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i,.s A?^^ :. ^3 







(Tbe Scottisb Zest Socicti? 

-^^ — ^ 


(MS. Cambr. Univ. Libr. Gg II. 6.) 





<Scottisl) Bialect of tfie iFourteentf) Century 







^rCnteti for tfje £ociets bg 




All Righfs reseri'fd 




Prologue, ........ 3 








De Sancto Andrea, 




Jacobus, . 


Johannes, . 


Thomas, . 



Jacobus (Minor), 



Philcpus, . 





Mathou, . 



Symon and ludas, . 




Mathias, . 









Barnabas, . 








Egipciane, . 



Cristofore, . 






Clement, . 




Vii Slepcris, 








Nycholas, . 




Machor, . 






Margaret, ........ 319 

Pladdas, ........ 326 

Thcodcra, ........ 337 

Eugenia, ........ 344 

lustin, ........ 351 

GeoiKc ........ 359 

Pclagia, ........ 369 

Thadcc, ....... 373 

Ioh[a]n[c]s Baptista, ...... 377 

Vinccncius, ....... 3S8 

Adrian, ........ 395 

Cosme and Damyanc, ...... 403 

Ninian, .... ... 409 

Agnes, ........ 416 

Agatha, ....... 423 

Cecile, ...... 429 

Lucy, ........ 439 

Cristinc, ........ 444 

Anastacc, ........ 449 

EflBimc, ..... 453 

Juliana, .... ... 457 

Tccla, ..... 460 

Katcrinc, ... .... 463 


Glossary, ........ 473 

Proper Names, ....... 583 

List of the princii)al Hooks and Editions used in the compilation 

of the Notes, &c., ...... 590 


Thefiguns refer to pages and notes to lines mentioned, 

p. N. 

5 22. For new read now. 

It 24. For that make us bold, &c , read may teach us to please God. 
7 96. For November 1366 read in number six and sixty. 

9 162-164. Delete note and read After Christ's ascension some part (uf 

them) chose Paul (as an) Apostle. 

10 2. Delete quotation at top of next page. 

14 87. Delete note to But met and read without meat. 

17 1 58. Delete note and read schufo^: shaved. 

27 587. Delete note to sched and read schcd=head. 

32 80. For That he made true read That he caused to believe. 

34 202. For law, command read received. 

11 214. /2;r rejoiced, &c., rAZ</ received. 
36 352. Delete the words after to end. 

39 606. Delete note and read ]?e get = the gate. 

40 657. /brAls= when rAK/Als= also. 

45 971. Delete and cf above vol. i. p. 57 1. 971. 

48 1 132. For fleschias see the Glossary. 

58 236. Delete quotation, 

63 524. Delete note and su Glossary under Flat, 
ft 593. Delete note and read To bet = to help. 

64 680. For command read commend. 

65 775' Delete note and see above vol. i. p. 85. U. 775, 776. 

66 821. Delete note. The explanation of the Translator's language is 

that he has mistaken fiioB6ifaros for a compound of fits and 
BdvaroSf whereas it is from fiia and Odvaros, meaning one 
who has died by violence. 

70 1075. Delete note, 

71 1 1 50. For of his own, &c. , read noble. 
73 LINE 25. /^£?r July 23 r«K/July 25. 

77 264. Delete note, 

83 62. Delete note and read Bowand, &c. = going forth, &c. 

f I 68. For herm read harm. 

II 92. Delete note. 

It 96. Delete note. The suggestion is wrong ; all the other verbs in the 

passage are preterites, not pluperfects. 

91 350. /br A.S., &c., r^o^L. vultus. 

92 431. Delete note and read Schone = afmid. 
127 706. /^r sudden fAZ^ sodden. 

204 277. For there read these. 

337 LINE 2. After Theodera insert or Theodora. 

354 71. For Pralius read Proclus. 




It may be well to observe at the outset that the letters ;/, v, w, are 
often used for each other, and that / or ^ is sometimes used for 2/. 
Thus on p. 14, 1. 252, we have A«2c/^=have; p. 17, I. 332, ves=\i^^ 

1. 328, p. 16; p. 12, 1. i86» z/m^r^=umbre; and 1. 188, Ewangelis=^ 
Evangelis. Again, on p. 27, 1. 706, A^=have; and on p. 67, I. 142, 

forgyff^iorgivt'^ and I. 137, Ai2^2wi^= havand = having. Further, m 
to and on to are often used where we should simply use in or on; in 
is sometimes used in the sense oion, and ^frequently with the mean- 
ing of out of. The spelling of the MS. is extremely irregular and 

References to the Legends are made by Roman numerals for the 
particular Legend, and by Arabic figures for the lines. Thus IIL 45 
is line 45 in the Legend No. III., St Andrew. 

Folio I is written by another hand than that which wrote the chief 
part of the MS. 

1. Catonc, Dionysius Cato, the name usually assigned to the 
author of a Latin work in four books, entitled ' Dionysii Catonis 
Disticha de Moribus ad Filium.' The real author is unknown, but 
the work may perhaps be referred to the fourth century. It was very 
popular, both in Latin, and in English and French versions. — Skeat, 
• Piers the Plowman,' vol. ii. 117 (Oxford). Mr Brock enumerates no 
fewer than four early versions of the ' Disticha de Moribus' in our 
tongue : i. An Anglo-Saxon version, of which there are three copies ; 

2. An English verse translation accompanying a late copy of 
Everard's French version of the * Disticha,* 1400; 3. Another verse 
translation by Benedict Burgh, latter part of fifteenth century ; and, 
4. A fragmentary version, also in verse, of the latter part of the 
fourteenth or early part of the fifteenth century, printed as an 
appendix to Mr Morris's edition of 'Cursor Mundi,' Pt. V. As a 
further proof of the estimation in which he was held, the following 
may be cited :— 



"CiiTtaise catoun 
pus endis his rcsoun. 
of mannis manere, 
as he tajt his sone 
alle yat in werlde dos won 
witte raai psd lere. 

IT Catoun was a paynym 
and na-])ing knew him 
in pe cristin fay. 
in his worde ne writte 
fande we him neuer Jitte 
againis our lay. 

IT In alle he accordis, 
and na-)>ing discordis 
tille goddis hali writte 
cfter goddis awen rede, 
he mai his life lede, 
}>at wille folowe hit. 

^ ]>e hali gaste be resoun 
semid in catoun 
que]>er sa he was, 
for na gode kunning 
is in man coming, 
wi]>-out goddis grace. 

if gode grante vs grace 
to folow catouns trace, 
in his teyching, 
in gode maneris 
to be his feris. 
In his wonyng. Amen." 

— 'C. M.,'pp. 1673, 1^4' 

The passage translated is the second half of the following distich : — 

" Plus vigila semper, nee somno deditus esto ; 
Nam diutuma quies vitiis alimenta ministrat.*'— L. i. 2. 

Rolland has the same thought : — 

" For Idilnes is Mother Radycall 
Of all vicis, and font original." 

— • Court of Venus,' Prol. 235. 

5. iPe romance of\e rose. The celebrated * Roman de la Rose/ begun 
by William Lorris (d. abt. 1260), and completed forty years after 
his death by Jean de Meung. Parts of it were translated into Eng- 
lish by Chaucer. Though it extends to 22,817 verses, during the 
thirteenth and two following centuries it attained an extraordinary 
degree of popularity. Its general import is sufficiently indicated by 
the heading :— 

" Ci est le Rommant de la Rose, 
Od Tart d'amors est tote enclose." 


6. Cf. Chaucer's 

•• For in pleyne text, withouten nede of glose." 

— * Leg. of Good Women.' 

11. That they cannot be turned from pursuing them, thyne— 
thence : — 

" Now fra thyne forth, all that succedis to ws, 
Quhen evir thai may find tyme, with strenth and mycht 
Batale to batale mot thai debait in feicht" 

— Douglas, ii. p. 215, 4. 

12. /ra=when. In this sense the word occurs frequently. Lit. it 
means "from the time.** 

13. P^, those. Horstmann reads \e, lordis^ princes and prelates. 

14. .S'/^w=rule. Cf. Mod.Eng. steer. 

15. p/ir.f= those. A.S. \a, 

16. Afferis—\if\oxi% to. O.Fr. affiert^ it concerns. 

17. Z?r^:jj^= direct F. dresser^ from Lat dirigere, 

22. Red ore here now=re2id or hear new. 

23. .SVr^= various. Cf. Icel. s/r. 

24. ])af to flesiS god vs ma kene=Xh2X make us bold or active to 
please God. kene^ from A.S. cine, O.I eel. kaenn : — 

" & kene men hem senied 
Of alle dayntye) double." 

— • Sir G. and the G. K./ 480. 
See Stratmann. 

25. Merroure, pIuraL Further on it occurs in the sing, without the 
final e, 

26. To kene ws=Xo teach us. kene^ from A.S. cennan : — 

'* And if mon kennes yow horn to knowe, 3e kest horn of your mynde." 

— ' Sir G. and the G. K.,* 1484. 

2^ Lang ham. Still used. Cf. Mod.Eng. "long home.'' 
35. This complaint occurs several times. 

46. Gi«=did. Used very frequently. Cf. Chaucer's use oigan, 

47. Demaynand hire in althing ^zz/f>f^== conducting herself in all 
things evenly, justly, or well. See below, 1. 81, note. 

49. 5/.fry«jf= moving. 

66. /i[y= haste. A.S. higian, to hasten. In hy occurs very fre- 

69. Longius, Longinus, the traditionary soldier who pierced our 
Lord's side, subsequently converted by the apostles. His body was 
alleged to have been found by the Crusaders about a.d. 1098 in the 
Church of St Peter at Antioch. — Smith's * Diet, of Christian Biogra- 
phy.* His name is probably derived from X^txi. a lance, the word used 
in John xix. 34. In the Apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus the same 
name is given to the centurion who bore witness to the divine sonship 
of Jesus. In the same work the act of piercing our Lord's side is 


subsequently said to have been done by a soldier whose name is not 
given, though in some recensions of the work he is named Longinus ; 
but see Dr Lipsius, * Die Pilatus-Acten,' pp. 38, 39. The day of 
St Longinus is March 15. The account given of him in the Aurea 
Legenda is as follows : — 

Longinus fuit quidam centurio, qui cum aliis militibus cnici 
domini adstans jussu Pylati latus domini lancea perforavit et videns 
signa, quae fiebant, solem scilicet obscuratum et terras motum in 
Christum credidit Maxime ex eo, ut quidam dicunt, quod cum ex 
infirmitate vel senectute ejus caligassent, de sanguine Christi per 
lanceam decurrente fortuito oculos suos tetigit et protinus clare vidit. 
Unde renuntians militias et ab apostolis instructus in Caesaria Cap- 
padociae viginti octo annis monasticam vitam duxit et verbo et 
exemplo ad fidem multos convertit. Cum autem a praeside tentus 
fuisset et sacrificare nollet, jussit praeses omnes dentes ejus excuti et 
linguam abscidi» Longius tamen ex hoc loquelam non perdidit, sed 
accepta securi omnia ydola comminuit et fregit dicens : si dii 
sunt, videbimus. Daemones autem de ydolis exeuntes in praesidem 
et in omnes socios ejus intraverunt et insanientes et latrantes se 
Longini pedibus prostraverunt et ait Longinus daemonibus : cur 
habitatis in ydolis? Qui responderunt : ubi non nominatur Christus 
et ejus signum non est positum, ibi est habitatio nostra. Cum ergo 
praeses insaniret et oculos amisisset, dixit ei Longinus : scito quia 
sanari non poteris, nisi quando me occideris ; quam cito enim a te 
mortuus fuero, pro te orabo et sanitatem tibi corporis et anima: 
impetrabo. Et statim eum decollari jussit : post hoc abiit ad corpus 
ejus et prostratus cum lacrimis pcenitentiam egit ; et continue visum 
et sanitatem recepit et in bonis operibus vitam finivit. — Cap. 47, 
cf. Vine. Bell. vi. 17, 18. The story is admirably told by Langland, 
* P. Ploughman,* C. xxi. 79flr. 

73.- According to tradition this spear was presented to Athelstane 
by Audulphus, Count of Boulogne, and preserved with many other 
sacred relics in the Abbey of Glastonbury. r//^= cross. The word 
is still retained in Holyrood, Roody^xfl, &c. 

75. Twechit—Xoncht^. He=e=tyt. 

80. P^, though, probably for }pochi, 

81. Hou scho dentanyt hir flesche, &c.=how she conducted herself 
during the remainder of her lifetime : not ill-treated or tormented 
her flesh, as Horstmann suggests, demanyt, from O.Fr. dcmetter, to 
guide, conduct It has also the meaning to torment. 

82. 7/7= while, as long as. The word occurs often in this sense. 

90. Z?^r^= death. 

91. But wene = without doubt, certainly. Wene is of frequent 
occurrence : — 

" I will go witte ^ith-outen wene.'* 

—'York Plays,* 74/104. 


•' Now I wote wyth-outen wene 
Thai alle ouie wele is tornyd to woo." 

— * Le Morte Arthur,' 1822. 

•* Tristrem, wij) outen wene 
A schip asked the king.*' 

—'Sir Tristrem,' 1143. 
From A.S. win, 

93b /%fr(y/j= wonders. So in Thomas of Erceldoun : — 

" Lufly lady, habyde a while, 
And telle ))ou me of some/rr(y." 

So also in • Piers the Plowman,' " Me bi-fel a ferlyr See Dr Skeat's 
note on this passage. 

95. p<M>«=them. 

96. November 1366. 

97. And—\{\ a frequent use of the word. See Murray's Dictionary, 

98. Na var eld and fait of sycht—vittt it not for old age, &c. 
Na z/^ir=unless there were, but for. na=\i not; eld=^gt\ fait— 
fault, defect; xyrA/= sight. Similar complaints are made further on. 

99. The first intention was clearly, therefore, to write the Legends 
of the Apostles only. 

105. pa/ ne rocAt =ihcy recked not. rocAt, A.S. recan. Allowing 
for the different mode of representing the guttural, we have the same 
word in * The Destruction of Troy * :— 

" Of his mote, and his manas, not mykell he roght^ — 11,005. 
And again in the 'York Plays':— 

" Full wondyr fayne I wolde hyde me, 
Fro my lordis sight, and 1 wist whare, where I ne ncj^A/."— 26/137. 

107. TiL See note to 1. 82. 

HI. At, the old Northern relative = that It is still in use through- 
out Scotland and the northern counties of England. 

113. Slycht = %V\\\. Cf. Mod.E. '* sleight of hand." IztX.slagr, 
sly, cunning. 

114. p^y^«^/=the devil. A,S, feond. Fa=(oe, A,S. fah, 

117. And ]>at ]>at tynt had wittis fyffe—?Si^ those who bad lost 
their five wits— viz., according to the enumeration in Gra|k«lie's 
•Castle of Love,' hearing, sight, speech, smelling, feeling; Ini^'for 
speech tasting is commonly substituted. Further on (" Thoma3j^"$)6) 
only four are enumerated : — 

• ' In )« hewid of man 
Ar wittis four, quha rekine can, 
As sycht, herynge, gustyne, tastyne, 
& 3et ])ir four ar bot a thynge 
& in ))e hewid ar herbreit all." 


119. " Sckenschepe or schame = ignominia," ' Prompt. Parv.* Cf. 

122. And spek=^2LXi^ speech. ^/=that. 

123. Handis, For the plural of hand Hampole uses hend. See his 
Psalter, Ps. viii. 6 — "And thou sett him abouen the werkis of thi 
hend;'' and 'Pricke of Conscience/ 3214 — "]?us er ]?ai bunden by 
hend and fete." The same plural is used in the 'Cursor Mundi/ 
11,450— "To hend and fete we sal him fall." 

124. Ba/e=eviL A.S. dea/u, Icel. do/, misfortune. 

125. //ifr^/= promised. A.S. hdtan. 
129. Matt V. 14. 

131. " Sege^ cf. sythynge {sege or sete\ Sedile, sedes," 'Prompt. 

Parv.* From O.Fr., sige, siige, a seat : — 

" Dauid sege^ his fadir free, 
Sail God hym giffe to sytte vppon." 

— • York Plays,' 99/163. 

133. '^e kynrikis xij^\}[i^ twelve thrones or kingdoms. Hampole 
has kyngryke and kyngrike^ also rike, for kingdom, rik or rike^ A.S. 
rice. Matt. xix. 28. 

135. Playne powar our\e /qffi:=(ul\ power over the rest, p/ayne, 
from Fr. //««, L. plenus, Hampole has : — 

" For Crist gave to VeXox playn powere. 
As says to hym on ]ns manere."— P.C. 3844. 
And Langland : — 

" Blynde and bedreden * and broken heore membres, 
That taken meschef mekeliche * as meseles or othere, 
Han 2&pleyn pardoun ' as the plouh-mon himseluen." 

— A. viii. 87. 
" The holy gost has on me light 
And has anoynted me as leche 
And geven me fleyne poure and might, 
The kyngdom of heuene for to preche." 

— *York Plays,* 160/103. 

Laffe is from A.S. l&fan^ and is preserved in the Mod.Sc. lave^ laiff, 

the remainder, rest : — 

" And the lave syne, that dede war thar. 
Into great pyttis erdyl war." 

— * The Bruce,' xiii. 665. 

136. Matt, xviii. 18. 

137. To schry/te=Xo confession of their sins. A.S. scrt/t. 

138. 5^/ had he fnay= yet had he more. Other forms of may sltc 
fna, maat mae. From A.S. md. 

139. Forowtin = besides. Other forms are forowt, forouten, for- 

cwut: — 

" He had in-til his cumpany 
F'oure scor of hardy armyd men, 
For-owt archeris that he had then." 

— Wyntoun, viii. 42. 


It has also the meaning of without: — 

*' In Ranchryne leve we now the king 
In resXt foT'Owtyn barganyng." 

— ' The Bruce,' iv. 2. 

141. In ^pts warld till at he w^rfl=as long as he was in this world. 

142. And ef tyre scalit ware wyd'quhare=2iXi(ii afterwards were scat- 
tered far and wide, on every side, wyd-quhare; wyd, O.Fris. wid, 

Ger. weit: — 

" Witt hafenn sohht te widewhart^ 
Ice ] ti faderr ba}>e." 

— Ormulum, i. 311. 

" He sayde, ' Wyde whare hafe I gane 
Siche anothir sowdane, 
In faythe sawe I never nane.' " 

— 'Sir Perceval,' 1481. 

'* Thou haste ben ferre and wyde wkere^ 
And now haste slayn the wylde bore." 

— 'Sir Eglamour/ 445. 

148, 149. As I find it comprehendit in haly wryt. It will be ob- 
served that much is set in order that is not comprehended in the 
canonical Scriptures, and that a very liberal meaning requires to be 
given to the phrase " haly wryt." 

162-164. Sum part . . . apostil syne chesit paule. The meaning is 
probably that St Paul was chosen an apostle some time or shortly 
after Christ's ascension by election. The author seems to have had in 
mind Acts ix. 17, xiii. 1-3; i Cor. ix.; Gal. i., &c. Apostil is evidently 
used in a collective sense, and is equivalent to our word '* apostolate." 


Thk Biblical account of St Peter's life is well known, and need not 
be repeated here. The narrative here given is based for the most part 
on that of Voragine in his ' Legenda Aurea/ the materials for which 
were drawn mainly from the Apocryphal writings of the New Testa- 
ment, but other ancient ecclesiastical works were also used. The 
points touched upon — for here, as elsewhere, the author selects — are 
as follow :— 

Name and character, 1-7; the Apostle's commission and relations to 
our Lord, 8-37; his preaching on the day of Pentecost and miraculous 
power, 38-44 ; his deliverance from prison, manner of living, and the 
martyrdom of his wife, 45-66 ; the origin of the Feast of the Chair 
of St Peter, 67-188; the restoration to life of a disciple, 189-204; the 
Apostle's encounter with Simon Magus in Jerusalem, 205-284 ; and in 
Rome, 285-316; the arrival in Rome of St Paul, 317-338; Simon's 
sorcery, 339-394 ; encounter of the two Apostles with Nero and Simon, 
395-598; the martyrdom of the Apostles, 599-736. 

Sources — The * Legenda Aurea,' c. Ixxxix. and xliv. (edit. Graesse, 
1846). With Voragine's story in the L.A. may be compared the ' Acta 
Petri et Pauli* (Tischendorf), Abdias 'Hist. Apostolicae,* I., 'Marcelli 
de Act. Pet. et Paul. Apost.,* 'Clementine Homilies' and 'Recogni- 
tions,* the writings of the pseudo-Linus, and the * Speculum Historiale ' 
of Vincentius Bellovacensis, viii. 12-15. 

St Peter's Day is June 29. 

1-20 is not from L.A., which begins with a threefold derivation of 
the Apostle's name, and gives another meaning to the word Peter. 
2. Z>/V/= tongue, speech : — 

* ' Translatit of new, they may be red and soung 
Ouer Albioun ile into your vnlgare Ude^ 

—Doug., 'Virgil.' 


*• Sone after the feste of the tiyn)rt6, 
Was a batayle by-twene hem sette ; 
That a sterae batayle ther shuld be, 
For no lede wold they it lette." 

— • Le Morte Arthur,' 3163. 

Further on we shall meet with a curious specimen of etymological 
learning. The following may be cited from the "Sermo in festo 
App. P. et P." (Horstmann), as equally curious : — 

*' Forthi he was Symon right callde, 
For he did all )>at Criste wallde, 
His o])er name gaue him Jesus, 
Als ^ gospell telles vs : 
|>at was Petir ; ]}at es to saie, 
' Knawinge ' on ynglihsse ' of God verraie.' 
Oure gospell spckes of right knawinge 
fat Peter had of Criste, our Kinge." 

6. Porelej so MS. (or pere/e or pare/e= peril, 

11. -5i//«/^r^= without doubt. See Stratmann, s.v, werre. 

12. '^ai ferly now is grete to ^^r^=that is now a great wonder to 

13. "£t ego dico tibi, quia tu es Petrus, et super banc petram 
xdificabo ecclesiam meam." — Matt. xvi. 18. 

16. Swet stewin=svfte\, voice : — 

'* To Mary, ' Mercy,' cryand aye, 
Wyth drery herte and sorrowfuUe sievyn" 

— ' Le Morte Arthur,' 341 1 

" Calde on him wij> squete steiuen" 

— ' Cursor Mundi,' 20,930. 

" And, strekand wp my handis towart hevin, 
Myne orisone I maid with devoit stevin.'* 

— G. Douglas, iii. 20. 
See Stratmann, s,v, stefne. 

16. " Et tibi dabo claves regni ccelorum. Et quodcumque ligaveris 
super terram, erit ligatum et in ccelis : et quodcumque solveris super 
tcrram, erit solutum et in coelis." — Matt. xvi. 19. 

18. Plane poware^iwW power. See note to Prologue, 1. 135. 

19. Thaucht, usually /««/^^/= delivered. A.S. tacan, to give : — 

" And this, to discouer, was my skill. 
For of his penys purser was I, 
And what )>at me taught was until!. 
The tente parte )>at stale I ay still." 

— ' York Plays,' 225/137. 
See also Jamieson. 

19, 20. Jno. xxi. 15-17. 

20. ^emscMe = care, custody. I eel. geymsla^ custodia. Other 
forms of the word are yemsel, ymsall^ yymseilL 

21-25. L.A. : " Petrus apostolus inter caeteros et super caeteros apos- 


lolos majoris fervoris exstitit ; nam et scire domini proditorem voluit, 
quia, ut dicit Augustinus, si eum scivisset, dentibus discerpsisset" 

24-26. An addition ; but evidently suggested by what follows in the 
L.A. : "ct ob hoc dominus proditorem suum nominare nolebat, quia, 
ut ait Chrysostomus, si ipsum nominasset, Petrus continuo surrexissct 
ct ipsum protinus trucidasset." 

26. 7VM/= teeth. Horstmann reads techt, A.S. //>, plur. of tdS^ 
tooth. See also note to II. 992. r^«=torn ; also written revyne and 
ryven, Sw. ryfuaj I eel. kri/a^ to snatch. 

" Als lyons, libardes and wolwes kene, 
J>at wald worrow men bylyve, 
And rogg )>am in svnder and ryve" 

— Hampole, P.C. 123a 
" His robes riuen were, 
f>erfore no leued he noujt." 

— *SirTristrem,'s82. 

29-33. L.A.: " Hie super mare ad dominum ambulavit " is expanded 
with the help of Jno. xxi. 1-8. 

31. Boi hym nakyt swM=bui quickly stripped himself. Either the 
text is corrupt, or the author forgot that Peter tunica succinxit se{erat 
enim nudus), Jno. xxi. 7. 

32. liely/e. Lit., "by life," but here meaning with life, in a lively 
way, quickly. 

33. 3'*''== went, walked. 

34. 30. An addition. 

33. The L.A. mentions here neither our Lord's resurrection nor 
His passion. 

39. Hcfore mentioning this, the L.A. says : "In domini trans- 
figurationc ct puelhu suscitatione a domino electus fuit, staterem in 
ore piscis invcnit, claves regni ccelorum a domino accepit, pascendas 
ovcs a Christo susccpit." 

42. L.A. : ** /Kncam paraliticum curavit." 

43, 44. L.A. : " Umbra sui corporis infirmos sanavit." The L.A. also 
mrntions the baptism of Cornelius. 

45. 0/ out of; a common use; see 'Maetzner*s Gr.,* ii. 220. 

47. /•>« ^- after. 

47-01. l-A. : "Ipse hoc in libro Clementis: Panis solus est mihi 
cum olivis et raro cum oleribus in usu est: indumentum autem hoc 
est mihi, quod vides, tunica cum pallio, et hoc habens nihil aliud 
roquiro." * Clem. Recog.,* vii. 6; cf. ' Hom.,* xii. 6. 

61. /»'#// w<i/r= without more. only. 

52, 53. L.A. : "in sinu semper sudarium portabat." 

53, yr*/!*^- wipe. c*W€'=eycs, 

54, 55, l«.\. : •* Quando dulcis allocutionis et pni^sentix Dei memor 

54. (#Vii/<*=wept. Mod.Sc, ST^^S p^'^s. A, ^ete ox ^eet, mcn€= 
think, remember. Mod.Sc, mimt 

NOTES TO PETRUS (l. 87-72). 1 3 

' ' And ])arfor David, als pc psauter sbewes us, 
Was ful dredand, pat says ))us : 
£t ignorancias meas me memineris. 
' Loverd/ he says, ' ne tnfne )>ou noght 
Of my freyle unknawynges of thoght.' " 

— Hampole, P.C. 5740. 

" Lord God, grete menielle es to mene, 
Howe man was made with-outen mysse." 

—•York Plays,' 93/1. 
57. Cane daw =beg2in to dawn. 

" For lesus lusted wel * loye bygynneth dawe.'* 

— 'P. Plowman,' B. xviii. 179. 

59. />M^r/K= wickedly. 'Genesis and Exodus' has Hderlike and 

liSerlike : — 

" 9in broker iacob was her nu, 
And toe (Jin bliscing liCer-like." — 1563. 

Cf. V. 3562. A-S. Iy9er—\y^(\, 

61. Clement of Alexandria. Stromata VII. xi. 63 ; Klotz, iii. 253. 

67-188. L.A., cap. xliv. * De Cathedra S. Petri/ and * Clem. Recog.,* 
X. 68 et seq. Cf. ' De Cathedra sancti Petri/ Horstmann, Altenglische 
Leg. N. Folge. 

67, 68. When the Apostles were scattered everywhere over all the 
world. A similar phrase occurs in * Cursor Mundi ': — 

" {>e apostles pdX wide quare ware spred." — 20,851. 

See note, Prol. 142. 

69. J/(fW/^r= master's. The usual possessive termination is -s or 

-is ; but instances where it is not used, both here and in the Northern 

dialect, are frequent. Hampole has fader house, moder knee, ]>e son 

rysyng, an eghe twynkelyng, til helle ground, helle pyne. Wyntoun 

has— i« fan he 

Banysyd his Broder bamys thre. 
As \e\ wald J>ame redy mak, 
For poxzfadyre dede to tak 

Other instances of its omission in the Legends are, Herrod presowne, 
I. 45; bruthyre faculte, III. 830; bischope In, III. 885; hewyne 
empyre, III. 1058; pilgrame answere. III. 1068; maister lare, IV. 
150; master corse, IV. 323 ; saule hele, V. 216. See also Dr Murray's 
* Dialect of the S. C. of Scotland,' p. 163. 

70. Myster^xittA\ often mister, Cf. Swed. mistaj Dan. miste, to 
miss, to loose. 

72. For \are feile he wiste ={or there he knew were many, feile 
is often v/T\titn /et/, /et, andy^/?. A,S,/e/a, Ger. vie/, 

" For ])a paynes er swsi/el and hard 
Als yhe sal here be red afterward, 
{>at ilk man may ugge." 

— Hampole, 6416. 


*' |K3a sil yan se fool srns vodfeJe. " 

— Hampole. 2453. 

" Other thorr mTghte of icoaihe - other thoev dcbj skyglitbes 

Venged me/r/f lyvaes." _. p ptowman/ C vfi. 74. 

In the following passage Barbour places it antithetically to 

qukifyne (Mod.Sc a»Ar/w)=few: — 

** And we are fpJ^^yn€ agarne sa,/^«r.** 

— QaoL br Jamieson, xL 49. MS. 

73L /^r^= learning, doctrine; but here, gospel. .A.S. Utran. In 
line 76 we have for the same word, lare, 

" Bot this lapis ..... 

Had lever haue knamin the scicns and the Lsrr, 
The mycht and fors of strengthr heifors fjne. 
And all the ainnyng of vse of medicyne." 

— G. Douglas, iv. 123. 

74. Bot erare in poynte war to for/are =^hMX rather was on the point 
of perishing. ^mri^= sooner, rather. A.S. i#r. 

'* S«-a erare will I now ches me 
To be re p i o w y d off sympilnes. 
Than blame to thole off m-nkj-ndnes." 

— Wyntoon, vii. 32. 
for/are = to perish. A. S., forfaran. 

77. And so sowed the seed [word] of God then. 

80. L.A., "Theophilus princeps civitatis illius." a;a/rff=govem- 

ment A.S. weaidan. See Stratmann. 

8L L.A., " qua ratione populum meum subvertis ? " 

84. /s!jy= faith, religion. O.Yr. fei; ljaX.Jides. 

85. (7^r/= caused. Icel. gora, rrtM= quickly. A.S. hraS. See 

86. The MS. has thymde for thrynge^ to press, throw, A.S. 

87. But ///<?/= without measure, rigorously, iw//, from A.S. gemet, 
a measure. ///7^=held. ^a/^=hold, prison. See Jamieson under 
Raid, Hauld. 

88. MS. has «^i/ir for //^r. ^tfj/<r= ghost = spirit 3a/ci<:= yielded. 
90. /'^/^wc/zfi^ piteous. For stewyne^ see note to 1. 15. 

02. Z?M^j^=lack of ease, distress, misery. 

*• • No, redely,' quod Reson, • that reule I alowe ; 
Displese not thi demer * in dede ne in wordis, 
But if the list ffor to lede • thy lyf in dissese," 

— • Rich, the Redeless,* ii. 71. 

" I graunte ])ame grace with all my myght, 
Thnigh askyng of ])i praier, 
{>at to )>e call be day or nyght, 
In what disease so l>at |Kii are." 

— • York Plays,' 496, 149. 
96. Mystere=disese of I. 92. 

NOTES TO PETRUS (l. 99-112). 15 

99. The second ]>ane is pleonastic, and is put in for the sake of 
the rhyme. The Northern English legend, " De festo sancto Petri 
apostoli quod dicitur in Cathedra" (Horstmann), follows the L.A. 
more closely: — 

" Saynt Paul, his brother, sone herd tell 
How Saynt Peter in prisoun was. 
Vnto yc prince sone gun he pas. 
He sayd he couth of alkins werk 
{>at fell to land man or clerk, 
In tre and stone he couth wirk wele. 
And graue in iren and als in stele, 
And alkins werk wele couth he wirk 
f>at fell to castell or to kirk. 
And all ]ris sayd he for ])is thing : 
His brother out of bale to bring. 
When J)e prince herd him Jms-gate tell, 
He prayd him in his court to dwell. 
In )>e princis court he dwellid )>an, 
And into Jw prisoun sune he wan 
Whore Peter Idy in poynt of dede." 

100. IVane =obtB\ntd access. From wtn, frequently wan, as in 
last line but one of above, and * Sir Tristrem,' 1930 : — 

*• Tristrem to Ysonde tttan," 

111. Sammy ne = together. 

'' |>e hasel and )>e ha3-]x)me were harled al samen. 
With ro^e raged mosse rayled ay-where, 
With mony bwyddej vnbly))e vpon bare twyges." 

— * Sir G. and the G. K.,' 744. 

" Thus aren we samyn assent 
Eftir thy wordis wise." 

— ' York Plays,' 63/235. 

" {>ai solast hom samyn, as hom-seluon liket, 
With Venus werkes, ])at hom well pleasid." 

— * The Destruction of Troy,' 752. 

" When J)e kyng had knowyng he comaund bcliue 

{>at the cit)e samyn were assemblet In haste." 

- , — Ibid., 1 176. 

I eel. saman, ' 

112. Weeping much with spiritual intercourse. ^<w//v= ghostly, 


" For a grete clerk says, \iaX hight Berthelmewe, 

|>at twa worldes er principally to shewe, 

|>e tan e^gastly, invisile and clene, 
|>e tother es bodyly and may be sene. 
^gastly world, )>at na man may se, 
Es heven, whar God syttes in trinity, 
And )>e neghen ordres of angels 
And haly spirytes in )>at world duelles." 

— Hampole, 966. 

1 6 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (l. 115-156). 

A.S. gast^ Ger. geist, gammy fte=sporit play, intercourse. A.S. 
gamen. See s,v., Stratmann. To the examples there given may be 
added Hampole's Psalter, Ps. v. 6, xvi. 12; 'Destruction of Troy/ 
107. 1506, 11,056. 
115. Richt as=i]\isi as, as if. 

" Bight as Lamyden )« lorde was of lyne broght 
Ffor he grcthit with )>e Grekys )n.t on his ground lay ; 
So ]^s Maidon shalbe mater of full mekull harme 
And mony londes to lure JraU euer ho lyffe hade." 

— ' The Destruction of Troy," 1443. 

127. A^i? kin dowi=xio kind of fear, or no hesitation, kin, from 
A.S. cynn. See Stratmann, under Gun. 

128. To suffer for Ghrist as a servant, thole is still common in 
Scotland, and is apparently creeping back into English. A.S. tholian, 
vnderIowU==\indtr\\ng, servant, from A.S. Itifaft, to stoop; Icel. /lila, 
to bow down. 

" And Crist ham wit his frendes went 
Till Nazaret quarof I ment, 
And underlout till thaim was he, 
Als god child au till elderes be." 

—'Met. Horn.,* p. 109. 

" Bot if it be noght swa suffishaunt 
Als )« papes es, yhit may ]>ai graunt 
Of )>air power pardon aparty 
Til )>air hawen undtrloutes anly." 

— Hampole, 3877. 

129-134. LiA.: *• Cui Theophilus : die ergo ei, ut filium meum jam 
per quattuordecim annos mortuum resuscitet et incolumem eum red- 
dam et liberum.'* 

132. Fowre )ere—iour years. L.A. : per quattuordecim annos. So 
also the Legend, " In Gathedra" : — 

* * I had a sun t>at was me dcre 
And sethin he dyed, es/ovrUne yere" 

137. L.A.: "Gui Petrus: rem grandem, Paule, promisisti." 

140. y?/V^/J>a;i^= straightway. 

142. But bade=W\X\\o\xi delay. So also but a-bade, 1. 147. So again, 
bwt mare late, 1. 149. A comma should be inserted after wese, 

143-152. L.A. : "Tunc Theophilus et universus populus Antiochiai 
et alii quam plures domino crediderunt et gloriosam ecclesiam fab- 
ricaverunt, in cujus medio excelsam cathedram collocaverunt et 
Petrum, ut ab omnibus videri et audiri posset, exaltaverunt." 

160. CA^ar^= chair, episcopal throne or seat. 

152. Quhene of the MS. is evidently a mistake for quhare. 

155. The exposition given in the LA. of the words, "exaltet eum 
in ecclesia." &c. is here omitted. So also is it in the Legend, " In 

NOTES TO PETRUS (I. 157-196). 1 7 

157. \)a/ sammyn /own£=th2Li same town, santmyn, from O.H.G. 
sama. See Stratmann — 

" Ande jw sammyn lawe is to j)e brousteris, baxteris, and flescbaris,** 

— ' Records of the Pari, of Scotland,' folio 2. 

158. 5^A«(/>= placed, pushed — 

*' Broke) byled, and breke, bi bonkkej aboute, 

Schyre schaterande on schorej, )>er ))ay doun schowued** 

— • Sir G. and the G. K.,' 2083. 
" In lesu side 

Schoffe it >is tyde." 

— York Plays, 368/297. 

162. 0'<?w«/j= crowns. For the various theories respecting the 
origin of the "corona clericalis," clerical crown, or tonsure, see 
Smith's * Diet, of Christ Antiq.,' and cf. Mrs Jameson's ' Legends of 
the Monastic Orders,' p. xxxiii. 

169. Fyfteh yre, L.A. : " Sed postmodum veniens Romam in 

romana cathedra sedit XXV. annis." 

" |>us was he pape thnigh goddes powere 
Fully .^'K^ and twenty Jere." 

— * In Cathedra,' 237. 

175. Perhaps the Tenth Book of the 'Clem. Recog.' 
177-188. L.A.: " Quoniam beatus Petrus ab aliis apostolis in tribus 
fuit privilegiatus, propter quae tria privilegia ecclesia ter in anno eum 
honorat Fuit enim prae caeteris dignior in auctoritate, quoniam 
princeps apostolorum exstitit et claves regni coelorum accepit, fer- 
ventior in amore, cum majore enim fervore Christum dilexit, quam 
caeteri, sicut in multis locis evangelii manifestatur, et efficacior in 
virtute, nam ad umbram Petri, ut legitur in Actis, sanabantur infirmi." 
177. /'r^«///^^= privileges. The word is here used in the plural 
without the usual plural sign. It is used in the same way in the 
Legend of St John : — 

•' For four prewiUge hym gewyn wes." — 1. 5. 

The three "privileges" were (i) that he was prince of the Apostles ; 
(2) had the custody of the keys; and (3) had a warmer love for 
Christ than any who were with Him. 
189-204. L.A., cap. 89, i. 

193. ^/^//^= place. A,S.stede. 

194. J)e fane Tt/fs d^de=ihe one, &c. L.A.: "unus illorum defunctus 

195. Ve /o]fgr=ihe other :— 

" fe tan es gastly, invisile & clene, 
fe tother es bodyly & may be sene." 

— Haropole, 372. 

196. But howne^vixXhoMi delay. See Jamieson, s. Hune : — 

** Ihesu ! lord and maistir free, 
Als |k)u comaunde so haue we done, 



|>is asse here we haae brought to ^, 
What is ]n wille ^u schewe vs sone. 

And tarie nojt. 
And \mn schall we, witk-ouUn hunt 

Fulfill In jK)uJt." 

— York Plays, ^o^JTr;^ 

198. Vndalline. Horstmann here queries undalline, and reads undoi- 

litu; but undalline is unquestionably the correct reading. The more 

common form is undolvtne, or without the affix dolvine or dolwyn : — 

•• Away she went, wyth ladyes fyve. 
In lond they wyste not whedyr whar, 
Dolwyn dede, or to be on lyve." 

— • Le Morte Arthur.' 3604. 
Dolly ne also occurs : — 

*• Deid is now that divyr and dollyne in erde." 

— Quo. byjamieson. 

Dalline-wo\i\d, seem to be a still further variation. A,S. del/an, to dig. 

199. Taucht, See note to 1. 19. 

205-735. L.A., cap. 89, 2. Cf. * Clem. Recog./ and ' Hom.' ; Abd. 
*Hist Apost/ I. vi. et seq,; Marcell., 'Acta'; Niceph. *Eccles. Hist.,* 
ii. ; 'Vine. Bello./ viii., and the other authorities cited below. 

205. L.A. : " £0 tempore erat in Jerusalem quidam mag^s nomine 
Symon, qui se primam veritatem dicebat et sibi credentes perpetuos 
effici asserebat et nulla sibi impossibilia dicebat" Cf. 'Clem. Recog./ 
ii., and Abdias, * Hist. Apost./ I. vi., where most of the events which 
follow are said to have occurred at Caesarea Stratonis, where Zacchaeus 
was bishop. According to tradition the Simon here spoken of is, it 
need hardly be said, the same Simon who is mentioned in Acts viii. 9, 
and who, in the apocryphal literature of the New Testament, plays so 
great a part. A statue is said to have been erected to him in Rome, 
with the inscription, Simoni Deo Sancio. Statues were also erected, 
it will be remembered, during the same period, to Apollonius of 
Tyana, who was also honoured with the title of " god," and to Epi- 
phanius the Gnostic. 

208. And by his craft did many men bring to shame. 

209. And hym canity &c. = and called himself, &c. suthfastnese— 
truth. A.S. s6S, 

212. He should ever love more than the rest. 

214. ^^//^/= without hindrance, in spite of. Cf. Mod.Eng. phrase, 
" without let or hindrance." 

215. dementis buke, * Recognitiones,' ii. 9, but still following L.A. : 
" Legitur etiam in libro dementis, ipsum dixisse : adorabor, ut 
Deus, publice, divinis donabor honoribus et, quidquid voluero, facere 
potero," &c. Cf. Abd. ' Hist. Ap.* I. ix. 

218, 219. The construction is faulty. *I sal* is omitted. 
221. "^at Rachael hechi=i\i2X was called Rachel. 
223. The MS. has and instead of /. 

NOTES TO PETRUS (L 226-232). 1 9 

226. D^ltu^rfy= quickly. *' This word appears to be taken from the 
French, delivre^ and is very frequently used in old writers. * IndustriOt 
slcyghe, bisy, or deliuer.* — * Med. Gramm.*" 

" Deliutrly he dressed vp, er the day sprenged.*' 

—• Sir G. and the G. K.,' 2009. 

Palsgrave gives, " delyuer of one's lymmes, as they that prove mastryes, 
soupie; delyvuer, redy, quicke to anything, agile^ delivre; delyuer- 
nesse of body, soupiesse** Thomas, in his Italian, renders snello quick, 
deliuer. — 'Prompt Parvul.,' s,v. Delyvere. In the York Plays, delyutr 
is used as an exclamation of impatience in the sense of " quick 1 " — 

•• I am douty to })is dede, delyuer^ haue done I" — 279, 217. 

See also Jamieson. 

229. L.A.: "Addidit quoque, secundum quod dicit Hieronymus: 
ego sum sermo Dei, ego speciosus, ego paracletus, ego omnia Dei." 
Cf. Hieron. in Matt 2. 

23a Lose, and 236, /^/ft= praise :— 

" But \2X louyng and lose should lenge of our dedis, 
And our werkes all wisely wroght by discrecioun, 
|>at we fare with no foly ne fonnyng of pride." 

— • The Destruction of Troy,' 4878. 

•• Bot for \tlo5oi\t lede is lyft vp so hyje. 
And ])y burg3 & j>y bumes best ar holden, 
Stifest vnder stel-gere on stedes to ryde, 
|>e wyjtest & \t wor})yest of l)e worldes kynde, 
I*reue for to play wyth in o)«r pure laykej." 

—• Sir G. and the G. K.,' 258. 

" Have O thing, & that is best of all ; 
That is to say, the worschip & the lo{S 
That vpone larges in this world furth goO." 

— • Lancelot of the L.,' 1777. 

O. Fr. loSt L. laus, Roquefort quotes among other passages : — 

" A ta sainte divinity 
Soit lo5^ honeur et potest^." 

— • Le Mystire des A. d. Ap.' 

231. Awne—fy^Ti : — 

" With his awne propir hand." 

— ' Records Scot. Pari.,* f. 2. 

232. /ri/n/<?= treasure. O.H.G. Ae?r/.' — 

'• For to helpe ])am here in ])air nede, 
Nouthir to clathe )>am ne to fede, 
Bot lete silver & golde on |>am rust, 
I>e whilk |»ai had in hurdt uptnist." 

— Hampole, 5567. 

" I persaue, Schir parsoun, thi purpos, perfay. 
Quod he, & drew me dovn dem in dolf by ane dyk ; 
Had me hard by the hand quhair ane hurd lay, 
Than prively the pennis begouth vp to pyk." 

— Gav. Douglas, iii. 147, 25. 

20 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (L 241-260). 

24L L.A. : "et canes cantare." Horstmann suggests hundis for hedis, 
and is certainly supported by the L.A. and other authorities of the 
kind ; but the author does not invariably follow the text of the L.A., 
and this may be an instance. With the description here given, and 
with that of the L.A., it is worth while to compare the descriptions 
given in the 'Acta' (Tischendorf), 13. 32 ; and in * Clem. Horn./ iv. 4. 

242. 7>v^«^(f= deception. Icel. truffa. 

243. Lynus, Said to have been the first Bishop of Rome after the 
Apostles, and identified by Irenxus with the Linus from whom St 
Paul sent greetings to Timothy (2 Tim. iv. 21). According to the 
Felician Catalogue, his father's name was Erculanus. According to 
the same authority, also, he occupied the seat of the Apostles eleven 
years, three months, and twelve days, died a martyr, and was buried in 
the Vatican beside the body of St Peter on the 24th of September, 
and, according to Eusebius, in the year 80. According to the * Apos- 
tolical Constitutions,* vii. 4, he was consecrated by St Paul ; but accord- 
ing to *Clem. Recog.' (Introd.), by St Peter. The Roman Breviary 
names Velletre, in Tuscany, as his birthplace. A somewhat late 
tradition says that he came to Rome in his twenty-second year, where 
he made the acquaintance of St Peter, who sent him to France to 
preach the gospel, and, on his return to Rome, appointed him his 
coadjutor. As bishop he ordained, taking i Cor. xi. 5 for his author- 
ity, that women should never enter the church with the head un- 
covered. See also Herzog. He is commemorated in the Roman 
Martyrology on the 23d of September as Pope and Martyr — the first 
after St Peter. For an account of his putative writings, see the 
Articles in Smith's ' Diet, of Christ. Biogr.' under Linus and Leucius. 
L.A., "Hie igitur, ut Linus ait, volens disputare cum Petro et osten- 
dere, quod esset, statuta die venit Petrus ad locum certaminis et ad- 
stantibus Petrus dixit : pax vobis, fratres, qui veritatem amatis." Cf. 
' Clem. Recog.,' ii. 

244. Nedwaise=grt^X\y, anxiously. Dr Horstmann would read 
redwaise. The text is preferable, though not altogether satisfactory, 
as is the case in many other places. It is more than probable that 
the author never carefully revised his MS. If he did, it has suffered 
very severely at the hands of its transcribers. 

252-260. L.A. : *' Cui Symon : nos tua pace opus non habemus, si 
enim pax sit et concordia, ad inveniendam veritatem nihil proficere 
poterimus. Habent enim intra se pacem latrones, propter quod noli 
invocare pacem, sed pugnam : duobus enim dimicantibus tunc erit pax, 
cum alter fuerit superatus." — Cf. Abdias, I. viii. * Clem. Recog., ii. 23. 

253. iff<?/-i>/= but if = unless. 

257, 258. Therefore call it not peace, but battle rather and strife 

260. P^/a;^. See 11. 194-196. z//«^kj/ = vanquished : — 

NOTES TO PETRUS (I. 261-296). 21 

•• Ffrome the gilt sparris hang doun ful mony a lycht, 
The flambe of torchis vincoust the dirk nicht." 

— G. Douglas, ii. 63, 20. 

261-266. L.A. : " Et Petrus : cur times audire pacem ? Ex peccatis 
enim bella nascuntur, ubi autem peccatum non fit, pax est ; in dis- 
putationibus Veritas, in operibus justitia invenitur." 

266. -^/VrAyj««^= righteousness. Ham pole writes it ryghtwysnes, 
rigktwisnes, and rightwysnes. Similar variations occur further on. 
Here the correct reading is probably " rich/ysnese." 

267-276. L.A. : " Et Symon : nihil dicis, sed ego ostendam tibi 
deitatis meae potentiam, ut repente adores me ; ego sum prima virtus 
et possum volare per acra, novas arbores facere, lapides in panem 
mutare, in igne sine laesione durare et omnia, qua: volo, possum fac- 
ere." Cf. 'Clem. Recog.,' ii. 9, iii. 47; Abd., I. ix. ; Niceph., ii. 27. 

278. L.A.: "Contra hunc igitur Petrus disputabat et omnia ejus 
maleficia detegebat." 

281-282. Observe the double negatives — na . . . na; no nan, 

28^286. L.A. : " Omnes libros sua: magicae artis, ne forte magus 
proderetur, in mare projecit et Romam, ut ibi Deus habeatur, per- 

283. Z?i?a//= fear :— 

" He brayde his bluk aboute, 
fat vgly bodi ])at bledde, 
Moni on of hym had doute, 
Bi ))at his resounj were redde." 

— 'Sir G. and the G. K.,' 442. 

" He come, al armyt boith with spere and scheld 
With fer^ desire, as he that had na dout." 

— *Sir Lancelot of the L.,* 259. 
O.Fr. douter, 

285. Rome, The MS. reads /^«^, but Rome is clearly meant. See 
1. 290. 

287. JfV//r/>f^ = knowledge, assurance. I eel. vitra^ to reveal; 
wVr, wise. 

293. L.A.: " Et ibi annis xxv. sedit." 

294-299. L.A. : " Et duos episcopos Linum et Cletum sibi coad- 
jutores, ut ait Johannes Beleth, unum extra muros urbis, alium intra 
ordinavit" Cf. Abd. ' Hist Apost.,' I. xv., where Peter is represented 
as ordaining Clement as Bishop of Rome : '* Clementem hunc Epis- 
copum vobis ordinabo cui soli meae praedicationis et doctrinae cath- 
edram credo," &c. Cf. also the reference given in the note to 1. 243. 
Beleth has adopted the statement of Rufinus in his preface to the 
'Recognitiones* : "Linus et Cletus fuerunt quidem ante Clementem 
episcopi in urbe Roma," &c. 

295. Lyne and clet war \ai. For Lyne or Linus, see note to 1. 243. 
The full name of Clet was Anacletus or Anencletus. As for the 
statement respecting him in the text and the L.A., cf. the articles in 

22 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (l. 299-405). 

Smithes * Diet, of Christ. Biogr.' under CUtus and Clemens Romanus, 
His day is April 26. 

299. yohn Bileth, Johannes Belelhus, a theologian of Paris, circ. 
1 190. The original authority for the incident is the pseudo-Linus, 
who represents St Peter as having been cast into prison and laden 
with chains by Nero, and as there visited by Agrippa's four concu- 
bines, Agrippina, Eucharia, Euphemia, Dione. 

304. To—quhile; to ]7di/=while that=as long as. 

310. And made them trust in Christ's law. lay, from A.S. lagu; 

I eel. lag: — 

" Luk ^e hym loue, )>is is his teste 

And lelly lyff cftir his layer 

—York Plays, 66/346. 

311,312. And refuse . . . forihir till have ^2Ji^ refuse ... to 
have further, entremetinge =^miercourse ; a law term. 

315. /M£i«^/)'= diligently. See Jamieson. 

318. W^^r^= doubt, perplexity, straits. Dunbar, p. 242, 1. 89. 

319-322. L.A. : " Symon et Nero contra te cogitant. Sed ne timeas, 
quia tecum sum, ut eruam te." 

327. IVest for w/j/=knew. 

330. Cf. * Clem. Hom.,' i. 2ff. 

341, 342. L.A.: "Quod vitas ejus et salutis et totius civitatis custos 
sine dubio putabatur." 

343. The story is also told, with additions, by Marcellus — * Codex 
Apocr.,* ii. 487. 

345. To dissawe hym in his wening^Xo deceive, and therefore mis- 
lead and confirm him in his opinion, wening, from A.S. winan, 

353. See also Marcellus, * Codex Apocr.,* ii. 491 ; * Acta, P. et P.,* 
p. 22. 

358. /^^^= behead. 

364. //"^^//^ beheaded. The MS. has hedid, 

367. Blynd=m3ide blind. 

368. And Simon went his ways free. 

369. y?«;«^= ram; cf. 1.365. ^/ry= deception. O. Ft. guille^ guile, 
Burguy. hyde =hid. 

381-384. L.A.: "Quem Nero videns obstupuit et ipsum verum 
filium Dei putavit." 

385. L.A. : '* Aliquando etiam in conclavi cum Nerone esset, da::mon 
in ejus specie foris populo loquebatur." 

394. The L.A. adds, " Denique Romani in tanta veneratione eum 
habuerunt, quod eidem imag^nem fecerunt et hunc titulum super- 
scripserunt : Symoni Deo sancto." 

396. Leopape, See the article in Smith's * Diet. Christ. Biogr.,' and 
in Pdtin's ' Diet. Hagiog.' 

405. Marcellus. A legendary disciple of St Peter, said to have been 
originally a disciple of Simon Magus, and to have been converted by 

NOTES TO PETRUS (L 408480). 23 

St Peter. An account of his conversion is given later on. He is the 
reputed author of a Latin version of the 'Acta Pet. et Paul. Apost/ 
substantially the same as that published by Tischendorf. A letter 
under his name is to be found in the *Acts of Nereus and Achil- 
leus* (Bolland., 'Acta SS.' May., iii. 9). His name occurs frequently 
in the Acts of Linus, where he is represented as playing an import- 
ant part In the Liturgy of St Gelasius he is associated with St 
Apuleius. In 872 Adrian II. sent the remains of the two saints M. 
and A. to the Emperor Louis II., whose wife presented them to the 
monastery she had founded at Plaisance. The day of Marcellus is 
October 7. Smith's 'Diet. Christ Biogr.,' Putin's 'Diet Hagiog.,' 
Herzog's ' Realency.,* and Lipsius, 'Petrus Sage.' For the story see 
Giles, 'Codex Apocr.,' ii. 488ff. 

408-410. L.A. : " Ne diutius hunc patiar inimicum, prxcipiam angelis 
meis, ut vindicent me de isto." 

410. W^ra/&= vengeance. A.S. wracu, Dutch wrak. See Strat- 

411, 412. LA. : " Angelos tuos non timeo, sed ipsi me timent" 

417. L.A. : " Si divinitas est in ipso." 

418. Meh^XtX him tell. A.S. mctnan, to communicate. 

425. -^<?zwi>'/= whispered. A.S. ninian, to whisper, speak mysteri- 

426. Bred of here, L.A. : " panem hordeaceum." 

435. L.A. : " Petrus magis dicat, quid cogitem ego." 

436. L.A. : "Dixit Petrus: quid cogitet Symon, me scire docebo, 
dum, quod cogitaverit, fecero." 

439. pfl« at a dedegne. L.A. : " tunc indignatus." 

441. IVery =vforry. 

446. 5w/M= quickly. A.S. swiSe. 

*' The heraude than wente on his way 
At morrow whan the day was light. 
Also swithe as euyr he may, 
To Wynchester that ylke night.'* 

— ' Le Morte Arthur/ 394. 

Fledof}patsiede=^t6, out of that place. 

448. L.A. : "Ecce ostendi me nosse, quod contra me cog^taverat 
Symon, non verbis, sed factis." 

451-454. L.A. : *' Nam qui promiserat contra me angelos venturos, 
exhibuit canes, ut ostendat se di vinos angelos non habere, sed 

456-459. L.A. : "Si hie vobis nihil possum facere, veniemus, ubi 
oportet me vos judicare ; ego autem modo vobis parco." 

460-465. L.A. : "Tunc Symon, ut ait Hegesippus et Linus in super- 
biam elatus ausus est jactare quod posset mortuos suscitare, et accidit 
ut quidam juvenis moreretur." 

460. Egissippus or Hegesippus, the alleged author of a work of 

24 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (L 461-515). 

which a translation from Greek into Latin, or what purported to be 
such, appeared somewhere about a.d. 400, and is commonly referred 
to under one of the titles *De Bello Judaico,' *De Excidio Urbis 
Hierosolymitanae.' Of the five books into which it is divided the first 
four are taken from the corresponding ones of the 'Wars' of Josephus, 
and the other in great part from the sixth and seventh books of the 
same. It is in his third book, chap. 2, that he speaks of Simon and 
the two Apostles. See Smith's ' Diet. Christ. Biogr.' 

461. And leo^ L.A. : et Linus. 

462. ^z/£i;fj/7;i^= pushing forward, prompting. Fr. avancer. iydc^ 
time. A.S. Hd. 

466. L.A. : " Vocatis ergo Petro et Symone banc omnes de voluntate 
Symonis sententiam firmaverunt, ut ille occideretur qui mortuum 
suscitare non posset. 

472. Al\e lawe=2\\ the rest, lawe for lafox lave, 

474. And through his wicked sorcery. 

475. Till^XQ ; made appear to them that stood there. 

476. His hevid can s/ere=his head did move. 

477,478. L.A.: "Tunc omnes exclamantes Petrum lapidare vole- 

484. And other signs of life make. /^= lively, or lifelike, taint's 
= signs, tokens. 

486. L.A. : ** phantasma esse." 

487. Fra ]>e bede, L.A. : "a lectulo." bede^hft^, 

488. / lay wede—l lay a pledge, wager, wcdey from A.S. wedd^ a 

489. Onhyde = unhyde = d i scl osed. 
497. CV7rj^= cross. 

505. I/yl=i\l 

507. L.A. : " Scitote, vos, Petre et Paule, non vobis continget, quod 
cupitis, ut martirio vos digner coronare." 

513. L.A. : " Tunc Symon, ut ait sanctus Marcellus, ivit ad domum 
Marcelli discipuli ejus." The author here again corrects the L.A. 
The incident is not mentioned in the Acta attributed to Marcellus. 

514. Or he wald ^/v«^= before he would rest £7r=ar=ere. A.S. 
ar. blyne, A.S. blinnan, to rest. 

" Helle cs halden a full hidos stedc, 
I>e whilk es full of endeles dede, 
And of paynes and sorrow ))at never sal blyn" 

— Hampole, 1746. 
'• Sir, lettis thus youre courte no blynne, 
But lyve in honoure and in pride." 

— ' Le Morte Arthur,' 37. 

515. Hell houftd. L.A., " maximum canem." Nicephorus, * Ecc. 
Hist.,* ii. 27, tells another story: "Nerone autem imperante, Simon 
Magus Roms miracula per imposturas et praestigia edebat. Canem 

NOTES TO PETRUS (L 521-535). 25 

autem maximum pro foribus catenis vinctum habebat^ per quem ad 
se venire volentes, si ei minus placuissent, arcebat. Advenit porro 
magnus ille Petrus ad Simonem visendum ; qui canem eum effer- 
atum et horrendum in se ferri videns, quum auctorem eundem, ante 
adventum suum, mortis permultis fuisse, qui ingredi voluissent, in- 
tellexisset, vinculis eum solvit, atque, humana voce annunciare hero 
suo, Petrum Christi servum adesse, jubet. Canis porro quo jussus 
fuerat modo nuncium perfert Ad earn rem, qui turn cum Simone 
erant, constemati obstupuerunt. Quibus ille : nihil novi esse, se quo- 
que eadem facere posse dixit. Itaque canem exire, et Apostolum ad 
se vocare jubet Petrus accitus ingreditur. Ibi in colloquio mutuo 
multa inter se verba faciunt." 

521-522. L.A. : " Et facto signo crucis canem solvit." 

521. Sanyt from O.F. seigner^ Lat. signare, to mark with the sign 
of the cross. In the 'Vitae Patrum' similar stories are related in 
abundance. By making the sign of the cross Anthony protected 
himself against the hippocentaur, 18^; Astion cured a demoniac, 
215a; Dorotheus rendered poison innocuous, 710a; Evagrius caused 
a door to open, though it was locked and the key lost, 764a ; Eudoxia 
healed a paralytic boy who was also deaf and dumb, 358^1 ; Peter the 
hermit of Galatia cured a woman of a deadly disease, 822^; Pachom- 
ius drove away demons, 119^; Maria iCgyptiaca was enabled to cross 
the river Jordan, 390^; with the sign of the cross and prayer the 
water of the sea was sweetened, 914^ ; Macarius, neglecting to make 
the sign of the cross, was exposed to many temptations of the devil, 
229^. Bede relates that John of Beverly cured a dumb man by sign- 
ing his tongue with the cross, and by his blessing covered the same 
man's bald head "capillis pulcherrime crispis.*' *Hist.' v. 2. For 
other examples see Mayor and Lumb/s ' Beds Hist. Eccl.,' pp. 279, 
280. The sign of the cross was made over the pail before milking, 
and over tools before they were used. It was considered effectual 
to endow a pebble with healing virtues, and to secure a favourable 
voyage. See for much other similar information. Reeve's *St Colum- 
ba,*p. 351. 

523-527. L.A. : " Canis autem omnibus aliis blandus, solum 
Symonem persequebatur, qui apprehendens eum ad terram subter 
se dejecit, et eum strangulare volebat. 

524. A^<u^AAr/=nor made. schath^\i2xxti, 

526. "^erd^^esLTih. 

528. Na war= if it were not that, had not 

531. Barnyscg =chi\dTeT\, boys; not ^«r«yj/^, as Horstmann. L.A. : 
" Populus autem et maxime pueri cum cane tamdiu post eum concur- 

532. 0/]>e towm=oMi of the town. 

533. Or war = or worse. 

535. 5VA^if/= disgrace. A.S. scendan. 

26 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (L 599^584). 

639. L.A. : " Marcellus autem hac miracula videns deinceps Petro 

542-545. L.A.: "Postea autem Symon rediens iterum in Neronis 
amiciliam est receptus." 

545. Z?rt;//<f= esteem. The final e is sounded. O.Fr. daintie, ag^ree- 
ableness. See Skeat's Ety. Diet., under " dainty." 

545-549. L.A. : " Populum convocavit et se a Galilaeis graviter offen- 
sum perhibuit et ideo urbem, quam tueri solebat, se deserere velle 
dixit et diem statuere, qua ccElum deberet adscendere, quia non 
dignabatur in turris amplius habitare." 

548. F/7«^=villany. 

555. Disdenyi . . . Aa^= disdained. 

558. Therefore he fixed for them a day. 

560-564. L.A. : "Statute igitur die turrim excelsam vel, secundum 
Linum, Capitolium adscendit et inde se dejiciens coronatus lauro 
volare coepit." Abdias has "Statute igitur die montem Capitolinum 
ascendit, ac se de rupe dejiciens, volare coepit." — xviii. According to 
' Marcellus,' p. 497, and the * Acta P. et P.* (Tischendorf, p. 31), Simon 
ascended a high tower expressly built for the purpose by the command 
of Nero in the Campus Martius.— 'Codex Apocr.,' ii. 497; 'Act Apost. 
Apoc.,' pp. 31, 32. The 'Apost. Constit.' say that the incident oc- 
curred in a theatre — vi. 9. 

561. The greatest height of the Capitol. 

563. So Walfrid Strabo— 

" Qui praecelsa rudis scandit vestigia turris 
Atque coronatus lauri de fronde volavit." 

562. His weyngis //k^A/= prepared his wings. Some critics main- 
tain that Simon had invented a flying-machine, and was putting it 
to the test. 

564. According to Arnobius ('Adv. Gentes,' i. 11), Simon had an- 
nounced that he would mount up into heaven like Elijah in a chariot 
of fire. " Viderunt cursum Simonis Magi et quadrigas igneas Petri 
ore difflatas, et nominato Christo evanuisse." 

566. Fcris, afferis— /.^., belongs. L.A. : " Meum est orare et tuum 
est imperare." 
569-570. L.A. : " Verax est hie homo ; vos autem seductores estis." 

572. L.A. : " Erige caput et vide." ^r<rn=: direct. 

573. A'/>/=cast. 

575,576. L.A.: "Quid cessas, perfice quod coepisti." bcgouth = 
began ; an imitation of couth, the past /. of connen. Skeat's ' Bruce.' 
Glossary sju, 

517, 578. L.A. : " Jam enim vocat nos dominus." 

580. L.A. : " Angeli Sathanae." 

581. Sa he oil htcht=so high on high. 
584. Let probably stands instead of lat. 

NOTES TO PETRUS (I. 68M29). 27 

585-588. L.A. : "Et continuo dismissus corruit et confractis cervici- 
bus exspiravit" 

586. He struck the earth with such force. swaJt =b\ov/, 

587. Hamise —braiins, Icel. hjami, the brain. Still in use. sched, 
perhaps written for schyre, neck. Cf. ' Sir G. and the G. K./ 2256— 

" He lened with )>e nek, and lutte, 
& schewed ))at schyre al bare, 
& lette as he no3t dutte, 
For dred he wolde not dare." 

588. Fruschit^'wtrt. battered, vndir is probably written for wvndir 
or wondir, wonderfully, extremely. The *Apost. Constit.* does not 
say that he was killed, but simply that he was dashed violently against 
the ground, and had his hip and ankle-bones broken — vi. 9. Mar- 
cellus says : " Ut continuo dimissus cecidit in locum, qui Sacra Via 
dicitur, et in quatuor partes fractus quatuor silices adunavit, qui sunt 
ad testimonium victoriae apostolorum usque in hodiernum diem." — 
Cod. Ap. II., 498. Similarly also several of the Greek versions of 
the ' Acta Petri et Pauli ' ; but Tischendorf *s text speaks of Simon's 
body being broken into three pieces. 

691. 7V>i/=lost. Still used. 

593. L.A.: "Suspecto animo me fecistis, propterea malo exemplo 
vos perdam. Haec Leo." 
697. L.A.: '*Deditque eos in manu Paulini viri clarissimi." 

601. Ine ^emsale. See note to 1. 20. 

602. />//= cruel. 

605-610. L.A. : "Quos milites Petrus ad fidem convertit, unde car- 
cerem aperuerunt et eos liberos dimiserunt." 

611-612. L.A. : " Quapropter Paulinus post passionem apostolorum 
Processum et Martinianam accersivit et comperto quod christian i 
essent, jussu Neronis capite ca:si sunt." 

615. L.A. : " Et cum venisset ad portam, ut Leo et Linus testantur, ad 
locum, ubi nunc dicitur sancta Maria ad passus." The tradition is 
also mentioned by St Ambrose ; " Nocte muros egredi coepit et videns 
sibi in porta Christum occurrere urbemque ingredi, ait : Domine, quo 
vadis ? Respondit Christus: Venio Romam iterum crucifigi." — * Contra 
Auxentium,' ii. 867, Edit. Benedict. By a mistake of the copyists 
Origen is made to relate the story of St Paul; Grabe, 'Spicil. SS. 
Patrum.,* i. 80. See also Greg, the Great, 'Exposition, in psalm. 
poenit,' iv. Florentinius adds : " Locus exstat ad hue via Appia a 
cardinale Polo restauratus sub titulo : Domine, quo vadis f Et lapis 
ubi Domini vestigia rutilant, in D. Sebastiani ecclesia translatus 
veneratur." See also 'Acta SS.,' V. June 5, p. 433. 

620-621. L.A. : "Venio Romam iterum crucifigi." 

623-624. L.A.: " Iterum crucifigeris?" 

629-632. L.A.: "His dictis dominus vidente Petro et lacrymante in 
coelum ascend it" 

28 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (L 631-706). 

631. Sy/Aware = momtnL Not sydiware, as Horstmann prints. 
See note to II. 518. 

637. L.A. : " Facta est ejus facies sicut sol, ut ait Linus." 

646. 7/<r= high. loud. 

649. Cumlytte="2i new come man." 'Prompt. Parv./ a foreigner. 
Cf. also Stratmann, s,v. Kumeling. L. A. : alienigena, 

651. //<r//r7A<r= he beheaded. 

652. Dr Horstmann proposes to read Rame for \ame, but without 
sufficient reason. 

653. L.A. : " De hac autem sententia in ipsos data dicit Dionysius in 
epistola ad Timotheum de morte Pauli in hsec verba: O frater mi 
Timotheus," &c. The Dionysius here mentioned is Dionysius, Bishop 
of Corinth, who probably succeeded Primus in that see, and is placed 
by Eusebius in his ' Chronicle ' under the year 171, as a sacred man 
celebrated at that time. For an account of him see Smith's * Diet of 
Christ Biog^.' 

660-667. L.A.: " Ad veniente autem terribili tempore consummationis 
ipsorum, cum separarentur ab invicem, ligaverunt columnas mundi, 
non utique absque fratrum gemitu et planctu." 

662. Suld one /rty= should pay. For the use of the separable par- 
ticle one, see Maetz. Gram. i. 491-4. deiU probably for <^//=debt: 
debt, however, is its meaning. 

663. This and the next line are unintelligible. 

666. Ci/M, for f<i«^= did. 

667. Suld twyne nedway^iayx^X, necessarily separate, twyne, A.S. 
twinnen. See Stratmann. 

669-670. L.A. : " Pax tecum fundamentum ecclesiarum et pastor 
ovium et agnorum Christi." 

670. Hcrsale=fioc\i. A.S. Acre. 

673. L.A.: *' Vade in pace, predicator bonorum morum, mediator et 
dux salutis justorum." 

675. L.A. : " Cum autem elongassent eos ab invicem, secutus sum 
magistrum meum, non enim in eodem vico occiderunt eos. Haec 
Dionysius." Cf. Eusebius, * Hist Eccles.,* ii. 25. For the rest, the 
L.A. cites Leo and Marcellus as the sources. 

679. Fra = when. fne/e= speak, A.S. ma/an. 

683-684. Bo^ one ]>af wtVi me /en's nocAt =hui in that way it does 
not become me. /ens, a contr. for afferis, O.Fr. affiert, it concerns, 
becomes ; from Lat affert, from afferre, 

690. L.A. adds, " Tunc illi crucem verterunt et pedes sursum, manus 
autem deorsum fixerunt." 

697. But he request to them did make. 

698. Be na way suld do j/7y=by no means should do so. 

699. Nor hinder his passion. 

70L In his * De Excidio Hierosol.* iii. 2-4. 

705. Hopnyt\ar ewyn^opexit^ their eyes. Visions of angels and 

NOTES TO PETRUS (L 713-736). 29 

lights seen from heaven are frequent circumstances in the narratives 
of the deaths of saints. For examples see Mayor and Lumby's 
'Bedae Hist. Eccl.,' p. 235. Others may be found in the *Vitae 

713. In ]>e crotce= on the cross. 

717. L.A. : " Tu semper rectus, excelsus et altus, nos primi hominis 
filii, qui caput suum demersit in terram, cujus lapsum significat species 
generationis humanae : sic enim nascimur, ut proni in terram videamur 
effundi.*' After line 722, L.A. has, " Mutata quoque conditio est, ut hoc 
putet mundus dextrum quod constat esse sinistrum." See also Hege- 
sippus, 'De Excidio Hierosol.* 

723. L.A. : "Tu, domine, mihi omnia es, totum, quod es tu mihi 
totum, et nihil aliud nisi tu solus: gratias tibi ago spiritu toto, quo vivo, 
quo intelligo, quo interpello. Ubi duae aliae rationes tanguntur, quare 
rectus noluit crucifigi." 

724, ^«//^/J?^= and without Thee. 

727. L.A. : " Vidensque Petrus, quod fideles gloriam suam vidissent, 
gratias agens et Deo fideles commendans spiritum emisit." 

731. L.A. : " Marcellus et Apulejus fratres, discipuli ejus." 

735. 5'i'i7/=fit or right 

The L.A. continues with a citation from Isidore respecting the 
time of the Apostle's death and a vision which appeared to Dionysius, 
and concludes with Nero's End, which is given at the conclusion of 
the next Legend. 

I I.— P A U L U S. 

No more than that of St Peter is it requisite here to sketch the 
Scripture narrative of St Paul's life. This Legend is based, as in the 
case of the preceding Legend, for the most part on the Legenda Aurea, 
the narrative of which again is, as in the preceding instance, taken 
for the most part from the Apocryphal writings of the New Testa- 
ment. The points taken up are as follow : — 

The Apostle's persecutions and miracles, 1-42 ; was he or St Peter 
the greater? 43-52; his life and preaching, 53-60; his imprisonment 
in Rome, 61-84; he restores Patroclas to life, 85-104; Nero interro- 
gates Patroclas respecting his faith, 105-131 ; St Paul is brought be- 
fore Nero and condemned to death, 132-200; being led out to execu- 
tion, he preaches to the soldiers who have charge of him, 201-242 ; and 
is met by Plantilla, from whom he borrows a handkerchief, 243-257 ; 
his execution, and the miracles attending it, 258-298 ; he reappears to 
Nero, 299-315 ; who, persuaded by his friends, sets free Patroclas and 
those who were imprisoned with him, 316-320; the conversion of the 
three soldiers to whom he preached as they led him to the place of 
execution, 321-342; the discovery of the Apostle's relics, and the 
miracles wrought in connection with them, 343-396 ; certain Greeks 
coming to Rome attempt to steal the two bodies of SS. Peter and 
Paul, how they were miraculously prevented, and how the bones of 
the two Saints were distinguished, 397-444 ; the privilege and power 
of the city of Rome, 445-478 ; the conversion of Sf Paul, 479-638 ; 
Nero's end, 639-886 ; St Paul an example of faith, 887-980 ; an inci- 
dent that occurred when he was brought to Rome, 981-1098; men 
ought to take example from St Paul of how they should live while 
here, 1099-1135 ; an incident related by Gregory of Tours, 1137-1176. 

His day is June 29. 

Sources — L.A., cap. xc. i ; and * Marcelli de Actibus Pet. et Pauli, 
Apostoli*; with which compare Tischendorrs 'Acta Petri et Pauli*; 
Linus, 'De Passione Pauli'; Abd. 'Hist., Ap.' IL; and Vine. Bello. 
'Spec. Hist.,' Bkk. vi. viii. 

The etymological introduction of the L.A. is omitted. 

NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 1-42). 3 1 

L Thin^£= things. 

5-89. L.A. : *'Paulus apostolus post sui conversionem multas per- 
secutiones passus est, quas beatus Hilarius breviter enumerat dicens : 
Paulus apostolus in Philippis virgis caeditur, in carcere ponitur et 
ligno pedibus affigitur ; in Listris lapidatur ; in Yconio et Thessalonica 
ab iniquis persequitur ; in Epheso feris datur ; in Damasco per sportam 
e muro deponitur ; in Jerusalem sistitur, caeditur, ligatur, insidiatur ; 
in Csesaria clauditur, criminatur; navigans in Italiam periculo 
dirigitur; Romam veniens sub Nerone judicatur et occisus finitur. 
Haec Hilarius." 

9. IVandis =vf3inds. I eel. vondr. 

10. Doungyne=\it2XtTi, past pt, oi dyng^ to strike. Icel. dengja, to 

12. Lokkis, not lolkist is, as Horstmann suggests, the proper read- 
ing. See Dr Skeat's ' Report on Ghost-words,' pp. 369 ff. 

13. Exoma is probably for Iconia. 

16. PerpUxite—\xo\j\At., L.A., " ab iniquis persequitur." 
18. To wild beasts, to have him torn in pieces. 

20. Cr«7^= creel, basket. " Ov//^, baskett or lepe." * Prompt. Parv.* 
In the Craven dialect it signifies an osier basket or crate, Roquefort 
explains it as signifying a hurdle. In modem Gaelic, creel is repre- 
sented only by the diminutive form craidhleag^ a basket, a creel; 
the original word being criol^ the same as O.Irish, criol, a coffer, a 
box. — Skeat's 'Principles of Etymology,* p. 447. This is probably 
the earliest use of the word yet found. 

21. J9^/^= struck. L.G. buffenj D. boffen. See Stratmann. 

22. W^a/'///= waited for. Cf. 'The Bruce,' v. 36, 523, 640; and Acts 
xxiii. 12. 

24. Bound and endured pains more. 

26. »S'/fl</=hard pressed. Cf. Mod.E. bestead, 

28. 7'^/// //<7Tt//«tf= underwent sentence. 

29. And ded wes=yi2j& put to death. Yllarius — /.^., Hilarius. See 
Smith's ' Diet, of Christ Biogr.' 

30. What follows is not in the L.A. attributed to Hilarius. Imme- 
diately after the passage above cited it continues : ** Apostolatum inter 
gentes accepit quendam contractum in Listris erexit, juvenem, qui de 
fenestra ceciderat et respiraverat, suscitavit et multa alia miracula 
fecit, apud Mitilenem insulam vipera manum ejus invasit, sed nihil 
eum laesit, quin potius in ignem ipsam emisit" The next sentence 
is passed over : ** Dicitur quoque, quod omnes, qui de progenie 
illius hominis, qui Paulum hospitio excepit, nascuntur, a venenosis 
ullatenus non laeduntur, unde cum pueri nati sunt, in cunis eorum 
patres serpentes ponunt, ut probent, si veri eorum filii sint." 

34-42. Cf. Acts XX. 9. 

41,42. But schcUhe . . . e?re?«y «/diM = without scathe ... or 
any peril. 


32 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (iL 43-109). 

43-52. L.A. : " Invenitur autem aliquando, quod Paulus est minor 
Petro, quandoque major, quandoque sequalis, sed revera minor digni- 
tate, major prsedicatione, aequalis sanctitate." 

48. Ew^/i'ftj^e =equaA, 

53. Aymo, See Smith's * Diet of Christ Biogr/ under Haymo. 

56. Qyxi'/»used, was his wont 

61. L,A.: " Hieronymus in libro de viris illustribus." 

64. \)€fo]>tr. L.A.: "secundo." 

65. L.A. : "Paulus Romam vinctus mittitur et per biennium in 
libera manens custodia adversus Judaeos disputavit" 

69-73. L.A. : " Deinde a Nerone dismissus evangelium in occidentis 
)>Artibus pnedicavit, X/V, vero Neronis anno, eodem anno et die, quo 
crucifixus est Petrus, capite truncatur." 

72. Till the thirteenth year of Nero. 

78. That many were made friends to him. 

79. L.A. : "Multos de domo Caesaris." ryM prewe =ng\ii inti- 
mate ;— 

•• And to King Robert wes prewe 
As he that wes his sib-man nere.' 

— • Bruce,' v. 494. 

80. That he made true — />., converted, and caused to be baptised. 
L.A. : " Sibi in amicitiam copulavit et eos ad Christi fidem con- 

81-84. L.A. : " Quaedam etiam scripta ejus coram Caesare recitata 
sunt et ab omnibus mirabiliter commendata, senatus etiam de illo alta 
non mediocriter sentiebat" 

82. /^j////>= epistles. 

85. L.A. : " Quodam vero die dum Paulus circa vesperas in quodam 
solario prxdicaret." 

88. That there was great want of room. 

89. L.A. : " Fenestram adscendit et paululum ibi dormitando de- 
cidens cxspiravit" 

90. That was called Patroclas. 

96. L.A. : " Pincerna Neronis et sibi admodum dilectus." 
98. " Quod audiens Nero plurimum de ejus morte doluit et statim 
alium in ejus oflicium ordinavit." 

101-104. L.A. : " Paulus vero per spiritum hoc cognoscens dixit 
ndstantibus, ut illuc irent et Patroclum Caesaris carissimum ad se 
(lefunctum aflcrrent, quem allatum Paulus suscitavit et ad Caesarem 
cum sociis suis misit Qui cum de morte ejus lamentaretur, ecce 
Patroclus vivens adesse prae foribus nuntiatur. Audiens Nero Pat- 
roclum vivum, quem paulo ante noverat mortuum, plurimum quidem 
expavit et eum ad se ingredi recusavit, sed tandem persuasu amico- 
rum introire permisit" 

108. Luff- HI live. 

109. Gert \e luf^xt\zA^ thee live. 


NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 113-172). 33 

113. Andsa weld all =^nA so rule all. 

116. L.A. : *'dedit ei alapam." 

116. L.A. : " ergo militas illi regi." 

119. Prewe w^« = trusted men. Cf. Mod.E. '* Privy Councillors." 

123. pa/ //f&^=that same. 

125-131. L.A. : " Quod Nero audiens eos reclusit in carcerem, ut 
eos nimium torqueret, quos ante nimis dilexerat. Tunc omnes chris- 
tianos fecit inquiri et omnes sine interrogatione per tormenta varia 

126. As wod of wit nere he ferd^2^ mad he almost went wod^ 
from A.S. wdd^ furious, ferd^ from X^S^faran, to fare, go. 

131. Party {S j^r^= various torments, sere, from O.I eel. ser, several; 
here used in the plural. 

132-140. L.A. : "Tunc P. vinctus inter caeteros ante Neronem duc- 
tus est ; cui Nero : O homo, magni regis servus, mihi autem vinctus, 
cur milites meos mihi subtrahis et tibi recolligis ?" 

138. Ifie alkine thinge—va all kinds of things. 

142. Fra \e, L.A. : " de tuo angulo." 

143. All\e warld hale=2\\ the whole world. 

146. L.A. : " Et quae omnem excludent indigentiam." 

147. L.A. : *' Huic si subjectus esse volueris, salvus eris." 

149. L.A. : " Qui tantae exstat potentiae, ut judex omnium veniat et 
mundi hujus figuram per ignem resolvat." 

154. Nero near out of mind did go. 

156. Z^«7= destroyed. O.Icel. losa, solvere,Xo destroy. See Strat- 

159. L.A. : " Paulum vero tanquam majestatis reum capite tnincari. 
Hurie fnaieste=^\\\^ treason. Cf. Fr. law term, Use majesty, 

160. Hedit. See I. 358. 

162. But rtfjtf«^= without reason or cause. 

163. L.A. : " Tanta autem christianorum occisa est turba, Mipopulus 
Romanus palatium virtute irrumperet et seditionem contra eum 
excitare moliens proclamaret: pone modum," &c. 

165. Lei/e=\ea\, but see preceding note. 

166. il/<fj//r^= restrain. 

167. Fore-awt jrt>^tf= without cause. 

169. ^a<iir= frightened. I eel. hrceddr, afraid; Swed. rddd, ie^x^uX, 
LA. : " timens " :— 

' ' Bot so rad wes Richard of clar, 
That he held to the sowth cuntre." 

— • The Bruce/ xv. 76. 

•• J ]mrrh jwttt tatt Jho drefedd wass 

J radd off Godess enngell." 

— 'Orm.,' 2169. 

172, L,A, : " Donee imperator de iis plenius judicaret" 


34 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (tt 173-244). 

173. L.A.: "Quapropter P. iterum est reductus et adspectui 
Neronis oblatus." 

177. L.A.: "Tollite malcficum, decollate impostorem, nee sinite 
vivere criminatorem, perdite sensuum alienatorem, auferte de super- 
ficie terrae mentium immutatorem." 

181, 182. An addition. 

185. H^f/=know. A.S. witan, 

187, 188, L.A. : "sed vivam aeteraaliter domino Jesu Christo." 

187. />j/^/y= lastingly, forever, /u/ sine^Wvt afterwards. L.A.: 
" sed vivam aetemitaliter," &c. 

188. IVs tAowtyn^^m^=y/iihoui end. 
190. That he may know me, &c. 
192. Awantinj^e=boaLSi\ng, 

194. If he without end shall living be. 

201-216. L.A. : "Et hie dietis ad loeum suplieii dueitur. Qui eum 
dueeretur, dixerunt ei tres milites qui eum dueebant; die nobis, 
Paule, quis est," &e. 

201. 7ltj«/fA/= delivered. A.S. /acan, to give : — 

" Syne taucht it to the kyng in hy, 
TTiat hym rewardit worthely." 

— • Bruce.' x. 253. 

202. LacAt=\3w, command. 

204. 3 ar«^= earnestly. A.S. jf^^rw/Vwi, to desire. 

209. /?>'^= kingdom. A.S. r/c£, power, kingdom. 

210. Z>'^= pleasure. A.S. lician. See Stratmann, s,v. and j. lie, 
214. Za«^A/= rejoiced : lit., had possession of or enjoyed : — 

" All leidis langis in land to lauch quhat thaim leif is." 

— G. Douglas, iii. 143, 5. 

218. Lauchtful=\2L^{\}\, L.A., "legitimus." For the appearance 
of the letter / in this and the word above see note to 1. 992. 

220-224. L.A. : " Scio enim, quod per hane vitam transitoriam ad 
vitam transibo a::temam, mox autem, ut fuero decollatus, viri fideles 
rapient corpus meum." 

221, 222, is an addition. 

228. God lowand= Go^ praising. 

229-230. L.A. : ** Quibus cum dixeritis qua de causa vos ad eos 


232. Cristis ^/>inZ'= Christ's kingdom. 

233. Farand^idsmgt going. See note to 1. 126. 
242. 5^rz///= deserved : — 

" For quhilk, allace ! I servit to be schent." 

— • Dunbar,' 66, 22, ed. Small. 

244. L.A. : " In porta Ostiensi cuidam matronae nomine Plantills, 
discipulae Pauli, quae secundum Dionysium alio nomine dicebatur 
Lemobia, quia forte fuit binomia, obviam habuit" In the three Greek 

NOTES TO PAULUS (H. 218-287). 35 

versions of the * Acta* which contain this story she is called Perpetua, 
She is known also as Plantilla and Plancilla. 
248. To Petir prinieis. See preceding note. 

250. Dowchtir of lestand hele, L.A., " seternae salutis filia." 

251. Ci^rM= kerchief. See Jamieson, j. Courche, and note to 1. 
287, below, keileioxhele^covtv. A.S. ^^Az/i, to hide. L.A. : "Com- 
moda mihi velum, pro caput tuum tegis, et inde oculos meos ligabo 
et postmodum tibi restituam illud." 

254. At drery wat^ =that doleful was. 

255. ^<zx^r= executioner. L.A., "camifices." F47^=mad. See 
note to 1. 126. 

267. L.A. : " Impostori isti et mago." S Itchty^cr sSiy, Icel. slagr^ sly. 

258-266. L.A. : " Cum ergo ad locum passionis Paulus venisset, ad 
orientem versus et manibus in caelum extensis diutissime cum lacry- 
mis patria voce oravit et gratias egit. Post hoc valefaciens fratribus 
oculos sibi velo Plantillae ligavit et utrumque genu in terra figens 
collum extendit et sic decollatus est" 

267-270. L.A. : " Mox ejus caput de corpore exsiliens : Jesus Christ- 
us, quod sibi in vita tam dulce exstiterat et tam crebro nominaverat, 
hebraice clara voce insonuit. Dicitur enim ipsum in suis epistolis 
Christum vel Jesum vel utrumque quingentis vicibus nominasse." 

271. Hals^ncck. A.S. Aals. See ' Prompt. Parvul.,' 224, and Strat- 
mann, J.7/. mt'/kj- L.A.: "unda lactis.** 

272. 5»fy////= besprinkled, stained. A.S. smiien, to strike. 

276. Not in L.A., but from the * De Passione Pauli ' of Linus. 

277. That which immediately follows in L.A. is taken from an 
Epistle of Dionysius to Timothy. The passages here used are those 
only which refer to Plantilla : " Percutiente autem camifice et ampu- 
tante Pauli caput, tunc beatissimus in ipso ictu explicuit velum et 
collegit sanguinem proprium in velo et ligavit eum et obvolvit et 
tradidit illi feminae et reverso militi carnifici dixit Lemobia,** &c. 

278. He — />., the Apostle. Querch, curch^ courch=\itrc\i\t( orvelum, 
280. Wnfiersawit o/=\Mi\ttrct\wtdLhy, 

282. P^ basaret called in line 255 "Jje baser "= executioner. 

283. 5/^^^ = inquire. A.S. spirian, to inquire, track. Still in 
common use. 

284. Z>Tw'/=left. 

285. L.A. : " Respondit miles : cum socio jacet ibi extra urbem in 
valU pugilum et velo tuo velata est facies ejus." Comftone is impos- 
sible ; pugilone^ suggested by Horstmann, is perhaps the right reading. 

287. Wfw;J///= the veil, querch, or courch, before spoken of. Jamie- 
son, s. Wimpill, explains it as " a winding or fold." Properly speak- 
ing the wimpill, or courche, or courchie, was a shawl, plaid, or ker- 
chief used by women as a covering for the head or neck. On the 6th of 
March 1457, it was ordained by Act of Parliament " that na woman 
cum to Kirk nor mercat with her face muffalled, or covered, that sche 


may not be kend, under the pane of eschiet of the courchie^ — ^James 
II., No. 60. From Icel. vimpUl, See, for examples, Stratmann. 

290. (y=outof. 

292. 3a/=gate. 

300. Ji^^jr=grew. <«^a>'j//= discomfited. r^i</= afraid. See note 
to 1. 169. L.A.: *' vehementer extimuit." 

301, 302. L.A. : " Cum philosophis et amicis.** 

303-306. L.A. : *• Venit Paulus januis clausis et ante Caesarem stans 
ait," &c. 

303. Chawmer maste prewe= most privy or secret chamber. 

306. Sithar, contr. for sythquhare. See note to 1. 518. 

321. L.A. : •' Illi vero milites, Longinus magister militum et Acces- 
tus ad sepulchrum Pauli mane venerunt." 

324. Majestus is not mentioned in the L.A., but is by Linus, and 
by Vine, Bello, viii. 18. 

330. /7^//=scared. h,S.flegan, See Stratmann, s, Fle3en. 

332. War bowne = were ready. L.A.: "Fugere coeperunt et 
Paulus disparuit." 

333. L.A. : "Illi autem post eos clamantes dicebant," &c. 

344. Vewart apparently from Fr. vivicr, a fish-pond. It is afterwards 
described as a stank or pond, warpit—ihro^n, Icel. varpa, to throw. 
L.A., " In quandam vallem projectum est." 

347. Fowrty yr. Not in L.A. 

347-355. L.A. : " Legitur autem in eadem epistola Dionysii quod, 
cum quadam vice fovea mundaretur, et caput illud Pauli cum aliis 
purgamentis projectum fuisset, quidam pastor illud in virga sua leva- 
vit et juxta caulas ovium fixit." 

352. /%««?= M.E./^«^, ended. O.Fr.7?«<i/r,yf«^r, to end. Perhaps 
the correct reading is vane = wane, thought or knew. It is certainly 

355. Wok his fe one «y<rA/== watched his cattle at night. Wok for 
wouk^ from A.S. wacian^ to watch, fe, cattle. A.S. feoh, cattle, 

359-362. L.A. : " Quod cum episcopo et fidelibus nuntiatum fuisset, 
dixerunt : vere hoc est caput Pauli." 

363-374. L.A. : "Egressus igitur episcopus et universa fidelium 
multitudo caput illud secum detulerunt et in quadam mensa aurea 
illud deponentes id corpore conjungere volebant. Quibus patriarcha 
respondit," &c. 

367-370. Not in L.A. 

367. Vnhelit — u nco vered. 

368. Lyne=\aLin, 

370. Grawtn =bur\ed. 

371. Entent and will =m\tnX and will. 

373. Sythar^ short for sythquhare. See note to 1. 518. 

375-379. L.A. : "Nos scimus, quod multi fideles occisi et eorum 

NOTES TO PAULUS (H. 378479). 37 

capita sunt dispersa, unde dubito illud caput corpore Pauli conjun- 

378, Ar scalyt=2s^ scattered, in w^r =in doubt See I. 318. 

386. That we may know the truth. 

391-392. L.A. : " £t in loco suo capiti se junxit." 

393. J)an^ A^/=then praised. 

895, 396. Addition. 

After 396 the L.A. gives the miracle of St Paul after Gregory of 
Tours, 11. 1137-1172, then another citation from the "Epistle of 
Dionysius ad Timotheum," and concludes with the "Laudatio" of 
St Chrysostom. 

397-444. L.A., " De S. Petro Apost.,'* cap. Ixxxix. 4. Cf. Marcellus, 
adyin,. Vine. Bello. x. 87, and Rosweyd's 'Adonis Martyrol.' p. 306. 

414. L.A. : " Unde Graeci timentes apud catacombas apostolorum 
corpora in puteum projecerunt." rcdnase=={tdx. See note to 1. 169. 

418. Addition. 

419. L.A. adds, "Gregorius tamen in registro dicit, quod tanta 
eos vis tonitrui atque fulguris terruit ac dispersit, ut ea apud cata- 
combas dimitterent" 

423. ^Fa>&= watching, vigils. 

428. The larger bones own. or belonged to, the preacher — />., St 
Paul, awcht, from A.S. dgcm^ to possess. L.A., " Majora ossa sunt 

429, 430. And the less without doubt were the bones of the fisher — 
f>, St Peter. L.A., ** Minora vero piscatoris." 

431ff. L.A.: "Et sic ossa se ab invicem separaverunt et in suis 
ecclesiis, quas cuilibet aedificaverunt, posuerunt." 

435ff. L.A.: "Alii vero dicunt, quod Silvester papa volens ecclesias 
consecrare tam magna quam parva ossa in lance summa reverentia 
ponderavit et medietatem in una ecclesia et medietatem in alia 

445-478. Addition. In the L.A. follows a miracle from Gregory's 
" Dialogues." 

445. ^//M/=blythe, glad. See also note to 1. 992. 

446. Techare^ plur. To kene. See note to 1. 26, Prol. 
452. Hewtne rente =ht2i\tn'srt^\m, 

^Salb. [He }^at'\ firste. Romulus. «*/= marked out, referring to the 
marking out of the boundaries of the city. Icel. reita, 

456. Gafe}^e . . , fowndit to be^czMst^ thee . . . to be founded. 

457. 7i4n;i£/= through, browthir, Remus, the brother of Romulus. 
yfZ?= defile. 

468. Hyit^TCidL^^ high, exalted. 

469. Cr/j//«^= Christianity. 
477. Cw//«^= Christendom. 

479-638. Cf. L.A., " De conversione Sancti Pauli Apostoli," cap. 
xxviii. During the middle ages the conversion of St Paul was 


often made the subject of dramatic representation. See Collier, 
* Hist, of B. Stage/ ii. 230 ; M. E. du Meril, * Origines latines du 
thd^tre modeme,' pp. 237-241; Migne's 'Diet, des myst^rcs;' and 
Jubinal's 'Myst^res inddits du xv« si^cle/ pp. 25-42. 

479-489. L.A.: ''Conversio sancti Paul! apostoli facta est eodem 
anno, quo Christus passus est et Stephanus lapidatus anno non 
naturali, sed emergenti; nam Christus viii. cal. Aprilis passus est, 
Stephanus eodem anno iii. die August! lapidatus est, Paulus vero 
viii. cal. Februarii conversus est." 

490-492. Addition. 

490. Or = ere. 

493-509. L.A. : " Quare autem conversio ejus potius quam alionim 
sanctorum celebratur, triplex ratio nolit assignari. Primo propter 
exemplum, ut nullus quantumcunque peccator desperet de venia, 
quando tantum in culpa postmodum conspicit fuisse in gratia; se- 
cundo propter gaudium, sicut enim ecclesia magpiam tristiam habuit 
in ejus persecutione, ita maximam Isetitiam recepit in ejus conver- 
sione; tertio propter miraculum, quod scilicet dominus ei ostendit, 
dum de saevissimo persecutore fecit fidelissimum praedicatorem." 

496. Low=\o. 

498. Shall despair of obtaining pardon. 

500. IVane =ohisAned. 

503. Fa=foc. 

504. 7i%nj= perverse. Icel. iAra, 
511-514. Acts vii. 57-59. 

512. Z?/«gv= batter. See note to 1. 10. 

518. SyMware =momtnt This is the fullest form which has yet 
occurred of sithare, sythar^ sythtar, and sithtar, Syth and sytht= 
sith, and «/<irtf=quhare. A.S. j/d*, and hwar^ time where or when — 
i.e,y occasion, moment The 'Cursor Mundi' drops in at least one 
instance the ih or if, and writes siquar. 

521. Sckupe=^^\i\, 

521-638. Acts ix. 1-22. The L.A. gives a homily on the passage. 

534. With sere ;//^w=with several men. 

537. Vmlappyt= swrxouiidtd. '^Et subito circumfulsit eum lux de 
caelo." — Vulg., Act. Ap. ix. 3. 

541-543. "Saule, Saule, quid me persequeris? durum est tibi 
contra stimulum calcitrare." — Ibid. ix. 4. 

547. lVarrays=yizXTtsi against. Used frequently in * The Bruce.* 

553. Abaysit^stupefacti, dismayed. 

556. Vpwan^xost up. 

557. Ewine =tyts, 

564-570. Addition from L.A. : " Unde et in IHq triduo, quo mansit, 
caecatus dicitur quod doctus fuerit evangelium. Non enim illud ac- 
cepit ab homine neque per hominem, ut ipse testatur, sed per revela- 
tionem Christi." 

NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 667-656). 39 

567. Calathas=GaL\aXi2L. Cf. Gal. i. 12. 

574. Vulg., Act Ap. ix. 11: " Surge, et vade in vicum, qui vocatur 
Rectus : et quaere in domo Judae Saulum nomine Tharsensem : ecce 
enim orat** 

590. Ibid. ix. 15: "vas electionis." 

595. Ibid. ix. 16 : " ostendam." 

597-600. Addition. 

598. And callit is paule. Probably instead of at or ^pat callit is 

601. Bui »wr= without more — />., words or delay. 

605. Vulg., Act. Ap. ix. 17: "Saule, frater, Dominus misit me 

606. p^^^/=>e^et=theway. 

622. Werrayt Act. Ap., " expugnabat" 

62i. Addition. 

629-633. Vulg., Act Ap. ix. 22 : " Saul us autem multo magis con- 
valescebat et confundebat Judaeos, qui babitabant Damasci, affirmans 
quoniam hie est Christus." 

635-63a Addition. 

639-852. L.A.: " De S. Petro Apostolo," cap. Ixxxix. 3, 4. 

643. 5'>&/7/=fit or right 

645-667. L.A. simply says : " Cum Seneca magister suus, ut in 
quadam hystoria, licet apocrypha, legitur, condignam mercedem 
laboris sui speraret, jussit Nero ipsum eligere, in cujus arboris ramo 
suspendium affectaret, dicens, quod hoc praemium laboris sui ab eo 
recepturus esset 

645. j'/^^ny&= apocryphal. 

646. Seneca, The celebrated philosophical writer. Nero was in 
his eleventh year when Claudius adopted him, and placed him under 
Seneca's tuition. Seneca had then but recently returned from Cor- 
sica, where he had spent eight years in exile. For an account of his 
death see Tacitus and Suetonius. Also Smith's ' Diet of Classical 

651-656. Not in L.A. 

651. Worthit ay 0/ ned^'xX behoved him always of necessity. In 

• The Bruce * we have the similar phrase, " hym worthit neyd * : — 

" His euill it wox ay mair & mair, 
Quhill men persauit by his fair 
That hym worthit neyd to pay the det 
That na man for till pay may let."— xix. 209. 

worthit is from A.S. weorffan^ to become. 

652. ^/7rw^^^= childhood. 

656. J//jj«/= displeased. See Jamieson under misset. Grettumfy 
=greatly, extremely. "The formation of this word," Mr Skeat re- 
marks (*The Bruce,* Glossary), "is obscure ; perhaps ^^/«w answers 
to A.S. greatunit dat pi. of great" 

40 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (iL 657-«77). 

657. ^/j=when. forthirward=dSttrN2cr^s, 

658. Trowel I =^'woxk, labour. Cf. Mod.Eng. travail. 

660. Enchesone =occ2iSiont O.Fr. acheison, encheison, Lat occasio. 

Speaking of Christ's second Advent, Hampole says : — 

" He sal shew, to )>air confusioun, 
Alle }>e signes of his passioun, 
And ]>e enckesoun and ))e manere 
Of his ded )>at he tholed here." 

—•P. C./5311. 
Occleve says of St Margaret : — 

" But understandeth this. I only commend her nought. 

By encheson of her virginities." 

— • Letter of Cupide.' 

Cf. * Prompt. Parv.' and Roquefort. 

661. G^^«>'/= suited. Icel. ^^i^. 

"Sir Knyghtis, takis gere l>at most may gayne^ 
And lates vs goo." 

— York Plays, 405/179. 

See Jamieson also under ^arte, and Stratmann underlain. 
669. Afyse={aL\i\t. O.Dutch vtissej Icel. missa, 

" And yhit when he had dun »iyj." 

— Hampole, * P. C.,' 109. 

" Lord God, grete meniell es to mene, 
Howe man was made with-outen mysse" 

— York Plays, 93/2. 

' ' For sho wroght neuere no mys 

We witnesse eure ilkane." 

—Ibid., 107/132. 

671. L.A. : "Acutum gladium super ejus verticem crebro vibrari 
fecit, Seneca autem nutu capitis minanti gladio cedebat, vehementer 
timens periclitari mortis periculum." 

673. OwM= above. 

" And arrowes fle in gret foysoune, 
And thai that owth war tummyl doune 
Stanis apon thame fra the hicht." 

— 'The Bruce,' xviii. 418. 

674. Schar=c}ii, 

" f>e hcued oway he schar 
And brou^t 
And toke it Ysonde )>ar." 

— 'Sir Tristrem,* 1493. 

676. Rod. See note to 1. 169. 

677. Eschow= shun. 

" ' Lordingis,' he said, ' sen it is swa 
That we haff chassit on sic maner. 
That we now cum my n ar so ner 
That we may nocht eschewe the ficht.' " 

—'The Bruce,* xv. 349. 
O.Fr. eschiver. 

NOTES TO PAULUS (H. 67S-748). 4 1 

678, 679. L.A.: "Cui Nero ait: magister, ad quid nutu capitis 
minanti gladio cedis?" 

679. Dowt, see note, I. 283. 

681. 682. L.A. : " Homo sum et ideo mortem vereor et invitus 

682. AV<i7K= necessarily, fore dede—oi ox {ox ^^'^^}^, rtf^= afraid. 
The same as rad^ 1. 676. 

683. L.A.: "Cui Nero ait: sic ego adhuc te metuo, ut puer metucre 
consuevi, quare te vivente quiete non potero vivere." 

686. £"5= ease. MS. has ^^5. 

688. L.A. : " Dixitique Seneca : si me mori necesse est, saltem mihi 
concede, ut, quod voluero, eligam genus mortis. Cui Nero : festinus 
eligas, tantum mori ne differas." 

693. L.A.: "Tunc Seneca balneo in aqua facto in utroque brachio 
sibi minui fecit et sic nimio sanguinis fluxu ibidem vitam finivit et 
sic quodam prsesagio Seneca nomen habuit quasi se necans, quia 
quodammodo, licet coactus, manu propria se necavit" Then follows 
an account of the death of the two brothers of Seneca. 

697-702. Not in L.A. The story is, however, that Seneca, some 
time after having opened his veins, drank a dose of poison in order 
to accelerate his death, which took place April 12, a.d. 65. 

703-747. L.A.: "Rursus Nero nefaria mentis vesania ductus, ut 
in eadem hystoria apocrypha reperitur, matrem occidi etscindi jussit, 
ut videret, qualiter in ejus utero fovebatur; physici vero eum de 
matris perditione arguentes dicebant : jura negant et fas prohibet ut 
filius matrem necet, quae ipsum cum dolore peperit et cum tanto 
labore et sollicitudine enutrivit. Quibus Nero : faciatis me puero 
imprsegpfiari et postea parere, ut, quantus dolor matri meae fuerit, 
possim scire. Hanc insuper voluntatem pariendi conceperat eo, quod 
per urbem transiens quandam mulierem parientem vociferantem 
audiverat Dicunt ei : non est possibile, quod naturae contrarium est, 
nee est facile quod rationi non est consentaneum. Dixit ergo iis 
Nero : nisi me feceritis impraegnari et parere, omnes vos faciam 
crudeli morte interire." 

706. 5i//^^j=s although. 

" SuppoVt that it be sum-deill wat, 
A page of ouris we sail nocht tyne." 

— *The Bruce,' xix. 69a. 
See Jamieson. 

710. Vnhde=MXiCo\tx, See note to 11. 251, 367. 

711. Hyr scherand. For this Horstmann proposes to read hym 
schewand or to omit hyr. Of the two, the latter is preferable. It 
involves the alteration, however, of the \ai of the next line into hyr, 

747. Bot \ai did //= unless they did it. 

748-776. L.A.: "Tunc illi eum impotionantes ranam sibi occulte 
ad bibendum dederunt, et eam artificio suo in ejus ventre excrescere 


fecerunt et subito venter ejus naturae contraria non sustinens intu- 
muit, ita ut Nero se puero gravidum aestimaret, faciebantque sibi 
servare diaetam, qualem nutriendae ranae noverant convenire diccntes, 
quod propter conceptual talia eum observare oporteret Tandem 
nimio dolore vexatus medicis ait : accelerate tempus partus, quia lan- 
guore pariendi vix anhelitum habeo respirando. Tunc ipsum ad 
vomitum impotionaverant et ranam visu terribilem, humoribus infec- 
tam et sanguine edidit cruentatam, respiciensque Nero partum suum 
ipsum abhomiit et mirabatur adeo monstruosum, dixerunt autem 
quod tam difformem fetum protulerit, ex eo, quod tempus partus 
noluerit exspectare." 
748. 5/^= crafty. 

•* He gert get vrichtis that vcs sU, 
And in the hawch of lyntoun-le 
He gert them mak a fair maner." 

— • The Bruce/ icvi. 335. 

I eel. sloegr. See Stratmann. 

753. Bolnyt ner and r£i/^= swelled near to bursting. 

TTI'Tld, L.A. : "Et ait: fuine talis de matris egressus latibulis? 
Et illi : etiam." 

780-788. L.A. : " Praecipit ergo ut fetus suus aleretur et testudini 
lapidum servandus includeretur. Haec autem in chronicis non leg- 
untur, sed apocrypha sunt." 

783. 7/7/ at it //^/=as long as it lived. 

784. Welefar it /ra=\ try far from it, a long way off. 

787. Latereni, Lateran. Here apparently "derived" from late, 
far and wide; and rana, a toad or frog. Hence Laterafia would 
according to this signify a toad (heard) far. 

789-816. L.A. : " Deinde miratus qualis et quanta fuerit succensio 
Trojae, Romam per VII. dies et noctes succendi fecit, quod ex altis- 
sima turri prospectans laetatusque fiammae pulchritudine turgido 
habitu Iliadem decantabat." 

792, At ^t4hylum= thai once. 

817-820. p^ 6uk, L.A. : ** Habetur in chronicis, retibus aureis pis- 
cabatur, cantibus intendebat, ita ut omnes cytharistas et tragoedos 

82a L. A. adds, " ut ait Orosius." 

824-830. Not in L.A. 

828. Ti//eke]>g tynsale of his sawle^Xo help on the loss of his 
soul, tynsale, from I eel. iyna, to lose. The suffix is probably the 
A.S. sdl, opportunity, used abstractedly. — Skeat 

830. That were too long to recount here. 

831-846. L.A. : " Romani vero eius vesaniam ulterius non ferentes 
in eum impetum fecerunt et usque extra civitatem persecuti sunt 
Qui videns, quod evadere non posset, fustem dentium morsibus ex- 

NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 838-884). 43 

acuit et se per medium palo transfixit et tali morte vitam finivit. 
Alibi tamen legitur, quod a lupis devoratus sit" 

838. Wandering in desert up and down. wiHandt from Icel. 
villa, to go astray, wasiinet A.S. wisten, and O.Fr. wastine, a waste. 
See Skeat and Roquefort 

842. p^/ mari=h\s body. For mart, see Jamieson. 

847-853. L.A. : " Redeuntes Romani ranam in testitudine latitantem 
[latrantem?] invenerunt et ipsam extra civitatem projicientes com- 
busserunt, unde et pars ilia civitatis, ut aliqui dicunt, ubi latuerat 
rana, Lateranensis nomen accepit" 

8S3-886. Addition. 

853. pw «/^=thus was. ]?« is very frequently used for }pus, 

860. CzrtfM/'/= prepared. Icel. ^^/Ma, to prepare. 

861. Where health is without sickness. 
863. /^k/M= plenty. 

" Ne no fode for to faile, but ihR fulthe haue.** 

— • The I>estruction of Troy/ 5414. 

The other form of the word, /oulAf is still in use. In Bums, *• On the 
late Captain Grose," we have : — 

** He has a/outA o' auld nick-nackets." 

O.H.Germ./«//A^, abundance. 

865. Zy>&/>i^= pleasure. See note to 1. 210. 

867. But wane or smyt=yf \i\iOMi defect or spot wane, from A.S. 
wan. smyt, see note to 1. 272. 

871. Without death, everlasting life. 

872. Alkind ded=^\try kind of deeds. See note to 1. 958. 

875. To med=io reward, med, from O.L.Germ. midean, miedon, 
to reward. See Stratmann. 
878* BrowJtts= enjoy. From A.S. bnican. 

'* To ))eowwtenn ure Laferrd Crist 
Wi^]> so)>fasst herrsummnesse, 
Swa )>att we motenn heofifness gM^p, 
A-butenn ende brukenn. Amen." 

— 'Orm.,* 10, 647. 

" And bad hem souken of hus brest* sauete for synne, 
And drynke bote for bale* brouke hit ho so myghte." 

— • P. Plowman,' C. xiii. 56. 
884. Mon^mMsX, 

"We muste vnto syr mordred sende, 
And founde to taJce An other day, 
Or trewly thys day I mon be shende." 

— • Lc Mort Arthur,' 3230. 

" With dole now mon we lye full dere oure dedis ille." 

—York Plays, 31/67. 

Icel. munu. The word is still in common use. men wat nocht 

44 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (iL 887-811). 

how /y/=inen know not how soon, iyt, from A.S. iidlicej Icel. ////, 

887. Except in lines 1111-1125, the author no longer follows the 
L.A., which concludes its narrative of St Paul with citations from the 
' Epistles ' of Dionysius, from Gregory of Tours, and from the * Lau- 
datio * of St Chrysostom. 

890. ^/=pain. Icel. s'dtL 

•• Wi>|) serrjhe J sit, wi>|) bitter wop." 

— • Orm.,* 7967. 

** Broght ... to sorrow and j«7/." 

— TownL Mys., p. 4. 

" Against his wille )ms haue they wrought 

And therefore syte is to ]}ayni sought." 

— York Plays, 29/16. 

" Inglis-men with site tham soght 
And hastily quit tham thaire hire." 

— Minot, p. 28. 
For other examples see Stratmann under site, 

897. The same lesson is taught by the author of * The Craft of 
Deyng* : "and sua suld na man be dysparyt of godys mercy ; For in 
ensampill thare-of he gaif to the maist synare maist mercy and grace, 
as to Petyr at denyd hyme, to Paul at persewyt hyme, to matho the 
okyrar, to magdalyne the synare, till dauid the murthersar and adul- 
trare, to )?e theif that hang besyd hyme one the cros, and to mony 
othir that war lang to raherf^." — P. 4, 96. 
900. Stekt's =bsirs out. 

•' We ar the fox & thai the fischer 
That stekis forouth ws the way. " 

—•The Bruce,' xix. 687. 

909ff. Singularly enough, the author has mistaken the Epistle, unless 
for Rome in 1. 910 we ought to read Corinth. 

911. Cf. Vulg. 2 Cor. xi. 23-33 : *' in laboribus plurimis, in car- 
ceribus abundantius, in plagis supra modum, in mortibus frequen- 
ter. A Judaeis quinquies quadragenas, una minus, accepi. Ter 
virgis csesus sum, semel lapidatus sum, ter naufragium feci, nocte et 
die in profundo maris fui, in itineribus saepe, periculis fluminum, 
periculis latronum, periculis ex genere, periculis in civitate, periculis 
in solitudine, periculis in man, periculis in falsis fratribus, in labore 
et aerumna, in vigiliis multis, in fame et siti, in jejuniis multis, in 
frigore et nuditate, praeter ilia, quae extrinsecus sunt, instantia mea 
quotidiana, solicitudo omnium Ecclesiarum. Quis infirmatur, et 
ego non infirmor ? quis scandalizatur, et ego non uror ? Si gloriari 
oportet, &c. . . . Damasci praepositus Aretae reg^s, custodiebat civi- 
tatem Damascenorum, ut me comprehenderet : et per fenestram in 
sporta dimissus sum per murum, et sic effugi manus ejus.** 


926. At sey-grownd. L.A. : " in profundo maris." Sey-groundis not 
a common word. Minot has — 

" I wald noght spare for to speke, wist I to spede, 
Of wight men with wapin and worthly in wede, 
J>at now er driuen to dale and ded all )>ain dede 
{>ai sail in ]>e see-gronde fissches to fede." — x. 4. 

For other examples see Hall's note to this passage, p. 89. 

935. Wrak is often used for whatever is thrown up by the sea, as 
broken pieces of wood, &c. ; but also of animosity, persecution, in 
which sense it is here used. A.S. wracu, wrcec, Icel. reki. See 
Stratmann, and Glossary to * Ormulum ' under wrache, 

946. With this line a new copyist begins and continues to the 
end of fol. 10, line 85, in the Legend of St Andrew. The original 
copyist had here (1. 946) left a gap, — perhaps, as Dr Horstmann sug- 
gests, because the copy he was using failed. The space he left, how- 
ever, appears to have been too small to admit of the omitted verses 
being inserted, and in order to incorporate them, the present copyist 
has inserted a new leaf, and fastened it on from the inside with a slip 
of paper. The hand which now begins, appears also in the Legends 
of St Machor, fol. 199-207, and St Catherine, fol. 380393. 

947-956. Cf. Vulg. 2 Cor. xii. 4, 5, 9 : *' Quoniam raptus est in 
Paradisum; et audivi arcana verba, quae non licet homini loqui. 
Pro hujusmodi gloriabor; pro me autem nihil gloriabor nisi in in- 
firmitatibus meis. . . . Libenter igitur gloriabor in infirmitatibus 
meis, ut inhabitet in me virtus Christi." 

957-980. Not in L.A. Who the great doctor is who is mentioned 
in the next verse, and from whom the substance of what follows 
is taken, I have failed to find, though I have a strong suspicion 
that he is none other than Ananias, the disciple of Damascus, who 
was sent that Paul might receive his sight and be filled with the 
Holy Ghost. At all events, whoever the "doctor" was, he makes 
considerable use of the words in which that incident is related in 
the Acts of the Apostles. 

958-960. Cf. Vulg. Act Ap.. ix. 15 : "Dixit autem ad eum Domi- 
nus: Vade, quoniam vas electionis est mihi iste, ut portet nomen 
meum coram gentibus, et regibus, et filiis Israel. Ego enim osten- 
dam illi quanta oporteat eum pro nomine meo pati." 

958. Alkyne^iW. kinds of. 

" |>e sevend payn of purgatory es 
{>at ])e saules er als in wildemes, 
I>ar defaut es of alkyn thyng 
Of wilk man mught haf lyking.** 

— Hampole, 'P. C..'3248. 
The word is a contraction for alkynnes, 
967. Vulg. I Cor. xv. 10 : " Sed abundantius illis omnibus laboravi." 
971. Laith, a mistake for larey law of living. 

46 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (iL 973-999). 

973. Pure men = poor men. 

974. Thn'l/nun =hondmeTL thrilU from A.S. \raL 
979. Cf. Vulg. I Cor. ix. 19-22. 

981-1098. Cf. * Marcelli de Actibus Petri et Pauli Apost' (Giles's 
* Codex Apocryphus Nov. Test.,' Ft. II., pp. 483 et seq.\ and 'Acta 
Petri et Pauli ' (Tischendorf s * Act Apost Apoc.,* pp. 7 ei seg.) 

981-984. Cf. Marcel. : " Quum venisset Paulus Romam, convenenint 
ad eum omnes Judaei, dicentes." — 'Acta Petri et Pauli* (Tischend.): 
"And Paul having come to Rome, g^eat fear fell upon the Jews. 
They came together, therefore, to him, and exhorted him, saying," 

985-998. Marcel. : " Nostram (idem, in qua natus es, ipsam defende. 
Non est enim justum ut tu quum sis Hebraeus ex Hebrsis veniens, 
gentium te magistrum indices, et incircumcisorum defensor factus, 
tu quum sis circumcisus, fidem circumcisionis evacues. Quum ergo 
Petrum videris, suscipe contra eum contendere, quia omnem obser- 
vationem nostrae legis evacuavit : exclusit sabbatismum et neo- 
menias, et legitimas ferias inanivit*' 

* Acta • (Tischend., p. 7 et seg.) : "Vindicate the faith in which thou 
wast bom ; for it is not right that thou, being a Hebrew, and of the 
Hebrews, shouldst call thyself teacher of the Gentiles, and vindicator 
of the uncircumcised ; and, being thyself circumcised, that thou 
shouldst bring to naught the faith of the circumcision. And when 
thou seest Peter, contend against his teaching, because he has 
destroyed all the bulwarks of our law; for he has prevented the 
keeping of sabbaths and new moons, and the holidays [festivals] 
appointed by the law."* 

991. As ws think=2is it seems to us. Think is here impersonal. 

992. La£ht=^lach=\d:w, Lacht is a peculiar mode of spelling, but 
very common in Scotland during the fourteenth and two following 
centuries. In the 'Aberdeen Records* neither the form lacht nor 
unlachtf Jamieson notwithstanding, occurs passim; but such forms 
as the following do : northty wortht, burght, lauchtfullie^ neicht- 
hour, tolbeutht, baitht, furtht, lyntht, wytht (with), coutht, throcht^ 
locht. So that the addition of an extra or apparently useless / after 
ch, gh, th seems to have been the custom. See also the ' Records of 
the Burgh of Stirling.* 

995. For he endeavours both late and early. Yoxfayndis seeXW. 


999-1016. Marcel.: "Quibus Paulus respondit: Me Judaeum esse, 
et verum Judaeum, hie poteritis probare, quum et sabbatum observare 
et circumcisionem vere poteritis advertere. Nam sabbato die re- 
quievit ab operibus Deus. Nos habemus patres, et Patriarchas, et 
legem. Quid tale praedicat Petrus in regno gentium .^ Sed et si forte 

1 The translation is from voL xvi of the Ante-Nicene Library. 

NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 1000-1099). 47 

aliquam vult introducere novam doctrinam, sine conturbatione, et 
sine invidia, et sine strepitu nunciate ei, ut nos videamus, et in vestro 
conspectu ilium ego convincam. Quod si forte doctrina ejus fuerit 
vero testimonio, et Hebrxorum libris munita, decet nos omnes 
obedire ei." Cf. Tischendorf, p. 8. 

1000. Apertly—o^tnly, 

1005. Z<j'n/= taught 

1017, 1018. Marcel. : "Haec et his similia dicente Paulo perrexerunt 
Judsei ad Petrum, et dixerunt ei." Cf. Tischend., p. 9. 

1019-1022. " Paulus ex Hebraeis venit, rogat te ut venias ad eum, 
quoniam hi, qui eum adduxerunt, dicunt non se posse dimittere, 
ut videat quem vult, antequam eum Csesari insinuent" 

1019. Cumyne ^coxti^t past pt, oi io comt, 

1021. But /^^= without leave or permission. 

1022. Eschewe, a corruption of achieve. It occurs frequently in 

' The Bruce ' :— 

*• For he vist, by him selvin he 

Micht nocht of mycht na power be 

For till eschewe so gret a thing." — xviL 43. 

1023-1030. Marcel.: "Audiens haec Petrusgaudio gavisus est magno, 
et statim exurgens perrexit ad eum. Videntes autem se, prae gaudio 
fleverunt, et in amplexibus suis diutissime morati invicem se lacrymis 
infuderunt. Quumque Paulus illi omnem textum suorum indicisset, 
et Petrus dixisset illi, quas Simonis Magi pateretur insidias, abscessit 
Petnis ad vesperum, mane die altero reversurus." Tischend. : " And 
Peter having heard, rejoiced with great joy ; and rising up, imme- 
diately went to him. And seeing each other, they wept for joy; 
and long embracing each other, they bedewed each other with tears. 
And when Paul had related to Peter the substance \rh w^or] of all his 
doings, and how, through the disasters of the ship, he had come, 
Peter also told him," &c. 

1025. Fra ]>ai sammyn met=vfhen they together met. 

1031-1037. Marcel. : " Quumque aurora diei daret initium, ecce 
Petrus adveniens invenit multitudinem Judaeorum ante fores Pauli ; 
erat autem inter Judseos, et Christianos, et Gentiles iniinita contur- 

1034. VAat=g2iie; a word still common both in Scotland and in 
the north of England. A.S. ^eaty I eel. ^at^ an opening; g^ata, away. 

1039-1048. Marcel.: "Nos genus electum, regale, amicorum Dei 
Abrahae, Isaac, et Jacob et omnium prophetarum, cum quibus 
loquutus est Deus, quibus Deus ostendit secreta sua ; vos autem ex 
gentibus nihil in semine vestro magnum nisi in idolis, et sculptilibus 
inquinati execrabiles extitistis." Tischend.: "We are a chosen race, a 
royal priesthood, the friends of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and 
all the prophets, with whom God spake, to whom he showed his own 
mysteries and his great wonders," &c. 

48 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (fl. 1099-1132). 

1039-1041. It will be observed that the author here uses the phrases 
neither of Marcellus nor of the 'Acta Petri et PaulL' 

1044. Tischend.: ri, eavfidaia alnov rh fifyd\a, p. lo. Not in Marcellus. 

1051-1054. Marcel.: "Nos mox, ut audimus veritatem, reliquimus 
errores nostros, et sequuti earn sumus.** 

1055-1058. Marcel: "Vos autem, et paternas virtutes, sectas, ct 
prophetarum signa vidistis, et legem accepistis, et mare pedibus 
siccis transistis, et," &c. 

1059. /*£rr^= appear. 

1065, 1066. Addition. 

1067-1074. Marcel. : " Et post haec omnia idolum vobis vituli fabri- 
cistis et adoristis sculptile ; nos autem nulla signa videntes credimus 
Dominum hunc, quem vos non credentes dereliquistis." 

1075. And while they were thus striving or contending. Marcellus 
gives the addresses delivered by the two Apostles; so also does 
Tischendort's *Acta Petri et Pauli.' 

1076. 3 «'^^= earnestly. A. S. ^^^r//^, eagerly. 

1079-1098. Marcel.: "Innumerabiles enim populi dum converter- 
entur ad Dominum per praedicationem Petri, contigit, ut etiam uxorem 
Neronis Liviam, et Agrippae Praefecti conjugem nomine Ag^ppinam, 
ita converti, ut a latere se suorum maritorum auferrent. Per Pauli 
vero pnedicationem multi deserentes militiam adhaerebant Domino, 
ita ut etiam ex cubiculo regis venirent ad eum, et facti Christian! 
noluerunt reverti ad militiam, neque ad palatium." 

1090. An^hgrdii=aidhtred, See Jamieson under anherd. 

1095. Na was = no ways, in no wise. 

1101. Strat reknyng=sir\ci account. 

1102. Auchf/ull=2cw{M\. 

1106, Vs bird = it becomes us, or we ought. From Icel. byrja, to 

1108. And makes nonsense of the passage, and has evidently been 
written for ^u/ta, 

1111-1125. Cf. L.A. (p. 390), in the * Laudatio ' of Chrysostom : 
"Quanto ergo nos condemnatione digni sumus, cum uno homine 
bona in se omnia congregante nee minimam quidem partem eorum 
studemus imitari. Non enim aliam est ille sortitus naturam nee dis- 
similem nactus animam nee alterum habitans mundum, sed in eadem 
terra eademque regione, sub iisdem etiam legibus nutritus et moribus 
cunetos, qui nunc homines sunt vel fuerunt, animi virtute transcendit" 

1130. ^^rwi/= deserved. 

1132. Brukill = fragile, easily tempted, flcschias, A word ap- 
parently coined for the occasion by adding O.Fr. suffix -ace (Lat. 
-acia) to E. flesh. Flesch-ias — flesh-ace, condition of being in the 
flesh. Another such word is M.E. fall-ace, also fall-as, which repre- 
sents Lat fall-acia, Mod.E. has -acy, as in fall-acy. Literally 
fleschias \sflesh-acy, — Skeat. 

NOTES TO PAULUS (IL 1133-1169). 49 

1133-1136. The usual concluding formula. 

1137-1172. In the L.A. this miracle follows the story of the Inventio 
capitis, p. 385: "Refert Gregorius Turonensis, qui tempore Justini 
junioris claruit, quod quidam desperans laqueum sibi parabat, nomen 
tamen Pauli invocans semper dicebat : adjuva me sancte Paule. Tunc 
adfuit qusdam umbra squalida hortans eum ac dicens : eya, bone vir, 
age quod ag^s, moram ne feceris. At ille semper parans laqueum dice- 
bat : beatissime Paule, adjuva me. Expedito jam laqueo adfuit umbra 
alia, tamquam hominis, dicens illi, qui hominem hortabatur: fuge 
miserrime, quia Paulus advocatus advenit. Tunc squalida umbra 
evanuit et homo ad se rediens et laqueum projiciens poenitentiam 
condignam accepit." 

1137. T7i/fyne=TourSf but written as Turin. 

1138. There is evidently something wrong here. See the text of 
the L.A. 

1140. Gyrw^a, noose. Still in use. See Jamieson. 
1142. 7^j/;y^= enticing. A word still in use, both in Scotland and 
in the north of England. See Jamieson. 

1147. 7y^= happened, chanced. 

1148. A I 3<7r^=all yare, all ready. 

1151. Hugly^ misspelling for ugly, 

1152. B/ay=b\^e, Icel. did, dark blue, livid. 

1154. I/0Ujfis= delay est. See Stratmann, under Aovt'n, 

1162. Ifyne =hence; usually written htn^, 

1164. Fut'hat^ foot-hot— />., with all speed. The same term occurs 
in 'The Bruce,' iii. 418 and xiii. 454, though in the first of these places 
it is spelt fut'haie, Chaucer has foot-hot. The phrase is formed 
after the O.Fr. chaudlepied, 

1169. Z^= praise. A.S. lofian^ to praise. 


St Andrew, the son of Jonas, and probably younger brother of St 
Peter, was born at Bethsaida, in Galilee, but dwelt at Capernaum. A 
disciple of John the Baptist, he was the first whom our Lord called to 
the apostolate. By his means his brother Simon was brought to 
Jesus. Though rarely mentioned in the New Testament, what is 
recorded about him is sufficient to show that he stood high in the 
esteem of our Lord. Twice he is represented as introducing strangers 
to Jesus : the Greeks who had come up to Jerusalem, and who, desir- 
ing to see Jesus, had applied to St Philip ; and the lad who had the 
"five barley loaves and two small fishes," with which our Lord per- 
formed the miracle of the feeding of the five thousand. When our 
Lord had predicted the ruin of the Temple, he was one of the four 
who asked him privately, "Tell us, when shall these things be?" In 
the catalogues of the Apostles he twice appears second, next after his 
brother Peter (Matt, x .2 ; Luke vi. 14) ; and twice (Mark iii. 16; Acts 
i. 14) fourth, next after Peter, James, and John, and in company with 
Philip. In addition to the little that is said of him in Scripture, 
nothing is definitely known of him. Eusebius (iii. i) makes him 
preach in Scythia; Jerome (Ep. 148, 'Ad Marc') and Theodoret (*Ad 
Psalm.,' cxvi.) in Achaia; Nicephorus (ii. 39) in Asia Minor and 
Thrace. He is said to have been crucified on a crux decussata (X)i 
at Patrai in Achaia, but this is doubted by Lipsius (* De Cruce,* i. 7), 
and by Sagittarius (*De Cruciatibus Martyrum,' viii. 12). — Smith's 
'Diet, of the Bible.' Vaihinger in *Herzog,' with which cf. the 
article in the 'Diet. Hagiogr.' of M. P^tin (Migne), who observes: 
" Les Ecossais, qui honorent Saint Andr(5 comme leur principal patron, 
se glorifient de poss($der Tun de ses bras." A very good account of 
the Apostle may also be found in Cardinal Newman's Sermons, 
vol. ii. p. II et seq. For the legend of the translation of the relics 
to Scotland see Skene's ' Chron. of the Picts and Scots,' pp. 138, 183, 

His day is November 30. 


Sources — ' Legenda Aurea,* cap. ii.; 'Passio S. Andreae/ Surius. Cf. 
Abdiae 'Hist Apostolicae,* III.; 'Acta Andrea* (Tischendorf, p. 105). 

Analysis — The Apostle's character and kindred, 1-8; he goes to 
Nicea, Murgundy, and Antioch, 9-50 ; conversion of a young man and 
many of his relatives, 51-78; the miraculous testimony of the image 
of Diana, 79-110; the story of Nicholas, 111-162; of the young man 
whose mother sought to destroy him, 163-230 ; the miracle performed 
on seven fierce fiends at Nicea, 231-248 ; the raising of a young man 
to life who had been killed by the seven fiends, 249-274; the raising 
of forty drowned men to life, 275-290; the Apostle's preaching in 
Achaia and controversy with Egeas, 291-590; his condemnation and 
death, 591-782; his burial and the death of Egeas, 783-862; how a 
bishop was tempted, and how he was saved through the intervention 
of the Apostle, 863-1134; conclusion, 1135-1156. 

The L.A. begins with the usual etymological introduction, and then 

goes on to describe Andrew's threefold call to the Apostleship. 

1-8. Poet's own introduction. 

1-4. With these may be compared the following from 'Cursor 

Mundi ' : — 

" J« ])rid apostel hi^t andrew, 
a mane of mekenes and gode thew. 
his name be-takenis for to rede 
als faire or mane or gode manhede."— 20,995. 

9. L.A.: "Post ascensionem domini divisis apostolis Andreas apud 
Scythiam, Matthaeus vero apud Margundium praedicavit." The 
pseudo-Abdias makes St Andrew preach in Achaia, and St Matthew 
" in Myrmidoni urbi," which town Nicephorus says was called Myr- 
mene, and the 'Acta et Marty. Matth.,* Myma, situated in the country 
of the Anthropophagi — a race of people referred to in the Anglo-Saxon 
poem 'Andreas,' published by J. Grimm, and in the 'Apocr. Acta 
AposL* In his story of St Matthew, Abdias names the city Naddaver. 

12. Nischia, Dr Horstmann suggests that what is here meant is 
Scythia ; but it is doubtful whether this is the case. Scythia was the 
name of a district or region, but here Nischia is the name of a town 
— the town of Nicea. Vine. Bello. has both " Nychea" and " Nichea," 
and the addition of s before ch is not uncommon. 

13. In more lynd, L.A.: "Matthaeus apud Murgundiam prxdi- 
cavit." Dr Horstmann would therefore read Murgundy instead of 
more lynd. It is not improbable, however, that the latter is correct. 
India was used with a very indefinite significance — Ethiopia, where 
St Matthew is supposed to have preached, being called " India," and 
the Ethiopians "Indians." Cf. Neander's 'Church History,* i. 113; 
iii. 164 (Bohn) ; Eusebius, * Eccl. Hist,* v. 10 ; Zozomen, ii. 24. 
Macedonia, Persia, and Syria are also named as the places where St 
Matthew preached. 


16, 17. L.A.: "Ei oculos eruerunt ct vinctum incarccravcrunt." 
Abd. : " Beatum Apostolum, erutis oculis, catenisque oneratum, carceri 
incluserant, eo animo, ut paucis interpositis diebus interficerenL" 
21. L.A. : " Murgundiam ad S. Matthaeum ire praecepit" 
26. L.A. : " Et ad primam navem quam inveniret intraret" Abd. : 
" Et invenies navem." 

29. L.A. : " Angelo duce et prospero vento flante." For a much 
longer and more detailed account of this voyage see the ' Acta An- 
dreas et Matthias/ Tischend., p. 133 et seq. rywit ^arriytd, 

30. \)at of the MS. is a mistake for at. 

81. L.A. : *' Et invento aperto carcere S. Matthaei eoque vise flcvit 
plurimum oravit.'* in a rese=vf'ith his utmost speed; lit, in a race. 
rese, from A.S. ras, a rush, swift course. 

34. Di'sesse^ misery, 

35, 36. " Tunc dominus Matthaeo redidit beneficium duorum lumi- 
num ; quibus eum privaverat nequitia peccatorum." 

40, 41. Addition. 

41. /^t?r= because. L.A.: "de evasione S. Matthaei." 

43. L.A. : "et per plateas ligatis manibus pertrahunt*' Abd.: 
" ligatis pedibus per plateas civitatis trahebant" 

44. An addition. iiange=beaLt; pres, t dyng. Icel. dengjn^ to 

45. /^?>'^V7lf^= abundance, profusion. 

" And thai fand ^c/usicne thar-in 
Of corn and flour and wax and vyne." 

— 'The Bruce, ' xv. 93. 

Another and perhaps more common form is foysoum, which here 
scans better. O.Fr, /oison, plenty; from Lat. /usionem. L.A.: 
" inde in Achayam proficiscens." Abd. : " recedens ab eo loco, venit 
regionem suam " — />., Achaia. 

50. Fra =y/hen. The L.A. adds a criticism on this story which 
is here omitted. 

51-78. The scene of this story is apparently laid in Achaia by the 
L.A. Vine. Bello., who tells the story at greater length, says that the 
event happened in Thessalonica, *Spec. Hist.,' viii. 69. 

53. A^//^= kindred. 

56. Z,//g>'/i^= lodging. In *The Bruce' we have logyng, and in the 
'Prompt. Parv.,* loggyn. It occurs in the same form, however, in 
* Lancelot of the Laik,' v. 891 : — 

" And thei hyme tuk and to his lugyne bare." 

In the Aberdeen 'Burgh Records* we have lugeing, i. pp. 102, 103, 
and the pi. luggeins, p. 115. O.Fr. loge, logis, 

59. /fy/i/= seized. A.S. hentan, 

60. Wattir crowat, L.A., "ampula." 


62. Mes^put out In the sense of restrain or moderate, it occurs 

•• Nowe might ))er Jewes >are malise meese." 

— ^York Plays, 463, 238. 

" Syne quhen we se our tyme to saile maist abill, 

The blastis mesit, and the fluidis stabill" 

— Douglas, ii. 122, 16. 
" The wynd first lat ws meis," 

— Ibid., 125, 19. 

6S> 64. L.A. : " Illis dicentibus ; filius noster magus est effectus." 
wwA>'/= witched, bewitched. 

65. Dresnt=sti up. 

67. L.A. : " Ut ipsas scalas penitus non viderent" 

71. •S>jfi= cease. 

74. L.A., "domino crediderunt." 

77. /?yfA/= prepared, laid. A.S. dihtan, to prepare. 

79-110. L.A. ii. 3; Abd. III. xxx. The latter makes Corinth the 
scene of the miracle. 

79-69. L.A.: "Quaedam mulier cuidam homicidae conjuncta cum 
parere non posset, sorori suae dixit : vade et pro me Dyanam domi- 
nam nostram invoca." Abd. : " Dum haec fierent apud Patras Achaiae 
civitatem, contigit ut mulier Calliopa nomine, quas homicidae con- 
juncta conceptum susceperat inlicitum, magnis in partu doloribus 
arctaretur, nee partum proferre posset. Hsec ad sororem suam in- 
quit : vade quaeso, et invoca Dianam, deam nostram, et misereatur 
mei. Ipsa enim habet patrocinium obstetricandi." 

63. 5«K/=sent; occurs frequently. "Thairfor we suld thole pati- 
ently al adversite send to us be the hand of God." — Archbp. Hamil- 
ton's ' Catechism,' 224. 

" Eftir his consell haO he send^ 
And askit quhat wes best till do." 

— 'The Bruce,' xviii. 38a 

67. OfUonej more frequently written on aif^= forthwith, immedi- 
ately. Mod.£. anon. 

" Quhen thai the mandment all had tane, 
Thai assemblit ane ost on-ane, 
And to the castell went in hy." 

— • The Bruce,' iv. 86. 

But in ' Lancelot of the Laik' almost the same form occurs as here: — 

*' With that, the bird sche haith hir leif tak. 
For fere of quich I can onone to wak." — L. 158. 

" As I presume that thow onon shalt here." — L. 1466. 

A.S. on^^m, in one. 

66. " Ut apud Graecos Dianam atque Luciferam, sic apud nostros 

54 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (m. 90-111). 

Junonem Lucinam in pariendo invocant" — Cicero, *De Nat Dea,' 
i. II. 

90. L.A. : " Cui invocanti ait dyabolus." Abd. : " Faciente igitur 
sorore, quae sibi imperata fuerant, venit ad earn nocte diabolus, 

93. Tillandro, Abd. adds, "qui in Achaia moratur ;" but not L.A. 

94-96 are additions. 

