(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "An elementary Hebrew grammar"

mmn 



mm 






$^$$ 



>*.■.■;. 



ffli 



HUH 



~3w?Kx<MiSnnSM!%!«M^!tUH!Kk4l 



8M 









Class 
Book. 



G^B^ 8 * 



Gopyright^N . 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT. 



ft'' 



I 



■ 



^1 



BBi 



BiR'flflH 



few 



^H 7 

■I 



■ 



, ■ 



HIiBfl B0R8J 

IS ■ 
111 

■ 






I 



'V:ix 



HHHHh • gfeU 




I * 1 













^ > tw 



AN 



ELEMENTARY 



EEBEE¥ GRAMMAE, 



|leabitig anb Hinting ^tsgons antr Vocabularies. 



WILLIAM HENRY GREEN, 

PROFESSOR IN THE THEOLOGICAL SEMINARY AT PRLNCETON, NEW JERSEY, 



NEW EDITION, THOROUGHLY CORRECTED. 



SEVENTH THOUSAND. 



NEW YORK: 

JOHN WILEY & SONS. 

London : CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited. 

1902. 






s, 

%= 



LIBRARY of CONGRESS 
Two Cepies Received 

JAN 15 1904 

Copyright Entry 
(HA; IKW5 
CUASS -Mr. No. 

COPY B 






Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1871, 

By WILLIAM HENRY GREEN, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 

Copyright renewed, 1899, 
By WILLIAM HENRY GREEN. 



ROBERT DRUMMOND, PRINTER, NEW YORK. 



PREFACE 



Tins brief Manual has been prepared with special 
reference to the wants of beginners. The essential 
facts of the language are concisely stated, without the 
encumbrance of minute details, which would confuse 
their minds and impede their progress, and which be- 
long properly to a more advanced stage of study. 
The tabular form has been adopted to as great an 
extent as possible, in order to exhibit to the eye what- 
ever is capable of such a mode of representation. 
The Reading Exercises, which are of the simplest kind, 
have been carefully selected with a view to illustrate 
the forms and uses of different parts of speech, and 
especially the various classes of perfect and imperfect 
verbs ; and they are accompanied by a special Voca- 
bulary. 

It will, as is hoped, meet the wants of non-profes- 
sional students who seek a general knowledge of this 
venerable and sacred tongue rather than a thorough 
acquaintance with it, and who might be repelled by a 
larger and more costly apparatus. It is sufficiently 



IV PREFACE. 

simple for private study, as well as adapted for use in 
schools and colleges where facilities are offered for the 
acquisition of the Hebrew. The author will be re- 
joiced if this humble volume should tend in anyway 
to a more extended familiarity with the original lan- 
guage of the Old Testament among intelligent and 
liberally educated laymen. 

Princeton, August 22, 1866. 



PREFACE 

TO THE SECOND EDITIO 



The Grammar has been entirely rewritten, with a new 
to adapt it more fully to the wants of those for whom it 
is intended. In doing this, the writer has had the benefit 
of practical suggestions from some of the best Hebrew 
teachers in various parts of the country, among whom he 
is particularly indebted to Prof. Hoyt, of Ohio Wesleyan 
University, Delaware, Ohio. The paradigms are, as in 
the previous edition, combined together in Grammatical 
Tables, which afford a complete survey of all the forms 
of the language. But for the greater convenience of the 
student a number of the paradigms are inserted in the 
text of the Grammar likewise, and in some of the earlier 
of these the pronunciation is also given in Roman letters, 
to relieve the labor, and prevent the mistakes incident to 
an imperfect acquaintance with the characters. A more 
complete system of exercises both in Hebrew reading 
and composition has been provided throughout, and the 
greatest pains have been taken to make them strictly 
progressive in their character. No grammatical form or 
construction is admitted into the lessons until this has 



VI PREFACE TO THE SECOKD EDITION. 

first been explained. In the orthography these exerciser 
are inserted in the text of the Grammar in order that the. 
eye of the student, perplexed by the strange forms of 
unfamiliar characters, may readily pass from the rules or 
principles to their application. The exercises in trans 
lation, whether from Hebrew into English or from Eng- 
lish into Hebrew, are, as in the former edition, removed 
to the end of the volume. A special vocabulary, num- 
bered to correspond with each successive lesson, contains 
all words not previously learned, while their separation 
upon different pages is designed to counteract the temp, 
tation to negligence, which would arise from having 
these significations before the eye in the very act of 
recitation. It is assumed that all words are mastered as 
the student proceeds, so that they are never repeated ic 
the special vocabularies. General vocabularies follow 
both Hebrew-English and English-Hebrew, which con- 
tain every word to be found in any of the lessons. The 
principles of Syntax successively illustrated in the 
lessons, or necessary to be known in order to their proper 
understanding, are supplied in accompanying Eemarks or 
Directions. The learner is thus gradually familiarized 
with the practical application of nearly all the important 
principles of Syntax before he comes to study them 
together in systematic order. 

Princeton, October 11, 1871. 



CON TENTS 



PAGE 

Orthography. § 31, 

§ 1. The Letters 1 §32. 

§ 2. Their Classification 3 § 33. 

§ 3. The Vowel-Letters 5 § 34. 

§ 4. The Vowel-Points 5 

§5. Sh'va 6 §35. 

§ 6. Pattahh-furtive 7 

§ 7. Quiescence of the Vowel- § 36. 

Letters 8 

§ 8. Scriptio plena and defectiva 9 § 37. 

§9. Syllables 10 

§ 10. Resulting Vowel-changes. . . 12 § 38. 

§ 11. Kamets and Kamets-Hha- 

tuph 13 §39. 

§12. Daghesh-lene 14 §40. 

§ 13. Daghesh-f orte 15 

§14. Mappik 15 §41. 

§ 15. Raphe 16 § 42. 

§16. Accents 16 §43. 

§ 17. Position of the Accent 17 § 44. 

§ 18. Recession of the Accent. . . 18 § 45. 

§ 19. Pause Accents 18 

§ 20. Consecution of Accents 19 § 46. 

§ 21. Makkeph 20 § 47. 

§22. Methegh 20 §48. 

§ 23. K'ri and K'thibh 21 § 49. 

Etymology. « ^ 

% 24. Prefixed Particles 23 § 52. 

§25 The Article 23 §53. 

§ 26. He Interrogative 24 § 54. 

§ 27. Inseparable Prepositions. . . 25 § 55. 

§ 28. Vav Conjunctive 25 § 56. 

§ 29. Personal Pronouns 26 § 57. 

§ 30. Other Pronouns 28 § 58. 



PAGE 

Verbs. Their Species 89 

Perfect Verbs 30 

Kal Preterite and Infinitives 31 
Niphal, Piel, and Pual Pre- 

terites and Infinitives. ... 32 
The remaining Preterites and 

Infinitives 34 

Kal Future, Imperative, and 

Participles 35 

Niphal, Piel, and Pual Fu- 
tures, etc 37 

Hiphil, Hophal, and Hith- 

pael Futures, etc 39 

Peculiar Forms 40 

Paragogic and Apocopated 

Future and Imperative. . . 41 

Vav Conversive 42 

Verbs with Suffixes 43 

Gender and Number of Nouns 45 

Feminine, Dual, and Plural 46 
Dual and Plural in Feminine 

Nouns 49 

Construct State 50 

Its Formation 51 

Paragogic Vowels 52 

Nouns with Suffixes 53 

Irregular Nouns 55 

Imperfect Verbs 56 

Guttural Verbs 57 

Pe Guttural Verbs 57 

Ayin Guttural Verbs 58 

Lamedh Guttural Verbs. . 59 

Pe Nun Verbs 60 

Ayin Doubled Verbs 61 

Pe Fodh Verbs ... 63 



mi 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

§ 59. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh 

Verbs 64 

§ 60. Lamedh Aleph Verbs. 65 

§ 61. Lamedh He Verbs 66 

§ 62. Doubly Imperfect VeiDS 68 

§ 63. Unusual Forms 68 

§ 64, Quadriliteral Verbs 69 

§ 65. Numerals 69 

§ 66. Separate Particles 70 

Syntax. 

§ 67. The Copula. 71 

§68. The Article 71 

§ 69. Nouns definite without the 

Article 72 

§70. Adjectives 72 

§ 71. Demonstrative Pronouns. ... 72 

§ 72. Comparison of Adjectives. . . 73 

§73. Numerals 73 

§ 74. Apposition 74 

§ 75. The Construct State 74 

§ 76. Tenses of Verbs 75 

§77. The Preterite 75 

§78. TheFuture 76 

§ 79. The Secondary Tenses 77 

§80. Participles 77 

§81. The Infinitive 78 

§ 82. Object of Verbs. 78 

§ 83. Verbs with more than one 

Object 79 

§ 84 Adverbial Expressions 79 

§ 85. Neglect of Agreement 79 

§ 86. Compound Subject 80 

§ 87. Repetition of Words 81 

§ 88. Relative Pronouns 81 

| 89. Conjunctions 31 



PAGE 

Grammatical Tables. 

I. The Letters 83 

II. Classification of the Let- 
ters. The Points 84 

III. The Accents 85 

IV. Inseparable Prepositions 

and other Prefixes 86 

V. Pronouns. Verbs, then- 
Species 87 

VI. Paradigm of Perfect Verbs, 88 
VII. Paradigm of the Perfect 

Verbs with Suffixes 90 

VIII. Paradigm of Pe Guttural 

Verbs 92 

IX. Paradigm of Ayin Guttural 

Verbs 93 

X. Paradigm of Lamedh Gut- 
tural Verbs 94 

XI. Paradigm of Pe Nun Verbs 95 
XII. Paradigm of Ayin Doubled 

Verbs 96 

XIII. Paradigm of Ayin Vav and 

Ayin Yodh Verbs 98 

XIV. Paradigm of Pe Yodh Verbs 100 
XV. Paradigm of Lamedh Aleph 

Verbs 101 

XVI. Paradigm of Lamedh He 

Verbs 102 

XVII. Declension of Nouns 104 

XVIII. Paradigm of Nouns with 

Suffixes 107 

XLX. Numerals 108 

XX. Consecution of Accents. . . 109 

Lessons in Reading Hebrew.. Ill 
Lessons in Writing Hebrew. . . 137 
Hebrew-English Vocabulary. . 175 
English-Hebrew Vocabulary, 183 



ELEMENTARY HEBREW GRAMMAR. 



ORTHOGRAPHY 



The Letters, 



1. The Hebrew has twenty-two letters; these are all 
consonants, and are written from right to left. 



1. Aleph 

2. Beth 


^ 






1 9, Tjfi TTiedh 


b 


L 


n 


Bh, 


B 


J. LJ» A.JiX lXl\DKA.l-i. 

13. Mem 


n £ 


M 


3. Gi'mel 


a 


Gh, 


G 


14. Nun 


1 3 


N 


4, Da'leth 


1 


Dh, 


D 


15. Sa/inekh 


D 


S 


5. He 
6 Vav 


j-j 


H 




16. A'yin 

17. Pe 


$ 




i 


V 




51 S 


Ph, P 


7. Za'yin 


T 


z 




18. Tsa'dhe 


r * 


Ts 


8. Hheth 


n 


Hh 




19. Koph 


p 


K 


9. Teth 





T 




20. Resh 


1 


R 


10. Yodh 


■> 


Y 




21. Shin 


V 


Sh, S 


LI. Kaph 


13 


Kh, 


K 


22. Tav 


n 


Th, T. 



a. For the proper pronunciation of the vowels occurring in the names of the 
letters, see § 4. 1. a. 

2. There are two letters, for which no equivalent is 
given in the preceding table; a like the English h in 
hour or the smooth breathing in Greek had no sound; 5 
had a strong guttural sound, but one which it is so diffi- 
cult to make, that it is commonly neglected in reading. 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 1 

3. For seven of the letters two equivalents are given 
Thus, the si* aspirates have also an unaspirated sound 
which is indicated by a point in the bosom of the letter, 
§ 12; n is bh or v and Si b; A gh, a g; 1 dh as th in the, 
i d; D M as the German ch in ^A, 3 h; B ^>A or /J &j9,* 
n ^A as in thin, ft £ As, however, there are no sounds 
in English corresponding to gh and M, S may be pro- 
nounced g like 5 , and D & like 3 . The letter fr with a 
dot over its right arm has the sound of sh, and is called 
Shin; to with a dot over its left arm is called Sin, and 
is pronounced like s. 

4. In three instances two letters have the same equi- 
valent; thus B and n are represented by £, 5 and p by 
&, o and to by 5. These letters, though pronounced 
alike by us, are nevertheless quite distinct and must not 
be confounded. 

5. rt and s require a doubled letter or two letters 
combined to represent them; n is the simple h, n has a 
stronger sound as of rasping the throat, and is represent- 
ed by hh ; £ is ts in sits. 

6. Five of the letters have two forms; D , fc , 3 , B, £ 
(combined in the memorial word fs?^3 kinmappets) are 
used in the beginning or in the middle of words; at the 
end of words the bottom stroke is bent downward, 1 , f , 
51 ; V , or the letter closed up, D. 



EXERCISE 1. 

Hebrew words must never be divided at the end of a line. 

Write the letters of the alphabet in their order, with 
their names and equivalents. 

Write the folloAving words or combinations of letters 
placing under each its equivalent: — 



LETTERS. 



Pe-gimel Nun-samekh-kaph Sin-teth-nun Ayin-daleth 
Kaph-laniedh Yodh-niein-yodh He-aleph-resh-tsadhe Za- 
yin-resli-ayin Koph-tsadhe-yodh-resh Hheth-niem Hheth- 
resh-pe Lamedh-aleph Yodh-shin-beth-tav-vav. 

Name tlie letters in Genesis i. 1-3 on page 133, and give 
the equivalent of each. 



§ 2. Their Classification. 

The letters may be divided, 

1. First, with respect to the organs by which they are 
pronounced, into five classes, viz., Gutturals or those 
which represent a sound produced in the throat ; Palatals 
formed by pressing the root of the tongue against the 
posterior roof of the mouth ; Linguals formed by the tip 
of the tongue in contact with the anterior roof of the 
mouth; Dentals formed by the air driven against the 
teeth ; and, Labials formed by the lips. 



Gutturals tf 


n n $ 


(^nn^ 


ah a Jiha) 


Palatals 5 


i D P 


(PM 


gihJialc) 


Linguals i 


tt b 3 n 


( n ?^ 


datlenetli) 


Dentals T 


2 W 


(mor 


zastsasK) 


Labials 3 


1 to t> 


(W* 


bicmapJi) 



1 though not properly a guttural may be classed with 
them, as it partakes of their peculiarities. 

2, Secondly, into weak, medium, and strong. The 
weak consonants suffer or occasion frequent changes in 
the formation and inflection of words. The strong con- 
sonants are capable of entering without change into any 
combinations which analogy may require. Those of 



4 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 2 

medium strength are neither so stable as the latter, nor 
so feeble and fluctuating as the former. 



a n n i Vowel-Letters. 

x n n * Gutturals. 

b to D n Liquids. 

T " o * » Sibilants. 




Weak 
Medium 



Strong ^ a D p V Aspirates and Mutes. 



3. Thirdly, with respect to the function which they 
perform in the constitution of words, into radicals and 
serviles. The former, which comprise just one-half of 
the alphabet, are only used in the roots or radical portions 
of words. The latter, though they may also enter into 
roots, are likewise employed in the inflection of words, 
and the formation of derivatives, in prefixes and suffixes. 
The serviles are embraced in the memorial words "jr^a 
nbsi ntttt (eihdn moshe v'hhelebh, Ethan, Moses, and 
Caleb). All the other letters are radicals, viz. a , 7 , r , 
n, a, o, *, u, s, p, 1. 

EXERCISE 2. 

Write the letters of each class with their names and 
equivalents. 

Write the following letters, and indicate the class to 
which each belongs in respect of organ, strength, and 
function : — 

Aleph, Lamedh, He, Shin, Mem, Vav, Tav, Beth, Nun, 
Yodh, Gimel, Daleth, Resh, Tsadhe, Ayin, Koph, Kaph, 
Samekh, Pe, Zayin, Ilheth, Teth. 



(§ 3, 4. VOWELS. 



§ 3. The Vowel-Letters. 

There were originally no separate signs for the vowela 
in Hebrew. They were either not written at all, or 
when it was thought necessary to express them, the 
vowel-letters ( ^ina ehfvi) were employed for this pur- 
pose. Thus i was used to signify not only y but also * 
and 6/1 stood for 6 and u; a or n for a, and in some 
cases for e or 6 ; e was also sometimes represented by i 
or n ; the other short vowels were scarcely ever written. 
Thus yo, bin or ben; Dip horn or hum; nba gala, gold, g'le 
or gale • ns^aran i 1 shubhena. 

§ 4. 17^ Vowel-Points. 

1. After the Hebrew ceased to be spoken, a more com- 
plete method of writing the vowels was needed, in order 
to indicate the exact pronunciation of words. With this 
view the vowel-points were invented. Of these three 
represent long, three short, and three doubtful vowels. 



Long Vowels. 

Ka'mets __ a 

Tse're 1 e 

Hho'lem -* 5 



Short Vowels. 
Pat'tahh _. a 

Se'ghol -_ e 

Kamets-Hhatuph _ 6 



Doubtful Votoels. 
Hlii'rik — . I or % 
Shu'rek 1 



vl 



TZ-u/u i rU or u 

Kib buts 



a. The vowel a is pronounced as in father, a as mfat, e as in there, e as in met 
i as in machine, i as in pin, o as in note, 6 as in notf, w as in ruU, u as in fuU. 
The quantity will be marked when the vowels are long, but not Tyhen they are 
short. 

2. All the vowels are written under the letter aftei 
which they are pronounced, except two, viz. Hholem and 
Shurek 

3. Hholem is placed over the left edge of the letter to 



6 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 6 

which it belongs. When followed by te or preceded b) 
ft it coincide* with the diacritical point over the letter 
e. g. site moslie, site sone; when it follows te or precedes 
te it is written over its opposite arm e. g. lite , tesnn tirpos. 
Accordingly, if an unpointed consonant precede (i. e. one 
vs ithout a vowel or Sh'va, § 5) te will be osh and te os; if 
it have itself no other vowel point te will be so and te sho, 
except at the end of words. 

4. Shurek is a dot in the bosom of the letter Vav. 
When there is a 1 in the text, the vowel u, whether long 
or short, is indicated by a single dot within it, and called 
Shurek; in the absence of 1 it is indicated by three dots 
placed obliquely beneath the letter to which it belongs, 
and called Kibbuts. 

EXERCISE 3. 

The place of Aleph will be indicated in this and in following exercises by *, and 
that of Ayin by f . Teth, Koph, and Sin will be denoted by a dot beneath the 
letter, t, k, s. 

Write the long, short, and doubtful vowels with their 
names and equivalents. 

Write : Zahabh, lehhem, rabh, yet, khol, kol, khamus, 
famal, me*6yebh, sho*el, soleth, fim, *eth, bhayith, 
phftrashim, yaruts, shophet, shalosh, soraph, bhosem. 

Read the following words, and give the names and 
equivalents of the vowels which they contain. 

. ntf; , bto . *inbb , nbte 7 nf? , ibte , shn , $ , *im 

. raj? , o'tebte , dk , -r?* , -pn* , phte , ^ , rftej 

* Kamets-Hhatuph. 

§ 5. Sh'va. 

1. ShVa — is placed under vowelless consonants to 

indicate the absence of a vowel, e. g. n n?^TO mamlakMi. 



§ 6 sh'va, pattahh furtive. 1 

At the end of words, however, it is omitted : ba (not ba) 
bed, "fob (not *$b ) so^r, unless the last letter is 1 or is 
immediately preceded by another vowelless letter > or is 
doubled by Daghesh-forte, § 13, Sfbfe melekli, tpitfp Jcosht, 

2. When a syllable begins with two consonants a slight 
sound is heard between them, as in English between the 
last two consonants of gitfn, lieav'n; thus *ipB p'kodh, Tl 
Wru, not hru. Sh'va is, therefore, said to be silent at the 
end of syllables, but vocal at the beginning. 

3. Sometimes, particularly after the gutturals, this tran- 
sition sound resembles an extremely short a, e, or o. It is 
then represented by the compound ShVas, which are 
formed by combining the sign for simple Sh'va already 
explained with that for Pattahh, Seghol, or Kamets- 
Hhatuph, as the case may be. 



r\ j ( Hhateph-Pattahh — , ; thus inn h a rogh 

ShVas ) Hhateph-Seghol -^ ; thus wn hfyoth 
' Hhateph-Kamets — ; thus ^bn hh°ll. 



§ 6. Pattalih-furtive. 

Pattahh-furtive is a scarcely audible a, which steals in 
before the letter under which it is written. It occurs 
with ?, n or the consonant ft at the end of words, 
when preceded by a long vowel other than a, or followed 
by another vowelless consonant, HP? gdbho a h, ^rih 
lahaPhht. Comp. in English fire, pronounced fi e r. 

EXERCISE 4. 

Write the different ShVas and Pattahh-furtive witi 
their names and equivalents. 



8 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 7 

Write the following words, and wherever Pattahh 
furtive has been improperly omitted, make the requisite 
correction : 

Sh'nayim, th'nu, y'dhekheni, h^aghanr y'hoshu a f, * e loh, 
m6f°madh, kM/sher, milhhamoth, bh'simhMthkhem,le^ e - 
khol, z'bhiil, y£f a lehu, samehh, s'bhibhothayikh, raklf, 
dh'gh&th, yest. 



§ 7. Quiescence of the Vowel-Letters. 

1. The vowel-points above described were attached to 
the sacred text without any change in its letters. Con- 
sequently every vowel, which had previously been indi 
cated by a vowel-letter, was now denoted both by that 
and by the sign subsequently added. In all such ?ases 
the letter is said to quiesce in the vowel, that is, it has 
not its consonant sound, but the vowel-sound represented 
by the accompanying or preceding point. Thus in lis 
Vav stands not for v but for o, and the word is read bar ; 
in nb'a , n represents not h but a, and the word is gala. 

2. At the beginning or in the middle of a word the 
letters a n 1 ■» are consonants, if they are followed by 
a vowel or a Sh'va; if not so followed, they are quies- 
cent: Tip love, i^to seyo, but ttiE mat, rWs beth. 

3. At the end of words 1 is quiescent when preceded 
by 6 or ?/, and *» when preceded by e or I; but they are 
consonants if preceded by any other vowel sign, ^fi hhe t 
n 3 bi, but *»n hhay, ^ gay. 

Final n is quiescent, unless it has Mappik, § 14, nyjfej 
wriscb) but ft'snx artsah. 

Final tf is invariably quiescent, if a vowel precedes : 
rib Id, as ba; but if a vowelless consonant precedes, it is 
helmed otiant: &H*1 vayyar. 



§ 8. VOWEL-LETTERS. *) 

a. It may be observed that tf quiesces in a multitude of cases, where it is not 
properly a vowel-letter, which, in fact, it rarely is. Its feebleness is such that it 
scarcely ever terminates a mixed syllable. Such forms as W^TK^ do occur; but 
ft mostly loses its consonantal power at the end of a syllable, whatever the pre- 
ceding vowel may be. Yodh similarly gives up its consonantal character in the 
termination -p , or at least is neglected in the pronunciation, thus "pSs 1 ! 
(Fbhdrdv, 1133; dndv. 



EXERCISE 5. 

Pronounce the following words, and apply the rules 
for the quiescence of the vowel-letters. 

, to^ 2 , ■px , b^a ? ^'-p 1 7 anbbn , cibsoan , yiab , -tea 
, ^ , fiS'j? , ib«b , Til? , nisj , ^by , lAp? , 15 , nih , frns 

1 The Shurek is regarded as belonging to the 1 , and « is quiescent. 2 ish, not 
iyosh. 3 The Hholem belongs not to the 1 , which has Sh'va, but to the 1 ; th* 
word is hence to be read edKvoth. 



§ 8. Scriptio plena and defectiva. 

1. Vowels, which are indicated both by a vowel-letter 
and by a vowel-point, are said to be written fully, as in 
niriitf dihoth, D^flpbis shalishim, rm muili / those, for which 
a vowel-letter might have been employed, but which are 
expressed by the points only, are said to be written 
defectively, as rfih'a , D©b© , m . 

2. As letters were rarely used to represent the short 
vowels, § 3, u and % when written fully, are almost 
always long, e. g. WjJ Vmu; when written defectively, 
they may be either long or short, e. g. wy m yvrash, "IH< 
yihhar, ttelj tamush. 33ttf'p mushMbh. 



10 ORTHOOR/VPHY. § 9 



EXERCISE 6. 

Precision in the employment of the vowel-letters can only be attained by prac- 
tice and a knowledge of forms. For the present the following general rules will 
suffice : 

Write e and I with Yodh and b and u with Vav at the end of words ; elsewhere 
fcbey may be written with or without the vowel-letters at discretion. 

Write a and e without a vowel-letter except at the end of words, where d may 
and e must be represented by He. 

In the following words, write the vowels both fully and 
defectively, wherever both forms are admissible : — 

Zu, nirash, *6tho, yashobh, lanu, ze, bho, heklmu, 
yamush, moshe, bhul, yakutsu, *abhmu, h&fldhothi 
mayim, *aven, me, me, mi, yamoth, yamoth, luhhoth, 
shubh, min, hiishMkh. 



§ 9. Syllables. 

1. Two vowels ean never come together in the same 
word in Hebrew without an intervening consonant, and 
hence there can never be more than one vowel in the 
same syllable. 

2. Every syllable except initial *i must begin with a 
consonant, and may begin with two, but never with more 
than two. 

3 Syllables ending with a vowel are called simple, 
np md, tyfpn Ifke-mo-tha. / those ending with a consonant, 
or, as is possible at the close of a word, with two con- 
sonants, are said to be mixed, nrn'Mp nisli-mar-tem ,i"g 
nerd. 

4. As Pattahh-furtive and the vocal ShVas, whether 
simple or compound, are not vowels but involuntary 
transition sounds, they with the consonants under which 
they stand cannot form syllables; Pattahh-furtive is 
accordingly attached to that of the preceding vowel, and 



§ 9. SYLLABLES. ll 

the vocal Sh'vas to that of the following vowel; thus 

rhT z!ro a . 

5. Unaccented simple syllables always contain long 
vowels, and unaccented mixed syllables short vowels 
But an accented syllable, whether simple or mixed, may 
contain indifferently a long or a. short vowel. 

6. A letter with simple Sh'va in the body of a word 
may either end or begin a syllable. If it is preceded by 
another Sh'va or by an unaccented long vowel, it belongs 
to the following syllable, *h3Tn tiz-Fru, *h5t zd-TchJre! ; if 
by a short vowel or by an accented long vowel it is 
mostly attached to the preceding syllable, i^ion Khas-dd. 
nppji kom-nd; if it be doubled by Daghesh-forte, § 13. 
the first of the two consonants into which it is resolved 
is connected with the preceding and the second with the 
following syllable, ite? yit-tfnu. 

7. Sometimes a consonant which is not doubled belongs 
in a measure to two syllables, completing that which pre- 
cedes and beginning that which follows. In this case 
the former syllable is strictly speaking neither simple 
nor mixed, but may be denominated intermediate, thus 
in iihnF\ tajiaji^qliu' and *i4Jp5^ vatfbhMfshu for vay- 
i/bliak-ttshu, the first two are intermediate syllables. 

a. Consonants which stand in this equivocal relation are such as remain single 
when analogy would require them to be doubled, I'sJp^l for sia^n^, , ^H^" 1 
tfbha-liel for y'bhali-Ml ; or have a vocal Sh'va or a vowel when they might be 
expected to have a silent Sh'va, I'iHftfi for I'jHFlP! tdh-r'ghu; or are preceded by a 
short vowel which has arisen from Sh'va, n^i"] for i"i3?ri , Ftt'iS bidli'ghathfoi 
ra'ia , 7$^ for T^rn , D'Afi'Tg ko-dhdshlm for D^p . Also when the same 
consonant is immediately repeated in the same word the intervening Sh'va iis 
made vocal in order to give distinctness to the reduplication e. g. iVbi tsffllo, 

EXERCISE 7. 

Write the following words, and ascertain the quantity 
of their vowels : — 



1.2 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 10 

Yis-ra-*el', gho-ylm', bh'no-the-hem', u-bh'*o-ts'ro-tha'yikh, 
khu-shan', rish-fa-thayim, nie'-lekk, bh'bhit-no', li-hu-dha', 
-f^zobh-kheni', yith-ka-fe'-ha. 

Write and divide into syllables : — 

Umiknekhern', yesh'bhu', humtsatho', yikhrafeni', 
shighyonoth', bh^munatho', Vlar'ncubhenf, thahWghu, 
8hole a hh'. 



§ 10. Resulting Vowel- Changes. 

Certain vowel-changes result from the foregoing rules, 
viz. : — 

1. If two vowelless consonants concur at the begin- 
ning of a syllable, the first will receive a short 
vowel. This is commonly Hhirik, e. g. *hy*i dibhre for 
I'ni'n ; but if one of the consonants had a compound Sh'va, 
the vowel corresponding will be inserted, e. g. TO?)! 
ya a modh for ito?? ; or if a vowel has been rejected, the 
new vowel may be conformed to it, e. g. iibtt moVhho 
for iDbtt from tfbfc . 

2. When a tone-vowel is immediately preceded by two 
consonants the pronunciation is frequently softened by 
giving a pretonic vowel, mostly Kamets, to the first, e. g. 
nii!?E from fisbtt , no; , ringb . And the '/owel a is often 
retained in such a situation, when other vowels would be 
rejected, e. g. Wtito from tfotJ.but ^varc not ^nbtj from 

3. The harshness of concurring consonants at the end 
of a word is commonly relieved by inserting Seghol, to 
which a preceding Pattahh is conformed, y^\ for 3T>, 
ns5 J 'o rob ? *jbiG for Sjbtt . If either consonant is a gut- 
tural Pattahh is mostly used instead, nsi , W6, jr^. If 
either consonant is * , Hhirik is used ; if the second 



§ 11. KAMETS AND KAMETS-HHATUPH. 18 

con,- manfc is * it will rest in Shurek, irHa, ■'is, *in'A , but 
mi. 

4. When by reason of any changes occurring in words 
a s) ort vowel comes to stand in a simple syllable, the 
vowel must ordinarily be prolonged or the syllable con 
verted into a mixed syllable by doubling the succeeding 
consonant ; thus instead of Tph? we find ft" 1 ?* yd-ni a Jih or 
rp3? yan-ni a lih. 

5. When a simple syllable becomes mixed or a long 
mixed syllable loses its accent, its vowel is ordinarily 
shortened, e. g. i^lnp from *if>0 , b^ from bip. 



§ 11. Kamets and ITametsShahcph. 

Kamets d and Kamets-Hhatuph 6 are both represented 
by the same sign ( T ), but may be distinguished by the 
following rules : — 

1. In accented syllables, whether simple or mixed, and 
in unaccented simple syllables, § 9, 5, it is Kamets, 
rnfa md'veth, *o^ dd-blidr' ; in unaccented mixed syllables 
it is Kamets-Hhatuph, ^fe&n Tihoph-sM, atjrn vatta-shobh. 

2. Before a letter with simple ShVa the distinction is 
mostly made by Methegh ( — ), § 22 ; without Methegh 
it is always Kamets-Hhatuph, with it commonly Kamets, 
nban hhokh-md, «"taan hhd-Jch^md. 

3. Before a guttural with Hhateph-Kamets, or Kamets- 
Hhatuph, the syllable is frequently intermediate, § 9, 7, 
and the vowel o, though accompanied by Methegh, "Ana 
b6Jih°r\ nrnsn toJfoKdhem. 

a. Some cases falling tinder 2 and 3 can only be decided by the etymology ; 
bhus ni'3Xl with the prefixed conjunction w°niyydth, f^XH with the article 
Mrniyya ; Q" 1 "^^ shdrashlm from &H&, a "^0 hharasJam from \U*jn • 
rniat^ in Ps. lxxxvi. 2 the imperative sAomra, in Job x. 12 the preterite shdm'rd. 



14 ORTHOGRAPHY. § 1% 

EXERCISE 8. 

Apply the foregoing rules to the words that follow. 

.m^tf . ivo , sfifipa , tins , m , nfern , nbm , D^bbia , Dp^ 

T : it J -:rr" ■• h t J tt) t 7 It : rr > It : t ) • t : ) fit 

Write : — 

Ya'hdm, *az', *oznani', raal'khu', naol'kho', dhabhar', 
rn6hh rabh6th', hhakh'nia', hhokhnia', nofobh'dhem'. 



§ 12. Daghesh-lene. 

1. Daghesh-lene is a point written in the letters a a 1 
d fi n (nB3 *tiS Wghadli Wphatli) to indicate the loss of 
their aspiration, § 1, 3. They retain their aspirate sound, 
when they are immediately preceded by a vowel or a 
vocal ShVa ; when not so preceded, they receive Daghesh- 
lene, orn^n b 1 ghadhtem. 

2. An initial aspirate following a word which ends in 
a vowel, and has a conjunctive accent, § 16, does not take 
Daghesh-lene ifih «in^n , Gren. i. 2 ; but if the accent is dis- 
junctive, Daghesh-lene is inserted, since in this case the 
&«pirate is regarded as removed from the influence of the 
vowel sahnffj? ***¥} > Gren, i- 26. 



EXERCISE 9. 

Correct the following sentences by inserting or omitting 
Daghesh-lene : — 

Yashabh bhafir fadh f6m'dho liphne hafedha Tmish- 
pliat fadh moth khohen ghadhol. 

V'+asita hhesed fal fabdeka ki bib'rit a donay hebe*ta 
fc et abd'ka v'*im bl fa von h a miteni v'fad *abika lo* t'bueni 



13, 14. DAGHESH-FOBTE. 16 



§ 13. Daghesh-forte. 

1. Daghesh-forte is a point inserted in the bosom of a 
letter to show that it is to be doubled ; thus b^ vayyim- 
fudl. It is never found in the gutturals tf n n y, and 
rarely in "i . 

2. A point in one of the aspirates is Daghesh-forte if a 
vowel precedes, otherwise it is Daghesh-lene, § 12, 1, 
rni'n dibbarta. The aspirates when doubled likewise 
lose their aspiration. 

3. A point in Vav is Daghesh-forte if a vowel pre- 
cedes ; otherwise it is Shurek lifc? tftsavvu. 

4. Daghesh-forte is sometimes inserted for euphony, as 
"63? inrfhh'e for *hw iii'blie. When the first letter of a 
word is doubled in order to link it with the final vowel 
of the word preceding, it is called Daghesh-forte con- 
junctive, ifcsr wp humujts-t£u. 

5. Daghesh-forte is frequently omitted from vowelleps 
letters, whether in the middle or at the end of words. 
In the former case the following Sh'va generally remains 
vocal, S|fj^ vay'hhaph for 5|rrn vayy'hhcvpp. 

§ 14. Mappik 

Mapplk' is a point inserted in a final He to denote that 
it is a consonant, and not a vowel, § 7, 3, Tilbn maTka\ 
nsbtt malM, 

EXERCISE 10. 

Write:— 

ShibMtsta, battabbafoth, d&bb'rah, /dhabVra, gulgolto, 
bikkartlm, vayyibbak'fu, hayyiilladh, tukh'lu, f asltha llo. 

Pronounce the following words and name the points 
which are written in the letters : — 



16 ORTHOGRAPHY. §§ 15, 16 

,*}*» , *"kn , nrrt* , ftSy$ , cnia , triga , rib. > rvin 

, of i»3 , libraa , ft niton /yjia ,^pu , w , H?i? ,Pcria«S 

. **»J3b , bs^, , Q^bsn , n> nb'?E , naittj 3|ag» , j?jjn» 



§ 15. i2^M 

Raphe" is a small horizontal stroke placed over a letter 
and denotes the opposite of Daghesh-lene, Daghesh-forte. 
or Mappik, as the case may be: n^ojri Mvvas* dhd not 
kwvas'dhdh. 



§ 16. Accents. 

1. An accent is written upon every word, with the 
twofold design of marking its tone-syllable and of indi- 
cating its relation to other words in the sentence. 

2. Accents are either disjunctives or conjunctives, ah 
shown in table III. The former indicate that the word 
upon which they are placed is more or less separated 
from those that follow; the latter that it is connected 
with what follows. 

3. The place of the accent is either over or under the 
letter preceding the tone- vowel, with the exception of the 
prepositives (marked prep, in the table), which always 
accompan} r the initial letter of the word, and the post- 
positives (marked postp.), which stand upon its final 
letter. 

4. Silluk has the same form as Methegh ; but the 
former invariably stands on the tone-syllable of the last 
word in the verse, while Methegh is never written under 
a tone-syllable. Pashta is likewise distinguished from 



§17. ACCENTS. 1) 

Kadlima, and Y'thibh from Mahpakh, only by their 
position. 

5. In the poetical books, Job, Psalms, and Proverbs, a 
different system of accentuation prevails from that which 
is in use in the rest of the Old Testament. 



§ 17. Position of the Accent 

The accent always falls either upon the ultimate or 
penultimate syllable, and is governed by the following 
rules : — 

1. In their uninfected state all words, whether primi- 
tive or derivative, are accented on the ultimate, "lin , !nn . 
But Segholate words and forms, that is, such as have 
an unessential vowel in the ultimate, inserted to soften 
the harshness of concurring consonants, § 10. 3, are ac- 
cented on the penultimate, tfzh for tjbtt , b^ for bsp. 

2. If the word receive an addition at the end consist- 
ins: of a vowel or beginning with one, this will attract 
fche accent to itself or to its initial vowel, a^? 1 ? , iiir; . 

Exceptions. — a. Suffixes added to the 3 fern, preterite 
of verbs, QQlhn. b. Personal terminations of verbs 
and the paragogic vowels n T , T\ 9 . and i . , when they do 
not cause the rejection of the vowel previously accented, 
Nog , wnnn , but linn . 

3. When a simple syllable is attached to a word either 
directly or by means of a union vowel, the accent is given 
to the penult, o&tt , noita. , wfto«ti , b£ , rYftp . 

