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LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Thirty Years of African-American Students at Duke University 


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Duke University 
Office of the University Vice President eS Vice Provost 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2011 with funding from 
Duke University Libraries 


Copyright © 1995 Duke University 
All rights reserved. 

All photographs and documents associated with the history ol Duke University are 
from the Duke University Archives. All of the stall generously gave time and assis- 
tance to make this book as accurate as possible. Any errors that may exist should be 
attributed to us and not to them. 

The section "The First Five Undergraduates" was written by Bridget Booher and 
was first published in the September-October, 1992 issue of the Duke Magazine. 

Research and compilation of manuscript by Tracy Ainsworth and Gail A. Williams 

Copyediting, cover and text design, desktop publishing, and print production by 
Neylan G. Allebaugh 

The African ornaments used throughout the book were designed by Michelle Dixon 
ol Santa Barbara, California. They are derived Irom the art ol the Ashanti, Masai, 
Zulu, Bushongo, and many other tribes. 

The data tor the two appendixes was produced, cheerfully and in just the right for- 
mat, by George Smith of Alumni Development Office and Judy Pope of University 
Development Office. Many thanks for their able assistance. 

Front cover illustrations: 

The first three graduates — Wilhelmina Reuben-Cooke, Nathaniel White, Jr., and 

Mary Mitchell Harris 
Thirtieth Anniversary logo, designed by Gail A. Williams 

Back cover illustrations, from top left, clockwise: 

The banner on the door, Allen Building Takeover, February 13, 1969 

The statue of James B. Duke, with "Support the Vigil" sign in hand, Silent Vigil, 

April 5-11, 1968 
Students marching to the president's house, Silent Vigil 
Meeting outside Allen Building in teargas cloud, Allen Building Takeover 



Thirty Years of 

African- American 

Students at 

Duke University 

Published by Duke University, Office of the University Vice President ej Vice Pnnvjt, 1995 

This book is dedicated to 
the life and work 
of Julian Francis Abele, 
the architect of the Duke 
campus, whose black identity 
became widely known only as 
recently as in 1988. 

Julian Francis Abele 


Anyone who has published a book knows that it is a collaborative enter- 
prise. Certainly a book such as this one has benefited greatly from the co- 
operation, assistance, wisdom, and generosity of many people. 

It is not possible to name all of the people who have contributed, in one 
way or another, to the work that has gone into this book. 

I would like to mention several people whose vision and support made 
the book possible. Credit lor the idea of a commemorative event in recog- 
nition of the first thirty years of black students at Duke grew out of a con- 
versation I had with Professor Jerome Culp of Duke University Law 
School at the ACC tournament in the spring of 1992. 

President H. Keith H. Brodie enthusiastically supported the idea and 
appointed the planning committee that I chaired. 

Those persons who have made special contributions to this book have 
been mentioned elsewhere in the book. I would like to make note here of 
the invaluable help and support received from Mr. Laney Funderburk, as- 
sociate vice president and director of alumni affairs, Mr. John Burness, 
senior vice president for public affairs, Mr. William King, the archivist for 
Duke University', and Professor Emeritus Jack J. Preiss for the much- 
needed thoughtful review and feedback on the manuscript tor this book. 

The contributions of Dr. Brenda Armstrong and the dav-to-dav atten- 
tion to this project by my executive assistant Michael L. Hunt were indis- 
pensable to the successful completion of this project. 

— Leonard C. Beckum 


Foreword / John Hope Franklin I 

Introduction / Leonard C. Beckum 3 

A Letter from the President / Nannerl O. Keohane 5 

Thirtieth Anniversary Committee Statement 6 

Comments on the Thirtieth Year Commemoration 7 


A Timeline of Key Events I 3 

A Brief History of Duke University 18 

A Look to the Past / Jack J. Preiss 1 9 

Policy Changes 21 

The First Five Undergraduates 3 I 

Student Activism 37 


List of Events 49 

Welcoming Reception 5 I 

Thirtieth Anniversary House Course, "Race and Education" 52 

House-Course Speaker Series 54 


Brenda Armstrong / Leonard C. Beckum 

Ben|amin Franklin Chavis, Jr. / Kenneth Chestnut / Samuel 

Dubois Cook / Philip R. Cousin, Sr. / Maureen Cullins 

Johnny Dawkins / Janet Smith Dickerson 

William C. Turner 


Institutional Policies 71 

African-American Student Life 73 

Black Faculty Initiative Update 75 

Afterword 77 

Appendix A: List of All Blacks Who 

Received Undergraduate Degrees at Duke 79 

Appendix B: List of All Blacks Who 

Received Graduate Degrees at Duke 92 

Thirtieth Anniversary Committee 


The Honorable Dan T. Blue, Jr., Law '73; Speaker, N.C. House of Representatives 

Julius L. Chambers, Chancellor, North Carolina Central University 

Samuel DuBois Cook, President, Dillard University; Trustee, Duke University 

Johnny Dawkins, 86, Philadelphia 76ers Basketball Team 

Wilhelmina Reuben-Cooke, '67, Associate Dean of Law School, Syracuse University; Trustee, Duke University 

Benjamin Rutfin, Vice President tor Corporate Affairs, R. J. Reynolds/Nabisco Corporation 

Man' Duke Biddle Trent Semans, '39, Chairperson, The Duke Endowment Board of Trustees 


Brenda E. Armstrong, M.D., '70, Associate Professor of Pediatrics 

Leonard C. Beckum, Ph.D., Chairperson, University Vice President and Vice Provost 

Dan T. Blue, III, '95, B. N. Duke Scholar, School of Engineering 

John F. Burness, Senior Vice President for Public Affairs 

Sana Coleman, '94 

Maureen D. Cullins, '76, Acting Director, The Office tor Intercultural Affairs 

Jerome M. Gulp, Professor of Law 

Janet Smith Dickerson, Vice President for Student Affairs 

M. Laney Funderburk, Jr., '60, Associate Vice President/Director, Alumni Affairs 

Angela C. Gore, '94, Co- President of Reginaldo Howard Memorial Scholarship Organization 

William J. Griffith, '50, Vice President Emeritus 

Michael L. Hunt, Executive Assistant to University Vice President and Vice Provost 

George W. Jordan, III, '93, Co-President of Reginaldo Howard Alemorial Scholarship Organization 

Jon J. Phelps, Director, Bryan Center 

William C. Turner, Jr., Ph.D., '70, Director, Black Church Affairs 

Gail A. Williams, Career Specialist, Career Development Center 

Janice G. Williams, '71, School Social Worker, Durham Public Schools 

'All titles and affiliations are listed as of Julv 1993. 



Jamu B. Duke ProfeMor Emeritus oj History 

In the long sweep ot human history, Duke University is a 
mere fledgling institution, even it one takes into considera- 
tion its predecessor, Trinity College. The presence of 
African Americans as matriculants dates back only thirty 
years, a mere yesterday. But it was a "yesterday" long in 
the making. More than a halt century ago, when I was 
teaching at what is now North Carolina Central University 
and was a frequent user of the Duke University Library, 
Dr. Nannie Tillev or one of her assistants would regularly 
call to inform me ot any changes in the hours of the library 
due to holidays or university vacations. This was to me a 
"good sign" that Duke could, even would, make the transi- 
tion from exclusion to inclusion. 

The forces that brought about racial inclusion were 
legal, political, and economic — among others. When the 
United States Supreme Court outlawed segregation in the 
public schools in Brown v. Board of Education and in higher 
education in SweaJtl v. Painter and other landmark cases, the 
doors of all schools were opened, if only to a small degree. 
When African Americans and others who believed in equal 
opportunity began to urge elected officials at every level to 
open the doors of public colleges and universities, they 
made it clear that they would support their views at the 
ballot box. When it became clear that at least some white 
students were not so much interested in race as in acade- 
mic qualifications and human qualities, admission policies 
at Duke and other all-white colleges and universities be- 
came more amenable to the principle of racial inclusion. 
When various economic dispensations opened the univer- 
sity to less-privileged students, the arguments against the 
admission of African Americans were significantly weak- 

ened. At some point along the way, the more serious acad- 
emics at Duke and elsewhere began to realize that the ex- 
clusion ot African Americans solely on the basis of race 
was not only specious and anti-intellectual but contrary to 
the very principles on which the university was founded. 

In the three decades that African Americans have been 
a part of the life of Duke University as students, profes- 
sors, and officers, this educational enterprise has moved 
closer to the true mission of any institution ot its kind. It 
no longer needs to expend its energy denying the obvious 
and supporting untenable positions that fly in the face of 
truth and reason. In 1965, when I was riding the bus one 
Sunday morning from Durham to Greensboro, a white 
mother, father, and their two small children boarded the 
bus at a rural stop. The children immediately ran to the 
back of the bus and climbed on to the broad back seat and 
were obviously delighted to watch the receding landscape 
as the bus moved forward. I remarked to myself that at last 
those children as well as their parents were free to sit 
where they pleased. The Civil Rights Act of the previous 
year had not only made it possible tor blacks to sit any- 
where, but removed the constraints from whites as well. 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 


When Matthew A. Zimmerman, Jr., was one of the first 
two African-American students admitted to Duke Univer- 
sity, he was part of the liberation of Duke University that 
the faculty' and trustees had initiated two years earlier. He 
made legitimate the presence of African Americans on 
Duke campus that Julian Abele had begun when he de- 
signed the West campus a generation earlier. The process 
begun on those occasions has continued so that now on the 
thirtieth anniversary of that liberation, Duke University is 
as free as were those two children who climbed on the 
back seat of the bus back in 1965. 

<^{? LEGACY. 1963-1993 



I 'niiYr.iily I 'ice President ej \'uv 
Chair, Thirtieth Anniversary Committer 

On behalf of the Thirtieth Anniversary Committee, I wel- 
come vou to our commemoration of thirty years of African- 
American students at Duke University. These pages are 
filled with the accomplishments of African-American stu- 
dents who have contributed to the university's national 
reputation for academic and athletic excellence, public ser- 
vice, and personal achievement. African-American alumni 
who challenged the institution to confront the issues of 
racial justice have extended their leadership into law, poli- 
tics, medicine, education, and other fields. 

We raise these individuals as shining emblems of 
African-American excellence at Duke, but we also recog- 
nize the greater importance of the collective spirit. The 
Silent Vigil, the Allen Building Takeover, and the creation 
of a Black Student Alliance demonstrate the importance of 
group unity and solidarity. In many ways, the history of 
African-American students at Duke has mirrored the 
historv of African Americans in society at large. 

This institution's record and its response to the struggles 
for integration and inclusion also gives us moments of 
pride, such as when we read Booker T. Washington's 
statement in his classic autobiography, Up from Slavery, that 
Trinity College was the first white institution in the South 
to invite him to speak on campus, or when we recall the 
fact that the students of the Divinity School petitioned tor 
the admission of Negroes to the university as early as in 
the 1940s. 

Throughout 1993, we hosted a wide range of events de- 
signed to promote exploration of issues important to 
African Americans. We have celebrated the talents of 

African-American academics, artists, musicians, poets, and 
performers. We have created an academic context for the 
discussion of race by developing a house course for under- 
graduates. We have brought prominent speakers to cam- 
pus to educate, inspire, and challenge both the Duke com- 
munity and the larger community. Let us look upon the 
thirtieth anniversary not merely as a self-congratulatory 
event, but as an opportunity to pause — to evaluate the suc- 
cesses and accomplishments of the past, and to envision 
the future. 

This publication is our attempt to provide a historical 
record of the Thirtieth Anniversary Commemoration and 
to begin to give voice to a story which demands to be told, 
the history of African- American students at Duke Univer- 
sity. We have tried to be as thorough as possible in our re- 
search and presentation but acknowledge that much has 
been left out. The history of African Americans at Duke is 
far too rich in accomplishments, contributions, and strug- 
gles to be included in this small booklet. 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 


The work of administrators such as Deryl Hart, Barnes 
Woodhall, Tommy Langford, and Taylor Cole, as well as 
that of professors such as Peter Klopter, Fred Herzog, 
Waldo Beach, and Harmon Smith contributed to 
significant steps taken by this university toward integra- 
tion. The fact that their numerous efforts go unmentioned 
in this book should in no way suggest a slighting of their 
spirit or work, but rather should illustrate the limitations of 
a project such as this one. 

We hope one day to undertake a project of much larger 
scope, one that will allow for a more comprehensive analy- 
sis of African-American participation at Duke. This com- 
memorative summary of the first thirty years in which stu- 
dents have been at Duke does not address the history and 
struggles of the employees whose presence at Duke pre- 
dates the admittance of the first black students and contin- 
ues to have its own story. 

£$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

A Letter from the President 


It is good to have the opportunity to share in the commem- 
oration of the first African-American students at Duke 
University, and in the celebration of their achievements. 

The call for civil rights in the early sixties presented a 
clear challenge to the university's traditional mores, and an 
even clearer appeal to the fundamental principles of truth 
and service on which the university was founded. In taking 
up that challenge and acknowledging the strength of that 
appeal, we became a stronger institution, better prepared 
for a position of leadership in the region, the country, and 
the world. When the decision was made to welcome 
African-American students, the university began to remove 
the academic, social, and cultural barriers to success for 
these students at Duke. As a result of this deliberate trans- 
formation, the university became more intellectually vi- 
brant, culturally diverse, and socially conscious. 

From the Hope Valley Protest and the Allen Building 
Takeover to the Black Faculty Initiative, the history of 
African Americans on the Duke campus has been punctu- 
ated by reminders that the struggle for justice is far from 
complete. These events were a stimulus for many of the 
university's most difficult, yet most necessary, changes. 

In saluting the first thirty years of African-American 
students at Duke University, we are challenged to build 
upon a legacy of remarkable achievement. We celebrate 
the triumph of those first students, many of whom remain 
active, proud contributors to university life. Their 
sacrifices, their accomplishments, their example of en- 
durance, productivity, and allegiance to Duke, are price- 
less gifts to this university. 

As President, I join with everyone in the Duke commu- 
nity' in commemorating the history launched by these pio- 
neers, and accept the responsibility for continuing their 
work. Together we can ensure that Duke University will 
be a place where future generations of African Americans, 
and indeed all students, will enjoy a rich, diverse, and chal- 
lenging educational experience. 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 


Thirtieth Anniversary Committee Statement 

In 1992, then-Prudent H. Keith H. Brodlc charged a university committee to commemorate the thirtieth anniversary 
of African-American students at Duke. One of the first tasks of this committee was to write a mission statement. 


The Board of Trustees of Duke University made the mo- 
mentous decision to open its doors to the first African- 
American graduate students in 1961 and to undergraduate 
students in 1962, perhaps without knowing the far-reach- 
ing impact that this decision would have in shaping the 
history of the university. These decisions, in keeping with 
Duke's vision to provide the best academic preparation for 
the leaders of the future, acknowledged the changing fab- 
ric of the cadre ot leaders who would take Duke and our 
world to the threshold ot greatness. In opening its doors to 
African Americans, Duke accepted its role as a leader in 
the South as well as in the nation in forging an agenda lor 
the pursuit of academic excellence, the tostering ol social 
awareness, and the promotion ot diversity' in a multicul- 
tural society. 

The integration of the university has been no easier than 
that ot society in general. The entrance of African-Ameri- 
can students at Duke tested and shaped Duke's character 
in all aspects ot university' lite — academics, student aftairs, 
cultural diversity, political consciousness. The trustees' de- 
cision to open Duke's doors to all students regardless of 
race created an environment that confronts the formidable 
challenge ot appropriate incorporation of diversity in all 
aspects of university lite. Through thirty years of increas- 
ing numbers of African-American students, Duke has 
moved toward a university ethic that accepts the challenge 
of bringing together students from multiple cultural back- 
grounds and experiences tor further education and ad- 

vancement ot knowledge. Duke has accepted the mandate 
to prepare its students to live and work in a world where 
the contributions of African Americans and other peoples 
of color are acknowledged and celebrated. 

We begin a yearlong commemoration of the thirty years 
of African-American students at Duke University. In so 
doing, we will celebrate the significant achievements of 
African-American students, faculty, and employees and 
their contributions to this university. We will address the 
continuing challenges that lace Duke and other major in- 
stitutions as they struggle to put into practice the concep- 
tual ideal ot diversity. We will provide for the university a 
lasting documentation of the history' of African Americans 
at Duke and their accomplishments that enhanced Duke's 
unique contributions to social and economic progress. We 
will provide numerous opportunities tor all members ot the 
university community to come together to celebrate the 
significant achievements ot the first thirty years of black 
students in all aspects of university life. We will reflect 
upon our struggles both past and present, honor those who 
made substantial sacrifices to insure that Duke will con- 
tinue to be an open institution where diverse voices and 
expressions will be tolerated and encouraged. We will con- 
sider the challenges that the incorporation of African- 
American students and other students of color present to 
us as we face Duke's next century. 

The first African-American students at Duke have pro- 
vided us an enduring legacy of achievement through strug- 
gle and challenge. Their legacy of pride will stay with us as 
a blueprint tor generations to come. 


LEGACY. 1963-1993 

Comments on the Thirtieth Year 

President of Duke University, 1985-93 
James ft. Duke ProfeMor of Psychiatry 

In 1993, for the first time, 
Duke University officially 
commemorated the his- 
toric decision of our 
trustees to open this acad- 
emic community to all ap- 
plicants regardless of race, 
creed, or national origin. 
In the fall of 1961 the first 
African-American stu- 
dents admitted tor gradu- 
ate and professional edu- 
cation at Duke were 
welcomed to campus, and 
in the fall of 1963, our 
hrst African-American undergraduates arrived. 

The special events scheduled throughout calendar year 
1993 have served to remind us that these important steps 
toward removing the barriers that have hindered persons 
of color in our society tor generations were taken at Duke 
only a generation ago. When I asked Dr. Leonard Beckum 
to chair the Thirtieth Anniversary Committee, it was with 
the hope that we might all take a lesson from the too-short 
history of African-American students at Duke, a lesson 
that social justice even in our own community can never be 
taken for granted. I believe that Dr. Beckum and the com- 
mittee have succeeded in doing more — in highlighting lor 

us how our university and our nation are enriched and ex- 
panded by African Americans in every area of endeavor. 

Chairman, Duke Endowment; Trustee Emerita 

The thirtieth anniversary of African-American students at 
Duke is indeed a date to celebrate. Our mood must be one 
of "dancing in the streets." Duke took a required step on 
the way to becoming a world-class institution, and integra- 
tion made the university "whole." I firmly believe that the 
founding family would be pleased. 

Associate Vice President, Department of 
Alumni Affairs ana Development 

The activities and publicity surrounding the thirtieth an- 
niversary of the admission of African-American under- 
graduate students to Duke University in 1963 provided a 
wonderful outreach to African-American alumni. The Reg- 
gie Howard Scholarship Dinner was my particular assign- 
ment and I was pleased with the positive response to the 
dinner and to the appeal for funds to support the Howard 
Scholarship. The African-American alumni who attended 
the Howard Dinner and met the Howard family and 
Duke's senior administrative leadership were very im- 
pressed with the university's commitment to them and to 
the program. Other campus events planned by the commit- 
tee recognized African-American alumni and their achieve- 
ments and invited alumni to campus to celebrate their rela- 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 


tionship with Duke University. I believe this was the most 
important outreach to African-American alumni during my 
twelve-year tenure as director of alumni affairs, and the 
most meaningful. 

Adjutant Vice President eSDean 

It was a special honor to work with the committee that 
planned the commemoration of thirty years of African- Amer- 
ican students at Duke University. This past year's events 
have brought into sharp relief the many changes that have 
taken place for students of color and those things that have 
yet to change. Duke was and continues to be a challenge to 
those of us who appreciate the university's potential for sin- 
cerely engaging the issues of race and race relations. As an 
alumna of the class of 1976, I have seen the university from 
both the perspective of an undergraduate student and that of 
an administrator. The confluence of these perspectives gives 
me confidence in the university's continued commitment to 
enhancing the educational experiences for all students. It is 
mv hope that the university will continue the dialogue begun 
by the commemorative anniversary events and continue 
Duke's tradition of excellence. 

Thanks for the opportunity to comment on what I 
thought was a great piece of work. 

JANICE G. WILLIAMS, 72, DUBAC Planning Committee 

The thirtieth anniversary was a historical and unique event. 
The opportunity to participate in this occasion was de facto 
recognition of and appreciation for the contributions to 
Duke's heritage by the African-American constituency. We 
have consistently maintained that our talents, efforts and en- 
ergies have been given as "a labor of love" tor the university. 
Acknowledgment by our institution was both heartwarming 

and exhilarating. We sincerely applaud and reciprocate the 


embrace or our community! 

Addociate Profedsoroj Pediatrics 

Unfinished business . . . That's what these past thirty years 
are all about. Finishing what we started in 1963 when the 
first African-American students crossed the threshold of 
Duke University with the same hopes for a collegiate expe- 
rience as their majority counterparts. As a member of the 
third class of African Americans at Duke in 1966, I had no 
idea that the experience that I embarked upon would dra- 
matically change my life. I didn't know that it would set 
my course, ignite (or unleash) such passion about the enti- 
tlement of African Americans at Duke, and link my own 
personal history so inextricably to this institution. 

My undergraduate years at Duke, 1966—70, were turbu- 
lent ones, personally and institutionally- Perhaps without 
realizing the significant "culture clash" that the attempt at 
integration would bring, Duke began the process of in- 
creasing its numbers of African Americans, the first "un- 
derrepresented" minority group at Duke University. What 
followed in the matriculation of over one hundred African- 
American students in that period were the predictable de- 
velopments of a second world. The world of African-Amer- 
ican students, who created a social, cultural, and political 
base through which they moved, interfaced with and con- 
fronted a hostile larger community at Duke. The emer- 
gence of the African-American community, and the failure 
to respond to the social, cultural, and political environment 
that spawned its development, set in motion the events that 
would lead to the most significant period of campus ac- 
tivism in Duke's history. It provided the impetus for the 
Hope Valley Study-In at Dr. Knight's office. It created 
"Black Week," the yearly weeklong celebration of the 
magnificence of Africa and African-American culture at 


LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Duke. It was the inspiration tor the Silent Vigil that united 
many seemingly disparate yet impassioned voices for un- 
derprivileged people at multiple levels of the university hi- 
erarchy. It was the voice of all the pain that we experi- 
enced at the death ol Martin Luther King; and it was the 
genius that seized the momentum from Black Week 1969 
to bring Duke's African-American community together as 
one to make a stand at Allen Building on February 13, 
1969, a stand that would change the course of Duke's des- 
tiny and indelibly mark our place tor all time in this institu- 
tion s history. 


Director, AMOciate Vice Prejwent for Student Affairs 

As some of us realized at the time, the civil rights revolution 
of the 1960s was the most important sociological transfor- 
mation in America since the Civil War — or perhaps ever. 
Thank God there were leaders like Mary Semans and Jack 
Preiss and Peter Klopfer and Dan Tosteson and Harmon 
Smith and Ned Opton and Paul Hardin and Sam Cook and 
Brenda Armstrong and Ben Ruffin and Frank Ashmore and 
Bill Turner and so many others, who made sure that Duke 
University stayed abreast of those crucial times. And thank 
God again for this archival history of our proudest period — 
the first time that we helped lead the rest of the world into a 
whole new era. 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 


Chapter 1 
History of Integration 

A Timeline of Key Events 


• March 8, 1961. The board of trustees announces that 
students will be admitted to the university graduate and 
professional schools without regard to race, creed, or na- 
tional origin. 

• September 1961. Ruben Lee Speakes is the first Afriean- 
Amencan student to enroll in classes in the Divinity 
School; Speakes is admitted as a special student, as he has 
already received a divinity degree elsewhere. 

• September 1961. Walter Thaniel Johnson, Jr., and 
David Robinson are the first African-American students to 
enroll in the Law School. 


• September 1962. Matthew A. Zimmerman and Donald 
Ballard are the first two African-American students to en- 
roll in the Divinity School as official degree candidates; 
James Eaton, Ida Stephens Owens (Physiology Ph.D. 
'67), and Odell Richardson Reuben (Theology Ph.D. '69) 
are the first African-American students to enroll in the 
Graduate School of Arts and Sciences. 

• June 2, 1962. The board of trustees announces that un- 
dergraduate students will be admitted without regard to 


• September 1963. Five African- American undergraduates 
enter as first vear students: Wilhelmina Reuben-Cooke, 

Mary Mitchell Harris, Gene Kendall, Cassandra Smith 
Rush, and Nathaniel White, Jr. 

• September 1963. Delano Merriwether is the first African 
American to enroll in the School of Medicine. 

• Academic year 1963-64. Mary Mitchell Harris is the first 
African-American student on the dean's list. 


• April 12, 1964. Samuel D. Proctor is the first African 
American to preach at Duke Chapel. 

• November 17, 1964. Dr. Martin Luther King addresses 
the university community at Page Auditorium. 


• Dr. Samuel DuBois Cook becomes Duke University's 
first African-American faculty member. He enters the po- 
litical science department as a visiting professor and subse- 
quently is appointed a full professor. 

Integration ^> 1 3 


• Wilhelmina Reuben-Cooke is the first African-American 
May Queen. 


f «do T . MoreH 3. I«67 

Durham itlornincj JFcroli) 

vlegro Coed Named Duke'May Queen 

l«ol. Slot*. Spoit*, 
Mori efi. Cloiul*J & toJ.o 

._-...._. U^.T=2."= 

Bypass Opponents Say Vote 
One Way To Alter Proposal 

Group Adopts Name, Storts Petitions Drive 

• Bishop Philip R. Cousin becomes the hrst Arrican-Amer- 
lcan faculty member at the Divinity School. 

• Mary Mitchell Harris, Nathaniel White, Jr., and Wil- 
helmina Reuben-Cooke receive their undergraduate de- 
grees, as the first African- American Duke students to do so. 

• Academic year 1967—68. C. B. Claiborne, '69, is the first 
African-American member of the Duke University basket- 
ball team. 

• Hope Valley Study-In, November 13, 1967. Thirty-five 
members of the Afro-American Society stage a daylong 
study-in protest in the lobby of President Knight's office, 
denouncing the use of segregated facilities by university 
organizations, and the membership of key university 
officers, including President Knight, in the segregated 
Hope Valley Country Club. 


• The Afro-American Society is established as the first 
black student association. Later, the name of the organiza- 
tion is to change first to Association of African Students 
and then, in 1976, to Black Student Alliance. 

• A Silent Vigil, April 5—11, 1968. Following a memorial 
service for Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., one day after his 
assassination, hundreds 
of students — black and 
white — gathered in the 
quad to protest Duke's 
discriminatory policies. 
The primary issues that 
emerged were union- 
ization, wages, and 
working conditions of 
the maids, janitors, and 
dining hall workers. By 
the time the vigil ended 
on April 11, an agree- 
ment was reached for 
increases in salary for 
the workers. 

14 $4) LEGACY, 1963-1993 

• October 1968. African- American students present the 
administration with twelve points of concern. Concerns in- 
clude black enrollment levels, the low number of black fac- 
ultv members, and the continuing membership of key uni- 
versity officials in segregated facilities. 


• Black Week speakers include poet Carl Wayne Carter, 
Jr., local black community leader and organizer Howard 
Fuller, activists Dick Gregory and Fannie Lou Hamer, at- 
torney Maynard Jackson, author LeRoi Jones, activist 
Ben Rulfin, actress K. Eleanor Rux, and historian James 

• Allen Building Takeover, February 13, 1969. Sixty 
members ol the Afro-American Society occupy the Allen 
Building lor eight hours and present the university' admin- 
istration with a list ol demands. Some seventy Durham city 
policemen, twenty-five highway patrolmen, and twelve 
Durham County sheriff's deputies were on campus making 
arrests and using tear gas, with National Guard troops on 
standby off-campus. 

• Black Studies Program is instituted at Duke after much 
discussion and delay. Walter Burford is to be named pro- 
gram head in 1970. 

• Office of Black Affairs is established. Later, its name is 
to change to Office of Minority Affairs, and, in 1993, to 
Office of Intercultural Altairs. 


• The university's first predominantly black fraternity, the 
Omega Zeta chapter of Omega Psi Phi, is founded. One 
year later, the university gives the fraternitv housing in 
Wannamaker IV. 

• Delta Sigma Theta is established at Duke as the first rec- 
ognized black sorority. 

• Alpha Kappa Alpha is established at Duke. 


• Alpha Phi Alpha is established at Duke. 

• September 24, 1975. One hundred students protest and 
present the administration with grievances and demands 
for action toward amelioration of these conditions. Their 
priorities include departmentalization of the Black Studies 
Program and increasing the number of black faculty' teach- 
ing black studies courses. 


• September 1976. The Association of African Students 
is renamed the Black Student Alliance, giving the group a 
stronger political mission. The BSA communicates the 
needs of black students to university administration and to 
the entire Duke student body- 

Integration ty£ 1 5 

• Reginaldo Howard becomes the first African American 
elected to the position of ASDU President. He is killed in an 
automobile accident before the beginning of his term, and 
the Reginaldo Howard Scholarship is established in his 
honor. A $l,000-per-year stipend tor four years is awarded 
annually to ten matriculating African-American students. 
The scholarship is supported by Duke's general operating 

„=>day, February 16, 1984 



Reginaldo Howard, the first black elected ASDU presi- 
dent, died before tils term began. 

Scholarship has 
improved fiiture 


The Reginaldo Howard Scholarship, Duke's only ment- 
based financial award exclusively for black students, will 
raise more than the the minimum $25,000 needed to re- 
tain an endowed scholarship at Duke, according to Univer- 
sity officials. 

Since its inception in 1976, the scholarship - a four-year, 
$l,000-per-year stipend offered to 10 matriculating black 
students each year - has been supported by Duke's general 
operating funds. The general funds will continue to pay 
for the scholarship until its endowment reaches the level 
needed for self-sufficiency, according to Myma Jackson, 
special gift officer of the University development office 

The scholarship will be completed," Jackson said. "There 
really is no deadline tto raise the money]. The University 
requires a scholarship to have $25,000 within 10 years 

ofl-Q- tha "-^In^hm ia fi ret a nrl n u)»H hut T think thfV 


• Kim Matthews becomes Duke's first black female athlete 
when she joins the women's basketball team. 


• Iota Xi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity Inc. is 
founded at Duke. 

• Benjamin Chavis is admitted to the Divinity School 
while serving the fourth year of a jail term following his 
controversial conviction in the Wilmington 10 firebombing 
case. The conviction is to be overturned bv a federal court 
of appeals in 1980. He recalled being brought to Duke bv 
prison officials in leg chains and doing classwork in Greek 
and New Testament while in detention in a Hillsborough 
facility. Prison rules dictated that all lights go out at 10 
p.m. This meant that Chavis would have to move his stud- 
ies to the bathroom, the only lighted place after curfew. 
Chavis received his master's degree from Duke in 1980 and 
went on to get a Ph.D. in Theology from Howard University. 


• Duke University Black Alumni Connection (DUBAC) is 
created as an affinity alumni group of the larger Duke 
Alumni Association. 


• The Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture is es- 
tablished. The center is named for jazz musician Mary Lou 
Williams, who had been a popular artist-in-residence on 
campus for several years. 


• On May 3, 1986, the board of trustees votes to divest 
Duke's investments in South Africa. 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 


• April 21, 1988. The Academic Council passes a resolu- 
tion to adopt the Black Faculty Initiative, to mandate the 
hiring ol more black faculty in each department. 

• Duke receives a $500,000 anonymous grant lor minority 
scholarships, provided that the funds are matched by 
Duke over the next five years. 

• October 24, 1988. The Graduate School sponsors the 
Black on White Symposium to address racism in education 
in general; there is a special locus on racism at Duke. 


• Ashanti, a support group tor Duke women of color, is estab- 
lished to promote unity among women of color on campus. 

• Julian Abele Outstanding Achievement Award is estab- 
lished for professional students and faculty. 


• The Black Male Support Group is established lor 
African-American males on Duke campus. This group was 
founded by Art Williams, '90, though it became opera- 
tional alter he graduated. 

• Leonard C. Beckum is hired as the first African-Ameri- 
can officer of the university, and is given the title universi- 
ty vice president and vice provost. 


• Martin Luther King, Jr., holiday is designated by Presi- 
dent H. Keith H. Brodie as an official holiday for the uni- 
versity and medical center, effective January 1992. 

• Janet Smith Dickerson is hired as the first woman and 
first African-American vice president of student affairs. 

• A portrait of Julian F. Abele is hung in the Allen Build- 
ing. He was the chief architect of the Duke campus, but 
his black identity was not commonly known until 1988. 


• Thirtieth Anniversary Committee is established by President 
H. Keith H. Brodie to oversee the commemoration of thirty 
years of African- American students at Duke University. 


• Alpha Phi Alpha becomes the first black fraternity to re- 
ceive housing on West Campus. 

• Spectrum House is established as a multicultural dorm 
on West Campus for students who express an interest in 
celebrating the various backgrounds, races, and ethnicities 
of the university community. 

• Throughout the year commemorative events celebrate thir- 
ty years of African-American students at Duke University. 

Integration ty£) 


A Brief History of Duke University 

Duke University was created in 1924 by James Buchanan 
Duke as a memorial to his father, Washington Duke. The 
Dukes, a Durham family who built a worldwide financial 
empire in the manufacture ot tobacco and developed the 
production of electricity in the two Carolinas, long had 
been interested in Trinity College. Trinity traced its roots 
to 1838 in nearby Randolph County when local Methodist 
and Quaker communities joined forces to support a perma- 
nent school, which they named Union Institute. After a 
brief period as Normal College (1851-59), the school 
changed its name to Trinity College in 1859 and affiliated 
with the Methodist Church. The college moved to Durham 
in 1892 with financial assistance from Washington Duke 
and the donation of land by Julian S. Carr. In December 
1924, the trustees gratefully accepted the provisions of 
James B. Duke's indenture creating the family philan- 
thropic foundation, The Duke Endowment, which provid- 
ed, in part, for the expansion of Trinity College into Duke 

As a result of the Duke gift, Trinity underwent both 
physical and academic expansion. The original Durham 
campus became known as East Campus when it was re- 
built in stately Georgian architecture. West Campus, 
Gothic in style and dominated by the soaring 210-foot 
tower of Duke Chapel, opened in 1930. East Campus 
served as home of the Woman's College of Duke Universi- 
ty until 1972, when the men's and women's undergraduate 
colleges merged. Since then, both the men and women un- 
dergraduates have attended Trinity College of Arts and 
Sciences and the School of Engineering. 

Academic expansion of the university included the es- 
tablishment of new graduate and professional schools. The 
first B.D. degree was awarded in 1927, the first Ph.D. in 
1929 and the first M.D. in 1932. The School of Law, 
founded in 1904, was reorganized in 1930 and given its 
own building on West Campus. The business school was 
founded in 1969 and named the Fuqua School of Business 
in 1980. 

Modern times have seen Duke realize its founders aspi- 
rations to become a major center of learning. The Duke 
University Aledical Center has achieved international 
prominence, and many Duke schools and departments are 
consistently ranked among the nation's best. The university 
frequently wins attention for its research achievements and 
academic innovations, and its faculty often is called upon to 
provide leaders for national and international academic and 
professional organizations. Duke continues to work to 
honor its founder's charge to attain "a place of real leader- 
ship in the educational world" and "to uplift mankind ... to 
develop our resources, increase our wisdom and promote 
human happiness." 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

A Look to the Pajt 


Profudor Emtritui of Sociology 

Having been through and survived the thirty years at 
Duke covered by the legacy, I feel it is appropriate to take 
stock of its substance. What is the bequest of the past and 
what does it portend? 

Unquestionably, the legal and ethical pivot of the na- 
tional struggle for racial equality was the 1954 Supreme 
Court decision that separate public educational facilities 
based upon race were inherently unequal. The ensuing 
years were to play out the ways in which this educational 
focus could be extended to other significant dimensions of 
life such as housing, economic opportunity, and employ- 
ment. When I arrived at Duke in 1959, many faculty, ad- 
ministrators, and students felt that as a private university 
Duke should be exempt from the legal directives of the 
1954 decision. The excerpt from the president's report 
quoted here [on page 22] reflects the ambiguity that exist- 
ed on campus. Consequently, it was to take eight years of 
discussion, debate, and research to produce the 1961—62 
trustee resolutions integrating the student body. 

