravery, 
skiU, and reliability shown by him in the very crisis of the 
battles of Williamsburg and at Seven Pines, and other great 
conflicts before Richmond in 1862, won for him from General 
Lee the sobriquet of the " Old War-Horse." 

After Greneral Lee had planned the advance on G^ieral Pope, 
and after Jackson had passed through Thoroughfare Gap to 
the rear of Greneral Pope, and when he was heavily engaged 
and sorely pressed, Lee and Longstreet were passing through 
Thoroughfare Gap. After a spirited contest at that moun- 
tain-pass, Longstreet's corps moved like a majestic stream on 
to the plains of Manassas, where his lines were quickly formed. 
Striking the enemy with the ^^ hand of Mars,** the thunder of 
his guns greeted the ear of Jackson, giving hope and succor to 
his forces as the sound of the Scottish bagpipes heralded the 
approach of the relieving column to the beleaguered garrison 
at Lucknow. The well-directed assault which he made in Gen- 
eral Pope's front crowned the Southern arms with ocxmplete 


The Southern cause had no more loyal supporter nor cour- 
ageous soldier than General Longstreet, as the honorable wounds 
and scars which he carried to his death abundantly attest. He 
had the unbounded confidence of his commander-in-chief. The 
history of that great war gives but one record of Longstreet 
being absent from his command, and that was on account of 
serious woimds received on the field of the Wilderness in Bfay, 
1864, where, in preparing to lead in person his forces against 
Greneral Hancock's corps, he momentarily halted to receive a 
word of congratulation from Greneral Micah Jenkins, of South 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

Carolina, when Longstreet's own men, mistaking these two gen- 
erals, with the little group of horsemen composing their staff 
surrounding them, for the enemy, fired, killing General Jenkins 
and wounding General Longstreet in the throat and shoulder, 
from which he was ever afterwards maimed. 

We would not omit to mention that in 1868, when several of 
his divisions were ordered from Virginia to Greorgia to reinforce 
the Army of Tennessee, on his arrival in Atlanta, and when 
at the old Trout House, at the junction of Decatur and Pryor 
Streets, where the old Austell building now stands, he was 
called to the balcony of the hotel to speak to the large and 
enthusiastic multitude of soldiers and citizens who thronged 
every inch of the two streets, he said ^^ I came not to speak; I 
came to meet the enemy." The inspiration of his presence and 
this short and pithy declaration called forth from the assem- 
bled multitude the exclamation, '^ What a magnificent looking 
man and soldier." How well he fulfilled his mission in the 
battle of Chickamauga history makes no mistake in its record. 
How his forces were hurled against those of General Thomas, 
and how his army turned the tide of battle into victory, are too 
well known to need repetition. In this battle, like others where 
he led, his advance was stubborn and decisive. 

He followed with unfaltering bravery and devotion the for- 
tunes of the Confederacy until the last drama was enacted at 
Appomattox, and was a member of the last council of war held 
in the woods on the night of April 8, 1866, and was the senior 
commissioner, on the part of the Confederate forces appointed 
by the commander-in-chief, to arrange the details and terms of 
the surrender of that little shattered band which, through fire 
and smoke, hunger and cold, had stood by the flag of the Con- 
federacy through all the trying ordeals of four years' grim 
and bloody strife. 


The name and fame of General Longstreet are the conmion 
heritage of the South and the whole American people. The 
nurnes of his immediate ancestors are historic and dear especially 
to every Georgian. His qualities as a soldier have won for him 
the highest encomiums not only of the Southern people, but 



from the Northern people as welL AH true history, indading 
that written from an English stand-point, places Longstreet 
in the very first rank as to ability and generalship among any 
of Lee's subordinates. 

No time nor mere political differences can affect or dim the 
lustre of that name. The past is secure, the future is safe. We 
can say with €dl the emphasis that the words import that he 
was one of the bravest, truest, safest, and the most devoted of 
the Confederate leaders. In the generations to come, when 
passion and prejudice shall vanish like the mists of the morning 
at the presence of the clear sunlight of truth, Longstreet's name 
shall receive at the hands of the entire civilized world the praise 
and honor to which it is justly entitled. 


We may be permitted to refer briefly to an incident that 
occurred on the occasion of the unveiling of the Ben Hill monu- 
ment in Atlanta. Among the majiy distinguished ex-Confeder- 
ate chieftains seated on the platform was ex-President Jefferson 
Davis. Greneral Longstreet came down from his home in 
Gainesville, clad in the full uniform of a lieutenant-general of 
the Confederate army, wearing his sword. Providing himself 
with a superb mount, he rode out Peachtree Street to the site 
of the monument, and, dismounting, walked unannounced to the 
platform into the outstretched arms of Jefferson Davis. As 
they embraced each other, they presented a scene worthy of the 
brush of a Raphael or a Rubens. Once heroes in conmion vic- 
tory, they were now heroes in conmion defeat. This was a beauti- 
ful and shining example for all latter day critics. 

This silent episode, as if too impressive to be broken, stilled 
the vast multitude for a moment, and then spontaneously from 
forty thousand Confederate veterans and citizens, the ladies 
joining in the demonstration by waving their handkerchiefs, 
there went up a loud and continuous shout of applause that 
rent the air. 

Let us never forget the four years of glorious service ren- 
dered by General Longstreet to the Lost Cause, and let the 
South erect a monument to his memory, to tell to future genera- 
tions that the South is never forgetful or indifferent to that 


Resolutions by Camps and Chaftebs 

glorious service rendered in the cause for which it fought and 
for which many bled and died. 

Greneral Longstreet died in Gainesville, Greorgia, January S, 
1904, and was buried with military honors on the 6th day of 
the same month. A detail from this Camp, as well as detach- 
ments from various military organizations, joined in paying the 
last honor to the old soldier. 

Touching and beautiful was the kindly sympathy shown his 
memory by his neighbors in Gainesville who were bound to 
him by ties that no time can sever. Never was a funeral more 
largely attended and more universal respect shown to the dead 
by the entire community in which he lived. All places of busi- 
ness were closed. The Confederate Veterans, the public school 
children, the college girls, the citizens, all joined in the proces- 
sion which followed his remains to beautiful Alta Vista, where 
on the crown of the hill overlooking the far-away Blue Ridge 
was laid to rest all that is mortal of the old battle-scarred hero* 

Benjamin F. Abbott, 
Geobge H1I.LTEB, 
J. F. Ebwabds, 


(Houston, Georgia, Camp.) 
" His war structure cannot be pulled down." 

At a meeting of the old soldiers of Houston County, Greorgia, 
to commemorate the birth of the immortal Lee, and also, by 
previous arrangement, to take cognizance and condolence of the 
death of General Longstreet, under whom many of these old 
soldiers served throughout the war, the following resolutions 
were submitted and unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That in the death of General James Longstreet 
we sustain the loss of one of the most valiant and capable soldier 
commanders of the " Lost Cause.** 

Resolved, That while during the gigantic war and struggle 
between the States, General Lee regarded him as almost a part 
of himself, " My old war-horse,*' in the carrying out and accom- 
plishments of apparently, at times, the impossible against and 

over the enemy. 



