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Full text of "Leicestershire words, phrases, and proverbs"

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50Z^ 



X 



1 




BY THE SAME AUTHOR. 



THE PHYLACTERY. A Poem. 

THE VILLAGE CHURCH. A Poem. 

EDUCATION AND PARENTAL EXAMPLE : in imita- 
tion of the xivth Sat : of Juvenal. A Poem. 

SERMONS ON THE CHRISTIAN LIFE AND CHAR- 
ACTER. 8vo. Longman. 

SERMONS ON THE RELATIVE DUTIES OF THE 
POOR. 12mo. Longman. 

EFFECTUAL MEANS OF PROMOTING AND PRO- 
PAGATING THE GOSPEL. 8vo. A Sermon pub- 
lished by request. Longman. 

PRESENT NATIONAL DELUSIONS UPON WIS- 
DOM, POWER AND RICHES. A Sermon, 8vo. 
Longman. 

THE LAYMAN'S TEST OF THE TRUE MINISTER 
OF THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND. 12mo. Long- 
man. 

THE SANCTUARY SERVICE AND NOT THE SER- 
MON THE GREAT OBJECT OF AN ACT OF 
PUBLIC WORSHIP IN THE 'HOUSE OF 
PRAYER.' 12mo., stitched. 

DIVINE DENUNCIATIONS AGAINST DRINKING: 

or The * Word of God' more powerful than ' Pledge- 
taking.' A Tract for distribution. 

THE FIFTH OF NOVEMBER ; or the Romish Apostacy 
contrasted with ' The Faith once delivered to the Saints.' 

rPA*ET2 AONAX, sive * Calamus Scriptorius'— or Copies for 
writing Greek, — for Schools. Longman. 



LEICESTERSHIRE 

WORDS, 
PHRASES AND PROVERBS. 

OOLLBCTBD BY 

AKTHUR B. EVANS. D. D., 

HBAD MASTBR OF MABKBT BOSWORTU 
FREB GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 



*'AXAi} i^aKKwv yX&ffffa vtiKrianipiwy w$pd.fr<t>Vf 

Homer, 



LONDON: 

WILLIAM PICKERING, PICCADILLY; 

JOHN RUSSELL SMITH, 4, OLD COMPTON STREET; 

T. C. BROWNE, LEICESTER. 

I MDCCCXLVIII. 




LEICESTER : 
rxiXTEJ) J}y T. C. BKOMKE, BIBLE AKD CBOWN, MAKKET PLACE. 



OBSB&VANTIJB B&GO BT BBNBVOLBNTIf, 

WILLUGBBIO W0L8TAN0 DIXIB, BQUITI AUBATO, 

80B0LJB BOSWORTHBNSIS PATRONO, 

BXIOUUM HOO qUALBCUNQUB 

VOOABULORUM AO DIOTIONUM 

AORO LBICB8TRIBN8I 

MAXIMA BX PARTS 81 NON PBOPBIARUM, 

AT SALTBM IBI VBBNACULARUM, 

SPICILBQIUM, 

D. D. 

ARTURUS BENONI EVANS, 8. T. P. 



Sane non dissimulem, optandum esse, ut in singulis nationibus 
prodeant viri docti, qui linguee suee idiomata, vim eorum, notionem, 
origines, sed et desuetas et pridem obsoletas voces ad amussim in- 
vestigent, explicentque, quum in enodandis illustrandisque statis 
mediie scriptoribus non mediocris inde lux affulsura sit. 

Du Cange. Preefat, Ad Olossar, Med. Latin. \ 27. 



n 



PREFATORY REMARKS. 



Da. Johnson, when speaking of the labours of the lexico- 
grapheri observeSi that '' he is doomed to remove mbbish, and 
to clear obstructions from the paths of learning and genius ;" 
and that, *' while every other author may aspire to praise, the 
lexicographer can only hope to escape reproach : and even 
this negative recompense has been yet granted to very few." 
But after all the Doctor's toils, (to adopt the frequent anti- 
thesis of his own diction,) of long and unwearied research, in 
a vast accumulation of verbal stores, and authorities, this was 
really too unpretending ; and under the consciousness of abilities 
and attainments, certainly second to none, far too self-dispa- 
raging, and deprecatory. However wanting in the knowledge 
of the stock, or ** matrix '^ of our tongue, or of what may be 

called the ''earliest formations "and successive *'stratifica- 
b 



TUl PBEFATOBT REMARKS. 

tions'' of the English language,* however crippled bythis defect, 
in the important department of ** Etymology/' yet still John- 
son has his lofty niche, and will for ever hold it, in the 
estimation of the good and wise of his countrymen, as the great 
captain of English lexicography ; and no less eminent among 
the leaders of our best and purest literature, than amongst the 
champions of our Faith and Morals ; and therefore amongst 
the real benefactors of mankind.t 



• I mean in an acquaintance with what remains of the Mcbbo- 
Gothic, the Celtic in the Welsh, Gaelic, Erse, and Manx ;— Anglo- 
Saxon and ancient Teutonic or Alemannic, no less than with the 
modem northern derivative and cognate dialects, the German, Dutch, 
Danish, Swedish, and Icelandic ; all of them, in a certain sense and 
extent, fountains, and some not a little remote, at which the English 
philologer must drink. 

i The name of Johnson is very naturally even in these days, ** Quassi 
et Coloquintida'* to here and there a man of loose or infidel principles, 
or, which is more commonly the case, of strong 'partj^ predilections. 
It is equally a matter of course to find him decried, or treated with 
affected contempt by some dabblers in criticism, and a few utterers of 
false philosophy and counterfeit philology. Fortunately for his country 
and the world, to the competent, and ingenuous judge of exalted moral 
and intellectual worth, Johnson will never stand in need of reverential 
eulogy, much less of vindication. An honest man conversant with his 
writings, must at once perceive, that he can be an object of calumny, 
only to three classes of persons, namely, the sceptic, or deist, the viru- 
lent in faction, the diseased or diminutive in mind. But such ill- 
omened birds are not of yesterday* There have been always men, (to 
use the trite quotation) 



PKEFATOKY REMARKS. IX 

But I have alluded to Johnson's too modest disclaimer of 
meriti only to observe, that if the completion of a dictionary 

' ?Jt$pci 

rrayyhiva-a'iaf xopaxtg fif, 
oUpmnra yapvifiMV 
^los irpos* opvi-JKO. 6«2c». 

We can only deplore the penrersion of such lively energies, in striving 
so vigorously to pull down that which is too high for their aspirations, 
or too noble for their endurance. But this by the bye ! It is a stand- 
ing and a striking testimony to Johnson's eminence, as a Lexicographer, 
that his interpretations and definitions of terms, are now generally 
adopted, as their standard meaning. They are now admitted as autho- 
rities in every branch of literature, properly so called. In our every 
day intercourse, colloquial and epistolary, they are referred to, as the 
rule and law of verbal acceptation. But, what is more, we now find 
them frequently cited in our courts of justice, as precedents, or faithful 
expositions of the great and decisive law of custom in language. This 
may serve to prove at once the acknowledged pre-eminence of Dr. 
Johnson, as ** the great English lexicographer." I would only observe 
farther, that had his mental endowments, his logical, or discrimina- 
tive powers, been less, or of a more ordinary reach and range, yet still 
the labour and research attending the accumulation of such a multi- 
plicity of words and authorities, with their numerous significations 
and etymologies, should, one might imagine, have been considered, not 
merely as a defence against malignant animadversion, but as worthy of 
all praise, when exerted in the supply of a great national deficiency, and 
at the expense of efforts and energies, so far surpassing all ordinary 
cases of literary fatigue and perseverance. Indeed the undertaking 
was of a nature that actually required physical as well as intellectual 
attributes, which fall to the lot of few; and which in France and 
Italy were sought for in vain amongst the members of large literary 
bodies of men. I shall have occasion presently to cite the remark of 



X PREFATORY REMARKS. 

like his was, at that day, no valuable boon to his country, if 
he only ** removed rubbish and cleared obstructions," and if 
his great and glorious labours were denied even the negative re- 
compense of ** escaping reproach," then the provincial glos- 
sarist may well indeed renounce all claim to praise; and 
quietly place himself on the list of ** chifoniers" sweepers 
of the " chats'^ and " whitlings" of literature ; the lowly 
" rag and bone-pickers" of language. Seriously however, I 
believe, that they advance and can have pretensions little 
higher than those of the collectors of other specimens in the 
field of curious knowledge ; and they may therefore be quite 



Cognolati upon the labours of Forcellini. Scaliger's Epigram upon con- 
cluding the Index to Grater's " Inscriptions," quoted by old Adam 
Littleton, may convey to us at least that author's opinion of such verbal 
drudgery. 

" Si quem dura manet sententia judicis olim, 
Damnatum eerumnis suppliciisque caput ; 
Hunc neque fabrili lassent ergastula massa. 
Nee rigidas vexent fossa metalla manus I 
Lexica contexat 1 nam cstera quidmoror ? omnes 
Foenarum facies hie labor unus habet." 
It is now some years since the above was written : but the author 
has been highly gratified to meet with a noble tribute to the merits of 
Johnson in the first article of the " Quarterly Keview" for March 1845, 
and thus it ever is ; 

*' T6t ou tard, la vertu, les graces, les talens, 

Sont vainqueurs des jaloux, et veng6s des m^chansi*' 



PRBFATOBT REMARKS. XI 

content if they escape the charge of indolence, or of indiffer- 
ence to what is passing before their ears. 

Bat, though in my own instance, I can have neither cause 
nor desire to magnify the office of such word — and — ^phrase 
gleaners, yet let me observe there are points of view in which 
their gatherings (or "poikings** as they would be here called,) 
may be perhaps favourably considered by the public. They 
not only sometimes cast a light upon the language of our older 
writers, — our dramatic authors more especially, — ^but they may 
subserve also two other purposes of unquestionable utility. 
The one is, that they can restore to us, for common use, 
several terms, long become obsolete, or possibly never known 
in other parts of the country ; and a few, for which it would 
be difficult, and sometimes impossible, to find synonyms or 
substitutes. Secondly, they may assist the labours of some 
great Lexicographer, (exoHatur tandem I) who shall, it is 
hoped, at no very distant day, compile a work, now greatly to 
be desired, if not indispensable in a language like the English, 
varying, as it does, in so many counties, and containing in 
those provincial dialects so many good and genuine materials, 
hbtorically and intrinsically valuable, which have thus dropped 
into unmerited desuetude : I mean a '* Thesaurus ^ sive Lex- 



XU PREFATORY REMARKS. 

icon, toiiua Anglicitatis,** or. Complete Glossary of the 
English language,* 

In this way, then, those who accumulate such stores, 
may do our Literature an important sendee, at no great ex- 
pense of thought or labour to themselves ; and while our gra- 
tude is due to many precursors in this humble path of philolo- 
gical pioneering, I venture to hope, that many may yet be 
encouraged to explore these divergent lodes or veins of ver- 
nacular variety in our copious and matchless language. 

With respect to the ''words" here presented to the 
public, I have only to remark, that I have admitted none, for 
which I have not had the voucher of my own ears, or the cer- 
tificate of trust-worthy authorities. On this head, I have 
much pleasure in availing myself of the present opportunity of 



• Ab the glory of Columbus was most unjustly obscured by the in- 
trusiye name of Amerigo Vespucci^ so were the hard-earned fame and 
remuneration of Henry Stephens marred by the fraudulent Sfcopw/a ; 
and so again, it is to be feared, that the literary renown of Mgidiui 
Forcfillinus, will be grievously overlaid by the more prominent name 
of Pacciolati. Of the nearly forty years* unremitted labours of For- 
cellinit the happy expression of CognolaH does indeed convey an apt 
and not inadequate conception : " Si quis cceterahujusmodi syntagmata 
per dootissimos viros toties edita cum nostris hisce conferre voluerit, 
is de jEgidio Forcellino optime judicabit, qui par annos ferme quadra- 
ginta idem aaxum volvens^ opus hoc, in quo Latins voces omnes, ac 
multiplices earum significationes, atque usus continentur, lucubravit.** 



PRBFATORT REMARKS. ZUi 

acknowledging my obligations to several kind trieada and 
acquaintances, without whose recruiting services I never could 
have mustered so numerous an array of vocables and phrases.* 
I would here observe, also, that in compiling the present 
Glossary, I have recorded not merely words, which are for 
the most part unknown to our Lexicographers, or rarely, or 
more anciently used elsewhere ; but I have occasionally inserted 
colloquial corruptions and mtlffariwnSt which appeared at all 
likely to be philologically or illustratively useful. By ** illus> 
tratively'' I mean, at all likely to throw a light upon the state 
of mind or manners of our rural population here ; or as 
possibly explaining the language of our old, and, more par- 
ticularly comic writers. I have, therefore, in very many in- 
stances introduced with each word, the sentence in which it 
was used, that the sense attached to it may be more clearly 
verified and understood ; or that the singular mode of its 
application may become more perceptible. 

I shall say nothing of the attempted derivations or 
etymologies of some few of the words inserted : ** valeant 



• The contributions of my old and valued Mend, John Lee, Esq., 
M. D., of Ashbourne. Derbyshire, as well as the polite attentions and 
valuable additions of Thomas Bossell Potter, Esq., of Wymeswold, 
deserve more particularly my grateful acknowledgments. 



Ziy PRKFATORY BEMAIIKS. 

quantum!'* They claim no merit; although they belong to 
a department of our literature, which, we all know, has never 
yet been competently explored. Nor shall I hazard the im- 
putation of ostentation or irrelevancy, by speaking here of 
Roman or Teutonic origins ; or of the vestiges of Danish 
colonization in several of these words ; to say nothing of the 
Mercian customs or practices, and of Papal superstitions, 
which some few of them may indicate. Such matters, which 
give a sterling value to local histories more than to Pro- 
vincial Glossaries, I am content to leave to persons better 
qualified and more disengaged for their investigation. 



Post Scriptf February, 1848. 

I had been recommended some time ago to avail myself 
of some remarks upon the Dialect of this county, to be found 
in the interesting little volume, entitled the ** History and 
Antiquities of Claybrook, by the Rev. A. Macaulay, M. A., 
London, 1791.'* Having at length procured a copy, I have 
thought it advisable to extract the following pertinent obser- 
vations :— 

** The dialect of the common people, though broad, is 
sufficiently plain and intelligible. They have a strong pro- 



PREFATORY REMARKS. ZV 

pensity to aspirate words. The letter ^H * comes in on almost 
every occasion where it ought not; and is as frequently 
omitted where it ought to come in. The words * fine,' ' mine,' 
and such like, are pronounced as if they were spelt */oin€f* 

* moine :* * place/ * face,' &c., as if they were spelt * pleaee* 
^feaee;^ and in the plural sometimes, you hear *pleacen;' 

* closenf' for closes ; and many other words in the same style 
of Saxon termination. The words * there' and ' where' are 
generally pronounced thus, * theere,* *wheeres^ the words 

* mercy,' * deserve,' &c., thus, * marcy* * desarveJ The fol- 
lowing peculiarities of pronunciation are likewise observable : 

* ttz,' strongly aspirated, for * us, ' * irar,' for * was,' * meecP for 

* maid,' *faiiher,' for * father,' ' e'cry' for * every,' * brig* for 
' bridge,' * thorough* for 'furrow,' * hawf* for * half,' ♦ cart- 
rit* for * rut,' * malefactory,' for * manufactory,' * inactions* 
for ' anxious.' The words ' mysen* and * himsen* are some- 
times used instead of 'myself' and 'himself;' the word 
' shack* is used to denote an idle, worthless vagabond ; and 
the word ' rip* one who is very profane. The following are 
instances of provincialism, where the words are entirely differ- 
ent. ' Butty* a fellow-servant or labourer ; thus it is said, 
* one butty's wi' t'other ;' to * crack,* to boast ; *foff,* dead 
grass ; 'Jrentf* plump or thriving ; thus they say ' a JFVem 



Xn PBBFATOBT BBHABK8. 

child,' * Frem Grass.' * Gorse* or * Gosi,* * Furze.' * Living,' 
Farm. * Passer,'' gimblet. * Peert,' alive and well. * Ruckf' a 
confiised heap. * Sough,' a covered drain. * Spinney,' a 
gmall plantation. * Strike,* bushel. * Whittawer,* a collar- 
maker. ' Town,* a village. ' House* for kitchen. * UnJsed,* 
lonely and uncomfortable. The following phrases are com- 
mon. * A power of people :' a hantle of money ; * I don't 
know I'm sure : * I ca'nt awhile as yet as J The words * Uk(^ 
and ' such* frequently occur as expletives in conversation ; for 
example, ' If you don't give me my price like, I won't stay 
here haggling all day and such,* The monosyllable < as' is 
generally substituted for that; for instance, ' The last time as 
I called.' ' I reckon as I a'nt one.' I imagine that I am 
not singular. It is common to stigmatize public characters, 
by saying that they ' set poor lights :' and to express surprise 
by saying * Dear heart alive.' The substantive * right* gener- 
ally usurps the place of * ought ; 'for instance, ' Farmer A. has 
a right to pay his tax.' * The assessor has a just right to 
give him a receipt.' * Next ways,' and * clever through,' are 
in common use : Thus, ' I shall go next ways clever through 
Ullesthorpe.' * * Nigh-hand,* for probably, as * He'll nigh- 
hand call on us.' * Duable,' convenient or proper : thus, 
' The church is not served at duable hours.' It is not un* 



PREFATORY REMARKS. XTU 

common for the wives of farmers to style their husbands 
* Our MasteVf* and for the husbands to call their wives 
*Mamy;* and a labourer will often distinguish his wife by call- 
ing her * the (yman,' There are many old people now living, 
who well remember the time when * Goody' and * Dame,' 
' Gaffer' and * Gammer,' were in vogue among the peasantry 
of Leicestershire ; but they are now almost universally dis- 
carded and supplanted by Mr. and Mrs., which are indiscrimi- 
nately applied to all ranks, from the Squire and his Lady 
down to Mr. and Mrs. Pauper." — ^pp. 128, 129, 130. 




GLOSSARY, 



8. Ueadrand of a field. 



ADDLE, V, To earn. A good old English word — * I have 
* addled* my wage.' — I have earned my wages : i. e., I 
have. made an ^ sedlean/ or 'return/ or 'remunera- 
tion/ for my wages. — Ed-lean is the same; ' prsemium/ 
or * retribution.' 

ADLAND 

ADLANT 

AFFEARD : afraid. Used invariably. So Shakespeare in 
many passages. Not uncommon elsewhere : ' Will not 
the ladies be afeard of the lion V — Mid, Nights Dream, 

AGE. There is an idiom here in use, that is somewhat re* 
markable. The age of a person is reckoned with the car- 
dinal number. ' She's in her ten,* * He's in his 
thirteen,' The French have a similar irregularity, 
(' Charles Quint' excepted ;) as * Henri Quatre/ in- 
stead of ' Henri Quart.' 

AHIND, or 

AHENT 

A 



ad. Behind. 



9 

-^ WORDS, PHRASES AND 



AI6LES, 8, Icicles, called also * iggles,* Original etymon 
probably * aiguille \* Fr : a * needle :' but coming 
into this shape, perhaps, from ^ aiglet ^^ or 'aigulet;' 
used formerly in this country for the tag of a lace or 
fringe. 

ANCHOR-FROST, *. Ice formed far below the surface of 
the water in a running stream. 

ANYTHINK AGEN, phr, (a provincialism vulgarised:) 
Exceedingly. * More loike than any think agenJ * Very 
like indeed.' In the plain words, * anything again.' 
Not confined entirely to Leicestershire. 

ARSOMEVER, ad. However, or vulgarly * Howsomdever.' 

ASYETAS,i?Ar. As yet. 

ASLOSH, ad. Phrase, 'Stand aslosh, wooll ye!* Stand 
aside will you.' 

ASPROUS, a. Angry, warm, inclement, cold, (wind and 
rain.) * It's a very asp'rous day.' This is classical with 
a vengeance. * Caelum asperum :' Justin, * asperrima 
hyems !' Vel. Pat. 

ASTRODDLING, a. Astride. 

A'THATTENS, ad. In that manner. * Why I can do it 
aUhatiens.' 

A'THISSENS, ad. In this manner. * Before I was afflicted 
a*thissen8.* 

AUNTY, a. (Pronounce as in * haunt.'"^ Frisky and fresh : 
said of a horse from * Anticky ;' i. e., full of * Anticks.* 

AUST, V. To dare. ' You don't aust to do it.' 

AWHILE, V. i. e., * Have while.' * I can't a while as yet as.* 

AZZLED, a. Chapped. ' My hands are so azzledJ 



FUOyERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. «> 

BACON-BEE, «. i. e., * bacon beetle :' the insect, which 
blows bacon. I know not its entomological name. A 
small beetle, black except a band of brown, on the upper 
part of the shard. * What's a bacon bee, Mrs. ?* 

* Oh ! it's loike a paason* (parsoHf i. e., black beetle,) 

* but not so big.' 

BADGE, V. To cut and tie up beans in shocks or sheaves. 

* They haven't begun badging the beans yet.' 
BADLY, a. Sickly. * I've shot it' (a rabbit) * for a badly 

woman.' 
BALDCHICKS and I 8, A callow, unfledged bird. Phrase, 
BAULCHIN, 1 * As bare as a baldchick: 

BALDRIB, 8. Continuation of the ' sparerib* of a pig, on to 

the tail : i. e., of the * spare-nh* and the * bald-rih,* 
BAND, *. Vulgarism of * bond,* * My word's my band,* 
BANDS, 8, Rings of a hinge : * hooks and bands,* 
BARGAIN-WORK, *. Work by the piece, not by the day. 
BARN. Pronounced with the narrow ' a :' so also, * part,' 

* farm,' * cart,' &c. 

BANKJUG, *. * Nettle-creeper,' of the West of England, 
according to the description I have received from some : 
but seems rather to be one of the * Willow-wood Wrens' 
PhyllO'pneuste Hippolais* or ' Chiff-Chaff,' of Mac 
Gillivray. — Sylvia Hippolais of Montagu. Also the 

* haybird.' 

BARNESS, or \ v. n. To fill out, to grow fat, i. e., burnish; 
BARNISH ) * Why you are grown tall, and bamished 
too.' So Dryden — 
' To shoot, and spread, and burnish into man.' 



^ WORDS, PHRASES AND 

BASH, V. A pig is said to bash when it goes back in flesh, 
on coming from good food to bad. * Take care your pig 
don't bash,* A woman speaking of her child not being 
reduced in flesh by tsething, said, * It*s not a bit bashed 
. by it/ Our expression, * pulled down,' is a kindred ex- 
pression — * Abaisser/ Fr. appears to be the etymology 
from which our two words ' abase* and ' abash* are de- 
rived. 

BASK, V, To bather or nestle their wings in the dust in the 
sun. 

BATHER, V, To rub and nestle in the dust, as birds do with 
their wings in the sun : from Bathian, A. S. to bathe. 
Also to roll and settle downwards : said of smoke, ' It 
came bathering down the chimney.' 

BATTEN, V. This good old English and Shakspearian term 
is in use here — * Miss begins to batten out ;' 'to grow 
fatter ;' to ' barnish,* as they also say. 

BATTLETWIG, «. Earwig. 

BATWELL, s, A strainer to put on the spigot, to prevent 
the grains from passing through. Derived probably 
from * Back,* large vessel, or vat ; and * wheel,* an 
utensil of close wicker, or basket-work. The word is used 
on the Thames, for a peculiar wicker basket, or cage, to 
catch fish, called on the Severn a * putcheon,* or *put' 
chin.* 

BAWMING and SLAWMING, phr. Daubing and slim- 
ing. * He bawmed and slawmed it all over mortar and 
wash.* 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRB. O 

BEAM-KNIFE, s. The knife used at the ' Fleshing-beam' 
and called also * Flesh-kni/e :* which see. 

BEE-ANS, s. Beans, wheat and peas are also made dissyla- 
bles, as, * whee-at* * pee-as,'' 

BEAST, 8, Cattle. * He brought a few beast to market ;' 
never * beasts.' The word is used as * sheep^^ and * deer* 
are used. * Did you go to see the wild-6ea«/.' 

BED-HILLINGS,*. Counterpane. See* Hilling/ 

BEESTINGS, 1 s. The first and second beestings are 

BASELINGS, L the first and second milk after calv- 

BEASTLINGS, J ing. In Johnson, under * Biesting :' 

from the Saxon * byst,' or * bysting :' * colostrum,' or ' col- 
ustrum :' Lat. the etymology of which is by no means 
satisfactorily established. Some say * a coalescendo,* 
others x6\Ka * gluten;* others 'a colando* &c., which 
last to me appears the true etymon. 