The suffix *J follows the general rule, when preceded by 
a vowel, or attached to the 3 fern, preter. of verbs ; other- 
wise it draws the accent upon itself, T 1 ^ , ^fil)*! ? *H,t 

4. A consonant appended to a long final vowel drswa 
the accent to the ultimate, Vfiij , yifvi^ . 



18 ORTHOGRAPHY. §§ 18, 19 

5. Appended mixed syllables always receive the accent 
cijz&ft > disbia . 

6. The only prefixes which affect the position of the 
accent are the Vav Conversive of the future, which draws 
it back from a mixed ultimate to a simple penult, tok*} ; 
and the Vav Conversive of the preterite, which throws it 
forward from the penult to the ultimate, PH'a&n . 

EXERCISE 11. 

Accent the following words : 

*abh and the derived forms ha*abh, *abhl, ^abhinu, 
*abhik, *abhoth, * a bhothenu, la* a bhothehem. 

Pakadh' and the derived forms pak'dhu, pakadhnu, 
pakadhti, p'kadktiv, p'kadhtem, yiphkodh, hiphkidh, 
yaphkidhehu, hithpak'dhu, hammuphkadhlm. 

§ 18. Recession of the Accent 

A conjunctive is frequently removed from the ultimate 
to the penult, if a disjunctive immediately follows, 
whether upon a monosyllable or the penult of a dissyl- 
lable, nb^b «>jg Gen. 1 : 5. 

§ 19. Pause Accents. 

The greater disjunctives, which mark the limits of 
clauses and sections, are called pause accents. 

These sometimes stand upon the penult in words 
ordinarily accented on the ultimate, "oba , n pb« ; or vice 
versa upon the ultimate in place of the penult, TaK*} . 

They also occasion certain vowel changes, viz., they 

1. Lengthen short vowels, particularly ( . ) or ( v ) to 
( T ) ■rax , tgx ; n-w f Dny r . 



§ 20. ACCENTS. 19 

2. Restore vowels dropped in inflection, Vi&l , vol . 

3. Change simple ShVa to Seghol, W > ^ • 

4. Change compound ShVa to the corresponding long 
rowel, ^« , S» • 

§ 20. Consecution of Accents. 

1. The last word in every verse receives Silluk, and ia 
followed by two dots vertically placed ( * ) called Soph 
Pasuk (i. e. end of the verse). 

2. If the verse consists of two clauses, the last word of 
the first clause is marked by Athnahh. If of three 
clauses, which is the greatest number that any verse can 
contain, the first is limited by Segholta, the second by 
Athnahh, and the last by Silluk. 

3. These clauses are divided into sections, if necessary, 
by one or more of the disjunctives, Zakeph Katon, 
Zakeph Gadhol, R'bhi a , Pazer, and T'lisha Gh'dhola. 

4. In the sections thus created the accents are disposed 
relatively to the disjunctive which marks its close, see 
table XX. 

5. Each disjunctive of the first class is regularly pre- 
ceded by one conjunctive and a disjunctive of the second 
class ; disjunctives of the second class by two conjunctives 
and a disjunctive of the third class ; disjunctives of the 
third class by three conjunctives and a disjunctive of the 
fourth class ; and disjunctives of the fourth class by four 
or more conjunctives. 

6. The trains of accents thus formed are adapted to 
sections of different length and character by omitting 
such of the Conjunctives, and more rarely by repeating 
such of the Disjunctives, as the mutual relations of the 
words may seem to require, and breaking off the seriep 
whenever all the words in the section have been supplied 



90 ORTHOGRAPHY. §§ 21, 22 

§ 21. Makkeph. 

1. Makkeph' ( " ) is used to connect words. Monosyl- 
labic particles especially are frequently thus linked with 
the succeeding or preceding word, ^■nto^PTDK 

2. Where two or more words are united in this oiannei 
the last only has an accent. Hence a long mixed syl 
lable, followed by Makkeph, must be shortened, § 9, 5, 
qi:rb3, or else receive the secondary accent Methegh, 
§ 22, tikym • 

EXERCISE 12. 



Connect each pair of words by Makkeph, inserting 
Daghesh-forte conjunctive whenever the former ends in 
a or e. 

Kol yisra*el, yal'dha lo, *eth *elle, *ethmdkh bo, tih'ytf 
ll, ten ll, sh'losh *elle, y'bhakkesh dafath, l'kha na*. 

§ 22. Methegh. 

1. Methegh ( -7 ) represents a minor stress of the voice, 
which usually falls upon the second syllable before the 
accent, and again upon the fourth, if the word have so 
many, niafb^jJWi , iVnin;. 

2. If the syllable which should receive it is mixed, it 
may be given in preference to an antecedent simple syl- 
lable ; or if none such precede, it may be omitted alto 
gether. 

3. It is always given to simple syllables, followed by 
a vocal Sh'va, *ritt«!j ; also to intermediate syllables fol- 
lowed by compound Sh'va, or a vowel which has arisen 
from compound ShVa, "ifcjKb , *TJ»j; , and frequently when 
the Sh'va is simple, HStDttb . 

4. The place of Methegh is often supplied by an 



§ 23. K'RI AND K^THIBli. 21 

accent chosen agreeably to the laws of consecution^ 

EXERCISE 13. 

Apply the rules for Methegh. A hyphen repiesenta 
Makkeph. 

Ve*lohe', la* a dhonehem', mehammaf^'akha 7 , fammmft- 
dhabh', ben-ha*ama', berakhntikhem', vayyir'+u', han 
nogh'sim', ha*ishsha/, nie*artso', lath&th-la'nti, hithhal 
l3kh-no a hh', mefbhodhath'khem'. 

§ 23. JPri and JTthibh. 

1. K'ri {read) is the technical name of a marginal 
reading in the Hebrew Bible, which is sanctioned by tra- 
dition as a substitute for the corresponding reading in 
the text, or the K'thlbh (written). The vowels of the 
K'ri are connected with the letters of the text and a 
reference made to the margin where the letters of the 
former may be found. 

2. If a given word is to be omitted in reading, it is 
left unpointed, and the note *Hp tfbi avo written but not 
read, placed in the margin. If, on the other hand, a 
word is to be supplied, its vowels are inserted in the 
text, and the letters placed in the margin with the note, 
a^ro »bi *np read but not written. 

3. In some words of frequent occurrence, a different 
reading is suggested by the points alone, without a mar 
ginal explanation. Thus the sacred word itirp , which the 
Jews have a superstitious dread of pronouncing, is read 
by ihem as if it were Tp« Lord, whose points it accord- 
ingly receives, nirn , unless these two names stand in 
immediate connection, when to avoid repetition it is read 
ET&N and pointed HiiT; so the pronoun Kin is read K^n, 



22 ORTHOGRAPHY. 8 23 



EXERCISE 14. 

Write the following words, as they would appear in 
the text, and in the margin of the Hebrew Bible, uniting 
the points of the K'ri with the letters of the K'thibh. 
and making the appropriate marginal note. 

Larubh k'thibh — larlbh k'ri; sima k'thibh — suma k'ri; 
fasithi k'thibh — fasltha k'ri ; bish'n&th k'thibh — bash- 
shana k'ri ; fabhdo k'thibh — f&bhdekha k'ri ; hotsithiha 
k'thibh — Mtstsithuha k'ri ; bh'yisra*el k'thibh — yisra*el 
fc'ri; p'rath read but not written; *im written but no< 
read. 



ETYMOLOGY. 

§ 24. Prefixed Particles, 

1. The significant elements of speech in Hebrew con- 
sist of 

(1) Prefixed particles, which do not form a complete 
word of themselves, but are always attached to that 
which follows. 

(2) The Pronouns, which are used both separately 
and as appendages to other words. 

(3) The remaining parts of speech, which always con- 
stitute separate words. 

2. The prefixed particles are the article, He interroga- 
tive, the inseparable prepositions, and Vav Conjunctive. 

§ 25. The Article. 

1. The definite article consists of «i with Pattahh fol- 
lowed by Daghesh-forte in the first letter of the word to 
which it is prefixed, ijbtt a king, ^n the king. 

2. If the first letter of the word have Sh'va, Daghesh- 
forte may be omitted except from the aspirates, § 13. 5, 
■urn, Tnifcn, but n^an, n:nsn. 

3. Before gutturals, which cannot receive Daghesh 
forte, § 13. 1, the article has Kamets, § 9. 5. This is 
always the case before a and *i and commonly befoie 
9; before n and n Pattahh is mostly retained, § 9. 7, 
^jfcn, yfe-jn, trwi, nnn but xnnn, i\mr\. 

a. The nouns yi.fc earth, "if] mountain, and OS people on receiving the artiole 
lengthen their vowels to ^xn ? n-nn and oJ>i"T. 



24 HE INTERROGATIVE, § 26 

4 Before the strong gutturals with Kamets, the article 
has Seghol. This is always the case with fi , but with P, 
and $ only takes place, when the article stands upon the 
second syllable before the accent, Min , D}nn 7 D^0*3 > 
BHtyjn, but nnn, o?n. 

§ 26. ^ Interrogative. 

The letter in prefixed with Hhateph-Pattahh asks a 
question, ifi* we shall go, ^1?5D shall we go? Before a 
vowelless letter, § 10. 1, or a guttural this becomes 
Pattahh, onwn do ye know? ^r\ shall I go? 
Before gutturals with Kamets it is changed to Seghol 
nrnn it was, fi^nn was it? 

EXERCISE 15. 

Be careful to apply the rule for Daghesh-lene, § 12. 1 ; and observe that simple 
Sh'va following either the article or the interrogative is always vocal, § 9, a, 

Prefix the article to the following words : — 
i?3 fiesh; nnj gold; D^ sea; pi? tree; nifc light; 
™% ground; SfEfi darkness; fi?^*? work; riy$P> fig- 
tree; *&? dust; DE# bone; nrti bread; f$n5 corpse; 
5Tf?? firmament; nri spirit; in? evening; n^ti sword; 
rnf seed; S?i3 star; ftby leaf; DIB man; ni© year; 
-in: river; T^ 1 earth; a? people; "»n or ^n living; 
crniw words ; riiiins shoulders. 

1 See § 25. 3, a. 

Prefix He Interrogative to the following words : 
,w ,rw ,Ti* ,o» ,ll ,*j? ,Ta« , tfinn ,^ba , ribs 
, nsa , *nafe , onnp© , bab , b« , trtfa , d;e>« , nit: , tyynb , prn 

,W"HN , f^tt? ,Dm , O^ 1 7 n l?^ j'^S > nr ^ ,£&©*? , n *™ 
4 Beth is not regarded as a guttural in the rule for He Interrogative. 



§§ 27, 28. INSEPARABLE PREPOSITIONS. 25 



§ 27. Inseparable Prepositions 

1. The prepositions a, 3 and b are regularly prefixed 
with. ShVa, rv^ana , bis , nnnnab • Before vowelless 
letters they take Hhirik, § 10. I, rpl? for T^ ; before 
gutturals with compound ShVa they take the correspond 
rig short vowel, § 10. 1, ^3, SdkJj, ^n3; before mono- 
syllables and before dissyllables accented upon the penult, 
they frequently receive a pretonic Kamets, § 10. 2, Fitfi? , 
©sbb; before the article its n is rejected and the vowel 
given to the preposition W3 for TO, fjsb for TTljnb. 

«. The initial X of ^tf .Lord, "(i^N master when it has a singular suffix, and 
D^n'^K God quiesces after the inseparable prepositions, § 7, a, *)htkb ? S^IP^ , 
D^n'^xa for D^fr^Na the Seghol lengthened to Tsere in the simple syllable ; 
also in the inf. const. ^EX to say after b, ^£56 but ^XJ, "%?, • 

2. The preposition ]t3 ^'6>m may either be written as a 
separate word or shortened to the prefix tt with Hhirik 
followed by Daghesh-forte in the next letter, TTJ*? f° r 
ifJ5 1» . Before n Hhirik is commonly retained, § 9. 7, 
but before other gutturals it is lengthened to Tsere, § 9. 
5, 'pha for pin "pa; but ?$», ^05- 

a. The inseparable prepositions take before the divine name nirVj the same 
pointing that they would receive before n 5 h$ ? which the Jews substitute for it in 
reading, thus hima, ni'n?*, ninij, njnitf, Comp. § 23. 3. 



§ 28. Fiw; Conjunctive. 

The conjunction 1 <m<# is regularly prefixed with Sh'va 
!p»fn , ft)fc<5j . Before one of the labials 1, tt, &, oi 
before a vowelless letter Vav quiesces in Shurek fa* j 
inpi; before a vowelless Yodh it receives Hhirik, in 
which the Yodh quiesces, W ; before a guttural with 
3 



26 ETYMOLOGY. § 29 

compound ShVa it receives the corresponding short 
vowel , ^ifcO , T S TJJ , iVfl ; before monosyllables and dis- 
syllables accented on the penult it frequently receives a 
pretonic Kamets in'ij , rnj . 



Vocabulary 1. 

The parts of speech are distinguished by initials or abbreviations ; m. denote* 
masculine, f. feminine, pi. plural. 

=na n. m. man ? prep, according to, as, like, 

"ii« n. m. light D^aDis n. m. pi. stars 

a prep, in b prep, to, for 

nrna u. f. least, cattle & adv. not 

ttk n, m. house nnS n. m. f. bread 

"!£a n. m. morning nb^S n. m. night 

"ito'a n. m. flesh "pa prep./^ra 

) conj. <m<# 1? prep, unto, until 

rftjn n. m. darkness ani n. m. f. evening 

DT 1 n. m. &y rnto n. m. field 

dj n. m. 5^a B^aiD n. m. pi. heaven 

IT)J n. m. mocw ton© n. m. f. sun. 

Lesson 1 in Reading Hebrew, see page 111. 
Lesson 1 in Writing Hebrew, see page 137. 
The succeeding lessons are connected with the vocabu 
laries that follow in their order. 



§ 29 Personal Pronouns. 
1 The personal pronouns are the following, viz. 

SINGULAR. 

1. / WSJ anokhl', ^ *ni 

C Thou m. nn» atta' 
8 J Thou I na (njs) att 



§ 29. PEKSONAL PRONOUNS. 27 

c He «m hu 

3 J She wr\ (Kin) hi 



PLUBAL. 

1. We i3n?K : "nahh'nu, ling nahh'nii, *3» *nta 

j Ye m. DPS attem' 

2 { Ye f. ifes atten', nana atte'na 

f :Z 7 A^ m. an hem, nan hem'ma 

3 { They f. |n hen, nan hen'na 



2. When governed by verbs, nouns or particles they 
are appended to them in the following shortened forms, 
called pronominal suffixes : 





8ENGULAB, 


PLUBAL. 


1. Com. 


1 


■»? 


13 


( Masc. 

2 * \Fem. 




* 


o? 




* 


1? 


j Masc. 
3 " {Fern. 




in 


D on 

V 




n 

T 


T 1" 



3. In the first person singular * is used with nouns, 
and ^ with verbs. The third plural forms on, in are 
nsed with plural nouns ; D, J . with verbs and singular 
nouns. The suffixes DD , fD , on . fn are called grave, the 
rest are light. 

4. The inseparable prepositions are united with pro- 
nominal suffixes as shown in Table IV. ; 3 is prolonged by 
the syllable itt and *pa becomes before light suffixes jteft 
or W2 . The suffix in preceded by — is contracted to * 
e. g. ia for ma , ib for inb • n preceded by % is short- 
ened to ft T e. g. na for na and in like manner with the 
oause accent tja , 2 masc. sing, for ?|a . 



98 



ETYMOLOGY, 



30 



Vocabulary 2. 



Mix n, m. f. sign 
n*J n. m. brother 
•pa there is not 
B^rfta n. m. pi. God 
f"5» n. f. earth, land 
■pa prep, between 
anj n. m. gwfo? 
^n adj. living, alive 
rrirp n. m. Jehovah 



bsnto*> n. m. Israel 

C|?| n. m. silver 

TO adv. y^, besides 

b? prep. 2^>6>n, O'y^ 

oXfr n. m. eternity 

U9 prep. t^^A 

^tt? or ^? w^A m* 

nn? adv. now 

nrjn prep, under, instead oj 



§ 30. <9^r Pronouns. 

1. The demonstrative pronoun is 

Jfasc. i^m. Gammon. 

Singular t\i n«T ^'s Plural b» n^k £Atfs<$ 

The poetic form IT is used both as a demonstrative and 
a a relative. 

2. The personal pronoun of the third person Ktfi is also 
employed as a remote demonstrative #Aa& 

3. The relative pronoun is ittsg who, which, sometimes 
shortened to tj , see Table V. When the relative is 
governed by verbs, nouns, or particles, it stands without 
change of form at the beginning of its clause, and the 
appropriate pronominal suffix is attached to the govern- 
ing word W"> -n?K who his day i. e. whose day ft — iiBi* 
who — to him i. e. to whom. When a preposition stands 
before the relative, it governs not the relative itself but 
its antecedent understood; thus, itjjab means not to whom 
or to tvhich but to him who or to that which. It 
receives an adverbial sense when followed by cw there, 



§31. VEEBS. THEIR SPECIES. 26 

e. g. nw— *\m where, niafe — nuja whither, dwa— n»» 
whence. 

4. The interrogative and indefinite pronouns are ^p 
w7^o t or whoever and Ha wAatf f or whatever. The vowel 
of Ha varies with the first letter of the following word, 
see Table IV. In a few instances its vowel-letter is 
dropped, and it is converted into a prefix, e. g. H-fa for 
nj na wAdtf as £7m f 

5. Another interrogative is formed by prefixing the 
particle ^ to the pronoun nr , rw, thus nT ">a ivhichf 
or what f nafr ^ for what t why? nia ^ from what 
placet whence t 

Vocabulary 3. 

to n. m. tvhole, all, every oipft n. m. f . j9?<2<?0 

Q?tt n. m. pi. water trip n. m. holiness, a holy 

tyk adv. above place or thing. 

VERBS. 

§ 31. Thew Species. 

1. Hebrew verbs have seven different forms, called 
species or conjugations, viz. : 

1. Kal Simple active. 

2. Nipbal Simple passive. 

3. Pie! Intensive active. 

4. Pual Intensive passive. 

5. Hiphil Causative active. 

6. Hophal Causative passive. 

7. Hithpael Reflexive. 

2. The first of these species is called Kal light, because 
in it no other than the three radical letters appear, and 
these only in their single power. The other names arc 
taken from bifi to do, being the forms assumed by this 
verb in each species severally. 



80 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§32 



3. To each of these species belong a preterite and 
future, two forms of the infinitive called respectively the 
absolute and the construct, a participle, and except to the 
Pual and Hophal, which as pure passives cannot express 
a command, an imperative. The Kal alone has two par- 
ticiples. 

a. All of these species very rarely co-exist in the same verb. Their signification 
is co mmonly but not invariably what is stated above. The Piel is sometimes 
causative like the Hiphil, and the Mphal reflexive like the Hithpael, or the 
Hithpael passive like the Niphal. In these cases one or other of the equivalent 
species is often dropped as unnecessary, or some distinction in usage is created 
between them. In intransitive verbs the Niphal, if it exists at all, is usually the 
passive of a transitive or causative sense. 



§ 32. Perfect Verbs. 

1. Verbs are called perfect, when they conform 
throughout to the standard inflection; and imperfect, 
when in consequence of a weak letter, § 2. 2, or some 
other peculiarity in the root they deviate from it. 

2. If b"bjr> to Mil be taken as the model of the perfect 
verb, the various species with their significations will be 
as follows, viz. : — 



1. 


Kal 


*fc 


to Mil. 


2. 


Niphal 


*J?? 


to be Mlled. 


3. 


Piel 


% 


to Mil many or to massacre* 


4. 


Pual 


**% 


to be massacred. 


5, 


Hiphil 


b^bjpn 


to cause to Mil. 


6. 


Hophal 


^?]?n 


to be caused to Mil. 


7. 


Hithpael 


^>i?*?n 


to Mil one's self. 



a. It is in each case the third person masculine singular of the preterite, whiofc 
\h given above, and the strict signification, therefore, is he has killed, etc. Bui 
when these forms are used to represent the species their proper equivalent is th# 
infinitive, \vhi2h is the form employed in designating verbs in English. 



§ 33. KAL PRETERITE AND INFINITIVES. A] 

§ 33. Kal Preterite and Infinitives. 

1. The Kal preterite is inflected thus : — 

PRETERITE. 

Sing. 3 masc. bop katal' he killed, did kill or has kitted 

8 fern, •"^tag kat'la' she killed. 

2 masc. rcbto£ katal'ta thou (m.) killedst. 

2 fern, fibbp katalt' thou (f.) killedst 

1 com. *tbh% katal'ti / killed. 
Plur. 3 com. litpg kat'lti ^y killed. 

2 masc. tahbo{p k'taltem' ^ (m.) killed. 

2 fern, ifabo)? k'talten y<? (f.) Mfe<£ 
1 com. i&bg katal'nu w<2 killed. 

Infinitive absolute Vifeg katol', construct bbj? k'tol to M£. 

2. The vowel of the second radical in the Kal preterite 
is commonly Pattahh, as in bbj? ; in a few verbs, how- 
ever, most of which are intransitive, it is Tsere as in *p3 
to be heavy, or Hholem as in Vifcj to be bereaved. 

Kal Preterite with e. 

3 masc. 3 com. 8 fern. 2 masc. 

Sing, t?3 rrins rrjis 

Plur, rtaj D ^? 

Infinitive absolute Tiite construct "fis. 

Kal Preterite with & 

3 ww&?(5. 3 com. 3 /<sm. 2 wasc. 2 /cm. 1 com. 

Sing, bii$ p6dtj nbitj nbBra ^VSte 

Plur. ifcri ofraiB inbaizj ttbiir 

: it ••• : r : ' * : t : i * 

Infinitive absolute Vd© 9 construct bbiD . 



2 fern. 


1 com. 


wiia 


wis 

• i - T 


rras 


^:ii3 



52 ETYMOLOGY. § 34 

3. The endings of the first and second persons of the 
preterite are fragments of the corresponding pronouns ; 
thus ri in rfetbj? is from nntf 2 masc. sing., n in ttbibp 
from fitf 2 fern, sing., DPi and "JPI from the 2 plur. CfiK 
and )T\$ ; ^fi in ^fibttp is by euphonic change for ^3 from 
■obs 1 pers. sing., *ti in ^bbjj from 12 Sj 1 pers. plur As 
two of the persons are thus designated by pronominal 
fragments, no such designation was needed in the case of 
the third and only remaining person. The simple form 
of the verb without addition bttp is accordingly used for 
the 3 masc. sing. ; n r in n'itpg being the sign of the 
feminine and so used also in nouns and adjectives, and * 
in littg the sign of the plural. 

VOCABULAEY 4. 

Wa v. (fut. a) to be great iteto adv. very 
pi^ v. (fut. a) to cleave, adhere rnra n. f. commandment 

rib^ n. f. door bra v. to rule 

*riri n. m. majesty ]hj v. to give 

Till n. m. splendor ")io v - ^ s/w^ 

pi? v. to pour p^S n. m. righteousness 

■o conj. /b^, because, that rinio v. to r^, e^as^, fo^r 
cbs n. m. pi. vessels, articles Sabbath 

rib or Eib v . (fut. a) to r&ffi n. m. f. Sabbath 

put on, wear, be clothed )hto v. to dWZZ 

w^A *Tb© v. to &<?<^, observe. 
na is the sign of the definite object and is plact.nl 

before pronouns or definite nouns when governed by a 
transitive verb. 

§ 34. Niphal, Piel, and Pual Preterites and Infinitives. 

The Niphal is formed by prefixing 3 ; the Piel and Pual 
by doubling the second radical and attaching the appro- 
priate vowels. 



§ 34. NIPHAL, PIEL, AND PUAL PRETERITE8. 53 



NIPHAL PRETERITE. 



3 masc. 3 com. 3 fern. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing. bpj^D ^p? nbttpD nbujp? ^bbp: 

Plur. *fl&)» orcbttj?? ifnbtapD ttbbp: 

Infinitive absolute b'tipn , construct bfaj^n . 



PIEL PRETERITE. 



3 masc. 3 com. 3 /cm. 2 masc. 2 /cm. 1 com 

Sing, bfep fibap P.bap nbtbp ^nbtbp 

Plur. fep Dnbrop ^jnbtDp nabfcp 

Infinitive absolute bap , construct btbp . 

PUAL PRETERITE. 
3 masc. 3 com. 3 /cm. 2 masc. 2 /cm. 1 corn. 

Sin^. btbp nbap nbfep nbap ^Bg 

Plur. ibap nsnbtsj? injb&p isbtDp 

Infi*;*. ve absolute btbp, consfruct btbp. 

Vocabulary 5. 

The initials K, N., P., etc., denote the verbal species. 

il?i« n. m. Eleazar lio v. N. Pu. to 60 sA^ 

ttt* 11. in. f. ar& yap v. P. to gather; K to #6 

bis v. N. to fo separated, gathered 

divided E^p v. P. H. to sanctify f 

art; v. K. to feow consecrate; N. Pu. to <k 

T»a? v. K. P. to subdue ; N. sanctified 

to be subdued 22W v. N. to swear 

■flfcb before bo© v. P. to bereave 

npb v. K. to to&6 "ji© v. P. H. to £#^£6 to 

nfto v. K. to anoint dwell 

rstin n. m. tabernaclej ckuell- l^tj n. m. <9ii 

2* 



tK ETYMOLOGY. § 35 



§ 35, The remaining Preterites and Infinitives. 

The Hiphil and Hophal are formed by prefixing n with 
the proper vowels. The Hithpael is formed by prefixing 
tin to the construct infinitive of the Piel. 



HIPHIL PEETEEITE. 
3 masc. Scorn, 3 fern. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing, b^bjpn nb^bjpn i?bb£n nbppn ''nbbpn 

Plue. ^6gn D ^i?n ffebttpn ttbbgn 

Infinitive absolute btt)jn ? construct bitopn. 

HOPHAL PEETERITE. 
3 77W15C. 3 com. 3 /em. 2 m«sc. 2 fern. . 1 cow. 

Sing, bbjpn nSopn nbbpn nbbpn ^nbbjpn 

Plue. *tt|?n D ^pin T^l?7 ^^PO 

Infinitive absolute bbpn , construct bbjpn . 

HITHPAEL PEETEEITE. 

3 masc. 3 com. 3 fern. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing, bfeprin n S??P?n nbfeptnri nbcopnn inbtbgrin 

Plue. ^5^>pnn rijiiagha ^nbkpnn ttb&grin 

Infinitive absolute btbgnn, construct baprift. 

VoCABULAEY 6. 

5^3 v H. to separate r, ?^P n - f- wari 

D^ia n. m. pi. nations ^E v. Ho. to &<? caused to 
D5 conj. o^so reign, to be made hing 

*Vy\ n. m. David t$tt n. m. &m<7 

n*n n. f. animal, wild beast mibtt n. f. kingdom 

nS? v. H. to <?^ of; Ho. to ojij n. a little * 
ta cwtf off 

1 13573 ia a noun meaning a little tiling or a small quantity of any thing, but not 



to cause to rest 



§ 36. KAL FUTURE. 

0^9 v. H. to make small or ni» v. H 
few or cease 

tn£> v Hith. to sanctify or tirw v. H. to destroy 
purify one's self nbi» v. P. H. to send. 

T# v H. to bring near, offer 



§ 36. Kal Future, Imperative, and Participles. 

1. The future aud imperative of each species are 
formed from the construct infinitive by attaching the 
proper pronominal fragments. 









FUTURE. 




Sing. 


3 masc. 


bb£i 


yiktol' 


he shall or will hill 




3 fern. 


btbpn 


tiktol' 


she will hill 




2 masc. 


Vtipn 


tiktol' 


thou (m.) wilt hill 




2 fern. 


^ttj?ft 


tikt'll' 


thou (f.) wilt hill 




1 com. 


bttpx 


ektol' 


I shall hill 


Plur. 


, 3 masc. 


$DJ5? 


yikt'lu' 


they (m.) will hill 




3 fern. 


rt&bpn 

T: 1 : • 


tiktol'na 


they (f.) will hill 




2 masc. 


*fcjyn 


tikt'lu 


ye (m.) will hill 




2 fern. 


njbtapn 


tiktol'na 


ye (f.) will hill 




1 com. 


bz:p? 


niktol' 


we shall hill. 








IMPERATIVE. 


8mo. 


2 masc. 


btbp 


k'tol' 


hill thou (m.) 




2 fern. 


^j? 


kit'll' 


hill thou (f.) 


Plur. 


, 2 masc. 


*fttj{? 


kit'lu 


hill ye (m.) 




2 fern. 


njVrij? 


k'tol'na 


hill ye (£.) 



little or mrcK as an adjective. Thus we may say D" 1 ^ B3>a a ft'Wte water, DSfl 
cnS a fo'WZe bread ; but B2E could not be used in such phrases as a little house 
a little doo?\ A different word would be required in the latter case. 



36 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§36 



PAETICIPLES. 

Singular. Active. Plural. 

masc. fern, masc. fmu 

bop n!kp or nbtop a^tsp rvfiop jfo'Mwig 

kotel' kot'la kote'leth kot'lim' kot'loth 



Passive. 



katul' k'tula' 



D^tap rvfiwp MfocZ 
k'tulim' k'tuloth' 



2. Some verbs have Pattahh in the second syllable oi 
the Kal future and imperative. This is regularly the 
case with those which have Tsere or Hholem in the pre 
terite, thus *\%?. , bitt? . 

kal future with a. 

3 masc. 3 fern. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing. li?') -Dan iar»n ^l??^ "riDs 

Plur. srtas? nniipn tra^n Jwasn lis? 







IMPERATIVE. 








2 WUWC. 


2 fern. 


2 wwwc. 


2/m. 


SlN( 


j. nns 


■*D3 . Plur. 


srins 


ronna 

t : - : 



3. In the inflection of the future the letters prefixed 
mostly denote the person and those affixed the gender or 
number ; i of the 3 masc. bibp? is by euphonic change f oj 
1 from 8*l»i, and as in the preterite *) is appended as the 
sign of the plural ^tpp! 1 ; fi of the 3 fern, btbpfi is the sign 
of the fern, (see above the fern, ending of the participle), 
and Hi is appended in the plural njbJ'ojpn from x\ir\ . In 
the second person ti is from nn« , the fern, taking ** . 
from ^ns , the masc. plur. 1 as in the third person, and 



§ 37 NIPHAL, PIEL, AND PUAL. 37 

the fern, nj from Hjnx . In the first person sing. ^6pN 
N is from ^ ; in the plur. VtojpD , 3 is from V$ . 

4. In the imperative no personal prefix is needed, as 
but one person is in use ; gender and number are distin- 
guished as in the second person of the future. 

VOCABULARY 7. 

riSina n. f. pi. virgins n? n. m. f. time 

\6ft v. P. to speak D^nujbs n. m. pi. Philistine* 

CjDi^ n. m. Joseph yfo. n. f. Zion 

7? adv. so ^it? n. m. crimson 

?bo n m. ?w& ^2© n. m. f. <7ate. 



§ 37. JViphal, Piel, and Pual Futures, etc. 

1. Where the infinitive has n prefixed to the radicals 
this is rejected in the future after the personal prefix, 
thus from btt£H is formed bpj^ . 

2. The participles of the Piel and subsequent species 
are formed from the construct infinitive by prefixing tt , a 
fragment of the indefinite pronoun ^ or Tvq 







NIPHAL 


FUTURE. 








3 masc. 


3 /m. 


2 wj«sc. 


2 fern. 


1 #w». 


Sing. 


^t?)5? 


^t?j?5P) 


bia^n 


i-SogPi 


^B» 


Pi, te. 


*w; 


nabtpgn 


^lbtpgn 


nabtggn 


!*»? 






IMPEEATIVE. 








2 wwzsc 


2 /^m. 




2 TWflWC. 


2 /em. 


Sing. 


Mnw 


^ogn 


Plur. 


^ibpgn 


njbtagr 



PARTICIPLE. 
masc. fern. mace Jem. 

Sing. bfcjja nbt:ps or nbttpa Plur. a^bt:p: nibt:j?: 







JGiX J. JftUliUW I* 

PLEL FUTURE. 




8 »« 




3 masc. 


3 fern. 2 masc. 


2/«ew». 


l com 


Sing, 


^&j?? 


bapn btbpn 


"$Sj&l 


baps 


Plur, 


*w* 


IMPERATIVE. 


njbagfc 


%>" 




2 ?»aac. 


2/m. 


2 masc. 


2/<S». 


Sing 


^!? 


iSupg Plur. 

PARTICIPLE. 


*?g 


nsbto 




masc. 


/m. 


wwe. 


fern. 


Sing. 


^W& 


nSapa Plur. 

PUAL FUTURE. 


D^blDpO 


niltegB 




3 #wzsc. 


3 fern. 2 masc. 


2 fern. 


1 &W*. 


Sing. 


^i?? 


bk]?n bta]?n 


■■SBjjn 


b&£« 


Plur. 


*w 


njbtspn ^btpjjn 


njbib^Fi 


baj?a 



imperative wanting. 



PARTICIPLE. 



fern. 



Sing. bfejpfc nbta]?tt or snbtbj^'a Plur. a^po n^ttpft 



Vocabulary 8. 



ifca v. K. to say 
rvna n. f. covenant 
Tit} int. fo/ behold! 
nita adj. ^<w/ 
np)?; n. m. Jacob 
•ffi*"P n. Jericho 



ni? v. P. to honor , N. to 

be honored 
lii? n. m. honor 
0*6 nip n. in. pi. priests 
n^s v. K. to <?w/, ???afe a co 

venant 



§38. 



HLPKLL, HOPHAL, AND BTTHPAEL. 



39 



yiti v. K. to withhold, keep -it?jj v. H. to bv/rn incense 

back 3n adj. bad, evil 

rw n. f. company, assembly tow v. K. to forget 

Bfc"i? in the presence of nbto v. N. to fe^> ot&^s s^£/ 
d? n. m. people take heed. 

"}e conj. lest, that not 



§ 38. Hvphil, JETophal, and Hithpael Futuwes, etc. 



Sing. 
Pluk. 



3 mase. 



HIPHIL FUTURE. 

3 fern. 2 mase. 

b^ppn b^pprt 



2 fern. 



1 c<m 



hAtt)?fc i^tbpn n?bt?pn bifcjpa 



Sing. 



2 wiflwc. 



IMPERATIVE. 
2 fem. 



2 fern. 



bbpn ^ppn Plur. ^faprj njbfapn 



PARTICIPLE. 



fW«M. 



Sing, b^jp-a nV*bpo or nMbpa Plur. D^npp'B wii^Ppo 



8 masd 



Sing, bbp; 
Plur. 1%: 



HOPHAL FUTURE. 
8 /m. 2 mase. 

bbpn btipn 
njbttpri *t2pn 



2 fern. 
1» 



nsbttpn 

t : - r» t 



1 0001. 



imperative wanting. 



PARTICIPLE. 
mate. fem. mase. fem. 

Sing ^feptt ri§apa or nbtDpa Plur. Hoopla nib-op* 



40 ETYMOLOOT. § 39 



HITHPAEL FUTURE. 

8 masc. 3 fern. 2 masc. 2 fern. 1 com. 

Sing. bfcgjn? ^igfiPi bfcpnfi ^l?™ ^ipj* 

Plur. *%£*?? nab^gripi iJagnn n&fepnp bfcpn? 

IMPERATIVE. 

2 raa«<;. 2 /<#». 2 mflwc. 2 /on. 

Sing, ^fcpfin ^fcgrin Plur. *?gnn njbtbpnn 

PARTICIPLE. 

Sing, b&ptb nbtppnp or nbigra Plur. D^tppna fiifeprra 



Vocabulary 9. 

"10*3 n. m. kindness, mercy tf^tt v. H. to cause to mgw 

$v) n. m. salvation n !??? n. f. <?r?/ 

ns adv. &W bite v. H. to fo ww, ad 
tenb v. H. to <?<ms0 to j?^ wisely 

on, to clothe nirrato n. f. gladness 

Tbtt v. H. to 6'aws<? to ram "jitoto n. m. joy 

"Ala n. m. ram fiiSsu? n. f. remnant. 



§ 39. Peculiar Forms. 

1. When the last radical is 3 or fi, it is united by 
Daghesh-forte with personal endings beginning with the 
same letter, e. sr. ^naton for ^nnii&n, nabrcn for razityn • 

2. The vowel-letter n may be added to the 2 masc. 
sing, of the preterite, and dropped from the fern, plurals 
of the future and imperative, e. g. FMtfjia , 3^5'J^. 



§ 40. PARAGOGIC AND APOCOPATED FUTURE. 41 

3. Final ) is sometimes added to u of the pretei ite, and 
to u and I of the future, e. g. T&^ > TP??^ • 

4. The Kal construct infinitive, in a few instances, has 
Pattahh in place of Hholem, aiflj, bEE; and occasionally 
It takes a feminine ending fijjS'n for pi 1 ! . 

5. The Niphal absolute infinitive may be either btbpD or 
biopfi ; bop may be used for the absolute as well as the 
construct infinitive Piel. 

6. A few verbs have Pattahh or Seghol as the vowel 
of the second radical in the Piel preterite, tiftj?, n2n 
instead of ttyjip, *\tt; Pattahh also occurs in the Hith- 
pael t]Stpnn. 

7. Pual sometimes has Kamets-Hhatuph and Hophal 
Kibbuts in the first syllable trta , asdn . 

8. Tav of the prefixed inn in Hithpael is transposed 
with the first radical of the verb, if it be one of the 
sibilants D, to or ID; with £ the m is transposed and in 
addition changed to t) ; with 1 , t> or n , and occasionally 
with other letters, the ri is assimilated to the first radical 
and united with it by Daghesh-forte, ^?npn, pW?n, 
pain. 



§ 40. Pedagogic and Apocopated Future and Imperative 

1. The vowel l\ is appended to the first person of the 
future, and, in a very few instances, to the third person 
singular, to express desire or determination, njbnDD we will 
break or let us break. This is called the paragogic oi 
cohortative future. 