We view him as from behind the guns, and under those ood- 
flicts whose fierceness and terrible results were sufficient to 
stagger, and even turn back, the stoutest manhood, yet we 
never saw him evince the least fear, turn his back in dishonor, 
nor disobey his noble chieftain. 

His war structure shows the hand of no ordinary builder, and 
cannot be pulled down. 

He carved his way through the ranks of the enemy in sudi 
a fashion that they themselves, and their descendants, admire 
the man for his great military ability; nor can they be less 
thrilled by that chivalry and Americanism he and so many 
others, equally valorous and capable, displayed and forged for 
conscience' sake, thus awakening and holding the world as never 
before in any age. 

This was General James Longstreet as we saw him then, and, 
without superficiality, as we see him to-day, through our vanish- 
ing memories and waning manhoods, one of the greatest soldiers 
who crossed swords with the many gallant spirits of the other 
side — brother Americans — over a principle which did not, and, 
thank Grod, could not die — ^a gift of Grod to humanity to stand 
for the right, fight for the right, and die for the right, even 
though in failure, that others may profit by it. 

Retolvedy That we regret to have to antagonize and reprove 
even one Chapter of that great, good, and soulful organization, 
known as the Daughters of the Confederacy, but we can neither 
endorse the spirit and sentiment, nor the statement made by that 
Savannah Chapter that " Greneral Longstreet disobeyed Gen- 
eral Lee's order at the battle of Gettysburg." 

Resolved, That we believe, and would advise, that the life 
and future good of that great organization lies in the thorough 
education of its Chapters to correct history, and a proper ap- 
preciation of the spirit and tenets of the order — a proper 
observance of its constitution. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to Mrs. 
Longstreet, carrying with it, as it does, a sympathy, love, and 
sorrow such as only can be given by old soldiers bronzed by 
the same smoke, bufi^eted by the same battles, and scarred by the 
same fury through which he passed for the love of home and 
country, for the love of truth, and for the love of a " cause" 


Resolutions by Camps and Chaftebs 

then dealer than even life itself » and for which so many gallant 
spirits went down. 

Resolved^ That the Home Journal be requested to publish 
these proceedings. 

Respectfully submitted, 


C. C. Duncan, 

Commander Poft 88O9 presiding. 
J. D. Maktin, 


{Surohors of Longstreet*s Corps.) 
''History wUl give him that which is due." 

Another set of resolutions, showing the esteem in which 
Longstreet's men held the dead general, and the love that they 
bear for him, were drawn up yesterday by Mr. A. K. Wilson, 
who was a member of Longstreet's corps, and were signed by 
the veterans in the city, who, like Mr. Wilson, had been fol- 
lowers of the dead leader. The resolutions were as follows: 

CoiotADBS, — Our comrade and our leader has left us. He 
has gone to join the hosts on the other side of the great river, 
and we that followed him at the Manassases, Thoroughfare Crap, 
Yorktown, Fairfax, Falls Church, Mimson's and Upton's HiUs, 
the Wilderness, where he received that wound said to be from 
his own men; Williamsburg, Sharpsburg, to Tennessee; 
Chickamauga, Knoxville, Lookout Mountain, Missionary Ridge, 
back to Virginia, and on all the great fields on her soil, testify 
to his worth. With his corps back to Virginia, see him as 
he appeared at Petersburg, and countless other places of trust. 
Lastly, with his ragged, half-starved, barefooted remnant, 
bearing scars as he bore them, see him as he approaches Appo- 
mattox, his men drawing but one ear of com for a day's rations. 

My comrades, he needs no emblems. History in time will give 
to him that which is due, and those that were with him, his 
survivors, will ever hold his memory green. Like ourselves, his 
services at Appomattox show to the world that he was ever faith- 
ful to his enlistment and true to the cause that he espoused, and 

his parting with Lee establishes that fact. Now, be it 



Resolved, That we, the survivors of Longstreet's corps, ten- 
der to his bereaved family our heartfelt sympathy, showing 
the love and esteem that we had for our dear old leader. 


(Camp Hardee.) 

"Longstreet more often than any other subordinate was trusted with 
independent commands.*' 

To Camp Hardee, Confederate Veterans, Birmingham, Ala- 

Your conmiittee, appointed to report resolutions ocnnmemo- 
rative of the life and service of the late Lieutenant-General 
James Longstreet, recommends the following: 

Resolved, That in the testimony of the estimate of old sol- 
diers of his life and services to the South in the great war 
between the States Camp Hardee adopt the following state- 

G^eral Longstreet, a South Carolinian by birth, a graduate 
of the West Point Military Academy as a cadet from Alabama, 
while assured of position in the Federal army, resigned the 
commission he held in an established service to enter the imor- 
ganized, poorly equipped army of the Confederacy, and under- 
took all the arduous duties and dangers of that war, and 
fought it out to the discistrous end. 

From the time of his appointment as brigadier-general under 
Beauregard along the line of Bull Run Creek, in July, 1861, 
to the surrender at Appomattox in April, 1865, he was distin- 
guished as a stalwart, skilful commander and a gallant soldier. 
He was remarkable for staying qualities rather than for dash. 

In all that brave service there was nothing spectacular, but 
he was always steadfast, true, and reliable. 

Whatever may have been said of Greneral Longstreet, it is 
remarkable that at no time for inefficiency or the absence of 
results or disobedience of order was he relieved of his command. 
No other subordinate was so often intrusted with independent 
and difficult enterprises. Now that death has silenced all com- 
plaints and the great commander has gone to his reward, we 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

who survive him desire to crown his memory with the degree 
of praise which his great deeds wrought in behalf of his people 
so richly deserve. As a soldier he was wholly faithful to the 
South, and for that fidelity merits the grateful appreciation of 
our people. Such a great soul needs no defence. Time will 
cover with its mantle whatever has been charged as his faults. 
It may be that in the great conservatism of his nature he saw 
more clearly what was best for his country. In this hour of 
bereavement let us only remember that a great and gallant spirit 
has gone to his reward ; and therefore, 

Resolved^ That this memorial be spread on the minutes of 
the camp, and a copy be sent to the widow of the dead general 
with the assurance, in this hour of her great bereavement, she 
has the sympathy of Camp W. J. Hardee. 

J. W. Bush. 

W. C. Ward. 


(Camp No. 1S5.) 
''Hardest flg^iter in the army.'* 

Comrades, we assemble to pay tribute to the memory of 
Ueutenant-General Longstreet, one of our great chieftains. 
Por him ** taps have sounded," " lights are out," and " ell is 
stifl." This fearless leader is gone. He was the " hard fighter" 
of Northern Virginia, and his opponents always knew when he 
was in their front or directing the assault. He had the con- 
fidence of his men, and they loved him. He led them but to 
victory. The South admired and trusted him. His name is 
enshrined with that of the Army of Northern Virginia, and 
when her history shall be gathered and cast into final form, 
honorable will be the place assigned to our great general. 

We would therefore recommend the adoption of the following 
tribute of esteem and respect: 

Whekeas, Lieutenant-Greneral Longstreet recently passed 

away at his home in Grainesville, Greorgia, and was buried amid 

the regrets and tears of many who had gathered from different 

parts of our Southland to pay the respect due his illustrious 

name; therefore be it 

91 391 


Resolved^ That we bow our heads unto Him who is the author 
and finisher of our career, and acknowledge that, while we can 
not always understand, yet we know that He doeth €dl things 

Retolvedy That the comrades of Camp No. 1S5, Confederate 
Veterans, have heard with sorrow and regret of the death of 
this brave general and fearless commander. 