BASING, "1 8. Rind. * Pray cut off the Jef-zriny ; i. e. 

BEAZING, or L of the cheese ; also the part of a cheese 

BAZING J hardened by pressure from being un- 

dermost — or, as it has been conjectured, in the * base.* 

BE'LEDDY. The old invocation, * By our Lady.' See 
* By'r Leddy ;* a variety of pronunciation. 

BELONG, V. For ' belong to :' * This belongs me.' * Is 
this belonging you ?* * Long* for * belong,' is an old 
English term : See Peter Langtoft's Chronicle. The 
German and Dutch word is ' belangen* 

BE'MESS. The same abbreviation as Be'Leddy : • By the 
Mass.* See ' By 'mass :' another mode of pronouncing 
it. 



6 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



BELPER, or \ v. To cheat. ' To belper at marls,' i. e., 
BILPER ) marbles. * A bilpering sort of fellow.' 

BEND, s. A piece of bent plate-iron, which went over the 

back of the last horse at plough. Now disused. 
BESSEN, V. To stoop. * All them sad-irons round my 

waist made me bessen down.* Baisser, Fr. 
6IBLIN, «. (Piplings?) are the fledged or nearly fledged 

nestlings. 

BIFF'EAD, s. Blockhead ; i. e., beef-head. 

BINGE, V, I To soak in water a wooden vessel, that would 

BINGER, s, j otherwise leak. * I was hingeing a chum," 

i. e., putting hot water into it to make the wood swell. 

An excellent word (from * benetzen,' Germ, to * moisten,' 

in all probability.) As it is the effect of such soaking to 

fill up, tighten, and strain again, every part of the vessel, 

a substantive has been made by the common people to 

express what is keen, sharp, and bracing : — * My eyes ! 

This is a dinger ;* said of a keen wind or frost. There 

is a phrase here, ' He died hinging y* which means, he 

could not stand soaking or drinking ; or in other words, 

* he sunk under habits of intemperance.' It is singular, 
that the Hindostanee word for * wet* is * Binguh,' pro- 
nounced * Bingah.' 

BIRD-TENTING, «. i. e., 'RM-tending or * keeping,' as it 
is elsewhere called : i. e., frightening the birds from the 
newly sown com, by bird-clacks, hollowing, &c. 

TiTRHQ* (NAYZEN, or I s,andv. Birds-nests; corrup- 
' INEEZEN 1 tion of old plural, * nesten,' 

* I am going a birds* nayzeningJ* 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. < 

BLACK-CAP, 8. Reed bunting. 

BLACK-HEADED-PEGGY, 8. Black-cap. 

BLACK-GUARD, v. and 8, To scold with swearing ; * I 
could not stay : the mistress was such a black-guardf' i. 
e., * scold.' * Mrs. P. has been so black-guarding me.' 

BLART, V, To bleat, or bellow. 

BLASTED, a, i. e., blighted : — applied to the quarter of the 
cow's udder, when dried by inflammatory action. Sup- 
posed to arise from something in the air ; and is never 
cured. 

BLEAK, a. Pale and sickly : * He's a good bit better ; but 
he looks very bleak yet,' 

BLETHER, 8. A bladder. 

BLETHER, v. To cry, or blubber. * There you are blether- 
ing again :' also to ' knock up,' i. e., to get out of breath. 
* Yeaowne blethered them 088e8f George I' hence also to 
' blow upt' or to fill to surfeiting ; and the contrary : — 
as * The football is blethered f* i. e., flaccid : the wind is 
out of it. 

BLETHER-HEAD, *. Blockhead. 

BLOSH Y "I a. Sloppy, windy and rainy. 1. e. weather. A 

BLAS H Y, or L sort of compound of blowg and splashy ; 

BLOSHING J for it generally includes the idea of 

dirt and mud under foot. 

BLOW-FLY, *. Blue-bottle, or blue fly. 

BLOTHERING, a. Talkative (Qu : corruption of ' bother* 
ing,* 

BLUFF, 8, The blinker, or winker, as it is sometimes called 
of a horse. * The bluff of the bridle.' 



8 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



BLUFF, V, and 8. Blindman's • bluf;* not * buff.' 

BLUFFTER, s. Blinkers of horses. 

BLUFFTED,^. Having blinkers on, or something over the 

eyes. 'I'm glad to see that bull is blufted;* that is, 

has a covering over his eyes ; is * hoodwinked.' It was 

called a * hood* for the hawk, 
BLORT, or \ v. To chide in a loud tone : * I thought she 
BLAUT ) was come ont to blort,* 
BOFFLE, V. To confound, perplex, deceive — * I did'nt 

mean to boffle ye, (' corruption' of 'baffle.') 
BOLD, a. Healthy, large, strong, full. 'The grams (of 

wheat) are so boldy they are ready to jump out of the 

ear.* 
BOLSH and \ a. d. With a sudden heavy fall : • Just 

TO GO BOLSH ) as I see him, he went bohh,' i. e. 

came down plump * as it is elsewhere provincially used : 

meaning ' plum,' as Littleton, has it, ' ferri ad terram 

instar plumbi,' 
BOLSHEN 1 «. A term applied to the callow young of 
BAULCHIN ) birds: ( Abortions ?J or a corruption of 

^Baldchicksr 
BOONCH, V, To make angry: *He well nigh boonched 

me.' 
BOOSE, 8. An ox stall : (vid. Bailey and Johnson ;) but the 

common word here is * cow-boose^* and the following. 
BOOSON, "I *. A crib, trough, or manger for cattle : 
BUSH ON, or I C boo8en*J to eat hay out of, in a cow- 
BOOZINS J shed or farm-yard. Used also in War- 

wickshire. Supposed by some to be derived from ' booths 



PROVERBS OF LEICBSTBRSHIRE. i7 

ings ;' but, no doubt it comes from the Saxon * bosg' or 

* bosig' a stall. 

' BOSWORTH MAN. A name given to the * knave' in a 
pack of cards. These local jokes are common through 
the kingdom. See a similar gibe upon Great Gleui in 
the proverbs, collected by Fuller, at the end. A pro- 
verbial scoff at the Marlowmen in Buckinghamshire 
of the same character has just occurred to me : — 
* A Marlow man, a Marlow man ! 
"What I can^t do, my donkey can I' 

BOTTLES, «. Little bundles : 'pottles.' 

BOTTLE-JUG, s, a. Bird. ' Bottle Tomtit,' and * Bottle 
Tit :' the ' Long-tailed,' or * Barrel,' * Titmouse.' 

BOUGE, V, To project : (Qu. corruption of * bulge ?') 

BOUGE, 8. Beetle , the insect : ' the bouge is in the sheep.' 
A malady common to that animal, but generally engen- 
dered by filth. 

BOUT, 8, Attack of illness : ' He's had a baddish bout of 
it.' From the old English word * bout,' ' course,' or 

* turn,' and still used in many places. 
BOWL, 8, Hoop for trundfing in boy's play. 
BRACKET RULES, 8, Cat or trivet to bear toast, &c. 

before the fire. 
BRADDLE, "| r. Wanned through or comfortably. 

BRAODLED, also L Said of a child whose feet had been 
BRUDLED J held near the fire to warm them :' 

Ah ! my dear, you're nicely braddled,* 
BRACK, 8, Break or crack. * These dishes have not t 

brack in them.' 



10 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



BRANGLED, p. Entangled, embroiled. ' Their affairs are 
so br angled,* The old English verb ^brangle' is to 
quarrel ; or to * hrawV The words have, no doubt, an 
affinity, and remind us of ' Discord and dissonance, 
Brengal and Breval.' 

BRAWN, 8, A boar-pig. A good old word. 

BRENT, *. The brow of a hill : {Breen^ Welsh, a summit, 
from whence ' Brenin* a King.) This word is found 
compounded in many names of places. 

BREVET, V. Rummage, ransack. ' Well ! he was breveting 
every drawer in the house.' Cats are said to brevet after 
mice. 

BRIEF, or 1 a. Prevalent. * Colds are very *ny. * This 

BREF ) is a corruption of * ri/e,' Ang : Sax : Ryf 

* frequens.' The Icelandic * rifry* * liberal, widely boun- 
tifuF may have had the same root. 

BRIG6, *. A bridge : and * brig-ooles,* i. e. bridge-holes, 
or arches. 

BROCK, 8, The old Saxon name of the badger, and men- 
tioned in Johnson, is here always used. 

' AS EVER BROKE BREAD IN A MORNING,* phr. 

* You may depend upon it, he's as good a hoosband 08 
ever broke bread in a morning,* 

BROKEN-GRASS, 8. Grass left and mown after a field has 

been grazed by cattle. 
BROODY, a. Said of a hen that wants to sit. ' Gone 

broody :' phr. i. e. wanting to sit. 
BROOM-DASHER, 8, A maker of brooms. 
BROOM-STALE, 8, Broomstick or handle. Vid. Stale. 



PKOmSIlBS OF LBICBSTERBBIRB. 



11 



BROTH, *. Is always spoken of in the plural number : as 
if they had an eye to the meat and herbs also of which 
it is made. * These broth are very good/ * A few broth.* 

* When the broth are ready, crumb the basins,* i. e. put 
the pieces of broken bread into the basins.' 

BUFFER, 8, A dolt, or stupid fellow. 
BUFFER-HEADED, a. Stupid, very dense in inteUect. 

* Buffle-headed* is also used. 

BUG, pronounced ) a. Fine, gay, magnificent. * Oh ! it's 
B006 j too boog for me ! Also, proud, con- 

ceited : * How buff you are of your new clothes !' 
* TO TAKE BOOG,' phr. To take fright or offence—-' I 
did'nt know whether your horse turned round of his own 
accord, or whether he took boog,* This is probably 
derived from the British word bwg. * Something fright- 
ful or scaring :' and * bwgwth ' to frighten. Hence 
' bugbear' 
BUB BY-HUTCH, «. A sort of truck or hand-barrow. 
BUCK- BEARING, p, Teazing, findmg fault, * The moment 

any one speaks, she begins buchbearingJ 
BULLFINCH, «. A hedge allowed to grow high without 

laying. A corruption, I think, of * BuUfence,* 
BUKE, s. Book : the common pronunciation as in * duke* 
BULE, 8, Semi-circular handle of a bucket, pot-lid, &c. 
BULLY-HEAD, 8. A miller's thumb (small fish.) 
BULLY- RAG, | Railing, or opprobrious language used 

BULLY-RAGGING) to provoke each other. *Come! 

I shan't 8tand your bully-ragging.* 
BUMMELL, 8, The ball of the foot, near the great and 



12 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



little toe. * I feel nmch pain in the hummeU of my foot/ 
This word has the same origin with ' pommeW or pum- 
mell :* a projecting round, or knob. Johnson derives 
the word from *pomeUu8* — Low Lat: Globular ^ from, 
'pomum.' I think the Icelandic ' bumbultf' ventriculosus, 
from * bumbe,' a belly — and our English term a nearer 
approach to the etymon. At all events, it is another 
instance of a word lost to the language for which we 
have no substitute. 

BUMPTIOUS, fl. Conceited— arrogant : also 'touchy* or 
testy. 

BUNK, t;. (' Apage !' Lat :) ' Be oflf'— or 'Budge off !' in 
our vulgar vernacular, 

BUSSOCK, «. A young donkey. 

BUTTY, *. A fellow-workman. * He's a butty o» mine,» 
i. e. a comrade, a ' partner,^ as they also call it, in work ; 
also a workman generally. ' There's a loose butty from 
Shilton ;» i. e. an unemployed handf or man out of work. 

BUTTY, V. To work in company. * 1 buttled with him all 
last summer.' 

BY or BYE. Termination of names of twenty -nine villages 
on the borders of the river Wreake, or in that neighbour- 
hood : from the Danish ' bye,* a * village* perhaps origin- 
ally ; but now a * town' or * city.' 

BY' MASS ! By the mass : or Romish Sacrament of the 
Eucharist. 

BY 'RLEDDY. ' By our Lady,' an oath, still remaining 
from Romish times.' * Nay, By 'r Lady, that I think 
he cannot' — and again * Verges : ' By 'r Lady I think it 



PROYERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



13 



be 80.' ' Much ado about nothing.* — Act 3, Sc. 3. So 
in * Midsummer Night's Dream,' we have the diminu- 
tive * Ladykint or * Ladikin /' * Snout : By'r Lakin, 
a parlous fear.' Act 3. Sc. 1. 



CADS, 9. Blinkers. 

CADDLE and | a, Nice and fastidious in appetite. * He 

C ADDLING ) is quite a caddie man ;' i.e., dainty. 

CADE, V, To make a pet of. 

CADE, 8, A pet lamb. 

CADGE, V. To beg alms : to talk incessantly. 

CADGER,*. Beggar. 

CADLOCK, «. Charlock: weed. 

CAG, or \ «. To crawl about ; * I can't hardly cag 

KAG 1 about. 

CALL, V. To call names. A man gave a ludicrous description 
of another's ' calling him :' and ended by observing : * I 
'count, he could'nt hit o'my right name, nohow.' ' She 
left her place cause the Mrs. called her.' * Please Ma'am, 
they called me ever so.' ' She called me down to the 
ground.' 

CALL OF. To call upon. * I called of him, but he was*nt 
at home.' 

CALVES-VIEW, *. Called also calves' (i. e., calf s) ' racCy' 
or ' pluck :' all that presents itself to view on opening 
the calf. 

CAMBRILL, «. The stick with notches on it, upon which 
a pig is hung up, when the butcher cuts it up. The 



14 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



notches receive the sinews of the legs, by which it is sus- 
pended, and the legs kept apart. 

CANK ABOUT \ v. To carry tales, to gossip .— 

CANKING ABOUT ) *He'8 at a loose end, and al- 
ways canking about/ 

CANT, V, To humour, coax, caress. * The pony will be 
quiet enough, when he has been canted a little.' 

CANT-WINDOW, «. Bow-window. So called from the 
sides being canted or * devilled off:^ or rather (with a 
■view to the derivation) from the * edge^ (de scherpe 

* Icanty. Dutch) being taken off. As to the etymon of 
dot&-window, I think it quite as probably to have been 

* hog^ A. S. from its outward curvature, as * Jfly,* from 
' biganj* to bend ; or rather, bigCf a comer : A. S. 

CAR, 8. A bottle or keg of one or two gallons. This reminds 
one of the Hebrew measure * Cor ;* which was used for 
dry or liquid measure, for oil or for beaten or pounded 
wheat and barley. See I Kings v., 11 verse and com- 
mentaries. 

CARE, V, There is an adage here : * He cares no more for 
it, than a crow cares for Sunday.' 

CAREEN, V. To pirk or prune the feathers. To * prune' is 
the term for hawking. To pirk, or prinkf are both 
English terms for putting in nice order, for use or show. 
The word * Princockf* or * Princoa^t* is from the latter, 
or from * prim/ according to Johnson. The English 
verb * careen^* from the French * cariner,' and that from 
the Latin * carinay"* is applied to the laying a vessel on 
its side, (and thus exposing the ' jfcee/,') for the purpose 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



15 



of repairs, and refitting: — but, thongh, by a strained 
metaphor, it might seem to bear some reference to ' trim- 
ming» and * adjusting,' it will not, I fear, justify us in 
making it the origin of the term here used. 

CASSALTY, or | a. For casualty. * He's in a cassalty 

CAZZALTY ) way;* i. e.. infirm, in precarious 
health. * A casalty crop.' * He's so «€*A, and cazalty 
loike.' 

CATER-CORNERED, a. To * cut cater^ is a Kentish 
phrase for cutting from comer to comer of a piece of 
stuff: originally, in all probability, both ways, so as to 
divide it, *■ en quatre quartiers;' from which the phrase 
is an easy corraption; and *to go cater ^corner, i. c.,' 
diagonally. 

CATERSNOZZLED, j9. Zig-zag; or in an irregular direc- 
tion : said of ' soughs' or drains, in a wood. A man 
said, he was ' obliged to cut 'em caiersnozzled :' i. e., in 
and out ; not direct, on account of the trees ; or rather 
with angles f as if * catercomered,' 

CAUVED IN, or | Said of a ground which falls in : from 

CORVED IN ) * cove J 

CHALTERED, p. Overcome. ' I am so chattered with 
heat.' Cormption probably of * sweltered.' 

CHATTING, p. Picking pieces of wood or sticks, — or 

* chatwoodf' as the poor do. ' I be going a chatting,* 

* Chatwood' is in Johnson, as meaning ' little sticks,' 
fuel. Chats are the keys or Catkins of the Ash, in York- 
shire. The French call the catkins, * chat^ and * cha- 
tons :' but * chatting,' or picking up odds and ends of 



16 



WORDS. PHRASES AND 



wood or stick may be a remains of the Saxon ' ceatt' a 

* thing,' 

CHAWL ) ^. ^ , ^ . ... , 

> *. Pig's cheek. Corruption of *jowU 
CHAWN ) ^ V J 

CHEEK, 9. 1 To face: 'They came here: but there were 

CHEEK 8, ) some naybours in the house : so they 

could'nt cheeh it, to ask me.' ' He hasn't the cheek to 

do it.' 
CHESFORD, 8, Cheese-vat : (corruption ;) a kind of tub or 

vessel, made of wood, with two hoops, in which the curd 

is crushed. 
CHEESE-BOARDS, 8. Shelves or boards fastened in the 

wall, on which the cheese is laid to dry. 
CHEESE-BREAKER, «. An instrument generally made of 

tin, used to break the curd in the cheese-pan. 
CHEESE-BRIGGS, 8, A small wooden frame made of two 

spars, braced at each end by two shorter. They are 

placed across the cheese-pan on which the * chesford' 

stands. 
CHEESE-CRUSHER, 8. An implement used in crushing 

cheese. There are different kinds of Cheese-crushers ; — 

as the * lever 'Cru8her,' * 8creW'Cru8herf* Sec, 
CHEESE-COVER, 8, A M made of wood, to fit the top 

of the ' cheese-pan,' 
CHEESE-DRAINER, *. A large vat or vessel, full of holes, 

used to drain the whey from the curd. The * bowl' is 

used to take the whey from the curd, whilst in the 

* cheese-pan,* 

CHEESE-HOOPS, 8, Bands made of tin, used to place 
round the cheese inside the * cheete-vat,' pron. * che88up8.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



17 



CHEESE-PAN, *. A large vessel, generally brass, into 
which the milk from the cow is poured. 

CHEESE-STAND, *. A hoop, wrapped round with hay 
for the cheese-pan to stand on. 

CHEESE-STANDARD, *. An implemement in the dairy. 
There are two kinds of * cheese standards.' One is a 
long board placed upon tressels. The other is a strong 
post or upright, let into the beam at the top, and into the 
floor at the bottom. It works on a pin ; and turns round. 
It has holes in it, mortised at right angles, and meeting 
in the centre : perforating it at different heights to admit 
shelves. 

CHELP, V. To chatter. * When you come near the mag- 
pie, it chelps at ye.' A corruption of chirp. * The young 
birds are chelping, asfeece as can be.' 

CHIBBl.E, t;. «. To chip. ' The putty chihbles oflf so." 

CHILDER, «. ChUdren. 

CHIMBLE, V, To chew, nibble, or munch, in a ruminating 
manner. ' Let's chimble a few walnuts.' ' The rats have 
been chimb ling the hay,' 

CHIMER, s. Staves of a cask or barrel. 

CH INCOUGH, s. Hooping cough. 

CHIP OUT,©. A vulgar modification of 'fall out,' or 
* quarrel.' * They chipped outf while they war drink- 
ing.' 

CHISELS, or 

CHISSELS. 

CHISKET,*. Cheese-cake. 

B 



Fine bran. 



18 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



CHIVEL, *. A small slit or rent. * This gown is full of 

holes and chivela.* Also. * chiveling* holes. 
CHORTON, 8. Tripe made from the calTs stomach, and 

called also *The Reed.* It is considered a delicacy, 

and is sometimes sent as such, with common tripe, which 

is made of the cow's stomach. 
CHOVELINGS, s. Husks, or refuse from rats or mice in a 

rick, or elsewhere. * I know'd they war in the rick, by 

their * chovelingaJ 
CHUFF, or | Conceited. ' A cAw^ fellow.' Also, ' pleased,' 
CHOOF. j or * delighted.' ' Are the children coming 

to us this evening V ' Oh ! yes ! they're quite chuff to 

come !' * He's quite chuff m his new clothes.* * As chuff 

as a pump, wi' two spouts.' Phr, 
CHUNKINGS, *. The stump C chump ends?') of a tree 

remaining in the ground, after it has been cut down, or 

chopped off. 
CHURCH-WARDENER, «. Church-warden. 
CHURLY, a. Stiff, stubborn, cloddy— said of soils. The 

derivation is evident, and the word itself is used by old 

writers in the sense of coarse, vulgar and boisterous. 
CLAMM, V. To starve or famish. * He's welly clammed,* 
CLANK, *. Set or series : ' I bought a clank of feet :' i. e., 

a set of cow's or calves' feet. 
CLANS, *. I Cow's * after-birth,' or * secundines.' 

COWSCLANS, 8, ] Corrupted from * cleansings.' 
CLARTY, a. That state of the ground after a hard frost, 

when the surface becomes soft and dirty, and all below is 

still ice-bound and hard. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



19 



CLAY, s. The hoof of a cow, or sheep. * Ever sin the mur- 
rain, her clays have been so tender.' Corruption of claw ?' 
CLEVER-THROUGH, phr. Straight through : * I shall 

go next ways clever-through Ullesthorpe.' Britton. 
CLOSE, a. Quiet, silent. ' She's a very close cow ; she 
don't rake, or blort.* 

CLOSEN, 8, Plural of * close,* a small field. 

CLOTTING, 8, Breaking clods with a pitchfork ; or rather 
fork with the tines so bent, as not to tear up the ground. 

COAL-HAGGLERS, s. Persons who fetch coal from the 
wharf, or pits, and retail them to the poor. 

COAL-HOD, or \ Used for what is elsewhere called a ^ coal- 

COAL-SCOOP. ) scuttle:' though a * co&Uscuttle* is 
here (^ scutellay*) fiattish, like a shield, or wide shallow 
pan, made of wicker or basket work. A * coal- hod,* pro- 
nounced * coal'hud,* or * coal-ud,'' is the term applied 
here to vessels of all other materials, of tin, wood or 
copper, for the purpose of carrying coals about the house. 

COBB, V, To strike : * I thought he was going to cobb jne.' 

COBB, 8. A blow, a ' cobb on the head.' 

COCKADORE, v. To play the master or lord it over another. 

COCKSY, or I a. Conceited and * uppish,^ touchy, prag-. 

COXY, ) matical. 

CODGE, V, and *. To do a thing clumsily : to place awry or 
in a lump or heap. ' Oh ! that's some coarse cotton for 
my girl to codge with.' * Your clothes is all of a codge* 

COLLOGUING, a. Leaguing for mischief. 'They col- 
logue together;* and * He's such a colloguing chap.' 
The constant expression here for plotting in company 



20 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



with others. An evident corruption of ' colleaguing ;' 
though the old English word * collogue' was used in the 
sense of ^flatter ;' Johnson has it in this sense, but de- 
rives the word from ' colloguor,' Todd introduces two 
quotations from Burton (Anat. of Mel.) and one from 
Bp. Hall, in each of which it is used in the sense of 
flattery, Adam Littleton uses it in the same way. Un- 
der ' adulor' he has the translation ' to cog and collogue,* 
I should venture to derive the word, as anciently used 
amongst us, in the sense of cajolling and deceiving, from 
the Saxon * ge-loccian,' to soothe. 
COLLY, fl. Coally, dirty. « My hands are all colly.' * A 

collystick/ A stick coaled at one end. 
CONDOCITY. Corruption of Docility, called also here 

Docity, 
CONFOUND, V, *^ Three modes of imprecation : * Consam 
CONSARN, V. L the pen !' * Contrive the pig I' 
CONTRIVE, V, J * Confound the fule V 
COOTT, 8, For 'cw/,' i. e. *canal.* 'He fills half his milk can 
from the ' coott :' in other words, he well waters his milk. 
COPE, r. To buy — (koopen, D. to * buy,' or * bid money 

for.') * Are you going to cope for that horse.' 
COPE-HORSE-DEALERS, (paerdekoopers, D.) Petty dea- 
lers in horses. 
COPT, or COPPED, a. orp. Headed— pollarded (* gekopft,') 
Germ.) * The copt oak.' It means also like a top in 
appearance. The word, in this sense, may be found in 
old Adam Littleton's Latin Dictionary, under the word 
* turbinatuSf* * Copped,'' made like a top, broad above and 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



21 



small beneath. Johnson has * copped ,* rising to a top or 
head : and quotes Wiseman, Woodward, and Shakespeare. 