As a member of one of the self-appointed committees that 
produced the report on racial segregation and the faculty 
resolution to the board of trustees [see section "Policy 
Changes"], I can revisit that report and make a brief assess- 
ment of how far Duke has come in meeting its challenges. 

From a pragmatic standpoint, it was clear that once the 
student body was desegregated few of the exclusionary 
policies and practices on campus and the Medical Center 
could survive. But the elimination of some of these prac- 
tices took longer than they should have and some, such as 
hiring and promotion procedures governing nonacademic 

employees, have been and still are difficult to pinpoint and 

The appearance of black undergraduates in 1963 ac- 
complished the first major phase of desegregation at the 
university. Their numbers increased slowly, as was to be 
expected, due to the limitations of hardbound tradition and 
the necessity of strong financial support. 

By 1968 there were enough black students to create a 
visible organized presence. Thus began a long and continu- 
ing struggle to maintain a racial identity in a structure and 
atmosphere which ostensibly attempted to eliminate racial 
differences. Although the students sought to remove barri- 
ers to functional equality, they also wished to maintain a 
social and cultural cohesion as a black entity. Pressure to 
increase the number of black students and faculty, and to 
develop a black studies program have been ongoing agen- 
das to the present. 

The black presence in most academic and professional 
areas of the university, including administration, has ex- 
panded, but the position of blacks in the nonacademic cate- 

Integration <^> 1 9 

gories has shown less improvement. The university has 
maintained a consistent negative response to attempts, par- 
ticularly in the Medical Center, to unionize nonacademic 
employees. While such unions do exist, primarily Local 77 
on the academic campus, they have had a difficult time 
bargaining with the administration, and there is meager job 
security in place. Since most ot the lower paying jobs are 
held by blacks, labor relations at this level have had a 
strong racial component. 

It can be said that the general state of racial relations on 
the campus has been relatively quiescent in recent years — 
certainly compared with the turbulence and high drama of 
the 60s and 70s. I believe we are now in a period of institu- 
tionalization and, in some areas, of regression. The Duke 
campus, in microcosm, reflects a national mood of contusion 
and a less progressive stance on racial matters. There also 
appears to be growing division within the total black com- 
munity' itself, based more upon socioeconomic differences 
than racial identity, per se. The university administration is 
now experienced in dealing with racial issues and seems ca- 
pable of early prevention ot potential confrontations. Join- 
ing their white counterparts, many black students appear 
more focused on the self rather than upon the group as com- 
pared with their predecessors. Given the current amalgam, 
it is difficult to foresee any major movement or cause which 
might energize the campus in the near term. 

One interesting aspect of this scene is that the racial 
spectrum has become more complex over the past decade. 
Whereas the black-white dimension was the only 
significant focus ot race relations at Duke (and throughout 
the country) thirty years ago, there are now at least two 
other minorities which share the scene. Substantial num- 
bers ot Asian-American and Latin-American students are 
beginning to make their voices heard. They appear to be 
going through the same kinds of organizational steps 
charted earlier by African Americans, though so far with 
considerably less turmoil. Perhaps, from here on, the rela- 

tionship among the several minority racial groups — black, 
yellow, Indian, etc. — will be as important as their individ- 
ual and possibly collective interaction with the decreasing 
white majority. 

A crucial question is whether the current group of ad- 
vantaged minority students, faculty, and administrators at 
Duke and elsewhere will shoulder the leadership responsi- 
bility' and the commitment to assist the struggles of their 
racial brethren who constitute the majority of the socioeco- 
nomic underclass in this country'. This would have to be 
done in a backlash of conservatism and retrenchment which 
seems to be increasing nationwide. The jury is still out on 
that challenge. 

20 dyf LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Policy Changes 

May 26, 1950 

I am a Negro, a veteran and would desire to attend as a day student. Further, I am employed at A & T 
College, Greensboro, N.C., and with a family I find it increasingly difficult to get too far away from home, 
hence it would be a decided advantage to get the training that I desire in the state. 

— Virgil C. Stroud, an applicant to Duke University 

May 30, 1950 

Replying to your letter of May 26, you perhaps are familiar with the past history of Duke University and 
its policy concerning requests similar to yours. There has been no change in policy. 

— A. Hollis Edens, President of Duke University 

May 17, 1954 

Brown v. Board 01 Education 

We conclude that in the field of public education the doctrine of "separate but equal" has no place. 
Separate educational facilities are inherently unequal. 

-Chief Justice Earl Warren, 347 U.S. 483 (1954) 

Integration ^> 2 1 

November 10, 1955 

(Minutes of the Univ. Faculty, Nov 10, 1955-June 3, 1960, page 7) 


I should like to pause here and mention only briefly the question of segregation, or desegregation it you 
wish, as it affects Duke University, I know many of you are concerned about this question both as its 
national and sectional implications as well as to its effect upon Duke University. As you well know, 
there are no regulations in the Charter or By-Laws of the University' concerning this matter. These 
have not been necessary or desirable because until recently the laws ol the state were controlling. Now 
the Supreme Court's ruling does not appear to have affected the status of privately supported institu- 
tions. What the future will be in this respect no one knows. It would be inappropriate and even foolish 
for me to argue the question here. The fact remains, however, that at present Duke University and simi- 
lar institutions have discretionary power to admit negroes or not to admit them. This poses the problem 
with which many of you are concerned. The web of opinions, emotions and convictions is complicated, 
and there is no easy answer. At least this is the opinion of members of the Board of Trustees. To say 
that this question and related questions are constantly under discussion and review would be to state 
the obvious, it seems to me. It is also equally obvious that no change has been made in the traditional 
policy of Duke University'. 

There are many fringe areas of this problem which confront us daily. They have to do with contact 
between the races in academic, religious and cultural activities, and there is no clear guide tor action. 
Therefore, we must act in this area with good judgment as we can in each situation, remembering to 
take into consideration the spirit in which each incident is presented and bearing it will have upon the 
larger problem. I cannot promise you a comfortable year in dealing with these terribly important mat- 
ters. I can only promise you my best effort to act with good judgment for the long-range good of the 

22 cff? LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Lecember 19, 1958 

f oac^ad Sett ion 

Th" Oshcol. [>n 

The- follcwini; iBtter will :o fonnrde*) -.o Prnldent Edens prior to the re.r.lar 
February pectins of tho Duke Univara.ty Hoard of Tr-wtoio. Jhilc It <<c;s net neses- 
wrU," reflect the opinion of tho [Hvinity SchcoJ Stititnnt Body, it <lo<!3 cxDrass il-j.rrly 
the conviction,.* of its signers and al tfi« MMbara 3.' th»i Kditcriai 3ocri cf ;tes t>i>-iae . 
ATter tho Chr-s-iua* venation all ikm^ps of the St.aert go^i' »tll tx.* tivu". *n opportu- 
nity to si^n '-his latter o«»fore it ie svrit. 


Dear Sirs: 

Cr.ce Again as tha season of fcooCl will ^jpTOAohac, M l"*al Ssund in con- 
science to express to you our lasp concern *nd parplxtlty over ihe raci*l$y 
rwttnrtive aCmisnic-r.* policy o- tho Divinity ichocl. Ufl foci UitJ poilC? to 
he »t odde with tho faith we shall bo prccUunin^ this C'nris- ts« - i:>d throurh- 
«it -.he r«*r. .18 *non it is at odds v,ith tho stated eiita of the Methodist 
Church In whicl-t must of ue serve end with thene of ".he two Annu&i. CouCuronuc*. 
u « moat of us ^lll pursue cur vacation, «• have tsld you In Ihe of 
th« anruiah of spirit it us ta be rsconvs ending tc cur people a ft cf 
values vihicn i; not Accented &y the r.reat and prosrs^siv; university of which 
*« arc raemhers. 

Once egfrin *« ask you respectfully Lc oenslder this «X6cr cXrcsh. It is 
not n«:3ssary sitae *c robuario »cftto those caiulderatiuns "hich r.t fc*i'« pi'o- 
noe^d to yci; in previous y **!'«.. 7hu case h« bioo st*-ed 1-. rcnre ther enough 
cat:.!!. 8ut »e a<rk ycj to note that ncre of the e.r^,i:**.its Uwt hi.-* beef) e£- 
vanced far liberalising policy loses it; fo.-ca *lth tft« cassa,^ oi li.'iic. Ui 
tho. contrary, they E rc*» raorc urgon? as morv and nora of ?ur crasuftiiiu* fc*,Rin 
to feel tha pressure of tile profclc.T en tha locil level 0!VJ !•»-< to th<: gTW-t like Duke for tlia wtsa leadership liay have aatfi to exjwet. 

iVa ask you _f *.he titse hos not uama to a-liiit quai-irie- iloSTCCS to tiu Zi- 
vinlty School. «e aak yo-j, as »*r dii last ytar, for a chance to «is«iij« t.-»;s 
Kilh the- ^i»tara of ycur Ctvudttcn «n U)9 Divinity fcliool. *nc BlK(tjr4 ■*■ *>V 
that your prayerful concern b* given to the and that every polio -"-ni practice 
of our 1 univernitj rrk-y b« worttiy of t-i« foLth sr-.i. the Ci-urch tc .'hl;li ..*■ ar« 

n«ffr>octfully yours, 

..ll.ii- Lare 

r*r*siCer>t nf tSe i-^:^:.i "in:^" 

.-?p:es .". Lri.'w'cci 

ChiLrsan of th« 5oci_l action 


Special Edition, The Divinity School, Durham, North 

Carolina, December 19, 1958 

The following letter will be forwarded to President Edens 
prior to the regular February meeting of the Duke Univer- 
sity Board of Trustees. While it does not necessarily reflect 
the opinion of the Divinity School Student Body, it does 
express clearly the convictions of its signers and of the 
members of the Editorial Board of Response. After the 
Christmas vacation all members of the Student Body will 
be given an opportunity to sign this letter before it is sent. 


Dear Sirs: 

Once again as the season of good will approaches, we feel 
bound in conscience to express to you our deep concern 
and perplexity over the racially restrictive admissions poli- 
cy of the Divinity School. We feel this policy to be at odds 
with the faith we shall be proclaiming this Christmas and 
throughout the year. We know it is at odds with the stated 
aims of the Methodist Church in which most of us serve 
and with those of the two Annual Conferences in which 
most of us will pursue our vocation. We have told you in 
the past of the anguish of spirit it causes us to be recom- 
mending to our people a set of values which is not accepted 
by the great and progressive university' of which we are 

Once again we ask you respectfully to consider this 
matter afresh. It is not necessary that we rehearse again 
those considerations which we have proposed to you in the 
previous years. The case has been stated in more than 
enough detail. But we ask you to note that none of the ar- 
guments that have been advanced for liberalizing policy 
loses its force with the passage of time. On the contrary, 
they grow more urgent as more and more of our communi- 
ties begin to feel the pressure of the problem in the local 
level and look to the great institutions like Duke for the 
wise leadership they have come to expect. 

We ask you if the time has not come to admit qualified 
Negroes to the Divinity School. We ask you, as we did last 
year, for a chance to discuss this with the members of your 
Committee on the Divinity School. And always we ask that 
your prayerful concern be given to the end that every poli- 
cy and practice of our university may be worthy of the 
faith and the Church to which we are allied. 

Respectfully yours, 

William Lane, Pres. Student Body 

James W. Lavengood, Chair, Social Action Committee 

R. Web Leonard, Editor of Response 

Integration ^> 23 


Liarch 8, 1961 

RESOLVED that qualified applicants may be admitted to degree programs in the Graduate and 
Professional Schools in Duke University, effective September 1, 1961, without regard to race, creed or 
national origin. 

June 2, 1962 

RESOLVED that qualified applicants may be admitted to degree programs in the undergraduate 
colleges of Duke University without regard to race, creed or national origin. 

24 &$ LEGACY. 1963-1993 

May 1962 

The following document, sent to the faculty with a cover Liter from 
■lack ./. Preiss, /.> from the J hike University Archived. It is the hr.'t 
document describing the resolution to admit African -American un- 
dergraduates t(< Duke University. 

Dear Faculty Member: 

The attached report concerning racial segregation at Duke 
University makes it clear that the area of undergraduate 
admissions is crucial lor basic change in current policies. 

At an open meeting ol the University community on 
May 4, 1962 a motion was adopted to present a resolution 
to the whole Faculty supporting the recent action of the 
Undergraduate Faculty Council. No concrete evidence ot 
overall faculty expression is now on record. It is believed 
that such expression can contribute to the achievement ol a 
desegregated University. 

Accordingly, the following resolution will be presented 
at the next faculty meeting, June 1, 1962. 

"Resolved: That the faculty of Duke University here- 
with endorses the resolution adopted by the Undergradu- 
ate Faculty Council April 12, 1962 recommending that at 
the earliest practicable date qualified applicants may be ad- 
mitted to degree programs in the undergraduate colleges of 
Duke University without regard to race, creed or national 
origin. That a copy of the supporting resolution be sent to 
the President of the University with the request that it be 
forwarded to the Board of Trustees." 

You are strongly urged to attend the faculty meeting in 
person and to support this faculty resolution. However, if you 
are unable to attend this meeting, and wish to register your 
support, please sign below and send as soon as possible to: 

Jack J. Preiss 

Department of Sociology and Anthropologv 

I will be unable to attend the June 1st faculty meeting and 
wish to register my approval of the resolution presented 

Signed: , 




Dear Faculty Member: 

The attached report concerning racial segregation at Duke Uni- 
versity makes it clear that the area of undergraduate admissions is 
crucial for basic change in current policies. 

At an open meeting of the University community on May 4, 1962 
a motion was adopted to present a resolution to the whole faculty 
supporting the recent action of the Undergraduate Faculty Council. 
No concrete evidence of over-all faculty expression is now on rec- 
ord. It is believed that such expression can contribute to the 
achievement of a desegregated University. 

Accordingly, the following resolution will be presented at the 
next faculty meeting, June 1, 1962. 

That the faculty of Duke University herewith 
endorses the resolution adopted by the Under- 
graduate Faculty Council April 12, 1962 rec- 
ommending that 'at the earliest practicable 
date qualified applicants may be admitted to 
degree programs in the undergraduate colleges 
of Luke University without regard to race., 
creed or national origin.' 

That a copy of the supporting; resolution 
be sent to the President of the University 
with the request that it be forwarded to the 
Board of Trustees." 

You are strongly urged to attend the faculty meeting in person 
and to support this faculty resolution. However, if you are unable 
to attend this meeting, and wish to register your support, please 
sign below and send aB soon as possible to: 

Jack J. Preiss 
Department of Sociology and 

I will be unable to attend the June 1st fac- 
ulty meeting and wish to register my approval 
of the resolution presented above. 

Integration %%> 


The following is the text of the report thai Dr. Preiss dent to the 
ideally in late J lay 1 962, to urge the faculty member,' to vote for 
the resolution to begin admitting black undergraduates to Duke 
University on June I, 1962. 


The following report is a highly condensed summary of 
what is belie\ed to be the first comprehensiye survey of 
racial segregation at Duke University. 

The report points out specific areas in which segrega- 
tion exists, and indicates the relationships among these 
areas in terms of policy changes. At the same time, the pos- 
itive aspect ot the report, particularly opportunities tor 
non-faculty employment, is encouraging. Clearly, existing 
opportunities are not being utilized. This may be due to 
habit or lack ot knowledge of what can be done under ex- 
isting policies. 

Although this summary does not make action sugges- 
tions, it is obvious that such suggestions are necessary. 
These may range trom simple administrative action in local 
areas (removal of restrictive signs on rest rooms) to rather 
complex stage processes (integrating hospital wards). The 
next task is to get some objectives and to achieve them 
with the resources and channels at hand in the University 
community. A united ettort by all concerned would cer- 
tainly contribute to the complete and permanent removal 
of racial segregation as an instrument ot policy at Duke 


Statutory Factor,' 

1. There are no statutes restricting use of University facili- 
ties and attendance at programs and public events on racial 

Responsible Group.' and Persons 

1. The several directors and managers of the physical plant 
facilities, the dining halls, athletics and the Superintendent 
of the hospital are responsible for use patterns at their re- 
spective facilities. 

2. It is likely that the President and the Board of Trustees 
would review any major proposed policy changes, particu- 
larly in relation to East Campus. 

Present Policies 

1. Use of West Campus facilities, including Page, Chapel, 
and dining rooms, is apparently free from racial discrimi- 

2. A sign labeled "Colored Entrance" indicates a section 
for Negroes at the outdoor stadium: 

a) This section is in a poor location. 

b) Negroes with tickets may sit wherever the ticket ap- 
plies, although there is some question whether Negroes 
would be sold tickets at the Stadium in other than the 
Negro section. 

3. Use of East Campus facilities is restricted by designating 
some areas as "public" and some as "private." 

a) "Public" buildings, such as the Auditorium, can be used 
on an integrated basis. 

b) "Private" buildings, such as the Union and dormitory 
dining halls do not permit use by the Negroes. 

c) Faculty members with Negro guests may be served 
meals in a special dining room. 

d) It is believed that the Board of Trustees has specified 
this restriction on use of facilities to East Campus officials. 
A. In the hospital there are several areas where racial dis- 
crimination functions: 

a) One employee lounge and several restrooms in outpa- 
tient clinics are segregated. 

b) Negro employees occupationally eligible to use the pro- 
fessional cafeteria do not eat there. 

c) Negroes attempting to sit in the main lobby are asked to 
move to a smaller, less attractive area. 

26 cS? LEGACY, 1963-1993 

d) Hospital wards are segregated. 

e) The main hospital Christmas parties are segregated, al- 
though some departmental parties are not. 

Policy Change* Contemplated by Official) 

1. No plans were mentioned as in process or imminent, al- 
though some restrooms in Bell Bldg and the hospital have 
been desegregated this past year. 


1. Although West Campus is quite tree of segregation, Ne- 
groes have not used these facilities to any extent. 

2. The Negro section at the outdoor Stadium is predicated 
on the assumption that Negroes prefer to sit together and 
that such separation avoids "incidents." No such prefer- 
ences or "incidents" could be documented. 

3. The distinction between "public" and "private" cate- 
gories on East Campus seems aimed primarily at race, 
since unauthorized white persons use these dining facilities 
regularly without challenge. 

4. The major hospital issue centers around patient integra- 
tion on the wards, particularly in terms of the economic 

a) Other areas of segregation could be eliminated in simple 
fashion within the hospital administrative structure. 


Statutory Factors 

1. There are no statutes restricting employment of persons 

by the University on racial grounds. 

Responsible Group.' anJ Persons 

1. The President and Board of Trustees have authority to 
control policy and to review any faculty appointment. 

2. Non-facultv appointments can be controlled by the Ad- 
ministrative Committee of the University; 

a) Hiring may be done at the department level and by unit 

heads in areas such as dining halls, building maintenance 
and the library. 

b) Most appointments are made in cooperation with Uni- 
versity and hospital personnel office. 

Prc.icnl Policies 

1. In general, there is no stated policy precluding appoint- 
ment to faculty and non-faculty positions on racial 

a) However, since Negroes are not now admitted to under- 
graduate college, it is unlikely that a Negro faculty mem- 
ber would be approved. 

b) Hiring a Negro to a non-teaching faculty position is 
possible, although no policy decision has been requested to 

c) There would be no objection to hiring Negroes to non- 
facultv positions throughout the University. 

2. The hospital and dining halls employ considerable num- 
ber of Negroes, a few in supervisors' positions with white 

3. The library hires no Negroes in deference to "custom. 

4. At the present time, no Negroes hold clerical jobs falling 
under the jurisdiction of the University personnel office; 

a) Apparently this is due to lack of applicants who can 
qualify, although qualified Negroes would be recommend- 
ed only if department heads or supervisors gave prior indi- 
cation that a Negro would be considered. 

Policy Channel Contemplated by Officials 

1. No policy changes are being considered at the present 



1. There is considerable opportunity for employment of 
Negroes in non-faculty positions, although this opportuni- 
ty is largely unused. 

2. Administrators in areas where no Negroes are currently 
employed might well note the success of those areas where 

Integration ^> 27 

integrated employment is now functioning. 
3. The policy against faculty integration is unlikely to be 
changed as long as Negroes are not admitted as under- 


Statutory Factors 

1. In the deeds of lots sold by the Uniyersity to faculty and 
staff there is a covenant which prohibits sale, lease, or 
rental of conveyed land and premises to Negroes. 

a) The United States Supreme Court has declared public 
enforcement of such covenants to be unconstitutional, 
b. Changes in deeds require a referendum among lot own- 
ers and approval by the Board of Trustees. 

2. There is no statute restricting student University' hous- 
ing with regard to race. 

Responsible Groups and Persons 

1. The Board of Trustees has control of the handling and 
disposition of University' property. 

2. The Administrative Committee of the University' and/or 
the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees can 
take policy action (including denial of requests) prior to 
submission to the full Board. 

3. Policy on University- student housing can be set by the 
President and appropriate Vice Presidents and Deans. 

Present Policies 

1. The restrictive covenant on University- deeds is retained. 

a) Several attempts by a group of lot owners to have the 
covenant removed have been unsuccessful. 

b) The University Council has decided it has no jurisdic- 
tion in the matter. 

c) The University has, in several instances, waived the 
covenant to allow a purchaser to qualify' for a FHA loan. 

2. On West campus, there is no racial restriction on Negro 
guests and visitors in student housing areas. 

3. On East campus, the designation of dormitories as "pri- 
vate' areas bars Negroes as visitors and guests, 
a) Violations of this policy would be followed up by East 
Campus officials in terms of informing violators and invok- 
ing higher administrative channels it necessary. 

Policy Changes Contemplated by Officials 

1. No policy changes in either faculty- or student housing 

areas are now being considered. 


1 . The legal situation with regard to faculty- lot areas is am- 
biguous, although it would appear that any violations of 
the racial covenant could not be prevented. 

a) In view of the legal situation, the Board of Trustees may 
decide to eliminate the covenant from deeds in future de- 

2. As in the faculty employment situation, changes in the 
student housing policies will be necessary- upon admission 
of Negroes to the undergraduate colleges. 


Statutory Factors 

1. There are no statutes which restrict student admission to 

the University at any level on racial grounds. 

Responsible Groups and Persons 

1 . The Board of Trustees sets policy in this area. 

2. The President of the University-, upon request of groups 
and individuals, may at his discretion request policy action 
by the Board. 

3. Implementation of admission policies is: Graduate, Dean 
and Assistant Dean; Undergraduate, Registrar and Direc- 
tors of Admissions. 

Present Policies 

1 . A policy action to admit students to all Graduate 

Schools without regard to race was instituted in 1961. 

28 <^r? LEGACY, 1963-1993 

a) At present there are Negro students in the Law School 
and the Divinity School. 

2. Negroes are not now permitted to enroll in the Under- 
graduate Colleges. 

Policy Changes Contemplated by Official) 

1. Several officials interviewed believed policy changes 
were "inevitable" but disclosed no plans tor making such 

2. On April 12th, the Undergraduate Faculty Council re- 
quested the President to transmit to the Board of Trustees 
a resolution calling tor elimination of racial restrictions on 
undergraduate admissions. 

a) At the moment, the President s decision on the request 
is not known. 


1. The late and effect of the Undergraduate Faculty Coun- 
cil resolution cannot be determined at this time. 

a) It may be that further demonstration ot faculty support 
and interest will be necessary. 

2. It is clear that area ot admissions is the keystone for pol- 
icv changes in other areas. 

a) Without a change in admissions policy on the under- 
graduate level, only limited changes could be achieved in 
housing and use ot facilities, particularly on East Campus, 
and in faculty hiring. 





Whereas blacks remain underrepresented among Duke 
faculty and efforts to achieve the goal set by the Academic- 
Council ot doubling the number ot black faculty by 1990 
have been ineffective to date; 

Whereas the responsibility tor correcting the underrep- 
resentation of black faculty is shared by the entire univer- 
sity community; 

Be it resolved: 

That the Administration requires each hiring unit within 
the university (Departments and programs in Arts and Sci- 
ences and in the School ot Medicine, and the other profes- 
sional schools) to increase the number ot black faculty (at 
regular rank) over its present number (as of September 1, 
1987) by at least one, before the fall of 1993, and that it 
provide incentives, financial and other, to make it possible 
for each department and hiring unit at Duke to do so. 

Integration ^J> 29 

Circa 1965— 
They made history as the 
first fu'e African- American 
undergraduates at 
Duke University. 

Wilhelmina Reuben-Cooke 

Mary Mitchell Harris 

Gene Kendal 

Cassandra Smith Rush 

Nathaniel White, Jr. 

The First Five Undergraduates 

We thank Bridget Booher, the author, and Duke Magazine for permission to reprint this article 
that first appeared in the September-October 1992 issue of Duke Magazine. 


From childhood, Wil- 
helmina Reuben-Cooke 
had recognized the 
power and importance of 
education. The eldest of 
six children, Reuben- 
Cooke learned about so- 
cial issues and the appli- 
cation of ideas from her 
parents' after-work con- 
versations. Her father, 
Odell Reuben, Ph.D. 
'70, was president of 
Morris College in Sumter, South Carolina, and her mother 
was on the faculty there. 

As it turned out, she and her father were both on cam- 
pus at the same time, earning their respective graduate and 
undergraduate degrees. At the suggestion of her father's 
graduate school adviser, Professor Emeritus of Christian 
Ethics Waldo Beach, Reuben-Cooke applied. Until then, 
she had planned to enroll at either her mother's alma 
mater, Fisk, or at Oberlin, where her father earned his 
master's. But a visit to Durham changed all that; she fell in 
love with the Duke Gardens and campus. 

As a first year student, the highly motivated South Car- 
olina native immersed herself in the social and academic 
whirl. By the time she graduated in 1967, Reuben-Cooke 
had been selected Phi Beta Kappa, had held leadership po- 

sitions with the YWCA and the university's religious coun- 
cil, and was listed in "Who's Who Among Students in 
American Universities and Colleges." To crown her achieve- 
ments, the political science major was elected May Queen 
by a majority of her Woman's College peers. (There was no 
slate of candidates; each student nominated whomever she 
wanted and Reuben-Cooke won with the most write-in 
votes.) She also signed in 1967 the open letter protesting the 
membership of key administrators and faculty at the then 
all-white Hope Valley Country Club. 

After graduation, Reuben-Cooke began work on a doc- 
torate in American studies at Harvard but took time off to 
get married. Her sights then changed to law school. She 
taught and then practiced communications law in Wash- 
ington, D.C., until 1986. Now a law professor and associ- 
ate dean of Syracuse University Law School, Reuben- 
Cooke has maintained her ties to Duke: She was appointed 
to a six-year term on the board of trustees in 1989. 

When I decided to come to Duke, I knew it wouwn t he an easy task. 
The majority of students were from the South, and most of them 
hat) never dealt with African America/hi as peers. I assumed my so- 
cial life woulihi t be great, an J I knew my expectations about college 
would be tempered by reality. But I hat) a sense of personal commit- 
ment; it was the si.xties and the quest for change arid civil rights 
was gaining momentum. It deemed to all of us that we bad a role to 

What I discovered was that I never hat) any regrets [about 
choosing Duke]. I was socially active ant) hat) a lot of friends. Ant) 

Integration ty£> 


an Important part of that experience was being forced to meet people 
and to develop relationships that I probably wouldn t hare made in 
another context. That created in me a dense of optimism about the 
ways people can grow and change. 

1 still ask my.'e/t how I managed to do everything I did. I guess 
it goes back to the wag I grew up. Jig parents believed that you 
should be involved in your community. So that would hare been my 
way ot lite no matter where I went to sehool. You hare a responsibil- 
ity to create the environment you desire; you can i criticize what you 
don t participate in. Duke made it a comfortable possibility tor me. 
And it was fun! I'm making it sound so deadly serious, but it was 
always fun 

One of the things that concerned me about Duke at the time was 
that I wondered how politically active we really were. I was at Har- 
rard when I heard that students had taken over the Allen Building 
[in 1969]. To embrace issues and feel strongly about them wad a 
tjood thing tor Duke. And it was part of a general awakening across 
the nation. Those were tumultuous times. For a sehool not to hare 
had demonstrations and marches would hare said something nega- 
tive about the intellectual commitment of the institution. 

In terms of numbers and comfort levels, that continues to be a 
question. Not only did I not hare any African-American professors, 
but I only had one elass in which there was another black student. 
And that does make a difference in your learning. The basic dy- 
namic of a white institution is that the comfort or "safety " lerel L< 
far different for students of color than it is for the majority. That 's 
the beginning point, and it colors everything. 

As a trustee, I hare been impressed with the concern for diversity. 
We should be looking not only at increasing numbers of African- 
American students, but also at how we educate overall. We should 
be moving towards a society where all kinds of people work together. 
The demographics of the twenty-first century wilt be far different 
than today s. And part of our responsibility is to educate students 
on how to lire and work with other people. These are the challenges 
we face. 


Mary Mitchell Harris 
made up her mind in 
the tenth grade that 
she wanted to attend 
Duke. An honors stu- 
dent at Durham Hill- 
side High School, Har- 
ris wasn't dissuaded by 
a well-intentioned guid- 
ance counselor who told 
her she might want to 
make alternative plans. 
By the time Harris was 
valedictorian of her se- 
nior class, the trustees had voted to desegregate and Harris 
was offered admission. 

Both my parents worked at American Tobacco, so I was aware of 
the Duke family and their influence on the tobacco industry. But I 
never considered what it would be like to attend the university. Once 
I was there, it was like being in a world inside a world I'd known all 
my life. Jly only connection was with the people who worked in the 
dining and residence halls. And that connection was friendly, but 
loose and detached. 

The transition was a lot easier than I thought it would be. I did 
spend a few nervous moments wondering if the strength of my ele- 
mentary and high school academics would stand up at Duke. But I 
made the dean s list the first year. 

By my second year, I had fallen in lore and [my fiance's and 
my] grades were slipping. So we deeded to get married and stabilise 
our lives. Marriage was a big surprise to me and the people who 
knew me. It s one of those decisions that rushes its way into your 
life without it really being your choice. But at the time, it wasn t 
that unusual for people to marry young. 

I was pre-med throughout my undergraduate career, although I 

32 <±SS> 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 

changed from biology to psychology my /umor year. I don '/ remem- 
ber clodded interacting that much with the social iddued of the time. 
There wad an anthropology course that addressed the origins of hu- 
manity, and I recall that the profeddor included supportive state- 
mentd about the rote of Africans. 

We (hthi t have open conversations about racial issues, not even 
informally. I guedd myj'udt being there was enough of a dtatement. 
It really wad. What conversations we did have focused more on com- 
monalitie.i, thingd that we shared that weren t in the context of rare. 
Thingd like. "Oh, you mean thid happened to you when you were ten 
year,' old too? Friendships were based on the pleasant didcoveried 
we made about thingd we all went through. 

Last fall I derided to ,<it in on a cladd at Duke, and it totally 
satisfied my view of what the university is doing in the elassroom. It 
was an Englidh course that looked at a multicultural approach to 
life through the eyes of various writers. It updated me considerably. 
And the involvement of the elass was spectacular. Jly experience 
showed me that a liberal arts education id alive and well; professors 
are comfortable with the approach and are open to the ideas and ori- 
entation of their students. . . . 

One of the thingd I in interested in id corporate psychology. 
There are some communications theories regarding rare relations in 
the corporate world. Often, there are [surface] acquaintances which 
are comfortable and polite, but that never move beyond the cursory 
level. And moving beyond that to real friendships ts necessary be- 
cause whenever issues come up that can be divided along racial 
lines, a demarcation is in place. 

It s the same thing for academic institutions; there have to be 
real, true friendships among faculty and administrators [that cross 
racial lines] in order lor students to think that there s really some- 
thing new under the sun. When you talk about creating a multicul- 
tural environment, you have to look at the staff and administrative 
level as much, it not more so, than the student level. 


Born the second son of 
six children, Greensboro 
native Gene Kendall 
was approached by 
MIT, Princeton, and 
most of the historically 
black colleges to apply 
for admission. But Duke 
offered him a lull schol- 
arship, and Kendall's de- 
cision, he says, was thus 
essentially made for 
him. With his sights on 
a mechanical engineering degree, Kendall took the manda- 
tory pre-major classes, only to find that his high school 
coursework left him unprepared for the university's math 
and science requirements. A low grade on the semester's 
first physics exam left him scrambling to catch up, and by 
sophomore year, Kendall knew he would lose his scholar- 
ship. Financial considerations forced him to drop out. 

Now a captain in the navy, where he is director of the 
U.S. Naval Academy's math and science division, Kendall 
says his Duke experience was a turning point lor him in 
his personal and professional lite. 

I attended James B. Dudley Utah School in Greensboro, which wad 
a large, segregated school. There were 250 people m my graduating 
class. I knew that Duke had no blacks in their undergraduate pro- 
grams, but I dtdn t really consider any other school once I was of- 
fered the scholarship. 

Aly community was ecstatic and my family was happy, but 
there was really no pressure [to be the exceptional child]. I was 
simply going away to college. 

The single most difficult thing about coming to Duke was that I 
had no reference for how things would be. Jly high school had pre - 

Integration ^£ 33 

pared me well for liberal arts courted but I was woefully ill-prepared 
for science and math. And that feeling prevailed throughout: "My 
God, what have I gotten myself into?" There was no hostility or 
anything like that on campud or with any of the people I associated 
with. I wad very well received and was expected to participate in the 
university, an J I did. 

Jly score on the [freshman] physics exam was so low that it 
was impossible for me to pass the course at that point. It I'd known 
that I was in that much trouble, I would have gone for help earlier, 
but I thought I knew the material. I really did. 

You 've ijot to remember that I was coming from a high school 
environment where I was at the top of everything. Nothing had ever 
been difficult; my studies came easily. I was devastated by my fail- 
ure and I asked myself, "Hey, am I as smart as everyone says I 
am, or has it all been a terrible joke? Should I have taken a lesser 
scholarship in a more caring environment and given myself a 
chance to grow? 

In retrospect, my chances at Duke were very, very slim. Even 
though my SATs were the highest of anyone at my high school, they 
were below the average for other Duke students and way lower than 
those of the average engineering student. I didn t know that when I 
arrived, and things started piling up and before I knew it, I /valued 
I would essentially be thinking out because my scholarship wouldn t 
be renewed. 

I joined the navy and did quite well, so the navy wanted to send me 
back to school. I asked them to send me back to Duke, but because of 
tuition costs, they would only agree to send me to UNC (within the 
state). And I figured if I couldn t go to Duke, there was no point in 
going to Carolina. Stanford was my next choice, but the military sci- 
ence building had been burned down by students the year before, so the 
navy wasn't sending anyone there. So I went to the University of 
Kansas, where I earned an engineering and physics degree. I gradu- 
ated with honors and was president of the physics society. 

Jly Duke experience put things into perspective. It showed me 
that no matter how you think things are, there are always holes m 
your preparation. It taught me to look for whatever I was uncom- 
fortable with and work on that, rather than assume everything is 

okay because the surface seems fine. It also taught me how to re- 
cover from adversity and setbacks — how to return from the end-of- 
t he- world syndrome. And it reinforced some interesting beliefs that 
sometimes even the most noble experiments don t work. 


While attending St. 
Anne's Academy, a 
Catholic high school tor 
girls in Winston-Salem, 
Cassandra Smith Rush 
decided her life goal was 
to be a doctor. Because 
of Duke s reputation tor 
its outstanding under- 
graduate and medical 
schools, she applied tor 
admission during her 
junior year. At that 
point, the university 
was still segregated and her application was denied. 
Months later, she read that the university's board of 
trustees had voted to admit black undergraduate students, 
so she reapplied and was ottered a scholarship to attend. 
Her family was "absolutely thrilled," she says, especially 
her father. (His boss' daughter had applied and been 
turned down.) 