2. The apocopated or jussive future is a shortened 
form of the second or third persons singular and expresses 
a wish or command, or, with a negative, dissuasion oi 
prohibition- In perfect verbs it is distinguished from 



42 ETYMOLOGY. § 41 

the simple future only in the Hiphil species, in which the 
i. of the ultimate is changed to ( .. ), ^i^S thou mayest 
understand or understand thou. 

3. Paragogic H r is sometimes appended to the mascu- 
line singular of the imperative, softening the command 
into an entreaty or expression of desire, njtaw oh> hear ! 
or pray, hear ! 

4. The addition of n to a future or imperative com- 
monly causes the rejection of its last vowel, except in the 
Hiphil species where "> remains or is restored rn»##, 
h^l5fe5 • The Kal imperative with 6 becomes n^iPj? 
koV la ; the Kal imperative with a becomes TTtt TcihfC dhd. 



§ 41. Vav Oonversive. 



Vav Conversive is a modification of the copulative i 
and, and is so called because it has, in certain cases, 
the effect of converting the future into a preterite and 
the preterite into a future. 

Vav Conversive prefixed to the future takes Pattahh 
followed by Daghesh-forte in the next letter, iio^ he will 
shut, ikp!l and he shut. If this be Yodh with Sh'va 
Daghesh is usually omitted, ttHpTL . Before K of the first 
person, which cannot receive Daghesh, Pattahh is length- 
ened to Kamets, "liH^ . The verb commonly suffers the 
same change as in the apocopated future, § 40. 2, and in 
the first person sometimes has paragogic H r . 

Vav Conversive prefixed to the preterite has the same 
pointing with Vav Conjunctive, § 28, lfc$ he has kept, 
*Wtl and he will Keep. 

For the influence of Vav Conversive on the accent, see 
§ 17. 6. 



§ 42 teres with suffixes. 43 

Vocabulary 10. 

tfir\& n. m. Aaron ify v. K. to dwell, inhabit 

^ adv. not HJpfi n. £ ^m<? 

"^ prep. to, ?mto, respecting nsbtt n. £ ^^^ 

*d& n. in. ashes ^T?? n - m - Mordecai 

ffnja n. id. pi. garments bij? v. P. to receive, accept 

"HS n. m. Zid^Z ang v. K (f ut. a) come?iear, 

nan adv. hither approach 

P?J V. K. (fut. a) to cry 3njj v. K. (f ut. $) to rend 

ng?T n f. cry Efch n. m. Z^acZ 

inn n. £ siuord ynn v. K. (fut. $) to wash 

5? i; v. K. to fo wea/ry pto n. m. sackcloth 

X n. £ A<m^ n^w v. K. (fut. $) to s^wA 

trt; or ttH j v. K. to drive out 

§ 42. Verbs with Suffixes. 

1. The personal pronouns are frequently suffixed to 
the verbs of which they are the object. The forms of 
fche suffixes have already been given, § 29. 2. 

2. The personal terminations of the verbs suffer the 
following changes before suffixes : — 

PRETERITE 

Sing-. 3 fern. n, becomes n_. 

2 masc n sometimes becomes n before "q. 

2 j^?m. n becomes ^n . 
Plur. 2 m#s<?. on becomes in. The 2 fern, plur, does 
not occur with suffixes. 

FUTURE. 

Plur. 2 <m6? 3 jfem. nj?iopn becomes ifejpn . 

3. The suffixes are joined directly to those verbal 
forms which end in a vowel ; those forms which ( nd in o 



44 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§ 43 



consonant insert before, *|, DD and "J? a vocal Sh'va, and 
before the remaining suffixes a full vowel, which in the 
preterite is mostly a and in the future and imperative 
mostly e. 

4. Nun is sometimes inserted between the future of the 
verb and the suffix, particularly in emphatic and pausal 
forms. This is called Nun Epenthetic. It is commonly 
united by Daghesh-forte with 3 of the 1 pers. suffix and 
1 of the 2 pers., to which it is almost always assimilated. 

5. The 3 pers. suffix is liable to the following contrac- 
tions ; in the masc. in T becomes i , W becomes T . , inn 
becomes ipi_, tfti.. becomes is.. ; in the fern, n t becomes 
n,, nn. becomes nn., na v becomes na.. . 

6. The first and second persons of the verb do not 
receive suffixes of the same person with themselves. 

The 3 masc. sing, of the Preterite Kal btajj assumes the 
following forms in combination with suffixes : — 



Sing. 



Plur. 



1 com. 

2 masc. 

2 fern. 

3 masc. 

3fem. 

1 com, 

2 masc. 

2 fern. 

3 masc 
3 fern. 



'Sbbjp k'tala'ni he hilled me 

he hilled thee (m.) 
he hilled thee (f.) 

L he hilled him 

he hilled her 
he hilled us 
pjbop k'tal'khem' he hilled you (m.) 
1&?ttj? k'tal'khen' he hilled you (f.) 
D^ttp k'talam' he hilled them (m.) 
l5?9P k'talan' he hilled them (t) 






k'tala'ni 

k'tal'kha 

k'talakh' 

k'tala'hu 

k'talo 

k'talah' 

k'tala'nu 



7. Verbs having e in the Preterite substitute Tsere foi 
Kamets with the second radical throughout the Kal pre 
terite with suffixes, e. g. '•jlh? from bia . 

The remaining parts of the verb are sufficiently repre 
sented in Table VII. 



g 48. 



NOUNS, GENDER AND NUMBEB. 



46 



Vocabulary 11. 



as u. vol. father 

*<iit& n. in. Lord 

Dtf n. f. mother 

t% n. f. daughter 

bnj v. P. to make great 

pi^ v. H. to overtake 

OT n. m. blood 



ifeT} n. m. Haman 

nira n. m. altar 

nfenbti n. f. war, fighting 

"lio v. P. to sto ?$>; H. ^ 

eawstf to sA^tf 
"ito v. P. to recount, tell 
1T\ n. m. famine. 



Vocabulary 12. 



hsd^k acta how 
®iix n. m. man 
Hi» n. f. woman 
nina n. f. blessing 
pbfci n. Damascus 
tffH n. m. f. way 
?F5?0 v. K. to gw, w#Z& 
"DJ v. K. to remember 
y^n r. P. to deliver 

tli'O V. P. to 50fc7, 6%2fe 

bfe t. H. to ea^Stf to rule 
«J p-ray, I pray thee 



*f}J prep, before, in the pi % e 

sence of 
bn* n. in. suckling, babe 
"it?? v. P. to crown 
btB& v. K. to tofe <?jf clothes 
stjb n. f. trouble 
p?|#3 n. f. du./<?6tf 
Dirn adj. merciful 
nbbto n. £ garment 
dd? v. H. to w <?aWy 
yi3i? v. K. to A^or 
to&n v. K. to lay hold of, seize, 



NOUNS. 
§ 43. Gender and Number. 

1. Nouns in Hebrew are of two genders, masculine 
and feminine. The masculine has no characteristic ter- 
mination; the feminine ends in H t or ft. 

2. There are three numbers, the singular, dual, and 
plural. The dual is restricted for the most part to the 



46 



iCTYMOLOGY. 



§44. 



names of objects occurring in pairs. It ends in U* . ir 
nouns of both genders. 

3. The plural of masculine nouns ends in D*> , or more 
rarely ]\ , and that of feminine nouns in ni . 

4. It is to be observed, however, that a number of 
feminine nouns lack the characteristic ending in the 
singular. Also, that some masculine nouns take rri in 
the plural, some feminines take D\ , and some of each 
gender take indifferently D^ . or fti . 






§ 44. Feminine, Dual, and Plural. 

The following changes result from appending the ter- 
minations for gender and number. 

I. The feminine ending n . 

1. If the ultimate is simple there is no change. 

masc. fern. masc. • fern. 

•nstt an Egyptian, n*Vpa ^t? second, rr»i» 

■»ittj right, t^ilfr ^tirbiD third, tirib'hii 

lOTfi interior, rwb 1 ?!? site finding, naiifc . 

2. If the ultimate is mixed, an unaccented Seghol is 
inserted before the termination to prevent the concur- 
rence of vowelless consonants, § 10. 3, and to this a pre- 
ceding a, e or l is commonly assimilated. 



masc. 




fern. 


masc. 




fern. 


ni«2 


broken, 


?0ify 


rpfef 


lying 


tt$Q 


wft&Z 


triple, 


mcSona 

■•••-■ \ : 


"♦"J*? 


speaking 


*ry??? 


r*i?* 


gathered, 


ttJ^P? 


1*5f» 


large 


mn^s 


srons 


reddish, 


tw-tel^j 


t^)h» 


imperious 


™j» 


rffiia 


shedding, 


ro&to* 


b^bteti 


prudent 


r6|tyQ 



3. If the last letter be a guttural, Pattahh is sub- 
stituted for Seghol, § 10- a 



§44. 



47 



JTitt friend, fern, wffto ^©D 7^mZ, fern. W^ffl? 

?W hearing, fern, rtfttto* 51$ tt touching, fern, tTOtt 

II. The feminine n r , the plural D* 1 or tii, and the 
dual D\. 

1. Kamets and Tsere are rejected from the penult, 
except from nouns in H .. . 



bi^a great, 

nnj high, 

Mr© written, 
TWi restoring, 

yttfcj master, 

ynST memorial, 

6)5? wm<7, 



fem. nSra pi. ttbi-ra f. pi. nib-ha 

fern. rtfjh| pi. nrorth} f. pi. ninha 

fem. nn^ns pi. nrcainp f. pi. niznri3 

fem. flyflha pi. d^ee f. pi. nine's 

pi. tFinK fifta interpreter, pi. D^btt 

pi. d^n^ nib to^, pi. ninnb 

pi. rvfiTOT 135? (/rap*, pi. D*OJ2 

du. D?to ?bs WS, pi. o^ibs 



2. In an accented mixed ultimate 
(1) Tsere is rejected except from monosyllables, or 
when the preceding vowel is a pretonic Kamets. Other 



towels suffer no change. 



#h 


going, 


fem. *"Dbh 


pi. tnpbn 


f. pi. ritth 


S[5& 


shedding, 


fem. tti&tj 


pi. D'osi? 


f. pi. nrtfibtt 


tatnr? 


judge, 


pi. ff»b&to 


^T'P 


aZfew, pi. nifrajfc 


W3 


priest, 


pi. D^rjip 


ty* 


rod, pi. nibp* 


but 






- 




HO 


dead, 


fem, nra 


pi. o*™ 


f. pi. nirta 


BW- 


complete, 


fem. niabi» 


pi. DTablD 


f. pi. sniibbtD 


El? 


dry, 


fem. nfcn^ 


pi. D^rn 


f. pi. rritoj 


r* 


tree, 


pi. ff»to 


DT2? 


name, pi. nitt© 


TO 


thigh, 


du. fipb'ij 


"J5? / 


hea/vy, pi. D^a? 



(2) If two consonants have coalesced in the final 
Letter, this is doubled, and the preceding vowel, if long, 



48 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§44 



is shortened, A like doubling occurs in a few instances 
where there has been no contraction in the form. 

3"i (from 331) mwli, fern, nin pi tr&\ f. pi. ni3^ 
en (from nin) perfect, fern, nisn pi. o^n f. pi. man 
l&p small, fern, nattj? pi. D^stap f. pi. nis&p 

pb? <fep, fern, fiptt? pi. D^ptt? f. pi. ni^ti? 

^ (from ]5j) garden, pi. D^S }3bi« w^Z, pi. a^isis 

«? (from T_te) ^6>atf, pl.D^y btin bramble, pi. D^nn 
ph (from ppfi) sta«£, pi. D^pn lb (from nab) hewH, pi. niib 
S|* (for f|J») ?w>^, du. D^Stf 1-0 (from litj) tooth^l. D?i# 



3. Nouns having an unaccented vowel in the ulti- 
mate, commonly called Segholates, § 10. 3, drop this 
vowel before the feminine ending n T ; in the plural 
pretonic Kamets is inserted, § 10. 2, and the vowel of 
the first radical falls away ; the dual sometimes drops 
the unaccented Seghol and sometimes inserts pretonic 
Kamets. 



•jbtt ~king, 

cap 
b*a 



fern. 
covert, fern. 
caZ/J fern. 
saying, fern. 
sfrength, fern, 
fo/'d', fern, 
ybtftf, du. 
&»<?<?, du. 



nsbtt queen, pi. 

rnnp pi. 

n ??? pi- 

rraa or rntitf pi. 

r\my pi. 

nb^a /«J^, pi. 

D?5yi ]TS <W, du. 

D^a ftp &om, du. 



ffnnp 

• t ": 

• Ttl 

D^?a for*, 

• - : t 



a. Medial Vav frequently quiesces in Hholem and Yodh in Tsere before th« 
dual and plural endings. 



rVjn death, pi. ftinia 
•JW iniquity, pi. D^lpN 



rnf «?fo'^e £r#?, pi. awt 
"py <?ytf, do. BiS" 1 * 



§ 45. 



FEMININE, DUAL, AND PLURAL. 



49 



4. In a simple ultimate 
(1) Pi r is rejected. 

n£? fair, fern, fife; 

n$b doing, fern, n&b 

n^p ivork, pi. Brtfcpa 

nana appearance, pi. d^*od 



nsrna 



camp, 



du. D^ra 



pi. mfc; 


f. pi. rfl^ 


pi. D^to 


f. pi. rrife 


nij? ?m?, 


pi n^p 


rrttj jfeZrf, 


pi. niSi? 


nth seer, 


pi. onh 



(2) \ becomes n; . , on*, or D\ , Hi*.. 

■ntj jfrtfsA, fem. nJTO pi. d^to f. pi. Hi»"w 

i? • afflicted, fem. njs? pi. d^?5 £ pi. Hra 

*>in? Hebrew, fem. nj'ia* pi. n^nn? or ffna? f. pi. Hi^ia? 
i» island, pi. D^» ^rnobs Philistine, pi. twfttfi^ 



§ 45. ifo Feminine Nouns, 

1. Feminine nouns in H t of the form derived from 
Segholates, § 44. 3, insert pretonic Kamets in the plural, 
and drop their original vowel ; all others simply substi- 
tute the plural for the singular ending. 



nsbia 


queen, 


pi. nisbtt 


n&wh 


salvation, 


pi. niw 


rnno 

t : ■ 


covert, 


pi. niSno 


nina 


blessing, 


pi. nii^a 


n ?"?^ 


reproach, 


pi. nisnn 


n ^I?? 


vengeance, 


pi. n%3 


rtycp. 


saying, 


pi. rvniaa 


ft&? 


counsel, 


pi. Hiij 


r\%y\ 


desert, 


pi. nirnn 


nb 


garden, 


pi. nib 


njft 


lady, 


pi. frfttfa 


t • t: 


ship, 


pi. wrt* 



2. Feminine nouns in n.. (or n_) substitute the plural 
for the singular ending, and reject the preceding vowel, if 
it be Hholem or derived from Tsere ; otherwise they restore 
it to what it would have been, if n had not been appendec^ 
§ 44. 1. 2. Nouns in n*> take ni» t and nouns in ni take HP , 



50 

mi©* 

v r t • 

ting. 

nbSba skull, 
t\ypo tunic, 
fiba© ear of 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§46 



(from IEEE) observance, pi. rrntttbti 

(from biapa) knife, pi. nifestt 

(from DTOna) reddish, pi. niriwia 

(from p^"**?) nurse, pi. nippti 

(from *io) ?%, pi. nii^tt 

(from ?ib) touching, pi. niittb 

(from p2V>) sucker, pi. rrippii 

niSaba mnaitt Moabitess, rvrbKir 

hSijj3 wn»g Egyptian woman, ni*v»o 
cera, D^a© rttibtt kingdom, WTObtt 



3. Before the dual ending n r becomes fi T ; and nouns 
in r\ follow the rule of other Segholates, § 44. II. 3. 



ro-r $A^A, du. D?nrp 
nito ^, du. D?nsto 
na© w0a/\ du. o^ris© 



^ar. 



n H folding-door, du. D?nb^ 
fibfc? sfo^A, du. D^rto 

riEirj? Snzss, du. D?n©rw 



Vocabulary 13. 



15? n. m. f. # $£0710 
Dina n. m. Edom 

i»a n. f. & w<?ZZ 
Ti&M n. Gibeon 
bins adj. <7^a£, to'</0 
^ia n. m. nation 
tnn adj. w<?w 
■JDb v. K. to capture 



t\%n v. K. to reign 

V n. (with art.) Ai 

W n. f . ££&/ 

a*i adj. (n^n) much, many 

nin n. f. #^7 

?S» V. H. fo <?as2 

nian n. f. {^.^) fig-tree, fig 



§ 46. Construct State. 

1. When one noun stands in a relation of dependence 
on another, the first is put in the construct state. A 



§ 47. FORMATION OF THE CONSTRUCT. 5i 

noun which is not so related to a following one. is said 
to be in the absolute state. Thus "il^ word is in the al> 
solute state ; but in the expression ^^0 *&} the word oj 
the king, ■flfl is in the construct state. 

2. The construct is a shortened form, the speaker 
naturally hastening forward from the first noun to the 
second, which is necessary to complete the idea. 



§ 47. Its Formation. 

The following changes occur in the formation of the 
construct : 

1. The feminine H t becomes n ; the dual D?_ and the 
plural D*> . become i „ . 

fijji garden, const. Fe3 D^ri statutes, const. n ^n 

nibtt queen, const, nito n^psto' judges, const. "»;bsttf 

n5j? ^^Z/; const, r\%$ D?5an /^, const. ijjp 

hfea fody, const, njga D;>iTtf 6«r«, const. rjja 

2. In a mixed ultimate Kamets is shortened to Pattahh ; 
so is Tsere when preceded by pretonic Kamets. 



absoi. 




const. 


absol. 


cww«. 


T 


fish, 


W 


m 


0*4 rtr 


asis 


star, 


asis 


nin 


court, ^Efi 


jftpa 


sanctuary, 


tfjlpq 


^n? 


heavy, li? or T35 



3. Medial 1 commonly quiesces in Hholem and ** in 
Tsere ; final ■» _ becomes n . . 

rflfa death, const, nifc »}S valley, const. 8*1 

^n midst, const. Tpm nia house, const. ma 

rmtop e^jps, const, tiitojp tiia;? fountains, const, ni:^ 

but fi? iniquity, const. *p3J *-n £&/#, const, ^n 



52 



ETYMOLOGY. 



§48 



4. In a simple ultimate n .. becomes ri „ ; other vowels 
remain unchanged. 

™ sheep, const. ™ tfiifc going forth, const, asi* 

n^h shepherd, const, nin ans A^^, const. sis 

nijp'a cattle, const, niptt arn fearing, const. ai? 

nto'a work, const. rifcspo -na fruit, const, ^fi 

5. Kamets and Tsere are rejected from the syllable 
preceding the accent ; and if this occasions a concurrence 
of vowelless consonants, a short vowel is inserted bet wee r. 
them, § 10. 1. 



absol. 




const. 


absol. 




const. 


Tfts 


master, 


T^S 


t t : 


blessing, 


ftiyi 


T™! 


memorial, 


t^?t 


t h : 


vengeance, 


^^1?? 


iS^r 


word, 


^ 


a^nsiri 


lips, 


"»fnsi0 


15? 


cloud, 


w 


D^ibtt 


Icings, 


^^S 


n 3i? 


reed, 


n.Dp 


nisnn 

t ■: 


reproaches, 


nis-in 


r?* 


interpreter, 


p?* 


t : 


threshing floon 


\ n ^JI 


nib 


heart, 


nnb' 


niiina 


leasts, 


niDH? 



See Table XVII. Declension of Nouns. 

VOCABULAEY 14. 

fiitttf n. Amanah *©? n. m. (rn) 6^s£ 

in int. lo! behold! ifa? n. ra. i&a-H 

ifta v. K. to be clean, pure "is^s n. Pharpar 

C]bD n. f. ^m^ bip n. m. (ni) ?w'<?<?, sound 

nra n. m. <?A^^J pp , 1$? adj. (nattjp) Utile, 

nbtt v. K. to sell small 

"inj n. m. (D^ , and Mi) river 



§ 48. Paragogic Vowels. 

1. The unaccented vowel n T added to nouns indicates 
motion or direction towards a place, whence it is called 



§49. 



NOUNS WITH SUFFIXES. 



53 



He directive or He local, c?&# heaven, rva;t)i$ heaven 
ward. 

2. Paragogic ■» . , i ; or !i r are in poetic or archseic 
forms sometimes appended to nouns without affecting the 
sense, e. g. *oa , Gen. xlix. 11 for *ja , TPfi Gen. i. 24 for 
n*n nniw Ps. iii. 3 for niw . 



§ 49. Nouns with Suffixes, see Table XVIII. 

1. The pronominal suffixes are appended to nouns in 
the sense of possessive pronouns. 

2. The forms which they assume when attached to 
singular nouns or combined with i . of nouns in the dual 
and plural are shown in Table V. 



I. Before the grave suffixes (viz. 



=9, 



W , aj 1 10), 



Nouns of both genders and of all numbers take the 
form of the construct. 



"Q'J 


word, 


const. 


"^\f 


a^w 


words, 


const. 


*3.M 


Donate 


lips, 


const. 


^to 


ninsto 


lips, 


const. 


niripto 


r t : 


Messing, 


const. 


r&yi 


niina 


blessings, 


const. 


nirna 



DDin'n your word 
DD'ni'n y<mr words 

D^rih&to ^/(9^r lips 
DSFD'na y<9?^r blessing 
DDTO'ia yow blessings, 

II. Before the light suffixes, 

1. Singular or plural nouns with a feminine ending 
adopt the construct form, only n . is changed to n , . 

nsbtt queen, const. n:?btt suf. n ri3btt w&y ^waw- 

riiibiQ queens, const, rnibtt suf. ^nbbtt m^/ queens 

nina blessing, const, nana suf. ifiria m?/ blessing 

mna blessings, const, tnii^a suf. "'Ob'ia m?/ blessings 

2. Singular or plural nouns not having a feminim 



54 ETYMOLOGY. § 49 

ending adopt the same form as before the absolute plurai 
termination. 







pkir. 


suf. 








=$? 


heart, 


o*ab 


^nnb * 


my A^artf, 


i±6 


my hearts 


T T 


word, 


• T ; 


^W 


my word, 


^?7 


my words 


nfcto 


judge, 


Debate' 


ifasto' 

• : i 


myjudge, 


^■bs'ttj 

- : i 


my judges 


** 


king, 


D^bbr 






h 5^a 


my Mngs. 



* The resemblance to the plural form does not imply that the word is plural, 
but simply that appending the suffix produces the same effect upon the voweli 
and syllables of the word as the addition of the plural ending. 

3. Dual nouns retain the form which they have before 
the absolute dual termination. 

suf. suf. 

&73J hands, ^ my hands, D??t« ears, h 5J*? my ears 
D?2?0 feet, *>l?y! my feet, Q?inSto lips, infeto my lips. 

III. Before all suffixes, grave or light, 

1. Segholate nouns in the singular drop their unac- 
cented vowel, as before the feminine ending tt T . 

suf. 
•fbtt king ^btt my king, QD3btt your Icing 

*itt6 covert ^pp my covert, B?* 1 *" 1 ? your covert 

D2& strength ^iffi my strength, d?^9^? y6>^r strength 
byh work i?8Md my work, DDb^s y#w W6>r& 
niiffiti observance ^y&t)'n my observ., DDn'roiOtt yow observ. 
nans ^m'<? ^nsns my te'c, D ? r ?? J ?? yaw twdc. 

2. Final letters which are doubled in the plural, or in 
which two consonants have coalesced, are doubled. 

plwr. suf. 

■$ garden D*>h '•sa my garden, DD3| your ga/rden 
nb /&0O9*£ niib ^ib y/^y A£<Z7% n5sib y<?w 7^<zr£ 

]Si« -w/i^Z D^isia ''i&iK ?^y w/i^Z, d??^ your wheel 

ph statute &pr\ yr\ my statute, butoipn your statuU 

[§ 13. 5 



§ 60 IRREGULAR NOUNS. 55 

3. Final H r is dropped. 

mip shepherd suf. ^in my shepherd, ^t} thy shephera 
nsptt cattle suf. ^bp'a my <?a^, qjjptt thy cattle 

nfeti n><# suf. ^ott my /W, ?jt3tt ^Ay n?<# 

Vocabulary 15. 

nia v. P. to destroy bij v. K. to fall, fail 

ibx adj. ew<3 ©S3 n. m. f. (mi) 56>^Z, life 

"in» prep, of^r ^)nj v. P. to demolish 

n?"8 n. m. f.jfo^ niy v. K. to S0?w 

nn^n. f. (D\ andmi)j^7^r S|i)to v. K. to burn 

na'j n. m. wor^ iii» v. P. to &rtf#& in piece* 

nt n. m. s<?^ D© adv. tfA^ 

nib n. m. (mi) heart V® n. m. (mi) name 

nisna n. f. sta&^ 

§ 50. Irregular Nouns. 

1. The following nouns of frequent occurrence are 
irregular in the plural : — ■ 

t^K man plur. DTOja rarely D^a 

ntea woman, const. m«& plur. D^to 

rvfetf maid-servant plur. mirVog 

fp£ Acws^ plur. D^na 

7a sow- plur. a^a 
ma daughter, suf. ^ma plur. miba 

DV> ^y plur. D-in rarely mitt J 

T* <?% plur. D-n? once D^^ 

flah A^^ plur. a^an 

2. The nouns 3$ father, naj brother, and HS mouth 
take the vowel \ in the construct and before suffixes 

e. g. const, lis , suf. *gs , Ti§ . 



56 ETYMOLOGY. § 51 

§ 51. Imperfect Verbs. 

Imperfect verbs depart more or less from the standard 
inflection, as the nature of their radicals may require. 
They are of three classes, viz. : — 

I. Guttural verbs, or those which have a guttural 
letter in the root. 

II. Contracted verbs, two of whose radicals are in 
certain cases contracted into one. 

III. Quiescent verbs, or those which have a quiescent 
or vowel-letter in the root. 

There are three kinds of guttural verbs : — 

1. Pe Guttural verbs, or those whose first radical is a 
guttural. 

2. Ay in Guttural verbs, or those whose second radical 
is a guttural. 

3. Lamedh Guttural verbs, or those whose third radi- 
cal is a guttural. 

There are two kinds of contracted verbs : — 

1. Pe Nun verbs, or those whose first radical is Nun. 

2. Ayin Doubled verbs, or those whose second and 
third radicals are alike. 

There are four kinds of quiescent verbs : — 

1. Pe Yodh verbs, or those whose first radical is Yodh. 

2. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh verbs, or those whose 
second radical is Vav or Yodh. 

3. Lamedh Aleph verbs, or those whose third radical 
is Aleph. 

4. Lamedh He verbs, or those in which He takes the 
place of the third radical. 

These names, like those of the verbal species, § 31, are 
derived from the verb b?B to do; a Pe Guttural verb b 






§§ 52, 53. PE GUTTURAL VERBS. 57 

one which has a guttural in that place which Pe occupies 
in bj?B that is, as its first radical ; and so with the rest. 



§ 52. Guttural Verbs. 

Gutturals have the following peculiarities : — 

1. They prefer the vowel Pattahh. 

2. They receive Pattahh-furtive. 

3. They take compound in preference to simple ShVa. 

4. They do not admit Daghesh-forte. 

Eesh shares the last peculiarity, but partakes of the 
others only in a very limited degree. 



§ 53. Pe Guttural Verbs, see Table VIII. 

1. Hhirik of the letters prefixed tc the root is changed 
to Pattahh or Seghol; to the latter chiefly in those 
parts or tenses in which the second radical has prevail- 
ingly a. 

2. For simple ShVa the guttural takes compound, either 
Hhateph-Pattahh, or a Hhateph conformed to the pre- 
ceding short vowel. Before a vowelless letter this com- 
pound ShVa becomes a short vowel in an intermediate 
syllable. 

3. Upon the omission of Daghesh-forte in the infinitive, 
future, and imperative Niphal, the preceding Hhirik is 
lengthened to Tsere. 

4. A few verbs, whose first radical is as, receive 
Hholem in the first syllable of the Kal future, the second 
vowel being Pattahh or Tsere. This is called the Pe 
Aieph ( 8fc ) mode of inflection. 

3* 



58 ETYMOLOGY. § 54 



Vocabulary 16. 

ana or ana 7. K. (fut. a) to ^£n v. K. to bwrn, N. to be 

love turned 

©"•a * n. 111. a man, each ptn v. K. (fut. a) to be 
bi« v. K. (as) to ^ H. to strong 

cause to eat "ja n. m. manna 

^a 11. m. 6W ^5? n - m - servant 

yx& v. IS. to be verified, found zfo v. K. to leave, forsake 

true ifaj v. K. to stand 

ika v. N. (as) to 6<? s<m? D2? n. f. (d\ and ni) bone 

]S n. m. (D* 1 ?*) S6W nSbp n. f. a curse. 



* ttiniS; is the common word for an individual man ; ttJIDN is poetic; a 'IK is a 
generic term, denoting man generally, and is also the name of the first of th« 
human race. 



§ 54. Ayin Guttural Verbs, see Table IX. 

1. The vowel following the guttural is converted into 
Pattahh in the future and imperative Kal and in the 
feminine plurals of the future and imperative in the other 
species. 

2. When the second radical should receive simple 
ShVa, it takes Hhateph-Pattahh instead ; and to this the 
new vowel formed from ShVa in the feminine singular 
and masculine plural of the imperative is assimilated. 

3. Daghesh-forte is always omitted from the second 
radical in Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, in which case the 
preceding vowel may remain short in an intermediate 
syllable, or Hhirik may be lengthened to Tsere, Pattaht 
to Kamets, and Kibbuts to Hholem. 



§ 55. lamedh guttural verbs. 69 

Vocabulary 17. 

3h| v. K. P. to bless, N. Pu. braa n. m. 5^/K 
fo fo blessed ttySa v. P. to eW^6 ^ 

b»| v. K. to redeem, P. to- nHE v. P. to purify, cleanse 
defile N. to be purified 

§55. Lamedh Guttural Verbs, see Table X. 

1. The vowel preceding the third radical becomes Pat 
tahh in the future and imperative Kal and in the femi 
nine plurals of the future and imperative in the other 
species. 

2. Tsere preceding the third radical may either be 
changed to Pattahh or retained; in the latter case, the 
guttural takes Pattahh-furtive. 

3. Hhirik, Hholem (of the infinitive), and Shurek 
suffer no change before the final guttural, which receives 
a Pattahh-furtive. 

4. The guttural retains the simple ShVa of the perfect 
verb before personal terminations beginning with a con- 
sonant, though compound ShVa is used before suffixes. 

5. When, however, a personal affix consists of a single 
vowel] ess letter, as in the second feminine singular of the 
preterite, the guttural receives a Pattahh-furtive. 

Vocabulary 18. 

VH*J n. m. lord, master int v. K. to sow 

m adv. then lby\ adj. deaf 

■ftft n. f. eavr *Sj v. P. H. to weary, cam* 

rn? n. m. olive-tree, olive to toil 



60 ETYMOLOGY. § 56 

nib^att n. f. kingdom npfc v. N. to be opened, used 
pbtt v. N. to &£ withheld specially of the eyes 

w adj. Z>feW nnB v. N. to ^ opened 

■p? n. f. 0^ ni© v. K. to s^c? 

V? n. m. tree nsfe adv. thither. 



§ 56. P<? iV^ (to) Verba, see Table XI. ' 

Nun, as the first radical of verbs, has two peculiarities, 
viz. : — 

1. At the end of syllables it is commonly assimilated 
to the following consonant, the two letters being written 
as one, and the doubling indicated by Daghesh-forte. In 
the Hophal Kamets-Hhatuph becomes Kibbuts before the 
doubled letter. 

2. In the Kal imperative with Pattahh it is frequently 
dropped, its sound being easily lost at the beginning of a 
syllable when it is without a vowel. A like rejection 
occurs in the Kal infinitive construct of a few verbs, the 
abbreviation being in this case compensated by adding 
the feminine termination n. 

"jnp assimilates its last as well as its first radical. 
ngb has the peculiarities of Pe Nun verbs. 

VoOABULAKY 19. 

nina n. f. sister t^fq n. m. death 

ty^\ n. m. honey lij v. H. to tell, Ho. to be told 

d^h n. m. pi. life ©ip v. K. N. to approach 

"ttn n. m. (^n) half nn'tbjp n. f. incense 

nfcb, T^b for what? why? D^fern n. m. pi. mercies, com- 

idito n. m. instruction passions. 



§57. A YIN DOUBLED VERBS. 61 



§ 51. Ayin Doubled (afr) Verbs, see Table XII. 

1. In the Kal, Niphal, Hiphil, and Hophal the repeti 
tion of the same sound is avoided by uniting the twc 
similar radicals and giving the intervening vowel to the 
previous letter, thus : 3D for nno , no for nip . 

2. In the Kal this contraction is optional in the pret- 
erite ; it is rare in the infinitive absolute though usual in 
the construct, and it never occurs in the participles. 
With these exceptions it is universal in the species already 
named. 

3. This contraction produces certain changes both in 
the vowel, which is thrown back, and in that of the pre- 
ceding syllable. 

(1) When the first radical has a vowel (pretonic 
Kamets) this is simply displaced by the vowel of the 
second radical, nno , no; nn&n ? nion . 

(2) When the first radical ends a mixed syllable, this 
will become simple upon the shifting of the vowel from 
the second radical to the first. Then a Daghesh-forte 
may be given to the first radical in order to preserve the 
preceding short vowel, or the preformative may take the 
simplest of the long vowels a, or its previous vowel may 
be lengthened from Hhirik to Tsere, Pattahh to Kamets, 
and Kamets-Hhatuph to Shurek, thus: aao? becomes 
2& or no? ; and TW *)h? . 

(3) The vowel, which has been thrown back, is com- 
pressed as vowels usually are before two consonants. 
Thus in the Mphal future and imperative, nncn , no? ; 
ai&n , nan (comp. btop , nbfep) ; in the Hiphil, rrion , 
n6n (comp. b^bp? , njbib^p). 

4. Although the letter, into which the second and 
third radicals have been contracted, represents two con- 



82 ETYMOLOGY. § 57 

sonants, the doubling cannot be made to appear at the 
end of a word. But, 

(1) When in the course of inflection a vowel is added, 
the letter receives Daghesh-forte, and the preceding 
vowel, even where it would be dropped in perfect verbs, 
is retained to make the doubling possible, and hence pre 
serves its accent, § 17. 2. b, H2D, isiS; . 

(2) Upon the addition of a personal ending which 
begins with a consonant, the utterance of the doubled 
letter is aided by inserting 6 (i) in the preterite, and e 
(\.) in the future. By the dissyllabic appendage thus 
formed the accent is carried forward, and the previous 
part of the word is shortened in consequence as much as 
possible, npn , niion ; 26; , nj^ion . 

(3) When, by the operation of a rule already given, 
the first radical has been doubled, the reduplication of 
the last radical is frequently omitted in order to relieve 
the word of too many doubled letters, lit?'. , njn&n . 

5. The Piel, Pual, and Hithpael sometimes preserve 
the perfect forms, sometimes reduplicate the contracted 
root, as :JODO , bpb^nn r and sometimes give up the redup 
lication altogether and insert the long vowel Hholem 
after the first radical, nnio , b^hlnn . 

6. In the Kal and Hiphil futures, when the penult is a 
fimple syllable, the accent is drawn back by Vav Con- 
versive and the vowel of the ultimate is shortened, 30? , 



Vocabulary 20. 

a« conj. if fe?i n. m. Baal, lord 

■n.K v. K. to curse Ho. to W| v. K. to roll 
be cursed pg 1 ? v H. to crush, pulverize 



§ 58. PE YODH VERBS. 68 

y?T! v H, to begin nao v. K. swrround 

rrnrn n. m. Judah ns n. m. (const, i&) mouth 

"hw n. m. a Jew D^ls n. m. -pi. face. 

rnano n. f. cowd 



§ 58. Pe Yodh (■*) F^fe, see Table XIV. 

1. The first radical is mostly Yodh at the beginning, 
and Vav at the close, of a syllable. 

2. In the Kal future, if Yodh be retained it will quiesce 
in and prolong the previous Hhirik, and the second radi- 
cal will take Pattahh, e. g. ti2^ ; if the first radical be 
rejected the previous Hhirik is commonly lengthened tc 
Tsere, *!£? , the Pattahh of the second syllable being 
sometimes changed to Tsere to correspond with it, arc? ; 
in a few instances Hhirik is preserved by giving Daghesh- 
forte to the second radical as in Pe Nun verbs, nr> , par . 

3. Those verbs which reject Yodh in the Kal future, 
reject it likewise in the imperative and infinitive con- 
struct , the infinitive being prolonged as in Pe Nun verbs 
by the feminine termination. 

4. In the Niphal preterite and participle, Vav quiesces 
in its homogeneous vowel Hholem ; in the infinitive, 
future, and imperative, where it is doubled, it retains its 
consonantal character. 

5. In the Hiphil, Vav quiesces in Hholem ; a few verbs 
have Yodh quiescing in Tsere, a^n , n^? ; more rarely 
still the first radical is dropped and the preceding short 
vowel is preserved by doubling the second radical, tfkt} , 
T2T . 

6. In the Hophal, Vav quiesces in Shurek ; occasionally 
the short vowel is preserved and Daghesh inserted in the 
second radical, J5£. 



64 ETYMOLOGY. § 59 

7. In the Hithpael the first radical is commonly Yodh 
but a few verbs have Vav. 

Sf!?n follows the analogy of Pe Yodh verbs. 



Vocabulary 21. 

5n& 11. m. tent an? v. H. to cause to know : 

nxn^ u. m. Ahab let knoiv 

n*tf adv. where ? En; v. H. to drive out 

l\^ii v. H. to cause to go, tf©3 n. m. (rvi) throne 

lead "i?7^ n - m - wilderness 

ran? v. K. to be dry Ditto n. m. judgment. 