• • The blind mole casts 

* Copped hills towards heaven.* — Pericles, 

COTTER, t;. and *. To grapple, contend. * My dog will 
cotter with anything, but a hether;* i. e., an adder. 
Also, to plague, or worry : * It cotters him ever so.' 
So the substantive : ' Making this little frock is a great 
cotter to me.* 

COTTER, V, To potter about. 

COTTERED, a. Annoyed, vexed, *put out/ or *put about:* 
also, * entangled :* * This skein's cottered very bad.' 

COTTER, *. The latch or catch of a casement window, 
which fastens it within : also the piece of iron that fas- 
tens the wheel of a plough, &c., &c. 

COULD, V. \ To be able : * I used to could,* She 

COULDN'T, V. ] used to couldn*t sit or stand.' 

COW-CRIB. A crib for cattle. 

COW-TRODDEN, a. Hard and awkward to manage. A 
carpenter said, ' this is a nasty cow-trodden piece of 
wood.' 

COW-GATE, s. The poor at Wymeswold have the privilege 
of depasturing their cows in the lanes, and each person 
so privileged, is said to have a ' Cow -gate :' i. e., a free 
passage, or run for a cow ; or possibly an ' entrance.' 
The word has both meanings. It is the same thing in 
Dutch : — and the Keel-^a/, or throat-run, or passage, is 
the * gullet* 

CRABBY, a, 1. e. crabbed^ cross, ill tempered. 



22 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



CRACHY, or | a. Weakly, ailing. * He was always a poor 

CREECHY, ) creechy thing.' 

CRACHELTY, a. A degree worse than * croffling,^ decrepid, 
disabled, tottering. 

CRADELINGS, s. Domestic fowls of a particular colour, or 
rather * speckled upon white.* 

CRADLE-SCALE, *. A pair of scales for weighing sacks of 
com in a mill. 

CRAM, V, To intrude. * My Papa does not like me to 
cram in that way.* 

CRANE, 8, A Heron. 

CRANK, a. Sick (JcranJc : Germ.) 

CRAP, 8. Crop : So * craft* for * croft.' 

CRATCH, *. A butcher's * cratchf* the frame or cradle, on 
which the butcher lays out, or dresses his sheep. We 
have this old word in the child's play of * cafs cratch* 
or * cat* 8 cradle* So Spenser — 

' Begin from first, where he encradled was 
In simple * cratch,* wrapt in a wad of hay.' 

Hymn on Heavenly Love, 1. 225. 
Johnson has the word * cratch ,* for * the palisaded frame, 
in which hay is put for cattle.* Todd quotes Wickliffe's 
Version of Luke ii. * She leyde him in a cracche.* He 
gives the derivation * creicche* Fr. and Latin * crates* 
Meaning by the former * criche* The word * cratCy^ a 
pannier or open wicker-basket, has probably the same 
origin : and the Ang. Saxon cart had probably the name 
of * crset,' from its wicker formation. The old German 
word * kraet,' a basket, given by Johnson, as the deriva- 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



23 



tion of * crate' is in Wachter, who tells us, that when he 
was in Sweden, he heard the Swedes call their baskets, 

* craten* It is odd too, that the Danes have the word 

* kradt,' for * twigs :* which leads us again to the foun- 
tain-head of all these terms, viz : the Latin * crates.* The 
French had the old word * cretin* for * basket/ See 
Menage. 

CREST, V. Vulgar for * crease :' * Don't tumble and crest 

the handkerchief.' 
CRIBBLE, ». To shuffle and extricate oneself by shifts. 

* She cribbled through the court, and got oflf.' 
CRICKET, 8, A small stool : a footstool. In Johnson. 
CROFFLE, V, To hobble. 

CROFFLING, \ a. Infirm, ailing, scarcely able to move 
CROFTLING,) about. From • krafta,' Goth, to crawl ? 

* kraftloss,' Germ. * feeble,* i. e., strengthless. 
CROPPER, V. To cramp. * My legs have got cropper ed 

so by sitting a'thissens,* 
CROOKLED, a. Crooked, * Oh I if I have'nt been and 

done it all crookled* 
CRU DELING, a. Coaxing. * Don't come crudeling up to 

me.' Also crumped or crumpled up. * To sit crudeling 

over the fire :' * cowering.' Also, in this sense, * crugeling.* 
CRUNCH,*. Said of wood: * crinkle,' or * wrinkle.' * Take 

care how you bend that hoop, or it will go in crunches.* 

It is rather a technical word ; but does mean * splinters,* 

or slight fractures. 
CRUSH, V. To squeeze. * I could'nt get near the fire, for 

they crushed me out.' 



24 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



CUCK, t;. For Chuck. * CwcAr the baU.* * Gi'e us a cac*/ 

Also to jerk or move irregularly, * The carriage cucks 

about so.' 
CUFF, «. For cough. 
CURRENT, a. Freely, with an appetite : * He does not 

take his food * current.' 
CUTCHEL, 17. To house or box up, to inclose comfortably 

or snugly: *I think I have / euteheled* him nicely,^ 

said a man of a pig in a sty just made. 
TO DRAW CUTS. Phrase. To draw lots by pieces of 

paper cut. 



DADE, V. To lead, conduct, or rather, support : * I should 

not have got home, if they had'nt daded me along.' 

Skinner would say, ^ deduco* was the etymon. 
DADE, ad. Indeed. 

DADING-STRINGS, s. Leading strings for children. 
DAFFLE, s. The mop used for cleansing the oven before 

baking. 
DAFFLE, V. To make use of the above. * I stood and 

dajfled the oven.' 
DAFFLING-IRON, ». Scraper used in the oven for getting 

out the wood ashes. 
DAFFLING-PAIL, «. The bucket iu which the * daffle' is 

kept. 
DANGLE-JACK, «. The common jack with hooks, turned 

with worsted. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



25 



DAPSTUCK, a. Prim, dapper. ' I do'nt think she's a 
very dapatucJc young lady.' 

DAUBING, a. Wet and dirty. * Rather daubing to day, sir.' 

DEE, 8, Day. 

DELFT, 8, A spit, or spit-deep. * I mean to dig a delft 
lower.' A good old substantive of * delve* to dig. 

DENIAL, *. Hindrance : * My lame hand is a sore denial to me.' 

DILLING, 8. The pet, or darling, or least of a brood, litter, 
or family. * Dolding' in the West of England. (The 
* Darling* and * Dollthing.') 

DITCH, 8. and v. Hardened dirt, oil, &c. * I want to get 
oflF the ditch.' * Well I my hands never ditch ;' i. e. 
the dirt does not adhere firmly to them. 

DITHER, V. To shiver and shake as with cold. * They 
dithered* (i. e. the cows) as if they had the ague. 

DITHERING, «. A quaking or thrilling. A gentleman 
who has an antipathy to snakes, told me he * had deter- 
mined to touch one' (a boa-constrictor, exhibited pub- 
licly,) ' but upon doing it, he felt such a dithering all over 
him,' &c. Not confined to Leicestershire. To * shake 
with cold.* Hunter* 8 Hallamshire Glossary. 

DOABLE, or from"! a. Practicable, proper, convenient. 

DOOABLE, L «The church is not served at 

DUABLE, J ' duable* hours. Britton. 

TO DO AT. Phrase. To do with. * What are you domg 
at that stick.' 

DOG, *. "^ Term of contempt as elsewhere. But 

SURRY DOG, ) there is a proverb here which I have 
not heard anywhere else. *• He's a soorry dog that's not 



26 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



worth a whistle.' Something like * not worth asking/ 
not * worth having.' The proverb was used by an old 
man, who, though infirm, would have assisted a neigh- 
bour in getting in his harvest, if he had been applied to. 
DOLE, 8. Bread distributed at the death of a person by the 

near relatives, either at home or at some neighbour's. 
DOLLOP, *. A lump or large piece. There is a vulgar 
illustration of this upon record : * Now, fayther, gie me 
a dollop of flipflop :' i. e. bacon. 
DOLLY, or | s. The stick with which the clothes 

WASHING DOLLY, ) are stirred and pounded in wash- 

ing. The term is never used here, for the washing 
machine or trough with a kind of wheel-chumy except 
that the motion goes backwards and forwards. 
DONE, p. and t?.^ Put: * I wonder where he has dfone your 
DONE TO, ] pencUs.' * Where have you rfone that to.' 
DOOVE, 8, Dove. * As happy as a doove ;' phr. * He done it.' 
DOCIBLE, or rather ^ Docile. A good English word, now 
DOCIBLE, a ] disused. 

DOCITY, *. Corruption of docility. Used for 'wits,' 

* senses,' * knowledge.' *The child woke up, and had 
lost all its * dociti/,* 

DOSSITY, a. Ailing, infirm. ' He's so very dossity^ 
DOWN TO THE GROUND, phr. This corresponds, 
strange to say, with the expression, * up to the skies,' as 
in * He praised him down to the ground,* Also * She cal- 
led me down to the ground.* It is used also to express, 

* entirely, or * to one's complete satisfaction, as * He'll 
suit you down to the ground,* 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



27 



DREDGERY, ad. Carefully, cautiously, gently. * If you 
move her arm ever so * dredgery* it gives her pain. 

DUBOUS, fl. Dubious. 

DULL from | Deaf. * Bnyther dooll^^ means in general * as 

DOOLL, a. ) deaf as a post.' 

DUMMEL, 8. Heavy, stupid creature. Not confined to 
Leicestershire. 

DUST, V, To dare. * You do'nt ' dusV to do it : corr. of 
'dursL* 

DWINGELING, a. Poor, shriveled, * dwindled: 

EDDISH, \ Cheese made from the grass after mowing, or 

CHEESE, ) lattermath. ' The word * eddish' from the 
Saxon is in Johnson, as meaning the second crop of 
grass. 

EDGE, V, «. To advance beyond a certain point by degrees : 
a word now almost disused, or when used, having the 
particle * on* annexed. * Do'nt you edge* (by sliding) 
*■ into the middle of the pond.' 

EDGY, a. Eager. * He's very edgy to go there:' also 
* pert* and ' forward.' See * hedgy^ 

ELDER, 8. Udder of a cow. 

ELSEHOW, adv. Anyhow else. ' I can't do it eUehowJ 

EMBRANGLEMENT, 8, Embroilment and confusion. 
An expressive term. See * Brangled.* 

ESTER, 8, Back of the fire-place. *My hay was over- 
heated, and is as black as the Ester.' It reminds one of 
fifi*, * focus ;' and there are no h's here to stand in 
the way of such a derivation. 



28 



WOBDS, PHKA8ES AND 



EVER so. phr. Voy mudi. * He drinks * ever so/ 
EYEABLE, a. Pleasing to the eye : * more eyeaJbU, loiie/ 



FAD, *. Fancy, whim. * Its all a/aJ/ 

FADDY, a. * Finicking ,* particular. * He's a very faddy 
man:' not * finical,* in the sense of 'foppish.' Also, 
fanciful. 

FADDLE, V. To indulge and humour : ' His mother used 
to faddle him a good deal.' 

FALL-TABLE, s. A table with a fallmg leaf or flap. 

FANTODDS, #. Indisposition. A term like 'mulligrubs* 
and of the same meaning : ' He's got ihefaniodds.* 

FARRANTLY, fl| Neat and cleanly : \ * She's a nice /ar- 

FALLANTLY, a j also gay, lively, j rantly wench. 

FAST, a. Firm, solid, * sad,' ' This bread cuts so fast.* The 
word * fast,' 'citus' ' velox,^ is always * swift' here : * A 
smft coal is a fast burning coal.' 

FAT-HEN, s. Name of a plant. 'Atroplex hastata:* 
' wild orache.' 

FAVOUR, 17. and s. Resemble. * She favours her mother.' 
A good English word now in disuse. The Duke, in 
* As you like it,' says of Rosalind, * I do remember in this 
shepherd boy some lively touches of my daughter's 
favour.' Meaning countenance, as it is so often used by 
Shakespeare. Hence the word seems to have referred 
only to the face. So in the Spectator, cited by John- 
son : ' The porter owned that the gentleman favoured his 
master ;' 1. e. resembled. 



PaOVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 29 

FAZZLE, #. or) 

FEZZLE, 1 A litter of pigs. ^tt^Fezzle, 

FEECE, a. Convalescent, cheerful, and active : most com- 
monly used after indisposition or severe illness : cor- 
ruption of ^ fierce i* quod tide* 

FEBRUARY, i?ro». 

* February fill dyke 
With either black or white.* 

i. e. with either rain or snow. 

FEELTH, 8, Feeling : ' His feet is mortified and has no 
feelth in 'em.' 

FETCHEL, V. To tease or plague. * He only did it to 
fetchel him.' 

FETTLE, r. To arrange, to settle, to make tidy, or com- 
fortable. * Do you'll tie the child's things, and I'll 
fettle him.' * I mxisX, fettle me.' * Will you please to 
fettle my work for me,' said a girl to her governess. 
Baily has this word as peculiar to the north, and explains 
it thus : * To fettle to,' * To go about or set upon a 
business.' So also the Glossographia Anglicana Nova : 

* To set about or do anything.' A corruption probably 
of * to settle to,* 

FETTLE, ». Plight or * condition f* as technically used. 

* He was splashed from head to foot I Well ! he was in 
a strange /e///e." ♦ That land's quite out o{ fettle: The 
Scotch use the word fettle for energy or power of exer- 
tion. • To fettle, to tie up'— and the adj, 'fettle'-^ 

* neat,' * tight,' also * low in stature' * but well knit.' 



30 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



See Jamieson, who derives the verb — * fctyV from the 
Sueo-Gothic * faetU,' * ligamen/ 

FEW, s, I A tolerable quantity, ' considering ;' a 

A GOOD FEW, ) good ' sprinkling;* 'IVe a good few 
on my trees this year.' 

FEY, or \ V, To * fey out,' to clean or drain out. To *fey 

FAY, . ) out* a pond. In the * Craven Dialect,' I find 
this word explained, * To cast up, to cleanse, to remove 
earth.' There is much upon this word in Moore's 
* Suflfolk words.' 

FEZZLE, V. and s. To litter (pigs), a litter of pigs : * Fer- 
kelf* Germ ; but this is not the etymon of the word. It 
is derived from the very same word in Saxon feesl : — in 
Icelaiidic according to Lye — * foedsla,' not in Hickes nor 
Haldorson. 

FIERCE, a, pronounced also generally | Well in health, vi- 

FEECE, 1 gorous, * peert,' 

(from * pert') as they call it in Bucks. * I am glad to 
see you look so feece to day.' * Yes ! I'm glad to say 
I'm qmte feece,* 

FINGERS, phr, ' To see the ends of his fingers ;' to get 
drunk — ** Ah ! poor fellow ! he was alliz too fond of 
' zeeing the ends of his fingers.* He was always too 
fond of drinking. The Welsh have the phrase, * He 
lifts his little finger too often.' Another phrase here 
used for the same habit of drinking is this, — * He wants 
to know on which side of his fingers his nails grow.' 

FIRE-TAIL, a. Red-start. 

FIRK, 9. To fret, or itch, or nauseate. A patient said of 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



31 



some medicine sent him ; * It firks my stomach, and 
makes me sick/ This is evidently a corruption of fork. 
To fork is a very common process of stirring up. And 
it is called *frking muck,' when they fork dung, or turn 
manure. The Icelanders however use *frta' to irritate, 
provoke, or offend : from *Jirta^ anger. Johnson has this 
word and derives it from 'ferio:' Lat: he explains it to 'whip, 
to beat,to correct, to chastise :' and quotes Shakespeare and 
Hudibras : and again, in the sense of to * drive y' he cites 
Middleton's * Witch :* * Formerly, he adds, it was vari- 
ously used, and sometimes very licentiously.* Todd's 
Johnson. But perhaps we approach nearer to the origin 
of the word, when we look to the preposition attached to 
it in common use : and this was * tip.* To frk up. 
Now to firk or fork up may naturally mean to *stir up,' 
to teaze or irritate. Thus we have the word in Ben 
Johnson : Sir Epicure Mammon says : 
■ * That is his fire-drake, 

His lungs, his Zephyrus ; he that puffs his coals, 
Till hejirk nature Uj9, in his own centre.' 
FIRKING,*. Itching. 

FIRMY-TEMPERED, a. Discontented, covetous. * Well ! 
I wonder,' said one woman of another in Market Bos- 
worth, * that Betty B. was satisfied with the money she 
got from the clothing fund, for she's so firmy -tempered,* 
FISTLES, *. Thistles. So * Thurrows' for * furrows.' 
FIT, V. Past tense of fight. * They/^ desperately.' 
FLANTUM, a. Flabby. * The child's flesh is \erjflanium. 



32 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



FLAXEN, 9, To beat or thrash. ' I followed him up and 

flaxened him well.* 
FLAZE, r. To ignite into flame. ' This floor ca'nt flazct 
for it's made of poplar.' An apparent mixture ^flare^ 
and ^ blaze J' 
FLECKENED, a. Spottled, mottled, for 'flecked:' said 
of wood, &c. 

*■ And straight the sun was flecked with bars.' 
Ancient Mariner, 

* Flecked,' is an epithet used by Shakespeare : 

* And flecked darkness like a drunkard reels.' 
FLEAKS,) 

FLEEKS,) *• Flakes-open hurdles. 

FLEET, V, 

FLEGGED, a. Fledged. 

FLESHING-BEAM,| *. A wooden instrument used by 

FLESH-BEAM, ) tanners and * wiiiors,' or whit- 

tawerSt as they are also called. It is not quite half 
round, and supported by a stump fixed in the floor. On 
this is suspended the hide to be dressed, for the purpose 
of scraping or clearing oflf any remains of flesh, &c. 

FLESH-HOOK,or| ». An iron hook fastened to a haft or 

HIDE-H OOK, ) long piece of wood, and used to pull 
the hides from the pits. 

FLESH-KNIFE, *. A knife used by tanners to scrape or 
pare the flesh from the hide on the fleshing-beam. 

FLEW, a. Open, wide, expanded, possibly from the Saxon 
*flugol'; and that from the verb * fleogan' to fly. 
Your bonnet is too *flew,* i. e. too spreading, * trop 



PROVERBS OF lEICESTERSHIRE. 



33 



Afl«e.» Fr. * Flew^ is in Johnson : ' The large chops 

of a deep-mouthed hound/ Theseus says of his dogs in 

the Midsummer Night's Dream, 

' My hounds are bred out of the Spartan kind, 

So flawed, so sanded/ &c., 

i. e., so well mouthed, so true in colour, — of a deep sandy ^ 

&c. Johnson has attempted no derivation. Forsby in his 

Vocabulary of East AngUa, has the word, * Flue.' a. 

Shallow f but whether used at all in the sense oiflew, I 

know not. 

FLIG, and ) _ , , 

> a. Fledged, 
FLIGGED ) ^ 

FLIRT, #. A passionate fit or pet. * I did'nt call her a 
beast, that I know to ; but I might have called her an 
old beast, in a. flirt* 

FLIT, V. To tether : also to run away out of the country. 
Bailey has this word in its longer form: * Flitter- 
ing,^ s, * A staked horse eating up all the grass within 
his reach, removing from place to place.' This is the 
exact meaning of the Swedish verb, * Flytta,* and the 
Danish, * Fly iter : 

FLOTHERY, a. Fine in dress : expensively fine. < She 
was Boflothery, that she was obliged to flit.' 

FLOP, V. To throb. A man with * periostitis,' was asked 
how his leg was ? He answered, ' It's a mort better ; 
but it flops as much as ever.' 

FLOPPER, ». To flutter. ' I/opper all as if I'd no inside.' 

FLOPPER, s. A ferment inside, a disturbed state of the 
bowels ; also a fluttering sensation. 





34 



WORDS y PHRASES AND 



FLUKE, g. A kind of worm often found in the livers of sheep : 
particularly of those which have the disease called the * Rot,* 

* I never seed so manj flukes in a sheep's liver afore.' 
FLUSH, fl. Fledged. * The young one's are flush,' Flush, 

in its original sense, is * strong and vigorous.' Strange 
to say, it's etymon is not traced in any of our Dictionaries. 
It is of Gothic origin from ^fitlls* plenus, perfectus ; but 
perhaps it came to us in a nearer ^ape, from the Dutch 

* FlukSf* vigorous, active, lusty. 

FLUSKER, V, To flutter. * It fluskered it wmgs ever so :' 
speaking of a parrot, frightened by a sudden noise. 

FOAL'S-FOOT, *. Coltsfoot, a plant ; of the flowers of 
which wine is here very commonly made ; and is called 

* FoaVs-foot' and * foal-foot* wine. 

FOG, s. Rank, coarse grass, remaining all the winter, and 
impeding the new crop and mowing, in spring. It is in 
Johnson ; and derived from the Low Latin * Fogagium,' 
The word is as probably from the Gothic * fodgan' to 
feed. 

FOIL, *. Care, anxiety. * She has no/oi7.' 

FORK-SHAFT, s. Handle of a fork, whether pitchfork or 
any other. 

FOOTY, a. Diminutive, under size ; * How^o^y you are !' 

FOOTLING, a. Little, * toddling,* * I remember you a little 
footling thing.' 

FREM, or | a, i. e,, frim, succulent, and also plentiful 

FRIM, ; (Saxon * freom*) * As frem as a four year old :' 

* Aafrem as a raddish.' This word is in Johnson ; but 
it is here used also for ' abundant :' * The rooks are very 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



35 



frem this year. Used for Afresh ;^ in the sense of 
having the color, or appearance of flood, or inundation. 
' The water is quite frim,* i. e., muddy with the late 
rain : or also, *full* said of grass also : ' That field of 
clover begins to look^'wi.' 
FLOCKING, \ 6, Nervous palpitation, from */flp- 

FLOPPER. / ping: * I feel such a/qp;?erm«i< 

FLOPPERING, I in my inside (Hertz-klopfen. 
FLOPPERMENT, J Ger.) * See * Gloppen: 
FRIDGE, V, I To fray, chafe, or * rough up;* to discom- 
FRIDGEL, 0. ) pose by friction, to irritate the skin, to 
fret. * These stockings wo'nt JHdge you so much as 
coarse ones/ 
FRIDGED,;?. * The velvet got a little Jridged by travel- 
ling ;' ' They put linen on the horse after clipping to pre- 
vent the flannel from Jridging his coat/ 
FRIGGLE, V, To be tediously particular over a thing : 
< The cheese would not have been so good, if the mistress 
had been at home. Shidjriggles so long at it.' 
FULLOCK, V. To kick or knock. * I'll JuUock ye over.' 
lofullock at marbles, is to push the hand unfairly for- 
ward and too near the adversary's marble in shooting. 
FULLOCK, *. A violent rush, fall, blow, &c. * He came 
down with such afullock,* * The water came out with 
such ajullock: 
FUR- ABOUT, phr. Greatly, by far. *0h! that's the 

nearest way ^Jur -about,* 
FUSSY, a. Busy, thronged. * The shops will be quite full 
fmdju98i/,* 



36 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



FUTT, *. Foot. Pronounced as in ' cut.' 
FUTLING, 8, Footmarks, tracks of the foot, corruption of 
* Footlinks.' 



GAD, V. To run wildly over the field, said of cattle, irritated 
by the gad, or gadfly. This verb is in Johnson, in this 
sense, under the word * Gadfly,' which he defines to be a 
fly, that when it stin^ the cattle, makes them gad or 
run madly about. Perhaps, * goad-^jf' originally. 

GAFFER, s. The foreman of a set of laborers, engaged in 
any particular job, or piece of work ; — or, in other words, 
the deputed over-looker of the rest. Also, the Head, 
Master, or Principal. A turnpike-man said, he was 
* going to see his goffer ;' meaning the man, who farmed 
the Toll, and put him in the post of Gate-keeper. No 
doubt from ' gefeeder.' A. S. ' iuscepiWy and that from 
' gefadian,' adminiiiraire, 

GAIN, a. Good-tempered, willing, obliging. 