Retolved, Educated in the profession of arms, he gave the 
best years of his life to the service of his country. For twenty- 
five years prior to the action which necessitated his State severing 
her connection with the Union, he most valiantly drew his sword 
in her defence. Through the Mexican War and during the 
continuous troubles with the Indians on our Western plains his 
services were so conspicuous for gallantry that he attained the 
rank of major. 

Retolvedy When his State could no longer remain in the 
Union, but withdrew, he resigned his commission, and cast his 
lot with that of his State. As he had been gallant and suc- 
cessful in the army pf the Union, he now became more so in 
the army of the Confederacy. The enlarged opportunities fur- 
nished what his great ability needed. From the rank of major 
he rose rapidly to that of lieutenant-general and second in com- 
mand to our peerless Lee. As brigadier-general at Manassas he 
engaged the left wing of the enemy with the result that is 
familiar to all of us. As major-general he was selected to 
cover Johnston's retreat in the Peninsula. He won Williams- 
burg and was at Seven Pines. For his service in the Seven Days' 
fight around Richmond Congress rewarded him with the rank 
of senior lieutenant-general and second in command of €dl the 
Confederate forces. He was at the second Mancissas with Jack- 
son, and at South Mountain. At Sharpsburg he was knighted 
"War-Horse" by his chieftain. Fredericksburg, Grettysburg, 
Chickamauga, and the Wilderness felt his presence ; while Peters- 
burg, Five Forks, and Appomattox beheld his gallantry. Com- 
rades, we knew him, we loved him, we trusted him. To-day we 
would pay him his tribute; believing him to be worthy to be 
placed beside Lee, Albert Sidney and Joseph £. Johnston, 
and Jackson. 

Resolvedy That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 


Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

of our Camp, copies be furnished each of our county papers 
for publication, and that a copy be sent to Mrs. Longstreet, 
together with expressions of our sympathy by the adjutant. 

J. W. Sheebill. 

W. H. Morgan. 

R. L. Suoos. 

(John B. Hood Camp.) 
** Oblivion will shut out those who assail his great name." 

To the Officers and Memhers of John B. Hood Camp^ No. 
103, U. C. v.: 

€k)MBADE8, — ^We, your committee, appointed at a meeting 
held this day to draft resolutions upon the death of Lieutenant- 
General James Longstreet, late commander of the First Corps, 
Army of Northern Virginia, beg leave to submit the following: 

Whereas, It having pleased the Deity to call our great com- 
mander to cross over the river and take permanent position with 
the majority of his old comrades who have preceded him ; there- 
fore, be it 

Resolved, That in the death of General Longstreet we realize 
the loss of the senior and last surviving lieutenant-general of the 
Army of Northern Virginia, and while freighted with the events 
of eighty-three years, and suffering from the effects of many 
wounds received in battle, still he bore up with a fortitude be- 
coming his great spirit. 

Resolved, That in his character we recognize the true patriot 
and soldier, devotion to duty, and a genius which added glory 
to our arms and inspired faith in our cause. 

Resolved, That in the remotest history his achievements will 
be appreciated with all the glory that came to us during that 
bloody drama, while oblivion will shut out those who would 
assail his fair name. 

Resolved, That to his family we tender sincere condolence, 
with the assurance that his kind consideration for his men, 
courtly bearing, and bravery will ever have a place in the mem- 
ory of the survivors of his command, who followed him from 
the first Manassas to Appomattox. 


Reiclvedf That these resolutions be spread upon the minutes 
of this camp; the adjutant to forward a copy to the family, 
and that the State press be requested to publish same. 


Vai. C. GnjBs. 
W. R. Hambt. 
C. F. DoHivx. 

(John B. Gordon Chapter ^ U. D. C.) 
''As gallant a soldier as wore the gray." 

WannojCA, Alabama, Jaimaiy Ifl; 1901 
Whbxxas, The Ruler of the Universe has seen fit to call from 
his earthly home the spirit of Greneral Longstreet, and take 
him to his home on high, as a bright reward for his faithfulness 
and fidelity here in life. General Longstreet was as brave and 
gallant a soldier as wore the gray during the fierce stnig;^^ of 
the South. He was known and loved throughout this fair sunny 
Southland, not only as a soldier and general who so gallantly 
and fearlessly led his men in the Southern cause, but as a true 
and noble man, and when his final siunmons came and he laid 
down his earthly armor for a heavenly crown, it cast a shadow 
over all the South, that another of her brave generals who had 
so nobly defended her cause was no more. 

But since he has left us and is no more among his family, 
comrades, and friends, be it 

Resolved, That this Chapter of the Daughters of the Con- 
federacy regrets with deepest sorrow the death of General Long- 
street, and through this little tribute to his memory expresses 
its deepest and sincerest sympathy. 

Resolved^ That his State and nation has lost a grand and noUe 
man, the Southern cause a gallant and fearless soldier. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be placed on the 
minute-book of the Chapter and a copy be sent to Greneral Long- 
street's family. 

Mas. S. J. McMoaais. 
Mas. W. H. Gregobt. 
Miss Fanny Gobon. 

Resolutions by Camps and Chapters 

(George W. Johnson Camp.) 
** True and faithful to eveiy duty.** 

At a meeting of the George W. Johnson Camp, Confederate 
Veterans' Association of Kentucky, to take in consideration the 
death of Lieutenant-Greneral James Longstreet, the following 
resolutions were reported and adopted: 

Resolved^ That in the death of Greneral Longstreet has passed 
from the stage of action one of the central and most prominent 
figures of our late war. 

Resolved^ In him we recognized one of the ablest and most gal- 
lant soldiers of the lost cause. 

Resolved^ As commander of one of the corps of the Army of 
Northern Virginia his name is inseparably connected with the 
glory that rightly gathers about the achievements of that im- 
mortal organization. 

Resolved^ True and faithful to his every conviction of duty, 
and unswerving in his devotion to his country and people in 
the hour of their supremest trial and need, his name deserves 
to be enrolled among the immortals of our Southland. 

Resolved, That we extend to the bereaved family our deepest 
sympathy, and that a copy of these resolutions be sent to the 
family and to the Confederate Veteran. 

A. H. Sinclair, 

Ellet Blackburn, 

(Tennessee Division, Daughters of the Confederacy.) 

"Mankind will find no brighter page of history than that written by 
Longstreef 8 corps." 

Resolutions of the Tennessee Division of the Daughters of 
the Confederacy: 

Entered into rest January 2, 1904, at his home in Gainesville, 
Greorgia, surrounded by his family, consisting of his wife and 
five children, at the ripe old age of eighty-three years, Lieu- 
tenant-Greneral James Longstreet. 