101-110. L.A.: "Recte hoc pateris, quia male duxisti, male con- 
cepisti et dsemones consuluisti ; sed tamen poenitere et in Christum 
crede et puerum projice. Qua credente abortivum protulit et dolor 
cessavit." Abd. : " Merito haec pateris, quae male nupsisti, et ex dolo 
crucifiens, nunc intolerabiles labores sustines. Insuper consuluisti 
daemonia, quae neque uUi, neque sibi prodesse possunt. Crede nunc 
Jesum Christum filium Dei, et projice puerperium; veruntamen 
mortuus egredietur, quod indigne concepisti. Haec ut mulier credidit, 
mox egredientibus cunctis de cubiculo, projecit partum mortuum, et 
ab omnibus doloribus liberata est." 

102. p« arte. The more common form is \u is or es. Skills 

" And sen we knaw thar felloufie will 
Me think it suld accorde till skill 
To set stoutneD agane felony." 

—•The Bruce,* xii. a6o 

• ' Ilk man ))at here ly ves, mare and lesse, 
God made til his awen lyknesse ; 
Till wham he has gyven witte and skille 
For to knaw bothe gude and ille." 

— ' Pricke of Conscience,* 91. 

106. For-l/tiftk= repent "For me forthynkis my syn, and swa my 
sorowynge fra the is not hid, bot herd of the."— Hampole's Psalter, 
Ps. xxxvii. 9. In the following passage the verb occurs in several 
forms : " He says that it Jorthoght God . noght that any forthynkyng 
may fall in him . bot for he chawngid that men wend he sould hafe 
done . that is, to lose the men . him forthynkis when he sees vsfor- 
thynker—\h\A., Ps. cv. 42. Sene^sHn. trow, a mistake for trew. 
It rhymes with Ihesu. 

lOa Wariste = cured. O.Fr. wart'ry Mod.Fr. gu^rir. The word 
does not appear to be of frequent use. [He] >ar-of na way wariste 
mycht be, XL. 284. 

• ' And many put war seke and sore. 
And with pai maumet hurt bifore, 
Come >edir and vnto Peter knelde 
And prayd him forto be J)are belde. 
And warisch >am out of J)aire wo." 

— • Altengl. Leg. Neue Folge, p. 49, I. 33. 

111-162. L.A. ii. 4; Abd. III. xxxiii. In the latter the scene of the 
story is laid at Corinth. 


111-124. L.A.: "Senex quidam nomine Nicolaus adiit apostolum 
dicens: domine, ecce septuaginta anni vitae meae sunt, in quibus 
semper luxuriae deservivi. Accepi autem aliquando evangelium 
orans Deum, ut mi hi amando continbntiam largiretur. Sed in ipso 
peccato inveteratus et a mala concupiscentia illectus statim ad opus 
solitum revertebar." Abd.: " Ecce septuaginta quatuor anni sunt vitae 
meae, quibus non discessi," &c. 

lli. Elde^^gt, Of frequent occurrence. 

*' For he was bo9en king and prest 
OieUU most, of wit heghest." 

— ' Gen. and Exod.,' 900. 

" Micht he haf lifit quhlU he had beyne 
Of perfit elde, withouten weyne, 
His renoune suld haf strekit fer." 

—'The Brace,' xvii. 928. 
h,S.yldOt old age. 

121. V^ane seems to be put in to fill up the line and for the rhyme. 

123. p<7rA/= though. /^/= leave it. 

124. Sine wyle^soon while — i,e,, in a short time. 

125-136. L.A. : " Quadam igiturvice concupiscentia inflammatus ob- 
litus evangelium, quod super me posueram, ad lupanar ivi statimque 
meretrix dixit mihi : Egredere, senex, egredere, quia angelus Dei 
es, tu ne me contingas neque hue accedere praesumas: video enim 
super te mirabilia." Abd.: '* Luctante igitur conscientia mea, accepi 
Evangelium, et oravi Dominum, ut haec aliquando me faceret ob- 
livisci. Itaque post paucos dies oblitus Evangelii, quod super me 
erat, inflammante cogitatione perversa, abii iterum in lupanar. Et 
ecce mulier meretrix videns me, ait : Egredere senex, egredere, 
Angelus enim Domini es tu, non contingas me, neque appropinques 
huic loco : video enim in te mysterium magnum." 

126. /'!///= foul. //Vr^^?r)'= lechery. 

127. For=\Ti spite of. For examples see Maetzner, ii. 438. 
129. Bordale ^hro\ht\, 

135. Fand==Xxyt attempt. h.S, fattdtan^ to try. 

" Go we and speken wiC him get 
AviAfonden wiC 5is token bet." 

— *Gen. and Exod.,' 2938. 

" That purpose proue to putte it by, 
Aniifande to pike fro hym l)at pray." 

— York Plays, 23, 18. 
" I sail carpe to |>e Kyng, 
Andy^m^ to make you free." 

— Ibid., 80, 202. 

" {>ai sa\fande at his last endyng, 
Him into wanhope for to bring, 
Thurgh thretynges >at ))ai sal mak." 

— • Pricke of Conscience,* 2228. 


•* |>en'saide ihesus >e agfa to wande, 
fi god ^i lorde for to/amde." 

— * Ciinor Mondi/ i3.97i* 

" Propirly thai tempte God, that puttis thaim sclfe in any pcrill forto 
/amie if God will delyuer thaim."— Hampole's Psalter, Ps. IxxviL ai. 
nyicht = approach. 

137. L.A. : " Stupefactus ad verba meretricis recolui quod mecum 
Evangelium detulissem. Nunc igitur, Sancte Dei, pro salute mea 
tua pia oratio intercedat" Aqfand/erfy, lit having wonder— «>., 

138. IVmdethocAf ^bethought 

143. L.A. : " Audiens hoc beatus Andreas flere coepit et a tertia 
usque ad nonam oravit et surgens noluit comederc sed ait: non 
comedam, donee sciam si dominus miserebitur hujus senis." 

146-149. " Said meat nor drink he none would have, until he knew 
that God had remitted to that old man his sin entirely." 

150-157. L.A. : " Cumque diebus quinque jejunasset. venit vox ad 
Andream dicens : obtines Andrea pro sene ; sed, sicut per jejunium 
macerasti te, sic se et ipse affligat jejuni is, ut salvetur.** 

156. PVakk=vfaLtching, vigils. 

157. Owkis^vjceks, L.A. : "Sicque fecit et in sex mensibus in 
pane et aqua jejunavit et postmodum plenus bonis operibus in pace 

160. L.A. : "Venit igitur vox ad Andream dicens : per orationem 
tuam Nicolaum quern perdideram, acquisivi." Abd. : "Aberat turn 
beatus Andrea. Sed circa ipsam mortem senis, vox ad apostolum 
facta est alio loco : Andrea, mens advectus est Nicolaus." 

163-230. L.A. ii. 5; Abd. XIII. vi. Vine. Bello.. 'Spec. Hisf 
viii. 67. Prochorus, in his * Historia de S. Joh.,' cap. xlii., tells a some- 
what similar story. Cf. also Vine. Bello., 'Spec. Hist.,* ix. 70; 
likewise Gen. xxxix. 

163. L.A. : " Quidam juvenis Christianus secretins Sancto Andres 
dixit : mater mea pulchrum me videns de opere me illicito tentat" 
Abd. : " Puer quidam Sostratus nomine venit secretins ad beatum 
Andream." V.B. : " Puer autem quidam Sostratus nomine Christianus 
venit ad Apostolum secretius." 

167. Fantfyf =tempiesi. See note to 1. 135. 

170. Sc/to dresstt= took means, set herself. Fr. dresser, from Lat 
dirigere, to direct Me al for to schent^Xo destroy me entirely. 
schent^ixom A.S. scendan, to destroy. L.A. : "Cui nullatenus assen- 
tirem, judicem adiit, volens in me crimen tantae nequitiae retorquere." 

171-174. Addition. 

179. To pieny^\o zoxK^X^xn, OSx. plaindre, 

181-190. L.A. : *• Sed ora pro me ne moriar tam injuste. nam et 
accusatus penitus reticebo malens vitam perdere quam matrem meam 
tam turpiter infamare." 


187. JFor. See note to 1. 127. 
• 189. I would rather suffer death itself, sai mar lik me^^WX be 
perferable to me. lik, from A.S. Ucian, to delight. 

191-198. L.A. : "Juvenis igitur ad judicium vocatur et illuc eum 
Andreas prosequitur.** Abd. : " Venerunt ministri Proconsulis accu- 
sentes eum. Beatus vero Apostolus facta oratione surrexit, et abiit 
cum pucro." 

204. L.A., " unicum filium.'' So also Abd. 

206-206. "Domine, huic homini Alius meus adhaesit, postquam 
agere voluit sed nequivit." 

207. Enertha$id^anherdand, an adherent, retainer, follower. See 
Jamieson under anherd, anherdande, and anerdance, 

209-218. L.A : "Iratus itaque judex jussit puerum in saccum lini- 
tum pice et bitumine mitti et in flumine projici, Andream vero in 
carcere reservari donee excogitaret supplicium quo periret.** Abd. : 
*' Proconsul autem super his ira commotus, puerum jussit in cuUeum 
parricidi recludi, et in flumen projici : Andream autem in carcerem 
retrudi, donee excogitatis suppliciis et ipsum perderet** 

21L To mere=\.Q tie up. O.Du. maren, to bind, fasten. See 
Skeat's * Etymol. Diet' under mar and m^or, 

216. Pa/ he na schapit The meaning seems to be either, so that 
he escaped not, or that he had not contrived. The former is much 
the more preferable, and probably the right one, the elision of a vowel 
at the beginning of a word being frequent. Skarioth has already 
occurred for Iscarioth, and pertly for apertly, Cf. Maetzner, i. 

219-280. L.A. : " Sed orante Andrea tonitruum horribile omnes ter- 
ruit, et terrae motus ingens cunctos prostravit, et mulier a fulmine 
percussa et arefacta corruit'* 

221. Sitht-war. See note, II. 518. 

2!X^ Schacht, A mistake for j^//ir^/. fyr'Sclackt^^Wghimng, The 
author of the ' Complaynt of Scotland ' has fyir sclaucht, p. 60, 1. 
4. The form now common in the north of Scotland is fire-flaucht, 
brine^hMxn, AS. brinnatu 

226. /'i^//^^ people. 

229. /fi9te^if= baptised. Howyn is the past p. of the verb hebban, 
to heave ; was howyn is therefore literally " was raised," but as the 
child was hove, or lifted, or presented to the priest for baptism, it 
came to mean baptised. The following passages, illustrative of its 
meaning, are cited by Dr Morris in the Glossary to Hampole's ' Pricke 
of Conscience ' : — 

" I>an at )« fjrrst of ])at cas 
|>e Kyng of Brettane howyn was ; 
And all )« Bamage of his land 
I>an baptyst wes." 

— W. C, p. 98 (Macpherson). 


" Syne lumyn he wcs, and cald Hcniy." 

—Ibid., pu 36a 

" Or 3]rf a man hare hove a cfaylde 
God hyt forbede and shylde, 
t>at \ix chylde shulde any have 
Of hys godliadrys, maydyn or knave" 

— ' Handlyng Synnc/ p. <&» 

•' |>c fyrst sacrament ys holy bapteme 
Hove of water, and noyted with crcmc." 

—Ibid., p. 294. 

Hampole says : — 

" Bot no sawle may thithen pas. 
Until it be als deene als it fyrst was. 
When he was kofen at fount -stane. 
And hys crystendom thare had tane." 

See Halliwell, ' Diet, of Archaic and Prov. Words.* 
231-248. L.A. ii. 6 ; Abd. III. vii. „ 

231,232. L.A.: "Cum autem esset apostolus in civiUtc Nicaea. 

Abd : " Niceam proficiscitur, in Asiam." 

235. Fers cmdfell^ fierce and cruel. 

236. Quell^VxW. 

" He hasted him to |>e Swin with sergantes snell. 
To mete with >e Normandes )wit fals war & fell, 
I>at had ment if ^ might al Flandres to quelV* 

— Minot, V. 24. 

237. " Quibus ad jussum apostoli ante populum in specie canum 
venientibus praecepit," &c. In Abd. the Apostle both preaches and 

244. Lat no are =\3.te nor soon. 

249-274. L.A. ii. 6; Abd. III. viii. L.A.: " Et cum vcnissct ad 
portam alterius civitatis, ecce quidam juvenis mortuus ferebatur. 
Quaerente apostolo quid ei accidisset, dictum est ei quod septem 
canes venerunt et eum in cubiculo necaverunt Et lacrimans apostolus 
ait : scio domine, quod fuerunt daemones quos a Nicsea urbe repuli. 
Dixitque patri : quid dabis mihi si suscitavero filium tuum ? Cui 
ille : nil carius ego possidebam, ipsum ergo tibi dabo. Et facta ora- 
tione surrexit ut apostolo adhaesit" Abd. : " Postea egressus Niceam 
Andreas, quum ad portum Nicomedice appropinquaret, efferebatur 
mortuus in grabato." 

250. ^<a!«/^ra«^= wandering. According to Nicephorus (ii. 39, viii. 
6) and others, St Andrew's travels were very extensive. He is repre- 
sented as having ordained Philologus, Bishop of Sinope in Achaia, 
and Stachys, Bishop of Byzantium. According to Nicetas of Paphla- 
gonia, he preached the Gospel along the shores of the Euxine. and in 
support of his doctrine wrought many miracles. " Omnes boreales 

NOTES TO DE SANCTO ANDREA (m. 26a-297). $9 

oras omnemque Ponti maritimam in virtute sermonis, sapientiae ac 
intelligentiae, in virtute signonim et prodigiorum Evangelii com- 
plexus est praedicatione." St Gregory Naz. says that he also preached 
in Epinis (Orat 25). 

268. GrucAing€=gpidging, 

272-274. Abd.: " Puenim tantum secum a4 Macedonian! abire prae- 
cipiens, salutaribus verbis instruxit.*' 

275-290. L.A. ii. 7; Abd. III. xxviii. xxix. The latter seems to 
have been the source used by Voragine, but the author evidently had 
both the L.A. and Abd. before him. 

275-278. Abd. xxviii. : " Ego sum Sostrati iilius civis Macedonis, 
qui nuper ab Italia navigavi. Sed quum revertissimem ad propria, 
audiri doctrinam surrexisse novam quam nullus hominum prius 
audivisset Sed et signa prodigiaque, ac nudelas magnas fieri a 
quodam doctore, fama erat, qui se veri Dei affirmat esse discipulum. 
Ego autem quum haec audivissem, properavi ut talem videre hominem 
possem,** &c. 

277. Be land and sey =hy land and sea. 

278. /^fr/j/^j= wonders, miracles. Still in use. 

279-290. L.A. : " Cum quidam viri numero 40 ad apostolum navigio 
venirent, ut ab eo fidei doctrinam reciperent, ecce a dyabolo mare 
concitatur et omnes pariter submerguntur. Cum autem eorum cor- 
pora ad litus delata fuissent, ante apostolum deportantur et ab eo 
continuo suscitantur. Qui omnia quae sibi acciderunt narraverunL 
Unde in quodam hymno ipsius legitur: Quaterdenos juvenes sub- 
mersos maris fluctibus vitae reddidit usibus." 

283. Wox sa woud=grevf so wild ; lit, waxed so mad. 

291-862. ' Passio S. Andreas Apostoli per Presby. et Diac. Eccles. 
Achaiae Script,' Surius, with which cf. * Acta Andreae,' Tischendorf, 
p. 105 ; L.A. ii. 8; Abd. III. xxxix.-xlii. In the 'Historia' of Abdias, 
the narrative of the incident here related is greatly condensed — much 
more so even than that of the L.A. 

291-306. L.A.: "Beatus igitur Andreas in Achaya consistens totam 
cum ecclesiis implevit et plurimos ad fidem Christi convertit Uxorem 
quoque JEgex proconsulis fidem Christi docuit et sacro baptismatis 
fonte ipsam regeneravit. Audito hoc JEgeas Patras civitatem in- 
greditur compellens Christianos ad sacrificia ydolorum." Abdias 
gives a long account of the Apostle's labours in Patras. I n the ' Passio ' 
they are passed over, the narrative beginning: "Proconsul itaque 
i£geasy Patras civitatem ingressus, coepit compellere credentes 
Christo ad sacrificia idolorum." 

292. .SVi;^= preach. 

293. AVrAoif^s nearly. Still common in Mod.Sc. 

295. Swithy see I. 446. kirkis mony ane =m2iny a church. 
297. Ve wyfof egeas. Named Maximilla by Abdias and some ver- 
sions of the ' Acta.' 

6o LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (m. 309-334). 

309-313. Passio : ** Oportebat ut tu, qui judex esse hominum compro- 
baris, judicem tuum, qui est in coelo, cognosceres, et agnitum coleres, 
et colendo eum qui verus Deus est, ab his, qui veri dii non sunt, 
animum revocares." 

309. Gaynand thinge war to J7^= fitting thing it were for thee. 
gaynand is from O.Fr. gaagner. Other forms of the word occur, 
though not frequently. 

" Xxganyth not, as I have harde Recorde, 
The seruand for to disput with ye lord." 

— ' Lancelot of the Laik.' 121. 

" Gart for hir knycht and presoner dewyfi 
In red al thing, that ^a^iiV/^ for the were." 

— Ibid., 991. 

" Take with )« geere, oclyk as mAj gayne 
To man and beeste ])are lyflfes to laste." 

— ^York Plays, 44/140. 

" Sir knyghtis, takis gere ])at moste mzy gayne^ 

And lates vs goo." 

— Ibid., 405/180. 

Cf. Jamieson. 

314. This line is not in the L.A. nor in the * Passio,' nor 'Acta,' but 
seems to have been suggested by the words put into the Apostle's 
mouth by Abdias : " Ego sum. Proconsul, qui praedico vcrbum 
veritatis, et Dominum Jesum, ut recedentes homines ab idolis manu- 
factis^ verum Deum agnoscere incipiant," &c. 

317. P. and L.A. : " superstitiosam sectam." 

318. L.A. : " Romani principis nuper." Ay ^«Aflr^= everywhere. 
321. L. A. : " Romani principes nondum cognoverumt quomodo 

filius Dei veniens docuerit ydola esse dsemonia quae hoc docent unde 
offendatur Deus (ut offensus ab iis avertatur et aversus non exaudiat 
et non exaudiendo ipsi a dyabolo captiventur et captivitati tamdiu 
deludantur, donee nudi de corpore exeant, nihil secum praeter peccata 

326. With ]>am to be ze/ar^= against them to guard. 

329-331. L.A. : " Ista vana Jesus vester praedicans crucis patibulo 
affixus est." 

331. G^^^a/= gibbet, gallows, cross. 

333. In the address which here opens, the L.A. is no longer fol- 
lowed. The main source is the 'Passio,' which Voragine has con- 

333-341. P. : " Andreas respondit : O si velles scire mysterium 
Crucis, quam rationabili charitate auctor vitae humani generis pro 
restauratione nostra hoc Crucis patibulum non invite, sed sponte 
suscepit ! " The L.A. has, " cui Andreas : pro restauratione nostra 
non pro culpa sua crucis patibulum sponte suscepit" 

333, 334. Addition. 

NOTES TO DE SANCTO ANDREA (m. 312436). 6 1 

342. L.A. : "Ad quern iEgeas dixit: cum a suo discipulo fuerit 
traditus et a Judaeis tentus, et a militibus crucifixus, quomodo tu 
dicis, eum sponte crucis subisse supplicium ? *' (Condensed from P.) 
"Tunc Andreas quinque rationibus ccepit ostendere Christum 
voluntarie passum fuisse" (not in P.) 

343-386. Not from L.A. but from P. 

344. i?^/r^ji/= betrayed. 

349. Z7^«/iV^= advise, inform. 

350-352. P. : "Cui frater meus Petrus diceret : Propitius esto tibi 
Domine ; non fiat istud.** 

35L i?«yM/=pity. Cf. Mod.E. rt/MIess. Horstmann prints reucht, 

353. /P^]^7f^= disdain. Fr. dedaigmr. P.: " Indignatus, sic ait 

355. Miskennis = misunderstandest. Saweris = savou rest. 

356. The things high God will have in thought P.: " Non sapis ea, 
qus sunt Dei." 

360. /*^wj//= power. 0,Yx,poeste; Lait. potestas. 
362; 363. P. : " Ad ultimum, dum ccenaret nobiscum." 
370. \)ts nyckt Not in P. 
371-386. Not in P. nor ' Acta * nor L.A. 

393-396. P. : " Hoc est, quod, etiam me dixisse jam retines, magnum 
est mysterium Crucis ; quod si forte volueris audire, reteptam.'* 

396. F>fi^=unfold. 

397, 398. P. : " Mysterium non potest dici, sed supplicium." 
406-406. P. : " Sed tu si me obtemperanter, non audieris, ipsum 

crucis mysterium in te ipso excipies." 

41L pif loy of It P. : " crucis gloriam." Inaprechit ^ow= I would 
not have preached it to you. 

413. fVodn€ss= madness. IVoce ==yoice. This word should rhyme 
with corse of the next line. P. : " insanus sermo tuus." 

418. P.: "sed per fidem." Anerfy=on\y, Still of frequent occur- 

423. P. : " Mors vero peccatorum, pessima.*' 

428-434. P.:"i£g. dixit: Restauratur hoc, quod periisse docetur. 
Nunquid anima mea periit» ut ad ejus me restaurationem venire per 
iidem nescio qualem, quam tu asseras ? " 

435-462. P.: "Andreas respond it : Hoc est quod te discere desid- 
erabam ut dum perditas animas hominum docuero, istam restaura- 
tionem earum per Crucis mysterium pandam. Primus enim homo 
per lignum prsvaricationis mortem induxit, et necessarium hoc erat 
generi humano, ut per lignum passionis, mors, qus ingressa fuerat, 
pelleretur. Et quomodo de immaculata terra factus fuerat homo 
primus, qui per ligDum praevaricationis mundo mortem intulerat : 
necessarium fuit ut de immaculata Virg^ne natus Christus perfectus 
homo, qui est Dei Filius, qui primum hominem fecerat, vitam 
setemam, quam perdiderant omnes repararet : ac de ligno Crucis 


lignum concupiscentias excluderet: panderet in Cruce immaculatas 
manus pro manibus incontinenter extensis, pro suavi cibo arboris 
vetitx, escam scllis acciperet : et in se suscipiens mortalitatem nos- 
tram, suam nobis immortalitatem offerret" 
438. Tyn/ sawIts=\(}St souls. 

442. Vftwemmyi^unstsiincd, A.S. n^ojvr, a stain. ' Cursor Mundi ' 

says: — 

" of er)> al-ane made was be no^, 
bot of ^ foure elemeotes wro^ ; 
of water his bkxle. his flesshe of laire. 
his hete of fire, his ande of ayre.' — 5i7-59a 

443. Tre q/'irespase=\ht tree of forbidden fruit 
448. In apersane^m one person. 

453. 4S7mrA/= stretched. Still in use. 

457. La/ir=\2Licr. Cf. St Paul's phrase, " the second man." 

459. Self btttimis=saiTat bitterness. 

464. To them that will give credence to thee. 

465. A^<7M/-Jwwf^= nevertheless. i9<7/= unless. 

471. P. : " Omnipotenti Deo qui unus et verus est, ego omni die 
sacrificio, non thuris fumum, nee taurorum mug^entium cames, 
nee hircorum sanguinem, sed immaculatum Agnum quotidie in altare 
Crucis sacrificio; cujus carnes posteaquam omnis populus creden- 
tium manducaverit, et ejus sanguinem biberit, agnus qui sacrifactus 
est, integer preserverat et vivus : et cum vere ig^tur sacrificatus sit, 
et vere cames ejus manducatse sint a populo, et vere sanguis ejus sit 
haustus, tamen, ut dixi, integer permanet, et immaculatus, et vivus." 

473. ^e folk treufull—rkit. faithful people — /.^..believers in Christ, 
or "the faithful." 

475. Sacrifit, for sacrifyit or sacrifitt. 

476. Quhyk^\W\ng, Cf. "to judge the quick and the dead." 
//ia/^= whole. 

478-479. p« tak to ]>e J)e forme ofprenttis=\.2k^ to thyself the form 
of a disciple — />., become a disciple or learner. P.: "assume for- 
mam discipulis." 

485. Meferlis—\ wonder. 

488. Fore a7£/= through fear — Le,, of the torment threatened. 

493-495. ^at was . . . suthfaste god to be. Addition. 

499. Elyke—dXxV^, the same. 

507-508. P.: "Si non credideris, penitus nunquam tu ad imagi- 
nem hujus veritatis attinges." 

507. And bot'gyf—dJid. unless. 

508. p« vittis is the pres. ind. instead of the future, or pres. poten- 
tial : " Thou mayest not know what thou now inquirest after.** 

510. Done—^\M, 

510ff. The source is still the * Passio.* 

511-512. Addition. 

NOTES TO DE SANCTO ANDREA (m. 519-627). 63 

519. Quyet—pesice. 

520. Luk =ste. The meaning of this and the preceding line is, 
" See that ye turn not now the peace of our Lord Jesus into turbu- 

523, 524. Addition. In its place the ' Passio ' quotes Isa. xlii. 2. 
521 /%/=sent ; a very rare word. It is used once by Langland: — 

" ' Repente the/ quath Repentaunce, and vyzt with that he swouned, 
Til Vigilate the veille vette water at hus eyen 
AjoAJlatte on his face, and fast on hym criede." — C. viii. 58. 

Cf. O.Yv.Jlat, a h\o^ \JiaHr, to dash. The line may be rendered, 
•* He sent no grievous ill to any man." 

525. Cylens= siXtnct, 

526-529. Addition. 

532. Campionts=c\i2Jti^\ons, 

535-537. P. : " Si enim terror timendus est, ille est utique timendus 
qui finem non habet" 

536-540. P. : " Nam humanus timor fumo similis est ; et subito cum 
excitatus fuerit, evanescit" 

545, 546. P.: " Illi autem dolores, aeterni sunt; ubi est quotidi- 
anus fletus, et mugitus, et luctus, et sine fine cruciatus, ad quern Pro- 
consul iEgeas ire non timet." 

547-550. P. : " Ut per tribulationes temporales ad setema gaudia 
pertingatis, ubi semper Isetemini, semper floreatis, semperque cum 
Christo regnetis." 

551. pis prechinge is said in the ' Passio ' to have lasted '* per totam 

559. P.: "Et a Christo tui laude cessare." 

560. P. : " Ut posses nobiscum non amittere gaudia vitae." 
568^569. \at , . . ])e. Addition. A^(7rA/= naught, nothing. 
582. P. : " Derelicta non sint et deserta." 

664. Enpleysitt for empieysit, pleased. 

566. P. : " Et in nostra possis amicitia permanere." wath of the 
MS. is evidently intended for rath, quickly. 

587. lVreihtng=2Lngtni\g, See Stratmann, s.v, wraifien. 

593. To bet =^io kindle. A.S. bitan. See Stratmann, s,v,, and 
Murray under beat. 

605. Dowt. See note to I. 283. Manauce= mensice, 

613. ScMurgjs = scourges, Be/te=be2Lien, See note to II. 21. 

621. Z?»r= obstinate. Mod.Sc. dour, 

624. Addition. 

627. Ourcumyne, for ourcumynge. Examples of a similar kind 
occur frequently. 

627-635. P.: "Et Crucis tropaeum optare potius debeo, quam 
timere. Tibi autem cruciatus aeternus qui debetur, poteris evadere, 
si postquam probaveris perseverentiam meam, vel sic credideris 


Christo. Ego enim de tuo interitu timeo ; non de mea passione con- 

620. But lasting [dread] it [the cross] is sure to be to thcc. The 
MS. has auchit for anch it aucA =A.S, ^ = Mod.E. owes,pr€s. t of 
ought (Lat. debita), 

632. Lowand, See II. 228. 

634. Z>/jr^j//= disquieted or distressed. 

642. Drede^ a mistake for dede, " Dying without death in lasting 

645-658. P.: "Mandans hoc questionariis ut ligatis pedibus et 
manibus, quasi in eculeo tenderetur, ne clavis affixus cito deficeret 
sed cruciaretur potius longo cruciatu. Cumque eum camifices 
ducerent ut crucifigeretur, concursus factus est populonim claman- 
tium ac dicentium : lustus homo et amicus Dei, quid fecit ut 
ducatur ad crucem? Andreas vero rogabat populum, ut non im- 
pedirent passionem ejus. Gaudens enim, et exultans, ibat et a 
doctrina non cessans.** Cf. Abdias, III. xl. 

Wb, Ennowmyt = enoumit. O.Fr. enoumd='LaX. inomatusa 
adorned upon, adorned. Tertullian uses tnomare, to adorn ; see Du 

668. Nommyn=^\^VtTi ; p. pt, of nymen, to take. Cf. Ger. nekmen. 
The word is frequently used in * Piers Ploughman,' * Ormulum/ &c. 
Cf. also * Promp. Parv.,* p. 358. 

662-682. The prayer which here follows is so celebrated and of such 
great beauty that I shall here transcribe the whole of it as given by 
Surius. It will be seen that in several passages the author departs 
from it, but on the whole follows it very closely : " Salve Crux, quae in 
corpore Christi dedicata es, et ex membrorum ejus margaritis omata. 
Antequam te ascendere Dominus, timorem terrenum habiusti, mode 
vero amorem coelestem obtinens, pro voto susci peris. Sciris enim 
credentibus quanta intra te gaudia habeas, quanta munera preparata. 
Securus ergo et gaudens venio ad te, ita ut et tu exultans suscipias 
me discipulum ejus, qui pependit in te : quia amator tuus semper fui» 
et desideravi amplecti te. O bona Crux, qux decorem et pulchritu- 
dinem de membris Domini suscepisti, diu desiderata, solicite amata, 
sine intermissione qusesita et aliquando jam concupiscenti animo 
preparata : accipe me ab hominibus, et redde me magistro meo, ut 
per te me recipiat, qui per te redemit me.** 

678. Enkrely =ch\t^y or especially. Cf. Icel. einkanliga, especially. 

680. Be-kene^commznA, See Murray's Diet, s, Beken. 

688. 5/r^^7/= stretched. Still so used. 

689. According to Tischendorfs 'Acta,* it was the Proconsul's in- 
tention that during the night-time Andrew should be devoured by dog^ 

690. 691. P. : " Adstantes vero erant turbae ad viginti millia hom- 
inum.*' So also L.A. Abd., " viginti ferme millium hominum." Sim- 
ilarly the Greek ' Acta.* 

NOTES TO DE SANCTO ANDREA (m. 696-798). 65 

096-709. P. : " Inter quos erat frater JEgtde, nomine Stratocles, qui 
simul clamabat cum populo, injusto judicio sanctum virum hoc pati. 
Sanctus vero Andreas confortabat mentes credentium Christo, et 
hortabatur ad tolerantiam temporalem, docens nihil esse dignum 
passionis ad setemam remunerationis compensationem." 

699. J/f«y/= lamented : — 

" The kyng, thame ansuer maid he nane, 
Bot fftenyt his hand-ax-schaft, that swa 
Wes with ane strak brokyn in twa." 

—'The Bruce,' xii. 97. 

A.S. fficsnan, to complain, moan. 

719. \e to\ir day. P. : '* Secunda die." The Greek 'Acta' repre- 
sents the Apostle as continuing alive and preaching from the cross 
four days and four nights. 

722, Dow/and =^{t2inng. See I. 283. 

726. Z^j^= loose. 

754-770. Here the author follows neither the 'Passio' nor the L.A. 
wholly, but appears to have made a greater use of the former than 
of the latter. In the L.A. the prayer is said to be from Augustine's 
• De Poenitentia.* The text, as given by Surius, is : "Ne permittas, 
Domine lesu Christe, me famulum tuum qui propter nomen tuum 
pendeo in cruce solvi ; nee permittas eum, qui jam per crucem tuam 
cognovit magnitudinem tuam ab i£gea homine corruptibili humiliari : 
sed suscipe me tu, magister meus Christe, quem dilexi, quem cognovi, 
quern confiteor, quem cemere desidero, in quo sum quod sum. Sus- 
cipe, Domine lesu Christe, spiritum meum in pace : quia jam tempus 
est ut veniam, desiderans te videre. Suscipe me, Domine lesu Christe, 
magister bone, et jube me de ista cruce non deponi, nisi prius spiritum 
meum susceperis." Cf. Tisch., 128. 

771-783. L.A.: "His dictis splendor nimius de coelo veniens di- 
midia hora eum circumdedit, ita ut nullus eum videre posset, et 
abscendente lumine simul cum ipso lumine spiritum tradidit." P.: 
"Et cum haec dixisset, videntibus cunctis, splendor nimius, sicut 
fulgur de coelo veniens, ita circumdedit eum, ut penitus prae ipso 
splendore oculi eum humani non possent adspicere. Cumque per- 
mansisset splendor fere dimidiae hora spacio, abscendente lumine, 
emisit spiritum, simul cum ipso lumine pergens ad Dominum, cui 
est honor et gloria in saecula saeculorum. Amen." 

775. /^fr.^=bear. A.S, /i^an. See Stratmann. 

779. Z>«;^tfn/= disappeared. 

783^17. Cf. Passio. L.A. has, "Maximilia vero uxor Mgtx tulit 
corpus Apostoli sancti et honorifice sepelivit" The Greek 'Acta' 
also makes Maximilia the wife of iEgeas, and says that she had 
parted from him on account of his brutal disposition and lawless 
conduct Here, however, the * Passio ' is followed. 

798. Bawme of rettinge^hdXm of Gilead. The Hebrew word for 



it is nv. fsM, which in the LXX. is always translated H^dn, and in the 
Vulgate by restna. See Murray's Diet, Gesenius's Hebr. Diet, and 
Smith's * Diet of Bible/ Z?^/2riw= defence, protection, preservation. 

801 Ure is perhaps from A.S. wrigan, to accuse. It is the -wray 
in Mod.Eng. bewray, 

807. Vele and wylly = favourably disposed. 

817. In hoppyne sycht- in open sight, before all. P.: " in medio foro 
civitatis." L.A.: " Coram omnibus " ; but Abd., "iEgeas vero maritus 
illius, arreptus ea nocte a daemonio, de loco alto se praecipitavit, et 
mortuus est" 

817-832. P. : " Ipse autem de facultatibus ejus nihil quaesivit, 
dicens : Non mihi permittat mens dominus lesus Christus, cui cre- 
didi, ut ego de bonis fratris mei aliquid contingam, ne polluat me 
crimen ejus, quia apostolum Domini ausus fuit pro amore pecuniae 
occidere." Abd. merely has, *' Stratocles porro frater ejus, quum haec 
audivisset, de bonis Proconsulis nihil contingere voluit, dicens : quae 
tua sunt, tecum pereant; mihi sufficit Dominus Jesus, quern cognovi 
per famulum ejus Andream." Not in L. A. 

821. Z?^^//zc7J^= twice dead, have part in the "mors secunda," Rev. 
XX. 14, xxi. 8. But the 'Passio' has, "ut inter Biothanatos sepelirent 

830. /^fl«:«//^= property. 

835-845. Not in L.A. or Abd., but from the ' Passio,' though with 
additions and omissions. 

846. Not in 'Passio,' 'Acta,* or Abd. L.A.: "Aiunt quoque de 
sepulchro sancto Andreas mannam in modum farinae et oleum cum 
odore emanere, a quo, quae sit anni futuri fertilitas, incolis regionis 
ostenditur : nam, si exiguum profluit, exiguum terra exhibet fructum, 
si copiose, copiosum. Hoc forte antiquitus verum fuit, sed modo 
ejus corpus apud Constantinopolitanos translatum esse perhibetur." 

849. J/^/^= honey. Lat mel, 

850. Saweoure=sdyo\xTt smell. A sweet odour is said to have come 
from the dead body of Simeon Stylites and from that of St Hilarion, 
* Vit Patr.' pp. 1 74/1 and 85^. For other instances of the "odour of 
sanctity," see Mayor and Lumb/s * Bedas, H. E.,' p. 236. 

859. Fore'quhy=\}tc2Mst, 

860, 861. This is said to have taken place in the year 375, when 
the body of St Andrew was deposited in the Church of the Apostles 
built by Constantine. After the capture of Constantinople by the 
Crusaders, Cardinal Peter of Capua removed the relics to Amalfi, 
and placed them in the cathedral there. A liquid is said to have 
exuded from his body, and to have wrought many miracles of heal- 
ing, on account of which great numbers of pilgrims were annually 
attracted to Amalfi. The supposed exhalation from the relics is still 
collected by means of gold plates let down into the Apostle's tomb. 

863-1134. The source is the L.A. ii. 9, 10. 


864. L.A., " religiosam habens vitam." 

86a Addition. 

870^ 871. L.A., "in cunctis suis operibus.** 

870. J5y/A/>= either. 

871. Helpiyk=\if\^{M\. 

873, 874. L.A.. " ad honorem Dei et beati Andrea?." 

875. L.A., *' hostis antiquus." 

877. 7!A/i«i&/i^//K= agreeably. 

883. L.A., "setransformavit." 

886-890. L.A. has merely " asserens se velle confiteri eidem." 

891-904. L.A.: Mandat episcopus ut suo pcenitentiali confiteatur, 
cut plenitudinem tradiderat potestatis. Renuntiat ilia, quod nulli 
hominum nisi sibi secreta suae conscientise revelet, sicque convictus 
episcopus earn ad se venire praecepit. 

902. Misknew = misunderstood. 

903. Ckifte for shifte or jrA^^=Mod.Eng. shift. It is properly a 
subst, but is here used as an adj. I eel. sktpH, a. sharing, a shift, a 
change; also a time. 

904. Z^iJ/r(^= leisure. 

90&-934. L.A. : *' Cui ilia : obsecro domine miserere mei, ego vero 
in annis puellaribus, ut cernitis, constituta et a pueritia delicate 
nutrita, nee non et regia stirpe progenita hue in peregrino habitu 
sola veni. Nam pater meus rex, itaque valde potens, cuidam magno 
principi me volebat in conjugium sociare, cui respondi : omnem 
torum abominor maritalem, quia virginitatem meam Christo in 
perpetuum dedicavi et ideo nunquam possem in carnalem copulam 
consentire. Denique sic artata quod oportebat me aut ejus voluntati 
obedire aut terrae diversa subire supplicia latenter fugam inii, magis 
eligens exulare quam sponso meo fidem infringere." 

909. Stabelaste=^{vi^s) reared. O.Fr. establir, 

913. ^if^= dress. A.S. w6sd, a garment; cf. Mod.E. weeds. 

920. /fa/^/K= entirely. 

923. Sa kale = so completely. 

925. That either I must do his will. 

928. />z2////= remain. 

929. 5/^i/» stole. 

930. Leware, the comparative of leif. See Jamieson, s,v* Leif and 
Lever. Wtrely = utterly. 

935-946. L.A. : "Audiens vero vestrae sanctitatis prasconium sub 
alas vestrae protectionis confugi, sperans me apud vos locum reperire 
quietis, ubi possim contemplationis carpere secreta silentia praesen- 
tisque vitae vitare naufragia et perturbationem mundi fugere per- 

935. Word^izmt. 

938. (2^ram/=ofiFering, but a mistake probably, as Horstmann sug- 
gests, for cpand, hoping. 

68 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (m. 94D-901). 

940. Rtw=h2LVt pity. 

" Lufly ladye I rewe one mee, 
Qwene of heuene als ])ou wele maye." 

—'Thomas of Ercddoune,* 87. 

942. Gaynand= dtiing. See note on 1. 309. 

944. Lu/=\ivc. 

947-970. L.A. : '* Admirans in ea episcopus nobilitatem generis, 
pulchritudinem corporis, tarn immensum fervorem et tantae eloquentiae 
venustatem placita et benigna voce respondit : Esto secura, filia, 
ne formides, quia ille, ob cujus amorem te et tuos et tua tarn viriliter 
contemsisti, tibi ob hoc et in praesenti cumulum gratis et in futuro 
plenitudinem gloriae largietur. Sad et ego, servus ejus, me et mea 
tibi ofifero, eligasque tibi, ubi placuerit, mansionem; volo autem 
hodie mecum prandere debeas.** 

950. /^c?f/5rr/>'/= captivated, fascinated; a word of rare occurrence. 
A,S. /(ir/ich, sudden, strange ; lit. fear-like. 

961, 962. And instead of this failing joy, thou hast chosen everlast- 
ing joy. 

971-976. L.A. : '* Cui ilia : noli, inquit, pater, noli de hac re me 
rogare, ne forte ex hoc aliqua mali suspicio perveniat et nitor famae 
vestrae denigrationem aliquam patiatur.'* 

973. IIefuinn^e=hun(u\, iMttinge \n iht next line has the same 

975, 976. An addition. 

977-982. L.A. : ''Ad quam episcopus dixit: plures erimus et non 
soli. Et ideo nullum mali suspicionis scrupulum in aliquo poterit 

978. Ar }pe nocht^ht not thou. Ar is apparently the imp. But 
perhaps a better explanation is to assume that ^p has been omitted 
before ar, and that we should read ]>ar]>e noM =ihou needest not. 
5^A<7«^= afraid. A.S. scHnian, See Stratmann. 

979. Be ws ane twa=ht alone. 

980. For-owHne, &c.= without more knowing. 

983. Not in L.A., which continues : "Venientes itaque ad mensam 
episcopus et ilia ex opposito consederunt, caeteris residentibus hinc et 
inde. Intendit in eam crebro episcopus ejusque faciem non desinit 
intueri et pulchritudinem admirari. Sicque dum oculus fig^tur, 
animus sauciatur, et dum ejus faciem non desinit intueri, antiquus 
hostis cor ejus gravi jaculo vulneravit." 

984. To ffut=io meat — /./., to dine, or to eat whatever meal was 
then ready. 

986. Ewene before Ayw = directly opposite to him. 

987. Syne \e /awe = then the rest. 

989. ^r<i/i<?= conversation. O.Fr. aresne, subst; given in Gode- 
froy's O.Fr. Diet as formed from the verb aresner^ araisner, to con- 
verse. The later word is arraisonnement in Cotgrave, from Lat. 
ad-rationare, Cf. darreyne, in Chaucer, from dis-rationare. 


990, 991. Between these a couple of lines seems to be wanting. 

993-1014. L.A.: "Perpendit hoc ipse dyabolus et pulchritudinem 
suam CGcpit magis ac magis augere ; jamque episcopus proximus erat 
consensu!, ut earn de illicito opere attentaret, quando possibilitas se 
offerret : tunc subito quidam peregrinus venit ad ostium crebris 
ictibus pulsans et magnis clamoribus postulans sibi aperiri, cumque 
aperire noUent et ille magnis clamoribus et ictibus nimis iis fieret 
importunus, interrogat episcopus mulierem, si ingressum illius pere- 
grini hominis acceptaret ? '' It will be observed that the author 
departs from this in one or two particulars. 

996. Parked ^ht2M\y. 

1000. PurcheiS=ohX3An. 0,Yv, purchacier, to procure, obtain. 

1002. 3^/= gate. See II. 1034. Still common in Scotland and N. 

1003. £nire== entry. 

1015-1020. L.A. : " Cui ilia dixit : proponatur sibi aliqua qusestio 
gravis, quam si enodare sciverit, admittatur; si autem nescierit, 
tamquam inscius et indignus ab episcopi pncsentia repellatur." 

1018. M^/ir«y/= refused. A.S. wamiaftt to warn, refuse. 

1019. Hym wantis=is to him wanting : the verb is used in an 
impersonal sense. 

1031-1033. L.A. : "Interrogetur quod est majus mirabile, quod Deus 
unquam in parva re fecerit.** 

1032. MasU/erfy =greBXtsi marvel. See 1. 278. 

1031-1048. L.A. : " Interrogatus de hoc peregrinus per nuntium 
dixit : diversitas et excellentia facierum : inter tot enim homines, qui 
fuerunt ab initio mundi et usque in finem futuri sunt, duo reperiri 
non possent quorum facies per omnia similes sint vel essent, et in 
ipsa quoque tam minima facie omnes sensus corporis Deus collo- 

1042. Sen =sinct. Forouiwem =vfiihoui douhu 

1043. IVs'Uis all=a\\ the wits. See note to 1. 117 of the Prologue. 

1044. ^/^^fK/= placed. 

1045-1048. L.A. : " Audientes omnes ejus responsionem admirantes 
dixerunt : vera et optima est solutio quaestionis." 

1050. L.A. : *' Proponatur sibi secunda quaestio gravior." 

1052-105a Addition. 

1055. L.A. : "Ubi terra sit altior omni coelo." Ca;i=can. A.S. 
cannj O.L.Germ. can; I eel. kann, possum, 

1056-1062. L.A. : " Percunctatus de hoc peregrinus respondit : in 
coclo empyreo, ubi residet corpus Christi. Corpus enim Christi, 
quod est altius omni ccelo, est de nostra came formatum : porro caro 
nostra quaedam terrea substantia est ; cum ergo corpus Christi super 
omnes coelos sit et de nostra came originem duxerit, caro autem 
nostra de terra sit condita, constat, quod, ubi corpus Christi residet, 
ibi procul dubio terra altior coelo manet." 


1057. Corse ^hody, 

1068. Hewyne empyre^^YitdiVtVLS trcvg\vt» 

1060. In a persons = in one or the same person. Mane-=mon— 
must See II. 884. man or mane is the word still used in the North 
of Scotland. 

1062-1070. L.A.: " Refert nuntius, quod responderat peregrinus, ct 
ecce omnes responsionem ejus mirabiliter approbant et magnifice 
sapientiam ejus laudant." 

1064. i9/<i^»^= forthwith. Cf. Dutch, bij dien, by that. 

1068. Llowtt, />., /i?zc/i/= praised. A.S. lojiany to praise. The 
double letter is used instead of a capital, pilgrame answer. Pilgrame 
is another example of the elision of the sign of the genitive. 

1071-1082. L.A.: "Tunc ilia iterum dixit: fiet ei tertia quaestio 
gravissima et occulta et ad solvendum difficilis et obscura, ut sic ejus 
sapientia tertio comprobetur et dignus sit, ut ad mensam episcopi 
merito admittatur. Quaeratur ab eo, quanti spatii sit a terra usque in 

1072. ^«/>=once. Mod.Sc. ance, 

1073. Al'\ire'best, or as one word afjpiredesi =besi of all. Al\>sre is 
for al/ere, the gen. plur. of a//, A.S. ealra. Instead of ]>, d is some- 
times inserted, but both are excrescent. " Fra thi tempile that is in 
ierusalem of heuen, fra the whilke alderbest giftes comes.'* — Ham- 
pole, Ps. Ixvii. 32. 

1074. Doucht=^ht worthy, or avail. A.S. dugan. Cf. Mod.Sc. dow, 
to avail; Dutch, deugen; G. taugen, to profit geste^ g^est A.S. 

1075. -Fic?r^= therefore. 

1077. -^;'r^^=dark — 1>., obscure, difficult. Icel. niyrkr, Cf. " I 
will open my dark saying upon the harp"— Ps. xlix. 4 ; and ** I will 
utter dark sayings of old " — Ps. Ixviii. 2. 5ay=tell, unravel. 

1079. p^/ a/<7r(rfir=that problem. 

1084. And of the MS. is obviously a mistake for guka, 

1086. Tilhyre. L.A. : "ad eum." 

1087. G^r<iM/K= diligently. Icel. ^«ff%a, readily. 

1088, 1089. ^'rM L.A. : " ipse." «/«/= knows. /«^/= measured. 

1091, 1992. L.A. : " Ego autem de ccelo nunquam cecidi et illud 
spatium nunquam mensuravi." 

1096. /^flf«//rVi^^= temptation. See note to 1. 135. umlape^sMV- 

l(}^. Rednes=^it3x, See note. II. 676. L.A.: "nuntius vehe- 
menter expavit" 

1103. Sonare «a= sooner than. Still a common idiom. 

1104. Addition. 

1114. Went=gont. Still used. It is so used in * Cursor Mundi*:— 

" He has went his wyfe sone fra 
I>e nedder nerhandc hie con ga." — 757. 

NOTES TO DE SANCTO ANDREA (HL 1120-1154). 7 1 

1120. lVakk=vr2Ltch, See Dr Skeat's 'Address on Ghost Words/ 
p. 370. • Phil. Trans.,' 1885-6. 

112L Til. L.A. : " si forte." dedonar£=good, Yv, d^bonnaire, 

1129. Na ke—hxii for him; or, if he had not. 

1135-1156. Addition. 

1139. This complaint occurs several times in the Legends. 

1150. Fre=o{ his own free will. 

1154. Bruk =^n]oy, A.S. br&can. 

In the L.A. another miracle is given. 

I v.— J A C O B U S. 

St James ihc ApiK:Ie was c»c:e of ihc sons of Zcbcdcc and Salome, 
and ihc brother of S: Toha the Evan^lisL He was a fisherman by 
trade, and an inhabiiir.:. acconiir^g: to some, of Capernaum, and ac- 
cording lo others^ of Bedisiidx Tradition says that he was bom in 
Galilee, about t^kelvc vears before the Christian era. The circum- 
sunces connected ^"iui his call to the apostleship arc recorded in 
MatL iv. iS-22 and Mark L i6>20 : and alsa as is maintained by some, 
in Luke v. i-i i. In the lists of the Apostles giren in the Gospels and 
the Acts of the Apostles, his name always stands among the first four, 
and before his brothers. When our Lord healed Simon*s wife's 
mother, he was one of those who were present He was one of the 
three who were admitted to witness the miracle of the raising of the 
daughter of Jairus, who were present at the Transfiguration, and who 
witnessed the Agony ; and one of the four who asked our Lord for an 
explanation of His predictions respecting the end of the world and His 
Second Coming. Their zeal obtained for him and his brother the 
name of Boanerges (Luke ix. 52 ; Mark x. 35). His mother requested 
of our Lord that He would grant unto her two sons to sit, the one on 
His right hand and the other on His left, in His kingdom. The two 
sons joined in the request (Matt. xx. 20), though by St Mark (x. 35) 
they alone are said to have made it ; and on being asked by our Lord 
if they were able to drink His cup, and to be baptised with His bap- 
tism, they replied that they were. From the time of the Agony in the 
garden of Gethsemane up to the time of his martyrdom, a.d. 44, noth- 
ing is known of the Apostle, except that he continued in the fellowship 
of the Apostles and women and brethren. According to tradition, 
however, immediately after the martyrdom of St Stephen, he left Ju- 
daea, in order to preach the Gospel to the Twelve Tribes scattered 
abroad, when, according to a tradition of the Spanish Church, he 
visited Spain and preached there. After completing his missionary 
tour he is said to have returned to Jerusalem, a.d. 43, and shortly 
afterwards to have been beheaded by Herod. Clement of Alexandria 

NOTES TO JACOBUS (IV. 1-16). 73 

relates that his prosecutor was so struck by the boldness of his con- 
fession, that he declared himself a Christian on the spot The two, 
accused and accuser, were therefore hurried off to the place of execu- 
tion together. On their way the latter begged the Apostle's forgive- 
ness, who, after a moment's hesitation, kissed him, saying, " Peace be 
to thee ! " after which the two suffered martyrdom at the same time. 
— Euseb., * Hist. Eccl.,' ii. ix. The body of the Apostle was interred 
at Jerusalem ; but soon afterwards his disciples, it is said, carried his 
remains into Spain, and deposited them at Iria Flavia, now El Padron, 
on the borders of France, where they were discovered in the ninth 
century, during the reign of Alphonsus the Chaste, King of Leon, who 
had them translated to Compostella, whither Pope Leo IIL trans- 
ferred the episcopal seat of Iria Flavia. Compostella soon became 
Camous by reason of the extraordinary concourse of pilgrims who 
visited the tomb of the Apostle, over which a magnificent cathedral 
was built In 1175 Ferdinand instituted the famous Order of St 
James of Compostella. At Jerusalem a magnificent church, belong- 
ing to the Armenians, has been dedicated to him. It is believed to 
have been built by the King^ of Spain, to whom also is ascribed the 
erection of the monastery to which it belongs, and which many Span- 
ish pilgrims visit To the left of the nave, near the entrance, a little 
chapel is shown, which is said to be built over the spot where the 
Apostle was beheaded. — Smith's ' Diet of the Bible ; * Herzog's * Real- 
cncy.;* Putin's • Diet Hagiog.* 

His day is July 23. 

Analysis — Names of the Apostle, 1-8 ; missionary travels, 9-28 ; the 
story of Hermogenes, 29-178; the Apostle's imprisonment and con- 
demnation, 179-201; healing of a paralytic, 202-216; the conversion 
and condemnation of Josyas, 217-236; baptism of Josyas, 237-243; 
translation of the Apostle's relics, 244-270 ; the story of Queen Lupa, 
271-376; conclusion, 377-400. 

Sources — 'Legenda Aurea,* cap. 99; with which cf. Vine. Bello., 
*Spcc. Hist,' vii. 4-7; Abd. * Hist Apost,' IV. For the Translation, 
cf. Surius, 'Acta SS.,* July 25, pp. 304-307. 

1-8, Of the introduction of the L.A., which explains the Apostle's 
names, only the first sentence is used : " Jacobus iste apostolus dictus 
est Jacobus Zebedsei, Jacobus frater Johannis, Boanerges, id est, filius 
tonitrui, et Jacobus major." 

2. TAfyn/ald=thrtt{o\d. lct\.\r{'faldr. 

5. Todyre ^oihtr; usually written /<7/A/r. 

9. j2*^Ay//= while, at times. Cf. Mod.Sc. whiles, ]>e mare—\\\e. 

9-18. L.A. I. : "Jacobus apostolus filius Zebedaei post adscensionem 
Domini dum per Judaeam et Samariam praedicaret, in Hispaniam 
tandem ivit, ut ibi verbum Dei seminaret" Abd. says nothing about 
Spain. The first reference to that country in connection with the 


Apostle is said to be in a book, * De Vita et Morte Sanctorum/ inserted 
in the works of St Isidore, but which many critics regard as sup- 
posititious. Migne's * Diet. d'Apocryphes/ t ii. 265, 266, where the 
references are given. 

17. IVes cumyne='was or had come. Cummyne is \htpastpt 

18. F«/3<ir«^= full zealously. 

19. Hard. The MS. has shard. 

21. Ovtane= except. 

22. Purchasit. See note to III. 1. 1000. L.A. adds: " M agister 
autem Johannes Beleth dicit, quod tantum unum ibi convertit** 

26. p^ buk — the * Legenda Aurea * in all likelihood. 

29-46. L.A. : " Magus quidam nomine Hermogenes cum pharisctis 
discipulum suum nomine Philetum ad Jacobum misit, ut ipsum 
Philetus coram Judaeis convinceret, quod sua prsedicatio falsa esset*' 
Abd. simply says that the two, Hermogenes and Philetus, opposed the 
Apostle, asserting that Jesus Christ the Nazarene was not the true 
Son of God. 

30. Hermogines. The name occurs in 2 Tim. i. 15. 

37. /'Ay/^/= Philetus. This name occurs in 2 Tim. ii. 17. 

47-66. L.A. : " Sed cum apostolus coram omnibus rationabiliter 
eum convinceret et multa coram eo miracula fecisset, rediit Philetus ad 
Hermogenem doctrinam Jacobi approbans et miracula recitans ac 
ejus discipulum se velle fieri contestans, et, ut ipse similiter efficeretur 
discipulus persuadens." 

50. E5chow—2S^\evet (or eschtw. 

56. Myraculis. In the narrative of Abdias these are related. 

76. Rewit^\iexeS\. of. sieringe=povter of movement 

77-84. L.A. : " Misit ad eum sudarium suum, dicens : accipiat 
sudarium et dicat, dominus erigit elisos, ipse solvit compeditos.'* 

79. Sudare. See the legend of St Paul. The Arabic Gospel of the 
Infancy relates several miracles wrought by touching the swaddling- 
clothes of the infant Saviour. Cf. also Acts xix. 12. 

89. Hethinge=v[iocktrYt scorn. Icel. hathni. L.A. : "insultavit" 
Abd. : " ccepit insultare maleficiis magistri," A similar phrase occurs 
in Hampole's 'Psalter': "And this is the wit: than, when he sail 
make hethynge at thaim, he sail speke til thaim in his wreth " — Ps. ii. 5. 

100-106. L.A. : " Venientes autem daemones ad Jacobum in aere 
ululare coeperunt dicentes : Jacobe, apostole, miserere nobis, quia 
antequam tempus nostrum adveniat, jam ardemus." According to 
Abd. they say : " Jacobe apostole Dei miserere nostri ; quia antequam 
veniat tempus incendii, nos etiam exurimur." 

102. 5^«/a«//= yelling. Cf. yioA.^z. yowling. 

105. This line is unintelligible. 

108. L.A. : ** Ad quid venistis ad me?" 

113. L.A. : " catenis igneis." It adds : ** et plurimum cruciavit." 
Abd. : " et misere cruciamur." 


12Q. Be ony tkynge^hy any means. 

126. Z/M= joint See Dr Skeafs Glossary to 'Havelok'; also 
•Promp. Parv./ 303, note, especially citation from 'Cath. Ang./ 
"oute 0/ lythe" dislocatus luxus; also Chaucer's * Nonne Prestes 
Tale,' 53. Hampole has — 

" Ilka rayn and ilka synoghe and /«M."— • P. C 

127, 128. L.A. : " Dicentes : misisti nos, ubi incensi sumus et gra- 
vitcr cruciali." 

133^ 13i. L.A.: " Ecce Philetus ante vos est, cur eum non tenetis?" 

135-138. L.A. : Cui illi : nos non possumus nee formicam, quae in 
cubiculo tuo est, manu contingere." 

137* A nemot=2Ji ant, emmet A.S. amete, O.Dutch, hnte. See 
Stratmann, and Dr Skeat's 'Principles of Engl. Etymol.,' p. 216, also 
Dr Murray's * Dialect of the So. Counties of Scotland,' p. 55, n, 2. 

140-144. L.A. : " Ut bona pro malis, secundum quod Christus nos 
docuit, reddamus, Hermogenes te ligavit, tu eum solve." 

140. Clergy most frequently means learning as opposed to lewd- 
nessy ignorance (see Skeat's * Piers PL,' ii. 48). Here it means 
Christian, or Christ's, doctrine. 

150. L.A.: "Non enim disciplinx nostras est, ut invitus aliquis con- 
vertatur." So Abd., with a slight change in the position of the words. 
Cf. the well-known saying of Lactantius, iv. 19 : "Religionis non est 
cogere religionem, quia sponte suscipi debet non vi." 

154-156. LA. : '* Ego novi iras daemonum ; nisi mihi aliquid dederis 
quod mecum habeam, Occident me." 

155. OrI=tTt I. 

156. i?(7/= unless. 

157, 158. L.A. : " Cui Jacobus baculum suum dedit" 

157. IVand^sXaJR. In mediaeval art, a pilgrim's staff and a scallop- 
shell are the symbols of St James. The scallop-shell has its origin 
in the following : "When the body of the Saint was being miracu- 
lously conveyed in a ship without sails or oars from Joppa to Galicia, 
it passed the village of Bonzas, on the coast of Portugal, on a day 
that a marriage had been celebrated there. The bridegroom with his 
friends were amusing themselves on horseback on the sands, when 
his horse became unmanageable and plunged into the sea; whereupon 
the miraculous ship stopped in its voyage, and presently the bride- 
groom emerged, horse and man, close beside it A conversation 
ensued between the knight and the Saint's disciples on board, in 
which they apprised him that it was the Saint who had saved him 
from a watery grave, and explained the Christian religion to him. He 
believed, and was baptised there and then. And immediately the 
ship resumed its voyage, and the knight came galloping back over 
the sea to rejoin his astonished friends. He told them all that had 
happened, and they too were converted, and the knight baptised his 


bride with his own hand. Now, when the knight emerged from the 
sea, both his dress and the trappings of his horse were covered with 
scallop-shells, and therefore the Galicians took the scallop-shell as 
the sign of St James." Cutts, 'Scenes and Characters of the Middle 
Ages,' p. 169. 

160. Fut'hate^yt'Mh all haste. See note, II. 1164. The MS. hsLsJu/ 
hatet for which Horstmann rightly syi%g<ts\s fut-hate, Mod.Sc. het-JiL 

164-166. L.A. : " Jacobus autem, ne forte odor incendii vexaret in- 
cautos, eos in mare projici jussit" 

165. /?^>fe= smoke. Mod.Sc. and N. Eng., reek. wy«j= noisome. 
O.Fr. nuire, to injure. Lat nocere, 

169. L.A. : "Et plantas ejus tenens dixit" A^«/= seized. See 

note, III. 59. 

" With that he kest of bis Chemer, 
And kynt in hand a stalward sper, 
And raid toward his fayis in hy." 

— ' The Bruce/ xvi. 602. 

Shakespeare uses the same word : " Wint. T.," iv. 3 ; " M. for M.," 
iv. 6. 

171-174. L.A.: "Animarum liberator, accipe poenitentem, quem 
invidentem et tibi detrahentem hactenus sustinuisti." 

171. 6'<5/53:r^= lit. saver, saviour, /a = take, receive. L.A.: "accipe.** 

172. For'iAtnkaftd= rtptniing. See note. III. 105. 
174. ^^?^/^/)'«^= backbiting. 

175-178. L.A. : " Coepit igitur in Dei timore praefectus esse, adeo 
ut virtutes plurimae per eum fierent" 

176. Sa sadfy= so wtW, 

179. />a=when. 

182-184. L.A. : "Jacobum adierunt et cur Jesum crucifixum prae- 
dicaret, increpaverunt." Similarly also Abdias. 

183. Byrd=ii behoves ; used mockingly. Cf. note to II. 1106. The 
meaning seems to be, '* It becomes thee well so soon to preach," &c. 

185-188. L.A. : " Ille vero, cum iis per Scripturas adventum Christi 
et passionem evidenter probasset, plurimi crediderunt" 

189. L.A. : ^'Abiatharvero pontifexanni illius seditionem in populo 
excitavit et misso fune in collo apostoli ipsum ad Herodem Agrippam 
adduci fecit" Abdias gives a long account of a discussion between 
the Apostle and the Pharisees before he mentions the sedition and 
the incident of the rope. 

189. <J^r=year. Abiathar, Josephus does not mention a high 
priest of this name at this period. 

190. By5chope^\i\^ priest. 

199. Clement of Alexandria, Suidas, and Eusebius all speak of the 
death of the Apostle as ordained by Herod, but none of them refer to 
the story of his being dragged to the tribunal, as is here described 
after the manner of Abd., the L.A., and Vine. Bello. 

204. Hey gaie^\i\^ street, principal street. 


206. He j/rttyif^=high, />., loud voice. He is of frequent occur- 
rence. The * Aberdeen Burgh Records' has he mes, high mass (i. 
157). For stewyne see note to I. 15. 

211. " Without cause to be beheaded." 

213. /vr=sound. The same phrase occurs in 'The Bruce,' iii. 92. 
hale andfer=^yiho\t and sound, oure^honr, 

216. "^ald i<ntnnge==y\t\dtA praise. 

217. L.A. : " Scriba autem, qui funem in collo suo miserat et 
trahebat, nomine Josias, hoc videns ad pedes ejus se projecit et 
veniam petens se Christianum fieri postulavit." The same incidents 
are related by Abdias. 

226. Wafy =curse. A.S. wergian, to curse. 

TSXS.'^i goddis. L.A., which follows Abd., reads: "maledicti 
omnes dies tui." Our author reads dei. 

233-236. L.A. : **Tunc Abiathar os ejus pugm's caedi jussit et missa 
de eo legatione ad Herodem impetravit, ut cum Jacobo decollaretur." 

244. After this the LA. adds the day of the Decollation (8 Cal. 
Apr.), of the Translation (8 Cal. Aug.), and of the Interment (8 Cal. 
Jan.), and then says: "Statuit igitur ecclesia, ut festum ejus VIII. 
cal. Augusti in tempore scilicet magis congruo deberet universaliter 

245-361 For the Translation the L.A. cites Beleth. 

249-254. L.A. : " £t sepulturam divina^ prudential committentes 
navim sine regimine conscenderunt." 

250. " Without mast, oar, or rudder." 

255-262. L.A. : " £t angelo domini duce in Galiciam in regno 
Lupae applicuerunt. Erat enim in Hispania regina quaedam sic dicta 
a nomine et merito vitae." Cf. the account given of St Andrew's 
voyage in the * Acta Andreae et Matthiae.' 

262. Schrewts =i\\'dispostd, vicious. Cf. M.Eng. shrewish. 

264. Done, a misspelling for doun, 

265-268. L.A. : " Qui lapis mox ut cera corpori haesit et in sarco- 
phagum corpori se mirabiliter coaptavit." 

266. lVex=vfBxtd. nesch= soft A.S. hncesce, hnesce. In 'Have- 
lok ' it occurs in its M.E. form nesh : — 

" And woundede him rith in )>e flesh, 
|>at tendre was, and swi])e neih^ 
So >at ))e blod ran til his to." — 2743. 

But in Stratmann under hnesche. For // wax war the MS. has he 
wax war; but he is evidently a mistake for it, 

269, 270. Not in L.A. 

270. Fasone^i^sihxon, shape, the imprint of his body. 

273-278. L.A. : " Dominus Jesus Christus mittit ad te corpus dis- 
cipuli sui, ut, quem noluisti suscipere vivum, suscipias defunctum.'' 
275. Til he quek «/«j= while he was living. 
278. /P^m^= remedy. 


280. But ^^= without aid. L.A. : " sine regimine." 
282. To grawe = to bu ry : — 

" To touche hym other to tryne hym • other to take hym doun 2LTAgraue hym." 

— * P. Plowman/ C. xri. 87. 

284-292. L.A.: "Eos in dolo ad quendam virum crudelissimum vel, 
secundum alios, ad regem Hispaniae destinavit, ut ejus super hoc 
consensum haberent, qui eos cepit et in carcerem reclusit" 

285. And get his decision respecting their request. 

288. 5^A^;i/= destroyed. 

293. LA. : "Cum autem ille discumberet," &c. 

315-327. L.A. : "Quod Lupa audiens vehementer doluit et redeun- 
tibus ad se discipulis et assensum regis aperientibus ilia respondit : 
accipite boves, quos habeo in tali loco vel monte, et plaustrum jungite 
ac corpus domini vestri deferte et locum, sicut volueritis, aedificate." 

322. Wane, Cf. M.E. wain. 

324. Cf. I Sam. vi. 

327. In-to dissaie=\xi deceit or to deceive. 

328» 329. L.A. : " Sciebat enim boves tauros esse indomitos et 

328. 7ii/^= unbroken. Cf. the next line, where this meaning is 
plainly implied. The same word occurs in * Havelok' as teyte (see the 
Glossary). The * Prompt. Parv.' has "thyht, hool for brekynge, not 
brokyn." I eel. teitr, frisky (used of a wild horse). See Stratmann, 
under tait, 

332. L.A.: '* Hue illucque discurrerent.'* 
337. L.A. : " Sed non est sapientia contra Deum.*' 
344. Bristit =h\irsi. It should be merely brist or brasi. The verb 
brestan is properly strong. Mod.Sc. bristiU 

346. L. A. : " Facto etiam signo crucis super tauros velut agni subito 
mansuescunt." Cf. note to I. 521. corse. The usual form in the 
' Aberdeen Burgh Records ' is corss. Under date 1448 we have, " at 
the corss of the said burgh of Ab." ; " oute of the courte yheide to the 
merkate corss ; " " yhour corss of Aberdeine." 

347. L.A.: "Et eos jugentes corpus s. Jacobi cum lapide, super 
quem positum fuerat, in curru posuerunt. Boves autem sine alicujus 
regimine corpus in medium palatium Lupae detulerunt." 

350. Dantyt = tamed. Lit. daunted. O.Fr. danter^ dottier; Lat 
domitarc, to subdue. See Skeat, * Etym. Diet.,* under daunt, 

363. After concluding this story, the L.A. goes on to narrate twelve 
miracles ascribed to the Apostle 

365. Z^/^= leal. A'/rj/w^^ Christian. Along with " Kirstine," this 
word is now used as the diminutive of Christina. /tf</= people. 

369. (7/7//r^=GaIicia. 

387. -4/>tf/=them all. 

390. Eld iattts me=o\^ age prevents me. Cf. Prol., 1. 35. 

v.— J O H A N N E S. 

John, called in the fourth Gospel " the disciple whom Jesus loved," 
was the son of Zebedee and Salome, and the younger brother of St 
James the Greater. Like his father and brother, he was a fisherman, 
and plied his calling on the Sea of Galilee. His call to the apostle- 
ship is narrated along with that of his brother. Along with him, he 
was probably among the disciples who were present at the marriage- 
feast at Cana in Galilee, and who afterwards journeyed with Jesus to 
Capernaum, and thence to Jerusalem, and back through Samaria into 
Galilee, where for an uncertain period they returned to their occupa- 
tions. He was one of the four who formed the innermost circle of 
their Lord's friends. With Peter and James, he was present at the 
raising of Jairus*s daughter, witnessed the glory of the Transfiguration, 
and was near during the Agony of Gethsemane. With these also, and 
Andrew, he heard Jesus predict the destruction of Jerusalem, and His 
Second Coming, and asked, " When shall these things be ? " On ac- 
count of the vehemence of their zeal, he and his brother were named 
Boanerges. For him and his brother, Salome — or according to St Mark, 
they themselves — made the request that the two might sit, the one on 
the right and the other on the left hand of Jesus in His kingdom ; and, 
along with his brother, he replied to Jesus that they were able to partici- 
pate in His sufferings. At the Last Supper, St John reposed his head in 
the bosom of Jesus, and when beckoned to by St Peter, asked our Lord 
who it was that should betray Him. After the betrayal, he and St 
Peter, when the first moment of confusion was passed, followed their 
captive Master afar off, the rest of the disciples having sought safety in 
flight He appears to have followed Jesus into the council-chamber, 
and even into the praetorium of the Roman Procurator. He was pres- 
ent at the Crucifixion, and was charged by Jesus in His last moments 
with the care of the Virgin Mary. When told by Mary Magdalene 
that the Lord was risen, he outran St Peter, and reached the sepulchre 
first, but feared to enter until Peter had entered before him. The in- 
terval between the Resurrection and the Ascension he spent in Galilee, 

IC "Fi-r-^ ^S IF THZ MTITS «▼-> 

:ei ^fjsis icmsE^x u F—et. T3i2iiia& X ifVj i riiri , hs brother, 
imi mnsEif: le -wss :ae irs: 11 ?r— ryrisr HimL la the Acts of the 
J'TMisri^ ie 5 sxizw*t icurrvf zuax^ -wnn ±e fim-— r-^ He was present 
t£ ne Asc-nsim smi m :ae ce7 if r-sEEEssL WEri St Peter, he went 
:x3 tn ne T-aizie r: ^vrirsnn. zni 'imifi rte sax vao was dally laid 
;*re :f zie r-rrnnie * "vrnct s latest Sessx±fxL7 With the same 
r-Accsde le tris jcnrsnie!!. Bxit j i m*^-— ■ agalaat the threats of 
^■anni-ira. "jiTi::! tttt 2^ le ocil icw^ s Samaria to confirm 
vrzTf. le^rm "ry 5c r^.rj. Znr:^^ rat jcv e mLc c. which foflowed 
die narrrrtiiixi zt 5c 5c=ce3. le rsnamed ri j -rxsaieai with the test 
:c ^e r-¥»iT» Hi -was zrerr lifsr Troei 5c Paul risted ii the second 
±3xe i^ET ins rniT*rscix. inii 2 jfrmnted ry VrTrr is ooe of the three 
- TTic sesnei r: re tCits ic rie Ciardn"' ArccrczBg to one tradi- 
•Z3in, ic Tssainjsfi iz. J^t^slisii rll rie f«irr ct ±e \~irx;m; bat accord- 
:3!5 zz a»n^iT. ie j^ n: ber-r? irer ieain. lad west ro preach the Gos- 
pe£ 'jz Asa, Miner, lac MiecnaKi xs iir js Partiia^ and retoming, 
■m^i presezi bi JiTLsaJezi in jlt. ±1. 11 rne siectioix of Simeon, after 
'±£ SLirtjTxfcni cc' 5c Jiates rie Lessw as tie bnyop of that dtr ; and 
zc thi dfar: cc i!ie VirgTO. ber-nrne-i r? Assv afrer being shifiwrecked 
oc Epc-scs. where he rescei. ixsircsiz^ x sesxral soperrision over 
all tie ChzTches ^t AsLz. H- is said t * hare arrrred just in time to 
check the progress cc the heresies which scrai:^ cp after the departure 
cc St Pxnl and to hiTe deposed an ^er cr bcshco for giving a fabulous 
accc^int of the traTels ct St PanI in ccnrany with Thecla. Among 
his disciples were Pclycirt** Fxpus. and Igaarics. He combated the 
heresies or the Ebiccites and Dccetiscs. Dnring the persecution 
ucder Domitian he wxs takes to Recce, and there thrown into a cal- 
dron cf boiling cil. b«t being minculocsly preserved, was exiled to 
Patmos, where he wrcte the Apocalypse. Oa the accession of Xerva 
he returned to Ephesus. where he is said to have attested the truth of 
the first three gospels, and to have composed his own. According to 
tradition, he refused to remain beneath the same roof as Cerinthus* one 
of the foremost teachers among the heretics lest the house should fall 
down on them and crush them ; and caused the great temple of Arte- 
mis to be reft of its magnincence. and even to be razed to the ground. 
In the Church at Ephesus^ the direction of which he undertook after 
the martyrdom of its nrst bishop, St Timothy, the companion of St 
Paul, he introduced the Jewish mode of celebrating the festival of 
Easter — not, it is said, because he wished to favour the errors of the 
Judaisers, but in order to win over the Jews more easily to Christi- 
anity. As a true priest, he was, according to Polycrates, in the habit 
of wearing on his brow the plate of gold, eng^ved with the sacred 
name, which was the badge of the Jewish high priest He is said to 
have shown great fondness for a favourite bird, and to have taken an 
especial interest in the younger members of his flock, several beautiful 
legends being told of him in this connection. Of the many traditions 


about him, the best known is the one representing that Jesus had said 
that he should not die. The date of his death is unknown. The dates 
assigned for it range from a.d. 89 to a.d. 120. — Smith's * Diet Christ 
Biog.;' Putin's 'Diet Hagiogr.;' Herzog's ' Realency.* 

His day is December 27. 

Analysis — Privileges, 1-16; kindred, preaching in Asia, banish- 
ment by Domitian, and return to Ephesus, 17-58 ; the raising of Dru- 
siana, 59-87; refutation of Crato, 88-140; conversion of stones into 
gems, and discourse on riches, 141-220; raising to life of a young 
man who had died after being married thirty days, his description of 
heaven and hell, and the conversion of the two young men to whom 
the Apostle had previously preached, 221-286 ; a sedition raised against 
the Apostle, and the destruction of the temple of Diana, 287-316; an- 
other sedition, St John drinks the cup of hemlock without harm, raises 
a dead man to life, and converts the Proconsul, 317-388; the legend 
of the young man whom the Apostle intrusted to the care of a bishop, 
389-454; legend of the youth who had shot a partridge, 455-504; how, 
when old, the Apostle unceasingly exhorted his flock to love one an- 
other, 505-522 ; his prayer for those who copy or read his Gospel, 523- 
538 ; his death and burial, 539-588 ; the legend of St Edward, King 
of England, 589-658. 

Sources — 'Legenda Aurea,' cap. ix. Cf. 'Acta lohannis' — Tisch- 
end., p. 266; Abdias, 'Hist Apost.,'V. ; Mellitus, 'De Passione 
Johannis;' Prochorus, 'Historia de S. Johanne;* Vine. Bello., 'Spec. 
Hist,' ix. 14-17, 41-44, 49. 50. 

1-16. An abridgment of the introduction of the L.A. 

1-7. L.A.: "Johannes interpretatur Dei gratia, vel in quo est gratia, 
vel cui donatum est, vel cui donatio a Deo facta est Per hoc intel- 
liguntur IV privilegia, quas fuerunt in beato Johanne. Primum est 
prsecipua Christi dilectio. Christus enim prae caeteris apostolis eum 
dilexit et majora dilectionis et familiaritatis signa ostendit Et inde 
dicitur Dei gratia, quia domino gratiosus,** &c 

L Me h'sU^it pleases me. 

3b Vndom =\nicrpreitd. 

4 /'r^wf7<^^= privileges. Here used as before in the plural. 

6. La/e^ rest See note, Prol., 1. 135. 

7. //amfynes =k\nd\\ntss — lit., homeliness — i.e., admitted him to 
greater intimacy. In this sense hamlynes is used by Hampole, who 
speaks of " fosterand barnes with hamlynes" — ' Psalter,' Prol., I. 16. 

8-10. L.A. : " Secundum est carnis incorruptio, quia virgo a domino 
est electus et inde dicitur, in quo est gratia," &c. 

10. "Spotless in chastity of flesh," referring to the widespread 
tradition that the Apostle was never married. Cf. Augustine, *Ad 
Faustum,' 30-33 ; Abd., V. 23. The tradition is also mentioned by 
Chrysostom, Epiphanius, and others. Tertullian calls him "the 
eunuch of Christ"— 'De Monogamia,* 17. 


82 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (▼. 11-61). 

11, 12. L^: "Teitiam est secretonim revektia £t inde dicitur, 
cui donatum est," &c. 

12. A fimre ^beyond. a/>b>v= other. /r<nEV= privy, secret 

13-16l L.A. : " Quartum est matris recommendatio, et inde dictum 
est, cui donatio facta esL Maxima enim donatio a domino tunc eidem 
facta est, quando mater Dei in ejus custodia donata est" 

17-22. Not in LJl 

18. Abd.: "Joannes Jacobi superioris frater g^ermanus, sed minor 
natu, Zebedaeo patre." 

21. Mary, cristis aunt. See the article in Smith's ' Diet of the 
Bible ' on Mary of Cleophas. 

22. Anna, the mother of the Virgin Mary. According to a very 
old tradition of the Church, she was bom at Bethlehem, and was a 
daughter of the priest Nathan. With her husband Joachim she 
resided at Nazareth. For the particulars of their history see the 
Gospel of the Nativity of Mary and the Gospel of St James. Tradi- 
tion has it that her body was carried from Palestine to Constantinople, 
in the year 710, and deposited in the church which the Emperor 
Justinian had built in her honour about the year 55a Many 
churches in the West are said to possess relics of her. In 1584 Pope 
Gregory XIII. ordained that her festival should in future be cele- 
brated throughout the whole of Christendom on the 26th of July. 

23-30. Cf. L.A. 

31-42. L.A. : " Domitianus igitur imperator ejus intelligens famam 
accersitum eum in dolium fer\'entis olei ante portam latinam mitti 
jussit, ille autem inde exiit illaesus, sicut a comiptione camis exstiterat 

36. Town€= tun, caldron. 

42. Hurd. See note, I. 232. 

4348. Cf. L.A. 

44. -F(a«^= ended, ceased. OYx.fincUr, finer, to end. 

47. I^^r^/r/>fl= Apocalypse. 

49. -Fifr^= fearful. A.S.yfer, fear. 

51, 52. L.A. : " Et a senatu quidquid fecerat revocatur." 

56-58. L.A.: "Occurrente ei uni versa turba et dicente: Benedictus 
qui venit in nomine domini." 

56. Puple =ptop\t, t'n-to ky= in hsiste, 

59-66. L.A. : " Cum autem ingrederetur urbem, Drusiana ejus 
dilectrix, quae suum plurimum desiderabat adventum, mortua ef- 

60. Bere=h\tx, bone {or boune, rhyming with /<;w«^= ready. The 
whole line may be rendered, " He saw a corpse made ready for the 
bier." bere^ from A.S. beer, bone, from I eel. bHinn, 

61. Efiire= ceremony. It is also spelt afih'r, affer, and occurs fre- 
quently in * The Bruce.* Icel. atferS —condLMcX. — from at, ^ndfara, to 
go. See Dr Skeat's Glossary to ' The Bruce.' 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 62-107). 83 

B^ Bo7tmand=msiking rt2Ldy. y^rM = forthwith, enter = inter. 

63. ])e quhilk refers back to the cors. till for quhile^\i\i\\t. 

64. Hame'Com^xeXyxm, Still in use. 

65. /^a/i>f^= named. 

"Thomas of dwn hattyn weO he." 

—•The Bruce/ xiv. 376. 

A.S. hdtatit to call, to be named. ^x^=dame. O.Fr. and Fr. damej 
Lat dotnina. Drusiane, Abdias gives a long account of her in his 
• Hist Apostol.,' V. The original source of the story is supposed to 
be the Apocryphal Acts of the Apostles composed by the Manichean 

66-78b L.A. : " Parentes igitur ejus viduae et orphan! dixerunt ei : 
Sancte Johannes, ecce Drusianam efferimus, quae tuis semper monitis 
obsecundans nos omnes alebat tuumque plurimum desiderabat ad- 
ventum dicens: O si videam apostolum Dei, antequam moriar ! Ecce 
tu venisti ct te videre non potuit" 

68, Harmys^mQzxi^ — /.^., exhibiting g^eat grief. A.S. hearm, 
hemtt injury, hurt, grief of mind. 

72. Beyre=\Aex, See note to 1. 60. 

77. L.A. : ** O si videam apostolum Dei, antequam moriar." 

81, 82. L.A.: " Et vade in domum tuam et para mihi refectionem." 

82. ^raM=make ready. 

86. Wittandna w/z= knowing no pain. 

88, 99. L.A. : "Altera autem die Craton philosophus in foro popu- 
lum convocavit, ut ostenderet quomodo hie mundus contemnendus 
esset Duos enim ditissimos juvenes fratres pretiosissimas gemmas, 
distracto toto patrimonio, emere fecerat, et eas in conspectu omnium 
confiringi jusserat." Cf. Abd. xiii. xiv. 

90. Cratone, In his history of SS. Simon and Jude, Abdias men- 
tions a disciple of the Apostles named Crato, who wrote their history. 
The name Crato is probably borrowed from that of Crates, the 
Theban philosopher, who is said to have shown his contempt for 
riches by throwing his own away. 

91. In quhat'kine wyse—m what way. 

92. For \irey \is should probably be read ; and for ar to, ]>at suld, 
96. Had, as Horstmann suggests, has been omitted. 

96. Atants^^aX once. Mod.Sc. at ance. 

103, ^>&///wMr^= three reasons. L.A. : " triplici ratione." Skillis 
occurs frequently in Hampole's Psalter in the same sense— ^.^f., " And 
thaire skilles ere of thaim self, noght of God, ne of haly mennys 
lare ** — Ps. xi. 4 ; " My saule thristede for mony skiles" — Ps. Ixii. 2. 

105, 106. L.A.: " Primo quia ore hominum laudatur, sed divino 
judicio condemnatur." 

106. Ztfr^= teaching. 

107-112. L.A. : " Secundo quia ex tali contemtu vitium non cura- 

84 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (V, K)?-19ft). 

tur et ideo vanus est, sicut medicina vana dicitur, ex qua morbus 
nequaquam curatur." 

107. -F<?r= notwithstanding. A similar use of the word has occurred 
before, lewynge, leaving. 

108. Of vice belong to cUngit^ cleansed. The whole passage may 
be paraphrased : " Notwithstanding that you give up riches in this 
way, the love of them is not destroyed. The attempt is useless—as 
useless as to take medicine which works no cure, but simply hastens 

113-120. L.A.: " Tertio quia contemtus meritorius est, qui sua 
pauperibus elargitur, sicut dominus juveni," &c. 

114. Propre=^xG^tx — «>., own. Fr. propre; Lat proprtum, ace. 
oiproprius, one's own. 

115. Pinure=^ poor; in 1. I20, we \i2LWt pouere, 
121, 122. Addition. 

123-130. L.A. : " Cui Craton dixit : Si vere Deus magister tuus est 
et vult, ut harum gemmarum pretium pauperibus erogetur, fac ut 
reintegrentur, ut ad ejus facias gloriam, quod ego ad hominum feci 

125. F<in«f^= spending, use. The 'Prompt. Parv.* has ware, or 
chaffarej but in Scot and N.Eng. ware is used in the more general 
sense of to spend— -Le,^ to use in purchasing. A.S. ware^ merchan- 
dise. See also Jamieson under war, 

128. Refourmyt^x^ioxmtA. ]>ar ^rsie degre=thtix original state, 
condition, or form. 

129. Loznnge=pxsLisc, " Crete haboundance of gastly comfort and 
ioy in god comes in the hertes of thaim at says or synges deuotly the 
psalmes in louynge of ihu crist." — Hampole, * Psalter,' Prol. ad tnit, 
and elsewhere frequently. 

130. That I did for the praise or fame among men. 

131-136. L.A.: "Tunc beatus Johannes gemmarum fragmenta in 
manum suam recolligens oravit, et factae sunt integral sicut prius, 
statim philosophus et illi duo juvenes," &c. 

134. Sovnd, For this we ought perhaps to read fovnd^go, A.S. 
fundiafiy to tend to : — 

" And syne our all the land can found 
Sittand in pel) all the ciintre." 

— * Bruce,' x. 256. 

" The quene thay toke wyth-oute layne 
And to the foreste gonne they/ounde.*' 

— • Le Morte Arthur,* 1965. 

For other examples see Stratmann. The old alchemists believed 
that their art was practised by St John, and by the twelfth century 
the notion was very widely spread that he had changed branches of 
trees into gold and stones into jewels, and so reduced them to their 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 141-179). 8$ 

first nature. The L.A. (cap. ix. 13) cites the passage from the 'De 
Vita et Morte Sanctorum/ printed in the works of St Isidore, from 
which this belief seems to have arisen : "Mutavit Johannes in aurum 
silvestres frondium villas, littoreaque saxa in gemmas mutavit, gem- 
marum fragmina in propriam reformavit naturam;" and Adam de S. 
Victor, a writer of the twelfth century, says of the Apostle : — 

*• Cum gemmanim partes fractas 
Solidasset, has distractas 
Tribuit pauperibus. 
Inexhaustum fert thesaurum 
Qui de virgis fecit aurum, 
Gemmas de lapidibus.'* 

See Migne, * Diet, des L^gendes du Christ./ 690 et seg, 
141-146. L.A.: "Duo insuper juvenes honorati horum exemplo 

venditis omnibus et pauperibus erogatis apostolum sunt secuti." 
149-153. L.A.: " Videntes servos suos pretiosis indumentis fulgen- 

tes, in uno vero pallio se egentes constristari cceperunt." 
14L Mellitus names them Atticus and Eugenius. Abdias says they 

were brothers. 

149. Quhyle=OTiCt^ sometimes, formerly. 

150. Schene=hr\ghi, 

155, 156. L.A.: " Virgas et lapides a littore maris deferri fecit" 
See the note to line 134, where the words from the author of the * De 
Vita et Morte Sanctorum,' printed in the works of St Isidore, are 

159-177. L.A.: " Qui jussu apostoli universos aurifices et gemmarios 
per septem dies quaerentes reversi sunt dicentes, quod illi nunquam 
tam purum aurum et tam pretiosas gemmas se vidisse testati sunt/'&c. 

160. ^/f= cunning, skilful : — 

" I>at wyly deuel was ful sUy, 
He )x>)t no^t to come him ney." 

— • Cursor Mundi/ 721. 

163. But suiornynge^^vtiXhonX. tarrying. 
169. Dere=dt2LT, costly. A.S. lietfre, dyre, 
173. 7jK«/=lost. Icel. /y«a=to lose. 

176. Falow=dtC2iy. A,S, /ealwian, to v/iiher; Cf. D. vaai, faded; 
Icel.y^'/r, pale. See Skeat*s *Etym. Diet.' It is here used for mar- 
cescatis of the L.A. 

177. 5«/«f/f= without end— /.^., for ever. 

179-220. L.A. : "Tunc apostolus contra divitias diutius ccepit 
disputare, ostendens quod VI sunt quae debent nos ab immoderate 
divitiarum appetitu retrahere. Primum est scriptum, unde recitavit 
hystoriam de divite epulone, quem Deus reprobavit, et de Lazaro 
paupere, quem Deus elegit. Secundum est natura, quia homo sine 
divitiis nascitur et nudus et sine divitiis moritur. Tertium est 

86 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (▼. 183-227). 

creatura, quia sol, lana, sydcra, pluria, aer omnibus sunt communia 
el commoniter sua bcncficia lar^untur : sic et inter homines omnia 
communia esse deberent. Quartum est fortuna; dixit enim quod 
sen-us efficitur nummi et diaboli : nummi, quia non possidet divitias, 
sed ipse a divitiis possidetur, diaboli, quia juxta evangelium amator 
pecuniae servus est Mammonae. Quintum est cura, quia habent 
curam et sollicitudinem diumam et noctumam in acquirendo, in 
custodiendo timorem. Sextum est jactura, et ostendit quod divitiae 
sunt causa jacturae^ qux est in acquisitione duplicis mali, scilicit 
mali in praesenti, quod est elatio, et mali in futuro, quod est aeterna 
damnatio, et alterius quod est in perditione aeterna, scilicit duplicis 
boni, in praesenti, quod est gratia, et boni in futuro, quod est aeterna 

183. 5ib7= reason. See note to L 103. 

185-188. Luke x\i. 19-31. 

185. Euthymius, Luke xvi. 19, says that his name was Nimeusin ; 
and Adrichomius records that in his time the house in which he 
lived at Jerusalem was still shown — • Descript. Terrae Sanctae.' vel- 

187. Met grawe^mtl death — j>., died. 

188. Medynge. Mod.Sc. and N.Eng., middimg, a heap, mound, 

192. Z?/^/= death, /ray = prey. 
200. Afys/erfu I = needy, 

202. Thrill slave. A.S. \ral^ a slave. 

203. To twa — namely, riches (203-205) and the devil, (206-208). 

206. Fendis (k'«^= servant of the fiend. Cf. phrase, " limb of the 

207. //>//«= heaps. 

212. 7>»y«^tf= losing. See note, 1. 173. 

213. Scath = \iMX\.^ injury. Mod.E., scathe, 

214. Tynsale=^\o^s^ harm. See note, II. 828. 

216. Saule hele=so\xXs health or salvation. The sign of the pos- 
sessive is dropped. 

219. Nor fears not on that account to lose, &c. 

220. Fyne^eiid, See note, 1. 44. 
221^. L.A. 

222. Agane=?igB\T\si, 

223. A ^unge man. In some editions of Abdias he is called Syricus. 
Most of them, however, name him Stacteus, as also does Mellitus. 
According to Apollonius, as cited by Eusebius ('Hist,' v. 18) and 
Sozomen (vii. 27X St John raised a young man to life at Ephesus. 

224. (7rawi>»/= buried. See note, IV. 282. 

226. For-quhy = because, vedo = widow. mene = moan. See 
note to III. 699. 

227. 5^r^=many. See note, Prol. I. 23. 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 229-258). 87 

229. ^^i/f=pain, evil. A.S. bealuj Icel. bol, misfortune. bete=^ 

relieve. A.S. bdtan, to profit The same phrase occurs in * Cursor 

Mundi': — 

*• fe beste Iwjt his bale to bete 
For-|)i he made ham at |)ai mujt.** — 748. 

237. Sa= so. 

239-245. L.A. : " Prxcipitque ei ut illis duobis discipulis enarra- 
ret quantam incurrissent pcenam et quantam gloriam perdidissent" 

241. -F{?r-M<7fA/= repented. "And this is ane generall prouerb, that 
syne noyis nocht that is sufficiandly for-thocht'* — ' Craft of Deying/ 
p. 94. See note, III. 105. 

244. ^-^/i</= awaited — lit., abode. For examples, see the references 
in the Gloss, to Dr Skeat's ' Bruce.* 

246. 5/j'«/^= stopped. A.S. siyntan. See Skeat's *Etym. Diet,' 
under SHnt. 

251-257. L.A. : "O miseri, vidi angelos vestros flentes et daemones 
gratulantes, dixitque iis, quod perdidissent sterna palatia, quae 
sunt gemmis coruscantibus fabricata, claritatis mirabilis contentiva, 
copiosis epulis referta, deliciis plena, gaudiis gloriosa permansura." 

255. -Far = fair. 

258-268. L.A. : " De inferno autem octo pcenas dixit, quas his 
versibus continentur : — 

'* Vermes et tenebrae, flagellum, frigus et ignis, 
Daemonis aspectus, scelerum confusio, luctus." 

258. Aucht paynis—€\^\. pains. Each writer during the middle 
ages seems to have varied the number of the pains of hell according 
to his own taste. * Cursor Mundi ' enumerates nine principal pains. 
Hampole gives no fewer than fourteen "general paynis," besides 
others of which we can tell nothing. It may be of interest to com- 
pare the descriptions given by them with the one given here. The 
first is from * Cursor Mundi,* and the second from Hampole's * Prick 
of Conscience.' 

•• Viiii. paines principale es \f2tx 
Crist lat us never ^ider far. 
I>e first, it es )>e fire sa hatte, 
{>at all )>e mikel se sa wate, 
I>of |7at it casten war |>ar-in, 
Suld it never-|)e-less brin ; 
Sua )>at vr fire ne mai namare 
Again ])at fire j)at [sal] brin |)ar, 
|>an painted fire gain vrs mocht 
|>at apon a wagh war wroght. 
Euer it brennes dai and night 
But never mare it castes light. 
The tother pain is cald sa kene, 
f>at mans muth it mai noght mene. 


Yzlwxes |aa >b£ |are sal be : 

Sea IHv ^ou is (tti kn sa dim. 

ti« fcrth paae ff es o stiBC 

|>«t sax sa sua sa mikcl >me 

j^fcfse es csadesaes dint, 

{i«t >a: vreckes >are sal hint. 

A2s Jz wtx diaxes on a sce^ 

f>ai smrcbes smittes in m, smeter 

t*aa dates ar IbI fen and felk 

Herder ^n es here ihnn md!, 

pc sext pasne es noght to scape 

Es SBiLk oMTckness men mai it grape ; 

Sua vender think ^ sail it be, 

{%t nan ne mai on o^ se. 

^ seoend soensdp al for ^ir sin, 

Ai scam lastand ]nx nenersal bUn, 

For ^-tiD sal Ukan ha sight 

To se soenscip on o^ plight. 

{fee aghtand pine it is fal grise 

To se ^aa vailans in ^ wise, 

Strang paine es it on ^am to loke 

And namli laght until ^air crok 

I>at dreri din. ^t balfixl here. 

t>at ^, wit-vten stint sal here, 

O paoi wepand in pit waa, 

t>at sal jKun last for eaer and aL 

Fiiend bandes es |ie nind 

Als in hali writ we find 

t>at al yair limes ar banden wit, 

Witvten leth of ain lith. 

Bot a point es par )Kim pines mare 

{>an eUes al lair o)»er fare 

{>ai wat ]»r pine sal ha na end, 

For >ai mai hafna might to mend. *'~23. 307-23, 264. 

*' t>e firste es fire swa hate to reken, 
f>at na maner of thyng may it sleken ; 
^ seomd es cald als says som, 
{>at na hete of fire may overcom. 
|>e thred alswa es filthe and stynk, 
{>at es stranger than any hert may thynk. 
^ ferthe es huiger sharpe and Strang. 
I>e fift es brynnand threst omang. 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 265^296). 89 

pe sext es swa mykel m3rrknes, 

t>at it may be graped, swa thik it es. 

fe seve[n]d es pe horribel sight 

Of ))e devels ))at |>ar er hydusly dight. 

I>e eghtend payne es vermyn grete, 

t>at pe synful men sal gnaw and frete. 

{>e neghend is dyngyng of devels hand 

With melles of yren hate glowand. 

I>e tend payne es gnawing with-in 

Of conscience pax bites as vermyn. 

|>e ellevend es hate teres of gretyng, 

t>at pe synful sal scalden in pe douniallying. 

f>e twelfte es shame and shenshepe of syn 

t>at ]>ai sal haf pat never sal blyn. 

pe threttend es bandes of fire brinnand, 

{>at )«u sal be bunden with fote and hand. 

t>e fourtend payne despayre es cald 

^t pe synful sal aye in hert hald. 

Alle piT ar general paynes in helle ; 

Bot pax er other ma pan tung may telle, 

Or hert may thynk or eer may here, 

Of special pajmes j^at er sere. 

f>e whilk many aftir, ])ai er worthy, 

Sal thole ever-mare in saule and body ; 

Bot of alle pa paynes can I noght say, 

For na man pam reckon ne specjrfy may." — 6557-6590. 

262. Afyrkms =dsirkness. 

264. Cft^/= chill, dtddir =shiyer. Still in use. N. of Eng. tiither, 

265. Bro/and ^^'broWing, 

26& Dole = grief. Fr. deutl; Mod.Sc. dule. 

272. Ji^«= obtain. Mod.Sc. win. 

277. LA.: "Ad naturam pristinam revertantur." 

286. L.A.: "Omnium virtutum gratiam, quam habuerant recep- 

287-38a L.A., ix. 5. Abd.. V. xix-fT.. Mellitus. 

28^ L.A. : " Cultores ydolorum seditionem in populo concitantes," 

290. Mawmenh's= idols. O.Fr. makommety an idol. During the 
middle ages the notion was prevalent that the Mahommedans were 

29L Seduccione =^stdiiioTi. 

293. Tefnpil of dyane=\ht temple of Diana, for which see Livy, I. 
45. Cf. Acts xix. 27. 

29i. /^!jir^= ceased. See note to 1. 44. 

295. Streny =compt\. O.Fr. straindrej Lat. stringere. 

29Q^ L.A. : " Quibus J. banc disjunctionem proposuit ut aut ipsi 
ad invocationem Dyanae ecclesiam Christi everterent et ipse ydolis 
sacrificaret, aut ipse ad invocationem Christi templum Dianae ever- 
tcret et ipsi in Christum crederent." 


^iR^xr'/ opacified. O.Fr. amesirj Lat CLdmittere. 

^Sft. £>xstincfiue=sLiicTii3livc LA.: ** disjunctionem.*' 

9GL To prevent them from striving with him. 

SQL Cause to be cast down through her. 

309^L L^A. : " Cum major pars populi consensisset exeuntibus 
cunotis de templo oravit apostolus,** &c 

311. ' 'risonc = or i son. 

314. Idolis all. The L.A. speaks of only one idol — the "imago 
Pyanx." Abd. has " omnia idola.** Cf. Caesar, ' De Bello Civile/ iii. 
Nicephorus (ii. 42) also relates this legend. By Trebellius Pollio, 
however, the temple is said to have been destroyed by the Goths 
during the reig^ of Gallienus. Pliny (xvi. 40) affirms that it was 
destroyed and rebuilt seven times. 

317, L.A. : " Pontifex ydolorum." 

318b '^ape^zMTVKiXig, It is so used in the 'Ormulum.* Generally it 
means bold, active : — 

" Bot )xat |»e ^nge men, so ytpf* ^rnen )>er onto, 
Wapped \'pon ]« wyket and wonnen hem tylle." 
A.S. yrp. — ' AUlt. Poems,* p. 64, 1. 88i. 

321, 322. L. A. : " Ita ut una pars contra aliam ad prselium pararetur." 

322. 7i7=to. A not frequent use of the word. 
324-326. L.A. : " Quod tibi vis, faciam ut placeris." 

324. (2'^^^ = quiet ; lit, pleased. A.S. cwinum^ to please. This 
use is unusual. The word is more frequently used as a verb. See 
Hampole*s * Psalter.' 

329. rV/i^///i:= poison. O.Yx.venim; Lat t/^n^trm, poison. See 

1. 344. 

330-332. L.A. : " Et si nullam in te Ircsionem videro, verus Deus 
dominus tuus apparebit" 

334-338. L.A. : " Et ille : Volo ut ante alios morientes videas, ut 
sic amplius pertimescas." 

336. 7)1 = take. 

342. /^tv-A/= bought L.A.. "petiit" 

347-350. L.A. : ** Tunc apostolus calicem accipiens et signo crucis 
se muniens lotum venenum bibit et nullam Ixsionem incurrit" This 
is often referred to. St Augustine (* Soliloq.*) says : " Pro tua dulcedine 
gustanda veneni poculum Johannes potavit;" and the author of *De 
Vita et Morte Sanctorum* inserted in the works of Isidore : " Bibens 
lethiferum haustum non solum evasit periculum, sed eodem prostratos 
l)oculo in vitx reparavit statum." Mellitus and others narrate this 
legend. A similar legend is related of others — ^.j^., of Victor of 
Cilicia and of the bishop Sabinus. In respect to St John, the legend 
may have had its beginning in Christ's words to him and his brother 
— " Are ye able to drink the cup," &c. In consequence of this legend 
the Apostle is generally represented in mediaeval art as holding a 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 3«M9i). 9 1 

349. Croysit It^maAit over it the sign of the cross. See note, L 521. 

350. But r^^;f^x= without fear. z£///^= countenance. A.S. wlitartt 
to look. 

352. Z^= praise. See note, III. 1068. 

359. (y=off. ^/r//7/=kirtle, tunic, gown. Icel. ^^r//7/, which Dr 
Skeat suggests is probably a diminutive oi skirt; lct\, skyria. See 
' Etym. Diet.,' under kirtle and skirt. It is here used for " tunica " 
of the L.A. 

360. F»/r«0///=untrustful ; lit, one who does not trow. A.S. 
tredwian, to have trust in. 

361. Amowis^vciovts^ incites. 

363» 364. L.A. : " Cui apostolus : ut sic confusus a tua infidelitate 

364. il/>''y^''^*^^^^=niistrust, want of trust, haf scham =may be 

366. Vfnis=wenis=im2igmest 

367. Ger me o//ors= compel me ; lit., cause me by force. trev= 
/fw«f= believe. 

363-372. L.A. : "Vade et mitte earn super corpora defunctorum 
dicens : Apostolus Christ! me misit ad vos, ut in Christi nomine 

370. //<f/<f= cover. See note, 1 1. 2 5 1. For the miracle, cf. Acts xix. 1 2. 

373-375. L.A. : ** Quod cum fecisset, illico surrexerunt." 

374. ^«^/y= quickly; from the same root sls rude s here it means 
without ceremony. 

377. A>«^=kin. 

380. /Cirke, The church dedicated to St John before the city of 
Ephesus (vpoTTJ^ 'E^ccriW ^oXcts) was, according to Procopius (Bk. v., 
adinit.)t built upon a rock, and was at first very small. According 
to the same writer, it was rebuilt with great splendour by Justinian 
after it had fallen into a very ruinous condition. 

381-388. Not in L.A., but evidently based upon the following pas- 
sage which forms the introduction in Abdias to the story. The 
author here proceeds in 1. 389 to relate : " Quum ergo rediisset 
Ephesum apostolus, rogabatur etiam vicinas inlustrare provincias, 
quo vel ecclesias fundaret, in quibus non erant locis; vel in quibus 
erant, sacerdotes ac ministros institueret, secundum quod ei de uno- 
quoque Spiritus Sanctus indicasset." — V. iii. 

389454. L.A. ix. 6. Cf. Abd., V. iii.; Euseb., 'Hist. Ec./ iii. 23; 
*Clem. Alex.,* * Quis dives salvetur,' c. 42 ; Nicephorus, II. xlii. 

389-386. L.A. : " Refert beatus Clemens, sicut in IV. libro ecclesi- 
astics hystorix invenitur, quod quodam tempore apostolus quemdam 
juvenem pulchrum et fortem convertit et eum cuidam episcopo sub 
deposit! nomine commendavit" 

394. J*'ore all his maucht means, apparently, on account of his g^eat 

y-vL n "-V luc int. * Tmr tet- ^ e aiSnt cr in domum 
siszn. aTfTii-*> "iifii ^sL'sy'nr i iii iii i- ni-» nw- ir cxn OBni diligcntia 
r. mxnieszicir irr^z: ui tiVrmTTrr — -nnr bfc^r'.^ar^ gratuin tradit** 
JL ' lis. iJiiaiiil Hin-ii -^-un i uv jmais dereliquit 

^flirun r-qjESTZ. C jnnrn* ile 5* u biti Ti';k rr'rgiSgerct el ex hoc 

iZhun a te rcpeto 

4Kl L*s9'iss— feii. isr — d.£. rte *',iuLii r imx. Tbe tann is borrowed 

4K. ^ >^« r»r = ^i>»r» /= • ■> -r *'^^- AS. arncK. to imagine. See 

A: "C:!! Ze: rai^r sii'r:* b: ^^^^''^ nxvtons est ct 
CZ3. lim ^rr$ i*;^:. ci!' .f>^ ipse priaccps est." 

i=:=ri :s catj ^ e ai fratris animae 

431-4331 \^K, : -^ Prae pcdrre :iiz^o snr-* eq^om ascendit et velo- 

43L Sckane= dec a-vay. A.S srim£jM. See Skeai*s ' Etym. Diet/ 
^tA'^ zkun. 

433A4S, I^A. : "Apostolus autem scans oblitos nrget calcaribus 
trriZTn ct post vtT^zsa. clazcitat fc|r-C"^s: Ut quid fili dflcctissime 
fugjs pairem ct incrmcm scnem r Ne timfAS nli. quia pro te Christo 
rationcm rcddam ct ccrtc pro te ^ibcntcr moriar, sicut pro nobis 
Christ us est mortuus. Rcverterc, nli, rerencre, quia dominos me 


436. Cryoff^/^fx— crying aloud. 

496. Byd=- suy. Mod Sc bide, 

43J, Fj«^/7»y/= unarmed. 

438« Mon^must, Sec note to II. 8S4. 

44L Myse^cvW* 

4AA* ^'/K«/=stop. See note, 1. 246. 

447-450. L.A. : ''Apostolus autem ad pedes ejus prociditet manum 
tamquam per pcenitentiam jam purgatam osculari coepit." 

461. A'/i^M/spiti fulness. //fr/=heed. 

454. L.A. adds : " Ipsumque postmodum in episcopum ordinavit," 
which is here omitted, and with reason, as a thief, the leader of a 
band of thieves, could not be raised to the position of a bishop, how- 
ever penitent. 

The story of the heretic Cerinthus, which follows in the L.A.. 
is also omitted. 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 456-487). 93 

4W-504. L.A. ix. 8 ; Cassian., ' Collat.,* xxiv. 2. 

465-466. L.A. : " Cum avis quxdam, quae perdix dicitur, ut ait 
Cassianus in libro collationum, viva b. Johanni a quodam oblata 
fuisset et ille earn quasi dcmulcendo tangeret et contrectaret. quidam 
adolescens hoc videns ad coaevos suos ridendo dixit: Videte, quo- 
modo ille senex cum avicula sicut puer ludit." 

466. lohne cassiane, Johannes Cassianus is believed to have been 
born between 350 and 360 a.d., but where is not known. Most 
writers are disposed to assign to him a Western origin, because he 
wrote his works in the Latin tongue, but the reason is not decisive. 
He was educated in a monastery at Bethlehem, and about 390 a.d. 
spent seven years among the monks in the Thebaid. After returning 
to Bethlehem, he found his way about the year 403 to Constantinople, 
and was there ordained a deacon. From Constantinople he went to 
Rome, and appears to have finally settled in the neighbourhood of 
Marseilles, where he founded two monasteries — one for men, and the 
other for women, over the former of which he presided. His death 
took place between 450 and 460 a.d. In the ' Collationes Patrum in 
Scithico Ercmo Commorantium,' in which the story here related 
occurs, Cassian records his experiences in Egypt. During the dark 
and middle ages the work was in great esteem, and was highly ap- 
proved by St Benedict, as well as by the founders of the Dominicans 
and Carthusians. St Augustine, however, questioned its orthodoxy 
on the subject of free-will and grace. Cassian is regarded by many 
as the founder of Western monachism and of the Semipelagian school. 
Cf. Smith's • Diet, of Christ Biog." 

466u j2«^V>=once. fule—foule (1. 464), fowl, bird. 

467. /'ar/rK^= partridge. Mod.Sc. 
46a Plcdt^playit, past t, of play. 
466. 3^m^=> earnestly. 

468. L.A-: " Per spiritum recognoscens." ^r^//;';!, revelation ; lit, 

473. L. A. : " Aves inde ac bestias saggitamus." 

474. Jfa=more. 

477. L.A.: "Tunc juvenis ccepit arcum tendere et tensum in manu 
tcncre. Sed cum nil ei apostolus diceret, juvenis arcum distendit," &c. 

478. Zy«^= string. A.S. litUt cord. 

479. A quhyle^^ short time. Mod.Sc. 

484. L.A. : " Et ille : quia, si diutius tensus teneretur, ad jacienda 
jacula infirmior redderetur." 

486. 7a>&//= missile. Icel. /a^ anything which grasps; but prob- 
ably from Gael, tacaid^ a peg, pin. 

487. L.A. : " Et Apostolus ad hoc : Sic et humana fragilitas ad 
contemplationem minus valida fieret, si semper in suo rigore per- 
sistens fragilitati suae interdum condescendere recusaret; nam et 
aquila cunctis avibus celsius volat et solem clarius conspicit et tamen 


naturae necessitate ad ima descendit : sic et humanus animus, cum se 
modicum a contemplatione rctrahit. crebra innovatione ardentius ad 
coelestia tendiL" 

488b 5*^^/7= reason. See note to L 103. 

489. ^n?i(x/i(^= weakness; condition of being easily broken. 

481. Disport =^^\z.}\ sport f'/>b»K//K= incessantly. I eel. ttSiVuf, as- 
siduous, busy. 

492. Na = 1 est quJdU = at times. 

495. Eyme—^Tiiy sea-eagle; but probably eagle. A^^j/^= highest 

498. C/?r/^<ix// = superlative of r/r^zr/^. 

497. Mon of/ors=mMS\. of force, or necessity. 

498. Law yrd^Xovt earth. 

505^22. L.A., ix. 9. Hieron. in Gal. vi. 
505. L.A. adds : " ut testatur Hieron)'mus.'' 
508. F^//&= direct Mod.Sc^iAr. 

507. iS^(>'=Ephesus. 

508. Selfe eld—\tx^ age. Cf. Mod.Eng. seif-same. 

509. Vnh€S^^'\ih difficulty. 

510. QuhyU=2X times. Cardinal Newman uses the word (as is 
frequently done) in the plural : — 

** And so in us at whiles it falls to claim 
Powers that we dread, or dare some forward part" 

511. "Without pause he might no more say." The use of the 
double negative is frequent 

512-514. L.A.: "Ad quamlibet pausam hoc dicebat : filioli, diligite 
al tern turn." 

512. p/rir=these. 

514. Enterchangeabily = mutual, each other ; a very unexpected 

518. KMa«/K= unceasingly. See note to 1. 491. 

519. 7a^:^/= taught 

520. ^/^7//= with all. 

522. " If ye in this his bidding do." 
523-538. L.A., ix. 10. 

523-530. L.A. : " Refert quoque Helinandus, quod cum Johannes 
evangelista evangelium scribere deberet, prius indixit jejunium, ut 
orarent se digna scripturum." 

523. iE/>'«a«^/«j= Helinandus. 
529. 7'^rt«^tt/= acceptable. 

531-538. L.A. : " Fertur autem ipsum pro illo loco secretissimo, in 
quo divina scripturus secesserat, orasse, ut nullas huic insistens 
operi ventorum ibi aut imbrium injurias pateretur. Hancque eidem 
loco usque hodie reverentiam elementa servare dicuntur." 

532. /j=his. 

NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 534-585). 95 


534. lVfy(^=vmiix\g. write is still used in Mod.Sc. in the same 

536. Noyus=h\XTX{\i\. vyndis=^vr\xiCis. «a=nor. rane=r?L\x\, 

539-588. L.A., ix. 11; Vine. Bello., 'Spec. Hist.;' Abd. V. xxii- 
xxiii. ; Mellitus, *De Pass. Johannis;* Isidore, *De Vita et Morte 
Sanct ;' Niceph., * H. E./ ii. 42 ; Augustin., 'Tract, in Johann./ 124. 

539-543. L.A. : " Cum igitur esset nonaginta octo annorum et a 
passione domini, secundum Ysidorum, anno sexagesimo septimo, 
apparuit ei dominus." 

539. Z«^= lived. 

544. /v/=many, numerous. 

546. £/=eat. 

549-552. L.A.: " Cui dominus : Dominica die ad me venies." Abd.: 
" Dominica resurrectionis meae quae post quinque dies futura est." 
Similarly Mellitus. 

553-560. L.A. : " Veniente igitur dominica universus populus con- 
venit in ecclesia, quae fuerat ipsius nomine fabricata. Qui a primo 
pullorum cantu praedicavit iisdem, hortans eos, ut in fide essent 
stabiles et in mandatis Dei ferventes essent.'* 

557. Craz(y«, past part. of rr<i«/= crow, thrise =\hr\ct, Abd. adds: 
"Horam circiter diei tertiam." The first Christians were in the 
habit of assembling at the dawn of day for the purpose of celebrating 
the Communion. See Tertullian, * De Corona Militis,' c. 3 ; Pliny, 
• Letter to Trajan ' (Ep. 96). 

558. J5^j=ways. 
560. Z>^^= leave. 

561-572. L.A. : " Post hoc foveam quadratam juxta altare fecit fieri 
et terram extra ecclesiam jactari descendensque in foveam expansis 
ad Deum manibus dixit : Invitatus ad convivium tuum, domine Jesu 
Christe, ecce venio gratias agens, quia dignatus es me ad tuas epulas 
invitare, sciens quod ex toto corde meo desideravi te." 

562. Pyte=^\l, depe and brad =^tt\i and broad. 

564. Caused the earth to be placed outside of the Church. ^=out. 
d(m='!^MU placed, thrown. 

565. Lad=^\2A^. ewyne=t\tTit flat. 

566. Hevand= lihing, A.S. hebban, to lift. 

568. ^-^i^= above. In MS. a-behufe. A.S. an, on; be, by; and 
ufan, upward. * Ormulum * (6438) has abufenj * A.S. Chron.,' an. 1090, 
dbufan; * Laws of iEthel.,' in Wilkins, p. 63, be-u/an. See Skeat's 
'Etym. Diet.' lowe for /<?/■= praise. 

676. /^?r/)^= strangely, wondrously. 

585. Grand of well— hoiiom of a well. 

The tradition that St John the Evangelist did not suffer death in 
the same way as other human beings is very ancient, and was very 
widely spread. George of Trebizonde dedicated a work to the Pope, 
the chief aim of which is to show that the Apostle is not dead, but 


will return at the end of the worid to combat Antichrist. Accord- 
ing to Jacques Le F^rre dTtapIes, he was translated like Enoch 
and Elijah. Florentinius (* Notae in Martyrologium vetus Hieron.*) 
says the Apostle died and was resuscitated almost immediately, and 
will come again at the end of the world to preach the Gospel and to 
die again. In the time of Augustine ('In Joh./ 125) and of Gre- 
gory of Tours (* De Glor. Martyr./ 30), many believed that John was 
in his tomb, still li\-ing but wrapped in a profound slumber, from 
which he will not awake until the day of judgment 

586u Addition. 

589-651 LJV. ix. 12. 

589. Sonet edmumde. This and the next line are an addition. 
Sanct Edmwnde is a mistake for Sanct Edward. As told by Ailred, 
the stor)' is as follows : " Sanctus Eduardus nulli petenti in nomine 
Sancti Johannis Evangelistse aliquid deneg^bat : hunc enim post 
Apostolorum principem arctius diligebat Unde contigit, quod quidam 
peregrinus, absente camerario, in nomine Sancti Johannis Evan- 
gelists importune a rege eleemos>*nam postularet Cui rex preciosum 
annulum, cum nihil aliud in promptu haberet. dedit Accidit post 
hxc, duos Anglicos ad adorandum Salvatoris sepulcrum Hierosoly- 
mam proficisci. Qui die quadam a publica strata declinantes, devia 
quaeque sectati sunt : et sole ruente, nox obscura adducta est £t 
cum nescirent quid agerent, quo se verterent, apparuit eis senex 
quidam venerandus, qui eos ad civitatem reducit Susceptis autem 
hospitio, mensa paratur : lautissimeque refecti, dant membra quieti. 
Mane autem facto, egressis ill is de civitate, ait senex : Viri fratres, 
cum summa prosperitate vos repatriaturos non dubitetis: quoniam 
prosperum iter faciei vobis Deus, et ego ob amorem regis vestri, in 
omni via firmabo super vos oculos meos. Ego enim sum Apostolus 
Christi Johannes, qui regem vestrum ob meritum castitatis summa 
dilectione complector. Hunc ergo annulum, quern mihi in habitu 
peregrino apparenti tribuit, reportate, denunciantes ei obitus sui 
instare diem : quern infra sex menses visitans visitabo, ut mecum 
sequatur agnum quocunque ierit. His dictis, disparuit : et illi ad 
patriam prospere redeuntes, quae viderant et audierant, regi seriatim 
retulerunt"— Surius. Jan. 5. p. ^^. 

690, Z^2///= loved. 

591. Oul-aHe= except. 

596. yies in j^/ar^= amusing himself. In the sense of amusement, 
solace is used several times in * The Bruce,* as e.g.: — 


And maid thaim gamyn and solace^ 
Till that his folk all passyt was." 

— Bk. III. 465. 

This line is not in L.A. 

599. lohnnis j<7^= John's sake. 


NOTES TO JOHANNES (V. 601-657). 97 

601. ^jyM= sufficient relief. 0,Fr, asset's? 

602. L. A- : " Absente camerario." 
604. /^ar=fair. 

606. Oyi/'=! crave. 

609-655. L.A.: " Sed post plures diesquidam miles Angliae in trans- 
xnarinis partibus constitutus ab eodem peregrino annulum regi refer- 
endum in haec verba recepit : Ille, cui et pro cujus amore annulum 
hunc dedisti, tibi remandat Unde liquido patuit quod beatus Johannes 
eidem in forma apparuit peregrini." The L.A. then concludes with 
a brief r/sum/ of the miracles of the Apostle from St Isidore. 

612. Z^j^= praise, renown. See note to I. 230. 

617. Gat^vfay. 

618. Haliste, a mistake for halsyt or ^//jr^/= hailed, saluted. 
Swed. helsay to salute. This word seems to have been frequently 
mistaken. See Skeat's Gloss, to ' The Bruce,' under hailsyt, halsit, 
haylist, and halyst, 

624. Umquhil= onct. 

631. Vesy=^y\s\l. 

646. Taknynge=X.oVtn. 

649. r^r^/s dress. See note to III. 913. 

655-658. Author's conclusion. 

656. God — />., Jesus Christ, cusynge ^^consin, 

657. 7Ve^/i^= separate, pass. 

" Luf lokez to luf & his leue takez, 
For to ende alle at onez & for euer twynne.** 

— 'E E. Allit. Poems,' p. 50, 40a. 

VOL. III. g 


The Apostle St Thomas was sumamed Didymus, or the Twin. Accord- 
ing to one tradition he was bom at Antioch. According to another 
he was a Galilean by birth and a fisherman. In the catalogues of the 
Apostles he is coupled with Matthew in Matt x. 3, Mark iii. 18, Luke 
vi. 15, and with Philip in Acts i. 13. All that is known of him is 
derived from the fourth Gospel and the Acts of the Apostles. Four 
incidents are recorded in connection with him. (i) When our Lord 
determined to face the dangers that awaited Him in Judaea on His 
journey to Bethany, and the rest of the Twelve were endeavouring to 
dissuade Him, Thomas said to them, " Let us also go, that we may die 
with Him" (John xi. 16). (2) During the conversation at the Last 
Supper he said to Jesus : *' Lord, we know not whither Thou goest, 
and how can we know the way?" (John xiv. 5). (3) After the 
Resurrection, again, he was absent when our Lord first appeared to 
the rest of the disciples, and when informed of the fact, replied : 
"Except I see in His hands the print of the nails, and put my finger 
into the print of the nails, and thrust my hand into His side, I will 
not believe" (John xx. 25). (4) Eight days after this, when Jesus 
appeared again to the disciples, and said to him, " Reach hither thy 
finger, and behold my hands ; and reach hither thy hand, and thrust 
it into my side : and be not faithless, but believing ; " he replied — 
" My Lord and my God." To the third incident is due his name of 
the Doubting Apostle, He is mentioned twice again in the New 
Testament : in John xxi. 2, as one of the five disciples to whom our 
Lord appeared on the shores of the Sea of Galilee ; and in Acts i. 13, 
as one of those who were assembled together in the upper room in 
Jerusalem immediately after the Ascension, and as one of the wit| 
nesses of that event. The remainder of his life is known only from 
tradition. According to Eusebius ('Hist. Eccl.,' i. 13), who says he 
w^as also called Judas, immediately after the Ascension, he sent 
Thaddeus to Edessa with our Lord's letter to Abgarus, the prince 
of that city. He is said to have preached in Parthia or Persia, 


(Euseb., 'Hist Eccl.,* iii. i ; Socrat., 'Hist. Eccl./ i. 19), and to have 
been buried at Edessa (Socrat., 'Hist. Eccl.,' iv. 18). His grave at 
Edessa is mentioned by Chrysostom (* Horn, in Heb.,' 26) as one of 
the four genuine tombs of the Apostles ; the other three being those 
of SS. Peter, Paul, and John. According to a later tradition, the 
tradition followed here, he proceeded to India, preached the Gospel, 
and suffered martyrdom. According to some authorities his body was 
translated to Edessa; according to others it was found in 1523 buried 
beneath an old ruinous chapel which stood over his tomb without the 
walls of Meliapor. Smith's 'Diet, of the Bible'; Putin's 'Diet. 
Hagiog. *; Butler's * Lives of the Saints*; Tischendorfs 'Acta Apoc. 
Apostol.'; Gregory of Tours's *De Gloria Martyrum,' cap. xxxii. ; 
Chambers's * Book of Days ' ; Owen's * Sanctorale Catholicum.* 

His day in the Latin Church is December 21 ; in the Greek, October 
6; among the Indians, July i. 

His sig^ is a carpenter's square. 

Analysis — His mission to India, 1-42 ; his departure with Abney, 
and arrival at a city where the marriage of the king's daughter is 
being celebrated, 43-54 ; Thomas meets with a Hebrew maiden, the 
punishment of a servant, and the conversion of the newly married pair, 
55-192; he arrives at the Court of Gundoforus, and is commissioned 
to build a palace, 193-216; but preaches, and uses the money, in- 
trusted to him, to build churches with, and in almsgiving, 217-236 ; 
the king, who has been absent, returns, and imprisons both Thomas 
and Abney, 237-247 ; they are tortured, the king's brother dies, but 
rises again, and, after admonishing the king for his treatment of the 
apostle, goes to the prison and releases him, 248-316; the king's 
repentance, 317-360; Thomas heals the sick and preaches, 361-438; 
he then proceeds from "Inner" India to **East" India, performs 
miracles, and preaches and is imprisoned, 439-505 ; the queen visits 
him, is converted, and confesses her conversion to the king, 506-549 ; 
Thomas is brought before the king, is tormented, and, refusing to 
sacrifice to the idols and bringing about their destruction, is stabbed 
from behind by the priest, 550-666 ; flight of the king and the apostle's 
burial, 667-684 ; conclusion, 685-698. 

Source — * Legenda Aurea,* cap. v. Cf. Abdias, Lib. ix. ; the 'Acta 
Thomae,' Tischendorf and Thilo ; and Vinct. Bello., viii. 62 et seq. 

The etymological introduction of the L.A. is omitted. 

2. Z><g'r(f= order, not of dignity, but in which, according to one of 
the traditions, the Apostles composed the Apostles' Creed. See Giles, 
'Codex Apoc. N.T.,' vol. ii. p. 655. Cf. Migne, *Dict. Apoc.,' ii. iii, 
art " Apdtres" ; also the note, XV. 1-8. The following, however, gives 
them in a different order : " Et coeperunt (apostoli) loqui aliis Unguis, 
ct composuerunt symbolum. Petrus : Credo in Deum Patrem omni- 
potentem, creatorem coeli et terrae. loannes : Et in lesum Christum 


Filium ejus unicum Dominum nostrum. lacobus: Qui conceptus est 
de Spiritu sancto, natus de Maria Virgine. Andraas ait : Passus sub 
Pontio Pilato, crucifixus, mortuus est, et sepultus. Philippus dixit : 
Descendit ad infema. Thomas ait: Tertia die surrexit a mortuis. 
Bartholomaus ait : Ascendit ad coelos : sedet ad dexteram Dei Patris 
omnipotentis. Matthaus ait : Inde ventums judicare vivos et mortuos. 
lacobus Alphai dixit : Credo in Spiritum sanctum. Simon Zelotis 
ait: Sanctam Ecclesiam Catholicam. ludas /acobi dixit: Sanctorum 
communionem, remissionem peccatorum. Item Thomas ait : Camis 
resurrectionem, vitam aetemam.'' — Mabillon, 'Analecta,' iv. 575. 

3-54. L.A. : "Th. ap. cum esset apud Caesaream, apparuit ei dominus 
dicens : Rex Indise Gundoferus misit praepositum Abbanem quaerere 
hominem architectoria arte eruditum. Veni igitur et mittam te ad 
eum. Cui Thomas : Domine, quo vis mitte me pater (1. praeter) ad 
Indos. Cui deus : Vade secure, quia ero custos tui. Cumque Indos 
converteris. ad me cum palma martirii venies. Cui Thomas : Domi- 
nus meus es et ego servus tuus : fiat voluntas tua. Cumque praeposi- 
tus per forum ambularet, dixit ei dominus: quid comparare vis, 
juvenis? Cui ille : Dominus meus misit me, ut conducam servos in 
arte architectoria eruditos, ut romano opere sibi palatium construatur. 
Tunc dominus tradidit ei Thomam, asserens eum plurimum in tali 
arte peritum. Navigantes autem ad quandam civitatem venerunt, in 
qua rex filiae suae nuptias celebrabat. Hoc cum praeconisari fecisset, 
ut omnes nuptiis interessent, alias regem offend erent, contigit ilium 
Abbanem et apostolum introire." 

7. Inde. See note to III. 13. According to some traditions the 
Apostle went to Parthia; according to others to India; and according 
to others, again, to both Parthia and India. See Thilo, * Acta Thomae,' 
p. 97 ct seq.y where the various traditions are given. lefit=^\t2Lve, it 

8. Gundoforus, See Thilo, ibid., p. 116 et seq. 

9. Proves/e= provost O.Fr, provost (prevosf) ; Lait prcepostfus. 

10. j&Vj/7>'= actively. A.S. fysig-. spere=seGk, inquire for. Iccl. 

12. 77/^«^= favour. A.S,]>anc. Set Bradley, sub voce. 

13. Thaftk/u/fy =bouT\t\{u\\y, 

18. Ozf/a»e= except A.S. ufany I eel. utan. See Bradley, /el- 
/ou^ie=crue\, Cf.^/ofl. 20. 

22. Hale ynd=2\\ India. 

27. pa/=at ; a frequent use. 

45. cute. According to Pet. de Natalibus, it was called Andrino- 
polis : " Cumque die vij. Andrinopolim pervenissent," fol. xv, V. B., 
viii. 62, calls it Andronoplis. 

47. Ofnev—o{ new = recently, just. 

48. Monictone=vfa.rn'mg, proclamation. 

51. " Of all classes, from the highest to the lowest" 

52. But assonle = without excuse. '* Debent comparere et omni 


essonio excepto = thai ... aw to comper essonye outan." — Peebles 
Burgh Rec, p. i. assort^, from O.Fr. essoyni. See Cotgp-ave, who 
gives essoyned, "whose absence is excused by reason of his impo- 
tencie " ; Du Cange, under essoyne and sunnis; and Jamieson, under 
assonyie. y5rj/^= feast. 

53. Dedfn^= scorn, O.Fr. disdein^ desdaing. See Cotgrave, under 
desdaing^ and Skeat, under disdain, 

54. Eschev=^ 2i\o\^. O.Fr. eschever. Cotgp'ave and Roquefort, 
feny^itiga. Y,feindre, pres. ^\. feign ant; \j3X. finger e, 

55-108. L.A.: ''Puella autem Hebraeam fistulam in manu gerens 
unumquemque laude aliqua commendabat vidensque apostolum intel- 
lexit hunc esse Hebrseum, eo quod non mandu caret sed oculos ad 
coelum fixos haberet Cumque puella coram eo hebraice caneret 
dicens : Unus est Deus Hebraeoram, qui creavit omnia et fundavit 
maria, apostolus ipsa haec eadem verba repetere satagebat. Videns 
autem pincema, quod non manducaret nee biberet, sed tantum oculos 
fixes ad coelum haberet, apostolum Dei in maxillam percussit Cui 
apostolus : Melius est ut in futuro indulgentia tibi tradatur et hie 
transitoria plaga reddatur : non hinc surgam donee manus, quae per- 
cussit, hue a canibus afferatur. Hie igitur ad hauriendam aquam 
abiit et leo ipsum occidens sanguinem ejus bibit Lacerantibus autem 
canibus ejus corpus, unus niger canis manum ejus dextram in medium 
convivium apportavit, quo viso omnis turba obstupuit et puella ejus 
verba referens projecta fistula ad pedes apostoli se projecit" 

60. Quyschile='^)\\%\\^\ called difistule in 1. 70. 

62. Lowynge—\2M^zX\or\, A.S. lofting, 

65. P^rj<K/i/i^«f= perceiving, perception. 

67. Z>rr>i/ig'^= drink. 

68. /j A^=his eye. 

71. Z^^= speech, language. A.S. leden, 

78. ^^A^/^= refresh, comfort, encourage ; "to revive, rejoyce, cheare 
up exceedingly " — Cotgrave. " That is, that man rehete his tho3t in 
£^ce of the holy gost" — Hampole, Ps. ciii. 17. Cf. Ps. xxii. 2 ; Ixvi. 
6, &c. O.Fr. rehaitier, 

81. Vald nocht assay = would not take. 

82. Govand=^%;s£\xi% intently. 

83. 5/m>&= stroke, blow. j^A^^= cheek. 

85-91. According to P. de Nat, this was said in Hebrew: "quod 
quia Hebraice dixit, sola puella intellexit.'* Cf. 1. 106. So also V. B. : 
''hoc autem hebraico sermone dixit, nullus quod excepta puella 
hebrea intellexit" — viii. 63. 

93. A'gane^^%^\iiS\,. Cf. Exod. vii. 15. 

94. Ve/vatter^vft\\ or spring water. 

96. /fund, L.A., P. de Nat., and V. B., leo. 

97. J^;7/= worried. 
100. 3^/= ate. 

102 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (VL 104-179). 

104. Bedene, See note to III. 1064. 

110. Z?^/=fear. Cf. I. 283 «. 

117-121. L.A. : " Domine adolescentibus his benedictionem tuae 
dextrae et in eorum mentibus semina semen vitae." 

131-140. L.A. : *' Videbatur etenim iis quod rex gemmatus eos am- 
plecteretur et diceret : apostolus benedixit vos, ut aeteraae vitae parti- 
cipes sitis." 

133. SchrovCy read schrovd^^?A, A.S. scry dan; I eel. skrySa, 
stanis j^r<?= various gems. 

135. Erase— tmhrdice. 

139. Parsaneris—^dJi^ktrs. O.Fr. parsotmier^ "a partener, or co- 
parcener" — Cotgrave. See also Skeat, sub partner. 

142. At hire til vlhire^ont to the other. 

145. pi/fV^rt/=in this way. carpand^ talking, carpyn, or ialkyn — 


"So gone thei forthe, carpende fast 
Oa this, on that." 

— Gower, 'Conf. Am.,' lib. vii, 

* Prompt. Parv.* Icel. karpa. See also Skeat and Bradley. 

147. Euire, read entre, 

148. C//d!z/;«^r= chamber. O.Fr. chambre^ cambre. 

149-174. L.A. : '^ Rex meus vobis modo apparuit et me clausis januis 
hue adduxit, ut super vos benedictione mea habeatis carnis integrita- 
tem, quae est omnium regina virtutum et fnictus salutis perpetuae. 
Virginitas soror est angelorum, possessio omnium bonorum, victoria 
libidinum, fidei trophacum, expugnatio daemonum, et aeternorum secu- 
ritas gaudiorum. De libidine autem corruptio gignitur, de corrup- 
tione pollutio nascitur, de pollutione autem reatus oritur, de reatu 
confusio generatur." 

153. 7^^r^«/= without. 

156. Bedene is here an expletive. See Murray, sub voce, 5. 

157. //if/<f= salvation. 
159. Cw/^r= sister. 

161. Krt/^/>/^«r= wielding, control, government. 
164. Fend bakvart=^tn(\ backward. 

167. i?/////>/§Y, rotting, corruption. A.S. rotian; M.E. roicn. The 
line is improved by omitting \e flcsch. The words are not needed. 

168. Oysit—MstA. Fr. user ; Low Lat. usare, 

169. Rottingc, see 1. 167 n. 

170. 6'ir//^;7/= generated, engendered, begotten. 

172. (7r^2//j= grows. 7/^/= know. ^/7////^jj= guiltiness, guilt. 

175-182. L.A. : " Haec illo referente duo angeli apparuerunt dicen- 
tes iis : nos sumus angeli vobis ad custodiam deputati, qui, si apostoli 
bene servaveritis monita, offerimus Deo omnia vota vestra." 

179, 5^;«^=keep. "Thou lord thurgh tha wordis sail yme\s in 
this warld." — Hampole, Ps. xi. 8. A.S. gyntan; Icel. geyma. 

NOTES TO THOMAS (VL 180-257). IO3 

180. ^^m^= pleasingly, agreeably. 

" f>at ))ou mine children shalt wel yeme, 
{>at hire Idn be ful wel queme." 

—Havel, 393. 

183-192. L.A. : " Eos igitur apostolus baptizavit et de fide diligen- 
tcr edocuit Post multum vero temporis sponsa nomine Pelagia 
sacro velamine consecrata martirium patitur et sponsus nomine 
Dyonisius illi civitati in episcopum ordinatur." 

186. JW=veil, the sig^ of belonging to Christ alone. 

187. ^e goldrynge was symbolic of the novice's betrothal to Christ. 
193-250. L.A. : " Post haec autem apostolus et Abbanes ad regem 

Indise pervenerunt. Desig^ato vero ab apostolo mirabili palatio et 
copioso thesauro accepto rex in aliam provinciam proficiscitur et 
apostolus universum thesaurum populo elargitur. Per totum autem 
biennium quo abfuit rex, apostolus praedicationi institit et innumer- 
abilem populum ad fidem convertit. Rediens autem rex et quae 
Thomas fecerat discens, ipsum cum Abbane in ima retrudit carceris, 
utTpostmodo vivos excoriatos ultricibus daret flammis.'' 

20L ^«/=reed, for measuring. 

205. On sic vytjs= on such wise, 

211. /%frij=efferis= belongs to. 

215. Quet'^i^mXi paid. 

218. />£i=when. 

222. Sychware^ read sythware, and see note to II. 518. 

228. Fele S* gret—mditiy and great. 

234. W^aM= harm. Cf.XI. 378. I eel. z/aef/, peril, hurt. See Bradley. 

237. Oys=\JiSt. Cf. note to 1. 168. 

244. -F4f/= cruel. m/A= quickly. 

249. Quyke \am/la=^3.y them alive. 

250. In doile &» 7/^?=in pain and woe. doi/e from O.Fr. deu/f 
deoil.deuil^doel; peine, chagrin, ^/<7r — Roquefort. See note to II. 568. 

251-256. L.A. : " Interea Gad frater regis moritur et ei sepul- 
chrum cum ambitione nimia praeparatur." 

7S^. Hechte=^2iS called. A.S. hatan; O.L.Ger. hetan; O.Fris. 
hetaj Goth, haitan; Icel. heita, 

254. Dule^ see note to 1. 250 above. 

255. C»/v=care. Lat. euro, 

257-300. L.A. : " Quarta autem die quam mortuus fuerat, resurrexit 
et stupefactis omnibus cunctisque fugientibus dixit fratri suo: Hie 
homo, frater, quem excoriare et incendere disponebas, amicus Dei 
est et omnes angeli famulantur ei. Qui me in paradisum ducentes 
quoddam mihi ostenderunt palatium ex auro et argento et lapidibus 
pretiosis mirabiliter fabricatum ; et cum ejus pulcritudinem admir- 
arer, dixerunt mihi : hoc est palatium quod Thomas fratri tuo exstrux- 
erat; cumque dicerem : utinam janitor ejus essem, dixerunt mihi: 

104 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (VL 25^-337). 

frater tuus se illo fecit indignum ; si vis in illo manere, rogabimus 
dominum, ut te suscitare dignetur, ut illud a fratre tuo possis emere, 
reddens ei pecuniam, quam se existimat perdidisse." 

259. For quha read }pat, 

268. Senvys=stTwt. 

270. Schawyt = showed. A. S. sceawian, welfiil = happy. See 
Bradley, sub weola-fuL 

27L Fare={iAX, beautiful. 

272. Read, "As he before hycht to ])e had." /(y^-*/= promised. 
See note to 1. 253. 

273. Nor is there under the high air — />., heavens. 
275. For gold may not be brighter. 

277. Kam*j= dwelling. Cf. Douglas, iv. 138. 

278. Schenand^^YCi\n^, A.S. scinan; Dut. schijnen; Icel. sJdna. 
281. Saphir <7/'<wjay= sapphire of value or great cost. 

"Stones of great assay" — Spenser, quo. Imp. Diet. 
" Purfled with gold and pearle of rich assay" — Spenser, * F. Q.,* x, ii. 13. 