GALLY, pronounced | a. Hairing bare patches, as on a field 

GAWLY, ) of wheat. Probably from the bare 

places, left on a horse, from ^being galled. < That crop's 
rather gaily. * 

GATTARDS, adv. Gatewards, or towards the gate. < Will 
you go a gattarda with me ?' i. e., Will you accompany 
me as far as the gate on my way home ? The regular 
Saxon word of *■ motion to,* * weard.' The Greeks had the 
same facility of expressing this by the affix $c, as in etXaSe, 
SojuovSe, &>o()^v$'e, OuXujU^rovSe/ &c. Grose has the word 



PKOVERRS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



37 



' agates* or * agateward,* as meaning only ' on the way ?^ 
* I will set you * agates,' or * agateward :* I will accom- 
pany you part of the way.* 

GATHER, V. A term used in dairies. * Gather the curd in 
the pan/ i. e., sink the curd under a bowl in the pan 
and ladle off the whey from it. 

GATHERING.TUB, s. A tub used in brewing, into which 
the whole brewing of beer is poured. 

GAUNT, a. Reduced in strength, as well as thin. * He has 
become so gaunt and faint,' * so gaunt and low.' This 
varies a little from the old sense ' meagre and thin' only. 

GAWLEY,9. A blockhead. 

GAWPING, a, or p. (Corruption of * gaping,*) staring 
vacantly. * What's the fool gawping at ?' 

GEDD, s. The * gedd' is a disease in sheep, attended by 
giddiness from which the name is taken. It is called in 
Shropshire the * kymati* a corruption possibly of ' cli- 
mate,' it being an affection of the head supposed to be 
produced by the state of the atmosphere. 

GER, V, Vulgarism for * get /' * Moi oi, surry lad ! yo'll 
hae't when you ger wom' — * What for ?' * For breaking 
the bottle and spilling the rum.' 

GHIMMER, s, A female sheep of a year old. 

GILT, *. A young sow which has not yet had pigs. * YelV 
is an old English word for a young sow. 

GIZZLING, a. Giggling, siUy, giddy. 

GLAVERING, *. Deceitful profession, or « blarney,' as it 
is called. * Clavering.'— Chattering, Scottish, * klaffer.' 
Germ, a talker. 



38 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



GLEED, s. Hot glowing cinders : for a warming-pan, for 
instance. Used by Chaucer, Sax. * Gled.* See Johnson. 
All the Gothic dialects have the word. < Glod :* Dan : 

* Gloed :* Icel : and *Gl«dnr :'— *Gloed :' Swed : * Gloed :' 
Dutch, 

GLIDE, V. To slide on the ice. 

GLOPPEN. A woman was going to tell her story to ' ihi 
master,' (that old and scriptural term, Tid : Mark v. 35.) 
as every head of a house is here called, * but,* she re- 
marked, * when I heard him coming, it brought such a 

* gloppen* over me that I could hardly speak ;' i. e. ner- 
vous agitation. It is used also to denote tendency to 
sickness or palpitation, ' klopfen* to knock or beat. 
Teut : or embarrassment, more likely : (spelt in Ger- 
man, * kloppe' or * klopfe,* dilemma, or perplexity,) 

* Herz-klopfen* is a palpitation of the heart. 

GLUE, *. Glow or white heat of a fire. * The gleeds are 
all in a glue»' 

GLUMY, or ^ a. Glowing or burning hot. A woman 

GLOOMY, or s. who was an invalid, said she felt ' a 

GLOOMING. J glooming coldness' — ^i. e. a feverish sen- 

sation of heat and chilliness. 

* TO GO LIKE A THACKER,' phr. To get on fast or 
well, like a thacker. ' He went like a thacker,* 

GOING, p. For going to. * Are you going Leicester ?' 

GOLD-FINCH, *. Yellow-hammer. 

' GOOD-DEAR-A-ME !' int. ' Oh ! dear ! 

GOODISH-FEW, a. A tolerable or moderate quantity. 

* How are you oflf for apples this year ?' * Well ! I sup- 
pose I shall have a * goodish-few,* 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



39 



GORN, 8. A milk. pail. Pronounced also * Gawn* — cor- 
ruption of * Gallon.' 

oo^'^i- To besmear. 
GORM. ) 

GORMING, or") Awkward, gawky, uncouth, ungain, 

GAWMING. ) (* Garmr* is a good-for-nothing person, 
in Icelandic, but this word applies more to gesture.) 

GORSEHOOK, or| Billhook: properly for cutting gorse 

GOSSHOOK. } or furze. Pronounced * yo*«ti*.' 

GOSS-HATCH, *. The female and young of the wheat-ear. 

GORSE, or GOSS-LINNET, ». Common linnet. 

GOSSIP, 8, Used here in the sense of * sponsor.' * Who 
were the gossips* i. e. the godfathers and godmothers.' 

GOSTER, V. To overbear in talking, to swagger. 

GOSTERING, p. Chattering, blustering : ' She's such a 
gostering woman' (gossiping ?) The Irish say * He's 
coshering f gone a gossiping.' ' Let's sit and have a good 
coshering, 

GRATTLE, v. To click or strike together, (from < grate,* 
* The horses heels' grattle,* 

GRAUNCH, Vj ^ To give a sound as of crushing or 

GRAUNCHING, p, ) grinding to fragments. * I am sure 
it freezes, for I heard the ice graunching under the 
wheels of the carriage.' Crunching is a term applied to 
grinding acorns between the teeth of a pig ; al:* scrunch- 
ing,* They are in fact the same word, and evidently 
taken from the sound. 

* IN THE GREAT,' phr. By the piece—* They get more in 
the summer, when they work *y,' or * in the great.' Not 
confined to Leicestershire. 



40 



WOBDS, PHRASES AND 



GREEDY, a. Ayaricious, niggardly. ' She's so greedy , 
she has welly clammed hersen/ 

GREEN-LINNET, *. The * green-finch.' 

GRINDLESTONE, *. Grindstone. 

GROUDLY, a. Grumhling, discontented— < A groudly 
woman.' 

GROUSE, s. Gravel. 

GROUSY, a. Gravelly i sandy. 

GRUDGINGS, s, A finer sort of bran :' but not so fine as 
pollard : called also * shorts and sharps.* 

GRUMPY, a. Hard, stifif, crisp. * It froze hard at ten, and 
the ground was quite grumpy.* The word is used else- 
where for * surly' ' ill-tempered,' * sulky.' Savours 
of * grumus* and * grumosus* — ^rugged with dots or 
lumps. Lat. 

GURGLE, s. Gullet Cgorga, ItaLJ He had hardly said the 
words, * May God strike me dumb,' when his tongue 
slipped down his * gurgle.' Report of an event at Hinck- 
ley in 1847. 



HAAP, *. A call for the cows. ' They used, when I was a 
boy, to call the cows with a haapf now they call 'em 
with a hoop.* 

HACKNEY, V. To ride. * He'll do very well to drive, but 
he's not any longer safe to hackney.* 

HADES, s. (Pronoimced as a monosyllable.) Headlands, 
or part of a field not ploughed. The more common term 
in central Leicestershire is ' AdlandSp* i. e., Headlands. 



FROYERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 41 

HAGGING, p. or a. Fatiguing. * I've walked all the way 

and do'nt want to come again, it's so haggvng^^ somewhat 

akin to ' fagging' or fatiguing. 
HAGGY, a. Rough and stiff. * A haggy road,' * Haggy 

work for the horses.' 
HAMGAMS, s. Antics. ' He's been at some of his ham- 

gamsJ' No doubt, like * fisty-cuffs,' and * pull-caps.' 

A compound term from wrestling — or other ' Aam' -games. 
HANCE, or \ v. (From * handsel,' * hansel,' Dutch^ to do 
HANSE, ) or use anything for the first time,) to give 

earnest to, or a retaining present. ' I hope ma'am you'll 

hance me,' said a new-come servant to her mistress; 

who immediately gave her the usual compliment of half- 

a-crown. 
HAND-HOOK, s, A hook used by butchers, with which 

the breast of an ox, sheep, calf, &c., is broken back into 

form for cooking. 
HAND'S-CHAIR, (char ?) phr. * I have no one to do a 

hanePS'Chair for me, i. e. , I have no one to assist me. 

No doubt from the old word * chavy* or * charey^ a * job,' 

* day's-work :' whence the word * char-woman ;' (Sax. 

cyrr.) Shakspeare has the word : — Cleopatra says 
' No more, but e'en a woman, and commended 
By such poor passion, as the maid that milks 
And does the meanest chares,^ — Ant, and Cleop, 
HANTEL, or \ s. Trouble, labour, scuffle, also a * hand- 
HANTLE, ] ful,' and ' much,' * I can't teU you what 

a hantlCj I had with him,' said a woman of a violent old 

man, disordered in mind. ' A hantle of gold.' 



42 



WORDSf PHRASES AND 



HANTY, pronoanced 1 a. Said of a horse, pampered, over- 
HAUNTY, > fed, and therefore spirited and 

restive. 
HAPPEN, ad. Mayhap: perhaps. 'Happen she may:' 
and * HappeUj alone, in answer, meaning, * Yes ! very 
likely.' A medical man had desired a little gruel to be 
given to a poor woman, a patient ; and, calling next day, 
he asked her husband, if he had given his wife the gruel ! 

* Y'es,' said he ; * I gave her the gruel.' * And how much 
did she drink V ' Happen^ three quarts,' was the answer 

HARD-IRON, *. Name of a plant. * Atriplex Patula ?' 

* Spreading halbert-leaved Orache. ' 
HARE-SHORNE, a. A Hareshome lip. A hare-lip. The 

lip with a part shortit or clipped, or slit, like that of a 

hare. 
HASKY, a. Dry and harsh. * The skin is dry and haakyJ 
HASSOCK, ». I A coarse sedgy grass, found in tufts on 
HASSOCKY, a. ] bad land. 
HASTENER, *. Meat-screen : for the fire to hasten the 

roasting. 
HAT-BAT, 8, Bat. The animal commonly called here also 

the * bloody-bat,* 
HAVE, V, n. Is frequently used for to be, * Whoy yeau 

have /' ' Whoy oi have*nt naow,* * Whoy yeaor*ve a 

loiar'* * Whoy yeaor*ve another.' * Whoy oi avent,* 

So again, ' OVve in a hurry.' It is amusing to observe 

this Greek substitute of Sx*^ ^or elfx), 
HAZZLED, a, Chapped, vide Azzled, 
HEE, *. Hay. They have a saying here with respect to 

haymaking : 



FBOVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



43 



* If the wind's in the East on Easter {Day) — * dee* 
You'll have plenty of grass, but little good (hay) — * hee,) 

' OFF HIS HEAD.' Phr. When a person is deranged, or 
has lost his senses, he is said to be ' off his head,* * If 
he did not look after the pigs and cows, he'd go * off his 
head.* 

HEART-HULL, a, (Heart-whole.) Sound in health ; not 
ailing in constitution. A son, speaking of his aged mo- 
ther, then 99, said to me. * She's quite well in health :' 
' She's heart-hull : but then she's stone-deaf : she 
answers so contrary.' 

HEATFUL, a. Very hot, scorching. * How heatful the 
fire is !' A useful word : we have * heatless* already as 
an acknowledged term. 

HEDGE-JUG, *. A name given to the * Long Tail,* or 
Barrel Titmouse.* By others, it is called also the * Gol- 
den- Crested- Wren.* The descriptions of others again 
make it a * Willow-Wood-Wren ;* but of which kind is 
uncertain ; as the same bird is called indiscriminately a 

* Hedge-jug,* and a * Bank-jug,* (q. v.) probably accord- 
ing as the nest is formed in a * Hedge,* or in a ' Bank.* 
It has likewise the names of the ' Bottle Tit,* and * Bot- 
tle Jug :* and this seems to decide in favor of the * Bar- 
rel Titmouse,* whose nest is of a long oval or ' Bottle* 
shape. 

HEDGY, a. Eager, see * Edgy.* * He was a very subtle- 
minded horse, and uncommon hedgy. He'd go at any- 
thing.' 

HETHER, s. A snake, or rather ' adder.* * JStter,' and 

* iEttor.' A. S. 



44 



woBBS, ramjksm» a39 



aid cwtawsW 'Tins k^ b KCfy - A^44iritfem.' 

HILL,v. Tocofcr; MfkeiH^inlA. Snn«AiIa,>Tid. 
'£rilSiiy/ 

HILLED,j». GcnenDy 'Atlfal 17/ * WiBL j€m ht iUUd 
wpT* Le.y wiUjvmbeeoifaed vitlibedcloAa? 

HILLING,*. Beddotlics,diedts,UnkdlB,coiaiidL 'She 
hnea/trnfUmmftttSL' Ger. ' iUfltf to wr^ one's 
idfi^. AsvdlaiSnn«ifci£a,'tES»e. Snd alss in 
Wannc]ahiie,ordiecofCfsormbook,*FBli^s! It is 
UOimf, wUdi makes it so caqmsivc.' 

HINGT,c. Sndarbeer'i9,-'«oodie«otk«"oodiefict.' 
A cask had come in hj land carnage, aid ^unit's aheir- 
ing sjuifilo ms of frmimtation, die nnn sud : ' Wh j, 
blesa ye. Madam, its onlj a little kofy,' 

HISSENZE,and \ „. ^ 

HISSEN, jl 

HITTER, a. Anstj, iD-natered. ' I asked die Ovcfsccfs 
for a Ut o* money, and thej were ever so kiiUr mi me.' 

HOCK,#. Shodc,huiior'mop>(Ta]s.)<>fl"U'- 'They're 
hBO^ODg at die man vith die hairy ioct.' 

HODGELmG,a. Hobbling. 

HOIGH and LOIKE, pkr. (High and like.) Assoredly. 
' Did joa dnie diere to-day ?' ' Hoigk mmd loike I did.' 
A Inoad oomqytion of ' Aye and Uke :' or likdy as here 
p rono un ced — ' (H mmd Uriie,* L e., ' Aye, probably.' ' Ja 
' zekeifyk.' Dotdi, wfaidi it somewhat resembles. 

H06GERIL,or 

LAMBHOG, 



I 9. Yearling dieep. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



45 



HOICK, I V. To gore. ' Was he hoicked by a cow, 

HOICK AT, i or kicked by a horse?" The cow AotcArcrf 
at my dog.* 

HOLT, *. Hold. * To take holt,' (phrase;) ' to take hold 
of.* The phrase here is used absolutely ; * Old habits 
are not easily got shut qf, when they have taken holt.* 

HOLT, «. An osier bed, plantation, or shrubbery : a con- 
fined application of the Saxoii ' holt,' a wood or grove. 

HOLTS, «. Debates or disputes. * I had several arguments 
and holts with him !* i. e., holts , or holdings , of dispute. 

HOMPER, V, (Corruption of * hamper*) to hinder. * Mr. 
— ^— is a strange person, he does homper one so. 

HOOMBLE-COOM-BOOZ,*. Vulg. Humble-bee. There is 
a ludicrous story. told here, that a boy, eating plum-cake, 
said to his mother : ' Moother ! have plooms got ony 
legs ?* * No ! my lad I* said his mother ; * Then,* cried the 
boy, ' Moother, oi*ve swallowed a hoomble-coom-hooz !' 

HOOT, V, To cry out, to bawl, to bark, to bellow : — in 
short, to make any loud noise, either as a child after its 
mother : ' She*s all*ys a hooting a'ter me,* or, as hounds 
after the fox : * I just heard *em a hooting in the spinney.' 

HOPPET, or W. A small (generally oval) basket; with 

HOPPIT, ) a lid, in which labourers carry out their 

victuals for the day. 

HOPPLES, *. and I Straps for the legs ; * A horse is hop- 

HOPPLE, V, } pled sometimes in the lanes,* i. e. 

has one leg strapped to the other. 

HOSSACKING, *. Hoarseness or * hnskiness,* of which it 
is a corruption. See *Hust* and ^Husting,* 



46 



WO&DS, PHRASES ANp 



HOT, V. To heat. * There's no hot water, but I'll hot some/ 
HOT and I Pret. and part, of to hit, * He hot me 
HUT. ) first. 
HOTCHEL, V, Corruption of hobble. * I can but just 

hotchel.* 
HOT-ACHE, s. Really the * cold ache :* pain from intense 

cold chiefly in the fingers. Also, the pain, when they 

are brought to the fire/ 
HOTTLE, *. A fingerstall. Called a * hutiin* in Norfolk : 

a sheath, or glove-covering for the finger, when hurt or 

sore. ' Hutchen,' Germ : ' a little hat ;» * hod.» A. S. 

• hood,' a hood. * Hiiten,' Germ : * to cover or guard.' 
Johnson has omitted ^fingerstall ;* and Todd has not in- 
serted it. Probably an abbreviation, of * hoodstalV 

HOUSEN. Plural of * house.' So ^ placen* md closen,* 
&c., &c. The ancient plurals, pronoimced with a ' z ' 
for the * s' and * c' 

HUBB or HOOB, *. The hob. 

HUDDED, p. Hooded. Said of com covered in with a 
sheaf reversed placed over another sheaf. 

* HUDSON'S PIG.' Proverb. See ' if^.' 

HULL, Vf pronounced I Used both for to *hurV and * hale / 
HOOLL. ) probably a corruption of each. 

* Hull the ball up !' To *hull dowiC or *©»«•,* to throw 
down, * He hulled him dovm off his horse.' Not merely 
to pull, but to throw down. A woman said of an in- 
fant : * It o*oled itsen into fits strate away.' 

* HULL UP,' V, To vomit. * She hooled oop blood wonderful.' 
HULLY, flrf. Wholly. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



47 



HUNCKITY, a, A corruption of ' unhid* lonely ; quasif 

* unkidy ? 
HURBURR, 8, Burdock. 

HUllCKLE, \ V, To cower and contract the body as 
HURCKLE UP.) in sickness. 'I do not like the looks 

of that beast, it hurckies up so,* 
HURDEN. Coarse kind of linen (in Johnson.) 
HURRY, V, Flurry, vex, or * put about? • I've been very 

much hurried this morning ; for I've just heard of the 

death of my old friend T .' 

HUSTLE, V, To vex, annoy, * put about. * I've been a 

good deal hustled this morning.' 
HUST, ^ *. A cough. * The Mill-meadow always gave 
BUSTING, j the cows a ' hust,' * I used to physic 'em 

for the ' husting* This comes from the German ' hus- 

ten,* a cough : and the Icelandic ' hoste* a cough, and 

* hosta* to cough. So. the Swedish ' hosta* to cough, 
and * hostande* coughing, and the Danish, ' Hosten* and 

* hostening* coughing, from * hoste' a cough, and * hoster* 
to cough. Our word ' huskg^* which meant at first only 
' having a cough^^ has the same derivation. The Scotch 
have * Hostf* * Hoast* * Hoist,' (See Jamieson) in the 
sense of a * cough,* &c. 

HYKE, V, To * run at' or * gore,' as a bull or cow. See 

* Hoike^ which is the general pronunciation. 

IGGLES, 8. Icicles. See * Aigles? 

INSENSED, p. Apprised. ' I've insensed the Master.' 

* I've insensed Mr. A. that his flour is unsound.' 



48 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



IT, pron. For it's. * It little face is ever so bad.' * It 
discharge firom it eyes, it ears, and it mouth.' 

JAGG, *. A large bundle of briars, used for breaking the 
clods of the ploughed fields — < Take the cart and fetch a 
jagg of thorns.' 

JAY-BIRD pro. ) , j^ 

JEE-BIRD. j *' *^* 

JEDD. a. Dead. * Vm wellg jedd,> 

JERK, V. Said of partridges. * They are going to jerk,' i. e. 
to settle for the night on the ground. 

JIGGOT, *. Leg of Mutton. (Fr. gigot) * Luckily we 
had a good lAtgejiggot of mutton for dinner.' 

JINGLING, a. Careless, slipshod : ' He goes about it in a 
jingling way.' 

JINK, V, Corruption of * jingle,* or * chink.' * It jinks 
like glass ;' it sounds or rings like glass, when struck. 

JITTY, s, A passage common to two houses. Corrupted 
probably from *jettee,* the same as * jutty,' from *jut,* 
to project, and that from the French *jetee,* and that 
from ^jiter* or rather ' sejiter/ to run forward. 

JOB, V. and s,, and Proverb. To stab or wound with a blow ; 
and also to job or do a piece of work. The former is in 
Johnson. Prov. * Well now ! — I've jobbed the job,* 
as the woman said, when she jobbed her eye out.' 

JOISTER, or | (i. e., * Agister^) an animal taken in to ley 

JEISTER, ) or to * tack,^ as it is called in Gloucester- 
shire : i. e., to be fed or pastured on grass, generally of 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



49 



eddish or lattermath. A good old word of the same 
origin with * agistment* which is the act and process of 
feeding heasts on the land at a stipulated price. In Ec- 
clesiastical law, it means the tithe of profit, made hy such 
pasturage. A 'joister*, however, is received into the 
strawy ard also. 
JOBBLE, 8. \ A cartload up to the top of the boards ; not 
JOWILL, *, / a full cart load. The latter is called a 
JOWLE, or i cart load. Somewhat more than a wheel- 
JOVEL, ] barrow will hold. Probably * a little 

jobf' or undertaking of such removals. 
JOWL, V, To knock or push violently. * He jowled her 

head against the wall, till she could not blow her nose.' 
JUCK, or I s. Coat. * I waiit him to put his Juck on.' 
JERK, ) A corruption probably of * jerkin* or jacket. 

Sajp. 
JUMBAL, s, A particular kind of thin little cakes in this 
form St made of something like seed cake, but hard and 
crisp, with caraways in them, and about three inches long 
and the eighth of an inch thick. Bosworth is famous for 
the best specimens of this cake. I stumbled the other day 
on the word in the old English translation of * Scarron's 
Novels.' Jumble is not the derivation in my opinion. 
Perhaps, *Jaune balle :' Fr. I have not a Scarron to see 
what it is in the original. In Dr. Adam Littleton's Lat. 
Die. 4to. Ed. 1703, 1 find the term * JumboV xmdLev * Strib- 
lita — » : Mart : T^t^hiryii a rptMSf quod circuitu, restis 
in modum, torqueretur. A tart, or kind of cake twisted 
about like a rope, Jumbols.' 'The word is written also 

D 



50 



WORDS, PHRASBS AND 

Scriblita. It is found in Varro, as \reU as Cato, Plantos, 
and Petronius ; and in each should be written streblita, a 
spt$}<ii quod a t^/^w. The Italian word ioria has origi- 
nally the same meaning, h * torqueo* to twist, and it is a 
curious fact, that the Bosworth Jumbals are made first in 
a sort of tivisi or cord. 



KAG, V. To * kag about' — ^To * potter about :' doing some- 
thing about the house. 

KASING, «. * As drj as & kaainff.' (qu? * ciuinff,*) 

KEACH, «. I picked the * keach' for her : i. e. ' I picked 
out the best for her.' I can find this word nowhere else. 
It appears to me to come from the Dutch * keestf' — the 
pith, marrow or quintessence ; or the Icelandic * kyt* to 
choose. 

KEDLACK, «. A weed — Charlock. In Johnson. 

KELL, «. For ' caul,' omentum, &c. Also for any coyering 
or enclosing membrane : — ^The ' kelV of the eye in 
cataract, &c. The first sense is in Johnson. 

K£NSH, V. ^ To shut up close, or in a small space. < I 

KENSH UP, 1 have kenshed it up.' To « kewth' pota- 
tos, is to camp them, or inclose them under a coyering 
of straw, &c. in a large heap. 

KERK, *. Called also * keck,* — one of those conyenient 
names of plants so often applied to several kinds. Here 
the word * kerk* is applied to the * Wild Angelica.* 

KICK, V. To sting. * What's the matter with your hand ?* 
* A wope kicked it yesterday.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



51 



KIDS, «. Little faggots. (' A bundle of heath or fiirze :' 
Johnson, from the Welsh * cidweluy meaning * cydwe,*) 

KIMNEL. A large vessel or tub, used for whey, ' set up for 
whey, butter,* &c. * Kimnil — Kimling' in Lincolnshire, 
or ' kimnel,' as they term it in Worcestershire.' ' Little' 
ton*8 Latin Die' 

KITTLING,*. Kitten. 

KNOW-rO, phr. To know qf: * I knauow to some birds 
nayzen,* * I did not know to his going.' 

KNOWN, V, For * Anew,' * I known him long ago.' This 
use of the participle for the preterite or past tense, is con- 
stantly used here. * I seen him.' * I gin him.' * I done 
him.' ' I la*en him.' 



LACK, *. Hurt or damage. * He, or it wo»nt take lack :' 
i. e. will not take injury. Qu : corruption of ' to take 
let :' i. e. hindrance, interruption, and, at length, 

* damage ?' 

LADE-6AWN, s. A vessel for lading : a ' lade-gallon,' or 

* ga'on.' — ^An abbreviation. 