As a first-year student, Rush was a zoology major, but, 
after a particularly rigorous comparative anatomy course, 
she switched to French. Other changes were taking place 
as well. Rush became caught up in the political and social 
currents ot the time, specifically in the Congress ot Racial 
Equality (CORE), a national organization that established a 
Duke chapter in 1963. 

Unsure ot her career goals, Ruth lett the university after 
the first semester ot her junior year. She now works as a 

34 &$ LEGACY. 1963-1993 

staff specialist at Southern New England Telephone in New- 
Haven, Connecticut, where she lives with her two sons. 

I'm proud to day I went to Duke, and sometimes I wish Id stuck it 
out. But at the time, I wasn t happy and I ihihi '/ know what I 
wanted to do. I wad tired of the fight* with townspeople, who could be 
absolutely hostile, and very brutal. And even some of the students 
would cross the quad rather than speak to me. Or /hex/ would look 
the other way when they walked past. 

I grew up in a eery sheltered environment and it really hurt. I 
hadn '/ ever been treated like that. For a loth] time I put it out of my 
mind because it was so unpleasant, especially the off-campus en- 

I was arrested in Chapel Hill in early 196-i. Martin Luther King, 
Jr., had spoken [at Duke], and our CORE group walked from 
Durham to Chapel Hill to hold a sit-in protest in front of a [segre- 
gated] restaurant there. We were thrown in jail tor trespassing and 
resulting arrest. But it was tine, because we were all together. . . . 

For my sons, it is so, so different. They were born and raised m 
integrated neighborhoods and schools. They grew up in an environ- 
ment where we didn't label people black, white, Chinese, whatever. 
Our house a/ways looked like a United Nations meeting. Aly sons 
would describe their new friends to me and tell me how old they were, 
where their parents lived and more. But until I met them, I would 
have no idea what race they were. I taught them to took at other 
people as human beings. And maybe lee done them an injustice be- 
cause we Use in a racist society. But as tittle kids, they were never 
aware of racism. And it shou/dn t be an issue that children have to 
deal with. Consequently, they fit right in and feel they re entitled to 
the same rights as anyone else. When they see instances of 
[racism] they ask me "Why? Why do people raise their children 
that way? "And I tell them that it's a form of child abuse when par- 
ents raise their children to be racist. 

After I left Duke, I worked in Washington, D.C , for the gov- 
ernment and then the navy. I went as far as I could go without a 
college degree; not having that piece of paper kept me from going 
ahead to the next level. So I started thinking about returning to 

school, but it wasn t until I was at home with my first child that I 
really tell I was vegetating. I felt that my brain was turning to 
mush! I d go shopping just to encounter other adults. 

When I went back to work part-time at the Federal Reserve, I 
applied for and won an employee scholarship which paid for my col- 
lege tuition. So when I got my degree [a bachelor's in economics 
from Philadelphia s Chestnut Hilt College], it really meant a lot to 
me because I was so ready. I graduated on Mother's Day in 1979. 
Because of my experience, my sons understand why I in so deter- 
mined for them to stay in school. 


His family lived only 
three miles from campus, 
but Nathaniel White, Jr., 
remembers little about 
the university from his 
childhood in Durham. 
Segregation meant that 
he and his classmates at 
Hillside High School 
only interacted with 
white students during 
weekly science seminars 
at Durham High. White 
recalls that the prospect of going from a completely black en- 
vironment to a nearly all-white one was "an appealing chal- 
lenge." Once there, White discovered it was "like going to a 
whole new city." 

In August of 196), I was in the March on Washington. An uncle 
from New }'ork was there, as was another one who lived in II ash- 
inglon . . . we alt met there. It was probably the last family reunion 
we had. Within a week of that, I was starting my classes at Duke. 

There seemed to be a lot of advance preparation for our arrival. 
Aly roommate had been ore-picked; he was a sophomore. I got the 
impression that the faculty, undergraduates, and graduate students 

Integration ^> 


were ready [tor desegregation] and that it was the board of trustees 

that delayed it from happening a.' loin/ as it did. 

We were a novelty effect because we were new; you know, "II 'bat 
are they really Like?" My bottomline approach became, as a func- 
tion of that, that I had blab expectation.' tor my friends [regardless 
of color], ,<o the people who I bad problems with, who didn t live up 
to my expectation,!, / wasn t interested in being around. As a result, 
the number of people I associated with was much smaller than if 1 1) 
attended my father's alma mater, Hampton Institute, where I'd 
been planning to go before I got accepted to Duke. 

You have to remember that not only was Duke all white when I 
was there, but it was also very southern. I remember having a du<- 
cussion with an athletics administrator about how we ought to be 
recruit mo black athletes, and he gave me a lecture about bow Duke 
had high academic standards. I told him I dldn 't think Id gotten in 
without meeting those academic standards. . . . 

The basketball team was as hot then as it is now, and my room- 
mate and I were both big fans. But back then they would play 
"Dixie, " which was practically like the national anthem because 
everyone would stand up. II e would organize sit-downs. II e eventu- 
ally had a whole section that wouldn t stand when it was played. 

They finally stopped playing it. They were beginning to learn. 
It s interesting to look at what we were working toward back then 
and whether we've gotten there. I would say we haven't. I think the 
gap between the bases and the have-nots is widening. Look at the 
L.A. riots, tor example. Now, it's not so much a matter of whether a 
restaurant will serve you, it's how you re going to pay for your meal 
once you re there. One thing that s happening at Duke which I 
think is positive is the more toward a multicultural environment. 
That Is a critical step, because the world is multicultural, and if 
you re turning out students who area t exposed to that, or equipped 
to Use in it, they re at a real disadvantage. 

The resistance to changes in the curriculum is part of that. You 
base people who say they don t want to "dilute " the curriculum, but 
the idea that you can write about history and completely ignore the 
contributions of minority [populations], and pretend that certain 
things never happened, is wrong. As I got older and learned about 

all the contributions of minorities, it made me really mad that I'd 
never heard about these people in my classes. . . . 

In my current job, I'm director of the Public Health Sciences In- 
stitute at Morehouse College. Our prima ty empbas'u< L< to encour- 
age undergraduates to pursue careers in epidemiology and statistics. 
Our fourteen-week summer program matches juniors and seniors 
from historically black colleges with researchers at the Centers for 
Disease Control. II 'e also want to start a club for students Inter- 
ested in public health. It would be like a pre-med group; there would 
be internships for students who had been research assistants and 
who wanted to focus on public health problems. 

36 d$ 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Student Activism 

By 1967, black students at Duke had spent more than a 
few years attempting to adjust to their new integrated uni- 
versity community- They began to realize that the univer- 
sity campus was not free from the discrimination they had 
known in their local communities. They -were painfully 
aware of the inequities the black workers were subjected 
to. As thev became unhappy with their own plight and re- 
alized the potential strength and power students held, they, 
as many students on campuses around the country, turned 
to mass protest to express their frustration and anger. 

NOVEMBER 13, 1967 

The daylong protest began at 8:30 in the morning when 
thirty-five members of the Afro- American Society arrived at 

f W- &' ' 


%£f *\± *< <*! 

Wm- _ IV-.3 



SUents Avraiij 


President Knight's office and sat down on the floor and 
began their "study-in." The students demanded to speak 
with the president to re- 
quest that he forbid the 
use of segregated facili- 
ties by the university 
and that he and other 
key administrators end 
their membership in the 
segregated Hope Valley 
Country Club. 

The protest came in 
the aftermath of a corre- 
spondence that occurred 
the previous Friday. The 
group had sent a letter 
to the president making 

Integration ^j> 


a demand: "The Duke University Afro-Americans DE- 
MAND that our administration IMMEDIATELY an- 
nounce and explicitly institute a policy ol total prohibition 
of patronization of segregated facilities/establishments by 
ANY university organization." Dr. Knight replied in a let- 
ter denouncing their "explicit threat of disruption," and 
stating that "the university will accept no ultimatum." 

The demonstrators were peaceful throughout the day, 
but on several occasions blocked passers-by from going 
through the lobby. Several times the students were in- 
volved in discussions with the administration. Their state- 
ments were recorded by local and national media. 

That night, the Student Faculty Administration Com- 
mittee passed a resolution recommending a university-wide 
policy prohibiting use of segregated facilities. 

A SILENT VIGIL, APRIL 5-11, 1 968 

Prompted by the tragedy of Martin Luther King, Jr.'s as- 
sassination on April 4, 1968, and after a memorial service 
at the Duke Chapel Hill on April 5, hundreds of stu- 

dents — black and white — began gathering in the quad in 
grief and in protest of Duke s discriminatory policies. This 
is how the weeklong demonstration, A Silent Vigil, began. 
Early in the week, students marched to the president's 
house under the direction of Howard Fuller and Ben 
Ruff in and peacefully occupied it. 

As the strength of the vigil increased in numbers and 
spirit each day, many students, faculty members, and com- 
munity leaders united around the common concern for im- 
provement of the workers' conditions at Duke. 

The primary focus that emerged and defined this protest 
was the employment conditions of the maids, janitors, and 
dining hall workers. Demands were made for unionization, 
increase in wages, and improvement of working conditions. 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

By the time the protest ended on April 11, the trustees 
had agreed to an increase ol the workers' wages, among 
other concessions. 

"There u nothing more remarkable than 
the ingenuity that the various 
demarcation** of the color line reflect. 
If only the same creative energy 
conic) he used to eradicate the color line; 
then its days would indeed he numbered. " 

— John Hope Franklin, The Color 
Line: Legacy for the Twenty-first Century 

Integration ^> 39 

FEBRUARY 13, 1969 

Afro-American Society occupied the Allen Building on 
February 13, 1969 for eight hours. Sixty members pre- 
sented the university administration with a list ot thirteen 
demands. The administration summoned the Durham Po- 
lice, who arrived at the Allen Building with tear gas. The 
takeover resulted in three student arrests, charges of police 
brutality, and the treatment of forty-five people in the 
Duke Hospital Emergency Room. Students boycotted 
classes for three days after the takeover. Thirteen AAS 
leaders were tried under the university's pickets and 
protests policy. All thirteen were eventually acquitted. 

The following are the thirteen grievances and demands 
that the students presented to the administration: 

1. The establishment of a fully accredited department of 
Afro- American studies. 

2. The right to establish a black dormitory on campus. 

3. Representation of the black student population to 
reach twenty-nine percent of the student body by 1973, 
since that figure represented the percentage of blacks in 
the area and "since Duke claims to be representative of the 

4. The reinstatement of black students who, "because of 
the stifling social and educational environment at Duke, 
were unable to achieve the required academic standing and 
were forced to leave the university. 

5. "Financial reassurance tor black students." Decreased 
scholarships had threatened to limit the number of return- 
ing black students. 

6. A black advisor selected only by direct consultation 
with black students. 

7. The earmarking of black student fees for a black stu- 
dent union rather than to the student union. 

8. The establishment of academic achievement in high 
school, rather than standardized test scores, to be the crite- 
rion for black students for admission to the university be- 

cause, "we believe the criteria for entering black students 
are oriented toward white middle-class students, and there- 
fore are inadequate for determining academic potential." 

9. The right tor non-academic employees to have the 
power to determine the basis for their working conditions, 
rights, and other employment matters. 

10. "An immediate end to tokenism of black representa- 
tion in university power structures." 

11. "An immediate end to police harassment of black 
students and protection ot all black students at Duke." 

12. A demand to the end of grading for black students. 

13. Total amnesty tor all black students involved in the 
takeover ot the Allen Building. 

The Chronicle 

Monday. September 8. 1975 

-Black Thursday, 1969- 

(Continued from page 1] 

Much of the Duke black 
community's early concrm 
In the (all term of 1968 cen- 
tered around Duke's sup- 
port of or affiliation with 
segregated establishments 
such as the Hope Valley 
Country Qub. Pushing for 
boycotts of such facilities. 
Knight eventually dis- 
sociated himself from the 
country club. Also, a note 
of contention. "Dixie", wbs 
finally dropped as part of 
the standard repertoire of 
the Duke marching band 

In October of 1968 stu- 
dents of the Afro- American 
Society presented the ad- 
ministration with 12 point* 
□f concern. Chief among 
these were: black enroll- 
ment levels: the acquisition 
of a black advisor on the ad- 
ministrative level: hiring of 
black faculty members: the 
establishment of a summer 
remedial session for blacks, 
and the boycotting ol 
segrega te d facilltl es. 

A loint committe of ad- 
ministrators, faculty and 
black students was appoint- 
ed to study these points o( 
concern. This committee, 
after functioning only one 
month, began to dissolve, 
Meanwhile, the adminlstra- 

Fuller and Dick Gregory 
and discovering the 
strength of ioinl efforts dur- 
ing Black Week, black stu- 
dents were catalyzed to the 
actions of the takeover. As 
Hopkins said, "We have ex- , 
hausted all the so-called 
paper chanel a." 

The 13 points presented 
during the Allen Building 
occupation underlined the 
blacks' sentiment that Duke 
was overwhelmingly white- 
orieoled: These points 

therefore are Inadequate for 
determining academic 

9. The right for non- 
academic employees to 
have the power to de- 
termine the basis for their 
working conditions, rights. 
and other employment mat- 

10. "An Immediate end to 
tokenism of black represen- 
tation in Unlverslty'pawer 

1 1 . "An Immediate end to 
police harassment of black 


all black students at Duke." 

12 A demand to the end 

of grading for black stu- 

13. Total amnesty for all _ 
black students involved in 
the takeover of Allen Build- 


The ad- 

ministration's response to 
(he A/ro-Americon stu- 
dents' demands and the 
establishment of the Budd 
Committee to design an 
Afro-American Studies 

Tnit aign at tno anuxiu io Alien S^t!d!~; -•--!• !rr»d >h* liberation" of 

40 <$$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Brenda E. Armstrong, '70 

On the evening of Thursday, February 13, 1994, my chil- 
dren and 1 went over to campus tor a candlelight vigil to 
commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary ol the Allen 
Building Takeover. I found myself moved to tears as 1 ap- 
proached the building, and as I listened to the students cel- 
ebrate, analyze, and attempt to place in perspective the 
events that occurred twenty-five years ago. I have been 
asked to recount the events of this protest for you. I sup- 
pose that I have put this off to the last minute lor the same 
reasons that I was so overcome Thursday night. It dredged 
up some particularly painful and unresolved feelings about 
the circumstances that led up to and followed the Allen 
Building Takeover. 

The seeds of the Allen Building Takeover were sewn 
with the decision to begin admitting "large numbers" of 
black students to Duke. "Large" meant more than one. 
Imagine yourself a newly graduated African-American 
high school student, excellent GPA, excellent SATs, leader 
in vour school. Perhaps you were a merit nominee and 
definitely an achievement scholar, having successfully 
completed your preparation in an environment of caring, 
protective, high-achiever teachers. Imagine teachers who 
had carefully orchestrated your high school career to make 
you the most successful, well-exposed, ambitious, and fo- 
cused group of people to benefit from the earliest successes 
of the civil rights era. Most of us were from first-genera- 
tion middle class black families. Some of us were the first 
in our families to get the chance to go to college. 

Most of us came up through strong but segregated pri- 
mary and secondary educational systems. Most impor- 
tantly, however, we were sent with the purpose to take our 
places as the next generation of black leaders. Now imag- 
ine what we found when we came to Duke, in 1965, 66, 67, 
and 68. There were at most ninety of us including the ath- 
letes, seventy-five or so excluding them. The women lived 

on East Campus; the men on West. We were spread out in 
dorms. We had no transportation on or off campus other 
than the bus. Some of us were the "onlies" in the dorms — 
the objects of stares, giggles, offensive name calling, and 
isolation the likes of which none of you can imagine. Some 
of us came back to our dorm rooms to find Confederate 
flags on the doors with "nigger go home" written over it. 
Most of us never heard a friendly voice, except that of the 
dorm "maids. These were older black women who were 
addressed by their first names by young white college stu- 
dents. We watched helplessly as we corrected the young 
white students who ignored us and kept on with their dis- 
respectful gestures. We remember what it felt like when 
we sat down at a table in the dining room and everyone 
else got up. On the bus or even in the classroom everyone 
moved over. We knew what the message was in allowing 
sororities and fraternities to use facilities that openly dis- 
criminated against blacks and Jews. Even the president of 
the university was a member of one of them. We endured 
hearing "Dixie" and the concomitant waving of the Con- 
federate flag at football games. Those of us who were fe- 
males needed the brothers to literally escort us to the bas- 
ketball games to protect us from the racial slurs that 
effused from the KAs as we walked by their house on the 
way to the indoor stadium. 

We moved on campus mostly as invisible people. We 
were the objects of the worst kind of racism in the class- 
room, where we started out at a deficit. It was incompre- 
hensible to have been considered smart enough for "A" 
work, especially when subjective grading of essays or term 
papers, or theses were concerned. The few of us in science 
battled the results of that isolation even in areas where 
subjective grading would have been harder. We were not 
given the benefit of the old tests, or the lab assistant's tute- 
lage. We were thought of as "dumb" when we asked for 
help. The white students were characterized as "competi- 
tive" for the same request. We remember all trying to take 
Dr. Cook's class. He was the only black professor around. 

Integration ty£ 4 1 

We remember his frustration in unsuccessfully attempting 
to accommodate us. We watched helplessly as almost fifty 
percent of those academically girted black students from 
1966 to 1968 left after one or two semesters at Duke. Their 
financial aid was withdrawn because their grades were not 
good enough. And we felt that awful terror when the males 
left because we knew that it would automatically call them 
up for the draft for the Vietnam War. Our worst fears 
were realized when at least two died in Vietnam. We woke, 
ate, slept, studied, rejoiced, and cried alone. After reaching 
a critical mass of "us" with the twenty blacks in the class 
that enrolled in 1966, we realized that there was a mutual 
experience that we all shared which went beyond personal 
encounters. We could identify it as a Hying, breathing, 
scourge on our attempts to get an education from Duke. 
We knew that we needed a social and political outlet. That 
need gave rise to the Afro-American Society in the spring 
of 1967. 

The "Afro-Am" Society, as we affectionately called it, 
was the hub of our social, cultural, and political existence. 
It was what we touched eyery day to reassure us that those 
negative messages that so dominated our existence were 
not real. We organized the first nonviolent demonstration 
against the use of the Hope Valley Country Club and the 
subsequent "Study-In" at Dr. Knight's office. This led to 
the university adopting a policy that no university sup- 
ported organization could use any facility that openly dis- 
criminated against blacks. The society coordinated our 
participation in and co-leadership of the Silent Vigil that 
protested Duke's discriminatory policies, especially as they 
applied to the workers. It was the repository for our yearly 
expressions of the glorious history, culture, and emerging 
political power through Black Week. There we orches- 
trated the weekly activities that included theatrical produc- 
tions directed, casted, and produced entirely by AA stu- 
dents (most of whom had no prior training). It was also 
where the generation of our literary magazine occurred. 

This we assembled with creativity since we had no money. 
The society arranged the takeover of the radio station with 
AA students as the DJs, and the change in the normal of- 
ferings in the cafeterias. Most importantly, the weeklong 
discussions of the politics and sociology of our people, 
which brought the likes of Dick Gregory, Fannie Lou 
Hamer, Julian Bond, Alaynard Jackson, Ben Ruffin, and 
Howard Fuller to campus, all occurred during Black 
Week. We felt empty when it was over, thirsting for more 
and wondering why there wasn't a Black Week in our cur- 
riculum. Black Week focused the issues that were seething 
in our day-to-day lives at Duke, the issues that required 
that something be done. 

So, in the spring of 1968, shortly after the first Black 
Week concluded, we met. We began to identify those is- 
sues that were the recurring themes in our lives which 
would lead to the famous thirteen demands. READ these. 

We went through the lengthy process of meeting with 
the administration, with the Dean of Student Affairs 
William Griffith and with representatives of Dr. Knight's 
office. We attempted to address these thirteen demands. 
We asked tor a timeline and detailed descriptions of the 
implementation of these thirteen demands. In the mean- 
time, we lost another thirty percent of our numbers. Mar- 
tin Luther King was shot and killed. There were now con- 
frontations occurring between white and black students on 
campus. I remember vividly studying in nay dorm room 
when another black student came to tell me that Dr. King 
was dead. I remember sitting in Wallace Fowlie's French 
class the next day, feeling no reason to be there. I got up, 
excusing myself in tears, and walked to the quad only to 
find droves of us who had the same reaction. I remember 
then marching to the president s house under the direction 
of Howard Fuller and Ben Ruffin, with other grieving 
black students. We occupied it peacefully. We asked what 
the university would do to respond to this tragedy and to 
our demands. I remember feeling empty and rejected as 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

the semester ended. There was no movement to resolve our 
demands. Another thirty percent left. Fall semester of 1968 
started. The demands were back on the table. There was 
an uneasy calm on campus. The work of the Afro-Am So- 
ciety was focused around Black Week in February, and in 
seeing the thirteen demands through. In November, just 
prior to the end of the semester, with no apparent move- 
ment by the administration to substantively address our 
demands, we broke off all negotiations with the university 
and retreated. 

I remember reading in the last issue of Harambee, pub- 
lished February 5, 1969, a quote from "J. T. Bear," who 
was one of our colleagues. It went, "Hibernation is covert 
preparation for an overt action." Nothing described the 
events which transpired better. We decided that we would 
demonstrate to the university our resolve. We would 
demonstrate to the university that its racist ethos (and the 
pursuit of that ethos) was choking the academic, social, and 
cultural life out of some of the most gifted African Ameri- 
cans. We would not go down without a fight. Allen Build- 
ing was on. Swiftly, we all began our assorted tasks. Some 
memorized the floor plans to the Allen Building — every 
door, lock, transom, entrance, and exit. Some secured in- 
formation about the way in which Duke filtered its news to 
the press and how we would bypass the filter. We decided 
what we wanted to accomplish, what time we would go, 
and by what means. We discussed the plan with those in 
the community who had been our eyes and ears, who pro- 
tected our young spirits, and whose example we followed 
for leadership and focus. We talked to Ben and Howard. 
And then, most importantly, we decided who would go. 
Fortunately, Black Week came February 4—11. It was a 
great week. Fannie Lou Hamer came. Maynard Jackson 
came. James Turner came. There were productions of 
James Weldon Johnson's "The Lord's Trombones" and 
readings of Leroi Jones (aka Amiri Baraka). We all went 
to see Aretha throw down in Raleigh. We carpooled, 

caught the bus, did whatever was necessary to get to see 
the Queen of Soul. Finally Dick Gregory came. In his 
voice came the message that brought it all home to all of 
us. He said, "If you can't breathe, you can't live. If the 
racism is choking you, you're already dead unless you take 
your plight in your own hands. . . ." 

In our own hands. On February 12th, we met on 
Markham Avenue to finalize the plans and talked about 
who would go. The athletes said they would be our eyes on 
the top of the Social Science Building. There was ambiva- 
lence as to what our parents would say. Our discussions 
were passionate and emotional. We expressed our fears, 
and our frustrations after a year of negotiations with Duke. 
Some wanted to take a less severe path. We all agreed that 
something had to be done. Some of us knew we were going 
no matter what. Some of us needed the night to think. All 
of us were given until 6:00 A.M. the next morning to de- 
cide. Those who showed up would go; those who couldn't 
would support us in whatever way they could. We were to 
pick up a truck which would carry us to the building, be- 
fore the major work force 'was there. Ben and Howard had 
been alerted that we would need some significant support 
from the Durham community. They guaranteed that they 
would be there for us again. We would secure the building 
in three minutes or less. No weapons would be taken. 
Books, some food, and what was needed to lock us in 
would be brought along. The appropriate persons at AP 
and UPI would be notified when we left, and we would not 
call our parents until we were safely inside. Those of us 
who were organizing prayed that everyone would make 
the right decision. None of us slept that night. Sixty or 
sixty-one students showed up at 6:00 A.M. for that fateful 
trip in a dark U-HAUL truck down Campus Drive to the 
Allen Building. I cried, trembled, and prayed as I rode in 
the dark. When the doors opened, we ran into the building 
and secured it as planned. We made the phone calls, 
hoisted the Malcolm X Liberation University banner onto 

Integration (f^ 


the secured doors ot the Allen Building. Then we cheered 
. . . because it was our time and our destiny unfolding in 
front ot us and we were there. In the eight hours that tran- 
spired, we called our parents (most of whom cried on the 
phone and then threatened to kill us if the university didn't 
succeed in doing so first). We took pictures of the moment 
and tried to study. But there was no studying that day- 
Soon we heard the sounds ot the police. We rejoiced when 
we heard on the radio that our leak to AP and UPI had 
caught Duke oft guard. The whole world knew!!! A 
steady stream of administrators came. They implored us to 
leave, and promised to do more. They warned us that we 
would be expelled. At the same time, the Students for a 
Democratic Society (SDS) occupied the second floor in 
support of our action. They did not lock themselves in. 
Students could walk around them. Ben and Howard had 
made good on their promise. There was a circle of commu- 
nity support beginning to amass around the entrances to 
the Allen Building. In the meantime, the athletes had not 
failed us. While the faculty senate (UFCAS) debated what to 
do, Dr. Knight had already called for outside police assis- 
tance. The students thought he had called the National 
Guard to come to "get us out ot the building'' and restore 

the campus back to its somnolence. The white students 
were beginning to ask what was happening. The campus 
had come to a standstill. The world was looking at Duke 
and asking how it could have allowed this to happen. No 
longer could Duke escape attention; insulate itself from the 

real world; go about business as usual; or delay coming to 
grips with its cancer of racism. We had our victory, our de- 
cisive moment. The momentum created from this forced 
the university to make sweeping changes in the way it 
taught, thought, treated, and incorporated all of its stu- 
dents into a larger world. With the community amassed at 
the doors to absorb us as we left (i.e., we took advantage of 
the tact that we "all look alike ), we quietly stole away, 
merging imperceptibly with the mass of community sup- 
port. We went over to a dorm across from Allen Building 
to see ourselves on the news. When the police arrived no 
one was there. They took up their positions to guard the 
building, and also incurred the anger of the mostly -white 
students who could not imagine why the National Guard 
had been called out to our campus. The national news re- 
ported the takeover and likened it to the now-famous 


&$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

takeover at Cornell. They announced that it was the first 
major takeover in a white institution in the South. It was 
reported that tear gas had been exploded, and that the stu- 
dents ran from the advancing guard, and that the univer- 
sity was in chaos. Administrators moved quickly to secure 
and shut down the campus. Classes were called off. The 
Afro-Am Society, individually and as a group, waited for 
the aftermath. 

It came in the form of naming thirteen of the "ringlead- 
ers" to be tried for violations of the university's pickets and 
protests policy. Ken Pye chaired a committee of facultv 
and students. Julius Chambers and Ferguson of the NAACP 
Legal Defense Fund offered to represent us. They listened 
as we told our stories of what had happened to us since 
coming to Duke. They prepared us for trial. We would 
plead no to contendre, no contest. They knew it would be 
hard to get the thirteen of us off but they would try. What 
they didn't count on was the bond that tied us together as a 
community ot one for that moment in history. 
On the day of the trial, every one of the remaining forty- 
eight surrendered to be tried. All of our parents came to 
support us. Duke University now had its entire black stu- 

dent population, as well as the funding based on the pres- 
ence of black students on trial. There was serious doubt 
that the fallout from expelling all of its black students 
would be negated by the coming tall semester. Our parents 
listened as Julius chronicled incident after incident of 
racial discrimination — so brutal and so harsh. Many of 
them wept openly. Most of them embraced us and sup- 
ported us. And all of them knew that their children had 
met their destinies without flinching, and had been ever 
defiant and undaunted. In choosing to confront Duke, we 
students had carved a place in history for ourselves. Our 
enduring legacy would be one of leadership, commitment, 
extraordinary academic and professional productivity. In- 
deed, such achievement through struggle and the ensuing 
myths created would be the stuff of legends. And, on our 
shoulders would stand generations of black students to 
complete their unfinished business at Duke. 

We seized the budding because we have 
been negotiating with the Duke 
administration and faculty for two-and-a- 
half years. We have no meaningful results. 
We have exhausted all the so-called 
proper channels. " 

Afro- American Society's 
statement regarding the takeover 

Integration ty£ 45 


One hundred African-American students protested and presented 

to President Terry Sanford the following demands for the amelioration 

of their grievances: 

1. Departmentalization of the black studies program 

2. Increase in the number of black faculty in black studies 

3. Increased input of black students in decisions which directly or indirectly 
affect the black student population at Duke 

4. Immediate end to all forms of discrimination by work-study employers 

5. The termination of harassment of blacks by campus security officers 

6. Replenishment, extension and updating of the Afro-American Studies col- 
lection in the library 

7. End of the systematic reduction of grants, scholarships, loans, and special 
programs for black students 

8. End to the appointment of black student representatives to "appeasement" 
committees set up by the administration which identify problems but fail to 
resolve them 

9. Increase in black enrollment 

10. Immediate implementation of those demands presented by black students 
on February 13, 1969 to which the administration has not sufficiently ad- 
dressed themselves 

11. Immediate conference with the administration concerning the above enu- 
merated demands 

46 &$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Chapter 2 

Thirtieth Anniversary 





Abele to Zimmerman 



The official logo of the 
Thirtieth Anniversary Commemoration 

The Duke University crest embraced 
with Kente cloth symbolized the inextricable 
link between the history of the university 
and the history of the African-American 
community. The phrase Abele to Zimmerman 
(in reference to Julian Abele, the architect of 
Duke campus, and to Matthew Zimmerman, 
who was one of the first two African-Ameri- 
can students to enroll in a degree program) 
represents the wide range of contributions 
that African Americans have made to the 

This logo was used for the committee 
stationery, t-shirts, banners, and flags that 
were hung throughout West Campus, along 
Campus Drive, and Chapel Drive. Kente is 
alive on the Duke campus. 

Lijt of Event j 


• Interrogating Identity Exhibition, Duke University 
A\useum of Art 

"The exhibition attempts to interrogate' the meaning of 
the term black art as it is applied to the broad range of 
artistic output by artists of divergent backgrounds and 
heritages in three historically linked, English-speaking 
countries: Canada, Great Britain, and the United States." 

• The Right Rev. H. Hartford Brookins, Bishop, Second 
Episcopal District African Methodist Episocopal Church, 
Washington, D.C., addresses the student body . 


• Tuskegee Airmen, Mary Lou Williams Center for Black 

• Interrogating Identity films "Hair Piece" and "Fade to 

• North Carolina International Jazz Festival, vocalist Eve 
Cornelius and pianist Joanne Brackeen 

• Pink Ice, annual semi-formal affair hosted by Alpha 
Kappa Alpha Sorority 

• Alexander Rivera, photography exhibit, Mary Lou 
Williams Center for Black Culture 

• The Uptown String Quartet, lecture and performance, 
Griffith Film Theater 

• History of Black Music in America 

• Graduate School Informational Meeting 

• An Evening of Jazz: Rhapsody in Red, Delta Sigma 
Theta Sorority 

• The Meeting, Page Auditorium 


• Black Comedy Night and Filmfest sponsored by the 
Black Student Alliance 

• Papa Bunko Susso, Griot and Musician, Mary Lou 
Williams Center tor Black Culture 

• The Golden Affair, a Salute to African Americans in the 
Performing Arts, honoring Halle Berry. 

• Jesse Jackson, Duke Chapel 

• Third Annual Conference of Preparing Minorities for 
Academic Careers, Bryan Center 

• Undergraduate Admissions, Black Student Alliance 

• Health Fair, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority 

• North Carolina International Jazz Festival, Ron 
Jackson, guitar, and Pedro Moreira, tenor saxophone 

• Black Business Symposium, Black MBA Organization, 
Fuqua School 

• Second Annual Hurston-James Symposium 

• Blondell Commings, choreographer/director 

• African Awareness Week, Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority 

• Martin Luther King Lecture Series, Divinity School 


• North Carolina International Jazz Festival, Marcus 
Roberts, pianist 

• 1993 Eric C. Lincoln Ball and Banquet, Kappa Alpha Psi 

• Reception to Honor Black Graduating Seniors 

• Clarence Fountain and the Blind Boys of Alabama, 
traditional gospel and blues 

• Career Conference, Duke University Black Alumni 

• Open House, Career Development Center 

• Reginaldo Howard Memorial Scholarship Dinner 

• Showcase of Campus Performing Artists, Alpha Kappa 
Alpha Sorority 

Commemorative Events ^JJ> 49 

• Black Scholars' Award Ceremonies, Alpha Kappa Alpha 


• Thirtieth Anniversary Commemorative Exhibit, Perkins 


• Welcoming Reception for the Thirtieth Class oi African- 
American Undergraduates at Duke University. 


• Literary Competition lor Durham Public School 

• Thirtieth Anniversary House Course, "Race and 
Education" begins 

• Speaker Series: 

Dr. Chuck Stone, "Race, Education, and Images 
in the Media" 

• Thirtieth Anniversary Commemorative Exhibit, Perkins 

• Thirtieth Anniversary House Course (continues) 

• Speaker Series: 

Mr. Don Brackn, "Race, Education, and Music" 
Ret'. Dr. Benjamin ChavL), Jr., "Race, Education, and 
Economics and Politics" 

Dr. Louui W. Sullivan, "Race, Education, and the 
Health Care System in America" 


• Thirtieth Anniversary House Course (continues) 

• Speaker Series: 

Prof e<)<ior Lani Guiltier, "Race, Education, and the New 

Civil Rights" 


• Thirtieth Anniversary House Course (continues) 

• Speaker Series: 

Dr. /Murray N. DePduiiv, "Race, Education, 

and the Arts" 

Chief of Chaplains (Major General) Matthew A. 

Zimmerman, "Race, Education, and Religion" 

Air. Kenneth Chestnut, "Race, Education, and 



• Thirtieth Anniversary Commemorative Exhibit, Duke 
University Hospital, North Division 

50 &$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Welcoming Reception 

The fall semester of 1993 began with a reception honoring 
the Alrican-American members of the class of 1997, the 
thirtieth class of African-American undergraduates to ma- 
triculate at Duke. More than eighty percent of the 124 new 
first-year African-American students attended the recep- 
tion. President Nannerl Keohane, Provost Thomas Lang- 
ford, Dean of Arts and Sciences Roy Weintraub, and 
Chairman of the Duke Endowment and a member of the 
Duke family Mrs. Mary D.B.T. Semans welcomed the stu- 
dents and their families and challenged them to continue 
the remarkable legacy of their African-American predeces- 
sors at Duke. 

University Vice President and Vice Provost Dr. Leonard 
Beckum and Dr. Brenda Armstrong, '70, encouraged stu- 

dents to participate in the activities held during this com- 
memorative year. Students received t-shirts with the thirti- 
eth-year official logo. African-American members of the 
class of 1997 began their undergraduate careers with an 
awareness of the special place they occupy in the history of 
the university. 

Commemorative Events 



Thirtieth Anniversary 

House Course y "Raee eJ Education 


Designed to provide an academic context tor the ongoing 
dialogue about race, Dr. Leonard C. Beckum, university 
vice president and vice provost, and Dr. Brenda Arm- 
strong, associate professor of pediatrics, cotaught a house 
course entitled "Race and Education." The semester-long 
course began on September 8; approximately twenty-five 
students met each week to discuss race and education in 
terms ot the historical and political context of American 
society. Students critically reviewed the issues surrounding 
the education ot both majority and minority populations. 

The syllabus for the house course deliberately coincided 
with the Thirtieth Anniversary Speaker Series offered dur- 
ing the tall semester. Distinguished speakers provided stu- 
dents with unique and personal perspectives, discussing 
the role of race and education as they impacted other areas 
of society'. The following is a list of readings from the class 
syllabus. Speakers also suggested readings. 

Bell, Derrick. Faces at the Bottom of the Well: The Permanence 

of Racism. New York: Basic Books, 1992. 
Easter, E., Cheers, D. M., and Brooks, D. SongdofMy 

People, African America/hi: A Self Portrait. Little, Brown, 

and Co., 1992. 
Early, Gerald. Lure and Loathing: Kways on Race, Identity, and 

the Ambivalence of Assimilation. New York: The Penguin 

Press, 1993. 
Kozol, Jonathan. Savage Inequalities. New York: The 

Crown Press, 1991. 
Nelson, Jill. Volunteer Slavery: My Authentic Negro Experience. 