§ 59. iym Taw (ft) a^J Ay in Yodh (ft) FwJ*. 
see Table XIII. 

1. The quiescent may be rejected and its vowel given 
to the preceding radical. So in the Kal preterite : Dp 
for Dijp , where a is in partial compensation for the con 
traction, ni for tnltt. Active participle Dp for DJjj, trb 
for Tm , the ordinary participial form being superseded 
by that of another verbal derivative. Hiphil and Ho- 
phal: D^pn for a^jpn, tf»j?J for D^ip?, Dptfi for Dlpfi, 
the short vowel of the prefix being prolonged in a simple 
syllable. 

2. Or it may be converted into its homogeneous vowel 
u or i, ttip, rn ; D*)p;>, 3*n;-, the prefix usually taking 
the simplest of the long vowels, a; u combined with a 
preceding or accompanying a forms 0, Kal abs. infin. Dip 
=hium, Niphal DipJ for Dip? . 

3. In the first and second persons of the Niphal and 
Hiphil preterites, 6 (i) is inserted before the affixed termr 
nations, and sometimes e (\) in the feminine plurals of 



§ 60. LAMEDH ALEPH VERBS. 65 

the Kal future. In the Niphal preterite, when the in 
serted i receives the accent, the preceding i is for enphonv 
changed to 1 . 

4. In the Kal and Hiphil species the apocopated future 
takes 6 and e in distinction from the ordinary future 
which has u and I, ntf*j , nfc;> . With Vav Conversive the 
accent is drawn back to the simple penult, and the vowel 
of the last syllable is shortened, stjji , ntj jl . 

5. (1) In the Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, the form of per- 
fect verbs is rarely adopted, the second radical appearing 
as 1 , e. g. W , or as "» , e. g. Q!!p . 

(2) Commonly the third radical is reduplicated instead 
of the second, which then quiesces in Hholem, Pi. D'bip , 
Pn. traip, Hith. Q-bipnn. 

(3) Sometimes the quiescent letter is omitted from the 
root, and the resulting biliteral is reduplicated, Pi. b?b3 , 
Pu. bib3. 

Vocabulary 22. 

noi« n. f. ground, land *i25 n. m. young man 

Xlk adv. where ? only after "op v. K. to bury ; N. to be 

■pa , ipkn whence ? buried 

ttja adv. whither? fT 97l? n - f- former state 

tfia v. K. (fut. airp) to come; o^ip v. K. to arise 

H. to cause to come, bring l*H v. K. to contend 
ifr«7 Hith. to go for one^s -W v. K. to return / H. to 

self, go about cause to return, bring 

T 1 ? v. K. to lodge back 

nirs v. K. to die ; H. to put Hn&io n. f. hand/maid 

to death 

§ 60. Lamedh Aleph (»ft) Pari*, see Table X\. 
1 Aleph, as the third radical of verbs, retains its con 



60 ETYMOLOGY. § 61 

sonantal character only when it stands at the beginning 
of a syllable. 

2. At the end of the word it invariably quiesces in the 
preceding vowel, and if this be Pattahh, it is lengthened 
to Kamets; so always in the Kal future and imperative, 
where x as a guttural requires a, tf iia? for »£■»;» . 

3. Before syllabic affixes tf quiesces in Kamets in the 
Kal preterite £}$%*£ , except in those words which have 
Tsere as their proper vowel, C 1 ^? • I n the preterites of 
the derivative species it quiesces in Tsere, and in all 
futures and imperatives in Seghol. 



Vocabulary 23. 

tik n. Ur k?e v. K. to find 

ate v. K. to create **}* n. f. Mara (bitter) 

"rtna adj. clean, pure "WD n. f. Naomi (sweet) 

82? v. K. to go out ; H. to ty n. m. Eli 

bring out anj? v. K. to call 

D^tos n. m. pi. Ohaldees n^rn n. m. pi. troughs 
nb n. m. (riiab) heart pn v. K. to run 

spin v. K. to be full ; N. to si® v. K. to lie down 

he filled ; P. to fill b»TO© n. m. Samuel 



§ 61. Lamedh He (rft) F«-J«, see Table XVI. 

1. The third radical which is Yodh or Vav, does not 
appear at the end of the word except in the Kal passive 
participle n $3; in all other cases it is rejected or softened, 
the resulting vowel termination being usually expressed 
by the letter n . 

The various preterites end in T\ y . 

The futures and participles in n... 



§ 61. LAMEDH HE VERBS. 67 

The imperatives in n,. 

The absolute infinitives in n' or n_ . 

The construct infinitives have the feminine ending ni . 

2. Before personal endings beginning with a vowel, the 
last radical (though occasionally retained in prolonged 
and pausal forms ^gft), is commonly rejected, and its 
vowel given to the antecedent consonant, iS| for *pba . 

3. Before personal endings beginning with a consonant 
the radical *■ remains and quiesces in either Hhirik or 
Tsere in the preterites and in Seghol in the futures and 
imperatives. 

4. The third person feminine of the preterites retains 
the primary characteristic D T , nii>?., which is commonly 
softened by an appended p» t , PPba. 

5. Forms not augmented by personal endings lose their 
final vowel before suffixes, e. g. '•sba ? tjba from Pba . The 
preterite 3 fern, takes its simple form, e. g. innSj or *)F\ba • 

6. The final vowel n v is rejected from the futures 
when apocopated, or when preceded by Vav Conversive. 
e. g. bip ? biji from rtb? • The concurrence of final con- 
sonants thence resulting in the Kal and Hiphil is com- 
monly relieved by inserting an unaccented Seghol between 
them, Kal, b^. or bj? from nb;p ; Hiph. bjj , b^l from nb:n . 

7 The final vowel n„ is sometimes rejected from the 
imperative in the Piel, Hiphil, and Hithpael species, e. g 
n for n5a, bsn for nbjr i, binn for nSann. 

*ljn to /><?, fut. «1J«7!?) apoc. W , part. Kin . 

njtj to Zawg, fut. rprp. , apoc. ">n? . 

VOCABULAKY 24. 

DStttf adv, t/ruly, indeed nig v - K. to build 

^ g]g A<9W much more, or rpp v. K. to fo 

after a negative Aow T^ v. K. to <7<? down, de 

much less scend 



68 ETYMOLOGY. §§ 62, 63 

DbttJTYj 1 n. Jerusalem nto v. K. to make, do, N. to 

^fi v. P. (^?) to contain 

n33 v. P. to complete, finish IT}* v. P. to command 

~W2 n f . £<%? nin v. K. to $00, N. to &£ s^;i 
n3? v. K. to </o> wp, H. to to appear 

bring up, offer nb'biB n. m. Solomon 

nj& n. f. burnt-offering rpitij adv. $ second time 

1 Pointed as though it were written CD^SiIJst'n^ . 



§ 62. Doubly Imperfect Verbs. 

Verbs which have two weak letters in the root, 01 
which are so constituted as to belong to two different 
classes of imperfect verbs, commonly exhibit the peculiar- 
ities of both, unless they interfere with or limit one an- 
other. Thus, a verb which is both afc and rii will follow 
the analogy of both paradigms, the former in its first, and 
the latter in its second syllable. But in verbs which are 
both yi and rib, the 1 is invariably treated as a perfect 
consonant, and the rib peculiarities only are preserved. 



§ 63. Unusual Forms. 

L Verbs belonging to one class of imperfect verbs 
occasionally adopt forms from another and closely related 
class. Thus, a sft verb may appear with a n"b form, oi 
an 12 verb with an 29 form, or vice versa. 

2. A few verbs of different classes adopt the peculiar 
VV or ^ modes of forming the Piel, Pual, and Hithpael, 
inserting the vowel 6 instead of the usual reduplication 



§§ 64, 65. NUMERALS. 69 

fen# and tfSitf, Piels of ttno , 'lteln^ and ife^n? from 
rciba, or doubling the third radical in place of the second, 
e. g. 13^5, Wti*, njM (=ii!») from n»a ( =i«p), 
njnmjn (fut. njnn^, with Vav Conv. innv^) from 
nfy?, or reduplicating an entire syllable, e. g. Ilb^n, 

in*™ . 

3. A very few instances occur of what may be called 
compound species ; thus, Niphal of Pual $»ia , Niphal oi 
Hithpael ^©w, nsss , tnnn©?. 

§ 64. Quadriliteral Verts. 

The number of quadriliteral verbs is very small. Some 
adopt the vowels and inflections of the Piel and Pual 
species, while others follow the Hiphil. 

§ 65. Numerals, see Table XIX. 

1. The cardinals from three to ten are in form of the 
singular number, and have a feminine termination when 
joined to masculine nouns, but omit it when joined to 
feminine nouns. 

2. The tens are formed by adding the masculine plural 
termination to the units, D^Sto twenty being, however, 
derived not from two but from ten "itolj . 

3. There are no distinct forms for ordinals above ten, 
the cardinal numbers being used instead. 

4. Fractional parts are expressed by the feminine ordi 
nals, as well as by special terms. 

Vocabulary 25. 

n^» n. f. ephah rfna n. m. Pharaoh 

E'lH n. m. month ni© n. f. (D\) year 

nb n. m. Noah ^w n. m. shekel 
lift? n. m. decade, ten 



70 ETYMOLOGY § 66 

§66. Separate Particles. 

1. The longer particles, whether adverbs, prepositions 
conjunctions 01 interjections, are written as separate 
words. 

2. The prepositions ins after, "b» to, *® unto, ^? wpaw., 
and rrm under, assume before suffixes the form of nouns 
in the masculine plural, e. g. "HE*, sp^M; pa between : 
adopts sometimes a singular, sometimes a masculine 
plural, and sometimes a feminine plural form, ii^a and 
v&Sl, ^ipa and wyira. 

3. The preposition n» with, commonly becomes P» 
before suffixes, e. g. ^fitf , Ditttf , and is thus distinguished 
from rix the sign of the definite object, which becomes 
ni* , or before grave suffixes, n$ , e. g. T»&, tairi« . 



8¥ NTAX. 

§ 67. The Copula. 

1. The predicate of a sentence, if a substantive, adjec- 
tive, or pronoun, may be directly connected with its sub- 
ject without an intervening copula, DiSffi •T»nin'»rirt3 all 
her paths (are) peace, f ?n litb ^ fr'00 (was) </6>6>'i. 

2. Or the verb njrj to be, or the pronoun sti of the 
third person, may be used as a copula, inn nn^n "jnan 
^ eaWA was desolate, inns xin ^"onn nnsn £/^ fourth 
river is Euphrates. 



§ 68. 2%* Article. 

1. The article is used in Hebrew as in English to dis- 
tinguish an object as one which has been mentioned 
before, as well known, as the only one of its class, or as 
distinguished above others of like kind. 

2. It is also prefixed to nouns employed in a generic or 
universal sense, anjfi gold, «ro?Hn wisdom. So in com- 
parisons, ifes as a (lit. the) nest, Isa. 10 : 14. 

3. It is likewise found in some cases where the English 
idiom requires a word still more specific, as a possessive 
pronoun : she took Cpi&n the veil, Gen. 24 : 65, i. e. the 
one which she had, her veil ; or a demonstrative, as be- 
fore words denoting time, Di*n to-day, fiiifn this year ; 
or the sign of the vocative, rjbian Icing I 



72 SYNTAX. §§ 69-71 



§ 69. Nouns definite without the Article 

1. The following are definite without the article :— 

(1) Proper nouns, which only receive it if they were 
originally appellatives. 

(2) Nouns with pronominal suffixes. 

(3) Nouns in the construct state before a definite 
qouu. 

2. The article is often omitted in poetry where it would 
be required in prose. 



§ 70. Adjectives. 

1. Both qualifying and predicate adjectives agree in 
gender and number with the nouns to which they belong. 

2. Qualifying adjectives usually stand after the noun 
and agree with it likewise in definiteness, that is to say, 
if the noun is made definite whether by the article or in 
any of the ways specified in the preceding section, they 
receive the article, Din )% a wise son, nnicon p^n the 
good land. 

3. Predicate adjectives commonly stand before the 
noun, and do not take the article, even though the noun 
is definite, li'nn aife the word is good. 



§ 11. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

1. Demonstrative pronouns follow the same rule oi 
position and agreement, only the nouns which they qualify 
are invariably definite, ri?x?} D^^n these things, n|tf 
Qiinnn these are the things. 

2. If both an adjective and a demonstrative qualify 



§§ 72, 78. NUMERALS. 7iS 

the same noun, the demonstrative is placed last, ^.^T 
r.^Tr nnicon this good land. 



§ 72. Comparison of Adjectives. 

1. Comparison is expressed by means of the preposi- 
tion "jtt from, placed after the adjective or other word 
expressive of quality, D^i^Stt rrbsfi rait: ivisdom is better 
than rubies, lit. is good from rubies ; JEE b'jfta I will be 
greater than thou. 

2. The superlative degree may be expressed, 

(1) By adding ^3 all to the comparative particle ?», 
Dijb- t \?a-b3 , o bins greatest of all the sons of the east, lit. 
great from all, etc. 

(2) By an emphatic use of the positive, so as to imply 
the possession of the attribute in an eminent degree, 
B^fes n&jn fairest among women, lit. the fair one, etc. 

§ 73. Numerals. 

1. The cardinal ifis one and the ordinal numbers are 
treated like other adjectives, and follow the rules of po 
sition and agreement already given. 

2. The other cardinals may stand, 

(1) In the absolute state before the noun to which 
they belong. 

(2) Before it in the construct state (if they have such 
h form). 

(3) After it in the absolute state. 

3. Nouns accompanied by the cardinals from 2 to 10 
are almost invariably plural, while those which are pre- 
ceded by the tens (20-90) or numbers compounded with 
them (21, etc.) are commonly put in the singular, O'ntoif 
o^iw sttih nbtij twenty years and seven years. 



74 syntax. §§ 74, 75 

4. The cardinals above one may receive the article 
when the noun is not expressed, but not when joined to a 
definite noun. D^anan the forty, oi*n n" 1 ??^ the forty 
days. 

§ 74. Apposition. 

One noun may be in apjDosition with another, not onVj? 
when both denote the same person or thing, but also 
when the second specifies the first by stating the material 
of which it consists, its quality, character, or the like, 
mrmn *ijban the oxen the brass, i. e. the brazen oxen; 
nttg d^o wbt) tlwee measures (consisting of) meal. 

§ 75. The Construct State. 

1. When one noun is limited in its meaning by another 
the first is put in the construct state. The relation thua 
expressed corresponds for the most part to the genitive 
case, or to that denoted in English by the preposition of. 

2. When the relation between two nouns is expressed 
by a preposition, the first commonly remains in the abso- 
lute state; it may, however, especially in poetry, be put 
in the construct, ?abjD *nn mountains in Gilboa. 

3. Nouns are sometimes in the construct before a suc- 
ceeding clause with which they are closely connected ; 
thus^ before a relative clause, *iiBtfj oiptt the place %ohere, 
etc.5 particularly when the relative is itself omitted, 
nbtjprTa by the band of (him whom) thou wilt se%d } 
and even before the copulative, n?33 T ^ r ) wisdom and 
knowledge. 

4. An adjective, participle, or demonstrative, qualify- 
ing a noun in the construct state, cannot follow it imme 
(1 iately, but must be placed after the governed noun, 
binjrj rnrp niiispa the great work of Jehovah. 



§§ 76, 77. THE PRETERITE. 75 

5. An article or suffix belonging to a noun in the con 
struct must be attached, not to it, but to the governed 
noun, b?nn ^ias the mighty men of valor, iirjT ^bK his 
idols of gold. 

6, The preposition b to, belonging to, with or without 
a preceding relative pronoun, may be substituted for the 
construct relation in its possessive sense, ^ipbab n^in the 
house of Elisha, Tp%& "*** 1*&D her father's sheep. 



§ 76. Tenses of Verbs. 

The Hebrew has distinct forms of the verb correspond- 
ing to the two grand divisions of time, the past and the 
future; but all subordinate modifications or shades of 
meaning are either suggested by accompanying particles 
or left to be inferred from the connection. "Whatever is 
or is conceived of as past, is put in the preterite; the 
future is used for all that is or is conceived of as future. 

§ 77. The Preterite. 

The preterite may accordingly be employed to denote, 
1. The past, whether it be, 

a. Absolute, i. e. the historical imperfect, God aria 
(treated. 

b. Relative to the present, i. e. the perfect, what Is this 
iJiat i™? thou hast done f 

c. Relative to another past, i. e. the pluperfect, God 
en did his work which nw he had made. 

d. Relative to a future, i. e. the future perfect, he shall 
be called holy, when the Lord ybn shall have washed, etc 

e. Conditional, except the Lord had left a remnant 
tf^n we should have been as Sodom. 

f. Optative, writi^ib that we had died. 



76 syntax. § 78 

g. Subjunctive, DhK^ l?ttb m 0/»<fer that ye might f tar. 

2. The present, regarded as a continuation of the past 
ties /^m thirsty, prop. I have been and still am thirsty. 

3. General truths, embodying the experience of the 
past, <m oa? ^ij; hioweth his owner, oxen always have 
done so, and always will. 

4. The future, when described by the prophets as 
though it had already taken place, Babylon i°ib&D has 
fallen. 

§ 78. The Future. 

The future tense is used in speaking of, 

1. The future, whether it be, 

a. Absolute, ntetofcj I will make. 

b. Relative to a past, JElisha was fallen sick of his 
sickness, whereof t\vo^ he was to die. 

c. Conditional, but (if it were my case) tin"? 2 ? I would 
seek unto God. 

d. Optative, expressing desire, determination, permis- 
sion, or command, so ^ril&o may all thine enemies perish ; 
all that thou commandest its, ^?'?J we will do; of the fruit 
bi^u iue may eat; mine ordinances rtbtjri ye shall keep. 

e. Subjunctive, ^"J?*? )$'& in order that my soul may 
bless thee. 

2. The present, when it is conceived of hs extending into 
the future, why isnfi weepest thou ? lit. why wilt thou go 
on to weep ? 

3. General truths, which are valid for all time to come, 
righteousness Dttill? exalteth a nation, it does so now and 
always will. 

4. Habitual acts or states continuing for an indefinite 
period from the time spoken of, thus Job ntoj did con 
tinnally, not only that once, but thenceforward 



§§ 79, 80 PARTICIPLES. 7 J 

5. The past, in animated description, as we use the pre 
sent, then *w; sings Moses. 

6. The future is idiomatically used with *ar\b and citb? 
not yet, before, whether the period referred to is past or 
future. 

7. The apocopated and paragogic forms of the future 
mostly have a conditional, optative, or subjunctive sense, 

8. The negative imperative is made by prefixing b&s not 
to the apocopated future, V"irrb$ harm not. 



§ 79. The Secondary Tenses. 

1. When a future with Vav Conversive is preceded by 
a preterite, or by any expression referring to past time, it 
becomes a secondary preterite. And a preterite with 
Vav Conversive preceded by a future, an imperative, or 
any expression indicating future time, becomes a secondary 
future. 

2. A narrative or a paragraph, which begins with one 
of the primary tenses, is mostly continued by means of 
the corresponding secondary tense, provided the verb 
stands at the beginning of its clause. If for any reasor 
this order of the words is interrupted or prevented, the 
primary tense must again be used, 



§ 80. Participles. 

1 Participles may express what is permanent or 
habitual, (the Lord) 3r}& loveth righteousness. Passive 
participles, so used, suggest not only a constant experience, 
but a fixed quality as the ground of it, tf^ia not only 
feared, but worthy to be feared. 

2. Active participles most commonly relate to the pres- 



7$ syntax. §§ 81, 82 

ent or to the proximate future, and passive participles to 
the past. 

3. In narratives and predictions the time of the parti- 
ciples is reckoned, not from the moment of speaking, but 
fi'om the period spoken of, the two angels came, and Lot 
atB* was sitting in the gate of Sodom. 



§ 81. The Infinitive. 

1. The absolute infinitive may be used for, 

(1) The preterite or the future, when one of those 
tenses immediately precedes. 

(2) The imperative, when it stands at the beginning 
of a sentence. 

2. The infinitive, which is a verbal noun, may be put 
in the construct state before a following noun, whether 
this be its subject or its object. The construct state is 
also used after nouns or prepositions, and sometimes after 
verbs. 

3. When one verb is dependent upon another, it is 
sometimes put, not in the infinitive, but in the same tense 
with the governing verb, tjbn bi&in lie was willing, he 
walked, for he was willing to walk, or walked willingly. 

§ 82. Object of Verbs. 

1. The object of a transitive verb, if a definite noun, or 
a pronoun, may be preceded by the particle ns . 

2. The subject of passive verbs, which is really the ob 
ject of their action, and nouns placed absolutely, occasion- 
?i ly receive ti» . 

3. Some verbs, not properly transitive, are capable oi 
a transitive construction ; thus, 

(1) Verb** signifying plenty and want, or motion, the 



§§ 83-85. NEGLECT OF AGREEMENT. 79 

house trttp^n $% was full of men, Tin*™ wj^ they 
went out (of) the city. 

(2) Any verb may govern its cognate noun, or a noun 
which defines the extent of its application rtavnK rhn 
lie was diseased in his feet. 

4. The verb usually stands first, its subject next, and 
its object last, unless the emphasis requires a different 
order. 



§ 83. Verbs with more than one Object. 

1. Some verbs have more than one object, viz. : 

(1) The causatives of transitive verbs. 

(2) Verbs whose action may be regarded under differ- 
ent aspects as terminating upon different objects. 

(3) The instrument of an action, the material used in 
its performance, its design, or its result, may be its 
secondary or remote object, *jix ititf ifef}! 1 ] and they over- 
whelmed him with stones, *)£>? onarrna i^i and he 
formed the man of dust. 

2. If an active verb is capable of governing a double 
object, its passive may govern the more remote of them. 

§ 84. Adverbial Expressions. 

1. Adverbs commonly stand after the words to which 
they belong. 

2. Nouns may be placed absolutely to express the rela 
fcions of time, place, measure, number, or manner. 

§ 85. Neglect of Agreement 

I. When a predicate adjective or verb precedes its 
noun, it often prefers a primary to a secondary form, thai 



80 SYNTAX. § 86 

is to say, the masculine may be used instead of the 
feminine, and the singular instead of the plural. 

2. Collective nouns may have verbs, adjectives, and 
pronouns agreeing with them in the plural. 

3. Nouns plural in form, but singular in signification, 
commonly have verbs, adjectives, and pronouns agreeing 
with them in the singular. 

4. Plural names of inanimate or irrational objects oi 
either gender are occasionally joined with the feminine 
singular. 

5. The masculine is sometimes used, when females are 
spoken of, from a neglect to note the gender, if no stress 
is laid upon it. 

6. Singular predicates and pronouns are sometimes 
employed in a distributive sense of plural subjects. 

7. Nouns in the dual have verbs, adjectives, and pro- 
nouns agreeing with them in the plural. 

§ 86. Compound Subject. 

1. When the subject consists of two or more words con- 
nected by the conjunction and, the predicate, if it precedes 
its subject, may be put in the masculine singular as its 
primary form, or it may be put in the plural, referring to 
them all, or it may agree with the nearest word. 

2. If the predicate follows a compound subject, it is 
commonly put in the plural, though it may agree with 
the principal word to which the others are subordinate. 

3. If a predicate refers equally to two words of dif- 
ferent genders, it will be put in the masculine in prefer- 
ence to the feminine ; if they are of different persons^ 
the predicate will be put in the second in preference to 
the third, and in the first in preference to either of the 
others. 



§§ 87-89. conjunctions. Si 

§ 87. Repetition of Words. 

1. Kepetition may denote distribution, ni© nittj yeai 
by year, plurality, "iirn^i generation and generation, i. e. 
many generations, or emphasis and intensity, p&jj piv 
irceeding deep. 

2. In verbs the absolute infinitive is joined with the 
finite forms for the sake of emphasis or intensity, tvvo 
rwbri thou shalt surely die. 

§ 88. Relative Pronouns. 

1. When the relative lijsj is governed by a verb, noun, 
or preposition, this is shown by appending the appro- 
priate pronominal suffix to the governing word, thou 
Tprnna niga whom I have chosen, ii^T- lija whose seed. 

2. When the relative is preceded by nsk the sign of 
the definite object, or by a preposition, these pertain 
not to the relative, but to its antecedent, which is to be 
supplied. 

3. The relative is frequently omitted, not only, as in 
English, when it is the object of its clause, but also when 
it is the subject, andhe forsook God inte's; (w T ho) made him, 

4. The demonstrative nj or M is frequently used in 
poetry with the force of a relative, in which case it 
suffers no change for gender or number. 

§ 89. Conjunctions. 

1. The simple copulative ) is used in Hebrew, where 
our idiom requires different conjunctions ; the relation be 
fcween clauses so connected must often be inferred from 
their signification. 

2. Vav also serves, 

4* 



82 SYNTAX. § 8$ 

(1) To introduce the apodosis or second member of a 
conditional sentence, if God will be with me and heep mi 
n{>ni then shall Jehovah be my God. 

(2) To connect a statement of time or a noun placed 
absolutely with the clause to which it relates, on the third 
day onna» si?i Abraham lifted up his eyes. 



GRAMMATICAL TABLES. 




II. Classification of the Letters, §2. 



Gutturals, a n n s 

Palatals, } *> 3 p 
Linguals, T a b a n 
Dentals, T o i w 
Labials, a i tt B 
* shares the peculiarities 
of the Gutturals. 



Weak, 
Medium, 

Strong, 



» n. 1 i Vowel -Letters 

x n n v Gutturals. 

b tt 3 "i Liquids. 

T o s •© Sibilants. 

n a. 1 



13P 

h n * J J 



Aspirates and 
Mutes. 



Serviles ibsi mma "jma . Radicals the rest of the Alphabet 



Long Vowels. 

Ka'mets a ~r 
Tse're e ~ 
Hho'lem b — 



The Points, §4, 

Short Vowels. 

Pattahh a ~ 

Seghol e ~r 

Ka'mets- Hhatuph 6 ~v 



Doubtful Vowels. 



Hhi'rik - 
Shurek — 
Kibbuts r 



i or i 



u or u 



Pronounce a as in father, a as in fat, e as in there, e as in ??ie£, I as in 
machine, i as in p£w, 5 as in note, 6 as in not, u as in rwfe, u as in^W. 

§ 7. Simple Sh'va ~r silent or vocal. 

( Hhateph-Pattahh -= ; thus lb? °^M^. 
% < Hhateph- Seghol tt ; thus "ibx e mor. 

[ Hhateph-Kamets tt; thus ^fcf °#i. 

§ 8. Pattahh-furtive ~ with 2, n or ft at the end of 
words. 

§12. Daghesh-lene in a a 1 3 3 n removes aspiration 

§13. Daghesh-forte doubles; not found in 8 n n y 
rarely in *i . 

§ 14. Mappik in final ft when a consonant. 

§ 15. Raphe ^_ opposite of Daghesh-lene, Daghesh 
forte, or Mappik. 

§ 21. Makkeph (") connects words. 

§ 22. Methegh , second syllable before the accent. 



III. Th 


e Accents 


, »16. 




DISJUNCTIVES. 






Class 


I. Emperors. 




i, SillGk 


(,) 


tpskq 




& Athnfthh 


(*') 


nina 




Class II. Kings. 






8. S'gholta 


(-) 


t : t 


poalp 


4. Zakeph KatOn 


C) 


TO TO 




5. Zakeph Gadhol 


C) 


brb cjgi 




6. Tiphhha 


(J 


ansa 

IT 1 * 




Glass III. Dukes. 






7. R'bhr 


C) 


5-i'a-i 




8. Shalsheleth 


C) 


^to* 




9. Zarka 


O 


Kjs'nt 


p08tp. 


10. Pashta 


O 


xatlJB 


postp, 


11. Y'thibh 


C) 


a-'n^ 


prep. 


12. T'bhlr 


<•> 


■^ 




Class IV. Counts. 






13. Pazer 


C) 


MB 

•• T 




14. Karnfi Phara 


n 


nns ing 




15. T'Usha Gh'dhola 


(') 


nbi-ia s©^in 


pre? 


16. Geresh 


c) 


^i 




17. G'rashayim 


c) 


tnSna 




18. P'slk 


c) 


tp*QB 




conjunctives. Servants. 




10. Merl<a 


(,) 


/T S * 




20. Munahh 


u 


JT 




21 Merl a Kh'phttla 


(.) 


nbwa xs^a 




22. Mahpakh 


(<) 


•^3?ltt 




23. Darga 


(,) 






24. Kadhma 


C) 


sang 




25. Yerahh ben Yomo 


(v) 






26. T'lisha K'tanna 


C) 


naap xttKsrn 


poetjik 



IV. Inseparable Prepositions and Vat 
Conjunctive, §§ 27, 28. 

Primary form, 3 3 5} 

Before vowelless Consonants, 3 3 b 1* 

Before Gutturals with Compound Sh'va, the corresponding short towel 

Before monosyllables and accented syllables, f 3 3 b ' 

WitL the contracted article, the vowel of the article , 

* Also before the labials 2 , » , and 2 . but 1 before' vowelless /odb. 
t With the interrogative i"IH3, .Tas , tlTsi or n^b . 

The Preposition "pa, He Interrogative, the Article, 
and the Interrogative rro . 

Before strong consonants, • 10 

Before vowelless consonants and strong ) 
gutturals, J" 

Before weak gutturals, . 12 

Before gutturals with Kamets, 12 

* But with a disjunctive accent commonly no . 

Inseparable Prepositions with Suffixes. 

Singular. 

*fe,$ *rt SIP- fa? 

$ - , ^ 

■8 sniiag *t^j , tigs , ebb 

rib nii? n«? 

Plde a l. 

T T - ' 

V T V T ' 

lib — 



n 


•n 


•ma 


n 


r 


he 


n 


n 


7112 


n 


n 


ma 



lc. 


"S 




2 m. 


B- 


fe 


2/ 


ft- 




3 m- 


is 




3/ 


nil 

T 




ic. 


T 




2 w. 


V T 




»/ 


19? 




3 Bl. 


D3, 


en: 



ansa ofr; 



3/ -)^, -,na -,hb — TO 

86 



I 



V. Personal Pronouns, $ 29. 

SINGULAR. PLURAL. 

*bi«, ■»?» We ^nbx, wi, og 

j Thou m. nna, riS Ye ?a. dps 

j Thou / nx , ^pi» Ye /. jfea , nana 

j He am They m. nn 3 n^n 

1 She ^n, ann $ 23. 3. They / ?n, nan 









Si 


[JfTIXES. 








Simple. "With union Vowels ol 


* Verbs. 


With Sing. Nou 


qs. With Dual ft aa 

"PI in *• "NT/mi a 


l c. 


■*?, n "*?- 


T 


">3. 


CD 


1 




"\ Alii,!. IrtUU -B, 

1 


pi. 


13 ID 

T 


12.. 


13 V 




13. 


(*,) 


13\ 


2 w. 


^("?) Of.) 


PL) 


3., 


0?.) 


^i 


PL) 


T \\ 


*>Z. 


DD 








a?, 




D?\ 


2/. 


»C9) ^ ,1 


K 






t 




?\ 


j* 


1? 








1?, 




1?\ 


3 w. 


in iri T ,i 


i*"L 


13 ,. 


(«J 


i 


(ri, in. 


) 1\ (1 n \ , T^ 


pi. 


n (in) q t ,d. 


□.. 






D t 




nnv (WJ 


8/: 


n n 


n. 


na 




n T 




T 


f* 


ipw i T 


1. 






1, 




W- 



Demonstrative. 

J/dsc. .Fern. Common. 

Sing, nr (it) n»T (ir, rir) to. Plur. ba 3 n^& these. 

Relative. 
m§8 w/to or which ; abbreviated form •© (•», tt, ©J 

Interrogative and Indefinite. 
n p rfo ? or whoever, nn w^atf ? or whatever. 

Verbs. — Their Species, §§ 31, 32. 
I Simple act. Kal b^p fa MIL 

2. " pass. Niphal ^Pi?? fo be Mlled. 

3. Intensive act. Pi el btbf? fo Mil many ox to massacre 

4. pass. Pual ^ap fo fo massacred. 

5. Causative act. Hiphll W?£n fo c«^e to M/. 

6. pass. Hophal bttjpn fo he caused to MIL 
7 Reflexive Hithpael bogrin to M/ awe's s^/*. 



r 








VI. Paradigm oi 






k:al. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


PRET. 


3 m. 


&B 


^1?? 


^P 


&J? 




3/ 


-'59B 


n ^i?? 


■^^P 


nb^ 




2 in. 


$*B 


ri*g? 


nbiop 

t ; — '• 


nb&p 




»/ 


^1? 


rf?^p? 


**^P 


nbfep 




1 c. 


Tibisp 


^nb^p? 


Tfctop 


Tfep 


Plur. 


3 c. 


. *S 


^p? 


$top 


*t$ 




2 m, 


Dfrbttj? 


N*3?P 


Dttbfcp 


o^g? 




2/. 


inbttp 


ife^P? 


"$?&!? 


"jfrbtap 




1 c. 


abbe 


^p? 


ttbibp 


tibfe]3 


Infin. 


absol. 


b% 


bbpn 


btbg 


btip 




constr. 


btbp 


^|?H 


^E 


(**) 


Fut. 


3 m. 


^1?? 


btbp h 

•• lr« 


^?I2? 


^P: 




3/. 


btipn 


bkpn 

"It • 


^pn 


btspn 




2 m. 


btbpr, 


btbpn 
,.\ T . 


btopn 


btopn 




2/ 


"bppn 


^btpgn 


^btopn 


^btapn 




i c. 


^>p$ 


•• It v 


^5B8 


bto^Q 


Plur. 


3 ?7l. 


*PP; 


fep h 


*tpp: 


fep: 




3/. 


ixbiipn 


rabtbpn 

t : "It • 


r&btopn 

t : ••'— : 


nabfepn 




2 m. 


tftopn 


fepFI 


6ts0n 


$t?pn 




2/ 


njbtipn 


mbbpfi 

t : -It • 


njbtppn 


fijbkpfi 




1 c. 


btipp 


bpp? 


^P? 


&$ 


Impek. 


2 m. 


Sajj 


btspn 

•• It • 


btog 






2/ 


'^PP 


h bt:pn 

• : Iit • 


^?E 




Plur. 


2w. 


fep 


: Iit • 


*I?B 


wanting 




2/ 


nsbtip 


rftbtbpn 

t : •■ lr • 


rijbfep 

t : ••■— 




Part. 


act. 


' 5 *?P 




^P 5 ? 






pass. 


**G 


N?p? 




btsp£ 



Perfect Verbs, §§ 83-38. 



HIPH1L. 


IIGPHjVL. 


HITEPAEL. 


eal (mid, e). 


. — i 

KAL (Wiirf. 0). 


^I?n 


%* 


btbprin 


-as 

••T 


bSu> 


tbriagn 


nStapn 

T : ': t 


nbtspnri ■ 


t : it 


1-ibM 

T : n 


ttebgn 


*$fel?0 


nbkpnr; 


r i — t 


nbDir 

t : t 


n$3?T3 


nbtbpn 


rib^pnn 


mis 

: : - t 


vbbti 

: : t 


Tibfeijh 


T^bpn 


Tibtbpnri 


-rnn^ 


h nbDir 

• : t 


^^pM 


*r:pn 


itagjn 


: it 


*b«j 


ohbfcpn 


□rtapri 


Dnb^pnn 


bftm 


(nnb^u:) 


l^pri 


l^pn 


inb^pnn 


W7?? 


(T^W) 


stfiigpsi 


^btbpn 


^btipnn 


mis 


: t 


bfcprj 


!*W 


(btignri) 


Tii3 

T 


btinj 

T 


^*pi 


b *l?0 


btopnri 


nna 


bSri 


^?]£. 


^i?: 


bfcprr 


"1?: 


bi«r 


b^bpn 


bibpn 


b&pnn 


tsdfi 


b:btin 


Hjjjn 


bapn 


b&pnn 


T|an 


Mnto 


"W?!??! 


^Stppn 


-Siapnn 


^SfiFl 


"bsirn 


W?]?£ 


b ^i?¥ . 


btapna 


"??** 


i?$8 


**!?. 




sBtagjr 


^??r 


*m: 


njbkpn 


"jb^pn 


njbtopnri 


wtsfiFi 


nsbibtin 


A^n 


*tppn 


^tspnr. 


snsDti 


feran 


"?b^pn 


^bipn 


njb^pnn 


mAan 


t : — : • 


b^K 


&$ 


^opn? 


^? 


b|ir? 


^!?»j 




btopnri 


1 ?5 




^*?1?l! 




h btopriri 


^as 




ft*gri 


wanting 


fegnri 


srtasi 




no%j?tj 




nsbtbpnn 


n 7?5? 




Hl?^ 




b^E^r 








^1?9 






, _j 



89 



VII. Paradigm oe the Peufelt 



Singular. 

1 com, 2 masc. 2 fern. 3 masc. 3/e 



Kal Preterite. 

Sing. 3 masc. •tf&p ^bttp tjbtip nPlStap J nSttp 

»/«». h ?^?^ *p?S% «jnSgg wfptpp) nnbtjp 

":rtop ) inbap ) 

2/m. T$h?p ^rrhbtip 

1cm. — *rft^3? t$?^j? ^#h?i? o^^i? 

plur. 3 com. ^Bfcp ^br:p •qsfep w&g? 0*^1? 

2 moae. ^*inbt>p wifctag ffiinbfcp 

leam. *pibttp sfotog? *tfi9? 0^9? 



Infinitive. h btip ) *{bftp t|3ttg iStig flbttg 



Future. 

Sing. 3 mm, h ?3p]?: ) ^^ ) T]btip^ 5in5tt]r ) rftag*; 

^bpp 1 ; j T ^bpp: ) ^bpp; ) nsbipp; 

Plur. 3 masc. ^&BJT *{$&£; ^£>]r ^EfT itBtt|5j 



Imperative. 


inbftp 


D^I? 




Piel Preterite. 
Sing. 3 masc. ^bt?p *jbttp 1$t£p 


ibtop 


rffc(? 