A graduate of West Point, one of the heroes of the Mexican 
War, where he was desperately wounded, in storming Cheru- 



busco, and where he was twice brevetted for gallantry on the 
field of battle, — once 6is captain, for Chunibiisco, and again as 
major, for Molino del Rey, — a professional soldier in the army 
of the United States, the highest in rank from the State of 
Alabama at the time of the secession of that State, he resigned 
from the United States army, tendered his sword to Alabama, 
and from thenceforward was identified with the South in her 
immortal struggle for the right of local self-government, guar- 
anteed to her in the Constitution of the United States, and as 
laid down in the Declaration of Independence, from Bull Run 
to Appomattox, and, at its close, was recognized as ^ the left 
arm of Lee.** 

Since his death, his record as a soldier has been criticised, at 
a time when he cannot defend himself, but we congratulate 
the people of the South and the future historian that the 
Congress of the Confederate States, February 17, 1864, passed 
unanimously resolutions thanking Lieutenant-Greneral Long- 
street and his command for their patriotic services and brilliant 
achievements in Virginia, Maryland, Pepnsylvania, Greorgia, 
and Tennessee, and participating in nearly every great battle 
fought in those States, the commanding general ever displaying 
great ability, skill, and prudence in command, and the officers 
and men the most heroic bravery, fortitude, and energy in 
every duty that they have been called upon to perform. 

This resolution was approved by JeflFerson Davis, and was 
adopted on the recommendation of the commanding general of 
the army of the Confederate States of America, the immortal 
Robert E. Lee. After the adoption of these resolutions, nothing 
which we can say could add to his soldier's record. He needs 
no defence. We consign his name to history; so long as man- 
kind reads it, they will find no brighter page than that written 
by Longstreet's corps. 

He illustrated the South in a long life, the best years of it 
devoted to her and her cause, he sacrificed to serve her as much 
as any other one man, he fought a score of battles for her, and 
never one against her, and this State, over his grave, mingle their 
tears with those of the people whom he served and the devoted 
family who survive him; therefore 

Resolved, That the Army of the Confederate States of 


Resolutions by Camps and Chaftebs 

America is rapidly passing to the Great Beyond, leaving a record, 
a part of the history of the American people, to which we point 
with pride, and to which in a few generations civilized man will 
look, and admit that it illustrated the highest type of American 

Resolved, That we extend our sympathies to the surviving 
family of General Longstreet and to the South, at his death, and 
that a copy of the foregoing preamble and resolutions be fur- 
nished to his family and to the press. 

Miss Kate Fort, Chairman. 

Mrs. James P. Smaktt. 

Mes. M. H. Cuft. 

Mes. Wm. G. Oehmig, President. 

** Longstreet's magniflcmt service at Gettysburg gives that field tbe great 
place it holds in history to-day.** 

As one of his defenders, in the interest of truth, justice, and 
fairness, having participated in the battle of Gettysburg, Penn- 
sylvania, in Pegram's battery, A. P. Hill's corps, and knowing, 
from frequent visits to that sanguinary field since the engage- 
ment, something about what occurred on that eventful occasion, 
I can confidently say that Greneral Longstreet and those under 
him performed such grand and magnificent service on that 
battle-field as to give it the great and important place it holds 
in history to-day. We never knew that it was otherwise ques- 
tioned until after the war. Future history will vindicate his 
character in his course on that field and everywhere else where 
duty called him during the eventful period from *61 to '66. — 

John T. Calij^ohan, Vice-President Confederate Association. 
Wasbikgtok, D. C. 

(Encampment No. d, Union Veteran Legion, New Castle, 

** A brave, generous, and great man.** 

Resolved, That the death of Lieutenant-Gkneral James Long- 
street has caused the loss to the nation of a brave, generous, and 
great man. None knew his bravery or his greatness as a com- 
mander better than we of the Union Veteran Legion who often 



met him on fields that tested to the limit the fighting qualities 
of the American. 

We extend to his wife and family our sympathy in their 
bereayement, and the assurance of our great respect for their 
lost one. 

Samuel F. Elubok, 

Colonel Commanding. 
Geokoe W. Gagebt, 


(George E. Pickett Camp.) 

" In nearly all the leading battles of the South there was Loogstreet to 
lead his men to fame and glory." 

January 25, 1904. 

To the Ofpjcert and Members of George E. Pickett Camp^ C. V.: 
Your committee appointed on resolutions relative to the death 
of Lieutenant-General Longstreet desire to have it placed on 
record, that we, the survivors of Confederate Veterans, lost in 
the recent death of General Longstreet one of our best and 
bravest officers, under whose command the Army of Northern 
Virginia gained its reputation as the grandest fighting army the 
world ever produced. At Bull Run, Williamsburg, Seven Pines, 
Second Manassas, Boonboro, Sharpsburg, Fredericksburg, and 
in nearly all of the principal battles and victories of the South, 
there was Longstreet to lead his men to fame and glory. 

We therefore express our sentiment that in the death of Gen- 
eral Longstreet we have lost a true and good Confederate, loyal 
to the cause for which he bled and fought. 

Resolved^ That we extend our heartfelt sympathy to his widow 
and family, and that a copy of these resolutions be spread on 
our minutes. 

Chas. T. Loehb, 
Wm. E. Taluey, 
W. U. Bass, 


Adopted by vote of camp and copy ordered sent to Mrs. 
General James Longstreet. 


Adjutant No. ZO4, N. C. V. S. 


Resolutions by Camps and Chaptebs 

(John Bowie Strange Camp.) 

"Those who followed Longstreefc in the fltfnl ferer of war ever had 
oonfidence in his ability* courage, and fldeUty." 

The John Bowie Strange Camp of Confederate Veterans of 
Charlottesrille, Virginia, assembled in special meeting for the 
purpose, desire to spread on their record a tribute to the mem- 
ory of James Longstreet, lieutenant-general in the armies of the 
Confederate States, whose death has been recently announced. 
The Virginians who served under him in the great Civil War 
recognize his splendid ability as a corps commander, his daunt- 
less courage, and the absolute confidence reposed in him by that 
immortal band of Southerners who wiU go down in history 
wreathed in immortal fame as Longstreet's corps in the Army of 
Northern Virginia. This camp, a large proportion of whose 
members belonged to regiments and organizations led by him in 
the Virginia campaigns, wish to record the fact that whatever 
critidsms may have been passed upon his conduct on crucial 
occasions, yet those who followed him in the fitful fever of war 
ever had confidence in his fidelity, his loyalty, and his devotion 
to the Southern cause; and along with other comrades from the 
South who followed him on the line of danger, they had absolute 
faith in his splendid courage and ability as their commander. 
It is an historical fact that he so possessed the confidence of our 
immortal leader, R. E. Lee, the commander-in-chief of the Con- 
federate forces, that he continued him in command as lieutenant- 
general until the fateful day of Appomattox, when in the ex- 
piring crisis of the Confederacy Longstreet and his corps of 
Southerners were in line of battle, ready and willing to risk and 
lay down their lives in defence of the South, until ordered by 
their great chieftain to sheath their swords, stcuJc their guns, 
and furl their flags. 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be published in the 
local papers and also be sent to the bereaved widow of this dis- 
tinguished Southerner. 

MiCAJAH Woods, 
George L. Peteie, 
J. M. Murphy, 



The foregoing resolutions, presented by the committee ap- 
pointed for the purpose, were unanimously passed by the John 
Bowie Strange Camp of Confederate Veterans at Charlottesville, 
Virginia. Witness the signature of H. Clay Michie, com- 
mander of said Camp, and attested by W. N. ViTood, Adjutant 
and Secretary of said Camp. 