Chicago: The Noble Press, Inc., 1993. 

Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory. New York: Bantam 

Books, 1982. 
West, Cornel. Race /Matters. Boston: Beacon Press, 1993. 
Williams, Patricia J. The Alchemy of Race and Rights. 

Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991. 


"Racism was described [by Major Matthew Zimmerman] 
as a disease being ted and kept alive by hidden forces 
which needed the presence of racism to keep people from 
seeing mankind as a single family. I was challenged bv this 
assertion. ..." 

Nathaniel Turner, '94 

"Essentially, it all boils down to an uneven playing field. 
Institutionalized racism is benefiting the infrastructure and 
power establishment. Those with political and economic 
power use race as a divisive issue to their advantage." 

Noel Miquiabas, '94 

"The lack of an all-encompassing history, the lack ot ade- 
quate health care, the lack of truly equal and unprejudiced 
opportunity, the lack of unbiased media input results from 
America being a country that does not appreciate all that 
African Americans have done." 

LaTarsha Russell, '94 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

"Education is both the savior and perpetuator of racial in- 
justice in America. Only through education may we over- 
come the racism that has been woven into our social fabric, 
yet it is education that has historically maintained these 

Shawn Reed, '94 

"Through this course, we have been exposed to all types of 
definitions and explanations about the effects of racism on 
education and vice versa. As a result, I no longer hold such 
a narrow-minded view about how knowledge is acquired. 
Instead, I am now aware how educational experiences can 
surface in a plethora of situations, environments, and con- 

Sharon Morgan, '94 

Commemorative Events 



Speaker Series 

During the fall semester ol 1993, the Thirtieth Anniversary 
Committee was privileged to host a speaker series concern- 
ing race and education. We thank the participants tor mak- 
ing the endeavor such a success. All speeches were open to 
the public. Audiotapes of the speeches are available in the 
Duke University Archives. 


Race, Education, and Imaged in the Media 

Walter Spearman Professor, 
School ol Journalism and Mass 
Communication, University of 
North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 
Syndicated columnist, political 
analyst, author, TV commenta- 
tor, former special assistant to 
Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. 

"Times change, things im- 
prove, and yet as I said in my 
law degree article, history does 
repeat itself. It is a cyclical 
kind ol thing. I want to deal with race and education, and im- 
ages in the media. But also the variations on the theme of 
white racism, black self-destruction, and national indilterence, 
because those are the three factors that are interacting and 
impacting upon both experiences I call the racial symbiosis.' 

"We can no longer attribute all ol the ills ol the society 
or all ol the ills in the black community to white racism. 
Sure, it could be a dominant force that controls our society 
and institutional racism does dominate our activities and 

our lives. But what has become a development in the last 
lew years has been a pathology, a social cancer that is de- 
structive ol the goodness, integrity, and unity ol the black 

Race, Education, and the Arts 

Dean, Professor of Art Edu- 
cation, Virginia Common- 
wealth University, School ol 
the Arts. Artist, author, con- 
sultant, art administrator, 
member of AFROCOBRA, 
which formed in Chicago in 

"I want to talk to you a 
little bit about the history of 
art, maybe about the group I 
exhibited with, AFROCOBRA, 
and try to decode some slides for you and to impress upon 
you the importance of African and Afro-American imprint 
on civilization. 

"How many of you have taken art history? What book 
did you use? Helen Gardner or Jansen? Helen Gardner. 
We use Helen Gardner at Virginia Commonwealth. It is 
considered to be the widest-selling art history book in this 
country and the book states that art began in France with 
cave paintings dated approximately 13,000 B.C. I think 
Jansen starts the same way. 

"He talks about primitive art, but primitive art doesn't 
count because primitive art is African art. I'm not trying to 
be funny; I'll come back and clear it up for you but by and 
large that is what both Jansen and Gardner will say about 
the birth ol art. That the birth of art began with the rock 
art at Lasso. Some black and white researchers have dis- 
covered some cave paintings in Africa that predates those 
at Lasso. So the question is whether the quality ol the 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

paintings at Lasso exceed the quality of the paintings, let's 
say, the Sahara cave paintings, which have been dated at 
nearer twenty-three to twenty-seven thousand B.C. 

1 have a slide of a South African cave painting which 
predates the Sahara painting but I will talk to you a little 
bit about the movement between West and East Africa be- 
cause there was a discovery by Keith C. Seele right before 
the Aswan Dam was opened. He discovered a cemetery 
called Oustulu at Carso. With that particular find he dis- 
covered that there was a black civilization that predated 
dynasty 0. 

Race, Education, un<) Religion 

Chief of Chaplains, Major 
General, Department of the 
United States Army, The 
Pentagon. Awarded Legion 
of Merit, Bronze Star Medal, 
Meritorious Service Medals, 
recipient or NAACPs Roy 
^JB^RrjB Wilkin-, Meritorious Service 

-"** ^^^ ^^ lB|^ Award, South Carolina 

', . IA^ "' Black Hall of Fame, Master 

; ' Wf /* of Divinity from Duke Uni- 

versity, received the Distin- 
guished Alumni Award from Duke Divinity School 
Alumni Association in October 1991. 

"Then, from early slavery times, when it was discovered 
how easily African Americans could learn, and how eager 
they were to do so, laws were created and passed forbid- 
ding anyone to teach African Americans anything. . . . 

"The value that African Americans have placed on edu- 
cation has always been extraordinarily high. . . . Through- 
out history we would have to conclude that African Ameri- 
cans have sought education in every conceivable manner 
and at every conceivable level. ... It seems to me that we 

have the consequences, which could be called natural, of a 
paradigm that probably never should have seen the light of 
day, the cultural privatization of ethnic groups in America." 

Race, Education, and Budinedt) 

Duke Engineering alum- 
nus, B.S.C.E. '68, presi- 
dent and chief operations 
officer of H. J. Russell 
Construction Company, 
Inc., the largest minority- 
owned construction 
company in the nation. 
Entered Duke in 1964, 
one year after black un- 
dergraduates were ad- 
mitted to the university 
for the first time. 

"At first 1 wanted to 
be a carpenter. I loved 
to build. That all changed when I took a mechanical draw- 
ing course in high school. I got interested in civil engineer- 
ing. I considered other schools other than Duke. I was re- 
ally eager and was enticed to come here by my guidance 
counselor. It had occurred to me at the time that Duke 
was not accepting black students. As an engineering stu- 
dent, I found the work to be most challenging. The cur- 
riculum 'was oriented toward design and I liked that and 
stayed busy. Obviously, from my perception listening to 
students at the deans council meeting, there is still the per- 
ception of a disparity of workload between Trinity stu- 
dents and the engineering students So that has not 
changed. We always had more labs and work to do. From 
a purely technical classroom teaching point of view I found 
the engineering professors were concerned more about 
your technical abilities and performance and production 

Commemorative Events 



than anything else. The social issues that we dealt with 
were outside of the engineering or technical classroom. 
We saw more of that in other areas such as the administra- 
tion. We saw a transition over my Four years here. First, 
we were glad to be here to the point that we wanted to 
make a difference. I am reminded that somewhere here I 
am in a photograph, where we sat in at the president's 
office to demonstrate our commitment." 


Race, Education, and Mimic 

Tenor saxophone 

player, recording artist. 
CDs: "Wish List," re- 
leased in May 1993, 
"The Time is Now," re- 
leased in 1991. 

Don Braden's 
presentation focused 
£ on the role of jazz as a 
representation of one 
ol the true American 
contributions to music. 
He emphasized the 'ways in which jazz is able to communi- 
cate across racial, ethnic, and cultural boundaries. 

Race, Education, ana Economics and Politic,' 

Executive Director, Na- 
tional Association for the 
Advancement of Colored 
People (NAACP), graduate of 
Duke Divinity School, '79. 

"The problems of racial 
discrimination and racial 
hardship in our community 
and in our nation demand 
that we have a new wave of 
civil rights movement. . . . 
The more education one ac- 
quires, the more responsibil- 
ity one has to share that 
learning to help make a contribution to society, and to 
open up further doors. 

"It was important that I not only was a good student 
while I was here, but that I took what I learned at Duke 
and applied to where I was being kept, even behind bars. 
It wasn't easy being a graduate student and/or being 
locked up ... at Hillsborough State Prison. . . . 

"I am concerned that, while we've made progress, there 
are some forces in our society that want to retrench, want 
to go back . . . want to apologize for the progress we've 
made rather than pushing forward with more progress. . . . 
"I believe that there has been a resurgence of racist 
mentality, and that racist mentality needs to be challenged, 
not only in the churches, not only by the NAACP, but it 
needs to be challenged by great educational institutions 
like Duke University. If Duke University can't treat its 
own employees right, how can it commend itself in terms 
of being an academic leader in a world -where the ideal of 
truth is held high?" 

56 d$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 


Race, Education., ana the Health Care System in America 

^H President, Morehouse 
School of Medicine, For- 
mer U.S. Secretary of 
Health and Human Ser- 
vices (Bush administration) 
Dr. Sullivan's presen- 
tation focused on issues 
related to the proposed 
health care plan of Presi- 
dent and Mrs. Clinton. In 
addition, he discussed the 
importance of continued 
improvement of health 
care in black and urban centers and historically black med- 
ical training institutions. 


Race, Education, and the New Civil Rights 

University of Pennsylvania 
law professor, authority on 
civil rights legislation, for- 
mer candidate for position 
of U.S. Attorney General. 

"One of the reasons that I 
was committed to pressing 
forward with confirmation 
hearings is that I knew a 
Senate hearing was not just 
another daytime talk show. 
Given the controversy my 
nomination had attracted, a 
Senate hearing would have 
been an unusual, proactive opportunity to turn the atten- 
tion of the American people to the unfinished agenda of 
civil rights. That discussion must still occur, if not in a Sen- 

ate hearing room, in another form created by those of us 
who feel deeply about racial justice and equality. And that 
is why I am grateful that Duke has invited me here to 
speak, which gives me an opportunity, finally, to speak for 
myself . . . and to speak at a forum, which I hope is the first 
of many such forums, in which to discuss the undiscuss- 
able, the meaning of race in America. 

"Talking about racial bias at home has, for many, become 
synonymous with advocating revolution. ... I do not believe 
that talking about controversial issues is what creates contro- 
versy. . . . My nomination had become a metaphor for the 
state of race relations in America. Remember the policy: 
Don't ask. Don't tell. Don't pursue. As a country, we are in a 
state of denial about issues of race and racism. For many 
politicians and policymakers, the remedy for racism is simply 
to stop talking about race. 

"So I ask you to join me in a national public conversa- 
tion about race, about justice, and about fundamental fair- 
ness. ... I ask that you join me in changing the policy of 
Don't ask; don't tell' to Ask, and we shall tell. We shall speak 
proudly, and without bitterness. . . but we shall tell.' " 

Commemorative Events 



Chapter 3 

Profiles of a Few 

Alumni, Faculty, and 



Brenda Armstrong has a long tradition of service and lead- 
ership at Duke University. A native ot Rocky Alount, 
North Carolina, Armstrong entered Duke as an under- 
graduate in 1966. As a hounding member and chairperson 
ot the Airo-American Society, Armstrong quickly became 
a vital force in the struggle for racial equality on campus. 
She demonstrated her commitment to the cause during the 
Allen Building Takeover on February 13, 1969. As one of 
the sixty students stationed inside the Allen Building, Arm- 
strong led her peers in a protest against discriminatory uni- 
versity policies. As a student leader, Brenda Armstrong 
mobilized African-American students to voice their con- 
cerns as a unified body. 

As a Duke student, Armstrong pursued a pre-med 
courseload and graduated with a bachelor ol science de- 
gree in zoology in 1970. One year later, Armstrong entered 
St. Louis Medical School and determined that a career as a 
pediatrician would best combine her love tor children and 
for science. Armstrong's dedication to Duke and the 
Durham community brought her back to the university 

when she began her residency in 1975. As director ot the 
Pediatric Cardiac Catheterization Lab, Armstrong contin- 
ues to contribute to the university through her research 
and teaching. 

Dr. Armstrong was instrumental in founding the Duke 
University Black Alumni Connection (DLBAC), and has 
met with great success in efforts to maintain connections 
with fellow African-American alumni. She has served on 
numerous university committees, including the Thirtieth 
Anniversary Committee. During the tall semester ot 1993, 
Armstrong cotaught a house course focusing on race and 
education. Brenda Armstrong s presence on campus serves 
as both a potent reminder ot the African-American strug- 
gles in the past, and as a harbinger of the daunting chal- 
lenges that he ahead for African Americans at Duke. 


When Dr. Beckum was appointed to the post ot university 
vice president and vice provost in 1991, he became the first 
black officer of DukeUniversity. In addition, he is a pro- 
fessor in the program in education at Duke. 

Dr. Beckum received his Ph.D. in psychological studies 
in education from Stanford in 1973. From 1985 to 1990 
Dr. Beckum was dean ot the City College School of Edu- 
cation, City University ot New York. 

His research has focused on cognitive and social psy- 
chological factors that influence teaching and learning. 
Aluch ot this research has focused on the relationship be- 
tween such factors as learning styles and their influence on 
the ability to acquire computer programming skills, social 
psychological influences on cognitive development, and the 
influence ot contextual characteristics ot the teaching and 
learning environment on how teachers teach and students 
learn. Dr. Beckum has published widely on these topics. 




As a young bov coming ot age in Oxford. North Carolina, 
Ben Chavis displayed a precocious interest in civil rights 
activism. By age twelve, Chavis was a card-carrying mem- 
ber of the National Association tor the Advancement ot 
Colored People (NAACP). Thirty-four years later, Chavis 
was the youngest director ever appointed to lead the orga- 

In 1969, Chavis was the first African American to grad- 
uate with a bachelor of science in chemistry from the Uni- 
versity of North Carolina at Charlotte. He received a mas- 
ter of divinity degree from Duke University in 1979, and a 
doctorate in divinity from Howard University in 1981. 
Chavis did not limit himself solely to NAACP activities, but 
also has worked on behalf of the Congress on Racial 
Equality, the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, 
the American Federation ot State, Counts', and Municipal 
Employees, and the United Church ot Christ. 

As a field worker for the United Church ot Christ's 
Commission for Racial Justice, Chavis led a protest 
against segregated schools in Wilmington, North Carolina. 
When Chavis and the other activists refused to leave town, 
police accused the group of burning a grocery store and 
conspiring to shoot a police otticer and a firefighter. Mem- 
bers of the "Wilmington Ten" received prison sentences. 
As the leader of the group, Chavis was handed a prison 
term ot twenty-five to twenty-nine years. The case received 
international attention when the London branch ot 
Amnesty International listed the group as the first case of 
political prisoners held in the United States. Governor Jim 
Hunt of North Carolina eventually reduced the sentences 
of the Wilmington Ten. Chavis was paroled in December 
of 1979. The other nine activists were either paroled or re- 
leased from prison by 1980. 

As a commuter trom Hillsborough Corrections Center, 
Chavis entered Duke as a unique divinity school student in 
1978. Through a study-release program paid tor by the 

United Church ot Christ, Chavis pursued a master ot di- 
vinity degree. He quickly gained the respect and admira- 
tion ot his professors and classmates. Although study-re- 
lease regulations prohibited Chavis trom certain activities, 
he nevertheless was a deeply committed and invoked civil 
rights activist. 

During Jessie Jackson's 1984 presidential campaign 
Chavis served as the campaign's clergy coordinator. His po- 
litical career continued as an advisor to President Clinton's 
transition team on issues ot race and the emironment. 

In 1993, Chavis left his position as executive director of 
the United Church of Christ's Commission tor Racial Jus- 
tice to become the executive director ot the NAACP. 

Ben Chavis continues to be an active participant in the 
Duke community. In December ot 1993, Chavis addressed 
the impact ot race and education on economics and politics 
as part ot a lecture series commemorating the thirtieth an- 
niversary ot African- American students. 


Born and raised in Wilmington, North Carolina, Air. 
Chestnut attended Williston Senior High School. He ma- 
triculated at Duke University' in the tall of 1964, one year 
after black undergraduates had gained the right to attend 
the university. In 1968, he graduated with a bachelor of 
science degree in civil engineering. 

As a student in the School ot Engineering, Chestnut 
tound himself in the midst of an all-white environment. 
Much of his contact and interaction with other African- 
American students occurred outside of his curncular en- 
deavors. Chestnut was an active participant in civil rights 
demonstrations, both at Duke and at nearby North Car- 
olina Central University. He was involved in the Atro- 
American Society and the Allen Building Takeover of 

Shortly after leaving Duke with a B.S.C.E. in 1968, Chest- 
nut was drafted by the United States Army. He served in the 

62 £# LEGACY. 1963-1993 

army from 1969 until 1971, spending one year in Vietnam. 
Alter completing his brief military career, Mr. Chestnut 
began to pursue his interest in civil engineering. He 
worked tor the national construction firms of J. A. Jones 
Construction Co., Inc., and Gilbane Building Co. lor a 
total ol thirty-two years. During that time, he progressed 
from held engineer to project executive. In 1989, Chestnut 
joined H. J. Russell Construction Co., Inc. The company 
is the largest minority-owned construction company in the 
nation, and the fourth largest construction company over- 
all. In 1990, Kenneth Chestnut was named president and 
chiel operations olhcer ol H. J. Russell. 

In addition to his position as president and COO of a 
major corporation, Chestnut has assumed several other re- 
sponsibilities. He serves on the board of trustees for 
Oglethorpe University in Atlanta, the board of directors lor 
Glen Castle Constructors, the Construction Advisory Com- 
mittee lor the Southern College ol Technology, and the 
Dean's Council ot the School ol Engineering at Duke Uni- 
versity. Kenneth Chestnut returned to campus in the tall ot 
1993 to give a lecture entitled "Race, Education, and Busi- 
ness" as part ot the house course taught in connection with 
the thirtieth anniversary commemoration. 


Samuel DuBois Cook was born in 1928 in Griffin, Geor- 
gia. In 1944, Cook enrolled at Morehead College, a histori- 
cally black college in Atlanta, Georgia. He quickly distin- 
guished himself as both a scholar and an athlete. As an 
undergraduate, Cook received an invitation to Phi Beta 
Kappa honor society and was awarded all-southern foot- 
ball honors. After graduating from Morehouse in 1948, 
Cook pursued graduate study through Ohio State Univer- 
sity's political science doctoral program. With the comple- 
tion of a master's degree in 1950 and a doctorate in 1954, 
Cook began his lifelong career ot academic leadership and 

Alter two years of service in the United States Army as 

a social service specialist, Dr. Cook accepted a faculty po- 
sition at Southern University in South Carolina. His repu- 
tation as an excellent and dedicated instructor quickly 
spread; he was offered several teaching positions in both 
large universities and small colleges. He held posts at the 
University ot California, the University of Illinois, Texas 
Southern University, and Atlanta University. In the fall of 
1965, Dr. Cook lett his position as chair of the political sci- 
ence department at Atlanta University to become a visiting 
professor at Duke University. Cook became the first 
African-American faculty member at Duke University 
when he was appointed as an associate professor ot politi- 
cal science. In 1972, Cook was promoted to full professor- 
ship in the Political Science Department and also became 
the director of undergraduate studies. 

As the first African-American faculty member at a pres- 
tigious southern university in the late 1960s, Sam Cook 
taced the challenges of a tumultuous academic community 
in the midst of profound change. Cook's leadership was 
sought not only in the classroom or in the faculty lounge, 
but also around the campus and the medical center. Duke 
students joined their peers at universities nationwide in the 
cry for racial justice, and Duke University came alive as an 
open forum for political and social discussion. Students 
looked to Dr. Cook as an advisor, a mentor, an advocate, 
and a friend. 

Steadfast in his dedication and convictions, Dr. Cook 
represented the student interests on several occasions. 
Cook returned home after the funeral of Morehouse class- 
mate and lifelong friend Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., to 
find Duke students in the midst of a major protest. The 
Silent Vigil, which began as a memorial service to Dr. 
King, developed into a student protest of discriminatory 
university policies. Dr. Cook spoke to 1,500 vigil attendees 
on April 10, 1968. Less than one year later, Cook would 
again demonstrate his support for the causes of African- 
American students, during the Allen Building Takeover. 

In the classroom, Cook challenged and encouraged stu- 


9& 63 

dents to grapple with the complexities of contemporary po- 
litical ideology and American political thought. In 1969, 
Dr. Cook received the prestigious Outstanding Professor 
Award. After ten years of service, Cook left Duke to be- 
come the president of Dillard University in New Orleans, 
one of the nation s oldest black universities. Duke has con- 
tinued to honor Samuel DuBois Cook. He received an 
honorary doctorate of laws in 1979, and was a university 
medalist lor meritorious service in 1993. Dr. Cook served 
as a member of the Duke University Board ot Trustees 
from 1981 until 1993. 


Philip R. Cousin, Sr., was born in Pittston, Pennsylvania, 
and moved to Florida as a child. He earned his A.B. degree 
with honors in philosophy and English from Central State 
University in Wilberlorce, Ohio, in 1953. He was then or- 
dained in the ministry of the African Methodist Episcopal 
Church in 1952. In 1956, Mr. Cousins received a master of 
divinity degree from Boston University. He then pastored a 
number ol congregations including St. Joseph's A.M.E. 
Church in Durham from 1965 to 1976. His awards and hon- 
ors are numerous: He was the first black faculty member of 
the Divinity School at Duke University (1967-1979); first 
black from a predominately white denomination to serve as 
president of the National Council of Churches of Christ; and 
the first black elected delegate from North Carolina to the 
Democratic National Convention. 


iMaureen Cullins came to Duke University as a first-year 
student in August of 1972. Born in Washington, D.C., and 
raised in High Point, North Carolina, Cullins attended 
Bishop McGuinness Memorial High School in Winston 
Salem, North Carolina. 

"As a high school senior I ■was invited by a number of 
colleges to weekends for minority students. I went to a few 

for the travel, having decided that Hampton Institute was 
the school for me. In November of 1971 Duke extended an 
invitation to their weekend. I went and decided to applv. 
When I told my high school principal, she replied that I 
could never get in, and if by some fluke I was admitted, I 
would never graduate — this despite the fact that I was first 
in my class. As it turned out I was admitted and with a 

"The environment at Duke was challenging for black stu- 
dents during the 1970s. Even though I had attended a pre- 
dominately white high school, I had never been called col- 
ored, no one was intrigued by my hair, nor had any of the 
white students complained about my presence in the class- 
room or dormitory. There were some openly hostile faculty 
members and administrators. To graduate during that pe- 
riod was a feat. I responded to the tension by participating 
in the Association of African Students. The association was 
politically active, addressing such issues as financial aid, 
black studies department, the classroom environment, and 
the lack of social support for black students. We presented 
to then-president Terry Sanford a list of demands that ulti- 
mately resulted in the creation of the President's Council on 
Black Affairs and the Mary Lou Williams Center for Black 
Culture. In search of woman-centered affinity, I was a 
founder and first president of Iota Mu chapter of Alpha 
Kappa Alpha Sorority, Inc. at Duke University." 

A French and anthropology major, Cullins went on to 
University of Pennsylvania to pursue a Ph.D. in linguis- 
tics. From there she went to -work for the secretary of the 
commonwealth ot Pennsylvania, taught English as a sec- 
ond language at the University of Michigan, and worked 
as a research associate for the Federal Highway Adminis- 
tration. In 1986 Cullins returned to Duke to work in the 
division ot student affairs. 

"I found that while many things had changed at the uni- 
versity, quite a bit remained the same. It was disconcerting 
to hear African-American students echoing the same con- 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

cerns I had as an undergraduate. And, while Student Af- 
fairs had responded institutionally, my colleagues pointed to 
self-segregation' by African- American students as some- 
thing to be addressed by African-American students, not as 
a symptom of larger problems at the university. However, 
the Latino, Asian, and gay and lesbian students were finding 
a voice, and the university was beginning to consider the 
value of a diverse community." 

In 1993 Cullins was promoted to the position of assis- 
tant vice president of student affairs and dean of campus 
community development. Her responsibilities include ad- 
ministrative oversight for Greek life, the Lesbian, Gay, and 
Bisexual Life Center, the Community Service Center, the 
Office of Intercultural Affairs, International House, and 
the Women's Center. In addition, she sits on several uni- 
versity committees and task forces. Cullins believes that 
her work supports the university's ongoing commitment to 
provide a supportive environment for all Duke students. 


In the fall of 1982, Johnny Dawkins left his hometown 
basketball court at Macklin Catholic High School in 
Washington, D.C. to wear the no. 24 jersey at Duke Uni- 
versity. Dawkins charged into the basketball arena deter- 
mined to lead his team to victory; he posed a formidable of- 
fensive threat to opponents through the 1985-86 season. 

During the 1982—83 season, Dawkins earned a place in 
Duke basketball history as the first freshman to receive the 
Swett Memorial Trophy, the Blue Devils' most valuable 
player award. The Atlantic Coast Conference recognized 
his talent as well, honoring Dawkins with a place on the 
second all-ACC team. Sporting Newd ranked Dawkins as 
one of the top five freshmen in the countrv. 

As a sophomore during the 1983-84 season, Dawkins 
continued to etch his legacy into the record books. His ca- 
reer point total of 1,165 at the end of the season remains as 
the highest point total tor any Duke player in a sophomore 
year. With an average of 19.4 points per game, Dawkins 
earned the distinction of second-highest scorer in the ACC 
His 272 assists placed Dawkins fifth on the Duke career 
list. Once again, the Blue Devil earned a position on the 
second all-ACC team. Dawkins was also selected as an al- 
ternate for the 1984 United States Olympic Team. 

With a season average of 20.2 points per game, the two- 
time all- American guard led the Blue Devils to the 1986 
NCAA tournament finals. Dawkins finished his Duke ca- 
reer with an all-time record high score of 2,556 career 
points. As a tribute to Dawkins s four years of athletic ex- 
cellence, Duke retired his jersey, number 24, in Cameron 
Indoor Stadium. 

After graduating from the university in 1986 with a 
bachelor of arts degree in political science, Dawkins was 
the tenth NBA draft pick. He began his professional career 
with the San Antonio Spurs. After three seasons with the 
Spurs, Dawkins joined the Philadelphia 76ers. Dawkins 
was leading the second place 76ers in December of 1990 
when a severe knee injury put him on the sidelines. Fol- 

Profiles £& 65 

lowing a year of physical therapy and rehabilitation, 
Dawkins returned to the Sixers for the 1991—92 season. 

As one of the first prominent black athletes to continue 
in professional athletics alter graduating from Duke, 
Dawkins holds a distinguished place in the legacy ot 
African-American students. His accomplishments serve as 
a symbol for the countless contributions of black students 
to Duke University. 


Janet Smith Dickerson came to Duke in the summer of 
1991 after fifteen years at Swarthmore College. For the 
last ten years of that period, she served as the dean of the 
college. She holds the honor ot being the first woman and 
the first African-American vice president of student affairs 
at Duke. In this position, her purview extends to residen- 
tial life, psychological counseling, career development, cul- 
tural affairs, international-student support, minority af- 
fairs, student activities, and volunteer services. 

Dickerson grew up in a small town in South Carolina, 
and went to Western College for Women, now part of 
Ohio s Miami University. Before beginning her fifteen- 

year tenure at Swarthmore, Dickerson taught English and 
worked as a guidance counselor in Cincinnati high schools. 
She spent five years at Indiana's Earlham College as asso- 
ciate dean of students and assistant professor of education. 

WILLIAM C TURNER, JR. , 70, M.DIV. 74, PH.D '84 

For Duke Divinity School professor William C. Turner, 
who matriculated in 1966, black students' hopes and ambi- 
tions were tempered by an unspoken understanding of 
how to follow the guidelines already in place. 

"You have to remember that we grew up in a pre— civil 
rights era," says Turner. "Our experience was one of segre- 
gation: segregated communities, segregated churches, segre- 
gated schools. We remember separate water fountains. We 
remember sitting in the back of the bus. It was American 
apartheid, and we grew up learning rules of behavior and 
conduct around that reality. It's hard to describe for some- 
one who wasn't there what an alien world it was." 

Despite the alienation Turner never considered leaving, 
"because there 'was a pioneering spirit among us. You 
weren't just doing it for yourself; you were doing it for 
your parents, your school teachers, and for your commu- 

66 &$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

nity. Back home we were celebrities; we were doing some- 
thing new and revolutionary. 

"And you always knew what the rules were. Eventually 
it became a matter of deciding which rules you were going 
to (ollow and which you were going to break. You do that 
according to your own personal and moral integrity. You 
break them when you just can't continue with the way 
things are. And you don't break them when you don't feel 
like putting up that energv- 

"That is something that many people never fully com- 
prehended about [the difference between] segregation and 
separation. Some things that we've developed — forms of 
expression and cultural conventions — are things that we as 
African Americans like [more than the white equivalent]. 
In many cases, we've never been sold on the superiority of 
the white culture or the white way of doing things. So you 
don't break the rules and put out the energy when you are 
going to like what you get less than what you had. But that 
was never the issue. The issue was the equality of opportu- 
nity; how funds, privileges, and benefits are allocated. . . . 

"Even after twenty-five years, I still have the feeling 
that I'm breaking the rules by being here. My son feels at 
home here; he can run around the Gardens and go the top 
of the Chapel and he feels that this place is his. And on one 
level I feel like that too. But on a deeper level, I know the 
history of my presence here." 

dents. Zimmerman entered Duke in the fall of 1962. After 
receiving his degree from Duke in 1965, Zimmerman was 
ordained at the National Baptist Convention. He remained 
in academic communities, serving as a campus minister at 
Idaho State University and at Morris College in South 
Carolina. Zimmerman continued his own studies at Long 
Island University, and earned a second master's degree in 
guidance counseling. 

By 1967, Matthew Zimmerman was ready to begin his 
military career. Commissioned as a captain and serving as a 
clergyman, Zimmerman attended the United States Army 
Command and General Staff College as well as the United 
States Army War College. His coursework included chap- 
lain officer training, programming, budgeting, and personal 
management for executives. Zimmerman has continued to 
rise through the ranks of the armed forces. He has been 
sworn into the office of United States Army Chief of Chap- 
lains, assuming the rank of major general in 1990. 

Zimmerman has not forgotten his time at Duke Univer- 
sity and continues to share his leadership and wisdom with 
the university community. He returned to Duke to deliver 
the Martin Luther King, Jr., Lectures at the Divinity 
School in April of 1991, and spoke as part of the "Race and 
Education" house course during the fall of 1993. 

A native of Rock Hill, South Carolina, Zimmerman re- 
mained there to graduate from Benedict College with a 
bachelor of science degree in biology and chemistry. He 
enrolled at Duke Divinity School as one of the first three 
African-American students. Zimmerman's acceptance into 
the master of divinity program at Duke represented the 
culmination of the divinity school's prolonged efforts to de- 
segregate — Duke Divinity School was the first school at 
the university to petition the trustees to admit black stu- 

Profiles ££ 


Chapter 4 
Where We Are Now 

Iiitititutiona I Policies 


Duke University does not discriminate on the basis of race, 
color, religion, national origin, handicap, veteran status, 
sexual orientation or preference, sex, or age in the adminis- 
tration ol educational policies, admissions policies, finan- 
cial aid, employment, or any other university program or 
activity. It admits all qualified students to all the rights, 
privileges, programs, and activities generally accorded or 
made available to students. 

The Equal Opportunity Policy shall be followed in re- 
cruiting, hiring, appointing, and promotion into all acade- 
mic or nonacademic positions. The university will insure 
that other personnel actions such as compensation, 
benefits, transfers, returns from layoff, demotions, termina- 
tions; university sponsored training programs; education; 
tuition assistance; social and recreation programs; and use 
of university facilities will be administered without dis- 
crimination on the bases indicated above. 


Excerpt* from Core Commitment*, September 1994 i.'.ute 

Duke University is committed to providing equal employ- 
ment and educational opportunities to its employees and 
students. The university adheres to and supports all fed- 
eral, state and local legislation and fundamentally supports 
the proposition that, whether in admissions, the assessment 
of classroom performance, hiring, or promotion, the uni- 
versity seeks to identify, recognize, and reward individual 

abilities without regard to age, race, ethnic background, 
religion, gender, physical disability, or sexual orientation. 

At the same time, Duke University actively encourages 
diversity in its community, for such diversity not only en- 
riches the education of us all and better equips us for effec- 
tive citizenship, but also contributes to the University's ef- 
fectiveness in the larger communities of which we are a 
part — city, state, nation, and the world. 

The fundamental reason for diversifying our faculty and 
student body is that it will improve the quality' of education 
at Duke. Although some may feel a moral obligation to ex- 
pand our recruitment of both faculty' and students to over- 
come the effects of past prejudice and disadvantage and to 
reflect more fully the diversity' of our society', the link be- 
tween diversity' and academic quality is compelling in itself. 
Education depends on learning things you did not know be- 
fore. This can be done through books of history or lab ex- 
periments or works of art or anthropological explorations. 
But it can also be done by talking to, working alongside, liv- 
ing with, people whose perspectives are quite different from 
our own. The most powerful learning experiences come 
when we share the experience of reading history- or look- 
ing at art or talking about philosophy with people whose 
geographic or economic backgrounds are unlike our own, 
people of opposite sex or a different race, who do not take 
the same things for granted. The multiplier effect ot new 
ideas filtered through several lenses is a powerful way to 
learn. Duke is committed to enhancing this dimension of 
academic quality. 

Where We Are Now 




Nancy Alston, Duke Undergraduate Admissions 

There is no formula for success here and no two experienced are the 
,<a»it>. Aly father onee told me that you 've got to make your break* 
and now I understand what he meant. For me, Duke had been 
tough, but I know it was the best because it just feels right. 

The statement above, written for a brochure, "Duke Uni- 
versity: A Diverse Community," perhaps may be just as 
appropriate for today's student of color at Duke as it was 
for Monica Reid '87, several years ago. As the university' 
celebrates thirty years of African Americans at Duke, it re- 
mains a viable choice for those seeking academic excel- 
lence and national reputation. The 150 African Americans 
in the thirtieth class represents nine percent of the class of 
'98 from twenty-eight states. There is no typical Duke stu- 
dent, but rather individuals whose academic records reflect 
promise and success. Located in the Research Triangle 
area, which has been listed as the best place in the nation 
to live, Duke University is highly selective, private, and 
coed. Over 93% of the students live on campus all four 
years. The university offers in Trinity College a B.A. or 
B.S. degree and in its school ot engineering a B.S. degree. 
A variety of approaches to liberal arts education can be ob- 
tained either through Program I— a more traditional ap- 
proach to the major, or Program II— a more individualized 
program ot study. 

Duke is more than just an academic institution — it is a 
community in which students live, work, experience, and 
grow. To this end, students are supported by a variety of 
organizations and offices that include Black Student Al- 
liance (BSA), which is a strong cultural force and instru- 
ment of change. Through its six committees, four cultural 
groups and auxiliary organizations, the BSA strives to im- 
prove the Duke/Durham community. 

The Office of Intercultural Affairs assists in the develop- 

ment ot programs to promote the growth of students of 
color, undergraduates and post-baccalaureate students. As 
in the tradition ot the Reginaldo Howard Scholarship Fund, 
the university has benefited from the leadership of several 
African-American students, including two scholars who 
served as presidents ot the Duke Student Government. 

Students of color have met and continue to confront the 
challenges at Duke whether that be in the form of in- 
creased attention to the recruitment of black faculty to par- 
ticipating in the day-to-day routine of student life. Black 
students have done well with graduate/professional school 
achievement and securing opportunities in the work force. 
In the tradition of former presidents Sanford and Brodie, 
and with new leadership from President Keohane, the uni- 
versity continues to strive to make this a more pluralistic 
society, one where the meaning and spirit of Duke's motto 
truly prevails. 