Hinin, Preterite. 
Sing. 3 masc. ^tppn ^Bph ^tppiH 


ib^tppri 


fib"t:pn 



4M 



Verbs with 


Suffixes, 


§ 42. 










P I, URAL. 






l com. 


2 wasc. 


2/dW. 


3 f»a*c. 


3 /em. 


»3w 


Dibttjj 


"#&? 


*&? 


l&fi 


W\5ttj: 


D5r6ttp 

v ;— it'j 


#&3R 


ttjSttjj 


)0&i? 


ttfibttp 







Dnbt:p 


T#3? 



wSttp 

t': 


o? h ^p 

v it»: 

di^bttp 


l^nbtip 

l^btip 

l^bbj? 


d^bfcp 

tfnbfcp 

d^ibftp 

d^inbfcp 
d^bb&p 


v^p 

l*bt:p 


^p T 


oibtjp 


1$?!? 


&*?!? 


1*fc 




d^btip? 




dbtpjr 


■p3t>p: 


*$?& 






D ^i? 




ttftop 


dsbtep 


■jibtip 


tfittfc 


I^P 


— ^»» . 


• * 


_ ' t_ _. ^_ 


_L<^.^,_ 





«fi3^n aib^pn lib^pri s^tppn "i^tppn 



91 



VIII. 


Paradigm 


OF Pe 


GUTTURAI 


i Verbs, 


§53. 1 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


rfB FUT. 


Pbet. 3 m. 


it? 

— r 


— vnv 


• v: |V 


— n it 


bi*r 


3/. 


t : it 


t : viv 


ftJ^JvJ 


ma?n 

t : t it 


bian 


2 m, 


t : — t 


PftBjQ. 


^SJ 


mam 

t : — t: it 


b5an 


2/- 


ma* 

: : — t 


photd 


pntei 


ma^n 


"Sate 


U 


wbs 


'Wto^ 


• : - v: |V 


Tmb^n 

• : — t: it 


bifc 


Plur. 3 c. 


: it 


rtow 


*Tfejf(J 


^WJ 


fear 

: 1 


2 m. 


QFfna*- 


amws 


Dni^n 


Dmarn 

v '• — t: it 


nDbian 

t : — 


»/ 


fFPTO 


■^ferraga. 


l^ngwri 


ima^n 

1 v : — t: it 


: | 


lc. 


: — t 


*7SS 


*79S3 


*arton 

: —• t: it 


; nDbban 

t : - 


Infin. Absol. 


TO 

T 


■ton 

T 1" 


Tifffi 


Tb^n 

•• t: it 




Constr. 




TO?n 


-r it 


Kal (fut. a.) 
PTiT 

' — v:iv 


Fut. 8 m. 


ta^ 


•- Tl» 


Tar 


— t;it 


8/. 


"ton 


■noian 

•• t r* 


rtom 

• -; i- 


nam 

— i: it 


pinn 


2 m. 


ifcjFl 


•• t r* 


ram 


— Titr 


piriFi 


2/. 


^M 


• : it •• 


• -: r 


• : t it 


TP>jrm 


1ft 


v: iv 


•• T 1" 


TE*« 


— t; it 


pmn 


i%#r. 8 m. 


vrnr 


viiar 


srrfe* 


^ar 


fe 


3/. 


rei!a*n 

t : -: i- 


rmton 


wrfaJFi 


nna^n 

t : — t: it 


routrtpj 


2 m. 


: — i- 


WlPPl 


wirwn 


*na?n 

: t it 


^Pjraj 


2/ 


wftbfi 


nrrasn 

t ; •• t l" 


rffiton 


nrrb^n 

r : — t: it 


nspmn 


U 


-a- 




• -3- 


TO? 3 

— ■HIT 


PI® 


Impbe. 2 m- 


"ftay 


"TV 


tton 




pi* 


«/ 


^235 


^TQTtl 


*rrb?n 

• • -: i- 


wanting 


h ptn 


f*J««r. 2 ra, 


rt» 


: it •* 


wbwi 




iipjn 


2/ 


r : -: 


nrrbtti 

t : •• t i~ 


t : ••-; i- 




njJJTin 


Part. Act. 


tbi 




• -\ i- 




i 


Paw. 


T 


TOW 

T V.1V 




Tlill 1 


I 

1 



92 



ix. : 


Paradigm 


op Ayin 


Guttural Verbs 


, § 54. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


Pret. 3 m. 


b^a 


bto 


bfca 


bi«3 


baarn 

•• t : • 


3/. 


nSxa 


hSmo 


nbaa 


. n'iaa 


nbaarrn 


2 m. 


nbaa 


nb^^D 


nb&a 


nbfca 


nbaann 


2/ 


nbaa 


p&taa 


nbtfa 


nbfca 


pfiftann 


lc. 


Tibka 


^nbfcro 


^nbfca 


■^nb^a 


^nbkanri 


Phir. 3 c. 


&tt 


*8»3fl 


6«a 


6aa 


4«ann 


2 w. 


Dhbaa 


dhbaro 


Dhbaa 


Droaa 


Dhbaann 


2/ 


■flpfcna 


■$&*?? 


l^baa 


1$?^'? 


■jnb^ann 


lc. 


ttbfca 

: — t 


^aa? 


*&*3 


ttbfc'a 


ttbkarri 


Infin. -45soZ. 


bifca 


baan 


bka 




i 


Constr 


baa 


bfcan 
.. T • 


bfca 

••T 




bkainri 


Fut. 8 ;». 


iter 


b&^ 


bfca h 


bfcr 


bkarr 


8/ 


baan 


bfcan 


%? 


bfcan 


bkann 


2tw. 


baan 


b&an 


Mpri 


bfcafi 


bkann 


2/ 


■oaam 


h 3»m 


^baan 


"Saom 


^b^ann 


lc. 


bkas 


bkaa 


bfcaa 


bfcaa 


bkasn^ 


Pfor. 3 «». 


&er 


*wr 


6&p 


fe 


6aarv 


3/ 

2 w. 


$aan 


mbfcan 

t : — t • 

$aam 


r&bfcan 

t : — t : 

*»am 


njbfcan 


robfcttnn 

t : — t : • 


2/ 


nAton 


rDbaan 


riDbfcan 


roifcan 


nsb&ann 


lc. 


%? 


.. T . 


••t: 


bfca 


baans 

••T : • 


Impke. 2 »». 


baa 


bfcan 


baa 




bkann ' 


2/ 


^baa 


^Hsn 


^baa 


wanting 


^Sfisgnn 


PJw. 2 wi. 


6aa 


4»an 


4*a 




*6«ann 


2/ 


rt&ta 


n:baan 

t : — t • 


rabfca 

t : — t 




rnbkanfi 

t ; — t : • 


Pabt. -4e£. 


bfca 




btoj 




bfcana 


Pom. 


b^a 

T 


t : * 




t : 





X. Paradigm 


df Lamedh Guttural Verbs, $55, 


1 , 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


HIPHIL. 


HITHFAEI. 


Peet. 3 m. 
3/ 


nbiz: 

- T 

nnbti 


nbtip 
nnby3D 


nhbizj 




nlrran 

nnbrran 


2 m, 


nnbu; 


nnb^D 


m$iD 


nnbtfn 


mnSPiwh 


2/ 


nnbti 


nnbizJD 


irfiizj 


nnbizin 


nn^nicn 


1 c. 


Tinbuj 


h nnStz:D 


wiki 


wfian 


^mnbnuin 


Plur. 8 c. 


=inbiz3 


tflbl± 


Tibti 


vrSifti 


tfibmrn 


2 m, 


Qnnbtzj 


Dnnbiis 


isvfetD 


DWibizin Drnbrran 


2/ 

lc. 


: - t 


-nnbir? 


witzi 


"]Finbifljn 


■jnnbn^n 


Infin. Absol. 


nibro 


i-Stis 


nSn: 


nbizin 




Constr. 


rfiti 


nbran 

- r . 


rfhz? 


n^bujn 


nbntin 


Fut. 3 m. 


nbsr 


nbti* 


n k?" 


rrbirh 


nSrus^ 


3/ 


nbiari 


nbuin 


n|irpi 


jrSwn 


nfetin 


2 m. 


nblan 


nbtin 


rtbite 


rrbtfn 


nSntin 


2/ 


irfetim 


^nbisn 


•fibtin 


trbTbin 


^nbnujn 


lc. 


nbuitf 


n3ti» 


rtjtig 


n^Sroa 


nSpraSK 


Plur. 3 m. 


ttibur 


yhbw 


rttth 


w5iD h 


^bnur 


3/. 


nunbtfin 


nanSata 


nr&Dn 


nsnbtfn 


nDnbnujn 


2 m. 
2/. 

1 c. 


^nbtzjn 
ronbicn 

t : ~ : 


*b^n 
HDnbiiin 

t : - t • 

- T • 


ribuin 

nsribirifei 

nil?? 


^bizjn ^nbnran 

rftnSizjn snan^nosm 

r : - ; - r : - - ; • 


Impeb. 2 m. 


n3i? 


nbisn 


n|ia 


nbujn 


nbntdn 


2/ 


•tibti 


h nbi2jn 


h nbi2J 


rrbttn 


^hbn^n 


PZar. 2 m. 

2/. 




: it » 

mnbran 

t : - t • 


^inbir 
nDniir 

r : 


t : " : ~ 


^nbrnzirr 
nanirnrrj 


Pabt. 4<j£. 


ri» 




rUxciu 


n^bti-j 


rftnota 


JP<M8. 


T 


T . - 






! 



.' I 



94 



XI. 


Paradigm of i 


e Nun Verbs, § 5 


6. 




KAL. 


NIPIIAL. 


HirniL. 


HOPHAL. 


KAL. 


Pert. 3 m. 


— r 


id* a? 


izran 


raan 


it; 


3/ 


t :it 


uTCa3 

t : • 


T • • 


n&an 

t ; \ 


t : it 


2 m. 


™& 


t : — • 


ntiin 


rnu'an 

t ; — \ 


nro 

T — T 


2/ 


CT03D 

: : —i 


pvBfia 


nti£»n 


rncan 


nihs 

: — t 


le. 


Train 


■ntfia 


Titian 


Trajan 


Tito 


Plwr. 3 c. 


to 

: it 


SliD'SD 


ftD^Jl 


*itD'an 


^iro 


2 m. 


Dfcrato 


MFvsfefl 


Dhtian 


Dniu'an 


nrin^ 


2/ 


Wi^i 


1*™?? 


■jntisn 


l^'Srt 


l^w 


lc. 


l — T 


tttfia 


tttian 


wan 


*isto 

— T 


Infin. Absol. 


T 


T • 


tiag 


uteri 


T*J 


Gonstr. 


^1 


••T • 


wan 




nn 


Fut. 3 w. 


t^IP 


tfis" 1 


tiHai 


tit* 


fa 


3/ 


©in 


izjisn 

•■T • 


uran 


■dan 


1&i 


2 w. 


isari 


■•T • 


izrarn 


dan 


"0? 


2/ 


h iz:an 


h to3Fl 


^irf^rn 


h "i'am 


"inn 


1<5. 


ICB^ 


"T V 


IZTatf 


iriaa 


■jftg 


Ptur. 3 w. 


to 


tor 

: it • 


TE^P 


siTb'a; i 


sjSft 


3/ 


rraan 

t ; — • 


t : "t • 


t : •' — 


niizj'ari 


(rapin) 


2 m. 


ilfe&Fl 


^lton 


wan 


srb'api 


wnn 


2/ 


ns^'an 


t : -T • 


HD^'in 


natoapi 

t : — ••. 


(rariFi) 


lc. 


ttfi? 


"T • 


WM 


■caa 


•jm 


Impee. 2 w. 


Ufjk 


••T • 


■us an 




Tfe 


2/. 


"ipa 


h ton 


■nfrin 


wanting 


*?n 


PZwr. 2 *». 


*HD'a 


*itasn 


siiD^n 




Wl j 


2/ 


rotfi 


t : "T • 


nstian 

t : •• — 




("$)] 


Paet. Act. 


tfab 




tthica 




1™ 


Pass. 


T 


T • 




T ".. 


1*5 ! 







XII. 


Paradigm 


Gtf AllH 




KAL. 




NIPHAL. 


fl£l>. 


Pret. 3 m. 


» T 


n 9 


— T 


niio 


8/ 


nino 

t : it 


nno 

T — 


T — T 


ninio 


2 m. 


ft*??) 


rriiao 

T — 


mhos 

t — : 


nniio 


2/ 


ft???) 


rriiD 


• nisoj 


nnnio 


le. 


■mio 

• : — t 


Trtao 


Tf&e? 


Taiio 


Plur. 3 c. 


tine 

: it 


too 


— T 


tinio 


2 m. 


(Dnngo) 


onino 


Drfao;) 


Dponio 

v : — I 


2/ 


(ife?) 


1^-2 


irfinop 


-^oniD 


lc. 


•iDMD 


WiD 


wiaop 


miio 


Infin. Absol. 




3D 


nibr? 


site 


Constr. 


^ 


ID 


nbn 


niio 


Fut. 3 w. 


ntr 

T 


2&1 


nfe: 


nilo: 


8/ 


non 

T 


n&ri 


n&n 


niion 


2a 


son 

T 


n&n 


n§n 


ndior? 


2/ 


• T 


^itpn 


*akn 


^initpn 


U 


nOtf 

T 


3Q& 


sfea 


ndiOJs 


Pflwr. 8 m. 


T 


*d& 


tofe? 


: i : 


8/ 


nation 

t v v. : 


ronibn 

t ; • 


nsnfen 


nanniDFi 


2 m. 


T 


*6on 


sato 


Pinion 

: i : 


2/ 


nsraon 

t v v. : 


njn&n 


nsnbn 


radios? 


lc. 


n& 

T 


ntb? 


ufe? 


sdiop 


Impbk. 2 m. 


no 




nsn 


niio 


2/ 


^b 




^©n 


"nnio 


Plwr. 2 m. 


%io 




saferj 


tinio 


2/ 


nrad 




njntbn 


HDnnic 

t : •• 


Part. Act. 


sno 






DiiOD 


Pam. 


ago 

T 




no: 

TT 





96 



Doubled 


Verbs, § 57. 




. 


HIPH1L. ' 


HOPHAL. 


HITHPAEL. 


PD8L. 


j6»i 


zubti 


niirori 


^P 


raion 


raisin 

T — 


rnninon 

t : | : • 


rocx 

t i ; • 


t • -: 




nraincn 


$?S59 


rrthpfi 




nniinon 


rotoo 


Triton 




^roninpn 


*PD&5D 


Wbfi 


«afc*i 


: | : • 


*6&3b 


Drra&n 




v : — j : • 


dn^D^D 


Tfe*«?n 




■innninorj 


"f^?S?9 


^Di±Lprj 




ttniin&ri 


*?fe?o 


•• T 






tffefi 


al ?0 




niinpri 


tJODD 


a6" 

•• T 


3C*P 


^rtp. 


1^: 


non 

•• T 


awn 


niirion 


^6ddn 


•• T 


np^in 


niinon 


TJSDSDFI 


• •• T 


h 2ifasin 


• : | : • 


■iDDDm 


•• T 


. 10^ 


niinoa 


^95?$ 


"T 


tobv 


: i : • 


ilDDpp^ 


miw 




nniinDn 


n»6son 


•• T 


wbwi 


tininon 


^pppn 


miwi 




t : •• : • 


TOODOn 


••T 


nbtt 


zqitfD? 


•qtepp 


•• T 




niinpn 


^PDD 


•• T 


wanting 


*iiainort 




x v • -: 




t : •• : • 


nwbao 1 

r : ■■ : — 


so*? 




silnpa 


*tffi?9? 




39% 




.... . . .«J 



97 



1 

1 




XIII. Paradigm of 


Ayin Va* 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


PUAI,. 


Pret. 3 m. 


* 


dip; 


dbip 


dtip 


S »/. 


^i? 


raip; 


fito'I? 


rrbaijj 


2 m 


rap 


tfoz^ 


nabip 


Hwbip 


2/ 


rag 


nitapa 


nafafip 


PErtrip 


le. 


TRjfe 


■tyfeps 


^nnbip 


■weairip 


Plur. 3 c. 


«fe 


«¥g 


*tf|j 


siaafig 


2 m. 


drap 


d!ni?jip5 


dn?j?^ip 


dsfejip 

v : - 'i 


2/. 


1^12 


ft^'l?? 


1^^'i? 


■T^Wl? 


lc. 


^"# 


ttiittpi 


wobip 


twfrip 


Infin. Absol. 


Dip 


dipn 






Constr. 


d*ip 


Dipn 


nfrip 




Fut. 3 m. 


d^p; 


trip? 


o^p 1 ; 


d&ip^ 


3/ 


mpn 


dipn 


d'bipn 


abipn 


2 m. 


ttpn 


dipn 


raaipn 


dfcipn 


2/ 


^jiri 


"Eipn 


"iatfljci 


h 7b!aifj)n 


le. 


tqpK 


di;pK 


dkiptf 


dkipa 


Plur. 8 tn. 


wft 


taip? 


^ 1 'I?: 


Wfijr 


3/ 


nrapn 


rojipn 


rra?bipn 


niairipn 


2 m, 


%flpp] 


toipn 


toipn 


siMipFl 


2/ 


nr^pn 


fijEipn 


rafbipri 


nj^bipn 


lc. 


r B*a 


dip? 


ofe^j 


d7bip3 


Impbe. 2 rru 


d^lp 


dipri 


di?ip 




2/. 


T#)p 


■nafipri 


rbEij? 


wanting 


PZwr. 2 w. 


*ttp 


toipn 


sjfaalp 




2/ 


"?"# 


rmijbri 


rratip 




Part. -4c£. 


afe 




Dttfpt? 




Pom. 


D^lp 


dips 




BEipB 



98 



and Ayin Yodh Verbs, § 59, 



hiphil. 


HOPHAL. 


H1T1IPAEL. 


KAL. 


&i?n 


ujwn 


d^iprrj 




Ti'Tpri 


rrbj^n 


ni^ifjrin 


T T 


rti^pn 


(nafriri) 


nobipnn 


rnS wftn 


ma"T?>7 


(3RMf*l) 


nytiprri 


rnnS 


tyi»T?ii 


(•wafevi) 


TOotripwn 


tnaj wiirn 


^ h pn 


rifpiin 


^bfciprri 


ton to^ 

T • 


oini^n 


(efeapiji) 


Dtegrtpwi 


Qnrri 


■ftftaTpn 


(l^JB*?) 


■jfebnipwi 


•jtfin 


**3T?n 


(rafe*i) 


«afaipW7 


^ 


&P0 






nin an 


&T?0 




diipnri 


i*n 


*n?: 


Sfesp 


diriprp 


• T 


D^pn 


djton 


dbipnn 


• T 


dfri 


djton 


d^ipnn 


• T 


^T?s? 


rbf^F) 


rbaipnn 

• : m : • 


• • T 


tffc* 


dp^ia 


diipna 


• T 


«rfc 


ndpV 


^ipsn 1 ; 


• T 


rgaferi 


(nsnfettn) 


nrabipftn 


rwrnn 

t : •• t 


*rjbt) 


^pTi ■ 

': 1 


^j'jipnn 


to h nn 

• T 


njttfen 


(roag*m) 


njatfpftn 


nrrhp 

t : •• t 


&T?5 


dptt 


dtripw 


3*13 

• T 


*P0 




D/jipnn 


1 


"VfeO 


wanting 


^aa^rin 


^ 


^pn 




woi^n 


*n hi i 


rojpn 

t : » • t 




rijsiriprri • 


, (*&$. 


B"fe 




Dgipm 


3n 

T 




Bgtt 




n*n 


. - LofC 









XIV. Paradigm of Pe Yodh Verbs, § 58. 



i 


KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


KAJ- ' 


Peet. 3 m. 


— r 


a&is 


n^toin 


mr'nn 


1 

123 a h 


3/ 


t :it 




nn^iton 

T • 


nauton 

T : 1 


nib h 

t ; it 


2 m. 


roup 

t : — r 


t ; — 


nnunn 

t ; — 


FQTZ5TJ 

t : — 


t : — t 


2/ 


flair 

: : -T 


FaiDis 


naiznn 


naiton 


irwzr 


lc. 


Tiair 


Tnijia 


TimzJin 


TQiton 


• ; — t 


Pfttr. 3 c. 


I IT 




^ito'n 




: it 


2 TO. 


Droizr 


Draizfta 


Dnnutori 

v : — | 


Dnmiton 


OW??? 


2/ 


■pan* 


1 v : - i 


irauiin 


inni2ton 


l 1 ?^??: 


1 c. 


: — t 


Batift 


METI 


»©"*! 


: — t 


Infin. -ifooZ. 


niflr 

T 




m?in 




i2iia h 

T 


Constr. 


n 5^ 


"T • 


rriinn 


niton 


i 


Fut. 3 m. 


ate?. 


atbv 

•■T • 


n^v 


awv 


uii^ 


3/ 


ntin 


niton 

••T • 


a^in 


aiton 


tr:rn 


2 to. 


aten 


niton 

••T • 


aH&ta 


aiton 


isa-n 


2/. 


h atin 


outon 

• :it • 


h :ruto'n 


^nuton 


^ifern 


lc. 


^W. 


aitotf 

"T • 


rrizna 


nitoa 


ufe^ 


P^r. 3 to. 


SQtZT 


:it • 


12*WV 


qaio^ 
i 


: p 


3/. 


poaiin 


rmiton 

t : "T ■ 


nmb'in 

t : 


n:niton 

t : — 


t : — 


2 TO, 


iinirn 


tiuton 

:>t • 


^zra'in 


totton 


itbaTi 


2/. 


reawn 

t : — •• 


runiton 

t : "t * 


nsa&ifl 

t : •• 


roniton 

t ; — 


nrtirrn 


1 6. 


lift 


nitoD 

••T * 


n^ito'D 


atoa 


laii 


Tmper. 2 to. 


n, 4? 


niton 

"T • 


auton 




izjrr 


2/ 

PZwr. 2 to. 




canton 




wanting 




2/ 


mato 

t : •• 


raiton 

t : "T • 


ntoinn 

x : •• 




t : — : 


Part. Act. 


aip" 




ai&fa 




t&r 


Pass. 


a*iiir 

T 






aw*c: i 


iitoa h 

r 



100 



XV. 


Paradigm of Lamedh Aleph Verbs, § 60. 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIEL. 


niPHiL. 


H1THFAKL. 


Peet. 3 m. 


T T 


t ; • 


K&3 


»*&an 


a&arn 


3/ 


t : it 


nauas 

t : : • 


t : • 


h&rsan 

t • : • 


t : - : • 


2 m. 


tWt'2 

t t r 


t •• : • 


T •' • 


t •• : • 


na&ann 


2/ 


T T 


r *da? 


r»ka 


rxiriin 


nakarti 


lc. 


t«ia 

T T 


^aiaj 


"t^kn 


t?»ian 


*n«kann 


Plur y 8 C. 


ttikTQ 


siteraa 


litii'n 


wxan 


^sarrj 


2 wt. 


t : 


t3Q«¥S? 


Dnaasra 


Dr^sari 


Din asm? 


2/ 


■pnaxa 


l^sraa 


"l^sta 


1'n»SBii 


^asanfi 


1 c. 


T T 


"H^"I3 


ttaara 


^asari 


ttafcanri 


Infin. ^&*>Z. »iSa 


abb: 


ti&a 


X±T2t-{ 




tfo/wtfr 


a'±a 


.. T > 


&&q 


a^ian 


assanri 


Fut. 3 m. 


t : • 


•• T • 


$V?1 


^2'T 


a&arr 


8/ 


t : • 


•• T • 


x&X) 


a^fcan 


»i*n 


2 m. 


t : • 


*dan 


$h2T\ 


ar&an 


akann 


2/. 


*&TQT) 


• : it • 


h haw 


^kan 


h *S»iFi 


lc. 


t : v 


•• T V 


a&aa 


*rkaa 


»San* 


PZwr. 3 w. 


*itoo? 


: it* 


*itepa; 


torsrr 


*»»; 


3/ 


t v : • 


T V T ' 


iijasjari 


ftsaian 


rcakanpi 

t v — : • 


2 m. 


*sfrri 


: it • 


man 


w&an 


^ann 


2/. 


t v ; • 


n:a:kftn 

T V T • 


masan 

t v — ; 


np«4pn 


rtasanp 


1 c. 


t : ■ 


•• T ■ 


«i?» 


adaa 


astan? 


Impbe. 2 m. 


t ; 


•• T • 


»?? 


8??i 


a&arn 


2/ 


■»«aa' 


\xsan 

• : it • 


"tapg 


^dan 


*»&ann 


PZw. 2 m. 


*ito 


: it • 


tytaEa 


w&an 


^smi 


2/ 


PDattla 

t v ; 


•m&Efi 


rasdje 


nssian 

t v : — 


r«KSann 


Pabt. J.c£. 


t&h 




asa?j 


ar&aa 

• j - 


akana 


Pass. 


Nrip 


t : • 









101 





XVI. 


Paradigm 


OF Lamldh 




KAL. 


NIPHAL. 


PIBL. 


Pbbt. 8 m. 

2 m. 
2/. 


nba 
nhba 

t : it 

rvSa 

T • T 

rria 

• T 




nba 
nhba 

T • • 

rvba 


1*. 


trba 


wXw 


tvSSa 


Phir. 3 c. 


*a 


&a 


^a 


2 m. 


dtvia 


Dtrb^ 


Divba 


2/ 
lc. 


• T 




■jirrba 

^irb'a 


Infin. ji&s<?Z. 


nSa 


rifto 


rtJa 


Gonstr. 


rtba 


rviSan 

T • 


ni^a 


Fut. 3 m. 


nSy 


nbV 


nbr 


8/ 


nSan 


nb'an 


nb'an 


2 m. 


nBatn 


nb'an 


nb'an 


2/ 


h ban 


^b'an 


■ton 


U 


n5aa 


nb'aa 


nba» 


Pfar. 8 m. 


6r 


6a: 


«b< 


8/ 
2 m. 


ra^an 


JT!?an 
T *an 


nrban 
Yban 


2/ 


nrfan 


nrb'an 


wVan 


1 c. 

1 


nba? 


V T • 


nbto 


rMPBE. 2 W. 


nba 


nban 


nb'a 


2/ 


-Si 


^ban 


<b'a 


Pfar. 2 m. 


«« 


i.tUi_ 


^a 


>/ 


re* 

t v ; 


rtrffen 

T V T • 


nrb'a 

T V — 


Pabt. Act. 


nba 




n^:p 


Pass. 


T 


nSaj 





02 



He Verbs, § 61. 






J 


PUAL. 


HIPHIL. 


HOPHAL. 


1 

H1THPAEL. 


nfc 


n&n 


ti&ti 


nftnn 


rtfta 


nrte 


titbjn 


nribsnn 


T •• \ 


t • : • 


rrfton 

t •• : t 

rr&n 


rrbsrin 

t • — : • 

rrb'snn 


wH& 


w!£n 


irXn 


tv^srin 


0& 


fen 


fen 


$snn 


Bh^a 


Dfrban 


sfr&P 


oh^ann 


wVa 




•jirbn 

"IT 


■jirbarin 




nb'?n 

ni&n 


nb'an 
(n%) 


(rtftwj) 


nSr 


nftr 


n&" 


nVar 


n&n 


nSffi 


nb'an 


n&nn 


n&n . 


nbbn 


nSan 


nVr.nn 


-ftn 


•*fej 


-San 


h Varin 


¥\ -: 

■A- 


v ; — 


fe 


¥arr- 


t v \ : 

$am 


T fen 


rtrbbti 

t v : t 

6an 


nrb'ann 

t v — : * 


rsrVan 

tv\: 


v : — 


t v : t 


n&ns 

v — : • 




nbVi • 




nVann 


wanting 


*i 


wanting 


-&W1 








»&W1 




T V i — 




TV—? • 




n&a 




n&tta 






v : t 





103 



XVII. Declension of Nouns, §§ 44— 17. 



I. Nouns which suffer a change in the vowels only. 
i. With Kamets or Tsere in the penult. 



Sing. Abs. "jil^ master Const T\*]& 


Pl. Jfo. d*>51$ 


Cows* "> JlJfc 


p'nST memorial -pi?T 


tl^t 


^t 


•pbfa interpreter Y^i)2 


d*>$\bfr 


"Tfo 


Masc bilS great Fern. fibl'lii 


M«6-c d^ii? 


*&»• niSii? 


b^tDp r KaL pass, part H^ftf? 


d^itog 


ni^Djj 



ii. With Tsere in the ultimate. 

a. Monosyllables 

Sing. Abs. V^ tree. Cows*. V$ Pl. Abs. D^J Cows*. 155 

b. Polysyllables having pretonic Kamets in the penult. 

Sing. Abs-. 123 heavy Const 123 or 123 Pl. Abs. 2^23 Oows^. 1123 
ifasc. ID'? 1 dry .Fm. iTStEJj" 1 -Ma^c. d^ED** ^em. FntEQi 

r, Polysyllables having any other vowel than Kamets in the 
penult. 

Sing. Abs. ftpTffij judge. Const ft St© Pl. Abs. d* 1 ft 3123 Cowsfc "»ft|)tb 

il/asc. bftp KaL Act. part. Fern, fibftp or fib ftp Masc - d\bft*p Fern, £"lib t5p 

bftpfc Piel part. H^pJ? or tlbftpj? d^bftpft tVlbftpfa 





iii. 


With Kamets in 


the ultimate. 




9 rag. JZte 

I 


til fish 




Const 31 


PL. ^&S. d^l 

• T 


Const 1^1 


1 


'D'lPfa sanctuary 
t): • 


tfipfc 




dipipft 


^TRS 


1 


121 word 




"O? 




d^idi 


''151 




■p9 cloud 




15? : 




d^^ 

* T -.• 


^EJ? 




22b near * 




Mb 




d^22b 

• t : 


^22b 


Masc. 


din wise 

1 T 




t t -: 


Masc 


• T |-« 


Fem. m'fa2n 




bftp>5 Ni P k 


part 


nbftp>rnbtop? 


irbftp: 


nibftp? 



104 



XVII. 


Declension of Nouns, §§ 44- 


47. 




iv. With final n,.. 






1 1 

Sora. Abs. <n#T\72 appearance Const. H&Ofa P L - Abs 


trsrya 


Cows*, i^ld 


n ?R reed 


nip 


*?]? 


; ? 


Masc, HS 1 fair 
1 


Jem. FIET ifasc. d^SH 

T T . T 


T 




v. Segholates. 






i 
, SisG„ Abs ;j3ft king 


Cons*. Tjbfa Pl 4&S. 


d"»5ba 


Cons*, i^bd 


*liTlD covert 

i 


^pp 


d*nr«p 


?itw 


Dj£3f strength 


djpi 


D*dX* 

■ t t: 


■• : t 


by 2 lord 


b?? 


d^d 

T I 


s P?3i 


i 
J11>2 death 


mi 


d*m& 


*Erid 


i 

"M eye 


ni^ Dual. 


dW 


*.?? 


bjg foat 


**? 


d?bpn 


1&1 


^» ear 


1$* 


d 1 ?.^ 




II. Nouns which double their final consonant. 


3isa. -A&S. bd5 camel 


?^w»s#. bilk p^ ^- 


d^dj 


C0W5*. \bd5j 


T 1 ^ garden 


Y» 


d^| 


n 53 


i 
pn statute 


j?n 


d^pn 


TW 


ntf tooth 


It!) Dual. 


taib" 


n ?P 


1 

Masc. ^tOp smaU 


Fern. HStOp Pl - ^*c 


■ d^rpp 


Fern. £Ti5dp : 


p73^ deep 


^t^?: 


d^pd? 


mpd? s 


46s. 1*155? Hebrew ( 


^«&ti-j53?PL.^65. d^-p? ortpids 


Cons*. "iVQ2 


• 
Masc **>d fresh 


few. n*HtO^' sc - 

t • : 


d^nt} 


,^w. tii'Hd 


III. ^A^ ncrnns suffer no change. 




Binc*. 4b«.tf",)3bd garment 


Ooiwfc tl^dbfaPL^&s. 13" 


ttfoajd <">** n i^dbd 


Ifose. did g°°d 


1 

Fern, fjdid -Masc- 

T 


d^nit: ^w. mind 


f ^ipa Hiph. part, nb^ppfr or inbdpft 


d^bitppd 


m^dpjd 



105 



XVII. Declension of Nouns, §§ 44-47 

lS T ouns with the feminine ending H T . 
i. With Kamets or Tsere in the penult. 

Sing am. rOT fisb Const £-|!n Pl. ^bs. tTfirl Contt. ft-TH 

"i" t - : T : 

HfrDD vengeance £HfcD5 triEDD m'fcDS 

tj t : - | : • It : I: • 

ns? oounse. ni* rrii* nxs 

nib up nsb ^ual. D^sb ^isfc i 

t t - : • - t : ' • : ■ 

ii. From Segholates. 



Sum. Abs. 713573 queen 
nifiD covert 
Hfa^ strength 



cant rtsbfa pl. Abs. niDb£ const rrtobB 



m'-ina 



T T 



trhriD 



rnno 

All others. 

^15 pl. ^ m'35 

Nouns with the feminine ending in. 

Snra.J&s-fin^tD^ observance Co wtf.rntt'© fa Pl. ^s- FTP ft tD ft &>»** fiY"|ftt2)ft 



111 

Sing, 45s. Xttx garden Cons 
nS^ttlP salvation 



Const. nl55 



tlpjl" 1 sucker 


^i??" 1 " 1 


nipjr 


nipDT 


nbstba skuii 


Fibabs 

: \ 


nib?bi 


nib^bs 

: : \ 


ETH^^ Hebrew-woman 


rrnn:? 


ni^.n? 


m'^.3? 


tn^DbTD kingdom 


rrabft 




rrtabft 



106 






XVIII. Paradigm of 


N( 


3UNS WITH 


Suffixes, 


* 


49. 






! 


JlNGULAE. 








1 


heart Zbb 

T" 


kin£ 


; ^b 


queen M3bp 


hand "T t 

T 1 


Canst, 




anb 




*i 




-j - 




Tl 


Sing. 1 c. my 


« 


■6=b 

• t : 


u 


ib-j 


it 


"frfiba 


tt 


•T 


2 m. thy 


u 


? : it: 


u 


*$5 


u 


fafe 


tt 


fe 


a/, thy 


u 


^ 


a 


^?b-j 


tt 


#&l 


" 


'Tic 


8 m. his 


t< 


iiab 


a 


iiba 


u 


ih|b"j 


« 




3/ her 


u 


t t : 


a 


ftbba 

t : — 


u 


nhsb- 

t t : — 


tt 


Tt 


Plur, 1 c. our 


u 


•• t : 


a 


^0 


u 


*oroba 


tt 


tor 

••T 


2 m. your 


u 


D?3=b 


u 


Qi?b"j 


« 


Direba 


41 


d5t 


2/. your 


u 


iteS 


a 


-pib'Q 


u 


lif?ba 


tt 


iS 


3 m. their 


(( 


ai=b 

f t : 


it 


D^b-j 

t : — 


" 


DhsbB 

t t : — 


14 


TT 


g/. their 


u 


p=b 

1 t t ; 


a 
P] 


#3 

..UBAL. 


u 


ihsiia 

1 tt: - 


it 

D 


ITT 

UAL. 


hearts tTZDb 

• t : 


kings D"6b7J 


queens r^D^T 


hands D^T 1 

• — T 


(70?w£. 




^ipb 




'^bfc 




rvbb/j 




T 


Sz"»0» 1 c. my 


(I 


■unb 

— r : 


u 


h 5b^ 

— t ; 


u 


"frbbE 


(I 


— T 


2 wi. thy 


M 


T3?*? 


» 


J vt : 


u 


^fybba 


«' 


Tt 


2/. thy 


u 


t^iob 


u 


T^? 


a 


iphisbti 


U 


^tf: 


3 w. his 


(( 


t t : 


a 


riba 

tt : 


tt 


vfrtob-j 

t : — 


U 


TT 


8/. her 


" 


tri± 

t v t : 


a 


rriba 

t v t : 


a 


O^^S 


tt 


T VT 


Plur. 1 c. our 


u 


sirisb 

•• t : 


" 


wbba 

•• t : 


a 


^riybb^ 


a 


••T 


2 w. your 


a 


H5"=pb 


tt 


°i'?b^ 


u 


triirytoba 


a 


d ^T 


2/. your 


u 


]T^T? 


u 


T?" 1 ??^ 


tt 


■rni^ 


it 


T3T 


8 w. their 


a 


Q>7?^ 


a 


ttjsb'j 


a 


DH^bb/3 


(I 


B!?T 


8/ their 


(t 


#=¥?>' 


tt 


1^5^ 


tt 


■KrrtYbbti 

I v •• i : — 


« 


ITT 

1 t -; 



107 







XIX, Numerals 


, §65. 








Cardinals. 








Masculine. 


Feminin 1 




Absol. 


Gonstr 


Absol. 


{7<m8ir, 


One 


"TO 

T V 


ihx 


nnN 


nn« 


Two 


rrsra 


-»bu5 


Djtjtf 


h n\a 


Three 


t : 


ntiSti 

v ; 


xfliti 

T 


iriSti 


Four 


t t : — 


wgna 


sj™ 


3?3^ 


Fiye 


rrBan 

t • -: 


n $£j 


•■ T 


*35 


Six 


rrfchD 

T • 


rngifi 


■qKd 


^ 


Seven 


t : • 


ninti 


^nti 


sitf 


Eight 


t : 


nibti 


nibia 


hjtotf 


Nme 


t : • 


n?T?n 


3?izJih 


y^ri 


Ten 


t t -: 


rnbj 


"fej> 

V V 


v v 


Eleven 


V 








Twelve 


1 


"lib 5 

T T 

v r 


trio 






Thirteen 


nibs? 

T T 


rra&«5 

t : 


»"™? 


ib5td 


Fourteen 


T T 


t t : — 


rrtto? 


Esna 


Fifteen 


T T 


nfen 


fi^?? 


izHjn 


Sixteen 


T T 


T • 


•r™? 


uii; 


Seventeen 


ib? 