H. Ci^T Michie, 

This 12th day of January, 1904. 
W. N. ViTooD, 

Adjutant and Secretary. 


WHITE House 

WASHINGTON. ji^m0 f^ 1904. 

tfy dear Xrs. Loogstreatt 

Permit me to giibsorlba for tha l>ook joa have Ixaat vrlt- 
ton, on the work of yoor gallaat hnelmnil. General Siokles 
has jtut oalled nqr attention to the faet that the hook is to 
he piTlblished. Not only most all Americans hold high the 
memory of yoar hnshand as one of the illtutrioas oaptalns of 
the Civil 7ar, hot they most hold it high partioolarly heooose 
of the fine and high-sooled patriotism vhloh made hlm« vhen 
the war was ended* as stsnnehly loyal to the Union as he had 
heen loyal to the oaaae for vhioh he foaght daring the var 
itself. In his letter to General Sickles, In speaking of 
the part the General played in winning the victory of Qettys- 
horg for the Union cause « General Longstreet wrote i 

*It was the sorest and saddest reflection of my life 
for many years; hut, to-day* I can say* with sincerest emo- 
tion, that it was and is the hest that could have come to ns 

Jdl, North azid Sooth; and I hopo that the nation, po- 
imitod> may alvagrs anjoj the honor and glory brought to 
It by that grand vorlu* 

Thia la the aplrlt that glvea ua all« Horth and 
SoQtht BMt aM Veatv the right to faee the future vlth 
the confident hope that nerer again tUI we be dlaanlted« 
az^ that while united no f oroe of erll oan erer prevail 
agalnat us. 

Ylih great regard, 

Slnoerely your a. 

Mra. Janea Longatreet, 

GalneayHlOf Goorgla. 

Pebsonal Lettebs 


** Eveij inch a man.** 

Niw YoKK, Januarj 19, 1904. 
Mb8. James Lonostkeet, 

Gainesville, Georgia : 
Mt deae Me8. Lonosteeet, — ^Permit me to offer my sym- 
pathies in your great bereavement, and to add my tears to 
yours. I have always loved and admired General Longstreet, 
and considered him one of the greatest general officers in the 
Confederacy. He was indeed every inch a man. 
With kindest regards I remain, 

Sincerely yours, 

Edwaed Owek. 

** His great heart had nothing but kindness for all that was American." 

NiCHOLAflTiixi, KiKTUCKT, January 99, 1904. 
Mes. James Lonosteeet, 

Washington, D. C: 

Deae Madam, — ^Personally, I am an entire stranger to you, 
but I have long been interested in the story of your brave hus- 
band, and especially in that part bearing on the battle of 
Grettysburg. I am a Canadian by birth, though a naturalized 
American citizen, and pastor of the Christian Church in this 
place. I had no interest in the matter at issue save to know the 
truth and give honor where honor is justly due. I had read 
General Gordon's strictures, and was anxious to see what could 
be said in reply. After reading your article in the Courier 
Journal with great care, I want to say that General Gordon is 
completely and fully answered and his statements of fact abso- 
lutely refuted. 

The man who would find the Rev. Mr. Pendleton after the 
facts you have covered him with, would need a divining rod 
or a diving-bell. He if digposed of forever. 

Your illustrious husband belonged to the class of Southern 

men which I have always honored and venerated. With him the 



wax was over and the great heart which never knew fear had in 
it nothing but kindness for all that was American. I feel that 
I have suffered a great loss in not knowing him personally. I 
drop a tear of sympathy with you in his memory. I think the 
following lines on ** Gettysburg" most fitting now: 

'^The brave went down without disgrace^ 

They leaped to ruin's red embrace; 
Thqr never heard Fame's tiiunders wake 
Nor saw the daullng sunburst break 

In smiles on Glory's bloody face.** 

** Fold up the banners, melt the guns. 

Love rules, a gentler purpose runs; 
A grateful mother turns in tears. 
The pages of the battle years; 

Lamenting aU her f aUen sons." 

Please accept my thanks for the white light which your 
splendid, your unanswerable, letter casts on the whole question, 
and try to realize that I am only one of thousands who are 
equaUy indebted and correspondingly grateful. 
With greatest respect. 

Yours most sincerely, 

James Veenon. 

" Has taken his place with the great soldiers of all times." 

Raleigh, N. C, January 17, 1904. 
Mt Deab Mes. Longsteeet, — I send you a copy of the Past 
by this mail, containing article on your late husband and great 

The conduct of some of our people is a brutality. But I 
beg to assure you that it is the result of ignorance. Greneral 
Longstreet has taken his place beside the great soldiers of 
all times, and malice cannot reach him. I hope some soldier of 
his old corps will take up the question of these attacks. They 
can be answered and reputed. You will pardon this intrusion 
upon you, a sense of duty to the truth of history and love 
for the memory of your great husband is my excuse. 


W. H. Dat. 


In ^ - A_ 

ioXe^ y 'hwi^ o'iL^r 4rw*tr^ 

Cc/ «^ 

Personal Lettebs 

^General Lee's bull-dog flgfater." 

CoKAvcHi, Texas. Februaiy 1, 1904. 
Mrs. 6E2nsBAL James Lonostbeet, 

Grainesville, Greorgia: 
Deab Madam, — ^Enclosed please find resolutions of respect 
passed by John Pelham Camp, U. C. V., No. 665, Comanche, 
Texas, to your husband. 

As a Confederate soldier who followed the banner of the lost 
cause for four years I desire to extend to you personally my 
heartfelt sympathy in this great loss to you. I was in the 
Army of Tennessee, but a great admirer of Greneral Long- 
street. I had a brother in his command under Greneral Hood. 
The Southern people never treated General Longstreet with 
that respect that was due him. He was Greneral Lee's bull-dog 
fighter during the war, and remained true to the cause until 
all was lost. I read with great interest your defence of your 
husband in the Grettysburg affair, and you show to any fair- 
minded }>eople that he was not in any way responsible for the 
loss of the battle. I greatly admire your courage and fidelity 
in this matter. Greneral Longstreet has many strong friends 
in Texas. Please pardon me for the liberty I have taken in 
writing you. I have two letters from Greneral Longstreet which 
I value highly. 

With kindest regards and best wishes, I am truly your friend, 

Late Company F, Seventh Texas Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 
1861 to 1865; Colonel First Regiment, Third Brigade, 
Texas Division, V. C. V. 

* When war compelled surrender, I accepted the situation in good faith.** 

Sav Fbakcisco Law Libeabt, 

Sak Fbakcisco, Januaiy 6, 1904. 

Deae Madam, — ^Learning of the recent death of Greneral 
Longstreet, I felt compelled to address to you an expression of 

It so happened that soon after the close of the Civil War, he 
and I were for a time guests at the same hotel in Washington. 

I then formed his acquaintance and had a series of conver- 
sations with him, which constitute pleasing recollections to me. 



Although of Northern lineage and sentiment, I learned to 
admire a personality that seemed so charming in civil life, and 
which I had learned to dread in war. 

I am aware that later he fell under the severe displeasure of 
many Southern people. 