LADY-COW, *. Insect. * Lady-bird' (in Johnson.) 

LAGGED, a. In cracks or splits, chiefly from the centre, 
from heat or hasty drying. * This wood*s sadly lagged,* 

LAP, «. Used for * leaf or * fold/ as a * three-lapped clothes- 
horse,' or * clothes-horse with three laps,' i. e. leaves. 

LAPPED UP IN. * Wrapped up in'— i. e. fond of, attached 
to. — * He's no friend to the poor. I be'ant no wise lap- 
ped up in him,^ 



•^-^ WORDS, PHRASES AND 



LAMB-HOG, *. YearliDg sheep. 

LASH-OUT, V. To kick and be restive or frisky.—* He's 
apt to lash out J i. e. to * launch out J 

LATTING, I * Letting,* or « lating ;' i. e. hindering. * Its 

LATTIN, a, ) very lattin weather !' meaning weather 
which * lets,* or, obstructs and retards, the operations of 
husbandry. 

LAZY-BACK, s. An iron implement to support a frying-pan 
or * pikelet iron* over the fire. Deriyed, it is said, from 
its being a saving or indulgence to the lazy-back of the 
Cook. — I wish they had many such ! 

LEAF, s. The great covering of the intestines. 

LEAM, V, n. To drop or leap out of the hull. Said of fil- 
berts and nuts. 

LEAM, a. * A learn nut.' A perfectly ripe nut, which 
bounds from the hull. A * learn of lightening' is an old 
English expression for a. flash or * outbreak,' 

LEATHER-STAVE, s. A joint of beef at the flank, near 
the ribs. 

LEAST-WISE. At least,— (' saltem.') 

LEA-WATER, s. Clear water (corruption.) 

LIG, *. A lie. Proverb : 

* You thought a lig, 
Like Hudson's pig ; — 
Says Harry to Dick, — * Well ! and what did he thought ?' 
rejoins Dick; * Why he thought,' replies Harry, *they 
was going to kill'en : and they only run a ring through 
it nose.' 

LIGHT, *. A number or quantity. * A light of tups.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



53 



LIMB, V. To tear limb from limb. 'A good cat would 

limb it at once.' In Johnsdn. 
LINGE, V. To lean. — * Linging* against the mantelpiece. 

Probably a corruption of * lounge.* 
LIQUOR-STRUCK, a. Affected, or slightly intoxicated by 

drinking. 
LOCUST, *. Cockchafer. 
TO LOOK UP OR OOP. To look sharply after ; to take 

to task, or to rebuke. * He wants looking up,* 
* TO BE AT A LOOSE END/ phr. That feUow's always 

' at a loose end:* that is, idling, or, as they call it here, 

' shacking about,* Probably a metaphor from the stocking 

or weaying-frame. The threads found sometimes on the 

surface of linen, badly got up, are called * loose ends* 
LOUK, or I V. To beat or thrash : * he lowked him well :' 
LOWK. ) i. e. he gave him a * good hiding ,* as it is also 

called. 
LOVING, a. Hard — not easy to separate — a metaphorised 

vulgarism. * These stones have so loving, 1 can hardly 

mosh 'em.' 
LUMMOCK, «. A lump : * Cut me a lummock of flip flop ;^ 

a cant word for ' bacon.' 
LUNGEOUS, a. Restive ; said of a young horse. Also 

wilful, hasty, violent ; said of man or woman. ' Please, 

Sir ! Ward's so * lungeous I* * I don't loike being a 

soger (soldier ;) its such lungeous work.' 
LURRY, *. Bustle or hurry. 
LUSCIOUS, a. Strong in smell, offensive. Speaking of a 

very stinking drain, ' Its woonderful looscious.* The 



54 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



derivation of our English woird * /t»A,* is by no means 
obvious. It's old meaning appears to have been 'juicy/ 

* succulent/ and * luxuriant.* Shakespeare has ' How 
lush and lusty the grass looks ! How green !' Tempest, 
What is said by Johnson from Hanmer about * lousche,* 
Fr., as the etymology, appears entirely irrelevant. ' Lous- 
che' was the old form of * louche* squinting and meta- 
phorically, ' ambiguous,' from the Latin ' luscuSf' and 
that perhaps from X^^o; obliquus. I am told that the 
word * lush* is used here for * mud' or * slush,* as it is 
sometimes called : but I have never heard it. The Ger- 
mans have the word ' Itische* for a ' puddle :' and the 
British word * Llyz* anything poured out, and * Llyzu,' 
to ' pour,' seem connected in sound. But the term most 
nearly approaching the etymon appears to be the Lap- 
ponic or Lapland adjective ' JJusskos* fluid. 

LUSHY, a. Rather * tipsy,' or *Jreshf* as it is here called ; 
This is perhaps an ironical application of the old adjective 

* lush* — * succulent.' 

MAKE, V. Fasten. * To make the door :' i. e. to make fast, 
an elliptical expression. * Make the doors upon a wo- 
man's wit, and 'twill out at the key-hole.' — Shakspeare, 

* As you like it,* * Mache das thor zu* Germ. 
MAKE, ». To steal : jocularly — * How came you by that ?' 

* Oh ! I made it.' — quasi, — * meumfeci* 

MAN6, s. Confused mass or mixture. ' All of a mang 
loike :' i. e. all, as it were, mashed or jumbled together. 

TOO MANY, phr. Applied to every thing. * The weather 
is too many for him.' * His cough is too many for him.' 



PROYEBBS OF LEICESTBR8HIBE. 



55 



MARKET.MERRY :— Excited by liquor, 'freBh,' as it is 
also called. 'Oh no ! He's not drunk ! He's only 
marheUfMrry,^ 

MARLS, «. Marbles, for boys' play. 

MARTLEMAS, «. Martin-mas : i. e. Nov. 11th. There is 
a common saying in this country, respecting early ice, 
which, they say, betokens a wet winter ; 
' When ice before Martlemas bears a dooTc, (ducky 
Then look for a winter of mire and mooh.^ (muck) 

MASH-RULE, s. Instrument for stirring up the malt in the 
* Mash-tub.' 

MASLIN-KETTLE, «. A brass kettle, either shallow or 
deep, to boil milk in, used by the farmers : either from 
the Dutch and German * messing t* * brass ;* or perhaps 
from the Latin * miscelare/ * miscelOf* unde * miacellaneat 
whence our old English word < maslin :* a sort of mizt 
bread. 

MASSACRED. Embarrassed. 

THE MASTER, t, * The Master,'— the husband, head of 
the house. * The Master is'nt at home.' Wives use it 
always, as well as servants. * Let the Master know.' 
Commonly used of old in the country, and found repeat- 
edly in the Gospels. 

MASTERFUL, a. (A good word) violent. * She's a most 
masterfuUest temper :* but the word is also used by most 
respectable persons, and is in Johnson, though really 
provincial. 

MAUNDER, ) ' Poor,' helpless. *A maundenng 



MAUNDERING, ) couple." 



.! 



56 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



MAUL, or 1 To fatigue or tire out, to wear down by any- 

MOIL, or L thing oppressive, ' curis, labore, dolore 

MAWL. J conficere !' Turmoil,' or * Tearmoil* 

(the Etymologists give * Tremouille,' Fr., * a millhqpper,' 
not a bad illustration at all events ! and Turma, Lat. or 
* Durbula,' as the source of this word) is of this family, 
from, * Moil* labor. * It's a mauling job ;' was a phrase 
given me. 

MAWKIN, *. A scarecrow, written also * Malkin' derived 
by Bailey, Johnson, Skinner, &c., from * Mall' in a con- 
traction of Mary and kin ; but why, is not so easily seen. 
The word used to mean a mop or seovel for ovens. The 
fact is, the Dutch word for scarecrow is * Molik ;• and 
from the diminutive * Molikin* we have the word at once. 
Thompson in his * English etymons' seems to have mis- 
taken the derivation. 

MAW-BOUND, a. An epithet applied to sheep, calves, &c., 
when over-gorged and the maw or stomach is oppressed 
vrith indigestion. 

MAWMS, *. Or rather to * make maumu :' i. e., to * make 
faces.' ' I can't go out of my door, without he's making 
mawma at me.' Perhaps from ' mawmet,* (Mahomet) an 
old word for an idol, puppet, or ugly image. 

MAWMSEY, *. A clownish, silly fellow. * He's a poor 
mawmaey,' 

MAWSKIN, *. The maw of a calf dried ;. of which is made 
the rindles or rennet, used for turning the milk, i. e. 
coagulating it into curds. 

MEAN, V, To ' signify,' in it's neuter sense. * It does'nt 
mean/ * it does'nt signify,' or * matter.' 



PROVERBS or LEICESTERSHIRE. 



57 



MERE-STONE, s. A landmark or boundary stone. From 
the old word * mere' or *march,* Saxon * mear,* ter- 
minus. Goth. Marca. 

MIDGERUM-FAT, 8. The fat of the intestines. The but- 
cher said, * You must have the midgerum-fat :' i. e., the 
buyer must take that too. 

MIS-DEEMING, a. Suspicious. * She's sadly miadeeming,' 

MIS-DOUBT, V, To disbelieve, to have a doubt of. * If 
you miadoubtt me, you can send and ax,* 

MISS. Used alonef for the eldest daughter. 

MITTENS, «. * Hedging mittens :' commonly made of whit- 
leather, having a thumb and hand-covering but no fingers. 

MOFFLE, V. Corruption of Muffle. 

MOFFLING. Not to be depended upon. < He's a shuffling, 
moffling sort of fellow.* Also weak, infirm. * I'm so 
very mofflingf* said a weak, decrepid old man to me : 
1. e., tottering. 

MOIRE, and Phr., «. Mire. * There is'nt a pin to choose 
i' the two. One's as bad as the to'ther : one's as deep i' 
the mud, as the to'ther i' the moire.' 

MOITHERED, p. Overcome. * Moithered with heat.' 

MOITHER, V, To flurry, to annoy, to teaze, or tire out, 
' ermiiden :' Teut : or rather the absolete verb of the 
part : now adjective, * miide.' 

MOLLICRUSH, v. A vulgarism, like the use of the verb 
* nuuaaeree ;' and is meant to convey an alarming threat 
to children between * demolish,' I presume, and * crush.' 
' If you do'nt have done with that noise, I'll moUicrtuh 
ye.' 



58 



WOBDSi PHRASES AND 



MOPSTALE, *. Mop-handle or stick. 

MORT, 8. An old woman told a gentleman, she had * a mart 
of chickens/ and upon his asking her * how many that 
was ?* her answer is recorded to have been, * one or two's 
a few : three's a mayny : four's a mortJ A heap or 
quantity, * a mort of pigs,' * a mart of snow.' From 
' morgV Icelandic says Johnson, which I know nothing 
about. Perhaps * margvy a number of people is meant. 
More likely from the A. Saxon : ' marth* power, yast- 
ness, grandeur. 

MOSH, «. (Corruption of * smash,* or ^massacre:*) to kill 
by blows : (atsommer : Fr.) to beat to death. ' I thought 
that she would have moshed her children then and there, 
and she would, if I had not been there, and put 'em out 
of her way.' 

MOWED OUT, (pron. hard, like * cow.') p. Crowded. A 

room is said to be mowed out : * You are completely 

mowed out,' i. e., have no room to stir. 

MOOF, ) 

,-.^^«,,^»« I «• Dull, stupid. 

MOOFLING, ) ' ^ 

MOONSHINE, V. n. and a. To run away by night to avoid 

creditors, &c. 
MOOT, V. Must. * She moot ha' been very pretty.' 
MOWLT,*. A moth. 
MOULDY-WARF, *. A mole. C Mould-warp' and 

* mouldy warp/ in Johnson.) 
MOZY, a. Muggy, as it is called : — ^weather both hot and 

damp : but the word is also applied here to food affected 

by such weather, as * The beef is quite mozy.* (Probably 



PROVBRBS OF LEICB8TX&8H1BB. 



69 



from the Welsh or British ' Mws,' the origin of our word 

* Must* and * Musty.' 
MUCK, *. ) 
MUCK,.. 1 Manure; whence 

MUCK-CART, *. 

MUCK-FORK,*. Dung-fork. 

MUCK-HEAP, «.. Dunghill. 

MUCK-HOOK, «. A fork to pull the dung up, when hard 

or trampled on. 
MUDGE, «. Mud. The ground when moistened with rain 

into a thick consistence. Our old word from the Sax. 

is *• sludge,* 
MUD6INGS, «. Fat about the * rapty or small intestines 

of a pig. 
Jfl^FjPNOR \ Pronounced: ' Moofnor MoomJ •He 
3£UMy Phr. ) said no moore ; neither ' mt^ nor 

mum :* i. e., not a word more. 

MUFF, or , _ , 
Dumb, 



1 



MOOF, 

MULL, V, To rub. ' Mulling his knee.' It also means to 

move the tongue in sucking it like children. ' That 

child mulU his tongue.' 
MULLING, a. Numb, dull, heavy. Said of pain. ' I've 

a mulling pain in my head.' ' What ! An acute pain ?' 

• No ! not a throbbing pain, but a mulling pain :' 

(* mully-grubs,' qu. • mulling gripet PJ 
MUNDLE, «. An instrument, like a large rammer, for 

washing potatos. 
MUNG, «. * Mung and horse-corn sold here :' on a sign- 



60 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



board at Loughborough : i. e., coarse meal from Swalert, 
or persons, whose trade it is to prepare oats into gpits. 
Vide * Swaler.' 
MUN6ELIN6, a. Murmuring and cross. ' He is always 
mungeling and grumbling/ 



NAIB0RIN6, «. * Neighbouring/ i. e., gadding and gos- 
siping amongst neighbours. ' I never was given to 
naihoring* 

NAISH, or \ Tender, delicate, generally susceptible, ap- 

NASH. ; plied to the bodily constitution. It is 

also used for dainty. ' A naish feeder* is said of a horse. 
This word and the German ' tuuchen* to be dainty, must 
have had the same origin. 

NASTY, a. Ill-tempered, cross, vexed. ' She got quite 
nasty* 

NATTERING, a, Scoldmg, rating, finding fault. Generally 
follows ' yambering.* * She's always a yambering and 
nattering at her all day long.' 

NAUNT, V. To * bridle up^ as we say. ' She naunted so 
at me.' 

NAYZEN, or 



^,or > 



NEEZEN ' '^^^' 
NEELDS, «. Needles. So Shakespeare— 
* We, Hermia, like two artificial gods, 
Have with our * neelds* created the one flower.'* 
Mids. N. Dream. 
It is probably found in Warwickshire. Wilbraham, in 



PROVEBBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



61 



his Glossary of that county, says it is common in Che- 
shire. 

NEEZENING. To go a neezening. To go a bird's nesting. 

NETTING,*. Urine. 

NEXT-WIZZ, i. e, Nextways or Nextwise ; meaning directly, 

* tout a Vheure: See * yettera: 

NIDGELING, a. Underhand, mean, dirty. < I hate sach 

pidgelingf nidgeling tricks.' 
NIDGELY, *. Petty dealers — lower kind of chapmen and 

higglers. ' There was no buyers there,' (at a horse-fair) 

* bnt pidgeliea and nidgelies,* i. e., pedlart and nigglars ; 
or nibblers. * Pegelen and knibbelen* in Dutch are to 

* measure out in given quantities,' and to ' haggle ;' but 
the words are probably corruptions of * peddling* and 

* niggling.' 

NIGH-AGEN, and -| Phr. Probably, most likely. Ex- 
NIGH-HAND. pron. L plaining the cause of a cow's 
NIGHAN, J ailment ; * It's the hot weather 

nigh-agenJ *\ ^mSX go to Sheepy nigh agen' * He'll 
nighhand come to night.' ' You are going to reap to- 
day ?' * Aye ! nigh-hand.* * You'll nigh-hand go by 
Train ?' * I nigh-hand shall.' 
NIMM, V. To use a fidgety motion or noise. * Pray, do'nt 
nimm so ;' or used to a person swinging or tapping his 
foot, or swinging his leg over the other knee. 
NIP, a. Passion. ' She goes into such nipe.* * He was in 

such a nip.* 
NIP, V. To pinch. * I nipped my finger in shutting the 
door.' It is commonly used in the sense of to * slip 



62 WORDSi PHRASES AND 

away,' * hide/ or * make off.' * I should have laid holt 

of him, but he nipped through the hedge.' (Grer. Knei- 

pen to pinch.) 
NIRKER, «. The last clenching blow, stroke or finish. 

The closing card at whist is so called : ' There's a nirker 

for ye.' 
NITL£, ad. Clever, sharp. * He's a nitle chap :' also, 

* tidy.* * A nice nitle body.* 

• NO END OF.' Phr. For a great quantity or number ; 

* There's no end q^ walnuts this year.' * There's no end 
qf work to do.' 

NOAN, V. To toll. ' The bell nooiw, they have done chim- 
ing.' Corruption probably of * knoU.' 

NODDY, a. Sleepy. * You're getting quite noddy, my dear.' 

NORWOOD, 8, By-word, or nickname ; * nar^ord . i. e. 
a word of jest : Dan. 

NUBBIN, *. Id. qu. * Stovin.' Stump or stock of a tree 
left after it has been cut down. Applied also to the 
wood or piece, when used for firewood. 

NOUT, or \ Nothing. 

NOTE, ) 

NUDGELING, a. Tough and hearty. 'She's a more 
nudgeling cow, nor t'other.' * What do you mean by 
nudgeling ?' < More hardy \ Will eat anything and turn 
the weather J 

NUDGING, p. Bird's nesting. I'm going a nudging.' 

NUNKLE, V. To cheat, or impose upon : * Ye shan't nun- 
Jcle me.' It would appear connected with the old ' Joe 
Miller' story of Foote, and the highwayman. 



FROYBRBS OF LEICESTERSHIRR. 



63 



NUNTY, a. Stumpy, short. < A nunty little man :' < A 
nunty cap,* i. e. a snug, or smug, little cap. 

OAT-BRUSH, The tumed-up stubble of oats, to be 
ploughed in. 

OCCASIONALLY, ad. On occasion ; if necessary. < There 
now, it's packed and will go to CoYentry, or Birmingham, 
or Liverpool, occasionally.* 

ODDS, «. Opposite. * Are you stiff and tired ?' ' No !' 
' Then you are the very odds of me,' — meaning, * for I 
am both.' 

ODD-HOUSB. A solitary house : standing * odd,* i. e. out, 
and alone. We see here perhaps a better derivation for 
the word * odd,* than those generally adduced. The Saxon 
and the Gothic * ut' appear to be the etymonits in its 
common sense of * eatra,* Very possibly the word 
* Udder' * uder* or * udr* in the sense of something * outer,* 
or standing out, as dependent from the body, may have 
come from the same source. The Greek oodoe is generally 
adduced as the etymon. The verb to * utter,' i. e. * outer,' 
to bring * out,* has apparently this origin. 

ODDLINS, or W. An * odd house.' 'They've been at an 

ODDLINGS, ) oddlins.' < They live at an oddlins.' 

OERWART, a. Opposite ; * He lives * o'erwart* the way.' 
See * Overwarts.' 

OF, p, for, for. * I sha'nt be there of a. day or two.' 

OF, p. for * on.* * I have'nt called o/him.> 

OFF, ad. for qf; corruption. * I bought it off him,' and * qff 
qfldm.* 



^^ WORDS, PHRASES AND 



* ON WITH/ phr. Scolding, finding fault with. ' He's 

always on with me.' 

* ONE-HOW-OR-OTHER/ phr. Somehow or other. 
OST, r. To offer or attempt : * He never osted to do it.' 
OVER-CATCH, t>. Overtake. * I could not * overcatch' 

him.' 
OVER-GET, V. To get over : ' He's always thinking of his 

wife's death : He can't over-get it.' 
OVER-FROST, *. Hoar-frost. * Ofer-froren,' A. S. 

* frozen over.' This position of the preposition might 
lead to * o'er-frostf* the probable original of our term. 

OVERGO, and | t>. To run away from. * He's * overgone' 
OVERRUN. ) his children and wife,' and, * He's 

over-run his wife.' 
OVER-MAUL, V. To exhaust by struggling. 'The old 

horse got cast in the stable,' and overmauled hiatenn so 

agen the wall, that we were obliged to kill him.' 
OVERWARTS, \ ad. Across, opposite.—* He lives just 
O'ERWARTS, J overwartSf' i. e. overwards. One of 

the many compounds of the Saxon * weard,' or * ward,' 

* versus,* like, towardf hithertrar^^, thithertrar^^, home- 
ward, and the Scripture has * God-warrf, heayenward,* Sec. 

* Athwart* has been thought to be the same word : but 
this comes from the Saxon ' On thweorh' in the sense of 
obliquely, *thweor' meaning * slanting' or * crooked, — and 
winding. In old German ' uherwdrtt^ is upwards. 

OUGHT, V. * Had-ought, is here used for the preterite. 

* I had ought* * He had ought to do it.' 
OUSEN, *. Houses.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



65 



PAD, *. A path. From the Dutch * Pad* .—Germ.—' Pfad.' 

PAD, V. To tread down into a path. * The snow is well 
padded,* 

PADGE, 8. A large sort of moth. 

PADGE-OWL, *. The common owl. 

PANCHEON, 8, Pans or vessels, made of tin or earthen- 
ware, wide at top and narrowing downwards. 

PANCHEON-RACK, *. An implement used for draining 
the pancheons, after being washed. 

PARSON, *. Pronounced * paason.' A black beetle from 
being entirely black, I presume. 

PASTE-PIN. A rolling pin for pastry. 

PEAKING, p. Wasting and dwindling in flesh. A good old 
word. Shakspeare. 

PEART, ) a, and phr. Lively, vigorous, sometimes * im^ 

PEERT, ) pudent,»--of course for « pert* * How are ye ?* 
* Much as usual, thank ye, *poor andpeert,' 

PEDGEL, V, To pick and eat the com in the fields. * The 
com is so pedgeled by the birds !' Also, to act as a ped- 
lar, to chaffer or deal. 

PEDGELEY, «. A dealer. 

PEEPING and TOOTING, phr. Poking and prying about. 

PEG, V, * To peg for the black leg,' is a superstitious mode 
of endeavouring to avert that malady, by snipping a piece 
out of the calTs ear, or dew -lap, at a very early period of 
the disease. A piece is punched out, and then a foreign 
substance pegged in.* 

• The operation of " Pegging" in the ear is to be performed on the 
first Friday after the birth of the calf. That in the breast, or dew- 

B 



66 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



PEGGY, s. A name given to the nettle creeper, ' Little 

Peggy.* The white throat, is * Great Peggy,' 
PELVER,i;. PUfer. 
PELF, 8. Refuse or rubbish. 

PEN-BOUK, I *. A small wooden pail with a lid. From 
PEN-BOOK, j the A. S. ' pyndan,' to shut up, or 

' pen,' and ' buc^ a vessel ; from which comes ' bucket J 
PENT-HOUSE, 8. A name given to the shed adjoining a 

blacksmith's shop — ^where horses are shod. 
PEP and | part andpret. of the verb * Peep.' — ^The same 
PEPPED, ) corruption takes place in the verb * Sleep,* 
PEPT, part, of peep, as *8lepf from *8leep.' This is very 

general. 
PHRENSY, a. Hasty, passionate. *He»s very phretuy. 

but not a bad temper,' said a woman of her husband. 
PICK IN, V. To pitch in. * I was afeard he'd pick in.* 

The verb active is in Johnson. ' Catch him on the hips, 
and pick him on his neck.' Stubbe8. * Peck in,' is used in the 

W. of England, where the game of ' Pitch and Toss,' is 

always called * Peck and Toss.' 
PIE-FINCH, *. Chaffinch. 
PIFFLING, a, or p. Employed in little trifling occupations. 

* He used to be piffling about the farm-yard.' 
PIKELET-STONE, or | An iron to bake pikelets, or thin 
PIFELET-STONE, ) flat crumpets, on. It is put 

on the ' lazy-back.* 

lap, is effected by running a hot iron through both skins, and then 
inserting a twist of horse-hair, ivhich is moved backwards and for- 
wards once a week, as a seton. The hair has a p^ attached to each 
end, to prevent its removal, and occasional dressings are applied. 



P&OVBRBS OF LCICESTER8HIRB. 



67 



PIGS-PUDDING, *. * Black-pudding,' or * hog's pudding.' 
PILL, V. To peel. The good old English word used in 

Gen. m. 37, 38, from the French * piller.* 
PINE, 1^. To starve. ' They gave him so little to eat, that 

they welly pined him.' * They besieged the town in hope 

to pine 'em.' 