T T 


t : • 


ny®y 


rfiri 


Eighteen 


ib? 

T 1 


nitoaS 

t : 


■flto 


njtatf 


Nineteen 


ibs> 

T T 


t ; • 


fi^i?? 


— t 


Twenty 


ffntaj Sixty D^fettJ 


One hundred 


n ^ 


Thirty 


D^btf Seventy D^jtJ? 


Two hundred 


T 


Forty 


a^an« e 

• t : - 


ighty D^bfc 


One thousand 


# 


Fifty 


D^fen Ninety D^Ett 


Ten thousand 


irth 






Ordinals. 






First 


•p'fc&n Fifth ^""pq 


Eighth ^fc« 


Second 


^tt? Sixtn *w 


Ninth ^©rj 


Third 


i©^bl» Seventh ^W 


Tenth -n 


■ty? 


Fourth 


•£w 











108 



XX. Consecution of Accent, $20. 



Primary 

Sections. 


OB 

II 

So 

09 

ft 


d 

H 

► 
E 

o 

S5 

ft 

O 

o 




. 

03 
W 

O 
t) 

S5 

C 


is 

So 

P 


u 

s 

o 
O 


63 

(5 


«D 

g 

B 

o 

1 

ft 

s 


• 

1 


J 




,U 


» 


,o\S 


.'(") 


X)(j- 


A 


J 






A 


,X) 


cv> 


> << 

,00 


SE00NDA3T 

Suctions. 






: 


J J 




.O'CV 






a 
















• 


*M) 














H 


' a j .J .J 












1 












1 








j Sections. 


i 










^>» 


(^ * j J j J ' 



The accents in parenthesis are liable to be substituted for those that pre 

,/ede them. Thus in the train of Silhik or Athnahh occupying the uppes 
horizontal line of the table, if T'bhir is preceded by one Conjunctive, it will 
be Darga or Merka ; if by two, the second will be Kadhma or Muuabh ; if 
oy three, the third will be T'lisha K'tanna. 

109 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW 



1. The Prefixed Particles, §§ 24-28. 

In the earlier reading lessons the accents will be but sparingly employed. Thi 
tone syllable will be marked when it is not the ultimate ; and an occasional disjunc- 
tive will be inserted when it is needed as a sign of interpunction or to account foi 
a pausal form, § 19. 

: n^nn^i 07a : rrana i? d-jx-q : d? -j? d;e j rrooi n?aa 
sq'oyiarn rnjrn tfnran iD^fcrarrpa onb :nia abi -p»n 
-^a-a j a^a nto onbi -ijjaa "to arte : nj?a 1$ anjna 
tnb^ba -n«b d^didi rn^ Di*a "nab Mi taiy 2 ? 



2. The Personal Pronouns, § 29. 

Remark 1. The predicate of a sentence may be directly 
connected with its subject without the verb to be, which 
must be supplied in English, nirp nnx thou (art) Jeho- 
vah ; or the pronoun ann of the third person may be used 
as a copula instead of the verb to be, which must be sub- 
stituted for it in translating, D^rfba *nn l^'m thou art God, 
see § 67. 

2. Property or possession is denoted by the prep, b to, 
belonging to, e. g. pan nimb he earth (belongs) to Jcho» 
vah, is Jehovali!s, 5]03n "h the silver is mine. 

3. The preposition pa is repeated before both the ob 
jects, between which the interval is indicated ?}3 H a* ^3 
between me and thee. 



112 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

t j t - • t • '."! 1 •• : • -: • t t : • -: 

TOfi : D1&W2 D^rfba awn nna tfbn ; p ifcrrb* nsw nra^a 
ctfta iinnn mnyn ibi qosn *<b ton ^b npan :nx DDb 

j Dbbb ann nix b&niz^ "pm ^a s *o:« 

T . . .. T . . I .. ... f 



3. Other Pronouns. § 30. 

Remark 4. When a demonstrative pronoun is joined to 
a noun as an attributive, it follows the noun and both 
receive the definite article, e. g. njn Di*n this day, ni^n 
&onn that day. When it is used as a predicate, the de- 
monstrative stands first and is without the article Di*n nt 
this is the day, § 71. 1. 

j n-jn ni*n n? j &nnn Dipttn : ri^aa nttjarbi s iV-iraa-bai an 
■»pa niK n^T j nsb itja pjfcin nsT : njn n^ibi na-n •pab 
^ j nirr ^ j fiarrbDn 15^3 "pa : p^n-by ntijx nm-bs pn* 
■nab : r\\$ man ma $ sjttj to : n£« ^ : nna to i D^rca ib 
pajn rra j *nn tcf^j? ia nritf ntg» oipftn; np,a njfc *>«i nn« 
D-i-jaa nroao nnrwa -pas n©8i b^iafc whm yds : an aon -ites 

- - V -:- - AT • I ¥ T T * -:- - - . . - T - ... - : T v -: 

: ^-warbai ■»$» T\b j pab nnnp 



4 Perfect Verbs. Kal Preterite and 
Infinitives. § 33. 

The verbal forms should be analyzed or divided into their significant elements , 
thus DF)Vaj? ye (m.) killed is composed of hi^ the ground form of the Kal prei. 
and Ett shortened from the 2 m. pi. pron. cn&t . 

Analyze and translate : — 
*bbp r .ttobfc ,V*p ,bt# ,nbt# ,*ag ,rtfe>g ,nn^p 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 115 

Remark 5. Both forms of fche infinitive may be used 
alone ; but the construct only is employed with preposi- 
tions, § 81. 2, Thus bfeb, ^$2 not Mftob, bitoja . 

Tipn^ 1 : rito nVjn-ruj s nisnb -rirn "tin ii&n nbnj rnrn 
C|o| ib ins jnistarrna wfettrab iqa ^pn^ :pn-i ana :n? 
Mitf tnimb ra« -pStn nhrnzj toa nbOT 2 -ab jntob d^ 

::-t t - t - ■ f v t t t:jt t t ; - t :• •■: 

-n*.am , aizj :nbxn a^bsn-bs by np^i nb^n rroo :rra>3 

-.•:-: v •• t ... - x - : <: -t : ■„• .• - : : - t v t - 

rfircn-ntf armarc j^mcib p-ik i JTOarrbs-na ^bra imn ai*r 

t - - v v : - : • : - t » v ■•• t : • - t v t v - 

:DDb am tihp ^2 

1 p3*^ is followed by 3 , the usual Hebrew phrase being to cleave or adhere in, 
where the English idiom requires to cleave to. Daghesh-f orte conjunctive in 3 . 
g 13. 4. 

2 bttJa is also followed by 3 , where our idiom requires to rule over. 



5. NlPHAL, PlEL, AND PuAL PRETERITES AND INFINI- 
TIVES, § 34. 

A figure following a verbal form indicates the number of times it is to be found 
in the paradigm. 

Analyze and translate : — 

, n rf?^P? , n ^l? 5 , lfe^?i?? j $?*>!?? ; ^bfap? , *ibap? , nbupa 

. anjbaps , bap? , btij^n 

, r6op , anbtap , bfcp , *obtbj? , nbrap , nbtbp , ^nbtap , ^nbcsp 
,1$W? ,*flf »#*P > n ^?P ,*f*)? ,(2)»p ,T$9P , %? 



Remark 6. The sign of the definite object n$ becomes 
riK before grave suffixes and nis before light suffixes, 
§ 66. 3, thus ^nis , Bins ; with the 3 m. s. suffix it is ¥i^ 
with 3 f. s. an'tf , § 29. 4. 

osn w^!p?i DDn« ^nsip iDD^sb pjfcn nms? nb^n? tfb 
•n« nbt?b !jthp -irebsma irvi-te nao :nim -o&r^ dwi 



114 LESSONS IN HEADING HEBREW. 

\2Wb ipyztii *\m fnan : n-jn nip^a DDns ^nsstt J fnsn 

])2fen-ns nnpb j^riis Qfi^p ab tanbsrc ^nk Jttn DDnaj 

: tyb ^3p3 : ins pn?tpf te^ritf^te-nKi ^Errnx ^™^ 

6. The Remaining Preterites and Infinitives. § 35 

.Analyze and translate : — 

isbfepnn , T-ibtopnn , i^bttpn , r\boj?n , Jibnbpn , ^bbpn , onbgpn 
, fepnn , (2) bbpn , b^ppn , ^nbbpn , ^upn ? nb-jpn , niojyn 

.(2) btbpnn , W?pn , bbpn 

Remark 7. The absolute infinitive is often joined with 
the finite tenses of the verb for the sake of emphasis, 
thus "totftjjn ti&pfi consecrating I have consecrated, i. e. 
I have certainly or entirely consecrated. 

fltojpn iTgag ^njiti qD3n"D3? nimb Ytt Tjb^n ic^jjn nnsrm 
qo?n-n« ^w'njyri oftpn : ^thjpnrrtfb \ ms -iibx D^ian-b^ 

sjbon :ib asnij n^pnb nana ff»rfc» 3 b^nrra Hflgft 1 jroabiaprna 
nrpnanj DDrix nbsizn njnn-riK odd "'nnbrcn 3 j n^b^n-b^ 

1 See § 26. 

2 Plural in form but singular in sense, and therefore taking a singular verb, 
§ 85. 3. 

3 Followed by the prep. 2 in the sense of sending upon or against. 

7. Kal Future, Imperative and Participles. § 36 

Analyze and translate : — 

, TOpn ,^i?*? , (2) npbtbpn , bbjr> , bbp: , (2) bbpn } *&q%* m 
.*op ,Wg ^rriflp ,bbp ,bbp , -<St?p ,^?tppn 

Remark 8. The article before a participle must some- 
times be rendered in English by the relative pronoun, 
e. g. ")3&n the (one) keeping or (he) wA<? is keeping. 



# LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 115 

9. When the sign of the definite object precedes the 

relative, it belongs not to it but to its antecedent under- 
stood, see § 30. 3 ; hence -IBS fitf means not whom or 
which, but him who or what equivalent to that which, 

anjrrS rro'a \ tiztin «^nn Di*:a \ pjfcrrtea brats wnj ^n qoii 
? rni^ itija nx *foto nirp nrcn ♦. via©? »b fib^bi ni* 1 j ^nnicp 
: yfosa pteh nirp : ii*xa iDte" nin? i n&wn njEttrrba-rrc nbujn 
c wbs kwj nyni j ito rwn -wn : ybsn *i»» j -pta -pra 
nptj ifcabft jdd3 bto'tti njrn D55 ^x : bfef'as-a'b tbtf'wa d^ot 

jh'binan fij©abn 12 



8. NlPHAL, PlEL AND PlJAL FUTURES, ETC. § 37. 

Analyze and translate : — 

> bhptf } (9) H?j?fi , -fyppn , i^pn , ft&bffl > bh$ri ; ^p: 
. (2) njbt?j?n , btbga , -tag* , 4tft ? , tftsgn , bt?r 

,(2)n^fej?n ,^p ,^fe£3 ,;*s0j ,*ty?pfi ,nj^aj? ,Wsp9 ,bfep 
. sAii^n , iStsp , ibrpp , bajj* , bijjj , (2) bfegr 

Kemark 10. The infinitive with or without the prepo- 
sition b maybe the subject of a sentence, as "rcajjnb Sjb sb 
to bum incense belongs not to thee or it is not for thee to 
hum incense. 

II. The antecedent of the relative pronoun may often 
hi 4 omitted, thus "itBNj »*n he is the one who or that is 
Uio thing which. 

! rnaa *ft6n t nnyr™ "fl&Ta'b n&#n J fr*wn WO TP ^^n 

■TOj?r.b ^b~sb • b&nter-ns tfogt) nin? i$8j ^ D?i#i *iyr; s *n|S 
sps^-o? ^rns ^b ittign i n . H pj>nb tftj£hj?£n sa^rfcb ^2 nirr6 



116 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW 

t nins>* him T|r& 2de nam *infc -&d« iss Tn^a : ud-qs 

t t ; • : - t •• • : ' : ~ - -s - - • s - t v t - 

9 a. Hiphil, Hophal, and Hithpael Futures, etc. 

§ 38- 

Analyze and translate : — 

,(2) hjbfepnn , bkpm ,(2) b*»ppr\ , ^tpppi , baps , b^pp? , iagrin 
, b^pptt ? bppa , b&pnn , ^ibapnn , ^bnppn , robbpn , ^ibpp; 

. bfepnr 

mi two) i^aba D^nbn tDTbttmpa onb D?b Tp^ 15$ 
nnsn :n : jh mirmj w^ : ^pnn nn? ntrrgm corpn 
Tax ro s abiy ny njn n?an d^ ion rrnprrab : ^vptrn 
-by inb5 *o\Mr shwotoj "prate njh DipBh-pa matefc^Dba rtir\^ 
-bs nx nrx mniwah jnimb nba irnpn »"b :b$nto?-b| 
■ospb npysrr h^tps mn Diparrna sorea dtitoe *rHK#8 

: him 

9 6. The Entire Paradigm of bpp. 

The figures denote, as before, the number of places in the paradigm repre- 
sented by the preceding form. 

Supply the vowels and translate : — 

; (2) ib>t2pr , tinbttpD , (2) nsbup , (5) ^bupn , (3) inbt>p 
, (2) biup , (2) nbtopnn , rwbopnn , iDbtopnn , bnap-i ? (4) nbapn 
7 (4) btopnn ,bt3prn ,(8) bttpn ,(2) anbtopn , b^ps , nbapn 
; (10)bi:pn ,(3) ffibop ,(12) habttph ^b-jpn , nb-rjpn ,ibP«opp 
(2) bt:pnn ,bnapa , nbtspnn ,(2) ib^pn ,(3) b-jpr 
,(5) bupx ,(5) ibtop , hbt>p2 ,(2) Vttpn ,bn3po ,ibt:pnr 
,l^Hpn , bz:p™ ,bt3pn: ,(5) ibupn ,(2) nb-jpD , ->b^pn ,bopr* 
(7) bwpD , (5) bap^ , (3) Tibttp , nbups , (2) hibttph . onb-jpnr, 
,(2) ibtsp , "»nbt3p3 ,(2) i5bttpn ,(2) nbapnn ,(2) nsbopnr. 
,(2) inbttpn > *«Bpn ,(5) nbopi .(6) nbep ,jnbtaps 



LESSON'S IN" READING HEBREW. 117 

(8) srirap ,(2) ^nbupn , i5bt:p: ,(3) nbof) ,(n) btsp ,*oprr 

. ^btapnn , "jnbttpnn ,(2) b^-jpn , Nuprin ,^nbt:pnp 



10. Paragogic and Apocopated Future and Impera- 
tive and Vav Conversive, §§ 40, 41. . 

Remark 12. When a future with Vav Conversive is pre- 
ceded by a preterite or by any expression referring tc 
past time, it is to be translated as a preterite. And 
a preterite with Vav Conversive preceded by a future, 
an imperative or any expression indicating future time, is 
to be translated as a future, § 79. 

13. rib is the simple negative; ba is used with the 
future, which takes the apocopated form if it has one, to 
express the negative imperative Tipn a'b thou slialt not 
deliver , lion ba deliver not. 

nim ntttpi y-q ins- nim :nnhrrb» i^n paim n^n iron 

T : .. . - - T T J - T T - -.• V - •• T - r - ; • - T - T • IT 

• t : - ■•• - : : t - r. . - - ... - T _ . . T | ... T T - T T 

a^jn n|bBn rtttfrn njj9t p?T*i naki pto atab*i ib ^tjs 
fotrvn nban D^ian-nx nirr rrnai : bap »Vi wra-nx fchabnb 

t : - it t v •■ t • - ■•• t : T- •■»• : - : : r :• • : - : 

c?B3 ins nsrni i|Oi3n-b» ^npn fina-na fpa? ^^ Dr ?^ 
p«rrr« nnpbi nsiten-na rinarns rittabm o^an-na nnpbi 

i ■-■ v - v t : »- rr : \ - v ' *: - ■•■ t : - : • : • t : - •„• t j f- it 3 



1 1. Preterites of Perfect Verbs with Suffixes, § 42. 

a. Third person masc. and fern. sing, of the Kal Pre- 
terite. 

The forms should be analyzed or divided into their significant elements, and 
their separate equivalents stated; thus ibisp he MUed him is composed of b^|5 
S masc. sing. pret. and S foi yn suffix of 8 masc. sing, with vowel of union 



IIS LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

( t ), and is equivalent to ink bb$ ; fifrB-jp she killed her is for nnita^ 
which is composed of nSaj? 3 fern. sing-, pret. , whose termination becomes r 
before suffixes, and n suffix of 3 fern, sing*., and is equivalent to PTDK fib'tSp . 

Analyze and translate : — 
} *fjtig ,^t# /ftStig jjjtejp ? i5bpj? ,D5op ,^PJ? ? ifej? 

. DDbttJ? ,]btf ? T]^ 

jn^-ojp ,DD!nbi2!p ^Sap ,-«n5ttp , ^nbop , bnSoj? ,n$?B|? 

-.*»?&W? ,#*«? ,^1? ,.TOJW 

£. The rest of the Kal Preterite. 
Analyze and translate : — 

,tpfit3£ , 0^t?j? ,^%j? ,**&]? ,1*?)? , O^P , ^?P 

, Di^btop ;*irttsbtt|j ,B*fibBj? ,.$p6bttjp ,^'Vi? , D ?*91? >t3^P 

. rnibftj? 

, °^bttp , (2) D n r)bt2]p , -rpFibttjp , *fi*i*ftttj? , wnbttg , inbtop 
,(2)T*btfp .,(2) T^I? >wj*gp ,/>ttfrbt3p , ^nbttg ,tahbof 
,?Tinb&p, ^nbtjp ,nnbttjp , wibtaj? ,1Jnbt2j? ,^nbt:p ,tpnbo)? 
. i^nb^j? , D^nbtsp , (2) *wnWp, (2) rnnbtoj? , Wftbtsg 

* This form belongs to the first person of the preterite as well as to the second 
feminine, although for the sake of brevity it is not repeated in the paradigm. 

c. The Piel and Hiphil Preterites. 

Remark 14. When a verb is doubly transitive, eithei 
object if a pronoun may be suffixed to the verb, thus 
i^tp^ri means either he caused him to hill or he caused 
to kill him; fibre Dnii&abn thou hast caused them to put 
on tunics, but "flybarna Dl-rtjabn thou hast caused Eleazai 
to put them on. 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 1 19 

Analyze and translate : — 

, vfiippn , (2) v^tsjjn , ^^ppn , niribtbjjn , ^apn 

,inbi:pn , (2) p'f^gfl , ™^PI? n , ^bupn ,ini^p)n 
■jinnbBp , onbrop , opbtop , Qsnbtpp , D*,Sbap , "piribap , ttftsp 

. (2) crabtap , nfep 

, TV*$on , *pn$3pn , imfrjp , iriufrp , Dnrc^p , nijbstt , n^nibstt 
. spnarin , onagri , (2) vn^Dn , tprhDn 

nx fan crib new. ; nnb ib * w-yg ftftpbi dk 3 ns fib pa 
wi'n i»« bro ?)^po^ Spa* "oba nan : tfbftn ib^ llga 8 "^ 
crinbi o^isa fnni t&|b? tFijan : tjbsT»i r»;ni ayj ^nnSiB \ ^b 
■nnuhbn : d^ijan ^fepa-bri ; ithpi nararrby fnji D^jn -jti npbi 
irw rnitt -nobd 3 ^b Dnbtfnn nna : ttirjg^ri n-anb^n : nipon 

1 Jb himself, there being no reflexive pronouns in Hebrew, the personal pro- 
aouns may be used with a reflexive sense. 

2 Used adverbially, 7ww. 3 See § 30. 3. 4 § See 23. 3. 



12. Futures, etc., of Perfect Verbs with Suffixes, 

§ 42 
a. Kal Future. 

Remark 15. Those forms in the Kal future 6 which 
end with the last radical follow the analogy of bbp^ . 

In the Kal future and imperative a the vowel of the 
second radical is not liable to rejection, but is lengthened 
to Kamets before all the suffixes except the 2 pers. plur. 
where Pattahh is retained, e. g. ^ttbt^ not ^Obitf? from 
rhvfl , and ^nbrc from fib© . 

16. Those forms in the various futures and imperatives 
which have personal endings undergo no change before 
suffixes, except in the fern. plur. as stated in § 42. 2. 



120 LESSONS m READING HEBREW. 

Analyze and translate : — 

. fibajp , jb-jp? , nfep? , nbtpj^ , Dibtpp? , Tjbtijp? , nbtp]^ 

v (2) ^btppn , (2) n|ta]?Pi , ^btajpn ,(4) ^Stpjpri , ofejM ^nb'zppa 
. (2) "flfegfo , ;#?]?? , nsJ-Djpp , t]rpipp« , n?b"jpa 

, *pboj?n , (3) ^imbippn 1 , ^Jtapfi , oibtpp^ , ^bi^ , rnbpp? 

. ]^bt>pn , rnbpp? , DD^ibp^ , ^Sapp 

1 See §42. 2. 

-nan ^tjarrttj tftpji s Jfttt ^Jflo} »b 13 ^bferrba »j-*ta'i 

trvaiDft nin^-nns ; niwn rrabtea to'Errn : nniw n^izn 

..... T . T _ t v i I: - t : : • - •• t : • - _.-...- 

sb *pb*n ponsrari n|«-D| ft J? mg« bwn n»K rorcnn i obiyb 

- : t - •• at t • ' : t : t : \ * i ' - • : — 1 •• t : -.- 

Ipte'is nitf*n 2 SfbiasrbK nnb^n nnjni qoin-b^-n^ npb : obi? 

1 Translate the future with vav conversive in these and subsequent exercises 
*s though a preterite preceded. 
? See Remark 8. 

b. Piel and Hiphil Futures. 

Remark 17. In those forms of the Piel future, which 
end with the last radical, Tsere is shortened or rejected 
before suffixes as in the 3 masc. sing, of the Piel preterite. 

18. Tsere in the Hiphil apocopated future, future with 
Vav Conversive, and imperative becomes Hhirik before 
suffixes, e. g. tinrc'r-rba desfroy not, ^ftrrra'r-rba destroy hvm 
(or it) not. 

Analyze and translate : — 

, ibbapa , ]?tpp^ , ^Sapn , wnftsgj , (2) obtapp , abbrsp? 
. nb^pa , i?*n3)?3 , ^t?p? , (4) ^ppn , (3) Q^baps 



LESSOJNS 1JN KEADING HEBKEW. 121 

lopb ysur niEs; rvnatrna nst^ abi T^nur ab riirp nttri 
; "pan-ban Tib^ttm ^n-ii-^n -nm ^inm astern ^ tthafcrra 

F v rr t t • : : - : t r i t : ■••::■ • •« t 

-ntenb? j^nb&n Dfian spwrjaj :b&nirn-b? inipbtt*] ins npb 

0. Infinitive and Imperative. 

Kemaek 19. The suffix of the 1 pers. sing, is attached 
to the infinitive in two forms, i expressing the subject 
of the verb ^Sag my killing and ^ its object ^btpp to Mil 
me. The remaining persons have but one form, which is 
used indifferently for the subject or the object, *lbt:jj thy 
hilling or to Mil thee, ^tppn thy causing to Mil, to cause 
thee to Mil or to cause to Mil thee. 

Analyze and translate : — 

,$ag , in&pjj , ^1? ,*&!? ,(2)"w5t»g ,djtsg jojtfc ,.D?teg 

, ^Hpp , Ttfbpp , }nbttp . 7]bt)p , ibup , nbbp ? }bttp , (2) ^bpp 

,a^tpg ? Dbtpp ,c^?j? ,oibDp , *n%p , nbbp ,(2)' , bifp 1 
sni^opn , DDb^ppn , (2)^jte?l?n , rnbag , nbrap ,(2)^?fcp 

. ib^pn , i^tppn , "^tipn 2 , ^ppn 

1 Of the two forms here represented one has a suffix, the other has not. 

2 Notice the position of the accent.. 

.(2)^1? ^rbw ^rbtb ,^nb© , dSek ,T™? , ^^ ^iW 

:t ? t-t 5 ':t: J •• : t 7 T S r 

Remake 20. The copulative 1 is sometimes employed in 
Hebrew to connect an action with the time of its occur- 
rence, where no connective is required in English. In 
such cases we may use then as its equivalent or bettei 
still leave it untranslated. Thus in my gathering Israel 



122 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW 

an •lniBfejjpjn then shall I be sanctified in them or when 1 
gather Israel, I shall, etc.. § 89. 2 (2). 

nny jib Dinn^a 1 mm wai§?3 J ^ ^1? Q?n ^^ 
jirmanb mn D'iMarrba mil fina j b*niEr» na5 as ij'iso 
-ha ^aga « D^nan-pa ^4ag i«in npa innima tons tim 

■gab ■TOfcFib W n 51?Q^ fW bna?} t itt^£b ins ngajs : 055 

:rvim 

t ; 

1 The initial aspirate has Daghesh-lene as though the preceding word wer« 
igHjR § 23. 3. 

e The accent would be thrown upon the ultimate by Vav Conversive, § 17. 6, 
but for the fallowing monosyllable, § 18. 



13. Gender and Number op Nouns, §§ 43-45. 

Remark 21. Attributive or qualifying adjectives fol- 
low the noun to which they belong, and agree with it not 
only in gender and number but also in definiteness, that 
is to say, they receive the article if the noun is definite, 
njfaa )2& a great stone, nbinsn faftn the great stone. § 70. 2. 

22. When a demonstrative and an adjective qualify 
the same noun the demonstrative stands last T$hiy\ snftkr* 
n^an these great signs, § 71. 2. 

23. Predicate adjectives do not receive the article even 
though the noun is definite ; their usual place is before 
the noun, but they may also stand after it l^kn ribiia or 
nVhf inxn the stone is great, § 70. 3. 

24. Comparison is expressed by the preposition fa 
§ 72. 1, ifbto nit2j^n rjhins thy sister young from thee, i. e. 
younger than thou; jafc b*ti» I will be greater than thou 

mm Itrt+q Drofeaaa n^an D^ia tntthn f^ji 1 ffwn o?fe» 
ntotsg d^k&ji irntfjn rrabto n^n-by nVrj ja$m mjtea "in? 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 123 

onan «obtj *im ffobtarj r§& nto niyi niinni ito rn'afc 
T|"i ma-by 2 JlDb'n^n erabfcrrts ns tbsnto;»b Sfbi-SfbE i»b 

DiT^y tpbrcn nin^i :n^n nbran nmrrbs n» sirf# 8 nirr 

•.. f. *; I • 5 • T I- - T : - T T T T " " T T 

to t^b "jinb nirrj *\m nnitsn fj»n ?D?£iBrrp2 nib^a mn» 

t^rrpa nbi^ aorn ytai nbina 

' Vowel of the noun assimilated to the preceding Kamets as after the article, 
g 35. 3. a. 
8 Upon what ground, i. e. for what reason, why. 
* Upon us or against us. 



14. The Construct State, §§ 46, 47. 

Remark 25. Nouns in the construct before a definite 
noun (including proper nouns) are themselves definite, 
§ 69. 1, Qij^tt a place, but T^SO Q T^? ^<? i?^<?<? tf/^Atf «ri; 
nirr> f-h&jj #A<? <^& (not an ark) of Jehovah. 

26. Nouns in the construct state do not receive the 
article ; they are rendered definite by prefixing the article 
to the governed noun, § 75. 5, D^'b^j tthtf a man of God, 
DTftan m* the man of God. 

t. IT t/ 

27. Adjectives or demonstratives qualifying a noun in 
the construct state do not follow it immediately, but are 
placed after the governed noun, § 75. 4, biisn rnrr> DY 1 
anisiii the great and dreadful day of Jehovah. 

28. When the subject consists of two or more nouns iu 
the singular connected by the conjunction and, the predi- 
cate is commonly put in the singular if it precedes the 
subject, and in the plural if it follows, § 86. 

tra ibs bb \ rrjnj rvns ^ha : banto? irtba fnx \ Mnsn •ws 
^^ D^n nin^b "jn td?irt&n insis jdwgrti trt^ri D^n'b^n 
iriaafo : ito *i? d'njrrj ^p?^_ ^p bpn : sa-n«»-bDi fifcn d^n 
?6fen bw :p»n *ib*3 m djrby ^rob^n nna : niton n*n 

, ._ v v i • ■ - • % • •• ; • ■ T - » | V T T •• •. - 



124 LESSONS IN BEADING HEBEEW. 

"ma 1 bbfc pieitt rvnro nsnsn r&aa nit: abn j niis ^o Ta on» 

j it t : v t 1 - j * -: e ■• t : • 

■»^p fii»a 23. 1. 
1 The construct of d^E , a reduplication of the more usual form ">a . 



" 15. Nouns with Suffixes, § 49. 

Remabk 29. The prepositions *in» after, "btf to, b$ 
upon and a few others take the suffixes belonging to 
plural nouns, §66. 2, e. g. 'HftK not "HinK cj^t* m& 

30 The article before di^ 6^ limits it to the present, 
that which is now passing, Di*n to-day, § 68. 3. 

• • : v t - 1 »i t : • t : \ ; ; > t : • 

*\m inifcpBrrbrintf "jraan Taa i^nrj? ^WJ ni 3^ ^*?*1 
-ns awsfoM Dirrfbsrina nrifc d^ie-p df»k m»a n^ian oi» 3 -rn5 

•.•:-•: •• t J : : • ....... - : - T .. - ... ....... T ... 

Qfc?T5 r^T^? tfyift n ^ ^ n ^-? n .?n) s ^"0 BT?«TTE ffi?rc 
Mian ffna^n bs£ "ina w bsj ab ■© t»i»iprtMfi DDnnb-bsa 

1 s^attS may take a direct object, or as in this instance be followed by S 

5 See Lesson 4, note 1 ; also § 39. 3. » § 30. 3, 

4 The 3 plur. suf. with fern. plur. nouns may be either d or fin' 1 #i 

6 Upon the subject of, concerning. 

16. Pe Guttubal Vebbs, § 53. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of the per- 
fect verb bup : — 

- TPJ5 j ( 2 ) ^? , *?? 5 "ft'S 5 ^2 >( 2 ) ^9 ? D^iat 

. bifc , ioto , njptnn , pirn 

' t t -ti n 7tj-t:it "• - 7 "w- 7 • •« w 7 nit 



LESSONS IN BEADING HEBREW. 125 

Remark 31. When the subject consists of two nouns in 
the relation of the construct state, the predicate commonly 
agrees with the first as the principal noun ; but it niay 
agree with the second if this conveys the main idea. The 
latter is almost always the case when the first noun is 
5* e. g. D^isrrbD li&rp all the waters shall be turned. 

/ o T :iT" 

32. If a predicate refers to two words of different 
persons it will be put in the second in preference to the 
third, and in the first in preference to either of the others, 
§ 86. 3. 

33. Nouns are sometimes put in the construct state 
before a following clause, § 75. 3, as nt»K Dip}? the place 
which or where, etc. 

listen \ nirp spna *o nmnb nbbprrnN rjb Tprfbtf n^ trbrvn 
ih?j w«i ^pba JD'ib D^n-bD ^osrn :o^b rnjni.tyitmb qwrj 
: bbab is arpb? ntfta*i : DDna aVsji nirp-rw onnr? 5 rfjnj-na 
Dipias Drib b^s »b ^bftrrba D^barnihtf TQ»*n : Tan"*™ ^9^J3 
onb TaavnBijj aip^zi t^tb? ^ ninj nrifean ^jntoy-bs :rwrj 
xi p»i * b&nir^ irfba np\> b i : ^rrbs ^s onb ^va^ Dn&5 ^srsh 

•np -pan 

1 The future followed by 20 has the force of a petition or request. 
! State the form and meaning of both the K'ri and K'thibh, and which reading 
yields the more exact grammatical agreement. 



17. Ayin Guttural Verbs, § 54. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of bop :- 
6kjp ,*w .iajp ,^»3in ,^a ,ib»a ,nbaa ,(2)*m 

> -:rr- 7 -:rr : ) -.:• J • -.: • 7 -:it J • -:r- 7 -: ( - 7\ / -:it 

.rt&a ,5flS»i ,Dhb*to *bai\n ,bito ,(3)b^nn ,nba» ,i$Ka 

» »« t:it ) - -: i 7 v : - i 7 -:i : 7 - : 7\ / •■•»:• 7 * -a- 7 -:r 

we: ^rg ?^b ■jrt ^n'bi* nirp *ii»» fnfea nirp ^rin^i'-pa 
tpD*in , Q nrinsn ^i» Ftaan ri???^ ' ^b^rbs ■totdpt^n inyrrn** 



126 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

-ba-n« siyjht? ifjfcrrpa ^tt^ JW'barba «^» sjpsr?] tttyia 
■na nri^ : i dorian nn&*i t^ba-ba-riai narErrnai nirh r^a 

nntn pm s^b'a itia :ayn 



18. Lamedh Guttural Verbs, § 55. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of b&£ : — 
n'^n ,rvW:_,n$tf ,r^i»a ,n% ,rf?i»a ,r$to" ,rfb© , ftnbi? 

Remark 34. Nouns in the dual have verbs, adjectives, 
and pronouns agreeing with them in the plural, § 85. 7. 

pie© ftprria irtnt-na ant ^pin jba'ab nnbi ante anT ins 

t t - - : - ' n : - v - ; Jv •• t v ■.•:-- - - .• F -t 

**p5a W^?' nta} ^3 ftSi; J D7ab niarntt ani^tt : djrrba-ns 
aiBai bya ^rpalaHna np'b rnm Di*n *o wi^n itea maa*n 
aa-ba :tjb/Gn nia-ba npbn jnnaE ^na twi; ^aa da lEa*^ 
nfeb d^a>n *iabn tjibn nfca ?paaa laa ^ ->bK ffbra yafch 

... . •• t : it ' t : ':■.•--: •• - at " • -. I" - t ■ 

d^n^ ^2 nanjbsn 2 ra nates? nDib'a n>ib siib«*i ^i orr^ 
naaab na^np : 111 matt nabttBrrna anpa i nannsn diahn 3 ^aTai 

...... .J. T .. T T . _ _ „ -) : v T J - T • • : I" -it: 

j aa^a-b&r 

■np s-Dbtt 



1 The plural of 'Jllfit is often used, as it is here, in a singular 
' npB is applied specifically to opening' the eyes ; fir© is the general term foi 
spening, and is applied to anything whatever. 
* tti'nn is for ttSTifi and consequently does not lose its Tsere in the plural. 



19. Pe Hun Verbs, § 56. 
Translate and give the corresponding forms of bbja , 
,»'ia tfj , na»in , Pitjja ,wm , tfta ,n$j , (2) riia ,to* 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 127 

, tijjfn , *i« , rt&n , *i«Hi5 , aton , afr$tt , (2) fan , tt/^3 
,.(2) wiitfan ,-W>3.n , oi^ri , antehan , ^roari ,.inpi , nns 

.(8)wic^ri ^nipas ,n*ii5^ ,^T 

Remark 35. The relative is often omitted as in English 
•pnboan Eh 1 ? /fo^y I gave thee to eat for A<m^ which I 
gave, etc, § 88. 3. 

nrcn :ian«-n£0 iwn*n 'tarruji w ^-na *D;a wij 
-bxi t now*inp : ^rrn we nit: ^ ^ee ^*>rna amp ni'rp 

- : • • t ': rr - •• • • at • • : - x \- t : 

?jb inha nt»« ■nonb-riK ^njpni arnssb nnj h fHEp ^rca-ic : F)03 
biw pip nan ib rryiirnft : arpi&b tfrnroq sprtoan #371 
rrab 1 jnbxn a^anrrbs na tfbisb tjo Tan npan ni&rn? 
^b nnis npa 3 »in inhsj nnka n^b ain ^n^a 2 to *>b srarrtfb 
tern &wra nw to arnbsa : tonn ib-nan-ab nam : nisJab 

t-:- • - tj 1 t t : • .,.. - . _ ^ •••: t-: 

: -nbss-b« an« TQ^i 
iip -nam 

1 ny preceded by b is pointed rrcb before a guttural and rraB before othei 
consonants. 

2 The construct of hi»K is nttSK which, before suffixes, becomes ^flttJat etc. 
See § 50. 

20. Ayin Doubled Verbs, § 57. 

It is not easy to distinguish accurately the significations of the different species 
of SSb . For the present the usual sense of the passive and causative species 
may be retained, the Piel may be rendered to surround entirely, and even the 
unmeaning* surround one's telf may be tolerated in the Hithpael, which is not in 
actual use. 

Translate and give the corresponding fcrms of bap : 

. (2) abn , sfiiio , npaa , nap , tob , too , (3)ab , ap , niap 
, *oiaca , top"' , apn , npn ap? , nop , aba , apj , topr\ , ^isn 
. inioj ,(2) ^a?? **%?! > Q ^39 , ^ao , ^S? « n ?9J 
tobn , topn , top; , apE , niapn , ^iapn , ^niapn , naon 
•oioj , tfwp; ,aatoa , toaio , ap^in , apia , aba ., (2) njtocn 

, aap; , naab^ , ;[aabn ,(2) laaab* 



128 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

Remark 36. Singular predicates and pronouns are 
sometimes employed in a distributive sense of plural 
subjects, § 85. 6, tjvin T^S*? blessed is every one of thoss 
blessing thee. 

37. The conjunction ) may be used to introduce the 
apodosis or second member of a conditional sentence, 
§ 89. 1, if thou wilt not, etc., ^p^) then shall cleave to 
thee, etc. 

D?rrna nan ab \*\xv nan ^m :*jnn T?T)S^ w* *P7ft 
-b|-na ^ibrcb tpffba nirn bipa yarcn ab-ntf : a^n tjnn ^ 
nns wai wn nna "ins :n^n nibbgrrbs ^n 59^31 wta 
fiirn-b? bia ; rroftn ^s-ba nib^a D^na *ft5 -nj&n : rnto 
ninstfc na rar^i D^tiarrpa rmrp-na *™b bnn : ^rn 
: D^nir&Ttt-by ppto n^ro rri££?i pifii 1 *iai» o*n©am D"»b#nn 

rr : : • I - t • -: i :-:'-••: - • • •• -: it : • t : - 

bisn bis; ^j&b bsjb rri^nn nrca ip^a D^njn snitt d« 
ibanto?"^? w:n ^3 bna rwn Di*n fre&b 

i "PrV 1 &. e. Yodh superfluous ; according to the Masoretic direction, there- 
fore, it is to be neglected in reading the word. 