I know nothing of that for which he was blamed, but it 
would make too heavy draft on my credulity to believe that he 
ever departed from what he believed to be just and honorable* 

I well remember an expression he made to me. He said, ^ I 
conscientiously did what I deemed my duty while the controversy 
lasted, and when the fate of war compelled surrender, I accepted 
the situation in good faith." 

His widow must greatly feel the loss of one who was great 
as a soldier and so lovable as a man. 

Allow me, a Northern man and a stranger, to condole with 
you, and again express the high appreciation I entertained for 
your illustrious husband. 

Very respectfully, 

Gbo. W. Chambxkljin. 
Mss. James Lonostesst, 

Grainesville, Greorgia. 

** He taught peace and conservatism.* 

Uhrsd Staibs Cibcuit Couit op Afpkaxj^ 
Nbw OiixAiri, LoumAJTA, Janoaiy 5, 190i. 

Mss. James Longsteeet, 

Grainesville, Greorgia: 
My deae Madam, — I beg to offer you my sincere sympathy. 
I greatly honored Greneral Longstreet for his distinguished 
career as a soldier, and for his wise and patriotic course, teach- 
ing peace and conservatism, when war was ended. When 
history is written after time has modified all passions and 
prejudices, his career wiU stand in honorable and distinguished 
contrast with those of his critics who were ^^ invisible in war and 
invincible in peace.** 

I shaU always honor his memory as soldier and citizen. 
Yoiun sincerely and respectfully, 

David D. Sheut. 





Personal Letters 

TBCUMiBHy MiCHiOAiTy January 16, 1904. 
Mss. James Lonostbeet: 

Gainesville, Greorgia: 
Deab Madam, — Trusting you wiU pardon the intrusion, I 
desire to th^nk you kindly for the pleasure derived from your 
article so conclusively refuting the charges against Greneral 
James Longstreet, unhappily revived in Greneral Grordon's book. 
Although a Federal soldier during the last two years of the Civil 
War, its ending, with me, was the close of the unhappy strife. 
The admiration I held for James Longstreet was sincere and 
well founded, and one of the mementoes I much treasure is an 
autograph letter from him, generously written to me December 
18, 1898. 

The news of your husband's death was to me a personal 
grief. He was the one remaining conspicuous figure in the 
great conflict which those who participated in wiU remember 
while life remains. 

Very respectfully, 

JoHK D. Shull. 

** He performed every duty faithfully and consdentioiisly.'' 

IvAVHOBt VmonriA, January 83, 1904. 
Mt dear Mas. Lonosteeet, — ^As commander of the Ivanhoe 
Camp, United Confederate Veterans, and as perhaps the 
youngest Confederate veteran, ** who enlisted as a private," I 
desire to express to you the sympathy of myself and of the 
Camp which I have the honor to command. While we mourn 
with you in this your sad hour of bereavement, it is gratifying 
to know that Greneral Longstreet performed his every duty 
faithfully and conscientiously, and that his many virtues will 
entitle him to a high seat in that better world above, where we 
hope, when our mission on earth is finished, we shall be permitted 
to meet him in all the glory which his many virtues here below 
so justly entitles him. Hoping that the Grood Lord, the Grand 
Commander and Ruler of the Universe, will comfort you in your 
sad trials, and with best wishes, I am most sincerely yours, 

M. W. Jewett, 

Commander Ivanhoe Camp^ V. C. F« 


"LttDOited bj the nAtkm.'* 

MnnRAvou% Janoaiy 3» 190i. 
Deab Mb8. Lonostkeet, — With thousands of my oountry- 
men I sincerely lament the death of your illustrious husband, 
the great soldier and citizen, and extend to you, most bereaved 
of all, my sincere sympathy. 

Mrs. Torrance shares these sentimoits with me, and wishes to 
be remembered to you in love and sympathy. 
Sincerely yours, 

Eix TommAMCB. 
To Mss. James Longsteeet, 

Washington, D. C. 

* His name and Hnte among tbt priceless treasures of an 

MovBOB, GaoMiA» Janoaiy 4^ 1904. 
Mss. James Longsteeet, 

Grainesyille, Greorgia: 
Mt deae Mes. Longsteeet, — ^I haye noticed with great 
regret and with great sympathy for you, the news of the death 
of Greneral Longstreet. 

All who are familiar with his great career wiU be sorrowed at 
his passing. His place in history is secure. And his name and 
fame are among the priceless treasures of all Americans. 

I understand the depth of the sorrow in which you stand now, 
and sorrow with you. 

In deepest sympathy, I remain, 

Sincerely yours, 

Geo. M. Nafiee. 

** His greatness of character won the respect of his own and other lands." 

WASHiKoioVy D. C.9 January S, 190S. 

Deae Mrs. Longsteeet, — ^The morning paper brings the 

sad announcement of the passing away of the last surriyor of 

the brave sons of the South who made her name glorious in the 

annals of the world. The nation mourns the loss of a noble 

man whose greatness of diaracter won the respect not only of 

his own country but of other lands. The South weeps for a 

son who has conferred distinction upon her by a life of stainless 



Personal Letters 

Still greater is the sorrow of a host of personal friends whose 
knre he won by the most lofty characteristics and a friendship 
which failed not through the years. 

Greatest of all is the grief of his family in the loss of his 
loving companionship and tender care. Especially heavy is 
that loss to you, the companion of his later years whose devotion 
has smoothed the road for his weary feet to the end of life's 
way. I send you my heartfelt symjwithy in your sorrow. 

My love and sympathy go out to the dear children whose 
mother was my beloved friend, whom I have held in my arms in 
childhood, and whose little brothers and sisters faded away before 
my loving eyes when their flower of life had not yet unfolded 
from the bud of their sweet infancy and the mortal casket was 
intrusted to General Pickett and myself to be laid away among 
the church-yard lilies when the jewel of the pure soul had been 
taken beyond. 

To the many to whom the new year brings mourning for 
the great one gone I would send sincere sympathy, trusting that 
the Father of all will comfort them in their deep sorrow. 

Sincerely yours 

Mas. Geo. E. Pickett. 

** His great fame is fkxecL" 

CnrcnrvATi, Omo^ January 9, 1904. 
Mas. James Longstbebt, 

Gainesville, Greorgia: 

Deae Madam, — ^You need fear no slurs on the reputation of 
Greneral Longstreet. His great fame is fixed. 

All over this country wherever you find the old boys who wore 
the blue in the sixties, and who had to fight Longstreet's corps, 
you wiU get the same opinion. 

He was a hard fighter, a tireless general who was always ready 
for a battle, and who believed that hitting hard, never giving 
up, and following up every advantage was the right way to 
obey orders. 

Our regiment, the Sixth Ohio, met General Longstreet many 

times. And whenever he was reported as coming we got ready 

for hard, stubborn fighting, and we were never disappointed in 

that direction. 

92 337 


He was a brave enemy, and we respected his great qoalitiei. 
We are going to have a ^ Longstreet night'' at our G. A. B. 
Post here this month (open meeting), and have inYited all tlie 
Confederates near here to meet with us and talk over old diji 
and hard fights. 

Sympathizing with you in your loss, I remain. 

Yours obediently, 

Gso. C. James. 