Assay, O.Fr. astcd, assay, 

283. Adamant=d\2JaoTid, O.Tv. adamant j haX, adamas^culamantis. 
]>at her of gene— ? 

285. i^/f/j<i;f^/= thinking, meditating. O.Fr. muser. See Skeat 

292. -^/«-j^/a//>r^= himself. 

294. Prais= pray, 

295. Z«/=live. 

297. Giving him of thy free goods. 

300. J/^»/^= meant, had in mind. A.S. niyntan, 

301. Sad \is resone= this statement, said this say. Resaniy 
O.Fr. raisoHy raisun, 

306. Til=Xo, for. 

307. Zyj//y= cleverly. 

311-315. L.A. : '* Cui apostolus : Ignoras quod nihil camale, nihil 
terrenum gestiunt qui cupiunt habere, in coelestibus potestatem ? " 

319. -5^/?= remedy. A.S. betanj Icel. boeta, 

329-350. L.A. : " Dixit ei frater regis : Vidi palatium quod fratri 
meo fecisti, et illud comparare merui. Cui ap. : Hoc in potestate 
fratris tui est. Cui rex : Illud erit meum. Apostolus fabricet tibi 
aliud ; quod si forte nequiverit, mihi et tibi unum hoc commune eriL 
Respondit ap. : Innumerabilia palatia sunt in coelo ab initio saeculi 
praeparata, quae fidei pretio et eleemosinis electis comparantur. Divi- 
tiae autem vestrae ad ilia vos antecedere possunt, sequi vero omnino 
non possunt." 

330. Wel-fuU=T\c\ magnificent schene^hnghi, 

331. Z<?/'= leave, permission. 

332. // at ]>e to 4y= to buy it of thee. 

337. ^ of his awyne syne lat—axA of his own [goods] then let. 

NOTES TO THOMAS (VL 338-396). 10$ 

338. A fu v/Atre= aji other. 

339. " And if he have not sufficient money." Bownf, Icel. dtia, past 
pt bHinn^ to make ready. 

341. />/f/^l/af^= many palaces. 

345. Trewiht rychtvijs=T\g\\Xeo\ysirMX\\, 

346. ^//«i«-//<f^=alms- deeds, syndry z{yj^=sundry wise, divers 

351-360. Not in L.A. 

353. Zi^Zwtt/= living. //!?/^rrw= defers. 

354. Merryse—z^yj&es to stray. Cf. XII. 48. A.S. tnerran^ myrran, 

356. Gai^yf2cy, 

357. J!A£i«^/w/= pleasant 

358. -^/w£i«^, either = alms; or a/;//^« (cf. VII. 8o4)=all men. of/re 
lykine^o{ free will. 

359. 7/7= while. 

361-384. L.A. : " Post unum autem mensem fecit apostolus pauperes 
omnes illius provinciae congregari, quibus congregatis debiles et 
infirmos seorsim stare jussit et super eos oravit; cumque qui docti 
fuerant respondissent Amen, coruscatio de ccelo veniens tam apos- 
tolum quam caeteros fere per horam dimidiam sic perlustravit ut 
omnes se putarent ictu fulguris interiisse, erigens autem se apostolus 
dixit : Surg^te, quia dominus meus sicut fulgur venit eosque sanavit 
Exsurgentes autem omnes sani Deum et apostolus glorificaverunt" 

365. Puyre =^oor, elyke=2A\\it, See III. 499. 

367. Sek &• sayre= sick and sore. 

371. jyr-scAaucAU =stTokt of lightning. See note to III. 223. 

376. Ded a/ow/e=^s\3Lin utterly. a/owle^aAl out 

379. Fyr-schackt, See above, 1. 371. 

382. Heyle^cMYt, sychare, read sythare^ and see note to II. 518. 

385-395. L.A. : "Tunc apostolus coepit eos docere et duodecim 
gradus virtutum assignare. Primus est, ut in Deum crederent qui est 
unus in essentia et trinus in personis, deditque iis triplex exemplum 
sensibile, quomodo sint in una essentia tres personae. Primum est 
quia, una est in homine sapientia et de ilia una procedit intellectus, 
memoria et ingenium." 

385. /wj= eager, ready. 

" To speken of hire ich am y/tl/ous," 

—'A. S. A' p. 141. 

" Martha was huswijf o ])at hus, 

Aboute pe semis was sco /us" 

— 'Cur. Mun./ 14,089. 

A.S. JiiSj' IceL/uss. 
386. G^m!r= degrees. 

390. 7'i4rr>»/2i/^= threefold. Icel. ]>ri-faldr. 
392. /%f/rt^/K= sensibly. See Bradley, sylhfile, 
396-400. L.A. : ^ Nam ingenium est, inquit, ut quod non didicisti 


invenias; memoria, ut non oblivicaris quae didiceris; intellectus ut 
intelligas quae ostendi possunt vel doceri." 

397. Z^n/=learnedst. A.S. /aeren. See Bradley. 

398. Zam== learnest. 

399. 400. The text is corrupt The meaning may be. "And under- 
stood by thee is anything that may be shown or taught," though this 
seems doubtful. 

401-404. L.A. : "Secundum quod in una vinea tria sunt; scilicet 
lignum, folia et fructus et haec omnia tria unum sunt et una vinea sunt" 

403. Froi/e=(ruit. 0,Yr, fruit; Lsit fructum. See Skeat, 'Princip. 
of Engl. Etym./ 2d series, p. 43. 

405-410. L.A. ; "Tertium est quod caput unum quatuor sensibus 
constat, in uno enim capite sunt visus, gustus, auditus et odoratus et 
hasc plura sunt et unum caput sunt" 

404. See note, Prologue, 1. 117. 

409. Ar /inrdrett^djrt harboured, lodged. Icel. herbergi, 

411-438. L.A. : "Secundus gradus est ut baptismum susciperent 
Tertius est ut se a fornicatione continerent Quartus ut se ab avaritia 
temperarent Quintus ut gulam restringerent Sextus ut poenitentiam 
tenerent Septimus ut in his perseverarent. Octavus ut hospitalitatem 
amarent Nonus ut voluntatem Dei in faciendis quaererent et ea ope 
complerent. Decimus ut eam in non faciendis quaererent et ea 
vitarent Undecimus ut caritatem amicis et inimicis impenderent 
Duodecimus ut in custodiendis his vigilem curam haberent Post 
praedicationem vero baptisati sunt novem millia virorum exceptis 
parvulis et mulieribus." 

420. /v/=fall. 

426. AIthingc^2\\ things, everything. 

430. /a=foe. 

^h, A'lcfyne =^ t\t\^T\, L.A. and P. de Nat: "navefn millia 
virorum." V. B., septem millia virorum. 

439-468. L.A. : " Post hoc autem in superiorem Indiam abiit, in 
qua innumeris miraculis insignis coruscavit Sinticem etiam amicam 
Migdomiae uxoris Carisii, cognati regis, apostolus illuminavit, dixitque 
Migdomia ad Synticem : putas si potero eum videre? Tunc Mig- 
domia de consilio ejus habitum mutavit et inter pauperes mulieres, 
ubi apostolus praedicabat, advenit Apostolus autem coepit vitae huius 
miseriam praedicare dicens inter castera : quoniam vita hie est vita 
misera, casibus subjecta et adeo fugitiva, ut cum teneri creditur 
effugiat labefacta." 

441. /fd'j/=east. L.A., P. de Nat, and V. B., "superiorem." The 
two last add that he went thither "per revelationem." fane^ see 
V. 44, n. 

445. Cosyne—Q.oM^\n, 

446. /?y^////j';7^=direct descent 
453. Po'iu€re= poor. See V. 115, n. 

NOTES TO THOMAS (VL 459-642). 107 

459. Ufuitrlouf= subject. A.S. under-luten, chansis=^ c\i2LCices. 

460. F^rr= doubt. 

462. Lykine=\\k\Tig, pleasure. 

463. F««/^/w;i^/V= unexpectedly. 

464. ^«£/«= tears. A.S. r^afian; Icel. raufa. 
467. Laihaste=T[iOS\ loathsome. A.S. laSy hateful. 
46a -Fra=when. 

469-496. L.A. : " Deinde coepit quatuor rationibus exhortari, ut 
verbum Dei libenter audirent, ipsum verbum Dei quatuor rerum 
generibus comparando, sc. collyrio, ex eo quod oculum nostri intel- 
lectus illuminat, passioni [potioni ?], ex eo quod nostrum affectum ab 
omni carnali amore purgat et mundat, emplastro, ex eo quod pecca- 
torum nostrorum vulnera sanat, cibo, ex eo quod nos coelestium 
amore delectat ; et sicut, inquit, haec aegroto non valent nisi ea in se 
receperit, sic nee animae languenti verbum Dei prodest, nisi illud 
devote audierit." 

480. .S'ie^^r^= heavy, dull. A.S. swaer; Icel. sifdrr. The word is 
still in common use, but with the sense of *' reluctant " or " unwilling.** 

486. //r/=heal. " By which we heal the wounds of sin." 

490. Sawle^so\i\, 

503-505. L.A. : *'Tunc Carisius a rege impetravit et apostolum in 
carcere posuit" 

503. ptf/=]7ane (?). askit at^ still a common idiom. 

504. 7}4r^?/y= fiercely, cruelly. Icel. J>r^r. thringe =^rtss. 
511-518. L.A. : " Carisius autem regem rogavit, ut reginam sororem 

suae uxoris ad eam mitteret, si forte eam revocare posset. Missa regina 
convertitur ab ea, quam volebat pervertere, visisque tot miraculis, 
quae apostolus faciebat, dixit : maledicti sunt a Deo, qui non tot 
signis credunt et operibus." 

513. J/<f«=«moan, mourn. A.S. manan; O.Fris. niena. See note 
to III. 699. 

517. Fana=\.rj, Pl.S, fandian. See note to III. 135. 

520. Oure =^Yioy\r. 

525. Veryte=^ CMvstd. A.S. wergian. See note to IV. 226. 

532. Honoure^ L.A. diligerent. 

535. 6*7e/^r«^= reluctant, slow. Cf. slow to speak. See note to 480 

536. Here—\ie^x, 

538. />a«^= inquire. A.S. frignan, Lancashire dialect, frayne. 
See * Ormulum,* Gloss, sy^ fra^'^nenn, 

" Nu mihht tu fra^^nenn whille iss patt." 

— * Orm.,* vol. i. p. 196. 

"And sithc Yit/reyned also swithe 
' How fares my lady brigbte ? ' " 

— 'M. Arth./679. 

542. Fowle=ioo\. 


543b Uy/e=vrom2iL So in MocLSc 

545. AVff</= taught, sutkfast vay, L^ viam veritatis. 

546. L.A. adds : ^ Et nimis stulti sunt qui in Christum non credunL" 

548. Bed€^ L.A. copulari. See Murray, sub bed vb. 

549. L^A. adds : ^ Stupefactus autem rex dixit cognato suo : Dum 
tuam uxorem recuperare vellem, meam perdidi et pejor mihi mea 
efifecta est quam tua tibi." 

550. C7r«w/= grieved. 

554-558. L.A. : ^ Tunc rex jussit apostolum ligatis manibus ad se 
adduci prsecipiens ei, ut ad suos viros conjuges revocaret." 
555. //x//= ill, wicked. Mra= obstinate. IceL Jt^t. 

558. TV ^^=the death. 

559-584. L.A. : "Apostolus autem triplici exemplo ostendit, quamdiu 
in errore persisterent, hoc facere non deberent, videlicet exemplo 
regisy exemplo turris et exemplo fontis. Unde, dixit, tu cum sis 
rex, non vis habere coinquinata ser\itia, sed mundos servos paritar 
et ancillas. Quanto magis credere debes Deum amare castissima et 
munda servitia ? Quid ergo culpor, si Deum amare praedico in sends 
suis, quod diligis et in tuis. Fabrica\i turrim excelsam et dicis mihi 
ut ego, qui fabricavi, eam destniam? Fodi terram profundam et 
eduxi fontem de abysso, et dicis mihi ut obstniam ilium?" 

559. Opu na-kyne vyse—xn no manner of way. 
564. Wylsprynge — well-spring. 

568. Wemen for u*omaiu 

570. 3^rw/,r= desires. 

571. Wyf, See note to 1. 543 above. 
573. 5rrz£/ir= deserve. 

578. Z?y^/= built a wel he toure^^ very high tower. 

579. /via;/= fault, lack. 

581. Dolvyne^diU%. See note to I. 198. 

582. Spryngayd=s\tnT\g (?). 

585-588. L.A. : " Tunc iratus rex afTerri jussit ardentes laminas 
596. ^a^^ = son-in-law. See Jamieson, SMh mcdcky mack, who 

cites — 

" Gyf that thou sekis ane alienare vnknaw, 
To be thy maich or thy gude son in law." 

—Doug., 'Virg./2i9. 33- 

Another form occurs in Book VII. of Small's edit, vol. iii. p. 103,7 = — 

" Lat the eild fadir and magh knyt wp frendschip 
Be price of thair peple and fallowscbip." 

See also CM. 7650. The word is of frequent occurrence, but appears 
to be used with a somewhat loose significance. It here stands for 
cogtiatus of the L.A. For the presence of the final "t" see note to 
11.992. ^r/K /^//= wondrous cruel. 

NOTES TO THOMAS (VL 6OT-688). 109 

597. C?^/^/= make hot, heat oyne^oven. 

601. J)e loMre= the next 

605. Sene=sun. Horstmann suggests sorter but sene comes nearer 
the pronunciation in the north. Jamieson also gives stn= sun. See 
sud voce. Further on we shall meet with j^/^=soot 

609-678. L.A. : "Cumque ad hoc urgeretur, dixit regi : praestantior 
es (tu) quam factura tua, et quoniam tu verum Deum negligis et pic- 
turam colis, tu putas, quod sicut Carisius (dicit), Deus mihi irascetur, 
postquam adoravero Deum tuum : magis autem irascetur Deo tuo 
eumque comminuet, igitur eum adoro. Si ergo me adorante Deum 
tuum Deus non evertet ilium, sacrificabo illi, si autem sic, tu credes 
Deo meo. Cui rex : adhuc mecum de pari loqueris. Praecipit igitur 
ap. hebraice daemoni qui in eo erat, ut quam cito coram ydolo genua 
flecteret et statim ydolum comminueret Flectens igitur ap. genua 
dixit : ecce adoro, sed non ydolum, ecce adoro, sed non metallum, ecce 
adoro sed non simulacrum : adoro autem dominum meum Jesum 
Christum, in cuius nomine praecipio tibi, daemon, qui in eo latitas, ut 
simulacrum istud comminuas. Statimque sicut cera liquefactum est. 
Tunc omnes sacerdotes mugitum dederunt, pontifex autem templi 
elevans gladium apostolum transverberavit decens : ego vindicabo 
injurias Dei mei. Rex autem et Carisius aufugerunt videntes quod 
populus vellet apostolum vindicare et pontificem vivum incendere, 
christiani autem corpus apostoli tulerunt et honorifice sepelierunt" 

611. One hycht—on high, «>., with a loud voice. 

612. Opis J>«=thinkest thou. 

615. /'a>'«/y«^^=» painting, idol, fancy. 
618. ^V«yj=imaginest 

629. OurtirwiSt aurtirvis = overturns. Cf. *Ratis Raving,' 1495, 
1608 ; and * Alexander the Great,' p. 34. 
634. As pere &* peyre^^& peer and equal. 
64i. Hey 5one=^\(\^ sound, loud voice. 
645. Mawnment =ido\. A corruption of MaJtomef, 
648. Broh'i/ =br\it\e, M.Dut, M.L.Ger. droJte/, See Bradley, sub 

653. 5>m///(r7^^= simulacrum = image. 

654. /?^>t^= reach. A.S. recanj M.Dut rekenj I eel. reka. See 
Bradley, sub riken, 

663. Swerd^syNord. L.A., "gladium." According to another 
tradition the Apostle was slain by the priest with a lance. 

671. Weste^Vxitvi, 

679. After having given an account of the martyrdom and burial of 
the Apostle, the L.A. refers to his translation in 230 a.d. to Edessa, 
where the letter which our Lord is said to have sent to Abgarus was 
preserved, and gives citations from Isidorus and Chrysostom. 

679-698 is an addition. 

688. See John xx. 24 ff. 

VII.— JACOBUS (Minor). 

James the Less, whom the Evangelists call the brother of the Lord, 
was the son of Alphseus or Clopas, and Mar>', the sister of the Virgin 
Mar)\ Nothing is known of him till the spring of the year 28, when, 
along with his brother St Jude, he was called by our Lord to the 
Apostolate. In the four lists of the Apostles he holds the same place, 
always heading perhaps the third class, consisting of himself, Jude, 
Simon, and Iscariot. Jude is described by St Luke as the brother of 
James, which would seem to show that the name and reputation of 
the latter at the time of the calling of the Apostles, or at the time 
when the Evangelist wrote, were considerable. Whether James and 
Jude were among the brethren who sought to lay hands on Jesus 
(Mark iii. 21), or w^ho did not believe in Him (John vii. 5), is un- 
certain. Nothing more is known of James until after the Crucifixion 
and Resurrection. During the forty days which intervened between 
the latter and the Ascension our Lord appeared to him (i Cor. xv. 7), 
for the purpose, it is conjectured, " of strengthening him for the high 
position which he was soon to assume in Jerusalem, and of giving him 
the instructions in the things pertaining to the kingdom of God (Acts 
i. 3), which were necessary for his guidance.'* Soon after this, the 
date of which cannot be exactly fixed, he is found in Jerusalem with 
Jude and the rest of the Apostles, together with the Virgin Mary, 
Simon, and Joses, waiting in faith and prayer for the promised out- 
pouring of the Pentecostal gifts. When St Paul went up to Jerusalem 
three years after his conversion, and for the first time after that event 
(a.d. 40), Barnabas introduced him to James, and it was by the joint 
authority of Peter and James that the Apostle to the Gentiles was 
admitted to the society of the Christians, and allowed to associate 
with them during his fifteen days* stay (Acts ix. 27, Gal. i. 18, 19). It 
would appear, therefore, that at this time James was on a level with 
Peter, and this position he continued henceforth to hold. In his own 
department, indeed, he was superior even to the chief of the Apostles, 
SS. Peter, Paul, and John. According to Epiphanius and others, he 


was appointed Bishop of Jerusalem by our Lord ; but whether that 
was the case or not, at the time of St PauPs first visit he occupied 
that position, and continued to do so up to the time of his death. In 
the year 44, when St Peter was released from prison, it was to "James 
and to the brethren " that he desired the information of his escape to 
be given. Five years later he presided at the Apostolic Council, and 
delivered the judgment of the Assembly with the expression 810 eyw 
KpCym (Acts XV. 13-19). About the same time St Paul recognised him 
as one of the pillars of the Church, together with Cephas and John, 
and in Gal. ii. 9, places his name before them both. In the year 57 
he received a formal visit from St Paul in presence of all the Pres- 
byters. His martyrdom, of which there are slightly varying accounts, 
took place in the Temple at Jerusalem on April 10, 62. According to 
one account (Euseb., *Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 23), he was buried in the place 
where he was slain ; but according to another (Gregory of Tours, 
• De Glor. Mart.,' i. 27), on the Mount of Olives in a tomb in which 
he had buried Zacharias and Simeon. St James was the author of 
the Catholic Epistle which bears his name. Tradition says that he 
was one of the three Apostles to whom our Lord communicated the 
gift of science. His episcopal chair was seen in Jerusalem in the 
fourth century (Euseb., *Hist. Eccl.,' vii. 19), and is believed to have 
been conveyed to Constantinople with other relics in the year 572. 
Hegesippus gives an account of his austerities, and Epiphanius says 
he always wore the irerakov, or plate of gold, on his forehead. His 
sanctity acquired for him the surname of the Just. According to a 
passage quoted (Orig. in Matt. xiii. 55; Euseb., * Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 23) 
from Josephus, which, however, is regarded as spurious, the death of 
the Apostle was one of the causes of the destruction of Jerusalem. 
Smith's * Diet, of the Bible/ Pain's *Dict. Hagiog.,' Butlers * Lives 
of the Saints.' 

His day is May i. 

His sign is a fuller's bar, the instrument of his martyrdom. 

Analysis — The Apostle's degree, 1-12 ; his surnames and austeri- 
ties, 13-94 ; he inquires of the Apostles the results of their preaching, 
95-104 ; with the rest of the Apostles he preaches in Jerusalem, 105- 
iio; the disturbance which ensues, 111-120; he is thrust down and 
made to halt for the remainder of his life, 121-128 ; he is made the 
object of popular vengeance because of St Paul's appeal to Rome, 
and is slain in the Temple and there buried, 129-230 ; the account 
given by Josephus of the destruction of Jerusalem, 231-240; the real 
cause, with the object of the Apostle's preaching, 241-262 ; various 
portents, 263-332; the sending of Vespasian and Titus, 333-350; 
Pilate sends a messenger to Tiberius, who is shipwrecked and taken 
before Vespasian, 351-376; Vespasian inquires of him for a physician 
and a description of his disease, 377-394 ; Abnur, the messenger, 
promises Vespasian healing if he will believe in Jesus ; Vespasian 


believes and is healed, and promises to slay all who took part in slay- 
ing the Lord, 395-434 ; Vespasian obtains permission, collects an 
army and marches to Jerusalem, which the Christians, being divinely 
warned, quit, 435-456; a story of Josephus, how he retired with 
eleven other Jews into a cave, how he is afterwards brought to Ves- 
pasian and gives him tidings of his election as emperor, 457-554! 
arrival of the embassy from Rome and Vespasian's departure, 555- 
566; the sickness and restoration of Titus, 567-638; the siege of Jer- 
usalem and the condition of the besieged, 639-726 ; the destruction ot 
Jerusalem, 727-750; the finding of Joseph of Arimathea, 751-804; the 
Jews attempt to rebuild the city wall, and how they were prevented, 
805-850; conclusion, 851-854. 

Source — * Legend a Aurea,* cap. Ixvii. Cf. Euseb., 'Hist Eccl.,' iL 
23; V. B., Bk. viii.; Pet de Nat, May i, Abdias, Lib. vi.; Josephus, 
* Wars,' iii. et seq. 

The etymological introduction of the LJL is omitted. 
1-14. Is the poet's own introduction. 
2-4. See note to VI. 2. 

4. Makine, read makir^j^. In the verbal noun the "g" is frequently 
omitted. rr<?^/= creed. 

5. Suppose =2\\hoyx^, wald 7e/^i7^= would think, maintain, are of 

6. p^Mrir</= the third. 

7. Of kyne=^o{ kinship, by birth. 

15ff. L. A. : " Jacobus iste apostolus vocatus est Jacobus Alphei, 
scilicet filius, frater domini Jacobus minor et Jacobus Justus." The 
L.A. then gives the etymology of Alpheus, which the author here 

18-32. L.A. : " Frater quidem domini dicitur ex eo, quod simillimus 
sibi fuisse perhibetur, adeo ut plerique in eorum specie fallerentur ; 
unde cum Judsei ad capiendum Christum pergerent, ne forte Jacobum 
in persona Christi caperent, a Juda, qui Christum a Jacobo tanquam 
eorum familiaris optime discernebat, signum osculi acceperunt" 
After this follows in the L.A. a passage from Ignatius, in Epistola ad 
John Ev„ respecting the likeness. 

19. Goddis bruthircy cf. " the brother of the Lord." 

22. /7?Jt?«^= fashion. 

26. 3^/^= yielded, gave. A.S. gieldan; Dut gilden; Icel. gjalda^ 
pt t. galt^ pt. part, goldinn, 

30. Familiare—'\x\\\mzX& friend. Blind Harry uses the word as 
equivalent to "relative" — 'Wallace,* i. 12. 

33-34. L.A. : "Vel dicitur frater domini, quoniam Christus et 
Jacobus, sicut a duabus sororibus descenderant, sic a duobus fratri- 
bus Joseph et Cleopha descendere putabantur." Voragine then goes 
on to argue that James was not called the brother of the Lord, be- 


cause he was the son of Joseph by another wife than the Virgin 

33. Goddis cvsin^e=Go^*s cousin, i.e., the cousin of Jesus. 

34. Twa cisteris=VHO sisters. See the biographical notice. 
35-38. L.A. : " Vel dicitur frater domini propter prasrogativam et 

excellentiam sanctitatis, ob quam prae cseteris apostolis Hierosolymis 
est Episcopus ordinatus.'' 

36. Halynes =}[io\\ntss. 

38. Heyest gre=^h\ghtsi degree, or rank. 

39-42. L.A. : " Dicitur etiam Jacobus minor ad differentiam Jacobi, 
filii Zebedsei ; licet enim Jacobus Zebedaei prior natus sit, fuit tamen 
vocatione posterior," &c. 

43-66. L.A. : " Dicitur etiam Jacobus Justus propter meritum excel- 
lentissimse sanctitatis, nam secundum Hieronymum tantae reverentiae 
et sanctitatis in populo exstitit ut fimbriam vestimenti ejus certatim 
cuperent tangere. Unde et de ejus sanctitate sic scripsit Hegesippus 
apostolorum vicinus, sicut in ecclesiasticis hystoriis legitur : Suscepit, 
inquit, ecclesiam frater domini J. qui ab omnibus nominatus est Justus, 
ab ipsis temporibus domini perdurans usque ad nos. Hie ex utero matris 
sanctus fuit, vinum et siceram non bibit, carnes nunquam manducavit, 
ferrum in caput ejus non adscendit, oleo non est unctus, balneis non est 
usus, sindone, id est veste linea, semper indutus. Totiens in oratione 
genua flexerat, ut callos in genibus sicut in calcaneis videretur habere. 
Pro hac incessabili et summa justitia appellatus est Justus et abba, 
quod est interpretatum munimentum populi et justitia. Hie solus 
inter apostolos propter nimiam sanctitatem permittebatur intrare in 
sancta sanctorum. Haec Hegesippus." 

43. Rychtwyse /aw^j= righteous James — /.^., James the Just. 

46. i^/a^/^= highest 

48. Mycht nycht^ so the MS. Mycht is unnecessary, and ought to 
be deleted, as in Horstmann. nycht \e /tste= touch the hem. 

53. Ojar^= strong drink. 0,F r. stWrey LovfLaA^sicera y Gr.crUepa; 
Heb. 13B^j cider, strong drink. See Bradley, sub sider; Murray, sub 

54. 5^/= ate. 

55. Hevyd^\itzA. schawe=sh2cvt, 

57. BoL Horstmann would read bath=ho\\i ; but there is no ne- 
cessity. aityme=2L\\ time, always. 

59. Lenyne — linen. 

62. Helis—\itx\s. 

65. 5/wf^/^£/^^r= sanctuary, Holy of Holies. L.A. : "Sacra sanc- 

67-75. L.A. : '^ Dicitur etiam quod primus inter apostolos missam 
celebravit ; nam propter excellentiam suae sanctitatis hunc sibi hon- 
orem apostoli fecerunt, ut post adscensionem domini primus inter eos 
missam Hierosolymis celebraret,'' &c. 

VOL. III. h 


68. Messe=M2iSS, A.S. mcusse; Lat missa, "There is no doubt," 
says Hammond (' Ancient Liturgies,* p. xxxi.), ** about the meaning and 
derivation of the word missa. It is a substantive, a parallel form to 
missio, just as there are ascensa, collecta^ oblata^ and not a few others 
parallel to ascensio^ collection oblatio, &c." An account of the word and 
its various uses may be found at the beginning of Scudamore's * No- 
titia Eucharistica.' It meant originally the "dismissal," in which 
sense it is used in a formula for the conclusion of secular as well as 
sacred assemblies — viz., missa fieri pronunciatur, Missa fit catecku- 
tnenis is said of the dismissal of the catechumens in St Augustine ; 
and the deacon was even said missam catechutnenis celebrare {i.e,, to 
" dismiss the catechumens "). This phrase is found in Cassian, early 
in the fifth century. In the Mozarabic and some of the Galilean lit- 
urgies, the prayer said just after this dismissal, at the beginning of the 
Missa Fidelium, was called " the Missa" From these kinds of usage, 
however vulgarly and improperly, the term became applied to the 
whole service. Hence the name " Mass." The idea that it is con- 
nected with a Hebrew word missah, and that it carries with it a 
sacrificial connotation, is (like other suggested derivations, fivrfa-^t 
mensa, messcy and what not besides) unworthy of serious atten- 
tion, not being supported by a shred of evidence. But see also Du 
Cange, sud Missa 4, and Smith's * Diet. Christ Antiq.,* and Addis 
and Arnold's * Catholic Diet.,' art. Mass. The tradition that St James 
the Less was the first "to sa messe" is very ancient The oldest 
Palestinian liturgies bear his name. 

76-94. L.A. : "Hie perpetuae virginitatis exstitit, sicut testatur Hier- 
onymus in libro contra Jovinianum. In parasceue autem mortuo 
domino, sicut dicit Josephus et Hieron. in libro de viris illustribus, 
Jacobus votum vovit se non comesturum donee videret dominum a 
mortuis surrexisse. In ipsa autem die resurrectionis cum usque ad 
diem illam J. non gustasset cibum, eidem dominus apparuit ac iis qui 
cum eo erant, dixit : ponite mensam et panem. Deinde panem acci- 
piens benedixit et dedit Jacobo justo dicens : surge, frater mi, comede, 
quia filius hominis a mortuis resurrexit" 

87. ^;/n/= board, table. 

95-162. L.A. : " Septimo igitur anno episcopatus ejus cum ad diem 
paschae apostoli Hierosolymis convenissent, interrogante eos Jacobo 
quanta per eos fecisset dominus coram populo, referebant Cum ergo 
VII diebus Jacobus cum aliis apostolis in templo praedicasset coram 
Caypha et aliquibus Judaeis, et jam prope esset ut baptizari vellent, 
repente quidam templum ingrediens clamare coepit : O viri Israelitas, 
quid facitis? cur ab istis nos magis decipi permittitis? In tantum 
autem populum concitavit ut apostolos lapidare vellent Ascendit 
autem homo ille super gradum ubi J. praedicabat, et ipsum praecipi- 
tavit deorsum, et extunc plurimum claudicavit Haec autem VII anno 
post adscensionem domini beatus Jacobus passus est In anno autem 

NOTES TO JACOBUS, MINOR (VH. 95-163). 115 

episcopatus sui XXX, videntes Judaei quod Paulum non possent occi- 
dere, co quod Caesarem appellasset et Romam missus fuisset, persecu- 
tionis suae tyrannidem in Jacobum converterunt, contra eum occasionem 
quaerentes, et sicut praedictus Hegesippus apostolorum contempo- 
raneus refert, secundum quod in hystoria ecclesiastica invenitur, 
Judasi ad eum convenerunt dicentes : Oramus te ut revoces populum, 
quia ipse errat in Jesu putans quod ipse sit Christus. Precamur ergo 
ut dissuadeas omnibus convenientibus in die paschae de Jesu, tibi 
enim obtemperabimus omnes et de te tam nos quam populus testi- 
monium ferimus, quia Justus es et personam nullius accipis." 

95. BiscAopA/id ^Gpiscopatc, A.S. biscop; Lat. episcopusj Gr. ^t- 
afcoiros, and A.S. hdd, Cf. tnanhoody Godhead, 

97. The Assembly here referred to is not that of which we have an 
account in Acts xv. Its date would appear to be the year 37. 

107. Giy;>A^i=Caiaphas, the high priest. 

112. J/f«3^=many, multitude, swdanly — in 1. 118 we have sodanly, 
and in 117, sowdane, 

118. J/w£;//= moved. 

123. ^<ftfj/^^= highest step. ^^= degree. 

124. Til he lifyt^ while, as long as, he lived. 

127. Thred yre. One tradition says that he was appointed to the 
bishopric by our Lord immediately before the Ascension. 

131. Apeiyt had=^Y\dA appealed, a.d. 60. 

132. To submit himself to the judgment of the Emperor. 

133. W^r^>ty/= wreaked. 

138. Vysment, Frobab\y (or vysmen^Tvysmene o(\, iSg, semble— 
assembly. The meaning of the line will then be — By the advice of 
their wise men they held an assembly. 

142. The people, that nearly all err. 

143. Wenand^\x{i2%vcivci%, 

149. //»jAi«r^= earnestness. O.Fr. "instance^ instance, eamestnesse, 
urgency, importunity" — Cotgrave. Lat. instaniia, a being near, ur- 
gency. "We counsaile and beseikis humeli yhour lordschip with al 
instanceP — Burgh Rec. Aberd., 14th Apr. 1444. 

150. Pasch day^d^y of the Feast of the Passover. 

152. iVa»f^/y= especially, on purpose. The comma after namely 
wants deleting. 

161. iE'wy»/y= equally, impartially. lawfe=\x\x\h : — 

" Bot 3e traistyt in lawie 
As sjrmpile folk, but mawyte." 

— ' The Bruce,' i. 125. 
O.Fr. leaute. 

183-178. L.A. : " Statuerunt igitur ilium super pinnam templi et 
voce magna clamantes dixerunt : Virorum justissime, cui nos omnes 
obtemperare debemus, quoniam populus errat post Jesum qui cruci- 
fijLUS est, enuntia nobis quid tibi videtur." 


166. J)us= this. 

167. S/adiis^e= plaiced, set fftas/e heycht=^\\it highest place. This 
was probably the topmost step leading up to the Temple. 

169. Rychtwyseste^vciosi righteous, most just. 

179-186. L.A. : " Tunc J. cum ingenti voce respondit : Quid me in- 
terrogatis de filio hominis ? ecce ipse sedet in coelis a dejrtris summae 
virtutis venturus judicare vivos et mortuos." 

179. Apon hycht=yj\iY\ a loud voice. 

181. Manis sonne= the Son of man. tfw>'«^= distinctly. 

186. 2;/^»^= fit, right 

187-198. L.A. : " Haec audientes christiani valde gavisi sunt et 
libenter eum audierunt, Pharisaei autem et scribae dixerunt : male 
fecimus tale testimonium praestare Jesu, sed ascendamus et praecipite- 
mus eum deorsum, ut ceteri terreantur et ei credere non praesumant, 
et simul voce magna exclamaverunt dicentes : O, o, et Justus 

190. ZarA=law. Z^r^w/ occurs in Douglas, and in the Aberdeen 

Bur. Rec. ; but I have been unable to find an example of lacA, Lach- 

ful and lachfull occur frequently in the Aberdeen Bur. Rec, e,g,^ 2oth 

Dec. 1463, 13th Jan. 1484 ; but the substantive is always law. At II. 

202, lacht occurs, and Hampole has laghe very frequently : — 

" Bot in laghe of lord the will of him ; 
And in his laghe he sail thynke day and nyght** 

— Ps. L 2. 

See note to II. 992. A.S. laguj Icel. pi. log, 

195. -^a^= afraid. Icel. hrcBddr; Swed. rddd. See note to II. 169. 

198. Fer war Is—{2lX worse is. 

199-200. L.A. : " Ascenderunt ergo et praecipitaverunt eum." 

201-214. L.A. : "Cum ergo praecipitassent, lapidibus eum obruebant 
dicentes : lapidemus Jacobum justum ; qui dejectus non solum mori 
non potuit, sed conversus et super genua procumbens dicebat : rogo 
domine, dimitte iis, quia nesciunt quid faciunt Tunc unus ex saccr- 
dotibus, ex filiis Rahab, exclamavit : parcite, quaeso, quid facitis? pro 
vobis orat hie Justus quem lapidatis." 

203. Stanand—sXQmx\%, 

206. Kneys 6r* eldots ^^knets and elbows. 

208. The comma should be before ]>is, 

210. Myskenc ^knov/ not, Cf. L 581 ; XI. 187. 

215-230. L.A. : "Tunc unus ex ipsis perticam fullonis arripiens 
valido ictu caput ejus petiit et cerebrum excussit Haec Hegesippus ; 
talique martirio migravit ad dominum sub Nerone, qui coepit anno 
domini LVI I, sepultus ibidem prope templum. Cum autem populus 
vellet ejus mortem vindicare et malefactores capere et punire, protinus 

215. IValhzre =(u\\tr. See the note in the *Catholicon Anglicum/ 
sub wal^£. /^r^=pole. O.Fr. *' perche, a pearch" — Cotgravc. Lat. 


periica^ a pole, bar, measuring-rod. ^>'«/= seized. The comma in 
this line should be omitted. 

216. Zy«/^=blow. 

217. Hame-pane = brain-pan = skull : — 

*' It smate hym even betuix the homis twa ; 
Persit the ham-pan, drave out brain in hy." 

—Doug., • En.,' vol. ii. p. 252, 1. 23. 

Sec also note to I. 587. in fzij^n = in twain. 

218. Harnys ==brs\ns. See note to I. 587. fyne=rur\, 
232. Not in L.A. 

234. I^are s/rde={aiir city. 

235. Rewengeans^rtwtTigt, O.Fr. revenger, later revencker, "to 
wreak or revenge himselfe" — Cotgrave. 

242. -4//iy«^=main, power. A.S. mcegen, 

243. Z?tf(/i///y= sorrowfully. 

246. Z</f/=left 

247, 248. Not in L.A.; but see Luke xxi. 6. 
249. Not in L.A. 

251-253. L.A. : " Et ut ipsi excusationem non haberent." 

253* Sowne^^^vci, 

254-256. L.A. : "Per XL annos eorum poenitentiam expectavit," 

258. Aa/«<?/y= particularly. L.A., maxime. 

260-304. L.A. : " Sed cum per admonitionem eos non posset revo- 
care, voluit eos saltem prodigiis exterrere, nam in his XL annis sibi 
ad poenitentiam datis multa monstra et prodigia (sicut refert Josephus) 
evenerunt. Nam stella praefulgens gladio per omnia similis visa est 
civitati desuper imminere ac per totum annum exitialibus flammis 
ardere. In quodam festo azimorum hora noctis nona tantus fulgor 
aram templumque circumdedit, ut omnes diem clarissimum factum 
putarent. In eadem festivitate vetula ad immolandum adducta inter 
ministronim manus agnam subito est enixa. Post aliquot dies prope 
soils occasum visi sunt currus et quadrigae in omni regione per aeram 
ferri et armatonim cohortes misceri nubibus et urbes circumdare 
ag^inibus improvisis. In alio die festo, quae pentecoste appellatur, 
noctu sacerdotes templum ingressi ad ministeria ex more complenda, 
motus quosdam strepitusque senserunt ac voces subitas audierunt 
dicentes : transeamus ab his sedibus." 

266. i?^^=3ra^= afraid. See note to 195 above. /^l^;l>^J= tokens = 

267. '^afowrty 3^r<^= those forty years. 
268L Ner-hand^zXirvosX, 

269. As losaphus recordis: "There was a star resembling a sword, 
which stood over the city, and a comet, that continued a whole year." 
— •Wars.' 5,3. 


271. Sterne =^sX2iT. 

•• For fyre all ddr, 
Soyn throa the thik burd can appeir, 
Ferst as a stem^ syne as a mojne. 
And wele bradar thar-efter sojrn." 

— • Brace/ iv. 127. 

lct\.stjama; Sv/td, sfjarna ; DaLii. sf/eme ; Goth, statrtu) ; GtT.sfem, 

278. Ipar grete feste=\.h^ Passover. "Thus also, before the Jews* 
rebellion, and before those commotions that preceded the war, when 
the people were come in great crowds to the feast of unleavened 
bread, on the eighth day of the month Xanthicus [Nisan], and at 
the ninth hour of the night, so great a light shone round the altar 
and the holy house, that it appeared to be bright day-time, which 
lasted for half an hour. This light seemed to be a good sign to the 
unskilful, but was so interpreted by the sacred scribes as to portend 
those events that followed immediately upon it" — ^Josephus, iac> cit 

279. Wondryly for tt/^«^r/K=wondroubly. 

" And thai so wondirly blith were 
Of his come, that na toung mycht say." 

— ' Bruce,* xvii. 6. 

280. Awtere=Q\X3ir, 

" And with Schyr Ihone the Curayn met, 
In the furls, at the hye awter" 

— • Bruce,' ii. 33. 

281. Enwyrcnt = environed ; cf. Inwirone, X. 463. O.Fr. environ^ 
ner, " to inviron, incompasse, begird "— Cotgrave. 

283. This line is very difficult to decipher. For the story see 
Joscphus, loc, ciL Kow^ L.A., vetula ; Josephus, " heifer." 

284. /.«///<•= lamb. L.A., agnam ; Josephus, "lamb." 

286. Soon after sunset. Gayn-done for gayng-doune. For the sign 
see Josephus, he, cit, 
288. /K</«yj= wains. 
292. ^i^Jt^^r^rss besiege. 

" Boi, cum Jhe in it, Je sail se 
That 3he sail soyne asscgit be." 

— ' Bruce,* xiii. 366, 

294. Ud^ tongue. See note to I. 2, where delete the second example. 
-J96. /// tttl cntentc^ssxxYi the intention, for the purpose, in order to. 
ZW. ^tcryngc^}x\o\^m^n\, fild^itXi, 
303. .S^yi- «■ besiege. 

306. L.A. : "Ante quartum etiam annum belli quidam vir nomine 
Jcsus Ananix hhus in festo tabernaculorum repenle clamare coepit : 
\ox ab oriente, vox ab occidente, vox a III I ventis, vox super 


Hierosolymam et super templum, vox super sponsos et sponsas, vox 
super populum universum. Praedictus igitur vir capitur, cseditur, 
verberatur, sed ille aliud dicere nequiens, quanto plus verberabatur, 
tanto fortius clamabat Ad judicem igitur adducitur, tormentis diris 
afficitur, usque ad patefactionem ossium laniatur. Sed ille nee preces 
nee lacrymas effundebat, sed cum quodam ululatu per singula psene 
verba eadem proferebat, addens etiam hoc : vaeh, vaeh Hierosolymis. 
Haec Josephus. Cum autem Judaei nee admonitionibus converter- 
entur nee tantis prodigiis terrerentur, post XL annum dominus Ves- 
pasianum et Titum Jerusalem adduxit, qui ipsam civitatem funditus 
destnixerunt. Haec autem fuit causa adventus ipsorum in Jerusalem, 
sicut in quadam hystoria invenitur, licet apocrypha." See also Jos., 
loc, cit, and Euseb., *Hist Eccl.,* iii. 8. 

306. Ikesu, Josephus describes him "as a plebeian and a hus- 
bandman." Cf. V. B., viii. 60. 

307. Soiempnyte—its\\\3\, It was the Feast of Tabernacles. 

314. Spowsit men &* wcmen, L.A., sponsos et sponsas. O.Fr. 
" espouser, to espouse, wed " — Cotgrave. 

317. p/J=]?«j= thus. Of frequent occurence. rare=ro2s, 

318. Band==ho\iTid. befte=h^dX, struck. See note to II. 21. 

319. To gere hym lefe—\.o make him cease. 
321. Dange=\it,^\, See note to II. 10. 

324. JVanify/=shraLnk. 0,Tr, gandir ot wandir, Barbour uses the 
word in the sense of to recoil, retreat : — 

" Mony grct voundis can thame ma, 
And slew fast of thair horfi alsua, 
That thai vayndUt a litell we." 

— ' Bruce,* xiii. 217, and Dr Skeat*s 
note on the passage. 

326. IVame =btl\y, A.S. watnb^ womb. The word is still in use. 

" Food fills the toame, an' keeps us livin'." 

— Bums, * Scotch Drink,* st. v. 

preuete = entrails. 

327. C7r^/=Mod.Sc. ^a/=wept 

329. Dot/e= grief. Usually written du/ej O.Fr. duet'I, mourning. 
Wordis is probably a mistake for harmis or some such word. 
33L -E>6y/=added. 
334. Maynyseynge^ititXidsXvig, threatening. 

337. Z>«r«^j= hardness. 0,¥r, durj Mod.Sc. dourmss, 

338. Cors= course. 

340. Fane. See note to II. 352. 

351-434. L.A.: "Videns Pilatus quia Jesum innocentem condem- 
naverat, timens offensam Tyberii Caesaris pro se excusando nuntium 
nomine Albanum ad Caesarem destinavit Eo autem tempore Ves- 
pasianus monarchiam in Galatia a Tyberio Cassare tenebat : nuntius 

120 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (VH. 351-375). 

igitur Pylati a vends contrariis in Galatiam pellitur et ad Vespasianus 
adducitur. Talis autem ibi servabatur consuetudo ut quicunque 
ibidem naufragium pateretur, rebus et servituti principis subdcretur. 
Quern Vespasianus, quis esset aut unde veniret seu quo tenderet, 
requisivit. Cui ille : Hierosolymitanus sum, de partibus illis veni, 
Romam usque tendebam. Cui Vespasianus : de terra sapientum 
venis, artem nosti medicaminis, medicus es, curare me debes. Ves- 
pasianus enim quoddam genus vermium naribus insitum ab infantia 
gerebat, unde et a vespis Vespasianus dicebatur. Cui vir ille rcspon- 
dit, artem medicaminis domine nescio et ideo curare te non valeo. 
Cui Vespasianus : nisi me curaveris, morte morieres. Cui ille ait : 
ille qui caecos illuminavit, daemones effugavit, mortuos suscitavit, ille 
novit quia artem medendi ignoro. Cui Vespasianus : quis est ille 
de quo tanta profaris ? £t ille : Jesus Nazarenus, quem Judaei per 
invidiam occiderunt, in quem si credideris, sanitatis gratiam conse- 
queris. Et Vespasianus : credo, quia, quod mortuos suscitavit, me 
etiam de infirmitate hac liberare poterit. Et haec dicendo vespae de 
naribus ejus ceciderunt et continuo sanitatem recepit Tunc Ves- 
pasianus ingenti gaudio repletus ait : certus sum, quia filius Dei fuit 
qui me curare potuit. Petita igitur a Caesare licentia Hierosolymam 
cum manu armata pergam et omnes proditores et occisores funditus 
evertam. Dixitque Albano nuntio Pylati : rebus et vita sanus et 
incolumis domum tuam mei licentia revertaris," &c. 
351. 5^/7/= reason. 

** Me think it suld accorde till siiil 
To set stoutneft agane felony." 

— ' Brace/ xii. 260. 
I eel. sh'l, 

353. Grettumly, See note to II. 656. 

354. Ceser tybary=Qd^s^x Tiberius, B.C. 42-A.D. 37. 

359. Waspaciafte=^V ^s^diSidLXit a.d. 9-79. 

360. '^emsale= gov trr\m^v\t. See note to I. 20. galyse=GaXdX\^ 

361. Tybry, Cf. 1. 354, Ceser tybary, 

363. 7>rtr= chanced. Cf. XII. 13. 

364. Sey^s^2i. 

366, Dryfine=Ax\\tTi, 

367. (7rt//.rtf=Galatia. See 1. 360. i^rtZ£{y«^= haven, harbour. A.S. 
hafenej Dut. /laven; Icel. hofn; Dan. havn; Swed. hamn; Ger. kafen, 

369. Oysit, See note to VI. 168. 

370. Brokine^hroktii, i.e., wrecked. Cf. "broken men." 
, 373. '^are 'um'wi7/i's= Sigsimsi their will, 

374. T/in7/is=s\3L\'ts, Icel. J>rar/. 

" Serwandis and threllis mad he fre." 

— • Bruce,* iii. 220. 

375. Franc =q\itsi\on. See note to VI. 538. 

NOTES TO JACOBUS, MINOR (VH. 376457). 121 

37fi. QuAyne= whence. 

378. /^M=is=am. 

379. "And I thought to have been at Rome." 
382. lVysman= wise men. 

384. The Jews had a great reputation as physicians. 
887. AVM=show. A.S. cySan; O.Fris. ketha. See Bradley, sub 

388. 1Varyse== cure. See note to III. io8. 
392. Dawi^iedx. See note to I. 263. 

394. Bamede =ch\\d\\ood. 

395. Kend^knevi. Mod.Sc. 

398. Bot gyf=Mn\ess. On ane^^^X once. 

399. Z?a/= death. 

401. Keriy a misspelling for ^tfr/= caused. 

402. IVoud men =Tn3idmen. 

409. Q/'«arar^i»^= of Nazareth. Probably for "the Nazarene." 

412. ^tf/ra2^j^= without cause. 

4ia Lele=\eB\, O.Fr. Uialy Mod.Fr. ioyai. 

421. AVj^-Mrr7/w= nostrils. A.S. nos€yrL 

422. Heis^he\{\s. 

424. ^«wM= quickly. A.S. swiff e, 
430. Sclew—^\eyf. 

432. Milk play ne=^\ewe\ with the ground, but ony tt/a/.f= without 
any walL 

439. In-to hy=\n haste. L.A. : "Per annos igitur plures exercitus 
congregavit, tempore scilicet Neronis imperatoris, cum Judaei imperio 
rebellassent Unde (secundum chronicas) non fecit hoc zelo Christi, 
sed quia a dominio recesserat Romanorum." 

440. "A mighty host of armed men." 
455. Forfare^^nsh, 

'* Thys lord the brwyfl, I spak of ayr, 
Saw all the kynryk swa, foffayr," 

— ' Bruce/ i. 478. 

" Soche a kjng to be kylde, A cuntre distroyed 
ffcle folke/offaren with a ffeble ende." 

— • Destruction of Troy/ 1438. 

"A I ]>ou maker of man, what maystery J)e ])ynke3 
Jnis ])y frcke to /or/are for-bi alle oI)er, 
With alle meschef }iat |>ou may, neuer ]>ou me spared ? *' 

— EX E. Alliterative Poems, * Patience,' 483. 
A.S. /or/aran. 

457-520. L.A. : " Quandam autem civitatem Judaeae, nomine Jona- 

patam, in qua Josephus et dux et princeps erat, primo omnium est 

agressus, sed Josephus cum suis viriliter resistebat; tandem videns 

Josephus imminere excidium civitatis, assumtis XI Juda^is subter- 

raneam domum intravit, ubi quadriduana fame afflicti Judaei non 

122 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (VH. 458-513). 

consentiente Josepho malebant ibidem mori, quam Vespasian! se sub- 
jicere servituti, volebantque se mutuo interficerc et sanguinem suum 
in sacriticium Deo offerre, et quoniam Josephus inter eos dignior erat, 
volebant eum primitus occidere, ut ejus effusione sangruinis Deus 
citius placaretur vel (ut in quadam chronica dicitur) ideo se mutuo 
interficere volebant, ne darentur in manibus Romanorum. At Jose- 
phus vir prudens et mori nolens judicem mortis et sacrificii se con- 
stituit, et quis prior alio occidendus esset, inter binos et bines sortem 
mittere jussit." 

458. A nothir^zn other. Still common in Mod.Sc. 

459. Ionaparame=]oiajpzX3L; the town in Galilee which Josephus 
so stoutly defended against Vespasian. See 'Wars of the Jews,' 
Bk. iii. 7. 

462. Vere=^^dx, 

464. -Prtf«///= attempted. 

" Quhar he full mony a luperde, 
And fair poyntis off cheuelry 
Preuii, als weill be nycht as day 
Till thame that in the castellis lay." 

— • Bruce,* x. 342. 

befors—hy force, />., of arms. 

466, (7|'«tf= engine. O.Fr. engin; Lat. ingenium. slonge^^ing* 
Josephus, he, cit^ gives a full account of the contrivances employed 
both by the besiegers and the besieged. 

475. -A^a=quin — but that Cf. 1. 600. 

477. Z/^7£/^«^= eleven. 

479. Pn'ue =stcret. 

480. lV£nand= thinking, sikkyr=s2St. 

482. Can ]>ai /ey, &c.=did they lie without meat and drink, and 
would say that they would rather die there, &c. 
488. "And make their blood a sacrifice," &c. 
497. PUsandis^ perhaps a mistake for //pja«r^= pleasure. 
499. 3^/^= cunning. 

501. Bad no bettyr ^tf=did not claim to be any better. 
503. Crtj/<r=cast. 

505. Cuttis =\ois. The word is governed by to caste, 1. 503, and the 
semicolon at the end of 1. 504 should be a comma. 

506. Ckese =choost, 

507-512. L.A. : " Missis igitur sortibus sors nunc unum nunc 
alium morti tradidit, donee ventum est ad ultimum, cum quo 
Josephus sortem missurus fuit." 

512. /%£i/<7w/= companion. Cf. fellow. 

513-520. L.A. : "Tunc Josephus, homo strenuus etagilis, gladium 
illi abstulit et quid magis eligeret, vitam sc. aut mortem, requisivit, et 
ut sine dilatione eligeret pracepit; et ille timens respondit; vivere 
non recuso, si gratia tui vitam conservare valeo." 


513. Jr/V^/= strong. 

514. Swepyr =mmb\ty ag^le, active. A.S. swipian, 

*' This aid hasard careis our fludis hoit 
Spretis and figuris in his im hewit boit, 
Allthocht he eildit was, or step in age, 
Als fery and als stoippir as a page ; 
For in a god the age is fresche and greene 
Infatigable and immortale as thai mene." 

— Douglas. ' En.,* iii. 28, 24. 

515. Suthly instead of swithly = quickly, chece = chese = choose. 

516. Qjuethyre—quhethyre=^'^\i^\kitx, leware ^>'/«^= preferable to 
hin). /^^^= loose. 

521-564. L.A. : "Tunc Josephus uni familiari Vespasiani et sibi 
etiam familiari latenter locutus est et ut sibi vita donaretur, petiit, 
ct quod petiit impelravit. Cum autem ante Vesp. Josephus esset 
adductus, dixit ei V. : mortem meruisses, si huius petitionibus libera- 
tus non esses. Et J. : si quid perperam actum est, in melius commu- 
tari potest Et V. : qui victus est, quid facere potest ? Et J. : aliquid 
facere potero, si diclis meis aures tuas demulsero. Et V. : concedatur 
ut verbis tuis inhaereas, et quidquid boni dicturus es, pacifice audiatur. 
£t J. : imperator Romanus interiit et senatus imperatorem te fecit. 
Et V. : si propheta es, quare non es vaticinatus huic civitati quod 
meae sit subiicienda ditioni. Et J. : per XL dies hoc iis praedixi. 
Interea legati Romanorum veniunt, Vespasianum in imperium sub- 
limatum asserunt eumque Romam deducunt." 

522. Z^;f^/= dwell. I eel. lenda. 

"And, quhill him likit thar to leynd^ 
Euirilk day thai suld him scynd 
Wictalis for iij C.'men." 

— 'Bruce,' iii. 747. 

526. •SV?«/^r^»j= sufferance, permission. 0,Tt, sufrance, geU=gt\., 
532. Na ware=vftrt it not. 
536. Vincuste = vanqu ished. 

548. Jf>/=know. 

549. Wonyne^yfon^ overcome. 
555. Z^jfajry= embassy. 

557. HoW'gate^'xvi what way. 

558. J?j//i^^/^= without debate. 
560. Bewryt^m writing. 

The L.A. goes on to add that Eusebius testifies that Josephus pre- 
dicted Vespasian's death as well as his elevation to the throne. 

565-610. L.A. : " Reliquit autem Vespasianus Titum filium suum 
in obsidione Jerusalem, Titus autem, ut in eadem hystoria apocrypha 
legitur, audiens patrem suum in imperium sublimatum, tanto gaudio 
ct exsultatione repletur, quod nervorum contractione ex frigiditate cor- 
ripitur et altero crure debilitatus paralysi torquetur, Josephus autem 


audiens Titum paralysi laborare, causam morbi et tempus morbi dili- 
gentissime inquirit. Causa nescitur, morbus ig^oratur, de tempore 
autem, quoniam audita patris electione hoc sibi accident, aperitur. 
Josephus autem vir providus et sapiens ex paucis multa conjecit et ex 
tempore morbum et causam invenit, sciens quod gaudio et laetitia 
superabundanti debilitatus fuerit. Animadvertens itaque quia con- 
traria contrariis curantur, sciens etiam quia quod amore conquseritur, 
dolore frequenter amittitur, quserere coepit, an aliquis esset, qui princi- 
pis inimicus obnoxius teneretur. Et erat ibi servus adeo Tito moles- 
tus ut sine vehementi conturbatione nullatenus in eum posset respicere 
nee etiam nomen ejus audire ; dixit itaque Tito : si curari desideras, 
omnes qui in meo comitatu venerint, salvos facias. Cui Titus : qui- 
cunque in tuo comitatu venerit, securus habeatur et salvus." 

597. J/a«gr^= ill-will. O.Y.malgre, maugre^ maulgre; Lat tnala 

and gratia. 

" And for he wolde noujte chaf fare 

He had maugre of his maistre for euermore after." 

— ' P. Plowman/ vL 242. 

" Bot in l)e ]>ryd wat) for-Jirast al ]>at jnyue schuld, 
f>er wat3 malys mercyles and mawgre much scheued." 

— £. E. AlliL Poems, B. 950. 

598. Na thohy &c. = nor endure to be near him. 

599. Here nemmyne = hear (any one) name. For nemmyne, sec 
Bradley, sub nemnen. 

600. A^a=but that. Cf. 1. 475. 
608. Vnschait = unscathed. 

610-638. L.A. : "Tunc J. cito prandium fieri praecepit et mensam suam 
mensae Titi oppositam locavit et servum a dextris suis sedere fecit 
Quem Titus respiciens molestia conturbatus infremuit et, qui prius 
gaudio infrigidatus fuerat, accensione furoris incaluit nervosque dis- 
tendens curatus fuit. Post hoc Titus et servum in sui g^atiam et 
Josephum in sui amicitiam recepit." 

610. •S'^^^r^=safe. Mod.Sc. stkker, 

611. Then Josephus caused the meat to be prepared. 

613. Bowrde = board, table. oure-tnane = president, chairman, 
superior. Lit. over-man, 

615. Sefe=SGt ewyne anence=x\ghi over against, opposite to. 

616, Yddyre wyne=gei hither, />., to the other side of it IVyne^ 
Mod.Sc. «//>/, get, reach, obtain. 

618. Lathaste =most hateful, most loathsome. See note to VI. 467. 
620. 7Vy«tf= angry. A.S. teofiaUy tynan, 

'* I>us vpon Jjrynne wyses I haf yow J)ro schewed, 
|>at vnclannes to cleues in corage dere 
Of )>at wynnelych lorde ]>at wonyes in heuen, 
Entyses hym to be iene, tolled vp his wrake." 

— E. E. Allit Poems, B. z8o8. 


62L :^mi^= burst 

622. Syke yre^^such anger. 

626. Z<wi;/^= promise, pledge, word of honour. 

" And I hecht heir, in my lawie, 
Gif ony dels in this battaill, 
His air, but ward, releif, or taill, 
On the first day his land sail weild, 
All be he neuir so ^houng of eild." 

— * Bruce,* xii. 318. 
O.F. leaute. 

628i Frosyne=ivoitn, 

631. Senownys=s\ntvfs. 

638. pa/ euire wes fa. For euir read ere or a^r^ =that formerly was 
an enemy. 

To the story here ended Voragine adds : " Utrum autem haec hys- 
toria narranda sit, lectoris judicio relinquatur." 

639*682. L.A. : " Biennio igitur a Tito Jerusalem obsessa, inter cetera 
mala quae obsessos g^aviter perurgebant, tanta fames omnes tenuit 
quod parentes filiiset filii parentibus, viri uxoribus et uxores viris cibos 
non tantum e manibus, sed etiam ex ipsis dentibus rapiebant, juvenes 
etiam setate fortiores velut simulacra per viam oberrando prse fame 
exanimes cadebant ; qui mortuos sepeliebant, saepe super ipsos mor- 
tuos mortui cadebant, foetorem itaque cadaverum non ferentes ex pub- 
lico sumtu ipsa sepeliebant, sed deficiente sumtu, vincente cadaverum 
multitudine de muro cadavera prsecipitabant. At Titus circuiens cum 
vidisset valles repletas cadaveribus et totam patriam ex eorum foetore 
comiptam, manus suas cum lacrymis ad caelum levavit dicens : Deus, 
tu vides quia ego hoc non facio. Tanta enim ibi fames erat, quod 
calceamenta sua et corrigias comedebant." Cf. Jos., * Wars,* vi. 5-1 ; 
and Euseb., ' Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 6. 

64L 5>&^<^/j= scathes, troubles. 

643. PrekyU^^xtxz^^y wounded. A.S. prician; M.Dut. pricken. 


" Lo ! quhat falding in fortoune is. 
That quhile apon a man will smyle, 
AnAprik hym syne ane othir quhile ! " 

— ' Bruce,' xiii. 634. 

644. Fawte=izM\i^ lack. 

646. Faddyre ///^/^= father's food. 
648. i?^/j/^= relieve. 
650. •S'/^^= bestead. 

653. Elderys j^we/= elders' saw. Cf. "wise saws." The saying is 
still common. 

654. Hale=^viho\tt healthy. /n^{2e/= stomach. 
667. Rewyse—sirt^Xs, Fr. rue^ 

" Than wes the slauchter so felloune, 

That all tht^rewys ran of blude." 

— ' Bruce,* xv. 71, 


659. Dalfe^hxiry. Cf. 1. 664. A.S. deifan. 

660. Quhylys=vf\i\\^St sometimes. 

661. Man, read tnen, 

665. Z>o'Af=died. 

666. /V^/3^r/= failed. 

669. Zy>t/,r= ditches. In Mod.Sc. the word means a wall. 

674. Mene =hcmodJ\. 

675. //owafui= raising. A.S, JiMan, 

676. //ey sfeufyne=highy />., loud voice. 

680. Raione^raX. Still Sc. name for a rat. 

681. Schone = M od . S c. schoon = shoes. 

682. K//A^/j^^= uneaten. 

683-726. L.A. : " Matrona quaedam genere et divitiis nobilis, sicut 
in hystoria ecclesiastica legitur, cum praedones in ejus domum imientes 
earn omnibus exspoliassent nee sibi ultra, quid comederet, remansisset, 
parvulum lactentem tenens in manibus ait : infelicis matris infelicior 
fili, in bello, in fame, in direptione, cui te reservabo ? Veni ergo nunc, 
o mi nate, esto matri cibus, prsedonibus scandalum, saeculis tabula. 
£t his dictis filium jugulavit et coxit et dimidium comedens partem 
alteram occultavit. £t ecce confestim prsedones odorem camis coctse 
sentientes in domum imiunt et, nisi carnem prodat, mortem minantur. 
Tunc ilia detegens infantis membra : ecce, inquit, vobis partem op- 
timam reservavi. At illos tantus horror invasit, quod nee loqui potue- 
runt £t ilia : meus, inquit, filius hie, meum est peccatum, securi edite, 
quia prior ego comedi quem genui ; nolite fieri aut matre religiosiores, 
aut feminis molliores ; quodsi vincit vos pietas et horretis, ego totum 
comedam, quod dimidium jam comedi. Illi vero trementes et tcrriti 
discesserunt." Cf. Jos., *\Vars/ vi. 3, 4 ; Euseb., * Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 6. 

683. A matrone, according to Josephus, Mary the daughter of Eleazar 
of the village of Bethezub, in Perea, eminent for her family and wealth. 

684. A>w= birth. 

685. Syke^such, rtyr^= before. 

689. Nyre sowkand sowne^h&r sucking son. 

690. Do7i//e= sorrow. 
695. 7^^^^= thieves. 
699. 5<7///V= seethed. 

704. Re/e^stQ3Ll 

705. /*r^?Tt/^= appetising. It is the same as " proud," but the use is 
singular. Wyntoun uses the word in the sense of strong : — 

" Dounald Bree son [of] Heeged bowde, 
Kyng wes fourtene wyntyr prowde.'* 

— 'Cron.,* iv. 1142. 

Shakespeare, in a passage quoted in the * Imp. Diet,* uses it in the 
sense of exciting, stimulating to : "A breeding jennet, lusty, young, 
and proudr It is in this sense that it is evidently used here. A.S. 
prud. sawoure = savou r. 

NOTES TO JACOBUS, MINOR (VH. 706-791). 12/ 

706. So/tyn^ =suddtn. 
713. F/i^/v/^= uncovered. A.S. lielan. 
716. JVjpines =^itrror. I eel. uggr. 
718. Effray =ttrror. 

'* Of sekyr contynans and hardy, 
Foroulen ej^ay or abaysyng." 

— • Bruce/ xi. 250. 

721. -E//rj=eat. saw/ly= sa.f€\y. 

722. jE'/y«^= eaten. 

743-750. Not in L.A. An addition. 

751-804. The L.A. is different : " Legitur quoque, quod Titus intrans 
Jerusalem quendam murum densissimum vidit, ipsumque perforari 
praecepit, factoque foramine quendam intus senem adspectu et canitie 
venerabilem invenerunt, qui requisitus quis esset, respondit se esse 
Joseph ab Arimathia civitate Judseae seque a Judaeis ibidem clausum 
et muratum fuisse, eo quod Christum sepelisset, addiditque, quod ab 
illo tempore usque nunc coelesti sit cibo pastus et divino lumine con- 
fortatus. In Evangel io tamen Nicodemi dicitur, quod cum Judsei 
ipsum reclusissent, Christus resurgens eum inde eripuit et in Arima- 
thian duxit Potest dici, quod cum eductus a praedicatione Christi 
non cessaret, a Judaeis iterum est reclusus." Then follows a sentence 
referring to the accession of Titus to the imperial throne, and describ- 
ing his character on the authority of Eusebius and Jerome. 

753. Fow tfyJte^fuW thick. 

754. Mynowrts=mmtrs, /_>'^^=pick, dig. 

760. ^/^^/= placed. 

761. Syt=sit. 

763. p«/=at. Of frequent occurrence. 

764. i^Krry/= protected, clad. O.Fr. /uerre, /ontre, wayre=vair, 
which is some kind of fur. " Le vat'r 6ia\t une fourrure * compos^e ' 
(blanche et grice) ; de Ik le nom de vartum" — L^on Gautier's Glossary 
to the Chanson de Roland. Cf. *' Sir Tristrem,** 1380— 

•* A schip with grene and gray 
With vair and eke with griis." 

£rece=^grcy fur. O.Fr. 

" And somme tyme in russet, 
Bothe in grey and in gry's," 

— * P. Plowman/ xv. 215. 

774 /tfr<f= behaviour. 

776. Atpylat I purcheste — from Pilate, &c. This use of at is still 

782. C^/^/= sealed. 

785-786. And without moving the fastening and the ceiling of the 

7W. Z^//^= loyal, truthful. See note to VII. 413. 

128 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (VH. 795-848). 

795. 5Ar^/f= fastened. 

798. Gayste/y= ghostly f spiritual. 

801. C/^J>'//^= enclosing. Read closyr^^^, 

802. J/yjja/= displeased. Cf. XII. 44. 

805-836. L.A. : " Post longa tempora quidam Judaei Jerusalem 
reaedificare volentes, exeuntes primo mane plurimas cruces de rore 
invenerunt, quas territi fug^entes et secundo mane redeuntes, unus- 
quisque (ut ait Miletus in chronica) cruces sang^ineas vestibus suis 
insitas invenit Qui vehementer territi in fugam iterum versi sunt, 
sed tertio die reversi vapore ignis de terra prodeuntis penitus sunt 

827. 7y«y^^_>'^«V= these signs. 

828. ByggyngC'place = bu ildi ng-place. 
834. Zyrtf= flesh. A.S. lira, 

836. ^^:r=tfr= formerly. 

837-854. Conclusion by the Author. 

841. Mone=mmdy have in remembrance. Icel. Muna, to remember. 

848. /i5'^'^= shepherd. A/r^^/= sheep-fold. 


St Philip the Apostle was of Bethsaida, the city of SS. Andrew and 
Peter, and was apparently among the Galilean peasants who flocked 
to hear the preaching of John the Baptist His call to the apostolic office 
is recorded in John i. 43. He was the first to whom our Lord said, 
" Follow me." It is of him, too, that it is said, " Je&us . . . findeth 
Philip." This, however, did not occur until the day after SS. Peter 
and Andrew had been called by the Lord. His first act after his call 
was to find Nathanael, and to say to him : " We have found Him of 
whom Moses in the Law, and the Prophets, did write, Jesus of Naza- 
reth the son of Joseph " (John i. 45). To Nathanael's question : "Can 
there any good thing come out of Nazareth ?" he replied, " Come and 
see." Probably he also, like Nathanael, was "an Israelite indeed, in 
whom was no guile." In the lists of the Apostles in the first three 
Gospels his name uniformly occurs at the head of the second group 
of four, as that of St Peter at that of the first (Matt. x. 3 ; Mark iii. 18 ; 
Luke vi. 14). His name, again, is always coupled in the lists with 
that of Bartholomew, which has led to the hypothesis that the latter 
is identical with the Nathanael of John i. 45. At the time of his call 
Philip is said to have been married and to have had several daugh- 
ters. He was apparently present at the marriage-feast at Cana of 
Galilee. A year later he was specially set apart with the rest of the 
Twelve to the apostolic office. "When the Galilean crowds had 
halted on their way to Jerusalem to hear the preaching of Jesus 
(John vi. 5-9), and were faint with hunger, it was to Philip that the 
question was put ; * Whence shall we buy bread, that these may eat ? 
And this He said,* St John adds, *to prove him : for He Himself knew 
what He would do.' The answer, *Two hundred pennyworth of 
bread is not sufficient for them, that every one may take a little,* 
shows how little he was prepared for the work of divine power that 
followed. It is noticeable that here, as in John i., he app>ears in 
close connection with Andrew." It was to Philip that certain Greeks 
who had come up to Jerusalem to worship at the feast, and desired 


to see Jesus, applied (John xiii. 20-22). He did not take upon him to 
introduce them to Jesus, but "Philip cometh and telleth Andrew; 
and again Andrew and Philip tell Jesus." During the conversation 
at the Last Supper, he said to Jesus : "Lord, show us the Father, and 
it sufficelh us," and to him it was said : " Have I been so long time 
with you, and yet hast thou not known me, Philip ? He that hath 
seen me hath seen the Father. How sayest thou. Show us the 
Father?*' No other facts connected with the name of Philip are 
recorded in the Gospels. He was probably one of the disciples to 
whom Jesus appeared after the resurrection, and perhaps one "of 
the two unnamed fishermen on the sea of Tiberias who meet us in 
John xxi." He was among the company of the disciples at Jer- 
usalem after the Ascension (Acts i. 13) and on the day of PentecosL 
Tradition has much to say of Philip, but it is all uncertain. He is 
said to have been the disciple who said, " Suffer me first to go and 
bury my father." According to Clement of Alexandria (* Strom.,* iiL 
52) and Eusebius (* Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 30), he permitted his daughters 
to marry. The former also includes him in the list of those who bore 
witness for Christ in their lives, but did not die what was commonly 
regarded as a martyr's death (' Strom.,' iv. 73). He is said to have 
preached the Gospel in Phrygia, and according to Polycrates, bishop 
of Ephesus (Euseb., 'Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 31), was buried at Hierapolis 
in that province. Polycarp is said to have conversed with him. The 
Apostle is sometimes confounded with Philip the Evangelist Ac- 
cording to one of the *Acta Philippi' published by Tischendorf, he 
laboured in Phrygia, and after performing various miracles suflfered 
martyrdom in the Phr>'gian Hierapolis. According to the other, he 
laboured also in Greece, and particularly in Athens, and subsequently 
in Parthia. Abdias represents him as labouring in Scythia, and 
throws the blame of his death on the Ebionites. According to the 
Bollandists (May i), an arm of the Apostle was brought from Con- 
stantinople to Florence in 1204. His body is said to be in the church 
of SS. Philip and James at Rome, which was dedicated under their 
names in 560. Smith's *Dict. of the Bible'; Butler's 'Lives of the 
Saints'; Putin's *Dict. Hagiog.'; Tischendorf s 'Acta Apost. Apocr.'; 
Abdias, 'Hist. Apost.,' Lib. x. 

His day is May i, but among the Greeks Nov. 14. 

In art he carries a cross, as significative either of his martyrdom or 
of his conquest over idols through the power of the Cross. 

Analysis — For thirty years he preaches the Gospel in Scjrthia, but 
in vain, i-8 ; an attempt is made to compel him to sacrifice to the 
image of Mars, 9-14; a dragon appears from under the idol, and 
slays those who are persecuting the Apostle, and makes others sick 
with the breath of its mouth, 15-24; Philip then preaches, and the 
people undertake to cast down the idol if he will restore their sick, 
25-38 ; he commands the idol to be cast down, it falls, and through 

NOTES TO PHILEPUS (vm. 2-23). 131 

his prayer the sick are restored, the people are converted, churches 
are built, and priests ordained, 39-60; Philip passes to Asia to Hier- 
apolis, and preaches against the Docetists. 61-72 ; great marvels are 
wrought through his daughters, 73-78 ; his martyrdom and interment, 
79-104; conclusion, 105-108. 

Source — * Legenda Aurea,' cap. Ixv. Cf. Abdias, ' Hist. Apost./ 
Lib. iv. ; Vine. Bello., *Hist. Spec.,' viii. 88; *Pet de Natal.,' May i, 
cap. cvii. fol. Ixv. 

The etymological introduction of the L.A. is omitted. 

2. Degre. See notes, VI. 2, and XV. 1-8. 

3-12. L.A. : " Ph. ap. cum XX annis per Sithiam praedicasset, a pag- 
anis tenetur et ad immolandum statuae Martis ab iisdem compellitur." 

3. Z'i*r;f//y= thirty. L.A., xx. 

4. Sycheeme, read sytheeme, L.A., Sithia; Vine. Bello., Scithia; 
P. de Natal., Scythia. 

8. Trawelynge=\2A}o\ir. />'« = lose. 

9. 5'/rfw3^/= compelled. O.Fr. straindre; Lat. siringere. 
IL Mar/e=Mairs, Read a/ J>e maunmente. 

13-24. L.A. : " Tunc subito draco quidam ingens desub base exivit 
qui filium pontificis qui ignem ministrabat, in sacrificio interfecit 
duosque tribunos, quorum ministri Philippum in vinclis detinebant, 
exstinxit caeterosque adeo sui flatus foetore in fecit, ut omnes morbidi 

18. Bischopis j<7ii^= priest's ^o\\ filium pontificis, 

23. IVyney a misspelling for aAy//^/?= breath. In one of the legends 
published by Dr Horstmann, 'Altengl. Leg.,' n. f. p. 52, the story is 
told somewhat differently : — 

'* Saint Philip prechid of god almighty 
In a land ^t was named Sithy ; 
He prechid l)e might of god verray 
To folk ))at lifd on deuils lay. 
{>o lawles folk his lau forsok, 
And sune oraang ]>am )>ai him toke, 
Vnto )>aire maumet ))ai him led. 
Than was )>at deuil ful sore adred 
{>at he suld sune l>ore be distruyed : 
t>arfore al )>at he might he noyed. 
By deuils might ))an, als men knew, 
Blastes out of his mouth he blew, 
f>at war so euyl and vn-honeste, 
f>ai destryd oft both man and beste. 
And with blast of hys mouth allone 
{>e prince sun of the land was slone, 
And two grete maysters of the law 
With his blast war broght of daw, 
And all }>e folk ]»Lt itt come nere 
War mesels made and all unfere." 

132 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (vm. 25^). 

25-46. L.A. : " Dixitque Philippus : credite mihi et statuam istam 
confringite et in loco ejus crucem domini adorate, ut infirmi vestri 
sanentur et mortui suscitentun At hi, qui cruciabantur, clamabant : 
tantum fac, ut sanemur, et hunc Martem protinus confringemus. 
Tunc Ph. draconi praecepit ut in locum desertum descenderet, ita ut 
nulli omnino noceret ; qui statim recessit et ulterius non coxnparuit.'' 

25. Effray=\!txxox. O.Fr. esfrei. 

27. Delete comma after so, 

33. In a j^«^=with one voice. 

37. Thire /*rtf= these three — «>., the priest's son and the two 

47-72. L.A. : "Tunc Ph. omnes sanavit et illis tribus mortuis vitae 
beneficium impetravit sicque universis credentibus per annum unum 
iis adhuc prsedicavit et in iis presbiteros et dyaconos ordinans in 
Asiam civitatem Hierapolin venit. ibique haeresin Hebeonitarum, qui 
Christum camem phantasticam assumsisse dogmatizabant, exstinxit" 

64. /?r^?/>^/K«^=Hierapolis. This was a considerable town in 
Phrygia, situated upon a height between the rivers Lycus and Maeander, 
about five miles north of Laodicea, and on the road between Apameia 
and Sardis. It was probably founded by the Greeks, though there is 
no record either of the time or the circumstances of its foundation. 
It was celebrated for its warm springs and its Plutonium, both of 
which are said to have had some singular properties. " The water 
of the springs," says Strabo (xiii. 629), "is consolidated and becomes 
stone so easily, that if it is conducted through water-courses dams are 
formed of a single piece of stone." *' The Plutonium, situated below 
a small brow of the overhanging mountain," he continues, "is an 
opening of sufficient size to admit a man, but there is a descent to a 
great depth. In front is a quadrilateral railing, about half a plethrum 
in circumference. The space is filled with a cloudy and dark vapour, 
so dense that the bottom can scarcely be discerned. To those who 
approach round the railing the air is innoxious, for in calm weather 
it is free from the cloud which then continues within the enclosure. 
But animals which enter within the railings die instantly. . . . The 
Galli [the priests of Cybele], who are eunuchs, enter the enclosure 
with impunity, approach even the opening or mouth, bend down over 
it, and descend into it a certain depth, restraining their breath during 
the time, for we perceive by their countenances signs of some suffocat- 
ing feeling" (Bohn's translation, ii. 408). By the time of Ammianus 
the vapours seem to have lost their poisonous influence (Am. Marcel., 
xxiii. 6). The waters of Hierapolis were much used for dyeing 
(Strab., xiii. p. 630). Among the deities worshipped, the Great 
Mother of the Gods is specially named. As early as the time of St 
Paul there was a Christian church in the town. Its chief claim to 
fame is that it was the birthplace of Epictetus. See Smith's 'Diet, 
of Gr. and Rom. Geography.' 

NOTES TO PHILEPUS (VHI. 65-98). 1 33 

65. I/ezfynu/is ='Ehionites. 

66-70. This was the doctrine of the Docetists. 

66. Ayuis= deny, I eel. «//«, to deny. 

73-104. L.A. : " Erant autem ibi duse sacratissimae virgines, per 
quas dominus muUos ad fidem convertit. Ph. autem ante VII dies 
obitus sui episcopos et presbiteros convocavit iisque dixit: hos VII 
dies propter admonitionem vestram mihi dominus concessit Erat 
autem anno LXXXVII. Post hoc infideles ipsum tenuerunt et cruci 
ad instar magistri sui quem prxdicabat, affixerunt, et sic ad dominum 
migravit et feliciter vitam complevit Juxta autem eum dus filiae ejus, 
una a dextris et alia a sinistris sunt sepultae." 

86. Prowand^^ ? 

87. For ]>up/e read puple. 

90. j£yb7/^= belonged. O.Fr. affierit^ it concerns, becomes, be- 
longs — Cotgr. Lat. affert^ from qfferre. 

91. Z/(^/= lived. 

98. 6r» ^ar-apone. According to the old Greek traditions, he was 
crucified with his head downwards. He is so represented on the 
gates of San Paolo, and in an old picture over the tomb of Cardinal 
Philippi d'Alengon ; but in the old fresco by Guisto da Padova, in the 
Capella di San Filippo, he is crucified in the usual manner, arrayed 
in a long red garment which descends to his feet. — Mrs Jameson, 
• Sacred and Legendary Art,' i. 253. 

The conclusion of the L.A., in which a passage is cited from 
Isidore and another from Jerome, and Philip the Apostle is distin- 
guished from Philip the Evangelist, is omitted. 


St Bartholomew the Apostle is supposed to have been the same as 
Nathanael whom Philip brought to Jesus, and whom Jesus described 
as ''an Israelite indeed, in whom is no guile." He is mentioned as 
one of the Apostles in Matt. x. 3, Mark iii. 18, Luke vi. 14, Acts i. 13, 
and in the first three catalogues of the Apostles he is alwa^-s named 
along with and after Philip. If the supposition of his identity with 
Nathanael be correct, he was bom at Cana in Galilee. He is said to 
have preached the Gospel in India (Euseb., * Hist. Eccl.,' v. 10; Jerome, 
*Vir. Illust.,* 36), which, according to some, is Arabia Felix and 
Persia. On his return to the north-west of Asia, he is said to have met 
St Philip at Hierapolis, in Phrygia. Thence, according to Chrysostom, 
he went into Lycaonia and instructed the people there. Finally, he 
is said to have gone to Armenia, and there to have been crucified by 
the governor of Albanopolis. According to some, however, he was 
flayed alive. His relics are said by Theodorus Lector to have been 
removed to the city of Duras by order of the Emperor Anastasius in 
508. Gregor>' of Tours (* De Gloria Mart.,* 33) says that before the 
sixth century they were carried to the isle of Lipari, near Sicily, 
whence, according to Anastasius the Librarian, they were translated 
to Benevento in 809, and from thence again, according to Baronius, 
they were conveyed to Rome in 983, since which time they have 
remained in a porphyr>' monument in the church there dedicated to 
his name. Whilst the relics were in Benevento, the bishop of that 
place is said to have sent one of the Apostle's arms to Edward the 
Confessor, who bestowed it upon the cathedral church of Canterbury. 
See Smith's *Dict. of the Bible*; Putin's 'Diet. Hagiog.*; Butler's 
'Lives of the Saints'; TischendorPs *Acta Apost. Apocr.,' 243; Ab- 
dias, * Hist. Apost,' Lib. viii. 

His day is Aug. 24 ; among the Greeks, June 11. For his sig^ he 
has the knife with which he was flayed alive. 

Analysis — The Apostle*s order. 1-3; he is sent to India, 4-6; the 
idols of Astarte and Baal Berith, and a description of the Apostle, 


7-78 ; the discovery of the Apostle, and his healing of the king's 
daughter, 79-108; the king's gratitude, aid the disappearance of 
the Apostle, 109-114; the appearance of the Apostle to the king, 
1 1 5-162 ; the baptism of the king, destruction of the idol, exorcism of 
the evil spirit, and purification of the Temple by an angel, 163-238 ; 
on the complaint of the priests and people the Apostle is summoned 
before Astrages, the king's brother, by whose orders he is put to 
death, 239-290 ; his burial, the destruction of the priests and Astrages, 
appointment of Polemius to be bishop, and conclusion, 291-304; 
another account of his passion, 305-328 ; conclusion, 329-334. 

Sources — * Legenda Aurea,* cap. cxxiii.; which also gives an account 
of his translation and of his preaching in Lycaonia, &c. Cf. Tischen- 
dorfs 'Acta Apost. Apocr.,' pp. 243-260; Abdias, *Hist Apost,' lib. 
viii. ; P. de Natal., cap. ciii. fol. 127; Vine. B. viii. 

The et>'mological introduction of the L.A. is omitted. 

2. Degre, See note to VI. 2. 

4-29. L.A. : " Bartholomeus apostolus veniens ad Indiam, quae est 
in fine orbis, templum in quo erat ydolum nomine Astaroth, intravit et 
quasi peregrinus ibidem manere coepit. In hoc ydolo quidam daemon 
habitabat qui se languentes curare dicebat, sed non sanando sub- 
veniebat, sed a laesione cessando. Sed cum templum languentibus 
plenum esset et nullum ab ydolo responsum habere possent, ad aliam 
civitatem perrexerunt, ubi aliud ydolum nomine Berith colebatur," &c. 

9. ^<n/=made. 

12. ^j/ar^/^= Astaroth, the Semitic god, which would seem to 
indicate, and does indicate, that the >^;i^i?= India, of 1. 4, is not modem 
Incfia, but rather Arabia. 

22. But 6f* den^ViU the outer and inner apartments or divisions of 
the Temple. The phrase, as applied to a house, is still in common 

29. Menskyt = colebatur, worshipped, honoured. Icel. mennska, 
/^r^M =3 Berith. The full name is Baal Berith. This is another 
indication that the people were of the Semitic race. 

35. Chenyi5^c\izSxv^, 

36, 37. L.A. : " Nee respirare nee loqui audet." kand=aynd=\ix^2iih, 
38* />vi= since, from the time when. 

41. This line begins Beritb*s answer, and should have been 
printed : — 

*' Of mychty God," quod he, " )>e frende 

Two sets of the inverted commas have been omitted, 

42. Leynde—\2xiy, See note to VII. 522. 
44. Mystere^n^tA. See note to I. 70. 

45-47. L.A.: "£t illi : die nobis signa ejus, ut eum invenire 


48-78. L^^ : " Quibus daemon ait : capilli ejus crispi et nigpi, caro 
Candida, oculi grandes, nares aequales et directae, barba prolixa habens 
paucos canos, statu ra aequalis, collobio albo clavato purpura vestitur, 
induitur pallio albo, quod per singulos anj^Ios gexnmas habet pur- 
pureas. Viginti sex anni sunt ex quo vestes et sandalia ejus nee 
veterascunt nee sordidantur, centies flexis genibus per diem orat et 
centies per noctem, angeli cum eo ambulant, qui nunquam eum 
fatigari nee esurire permittunL Semper eodem \'ultu et animo laetus 
et hilaris perseverat, omnia praevidet, omnia novit, omnium gentium 
linguas novit et intelligit, et quod vobiscum loquor, ipse jam novit, et 
quando quaeritis eum, si vult, ostendet se vobis, si autem non vult« 
eum non poteritis invenire. Rogo autem vos, ut, cum eum inveneritis, 
rogetis eum ne hue veniat, ne angeli sui hoc mihi faciant quod meo 
socio jam fecerunt-'*' 

50. But ony /f7^^= without any defect. 

51. Gret ewynf=^\sLTge eyes, rwyne nc£^thrillis—\\\., equal nostrils. 

52. Fare barbe=i2iiT beard, sumdele /(ur/r/^= somewhat long. 

53. J/i>'/r^V= mixed. 

54. Lufly=^\o\^y. 

58. Oysite. See note to VI. 168. 

59. 5>7J= times. A.S. siS^ a time. 

60. One nychte=^2X night. 

62. That suffer him not to be wear>-. 

63. Threste^\\i\xs\, 
65. lV//=(acc. 

68. Z^/^= language. See note to VII. 71. 

76. />r^= companion. A.S.^ir/^Vv7, a companion on the road. 

77. JF<:?r^= worse. Mod.Sc. waur. 

78. iV<ir^r = nearer. 

79-86. L.A. : "Cum igitur per duos dies sollicite quaerentes eum 
minime invenissent, quadam die quidam daemoniacus exclamavit 
dicens : apostole Dei Bartholomee, incendunt me orationes tuae." 

86. -5^^/V= prayers, dedis of the MS. is evidently a mistake. L.A., 
orationes. deiii's from O.L.Ger. deday O.Fris. bede, 

87-90. L.A. : " Cui apostolus : obmutesce et exi foras ab eo. Et 
statim est liberatus." 

91-108. L.A. : " Quod audiens rex regionis illius Polemius, cum 
haberet filiam lunaticam, misit ad apostolum rogans, ut ad se veniret et 
filiam suam sanaret. Ad quern cum apostolus venisset et eam catenis 
ligatam videret, quia accedentes morsibus lacerabat, jussit eam solvi, 
et cum ministri ad eam accedere non auderent, dixit : ego daemonium 
quod in ea erat, jam ligatum teneo, et vos timetis? £t soluta statim 
liberata est," &c. 

92. 5rt^tf/=in this way. y^^/= acted, did. Cf. X. 438. A.S. /<fran. 

98. iS'/j'yt^ =al ike = the same. 
100. Bnndyne ly^Xxt, bound =lying bound. 

NOTES TO BERTHOLOMEUS (IX. 103-130). 1 37 

103. ]fam=]>at not /^M/= teeth. See note to I. 25. ry/e=nye= 


" That with her teeth she did not tear." 

104. Be'fyfi=quic\i\y. See note to I. 32. 

105. Bets=bt; the imperative. 

109-114. L.A. : " Tunc rex camelos auro et argento et lapidibus 
pretiosis oneravit et apostolum inquiri faciens nullatenus invenire 

109. p^/, read ]?^i«= then. 7^;^^= liberal. 0,Yr. large. 

110. Charge =\o2A. 

112. For ]>e fianyse= (or the nonce. "The old form was /or then 
tmeSy for the once, where then is the dative case of the article." 
— Skeat's Barbour's 'Bruce/ Gloss, sub nanyse, 

113. And thought to send them to the Apostle. 

115-118. L.A. : " Mane autem sequenti apparens apostolus cum solo 
rege in cubiculo, dixit ei." 

117. Ai entre=a\\ entrance. 

119-124. L.A. : "Ad quid me cum auro et argento et lapidibus pre- 
tiosis tota die quaesivisti ? Ista munera sunt necessaria his, qui terrena 
requirunt, ego nihil terrenum, nihil carnale desidero." 

119. Quhare-til='w\\y'^ to what purpose ? 

123. Cowate=co\tU 

124. Lewynge=\\v\v\g. A.S. leofian, 

125-162. L.A. : " Tunc s. B. coepit eum multa de modo redemptionis 
nostrae docere, ostendens inter caetera Christum vicisse dyabolum per 
mirabilem congruentiam, potentiam, justitiam et sapientiam. Con- 
g^um enim fuit, ut, qui filium virginis, id est Adam factum de terra, 
dum adhuc esset virgo, vicerat, a filio virginis vinceretur. Potenter 
quoque ipsum vicit, cum de sua dominatione potenter ejecit quam 
dyabolus pro dejectione primi hominis usurpavit, &c. Juste vero, 
quia justum est, ut, qui comedente homine vincens hominem detinebat, 
a jejunante homine victus hominem amplius non teneret. Sapienter 
autem dum ars dyaboli deluditur arte Christi. Ars dyaboli fuit ut, 
sicut accipiter rapit avem, ita in desertum raperet Christum, ut, si ibi 
jejunans non famesceret, absque dubio Ueus esset, si autem esuriret, 
ipsum ut primum hominem per cibum devinceret." 

126. Z/n«/=« doctrine. 

129. One foure-kine wise = in a fourfold way. 

130. Quenttce= cunmng. " Qventyse or sleythe, astuaa, ca/tWttas," 
Prompt Parv. 

" May no deth this lord dere • ne no deoueles quentyse." 

— * P. Plowman,* C. xxi. 299. 

* Pride and pompe and covatjrse 
And vayn sleghtes, and qwayntyse" 

— Hamp., *P. of Conscience/ n8i. 
O.Fr. cointise. 

138 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (EL 131-199;. 

131. Scheuannes ^seuandnes= conson2J\cti consequence. 

133. Read with H. scheuand was, as he Adan\e, Scheuand^ 
jtf«/a/M?= following. M.E. sewetiy to follow. 

134. ZflWtf= earth. A.S.lAm; M,D ui. iee^ny Mod.Eng. /t?^^. 
140. 5^//i3/i^r)'= lordship. 

149. Faiowis =^(o\\o\vs, 

154. Hungyre=hungyrte=\iMiigtxt^, 

157. 5//VA/= craft. 

162. F/rfl/K= utterly. 

163-182. L.A. : " Cum ergo eidem sacramenta fidei praedicasset, 
dixit regi quod, si baptizari vellet, Deum suum catenis ligatum 
ostenderet. Sequenti igitur die juxta reg^s palatium dum pontifices 
ydolo sacriticarent, coepit clamare daemon ac dicere : cessate, miseri, 
sacrificare mihi, ne pejora me patiamini, qui catenis ig^eis ab angelo 
Jesu Christi quem Judaei crucifixerunt religatus sum, putantes eum a 
morte detineri. Ille autem ipsam mortem, quae regina nostra est, 
captivavit et ipsum nostrum principem autorem mortis vinculis igneis 

163. F/i^^?/i= explained. 
170. Cowartly= cow tr\\y. 

179. p^ quene—the, queen, i,e,. Death. 

180. Oure /el prince = our cruel prince, i,e,^ the devil. 

181. Ded^DtaXh, 

183-198. L.A. : "Statimque omnes miserunt funes, ut simulacrum 
everterent, sed non potuerunt. Ap. autem daemoni praecepit ut indc 
exiens ydolum comminueret. Qui statim exiens omnia ydola templi 
per se ipsum confregit. Deinde fusa oratione ab apostolo omnes 
infirmi curati sunt, ap. autem templum Dei dedicavit et daemonem in 
deserto abire praecepit." 

184. Mynte=\houg\\i, A.S. myntan^ to think, intend. 

185. Read bot \ai mycht ster it be na way. 

199-238. L.A. : " Tunc angelus domini ibidem apparuit et templum 
circumvolans in quatuor angulos signum crucis digito suo scripsit 
dicens : haec dicit dominus : sicut vos omnes ab infirmitate vestra 
mundavi, ita et templum hoc ab omni sorde mundabitur et habitatore 
ejus, quern- ap. in desertum locum ire praecepit. Prius tamen cum 
vobis ostendam, quem videntes ne timeatis, sed quale signum in 
lapidibus his sculpsi, tale in vestris frontibus imprimatis. Tunc 
ostendit iis itthiopem nigriorem fuligine, facie acuta, barba prolixa, 
crinibus usque ad pedes protensis, oculis igneis ut ferrum ignitum 
scintillas emittentibus, flammas sulphureas ex ore et oculis spirantem, 
catenis igneis vinctum retro manibus ; et dixit ei angelus : quoniam 
visionem apostoli audivisti et de templo exiens omnia ydola con- 
fregisti, solvam te, ut vadas in talem locum, ubi nullus homo moratur, 
et sis ibidem usque ad diem judicii. Ille autem solutus cum mag^o 
strepitu et ululatu disparuit, angelus autem domini in coelum cunctis 

NOTES TO BERTHOLOMEUS (IX. 201-286). 1 39 

videntibus evolavit. Tunc rex cum uxore et filiis omnique populo 
baptizatus est et relicto regno ap. discipulus est effectus." 

201. Fleand^^ymg. fawre nukis =\oMr corntxs, 

205. C/m^'/=: cleansed. 

210. Se ior seis^^s^t. 

212. Se//e=ytry, same. 

215. ^^/^=soot So pronounced in Aberdeenshire and in other 
north-eastern parts of Scotland. 

216. J^/aJ^, This word is illegible, but appears to have the meaning 
of dark, hideous. 

218. Syd^gre2Lt A.S. stdy Icel. stSr, wide, ample. See Bradley, 
sub sfd, 

219. Lochtris 0/ Aare =\ocks of hair. 

220. ^/r(?i^/i^= stretching, reaching. 
222. SpraJ^is= sparks. 

225. Fui= (oul 
228. ScAen/=\ost 

234. Read a trade =2l start. 

235. //m^7^/A/= vituperative, insolent, ///-m^^/ still common, late 
= bearing, demeanour. Icel. Idt, manners. 

236. G^r«c/a«^/= grieving, troubling. 
238. 0/= out of. Jlaw^^tvf. 

245-258. L.A. : " Tunc omnes templorum pontifices congregati ad 
Astragem regem fratrem ejus convenerunt et de deorum suorum amis- 
sione et tempi i subversione et regis per artem magi cam deceptione 
contra apostolum sunt conquesti." 

247. Astroges, 255 astrages, Abdias calls him Astyages ; the Greek 
Acta, Astreges. 

249. Puple is evidently written instead oi apostle. 

259-282. L.A. : " Qui cum adductus fuisset coram eo, dixit ei rex : 
tunc es ille qui evertisti fratrem meum ? Cui ap. : ego ilium non 
everti» sed converti. Cui rex : sicut tu fecisti fratrem meum Deum 
suum relinquere et tuo credere, sic et ego te faciam Deum tuum re- 
linquere et meo Deo sacrificare. Cui ap. : ego Deum quem colebat 
frater tuus, ligavi et ligatum ostendi, et ut simulacrum frangeret, coegi ; 
si sic poteris facere Deo meo, poteris me ad simulacrum provocare, si 
non autem, ego Deos tuos comminuam et tu crede Deo meo." 

272. Be-for wthire=2bo\t [all] other. 

282. Goddis; it is doubtful whether we should not here read god, 

283-285. L.A. : " Haec illo dicente nuntiatur regi, quod Deus suus 
Baldach cecidisset et comminutus fuisset." 

284. Baldak, The name is variously given — Balaach, Pet de 
Natal.; Waldach, V, B., viii. 68; Vualdath, Abdias; in the Greek 
Acta it is Baldad. 

286-292. L.A. : " Quod rex audiens purpuram scidit qua indutus 
eraty et apostolum fustibus caedi jussit et caesum vivum excoriari 


mandavit, christian! autem corpus ejus tulenint et honorifice 

286. Pal =roht, pall. 

289. *S'/dza//y= staves. 

293-302. L.A. : "Rex autem Astrages et templorum pontifices a 
daemonibus arrepti mortui sunt, rex autem Polemius in episcopum 
ordinatur et XX annis officium episcopatus laudabiliter implens 
plenus virtutibus in pace quievit." 

305-328. L.A. : " De genere suae passion is di versa opinio est, nam 
b. Dorotheus dicit quod crucifixus est Ait enim sic : Barth. Indis 
praedicavit, qui et evangelium sec. Matthajum in propria eorum 
lingua iis tradidit Dormivit in Albana civitate magnae Armeniae 
crucifixus deorsum caput habens. Beatus autem Theodorus dicit 
quod fuit excoriatus. In multis autem libris legitur, quod tantum fuit 
decollatus. Haec autem contrarietas taliter solvi potest ut dicatur, 
quod primo crucifixus fuit, deinde, antequam moreretur, de cruce fuit 
depositus et ob majorem cruciatum fuit excoriatus, postremo capite 
truncatus." The L.A. then goes on to give an account of the transla- 
tion and of three miracles, and the laudatio from S. Ambrose and 
Theodorus, all of which are here omitted. 

307. Z?^r^///^= Dorotheus. 

314. Hertfuny = Arme n i a. 

315. For the full stop at the end of the line a comma ought to be 

316. Bely flawcht Jlede—^^yt.^ belly-flaught — /.^., to have the skin 
drawn over the head as in flaying a hare. See Jamieson, sub belly 

322. (9/7?^///^= flayed off". /)'j/^= cunning. A.S. //j/, art. 

325. Wyddirwyne = en emy. 

333. For has sene we should probably read sal ^/t7;/^r= judge. 

X.— M A T H O U. 

St Matthew, Apostle and Evangelist, is the same as Levi (Luke v. 27- 
29X the son of a certain Alphaeus. His call to be an Apostle is recorded 
in the first three Gospels in the same words, except that in the first he 
is called Matthew (Matt. ix. 9) and in the other two Levi (Mark ii. 14 ; 
Luke V. 27). By trade he was a collector of taxes, a member of the 
class which to the Jews was the most hateful of all. In the first Gos- 
pel the title of infamy is not omitted ; but neither of the other Gospels 
speaks as it does of Matthew the publican. Immediately after his call, 
and before he entered upon the work of an Apostle, he gave a feast in 
his house to Jesus and His disciples, and to many who belonged to 
the same trade as he had. Of the exact share which fell to him in 
preaching the Gospel nothing is known. After the ascension of our 
Lord he is said by Eusebius (' Hist Eccl./ iii. 24) to have preached in 
Judaea, and according to Clement of Alexandria (* Strom.,' -vi.), for 
the space of fifteen years. Previous to the dispersion of the Apostles 
he is said to have written his Gospel at the request of the converted 
Jews of Palestine. He is also said to have composed a gospel in 
Aramaic, the primitive text of which is lost. As to the scene of his 
labours beyond the borders of Palestine, there are various traditions. 
Eusebius says that after preaching to the Jews in Judaea he went to 
other nations — c^' hrk^Knyi. This region is styled by Socrates (* Hist 
Eccl.,' i. 19) and Rufinus (Lib. x. c. 3) Ethiopia. St Ambrose says 
that God opened up for him the country of the Persians (in Ps. 45). 
Simeon Metaphrastes says he first went to the Parthians, and after- 
wards to Ethiopia. Paulinus of Nola also speaks of Parthia as the 
scene of the Apostle's labours (* Poema,' xix. 81), and Venantius For- 
tunatus mentions the name of the town, " Matthaeum eximium Nad- 
daver alta virum," which is said by Abdias, however, to have been in 
Ethiopia ('Vita St Matt') Isidore (' De Ortu et Obitu Patrum,' c. 76) 
says that St Matthew, after preaching in Judaea, went into Macedonia, 
and at last died "in montibus Parthorum." Whether the Apostle suf- 
fered martyrdom is not known. Heracleon the Gnostic says that he 


died a natural death. Clement of Alexandria, by whom he is cited 
('Strom.,' vi. 9), seems to agree with him. Nicephorus, on the other 
hand (*Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 41), describes his sufferings and death in Myrmene, 
the city of the Anthropophagi, with whom, so far at least as the mode 
of the Apostle's death is concerned, ag^ee the * Apocryphal Acts * and 
the * Martyrologies.' Clement of Alexandria (* Paedog.,' ii. i) records 
the tradition that the Apostle abstained from flesh, and lived on berries, 
fruits, and herbs. The body of the Apostle is said to have been trans- 
lated in the ninth century from Ethiopia to Brittany, and thence, "at 
the expense of a startling anachronism," to Lucania by the Emperor 
Valentinian. In the following century (954) it is said to have been re- 
moved to Salemum, where the festival of the translation is observed 
on May 6. A second finding at Salemum is recorded in the time of 
Gregory VII., about 1080. Smith's ' Diet, of the Bible ' and ' Diet of 
Christ. Biog.' ; Putin's * Diet. Hagiog.' ; Butler's * Lives of the Saints' ; 
Tischendorf s * Acta Apocr.' 

His day is September 21 ; but in the Greek and Russian Churches 
Nov. 16. Other days are also given for his commemoration in the 
Western Church — May i. May 6, May 21, and October 7. May 6 is 
associated with the translation to Salemum. See Smith's 'Diet, of 
Christ. Biog.' 

Sign — A purse, in allusion to his original vocation, or a sword, the 
instrument of his martyrdom. As an Evangelist, he is attended by an 
angel. "When he is portrayed as an Evangelist, he holds a book or 
a pen ; and the angel, his proper attribute and attendant, stands by 
pointing up to heaven, or dictating ; or he holds the inkhorn, or he 
supports the book. In his character of Apostle, St Matthew frequently 
holds a purse or money-bag, as significant of his former vocation." — 
Mrs Jameson, 'Sacred and Legendary Art/ i. 144, 145. 

Analysis — The Apostle's two names and call, 1-31 ; his departure to 
Ethiopia, 32-40; he preaches in Nadabar, 41-44; and meets with 
Arphaxat and Zarroes, 45-48; their works, 49-74; the Apostle undoes 
their jugglery, 75-90 ; meets with the eunuch of Queen Candace, 91-95 ; 
who leads him to his house, where he preaches and converts many, 
96-122; at the request of the eunuch he explains how he is able to 
speak in all languages, 123-150; he is assailed by the two sorcerers 
with two dragons, 151-190; after overcoming the dragons and sending 
them away he preaches to the people, 191-214 ; at the suggestion of 
the eunuch he is sent for to the palace to restore the queen's son to 
life, 215-222 ; he restores the prince, 223-241, when, at the king's bid- 
ding, the Apostle is worshipped by the people, 242-252 ; presents are 
also brought to him from the king, 253-258 ; the Apostle refuses to 
touch them and preaches, 259-288; when many are converted, the 
king and queen and their daughter and all the Ethiopians are bap- 
tised, 289-312; Yrtacus being made king in place of Eglippus, and 
desiring to marry the latter*s daughter, appeals to the Apostle, 313-324 ; 

NOTES TO MATHOU (X. 1-23). 1 43 

the Apostle's answer, 325-334 ; Yrtacus and Ephigenia come to hear 
him speak of marriage, 335-384; Yrtacus is enraged against the 
Apostle, 385-386 ; who addresses the people respecting him, 387-404; 
Ephigenia and her maidens appeal to the Apostle for protection 
against Yrtacus, 405-418; he blesses them, 419-422 ; his martyrdom, 
423-436 ; the people are enraged against the king, and go to burn his 
palace, but are prevented by the clergy, and persuaded by them to 
build the Apostle a sepulchre, 437-448 ; Ephigenia gives her property 
to the Church and the poor, 449-454 ; Yrtacus gives orders for her 
dwelling to be burnt, when his own palace is destroyed by fire, and 
the fiend takes possession of him, 455-474 ; he goes to the Apostle's 
sepulchre, and, being stricken with leprosy, commits suicide, 475-490 ; 
of Beor, the brother of Ephigenia, who succeeds him, 491-522 ; the 
reason why the prophecy of David, St Matthew's Gospel, and St 
Paul's Epistles are most used in the Church, 523-582 ; conclusion, 


Sources — Cf. L.A., cxl. ; but the text shows many departures from it, 
and other sources have evidently been used — probably the narrative 
g^ven by Abdias, Lib. vii. 

1-4. L.A. : " Matthaeus binomius exstitit, scilicet Matthaeus et 
Levi." Voragine then gives the etymology of the names. 

5. St Luke, V. 27-29. 

6. 3^r//=erd= earth. A.S. eard, Cf. VII. 299. 

8. 2i/ar^=quhare= where. /<7/^i/M= booth, place, or house, for 
receiving tolls, dues, or taxes. 

" Ne birr]) Juw nohht mi Fader hus 
Till chepinnbo|>e tuimenn." 

— 'Ormulum,' 15,573. 

" Forr |»tt teJJ turmdenn Godess hus 
Inntill huccteress bo\e,* 

— Ibid., 15,817. 

Wyclif has iolbothe,S\. Matt. ix. 9. " Comperit in the tolbuith of this 
burghe." — Burgh Rec. of Aberdeen, Oct. 9, 1444. The word has 
since come to stand for a prison. Icel. buff^ and A.S. toll; Dut. tol; 
Icel. iollr. 

9. 7b//«r^= tax-gatherer. 

" Taillours and tynkeres * and tolleres in marketes.*' 

— *P. Plowman/ B. Prol., 220. 

10. Vniessume—MvXzyfiMX, wynnynge=^2ATi, 

11. 12. It is hardly necessary to say that there is no passage in the 
Gospels in which this is said. 

11. Hopyne—o^tvi. 

17. Z>vy/=left. 

23. Commovne^ common. 


28. BuJt^, evidently intended for /:ir^e. 
35. /Cynde^ nature, 

" & thenne founden ])ay fyl|)e in fleschlych dedej 
& controeued agayn kynde contrary werke^" 

— • Allit. Poems,* a a66. 

" Werwolf was he non wox of kinde 
Ac komen was he of kun that kud was ful nobul" 

— • W. of Palerne/ 109. 

" As course is of fynd and coni3m dessire 
Ich on fraynet at his fere )>e frekys to know." 

— * Destraction of Troy/ 289a. 

" I knaw myselfe be cours of kynde," 

— * York Plays/ 62/209. 

" And, in the doing of the deed oikind" 

— * Merch. of Venice/ i. 3, 86. 

A.S. cynd, 

49. Eglippm, Further on the L. A. calls the king Eg^ppus. Abdias 
gives the same name as here. Peter de Natalibus calls him Eg^yptus. 

51-74. L.A. simply has : " Qui ita homines suis artibus dementabant 
ut, quoscunque vellent, membrorum officio et sanitate privare videren- 
tur. Qui in tantam superbiam eruperunt, ut se quasi Deos ab hom- 
inibus facerent adorari." The source employed would seem to be 
Abdias, who has : *' In quam [Ethiopiam] profectus ipse, quum in 
civitate magna quae dicitur Naddaver moraretur, in qua rex^Eglippus 
sedebat, contigit ut duo magi Zaroes et Arphaxat simul essent, qui 
regem miris modis ludificabant, ut se Deos esse, remota ambiguitate, 
crederet. Et credebat eis rex omnia, et omnis populus non solum 
memoratse urbis, sed ex longinquis etiam regionibus ytthiopiae veni- 
ebant quotidie, ut adorarent eos. Faciebant enim subito hominum 
gressus figi, et tamdiu immobiles stare, quamdiu ipsi voluissent. 
Similiter et visus hominum, et auditus, a suo officio refrenabant. Im- 
perabant serpentibus, ut percuterent, quod et Marsi facere sclent, et 
ipsi incantando multos curabant. Et ut dici vulgo solet : Malignis 
major reverentia exhibetur ex timore, quam benignis ex amore : sic et 
illi venerabiles apud iCthiopes, in magno diu pretio fuerunt.** 

51. Bcwile—h^%\i\\t, A.S. wilj Icel. viL 

54. And that they were very (true) gods. 

60. Hindered men from going a foot away. /<^/=let = hinder. 
A.S. let tan, to hinder. 

64. Leste=\\^\^ liked, chose. 

68. W?^^/j' = witches. The word is used in the masculine as well 
as in the feminine. It is equivalent here to Abdias's Marsi. The 
Marsi are defined as "homines quibus naturalem vim contra ser- 
pentes in esse olim creditum, incantores. Marsorum genus est in 
Africa, cui non nocent serpentes, et quando volunt filios suos probare, 

NOTES TO MATHOU (X. 75-213). 1 45 

utrum sui sint, an non, mittunt illos inter serpentes, et si sunt ex- 
tranei generis, illos devorant serpentes. . . . Marsi fuerunt in 
Italia incantatores serpentium, qui eos aut interficiebant aut nocere 
non sinebant." See Du Cange, sub vocCt and the quotation from 
Abdias, II. 51-74. 

75-122. L.A. merely has : " Matthaeus autem apostolus prsedictam 
civitatem ingressus et apud eunuchum Candacis reginae, quern 
Philippus baptizaverat, hospitatus ita magorum praestigia detegebat, 
quod quidquid ipsi faciebant hominibus in perniciem, hoc ipse con- 
verteret in salutem." The passage, however, is evidently taken from 
Abdias, which see, Lib. vii. § 2. 

83. ^arry/^= marred. 

91. Acts viii. 26-4a 

98. 7rj'^<f/= deceit. O.Fr. tresgiet^ magic. 

100. Herbery^\o^%vci%. A.S. herebeorgay shelter for an army. 

105. K//A«V/= revealed, disclosed. Cf. 1. 77. 

106. Ded^^iA, 

107. ^nra/tf= vex, harass. 0,Yx, grti'er; 'LsX, gravare, 

108. Quentyce—cy\ximr\%, See note to IX. 130. 
114. Lawe=lafe=r^X, 

120. "^ald or ^ynge=o\A or yo\\T\g. 

123-150. Cf. L.A. and Abdias. The latter is fuller, but is not 
followed closely. 

132. /«=on. //<:-*/= light. Cf. Acts ii. 3. 

133. C^«=ken, know, understand. /^^<?= languages. 

135. Quhyle='wh\\ty once. 

136. Say Ae=so high. 
138. ^^>&= reach. 

14L A lede=dX\ languages. See 1. 145. 

149. Delete the comma. 

151-190. Cf. Abdias, vii. § 4, and L.A ; but neither is closely 

156. ^/^jj/>= blazes, flames. ^r)'»/-j/a//^= brimstone. A^S.brennen 
and stoon, 

175. Z/7= live? 

191-202. Both L.A. and Abdias, especially the latter, are much 

193. A fyte=2L canto, a part of a ballad. A.S. Jit, fitte, a song; 
Jitian^ to sing, dispute. 

201. Natiuitate^ read natiutte. 

203. L.A. : " Et cum haec populo loqueretur, ecce subito tumultus 
exortus est, in quo regis Alius mortuus plangebatur." 

205. Prefe^XTj, 

210. Rcntdst^XsktXi, O.Fr. raviss^ ravir^ to ravish, snatch away 

213. ^««////^»/= simulacrum of L.A. See note to V. 290. 


214. Ay/^od=aigod, 

215-241. L. A. : " Praedictus autem eunuchus magos custodire faciens 
apostolum advocavit, qui oratione fusa eum protinus suscitavit." The 
text is similar to Abdias, sect. 7. 

217. ^eme=io be guarded, kept in custody. Icel. geyma; A.S. 
gymatt^ to watch over. 

221. /?^5//jr//= resuscitate. 

232. Sam/nyne-/ 7/rr/i/= power. 

234. Quy^e= quick, alive. 

243-288. L.A. merely has : " Quapropter rex Egippus hoc viso per 
universas suas provincias misit dicens : venite et videte Deum in 
effigie hominis latentem. Venerunt igitur cum coronis aureis ct 
diversis sacrificiorum generibus volentes sacrificare ei. Quos M. 
compescuit dicens : viri, quid facitis? ego Deus non sum, sed servus 
domini J. Chr." Abdias is much fuller. 

244. Aspy= espy ; but often so written, as in *P. Plowman,' A. ii. 
201. O.Fr. cspier. 

247. 5'^r^r= ready. 

250. Tortyse= torches. Low Lat. tortia, tortica, a torch. 

255. 5rt/=set. Cf. 1. 419. 

256. For^pe nanyse={or the nonce. See note to IX. 112. 
272. //erdryi=\odgtd. 

296. Ethiope. L.A., totam iEg^ptum. 

302. 6-, read \aL 

2ffl. Proves = provost. See note to VI. 9. 

309, 310. This is mentioned later by the L.A., with the addition that 
Simon and Judas then overcame them. 

313-324. The same as L.A. 

325-334. L.A. : " Cui ap. ait, ut juxta morem praedecessoris die do- 
minica ad ecclesiam conveniret et praesente Ephigenia cum caeteris 
virginibus, quam bona sint justa conjugia, audiret" 

327. Setre-day = S aturd ay. 

336. S€tret'day—StXxe'dz.y. 

340-384. L.A. : " Matth. igitur virginibus et omni populo cong^e- 
gatis de bono matrimonii diu locutus a rege plurimum est laudatus ; 
credens quod hoc ideo diceret ut virginis animum ad matrimonium 
provocaret. Deinde imperato silentio sermonem repetit dicens : cum 
bonum sit matrimonium si salvo fcedere teneatur, bene scitis adstantes, 
quod, si regis sponsam aliquis servorum usurpare praesumeret, non 
solum regis offensam, sed mortem insuper mereretur, non quia uxorem 
duxisse probatur, sed quia sponsam domini sui accipiens ejus matri- 
monium violasse convinceretur ; ita et tu, rex, sciens Ephigeniam regis 
seterni sponsam effectam et sacro velamine consecratam, quomodo 
poteris sponsam potentioris te tollere et tuo matrimonio copulare ? " 

353. Atoure—2\io\e. 

356. Suyth. See note to I. 466. 

NOTES TO MATHOU X. (360455). 1 47 

360. For-quhy^yihtrtiort. a quhyle=2i while. 
365. Anowmyt, See note to III. 665. 

369. Sucaidrusly = presumptuously. O.Fr. sor and cuider; Lat. 
super and cogitare, 

370. 5>r////= deserved. 
372. Ful^iouX. 

374. Z4?/i//= lawful. 

382. //0d==odd. 

389-422. L.A. merely has : " Apostolus autem intrepidus et constans 
omnes ad patientiam et constantiam confortavit et Ephigeniam coram 
sc ex timore prostratam cum caeteris virginibus benedixit." 

399. 6WIa=slay. ^^;/^=pain. 

412. Bot £j/= unless. 

414. Faddyre /y;/i= father's time. See note to I. 69. 

415. Fcewndyt—\x\eA, See note to III. 135. 

416. Bejlairyne^^hy flattering or flatter}% 
420. Geffta /a/e^made no account. 

422. Waile &* pall=^\t\\ and pall. Their bestowal was the sign of 
the admission of those who received them into the monastic life ; the 
veil being the covering for the head and neck, and the pall for the rest 
of the body. For the former see * Calhol. Diet./ sub veily and for the 
latter Smith's * Diet. Christ Antiq./ sub pallium. 

423436. L.A. : " Post missarum autem soUemnia rex spiculatorem 
misit, qui juxta altare Matthseum stantem et expansis manibus in coe- 
lum orantem misso a tergo gladio interfecit et martirem consecravit" 

430. Par cane. The correction }pan cane makes better sense. 

432. Orysowne—orxsovi. O.Fr. orison, oreson^ oreison; Lat. oratio. 

433. Freke=^TCi2Ji, usually in a bad sense. 

" Hampres him so hard * to sum cost |)at be drawe, 
Sewes him to sum cite * and a-sege him ])ere, 
Til je wi]) fin fors • ^/reke haue wonne." 

—• William of Pal./ 1117. 
" What cause can ye fynde 
Nowe \\s/reke for to felle ? " 

— • Y. Plays,' 287/415. 

A.S. free. 

434. lVryke=2iVtngt. A.S. ivrecan; Goth, wrikanj Icel. reka. 

4A&. Lythnes — gentleness. See Bradley, sub liSnesse. wrake=^ 


" So cam on werlde wreche and wrake." 

— ' Gen. Exod./ 552. 

" Wordes bath o wrath and wraky 

— ' C. Mundi/ c. 890. 
449-454. Not in L.A. 

455-490. L.A. : " Rex vero cum nee per matronas ad eam directas 
nee per magos Ephigeniam posset aliquatenus immutare, totam ejus 
domum igne copioso vallavit, ut ipsam cum caeteris virginibus concre- 

148 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS X. (461^^23). 

maret, apostolus autem eisdem apparens omnem ignem ab eanim 
domo excussit, qui erumpens regis palatium invasit et, solo rege eva- 
dente vix cum unico iilio, cuncta consumsit, statimque filius arreptus 
a dsemonio patris crimina confitens ad sepulchrum apostoli properavit, 
pater vero turpissimus leprosus efTectus, cum curari non posset, manu 
propria gladio se peremit." 

462. £scAewe= achitve. 

466. // is a mistake for ker. /iyrns=htrs. 

468. J^rawar/e={ro'W3r6. 

469. Ba/d= strong, fierce. 

476. 0//^=r^wi=did. 

477. G^r/z«////= acknowledged, confessed, faddir gilt, see note to 
I. 69. 

480. 3/yja/rv= leprosy. 
482. /^i//«^j= foulness. 

484. Pr/a/jw;// = disgusting. A.S. wlatta^ disgust. 

485. Be na way =in no way. 

491-522. L.A. : " Populus autem fratrem Ephigeniae ab ap. bap> 
tizatum regem constituit, qui per annos LXX regnavit et filium 
suum sibi substituens christianum cultum magni6ce ampliavit et totam 
^thiopiae provinciam ecclesiis Christi replevit." 

497. £/de=age. quhene=\\\itn, rownyn =runnyn = run. 

523-584. L.A. : " Quartum est evangelii ipsius in ecclesia magna 
sollemnitas. Ejus enim evangelium prae caeteris evangeliis magis in 
ecclesia frequentatur, sicut psalmi David et epistolae Pauli prae caeteris 
scripturis amplius in ecclesia recitantur. Cuius haec est ratio : quo- 
niam teste Jacobo tria sunt genera peccatorum : sc. peccatum super- 
biae, luxuriac, et avaritioe. Peccato superbiae peccavit Saulus (a Saule 
superbissimo rege dictus), qui ecclesiam super modum persecutus est. 
Peccato luxuriac peccavit David, qui et adulterium commisit et propter 
adulterium fidelissimum militem Uriam occidit Peccato avaritiac 
peccavit Matthaeus, qui per avaritiam lucris turpibus inhiabat, fuit 
enim telonearius. [Here follows an explanation of this word accord- 
ing to Isidore and Bede.] Licet igitur isti peccatores exstiterint, eorum 
tamen pcenitentia adeo placuit ut non solum dominus eorum culpis 
ignosceret, sed eliam in iis dona sua multiplicius cumularet Nam 
saevissimum persecutorem fecit fidelissimum praedicatorem, adulterum 
et homicidam fecit prophetam et psalmistam, et lucris inhiantem et 
cupidum fecit apostolum et evangelistam. Ideo igitur horum trium 
dicta nobis tam frequentius recitantur, ut nullus qui converti voluerit, 
desperet de venia, quando tantos in culpa tales conspicit fuisse in 
gratia. Notandum in super, quod secundum beatum Ambrosium 
circa conversionem beati Matthaei," &c. 

523. The L.A., after referring to the flight of Zaroes and Arphaxat 
into Persia, says : " Notandum, quod in beato Matthaeo quatuor con- 
siderantur." Of these four only the fourth is here mentioned. 

NOTES TO MATHOU (X. 623-583). 145 

523. p^ begynnynge. See L 30. 

537. 5^a//f=SauI. 

544. W^o'= Uriah. 

546. 5/rV///= artifice. 

550. Changeoure = changer = money-changer. 

560. De/ensoure= defender, 

564. Ausfer=aidu\iertr, O.Fr. avoufre, aoutre; Lat. adulterum, 
dath = bo\h. 

566. 5/z//^r^= psalter. 

573. Suer=dLirdL\d. Mod.Sc. swerc, 

674. 2^^r^= alive. Henryson so uses the substantive in 'The 
Bludy Serk,' 1. Z7 :— 

*' And evir quhill she was in qucrt 
That was hir a Icssoun." 

678. yl= aye, always. 

68L Hardy ^hQ\d, 

683-692. Author's conclusion. 


Simon the Canaanite, one of the Twelve Apostles (Matt x. 4, Mark 
iii. 18), is also known as Simon Zelotes (Luke vi. 15, Acts i. 13). The 
latter term (fi/Xainys) is peculiar to Luke, and probably indicates that the 
Apostle formerly belonged to the faction of the zealots. From the first 
of the surnames it has been argued that he was bom at Cana in Galilee, 
and there is a tradition among the Greeks that it was at his marriage 
that our Lord turned water into wine. The term Canaanite appears 
to have survived the other as the distinctive surname of St Simon 
(* Apost. Const,* vi. 14, viii. 27). He is to be distinguished from Simon 
the brother of Jesus (Euseb., * Hist Eccl.,' iii. 11), and from Symeon, 
the second bishop of Jerusalem, with whom he has been identified by 
Sophronius. With the other Apostles he received the gift of the Holy 
Ghost on the day of Pentecost, but of his subsequent history nothing 
is definitely known. According to Nicephorus Callistus, he preached 
the Gospel in Eg>'pt, Cyrene, Africa, and afterwards in Mauritania 
and all Libya. He also mentions the isles of Britain ('Hist. EccL/ 
ii. 40), as does also the Greek Menology, among the places in which 
the Apostle preached. According to a Breton tradition, he preached 
the Gospel and suffered martyrdom by crucifixion in Brittany ; but 
according to the Martyrologies of Jerome, Bede, Ado, and Usuard, 
the place of his martyrdom was in Persia, at a city called Suanir. 
A passage in the Acts of St Andrew states that in the Cimmerian 
Bosphorus there was a tomb in a cave, with an inscription to the 
effect that Simon Zelotes was buried there. Besides the tradition 
that he was crucified, there is another which makes the instrument of 
his martyrdom a saw. St Peter's at Rome and the Cathedral Church 
of Toulouse are said to possess his relics. Cf. Smith's * Diet, of the 
Bible'; Butler's ' Lives of the Saints'; Pdtin's *Dict Hagiog.'; and 
Owen's *Sanctorale Cathol.' 

His day is October 28. 

His sign is usually a saw, but in the Greek representations of his 
martyrdom he is affixed to a cross exactly like that of our Lord, 


but with the superscription O ClMriN. — Mrs Jameson's 'Sacred and 
Legendary Art,* i. 253; Lindsay's 'Christ Art,' i. 150. 

St Jude, one of the Twelve Apostles, is also known as Judas, Lebbeus, 
and Thaddeus. In the Epistle attributed to him, he is named "Jude, 
the . . . brother of James." The name Judas only, without any dis- 
tinguishing mark, occurs in the lists given by St Luke, vi. 16, and 
Acts i. 13, and in John xiv. 22. The brother of James the Less, he 
was also the brother of Symeon, the second bishop of Jerusalem, 
and of one Joses. They were all the sons of Cleophas and Mary, the 
sister of the mother of our Lord. Of his conversion nothing is known. 
He was present at the Last Supper, and when Christ promised to 
manifest Himself to every one who should love Him, it was Jude 
who asked Him why He would manifest Himself to them and not to 
the world (John xiv.) Of his history after the day of Pentecost nothing 
is certainly known. According to Nicephorus, Isidore, and the Mar- 
tyrologies, he preached in Judaea, Samaria, Idumaea, Syria, and 
Mesopotamia. St Paulinus (Carm. 26) says that he planted the faith 
in Libya. He is said to have returned to Jerusalem after the death 
of his brother James the Less, and to have assisted at the election of 
Symeon as his successor. According to tradition, he was sent by St 
Thomas with a letter to Abgarus, whom he was commissioned to 
heal. On this mission he is said to have been joined by Simon Zelotes, 
and during his stay in Mesopotamia, to have ordained Abdias the first 
bishop of Babylon. The two are said to have afterwards proceeded to 
Persia, where they suffered martyrdom. Another tradition says that St 
Jude was put to death at Berytus in Phoenicia, in the year a.d. 80. By 
another, Ararat in Armenia is named as the place of his mart3a"dom. 
As to the mode of his martyrdom, many Greek writers say he was 
shot to death with arrows ; some add whilst he was tied on a cross. 
Nicephorus, on the other hand, makes him die a natural death in 
Edessa, the city of Abgarus (*Hist. Eccl.,' ii. 40). The Armenians 
claim St Jude, along with St Bartholomew, as the first preachers 
of the Gospel among them. The story told by Hegesippus, and pre- 
served by Eusebius, that his descendants were summoned before the 
Emperor Domitian and then dismissed by him as too poor to be 
worthy of notice, is regarded by some as referring to a different Jude 
— Judas, the brother of our Lord. 

His day is October 28. 

For a sign he bears a club or halberd. 

Analysis — Their name and family, 1-8 ; the author proposes to tell 
the story of St Jude being sent by St Thomas to Abgarus, Prince of 
Edessa, as he finds it written in a story of the Church, 9-14; the 
letter sent by Abgarus to Christ, 15-46; our Lord's reply, 47-64; 
Abgarus, disappointed that he is not to see Jesus, sends a painter to 
make a portrait of Him, 65-73 ; when the painter sees Jesus his skill 


fails him, 74-78 ; Christ places a linen cloth on His face, and imprints 
His portrait on it, and sends it to Abgarus, 79-86 ; a description of 
Christ's personal appearance. 87-94 ; after the Ascension St Thomas 
sends St Jude to Abgarus to fulfil Christ's promise, 95-99 ; Jude's 
reception by Abgarus, and the latter's conversion, 100-126 ; St Jude 
preaches in Mesopotamia and Pontus, and St Simon in Egypt, 127- 
129; together they go to Persia, where they meet with Zaroes and 
Arphaxat, 130-136; their encounters with them, 137-344; the 
story of a deacon falsely accused, 344-370 ; the Apostles deliver 
the land from the ravages of two fierce tigers, 371-390; Zaroes and 
Arphaxat, whom the Apostles had set free after being imprisoned by 
the king for deceiving him, go to a city named Suanir, Samir, or 
Suamir, where dwell seventy pagan priests, and incite them against 
the Apostles, whom, after they have caused their idols to be destroyed, 
they put to death, and are then themselves, with Zaroes and Arphaxat, 
burnt to death in their temple, which has been set on fire by lightning, 
391-458 ; the king causes the bodies of the Apostles to be brought 
to the city in which he chiefly dwelt, and there interred in a costly 
sepulchre, 459-466 ; conclusion, 467-470. 

Sources — Cf. L.A., cap. clix. ; Abdias, Lib. vi. ; Peter de Natalibus, 
ix. 115 ; and Vincent. Bello., viii. 78 et seq. 

The etymological introduction of L.A. is wanting. 

1-6. L.A. : " Symon Cananeus et Judas, qui et Thaddaeus, fratres 
fuerunt Jacobi minoris et filii Marise Cleophse, quse Alpheo nupta 

9-18. L.A- : "Judas vero ad Abgarum regem Edessa^ a Thoma 
missus fuit post ascensionem domini. Legitur enim in ecclesiastica 
hystoria quod prjedictus rex Abgarus domino nostro J. Chr. in hunc 
modum epistolam destinavit." 

9. A^adar/te^ Abgarus or Abgar. He was the fifteenth king bearing 
this name who reigned over Edessa, and was surnamed Ucomo, "the 
black." According to our chronology he reigned from a.d. 9 to a.d. 
46, and according to another from a.d. 15 to a.d. 50. For an account 
of him see Smith's * Diet, of Christ. Biog.,' sub Abgar j and for his 
letter, Eusebius, 'Hist. Eccl.,* i. 13. 

10. £'^/jja= Edessa, an important town in the extreme north of 
Mesopotamia, in the province of Osrhoone, and situated on the river 
Scirtus, a small tributary of the Euphrates. St Isidore says that it was 
founded by Nimrod, and St Ephrem that Nimrod ruled there and at 
Arach. According to Appian and Cedrenus, however, it was built by 
Seleucus. During the wars between the Graeco-Roman empire and 
the Persians, and in ecclesiastical history, Edessa plays a very pro- 
minent part. It was famous for its schools of theolog>', which were 
attended by students from all parts. The most important of its 
schools was the Schola Persica, which appears to have been limited 

NOTES TO SYMON AND lUDAS (XI. 12-65). 153 

to Christians of the Persian nation. Its professors took part in the 
Nestorian controversy with John, Patriarch of Antioch, and Ibas, 
Bishop of Edessa, against St Cyril. They were expelled by Martyrus, 
Bishop of Edessa, and the school itself pulled down by order of Zeno, 
the Roman Emperor, a.d. 489, when a church dedicated to St Mary 
was built upon its ruins. See Smith's * Diet, of Gr. and Rom. Geo- 

12. Z?^r= dear. Cf. VI I. 430. 

19-45. L.A. : " Abgarus rex Euchaniae filius Jesu salvatori bono, qui 
apparuit in locis Hierosolimorum, salutem : Auditum est mihi de te 
et sanitatibus quas facis, quod sine medicamentis aut herbis fiant ista 
per te, et quod verbo facis caecos videre, claudos ambulare, Icprosos 
mundari et mortuos reviviscere. Quibus omnibus auditis de te statui 
in animo meo unum esse de duobus : aut quia tu sis Deus et descen- 
deris de coelo, ut haec facias, aut quod filius Dei sis qui haec facis. 
Propterea ergo scribens rogaverim te, ut digneris fatigari usque ad me 
et segritudinem meam, qua diu laboravi, curare. Nam et illud com- 
pcri quod Judaei murmurant adversum te, volunt insidiari tibi. Veni 
ergo ad me, quia est mihi parva civitas, sed honesta, quae utrisque 
sufficiet" See also Eusebius, *Hist Eccl.,' i. 13. 

24. drf7>=gress= herbs. L.A., herbis. 

27. C/<f/arg7>= clean sest. myse/ry =\c\)rosy. Cf. X. 480. 

30. £^/r^^= dropsy. " //)'^n7//>/V, the dropsy " — Cotgr. Lat. Ay- 

drapisis, spelt in Late Lat. hydropisia ; Late Gr. vS/xii^uris, from Gr. 
vSp<ui/r, dropsy. 

31. Fewire^itMtx, parlesy=^'p2Xsy, O.Fr. ^^paralysic, the palsie" 
— Cotgr. Lat paralysis. 

35. p<i/=at /K^j'«=lykyng= liking. 

38. 7y/= straight. 

44. 5/i/r/= annoyance. See Jamieson. 

47-M. L.A. : " Dominus autem Jesus in haec verba sibi respondit : 
Beatus es qui credidisti in me, cum ipse non videris me. Scriptum 
est enim de me, quia hi qui me non vident, credent, et hi qui me vident, 
non credent De eo autem quod scripsisti ad me, ut veniam ad te, 
oportet me haec omnia complere propter quae missus sum, et postea 
recipi me ab eo a quo missus sum. Cum ergo assumtus fuero, aliquem 
de discipulis meis mittam ad te ut curet te et vivificet te. Et haec 
in hystoria eccles." See Euseb., *Hist Eccl.,* i. 13. 

50. Ee=ty^, 

53. Fele=fell=m2Lny, en€=tyts. Plu. of ee^ 1. 50. Cf. ox, oxen ; 
hose, hosen. 

50. Anence=a.ntn\, 

61. pa;i, read and. 

63. /'rr>i/5f^^= servants. 

65-94. L.A. : "Videns autem Abgarus quod praesentialiter Christum 
videre non posset, (secundum quod in quadam antiqua hystoria in- 


venitur, sicut Johannes Damascenus in libro IV testatur) pictorcm 
quendam ad Jesum misit, ut domini imaginem figuraret, ut sic ipsum 
saltern per imaginem conspiceret, quern in facie videre non poterat 
Sed cum ad eum pictor venisset, propter nimium fulgorem qui ab ejus 
facie procedebat, in ejus faciem clare nequibat videre vel intendere 
nee ipsam, ut sibi jussum fuerat, figurare. Quod cemens dominus 
vestimentum linteum ipsius pictoris accipiens et suae faciei superim- 
ponens, sui ipsius imaginem eidem impressit ac desideranti regi A- 
destinavit. Cuiusmodi autem imaginis dominus fuerit, in eadem 
antiqua hystoria legitur (sicut idem Johannes testatur). Fuit enim 
bene oculatus, bene superciliatus, longum vultum habuit et fuit 
acclivis, quod est signum maturitatis." 

67, Paynteore= painter. 

68. 5/^= skilful. 

71. Se he MoM=he might see. 
73. /'fly«///r=paynteore of 1. 67. 

76. ScAenyn£'e= shining, light 

77. Ochf=2Mght 

78. 5//V^/=skiIl; cf. 1. 68. 
80. Lynyne =lintn. 

82. Fra \>at wes downe =vf\itn that was done. 

85. Payntoure ^pzynieoxe of 1. 67. 

89. lohnne of damassene=]osLnnes Damascenus, or St John of 
Damascus, was sprung from a distinguished Christian family in Da- 
mascus, known by the Arabic surname of Mansour. He was bom 
towards the end of the seventh century. The year 676 has been 
named, but there is considerable doubt as to its accuracy. His father, 
Sergius, son of Mansour, was treasurer to the Caliph Abdulmelek. 
For his Christian education he was indebted to a certain Cosmas, a 
man of Greek descent, probably from Calabria, whom his father re- 
deemed from slavery. Like his father, he also for some time held an 
office of importance under the Caliphs. Leaving Damascus, he retired 
to the convent of St Sabas, near Jerusalem, and became a monk. 
When in 730 Leo the Isaurian issued his second and more stringent 
edict against image -worship, along with his own patriarch Ger- 
manus and Pope Gregory IL, he took part in the controversy which 
arose against Leo. He was a voluminous writer both in prose and 
verse, and among many is best known as a hymn-writer. In his 
literary labours he is said to have been assisted by Cosmas, whom 
Sergius, his father, had adopted, and who was afterwards made Bishop 
of Maiuma in Palestine. He died about the year 765. His remains 
appear to have been removed from St Sabas to Constantinople, but 
for what reason is unknown. 

92. Z?^/zr= dispute. Icel. dc^zVa, to dispute ; dtM, a dispute. 

95-114. Cf. L.A. 

115-119. L.A : " Credo vere, et Judaeos, qui eum crucifixerunt. 

NOTES TO SYMON AND lUDAS (XL 119-190). 1 55 

libenter trucidarem, si mihi possibilitas adesset et nequaquam Rom- 
anonim auctoritas impediret." 

119. Owta^afui=ou{aking — />., excepting. 

121. WVa/= wrote. 

122. iS/et/^ state, condition. 

123. 7a;^rA//= touched. 

127-169. L. A. : " Judas autem postea in Mesopotamia et Ponto 
praedicavit, Symon vero in ^^pto. Deinde in Persidem ambo vene- 
nint et ibidem duos magos, Zaroen et Arphaxat, quos Matthaeus de 
iCthiopia fugaverat, invenerunt. Tunc Baradach, dux regis Baby- 
Ionise, contra Indos ad proelium profecturus nullum a Diis suis potuit 
habere responsum. Pergentes autem ad fanum proximae civitatis 
ibidem habuerunt responsum quod propter apostolos qui venerunt, 
Dii respondere non possent. Tunc dux eos inquiri fecit et inventos, 
quinam essent vel qua de re venissent, inquisivit. Qui responderunt : 
si genus quaeris, hebraci sumus, si conditionem, servos Christi nos 
esse fatemur, si causam, salutis vestrae causa hue venimus." 

131. /'^rrtf= Persia. 

132-136. See the preceding Legend. 

132. JVeMs. See note to X. 68. 
134. Z?/jj/za///= deceived. 

136. Ifyne= hence. 

137. Kyng^ named Xersis by P. de Natalibus. 

139. Woradach, L.A., Baradach ; Vincent. Bello., Waradach. 

143. /%:7r= because, ^ald — yielded. 