72 d$ 

LEGACY, 1963-1993 

African -American 
Student Life 


The purpose of the Black Student Alliance (formerly 
known as the Afro-American Society and the Association 
of African Students) is to organize and represent Duke's 
African-American students while simultaneously educating 
the entire Duke community about African-American cul- 
ture and heritage. BSA committees comprise of the central, 
academic affairs, outreach/community relations, program- 
ming, publicity, and social committees. Revelation*) is the 
group's newsletter. Activities of the BSA include a Kwan- 
zaa ceremony, a Halloween party for area children, spon- 
sorship of major speakers, and the BSA invitational week- 
end tor prospective students. 

Today the BSA, created by and for the black students at 
Duke University, continues its role as a cultural force and 
an instrument of change, as it strives to improve the Duke 
and Durham communities. 


Since its inception in 1969, the Office of Intercultural Af- 
fairs (formerly known as The Office of Black Affairs and 
then the Office of Minority Affairs) has primarily' ad- 
dressed the needs of the African American student popula- 
tion. In 1991, the office began to undergo programmatic 
and organizational restructuring; the name change went 
into effect in the spring of 1993. Its goal is to continue to 
function as a student service component and to offer sup- 
port services and programs designed to meet the needs of 
all students of color, undergraduate and graduate. The 
office provides outreach to students of color to facilitate 

rapid involvement within the university community 
through sponsorship of receptions and seminars with fac- 
ulty, administrators, and students, mentorship projects, 
cultural events designed to support and enhance the acade- 
mic and social awareness of other cultural groups, and 
conducts institutional research to advance diversity and 
help create an equitable educational environment for all 
students at Duke University. 


The Mary Lou Williams Center for Black Culture was dedi- 
cated in memory of the "great lady of jazz." Since its begin- 
ning in 1983 the center has established its significance as the 
gathering place on campus where broadly based issues of 
social and cultural relevance are addressed. This effort has 
been mobilized by such affairs as art exhibits, musical events 
film series and lectures. 

A Duke University artist-in-residence, Mary Lou 
Williams, always had the knack of being in the right place at 
the right time. Some of those right places and times include 
New York in the 1920s, where she played with musicians 
Fats Waller, Jelly Roll Morton, and Duke Ellington. The 

Where We Are Now 

9*> 73 

1930s found her in Kansas City among such great Swing 
Era musicians as Count Basie, Ben Webster, Lester 
Young, and Andy Kirk. After returning to New York in 
the 1940s Marv Lou surrounded hersell with such Modern 
Period giants as Thelonious Monk, Bud Powell, Dizzy 
Gillespie and Charlie Parker. 

Coming to Duke University in 1977, Mary Lou Williams 
found a larger measure of peace and inspiration than perhaps 
at any other rime in her lite, mainly through the response of 
the Duke students who understood the serious nature ol her 
music. She effected this by playing in her hard, truthful, and 
visionary way. 

That her vision would continue, she formed the Mary 
Lou Williams Foundation, an organization dedicated to the 
preservation of her music through publishing and the is- 
suance of her recordings. This foundation also encourages 
the survival of jazz by placing musically gifted children 
under the direction of )azz musicians. 


African Student Association 

Alpha Kappa Alpha 

Alpha Phi Alpha 

Black Campus Ministries (Fellowship) 

Black Graduate and Professional Students 

Black Student Alliance 



Prometheus Black 

C.A.P.A. (Black Pre-Law Society) 

Black Dance 

Delta Sigma Theta 

Duke NAACP, Collegiate Chapter 

Duke University Black Pre-Health Organization 


Kappa Alpha Psi 

Muslim Student Association 

Omega Psi Phi 

Society of Black Engineers 

Spectrum Organization 

Student Action with Farm workers (SAF) 

Students of the Caribbean Association (SOCA) 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

Black Faculty 
Initiative Update 



The Committee on Black Faculty of the Academic Council, 

January, 1994 



Duke University has not achieved the overall goal set forth by 
the 1988 BFI of increasing the numbers of black faculty by 
one in each hiring unit. Specifically, 18 of the 56 hiring units 
succeeded in adding 25 black faculty members at regular 
rank. Ten departments in Arts and Sciences, the School of 
Engineering, the Fuqua School of Business, the School of 
Law, the Divinity School, and four departments in the School 
of Medicine successfully recruited black faculty to their 
ranks. In the five-year period, there has been a loss of 18 
black faculty. Fourteen left the university (three bv retire- 
ment) and four were transferred to non-regular rank or ad- 
ministrative positions within the university resulting in a net 
gain of only seven black faculty at regular rank. 

The Committee on Black Faculty of the Academic 
Council reviewed the progress of the BFI at the end of the 
1993 academic year by providing the numerical and demo- 
graphic information describing the efforts of hiring units, 
graduate school departments, and the administrative moni- 
toring of the BFI over the five-year period of resolution. 
The Committee's conclusions were that the overall goals of 
the BFI to increase the numbers of black faculty had not 
been achieved, that serious deficiencies in the nurturing of 

young black scholars accelerated the attrition of current 
black faculty and made recruitment of potential black fac- 
ulty' more difficult, and that monitoring and enforcement of 
the BFI had been ineffective in promoting the achievement 
of the goals of the 1988 BFI. The Committee strongly rec- 
ommended that Duke take a vigorous leadership position 
in the continued efforts to increase black faculty. 

The Committee found one major area of achievement in 
the past five years. The Graduate School was successful in 
doubling the number of black doctoral candidates as pro- 
posed in the 1988 BFI. There was a commensurate in- 
crease in funding for such students from $293,201 to 
$786,730, a 168% increase in funding over the five-year 
period. A total of 52 black Ph.D. candidates were 
identified in 19 departments which represented a 160% in- 
crease over the five-year period. There remain 27 graduate 
degree programs with no black graduate students. While 
the Graduate School has achieved considerable success 
over the past five years in increasing both the total appli- 
cant pool of blacks and other black students, there is still 
much work to be done. The Committee found that Duke 
faculty need to assume more active roles in the recruitment 
and outreach activities of the Graduate School and that the 
Graduate School faculty itself should take a more active 
role in the developing mentorship relationships with black 
graduate students. 

The Committee found that monitoring the progress of 
the 1988 BFI proved more problematic and requires 
significant strengthening. The 1988 resolution addressed 
the need for appropriate monitoring of the progress of the 
directives of the BFI by outlining specific mechanisms for 
review available to the appropriate academic officers — 
chairpersons of departments, deans of schools, and ulti- 
mately the provost's office — to ensure that good faith ef- 
forts were in process to achieve the goals of the BFI. These 
processes included the requirement that hiring units un- 
able to increase their black faculty' submit a review of their 

Where We Are Now 



recruitment ettorts and hie a new recruitment plan with 
the appropriate dean of their school and with the Provosts 
office. These hiring units would require approval ol their 
recruitment processes prior to the extension of the invita- 
tions for campus visits and contingent on the inclusion of 
one or more black candidates among the invitees, or upon 
a demonstration that every- ettort had been made to iden- 
tify a black candidate(s) for an available position(s). This 
selection process was to be reviewed by the Office of 
Equal Opportunity and approved by the Provost prior to 
any extension ot an ofter to other than a black candidate. 
The Committee concluded however, that more vigorous 
and continuous efforts are necessary to ensure that moni- 
toring will work. 

76 &$ LEGACY. 1963-1993 


LEONARD C. BECKUM, University Vice President d Vice Provost 
Chair, Thirtieth Anniversary Committee 

These pages serve as an affirmation of the extraordinary ability and potential of 
African-American students at Duke University. While we acknowledge that this po- 
tential has not yet been fully realized, we celebrate the progress that African-Ameri- 
can students have made at Duke. 

This commemorative year of 1993 has provided time for both introspective reflec- 
tion and joyful celebration. During the last thirty years Duke University administra- 
tion and African-American students — each group in its own way — have worked to- 
gether to change the face of Duke. 

The bold decision of the Duke Board of Trustees in 1962 to admit undergraduates 
in 1963 successfully dispelled the presumption that a southern institution must be a 
homogenous one and set in motion an inexorable progress. 

Duke's African-American students, through defiance, expectation, and commit- 
ment, endured hardships to help ensure the continuation of that progress. 

Much has changed from the time when the few students were admitted to the uni- 
versity in 1963 to the reception held for the class of 1998 on August 25, 1993. Not 
only are there many more African-American students attending Duke University, 
but today twenty-six percent of the undergraduate student body at Duke is com- 
posed of students of color. Most Duke alumni, faculty, staff, and students believe 
that Duke now offers a comprehensive education, one that is appropriate for a global 

During the last thirty years, African-American students have faced daunting chal- 
lenges and have left an enduring legacy of pride, faith, and hard work. The university 
has benefited from the leadership of this diverse student body and has publicly com- 
mitted itself to diversity as an institutional priority. 

It is our hope that this publication will serve as a reminder of the past, a call to 
awareness about the present, and a prologue to the future. 

Where We Are Now ^> 77 

Appendix A 



Or. Anthony Ovewole AB 


Dr. Man M. Harris BS 

Ms. Wilhelmina M. Reuben-Cooke AB 

Mr. Nathaniel Bradshaw White. Jr. BS 


Mr. Kenneth Spaulding Chestnut BSCE 
Mrs. Doris W. Grant AB 
Mr. Alfred J. Hooks BSME 
Mrs. Joyce Hobson Johnson AB 


Mr. C. B. Claiborne BSE 

Mr. James H. Ebron AB 

Mr. Charles \Y. Hopkins AB 

Mrs. Alma M. Jones AB 

Mr. Quenlan M. Jones AB 

Mr. Stephen J. McLeod BSE 

Mrs. Virginia Anderson Oursland BSN 

Miss Deborah C. Wilkerson BS 

Mr. Jesse T. Wilkins BSE 


Dr. Brenda E. Armstrong AB 
Mrs. Brenda B. Becton AB 
Ms. Josie K. Claiborne AB 
Dr. James S. Dorsey AB 
Dr. Michael R. Geer BSE 
Mrs. Carolyn D. Gregory AB 
Mr. Raymond E. Johnson BS 
Mr. Robert J. Lottin. Sr. BSE 
Mr. James L. McJimpsey AB 
Mrs. Beverly J. McNeil] AB 

Mr. Sandy les Pearson AB 

Dr. William Clair Turner, Jr. BSE 


Mr. Lucien Angbo Angbo BSE 

Mrs. Clara H. Axam AB 

Mr. Tony L. Axam AB 

Mr. Malvin P. Barnes AB 

Dr. Marion L. Blount BSE 

Dr. Ernest L. Bonner, Jr. AB 

Mr. Leonard L. Brown. Jr. AB 

Ms. Thurletta M. Brown AB 

Mr. Isaac Byrd BS 

Dr. Sundar W. Fleming AB 

Mrs. Adrenee Glover Freeman AB 

Mrs. Donna A. Harris BSN 

Mr. William E. Hubbard BSEE 

Mr. Michael J. Leblanc AB 

Ms. Catherine W. LeBlanc AB 

Mr. Michael R. Mc Bride AB 

Dr. Carl I. Mitchell AB 

Mr. George O. Phillips AB 

Miss Alice L. Sharpe AB 

Mr. Larry W. Shelton AB 

Ms. Alexis A. Smith AB 

Mr. C. Ma.xie Templeton BS 

Mr. Donald N. Williams AB 


Miss Oludamilola A. Adegbie BSE 

Miss Pheon E. Beal AB 

Mr. Robert Brown, Jr. AB 

Mr. Vaughn C. Glapion AB 

Mrs. David L. Harris BSN 

Dr. Robert L. Hines AB 

Mrs. Doris L. Holhngsworth-Gray AB 

Dr. John L. Hudgins AB 
Ms. Cheryl W. James BS 
iMiss Alethia J. Johnson AB 
Mr. Harvey D. Linder AB 
Mrs. Harvey D. Linder BSN 
Mr. Gerald J. Moore BSE 
Dr. Clarence G. Newsome AB 
Mr. Walter I. Rogers AB 
Miss Cheryl P. Smith AB 
Ms. Linda S. Stevens AB 
Mr. Linwood E. Stevens, Sr. AB 
Mrs. Benjamin J. Stokes AB 
Mr. William C. Warner AB 
Ms. Daisy E. Weaver AB 
Dr. Sharon D. Whitehurst AB 
Dr. Doris Terry Williams AB 
Mrs. Fred J. Williams AB 
Dr. Myrna B. Williams AB 
Dr. Robert L. Williams AB 
Mr. Theodore R. Williams AB 
Mrs. Wilbert E. Williams AB 


Mr. Donnel Isadore Bell AB 
Mr. Nathaniel James Bethel BSE 
Ms. Anita Goodman Bradford AB 
Mr. William Francis Bultman III AB 
iMiss Sandra Rose Dorsey BS 
Mrs. Valeria Cole Edwards AB 
Mrs. Barbara Gaither-Shocklev AB 
Ms. Delphine Rollins Garside AB 
Ms. Eleanor J. Harrington-Austin AB 
Mr. James Robert High, Jr. AB 
Mrs. Veronica W. Long AB 
Mr. Waldo E. Martin, Jr. AB 
Mrs. Elizabeth T. McBride AB 

Appendix ty£> 79 

Mr. Wilbert L. Mickens AB 

Dr. Cassandra Felecia Newkirk AB 

Miss Belva Deloris Newsome AB 

Ms. Lynne P. Newsome AB 

Mrs. Gwendolyn S. Parker AB 

Mr. Charles Edward Staten AB 

Mr. Thomas Mickael Todd AB 

Dr. Lucia Antoinette Ward-Alexander AB 

Mr. Kenneth Lee Whitehurst AB 

The Honorable Fred J. Williams AB 

Mr. James Edward Williams, Jr. AB 


Miss Valerie Ann Bond AB 
Miss Clementine L. Bullock BSN 
Mr. Michael Anthony Cooke AB 
Dr. Gregory Hannibal Crisp BS 
Ms. Marian AJlayne De Bern' AB 
Mr. Marvin Dale Hursey AB 
Miss Sonya Annette Kirkwood AB 
Ms. Mary Louise McClinton AB 
Mr. Kenneth Bernard Rhinehart BS 
Dr. Carol Denise Spellen BS 
Miss Beverly Christine Starks AB 
Miss Sheila Marie Street AB 
Mr. Calvin Warren AB 
Miss Barbara Ann Westry AB 
Mrs. Patricia H. Wharton AB 
Mrs. Faith E. Whitehurst-Miller AB 


Airs. Shauna Singletary Alami AB 

Mr. Robert Eugene Bell AB 

Mrs. Deloryce P. Bright AB 

Ms. Linda Darnell Childs AB 

Mr. Ernest T. Clark, Jr. AB 

Mr. Reginald J. Clark AB 

Mr. Richard E. Coachman. Jr. AB 

Mr. Michael J. Cromartie BSE 

Mrs. Rachelle Laurice Dennis-Smith AB 

Dr. James M. Douglas, Jr. BS 

Dr. Stephanie Ballentine Ellerbe BS 

Dr. Carolyn A. Evans AB 

Mr. George E. Gadson AB 

Mr. Walter Thomas Geer, Jr. BSE 
Mrs. Darlene Mitchell Hoard BS 
Miss Linda Francenia Hooker BS 
Miss Sheila Alaria King AB 
Mrs. Brenda H. Lackey AB 
Mrs. Adeyinska Lawson BSE 
Miss Brenda L. Malloy AB 
Ms. Janice L Mathis AB 
Miss Jacqueline McKinney AB 
Miss Hermione B. McNair BSN 
Ms. Carmita Denise Moreland AB 
Ms. Kathy Elaine Pepper AB 
Ms. Ethei A. Piggee BS 
Mrs. Phylis Harris Ragland BSN 
Dr. Rueben N. Rivers AB 
Mr. Charles H. Shaw. Jr. BS 
Miss Bevelyn Gale Shernll AB 
Mr. Charles R. Sherwood, Jr. AB 
Alls. Gwendolvn R. Simmons AB 
Ms. Sheryl D- Willert AB 
Dr. Charles W. Williams. Jr. AB 
Als. Claudia A. Withers AB 


Aliss Leslie L. Atkinson AB 

Dr. Ezell S. Autrey BS 

Airs. Adrienne K. Barnhill AB 

Als. Angela P. Bowser AB 

Air. Joseph E. Bradshaw, Jr. AB 

Airs. Iris L. Branch AB 

Airs. Germaine F. Brewington AB 

Aliss Norma Al. Brown BSN 

Air. Lawrence Al. Campbell AB 

Airs. Barbara H. Collins AB 

Air. Laniel Alatthew Crawford AB 

Ms. Alaureen D. Cullins AB 

Als. Sandra A. Dockett BSN 

Ms. Alelea Epps AB 

Aliss Patricia D. Evans AB 

Rev. George St. A Ferguson, Sr. AB 

Air. Darnley Al. Forde, Jr. AB 

Lieutentant Debra Denise Gillespie BSN 

Als. Gloria J. Green AB 

Aliss June D. Green AB 

Dr. Sherry L. Hall BS 

Mr. Terry D. Harris AB 

Mr. Randolph B. Henderson, Jr. AB 

Air. Guilford R. Hill AB 

Air. Keith Alaurice Hill BS 

Mr. Willie A. Hodge III AB 

Aliss Sandra A. Jackson AB 

Airs. Brenda Washington Jahns AB 

Air. Leon Al. James AB 

Air. Timothy S. Johnson AB 

Ms. Deborah D. Kennedy AB 

Dr. Okafor Alang Lekwuwa AB 

Air. Lorenzo Alartinez AB 

Air. Oscar S. Mayers, Jr. BS 

Als. Audrey W. McCrarv AB 

Air. Curtis W. Aliller AB 

Air. John Kevin Aloore BS 

Gail N. Morgan AB 

Mr. Alichael R. Alorgan AB 

Air. George Isaac Aloses AB 

Airs. Donna Chatman Owens BS 

Aliss Stephanie G. Ramsev AB 

Als. Angelene Yvonne Reid AB 

Mrs. Angela Ducker Richardson AB 

Air. Clemon H. Richardson, Jr. AB 

Airs. Alarilyn Wise Roberts AB 

Aliss Vanessa L. Roberts AB 

Air. Donald Shaw AB 

Air. Troy Slade AB 

Air. Benjamin J. ' tokes AB 

Air. Donnie Ray Tuck AB 

Als. Renee Clarissa Wilder AB 

Als. Audrey AlcBath Wilson BSE 

Airs. Rhonda Reid Winston AB 


Als. Irvenia W. Allen AB 
Air. Gilbert R. Avers AB 
Air. Philippe Ayivor AB 
Air. Anthony V. Baker AB 
Air. D Alichael Bennett AB 
Airs. Trudie P. Bolles AB 
Als. Pamela D. Brown AB 
Air. Grover C. Burthev, Jr. AB 

80 <iSp LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Mrs. Valerie R. Calloway BS 

Ms. Winifred Y. Carson AB 

Mr. Anthony Sai-Yuen Chong BSK 

Ms. Loretta King Connor AB 

Dr. Armah Jamale Cooper AB 

Mr. Juan Maurice Corders AB 

Mr. Hairston Crews AB 

Mr. Ruiz M. Cristobal AB 

Ms. Kim Lori Davenport AB 

Mr. Lee Roy Davis AB 

Mr. Allan C. Delaine AB 

Ms. Wanda Bryant Douglas AB 

Mr. Charles Enyinnaya Ekeleme, Jr. BSE 

Mr. Wilbert J. Fletcher, Jr. AB 

Dr. Johnnie Ford AB 

Mr. Whitfield Gaston, Jr. AB 

Ms. Pamela Stanback Glean AB 

Mr. Arthur S. Gore AB 

Ms. Fredessa D. Hamilton AB 

Mr. William Henry Hannon AB 

Mr. George Alexander Harris AB 

Mr. Michael E. Harris BS 

Mr. Mitchell T. Harris BS 

Mr. William Otis Haston, Jr. AB 

Mr. Charles H. Hill, Jr. AB 

Mr. Bradford K. Holland. Jr. AB 

Miss Constance G. Hunter AB 

Miss Deborah C. Jenkins AB 

Mr. Kirk A. Johnson AB 

Mr. Reginald D. Jones AB 

Dr. Yollette Trigg Jones AB 

Ms. Kay Patrice Kindred AB 

Mr. George Anthony Long AB 

Miss Linda D. Lyons AB 

Miss Mary E. Mahoney AB 

Mrs. Carolyn Wimbly Martin AB 

Mr. Nathaniel Earl Martin AB 

Ms. Elzina Von McCants AB 

Mrs. Selena G. Miller AB 

Ms. Doryce E. Moore AB 

Ms. Karen B. Neale AB 

Mrs. Helena G. Nord AB 

Mrs. Vickie B. Ogunlade AB 

Dr. Barry D. Oliver BS 

Mr. James E. Pailin, Jr. AB 

Ms. Lorin Peri Palmer AB 
Mr. Philip J. Penn AB 
Ms. Cassandra Gayle Perry AB 
Mr. Joe C. Person AB 
Miss Vickie L. Price AB 
Mrs. Pamela J. Reis BSN 
Ms. Wanda Settles Faily Saleem AB 
Mr. Michael Lloyd Smith AB 
Ms. Robin E. Smith BS 
Mr. Arnett Wayne Strickland BS 
Mr. Daniel B. Taylor III AB 
Miss Wanda R. Tucker AB 
Mrs. Janis Huff Upshaw AB 
Mr. Lawrence V. Upshaw AB 
Miss Jacqueline L. Welch AB 
Mr. Reden R. Williams III AB 
Mr. Charles E. Williamson, Jr. AB 
'' Mrs. Portia T. Williamson AB 
Miss Sheila D. Witherspoon AB 
Mr. Charles R. Wright, Jr. AB 
Mr. Morrice Young AB 


Ms. Josie A. Alexander AB 

Ms. Laree Y. Allston AB 

Ms. Rachael E. Arrington AB 

Mrs. Felicia H. Baptiste AB 

Mr. Michael Barney AB 

Mrs. Jacqueline Davis Belton AB 

Mrs. Krista T. Benjamin AB 

Ms. Avis Toppin Bent AB 

Mr. Arnold R. Blakney AB 

Mr. Wilson Douglas Brame AB 

Dr. Kenneth M. Brantley BS 

Ms. Mildred McNair Brown AB 

Ms. Pamela A. Busby AB 

Mr. Douglas G. Byrd BSE 

Mrs. Christine Powell Cameron BS 

Mrs. Sharon Tapscott Campbell AB 

Mr. R. David Cobbs, Jr. AB 

Ms. Jacqueline L Coleman AB 

Ms. Lisa D. Cooper AB 

Ms. Stephanie H. Cox AB 

Dr. Lindsey E. Crumlin, Jr. BSE 

Dr. Georgette A. Dent BS 

Lieutentant Jacob Dixon III AB 
Dr. Samuel T. Dove AB 
Ms. Paula M. Ellison AB 
Ms. Beverly A Foster-Bailey AB 
Mr. Willard Otis Freeman AB 
Ms. Vinnetta Golphin-Wilkerson AB 
Mr. Jeffrey Edward Green AB 
Ms. Fern E. Gunn AB 
Ms. Sansa T. Hackney AB 
Ms. Marguerite Michele Hester AB 
Mr. Dawson Horn III AB 
Mr. Peter F. Hurst, Jr. AB 
Dr. Larry G. Johnson BS 
Ms. Phyllis P. Jones AB 
Mr. Robert A. Kusnetz BSE 
Mr. Donald Jerome Leverett BS 
Ms. Felicia Yvette Lewis AB 
Ms. Jewel Denise Logan AB 
Ms. Tamarah Virginia Malval BS 
Mr. Bruce Edwin Mattox AB 
Mrs. Sheila Thurmond Mayers AB 
Mr. James Lawrence Morse, Jr. AB 
Mr. George Anthony Neale AB 
Mrs. Beatrice J. Nealy AB 
Ms. Donna E Peterson BSE 
Dr. Alton W. Powell III BS 
Mrs. Teressa A. Richardson AB 
Ms. Sonya I. Ross BS 
Mr. Landry C. Smith III AB 
Ms. Frances Melvina Strickland AB 
Dr. Rosita M. Thomas AB 
Mrs. Marcia Brown Tyree AB 
Mr. Douglas Seige Wainer AB 
Mr. John E. Wiley AB 
Mr. Neil G. Williams AB 
Mr. Lonnie A. Wilson AB 
Ms. Rosemary E. Wilson AB 
. Ms. Desiree P. Worsley AB 
Ms. Addie Wright AB 
Dr. Gary R. Yates AB 


Dr. Gwendolyn D. Alexander AB 
Ms. Rhonda Karin Allen AB 
Mr. Fekadu Asrat BSE 




Mrs. Jessica S. Ayivor AB 

Ms. Valerie J. Barnwell BS 

Mr. Sylvanus Garnet Bent, Jr. BSE 

Mr. Brett Erik Chambers AB 

Mr. Earl Lee Cook AB 

Senor Miller Grant Cunningham AB 

Mrs. Ernest C. Davenport AB 

Mr. Ernest Clifford Davenport, Jr. BS 

Mr. Larry- Eugene Dobv. Jr. AB 

Mr. Robert Louis Durrah, Jr. AB 

Mr. Frank Edward Emory', Jr. AB 

Ms. Ivy Gail Exum AB 

Ms. Paula J. Frederick AB 

Ms. Sandra L. Frederick AB 

Ms. Carol Renae Geer AB 

Ms. Anne-Marie K. Gilfillian BSE 

Ms. Serenna Gillooly AB 

Ms. Andrea Denise Grant BS 

Ms. Lillian L. Gray AB 

Mrs. Jacqueline Armstrong Great AB 

Mrs. Karen M. Harris AB 

Als. Rosemary' Renita Harris AB 

Mrs. Theresa B. Harris AB 

A\s. Jocelyn E. Henderson BS 

Mr. Michael Miller Holyfield AB 

Air. Gregory A. Hudgins AB 

Ms. Angela T. Lan AB 

Airs. Zaiatantce J. Lipscomb AB 

Ms. Catherine Erlene Lyde AB 

Airs. Lisa Borders Alarbury AB 

Dr. Anita Louise Alartin BS 

Air. Derrick Banks Alashore AB 

Als. Brenda A. Alauss AB 

Mrs. Lynne J. Ale David AB 

Air. John Dexter AlcDonald, Sr. AB 

Air. Carl D. AlcGee AB 

Ms. Angela Smalley Aliller AB 

Air. Charles P. Alonroe AB 

Air. Harold Lawrence Alorrison, Jr. AB 

Air. Larry Odom AB 

Air. Ifendu N. Okpan AB 

Air. Stephen K. Okruw AB 

Mr. Jean Derek Penn AB 

Air. Dana Ernest Perry AB 

Airs. Darlene J. Porter AB 

Air. Karren O'Neal Rhem BS 

Als. Barbara Hobbs Rhodes BSN 

Dr. Clifford R. Seward BS 

Als. Lahoma Smith AB 

Dr. Duane Thomas Smoot BS 

Als. Sheila Ann Stamps BS 

Air. Louis Starks AB 

.Ms. Sigrid Al. Taylor AB 

Als. Charita H. Turner AB 

Air. Ronnie Turner AB 

Dr. Joseph William Weaver, Jr. AB 

Als. Tarlouh Alorgan Wiggins AB 


Als. Linda D. Alexander, Esq. AB 

Als. Stephanie Willette Banks AB 

Als. Karen Yolanda Bond- Louden AB 

Air. Marvin Lewis Brown AB 

Als. Stephanie Smith Brown AB 

Als. Daryl Alice Browne AB 

Dr. Deena L. Buford AB 

Als. Rhonda Eileen Butcher AB 

Aliss Felicia Alarie Cassels AB 

Air. Cyril Leon Caurthens AB 

Airs. Ten Delanie Dansbv AB 

Air. Eugene H. Dibble IV AB 

Air. Stanley Bertram Driskell AB 

Als. Karen Norma Dunn AB 

Als. Daphne Denise Duverney AB 

Als. Alillicent Delisa Few AB 

Air. Byron Lamont Godwin AB 

Dr. Paula G. Gomes AB 

Dr. Battiste Barnwell Grayson BS 

Als. Karyn Allison Greenfield BS 

Als. Kendra Yvette Hamilton AB 

Als. Sharon Alarie Henry AB 

Air. Richard Devois Hunter, Jr. BSE 

Ms. Tonka Hudson Irish AB 

Als. Jerma Ann Jackson AB 

Als. Deborah Francine Johnson AB 

Als. Joia Alishaaron Johnson AB 

Dr. Alfred Lewis Knox. Jr. BS 

Als. Gabrielle Dominique Lange AB 

Air. Warren Alarvin Lankford AB 

Air. Lyndon Derrick Lewis AB 

Ms. Joan R. AlcGlockton AB 

Air. William Howard AlcGlockton II AB 

Mr. Richard George Alurray AB 

Als. Debbie Cashaw Parks AB 

Als. Alary Olivia Polk BSE 

Dr. Felicity Araba Quansah BS 

Air. Gregory Wade Ramsey BSE 

Als. Tonyia Alarie Rawls AB 

Als. Stephanie R. Reevers AB 

Mr. Ronald Marcus Reid BSE 

Als. Joni H. Roach AB 

Airs. Cynthia Cooper Robinson AB 

Air. Bryan Sylvester Shepherd AB 

Air. Alark Jeffrey Smalls AB 

Als. Lucile Patricia Smith AB 

Als. Deena Annel Spaulding-Penn AB 

Als. Georgine Wanda Stewart AB 

Mr. Arthur Chester Stowe, Jr. BS 

Als. Valerie Anita Thompson AB 

Air. Robert Clifford Vowels, Jr. AB 

Als. Tina Alarie Waddell AB 

Dr. Cheryl Lynn Walker AB 

Air. Alarlon Lebrone Walker BS 

Air. Wilbert Washington II AB 

Air. David Alaurice Watson AB 

Mrs. Renita M. Williams AB 

Airs. Sharone F. Williams AB 

Als. Cheryl Edley Worford AB 


Als. Sharon President Alston AB 
Air. Wilton Dale Alston BSE 
Als. Vikki Al. S. Andrews AB 
Air. Eugene Lavon Banks, Jr. AB 
Als. Joan Theresa Barnes AB 
Air. Kenneth Royce Barrett AB 
Air. Stephen George Bond BSE 
Als. Alyrtle Catherine Buchanan AB 
Air. Eric Charles Bultman AB 
Mr. Larry Chisolm AB 
Air. Kristopher Allan Coombs BSE 
Als. Ramona Y. Curbeam BS 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