PINK, or ) ^ ^ ^ , , , . 

I A chaffinch ; from his note. 

PINK, 8, A small fish, red underneath, of the size of a 

minnow. 
PINK O' MY JOHN, *. The * Pansy,' or * viola tricolor.' 

Perhaps originally ' pink of St. John,* as we have ' St. 

John's wort* and * St. Peter's wort ;' — or could it be * The 

pink of May, — June ?' as other pinks (if it is to be called 

a pink) come out in June : but the ' heart's-ease' in May 

and June. 
PIT,*. Pond. 
PIT-'OLE, a. Pit. 
PLACK, 9. Plot of ground, of about 5 yards square. ' A 

plack will be enough for yon to grow Brussels' sprouts 

for the winter.' 
PLACK, ad, Pat, with a smack. 
PLANETS, 9, * // rahM by planete :'— said of rain that 

comes down partially, wetting one field, and leaving 

another close adjoining, quite dry. — * But why by planete, 

my friend?' asked I: 'Why don't you know,' said my 

informant, ' its all along of the planets,* 
PLASH, V, To lop or trim trees. The word is in Johnson 

for ' interweaving branches.* 



68 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



PLASH, s. Part of a brook, in which horses can be washed. — 
(Plas, Dut : a puddle.) — ^A good old word for a pond 
or pool : so Shakspeare ; 

' As he that leaves 
A shallow plashf to plunge him in the deep.' 

Taming of the Shrew. 
PLOUGH-BULLOCKERS, *. A name given in this county 
to persons who, like the Morris-Dancers, (or dancers of 
the * MoriscOf* or Moorish Dance,) come round on 

* Plough-Monday,' dressed up in ribbons and women's 
gear, and dance with untiring agility before the houses of 
the more opulent, to obtain * plough-money,* for the 
evening dance or festivity. 

PLUFF, V, Apparently a corruption of ''pvff* for * swell,* 

* Pluffed up.' 

PLUFF, *. Flue, soft fur, or down. 

PLUFFY, a. Fat, jolly, corpulent. Applied commonly to 
unhealthy enlargement of the body or members, as in 
dropsy, &c. : sometimes generally, as ' The monks at the 
Tin -Meadows say, they live on nothing but vegetables ; — 
how come they to be so plufy then ?' 

POD, r. To go — Cant word — * Come ! do you pod into the 
parlour:' also, to pay into the pool at cards: no doubt 
originally with * beans,* much used here for that purpose. 

POD, s, A *pod,* Is when the pool is empty at cards, and 
each is required to pay something towards filling it again : 
from the same origin. 

PODDER, s. The holder of the beans or counters at cards. 

* You don't play fair !' * I'll be podder myself.'— Ex- 



PBOTBBBS or LBICESTBBSHIRB. 



69 



plained by the speaker, as * pod-gatherer,* The word is 
in the old dictionaries in this sense. 

PODGE, *. A ilisease of rabbits, * TotV (* Tott,' not down 
in Johnson, Todd, or Richardson.) The old English 
word * podge f^ meant a large jumble or mixture of food — 
hence hodge-podge. It applies well to this disease, as 
arising from surfeit. 

POIKING, i. e. Picking. Used for gleaning after harvest. 

FOMFER, V. To steal. A corruption, no doubt, of pilfer. 

POKIT, V. To fatten for pork, or '^pohe* as it is here 
called. 

* POOR-HEART,' phr, vxAprw, * It's a poor heart that 
never gives nature a fillip,' — was delivered as a proverb, 
or rather as a standing maxim, by a man, not remarkable 
for sobriety, and was probably intended as a justification 
of a little occasional intemperance. 

PORKET, #. A * porket'pig'—i, e. a * porker,' of which it 
is a diminutive. 

POT-SET, a. Burnt to the bottom of the pot : said by a 
woman of some soup, which had a flavour from the oat- 
meal, used in it, having been somewhat burnt at the bottom 
of the pot in the course of boiling. There is a phrase 
connected with this word, and applied to milk, * pot-set,' 
viz. * the bishop has had his paw in it,' 

POSH, V. To vomit with violence. 

POSH, ad. * He went posh into the water ;' — * slap/ or 
* splash f* (or *pop :' — alibi vulgo.) 

POWER, *. Number, quantity. — (Lat. * vis,*) A power of 
folks or people : * vis hominum collecta.* 



70 



rt>u}5, fbmjlsea Axm 



PBIZEA^BLE, «. ValnUe. 

PROGGLE. «. A god. 

PROCCLE, 1 V. To god. Also, to grope, or poke 

PROGGLE» > vidi«jfUiig;to«tkkiB«i7l^iiigaiid 

PROCLE, ) tarn it dboot. 'To jweefe a j^ in 

a wait.' — (A renody fior its cere !) 
PROCLING.ABOCJT. Poking aboat. 
PROUD, «. Pto^ectiiig, nrtrwHng. 'Hut lock's a deal 

jnnmder on one side tinn fiie odier,' mt^mim^ « lock of 

ludr. 
PROUD.TAILER. A gold-findi. Pkonoonced, * Pnmd^ 

teekr: 
PUG, «. (Pronoonoed'jpooyr) a diitj person. 
PUGGY,«. Dirty, nastj. 
PULL,v. Used for 'MoAe.' ' To jmH Cmm,' is, to make 

fiuxs. 
PUNISH, 
pronouBced I To pain. 'Hesaid, hisankks/mnifAaf him 



^ I To pain. ' He sa 
I I agooddeaL* 



POONISH, 

PUT- ABOUT, a. To vex, harass, annoy. ' I don't know, 
when I*Te been so ptU about.* 



QUAWK, V, To ramble internally, wboi distended with 
ilatiiknce. ' I've got sodi a quawking in my inside.' 

QUAWK, V. Hie noise of rooks. 

QUEEL, V. To extinguish : ' He could not queel the fire :' 
no doubt, from ' qweU* 



PROVERBS OF LEICBSTBRSHIRE. 



71 



QUEEGLE, V, To swing backwards and forwards, crouching 
down on the heels, in a sitting posture. 

QUIGGER, *. Q. * How far is it to P— ?' A. * It's foive 
moiles, as near as a quigger* — i. e. as nearly as possible. — 
Unde verbum nescio. 

QUILT, V, To beat or thrash. ' I mean to quilt him/ 
(Vulgarism.) 

QUOCKEN, V, To suffocate. * My cuff,' (cough) * is so 
bad, it welly quockens me, — it moithers me to death.' — 
' The wind was so high, as I came along, that I was welly 
guockened.* Two girls, struggling for an infant, which 
should get possession of it, the one said to the other, 

* You'll quocken the babby.'— The other retorted, * You'll 
dead it.' 

QUOGGY, a. Quaggy, boggy, or soft ; of the nature of a 

* quagmire.' 

QUOIL, 9, Haycock. * Have you put the hay in quoils ?' 
No doubt * coils' We have the verb and substantive in 
the sense, among others, of rounding or collecting into a 
small compass. See Johnson : — ^from ' Colligere' Lat. 
Cueillirf Fr, and Cogliere, Italian. 

QUOP, V, To throb ; (used also in Gloucestershire) as in 
the suppuration of boils and abscesses. 

QUOT, s. An inflammatory pustule, or suppurating pimple. 

* My arm's covered wi' quots,* * He was rubbing his 
throat, and he broke the head of his quot.' 



72 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



RACK, and | v. To break up. * Why did'nt ye get at it, 

RACK UP, j and rack it up ?' 

RAFFLE, *. Refuse. * I have cut the hedge ; what shall I 

do with the raffle.' — 
RAFFLE, V. To push or stir about ; to drive, or disturb. 

* If you raffle her in her place,' speaking of a heifer, ' she 
don*t seem to mind it.' 

RAFFLING, a. Loose and worthless. * He'e a raffling bad 
fellow.' Raffling company;' from ^ raffle^' rubbish. 
The word * Bxiff^ — * a low vulgar fellow,' might be derived 
from hence : or it may be possibly an abbreviation 
of the German term for the same kind of person, 

* Schlaraffe: 

RAIN-BIRD,*. A woodpecker ,--i. e. * JKi iw^bird ?' from 

tapping and piercing the rind. 
RAISTY, a. Rancid. ' That ere oil's as raisiy, as raisty.' 

Johnson has ' rusty' and * reasty* in the same sense. 
RAKE, V. To move about, — to be restless. * The cow did 

not eat much ; for she was raking about all day. 
RAKING-COAL. The coal left at night to be broken up in 

a morning, to save the trouble of lighting the fire : from 

* rack,* to break up ? — Or rather from the old English 
expression to * rake-up the fire,' to draw it together for 
the night. — Littleton gives it thus in Latin, ' supponere 
ignes cineri, — obducere prunas cineribus.' — 

RAMP, V, and 8. A technical term, used to describe the 
slanting or curved shoulder between a higher and lower 
wall. On slopes the wall is generally so ' ramped^ or 

* ramped ofi*,' at intervals. A. Saxon rempen : prceceps. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTER8HIRB. 



73 



RAMPER, *. The high or tumpike-road. * I saw him on 
the * Tamper,^ 

RANTER, V, To dam ; a curious instance of the corruption 
of a French word ; * rentrer,* — to darn. 

RAPPS. Small intestines of a pig. 

RASH OUT, V. Said of a horse ; to break out in a sweat. 

RATCHETS, *. Rat-holes. * I stopped all the ratchett 
into the bam.' 

RATH E S , «. Side spars or ladder of a wagon , that take off and 
on. The complement of such appurtenances to a wagon 
is called the * rathing* or * gearing ;' — (narrow ' a,' as in 
* bathe.*) 

RAUM, V. To reach with an effort after a thing. To * raum' 
across a table. * What a rauming girl, that is ;' i. e. 
whose arms were stretched out over the table for some- 
thing. 

RAVE, \ To scream or cry out: — *That sow's always 

RAVING, ) raving t and revelling so.' 

REAR, V, To vomit or expectorate. 

REASY ^ Rancid : said of bacon. — It is a corraption of 

or rather L * reasty* or * nutty y as Johnson has it ; 

REEZY. J {'rasty' in the W. of England?) although 

racy, strong in flavour, appears more to the purpose. 
Still the colour which bacon takes when rancid, may ac- 
count for the term ' rusty ,* from which the other is only 
a variation. 

REDDER, s. A person who separates contending parties ; 
one who parts combatants. Retan or Rettan, Sax : to de- 
liver. Ger : Rettery^ a deliverer. 



74 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



rj 



RED OUT, ) was redding out my hair.' A. S. hreddan. 

to * ridf^ clear, take away, liberate or set free. 
REED, *. Vide * Chorton.' 
REEN-SIEVE, #. A very fine sieve: from the Danish 

* reen* — * clean,' * fine,' * pure.' 
RENDER-DOWN, v. To melt. * After you have rendered 

down the leaf,' (the omentum majusj of a pig, then, what 
remains is the ' scratchinffs.* 

REVEL, V. Straying and rambling. ' To revel about the 
fields/ * The pigs will revel now finely !' A good old 
English word, from * rafa*f Icelandic, — to ramble about. 

RIDDLE, V. To reduce : to bring to little. * When I have 
paid my rent, and my frame, and my carriage it has 
welly riddled me :* i. e., made my wages but little. The 
derivation is obvious. 

RIFT, V, Used with wind to * rifi' wind : to raise an eruc- 
tation. * The wind meets the cough, and I am in great 
pain, till I can rift it.' 

RIGHT, 8, Moral or legal obligation. * You have a right 
to pay me that debt.' ' The man at the bar (toll-bar) 
has a right to give him a ticket,' i. e., is required by 
law. 

RINDLES, *. Rennett. * The cheese tastes of the r»W/c*. 

ROAD, 8. Manner or way. Of setting a dislocated wrist 
said a man : ' The doctor set it the wrong road down :' 
and a child remarked of a book, turned upside down : 

* You'n got it the wrong road oop.* * You're standing 
in my road.* * Look this road,* 



PROVERBS or LBICESTKR8H1RB. 



75 



ROADED, a. Streaky. ' Roaded bacon.' 

* AS WET AS A ROBIN;* phr. * It rained aU the way, 
I'm as wet as a robin :* i. e., wet throagh. 

ROBBLE, *. Frivolous nonsense, indecent levity. 'She 
was full of robble and vain talk.' * Rabble* in the 
Craven (Yorkshire) dialect, is to * talk rapidly or con- 
fusedly ;' from * rabblen* to prate (Belg. says the Craven 
Dialect and Glossary.) The word ' Robbie* in this cx)unty 
is more probably from the same source as the Icelandic 
* Rabba' to joke or jest. 

ROCKSY, a. Applied to trees, carious in the bark. 

ROIN-TABBERER, *. i. e., the * rinc^-tabberer,' or tapper 
viz., the woodpecker. 

ROOZLE, V. To rouse violently : ' He roozled him out of 
his sleep.' 

ROST, a. Hot, fresh, restive. Said of a horse. 

ROST, *. Hurry. * Do'nt be m such a rost :' also, 

ROSSED, ) „ ... 

ROSTY, j ^' Hasty, pettish, rude. 

ROUNCE, V. To move hastily. * He rounced in his chair.' 
' He sat rouncing about.' 

ROVE, V. To ravel, in the sense of to untwist cotton, silk, or 
worsted : reiexo, 

ROVINGS, «. Ravellings, in the same sense : the threads 
that come off the edge of a piece of cotton cloth. 

RUBBIDGE, 9, Vulgarism ; rubbish, 

RUCK, V. I To go * fin nuase* in the gross, in a body, 

RUCK, *. ) to run in the rucl,* is to go undistin- 
guished in the crowd. Also, the collected covey of 
partridges. ' It's a shame to shoot at the ruck,* 



76 



WORDS, PH&A8B8 AND 



RUFF, *. Roof. 

RUMMEL, «. Fragments of bricks and mortar. Cormp- 

tion of * rubble,' 
RUNGEL, #. A rough, stupid boy. 
RUNGELING, a. Random, restive : * a rungeling horse.' 
RUNNING-HOOK, *. An instrument used by butchers. 
It is a hook suspended from the centre of the lower spar 
of a square iron frvne, formed to sUde with a roller for 
its top dose along the upper surface and two sides of a 
beam. It is fixed in any particular position by two pins 
inserted into the beam itself, through the ih)n framework. 
It is used to bear a side of beef or other large piece of 
meat, suspended out of the way for couTenience. 
RUTLING, and '\ «. Hie same as < Seekling' in Lan- 
RUNTLING, and L cashire. 'The youngest:' <the 
RECiCLING. J least in a Utter, or brood.' * Bold- 

tft^,' more southornly. The word is a diminutiTe of 
' Ru$U,* a Intimate word in our language. * Runte, in 
the Teutonic Dialects, — says Johnson, signifies a bull or 
cow ; and is used in contempt by us for small cattle.' 
* RufuTis 9i builoek m Dutch: 'RmdmGemum:* and 
where else ?* 



* Grose remoTes all difficulty by describing 'RmU,* as a small 
breed of Welsh cattle, brought &om * Rhunt* in Flintshire. But I can 
find no such * kabUaf of small cattle. It is by no means easy to trace 
the origin of the word ' RutU,* Why the Dutch word * Rund* which 
means a good honest ' BuUockC is to give rise to a term, which means 
a stnnted diminutive of cattle generally, I, for one, cannot see. Even 



PROVERBS OF LRICB8TERSHIRB. 



77 



SAD-IRONS, *. The common flat-irons for ironing. 
SAD AND SORRY, pronounced * Surry,' The old sense 
of these words is here retained. My cook remarked, 

* that it was bat a sorry batch of bread, it was so very 
sad:* meaning the batch of bread was a bad one, it was 
so very heavy. 

* SAD AS LIVER,' phr. The bread is* as sad as liver.' 

i. e., close and heavy. 

* SADLY— SURRILYy' phr. Much indisposed. How's 

T ?' * Ah ! he's sadly surrily,' i, e., very poorly 

indeed. 
SAGG, V, To move out of the proper direction. * Come, 
you get off that gate, or you'll make it sagg more.' 

* The load of hay saggs ;' that is, swaggs, of which it is 
probably a corruption. 

SAGGY, a. Said of a gate that drags or hangs awry, * That 

gate wants knocking up at the thimbles ; it hangs so 

saggy,' 
SAYPID, \ a. High or putrid. * It smells worse than 
SAPPY, ) any sapid meat.' No doubt from ' Sapid' 

highly savoured. 
SARCH, V, Search. I introduce this vulgarism to append 

to it a common saying of the country, upon the effects 

of the spring months on the health : 



a British ori^n from * Bhoftten'' (a dim of ' B?iont,*) a little 'frisker,' 
or ' gamboller,' would be more satisfactory. The Italian ' Bonsino* a 
very little nag or horse, is perhaps a still better. 



78 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



' March will sarch, 

And April try ; 

May will say 

If you shall live or die.' 
SAUCY, a. Its saucy walking to-day, Miss.' 
SAUCE, V, To abuse. * She sauced me ever so.' 
SATED OFF, "I Strained. Applied to soup, gravy, or 
CYED OFF, L gruel, (from the old Assay,) * What is 
SCIED OFF, J a sieve?' said I to a chUd: «An if 

ye please, Sir, what ye says milk wie ;' was the answer. 
SCAGGLE, r. To choke or strangle. To ' quocJcen' is 

used in the same sense. 
SCITHE, 
SEITHE, 
SCIE I ^0^^* ^ \i(m\ to strain milk through. 

CIE, 

SCANT, ad. Scarcely. ' I get no sleep scant J A good old 

term. 
SCANTLINGS. Thin joists. A technical term, probably 

from the Italian schianto : a piece cleft or cut in two. 
SCITHARS, *. Scissors. 
SCOTCH, V. To stop, or stay. ' Don't scotch me now.' 

Qu : Has the word hopscotchy i. e. a hop and then a 

scoichf it's derivation from this ? Johnson has ' Scotch-' 

hoppers,* from LochCy as authority for it's use in this 

sense of ' hopscotch.* 
SCOUCH, V. To stoop. ' I fear I shall hit my head against 

the roof.' — * Why dunna ye scouch, then ?* An apparent 

corruption of * slouch* or * crouch.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



79 



SCRANNY, fl. * Lanky.' Also 'mad.' ' It's enow to drive 
one Bcranny,^ ' If she knew to it, t' would make her 
scrawny,^ 

SCRAZE, V, To graze the skin. *■ I was not much hurt, 
but scrazed my hands. 

SCRAT, V, For to scratch. 

SCRATTLE, v. To scratch with a noise. * There's that 
dog tcrattling at the door.' Also to make a shift, to 
strain, to scramble on in difficulties. ' They manage to 
icrattle on.' 

SCRATCH IN6S, s. The cellular substance of the omentum 
of a pig. The part or skin that will not melt in rendering 
the leaf of a pig. The poor eat them with vegetables, 
when taken from the pan, in which the fat is melted. 

SCRAWK, V. To scream. * Ye little scrawhing thing !' 

• What do ye scrawk for ?» 

SCRAWM, V, To throw for a scramble. * Scrawm a few 

marls,'* i. e. marbles : — also to scramble. 

SCRIKE, r. ) 

srRTKF } "^^ scream or shriek. * I heard such a scrike,* 

SCROW, t>. 1 Mark or scratch. To ' fcrotr a cheese,' is to 

SCROW, i, ] mark it : i. e. to scroll, 

SCRUNGE, V, To shrink. * When I touched the place he 

scrunged,* 
SCUFF, * Loose flesh on the back of the neck : pronounced 

* scooffy i. e. the scarf or scurf -^iin. — the loose epidermis 
of the neck. 

SCUFFLE, *. A hurry. * To be in a »ct#«.' 
SCUFFLE, s. A kind of large harrow or scarifier. Called 



80 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



also a * scuffler.* The Swedish word * skuff,' is the vio- 
lent removal of anything out of its place — a push or shove. 

SCUTTLE, or ^ s. (a scutella.) A roond, shallow, shield- 

SKUTTLE, ) like basket, generally boond with iron 
plate crossways over the bottom, to carry coal in. Hence 
the common term ' coal-scuttle ^^ though made of iron or 
copper. 

SEED-HOPPER. The basket or long trough in which the 
sower carries his seed, in sowing. It is made of wood 
or wickerwork. 

SEEN, V, For * saw,* * I seen him.' 

SEN, pr. Self, as * His-«cn' and * her-sen ;* himself and her- 
self. A shepherd said of some sheep, which did not 
fatten so well as was expected : * Lord, bless ye, they 
worrin iheirsens to death with warmint, and I han bac- 
cared 'em ; but its no use at all.' i. e., * They tease,* 
(present tense) * and torment themselves with vermin : 
and I have washed them with tobacco- water ; but it is of 
no use.' The present tense is formed in this way — 
* They worrin :* i. e., * They worry.* * They pushin :* 
i. e., * They push.' * They pullin 'em up :' i. e., * They 
pull them up.' 

SENSED, a. Possessing one's senses. * Poor thing, she's 
hardly sensed.* 

SET, V. To stare at. * They set me all dinner time.' * He 
sets you so, as to put you out of countenance.' 

* SET POOR LIGHTS,* phr. Give bad example, or, 
conduct themselves ill. ' They set poor lights.' 

SEVERAL, a. A term connected with * Wood/ near 



PROVERBS OF LBICESTER8HIRE. 



81 



Ashby-de-la-Zottch, ' The SeveraUwood,^ and derived 
no doubt from die nature of the tenure of the property. 
In agriculture, severalty land is land in an open-field 
state, and divided amongst several. In Law, there is, 

* several Tail,* (* Tallium separatum') land given and 
entailed severally to two: and the exception or plea 
taken to a writ against two persons or donees, as joint- 
tenants, who are several, is called ' severaUtenaneyJ 

SHACK, V. To idle or lounge about. ' Sudi a one goes 

shacking about.' — (See the next word for origin.) 
SHACK, 8, * He's a bit of a shade,' i. e. vagabond ; like 

* raffling,** I suspect this word, though perfectly natural- 
ized here, is the native of another county. — I think I have 
accidentally discovered its origin in a copy of ' Les Termes 
de la Ley,* London, 1624. I have just read there the 
following explanation, under the word < Shacke.* * Shack* 
is a peculiar name of Common used in the countrey of 



• The old English word « aharking* or rather the verb to * shark,* 
is probably a corruption of the words ' sJMck* and * ahacMng ;* instead 
of < shacking,' coming from * sharking,' as has been supposed here. Bai- 
ley has to ' shark up and down,* * to go shifting and shuffleing about;' 
which is precisely the sense of this provincial expression : and he de- 
rives it (after Skinner) from, the French *chereher* Skinner has con- 
jectured also the Ang. Sax. * scearan,' scindere, to shear, with both of 
which it has just as much to do as with * Church' or * Chapel.' Junius 
derives the word *8harT^ from the Dutch *8chroken* * afnde vorare* 
and in the same language, * ahrock,* ' ahorch,* and * 8hurcJ^ for a loose, 
idle impostor: he adduces also the derivatives *e8croc* Gal.: and 
* 8crocco* Ital. from this source. * Schurke* in Ger. is a knave, rogue, 
or scoundrel : and from this the word ' 8hirl^ is no doubt derived. 

F 



82 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



Norfolke ; and cattell to go to Shacke, is as mnch to say 
as to goe at liberty j or to goe at large. And this Com" 
mon, called Shacke f which in the beginning was but in 
nature of a feeding, by canse of vicinage, for avoyding of 
suits in some places within this country, is by custom 
altered into the nature of common appendant or appur- 
tenant, and in some places it retaineth its [original 
nature.' Coke Lib. 7, Fol. 5. Since writing the aboi^e, 
I have found a shorter and more intelligible explanation 
of the word, in Blount's Law Dictionary, 3rd Ed. 1717. 
* Shack is a custom in Norfolk to have common for 
hogs, from the end of harvest tiU seed-time, in all men's 
grounds without controul.' Cokeys 7 Rep: fol. 5. 
Corbet's Case. — ^And, in that county, * To go at shack' 
is as much as * To go at large,* 
SH AM-TH ACK, s. A temporary thatching in case of rain. 
SHARP, a, 1 In his right senses or having the right use of 
pronounced L his reason. ' The chap a'nt shape nor 
SHAPE. J his mother neither; she's a poor 

creetur,'* 
HARPS 8. Fine bran. 
SHEAR-HOG, "| A male yearling sheep when shorn. Per- 
or y haps it may be as well to give here the 

SHERROG. J several names assigned to sheep at 

different ages in this county. — 

} males — ' hogs,* 
*hoggerilSf* * hogets/ 
females — * tegs.* 



PKOVBRBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



83 



™ «^ ,. . ,, , ) males— ' sAerroy*,' 

The same, after chppmg, are caUed J f^^^^^.tj^^,,^. 