145. To tt///=to learn. )?rt/=at. To learn of, &c. 

162. To laytte^ioWe. See Jamieson. 

170-189. L.A. : " Quibus dux respondit : cum felix reversus fuero, 
audiam vos. Cui apostoli : modo magis congruum est, te cognoscere 
ilium, cuius ope vincere possis vel certe rebelles pacatissimos invenire. 
Quibus dux : Diis nostris potentiores vos video : finem belli nobis, 
rogo, prsedicite. Cui apostoli : ut deos tuos mendaces esse cognos- 
cas, jubemus illos ad quaesita dare responsa, ut, dum dixerint quae 
ignorant, probemus eos per omnia esse mentitos." 

170. Towme=^\e\sMre. Icel. tdm, emptiness, leisure; /(fmr, empty ; 
Dan. /om, 

172. Cane'Com^= return, 

176. JVtcUur£= victory. 

177. I^ays =(oes. 

180. Be fulfar—hy full far = by a great deal. 

184. Z^ar/>= liars. 

185. Z>^= leave. 

187. =" When they say what they know not" 

190-214. L.A. : "Tunc phantastici grande bellum dixerunt futurum 
ct multum populum hinc inde proelio ruiturum. Tunc apostoli 
ridere coeperunt Dicit iis dux: me timor invasit et vos ridetis? 

156 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XL 192-261). 

Cui apostoli : noli timere, quia pax hue nobiscum intravit et eras 
hora diei tcrtia legati Indorum ad te venient et tuae se potestati cum 
pace subjicient. Tunc pontifices risum etiam levaverunt et duci dix- 
erunt : ad hoc isti te securum reddere volunt, ut, dum incautus fueris, 
ab adversariis occuperis. Cui apostoli : non diximus tibi, exspecta 
unum mensem, sed unum diem et eras in pace victor exsistes. Tunc 
dux utrosque custodiri fecit, ut ex rei cxitu veraces honorarentur et 
mendaces pro crimine punirentur." 

192. Zi/riA/= laughed. Cf. laucht, 1. 194. 

193. -^^•^J&/^J= terror. L.A., timor. 

195. 7!Aar= it needs. Icel. )7a//I needs. 

197. 7Vrr^=terce. Terce is the office ordered to be recited at the 
third of the canonical hours — that is, at nine a.m. Hence "or it 
terse be" means before nine o'clock in the morning. 

200. Byschapis=\yi^iyps, but here the idolatrous priests. See be- 
low, 11. 395, 396. 

202. F/nt/ar= unwary, unwatchful. 

204. Heiihar=ethar, comparative of ^M= easy, easier. 

206. Moneth=TCiOTi\h. 

207. -5y//=wait 

214. Punyse sar=^\xms\\ sore. 

215-268. L.A. : *' Cum ergo in crastinum, quod apostoli praedixerant, 
evenisset et dux incendere voluisset pontifices, prohibuenint apostoli. 
ne hoc fieret, cum ipsi non viventes occidere, sed mortuos vivificare 
missi essent. Tunc dux valde miratus, quod eos occidi non permitter- 
ent et quia de bonis illorum aliquid recipere nollent, eos ad regem duxit 
dicens : isti, rex, sunt Dii latentes in effigie hominum. Cumque sibi 
omnia praesentibus praedictis magis narrasset, zelo invidiae magi com- 
moti dixerunt eos malignos esse et contra regnum subtiliter cogitare. 
Dixit iis dux : si audetis, cum iis confligite. Cui magi : si vis videre, 
quia nobis prassentibus loqui non poterunt, veniant hue viri eloquen- 
tissimi, et si coram nobis ausi loqui fuerint, nos per omnia imperitos 
probabis. Cum autem plurimi advocali adducti fuissent, continuo 
coram magis ita muti facti sunt, ut nee nutibus, quod loqui non 
poterant, indicarent. Dixeruntque magi ad regem : ut seias nos 
Deos esse, permitlemus eos loqui, sed ambulare non posse, iterumque 
reddemus iis gressum, sed faciemus eos apertis oculis non videre. 
Qui cum h'xc omnia fecissent, dux advocatos illos turpiter confusos 
ad apostolos duxit. Ouos cum advocati pannosos vidissent, eos in 
animo contemserunt." 

223. ifrrtr= rather. 

236. A'wne=o\\x\. 

249. Ad7uocat=diA\oc2Xty professional speaker. 

257. Z^j/= permission. 

258. Fowt==iooi. Cf. IX. 36. ^/rrZv= stretch. 
261. 0/j;/t'= opened, open. 


268. Dyspyi=d^s\A\.e. hethynge= scorn, 

269-286. L.A. : '' Quibus Symon : saepe evenit, ut intra scrinia aurea 
et gemmata vilia quaeque habeantur inclusa et intra vilissimas et 
ligneas capsas sint gemmarum monilia pretiosa composita ; qui- 
cunque ergo alicuius rei cupit esse possessor, non magnopere gesta- 
torium, sed ipsum quod gestatur exspectat. Promittite igitur vos ab 
ydolorum cultura discedere et solum Deum invisibilem adorafe, et 
nos signum crucis in frontibus vestris faciemus et magos confutare 

270. Kyste=^c\iGsX, Mod.Sc. kist, 

276. Lad=\2Lid. 

277. /V7r-^?a//= without assay = trial, 
279. Quy/fy =qmte\yt entirely. 

281. A god=^ont God. 

283. /wy/f//r>=frountis= foreheads. 

285. Scoomfyi =(i\scom^i, 

287*312. L.A. : " Quod cum fecissent et in frontibus consignati 
essent, ad regem coram magis iterum ing^essi sunt, et cum a magis 
superari non possent, imo ipsis coram omnibus insultarent, irati magi 
multitudinem serpentium advenire fecerunt, statimque ad jussum 
regis venientes apostoli pallia sua de serpentibus impleverunt et in 
magos projecerunt dicentes : in nomine domini non moriemini, sed a 
serpentibus lacerati dolorum vestrorum mugitus dabitis." 

290. 15/^;^^= strive. 

294. Ve?iand= XhmVmg, 

296. Af£re=ma.r. Cf. X. S3, A.S. merran, 

297. Scauryt\am, Perhaps the correct reading is sconryt ]>am = 
felt disgusted. 

304. ^j^r<?=athyre= either. See 1. 373 below. stufe= stout, fare= 

305. But rednes =vf\thout fear. sc/io/=shot, went quickly. Cf. 1. 
45 1 . edryse = adders. 

306. Man/i//is =m3int\es. 
309. Ster£= stir. 

311. Bate=bit, 

314-344. L.A. : " Cum ergo serpentes carnes eorum comederent et 
ipsi tamquam lupi ulularent, rex et ca^teri rogabant apostolos ut eos 
a serpentibus occidi permitterent. Quibus ap. responderunt: nos 
missi sumus reducere de morte ad vitam, non a vita praecipitare in 
mortem, et facta oratione jusserunt serpentibus, ut omne venenum, 
quod infuderant, revocarent et postmodum ad loca sua redirent. 
Majores autem cruciatus magi senserunt, cum venena serpentes 
retraherent, quam cum ante carnes comederent Quibus ap. dixe- 
runt : tribus diebus dolores sentietis, tertia vero die sani eritis, ut 
vel sic a vestra malitia recedatis. Cum ergo tribus diebus sine cibo 
et potu ac somno doloribus nimium cruciati mansissent, apostoli 


venientes ad eos dixenint: non dignatur dominus habere coacta 
semita, tdeoque surgite sani et abite habentes liberam facuUatem 
faciendi quae vultis. lili autem in malttia perdurantes ab iis fugerunt 
et psene contra eos totam Babyloniam commoyerunt** 

32L Stii =suc\l 

2ZL rV/j>'/fft'= venom. 

324. SzL*kyne=s\icV\n-^. y^^^y read <ir<?= before. 

334. />r>'7f^«r= drink. 

338. Thret jrn//tv= threat service— />., ser\*ice rendered through 
fear induced by threats. 

342. p/w=}>yne = thence. 

343. One s/ere= 2iSt\r, 
345-356. The same as L.A. 
345. Do7i'c/i/yr=d2LUghicr. 

348. DeJtyn£= desLCon. Vine Bello.: "Visum sanctum eufrosinum 

350. D/forst/= deforced. 

357-358. L.A. : " Dixenint apostoli : infantem hue adducite et dya- 
conum, quern accusatis, hue etiam perducite." 

365. K/i/V/y/=undefiled. 

369. 5/7>tAjj= innocent 

370. L.A. : " Nocentes perdere non decet** wyj/i>;//^= to misjudge. 
A similar story to the one just related is told of St Ninian. 

371-382. The same as L.A. 

374. Prapyre= own. cafe—cx^e. Plural ^rtZ£//r, see below. 

376. 5^/= ate. Cf. VII. 54. 

380. Ctza//V= caves. See 1. 374 above. 

383-390. L.A. : "Volentibus autem apostolis inde discedere, rogati 
per annum et tres menses ibidem permanserunt, in quo spatio plus 
quam LX millia hominum exceptis pan'ulis cum rege et principibus 
baptizati sunt" 

389. (:>7'/a//t'= besides. 

391-428. L.A. : " Prasdicti autem magi ad quandam civitatem 
nomine Suamair, ubi erant LXX ydolorum pontifices, venerunt et 
eos contra apostolos concitaverunt, ut, cum illuc venissent, aut eos 
sacrificare compellerent aut penitus necarent Perlustrata igitur 
universa provincia cum apostoli ad praedictam civitatem venissent, 
ecce praidicti pontifices cum universo populo eos capiunt et ad 
templum solis deducunt. Daemones autem per energumenos clamare 
coeperunt : quid nobis et vobis, apostoli Dei vivi ? Ecce in ingressu 
vestro flammis exurimur. Tunc angelus domini iis apparens dixit : 
unum e duobus eligite, aut horum repentinum interitum aut vestrum 
martirium. Cui apostoli : ut et istos convertat et nos ad palmam 
martirii perducat" 

391. 7'/r>'r=j7ir= these, those. 

393. Bygyt=\i\i\\i. 

NOTES TO SYMON AND lUDAS (XI. 395465). 159 

394. Suamayr^^ Ssimir, Sanir, Senner. 

395. Byschapis. See note to 1. 200, 
402. Alowte—T^ out, entirely. 
404. 5tfwy«r= sowed. 

411. Sowne—SMVK. 

412. Wodmen = man iacs. 

417. Sarare—soxtx. 

418. Ware brynt to be, read ware wont to be ? 

429-466. L.A.: "Facto autem silentio ap. dixerunt : ut sciatis 
quod hxc ydola daemon ibus plena sunt, ecce iis imperamus ut exeant 
et singuli simulacra sua confringant. Statimque duo y^thiopes nigri 
et nudi cunctis stupentibus de simulacris exierunt et confractis illis 
cum diris vocibus abscesserunt. Quod videntes pontifices in apostolos 
irruerunt et eos protinus trucidarunt. In ipsa autem hora, cum nimia 
esset cceli serenitas, tanta fulgura exstiterunt, ut templum ipsum 
trifarie scinderetur et illi duo magi in carbones ictu fulguris ver- 
tcrentur. Rex autem corpora apostolorum ad suam urbem transtulit 
et in honorem eorum ecclesiam mirae magnitudinis fabricavit" 

440. Far blacker than any soot. 

444. Effray={^2j, 

446. Yre 6r* tene= anger and rage. 

450. JfV^/= wealthy. /ywe=\\k, ]>at read ay? 

454. Somyre= summer, 

455. 7}4<7«/>= thunder. tArow= rattled, A.S. ^preowan, agonizare. 
458. G;//j= coals. 

463. Cure = care, 

465. />r/Ky^'*^=wondrously fair. 


S. Matthias was, according to St Clement (' Strom.,' iv. p. 448), Eusc- 
bius (* Hist Eccl.,' i. 12), and St Jerome (in Catal.). one of the seventy. 
After our Lord's ascension he was chosen to take the place of Judas 
the Betrayer as one of the Twelve (Acts i. 28). Beyond this nothing 
is definitely known of him. The Greek Menologies say that he 
preached the Gospel in Cappadocia and along the coasts of the Caspian 
Sea, residing chiefly near the port of Issus. According to the same 
authorities he suffered martyrdom in Colchis, which they call Ethio- 
pia. An apocryphal gospel was published under his name (Eusebius, 
* Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 23), and Clement of Alexandria quotes from the Tra- 
ditions of Matthias (* Strom.,* ii. 163, &c.) Some portions of his relics 
are shown in the abbatial church at Treves, and others in that of St 
Mary Major at Rome. 

His day is February 24. 

In art he bears as his sign a halbert, the instrument of his martyr- 

Analysis — Introduction, 1-6; the dream of Tiberia, the wife of 
Reuben, 7-38 ; the birth of Iscariot, 39-44 ; he is placed in a vessel in 
the water, 45-55 ; is found and adopted by the queen, 56-90; the birth 
of a child to the queen, and his treatment by Judas, who finally 
kills him, 91-120 ; Judas flees to Jerusalem and becomes a favourite 
with Pilate, 121-140; Pilate desires to eat of the apples growing in 
Reuben's garden, Judas undertakes to procure some of them for him, 
is challenged by Reuben, whom he slays, and afterwards marries Tibe- 
ria, Reuben's widow and his own mother, 141-196 ; Tiberia relates to 
Judas the story of what she and Reuben had done with their child, 
when Judas discovers his relationship to her, and remembering his 
own misdeeds, he asks her what he should do for his " sawle-hele," 
and is recommended by her to seek out Jesus, to whom he afterwards 
joins himself, 197-246; the death of Judas, 247-299; the election of 
Matthias, 300-356 ; he preaches in Judaea, where he suffers martyrdom. 

NOTES TO MATHIAS (XII. 1-50). l6l 

357-410; the story of his mission in Macedonia, 411-464; conclusion, 

Source — Cf. LmA., cap. xlv. 

The etymological introduction in L.A. is omitted. 

1-38. L.A. : " M. ap. in locum Judae substitutus est. sed primo ortum 
et originem ipsius Judae breviter videamus. Legitur enim in quadam 
hystoria licet apocrypha, quod fuit quidam vir in Jerusalem nomine 
Ruben, qui alio nomine dictus est Symon de tribu Dan, vel secundum 
Hieronymum de tribu Ysaschar, qui habuit uxorem, quae Cyborea 
nuncupata est Quadam igitur nocte cum sibi mutuo debitum ex- 
solvissent, Cyborea obdormiens somnium vidit, quod perterrita cum 
^emitibus et suspiriis viro suo retulit dicens : videbatur mihi quod 
filium flagitiosum parerem, qui totius gentis nostras causa perditionis 
exsisteret. Cui Ruben ; nefariam rem, inquit, nee relatu dignam pro- 
faris et spiritu, ceu puto, phitonico raperis. Cui ilia : si me concepisse 
sensero et filium peperero, absque dubio non spiritus phitonicus ex- 
stitit, sed revelatio certa fuit." 

4. In stad=^'\n place, instead. See Acts i. 

8. Qjukil—OTiZt, 

9. A^«^= lineage. 

10. Symeone=^^\vciOXi, John vi. 17, xiii. 2, 26. 
16. 7V>&^<^^= took heed. 

19. iS'/VA/tf«^= sighing. 
22. Lome=\os\„ 

" At sic myscheiif war thai of Lome ; 
For feill the lyffis Ihair has lomg.'* 

— * Bruce,* x. 106. 

A.S.£€/oren, lost, p. pt. o{ ledsan, to lose. 

28. Wech'Cra/te= WiicYicr^Sx. 7nerrys=m3Lrs, frets. See note to 
XI. 296. 

31. Knafe dame = male child. 

33. Bysyne= monster. 

39-72. L.A. : " Procedente igitur tempore cum filium peperisset, 
parentes plurimum timuerunt, et quid de eo facerent, cogitare coepe- 
runt, cumque filium abhorrerent occidere, nee vellent destructorem sui 
generis enutrire, ipsum in fiscella positum mari exponunt, quem marini 
fiuctus ad insulam propulerunt quae Scarioth dicitur. Ab ilia igitur 
insula Judas Scariotes appellatus est, regina autem illius loci carens 
liberis ad littus maris causa spatiandi processit et fiscellam a marinis 
fluctibus jactari videns, ipsam aperiri praecepit inveniensque ibi puerum 
elegantis formae suspirans ait : o si solatiis tantae sublevarer sobolis, ne 
regni mei privarer successore." 

49. SpfcAis^ twigs, cowyfte ^^basket. O.Fr. co/in, a chest, case; 
Lat cophinusy a basket ; Gr. ico^tvos. 

50. il/^/=meet, fit 

VOL. III. / 


51. /^>&y/= covered with pitch. 

52. That it had no fear of water, or was impervious to it. 
56. Quhylufn = whilom = once. 

59. Scarioi—ScKuoXh, an unknown place. 

64. Cofyne^cowyne of line 49, the note to which see. 

65. Jf^z£'/j= waves. 

69. 5>'^A/V= sighed. 

70. God, if thou mine own wert ! 

71. Ayr=heiT. 

73-86. L.A.: "Puerum igitur secreto nutriri fecit et se g^avidam 
simulavit, tandem se filium peperisse mentitur et per totum regnum 
fama haec Celebris divulgatur. Princeps pro suscepta sobole vehe- 
menter exsultat et ingenti gaudio plebs laetatur." 

75. •S'«/^/y=subtily. 

77. Fane=g\^d. 

" Quhar schir amer wes na thing fang, 
Quhen he herd tell on quhat maner 
That his men3e discumfit were." 

— 'Bruce,* viii. 112. 

87-lli. L.A.: "Ipsum igitur secundum magnificentiam regiam 
educari fecit, non post multum vero temporis regina de rege concepit 
et suo tempore filium parturivit. Cum autem pueri aliquantulum jam 
crevissent, ad invicem saepius colludebant et puerum regium Judas 
crebris molestiis et injuriis molestabat et ad fletum ssepius provocabat, 
regina autem hoc moleste ferens et Judam ad se non pertinere sciens 
ipsum crebrius verberavit Sed nee sic a molestia pueri desistebat 
Tandem res panditur et Judas non verus reginae filius, sed inventus 

89. ludas scaryo/ke=JudsLS Iscariot. On the derivation of Iscariot, 
which is uncertain, see Smithes * Diet, of the Bible,' sub JudcLS Iscariot. 

99. A 7/ice=in one, or the same way. 

100. Were clothed and lodged in the same way. 

110. Thus therefor the queen caused him to be beaten. 

111. Fra= whtn. 

112. Chasty hyme for aw na flycht, c/tasty= correct^ make correct 
or right. O.Fr. chastier, casiier; Lat castigare, to castigate, make 
pure, flycht^ read slycht For aw na slicht is the equivalent oi for 
luf na ihret m 1. 109. ««/= harsh dealing, threatening,* slicht ^^d^aX" 
ing judiciously, gently. 

113. W>/=know. 

Hi. Fundlynge=^ioMXid\\x\%, 

115-140. L.A.: "Quod J. ut comperit, vehementer erubuit et fratrem 
suum putativum filium regis latenter occidit. Ob hoc capitalem 
sententiam timens cum tributariis in Jerusalem aufugit seque curias 
Pylati, tunc praesidis, mancipavit (et quoniam res similes sibi sunt 

NOTES TO MATHIAS (XU. 118-141). 1 63 

habiles) Pylatus Judam suis moribus invenit congruere et ideo coepit 
ipsum valde carum habere. Universae igitur curiae Pylati Judas prae- 
6citur et ad ejus nutum omnia disponuntur." 

118. JCnuTt/yne = kno^ffn. 

119. Lurdane=T2LScaLL O.Fr. lourdein, a blockhead, lazy fellow. 

" For thar within wes a tratour, 
A false lurdane, ane losengeour, 
Osborne to name." 

— * Bruce,' iv. 108. 

" Owte ! on ]>e Lucifer, lurdan / oure lyghte has )ni loroe." 

— ' York Plays,' 5/108. 

"Biddis god me? fals lurdayne, )>ou lyes." 

— ' York Plays,' 81/229. 

123. 7>j^//arw= tributaries. L.A., tributarii. Th^ tributarii -wtxt 
either slaves or the descendants of slaves, who had been set free by 
their owners, but not absolutely. They still belonged to the estate, and 
could not remove from it. A portion of land {terra tribuiaria) was 
usually, if not always, assigned to them, for which they were bound to 
render either rent or service (tribuium). Those referred to in the text 
were evidently freedmen of this class, who refused to submit to the 
restraints imposed upon their freedom, or to render their tributum. 
See Fustel de Coulanges' 'L'alleu et le domaine rural pendant 
l*epoquc M^rovingienne,' chap. xv. ; also Du Cange, sub Tributarii 
and Tribuiales, 

127. His mafte =his man or servant. 

130. />«/= pleasure. 

'* Much dut wat3 \>er dryuen })at day." 

— ' Gawain,' 1020. 

Sec Bradley, sub voce, 

137. HaIe=^yi)\o\tt sole. 

140. W7rM= behoved. A.S. weorSan, to become. 

141-184. L.A. : " Quadam igitur die Pylatus de palatio suo in quod- 
dam pomoerium aspiciens, illorum pomorum tanto desiderio captus est, 
ut paene deficere videretur. £rat autem illud pomoerium Ruben, 
patris Judae, sed nee Judas patrem neque Ruben filium agnoscebat, 
quia et Ruben ipsum his marinis fluctibus periisse putabat, et Judas, 
quis pater aut quae patria sua fuerit, penitus ignorabat. Pylatus itaque 
accersito Juda ait : tanto illorum fructuum captus sum desiderio, quod, 
si his frustratus fuero, spiritum exhalabo. Concitus igitur Judas in 
pomGerium insiliit et velocius mala carpit. Interea Ruben venit et 
Judam mala sua carpentem invenit : fortiter igitur ambo contendunt 
et jurgia superaddunt, post jurgia surgunt ad verbera et mutuis se 
injuriis affecerunt. Tandem Judas Ruben in ea parte, qua cervix collo 


connectitur, lapide percussit, pariter et occidit. Poma sustulit et 
Pylato, quid accident, enarravit" 

144. ^a^//j'= thoughtfully. 

155. I/is awn barfly read his a bam=\\\s only child. 

158. Quhen=^quhyne=vf\\tnct, 

161. HappHs=appolis of 1. 146 and aplys of 1. i69=apples. A^^/= eat. 

163. Hyme worthyt=^\it, must 

165. Dyces£i \>e=wtx thyself. 

168. Jn til a lynge=^\Ti a straight course, straightway. 

169. Schonge, probably for schonk = s\\OQ\i, Cf. 'Wallace/ iii. 147 
and 156. 

171. Dowande—^o\Xi%. 

174. /?^3/?y/^= reproach. Cf. * Wallace/ 3C 595. 

177. /'^/k/i^^= scolding, quarrelling. 

178. Z?y«^^= strike. 

185-196. L.A.: "Jam die inclinante et nocte superveniente Ruben 
mortuus invenitur et subitanea morte praeventus esse putatur, tunc 
Pylatus omnes facultates Ruben Judae tradidit et Cyboream uxorem 
Ruben conjugem Judae dedit." 

185. jE'«{y«^= evening. 

187. -<4/^/^///y= quite dead. 

18a Z?o//=died. 

189. Ranowne=Ytno^Ti, fame, news. 

193. -^^^A^/= escheat. «/<ji= sorrowful. 

197-222. L.A. : " Quadam igitur die dum Cyborea graviter suspi- 
raret et Judas vir ejus, quid haberet, diligenter interrogaret, ilia 
respondit : heu infelicissima sum omnium feminarum, quia infantulum 
meum marinis fluctibus immersi et virum meum morte praeventum 
inveni, sed et dolori misere Pylatus addidit dolorem, qui me moestis- 
simam nuptui tradidit et invitissimam tibi in conjugem copulavit 
Cumque ilia omnia de infantulo enarrasset et Judas ilia, quae sibi 
acciderant, retulisset, inventum est, quod Judas matrem suam in 
uxorem duxerit et patrem suum occiderit." 

200. Ba/ma»d= cursing. 

201. J/-?;/rt«^= bemoaning. A.S. mcenarif to moan. 

203. iT/(£r«y/= bemoaned. 

204. Hyr a sowne^h^r only son. 

205. Escheive=2iX0\A, 

206. Cophyne =co?^n^ basket See notes to 11. 49 and 64. 

207. Regratand^ regretti ng. 

212. Read Mr wil ; " in spite of her and against her will." 
214. /vr^/= fared, dealt ; cf. IX. 92. 
218. Fau't of grace— \2jz\i of grace. 
220. Vnkynd= u n natu ral. 

223-230. L.A. : " Poenitentia igitur ductus suadente Cyborea domi- 
num nostrum Jesum Christum adiit et suorum delictorum veniam 

NOTES TO MATHIAS (XU. 223-299). 165 

imploravit. (Huiusque in prsedicta hystoria apocrypha legitur, quae 
utnim recitanda sit, lectoris arbitrio relinquatur, licet sit potius 
relinquenda quam asserenda.)" 

223. Hytne for-thocht=\it repented. 

224. />^ry^/V= deeds. 

226. Sawle'hele^ss\\2X\ovi. 

231-246. L.A. : " Dominus autem suum eum fecit discipulum et de 
discipulo in suum elegit apostolum, qui adeo sibi familiaris exstitit 
ct dilectus, ut eum faceret suum procuratorem, quern postmodum 
pertulit suum proditorem. Portabat enim loculos et ea, quae Christo 
dabantur furabatur." 

232. A!>M//= showed. A.S. cySan; O.Fris. ketha, 

234. Myne^Xts'^, 

235. Kyih—%\iQ^, See note to 1. 232. 

241. Procura/ore=aigeniy manager, administrator. O.Fr. procur- 
ator; "Lax. procurator. 

247-299. L.A. : " Dolens vero tempore dominicae passionis, quod 
unguentum, quod trecentos denarios valebat, non fuerat venditum, ut 
illos etiam denarios furaretur, abiit et dominum XXX denariis ven- 
didit (quorum unusquisque valebat X denarios usuales et damnum 
unguenti tricentorum denariorum recompensavit) ; vel (ut quidam 
ajunt) omnium, quae pro Christo dabantur, decimam partem furabatur 
et ideo pro decima parte, quam in unguento amiserat, sc. pro XXX 
denariis, dominum vendidit, quos tamen poenitentia ductus retulit et 
abiens laqueo se suspendit et suspensus crepuit medius et diffusa sunt 
omnia viscera ejus. In hoc autem delatum est ori, ne per os effun- 
deretur, non enim dignum erat, ut os tam viliter inquinaretur, quod tam 
gloriosum os, sc. Christi, contigerat. Dignum enim erat, ut viscera, quae 
proditionem conceperant, rupta caderent et guttur, a quo vox proditoris 
exierat, laqueo artaretur. In acre interiit, ut qui angelos in coelo et 
homines in terra offenderat, ab angelorum et hominum regione 
separaretur et in acre cum daemonibus sociaretur.** 

249. Vnym€nt=o\i\XTCitnX. L. 254, vngymente. 

251. 3^^^= poured out. KS.geotan, See Bradley, sub ^<fi^/(^«. 

256. Pur merte= poor men. 

260. 7o';ft/= tenth. 

262. Cowaticg =coYeiousncsSy avarice, 

263. Powere^ poor. 

266. i?/i^»y//^= reckoning. 

267. In ane /y«^<f= straightway. See note to 1. 168. 

268. Wannynge read wamynge^hzxg2\n. I eel. vamingr. 
272. Saklace=\r\XiOct.n\. 

280. Bayly =be\\y. 

288. Snar cord, a cord made into a noose. Snar trom A.S. snara; 
Iccl. snara. 
299-356. L.A. : *' Cum inter ascensionem et penthecosten apostoli in 

1 66 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (xn. 300-379). 

coenaculo simul essent, videns Petnis, quod numerus XII apostolorum 
erat imminutus, quos tamen dominus in hoc numero elegerat, ut fidem 
trinitatis in quattuor mundi partibus praedicarent, surrexit in medio 
fratrum dicens ; viri fratres, oportet ut aliquem loco Judae substituamus, 
qui testetur nobiscum resurrectionem Christi, quia dominus dixit 
nobis : eritis mihi testes in Jerusalem et in omni Judaea et in 
Samaria et usque ad ultimum terrae : et quia testis nonnisi de his, quae 
vidit, debet testimonium ferre, eligendus est unus ex his viris, qui 
nobiscum semper fuerunt et domini miracula viderunt et ejus doc- 
trinam audierunt. £t statuerunt duos de 72 discipulis, sc Joseph, 
qui cognominatus est Justus pro sanctitate sua, qui fuit frater Jacobi 
Alphei, et Mathiam, de cuius laude subticetur, quia sufficit ei pro 
laude quod in apostolum est electus. Et orantes dixerunt ; tu domine, 
qui nosti corda omnium, ostende quem elegeris ex his duobis unum 
accipere locum ministerii huius et apostolatus, quem Judas amisit, et 
datis illis sortibus cecidit sors super Mathiam et annumeratus est cum 
XI apostolis." 

300. This line is No. 299. The right numbering is resumed at 1. 

307. Fore he cause /««^= because he gave reason (for his being de- 
prived of his dignity). 

308. (7/iir=odd. 
319. 5///i^/^= supply. 

351. 2«^j/<?= place. Cf. 1. 318. 

353. Cuttis^\o\s, Cf. VII. 505. 

357 ff. L.A. : " Hie igitur Matthias apostolus Judaeam in sortem 
accepit et prae^dicationi ibidem insistens et multa miracula faciens in 
pace quievit. In nonnullis vero codicibus legitur, quod patibulum 
crucis pertulit et tali martyrio coronatus coelos adscendit Huius 
corpus Romae in ecclesia S. Mariae Majoris sub lapide porphiretico 
sepultum esse dicitur et ibidem caput ejus populo demonstratur." 

357. i^«//M = Matthias. 

360. ^/r=also. yi?r/K= miracles. Though the singular form, it is 
used with a plural significance. 

368. Hewyd^\\^2A. 

369-378. L.A. "In quadam vero legenda quae Treviris invenitur, 
sic inter caetera legitur : M. de tribu Juda et civitate Bethlehem illustri 
prosapia oriundus fuit, qui litteris traditus omnem in brevi legis et 
prophetarum scientiam apprehendit lasciviamque abhorrens pueriles 
annos morum maturitate vincebat. Informabatur quoque ejus animus 
ad virtutum, ut esset ad intelligentiam habilis, ad misericordiam 
facilis, in prosperis non elatus, in adversis constans et intrepidus. 
Satagebat, ut, quod jussu praeceperat, opere compleret et oris doc- 
trinam manuum operatione monstraret." 

376. 5^76/^^= saws, maxims, doctrine. 

379. L.A. : "Hie cum per Judaeam praedicaret, caecos illuminabat 

NOTES TO MATHIAS (XH, 383444). 1 67 

leprosos mundabat, daemones expellebat, claudis gressum, surdis 
auditum, mortuis vitam restituebat" 

383. Z^^r<f= leper. The usual word is my sal, Lepyre occurs here 
for the first time. 

886. 5/^^/^ =spekynge = speaking or speech. 

389-400. LmA. : " Qui cum coram pontifice accusaretur in multis, 
respondit : de objectis quae crimina dicitis, non opus me multa dicere, 
quoniam christianum esse'non est criminis sed gloriae. Cui pontifex : 
si tibi dantur induciae, vis pcenitere ? £t ille : absit ut a veritate quam 
semel inveni, per apostasiam digrediar." 

393. Jf>w/= accused. A.S. wregan, to accuse. 

400. The L.A. goes on to speak of the virtues of St Matthias, a 
passage which is here passed over. 

401-410. L.A. : " Qui cum verbum Dei per Judaeam praedicaret, mul- 
tos signis et prodigiis convertebat. Unde Judaei invidentes ipsum in 
concilio statuerunt. Duo ergo falsi testes qui ipsum accusaverant, 
primo in ipsum lapides miserunt, quos lapides in testimonium illis 
secum fecit sepeliri. Qui dum lapidaretur, securi more Romano 
percutitur et extensis in coelum manibus spiritum Deo reddidit et 
subditur ibidem. Cuius corpus de Judaea Romam et inde Trevirim 
est translatum." 

401. iV>/=deny. See note to VIII. 68. 

411-426. L.A. : " In quadam vero alia legenda legitur, quod, dum 
M. in Macedoniam advenisset et fidem Christi praedicaret, quandam 
potionem toxicatam, quae visu cunctos privabat, sibi dederunt, quam in 
Christi nomine bibit et nullam laesionem incurrit, et cum ilia potione 
plus quam CCL excaecassent, ille singulis manum imponens omnes 

420. 1Vord£ =bec2ime, A,S. it/eorf an ; Icth verffa, to become, 

427-443. L.A. : " Dyabolus autem in similitudinem infantis iis 
apparens suasit, ut Mathiam occiderent qui eorum cultum evacuaret, 
et cum ipse in medio eorum consisteret, tribus tamen diebus eum 
quaerentes minime invenerunt. Tertia autem die se iis manifestans 
dixit : ego sum ; quern manibus post tergum ligatis et fune collo im- 
posito crudeliter afflixerunt et in carcere recluserunt." 

427. Wattis = waitis = watch es. O. Fr. waiter, gaiter^ to watch. 

441. Am rape = a rape = a rope, chesone = cause. 

442. Harfyt^drsLgged, Cf. XV. 192. 

" Halyt into havyn, harlit with ropes. 
HarUt hym fro horsfet, had hym away." 

— * Destruct. of Troy/ 2968 and 5834. 

The word is still used in Scotland, and is another form of hurl, 

444-464. L.A. : " Ubi daemones apparentes dentibus in eum freme- 
bant, sed appropinquare non poterant, dominus autem cum multo 
lumine ad eum veniens ipsum de terra levavit et vincula solvens et 

1 68 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZU. 445466). 

dulciter confortans ostium aperuit Qui egressus verbum domini 
praedicavit, dum autem quidam obstinati persisterent, dixit iis : denun- 
tio vobis, quod vivi in infernum descendetis, moxque terra se aperuit 
et cunctos illos deglutivit, reliqui vero ad dominum sunt conversi." 
445. Madfule 3ere=ma.dt foul noise. 

459. //^7^j^/= opened. 

460. ^/r<?= ere = before. 

464. p^ ^uk — * Legenda Aurea.' 
465-476. Is from the writer's own hand. 


Of St Mark the Evangelist, who was probably the same as " John, 
whose surname was Mark" (Acts xii. 12, 25), very little is known. 
The few particulars related of him in the New Testament are as fol- 
lows. Assuming that he was the same as John Mark, he was the son 
of a certain Mary who dwelt at Jerusalem, and whose house appears 
to have been a favourite resort of the Apostles after the day of Pente- 
cost It was to her house that St Peter went after his deliverance from 
prison (Acts xii. 12), and where on his arrival he found "many gath- 
ered together praying." It was probably through meeting with St 
Peter in his mother's house that St Mark was converted. The Apostle 
of the Circumcision speaks of him as " Marcus my son " (i Pet v. 13). 
According to Col. iv. 10, he was cousin to St Barnabas. Many writers 
identify St Mark with the young man mentioned in the fifty-first and 
following verse of the fourteenth chapter of his Gospel : " There fol- 
lowed Him a certain young man, having a linen cloth cast about his 
naked body; and the young men laid hold on him : and he left the 
linen cloth, and fled from them naked." When SS. Paul and Bar- 
nabas set out on their first missionary journey, Mark accompanied 
them as their "minister" (vTnypcTTs), but turned back at Perga(Acts 
xii. 25, xiii. 13). The consequence was that on their second journey 
St Paul refused to accept him as a companion. Barnabas, his kins- 
man, was more indulgent, and a sharp contention arose between them 
(Acts XV. 36-40). Subsequently, however, we find Mark with St Paul 
in Rome (Col. iv. 10 ; Phile. 24). In the first of these two passages 
a possible journey of Mark to Asia is mentioned, and in i Pet v. 13 
he is spoken of as with St Peter in Babylon. Later still he seems to 
have been with Timothy at Ephesus (2 Tim. iv. 11). According to 
£piphanius, St Mark was a disciple of our Lord, and one of the seventy- 
two who turned back from Him on account of His hard saying in 
John vi. Papias, on the other hand (Euseb., * Hist. Eccl.,' iii. 39), says 
that he was never a disciple of our Lord. Ancient writers are unani- 


mous in saying that he was the interpreter of St Peter — meaning by 
that, not that he orally translated the Apostle's words, but that he 
wrote down what the Apostle preached. A very ancient tradition 
makes him the companion of St Peter in Rome. He is usually regard- 
ed as having preached the Gospel in Eg^pt, whither he was sent by 
St Peter. He is said to have founded the Church at Alexandria, and 
to have been the first bishop of that city. It was there that he suf- 
fered martyrdom, and there that his relics remained until the year 815, 
when it is said they were conveyed by stealth to Venice, and deposited 
in a secret place under one of the greaX pillars in the church dedicated 
to his name. See Smith's * Diet, of the Bible'; Putin's * Diet. Hagiog.' ; 
Butler's * Lives of the Saints,* &c. 

His day, both in the Western and in the Oriental Church, is 
April 25. 

When represented as one of the Evangelists, he is almost invariably 
accompanied by a lion, either winged or unwinged, but generally 
winged, and is thus distinguished from St Jerome, who is also accom- 
panied by a lion, but unwinged. In devotional representations he 
often wears the habit of a bishop, as first bishop of Alexandria. He 
is thus represented in the colossal mosaic over the principal door of 
St Mark's at Venice in the pontificals of a Greek bishop, no mitre, 
short grey hair and beard, one hand raised in benediction, the other 
holding the Gospel. — Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and Legendary Art,' 
i. 148. 

Analysis. — Prologue — Here the author will speak of the rest of the 
Evangelists, of two of whom he has already spoken, 1-12 ; two others 
remain to be spoken of, SS. Mark and Luke, 13-15 ; of the seventy- 
two who usually accompanied Jesus, and whence SS. Mark and Luke 
obtained their knowledge, 16-38 ; why there are four evangelists, 39- 
46 ; and how they are represented by painters, and why, 47-84 ; how 
their record agrees, 85-90 ; how Christ was very man, a calf, a lion, 
and an erne, as may be further learned from Ezekiel, 91-108. 

Marcus — His birth and baptism, 1-4; accompanies St Peter to 
Rome, and at the request of the people writes down the Apostle's 
preaching, 5-28 ; he is sent by St Peter into Aquileia, where he con- 
verts Ermogere, who is appointed bishop and afterwards martyred, 
29-36 ; next St Mark is sent to Alexandria, of which, though 
against his will, he is made bishop, 37-68 ; the shoemaker's conver- 
sion, 69-102 ; from Alexandria St Mark goes to Pentapolis, where he 
remains two years and then returns to Alexandria, where he finds the 
Christian faith spread and a church built, 103-128; the story of his 
martyrdom, 129-183; his burial and translation, 184-199; conclusion, 

Sources — For the prologue see L.A., cap. clvi. i ; and for the legend 
of St Mark, cap. lix. ; also Peter de Natalibus, iv. 86. 

NOTES TO MARCUS (XHI. 1-108). 171 

Prologue to the Evangelists, 

1. ^-/tf«/r^= besides. 

5. //<ftfr(f= higher. Comp. degree of ^rjr. 

14. J/<f«y«(f= mention. A.S. monnan, to think of. 

15. St Luke was not in the number of Christ's disciples. It is ex- 
tremely doubtful that St Mark was, notwithstanding the tradition 
which makes him one of the seventy-two who turned back at our 
Lord's hard saying. The writer does not himself believe that he was, 
as is evident from II. 23 and foil. 

23-38. See L.A., cap. clvi. i, near the end. 

30. This may mean " had heard of all his miraculous doings," or it 
may be meant for *' had seen all," &c. 
34. pa/ myld fnary=dX mild Mary, pa/ for at occurs frequently. 

45. ^/i3/7//^= indignation. 

" He had at hym richt great engaigne,** 

— * Bruce/ xvnii. 508. Edinb. MS. 

For engaigne Skeat reads disdeyne after the R. MS. O.Fr. engaigne, 
deception, also indignation, resentment. See Murray's *Hist. Diet.,' 
sub engaigne, detne=}u^gt, 

46. Queffie^fii. Cf. VI L 188, IX. 334. 
Sa Cf. Ezekiel i. 5 ff. 

57-84. L.A. : " Per ista quatuor animalia secundum sanctos quatuor 
evangelistae significantur, quorum quilibet habuit quatuor facies scri- 
bendo, scil. de humanitate, passione, resurrectione et divinitate : singulae 
tamen singulis per quandam appropriationem attribuuntur. Secundum 
Hieronymum Matthaeus in homine figuratur quia principaliter circa 
Christi humanitatem immoratur, Lucas in vitulo agens de Christi 
sacerdotio, Marcus in leone evidentius scribens de resurrectione ; catuli 
cnim leonum, ut dicunt, usque in diem tertium quasi mortui jacent, 
sed rugitu leonis in die tertio excitantur. Iterum quia incepit a rugitu 
pra^dicationis, Johannes in aquila caeteris altius volans, scribens de 
Christi divinitate. Christus etiam, de quo scribit, omnia ista quatuor 
fuit, sc. homo natus de virgine, vitulus in passione, leo in resurrectione, 
aquila in ascensione." These four attributes are in L.A. assigned to 
St Luke. 

58. Syndry = d i ffere n t. A. S . syndrig. 

79. Merry ne=in2Lrnr\g. 

85*108. Not in L.A. With reference to the symbolism, see some 
very appropriate and useful remarks in Bp. Alexander's 'Leading 
Ideas of the Gospel,' chap. i. 

100. Done =ht\ov:. 

108. Legand=\tgtnd, L.A., cap. lix. 

Marcus, — See L.A. : "De Sancto Marco Evangelista" (cap. lix.) 


The narrative of the Translation (L.A. lix. 2) and the Miracles 
(lix. 3-9) are omitted. 

1-20. L. A. : " Marcus ev. leviticus genere et sacerdos, Petri ap. in 
baptismate filius atque in divino sermone discipulus, cum ipso b. Petro 
Romam profectus est. Cum autem Petrus ibidem evangelium prae- 
dicaret, rogaverunt fideles, qui erant Romae, b. Marcum, ut evan- 
gelium ad perpetuam fidelium memoriam deberet conscribere. Quod 
ille quidem, ut ex ore magistri sui b. Petri audierat, fideli stilo 
conscripsit, Petrus autem illud diligenter examinans, ubi omnem 
veritatem plene conspexit, recipiendum ab omnibus fidelibus com- 

6. W^<jir^= cautious. A.S. wars Icel. varr; Swed. var; O.H.Ger. 
wara, heed, caution. 

8. Z«»/= dwelt. A.S. lendan, 

14. ^/k»//= remembrance. 

19. Lei/e= true. Mod.Eng. leal, 

21-58. L.A. : " Videns autem Petrus Marcum constantem in fide, 
ipsum Aquilegiam destinavit, ubi verbum Dei praedicans innumeras 
gentium multitudines ad fidem Christi convertit ac evangelium suum 
similiter ibi conscripsisse dicitur, quod quidem usque hodie in 
Aquilegiensi ecclesia ostenditur et devotione congrua reservatur. 
Tandem b. M. Aquilegiensem civem, sc. Ermagoram, quem ad fidem 
Christi convertit, Romam ad Petrum adduxit ut eum Aquilegias in 
cpiscopum consecraret Suscepto itaque Ermagoras pontificatus officio 
cum Aquilegiensem ecclesiam optime gubernasset, tandem ab infidel- 
ibus capitur et ibidem martirio coronatur, Marcus vero a b. Petro 
Alexandriam missus est et ibi primus verbum Dei praedicavit In 
primo autem introitu suo Alexandriam (ut ait Philo, disertissimus 
Judaeorum) maxima multitudo in fide et devotione et continentiac 
observatione adunata est Papyas quoque Hieropolitanus episcopus 
valde praeclara ejus praeconia praecipuo dilucidat stylo. Petrus vero 
Damiani sic ait de eo : tantam eidem apud Alexandriam gratiam 
praerogavit, ut omnes qui tunc ad fidei rudimenta confluerent, mox 
per continentiam ac totius sanctae conversationis instantiam tanquam 
ad monasticae perfectionis fastigium pervolarent, ad quod non modo 
miraculorum prodigiis, non modo praedicationis eloquiis, sed etiam 
eximiis provocabat exemplis. Et infra ; factum est autem, ut post 
mortem ad Italiam deinde sit reversus (ut terra in qua datum est sibi 
evangelium scribere, sacras mereretur ejus reliquias possidere)." 

23. -«4^;/^/^'rt=Aquileia, the capital of the province of Venetia, and 
one of the most important commercial and military cities of Northern 
Italy, situated near the head of the Adriatic Sea between the rivers 
Alsa and Natiso. It was founded by the Romans and destroyed by 
Attila. In the sixth century it was still the residence of a bishop, 
who on the invasion of the Lombards took refuge with all the other 
inhabitants in the neighbouring island of Gradus. Its bishops 

NOTES TO MARCUS (XIH. 25-103). 1 73 

assumed the oriental title of Patriarch, and continued for a long time 
to maintain their pretensions to the highest ecclesiastical rank, though 
the city itself gradually sank away during the middle ages into in- 
significance. It is now a mere straggling village of about 1400 
inhabitants, and possesses no public buildings with the exception 
of its cathedral. 

25. /^<i^>i/k= happily. P^S, geh<Bp, fix, 

29. jE'r//irgwtf=Hermagoras, 

47. Gu/>'/^= chastity. 

50-68. LmA. : "Tantse autem humilitatis dicitur fuisse, ut pollicem 
sibi amputaverit, ne ad ordinem sacerdotii posset humano judicio pro- 
moveri ; verumtamen dispositio Petri et auctoritas s, Petri praevaluit, 
qui ipsum Alexandriae episcopum destinavit." 

62. 7)i^/«^= thumb. ^<af/=bit. Mutilation rendered any one unfit 
for the episcopal office. See Smith's * Diet Christ. Antiq.,' sub Orders^ 
Holy^ vol. i. p. 1482 b, 

64. (7M/r^^= either. 

67. Mady read had ? 

68-88. L.A. : '* Mox autem, ut Alexandriam est ing^essus, subito 
calceamentum ejus ruptum est atque solutum : quod in spiritu in- 
telligens ait: vere expeditum fecit dominus iter meum nee me 
Sathanas impedire poterit quem ab operibus mortuis dominus jam 
absolvit. Videns autem M. quendam Vetera consuentem, eidem cal- 
ceamentum tradidit corrigendum ; quod cum faceret, sinistram 
manum graviter vulneravit ac fortiter exclamare coepit : unus Deus. 
Quo audito vir Dei ait : vere prosperum fecit dominus iter meum, 
factoque luto ex sputo manum ejus unxit et continuo sanitatem 

70. Hey-gat^YW^ Street, usually the main street or principal 
thoroughfare. " Sail stand apon the hee gait aboun the meil mercat," 
— Stirling Burgh Rec, Oct 8, 1529. 

74. ^7^1/= journey, /j j'/^^= is prospered. 

78. Bochour—v[i^iiA^x, See Murray's *Hist Diet,' sub botch and 

88. Hale &* /erd=\\ho\G and sound. Ferd for the usual fere, 
K,?i. ge-fdre ; IceL fitrr, able to go, in health. 

89-102. L.A. : "Videns homo ille tantam ejus efficaciam in domum 
suam ilium introduxit et quis esset et unde, percunctari ccepit At 
illc se domini Jesu servum confessus est Cui ille ait : vellem ego 
videre eum. Et Marcus : ego tibi eum demonstrabo : incipiensque 
Marcus Christum ei evangelizavit et ipsum cum tota domo sua 

102. iI/^»^= company, household. O.Fr. fnaisnee, tneisnee, meignee^ 
a band, troop. 

103-128. L.A. : " Audientes autem viri civitatis illius quendam 
Galilxum qui deorum sacrificia contemneret advenisse, ei insidias 

174 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XHI. 112-200). 

posuerunt; quod ille cognoscens hominem ilium quern curaverat, 
qui dicebatur Anianus, ibi episcopum ordinavit, et ipsi Pentapolim 
perrexit, et cum ibi duobus annis stetisset, iterum Alexandriam rediit, 
qui et juxta mare in rupibus ecclesiam construxerat in loco qui dicitur 
Bucculi, et fideles ibidem multiplicatos invenit" 

112. Anany^Aniajius, 

113. 5d:^n/^= consecrated. " Nane sal ga to the mes at our Lady 
altarc quhil thai hafe sacrite at Sant Michaellis altare." — Peebles Burgh 
Rec, Sept. 3, 145a O.Fr. sacrer. See Bradley, sub sacren. 

114. /^^///ii/^/>'Wf =Pentapolis ; a district of North Africa, originally 
called Cyrenaica, but from the time of the Ptolemies, Pentapolis. Its 
chief city was Cyrene. 

129-152. L.A. : " Pontifices autem tcmplorum eum comprehendere 
conabantur; cum autem in solemnitate pascbali b. M. missam cele- 
braret, convenerunt illuc omnes et fune in collo ejus misso ipsum per 
civitatem trahebant dicentes : trahamus bubalum ad loca bucculi. 
Carnes autem ejus in terram fluebant et sanguine lapides rigabantur." 

129. Bischapis = pr i ests. 

131. IVecAyne =v/a,tching. 

135. Gre^ thinge^vazny disciples, or much honour. 

153-167. L.A. : " Posthac in carcere recluditur et ibidem ab angelo 
confortatur, sed et ipse Jesus Chr. eum visitavit eumque confortavit 
dicens : Pax tibi, Marce evangelista meus, noli timere, quia ego tecum 
sum, ut eruam te." 

168-174. L.A. ; ** Mane ergo facto funem iterum collo ejus immittunt 
et hue illucque raptim eum pertrahunt exclamantes : trahite bubalum 
ad loca bucculi. Ipse autem dum traheretur, gratias agebat dicens : 
in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum, et hoc dicens spiritum ex- 
halavit sub Nerone, qui ccepit circa a. d. LVIL" 

175-199. L.A. : " Cum autem pagani eum vellent comburere, subito 
aer turbatur, grando exoritur, tonitrua intonant fulguraque coruscant, 
ita ut quilibet evadere niteretur, et sanctum corpus intactum relique- 
runt, Christiani vero corpus ejus rapuerunt et in ecclesia cum omni 
reverentia sepelierunt." On this follows in L.A. a description of the 
personal appearance of the Evangelist and a passage from St Ambrose. 
Of Voragine's long account of the translation, only the first sentence is 
taken — viz. : " Anno ab incarnatione Domini 468 tempore Leonis im- 
peratoris Veneti corpus sancti Marci de Alexandria Venetias trans- 
tulerunt, ubi ecclesia in honore sancti Marci mira pulchritudine 
fabricata est" 

188. L.A., 468A.D. 

198. Eg=^^g%, urge, incite. 

200-202. The usual conclusion. 

XIV.— L U C AS. 

St Luke the Evangelist, and author of the third Gospel and of the Acts 
of the Apostles, was bom at Antioch, in Syria (Euseb., *Hist. Eccl.,' 
iii. 4), instructed in the science of medicine, and, according to a well- 
known tradition, possessed no mean skill as a painter (Niceph., 'Hist. 
Eccl./ ii. 43), though of this the New Testament says nothing. The 
fact that St Paul (Col. iv. 11 and 14) does not reckon him among them 
" of the circumcision ** may probably be taken as a proof that he was 
not born a Jew. He was not " an eye-witness and minister of the 
Word from the beginning" (Luke i. 2), and the date of his conversion 
is uncertain. According to Epiphanius (* Contra Haer.,* li. 11) and 
others, he was one of the Seventy. Theophylact (on Luke xxiv.) 
maintains, as do others, that he was one of the two disciples who 
journeyed with our Lord immediately after His resurrection to Em- 
maus. Tertullian, on the other hand, ascribes his conversion to St 
Paul. He first meets us in the New Testament at Troas, where he 
joins St Paul and accompanies him on his journey into Macedonia. 
At Philippi he appears to have been left behind. During the rest of 
St Paul's second missionary journey nothing is heard of St Luke. 
The narrative is continued in the third person. On St Paul's third 
missionary journey St Luke is again with him, having apparently 
joined him at Philippi (Acts xx. 5), and accompanies him through 
Miletus, Tyre, and Caesarea to Jerusalem (Acts xx. 5. xxi. 18). The 
intervening seven years may have been spent by the Evangelist in 
Philippi and its neighbourhood preaching the Gospel. The subscrip- 
tion of the Second Epistle to the Corinthians bears that " it was 
written from Philippi, a city of Macedonia, by Titus ^xi6. Lucas;" and 
he is supposed to have been " the brother, whose praise is in the Gospel 
throughout all the churches," who accompanied Titus to Corinth as 
the bearer of the second epistle to the Church there (2 Cor. viii. 18). 
He accompanied St Paul to Rome, and remained with him during 
his first imprisonment, and probably during his second, continuing 
with him to the end. After this he is said by some to have preached 


the Gospel in Dalmatia, Gallia, Italy, and Macedonia. Fortunatus 
and Metaphrastes say he passed into Egypt and preached in Thebais. 
According to Nicephorus he died at Thebes, in Bceotia ; but according 
to Bede, Ado, and others, he died when very old in Bithynia. The 
Greeks say he was crucified on an olive-tree, and an African mar- 
tyrology styles him evangelist and n\artyr. One account says that 
he was buried in Patras, in Achaia, whence his bones were translated 
by order of the Emperor Constantius in 357 and deposited in the 
Church of the Apostles at Constantinople, together with those of SS. 
Andrew and Timothy. On the occasion of this translation some of 
the relics are said to have been distributed to Brescia, Nola, and 
Fondi. When the Church of the Apostles was repaired by Justinian, 
•*the masons," says Butler, "found three wooden chests or coffins, in 
which, as the inscriptions proved, the bodies of St Luke, St Andrew, 
and St Timothy were interred. Baronius mentions that the head of 
St Luke was brought by St Gregory from Constantinople to Rome, 
and laid in the church of his monastery of St Andrew. Some of his 
relics are kept in the great monastery on Mount Athos." Smith's 
•Diet, of the Bible'; P^ins * Diet Hagiog.'; Butler's ' Lives of the 
Saints,* &c. 

His day is October 18. 

On the strength of the legend which represents him as a painter, 
and which cannot be traced further back than the tenth century, 
St Luke has been chosen as the patron saint of painters. As an 
Evangelist he is usually represented with his Gospel and his attendant 
ox, winged or unwinged. As the patron of painters he is young and 
beardless, holding the portrait of the Virgin in one hand and his 
Gospel in the other. — Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and Legendary Art,* 
i. 156. 

Analysis — The Evangelist's birth and education, 1-5 ; he attaches 
himself to the Apostles, and especially to St Paul, and writes down 
their acts, 6-34 ; he wrote also his Gospel, 35-54 ; and preached in 
Bithynia, where he died, 55-70; his burial and translation, 71-83; 
conclusion, 84-90. 

The source is not the L.A., cap. clvi., which is much longer and 
more homiletic. As usual, the story of Peter de Natalibus, ix. 79, is 
shorter than that of the L.A. It has some resemblance to what is 
given here. 

2. Q'r//j= Syria. L.A. and P. de Natal, "natione Syrus." 

4. Zr^//^= physician. 

6. 7]k/= quickly. 

11-13. L.A. : •' Quem plurimi tradunt fuisse proselytem et hebreas 
literas ignorasse, eoque quicquid scripsit graeco sermone composuit." 
—Pet de Natal. 

19-24. Cf. L.A. 

NOTES TO LUCAS (XIV. 27-«8). 1 77 

27. Gesfis=SLCts, deeds. 

33. 5'/<i^/>'«^=stablynge= establishing. 

35. Mathee=msit2jl of Matthow= Matthew. 

3a y/i'Iia=^li2L\y. 

40. Sec the preface to St Luke's Gospel. 

59. Sud=su/d= should, 

60. TM'nk=ihing, This reading occurs frequently. 
67. By/ha^iea=Bithyni3i, Cf. 1. 56. 

71-74. The L.A. does not mention the translation. 
70. A'a«//«= turning-points, ends. Dut. kanf, a border, edge, side, 
brink, margin, corner ; Swed. ^ant, a border, edge, corner. 
80. Law =lovf. 

82. •S>rw/V= deserved, merited. 
85. Auchtful—^\ii\i\, 
8& ^jj<i= assay. 
88. K?r^= doubt. 

VOL. in. m 


St Barnabas, whose name was originally Joseph, was a Levite of 
the island of Cyprus. He was an early disciple of Jesus, and is placed 
by Eusebius and Clement of Alexandria among the Seventy. In 
Acts iv. it is related that he brought the price of a field he had sold 
and laid it at the feet of the Apostles. He seems to have been ac- 
quainted with St Paul previous to the latter's conversion, and intro- 
duced him to the Apostles, when they were afraid to admit him among 
them on his first visit to Jerusalem after his conversion. After the 
persecution that arose about Stephen, and when the tidings reached 
the Apostles in Jerusalem of the preaching of the Gospel to the Gen- 
tiles at Antioch, he was sent down thither by the Twelve (Acts xi. 19- 
26), and seeing the greatness of the work went on to Tarsus to seek Saul, 
as one specially raised up to preach to the Gentiles (Acts xxvi. 17). 
With Saul he was sent from Antioch to Jerusalem with relief for the 
brethren in Judaea. Returning to Antioch, he was set apart with St 
Paul for missionary work among the Gentiles (Acts xiii. 2), and sent 
forth with him a.d. 45. He accompanied St Paul through Cyprus 
and Asia Minor, and returned with him to Antioch. Some time after 
(a.d. 47 or 48) he formed one of the deputation sent up from An- 
tioch to Jerusalem to determine with the Apostles and Elders there 
the difficult question respecting the necessity of circumcision for the 
Gentile converts (Acts xv. i. fT.) After his return with St Paul to 
Antioch a contention arose between them as to taking John Mark, 
sister's son to Barnabas, with them on a second missionary journey 
(Acts XV. 36 ff.), and " the contention was so sharp, that they parted 
assunder," Barnabas taking Mark with him and sailing for Cyprus. 
After this no further mention is made of him in the New Testament. 
As to his further labours traditions differ. According to some he 
preached at Milan and founded the Church there. According to 
others he preached in Rome and Alexandria, converting in the first 
of these places Clement of Rome. According to a very generally re- 
ceived tradition he returned to his native Cyprus, where he suffered 


martyrdom, and was buried near Salamis. In the fifth century his 
tomb was opened, when a copy of the Gospel of St Matthew, written 
with St Barnabas's own hand, was found lying upon his breast The 
book was sent in 485, so Theodorus Lector relates, to the Emperor 
Zeno. There is extant an apocryphal work, probably of the fifth cen- 
tury, styled * Acta et Passio Barnabse in Cypro,' in which an account 
is given of his second missionary journey. Alexander, a Cyprian 
monk, has written an encomium of him. He says that St Barnabas 
was brought up with Saul of Tarsus at the feet of Gamaliel, and de- 
scribes the pretended finding of his body in the reign of Zeno. The 
so-called Epistle of Barnabas is now generally admitted to have been 
written by another than the Apostle. See Smith's * Diet of the 
Bible'; Putin's 'Diet Hagiog.* ; Butler's 'Lives of the Saints.' For 
the* Acta and Passio 'see the Bollandists' second June volume and 
Tischendorfs *Acta Apostol. Apocr.,' p. 64. The Bollandists also 
give Alexander's Laudatio. 

The day of St Barnabas is June 1 1. 

In medieval art he is represented as a man of majestic presence (cf. 
Acts xiv. 12), holding in his hand the Gospel of St Matthew. The tra- 
dition is that he carried this about with him continually, laid it on 
those who were sick, and healed them. 

Analysis — Though called an apostle by some, Barnabas was not an 
apostle, 1-24 ; but, like Mark and Luke, one of the seventy-two who 
were sent out to help in Christ's work, 25-44 ; after the Ascension he 
was sent with John Mark to preach, and first in "Anemoria," 45- 
58 ; they succeed in converting the people there, 59 - 106 ; thence 
they go to Cyprus and meet with two disciples, one of whom falling 
sick, Barnabas heals him with the Gospel of St Matthew, as was his 
way, 107-124 ; Barnabas and John Mark ordain Heraclius bishop, 
125-132 ; they find a man named Rodanus, whom they convert, 133- 
142 ; next they meet with the sorcerer Bariene in Paphos — they curse 
the Temple there, part of which falls and destroys a number of 
people, 143 - 162 ; those who escape flee to the temple of Apollo, 
where was an assembly of Jews, 163-165 ; Barnabas and Mark follow, 
preach the Gospel to them, and convert many, when Bariene raises a 
sedition in the town and causes Barnabas to be seized, 166-176 ; as 
the crowd lead Barnabas to the tribunal they see Eusebius approach- 
ing, and drag their captive into a privy place until night, when they 
convey him out of the town and burn him, 177-200; the Jews, not 
satisfied with what they have done, wrap his ashes in lead, intending 
to cast them into the sea, 201-207, but John Mark and Thymon privily 
take them away and bury them, where they were afterwards found 
when Zeno was Emperor and Gelasius Pope, 208-220; conclusion, 

Source — Cf. L.A. cap. Ixxxi. ; but it is extremely doubtful whether this 
is the source. Equally uncertain is it whether the author has used 


any of the sources at present known. Certainly he has followed none 
of them closely, though towards the end he seems to have used the 
* Acta.' 

1-9. See note to VI. 2. 

9. Mathow instead oi Mathee^ Matthias, Acts i. 15-26. 
15. Doctor generate = universal teacher, />., teacher of Jew and 
Gentile alike. 

17. Ewyne = even. See Murray, * Hist Diet.,' sub even adv. ii. 
6, a. 

18. Sewyn=st,^ii, Cf. ewyne for een^ IX. 51 and XL. 301. Perhaps 
the line should run, '* Of it Q?at] he had seyne in hewyn.*' 

30. ^iy//^= supply. 

31-40. Cf. Luke x. 1-3. 

35-40. " Messis quidem multa, operarii autem pauci. Rogate ergo 
dominum messis ut mittat operarios in messem suam. Ite ; ecce ego 
mitto vos sicut agnos inter lupos."— Luke x. 2. 

40. Read, as tammy 5 amaung wolfis. The mistake is curious, vnset 
= accursed. A.S. unsaet. See Bradley, sub unsCtel, 

45. " The son of consolation," so A. V. 

54. lohnne — /.^., John Mark. 

56. Anemoria, called in the Acta " Anemurium." 

61. 2i/^/?w= whence. Cf. XII. 158. 

62. Prad=praytt=^^r2Lyedit asked. 
70. K<?r= doubt 

98. JVow=new, 

109. Arysteone 6r* tAymonen=Anston and Timon. — Acta. 

111-124. "And Timon was afflicted by much fever. And having 
laid our hands upon him, we straightway removed his fever, having 
called upon the name of the Lord Jesus. And Barnabas had received 
documents from Matthew, a book of the Word of God, and a narrative 
of miracles and doctrines. This Barnabas laid upon the sick in each 
place that we came to, and it immediately made a cure of their suffer- 
ings.*' — Acta. (Translation, Anti-Nicene Library, vol. xvi. 297.) 

114. So the Greek 'Acta'; but according to the Latin version the 
Gospel was written by Barnabas. 

125-142. Not in L.A. It is given in the * Acta.* 

126. Eraclyus, In the *Acta' he is called Heracleides. 

135. Rodanus. " Rodon, a temple servant." — Acta. 

140. Son tacht= soon received. 

141. Howyn vas. See note to III. 229. 

143-152. L.A. : " Cum autem de Cypro exiisent (!) invenerunt Ety- 
mam mag^m, quem Paulus lumine occulorum ad tempus privaverat ; 
qui iis restitit et Paphum intrare prohibuit." 

145. ^tfr/>«^= Bar- Jesus. 

150. /'a/^;/w = Paphos. The ancient capital of Cyprus, where the 

NOTES TO BARNABAS (XV. 153-220). l8l 

worship of Venus Aphrodite centred. ]>ar he void pase= io which he 
meant to pass. 

153-176. L.A.: "Die igitur quadam vidit B. homines et mulieres 
nudas currentes et sic sua festa agentes, unde indignatus templo n\ale- 
dixit et subito pars ejus corruens multos oppressit. Tandem Sala- 
minam devenit et ibi contra eum praedictus magus seditionem non 
modicam excitavit, comprehendentes igitur Judsei Barnabam multis 
affectum injuriis trahebant et judici civitatis puniendum tradere festi- 
nabant." The temple was probably that of Venus Aphrodite. 

161. Ethnykts—GtniWts. 

162. One-schamely = unshamely = without shame. 

163. C*rt///= escapit = escaped. 
176. />«y/= tortured. 

177-200. L.A.: "Comperto autem quod Eusebius vir magnus et 
potens, de genere Neronis illuc advenisset, timuerunt Judaei, ne ipsum 
de manibus eorum eriperet et sic liberum abire permitteret, ligantes 
igitur funem in collo ejus extra portam eum traxerunt et ibidem eum 
protinus combusserunt." 

178. To deme =io judge. 

181. Eusebius, In the * Acta ' he is described as " a pious Jebusite." 

184. ^/i^^ kinsman. 

188. Royd=r\iAt, rough. 

189. Pretfe =^r\wy, 

190. Cufnynge for cumyne. 

191. Bone^boun — x^dAy. 

201-219. L.A. : " Denique nee sic impii Judaei satiati ossa ejus in 
quodam vase plumbeo recluserunt, in mare eadem praecipitare volen- 
tes, Johannes autem discipulus ejus cum duobus aliis de nocte con- 
surgens ea rapuit et in quadam crypta occulte sepelivit, quae ibidem, 
ut ait Sigbertus, usque ad tempora Zenonis imperatoris et Gelasii papas 
et usque ad a. d. D latuerunt, sed tunc ipso revelante reperta fuerunt." 

205. Al\efyre left=-2X\ that the fire left, />. the bones, 

206. IVepy/ =\vr2ippcd up. See Bradley, sub wappen, 

207. To casiii =^io cast it. 

210. Redone =Kodor\. Cf. 1. 135. 

213. Gebeseis=]th\is\Xts. There is a legend that the Jebusites col- 
onised Cyprus after they were driven out of Palestine by King David. 

216. According to Alexander the Cyprian monk, Nicephorus Cal- 
listus, and others, St Barnabas appeared to Anthemius, the Bishop of 
Cyprus, and told him where his body was to be found. The bishop 
went to the spot indicated and found the body, with the original man- 
uscript of the first Gospel written by St Matthew laid upon his breast. 
Both the relics were taken to Constantinople, and a church was built 
over the spot where they had lain. 

220. L.A. adds: "Beatus autem Dorotheus sic ait: Barnabas in 
Roma Christum primum praedicavit, episcopus Mediolani factus." 


St Mary Magdalene, one of the women mentioned in the Gospels 
as ministering to our Lord, has in the Western Church, since the time 
of Gregory the Great, and chiefly through his influence, been identi- 
fied with Mary the sister of Lazarus; but without reason. Appa- 
rently she was a Galilean by birth, and derived her name from Mag- 
dala, a town near to the Sea of Galilee. With Joanna, the wife of 
Chuza, Herod's steward, and Susanna, and many others, she minis- 
tered unto our Lord of her substance, as was then the custom among 
Jewish women to contribute to the support of rabbis whom they rever- 
enced. Her chief motive, as that also of her companions, was grati- 
tude. St Luke describes them as having " been healed of evil spirits 
and infirmities." Of Mary it is said especially that "seven devils 
(iaifjuyvui) went out of her" (Luke viii. 2, 3). On our Lord*s last jour- 
ney to Jerusalem she accompanied him, and was thus, if not before, 
brought into intimate relations with Salome, the mother of James and 
John, and also with Mary the mother of our Lord. With others she 
** stood afar off beholding these things," during the closing hours of 
the Agony on the Cross (Luke xxiii. 49). With Mary the mother of 
the Lord, and the beloved disciple, she was at one time not far off, 
but close to the cross and within hearing. She waited by the cross 
till the body was taken down, wrapped in the linen cloth, and placed 
in the sepulchre, and then remained close by in the dusk of the even- 
ing watching (Matt, xxvii. 61 ; Mark xv. 47 ; Luke xxiii. 55). The 
following day was the Sabbath, but " when the Sabbath was past, Mary 
Magdalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salome, had bought 
sweet spices, that they might come and anoint" the body of the Sav- 
iour. "And very early in the morning, the first day of the week, they 
came unto the sepulchre at the rising of the sun." On their way they 
had asked each other who should roll away the stone from the door of 
the sepulchre; but "when they looked, they saw that the stone was 
rolled away" (Mark xvi. 1-4). They found, too, that the body of Jesus 
was no longer there. " Then she runneth, and cometh to Simon Peter, 


and to the other disciple whom Jesus loved, and saith unto them, They 
have taken away the Lord out of the sepulchre, and we know not 
where they have laid Him " (John xx. 2). When the two disciples ran 
to the tomb, and having examined it, " went away home," " Mary stood 
without at the sepulchre weeping: and as she wept, she stooped down 
and looked into the sepulchre, and seeth two angels in white sitting, 
the one at the head, and the other at the feet, where Jesus had lain. 
And they say unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? She saith unto 
them. Because they have taken away my Lord, and I know not where 
they have laid Him. And when she had thus said, she turned herself 
and saw Jesus standing, and knew not that it was Jesus. Jesus saith 
unto her, Woman, why weepest thou? whom seekest thou? She, 
supposing Him to be the gardener, saith unto Him, Sir, if thou have 
borne Him hence, tell me where thou hast laid Him, and I will take 
Him away. Jesus saith unto her, Mary ! She turned herself, and 
saith unto Him, Rabboni ! which is to say. Master ! Jesus saith unto 
her, Touch me not ; for I am not yet ascended to my Father : but go 
to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your 
Father ; and to my God, and your God. Mary Magdalene came and 
told the disciples that she had seen the Lord, and that He had spoken 
these things to her" (John xx. 11- 18). After this nothing is certainly 
known of her. She was in all likelihood among those who assembled 
in the upper rogm in Jerusalem, and were numbered with the disci- 
ples. According to Modestus, Patriarch of Constantinople (* Hom. in 
Marias'), she accompanied St John and the Virgin after the Ascension 
to Ephesus, where she died and was buried. Nicephorus (*Eccl. 
Hist,' ii. 10) says that she went to Rome to accuse Pilate for his 
unrighteous judgment. The Emperor Leo the Philosopher is said to 
have conveyed her relics thence to Constantinople about the year 890 
A.D., and to have deposited them in the Church of St Lazarus there. 
With the exception of the head, they are believed to be now resting in 
the Church of St John Lateran at Rome, whither they were translated 
in 1204. See Smith's 'Diet, of the Bible'; Pdtin's 'Diet Hagiog.' ; 
Migne's *Dict Apoc.,' ii. 541 ; 'Acta Sanctorum,' July 22. 

Her day is July 22. 

In art her attribute is the alabaster box of ointment, which has a 
double significance : it may mean the perfume which she poured over 
the Saviour's feet, or the balm and spices which she had prepared to 
anoint His body. Her drapery is usually red, to express the fervour 
of her love; or when represented as a penitent, either violet, the 
colour of mourning and penitence, or blue, the colour of constancy. 
As the patron saint of repentant sinners, she is sometimes represented 
as a thin wasted figure with long dishevelled hair of a pale golden hue, 
which is not seldom her sole drapery. — Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and 
Legendary Art,* i. 351. 

Analysis— Christ be praised for His great mercy and forbearance 


towards sinners, for whom He waits and suffers till they repent and 
turn to Him, when He confers upon them g^eat merit, 1-20; of these 
Mary Magdalene is an example, and her story is here recorded for the 
encouragement of others, 21-50; her parents, brother and sister, 51- 
58 ; after their parents* death the two sisters and brother succeed to 
their property, each receiving an equal share, 59-69; Lazarus gave 
himself entirely to arms and Mary to pleasure, but Martha undertakes 
the management of their estates, which she manages wisely, 70-80; 
Mary's wantonness, 81-91 ; her conduct in Simon's house and her 
conversion, 92-155; Christ's love for her, 155-166; for her sake He 
restores Lazarus to life, heals Martha, and makes her servant Martilla 
** worthy the word to say," 167-180; in the persecution which arose 
after the death of Stephen, she, her brother and sister, and Martilla, 
with Maximus, a bishop, and Cedonius, are placed by their persecutors 
in a boat without a rudder and driven to sea, and after being tossed 
about, land at Marseilles, where they are inhospitably received, 181-222 ; 
when she sees the idolatry of the people she preaches the Gospel to 
them, so that many of them were converted, 223-254 ; the prince and 
princess of the country coming, she preaches to them, and afterwards 
appears to them in a vision by night, and so terrifies them that they 
take her and her company into their house and tend them, 255-348 ; 
the conversion of the prince and princess, 349-374 ; the prince 
resolves to go to St Peter to test the truth of Mary's preaching, and 
against his will consents to let the princess accompany him, 375-412 ; 
before starting Mary makes the sign of the cross on their shoulders as 
a protection against the foe, 413-416 ; they set out, leaving their 
possessions in the care of Mary, are caught in a storm, the princess is 
delivered of a child, and dies, 417-444 ; the prince's sorrow and regret 
that he had ever seen Mary, 445-475 ; the sailors wish to throw the 
body of the princess into the sea — the prince restrains them, 476-495 ; 
and beseeches them to put the body ashore on an island they come in 
sight of, 496-508; putting out their boat they land on the island, where 
they leave the body of the princess, and the young child lying close 
to it, in a cave, and then return to the ship, when the storm ceases and 
they soon arrive at their port, 509-568 ; the prince continues his 
journey to Jerusalem, is met by St Peter, who accosts him, learns his 
story, bids him be of good comfort, shows him the places in Jerusalem 
and its neighbourhood connected with the Gospel history, and then 
bids him return, 569-644; on the return voyage the ship comes in 
sight of the island where the body of the princess and the young child 
were left — the prince lands with the sailors — they see a little child at 
play, follow it, and find the body of the princess — at the prayer of the 
prince his apparently dead wife rose up, and recounts what has hap- 
pened to her since they left her — all return to the ship and arrive 
safely at home, where they find Mary preaching, 645-750 ; the prince 
and his wife fall down at her feet and tell her all that has happened. 


after which they are baptised by Maximinus, 751-755 ; the conversion 
of the city and country, 756-776 ; Mary retires into the desert, where 
she is miraculously fed and visited by angels, 777-808 ; of the priest 
Hercules, who dwelt near her, and of what he saw and did, 809-880 ; 
Mary tells him of her approaching death, and gives him a message 
for the Bishop Maximinus, which he conveys, 881-918; as instructed 
by the message, Maximinus enters the chapel, where he sees Mary 
standing before him accompanied by a band of angels, and at her 
command goes and calls the priest that they may come and administer 
the sacrament to her, 919-946; having received the sacrament, Mary 
dies before the altar, and is buried by Maximinus in the place he has 
assigned for his own burial, 947-968; Maximinus and all his com- 
pany go to Egis, but on his death Maximinus is buried beside Mary 
Magdalene, where many works of healing are still wrought, 969-990. 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. xcvi., and the *Catalogus Sanctorum' of 
Peter de Natalibus, vi. 124, fol. 107. 

1-50. Author's prologue. 

1. Written in two lines in the MS. 

3. Z><r«^//= condescended. 

7, 8. Luke v. 31. 

10. Luke V. 32. 

13. 5'//i^r^/>'= pointedly. A.S. smerte, smart, sharp, rough. 

14, 15. Ez. xviii. 32. 

19. iff/V//j=bidest, waitest. 

20. See IL 890 fiF, and note to IL 897. 
23. Z>tf>'«/^= esteem. O.Fr. deinti, 

25. T'ii/yj = Thais. palygya—Y^djgx^L, The legends of both are 
told further on. 

31. Luke XV. 7. 

40. Vanchope—^tv^dSx, 

51-58. Cf. L.A., xcvi. i. 

54. Eticare, L.A., Eucharia 

56. PPyne=}oy, prosperity. 

59-60. Not in L.A. nor C.S. 

63. Z>^//^r =pt. t. oi to deal, y5r= possession, property. 

68, 69. L.A. : '< Maria Magdalena a Magdalo castro cognominata 
clarissimis est orta natalibus.'' 

76. Pm^^?= perish. 

77. 5/^0''= ruled, managed. 

79. /?^///ri//^«^/= remaining, remainder. 

80. L.A. adds : '* Omnia tamen hsec post adscensionem domini 
vcndiderunt et ad pedes apostolorum pretium posuerunt" 

84. /stir = fair. 

87-89. L.A. : " Unde jam proprio nomine perdito peccatrix con- 
sueverat appelari." 


89. Codspel =gosptL Cf. Luke vii. 36 fE ; but there is no ground 
for identifying ** the woman which was a sinner " with Mary Magda- 
lene, though the Western tradition does. 

93. Sytnon leprose^^^xxaon the Leper, a resident at Bethany. In 
his house Mary, not Magdalene, anointed Jesus preparatory to His 
death and burial (Matt. xxvi. 6, &c. ; Mark xiv. 3, &c.; John xii. i, 
&c) One tradition has it that he was the father of Lazarus, Martha, 
and Mary ; and another that he was the husband of the last named. 
This Simon is not the same as is mentioned in Luke vii. 36-50, and in 
whose house the incident related in the text took place. 

96. /%?j/^= feast 

99. 7yM//i^= tidings. 

100. 6^tf^/7>i^^= gathering. 

103. Sare, The rhyme requires sere^ which is to be read. 

106. L.A. : " Retro secus pedes domini mansit." Schamfully — full 
of shame. 

111. Bousie^hox. O.Fr. boiste. Other forms of the word are boiste 
and busie. See Bradley, sub boiste, and Murray, sub bouste, Vngu- 
»«^w/= ointment See IL 117 and 129, where are the variants vney- 
ment and vnguyment, 

113. 3^^= poured. 

" Thar wes na strenth of valeant men to waill 
Nor large fiudis on yt that micht avaiL" 

— G. Douglas, ii. 265, 2. 
A.S. geoian. 
114^ Ful/illyt=TCidA^ full, odyre^ odour, 

115-118. L.A. : " Nam incolae regionis illius propter vehementissi- 
mum solis calorem unguentis et balneis utebantur." 
116. //eit=hesLt 

118. Sawe= salve, anoint sc/ten/=huTt. A.S. sccndau, to destroy. 

119. 120. Not in L.A. nor C.S. 

120. Kneis, xtdAfete, Luke vii. 38. 
125. Tweche=^\.o\ic\\, 

127-146. Not in L.A. 

129. Z?/V:///= provided. 

" That he mycht be thre thousand neir, 
Armyt and dicht in gud maner." 

— ' Bruce,' viii. 210. 

A.S. dihtan^ to prepare. ^«r^=care. 

130. 5'aa/i/r^= savour. 

132. Forgyffyne = forgi ven ess. 

134. F«/f//w/= unlawful. 

135. ^(?jr^tf= washed. &* punyse^ read to puny se. 

136. Read, at scho had synnyt^ &c. 2£{y/= punishment A.S. wite. 
See Bradley, sub wlte. 

NOTES TO MAGDALEN A (XVL 139-210). 1 87 

139. LaL The rhyme requires let, 

144. ^^//= amend, atone. A.S. b^tan^ to better. 

147-158. L.A. : " Haec est igitur ilia Maria Magdalena, cui dominus 
tarn magna beneficia contulit et tanta signa dilectionis ostendit. Nam 
ab ea septem dsemonia expulit, in suo amore earn totaliter accendit, 
familiarissimam eam sibi constituit, hospitiam suam fecit et procu- 
raticem suam eam in itinere habere voluit, et eam semper dulciter 

156. Familiare, Cf. n. to VII. 3a 

157. Pr^^//rtfr= provider. 

164. Z^«</= gave. Pl,S. laen, ^*' Leendyii^ prasto concede P — 'Prompt 
Par\'.,* 296. See also Bradley, sub Icunen^ and Skeat, sub lend. 

165. C7r<?/=wept. Mod.Sc. jra/, pt t. of /^^^/^. 

169. The Gospel narrative does not mention Martha in this connec- 

171-180. L.A.: "Martillam, sororis suae famulam, utillud tambeatum 
et tam dulce verbum exclamans diceret : beatus venter, qui te portavit, 
dignam fecit. Nam secundum Ambrosium ilia fuit Martha et hsec 
ejus famula." (But cf. Luke xi. 27, 28.) Another sentence follows 
in L.A. which identifies Mary Magdalene with Mary the sister of 
Lazarus, who is said to have anointed our Lord's head. 

178. Quhat be ]?/=how much the more. 

181-224. L.A. : " Post ascensionem domini, sc. anno XIV a passione 
cum Juda^i Stephanum jamdiu occidissent et caeteros discipulos a 
Judaeae finibus ejecissent, diversarum gentium discipuli subeunt 
regiones, verbum domini ibi seminantes. Erat autem tunc temporis 
cum apostolis b. Maximinus, unus de LXXII domini discipulis, cui a 
beato Petro Maria Magdalena fuerat commendata. In hac igitur dis- 
persione beatus Maximinus, Maria Magdalena, Lazarus frater ejus, 
Martha soror ipsius et Martilla pedissequa Marthac, necnon et beatus 
Cedonius, qui caecus a nativitate exstiterat sed a domino fuerat liber- 
atus, omnes hi insimul et plures alii christiani navi ab infidelibus im- 
positi et pelago sine aliquo gubernatore expositi, ut omnes, sc. simul 
submergerentur, divino tandem nutu Massiliam advenerunt. Ubi 
cum nullos qui eos hospitio recipere vellent invenissent, sub quadam 
porticu, quae fano gentis illius terras pracerat, morabantur." 

187. Sarivit\afne=^S2L\^A themselves. 

188. Sawand^^o^YC^^, 

203. Fut'madyne={ooXiti^\^, Cf. footman, handmaid. 

204. Cf^<7«^= Cedonius. St Cedonius, a confessor and bishop of 
Aix, in Provence. His name occurs in * Martyrologium Gallicanum' 
and in the Breviary of Aix, but his date and acts are quite uncertain. 
He is otherwise called Sidonius (*Acta SS. Boll. Aug.,* iv. 591). 
— Smith's *Dict. of Christ. Biog.' 

205. The which was born blind. 
210. Gouer/iale— rudder. 


21Sl \hr. read at Jfmrcei^UajsesIks. 

217. Dysfx^Mtse^ua^fOxvag. 
21SL RavU^oaax^anT. 

" ^aa fide io^geOat a ^rct /Mdr - of ziabB ^ ■obdL'" 

— -W. of P./mj. 

223-251 L^ : " Coni autcm b. M. M. ridcrct popolom ad fanum 
conflucre, ut ydolis immolaret, as sufgen s mlto placido. £icie sercna, 
lii^^ua discrcta cos ab ydolomm coltora rerocabat ct Christom con- 
stantissime praedicabat, ct admirad sunt nnhrcisi prae spcdc, prae 
facundia, prac dulcedinc doqucntue ejus. Kcc minim, si os, quod tarn 
pia ct pulchra pcdibus salvatoris infixcrat oscola, caeteris ampUos verbi 
Dei spirarct odorem.'' 

23L Asfure=m2Lkc secure. O.Fr. astirtr^ to make secure, assure, 
warrant See Skeat 

235. //<!xri^x«^97/= boldness. 

242. Mane'kynd=YiVLmaji or man's nature, y^^^take. 

•' I Tiolde/oMge a ferthynge." 

— • P. Plovmaii.* B. v. 566. 

IctX./d, ^^,/enginn, to fetch, take. Cf- A.S.y%», pt X^fing^ V^fongen, 
to receive. 

243. Noys^twWs. OSr. anoier. See Skeat, sub o/rxr/^, and Bradley, 
sub nut, 

246. p^ wethirwyne^y^Lit, devil. Cf. IX. 325. 

248. Sauchnyn — '^tss:^, reconciliation. Cf. A-S. saht^ peace. 

251. For-wonderyt—2SCi2iZ^di, 

255-270. L.A. : " Post hoc autem advenit princeps provinciae illius 
cum uxore sua, ut pro habenda prole ydolis immolaret cui M. Christum 
prxdicans sacrificia dissuasit Interea evolutio aliquot dierum cur- 
riculis apparuit in visu M. illi malronae." 

260. ^^r^= defend, govern. A.S. werian, to defend. 

264. /^j7r-^^^/<:i«^/= forbidding. 

271-281. L.A. : " Quare, cum tot divitiis abundetis, sanctos Dei fame 
et frigore mori permittitis? Addidit et minas, nisi marito suo per- 
suaderet, ut sanctorum inopiam relevaret, iram Dei omnipolentis 

271. 7>^a/^/= too bold. 

272. pdE/=at. 

276. 5^//a«</= soiling, fouling. A.S. solian, to sully, soil, defile. 

277. i^^^/=feed [them]. Cf. 1. 34. 
279. Eitlise^ read eniise, 

282-284. L.A. : " Ipsa autem viro suo visionem indicare timuit" 

NOTES TO MAGDALEN A (XVL 285413). 1 89 

285-293- L.A« : " Sequent! igitur nocte eidem similia dicens apparuit, 
sed adhuc viro suo hoc indicare neglexit" 

288. 7jKj//= enticed, persuaded. 

294-320. L.A. : " Tertio vero sub intempestae noctis silentio apparuit 
utrique fremens et irata, vultu igneo ac si tota domus arderet, et ait : 
Dormisne tyranne, membrum patris tui Satanae, cum vipera conjuge 
tua, quae tibi indicare noluit verba mea? quiescisne crucis Christi 
inimice, diversis ciborum generibus ventris tui referta (ed. 1501 and 
Grasse : refecta) ingluvie, et sanctos Dei fame et siti permittis perire? 
Jacesne in palatio pannis involutus sericis et illos desolates sine hos- 
pitio vides et praeteris? Non sic, inique, evades, nee impune feres, 
quod tantum iis benefacere distulisti." 

294. But langare //^«^= without longer delay. 

296. As bles offyre—2& a blaze of fire. 

305. Ftfy=foe. 

309. Reke of powre =C2ire for the poor. 

3ia Threste =ih\xs\^ 

311. Chuchis=^ cowchts, O.Fr. couchert colcherj Lat. coUocare, 

321-342. L.A. tells the story differently : " Cumque matrona cvigi- 
lans suspiraret et tremeret, viro suo eadem de causa suspiranti ait : 
domine mi, vidistine somnium quod vidi ? Vidi, inquit, et admirari et 
pavere non desino ; quid inde faciemus ? Cui mulier : utilius, est ei 
obtemperare, quam iram Dei sui, quem pracdicat, incurrere." 

323. Queke—quoke^G^d^^^, 

328. p^?M/^/jy^///= though I sigh. 

330. Fw= troubles. Perhaps from Lat. urere, 

343. Awysment=^coMXist\, 

349 ff. L.A. : " Cum autem quadam die M. M. praedicaret, princeps 
dixit ei: putas posse defendere fidem quam praedicas? Cui ilia: 
equidem illam defendere pracsto sum, utpote quotidianis miraculis et 
praedicatione magistri mei Petri, qui Romac praesidet, roboratam. Cui 
princeps cum conjuge dixit : ecce dictis tuis per omnia obtemperare 
parati sumus, si a Deo, quem praedicas, nobis filium impetrabis. 
Propter hoc, inquit Magd., non remanebit," &c. 

352. Say dly^ sadly— fixmVj, 

369. Athis=^\ki2X is. 

382-411. L.A. : *' Quid est, domine, putasne sine me proficisci ? Ab- 
sit; te enim recedente recedam, te veniente veniam, te quiescente 
quiescam. Cui vir ait : non sic fiet, domina, etenim cum sis gravida 
et in mari sint infinita pericula, de facili periclitari posses, domi igitur 
quiesces et possessionibus nostris curam impendes. Econtra ilia 
instabat, * femineum nee mutans femina morem,* et cum lacrymis pedi- 
bus ejus obvoluta, quod petebat tandem obtinuit." 

389. fi^a>t=weak. 

413-444. L.A. : " Maria ergo humeris eorum signum crucis imposuit, 
ne eos antiquus hostis in aliquo itinere impediret. Navem igitur cm- 



nibus necessariis copiose onerantes, csetera, quae habebant, in Marias 
M. custodia reiinquentes, proficisci coeperunt, jamque unius diei et 
noctis cursu consummato coepit nimium mare intumescere, ventus flare, 
ita ut omnes et maxime matrona, gravida et debilis, tarn saeva inunda- 
tione fluctuum quassati gravissimis ang^stiis urgerentur, in tantum 
quod in earn subito dolor partus irruit et inter angustias ventris et 
pressuras temporis filium parturiens exspiravit." 

418. Punt/ay i= purvey td, 

420. Fare=yoy2Lgt. 

430. 5/<fr7/= stirred. 

431. Ho/ 6r» Aey=dcep and high. 

443. A /lane (or ai/ace, /Aorm =ihame^\ose. led, ]}ama, ]>ar^na. 

445. L.A. is somewhat different : " Natus igitur puerulus palpitabat et 
mammillarum maternarum quaerens solatia lamentabiles dabat vagitus. 
Proh dolor, et natus est infans vivus est matricida effectus, mori eum 
convenit, cum non sit, qui vitae tribuat alimentum. Quid faciet pere- 
g^nus, et cum uxorem mortuam videat et puerum vagientem querulis 
vocibus matris mammam appetentem ? Lamentabatur piurimum et 
dicebat : heu miser, quid facies ? filium habere desiderasti et matrem 
cum filio perdidisti." 

445. 'iol 6^ 3r/=yowI and yell. 

449. ^^=while. 

450. /tf//= fault, lack. 

459. Snawt/== snivel f cry. See Bradley, sub sniivelen^ and Skeat, 
sub snive/. grape =^ grope. 

469. HynU'S^[\stnej read hytne-s^/\fine. 

470. Werch = wreck ? = wretch. 
472. (?r]?^ //z/l?= above the rest. 

474. Bale fyre=^zorvsMrri\n% fire. Cf. XV. 194. 

" In ane baillfyre thai brint it all in as." 

— Stewart, • Cron. Scot.,' i. 355. 
See Murray, sub ba/e-fire. 

475. L.A. : "Nautae acclamabant dicentes : projiciatur in mare hoc 
corpus, antequam insimul pereamus, quamdiu enim nobiscum fuerit, 
haec quassatio non cessabit. Et cum corpus apprehendissent, ut illud 
in mare jactarent : parcite, inquit peregrinus, parcite, et si nee mihi 
nee matri parcere volueritis, misereamini saltem parvuli vagientis, 
sinite modicum et sustinete, si forte mulier prae dolore in exstasi po- 
sita ad hue valeat respirare." 

478. Herbry = sh el te r, b u ry. 

484. 5^ spare ^ read 3^/ spare. 

486, 487. Between this, one or more verses seem to be wanting. 

491. 52£/«y^^= swooning. See Skeat, sub jo/^^;/. 

493. Sparis a tyfne—vfdAi a while. 

495-497. An addition. 

498-528. L.A. : " Et ecce non procul a mari quidam collis appar- 


uit, quo viso utilius esse credidit corpus et puerulum illuc deferri, 
quam marinis belluis ad devorandum dari, et vix a nautis prece et 
pretio extorsit, ut illic applicarent, cumque illic prae duritia foveam 
non potuisset effodere, in secretiori parte collis chlamyde supposita 
corpus collocavit et puerulum mammis ejus apponens cum lacrymis 

498. //^=isle, or more likely hill. Cf. 1. 649 & L.A. 

502. i)/<?/= meat. v»des^is =monsitrs, L. A. "marinis belluis." 

504. Afedt7e= properly. 

509. And for such payment as they desired. 

513. 7'^=till. 

514. 3 (irnige = ^rninge, 

518. Lomys =^Xoo\s. See Bradley, sub Idme. 

524. ^a/>///= wrapped. Cf. XV. 206. 

529-558. L.A. : " O Maria Magd., ad perditionis meae cumulum 
Massiliae partibus applicuisti : cur infelix admonitione tua hoc iter 
arripui ? petistine Deum, ut mulier mea hac de causa conciperet et 
pcriret? Ecce enim concepit et pariendo mortem subiit, concep- 
tusque est natus, ut pereat, cum non sit qui enutriat. Ecce, quod prece 
tua obtinui, tibi enim omnia mea commendavi Deoque tuo com- 
mando ; si potens es, memor sis animae matris, et prece tua misere- 
atur, ne pereat natus. Tunc chlamyde sua corpus cum puero cir- 
cumquaque operuit et postmodum navem conscendit" 

534. Admonestine=^(dimor\\s\iii\g, 

535. /w?r= because. 

536. il/rt^''^= companion, wife. 

544. 6^r«)7/V=made ready. 

545. Birthe = birth, child, one nede — of necessity. 
555. Rew—p\\.y, 

558. lVante=ref[ise, A.S. it/earn, a refusal. 

559-568. Not in L.A. 

562. 6'/>'«/= abate. A.S. styntan^ to shorten. 

564. ^7//>/^r= aimed. Icel. cctla, to intend. 

568-606. L.A. : " Cumque ad Petntm venisset, Petrus ei obvius fuit, 
qui, viso signo crucis in humero suo, qui esset et unde veniret, scisci- 
tatus est. Qui omnia sibi per ordinem narravit, cui Petrus : pax tibi 
fiat, bene venisti et utili consilio credidisti nee moleste feras si mulier 
tua dormit, si parvulus cum ea quiescit, potens enim est dominus, cui 
vult, dona dare, data auferre, ablata restituere, et moerorem tuum in 
gaudium commutare." 

681. 2w//w«r= whence. Cf. XV. 61. 

585. Sekyr^sMre, 

590. 2//^/'= quick, living. 

593. Helsum = wholesome. 

595. 7'Ar£7«///=trowit= trusted. /rt^///= taught. See 1. 606 below, 


596. LacA/= taken. A.S. laccan. 

*' He lau^At leue at his wife * & left hur still 
For too liue in hur londe * in liking of hert.'* 

— 'Alisaimder,' 25a 

599. ^////;m^^= without equal. 
603. Z^^= deceive. 

"& sente wi)> hem sondes * to saxoyne \ta.t time, 
& nomen omage in his name * nou^t forto /ajm€ 
Forto ri3tleche pai reaume real • of riche & of pore." 

— ' W. of Paleme,* 1309. 

I eel. /eymi, 

607-644. L.A. : " Petrus autem ipsum in Hierosolymam duxit et 
omnia loca in quibus Christus praedicavit et miracula fecit, locum 
etiam in quo passus est et in quo ccelos adscendit, eidem ostendit ; 
cumque de fide fuisset instructus diligenter a Petro, biennii spatio 
jam elapso navem adscendit repatriare curans." 

613. Flome ==r\\tr. Other forms of the word axe flufn.JUm, flume, 

634. lVelland=\ormei\i\i{gy lit. boiling. A.S. weallan^ to boil. 

" Ffor it salle be hatter ))an ever was 
Molten led or wclland bras, 
Als I have herd gret clerkes telle 
fat has descryved l^e payns of helle." 

— ' P. of Consc.,* 7126. 

638. 5«^=went. 

642. A5'/=deny, renounce. 

645-698. L.A. : " Cum igitur navigarent, domino disponente juxta 
collem in quo corpus uxoris cum puero positum fuerat per\'enerunt, 
qui prece et pretio eos ibi ad applicandum induxit. Puerulus autem 
ibidem a Maria Magd. incolumis conserv^atus frequentur ad littus 
maris procedebat et ibidem, ut puerorum moris est, cum lapillis et 
glareis ludere solitus erat, et, cum applicuisset, vidit puerulum more 
solito in littore maris cum lapillis ludentem, et quid esset, admirari 
non desinens, de scapha exsiliit. Quem videns parvulus, cum nun- 
quam tale quid vidisset, expavit et ad solita matris recurrens ubera 
occulte sub chlamyde latitabat Peregrinus vero, ut manifestius 
videret, illuc accessit et puerulum pulcherrimum matris ubera sugen- 
tem invenit, et accipiens puerum ait : O beata Maria Magd., quam 
felix essem, quam mihi cuncta prospera advenissent, si mulier respi- 
raret et mecum repatriare valeret ; scio equidem, scio et procul dubio 
credo, quod tu, qui puerum dedisti et in hac rupe per biennium pavisti, 
poteris matrem suam prece tua pristinae restituere sanitati." 

651. T'*:? 7e///=to know. />'^=betided. A.S. //V&«, to betide, happen. 

661. C^/V^/r= children. 

662. -Fra:= when. 

NOTES TO MAGDALEN A (XVI. 665-765). 1 93 

665. Crape = crept. 

670. J/^« = mean. 

677. Manti/'/ape =io\d of the mantle. 

682. Jyn=ce2Lse, G.Fr.yfw. 

683. Brad= took quickly. 

" he braide to him )>e bagge & * bliue it opened, 
& fond J)e bred & ])e bouf." 

— * W. of Paleme/ 1867. 

I eel. bregma, 

686. "Were I in all that has befallen me." tyd, cf. 1. 754. 

699-742. L. A. : " Ad haec verba mulier respiravit et quasi a somno 
evigilans ait : magni meriti es, b. Maria Magd., et gloriosa, quae in 
partus mei pressuris obstetricis implevisti officium et in omnibus neces- 
sitatibus ancillae servitium explesti. Quo audito peregrinus admirans 
ait : vivisne, uxor mea dilecta ? Cui ilia : vivo equidem et nunc prime 
de peregrinatione, de qua et tu venisti, venio, et sicut b. Petrus te 
Hierosolymam duxit et omnia loca, in quibus Christus passus est, 
mortuus et sepultus, et alia plura loca ostendit, sic et ego una cum 
b. Maria Magd. duce et comite vobiscum fui et conspecta memoriae 
commendavi. Et incipiens loca omnia, in quibus Christus passus 
est, et miracula quai viderat, adeo plene explicuit, ut nee in aliquo 

702. Cuth, read gud, — Horst. 

704. Af'w/e= speak. 

706. Maync= strength, Cf. 1. 855. A.S. magen, strength. 

711. Med'Wy/= midwife. 

715. /^aw//.r= faults, deficiencies. 

719. I*'erfyand= viondering. 

721. Lewis =\ivest. 

731. For-oiaf sa7ae/e== without safety. Perhaps we should rez.d for 
our saw ete— {or our salvation. 

743-758. L.A. : " Tunc peregrinus recepta conjuge et puero navim 
la^tus conscendit et paulo post Massillae portibus applicuerunt et in- 
gressi invenerunt b. Mariam M. cum suis discipulis praedicantem, et 
ejus pedibus cum lacrymis provoluti omnia, quai iis acciderant, narrave- 
runt et a b. Maximino sacrum baptisma susceperunt." 

745. pfl/w/7=atwill. 

751. (7r<?/= greeting, weeping. 

759-776. L.A. : " Tunc in civitate Massiliae omnium ydolorum 
templa destruentes Christi ecclesias construxerunt et b. Lazarum in 
eiusdem civitatis episcopum unanimiter elegerunt. Tandem divino 
nutu ad Aquensem civitatem venerunt et populum ilium ad fidem 
Christi per multa miracula adduxerunt, ubi etiam b. Maximinus in 
episcopum est ordinatus." 

765. -A/ar^A//= Marseilles. Cf. 1. 759, marcille. 
VOL. III. n 


768. ^it/j=Aquensis Vicus, identified with Bagn^res de Bigarre, 
the inhabitants of which were called Aquenses. See Smith's ' Diet. 
Gr. and Rom. Geography/ sub Aqua Convenarum, 

772. •S'«^^///w= subjects, flock. 

777-808. L.A. : " Interea b. M. M. supemse contemplationis avida 
asperrimum eremum petiit et in loco angelicis manibus praeparato per 
XXX annos incognita mansit In quo quidem loco nee aquanim 
fluenta nee arborum nee herbarum erant solatia, ut ex hoe manifes- 
taretur, quod redemtor noster ipsam non terrenis refectionibus, sed 
tantum ccelestibus epulis disposuerat satiare. Qualibet autem die 
septem horis canonicis ab angelis in sethera elevebatur et ecelestium 
ag^inum gloriosos coneentus etiam corporalibus auribus audiebat, 
unde diebus singulis his suavissimis dapibus satiata et inde per eos- 
dem angelos ad locum proprium revocata corporalibus ali mentis 
nullatenus indigebat'' 

780. 3 ^'^«/= earnest. 

782. Derm =stcrti. A.S. deme, 

783. Angii 2vark==angt\s* work. 

784. Ifyr mark == direct herself. See Bradley, sub fnearkien, and 
Dunbar — 

** Till cum ws till, or jit till m^k us neir," 237, 90. 
*' Scho markit to the land with mirth,** 317, 77. 

Also * Tayis Bank,' 1. 90 — 

" And merkit furth on mold.** 

785. Rocke= rock. 
791. ^^rj= grass. 

809-816. L.A. : " Sacerdos autem quidam solitariam vitam agere 
desiderans ad duodecim stadia loco eidem vicinam sibi cellam 

813. Hey 6t» j/ay=high and steep. 

" On athir syde thar wes ane hicht 
Till the vattir doune, sum deill stay,*' 

— ' Bruce,' xix. 319. 

Cf. Icel. sti^, a steep ascent ; A.S. stigan, to climb. See Bradley, 
sub stiyn, 
817-824. An addition. 

817. Depart ^eCw'xde, 

818, Auchiand=€\^\}[{, 

822. Pes^} 

823. Rese—rdiCt, 

824. Ryne =ruxi, tf«^/3fK^=ayndit= winded. Icel. anda, to breathe. 
825-837. L.A. : "Die quadam dominus praedicti sacerdotis oculos 

aperuit et corporeis oculis evidenter adspexit, qualiter angeli ad prae- 

NOTES TO MAGDALEN A (XVL 830-867). 1 95 

dictum locum, in quo b. Maria morabatur, discedebant et earn in 
aethera sublevabant et post horas spatium ad eundem locum cum 
divinis laudibus revocabant." 

830. Z/V^[/l>'^/= lighted, came down to. 

831. Dysfiare=(\esp2L{r. 

838. L.A. : ** Volens autem sacerdos tam admirabilis visionis veri- 
tatem agnoscere, creator! suo precibus se commendans ad praedictum 
locum audaci devotione properabat, cumque ad unius jactum lapidis 
appropinquaret, coeperunt ejus crura resolvi et timore valido ipsius 
praecordia medullitus anhelare, cumque retro rediret, ambulandi usum 
crura cum pedibus simul praebebant, sed si verso tramite ad praedic- 
tum locum accedere conaretur, totiens eum languor corporis et hebe- 
tudo mentis prohibebant." 

851. Ma^ 6r* viaie seem to be variants of the same word wa/, from 
O.Fr. mat^ dejected, faint. Cf. D. mat^ tired, exhausted. The 'York 
Plays,* 480/4, have 

" {>at makes me to mournc nowe full mate and full madde," 

and it is a question whether we should not here read " wox mad & 

852. Nakine gai=no kind of way. 
855. J/w//= courage. 

" ' Schir,' said he, ' we haf drawyn blude.' 
The Erll, that wes of mekill mude. 
Said, ' And we had all thiddir gane 
We had discumfit thame ilkane.' " 

— • Bruce,* xix. 622. 
A.S. mdd, 

857. L.A. : " Intellexit igitur vir Dei illud procul dubio cceleste esse 
sacramentum, ad quod accedere humanum non poterat experimentum.'' 

859. But god=vf\tho\i\. God. 

861-866. An addition. 

863. A'a=than. 

867-909. L.A. : " Invocato igitur salvatoris nomine exclamavit : ad- 
juro te per dominum, ut, si homo es vel aliqua rational is creatura, quae 
in ilia spelunca habitas, mihi respondeas et tui edisseras veritatem. 
Cumque hoc tertio repetiisset, b. M. M. ei respondit ; accede proprius et 
omnium quas desiderat anima tua, scire poteris veritatem. Cumque 
ille tremens usque ad medii spatii terminum appropinquasset, ait ad 
€um : Meministi ex evangelio de Maria ilia famosa peccatrice, quae 
pedes salvatoris lacrymis lavit, capillis tersit et suorum delictorum 
veniam promeruit ? Cui sacerdos : memini et plus quam XXX an- 
norum evolata sunt curricula quod hoc factum etiam sancta credit et 
confitetur ecclesia. Ego, inquit, sum ilia quae per XXX annorum 
spatium omnibus hominibus ignota permansi et sicut tibi heri cernere 
permissum est, sic singulis diebus angelicis manibus in aethera sub- 


levata coelestium agminuin dalcissimam jubilationem septenis vicibus 
per singulos dies corporeis auribus audire promerui. Quia igitur mihi 
a domino revelatum est, quod ex hoc migratura sum sseculo, b. Maxi- 
minum adeas et ei hoc studeas intimare, proximo die resurrectionis 
dominicae tempore, quo ad matutinum surgere consuevit, oratorium 
solus ingrediatur et me illic per angelorum ministerium inveniet 

869. lVy/e= vfomdin. 

872. ptf/=at 

877. Trema/ofui^tTtmbWng. 

881. Menis =mindesi, rememberest 

890. p^ for ])ire= these, 

895. ypraysii =uprsLised. 

903. Say = tell. pasJ^ day = Easter-day. 

905. Afatym ^'^msiiin. 

908. Be ony Tvyse =hy all means. 

907. Bui m^I= without more, alone. arataure= oratory. See also 
1. 923, oratore, 

909. K^/r= thither. Cf. 1. 784. 

910-930. L.A- : " Sacerdos autem vocem ejus velut vocem angeli 
audiebat, neminem autem videbat Concitus igitur b. Maximinum 
adiit et ei omnia per ordinem enarravit, s. autem Maximinus nimio 
repletus gaudio salvatori gratias immensas retulit et ilia die ac hora, 
ut sibi jussum fuerat, oratorium solus ingressus videt b. Mariam 
Magd., in choro adhuc stantem eorum, qui earn adduxerant, ange- 
lorum. Erat autem spatio duorum cubitorunt elevata a terra, stans in 
medio angelorum et extensis manibus Deum exorans." 

92L Selfe cure =wery hour. 

926. He heywii=h\g\\ heaved, lifted. 

931-942. L.A. : " Cum autem b. Maximinus ad eam accedere trepi- 
daret, conversa dixit ad eum : accede hue propius nee fugias hliam 
tuam, pater. Appropinquante autem eo, sicut in ipsius b. Maximini 
legitur libris, ita vultus dominae ex continua et diuturna visione 
angelorum radiabat, ut faeilius solis radios quam faeiem suam intueri 
quis posset." 

932. Narrere=vie2iXtT. 

939. Grewe= grieve, pain. 

940. In maste verlu = in greatest strength. 
943-946. Addition. 

947-956. L. A. : " Convoeato igitur universo elero et saeerdote 
prasdieto corpus et sanguinem domini ab episcopo b. Maria Magd. 
cum multa lacrymarum inundatione suscepit, deinde toto corpore ante 
altaris prostrato crepidinem sanctissima ilia anima migravit ad 

952. Z>^</= deeds. 

954. 5/r^^^/= stretched. 

NOTES TO MAGDALEN A (XVL 997-989). 1 97 

957-968. L.A. : " Post cuius exitum tantus odor suavitatis ibidem 
remansit ut per septcfn dies fere ab ingredientibus oratorium senti- 
retur. Cuius sanctissimum corpus b. Maximinus diversis conditum 
aromatibus honorifice sepelivit et post mortem suam juxta se sepeliri 

960. HytMi, 

965. Bawme=h2\Trv, O.Fr. basme; Lat. balsamum, 

968. The story of Mary Magdalene ends here, but in the MS. the 
title of the following legend follows 1. 990. This and the legend of 
Martha form one. In the L.A. eight of Mary Magdalene's miracles 
are narrated. Here they are omitted, with the exception of one, which 
is given at the conclusion of the Martha legend. 

976. Egis, See 1. 768, and the note to it. 

988. ^a«///tf= balm, joy. 

989. Sckore^sitt^^ sheer. Cf. 1. 813, hey and stay. 


St Martha, the sister of Lazarus and Mary, lived with them at Beth- 
any, a small town about two miles distant from Jerusalem, and lying 
just beyond the Mount of Olives. Of the two sisters and their brother 
nothing is known beyond what is recorded of them in the Gospels. 
As is well known, Jesus was a frequent guest at their home, and 
showed His attachment to them by His tears at the grave of Lazarus 
and by the miracle He there performed. As Mary has been taken as 
the type of the contemplative life, so Martha has been regarded as 
the type of the active. In all probability she was present at our Lord's 
crucifixion, and was one of those who met with the Apostles in the 
upper room in Jerusalem. Tradition having identified her sister with 
Mary Magdalene, she has been regarded, at least since the time of 
St Ambrose, as the sister of Mary Magdalene. The same authority 
represents her as being driven along with the last-named and Laz- 
arus and others, in a small boat in which they had been put by their 
persecutors without oars or sails, to Marseilles, where they landed. 
It is said that she ended her life in Provence, and that her body was 
found in the thirteenth century at Tarascon. Her relics now lie in a 
magnificent subterranean chapel of the Collegiate Church at Tarascon. 
Her head is preserved in a golden bust, presented for the purpose by 
Louis XL of France. See Smith's ' Diet of the Bible ' ; Butler's ' Lives 
of the Saints \- and Putin's *Dict. of Hagiog.' 

Her day is July 29. 

In art she is often represented with a skimmer or ladle in her hand, 
or a large bunch of keys is attached to her girdle. She is the especial 
patroness of female discretion and good housekeeping. In general 
her dress is homely, and her usual attributes as patron saint are the 
pot of holy water, the asperge in her hand, and a dragon bound at her 
feet. St Margaret is also attended by a dragon, but she bears a cruci- 
fix or palms, and is thus distinguished from St Martha. 

Analysis — Travelling about preaching, she came to Tarascon, 1-22 ; 
where she is told of a dragon and the destruction it is working, 23-59 ; 

NOTES TO MARTHA (XVH. 1-14). 1 99 

she overcomes it, and it is afterwards slain by the people, 60-78 ; she 
resides at Tarascon, and founds two religious houses, one for men and 
the other for women, and devotes herself to an ascetic life, 79-98; 
preaching at Avignon, a young man, desiring to hear her, attempts to 
swim across the Rh6ne and is drowned, 99-110 ; his body is found, 
and being brought to Martha, she through prayer restores him to life, 
and causes him to be baptised, 111-136; she is taken with a fever, and 
is told the day of her death, 137-140; she sees Mary borne up on 
angels* hands, sends for the inmates of her two houses and addresses 
them, as her end is near, 141-152 ; she then bids her maidens prepare 
her as for her funeral, light candles, and keep watch about her : as 
they watch they fall asleep, and a sudden wind blows the candles out, 
and a company of fiends appear to her, 153-166; she prays, her sister 
appears to her and relights the candles, 167-177; Christ appears and 
bids her come to Him, 178-184; her death, 185-197; her burial, and 
how Frontus the bishop was present at it and left his gloves and his 
ring, 198-254; the cure which the King of France obtained at her 
tomb, and his gratitude, 255-268 ; how Martilla wrote her life, and of 
her preaching and death, 269-276 ; a miracle wrought by Mary Mag- 
dalene, 277-344. 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. cv., and CSS., fol. in. 

1. The L.A. and CSS. begin with an account of the parentage of 
Martha, and a brief summary of what has already been said in the 
previous legend, vv. 51-80, 181-222. 

7-46. L.A. : " Erat autem b. Martha valde facunda et omnibus 
gratiosa." Then follows a description of the dragon : *' Erat autem 
tunc temporis super Rhodanum in nemore quodam inter Arelatem et 
Avenionem draco quidam, medius animal medius piscis, grossior bove, 
longior equo, habens dentes ut spata, acutos ut cornua, binis parmis 
ex utraque parte munitus, qui latens in flumine omnes transeuntes 
perimebat et naves submergebat ; venerat autem per mare de Galatia 
Asiae, generatus a Leviathan qui est serpens aquosus et ferocissimus, 
et ab Onacho animali quod Galatias regio gignit, quod in sectatores 
suos per spatium jugeris stercus suum velut spiculum dirigit et quid- 
quid tetigerit, velut ignis exurit." 

7. /^2jr=hair. A.S,/eax, hair. See Bradley. 

8. TV;//, read lent Cf. 1. 145. 

9. Far schawyftge^idAX shovf'ingt persuasiveness. 
\0, Han Id or ^nge—o\^ or yonug, Cf. X. 120. 

13. Schawatid^'sovi'ing, ^r^t/ = drew. 

14. ^r/tf= Aries, a city of Provence, situated on the left bank of the 
Rh6ne where the river divides into two branches. It was in the 
country of the Salyes, which was conquered by the Romans in B.C. 
123. Apparently Aries became a Roman colony in the time of 
Augustus, with the name of Sextani attached to it, in consequence of 


some soldiers of the Sixth Le^on being settled there. It had also 
the cogpiomen lulia. The Roman remains at Aries are numerous. 
In the time of Honorius it was the residence of the praefect of Gallia. 

15. /?^«^=Rh6ne. 

16. Soic;nd= deep, wod=^ v/ood, 

17. A7fjrnone= Avignon ; the ancient Avenio, situated at the junction 
of the Durance and the Rh6ne, called by Stephanus " a city of Mas- 
salia," from which it would seem that there is some authority for 
supposing it to be a Greek foundation, or to have come under the 
dominion of the Greeks of Marseilles. In later times it became 
famous in the annals of the Church. In the text (I. 19) it is described 
as " a place now of g^et renovne.*' 

21. Kw/^= waste, wilderness. 

22. TerrascoHc = Tarascon. Like Aries and Avignon, between which 
it lay, Tarascon was in Provence, on the east side of the Rh6ne. For 
the derivation of the name see M. H. d*Arbois de Jubainville*s 
• Recherches sur Torigine de la Propri^td Fonci^re et des noms de 
lieux habitus en France.' 

25. Dragone = dragon. Some curious information about these 
mythical creatures or monsters may be found in Dr Brewer's * Dic- 
tionary of Miracles.' Fers and f el =fiQrct and cruel. 

29, 30. In L. A. the only beast mentioned is the Onacho, by some 
called H onacho and Bonacho, and is probably the onager or wild ass, 
of which many fabulous things are told. 

33. (?i/r-/yrzt/i/= overturned. Cf. note to VI. 629. 

44. /Vy/^= foulness. Cf. A.S.//7//Vi«,/pAwi, to foul, defile. 

46. Gregois^ Greek. O. Fr. " Gregais, Grecian, Greekish, of Greece. 
Feu GregoiSy wild-fire, or the best kinde thereof; such as will burne 
within the water, &c." — Cot. See also Rochefort, sub gr}giis and 

49. Oxgange=^\}^t, measure of land proportioned to one ox of a 
plough — C. Innes, * Early Scotch Hist.,' p. 559. As defined in the 
text, 220 feet by 140. 

50-52. An addition. 

53-78. L.A. : "Ad quem Marthaapopulis rogata accedens ipsumque 
in nemore quendam hominem manducantem reperiens aquam bene- 
dict«im super eum jecit et crucem quandam ostendit. Qui protinus 
victus ut ovis stans a sancta M. proprio cingulo alligatur et illico a 
populo lanceis et lapidibus perimitur. Vocabatur autem draco ab 
incolis Tarasconus, unde in huius memoriam locus ille adhuc vocatur 
Tarascona, qui antea vocabatur Nerluc, id est, niger lacus, eo quod 
ibi erant nemora nigra et umbrosa." 

54. Fut 6r* Aand^w'iih all speed. 

61. Voud^v/ood, <7r= until. 

66. S[cA]atay/= showed, and so in XVIII. 1122. 

67. Scones fe^discomfiied. 

NOTES TO MARTHA (XVH. 7()-137). 20I 

70. Hyre read his, ^/j=neck. 

76. Vapynis = weapon s. 

7d-98. L.A. : " Ibi igitur beata Martha licentia magistri sui Maxi- 
mini et sororis suze deinceps remansit et orationibus et jejuniis indesi- 
nenter vacabat, deinde congregato ibi magno sororum conventu et ad 
honorem b. Mariae semper virginis magna aedificata basilica, satis ibi 
asperam duxit vitam, carnem et omnem pinguedinem, ova, caseum, et 
vinum vitans, semel tantum in die edebat, centies in die, toties in 
nocte genua flectebat." 

87. KyrkCy either a church, or a convent which would include a 
church. She is supposed to have been the first to introduce the 
monastic life into Gaul. According to 1. 146 below, she built two 

89. .5'/r<«/<?= strait, strict, ascetic. 

92. i>yj^=lose. 

93. ^^/a«;>= but once. 

99-136. L.A. : " Quadam vice dum apud Avenionem inter urbem et 
fluvium Rhodani praedicaret, juvenis quidam ultra fluvium consistens 
ejus verba audire desiderans, cum navigio careret, nudatus natare 
coepit, sed subito vi fluminis rapitur et protinus suffocatur. Cuius 
corpus vix secunda die inventum ante pedes s. Marthae resuscitandum 
praesentatur, ilia vero in modum crucis sola prostrata taliter oravit : 
Adonay domine Jesu Christe, qui fratrem meum Lazarum dilectum 
tuum olim resuscitasti, respice, mi hospes care, ad fidem circumstantium 
et resuscita puerum istum, et apprehensa ejus manu mox juvenis sur- 
rexit et sacrum baptisma suscepit." Then follows in L.A. the story 
of the woman who had the issue of blood (Luke viii. 43-48), with whom 
Martha was identified. 

104. Wald hafe ben at Still a common phrase for " would have 
gone to." 

106. Vyscele = vessel = boat. 

108. Til and mycht /^j/^= while breath might last. 

109. Delete the inverted commas. 

110. Don ^<«r=bore down. 

111. 5^a////>'= hardly, with difficulty. Icel. skamL /<7^/r= t'other, 

113. To ryvine =tO'ryvine=^ rtni in pieces. schald—shdWo^ place. 
See Jamieson. 

118. A voyce =ont voice. 

119. Enchesone=xt2iSon. 

120. Vrysone = orison. 
122. 2«^^= quick, living. 
124. Stovnd=?L short time. 

137-152. L.A. : " Obitum suum sibi dominus ante per annum reve- 
lavit, in quo toto anno febribus elaborans ante octavum diem sui exitus 
angelicos choros sororis suae in coelum animam deferentes audivit, quae 


mox fratrum et sororum conventu congregate ait : mei comites et 
dulcissimi alumni, mi hi, quaeso, congratulamini, quoniam angelicos 
chores sororis meae animam ad sedes pollicitas ferentes ovanter cerno. 
O pulcherrima et mi dilecta soror vivas cum magistro tuo et hospite 
meo in sede beata." 

137. -ff«//^j= without deceit, ue. truly. 

138. C?jtf= cease, die. 

141. ^i/r-*/a«//= eighth. Cf. XVI. 8i8. 

143. Mary, hyr cystyre, sawle=^ the soul of her sister Mary. Cf. 
cystyre sawle, 1. 150. 

146. Cysterys 6r* brutkyre convent Cysterys is the possessive form. 
For bruihyre cf. cystyre sawUy 11. 143 and 150, and angil wark, XVI. 
783. Probably for bruihyre we should read brethyre, 

152. Me byrd^'W behoves me. Cf. notes to II. 1106 and IV. 183. 

153. L.A. : " Statimque b. M. exitum suum vicinum prsesentiens suos 
admonuit, ut luminaribus accensis circa se usque ad obitum vigilarent, 
nocte vero media ante transitus sui diem custodibus somno gravatis 
ventus vehemens irruit et luminaria cuncta exstinxit, ilia vero malig- 
norum spirituum turbam cemens orare coepit : mi pater ely, mi hospes 
care, congregati sunt ad devorandum me seductores mei, scripta 
tenentes mala, quae gessi. Ely ne elongeris a me, sed in adjutorium 
meum intende." 

155. Z>yr^/= prepare. 

164. 5/^^^/= quenched, blew out. ^a/p<^= entirely. 

169. 6^^j/^= guest. 

171. Hely = E 1 y. Defere = delay. O. Fr. " diffdrer^ to delay, prolong, 
procrastinate " — Cot. 

172. In myn = io my. 

173-184. L.A. : "Et ecce sororem ad se venientem vidit, quae manu 
facem tenens cereos et lampades inde accendit, dumque altera alteram 
proprio nomine vocaret, ecce Christus advenit dicens : veni dilecta 
hospita, et ubi ego sum, illuc mecum eris : tu me suscepisti in 
hospitio tuo, ego te recipiam in coelo meo et invocantes te exaudiam 
amore tuo." 

175. 5^rj^/j= candles. See Jamieson. 

185-197. L.A. : " Appropinquante vero hora sui transitus foras deferri 
se fecit, ut coelum posset videre, jussitque se in terra super cinerem 
poni et signum crucis coram se teneri et in haec verba oravit : hospes 
mi care, banc pauperculam tuam custodi, et sicut mecum dignatus es 
hospitari, sic me suscipe in hospitio tuo ccelesti. Jussitque, ut passto 
secundum Lucam coram se legeretur, et cum diceretur : Pater, in manus 
tuas commendo spiritum meum, ilia emisit spiritum." 

187. -/4j/t/>= ashes. 

197. Swelt^dxtdi. A.S. swelfan, to die, perish. 

198-254. L.A. : " Sequenti vero die, sc. dominica, dum circa corpus 
ejus laudes exsolverent, circa horam tertiam apud Petrogoricas b. 

NOTES TO MARTHA (XVIL 203-271). 20$ 

Frontoni missam celebranti et post epistolam in cathedra dormitanti 
dominus apparuit dicens ei : dilecte mi Fronto, si vis adimplere, quod 
olim hospitse nostras pollicitus es, surge velociter et sequere me. Quo 
jussa complente subito ambo Tarasconam venerunt et circa corpus 
ejus psallentes totum officium ambo caiteris respondentibus peregerunt 
et corpus ejus in sepulchro suis manibus coUocaverunt Verum dum 
apud Petrogoricas finitis cantibus dyaconus evangelium lecturus bene- 
dictionem petens episcopum excitaret, ille vix excitatus respondit : 
fratres mei, cur me excitastis? Dominus J. Chr. ad corpus Marthae 
hospitae suas me duxit et ipsam tradidimus sepulturae, dirigite igitur 
illuc velociter nuntios qui nobis annulum nostrum, aurum et cyrothecas 
criseas deferant, quas, dum ad corpus sepeliendum me aptarem, sacristae 
commendavi et ex oblivione dimisi, quia me tam cito excistatis. Missi 
nuntii et hoc, ut episcopus dixerat, invenientes annulum solamque 
cyrothecam attulerunt, aliam vero in huius rei testimonium sacrista 
retinuit." L.A. then adds that a certain brother skilled in letters 
spoke to the Lord and inquired His name, to whom He made no reply, 
but showed him a book which He held open in His hand, on one of 
the pages of which there was written simply the words : " In memoria 
aeterna erit justa hospita mea, ab auditione mala non timebit in die 

203. At the third hour of the day this was. 

204. PetragorycaSy the modern Perigord. 

206. il/^j=Mass. 

207. C^//<?/= collect. 
214. Bov= obey. 
239. G/u7£/is= gloves, 

255-276. L.A. : " Cum autem ad ejus sepulchrum crebra miracula 
fierent, Clodoveus rex Francorum christianus effectus a s. Remigio 
baptizatus, cum gravem renum pateretur dolorem, ad ejus tumulum 
veniens sanitatem integram reportavit, quapropter ilium locum ditavit 
et trium milliariorum spatio in giro ex utraque parte Rhodani terram, 
villas et castra dedit locumque ilium liberum fecit. Martilla vero 
ejus famula vitam conscripsit ipsius, quae postmodum in Sclavoniam 
pergens et ibi evangelium Dei praedicans post X annum a dormitione 
Marthae in pace quievit." 

257. Gioiudowe^QXowis, His name is variously spelled. In the 
chroniclers it is Cludvecus, Clodoveus, Chlodovechus. In modem 
German it is Ludwig; in modern French, Louis. He was born in 
466, succeeded Childeric his father in 481, married Clotilda in 492, 
and died in 511. For a good account of him see Smith's * Diet, of 
Christ. Bio.' 

260. -A^<:w= kidneys. Icel. nyra, kidney. 

264. Z?<9a//7= endowed. 

265, 266. Exempted it from all taxes and burdens. 
271, Towne ofclcntony, L.A., Slavonia. 

204 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XVH. 277-912). 

277-288. An addition. 

277. 7:S/r^=>/r^= there. 

278. p/>= thus. Of frequent occurrence. 

289. -Fte//f//w= Flanders. 

289-344. This miracle is taken from L.A.'s account of St Mary 
Magdalene (cap. 96, 10): "Clericus quidam de Flandria, Stephanus 
nomine, in tantam scelerum immanitatem ceciderat quod, omnia exer- 
cens flagitia ea, quse salutis erant, non solum non facere, sed nee audire 
volebat In b. tamen Mariam M. devotionem magnam habens ejus 
vigilias jejunabat et festum colebat. Dum igitur ejus tumulum visi- 
tasset, Maria M. nee ex toto dormienti nee ex toto vigilanti tanquam 
mulier formosa lugubres gerens oculos et duorum angelorum dextra 
Isvaque sustentata pncsidio apparuit eique dixit : cur quseso, Stephane, 
indigna meis mentis facta rependis, cur labiorum meorum instantia 
nulla compunctione moveris ? Ex quo enim devotionem in me habere 
ccepisti, pro te dominum semper instanter exoravi : surge igitur et 
pceniteas, neque enim ego te deseram donee Deo fueris reconciliatus. 
Ille igitur mox in se infundi tantam gratiam sensit quod saeculo ab- 
renuntians religionem introivit et perfectissimx vitae fuit. In cuius 
morte visa est Maria M. juxta feretrum cum angelis adstitisse et ejus 
animam quasi columbam candidam cum laudibus in coelum sustulisse." 

290. 7)'ra«^/= tyrannical. 
292. V/gzi/yne= unkind (?). 
310. Vakkand^wa^ilng. 
315. £ne=^eyts. v^te=vfti. 

342. Dow =dovt. ;Vi=amid. As a white dove amid angels* song. 


St Mary of Egypt, so called from the country of her birth, has had 
her life written by Sophronius, bishop of Jerusalem, in the seventh 
century. It embodies a tradition of the fifth centur)', but is not his- 
toricaL It is given by Migpie, 'Patro. Lat.,' Ixxiii. 671 et seq, ; by the 
Bollandists, *Acta SS.,' April 2, i. 68-90; by Surius, April 2; and in 
Rosweydi's ' Vitae Patrum,' 381 et seq. There are brief accounts of it 
in the L.A., cap. 56, and in the CSS., iv. 24, fol. 58. In the text the 
life written by Sophronius is very closely followed, and is evidently 
the source used by the author. Briefly told, the story of her life is as 
follows : — Born in Egypt, in her youth she devoted herself to a life of 
infamy. But going to Jerusalem with a company who intended to 
celebrate there the feast of the Holy Cross, she was converted, and 
retired into solitude beyond the Jordan, where she was found by Zozi- 
mas, who subsequently administered to her the last sacrament, and 
buried her in the wilds where she had lived. Her date, as given in 
Migne, is a.d. 521, under Justin I.; in Fleury, a.d. 421 ; and in the 
Boll., A.D. 321. 

Her day is April 2 or 9. 

In single figures and devotional pictures Mary of Egypt is portrayed 
as a meagre, wasted, aged woman, with long hair, and holding in her 
hand three small loaves. Sometimes she is united with Mary Mag- 
dalene as joint emblems of female penitence. Mrs Jameson, * Sacred 
and Leg. Art,* i. 389. 

Analysis — Introduction, touching on the necessity for writing such 
stories as the following, 1-24 ; a monk, Zozimas, lived in an abbey in 
Palestine, and was of great piety, 25-50 ; he had believed that no man 
could do more than he had done, and was directed to leave his country 
and seek an abbey near the river Jordan, which he did, 51-68; arrived 
at the monastery he tells the reason of his coming, and is welcomed 
by the abbot, 69-94 ; a description of the abbey and Zozimas*s life 
there, 95-116; the Lenten custom of the abbey, 1 17-186; on the first 
Sunday of Lent Zozimas goes to the river Jordan, and crossed over it 


into a wild and deep forest, 187-200; for many days he continued to 
pass farther and farther into the forest, when, on the sixth hour of the 
twentieth, as he knelt on the ground towards the east in prayer, he saw 
a shadow on his right hand in the form of a man : believing it to be a 
spirit he was afraid, but crossing himself and turning to the left, he be- 
held a woman bare and black, who immediately fled as he went towards 
her, 201-242 ; he comes near enough to her to be heard by her, and 
bids her wait for him and bless him, but she continues her way to the 
other side of a vale, and beseeches him not to follow her, but to lend her 
part of his clothing to cover her nakedness, which he does, when the 
two ask each other's blessing, 243-294 ; after a time she addresses him 
by name, and he, amazed, asks her to tell him who she is, 295-320 ; 
they both rise up from the earth, and she requests him to tell her 
how Christendom fares, w^ho is Pope and who is Emperor, which he 
does, and requests her to pray for the whole world, lest his coming to 
her be in vain, 321-343 ; she prays, and while in the act of so doing 
is raised a cubit and more from the earth and so remains, 344-360 ; 
Zozimas falls to the earth in terror and imagines she is a spirit, when 
she gently chides him, makes the sign of the cross upon herself, and 
prays for their mutual deliverance from the enemy, 361-384; Zozimas 
again asks her to tell him who and whence she is, and for what cause 
she has so long dwelt there, and to answer all his questioning, 385- 
413 ; she replies by saying that she fears he will flee away when he 
hears how defiled she has been, but promises, and begins to tell him 
of her life, 414-440 ; she was born in Egypt, and when twelve years of 
age went to Alexandria, and there gave herself up to wickedness, 441- 
470 ; one day she saw men preparing a ship for sea in order to proceed 
to Jerusalem, and entreated them to let her accompany them, which at 
length they did, 471-550; arrived at Jerusalem, Mary goes with the 
ship's company and attempts with them to enter the Temple in order 
to keep the feast of the Holy Cross, but each time she attempts to 
force her way in she is thrust back, 551-605 ; at last, from weariness, 
she lay down in a corner of the court, sobbing with grief and sorrow 
because of her sins, when, looking up, she suddenly saw an image of 
Our Lady, and prayed her to have mercy upon her and to purify her, 
so that she may have entrance into the Temple and sight of the joy- 
ful tree, promising to leave her sins and go wherever she may lead her, 
606-688 ; her prayer was heard, she entered the holy house, and re- 
mained there long in an ecstasy, 689-704 ; recovering herself, she was 
filled with joy, and throwing herself on her knees she prayed to the 
Virgin, when, hearing a voice commanding her to pass the Jordan if 
she would find rest, she immediately obeys it, and receives on her way 
three pennies from a good man, who sees her haste, to buy food, 705- 
768 ; next follows a passage from the author in praise of the Virgin, 769- 
834 ; with the three pennies Mary purchased three loaves, and on the 
third day came to a church near the Jordan, and was there baptised : 


having washed in the river, she returned to the church, where she 
confessed, and received the sacrament, and on the follow^ing day crossed 
to the wilderness on the other side of the river, where she has since 
dwelt, 835-886 ; in answer to his questions, she tells Zozimas of the 
food by which she has been sustained, 887-908 ; of her temptations, 
909-988 ; of her clothing and privations, 989-1048 ; when he has heard 
all, Zozimas runs to kiss her feet, and asks her blessing; she adjures 
him to keep secret all she has told him, and bids him return to his 
abbey, and to come to the Jordan in the Lent of the following year, 
bringing with him the sacred elements, that she may receive the Com- 
munion at his hands, but forbids him to cross the river when he comes, 
and bids him come alone : at the same time she bids him warn the 
abbot of his convent that they have need of amendment : after this 
she leaves him, and he returns home, 1049-1134 ; next Lent the fever 
took Zozimas, but on Holy Thursday he recovered, and taking the 
holy sacrament with him and food, he came to the river-side and sat 
down waiting the coming of Mary, and waits so long that he fears 
she is not coming, but he suddenly sees her on the other side, and 
immediately afterwards making her way across, walking on the water, 
1 135-1224; he administers to her the Communion, when she bids 
him return to his abbey and come again on the same day of the follow- 
ing year, and crossing the river, go to the place where he had first 
seen her : he gives her of the food he has brought, and she passes 
away beyond the river in spite of his tears, 1225-1286; the following 
year he obeys her command, and proceeding to the place of their first 
meeting, finds her dead and prepares to bury her body, when he finds 
a letter written by Mary and addressed to himself, 1287-1374; a lion 
assists him to bury her, and he returns home and tells the abbot and 
his brethren what he has seen and Mary's warning, 1375-1466; con- 
clusion, 1 467- 1 490. 

The source used by the author is not the short chapter (56) in L.A., 
but the Life by Sophronius, for which see above. 

4. 5ai/f^//y/»= reconciliation. Cf. 1. 1485. See Bradley, sub s&kten. 

14. Dyspary^= hopeless. 

26. -F<7rf//= forced. 

32. 'io}amas='io^iTmLS. The name is spelled in different ways. 

40. Illustracione = enlightenment. 

48. Par/y tar =more perfect 

55. S^re7ai/te= striven. 

56. 0[u]r-dryvtne— completed. Cf. 1. 117. 

57. As to thee is possible. 

61. Vyt=^w\tj know. 

62. //<?/^= salvation. 

63. IsTMe. Cf. kith and kin. 

65. F/ume =nver. O.Yx.flum; Lat.y?j/;«^«, a river. 


69. Fut-Aafe='\n all haste. Cf. note to II. 1164, and to IV. i6a 

77. .^^= abundantly. Icel. ri/r, munificent, abundant. 

81. Cf^/v/^ coupled. 

8i. J/(Ci)'J=make& 

98. ScAa/tfand^sLvdent V.P. "spiritu ferventes." 

110. Stcfy/=' shui. 

114. p<i>7r^= their. 

121. C/^ir^^= cleanse. «»/^yi/= intent = mind. 

126. Oyse= use. 

127. Ora/ore= oratory. See XVI. 907 and note. 

137. -^^^"^1^= repetition. 

138. Nocturne. V.P. : ^ et psallentes consona voce ; Dominus illu- 
minatio mea et salus mea. quern timebo?" &c. 

143. Bot \at ne was=^\i\iX that was not 
15L To kcU his corce^xo cover his body. 
152. Mad na forse^maAt, no account 

" For \-erioiir nxfors suld ma. 
Quhethir he mycht ourcum his fa, 
Throu strynth, or throu sutelte.** 

— • Bruce/ ▼. 85. 

158. Be hyme anc—hs himself, alone. 

162. Lufyt^lifyf^Wxtd. 

164. -<4/-j^/= although. More usually set^ as in 1. 797. 

166, Deciyne—l\xri\. 

170. Deand= dying. 

173. A- oufne— noon. 

174. Bui any //<7//^= without any delay. See XIX. 436. 
184. Vafhe = « w /// = harm . 

190. F<:z;7^=won, reached. 

191. Hoie = \\o\\o\\. Cf. depe^ 1. 403. 

192. .«4r^j/^= delay. O.Fr. arest. 

193. 77;/>//t = thing. A frequent spelling. 

194. This line seems to give the opposite of what is meant, which 
ought to be, "just as a man seeking something which he wanted very 
much to find " ; so that he should perhaps be omitted and tnekyll read 
instead of nochf. 

197. Achi=o\xghi. M.E. a^hten, to ov/t. 

201. Dauyuge — d aw n i ng. 

203. Syse—siihis^ pi. o{ sith^ a time. 

" And hap him fell, that he did swa ; 
That gert him victor haue feill suf." 

— • Bruce,* xv. 393. 
205. ^crd=e2iX\\\, ground. 
212. He saw a shadow. 
217. Sanyt. See note to I. 521. 
225. 5/r^^^= straight, lank. 


22s, I^ekand= re3ich\ng. ««=than. See Murray's * Dialects of the 
S. Counties of Scotland,* p. 169. 

233. No^Ayre /u/e = ne'iiher fovfl 

234. /ra= since. 

236. Gm/Afy=\\d\, lct\.greiSli^, suitable. 
240. Very=\\^2Lry, 

248. ^^^= await. 

249. Sup fios at= dAihoMgh that, although. 

260. Mycht he na had= he had no strength. 

261. 5)'^////= sighed. j^?r=sore. 

268. /?^r>t= reach. 

269. Z^^«^=dean. The office of decanus monasticus is almost as 
ancient as cenobitism. The duties of the holder of the office in 
the East was to superintend the younger brethren, to drill them in 
self-denial, to encourage them to confess their most secret thoughts. 
The novices whose first year of probation was just passed were his 
especial care. Augustine speaks of the dean as having ten monks 
under his care; but Jerome speaks of him being over nine. See 
Smith's 'Diet, of Christ. Antiq.' 