Ms. Joan Jennifer Dickerson BS 

Miss Alvita S. Eason AB 

Ms. Margaret Ekwutozia Edozien AB 

Dr. Percita Loren Ellis BSE 

Dr. Thomasena La Roya Ellison BSE 

Ms Angela Denise Green AB 

Mr. John David Harrell III AB 

Mr. Dyderd Alexander Harris BS 

Mr. Johnnie Ramseur Hemphill, Jr. AB 

Mrs. Anita Elev Hilson AB 

Dr. Keith Marshall Horton AB 

Mrs. Janice Land Hudson AB 

Als. Sandra Yvonne Jackson AB 

Mr. Anthony Steven Johnson BSE 

Ms. Fredenca Cadelle Johnson AB 

Dr. Larry Nathaniel Johnson BS 

Dr. Lvnt Bvron Johnson AB 

Mr. Michael Perrin Jones BSE 

Ms. Sandra Jo Jones BS 

Mr. Herschel Bernie Kenney BS 

Mr. Larry Rolando Linney AB 

Mr. Emanuel Alexander Lipscomb, Jr. AB 

Ms. Cornelia Aldrena Mabry AB 

Ms. Andrea Danelle Martin AB 

Dr. Carl Emery McCants BSE 

Mr. .Michael Andre AlcGlockton BSE 

Mr. Mark Adrian McNeil BSE 

Ms. Evdie Germaine Miller-Ellis AB 

Ms. Roseanne Moore BSN 

Als. Jan Lavonne Alurray AB 

Ms. Natalie Cassandra Nicholson BS 

Mrs. Cynthia B. Palmer AB 

Mrs. Cheryl Denise Pappy BSE 

Ms. Debbie Lavette Perry AB 

Air. James Frederick Pincham AB 

Ms. Anne Marie Powell AB 

Mrs. Phyllis Moore Razeeq AB 

Airs. Paula J. Saylor- Robinson BS 

Ms. Susan Dianne Simms AB 

Dr. Michael Anthony Smith AB 

Ms. Adrianne Patrice Strickland AB 

Air. Gary Bernard Strong AB 

Alajor Denise Sears Taylor AB 

Als. Nina Regina Tucker BS 

Air. William Morton White, Jr. AB 


Als. Jennifer Lauren Allen AB 

Als. Allvson-Jenine Anderson AB 

Captain Jeffrey Louis Artis AB 

Als. Angela Josette Battle BS 

Als. Sterhn Alonteil Benson AB 

Als. Joyce Willette Bowling BS 

Air. Charles Emanuel Bowser AB 

Air. Dwight Alexander Canada AB 

Air. Andre Paul Carey AB 

Ms. Donna Alaria Coleman BS 

Air. Keith Eugene Crenshaw AB 

Dr. Angela Faye Crisp BS 

Als. Rhonda Dee Cunningham AB 

Als. Kimberly Fawn Delaney AB 

Mr. Atta Panyin Derkyi AB 

Air. Atta Kakra Derkyi AB 

Airs. Valerie Al. Diamond AB 

Air. Bryan Keith Fair AB 

Als. Dawn Denise Frisby AB 

Air. Augustine Edward Garrett, Jr. BS 

Als. Cynthia Kay Glover AB 

Ms. Lisha W. Goins AB 

Air. Reginald Equilla Gordon AB 

Air. Elton Lewis Grant BS 

Air. Timothy Randolph Handy AB 

Air. Arthur Roy Henderson, Jr. AB 

Als. Kim Alatthews Henderson BS 

Als. Margaret Ann Henderson BS 

Air. Ralph Emerson Higgs AB 

Lieutentant Howard Chester Hill AB 

Als. Tera Wanda Hunter AB 

Dr. Paul Bishop Jenkins BS 

Air. Jeffrey Wayne Johnson AB 

Air. Cedric Decorrus Jones AB 

Air. Drew Stevens Jones AB 

Airs. Alelanie Davis Jones AB 

Als. Camilla Chloe Lawson AB 

Als. Ava Elaine Lias-Booker AB 

Airs. Angela R. Lucas BS 

Mrs. Cheryl J. Lynch AB 

Air. O'Laf Sorento Alassenburg AB 

Als. Rosa Lee AlcDougal BSN 

Mr. James Eric Alclver AB 

Als. Lori A. Miller BS 

Air. Robert Edward Alobley, Jr. AB 

Air. Carroll Edward Alorris, Jr. BSE 

Air. Lionel William Neptune BSE 

Air. Ellis Paul Nunery AB 

Mr. Melvin O. Parker AB 

Als. Stephanie Lynne Pinder BS 

Air. Marvin Lloyd Shelton BS 

Als. Kim Alane Smith BS 

Air. David Allen Snow AB 

Dr. Laddeus Leon Sutton BSE 

Dr. Thaddeus Geron Sutton BSE 

Air. Dennis Rav Tabron AB 

Air. Vincent Caldwell Taylor AB 

Air. Terrence Alan Thomas AB 

Airs. Royce A. Warrick AB 

Air. Thomas H. Watkins. Jr. AB 

Dr. Spurgeon Willard Webber III AB 

Air. Darryl Lawrence Webster AB 

Als. Vanessa Louise Whiting AB 

Captain Calvin Thomas Wilson II BSE 

Als. Cynthia Ruth Wood AB 

Als. Denise Wooldndge BS 

Als. Deserene Holloway Worsley BS 

Air. James David Yorker, Jr. AB 


Ms. Suzette Armstrong AB 

Mrs. EmmaLee S. Battle AB 

Air. Joseph Andrew Battle BS 

Mrs. Sonya K. Belliford AB 

Als. Anna Elizabeth Blackburne AB 

Mr. Gary Alan Brown AB 

Airs. Alarsha Fullard Carr AB 

Mr. Alarquette Chester AB 

Air. Brent Overton Edgar Clinkscale AB 

Ms. Leslie Carol Cohen AB 

Air. Julian Abele Cook III AB 

Air. Charles Lorenza Curry, Jr. AB 

Air. Leon Entea Dantzler, Jr. BS 

Air. Donnovan George Dunklev AB 

Dr. Jacquelyn Dunmore-Griffith BS 

Air. Alark Alitchell Epperson AB 

Air. Dallas Foster, Jr. BSE 

Ms. Deidra Gilliard AB 

Als. Sharon Eva Grambv AB 


<ft 83 

Mr. Isaac Hughes Green AB 

Ms. Angelia Willette Heughan BSE 

Ms. Rinelda Maraikia Horton BS 

Ms. Terrilyn Renee Howell AB 

Mrs. Hamida Jackson-Little AB 

Ms. Patricia Doreen Jacocks AB 

Ms. Sheila Doreen Jamison AB 

Ms. Terry- Alarie Johnson BSE 

Dr. Mark McClellan Jones BS 

Mr. Sam Henry Jones, Jr. AB 

Mr. Kenneth Winstead Lewis AB 

Mr. Stanley Yvon Little BSE 

Mr. Edward Lockard AB 

Ms. Karol Page Mack AB 

Ms. Sheila Francine Maith AB 

Ms. Teresa Ann Miller AB 

Ms. Beverly Norwood AB 

Mr. Eric John Parham AB 

Ms. Dorette Ann Robinson AB 

Mr. James Robinson BS 

Ms. Rita Narcissa Sanders BS 

Ms. Michelle Harriet Smith AB 

Mr. Vergil J. Smith AB 

Mr. George Irving Spnggs, Jr. AB 

Mrs. Sylvia Karen Suitt BSN 

Ms. Gena Elyse Taylor BS 

Mrs. Donna Gunter Thomas AB 

Ms. Lynelle Eveleen Thomas BS 

Mr. Glenn Earl Tillery AB 

Mr. Emmett Tilley III AB 

Mr. George Russell Walker, Jr. AB 

Ms. Margo Lewis Walker AB 

Mrs. Wendy Diana Knight Walker AB 

Mr. Michael Anthony Watson AB 

Mr. Troy Kelly Weaver AB 

Mr. Edward Leon White, Jr. AB 

Ms. Paula Jean Young AB 

Mrs. Kathryn Woodbury Zeno AB 

Mr. Randy Rodell Zeno AB 


Ms. Sheila Anderson AB 

Ms. Maria Juhanna Auzenne AB 

Mr. Michael Ball AB 

Dr. Monica H. Barrett BS 

Mr. Derrick Jerome Beech AB 

Mr. Christopher Avery Ben|amin AB 

Ms. Carolyn Boatwright AB 

Mrs. Melissa Ann Boone AB 

Ms. Tracy Natasha Bowens AB 

Mr. David Lawrence Bowser AB 

Ms. Monica Lynn Breckenridge AB 

Dr. Colette Karen Brown-Graham BS 

Mrs. Pinetta Jan Bruce-Brookes BSME 

Mr. Amankwah Buansi AB 

Als. Marquita Monique Carter AB 

Ms. Valarie Cheri Clayborn AB 

Ms. Devonda B. Cobb AB 

Mr. William Edro Cook, Jr. AB 

Mr. Willie Otis Dixon IV AB 

Mr. C. Richard Elam AB 

Mr. Michael Conrad Flood AB 

Mrs. Katrenia Denise Gallashaw-Mack AB 

Mr. Robert Evans Harrington AB 

Air. William Lucious Hawkins AB 

Ms. Wyounda Veronica Haynes AB 

Dr. Kimberly Michelle Humphrey AB 

Mr. Norman Archer Hunte AB 

Ms. Jocelyn Janine Hunter AB 

Mr. J. Richard Leaman III AB 

Mrs. Portia Elaine Lemons BS 

Mr. Thomas Gene Lighttoot BS 

Mr. John Alexander Long AB 

Mr. Reginald Otto Lyon AB 

Mr. Kenneth Aaron Mack AB 

Ms. Tarshia Angelita McGlockton AB 

Mr. Douglas Eric McNeely AB 

Mrs. Lori Marie McNeely BS 

Mrs. Beatrice Denise Mingo AB 

Mr. Reginald Keith Moore BSE 

Ms. Carol Betina Morris AB 

Ms. Cheryl Angela Perry AB 

Mr. Dwayne Adams Pierce AB 

Mr. Ronald Orlando Sally AB 

Mr. Lansing Charles Scriven AB 

Ms. Mary- Stenson Scriven AB 

Mrs. Love Lannette Sechrest BS 

Ms. Saba Shibberu BSE 

Ms. Cheryl Denise Smith AB 

Mr. David Roland Smith BSE 

Dr. Karen Linnear Smith BS 

Ms. Monica Renee Smith BS 

Mrs. Debra Moses Stephens AB 

Dr. Emmett Fitzgerald Steward BS 

Mr. Bruce James Sumlin AB 

Ms. Robin Odette Surratt AB 

Ms. Alonica Olivia Thompkins AB 

Airs. Valoria Cheek Thompson AB 

Ms. Yvette Walker AB 

Air. Fred Douglas McLinton Whitted AB 

Ms. Lori Jones Whitted AB 

Ms. Darlene Denise Wiggins AB 

Als. Loraine Regina Wiggs AB 

Air. David Wayne Williams BS 

Als. Dorothy Jean Wilson AB 

Air. Gary Josiah Wright BS 


Airs. Elaine E. Alderman AB 

Mr. Ralph Warren Alderman, Jr. AB 

Air. Alichael Decorris Atkinson AB 

Air. Lester Bernard Bass AB 

Air. Justin Francis Beckett AB 

Ms. La Shaun Rene Bellamy BS 

Air. Gregory Blackwell AB 

Ms. Gwendolyn Ann Blount AB 

Als. Bonita Pearl Boulware AB 

Air. John Alarshall Branion III AB 

Airs. Nadina Renee Chapman AB 

Airs. Ursula Yvette Chesney-Graham AB 

Als. Angela Renee Crowley AB 

Airs. Elaine B. Curry BS 

Air. Kevin Allen Dorsey BSE 

Als. Jerri Ulrica Dunston AB 

Ms. Tracy Lynette Durrah AB 

Air. Derek Alikoyan Eily AB 

Air. Alark Eugene Fowler AB 

Air. Bobby Alaurice Glover AB 

Airs. Pamela Al. Green AB 

Air. Darryl Royce Gwyn BSE 

Als. Ingrid Joyce Hall BS 

Als. Alaria Catherine Harris AB 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Ms. Jacquelyn Michelle Hatch BSE 

Mr. Johnny Antonio Hill BS 

Mr. Spurgeon Roosevelt James, Jr. AB 

Mrs. Marilyn S. Jamison AB 

Mr. Kevin Kugene Jones BSE 

Dr. Lavern Jones BS 

Ms. Alicia Lynnette Latimore BS 

Ms. Shirley Anne Lawson AB 

Mrs. Holly Angela Lewis BS 

Ms. Yolanda Regina Lyons AB 

Mrs. Kathy McKenzie-Mitiku AB 

Mrs. Ernestine Hobbs Mitchell BS 

Ms. Tracey Suzanne Mitchell AB 

Mr. Maurice Frederick Parks BS 

Mr. Anthony Caryl Peebles AB 

Mr. Thomas Reaves AB 

Ms. Rebecca Jean Riley BSE 

Mr. Stoney Allen Scales AB 

Mrs. Songhi Ngala-El Scott BS 

Ms. Mary Frances Sheppard AB 

Mr. Allen Hayes Sullivan AB 

Dr. Jerry Jurgen Taylor AB 

Ms. Ramona L. Taylor AB 

Mr. Anthony Michael Torrence AB 

Ms. Elfreda Olivia Vandiver AB 

Mr. Leslie Tod Van Eyken AB 

Ms. Melvia Lynn Wallace BS 

Dr. Claudia Phennis Weaver AB 

Mr. Jeffrey Kent Wicker AB 

Ms. Tracy Montez Williams AB 


Mrs. Donna Marie Abatte BSE 

Mr. Thomas Charles Adams III AB 

Mr. Reginald Donzell Andrews AB 

Ms. Mary Elizabeth Baker BS 

Mrs. Patricia Anne Baker-Simon AB 

Mr. Michael Jesse Battle AB 

Mrs. Helen F. Borten AB 

Ms. Beatrice Yvette Brewington AB 

Ms. Jacqueline Elaine Brown BSE 

Mr. Lafayette Mario Brown AB 

Ms. Terre Michele Brown AB 

Mr. David Allen Cantrell BS 

Mr. Rodney Matand Carroll AB 

Ms. Madelyn Adams Cobb AB 

Mr. Vincent Fitzgerald Crump BS 

Mr. Johnny Earl Dawkins, Jr. AB 

Mrs. Janine W. Dixon BS 

Mrs. Susan M. Dorsey AB 

Dr. Kiara Sunone Eily AB 

Ms. Denise Michelle Forte BS 

Ms. Cynthia Denise Fryer AB 

Mr. Sedrick Wayne Gardner AB 

Ms. Arlvse Louise Gaston AB 

Ms. Lisa Adrienne Gladden AB 

Ms. Darlene Hayes AB 

Mr. David McKinley Henderson AB 

Ms. Carole Joan Henry AB 

Dr. Charles Leon Herring, Jr. BS 

Ms. Sonja Michelle Hines AB 

Mr. Darryl Elliot Jackson BS 

Dr. Cynthia Loretta Jones BS 

Dr. Kathy Yolande Jones AB 

Mrs. Monica Scott Juniel AB 

Ms. Michele Leigh Knox BS 

Ms. Sheon Lorraine Ladson AB 

Ms. Charylene Lynne Ledbetter BS 

Dr. Allan Andrew Lewis BS 

Ms. Anita Cautia Arlene Martin AB 

Ms. Kimberly Janine McLarin AB 

Mr. Richard Bernard Moore II AB 

Ms. Susan Abigail Moore AB 

Ms. Karen Yvette Morris AB 

Mr. Kenneth Alonzo Murphy AB 

Ms. Tanya M. Oubre AB 

Mr. Roderick Keith Parker AB 

Dr. Michael Lloyd Parks AB 

Mr. Thornton Fitzgerald Prayer BSE 

Mr. Llevelyn Darryl Rhone BSE 

Mrs. Sandi Haynes Robertson AB 

Mr. Steven Bailey Royster BSE 

Mr. Mark Anthony Rushin AB 

Ms. Kimmerly Ann Scott BSE 

Ms. Kimberly Reenee Shelton AB 

Ms. Karen Patrice Simmons AB 

Ms. Paula Una Simon AB 

Ms. Shelly Trinette Smith AB 

Ms. Deirdre Stanley-Christopher AB 

Mr. Max Kenilworth Stokes BS 

Mr. Alfred Stovall, Jr. AB 

Mr. Peter Sebastian Stubbs AB 

Dr. Hemella Lydia Sweatt BS 

Ms. Linda Michele Tatten AB 

Mrs. Tamara L. Taylor AB 

Dr. Douglas Emanuel Thompson BS 

Mr. Marion Dennis Thorpe, Jr. BS 

Mr. Edward Allison Turner AB 

Mr. David Wyman Walker BS 

Mr. George Windell Ward BSE 

Mrs. Iris Theresa Warren-Edmond BS 

Mr. Yelberton Romeo Watkins BS 

Mr. Richard Reese White BSE 

Mr. Gary Norman Wilcox AB 

Mr. Neil Harold Wilcox AB 

Mrs. Shelly B. Williams BSE 

Mr. Weldon Herschel Williams II BSE 

Ms. Charity Suzette Wood BS 

Lieut. (JG) Howard Edward Woods BSE 


Ms. Denise Hazel Ann Allen BSE 

Mr. Harold Tommy Amaker AB 

Dr. Tedra Louise Anderson-Brown BS 

Todra Anderson-Lewis BS 

Mr. Damon Barnes, Jr. AB 

Ms. Lois Averil Brown AB 

Dr. Sheila Elaine Brown AB 

Mr. Aaron Eugene Bryant AB 

Mr. Michael Arthur Buckmire BS 

Ms. Carin Astrid Burgess AB 

Ms. Patricia Elaine Campbell BSE 

Mrs. Shena Linette Chambers AB 

Ms. Angela Marie Claybrooks AB 

Ms. Jennifer Bancroft DaSilva AB 

Ms. Jilhan Graham Evans AB 

Ms. Lisa Kay Frederick AB 

Mr. Chester Arthur Gee, Jr. AB 

Mr. Julius Coley Grantham, Jr. AB 

Mr. Clifton Douglas Green AB 

Ms. Kimberly Karol Lynne Greene AB 

Mr. Everett Lowell Harper BSE 

Appendix (f^ 


.Ms. Kimberly Ann Hunter AB 

Ms. Donna Lynn Jackson AB 

Air. David Winston James AB 

Mr. Thomas William Johnson AB 

Mr. Gregory Kennedy Jones BS 

Mr. Anthony Maurice Kellev AB 

Ms. Stacv Denise Kennedy BS 

Mr. Adrian Christopher Lawrence BS 

Mr. Peter Roscoe Lewter, Jr. BS 

Ms. Monica Lynne Mapp AB 

Ms. Gevelyn Romett AlcCaskill AB 

Ms. Dawn Fave Arnngton McClendon AB 

Ms. Leah Camille McCollough AB 

Ms. Faith Miller-Sethi AB 

Mr. Mark Randall Parson AB 

Dr. Anja Altheria Patton AB 

Ms. Yestima Aladonna Polk AB 

Ms. Monica Caroline Reid AB 

Mr. Scott Robert Royster AB 

Dr. Nancy Alicia Sanders BS 

Lieut. Richard Anthony M. Saxton AB 

Mr. Reuben Gabriel Schooler BSE 

Theresa LaYonne Shannon BS 

Mr. David Allan Singleton AB 

Mr. Tracy Allen Smith AB 

.Mrs. Vanessa W. Sowell AB 

Dr. Stephanie Renee Stephens BS 

Mr. Brian Christopher Steward AB 

Mr. Nicholas David Thompson BS 

Mr. Tyrone Void AB 

A\s. .Monica Lauren Wallace AB 

Mrs. Bernadette B. Ward AB 

Ms. Jacqueline Renee Willis AB 

Ms. Tara Norma Woolfolk AB 

Mrs. Sharon Wright Yarborough BS 


Ms. Jennifer Susan Adair AB 
Ms. Robin Cokine Anthonv AB 
Dr. Sonya Rae Arnold BS 
Ms. Charlotte Faith Brown BSE 
Ms. Angela Teress Bullard AB 
Mr. William Henry Carr BS 
Mr. Michael Aaron Conway AB 
Ms. Susan Annette Cook AB 

Ms. Simone Monique Cutts AB 

Mr. Nicholas Hilary- Forde AB 

Ms. Tari Sylvia Gay AB 

Mr. Reginald Gowdy AB 

Mr. Maurice Oliver Green AB 

Ms. Karen Teal Greene BS 

Mr. Amheric Miguel Hall AB 

Mr. John Ceah Hardwick. Jr. AB 

Dr. Kim M. Hoeldtke BS 

Ms. Anndreeze Vermelle Hudson AB 

Mr. Bilk- Matthew King AB 

Mr. Stanley George Laborde AB 

Mr. Terrence Sedric Laster AB 

Mr. Whittaker Mack 111 AB 

Ms. Valdasia Shirley Merrick AB 

Mr. Robert Stanley Monk. Jr. AB 

Ms. Karen Yvette Alorrison BSE 

Mr. Jason Monroe Murray AB 

Ms. Angelia Portia Nails AB 

Mr. Ralph S. Parker AB 

Mr. Christopher David Payne AB 

Ms. Kirstie Donnvelle Phillips AB 

Ms. Olivia Raetta Phillips AB 

Mr. Derrick Allen Polk AB 

Air. Grover Glenn Roque-Jackson IV AB 

Dr. Yernice Royal AB 

Ms. Deyv Patterson Russell AB 

Mr. Eric Aurelius Sanders AB 

Mr. Jeffrey Kyle Sands AB 

Mrs. Rom Lauren Seabrook-Iciano AB 

Mr. Marcus Yong Smith AB 

Mr. Brant Eric Stephens AB 

Mr. Kevin Yictor Strickland AB 

Mr. Dewayne Keith Terry AB 

Mr. George Eglington Thomas. Jr. AB 

Mrs. Enid Allyn Patterson Wade AB 

Ms. Kecia Patrease Walker BSE 

Mr. Steven Lamar Walker BSE 

Ms. Deatrice Valencia Williams BS 


Ms. Jeryl Yvonne Anderson AB 
Mr. Craig Giovanni Bodden BS 
Mr. Gregory Joel Boone AB 
Ms. Joyce Martin Bravbov AB 

Ms. Tanita Bright AB 

Ms. Leslie Larissa Bronner BS 

Air. Kevin Anderson Brooks BSE 

Mr. Stephen Lloyd Buckles' AB 

Als. Sharon Renee Burke AB 

Ms. Raelysha Kymberli Butler AB 

Air. Emeron Joe Cash, Jr. AB 

Air. Allan Charles Cave, Jr. AB 

Air. Wayne Barry Charles AB 

Als. Tracey Alichelle Christopher AB 

Ms. Portia Yvette Clare AB 

Air. Arthur Francis Clarke. Jr. AB 

Ms. Audra Denise Colclough AB 

Mrs. Deborah Jones Conway AB 

Air. David Christopher Cousins AB 

Air. Alarc Andre Crayton AB 

Air. Alarc Eugene Curry AB 

Mr. Faris Carnell Dixon, Jr. AB 

Als. Lori Aretta Dumas AB 

Mr. George Emanuel Edwards II AB 

Air. Alichael David Fincher AB 

Als. Sherrie Ann Finney AB 

Air. Carl Anthony Foster II AB 

Air. Christopher Franklin Foster AB 

Als. Candice Lynette Frederick AB 

Als. Alartina Alonique Gams- Bingham AB 

Als. Gayle Denise George AB 

Als. Shawne Linnette Golson AB 

Als. Stephanie Bryan Green AB 

Air. Troy Lee Grigsby, Jr. AB 

Airs. Titra Gainey Hamilton AB 

Mr. Titus Phillip Heagins AB 

Ms. Helen Sybil Henry BS 

Als. Alarkeeta Elizabeth Hicks BS 

Als. Veronica Renee Hill AB 

Air. Eugene Clarkston Hines III AB 

Als. Keshia Renene Holmes AB 

Als. Tracey Lynne Irvin BSE 

Als. Sharvette Lathronia Jennings AB 

Als. Donna Denyse Johnson BS 

Als. Karen Lanise Jones AB 

Als. Emett Ornelia AlcCaskill AB 

Airs. Alaxine S. AlcCravy AB 

Air. John Olden McDonald. Jr. AB 

Als. Kathy Nicole Aleadows AB 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Mr. Kevin .Morgan Mitchell AB 

Ms. Sonva Denise Newman AB 

Ms. Erika Janetta Norman AB 

Ms. Monica Jane Oliver AB 

Ms. Pamela Alison Pickens AB 

Mr. EKvayne Adams Pierce AB 

Ms. Paula Lynn Puryear AB 

Ms. Kim Astrid Reid AB 

Mr. John Gregory Rhett AB 

Mr. Ali Salim AB 

Mr. Brian EKvin Seward AB 

Mr. Bryan Hughes Simms AB 

Mr. John Franklin Smith, Jr. AB 

Ms. Kimberly Anne Snead AB 

Ms. Emmanuella Souffrant AB 

Ms. Racquel Agnes Stewart AB 

Ms. Rochelle Ann Stewart BS 

Mr. Brandy Marlow Thomas BSE 

Ms. Tiffany Michelle Thomas-Smith AB 

Ms. Yolanda Vanessa Van Horn BS 

Mr. Clifford White AB 


Mr. Gordon Brian Anderson BS 
.Ms. Jada Bertina Anderson AB 
.Mr. Jonathan Baldwin AB 
Mr. Roger Bradley Boone AB 
Mrs. Aileen Marie Tully Bost AB 
Mr. Harold William Bost II AB 
Dr. Ryan Anthony Brown BS 
Mr. Gerald Anthony Cephas BSE 
Ms. Pascale Chariot AB 
.Ms. Claudia Rosama Clark AB 
Ms. Debra Kay Coleman BSE 
Mr. Madison Keith Daniel AB 
Mr. Rodney Dickerson AB 
Mr. William Ronald Divers. Jr. BS 
Ms. Mechelle Renee Evans AB 
Ms. Wanda Gail Ferguson AB 
Ms. Stacey Arlene Garrett AB 
Ms. Avril R. Greene AB 
Ms. Karen Lovette Hale AB 
Mr. Vincent Fitzgerald Harris AB 
Ms. Joycelyn Lorraine Harrison AB 

Mr. Phillip Terry Henderson AB 

Mr. Winston Elliot Henderson BSE 

Ms. Tamara Annette Howard BS 

Mr. John Douglas Howell AB 

Dr. Jenniler Lynn Hunter BS 

Mr. Don Kevin Johnson AB 

Ms. Adne Dione Jones BS 

Ms. Antonia Louise Jones AB 

Ms. Cassandra Arlene Jones BSE 

Ms. Paula Alexandra Knox AB 

Ms. Shelley Ann Legall AB 

Mrs. Angelica Davis Lilly BSE 

Ms. Sherri Dionne Lyons AB 

.Ms. Jennifer Woodard Mack BS 

Mr. Keith Anthony McAdoo AB 

Mr. Carl William McCalla III AB 

Ms. Camille Allison McFarlane AB 

Mr. Craig Arthur McKinney AB 

Ms. Leslie Carroll Meyers BS 

Mr. Bradley Allen Mobley AB 

Mr. Samuel Dewey Moon. Jr. AB 

Ms. Dawn Colette Murphy AB 

Ms. Lori Michelle Murphy AB 

Ms. Sharon Rena Pittman AB 

Mr. Carmichael Shannon Roberts. Jr. BS 

Mr. Bennie C. Rogers III AB 

Ms. Marsha Lynn Rucker AB 

Mr. Randall Hilary- Sally AB 

Mr. Christian Michael Sidney AB 

Ms. Sharon Angela Skyers AB 

Mr. Darryl Eugene Smith AB 

Ms. Koyne Denee Smith. Esq. AB 

Ms. Sonja Rochelle Spell BS 

Mr. Michael David Summey AB 

Ms. Marcheta Yvette Tabron AB 

.Ms. Kann Diana Thompson AB 

Ms. Ranjini Ann Vernugopal BS 

.Ms. Angela Evette Weaver AB 

Ms. Karen Michon Weaver AB 

Ms. Sheila Kenyatta White AB 

Ms. Angela Marcene Williams AB 

Mr. Arthur Lee Williams II AB 

Mr. Fonda Portis Williams II AB 

Mr. Rodney O'Neal Williams BS 

Mr. Robert Vernon Wilson II AB 
Ms. Hope Elizabeth Wright AB 
Mr. Conrad Kamal Ziyad AB 


Mr. Gerry Rever Adams BS 

Mr. Elliard Preston Anderson AB 

Ms. Tonya Lynn Anthony AB 

Ms. Tamara Wenda Ashl'ord AB 

Ms. Michelle Andrina Beaty AB 

Ms. Michelle Angelene Benjamin AB 

Mr. Curtis Lee Bowe III AB 

Ms. Sherri Annette Braden AB 

Mrs. Kimberly Dowell Broadnax AB 

Mr. Lewis .Marvin Broadnax III AB 

Mr. Derrick Carl Brown AB 

Ms. Melanie Ladonna Brown BSE 

Dr. Dieter Bruno BS 

Mrs. Licia Michelle Calloway AB 

Mr. Lawrence Edward Cameron BSE 

Mr. Darryl Connie Clements, Jr. AB 

iMs. Salome Nicole Cockern AB 

.Mr. William Maurice Cowan AB 

Mr. Eric Leon Creer AB 

Ms. Chanty Denise Davis AB 

Mr. Theodore Curtis M.Edwards II AB 

Mr. Kedrick Nicarlo Eily AB 

Mr. Christopher Thomas Partington AB 

Ms. Latanya Michelle Ferrell BS 

Ms. Carmen Angela Foster AB 

Ms. Carol Minnette Gibbs BS 

Ms. Eugenia Gayle Goggins AB 

Mr. William Christopher Golden BS 

Mr. Christopher Bryan Greene AB 

Ms. Vanessa Grubbs AB 

Ms. Kayla Miche Hamilton AB 

Ms. Racquel Lafaye Harris AB 

.Mr. Rodney Jerome Hooks AB 

Ms. Sonja Lynn Hoskins BSE 

Ms. Carla Michelle Huff BSE 

Air. James Otis Humphrey, Jr. BSE 

Mr. Herman Nathaniel Johnson, Jr. AB 

Ms. Arnice Neticia Jones AB 

Mr. David William Jones BS 

Appendix <^ 87 

Als. Melissa Rebecca Kemp AB 

Mr. Joseph Arthur Kennedy AB 

Mr. Oscar Holder King, Jr. AB 

Ms. Phyllis Yvette Lewis AB 

Mr. Timothy Marshall Mank AB 

Ms. Teresa Janel Marshall AB 

Ms. Traci Lynette Maye AB 

Mr. Marc Edward Mays AB 

Mr. Brian Garland McAdoo BS 

Ms. Kimberly Joy McMillon AB 

Mr. Ronald Louis Merrick, Jr. AB 

Ms. Linell Cristina Murphy AB 

Mr. Paul Antoin Nunnally AB 

Ms. Catrell Alonique Owens BS 

Ms. Monica Lynn Parker AB 

Ms. Wyndee Riel Parker AB 

Mr. Dexter Vincent Perry AB 

Mr. Charles Aionzo Peters, Jr. BS 

Ms. Jennifer Lynn Pettie AB 

Mr. Erwin Julius Sampson AB 

Mr. Nathaniel Silverthorne, Jr. AB 

Ms. Melanie Regina Stafford BS 

Ms. Tarshia Lorraine Stanley AB 

Ms. Karen Strater BS 

Ms. Sharon Strater BS 

Mrs. Roseyn I. Swann AB 

Mr. Jeffrey Walter Taliaferro AB 

Ms. Traci Elizabeth Teasley AB 

Ms. Buffy Rebekah-Beth Turner AB 

Ms. Pamela Gale Vick AB 

Mr. J. Gilbert Fields Williams III AB 

Mr. Jeremy Demetri Williams AB 

Mr. Marc Julian Williams AB 

Ms. Tara Lynne Williams AB 


Mr. Calvin Wade Allen AB 

Ms. Alriye Rochelle Amerson AB 

Ms. Martine Natasha Apollon AB 

Ms. Marilynn Barcus AB 

Ms. Cecilia Suzette Barnes AB 

Als. Shanna Jeanine Batten AB 

Ms. Meesha Monise Bond BSE 

Ms. Cinnamon Danielle Bradlev AB 

Ms. Carol Necole Brown AB 
Mr. Christopher Edwin Brown AB 
Ms. Melissa Ilene Brown AB 
Mr. Eric Lee Bryant AB 
Ms. Tracy Lynn Carter BS 
Ms. Judith Fae Chambers AB 
Mr. Eddie Terrence Chavis BSE 
Ms. Tamla-Mae Carmen Clarke BS 
Air. Milton Antrosdeo Coleman BSE 
Ms. Rhonda Elizabeth Collins AB 
Ms. Lucy Christina Cruell AB 
Mr. James Ray Daniels, Jr. BS 
Mr. Brian Keith Davis AB 
Ms. Angela Nicole Delowell-Smith 
Mrs. Elizabeth Smith Deu AB 
Mr. Hassan Abdel Dhouti AB 
Mr. Eric Tyrone Dozier AB 
Mr. Marcus Edward Dyer AB 
Ms. Ursula Monique Edmond BSE 
Mr. Christopher Keith Ewell AB 
Mr. David Conrad Forde AB 
Ms. Alayna A. Gaines AB 
Ms. Erin Leslie Gibson AB 
Ms. Traci Nicole Giles BS 
Ms. Alaisha Timiza Gilyard BSE 
Air. Hamlet Darius Goore AB 
Als. Heather Alonique Grant BS 
Ms. Alarie Christina Grant AB 
Ms. Karen Alarie Green AB 
Als. Vimla Elizabeth Gupta AB 
Air. Garfield Winston Hamilton BSE 
Als. Angela Denise Harris AB 
Air. Timothy Derrick Heggans AB 
Als. Kristin Nicole Henning AB 
Air. Alichael Joseph Hester AB 
Air. Anthony Keith Hovington AB 
Als. Candace Yolande Howell BS 
Ms. Regina Nachael Howell AB 
Ms. Kristi Aletheia Hubbard BS 
Als. Brittany Caroline James AB 
Als. Aynesh Louise Johnson AB 
Air. Deollo Jorrv Johnson BSE 
Air. Alichael Lebron Jones, Jr. AB 
Air. Randal Cory Jones BSE 

Als. Tamara Raquel Jones AB 
Air. Walter Linwood Jones III AB 
Als. Shanita Gene Lawrence AB 
Air. Jarvis Tremain Lowndes BSE 
Ms. Alalkia Kokuyamba Lydia AB 
Ms. Valecia Denise Maclin BSE 
Mr. Ouinton Antione AlcCracken AB 
Als. Pamela Yvette AlcFarland AB 
Als. Ton! Terese Aliranda AB 
Air. Lance Sterling Alitchell AB 
Air. David Evans Uriel Morris AB 
Ms. LeNelle Maudine Alozell AB 
Als. Theresa Ann Alyers AB 
AB Als. Alarie Elizabeth Nelson AB 

Als. Stephanie Andrea Nevels AB 
Ms. Robyn Katy Pretlow AB 
Ms. Tamara Denise Prince AB 
Ms. Tonya Terrell Robinson AB 
Als. Angel Lee Roddy AB 
Air. Kenneth Christopher Sands BS 
Mr. M. William Sermons BSE 
Mrs. Valdar Vanora Serrant-Coryat AB 
Ms. Stephanie Denise Sims BS 
Ms. Marietta Sangai Sirleaf AB 
Ms. Maria Alice Smith AB 
Air. Wyatt Lee Smith AB 
Als. Jeanine Annette Southerland BS 
Ms. Carla June Spann BSE 
Ms. Patricia Staco AB 
Als. Cynthia Elaine Staples AB 
Air. Kelly Stroud, Jr. BSE 
Ms. Phyllisina La Alia Vinson AB 
Ms. Naomi Aleta Walker AB 
Als. Sharon Lorraine Washington BSE 
Ms. Angela Yvette Watkins BSE 
Als. Kimberly C. West AB 
Ms. Karyn Nicole Wheat AB 
Air. Wendell Curtis White AB 
Mr. Mark Bernard Williams BSE 
Ms. Wendi Renee Williams AB 
Ms. Dawn Alarie Woolfolk AB 

88 <$$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

1993 Ms. 

Ms. Lonia Faith Abbott BSE Ms. 

Ms. Elspeth Naa Adjeley Ablorh BS Mr. 

Ms. Melanee Alise Alexander AB Ms. 

Ms. Angela De Neece Alsobrooks AB Ms. 

Mr. Kevin Lamont Alston AB Mr. 

Ms. Karen Denise Baker AB Mr. 

Ms. Andrea Lynn Boyd BS Ms. 

Ms. Sonia Michele Braithwaite BS Mr. 

Ms. Yolanda Teresa Brown AB Mrs 

Mr. Jose David Clay-Flores AB Ms. 

Ms. Tamara Evetta Malia Cleveland BSE Ms. 

Ms. Erica Darletta Cofield AB Mr. 

Ms. Milondra Beth Coleman AB Mr. 

Ms. April Dawn Conner AB Mr. 

Ms. Jennifer Lynn Cosme AB Ms. 

Mr. Christopher Joseph Davis BS Ms. 

Ms. Sherida Elvinese Davis AB Ms. 

Ms. Teri Jeannine Dobbins AB Ms. 

Ms. Kim Donaldson BS Mr. 

Mr. Edward Keith Dubose AB Ms. 

Ms. Delicia Joanna Dunham AB Ms. 

Mr. Pledger Henri Frerwell AB Mr. 

Ms. Yolanda Estelle Fuller AB Mr. 

Mr. Derek Everet George AB Ms. 

Mr. Brian Houston Gilpin AB Ms. 

Ms. Amanda Green AB Mr. 

Mr. Michael Anthony Green AB Mr. 

Ms. Shonnese Devon Guion AB Mr. 

Ms. Jacqueline Amanda Harris AB Ms. 

Ms. Kimberly Anita Haynes AB Mr. 

Mr. Thomas Lionel Hill II AB Ms. 

Mr. Rasheed Martin Hinds AB Ms. 

Mr. Jonah Corey Hodge AB Mr. 

Mr. Dartaganan Lebron Jackson AB Mr. 

Mr. Derrick Todd Jackson AB Ms. 

Mr. Doniel Lerance Jackson BS Ms. 

Mr. Alphonso Johnson, Jr. BSE Ms. 

Mr. George Washington Jordan III BSE Mr. 

Ms. Chivimbiso Tawavena Kapungu AB Mr. 

Ms. Ayana Nsombi Kee BS Mr. 

Ms. Lisa Lois Keise BSE Ms. 

Ms. Charlene Yvette Kirby BS Ms. 

Ms. Tonya Lineare Lacv BS Ms. 