1 With Pattahh in the ultimate in place of Tsere. 



21. Pe Yodh Verbs, § 58. 
Translate and give the corresponding forms of bttp : 

, rrirb , nteii 9 hot , nrcis , nanfcn , njnte , ns , rttfc , nfe , mi?? 
, irn© , ©:p8 , sifcniia , »h* , ©ni , (2) w»in , Mhn , nfej; 

.^rqttfin jDizntfV' ,^=wia , DDFi^ia 

Remark 38. The interrogative n is employed in simple 
direct questions, n^nan shall Hive? in indirect questions 
Da is mc j usual; inquire ^rix dk whether 7 shall live. 

39. In a disjunctive question, direct or indirect, the 
first member is introduced by ri and the second by ns , 
e. </., tfb"Dtf WISE "^Enri to lit thou keep (or in depeudtnct 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 129 

on a previous verb, [to hnotv\ whether thou wilt keep) 
his commandments or not f 

n*a ttnaaa Wjjin ras omasi taS^nn-ra ninp origin 

i v „. T . • -: r ••• ": ' V " t v t : -n-t rr : ■ - •• vi 

■»» np\»i tab-aa itvott? nia^inn ^nnba ntwsrrra n:nb 2 na^TSp 
nna 4 m'm nn^a bsn ab ^ w nrnajn *pns 3 irfba-na sh 

t : - t : - : • • ■ : ■■ : t : ' • t v: 

*b jfian-bDa isto "pa is snn {nana ma bs> m'm nsn-m»a 
d?^3?i *^*T% ^%^vhx HD3-b? ai?? ^ sr^yri^ nnin 
nbsn D^mb?-™ mm tinim : Dmbr&rba *ob*3 nn>©^ 

i"ip l^msa ^p -pas 

1 Pret. with Vav Conversive. 2 § 52. 1. 3 § 50. 2. 4 § 48. 1. 

22. Ayin Vav and Ayin Yodh Verbs, § 59. 

The Piel of ta*ip means to raise : the Niphal, which is not in use, may in this 
exercise be rendered to be risen. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of bttp : 

, top? , Dnittijps , (2) nphyppi , vnp_ , wdp , (2) wp , (2) Dp 
, (3) toaip , wifclpa , Mips , rvaipp , Dip? , (2) Dip? , wi£; 
, wp , top , DBipts , (2) raatt'ipij ,(2) rrcofcipfi , (2) Dnttfcip 

. ^p , itep , top 

n^jbij , D^ptt , njfcjbft , ^htopn ,DJb*p ,D">p; ,-w$rj ,w£n 
, iritopn ? (2) ^n , (3) a*n , wi; , wa 1 ^ , ^ , okipm 

.(2) ^top? , stop? , rtB-ipia 

.Remark 40. When the predicate precedes its subject, 
it sometimes prefers a primary to a secondary form, that 
is to say, it may be put in the masculine instead of the 
feminine and in the singular instead of the plural, § 55. 1. 

41. The conjunction "J may be emphatically used be- 
tween a noun placed absolutely and the clause to which 
it relates § 89. 2, the blessing HJPO} it shall even bi 
given, etc. 

e* 



130 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

42. A present action conceived of as unfinished and 
continuing in the future is expressed by the future tense, 
§ 78. 2, tfinn "pat whence art thou coming? the action 
being regarded as still continuing, whereas in Df)tf2 -p&g 
whence have you come ? the action is viewed as at an end. 

3#h *te-^ D i?t5 : ^^? ^ ^ n ^ : *??£*? ni ?$ t^ ^*n ^ 

^Tn&tf'i ^e? 'oba nan nsrmpb nrotjn tpnirrn 1 p\» : i-aip-ab 
T?n ^ara^-ba «inb»*i : n&n mjarrba sphhtgnj sjbn— itja 2 bin 
-bx jrvflab w^ 1 *imp s i tnini rnarna D^nrcb& ^inton nbab 

t • t •• : : J; • - t : 1 —. • : • : • •• 

1»8[5 irtba sprftK) ^y tfB? *p5K *>pbn icmsi *$« ^EHUft** 
nrninn nrw :«inr\ ■p»*n #?n njs i^njsa Din r™« vrcto 

ibsna D^nn^n D^ab ronsi wab ^nnstt *onn n«» nwn 

.. . - . .._.._ • t : - t : • : • i- ' : it : • • •• v -: 

1 § 50. 1. 

2 Supply the noun "place" as the antecedent of the relative, which is itself 
governed by a preposition not expressed. Complete the Hebrew sentence by 
supplying the ellipsis in both cases. See § 30. 3. 



23. Lamedh Aleph Verbs, § 60. 

rhe Piel of tf£>Q may for the sake of distinction be rendered to find out. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of bfap : — - 
, n^pn , naspa , (3) «Ett? , QsntfEtt? , (2) fijtfittn , kbe? 
. ^sts-Qi 5 nhfcti?** , njastia , «»tea , (2) njx&En , (2) pijm^pi 

Remark 43. The verb abtt takes a direct object in the 
Kal to be full ^ anything, and in the Niphil to be filled 
with anything ; in the Piel to fill something with some- 
thing, it may have two objects. 

■ttn -ittfcbi ^-b« 7^*1 ipjn ta^*i blurbs nirn K'njp^i 
Kng D^p j nsts^i qb*i sdie mir ■•nartir&ft tok^ ^S W!T^ 
i an^ ->b jwjjp ■nojg ^b roarigflrba fn*hx i»ap\i j rprfbirba 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 131 

itps rnrp i$« iD^n-ns pj&rj n^»^ dtjs; sjn'ra a^a Q? 1 ^ 
•6-ana -lirtta nb : nswrj fn&rrria ?|b nnb * twites niang ^na^n 

1 See §18. 

24. Lamedh He Verbs, § 61. 

fib a in Kal means to reveal, i. e. to uncover a secret, in Piel to uncover, iu 
Hiphil to exile, i. e. to uncover or strip a land of its inhabitants, in Hithpael to 

uncover one's self. 

Translate and give the corresponding forms of big : — 

, S ?W , n ^? , (2) rfpM , fiiba , *«fi| , w»;S| , nnba 7 $s 1 ibs 
,n^tt ,.^3 , o ,*i&n ,rp5| ,.*fis ,i5a ,$a ,w^a . on^bx 
,nb'^ x ,D5^ , oMn , rf^rp , nb^a , nb^ ,mjan , (2) nb^n 

: rranbE3 twa^s wnb nto'^i ijb; Eftrrwn roa ntea Ehan *n 
spSsba^ «b o^ran ^m d^mm nan •nan-b? s^rfba nah wean 

1 : : - . • - t - •• : ■ — t - •• l v at t - ■ •». •• •• T : % - 

rra-ns m'Dnb nb'bra nib33 wi : wja ntea mn rnirps qs 
]n ; i } ivaaa rt» ^P ^te*D rrcte nb'bte-ba rrin} sw 1 nirn 
Tjin ab as in^rnte** riQfi'n : nibi? b$*i nirnb nara w D# 
njs *ite8"b3 ns site?; : biipi^b ^rfa nte$$ 5 n^n ni'a ip 2 naBB 
:qbte*mn nriTO -ite»? c^rcrrbs mh nrtoD 3 «b tnirp 

1 See Remark 20, Lesson 12. 

2 ^p for ; or it may be translated but, to which it is often equivalent after a 
negative. 

2 The feminine in the sense of the neuter. 



25. Numerals, § 65. 

Remark 44. In stating dates cardinal numbers are 
commonly used for the year and day, and ordinals for tha 
month. 

45. The age of persons is idiomatically expressed by 
<;he words 1? son or ra daughter prefixed to the term of 



132 LESSONS IN BEADING HEBREW 

fcheii life, thus rwtt nsfctB-'ja son of eight years i. e. eight 
years old. 

See also the rules in § 73. 

n?ana tDiflMSj d^b© :©i« a^itoi .D^ia nrciB :n^; rngfofc 
mean :r>w^rc m^n©'© :D^nn©i» :mr6 n?a© jamb's 

..... -: T T : •• : . T v" • t t: t • • -: t : • • T t 

;d^p© d*ny :d^js ©"© :ffn?n ©'b© iDfttjJi n?a© jD^BlI 
jnb^b ovsnai Di^ dwi» jfijbtth D"wn» a-n? jd^toj a^nt? 
-13 trw© a^©zrna :aw nab-ana :nrcm a^i© ja^b© aw 

; ... T T • : • - • t - : I " v • t : • - : • - : • t 

tnpsa n^ 1 n©"b© : wca ^vm awn siabtta "117 nj© a^©'b© 
d^ioti a h n©' :nbkn d^aan nn©? a^n©* : d^jk n©? d^to 
:D*>narcn a^a©i n©'b© &ba d^wi a^i© jroto nistt ?ntw ns© 

• rr t • : • : r : I? r •:•••: - : t t •• - : t t 

rwansa ya'ns ns©a : ©'^nb ina ai^a ^©©n ©hna a?n© ns©a 
rwifljnn nsca i©'^Bb nrana wa nj© a^'b^a nyrinn ©hnb 
-»nte?b a . nyan&n ante* ai^a : ©^nb Titeya ^ton ©hna i^b^b 
jbj^n-n^b© :ai*n n^an :n^Bb rnrcnan anm :izhri n©$ 

: nsan n^tar 



1 Observe the distinction between the predicate and the attributive. 

2 § 65. 3. 



The End of the Deluge. Genesis 8, 1-9. 

ina *\m nknan-bs-nan srnn-bs nan nb-nas fcrrfba* nam 

<. • rt -■■ t •• : - t v : t - i- t «" s - v • it : • - 

nb^tt na&*j Jd^n ^ato'^ n^O"^^ ^D'^ ^iSIS n 3^ 
o^n sdid*i ja^ran-Ta d©an aba^i a^©n nsnan airin 

• 1 * \T - 'ITT - I • ?t? - /" T • - • AT T - 1 ■, -:|- 

n:m jd^ nara D^&fcn nitatt d^n nom ai©i sibn -nan b^ia 

- <t - 1 r- : r • ■: ••>: • . - - j . . — at ' j t 7 v «t t j- •• 

a^m j tma *nn by OThb ai^ ntoimyaca ^rattf'n trhha rhinn 

• - - : itt -: >- t «- v A - * rr t it : • : «"...'- ... j - T •• - 

ican niji^ip ©'^Hib "jnaa ^te ^to?n ©nbn ^5 niorn *pbn rn 
: n'©y m»x nann iibin-n« tii nns^i di^ d^anx rp'a ■'h^i j d^nnn 

it r /-.■-: it •• - 1 / - if - j- : • - a J" t j - F k* • • : r- r t it 

nW^i j "pan by^ d^n m&a^-^ aifei aiisi ^^,- ( n"ibn-n« nb©^ 

- - : - F v rr t i- •• • <r - v / : - t t «-•• - a- it v <r - : - 

nxara-tfbi :^2i«n 13s bya d^n ibpn rti^b inx« ni-nn-na 

t : rr rr t -: rr 1- j c" •■ - - - >r —. : • a • i~ w 

p»n-bD ''Dfi-b^ o h E ^3 nnnn-b^ ^b« atoni rtbjn-rpb nibia nii^n 

IvdHT rj»; - •«- r t •• - •• T- t«t- t:-I-:- t t 

: nann-ba ^b« ^n^ Ka»i nhs>^ ni^ nb»*i 



LESSONS IN READING HEBEEW. 133 



The Creation and Fall. Genesis 1-3. 

CHAPTER I. a 

>rin nrvn yiim : y lan nan d^oth n» a^n'ba ana rvraania 2 1 

m IT 1 V T T ; I " T T J" : • «- T - /•• « J* » « •• . 

*w^n : D^n 'Jft-b? sn£>int)'a n^K rn^ nirm ^©"b? lytjni yr&) 3 
b^a^, nitr^a 'ronina o^n'ba *n*n : niannhn -ii» w d^n'ba 4 
ang *ji?nbi ai* ni^b . D^n'b^ *nj?*i 5 tfirnn pan nisn pa d^n'bs: n 
w D">n"b« ^a*n & t nna d*p ipa-wn anirwn nb^b 6 
jhpin-ns dt6s te^jn : o^b rm pa b^aa wn o^n *jiria arjri 7 
yipib b?E -n»« n^isn pan ^p-ib nnn^a ^tox o^n pa bwn 

- It, r it J" •• iv -: • - - ' j- - i • t it - j- • •/ -: .--»«- ... - - 

s ^:© Di^ npa-wn a^-wn n*™ ^p-ib dt6» snp^i t p-wn s 

r •• / r* «. • : 1- •: it • : 1- • at t - l« t it -r v: jtT: • - J|- • j r- 

o^n H2pabn r?K ritta^b • o^tfba *rtp?»n 1 IJPvC?- n 2?-n ro*^ * 
•Han anhm o^n'bs 7a8*n j niir^o d^n'ba «n*»i d^ *npn 

f v t t «- : 1- • •••: J- 1 v vi :j-- h- jt> t 

iartriT nigs "frttb *ns ni»? *ns 75? sn| j^pa ato ktw 
nninab Snr Fnpg ^? *"?f 7*>k\! »4i»D J 1?"T^ Y7$7^2 12 
ansrwn t aitr"»a d^n'bg »w sjrwnob ia-i:snT rn&tf ■nfe-ntojp 721 13 

vi? • : 1- 1 K •■-• :i~- tr • : *. i - n -. -r : v , I *- : 

wa inVara w n^n'ba -i-a^i £) : ^bri di^ nph^n^ 14 

- \r '. • : *• : • •« j - r ■ : / k t • : i- 

D ^->b^ D^ittbi inin^b ^ni nb^»bn «*i oi^n ra b^^innb D^fa'i&n 

*t: --;j: : <t: t-at-Tj- C-Jj- •:-: • - r - 

f p-ri^ f^iKn-b5? n^nb D^faisn 5?^pna ri'-iiK^b *i^ni j d^bji to 

1 1- • : 1- I v at t - « t : . - T . - - lr • • : • « T : r t : 

rhfqnb b^jn ni^n-m t3^b^an nh^Tan 'jw-nij D^'b« w^ 16 

lr"- p t 1 - v : t : - - v jv : v : l tr - < t - ~ • 

nbiSai oi^a btottbi : v^i^n-b^ n^nb D^tt?n ^^pnn D^n'b^ on^ is 

t : - - j - : • : I ••• it t - « t : • at t - - (r s ' « vi »r 

a^n^i : nitrtD D^n*b^ : »*jjn ^tjnn pan ni$n pa b^anbn i& 
f-nj o^n ^-^ n^n'b« n»^;n s *T^? D ^ ^1??"^^. » 
«^at»n t ta^tsn ?^n ^s-b^ fnfen-b^ s$ty i\m r\*n tcsj 21 
nox ntofe'-in 1 n^nn issi-ba nan D^an D^snn-na o^h'bij 
r nit2-^D D^n'ba an^n nnb^b 653 oi^"b3 nan onD^b o^n ni'n© 

1 < :■: :j~- • : It r I < r •• • ........ . - _ | if 

g^ia^a iifei-mx naban na'nn n"is ibab D">n"b» ona ^n^n 22 

fnan 'a r. 1. 



134 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

23 

,64 J I" " " ) lv i ■ i i- v #v • : i- 1 :• it t :-r I i t j 

HS"^?™ ^933 n, 9^? n ^ 5 ? ^jn to pn&n aarn DTfbs 

t •■ : - v ; t • : I •.• t t - - •„■ • •» -j-- J,- . ; P at • s 

26 n^*i :nitp-^ n^rfbs ao^ TiD^b rrxmn ^93"b3 nan rfrfcb 

ai^m c*n niin taw wie-d ttfcbsa ms niro D^h*b» 

I j : t - - : • : • : w : • «■ : - : /t t « -:i- • „ 

^v &nn*i : f^n-b^ tofchn tonn-bDni fi&rrbDni nar.sni cpw* 

ropa* 'IDT ^'na aja trn'ba dbrn ifebss tnarrritf . D^n'ba 

28 ^mi ns D^rfba shb ies^ enrfba cnis tjnn^i j tjna ana 

v : ' : • v: v tv- • v: t ' v jt : - it *t t 

jrrrbDin p?fe©7i tjiyni D*n snr^a rni Waal ynarrna w^pi 
29 » nw-bs-na abb ^nna nan n^n'ba *vatf^ j pan-by ntetthn 

... j- T v v T . - t •• • v: v j - I v it t - ■„• iv it 

5> . bbbi n^bian aiarbsb^ -pasS n^n-bDb^i : nbasb nw osb sn, 

j : • - t - I t ; 1 :• t t j- - t t it : t : iv : r «t -ai 

j p-wi nbssb nir2 p-n-bsrna n*n res ^-mos pan-by rain 

J I- • ; i- at : t : v v f :• ,t t :■ r - /jt v -: 1 •; t t - j- 

31 -wi nvwi itfft nitrnam nfo> mB&rbr™ crn'ba ar^i 

• :i- v jt • • r a ; k - • : t t jv -: t ■•■ « :<-- 

3D : *»© isn 0^ njjb 
CHAPTER II. n 

: M ^nifn Dija tnn'ba bp^i t taanjptei f^ni own ^d^ 
j ntoy nfljjs inDsbtt-bstt ^nrcn ni^a riaiw nig? ntga ipoabtt 

3 "bs-a nnif> in ^ ins wp^ ^-aran Di^-na 6*»in'b« t n ta iD^_ 

4 tpatjn ni^bin nb§ s t nito^b D^n*b« «na-^»s in^^btt 
i ri^to . bbi : d^tiji "pa n^n'bx nir^ nitoy Di^a Dana^a v^^ni 

- j' j : • it t : I v ;v v; v: it : y —■ : at : it : J v kT t : 

6 srfe?; n&o j na^^n-nx nb?b ^fc tr^i fjfcsj-b? Q"n*by: : nin^ 
3 -n» nw uw^ Dipa ran p nn'bx nin^ yfe^i j n^n tfwi 

J ._. T VJT _ ... | AV . J ... v . . },- .,. ■■■. tj : - • - it - ■ " I 

o toid 73?-b3 nanxn-p n^n'b^ nirp nai ta ^ : m^ niiJx d^sp 

/T . ... | . r T T T -. JT 1 . . ...; «t : - : - - itt ,■: : it t i. 

jjrn nit) n^n fS Wb i ]ir\ tjina a^nn yj.i bssttb nit:) sns'jttb 
, n^a^i^b n^m "hs^ mi isn-n^ nip^ : nb i^^a ks s » inj^ 

rr t : - : it t : ■• t ■ t > w - '.* Pi : - : i ..... .. j« i . 

12 j oni&n ]a»i nb^n 0*5 nrj x^nn yj»n nnn j nn-tn ctg— \ibm 

v-i-3?; 'n v. 4. 



LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 135 

-ttiavwh jfe .pK-bs shk nnisn awn p'ma wn nrw-Mfr J J 

*nn& awn ^nnn *inani -niBas raip trbhn awn bp-Hn ^bi^n 
: nntiTSbi nna^b nj-pn ^ n D 3 -^ D ^T n ^ D ^'^ : n 3 n ? n P ■* 
rra .bssn bba* I5n-H &* ^a<;b D^sn-by D*>n'ba* m'm ir^ J!! 

■ .. .. i~ i t /it -!*••-/• A vt t it ■ • v: jt : "" ! ~ J. # 

:maft nitt !&•§» tfbD» oija *»i is'gto bsan a& ipj nia n^fin 
to 1^nto?» i^b onxn ni?n niirasb c^n'ba? nw nfcawn is 
pi^-bs tT»i rsiwn n^n-ba n^ttasn-ra n*>n'bas riw ns^i j i^s 1$ 

Ijt ••: ■.- » -■ t r t — rr t • r> r •; ? - - r: 

anatn ib^anp^ -icas *b:n ib-anp^-na nisib Dna;n-ba$ §n^ tr>t«0n 

hi n s t I : • v -j : a t T: • - i : • t t jt ••• •• t - • - r - 

qto toonarrtpb niibttj n^an arip*i : Sw awn njn EB3 5 

rfjST 1 '^ : ^??? n ?? ^"^ D 7¥^ n 5?n n ^n bbb^i D^fatfn 21 

itoa nacn v^b^ nna$ n^i inr^i o'latt-rby rrcmn . o-n"ba$ 

>T T .» : • - t : - • - - ) - . - J AT • - IT T IT - vt •• : - * VI 

nraatb nnsn-p npb-nm ybssn-r« . cn'bx riin^ p^i j nsnnn 22 

at ■ : w t it » • w- t •„• -1 »t •■ - v f •■•: t : ) :• • - r v: : - 

-lira* ihwa cxy a^sn nsr hixr\ ^rawi iD^sn-bas n«n^ 23 

it t - t -: I- y v< j T t it - it t it v t o." ■ : - *"J 

thfirnt?;? fe-b? : nasrnnjjb tnaoa ^5 ni ; ^ an^ rwb *ntoo 24 
on^ffi *nrvn s im nignb spni ifcisaa pn^ iEarnaw ™»ti« *a 

<wmr\*> «bn iro»*n D^^n c^r^. 



CHAPTER III. 5 

it5i5^ D^n'bx nin* rto -<ex niisn r*n 3ba D^y r^n finrni « 

• ~ f ••" jt : itt j~ -: ... T - j- - T JT T T T - J >» 

tospii j wn f 3> bba iba^n a<b a^h'bx n^^-^s a^ r&arrbtf 2 

' " ' it - ' '■• i • : 1 j • j- t r '-< t • jt v 

]!sn-;prfi -itj» pr\ i-iBti?i ;bD^3 pn-ry ^2^ ©nsn-b^ risn 3 

' i ' 1 : jv ! I •■ t J' : ■ f », T - J I- ;• : - att - 1 \r • rr 

to«?i : I^-qij-jb i3 TOn .xb^ 131312 te^n ^b n^fj'b» ^x 4 

DDbD» Di->3 13 Dinbtf yi'^ 13 : i^irran ni^-^b nis^n-bs ©nan n 

J • • T ■ : • v: - J" •« ' I \ '■ I • AT • IT V VTT - 

nfeacn «^ni j an) airj 151J d^nb»3 itj^ni dd^^j ^npspi ssfeta 6 
b^iEnb ^n Tianai D^5^b s^n-nisn w bbxtb vi?n nit: ^ 

■ j : » t <t : v : • - •• it j t -: i- *. • t —. i- : F •• ? j- 

^ npnpeni jbn^i rna^ mo^b-D-j wnn b^sni i^stt npm 7 

j" r . » T i - (T • vt • : * /!■••- /r - * : • • Mr ' - 

trnin Dnb ^^1 nb^n nbs? ^sn^ on d^^ ^ liw cnw 

1 »t » :i - t •• : j~ - : : : ■ i- A » ¥ \ i" r iJr- " - : 

»inrv>i ni^n nrt pa tjbnna D^rfbx nin^ bi6-nx ^•air^ g 

' - J : Jit - '/••-:■ .,• „ : f v : : • I- 

l|n ''iWQTi ^bp-n^ -i-a^ . ^k ib n^i tmn-i« D^n'b» 
nng on^ ^ k\b T5n 15 ^raK^i ^5^ "P?^ Q'T^? ^T^l 1] 
Dnijn ntt»ji : r\bD« ! ia , Btt-bD» ^nbnb ^n^a mj^ 7?n"l^n i! 

•TTW inX C3T T. 25. 



136 LESSONS IN READING HEBREW. 

13 "T8»*i j baa-i ran-ia ^-nana «in ^ia* nnna n©» t\mtr 

I- IT » «• T | • r r ; IT *• • T • T J-T J-.' ~: T • ft 

^x^isn vinsn nii^n ^arn rrw narnfc nraab d^n'ba nin- 

• «" * JTT - T • IT V - *• T J - IT • IT •!• TI «T I 

14 hna wk n*w d-to ^ ifcnan-ba ■ d^nba rtini n£a*i jbD'ai 

t - « T T J» t r T T - J. T : - r~ r» 

wba baan -wi *r3n TiDh^-b^ nnten r>*n ba*n nianan-batt 

J- : t v- itt: I " ~ j ' : : - at t - j- - »• t-i-t 

» ^i f ai Tjsnr -pai nfen ^31 i^s tvm 1 naw : ^n 
16 *\m nro»n-b» : nps> ^swn niw tt&n st^ Kin 

- t jt • rr v If t ri : w - : j' : , : 

}hpwn frttr*rb»i d^aa ^bn am ainrn saiaa? -HSra nann 

' " 't j : 1 •• •„• : k r j- : i~ ■/ w : ' •• i~ i 'j- : • r : - «t ; - 

^ Saani i\r\m bipb fotid 13 i^a dnabi :?irbw »im 

'•.•:• u : t ; - t j* - r jtt: 'rr t : • i: 

rranan nwa lafttt bs^sn &6 *raxb ivirnis -\m fbrr)v 

t t -: it <t -: av • ir / •• ! . . . <v -. J .. T J . 

18 ^ rptt?n wni fipi jspjn **pj ba nabaan fiaspfra ^^§| 
i9 -btf saw *w Dnb barin jfpia *wa j niton atomr-ia nbaxi 

I : 1 <- ■ v v j 1 v - r— j rr t - ■„• i~ v it : - it : 

5 anp*n : awn isy-ban nn& nwr>3 mpb nat»a ^a ntian 

5T*: • - 1 T it t V| T - JT T !• T : MT \ T IV • /• T T "! J7 

21 rfini "w^ j ^n-ba dtf nrWn Kin ^a n^n inraa d© d^an 

t : - - - it t r* it : rr r •*• at - i : • r » t t it 

22 Ta^i s t di»ab*i ni? niana inmbi diab d^n'ba 

v j - !•••:-- i. t : t » : • : it t : w 

. nn?i mi aita nnb lafatt insa rt^n d^n in d^n'b^ nin- 

JT - t AT T J - V- T V • J- - : T T T T IT I <" V! JT ! 

23 nnbtt^i j dbbb im ba»i d^nn vya d3 hpbi i'^ nbirji-^s 

r* : - - 1 r- jt : r- t if t : • - 1- 1 j- ■■ -« »- t s t j- : • ' v 

24 rw : D«tt npb ^Ti^ nfe^an-sn^ ih^b pa>-wtj d^n'ba nin? 

■."it: r- it • if \ n —. t t -: jt •." -:i~ 1 v a" 1- • « v: it 

annn tanb nk) o^nan-n^ ni?-]^ D 1i^ l^ 1 ?-^ D ^ J T n ^ 

. D^nn V5> tpi-na nfi©b nasnmsr 



Masoretic Notes Explained. 

^nan 'a . . . . Large Beth. 
8W 'n .... Small He. 
p-w -m wn . . . . "JDagheBh after Shurek, 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 



1. The Prefixed Particles, §§ 24-28. 

Translate into Hebrew: — 

A house and field. A field and a house. In a house, 
In the house. To a house. To the house. As a house. 
As the house. From a house. From the house. The 
house in the field. From the house unto the field. Light 
and darkness. Day and night. From night J _o night and 
from day to day. Darkness in the night. Light in the 
day. As the sun in the heavens. The darkness. The 
evening. Evening and morning. As the sea. Light 
from the sun in the day and from the moon and from the 
stars in the night. Bread from the field for man and for 
beast. And fiesh. And the flesh. And from the flesh. 
And to the flesh. As flesh. Not day nor (lit. and not) 
night. From sun to stars. From the sun unto the stars. 

2. The Personal Pronouns, § 29. 

Direction 1. In conformity with Remark 2 on page 111, 
possessives, when not immediately followed by the object 
possessed, are to be rendered, by the preposition b thus, Icon 
my beloved's and my beloved is mine *b ^YTi ^Ylb n ?tf . 
The verb to have must be paraphrased by the same pre- 
position, e. g. You have a brother n&j DDb lit. a brother i% 
to you : He has no son p ^ r$ lit. there is no son to 
him. 



138 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW 

Translate into Hebrew : — 

Ye masc. I and he. They masc. and they fern. She 
f t nd ihoufem. Ye fern, and we. In us. In them (m. 
and /.). In me. In her. In thee (m. and /.). In yon 
(in. and /.). From eternity unto eternity thou art God, 
From God to us. From me to you. We are in the 
house, ye are in the field. He is in the light, I am in 
darkness. The earth is Jehovah's. The silver is mine 
and the gold is his. Heaven is thine. God is for us. 
God is not like man. We are like you. He is like us. 
The house is yours, and the field is theirs. The sea 
is his. The bread is mine. I have no bread in the house. 
We have a brother; he is still living. You have no 
brother. There is no beast in the field. 



3. Other Pronouns, § 30. 

Translate into Hebrew : — 

This house. In this house. This is the house. That 
field. From that field. That is the field. Gocl, who is 
in the heavens. Who is in the heavens ? The bread, 
which is in the house. What is in the house ? Who am 
I ? What are we ? These stars. These are the stars. 
From this day. In this day. Whose is this housed 
W T hose is that bread ? The place in which we are. Tht 
land in which I am. Who is this masc. ? What is this 
fern, f Who art thou fern. ? Is this 2 thou 1 masc. f 
This field, in which thou art. The land, from which they 
are. These waters, which are from the sea. Jehovah is 
mine and I am his. Ye are light in Jehovah. We be« 
long to the day : we belong not to the night nor to dark- 
H^SS. 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 139 



4. Perfect Verbs. Kal Preterite and Infinitives, 

§33. 

Write the Kal preterite and infinitives of ^ttjj, ins an J 
bi© in all their forms as they appear in the paradigm, 
with the proper signification attached to each. 

Translate into Hebrew : — 

She killed. They killed. We killed. To kill. Thou 
(masc.) killedst. I killed. Ye (masc. andj^ra.) killed. 
He killed. Thou {fern.) killedst. 

Thou (m. and/.) wast bereaved. We were bereaved. 
Ye (m. and f.) were heavy. She was bereaved. I was 
heavy. They were heavy. He was heavy. He was be- 
reaved. To be bereaved. 

Direction 2. In Hebrew sentences the verb commonly 
precedes its subject, and both precede the object unless 
the emphasis requires a different collocation, e. g. K?3 
D^tit&n na D^n'ba God created the heavens. But if a per- 
sonal pronoun be either the direct or indirect object it is 
usually placed immediately after the verb u^Tfix ib *jn; 
EOT God gave to him property. 

Translate into Hebrew : — 

I shut the house. She shut the door. He shut the 
heavens. They ruled over this land. Who gave you 
(Heb, to you) those vessels ? To whom did he give this 
field ? What did they give me \ The sun ruled over the 
day and the stars ruled over the night. Thou didst poui 
water from the heavens upon the earth. He poured 
She gave us gold and silver in the vessels. They gave 
to him honor and majesty. They kept the command' 
oient We kept the Sabbath God gave us a command* 



140 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

ment to keep tlie Sabbatli. He rested in this day, be 
cause it was the Sabbath. The darkness was very great 
[ dwelt in the house. They dwelt in the field. This is 
the bread which Jehovah has given to you. 

5. NlPHAL, PlEL, AND PuAL PRETERITES AND INFINITIVE^ 

§34. 

Write the Niphal, Piel, and Pual preterites and infini- 
tives of bttp with their significations. 

Translate : — ' 

He was killed. To be killed. I was killed. We were 
killed. She was killed. Thou (m. and f.) wast killed. 
Ye (m. and f.) were killed. They were killed. 

They massacred. They were massacred. She was 
massacred. I massacred. Ye (m. and f.) massacred. 
We massacred. To massacre. To be massacred. Thou 
(m. and f.) wast massacred. He was massacred. 

The house was sanctified. The tabernacle and the ark 
were sanctified. Thou (m. and f.) wast sanctified. Ye 
(m. and f.) were sanctified. To be sanctified. To sanc- 
tify this day. This is the day, which Jehovah has sanc- 
tified. They sanctified this place. I sanctified the taber- 
nacle and the vessels which were in it. Y T e were sepa- 
rated from them. The day was separated from the night. 
We were separated from you. He was separated from 
us. We were separated from him. They subdued the 
land. They were subdued before you. Ye were sub- 
dued. He has sworn to gather you to this land. The 
door was shut in the place, in which they were gathered 
What did ye gather ? We gathered bread. Flesh was 
gathered. They have sworn. We have sworn. She has 
sworn. 



lessons in" writing hebrew 141 

6. The remaining Preterites and Infinitives, § 85. 

Write the preterite and infinitives with their signifies 
fciens in the Hiphil, Hophal, and Hithpael of bbg . 

Translate : — 

I cansed to kill. She killed herself. They killed 
themselves. Ye (m. and f.) were caused to kill. To kill 
one's self. To cause to kill. To be caused to kill. We 
were caused to kill. Thou (m. and f.) killedst thyself. 
He caused to kill. 

We separated the silver from the gold. He separated 
the darkness from the light. Thou didst separate Israel 
from all the nations which are in all the earth. I was 
made king. Thou wast made king. Is it a little (thing) 
to be made king? A little bread. A little flesh. A 
little gold. A little silver. They cut off the nations. 
The nations were cut off. Bread was cut off from the 
house. Bread and oil were cut off. We were cut off. 
She cut off man and beast from the land. They caused 
the kingdom to cease. He made the kingdom small. We 
made small. Whom did she destroy? What did she 
destroy ? Thou (m. and f.) didst purify thyself. I did 
not purify myself. She purified herself. Ye (m. and f.) 
purified yourselves. They brought the water near to the 
king David and he poured it out before Jehovah. Hs 
consecrated the oil and anointed the tabernacle, the ark 
and all the vessels. We consecrated all the silver and 
the gold to Jehovah. 

7. Kal Future, Imperative, and Participles, § 36. 

Write the Kal future, imperative and participles oi 
tag, and the futures of lift and bSo f 



142 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

Translate :— 

Thou (m. and /) wilt kill. We shall kill. I shai. 
kill. He will kill. They (on. and/.) will kill. She will 
kill. Ye (on. and /) will kill. Kill ye (on. and f.) 
Killed. Killing. Kill thou (on. and/.). 

Thou wilt rule over us. He will rule over them. The 
stars shall rule over the night. The sea shall not rule 
over the earth. Rule thou over the nations. He is 
ruling. She is ruling. We are ruling. Ye shall rest in 
the Sabbath. Rest ye (on. and/.) with me in the house. 
Keep thou (on.) this beast. Keep thou (/) that bread. 
Who is keeping the silver? Jehovah is keeping Israel. 
Jehovah, who is keeping Israel, will also keep us. God 
shall keep thee in the day and in the night. We shall 
dwell in heaven. Shut (on.pl.) the door. I shall shut 
the gate. She is shutting the house. The virgins are 
dwelling in the house. The wild beast is dwelling in the 
field. He will subdue all the nations which are under 
heaven. Thou shalt be clothed with majesty and splen- 
dor. I will keep what I have spoken. 

8. NlPHAL, PlEL, AND PuAL FUTURES, ETC., § 37 

Write the future, imperative, and participle of the 
Niphal, Piel, and Pual of bb£ . 

Translate : — 

We shall be massacred. Ye (on. and/.) will massacre. 
She will massacre. I shall be killed. He will be killed. 
Thou (on. and/) wilt massacre. They (on. and/) will 
be massacred. Be thou (on. and/) killed. Massacre ye 
(on. and/). Killed. Massacred. Massacring. 

Ye will be separated from us. They will be shut in 
the house until the morning. All the people will be 



LESSON'S IN WRITING HEBREW. 143 

sanctified , The company will be sanctified. These vir< 
gins will be sanctified. Those nations will be sanctified. 
We shall be sanctified. Ye (m. and/.) will be sanctified. 
Thou (m. and/.) wilt be sanctified. I shall be sancti- 
fied, Jehovah will be honored. Be ye honored. I 
will honor them who honor me (lit. the [ones] honor- 
ing me). I will sanctify the priests. He will sanctify 
them. They will sanctify us. It belongs to the priests 
to honor this house. It is not for me to honor him. 
They will speak to thee. To whom will ye speak ? God 
is speaking to us from heaven. "Wilt thou speak to me ? 
Speak ye to them. I will take heed that I do not speak 
evil. Will the gate be shut ? Will they be shut up in 
Jericho ? 



9. HlPHIL, HoPHAL, AND HlTHPAEL FUTURES, ETC., § 38. 

Write the future, imperative, and participle of the 
FIiph.il, Hophal, and Hithpael of bbjp . 

Translate :— 

Ye (m. and/) will be caused to kill. We shall kill 
ourselves. Kill thyself (m. and /.). Causing to kill. 
Thou (m. and/) wilt cause to kill. Cause ye (m. and 
/.) to kill. They (m. and /.) will kill themselves. I 
shall be caused to kill. Killing one's self. Caused to 
kill. He will be caused to kill. She will cause to kill. 

I withheld the rain from you. I shall cause it to rain 
upon this field and I shall not cause it to rain upon that 
field. Thou wilt clothe them w r ith (lit. cause them to 
put on) splendor and majesty. He will clothe the 
heavens with darkness. Clothe (2 m. s.) all the nations 
with joy and gladness. He will be made king and will 



144 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

be honored in all the land. Ye will be caused to reign. 
We shall be caused to reign. Thou wilt be caused to 
reign. What shall I offer to Grod \ Shall all the rem 
nant be cut off ? Joy shall be cut off from Israel. All 
these nations shall be cut off. Shall we cause the work 
to cease ? Who shall separate us from him ? What shall 
separate him from us ? I am separating between gooi'l 
and evil. He shall cause them to dwell in the land. 