274. A lytilwe—2. little while. 

278. Schenys—s\i\xit,s, /esf^Wst, impers. 'Z/aj/= waste. 

280. I/nMs^cloths. A hdtk among the Arabs is a large piece of 
woollen or cotton cloth, worn over the tunic but under the burnoose. 
The word occurs in Scotch as the name for a piece of a woman's cloth- 
ing. See Jamieson, sub /uttk. 

295-304. V.P. : '* Post multarum horarum spatia dixit mulier ad Zosi- 
mam : Abba Z. tibi competit benedicere et orare : tu enim presbyterii 
honore fultus es, et plurimis jam annis sancto assistis altari, et donis 
divinitatis Christi secreta rimaris. Haec verba Zosimam in magnum 
timorem et certamen magis inducebant" 

299. Seyre priuefeis^vsLrious secrets, or mysteries. 

300. Sacryt. See note to XIII. 113. The reference is to the 
sacrifice of the Mass. \}fat\ al ffiad of ttocht^ Chnsi, 

324. Mele=S2iY. 

326. -*4//f=old man ; so in 11. 385, 437. 

337. God=goo(\, 

348. Bede= prsiy. A.S. biddan, to pray, pt. t. bccd, 

353. But lippis s(ertng=\\tr lips not moving. 

358. Blenkyt=\ooVt(l, Du. blinken; Swed. blinka; Dan. blinke, 
to shine, look at ; Mod. Engl, and Scot, blink, 

" Qvenne pc balefullc birde bUnked on his blod.*' 

— *Aut. Art./ xliu 

359. Cowte=c\ih\i. 

365. 366. V.P.: " Putans ne spiritus esset qui sc fingeret orare." 

366. A spyritf evidently an evil spirit. 

367. K/=it. 



370. Sclandtrfs=^s\sLndeT^ 
375. BuZ/antasy^vnthout deceit 

378. As a proof that she was not an evil spirit — ^the sign of the cross 
being all-powerful to put all such to flight 
38L Jf>/Ayrz£ryii^= enemy, />. Satan. 

383. /*«rrA^j= endeavour, contrivance, snare. 

" For scho tald haly to the king 
Thair pnrpof and thair ordanyng 
And how that he sold haf beyn ded. 
And sowlis ryng in-till his sted ; 
And tald him werray takynnjmg 
That this/KrrA^ wes suthfast thing. 
And quhen the king wist it wes swa, 
Sa sutill purduA can he ma, * 

That he gert tak thame euirilkane." 

— * Bruce/ xix. 30, 32. 

384. Buschmeni^^xc^M^, Cf. O.Fr. ^m^xr^m^yi/, an ambuscade. 

385. Grete^Xx^xs, Cf. XVI. 751. 
391. //>/<?= conceal. Cf. 11. 151, 503. 
393. Quhyne—yi\itxvz^, 

397. /ricw»>^^<f= question. 
401 K^/=know. 
405. Z^= leave, keep back. 
408. Z>r<y/= endured. 

" Sail na man say, quhill I may dre. 
That strynth of men sail ger me fie ! " 

—•Bruce,' xviii. 33. 

A.S. dreogatiy to endure, suffer. 

418. F/a/j«wi = loathsome. " Thai ere brokyn fra oyse and strenght 
of reson, and wlathsum thai ere mayd in thair wickidnessis : that is, 
in thaire vile lustis and ill dedis. swa mykill that nane is of thaim that 
goed dos." — Hampole, Psalter 190, Ps. lii. 2. 

438. Dunynge=dungine=ht2XtTi^ whipped. 

454. r^//^= filth, vileness. Cf. viitef 1. 525. 

• • Bot neuer Jet in no boke breued I herde 
I>at euer he wrek so wyj)erly on werk ))at he made 
Ne venged for no vilU of vice ne synne." 

— • E. E. Allit. Poems/ c. 199. 
O.Fr. vili^, 

459. 5i?r=: several, many. 

463. Thygand=htggmg. "pe King forbiddis )?at ony cumpanyss 
pass in the cuntree apone ]?e Kingis liegis to thige or some." — Re- 
cords of Pari., 1474. " Sail thige ]?ar mail in somer." — Ibid., 1240. 
See also Jamieson. Icel. \iggjay A.S. \icgan^ to receive. Still in use. 

485. *SV/(r(j/«^= seldom. 


'• Quha wyll abyd, and be nocht bet 
Quhill dad haf done his certan det, 
Is seldin lord of his delyte, 
Bot tynis tyme, ef and profyt." 

— * Ratis Raving,' 1921. 

See Skeat, sub seldom, spane=sp2in, A.S. spinnan, to spin. V.P.: 
" Multoties stuppam filando." 

466. 3^^^^^= went mad. 

467. Va/ouand=wa\\ovfing, 

468. Me(fyrt£^e= midden. 
471. Sowne=synne=^s\n, 
473. Ludy=Ubyau 

488. p^/ for at 

493. Are— mtrcy, A.S. arj Icel. 5r, honour, n\ercy. See Bradley. 

510. 7?(7>&= spindle. Still in use. 

518. Schipfare =^yoy2igt, 

520. 7%nz«gv= pressed. A.S. ]>ring^an, to throng, press. 

524. Z^j/r^/= laugh. 

525. Vi/le. See note to 1. 454. 

527. £rts ere=tzxs hear. 

528. Vlatsum, See note to 1. 418. 
534. Mysfcnew= did not know. 
536. ^j=has. 

542. 5zt/^/K/= swallowed. A.S. swelgan^ sweolganj Icel. svelga, to 

543. Gyme=^sn2Jt, "I considerit the gret differens, betuex wis- 
dome and foly, eroure and rychtwisnes, and amang al thir I fand the 
woman mar bitter na the ded, quhilk is the gyme of the hunter to tak 
the wild bestis." — Ratis Raving, 695. Icel. gortiy gut from which 
snares were made. ^tf^=maik, the like, equal. " And gif euer scho 
dois the tnaik in tyme cumyng." — Burgh Rec. of Aberd., 12th March 
1539- The word is still in use both in Scotland and in the north of 

544. Fr^= vengeance, torment. Cf. XIX. 356. 
546. /*^rKJ/= perished. 

550. Schawit = savit = saved. 

553. ^rt^= abode. 

560. Cane tfte to ga= did go to me. 

564. Fer={2cry much. 

566. Schauyi—shovfn, 

568. 7)'ja«^= enticing. 

572. / ne sfiard^ I did not spare. 

574. lVonnyftge=^hrQwg\\i (lit., won or got), 

579, TAryswa/d= threshold. See Skeat. 

581. TArustyne= thrust, pressed. Cf. 607. 

586. Sowt't, read W///= soiled, defiled. A.S. so/ian, to sully. 

212 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZVm. 603-706). 

593. Treswald—threshwald. See above, 1. 579. /Vi/^=fail. 
596. Z^/^= hindrance. See 1. 615. Cf. "let or hindrance." 
598. K/^;z^= steadily. 

606. Ofned me worthit— I had of necessity. 

607. 7i4rw«^/r^= thrust. 

609. A^«^^?=nook. Mod.Sc. xr^f^^. 

610. 4^//^= breath. 

611. ^^4^^^— sobbing. 

613. ^^?«//a«^= banning, cursing. 

615. Let See above, 1. 596. 

619. Vilte, See note to 1. 454. 

624. W^fc'//= pledge. 

627. An^sne = anguise = anguish. O.Fr. anguisse. quowke = 
quaked. See quofct 1. 702. 

632. ^/^?/=withall. 

636. W2r/^= warlock, deceiver. A.S. wirloga — wir^ truth, and 
loga^ a liar. 

642. Laydis for lady. 

645. That am so foul within and without. 

655. C/efie—purliy, C/arUy c/erU, cleemesse, light; brightnesses 
lustre, transparency. — Cot. 

657. Z^>t^== reproach. 

"Thai sper nocht quhat men sais of thaim 
Quhe))cr lak or honor, lof or scham 
Thai wyll nocht tak in hart & see." 

— * Ratis Raving/ 3092. 
663. Wil of wane = devoid of refuge. 

673. -^/jrt «/////>/>'= as certainly. Cf. XIX. 171. 
677. -5^rr/// = pledge. A.S. borh, a surety. 
680. ^1-/^/= meddle. See ' Cath. Anglic.,' p. 233, n. 5. 
682. Sowne=^sox\, 
689. JioHe = pray tr. 

692. Bar =borQ. Ferme= deer etd. O.Fr. *' FermCy stable, sure, 
settled; also decreed, ratified," &c. — Cot. /7<?«nr= flower. 
694. Ekand—\yx^\x\%, 
701. Rcdure={e2iX, 

" Forwhi J)an, als \)e buke bers witness, 
Sal noght be shewed bot rightwysnes, 
And grete reddure, with-outen mercy, 
Until alle synful men namely." 

— Ham pole, P.C, 6091. 
I eel. hradrj Swed. rddd, 

704. ^:r/'«.9y= trance. O.Fr. ecsiasi\ "an ecstasie, swooning, trance" 
Cot. — Low Lat. ecstasis^ a trance ; Gr. cKo-rcurts. 
706. Bowte—\)oo\^ remedy, help. Cf. Laurence Minot — 

" And unto thee I bid a bone 
For pu ert bute of all my bale" — i. 4. 


707. Berch— torch. See I. 677 and 1. 942. 
717. Schryfi—conitssion, 

719. Pay/hment=paivement O.Fr. pavement; Lat. pavimentum, 
a hard floor. 

723. Thraw^di throw, a little space of time. 

" Quhen the marschall the letteris saw, 
He vmbethocht him than a thraw,** 

— * Bruce/ xvii. 40. 

724. Borrowgange=^s\iirtiys\\\\i. See Murray, sub ^<7rr<7zc(g7j«^. 
733. lVrak= pun\s\\. A.S. «/r^^a«, to avenge. 

746. " In the way of salvation." 

752, /«^r^r/y= earnestly. 

760. Ipus for ]>is. Of frequent occurrence. 

769-834. An addition. 

770. \)^s^^pus, The two words are often interchanged. 

771. Sowit, read sollit. See note to 1. 586, and cf. XIX. 644. 
777. Pcce hy r sowne= rtconcWt her son. 

784. //if7/<?//yj= saints. 
788. Myster/ul=i\ttdi\i\, 

794. Trowne=throwne^ throne. 

" Trew King, ))at sittes in trong." 

— L. Minot, i. i. 

795. IVame = rt(usG. 

797. 5^/= although. 

" Sgi this my werk full feble be of rent, 
At the request of ane lorde of renowne, 
Of ancistry noble and illuster barowne. 

• ••••• 

Quhilk with grete instance diuers tymes seir, 
Prayit me translait Virgin or Omeir." 

— G. Douglas, 'Virgil,' ii. 5. 30. 

839. Z^a//j= loaves. 

851. T)e threri our— the third hour. 

852. pe }at wane = got to the door. 

861. By7c/tste= abode. See Murray, sub bewiste, 

865. Stond=2i while. A.S. stund^ a period. 

866. Fond = go, KS. fundian, to go forward. 

870. Ty/te =meety fit. O.Fr. tiffer^ to deck. See Cotgrave, sub 
ttffer and attiffer, 

885. Wastrone= desert, 

886. Cotynualy — coniynualy = continually. 

888. To \at fre : fre (cf. 773) is used substantively and = woman. 
So again in 1. 1260. Cf. \at auld, 1. 326, &c. 
905. Thoctis for thochtis, 
938. Maytie—vci02Ji, 

214 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZVm. 918-1195). 

948. Corce =^body, Cf. corse of 1. 960. 

951, Ne/is= fists, davnyn^e=dungyn^htaXen. Cf. 1. 438. 

961. Schald^hum. Cf. 1. 98. 

962. Salf read sar, 

967. Borowgane=^suvt\ys\\v^, Cf. 1. 724. 
978. /i//=foul. 

980. Hartly=mtnX2L\ spiritual. 

981. lVas/yrn=wasttfte= desert. Cf. 11. 885, 998, and 1298. See 
note to II. 838. 

983. Fawndinge =fanding (1014)= temptation . 

984. Ourdryvyn—^2iSt, Cf. 1. 56. 
988. Dressis, Cf. Minot— 

•' And dresce my dedes in ))is dale." — i. 8. 

992. Sene syne =smcet\ier\. Still common. 

996. (^r^rj= grass, herbs. 

998. P«J wastes this waste. 

1002. Elde-^a^ge, 

1011. -5«/j;^r^/= without spirit — />., life. sieringe= motion, 

1044. To doctrine=to indoctrinate, to teach. 

1045. p«J is ]>e /iend= this is the end. 
1053. //>'w^rt«^= himself alone. 

1061. Fond, See note to 1. 866. 

1062. To = on, 

1069. Fare = go. lce\. /ara, to go. gateway, 

1075. Trawa/e =t3isk, 

1078. //afy/as^e= Lent, 

1080. W^rtr7£/^//^= were wont. 

1089. And=i(, 

1099. G7/«;«^«^= communed, communicated. 

1115. p«/rt/^=that old man. Cf. 1. 326. 

1118. Ho/= depth, hollow. Cf. 1. 191. 

1147. Thohnoudly — patiently. 

1149. Feris /Aur[s]day= Holy Maundy or Thursday. This may be 
the right reading ; but Fuirsday is still common for Thursday, and 
feris fur sday may perhaps be better. 

1167. Teymi= tenth part. 

1171. Gowand=g3Lzmg. 

" This tyme, quod sche, to stair and to devise 
Gowand on figuris, is nocht necessary." 

— G. Douglas, iii. ir. 1. 

1179. Forfawt of bat— {ox want of boat. 
1182. -/4//V«//= alienated. 
1187. />rr.ari?= farther, opposite. 
1195. Kyde— showed herself. 

NOTES TO EGIPCIANE (XVIIL 1209-1471). 21 5 

1209. Dry = dry lamd. 

1230. G7;//w<7«y/= communicated. Cf. 1. 1099. 

1254. Deyng^= deign. 

1257. Skepe=skepy a small basket. 

1282. Rak/ase =reck\ess, thoughtless. 

1298. IVes/erne =^wa.stey wilderness. Cf. 1. 981 and note. 

1312. Peryd= psAredf compared. 

1331. A^r^/= approach. 

1334. Feryt =qffery t=waisfiitmg, 

1344. 3^/^= tribute, debt. Ii,S. geld, gield. 

1366. Spad=^sptd. 

1372. W^r^r^^= wretch. w«r/^= sufferer. Cf. A.S. warc^ and Icel. 
verkry pain, which still survive in North E. wark, pain, as in hecui' 
warky tooth'Warky &c. Cf. Bradley, sub werk, 

1374. Spadna 5chule=^ nor shovel. 

1381. -F<?r^-yJw///= spent with fasting. 

1389. Auchfnl=^\i{M\, Cf. XIX. 27. 

1392. One mene = remember. 

1411. Z^w^=tool. A. S. ^(f/(£^///a, a tool, instrument. 

1414. Ciukis=c\2cws» 

1419. Read, Depe and ful. 

1423. Wysche=^2ishtd, 

1427. Naked, except that old clout. 

1431. Cled=c\2L.d, covered. 

1442. Forwundertt=^dim2iztd, 

1446. ^r<y/= disclosed. 

1471. Z/ztt///= unlearned. 


St Christopher was baptised by St Babylas, the martyr-bishop of 
Antioch, and suffered martyrdom during the persecution under Decius, 
about the year 230, in Lycia. Beyond this nothing certain is known 
about him. Both in the East and in the West he has always been had 
in great veneration, and has been made the subject of a great number 
of legends, most of which are collected together in the story given by 
Voragine, which is in parts followed in the text. According to this he 
was of Canaanitish origin. Before his conversion he bore the name 
of Reprobus, according to one account, and according to another 
that of Oferus. He is said to have been of great height and immense 
strength. One legend bore that he had the head of a dog, and M. 
Didron says that he has seen him so represented in the East In the 
Menology of Basil II. the story of his cynocephalism is set aside and 
treated as an idle tale. Having resolved to serve only the strongest 
of all, he entered the service of the king, and finding that the king 
feared the devil, he went in search of the latter and served him. But 
seeing the devil take fright at the Cross, he left him and went in 
search of Christ. After long search a hermit taught him the Gospel, 
and having no taste for fasting or praying, the hermit showed him that 
he might serve Christ by carrying travellers across a river which ran 
broad and deep near his hermitage, and over which there was neither 
bridge nor ferry. On one of the banks of this river Christopher built 
his lodging, and carried passengers across for the love of Christ. One 
night he was awakened by the cry of a child imploring him to carry 
him across the stream. Entering the water with the child on his 
shoulders, Christopher found his burden growing heavier and the 
water deeper and stronger with every step, so that it was with the 
utmost difficulty that he reached the opposite side. Here, in the 
person of the little child, Christ was revealed to him. After this he is 
said to have gone from place to place preaching the Gospel. Among 
his converts, which were numerous, were Aquilina and Nicaea, who 
also suffered martyrdom during the Decian persecution. His relics 


were conveyed to Toledo in Spain, and afterwards to France, in both 
of which countries are many dedications to him. See Smithes * Diet 
of Christ. Biogr.,' and the references at the end of the article. 

His day is July 25 in the West, and May 9 in the East. 

In art he is always represented as of gigantic stature, carrying our 
Saviour as a little child on his shoulders, as described in the text. 
" Since," remarks Mrs Jameson, " the very sight of St Christopher 
is supposed to bring an accession of strength, fortitude, and confidence 
in the divine aid, it is fortunate that there can be no mistake about 
him, and that it is so peculiar as to be instantly recognised. He 
stands above the ankles in water; his proportions are those of a 
Hercules. According to Greek formula he should be beardless, and 
some of the Italian pictures so represent him, or with very little beard ; 
but the Germans give him a strong black beard and a quantity of 
black bushy hair, the better to express the idea of physical strength 
and manliness. The infant Christ is seated on his shoulders, and 
bears in His hand the globe as Sovereign and Creator of the world ; 
more rarely it is a cross, as Redeemer : but the former, considering 
the significance of the subject, is the more proper emblem. In 
general he is looking up to the divine infant, but sometimes also he 
is looking down and making his way painfully and anxiously through 
the rising waters; he seems bending under the miraculous burden, 
and supports his steps with a staff, which is often an entire palm-tree 
with the leaves and branches. In the background is a hermit bearing 
a lamp or torch, to light him on his way." — Mrs Jameson, ' Sacred and 
Legend. Art,' ii. 444. 

Analysis — Since Christopher is had by many in great devotion and 
affection, the author will tell his story as he finds it in the legend, 1-22 ; 
his birth and great size and strength, 23-30; he seeks for the most 
mighty, and believing that the king is, serves him, 31-54 ; a minstrel 
appears at the court and sings, when Christopher notices that the king 
crosses himself whenever he hears the name of the devil, 55-66; he 
inquires of the king why he does this, and learning that it is from 
fear of the devil, he quits him and goes in search of the latter as the 
strongest, 67-100 ; in a wilderness he meets the devil and serves him, 
but finding that the devil is at great pains to avoid a cross, and 
learning the reason, he leaves him to go in search of Christ, 101-150; 
he meets with a hermit, who tells him of Christ, and urges him, in 
order to find Him, to give himself to abstinence and prayer, but he 
refuses, 151-192 ; he then tells him that if he will carry men across a 
river hard by, where there is neither bridge nor boat, and where 
many are drowned when attempting to cross, Christ will appear to 
him, 193-205 ; to this Christopher agrees, 206-210 ; he carries many 
over, and at last a Child, who gives him a token that he is Christ, 21 1- 
276; thence he passes to a town where the inhabitants speak a 
language with which he is unacquainted, and prays for power to 


speak to the people in their own tongue, and his prayer being heard, 
he preaches, 277-308 ; a judge smites him, when, planting his staff 
into the ground, he prays that it may bear flower and fruit, so that the 
people may see and believe, 309-336 ; the staff is clad with leaves and 
bark and bears fruit, and eight thousand are converted, 337-346 ; 
when the king hears of this he sends two hundred knights and more 
to seize him, but finding Christopher in the act of praying, they fear 
to touch or speak to him : others also are sent for the same purpose, 
but in vain, 347-360; Christopher afterwards accosts them and 
converts them, after which he goes with them to the king. 361-389; 
he is questioned by the king, who threatens him unless he consents to 
sacrifice to his gods, 390-432 ; Christopher is then cast into prison, 
when the king sends two women, named Nicaea and Aquilina, to 
tempt him, 433-460 ; the two women are converted by Christopher, 
461-484 ; the king, hearing of this, causes the women to be brought 
before him — Christopher also is sent for, — and the three, after being 
tormented, suffer martyrdom, 485-630 ; a gloss of St Ambrose, 631-686 ; 
conclusion, 686-694. 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. 100, and CSS., vi. 135. 

1-22. Introduction. 

1. The cultus of the saint was extremely popular during the 
thirteenth and following centuries throughout almost the whole of 
Western Christendom. It was the custom to place his image in 
conspicuous places, and to paint it of colossal size on the walls of 
churches and houses. His effigy was usually accompanied by an 
inscription to the effect that on what day soever the face of St 
Christopher was seen, the beholder should not fail or faint or die. 
See Mrs Jameson's * Sacred and Legendary Art,' ii. 443, 444. 

6. Quhene=\\\\tuct, 

9. "The earliest woodcut which exists, and of which it is possible 
to fix the date, is a rude figure of St Christopher, of German design 
and execution, represented in the usual manner, except that there is 
a water-mill and a miller in the foreground. It is inscribed — 

' Cristofori faciem die quacunque tueris 
Ilia nempe die morte mala non morieris.* 

Literally, * On whatsoever day thou shalt behold the face of St 
Christopher, surely on that day thou shalt not die an evil death.' 
It was evidently intended to circulate among the labouring poor, as 
an emblem of strength and consolation, and quite as intelligible then 
as Bunyan's * Christian in the Slough of Despond ' would be now." — 
Ibid., 447, 448. 

15. Blyne. See note to I. 514. 

17-22. L.A. : " Christophorus ante baptismum dicebatur Reprobus, 
sed postmodum Christophorus dictus est, quasi Christum ferens, eo 


scilicet, quod Christum quatuor modis portavit, scilicet in humeris 
per traductionem, in corpore ... in mente ... in ore." 

23-30. L.A. : " Christophorus'^ente Cananaeus, procerissimae staturae 
vultuque terribili erat et xii. cubitos in longitudine possidebat." 

26. -Faj^«^= appearance. He is thus described in the ' Liturgi 

Mozarabica' : — 

" Elegansque statura, 

Mente elegantior, 

Visu fulgens, corde vibrans, 

Et capillis nitilans." 

— Migne, ii. 1167. 

30. Cubttis, So L.A. CSS. has pedes, 

31-54. L.A. : " Qui ut in quibusdam gestis suis legitur, cum staret 
cum quodam rege Cananaeorum, venit sibi in mente, ut majorem prin- 
cipem, qui in mundo esset, quaereret et ad eundem secum moraturus 
accederet. Venit igilur ad quendam maximum regem de quo generalis 
fama habebatur quod majorem mundus principem non haberet. Quem 
rex videns libenler recepit et in sua curia manere fecit" 

45. Wittis=Vj\ovj : imperat. mood, plu. 

47-50. Not in L.A. 

55-94. L.A. : " Quodam autem die joculator quidam cantionem cor- 
am rege cantabat, in qua frequenter dyabolum nominabat Rex autem 
cum fidem Christi haberet, quemcumque dyabolum nominari audiebat, 
protinus in faciem suam crucis signaculum imprimebat, quod videns 
Christophorus plurimum admirabatur, cur hoc rex ageret et quidnam 
hujusmodi signum sibi vellet. Cum autem de hac re regem inter- 
rogaret, et ille hoc sibi manifestare nollet, respond it Christophorus : 
nisi hoc mihi dixeris, tecum ulterius non manebo. Quapropter coactus 
rex dixit ei : quemcumque dyabolum nominari audio, hoc signo me 
munio timens, ne in me potestatem accipiat mihique noceat Cui 
Christophorus : si dyabolum, ne tibi noceat, metuis, ergo ille major et 
potentior te esse convincitur quem in tantum formidare probaris; 
frustratus igitur sum spe mea putans quod majorem et potentiorem 
mundi dominum invenissem ; sed jam nunc valeas, quia ipsum 
dyabolum quaerere volo, ut ipsum mihi in doniinum assumam et ejus 
servus efficiar." 

57. C^^j/^=gest, story. 

65. He for Christofore ; but the sentence is confused. 

78. Frt//7/>= watches with evil intent — 


" Bot neuer ))e les ay er J>ai boune 
To wait Ingland with sorow and schame.' 

— Minot, i. 64. 

"His lufers he desayves and fayles ; 
His despisers he waytes ay, 
Als shadow to tak to his pray." 

— Hampole, P.C., 1186. 


" And giff ony thar-at war wrath, 
Thai watyt hym wele with gret scaitb ; 
For thai suld fynd sone enchesone 
To put hym to destnictione." 

— • Bruce,* i. 202. 

O.Fr. waiter^ gaitery to watch, observe. 

79. lVryk=wyrky work. 

95-114. L.A. : " Discessit igitur ab illo rege et dyabolum quaerere 
properabat. Cum autem per quandam solitudinem pergeret, vidit 
magnam mullitudinem militum ; quorum quidam miles ferns et 
terribilis veniebat ad eum et quonam pergeret, requisivit Cui C. 
respondit : vado quaerere dominum dyabolum, ut ipsum in dominum 
mihi assumam. Cui ille : ego sum ille quem quaeris. Gavisus C. se 
sibi in servum perpetuum obligavit et ipsum pro domino accepit." 

96. /?<?y<//>^= hurriedly. 

97. Avysmint=\\ttA. O.Fr. avisementt advisement 

98. Piuyk=s\di^, Gael, ploc^ a block of wood, stump of a tree. 

99. But Arj^= without deceit, />. in truth. Cf. XVII. 137 and note. 
105. Aufiil= auchful— awful. 

114. Aythe=02X\i, 

115-150. L.A. : " Cum ergo ambo pergerent et in quadam via com- 
muni crucem erectam invenissent, mox ut dyabolus ipsam crucem 
vidit, territus fugit et viam deserens per asperam solitudinem Christo- 
phorum duxit et postmodum ipsum ad viam reduxit. Quod videns 
C. et admirans interrogavit ilium, cur in tantum timens viam planam 
reliquerit et tantum devians per tam asperam solitudinem ierit. Quod 
cum ille nullatenus indicare vellet, dixit C. : nisi mihi hoc indicaveris, 
statim a te discedam. Quapropter compulsus dyabolus dixit ei : 
quidam homo, qui dicitur Christus, in cruce fixus fuit, cuius crucis 
signum cum video, plurimum pertimesco et territus fugio. Cui C. : 
ergo ille Christus major et potentior te est, cuius signum in tantum 
formidas? In vanum igitur laboravi nee adhuc majorem mundi 
principem inveni. Jam nunc valeas, quia te volo deserere et ipsum 
Christum inquirere." 

120. Affray— ?^zxx^, O.Fr. esfreiy attack, alarm. 

134. /•>«'/= foot. 

151-185. L.A. is shorter : " Cum igitur diu quaesivisset, qui sibi 
Christi notitiani indicaret, tandem ad quendam eremitam devcnit, 
qui sibi Christum pracdicavit et in ejus fide ipsum diligenter instruxit, 
dixitque eremita Chrislophero : rex iste cui servire desideras, istud 
requirit obsequium quia frequenter jejunare oportebit." 

158, 159. prt/=at. 

171. JF///*'r/)/= surely. Cf. XVIII. 673. 

173. Lacht ^iook, 

174. /tfM = faith. 

186-210. L.A.: "Cui C: aliud requirat obsequium, quia istam rem 


nequaquam agere valeo. Rursus eremita : multas quoque orationes te 
sibi facere oportebit. Cui C: nescio, quid sit hoc, nee huiusmodi 
obsequium perficere possum. Cui eremita: nosti talem fluvium in 
quo multi transeuntes periclitantur et pereunt? Cui C: novi. Et ille: 
cum procerae staturae sis et fortis viribus, si juxta fluvium ilium resid- 
eres et cunctos traduceres, regi Christo, cui servire desideras, plurimum 
gratum esset, et spero quod ibidem se manifestaret. Cui C: utique 
istud obsequium agere valeo et me sibi in hoc serviturum promitto." 

185. Wordis ]>e=ie oportet. 

192, Dyses= discomfort, labour, trouble. 

204. \)e latandy &c. = thee letting, or causing, to know without any 

211-216. L.A.: "Ad praedictum igitur fluvium accessit et ibidem 
sibi habitaculum fabricavit, portansque loco baculi quandam/^r//Va;yi 
in manibus, qua se in aqua sustentabat et omnes sine cessatione 

211. /77/^= river. A Breton makes this the stream which runs 
through Dol. 

212. Lu^e=\odge, hut. O.Fr. /oge. 

215. P/oyJI:, See note to 1. 98. 

216. Perktre=2L perch measure, a pole five and a half yards long. 
217*238. L.A. : " Evolutis multis diebus cum in domuncula sua 

quiesceret, audivit vocem cuiusdam pueri se vocantis et dicentis : 
Christophore, veni foras et me ipsum traducas. Concitus C. exsiliit, 
sed neminem reperit, rediensque in domunculam suam iterum vocem 
se acclamantis audivit. Qui rursus foras cucurrit et neminem invenit. 
Tertia vice ab eodem ut prius vocatus exiit et puenim quendam juxta 
ripam fluminis invenit, qui Christophorum, ut se traduceret, obnixe 
224. 5/^/'^= pole. 

" And at ane other syde with felloiin feyr, 
Me3entyus the grim, apon a speyr, 
Or heich sting or stour of the fyr tre, 
The blak fyre blesis of reik inswakkis he." 

— G. Douglas, iii. 248. 27. 
Dan. stoer, 

228. Ztf«//= leaned, reclined. 

' ' Of drefling and dremis quhat dow it to endyt ? 
For, as I Unyt in a ley in Lent this last nicht, 
I slaid on a swevynnyng, slummerand a lite." 

— G. Douglas, iii. 142. 2. 

A.S. hlinan^ to lean, incline. 

239-276. L.A.: " Christophorus igitur puerum sibi in humeris ele- 
vans et baculum accipiens flumen transiturus intravit Et ecce aqua 
fluminis paulatim intumescebat et puer instar plumbi gravissime pon- 
derabat, quantoque magis procedebat, tanto amplius unda crescebat 


et puer magis ac magis Christophori humeros pondere intolerabili de- 
primebat, adeo ut C in angustia multa positus esset et se periclitari 
formidaret Bed cum vix evasisset et fluvium transfretasset, puerum in 
ripa deposuit eique dixit : in magno periculo puer me posuisti et adeo 
ponderasti quod, si totum mundum super me habuissem, vix majora 
pondera praesensissem. Ad quem puer respondit: ne mireris, Christo- 
phore, quia non solum super te totum mundum habuisti, sed etiam 
ilium qui creavit mundum, tuis humeris bajulasti ; ego enim sum rex 
Christus tuus, cui in hoc opere ipse deservis ; et ut me verum dicere 
comprobes, cum pertransieris, baculum tuum juxta domunculam tuam 
in terra fige et mane ipsum floruisse et fructificasse videbis, statimque 
ab oculis ejus evanuit Veniens igitur C. cum baculum suum in ter- 
ram fixisset, mane surgens invenit ipsum ad modum palmse frondes et 
dactylos pertulisse/* 

243. lVod=vf2Lded. PlS, wadan ; ^rti, wod, 

246. Euiare =Yit2y\tr, 

2ii7. F»^j^= uneasily, with difficulty. 

251. Dtses= distress, 

255. \)u ne bare=t\iQ\jL baredst not 

260. Kink^Vmg, The change of ^ into k is frequent 

262. 5^/1/ = say. See Bradley, sub seggeiu 

268. ^^e^w/^dwelling. Cf. note to XVIII. 86i. 

269. Longar/=\odging, O.Fr. longard, 
274. -F/i/r>'J/= flourished. 

The Breton legend referred to above is extremely quaint Accord- 
ing to this, Christ and the Twelve Apostles come to the ford and 
request to be carried over. One by one Christopher takes them up 
in his brawny arms and conveys them across, when he is asked by the 
Saviour to name his reward. St Peter whispers to him to ask for 
Paradise, and is told to mind his own business by the saint, who asks 
that whatsoever he wishes for may come into his sack. The prayer is 
gp-anted, but he is warned never to wish for money or for anything 
he does not really need. Time went on, and Christopher observes the 
warning, filling his bag only with bread, fruit, and vegetables, most of 
which he gives to the poor. At last, however, he falls into temptation. 
One day, passing along the main street of Dol, he stops before the 
window of a money-changer, where he sees piles of gold and silver. 
The Evil One is at hand ; Christopher yields ; his sack is soon filled 
with money ; and from one sin he falls into others. One day he has 
eaten a luxurious dinner, and lain down on the grass in the shade. 
The Evil One appears and begins to mock and gibe at him. Before 
long the two are fighting out their dispute, when, sorely pressed, 
Christopher wishes the Evil One were in his sack. The wish is no 
sooner uttered than it is fulfilled, and tying the string round the 
mouth of the sack, Christopher throws it over his shoulder and 
■carries it away with him. As he approaches a blacksmith^s shop a 

NOTES TO CRISTOFORE (XEK. 277-314). 223 

happy thought strikes him. He enters the smithy and promises the 
smith a crown if he will beat the dangerous beast he has in the bag 
as thin as a penny-piece. The smith accepts the bargain, and he and 
his assistants hammer away notwithstanding the howls and contor- 
tions of the inmate of the bag. At length a feeble voice is heard from 
the bag, saying, " Christopher, Christopher, I give in ; on what terms 
will you let me out ?" Christopher's terms are that he shall be left in 
peace for evermore. The devil swears, and is allowed to depart. 
From this time forth Christopher's life is entirely changed ; and when 
he can no longer from failing strength do duty at the ford, he takes 
refuge in a little cell, on the ruins of which a church is afterwards 
built. But notwithstanding his prayers and penance, when he pre- 
sents himself at the gates of Paradise, St Peter, remembering how his 
advice had been slighted, refuses him admission. The poor saint 
goes sadly away, and not taking heed where he treads, goes by mistake 
down the broad way that leads to hell. At last he comes to a door, 
and is invited by a pleasant-looking youth to enter. But just as he 
is crossing the threshold his old adversary catches sight of him, and 
cries, " No, no, we will have none of him ; I know who he is. Turn 
him out ; he is more than a match for me." Forced to retrace his 
steps, Christopher again finds himself at the gates of Paradise. 
Strains of lovely music come from within, and he prays St Peter out 
of charity to let the gates stand ajar a little that he may hear it better. 
St Peter is touched, and opens the gates just a little, when Christopher 
dexterously flings his sack inside the gates, and following it, seats 
himself on it. " I am on my own ground now,*' he says ; " you cannot 
turn me out." And St Christopher has stayed in heaven ever since. 
— T. & K. Macquoid, 'Pictures and Legends from Normandy and 
Brittany,* pp. 184-190. 

277-2B2. L.A. : '* Post hoc autem Samon civitatem Lyciae venit, ubi, 
dum eorum linguam non intelligeret, oravit Dominum, ut illius 
linguae sibi concederet intellectum." 

283-308. L.A. : " Dum autem in prece consisteret, judices eum in- 
sanum putantes reliquerunt ; assecutus Christophorus, quod petebat, 
vultum operiens, ad locum certaminis venit et Christianos et qui tor- 
quebantur in Domino, confortabat." 

284. ylyr^ =e2ir\y. 

289. Delete the colon. 

290. Sp^kine =sptkm^. Thesis often omitted. 
295. J^eny=^deny, 

303. 5/^'^= placed, bestead. 

309-314. L.A. : "Tunc unus ex judicibus in faciem eum percussit ; 
cui Christophorus vultum discooperiens dixit : nisi Christianus essem, 
meam protinus injuriam vindicassem." 

312. K/M^/>'/= uncovered. 

314. i?y=buy. 


315-336. I«A. : " Tunc Christophonis virgam suam in terra fixit et 
ul propter conversionens populi fronderet, Dominum exoravit." 

SIS. Hyne for yirilr«^==few. 

337-346. *'Quod dum protinus factum fuisset, octo millia homi- 
num credidenini.'* 

339. 5/i/r^=stouL A.S. star; IccL Mrry g^at, vast- jAir>&= strong. 
A.S- sUarc; I eel. sLyJtr, strong. 

342. J>.W^=un*:eal. 

347-389. L..\. : ^' Rex autem CC milites qui eum ad se adducerent, 
misit, et cum eum orantem invenissent et sibi hoc intimare timerent, 
iterum totidem misit, qui et ipsi cum eo orante protinus oraverunt. 
Surgens C. dixit iis : quem quxritis? Qui ejus vultum videntes dixe- 
runt : rex misit nos, ut te ad ipsum vinctum ducamus. Quibus C : si 
ego voluero, nee solutus nee ligatus a vobis duci potero. Dicunt ei : 
si ergo non\is, vade liber quocumque volueris, et nos regi dicemus, 
quod te nequaquam invenimus. Non ita, inquit, sed ego vobiscum 
vadam. Ipse autem eos ad fidem convertit et ab iis manus sibi tergo 
ligari fecit et se regi vinctum praesentari." 

357. Du'elUnge mad— tarried. 

36L 5t'^'rc' = sober, steadfast Fr. sobre; Lat sobrium, sobriusy 
sober, not drunken. 

365. Sob:mes — mod eration. 

366. ///7=in. 

390-396. L.A. : " Quem rex videns territus est et de sede sua proti- 
nus corruit. Deinde a sems levatus, de nomine suo et patriae eum 

393. C^*vr^= chair. 

397-412. L.A. : " Cui C. : ante baptismum Reprobus dicebar, nunc 
autem Christophonis vocor. Cui rex : stultum tibi nomen im- 
posuisti, so. Christi crucitixi, qui nee sibi profuit nee tibi prodesse 
poterit. Nunc ergo, Cananjee malelice, quare non sacrificas Diis 
nostris ? " 

412. -^ = aye, for ever. 

413-432. L.A. : " Cui C. : recte vocaris Dagnus, quia tu es mors 
mundi, socius dyaboli, Dii autem tui sunt opera manuum hominum. 
Cui rex : inter feras nutritus es et tu non potes nisi opera feralia et 
hominibus incognita loqui ? Nunc ergo si sacrificaveris, magnos 
honores a me consequeris, si non autem, suppliciis consumeris." 

415. Dagarus. L.A. '* Dagnus." 

417. 0/ fend /alow ={t[\o\\ of the fiend. 

433-471. L.A. : " Nolentem ergo sacrificare in carcerem mitti jussit 
ac illos milites, qui ad C. missi fuerant, pro Christi nomine decollari 
fecit. Deinde duas formosas puellas, quarum una dicebatur Nicaea et 
altera Aquilina, secum in carcerem recludi fecit, promittens iis multa 
munera si eum ad peccandum secum allicerent. Quod videns C. pro- 
tinus in orationem se dedit. Sed cum a puellis plausu manuum et 


amplexibus urgeretur, surrexit et ait illis : quid qusritis et ob quam 
causam hue introductae estis?" 
444. Fald^ fold, bend. 

447. Demycelis=d2Lmsc]s. O.Fr. damoisele, a girl, damsel, fern, of 
danioisel^ a young man ; Low Lat. domicelius, a page. 

448. Pare = peer, equal. C{,peryd, XVIII. 131 2. 

449. Vycena, L.A. Nicaea. She is also known as S. Galonica, Gel- 
onica, Gallenia, and Calinice. Her day in the Roman Martyrology is 
July 24. 

450. Aquila, L.A. Aquilina. The two are thus mentioned in the 
hymn in the Gothic Breviary — 

" Aquilinam tunc deinde 
Sanctamque Galleniam 
Vehementer poenis actis 
Litat Christo Mart3rres 
Pugione consecravit 
Memoratos Militcs." 

— Migne, ' Lit. Mozarabica," ii. 1167, with which cf. I. 759 n. 

456. Borda/oun's =^haT\otSf prostitutes. See Murray, sub dordel And 

469. S^u/= stern, 

473-502. L.A. : " At illae claritate vultus ejus perterritae dixerunt : 
miserere nostri, sancte Dei, ut in Deum quem praedicas, credere valea- 
mus. Quod audiens rex eas ad se duci fecit dicens : ergo et vos 
seductae estis .^ per deos juro, quod, nisi Diis sacrificaveritis, mala 
morte peribitis." 

494. H^^r^V= bewitched. 

503-518. L.A. : " Quae responderunt : si vis, ut sacrificemus, jube 
plateas mundari et omnes ad templum congregari. Quo facto cum 
illae introissent templum, solventes cingulum suum posuerunt in coUa 
Deorum et ad terram trahentes in pulverem confregerunt dixeruntque 
adstantibus : ite et vocate medicos, ut curent Deos vestros." 

505. 5/r«/w= streets. 

519-530. L.A. : ''Tunc jussu regis Aquilina suspenditur et ligato ad 
ejus pedes ingenti saxo membra ejus omnia dirumpuntur." 

527. p/r iyrandis^ an error for \ir tyrants (see next line) = these 

531-542. " Quae cum migrasset ad Dominum, soror ejus Nicaea in 
ignem projicitur, sed inde illaesa exiens protinus decoUatur." 

537. Z>^r>'/= injured. A.S. derian^ to harm. 

538. W^^rv/=defended. 

543-558. L.A. : " Post ergo C. regi praesentatur, qui jussit eum virgis 
ferreis caedi et cassidem ferream et igneam in caput ejus poni, deinde 
scamnum ferreum fieri fecit et C. ibidem ligari et ignem injecta pice 

VOL. in. p 


545. Ynu scAifr^s= iron scourges. 
547. .^^/= hide, skin. a/aHys^2Ltonce. 
549. N^/me =he\mct 
555. A'done^aboyCf upon. 
558. Pyk= pitch. 

559-564. L.A. : " Sed instar cerae scamnum confring^tur et Christo- 
phorus illaesus egreditur." 

561. 5^/i&f#M= wonderful. This seems to be the right reading. 

562. Deryf, See note to 1. 537. 

565-^82. L.A. : *' Deinde jussit eum ad stipitem ligari et a CCCC 
militibus sagittari. Sagittx autem omnes in aere suspendebantur nee 
ipsum aliqua contingere potuit Rex autem putans ipsum a militibus 
sagittatum cum eidem insultaret, subito una de sagittis ab aere veniens 
ct retro se vertens regem in oculo percussit et ipsum protinus excae- 

569. lVicAt== strong. 

571. A/y read af. 

572. Arrois—arrowis. 

576. Ov/fl«^<i/i^r/>'= except only. 

581. QMytly=^o,yi\t^ 

583-592. I^A. : " Cui C. : crastina die consummandus sum, tu ig^tur 
tyranne, lutum de sanguine meo facies et oculum inunges et sanitatem 

586. 5'/<e2M= slain. m/i=make. 

593-610. L.A. : " Tunc jussu regis ad decollandum ducitur et ibi 
fusa oratione decollatur, rex autem modicum de sanguine ejus 
accipiens et super oculum suum ponens ait : in nomine Dei et 
Sancti Chrislophori, et continuo sanus effectus est." 

594. Heding 5tade—p\2iQ.e of beheading, scaffold. 

599-601. Not in L.A. 

605. ^<f=a small quantity. 

611-624. L.A. : "Tunc rex credidit, dans praeceptum, ut, si quis 
Deum et S. Christophorum blasphemaret, continuo gladio feriretur." 

617. Werray^txwt. 

621. Ge/strat=g2L\t strait. 

625-630. Not in L. A. 

631-684. L.A. : " Ambrosius autem in praefatione sic ait de hoc 
marlire : Chrislophoro tantae virtutis cumulum et doctrinae gratiam, 
domine, contulisti, ut XLVIII.M. hominum de gentilitatis errore ad 
christiani dogmatis cultum coruscantibus miraculis revocares, quique 
Nicaeam et Aquilinam publico lupanari longo tempore sub meretricia 
sorde famulantes ad castitatis habitum provocavit easdemque coronam 
percipere edocuit, propterea inter igneum rogum ferreo scamno con- 
strictus nimium calorem non timuit atque per diem integrum omnium 
militum sagittis transfigi non potuit ; caeterum una ex his carnificis 
oculum collisit ; cui tamen b. martiris cruor, mixtus cum terra, lumen 


restituit et corporis caecitatem tollendo illuminavit et mentem ; nam 
apud te veniam impetravit, atque, ut morbos et infirmitates repellat, 
suppliciter obtinuit" 

634. Vertuyse /ar^= virtuous learning. 

644. 5^////= defiled. See note to XVIII. 771. 

647. /V7r<?w= before. 

650. Read grayt (which elsewhere rhymes with mcuU) for grd)pit 

651. Weilande=\yo\\\x\g, M.E. wellen, to well up, flow, melt, weld. 
661-667. Appears to be borrowed from the legend of St Longinus. 
671-676. See the Introduction. 

685-694. Addition by the author. 

690. ptf«*/^= probably for "a" city. 

691. The day on which he is honoured in the Latin Church. 

XX.— B LAS I us. 

St Blasius, St Blaise, or St Blase, was bishop of Sebaste in 
Armenia. In the Acts of St Eustratius, who suffered martyrdom 
under Diocletian, he is said to have collected the remains of that 
saint, and to have deposited them as he desired with those of St 
Orestes. He himself suffered martyrdom in the time of Licinius, in 
316, by the command of Agricolaus, governor of Cappadocia and Lesser 
Armenia. His flesh was scored with iron combs, and he was finally 
beheaded along with two boys. During the Crusades, his relics were 
scattered over the West, where he was held in great veneration. Many 
miraculous cures are said to have been wrought through his interces- 
sion, particularly of sore throats. He is the patron saint of the city 
of Ragusa, and of the Guild of Woolcombers, probably because of the 
combs mentioned above. In Scotland he is known as St Blaise, and 
is the patron saint of the island of Pladda, on the south coast of Arran. 
He had an altar in the nave of Glasgow Cathedral, and another in the 
south part of the choir of St Giles', Edinburgh. Besides being men- 
tioned in the Scottish Calendars, there is a special office for his day 
in the Aberdeen Breviary. For his Acta, see Surius and Baronius, 
Feb. 3. Cf. * Registr. Glas.,* 414 ; Maitland, ' Hist. Edinb.,* 271 ; Lees, 
*St Giles*, Edinb.,* 92; Fordun, 'Scot.,* i. 6, ii. 10; *Brev. Aber.,' 
fol. 1, pars hyem. ; *Orig. Par. Scot.,' i. 3, 138, ii. 254; Smith's 'Diet 
Christ. Biogr.*; Putin's ' Diet. Hagiogr. '; and Butler's * Lives.' 

His day is Feb. 3 in the West ; in the Greek Church, Feb. 11. 

"Pictures of St Blaise are not frequent. In single figures and de- 
votional pictures he is represented as an old man with a white beard, 
attired as a bishop with the planeta and mitre, holding in one hand a 
crosier, in the other an iron comb, such as is used by woolcombers, 
the instrument of his torture : this is his peculiar attribute. He is thus 
represented on the coins of Ragusa." — Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and 
Legendary Art,' ii. 698. 

Analysis — Because many men have St Blaise in great reverence, the 
author proposes to tell who and what he was as he has found him in 

NOTES TO BLASIUS (XX. 1-24). 229 

the 'Golden Legend/ 1-2 1 ; St Blaise was made bishop of Sebaste 
against his will during the reign of Diocletian, who slew many 
because of their Christian faith, and to escape whom St Blaise with- 
drew into the wilderness, where he dwelt for some time, and where 
the wild beasts of the forest came to comfort him, 22-58 ; he is found 
by a hunting-party, who report their discovery to the governor of the 
country, 59-74; the governor sends them to the hunt again with 
instructions to bring St Blaise to him, 75-79 ; they find him, he goes 
with them, and on his way cures a child who is on the point of being 
choked by a bone in his throat, and causes a wolf to restore its prey, 
80-126; he is brought before the governor, by whose commands he 
is subjected to various cruelties and cast into prison, 127-155 ; the 
woman whose pig he had caused the wolf to restore, brings food and 
light to him, 156-176; the President orders him to be tortured, and as 
he is led back to prison seven women gather his blood as a great 
relic, 177-196 ; the women are commanded by the President to sacrifice 
to the gods, but to show their contempt for them, as soon as they 
are brought down to them to the side of the lake near the town, they 
each fling one into the water, after which they are tortured and finally 
put to death, 197-299 ; St Blaise is then brought before the President, 
and refusing to honour the gods, is cast into a lake : he walks on the 
water as on dry land, when a number of the people, attempting to 
reach him in the belief that their gods will aid them, are drowned, 
300-323; St Blaise is comforted by an angel, 324-328; returning to 
the land he is put to death, 329-363; conclusion, 364-371. 
Source— L. A., cap. 38. See 1. 17. 

1-21. Introduction by the author. The etymological introduction 
of L.A. is omitted. 

3. Awne — from I eel. ogn^ chaff, a husk; hence any hard, sharp 
thing. See Skeat sub voce, 

4. //ia!Zr= throat 

5. /'«r^/^= peril. 

9. 0^«//iy<7«^= opinion. 

17. " Goldine legended See the Introduction to the volumes. 

19. F/i^= disclose. 

22-58. L. A. : " Blasius cum omni mansuetudine et sanctitate polleret, 
christiani eum in Sebaste civitate Cappadociae in episcopum elegerunt, 
qui episcopatu suscepto ob Dyocletiani persecutionem speluncam 
petiit et ibi eremiticam vitam duxit ; cui aves pabulum afferebant ac 
ferae (Gr. fere) ad eum unanimiter confluebant, et dum usque imponeret 
manum iis benedicens, non recedebant ab eo. Denique si quae in- 
firmabantur, ad eum continuo veniebant et sanitatem ad integrum 

24. 5^^a5/=Sebasteia, a town in the south of Pontus, on the north 
bank of the Upper Halys. As it was near the frontier, Pliny regards 

230 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XX. 37-127). 

it as not belonging to Pontus, but to Colopene in Cappadocia. In the 
time of the Byzantine empire it is spoken of as a large town in Cappa- 
docia, but by several ecclesiastical writers it is referred to Armenia. 
It is identified with the modem Sirdas. A small stream flowed 
through the town, and fell into a neighbouring lake which communi- 
cated with the Halys. — Smith's * Diet of Gr. and Rom. Geography.' 
37. IVasfy s/ede= dtstrt place. 

42. pa/=(or what ^/r/= provided. A.S. l&nan; Icel. Idwiy to 
lend, grant 

43. A^rK^= cleft, cave. 

48. Da &* ra =doe and roe. 

50. //b/e=caye. A.S. Ao/, hollow, hole, cave. 

59-80. L.A. : '* Praeses igitur illius regionis dum milites suos ad 
venandum misisset et illi in vanum alibi laborantes ad antrum s. Blasii 
casu pervenissent, mag^am ibidem bestianim multitudinem ante 
ipsum stantium repererunt; quas dum nullatenus capere possent, 
attoniti suo domino nuntiarunt, qui statim milites plures misit et ut 
ipsum cum omnibus christianis ad se adducerent, praecepit" 

61. ^=one. 

63. To for /rV. to of cAans= till by chance. 

72. Far/y ^(crly, 

76. FyriA ={orcst. AS.yWd", game-preserve, forest 

81-90. L.A. : " In ipsa autem nocte ter Christus ei apparuit dicens : 
Surge et offer mihi sacrificium. Ecce autem advenerunt milites 
dicentes : egredere, vocat te praeses." 

91-97. L.A. : " Quibus respondit s. B. : Bene venistis, filii, nunc 
video quod Deus non est oblitus mei. Pergens vero cum iis nunquam 
a praedicatione cessavit et coram iis mirabiiia multa fecit" 

97. /Vz for ^^= faith. 

98-114. L.A. : " Tunc mulier quaedam filium suum morientem, in 
cuius gutture os piscis transversum erat, ad pedes ejus attulit et, ut 
sanaretur, eum lacrymis postulabat. S. vero B. super eum manus 
imponens oravit ut puer ille et omnes qui in ejus nomine aliquid 
peterent, sanitatis beneficium obtinerent et statim sanatus est" 

101. FescA = fish. Still so pronounced in some parts. 

115-126. L.A. : "Mulier quaedam paupercula unum solum porcum 
habens, quern tamen violenter lupus rapuerat, s. Blasium deprecabatur 
ut sibi reddi faceret suum porcum, qui subridens dixit : mulier, noli 
contristari, reddetur tibi porcus tuus. Continuo lupus venit et porcum 
viduae reddidit." 

119. Gryse=p\g, Icel. ^yiss, pi. grt'sir, a young pig. 

126. (9«/r///= aught 

127-155. L.A. : " Ingrediens B. civitatem jussu principis carceri 
mancipatur, alia vero die jussit praeses ipsum sibi prsesentari ; quem 
videns blandis sermonibus salutavit dicens : gaude Blasi, amice 
deorum. Cui B. : gaude et tu optime praeses, sed ne dicas eos Deos 

NOTES TO BLASIUS (XX. 135-230). 23 1 

sed daemones, quia aeterno igni cum his qui eos honorant, traduntur. 
Iratus praeses eum fustibus caedi jussit et in carcerem retrudi fecit; 
cui B. dixit : insensate speras per poenas tuas Dei mei a me auferre 
amorem, qui ipsum in me habeo corroboratorem ? " 

135. Mot=vci3y, 

140. For that name belongs to One alone. 

147. 5/«zw>= staves. 

149. Stur (? stut) ^^^r^=bold air. 

152. Bow=htnAy turn. 

156-176. L.A. : "Audiens haec vidua ilia cui porcum reddiderat, 
porcum ipsum occidit et caput cum pedibus, candela et pane, ad s. B. 
deportavit ; ille gratias agens comedit sibique dixit : singulis annis 
candelam in ecclesia nominis mei offeras, et tibi et quicumque hoc 
fccerit, bene erit Quod semper egit et sibi prosperitas multa fuit" 

157. /vr^/= dealt. 

177-191. L.A. : " Post hoc cum eductum prasses a carcere ad deos 
inclinare non posset, jussit eum in ligno suspendi et carnes ejus cum 
ferreis pectinibus laniari, et sic iterum in carcerem reportari." 

179. -F/fj^^^= flatter. O.Yx.flechir, to bend, ply, flatter. 

188. Ca»/yj'= combs. 

192-220. L.A. : " Septem mulieres sequentes guttas sanguinis col- 
ligebant, quae mox tenentur et ad deorum sacrificium compelluntur. 
Quae dixerunt : si vis ut Deos tuos adoremus cum reverentia, mitte 
eos ad stagnum, ut faciebus ablutis mundius adorare possimus. 
Laetus praeses efficitur et citius quod dixerat adimpletur. Illi vero 
Deos arripuerunt et eos in stagni medium projecerunt dicentes ; si 
Dei sunt, videbimus." 

200. 5/r.?«3^= compel. 

205. Locht=\oc!ti, lake. 

221-235. L.A. : " Quod praeses audiens et prae ira insaniens et se 
ipsum percutiens dixit ministris : cur non tenuistis Deos nostros, ut 
non mitterentur in profundum laci ? Cui dixerunt : dolose tecum 
locutae sunt mulieres et eos in stagnum projecerunt. Cui mulieres : 
Deus verus dolos non patitur, sed et si dii fuissent, praescivissent 
utique, quid iis facere volebamus." 

222. -F<?r^= behaved. A.S./Zr^w, deriv. oifaran, to go. 

226. p/j for \us. 

228. -F<:?/r^/= falsehood. ^//^= stratagem. Fr. engin; Lat. in- 

236-242. L.A. : "Et iratus praeses jussit plumbum liquefactum et 
pectines ferreos et vii. loricas igne candentes ex una parte parari et 
ex alia vii. camisias afferri lineas." 

238. Clammys for cammys, L.A., " pectines." 

239. //^a/^r^/^/J= hauberks, coats of ringed mail. Originally the 
hauberk was a piece of defensive armour for the neck, as the name 
implies. O.Fr. haubere, halbcre. See Skeat, sub voce. 

232 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XZ. 210-329). 

240. Sarkts= shirts. A.S. serce; IceL serkr. 

243-255. L. A. : "• Quo dicente, ut ex his quod mallent eligerent, 
una illanim duos parvulos habens audacter cucurrit et lineas camisias 
accipiens in caminum projecit, pueri vero matri dixerunt : non nos 
mater dulcissima post te relinquas, sed sicut nos replesti dulcedine 
lactis, sic nos reple dulcedine reg^i coelestis." 

242. ^ze^j/j= advise, consider : imp. mood. 

247, Clammys for cammys or kamys, Cf. I. 260. 

250. Slang =^^\xvi%y threw. 

256-262. L.A. : "Tunc praeses jussit eas suspendi et cames eanim 
pectinibus ferreis laniari. quarum cames ut nix albissimae erant et pro 
sanguine lac fluebat" 

262. Milk is also said to have flowed from the wounds of SS. 
Catherine and Secundina. 

263. A^(£?>'/= annoyed, tortured. 

263-271. L.A.: "Cum autem supplicia invitae ferrent, angelus domini 
ad eas venit et eas viriliter confortavit dicens : nolite timere, bonus enim 
operarius qui bene incepit et bene perficit, et a conducente se benedic- 
tionem meretur pro complete opere et mercedem accipit pro labore et 
gaudium possidet pro mercede." 

272-286. L.A.: "Tunc prseses jussit eas deponi et in caminum mitti, 
quae divinitus exstincto igne exierunt illaesae. Quibus prseses : jam 
nunc magicam artem dimittite et deos nostros adorate. Quae respon- 
derunt: perfice quod coepisti, quia jam ad regnum coeleste vocatae 


286. Be'One==2Lhowt. 

287-299. L.A. : "Tunc ille data sententia eas decollari mandavit; 
quae dum decollari deberent, flexis genubus adoraverunt dicentes : 
Deus qui nos a tenebris separasti et in lucem dulcissimam adduxisti, 
qui nos sacrificium tuum fecisti, animas nostras suscipe et ad vitam 
aeternam facias nos pervenire. Et sic truncatis capitibus ad dominum 

290. Set done = sax down, knelt down. 

300-307. L.A.: "Post hoc jussit praeses Blasium sibi praesentari et 
dixit ei : vel nunc adora Deos vel non. Cui B. ; impie non timeo 
minas tuas, age ut vis, corpus enim meum penitus tibi trado." 

308-323. L.A. : "Tunc jussit eum mitti in stagnum. Ipse vero 
aquam signavit et mox sicut terra arida fixa permansit ; dixitque : si 
veri sunt Dei vestri, ostendite virtutem eorum et ingredimini hue. In- 
gressique Ixv. viri stagnum continuo sunt submersi." 

312. Cowrs=^cross, sign of. 

324-328. L.A. : " Angelus autem domini descendens dixit ei : egre- 
dere Blasi et coronam tibi a Deo paratam suscipe." 

326. p/«^= thence. 

329-337. L.A. : " Cumque exiisset, dixit ad eum praeses : omnino 

NOTES TO BLASIUS (XX. 338-366). 233 

decrevisti non adorare Deos? Cui B.: cognosce, miser, quia Christi 
servus sum nee daemones adoro." 

338-369. L.A.: " £t statim jussit eum decollari, ipse autem oravit ad 
dominum : ut, quicunque per infirmitatem gutturis vel alia quacunque 
infirmitate ejus patrocinia postularet, exaudiretur et continuo liberare- 
tur. Et ecce vox de coelis ad eum venit, quod sic fieret, ut oravit, sicque 
cum duobus puerulis decollatus est circa a.d. cclxxxiii." 

345. Mot=^moit, a particle ; here, anything irritating to the throat. 

350. Menskis ^honoMTs. 

354. Goidinck={l) 

356, Erand for herand= hearing, ue.y all hearing. 

359. 7></= granted. 

365. Chyidir=^ chWAxtn, See 1. 251. 



St Clement, pope and martyr, was a Roman by birth, and a Jew by 
extraction. His father*s name was Faustinianus ; his mother's Maci- 
diana. According to some he was converted to the faith by St Peter 
and St Paul. By others his conversion is attributed to St Peter, whom 
he met at Caesarea with St Barnabas. He is said to have accompanied 
St Paul to Philippi in the year 62, and to have shared his sufferings 
there. So constant was his attendance upon the Apostle to the Gen- 
tiles, and so great the assistance he rendered him in his ministry, that 
St Jerome and others call him an apostolic man, St Clement of Alex- 
andria an apostle, and Rufinus almost an apostle. If he be the same 
Clement who is mentioned in Phil. iv. 3, he is there called by St Paul 
his fellow-labourer, and ranked among those whose names are written 
in the book of life. Tertullian says that St Peter ordained him bishop. 
According to some historians he succeeded Anacletus as bishop of Rome 
in the year 91 ; according to others he succeeded Linus in 68. Those 
who hold to the latter opinion say that he was banished for the faith 
to the Crimea during the persecution under Domitian, and that he 
had Anacletus for his substitute in the chair of St Peter. The chro- 
nology of the first three popes, however, is very uncertain. Still all 
agree that St Clement was one of them. ^11 agree, too, that he suf- 
fered martyrdom in the year 100, during the persecution under Trajan, 
According to Gregory of Tours (De Gloria Martyrum, c. 35), he was 
precipitated into the sea with an anchor fastened about his neck. 
Under Pope Nicholas I. his body was conveyed to Rome, and there 
deposited in the church which had some time previously been built in 
his honour. When Louis Debonnair founded the great abbey of Cava 
in Abruzzo, four miles from Salerno, in 872, Adrian IL sent him some 
of the relics of St Clement wherewith to enrich it. The ancient church 
of St Clement in Rome, in which St Gregory the Great preached 
many of his homilies, still retains part of his relics. This church was 
repaired by Clement XL, but still shows entire the old structure of 
Christian churches, divided into three parts — the narthex, the ambo. 


and the sanctuary. Numerous writings have been attributed to St 
Clement. Chief among them is the Epistle to the Church of Corinth, 
which during the first ages of Christianity was held in great esteem, 
and placed next to the canonical Scriptures, and with them was read 
in the churches. Smith's * Diet. Christ. Biogr.,* art. " Clemens Rom- 
anus"; Butler's * Lives of the Saints'; and Putin's *Dict. Hagiogr.' 
In the first is a full account of the writings attributed to the saint. 

His day is Nov. 23. 

In devotional pictures St Clement is habited as a pope, sometimes 
with the tiara, but generally without it ; an anchor is at his side, or a 
small anchor is suspended from his neck, or he holds one in his hand. 
The church of St Clement in the Strand is dedicated to this saint 
Hence the device of the parish is an anchor, which the beadles and 
other officials wear on their buttons. Hence also the anchor which 
surmounts the weathercock on the steeple. Mrs Jameson, 'Sacred 
and Legendary Art,' ii. 628. 

Analysis — The intention of the author is to translate the story of 
Clement, who bore that name worthily, being full of mercy, wise, 
meek, &c., 1-8 ; and because he was, all who sail upon the sea should 
honour him, 9-12 ; his kindred and birth, 13-20; his mother's beauty, 
and its effect on her husband's brother, 21-27 ; in order to escape from 
him, under pretence of having in a dream been warned to flee with 
her children lest they should perish, she obtains her husband's per- 
mission to take two of her children to Athens for the purpose of 
educating them there, 28-66 ; she departs, leaving Clement at home 
with his father— on the way the ship is wrecked, she is cast alone upon 
the land, as are also her children, but unknown to her, and discover- 
ing her loss, for a time refuses to be comforted, but is at last consoled 
by the sympathy of a sailor's widow, 67-114; having in her grief 
bitten her hands she becomes unable to work, and the widow who has 
comforted and maintained her being taken with palsy, she is forced 
to beg, 1 15-124; meantime the messengers whom her husband has 
sent to Athens to seek tidings of her, return — others also whom he sub- 
sequently sends returning tidingless, he leaves Clement in good keep- 
ing, and goes in quest of her himself, 125-142 ; Clement dwells at 
home twenty years without hearing of either his father or mother, 
143-146; in the meantime he gives himself to study, and excels 
therein, 147-154; his contention with Barnabas, who leads him to St 
Peter, 155-178; of the two brothers of Clement, 179-186; Clement 
tells the apostle about his father and mother, who goes with him in 
quest of them, 187-200; the finding of Macidiana, and her recognition 
by Clement's two brothers, who have hitherto been known to him 
only as disciples of St Peter, 201-322; the finding of Faustinianus, 
323-456; Faustinianus is summoned away from them, and while 
away Simon Magus, fearing to be found, impresses his own coun- 
tenance upon him, and flees, 457-484 ; Faustinianus, unconscious of 


what has happened to hiin» returns, and is not recognised except by 
St Peter, 485-492 ; the sorrow caused by Simon's trickery, 493-518 ; 
they are comforted by the apostle, 519-522 ; Simon Magus in An- 
tioch, 523-536; St Peter sends Faustinianus thither to defend him 
against Simon, and to preach the contrary of Simon's preaching, 537- 
556 ; how Simon was worsted by means of the preaching of Faustini- 
anus, 557-620; Clement remains with St Peter, and is appointed his 
successor to govern the Church, 621-634 ; after the apostle's death he 
gives place first to Linus and then to Cletus, 635-644 ; the question as 
to whether there were two popes at once : the honour in which Clement 
was held, 645-660; the conversion of Sisinnius, 661-756; a division of 
opinion arises among the people as to Clement, 757-770 ; he is 
banished by order of the Emperor Trajan, and is accompanied by a 
large company of disciples, 771-808 ; there being no water in the 
place, at the prayer of Clement Christ appears under the form of a 
lamb, and shows them where it is to be found, and the water being 
found many are converted, and the idol temples destroyed, 809-852 ; 
Trajan hearing of this sends an officer, who condemns Clement to 
death, 853-866 ; an anchor was consequently tied to his neck, and 
after being rowed out some six miles he was thrown into the sea, 867- 
874 ; at the prayer of Phebus and Cornelius the sea opened, and they 
found a marble church built by angels where the body of Clement 
fell, and an anchor in a tomb — afterwards they are told that every year 
in the same way the relic will be shown for seven days, 875-902 ; a 
miracle that happened at the place where Clement was drowned, 903- 
972 ; how the miracle of the ebbing of the water on the festival of St 
Clement came to cease, 973-1004; the translation of the relics, 

Source — L.A., cap. 170. Cf. *Clem. Hom.,' xii. et seq., and 
* Recog.' 

1-8. L.A. treats the derivation of the name in greater detail. 

3-8. Cf. L.A. : *'Vel, sicut in glossario, Clemens dicitur dulcis, 
Justus, maturus, pius ; Justus in actione, dulcis in sermone, maturus 
in conversatione, pius in intentione." 

9-12. Not in L.A. 

10. Wedyr=^yft2Xhtx, /« «/aA/= under control. 

12. To for in, 

13-20. L.A. : " Clemens episcopus ex nobili Romanorum prosapia 
ortus est. Pater ejus Faustinianus, mater vero Macidiana nuncupata 
est, habuitque duos fratres, quorum unus Faustinus, alter Faustus 

19. A nycht=\ht same night 

21-24. L.A. : " Cumque Macidiana mater ejus mira corporis pul- 
chritudine polleret, frater viri sui libidinoso amore in eam vehementer 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXI. 25-91). 237 

25-32. L.A. : " Cum autem earn quotidie molestaret et ipsa sibi 
nullatenus assentire vellet viroque suo hoc revelare timeret, ne inter 
duos fratres inimicitias suscitaret, cogitavit per aliquod tempus se a 
patria absentare, donee illicitus amor conquiesceret, quem aspectus 
praesentiae inflammarct." 

25. Ne wald— would not. 

27. /^?^<?=feud. fiL.S.fckh&, enmity. 

28. Scho hyre awysit=%\\^ resolved. 

31. Mach, See note to VI. 596. 

32. /j=his. 
33-38. An addition. 
34. 5/^7^1/= slaked. 

36. /'/^^a/i^^ pleasant ze/^;i/d;i=: licentious. A. S. ^a», lacking, and 
togeriy pt. p. of //<?«, to draw, educate. 

39-54. L.A. : "Ut autem hoc a viro suo obtinere posset, somnium 
valde confinxit callide, quod in hunc modum viro retulit dicens : ecce 
quidam mihi per visum adstitit mihi praecipiens ut confestim cum 
duobus geminis, sc. Faustino et Fausto, ex urbe discederem et tamdiu 
abessem, donee ipse mihi reditum imperaret; quod si non facerem, 
simul cum duobus liberis interirem.** 

40. Hyre »w;i= her husband. The phrase is still common. Con- 
tent for consent, 

42. Z?/j^j//= troubled. 

52. Lewit—%2LS^ leave or permission. 

53. Bot—Mv\ts&, 

55-72. L.A. : " Quod vir audiens expavit ac uxorem cum duobus 
liberis et familia multa Athenas misit, ut et ibi maneret et filios faceret 
erudiri, minorcm autem filium, scilicet Clementem, cum esset annorum 
quinque» sibi pater in solatium retinuit." 

65. Z<iyr^= study, school. 

72. Mystere=ntt^y hardship. 

73-90. L.A. : " Cum autem mater cum filiis navigaret, nocte quadam 
navis naufragium pertulit et mater sine filiis a fluctibus ejecta super 
quoddam saxum evasit, quae duos natos periisse considerans prae nimio 
dolore in maris fundum se praecipitasset, nisi quia eorum cadavera se 
reperturam sperabat." 

77. Grak for crag. W. craig; Gael, creag^ a rock. 

82. /7^/^«</= floating. A^S,/ledtan, 

88. Na''Ware=vftrQ it not. 

90. Grawe=buTy, 

91-124. L.A. : *' At vcro, ubi nee vivos nee mortuos se reperire posse 
cognovit, clamores et ululatus maximos dabat, manus suas morsibus 
lacerabat nee ullam consolationem ab aliquo recipere volebat Cum- 
que multae mulieres adstarent quae sua infortunia eidem narrarent et 
ilia ex hoc consolationem non reciperet, afluit quaedam mulier inter 
casteraSi quae virum suum adolescentem et nautam in mari periisse 


asseniit et ob sui amorem postmodum nubere recusavit. Recepta 
igitur qualicumque consolatione, apud ipsam manebat et quotidianum 
victum suis manibus acquirebat, sed non multo post manus ejus, quas 
crebris morsibus laceraverat, sine sensu et motu adeo sunt effectae ut 
cum ipsis nullatenus operari posset Ilia autem quae earn susceperat, 
paralisin incurrit et de lecto surgere non valebat, sicque M. men- 
dicare compellitur et ipsa cum hospita ex his, quae invenire poterat, 
93. Goulyt^^ulyt=yovt\tdt howled. nw£/^=rave. 

95. Bat^h'xt. 

96. Rewth^^xX^f, 

99. ^-/«^J^= lessen. Cf. 1. 519. 

102. Keyle=coo\, abate. care=gr\t{, 

113. IVan^—caimed. 

117. P^«^^{^i//= unhealthy, swynk^^work. A.S. swincan, labour. 

118. ^^«^=win, earn. 

120. Par/gsy=== palsy, 

121. lVorMf= must needs. 

125-142. L.A. : " Complete anno, quo M. cum liberis discessit c 
patria, misit Athenas nuntios vir ejus, ut ipsos requirerent et quid 
agerent intimarent Sed illi qui missi fuerant, nullatenus redierunt. 
Denique cum alios misisset et illi revertentes se nullum inde vesti- 
gium reperissc narrarent, Clementem filium sub tutoribus dereliquit et 
ipse ad quaerendum uxorem cum filiis navem conscendit, sed minime 

127. IVend, read send =stni. Cf. 1. 137. 

128. Eftyre hend—2S\ffc, See Murray, sub afierhand'Q, 

129. lVend= weened. 

130. Sonnoys for Sonnys. 

142. Is went='\s gone. Still common. 

143-170. L.A. : " Viginti igitur annis Clemens orbatus stetit nee de 
patre vel matre vel de fratribus aliquod indicium invenire potuit. Ipse 
autem C. studio litterarum se contulit et summum philosophiae apicem 
apprehendit. Desiderabat autem vehementer et studiose quaerebat 
qualiter sibi animae immortalitas persuaderi posset. Ob hoc philosopho- 
rum scholas semper adibat et siquidem, quod immortalis esset obtine- 
batur, gaudebat, si quando vero, quod mortalis esset, concludebatur, tris- 
tis discedebat. Denique cum Barnabas Romam venisset et fidem Christi 
praedicaret, philosophi eum tamquam insanum et amentem deridebant 
Unde et quidam, qui secundum quosdam fuit Clemens philosophus, 
qui eum primo sicut alii deridebat et ejus praedicationem contemnebat, 
talem quaestionem pro dcrisu Barnabae fecit dicens : cum culex animal 
sit exiguum, quid est, quod sex pedes habet et insuper alas possidet, 
elephas autem, cum sit immane animal, nee alas possidet et tantum 
quatuor pedes habet? Cui Barnabas: stulte, tuae quaestioni respondere 
perfacile possem, si veritatis causa discendae quaerere videreris, sed 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (xXL 146-201). 239 

nunc de creaturis vobis dicere aliquid absurdum est, cum a vobis 
creaturarum conditor ignoretur ; quia enim creatorem non cognoscitis, 
justum est ut in creaturis erretis. Hoc verbum cordi Clemen tis phil- 
osophi valde inhsesit, ita quod (idem Christi instructus a Bamaba 
recepit et in Judseam ad Petrum postmodum properavit, quem ille de 
fide Christi instruxit et animae immortalitatem evidenter edocuit." 
146. Be'Come= hsid gone to. 

148. Our£ 'jpe iawe= beyond others. 

149. Sa AaIe=so completely. 

150. IVane =v/on, /£?f^/= place. A.S. idAy O.Fris. locA, place. 

151. ^^/=know. 

152. Vmiedfy =immort3A, 

154. Some verses are wanting here. 

159. /7a = flea. 

170. ^r^=err. 

179-186. L.A. : " Eo tempore Symon magus duos discipulos habebat, 
sc. Aquilam et Nicetam, qui ejus fallacias agnoscentes eum relique- 
runt et ad Petrum confugerunt et ejus discipuli sunt effecti." 

182. Viseta . . . and Aquila were Faustus and Faustinus, the twin 
brothers of Clement under assumed names given to them by their 
fosterer. See 1. 309. 

184. Sene= syne = then f afterwards. 

187-200. L.A. : " Cum autem Pctrus Clementem de sua interrogasset 
progenie, ille, quid matri et fratribus et patri accident, per ordinem 
enarravit, addens quod credebat quod mater cum fratribus in mari 
periissent, pater vero aut moerore aut similiter naufragio interiisset 
Quod audiens Petrus lacrymas continere non potuit." 

193. Hope^itzx. 

*' Freindlie affectioun causit thame to greit, 
In Acip again that thai suld nevir meit.** 

— Stewart, * M. Chron.* 

Tyrwhitt, note to Chaucer 4027, observes that Aopen signifies the mere 
expectation of a future event, whether good or evil, 

•' Our manciple, I Ao^ he wol be deed." 

— Chaucer, C. T., 4027. 

In this sense Ao^e as a verb frequently occurs. See the note to kopen^ 
Skeat's * Piers P. C. Passus,' xviii. 313. 

197. A/y^ni5f=misfared, came by some misfortune. 

201-224. L.A. : "Quadam autem vice Petrus cum discipulis Antara- 
dum et inde ad insulam per VI milliaria distantem, in qua Macidiana 
mater dementis morabatur, venit, ubi quaedam columns vitreae mirae 
magnitudinis erant Quas cum P. cum caeteris miraretur, videns ipsam 
mendicantem, cur non potius suis manibus operaretur increpavit. 
Quae respondit : speciem tantum, domine, habeo manuum quas meis 


sic sunt debilitatse morsibus ut omnino sint insensibiles efTectae, atque 
utinam me in mare praecipitassem, ut ultra non vivcrem ! Cui Pctrus: 
Quid est quod loqueris ? nescis, quia animse eorum qui se interimunt 
graviter puniuntur? Cui ilia: Utinam hoc mihi certum fieret quod 
animae post mortem vivant, libenter enim me ipsam occiderem, ut 
saltem una hora dulces meos natos videre possem." 

201. Amaradis=Antar3idus (cf. *Clem. Hom.,' xii. i), a town of 
Phoenicia, situated at its northern extremity and on the mainland over 
against the island of Aradus, whence its name. It has also been 
placed two miles north of Aradus, and identified with Came or 
Camos. Constantine rebuilt it, and called it Constantia. Its bishops 
were known under both titles. In the time of the Crusades it was a 
populous and fortified town, and was known as Tortosa. Its walls 
still remain, and are said to be the most imposing specimen of Phoe- 
nician fortification in Syria. Smith, * Diet Gr. and Rom. Geogr.' Its 
modem name is Tartus. 

203. An£ I/e=the island of Aradus, the Old Testament Arvad. The 
island is said to be of oblong shape, with a slight rise towards the 
centre, and steep on every side. In ancient times it was extremely 
populous. According to Strabo, it owed its foundation to Sidonian 
exiles. See the article under "Aradus" in Smith, *Dict Gr. and 
Rom. Geogr.' 

206. G/as, The * Clem. Hom.,* xii. 12, has " duas columnas znUas" 
The change to vitreas in the L.A. was easy. 

215. (y= because of. ^«««//V^= gnawing. Cf. 11. 95 and 11 5-1 18. 
Pi.,S, gnagan ; Dut. knagenj lce\. gnaga^ to bite, devour. 

217. D/!yd= died, 

225-240. L.A. : " Cumque P. ab ea causam tantae tristitias interro- 
gasset et ilia ei ordinem gestae rei narrasset, ait P. : Est quidam ado- 
lescens apud nos, nomine Clemens, qui hjEC quae refers, matri et fratri 
asserit accidisse. Quod ilia audiens, nimio stupore percussa corruit, 
cumque ad semetipsam rediisset, cum lacrymis ait : Ego sum ado- 
lescentis mater ; et procidens ad pedes Petri, rogare eum coepit ut sibi 
filium suum festinanter ostendere dignaretur." 

226. Gj;a/;/= caused, ^^»r^= noise, complaining. See Bradley, sub 

229. /y/^///= stays. 

241-248. L.A. : " Cui P. : cum adolescentem videris, pauUulum dis- 
simula, quousque ab insula cum navi egrediamur. Quod cum ilia 
se facturam promisisset, tenens P. manum ejus ipsam ad navem, ubi 
erat Clemens, ducebat." 

242. Dysim/e=^ dissemble. 

249-265. L.A. : " Videns vero Clemens Petrum manu mulierem du- 
centem ridere coepit. Mox autem, ut mulier juxta Clementem fuit, se 
continere non potuit, sed statim in amplexus ejus ruit et crebro osculari 
coepit. Quam ille tanquam insanientem mulierem cum indignatione 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXL 254^323). 24 1 

repellebat et adversus Petnim indignatione non modica movebatur. 
Cui P. : quid agis, o fili Clemens ! noli repellere matrem tuam. Quod 
cum audisset Clemens, lacrymis infusus super matrem jacentem con- 
cidit et eam recognoscere coepit. Tunc ad prseceptum Petri hospita 
sua, quae paralitica jacebat, adducitur et ab eo continuo liberatur." 

254. Tene= Singer, A.S. /eon^ anger. 

266-274. L.A. : " Tunc mater Clementem de patre interrogavit Cui 
ille : ad te quaerendum ivit et ultra non rediit. At ilia audiens solum- 
modo suspiravit, grande enim pro filio invento gaudium habens, reliquos 
consolabatur moerores.** 

275-322. L.A . : '* Interea cum Nicetas et Aquila deessent et redeuntes 
mulierem cum Petro vidissent, quaenam sit haec mulier percunctantur. 
Quibus Clemens ait : mater mea est, quam mihi Deus redonavit per 
dominum meum Petrum. Post haec Petrus omnia iis per ordinem 
enarravit Quae cum audivissent Nicetas et Aquila, subito surrexe- 
runt et obstupefacti conturbari coeperunt dicentes : dominator domine 
Deus, verane sunt base an somnium est quod audivimus? Tunc Pet- 
rus : fili, non, inquit, nos insanimus, sed haec vera sunt. At illi faciem 
confricantes ajunt : nos sumus Faustinus et Faustus, quos mater 
nostra aestimat in mari interiisse. Et accurrentes in complexus matris 
ruunt et eam crebrius osculantur. At ilia : quid vult hoc esse? Ad 
quam Petrus : isti sunt filii tui Faustinus et Faustus, quos in mari 
periisse putabas. Hasc audiens mater prae nimio gaudio velut amens 
effecta corruit et post ad se reversa ait : obsecro vos, dulcissimi filii, 
narrate mihi quomodo evasistis. Qui responderunt : Cum navis fuis- 
set resoluta et nos super quandam tabulam veheremur, quidam piratas 
nos invenientes in suam naviculam posuerunt ac mutatis nominibus 
cuidam nos honestae viduae, Justinae nomine, vendiderunt, quae tam- 
quam filios nos habuit et liberalibus artibus nos erudiri fecit ; tandem 
philosophiae operam dedimus et Symoni cuidam mago nobiscum 
educato adhaesimus, cumque ejus fallaciam cognovissemus, ipsum 
omnino deseruimus et Petri discipuli per Zachaeum effecti sumus.** 

275. J^^^/«= Nicetas. 

283. i^r^/j/= rubbed. 

300. CA<i/iy/= escaped. 

302. Are . . . lopyne=^2Xt^ or have, leaped. 

303. Ways—'^ZMt^ 

305. I^eueris=^ rtivtrs, thieves ; but here sea thieves — i.e., pirates. 

319. ZacAe =ZsLCchxus. 

323-346. L.A. : " Sequenti autem die assumtis Petrus tribus fratri- 
bus, sc. Clemente, Aquila et Niceta, ad quendam secretiorem locum 
orationis gratia descendit Quos venerandus quidam senex, sed tamen 
pauper alloqui coepit dicens : Misereor vestri, fratres, quia sub specie 
pietatis vos graviter errare considero, neque enim Deus est neque 
cultus hie aliquis est nee providentia in mundo, sed fortuitus casus et 
genesis omnia agunt, sicut et ego ex me ipso manifeste comperi, in 

VOL. III. g 


disciplina mathesis prae casteris eruditus : nolite ergo errare, sive enim 
oreds sive non, quod vestra genesis continet, vobis erit." 

336. Purwiance =FToy\dence. Qi, pwruiance, \, '^^i^, powruiance^ 1. 
378, ^Xidpourwiance^ 1. 379. 0,Yi, porvednce, 

337. ^^= trust. O.Fr. affier, ^^ Affier^ to affie, assure, affirm on 
his word, to pawn his faith and credit on . . . " — Cotgrave. 

342. ^(?/tf/^^jry= metaphysics. 

346. 7tfi^/«= agreed upon, determined. O.Fr. tatller, " TcUlli 
d*avoir du mal, destined or bom to be miserable " — Cotgrave. 

347-422. L.A. : *' Clemens autem in eum respiciens animo pulsabatur 
et sibi se eum alias vidisse videbatur. Cumque de mandato Petri 
Clemens, Aquila et Niceta cum eo diutius disputassent et providen- 
tiam apertis rationibus ostendissent eumque ob reverentiam crebro 
patrem vocarent, dixit Aquila : quid necesse est ut eum patrem 
vocemus, cum in mandatis habeamus neminem super terram patrem 
vocare? Et post hoc respiciens ad senem ait : non injuriose accipias, 
pater, quod fratrem meum culpavi, quia te patrem vocavit ; habemus 
enim tale mandatum, ne aliquem nomine isto vocemus. Cumque 
Aquila hoc dixisset, risit omnium adstantium coetus una cum sene et 
Petro, et cum ille causam risis inquireret, dixit ad eum Clemens : quia 
facis id, de quo alios culpas, senem patrem vocando. At ille negabat 
dicens : vere nescio si eum patrem vocaverim. Verum cum satis de 
providentia disputatum esset, dixit senex : Crederem utique providen- 
tiam esse, sed a propria conscientia prohibeor, huic fidei accommodare 
consensum ; novi enim meam et conjugis meae genesin et scio ea qua^ 
unicuique nostrum dictabat genesis, accidisse ; audite igitur conjugis 
meae thema et invenietis schema, cuius exitus accidit. Habuit namque 
Martem cum Venere super centrum, lunam vero in occasu in domo 
Martis et hnibus Batumi ; quod sc. schema adulteras facit et servos 
proprios amare et peregre proficisci et in aquis defungi, quod et factum 
est Incidit namque in amorem servi et periculum atque opprobrium 
metuens cum ipso aufugit et in mari periit. Nam, sicut frater meus 
retulit, ipsum primo adamavit, sed cum ipse assentire sibi nollet, in 
servum suae libidinis amorem retorsit, nee tamen ei imputandum est, 
quia eam genesis hoc facere compulit. Narravitque quomodo som- 
nium finxerit et cum liberis Athenas vadens naufragio perierit." 

360. Mawndement^zomvci^nAxatViX, 

363. Dyscsfully = offensi vely. 

368. Z;/r^/= laughed, "pat seems to be wanting from the beginning 
of the verse. 

369. ])at auld. Cf. \atald^ 1. 352, and ane aid man in 1. 330. 
373. Nemand=^Vizm\Xi%, 

380. /«zc/iV= conscience. 

390. Hyre worthit=^sht must needs, or behoved. 

397. Heldyne — inclination. 

415. Ser^= sore, sorely, greatly. A.S. sdr, sore, grievous. 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXI. 423475). 243 

423-437. L.A. : " Cumque filii vellent in eum irruere et rem aperire, 
prohibuit Petrus dicens : quiescite quoadusque mihi placuerit Dixit- 
que ei Petrus : si hodie conjugem tuam castissimam cum tribus filiis 
tuis consignavero, credes, quia genesis nihil sit? Cui ille : sicut im- 
possibile est te exhibere quod promisisti, ita et impossibile est, extra 
genesin aliquod fieri. Dixitque ei Petrus : ecce iste est filius tuus 
Clemens et hi duo gemini tui Faustinus et Faustus." 

429. Myse= sin, 

437. Faustinus, instead of Faustus, 

438-456. L. A. : " Tunc senex resolutis membris cecidit et exanimis 
factus est. Filii autem irruentes in eum osculabantur, verentes ne 
spiritum revocare posset Tandem ad se rediens omnia ut acciderant 
per ordinem audivit. Tunc subito uxor advenit et cum lacrymis 
clamare coepit : ubi est vir meus et dominus mens } Haec cum ilia 
quasi amens clamaret, senex cucurrit et cum multis lacrymis amplecti 
et stringere earn coepit." 

447. Spel one hend— straight on. 

''Seth him sette spel on ende 
And talde him of his fader care." 

— 'C. M.,' 1295. 
453. Racht^Xaiktxi, 

455. In-twyne, read in twyne=^dX variance, separated. 

4&1-41^ L.A. : " Dum igitur simul manerent, advenit quidam nun- 
tians Apionem et Ambionem Faustiniani amicissimos cum Symone 
mago hospitari. De quorum adventu Faustinianus valde gavisus ad 
eos visitandos ivit et ecce nuntius venit qui diceret ministrum 
Csesaris Antiochiam advenisse, ut magos omnes quaereret et morte 

459. Apyenene=^A\AoTi, 

460. Aunbione=^ Pimhion or Anubion. Apion and Anubion (for so 
the name is given in the 'Clementine Homilies') were two of the 
disciples of Simon Magus, or at least two of his reputed disciples. 
Both of them appear to have been of Egyptian origin. The first suc- 
ceeded in concealing his origin and passed for a Greek. His literary 
triumphs won for him the epithet Pleistonikes. But he is best known 
as the opponent of Josephus, and for his hostility to the Jews. He 
was the son of Poseidonius, a grammarian of Alexandria in the first 
century, and is described in the * Clem. Hom.' (iv. 6), where he is 
mentioned along with " a certain astrologer, Anubion the Dospolitan," 
as a man of Alexandria, a grammarian by profession. It is doubtful 
whether he ever came in contact with the members of the Christian 
Church, but in the * Clementine Homilies' and the traditional accounts 
of Clement he figures very largely. Cf. ' Clem. Hom.,' iv. v. vi., &c., 
and the article " Apion " in Smith's * Diet Christ Biogr.' 

468. CV7»«^= arrival. 

475-484. L.A. : "Tunc Symon in odium filiorum qui ipsum relique- 


rant, vultus sui similitudinem in Faustinianum impressit, ut non 
Faustinianus, sed Symon Magus ab omnibus putaretur. Hoc autem 
fecit ut a ministris Caesaris loco sui teneretur et occideretur. Ipse 
autem Symon de partibus illis abscessit" 

485-504. L.A.: " Cum autem Faustinianus ad Petrum et filios rediis- 
set, expaverunt filii vultum Symonis, in eum intuentes, vocem autem 
patris sui audientes. Solus autem Petrus erat qui vultum ejus natural- 
em videbat, cumque filii ejus et uxor eum refugerent et exsecrarentur, 
dicebat illis : cur exsecramini et refugitis patrem vestrum ? Qui re- 
sponderunt, quod ideo eum fugerent quia in eo vultus Symonis mag^ 
appareret Confecerat enim Symon quoddam unguentum et faciem 
ejus perunxerat et vultum suum arte magica impresserat in eum." 

490. Who knew him to be Faustinianus. 

491. 7>y^<f/= trickery. 

494. Resawit=rtctvftd. 

495. Gud sem/and=good semblance, cheer. 
500. lVary= curse. 

505-518. L.A. : " Ipse igitur lamentabatur et dicebat : quid mihi 
misero accidit ut una die recognitus ab uxore et filiis lastari non potu- 
erim cum iis? Uxor vero ejus sparsis crinibus et filii plurimum 
519-522. Not in L.A. ; but see *Clem. Hom./ xx. 12 e^ seq, 
523-536. L.A. : " Symon autem magus, dum adhuc esset Antiochiae, 
Petrum plurimum infamaverat, magum, maleficum et homicidam eum 
dicendo, denique in tantum adversus Petrum populum concitaverat ut 
ipsum invenire plurimum affectarent, ut carnes ejus dentibus lani- 
527. ^^^^«fc'= forthwith. See note to III. 1064. 
529. Z^j/=blamed. "And that consciens aghe noght to trow til 
man, lackand or louand, for he sees it noght." — * Hampole Psalter,* 
20 5, q.c. 

" Thanne Scripture scorned me * and a skile tolde, 
And lakked me in Latyne * and lizte by me she sette, 
And seyde, muUi multa sciunt, et seipsos nesciunt.''^ 

—' Piers P.,' B. xi. 2. 

O.Fries. lakia; Dut. laken^ to blame. 

532. Trigetouyre—Atctiver. Cf. tryget in 1. 491. 

537-556. L.A.: "Dixit ergo Petrus Faustiniano : Quoniam quidem 
Symon magus esse videris, perge Antiochiam, coram omni populo 
me excusa ac ea quae de me dixit Symon, ex persona sui retracta; 
post haec ego Antiochiam veniam et alienum hunc vultum a te effugabo 
et proprium vultum coram omnibus reddam." 

To this Voragine adds : *' Hoc tamen nullo modo credendum est, 
quod beatus Petrus mentiri mandaverit, cum Deus non indigeat nostra 

547. Ley t=\itd. 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXL 548-651). 245 

548. lVreyl= a.ccused, M.E. wreyen^ to accuse. 

557-574. L.A.: " Perrexit ergo Faustinianus Antiochiam et populum 
convocans dixit : ego, Symon, annuntio vobis et confiteor omnia fefel- 
lisse de Petro, nequaquam enim est seductor vel magus, sed ad salutem 
mundi missus. Quapropter, si de caetero aliquid contra ipsum dixero, 
tamquam seductorem et maleficum repellatis ; nunc enim poenitentiam 
ago, quia male me dixisse cognosco. Moneo igitur vos, ut ipsi creda- 
tis, ne vos, et civitas vestra insimul pereatis." 

573. Mones =2idmor\\sh, L. moneo, 

575-584. L.A. : " Cumque haec omnia, quae Petrus jusserat, comple- 
visset et jam in amorem Petri populum incitasset, Petrus ad eum venit 
et oratione facta effigiem vultus Symonis ab eo penitus effugavit, 
populus autem Antiochenus Petrum benigne et cum multo honore 
recepit et ipsum in cathedra sublimavit." 

585-594. Not in L.A. ; but see * The Clementine Recognitions,' x. 

594. Ozr^=turn. Cf. note to XXV. 289. 

595-620. L.A. : " Quod audiens Symon illuc perrexit et populum 
convocans ait : miror, quod, cum vos salubribus praeceptis instruxerim 
et a seductore Petro vos cavere monuerim, vos ipsum non solum audi- 
vistis, sed etiam episcopali cathedra sublimastis. Tunc omnes cum 
furore adversus eum dixerunt : monstro nobis similis es, nudius tertius 
te pcenituisse dicebas et nunc te et nos praecipitare conaris, et impe- 
tum in eum facientes cum ignominia eum protinus expulerunt (Haec 
omnia Clemens in libro suo de se ipso narrat.)" 

607. Z?yj«j/«^= monstrous. 

" Thus sayand, with all his strinth ane greit speir 
At the syde of that bysning\xsX threw he." 

— *G. Douglas/ ii. 70. 17. 
I eel. bysfty ^ prodigy. 

620. Gyrne—sn2LTe. A.S. gn'n, gryn^ a snare, trap. 

622. 5/?/=ja/=shall. 

625-644. L.A. : " Post haec Petrus, cum Roman venisset et suam 
passionem imminere videret, Clementem post se episcopum ordinavit 
Mortuo igitur principe apostolorum Petro, Clemens vir providus, prae- 
cavens in futurum, ne sc. per hoc exemplum quilibet vellet sibi in 
ecclesia successorem statuere et hereditate sanctuarium domini pos- 
sidere. Lino cessit et postmodum Cleto." 

640. Harytage—\i^x'\\.2i%^y inheritance. 

645-650. L.A. : " Nonnulli asserunt, quod Linus et Cletus non fuerunt 
summi pontifices, sed tantum Petri coadjutores, propter quod in cata- 
logo pontificum meruerunt annumerari." 

646. Whether Linus and Anaclete were popes, or simply coadjutors 
of St Peter. 

651-681. L.A. : " Post hos autem Clemens eligitur et praesidere com- 
pellitur, qui ita morum ornamento pollebat ut Judaeis et gentilibus et 


omnibus christianis populis complaceret. Singularum inopes provin- 
ciarum nominatim scriptos habebat, et quos baptismi sanctificatione 
mundaverat, non sinebat publicae fieri mendicitati subjectos. Cum 
itaque Domicillam virginem, neptem Domitiani imperatoris, sacro 
velamine consecrasset et Theodoram uxorem Sisinnii amici imperatoris 
ad fidem convertisset et in castitatis proposito manere promitteret, 
Sisinnius zelo ductus ecclesiam post uxorem suam occulte intravit, 
scire volens, propter quod ilia sic ecclesiam frequentaret. At vero a 
s. Clemente oratio fusa est et a populo responsum est Tum Sisin- 
nius caecus et surdus penitus effectus est, qui statim pueris suis dixit : 
cito me tollite et foras educite. Pueri autem per totam ecclesiam eum 
girabant, sed et ad januas pervenire non poterant." 

662. Flavia Domitilla, the niece of the Emperor Domitian. She 
was married to her cousin, Flavius Clemens. Both of them suffered 
for the faith, he being put to death, and Domitilla being banished to 
the island of Pandateria, or, as some say, to the neighbouring island 
of Pontia. It is after her that the Coemeterium Domitillae at Rome 
is named. Smith's * Diet, of Christ. Biogr.' For an account of the 
Coemeterium see Northcote and Brownlow's * Roma Sotterranea/ vol. 
i. 120-125, ^"^ ^'o^* "• ^2o et seq, domycyane= Domitian (81-96 a.d.) 

663. ij/jj/>ftf= Sisinnius. 
674. Fa==/ay= {aith. 

682-697. L.A. : " Quos cum vidisset Theodora sic errantes, prime 
quidem ab iis declinavit, putans, quod vir suus eam cog^oscere posset, 
postmodum autem, quidnam hoc esset, eos interrogavit, qui d^xerunt : 
dominus noster, dum vult videre et audire quae non licet, caecus et 
surdus factus est. Tunc ilia in orationem se dedit deprecans, ut vir 
suus inde exire posset, et post orationem dixit pueris : ite modo et 
perducite dominum vestrum ad domum. Cumque abiissent, s. dem- 
enti Theodora, quid accident, indicavit." 

682. ///r^= fared. 

"And how scho furth suld caryit be, 
Or euir he/ure, than ordanit he." 

— ' The Bruce,* xvi. 288. 

683. rf77= wandering. Icel. vt7/a, to lead astray. See wy/ in the 
Glossary to * Alliterative Poems,' by Dr Morris. 

688. Zt'^///= lawful. 

698-713. L.A. : " Tunc s. rogatu Theodorae ad eam venit et ipsum 
invenit apertis oculis nil videntem et nihil penitus audientem ; cumque 
Clemens pro eo orasset et ille auditum et lumen recepisset, videns 
Clementem juxta uxorem suam stantem, amens efficitur et se illusum 
magicis artibus suspicatur praecepitque servis suis ut tenerent Clemen- 
tem, dicens : ut ingrederetur ad uxorem meam, magicis artibus me 
excaecavit; praecepitque ministris ut Clementem ligarent et ligatum 
traherent. At illi ligantes columnas jacentes et saxa, putabant, sicut 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXL 704-799). 247 

etiam Sisinnio videbatur, quod s. Clementem cum suis clericis trahe- 
rent et ligarent." 

704. Begabbit =mocV^^, Swed. begabba^ to mock, deceive. 

714-756. L.A. : "Tunc C. Sisinnio ait: quia saxa deos dicis, saxa 
trahere meruisti. lUe autem vere eum ligatum existimans ait : ego 
te interfici faciam. C. autem inde abscedens Theodoram rogavit, ne 
ab oratione cessaret, donee virum suum dominus visitaret Oranti igitur 
Theodorae Petrus ap. apparuit dicens : per te vir tuus salvabitur, ut 
impleatur, quod dixit frater meus Paulus, salvabitur vir infidelis per 
mulierem fidelem ; et hoc dicens abscessit Statimque Sisinnius 
uxorem suam ad se vocavit obsecrans, ut pro se oraret et s. Clementem 
ad se vocaret. Qui cum venisset, ipsum in fide instruxit et eum cum 
CCCXIII de domo sua baptizavit." 

725. Zaj^= leash. O.Fr. ** lesse, a leash to hold a dog" — Cot., who 
also gives laisse, " the same as lesse, with the same meaning." 

742. •S'tf//^^//z>'//^= reconciliation. So in XVIII. 4. Cf. A.S. sehtian 
and sahtlian^ to make peace. 

753. L.A. : " Per hunc autem Sisinnium multi nobiles et amici 
Nervae imperatoris Domino crediderunt." 

757-780. L.A. : " Tunc comes sacrorum pecuniam multis dedit et 
contra s. Clementem seditionem maximam excitavit. Tunc Mam- 
ertinus, urbis praefectus, populi seditionem maximam non ferens ad 
se Clementem adduci fecit. Quem cum redargueret et ad se inclinare 
attentaret, ille ait : optarem te ad rationem accedere ; nam si canes 
multi contra nos latraverint et morsibus attrectaverint, nunquam hoc 
nobis auferre possunt, quod nos sumus rationabiles homines et ipsi 
sunt irrationabiles canes, seditio autem ab imperitis exorta ostendit se 
nihil habere certum vel verum." 

757. Haiorbis, read halowis. 

758. Here'^pat=\\tx^-2X. 

772. 5^^<7;'r^== threatening. See Jamiesonand the Glossary to 'The 

781-798. L.A. : "Tunc Mamertinus de eo Trajano imperatori scribens 
responsum accepit, quod aut sacrificaret aut trans pontum maris in 
eremo, quod adjacet civitati Tersona;, ipsum in exsilium mitteret. 
Tunc praefectus dementi cum lacrj'mis ait : Deus tuus, quem pure 
colis, ipse te adjuvet. Praefectus autem ei navem tribuit et omnia 
necessaria ministravit, multi autem clerici et laici ipsum in exsilium 
sunt secuti." 

784. Fouryd={Qrr\td. 

786. Tresone=i\\Q Crimea, to which St Clement is said to have 
been exiled. The editio princeps of L.A. reads " Crisonae" in place of 
" Tersonae." 

793. Ordand for ordane. 

799-808. L.A. : " Profectus autem in insulam invenit ibi plus quam 
duo millia christianorum ibidem jamdudum ad secanda marmora 


damnatonim, qui s. Clementem videntes statim in fletum et lacrymas 
proruperunt. Quos ille consolans ait : non meis meritis ad vos misit 
me dominus vestrae coronae principem me fieri." 

802. Z<y^/=led. 

803. And were deputed to hew marble. 

806. pe ceri=the desert L.A., " meritis." Cf. XXII. 397. 

809-822. L.A. : " Et cum ab iis didicisset quod a sexto milliario 
aquam suis humeris deportarent, dixit iis: oremus omnes dominum 
n. J. Chr., ut confessoribus suis fontem in isto loco ac venas aquae 
aperiat, et qui percussit petram in deserto Syna et fluxerunt accuse in 
abundantia, ipse nobis laticem affluentem impertiatur ut de ejus 
beneficiis g^atulemur." 

811. Grewand=gntwmgy serious. 

823-834. L.A. : " Cumque oratione facta hinc inde circumspiceret, 
vidit agnum stantem, qui pede erecto quasi locum episcopo ostendebat 
Et intelligens dominum J. Chr. esse quem solus ipse videbat, per- 
rexit ad locum et dixit : in nomine patris et filii et spiritus s. in isto 
loco percutite.*' 

825. Bute^hooi, help. A.S. bdt. 

827. AV«^/= directed. 

" And I sail ger the erll Thomas, 
And the lord alsua of Dowglaft, 
Athir with ane quheyne of men, 
Be thair till do as thou sail ken" 

— • The Bruce,' xvil 68. 
I eel. kenna, to know, teach. 

828. Wonnyn — \^oxi, obtained. 

835-842. L.A. : " Sed cum nullus in isto loco, in quo agnus steterat, 
contingeret, ipse accepto brevi sarculo levi ictu locum sub pede agni 
percussit et statim maximus fons erupit et in fluvium crevit Tunc 
universis gaudentibus s. C. ait : fluminis impetus lastificat civitatem 

837. Z^w^=tool. Cf. XVIII. 141 1. jw^/= smote. 

838. H^tf/=wet. 

840. Mud—mooA, 

841. lVe/e=we\l 

843-852. L.A. : "Ad banc famam multi confluxerunt et una die 
quingenti et amplius ab eo baptisma susceperunt et ydolorum 
templa destruentes per totam provinciam intra annum unum LXXV 
ecclesias aedificaverunt." 

843. Name={aimc. 

853-874. L.A. : " Post tres autem annos Trajanus imp., qui coeperat 
a. d. CVI, hoc audiens quendam ducem illuc misit, qui, cum omnes 
libenter mori conspiceret, multitudini cessit et solum Clementem 
ligata ad collum ejus ancora in mare praecipitavit dicens : jam non 
poterunt ipsum pro Deo colere christiani." 

NOTES TO CLEMENT (XXL 854-973). 249 

864. /Vr^= fared. 

866. Demy/= doomed, condemned. 

873. Cors'Sancte=2i holy body. Fr. corps saint. 

875-902. L.A. : "Stante autem omni multitudine ad littus maris 
Cornelius et Phoebus discipuli ejus omnes orare praeceperunt ut do- 
minus corpus sui martiris iis monstraret ; statimque mari per tria 
milliaria recedente omnes per siccum ingressi invenerunt in modum 
templi marmorei habitaculum a Deo paratum et ibi in archa corpus 
s. Clementis et ancoram juxta eum. Revelatum est autem discipulis 
ejus ne inde toUerent corpus ejus. Omni autem anno tempore pas- 
sionis ejus per VII dies ad tria milliaria mare recedit et siccum iter 
advenientibus tribuit.'* 

877. Cr^/, read /raj/ = faithful. cornely—Qomtims, 

903-916. An addition. 

912. ^^^>^= reckon, relate. 

917-972. L.A. : " In una autem solemnitatum mulier cum filio sue 
parvulo ad locum accessit. Completis autem festivitatis sollemniis 
cum puer obdormiret, sonus inundantium aquarum subito factus est, 
mulier autem territa et filii sui oblita cum reliqua multitudine ad 
ripam aufugit. Quae postmodum filii memor cum ejulatu maximo 
flebat et usque ad coelum lamentabiles voces dabat ac per littora 
damans et ejulans discurrebat, si forte filii corpus a littoribus ejectum 
videret, sed cum in ea spes omnis deficeret, ad domum rediit et 
totum ilium annum in fletu et moerore duxit. Post annum igitur 
aperto mari omnes anticipans ad locum concita venit, si de filio forte 
aliquod vestigium invenire posset Cum ergo ante tumulum s. Cle- 
mentis se in orationem dedisset, surgens vidit infantem in loco ubi 
eum reliquerat dormientem. iEstimans autem eum esse defunctum, 
accessit propius, quasi collectura corpus exanime, sed cum eum dor- 
mientem cognovisset, excitatum velociter spectantibus populis incolu- 
mem in ulnis levavit et ubinam per ilium annum fuerit requisivit 
Ille autem se nescire respondit si annus integer praeterierat, sed tantum 
unius noctis spatio se suaviter dormivisse putabat." L.A. then cites 
one or two passages from the Prefatio of St Ambrose. 

919. Ferty re— shnnt. O.Fr. Jiertre; Lat. feretrum^ bier, shrine, 

920. //iaT///= lifted. A.S. hebban, to raise, lift, force up. 
926. i?«/=roar. 

944. Oure-draw= ^disstd, 

973-1012. L.A. : " Refert Leo Ostiensis episcopus, quod tempore, quo 
Michael imperator novae Romae regebat imperium, sacerdos quidam 
nomine Philosophus, qui ob summum ingenium a pueritia fuerat sic vo- 
catus, cum Tersonam pervenisset et de his quae narrantur in hystoria 
Clementis, habitatores interrogasset, quia advenae potius quam indi- 
genae erant, se nescire professi sunt. Siquidem miraculum marini 
recessus ob culpam inhabitantium jamdiu cessaverat et ob incursum 


barbarorum tempore marini recessus venientium templum destructum 
fuerat et archa cum corpore marinis fluctibus obruta erat, exigentibus 
culpis inhabitantium. Super quo miratus Philosophus et accedens 
ad civitaculam nomine Georgiam, cum episcopo et clero et populo 
accessit ad quaerendum sacras reliquias ad insulam, in qua aestima- 
bant esse corpus martiris. Cum hymnis et orationibus fodientes 
divina revelatione invenerunt corpus et ancoram, cum qua fuerat in 
mare projectum, et deportaverunt Tersonam Deinde praedictus Phil- 
osophus cum corpore s. Clementis Romam venit et muhis ostensis 
miraculis in ecclesia, quae nunc dicitur s. Clementis, honorifice corpus 
collocatum fuit In quadam chronica autem legitur quod mari ab illo 
loco exsiccato a b. Cyrillo Moravorum episcopo Romam translatum 

978. 7«{)'«^= separate. 

986. Of the cruel Emperor Martin. Probably Michael Phangabe 
is intended, 813-820 a.d. 


St Laurentius or Lawrence, deacon and martyr, though one of the 
most celebrated of the saints, is one about whom least is known. No 
mention is made by the Fathers of his birth or education, but he is 
claimed by the Spaniards as their countryman, and held by them in 
the greatest honour. Coming while yet young to Rome, his extra- 
ordinary virtues soon won for him the affection of St Sixtus, then 
archdeacon of the imperial city, who took him under his protection, 
and was in all probability his instructor in the study of the Scriptures 
and in the way of Christian perfection. Being elected Pope in the 
year 257, after the martyrdom of St Stephen, the archdeacon, now 
Sixtus II., ordained Laurentius deacon, and, notwithstanding his 
youth, appointed him the first among the seven deacons who served 
in the Roman Church, on which account Laurentius is sometimes 
called the Pope's archdeacon. As the first of the deacons, Sixtus 
intrusted him with the care of the treasury and riches of the Church, 
and charged him with the distribution of its revenues to the poor. 
In the following year, in consequence of an edict issued by Valerian 
at the instigation of Macrian, and commanding all bishops, priests, 
and deacons to be put to death, Sixtus was seized, and led to execu- 
tion. On his way Laurentius, in great sorrow because he was not to 
share his martyrdom, followed him, and said with tears, "Father, 
whither goest thou without thy son ? Whither, O holy priest, art thou 
going without thy deacon?" Sixtus, moved with compassion at his 
grief, replied, '* I do not leave thee, my son, for long. In three days 
thou shalt follow me. In the meantime distribute among the poor 
the treasures of the Church, lest they fall into the hands of perse- 
cutors." Rejoicing that God was about to call him to Himself and to 
bestow upon him so shortly the crown of martyrdom, Laurentius im- 
mediately began to distribute to the widows and orphans whatever 
money he had been intrusted with, as well as the price of the sacred 
vessels of the Church. At that time the Church at Rome was in pos- 
session of considerable wealth, being able not only to maintain its 


ministers, but also to support large numbers of widows and orphans 
and other poor, both in the city itself and in the neighbouring pro- 
vinces. It had also many rich ornaments and consecrated vessels of 
gold and silver set with precious stones. The prefect, imagining that 
its treasures were much greater than they really were, resolved to 
obtain possession of them, and having caused Laurentius to appear 
before him, commanded him to surrender without delay whatever 
gold or silver or precious objects had been intrusted to his care. To 
this St Lawrence replied that the Church had many treasures, more 
even than those of the Emperor, and requested that three days might 
be given so as to enable him to set them in order before finally placing 
them in the prefect's hands. These three days Laurentius employed 
in gathering together all who were in receipt of the alms of the 
Church. On the third day he assembled them in the church, the in- 
firm, blind, lame, deaf, dumb, leprous, widows and orphans, and poor 
virgins, placed them in rows, and then invited the prefect to come and 
see the treasures of the Church. The prefect, not understanding this 
strange spectacle, and astonished to see so vast a number who only 
filled him with disgust, turned to the deacon, and with threats de- 
manded that he should deliver up the treasures he had promised. 
" The treasures," replied Lawrence, " are before you ; you see in the 
poor the riches of the Church, and in those who are consecrated to its 
service its pearls and precious stones." Imagining he was being 
mocked, the prefect became furious. He ordered a gridiron to be 
prepared, and a slow fire to be kindled beneath it. St Lawrence was 
then stripped of his robes and bound upon the iron, where he was 
slowly roasted. While his torment lasted the Christians who stood 
by saw his face lighted up with an unearthly splendour, and believed 
that a sweet agreeable odour was exhaled from his body, but the 
pagans who were present neither saw the light which illumined his 
countenance nor perceived the odour issuing from his body, Having 
suffered for a long time, the martyr turned to the judge and with great 
calmness said, " Let my body be turned ; one side is broiled enough." 
When, by the judge's order, the executioner had turned his body, he 
said, "It is dressed enough; you may now eat." During the whole 
of this horrible scene St Lawrence continued to pray for the con- 
version of Rome, and his prayer being ended, he raised his eyes to 
heaven and passed away. According to Prudentius, the effect of his 
prayers was the conversion of the entire city. His remains were 
buried in the Veran field, near the road to Tibur, on the loth of 
August in 258. In the reign of Constantine the Great a church was 
erected on the spot, which is known as St Lawrence without the 
Walls. Within the walls of the city there are eight other churches 
bearing his name, one of them being one of the five patriarchal 
churches of the city. Pope Adrian I. is said to have sent a part of 
the martyr's relics to the Emperor Charlemagne, who presented them 


to the church of Strasburg. Putin's *Dict. Hagiogr.'; Butler's 
'Lives*; Smith's *Dict. Christ Biogr.'; Mrs Jameson's 'Sacred and 
Legendary Art,' vol. ii. ; Surius. 

His day is August 10. 

In art St Lawrence wears the deacon's dress, bears the palm as 
martyr, and generally, but not always, is accompanied by his familiar 
attribute, the gridiron. When the gridiron is omitted, he carries a 
dish full of gold and silver money in his hand, the treasures of the 
Church confided to his keeping; or he swings a censer or carries a 

Analysis — St Lawrence derives his name from the laurel, 1-4; the 
uses and virtues of the laurel, 5-16; why St Lawrence was crowned 
with it, 17-27 ; of the Emperor Philip and Decius, and of the treasure 
which Philip confided to St Sixtus, 70-107 ; St Sixtus being arrested, 
Lawrence follows, and being grieved that he is not to suffer with 
him, is assured that he will follow him in three days, and directed in 
the meantime to distribute the treasures of the Church to the poor, 
108-147; Lawrence does this, 148-155 ; the martyrdom of Sixtus, 156- 
168 ; Lawrence is seized, and converts and heals Lucillus, 169-202 ; 
Hippollitus, to whom he has been delivered for safe keeping, inquires 
for the treasures of the Church, and is converted with nineteen of his 
men, 203-220 ; Valerian next sends for Lawrence, and demands the 
treasures of the Church, 221-226 ; Lawrence asks for three days' delay, 
during which he distributes the possessions of the Church to the poor, 
227-254 ; he heals the infirmity of Cyriaca, and then passes to a gather- 
ing of poor Christians, where he washes the feet of the brethren, distri- 
butes alms, gives sight to Trecentius, 255-282 ; thence he passes to 
where sixty-three disciples are assembled, and washes their feet, 283- 
298 ; on the third day he appears in the palace of Sallust, where he finds 
Valerian and Decius, 299-302; Decius asks him for the treasure, and in 
answer he causes all the poor whom he has hid in the house of Hippol- 
litus to be brought in, 303-313 ; he is commanded to sacrifice, and re- 
fusing, is stripped and scourged and bound, and being carried into the 
temple of Jupiter, is beaten with staves and otherwise tortured, 314- 
352 ; the conversion and execution of a knight who sees an angel 
healing the wounds of Lawrence, and the public confession of Hippol- 
litus, 353-370; Decius renews the tortures of Lawrence, but seeing 
that he cannot overcome the faith of the martyr dismisses him, that he 
may have time to invent some new method of torture, 371-410; on 
the morrow Lawrence is again brought before him, and refusing to 
sacrifice, is placed upon a gridiron over a slow fire, 411-446; his 
prayer, 447-458 ; Decius causes the fire to be increased, and forks to 
be used for the purpose of holding Lawrence down, 459-470 ; Lawrence 
avows that he is refreshed by the cruelties to which he is subjected, 
and asks that his body may be turned, and the roasted part eaten, after 
which he dies, 471-496; Hippollitus and Justine bury the body of the 


saint on the following day near the Via Tiburtina, after hiding it 
until night with the widow Cyriaca, 497-522; a miracle related by 
Gregory of Tours, 523-572 ; another miracle related by the same 
writer, 573-600 ; a miracle recorded by Vincentius, 601-622 ; a miracle 
which befell Stephen, a false judge, 623-690; a story of the Emperor 
St Henry, 691-770; a story recorded by Gregory of Tours respecting 
the finding of the Emperor's body, 771-788 ; the three privileges of St 
Lawrence, 789-806; conclusion, 807-810. 
Sources — Cf. L.A., cap. 117; V.B., xi. 37 ; and Ado's * Martyrology.' 

1-8. L.A. : " Laurentius dicitur quasi lauream tenens, quas est corona 
de lauro facta, quia olim de huiusmodi ramis victores coronabantur. 
Haec autem arbor est victorise ostensiva, continua viriditate amcena, 
odore grata et efficacia virtuosa." It is then shown how Laurentius 
proved himself in possession of these virtues. 

3. Lawrane =\aure\. 

6. The leaves of the laurel were used for the crowns with which the 
victors in the Pythian games were crowned, as well as to laureate 
scholars with. 

9-27. L.A. : " Huiusmodi autem arboris efficacia est quia calculum 
frangit, surditati subvenit, fulmen non metuit ; sic L. frangit cor 
durum, spiritualem reddit auditum, protegit a fulmine sc. sententix 

9. lVer^m'se= virtue. The leaves of the laurel have long been noted 
for their health-giving efficacy. People used to present them to their 
rulers on the first day of every year, in order to ensure the health of 
the princes. According to Suidas, "I carry a laurel staff" was a 
saying used by those who suspected a plot, since the laurel was 
supposed to act as an antidote against poison. In England a laurel 
leaf with certain words written upon it, laid under a person's head, 
used to be regarded as a preventive of fever ; and at the present day 
many persons in Constantinople are in the habit of burning the leaves 
of the laurel, and drinking a decoction of the ashes as a safeguard 
against intermittent fevers. 

12. Nere =k\dney. I eel. ftyra, 

16. Fyre-slacht, See note to III. 223. 

19. Decyum — VitQAMS. He succeeded Philip the Arabian a.d. 249, 
and reigned for about thirty months. During his brief reign one 
of the fiercest persecutions broke out against the Christians. 

24. Cnaw—Vxio^, A.S. cnawan, to know. 

In the transcript of the four missing folios here, 149a is missing. 
The text of L.A. for the missing passage is : — 

" Laurentius martir et levita genere Hispanus a b. Sixto Romam de- 
ductus est. Nam, sicut dicit magister Johannes Beleth, cum idem b. 
Sixtus in Hispaniam profectus esset, duos juvenes ibidem reperiens, sc. 
Laurentium et Vincentium ejus cognatum, morum honestate composi- 


tos et in omni actione prseclaros, ipsos secum Romam abduxit, quor- 
um alter, sc. Laurentius, secum Romae mansit, Vincent ius vero in 
Hispaniam rediit et ibi glorioso martirio vitam finivit. Huic autem 
opinioni Johannis Beleth repugnat tempus martirii utriusque, nam 
Laur. sub Decio, Vine autem in juvenili aetate sub Dyocletiano et 
Daciano passus est ; sed inter Decium et Dyocletianum fluxerunt anni 
circiter XL et imperatores septem medii fuerunt, ut tunc b. Vine, non 
potuerit juvenis exstitisse. Beatus autem Sixtus Laurentium suum 
archidyaconum ordinavit Eodem tempore Philippus imperator et 
filius suus nomine Philippus fidem Christi receperant et christiani 
effecti ecclesiam sublimare plurimum nitebantur. Iste Philippus 
primus imperator fuit qui fidem Christi recepit, quem Origenes, ut 
dicitur, ad fidem convertit, licet alibi legatur, quod b. Pontius eum 
converterit Regnavit autem a. M ab urbe condita, ut millesimus 
annus Romae Christo potius quam ydolis dedicaretur. Qui quidem 
annus millesimus fuita Romanis cum ingenti ludorum et spectaculorum 
apparatu celebratus. Erat autem Philippo imp. miles quidam nomine 
Decius in armis bellicis multum strenuus et famosus. Cum autem 
iisdem temporibus Gallia rebellaret, illuc imperator Decium misit, ut 
rebellantem Galliam Romano imperio subjugaret Missus Decius 
prospere cuncta gessit et ad libitum potitus victoria Romam rediit. 
Audiens imperator ejus adventum, eum altius honorificare voluit et 
eidem a Roma usque ad Veronam obvius ivit Sed quia malorum 
mentes, quo magis se honorari sentiunt, eo amplius per superbiam 
intumescunt, Decius in superbiam elatus imperium coepit ambire 
et de morte sui domini pertractare. Cum igitur imperator in stratu 
suo sub papilione quiesceret Decius — " 

71-79. L.A.: " — papilionemlatenterintroivitetdormientemdominum 
jugulavit, exercitum autem qui cum imperatore venerat, ad se prece et 
pretio, muneribus et promissis attraxit et ad urbem regiam gradu 
concito properavit." 

71. Emperoure. The Emperor Philip I., an Arabian by birth, a 
native of Trachonitis, according to Victor ; but of Bostra, according to 
Zonaras. He assumed the purple a.d. 244, and was slain either in 
battle or by his soldiers in 249. According to many he was the first 
Christian Emperor, but by others this has been denied. Eusebius 
refers to the belief that he was a Christian, but expresses no opinion of 
his own, beyond remarking that the persecutions of Decius arose from 
the hatred entertained by that prince to his predecessor. Jerome 
broadly asserts the fact, as do others. The arguments on both sides 
are given by Tillemont 

72. Wfr>'/= assailed, slew. D\i\.worgen; O.Yns. wergiaj G.wur- 
geriy to strangle, suffocate. 

77. Foce, xtdi^ price, 

80-89. L.A. : " Audiens hoc Philippus minor extimuit et totum thes- 
aurum patris et suum (ut ait Sicardus in Chronica sua) b. Sixto et s. 


Laurentio commendavit, ut, si ipsum a Decio interfici contingeret, 
thesaurum ipsum ecclesiis et pauperibus erogarent." 

After explaining why the treasures were called the treasures of the 
Church, L.A. continues : " Postea Philippus aufug^t et se a facie Decii 
occuItavit(senatus igitur obviam Decio processit et ipsum in imperium 

80. 3<>^S p^l^pe- When his father ascended the throne (a.d. 
244) he was a boy of seven, and was immediately proclaimed 
Caesar. In 247, and again in 248, he was made Consul. According 
to Zosimus he was slain at the battle of Verona, but according to 
Victor, at Rome by the praetorians, when the news arrived of the 
defeat and death of his father. 

84. Sancte syxt. The Pope Sixtus II. He succeeded Stephanus, 
but in what year is not known. His martyrdom occurred under 
Valerian, on August 6 a.d. 258. 

87. Z<f/K= loyally. 

90-105. L.A. : " Ne vero proditorie, sed zelo ydolatriae dominum 
suum occidisse videretur, christianos coepit crudelissime persequi, 
praecipiens illos sine ulla misericordia trucidari. In hac persecutione 
multa millia martirum corruerunt, inter quos et Philippus junior 
martirio est coronatus." 

92. -^/«/rM[r]^j/= murdered. 

95. Wyd-quhare = everywhere. 

99. Mare requires to be deleted. 

105. See note to 1. 80. 

106-117. L.A. : " Post hoc Decius de thesauro domini sui inquisiti- 
onem faciens, oblatus est ei b. Sixtus, tamquam qui Christum coleret 
et imperatoris thesauros haberet. Tunc Decius jussit eum in carcerem 
recipi, ut per illata tormenta Christum negaret et thesauros proderet" 

109. Mys=\\\^V\\, 

118-147. L.A. : " B. autem Laurentius ipsum sequens post eum cla- 
mabat : quo progrederis sine filio, pater? quo, sacerdos sancte, sine 
dyacono properas? Tu nunquam sine ministro sacrificium offere con- 
sueveras. Quid in me displicuit patemitati tuae .'* numquid degenerem 
me probasti? Experire certe, utrum idoneum ministrum elegeris, cui 
commisisti dominici sanguinis dispensationem. Cui b. S. : non ego 
te desero, fili, neque derelinquo, sed majora tibi debentur pro fide 
Christi certamina. Nos quasi senes levioris pugnae cursum recipi- 
mus, te autem quasi juvenem manet de tyranno gloriosior triumphus : 
post triduum me sequeris, sacerdotem levita. Deditque ei omnes the- 
sauros, prascipiens ut ecclesiis et pauperibus erogaret." 

121. ^^/= without. 

125. 5///= without. 

128. Z^r/w;'/^ trusted. Under the form lippen the word is still 
in use. 

129. -5«r//= board, table. 

NOTES TO LAURENTIUS (XXn. 138-180). 257 

138. JV/c/orag^ victory, 

139. ^Krt^=wage, reward. 
144. //«/<?/)'= wholly. 

148-151. L.A. ; " Beatus igitur Laurentius christianos die ac nocte 
diligenter qusesivit et unicuique prout opus fuerat, ministravit." 

150. Z>^/^r/y/(§^= distribution. 

151. Mast fnyster= most need. 

152. The author no longer follows the order of L.A., which goes on 
to narrate, first, visit to the house of a widow whom Lawrence heals 
of pains in the head (see 11. 242-262) ; next, the healing of a blind 
man in another house (see 11. 263-282); and then the martyrdom of 
Sixtus (see 11. 156-168). The narratives of V.B. and CSS. follow the 
same order as L.A. For the martyrdom of Sixtus another source has 
been employed than L.A. ; probably V.B., which is : " Beatus ergo 
Sixtus cum duceretur ad Decium, et dictis eidem minime consen- 
tiret, Valerianus priefectus decrevit, ut sacrificaturus ad templum 
Martis duceretur, aut si nollet ibidem capite puniretur. Tunc Laur- 
encius coepit post eum clamare dicens : Noli me derelinquere pater; 
quia thesauros tuos jam expendi. Tunc milites audientes thesauros, 
beatum Laurencium tenuerunt ; Sixtum vero cum Felicissimo et 
Agapito ibidem decoUaverunt viij idem Augusti." — XI. 37. 

154. Z?«r/ar/j'/= distributed. 

159. Afarce= Mars. 

161. F/7///i^= known, learnt. 

168. The above is the account given of the martyrdom of St Sixtus 
II. by St Ambrose. According to the other, the circumstances of it 
were these : Soon after the issuing of the edict by Valerian, Sixtus 
was found by the soldiers sent to seek him seated in his episcopal 
chair in the cemetery of Praetextatus on the Appian Way, surrounded 
by the members of his flock. As these endeavoured to protect him, 
he thrust himself forward lest they should be hurt, and, in the act 
of doing so, was beheaded. He was buried in the neighbouring 
cemeteiy of Callistus. Agapetus and Felicissimus, two of his deacons, 
and others, were buried in the cemetery where he fell. — Cyprian 
Epist., 80. 

169-180. L.A. : " Tunc milites audientes thesauros Laurentium tenu- 
erunt et Parthenio tribuno tradiderunt. Ipse autem eum Decio prae- 
sentavit, cui Decius Cajsar ait ; ubi sunt thesauri ecclesiae quos apud 
te cognovimus esse reconditos.^ Qui cum sibi non responderet, 
tradidit eum Valeriano praefecto, ut aut thesauros prodat et ydolis 
sacrificet aut diversis eum interire faciat suppliciis et tormentis. 
Valerianus autem cuidam praefecto nomine Hyppolito in custodiam 
eum tradidit, quem ille cum multis aliis in carcere reclusit." 

170. /^aA'/^;/^=Parthenius. 

179. Gruc/ns=gvu(lgeSt refuses. 

180-202. Similarly L.A. 

VOL. III. r 


194. Is =his. 
203-2ia So L.A. 
214-21& Not in LA. 

220. If is nynten best metL LA. : '' Cum familia sua." L. A. then 
adds : "' Baptizatus autem ait : vidi animas innocentium laetas 

221, 222. L.A. : " Post hoc mandavit Valerianus ad Hyppolitum, ut 
Laurentium praesentaret Cui Laurentius ait : ambulemus ambo pariter, 
quia mihi et tibi gloria prxparatur." 

223-232. L. A. : " Ad tribunal ergo ambo veniunt et fit itenim inquis- 
itio de thesauro, L. autem triduo inducias petiit, quas Valerianas 
eidem sub Hyppoliti custodia concessit" 

22i. 5rA<v^= threatening. Cf. XXL 772. 

225. Fel frawardnes^siMhhom fro ward ness. 

233 ff. L.A. : " In hoc triduo Laurentius pauperes claudos et caecos 
collegit et eos in palatio Salustiano coram Decio praesentavit dicens : 
ecce isti sunt thesauri setemi, qui nunquam minuuntur, sed crescunt, 
qui in singulis disperguntur et in omnibus inveniuntur, horum enim 
manus thesauros in ccelum deportaverunt" 

240. AIffUf^= a\ms. 

242-248. Not in L.A. 

243. Befyn instead of Calium, So CSS. : " Veniensque in caelium 
montem ; " but " ad domum Cyriacae viduae ; ** then, " quae multos 
christianos in domo sua absconsos habebat : ipsam viduam imposita 
ei manu a longo dolore capitis liberavit, et pauperum pedes lavans 
eisdem elemosynas retulit" (VIL 43). Then follows the healing of the 
blind man in another house. Ado (Martyrology) agrees in placing the 
house of Cyriaca on the Caelian Hill. 

249-262 and 263-284 are briefly referred to in L.A. earlier after 1. 
151. See note to 1. 152. Cf. also note to 1. 242 with respect to 249- 

250. »S)/r^^^= Cyriaca. 

263-270. Cf. Ado. 

264. Canarius, So Ado, * Mart.' 

265. Marcessy for Narcissy. Cf. Ado, * Mart.' 
272. Trecentene. In Ado, Crescenlius. 

278. Tygland, read /r>'^/^«^/= trickling. 

285-298. Not in L.A. 

301. Z?^j/i/w = Decius. 

303-349. Differs materially from L.A. 

349-352. L.A. : " Dixitque Laurentius ; domine Jesu Christe, Deus 
de Deo, miserere mei servi tui, quia accusatus non negavi nomen 
sanctum tuum, interrogatus te dominum confessus sum." 

353-362. So L.A., but later. In Ado the story follows immediately 
on the prayer. 

357. Hortis^hwxXs^ wounds. 


363-370. So in L.A. 

364. Frys^= respite. A,S. ^rs/,/yrsf, space of time, respite. 

379 ff. L.A. : " Tunc audiente Decio vox de coelo insonuit : adhuc 
tibi multa certamina. Tunc Decius furore repletvis," &c. 

390. Now = new, 

399. Z^«^=:lend. 

411 ff. L.A. different. Ado : " Decius autem Caesar pergit noctu 
ad thermas juxta palatium Salusti, et exhibitus est ei iterum sanctus 
Laurentius. . . . Cui beatus Laurentius : Quantum ad genus, His- 
panus sum, eruditus ac nutritus Roma;, et a cunabulis Christianus, 
eruditus omnem legem sanctam, et divinam." 

433-438. L.A. : " Dixit ergo Decius : aut sacrificabis aut nox ista in 
te cum suppliciis expendetur. Cui L. : mea nox obscurum non habet, 
sed omnia in luce clarescunt." Similarly Ado. 

435. Cf. I. 411. 

439 ff. Cf. L.A. and Ado. 

471-494. L.A. : " Disce, miser, quia carbones tui mihi refrigerium, 
tibi autem aeternum supplicium praestant, quia ipse dominus novit 
quod accusatus non negavi eum, interrogatus Christum confessus 
sum, assatus gratias ago. Dixitque hilari vultu ad Decium : Ecce, 
miser, assasti unam partem, gira aliam et manduca. Et gratias agens 
dixit : gratias tibi ago, Domine, quia januas tuas ingredi merui, et sic 
spiritum emisit." 

479. lVarcAts= wretches. Cf. Tvark in XVI I L 1372. 

481. C/7//J = coals. 

483. For7aomfryt=^ amazed. 

490. //>/=heat. 

492. ^ra//£/= hearing. 

497-522. L.A. different : " Confusus Decius cum Valeriano abiit in 
palatium Tyberii, relicto corpore super ignem, quod Hippolitus mane 
rapuit et cum Justino presbitero in agro Verano conditum aromatibus 
sepelivit. Christiani igitur jejunantes triduo vigilias celebrarunt, mu- 
gitus dantes et lacrimas effundentes." Then follows a discussion as to 
the date of the martyrdom. 

500. Gledis=\\\'e coals. A.S. glcd; O.Fris. glea; M.Dut. gloed; 
Icel. gloS^ burning coal. 

503. Wand—wownd^ wrapped. 

511. Tyburcyne—T\\iMr\\n2i. 

512. Tway =^two. 
516. Dycht ^prepared. 

527-572. The first miracle in L.A. is here omitted. This stands 
second. L.A. : " Gregorius quoque Turonensis ait, quod, dum qui- 
dam sacerdos quandam ecclesiam s. Laurentii repararet et trabs quae- 
dam nimium brevis esset, rogavit b. Laurentium ut, qui pauperes 
foverat, suae inopiae subveniret. Quae subito sic excrevit ut pars non 
modica abundaret : quam partem sacerdos minutatim incidit et multas 

260 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XXH. 527-604). 

inde infirmitates sanabat Idem testatur b. Fortunatus. Factum est 
autem hoc apud Prioras castrum Italiae [quod quidam, dum dolore 
dentium premeretiir, de illo ligno tangitur et protinus dolor fug^tur.]" 
The passage in brackets is added in the more recent MSS. of L.A. 
The miracle is told by Gregory in *De Glor. Mart.,' xlii. 

527. Toron^ =T ours. 

528. //is days =^ the days of St Lawrence. 
531. Re/resch = vestovey repair. 

536. Tymyre— timber. 

538. Ba/Jf:=be3Lm. 

539. And it was much shorter. 
5i5. Poure= poor. 

557. lVyfiy/= wrapped. 

663. Sanc/c /or/an£= St Foriunsitus. He was bishop of Poitiers, and 
the last representative of Latin poetry in Gaul. Born about the year 
530 at Ceneda, in the neighbourhood of Treviso, he was raised to the 
Episcopate in 597, when he succeeded Plato, the bishop of Poitiers. 
Besides hymns, among which is the celebrated " Vexilla Regis," he 
wrote * Lives of the Saints' and 'Theological Treatises.' The verses 
referred to in the text are quoted by Gregory tn loc. cit. 

565. Boras ^^r\ox\2^. "Apud Brioras Italise castrum" — Greg. 

667. 7i/M-«/ar^= toothache. Common throughout Scotland and 
the north of England. 

573-600. L.A. : " Quidam insuper presbiter nomine Sanctulus, ut 
refert Grep^orius in dyalogo, s. Laurentii ecclesiam a Longobardis 
incensam reparare volens artifices multos conduxit. Quadam autem 
die dum quod iis apponeret non haberet, praemissa oratione in clibano 
respexit et ibidem candidisslmum panem invenit ; sed cum vix ad 
unius prandii esum tribus personis sufficere videretur, L. artifices 
suos nolens deficere sic prsedictum panem multiplicari fecit, quod in 
alimentum decem dierum operariis cunctis suffecit." 

573. Sanctillus = sanctulus. 

587. i1/«Jrt«^/= musing. 

589. //oyne—oync = oon^o\ex\. See Skeat, sub oven. 

594. Warmen^ieed (?). 

601-622. L.A. : " In ecclesia s. Laurentii apud Mediolanum, ut refert 
Vinceniius in chronica, calix quidam crystallinus mirae pulchritudinis 
habebatur. Qui cum in quadam sollemnitate ad altare a dyacono por- 
taretur, elapsus e manibus in terram cecidit et statim comminutus 
fuit. At dyaconus moerens fragmenta collegit et super altare ponens 
b. Laurentium exoravit et fractum calicem integrum et solidatum 

602. iT/^^« = Milan. 

603. See Bk. xi. 39, where the story is cited from Gregory, *De 
Glor. Mart.,* xlvi. 

604. CA^//j^= chalice. Cf. 1. 620, ckalyce. 


605. Cm/^/^= crystal. 

607. Hye day=h\g\i day, festival. 

610. 2«^j//= quite. 

611. Richt w«= right sad. 
619. Z<i/^= leaped. 

623-650. L.A. : " Legitur quoque in libro de miraculis b. virginis, 
quod quidam judex Stephanus nomine Romae erat qui munera libenter 
accipiens multorum judicia pervertebat. Hie tres domos ecclesiae s. 
Laurentii et unum hortum s. Agnetis violenter abstulit et ablata injuste 
possedit Accidit autem ut moreretur et ante dei judicium duceretur. 
Ad quem L. cum nimia indignatione accessit et tribus vicibus brachium 
ejus diutissime strinxit et dolore nimio cruciavit. S. vero Agnes cum 
caeteris virginibus eum videre noluit, sed faciem avertit" 

626. 5/^«//>/^= Stephen. 

635. 3«''^=yard, field. agnet=hgnts, 

638. Infawt of fence = i\\ro\xgh. lack of opposition or defence. 

646. Areffte^^dsm. 

651-690. L.A. : "Tunc judex super eum sententiam ferens dixit: 
quoniam aliena subtraxit et munera accipiens veritatem vendidit, in 
loco Judae proditoris tradatur. Sanctus autem Praejectus, quem idem 
Stephanus in vita sua valde dilexerat, ab b. Laurentium et ad b. 
Agnetem accedens pro eo veniam precabatur. I His vero et b. virgine 
pro eo orantibus concessum est ut ejus anima ad corpus rediret et 
ibidem XXX diebus poenitentiam ageret. Accepit insuper a b. virgine 
in mandatis ut psalmum Beati immaculati in via singulis diebus vitas 
sua: diceret, cumque ad corpus rediisset, brachium ejus ita erat nigrum 
et adustum ac si hoc in corpore passus esset. Quod signum in eo 
exstitit quoad vixit. Mala igitur ablata restituens et poenitentiam 
agens die XXX migravit ad Dominum." 

670. C/^/rgy/= cleansed. 

674. Bed=bed€=i^T2iytr. 

&11, Harme^dsm, Cf. 1. 646. 