Georgine Marie Lamvu BS 

Michele Jeannine Lee AB 

Christopher Lavadius McAllister AB 

Monica McClain AB 

Lorraine Moira McRae AB 

Jackie Hodari Merrick BSE 

Joseph Shawn Allies BS 

Gloria A. Mshelia BS 

Bryant Armond Murphy BS 

. Catrina G. Murphy AB 

Shannon Denise Norns BS 

Nwanganga Oziri AB 

Malcolm Edward Palmer AB 

James Braxton Peterson II AB 

Ngai Louis Pindell AB 

Erna Annette Rose Pinnix AB 

Kamala Lynn Prince AB 

Africa Tanya Ragland AB 

Sherri Letitia Rankin AB 

Michael Quincy Alan Richardson BS 

Regina Coleen Sanders AB 

Shawn Patrice Saunders AB 

Michael Lee Scott, Jr. AB 

Bradley Jay Sherrod AB 

Vanessa Ann Simmons AB 

Ershela Latrecia Sims BSE 

Erik Carlton Smith AB 

Tyrone Clayton Smith AB 

Darrell Jackson Spells BS 

Regina Catherine Sutton AB 

Robert Copeland Swinson, Jr. BSE 

Petra Len Symister BS 

Grace Murnvankavunkal Thomas AB 

Patrick Bruce Thomas AB 

Tyronne Michael Thomas AB 

Celena Louise Thompson AB 

Nicole Lea Thompson BS 

Sonya Adele Thorpe AB 

Hardy Vieux AB 

Torraine Antjuan Williams BS 

Victor Glenn Williams II BSE 

Josiane Marie Catherine Wolff BSE 

Pamela Elaine Woodside BS 

April Yanik Zeigler AB 


Mr. Zaid Abdul-Aleem AB 

Mr. Sanders Larsen Adu AB 

Ms. Nicole Rene Anderson AB 

Mr. Kibwe Joseph Ashton AB 

Ms. Luna Deshawn Bailey BS 

Mr. Robert Baldwin AB 

Ms. Natasha Balinda T. Marie Ball AB 

Ms. Myla DaVinia Barefield AB 

Ms. Ayanna Kafi Barrow AB 

Ms. Erica Renea Berry AB 

Ms. Denise Alisa Blythe AB 

Ms. Tanisha Rochelle Bostick AB 

Mr. Thomas Delma Brock, Jr. AB 

Ms. Franchesca Dawn Brown BS 

Mr. Lavias Martez Burns AB 

Ms. Alexious Michelle Butler AB 

Ms. Nedra Denise Campbell AB 

Ms. Paula Leelannee Coates AB 

Ms. Greta Yvonne Cokley AB 

Mr. Brian Tolson Colbert AB 

Ms. Sana Damali Coleman AB 

Mr. Kareem Abdul Cook AB 

Air. Cory Lesean Daniels BS 

Ms. Kellie Kenyata Daniels AB 

Als. Lisa Eugennie Daniels AB 

Mr. Michael Thomas Davenport AB 

Als. Tanyiki Alarie Davenport AB 

Als. Dilsey Marie Davis BS 

Als. Kendreia Wynette Dickens BS 

Air. Nelson Bernard Dorsey, Jr. AB 

Air. Stanley Kevin Dorsey AB 

Air. Kenneth Alanuel Durham BSE 

Air. Rodrick Dwayne Edwards AB 

Als. Lori Briana Epps BS 

Als. Sandi Germaine Feaster BSE 

Air. David Andrew Ferguson BSE 

Air. Kevin Maxwell Ferguson AB 

Als. Kymberly Nicole Floyd BS 

Mr. Kevin Roderick Free AB 

Air. Leroy Wendell Gallman, Jr. AB 

Mr. Keith Allen Gill AB 

Als. Rhonda Simone Gittens AB 

Als. Monique Tisha Glasford AB 

Appendix C^ 


Ms. Dionne Renee Gonder AB 

Ms. Angela Carol Styron Gore BS 

Ms. Dara Anika Green AB 

Ms. Lauren Libran Green AB 

Ms. Tamara Marie Green AB 

Ms. Keasha Danielle Grindlev BS 

Ms. Nkenge Alaia Gude AB 

Mr. William Hicks Hadnott III AB 

Mr. Richard Lamar Hardon BSE 

Ms. Michelle Leslie Harris AB 

Ms. Tonya Denise Harris BSE 

Mr. Mack Nelson Haynes. Jr. BSE 

Ms. Felicia Annette Henderson AB 

Mr. Clarence Theodore Henry. Jr. AB 

Ms. Erica Michele Henry AB 

Mr. Grant Henry Hill AB 

Mr. Charles Freeman Hogan AB 

Ms. Darriel Michelle Hoy AB 

Ms. Dasha Michelle Jackson AB 

Mr. Antonio Maurice Lang AB 

Mr. Christopher Alan Lee AB 

Ms. Eva Dolores Liftman BS 

Mr. Michael Pak Lin Lukela BS 

Mr. Richard Bertram Madden AB 

Mr. Kevin Marian Maillard AB 

Mr. Duane Laroi Marks AB 

Mr. Julian Rolf Alattlew AB 

Mr. Christopher Laurence May BS 

Mr. Riche Terrance Mc Knight AB 

Ms. Traci Danielle McMillian BS 

Ms. Valerie Yvonne McNeil AB 

Ms. Sharon Dee Morgan BS 

Mr. Richard Edward Anthony Morris BSE 

Ms. Kimberlev Alexis Nicholls AB 

Ms. Shawntay Tica Nickelson BS 

Ms. Melanie Michelle Petrway AB 

Ms. Marva Vanessa Phillips BS 

Mr. Jeffrey Eric Pierce BS 

Mr. John Pina III AB 

Ms. Karen Rhoberta Piper AB 

Ms. Lois Kathleen Price AB 

Mr. Kevin David Primus AB 

Ms. Tiffani Janelle Pringle AB 

Ms. Nicole Ann Reid BS 

Ms. Monica Roberts AB 

Ms. Katina Nicole Robinson AB 

Ms. Tanya L. Rolle AB 

Mr. James Albert Rosemond BSE 

Mr. Alphonso Jermaine Salley AB 

Mr. Charles Dexter Sapp AB 

Ms. Katrina Helene Schwarting AB 

Ms. Anne Rene Sempowski BSE 

Mr. Jamie Alexander Smarr AB 

Ms. Ajiri Avanna Smith BS 

Ms. Najwa Damali Smith BS 

Ms. Sigma Selena Smith AB 

Ms. Joy Marie Spangler AB 

Ms. Tittany Monique Speaks AB 

Mr. Robin Jefferson Stanley. Jr. BS 

Ms. Carole Lynn Strickland AB 

Mr. Aaron K. Styer BS 

Ms. Jacqueline Denise Thomas AB 

Mr. Sean Anthony Thomas AB 

Ms. Benetta Yvette Thompson AB 

Ms. Cansa Marice Todman AB 

Ms. Stacv Lvnn Torian AB 

Als. Danielle Mane Tuohey AB 

Mr. Nathaniel Sekou Turner AB 

Ms. Stacey Lynn Walker AB 

Ms. Bngette Denise Wallace AB 

Mr. Howard John Wesley BSE 

Mr. Timothy Terrell West AB 

Mr. Jeffrey Lamont White AB 

Ms. Ericka Nicole Wilcher AB 

Ms. Kimberly Dawn Wilson AB 

Ms. Kimberly Rochelle Woodard AB 

Ms. Rochelle Lynn Woodbury AB 

Ms. Tremaine Sena Wright AB 

Mr. John William Young III AB 


Mr. Oluwatovin Olanrele Ajose BS 

Ms. Lavena Alexander AB 

Mr. Paul Andre Alleyne BS 

Mr. Frantz E. St. Simeon Alphonse AB 

Mr. Gbolahan Amusa BSE 

Ms. Ladonna Artreese Armour AB 

Ms. Edith Gretchen Arrington AB 

Mr. Dion Armand Barrett AB 

Mr. Marc Olivier Bayard AB 

Als. Armide Bien-Aime AB 

Ms. Kali Chimei Billingslea AB 

Mr. Kenneth L. Blakeney AB 

Ms. Zaukema Neltasha Blanding AB 

Mr. Frederick Gordon Brandyburg BSE 

Ms. Dawn Felita Brewer AB 

Ms. Danette Lorena Bristol AB 

Ms. Yolan C. Brow AB 

Ms. Clintina Katrese Brown AB 

Mr. Kenneth Bernard Brown AB 

Air. Talwin James Brunson BSE 

Ms. Thema Simone Bryant AB 

Ms. Lisa Marie Burgess AB 

Mr. Ali Kenvatta Byrd BSE 

Mr. Jason Morns Carey AB 

Mr. Kahlil Bernard Chase BS 

.Mr. Frederick Douglass Cheney II AB 

Mr. Michael Edward Coles AB 

Ms. Mary Elizabeth Crockett AB 

Mr. Lafayette Lajaune Crump AB 

Ms. Necnole Davis BSE 

Ms. Nancy Mane Marguerite Denizard AB 

Ms. Sarah Caroline Arrington Dodds AB 

Mr. Richard Dubuisson AB 

Mr. William Henry Edwards. Jr. BS 

Mr. Courtney Rene Fauntlerov AB 

Ms. Christy Donnerte Felder BS 

Mr. Sheldon Maurice Francis AB 

Mr. Charles Eugene Gentry' BSE 

Als. Katina Lashaun Gholson AB 

Als. Kia Lynn Glover AB 

Als. Tarnisha Antoinette Graves AB 

Als. Stacey Alaya Gray AB 

Air. Alvin Louis Green, Jr. AB 

Als. Benita Angenette Gwynn AB 

Mr. .Marcus Anthony Hadden AB 

Mr. Christopher David Hall AB 

Als. Robin Nicole Hamilton AB 

Air. Roddrick Darnel Hargrave BSE 

Mr. Loren Alartin Hart BS 

Als. Amina Claire Hightower AB 

Als. Tomeka Alichelle Hill BS 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

Mr. Brian Matthew Milliard AB 

Mr. Glenn Landry Holland BSE 

Ms. Aileen Marea Dehola 1 lytmiah AB 

Ms. Jawana Michelle Johnson BS 

Ms. Michelle Dana Jordan BS 

Ms. Vanessa Renita Kelly AB 

Ms. Milele Likivu Kudumu AB 

■Mr. John Davis Lewis IV AB 

Ms. Omorotimi Tabitha Lewis AB 

Mr. Christopher Michael Little AB 

Ms. Ayanna Njeri Lirtrean BS 

Mr. David Robert Lowman BS 

Ms. Caroline Belle Marshall BS 

Mr. Bebvon Kuwait Martin BS 

Ms. Tamara Louette Mathis AB 

Ms. Tamarra Dion Matthews AB 

Ms. Shavonna Monique Maxwell AB 

Mr. William Walter May BSE 

Ms. Chanda Renee Mayo AB 

Ms. Valecia Montaye McDowell AB 

Ms. Lisa Lavonne McKinnie AB 

Mr. Brian Patrick McLaughlin AB 

Ms. Tamara Joy McRae BS 

Ms. Jewel Danielle Montgomery BS 

Mr. Joel Radell Kenvatta Moody BSE 

Ms. Miriam Athaha Moore AB 

A\s. Taralee Victoria Morgan AB 

Mr. Raymond Earl Morton III AB 

Ms. Pegjohngy Lmdrea Moses AB 

Ms. Chandra Monique Mosley AB 

Mr. Albert Murray III BSE 

Mr. Uche Stanley Osuji BSE 

Ms. Nicole Eugenia Owens AB 

Ms. Kai Ayana Pittman AB 

Mr. Xavier Marcell Puretoy BS 

Ms. Tivika Latisha Reed AB 

Ms. Kimberly Anne Reid AB 

Ms. Alecia Marian Rideau BS 

Ms. Tameka L. Rolle AB 

Mr. Dejanero Marquise Rucker AB 

Ms. Latarsha Aline Russell AB 

Mr. Tremaine Ansel Sayles AB 

Ms. Minka Latrice Schofield BS 

Ms. Ameerah Sharif AB 

Ms. Dannette Sharmaine Sharplev AB 
Mr. .Michael Gregory Sherman BSE 
Ms. Shameka Lynn Stewart AB 
Mr. Brian Norman Streams AB 
Mr. .Mark Allen Streams AB 
Mr. iMartiez Johannes Taylor AB 
Mr. Claude Jenkins Tellis, Jr. AB 
Mr. Charles William Thomas. Jr. AB 
Ms. Lashonda Elizabeth Thorpe BS 
Ms. Robin Lanette Turner AB 
Ms. Beverly Christina Tyler BSE 
Mr. Nicholas Antonio Tynes AB 
Mr. Damon Kershaw Wallace AB 
Ms. Lyntonya Michelle Waring AB 
Mr. Abram Lawrence Wehmiller AB 
Mr. Sidney Eugene Wells BSE 
Mr. Corey Thomas Williams BSE 
Mr. Jason Todd Williams AB 
Ms. Vida Christy Williams AB 
Mr. Gil Eric Winters AB 
Ms. Diana Bernice Woods AB 
Ms. Katrina Lyn Worsley AB 
Mr. Marion Edward Wright BS 
Mr. Linnie Lee Young, Jr. AB 
Ms. Hishalah Zvulon BS 

Appendix ^> 91 

Appendix B 



Air. Walter T. Johnson, Jr. JD 
Mr. David Robinson II LLB 


Chaplain Matthew A. Zimmerman, Jr. 


Mr. Eric C. Alichaux LLB 
Colonel Sylvester L. Shannon BD 


Mrs. Annie Ruth Bullock MED 
Rev. Larnie G. Horton MDIV 
Dr. W. Delano Meriwether MD 
Airs. Catherine Gibson Tavlor MAT 


Mr. Prentiss L. Harrison CERT 
Mr. James L. Hatcher JD 
Mr. Nathaniel Knox ALVT 
Dr. Anthony Ovewole AM 
Dr. Marian L. Vick EDD 


Mr. Charles L. Becton JD 

Dr. Ernest Bernard Eason CERT 

Dr. Eddie L. Hoover MD 

Mr. Clarence L. Ledbetter JD 


Dr. Annette Kennedy Brock MED 
Dr. Willa Coward Bryant EDD 
Ms. Joyce Ann Clayton Nichols CERT 
Dr. Anthonv Ovewole Ph.D. 

Dr. Odell R Reuben Ph.D. 
Mr. Roger G. Thurston III JD 


Mr. Lewis Bernard Hopson CERT 
Mr. Ernest E. Ratliff LLB 
Dr. John A. Walker MD 
Mr. Harold G. Wallace BD 


Mr. Adrian Bernard Boone CERT 

Ms. Gloria Clemens CERT 

Mr. James H. Ebron JD 

Mrs. Sandra Doles Farrington CERT 

Mrs. Jacqueline Ellanoa Hall MA 

Mr. Samuel Alfonso Herring CERT 

Mr. Amos T. Mills III JD 

Mrs. Elnora J. Shields MED 

Dr. Jean Gaillard Spaulding MD 


A\r. Kennv Washington Armstrong JD 

Mr. Tony L. Axam JD 

Dr. Collins E. Baber MD 

Mr. Daniel Terry Blue, Jr. JD 

Mr. John J. Davis CERT 

Mr. Earl Yester Echard CERT 

Mr. Eddie Lee Ganaway AL-\ 

Mr. Percy Elmer Golson CERT 

Dr. Charles Lee Helton MDIV 

Mr. William Emmett Hill JD 

Air. Clarence Dupre Jones III AM 

Air. Eugene Victor A. Alaalo AA1 

Mr. Marvin Patterson A1BA 

Als. Frances Lonnette Williams A1ED 

Rev. Earl Wilson. Jr. A1DIV 

Dr. Joanne P. Wilson AID 


Dr. Larry Barnes AID 

Airs. Brenda B. Becton JD 

Dr. Curtis Lee Bowe, Jr. BHS 

Als. Evelyn Omega Cannon JD 

Air. Curtis Lynn Collier JD 

Dr. James S. Dorsey AID 

Chaplain John Alichael Guest A1DIV 

Dr. Harris Al. Heath Ph.D. 

Colonel Louis Alvles Jackson, Sr. AM 

Mr. Mose Alphonso Jennings CERT 

Air. Herb Proctor Alassie JD 

Airs. Jacqueline Kaalund Alburu A1ED 

Dr. Gary Francis Newkirk Ph.D. 

Dr. Olaogun Oyekola Ogunsola AA1 

Dr. Joseph C. Settle EDD 

Air. Larry W. Shelton JD 

The Honorable Karen Bethea Shields JD 

Dr. Kermit O Simrel, Jr. AID 

Dr. William Clair Turner, Jr. MDIV 

Air. James A. Wall. Sr. A1HA 

Dr. Lucia Antoinette Ward-Alexander 


Dr. Jerry William Wiley AID 

Dr. Linda R. Williams AID 

Dr. Alichael Victor Yancey AID 


Dr. Brenda B. Abdelrasoul AA1 
Dr. Joan Brown Adams AID 
Dr. Alarion Boothe Amory A1ED 
Air. Paul Cornelious Bland JD 
Dr. Ernest L. Bonner, Jr. AID 
Airs. Alartina L. Bradlord JD 
Dr. Albert S. Broussard AM 
Dr. John W. Chambers, Jr. AID 

92 &$ LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Dr. Linda Ann Clayton AID 

Air. Laurence D. Colbert JD 

Dr. Arnett Coleman MD 

The Honorable Allvson Kay Duncan JD 

Dr. Richard Alan Fields MD 

Dr. Cynthia G. Fleming AM 

Dr. James Rapheal Gavin III MD 

Dr. Michael R. Geer MD 

Rev. Fletcher Edward Harris, Sr. MDIV 

Dr. Alphine Wade Jefferson AM 

Bishop Joseph Johnson MDIV 

Mr. Morris W. Johnson, Jr. MED 

Mr. William H. Johnson JD 

Ms. Eleanor J. Lauderdale JD 

Dr. Jasper Jones Lawson AAA 

Mrs. Elizabeth T. McBride MS 

Mr. Stephen J. McLeod MBA 

Dr. Marvin Louis Morgan MDIV 

Dr. Clarence G. Newsome MDIV 

Ms. Lynne P. Newsome MED 

Dr. Olaogun Oyekola Ogunsola Ph.D. 

Miss Cheryl P. Smith JD 

Mr. Samuel P. Stafford II JD 

Dr. Edward Louis Treadwell MD 

Ms. Gloria Alyce Wheatley AM 

Dr. Robert L. Williams MD 


Chaplain Johnny Lee Adams A1DIV 

Mr. Allard Albert Allston III JD 

Miss Barbara Ruth Arnwine JD 

Rev. Michael Anthony Battle, Sr. MDIV 

Rev. Yvonne Beasley MDIV 

Rev. John J. Borens MDIV 

Rev. Andrew W. Brown, Jr. MDIV 

Miss Marie A. Burris BHS 

Mr. Willie Eugene Butler MDIV 

Ms. Linda Susan Cameron AA1 

Mr. Nathaniel Cameron BHS 

Ms. Evelyn Omega Cannon LLM 

Mr. Wayne Evertt Crumwell JD 

Rev. Melvin Dean Cutler MDIV 

Dr. Michael W. Dae MD 

Dr. Marsha Jean Darling AM 

Mr. Paul Bradford Eaglin JD 

Air. Lonnie Eugene Edmonson, Jr. MDIV 

Mr. Ixmzy F. Edwards JD 

Air. Glenn Alitchell Embree JD 

Ms. Yvonne Alims Evans JD 

Mr. Ralph Bernard Everett JD 

Mr. Ronald Llewellyn Flowers BHS 

Air. James Carl Harrison MBA 

Air. Gregory Thedore Headen MDIV 

Aliss Alarion Jacqueline Henry A1BA 

Rev. Aivin Oneal Jackson MDIV 

Mrs. Alarion White Jervay JD 

Airs. Shirl Felisca Leverett MED 

Air. Edward Earl Lewis A1BA 

Rev. Archie Doyster Logan, Jr. THM 

Air. Kenneth L. Alarshall JD 

Air. Johnnie William Alask, Jr. JD 

Mr. Wilbert L. Alickens A1DIV 

Airs. Sadye J. Milton MDIV 

Airs. Cynthia Denise Alullen MSN 

Mr. William Devero Peterson MBA 

Mrs. Wonza Stiles Russell MS 

Dr. Leha Louise Vickers Ph.D. 

Dr. Willie Roscoe Whitaker MD 

Dr. Mary Bowman Williams BHS 

Dr. Bernice Holley Willis Ph.D. 

Dr. Gerald Milton Woods AID 

Air. Frank Hugh Wright, Jr. BHS 

Ms. Linda Claudette Wright AM 

Air. Gerald Eugene Young MBA 


Mr. Robert Lee Branch BHS 

Rev. Edward S. Brightman, Sr. THM 

Als. Brenda Carol Brisbon JD 

Dr. Albert S. Broussard Ph.D. 

Rev. Eric N. Chavis A1DIV 

Mr. Charles Bernard Davis MED 

Air. Richard C. Dickinson JD 

Rev. Neriah Goldston lidwards MDIV 

Dr. Elaine Regenia Ferguson AID 

Dr. Cynthia G. Fleming Ph.D. 

Dr. Sundar W. Fleming Ph.D. 

Dr. Henry James Hardy AID 

Dr. Larry C. Harris MD 

Ms. Alary A. Hawkins MM 

Rev. AJonzo Clark Jenkins MDIV 

Dr. Vergel L. Lattimore III MDIV 

Mr. Milton Lewis MDIV 

Aliss Janice Lorene Alills JD 

Rev. Ervin Eugene Alilton A1DIV 

Rev. Kenneth Monroe MDIV 

Airs. Rosalia G. Parker JD 

Rev. Lawrence L. Reddick III A1DIV 

Rev. Albert Shuler MDIV 

Air. Geoffrey H. Simmons JD 

Miss Alargaret Rose Simmons BHS 

Dr. S. Dallas Simmons Ph.D. 

Dr. AJvin Tyrone Simpson MRE 

Dr. William M. Southerland Ph.D. 

Dr. Cleon Franklyn Thompson Ph.D. 

Dr. Price Walker, Jr. AID 

Dr. Bertram E. Walls MD 

Als. Myra Elaine Washington AM 

Air. Will Wiggins MS 

Dr. Roy J. Williams, Jr. MD 

Dr. George C. Wright Ph.D. 


Air. Lovest T. Alexander, Jr. BHS 

Rev. Fremont F. Anderson, Jr. MDIV 

Ms. Patsy Anne Anthony A1S 

Mr. Nicholas Kwaku Asare MHA 

Dr. Donna Johanna Benson MA 

Rev. John J. Borens THM 

Ms. Linda Denese Briggs-Alilteer AIRE 

Dr. Jonca Camille Bull MD 

Air. Reginald J. Clark JD 

Als. Denise Renee Driver A1A 

Rev. Neriah Goldston Edwards THM 

Mr. Russell W. Hawkins, Jr. A1F 

Dr. Melvin Lee Henderson AID 

Dr. Yollette Trigg Jones MA 

Als. Clare Frances Jupiter JD 

Air. Leonard V. Lassiter, Jr. MDIV 

Dr. Caroline Louise Lattimore Ph.D. 

Als. Norvator Amanda Lawson AHC 

Air. William Leroy Lee MDIV 

Dr. Jumanne Abdallah Alaghembe MF 

Mr. James Nunn McGuffey MM 

Air. Thurman Conrad AlcLean A1DIV 




Rev. Willie L. Aliddlebrooks. Jr. AIDIV 

Air. Carlton H. Morse, Jr. JD 

Rev. Charles Edward Moss MDIV 

Mr. Clyde T. Nelson MDIV 

Dr. George Phillips. Jr. AID 

Dr. Charles \V. Plummer MD 

Als. Hallie Lawson Reeves MDIV 

Dr. Alfred Mack Roberts MD 

Dr. John \Y. Ross MD 

Dr. Michael \V. Shannon MD 

Mr. Bye-Mass Max Taal MF 

Mr. Benjamin Frederick Tandy MDIV 

Rev. Victoria Sizemore Tandy MDIV 

Dr. Lynn H. Thomas MD 

Ms. Karen Jackson Vaughn JD 

Dr. George H Williams EDD 

Dr. Eugene Edward Wright. Jr. MD 


Dr. Brenda B. Abdelrasoul Ph.D. 

Ms. Lesline Rena Anderson BHS 

Dr. Charles S. Baker III MD 

Mr. Reggie Lawrence Barnett JD 

Mr. Reggie Lawrence Barnett MBA 

Mr. Elwood Becton AM 

Mr. Elwood Becton MA 

Mr. George Michael Bellinger JD 

Dr. James K. Bennett MD 

Mr. Anthony H. Brett JD 

Ms. Valerie Thompson Broadie JD 

Dr. Thelma B. Brown AHC 

Ms. Jacqueline L Coleman JD 

Mr. Gregory Davis MDIV 

Mrs. Diane Bright Doriney MBA 

Dr. James M. Douglas. Jr. AID 

Als. Michelle Long Durrah AIHA 

Rev. Dr. Lawrence Timothy Evans AIDIV 

Dr. Verna C. Gibbs A\D 

Dr. Cynthia Lynnette Hale MDIV 

Dr. Benjamin Lewis Hall III MDIV 

Dr. Barbara L. Hamm AID 

Dr. Rona Elsberth Hodge BHS 

Rev. Temple Jackson Howell MRE 

Dr. Gary B. Humphrey AID 

Als. Margo Ericka Jackson JD 

Dr. Alphine Wade Jefferson Ph.D. 

Dr. Okator Alang Lekwuwa AID 

Dr. Norma C. Lemon AID 

Judge Denise Lorraine Alajette JD 

Lieut. Barbara Summey Marshall AIRE 

Airs. Rosa Thompson AlcAIee AlBA 

Prof. Preston L. McKever-Floyd MDIV 

Air. Paul Nelson Milton MDIV 

Air. John Kevin Aloore AIHA 

Dr. Gregory E. Alorrison AID 

Rev. Gregory Vaughn Palmer MDIV 

Als. Renav Quarles Pope AIS 

Dr. Wilfred L. Raine AID 

Dr. Rueben N. Rivers AID 

Dr. Beverly J. Spivey AID 

Mr. Linwood E. Stevens, Sr. AlED 

Air. Carl Al. Toney AHC 

Dr. Jacqueline Baldwin Walker Ph.D. 

Dr. Johnny L. White, Jr. AID 

Air. All Berlin Williams AlBA 

Air. James Edward Williams, Jr. JD 

Airs. Rhonda Reid Winston JD 


Air. Louis Pierre Anderson AHC 
Dr. Carl Leo Arrington AIDIV 
Air. Larry Jerome Arrington AlBA 
Rev. Calvin Jerome Banks AIDIV 
Dr. Valerie Alayne Batts Ph.D. 
Air. Larry Lee Blackwell MDIV 
Rev. Benjamin F. Chavis, Jr. AIDIV 
Rev. Charles Lerov Daniels THAI 
Air. Thomas Antonio Devine AlA 
Als. Phyllis Jean F. Ethridge EDD 
Dr. Dudley E. Flood EDD 
The Honorable Shirley L. Fulton JD 
A\r. Jeffrey Edward Green AIHA 
Mr. William Robert Hairston AIDIV 
Dr. Sherry L. Hall AID 
Dr. Alabel Thomasine Hardy Ph.D. 
Mr. Arnold Odell Herring AlAT 
Mr. Ralph S. Hightower, Jr. AlBA 
Air. Edward Hines. Jr. AIDIV 

Mr. Robert L Hoover AHC 

Dr. Calvin Rudolph Howell AlA 

Dr. Reginald E. Ishman AID 

Rev. Lawrence Edward Johnson AIDIV 

Air. Lonnie Lee Johnson, Jr. AlED 

Air. Finley Oneal Jones MDIV 

Als. Dorothea King JD 

Dr. Jasper Jones Lawson Ph.D. 

Rev. James Edward Lilly, Jr. AIDIV 

Mr. Darryl Jadwick Lynch AlF 

Rev. Cassandra Young Alarcus AIRE 

Air. Lafayette Maxwell MDIV 

Airs. Wilsonnia Green AlcLean AIDIV 

Als. Andromeda Alonroe JD 

Air. Alumanga Chibole Alumbi BHS 

Air. Harold Douglas Pope III JD 

Dr. Rexford J. Richardson Ph.D. 

Air. Eric Michael Roberts AlBA 

Air. Percy Elliott Robinson JD 

Ms. Valerie Robinson AHC 

Rev. Jerry Michael Sanders AIDIV 

Dr. Derise Evette Tolliver AlA 

Dr. Kwaku Adjei Twum-Baah Ph.D. 

Dr. Velma Gibson Watts Ph.D. 

Air. Charles Lavelle Weaver BHS 

Air. Kenneth Lee Whitehurst AlED 

Als. Renee Clarissa Wilder AlBA 

Ms. Dyan E. Willoughby AlBA 


Air. William Henry Amos MDIV 

Dr. Joshua Attah Ph.D. 

Air. Edward Hampton Bailey AHC 

Dr. Sylvia Thompson Bullock Ph.D. 

Als. Deborah Kee Campbell AlBA 

Air. Alan Brent Gates AHC 

Dr. Elmer Jerome Cummings EDD 

Als. Kim Lori Davenport JD 

Mr. .Allan C. Delaine JD 

Als. Leonia Dorris AHC 

Als. Lorna Nettie Dula BHS 

Dr. Amgred Ghislayne Dunston Ph.D. 

Rev. Ruthenia H. Finley AIDIV 

Air. Yinston Jerome Goldman AHC 



LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Mr. Mervyn Al Greene JD 

Mr. Samuel Harrison MBA 

Mr. Oliver T. Hill .MDIV 

Mr. Willie A. Hodge III MBA 

Ms. Rosetta Berry Inmon MBA 

Ms. Addie Lafayette Ix;gette MA 

Ms. Rosita McKee BHS 

Ms. Gail Phillips Merritt JD 

Dr. Bertha Hampton Miller Ph.D. 

Dr. Demetria Montgomery MD 

Mr. Terence Kent Neal AHC 

Rev. John N. Osborne, Jr. MDIV 

Ms. Mildred Cerise Petty AHC 

Ms. Mildred Cerise Petty MS 

Dr. Asela Catherine Russell MD 

Mr. Kenneth Byron Scarlett MDIV 

Ms. Verline Anne Shepherd MBA 

Ms. Crystal Yvonne Smith BHS 

Mr. Kimball Ranier Smith MBA 

Ms. Geraldine Sumter JD 

Ms. Florence Elaine Thompson BHS 

Dr. David W. Trader MD 

Mr. Ronald B. Via MBA 

Mrs. Lois Bullock Wall AHC 

Dr. Patricia Watkis MD 

Mrs. Linda M G Weaver AHC 

Dr. Love Henry Whelchel Ph.D. 

Ms. Sharon Yvonne White MBA 

Mrs. Beth Hope Woodland-Hargrove JD 


Ms. Josie A. Alexander JD 

Mr. Levi Alfonso Beckwith MBA 

Mr. Henri Arthur Belfon, Jr. EDD 

Dr. Gayle Elaine Brooks Ph.D. 

Mr. Bernard Freeman Bugg MBA 

Dr. William R. Burge MD 

Dr. Cyd Patrice Campbell MD 

Ms. Demetria Theresa Carter JD 

Dr. Carnell Cooper MD 

Mr. Arnald Byron Crews AM 

Dr. Marsha Jean Darling Ph.D. 

Dr. Georgette A. Dent MD 

Ms. Valerie Robinson Dinkins JD 

Dr. Samuel T. Dove MD 

Ms. Ruby Williams Freeman MA 

Ms. Nanette Gandy JD 

Dr. Francis Roosevelt Gilliam III MD 

Dr. Robert Alexander Wilson Grant MA 

Ms. Carolyn Ann Green MS 

Ms. Fern E. Gunn JD 

Mr. I lenry Kofi Gyamfi MDIV 

Dr. Darielle Watts Jones MA 

Rev. Diana Bradley Jones MDIV 

Mr. Michael Anthony King MBA 

Dr. Kapauner Ramona Lewis MD 

Ms. Victoria R. Marsh JD 

Ms. Victoria R. Marsh MCL 

Dr. Joseph Henry Martin, Jr. MD 

Mr. Alfred Dale Moore JD 

Mr. John Albert Moore MDIV 

Mr. Carlton O. Morales AHC 

Dr. Clarence G. Newsome Ph.D. 

Rev. Gina Delise Rochelle MRE 

Mr. Vernon Julius Rose MDIV 

Dr. James Ray Samuel MDIV 

Ms. Cassandra Shaw BHS 

Mr. Hezekiah Sistrunk, Jr. JD 

Dr. Arthur Vernon Stringer MD 

Dr. Lucia Antoinette Ward-Alexander EDD 

Rev. Dwight Reginald Whitt JD 

Rev. Bruce Wright MDIV 

Mr. William Wright AM 


Mr. Thomas Leroy Bailey AM 

Mr. Andrew Russell Barner, Jr. MBA 

Rev. Jason Barr, Jr. MDIV 

Ms. Deborah Lynetta Basket MA 

Ms. Sheila Moncure Belfon EDD 

Dr. Estrada Jetlerson Bernard, Jr. MD 

Rev. Norman Aaron Brown MDIV 

Rev. Norman Aaron Brown THM 

Ms. Stephanie Smith Brown MHA 

Mr. Patrick Chishimba MBA 

Ms. Angela Diane Davis JD 

Mr. Emanuel Faust, Jr. JD 

Mr. Michael James Freels AM 

Chaplain Alvester Key Gales MDIV 

Chaplain Floyd Renot Gilbert MDIV 

Ms. Karyn Allison Greenfield JD 

Dr. Reginald Lawrence Hall MD 

Mr. Kevin Lee Hopkins MA 

Mr. Dawson Horn III JD 

Rev. Carl B. Hutcherson, Jr. MDIV 

Mrs. Annette King Hyatt AHC 

Rev. David Edward Jasper MDIV 

Mr. Owen Arthur May MBA 

Mr. John Darrell Mclnnis JD 

Dr. Deevid Oscar Miller MD 

Mr. James Jerome Otey BHS 

Mr. Lionell Parker MBA 

Mr. Charles Milton Pee MDIV 

Ms. Carolyn Yvonne Phillips-Lanclos JD 

Dr. Kevin Randall Porter MD 

Rev. Joseph Lee Ratliff MDIV 

Mr. Melvin Leslie Riggs EDD 

Ms. Pamela E. Rodgers MBA 

Dr. Siddig Abdel Mageed Salih Ph.D. 

Rev. William David Smart, Jr. MDIV 

Professor Charles Edison Smith LLM 

Mrs. Dale Peele Sneed MDIV 

Dr. Paul Stephens, Jr. MD 

Mrs. Lona Letsy Tapper-Rogers MDIV 

Dr. Lesa Denise Walden MD 

Ms. Janice Marie Wallington AHC 

Ms. Janice Marie Wallington MS 

Dr. Jeanie Anne Westry MD 

Rev. Quentin J. White MDIV 

Mr. Meretle Hampton Wilson THM 

Dr. Antronette Kay Yancey MD 


Mr. Edward Norris Allen MSN 

Dr. Avis Adriena Artis MD 

Mr. Joseph Andrew Battle MBA 

Dr. Donna Johanna Benson Ph.D. 

Dr. Jocelyn Wolffe Bonner MD 

Ms. Vergyl Loretta Cabbagestalk AHC 

Dr. Karen Young Collier Ph.D. 

Rev. Philip R. Cousin. Jr. MDIV 

Rev. Robert Lee Daniels MDIV 

Appendix ty^ 


.Ms. Marilyn Elaine Foote-Hudson MA 

Dr. .Marc Tomas Galloway AID 

Dr. Fred Janasi Gomendo THAI 

Mrs. Helen Nelson Grant JD 

Dr. Samuel Elijah Hall AID 

Rev. George Carver Hawkins A1DIY 

Mrs. Sybil S. Henderson MBA 

Mrs. Darlene Mitchell Hoard MBA 

Dr. Calvin Rudolph Howell Ph.D. 

Mrs. Finesse D. Hull-Simmons JD 

Dr. Andrea Marie Jackson MD 

Chaplain Richard Carnell Jackson MDIY 

Ms. Andrea Denise Jones JD 

Dr. Darielle Watts Jones Ph.D. 

Dr. Vereda Johnson King Ph.D. 

Mr. Timothy Ross Langston MBA 

Mr. Joseph Lee Littles MBA 

Ms. Adrienne Patrice Marshall MBA 

Mr. Floyd Bixler McKissick. Jr. JD 

Ms. Allene Watkins McNeil AHC 

Dr. Karen A. Moore MD 

Mr. Wiley Muffins 111 MBA 

Air. Edward A\ikumah Okine MS 

Air. Thomas David Parham. Jr. AHC 

Mr. Jean Derek Penn MBA 

Rev. Staccato Powell MDIY 

Dr. Felicity Araba Quansah MD 

Dr. John Armand Rich MD 

Rev. Christopher Samuel Robinson MDIY 

Mr. Elwood Lee Robinson AHC 

Prof. Yetta Lynn Sanders Thompson MA 

Mr. Raymond Ronald Sommerville MDIY 

Dr. William Clair Turner, Jr. Ph.D. 

Dr. Cheryl Lynn Walker MD 

Mrs. Reba Hayes Warren JD 

Dr. Janet Marie \Yhidby MA 

Dr. Lauren Yirgima Wood MD 


Ms. Pamela Lynn Boswell MA 
Ms. Lisa Curtis Bowler MHA 
Ms. Frances Rene Brown JD 
Rev. Jesse Brunson MDIY 
Dr. Clifton Earl Buckrham MDIV 
Mr. Larrv Chisolm JD 

Ms. Pamela Rachelle Dewees MBA Ms. 

Mr. I^eonard Earl Fairlev MDIY .Mr. 

Ms. Jana Olivia Fleming JD Mr. 

Ms. Bernice Tripp Gibson AHC Air. 

Ms. Bernice Tripp Gibson MS Mr. 

Rev. Edith Lee Gleaves MDIV Mr. 

Dr. Gregory Joseph Glover MD Ms. 

Ms. Lisha W. Goins JD Mr. 

Mr. Michael Edward Green MBA Ms. 

Dr. Benjamin Lewis Hall III Ph.D. Mr. 

Ms. Kendra Lorraine Harris MBA Mr. 

Rev. Myrtle Frances Hatcher MDIY Dr. 

Ms. Marguerite Michele Hester MBA Dr. 

Chaplain David Harlan Hicks THM Rev 

Dr. Susan Eileen Jenkins MD Mr. 

Mr. Leonard Howard Jones MBA Mr. 

Dr. Yollette Trigg Jones Ph.D. Mr. 

Ms. Kimetha Lynnette Knotts AHC Ms. 