**!/ Longstxvel was disobedient, Lee was a traaor." 

Waoh TazAib Januaiy IS; ISOi 
Mas. LoNOsraKST, 

Grainesville, Georgia: 

Deak Madam, — ^Enclosed I send you a brief tribute thst I 
paid to General Longstreet. 

General Longstreet's fame is safe with all fair-minded men, 
but it is the duty of us, who knew him and served under himt 
to raise our voices in lus defence, now that he cannot do so, u 
he formerly so ably and conclusively did, and I here make my 
defence of the charge that he failed to do lus duty at Gettys- 

If it is true that General Longstreet betrayed General Lee 
at Gettysburg, and that General Lee knew it, the legitimate and 
logical conclusions are that General Lee was a traitor, not only 
to the Confederacy, but to every man who served under him. 
All know that at Gettysburg Lee staked an empire on Long- 
street's corps, and all know that when it rolled back from those 
bloody heights, leaving its bravest and its best cold in death 
upon its grassy slopes, that the sun of the Confederacy, with 
battle target red, slowly sank into the bosom of eternal night. 
And to say that Greneral Lee knew that General Longstreet was 
responsible for the loss of the battle, responsible for the death 
of so many brave men who had there died in vain, responsible 
for the ruin of a cause dear to so many hearts, and then permit 
the man who had brought all this about, to remain as the com- 
mander of the First Corps of his army, to lovingly speak of him 
as he did as his right arm, to send him in two mcmths after the 
battle of Gettysburg in command of his corps to save the Army 

of Tennessee from the ruin brought upon it by the ineffidoicy 


Personal Letters 

of Bragg, to pennit him to remain throughout that long and 
dreary winter that he spent in East Tennessee, to bring him 
back to Virginia and be his chosen lieutenant from the Wilder- 
ness to the banks of the James, and from the James to Appo- 
mattox, is to convict General Lee of a treason to both himself 
and his country, more damnable than that whidi so-called ad- 
mirers of General Lee charge upon Longstreet. 
I remain, very truy yours, 

G. B. Gerald. 

** Douranced with bitterness the statement of Pendleton." 

ComcASTA, Tmxam^ January 8, 1904. 
Mas. James Lonostkset, 

Grainesville, Greorgia: 
Madam, — ^Your noble defence of your great husband places 
beyond cavil or controversy the fame of an illustrious career. 

Yesterday, as I finished reading it, the bent form of one who 
had followed him everywhere, ** amid the fiery pang of shells,'' 
passed, and I called him and read him the charge. ^ Liars! 
Liars P' and the light of battle passed once more into his eyes 
as he defended General Longstreet. Then I read him your 
letter, and then he cried. 

You will pardon me for this intrusion on your sorrow. My 
father was a cavalry officer in the volunteers in Scott's cam- 
paign in Mexico. He there formed the acquaintance of General 
Longstreet, and none denounced with more bitterness the state- 
ment of Pendleton. 

With a sincere wish for your future happiness, 

I am most respectfully, 

J. C. Gaitheb. 

** He was too big a man for his day." 

Nbw OaiKAiriy LoumAifA, January 4, 1904. 
Urns. Genebai< James Longstreet, 

Gainesville, Greorgia: 
Deae Madam, — ^Enclosed I send you the Picayune comment 
cm the death of your distinguished husband and my honored 

General Longstreet is blamed for the mistake of General Lee 



in charging the heights of Grettysburg. The same mistake 
made by General Bumside at Fredericksburg; which clearly 
proves that American soldiers can not successfully charge 
heights guarded by Americans. That is settled. 

Why should Greneral Lee send General Longstreet to Chidai- 
mauga immediately after Gettysburg, if Longstreet had been 
guilty of anything that his enemies so persistently accuse. 

The only thing that General Longstreet was guilty of was 
the acceptance of office under the United States govemment 
after the war. Now suppose all the Confederate generals had 
accepted office as he did, would it not have e£Fectiyely kept the 
office-holders placed here by the carpet-bag govenmient out of 
power? And also, how many ex-Confederates refuse ctBce 
under the United States goyemment to-day, is a question I 
would like to have answered. Longstreet was too big a man 
for his day, that was all. 

The scribbling of unscrupulous parties can not dim his fame. 
He was the hardest fighter of the Civil War, participant in 
all the battles of the Army of Northern Virginia, and victor on 
the only great field won by the Confederates in the West, 

I deeply sympathize with you, as I know all of Longstreet's 
corps do. 

Yours truly, 

Geo. W. Weie, 
Company A, Hampton Legion^ Hood*t Brigade, Longstreet's 
Cor pi. Army of Northern Virginia. 

** He stood the brunt of the battle at Gettysburg." 

Kruscdalb, Texas, January 3, 1904. 
M&s. General James Longstreet, 

Gkinesville, Greorgia: 
My dear Madam, — ^As an old Confederate soldier of the 
Eighteenth Virginia Regiment, Pickett's division. General James 
Longstreet's corps, I wish to extend to you my heartfelt sym- 
pathy and condolence in your sad affliction in the death of your 
gallant and illustrious husband. His old comrades will never for 
a moment believe the calimmy that has been thrust against him. 
A pure, true soldier, a good, noble, and loyal citizen. He 


Personal Letters 

rests now over the river under the shades of the beautiful 
heavenly trees, the peer of Hon. Jeff. Davis, Greneral R. £. Lee, 
Stonewall Jackson, and others. May his ashes rest in peace. 
When I read the announcement of his death in the papers and 
your letter it mcule my heart bleed, and the only comfort I 
could find was to weep like a child. I congratulate you on your 
well-written defence and complete vindication of my old com- 
rade and general. I loved him so much, and so long as life shall 
last I will cherish a lively recollection of his many noble and 
gallant deeds. I was with him on that memorable day, and can 
testify that he stood the brunt of the battle on the 8d of July 
at Gettysburg. I cannot understand how any pure or noble or 
brave man could circulate such false statements against one of 
the best and bravest men in our army. But envy is a malicious 
foe, always ready to destroy that which it cannot imitate or sur- 
pass. May God comfort and his blessings abide with you and 
yours is the prayer of one that entertains the highest respect 
for you and the memory of your husband. 

R. P. Goodman. 

" One of the greatest military men of the age.** 

Mks. Longst&eet: 

Deak Madam, — ^I had not the honor of a personal acquaint-, 
ance with your illustrious husband, nor was I with him in the 
war on his side of the question, in any sense. But I believe 
him to have been one of the greatest military men of the age, 
and with no superior on the Southern side. His course since the 
war has inspired the highest respect and esteem of every patri- 
otic and intelligent lover of the Union. 

At Grettysburg, in my opinion, he was the one sure-footed 
counsellor of Lee's many advisers. 

One of our papers, recently commenting on his life, took 
occasion to refer to the old charges of delay at Grettysburg. I 
eipect to answer these charges in a lengthy article. 
Yours sincerely, 

H. W. Haxmon. 

EmaroBAX, N. H. 



" Always present at the critical and dangerous point." 

AxRivi^ Janoaif 4^ 1901. 
Mt deab Mrs. Lonostbset, — ^I write to assure yoa of my 
heartfelt sympathy with you in your great bereavement* 

I mourn with deep sorrow the death of General Longstreet. 
I have witnessed many times his valor and devotion. He seemed 
to me to be absolutely ubiquitous on the battle^dd — always 
present at the critical and dangerous point. 