680. Bruly I =hro\\t^. Fr. briiUr, 

683. IVerray^wtVYt true. 

691-721. L.A. : " Legitur in vita imperatoris Henrici, quod, dum 
ipse et Konegondis uxor ejus virgines insimul permanerent, dyabolo 
instigante de quodam milite uxorem suspectam habens, super candentes 
vomeres XV pedum nudis pedibus incedere fecit, qua ascendente dixit : 
sicut me ab Heinrico et omnibus intactam novisti, ita adjuva me, Christe. 
Heinricus vero verecundia ductus eam in maxillam percussit, cui vox 
dixit : virgo Maria te virginem liberavit. Totam igitur candentem 
massam illaesa percurrit" 

691. Sancte henry, Henry II., Emperor of Germany. The son of 
Henry Duke of Bavaria, and of Gispelle, the daughter of Conrad Duke 
of Burgundy, he was born in 972, and was educated by Wolfgang, one 
of the most learned and pious prelates of the age. In 995 he sue- 


ceeded his father in the duchy of Bavaria, and five years afterwards 
married Cunegonda, daughter of Sigefri, Count of Luxemburg, with 
whom he lived in perpetual chastity, in consequence of a vow Cunc- 
gonda had taken before her marriage. On the death of Otho IIL, 
Henry was chosen Emperor in preference to Hermann, Duke of 
Suabia and Alsace, and crowned at Mayence in 1002 by Willig^se, the 
bishop of that place, and again at Rome in 1014 by Benedict VI I L 
Most of his time was spent in attending to the affairs of the Church. 
His attendance at its councils was frequent The cathedral of Bam- 
berg owed its origin to his pious munificence, and he was instrumental 
in the erection or repair of many other churches and monasteries. His 
fame as a soldier was almost equally g^eat with his fame as a saint. 
He fought the Slavs in the north, the Saracens in the south, and the 
French on the east, and used his victories with discretion. His death 
took place at the castle of Grone, near Halberstadt, on the 14th of 
July 1024, after he had reigned as Emperor of Germany twenty-two 
years. He was buried in the cathedral church of Bamberg. Eugenius 
in. canonised him in 1152, and in 1348 the diocese of Bale chose him 
for its patron. His Life will be found in Surius. July 15. 

693. Radagunde for Cunegunda. Her coronation as Empress took 
place at Paderborn on the loth of August 1002. She accompanied 
her husband to Rome, and was with him crowned by Benedict VIIL 
Seized with an illness while at Hesse, she made a vow to found a 
monastery if she recovered, at Kaflfungen, near Cassel, in the diocese 
of Paderborn. When Henry died the building was unfinished, but 
after its completion, on the anniversary of her husband's death she 
assembled a great number of ecclesiastics at Kaflfungen for the dedica- 
tion of the church. During the ceremony she oflfered on the altar a 
piece of the true Cross, and after the Gospel, laid aside her imperial 
robes, and clothed herself in a poor habit. Her hair was then cut off; 
and the Bishop of Paderborn gave her the veil, and placed a ring upon 
her finger as a pledge of her fidelity to her Divine Spouse. After this 
she withdrew from public life, and gave herself to prayer, meditation, 
and good works. She died on March 3, 1040. Her body was laid 
near her husband's in the cathedral of Bamberg. She was canonised 
by Innocent III. in the year 1200. For her legend, see L.A. cap. 
209 ; also V.B. xxi. 79. 

702. {2w^/rt«r^= quittance, purging of her oflfence. 

703. Heyi =\\oi, 

704. Law. The law of ordeal by fire, and apparently of Visigothic 

721. As on cold lead. Richardi, queen of Charles le Gros of France, 
and Emma, the mother of Edward the Confessor, also proved their 
innocence in the same way. 

722-732. L.A. : " Cum ergo Caesar obiisset, multitudo maxima daemo- 

NOTES TO LAURENTIUS (XXH. 726-780). 263 

num ante cellam cuiusdam eremitse transibat, qui aperta fenestra 
interrogavit ultimum, quinam essent. Et ille : legio dsemonum sumus, 
qui ad mortem Caesaris properamus, si forte aliquid proprium in eo 
reperire possimus." 

726. ])a/=2Lt 

730. Ded= death. 

733-770. L.A. : "Adjuratus autem, ut ad se redeat, rediens dixit: 
nihil profecimus, quia, dum falsa uxoris suspicio et alia mala et etiam 
bona in statera fuissent posita, adustus ille Laurentius ollam auream 
immensi ponderis attulit et, dum superasse videbamur, ilia jactata 
pars alia staterae sc. plurimum ponderavit : tunc ego iratus unam 
partem aureae ollae praerupi. Ollam calicem vocabat quem dictus 
Caesar ecclesiae Aystetensi in honore s. Laur. fieri fecerat, quem in 
speciali devotione habuerat ; cui propter mag^itudinem duae aures 
inerant Repertumque est et imperatorem tunc obiisse et unam aurem 
calicis fractam fuisse." 

734. Als-a /)'/=as soon. 

737. And he returned without long tarrying. 

745 Mane = superiority (?) 

747. £rys= ears or handles. 

750. F^^/= weighed. /yt:A/= tight. It may also mean /i///^^. 

771-784. L.A. : "Refert Gregorius in registro, quod, dum praede- 
cessor suus quendam ad corpus s. Laurentii cuperet meliorare et 
ubinam corpus esset, nesciret, subito corpus ejus ignoranter aperitur 
omnesque qui aderant, tam monachi quam mansionarii, qui corpus 
ejus viderant, infra X dies mortui sunt." 

775. AV^/y«j= needs. Still common. 

778. Gy/ oc/ii /awty/=^\( ainyihing was defective. 

782. Leyryt ore /awi^^dergy or lay. 

785-788. Not in L.A. In L.A. there follows a long discussion 
respecting the greatness of the passio of St Lawrence. 

789-806. L.A. : " Habet autem inter caeteros martires Laurentius tria 
privilegia quantum ad officium. Primum est in vigilia, solus enim 
inter martires vigiliam habet. Sed vigiliae sanctorum propter multas 
deordinationes hodie in jejunia mutata sunt, mos enim fuit olim (ut 
refert Johannes Beleth); ut in festivitatis sanctorum homines cum 
uxoribus et filiabus in ecclesiam venirent et ibi cum luminaribus 
pemoctarent, sed quia multa adulteria in his vigiliis fiebant, statutum 
fuit, ut vigiliae in jejunia converterentur, nomen tamen antiquum est 
retentum, quia non jejunia, sed vigiliae adhuc appellantur. Secundum 
est in octava : ipse namque solus cum Stephano habet octavam 
inter martires, sicut Martinus inter confessores. Tertium est in 
reg^essionibus antiphonarum, quod solus ipse et Paulus habet, sed 
Paulus propter excellentiam praedicationis, ipse propter excellentiam 

264 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XXH. 791-797). 

791. He €uu=ht alone. 

793. W7«= octaves. Cf. wins/, * Blind Harry,' vi. i. (?//, uit: huit; 
octo — Roquefort 

797, 798. Regret in antemys. The regressus is thus defined in 
Du Cange : " Responsorii pars quae post versum repctitur vulgo 


The legend of the Seven Sleepers seems lo be of Oriental origin. It 
was introduced into the Western Church by St Gregory of Tours 
(De Glor. Mart., i. 95). Jacobus Sarugiensis, a Mesopotamian 
bishop in the fifth or sixth century, had already committed it to 
writing in the East. Before the ninth century Dionysius of Antioch 
told the story in Syrian. Photius of Constantinople reproduced it in 
the ninth century, with the remark that Mahomet had adopted it into 
the Koran. Metaphrastes repeated the story, and gives the fullest 
and most graphic version of it of all. In the tenth century Eutychius 
inserted the story in his Annals of Arabia. It is found in the Coptic and 
Maronite books, and several early historians, as Paulus Diaconus (i. 3) 
and Nicephorus (xiv. 45), have inserted it in their works. The Bol- 
landists reproduce the versions of Jacobus Sarugiensis and Gregory, 
as also the text of Metaphrastes. A poem on the Seven Sleepers com- 
posed by a trouv}re named Chardri is mentioned by M. Fr. Michel in 
his 'Rapports au Ministre de ^Instruction publique.' A German 
poem on the subject, written in the thirteenth century, and extending 
to 935 verses, was published by M. de Karjan at Heidelberg in 1839, 
and the Spanish poet Augustin Moreto composed a drama on it, 
entitled " Los Siete Durmientes," which is inserted in the 19th volume 
of the rare work, *Comedias Nuevas Escogidas de los Mejores 
Ingenios.' M. E. du Meril (Poesies populaires latines, p. 40) states 
that the story is to be met with in various MSS. in the Imperial 
Library at Paris. It is told in the Calendar of Oengus (Whitley 
Stokes, pp. cxxix-cxxx), in the L.A., c. loi, and the CSS., vii. 51. 
It appears in the various collections of Old English Saints' Lives con- 
tained in the MSS. Ashmol. 43, Egerion 1993, Vernon, Trinity College 
Camb. R. 3. 25, Bodleian 779, and Harleian 4775. It occurs also in 
the Icelandic collection of the 'Lives of the Saints* (Heilagra Manna 
Sogur), edited by Dr C. Unger (Christiania, 1877). 

The story as told by Gregory of Tours (De Glor. Mart., i. 95) is as 
follows : In the time of Decius the Emperor, when the persecutions 


arose against the Christians, seven men were seized and carried before 
the prince. Their names are these : Maximianus, Malchus, Mar- 
tinianus, Constantinus, Dionysius, Joannes, Serapion. Though urged 
in divers ways to give up their faith, they refused. The Emperor, how- 
ever, because of their beauty, not wishing that they should be put to 
death at once, allowed them a space of time to reconsider their position. 
But seizing the opportunity they fled, and hid themselves in a cave, 
where they dwelt for many days. One of them, however, used to go 
out and buy food and what other things they had need of. On the re- 
turn of the Emperor to the city, they besought the Lord that He would 
vouchsafe to pluck them out of the peril in which they were placed, and 
having offered up their prayer, they lay down upon the ground and fell 
asleep. When the Emperor learned that they were dwelling in the cave 
by the will of God, he commanded the mouth of the cave to be closed 
with huge stones, saying, " Let those who refuse to sacrifice to our 
gods perish there." While this was being done, a certain Christian 
wrote down their names and an account of their martyrdom upon a 
leaden tablet, and fixed it secretly in the entrance to the cave before 
it was closed. But after many years, when the Church had rest, and 
the Christian Theodosius was seated upon the throne of the Empire, 
there arose the shameless heresy of the Sadducees, who say there is 
no resurrection. Then a certain Ephesian citizen resolved to build 
folds for his sheep on that same mountain, and removed the stones for 
that purpose. Ignorant of what was within, he laid open the mouth 
of the cave; nevertheless he did not discover the secret it contained, 
but the Lord sent the breath of life upon the seven men, and they rose 
up, and thinking they had slept but a single night, they sent a boy 
from among them (puerum unum ex se) to buy food. And he coming 
to the gate of the city, and seeing the sign of the glorious Cross over it, 
and hearing the people swear by the name of Christ, was amazed. 
Having proffered coins which were in use in the time of Decius, a 
shopkeeper seized him, alleging that he had found hidden treasures of 
the ancients. Denying it, he was led to the bishop, and then to the 
judge of the city. Urged by these, and necessity compelling him, he 
revealed the hidden mystery, and led them to the cave in which the 
men were. When the bishop entered, he found the leaden tablet on 
which all the things they had endured had been written, and when he 
had spoken with them, messengers were sent in hot haste to announce 
the discovery to the Emperor Theodosius. But when he came, and 
threw himself on the ground and worshipped them, they addressed 
him in such words as these: "A heresy, O glorious Augustus, has 
risen, which seeks to turn away the Christian people from the pro- 
mises of God, and says there is no resurrection of the dead. Be it 
known unto thee that inasmuch as we must all, according to the 
Apostle Paul, appear before the judgment-seat of Christ, the Lord 
hath commanded us to awake and tell these things to thee. Take 


heed, therefore, that thou be not seduced, and excluded from the 
kingdom of God." Hearing these things, the Emperor Theodosius 
glorified the Lord, who permitted not His people to perish. The men, 
however, lying down again upon the ground, fell asleep. The Em- 
peror Theodosius would have built a sepulchre of gold over them, but 
was forbidden by a vision. But, clothed in mantles of silk or fine 
linen, the seven men rest in that same place even to this day. 

Gregory says that he had this passio from a certain Syrian, who 
translated it for him into Latin. It was borrowed from Christian 
sources by Mahomet, incorporated into the Koran (c. 18), and added 
to. He made the Sleepers prophesy his own coming, gave them 
a dog named Kratim or Kratimer, which sleeps with them, and en- 
dowed it with the gift of prophecy. As a special favour this dog is 
one of the ten animals to be admitted into his Paradise ; the others 
being the whale of Jonah, Solomon's ant, Ishmael's ram, Abraham's 
calf, the Queen of Sheba's ass, the prophet Salech's camel, Moses* ox, 
Belkis' cuckoo, and Mahomet's ass. He represents the Sleepers also 
as keeping their eyes open, and as from time to time turning them- 
selves to the right hand and to the left. By the Arabs the Sleepers 
are called Ashab Kahaf or Kehef, the Companions of the Cave. 
The number of the Sleepers varies in the different accounts. A 
strange story is told concerning these Sleepers by William of Malmes- 
bury. According to this. King Edward the Confessor sat, during 
Easter festival, wearing his royal crown at dinner, in his palace of 
Westminster, surrounded by his bishops and nobles. During the 
banquet, instead of indulging in meat and drink, he mused on divine 
things. Suddenly, to the astonishment of all present, he burst out 
laughing. After dinner three of his nobles. Earl Harold — who was 
afterwards king — an abbot, and a bishop followed him into his bed- 
chamber, and asked the reason of his rare mirth. ** I saw," he said, 
"things most wonderful to behold, and therefore I did not laugh 
without cause." They entreated him to explain ; and after reflecting 
for a while, he informed them that the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, 
who had been slumbering two hundred years in a cave under Mount 
Celion, lying always on their right sides, had of a sudden turned 
themselves over on their left sides ; that by heavenly favour he had 
seen them thus turn themselves, and at the sight he had been con- 
strained to laugh. And as Harold and the abbot and the bishop 
marvelled at his words, the king related to them the story of the 
Seven Sleepers, with the shape and proportions of their several bodies, 
which wonderful things no man had as yet committed to writing; 
nay, he spake of the Ephesian Sleepers as though he had always dwelt 
with them. Earl Harold, on hearing this, got ready a knight, a clerk, 
and a monk, who were forthwith sent to the Emperor of Constan- 
tinople with letters and presents from King Edward. By the Em- 
peror the messengers were sent on to Ephesus with letters to the 


bishop, commanding him to admit the three Englishmen into the 
cavern where the Sleepers lay. And lo ! it fell out even as the king 
had seen in the vision. For the Ephesians declared that they knew 
from their forefathers that the Seven had ever lain on their right 
sides, but on the entry of the Englishmen into the cave they were all 
found lying on their left sides. And this was a warning of the 
miseries that were about to befall Christendom through the inroads 
of the Saracens, Turks, and Tartars. For whenever sorrow threatens, 
the Sleepers turn on their sides. — Baring Gould, 'Curious Myths of 
the Middle Ages,* pp. loo et scq, Voragine's narrative, as will be 
seen, differs in several particulars from that of Gregory ; while both 
of them are in many particulars different from the version current in 
the East. The remains of the Seven Sleepers were discovered, it is 
said, in the year 479, and conveyed to Marseilles, where a large stone 
sarcophagus is still shown as containing them in the church of St 

Their day is July 27. 

"The Seven Sleepers of Ephesus," says Mrs Jameson, ** extended in 
their cave, side by side, occur perpetually in the narratives, ancient 
sculptures, and stained glass of the thirteenth and fourteenth century. 
Thus they are represented in the frieze of the chapel of Edward the 
Confessor at Westminster. In general the name of each is written 
over his head. They carry palms as martyrs. I have never seen 
them with any other attributes, but in the German * Iconographie' it is 
said that ' in an old representation,* not otherwise described as to age 
or locality, the Seven Sleepers are thus individualised : John and Con- 
stantine bear each a club. Maximian has a knotted club, Malchus 
and Marcian have axes, Serapion a torch, and Dionysius a large nail. 
What these attributes may signify, — whether alluding to the trades 
they exercised, or the kind of martyrdom to which they >vere con- 
demned but did not suffer, — is not explained ; and I have never met 
with any efTigies thus discriminated." — Sacred and Legendary Art, 
ii. 582. 

Analysis — Good Christian men ought to believe in the resurrection 
of the dead ; some men will believe only what they see and hear ; but 
God can do whatever He wills, as is proved by what befell the Seven 
Sleepers of Ephesus, 1-20; the Emperor Decius persecuted the Church 
and came to Ephesus, where he ordered a temple to be built in the 
centre of the city, and commanded all to offer sacrifices with him to 
the gods, threatening with punishment all who refused, and causing 
great fear among the Christians, 21-58; at the time there were seven 
noble youths in Ephesus, who, being Christians, refused to sacrifice, 
and in order to escape hid themselves in a house, but were at last 
discovered and brought before Decius, 59-81 ; refusing to obey the 
Emperor's command, a short respite was given them, during which 
they gave away their goods to the poor, and escaping, hid themselves 


in a cave in Mount Celion, where they dwelt a long time, 82-108 ; 
each day one of their number went out disguised as a beggar to buy 
food, 109-112; Decius having in the meantime left the city, returned 
and sought for the seven, which Malchus, one of their number, who 
had been sent out to buy food, hearing, returned in haste to his com- 
panions and told them how Decius sought to slay them, 1 13-122 ; they 
eat, comfort each other, and suddenly fall asleep, 1 23-1 31 ; Decius, 
when told where they are, causes the mouth of the cave to be stopped, 
but not before an account of their martyrdom has been written down 
and secretly deposited in it, 132-173; in the reign of Theodosius the 
heresy of the Sadducees arose, to the g^eat sorrow of Christian men, and 
especially of the Emperor, 174-206 ; in answer to the Emperor's prayer 
God stirred the heart of a burgess in Ephesus to build on Mount 
Celion a sheepfold and set men to procure stones, who light as by 
chance upon the mouth of the cave and unwittingly open it, 207-216; 
the Seven Sleepers awaken and imagine they have slept but one 
night, 217-232; they then send Malchus to buy food, he wonders at 
the great stones lying outside the entrance to the cave, and still more 
at the changes he obser\'es, and especially at the sign of the cross 
which he sees over each of the city gates, and imagines he is in a 
dream, 233-266 ; drawing his hood over his face he at last enters the 
city, hears the people speaking of Christ, thinks he is in another city, 
enters a baker's shop, is told he is in Ephesus, produces money to pay 
for bread, and is seized as one who has found treasure-trove, 267-314; 
a crowd gathers, but he sees none he knows, 315-338 ; the bishop and 
the proconsul, who chance to pass, examine him, and after hearing 
his story, go with him to the cave, where they find the narrative of 
their passion, and his companions, 339-422 ; the Emperor being sent 
for, comes, and finding the seven, embraces them, and believes that 
they have been raised from the dead, and is assured by them that they 
have been raised up as witness of the great and final resurrection of 
the dead, 423-446 ; having borne this testimony they lie down again, 
and, as if falling asleep, die, 447-453 ; the Emperor then orders a costly 
tomb to be built over each of them, but being forbidden, refrains, 454- 
476 ; the Emperor causes the bishops who had been imprisoned for 
maintaining the doctrine of the resurrection to be released, and main- 
tained the Christian faith, and now has his reward in heaven, 477-490- 
Source — Cf. L.A., cap. loi. Voragine's narrative is in places de- 
parted from. 

1-20. The Author's introduction. 

3. /^r^ = when. 

4, Domys ^ay=the day of judgment. 

7. C7r^//^-wrt/= foundation. 

8. Full's = {oo\s, 

10. V^rray= very, actual. 


11. Med=ntd? 

12. Pro/i/=provQ it. ofned\^ probably corrupt. 
16. -F/^rj^^-rKJ/«^= resurrection. 

19. A7^/= showed. 

20-58. L.A. : " Septem dormientes in civitate Ephesi orti sunt 
Decius autem imperator persequens christianos cum venisset Ephe- 
sum, jussit sediticari templa in medio civitatis, ut omnes cum eo 
miscerentur sacrificiis ydolorum. Cum ergo omnes christianos inquiri 
jussisset et vinctos aut sacrificare aut mori compelleret, tantus poenanim 
terror cunctis inerat quod amicus amicum et filium pater et patrem 
filius abnegabat." 

21. //ia/y wrj'^= ecclesiastical writings. 

22. Decius, See note to XXII. 19. 

24. He reigned from 249 to 251, or about two years and a half. 

35. Dewyse^^\)\. 

" A cnik thai maid, at thair deuif, 
Of Irn, that wes styth and square." 

—• The Bruce,' X. 363. 

36. Bada/is =hera\6s, A beadle was originally the same as a herald, 
one whose business was to proclaim or make known. 

' ' Sent him forwit his dedg/e 
For->i sent iesus iohn forwith." 

— C. M., 11,006. 

" Cristess dide/l Saunt Johan." 

— Ormin, 632. 

A.S. by del ; O.Fr. bedel. See Murray, sub beadle. 

38, /?^^/k ^^^''^ = ready prepared. 

43. Mysknawine—mx^v^Qwm^^ ignorance. 

59-106. L.A. : " Tunc in ilia urbe inventi sunt christiani septem : 
Maximianus, Malchus, Marcianus, Dionysius, Johannes, Serapion et 
Constantinus, qui hoc videntes nimis dolebant. Et cum essent primi 
palatii, sacrificia ydolorum spernentes in domo sua se celabant et je- 
juniis et orationibus vacabant, accusati igitur ante Decium statuuntur 
et comprobati veraciter christiani dato iis resipiscendi spatio usque ad 
reditum Decii dimittuntur, at illi patrimonium suum interim inter 
pauperes expendentes inito consilio in montem Celion secesserunt et 
ibi esse secretius decreverunt" 

64. -<4r^/= owned, confessed. Perhaps we should read lacht=rt' 

71. Deny—rtfMSt. 

75. And because they feared to be known lest they should be put 
to death. 

80. ^Fr^^/= accused. Cf. note to XXI. 548. 

84. Foule=io\i\^ abominable. 

91. Yqx fare to fare xtdA fane to fare, fane =(2i\n. 


102, Hoi cowe =ho\\ovf c2L\t. 

104. Wodnes=r2igty persecution. 

107-131. L.A. : *' Diu ergo sic latentes unus eorum semper minis- 
trabat et quoties intravit urbem, figura se mendici et habilu vestiebat. 
Cum ergo Decius in urbem rediisset et eos ad sacrificandum perquiri 
jussisset, Malchus minister eorum territus ad socios rediit et iis furorem 
imperatoris indicavit Qui cum graviter terrerentur, Malchus allatos 
panes iis apposuit, ut cibo confortati fortiores ad praelium redderentur. 
Postquam autem coenabant sedentes et colloquentes in luctu et lacrymis, 
subito, sicut Deus voluit, dormiverunt." 

111. W?^= weeds, clothes. Cf. "widow's weeds.*' 

112. F/r^^/i«y/= unknown. «/^/= easily. 

116. Espy^io be watched for. ^^ Esfiier, to spie, watch, mark, pry 
into, observe narrowly." — Cotgr. 

118. To by ^pare met^io buy their food. 

119. Aspyii=ts\iy\i\ so often written, as in 'P. Plowman/ A. ii. 201. 

120. -F<?/^wyf= fellows, companions. 

121. Fra tope to /a = from beginning to end. 

125. 6r* layd to )?aw^=and laid it [the meat] before them. 

126. 5/flr^= strong. A.S. stearc, strong. 

132-164. L.A. : " Mane facto cum quaesiti fuissent et inveniri non 
possent et Decius doleret, quod tales juvenes perdidisset, accusati sunt 
quod hucusque in monte Celion latuissent et sua christianis pauperibus 
erogantes in suo proposito permanerent. Jussit ergo Decius ut parentes 
eorum adessent et comminatus est iis mortem, nisi de iis dicerent quid- 
quid scirent I Hi autem eos similiter accusaverunt et divitias suas 
pauperibus expendisse conquesti sunt. Tunc cogitans quid de iis 
faceret, nutu Dei jussit os speluncae lapidibus obstrui, ut ibi morer- 
entur fame et inopia circumclusi." 

132. Ayrly=^2x\y. 

136. 5^:(//>^a/{^= skulking. 

137. Chelyone. Cf. I. loi, celyone=^Qt\\oxi, 
140. A'///^= kindred. 

147. I/ere=htair. 

150. Ji^/= knowledge. 

151. Warly=^yf2ir\\y. 

153. Witting=^ information. 

156. Z^/= hinder. 

161. Wrechly = wretchedly. 

165-172. L.A. : " Quod ministri quidem fecerunt et duo christian! 
Theodorus et Rufinus eorum martirium describentes caute inter lapides 

166. /?a/Aj';/i/j'= Rufinus. 

169, G^^j//j= stories. 

173-196. L.A. : " Mortuo igitur Decio et tota ilia generatione post 
annos 372 anno XXX imperii Theodosii puUulavit hasresis eorum qui 


negabant resurrectionem mortuonim, unde contristatus Theodoaos 
christianissimus imperator, quia fidem tarn impie agitari Yid^Hity 
indutus cilicio sedens in interior! loco per singulos dies fiebaL* 

178. Decius died a.d. 251. Theodosius I. reigned from 378-395. 
Theodosius II. from 408-450. 377 after Decius brings us to the year 
628. The thirty-third year of Theodosius II., again* is the year 441, 
and of Theodosius I., 411. The dates are very confusing. See Gib- 
bon's note near the end of his 33d chapter. 

180. •S>y^//^r>'=seignory, lordship, reign. 

183. Herysy—htrtsy, 

191. 5>'/a«^= sitting. askis^2Ls\\ts, £'led=c\sid. 

193. lVaJi:/ud=s\mp\t{oo6. 

195. Dedal ^abdiit. 

196. G^^/=way. 

197-232. L.A. : " Quod videns misericors Deus consolari lugentes 
et confirmare spam de resurrectione voluit mortuorum et thesaurum 
suae pietatis aperiens ita prsedictos martires suscitavit. Misit siquidem 
in cor cuiusdam civis Ephesi, ut in illo monte aedificaret stabula pas- 
toribus suis. Caementariis speluncam aperientibus surrexerunt sancti 
et se invicem salutantes putabant se tantum una nocte dormivisse et 
praedianam tristitiam recordantes interrogaverunt Malchum qui iis 
ministraverat, quid de iis Decius decrevisset At ille respondit, sicut 
dixit in sero : quaesiti fuimus ut ydolis immolemus. Ecce quod de 
nobis cogitat imperator." 

207. BurcAes =burgessy citizen. 

210. //j'r^;V= herdsmen, shepherds. Cf. XXV. 108, 109. 

212. Qnereouris = quarriers. 

219. Ras = rose. 

229. 3/-^^''^^''^'^= yestreen, last night. 

233-242. L.A. : " Respondit Maximianus : et Deus scit quod non 
sacrificabimus. Cumque socios confortasset, jussit Malcho ut emturus 
panes ad urbem descenderet et plures quam heri afferens panes, quae 
jussisset imperator, rediens nuniiaret.*' 

237. Taiie=i:ikft upon. See the Glossary to 'The Bruce,' sub /az7e{?). 

243-286. L.A. : " Tollens ergo Marcus quinque solidos de spelunca 
exiit et videns lapides miratus est, sed aliud cogitans parum de lapidi- 
bus cogitavit. Veniens igitur timidus ad portam urbis valde miratus 
est videns suppositum signum crucis, unde pergens ad alteram portam, 
dum idem signum invenil, ultra modum miratus est videns omnes 
portas signo crucis apposito et mutatam civitatem, signansque se ad 
primam portam rediit existimans se somniare." 

258. V(ire=2ire = ayre=be(ore. Cf. 1. 346. 

267-304. L.A. : "Unde se confirmans et vultum operiens urbem 
ingreditur et veniens ad vendilores panum audivit homines loquentes 
de Christo et amplius stupefactus ait: quid est, inquit, quod heri nemo 
Christum audebat nominare et nunc omnes Christum confitentur? 

NOTES TO VII SLEPERIS (XXm. 285-342). 273 

puto quod haec non est Ephesorum civitas, quia aliter aedificata est, 
sed aliam civitatem nescio talem. Et cum interrogans audivisset, hanc 
esse Ephesum, errare veraciter se putavit et redire ad socios cogitavit, 
accessit tamen ad eos qui panem vendebant, et cum argenteos protu- 
lisset, mirati venditoresdicebant ad invicem, quod ille juvenis antiquum 
thesaurum invenisset, Malchus vero eos ad invicem loquentes videns 
putabat, quod vellent eum trahere ad imperatorem, et terrilus rogavit 
cos, ut se dimitterent et panes et argenteos retinerent." 

285. Archtly=arghly=^ivTC\\^\y, heldand=h^iii\\x\g, 

290. Falouys ^{tWov/s^ companions. See 1. 120. 

304. Z?^^<i/= dispute. 

305-324. L.A.: "At illi tenentes eum dixerunt ei : unde cs tu? quia 
thesauros antiquorum imperatorum invenisti, indica nobis et erimus 
socii tecum et celabimus te, quia aliter celari non potes. Malchus 
vero non inveniebat quid diceret illis, prae timore, illi vero videntes 
cum tacentem misso fune in collo ejus trahebant per vicos usque in 
medium civitatis et exiit rumor ad omnes, quod quidam juvenis the- 
sauros invenisset." 

ZW, Stowine—stolline=sio\tn. Mod, Sc, s/own, re// ^stolen, 

314. Cosele read consele, 

325-332a. L.A.: "Congregatis ergo ad eum universis et eum miranti- 
bus volebat iis satisfacere quod nihil invenerat, et circumspiciens omnes 
a nemine cognosci poterat et prospiciens in populum volebat cognoscere 
aliquem de consanguineis suis, quos veraciter vivere putabat, et nullum 
inveniens stabat quasi insanus in medio populi civitatis.'' 

331. ^r-^/= aught, to any extent. 

332<5-338. Not in L.A. 

339-376. Different in L.A.: "Quod cum audisset s. Martinus ep. et 
Antipater proconsul, qui nuper in urbem advenerat, mandaverunt civi- 
bus, ut eum caute adducerent et argenteos ejus. Cumque a ministris 
traheretur ad ecclesiam, putabat quod duceretur ad imperatorem. 
Episcopus igitur et proconsul mirantes argenteos interrogaverunt eum, 
ubi thesaurum incognitum invenisset. At ille respondit, se nihil penitus 
invenisse, sed de saeculo parentum suorum eosdem denarios habuisse. 
Et interrogatus, cuius civitatis esset, respondit : bene scio, quod huius 
civitatis sum, si tantum haec est civitas Ephesorum. Proconsul dixit : 
fac venire parentes tuos, ut testentur pro te. Quos cum nominasset et 
nuUus eos cognosceret, dicebant eum se fingere, ut aliquo modo evade- 
ret. Et ait proconsul: quomodo credimus tibi, quod hoc argentum 
parentum tuorum fucrit, cum scriptura ejus habeat plusquam 
CCCLXXVii annos et sit primorum dierum Decii imperatoris et in 
nullo similes sint argenteis nostris? Et quomodo parentes tui ante 
tantum tempus fuerunt, tu vero juvenis vis dccipere sapientes et senes 
Ephesi? Idcirco jubebo te legibus tradi, donee confitearis, quid 

342. Afalchome =M.7!i\c\\ws. 

274 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZZm. 346410). 

346. Ayre =he(ore, 

349. Afone= money. Cf. 11. 325, 364, 367. 

362. In red na spel=\n book nor gossip. 

368. -5^jwy>t= deceive. A.S. beswlcan^ to deceive. See Bradley, 
sub bi'swlken, 

371. 2//Atfj=quhat. So in 1. 368. begylis^begyle=\ye^}\e, 

377-402. L.A.: "Tunc procidens M. ante eos dixit : pro Deo, domine, 
dicite mihi, quod vos interrogo, et ego dicam vobis quod est in corde 
meo. Decius imperator qui fuit in hac civitate, ubi nunc est? Epis- 
copus dixit: fili, non est hodie in terra qui Decius nominabatur, im- 
perator autem fuit ante longum tempus. Malchus autem dixit: in hoc, 
domine, ita stupeo et nemo credit mihi, sed sequimini me et ostendam 
vobis socios meos, qui sunt in monte Celio, et ipsis credite. Hoc 
autem scio, quod a facie Decii imperatoris nos fugimus et ego sero 
vidi quod ingressus est Decius in banc urbem, si tantum haec est 
civitas Ephesi." 

393. /^^IM = faith. 

403-427<2. L.A.: "Tunc episcopus cogitans in semet ipso dixit procon- 
suli, quia visio est, quam Deus vult ostendere in juvene isto. Perrex- 
erunt ergo cum eo et civitatis plurima multitudo et ingressus est primo 
Malchus ad socios suos et post eum episcopus ingrediens invenit inter 
lapides litteras sigillatas duobus sigillis argenteis et convocato populo 
legit eas et audientibus et admirantibus cunctis, et videntes sanctos 
Dei sedentes in spelunca et fades eorum tamquam rosas florentes, 
procidentes glorificaverunt Deum, statimque episcopus et proconsul 
miserunt ad Theodosium imperatorem rogantes, ut cito veniret et 
miracula Dei nuper ostensa viderel.'* 

417. -£'/k«^= in order. 

418. 6'^X£//;;^r= seven. This number must include Malchus, otherwise 
there would be eight But Gregory speaks of seven and a boy. There 
is some dispute as to the number, and was in the time of Mahomet. 
See his chapter in the Koran. 

423-439. L.A.: "Qui protinus surgens de humo et de sacco in quo 
lugebat, glorificans Deum venit a Constantinopoli Ephesum, et obvi- 
antibus ei cunctis ascenderunt simul omnes ad speluncam (et mox ut 
sancti viderunt imperatorem, resplenduerunt et facies eorum sicut sol), 
et ingressus imperator procidit ante eos glorificans Deum, et surgens 
amplexatus est eos et super singulos flevit dicens: sic video vos, tam- 
quam si viderem dominum resuscitantem Lazarum." 

440-490. L.A.: "Tunc dixit s. Maximianus ad eum: crede nobis, quod 
propter te resuscitavit nos Deus ante diem magnae resurrectionis ut 
credas indubitanter quod resurrectio mortuorum est. (Vere enim 
resurreximus et vivimus, et sicut infans est in utero matris non sentiens 
laesionem et vivit, sic fuimus videntes, jacentes et dormientes et non 
sentientes.) Et his dictis, videntibus cunctis inclinantes capita sua in 
terram, obdormierunt et tradiderunt spiritus suos secundum Dei 

NOTES TO VII SLEPERIS (XXTH. 473» 478). 275 

imperium. Surgens autem imperator cecidit super eos flens et deos- 
culans eos, et cum jussisset fieri loculos aureos, in quibus mitterentur, 
in ipsa nocte apparuerunt imperatori dicentes, ut, sicut hactenus in 
terra jacuerunt et ex terra resurrexerant, ita eos dimitteret, donee 
dominus iterum eos resuscitaret. Jussit ergo imperator locum ilium 
inauratis lapidibus adornari et omnes episcopos resurrectionem confi- 
dentes absolvi." Then follow a couple of sentences referring to the 
date of the incident. 

473. Portura= portray. 

478. (7///=gild their bier. 


St Alexis or Alexius, Confessor, was the only son of a rich senator 
of Rome named Euphemianus and his wife Aglaes, by whom he was 
carefully educated. While yet of tender years he showed great love 
for the poor, and a strong inclination to engage in good works. His 
parents desired him to marry, and he consented to their request ; but 
after the ceremony, and before the marriage was consummated, he 
disguised himself and fled. Having reached a distant country, he 
fixed his abode in a hut beside a church dedicated to the Virgin. 
There his holy life attracted the attention of the surroundmg people, 
who having closely observed him, came to the conclusion that he 
belonged to a noble family. Finding himself discovered, Alexis 
quitted his retreat and returned to his own country. He presented 
himself in the garb of a pilgrim to his father, who failed to recognise 
him, and believing him to be a stranger, gave him a small lodging 
where he might pass the rest of his days, leading a life entirely 
spiritual and practising the greatest virtues, more especially humility. 
Here he suffered much from the contempt and harshness of his 
father's servants, but he bore all without complaint. As his death 
drew near he caused his father and mother to be sent for, to whom, 
as soon as they were come, he made himself known as the son for 
whom they had searched everywhere and whose loss they had mourned. 
He died about the year 416, during the pontificate of Innocent I., who 
caused him to be interred in the church of the martyr St Boniface on 
the Aventine Mount ; and such was the esteem in which he was held, 
that all Rome was present at his funeral. His body was discovered 
in 12 16, and reinterred in the same place. A magnificent church, 
which gives title to a cardinal and bears his name jointly with that 
of St Boniface, now stands upon the spot, and is in the hands of the 
Hieronymites. Putin's *Dict. Hagiogr.,' and Butler's Lives. 

His day is July 17. 

He is represented in a pilgrim's habit, ragged and worn, with a 
beggar's dish in his hand. Sometimes he carries in addition the 


palm, though not a martyr. In the mosaics of Munich he stands 
among the glorified martyrs, of colossal size, clad in a white vest and 
blue mantle, with a crown on his head and the cross in his hand ; 
but generally in the old pictures and prints, as penitent, pilgrim, 
and beggar ; in the churches of the ascetic orders, in houses of refuge 
and hospitals, his effigy is in ragged attire. — Mrs Jameson, ' Sacred 
and Legendary Art,' ii. 437^ 

Analysis — Prologue on the three states, matrimony, continence, 
and virginity, of which the last is of the greatest dignity, 1-82 ; the 
estate, virtues, and works of Euphemianus and Aglaes his wife, 83-98 ; 
the birth and education of Alexis, 99-112; his marriage, 1 13-120; 
on the night of his marriage he tries to persuade his wife to consent 
to a life of chastity, and delivers to her his ring, &c., to keep, 121-146; 
he then steals away privately and sails to Edessa, where he finds an 
image of Christ which so impresses him that he gives away his goods, 
takes up his abode with beggars near to a church dedicated to the 
Virgin, lives by begging, and in prayer and fasting, 147-178; how 
his father sends messengers in quest of him, and of how he begs of 
them, but is undetected of them, 179-208; the sorrow of his father 
and mother when the messengers fail to find him, 209-232 ; after 
Alexis has dwelt in the kirkyard seventeen years, an image of the 
Virgin commands the sacristan of the church to bring him into the 
church, the sacristan tells the miracle to others, and a great crowd 
come and honour Alexis, 233-260 ; Alexis therefore hurries away to 
Laodicea, and there taking a ship ready to sail to Tarsus, he is 
carried, through the divine interposition, to Rome, 261-278; arrived 
there, he suddenly appears in disguise before his father, who fails to 
recognise him but gives him a lodging, 279-308 ; he lives seventeen 
years in his father's house undiscovered, 309-335 ; he writes down 
the story of his life on a piece of parchment, which he encloses in 
his hand and then dies, 335*348; on the following day, which was 
Sunday, angel voices are heard in the church, 349-374; Euphemianus 
comes to the place where the corpse of Alexis is lying, and seeks to 
take the writing out of his hand, but cannot, 375-381 ; he then passes 
to the church, where he finds the Pope and Emperor, and they all 
go in haste to where Alexis lies, when the Pope takes the writing 
from the dead hand and reads it aloud, 382-402; Euphemianus 
swoons away, and recovering, gives way to grief, 403-434 ; his wife 
does the same when she hears the tidings, 435-488 ; her spouse 
comforts her, 489-504 ; the funeral of Alexis, the many miracles which 
were wrought through the touch of his body, 505-528 ; the Emperor 
and Pope distribute great sums of money, and then proceed on their 
way to the Church of St Boniface with the body, the people still press- 
ing around them, 529-544 ; they spend seven days there praising God, 
and cause a magnificent tomb to be built for the saint, 545-560. 

Source — Cf. L.A., 94. The L.A., however, is not closely followed. 


The story is told, though not in the same words, by V.B., xviii. 43 
et seq,t who quotes 'Gesta Alexii/ The story occurs also in the 
*Gesta Romanorum.* 

1-82. These lines are the writer's, who omits the etymological intro- 
duction of L.A. 

5. Cr/j//>i^-^/«^= Christianity. 

10. Dygne ^yforihy, Lat. dignus. 

17. -5«/^^r^= without equal. 

19. CV?;«=s became. 

21. At Cana of Galilee. 

29. Anna. See Luke ii. 36-38. 

33. Forout sak='w\i\\o\ii blame. A.S. sacu, strife; hence crime, 
criminal charge, blame. 

41. Synuone, See Luke ii. 25 et seq. 

44. //<:ir//)'= spiritual. 

49. //!?/<?= salvation. 

53. St Margaret, the Queen of Malcolm, son of Duncan, King of 
Scotland. See her Life by Turgot in Pinkerton*s * Lives of the 
Scottish Saints ' (Antiquae Vitae SS. Scotiae), revised and enlarged by 
the Editor. The same Life is given by the Bollandists, June, vol. 2, 
and translated by William Forbes- Leith, S.J. See also the Editor's 
* Ancient Lives of Scottish Saints.* 

55. Paula, a noble and wealthy lady, whose husband, the Senator 
Texetius, probably died in 380. She accompanied St Jerome to Pal- 
estine in 385, and lived the rest of her life at Bethlehem, dying in 404. 
See the Art. on her in Smith's * Diet. Christ. Biogr.* 

57. Elizabeth of Hungary. 

59. St Germanus, the celebrated Bishop of Auxerre in the fifth 

65, 66. For these see their Lives further on. 

74. 6'^/k= happy. 

83-98. L.A. : "Al. fuit filius Euphemiani, viri nobilissimi Roman- 
orum et in aula imperatoris primi, cui tria millia puerorum assistebant 
qui zonis aureis cingebantur et vestimentis sericis induebantur. Erat 
autem praefectus Euph. valde misericors et singulis diebus in domo 
sua tres mensce pauperibus, orphanis, viduis et peregrinis parabantur, 
quibus strenue serviebat, et hora nona ipse cum viris religiosis cibum 
in timore domini capiebat. Cui uxor nomine Aglaes ejusdem religionis 
et propositi erat." 

89. Cledifie= cXdid. 

92. Ned begane=diSSdA\t6. with want. 

94. /wj//= prepared. A.S, /^san, hasten, set out, prepare, durdt's 
= tables. 

95. Avwne—n\nc, 

96. Pere= poor. 

NOTES TO ALEXIS (XXIV. 09-162). 279 

99-116. L.A. : " Cum autem filium non haberent, ad preces tamen 
suas dominus contulit iis iilium, post quern ipsi deinceps in castitate 
vivere firmaverunt. Traditus autem puer liberalibus disciplinis cum 
omnibus philosophiae artibus ipse floreret et jam ad puberem aetatem 
pen'enisset, puella sibi de domo imperiali eligitur et sibi in conjugem 

100. il/<?«^= lament. 

103. i^///= gentle one. 

105. Fante=^Odjn, A.S. /am, foam. 

109. Fowl =={oo\, 

112. C^//^=con, learn. 

117-120. Not in L.A. V.B. has : "Ornaverunt eis thalamum et im- 
positae sunt eis sing^lse coronas in templo Sancti Bonifacii martiris per 
manus sacerdotum, et sic cum gaudio et laeticia letum duxerunt diem." 

121-145. L.A. : " Venit nox in qua cum sponsa sua suscepit secreta 
silentia: tunc sanctus juvenis coepit sponsam suam in Dei timore 
instruere et ipsam ad virginitatis provocare pudorem ; deinde 
annulum suum aureum et caput balthei quo cingebatur, sibi servanda 
tradidit dicens : suscipe hoc et serva, donee Deo placuerit, et dominus 
sit inter nos.*' 

124. Beyisit-^besyit^hnsitd, Cf. XXV. 341. 

128. Resawe gret med= receive great reward. 

138. Betacht, Cf. I. 140, betaucht, and 1. 145, betak, 

140. Hed, L.A. "caput" ; so also V.B. ; the meaning is probably 

144. Until God wills that I see thee (again). 

147-159^. L.A. : " Post hoc de substantia sua accipiens ad mare 
discessit ascendensque occulte navem Laodiceam usque devenit 
indeque pergens in Edessam civitatem Syrias profectus est, ubi imago 
domini n. J. Chr. sine humano opere facta in sindone habebatur.** 

152. Leodaciane—\j2S^^\zt^d^, 

154. £'^^<i;//^=Edessa. 

155. C^rrV^ Syria. ^/«a^= portrait. That referred to will be the 
portrait of Himself which our Lord is said to have impressed upon a 
piece of cloth or handkerchief, and then sent to Abgarus, the prince of 

158. -5/^/= without. 

159. Sandale was a kind of woven fabric once very much esteemed. 
According to Du Cange it was made of silk, and was used both for 
wrapping sacred relics in and for banners, &c. See sub sandale and 
cendalumj also Roquefort, sub cendaL In ' P. Parv.* we have ^^cendely 
sindon." This last is a fine cotton stuff or muslin. 

159^161. Not in L.A. An addition. 

160. Luferand=\owt. 

162-174. L.A. : " Quo perveniens, omnia quae secum detulerat, pau- 
peribus distribuit et vestimenta vilia induens, cum ceteris pauperibus 


in atrio Dei genitricis Maris sedere coepit De elemosinis vcro 
quantum sibi sufficere poterat, sibi retinebat, cetera vero aliis pauperi- 
bus erogabat." 

164. IVare =y/orst. wes/yn^=exch2Lngt. O.E. wrixlunge; Germ. 

168. ^<^^ryx= beggars. In ancient times collections for the poor 
were made in the churches both on Sundays and on week-days, and 
the poor habitually sat about the doors of the churches to ask and 
receive alms. 

169. Zj/-/^^= livelihood, living. Cf. XXVI. 79 and note. 
175-178. Not in L.A. 

176. 0/gtid dare =b2Lreo( goods. 

179-232. L.A. : " At vero pater de recessu filii plurimum ingemis- 
cens per universas mundi partes pueros suos misit, qui eum inquir- 
erent diligenter. Quorum cum aliqui ad civitatem Edessam venissent, 
ab eo cogniti, sed ipsi eum minime cognoscentes, eidem cum ceteris 
pauperibus elemosinas tribuerunt : quas accipiens Deo gratias agens 
dixit : gratias tibi ago domine, quia a servis meis elemosinam re- 
cipere me fecisti. Reversi autem pueri renuntiant patri quod nus- 
quam valeat reperiri, mater autem sua a die sui recessus saccum 
in pavimento cubiculi sui stravit, ubi evigilans lamentabiles voces 
dabat dicens : hie semper in luctu manebo donee iilium meum recu- 
peravero. Sponsa vero ad socrum dixit : donee audiam de s])onso meo 
dulcissimo, instar turturis solitaria tecum manebo.'' 

186. In sere party— xxi several parts. 

188. Whose loss would be his death. 

198. A /mouse = Si\ms. 

203. -<4/=J?at. sa = so J thus. 

206. Z^;//== arrived. A.S. Icndm, to land, arrive. 

212. Care bed^h^d of sorrow. 

213. Mol=:mul=(\Msi, 

" I am bot ;/;^/and niarerez mysse 
Rol crysles mersy and mar>' and Ion 
l>is am J>e grounde of alle my blysse." 

—•E. \i. Allit. Poems/ A. 382. 

Flem. ;//«//, getnul, dust. 

220. VVerd=\\Q\Yd^ fate, lot, destiny. 

•• Bol werd, thai to the end ay driffis 

The varldis thingis, sa thame travalit 

That thai on twa halfis war assalit." 

— • The Bruce,' iv. 148. 
A.S. wyrd^ fate. 

231. 7'«r///r= turtle. 

233-251. L.A.: " Cum igitur Al. in prscdicto atrio xvii anno maneret 
in Dei servitio, imago tandem b. virginis, quae ibidem erat, custodi 
ecclesiae dixit ; fac introire hominem Dei, quia dignus est regno cce- 

NOTES TO ALEXIS (XXIV. 249-343). 28 1 

lorum et spiritus Dei requiescit super eum, nam oratio ejus sicut in- 
censum in conspectum Dei ascendit. Cum autem custos de quonam 
diceret ignoraret, iterum dixit ei : ille qui foris sedet in atrio, ipse est. 
Tunc custos festinus exiit et ipsum in ecclesiam introduxit.'* 

249. C7r^M= suitable, fit. Icel. ^/v/d^r, prepared. 

252-257. Not in L.A. 

252. Z^«/=bow, make obeisance. A.S. luien, to bow, incline the 

258-286. L.A.: "Quod factum dum cunctis innotesceret et ab omnibus 
venerari coepisset, humanam gloriam fugiens inde recessit et Laodiceam 
venit ibique navem adscendens cum in Tharsum Ciliciae vellet pergere, 
dispensante Deo navis a ventis pulsa in Romanum portum devenit. 
Quod cernens Al. ait intra se : in domo patris mei ignotus manebo 
nee alteri onerosus ero." 

261. Lawe^xiXdASt. 

265-271. An addition. 

265. Quhon = {t\\\ 

275. 7>zrx= Tarsus. tv^/7^=Celicia. 

284. A'<£7y//j= burdensome. 

287-328. L.A. : " Patrem igitur a palatio redeunlem, multitudine 
obsequentium circumdatum, obvium habuit ac post eum clamare 
coepit : serve Dei, me peregrinum in domo tua suscipi jubeas et de 
micis mensae tuac me nutriri facias, ut tui quoque peregrini dignetur 
dominus misereri. Quod audiens pater ob amorem filii sui eum 
suscipi jussit et locum proprium in domo sua constituit et cibum de 
mensa sua tribuit et ministrum proprium delegavit. Ipse autem in 
orationibus perseverabat et corpus suum jejuniis et vigiliis macerabat, 
famuli autem domus ipsum multipliciter deridebant et aquam uten- 
silium super caput ejus frequenter fundebant et multas injurias ei 
irrogabant, sed ipse ad omnia patiens valde erat" 

287. p«^=this. ja/=set. 

300. A emphatic form of one, 

308. ZaM = injury. A.S. /aif, annoyance, hurt. 

316. lVaking=^ watch i ng. 

318. .5V?/= stupid fellow. See Skeat, sub sot. 

321. Quhylum — 2X times. A.S. hwilum^ inst. or dat. pi. oi htuiL 

325. £'M/>/^=hethynge= derision. I eel. hoiSing, scorn, from hdS^ 

328. This line is corrupt : es may be dropped out, when the mean- 
ing becomes clear. 

329-342. L.A.: " Septemdecim igitur annos in domo patris per- 
mansit sic ignotus : videns igitur per spirilum quod appropinquaret 
terminus vitse suae, chartam cum atramento petiit et totum ordinem 
vitae suae ibidem conscripsit." 

332. ^^'^^ relative. /r^;;/;//y/= stranger. awine—o\m family. 

343-348. An addition. 


343. /^/k//= folded. /<?^/= cease. 

344. Nefe=fLsX, closed hand. 

349 398. L.A. is different: "Dominica igitur die post missarum 
sollemnia in sanctuario vox de coelo insonuit dicens : venite ad me 
omnes qui laboratis et onerati estis, et ego reficiam vos. Quod audi- 
entes omnes territi in facies suas deciderunt (et ecce vox secundo 
dicens : quaerite hominem Dei, ut oret pro Roma). Quaerentibus illis 
et minime invenientibus, iterum dictum est : in domo Euphemiani 
quaerite. Requisitus ille se nihil scire de hoc dicebat. (Tunc im- 
peratores Arcadius et Honorius una cum pontifice Innocentio ad 
domum praedicti viri venerunt) et ecce minister Alexii ad dominum 
suum venit dicens : vide domine, ni ille peregrinus noster sit, quia 
magnae vitae et patientiae homo est Currens igitur Euphemianus cum 
defunctum reperit et vultum ejus tamquam angeli rutilantem vidit 
voluitque chartam quam in manu habebat accipere, sed nequivit 
Exeunte igitur eo cum hoc imperatoribus et pontificibus retulisset et 
illi ad eum intrassent, dixerunt : quamvis peccatores sumus, regni 
tamen gubernacula gerimus (et hie curam universalem regiminis 
pastoralis) : da igitur nobis chartam, ut sciamus quae in ea scripta 

352. Hely=h\gh\Y, loudly. Cf. hyly of 1. 447. 

365. That it (the voice) could not refer to him. 

384. -£'/«/^r^«r^= emperors — viz., Arcadius, Emperor of the West, 
395-423i and Honorius, 395-508. They were the two sons of Theo- 
dosius I. The former is rendered more famous by his wife than by 
anything he did or was himself. She was the notorious Eudoxia. 

394. Gouernale=gowtYx\mtni. 

399-432. L.A. : *' Et accedens pontifex chartam de manu sua accepit 
et ille eam statim sibi dimisit, fecitque earn legi coram omni populo 
et multitudine et patre ipsius. At Euphemianus hoc audiens nimio 
dolore conturbatus obstupuit et factus exanimis resolutusque viribus 
in terram decidit. Cum vero aliquantulum ad se rediisset, vestimenta 
sua scidit coepitque canos capitis sui evellere, barbam trahere atque 
semetipsum discerpere ac super filii corpus exclamabat : heu me, fili 
mi, quare me sic contristasti et per tot annos mihi dolores et gemitus 
incussisti ? heu me miserum, quia te video baculum senectutis meae 
in grabato jacentem et non loquentem mihi, heu me, qualem consola- 
tionem de castero habere potero?" 

414. Hyvie dcmanyt—\i^\\2i\^A himself; v, Bradley, detnenen. 

427. Ztfa/^ = dear, beloved. A.S. leof, liof; Mod. Eng. lief, 

429. But ony ^«/= without any redress or consolation. 

430. J/w/= mutter, speak. 
433, 434. Not in L.A. 

433. Al wcUd he «<7r^/= though he would not — />., against his wilL 
435-498. L.A. : '* Mater vero ejus hoc audiens, quasi leaena rumpens 
rcte, scissis vestimentis mens coma dissoluta ad coelum oculos levabat, 

NOTES TO ALEXIS (XXIV. 442-533). 283 

et cum prae nimia multitudine sanctum corpus adire non posset, clam- 
avit dicens : date mihi, viri, aditum, ut videam filium meum, ut videam 
consolationem anima? meae et qui suxit ubera mea. Et cum perven- 
isset ad corpus, incumbens super illud clamabat : heu me, fili mi, lumen 
oculorum meorum, quare sic fecisti et tam crudeliter nobiscum egisti? 
videbas patrem tuum et me miseram lacrymantes et non ostendebas te 
ipsum nobis: servi tui injuriabantur tibi et sustinebas! Et iterum 
atque iterum prostemebat se supra corpus (et nunc brachia super illud 
expandebat, nunc manibus angelicum vultum contrectabat) osculansque 
clamabat : plorate mecum omnes, qui adestis, quia per xvii annos eum 
in domo mea habui et non cognovi quia unicus filius meus esset, servi 
etiam eum conviciabantur et alapis percutiebant ; heu me, quis dabit 
oculis meis fontem lacrymarum, ut plangam die ac nocte dolorem 
animae meae?** 

442. ^/^n7^=all her breadth, or as we say, "all her length." 

447. //yfy-=\ou(l\y, Cf. Ae/y of 1. 352. 

460. Butlas ^^i/^= bootless misery. Cf. 1. 478. 

466. Coweryng=TtcovtrY. 

488. My baits ma bet = my sorrows may abate. 

489-504. L.A. : " Sponsa vero ejus induta veste Adriatica cucurrit 
plorans et dicens : heu me, quia hodie desolata sum et apparui vidua, 
jam non habeo in quem conspiciam nee in quem oculos levem, nunc 
ruptum est speculum meum et periit spes mea ! amodo coepit dolor 
qui finem non habet. Populus autem audiens hoc lacrymabiliter 

490. W^^^=dress, garb. Cf. XXIII. in. 

492. Befome =ht{oxt, 

494. Beld—comfori. A.S. bceldo, byldo, fortitude, courage, comfort. 
Z4r/^w^«= beloved. See lewe^ 1. 427 above, and Bradley, sub liof, 

601. Groys^^o^s, O.Fr. '' groisser^ to grow big, to wax fat, thicke, 
or grosse" — Cotgr. 

505-532. L.A. : " Tunc pontifex cum imperatoribus posuerunt corpus 
in honorato feretro et duxerunt in mediam civitatem et nuntiatum est 
populo inventum esse hominem Dei quem civitas tota quaerebat, et 
omnes obviam currebant sancto. Si quis autem infirmus illud corpus 
sanctissimum tangebat, protinus curabatur, caeci visum recipiebant, 
daemoniaci curabantur. Imperatores autem tanta mirabilia videntes 
coeperunt per se cum pontifice lectum portare, ut et ipsi sanctificarentur 
ab eodem corpore sancto." 

509. y?a/^= quickly, bath should probably be omitted. 

516. Rowt—xoMX, crowd. See *Com. of Errors,' iii. i ; *Jul. Caes.,' 
i. 2. 

533-560. L.A. : "Tunc imperatores jusserunt copiam auri et argenti 
in plateis spargi, ut turbae occuparentur amore pecuniarum et sinerent 
corpus perducere ad ecclesiam. Sed plebs amore pecuniarum seposito 
magis ac magis ad tactum sacratissimi corporis irruebat, et sic cum 

284 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XXIV. 534^ 552). 

magno labore ad templum s. Bonifacii martiris illud tandem perdux- 
erunt; et illic per vii dies in Dei laudibus persistentes operati sunt mon- 
umentum ex auro et gemmis et lapidibus pretiosis, in quo s. corpus 
cum magna veneratione collocaverunt. De ipso quoque monumento 
ita suavissimus odor fragravit ut omnibus aromatibus videretur esse 
plenum. Obiit autem xvi cal. Augusti circa a. d. cccxcviii." 

534. 5^^!/^/= scattered. 

552. 5«e//>i/= seventh. He is commemorated, however, on the 
seventeenth day of the month ; and we should probably therefore read 


In this legend mention is made of no fewer than five Julians. Four 
of them were saints, martyrs, or confessors, while the fifth is Julian 
the Apostate. 

1. St Julian, Bishop of Cenomanense. Tradition identifies him 
with Simon the Leper whom our Lord healed, and who invited the 
Saviour to his house. After our Lord's Ascension he is said to have 
been ordained bishop of Cenomanensians by the Apostles. He is 
sometimes identified with St Julian Hospitator. 

2. St Julian of Brioude (in Auvergne), who suffered martyrdom 
there during the Diocletian persecution. He belonged to one of the 
best families of Vienne in Dauphiny, was a soldier by profession, and 
a disciple of St Ferreolus. When the persecution broke out he retired 
into the mountains of Auverene, not from fear of death, but in order to 
succour those who were suffering for the faith. When he learned 
that he was being sought for, he left the house where he had taken 
shelter and presented himself to the soldiers, saying, " I have remained 
too long in this world ; I desire ardently to be reunited with Jesus 
Christ." Soon after he was put to death. The date of his martyrdom 
is unknown, but there appears to be reason for believing that it was 
in the year 304. The place where his relics reposed was for a long 
time unknown ; but they were miraculously discovered in 431 by St 
Germain, Bishop of Auxerre, while passing by Brioude on his return 
to Aries. The head of the saint was translated to Vienne with the 
body of St Ferreolus. St Gregory of Tours occupies the whole of the 
fifty chapters of his second book * De Glor. Mart.' with setting forth his 
miracles. He also mentions a church in Paris which was dedicated 
to him, and which has successively borne the name of St Julien le 
Vieux and St Julien le Pauvre. His day is August 28. 

3. St Julian, who with his brother St Julius applied to the Emperor 
Theodosius for authority to destroy pagan temples wherever they 
might find them, and to substitute in their places and to build wherever 
they saw fit churches, with power to compel others to assist them in 
their work. Theodosius is said to have given them letters-patent as 


they desired, and while prosecuting their work they are said to have 
performed several miracles. 

4. St Julian Hospitator, the patron saint of travellers, ferrymen, and 
boatmen, as well as of travelling minstrels. He is said to have been 
a nobleman who lived in his castle in great state and prosperity. His 
days were spent in hunting and his nights in feasting. While hunting 
in the forest one day, he started a deer and pursued it over hill and 
dale. At last the poor frightened and exhausted creature turned round 
and opened its mouth, and addressing its pursuer, said, " Thou, who 
now pursuest me to the death, shalt one day cause the death of thy 
father and mother." Arrested by these words, Julian was overcome 
with remorse and fear, and as the only means of averting the fulfilment 
of the prophecy fled into a distant land. There Julian was received 
by the prince of the country with every honour. He distinguished 
himself greatly both at court and in war. The king knighted him 
for his services, and gave him to wife a rich and beautiful widow, 
with whom he lived in great happiness for many years, and had well- 
nigh forgotten the terrible prediction. Meanwhile his father and 
mother had bitterly lamented his loss, and sent messengers ever}'- 
where into the neighbouring provinces in quest of him ; and hearing 
no tidings of him, they at last assumed the garb of pilgrims and went 
themselves in search of him. It came to pass that one night while 
Julian was away at the court, they arrived at his castle, and knocked at 
the gate. Bassilissa, the wife of Julian, who was a good and pious 
woman, received them hospitably, and on learning who they were, was 
filled with joy, waited upon them at supper as became a daughter, and 
gave up to them her own bed in which to repose after the fatigues of 
their journey. Next morning at matins she went to a neighbouring 
church to render thanks to God for His mercy. While she was away 
Julian returned, and straightway entered his own bedchamber, and 
seeing by the imperfect light two persons in bed, and one of them a 
bearded man, in a passion of jealousy he drew his sword and slew 
them both upon the spot. Then rushing out of the house he met his 
wife, who was returning from church, and staring at her in astonish- 
ment asked, "Who then are in my bed?" "Thy father and mother," 
she replied, "who have been seeking thee for long years over the 
world, and I have laid them in our bed." When he heard this, Julian 
was as one stupefied and half dead. The terrible prophecy recurred 
to him. Wringing his hands and weeping bitterly, he exclaimed, 
" Alas ! by what evil fortune has this which I sought to avoid come to 
pass? Farewell, my sweet sister; I can never lie by thy side again 
until I have been pardoned this great sin by Jesus Christ." But she 
answered him, "Nay, my brother; can I allow thee to depart, and 
without me ? Thy grief is my grief, and whither thou goest I will go." 
So they departed together, and travelled till they came to the banks of 
a great river which was often swollen by torrents from the mountains. 


so that many in endeavouring to cross it perished. Here Julian builded 
a cell of penance for himself, and near to it a hospital for the poor; 
and night and day, summer and winter, he ferried travellers across the 
stream without fee or reward. But one night, in winter, when the flood 
had broken its icy bounds and was raging terribly, he heard in the 
pauses of the storm a mournful voice calling from across the stream. 
He arose and found on the opposite bank a youth who was a leper, and 
apparently on the point of death from cold and fatigue. He at once 
brought him across the river, and taking him in his arms, notwith- 
standing that he was a leper, carried him into his cell and laid him in 
his own bed, when he and his wife watched him till the morning. 
When it dawned, the leper rose up in the bed ; his face was trans- 
figured, and appeared to them as ^at of an angel of light, and he said, 
"Julian, the Lord hath sent me to thee, for thy penitence is accepted, 
and thy rest is at hand," and then vanished from their sight. Julian 
and his wife fell on their faces and thanked God for all His mercies ; 
and shortly afterwards, being full of years and good works, fell asleep 
in the Lord. (Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and Legendary Art,* ii. pp. 762- 
764.) According to another version of the story, which is given at 
length by Simeon Metaphrastes (See Surius, Jan. 9), Julian, at the 
instance of his parents, but much against his will, married Bassilissa, 
but on the day of their marriage persuaded her to live in perpetual 
chastity. They devoted themselves to an ascetic life, and used their 
wealth in works of charity. Their house became a kind of hospital 
for the poor and sick. Bassilissa took charge of the women, and 
Julian of the men. Bassilissa died some time before Julian, who suf- 
fered martyrdom under Maximian about the year 313. 

His day is January 9. 

In single figures, St Julian Hospitator is usually represented, clad 
in rich secular attire, as a cavalier or courtier, young, with a mild 
and melancholy expression ; often he has a hunting-horn in his hand 
and is accompanied by a stag. To distinguish him from St Hubert 
there is generally a river and a boat in the background, and the stag 
is without the crucifix between its horns, Mrs Jameson, loc, cit 

5. Julian the Apostate was the youngest son of Julius Constantius, 
the half-brother of the Emperor Constantine the Great, and Bassilissa 
his wife, the daughter of Julianus, the praetorian prefect, who belonged 
to the noble family of the Anicii. He was born at Constantinople 
in the latter part of the year 331. Educated a Christian, he relapsed 
into heathenism between the years 351 and 355. He was proclaimed 
Caesar in 355, and on the death of his cousin Constantius, November 
3, 361, succeeded him as Augustus. He died June 27, 363, from 
wounds received while engaged in the Persian campaign. His story 
is told here as a warning to evil-doers. 

Analysis — Prologue on the custom of travellers, 1-40; Julian, Bishop 
of Cenomanse, 41-62; Julian of Alvernia, 63-142; Julian, the brother 


of Julius, the church-builder, 143-228; Julian Hospitator, 229-332; 
his noble birth, 233, 234; the deer's prophecy, 235-249; Julian's flight, 
250-256; he takes service, is advanced and married, 257-278; his 
father and mother, searching for him, arrive at his castle and are 
entertained during his absence by his wife, 279-306 ; Julian returns, 
sees them in bed, and slays them, 307-326 ; his wife returns from 
church, whither she has gone ; he is astonished at seeing her, and now 
learns whom he has slain, 327-342 ; he is overcome with remorse, and 
is comforted by his wife, 343-372 ; he bids his wife farewell, but she 
resolves to accompany him, 373-392 ; they travel until they reach the 
bank of a river where many are drowned in attempting to pass it, and 
build a hospital there, and spend their time entertaining travellers, 
and he in ferrying them across th« river, 393-408 ; one night he is 
called across the river, where he finds a leprous child, whom he 
ferries across and cares for till morning, 409-438; as the morning 
dawns a light illumines the face of the child, who tells him that God 
has sent him to him to assure him of the forgiveness of his sins and of 
the ne*ar approach of his end, 439-47o« ; his end, 470^-484 ; Julian the 
Emperor, whose story is recorded that wicked men may take warning 
from it, 485-770 ; conclusion, 771-780. 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. 30. Cf. Boccaccio, * Decameron,' 2d day 
2d tale. 

The etymological introduction is omitted. 

1-20. Author's prologue. 

13. 0/=off. 

15. St Julian Hospitator. 

23. Ma \ixnc ane^vaoxt. than one. 

25. I desired to know which was he. 

27. In the ' Legenda Aurea.' 

35. 6'^^r^ = avoid. See Skeat, sub scare. 

41-62. L.A. : "Julianas Cenomanensis episcopus fuit. Hie Simon 
ille leprosus dicitur fuisse quern dominus a lepra sanavit et qui dom- 
inum ad convivium invitavit; qui post ascensionem domini ab apos- 
tolis Cenomanensibus episcopus ordinatus est. Hie multis virtutibus 
clarus tres etiam mortuos suscitavit et postmodum in pace quievit 
Iste dicitur esse ille Julianus qui ab itinerantibus pro inveniendo 
bono hospitio invocatur, eo quod in domo ejus dominus fuerit hos- 
pitatus. (Sed verius videtur esse alius J., qui sc. utrumque parentem 
ignoranter occidit.)" 

42 and 52. Synomyn^ cyftymoue =Cenom3inse. 

63-79. L.A. : "Fuit et alius J., de Alvernia genere nobilis, sed fide 
nobilior, qui desiderio martirii se ultro persecutoribus offerebat 
Tandem Crispinus consularis misit ministrum et eum occidi man- 
davit : quod sentiens J. sponte foras prosiliit et quzerenti intrepidus 
se opponens protinus ictum ferientis excepit." 

NOTES TO JULIAN (XXY. 64-128). 289 

64. Almayne, L.A., Alvemia= Auvergne. Du Cange» sub voce, gives 
Alvemia as signifying the West 

80-86. L.A. : *' Cuius caput levantes ad s. Ferreolum socium Juliani 
detulerunt et eidem mortem similem minantur nisi protinus immolaret." 

80. />r(t7/^=Ferreolus. St Ferreolus suffered martyrdom at Vienne 
in Gaul under Maximian, about the year a.d. 304. Like St Julian, 
who was his disciple, he exerted his influence for some time to protect 
Christians, but seeing the persecution imminent, he advised them to 
fly and prepared himself to meet the coming storm. Called upon by 
Crispinus, the consul, to sacrifice, he refused, and was tortured and 
imprisoned. In his Acts he is said to have been miraculously deliv- 
ered from the prison-house, but being recaptured, he was put to death 
by beheading, September 18. 

87-124. L.A. : " Quibus cum assentire nollet, eum occiderunt et 
caput s. Juliani cum corpore s. Ferreoli in uno tumulo posuerunt, et 
post multos annos s. Mamertus Viennensis episcopus invenit caput s. 
Juliani inter manus s. Ferreoli ita illaesum et integrum ac si eadem 
die fuisset sepultum. Inter caetera huius sancti miracula solet referri 
quod, cum quidam dyaconus oves ecclesiae s. Juliani raperet et pas- 
tores eidem ex parte s. Juliani prohiberent, ille respondit : Julianus 
non comedit arietes. Et ecce post modicum febre vehementissima 
pcrurgetur et invalescente febre, quod a martire incenditur, confitetur 
fecitque super se jactari aquam, ut refrigeraretur ; sed statim tantus 
fumus et foetor de corpore ejus exiit ut cuncti qui aderant fugerent et 
ipse post modicum exspiraret." 

95. Vyone^Wtz^nt, Maumert^ St Mamertus, was the eighteenth 
bishop of Vienne, and the founder of the Rogation Fasts in the West- 
ern Church. Claudian the poet, whom he ordained, was his younger 
brother, and is said to have assisted him in his episcopal duties. 
Claudian died in 473 or 474. Mamertus survived him, but for how 
long is unknown. 

98. Having between his two hands. See Gregory of Tours, ' De 
Glor. Mart.,' ii. 2. 

99. /tfr^=companion. 

100. /Vr^= sound. 

103-124. See Gregory of Tours, 'De Glor. Mart.,' ii. 17. 

116. Wengyt= avenged. 

117. Fewyre—it^tx, 

118. Wrocht grant— worthit grant ^\i2A to confess. 

125-142. L.A. : " Cum quidam rusticus, ut ait Gregorius Turonensis, 
in die dominica arare vellet, protinus contractis digitis manubrium 
securis, cum qua vomerem mundare volebat, ejus dextrae adhaesit, sed 
post duos annos in ecclesia s. Juliani ad ejus preces curatus est" 

125. St Gregory of Tours, lib. ii. c. 1 1. 

127. //ic?«j^rt«^/= husbandman. a'ganeourelay—2Jg2Ans\.Qyix\^'^, 

128. 7V/>'/= tilled, one sownday^ on ^\xii(^^.y, 

VOL. III. / 

290 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XZV. 130-200). 

130. /'a/v/=pattle, paddle, a little spade, especially one to clean a 
plough with. The word seems to have lost an initial s and to stand 
for spatyl^ spattle, spaddle, the dim. of spade. " Others destroy moles 
with a spaddler — Mortimer's ' Husbandry.* Jameson defines patiU 
as "a stick with which the ploughman clears away the earth that 
adheres to the plough," and cites Bums — 

" I wad be laith to rin an* chase thee 
Wi* mMx^nnz patiUr 

See Skeat, sub paddle. There should be a comma at end of this line, 
and none after muldebred(y 131). 

131. Muldebred^movf^it'hro^^ mouId-board» "a wooden board on 
the Scottish plough, which turned over the furrow, now exchanged for 
a cast-iron plate denominated a fur-side^* — ^Jamieson, sub mtmfdU' 
board, Mvk^TCiMcV.^ clean. See Jamieson, sub muck. 

134. 7yr=swood, handle. 

143-166. L.A.: "Fuitinsuper alius Jul ianus frater b. Julii : hi duo 
fratres ad Theodosium imperatorem christianissimum venerunt petentes 
ut templa ydolorum ubicunque invenirent, destruerent et Christi ecde- 
sias aedificarent Quod imperator lubenter faciens scripsit, ut omnes 
iis debeant obedire et eos in omnibus sub poena capitis adjuvare." 

151. Grewc^gnti^ harm. 

167-188. L.A.: " Cum igitur b. J. et Julius in loco qui dicitur Gaudi- 
anum, ecclesiam fabricarent et cuncti transeuntes eos in opereob imper- 
atoris imperium adjuvarent, contigit ut quidam cum curru inde transitum 
facerent, qui dixerunt ad invicem : quam excusationem prsetendere 
poterimus ut liberi transeamus et in opere isto non occupemur? Dix- 
eruntque : projiciamus unum ex nobis in plaustrum supinum et eum 
pannis cooperiamus dicemusque, quod hominem mortuum in vehiculo 
habemus et sic liberi transire poterimus. Arripientesque hominem 
unum in plaustrum projecerunt eique dixerunt : tu sile et oculos claude 
et quousque transierimus, quasi mortuus jace." 

189-210. L.A.: " Cumque hominem tamquam mortuum cooperuissent 
et usque ad famulos Dei Julianum et Julium venissent, dixerunt ei 
servi Dei : filioli, parumper subsistite et nos in hoc opere modicum 
adjuvate. Qui responderunt : non possumus hie stare quoniam hom- 
inem mortuum in plaustro habemus. Quibus s. J. dixit : ut quid ita 
nientimini, filii ? Et illi : non mentimur domine, sed sic est, ut loqui- 
mur. Et s. J. dixit : secundum veritatem dicti vestri ita vobis 

195. C7y/= guile. 

199. Lurdanys ^vjorM^ss fellows. 

" Owtc ! on ])e Lucifer, lurdan / oure lyghte has |)u lome." 

— ' York Plays,' 5/108. 
Fr. lourd, lourderie. 

200. Al \at anys=^2}X at once. 

NOTES TO JULIAN (XTV. 201-280). 29 1 

201. A^^^/)'= handsomely, free. 

206. Z^j/=list, choose. 

211-228. L. A. : " Et illi boves pungentes pertransierunt cumque pro- 
cul pertransiissent, accedentes ad currum coeperunt collegam suum vo- 
care ex nomine dicentes : surge amodo et stimula boves ut celerius 
transeamus. Cum autem nullatenus se moveret, eum pulsare coeper- 
unt dicentes : ut quid deliras? surge et stimula boves. Sed cum nul- 
latenus ille responderet, accedentes discooperuerunt eum et mortuum 
invenerunt, tantusque timor ipsos et cseteros invasit, ut nuUus de caetero 
famulo Dei mentiri auderet." 

225. Hidwisn^s =h\deousnGss, horror. 

227. Z^j;>i^= lesing, falsehood. 

229-274. L.A.: "Fuit etiam alius Julianus, qui utrumque parentem 
nesciens occidit, cumque is prsedictus J. juvenis ac nobilis quadam die 
venationi insisteret et quendam cervum repertum insequeretur, subito 
cervus versus eum divino nutu se vertit eique dixit : tu me insequeris, 
qui patris et matris tuae occisor eris ? Quod ille audiens vehementer 
extimuit et, ne sibi forte contingeret, quod a cervo audierat, relictis 
omnibus clam discessit, ad regionem valde remotam pervenit ibique 
cuidam principi adhaesit, et tam strenue ubique et in bello et in pace 
se habuit, quod princeps eum militem fecit et quandam castellanam 
viduam in conjugem ei tradidit et castellum pro dote accepit" 

231. 5/«/r^/= slain. 

282. IVoM =h3irm. 

" & aye the ofter, \>e alder )>ay were, 
{>ay laften ryjt and wro^ten zuogAe" 

—' E. E Allit. Poems,' A. 162. 
A.S. 7ao/i, 

233. K^ne for ^/«^=kin, descent. 

234. lVyne=*' joy f** pleasure. See wiinne in Bradley. 
242. Argste, See note to XVIII. 192. 

246. Bytande ^raW= biting sword. 

265. />= wages. Cf. modem y^^r. 

275-278. Addition. 

279-294. L.A. : " Interea parentes Juliani pro amissione filii Juliani 
nimium dolentes vagabundi ubique pergebant et filium suum soUicite 
quaerebant ; tandem ad castrum ubi J. praeerat, devenerunt. Tunc 
autem J. a castro casu recesserat" 

287. IVa/erand^v/Sindenng, Cf. 1. 393. 

289. Car(tf= turn, wend, come. 

" I comaunde \>e to come nere, for I will kare to my couche." 

— ' York Plays/ 275/133. 

" VVherfore I counsaile )>at kyndely we care 
Vnto sir Pilate, oure prince, and pray hym." 

—Ibid., 278/201. 

292 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XTV. 295-409). 

" Yhe comaimded me to care, 
Als ye kende wele and knawe, 
To lenisalem on a journay, with seele." 

— • York Plays/ 284/335. 

295-342. L.A.: '* Quos cum uxor Juliani vidisset et quinam essent in- 
quisivisset et illi omnia, quae filio suo acciderant enarrassent, intellexit 
quod viri sui parentes erant, ut puto, quia hoc a viro suo forte frequen- 
ter audierat. Ipsos igitur benigne suscepit et pro amore viri sui lectum 
iis dimisit et ipsa sibi alibi lectulum collocavit Facto autem mane cas- 
tellana ad ecclesiam perrexit. £t ecce J. mane veniens in thalamum 
quasi uxorem suam excitaturus intravit et inveniens duos pariter dor- 
mientes, uxorem cum adultero suo, silenter extracto gladio ambos pariter 
interemit Exiens autem domum vidit uxorem ejus ab ecclesia rever- 
tentem, et admirans interrogavit quinam essent illi, qui in suo lecto 
dormirent, at ilia ait : parentes vestri sunt qui vos diutissime quaesierunt, 
et eos in vestro thalamo collocavi." 

311. /^?r-«/^«y/= unexpected. A.S. weney to think. 

312. -5f//«r^x/^= without stopping, 
315. lVauit=v/3ivedf lifted. 

317. Mysknew^: did not know. 

343-377. L.A.: "Quod ille audiens paene examinis effectus amaris- 
sime flere coepit ac dicere : heu miser quid faciam ? quia dulcissimos 
meos parentes occidi. Ecce impletum est verbum cervi, quod dum 
vitare volui, miserrimus adimplevi. Jam vale soror dulcissima, quia 
de caetero non quiescam donee sciam quod Deus poenitentiam meam 

361. lVyh's/e = most wicked, M.K. wz'ci'e, 

372. Wrak = ven gean ce. 

378-388. L.A.: **Cui ilia: absit, dulcissime frater, ut te deseram et 
sine me abeas, sed, quae fui tecum particeps gaudii, ero particeps et 

389-392. Addition. 

393-406. L.A.: ** Tunc insimul recedentes juxta quoddam magnum 
flumen, ubi multi periclitabantur, quoddam hospitale maximum statue- 
runt, ut ibi poenitentiam facerent et omnes qui vellent transire flumen, 
incessanter transveherent et hospitio universes pauperes reciperent." 

407, 408. Addition. 

407. With als is evidently wrong. IVttk-al may be the right read- 
ing, as Horstmann suggests, or \are-'wiih als, 

409-438. L.A.: "Post multum vero temporis media nocte, dum J. 
fessus quiesceret et gelu grave esset, audivit vocem miserabiliter 
lamentantem ac Julianum, ut se traduceret, lugubri voce invocantem : 
quod ille audiens concitus surrexit et jam gelu deficientem inveniens 
in domum suam portavit et ignem accendens ipsum calefacere studuit. 
Sed cum calefieri non posset et, ne ibi deficeret, timeret, ipsum in lec- 
tulum suum portavit et diligenter cooperuit." 

NOTES TO JULIAN (XXV. 425-581). 293 

425. Myssele^Xt^tr. 

426. Each trouble increased the other. 
434. Kyndly=T\2Xwr2^, 

439-464. L.A. : " Post paululum ille qui sic infirmus et quasi leprosus 
apparuerat, splendidus scandet ad aethera et hospiti suo dixit : Juliane, 
dominus misit me ad te, mandans tibi quod tuam poenitentiam accep- 
tavit et ambo post modicum in domino quiescetis. Sicque ille dis- 
paruit et J. cum uxore sua post modicum plenus bonis operibus et 
eleemosinis in domino requievit." 

447. Myslary = mysalry — leprosy. 

449. Leme=2i ray of light. 

"With lightful Umes like any day." 

—'York Plays/ 1 18/16. 
A.S. ledma, a ray of light. 

459. /^<!?/^«/= fellow, spouse. 

485-496. Introduction. 

493. Thre, A mistake. The stories of four have been given. 

496. Fu/sume={ou\, The same termination occurs in ugsu9n, 

497-576. L.A. : *' Fuit et alius J., non quidem sanctus sed scelera- 
tissimus, sc. Julianus apostata. Hie J. prius fuit monachus et magnae 
religion is simulator. Quaedam autem mulier (ut refert Joh. Beleth in 
Summa de officio ecclesiae) habens tres ollas plenas auri, aurum illud 
in orificiis ollarum cinere, ne appareret, operuit et praedictas ollas 
Juliano, quern sanctissimum hominem aestimabat, coram quibusdam 
monachis servandum tradidit, quod autem aurum ibidem esset, non 
aliter indicavit J. igitur praedictas ollas accipiens et tam copiosum 
aurum ibidem inveniens, totum illud aurum furatus est et ollas im- 
plevit cinere. Post aliquod tempus cum mulier depositum suum re- 
quireret, ille ollas cum cinere sibi reddidit ; cum vero aurum requir- 
eret, convincere ilium non potuit, quia de auro testes non habuerat, 
quoniam monachi, coram quibus hoc sibi tradiderat, nil in iis nisi 
cinerem viderant ; et sic aurum obtinuit, cum quo Roman fugit, et per 
illud aurum sequenti tempore Romae obtinuit consulatum ; deinde in 
imperium sublimatus est." 

503. Resemblyt== s^tmt^. Cf. 1. 508. 

506. //J?y/v/= concealed. 

531. He proceeded to examine them. 

534. /Jy/=poyttis, pots. See 1. 512. 

552. Ryckt noc/i/=}usi nothing. 

569. Julian is said at one time to have acted as a reader in the 
Church. Probably this gave rise to the tradition that he was once a 
monk. Readers were elected and ordained, like the members of the 
other minor orders. 

577-580. L.A. : " Qui cum instructus esset a pueritia in arte magica 
ct multum sibi placeret, magistros inde plurimos secum habebat." 

581-598. L.A. : " Die autem quadam, sicut in hystoria tripartita 


habetur, cum adhuc puer esset, et recedente magistro suo solus 
remansisset et adjurationes daemonum legere incepisset, ante eum 
maxima multitudo daemonum instar iCthyopum nigronim advenit 
Tunc J. hoc videns et metuens, signum crucis protinus fecit et omnis 
ilia multitudo daemonum evanuit; qui cum magistro suo revertenti, 
quid sibi accident, retulisset, dixit ei magister suus: hoc signum 
crucis maxime daemones odiunt et timent." 
584. Defence — prohibition. 

595. ^r^/m=skears, scares. Cf. 1. 35. 

596. Merrys =m2irs, 

599-614. L.A. : " Sublimatus igitur in imperium huius rei memorans 
cum per artem magicam operari vellet, apostavit et signum crucis 
ubique destruxit ac christianos, in quantum potuit, persecutus est, 
putans, quod aliter daemones sibi minime obedirent." 

615-650. L.A. : " Descendens Julianus in Persidam sicut legitur in 
Vitis Patrum misit daemonen in occidentem, ut sibi inde deportaret 
responsum, cum autem daemon ad quemdam locum venisset, per 
decem dies ibi immobilis stetit, quia quidam monachus ibi die ac nocte 
orabat ; et ei sine efTectu regresso dixit J. : quare tantum tardasti ? 
Qui respondit : sustinui per decem dies publicum monachum, si forte 
ab oratione cessaret et transire possem, cumque non cessaret, prohi- 
bitus sum transire et redii nihil agens. Tunc indig^atus J. dixit, quod, 
cum illuc veniret, vindictam de illo monacho faceret'' 

617. * Vitae Patrum/ p. 650 d, Rosweyde. 

624. Z«(gy/= lodged. 

649. Pudfy^^FuhUus. So Vit. P. A correction of L.A. by the 

651-658. L.A. : " Cum ergo de Persia victoriam sibi daemones pro- 
mitterent, sophista suus dixit cuidam christiano : quid putas, nunc 
facit fabri filius? Et ille : sepulcrum parat Juliano." 

656. Wrechis = wrichtis = carpenter's son — />., Christ 

658. / mak is wrong for he makis, 

659-680. L.A. : ''Dum igitur (ut in hystoria s. ^<7j/7/y(!) legitur et 
Fulbertus, Carnotensis episcopus, testatur) Caesaream Cappadociae 
devenisset, s. Basilius eidem occurrit et quatuor panes hordeaceos 
pro munere ei misit, at J. indignatus eos recipere contemsit et pro 
panibus sibi foenum misit dicens : pabulum nobis irrationabilium 
animalium obtulisti, recipe quod misisti." 

676. Strutly, read stutly. See stoutliche in Bradley. 

677. Vnresonadt7e=iTra.i\om\j brute. 

681-694. L.A. : " Respondit Basilius : nos quidem quod comedimus, 
tibi misimus, tu vero dedisti nobis, unde bestias tuas nutris. Ad hoc 
iratus J. respondit : cum Persas subegero, banc urbem destruam et 
arabo, ut farrifera magis quam hominifera nominetur." 

695-736. L.A. : " Sequenti nocte vidit Basilius in ecclesia s. Mariae 
in visu multitudinem angelorum et in medium eorum quandam femi- 

NOTES TO JULIAN (XXV. 737-775). 295 

nam in throno stantem et adstantibus dicentem : vocate mihi cito 
Mercurium, qui Julianum apostatam occidat, qui me et filium meum 
superbe blasphemat. £rat autem Mercurius miles quidam, qui ab 
ipso Juliano pro fide Christi fuerat interfectus et in eadem ecclesia 
erat sepultus. Statimque s. Mercurius, ubi cum armis suis quiescebat, 
quae ibi servabantur, adfuit et jussus ab ea in proelium se praeparavit 
Expergefactus itaque Basilius ad locum ubi s. Merc, cum armis suis 
quiescit, ivit et monumentum suum aperiens nee corpus ibidem repent 
nee arma invenit. Tunc custodem, an asportaverit, inquisivit, ille vero 
cum juramento affirmabat eadem arma vespere ibidem fuisse, ubi 
perpetuo servabantur." 

737-770. L.A. : "Inde igitur Bas. recedens et mane illuc rediens 
invenit ibidem corpus ejus et arma et lanceam sanguine cruentatam, 
et ecce quidam de exercitu rediens dixit : cum Julianus imperator in 
ezercitu moraretur, ecce quidam miles ig^otus cum armis suis et 
lancea veniens et calcaribus urgens equum, audaci mente Julianum 
impetiit et lanceam fortiter vibrans ipsum valide per medium per- 
foravit et subito abscedens nusquam comparuit. Ipse vero J. dum 
adhuc spiraret, sanguine manum suam implevit (sicut dicitur in 
hystoria tripartita) et in aera projecit dicens : vicisti Galilaee, vicisti, 
sicque in his vocibus miserabiliter exspiravit ; ab omnibus autem suis 
insepultus relinquitur et a Persis excoriatur et de corio suo regi Per- 
sarum substratorium efficitur." 

767. Flev/=fi2iytd. 

770. Seg=sege^s^2X. 

771-780. Addition. 

775. Julian Hospitator. 


St Nicholas, bishop of Myra in Lycia, was born at Patara, a city <rf 
Lycia in Asia Minor, where his parents occupied a high position. 
His father's name was Epiphanes and his mother's Joanna. Both of 
them were Christians, and had been long married before Nicholas 
was bom to them. Given in answer to prayer, he is said to have 
shown his piety from his very earliest infancy. On the very day of 
his birth he stood up in his bath, we are told, and with his hands 
joined gave thanks to God that he had been permitted to appear on 
the earth. While yet a child he rigorously observed the fasts of 
Wednesdays and Fridays by abstaining on these days from sucking 
his mother's breasts. As he g^ew up he was distinguished from all 
other children by his gravity and attention to his studies. His parents 
resolved to dedicate him to the Church, and he was ordained priest. 
He is also said to have joined the monastery of the Holy Sion near 
Myra, and to have been made abbot of it by the Archbishop, its 
founder. While still young, his parents died and left him sole heir of 
their vast wealth. In the city of Patara there dwelt a nobleman who 
had three daughters. Though formerly rich, he had become so poor 
that there remained no means of obtaining food for his daughters but 
by sacrificing them to an infamous life, and oftentimes it came into 
his mind to tell them so, but shame and sorrow kept him dumb. 
Meanwhile the maidens wept continually, not knowing what to do and 
having no bread to eat, and their father became more desperate. 
Nicholas heard of their straits, and thought it a shame that such 
should exist in a Christian land. Therefore one night when the maidens 
were asleep, and their father sat alone watching and weeping, he 
took a handful of gold, and tying it in a handkerchief, repaired to 
the poor man's dwelling. He considered how he might bestow it 
without making himself known, but while he stood irresolute, the 
moon, coming from behind a cloud, showed him a window open ; so 
he threw it in, and it fell at the feet of the father, who, when he found 
it, gave thanks to God, and with it portioned his eldest daughter. A 


second time Nicholas provided himself with a similar sum, and threw 
it in at the window as on the former occasion'. With this the noble- 
man married his second daughter. Desiring to know to whom he 
was indebted for this generous assistance, the father determined to 
keep watch, and when Nicholas came the third time and prepared to 
throw in the third portion, the nobleman seized him by the skirt of his 
robe and flung himself at his feet, saying, " O Nicholas, servant of 
God ! why seek to hide thyself?" But Nicholas made him promise 
that he would tell no man. After some years Nicholas undertook a 
voyage to the Holy Land. During the passage, when a storm arose, 
at the instance of the sailors he rebuked it, and immediately it ceased, 
and so saved the vessel, which was wellnigh sinking. During the 
same voyage a sailor fell overboard and was drowned, but at the 
prayers of the saint he was restored to life. On his return from Pales- 
tine he repaired to Myra. Some time afterwards the bishop of that 
city died, when it was revealed to the clergy that the first man who 
should be in the church on the following morning was the man chosen 
by God to succeed as bishop. Nicholas was the first, and was accord- 
ingly consecrated. Having attained this dignity, he showed himself 
worthy of it by the practice of every saintly virtue, but more especially 
by his unbounded charity. The miracles he performed were numer- 
ous. On one occasion he saved the city and the whole province from 
famine. On another he restored three children to life who had been 
dismembered and salted down in a tub. The Emperor Constantine 
having condemned three men to death, Nicholas, in answer to their 
prayers, though they and the Emperor were in Constantinople, appeared 
to the latter in a dream and commanded him to release them, threatening 
him with the anger of heaven if he disobeyed. He also appeared to 
certain mariners who were like to founder in the ^Egean Sea on their 
crying to him for help, when he assured them that they should not 
perish, calmed the sea, and conducted their vessel to a safe harbour. 
It is related of him also that he was summoned to the Council of Nice 
in 325, and that in his zeal he smote Arius on the face. He died in the 
year 326, and was buried in his own cathedral at Myra. In 430 Jus- 
tinian caused a magnificent church to be built in his honour at Con- 
stantinople. Many other churches, both in the East and in the West, 
have also been built in his honour. In England there are no fewer 
than 376. Formerly his feast-day was connected at Salisbury, York, 
Beverley, Aberdeen, and elsewhere with the curious ceremonial of 
choosing a boy-bishop, who presided over his fellow-choristers till the 
following Innocents Day, arrayed in full episcopal attire. His relics 
were translated during the middle ages from Myra to Barri in Italy, 
whence he is often styled Nicholas of Barri. Nicholas is the patron 
saint of children, and especially of schoolboys, of poor maidens, of 
sailors, of travellers and merchants. He is also the protector against 
thieves and losses by robbery and violence. Chief patron saint of 


Russia, he is also patron saint of Barri, of Venice, of Freiburg, and of 
many other towns and cities, particularly of seaports and towns en- 
gaged in commerce. See Mrs Jameson, * Sacred and Legendary Art,' 
ii. 450 et seg, ; Smith, * Diet, of Christ Biogr.* ; P^tin. * Diet Hagiogr.' ; 
Butler's * Lives' ; Surius, December 6. 

His day is December 6. 

In art he is habited as a bishop, and carries three golden balls, in- 
terpreted sometimes as the three purses or three loaves, the latter in 
allusion to his feeding the poor. Sometimes purses are substituted for 
the balls and loaves. 

Analysis— Prologue, 1-18; the birth of Nicholas, 19-28; he gives 
thanks to God on the day he was born, 29-34 ; his fasting while an 
infant, 35-44 ; his abstinence while a child, 45-52 ; his education, and 
how he spent his youth, 53-74 ; his charity to a poor nobleman who 
had three daughters, 75-136; his election to be bishop of Myra, 137- 
180 ; he appears to certain storm-tossed sailors and rescues them, 
181-206; he provides food for the country in a time of dearth, 207- 
252 ; because he has caused an image of Diana to be destroyed, the 
devil sends a young woman, carrying a box of ointment, intended for 
the destruction of Nicholas* house, to meet certain sailors upon the 
sea ; Nicholas meets them in a boat, discovers to them the wiles of the 
evil one, and then vanishes, 253-326; he rescues three knights falsely 
condemned to death. 327-383 ; he also rescues three princes who are 
in the same plight, 384-546 ; his death and burial, 547-574 ; the 
miracles which followed, 575-588; the translation of his relics, 589- 
608; a miracle that happened to a prior, 609-740; another miracle 
wrought by St Nicholas, 741-888; a miracle which befell a Jew, 889- 
970; a miracle which was wrought by St Nicholas for a schoolboy, 
971-1018; a miracle that happened in connection with a cup that had 
been vowed to St Nicholas, 1019-1099; a miracle wrought on behalf 
of a child taken by the Saracens, 1 100- 1 167; conclusion, 1168-1171. 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. 3. The narrative there has been departed 
from in many particulars and another source used. The narrative in 
11. 609-741 is not in L.A. 

1-18. Prologue in place of the etymological introduction of L.A. 

18. Haiy «/ry/= ecclesiastical writings. 

19-28. L.A.: "Nicolaus civis Paterae urbis, ex divitibus et Sanctis 
parentibus originem duxit Pater ejus Epiphanes, mater vero Johanna 
dicta est Quem cum primaevo juventutis suae flore genuissent, 
deinceps caelibem vitam duxerunt" 

20. Paterc. Patara, a flourishing maritime and commercial city on 
the south-west coast of Lycia. In antiquity it was most celebrated for 
its temple and oracle of Apollo, whose renown was second only to that 
of Delphi. It is supposed to have been of Phoenician or Semitic 
origin ; but at a later period, whatever its origin, it received Dorian 


settlers from Crete. It is mentioned among the Lycian bishoprics in 
the Acts of Councils. The name Patera is still given to its numerous 
ruins, notwithstanding that Ptolemy Philadelphus of Egypt enlarged 
the city and changed its name to Arsinoe. 

24. Plamya, Her name was Joanna. 

29-33. L.A.: "Hie prima die dum balnearetur, erectus in pelvi." 

34. Addition. 

35-74. L.A. is different : " Insuper quarta et sexta feria tantum semel 
sugebat ubera. Factus autem juvenis, aliorum devitans lascivias, 
ecclesiarum potius terebat limina et quidquid ibi de sacra scriptura 
intelligere poterat, memoriter tenebat Parentibus vero defunctis 
cogitare ccepit qualiter tantam divitiarum copiam non ad laudem 
humanam sed ad Dei gloriam dispensaret." 

40. Nmvrys =nyxx%^, O.Fr. norricey nurricef later nourrice, 

45. Elde=?Lgt, 

56. Hartis=2sXs. 

64. Gamfnyne= sport, 

75-132. L.A.: "Tunc quidam contermineus suus satis nobilis tres 
filias virgines ob inopiam prostituere cogitur, ut sic infami eorum com- 
mercio aleretur. Quod ubi sanctus comperit, scelus abhorruit et 
massam auri panno involutam in domum ejus per fenestram nocte 
clam jecit et clam recessit. Mane autem surgens homo massam auri 
reperit et Deo gratiam agens primogenitae nuptias celebravit Non 
multo post Dei famulus simile peregit opus. Quod rursus ille repe- 
riens et in laudes immensas prorumpens de caetero vigilare proposuit, 
ut sciret, quis esset, qui suae inopiae subvenisset. Post paucos etiam 
dies duplicatam auri massam in domum projecit: ad cuius sonitum 
ille excitatur et Nicolaum fugientem insequitur talique voce alloqui- 
tur : siste gradum teque aspectui ne subtrahas meo, sicque accurrens 
velocius Nicolaum hunc esse cognovit; mox humi prostratus osculari 
volebat pedes ejus, quod ille refutans ab eo exegit, ne eum quamdiu 
viveret, publicaret." 

76. Nytboure = neighbour. 

79. Lyf-lad= means of living. A.S. Hfldde, corrupted to livelihood in 
Mod. English. 

81, Mary^rmxrj, 

83. /'r7n7§Tf= dignity, rank. 0,Yt, parage^ pairage, Ct peerage. 

103. Felsyth =fel syth = very often. 

104. //'^^j&w/= eldest. 
133-136. Not in L.A. 

137-180. L.A.: "Post hoc Mireae civitatis defuncto episcopo con- 
venerunt episcopi, illi ecclesiae de episcopo provisuri. Aderat autem 
inter eos quidam magnae auctoritatis ep., ad cuius electionem omnium 
sententia dependebat. Cum igitur cunctos jejuniis et orationibus in- 
sistere monuisset, nocte ilia vocem audivit dicentem sibi, ut hora 
matutina fores ecclesiae obsen'aret et quem primum ad ecclesiam, 


cuius etiam nomen esset Nicolaus, venire conspiceret, ipsum in epis- 
copum consecraret (Hoc ergo aliis revelans episcopis admonuit ut 
omnes orationibus insisterent et ipse pro foribus excubaret) Minim 
in modum in hora matutinali quasi a Deo missus ante omnes se 
agebat Nic, quem apprehendens ep. dixit ei : quod tibi nomen est? Ille 
(ut erat columbina simplicitate plenus, inclinato capite :) Nicolaus, 
inquit (vestrae sanctitatis servus). Quem in ecclesiam ducentes licet 
plurimum renitentem in cathedram collocarunt Ipse autem eandem, 
quam prius, humilitatem et morum g^avitatem in omnibus sectabatur, 
in oratione pervigilabat, corpus macerabat, mulierum consortia fugie- 
bat, humilis erat in omnes suspiciendo, efficax in loquendo, alacer in 
exhortando, severus in corripiendo." 

138. Mirre= Myra, described as one of the most important towns in 
Lycia. It is situated on the river Andracus, partly on a hill and 
partly on the slope of it, at a distance of twenty stadia from the sea. 
Andriaca was formerly its port. It is remarkable in history as the 
place where St Paul landed (Acts xxv. 5). The importance of the 
place was recognised in later times by Theodosius II., who raised it to 
the position of capital of all Lycia. It still bears its ancient name, but 
by the Turks it is called Dembre. Its remains of antiquity are said to 
be extremely fine. 

146. Gret, A mistake ^or gert 

170. Of a wil—oi one will, unanimously. 

176. 7'i^z£//>= manners. A.S. )?^izc/, habit, custom, behaviour ; the 
plural thedwas signifies manners. Skeat, sub thews. saddare= 

176. ^aXyr= more watchful. 

178, lVy/yne=vf\fix\g={tmd\t, 

181-206. L.A.: " Fertur quoque (sicut legitur in Cronica quadam), 
Nicolaum Nicasno interfuisse concilio. Quadam autem die dum qui- 
dam nautae periclitarenlur, ita cum lacrymis oraverunt : Nicolae 
famule Dei, si vera sunt quae de te audimus, nunc ea experiamur. 
Mox quidam in ejus similitudinem apparuit dicens : ecce assum ! 
vocastis enim me. Et coepit eos in antennis et rudentibus aliisque 
juvare navis armamentis ; statimque cessavit tempestas. Cum autem 
ad ejus ecclesiam venissent, quem nunquam ante viderant, sine indice 
cognoverunt. Tunc Deo et sibi de liberatione gratias egerunt, quod 
ille divinas misericordias et eorum fidei, non suis meritis attribuere 

182. Vicefl. A mistake for Nicen or Nicea. The Council was held, 
as is well known, in 325 for the settlement of the Arian controversy. 

188. Vnese for 2/«^d'^rj= scarcely. 

194. 5/^r?/^= rudder ; A.S. steorn; Icel. stiom, a rudder ; M.E. stem, 

196, ^a/^=bold, fierce. 

207-262. L.A.: " Quodam tempore totam provinciam Nicolai fames 
valida perculit, ita ut omnibus deficerent alimenta. Audiens autem 


vir Dei naves onustas tritico portui applicasse, illuc statim proficis- 
citur rogans nautas ut saltern in C modiis per quamlibet navem fame 
periclitantibus subvenirent Cui illi : non audemus, pater, quia men- 
suratum est Alexandriae, oportet in horrea imperatoris nos reddere. 
Quibus S. dixit : facite nunc, quod dico et vobis in Dei virtute promitto, 
quod nullam minorationem habebitis apud regium exactorem. Quod 
cum fecissent, et eandem mensuram quam Alexandriae acceperant, 
reddidissent ministris imperatoris, miraculum referunt et Deum in 
suo famulo magnifica laude attollunt Frumentum autem secundum 
uniuscuiusque indigentiam vir Dei distribuit, ita ut miraculose II annis 
non tantum ad victum sufficeret, sed ad usum seminis abundaret" 

210. By=buy. 

212. J^emed=^ remedy. 

217. FaIe=be(sL\l h,^,feallan, 

219. J/.f^r«V>= measures. 

243. He^ read be, 

253-265. L.A.: "Cum autem regio ilia ydolis deservisset, prae caeteris 
nefandae Dyanse simulacrum populus coluerat adeo ut usque ad tem- 
pus viri Dei nonnuUi rustici praedictae religioni exsecrabili deservirent 
ac sub quadam arbore consecrata Dyanae quosdam ritus gentilium 
exercerent. Ac vir Dei praedictum ritum de omnibus finibus expulit 
ipsamque arborem praecidi mandavit." 

257. Z>^a«^= Diana. 

265. Maugre \aris='\n spite of them. 

266-286. L.A.: "Iratus ex hoc contra eum hostis antiquus oleum 
Mydyaton, quod contra naturam in aqua et lapidibus ardet, confecit 
seque in formam religiosae feminae transfigurans quibusdam ad virum 
Dei navigantibus in quadam saginula obviavit, sicque affata est eos : 
mallem ad sanctum Dei venire vobiscum, sed nequeo ; rogo ergo vos 
ut hoc oleum ad ejus ecclesiam offeratis et ob mei memoriam exinde^ 
aulae ejus parietes linatis, et statim evanuit." 

269. Diatoh, L.A. Mydyaton. 

274. 5^^= skiff, small boat. 

283. 6{y«^= anoint. O.Fr. oindre^ to smear. 

287-322. L.A.: "Et ecce aliam cemunt naviculam cum honestis 
personis, inter quos erat simillimus s. Nicolao, qui sic ait illis; heu 
quid mulier ilia locuta est vobis vel quid attulit. Illi autem cuncta 
per ordinem narraverunt. Quibus ille : haec est impudica Dyana, et 
ut me verum dicere comprobetis, oleum illud in mare projicite. 
Quibus projicientibus ingens ignis in mari succenditur et contra 
naturam diutius in mari ardens conspicitur. Venientes igitur ad 
servum Dei ajebant: vere tu es ille qui nobis in mari apparuisti et 
a dyaboli insidiis liberasti." 

294. Boyst=^\iQyi. 

297. -Frt«^= fiend. k.S. fednd, Jidndy an enemy, hater. 

303. Broynt^brynt^hMtni, /^ r^jy/= raised flame. 


310L /ferwjnst=^Tt3Lchtd the haven. 

313w ^«/^Ar;^/= avowed, vowed. 

320. BuscAffun/= stmbush, stratagem. CL O.Fr. embusckemtent, an 

323-326. Not in L.A. 

327-344. L.A. : " Per idem tempos cum qu2edam gens Romano 
imperio rebellasset, contra eam impcrator tres principes Ncpotianum, 
Ursum et Apilionem misit, quos portui Adriatico ob ventum contra- 
rium applicatos b. N., ut secum comederent, invitavit, irolens ut gen- 
tern suam a rapinis compescerent quas in nandinis exercebant" 

328. Verray=Tti^t war against. 

"And send schir philip the mowbiay. 
With A thousand, as I hexxl say, 
Of men that war in his leding 
To kyle, to varray the nobiU king." 

— * The Bruce,* viii. 24. 

Chaucer has 'werreye, " Knightes Tale," 626, and wemyen^ 686. 

329. 5/a;i<rA//= stopped. O.Fr. estancher^ "to stanch, stop an issue 
of blood, to slake or quench hunger, thirst, &C.'' — Cot. 

33L Kr«//// = Ursus. apolyneh^ K^iXxo, 
332. A>gvaVi«^=Nepotianus. 
335. -5^!!/= their best 

337. Adryak-=^i!c\t, Adriatic Sea. 

338. Fore^'vci spite of. 

345-357. L.A.: "Interim dum Sanctus abesset, consul corruptus 
pecunia tres innocentes milites jussit decollari. Quod ut Wr s. 
audivit, rogavit principes illos, ut secum illuc usque gradu concito 
properarent, veniensque ad locum ubi decoUandi erant, invenit eos 
poplite flexo et facie jam velata et spiculatorem ensem super eorum 
capita jam vibrasse." 

349. 5a^/t*x= guiltless. 

358-378. L.A. : "At N. zelo accensus et in lictorem se audacter 
ingessit et gladium de ejus manu eminus propulit innocentesque 
solvens eos incolumes secum duxit lUico ad praetorium consulis 
properat et fores clausas vi reserat Mox illi consul accurrens salu- 
tavit eum. Aspernens hoc s. dixit : inimice Dei, legis praevaricator, 
qua temeritate pra^sumsisti tanti conscius sceleris vultum aspicere 
nostrum? Quern postquam plurimum objurgasset, ad preces tamen 
illorum ducum eum poenitentem benigne recipit." 

362. 3^/= gate. 

363. 5/arv^= closed. 

373. /7>'/j« = rebuked. A,S.Jlitan, to quarrel. 
377. Malalent=r2igtt fury. 

•' Extend na forthir thy wraith and mataUnt,** 

— G, Douglas, iv. 165. 13. 


" Vpon the hed him straik in mateUnL*^ 

—* Wallace,' iv, 465. 

''Maltalent, despight, ill-will "—Cot. 

379-395. L.A. : " Recepta igitur benedictione imperiales nuntii iter 
peragunt et impios sine sanguine hostes subdunt redientesque ab im- 
peratore magnifice sunt recepti. Quidam autem eorum felicitatibus 
invidentes, praefecto imperatoris prece et pretio suggesserunt, ut cos 
apud imperatorem de lajsae majestatis crimine accusaret. Quod cum 
imperatori suggessisset, ille nimis furore repletus eos incarcerari 
praecepit ac sine aliqua interrogatione ilia nocte eos occidi man- 

386. Z<y/=lied. 

388. Ourt matesU=hurt majesty, high treason. 

391. ^«/= without. 

392. Z^j=lies. 

396-452. L.A. : ** Quod cum a custode didicissent, sciderunt vesti- 
menta sua et gemere amare coeperunt. Tunc unus eorum, sc. Nepo- 
tianus, recolens quod b. N. tres innocentes liberaverat, exhortatus est 
alios, ut ejus patrocinia flagitarent. Quibus orationibus s. N. nocte ilia 
Constantino imperatori apparuit dicens : cur illos principes tarn injuste 
comprehendisti et morti sine crimine addixisti ? Surge velox eosque 
quantocius dimitti jubeto. Si non autem, oro Deum ut tibi suscitet 
bellum, in quo tu corruas et bestiis cibus fias. Cui imperator : qui es 
tu, qui liac nocte palatium meum ingressus talia audes loqui ? Cui 
ille : ego sum N., Mireae civitatis episcopus. Sic et praefectum simi- 
liter terruit per visum dicens : mente et sensu perdite, cur in necem 
innocentium consensisti ? Perge cito et eos liberare stude ; si non 
autem, corpus tuum vermibus scaturiet et domus tua citius destruetur. 
Cui ille : quis es tu, qui nobis tanta minaris? Scito, inquit, me esse 
Nic. Mireae civitatis episcopum." 

396. Gye/ere= g3io\er. 

400. But dome = without judgment, without trial. 

437. IVare na woud=vforst than mad. 

445. //a/=hale, whole, together. 

453-467. Not in L.A. 

460, 461. Something is here wanting. 

461. Epertus, probably, as Horstmann suggests, for /r(?/«/r= praetor. 
Cf. 1. 5 14, where for Iperture pretur should in all probability be read. 

469-480. L.A.: "Utrisque evigilantibus statim mutuo sua somnia 
pandunt et pro illis incarceratis continuo mittunt. Quibus autem 
imperator : quas magicas artes nostis, ut tantis nos illudatis somniis ? 
Cui responderunt, se non esse magos nee mortis sententiam meruisse." 

481-502. L.A. : "Tunc imp.: nostis, inquit, hominem cui nomen est 
Nicolaus? At illi audito hoc nomine manus extenderunt ad coelum, 
rogantes Deum, ut eos s. Nicolai mentis a praesenti periculo liberareL 
£t cum imp. totam vitam ejus et mirabilia ab iis didicisset, dixit iis : 


ite et Deo gratias agite, qui vos ejus precibus liberavit; sed et dc 
nostris eidem afferte gaudiolis, rogantes eum ut ulterius mihi minas 
non inferat, sed pro me et regno meo ad dominum preces fundat." 

487. //«(y/= heaved, lifted. 

494. J^y/= abundant, 

500. Berys =bear (imper. plu.) 

503-528. L.A.: "Post paucos dies praedicti viri ad Dei famulum se 
prosiernunt dicentes : vere famulus Dei es, vere cultor et amator 
Christi. Cumque sibi omnia per ordinem retulissent, ille elevatis in 
coelum manibus immensas Deo laudes retulit ac bene instructos prin- 
cipes ad propria remisit" 

614. Eperture. See note to I. 461. 

615. /7^/= frightened. 

520. Hewit, See note to 1. 487. 

524- Z/7«/^= fidelity. 

529-546. Addition. 

547-608. L.A-: "Cum autem dominus vellet eum assumere, rogavit 
dominum (ut angelos sibi mitteret), et inclinato capite angelos ad se 
venire vidit et dicto psalmo : In te domine speravi, usque : In manus 
tuas e. c, tradidit spiritum, a. d. cccxLili, ubi coelestium melodia 
audita est Qui dum sepultus fuisset in tumba marmorea, a capite 
fons olei et a pedibus fons aquae profluxit et usque hodie ex ejus mem- 
bris sacrum resudat oleum valens in salutem multorum. Successit 
autem ei quidam vir bonus ; qui tamen de sede sua ab invidis est de- 
pulsus. Quo ejecto oleum fluere desiit, sed eo revocato protinus 
emanavit. Post multum vero temporis Turci Miream urbem de- 
struxerunt, XLVII vero milites Barenses illuc profecti quatuor mon- 
achis sibi astantibus tumbam s. Nicolai aperuerunt ossaque ejus 
in oleo natantia in urbem Baream detulerunt anno Domini 


579. Gafhop &» du/=gavt hope and help. 

580. Sprank = sprang. Cf. 1. 589. 
582. //*'/////= healing. 

594. Barre = Ba.rr\, in Italy. 
600. F/c'/(7»ci= floating. 

609-740. This story is entirely wanting in L.A. It is told by V.B., 
xiii. 81, and in CSS. i. 33. The author has probably used V.B. 
621. Cryj= probably for sancte. 
630. ^F//= blame. 
638. A^2t/^/r>/ = novelty. 

651. Thray=thra = thravf, troublesome. 

652. Geffis = vs'ays. 

687. Wrecht. Cf. wreth in 1. 683. 

692. Dintis — d\nts, blows. 

694. Ay noyt to noyt— ay t note by note. 

717. Hele in were =in doubt of restoration. 

NOTES TO NYCHOLAS (XXVL 721-889). 305 

721. /?<?2t(y/=had pity. 

725. Dure ^ dour =h2X^t obstinate. 

735. Tovme=\t\SMrt, 

741-850. L.A. is shorter: "Vir quidam ab uno Judseo quandam 
summam pecuniae mutuo accepit, jurans super altare s. Nicolai, cum 
alium fide jussorem habere nequiret, quod, quam citius posset, sibi 
redderet. Tenente autem illo diu pecuniam Judseus earn expostulavit, 
sed earn sibi reddidisse affirmat Trahit ergo eum ad judicium et 
juramentum indicitur debitori. I lie baculum cavatum quem auro 
minuto impleverat, secum detulerat, ac si ejus adminiculo indigeret. 
Volens igitur facere juramentum Judaeo baculum tradidit reservandum. 
Juravit ille quod plus igitur reddiderit etiam quam deberet Facto 
juramento baculum suum repetiit et Judseus ignarus astutise eum sibi 

757. Fere=i2S—t.e.t to such an extent. 

761. Creance =crt^tnct. O.Fr. creancej L. Lat. credentia. In 1. 
764 the word is used as a verb = trust. 

766. Purfe= poverty. 

768. Defoure =dtbior, 

771. Au/ere=a\taLr, O.Yr. alter ^ auter ; IjaX, altare. 

782. Sammy ne=iogt\htr. 

783. Oratore=^ chdi^tX, church. 
797. W2rwyj/= provided. 
806. C(^2t/a//jtf=covetousness. 

834. And swore falsely, to increase his wickedness. 

851-888. L.A. : " Rediens autem qui fraudem fecerat in quodam 
bivio oppressus somno corruit, currusque cum impetu veniens eum 
necavit et plenum baculum auro fregit et aurum effudit. Audiens hoc 
Judaeus concitus illico venit cumque dolum vidisset et a multis ei 
suggereretur ut aurum reciperet, omnino renuit, nisi, qui defunctus 
fuerat, ad vitam b. Nicolai meritis redderetur, asserens se, si hoc fieret, 
baptismum suscepturum. Continuo qui defunctus fuerat, suscitatur 
et Judaeus in Christi nomine baptizatur." 

870. A!VM//= made known. 

882. Lynt=fynth=\tTigih. 

889-925. L.A. : " Quidam Judaeus videns b. Nicolai virtuosam poten- 
tiam in miraculis faciendis, imaginem ejus sibi fieri praecepit, eamque 
in sua domo coUocavit ; cui res suas, cum aliquo longius abiret, cum 
minis commendabat, haec vel similia verba dicens : ecce Nicolae, omnia 
bona mea tibi custodienda committo et nisi omnia bene custodieris, 
ultionem expetam de te verberibus et flagellis. Quadam igitur vice 
dum ille abesset, fures adveniunt, cuncta rapiunt, solam imaginem 
derelinquunt. Judaeus autem rediens et se spoliatum videns imaginem 
alloquitur talibus vel similibus usus verbis : domine Nicolae, nonne in 
domo mea te posueram, ut res meas a latronibus servares ? cur hoc 
facere noluisti et latrones quare non prohibuisti ? Igitur dira tormenta 

VOL. III. u 


recipies et pro latronibus poenam lues, sicque damnum meum in tuis 
recompensabo tormentis et furorem meum in tuis refrigerabo verber- 
ibus et flagellis. Accipiens ergo Judseus imaginem dire eam verberat 
direque flagellat" 

899. £re—erd=eanth, place. Mod. Scot eartA, Perhaps for othyrt 
ere we should read othyre-quhare, 

913. CAa/2ir^= merchandise. 

918. Nummyne=\3ktXi. 

926-970. L.A. : ^ Mira res prorsus et stupenda : Dividentibus furibus 
quae rapuerant, Sanctus Dei tamquam in se verbera recepisset, ap- 
paruit, haec vel similia dicens : cur tam dire pro vobis flagellatus sum ? 
cur tam crudeliter verberatus? cur tormenta tot passus? ecce quo- 
modo corpus meum livet ! ecce qualiter effusione sanguinis rubet ! 
pergite citius et cuncta reddite quae tulistis, alioquin Dei omnipotentis 
in vos ira desaeviet, ita ut scelus vestrum in medium publicetur et 
quilibet vestrum suspendium patiatur. Ad quem illi : quis es tu qui 
nobis talia loqueris ? £t ille : ego sum Nicolaus, servus Jesu Christi, 
quem Judaeus ille pro rebus suis quas tulistis, tam crudeliter flagellavit 
Territi illi ad Judaeum veniunt, miraculum referunt, ab eo quid imagini 
fecerit audiunt, cuncta reddunt, sicque et latrones ad viam redeunt 
rectitudinis et Judaeus fidem amplectitur salvatoris." 

938. /i5'//=hide, skin. 

948. /// J requires to be deleted. Bares ^^2xx\\ ^«ijyj/= dwelling. 

959. Z>^^tffr=of Barri. 

965. Forhtchi=iorsvfovt^ swore not 

971-994. L.A. : " Vir quidem pro amore filii sui litteras addiscentis 
festum s. Nicolai annuatim solemniter celebrabat. Quadam igitur 
vice pater pueri convivium praeparavit et multos clericos invitavit. 
Venit autem dyabolus ad januam in habitu peregrini patens eleemo- 
synam sibi dari. Jubet quantocius pater filio ut det eleemosynam 
peregrine. Properat puer, sed peregrinum non inveniens insequitur 
abeuntem. Cumque ad quoddam compitum pervenisset, apprehendens 
dyabolus puerum, eum strangulavit." 

972. Z^///y= letters, learning. 

979. A/rt;/^^ry= feast 

990. A^//;;/y« = taken. 

993. At a get sadiis^dX a cross-road. 

995-1018. L.A. : " Quod audiens pater vehementer ingemuit corpus 
tulit, in thalamo collocavit coepitque prae dolore clamare et dicere : fili 
dilectissime, quomodo est vobis ? Sancte Nicolae, haeccine est merces 
honoris quem vobis tamdiu exhibui. Et cum haec et similia diceret, 
statim puer quasi de somno evigilans oculos aperuit et surrexit" 

1004. ^r<2j= woe's. 

1013. Becuth=beg2Ln, 

1018. Bed day = death-day, the day of his death. 

1019-1049. L.A: "Vir quidam nobilis rogavit b, Nicolaum ut sibi 

NOTES TO NYCHOLAS (XXVL 1026-1171). 307 

filium a domino impetraret, promittens se filium ad ecclesiam ejus 
ducturum et scyphum aureum oblaturum. Filius igitur nascitur et ad 
aetatem perducitur et scyphus fieri jubetur. Qui dum sibi valde 
placeret, suis eum adaptavit usibus et alium seque valentem fieri 

1026. A!>ia/'= male child, usually used in conjunction with child or 
barne. See 11. 1030, 1036. 

1031. Colpe^zyx^ ; see 1. 1043, cowpe. Fulfyme={}i\\ fine, very fine. 

1038. That grew and became right wise. 

1040. 2wy/=quiL 

1050. L.A. : ** Navigantibus itaque ad ecclesiam s. Nicolai jubet 
pater filio ut in illo scypho quern primo fieri fecit aquam sibi afferret. 
Puerautem cum vellet haurire cum scypho, in mare cecidit et statim dis- 
paruit Pater autem amare flens nihilominus votum suum perfecit" 

1060. W2yj= waves. 

1066. L.A. : "Veniens igitur ad altare s. Nicolai cum obtulisset 
secundum scyphum, tamquam projectus cecidit de altari ; cum autem 
eum elevasset et super altare iterum posuisset, rursus de altari longius 
est projectus. Mirantibus omnibus ad tam grande spectaculum, ecce 
puer sanus et incolumis advenit primum scyphum suis gestans mani- 
bus, narravitque coram omnibus quod, quando in mare cecidit, statim 
b. Nicolaus affuit et eum illaesum servavit Sicque pater ejus laetus 
effectus utrumque scyphum b. Nicolao obtulit." 

1085. Feld^ felt, sustained. 

1099. -<4/-^«r^= beyond. 

1100-1149. L.A. : " Quidam vir dives meritis b. Nicolai filium 
habuit quern Adeodatum vocavit. Hie Sancto Dei capellam in domo 
sua construens omni anno festum ejus solemniter celebravit. Erat 
autem locus ille situs juxta terram Agarenorum. Adeodatus ergo 
quadam vice ab Agarenis capitur et in servitutem regis eorum 
deputatur. Sequenti anno dum festum s. Nicolai pater ejus devote 
celebraret et puer scyphum pretiosum tenens regi assisteret, recolit 
suam captionem et parentum dolorem et gaudium, quod in domo sua 
ea die fiebat, coepitque altius suspirare. Quorum suspiriorum causam 
dum rex minis extorsisset, ait rex : quidquid tuus N. agat, tu hie 
nobiscum manebis." 

1110. Thraf=ihxovt. 

1118. Agazenis, L.A. Agarenes. 

1150-1169. L.A. : '* Et subito facto vento vehementi totamque dom- 
am concutiente puer cum scypho rapitur et ante fores ecclesiae ubi 
parentes agebant sollemnia, collocatur, et magnum gaudium omnibus 
generatur." L.A. then goes on to add that we elsewhere read that the 
boy belonged to Normandy, and had been taken captive by the Sultan. 

1161. 7Vy«//= tithe, tenth part. 

1167-1171. Conclusion. 

1171. Moi=m3Ly, 


St Machor was one of the disciples of St Columba, the famous 
apostle of the Northern Picts and founder of the celebrated monas- 
tery of lona. According to the * Aberdeen Breviary/ " sanctum virum 
gignit Hibemia, educavit ilium Albania, cujus corpus in reverentia 
Turonensis tenet ecclesia." He was the son of Syaconus or Fiachna^ 
an Irish kingling, and Synchena or Finchoemia, his wife, both of 
whom appear to have been Christians. At baptism, a rite which, 
according to the * Aberdeen Breviary/ was performed for him by St 
Colman, he received the name of Mocumma. St Colman was also 
his first instructor. Proofs and indications of his sanctity were 
vouchsafed while he was yet a child. Angels visited him, and 
hovered around his home and cradle; at the touch of his body his 
dead brother was restored to life, and twice he was miraculously 
delivered from death by drowning and by fire. Sent by his father 
to be instructed by St Columba, he soon became a most devoted 
scholar and disciple of that saint. When Columba was about to 
leave Ireland for Scotland, Mocumma refused to be left behind, and 
resolved to leave his country and home and friends in order to be 
with him. Overjoyed with the zeal and attachment of his disciple, 
Columba changed his name from Mocumma to Machor or Machan 
When they landed on the island of lona, Machor was carried ashore 
by a certain Melluma. After the cells had been built and the com- 
munity thoroughly established in their new home, St Columba sent 
Machor to evangelise the island of Mull. There he preached the 
Gospel over the whole land and healed seven lepers. Returning to 
lona after the completion of his work in Mull, he devoted himself to 
study and to the copying of the Scriptures, one of the chief works in 
which the disciples of Columba were engaged. One day as he wrote 
the light failed him, but blowing on " his fyngre-end," a bright light 
immediately issued from it, and lighted him until his task was done. 
The fame which this and other miracles brought him, soon caused 
great companies to gather around him, offering him gifts, all of 


which, however, he refused to accept. On the other hand, his fellow- 
disciples were moved with jealousy, and attempted to poison him. 
Alarmed for the personal safety of his favourite disciple, Columba 
advised him to withdraw from the island, and preach the Gospel else- 
where. Machor accepted his advice, and Columba gave him seven, 
or, according to another account, twelve companions, a bishop's staff, 
a girdle, two coats, and a number of books, and then sent him away 
in a " galay " or boat, but not before his fellow-disciples who had made 
the attempt on his life had been reconciled to him. Machor landed 
in the north of Scotland, where a Christian man named Farcare 
resided, who received him with great joy, and allowed him to choose 
any portion of his land on which to build his cell. After much search- 
ing, he selected a piece in the shape of a bishop's staff, which answered 
to the description Columba had given him of the place where he was 
to fix his dwelling. Here he caused a "costly kirk" to be built, and 
miraculously provided a supply of water for the thirsty workmen. 
Here also he collected round him a great company of disciples. St 
Devenick came to visit him, and the two agreed that St Devenick 
should preach the Gospel in Caithness, and that St Machor should 
confine himself to the Picts. St Machor threw himself into his work 
with great earnestness, and converted a large number of Picts and 
wrought numerous miracles. He changed a bear, which was destroy- 
ing the harvest, into a stone ; he overcame a heathen sorcerer named 
Dinon or Dron, and then converted and baptised him ; he gave sight 
to a man that was bom blind, and raised Synchenus, who belonged 
to the kindred of St Columba, from death to life ; two young Irish- 
men, attracted by his fame, having mocked him, came by a violent 
end ; having ploughed a large field which was lean and dry, and seed 
failing him with which to sow it, he sent to borrow some from St 
Teman, who sent instead a sack of sand — but sowing this, it sprang 
up and bore an abundant harvest ; a bone which had stuck in the 
throat of a man Avho had despised him, he safely extracted, and 
received in return a piece of land on which to build a church. One 
day St Teman came to visit him ; he entertained him, and the two 
held a long conversation on heavenly things, Machor becoming the 
instructor of his visitor, and causing him to marvel at his wisdom. 
As he lay on the point of death St Devenick besought his disciples to 
carry his dead body to one of the churches of St Machor for burial, 
and, instructed by a vision, the latter went to meet the funeral pro- 
cession. He met it near the Hill of Croscan, and accompanied it to 
Banchory-Devenick, where the saint was buried, and a church erected 
over his tomb. When St Columba proceeded on his pilgrimage to 
Rome, Machor accompanied him. Both were graciously received by 
Gregory the Great, who appointed Machor bishop of the Picts, or, ac- 
cording to another account, bishop of Tours, changed his name to 
Morice or Mauritius, and instructed him in the duties of a bishop. On 


their rcr=r:: jicttict Crl^nba i=f ilachor xzsized Tours. The clergy 
of zhsz cin- 'srer* ihes. searrh.:- ^ fi^- the !»iT of St Mardn. On apply- 
ii^ tc 5: C:l:i=iba f:-r asdsniire. b* przziisec to help them on condition 
thai h* shmli har* whaierir he f:>,;nd with the body. His search 
was scrc-tssful a=.i all -5 with the bccj he fc::nd a missal or "a book 
of the G-zsz^lT whirh he trtsLsiired all ihe resiainder of his life as a 
pncciius relic S: Crl.ziri ire= :cok his war hcrr.c, but IcftMachor, 
msch a^ns: his will, r::czh a: the cart;cst request of the people of 
Tocrs. For the space cf three rears a=d a half St Machor occupied 
the Chair ci St Martiru br whcz: he was visited. His deathbed was 
visited by St Man:- from heaven, rv St Cclumba from lona, and by 
the Sea of God, a=d ever and arc ur.d it were the company of the 
Apostles, and a great host cf heaver/. y 

The old Latin life frcm which the six Iect;or.s in the 'Aberdeen Brev- 
iary/ Novex/Dcr 12. and the passages in Cclgan s ' Trias Thaumatur^ga,' 
318, 514, appear to r.ave been taken, is now lost. Besides these, cf- 
Reeves. * Life of St Columba by Adamnan ' ; Forbes, * KaL of Scottish 
Saints," sti^ Mauritius ; J. Smith. ' Life of St Columba.' The narra- 
tive given in the Legend is the longest and fullest and most important 
knoiik'n. Machor is mentioned in the and Aberdeen Calen- 
dars, and in Adam King's, where he is said to ha\'e lived during the 
reign of " King Soluathius in Scotland." The * Menologium Scotium' 
refers to him, Januar}* 15 and November 13, and in the Calendar of 
David Camerarius he occurs under November 13. 

His day is November 12. 

Analysis — Prologue on the ignorance in Scotland of St Machor's 
greatness and merit, 1-34 ; his birth and name, 35-42 ; his fosterage, 
43-48 ; the angels which visit him are seen by the king his father, 
49-106; the touch of his body restores his dead brother to life, 107-164; 
he is miraculously delivered from death by burning, 165-210; his 
miraculous rescue from drowning, 21 1-28S ; his education and aptness 
as a scholar, 289-316; he is sent to St Columba, under whom he in- 
creases in wisdom and holiness, 317-434 ; he resolves to accompany 
his master, 435-466; his name is changed by Columba from Mocumma 
to Machore, 467-476 ; he sails with Columba, and is carried ashore at 
lona by Melluma, 477-514; they settle in lona, 515-538; Machor is 
sent to Mull, where he preaches the Gospel and heals seven lepers, 
and returns, 539-557 ; he devotes himself to study and copying the 
Scriptures, and on one occasion obtains light by blowing on his 
fingers, 558-568; his brethren attempt to poison him, 569-626; Columba 
sends him away to preach the Gospel, and on his departure his enemies 
arc reconciled to him, 627-736 ; he lands in the north of Scotland, and 
is well received by Farcare, a Christian, who gives him land, whereon 
he builds a church, 737-788 ; he miraculously provides water for the 
workmen, 789-800; he makes disciples, 801-808; he is visited by St 
Dcvenick, with whom he makes an agreement as to the field of their 

NOTES TO MACHOR (XXVH, 1-192). 311 

labours, 809-860; he turas a bear into stone» 861-872; he converts 
Dinon, a sorcerer, 873-904; he heals one born blind, 905-924 ; he restores 
a kinsman of St Columba to life, 925-948 ; the punishment of two young 
Irishmen who mock at him, 949-982 ; sand sown as seed springs up 
into a harvest of corn, 983-1004; he delivers one in great peril of 
choking from a bone in his throat, and builds a church on the land 
given to him in gratitude, 1005- 1063 ; he is visited by St Teman, 
1064-1146 ; the death and burial of St Devenick, 1147-1214 ; he accom- 
panies St Columba to Rome, where he is made bishop and instructed 
in the duties of a bishop, 12 15-1303 ; they leave Rome and tarry at 
Tours, where St Columba leaves Machor, who for three and a half 
years occupied the Chair of St Martin, 1 304-1496; his death, 1497- 1566; 
his burial, 1 567-1 580; the miracles wrought at his tomb, 1581-1614. 

The source whence the author derived his information or material 
was in all likelihood the Latin Life used by the compiler of the * Aber- 
deen Breviary,' and cited in Colgan. As it stands, the story he gives 
is itself the most detailed and important source now known to exist 

1-34. Prologue. 

6. J^ar/eis=^ wonders, miracles. 

9. Jiforyse ='Morice or Mauritius. How he came by this name is 
explained further on. 

10. lVare=v/\se. Cf. Mod. Engl. Ti/ary. 
21. g////^;/ = few. Mod. Scot wheen, 

25. Z(t7r^«= Tours. 

26. 5^/= though, although. 

27. Fetryt =fertryt = entombed. 

37. Syaconus, His Irish or Celtic name was Fiachna. 
39. Synchene, Her Irish name was Finchoem. 
62. Enteryt^tnitT it. a stewyn = one voice — 1>., melodiously. 
65. QuAa aucht \e Aouse=vfho owned the house — a phrase still 
82. -r4/«/= with all. 
93. 7V^ = farm. 
102. Almoh ^//= alms-deeds. 
105. /«rr>5 = thenceforth. 
115. Mast sorow ^«//^= greatest sorrow of all. 
119. Zy«/= stroke. 
180. iV/V///= approach. 
192. Frely ^nohXt, Pl,S, fredliCy liberal, noble. /^w^= child. 

*'Sij>en SCO bare ^frelifode."* 

— C. M.. 10,521. 

•* Beste worthy, syr knyght, art thou 
To wedd X\\ys f rely f ode." 

—' Sir Eglamour of Artois,' 1254. 


*• Men mycht se mony f rely fute/* 

— *The Bruce/ iii. 578. 

** FocU usually has the sense of child, and is used of both sexes ; it 
means, literally, one fed or nourished up." — Skeat, note to 'The 
Bruce,* iii. 578, which see. A.S. foda, food, offspring. 

201. Wfiw///y;/^= hurting. ^a/A= fierce, violent Icel.^<fafr, violent 

213. /%7f^///= forgetful. wa/A= danger. 

219. Fat=v2Xy tub. 

221. Jf^<^///= wrapped. The same word as is used in the phrase 
*• to wip a handle," to wind string or thread closely round it 

235. Bra^Xo^, 

239. Grond=hoiiom, 

242. /r<7^>'/= expected. 

246. So get = }pusgat = i n this way. 

249. 5>&ar/)'/= scratched. 

250. And all the rest of her body that was naked. 

256. p^ tothyr tyme ^/=yet again. y57r/&r«^= destroyed. 

260. -5tfr^= noise. O.Fris. here, 

262. 7>//=/y/= pulled. 

264. Ay^^=«y^-A/V= approached, come. 

271. 00"^= alive. 

274. IVere^pml 

284. pis=]>us, 

288. A god =or\t God. 

295. Grathly=vi^\\, 

299. 7y/^a/w=thewis. See note to XXVI. 175. 

301. Rypare e/d=nper age. 

303. //eare=^higher, M/;/^= things. 

310. CV/tf=zeal. 

312. Fonnu/are^saLxnple. 

322. [^/r>'/= informed. Cf. Icel. vt'/ra, to reveal. 

325. G7///;«^tf=Columba. On his father's side he belonged to the 
reigning families of Ireland and British Dalriada, and on his mother's 
to the house of an illustrious prince of Leinster. He was bom at 
Gartan in Donegal on December 7, 521. Baptised by the presbyter 
Cruithnechan under the name Colum, he was afterwards called Colum- 
cille or the Dove of the Church, because of his assiduity in attending 
the ser\ices of the Church. The early part of his life was spent in the 
neighbourhood of Doire-Eithne. After the period of his fosterage he 
was educated by St Finnian at Moville, by an aged bard named Gem- 
man in Leinster, at the monastic seminary of Clonard,and at Glasnevin, 
where he had for his fellow-students SS. Comgal, Ciaran, and Cainnech, 
who had also been his companions at Clonard. Etchen, bishop of 
Clonfad, ordained him priest, but by mistake it is said, as St Finnian, 
who sent him to be ordained, intended that he should be made a 
bishop. About the year 553 he founded the monastery of Durrow. The 

NOTES TO MACHOR (XZVIL 340480). 313 

battle of Cooldrevny, which St Columba is said to have instigated, was 
fought in 561, and two years later he set sail for Scotland with twelve 
companions, and founded his celebrated monastery in the little island 
of lona. Thence he spread the Gospel over the whole of the north 
of Scotland. He visited Ireland several times. In 574 he formally 
inaugurated his cousin Aidan in the sovereignty of Dalriada, and in 
the following year both of them were present at the Convention of 
Drumceatt, where the claims of the Irish kings to the homage of 
British Dalriada were abandoned, and the province declared inde- 
pendent St Columba was of a warlike disposition, but greatly beloved 
by his disciples. His ruling passion was apparently an intense love 
for beautiful MSS. See Reeves, *Adamnan's Life of St Columba,' 
where all that is known about this great saint, and much more, will 
be found. 

340. 0«rwi^w= overmen = superiors. 

344. AIman==a\\ men. 

347. /?^/y/= feared. 

349. Vndtrlout=^strxdJ\i, in subjection. 

350. Jf^<prM= become = wax. 

352. And hinder him from obtaining heaven's bliss. 

353. Wak=vf2Xc\img, 
367. Salamon =^So\omox\. 
380. 3^w^=gem. 

385. p^. A mistake for he, 

419. ¥ or fore-awt ma xtdA fare-out ;;/a=many more. 

433. Tor passytrt2i6. pass, vnckut^vncutA = \inknov/n, 

447. lVith-\>i= on the condition that. The reason why St Columba 
left Ireland is much disputed. Some say that he left because he was 
excommunicated by the Synod held at Teltown, on account of the part 
he had in the battle of Cooldrevny. On the other hand, it is argued 
that the ban was taken off, and that he went away of his own accord. 
Adamnan*s account leaves the impression that his exile was voluntary. 
But whether or not, the decree of excommunication, if ever passed, was 
not perpetual, as he returned to Ireland several times. But see Reeves. 