Mr. Albert Garliea Kokulo MEM Ms. 

Mr. George Paul Lanier MDIV Dr. 

Ms. Andra Moore Martin .MBA Rev 

Dr. Clarice Jannette Martin Ph.D. Dr. 

Mr. Michael Carlton Mason JD Dr. 

Mr. Kevin Alvin AlcQuay MBA Dr. 

Mr. Marvin Anthony Moore .MBA Mr. 

Dr. Lori J. Pierce MD Mr. 

Mr. Rudolph Simmons MBA Mr. 

Dr. Shelley Ruth Slaughter MD Ms. 

Dr. Robert Scon Smith MA Mr. 

Dr. Claire Leona Spain-Remy MD Ms. 

Ms. Sonja Steptoe JD Mr. 

Mr. Gary Bernard Strong MHA Mr. 

Mr. Allen Dixon Terrell MDIV Mr. 

Dr. Derise Evette Tolliver Ph.D. Ms. 

Mr. Aaron Watson JD Rev 

Ms. Sandra Elise Watson MHA Ms. 

Dr. Jonathan Emanuel Hazema Wilson Rev 

Ph.D. Ms. 


1986 Dr. 

Rev. Sharon Lavonda Adams MDIY Dr. 

Mr. Thomas L. Aiken MBA Mr. 

Rev. Howard Emory Anderson III MDIY Mr. 

Mr. Eddie Norris Barnes MBA Mr. 

Ms. Iris Killian Barrett MBA Dr. 

Tracy Natasha Bowens MBA 
Antonio Brito Braz JD 
Sidney O'Neal Brewer MBA 
John David Bnggs. Jr. JD 
Frank Butler MDIV 
Caesar Pina Cardozo JD 
Lenora Patrice P. A. Carlock MBA 
James Harvey Carter. Jr. BHS 
Odrie Maria Chapman JD 
Brent Overton Edgar Clinkscale JD 
Reginald John Clvne MA 
N. Anthony Coles, Jr. MD 
Christina Elizabeth Cummings AID 
. Eldrick Ray Davis A1DIV 
Charles Envinnaya Ekeleme, Jr. A1BA 
David C. Emelileonwu AL\ 
Marvin E. Fountain MDIY 
Lena Yernell Freeman A1DIY 
Lynn B. Gardner A1HA 
Tana Annette Gradv AID 
. Diane Harper Haggler A1DIY 
Ricky Damon Helton AHC 
Ricky Damon Helton MDIV 
Janice Dolores Johnson AID 
Jeffrey David Jones JD 
Jeltrey David Jones MA 
J. Richard Leaman III .MBA 
Karol Page Alack JD 
John Alichael Alallette. Jr. JD 
Faye Alarie Alartin .MBA 
Cam Mills AHC 
Irvin Aloore, Jr. AHC 
Rick Lamont Perslev A1BA 
Elmira Juanita Powell BHS 
. Constance Alane Prince A1DIY 
Hilda Pinnix Ragland A1BA 
. Christopher Samuel Robinson AHC 
Linda Ann Russell AHC 
Linda Ann Russell A1DIY 
Julius Sherrard Scott III Ph.D. 
Cednc Dewavne Shetheld AID 
James Donald Smith JD 
Willie Albert Smith III .MBA 
Timothy Tyrone Taylor A1DIY 
Karen Cassidv Thompson Ph.D. 



LEGACY. 1963-1993 

Mr. Leon Clay White MBA 

Ms. Nancy Virginia Wilkins AHC 

.Mr. Wilbert Edd Williams MBA 

Dr. Deborah Y. I^eonardo Wilson MD 

Mr. Samuel Leon Winder III MBA 

Mr. Randy Rodell Zeno MBA 


Mrs. Pamela Doronda Bailey BHS 

Dr. Osbert Blow MD 

Ms. Yvette Lynne Bonaparte MBA 

Dr. Marian E. Bonner MD 

.Ms. Delores Smith Bradsher MSN 

Mr. Johnathan Gray Broadnax MBA 

.Mr. Ronald Eugene Brown MBA 

Ms. Tonola Doris Brown JD 

Dr. Myra N. Burnett Ph.D. 

Rev. Columbus Benjamin Burns III MDIV 

Ms. Angela Jellries Caldwell AHC 

Mr. Reginald John dyne JD 

Ms. Donna .Maria Coleman MA 

Mr. Donald Ray Dixon MBA 

Dr. Roderick E. Edmond MD 

Dr. Linda Harris Gilliam MD 

Mr. Curnell Graham MDIV 

Rev. Deborah D. Lockett Graham MDIV 

Rev. Ravmond Wavne Hargrove MDIV 

Air. Robert Evans Harrington JD 

Dr. Deborah Marie Hayden-Hall MD 

Dr. John L. Hudgins Ph.D. 

Ms. Jocelvn Janine Hunter JD 

Mr. Franklin David Jackson JD 

Mr. Henry Donnell Jefferies MDIV 

Ms. Carolyn C. Christian Johnson MBA 

Mrs. Lynne W. Johnson MBA 

Air. Timothv Rav Johnson JD 

Ms. Patricia Ann Kornegay JD 

Rev. Leonzo Daniel Lynch MDIV 

Dr. Pamela Hermine Martin MD 

Mr. John Richard May. Jr. JD 

Mr. John Richard May. Jr. MA 

Ms. Priscilla Robinson Meadows MBA 

Mr. Ron- Quintin Miott MBA 

Mr. Richard Benjamin Moore MBA 

Ms. Michele Jeninne Pavne MBA 

Dr. Alton Brooks Pollard III Ph.D. 
Ms. Donna Primrose- Brown MA 
Ms. Joyce Butts Sanford MBA 
.Ms. Adona Christine Simms BHS 
Dr. Cora Ducette Spaulding MD 
Mrs. Sherri W. Tatum JD 
Mrs. Nancy Taylor-Smith .MBA 
.Mr. Barry James Thompson .MBA 
Ms. Kara Watkins Tillman MBA 
Dr. Janet Marie Whidby Ph.D. 
Mr. Edward Leon White. Jr. MBA 
Ms. Charita Nanette Whitehurst MBA 
.Mrs. Kathryn Woodbury Zeno MBA 


.Ms. Sheree Michelle AJston MA 

Mr. Jerome Anderson MDIV 

Chaplain Jarvis Eric Bailev MDIV 

Mr. Darrvl Triandos Banks MBA 

Mr. Warren Hicks Basket MA 

Dr. Herman Lee Bennett MA 

Ms. Avis Toppin Bent MBA 

Mr. John Milton Boutte AHC 

Lieutentant Arthur McGill Brown MDIV 

Mr. Eric Dewayne Cole MDIV 

Dr. Jennifer Jean Crawford .MD 

Ms. Ida Johnson Dawson BHS 

Mr Bryan S. DeLoatch MBA 

Rev. Earlston Eugene De Silva MDIV 

Mr. Willie Otis Dixon IV JD 

Dr. Jill Allison Foster MD 

Mr. Henry Thomas Foxx MBA 

Mr. Charles T. Geoffre Francis JD 

Ms. Lena Vernell Freeman AHC 

Mr. Kodwo Pere Ghartev-Tagoe JD 

Dr. Robert Alexander Wilson Grant Ph.D. 

Mr. Jerron Denard Green MBA 

Rev. Moses Edmond Hodnett. Jr. MDIV 

Ms. Felicia Yvette Howell MBA 

Mr. James C. Lee JD 

Dr. Joseph Mwona Maitima MA 

Rev. David Ophanalia Malloy MDIV 

Dr. William Kenneth Mask MD 

Ms. Tarshia Angelita McGlockton MBA 

Ms. Carol Betina Morris MA 

Ms. Carol Betina Morris MBA 

Mr. Patrick Nganga MS 

Mr. Kwasi Nyamekye JD 

Ms. Pamela Dianne Parson MBA 

Ms. Ramona Marie Payne MBA 

Mr. Toussaint Joseph Philogene MBA 

Ms. Deborah E. Richardson de Cueras JD 

Mr. Dale Alexander Royal MA 

Pro!. Vetta Lynn Sanders Thompson Ph.D. 

Ms. Marguerite Harper Scott MA 

Mr. Darrvl Dwain Smalls JD 

Ms. Jean Olive Smith MDIV 

Mr. Peter Malcolm Stanfbrd-Asivo BHS 

Ms. Paula Elizabeth Dudley Stewart MBA 

Mr. Anton Travers Wesley MDIV 

Mrs. Pamela S. White MBA 

Ms. Wendy Elizabeth White-Adcock MA 

Mr. John Jasper Wilkins. Jr. MDIV 

Mr. David Wayne Williams JD 

Mr. Hudson Grov-er Willis MBA 

Rev. Richard Elias Wimberley III AHC 

Mr. Herbert Sei Lami Zigbuo MRE 


Mr. Hugh W. Allen MBA 

Janice Michelle Allen .MA 

Mr. Harold Tommy Amaker MBA 

Ms. Terri Kim Bacote Charles MA 

Ms. Nanette Alicia Banks MA 

Mr. Wayne Patrick Banks MBA 

Mr. Adrian Troy Barber MA 

Mr. William Joseph Barber II MDIV 

Mr. Larry Donald Bivens MBA 

Dr. Charles S. G. Boayue, Jr. MDIV 

Mr. James Boden ALA 

Mr. Avery Chardor Brown THAL 

Ms. Suzanne Brown MBA 

.Ms. Kara Odessa Bryant ALA 

Dr. Randall M. Bryant ALD 

Rev. Ella Jean Burnett MDIV 

Mr. Terence Inerius Caldwell ALBA 

Ms. Danielle Denise Carr ALA 

Dr. Bradley Henry Collins ALD 

Dr. Cornelius Alexander Davis III ALD 

Airs. Patricia Eleanor Dave AIHA 

Appendix C^> 97 

Mrs. Pamela K. DeLoatch MBA 

Ms. Maria Teresa Dickerson MA 

Dr. Franklyn F. Dontfraid MD 

Chaplain Swindell Edwards MDIV 

Mr. Gary Donell Ellis MBA 

Rev. Doris T. Fox MDIV 

Rev. Jerry Louis Gadsden A1DIV 

Mr. Michael Lee Garrett MA 

Ms. Lori Tawana Hagens MHA 

Dr. Robert Lee Harrell III MD 

Mrs. Sharon Carr Harrington JD 

Mrs. Brenda E. Harris-Richmond BHS 

Mrs. Jeanne L. Holeman MHA 

Air. Spurgeon Roosevelt James, Jr. A1BA 

Airs. Sharon Ann Jerrnes-Jones A1BA 

Rev. Orea Jones- Wells MDIV 

Dr. Ricky Park Soo Nam Aladdox AID 

Rev. Carl Linwood Alanuel, Jr. A1DIV 

Dr. Hirschel David McGinnis AID 

Als. AWie E. Alichel-Tucker A1BA 

Ms. Sondra Alarie Aliddleton BHS 

Dr. Alois Simon AVlambo Ph.D. 

Als. Charlotte L. Alolette A1S 

Air. Russell Jerome Aloore A1BA 

Air. Kenneth Alonzo Alurphv JD 

Dr. Angela D. Odom-Austin AID 

Als. Tanya Al. Oubre JD 

Als. Rohini Arvind Parikh A1A 

Als. Donna Primrose-Brown JD 

Rev. Darryl Wayne Robinson A1DIV 

Als. Robin Lee Rosenberg JD 

Als. Robin Lee Rosenberg MA 

Air. Steven Bailey Royster JD 

Als. Cheryl Williams Scarboro JD 

Air. Garry Wendell Seabron MDIV 

Als. Willie Ann Foster Shears A1BA 

Air. Oris Russell Stuart III A1BA 

Mr. James Edward Tatum, Jr. JD 

Mr. Alaurice C. Taylor JD 

Air. Ato Waters A1BA 

Ms. Annette Denise Watkins A1BA 

Airs. Felicia Stevenson Watlington A1BA 

Mr. Stephen G. Garfield Wedderburn A1A 

Mr. James Brian Wilson A1BA 

Rev. Richard Elias Wimberley III MDIV 
Als. Angela Yvette Wine BHS 


Air. Claude Alexander Allen JD 

Mr. Claude Alexander Allen LLA1 

Air. Erasmo Viteho Barrera A1BA 

Als. Isabelle Belance-Zank A1A 

Als. La Shaun Rene Bellamy A1BA 

Als. Dawn Jonita Bennett A1S 

Dr. Sabrina Terre Bent A1S 

Dr. Nicola Sheree Bravo AID 

Als. Jacqueline Elaine Brown A1BA 

Air. Tumelo Chiptupa A1S 

Als. Yarta Onika T. Clemens A1S 

Dr. Josephine Alillicent Clement A1BA 

Air. Sherad Levito Cravens A1BA 

Air. Eric Leon Crump A1S 

Als. Alelinda Gail Dudley AHC 

Air. Kenneth Franklin Edwards A1BA 

Dr. Naomi Patricia Franklin Ph.D. 

Ms. Ruth C. Harris AHC 

Als. Odessa Alarie Henderson BHS 

Als. Sonia Elizabeth Hill JD 

Air. Freddy Lorenzo Hooks A1BA 

Air. Gregory A. Hudgins A1BA 

Als. Linda Joyce Jordan A1BA 

Dr. Alawivah Rehema Hill Kambon Ph.D. 

Air. Anthony Alaurice Kellev MA 

Mr. Brayn Lucias Khunguni A1A 

Air. Robert Weldon Lancaster, Jr. A1BA 

Air. Seth Osibisa Lartev AIRE 

Als. Lavonne Denise Lawson JD 

Als. Lavonne Denise Lawson A1BA 

Als. Alandisa Aluriel A lava LLA1 

Als. Laverne Clarissa AlcClellan A1BA 

.Mr. Abraham Lincoln AlcCoy, Jr. BHS 

Dr. Kimberly Iris Aloran AID 

Als. Jennifer Lyle Alorgan A1A 

Air. Gichuru Kagwe Aluchane A1S 

Ms. Kim Inell Nance MBA 

Air. Garry Demarco Norns MBA 

Air. Julius Edo Nvang'Oro JD 

Als. Alauricette G. Parris-August JD 

Als. Saba Shibberu A1BA 
Dr. Robert Scott Smith Ph.D. 
Air. .Michael Joseph Sorrell A1A 
Dr. Jon Alichael Spencer AITS 
Air. Gary Alitchell Sutton A1BA 
Als. Donna Alarie Thompson AL\ 
Air. Robert Edward Thorn MA 
Als. Velma DeRaye Walker A1HA 
Ms. Janis Ruth Williams JD 
Airs. Lynn Perry Wooten A1BA 


Air. Lovest T. Alexander, Jr. A1HS 

Dr. Tedra Louise Anderson-Brown AID 

Als. Karen Elise Ashley JD 

Dr. Linz Audain Ph.D. 

Mr. Wayne Anthony August A1BA 

.Ms. Robin Deshay Alahan Baker BHS 

Air. Larry J. Barnes A1BA 

Air. Kevin Alanuel Beber A1BA 

Rev. Bobby Ray Best MDIV 

Dr. Victor Alfred Bracey AID 

Als. Adnenne Renee Brigmon A1A 

Als. Wannetta Iris Carter JD 

Air. Rodney Christopher Clare A1A 

.Ms. Constance Eugenia Clement A1BA 

Air. Anthony Thomas Coates A1BA 

Airs. Gwendolyn Gail Coley-Bishop A1SN 

Dr. Adrian Howard Cotterell AID 

Dr. Tamera Dynene Covne AID 

Air. Vincent Fitzgerald Crump A1BA 

Dr. Derick G. S. Davis. Jr. Ph.D. 

.Mr. Spruell Driver. Jr. JD 

Als. Veronica Euphema Easmgton BHS 

.Ms. Alillicent Renee Brown Fauntlerov A1A 

Als. Sharon Shankhn Freeland AITS 

.Ms. Katie Ann Gailes A1BA 

Air. .Maurice Oliver Green JD 

Dr. James Earl Harley AID 

Air. Derrick K. Harris. Jr. MDIV 

Als. Ruth C. Harris MDIV 

Air. William Gerald Harris A1BA 

Als. Cassandra Wylene Headen AHC 

Air. Vance Hunt A1DIY 

98 £# LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Ms. Debra Lynne Hursl MBA 

Dr. Cheryl M Johns..,, Ml) 

Mr. Reginald James Johnson MPP 

Mr. Andrew D. Jones. -I, MA 

Ms, Karen Lynn Jones MBA 

Mr Linwood Kiit li MA 

Ms. Brenda Kirton Ml )FV 

Ms. Carolyn Wilkins Lucas Ml)l\ 

Ms. Joan Marie McBarnette MBA 

Mr. Donald McMichael, Jr. MHA 

Mr. Samuel Howard Moore, Jr. MD1V 

Ms Gail Patricia Moselej MA 

Ms Robin Catherine Murray-Gill .11) 

Ms Jacqueline Diane Neal MBA 

Ms. Gretchen Rita Carre Nell) .11) 

Mr. Hilton Manuel Nicholson A \ I i - \ 

Ms. Chinvere Y. Okoronkwo .11) 

Ms Monica Jane Oliver MAT 

Dr. Wendy-Ann Olivier MI> 

Ms. Stephanie J. Pennington-Grant MSN 

Mr. Therence O. Pickett JD 

Dr. Jennifer Parker Porter MI) 

Mr. Stanley Eason Porter MBA 

Dr. Leslie Dentse Reynolds MD 

Mrs. Monicjue A. Rowtham- Kennedy JD 

Ms. Dew Patterson Russell JD 

Ms. Cheryl Yvonne Self MBA 

Ms. Paula Una Simon JD 

Mr. Brian Christopher Smith MBA 

Rev. Clarence Anthony Smith, Jr. MDIY 

Ms. Nicole Eileen Sullivan MA 

Ms. Charieese Jordan Sutton MBA 

Mr Joseph B. Sylve 111 MBA 

Mrs. Cassandra Smith Taylor MBA 

Rev. David Bernard Thornton MDIY 

Mrs. Pamela Brooks TulLv MBA 

Ms. Lisa Yvette Waller MA 

Mr. Oregon' Alan Watson MBA 

Ms. Tanya Deshields Whitted AIIC 

Mr. Elijah Williams MTS 

Ms. Esther Marie Woods MTS 

Ms Tamara Yvette Woolfork JD 


Mr. Shawn Ray Alexander AIIC 

Mr. Charles Duane Almo MA 

Ms. Jennifer Elizabeth Baltimore .11) 

Rev. 1 la, r\ Maurice Barnes MDIY 

Rev. Arnetta Elizabeth Beverly MDIY 

Ms. Amanda Cordelia Bryant MS 

Mr. Eric Tyrone Bunch MDIY 

Ms. Danielle Denise Carr Ph.D. 

Ms. Nancy Njeri Chcge MEM 

Dr. Lee Richard Coleman. Jr. MI) 

Mr. Matthew Jon Countryman MA 

Mrs. Rhonda Nesmith Crichlow MPP 

Ms. Mary Elizabeth Crudup MRE 

Ms. Carmela N Edmunds .11) 

Dr. Paul Dominic Edwards MD 

Ms. Lisa Caroline Evans JD 

Ms. Kimberly Beth Flint Ph.D. 

Mr. Garrick Codrington Francis MA 

Ms. Martina Monique Garns-Bingham JD 

Mr. Dale Christopher Catling MBA 

Ms. Cynthia Adrienne Groomes LMJD 

.Ms. Deirdre Terese Guion MBA 

Dr. Jarvis Alden Hall Ph.D. 

Rev. Ralph Devolia Harris MDIY 

Mrs. Kellie Robinson Hicks MHA 

Mr. Christopher Lavone Hinton MBA 

Ms. Anica Lynne Howard MBA 

Mr. Starling David Hunter III MBA 

Dr. Carlos Sidney Ince, Jr. MD 

Mr. Darryl Ernest Ince MBA 

Ms. lilla G. Johnson JD 

Mr. Andrew D. Jones. Jr. Ph.D. 

Ms. Christina Shade Jones MBA 

Ms. l^rika Yeronica Keller JD 

Dr. Yern Antoine Keller MD 

Mr. Endalkachew Kidanewold MA 

Ms. Deborah P. Lane MBA 

Dr. Rhea Armagne Lloyd MD 
Ms. India Manton MBA 
Dr. Althea L. McCoy Ph.D. 
Mr. Omar Yusef McNeill JD 
Ms. Erma Mary Millard MBA 
Mr. Henry Jerome Mtms JD 

Mr. Michael Boulware Moore MBA 
Mr. Richard Bernard Moore II MBA 
Rev. I )ita\v.i Mavuluswa Nianda MDIV 
Mr. Abubakar Atiku Nuhu-Koko MA 
Ms. Emily Ann Page MBA 

Ms Denise Elliott Patterson MBA 

Dr. Karl Lyndell Pete MD 

Ms. Valorie Antionette Pigotte A I IC 

Rev. Vertie Powers- Williamson MDIY 

Mr. Eri< Wayne Price MBA 

Mr. Fazli Qadir MBA 

Ms. Annua Magnolia Richardson LMJD 

Mr. David Walton Roberts MBA 

Dr. Yernice Royal MD 

Mr. John Ashley Sammerson MA 

Mr. Victor Rudolph Shavers. Jr. MBA 

Ms. Dorinda Dawn Shelton AHC 

Ms. Lisa Sheppard MBA 

Mr. Michael Smith MBA 

Mr. Sarnie Allen Solomon, Jr. MBA 

Mrs. Sharon Lovett Solomon MBA 

Mr. Samuel Lvdell Starks JD 

Mr. Tern,' L. Staten MBA 

Mr. Timothy Jonathan Talley MBA 

Dr. Donald Walker Tunnage JD 

Ms. Darline Faith Turner MHS 

A\rs. Lisa Williams Warren MA 

Ms. Christine Celeste Washington .1 1 ) 

Ms. Geovette FZIise Washington JD 

Ms. Sheryl Ann Watkins JD 

Ms. Sheila Kenvatta White MA 

Mr. John Wilson III MDIV 

Ms. Nuhaad Abdulwahab Abbas MEM 

Dr. Joseph Bebee Alexander. Jr. JD 

Mr. Johnson K. Asibuo THM 

Ms. Rachel Lavern Battles A\BA 

Dr. Herman Lee Bennett Ph.D. 

Ms. Renee Antonia Berry MBA 

Dr. Guenet Beshah-Tapscott JD 

Dr. Clifford Bowens, Jr. MD 

Dr. Fredrick Dubois Bowman Ph.D. 

Mr. Paul Andre Brathwaite MPP 

Appendix ££ 99 

Dr. Jacqulynn Michelle Broughton JD 

Ms. Leslie Brown MA 

Ms. Linda W. Bryan MDIV 

Ms. Amanda Cordelia Bryant Ph.D. 

Mr. Brian Menard Butler MBA 

Mr. Courtland Wallace Butts, Jr. MBA 

Mr. William Burnett Bynum, Jr. MA 

Mr. Clem William Campbell THM 

Mr. David Allen Cantrell MA 

Mr. Benjamin James Carson III MBA 

Dr. Paulette Denise Chandler MD 

Ms. Stephanie Lynn demons MBA 

Mr. Gerald Llwellyn Coates MBA 

Ms. Sherrie Ranae Cook MDIV 

Mr. David Alexander Cooks MBA 

Dr. Thaxter Angenilla Cooper JD 

Dr. Teresa Deloatch JD 

Dr. James Antone Dickens JD 

Ms. Kathryn Renee Dungy MA 

Mr. Eric Antonio Edmond MBA 

Rev. Robert Howard Edwards THM 

Ms. Dianthe Renea Eiland MS 

Ms. Julia Ann Eklund JD 

Mr. Maxwell Onvemaechi Eleogu MA 

Mr. David L. Elliott JD 

Dr. Christopher Eric Ervin AID 

Ms. Lesley Grace Feracho MA 

Rev. Trevon Dyrel Gross MTS 

Dr. Terrie Victoria Hagler JD 

Ms. Vanessa Price Hairston MSN 

Ms. Tomiko Brown Hall MA 

Mr. Roderick Teryl Henley MBA 

Ms. Robin Lee Hughes MS 

Dr. Willie J. Jennings Ph.D. 

Mr. Byron Vernon Johnson MBA 

Mr. Lewis Elgin Johnson MA 

Ms. Sharon Regina Johnson MBA 

Dr. Alysia Marvelle Jones JD 

Dr. Daryl Milton Kennedy JD 

Mr. Carl William Kenney II MDIV 

Ms. Kimberlv Lynette Kennion AHC 

Dr. Avis Maureen Kinard JD 

Ms. Brenda Kirton AHC 

Ms. Susan Lasley MA 

Dr. Cleveland William Lewis, Jr. MD 

Ms. Sharon Grundy Lynn MBA 

Mr. Eugene Victor A. Maafo MDIV 

Mr. Sir Walter Lee Mack, Jr. MDIV 

Ms. Saundra Hardin Marion MBA 

Mr. Ronald Erickson Maxwell MDIV 

Mr. Harold Anthony McDonald MBA 

Mr. Donald McGill MBA 

Mr. Charles Wesley McKinney MA 

Mr. Alexander McMillan, Jr. MBA 

Mr. Everett Roy McNair MBA 

Rev. Wyatt Clifton Minton III MDIV 

Dr. Orlando McArthur Moncrieffe Ph.D. 

Ms. Celia Elizabeth Navlor-Ojurongbe MA 

Rev. Kenneth Lee Nelson MDIV 

Ms. Sandra Park MPP 

Mr. Larry Bryant Parker MDIV 

Mr. Donzell Bryant Patterson AHC 

Mr. George Piwang MTS 

Ms. Bettye Donne Poole MDIV 

Ms. Andrea Green Price AHC 

Ms. Andrea Green Price MDIV 

Mr. Tony Eugene Reese MDIV 

Ms. Jacqueline Robinson MBA 

Mr. Mark Harrison Robinson MBA 

Ms. Leslie Karin Roland MBA 

Ms. Annette Yvonne Scippio MA 

Colonel Sylvester L. Shannon THM 

Mr. Kevin Iry Sims MBA 

Ms. Linda Bradsher Singietary MDIV 

Ms. Ann Lawson Smith AHC 

Dr. Susan Reid Smith JD 

Ms. Jacquelene R. Hairston Stephenson A1SN 

Mr. Samuel Lee Stewart MDIV 

Dr. Jim Odell Stuckey II JD 

Mr. David Allen Swanson MA 

Mr. David Cary Tapscott MBA 

Ms. Geanine Dorothea Thompson MBA 

Dr. Josette Michelle Thompson JD 

Ms. Amelia Pride Thorpe MA 

Mr. Paul Pascal Van Den Bulck LLM 

Ms. Yolanda Vanessa Van Horn MA 

Dr. Terrence Wayne Walton MD 

Ms. Carol Njanja Wanjau MA 

Dr. Greta Yvonne Watts MD 

Dr. Kimberlv Lynn Webb JD 

Ms. Juanita Chizuko Williams-Gould A\A 

Dr. Karen Donnella Woodard JD 

Mr. James Andrew Wooten MBA 

Mr. Kwame Oppong Yeboah MBA 


Ms. La Gaylia Juwana Appleby MBA 

Dr. Osbert Blow Ph.D. 

Ms. Kimberlv Rachelle Bolton JD 

Mr. John Williams Roberts Bradley MBA 

Ms. Cheryl Allen Brewer MSN 

Mr. Brian Paul Brown MBA 

Ms. Dionne Yverte Brown MPP 

Ms. Joanne Elizabeth Brown MDIV 

Mr. Michael Anthony Brown MBA 

Ms. Danielle Quave Burton MBA 

Mr. William Burnett Bynum, Jr. Ph.D. 

Mr. James Harvey Carter, Jr. MHS 

Mr. Eddie Terrence Chavis MBA 

Mr. Garvey Elton Cills MBA 

Mr. Rodney Clark MA 

Ms. Dana Jeanine Cosby JD 

Dr. Evelyn Winston Dadzie Ph.D. 

Ms. Jeanine Margarita DaSilva MBA 

Mr. Anbessie Debele MA 

Ms. Satana T. Deberry JD 

Ms. Angela Harper Dunlap MDIV 

Ms. Beverly Renee Eccles MBA 

Mr. Theodore Curtis M. Edwards II JD 

Ms. Sherry Danielle Ellerbe MBA 

Ms. Donna Maria Epps JD 

Ms. Charlene Lanette Evans MBA 

Mr. Theodore Leon Fleming MBA 

Ms. Lorna Deneen Flowers MBA 

.Ms. Erica Dawn Foster JD 

Mr. Terry Sylvester Francis MBA 

Mr. Trevor Kenneth Freeland MBA 

Dr. Richard Ramas Gillespie, Jr. MD 

Ms. Arnetta Carol Girardeau MA 

Mr. Bruce Tyrone Grady MDIV 

Ms. Merida Marcella Grant MA 

Ms. Kimberlv Martin Grantham JD 

100 c^r? LEGACY, 1963-1993 

Ms. Cecelia Evelyn Greene .MDIV 
[ )i I )eborah Reynolds Greene Ml) 
Ms [Yacye Renee Grinnage .11) 
\\i Norm. ui Scott Gunn JD 

Mr.Glendon Philip Hall MBA 
Mr. Joseph Ghana Hall AHC 
Mr. (an Keith Macneil Hanley MBA 
Mr. Leo Harmon, Jr. MBA 
Ms. Karol Suzette Harshaw iWSN 
Ms. Charla Winnetta Hill MBA 
Ms. Roberta Shikako Hill MBA 
Dr. Jenniler Lynn Hunter Ml I 
Mr. Brian Andree Irving .MDIY 

Dr. Harvey Clarke Jenkins, .Jr. MD 

.Ms. Carla J. Kelly MBA 

.\\r. Herschel Bernie Kenney MBA 

.\\r. Eri< Williston Law MA 

Ms. Christy Brown Leflore MA 

Dr. Jarnes Wilton Lewis Ph.D. 

Ms Shellene Madeline Lumpkin MBA 

Ms. Cynthia McArthur MSN 

Mr. Alvin McCoy III .MBA 

.Ms. Yarnell I). Mc Donald-Fletcher MHS 

Dr. Sheila Smith McKoy Ph.D. 

Mr. Walter Emmett McLeod MDIY 

Mr. Sherman Marc Meachem MBA 

Ms. Sondra Marie Middleton MHS 

Ms. Sonva Williams .Middleton JD 

Ms. Michelle Renee Minus .MBA 

Dr. Nico Ronald Mliga Ph.D. 

Ms. Robin Elizabeth Moore JD 

Dr. Mary Wairimu Muchane Ph.D. 

Mr. Salahuddin Muhammad .MHS 

Dr. Fausta Nazaire MD 

Dr. Andrea Yoruba Nelson JD 

Dr. Bernard N. Kimani Njoroge Ph.D. 

Mr. Munishi K. T. Pantaleo MEMF 

Ms. Rosalind Marie Parker JD 

.Ms. Wanda Gale Parker MSN 

Mr. liarl Douglas Reams MDIY 

Dr. Brian Sean Register MD 

.Ms Kimberly Jean Roberts MHS 

Dr. Albert Devon Sam II MD 

.Mr. Robert Charles Scott MDIV 

.Ms. Ruby Martin Simmons MSN 

.Ms. Gloria Ann Skinner- Pettiford MDIV 

Mr. James Wesie} Smith 111 MA 

Mi Michael Joseph Sorrell JD 

Mr. Sterling Ashley Spainhour .MBA 

Dr. Yolanda Richelle Spraggins .Ml) 

.Ms. Stephanie Alease Stevenson .MI IS 

Dr. Tom Denise Sublett MD 

.Ms. Pamela Marie Sutton MA 

.Mr. Stephen iMiles Tate MA 

Dr. Vince Salazar Thomas Ph.D. 

Mr. Carl Eugene Thompson ,MTS 

.Mr. George Bernard Walker. Jr. MDIY 

Ms. Earlene Eunice White MRE 

.Mrs. Portia T. Williamson Ph.D. 

Dr. Lawrence Woodard, Jr. MD 

Ms Kharon Jenese Works MBA 

Ms. Djuana Fave Wright MBA 


Ms. Karen Rudell Amis MS 

Mr. Derrick Lamonte Black MBA 

Ms. Carol Necole Brown LMJD 

Mr. Gregory V. Brown JD 

Mr. Wilmer Brown MDIV 

Ms. Trudy L. Coar MBA 

Mr. I^onnie Leandris Cockerham II MBA 

Ms. Angela Maureen Cooper JD 

iMr. FYank Rudolph Cooper JD 

Ms. Ana Lucia Da Cruz MA 

Ms. Chimere Uma Eleazu MBA 

Ms. Myra Maureen Frazier JD 

Ms. Myra A\aureen Frazier MA 

Mr. Anthony Carlos Free MBA 

Mr. Hamlet Darius Goore JD 

Mr. Marshall L. Hayes ME.M 

Ms. Sonja Leneice Henning JD 

Ms. Karen Annette Hill JD 

Ms. Tania De Carlo Ince MBA 

Ms. Guilaine Christine Jean-Pierre MBA 

Ms. Pamela Lynn Jeffries JD 

Mr. Isaiah Novelle Johnson MBA 

Ms. Andrea Renee Jones MBA 

Mr. Barrv Gene Jordan MBA 

Ms. Urn Lenore Julian .MBA 

Ms. Teresa Janel .Marshall MBA 

Mr. Jonathan Emmanuel Martin JD 

Ms. Patrice Ilinton Morrison MSN 

.Ms. Lisa Marie Mutch MS 

Ms. Hcllen Wan|iru Njomo MA 

Mr. Sterling Eugene Owens MBA 

Dr. Peter Jason Pletcher Ph.D. 

.Ms. Andrea Green Price THM 

.Ms. Priscilla Johnson Ramseur .MSN 

Ms. Terrie Lanita Rayburn MBA 

.Mr. Wendell Gilbert Rayburn. Jr. MBA 

Mr. Harold Philip Salmon MBA 

Ms. Pamela Lorraine Shavers MBA 

Mr. Peter George Singletary, Jr. .MDIV 

.Mrs. Mattie Hood Smith MDIV 

.Mr. Randell Clark Smith MBA 

Mr. William Harris Stuart MBA 

Mr. Michael David Summey MBA 

.Mr. David Allen Swanson JD 

A\s. Jacinda Thedders Townsend JD 

Mr. Isaiah Charles Turner MBA 

Ms. Kara .Miles Turner MA 

Ms. Marjorie Judith Vincent JD 

Ms. Phyllisina La Mia Vinson JD 

Dr. Maurice Orlando Wallace Ph.D. 

Ms. Charmaine Cyrillene White MBA 

Ms. T'Nania Rene Whiteside MBA 

Ms. Andrea Vanita Whittington MBA 

Appendix tyfe 1 1 

Duke University Libraries 



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V rom the Hope Valley Protest and the Allen Building Takeover to the 
Black Faculty Initiative, the history of African Americans on the Duke 
campus has been punctuated by reminders that the struggle for justice is tar 
from complete. These events were a stimulus for many of the university's 
most difficult, yet most necessary, changes. 

— Nannerl 0. Keohane, President 

l\t some point along the way, the more serious academics at Duke and else- 
where began to realize that the exclusion of African Americans solely on the 
basis of race was not only specious and anti-intellectual but contrary to the very 
principles on which the university was founded. 

— John Hope Franklin, Professor Emeritus 

W hen I arrived at Duke in 1959, many faculty, 
administrators, and students felt that as a private uni- 
versity Duke should be exempt from the legal directives of the 1954 decision 
[Brown i'. Board of Education], . . . Consequently, it was to take eight years of dis- 
cussion, debate, and research to produce the 1961—62 trustee resolutions inte- 
grating the student body. 

— Jack J. Pre Lis, Professor Emeritus 

.L/et us look upon the thirtieth anniversary not merely as a self-congratula- 
tory event, but as an opportunity to pause — to evaluate the successes and 
accomplishments of the past, and to envision the future. 

—Leonard C. Beckum, University Vice President c3 Vice Provost 
Chair, Thirtieth Anniversary Committee 

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