In their second year, the male is called — * two-shear J 

female* ^double-theave. ' 

After this, the females and males indiscriminately are 

caUed' Wethers.' 
SHEEDED, p. For 'shed.' 'These self-sown oats hAvesheeded,' 
SHERRY, or SHEARY, a. Having a coarse grass on it, 

of the name of ' shear-grass,' That land is very * sheary,' 
SHEAR-GRASS, or SHEER-GRASS, *. The name of a 

luxuriant coarse grass. 
SHIFTY, a. 1 Restless. Said of a sick person. * He 

SHIFTINESS, *. j was very shffly all night.' 
SHIRK, V. To shrug. * He shirked his shoulders.* 
SHOCKLE, V. To shake or move out of his place. 
SHOWELLING, a. Slipshod, slovenly ; said more especially 

of farm-servants with their boots unlaced. 
SHOG, V. To *jog-trotf* or trot slowly. *He can go a 

sharp trot without showing lame ; but he limps when yon 

come to shog him.* 
SHOOTERS, s. Round pieces of wood made to fit die 

* cheese-vat' or chesford, and inserted between the cheese 

itself and the press. 
SHOUTING (or * HOOTING')-BOTTLE, *. The reapers 

or haymakers beer-keg, when just emptied by the last 

drinker, who gives a shout in token of it's being drained 

by the last swig. 
SHUT or RID, (that is, * SHOT.')—* To get shut of a 

person.' 'A cart-load is shotj* when emptied down. 



84 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



' Shot'Jree* is used by Shakspeare : i. e. ont of shot's 
way; and has another origin. This is from the verb 
* shoot,' in the sense of ' eyict' or ' discharge ;' and meta- 
phorically to get rid of. 

SHUTHER, V. To sUp or slide. <He shutkered down 
lower and lower.' 

SIDDER, V. Is said of barley in malting. < A little rain on 
the barley, after it is cut, does it good, and makes it 
didder i' makes it grow in the cistern, and work better. 
' A didder pea' is a pea, that boils to a floor, probably 
originally nothing more than a geeiker or boiling pea ; 
from the Saxon, * seothan.' * Sidder^* the verb may come 
from this source. The Laplanders have the word ' nd^ 
dertet* to be sprinkled; as the Icelandic ' siira* to flow 
in a small stream, and * sitra* a little spring. 

SIDE-HOOK, 8. A hook used by the butcher, in * dresdng,' 
or setting his meat, in the form required. 

SIDENED, ad. Crooked, or, on one side.— * I've dressed 
you all sidened,* 

SIKE, v. To sigh, to gasp, ' siking and sobbing.' 

SIN, ad. Since. 

SING ROVINGS, v. To pur. *Hark at the kitten, 
she's singing rovings,^ * Romngs* are *ravelUng9f' or 
untwistings of silk or cotton, which make a noise some- 
what like the purring of a cat ; and may possibly be the 
derivation of the term. 

SIT, V, Said of the moon at the ' Interlunium,' when she is 
invisible. 'The moon sits; it will be dark to night.' 

SITHE, V, To sigh. Pronounce like * blithe.' 



PROYBRBS OF LSICBSTER8HI&E. 



85 



SKEEN, V. To squint. 

SKELPER, «. A tall lanky youth. < O my ! what a sJselper 

you are !' 
SKELP, V. To run quickly, to go nimbly, to sJtipt (from 

which it is probably a corruption.) * The mare don't go 

near the ground now ; she skelped along uncommon.' 
SKEPy or SKIP. A basket, (not confined to Leicestershire.) 

In Johnson, from Sax. seep. 
SKERRY, "] 8» Grey or whitishmarl with a bluish tinge, 

and s lying in this neighbourhood, under and 

SKERRID. J among the red marl. It bums into a 

brick as hard as stone. 
SKERRIG or W. A hardened daystone of the same 

SKEKRIG-STONB,] material. 

SKID-PANS T 

I Slides to sheath, or, put under, the wheels 

SLIPPERS. .. J "'"HgonB going down hiU. 

SKILLY, 8. A drink made of oatmeal and water with a little 
salt thrown in. The oatmeal is first mashed with a little 
cold water, and then used by the addition of hot water. 

SKIMPY, a. Scanty,— too small. • What skimpy sleeves !' 

SLACK, V, a. To quench the thirst. ' I gave him a soupp 
of brandy and water to slack him.' Evidently from 
' slake ;^ but a word, which we have not. We use it of 
lime, that has been vHitered or slaked, in the term, 
* slaek'^tf * slacked'lime,' 

SLANG, s. A slip, or narrow length of land, running up be- 
tween other and larger divisions of ground : generally a 
long intervening strip of land, even if divided by a hedge. 



86 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



Probably, of the same origin with ' Schlank* Ger : loDg, 

slender, * lank,' slim. 
SLATE-RIBS, 8. A joint of beef; from the lower part, or 

thin cut off the ribs. 
SLATT, V. To drip, or nm down. * Why the water's slat-. 

ting off your head, on to your collar.' 
SLATY, a, Incrusted inside, as a kettle after long using. 

The cook at Leicester Infirmary told me, she ' used the 

soft water, because the hard made the copper so slaty, 
SLAUN-BUSH, or ^ The blackthorn. A corruption of 
SLAUN-TREE. j * Sloen-tree,* the plural of * sloe,* 
SLEER, V, To swill or wash out. 
SLICK, V. To run away. 
SLICKING-STONE, s. * Sharpening-baf for scythes, 

made by glueing sand or emery on both sides of a flat 

piece of wood. 
SLIM, V. To slip or pass quickly. * I just slimmed by his 

window this morning.' 
SLIPSIDE, ad. The left-hand side. ' He's gone to live on 

the sUpside of Leicester :' i. e., to us, on the south side, 

on the Narborough side. 
SLITHERING, a. Lounging about, and uncertain of pur- 
pose. * He has been always an idle loitering man, and 

slithering loike.' 
SLITHER, V. 
SLUR, V. 
SLUR, «. A slide. 
SLURRER, s. A slider. 
SLUDGE, s. Dark splashy mire. 



> To slide on the ice, or to slip. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



87 



SLUTGRATE, 8. Grating on, or rather in, the hearth, 
through which the ashes fall, leaving the cinders for use. 
It serves as a cinder-sifter or riddle. 

SMUDGE, V, and «. To cover with mud or dirt. * He has 
had a fall from his horse, and is all smudged,* or 

* smudge.' 

SNAG, 8. A three-cornered tear or rent in the clothes. Also 

a snail. 
TO GO SNAGS, phr. ' To go snacks'— to go shares. 
PNAG, V, To chide pettishly. <Jane snarls and snags at 

Lizzy.' Also to tear in small holes. * You've snagged 

your jacket.' 
SNAILHORN,*. Snail sheU. 
SNASLING, a. or p. Snarling, snapping. 
SNEATH, 8, Handle of a scythe. Evidently Anglo Saxon 

snoed, ' falcis ansa,' and that from snidan, * dolo,' to hew, 

or cut out. 
SNIPES, *. Icicles. 
SNITHING. a. Nipping, cutting. * A bloshing and snith- 

ing day.' *■ A nipping and an eager air.' Shak, {Ger. 

* Schneiden,' to cut. A. Sax. snidan : to cut,) 
SNIVY, a. Rimy. Raw, and foggy with rime ; almost 

* snowy.' * It's very cold and snivyJ Sax. sniwan, to 

* snow,' as if from npa * ningo.* Ger. * schneien.' 
SNOZY, a. Comfortable : better in health. * How's your 

husband, to-day ?' * Well now, thank'ye Ma'am, he's 
very snozy to-day.' ' Snoozy' is also a vulgarism for 
sleepy, a snooze being a doze. 
SNUFT, 8. The projecting filaments on the top of a goose- 
berry, &c. 



88 



WORDS, PHBA8ES AND 



SNUFT, V. To shoot forth such filaments. * The goose- 
berries were mufted a week ago.' From the word 
' mujff* or perhaps the Danish * Snude,^ the tip or end 
of a thing, ' mouV 

SOG, 9. Mass of earth. ' If the whole 9og had eorved in 
upon him.' 

SOIL, V. To ' aoU a horse,' is to give him green meat m the 
stable. 

SOLID, ad, \ Really, truly, verily, indeed. ' I'm going 

SOLIDLY, j up to your fether's.— I am ; solid.* * Are 
you wHdly /' A corruption of * solemnfy.* 

SOONER, ad. Rather. ' She's sooner better nor worse.' 

SOOP, s. The common term f(Mr a drop, small quantity, or 
portion, of anything. ' We've had a good soop of rain 
to-night.' 

SOOREY, s. Sirrah. A boy kicking about a hedgehog in 
the street, said to another boy, * Shuddy loike to hae this 
here, soorrey ?' ' Dade, shouddy, soorrey ;' said the 
other, i. e., Indeed I should. 

SOUGH, (pronounced st^f) v. and s. To drain — a drain. 

SOUR, a. Coarse and gross, speakmg of animals. ' She's 
deep in the brisket, but too sour in the neck.' 

SPACKT, or | a, * iVb/ fijpacit/,' not quite in his wits, or, 
SPACKED. ) as it is here expressed, * a poor ereetuTf' 
i. e., ' creature.' What this is corrupted or derived from, 
is not easy to say. Perhaps not quite * compact ,* an igno- 
rant corruption of ' compos f* i. e., mentis, * He is not 
quite spacked* 
SPANGS, s. Spurs or off-shoots from the root, the < spangs 
of a carrot : from * fangs,' Said of a tooth also. 



PROVBRBS OP LBICB8TBBSH1BE. 



89 



SPINK, 9. Chaffinch, or here called also * pie-finch.' 
SPINNEY, 8. A small plantation. This word is not con- 
fined to Leicestershire, but it is rare out of Mereia. It 
occurs in Domesday-Book, (fol. 236, 6, 2,) wherein 
mentioning Ashby Folyille, there is described, * Sjpttte- 
tum, quarentenoe longitadinis et latitndinis.' The word, 
in Latin, I need not say, means a * brake,* or thicket oi 
thorns : * Oocnltant spineta lacertos.' Virg. I fear 
' dumetumf' although dignified by Horace, had no other 
or better meaning originally ; notwithstanding an attempt 
has been made to deduce it firom S?v/(aoc and that from 
fytk. The Italians still have the word * tpineto,' a 
'brake.' 
SPITTER, 8, A drop of rain that dashes against the window. 
SPLASH, V. To * splash' a hedge is to cut it off straight ; 

not to Splash,* or interweave it, nor to lay it. 
SPLASHER, and 1 «. An instrument made to dip hedges 
SLASHER, ) witii : havuig a blade like part of 

a scythe, or else a hook on a long handle. 
SPOLE, 8. A * spole* ai cotton is a small reel, or ' j^tm,' 
as it is called in the North, such as we find on a lady's 
work-table. 
SPRITTLE, V. To tingle. ' The sore frets and spritiies.' 
SQUELSH, ad. Much the same as * bolsh,* q. ▼. 
SQUELT,t;. To thrash or beat. 
SQUENCH, V. To quench. 

SQUILKER, "^ Rumble, and rumbling noise, of liquid 
SQUILKERIN6, L m the stomach. * It squUkers: <I 
SWILKER, J have a squUkering inside.' Pecu- 



90 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



liar to dropsical people: also, sound of water in the 

shoes. 

SQUINE, pron. ) ^ . , , , 

SQOINE 1 ^* ^ ' also to cast a sly glance. 

SQUOZE, pret. of Squeeze. 

SQUOSH, V, Crash or < mosh.' 

STACK-FRAME, *. Called also * Hovehframe :' the frame 
or platform, on which wheat and other grain are placed 
to form a rick. 

STADDLE, 8. Hay laid out in wide rows from the small 
cocks ; (not winrowSy) and from which it is collected 
with the prong for pitching. 

STAFE, 9. Spar, step, or round : the * stafe^ of the chair, 
is the front spar, which joins the legs. Hiis is pure 
Saxon : stsef vectis, fcdcrum : and ^ StaffeL* Germ. 

STAIR-HOLE. An opening or recess left in setting up a 
rick, for a man to receive the hay, as it is pitched to him 
frx)m the load, so that he may convey it to those above 
him. 

STALE, 8, A handle, a * mo^-atale,' a ' broom.«^a/«,' {* Steely* 
Dutch : a handle.) In Johnson ; but not in composi- 
tion. The Dutch word means also * stalk f* or * stem,* 
The Grerman word * StieV has also both meanings. It 
may be remarked, that the sound directs us to the 
Greek: in which we have ffr%\%os, oTiXeoi, ctsXioi', 
rriAiiT), ^T«tX«/iv, and a-tuKn&ptw^ all for a ' handle, de- 
rived generally from * a-riWw* to * fit,' or * adapt.' 

STALL, V. To founder, or come to a stand, in dirt or mud. 
* The roads were at one time, so bad in the park, that a 
waggon was welly stalled* or rather * stallded.* 



PBOVBIIBS OF I.EICSSTEI18BIKE. 



91 



STANK, 8, A dam or trunk, across a stream. Onr old 
word * siang' meant a beam or spar to carry anything : 
and might be the origin of the word : or possibly * stanch.* 

STANKING, s. Materials for damming, *YouVe got 
plenty of stanhing there !' Johnson has the word 
* stank/ a dam, or * bank,' from the Saxon and Welsh. 
See previous word. 

STANNEL, *. Kestrel. Corruption of ' Standgale,* from 
resisting the wind. 

STARNEL, 8. Starling. 

STARK, ad. Entirely, altogether ; * */flr*-dark,' for * stone- 
blind.' Used still in * stark-mad.* 

STARKARAGEOUS, a. Ardently bent upon ; eager to ob- 
tain. * If that clover is fenced off only with posts and 
rails, the cows will be * starkarageous to get at it.* No 
doubt a corruption of * stark outrageous.* 

STARTUPS, s. Gaiters—' a pair of startups.* 

STARVED, p. Chilled through with cold. * The child's 
welly clammed and starved.* 

STEADS, and ' Insteads,' for instead. 

STEER, a. Steep. 

STEER, V. To deafen. ' Do'nt yorp so, or you'll steer us 
all :' — to confuse to bewilder. * You talk so quick, you 
quite steer me.' 

STEM, V. To wade or walk through water. * Can you stem 
the canal near the bridge.' 

STICKINGS, s. The neck or throat of beef. 

STOCKED, a. Stopped in growth. * The lambs are almost 
stocked by the cold weather.* 



92 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



STOCKY, a, Impndent, sauey. < Yon gtoeky little dog :' 
also, obstinate, sulky, restive. ' Hie horse is fed like a 
hunter ; no wonder he's so stocky/ 

STODGE, a. Full, stuffed. * He's quite stodge.' 

STODGEFUL, and) '^ , ^ , ^„ 

STODGY, «. jChuek, or cAo^e full. 

STOMACHFUL, a. Proud ; so in common parlance, * A 

proud stomach.' 
STON, 8, Stone. 

STARM, pronounced ) Applied to snow. * The ttarm was 
STORM. J on the ground a mainy weeks :' 

(An abbreviated metonymy from * mote-storm.' 
STOVIN, 8. Stump. The part of a hawthorn, left in the 

hedge after cutting it down, or laying it : 'He hurt his 

back by falling upon a 8tomn.' 
STRAIGHT AWAY, pronounced also | ad. Instantly, 
STREET AWEE, ) immediately. 

* I mun goo 8treet'awee.* 

STRAPPINGS, 8. The last milk forced from the udder of 
the cow ; and particularly rich in quality. The milking 
before the strappings is called the * fore-milk,'* 

STRAP, V. To draw out the last milk in milking. 

STRETT, a. Deficient, or short of : < As you are so strett 
for speakers.' Also, close, narrow, and tight. A man, 
speaking of a bullfinch, which he had stuffed for a speci- 
men, said : * I stooffed him so stretfy that it made the 
feathers stand oop.' 

STRITE, 8. The part of a field, where the plough turns ; 
generally ploughed straight ; the contrary way afterwards : 

* The crop here is not so good j it's the sirite.* 



PR0VBBB8 OF LBICESTE&SHIRE. 



93 



STRUTT, 8. A state of swelling, or hardness : < Using tur- 

pentine, makes my hands all otKstrttttJ (Strotzen: 

Ger. to puff or swell. Danish ' strutter ^^ to be puffed 

or swollen.) 
STULTITIOUS, a. Sulky, ill-tempered. 
STUNT, pronounced | A tail. A boy coming in with the 
STOONT. ] tail of cow just slaughtered, said : 

' Well, Missus, I'n brought ye the atoont,* 
SUBTLE-MINDED, a. ' He was a very subtle-minded 

horse ; and uncommon hedgy; he'd go at anything.' 
SUCH. An expletive. ' If you wofnt give me my price- 

loike, I wo'nt stay here haggling all day, and tueh,^ 

Britton, 
SUITY, a. Suitable, adapted, calculated for. * She's very 

euity for a nursery.' 
' I SUPPOSE,' V. * Well, I euppose,' corresponds generally 

with, ' Certainly,' ' Exactly so.' Sometimes it means 

* Very possibly,' * Most likely,' and occasionally implies 

doubt, \That may be.' Also* I understand,' * I have heard.' 
SURE, fl. * rm sure,* A kind of expletive. * I do'nt 

know, rm sure.' Also, for 'certainly not.' 'Wo'nt 

this grow here /' * Tm sure,' i. e., I am sure it will 

not. 
SURRY, a. Sorry. Paltry, wortUess. 
SWABBLE, V, To vibrate with a noise, like liquids in a 

bottle : ' I heard the water swabble in her chest.' 
SWALER, 8. A person whose trade it is to prepare oats 

into grits, meal, &c. : from ' sweating ^^ or ' swaling,* i. 

e., wasting or lessening the grain a little. ' Swak* is an 



94 



WO&DS, PHRASES AND 



old pret. and part, of to ' swell ;' but will not apply here as 
an etymology; the very contrary being done in this 
trade. So a candle was said to * swealj* formerly : i. e., 
to melt away : see next word. 

SWALE, V. The old word for * melt* is commonly used 
here. ' There was plenty of matches in the house, and 
she knew it ; — which she blamed the boy for swaling the 
candle :' i. e., in lighting it at the fire and melting it. 

SWANK, V. I To walk with an air, — ^an approach to a 

SWANKING, p, ) swagger. * I met him swanking 
along the road, ever so genteel.' 

SWARD, *. The rind of bacon. 

SWARM, V, To get up a tree by clipping the tmnk, and 
lifting yourself up. *You may swarm it up to the 
branches, and then clamber on.' 'To swarm up the 
huge body of any of the great oaks, would have been im- 
possible.' Bubbles from the Brunnens of Nassau, p. 
263. 

SWART, s. The black incrustation on a kettle or pot. 
(Schwartz: black. Teut.) 

SWARTH, *. 'To be in the lowest swarth :' phr, i. e., to 
be grumbling and discontented. An expression borrowed 
from mowing, in which the last mower is obliged to keep 
up with the rest : ' He's always in the lowest swarth* 
i. e., he's always dissatisfied. 

SWAY, V. To feel giddy. ' His head sways so.' 

SWAYING, I «. Giddiness in the head. * I've got such 

SWEYING, ) a swaying in the yead, that makes me 
feel sideling down.' 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



95 



SWEAK, 8, A crane for the fire. 

SWELKER, } V, To wave about, like water carried in an 

SWILKER, 3 open vessel. 

SWELTED, a, Heated. * It's so warm 1 and Maria's very 

swelted,* 
SWIFT, a. Fast consuming : ' The Snibston coal is very 

swift,* * A swift coal* is the term always used near the 

collieries. 
SWIGGLE, ». To drink freely. 
SWILL, 8, Hog-wash. 
SWINGLE-TREE, *. The splinter-bar of a plough. * Bend-. 

traces and swingle-trees,* 
SWIPE, 8. pronounced *swoipe: A stroke or blow — 'I 

fetched him such a swoipe,* 
SWIPPLE, s. The part of the flail, which thrashes or beats 

out the grain of corn. 
SWIVEL, V, To go oflf sideways, obliquely. * The horse 

swivelled oflf the road.' 
SYKE,».or ^ 

SIKE, or C To sigh. Vid: Bailey. 
SITHE, ) 

SYKE "^ a. Applied to fields, lying on the boundary 

SICK, and v of the lordship. It seems, that Charyte, 
SIKE, ) in his ' Rentakf* has Latinized the word, 

or the word has been taken from his Latinity, * Sica,* 

(J, R, Potter, Esq.) 



96 



WORDS, PHAA8B8 AND 



TABBER, V, To tap, pat, or strike quickly with the feet, or 

anything else. * There are rabbits here, I'm sure, do'nt 

ye hear 'em iabbering in the hole ?' A ' roind'taiberer,* 

L e. a ' rind-tabberer,' is here the name of the woodpecker. 
TA'EN,». For 'took.' 'Ite'cnhim.' 
TAIL-ENDS, «• i. e. of com. The word (Higinally came 

from the use of the old winnowing fen, or ' bag-fan,' so 

called here of old. The lighter and worse com was blown 

farthest ; and reserved by the farmer himself, as likely to 

spoil the sample. 
TANK, V, To knock or pound — ' Tani at the door.' 
TANK, 8, A blow or knock. ' She gave her head a tank 

against the post.' 
TATCHIN-END, * Cobblers-end. 
TAW, 9. n. To pull linen or any woven fabric in a wrong 

direction, and out of shape. ' This collar taws so, I can 

hardly cut it straight.' 
TAWSY, a. Said of clover or hay, when it hangs heavily, 

and in tangled masses on the fork. * How tawsy 'tis !' 

See the previous word. 
TAZZ, 8, A rough untidy head of hair. * What a iazz you 

have I Do put it tidy,* Qu. Fr. ' Ta8' a heap or knot : 

or is it perhaps connected with * tawsy ?* 
TEAR, V. pronounced ) To smear or spread. ' Tear the 
TEER, ) treacle :* i. e. spread it on the 

bread. This word is probably of Danish origin, from 

* tierer,* to smear with tar. 
TEARY, pron. ) a. Sticky. • Handling the sugar will 
TEERY, ; make your hands teary:' or * teery,* 



PBOYEBBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



97 



' He can't take the cart to-day, the ground's so very 

* teary ' after the frost ; ' i. e. heavy and clogging, from 
' Here* Dan. tar or pitch. 

TEG, *. A * lamb-hog,' or yearling sheep. 

TO TELL TO, phr. To teU about. ' WiU you tell the master 

to this three-pence.' 
TENT, V, Attend. * I can't tent to stop now, loike.' 
THACK, 8. Thatch. * This thack*8 a very bad'un, it lets the 

rain in.' 
THACK, ». To thatch. 
THACKER, «. Thatcher. * Ue eats like a thacker,* 'He's 

as hungry as a thacker;* are common phrases. So also ; 
' He goes like a thacker, 
* THACK AND MORTAR,' phr. With all one's might. 

* I've not done much work to-day, and I sha'nt do any 
to-morrow, for I'm going out : but I shall set to, Hhack 
and mortar* the next day.' 

THACK-StARROW, *. The common house-sparrow. 

THIMBLE, s. The ring, which receives the hook in the 
hinge of a gate, having two clamps or wings, which clip 
or go round the wood. Without these last, and when 
the ring is only at the end of a spike, which runs into the 
wood of the gate, it is called a ' hand,* * Hooks and 
hands,* but ' gatehooks and thimhles* 

THEAVES, s. Female yearling sheep. 

THONE, a. Soft, applied by mUlers to com not fit for 
grinding, on account of its softness. ' It's too thone to 
grind.' ' Some of it's a good bit thone* Bailey calls 
it a North-country word, meaning ' damp, moist, wet.' 



98 



WORDS, FHBA8E8 AND 



It may be derived from the Ang. Sax. *Tho/ * clay,' to 
which the state of the com bears a strong resemblance, 
or from the old Teutonic * tunckeny to dip or moisten. 
' Verbum,' says Wachter a Francis fabricatum, e Grseco 
Tiyyeu, vel Lat. * tingo.» Unless as expressing the softest 
state of that, which is naturally hard, it may be nothing 
more than the old participle of to 'thaw:' From *2%flwa»' 
Ang. Sax. * ihawen,* or * thone.* 

THONY, a. The same : ' It is but a thoni/ harvest, I fear.' 