The proudest recollections of my life are associated with the 
glorious First Corps of the Army of Northern Virginia and 
its heroic commander. 

With renewed assurance of my sympathy, I am. 

Yours very sincerely, 

AiiBx. T. EIkwdt. 

^ He died as be liad liTed, a modd to manUnd." 

MnmorouxAV CruBb 
Nbw Youc Crrr, Januaiy S, 190*. 

Deab Mrs. Lonostbbbt^ — ^I can not express to you the 
regret I felt when I read to-day of the death of my noble chief, 
your dear husband. A flood of vivid recollections overwhelmed 
me. It was no surprise to me, as I knew the nature of the ill 
he suffered under ; still he was dead, and a blank left in my life 
which no time can heal. He was so much to me. For four 
years I had ridden at his side, and shared his confidence, and 
had learned to love him well. No unkind word or look stands 
between us, and my sorrow is that of one of his sons. 

To you he has owed many happy years, and his old com- 
rades will always bear you in tender thought. 

In your last letter to me you wrote that the doctors had said 
he had ^^ a fighting chance.^ But alas ! his time had come, and 
it found him ready I am sure. His life was blameless as it was 
brave, and he died as he had lived, a model to mankind. 

To you and his children I offer my heartfelt sympathy. I 
can say no more, as my heart is very full. As I see that he is 
to be buried to-morrow I can not be present, but my heart will 
be with you at his grave. 

Always most warmly yours, 



Personal Lettebs 

** The oonntry had no more demoted patriot" 

Mt DEAR Mb8. Longsteeet, — ^Please accept my profound 
Bjmpathy in your great bereayement. 

While as a member of his corps from the time of its organi- 
zation to the end, I knew Greneral Longstreet only as a subor- 
dinate knows his superior officer, after the struggle was over 
I met him frequently and conversed with him on many subjects, 
and to my admiration and devotion to the soldier and general 
was superadded esteem for him as a citizen and a high regard 
and fondness for him as a friend. 

If some critics had known his methods as a commander, and 
witnessed his powers in battle, as we of his corps did on many 
hard-fought fields, and understood his course and motives as a 
civilian as his friends did, they would bestow upon him nothing 
but words of praise and gratitude. The ranking lieutenant- 
general of Lee's great army, he always had the confidence of 
the commander-in-chief and the respect and admiration of all, 
and the ** lost cause" had no braver or truer defender and the 
country no more devoted patriot. 

But I only intended to write a line of sympathy, hoping to 
meet you again some time when we can talk of him and his 

With kind regards, I am. 

Very sincerely, 


''Hie brilliant leader of gallant armies, bat greater in peace as the pa- 
triotic dtixen." 

WASHijroioir» D. C^ January 5, 1904. 

My deae Mes. Lonosteeet, — ^My heart was very deeply 
touched by the news of General Longstreet's death, and I write 
to assure you of my profound sorrow over the event and of 
my warm sympathy for you in the unspeakable loss which you 

Greneral Longstreet will always live in the great and ennobling 

example which he set before his fellow-men. He was truly great 

in war as the brilliant leader of gallant armies, but he was 

greater in peace as the patriotic citizen loyally dedicating his 



splendid fame to the cause of his country's restoration to an 
harmonious brotherhood. 

His conduct since the termination of the mighty struggk in 
which he bore a distinguished part was prompted by the hig^hest 
wisdom and by the purest love of country. And his fame can 
never be dimned by the failure of the narrow-minded few to 
appreciate his great qualities of heart and of brain. I xejoioe 
in the fact that he lived to a ripe old age, and was ttieidiy 
blessed with the privilege of witnessing the good fruits of his 
noble career. 

With profound respect, 

I am truly yours, 

Gxoxox Bi 

** His soTiMadiig ability woo Um admiTmHun as an AuMrkan sokUcr.'* 

Phujjkuphla, Januaiy % 1904, 

DsAB Mas. LoNOsrasBT^ — ^Permit me to express my heart- 
felt sympathy in your sad loss and unexpected bereavement. 

It had never been my g;ood fortune to meet the general, but 
his surpassing ability and great and earnest devotion to the 
South won him, as an American soldier, our admiration, and 
entitled him to the love and thanks of those whoee cause was, 
for so long, the object of his sacrifices. 

We in the North, or many of us, rate General Longstreet 
as among the ablest of those who fought against us, and it was 
fortunate for us that he did not have oMnmand at some critical 
moments, when his superior judgment would have directed 
other movements than those which were made. 

I am, madam. 

Very respectfully yours, 


** Soldiers who seired on the firing line knew tlie leaders." 

My DSAa Mrs. Lonostheet, — ^We soldiers who served four 
years on the firing line know who were the leaders ; and Long- 
street is held in high esteem as a broad-guage man in the North. 

Yours truly, 

J. L. Smith* 

Philasbijphla, January 5, 1904. 


Tribute from Grand Army of the Republic 


That splendid soldier and generous gentleman, Major-Gen- 
eral Oliver Otis Howard, sent the following letter to the Grand 
Army Encampment, assembled in thirty-eighth annual session 
at Boston, Massachusetts, August 16 to 20, 1904: 

** BumuKOTOVy VBEMOVTy August lOy 1904. 
** To the Q. A. B. anembUd <U Boiton: 

"CoMiADUy — Our Commandeivin-Chief having already sent his subscrip- 
tion to the Memorial Volume to General Longstreet, written by his widow, 
I wish to join a list of subscribers to be forwarded from this encamp- 
ment to Mrs. Longstreet, which we will request General Blade to transmit 
with assurances of our regard and admiration for her great husband, 
wtiom we learned to fear on so many brilUant fields, and in a later day to 
admire for his noble qualities as dticen of the reunited nation." 

This tribute came to me accompanied by a ddightfully long 
list of subscribers to this little volume. I would be pleased to 
print the list, but want of space forbids. 


The twenty-third Annual Encampment of the Commandery- 
in-Chief of the Sons of Veterans, U. S. A., was in session at 
Boston, August 17 to 19, 1904. 

At their closing session, £. R. Campbell, of Washington, 
D. C, Past Commander-in-Chief, acting imder unanimous con- 
sent, brought the above tribute from the Veterans to the atten- 
tion of the Sons of Veterans. 

In a graceful speech he referred to this beautiful testimonial 
from the Grand Army of the Republic to the memory of a 
g€dlant opponent; asserted that the sons should follow in the 
footsteps of the fathers in all things attesting the spirit of a 
reunited nation; that it was the pleasure of the sons on their 
own accoimt and in the light of history to testify to their 
enthusiastic appreciation of the valorous deeds of General 
Longstreet on the battle-field, and his equally commendable 



services to his country when the war was over; and asked that 
the matter be referred for further official action and endorse- 
ment to the inccHning commander-in-chief , General William 6. 
Dustin, of Dwight, Illinois. 

The sentiment was applauded, the action asked was granted, 
and the tokens of individual approval and appreciation are 
continuing to gladden my heart as I write these closing words 
of grateful thanks to the fathers, the sons, and all who have 
so generously united in appreciation of the name and fame 
of General Ixmgstreet. 



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