451. Suffrant for sovereign, 

454. Eschewe=^'SMo\^ — ;>., the giving of offence to Machor*s parents. 
O.Fr. eschever^ to shun, avoid, eschew, bend from — Cot. and Roquefort. 

473. Warpyst=Z2s\., A.S. weorpan, to throw. 

477. -r4/ar^/= prepare, fit out. O.Fr. appareiller^ to prepare, fit out. 

486, Let/uind=\oaxh\ngf unwilling. 

489. fy =Ion3u Adamnan calls the place "iona insula," making 
"iona"an adjective agreeing with "insula." Tighernach twice em- 
ploys the form /«, once A/e, ^/once, and £0 once. The Ulster Annals 
have /a, hi Coluim-cille^ I Choluim-cilley /, and Eoa, Scottish author- 
ities have insula Yi, Insula /, / Columkilly Hy, /, IColumkyl, In the 
monumental records of the island the prevailing name is K See 


Reeves, Adamnan, p. 258 et seq. Horstmann's suggestion that the 
place may be the present Isle of I slay is improbable. No notice is 
here taken of the fact that Columba and his companions first touched 
at Islay. The place referred to is the island in which they settled — 
viz., lona. 
497. W^^//= waded. 

627. Enhoumyt—enoumyt See note to III. 665. 
541. J/«/^=Mull. 

545. -<4j=when. 

560. The copying of the Scriptures was one of the chief occupations 
of the monks of lona when at home. 

566. A similar miracle is recorded of St Fillan. When Munna, 
his instructor, had forbidden the use of candles in the cells beyond a 
certain hour, Fillan used to hold up his left hand, which then shone 
brilliantly and yielded sufficient light for him to go on with his 

572. ^e co7nmo9i=\\\it common people. cuth=^cane^^\A, 

582. Ane innocent=di child. See 11. 585, 607. 

583. So that they should be less suspected of their intentions. 

584. J/y«g>'/= mingled. 

599. Sanyt, See note to I. 521. 

601. Heldit=iMrv\t6. up. A.S. hyldan^ heldan^ to heel over, to in- 
cline, to pour. 
605. Z_>'^//r^= liquor. OJF v, likeur. 
618. Dowis — dots = d oes. 
624. <Sr*=and=ei«=if. 

628. 5/Jrt«/)'= boldly, openly. See Jamieson, sub speanlie. 
659. And think of none but ourselves. 

674. Wane-treuthi — wan-iruth = truth lessness. 

687. Sezc/ine =stven. The usual number was twelve, to represent 
the Twelve Apostles. 

699. Printey^S — disciples. 

703. 0/1^ ;;/^//^= remember, think upon. A.S. manan, to think of, 

706. 7'>^^r///>'= thoughtful, careful. 

708. ^/t=also. A.S. edc, 

719. Reconscl—x^zoxioWt, 

726. }W=at. So again 1. 733. 

752. 7<?7£///^= residence ; perhaps village; not necessarily a town in 
the modern sense. In Mod. Scot, a farmhouse with its out-buildings 
is called a town. 

779. My master— %\. Columba, who was in all probability well ac- 
quainted with the district, having been in it more than once. 

781. Bygyne — biggin = building. 

791. 5a//>iXr = work. A.S. swincan^ labour. 

795. For the semicolon at the end substitute a comma. 

NOTES TO MACHOR (XXVH 802-€83). 315 

802, This line is corrupt. 
804. />r^/w=Picts. 

811. Dezt^ym^ =Dtven\k, Devenick, or Devinic. The legend of 
this saint, whose name is not found in any of the Irish lists, is given 
by Bishop Forbes, *Kal. Scot. SS./ p. 323, as follows: "When the 
blessed fathers (Columba and Mauricius) were preaching in Scotland^ 
Devinicus, a very old man, also flourished. He divided the work of 
the ministry between himself and Mauricius, going to the Provincia 
Cathinorum (Caithness), while Mauricius went to the Picts. St 
Mauricius (Devinicus?) said, 'Now again we shall be joined. Even 
in the celestial life shall we for ever be joined together, and rejoice 
with Christ. But one thing I desire, that as death is at hand, when 
my time comes, let my body be brought to this place, and be buried 
here.* The saint agreed, and Devinicus went to the Cathini, preach- 
ing the Word. At length Devinicus came to die, and told them to 
take his body to some of the churches of Mauricius, mindful of his old 
engagement And this was done. The following night St Mauricius 
saw angels descending upon the church where the holy body lay, and 
said, * A guest cometh to whom we must pay honour* ; but on coming 
they found not the body, for they who carried it, wishing to rest, had 
borne it to a place called Crostan. There they held vigil, and then 
they brought it to a place called Banquhory Devynik, where a church 
was raised to his honour." In the * Brev. Aberdeen ' (pars estiva., fol. 
clx a) the legend is given at greater length, and accords more closely 
with what follows here. 

812. 3^^= yoke ; with reference to our Lord's word, " Take my yoke 
upon you," &c. — Matt. xi. 

825. J)us for ]?/>^= these. 

827. Ctf/«^j= Caithness. 

852. Crrr/;i//= christened, baptised. 

872. A yird stone ^2Lti earth-fast stone. 

877. Payeme=Yitzi\itn, 

879. F<f«= think, imagine. 

885. Or = before. 

893. VVith'\>t, See note to 1. 447. 

927. /«-z//r/Y?««tf= encompassing. O.Fr. environner^ "to inviron, 
encompasse " — Cot. 

940. Lofy probably a mistake for liffit, 

972. /?«//= rued, regretted. 

98L C?^«^= latrine. A.S. gcmg^ go^g f^^o^S* ^^ stct of going, a 
privy, sewer. ** Goonge, preuy. Cloaca, latrina." — ' Prompt Par.' 

983. Jf^ar^= spring. 

"This wes in were, quhen vyntir tyde 
Vith his blastis, hydwift to byde, 
Wes ourdriffin." 

—•The Bruce,' V. 1-3. 


" Somere a were tboa focrmTd rha." 

— Hampnfr. Fsalm iTritf. i3b 

Cf. IccL i'4r, and LaL I'en 

966. ffV/// (x^ land— well-conditioned land. 

967. Liyni = lean, poor. A.S. klan£. 
96& Ry^ryt. 

969. Z^/^^j= largess, bounty. 

999. 7>r7xa;x^=Teman. St Teman, Archbishop of the Picts, is 
identified with Toranan of the Irish Calendars, the Abbot of Bangor. 
by Ree^-es, Todd, and Forbes, who connect him with SS. Palladius 
and Servanus. The ' Breviary of Aberdeen' (pars hyem., foL cr) devotes 
six lections to him, and confuses the chronology by making him live 
in the time of St Gregory. Bishop Forbes believes that the lections 
may be regarded as authentic so far as the}* relate to Teman's parent- 
age and baptism by Palladius, and gives the following summary of 
his legend : ^St Teman was bom of noble parents in the province of 
Mymia, and St Palladius, divinely warned, baptised him. Hearing 
of the fame of St Gregory, he betook himself to Rome to submit him- 
self to his discipline. After seven years the Pope raised him to the 
episcopate, and sent him back to his own country to preach the Gospd 
to the unbelievers there. A bell given him by the Pope miraculously 
followed him till he reached Albania. Convecturius, who was prince 
of that country, at first opposed the saint, but, warned by miracle, 
he was baptised. In spring St Macharius sent to him for seed : 
having none, he retumed the sack filled with sand, which he accord- 
ingly sowed, and reaped an excellent har\esL" Dempster places his 
death at Abernethy. According to the Martyrology of Aberdeen 
(c, A.D. 1500), his head, with the tonsured surface still uncorrupt, 
was preserved at Banchory-Ternan along with his Gospel of St 
Matthew, being one of the ** Evangelistamm quatuor voluminibus 
mctallo inclusis, argento auro texto in superficia fabricatis." At 
the same place was preserved the ronecht or bell of St Teman, 
which had a hereditary keeper, with "deray croft" (Reg. Episc. 
Abcr., i. 327, 328). His relics were preserved at the Cathedral of 
Aberdeen in a monstrance in the treasury (ibid., ii. 185). But the 
most important remains connected with the name of St Teman is the 
* Lihcr Ecclesiac Bcati Terrenani de Arbuthnott missale secundum 
U.sum Kcdcsiai sancti Andrea; in Scotia,' written by James Sybald, 
vicar of Arbuthnott, and finished Februar>' 22, 1491-92. The original 
is in the possession of the Right Hon. Viscount Arbuthnott, and is 
specially valuable as being the only complete missal of the Scottish 
Use now known to be extant. It was edited by Bishop Forbes and 
the Rev. H. G. Forbes, and published at Burntisland in 1864. Sec 
the articles in Smith's * Diet of Christ. Biogr.,* and Forbes, * Kal. of 
Scot. SS.,* p. 450. 

1006. Into his throat stuck so fast. 

NOTES TO MACHOR (XXVIL 1008-1439). 317 

1008. Swefy= swaWovf. 

1010. JVracAe=wTGich, 

1030. pa the, A misprint for \at he, 

1037. /'/aw = level. 

1039. Treisfare, At the time churches in Scotland and Ireland were 
usually made of wood. See Adamnan*s 'Life of St Columba* and 
Jocelyn's * Life of St Kentigern.' 

1048. Through pride and greedy avarice. 

1100. Sermonyng^ intercou rse. 

1102. And as long as they sat at the table. 

1120. 5/r^^= stretch, reach. 

1121. A'/«///k= natural. 
1126. pa/=at. 

1131. Hey or /aze/=high or low. 

1132. Z>^w^= think, judge. Mod. Engl, deem, 

1133. Gattts ^viSiys, 

1153. Z>^/ii'/ra= death-straw, deathbed. His couch was evidently of 
straw. St Columba's is said to have been a stone. 

1154. A'<?j/= nearest. 
1162. ///V^/= promise. 
1164. 5/^^= speaking. 

1170. Z/«/fy«^= residence, dwelling. 

1186. Gestenere=g\x^si, CL gestering, A,S, goesty gest, gasi, 

1188. Spe seems redundant, and should probably be deleted, visidie 

1190. Ws acht^ii behoves us : acht is used impersonally. 

1197. Creshane =CrostSin, 

1199. Fresf e^dtiay, IctLJresf, delay. 

1204. Before they slept. 

1206. Banchory, Banchory-Devenick is in the neighbourhood of 

1240. Z><7a//«^= judgment, thinking. 

1241. Swink &* swet= toll and sweat. 
1291. Schosine for chosine—<:^ostXi, 
1312. Torone^'Yowx%, 

1327. Wayag— voyage, j oumey. 
1339. Quhemfull^ quemful^ pleasi ng. 
1346. -r4r^= heir. 

1354. Hankis^Xyvads, 

1355. C«rft= course. 

1356. 2«A///= until. 

1358. PK^ni7w«^= guerdon, reward. 

1416. Lawide=\acy. 

1431. 7wra«^= Tours. 

1434. The line is corrupt 

1439. 5a;;///ar= example. Mod. Engl, sampler. 


1443. /Ceyn€=kjme=k{ndred. 

1456. Ar a/^r«/=are gone. 

1457. Sau/e'Aj^rd= soul-herd, bishop of their souls. 
1464. Demayfu^Mst, 

1471. Postill =2i^os\\t. 

1506. Orator =OTZioryt a small chapel. 

1539. Deuod^cXeaiT, 

1547. Froynttis = foreheads. 

1578. Ferane=ferme—^uti^ confirm. 

1589. i5«/^=help. A.S. bdt, advantage, profit. 

1597. 5ze/amr/^=thin. 


The legend of St Margaret is of Eastern origin. It was known in 
Europe as early as the fifth century, being among those which Pope 
Gelasius pronounced apocryphal in 494. From that time very little is 
heard of it till the eleventh century, when it was reintroduced into the 
West by the first Crusaders, who made both her legend and her name 
popular. The first person of distinction in Europe who bore this name 
was Margaret, the sister of Edgar Atheling of England, and Queen of 
Malcolm III. of Scotland. She received the name in Hungary, where 
she was born in 1046, and introduced it into the west of Europe. She 
was herself canonised as a saint, and the affection in which she was 
held in Scotland and England probably contributed very much to 
render the name popular throughout the island. Of the original St 
Margaret, the following is the legend as told by Mrs Jameson (' Sacred 
and Legendary Art,' ii. 516-518), from whom also the above particulars 
are taken : — 

"She was the daughter of a priest of Antioch named Theodosius, 
and in her infancy, being of feeble health, she was sent to a nurse in 
the country. This woman, who was secretly a Christian, brought up 
Margaret in the true faith. The holy maid, while keeping the few 
sheep of her nurse, meditated on the mysteries of the Gospel, and 
devoted herself to the service of Christ. One day the governor of 
Antioch, whose name was Olybrius, in passing by the place saw her, 
and was captivated by her beauty. He commanded that she should 
be carried to his palace, being resolved, if she were of free birth, to 
take her for his wife ; but Margaret rejected his offers with scorn, and 
declared herself the servant of Jesus Christ. Her father and all her 
relations were struck with horror at this revelation. They fled, leaving 
her in the power of the governor, who endeavoured to subdue her con- 
stancy by the keenest torments. They were so terrible that the tyrant 
himself, unable to endure the sight, covered his face with his robe ; 
but St Margaret did not quail beneath them. Then she was dragged 
to a dungeon, where Satan, in the form of a terrible dragon, came upon 


her with his inflamed and hideous mouth wide open, and sought to 
terrify and confound her ; but she held up the cross of the Redeemer, 
and he fled before it Or, according to the more popular version, he 
swallowed her up alive, but immediately burst, and she emerged un- 
hurt,— another form of the familiar allegory, the power of sin over- 
come by the power of the Cross. He returned in the form of a man 
to tempt her further, but she overcame him, and, placing her foot 
upon his head, forced him to confess his foul wickedness, and to 
answer her questions. She was again brought before the tyrant, and 
again refusing to abjure her faith, she was further tortured ; but the 
sight of so much constancy in one so young and beautiful only in- 
creased the number of converts, so that in one day five thousand were 
baptised, and declared themselves ready to die with her. Therefore 
the governor took counsel how this might be prevented, and it was ad- 
vised that she should be beheaded forthwith. And as they led her 
forth to death, she thanked and glorified God that her travail was 
ended; and she prayed that those who invoked her in the pains of 
childbirth should find help through the merit of her sufferings, and in 
memory of her deliverance from the womb of the great dragon. A 
voice from heaven assured her that her prayer was granted ; so she 
went and received joyfully the crown of martyrdom, being beheaded 
with the sword." 

Her day is July 20. 

"Her attribute in devotional pictures is the dragon, which is 
sometimes bound with a cord, or his jaws are distended as if to 
swallow her; or he is seen rent and burst, and St Margaret stands 
upon him unhurt. As a martyr she bears the palm and crown, which 
in general seem to distinguish her from St Martha, who has also the 
attribute of the dragon and the cross." — Ibid., pp. 518, 519. 

Analysis — Prologue on the virtues of the pearl and on the character 
of St Margaret, 1-58 ; her birth and fosterage and conversion, 59-78; 
her mother dies, her father neglects her, and she watches the flocks of 
her fosterer, 79-102; Olibryus the governor wishes to marry her, but 
she refuses his offers with scorn, 103-124 ; being tortured, she persists, 
125-208 ; she is cast into a dungeon, and on the following day is again 
tortured, so cruelly that Olibryus himself is obliged to cover his face 
with his mantle in order to shut out the sight of her sufferings, 209- 
382 ; Christ sends her comfort, and she prays, 383-406 ; on looking up 
she sees in her cell, whither she has been borne, Satan in the form of 
a huge dragon, which takes her into its mouth and swallows her, but 
she makes the sign of the cross, when the beast bursts and she escapes, 
407-424 ; Satan next appears to her in the form of a man, but she 
again overcomes him, 425-445 ; she interrogates her adversary, 446- 
503 ; she again prays and is answered, 504-523 ; being again brought 
out before Olybrius, he again tempts her, and his overtures being 
rejected, an attempt is made to drown her, 524-572 ; her prayer and 


deliverance, and coronation and heavenly witness, 573-603 ; many are 
converted through hearing the heavenly testimony, 604-619 ; Olibryus 
then orders her execution, but obtaining a short respite, she spends 
it in prayer, 620-669 ; the signs vouchsafed to her from heaven, and 
their effect on the bystanders, 670-687 ; her death, 688-707 ; her burial, 

Source — Cf. L.A., cap. 93, and the Acta in the * Act. SS. Boll.,' 20th 
July, V. pp. 33-59, both of which are departed from. 

1-58, Prologue. L.A. is partly similar : " Marg. dicitur a quadam 
pretiosa gemma quae margarita vocatur: quas gemma est Candida, 
parva et virtuosa. Sic b. M. fuit Candida per virginitatem, parva per 
humilitatem, virtuosa per miraculorum operationem. Virtus autem 
huius lapidis dicitur esse contra sanguinis effusionem, contra cordis 
passionem et ad spiritus confortationem. Sic b. M. habuit virtutem 
contra effusionem sui sanguinis per constantiam, quia in suo martirio 
constantissima exstitit, contra cordis passionem i. e. dasmonis tenta- 
tionem per victoriam, quia ipsa dyabolum superavit, ad spiritus con- 
fortationem per doctrinam, quia per suam doctrinam multorum animos 
confortavit et ad Christi fidem convertit Cuius legendam Theotimus 
vir eruditus scripsit." 

3. Margaret, Lat margarita^ Gr. fAapycLplrrfSj a pearl. Arrian, M. 
By says that /jbapyapCrrjs is an Indian word. It occurs in the Sanscrit in 
the form manjari. Origan gives much curious learning about pearls 
in his Commentary on Matt. xiii. 45, 46. So also does Ammianus 
Marcellinus, xxiii. 6, 85-87, and Pliny, H. N., ix. 35. According to 
the ancient theory, the fish conceived the pearl from the dew of heaven, 
and, according to the quality of the dew, it was pure and round or 
cloudy and deformed with specks. 

6. Praphetis =^ro^iSy virtues. 

6. lVei7e=2it a good price. 

10. C<an//Vi^a= spasms of the heart. ^^Cardt'ague, a consumption, 
and continuall sweat, by the indisposition of the heart, and parts 
about it." — Cotgrave. Batman vppon Bartholomd, lib. vii. cap. 32, 
"Of heart-quaking and the disease cardiac/e" says, "heart-quaking 
or cardiacle is an euill that is so called because it cometh often of 
default of the heart." Du Cange, in the most recent edition, has 
" Cordiay maladie de cuer. Cordiacus, qui patitur ilium morbum." 
And again, ^^ Cordiacus, morbus nascens ob nimiam imbecillitatem 
corporis languente stomacho." Cotgrave also has, among other defini- 
tions of cardtaque^ "pained in the stomache." The ordinary word 
was cardiakylle or cardiake. The word occurs in * Piers Plowman ' 
and in Chaucer. See *Cath. Ang.,' and Skeat's *P. P.,* ii. p. 277, 

12. iT/(f/=food. w(yja/r>'= leprosy. 

15. F<rAw= ouches, the socket of a precious stone. The proper 
form of the word is nouch, O.Fr. nouckey noscAe^ nusche^ a buckle, 



clasp, bracelet, g^ven by Burguy, sub v. nosche. Low Lat nusca^ a 
buckle, &c. See Skeat and * Prompt. Par.,* where Way quotes among 
other passages the following from W. Thomas, Ital. Grammar, "i^rr- 
maglio^ the hangeyng owchey or flowre that women use to tye at the 
chaine or lace that thev weare about their neckes." So that one 
sense of the word is exactly that of the Mod. Eng. " locket." C£ 
Exod. xxviii. 14, &c. 

28. Oure cdleris med= the help of us all. 

42. 7l!7(v''^= unsteady. Cf. M. Dut., touter^ a swing. See Skeat, 
sub totter, /ekii— fickle. 

46. 5i/rr«^f>'= presumption. O.Fr. sorcuiderie^ presumption, usu- 
ally under the form sorcutdance, " arrogance, temerity, presumption." 
— Roq. O.Fr. sor; Lat. super and cuider; Lat. cogitare. In Barbour 
the form is succudry — * The Bruce,* xi. 1 1, xii. 297. 

5L »S*/aa/«^j=dulness, lukewarmness. *' 5te«/«/jj^, or dulnesse of 
e^Z^. Ebetudo, obtusitas." — ' Prompt. Par.' 

52. G^«^^r^/^= grudging. A.S. ^^^jfe, stingy. 

57. Teophinus = Theotimus. 

59-220. L.A. : " M. de civitate Antiochiae filia fuit Theodosii gen- 
tilium patriarchse : haec nutrici traditur et ad adultam setatem veniens 
baptizatur et propter hoc exosa patri plurimum habebatur. Quadam 
igitur die, dum jam annum XV attigisset et cum aliis virginibus ovcs 
nutricis custodiret, prasfectus Olibrius inde transitum facienset puellam 
tam speciosam considerans, mox in ejus amore exarsit et pueros ad se 
concitus misit dicens : ite et eam comprehend ite, ut, si libera est, earn 
mihi in uxorem accipiam, si ancilla est, eam mihi in concubinam 
habeam. Cum ergo ejus aspectui fuisset praesentata, eam de genere 
suo ac nomine et religione requisivit. Ilia autem respondit, se genere 
nobilem, nomine Margaretam ac religione christianam. Cui prasfec- 
tus : (duo prima tibi recte conveniunt, quia nobilis haberis et pulcher- 
rima margarita comprobaris), sed tertium tibi non convenit, ut puella 
tam pulchra et nobilis Deum habeat crucifixum. Cui ilia : unde scis, 
Christum fuisse crucifixum ? Et ille : ex libris christianorum. Cui 
M. : cum igitur legatur poena Christi et gloria, quae verecundia est 
vestra, ut unum credatis et alterum denegetis ? Cum autem M. eum 
sponte crucifixum fuisse pro redemtione nostra assereret, sed nunc eum 
in acternum vivere affirmaret, iratus prasfectus eam in carcerem mitti 

6L C/^r^= noble. 

64. LawiSy read /awe=\ai'w, religion. A.S. /agu, 

68. W^/^«/^= without. Mod. Scot, outwith, 

69. /««^^ = enough. 

76. Scho gef na tale—va^Ae no account. Langland has the same 
phrase — "Gyue \€\ neuere tale ** = they make no account, B. xix. 
451, and " Holde \€\ no tale " = they make no account, B. i. 9. 

90. Her death than life or welfare. 

NOTES TO MARGARET (ZXVm. 93^0). 323 

93. Boufe =bta.uty. Cf. bewte^ 1. 102, and beute, 11. 114, 120. 
110. i?^«>7'/= denied, renounced. 
123. Wety probably a mistake for heL 

127. W^^j= wolves. A.S. wulf; Dut. and Ger. wolfj Icel. ^Ifr; 
DaLn,u/v; Sv/td, u/f, ^mM= fierce. 
130. Rewis= csxry off. 
139. -Fa«^/= tempt 
141. /*^/kj/= polished. 
154. Of'xs tautological. 

183. 5^/= although. 

184. C/«^=claw, clutch. 
188. Faynde—fand, 1. 139. 

190. (?r^/= aught, anything. 

191. A''^r^/= naught, nothing. 

202. Godede = Godhede = Godhead, D i vinity. 

221-260. L.A. : •* Sequenti autem die eam ad se vocari fecit eique 
dixit ; vana puella, miserere pulcritudinis tuae et deos nostros adora, 
ut tibi bene sit. Cui ilia : ilium adoro quem terra contremiscit, mare 
formidat et omnes creaturae timent. Cui prasfectus : nisi mihi con- 
sentias, corpus tuum faciam laniari. Cui M. : Christus in mortem 
semetipsum pro me tradidit et ideo pro Christo mori desidero.^' 

225. Z>«w/j/^r-j/«/^= judgment-seat. 

249. il/^=made. 

250. H^^=wade. 

261-345. L.A. is much shorter: "Tunc praefectus jussit eam in 
equuleo suspendi et tam crudeliter primo virgis, deinde pectinibus 
ferreis usque ad nudationem ossium laniari, quod sanguis de ejus 
corpore tamquam de fonte purissimo emanavit." 

268. &* rawis Jleschf probably for raw hyr flesch — ue,^ tore, ripped 
up, her flesh. Cf. 1. 276, " hyr far flesch raf." 

279. Ifaudersione=habtrgton. O.Fr. '' haubergeon (the diminutive 
of haubert\ a little coat of maile ; or, onely sleeves, and gorget of 
maile.** — Cot. 

314. Z^w^= shine. 

316. Lyft^-sky, Mod. Scot. luft. 

322. C^z«^= became. 

327. Stering=s\\v^ motion, power. 

346-358. L.A. : "Flebant autem qui ibi aderant et dicebant : o Mar- 
gareta, vere de te dolemus, quia corpus tuum tam crudeliter laniari 
conspicimus ; o qualem amisisti pulchritudinem propter tuam incred- 
ulitatem I tamen nunc vel saltern crede, ut vivas." 

359-370. L.A. : " Quibus ilia : o mali consiliarii, recedite et abite, 
haec camis cruciatio est animae salvatio ; dixitque ad praefectum : im- 
pudens canis et insatiabilis leo, in camem potestatem babes^ sed ani- 
mam Christus reservat" 

370. Rtcht nocht =^}\xsi nothing. 


371-386. L.A. : " Praefectus autem faciem chlamyde operiebat nee 
tantam sanguinis effusionem videre poterat; deinde earn deponi fecit 
et in carcerem recludi jussit, et mira ibi claritas fulsit." 

378. Gare^ger, Spenser has ^ar. Mod. Scot. ^ar. 

387-406. L.A. has merely : " Ubi dum esset, oravit Dominum ut in- 
imicum, qui secum pugnat, sibi visibiliter demonstraret" 

407-424. L.A, : " Et ecce draco immanissimus ibidem appaniit; qui 
dum eam devoraturus impeteret, signum crucis edidit et ille evanuit; 
vel, ut alibi legitur, os super caput ejus ponens et linguam super cal- 
caneum porrigens eam protinus deglutivit, sed dum eam absorbere 
vellet, signo crucis se munivit et ideo draco virtu te crucis crepuit et 
virgo illsesa exivit. (I stud autem quod dicitur de draconis devoratione 
et crepatione, apocryphum et frivolum putatur.) " 

414. VryiS, The correct reading is probably 4yH3= bristles. A.S. 
byrst^ a bristle. Mod. Scot, birss: bristles in a collective sense. 

418. .S'«^/>'= swallow. 

425-464. L.A. : " Dyabolus iterum, ut eam decipere posset, in 
speciem hominis se mutavit : quern videns in orationem se dedit, et 
dum surrexisset, dyabolus ad eam accessit et manum tenens dixit: 
sufficiant tibi, quae fecisti, ideo nunc cessa de mea persona. Ilia autem 
eum per caput apprehendit et sub se ad terram dejecit et super cer- 
vicem ejus dexterum pedem posuit et dixit : stemere, superbe daemon, 
sub pedibus feminae. Daemon autem clamabat : O b. Marg., superatus 
sum ; si juvenis me vinceret, non curassem, ecce a tenera puella super- 
atus sum ; et inde plus doleo, quia pater tuus et mater tua amici mei 

430. y^iifw- thighs. 

435. 7/<rzM = with indignation, in anger. I eel. hati^ scorn, contempt 

437. Harshly ^\\zxs\\\^, 

445. Read " of [my] person." Cf. L. A. 

448. -5w/=help, relief, remedy. A.S. bdt The meaning is, There 
is no help for thee. 

454. Car^= anxiety, shame. Cf. 1. 461. 

465-482. L.A. : " Ilia vero eum coegit, ut diceret, cur venisset. Qui se 
venisse ait, ut sibi consuleret, quod monitis prassidis obediret Coegit 
quoque, ut diceret cur christianos tarn multipliciter tentaret Qui re- 
spondit, naturale odium sibi esse contra viros virtuosos, et quamvis 
saepe ab iis repellatur, sed tamen desiderio seducendi ipse infestus 
exsistit et, quia invidet homini de felicitate quam ipse amisit, quamvis 
eam recuperare non possit, ipsam tamen aliis auferre contendit." 

483-494. L,A. : "Addiditque quod Salomon infinitam daemonum 
multitudinem in quodam vase inclusit, post mortem autem suam cum 
de illo vase daemones ignem mitterent et homines ibidem magnum 
esse thesaurum putarent, vas confregerunt et daemones exeuntes aerem 

483. 5a/rt/«^5 = Solomon. 

NOTES TO MARGARET (ZXVm. 484-704). 325 

484. Trown, a misspelling for thrown or throne. 

488. C<7Wtf//Vtf=covetousness, greed. 

495-503. L.A. : "His dictis virgo pedem sublevavit et dixit: fuge, 
miser ; et daemon statim evanuit. Secura igitur efficitur, quia, quae 
principem vicerat, ministrum sine dubio superaret." 

502. For \e hand xt2Afra ^«^/= straight away. 

504-523. Not in L.A. 

509. Gyfis na tale. See note to 1. 76 above. 

513. i^«y«^^«^>= temptations. 

524-563. L.A. : " Sequent! igitur die convenientibus populis judici 
praesentatur et sacrificare contemnens exuitur corpusque facibus arden- 
tibus comburitur, ita ut cuncti mirarentur quomodo tarn tenera puella 
tot posset tormenta sustinere." 

527. i^^/= fetch. 

528. C^rry^j/)^= seriously ; but perhaps we should read curyosly, 
564-691. L.A. is much shorter, and omits several of the incidents : 

" Deinde in vase pleno aqua ipsam ligari atque poni fecit, ut ex poen- 
arum commutatione cresceret vis doloris, sed subito terra concutitur 
et cunctis videntibus virgo illaesa egreditur. Tunc v millia virorum 
crediderunt et pro nomine Christi capitalem sententiam accepenint 
Praefectus autem timens ne alii converterentur, concitus b. Margaretam 
decollari praecepit, ilia autem impetrato orandi spatio pro se et suis 
persecutoribus necnon et pro ejus memoriam agentibus et se invocanti- 
bus devote oravit, addens, ut, quaecumque in partu periclitans se invo- 
caret, illaesam prolem emitteret ; factaque est de ccelo vox quod in suis 
se noverit petitionibus exauditam ; surgensque ab oratione dixit spicu- 
latori : frater, tolle gladium tuum et percute me." 

567. A^^j^/= painful. 

590. Erdine = eart hqu ake. A. S . eortSdyne, 

601. iT/<(iy=maid. Icel. mey^ ace. of mar^ a maid. 

603. ^^/>= await. Mod. Scot bide. 

620. Z>r^/= dreaded. 

639. Gayne—%ox\t, 

645. 5^r/= desert. 

678. Bown=^\iooxi^ prayer. 

684. C«f^= court. 

686. Hydwis=^)\\^t.oyi% fearful, dreadful. 

691. Fourmyt ={ormGdt framed, given. 

692-703. Not in L.A. 

697. JVenemyt= poisoned; but perhaps for u^^/^/nty/s spotted, guilty. 

701. //!/«/= impute. 

704-729. L.A. : "Qui percutiens caput ejus uno ictu abstulit et sic 
martirii coronam suscepit. Passa est autem xiv Cal. Augusti, ut in 
ejus hystoria invenitur ; alibi legitur quod in ydus Julii." After which 
follows in L.A. a short citation respecting the virtues of Margaret. 


St Placidus is more generally known as St Eustatius or Eustace. 
His name was banished from the English Calendar. He is not 
mentioned in the Scottish Calendar, nor in the * Menologium Scot,' 
nor in the Martynim Calendar of Aberdeen, nor yet in the Arbuthnott 
nor Drummond Calendars ; but under September 20, Adam King has, 
" St Eustache with his wyffad baimes martt vnder Adrianus." The 
following account of him is taken from Mrs Jameson's * Sacred and 
Legendary Art,' ii. 792 et seq, : — 

" St Eustace was a Roman soldier, and captain of the guards to 
the Emperor Trajan. His name before his conversion was Placidus, 
and he had a beautiful wife and two sons, and lived with gp*eat mag- 
nificence, practising all the heathen virtues, particularly those of 
loyalty to his sovereign and charity to the poor. He was also a 
great lover of the chase, spending much of his time in that noble 

"One day, while hunting in the forest, he saw before him a white 
stag of marvellous beauty, and he pursued it eagerly, and the stag fled 
before him, and ascended a high rock. Then Placidus, looking up, 
beheld, between the horns of the stag, a cross of radiant light, and on 
it the image of the crucified Redeemer; and being astonished and 
dazzled by the vision, he fell on his knees, and a voice, which seemed 
to come from the crucifix, cried to him, and said, ' Placidus, why dost 
thou pursue me.*^ I am Christ, whom thou hast hitherto ser\'ed with- 
out knowing me. Dost thou now believe?* And Placidus fell with 
his face to the earth, and said, *Lord, I believe.' And the voice 
answered, saying, * Thou shalt suffer many tribulations for my sake, 
and shall be tried by many temptations ; but be strong and of good 
courage, and I will not forsake thee.* To which Placidus replied, 
' Lord, I am content. Do Thou give me patience to suffer.* And 
when he looked up again, the wondrous vision had departed. Then 
he arose and returned to his house, and the next day he and his wife 
and his two sons were baptized, and he took the name of Eustace. 


But it happened as it was foretold to him ; for all his possessions were 
spoiled by robbers, and pirates took away his beautiful and loving 
wife, and, being reduced to poverty and in deep affliction, he wandered 
forth with his two children, and coming to a river swollen with 
torrents, he considered how he might cross it. He took one of his 
children in his arms, and swam across, and having safely laid the child 
on the opposite bank, he returned for the other; but just as he had 
reached the middle of the stream, a wolf came up and seized on the 
child he had left, and ran off with it into the forest ; and when he 
turned to his other child, behold, a lion was in the act of carrying it 
off ! And the wretched father tore his hair, and burst into lamenta- 
tions, till, remembering that he had accepted of sorrow and trial, and 
that he was to have patience in the hour of tribulation, he dried his 
tears and prayed for resignation ; and coming to a village, he abode 
there for fifteen years, living by the labour of his hands. At the end 
of that time the Emperor Adrian, being then on the throne, and requir- 
ing the services of Placidus, sent out soldiers to seek him through all 
the kingdoms of the earth. At length they found him, and he was 
restored to all his former honour, and again led on his troops to 
victory, and the Emperor loaded him with favours and riches ; but his 
heart was sad for the loss of his wife and children. Meanwhile his 
sons had been rescued from the jaws of the wild beasts, and his wife 
had escaped from the pirates ; and, after many years, they met and re- 
cognised each other, and were reunited ; and Eustace said in his 
heart, * Surely all my tribulation is at an end ! ' But it was not so, 
for the Emperor Adrian commanded a great sacrifice and thanks- 
giving to his false gods, in consequence of a victory he had gained 
over the Barbarians. St Eustace and his family refused to offer 
incense, remaining steadfast in the Christian faith. Whereupon the 
Emperor ordered that they should be shut up in a brazen bull, and a 
fire kindled under it ; and thus they perished together." 

His day is September 20. 

In art St Placidus or Eustace is represented either as a Roman 
soldier or armed as a knight, and near him the miraculous stag. He 
is distinguished from St Hubert by his classical or warrior costume. 

Analysis — Introduction on the necessity of timely repentance, 1-42; 
second introduction on tribulation as the way to joy, 43-62 ; the birth, 
character, occupations, and conversion of Placidas, 63-172 ; he and his 
wife and children are baptized, when his name and that of his wife are 
changed, 173-196; next morning he proceeds to where Christ has 
promised to meet him, and is told of the tribulations that await him, 
197-290; the enmity of Satan, 291-304; Eustace loses all his men 
through a pestilence, 305-314 ; all his cattle and flocks are slain, his 
castles cast down and estates destroyed, 315-328 ; he is despoiled of his 
treasures and wealth, 329-334 ; reduced to starvation, he leaves the 
town where he is dwelling and directs his course to Egypt, 335-347 1 


the Emperor and Rome lament his disappearance, 348-360 ; Eustace 
being unable to pay his passage, the shipmaster seizes his wife, and he 
is obliged to depart with his children, 361-407 ; when trying to ford a 
river a wolf carries away one of his children and a lion the other, 408- 
447 ; unknown to Eustace, the children are rescued, 448-465 ; his lament, 
466-527 ; he lives for fifteen years in the same town as his children, 
but none of them is aware of the fact, 528-539; the Emperor having 
sent in search of Placidas, he is found and brought before him, and 
restored to wealth and honour, 540-673 ; he collects an army and goes 
to the wars, 674-719; his sons, who, unknown to him, are in the army, 
take up their lodgings in their mother's house, when the two recount 
the story of their lives, and a mutual recognition takes place, 720-793 ; 
next morning the mother, who has heard their story, goes to PlacidaSi 
tells her story to him, and recounts what she has heard of the young 
men, when all are restored to each other, 794-903 ; Adrian succeeds 
Trajan as Emperor, and at first receives St Eustace well, but after- 
wards commands sacrifices to be offered to the gods, and St Eustace 
refusing, he orders him and his wife and two sons to be thrown to the 
lions, and when the lions refuse to harm them, to be confined in a 
brazen ox and roasted to death, 904-989 ; their constancy and burial, 
990-1017; conclusion, 1018-1021. 

Source — Cf. L.A. cap. 161, which is not always followed. In some 
passages the narrative is near to the Acta in ' Acta SS. Boll.,' Septem- 
ber 20, v. pp. 123-137. 

1-62. Author's introduction. 

17. Therefore it were good to do. 

18. 7-/7= while. 

20. Quhyt hare—^\i\\.t. hair. 
23. 3^^*^«= yellow. 
25. I4«^= breath. 

27. Thryd fut^\ki\x^ foot — i.e,^ staff, hym 'worihis=h^ needs. 

28. Potent =2i staff or crutch. The word is used by Langland (B. 
viii. 96) in the sense of a crosier. Chaucer calls the " tipped staff" 
carried by the itinerant limitour a " potent." " Potent or crotche. 
Podium.^^ — 'Prompt. Par.' ^^ Potence, a gibbet; also a crutch for a 
lame man." — Cot. See Du Cange, sub Potentia, 

31. Happy n=^\i2i^'^y, fortunate. 

** I>ay am happen \k\X hau in hert pouertd 

For hores is )« heuen-ryche to holde for euer." 

— ' E. E. AlliL Poems,' iii. 
Icel. heppitifiy fortunate. 

34. J/^«^/= amend, repent. 

36. That God seldom has pity. 

41. Thangno ;«^^i?= thank (favour) nor reward. 

43. ^^^=read. 

NOTES TO PLACIDAS (XXIX. 45-129). 329 

45. FoTy a mistake for /r^^ from. 

60. Mychtis, plu. of w^^^/= might. 

63-84. L.A. : " Eustachius ante Placidus vocabatur. Hie erat magis- 
ter militum Trajani imperatoris. Erat autem operibus misericordiae 
valde assiduus, sed tamen ydolorum cultui deditus. Habebat autem 
conjugem ejusdem ritus et misericordiae exsistentem duosque filios 
procreavit, quos juxta suam magnificentiam magnifice educari fecit, 
et quia operibus misericordiae sedulus insistebat, ad viam veritatis 
meruit illustrari." 

64. 5iy= lord. O.Fr. senre; Lat. senior. See Skeat. Adryane- 
Hadrian. He was the fourteenth in the series of Roman emperors. 
Bom at Rome, January 24, a.d. 76, he lost his father at the age of ten. 
Subsequently he became a great favourite with Trajan, who was one 
of his two guardians, and succeeded him in 117 as emperor. He died 
July 10, A.D. 138. 

72. IVorify =y/orthy ; spelled v/urr]>i and wurr]>i^, ' Ormulum/ 2705 
and 4200. A.S. weorSy wurff, honourable. 

85-128. L.A. : " Quadam die, cum venationi insisteret, gregem cervor- 
um reperit, inter quos unum caeteris speciosiorem et majorem conspexit, 
qui ab aliorum societate discedens in silvam vastiorem prosiliit 
Verum aliis militibus circa cervos reliquos occupatis PI. hunc toto 
nisu insequitur et ipsum capere nitebatur. Quern cum totis visibus 
insequeretur cervus tandem super quandam rupis altitudinem con- 
scendit et P. appropians qualiter capi posset, animo sedulus revolvebat 
Qui cum cervum diligenter consideraret, vidit inter comua ejus for- 
mam sacrae crucis supra solis claritatem fulgentem et imaginem Jesu 
Christi, qui per os cervi, sicut olim per asinam Balaam, sic ei locutus 
est dicens : o Placide, quid me persequeris ? Ego tui gratia in hoc 
animali tibi apparui, ego sum Christus quem tu ignorans colis ; elemo- 
sinae tuae coram me adscenderunt et ob hoc veni et per hunc, quem 
venabaris, cervum ego quoque te ipse venarer ! Alii tamen dicunt 
quod ipsa imago quae inter comua cervi apparuit, haec verba protulit." 

86. Auldj probably for wild. See note to 1. 426 below. 

92. Hyd=^ co\tr, A.S. hud^ hide, skin, covering. 

93. ^r^^/;i^= broken, scattered. 
95. None took heed to their lord. 
100. 5r-^r^= sheer. 

105. Tyndis =\iorr\s, A.S. tind, a spike, tooth of a harrow. 

111. To lak ^to be censured. 

129-160. L.A.: '* Haec audiens PI. nimio timore correptus de equo in 
terram procidit et post unam horam ad se rediens de terra surrexit et 
ait : revela mihi quod loqueris, et sic credam in te. Et ait Christus : 
ego, Placide, sum Christus qui coelum et terram creavi, qui lucem oriri 
feci et a tenebris divisi, qui tempora et dies et annos constitui, qui 
hominem de limo terrae formavi, qui propter salutem humani generis 
in terris in came apparui, qui crucifixus et sepultus tertia die resurrexi. 


Haec audiens PI. iterum in terram decidens ait : credo, domine, quia to 
es qui omnia fecisti et qui errantes convertis." 

144. Z>^«r/>'/= separated. 

148. -5y///>i^= biddings, command. 

161-172. L.A. : " Et dixit ad eum dominus : si credis, vade ad epis- 
copum civitatis et te baptizari facias. Cui PL: vis, domine, ut haec 
eadem uxori mcse et filiis nuntiem, ut et ipsi pariter in te credant.' 
Cui dominus: renuntia illis, ut et ipsi pariter tecum mundentur; tu 
quoque die crastina hue venias, ut tibi rursus appaream et quae futura 
sunt, plenius tibi pandam." 

173-186. L.A. : " Cum ergo domum venisset et hsec uxori in lecto 
renuntiasset, exclamavit uxor ejus dicens : domine mi, et ego eum 
transacta nocte vidi dicentem mihi : eras tu et vir tuus et filii tui ad 
me venietis, et nunc cognovi, quoniam ipse est Jesus Christus." 

187-196. L.A.: *' Perrexerunt ig^tur ad episcopum Romae media 
nocte, qui eos cum magno gaudio baptizavit et Placid um Eustachium 
vocavit, ejus uxorem Theospitem et filios Agapetum et Theospitum." 

197-294. L.A.: " Mane facto Eustachius sicut prius ad venationem 
processit et prope locum veniens milites suos quasi sub obtentu inves- 
tigandae venationis dispersit stansque in loco formam primae visionis 
aspexit, cadensque in faciem suam dixit : supplico, domine, ut manifes- 
tes, qu«E promiseras servo tuo. Cui dominus : beatus es, Eustachi, qui 
accepisti lavacrum gratiae meae, quia modo dyabolum superasti, mode 
eum qui te deceperat, conculcasti, modo apparebit fides tua. Dyabol- 
us enim eo, quod ipsum dereliqueris, contra te saeve armatur ; oportet 
igitur te multa sustinere, ut acciplas coronam victorias; oportet te. 
multa pati, ut de alta saeculi vanitate humilieris et rursus in spiritual- 
ibus divitiis exalteris. Tu ergo ne deficias nee ad gloriam pristinam 
respicias, quia per tentationes oportet te alterum Job demonstrari. 
Sed cum humilitatus fueris, veniam ad te et in gloriam pristinam re- 
stituam te, die ergo, si modo tentationes vis accipere aut in fine 
vitas. Dicit ei Eustachius : domine, si ita fieri oportet, modo nobis 
tentationes accidere jube, sed virtutem patientiac tribue. Cui dominus : 
constans esto, quia gratia mea custodiet animas vestras. Sicque 
dominus in caelum adscendit et E. domum rediens haec uxori suae 

197. Mome=TC\orrovf, Still common. 

199. Effere &» rt'a//e= and royalty. 

209. Till he was left all alone. 

211-216. An addition. 

219. 5^^= same. 

241. 5//V////////y = skilfully, cunningly. 

255. Z«a//V= brought low. *The Bruce,' xiii. 658. 

264, 6^/£7r^r= glory. CL O.Fr, glorc. 

266. Sayne = sa.y. 

217. MekU=TCidi(\t meek, humbled. 

NOTES TO PLACIDAS (XXEL 290408). 33 1 

290. Dere=huTt, A.S. derian, to hurt, damage. 

295-301 Not in L.A. 

297. 3^' ^^/ perhaps for yd ^« = went to. Cf. £/r^/ = dred, 
XXVIII. 620. 

300. Butlas ^a/f= helpless misery. 

305-347. L. A. : " Post paucos igitur dies mors pestifera cunctos ser- 
vos et ancillas ipsius invasit et universos occidit ; deinde post aliquod 
tempus omnes equi et omnia ejus pecora subito interierunt. Quidam 
autem scelesti ejus depraedationem videntes et per noctem in domum 
ejus irruentes cuncta quae repererunt, asportarunt et domum totam auro 
et argento et rebus aliis spoliarunt et ipse cum uxore sua et filiis 
gratias agens nocte aufugit nudus. Qui ruborem verentes iEg^ptum 
pergebant, totaque ejus possessio per rapinam malorum ad nihilum est 

320. Rulalis — ruralis (?) = beasts. 

323-329. Not in L.A. 

331. Ourtyrwit—o\txXMxr\tA, tolyit^tufyit^ harassed. See Glos- 
sary to *The Bruce/ sub tufyit 

348-360. L.A. : " Rex autem totusque senatus pro magistro militum 
tam strenuo multum dolebant, eo quod de eo nullum indicium reperire 

361-399. L.A. : "Cum autem iter agerent, appropinquaverunt mari 
et invenientes navem super eam navigare coeperunt. Videns autem 
dominus navis uxorem Eustachii quae pulcra esset nimis, ipsam pluri- 
mum habere desideravit ; cum vero transfretasset, naulum ab eo exi- 
gebat, non habentibus vero illis unde solverent, jussit pro naulo 
detineri uxorem, volens illam secum habere. Quod ut E. audivit, 
nullatenus assentire voluit. Diu vero eo contradicente innuit dominus 
nautis suis, ut eum in mare praecipitarent, ut sic uxorem suam habere 
posset. Quod cum E. comperisset, uxorem iis tristis reliquit et duos 
infantes accipiens ingemiscens ibat ac dicens : vaeh mihi et vobis, 
quia mater vestra alienigenae marito tradita est.*' 

369. ^/^= colour, complexion. 

" Her ble more bla3t jjen whallej-bon " 

— • E. E. AUit. Poems/ A. 212. 

372, 376. Frauchttfracht=ixt\g\ii, cost, fare. M. Dut vracht 

381. 5a/a>&= throw quickly. 5a/rt>t is another form of jwrt/. 

383-391. Addition. 

399. Z^/f=leal, true one. How should I live and lose that true 

400-407. Addition. 

408-447. L.A.: " Perveniensque ad quendam fluvium propter aqua- 
rum abundantiam non est ausus cum duobus filiis fluvium pertransire, 
sed uno circa ripam relicto alterum transportabat. Qui cum fluvium 
transvad asset, ilium infantem quem bajulaverat super terram posuit e^ 


ad accipiendum alium festinavit. Cum autem circa medium fiuminis 
pervenisset, ecce lupus concitus venit et infantem quem deposuerat, 
rapiens in silvam aufugit. Qui de eo desperans ad alium festinaint 
Sed cum abiret ieo venit et alium filium rapiens abiit. Unde eum 
consequi non valens, cum esset in medio fiuminis, coepit plangere et 
capillos suos evellere, volens se in aquam projicere, nisi eum divina 
providentia continuisset." 

i09. Werd— fate, destiny. A.S. wyrd^ fate. 

413. Fame=^{o^vci, A,S.fatn, foam. 

416. On \athalf^QXi that side. 

426. W?/^/= forest. A.S. weald^ wold, a wood, forest But prob- 
ably for wild^ as the Scottish form of wold is wald. As pronounced 
at this day, wild might easily be mistaken for wdld {wtild). 

442. If it were not that God of His grace. 

444-447. Addition. 

448-465. L.A. : "Pastores autem, videntes leonem puerum vivum 
portantem, eum cum canibus insecuti sunt ; per divinam autem dis- 
pensationem Ieo puerum illsesum abjiciens recessit Quidam insuper 
aratores post lupum inclamantes alium puerum de ejus faucibus in- 
columen liberarunt, utrique vero, sc. pastores et aratores, de uno 
vico fuerunt et penes se pueros nutrierunt." 

450. 7>7M/= tilth, toil. 

460. This line should read — 

" Tuk & hame with Jwim It bar." 

466-527. L.A. is shorter : " Hoc vero E. nesciebat, sed mcerens ac 
plorans ibat dicens : heu mihi, quia ante, ut arbor, pollebam, sed 
modo penitus sum nudatus. Heu me, qui a multitudine militum cir- 
cumdari solebam, sed nunc solus remanens nee filios sum concessus 
habere ! Memini, domine, te mihi dixisse, quia oportet te tentari sicut 
Job, sed ecce plus aliquid in me fieri video, ille enim, etsi possession- 
ibus nudatus fuerit, tamen stercus habuit, super quod sedere potuit, 
mihi autem nil horum remansit ; ille amices sibi compatientes habuit, 
ego immites feras habui, quai meos filios rapuerunt ; illi uxor est 
relicta, a me vero ablata ; da requiem, domine, tribulationibus meis et 
pone custodiam ori meo, ne declinet cor meum in verba malitiae et 
ejiciar a facie tua." 

473. />vr=free, noble. 

481. Wvr= worse. The sense is, I am worse off than I should be 
were I but a servant. He is referring, of course, to the sorrows 
caused by his losses, and it is the same thought that is expressed by 
Dante in the lines — 

" Nessun maggior dolore, 
Che ricordarsi del tempo felice 
Nella miseria." 

— ' Inf.,' c. V. 121-123. 


Or as Gawain Douglas puts it — 

" The maist onsilly kynd of fortoun is 
To haue bene happy ; Boetius techis so ; 
As to haue bene in welth and hartis blys 
And now to be dekeit and in wo." 

— *iEn.,* xL Prologue. 

528-539. L.A. : " Et haec dicens cum lacrymis ad quendam vicum 
abiit et data sibi mercede agros illorum hominum per annos xv cus- 
todivit, filii autem ejus in altero vico educati sunt nee se esse fratres 
sciebant Dominus autem uxorem Eustachii conservavit nee illam 
ille alienigena cognovit, sed potius cam intactam dimittens vitam 

540-563. L.A.: " Imperator autem et populus Romanus plurimum 
ab hostibus molestabatur et recordatus Placidi, qui strenue contra ipsos 
hostes saepius dimicasset, de ejus subita mutatione plurimum tristaba- 
tur direxitque multos milites per diversas mundi partes^ promittens 
omnibus qui eum invenissent multas divitias." 

561. iE'raj/= soonest, first. 

563. Dtspens =txptnse, cost. 

564-591. L.A. : ''Duo autem ex militibus, qui aliquando Placido 
ministraverant, ad ipsum vicum in quo degebat, venerunt Quos PL 
de agro venire considerans, eos ex incessu protinus recognovit et 
veniens in memoriam dignitatis suae perturbari ccepit ac diccre : 
domine, sicut istos qui aliquando mecum fuerunt, praster spem vidi, sic 
da, ut aliquando conjugem meam videre possim; nam de filiis scio 
quod a feris comesti sunt. Venit autem ad eum vox dicens : confide 
Eustachi, quia cito honorem tuum recuperabis et filios et uxorem 

592-603, L.A. : " Cum igitur militibus obviasset, ipsi eum minime 
cognoverunt, cumque eum salutassent, quaesierunt si aliquem pere- 
grrinum nomine Placidum cum uxore et duobus filiis cognosceret 
Hie autem se nescire professus est. Ad preces tamen ejus in hospitio 
deverterunt et E. iis serviebat." 

593. Halust for ^z/f//= embraced, saluted. 

604-631. L.A.: "Et recolens pristinum statum suum lacrymas con- 
tinere non poterat, egressus autem foras suam faciem lavit et iterum 
rediens iis serviebat. I Hi vero considerantes ad invicem dicebant : 
quam similis est homo hie illi quem quaerimus ! Et respondens alter 
dixit : valde quidem similis est ; consideremus igitur et si habet 
signum cicatricis in capite, quod sibi in bello accidit, ipse est Et 
respicientes et signum videntes, ipsum esse quem quaerebant, protinus 
cognoverunt et insilientes et osculantes eum de uxore et filiis ejus 
sciscitati sunt. Qui dixit iis quod filii mortui essent et uxor detenta." 

619. JVeme^iaairk, 

628. /%jir^= travel. 

632-652. L.A. is shorter: "Vicini autem omnes quasi ad spectacu- 


lum concurrebant, dum milites virtutem ejus et primam gloriam 
priedicabant. Tunc milites prseceptum imperatoris exponunt, ct 
optimis vestimentis ipsum induunt." 

653-663. L.A. : " Post iter xv dierum ad imperatorem devenenint, 
qui ejus adventum audiens protinus eidem occurrit et ipsum vidensin 
oscula ejus ruit. Narravit quoque omnibus cuncta quae sibi per or- 
dinem accidissent, statimque ad magisterium militiae trahitur et idem, 
quod prius, officium exercere compellitur. Qui enumeratis militibus 
et paucos contra tot hostes esse cognoscens jussit tirones colligi per 
omnes civitates et vicos." 

664, 665. Addition. 

666-707. L.A. : " Contigit autem illam terram in qua filii ejus edu- 
cati sunt, describi, ut darent duos tirones. Universi autem ejus led 
incolae illos juvenes tamquam caeteris aptiores magistro militum con- 
signarunt. Videns vero juvenes elegantes et morum honestate com- 
positos, cum sibi plurimum placuissent, inter primos convivas suos 
ordinavit eosdem, et sic profectus ad bellum subjectis liostibus exer- 
citum suum tribus diebus in quodam loco, ubi uxor sua pauper hospita 
manebat, requiescere fecit" 

670. ^4?^= money. 

675. /^?«//= defend. 

683. Tonys = towns. 

684. CAes—choost. 
692. i^r^ww^'/^ foreign. 
705. /'^n7= paired. 
708-719. An addition. 

720-729. L.A. : " Illi vero duo adolescentes in tabernaculo matris 
suae nutu tamen Dei hospitati sunt, nescientes quod mater sua esset, 
et sedentes circa meridiem et mutuo confabulantes exponebant sibi 
invicem de infantia sua. Mater vero eorum de contra sedens, quae 
ipsi referebant, altentius audiebat." 

730-793. L.A. is different : " Dicebat enim major minori : ego, dum 
infans essem, nihil aliud recolo nisi quod pater meus magister militum 
erat et mater mea speciosa valde, duosque filios habuerunt, sc. me et 
alium minorem me, qui et ipse speciosus valde erat, accipientesque nos 
egressi sunt de domo nocte ingressique sunt navem, nescio quo euntes. 
Cum autem de navi egrederemur, mater nostra, nescio quo modo, in 
mari relicta est, pater vero noster portans nos duos flens pergebat 
perveniensque ad quendam fluvium transivit cum fratre meo juniore 
et me super ripam dereliquit. Cum autem reverteretur, ut me ac- 
ciperet, lupus venit et ilium infantem rapuit, et antequam ad me 
appropinquaret, leo de silva exiens me rapuit et in silvam deduxit. 
Pastores vero eruerunt me de ore leonis et nutritus sum in ilia posses- 
sions in qua et ipse scis, et non potui scire, quid factum sit de patre 
meo neque de infante. Hasc audiens minor coepit flere ac dicere : 
per Deum, ut audio, frater tuus sum ego, quoniam et qui me educave- 

NOTES TO PLACID AS (XXIX. 785-948). 335 

rant, hoc dicebant, quod de lupo eruimus te. Et in amplexus ruentes 
osculabantur se invicem et fleverunt." 

785. ^///y= knowing, intelligent 

790. B rase =einbrsice. 

794-805, L.A. : "Audiens hsec mater eorum et considerans quod 
eventum suum ita seriatim dixissent, diu apud se tractavit si illi filii 
sui essent, altera autem die ad magistrum militum adiit et interpel- 
lavit eum dicens : deprecor te, domine, ut me ad patriam meam per- 
duci jubeas, ego enim de terra Romanorum sum et peregrina hie 

806-883. L.A.: "Et hsec dicens vidit in eo signa mariti sui et eum 
cognoscens, cum se jam continere non posset, procidit ad pedes suos 
et ait : precor te, domine, ut exponas mihi pristinam vitam tuam, puto 
enim, quod tu sis Placidus magister militum, qui alio nomine diceris 
Eustachius, quem Placidum salvator convertit, qui talem et talem 
tentationem sustinuit et cui uxor, quae ego sum, in mari ablata fuit, 
quae tamen ab omni corruptione servata sum, qui et duos filios sc. 
Agapetum et Theospitum habuit." 

834-845. L.A.: "Haec audiens E. et ipsam diligenter considerans 
uxorem suam recognovit et lacrimatus prae gaudio ipsam osculatus 
est glorificans Deum, qui consolatur afflictos." 

841. Cyse—syse, times. 

846-855. Not in L.A. 

856-889. L.A.: "Tunc dicit ei uxor sua: domine, ubi sunt filii nostri? 
Et ait : a feris capti sunt. Et exposuit ei, quomodo perdidit illos. Et 
ilia: gratias agamus Deo, puto enim, quod, quemadmodum Deus 
donavit nobis, ut inveniremus nos invicem, donabit etiam recognoscere 
filios nostros. Et ille : dixi tibi, quod a feris capti sunt. Et ilia : 
hesterna die sedens in horto audivi duos juvenes sic et sic suam in- 
fantiam exponentes et credo quod filii nostri sint ; interroga igitur 
ab iis et dicent tibi." 

890-903. L.A. : "Et convocans eos E. et audiens ab iis infantiam 
suam recognovit quod filii sui essent, et amplectentes eos ipse et 
mater, super eorum colla plurimum fleverunt et crebrius eos oscula- 
bantur. Omnis igitur exercitus plurimum gaudebat et de inventione 
eorum et de victoria barbarorum." 

900. Oj/=host, army. 

904-947. L.A. is shorter : "Cum igitur rediret, contigit jam Trajanum 
obiisse et successisse ei pejorem in sceleribus Hadrianum, qui pro 
victoria obtenta et inventione uxoris et filiorum magnifice eos sus- 
cepit et magnum convivium praeparavit" 

904. Suyomand ior suiomandi sojourning. 

942. Hei=tdX, 

948-969. L.A. : " Altera die ad templum ydolorum processit, ut ibi 
sacrificaret pro victoria barbarorum. Videns vero imperator quod 
£. nee pro victoria nee pro inventione suorum sacrificare vellet^ 


hortabatur ut sacrificium immolaret. Cui £. : ego Christum Deum 
coIo et illi soli sacrifico/* 

970-983. L.A.: "Tunc imp. ira repletus ipsum cum uxore et filiis 
in arena statuit et leonem ferocem ad eos dimitti fecit Accurrens 
vero leo et demisso capite quasi eos sanctos adorans ab lis humiliter 

975. CA<?/^= escape. 

984-1004. L.A. : "Tunc imp. bovem aeneum incendi fecit et eos 
ibidem vivos mitti mandavit. Orantes igitur sancti et se domino 
commendantes bovem intraverunt et ibidem domino spiritum red- 
diderunt, tertia autem die de bove sunt coram imperatore extractL 
Ita penitus intacti inventi sunt, quod nee capillos nee quidquid eorum 
vapores incendii aliquatenus contigerunt." 

1002. Hyd^hidt, skin. 

1005-1021. L.A.: " Christiani vero eorum corpora tulerunt et in loco 
celeberrimo recondentes ibidem oratorium construxerunt Passi sunt 
autem sub Hadriano qui ccepit c. a. d. cxx calendis Novembr. vd 
secundum quosdam duodecim calendis Octobr." 


St Theodera is said to have been a native of Alexandria. The story 
of her life, as told in the text, follows the legendary narratives so closely 
that it is unnecessary to repeat it. The curious may consult, besides 
the narrative of Voragine, that which is g^ven in the CSS. by Peter 
de Natalibus, vi. 109, fol. cv. 

Her day is July 17. 

Analysis — Introduction on the power of the sign of the cross to 
overcome Satan, with a warning against dealing with witches, 1-36 ; 
Theodera and her husband, 37-54 ; she is tempted, but is protected by 
the sign of the cross, 55-66 ; next Satan incites a young man with a 
passion for her, but is again foiled, 67-114 ; the young man's cause is 
espoused by an old woman or witch, 11 5-190; she tempts Theodera, 
who consents to her, 191-338; Theodera's remorse, 339-356; she 
refuses to account to her husband for her grief, 357-372 ; she consults 
an abbess, 373-394 ; she arrays herself in male attire and applies for 
admission to a monastery, 395-410; her life there, 411-430; her hus- 
band's sorrow at her departure, 431-438 ; he is told by an angel to go 
to the gate called of Peter and Paul, and that the first person he sees 
there will be his wife, but seeing her habited as a monk he does not 
recognise her, though she saluted him, 439-474 ; her good life and 
miracles, 475-490 ; the devil, out of envy, appears to her in the form of 
a man and begins to upbraid her, but she is protected by the sign of 
the cross, 491-512 ; she is charged with being the father of a child, 
513-584 ; she endures the penance as guilty, and tends the child, 585- 
620 ; after she had endured this for seven years the devil appeared to 
her in the form of her husband, and in other ways tries her, but she 
protects herself with the sign of the cross, 621-690; the abbot takes 
pity upon her, and she and the child are admitted into the abbey, at 
the gate of which they have lain all the seven years of her penance, 
691-702 ; after two years more the abbot sends one of the brethren to 
overhear what it is that Theodera talks of at night, 703-720 ; going, he 
witnesses her death, 721-740 ; the abbot's vision, 741-772 ; the dis- 
covery is made of Theodera's sex, and innocence of the charge against 

VOL. III. y 


her, 773-787; her accuser being found out, falls dead, 788-806 ; Theo- 
dera's husband is found and brought, purchases her cell, and lives in 
it, 807-828 ; the child fathered upon her grows up^ and beoMnes in 
time abbot, 829-838. 

Source — Cf. LJl^ cap. 92. The author, however, has used a mncfa 
longer and more detailed source. 

2. Fim's=cesLse, y2wf^= ceased. 

4. £ve=E.yc. 

10, Tkrauys^frtttns= trust, 

IL Sam's = signs, 

15. Kr«>= becomes angry. 

21. ICerfyng2s=c2Lr\iiieSy old women, witches. 

22. Bedrests ^beiny, q/f-syse ^^ohtlmes, 

2i. IVis iin/is^v/\sc wives, wise women, spae-wives. 

25. AVjii/z>= befool. Cf. Swed. JtdMg-, 

29. Corow = coy ine {?), 

31. 5^A4/5r= cut slice. 

37-114. L.A.: "Theodora nobilis mulier et sponsa apud Alexan- 
driam tempore 2^nonis imperatoris, virum habebat divitem et timentcm 
Deum, dyabolus autem Theodoras invidens sanctitati virum quendam 
divitem in illius concupiscentiam incitavit, qui eam crebris nuntiis et 
muneribus molestabat, ut assensum sibi prseberet Sed ilia nuntios 
respuebat et munera contemnebat In tantiun autem eam molestabat 
quod ipsam quietem habere non permitteret et paene deficere vidcretur.'* 

37. "^eno, Zeno, Emperor of the East, a.d. 474-491. 

38. And had all the empire under his care. 

39. A/ysan{ier=AlexsLndTi3i. 

43. According to his desires. 

44. Ha/dine = held, for god &• ww«= before God and man. 

45. 3 ^rw^/= anxious. 

46. ^j=ease, pleasure. 

49. Far fassone=id\r fashion — ;>., appearance. 

52. /*^r/^j= peerless, fames =htzM\y, 

55. Inwy =tnyy. 

bl, Smyt=s\iO\.t stain. 

58. /i>/^= defile. 

60. Ware=yfSLry, 

64. i^?r^/= forehead. 

66. 7y^=time. Cf. Christmas//^, Easter/;V<f, Yule/;Vi?. 

69. »SV(^/^« = same town. 

72. £"^^^0/^= accomplish. 

" & als for till tscheve gret thingis. 
And hard Uawalys, and barganyngis." 

—•The Bruce,* i. 305. 
O.Fr. achever. 

NOTES TO THEODERA (TXT 77-263). 339 

77. Schupe . . . A^^iyr^^ shaped, made himself. 

82. Dispend=si^t,n6i, 

85. {2^j^^/^i/^= acquaintance. See 1. 88. 

89. He let her know in some part 

91. lVmguAyIe= some time, a while. 

110. Z^i^^/=took. A.S. laccoHt to seize. 

112. WO'«/=went. 

115-185. L.A. merely has : " Tandem quandam magam ad eam 
misit, quas eam, ut vivi illius misereretur sibique committeret, pluri- 
mum hortabatur." 

118. Gudly weld=ytt\\ guide. 

121. 7'«rw^= deceive. Yr, toumer; 0,Yr, iomer, turner; LsX, tor- 
nare, to turn in a lathe, to turn, chare ^viork, A.S. cyrran, to turn. 
Or are tume and chare substantives ? 

125. Scho ne fane=s,\ie did not cease. 

129. i1/a^/= foolish. A.S. ge-m&d^ insane. "The original sense 
appears to be ' damaged,' or * seriously hurt.* " See Skeat, sub mad. 

134. -P^ra«j= appearance. ar^=heir. Cf. XXXIII. 48. 

137. /l/w=ails. A.S. eglan^ to trouble, pain. 

147. Z>^/=dote, act foolishly. Cf. Fr. radoter, to dote. See Skcat, 
sub cbte, 

154. Kane^cdiXi, 

157. Aar//«jf= witch. See 1. 21. 

159. E/h = t2Lsy, /r7= guide. Lit. cultivate. A.S. tt'h'an, teo/tan, 
to labour. 

162. //ele=hide. 

171. G rant = fay our, 

186. Pr^= prove, try. 

196. p/=><f=thee. 

201. J*br^/de ^requite. A.S, /orgtidan. 

210. Gestnit ^lodged, M.L.G. gesten; Icel. gista^ to entertain, 

214. 5^/= though. 

215. Qf(ar/= arrogance. See Jamieson. 

217. i%w=exaltesL 

218. To lichtly =^io treat lightly, undervalue. 
224. A think = one thing. 

227. Z^a/i^(fr^= hesitation, or show of hesitation. 

249. ljchtfy=e2LS\\y. 

252. Ant's =ance= once. 

262. San =^syn{?). 

263-324. L.A. : " Quae cum diceret se coram oculis Dei cuncta 
cementis tam grande peccatum nunquam committere, malefica ad- 
junxit : quidquid in die fit, hoc utique Deus scit et videt, quidquid 
autem advesperascente et occidente sole committitur, Deus minime 
intuetur. Dixitque puella maleficae: numquid veritatem dicis? Et 


ilia : etiam dico veritatem. Decepta puella verbis malefics dixit, ut 
advesperascente die virum ad se venire faccret, et voluntatem suam 

273. 7>w/=old woman ; a term of contempt See Jamieson. 

286. OH ]>e day = openly, in the light. 

297. Demeih = deming—)Mdgii\%. 

304. Eue ^w///i^= fellow-Christian. " And the more pity that great 
folk should have countenance in this world to drown or hang them- 
selves, more than their even Christian,'* — Hamlet, Act v. sc. i. 

308. Be-wtle^hegm\e, 

310. Theck£s=^ie2Lchfts\. 

318. Z>/jjtf/= deceit 

325-338. L.A. : " Quod cum viro retulisset, ille vehementer exsultans 
hora, qua condixerat, ad eam venit secumque concubuit et abscessit" 

339-356. L,A. : *' Theodera autem ad se ipsam rediens amarissime 
flebat et faciam suam percutiebat dicens : heu, heu me perdidi animam 
meam, destruxi aspectum decoris mei." 

341. Atoure=^htyondi, 

352. Raf =ioxe, 

357-372. L.A. : "Vir autem ejus domum rediens et uxorem suam 
sic desolatam et moerentem videns causam tamen nesciens eam con- 
solari nitebatur, sed ilia nullam consolationem percipere volebat" 

373-380. L.A. : '* Mane autem facto quoddam monasterium monial- 
ium adiit et abbatissam interrogavit an Deus quoddam grave delictum 
quod die advesperascente commiserat, scire posset. Cui ilia : nihil 
Deo abscondi potest et Deus scit et videt omne quod fit, quacunque 
hora illud committatur." 

381-388. L.A. : " Quae flens amare dixit : da mihi librum sancti 
evangelii ut sortiar memet ipsam. Aperiens reperit : Quod scripsi, 

389-430. L.A. : " Rediens ergo domum, dum quadam die vir suus 
abesset, comam suam praicidit, vestimenta viri assumens ad quoddam 
monasterium monachorum, quod per octo milliaria distabat, festinabat 
et, ut ibidem cum monachis reciperetur, petiit et, quod petiit, impetra- 
vit Interrogata de nomine dixit se Theodorum nuncupari ; ilia vero 
officia omnia humiliter faciebat et ejus ser\'itium omnibus gratum fuit 
Post aliquot ergo annos abbas fratrem Theodorum vocavit et ut boves 
jungeret et oleum de civitate afferret, prjecepit." 

392. For/orne =\ostj undone. A,S, /or and loren, pp. of/edsan, to lose. 

393. Bydand=vja\iing, 
398. 5^^^r^r= shears. 

400. A ucA f en =t\ghtGeT\. ]7///^= thence, away, distant 

411. He — i.e., Theodera. nowis— novice. 

414. Perguere =aiccuraite\y. O.Yr. per quer, per cuer, by heart. 

430. Kecking =^V\\Q\ien. 

431-474. L.A. : " Vir autem ejus plurimum flebat timens ne cum 

NOTES TO THEODERA (XXX. 440-623). 34 1 

viro altero recessisset. Et ecce angelus domini sibi dixit : surge mane 
et sta in via martirii Petri ap. et quae tibi obviaverit, ipsa tua uxor erit. 
Quo facto Theodora cum camelis venit et virum suum videns et 
recognoscens intra se dixit : heu me, vir bone meus, quantum laboro 
ut eripiar a peccato, quod feci in te. Cum autem appropinquasset, 
salutavit eum dicens : gaudeat dominus meus. Ille autem eam penitus 
non cognovit, sed cum diutissime exspectaret et se deceptum clamaret, 
facta est vox ad eum dicens : ille, qui te heri mane salutavit, uxor tua 

440. Pere^ aphetic for a^^r^= appear. 

448. W7/^^=«/^^= watched. 

455. //iy'/zV/^^ hailed. Cf. XXIX. 593. 

460. /l4y/= habit, garb. 

462. AferJ^ai war/=markeiv/axd, 

475-490. L. A. : " Tantae autem sanctitatis fuit beata Theodora, ut 
multa miracula faceret : nam et hominem a bestia laceratum eripuit 
et suis precibus suscitavit, ipsam quoque bestiam insecuta maledixit, 
quae subito mortua corruit." 

490. 6'«^r^= unwilling. 

491-514. L.A. : " Dyabolus autem suam sanctitatem ferre non volens 
eidem apparuit dicens : meretrix prae omnibus et adultera reliquisti 
virum tuum, ut hue venires et me contemneres; per virtutes meas 
tremendas in te suscitabo prcelium et, si non te fecero crucifixum 
negare, non dicas, quia ego sum. Ipsa autem signum crucis sibi 
edidit et protinus daemon evanuit.** 

502. Vertuise = powers. 

504. Werra = werray — war against, harass. 

505. i?^«y=deny. 

515-558. L.A. : " Quadam autem vice dum de civitate cum camelis 
rediret et in quodam loco hospitata fuisset, puella quadam nocte ad 
eam venit dicens : dormi mecum. Quae cum respueret, ivit ad alterum, 
qui in eodem loco jacebat ; cum autem ejus venter intumuisset et, de 
quo concepisset, interrogata fuisset, ait : monachus ille Theodorus 
dormivit mecum." 

521. As ware=ds it were. 

559-622. L.A. is shorter : " Natum igitur puerum ad abbatum mon- 
asterii transmiserunt, qui cum Theodorum increparet, et ille sibi 
indulgeri peteret, scapulis suis puerum imposuit et de monasterio 
projecit Ilia autem abjecta per vii annos extra monasterium mansit 
et de lacte pecorum infantem nutrivit." 

571. W?«<//rzera= wondrous sad. 

595. i1/(a^= partner, husband. 

618. Cr«wi=food. cruse =cr\isi, 

623-648. L.A. : " Dyabolus autem tantae ejus patientiae invidens in 
speciem viri sui se transfiguravit eique dixit : quid hie agis, domina 
mea? ecce langueo pro te nee aliquam consolationem recipio; veni 

342 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZZX. 62i-741). 

ergo, lux mea, quia, si cum viro aliquo jacuisti, hoc tibi indulgeo. At 
ilia credens virum suum esse, dixit ad ilium : nunquam amplius tecum 
manebo, quia filius Johannis militis jacuit mecum et volo agere pocni* 
tentiam de eo, quod in te peccavi. £t cum orasset, statim evanuit et 
daemonem fuisse cognovit" 

624. JVay^wa=^v/oe. 

643. //as=2LS, 

649-660. L.A.: " Altera iterum vice dyabolus volens eam terrere, in 
similitudinem ferarum terribilium daemones ad eam venerunt et vir 
quidam instigans eas dicebat : comedite meretricem banc. Istaautem 
oravit et evanuerunt." 

660. Fley hyr ofhir a/// = frighten her out of her wits. 

654. -5^r^= roaring. 

657. 5/ay/y/= incited. See Bradley, sub slaten, 

661-676. L.A.: "Altera vice multitudo militum veniebat, quam 
princeps prsecedebat, et eum caeteri adorabant, dixeruntque milites 
Theodorse : surge et adora principem nostrum. Quae respondit : 
dominum Deum acloro. Quod cum principi nuntiatum fuisset, jussit 
eam adduci et tot tormentis affici, ut mortua putaretur ; et postmodum 
omnis turba evanuit." 

677-680. L.A.: *' Alia iterum vice vidit ibidem aurum multum, quae 
signans se illud refugit et Deo se recommendavit" 

681-690. L.A. : " Altera etiam vice vidit quendam canistrum plenum 
omni genere ciborum ferentem et dicentem sibi : dicit princeps qui tc 
cecidit, toUe, comede, quia nesciens fecit hoc. Ilia autem se signavit 
et protinus evanuit." 

682. 5>&^<?= basket. 

691-704. L.A. : "Completis autem vii annis abbas patientiam ejus 
considerans eam reconciliavit et cum puero suo in monasterium in- 

705-726. L.A. is different : " Ubi cum duos postmodum annos 
laudabiliter peregisset, puerum accepit et secum ilium in cella sua 
clausit : quod cum abbati revelatum fuisset, misit quosdam monachos 
qui diligentius auscultarent, quidnam cum eo loqueretur." 

727-740. L.A. : " Ilia autem puerum amplexans et deosculans dixit : 
fill mi dulcissime, tempus vitae mese venit, relinquo te Deo, ipsum 
patrem et adjutorem habeas, fill dulcissime, jejuniis et orationibus 
insistas et fratribus tuis devote servias. Hoc dicens spiritum tradidit 
et in domino feliciter obdormivit c. a. d. cccclxx : quod puer cernens 
plurimum flere ccepit." 

741-772. L.A.: "In ipsa autem nocte visio abbati monasterii monstrata 
est in hunc modum. Nuptiae maximae parabantur et veniebant ordines 
angelorum et prophetarum et martirum et omnium sanctorum, et ecce 
in medio eorum mulier sola, gloria ineffabili circumdata, et venit 
usque ad nuptias et sedit super lectum et omnes adstantes advocabant 
eam. Et ecce vox dicens : hie est abbas Theodorus qui falso de puero 

NOTES TO THEODERA (XXX. 746-801). 343 

accusatus est, vii tempora super ea mutata sunt ; castigata est enim, 
quia cubile viri sui coinquinavit." 

746. BfydaIe=msLrnaigt. 

750. Bede=^btd, 

773-800. L.A. : " Excitatus autem abbas concitus cum fratribus ad 
cellam ejus ivit et earn jam defunctam invenit et intrantes et disco- 
operientes ipsam esse feminam invenerunt ; misitque abbas pro patre 
puellae quse eam defamaverat, et dixit illi : vir filiae tuae mortuus est ; 
et auferens vestimentum mulierem esse cognovit.*' 

790. Say => so, 

801-888. L.A.: "Factus est igitur timor magnus super omnes qui 
hoc audierunt, angelus autem domini abbati locutus est: surge velo- 
citer, equum ascende et vade in civitatem, et si quis obviaverit, assume 
et tecum adduc. Qui dum pergeret, quidam vir currens sibi obviavit. 
Quern cum abbas interrogaret quo pergeret, ille ait : mulier mea 
mortua est et vado videre eam. Et assumsit abbas virum Theodorae 
in equum et venientes plurimum fleverunt et ipsam cum multis laudi- 
bus sepelierunt Vir autem ejus cellam uxoris suae Th. accepit et 
ibidem permanens tandem in domino obdormivit ; puer autem Theo- 
doras nutricem sequens omni morum honestate pollebat, ita quod 
mortuo abbate monasterii in abbatem ipse est electus." 


St Eugenia was a daughter of Philip, who was appointed proconsul 
of Egypt by Commodus. She was brought up in Alexandria in all 
the wisdom of the Gentiles. She became acquainted with the litera- 
ture of the Christians, and is said to have been converted chiefly 
through the reading of St Paul's Epistles to the Corinthians. Ac- 
cording to the legend, she disguised herself in male attire, and became 
a monk in Egypt, under the name of Eugenius. In course of time 
she was found out, and being sent back to her father, and returning 
to Rome, suffered martyrdom by the sword during the reign of the 
Emperor Severus, but not before she had effected the conversion 
of the whole of her family. At one time she was one of the most 
popular and potential saints in the Roman Calendar. In learning, 
eloquence, and courage she appears to have been the prototype of St 
Catherine, by whom, however, she has been completely eclipsed. 

She is commemorated on December 24. 

Speaking of her, Mrs Jameson says : " She rarely appears in works 
of art,. having lost her popularity before the period of the revival. We 
find her in the procession of martyrs at Ravenna ; and I have seen a 
picture of her martyrdom in the Bologna Gallery, by Giovanni 
Sementi, treated with much sentiment." — Sacred and Legendary Art, 
ii. 642. 

Analysis — Introduction on Eugenia as an example of patience under 
temptation, 1-28; birth and education of Eugenia, 29-66; she is 
solicited in marriage, 67-84; her conversion, 85-100; she converts 
her fellow-students Prothus and Jacinctus, 101-144 ; having assumed 
male attire under the name of " Ewyne," she enters a monastery with 
her two companions, 145-214; her parents and relatives sorrow over 
her loss, and send in quest of her, but failing to find her, appeal to the 
diviners, who tell them that she has been taken away by the gods, 
215-258 ; Eugenia is chosen abbot, 259-266 ; she cures Melancia, 267- 
304 ; Melancia, believing Eugenia to be a monk, tempts her, and 
afterwards accuses her to her friends and before the governor Philip, 


Eugenia's father, 305-540; Eugenia and the monks are apprehended and 
brought before Philip, who, failing to recognise her, is on the point of 
condemning her, when she makes herself known to him, and being 
restored to her family, she effects the conversion of those of them who 
are still pagan, 541-740; Philip is deprived of his office as governor 
because of his religion, and is made a bishop, 741-768 ; his zeal 
causes him to be waylaid and slain, 769-794 ; his wife Claudia returns 
to Rome, 795-806 ; Eugenia's fame reaching the emperor, she is 
summoned before him, condemned, and beheaded, 807-906 ; the same 
hour in which she died she appeared to her mother Claudia, and 
intimated to her that she would die on the following Sunday, 907- 
916; the martyrdom of Prothus and Jacinctus, 917-946 ; conclusion, 


For the source, see L.A., cap. 136, de Sanctis Protho et Jacincto. 
L.A., however, is much shorter. 

4. Kene=ken=knovf, 

9. 5^^r)yi!(f= confession. 

29-100. L.A. : " Prothus et Jacinctus fuerunt domicelli et in studio 
philosophic socii Eugeniae filiae Philippi nobilissimi Romanorum 
genere. Qui quidem Philippus a senatu praefecturam Alexandriae 
acceperat et illuc Claudiam uxorem suam et filios Avitum et Sergium 
filiamque Eugeniam secum duxit. Porro Eugenia omnibus liberis 
artibus et litter is erat perfecta. Prothus quoque et Jacinctus secum 
studuerant et ad perfectionem omnium scientiarum devenerant. Eug. 
igitur XV setatis suae anno ab Aquilino Aquilini consulis filio petitur 
uxor. Cui ilia : et maritus non natalibus, sed moribus est eligendus. 
Pervenit igitur ad manus ejus doctrina Pauli et ccepit animo fieri 

29. Prothus— Vroihus, or Protus as he is often called. He is com- 
memorated September 11. /<w/>i^/«j= Jacinctus or Hyacinthus. The 
two are commemorated on the same day. They were both eunuchs, 
and suffered under Gallienus. Mart., Usuard. 

40. Lutenand=\\tuXtm.x\i^ deputy. 

52. p^ sewine j«>«j=the seven sciences. The seven sciences or 
seven arts were contained in the so-called trivium and quadHvium. 
The trivium contained grammar, logic (or dialectics), and rhetoric ; 
the quadrivium arithmetic, geometry, music, and astronomy, — as in 
these two lines, framed to assist the memory : — 

" Gram, loquitur; Dia. veradocet; Rhtt, verba colorat ; 
Afus. canit ; Ar» numerat ; Geo. ponderat ; Ast, colit astra." 

See Hallam*s * Introd. to the Literature of Europe,' i. 3, n, c, 
56. /VnV= companions. 
61. lVysare=yt\s^r. 
63. Apart =caxri2Lge. ^^«^^= behaviour. 


74. Paramoure=paLr2Lmour, but not used as now in a bad sense. 

90. Vnkid^^ not made known. 

101-140. L.A.: " Permissum erat tunc christianis circa Alexandriam 
habitare, unde ilia quasi solatiando pergens ad villam transiens audivit 
christianos cantantes : omnes Dii gentium daemonia, dominus autem 
ccelos fecit. Tunc dicit ad pueros Prothum et Jacinctum qui secum 
studuerant : philosophorum syllogismos scrupuloso studio transeg^mus, 
Aristotelica argumenta et Platonis ideas et Socratis monita et breviter 
quidquid cantat poeta, quidquid orator et quidquid philosophus co- 
gitat, hac sententia excluduntur, dominam me verbis usurpata potestas, 
sororem vero sapientia fecit, simus ergo fratres et Christum sequamur." 

127. 5flw/^/^r^= example. O.Fr. examplaire (fourteenth century, 
Littr^); another form of O.Fr. exemplaire^ "a pattern, sample or 
sampler." — Cot, Skeat 

128. Bydding=^commdJid, 

141-180. L. A. : " Placet consilium et assumpto habitu viri ad monas- 
terium cui Helenus vir Dei praeerat, venit, qui nullam ad se feminam 
venire sinebat. Qui etiam quadam vice cum haeretico disputans, 
cum vim arg^mentorum ferre non posset, magnum ignem accendi fecit, 
ut ille qui non combureretur, veram fidem probaretur habere. Quod 
cum factum esset, prior intravit et illaesus exiit, haereticus autem, cum 
intrare nollet, ad omnibus expulsus est." 

163-166. Not in L.A. 

173. ScAe/d=ska/e= decide, lit. separate. Mr^^^^ argument Sec 
Bradley, sub \reap, 

178. Fonder go, 

181-214. L.A.: "Ad hunc igitur cum accessisset et se virum diceret, 
ait : recte vir diceris, quia, cum sis femina, viriliter agis. Nam sibi 
ejus conditio a Deo fuit revelata. Ab eo igitur cum Protho et Jacincto 
monasticum habitum suscepit et se fratrem Eugenium ab omnibus 
appellari fecit" 

199. CoHuersit =condwcied themselves. 

206. -^/-j^/= although. 

212. Rewilc=^r\i\Q. 

215-266. L.A.: "Pater autem et mater videntes currum Eugeniae 
domum vacuum rediisse, moerentes undique filiam requiri fecerunt, 
sed minime invenire potuerunt. Interrogant vates, quid de filia factum 
sit, qui respondent earn a Diis inter astra translatam. Quocirca pater 
imaginem filial fecit et ipsam ab omnibus adorari mandavit, ipsa vero 
cum sociis in Dei timore permansit et mortuo prjeposito ipsa praefi- 

216. Mane=TCiOdJ\, sorrow. 

221. ^aj/= empty. 

222. J^^///«*= happy. A.S. wel, well. Cf. the phrase "health and 
wealth to reign," &c., in the * Book of Common Prayer.' The word 
originally referred to condition, and signified welfare, wellbeing. 

NOTES TO EUGENIA (XXXL 231-907). 347 

234. CfrAw»^= certain, sure, reliable. 

243. Divynoun's^ diviners. Probably they were astrologers. 

267-304. L.A. : " Erat tunc Alexandriae matrona quaedam dives et 
nobilis Melancia nomine, quam s. Eugenia oleo perungens a quartana 
liberavit in nomine Jesu Christi, unde multa ei misit munera, sed non 

273. //b/=hot. fiercely. 

274. i1/tf/= exhausted, weak. O.Fr. mat, " deaded, mated, amated, 
quelled, subdued, overcome." — Cotgr. See also Roquefort sud voce, 
and Du Cange (Gloss. Fr.) sub mas, 

290. Bost ^hox, 

293. For the second scho read sa, 

305-346. L.A. ; " Praedicta igitur matrona fratrem Eugenium hom- 
inem esse arbitrans saepius eum visitabat vidensque elegantiam juven- 
tutis et pulchritudinem corporis in eius amorem vehementer exarsit, 
et qualiter cum eo commisceri possit, anxia cogitare ccepit Simulans 
igitur languorem misit, ut ad eam veniret et se invisere dignaretur. 
Qui cum venisset, aperuit sibi, qualiter ejus amore capta esset et 
qualiter in ejus concupiscentia aestuaret, rogans ut secum camaliter 
commisceretur, statimque eum apprehendens amplectitur et osculatur 
et ad crimen hortatur." 

347-356. L.A.: "Quod factum frater Eugenius abhorruit dicens ei : 
recte nomen Melanciam habere cognosceris, nigredinis enim repleta 
perfidia nigra dicens et obscura filia tenebrarum, amica dyaboli, dux 
pollutionis, fomentum libidinis, soror anxietatis perpetuae et mortis 
filia sempiternae." 

361. Wlatsumnes » d isgust. 
352. -^/=what. 

357-514. L.A. has simply : " Ilia vero se deceptam videns et timens 
ne forte scelus publicaret, voluit ipsa prior detegere clamareque ccepit 
quod Eugenius ipsam voluit violare." 

362. Alsuyth^(\mcV\Y. 

363. -P/f«3^= complain. 

364. Til ony ofhyr, &c. = made complaint of her to any. 

365. Skratit = skartit = scratched. 

366. Rugit ^\ort, 

367. Dayng=dang^he2X. nesse=TiOSt. 
370. il/i?«3^= household. 

372. Scorft^^inlvLvy, O.Fr. escam, scorn, derision. Some connect 
it with Icel. skam, dung, dirt; A-S. sceam^ the same, — the throwing 
of dirt being the readiest way of expressing scorn. Skeat, sub scorn. 

378. Latnskine=^\djnhs\!iix\, 

385. C^i//«^r^r= chambermaid. 

393-514. An excursus of the poet on the Will of Women. Several 
shorter ones have occurred before. 

397. Ci7/2^^Ar=: snake. See Murray j«^ v^^^. 


403. Beware=ht wary, be cautious enough or protect himselt 
against Beware was usually written as two words, be ware, 

404. /'«/'^r^=Potiphar. 

416. 0/^=Otho III., Emperor of Germany, a,d. 983-1002. He suc- 
ceeded his father, Otho II., when he was only twelve years of age. 
His instructor was the famous Gerbert a native of Auvergnc, after- 
wards Pope Sylvester II. For an account of his end, see Milman, 
* Hist, of Lat. Christianity,* iii. 346. 

417. Henry II., Emperor of Germany, 1002-1024. 

418. ^tfrz/arK= Bavaria. 

428. Magre=^m2Mgrt, displeasure. 
452. Z?^w^= sentence. 
488. For dout=ior fear, lest. 
503. Sufranely = sovereignly. 

509. Lenx=\ynx. 

510. Bre^A = (ury, Icel. ^r^if/, anger — from ^r^f if, rash, hasty. 
515-540. L.A. is shorter: "Abiit igitur ad Philippum praefectum ct 

conquesta est dicens : Juvenis quidam perfidus christianus ad me 
medendi causa ingressus in me irruens impudenter me voluit violare, 
et nisi unius ancillae quae intra cubiculum erat, fuissem liberata 
suffragio, suas me libidini sociasset." 

530. Ma/, See note to I. 274. 

533. Eschewit, See note to XXX. 72. 

537. Lar=^lare—\ox^^ doctrine. 

541-604. L.A. : " Audiens igitur praefectus ira accenditur et missa 
apparitorum multitudine Eugeniam caeterosque servos Christi ferro 
vinctos adduci fecit diemque statuit, in quo omnes tradi deberent 
morsibus bestiarum. Accersitis etiam iis coram se dixit ad Eugeniam : 
die nobis, sceleratissime, an hoc vos Christus vaster docuit, ut operam 
corruptionibus detis et matronas impudenti vesania violetis." 

574. ^Fr^= accuse. See Bradley, sub wre^ien, 

588. ^^ = trust. O.Fr. affier, 

603. 7tfy«/=a//^y'«/= attainted. O.Fr. atteindre, 

605-630. L.A. : ** Cui Eugenia demissa facie, ne agnosceretur, 
respondit : dominus noster castitatem docuit et integritatem servant- 
ibus asternam vitam promisit Hanc autem Melanciam falsam 
testem monstrare possumus, sed melius est, ut nos patiamur, quam 
quod ilia, cum convicta fuerit, puniatur et fructus patientiae nostras 
depereat. Verumtamen adducat ancillam quam dicit nostri sceleris 
esse testem, ut ex ore ejus possint refutari mendacia." 

605. .<4w=awe, fear. 

608. il///r/)'= demurely. 

631-670. L.A. : " Quae cum adducta esset, ilia a domina sua docta con- 
stanter sibi apponebat quod dominam suam opprimere voluit, cumque 
omnes de familia similiter depravati sic esse testarentur, ait Eugenia : 
tempus tacendi transiit et tempus loquendi advenit ; nolo, ut impudica 

NOTES TO EUGENIA (XXXL 634-871). 349 

in servos Christi crimen imponat nee fallacia glorietur; ut autem 
mendacium Veritas superet et sapientia malitiam vincat, veritatem 
ostendam, non propter jactantiam sed propter Dei gloriam." 

634. Lere—itsich, A.S. Ikranj Icel. llercu 

637. Famyle^i2Lm\\y — />., household. 

640. .S'w^rK/= smothered. for-blede^^hXt^ to death. 

645. Cf. Eccles. iii. 7. 

671-690. L.A. ; *' Et haec dicens tunicam a capite usque deorsum 
sive usque ad cingulum scidit et femina apparuit dixitque praefecto : 
tu mihi pater, Claudia mater, fratres hi duo, qui tecum sedent, Avitus 
et Sergius, ego Eugenia filia tua, hi duo Prothus et Jacinctus." 

671. C«/^=cowl. 

672. 5<r/z/^/rK=scapulary, a kind of scarf worn by friars and others, 
and so called from passing over the shoulders. Scapularis^ adj., formed 
from Lat. pi. scafiulcey the shoulder-blades. 

676. Ly came =hody, A.S. llchama, body. 

691-728. L.A. has only : " Quod pater audiens et filiam cognoscere 
incipiens in amplexus cum matre irruit et lacrymas multas eifudit, 
Eugenia autem vestibus aureis induitur et in sublime tollitur, ignis 
autem de coelo venit et Melanciam cum suis consumsit." 

711. Zy^/r^/^ diapered — i,e,y figured, ornamented with. O.Fr. 
diaprd^ "diaperd or diapred, diversified with flourishes or sundry 
figures." — Cot. See Skeat, sub diaper, 

729-794. L.A.: " Sicque Eugenia patrem, matrem et fratres totamque 
familiam ad fidem Christi convertit, ita quod pater propter hoc a 
praefectura depositus a christian is episcopus ordinatur et in oratione 
persistens ab infidelibus occiditur.*' 

751. ^j'/= religion. 

789. Z<jw^r^= leisure — i.e., persistency, or patience. 

795-806. L.A. : " Claudia autem cum filiis suis et Eugenia Romam 
revertitur et ibi multi ab iis ad Christum sunt conversi." 

802. Z?^«rA//K= doughtily. 

807-857. L.A. : " Eugenia autem jussu imperatoris ligata grandi 
saxo in Tyberim praecipitatur, sed rupto saxo super undas incolumis 

814. 2«^^ = few. 

831. Pa/=at. 

856-870. L.A.: " Tunc in fomacem ardentem projicitur, sed exstincta 
fomace refrigerio utebatur." 

860. Cy«^=oven. 

871-916. L.A. : " Recluditur deinde in tenebrosum carcerem ; sed 
lumen splendidissimum radiabat eidem ; cumque per x dies sine cibo 
fuisset, salvator eidem apparuit et panem candidissimum sibi porrigens 
dixit : accipe cibum de manu mea, ego sum salvator tuus, quern tota 
mentis intentione amasti ; eodem die quo ad terras descendi, ipse te 
eripiam. In die igitur natalis domini spiculator mittitur et caput ejus 


abscidit Quae postmodum matri apparuit et quod die dominica se 
sequeretur, prsedixit Veniente igitur dominica die Claudia in oratione 
posita emisit spiritum." 

879. Leyme= shine. 

917-9i6. L.A. : " Prothus autem et Jacinctus, cum ad templum 
ydolorum traherentur, oratione symulacrum comminuerunt et cum 
sacriiicare noUent, capitis obtruncatione martirium postmodum com- 
pleverunt. Passi sunt autem sub Valeriano et Gallo c. a. d. CCLVI." 

935. A woyce == one voict. 


" In the city of Antioch dwelt a virgin wonderfully fair and good and 
wise ; her name was Justina. She was the daughter of a priest of the 
idols ; but having listened to the teaching of the Gospel, she not only 
became a Christian herself, but converted her parents to the true faith. 
Many looked upon this beautiful maiden with eyes of love — among them 
a noble youth of the city of Antioch whose name was Aglaides ; and 
he wooed her with soft words and gifts, but all in vain — for Justina 
had devoted herself to the service of God and a life of chastity and 
good works, and she refused to listen to him, and he was wellnigh in 

" Now in the same city of Antioch dwelt Cyprian the magician, a 
man deeply versed in all the learning of the pagan philosophers, and, 
moreover, addicted from his youth to the study of astrology and 
necromancy. When he had exhausted all the learning of his own 
country, he travelled to the East, into the land of the Chaldees, 
and into Egypt, and to Argos, and to Athens ; and he had made him- 
self familiar with all terrible and forbidden arts. He had subjected 
to his might the spirits of darkness and the elements, he could com- 
mand the powers of hell, he could raise storms and tempests, and 
transform men into beasts of burden. It was said that he offered the 
blood of children to his demons, and many other crimes were imputed 
to him, too dreadful to be here related. 

"Aglaides being, as I have said, in despair and confusion of mind 
because of the coldness of Justina, repaired to Cyprian ; for he said, 
' Surely this great magician, who can command the demons and the 
elements, can command the will of a weak maiden.' Then he explained 
the matter to him, and required his help. But no sooner had Cyprian 
beheld the beautiful and virtuous maiden, than he became himself so 
deeply enamoured that all rest departed from him, and he resolved to 
possess her. As yet, nothing had been able to resist his power, and, 
full of confidence, he summoned his demons to his aid. He com- 
manded them to fill the mind of the chaste Justina with images of 


earthly beauty, and to inflame and pollute her fancy with visions of 
voluptuous delight She was oppressed, she was alarmed, she felt 
that these were promptings of the Evil One, and she resisted with all 
her might, being well assured that as long as her will remained un- 
conquered, Christ and the Virgin would help her : and it was so, for 
when she invoked them against her enemy, he left her in peace, and 

"When Cyprian found that his demon was foiled, he called up 
another, and then another, and at length the Prince of Darkness came 
to his aid; but it was all in vain. Justina was fearfully troubled; her 
pure and innocent mind became the prey of tumultuous thoughts ; 
demons beset her couch, haunted her sleep, poisoned the very atmos- 
phere she breathed : but she said to her almost failing heart, ' I will 
not be discouraged, I will strive with the evil that besets me. Thought 
is not in our power, but action is : my spirit may be weak, but my will 
is firm ; what I do not «////, can have no power over me.' Thus, al- 
though grievously tempted and tormented, she stood fast, trusting in 
the God whom she worshipped, and conquered at last, not by con- 
tending, but by never owning herself subdued, and strong in her 
humility only by not consenting to will. So the baffled demon 
returned to his master and said, 'I can do nothing against this 
woman ; for, being pure and sinless in will, she is protected by a 
power greater than thine or mine ! * 

" Then Cyprian was astonished, and his heart was melted ; and he 
said to the demon, ' Since it is so, I contemn thee and thy power, and 
I will henceforth serve the God of Justina.' He went, therefore, full 
of repentance and sorrow, and, falling at her feet, acknowledged the 
might of her purity and innocence, and confessed himself vanquished, 
upon which she forgave him freely, and rejoiced over him; and in her 
great joy she cut off her beautiful hair, and made an offering of it 
before the altar of the Virgin, and gave much alms to the poor. 

'* Soon after, Cyprian was baptised and became a fervent Christian ; 
all his goods he distributed to the poor, and became as remarkable for 
his piety, abstinence, and profound knowledge of the Scriptures, as he 
had formerly been for his diabolical arts, his wickedness, his luxury, 
and his pride. Such was his humility that he undertook the meanest 
offices for the service of the faithful, and he and Justina mutually 
strengthened and edified each other by their virtues and by their holy 

"At this time broke forth the last and most terrible persecution 
against the Christians, and when the governor of Antioch found that 
no menaces could shake the faith of Cyprian and Justina, he ordered 
them to be thrown together into a caldron of boiling pitch ; but by 
a miracle they escaped unharmed. The governor then, fearing the 
people, who venerated Cyprian and Justina, sent them with an escort 
to the Emperor Diocletian, who was then at Nicomedia, languishing 


in sickness ; and the Emperor, hearing that they were Christians, with- 
out any further trial ordered them to be instantly beheaded, which 
was done. Thus they received together the crown of martyrdom, and 
in name and in fame have become inseparable." 

On this story Calderon has founded one of his finest autos, the 
*Magico Prodigioso,' part of which — the scene in which Justina is 
tempted by the demons — has been translated by Shelley. 

Her day is September 26. 

Mrs Jameson, from whose * Sacred and Legendary Art,' vol. ii. pp. 574- 
576, the above legend has been taken, remarks : " When St Cyprian 
and St Justina are represented together, he is arrayed in the habit of 
a Greek bishop without a mitre, bearing the palm and sword, and 
trampling his magic books under his feet : she holds a palm ; and a 
unicorn, the emblem of chastity, crouches at her feet." 

Analysis — Introduction on the power of the cross and its sign, 1-58; 
the birth and conversion of Justina, and the conversion of her parents, 
59-100; the character of Cyprian, 101-120 ; his love for Justina, 121- 
130 ; he calls to his assistance a fiend who professes to be able to per- 
vert Justina, 131-164; he receives an ointment with which to smear 
the walls of her chamber, 165-180; Justina, feeling that she is being 
tempted, makes the sign of the cross, and its effect, 181-200; Cyprian 
employs another fiend to get possession of Justina, 201-238 ; yet other 
fiends being employed, they also are foiled by Justina signing herself 
with the cross, 239-258 ; at last Cyprian calls to his aid the Prince of 
Devils, who being upbraided, promises to fulfil his wishes, 259-292 ; 
in the form of a maiden the devil tempts Justina, and is foiled, 293-380; 
he tempts her again in the form of a young man, 381-394 ; he next 
assails her with disease, and causes a great mortality in Antioch, and 
sends men to her father's house to pray him to have her married for 
their sakes, 395-422; Justina prays, the mortality ceases, and the 
Devil begins to slander her by assuming her form and appearing to 
Cyprian, 423-442 ; he assumes other forms, and is at last compelled 
to own his impotence, and Cyprian disowns him on learning the 
secret of her power, 443-584 ; Cyprian becomes a Christian, and is dis- 
tinguished for his virtues, 585-640 ; Justina is made the head of a nun- 
nery, 641-662 ; Cyprian's zeal, 663-680 ; the two saints are sent for by 
a certain earl, and on their refusing to give up their faith, are thrown 
into a caldron of boiling pitch, but are uninjured, 681-738 ; a pagan 
priest offers to destroy them, but the flames from beneath the caldron 
burn him to ashes, 739-764 ; Cyprian and Justina are slain with the 
sword, 765-775 ; hounds and other animals do not dare to touch their 
bodies, which have been left exposed, 776-783 ; the bodies are stolen 
away by night and reverently buried, 784-788 ; their translation, 789- 
798 ; conclusion, 799-808. 

For the source, cf. L.A. cap. 142. See also the life by S. Metaphras- 
tes, in Surius. The author has evidently used a fuller source than L.A. 



2. Bj^r^i, Horstmann sugg^ests ^^= behoved ; but ^r.e/= behoves, 
is better. 

3, Hynge=\\zxig. Hynge or king is still common. 
6. Aw to dout= ought to fear, 

9. Afan=^musU of necessity, in spite of himself. 

22. Sawit= saved. 

24. See Ezek. ix. 4. 

35. See Euseb., Vit. Const, i. 28-31. 

40. See the Legend of the Exaltation of the Cross in the * Legends 
of the Holy Rood,' edited by R. Morris, LL.D., in the E.E.T. Society, 
pp. 161 ^/ se^.y and L.A., c. 137. 

59-100. L.A. : '^ Justina virgo de civitate Antiochiae, filia sacerdotis 
ydolorum, quotidie ad fenestram sedens Proclum dyaconum evan- 
gelium legentem audiebat, a quo tandem conversa est. Quod cum 
mater patri in lecto retulisset et ambo dormivissent, Christus cum 
angelis apparuit iis dicens : venite ad me et dabo vobis reg^um coel- 
orum. Qui evigilantes statim cum filia se baptizari fecerunt." 

66. lustine. According to S. Metaphrastes, her name was originally 

71. /*r^/KA/^A/= called Pralius. 

82. Na it zc;^j=that it was not. 

83. /^a^r= father. His name is said to have been iEdiseus. 
85. Modir, Her name is given as Cledonia. 

101-126. L.A. : "Haec ergo Justina virgo a Cjrpriano plurimum 
molestata ipsum tandem ad fidem convertit. Cyprianus enim a sua 
pueritia mag^s exstiterat : nam cum septem annorum esset, a parent- 
ibus dyabolo consecratus est. Hie igitur magicae arti inserviebat et 
matronas in jumenta convertere videbatur et multa alia praestigia ex- 
ercebat. Ardens igitur in amore Justinae virginis ad magicas artes se 
contulit, ut ipsam pro se (vel pro viro quodam Acladio, qui similiter in 
ejus amorem exarserat) posset habere." 

103. CyPriane—Qy^TidSi, He is said to have been a native of 

104. Fyfe=^\e, L.A., "septem." 

105. Nygramancy= necrom2J\cy, divination by communion with the 
dead, but more generally all kinds of magic. During the middle ages 
the poet Virgil was regarded as the Prince of Necromancers. Sec 
Chambers's * Book of Days,' ii. 366. 

112. Gillet—yiWtiy which is defined by Jamieson as signifying a light 
giddy girl. Skeat derives it from yHi, a personal name, and adds the 
remark that '* the use oi jillet for Jill was probably suggested by the 
similar word giglot or giglet, a wanton woman (** Meas. for Meas.," v. 
352), which is to be connected with O.Fr. gigueSy a gay g^rl (Roque- 
fort), and with Jig." 

116. Foule=\yixd, 

117. 7>wjj/a/= change, metamorphose. 

NOTES TO lUSTIN (XXXII 120-255). 35 5 

120. Z?^/fj= devils. 

127-130. An addition. 

131-180. L.A. : " Advocat igitur daemonem, ut ad se veniat et Jus- 
tinam per eum valeat habere. Adveniens daemon dixit ei: quid me 
vocasti ? Cui Cyprianus : amo virginem de Galilaeis ; potesne facere 
ut ipsam habeam etvoluntatem meam secum perficiam? Cui daemon? 
ego qui hominem de paradiso ejicere potui, Cain fratrem suum occidere 
procuravi, Judaeos Christum occidere feci, homines perturbavi, et non 
potero facere ut unam puellam habeas et ea juxta tuum placitum 
fruaris? Unguentum hoc accipe et circa domum ejus de foris sparge 
et ego superveniens cor ejus in tuum amorem incendam et tibi earn 
assentire compellam. Sequenti nocte daemon ad earn ingreditur et 
cor ejus ad amorem illicitum incitare conatur." 

146. JCaytne =C^\n, 

150. Nofse= Noah's. 

154. S^e rede =Red Sea. For rede we should read dede, and for 
Red Sea^ Dead Sea, 

167. Vngument ^oxiiXmtni, 

173. Coule. Probably coal. 

181-197. L.A. : " Quod ilia sen ti ens devote se domino commendavit 
et totum corpus suum signo crucis munivit Ad signum autem crucis 
dyabolus territus fugit et ad Cyprianum veniens ante eum stetit Cui 
Cyprianus dixit: quare non adduxisti ad me virginem illam? Cui 
daemon : vidi in ea quoddam signum et contabui et omnis virtus 
in me defecit." 

189. -Fm/= terrified. 

198-202. L.A. : " Cyprianus autem eum dimisit et fortiorem vocavit." 

200. Dow=diVdX\tsX. See Bradley, sub duyen. 

203-212. L.A. : " Cui daemon : audivi tuam jussionem et vidi illius 
impossibilitatem, sed ego emendabo et tuam complebo voluntatem ; 
aggrediar eam et cor ejus vulnerabo in amorem libidinis et ea juxta 
desiderium tuum perfrueris." 

213-230. L.A. : " Ingrediens igitur dyabolus nitebatur ei persuadere 
et animam ejus ad amorem illicitum inflammare. Ilia autem se Deo 
devote recommendans signo crucis omnem tentationem repulit et 
insufiSans in daemonem protinus eum abjecit, daemon autein confusus 
abiit et aufugit et ante Cyprianum stetit" 

225. For commendant read commendand. 

229. JfW=went A.S. witan, to go, depart 

231-254. L.A. : "Ad quem Cyprianus : et ubi est virgo ad quam te 
transmisi ? Et daemon : victum me fateor, et qualiter, dicere per- 
timesco ; quoddam enim signum terribile in ea vidi et continuo robur 
omne amisi." 

239-254. These lines seem to be by another hand. 

255-292. L.A. : "Tunc Cjrprianus eum deridens dimisit et ipsum 
principem daemonem advocavit^ cumque venisset, ad eum dixit : quae 


est virtus vestra tarn modica, ut vincatur ab una puella? Dixit daemon: 
ecce egrediens variis febribus earn vexabo et animum ejus ardentius 
infiammabo et totum corpus ejus vehementi ardore respergam et 
freneticam illam faciam et varia sibi fantasmata offeram et media 
nocte earn adducam tibi." 

260. Sujirande= sovereign. 

293-358. LA.: "Tunc dyabolus in speciem unius virginis se trans- 
figuravit et ad virginem veniens dixit : Ecce ad te venio, quia tecum 
in castitate vivere concupisco, verumtamen die, quaeso te, quaenam 
certaminis nostri merces erit? Cui sancta virgo respondit : merces 
quidem multa, labor modicus. Dixit ei daemon : quid est ergo, quod 
Deus praecepit : crescite et multiplicamini et replete terram ? timeo 
ergo, bona socia, quod, si in virginitate manserimus, verbum Dd 
irritum faciemus et velut contemnentes et inobedientes in grave judi- 
cium decidemus, et unde videbamur sperare praemium, et grave incur- 
remus tormentum.** 

309. Zi//= live. 

331. Hyne= work, till. 

333-348. Not in L.A. 

349. Precis = presses. 

350. 7/7 ]>ai ///^= while they live. 

359-380. L.A. : " Coepit autem cor virginis gravibus cogitationibus 
per immissionem dsemonis concuti et ardore concupiscentiae fortius 
inflammari, adeo ut jam surgens abire vellet Tunc s. virgo ad se 
reversa et quis esset, qui secum loqueretur, intelligens, continuo se 
crucc munivit et in dyabolum sufflans ipsum instar cerae protinus 
liquefecit et ab omni tentatione statim liberatam se sensit." 

374. Co7var//y= covertly. 

381-394. L.A. : *' Postmodum dyabolus in speciem juvenis pulcherrimi 
se transfiguravit et thalamum ejus ingrediens, cum ipsa in lectulo 
jaceret, impudenter in ejus lectulum prosiluit et in ejus amplexus 
ruere voluit. Quod videns J. et malignum spiritum adesse cognoscens 
mox signum crucis edidit et instar cerae dyabolum liquefecit" 

395-426. L.A.: "Tunc dyabolus permittente Deo febribus eam fati- 
gans et plures cum gregibus et armentis occidens maximam mortali- 
tatem in tota Antiochia futuram per dacmoniacos praedicebat, nisi 
J. conjugio consentiret Quapropter tota civitas morbo languens ad 
januam parentum Justinae convenit damans ut Justina conjugio tra- 
deretur et sic civitatem a tanto periculo liberarent. Sed cum J. nul- 
latenus consentiret et ex hoc mortem eidem omnes minarentur, septimo 
anno mortalitatis ipsa pro iis oravit et omnem pestilentiam propulsavit" 

395. Tholand god^Qo^ permitting. j«//p= assail. 

413. C/a^= disaster. Lat. eludes, disaster. 

416. Fayre iia AiM= pleasant nor unpleasant [words]. Latkt from 
A.S. Ia9, hateful, unwelcome. Cf. Mod. Eng. loath in loathsome. 

419. 7/1= inn, house. 

NOTES TO lUSTIN (XXXII. 427-685). 357 

427-442. L.A.: "Videns dyabolus quod nihil proficeret, in formam 
Justinae se transmutavit, ut famam Justinae pollueret, et Cyprianum 
deludens se Justinam ad se adduxisse jactabal. Pergens igitur dya- 
bolus ad Cyprianum in specie Justinae ad ipsum cucurrit et eum, quasi 
quas ejus amore langueret, osculari voluit Quam C. videns et Justinam 
esse credens gaudio repletus ait : bene venisti, Justina omnium femin- 
arum decora. Mox ut C. nomen Justinae nominavit, dyabolus nomen 
illud ferre non potuit, sed ad ejus prolationem instar fumi statim 

443-454. L.A. : " Quapropter C. delusum se videns tristis remansit, 
unde et amplius in amorem Justinse aestuans ad ostium virginis diu 
vigilavit et quandoque in feminam quandoque in avem, ut videbatur, 
arte magica se commutans, cum venisset ad ostium virginis, neque 
femina neque avis, sed Cyprianus protinus apparebat." Then follows 
in L.A. the story of Acladius, who changed himself into the form 
of a swallow in order to tempt Justina, which is here omitted. 

455-480. L.A.: "Victus igitur per omnia dyabolus ad Cyprianum 
rediit et ante eum confusus stetit. Cui dixit C: numquid et tu victus 
es ? Quae est, miser, virtus vestra, ut unam puellam non possitis vincere 
nee in eam potestatem habere, sed e converso ipsa vos vincat et tam 
miserabiliter vos prosternat ? Die tamen mihi, obsecro, in quo est ejus 
tam maxima fortitude ? Cui daemon ait : si mihi juraveris, ut a me 
nequaquam recedas, virtutem ejus victorias tibi pandam. Cui C: per 
quid tibi jurabo ? Cui daemon : jura mihi per virtutes meas magmas, 
quod a me nunquam discedas. Dicit ei C: per virtutes tuas magnas 
tibi juro, quod a te nunquam discedam." 

475. Vertuise. Cf. oste^ 1. 569. 

482. Traste =SMrt. 

489. -^jj/M = compensate. 

481-498. L.A.: "Tunc dyabolus quasi securus ei dixit: puella illa- 
signum crucihxi edidit et statim contabui et omnem virtutem amisi et 
quasi cera a facie ignis effluxi." 

499-552. Not in L.A. 

640. /'ray = prey. 

653-564. L.A. : "Dicit ei C. : ergo crucifixus major te est? Et 
daemon : utique, major omnibus est et nos et omnes quos hie de- 
cipimus, tradet igni inextinguibili cruciandos." 

565-584. L. A. : " Cui C. : ergo et ego amicus debeo fieri crucifixi, ne 
tantam aliquando poenam incurram. Cui dyabolus : jurasti mihi per 
virtutes mei exercitus, per quas nemo perjurare valet, quod a me nun- 
quam discederes. Ad quem C: te et omnes fumigantes tuas virtutes 
contemno et tibi et omnibus dyabolis tuis abrenuntio et crucifixi 
salutari me signo munio. Statimque ab eo dyabolus confusus dis- 
cessit. Tunc C. ad episcopum ivit." 

569. Oste =hosX, 

585-594. L.A.: "Quem videns episcopus et credens eum venisse, ut 


christianos in errorem mitteret, ait ei : sufliciant tibi, Cypriane, hi, qui 
foris sunt ; nihil enim poteris adversus ecclesiam Dei, invicta est enim 
virtus Christi." 

59^ L.A. has : " Cui C: certus sum, quia invicta est virtus Christi; 
narransque, quae sibi acciderant, ab eo se baptizari fecit Qui post- 
modum tarn in scientia, quam in vita valde proficiens, mortuo episcopo 
ipse in episcopum ordinatus est, beatam vero virginem Justinam in 
monasteno posuit et multis sacris virginibus eaiii ibidem in abbatis- 
sam praefecit." 

619-628. These lines occur in Machor, 363-3741 and in Ninian, 75- 

648. /''^/= endowed. 0,¥r. feffer^Jieffer, See Bradley, sxibfeffm, 

665-680. L.A. : " Sanctus autem Cyprianus martiribus epistolas saepe 
mittebat et eos in certamine roborabat" 

681^ L. A. is shorter : '* Comes autem regionis illius audiens famam 
Cypriani et Justinae, eos ad se praesentari fecit et an sacrificare vellent, 
requisivit Qui dum in fide Christi persisterent firmi, jussit eos in 
sartaginem plenam cera, pice et adipe poni, quae tamen iis minim re- 
frigerium praestitit nee aliquod supplicium irrogavit." 

693. /?<V^//= enriched. 

716. Reke=^mo\^y stretch out 

744. WrVAw= witches; used in both genders. 

745-808. L.A. : " Sacerdos autem ydolorum praefecto dixit : jubeas 
me ante sartaginem stare et confestim vincam omnem virtutem eonim. 
Cum ergo juxta sartaginem venisset, dixit : magnus est Deus Hercules 
et pater Deorum Jupiter ! Et ecce continuo de sartagine ignis exivit 
et penitus eum consumsit Tunc Cyprianus et Justina de sartagine 
extrahuntur et data super eos sententia pariter decollantur. Horum 
corpora cum septem diebus ad canes projecta mansissent, postmodum 
Romam translata sunt, nunc autem, ut dicitur, Placentiae requiescunt 
Passi sunt autem vi Cal. Octobres c. a. d. cclxxx sub Dyocletiano." 


St George was a native of Lydda, or, as is contended by some, of 
Cappadocia, of noble parentage, and akin to St Nesia, the woman by 
whom the Iberians were converted in the reign of Constantine. He 
entered the army as a centurion, and rose to be a military tribune. 
After the death of his father, and some time before the outbreak of the 
great persecution, he accompanied his mother to Palestine, her native 
land, where she is said to have had considerable property. As 
soon, however, as he heard of the publication of the first edict 
(February 23, A.D. 303), he returned to Nicomedia, threw up his com- 
mission, and complained to the Emperor. According to some, he 
was the celebrated person who tore down the imperial proclamation, 
and then suflfered death for the offence by roasting over a slow fire. 
The evidence for this, however, is insufficient April 23 has universally 
been fixed as the day of his martyrdom ; but according to Lactantius 
(De Mort Persecut, xii. xiii.), the edict which was torn down by the 
nameless Christian was published on February 24. The earliest 
historical testimony to his existence and martyrdom comes from an 
inscription in a church at Ezr'a or Edhr'a, in Southern Syria, copied 
by Burckhardt and Porter. The inscription states that the building 
had been a heathen temple, but was dedicated as a church in honour 
of the great martyr St George, in a year which Mr Hogg, who has 
discussed the inscription in two papers read before the Royal Society 
of Literature (Trans., vi. 292, vii. 106), fixes as a.d. 346. His name 
occurs again in an inscription in the church of Shaka, about twenty 
miles east of Ezr'a. By the decrees of the council assembled at Rome 
by Pope Gelasius, the Acts of St George were condemned. These 
Acts, which appear to have been corrupted by the Arians, and hence 
their condemnation by Gelasius, contain most of the legendary stories 
which sprang up in connection with the saint According to these, 
he was arrested by Dacian, Emperor, according to some of Rome, 
according to others of Persia, by whom he was ordered to sacrifice to 
Apollo. On refusing, he was confronted with the magician Athanasius, 


who undertook to confound him. But Athanasius was converted and 
baptised, as was also the Queen of Alexandria. After many miracles 
and tortures the saint was finally beheaded. The addition of a horse 
and a dragon to the story is said to be due to "the imagination of 
medieval writers improving upon the allegorical ideas of earlier times." 
The dragon represents the Devil, and was suggested by the saint's 
triumph over him at his martyrdom. The horse was added during 
the Frankish occupation of Constantinople, as suitable, according to 
medieval ideas, to his rank and character as a military martyr. He 
was depicted on a horse as early as 1227. In his History of Byzantium 
(viii. 5), Nicephorus Gregoras tells a curious story concerning a 
picture in the imperial palace at Constantinople, of St George mounted 
upon a horse, which was accustomed to neigh in the most violent 
manner whenever an enemy was about to make a successful assault 
on the city. The full-grown legend of St George and the dragon and 
the king's daughter Sabra, whom he delivered, is found for the first time 
in the * Legenda Aurea.' — The story of St George was well known in 
England long before he was adopted there as the patron sainL It 
seems to have been introduced into the country by way of lona. 
Arculf, who was driven to that island when returning to his bishopric 
in France, told it to St Adamnan, and through him it became known 
to the Venerable Bede. The name of St George occurs in the Anglo- 
Saxon ritual of Durham, which is assigned to the early part of the 
ninth century. There is also an Anglo-Saxon Passion of St George, 
the work of i^lfric, Archbishop of York, a.d. 1020-105 i. His fame in 
England, however, arose more immediately out of the Crusades. Aft 
the battle of Antioch, June 28, 1089, when the Crusaders were hard 
pressed by the Saracens, they were encouraged by seeing the martyrs 
George and Demetrius hastily approaching from the mountainous 
districts, hurling darts against the enemy, but assisting the Franks (W. 
of Malniesbury, Gesta Reg. Angl., ii. 559). Among the Crusaders was 
a large contingent of Normans under Robert, son of William the 
Conqueror, and this timely apparition of the saint at the very crisis of 
the campaign led to his adoption as their patron saint. He also 
appeared to Richard I., and thus became an especial favourite with 
the Normans and English. In 1222 his feast was ordered, at a 
national council held at Oxford, to be kept as a lesser holiday. It was 
not, however, till the time of Edward III. that he was formally adopted 
as the patron saint of England, in place of St Edward the Confessor. 
This happened in 1349. The following year the Order of the Garter was 
instituted under his patronage, and in 141 5 his day was made a major 
double first and ordered to be observed as Christmas Day. Under the 
influence of the Crusades, he was adopted as their patron saint by 
the republic of Genoa and the kingdoms of Arragon and Valencia. 
Churches were erected in his honour all over Christendom. One of 
the most celebrated is that which was probably built by Justinian over 


his tomb at Lydda, whither his relics had been translated after his 
martyrdom. Cf. Smith's 'Diet. Christ Biogr./ Butler's * Lives/ the 
Life by Metaphrastes in Surius, and the Acta and discussions in the 
Acta SS. by the Bollandists. 

His day is April 23. 

For his representation in art, see Mrs Jameson's * Sacred and 
Legendary Art/ vol. ii. pp. 402-411. 

Analysis — The author's intention to translate the story of St George, 
1-4 ; he is an example to all, and is much honoured, 5-17 ; his birth 
and rank, 18-34 ; the straits to which the king and people of Silena are 
put by reason of the dragon which infested a lake near the city, 35-98 ; 
the lot falls for the king's only daughter to be thrown to the dragon, 
and she is at last, leading a sheep, placed on the shore of the lake to 
be devoured along with the sheep, as many of the children of the 
citizens have been, 99-210 ; St George comes riding by, questions her, 
and in spite of her entreaties that he will leave her to her fate, waits 
till the appearance of the dragon, when after a fierce conflict he strikes 
it to the earth, and bids the king's daughter tie her belt round its neck 
and lead it to the city, 211-275 ; this she does, and the people are in 
great terror, when St George promises that if they will receive the 
Christian faith and be baptised he will slay the dragon, 276-300; 
the dragon is slain and burnt, 301-310; twenty thousand men and 
women are baptised, a church built, a miraculous well springs up in 
it, 311-320; the saint refuses the king's presents, and preaches him a 
sermon, and departs, 321-346; he arrives at the city of Dyaspolis, 
where are the two Emperors of Rome, Diocletian and Maximianus, 
347-358; the persecutions of Dacian, Emperor of the Persians, 359- 
380 ; George distributes his goods, and avows his Christian faith to 
him, 381-410; in answer to his question, St George tells him who 
and what he is, 411-432 ; asked to sacrifice to Apollo, he refuses, and 
is put to the torture, 433-470; the following day, still refusing to 
sacrifice, he is handed over to a sorcerer named Athenas, who attempts 
to poison him, but he takes the cup in which the poison is mixed and 
drinks it unharmed, and Athenas is converted, 471-532 ; Dacian causes 
Athenas to be beheaded, and orders George to be placed on a wheel 
armed with swords, but when he is brought to the wheel it breaks in 
pieces, 533-564; he is then thrown into a caldron of molten lead, 
but is refreshed in it as in a bath, 565-586; Dacian next tries to persuade 
him to forsake Christ, 587-610; George promises to do his bidding, 
611-618 ; the people are assembled, Dacian addresses them, and all go 
to the temple to see George sacrifice, he accompanying them, 619-668; 
he prays that the temple may be destroyed, and it is burnt with its 
priests and idols, the earth opening and swallowing all which the fire 
left, 669-690; St Ambrose on this, 691-714; Dacian, perplexed as to 
what he should do, appeals to his wife, who avows herself a Christian, 
and he orders her to be hung up by the hair and beaten, 715-780; 


George comforts her, and she him, after which she dies, 781-795 ; what 
St Ambrose says on this incident, 796-806; on the following day 
George is beheaded, 807-842 ; the fate of Dacian, 843-852 ; many are 
converted, 853-868 ; the burial of George, and the building of a royal 
church over his remains, 869-878 ; a marvel related by St Gregory of 
Tours, 879-900; another story, 901-950; conclusion, 951-956. 

Source — Cf. L.A. cap. 58, and Acta SS. of the Bollandists, April, 
vol. iii. The episode of the dragon does not occur in the old Acta ; 
it was first spread by Voragine. 

3. Translat, The author departs in many particulars from the 
narrative in L.A. 

6. And many lost souls won to God. 

19. L.A. : " Gregorius tribunus, genere Cappadocium pervenit qua- 
dam vice in provinciam Libyse in civitatem quae dicitur Silena.** See 
for the birthplace the article in Smith's * Diet of Christ Biography.* 

23-34. An addition. 

27. "Tribunus dicitur, qui tributa recipit, apud Ebrardum in 
Grsecismo." — Cap. 9. 

" Qui solet accipere sub Rege tributa, Tribunus. Infra : Quique 
Tributa legit, ille Tribunus erit." — Cap. 19. 

" Praebeo praebendas, tribuoque tributa Tribuno." Gloss. Lat Gall.: 
" Tribunus, Tribunes, qui a suos lui 30 homines, ou qui re^oit tniage." 
— Du Cange. 

29. ///•j=is. 

37. Zy^>'= Libya, a district in North Africa of indefinite limits. See 
the art in Smith*s * Diet of Gr. and Rom. Geogr.' 

41-84. L.A.: "Juxta quam civitatem erat stagnum instar maris, in 
quo draco pestifer latitabat, qui saepe populum contra se armatum in 
fugam converterat flatuque suo ad mures civitatis accedens omnes 
inficiebat Quapropter compulsi cives duas oves quotidie sibi dabant, 
ut ejus furorem sedarent, alioquin sic muros civitatis invadebat et 
acrem inficiebat, quod plurimi interibant" 

41. Locht=\oz\i<i lake. 

48. Are =heir. 

49, Low=locht oi\, 41. 
57. Ou/akand^ excepting. 

69. Blau =b\ov/, 

70. In a thrau=^\xi a moment 

85-98. L.A. : " Cum ergo oves paene deficerent maxime cum harum 
copiam habere non possent, initio consilio ovem cum adjuncto homine 

92. C«/=lot 

99-136. L.A.: " Cum igitur sorte omnium filii et filiae hominum dar- 
entur et sors neminem exciperet et jam paene omnes filii et filiae 
essent consumti, quadam vice filia regis unica sorte est deprehensa et 

NOTES TO GEORGE ( XXKill . 120-2S3). 363 

draconi adjudicata. Tunc rex contristatus ait : tollite aurum et argen- 
tum et dimidium regni mei et filiam mihi dimittite, ne taliter moriatur. 
Cui populus cum furore respondit : tu, o rex, hoc edictum fecisti et 
nunc omnes pueri nostri mortui sunt et tu vis filiam tuam salvare? 
nisi in filia tua compleveris, quod in aliis ordinasti, succendemus te 
et domum tuam."' 

120. Wr>/y«^= exchange. 

133. Tarowt's—tdLrnest O.Fr. targer^ to carry. 

134. FUchinge=^^\Xjtrjy deceit 

137-172. L.A. is different; "Quod rex videns coepit filiam suam 
flere dicens: heu me, filia mea dulcissima, quod de te faciam? aut 
quid dicam ? quando plus videbo nuptias tuas ? Et conversus ad pop- 
ulum dixit : oro, ut inducias octo dierum lugendi mihi filiam tribuatis. 
Quod cum populus admisisset, in fine octo dierum reversus est popu- 
lus cum furore dicens: quare perdis populum tuum propter filiam 
tuam ? En omnes afflatu draconis morimur. Tunc rex videns, quod 
non posset filiam liberare, induit eam vestibus regalibus et amplexatus 
cam cum lacrymis dixit." 

138. ^f//^= plead. A.S. tndiian^ to plead. 

161. Wil of rede=\o\^ of counsel, beside himself. 

173-210. L.A.; "Heu me, filia mea dulcissima, de te filios in regali 
gremio nutrire credebam et nunc vadis ut a dracone devoreris. Heu 
me, filia mea dulcissima, sperabam ad tuas nuptias principes invitare, 
palatium margaritis ornare, tympana et organa audire, et nunc vadis 
ut a dracone devoreris. £t deosculans dimisit eam dicens : utinam, 
filia mea, ego ante te mortuus essem, quam te sic amisissem. Tunc 
ilia procidit ad pedes patris petens ab eo benedictionem suam : quam 
cum pater cum lacrymis benedixisset, ad lacum processit." 

185. /i/j/= joust. 

189. /'^rr^= jewellery, precious stones. O.Fr. perrie. See Brad- 
ley, s,v. 

206, 206. Not in L.A. 

211-252. L. A. : " Quam b. Georgius casu inde transiens ut plorantem 
vidit, eam, quid haberet, interrogavit Et ilia : bone juvenis, velociter 
equum adscende et fuge, ne mecum pariter moriaris. Cui G. : noli 
timere, filia, sed die mihi quid hie praestolaris omni plebe spectante. 
Et ilia : ut video, bone juvenis, magnifici cordis es tu, sed mecum 
mori desideras? fuge velociter. Cui G.: non hinc ego discedam, 
donee mihi quid habeas, intimabis. Cum ergo totum sibi exposuisset, 
ait G.: filia, noli timere, quia in Christi nomine te juvabo. Et ilia : 
bone miles, sed te ipsum salvare festines, mecum non pereas, sufficit 
enim si sola peream; nam me liberare non posses et tu mecum 

251. Me ane—me al'ane= alone, 

253-280. L.A. : " Dum haec loquerentur, ecce draco veniens caput de 
lacu levavit. Tunc puella tremefacta dixit : fuge, bone domine, fuge 

364 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XXKill. 20B*363). 

velociter. Tunc G. equum ascendens et cruce se muniens draconem 
contra se advenientem audaciter aggreditur et lanceam fortiter vibrans 
et se Deo commendans ipsum graviter vulneravit et ad terram dejecit, 
dixitque puellae : projice zonam tuam in collum draconis, nihil dubi- 
tans, filia. Quod cum fecisset, sequebatur earn velut mansuetissima 
can is." 

266. In randone rycht=\x\. a furious course. See 'The Bruce/ vL 
139, xvii. 694, xviii. 130. O.Fr. randon^ force, impetuosity ; d. randottn, 
with force and violence. 

267. In to \e croue= into the body. crotce=coTCc, 
269-272. Not in L.A. 

275. ICnyt=^iie, 

280. JVarande =proieciion. O.Fr. garantir^ warantir, to warrant, 

281-288. L.A.: "Cum ergo eum in civitatem duceret, popuH hoc 
videntes per montes et colles fugere coeperunt dicentes: Vae nobis, 
quia jam omnes peribimus." 

282. Nare—x\^2j, 

287, 288. Not in L.A. 

289-346. L.A.: "Tunc b. G. innuit iis dicens : nolite timere, ad hoc 
enim me misit dominus ad vos ut a poenis vos liberarem draconis ; 
tantummodo in Christum credite et unusquisque vestrum baptizetur, 
et draconem istum occidam. Tunc rex et omnes populi baptizati sunt, 
b. autem G. evaginato gladio draconem occidit et ipsum extra civi- 
tatem efferri prsecepit. Tunc quatuor paria boum ipsum in mag- 
num campum foras duxerunt, baptizati autem sunt in ilia die xx 
millia exceptis parvulis et mulieribus, rex autem in honorem b. Marise 
et b. Georgii ecclesiam rnira^ magnitudinis construxit, de cuius altari 
fons vivus emanat, cuius potus omnes languidos sanat ; rex vero infin- 
itam pecuniam b. Georgio obtulit, quam ille recipere nolens pauper- 
ibus eam dari pra^cepit. Tunc G. regem de quatuor breviter in- 
struxit, so. ut ecclesiarum Dei curam haberet, sacerdotes honoraret, 
divinum officium diligenter audiret, et semper pauperum memor esset; 
et osculato rege inde recessit. In aliquibus tamen libris legitur quod, 
dum draco ad devorandam puellam pergeret, G. se cruce munivit et 
draconem aggrediens interfecit." 

289. 6!/'>r^= from afar. 

320. 5tfZ£/^= salve, heal. 

343. Z<?tt//^= serve. 

347-352. Not in L.A. 

348. /'^?r^^? = Persia. 

349. 7y/r^«;^;/^= pressed. 

350. In randone. See note to I. 266. 

353-368. L.A. : " Eo tempore imperantibus Dyocletiano et Maxi- 
miano sub pra^side Daciano tanta persecutio christianorum fuit, ut 
infra unum mensem xvii millia martirio coronarentur, unde inter tot 

NOTES TO GEORGE (XXXm. 359-518). 365 

tormentorum genera multi christiani deficiebant et ydolis immola- 

359. Dacyane=Daiciain. Later on he is called Emperor of Persia. 

369-380. Not in L.A. 

381-410. L.A. : " Quod videns b. G. tactus dolore cordis intrinsecus 
omnia, quae habebat, dispersit, militarem habitum abjecit, christian- 
orum habitum induit et in medium prosiliens exclamavit : omnes dii 
gentium daemonia ! dominus autem caslos fecit" 

390, 391, 397-410. Not in L.A. 

402. Lay = earth. A.S. /ea/i, 

408. pa/=at. 

410. Consawi/=consai/=\de2L, conception, fancy. 

411-444. L.A. : " Cui praeses iratus dixit : qua praesumtione audes 
Deos nostros daemonia appellare ? Die unde es tu aut quo nomine 
voceris? Cui G.: Georgius vocor, ex nobili Cappadocium prosapia 
ortus, Palaestinam Christo favente devici, sed omnia deserui, ut ser- 
viri possem liberius Deo coeli." 

433-444. Not in L.A. 

445-464. L.A. : " Cum autem praeses eum ad se inclinare non posset, 
jussit eum in equuleum levari et membratim corpus ejus ungulis lani- 
ari, appositis insuper ad latera facibus, patentibus viscerum rimis sale 
plagas ejus fricari jussit" 

459. y^rj^= harsh, stiff. Cf. Dan. harsk^ harsh. 

460. /^r^/=rub. 
461-464. Not in L.A. 

465-470. L.A.: "Eadem nocte Dominus cum ingenti lumine ei ap- 
paruit et ipsum dulciter confortavit, cuius melliflua visione et allocu- 
tione sic confortatus est, ut pro nihilo duceret cruciatus." 

468. Rocht na ^<f/^= thought nothing. 

471-480. Not in L.A. 

473. /rzw>/)^= angrily. A.S. irre^ anger. 

481-538. L.A.: " Videns Dacianus, quod eum poenis superare non pos- 
set, quendam magum accersivit eique dixit : Christiani suis magicis 
artibus tormenta ludificant et Deorum nostrorum sacrificia parvi pen- 
dunt Cui magus : si artes ejus superare nequivero, reus capitis ero. 
Ipse,igitur, maleficiis suis injectis et Deorum suorum nominibus invo- 
catis venenum vino immiscuit et s. Georg^o sumendum porrexit, contra 
quod vir Dei signum crucis edidit haustoque eo nil laesionis sensit 
Rursum mag^s priore fortius venenum immiscuit, quod vir Dei signo 
crucis edito sine laesione aliqua totum bibit Quo viso magus statim 
ad pedes ejus cecidit, veniam lamentabiliter petiit et se christianum 
fieri postulavit, quern mox judex decollari fecit" 

494. •$>/= although. W^=haul. A.S. ^/rVwi, to get 

501. W^/V^= witch, sorcerer. The word was used in both gender& 
Cf. note to X. 68. 

518. Pymenty a spiced drink, clarret red wine. 

366 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XZZm. 520-666). 

520. Fellare^TCioxt, fatal. 

522. yiirtf= before. 

539-564. L.A. is shorter: "Sequent! die jussit Georgium poni in 
rota, gladiis bis acutis undique circumsepta, sed statim frangitur et 
Georgius illaesus penitus invenitur." 

565-586. L.A.: " Tunc iratus jussit eum in sartaginem plumbo lique- 
facto plenam projici, qui facto signo crucis in earn intravit, sed virtute 
Dei ccepit in ea quasi in balneo refoveri." 