THRAVE, *. Twenty-four sheaves of com. 

THRICE-COCK, «. Misle,— or Mistletoe— thrush. 

THRALL, or \ Stand for a barrel or barrels ; so called from 

THRAWL, «. j its subjection. Sax. 

THRIVE, V. To swell or grow larger. ' How's your leg, 
John ?' * Whoy, I verily think, io thrives,' i. e., it 
thrives. Mr. Thompson gives us the sources of the word 
* thrive; the Gothic *thrifa;* Swedish ^ihrijivas;' 
Danish ' trive ;' and Greek rpt^ta. I know not from 
whence he has the first. The Swedish * trifvaSy' and the 
Danish * tiHves,* to * thrive,' or ' increase,* or * grow,' 
are no doubt the origin of our word : and here we have 
its first meaning. 

THROFF, 8. Froth. ' She have'nt so much throffat her 

mouth this moming.' 

THROM.and ) 

> pr, rrom. 
THRUM, j ^ 

THRONG, or \ a. Busy, and as it is here expressed, *put 

THRUNG, ) about,' * hurried ;' Swed, ' trang.' 

THROSTLE, ». Thrush. 



PROVERBS OF LEICESTERSHIRE. 



99 



THUNK, *. Thong : * A whitleather thunk,' 

THURROW, *. Furrow. 

THURRUCK, 8. A heap : chiefly applied to dirt or muck, 

TIDD, Fond. * The child's so tidd of her little brother.' 

TIFFLE, V. To wrangle or dispute sharply ; almost to scuffle. 

TIFFLING, a, * Fiddle-faddling :' busy in little matters : 
'What are ye tiffling about?' 'She's always tifflling 
about something.' Said also of the movement of a hare, 
trotting o£f among the turnips. ' I wonder you did'nt 
hit that hare, while she was tiffling along.' 

TIFFLER, 8, Is used of a person always actively and inge- 
niously employed : * Tiffller Jack/ is a name given to a 
person of that description in a certain village. 

TILL-DOWN, *. A zest or relish. 'A nice tilUdovm* 
(Qu. tickle-down, 

TIN-GAWN, *. A tin vessel or gallon, * ga-on^ 

TIN^ or 1 Meadows near Gracedieu Abbey. This name 

TYNTE, i embarrassed me for a long time, till I 
heard accidentally that the property had belonged to a 
Le Despenser, who had been attainted. The meadows were 
called the * attainted,' or ' attinted, meadows ; whence 
came, no doubt, the vulgar abbreviation * Tin-'mJeadow8,^ 

TOADLY, a. Quiet, gentle. Said of a cow. * She's a nice 
toadly creature :' corr. of ' towardly,* 

TOLDRUM, 8, A corruption perhaps of * tawdry* (itself a 
remarkable corruption of * Stawdry,* or * St. Audrey,* 
from the finery bought at St. Ethelred's fair,) finery. 
* Come, put your toldrum by,' said a mother to her 
daughter, whose work (some part of her dress) was lying 
in a chair near her. ' They think of nothing but toldrum 
now a days. 



100 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



TOMMY-LOACH, s. A stone-loach, a fish. 
TO, pr. For. ' I had turnips to my dinner.' 
TONGUEY, a. An excellent word : * linuax,' a.$up^yXwa-(rof, 
otBvp6<rTo/jLOi f i. e., lavish of tongue in prating or abuse. 

* Her's so tonguey,' 

TOTHER, *., Pronounce the o as in * totter/ Slime, 
spawn. Toads-* tother* toad's-spawn, frog's -spawn. 

TOTHERY, fl. Slimy, gelatinous, viscous. 

TOTT, 8, A small drinking vessel. 

TOTT, V, To hand drink round in such vessels. 

TOWARDLY, a., and ' Toadly.' Tame, quiet, gentle. 

TOWN-ROUTING, p. Going gossiping about. 

TRACE, V, To go one by one. * I have observed the sheep 
always tracing across the field before a storm.' 

TRANGLE, *. Luck, chance, way. * Turn the pigs out, 
and let them take their own tr angle,* i. e., let them take 
their own way, and eat what they can get. 

TRAVANT, «. Truant. * He's playing travant,* A corruption 
of * truant.' 

TRONES, *. Steelyards. Johnson has * Tronage, money 
paid for weighing,* but says nothing of the derivation. 

* TVona* is the same as * statera :* in old Low Latin, a 
beam or balance for weighing. London had its * TVona- 
tor* who weighed the wool brought thither, and received 
his tronage for weighing. 

TROOK, V, To give into : to give way to. * He's been ill 
some time, but he never trooked till Thursday ;' corrup- 
tion of to * truckle/ 

TUMMIT. A turnip. 



PROVBBBS OF LEICESTEBSHIRB. 



101 



TUNE, V, To hum a tune. * My children could tune be- 
fore they could speak.* 

TUNKY, \ 8. Applied to a pig of a diminutive breed. 

TONKEY, j * A iunky pig :' with short legs, and deep 
carcase : probably from * Tonquin,' 

TUNNY-BACK, *. A fish : ' thorn-hack J 

TURMOITHERING, a. Turmoiling. Vid. ^MoitherJ 

TURN, V, To bear or 'keep out.' ' This coat \»ill turn the 
weather.' ' This cow's more nudgeling, and '11 turn the 
weather.* 

TUSSOCK, 8, * A tu880ck of grass,* i. e., a tuft. 

TUTT, «. 

TO TAKE TUTT, phr. 

TUTTY, a. Touchy. 

TWITCHELL, «. A narrow passage or alley between houses. 

TWIZZLE, A round about. Lat. * ambages,* * There be so 
many turns and twizzles,' 



I To take * At#,' or umbrage. 




UNBINGE, V. To dry up, to shrink by drying or heat. 

* I think this tub leaks :* * Yes ; it does : being in the 

hot room unhinges it so.* See Binge. 
UNDERMIND, ». Vulg. To undermine. 
UNDERMINDED, a. Underhand, mean, cunning. 'An 

undermindedf nasty trick.' 
UNFETTLED, a. Restless. * She was very sleepless and 

unfettledalL night.* A corruption probably of ^unsettled,' 



102 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



* I was in a frightful ui\fettled wob when I was going to 
\merica.' 

UNGAINy a. Large, awkward, unwieldly. Said of a person, 
and of a potatoe. 

UNKED, here "i a. Lonely, desolate, painfully solitary. 

UNKTD, and > Junius, as well as Johnson, derives it 

UNKIT. 3 from * uncouth ;' — " ignotus, rudis, 

novus, insuetus, alienus. A. S. * uncuth,' easdem habet 
significationes ; et componitur ex * un' and ' cuth :' q. v. 
in ' Couthe,' &c." — But here is no * solus,' ' solitarius,' 
the real meaning. — In my opinion, the word * uncoth,' 
ailing, or, languid, — would be quite as good a derivation. 
I should venture, however, to think, that the word 'link- 
ed,' or * unkid' has it^s origin from one or other of these 
three sources. 

1st. — * Un' and * cyththe,' sine familiaritate vel cog" 
natione : a state certainly most unkid, 

2ndly. — * Un' and ' cyta.* or * cute :' sine tuguriOt sine 
cubiculOf or rather ' un' and * cott' — sine domo — a state 
still more unkid. 

The compound here is quite in analogy with the genius 
of the A. S., and indeed of the Teutonic languages in 
general. The Germans also can compound with * ohne,' 
without, which is the same privative in fact with * un.' 
Of this ' ohnmacht' is an example ; although they gene- 
rally use * un' or * auf ' as the preposition of privation. 

Bailey has * unkward' and ' unkwardness' — but no de- 
rivation : corruptions probably of * awkward' and * awk- 
wardness,' which appear to me the proper derivatives of 

* uncuth' A. S., uncouth or awkward. 



PBOyBRBS OF LBICBSTERSHIRE. 



103 



3rdly. — ^There are in this country many names of places 
with the appendage ' cott' — a small house — added to 
them ; and among the rest occurs not unfrequently the 
compound — 'Huncot,' or *Huncote,' i. e., 'ane-cott' 
or * one-cot, meaning a single — ^lone— * odd * house, as it 
is called here. This name and fact in past times and 
places, — ^where the country was very thinly peopled,— 
might not unnaturally supply a metaphorical epithet for 
that which was solitary, unsocial, uncomfortahle. 

US, pr., For our : * We'en had us dinners.' 

USED,;?. ' Had used; for the preterite, * wcdf.' * Ihad used 
to could,* I used to be able. 

UTIC, s. Whinchat, so called from its note. 



VARNISH, r.n. To grow fat. * That horse '11 varnish in 
the spring.' Also, ' bamish,* 

VARNISHED, p. A farmer's wife said, ' that a girl she had 
taken quite thin, was become fat and varnished,* Per- 
haps more commonly bamished, 

VAST, *. A great quantity, heap, or number. ' A vast of 
people.' ' A vast of com.' ' A vast of muck.' 

VENOM, a. Dry and hard. 'I was quite mawled with 
walking, the ground was so venom,' 

VIPER, s. Used by labourers always, for * fibre.' 



104 WORDS, PHRASES AND 

CK, or \ 



WADGEUCK, or ^ A small quantity. * You've got a good 
WADJOCK, V. j lot of coals there/ ' Yes ; I've got 

a little wadjock.* 
WANGLING, a. Weak, loose, unsafe ; said of a horse. 

' It's a poor wangling thing.' i. e., lumbering. 
WANK, «, A violent knock or blow.' • She used to go such 

a wank at the door ;' i. e., to get in. 
WANKLE, a. Wan, sickly. < The child looks so pale and 

wankle,* i. e., weakly. 
WAP, V, To beat. Vulgarism to ' whop.' 
WARL, 8. See Wharl. 
WAS, V, In the sense of went. * I never was from Peckle- 

ton to Leicester afore.' . So the French : * Je Jus a 

1' Opera hier au soir.' 
WASHING-PEGS, s. Clothes-pegs. Both omitted by 

Johnson. 
WASTY, a. Consumptive. * A wasty fiunily,' i. e., subject 

to decline or consumption. Said also of the head, when 

confused or swimming, as it is called. * I'm pretty well 

except my head ; and that's so wasty.* See Westy. 
WATCHET. a. Wetshod ; common elsewhere. 
WATER-CROFT, *. Corruption of * carqfe* decanter. Not 

in Johnson, but common. 
WEARIFUL, a. Wearisome, tedious. 
' WE,' and | pr. * Our.' * We'll go and get wer din- 
WER, ) ners.' * We heave'nt had we teas.' * Teas,' 

* Dinners,' ' Broths,' thus used are always plural. 
WEED, V. Corruption of ' Wade,* to bathe. * I'm going 

to weed in Had pit .*' i. e., pond. 



PROVERBS OF LBICBSTERSHIRE. 



105 



WEEZELING, or | a. For * whizzling,* careless, ihought- 
WIZZLING, J less. ^Kwizzlingy^mch.: 

WEEZELIN6, 8, * That mm has given me such a weezeU 

ing in my head :' i. e., giddiness, swimming. 
WEIGHT, V, To depress, dispirit. ' It weighted me so, I 

could not do any work.' 
WELL, ad, A common expletive, commencing a sentence. 

* How are you to-day V * Well / I'm still croffling,' 

'Pr6«/Ido'ntknow.» 
INDIFFERENT WELL, \ Colloquial, vulgarisms for 
VERY NOT WELL, j * pretty weU, ' very iU,' 

and moderately welL * Nothing to be cracked of:' i. e., 

to be boasted of. 
WELL-DRAG, 8, A three- pronged drag to bring the bucket 

up when it falls in. 
WELLY, i. e., Well nigh. ' Dirty from top to bottom 

welly,' 
WESTY, a. Giddy, confused. ' My head's very westj/f and 

bad.' Qu. * yesty.' 
WETTLING. For * wattling.' 
WHANG, V. To pull along with ease and rapidity. * She'll 

whang it along ;' said a man of a mare, I was going to 

buy : but whose strength for my four-wheeled carriage I 

doubted. 
WHANG,*. Blow, or Jfln^r. 

WH ARL, 8. \ Burton says of the Leicestershire expression, 
WHARLER 8. ] * Carleton 'warler8* or 'harlers* that they 

are so called from their uttering their words with much 

difficulty, and ' le^Aar/tn^' in the throat : and that they 



106 



WORDS, PH&ASBS AND 



cannot well pronounce the letter R. I presume they had 
what is called the Northumbrian 'bur.' Grose has 
' wharling in the throat,' so explained ; as among the in- 
habitants of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and its environs; 
called in some places * harling? North. See appendix 
of Leicestershire * sayings,' &c. 

WHEE, *. Whey. 

WHIFFLE, V. To whisk : * the wind will wUffle the snow 
together/ 

WHIFFLE, V, To shift, said of the wmd. 'The wind 
whiffles so.' A good old English word. 

WHINGEL, or I v. To whine. * The child did nothing but 

WHINJEL, j hoot and whinjel after me.' (Soft g. 
Whinjeh) Also to worry with complaint. 'Heurtn- 
geled ever so, about that half-penny. He was wingeling 
about it all the evening.' 

WHINGELING, a. Peevish, fretful. 'The chUd's very 
whingeling,^ Also, puny, sickly. 'He's but a trAtn- 
geling lad.' 

WHIPPERTY, a. Slight in figure, slim and brisk. 'A 

whipperty woman,' is a bustling slender female. We 

trace this term in the vulgar expression for a thin, active 

lad, a whipper-snapper, 

WHISKET, or ) o „ ^ . u , . 
_ _ ' 5 «. Small flat basket. 

WISKET, ) 

WHIT-LEATHER, s. Horse-skms cured ' white,^ not 

tanned : used to make ' hedge-mittens,' q. v., &c. : cut 

also into strips to tie and patch up cart harness. ' Beef as 

tough as whiUleather* prov. 



PROTB&BS OF LBICBSTBRSHIRE. 



107 



WHIT-TAW, 9. A cart harness-maker, or mender. *A 
whiUtaw is to a sadler, what a cobbler is to a shoe- 
maker :' — a cobbling saddler. 

WIDDLE, 9. To move loosely about. < The rope wid- 
dies about so. We have the word in the colloquial 
' widdle-waddle.' Such words have their root probably 
in the German * wedeln,* to ' wag the tail,* to 'fan,* or 
move about,* 

WIFF, *. Withe. * Willow-wiffs.* 

WIGGEN-EAR, *. Same as ' hattle^twig,* an ear-wig. 
Also * Wignear,* 

WIM-WOM, a. Round about, circuitous. 'There's so 
many wim-wom roads up there.' 

WIM-WOM. «. A bird-clack, or cherry-clack to £righten 
birds from the fruit or seed. 

WINTER-PROUD, a. An epithet of grain in the blade in 
winter, when too forward or luxuriant ; and which con- 
sequently falls off in the spring. 

WIS-SELLS, pr. Ourselves. Corruption. 

WITTOR, «. Whittawer,B^'Tawer*Zo\maon, A dresser 
of leather, or rather of * «;At7e-leather,' or ' a^um-leather,' 
to distinguish it from ' /an-leather' dressed with bark. 
(A. Saxon *hwit-tawere,' the very word : 'coriorum deal- 
bator* — says Lye : but rather 'corii albi faber.' 

WITTERING, a. Wearisome, tedious. * He's so wittering J 

WIZZLE, *. A weasel. 

WIZZLE.PATED, a. Giddy, hare-brained. 

WONG. Termination of names of fields. * Flit-wong.* 
^Long-furlong^wongJ * Hard^acre-wong* Ang. Sax. 



108 



WORDS, PHRASES AND 



*wong^ and *wanff,' a field or plain. * Flit-wong' is the 
field that giyes the choice milk, flet or fliete — ^wong. 
* Flit-milk/ however, in Norfolk is skim-milk,* Ice* 
landic * Fleyti/ to skim off the top liquor. 

WOODSPITE, 8. Woodpecker, i. e., woodspit, or wood- 
piercer, ('spita' Ang. Sax. a spit.) 

WOONDERFUL, ad. This adverb is used to express, what 
is described in some comities by the word * uncommon,' 
used also adverbially; — ^viz., superlatively, transcend- 
ingly, beyond all description. ' Old Daniel swore 
woondeijul : no one in Hinckley could swear like Old 
Daniel.' 

WORM-STALL, «. Worm-cast : dirt thrown up by the 
worms ; from the A. S. * stael' or * stal,' a ' place,* or 
' state :' — we have the word in * laystall,' to 'install,* &c. 

WORT-SIEVE, *. A sieve used to sift wort or beer through. 

'HIS OWN WORTHY,' iiAr. Convalescent. 'How's your 
husband, this morning ?' ' Thank ye, Sir ; he's not his 
own worthy yet.' 

WULL, V. The constant form of ' will.' As in the saying 
here respecting the effects of * full' and * change' of the 
moon upon the weather — 

* Saturday * Change,' and Sunday * FulV 
Never did good, nor never wulL* 
Pronounce the ' u' in both as in ' gull' and ' dull.' 



• The old expression was *flotter'milk* skim-milk ; from the old 
verb ' fiote/ or * float ;' as in the legal term *flotson,* goods shipwrecked 
and floating in the water. 



PROYEBBS OF LEICB8TEBSHIRE. 



109 



YAFFLE, 8, The woodpecker. 

YAFFLE, I V. To yelp, or bark like a little dog. 

YAFFLING, ] p, * A yafflinff Uttle cur.' 

YAMBERING, a. Scolding. Goes generally with * natter- 
ififf,* which see. 

YANK, V, To squeal, or utter a cry of pain or annoyance, 
like a child. * The babby never yanked or cried, when 
I washed it.' 

YARDBAND, s, A tape or silk for measuring. 

YARDWAND, 8. A yard rod for measuring. In Johnson, 
yard rod. 

YEAOW, V, A farmer told a friend of mine, that a gentle- 
man, well known in the annals of Fox-hunting, attempted 
to bully him by riding over his land, against his expressed 
desire. * And so,' says he, ' I up to him neaiivizz, and 
says I, ' Do yeaow mane to bully me ? VeaoWf who 
ha'nt got an acre o' land in the county ? Yeaow come 
here to bully me ? So I yeaowed him out o' the field.' 
Tkitoyer Fr. and JDutzen Get, might be thought to have 
some little affinity to this term. 

YEDD,*. Head. 

YELM, 8, As much com in the straw, as can be embraced 
by both arms. 

YER, pr. You. * You're a bigger fool, nur oi took yer to be.' 

YETTERS, or^ ad. Yet. ' Not yc«cr*. Ma'am.* 'I've not 

YETTUS, j been yetters; but I'll go neaiwizz,' 

i. e., directly. 

YORP, V. To talk rather boisterously. A farmer's daugh- 
ter, was talking largely, and loudly to some friend, when 



no 



WORDS, PHRASES AND PROVERBS. 



her mother reproved her thus ; * Molly, my dear, do'nt 
yorp so.' ' He conld'nt hear himself speak, they kept 
on yorping so.' This may be, most likely, a variety of 
* yelp ;' or * yarg :' Icel. Jargon and Jarg, (from which 
onr word ' Jargon' comes,) mean in Icelandic, * a tire- 
some repetition of anything.' 
YOWT, V. To ydp, or bark : * I yeard the dogs yowting ;' 
a variety of * hoot,' 



LEICESTERSHIRE 

SAYINGS AND PROVERBS, 

BECOBDED BY FULLEB, 
IN HIS 

"WORTHIES OF ENGLAND;" 

AND QUOTED 

BY RAY, GROSE, &c. 



LEICBSTERSHIEE 



SAYINGS AND PKOVERBS. 



* Bean-belly, Leiceetershire,* — So called from the great 

plenty of thai gram, growing therein. Yea, those of the 
neighbouring countrys use to say merrily, * Shake a Lei- 
cestershire man by the collar y and you shall hear the 
beans rattle in his belly.* Bat those Yeomen smile at 
what is said to rattle in their bellies, whilst they know 
good silver ringeth in their pockets. 
' ffBever hath a cap, you churls qf the vale look to that.' — 
That is, when the clonds hang over the towers of Bever^ 
Castle, it is a prognostic of mnch rain and moisture, to 
the mnch endangering that froitfol vale, lying in the 
three counties of Leicester, Lincoln, and Nottingham, 

* Bread for Borrough-men.' 

* At Great Oletm there are more dogs, than honest men.' — 
' Carleton-wharlers.' — So called from a rattling in their 

throats. Burton says, that it has been remarked of the 
natives of this place, that they have a harsh and rattling 
kind of speech, uttering their words with much difficulty, 



114 



LBICBSTEBSHIRE 8ATIN08 



and * wharling* in the throat, and cannot pronounce the 
letter R. It is, however, said, that the present genera- 
tion have got over this impediment. 

* ril throw you into Harhorough field :* — a threat for chil- 

dren, Harborongh having no field. 

' Pvi up your pipes f and go to LocMngton waie.* — Locking- 
ton stands in the utmost north angle of the shire, upon 
the confines of Derby, and Nottinghamshires, near the 
confluence of the Trent and Soar. Probably this was a 
saying to a troublesome fellow desiring him to take him- 
self off to a great distance. 

' The last man that he killed keeps hogs in Hinckley 
field,' — Spoken of a coward, that never durst fight. 

* He has gone over Atfordhy bridge backwards,* — Spoken 

of one, that is past learning. Probably the point of this 
lies in the equivocal word * Ass.' 
*Like the Mayor qf Hartle-pool you cannot do that J — ^Ray 
places this among the Leicestershire Proverbs, but it 
rather seems to belong to Durham, Hartlepool being 
within that bishoprick. The sense of it is. You cannot 
work impossibilities ; an allusion to the following story. 
A mayor of a poor corporation, desirous to show his for- 
. mer companions, that he was not too much elated by his 
office, told them, that though he was Mayor of that Cor- 
poration, he was still but a man, there being many things 
that he could not do. 

* Then Vll thatch Groby pool with pancakes;* — said of 

something improbable. 
' For his death there is many a wet eye in Groby pooL* — 



AND FROrSRBS. 



lis 



That is ; No eyes are wetted by tears for him. Spoken 
of a person, not mnch esteemed or regarded. 

* In and out, like Billesdon, I wote.* — A scattered irregular 

village. 

* A Leicestershire plover,* i. e., a Bag-pudding. 

* Bedworth beggars.* 

* The same again quoth Mark of Bellgrave.' 

' What have I to do with Bradshaw*s windmill ?* 1. e., 
What have I to do with another man's business ? 

* He leaps like the Bellgiant, or devil qf MountsorreV — 

About Mountsorrel or Mount-strill, says Peck, the coun- 
try people have a story of a giant, named Bell, who once, 
in a merry vein, took three prodigious leaps, which they 
thus describe. At a place, (thence ever after called 
Mountsorrel,) he mounted his sorrel horse, and leaped a 
mile to a place, from it since named ' One leap,' now 
corrupted to WarUip : thence he leaped another mile to a 
village called Burstall, from the bursting of both him- 
self, his girts, and his horse : the third leap was also a 
mile ; but the violence of the exertion and shock killed 
him ; and he was there buried, and the place has ever 
been denominated BelVs-grave, or Bellgrave. This story 
seems calculated to ridicule those tellers of miraculous 
stories called *' Shooters in the long bow.' 

* There are more whores in Hose, than honest women in 

Long Clawton,* — Hose and Long Clawton are neigh- 
bouring villages within a mile of each other. Howes or 
Hose is but a small place. Long Claxton, Clayston, or 
Clawston, is a very large one ; near a mile long. Travel- 



LBICESTBRSHIBB 8ATIN08 AND PROyERMf 

■ if 

lers, when they come in sighf of these two places, are 
generally entertained with this coarse proverb : and at 
first considering the different sizes of the two places, are 
apt to be surprised at the oddness of the assertion : but 
the ^ double entendre* lies in the word Hose, which here 
is meant to signify stockings ; so that the assertion is, 
that there are more whores who wear stockings, than 
honest women dwelling in Long Clawston, 

* Hog*8 Norton, w?iere Pigs play on the organ.* — ^The true 

name of the town, according to Peck, is Hock*s Norton, 
but vulgarly pronounced Hogs Norton* The organist to 
this parish church was named Piggs. 

* The same again, quoth Mark of Bellgrave,* — ^This story ia 

said to be an allusion to an ancient Militia-officer in 
Queen Elizabeth's time, who, exercising the Company 
before the Lord Lieutenant, was so abashed, that, after 
giving the first word of command, he could recollect no 
mere, but repeatedly ordered them to do the same again. 




Printed br T. Chapman £«owne, Bible and Crown, Leicester. 



i '\ 



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