587-714. L. A. : " Quod videns Dacianus cogitavit eum emollire blan- 
ditiis, quern minis superare non poterat vel tormentis, dixitque illi: 
vides, fili Georgi, quants mansuetudinis sunt Dii nostri, qui te bias- 
phemum tam patienter sustinent, parati nihilominus, si convert! vol- 
uerisy indulgere. Age ergo, dilectissime fili, quod hortor, ut super- 
stitione relicta Diis nostris sacrifices, ut magnos ab ipsis et a nobis 
consequaris honores. Cui G. subridens ait : ad quid a principio non 
magis mihi persuasisti blandis sermonibus quam tormentis? ecce 
paratus sum facere quod hortaris. Hac D. permissione delusus laetus 
efficitur jussitque sub voce praeconis, ut omnes ad se convenirent (et 
Georgium tamdiu reluctantem tandem cedere et sacrificare viderent). 
Ornata igitur tota civitate prae gaudio, cum G. ydolorum templum 
sacrificaturus intraret et omnes ibidem gaudentes adstarent, flexis 
genibus dominum exoravit, ut templum cum ydolis sic omnino de- 
strueret, quatenus ad sui laudem et populi conversionem nihil de eo 
penitus remaneret ; statimque ignis de coelo descendens templum cum 
Diis et sacerdotibus concremavit terraque se aperiens omnes eorum 
reliquias deglutivit. Hie exclamat Ambrosius in praefatione dicens : 
G. fidelissimus miles Christi, dum christianitatis professio silentio 
tegeretur, solus inter christicolas intrepidus Dei filium est confessus. 
Cui et tantam constantiam gratia divina concessit, ut et tyrannicae 
potestatis praecepta contemneret et innumerabilium non formidaret 
tormenta poenarum. O felix et inclitus domini prceliator ! quern non 
solum temporalis regni blanda non persuasit promissio, sed persecutore 
deluso simulacrorum ejus portenta in abyssum dejecit Hsec Am- 

588. J/«/^= dispirited. See note to XXXI. 274. 

590. H^///j= wiles. 

591. Flesch=?i2X\.tx. 
605. ^/>/tf= goods, 

620. Blicht A misprint for blitht. 

623. ^^^//.r= beadles, heralds. 

629. ^//j«/«^= obedient. 

629-663. Not in L.A. 

633. Gert ma dowrte ^caustd to be made ready. 

638. 6^«/^= intent 

656. But Mr^/= without threat, voluntarily. 

666. Gl^w =^]oy. A.S. gleov/, joy. 

NOTES TO GEORGE (XXXm. 688-879). 367 

688. Se//e=very. 

715-806. L.A.: **Hoc audiens Dacianus Georgium ad se adduci 
fecit eique dixit : quae malitia tua, pessime hominum, quod tantum 
facinus commisisti ? Cui G. : ne credas, rex, sic esse, sed mecum 
perge et iterum me immolare vide. Cui ille : intelligo fraudem tuam, 
quia vis me facere absorberi, sicut tempi um et Deos meos absorberi 
fecisti. Cui G.: die mihi, miser, Dii tui qui se juvare non potuerunt, 
quomodo te juvabunt? Iratus rex nimis dixit Alexandriae uxori suae: 
deficiens moriar, quia ab hoc homine me superatum cerno. Cui ilia : 
tyranne crudelis et carnifex, numquid non dixi tibi ne saepius chris- 
tianis molestus esset, quia Deus eorum pro ipsis pugnaret, et nunc 
scias me velle fieri christianum. Stupefactus rex ait : heu proh 
dolor, numquid et tu es seducta ? Fecitque eam per capillos suspend! 
et flageljis durissime caedi. Quae dum caederetur, dixit Georgio : 
Georgi lumen veritatis, quo, putes, perveniam nondum aqua baptism! 
renata? Cui G.: nihil haesites, filia, quia sanguinis tui eflfusio baptis- 
mus tibi reputabitur et corona. Tunc ilia orans ad dominum emisit 
spiritum. Huic attestatur Ambrosius in praefatione dicens : ob hoc 
et gentium regina Persarum crudeli a viro dictata sententia nondum 
baptism! gratiam consecuta, gloriosae passionis meruit palmam, unde 
nee dubitare possumus, quod rosea perfusa sanguinis unda reseratas 
poli januas ingred! meruit regnumque possidere ccelorum. Haec 

720. Sonh'ne= sunk, 

724. Wischcraft=yf\ic\iCYzh, sorcery. 

735. 5i/^/y= swallow. 

746. Mat. See note to 1. 588. 

775-77a Not in L.A. 

804. 5^rw/V= deserved. 

807-842. L.A. : ** Sequent! vero die G. accepit sententiam ut per 
totam civitatem traheretur, postmodum capite puniretur. Oravit 
autem ad dominum, ut quicumque ejus imploraret auxilium, petitionis 
suae consequeretur effectum; divina autem vox ad eum venit, quod 
sic fieret, ut oravit. Completa oratione capitis abscisione martirium 
consummavit sub Diocletiano et Maximiano, qui coeperunt c. a. d. 


829. Askine=askinge=zsk\ng, request. 

831-836. Not in L.A. 

843-878. L.A. : " Dacianus autem cum de loco, in quo decollatus 
est, ad palatium rediret, ignis de coelo cecidit et ipsum cum ministris 
suis consumit" 

853-878. Not in L.A. 

879-900. L.A. : " Refert Gregorius Turonensis, quod, cum quidam 
quasdam reliquias S. Georgii deferrent et in quodam oratorio hospitati 
fuissenty mane nullatenus capsam movere potuerunt, donee ibidem 
reliquiarum partieulam dimiserunt." 

368 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (XZZm. 879^46). 

879. Gregor \e turoyn ^Grtgorf of Tours. See his 'De Gloria 
Mart./ cap. loi. 

901-950. L. A. : ** Legitur in hystoria Antiochena, quod, cum Chris- 
tiani ad obsidendum Jerusalem pergerent, quidam juvenis speciosis- 
simus cuidam sacerdoti apparuit, qui s. Georgium ducem christianorum 
se esse dicens monuit, ut ejus reliquias secum in Jerusalem deportarent 
et ipse cum iis esset. Cum autem Jerusalem obsedissent et Saracenis 
resistentibus per scalas ascendere non auderent, b. G. albis armis 
indutus et cruce rubra insignitus apparuit, innuens ut post se securi 
ascenderent et civitatem obtinerent Qui hoc animati civitatem cepe- 
runt et Saracenos occiderunt" 

908. Cy*=outof. 

914. ^/ar^/tf= preparation. 

922. Gwlis—gMXts, 

924. Oste =\iosi, army. 

929. Porcione iox portione, 

932. Sekyre—SAzV^Xy assure. 

946. Fill gud \at nede^iwW. good at need. 


Pelagia, surnamed Margarita and Peccatrix, lived about the middle of 
the fifth century. She was an actress of Antioch, and was celebrated 
for her beauty as well as for her repentance. Her conversion occurred 
in this wise. Nonnus, Bishop of Edessa, was once preaching at 
Antioch when present at a synod of eight bishops. At the time, 
Pelagia was the favourite actress and dancer in Antioch, whose 
inhabitants had poured riches upon her, and surnamed her Margarita 
because of the number of pearls she wore. Coming to the church 
during the sermon, much to the astonishment and horror of the other 
bishops, Nonnus, who was a severe ascetic, addressed her personally, 
and with such plainness and sternness of speech, respecting her sins 
and the judgment to come, that she at once repented, and with many 
tears asked to be baptised. After some delay her request was granted : 
the chief deacon of Antioch, Romana, acted as her sponsor, as well as 
assisting at her baptism, according to custom. While remaining in 
Antioch after her baptism, she was frequently tempted of the devil to 
return to her former mode of life, but successfully resisted his 
assaults. At last she left Antioch, and withdrew to a cell on the 
Mount of Olives, where she lived as a monk in male attire, and died 
some three years afterwards from her excessive austerities. Before her 
death she was visited by Jacobus, a deacon, and an eyewitness of her 
conversion, and also her biographer. She is to be distinguished from 
two other Pelagias of Antioch and a Pelagia of Tarsus, martyr under 
Diocletian. Smith's * Diet Christ. Biog^.' 

Her day is October 8. 

Analysis — Introduction respecting God's readiness to receive peni- 
tents, I-I2 ; Pelagia's beauty, splendid apparel, and mode of living, 
13-58 ; the sorrow of Veronus, Bishop of Damiata, on seeing her, 
and the vision he had, 59-126 ; she hears him preach, and in a letter 
asks him to have pity upon her, 127-154; his reply, 155-164; she 
visits him, and having confessed her sins and been taught in the faith, 
is baptised and strengthened, 165-230; the fiend complains against 

VOL. III. 2 a 


Veronus because he has taken away his prey, but is driven away, 
231-246 ; he appears to Pelagia and tempts her, but is overcome with 
the sign of the cross, 247-271 ; she then distributes her goods among 
the poor and retires to Mount Olivet, where in the habit of a monk 
she serves God, 272-290 ; a deacon brought up with Veronus goes to 
visit her, but fails to recognise her, 291-326 ; returning the next day, 
he finds the supposed monk dead, who when being prepared for 
burial is found to be a woman, 327-360; conclusion, 361-366. 
For the source, cf. L.A., cap. 150 ; also V.B., xi. 41. 

10. J/^>h>= humbles. 

15-58. L.A. : " Pelagia prima feminarum Antiochiae civitatis, rebus 
et divitiis plena, corpore pulcherrima, habitu ambitiosa et vana, animo 
et corpore impudica, quadam vice per civitatem cum ambitione 
maxima transibat, ita ut nihil super eam nisi aurum et argentum et 
pretiosi lapides viderentur, ita ut, quocunque iret, aerem diversonim 
aromatum odore repleret Quam praecedebat et sequebatur multitudo 
maxima puellarum et puerorum, qui et ipsi praeclaris erant induti 

17. Lufij^are =\ov€\ier, 

38. 6^^«/= gentle, well-born. 0,Tr, gent, 

43-58. Not in L.A. 

57. /'/«^A/= plough, in the sense of earning a livelihood. 

59-90. L.A.: "Quam quidam sanctus pater nomine Veronus [Act: 
Nonnus] episcopus (Heliopoleos, quae nunc) Damieta vocatur, videns 
[V.B. is different], amarissime flere coepit, ex eo quod majorem curam 
habebat placere mundo, quam ipse haberet placere Deo ; procidensque 
super pavimentum faciem suam cum terra percutiebat et ipsam terram 
lacrymis rigans dicebat : altissime Deus, ignosce mi hi peccatori, quia 
unius diei meretricis ornatus totius vitas meas industriam superavit ; 
ne me, domine, confundat unius meretricis ornatus ante conspectum 
tremendae majestatis tuae ; ilia pro terrenis summo se studio decoravit, 
ego tibi immortali domino placere proposui et per meam negligentiam 
non implevi." 

69. C«ttJ^= causey, pavement. 

71. -Fr^/////= fretted, rubbed. 

83. i^jT^ whore. 

84. Enhomis=2idorx\s, 

91-106. L.A. : " Dixitque his qui secum erant : in veritate dico vobis, 
quia Deus banc contra nos in judicio producturus est, quoniam haec 
tam sollicite se depingit, ut terrenis amatoribus placeat, et nos ccelesti 
sponso placere negligimus." 

102. Rekis nocht a to/^= think not the least; laste^Xd^X^ from A.S. 
lasty last, a. footstep, bootmaker's last (?). 

l(yi-llla, L.A. is different : " Dum hsec et similia diceret, subito 

NOTES TO PELAGIA (XXXIV. 111-247.) 37 1 

111M26. L.A. : " Visumque est sibi quod quaedam columba, nigra 
et foetida nimis, circa eum celebrantem missam volaret. Qui dum 
catechumenos abscedere prsecepisset, columba disparuit, et post mis- 
sam rediens et ab ipso episcopo in vase quodam aquae mersa, munda 
et Candida exiens, tarn alte volavit quod videri non potuit" 

115. Vnhowine = unbaptised. 

127-164. L.A. : " Evigilans igitur, dum quadam vice ad ecclesiam 
procedens prsedicaret et Pelagia praesens esset, adeo compuncta est, 
quod ei litteras per nuntium misit dicens : Sancto episcopo discipulo 
Christi Pelagia discipula dyaboli. Si vere Christi discipulus compro- 
baris, qui, ut audivi, pro peccatoribus de coelo descendit, me pecca- 
tricem sed poenitentem suscipere digneris. Cui ille remisit : Rogo ut 
humilitatem meam non tentes, quia homo peccator sum ; sed si vere 
salvari desideras, solum me videre non poteris, sed inter alios me 

127. Maste kirk=^\,\\t principal church. 

139. Ofcase^hy chance. 

165-194. L.A. : " Cumque ad eum coram pluribus advenisset, pedes 
ejus apprehendit et amarissime flens dicere ccepit : ego sum Pelagia, 
pelagus iniquitatis exundans fluctibus peccatorum, ego sum perditionis 
abyssus, ego vorago et laqueus animarum, multos deceptos decepi, 
quae nunc cuncta perhorrui." 

174. Douto7e/tse={eaLr(u\, dangerous. 

177. Fu/e = fou\, foulness, sin. j«/^/M=pit, whirlpool. M. Dut. 
swelgh; M.L.G. swelchj Icel. svelgr, whirlpool, pit 

183. Dtssaweful nete=^tct\\i\x\ nti, 

187. Me ivlatis ja=me so horrifies: wlaiiSt from wlatien, to feel 
disgust, abominate. 

195-202. L. A. : " Tunc episcopus interrogavit eam dicens : quod 
tibi nomen est? Cui ilia: a nativitate Pelagia vocor, sed propter 
vestimentorum pompam me Margaritam appellant.'' 

203-230. L. A. : " Tunc episcopus clementer eam suscipiens poeni- 
tentiam ei salutarem injunxit et in Dei timore diligenter instruxit et 
sacro baptismate regeneravit." 

207. W««^A(?^^= hopelessness, despair. 

209-222. Not in L.A. 

231-242. L.A. : " Dyabolus autem ibidem clamabat dicens : O vio- 
lentia, quam patior ab hoc sene decrepito ! o violentia 1 o senectus 
mala ! maledictus dies in quo contrarius natus es mihique spem meam 
maximam abstulisti ! " 

243-246. Not in L.A. 

247-290. L.A. : " Quadam insuper nocte, cum Pelagia dormiret, 
dyabolus ad eam venit et eam excitans dixit sibi : domina Margarita, 
quid unquam tibi male feci ? numquid non omnibus divitiis et gloria 
te ornavi ? Quaeso, die mihi, in quo te contristavi, et protinus tibi satis- 
faciam; tantum obsecro, ne me deseras, ne opprobrium christianis 


efficiar. Ipsa autem se signavit et in dyabolum insufflavit, et statim 
evanuit Die tertio omnia quae habebat praeparavit et congregavit et 
pauperibus tribuit Post aliquot autem dies cunctis igpfiorantibus P. 
inde noctu aufugit et in monte oliveti devenit, ubi habitum eremitae 
accipiens in parva cella ibidem se collocavit et Deo in multa abstin- 
entia servivit Maximae autem famae ab omnibus habebatur et frater 
Pelagius dicebatur." 

289. Frer=/rere—broihtr, 

291-304. L.A. : " Post hoc quidam dyaconus supradicti episcopi 
Hierosolimam, causa visitandi loca sancta, advenit Cui dixit epis- 
copus, ut post sanctorum locorum visitationem quaereret quendam 
monachum nomine Pelagium et ipsum visitaret, cum verus Dei servus 

291. A dektne=dL deacon — namely, Jacobus, who witnessed her 
conversion and wrote her life. 

305-366. L.A. : " Quod cum ille fecisset, mox ab ilia cognitus ne- 
quaquam ipsam propter nimiam maciem cognovit Cui dixit P. : 
habes episcopum ? £t ille : imo domine. Et ilia : oret pro me ad 
dominum, quia vere apostolus Christi est. Recedens autem inde, die 
tertia ad cellam ejus rediit, sed cum ad ostium percussisset et nullus 
ei aperuisset, fenestram aperuit et mortuum eum invenit ac vidit 
Currensque cum hoc episcopo nuntiasset, episcopus et clerus om- 
nesque monachi convenerunt, ut tam sancto viro exsequias celebrar- 
ent, cumque de celia corpus ejus extraxissent, repererunt quod mulier 
esset, et plurimum admirantes Deo gratias reddiderunt et sanctum 
corpus honorifice sepelierunt. Obiit autem viii die intrante Octobri 
c. a, d. ccLxxxx." 


St ThaIs, who is here called Thadee, was born in Eg^pt about the 
beginning of the fourth century. She was brought up as a Christian, 
but devoted herself to a life of profligacy. Her exceeding beauty 
caused her to be known far and wide. At last her fame spread as far 
as the monastery of Paphnutius, who, touched with the accounts he 
heard of her, resolved to make a great effort in order to bring about 
her conversion. Assuming a secular dress, and putting a single coin 
into his pocket, he sought an interview with her, and offered her the 
coin he had brought with him. She led him into her chamber, but he 
desired to be led to a spot still more retired. She told him that such 
would be useless, as no uninvited person ever entered where they were, 
and that if he desired to escape the eye of God, that also would be 
useless, as He was everywhere. " What ! " said the disguised monk, 
*' do you then know that there is a God ?" " Indeed I do," she replied, 
*' and that there is a future life and a hell." *' And yet," said he, "you 
continue in sin and refuse to repent.*' At this she recognised his true 
character, and at once fell at his feet in tears, beseeching him to lay 
on her what penance he chose, and to give her but three hours to pre- 
pare, and she would go where he chose to send her. She immediately 
destroyed her valuable dresses, carrying them and all the wealth 
she had amassed into the street and setting them on Are, and en- 
tered a nunnery, where Paphnutius sealed her up in a cell, leaving 
no opening save a small window through which she received food. 
At the end of three years, Paphnutius sent St Antony to learn whether 
her penance was sufficient. Antony assembled a synod of his brethren 
and exhorted them to spend a night in prayer, if perchance God would 
reveal His will in the matter. The next morning Paul the Simple 
announced that during the night he had seen a vision in which it was 
revealed to him that the penance was sufficient, and that a place had 
been prepared for Thai's in heaven. Paphnutius therefore ordered the 
cell to be opened. Thais desired to remain where she was up to the 
end, but in obedience to Paphnutius she was received among the 


sisters of the convent and admitted to the communion. Fifteen days 
after her absolution she died. 

Her day is October 8. 

Analysis — The beauty of Thais, its influence and the ill which 
personal beauty may do, 1-23; Paphnutius hears of her fame and 
seeks an interview with her, 24-34 ; what passed between them at the 
interview, 35-82 ; her penitence, and how she destroyed all her wealth, 
83-114; she goes to a monastery to which Paphnutius had directed 
her, and is there sealed up in a cell, 11 5-140; Paphnutius teaches her 
a prayer, 141 -158; St Antony is applied to, to learn whether her pen- 
ance is sufficient, 159-168 ; he calls a synod of his brethren, and en- 
joins them to spend the night in prayer in order to learn God's will, 
169-180; the vision of Paul, 181-214; the cell is opened, and the 
absolution of Thais, 2 1 5-246 ; her death, 247-256. 

The source, according to the author, is the Life in the *VitaB 
Patrum,' — see 1. i, and V. P., p. 374, Rosweyd, ed. 1628. The same 
Life, though not in precisely the same terms, occurs in L.A., c. 152. 
The text agrees more with that of the latter. 

1-16. L.A. : " Thaisis meretrix, ut in Vitis Patrum leg^tur, tantae 
pulchritudinis exstitit, ut multi propter eam venditis substantiis suis 
ad ultimam paupertatem devenirent, sed amatores sui prse zdo liti- 
bus inter se consertis frequenter puellae limina sanguine juvenum 

3. Thadee, So the name is spelt in the index. The title in the 
index to V. B. and at the head of the chapter, xiv. 78, is, " De Thayse 
meretrice conversa," not as given by Horstmann, P. de Natalibus 
heads his chapter, ix. 38, with " De Sancta Thaide meretrice." After- 
wards he conforms to the general custom and writes Thais, of which 
Thaide is the ablative. 

6, G7»//m//= conceived. 

17-22. An addition. 

17. Mysoy5it-==m\s\i&^^. 

23-46. L.A. : " Quod cum audiisset abbas Pafuntius [V. P. : Paph- 
nutius], sumto habitu saeculari et uno solido profectus est ad eam in 
quadam ^gypti civitate deditque ei solidum quasi pro mercede pec- 
candi. Ilia accepto pretio ait illi : ingrediamur in cameram. Cumque 
ingressus esset et lectum pretiosis vestibus stratum ascendere invitar- 
etur, dicit ad eam : si est interius cubiculum in ipsum eamus." 

23. /'^;////V/wj= Paphnutius. P. de Natal, has Pannutius. 

28. Lawyt=^\z.y, 

39. Wytiely dicht=\MyiMx\0Vi^^ prepared. 

40. (9/= with. 

47-64. L.A.: "Et cum duxisset eum per plura loca, ille semper dice- 
bat quod videri timebat [in V. P. this passage is wanting]. Ilia autem 
dixit : est quoddam cubiculum ubi nullus ingreditur [V. P. different 

NOTES TO THADEE (XXXV. 65-150). 375 

both from L.A. and the text], si vero Deum times, non est locus qui 
Deitati ejus abscondatur." 

65-83. L.A. : " Quod cum senex audivisset, dixit ei : et scis esse 
Deum? Cumque ilia respondisset, se scire Deum et regnum futuri 
saeculi necnon et tormenta peccatorum, dixit ei : si ergo nosti, cur 
tantas animas perdidisti? et non solum pro tua, sed pro illorum red- 
ditura rationem damnaberis." 

7S, Sfyn/e= cease, A.S. styn/an j IceLsfyUa, to stop. See Bradley, 
sub stiinten. 

84-114. L.A. : " Ilia vero haec audiens provoluta ad pedes abbatis 
Pafuntii cum lacrymis exorabat dicens : scio esse pcenitentiam, pater, 
et confido remissionem te orante sortiri ; tantum peto tribus horis in- 
ducias et post hoc, quo jusseris, ibo et, qusecunque praeceperis, faciam. 
Cumque locum illi abbas constituisset, ubi venire deberet, ilia collectis 
omnibus, quxcunque ex peccato lucrata fuerat, perlatisque in mediam 
civitatem, populo spectante igne combussit damans : venite omnes 
qui peccastis mecum et videte quomodo ea quae mihi contulistis 
exuram. Erat autem pretium auri librarum quadringentarum [V. P. 

85. Scho breste one grete=^she burst into tears. 

86. And fell down flat at his feet 
99. And she straight, without delay. 
108. Hedferly=hdA wonder. 

115-158. L.A. : " Quae cum omnia incendisset, ad locum quem abbas 
Pafuntius constituerat, perrexit Quam ille reperto virginum monas- 
terio in cellulam parvam recludens, ostium cellulae plumbo signavit 
et parvam reliquit fenestram, per quam ei victus modicus inferretur, 
jussitque ei omnibus diebus parum panis et paululum aquae a caeteris 
ministrari. Cum autem senex discederet, Thaisis ad eum ait : quo 
jubes, pater, ut ex naturali meatu aquam meam effundam ? Et ille : 
in cella, sicut digna es. Cumque iterum, quomodo Deum deberet 
adorare, inquireret, respondit : non es digna nominare Deum neque in 
labiis tuis nomen trinitatis adducere, sed nee ad coelum manus expan- 
dere, quoniam labia tua iniquitate plena sunt et manus tuae sordibus 
inquinatae, sed tantummodo incumbens contra orientem respice, hunc 
sermonem frequenter iterans : qui plasmasti me, miserere mei." 

123. Vnhese = unese = d ifficul ty. 

130. Ocht^ for nocht, nothing. 

145. Newine=m.T[\t, 

"Throw the comippit air and cours of hevin, 
A deidlie 3eir, fer wers than I can nevin,** 

— G. Douglas, ii. 127, 6. 
Cf. Icel. nefna^ to name. 
150. 0/thrifte=onthri/te=\xnX\inh, sin. 

159-247. L.A. : "Cum ergo tribus annis fuisset inclusa, condoluit 
abbas Pafuntius et profectus est ad abbatem Antonium, ut ab eo 


requireret si remisisset illi Deus peccata sua. Et narrata causa s. 
Antonius convocatis discipulis suis praecepit iis, ut ilia nocte vigilantes 
in oratione persisterent, sing^llatim utique, quatenus alicui ex his 
declararet Deus causam, pro qua abbas Pafuntius venerat. Cum 
igitur incessanter orassent, abbas Paulus, major discipulus Antonii, 
vidit subito in coelo lectum pretiosis vestibus omatum, quern tres 
virgines clara facie custodiebant Tres istae virg^nes fuerunt timor 
poenae futurse, quae ipsam a malo retraxit, pudor culpae commissae, 
quae ei veniam promeruit, amor justitiae, qui earn ad supema transvexit 
[not in Vit Pat.] Cumque Paulus illis diceret gratiam illam tantam 
esse Antonii, vox divina respondit : non est patris tui Antonii, sed 
Thaisidis meretricis. Quod cum abbas Paulus mane retulisset, cog- 
nita Dei voluntate abbas Pafuntius cum gaudio discessit et mox pro- 
fectus ad monasterium, ostium celiac dissipavit Ilia vero rogabat, ut 
adhuc maneret inclusa. Dixit autem ei : egredere, quoniam remisit 
tibi Deus peccata tua. £t ilia respondit : testor Deum, quia, ex quo 
hue ingressa sum, ex omnibus peccatis feci velut sarcinam et statui 
ante oculos meos, et sicut non discedit anhelitus de naribus meis, sic 
non discesserunt peccata mea ab oculis meis, sed flebam semper ilia 
considerans. Cui abbas Pafuntius dixit : non propter pcenitentiam 
tuam remisit tibi Deus peccata tua, sed quia timorem semper habuisti 
in animo." 
159. //iij=as, when. 

163. Su£rg =Mod. Scot, sweir, reluctant, unwilling. 

164. Sancte Antone, St Antony, so famous for his temptations. 
Athanasius terms him " the founder of monaslicism," and his life a 
" model for monks." A good account of him will be found in Smith's 
* Diet, of Christ. Biogr.,* i. 125. 

177. ^^^w/v= watched ; the past tense of wak^ 1. 171. 

181. Paulus, Paul, surnamed Simplex, the Simple. He was a 
disciple of Antony, and, like his master, a hermit in Lower Egypt 
His life, written by Ruffinus, is given in the V. P. He is famous for 
his patience and childlike docility of character. 

184. Wice — wise. 

191. That-=2X. 

205. Paulyne—V2L\3\\xs^ Paul. 

219. Cww = come. 

225. S7ta=sa=^SQ. 

231. i?yr//tf= burden, load. 

" How big a bim maun lie on Bessie's back 
For meal an* mouter to the thirlin' mill." 

— Fergusson's 'Farmer's Ingle.' 

248-254. L.A. : "Et cum inde illam eduxisset, xv dies supervixit et 
pausavit in pace." Here V. P. ends. L.A. goes on to narrate the 
conversion of another courtesan, Effrem by name. 

255, 256. The usual conclusion. 


The life of John the Baptist as given in the Gospels is well known, and 
need not be given here except in the briefest outline. He was of 
priestly race by both parents. His birth was announced to his father 
Zacharias by the angel Gabriel, and was a child bom out of due 
season. His birth preceded that of our Lord by six months. By 
divine direction he was named John, when his father, who had been 
dumb since the announcement of his birth because of his unbelief, 
received back the power of speech. John was also the child of pro- 
phecy, his coming being foretold centuries before by the prophets Isaiah 
and Malachi. By the first he was named or described as " The voice 
of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord." 
A single verse in the Gospel of St Luke, chap. i. 80, tells all that is 
known of him for thirty years — during the whole period, that is, from 
his birth to the moment when he entered upon his public ministry : 
" The child grew, and waxed strong in spirit, and was in the deserts 
till the day of his shewing unto Israel." The deserts referred to are in 
all probability the wild and thinly peopled regions to the west of the 
Dead Sea. John was a Nazarite. His garment was woven of camel's 
hair. It was attached to his body by a leathern girdle. His food 
was such as the desert afforded, locusts and wild honey. He did no 
miracle, but his preaching was such as to attract towards him great 
multitudes from all quarters of Palestine. His preaching is summed 
up in the words, " Repent, for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." As 
to its tone, it was stern and denunciatory. A man of fearless courage, 
he spared no class, but attacked and denounced the sins of all alike. 
As a sign of admission into the ranks of his disciples, and of the 
confession of sins and promise of amendment, he adopted the rite of 
baptism. When at the summit of his success, he baptised our Lord. 
After this he began to "decrease." Having denounced Herod Anti- 
pas for having taken to himself the wife of his brother Philip, he was 
cast into the castle of Machaerus, a strong fortress on the eastern shore 
of the Dead Sea. From here he sent some of his disciples to Jesus, 


10 whose- divmt- Snnship and mission he had already borne witness, to 
inciuirr whrihrr He was "He thai should come." It was in Mach- 
.•rrus;, lor*, :r.-: ht was siain. Herod ordered his head to be cut off in 
order 10 ii,::.. i promxst he had made to Herodias, the daughter of 
Sijomf. w no. iiroir.Pied bv her abandoned mother, desired of him that 
hr should i::\i ht-r iht head of John the Baptist on a char^r. 

His cii\ i> "unc 1^. 

In in S: Jor.r. iTit Bapiis: is kno^-n by his canying the cross and 

Analysis— H:s ^:r:r.. 1-4-/ : his various designations, 1-22 ; his birth, 
charjr.cT, -r>:; n-.:ssior. ir.nounced to Zachanas his father by the angel 
Gat^nrl. ^3-^^ : Z^«i. doubting the angePs word, asks for a sign, 
which IS i;:\cT.. ^5-Cfc; : a: the end of his term of oflBce he returns 
home. lll:ra:»r:r: ronoc ives. and mires into the hill country, where she 
is joined l\x :he Viririr. ^5i^^^ 05-114; their intercourse, 1 15-144; the 
differtrncr o:* ihnr corscepiions, 145-1 So; of the reverence paid to them 
— John and Chrjs: — of thtir characiens mission, and manner of life, 
of thtir Trs::mor.) :o r-ch other, and of John's preaching, 181-476; his 
btheadal, 4~-:oS : ihe ircuesx of Herodias, 477-534 ; Herod's sin, 
535-550: the account jrivm by Eusebius of the translation, 551-582; 
of the tir^jTer taken away by Si Thecla, and of the head of John the 
Baptist. 5S3-C0S : St Chnsostom on the Baptist, 609-632; St Ambrose 
on him, 633-6S4 ; St John the Evan^reHst concerning him, and a mir- 
acle that beftll two doctors of theo'og>\ 6S5-72S; the miracles of the 
Baptist, r r 0-910 : at the frave of Rocharith, king of the Lombards, 
729-754 : at Smaras:. 755-?io : one recorded by Si Gregor>', 811-860; 
another reccrJrJ by Sygilberius. S61-010: of the three Herods,9ii- 
r^34: cf H::r:i Ascilcnita, 035-114$: of a manel that happens in 
niar.y p!act> even- yc:ir on account of Herod's cruelty to John, I149- 
Jiic: of th- LTrit honour due to the B.^ptist, and of another book 
which the author has written about hin^., 11S9-1220; conclusion, 1221- 

Sources— Cf. L.A., capp. 86 and 125 ; Vine. Bell., vi. 20, 22 ; and the 
four Gospels. 

5-22. L.A., cap. S6 : "Joh. bapt. muliipliciter nominatur : dicitur 
enim propheta, amicus sponsi, lucema. anj^elus, vox, Helias, baptista 
salvatoris, pritco judicis ct praecursor reg^is. In propheta dcsignalur 
praeroj^aliva copjniiionis, in amico sponsi prxrogaiiva dilectionis, in 
luccrna ardenti prxrojjativa sanciiialis, in angelo pncrogaiiva virgini- 
tatis, in voce prarogativa humilitatis. in Helia praerogativa fer\-oris, 
in baptista prarogativa mirabilis honoris, in prxcone pncrogati\"a 
pra^dicationis, in prajcursore pracrogativa pneparationis." 

9. L€mmanc = {v'\^x\<\. Cf. John iii. 29. 

11, 12. Cf. John v. 35. 

13. Anj^clc, Mark i. 2. 


15. Cf. Luke iii. 4. 

21. For-criare ={ore'Cncr, herald. 

22. Fargannare —foreganger = forerun n er. 

23-40. L.A.: " Nativitas Johannis b. ab archangelo hoc modo annun- 
tiata fuit. David enim rex (sicut habetur in hystoria scholastica) 
volens cultum Dei ampliare, xxiv summos sacerdotes instituit, quorum 
unus tamen major erat, qui princeps sacerdotum dicebatur. Statuit 
autem xv viros de Eleazar et viii de Ytamar et secundum sortes dedit 
unicuique hebdomadam vicis suae, Abias autem viii hebdomadam 
habuit, de cuius genere Zacharias fuit." 

28. Hade—\iQiiOViX, A.S. hdd; I eel. heiSr; Dan. haeder; Swed. 
hader, honour. 

29-36. See i Chron. xxiv. 

35. And one of them, as the lot should fall. The order was deter- 
mined by the drawing of lots. 

37. Owke=vittk. 

41-69. L.A.: '^Erant autem Zacharias et uxor ejus senes et absque 
liberis. Cum ergo Zacharias templum domini, ut incensum poneret, 
ingressus fuisset et multitudo populi de foris exspectaret, apparuit ei 
Gabriel archangelus. Cum autem Z. in ejus visione timeret, ait 
angelus : ne timeas Zacharia, quoniam exaudita est oratio tua. (Pro- 
prium est enim bonorum angelorum, secundum quod dicit glossa, ex 
sua visione territos benigna exhortatione protinus consolari, contra 
mali angeli se in lucis angelos transfigurantes, si quos ex sui prae- 
sentia territos senserint, ampliori eos horrore concutiunt.) Annunciat 
igitur G. Zach. se filium habiturum, cuius nomen Johannes esset, qui 
vinum et siceram non biberet et ante dominum in spiritu et virtute 
Heliae praecederet." 

42. Weld—yi\M, use, inherit 

49. p^r-^«/tf= without 

52. HMe=h^tA. 

59-69. Cf. Luke i. 13-17. 

68. Suynke=swinke=^\diboMX, 

69. //;?/K=Elias. 

70-84. L.A.: "J. vocatur Helias ratione situs, quia ambo in deserto ; 
ratione victus, quia ambo victu parci ; ratione cultus, quia ambo ves- 
titu inculti ; ratione officii, quia ambo prsecursores, sed ille precursor 
judicis, iste salvatoris ; ratione zeli, quia utriusque verbum quasi fac- 
ula ardebat" 

72. As Elias did while he was here. 

75. Roydly=ir\xdt\y, 

76. Arskare=^harskare= more, roughly. 

81. This verse is corrupt Horstmann suggests, "delete word^ 
and read togod.^^ Read lof instead oi luf, skaldand^szdXdmg^ burn- 
ing. O.Fr. escalder, eschauder: cf. Ital. scaldare; Lat excaldare^ to 


82. Befyk=he alike, equal. 

84. Brund=hr2Lnd. 

85-94. L.A. : "Z. considerans sui senectutem et uxoris sterilitatem, 
dubitare coepit et more Judaeonim signum ab angelo requisivit, angdus 
autem pro eo, quod verbis suis non credit, ipsum tacitumitatis plaga 
percussit." L.A. then goes on to account for the doubt of Zacharias, 
and to compare with him Abraham and Sarah. 

92. Bodword—mtssaige. 

95-110. L.A. : " Cum autem Z. foras ad populum exiisset et cum fee- 
turn mutum viderent, cognoverunt, ipso innuente, quod visionem vidis- 
set in templo ; completa autem septimana officii sui, abiit in domum 
suam et concepit Elizabeth, et mensibus v se occultavit, quia (sicut ibi 
dicit Ambrosius) partus sui erubescat aetatem, ne in senectute vacasse 
libidini videretur, et tamen gaudebat sterilitatis carere opprobrio, quia 
opprobrium est mulieribus non habere praemium nuptiarum, propter 
quod nuptiae celebrantur et carnalis coitus excusatur." 

111-127. L.A. : " Mense autem sexto beata Maria, quae jam domi- 
num conceperat, congratulans virgo foecunda ablatas sterilitati et com- 
patiens senectuti venit ad Elizabeth et cum eam salutasset, b. Johan- 
nes, jam spiritu sancto repletus, sensit filium Dei venire ad se et prae 
gaudio in matris utero exsultavit et tripudiavit et motu salutavit, quern 
voce non potuit Exsultavit enim quasi gestiens salutare et domino 
suo assurgere." 

117. Quesin^^cusinge {}, 134)= cousin. 

121. A'/«^= nature. 

128-138. Not in L.A. Cf. Luke i. 42-46. 

139-144. L.A. : "Mansit ergo virgo beata cum cognata sua tribus 
mensibus ministrans ei natumque puerum suis Sanctis manibus de 
terra levavit (ut habetur in hysteria scholastica) et quasi morem gerulae 
officiosissime peregit." 

145. From this point the author departs from the order of L.A., which 
continues : " Hie domini praecursor beatus novem specialiter et singu- 
lariter privilegiis claruit ; nam idem angelus qui dominum annuntiavit, 
ipsum annuntiavit, in utero matris exsultat, mater domini ipsum a 
terra levat, linguam patris reserat, baptismum primus ordinat, Christum 
indice demonstrat, ipsum Christum baptizat, ipsum prae omnibus laudat 
Christus, in limbo positis Christum venturum praenuntiat ; propter 
hjec novem privilegia vocatur ab ipso domino propheta et plus quam 
propheta." After this the testimonies of SS. Chr>'sostom and Ambrose 
are cited. 

145-384. Not in L.A. 

175. Cf. Matt. xi. 11. 

184. p/> for ^p^re, 

198 and 200. John i. 16. 

209. lVeschele==\^ss€[. wele=\st\\. 

211. Dere druMr=dt2Lr brother : perhaps for dere bretkirt dear 


brethren ; and if so, a proof that this legend, at least, was used as a 
homily or sermon. 

215. Z««///=made low, humbled. 

219, 220. John iii. 30. 

221. /^<?/V=made high, exalted. 

223. Unihynge = lengtheni ng. 

247. Sawi's= sayings, 

252-254. Cf. John i. 29. 

268-270. Luke iii. 8. 

278. A rsJt trough. See note to XXXIII. 459. 

295-330. Cf. Matt. iii. 13-17. 

333-384. Cf. Matt xi. 2, xiv. 3 ; Luke iii. 19. 

354. Corrupt 

356. J^or-seware ={ortshovftr. come = coming. 

385-476. V.B., vi. 20: "De multiplici laude Johannis Bapt" " Sane 
Baptista Domini, sicut ex evangelica historia collig^ potest, com- 
mendabilis fuit in tribus. Primo in nativitate, in qua sanctitati ejus 
attestantur vii miracula : primum quod angelus visibiliter apparens 
eum nasciturum annuntiavit secundum quod linguam increduli 
ligavit, tertium quod infecundos et senes parentes fecundavit quartum 
quod eum Spiritus in utero sanctificavit et replevit, quintum quod 
salvatori nostro nondum natus exsultavit, sextum quod spiritu mater 
repleta Mariam Dei genitricem prophetavit septimum quod jam 
natus loquelam credenti reformavit. Item secundo mirabilis fuit ejus 
vita, et hoc in tribus. Primo in humilitate, quia, cum tam famosus 
esset ut posset putari Christus si vellet, negavit se non solum esse 
Christum, sed Helyam et prophetam — et hoc contra eos qui jactant 
se de genere, vita et scientia. Item in abstentia non solum cibi et 
potus et vestis, sed etiam solatii humanae societatis : quia in desertis 
habitabat Unde canit Ecclesia : * Antea deserti,' e. c. Item in pati- 
entia, ut contra Pharisaeos qui dicebant *daemonium habet'et fecerunt 
in eum quaecunque voluerunt, et tandem contra Herodem qui eum ad 
vocem saltatricis decollavit Item tertio mirabilis fuit ejus doctrina 
et hoc similiter in tribus. In prophetia : quia solus inter prophetas 
quem praenuntiavit digito ostendit. Item in praedicatione : quia 
neminem palpavit, quin etiam ipsum regem sc. Herodem arguebat in 
facie, propter Herodiadem. Item in consiliis : prudenter enim con- 
sulebat singulis ad se venientibus secundum status in quibus erant, ut 
turbis, publicanis et militibus. Propter haec tria dicitur fuisse mira- 
bilis in vita praesenti. Quibus respondent alia tria quibus mirabilis 
apparebit in gloria, sc. triplex aureola : prima quia virginitatem a 
nativitate conservavit; secunda praedicator fuit; tertia quia martyr; 
haec tria raro simul in aliis Sanctis invenimus. Unde Ecclesia canit 
de illo sic : * Serta ter denis,' e. c. In tribus ergo apparet mirabilis in 
terra et in tribus in coelo. Unde et huic testimonium perhibent tres 
de coelo et tres de terra. De coelo Pater mittens, Spiritus Sanctus 


instruens, Filius commendans. Tres in terra, sc spiritns ejus ardens 
et lucens, aqua baptismi, sanguis martyriL" 

439. Se//=-yery. 

44L £rroii^= Herod, 

442. Hoppare—oxit who hops, a dancer. 

452. /7frA//= flattered. 

454. A7/7>&=king. 

456. //'«ytf/= healthful, wholesome. 

464. Wardone—x^'^^xdi. 

472. -<4=one. 

477-608. Cf. V.B., vi. 22, which together with the evangrelical narra- 
tive seems to have been used. The chapter on the decollation of St 
John the Baptist in L.A. is more detailed, and does not appear to be 
the source of this section. V.B. is not closely followed. 

477-534. Cf. Mark vi. 17-29. 

477. 5/^*^^= place. 

483. //>n?^a/i5?j= Herod ias. 

495. C/x//w/=^///M^/7/= filled, flattered. 

498. ^^ry/j[(f= bearing, birth. 

499. -5ar«^= baronage. 
501. Mangery^tsXxxi^^ feast. 
507. il/f/i3^?//j' = wantonly (?). 

516. 5a//ir= deceit. A.S. swiken, a deceiver, traitor. 

519. Z>^jM=dish. 

535-550. V.B., vi. 22 : " Herodes autem septem modis peccavit 
Primo quia adulterium cum uxore fratris sui commisit; secundo quia 
correctionem non sustinuit ; tertio quia diem natalis sui superbiendo 
celebravit ; quarto quia saltatrici dedit; quinto quia inordinate juravit; 
sexto quia impietatem sub specie pietatis palliavit ; septimo quia 
innocentem interfecit." 

551-596. L.A. in its account of the cremation and collection of the 
bones (c. 125) follows the *Historia Scholastica' and Bede: " Sicut enim 
legitur in libro xii. hist, schol. vel eccl., cum discipuli Johannis corpus 
ejus apud Sebasten urbem Palxstinai inter Elisaeum et Abdiam sepe- 
livissent et ad ejus tumulum multa miracula fierent, jubente Juliano 
apostata gentiles ejus ossa sparserunt, et, cum miracula non cessarent, 
post collecta et igne concremata in pulverem redegerunt et per ag^os 
ventilaverunt, sicut dicitur in hist, schol. et eccles. Beda vero dicit quod 
ipsa ossa collecta latius sparserunt et sic secundum martirium quo- 
dammodo passus videtur. Hoc quidam repraesentant nescientes dum 
in ejus nativitate ossa undecunque collecta concremant. Dum autem 
ad concremandum colligerentur, ut habetur in hist schol., et Beda 
testatur, quidam monachi a Hierosolimis venientes latenter colligent- 
ibus se miscuerunt et magnam eorum partem tulerunt Ipsa quo- 
que ossa ad Philippum Hierosolymitarum episcopum detulerunt, qui 
ea postmodum Anastasio Alexandrine episcopo misit Postmodum 


vero Theophilus ejusdem urbis episcopus ea in templo Serapis a 
sordibus purgato reposuit et in honorem s. Joh. basilicam con- 

551. Eusebius is not cited in L.A. 

558. Sedasfy= SsimsinsL 

560. Lefid for /efit (but so put for the rhyme) = left. 

581. ^/r^/t/7= pointed. 

583. 7V^:/^=StThecla. See XLIX. 

586. Mary /any = Si Martin of Tours. 

579-586. The story of the translation of the finger by St Thecla is 
told in L.A. at the conclusion among the miracles: "Digitus enim 
suus, quo dominum ostendit comburi non poterat Unde ipse digitus 
a praedictis monachis est repertus, quem postmodum, ut habetur in 
hyst schol., s. Thecla intra Alpes detulit et in ecclesia s. Maximi 
[ed. princ. : Martini] collocavit ; hoc etiam testatur Johannes Beleth 
dicens quod praedicta s. Thecla ipsum digitum, qui comburi non 
potuit, deultra partibus marinis in Normanniam attulit et ibi in 
honore s. Johannis ecclesiam fabricavit, quam ecclesiam, ut ibidem 
dicit, quidam hac die dedicatam fuisse asserunt." — C. 125. 

597-608. The story is told with greater detail in L.A. 

609-632. L.A. at the conclusion of the story of the beheading, and 
after a citation from St Augustine : " Hie exclamat Joh. Chrysostomus 
dicens : Johannes schola virtutum, magisterium vitae, sanctitatis forma, 
norma justitise, virginitatis speculum, pudicitiae titulus, castitatis ex- 
emplum, pcenitentiae via, peccatorum venia, fidei disciplina. Joh. 
major homine, par angelis, legis summa, evangelii sanctio, aposto- 
lorum vox, silentium prophetarum, lucerna mundi, praecursor judicis, 
totius medius trinitatis. Et hie tantus datur incestuosae, traditur 
adulterae, addicitur saltatrici." — C. 125. 

632. Lurdan ='wonh\ess, O.Fr. lourdein — Roquefort; lourd, lour- 

633-666. Cf. L.A., cap. 86 : " Secundum Ambrosium laus Johannis ex 
quinque colligitur vel comprehenditur : sc. ex parentibus, ex moribus, 
ex miraculis, ex munere, ex praedicatione. Laus autem parentum sec. 
eundem Ambrosium ex quinque manifestatur ; ait enim sic : plena 
laudatio qui genus in moribus, mores in aequitate, officium in sacer- 
dotio, factum in mandatis, judicium in justificationibus comprehendit. 
Secundo ex miraculis, quorum quasdam fuerunt ante ejus concep- 
tionem in utero, sc. angelica annuntiatio, nominis impositio, et loquelae 
patris amissio. Quasdam quantum ad ejus conceptionem in utero, sc. 
supematuralis conceptio, ejus in utero sanctificatio, et prophetalis 
doni repletio. Quasdam quantum ad ejus nativitatem ex utero : sc. 
utriusque parentis spiritus prophetalis adeptio, quia et mater nomen 
scivit et pater canticum edidit Loquelae patris reseratio et spiritus 
sancti repletio, unde et Zacharias pater ejus repletus est spiritu s. e. c. 
Tertio ex moribus, quia sanctissimae vitae fuit De cuius sanctitate 

_z:t:,-5 :? the saints (XXXVL 658-758). 

- - v:.>r-. T i« r:r "irsiiio T ^r. an n is omnium vitam culpabilem 

^- ^"p^ .... - ;^. .:--:: r:~T-^hsr.ditur laus Johannis ex munere. 

- - .- ^ : ttj..! •^. in egressu ex utero, in mundi 

-.« . -.:-- -^-r^iu - -".irr habuit triplex mirabile munus 

- - ,-.. ..r. : -.: * -:irD So.r. ctincatus fuit, . . . gratiam 

... --•,'. s :--. ::i--i? •>. uiero mains exsultans Deum 

^ ^ ^ ~ii:i:r. oua suis mentis matri prophetix 

-'v^,xi. ■; .: ; ;^ r-aE,::ji::rr.e: circa cuius praedicationem 

. . ^ •-..,•'-:.:. e* n:u!t?s n'.iorum Israel convertet 

. - v^ .-. - i: ir^e pr^rcede: c. c.™ 
^^^^- . . ; -. i-. -rr: quod s. evangel ista hac 

. - • , - s; : t jjlesia ipsius les'.um in tertium diem 
^ ^ - . •■ .- i. -^.m^ium instituit, c-:a rune ejus ecclesia 

^ , ■ • :.:> r:.i::vi:atis b. Johannis bapt. in suo die re- 

■ , . •,-.•;:>. lb an ijclo gaud io naiivitatis pnecursoris 

\ ; • .i-:tr:i ».:ogmatizandum est, quod evangelista 
. ,j^ "^..i:- "'.-.nor m.ijori ; non enim decens est, quis 

^. ^;si , .];. .V. i' quodam exemplo divinitus est osten- 

■ ■ . . . .'-c •'-'. ^-o doctores iheologi, quorum unus 
. ^. : •■ .-. :;: vcro Johannem evangelisiam praeferebat; 
■ ■. ^ • :•■:'. .':<ruMtione indicia quilibetvaldesollicitus 

. •..:.:> :.r.-.ones invenire, quibus suum Johannem 

, ' .*■*:.' .luttm disputationis die qui libel sanclor- 

, ■ •.■■■. : e.v:v.e dixit: bene Concordes sumus in 

..-..■.> ■•". :err:s. Tunc illi sibi ad invicem el 

;.irv.:*: e: dominum bencdixeruni.'' 

^ X ■' /:\\ o:". L.A.. cap. S6, 2. The miracle 

\ V-.*. which is also taken from Paul the 

.-J •...v-',' is not given here: **Refen 

. ^ . • ^ .■ M ■ -. .' ' ■.: : ". c - vhI Roc h ar i t h rex Long oba rd or- 

^ ^ .vv's :\ cum multo ornatu sepulius fuit, 

^;:v.5 r.c'Cie sepulcrum apericns abslulil 

:••/.■■.*> v'.a:: : cur ausus fuisti tangere mihi 

X ■' ••,■■•* .'0 OAUTO ini;redi non valebis. Quod 

e :vA\:iciam ecclesiam inirare volebai, 

. . . ^» ^;.:v,:r t'us feriebatur el sic subito retro 

: •.:.". -r.v.-r.ii^ht. See Bradley, sub «<j///. 
. vi: \\.i5 ;:v.rusted. 


V vV N • V 



760. Be tone =httony : *'a plant {Stachys betonica) of the Labiate 
order, having spiked purple flowers and ovate crenate leaves. In 
former days medicinal and magical virtues were attributed to it." "Fr. 
bdioinej L. Lat. betonia for betonica, written by Pliny (N. H., xxv. 46) 
vettonica, and said by him to be a Gaulish name for a plant discovered 
by a Spanish tribe called Vettones." Murray, sub betony, copy= 

761. Wonnync = dwelling. 
764. Smarag=^ ? 

771. Cygaty^^t 

784. Kink^Vvci^, 

800. Semlit— assembled. The comma at the end of the line should 
be placed after sefniit, 

811-860. Cf. L.A., cap. 125, 4: "Vir quidam magnse virtutis, ut ait 
Gregorius in dyalogo, nomine Sanctulus, cum quendam dyaconum a 
Longobardis captum in sua custodia tali conditione recepisset, ut, si 
fugeret, ipse pro eo capitalem sententiam subiret, coegit praedictus 
Sanctulus ipsum dyaconum ut fugeret et se liberaret Quapropter 
Sanctulus ad decollandum adducitur et ad hoc fortissimus spiculator 
eligitur, de quo dubium non erat, quin uno ictu caput ejus abscind- 
eret ; extensoque collo, cum camifex forti annisu brachium cum ense 
in altum levasset, ille protinus ait : sancte Johannes, suscipe ilium ; 
statimque brachium percussoris irriguit et erecto in coelo gladio in- 
flexibile remansit praestitoque juramento, quod de caetero nullum 
christianum feriret, vir Dei pro eo oravit et brachium statim de- 

837. Als for hals. 

843. Hery—ttnt^ fearful. 

847. Harme=3XTCi, 

850. Hyldry steng= heraldry pole or pike. Steng is from I eel. st'dng^ 
a pole. 

861-910. Cf. L.A., cap. 125, 2, where the source is not mentioned : 
"Apud Mariennam urbem Gallise matrona qusedam Johanni b. 
valde devota Deum instantius exorabat, ut sibi de reliquiis Johannis 
aliquando donaretur aliquid. Cum autem orando nihil proflcere se 
videret, sumta de Deo fiducia juramento se adstrinxit, quod hactenus 
non comederet, donee quod petebat acciperet. Cum autem diebus 
aliquibus jejunasset, poUicem super altare miri candoris vidit et Dei 
donum laeta suscepit ; tres autem episcopi illuc accurentes, cum quili- 
bet de illo pollice partem vellet accipere, tres sanguinis guttas stillare 
videntes in linteo supposito, stupuerunt et singuli singulas se meruisse 
Ixtati sunt." 

911-988. Cf. L.A., De Innocentibus, cap. 10, i : " Tres Herodes sacra 
scriptura commemorat, quos famosos fecit eorum crudelitas. Prim- 
us dictus est Herodes Ascalonita, sub quo dominus natus est et a 
quo pueri occisi sunt. Secundus dictus est Herodes Antipas, qui 

VOL. IIL 2 b 


Johannem decollavit. Tertius dictus est Herodes Ag^ppa qui Jaco- 
bum occidit et Petrum incarceravit Unde de hoc exstant versus : — 

' Ascalonita necat pueros, Antipa Johanoem, 
Agrippa Jacobum, claudens in carcere Petram.* 

Bed primi Hcrodis hystoriam breviter videamus. Antipater Ydumxus, 
ut in hystoria scholastica legitur, neptem regis Arabum duxit uxorem, 
ex qua filium habuit quern vocavit Herodem, qui postmodo Ascalonita 
dictus est. Hie a Csesare Augusto regnum Judaeae accepit et tunc 
primitus sceptrum ablatum est de Judaea. Huic sex filii nati sont: 
Anti pater, Alexander, Aristobulus, Archelaus, Herodes Antipas, et 
Philippus. Alexandrum autem et Aristobulum ex eadem matre Judaea 
genitos Romam misit liberalibus artibus imbuendos : post hoc a studiis 
redierunt et erat Alexander g^ammaticus, Aristobulus autem acerrimiis 
perorator ; jamque frequentius de susceptione regni cum patre discep- 
tabant. Ab hoc pater oifensus Antipatrem illis praeponere satagebat ; 
cumque illi de morte patris tractassent et ob hoc a patre rejecti fuissent, 
Ca^sarem adeunt de patris injuria conquesturi. Interea magi Jeroso- 
limam veniunt et de ortu novi regis diligentius sciscitantur e. c." LJV. 
then goes on to speak of the slaughter of the Innocents. 

915. -5^^^/= by birth, inheritance. 

935. ydumy=ld\xmesL 

945. ^«(^x/= Augustus. 

960. A ristotolus = Aristobulus. 

968. Mu/ere= speaker. 

972. Are^heir. 

984. Magos=Maig\. The tradition is that they were kings whose 
names were Caspar, Melchior, and Balthazar. In the evangelical nar- 
rative their number is not given. For variations in the tradition, and 
other particulars, see the art. in Smith's * Diet of the Bible* sub Magi, 

989-992. For further particulars respecting this book, now unfortu- 
nately lost, see 11. 1216-1220, also the Introduction. 

998-1062. Cf. L.A., cap. 10, 3 : "Deus autem judex justissimus (ut 
in iisdem legitur hystoriis scholasticis) non est passus tantam Herodis 
nequitiam remanere impunitam. Divino enim judicio factum est, ut 
qui multos orbaverat filiis, ipse suis miserabilius orbaretur. Nam 
Alexander et Aristobulus iterum patri habiti sunt suspecti. Con- 
fessus est autem unus de eorum complicibus quod Alexander multa 
sibi donaria promisisset, si patri venenum propinaret; confessus est 
etiam tonsor de promissis sibi muneribus, si, dum patris barbam 
raderet, eum continue jugularet, addiditque Alexandrum dixisse, non 
esse ponendam spem in sene qui sibi capillos tingeret et juvenis 
appareret Ob hoc pater iratus eos occidi fecit, Antipatrem autem 
futurum regem instituit ; sed ipsi Antipatri Herodes Antipam in 
regnum substituit. Insuper Herodes Agrippam et Herodiadem 
uxorem Philippi, quos ex Aristobulo susceperat, patema dilectione 


fovebat. Hac duplici de causa Antipater intolerabile contra patrem 
concepit odium, in tantum, quod eum attentavit occidere per venenum, 
quod Herodes jam praesentiens eum in carcere posuit. Augustus 
autem Caesar audiens quod filios occidisset, dixit : mallem esse 
Herodis porcus quam filius, quia, cum sit proselitus, porcis parcit et 
filios occidit." 

1004. Bernles = childless. 

1011. 5tf«^rrj= Alexander. ar/j/^//7=Aristobulus. Perhaps we 
should read aristobil. 

1063-1148. L.A., cap. 10, 4 : " Ipse Herodes cum jam annos lxx 
haberet, in gravissimam aegritudinem cecidit, nam febre valida, pruri- 
gine corporis, continuis tormentis, pedum inflammatione, vermescenti- 
bus testiculis, intolerabili foetore, crebro anhelitu et interruptis 
suspiriis torquebatur. A medicis vero in oleo positus, inde quasi 
mortuus est allatus. Audiens autem Judaeos mortem suam cum 
gaudio exspectare, nobiliores juvenes ex omni Judaea collectos in 
carcere posuit dixitque Salomae, sorori suae : scio Judaeos de morte 
mea gavisuros, sed potero habere multos lugentes et nobiles exsequias 
funeris, si meis volueris parere mandatis, ut, cum spiritum emisero, 
cunctos occidas quos in custodia servo, ut sic omnis Judaea me defleat 
licet invita. Habebat autem in consuetudine ut post omnem cibum 
pomum pro se purgaret et comederet, cumque gladium manu teneret 
tussique violenta discinderetur, circumspiciens, ne se aliquis impediret, 
se ipsum percussurus manum sustulit, sed consobrinus ejus sustinendo 
dextram impedivit. Protinus autem, quasi rex mortuus esset, in aula 
regia ululatus insonuit, quo audito exsultat Antipater multaque, si 
solveretur, custodibus pollicetur. Quod cum cognovisset Herodes, 
gravius filii exsultationem quam propriam tulit mortem, mittensque 
satellites eum occidi fecit et Archelaum post se regnaturum instituit 
sicque post dies v mortuus est, in aliis fortunatissimus, in rebus 
domesticis infelicissimus. Salome autem soror ejus omnes absolvit 
quos rex occidi mandaverat. Remigius autem in originali super 
Mathaeum dicit, quod Herodes gladio, quo pomum purgabat se per- 
emit et quod Salome soror ejus omnes vinctos, prout cum fratre 
ordinaverat, interfecit" 

1066. Dewt7—deii=sde2Ll. sume dewt7=somtvfhaLi. 

1067. Sea = scab. 
1101. //i?j/= cough. 

1131. Remegius =Rem'igms. 
1149-1188. Not in L.A. 
1182. Amyas= Amiens. 
1189-1236. Author's conclusion. 



St Vincent was born, according to some at Saragossa, according to 
others at Valencia, but according to most authors at Huesca, or, as 
it was formerly called, Osca, in Granada. Educated by Valerius, the 
bishop of that place, who also ordained him deacon, he was appointed 
by him, while yet very young, to preach and instruct the people. At 
the time the governor of Spain was Dacian. When the edicts of 
Diocletian and Maximian were issued against the Christian clergy 
in the year 306, Dacian apprehended Valerius and Vincent, and let 
them lie long in prison, where they suffered extreme famine and 
other miseries, in the hope, it is said, that by this lingering torture 
he might shake their constancy. When at length they were brought 
before him he was surprised to see them still intrepid in mind and 
vigorous in body, and reprimanded his officers as if they had not 
treated them according to his orders. Then, turning to the bishop 
and his deacon, he endeavoured by means of threats and promises to 
induce them to sacrifice to the gods. As Valerius had an impediment 
in his speech, he made no answer to him, and St Vincent asked per- 
mission from him to speak in his stead. '* Son," replied Valerius^ 
" as I committed to you the dispensation of the Word of God, so I 
now charge you to answer in vindication of the faith we defend.'* 
The holy deacon then declared aloud that they were Christians, that 
they adored one God in three Persons, and that they were ready to 
suffer for His name. Valerius was thereupon condemned to exile. As 
for St Vincent, Dacian determined to put him to the torture. He was 
first stretched on the rack by his hands and feet, drawn by cords and 
pulleys till his joints were almost torn asunder. While hanging in 
this posture his flesh was torn with iron hooks. At the same time he 
reproached his tormentors with being weak and faint-hearted. Dacian 
also thought they spared him, and, causing them to be beaten, gave 
Vincent a slight interval of rest. The executioners, stimulated by the 
blows they had received, returned to their task and exerted all their 
strength. Twice they were compelled to desist in order to take breath ; 


but they returned each time with renewed vigour, and at last so tore 
and mangled the body of the saint that his bones and entrails pro- 
truded. St Vincent, however, only seemed to be the more sustained 
by the divine Presence, and to be in possession of a sweeter joy. 
Dacian, seeing the state to which his body had been reduced, con- 
fessed his astonishment at the saint's constancy and courage, and 
ordered his officers to cease from torturing him. Adopting other 
means to gain his ends, he then besought him for his own sake, if 
he would not sacrifice to the gods, at least to give up the sacred books 
to be burnt, according to the edicts. Upon his refusal, Dacian was 
more incensed against him than ever, and immediately condemned 
him to the most cruel of tortures. Stretched out at full length 
and bound down upon an iron bed, of which the bars were framed 
like scythes full of sharp spikes made red-hot by a fire underneath, 
while the side of his body next the fire was being broiled, the other 
was tortured by the application of red-hot plates of iron. From time 
to time he was turned on this horrible gridiron, and his wounds were 
rubbed with salt. But all that Dacian and his officers could do was 
unavailing. Nothing could shake the martyr's faith. When cast into 
a dungeon at night, God sent His angels to comfort him. His gaolers, 
observing through the chinks of the door the prison filled with light 
and the saint walking and praising God, were converted on the spot 
and afterwards baptised. On the morrow Dacian granted to his 
captive some respite, when he was visited by troops of friends, who 
wiped and kissed his wounds and dipped cloths in his blood, which 
they kept as sure protections against evil. A soft bed was after- 
wards prepared for St Vincent, but no sooner was he laid upon it 
than he passed away. Dacian ordered his body to be thrown into 
a marsh, where it is said to have been protected from the wild beasts 
by a crow. Subsequently it was tied to a great stone and cast into 
the sea in a sack, and being miraculously carried to the shore and 
discovered by two Christians, it was laid by them in a chapel outside 
the walls of Valencia. The gridiron and other instruments of his 
torture were at first preserved at Saragossa. From thence they were 
conveyed by Childebert to Paris, and deposited in the church and 
abbey now known as St-Germain-des-Pr^s. In 855 the bones of the 
saint were translated from Valencia to the Abbey of Castres, now an 
episcopal see in Languedoc. Portions of them were afterwards dis- 
tributed ; portions of them were also burnt at Castres by the Hugue- 
nots towards the end of the sixteenth century. St Vincent is patron 
of Lisbon, Valencia, Saragossa, one of the patrons of Milan, patron 
saint of Chalons, and of many other places in France. Butler's 
Lives; Putin's *Dict Hag^ogr.' See also his Acta and the famous 
hymn by Prudentius. 

His day is January 22. 

In works of art St Vincent is not always easily distinguished from 


SS. Stephen and Lawrence, for he too is young and mild and beaoti- 
fill. He always wears the deacon's dress and carries the palm ; but 
his peculiar attribute is a crow or raven, sometimes perched upon a 
millstone. Mrs Jameson, ' Sacred and Legendary Art,' vol. ii. p. 552. 

Anal>'sis — The meaning of Vincentius is, he who always overcomes, 
I, 2; what things St Vincent overcame, 3-18; his birth, education, and 
appointment to be the deacon of Valerius, 19-32; Vincent and Valerius 
are arrested by Dacian and imprisoned in Valencia, 33-66 ; notwith- 
standing the rigour of their imprisonment, and that Dacian has for- 
bidden food to be given them, when they are next brought before him 
they appear, to his surprise, healthy and glad, 67-78; when questioned 
by Dacian, Valerius gives permission to Vincentius to answer for them, 
79-120; St Vincent's reply, 121-138; having heard the reply, Dacian 
orders Valerius into exile, 139-146 ; and Vincent to be tortured, 147-160; 
Vincent being put to the torture, upbraids Dacian, 161- 192 ; Vincent 
is again tortured, and the executioners stopping in their work from 
weariness and want of breath, Dacian grows angry with them and 
incites them to renewed effort, whereat Vincent smiles and assures 
him of the uselessness of what he is doing, 193-230; description of the 
tortures, w^hich are renewed, and an account of what passed between 
Dacian and Vincent, 231-300; Vincent is at last thrown, bound hand 
and foot, into a deep and dark dungeon full of sharp shells, 301-314 ; 
here he is visited by the light of heaven and angels, with whom he 
joins in singing, and the keepers, who are witnesses of this, are con- 
verted, 315-330; Dacian's rage on hearing of this, and St Vincent's 
death, 331-350; the saint's body is thrown out to the wild beasts, 
when a raven protects it, 351-362; Dacian then orders the body to 
be bound to a millstone and cast into the sea, 363-371 ; boatmen carry 
out the order, but when they return they find the saint's body back in 
the sand before them, 372-376; a matron g^ves it burial, 377-384; 
citations from SS. Augustine and Ambrose respecting St Vincent, 
385-406; conclusion, 407-412. 

Source — Not the shorter narrative in LA., cap. 25. More probably 
the author used V.B., xii. 122 ct scq. 

1-18. L,A. is different : " Vincentius quasi vitium incendens vel 
vincens incendia vel victoriam tenens. Ipse enim incendit, i. e. con- 
sumsit villa per camis mortificationem, vicit incendia suppliciorum 
per constantem poenarum perj)essionem, victoriam lenuit mundi per 
ipsius despectionem. Vicit enim tria, qu»e erant in mundo, sc falsos 
errores, immundos amores, mundanos timores, quos vicit per sapien- 
tiam, munditiam et constantiam.*' After which follows a citation 
from Augustine, who is said by some to be the author of the Passio 
of this saint. 

19-31. L.A.: "Vincentius nobilis genere sed fide ac religione nobilior, 
beati Valerii dyaconus fuit." V.B.: **Qui genere nobilissimus et in 

NOTES TO VINCENCIUS (XXXVn, 23-121). 39 1 

pueritia Uteris traditus gemina scientia efRcacissime claruit, sub beato 
Valerio Caesaraugustae civitatis antistite, a quo etiam sanctitate in- 
signis dyaconi artem suscepit." 

23. Purvai= provided y equipped. O, Fr. purveir, to purvey, provide. 

24. IVescAa/e =vtsse\. 

30. CVwr(^-<?«^T/j/=Caesaraugusta, of which Zaragoza or Saragossa 
is merely a corruption. 

32-66. L.A. : "Jussu Daciani praesidis Valentiam trahuntur et diro 
carceri mancipantur." V.B. : " Et quoniam ipse episcopus impediti- 
oris linguae erat tradito ei doctrinae ministerio ipse oratione et contem- 
platione divinae sedulus insistebat. Cum igitur Dacianus praeses 
apud Caesaraugustam episcopos et caeteros sacri ordinis rapi prae- 
ciperet protinus Valerius et Vincentius archidiaconus in confessione 
deitatis alacriter cucurrerunt Quos Dacianus primo Valentiam sub 
carceralem custodiam et famis miseriam catenarumque stridorem per- 
trahi jussit, ut eos itineris vexatione frangeret quos poena superare non 
posset Cumque eos manibus et cervicibus immensa ferri pondera 
sustinentes et per omnes artus jam tunc mortis supplicia patientes, 
e. c.*' 

56. VaIgfta'ane=VaL\tnci2L. 

67-88. L.A. : '* Cumque eos fame paene defecisse censeret, eos suo 
adspectui jussit adstare ; quos cumque sanos cerneret et gaudentes, 
iratus in banc vocem prorupit : quid dicis tu Valeri, qui sub nomine 
religionis contra decreta principum facis ? " 

77. PurvoiL See note to 1. 23. 

89-108. Not in L.A. or V.B. 

95. Wa/<frK= Valerius. 

109-120. L.A. : <* Cum beatus Valerius lenius responderet dixit ei 
v.: (noli pater venerabilis quasi mente timida submurmurare, sed 
libera voce exclama ; ) si ergo jubes, pater sancte, responsis judicem 
aggrediar. Cui ille : jamdudum tibi, fili carissime, loquendi curam 
commiseram, et nunc pro fide, qua adstamus, responsa committo. 
Tunc V. conversus ad Dacianum : hactenus, inquit, a te sermo de ne- 
ganda fide peroravit, sed nefarium apud christianorum prudentiam 
esse cognosce deitatis cultum abnegando blasphemare." 

111. Mumyng =^ merry ng {J)=^xci^x\Xi%^ impediment 

121-138. Not in L.A. V.B.: "Tunc Vincentius cuius mens tota 
jam erat coronae conscia, conversus ad Dacianum, ait : apud Christian- 
orum prudentiam nefarium esse cognosce deitatis cultum aljnegando 
blasphemare. Et te ne longius pertraham profitemur nos Christianas 
religionis esse cultores et unius ac veri dei famulos et testes. In 
cuius nomine minas et supplicia tua non metuimus sed potius mortem 
pro veritate libentissime amplectimur. Nam venenantissimus serpens 
insatiabilis homicida, qui primos homines morti subdidit, idola pro 
deo coli instituit, dolens illuc hominem obediendo redire unde ipse 
superbiendo corruit" — xii. 122. 


134. Mystare^myster^n^xA. 

139-146u V.B.: " Jamque pro irapene extra se positns Dacianns ait : 
Amovete hinc episcopum istom superfoum. Justum est enim subire 
ezilium qui imperiale contemnit dictum." 

147-160. V.B., xiL 123: '* Hunc autem inquit rebellem qui incontu- 
melias venit publicam ad eculeum applicate, membris distendite et 
corpore toto dissipate." L.A.: '^ Vincentium vero tanquam contoma* 
cem et praesumptuosum juvenem, ut ejus exemplo alii terreantnr, in 
equuleum distentum membris omnibus jussit dissipari." 

161-192. V.B.: ** Inter haec ait ad eum, e. c." L.A.: "Cumque cor- 
pore totus dissiparetur, ait D.: die mihi, Vincenti, ubi nunc tuum mis- 
errimum corpus conspicis? At ille subridens: hoc est quod semper 
optavi. Tunc iratus praeses coepit ei omnia genera tormentonim 
minari, nisi ei assensum praeberet. Cui V.: o felicem me, quo mihi 
irasci te gravius putas, eo melius incipis misereri ; insurge ergo miser 
et toto malignitatis spintu debacchare ; videbis, me Dei virtute plus 
posse, dum lorqueor, quam possis ipse, qui torques." 

184. i//»^x/>r^(^=minishing, diminishing. 

19S-254. LA. is quite different : " Ad hoc praeses ccepit clamare et 
carnifices virgis et fustibus verberare ; et ait V.: quid dicis Daciane, 
tu ipse me vindicas de tortoribus meis (vgl. 241 — 4). Tunc praeses 
amens factus dixit camificibus : miserrimi, nihil facitis, cur deficiunt 
manus vestrae ? adulteros et parricidas \incere potuistis, ut nihil inter 
illata supplicia celare possent, et nunc solus V. vestra potuit superare 
tormenta." V.B. is also different 

251. Alowte^2^\ out = altogether, entirely. 

252. Na docht 3^= not are ye worth. Docht from A.S. dugan, to 
be strong, worth. 

255-274. L.A.: "Tunc carnifices pectines ferreos usque ad intima 
costarum fixerunt, ita ut de toto ejus corpore sanguis efBueret et solu- 
tis costarum compaginibus viscera interna paterent Et ait D.: com- 
miserere tui, ut possis tarn pulchram recuperare juventutem et ea quae 
supra sunt, lucrari tormenta. Et ait V.: o venenosa dyaboli lingua, 
tormenta tua non timeo, sed hoc solum valde metuo quod te mihi fin- 
gis velle misereri : nam quo te magis iratum video, eo amplius et 
magis exsulto; nolo ut aliquid minuas de suppliciis, ut te victum in 
omnibus fatearis." 

275-312. L.A.: "Tunc ex equuleo depositus atque ad ignis crati- 
culam r^ptus moras camificum arguendo ad pcEnam alacriter propera- 
bat. Craticulam ergo sponte conscendens ibidem assatur, exuritur et 
crematur membrisque omnibus uncini ferrei et ardentes laminae 
infiguntur, dumque flamma respergitur, vulnera vulneribus impri- 
muntur, sal insuper in ignem spargitur, ut in corpus ejus undique 
vulneratum resiliens stridentibus flammis crudelius comburatur. Jam- 
que non ad artus, sed ad viscera tela jaciuntur, jamque intima viscera 


de ejus corpore extra labuntur : inter hsec ille manet immobilis et 
sursum erectis luminibus dominum precabatur. Cumque ministri 
haec Daciano retulissent, heu, ait D., vincimini, sed jam nunc ut in 
poena diutius vivat, ipsum teterrimo carceri includite et ibi testas 
acutissimas congerite, pedes ejus ligno affigite, sine humano solatio 
extensum sic super testas relinquite et, cum defecerit, nuntiate." 

276. ])ak=^sk\n, 

27a Mad= fierce. 

288. il/<2/= weary, exhausted. 

313-330. L.A.: *' Fa vent quantocius ministri crudeles domino cru- 
deliori, sed ecce rex, pro quo miles patitur, pocnam commutavit in 
gloriam. Nam tenebrae careens ab immensa luce expelluntur, testa- 
rum asperitas in omnium florum suavitatem mutatur, compedes dis- 
solvuntur et angelorum solatio venerando perfruitur. Cumque super 
flores cum angelis psallens incederet, modulatio dulcis et mira sua- 
vitas florum procul diffunditur. Perterriti custodes cum per rimas 
carceris, quod intus, vidissent, ad fidem conversi sunt" 

324. 5^^= sound. 

328. Den =ene= eyes, 

331-346. L.A. : " Haec audiens D. amens factus ait : et quid ei am- 
plius faciemus? ecce enim victi sumus; transferatur ad lectulum et 
stramentis mollioribus reponatur, ne plus eum gloriosum faciamus, si 
forte defecerit in tormentis, sed postquam recreatur, novis iterum 
suppliciis puniatur. Cum igitur ad stratum molliorem deportatus 
esset et ibidem paululum quievisset, statim spiritum tradidit c. a. 
d. 287 sub Diocletiano et Maximiano." 

337. £//^r= after. 

347-384. L.A. : " Quo audito Dacianus vehementer expavit et se sic 
victum dolens, ait : etsi non potui eum superare viventem, puniam vel 
defunctum et sic satiabor de poena et sic poterit mihi provenire vic- 
toria. Jussu ergo Daciani corpus ejus in campum ab avibus et bestiis 
devorandum exponitur, sed statim angelorum custodia praemunitur 
et intactum a bestiis conservatur, denique cor\'us ingluviei deditus 
alias aves se majores impetu alarum abegit et lupum accurrentem 
morsibus et clamoribus effugavit, qui reflexo capita in aspectu corporis 
sacri fixus cernitur, utpote qui ibidem angelorum custodiam mira- 
batur. Quod audiens D. ait : puto quod neque defunctum potero 
superare. Jubet ergo corpori ejus ingentem molam alligari et in 
pelago projici, ut, quod terra a bestiis consumi non potuit, saltern in 
pelago a marinis belluis devoretur. Nautae ergo corpus ejus in 
pelagus deferentes submergunt, sed ipsis nautis velocius littora corpus 
petit, quod a quadam matrona et quibusdam aliis ipso revelante in- 
venitur et ab iis honorifice sepelitur." 

353. Sfou^ &» rout =^ entirely, 

385-392. L.A. : " De hoc martire sic dicit Augustinus : b. V. vicit in 


verbis, vicit in pcenis, vicit in confessione, vicit in tribulatione, vicit 
exustus, vicit submersus, vicit ortus, vicit mortuiis.'' Then follows 
another citation from Augustine. 

393-406. L.Al. : " Ambrosius in praefatione quoque de ipso sic ait : 
torquetur V., tunditur, flagellatur, et exuritur, sed invictus pro s. 
nomine animus non concutitur, plus ardens igne zeli quam ferri, plus 
nectitur timore Dei quam saeculi, plus voluit placere Deo quam foro, 
plus dilexit mori mundo quam domino." Other citations follow from 
Augustine and Prudentius. 


" Adrian, the son of Probus, was a noble Roman : he served in the 
guards of the Emperor Galerius Maximian at the time when the 
tenth persecution against the servants of our Lord first broke out in 
the city of Nicomedia in Bithynia (a.d. 290). Adrian was then not 
more than twenty -eight years old, and he was married to a wife 
exceedingly fair and virtuous, whose name was Natalia, and she was 
secretly a Christian. 

" When the imperial edict was first promulgated, it had been torn 
down by the brave St George, which so incensed the wicked Em- 
perors that in one day thirty-four Christians were condemned to the 
torture, and it fell to the lot of Adrian to superintend the execution ; 
and as he stood by, wondering at the constancy with which these men 
suffered for the cause of Christ, his heart was suddenly touched, and 
he threw away his arms, and sat down in the midst of the condemned, 
and said aloud, ' Consider me also one of ye, for I too will be a 
Christian ! ' Then he was carried to prison with the rest 

" But when his wife, Natalia, heard these thing, she was transported 
with joy, and came to the prison, and fell upon her husband's neck, 
and kissed his chains, and encouraged him to suffer for the truth. 

" And shortly afterwards Adrian, being condemned to die, on the 
night before he was to suffer prevailed upon the jailer by large bribes, 
and by giving sureties for his return, to permit him to visit his wife. 

"And Natalia was spinning in her chamber when the news was 
brought that her husband had fied from prison ; and when she heard 
it, she tore her garments, and threw herself upon the earth, and 
lamented, and exclaimed aloud, ' Alas ! miserable that I am ! I have 
not deserved to be the wife of a martyr I Now will men point to 
me and say, " Behold the wife of the coward and apostate, who, for 
fear of death, hath denied his God."' 

" Now Adrian, standing outside the door, heard these words, and 
he lifted up his voice and said, 'O thou noble and strong-hearted 


\ii\.xr,i'* '. 1 Mess God that I am not unworthy of thee ! Open the door, 
•,"»,i: I '.viv bid thee farewell before I die/ So she arose joyfully, and 
^V^.' ';v- *-^ ^^*'^'' ^o him, and took him in her arms and embraced him, 
jl's. '."c-x ivturned to the prison together. 

- rhi* next day Adrian was dragged before the tribunal, and after 
Sc.'\^ cruelly scourged and tortured, he was carried back to his 
cv:*j:'.vn; hut the tyrants, hearing of the devotion of his wife and 
^k'v: v.*hristian women, who ministered to the prisoners, ordered that 
;k^ woman should be allowed to enter the dungeon. Thereupon 
\ a: -ilia cut off all her beautiful black hair, and put on the dress of 
jt '^uM, and thus she gained access to the presence of her husband, 
^^om she found lying on the earth, torn and bleeding. And she took 
h:i»\ iu her arms, saying tenderly, * O light of mine eyes, and husband 
oi" mine heart ! blessed art thou, who art called to suffer for Christ's 
sake.* And Adrian was comforted, and prepared himself to suffer 
bravely to the end. 

*• And the next day the tyrants ordered that Adrian should have his 
limbs struck off on a blacksmith's anvil, and afterwards be beheaded ; 
and so it was done to him, and Natalia held him and sustained him in 
his NUtferings, and before the last blow was struck he expired in her 

•* Then Natalia kissed him upon the brow, and, stooping, took up 
one of the severed hands, and put it in her bosom, and, returning to 
her house, she folded up the hand in a kerchief of fine linen, with 
spiees and perfumes, and placed it at the head of her bed ; but the 
bovlies of Adrian and his companions were carried by the Christians 
lv» r»\ /antium, which was afterwards Constantinople. 

*' And it happened after these thinj;s that the Emperor threatened 
iv^ many Natalia, by force, to one of the tribunes of the army. There- 
lore >he tied, and embarked on board a vessel, and sailed for Arg\TO- 
polis a port near Byzantium : and the remainder of her life did she 
pass in widowhood, near the tomb of her husband. And ot'ten in the 
silence of the night, when sleep came upon her eyes. hea\y with 
weeping, did Adrian, clothed in the glory of beatitude, visit her 
dreams, and invite her to follow him. Not Ions: did she remain 
behind him, for it pleased God to release her pure and noble spirit 
from its earthly bonc!av;e ; and Adrian, accompanied by a troop of 
rejoicinij anj^^tls, descended from heaven to meet her; and they en- 
tered into the i^n- of the Lord, with the prophe:s and with the saints 
and :r!v\NO whose names are wri:ren in the book of life : and ihev dwell 
in the liii'ru of His presence, reunited for ever ar.d ever." — Mrs Jame- 
son's * S.icrei! and Leijendary Art," vol. ii. pp. 70- c*/ j.-y. 

Nt\t tv^ St Cieorjje, Adrian was for aj^es the ch'ef militar}* saint of 
the p.orth of Europe. He is the patron of Flemish brewers. 

His day is September S, 

He is represented armed, with an anvil in his hands or at his feet : 


the anvil is his proper attribute ; sometimes a sword or an axe is 
lying beside it, and sometimes he has a lion at his feet. Mrs Jame- 
son's * Sacred and Legendary Art/ vol. ii. p. 800. 

Analysis — The persecution of Maximian, 1-26; thirty-three Chris- 
tians are ordered to undergo the torture, 27-48 ; Adrian, who is 
standing by, confesses himself a Christian, 49-80 ; he is brought before 
the Emperor, and cast into prison, where he is visited by his wife, 
Natalia, who rejoices in his lot, and encourages him to be faithful ta 
the end, and commends him to the thirty-three, 81-154 ; learning that 
he is to be executed on a certain day, he persuades his jailers ta 
allow him to visit his wife, 155-168 ; before he reaches home the news 
is conveyed to Natalia that he has escaped, 169-173 ; at first she 
refuses to believe the news, but being persuaded of its truth, when she 
sees him coming she bars the door against him and denounces him 
for his faithlessness, and gives way to sorrow, 174-230; listening to 
her, Adrian rejoices at her steadfastness and marvels at it, 231-241 ; 
he assures her of his constancy in the faith, but with difficulty per- 
suades her of it, when she admits him, and soon after she returns with 
him to the prison, remaining with him seven days, attending to his 
wants and to the wants of the thirty-three imprisoned with him, 242- 
300 ; when the day arrives, Adrian is stretched on the rack and is com- 
forted by Natalia, 301-330; he is next scourged and beaten, but, 
notwithstanding the warnings of the Emperor, perseveres, and testifies 
to his faith, 331-374; Natalia relates his sufferings and testimony to 
the thirty-three, 375-378; Adrian is again put to the torture, and 
again cast into prison, where he is comforted by Natalia, 379-422 ; 
the Emperor hearing of what she is doing, forbids any woman to enter 
the dungeon, 423-430 ; Natalia then cuts off her hair, and, disguised 
in male attire, obtains access to her husband and continues her minis- 
try, 431-450; the Emperor hearing of it, orders all the prisoners to be 
broken on an anvil unless they consent to obey him, 451-466; at 
Natalia's request Adrian is placed upon the anvil and broken in 
pieces first, and after all have been dealt with in the same way, their 
limbs and bodies are cast into a fire, 467-496 ; Natalia, however, secured 
one of Adrian's hands, and a heavy rain falling put out the fire, into 
which Natalia would fain have thrown herself, and the bodies of the 
saints receive burial at Constantinople, 497-526 ; the Emperor desiring 
to marry Natalia to a military tribune, she flees by ship, taking with 
her Adrian's hand, and is followed by the tribune, who is misled by 
the fiend in the shape of a sailor, 527-625 ; during the night Adrian 
guides the ship in which Natalia is, and when the day dawns is recog- 
nised by her, 626-646 ; she arrives at Constantinople, and there finds 
Adrian's body, and places the hand she has brought beside it, 647-664 ; 
Adrian appears to her in a dream, and intimates to her that she is about 
to join him, 665-672 ; her death, 673-680; conclusion, 681-684. 

Sources — L.A., cap. 134, and V.B., xii. 79-82. 


1-48. L.A.: "Adrianus a Maximiano imperatore regnante martiriam 
passus est Cum enim Maximianus in Nicomedia urbe idoUs immo- 
laret, jussu ejus cuncti christianos perquirentes alii timore pcenaey alii 
amore promissae pecuniae, vicini vicinos, propinqui domesdcos, ad 
supplicium trahebant : inter quos 33 [V. B. 23] a perqairentibus com- 
prehensi ante regem adducti sunt Quibus rex : non audiistis qualis 
poena ad versus christianos posita sit? Cui illi : audivimus etstultitiae 
tuae jussionis irrisimus. Tunc rex iratus nervis crudis eos caedi jussit 
et lapidibus ora eorum contundi mandavit ac annotata unioscaiusque 
confess! one, ferro vinctos in carcere recludi praecepit" 

4. A^ichomedt =N\comcdi^y the capital of Bithynia. Under the 
Roman Empire it was often the residence of the Emperors, such as 
Diocletian and Constantine. It was the birthplace of Arrian the 
historian. Hannibal here put an end to his checkered career; and 
near to it, at his villa Ancyron, Constantine breathed his last 

30. -Fnwiy/ar^= questioning. 

31. 5^ byrd^ it behoves you. 
39. Gryme=^^vai^ ang^. 

43. Ab ad, apparently a business phrase, ab and o^ referring to the 
two sides of the account The meaning, if this be correct, would then 
be that their answers were taken down to be weighed or valued /Sv^ 
or against the prisoners. 

49-70. L.A.: "Quorum constantlam Adrianus prior officii militaris 
considerans, dixit iis : adjuro vos per Deum vestrum ut mihi dicatis 
quae est remuneratio quam exspectatis per ista tormenta. Ad hoc 
dixerunt sancti : oculus non vidit nee auris audivit nee in cor hominis 
adscendit quae praeparavit dominus diligentibus se perfecte." 

53. Hedc = \\tt(\, 

54. Dr€d={t2LV. 

71-90. L.A.: " Tunc A. in medium prosiliens ait : annotate me cum 
istis, quia et ego christianus sum. Quod cum imperator audivisset, 
nolentem sacrificare vinctum ferro in carcere posuit" 

73. iVi?/=note, reckon. 

75. Bane=hdiT\t curse. 

91-138. L.A.: " Natalia vero uxor ejus, audiens virum suum in car- 
cere, scidit vestimenta sua flens plurimum et ejulans. Sed cum 
audivisset quod propter fidem Christi incarceratus fuisset, gaudio 
repleta ad carcerem cucurrit et vincula viri sui et aliorum osculari 
capit. Erat enim Christiana, sed propter persecutionem se non pub- 
licaverat Et dixit ad virum : beatus es, domine mi Adriane, quia 
invenisti divitias quas non dimiserunt parentes tui, quibus egebunt hi 
qui multa possident, quando non erit foenerandi tempus nee mutuo 
accipiendi, dum nullus de poena alium liberabit nee pater filium nee 
mater filiam nee servus dominum nee amicus amicum nee divitiae 

104. Z^//=let 

NOTES TO ADRIAN ( XXXVllL 114-242). 399 

114. Ocre= usury, interest. 

134. ffurde =irtB.sure, 

139-154. L.A. : " Cumque eum admonuisset ut omnem gloriam ter- 
renam contemneret et amicos et parentes sperneret et semper ad 
coelestia cor haberet, dixit ad earn A. : vade soror mea, tempore 
passionis nostrae accersam te, ut videas finem nostrum. Sicque virum 
suum aliis Sanctis recommendans^ ut eum confortarent, rediit in domum 

147. ^r=ere, before. 

155-168. L.A.: "Postmodum audiens A. diem passionis suae adesse, 
dans raunera custodibus et sanctos qui secum erant, in fidejussores, 
abiit domum vocare Nataliam, sicut ei juramento promiserat, ut 
eorum passionibus prsesens esset." 

161. Borowis=p\edgeSy sureties. 

165. Od/isfe= obliged, bound down. 

168. /«= house. 

169-194. L.A. : " Quidam autem eum videns praecurrit et nuntiavit 
Nataliae, dicens : absolutus est Adrianus et ecce venit. Quod ilia 
audiens non credebat dicens : et quis potuit eum absolvere a vinculis ? 
non mihi contingat, ut absolvatur a vinculis et separetur a Sanctis. 
Dum hoc loqueretur, puer domesticus venit dicens : en dominus meus 
dimissus est. Ilia autem putans quod martirium refug^sset, amaris- 
sime fiebat, et cum vidisset eum, surgens velocius ostium domus con- 
tra eum clausit et dixit : longe a me efficiatur, qui a Deo corruit, nee 
mihi contingat loqui ori illius, per quod dominum suum abnegavit." 

187. 5^ar^=spar, bolt, fasten. 

195-230. L.A. : " £t conversa ad eum dixit : o tu miser sine Deo, 
quis te coegit apprehendere quod non potuisti perficere, quis te sep- 
aravit a Sanctis aut quis te seduxit, ut recederes a conventu pacis ? die 
mihi cur fugisti antequam pugna fieret, antequam repugnantem vi- 
deres, quomodo vulneratus es necdum emissa sagitta ? et ego mirabar 
si ex gente sine Deo et de genere impiorum aliquis offerretur Deo. 
Heu me infelicem et miseram, quid faciam quae conjuncta sum huic 
ex genere impiorum ? non est concessum mihi ut unius horae spatio 
vocarer uxor martiris, sed ut dicerer uxor transgressoris ad modicum 
quidem exsultatio mea fuit et ecce per saecula opprobrium meum 

212. Ipis slad=ihus slid. 

228. Ciasine ^ze/= empty profession. Clcuine is perhaps the Mod. 
Scot dash, clashing^ gossip, gossiping ; how would then mean hollow. 

231-241. L.A. : " Haec autem b. A. audiens vehementer gaudebat, 
admirans de femina juvene pulcherrima et nobili et ante xiv menses 
nupta, quomodo talia loqui posset.^' 

232. Bieumand=h\oom\Tig. 

242-300. L.A. : " Unde ex hoc ad martirium ardentior effectus verba 
ejus libentissime audiebat, sed cum eam nimis affligi videret, dixit ei : 


aperi mihi, domina mea Natalia ; non enim ut putas martirium fugi, 
sed te, ut promisi, vocare venL Quse non credens ait : vide quomodo 
me seducit transgressor, quomodo mentitur alter Judas ! fuge a me 
miser, me ipsam jam interficiam ut satieris. Et dum moraretur ad 
aperiendum, ei dixit : aperi citius, nam vadam et ultra non videbis me 
et post hoc lugebis, quod me ante exitum meum non videbis ; fide- 
jussores dedi sanctos martires, et si ministri me requirentes non in* 
venerint, sustinebunt sancti tormenta sua et mea simul. Haec audiens 
Natalia aperuit et sibi invicem prostrati ad carcerem simul abierunt, 
ubi Natalia per vii dies sanctorum ulcera cum linteis pretiosis ex- 

245. LaUand=\eiiing. 

248. Say-so. 

252. A^ies=resira\T\. /aire = (arc = go on, act 

26L //erknes=htaurkQT\. Imperative, plu. 

264. Le=\\e. 

290. Freth^irt^. 

294. Bills =ho\\s^ ulcers. 

301-304. Not in L.A. 

305-350. L.A. : " Statu ta autem die imperator eos praesentari jussit, 
qui resoluti pcx^nis, quia ambulare non poterunt, velut animalia porta- 
bantur, A. vero vinctis manibus sequebatur. Deinde A. portans sibi 
equuleum Caesari prsesentatur, Natalia vero adjungens se ei dicebat : 
vide domine mens, ne forte trepides cum tormenta videbis ; modicum 
quidem nunc patieris, sed continuo cum angelis exsultabis. A. igitur 
sacrificare nolens gravissime caesus est, currensque Natalia cum 
gaudio ad sanctos qui erant in carcere, ait : ecce dominus meus in- 
choavit martirium." 

316. 6'/<f/////= stretched. 

331-344. Not in L.A. or V.B. 

351-358. Not in L.A. or V.B. 

359-37C. L.A. : " Cum rex, ne Deos suos blasphemaret, moneret, 
ille ait : si ego torqueor, quia eos qui non sunt Dii, blasphemo, quali- 
ter ipse torqueberis qui Deum verum blasphemas .'^ Cui rex : haec 
verba te illi seductores docuerunt. Ad quern A. : quare seductores 
eos dicis qui sunt doctores vitae aeternac. Currens Natalia haec re- 
sponsa viri sui aliis cum gaudio referebat." 

364. Wary = c u rse. 

370. Sets = sais = say est 

379-398. L.A. : " Tunc rex a qualuor validissimis viris fecit eum 
graviter cagdi, omnes autem posnas et interrogationes et responsiones 
Natalia aliis martiribus qui erant in carcere continuo referebat In 
tantum autem caesus est ut ejus viscera effunderentur. Tunc ferro 
vinctus cum aliis in carcere recluditur." 

379. Crt/;//VK<?«/V= champions. Low Lat. campiojiem^ ace. oi campio, 
a champion. 

NOTES TO ADRIAN ( XXXVllL 399-536). 401 

399-422. L. A. : " Erat autem A. juvenis delicatus valde et decorus 
annorum 28, Natalia vero virum suum supinum jacentem et totum la- 
ceratum considerans, mittens manum sub vertice ejus dicebat: beatus 
es domine meus, qui dignus effectus es de numero esse sanctorum ; 
beatus es, lumen meum, ut patiaris pro eo qui pro te passus est ; perge 
nunc, dulcis meus, ut videas gloriam ejus." 

416. In le^'wi peace. For /^, see Jamieson. 

423-466. L.A. : *' Audiens autem imperator quod multae matronas 
Sanctis in carcere ministrarent, praecepit ne ulterius ad eos ingredi 
permittantur. Quod audiens Natalia se ipsam tonsuravit et habitum 
virilem assumens Sanctis in carcere ministrabat. Alias quoque exem- 
plo suo ad hoc induxit rogavitque virum ut, cum esset in gloria, banc 
precem pro se faceret, ut se intactam custodiens Deus ab hoc saeculo 
citius evocaret Audiens autem rex quae matronae fecissent, jussit in- 
cudem afferri, ut fractis super eum cruribus sancti martires interirent." 

453. Ware na woud =yfors^ than mad. 

454. 5/<fJ?/= anvil. Icel. sU9it an anvil. 

457. Stedy, See preceding note. A sie}pi is properly a smithy, but 
the word is always used in Mod. Scotch for an anvil. 

460. Merck =\\it marrow. Icel. mergr. 

467-500. L.A.: "Timensvero Natalia ne vir suus ex aliorum sup- 
pliciis terreretur, rogavit ministros ut ab eo inciperent Abscissis igitur 
ab eo pedibus cruribusque fractis rogavit eum Natalia, ut manum sibi 
abscidi permitteret, quatenus aliis Sanctis, qui plura passi fuerunt, com- 
par esset. Quo facto A. spiritum reddidit caeterique ultro pedes pro- 
tendentes ad dominum migraverunt. Rex autem eorum corpora ere- 
mari mandavit, Natalia vero manum Adrian! in sinu suo abscondit." 

471. For to we should probably read suld, 

4t75 and 476 are corrupt. 

480. E7tnniyng'=equ3L\. 

601-526. L.A. : " Cum autem corpora sanctorum in ignem praecipi- 
tarentur, voluit et Natalia se cum iis in ignem praecipitare ; sed subito 
vehementissimus imber erupit et ignem exstinguens corpora sanctorum 
illaesa servavit, christiani vero consilio inito corpora Constantinopolim 
transferri fecerunt, quousque pace ecclesiae reddita cum honore refer- 
rentur. Passi sunt c. a. d. 28a" 

504. Zyr= flesh. 

527-534. L. A. : " Natalia vero domo remanens manum s. Adrian! 
sibi retinuit, quam in solatium vitae suae semper ad caput lectul! su! 

535-574. L.A.: ** Post hoc autem tribunus videns Nataliam tarn pul- 
cherrimam tamque divitem et nobilem, de voluntate imperatoris hones- 
tas matronas misit ut in suum conjugium consentiret. Quibus Natalia 
respondit : quis mih! praestare poterit ut conjungar tali viro ? Sed 
peto ut trium dierum mih! dentur induciae, ut me valeam prasparare. 
Hoc autem dicebat ut inde fugere posset" 

VOL. III. 2 C 


538L Ana m w u r it — enamoared. 

575-586l L.A. : " Cum aatem Deam exoraret at se intactam conser- 
▼aret, snbito obdonnivit ct ecce anus martinim ei apparuit ct earn 
dalciter consolans^ at ad locom in qao sent coqx>ra martiram Teniatt 

587-591. L^ : " Evigilans igitar ct manam Adriani solam acdpicns 
com molds Christianis navem conscendiL' 

595-622. L^ : " Qaod tribanas aadiens cam molds militibos cam 
per naTigiom insecotos est, ezsorgens aotem vcntos contnuias multis 
eonim sobmersis cos rcdire compoliL Media aotem nocte dyabolus 
in specie naocleri com navi phantasdca his, qoi crant com Natalia, 
apparoit ct qoasi voce naocleri ait iis : onde venids aot qoo pergitis? 
£t illi : ex Nicomedia venimos ct Constandnopolim pergimos. Qui- 
bos ille ait : erratis, ad sinistram pergite, ot rccdos navigeds. Hoc 
aotem dicebat ot cos in pclagos mitteret et perirenL' 

603L Nann'm =nsivy, 

6ia lVts=show. 

923-680. L.A.: ^Com aotem vela motarcnt, sobito A. in navicula 
sedens cisdem apparoit et cos navig^re, sicot prios coepcrant, ad- 
monoit, asserens malignom spiritom foisse qoi sibi locutos fuerat* 
ponensqoe se ante eos praecedebat illos et viam iis ostendebaL 
Natalia vero Adrianom praecedere videos immenso g^odio replcta est 
sicqocy anteqoam illocesceret, Constandnopolim advenerunt Cum 
aotem Natalia in domom, obi erant corpora mardnim, introiisset et 
manom Adriani ad corpos posoisset et post oradonem dormitasset, 
Adrianos ei apparoit et salotans earn, ot in xtemam pacem secom 
veniret, prsecepit Qoae com evigilasset et somniom adstandbos 
retulisset, valefaciens omnibus emisit spiritom, fideles aotem corpos 
ejus accipientes juxta corpora martirum posuerunt" 

629. 7>a^/= tread, course. 

652. Riste=rtsi. 

653. Rype=s^^xch. So in Mod. Scotch. 


" Cosmo and Damian were two brothers, Arabians by birth, but they 
dwelt in iCgae, a city of Cilicia. Their father having died while they 
were yet children, their pious mother, Theodora, brought them up 
with all diligence, and in the practice of every Christian virtue. 
Their charity was so g^eat, that not only they lived in the greatest 
abstinence, distributing their goods to the infirm and poor, but they 
studied medicine and surgery, that they might be able to prescribe for 
the sick, and relieve the sufferings of the wounded and infirm. They 
became the most learned and most perfect physicians that the world 
had ever seen. They ministered to Jill who applied to them, whether 
rich or poor. Even to suffering animals they did not deny their aid, 
and they constantly refused all payment or recompense, exercising 
their art only for charity and for the love of God. At length these 
wicked Emperors, Diocletian and Maximian, came to the throne, in 
whose time so many saints perished. Among them were the phy- 
sicians, Cosmo and Damian, who, professing themselves Christians, 
were seized by Lycias, the proconsul of Arabia, and cast into prison. 
At first they were thrown into the sea, but an angel saved them ; and 
then into a fire, but the fire refused to consume them ; and then they 
were bound on two crosses and stoned, but of the stones flung at them 
none reached them, but fell on those who threw them, and many were 
killed. So the proconsul, believing that they were enchanters, com- 
manded that they should be beheaded, which was done." — Mrs Jame- 
son, * Sacred and Legendary Art,' vol. ii. p. 433. Their bodies were 
carried into Syria and buried at Cyrus, where, according to Theodoret, 
there was a church dedicated to them in which their relics were in his 
time (fifth century) preserved. In honour of the saints the city of 
Cyrus was enlarged and fortified by Justinian, who is also said to 
have rebuilt on an extensive and costly scale a church at Constanti- 
nople belonging to the age of Theodosius the younger. He is also said 
to have built another church at Constantinople under their names. 
Subsequently the relics were translated to Rome, where Pope St Felix, 

* 1 

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Source — L.A., cap. 143. The etymological introduction is omitted. 

1. 5^^^= secret. The Secret is the name given to the prayers in 
the Mass immediately following the Orate Fratres. They are so 
called because they are repeated by the celebrant in a low voice, 
audible to himself but not heard by the congregation. The " Secret" 
varies according to the Sunday, festival, or feria. 

2. Syndry Sanctis, Omitting the two referred to, they are, besides 
the Virgin Mary and the Apostles, the four first bishops of Rome, SS. 
Cornelius, Cyprian, Laurence, Chrysogonus, John and Paul. 

12. r-^^/Aiy=/^M/r= the other. 

13-34. L.A.: "Cosmas et Damianus germani fratres in civitate Egea 
ex religiosa matre nomine Theodora nati sunt. Hi arte medicinae 
edocti, tantam a spiritu sancto gratiam acceperunt ut omnes languores 
non solum ab hominibus sed etiam a jumentis curarent, gratis omnia 

16. Egea. iEgae, a town in Cilicia, on the north side of the bay of 
Issus. In it there was a temple of iCsculapius famous for the 
miraculous cures wrought by the god. Tacitus calls the town ^Egeae. 

21-24. Not in L.A. 

35-66. LA. : " Matrona autem quaedam nomine Palladia, cum 
omnia sua in medicis consumsisset, ad sanctos accessit et ab iis 
sanitatem integram reportavit. Tunc ilia quoddam munusculum s. 
Damiano obtulit, et cum nollet recipere, ilia eum sacramentis terri- 
bilibus adjuravit. Quod ille acquievit recipere, non quidem ductus 
cupiditate muneris, sed et devotioni satisfaciens offerentis, et ne nomen 
domini videretur spemere, per quod videbat sic se adjuratum esse." 

47. Say— so, 

52. Be hytne ane^^Xovat. 

60. Tarowandly = hesi tati ngly. 

67-78. L.A. : " Hoc ubi s. Cosmas comperit, praecepit ne corpus ejus 
una cum ipsius corpore poneretur. Sed sequente nocte Dominus 
Cosmae apparuit et fratrem de suscepto munere excusavit" 

79-103. L.A.: "Audiens eorum famam proconsul Lisias eos ad se 
accersiri fecit et quae eorum sunt nomina, quae patria, quae fortuna, 
inquirere ccepit. Sancti martires dixerunt : nomina nostra sunt 
Cosmas et Damianus, alios tres fratres habemus, quorum nomina sunt 
Antimus, Leontius et Euprepius [e. p. Eupempius]; patria autem 
nostra Arabia est ; porro fortunam christiani nesciunt" 

82. Ry cht nocht= wo\K\n%, 

84. Helesyas=^\JiSi2S or Lycias. 

88. Qu^yne=vfhenct. 

104-135. L.A.: " Jussit ergo proconsul ut fratres suos adducerent et 
simul ydolis immolarent, sed cum omnino immolare contemnerent, 
praecepit eos in manibus et pedibus dire torqueri. Cum autem ejus 
tormenta deriderent, jussit eos catena ligari et in mare praecipitari. 

4ClC l£S3aC$ IF 

v^C 9:2r.m. la ampati tit tiar i?i^ miin s sue TcaeBdem s ta tmmt nr. 
^u'A ynea/A vsnmi^isrsm aji tbt Zgb iiJi^'naBi , mafrtims Tincitis^ 
vv ;^ v,m«*nc& s-:finfnmLgg si ussr sxdic& fii i rar 050 bbc liaK Tcstra 
ff^^k^^jjt ^ ;x Tcmuxe 2«z. -'fcfrTHTr ~T3. ■ton'TTnwrT scqMr ¥os.* 
ML IVuiS^sraa^ 

VXL Adryime^KtrxsL. T A ias AjriTrrrnsL aot AfirianL 
IM-VSft LJl: * Ec boc ckas saar aip Jj E Uictt e s adfoemnt et com 
|(f ^rii^iirr^ sr* £2.cigs oeodcrss^ c£ ilJe r'yrrgw diift : deprecor tos, o 
iy/ti$ rtflf ot yro rat ad docmaca icsjsa cafcds. Qinbos ocantibas 
f^fuUu^yf 4;seR>cr#^ discessemnt. Pizses annt dixit : Tidctis qualiter 
Jii/1 y^utm mt Dii iodignati sant qcsa cos reSacpere cogitabam, jam 
•if'iC'f \f*:^j% tn^j% ros mm patiar blaspbemare.'* 

IBl^lSB, L.A.: "Tunc eos in igncm coipiosam jactari pnecqpit. sed 
ikm*:n ^^j% nil la^it, qoin podas flamma prosfliit knge et multos de 
;ii/l%t;intibu% interemit" 

ISS, In al tyd-on all sides. 

169136, L.A.: ^Jubentur ergo in equuleo saspcndi. sed ab angelo 
\\t%n% iM%UA\t:nKt fatigatis admodum in caedendo ministris ante prae- 
%\i\f\\\ <l#rjK>nunlur illsesi. Trcs igitur fratres in carccrem fecit redudi 
f\ ( .'oMriarn ct Damianum cnicifigi et a populo lapidari, sed in suos 
luplflrd rf'libant auctores et quamplurimos vulnerabanL** 

J 60, IVfry »*Yfcsiry, 

J 76, /W/- let, delay. 

176. 0>/W/- Kibbct. 

INY 213. I. .A.: "Tunc praeses furore repletus, eductis tribus fratri- 
Imih r\ ni.iDtibuH juxl.'i crucem, jussit Cosmam et Damianum supra 
iiiitc'ii) poiil ri ;i (juatuor militibus sagittari, sagittae vero conversae 
|»luiliimn viilnrrab.'int, sed s. martires non laedebant. Videns autem 
|iirt'nrh In ninnibuH so confusum, usque ad mortem anxiatus omnes 
H»ilmHii' lijUirj* Irrit mane decollari." 

IU»1. /»* hf/itu innlrad of brcthire. See 1. 209 ; also XXXVI. 956, 973. 

tUlt. / /»^//~h\rd. Sec •The Bruce,' xx. 178 (E). 

UOn. \\ .»*'- Kuaid, protccl. Sec *The Bruce,' xvi. 594. 

VIO7. I **,♦'*• • <ts ••#./.•>- wonderfully. 

UU U»i4, I A : " Men\ores uutcm christiani verbi quod dixerat s. 
\ Miu^.ih, \w \\\ \\\\\\\\\ Nepeliienlur» cogitabant quomodo vellent martires 
»»» l«» hUi \ I vw** ^\>biu» \\uuelus advenit humana voce proclamans et 
>^w\\ W>^ \\\ uuh* K^w^ M-pelni piAvepit. Passi sunt sub Diocletiano, qui 

iW,> Vhili \ \ " Kvixtu u!t v)uidam cum post laborem messis in 
» .M\\^s^ .\^s u>^ hmv \Uvu>\uv*t \envn* in eius ore ingressus est Evigilans 
^uu^^N >^Mss uO\»\ v>\tuvt. dsMUwrn irviiii ct sero facto gravissime tor- 
^p\>^ », *>N\*^. \^s^^^ vji^uu w\>,<crAb;*c$ emiitebat et sanctos Dei 


Cosmam et Damianum in sui auxilium invocabat, sed cum dolor 
semper incresceret, ad ecclesiam s. martirum confugit et ibidem, eo 
subito dormiente, serpens, sicut intraverat, per os ejus exivit" 

242. Slaid. Cf. slad of 1. 261 below, and XXXVI 1 1. 212. Here 
the word rhymes with bacL 

245. E f tire sene= soon after. 

251. Rane=T2iw\ng, Rone is a continuous repetition of the same 
words : — 

" Sa come the Rake with a rerd and a rane roch " (a rade rigmarole). 

— • Buke of the Howlat,' 794. 

"To reyd I begane 
The riotest ane lagment wyth mony rat rane." 

— G. Douglas, iii. 147, 11. 

269-338. L.A. : " Vir quidam longe profecturus s. martiribus Cosmae 
et Damiano uxorem suam commendavit dans ei signum crucis, cui 
protinus deberet annuere, si aliquando eam vocaret. Post hoc autem 
sciens signum dyabolus quod ei maritus dederat, se in hominem trans- 
figuravit et signum viri afferens dixit : vir tuus ab ilia civitate misit 
ad te ut ducam te ad eum. At ilia adhuc ire formidans ait : sigpium 
quidem agnosco, sed quia s. martiribus Cosmae et Damiano commen- 
data sum, super eorum altare mihi jura quod securam me duces, et 
tunc protinus proficiscar. Ille autem continuo, ut dixerat, sibi juravit 
Secuta ergo eum, cum ad quendam locum secretum venissent, voluit 
eam de jumento dyabolus praecipitare, ut eam occideret Quod ilia 
sentiens exclamavit : Deus sanctorum Cosmae et Damiani, adjuva 
me ; vobis enim credidi et secuta sum eum. Confestim autem sancti 
cum multitudine dealbatorum ibidem affuerunt et eam liberaverunt, 
dyabolus autem statim evanuit, et dixerunt ei : nos sumus Cosmas et 
Damianus, quorum juramento credidisti, ideoque festinavimus venire 
in auxilium tibi." 

272, Kepyne read kefiynge, 

309. Anter=awntyr=wtnX}irt. 

339-360. L.A. : " Felix papa, attavus s. Gregorii, in honore s. Cosmae 
et Damiani nobilem ecclesiam Romae construxit. In hac ecclesia 
quidam vir s. martiribus serviebat, cui cancer unum cms totum con- 
sumserat £t ecce dormiente illo s. Cosmas et Damiani devoto suo 
apparuerunt, unguenta et ferramenta secum portantes ; quorum unus 
alteri dixit : ubi cames accipiemus ut abscisa came putrida locum 
vacuum repleamus? Tunc ait alter : in cimiterio s. Petri ad vincula 
hodie iCthiops recens sepultus est, de illo autem affer ut huic sup- 

343. ^^4^= thigh. 

353. Enoynmeniis = ointments. 

358. 5^j/r^«/^«=yester even. Mod. Scot yestreen. 

360. Caioure= cool. Icel. kaldr; Mod. Scot ccdler^ fresh. 


XLSJB, LA. : " £t ecce ad dmiteriam pr o peravit ct cozam Mauri 
attnlit. pnecidentesque coxam infinni loco ejus cozam Mauri inseru- 
cmnt et plagazn diligenter ungentes cozam infinni ad corpus Mauri 
mortui detuleninL £\'igilans autcm cum se sine dolore sensisset, 
manum ad coxam apposuit et nil Ixsionis invenit, apponensque can- 
delam cum in crure nil mali vidcret, cogitabat annon ipse qui erat, sed 
alius alter esset Rediens autem ad se prae gandio de lectulo prosiliit 
et quid in somnis \'iderat et qualiter sanatus fuerat, omnibus enar- 
ra\'iL Qui conciti ad tumulum Mauri miserunt et cozam Mauri 
pnecisam et coxam praedicti viri loco illius in tumulo positam 

367. Jfys/eztHznd= doubting, mistrusting. 


St Ninian was born of Christian, and, it is said, royal parents, on the 
shores of the Solway Firth. After studying under native teachers, he 
proceeded to Rome in order to be instructed more fully in the Christian 
faith. There he was taken notice of by the Pope, and soon rose into 
favour in consequence of his aptitude for study, and the blamelessness 
and integ^ty of his life. After residing many years at Rome, he was 
consecrated bishop by the Pope, and sent to preach the Gospel in his 
native land. On his return he visited St Martin at Tours, with whom 
he remained some time, and from whom he obtained masons to 
accompany him to his native land. On his arrival there his first work 
was to erect at Whithorn a stone church, which is said to have been 
the first built in the country. While the building was in course of 
erection the news reached Ninian that his friend St Martin had 
passed away, and on its completion he dedicated the church to his 
memory. This furnishes the nearest approximation to a sure date 
in connection with the saint : St Martin died about the year 397 A.D. 
St Ninian now set himself to the work for which he had been or- 
dained, and as the subsequent conversion of the Northern Picts is 
attributed to St Columba, so that of the Southern Picts is ascribed to 
St Ninian. The year of his death is unknown. According to an 
Irish Life quoted by Archbishop Ussher, at the request of his 
mother, St Ninian, towards the close of his career, left Candida Casa 
and went over to Ireland, to a place granted him by the king, called 
Cluain-Coner, where he built a great monastery. At any rate he is 
commemorated in the martyrology of Tallaght as Monenn of Cluain 
Conaire, and in the martyrologies of Donegal and iEngus. The 
dedications to the saint in Scotland are very numerous ; a full list 
of them is given by Bishop Forbes in his * Kalendar of Scottish 
Saints.' Numerous also are the miracles ascribed to the saint, as 
the text shows : most of those given there are taken from Ailred's Life 
of the Saint, but several are added which are not to be found there. 


For a faller account of St Ninian's life, see, in addition to the works 
mentioned above, Montalemberfs * Monks of the West,' the Introduc- 
tion to my edition of Pinkerton's ' Vitx Antiquae Sanctorum Scotise,' 
and ' Ancient Li¥es of Scottish Saints.' 

His day is September 16. 

Analysis — Birth, baptism, education, and conduct of Ninian, 1-94 1 
he goes to Rome, where he is received by the Pope and placed by him 
under instructors, 95-128 ; prospering in his studies, the Pope appoints 
him bishop, and, dismissing him with his benediction, sends him to 
his native land to preach the Gospel, 129-164; he visits St Martin of 
Tours, from whom he obtains two masons and then proceeds home^ 
165-196; arrived at home, he is met by a great concourse of people 
and begins his work, in which his success is great, 197-257 ; he builds 
a church of stone and lime, the first so built in Britain, and dedicates 
it to St Martin, 258-270 ; he heals a prince, who has opposed his work, 
of a sickness, 271-304 ; he vindicates the innocence of a priest wrongly 
accused, 305-424 ; he protects his cattle, and raises to life the leader of 
a band of thieves who attempted to steal them, 425-478 ; a scholar 
who has done wrong and is fleeing, is saved from drowning through 
the \irtue of St Ninian's staff, which he has stolen and carried away 
with him, 479-550 ; the saint is reproved by his companion for harbour- 
ing a light thought, 551-592; his godly life and death, 593-614; his 
burial at Candida Casa and the miracles wrought at his tomb, 615- 
634 ; the miracle wrought upon a boy who was greatly deformed, 
635-718 ; the honour done to his relics on the Tuesday in Whitsun 
week, and the cures wrought at his tomb, 719-814; a miracle that 
befell Sir Fergus Macdowal during a raid into England, 815-942 ; how 
he thrice restored a wicked man in England after he had been hanged 
on the gallows, and thus procured him the pardon of his crime, 943- 
1086 ; by his interposition he rescues a Scotsman about to be slain by 
his captors, and heals the leader of the English raiders, 1087-1358 ; 
he cures John Balormy of Elgin, 1359-1447. 

Source — Ailred's * Vita S. Niniani.' Three stories are given at the 
end which do not appear in Ailred, one of which the author says 
happened in his own time. 

1-728. Cf. * Vita Niniani auctore Ailredo Rievallensi capitula.' 

1-110. Cf. * Vita Nin.,* cap. i. 

11. Cud-claih, A cloth in which children are wrapped at baptism. 
" Last of al the barne that is baptizit, is cled with ane quhite lynning 
claith callit ane Cude^ quhilk betakins that he is clene weschin fra all 
his synnis, that he is brocht to the libertie of the haly Spreit, that he 
suld lyve ane innocent lyfe all the dais of his lyfe, aye quhil he cum to 
the jugement seit of our Salviour." — Hamilton's Catechism, p. 192. 

13. 5^«^=son. 

16. In waste =\n vain. 

NOTES TO NINIAN (XL. 21-225). 4II 

24. lVel/u/fy=p\eniiM\y. 

25. £nfendand=2Liiending, 
33. Z^77'/= learned. 

36. JfVr= sagacious. 

44. Ourmen = te2ichtrs. 

56. Or hinder him from winning the heavenly reward. 

58. //yme adondomi= surrendered himself to. 

69. I/a/s=aL\s. 

81. 7'^^rA/»^= teaching. 

86. Delete comma. 

91. Fauie=vi2Sii, wynnare=^vf orker. 

98. Thechure = techare = teacher. 

108. Glad= glided = passed. 

111-252. Cf. • Vit. Nin.; cap. 2. 

112. Letting^ h i nd ranee. 

115. Papis=Vope Damasus'. 

132. Plucht=p\oMg\i. 

147-157. Not in * Vit. Nin.' 

152. //ird= pastor, 

156. Smoryf= smothered, 

164. Goddis yirde, Cf. God's vineyard. 

166. Sonde martyne, St Martin of Tours. He was bom at Sa- 
baria, in that part of Pannonia now identified with Lower Hungary, 
about the year 316. His parents were pagans. When ten years of 
age he enrolled himself among the Catechumens, against the wishes 
of his parents, and when fifteen he entered the army in consequence 
of an imperial edict. In 336 he visited Hiliary of Poictiers, who would 
have made him a deacon, but he declined the office. From Gaul he 
returned to Pannonia, and converted his mother and many others to 
the Christian faith. About the year 360 he once more visited Hiliary, 
who gave him a piece of land at Lugiig^, upon which he built what is 
generally regarded as the earliest monastic institution in Gaul. Eleven 
years later he was chosen bishop of Tours, which office he held till his 
death, probably on November 11, 397, which day is usually observed 
in Scotland as Martinmas. 

170. In his gat hame-wart^ on his way home. 

178. A -quynie = acquaint. 

190. In the Life the number of the masons is not given. 

201. Tele-man = h usbandman. 

203. Sawyne=sovfn, 

212. ScAaw= saw, 

214. C/^«^(p= cleanse. 

215. Afystrouf A=untruth, 

218. And suffer no error to cast it down. 

224. Made many worthy (to approach) God's board (table). 

225. Fang=: take. 

412 LEGENDS OF THE SAINTS (ZLb 227-302). 

227-252. An addition. 

233. Suerdom€=ui\vfi\\ingness. 

240. Lessom= residing, study. 

243. Za^^= liberal, dtntyn^^^ giving. 

253-270. Cf. * Vit Nin.,* cap. 3. 

255. ScAfnschype^sh2Lme. " Schenschepe, in shame. Ignominia." 
— Prompt Par., p. 445. 

258. 0/^//A^r»^= Whithorn. The exact site of the church has not 
been satisfactorily determined. See the note in my edition of the 
•Vitae Antiquae SS. Scotiae,* i. la 

261, 262. This can scarcely be correct For some time after this, 
churches continued to be built of wood in Britain, but it is not at all 
improbable that during the later part of the Roman occupation some 
churches, at least in the south of Britain, were built after the Roman 
manner — that is, of stone and lime. 

268. 2»y/=paid. 

269. C/ommyne=c\\mb. 
271-304. Cf. * Vit Nin.,' cap. 4. 

285. i&^/= unless. 

286. Verray^ fight against 'The Bruce/ ii. 462, v. 220. 
289. i?^«;=have pity. 

293. J/^>&/7/k= meekly. 

295. /^r/K=aloud. Cf. 'The Bruce,* ii. 315, iii. 734. 

296. Z>/>/n?2c/r^= destroyer. 
299. Wcrray^XxMt, 

30L Ewene=tyts, 
305-366. Cf. * Vit Nin.,' cap. 5. 
310. This is not said in ' Vit Nin.' 
319. G?«j^/^= conceal. 

324. /*aw^= parish. The country was not divided into parishes 
until considerably later. 

331. 6'^/r7««^i^r/*/= slandered. 

332. /'r^j/^^^= priesthood. 

334. p^ ewine way = \\\t. straight way. 
341. A>j/=cast 

344. -FiCz/j^/= falsehood. wz^j= woman's : not necessarily a wife, 
355. 5a^/?j= innocent Cf. * The Bruce,' xx. 175. A.S.xao/, strife ; 
hence, crime or a criminal charge. 
367-382. Cf. *Vit Nin.,' cap. 6. 
371. Dividing the land into different parishes. 
374. Staiis = officers (ecclesiastical). had= honour. 
383-424. Cf. *Vit Nin.,' cap. 7. 
385. Fra/ji re = refectory. 

389. -ff«r^/j= tables. >irt/^=all of them. 

390. Gi/^=kail. 

392. 3ar^=garden. Cf. *The Pystyl of Swete Susan," 118. 

NOTES TO NINIAN (XL. 301-692). 413 

394, Caile, See note to 1. 390. 

398. -F/rj/= delay. Cf. *The Bruce,' ii. 277, vii. 547. \zt\, frest^ 
delay; A.S.fyrsi^ an interval, 
404. Leikis^X^tks. 
425-478. Cf. *Vit. Nin.,' cap. 8. 
427. Bestiale^^tsh. 

433. Z;/^= shelter. Perhaps "to" should be inserted before se, 
443. AV/^=care. 

452. Duschit=A2isht^. 

453. ^ar^/= reached. riw/=blow. 

459. Schrawis=x^sc2A^t thieves. "Schrewe, parvus,^* — Prompt. 
Par., 449 ; William of Pal, 449. The word was used for wicked 
persons of either sex. 

462. Mome-day=T\t\i morning. Still in use. 

479-550. * Vit. Nin./ cap. 10. 

495. Patent ^si2if[. Cf. 11. 514, 525, 529. Cf. XXIX. 28 note. 

500. Sagaste= so afraid. 'With gaste, cf. E. a-ghast. 

504. G7^/^= cobble, a small boat, then consisting of a wooden frame 
over which an ox-hide was stretched. 

509. /7^/= floated. 

518. ^r^/= owned. 

523. Bene ^ sound, 

539. pa/=at. 

550. •S'/^^= placed. 

551592. *Vit. Nin.,'cap. 9. 

553. Prosebia, V. N., Plebia. 

561. Lawit^Xdi^, 

563. Be ])ej^ate =by the way. 

564. J/ate^hot, 
572. Li/te= sky, 
583. Z?^rr= harm. 

590. Z>tfz/^r^= devoir, duty. 

593-634. Cf. * Vit. Nin.,' cap. 11. 

606. Bic/itgat=: right v/2Ly, 

613, 614. In V. N. the date is wanting. 

635-718. Cf. * Vit. Nin./ cap. 11 : "In paupere deformi." The chap- 
ter narrates three other miracles — " In paupere scabioso, In puella 
caeca. In duobus leprosis" — which are omitted here. 

650. Het'/e &* /a = heel and toe. 

653. I/end =b2Lck, 

664. Z^iM = loathed. 

672, For'worthine=good. for nothing. 

676. But thrifte=^vf\i)\OMt use or profit. 

677. ZaM/K= loathsome. 
682. Be dede=be slain. 
692. -F«/= foul, ugly. 


HDL PjMxzt^ 

71M14. Azcicr $ r.-CDd:L 

755. p^' k^^€ ^nzs^^zxL ±s sade of 
757. V<uiz^^ 

799. 5s: 

814. Vi'itr. tii$ tie Aztbor ceases ta esc 
fnccL 'y±i£7 secrets. Tlst ±< ^e^cad ongisaLj sgoppeti boe maj be 

818. M2gJcuil^^\2ct<!:rw^ The Macdovals were laa& sad are 
still. Oct c/ tii€ prir-ctpal fasiilfcs in GaIIc«a.T. 

83L i5^j:J>=cSy::3cage- 

835l CTunieis—zrjfzr^s or car^ Ra=iiLf de Brichsaxd, Viscoimt of 
the Br'sssfr^ vas created Eari of Carlisle by Henrr L, and appointed 
to tak^ charge of the znfliurr defence of the vescern part of the Scot- 
tish 'vjXfitx, Tzt oore esectnally to do this^ Rannlf diridcd the ifis- 
trict over vhich he ruled into three baronies — the barcmies of Gilsland, 
Lyddale, ar.d Brorigii, the holders of which appear to be the ** counteis' 
here meant, 

839. 5/r/A/r= stoutly. 

84L 5«^iU^»K^>= stealthily. See Skeat« sob swddem^ 

890. Payien£r=pauUfur=T2LSC^y, CL L I ill. 'The Bruce,' i. 
462, iL 1914. C M., 5 143, 5669. See Gloss. ** O.Fr. pamiinmur^ a lewd, 
stubixjm, or saucy rascal." — CoL 

858. F(nu=it^\ 

9S1, Houiband toh=^{2STCi. 

883. Z/i><r^/>' = doughty. 

889. /a^ /n//«/^z/r^ = Jack Tnimpeter. 

890- Burdoure=]*zs\tx. O.Fr. bourdeor. 

902. Heily=W^d\y, 

910. Haw=it2iT, 

911. Sel/=sATr.t. 

914. K«>6«y/ = scattered. 

921. Quhdne^itvi. Tmrdal^ = rabble. * The Bruce,* ix. 249. O.Fr. 
tnerdaille^ a dirty crew. 
930. Q^^''^ = c hoi r. /j^/^ = ti le, cover. 
945. Purpos for trespas (Horstmann). 
983. Weilang= wdl lang= long time, pyful^pynful (?) = painful. 

965. 6Vr^= sheriff. 

966. To hald \e law — \o hold court. 

968. CAa/ansing= aiccusing, accusation. See Donaldson's Supple- 
ment to Jamieson, sub chalange, &c. 
971. /lsyse=aLSs\zt. 

976. Demyl= (loomed, condemned. 

977. Thifte, The idea seems to be " until the rope was brought? 

NOTES TO NINIAN (XL. 983-1417). 415 

983. 7//= tied. 

1000. pi a7vou=the vovf. 

1046. How and Aay re = hood and hair. 

1050. Syse=2LSs\ze, 

1080. Bo^ sark 6r* dre^e=save shirt and trousers. 

1092. Qukon = (evf, 

1093. I*'orrouris=(oraigerSj pillagers. 'The Bruce/ iii. 75, xv. 353*. 
OSx, fourragier, a forager. 

1095. /'ray/ = preyed, pillaged. 

1098. Fang— catch, booty. 

1100. A sere gat =2i different road. 

1120. Thred^ihxxdi. 

1146. C^fA/= aught. 

1156. But r^^^^;t^= without cause. 

1178. H^a«^/^= wield, use. 

1195. C((7;i^^/= safe-conduct 

1198. 5^7^ = soon. 

1219. And quarrelled and scolded with St Ninian. 

1239. With this he ceased not, but oft did curse. 

1242. Tume =fitrct, choleric. Belg. toomig, 

1324. ^^r= worse. 

1343. Be were=be-were=^htW2irt, 

1361. Af«rr^= Moray. 

1380. Always worse and worse, &c. 

1381. (7rrr= ointment. 

1382. 5/<i«^= stone. Certain stones were supposed to have the 
virtue of healing when applied to a wound or sore. See Adamnan's 
* V. Columbae.' 

1400. -Fi/r^= fared, went. 
1406. Af<?/= measured. 
1417. Z?^w= dawned. 


The legend of St Agnes tells nothing of her birth or education, but 
begins abruptly. As translated by Mrs Jameson it is as follows : — 

** There lived in the city of Rome a maiden whose name was Agnes 
(whether this name was her own, or given to her because of her lamb- 
like meekness and innocence, does not seem clear). She was not more 
than thirteen years old, but was filled with all good gifts of the Holy 
Spirit, having loved and followed Christ from her infancy, and was as 
distinguished for her gracious sweetness and humility as for her sur- 
passing beauty. 

"It chanced that the son of the prefect of Rome beheld her one day 
as he rode through the city, and became violently enamoured, and 
desired to have her for his wife. He asked her in marriage of her 
parents, but the maiden repelled all his advances. Then he brought 
rich presents, bracelets of gold and gems and rare jewels and precious 
ornaments, and promised her all the delights of the world if she would 
consent to be his wife. But she rejected him and his gifts, saying, 
* Away from me, tempter ! for I am already betrothed to a lover who 
is greater and fairer than any earthly suitor. To him I have pledged 
my faith, and he will crown me with jewels, compared to which thy 
gifts are dross. I have tasted of the milk and honey of his lips, and 
the music of his divine voice has sounded in mine ears ; he is so fair 
that the sun and moon are ravished by his beauty, and so mighty that 
the angels of heaven are his servants ! ' 

"On hearing these words, the son of the prefect was seized with 
such jealousy and rage that he went to his home and fell upon his bed 
and became sick, almost to death ; and when the physicians were 
called, they said to the father, *This youth is sick of unrequited love, 
and our art can avail nothing.' Then the prefect questioned his son, 
and the young man confessed, saying, * My father, unless thou procure 
me Agnes to be my wife, I die.* 

" Now the prefect, whose name was Sempronius, tenderly loved his 


son ; and he repaired, weeping, to Agnes and to her parents, and be- 
sought them to accept his son ; but Agnes made the same answer as 
before, and the prefect was angered to think that another should be 
preferred before his son, and he inquired of the neighbours to what 
great prince Agnes was betrothed ? And one said, * Knowest thou not 
that Agnes has been a Christian from her infancy upwards, and the 
husband of whom she speaks is none other than Jesus Christ?' When 
the prefect heard this he rejoiced greatly, for an edict had gone forth 
against the Christians, and he knew that she was in his power. He 
sent for her, therefore, and said, * Since thou art so resolved against an 
earthly husband, thou shalt enter the service of the goddess Vesta.* 
To which Agnes replied with disdain, * Thinkest thou that I, who 
would not listen to thy son, who yet is a man, and can hear and see, 
and move and speak, will bow down to vain images, which are but 
insensible wood and stone, or, which is worse, to the demons who 
inhabit them.?' 

" When Sempronius heard these words he fell into fury ; he threat- 
ened her with death in the most hideous forms ; he loaded her tender 
limbs with chains, and ordered her to be dragged before the altars 
of the gods : but she remained firm. And as neither temptation nor 
the fear of death could prevail, he thought of other means to vanquish 
her resistance : he ordered her to be carried by force to a place of 
infamy, and exposed to the most degrading outrages. The soldiers 
who dragged her thither, stripped her of her garments; and when 
she saw herself thus exposed, she bent down her head in meek shame 
and prayed ; and immediately her hair, which was already long and 
abundant, became like a veil, covering her whole person from head to 
foot ; and those who looked upon her were seized with awe and fear 
as of something sacred, and dared not lift their eyes. So they shut 
her up in a chamber, and she prayed, that the limbs that had been 
consecrated to Jesus Christ should not be dishonoured. And suddenly 
she saw before her a white and shining garment, with which she 
clothed herself joyfully, praising God and saying, * I thank Thee, O 
Lord, that I am found worthy to put on the garment of Thy elect ; ' and 
the whole place was filled with miraculous light, brighter than the sun 
at noonday. 

" But meantime the young Sempronius thought within himself, * Now 
is this proud maiden subdued to my will.' So he came into the 
chamber, but thp moment he approached her he was struck with 
blindness, and fell down in convulsions, and was carried forth as one 
dead. His father and his mother and all his relations ran thither, 
weeping and lamenting, until Agnes, melted to compassion by their 
tears, and moved by that spirit of charity which became the espoused 
of Christ, prayed that he might be restored to health ; and her prayer 
was granted. 

"When Sempronius saw this great miracle, he would fain have 

VOL. in. 2 d 


saved St Agnes ; but the people, instigated by the priests, cried out, 
' This is a sorceress and a witch, who kills men with a look and restores 
them to life with a word — let her die ! ' And the tumult increased. 
So the prefect, being afraid, sent one of his deputies to judge the 

" As the people persisted in their clamorous cries against her, and as 
she openly and boldly professed herself a Christian, the deputy ordered 
a pile of fagots to be wrapped together, and a fire to be kindled, and 
they threw Agnes into the midst; but when they looked to see her 
consumed, behold the flames were suddenly extinguished and she 
stood unharmed, while the executioners around her were slain by the 
force of the fire, which had had no power over her. 

" But the people and the idolatrous priests, instead of seeing in this 
the hand of God, cried out the more, ' She is a sorceress, and must die ! * 
Then Agnes, raising her hands and her eyes to heaven, thanked and 
blessed the Lord, who had thus openly asserted His power and defended 
her innocence ; but the wicked deputy, incited by the tumult of the 
people, and fearing for himself, commanded one of the executioners to 
ascend the pile and end her with the sword, which was done ; and she, 
looking steadfastly up to heaven, yielded her pure spirit, and fell 
bathed in her blood." 

She was buried in a cemetery outside the city on the Via Nomen- 
tana. The Christians used to assemble at her tomb day and night to 
ofler up their devotions. " And it happened on a certain day, as her 
parents with many others were praying by her sepulchre, St Agnes 
herself appeared before them, all radiant of aspect ; by her side was a 
lamb, whiter than the driven snow. And she said, * Weep not, dry 
your tears, and rejoice with exceeding joy ; for me is prepared a throne 
by the side of Him whom on earth I preferred to all others, and to 
whom I am united forever in heaven.'" Having said this she vanished. 
— * Sacred and Legendarv' Art,' vol. ii. p. 660. 

The legend is very ancient, and one of the most authentic. Jerome 
speaks of the fame of the saint as in his day spread abroad among all 
nations. In Rome there are two famous churches dedicated to St 
Agnes, and she remains the favourite saint of the Roman women. 

Her day is Januar}' 21. 

She bears the palm as a martyr — seldom the book. Along with the 
palm she sometimes holds a branch of olive. She is sometimes crowned 
with olive, and, as the patroness of maidens and maidenly modesty, is 
accompanied by a Iamb. 

Analysis — Agnes discourses to the prefect's son of her Spouse, and 
rejects his offer of marriage, 1-58 ; his sorrow and sickness in conse- 
quence, 59-66 ; his father sends for the physicians and learns the cause 
of his sickness, 67-80; he tries to induce Agnes to become his son's 
wife, 81-100; her reply to his promises, loi-iio; learning who the 
Spouse she refers to is, he returns and renews his attempts to persuade 


her, but failing in his endeavour, he menaces her with torment, but in 
vain, 1 1 1- 1 30; he next gives her her choice of sacrificing to the gods 
or being placed in a house of ill-fame, when she replies that she will 
remain steadfast in her faith, 131-152 ; she is then carried to a house 
of ill-fame and stripped naked, when her hair miraculously becomes her 
clothing, and she is clad by angels in white robes, at the sight of which 
many are converted, 153-176 ; the prefect's son, attempting to touch her, 
falls down dead, and at the prayer of Agnes is restored to life, when he 
begins to preach, 177-224 ; the priests taking the alarm when they see 
the conversions taking place, stir up the people against her, saying that 
she is a sorceress, 225-242 ; the prefect appoints one of his deputies to 
try her, who orders her to be cast into a great fire, but when she is cast 
in, the fire scatters, she is unhurt, and her executioners are burnt, 243- 
264 ; Aspacius the deputy then orders her to be slain with the sword, 
265-274 ; her friends then steal away her body and bury it, and at her 
tomb miracles are wrought, 275-286 ; the date, 287-290 ; the story of 
Emerentiana's martyrdom, 291-320; Agnes appears to her kinsfolk as 
they watch at her tomb, 321-338 ; the healing of Constantia, 339-364 ; 
the temptation of Paulinus and the image of St Agnes, 365-400. 
Source — Cf. L.A., cap. 24. 

The beginning of the legend is wanting in the MS. After the 
etymological introduction L.A. proceeds : " Agnes virgo prudentissima, 
ut testatur Ambrosius, qui ejus passionem scripsit, xiii anno aetatis 
suae mortem perdidit et vitam invenit Infantia quidem computabatur 
in annis, sed erat senectus mentis immensa, corpore juvencula, sed 
animo cana, pulchra facie, sed pulchrior fide. Quae dum a scholis re- 
vertitur, a praefecti filio adamatur. Cui ille gemmas et divitias innu- 
merabiles promisit, si consensum ejus conjugio non negaret Cui A. 
respondit : discede a me, fomes peccati, nutrimentum facinoris, 
pabulum mortis, quia jam ab alio amatore praeventa sum, coepitque 
ipsum suum amatorem et sponsum a quinque commendare, quae 
sponsae in sponsis praecipue requirunt, sc. a nobilitate generis, a 
decore pulchritudinis, a divitiarum abundantia, a fortitudine et potential 
efficacia et ab amoris excellentia, sic dicens : ilium amo qui longe te 
nobilior est et genere dignior, cuius mater virgo est." 

1-14. L.A. : " Cuius pater feminam nescit, cui angeli serviunt (cuius 
pulchritudinem sol et luna mirantur), cuius opes nunquam deficiunt, 
cuius nunquam divitiae decrescunt, cuius odore reviviscunt mortui, 
cuius tactu confortantur infirmi, cuius amor castitas est, tactus 
sanctitas, unio virginitas." 

13. Cup/yne= coupling, 

15-58. L.A. : " Haec autem quinque ponit in quadam auctoritate 
dicens : cujus generositas celsior, possibilitas fortior, aspectus pulchrior, 
amor suavior et omni gratia elegantior? Deinde ponit quinque