10. Paragogio and Apocopated Future and Imperative 
and Vav Conversive, §§ 40, 41. 

Direction 3. In narrating the past, the first verb is 
commonly to be put in the preterite and the succeeding 
verbs in the future with Vav Conversive, provided the 
verb stands at the beginning of the clause. If, however, 
any verb of the series is for any reason removed from the 
beginning of its clause and so separated from the con 
junction, it must be put in the preterite, § 79. 2. 

4. In a paragraph relating to the future, the first verb 
is commonly to be put in the future or imperative, as the 
case may be, and the succeeding verbs in the preterite 
with Vav Conversive, provided they stand at the begin- 
ning of their own clause. But if any verb of the series is 
separated from the conjunction by an intervening word, 
it must be put in the future. 

5. A negative imperative must be translated by ^ 
with the future, the apocopated form being used if one 
exists, § 78. 8. 

Translate into Hebrew : — 

He anointed me and caused me to reign instead ol 
David. They drave out the nations and subdued tbf 






LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 14 1 

land and dwelt in it. Thou wilt gather them from all 
the nations, and cause them to dwell in this land, and 
thou wilt reign over Israel forever (lit. to etercity). 
Ye shall keep the commandment and be separated from 
the nations and be consecrated to me, and ye shall be great 
from sea unto sea. Cleave thou unto me and thou shalt 
keep the covenant which I have made (lit. cut) with thee 
and thou shalt honor me. Ye shall not forget. Forget 
not ye what I have spoken to you. Take heed that ye 
forget not the Sabbath to rest in it from all work. "Wilt 
thou not withhold me from evil? Withhold not mercy 
from me, O Jehovah, and I will keep (parag. fut.) this 
commandment. Cut them not off. We gave them bread 
and made (lit. cut) a covenant with them. Pray reign 
over this people. Shut the door. Pray, shut the door. 
Thou wilt not shut the door. Do not shut the door. 
We will shut. Let us shut. 



11. Preterites of Perfect Verbs with Suffixes, § 42. 

a. Third person masc. and fern. sing, of the Kal Pre- 
terite. 

Write the 3 m. and f. sing, of the Kal preterite of 
bt3£ with suffixes, adding to each form its proper signifi 
cation. 

Translate : — 

Ho killed them (m. and/!). He killed him. He killed 
us. He killed thee (m. and /.) He killed me. He killed 
you (m. and /.). He killed her. 

She killed us. She killed you (m. and f.). She killed 
me. She killed her. She killed them (m. and f.). She 
killed him. She killed thee (rn and /.). 
1 



146 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

b. The rest of the Kal Preterite. 
Write the remaining parts of the Kal preterite of 5b% 

with suffixes. 

Translate : — 

They killed you (m. and /.). Ye killed them (m. and 
/), I killed her. Thou (m.) killedst me. I killed thee 
(m. and /.). We killed him. They killed me. They 
killed her. Ye killed us. Thou (/.) killedst him. We 
killed you. Thou (?n.) killedst her. Thou (/.) killedst 
her. Thou (m.) killedst him. Thou (/.) killedst me. 
He kept you (m. and /.). She kept him. Ye kept us. 
Thou (m.) didst keep her. Thou (/.) didst keep me. 
She kept you (m. and /.). We kept them (m. and /.). 
They kept us. I kept thee (m. and /.). 

He anointed him. He anointed me. Thou (m.) didst 
anoint us. Thou didst anoint them. They sent thee (rti. 
and /.). She sent her. Ye sent him. We sent you (m. 
and /.). She forgot me. Thou (/.) didst forget her. 
We forgot her. I forgot him. He washed them (m. and 
/). I washed you (m. and^/.). 

c. The Piel and Hiphil Preterites. 

Write the different persons of the Piel or Hiphil pre 
terite of Wo]? with suffixes. 

Translate, noting the fact when the Hebrew is ambiguous : 
He massacred them (m. and /.). We massacred you 
(m. and /.). She massacred us. Ye massacred us. Ye 
massacred them (m. and /.). They massacred us. They 
massacred you (m. and /.). Thou (m. and f.) didst mas 
Bacre us. He massacred you. 

They caused me to kill. He caused you (m. and/.) 
to kill. She caused to kill them (m. and f,). They 
caused to kill her. She caused thee (m. and/.) to kill 






IiKSSO-NS IN WRITING HEBREW. 147 

Ve caused me to kill. Ye caused to kill him. I caused 
fchee (m. and f.) to kill. I caused to kill them (m. and 
/.). Thou (m. and f.) didst cause to kill her. Thou 
(m. and f.) didst cause us to kill. We caused to kill 
him. We caused you to kill. 

He made me great. He made us great. He made 
them (m. and f.) great. He honored you (m. and f.). 
He honored him. He honored her. He bereaved thee 
(m. and /.). Ye gathered them (m. and f.). She gathered 
us. We honored her. Thou (m. and f.) didst honor him. 
She honored him. She honored her. I gathered you (m. 
and /.). They honored me. 

They caused him to reign over Israel. Ye caused me 
to put on the garments. He caused Eleazar to put them 
on. A wild beast overtook him in the field. Thou hast 
caused us to dwell in this place. I have cut them off 
because they did not honor me. Thou hast separated 
them from all the nations which are upon the earth. Ye 
brought him near to the tabernacle. The sword has 
bereaved her, and she has neither father nor daughter nor 
brother (lit. to her is not father and not daughter and 
not brother). 

12. Futures, etc., of Perfect Verbs with Suffixes, 

§ 42. 
a. Kal Future. 

Write the different persons of the Kal future of Vbg 
with suffixes. 

Translate : — 

He will kill us. She will kill us. I shall kill you (m. 
and /). Thou wilt kiU her. We shall kill him. She 
will kill them. They will kill her. Ye (m.) will kill 
her. Thou (/) wilt kill her. Thou (/.) wilt kill me 



148 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBKEW. 

Ye (m.) will kill them. They will kill you (m. and 
/). Thou (/.) wilt kill us. She will kill thee (m, 
and/.). 

Jehovah will keep us from all evil. Thou (m.) wilt 
keep them (m. and /.). They (m. and f.) will remember 
me. I shall remember them. Who will remember him ? 
Will he remember her ? Will she not remember you (m. 
and f.) ? I do not know (pret.) him and how shall T 
remember him ? We shall remember thee (m. and f.) 
and not forget thee. This is the house ; wilt thou (w. 
and y.) remember it ? This is the commandment ; will 
they keep it ? Whose are these garments ? I shall put 
them on. Behold this babe ! will the mother forget it ? 
(The) Lord will surely (abs. infin.) remember you. 
Thou (m. and f.) wilt not forget me. Do not thou (m. 
and f.) forget me. 

b. Piel and Hiphil Futures. 

Write the different persons of the Piel or Hiphil future 
of bttj? with suffixes. 

Translate : — 

She will massacre them (m. and /.). Will ye (m. and 
/.) massacre us ? He will massacre you (m. and /.). 
He will cause thee (m. and f.) to kill me. He will cause 
to kill thee. Thou (m. and /.) wilt cause her to kill us. 
I will cause him to kill them. They (m. and /.) will 
cause me to kill. 

Thou (m.) wilt deliver them and they will honor thee, 
The Lord has remembered us and crowned (future with 
Vav. Conv.) us with honor and majesty. He will not 
destroy me. Let him not destroy me. Jehovah, who ia 
dwelling in Zion, will sanctify the people and deliver 
them (Heb. sing. suf. referring to people) from all evil 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 149 

and cause them to dwell in this place forever. I will 
cause thee to put on sackcloth, and will cause joy and 
o-ladness to cease and will utterly (aba. infin.) cut thee 
off. Thou wilt gather us and make us great. We will 
separate her from the assembly. All the virgins shall 
honor her. 

e. Infinitive and Imperative. 

Write the Kal infinitive of btijj with suffixes and give 
the different significations of each form. 

Translate, noting the fact when the Hebrew is am 
biguous and giving the alternate significations : — 

To kill you (m. and /.). To kill them (on. and/.). 
To kill her. To kill him. Kill {on. s. and pi.) her. Kill 
(on. s. and pi.) him. My killing. To kill me. Our kill- 
ing. His being killed. Massacre (m. s. and pi.) them. 
To massacre you (on. and/.). His massacring us. Your 
being massacred. Cause (on. s. and pi.) him to kill the 
woman. My causing you to kill. Her causing to kill 
them. To cause him to kill me. To cause me to kill 
him. To cause to kill thee (m. and f.). Their being 
caused to kill her. 

To keep me. To keep him. To keep thee (on. and /.). 
To keep us. To keep them (on. and/.). Keep (on. s. and 
pi.) them. My keeping the commandment. Remember 
(m. s, and pi.) me. Here am I (Heb. ^?n , behold me), 
send me. Hear us. Deliver (on. s.) us. Crown (on. s. and 
pi.) him. To honor her. He has sworn to (use the prep.) 
gather us and to cause us to reign with him. Honor him 
and he will not forget to honor thee. Sanctify us and 
bring us near to thee. Gather the priests to the sane 
tuary; honor them before all the people; clothe U«em with 
(Heb. cause them to put on) salvation. 



150 lessons in writing hebrew 

13. Gender and Number of Nouns, §§ 43-45. 

Translate : — 

A great war. The great war. It is a great war (Heb 
the war is great). This war. This great war. This 
great and evil war. Great wars. The great wars. These 
great wars. These great and evil wars. These wars are 
great and evil. Wars are great evils. He nttered (Heb. 
cried) a great cry. I will make (Heb. cnt) a new cove- 
nant with them. New garments. These garments are 
new. There are the new garments. He caused me to 
put on these new garments. He rent the new garment 
which was upon him. A great kingdom. He shall reign 
over all these great kingdoms. Many wells. Large 
rocks. An evil beast. Good commandments. Many 
and great nations. Large figs. These large figs. These 
figs are large. The large figs are very large. These figs 
are larger than those figs. Those figs are better than 
these War is worse than (Heb. evil from) famine. 

14. The Construct State, §§ 46, 47. 

Uireotion 6. Observe that where a short vowel is in- 
serted in the construct plural agreeably to § 47. 5, the 
first syllable is intermediate and a following aspirate will 
not take Daghesh-lene, § 9. a. 

Translate : 

A house of a king. The house of the king. In the 
king's house are vessels of gold and vessels of silver. 
The vessels of silver are more than the vessels of gold. 
The vessels of gold are smaller than the vessels of silver 
The priests of Jehovah burned incense upon the golden 
altar (Heb. the altar of gold). Who will shut the doors 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 151 

of the house ? The rivers of the garden. The waters of 
the sea. The cattle of the earth, the beast of the field, 
and the fowl of heaven. This is the sign of the covenant 
which I have made with you. The mercy of Jehovah is 
from eternity and to eternity. The blessing of Jehovah, 
the God of all the earth. The kings of the nations. The 
stones of the field. The gates of the city. The field of 
Edom. The stars of the morning. Will ye not keep the 
commandment of the king ? The good commandments of 
God. The great day of Jehovah. Aaron and Eleazar 
offered them upon the altar. 



15. Nouns with Suffixes, § 49. 

Direction 7. Nouns having suffixes are definite and 
require attributive adjectives joined to them to take the 
article, §§ 69, 70. 



Write the nouns "O^ word and t)&5 soul in both num 
bers with the suffixes in their order, adding to each form 
its signification. 

Translate : — 

Thou shalt hear my voice in the morning. He put 
(Heb. gave) the ark of God in its place. His mercy is 
to eternity. She caused him to put on his new garments, 
He will subdue the nations under us. Thou wilt subdue 
them under our feet. I will clothe her priests with 
(Heb. cause her priests to put on) salvation. My priests 
shall be clothed with righteousness. Ye shall keep my 
Sabbaths. I have kept thy commandment. Hear my 
cry. She will wash her head, her hands, and her feet. 
He anointed my head with (la) oil. The nations and 
their kings. His holy tabernacle (Heb. the tabernacle <J 



152 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

his holiness). My righteous God (Heb. God of 1113 
righteousness). He will not forget his covenant. Hi& 
voice is breaking in pieces rocks. My foot. My feet 
His foot. His feet. Their feet. He has given salvation 
to his king. Ye are dwelling in your house. This is my 
field. Thy field is larger than our field. 



16. Pe Guttural Verbs, § 53. 

The intransitive verb iky to stand does not in strictness admit of a passive, 
and accordingly never occurs in the Niphal. That species, as found in the para- 
digm, may in these exercises be rendered as though ' stand ' had its transitive 
sense, he was stood, etc. 

Write the paradigm of Tb* to stand, the Kal future of 
iSa to eat, and the Kal future and imperative of pin to 
be strong. 

Translate : — 

Ye (m. and/.) stood. We shall stand. They (m. and 
f.) will stand. Thou (ra. and/.) wilt stand. Stand thon 
(m. and/.) I shall stand. To be stood. T was stood. 
She was stood. Ye (m. and/) will be stood. Be ye 
(ru. and/) stood. He shall be stood. We shall cause 
to stand. Thou shalt be caused to stand. Thou (m. and 
/.) wast caused to stand. They were caused to stand. 
They caused to stand. Caused to stand. Causing to 
stand. I shall eat. Ye (m. and/) will be strong. Be 
thou (m. and/) strong. She will eat. 

The curse was turned to a blessing. I shall turn day 
to night. Turn (thou) these stones to bread. Darkness 
shall be turned to light. I shall cause them to eat bread. 
He caused his people to eat manna. Have ye not eaten ? 
What have you (Heb. is to you) to eat? There is nc 
bread to eat. It shall not be eaten. The priests shall 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 15A 

eat it Eat no bread in this place. Ye shall not eat fron. 
this tree. Ye have forsaken ine and I will forsake you. 
Will ye forsake me? Thou'shalt serve him and he will 
not forsake thee. Serve Jehovah with all thy heart and 
with all thy soul. All the nations shall serve him. Who 
is Jehovah that I shall serve him ? It shall be said to 
you, Ye are my people and I am your God. The words 
of Jehovah were verified. He is a living God and an 
everlasting king (Heb. king of eternity). He is king ol 
kings. 

17. A yin Guttural Verbs, § 54. 

The verb bxs has in Kal and Niphal the sense of redeeming, in Piel, Pual, and 
Ftithpael that of polluting. 

Write the paradigm of bfca . 

Translate : 

He will redeem. Thou (m. and/;) wilt redeem. Re 
deem ye (m. and /.) They redeemed. She was re- 
deemed. Be thou (rn, and/.) redeemed. They (m. and 
/.) will be redeemed. We polluted ourselves. Polluted. 
Polluting. Thou (m. and/.) pollutedst. Ye (on. and /.) 
were polluted. She polluted. Pollute ye (m. and /.) 
Pollute thyself (m. and/.). We shall be polluted. They 
(on. and /) will pollute. Ye (on. and /.) will pollute 
yourselves. I shall pollute. 

I will bless him with all my heart. God will bless us. 
He has blessed us. Bless ye (m.) Jehovah. Bless Jeho- 
vah, ye virgins of Israel. He went to bless his house. 
His seed shall be blessed in the earth. He will bless thee 
and thy seed after thee. Ye shall be blessed in him 1 
cried unto thee in the night and thou heardest my voice, 
We will cry with a loud (Heb. great) voice to him that 
7* 



154 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

gitteth (Heb. to the [one] sitting) in the heavens. C15 
not tc me ; cry unto the gods whom ye have sei ved. 
Wash ye your hands and your feet. Wash thou me and 
I shall be clean. Cleanse your hearts and not (b») your 
garments. I will cleanse you f rom all evil. Forsake evil 
and serve me. He drove out the nations from before us 
and we dwelt in their land. Thou hast redeemed us 
The Grod of Israel is thy Redeemer. 

18. LAMEDH GrTJTTURAL VERBS, § 55. 

Write the paradigm of ribi? to send. 

The Piel of this verb may be rendered for the sake of distinction to send away. 

Translate : — 

To send. To send away. To be sent. To send one's 
self. To cause to send. Thou (m. and f.) didst send. 
We shall be sent. I shall send myself. Cause thou (m. 
and f.) to send. He will send away. Thou (m. and f.) 
wast sent. Ye (in. and f.) will cause to send. Sending. 
Sent. Causing to send. He will cause to send. She 
will be sent. Thou (m. and f.) wilt send thyself. They 
(m. and f.) will send. Send ye (m. and f.). 

He will sow his field. It is time to sow thy seed. 
3ow good seed in thy field. Bad seed which should (Heb. 
shall) not be sown. These fields shall be sown to-day. The 
sower (part.) went to sow; and in his sowing (inf.) these 
fell on the way and the fowls of heaven ate them ; these 
fell on the rock and these on good ground. The field is 
the whole earth; the seed is the word of God; the sower 
is the Son of man and his servants whom he has sent in 
his name. Didst thou (in.) not sow good seed in thy 
field? Didst thou (/.) hear what he said to thee? It is 
good to hear thy voice. She will be heard. To be 
heard He will open the house. The heavens were 






WESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 155 

opened and a voice was heard, This is my Son, hear him. 
Who shall open the eyes of the blind? The deaf shall 
hear. His clothes (were) rent {Kal pass, part.) and 
ashes upon his head. Forget not his commandments. 
Thou shalt not be forgotten. He will not withhold any 
(to) good from us. 



19. Pe Nun Verbs, § 56. 

The Kal and Niphal of fcJSD , though given in full in the paradigm, are each 
but partially in use, and as they are identical in signification they are made tc 
supplement each other. The Niphal is found only in the preterite and participle ; 
the Kal in the infinitive, future, and imperative. 

Write the paradigm of tfij to approach and the Kal of 
ins to give. 

Translate : — 

Approach thou (m. and f.). She will approach. They 
(m. and f.) will approach. Approaching. To approach. 
We approached. Ye (w. and f.) approached. I ap- 
proached. I shall approach. I shall be caused to 
approach. Thou (m. and f.) caused st to approach. 
Cause ye (m. and f.) to approach. Thou (m. and /.) 
wilt cause to approach. He will be caused to approach. 
Caused to approach. To cause to approach. To give. 
Ye (m. and f.) gave. Thou (m. and f.) ofavest. We 
gave. We shall give. Give thou (m. and f.). 

Give (imp. with He parag.) (to) me thy field. I will 
give (to) thee instead of it a field better than it. Ask 
from me and I will give thee the nations. He will give 
me a new heart. Ye gave me bread and I ate. Thou 
gavest this land to him and to his seed forever. He 
sware to give us this good land. Thou wilt give rain 
upon the earth. He will give them into our hand. Hf 



156 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW 

said, Give me tliy hand ; and he gave him his hand 
What will ye give me? I know (pret.) that he will not 
suffer (Heb. give) you to go. I shall take a little honey. 
Take half of the blood and put (Heb. give) it upon the 
altar. 1 have (see Direction 1, Lesson 2) no silver and 
gold ; I shall give thee all that I have. Tell me, I pray 
thee, what he said to thee ; withhold not a word from 
me. And he told her all that was in his heart. They 
did not tell us the half. It was told to the king and to 
his servants. 



20. A yin Doubled Verbs, § 57. 

Write the paradigm of aio to surround, and the Pie! 
of ?po to excite. 

Translate : — 

He surrounded. We surrounded. They surrounded. 
Ye (m, and f.) surrounded. Thou (m. and f.) didst 
surround. She surrounded. I surrounded. I was sur- 
rounded. He was surrounded. Ye (m. and f.) were 
surrounded. She was surrounded. They were surround- 
ed. Thou (m. and f.) wast surrounded. We were sur- 
rounded. We shall be surrounded. We shall surround. 
Thou (pi. and/!) wilt be surrounded. They (m. and/!) 
will be surrounded. Ye (m. and f.) will surround. I 
shall surround. Surround ye (m. and /.). Be thou (m. 
and/.) surrounded. Surrounded. Surrounding. Tc 
surround. To be surrounded. 

They surrounded entirely. We shall sui round entirely 

Surround ye (m. and /.) entirely. I caused to surround 

' c caused to surround. She was caused to surround 

Ye (m. and /.) caused to surround. He caused to sur 

round. We caused to surround. They were caused U 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 15 1 

surround. They caused to surround. Cause thou (m. 
and f.) to surround. I shall cause to surround. They 
(m.) shall be caused to surround. Causing to surround- 
Cause ye (m. and f.) to surround. Ye (m. and f.) shall 
cause to surround. Surrounding one's self. We excited 
They (m. and f.) shall excite. 

I have begun to give you this land. Thou hast begun 
ho speak to him. Begin to-day. The famine began this 
year. In those days (§ 50) Jehovah began to send into 
Judah the king of Edom. She began to ask. We began 
to demolish the statues and the pillars. They began. 
They (m. and f.) will begin. They rolled the stone from 
upon the mouth of the well. The stone is very great ; 
who shall roll it for us ? He is rolling himself upon the 
ground. I shall curse thy blessings. He began to curs<. j 
and to say, I know (pret.) not the man. Curse ye bit- 
terly (abs. injm.) the city and its inhabitants (Heb. the 
[ones] inhabiting it). Cursed is the man, who shall eat 
bread this day. Cursed is the man, who will not hearken 
to the words of this covenant. I took thee to curse them 
and lo ! thou hast blessed them. Thou shalt not bless 
them and thou shalt not curse them. 



21. Pe Yodh Verbs, § 58, 

Write the paradigm of 3t£h to dwell, and the Kal oi 
ea; to be dry. 

Translate : — 

To dwell. Dwell thou (m. and /.). He will dwell. 
Ye (m. and/.) will dwell. I shall dwell. Thou (m 
and f.) wilt be dwelt (in). She was dwelt in. Be thou 
(m. and /.) dwelt in. Causing to dwell. They were 
caused to dwell. They caused t© dwell. She caused to 



[58 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

dwell. We were caused to dwell. Ye (m. and /.) ^7ere 
caused to dwell. Cause ye (m. and y.) to dwell. Sh* 
will be caused to dwell. I shall cause to dwell. Thou 
(pi. and/.) shalt be dry. Be ye {on. andy.) dry. To 
be dry. 

Hast thou known ? Will he know ? Wilt thou let 
me know or not ? Will he go ? Let me know whether 
he will go or not. They will go to-clay. Hast thou 
remembered the commandments of Jehovah ? Wilt thou 
keep them or not ? He knows (pret.) whether thou wilt 
keep them. Thou knowest whether he will keep them or 
not. Wilt thou bless him or curse him? Who shall 
dwell in thy holy place (Heb. place of thy holiness) \ 
Art thou my son or not ? Tell {He parag^) me, I pray 
thee, whether thou art my son? Tell me whether thou 
art my son or not. Will the tree stand or fall? He 
caused us to go in the wilderness, where 1 we wearied him 
and did not walk in his ways. Where did we weary him ? 
If Jehovah be (the) God, go after him; and if Baal, 
serve him. Whither thou wilt go, I shall go. This is the 
man to whom ye shall go. To whom shall we go ? thou 
hast the words of life. If ye will serve me with all your 
heart, then (Vav with jpret. Rem. 37) will I cause you to 
dwell in this land forever. 

1 Observe in this and the following sentences the distinction between the rela- 
tive and the interrogative. 

22. A yin Vav and Attn Yodh Verbs, § 59. 

Write the paradigm of up to rise and the Kal of UTI tc 

contend. 

Translate : — 

Ye (on. and f.) rose. He rose. They rose. We rose 
She rose. They (on. and f.) will rise. Rise thou {m 



fcESSONS IN WBITING HEBBBW. 15$ 

and /.). We shall rise. He will rise. Rise ye (m. and 

/.). To rise. Rising. Risen. To be risen. Ye (m. 
and f.) will be risen. I shall be risen. Thou (pi. and 
y.) wilt be risen. She was risen. We were risen. I 
was risen. Thou (m. and /.) wast risen. He was risen. 
Ye (m. and f.) were risen. They were risen. He will 
he risen. He raised. We shall raise. He will be raised 
fie was raised. Raising. Raised. 

I caused to rise. Ye (m. and /.) caused to rise. She 
caused to rise. He caused to rise. They caused to rise. 
Thou (on. and f.) didst cause to rise. They (m. and /.) 
will cause to rise. Thou (m. and f.) wilt cause to rise. 
Cause ye (m. and f.) to rise. We shall cause to rise. 
Cause thou (m,. and f.) to rise. Causing to rise. I shall 
be caused to rise. Tbey were caused to rise. Raise thy- 
self (m, and/.). She raised herself. Thou (pi. and f.) 
didst contend. I contended. He contended. She will 
contend. Contend thou (m. and /.). Contending. 

He came to his house. They came to him and ate 
bread with him. Whence hast thou come ? Whence are 
ye coining ? Whither didst thou go ? Whither art thou 
going? Wilt thou come to me to-night? Come and 
lodge with me. Bring thy father and thy mother with 
thee. We came to the well and there was no water in 
it. Bring [ye] my tunic. Gold and silver shall be 
brought. They brought to him gold and incense. She 
lhall return to her former state. Return from your evil 
ivays and serve Jehovah. We are from dust and shall 
return to dust. The virgins will return bringing watei 
from the well. Bring back the silver whicli ye have 
taken from me. They brought him back to the city in 
joy and gladness. They shall be brought back to this 
land. He shall die. We shall die. They put him to 
death. He was put to death. She shall be put to death 



160 lessons in writing hebrew. 

23. Lamedh: Aleph Veebs, § 60. 
"Write the paradigm of afca to find. 

Translate : — 

Ye (m. and/.) found. We were found. Thon (m 
md /.) didst find out. They caused to find. I found 
myself. He was found. To cause to find. To be found. 
Finding one's self. They (m. and/.) will cause to find. 
Ye (m. and/.) will find. She will be found. He will 
find. Ye (ra. and/) will find out. Find ye (m. and/) 
Cause ye (m. and/) to find. Ye were found. 

I shall call to him and he will hear my voice. They 
called the name of the city Ur of the Chaldees. Call ye 
this young man. Call to me in the day of evil ; I will 
deliver thee. Thy name shall not be called Naomi; 
thou shalt be called (Heb. to thee shall be called) Mara. 
Jehovah brought you out from that land. I shall bring 
you out from all the lands iu which ye are and will give 
you this good land which I sware to your fathers. He 
created the earth and the sea ; and the heavens are the 
work of his hands. My hands have created all these. 
Thou didst create man and beast upon the earth. Bring 
us out from all evil. Fill the vessels large and small 
with water. Thou hast filled the earth with thy mercy. 
The house was full of men and women. He caused it to 
rain upon the earth and filled our hearts with food and 
gladness. 

24. Lamedh He Verbs, § 61. 
Write the paradigm of n^5 . 

Translate : — 

They revealed. We revealed. She revealed. 1 re- 



LESSONS m WRITING HEBREW. 161 

vealed. Thou (m. and/*) wast revealed, He was re 
vealed. I was revealed. Ye (m. and /.) uncovered. 
They uncovered. He was uncovered. We were uncov- 
ered. She was exiled. Thou (m. and/.) wasfc exiled 
Thou (m. and/.) didst exile. They exiled. I uncovered 
myself. To exile. To uncover. To be revealed. To 
reveal. Thou (m. and/.) wilt be revealed. I shall re- 
veal. He will uncover. We shall be uncovered. They 
(m. and/.) will exile. She shall be exiled. Be ye (m. 
and/.) revealed. Uncover thyself (m. and/.). Keveal 
ing. 

The house was built in the city. My father built it. 
He began to build it and my brother finished it. I have 
finished the work which thou gavest me to do. Who 
will build an altar in this place to Jehovah ? They built 
a dwelling for him in Jerusalem. All the nations shall 
go up to Jerusalem to serve Jehovah. To go up and to 
go down. They offered burnt-offerings upon the altar. 
I did as Jehovah commanded me. Bring him up to me 
in the bed. And it came to pass (Heb. it was) as he fin- 
ished to offer the burnt-offering that (Heb. and) fire fell 
from heaven. They made for him a throne of gold. 
Solomon built him a house. Wilt thou dwell in this 
house which has been built for thy name ? He went up 
into heaven. He shall descend a second time from hea- 
ven. Jehovah appeared to Solomon in Gibeon. 



25. Numerals, § 65. 

Direction 8. The preposition of following a cardinal 
number must be expressed by "fa , thus DW©n pa simian 
five nf the horses, not tFpton twhn which would mean 
the five horses ; vm watf seven of them, not DFtfatt whicL 
would mean they seven. 



162 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

9. In compound numbers insert the conjunction and 
between the different denominations, which may proceed 
either from the higher to the lower or the reverse ; thus 
for sixty -Jive write either sixty and five or five and sixty. 

Write the masculine absolute of the cardinals from one 
to ten in their order. Write the present date, year, 
month, and day. 

Translate, noting each case in which different forms 
may be used, or in which the order of the words may be 
v aried : — 

Four heads. Ten seas. Twelve nations. Thirty of 
the Philistines. Fifty days. A hundred men. Six nights. 
Eight shekels. Three years. The seven stars. Seven 
of the stars. Seven stars. These seven stars. Twenty 
rocks. Eleven women. Nine kings. Two vessels. Nine 
virgins. Five stones. Twenty -four priests. Sixty houses. 
Sixteen months. Eighty queens. Six hundred years. 
Three hundred and sixty-five days. In the fifth year of 
(Heb. to) king Solomon, in the tenth month, in the second 
lay of the month. In the twenty-first of the eighth 
month. In the third of this month. The third [part] of 
the month. The fourth [part] of the year. The eighth 
[part] of the shekel. The eighth shekel. Eight of the 
shekels. He is eight years old. She is nineteen years 
old. All the days of Adam were nine hundred years and 
thirty years and he died, 

26. To ACCOMPANY GrEN. 1 t 1. 

Heaven. Earth. In heaven. In earth. The heaven. 
The earth. In the heaven and in the earth. Beginning 
In [the] beginning. He created God created. I 
created. In [the] beginning thou createdst the earth 
and the heaven. Creating. God the creator of (lit, the 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 163 

[one] creating) the heaven He will create. Thou wilt 
create. I shall create an earth and heaven. He was 
created (Niphal). We were created. Thou wast created. 
I was created. Ye were created. In [the] beginning 
were created the heaven and the earth. In [the] begin- 
ning was created the earth. [There] will be created an 
earth. [There] will be created a heaven. 



27. Gen. 1 : 2. 

Darkness. The darkness. And the darkness. In 
darkness. In the darkness. And in the darkness. Face. 
The face. The face of [the] deep. The face of the 
heaven. He was. I was. We were. Ye were. Thou 
wast. He will be. I shall be. We shall be. They will 
be. The earth will be waste and void (desolation and 
emptiness). Darkness was on the waters and on the face 
of the earth. Spirit. The Spirit. The Spirit of God 
brooded over the deep. The Spirit will brood. In the 
beginning the Spirit [was] brooding over the waters. 
God created the darkness and the waters. The deep was 
created. And the waters of the deep were waste and 
void 

28. Gen. 1:3, 4. 

He said. They said. And he said (Vav Conv.). And 
they said. I said. Ye said. We shall say. She will 
say. We saw. They saw. He saw. And he saw. He 
will see. God [is] seeing in the light and in the dark- 
ness. The waters were seen (Niph.). The earth was 
seen. The light will be seen. God saw the light. Good 
light. Light [is] good. The good light. The light [is] 
good. God isgood. God is 2 (Heb. he, § 67, 2) light 1 



164 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

fie saw that the light was good. God divided between 
the earth and the heaven. God [is] dividing between 
the darkness and the light. The waters were divided. 
They will be divided.' I divided. Ye divided Thou 
wilt divide. Divide thou. 

29. Gen. 1 : 5, 6. 

Day and night. The day and the night. In the day 
and in the night. To the days and to the nights. To 
divide between days and nights. We shall call. We 
called. And we called (Vav Conv.). Thou didst call 
the firmament heaven. I called the darkness night, and 
the light I called day. The light (Heb. to the light) 
shall be called day. It was evening. One evening. 
One morning. One God. One earth. In the midst of 
the earth. In the midst of the heaven. Between the 
heaven and the earth (two constructions). God shall say 
to the waters, Be ye divided. Let there be light. Let 
there be darkness. God saw the firmament. The firma- 
ment [is] good. 

30. Gen. 1 : 7, 8. 

God made the day and the night. Thou madest the 
firmament. Thou didst divide the waters. I shall make. 
He will make. And he made (Vav Conv.). I made the 
earth and the waters. We were made. The earth was 
made. The waters were made. I made the heaven 
which [is] above the earth and the earth which [is] undei 
the heaven, and the waters which [are] under the earth, 
He divided the day from the night. Light was made in 
one day, and the firmament was created in a second day 
And he called the beginning of the day morning, and the 
beginning of the night he called evening. A second 






LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 165 

morning. The second evening. And it was so. And be 
did so. 



31. Gen. 1 : 9, 10. 

They were gathered. Ye were gathered. We were 
gathered. And they were gathered. Ye shall be gather 
ed To be gathered. Being gathered. He said to the 
waters, Be ye gathered unto the seas. The waters which 
were under the heaven were gathered unto one place, and 
the waters which were above the heaven were gathered 
unto a second place. The dry [land] was seen. The 
sea was seen. See thou the earth and the heaven. He 
made the waters which are in the sea. They called the 
dry [land] earth. The collection (gathering together) of 
waters shall be called sea. The God of heaven made the 
sea and the dry land. He divided the sea from the dry 
land. He said and it was [done], 

32. Gen. 1 : 11-13. 

God said to the earth, Bring forth (either of two verbs) 
grass. The earth brought forth herb and tree. Grass 
sprang up. Grass was brought forth. He said to the 
herb, Produce seed, and it was so. The herb produced 
seed (according) to its kind. I have sown the seed. Ye 
have sowc They have sown. In the morning sow thou 
the seed. The seed was sown in the evening. The herb 
will produce seed. The tree will yield fruit, A fruit- 
tree. The fruit-tree (§ 75. 5). The seed of the fruit-tree 
is in the fruit. To the tree yielding fruit [there] is seed 
according to its kind. The fruit, whose seed is in it. Seas, 
in the midst of which are waters. A day in which there 
is light. A night in which there is darkness. 



166 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 



33. Gen. 1 : 14-16. 

Let there be light. Let there be a light (luminary) 
One great light. The second small light. Two great 
lights. The Wo small lights. Two of (Heb. from) the 
small lights, which (Heb. to which) they have called 
stars. The stars will give light in the night. He made 
one light for the rule of the day. The second light was 
made for the rule of the night. He divided between 
lights and lights (Heb. to lights). Thou didst divide be 
tween the great lights and the stars. God created the 
lights and said (Vav. Con v.) to them, Give light upon the 
earth and divide day from night ; and it was so. There 
shall be signs in the heaven and in the earth. One sea- 
son. A second day. The third year. Two years and 
two days. Let there be stars giving light in the night. 



34. Gen. 1:17-20. 

In the fourth day God made the two great lights and 
the stars and in the firmament of heaven he set (Heb. 
gave) them. He set the firmament above the earth and 
the earth above the sea. I gave. They gave. We gave. 
Thou gavest. She gave. Giving. To give. He will 
give. We shall give. Given. Ye will give. One light 
ruled the day. A second light shall rule the night 
Thou [art] ruling the earth and the sea. God saw that 
the lights [were] good. He made the reptiles (collective) 
which are in the waters. He divided between the rep 
tile and the fowl. A soul of life. The soul of life 
Thou madest the soul of life which is in the fowl and in 
the reptile. In the morning they flew away. 






lessons in writing hebrew. 167 

85. Gen. 1:21-23. 

Theywe/e fruitful and multiplied (Vav Con v.) and 
filled the earth and the sea. The waters [are] filling 
(Piel) the sea. The sea shall be filled. The stars shall 
fill the heavens. The moving soul of life shall be fruitful 
and multiply upon the earth. Great monsters. The 
great monsters. All the great monsters of the sea. The 
monsters of the sea are great. God created them and 
he will bless them. He blessed the winged fowl and 
every soul of life which he had made. He caused the 
fowl to multiply in the earth and the monsters in the 
seas. Blessed be God. Bless ye God. Bless God, O 
my soul. God is blessing (Piel) every morning and every 
evening. 

36. Gen. 1:24-27. 

The beast of the earth was made after its kind. Man 
was created in the likeness of God, and in his image. 
The earth brought forth cattle and reptile creeping upon 
the ground. God made lights for the rule of the day and 
of the night; and the man he created for the rule of 
the earth. Thou didst make man according to thine 
image and in thy likeness. Man (Heb. with arti- 
cle) was made in the image of him that created (Heb. 
the [one] creating) him. Rule thou over the fish of the 
&ea and have dominion over all the earth. Let the fish 
multiply in the sea. The fowl shall fly over the face of 
heaven. He made them male and female. Every beast 
of the earth was made male and female. 

37. Gen. 1:28-31. 

Subdue ye the earth and fill it and multiply upon it 
and have dominion over all which is in it. God blessed 



168 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

all that lie had made. He saw that it was very good 
He gave to the man the fruit of the earth for food. 
Thou hast given to us every herb. To the beast of the 
earth every green herb was given. It will be given. To 
be given. Give thou. Give ye. See thou what God 
has made. He made light in one day. In a second 
day he made the firmament. In a third day the dry 
[land] was seen and it brought forth herb and treea 
In a fourth day he made the great and small lights. In 
a fifth day birds and fish were made. In a sixth day he 
made cattle and created man (Heb. with article) in the 
image of God* 

38. Gen. 2:1-5. 

The earth was finished. The host of heaven was fin- 
ished. The earth and the heaven were finished. I have 
finished my work. Thou hast not finished thy work. 
We have not yet finished our work. They will finish 
their work. Your work will be finished and ye will rest. 
These generations. These are the generations. These are 
the generations of Adam. These two generations. This 
day. This seventh day. This is the day which God has 
blessed. This is the seventh day in which God rested, 
and which he sanctified. No tree was yet in the ground. 
The earth had not yet brought forth herb nor (Heb. and) 
bush. In the fifth day there was no man and beast of 
the field there was none, for they had not yet been 
created. 

39. Gen. 2:6-10. 

This is the earth which God created and made (Heb 
[so as] to make). God blessed them and said (Heb. [so 
as] to say, or with Vav Con v.) to them, Be fruitful 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 169 

fcubdue the earth and rule (Heb. to rule) over it God 
caused il to rain and watered the face of the earth. He 
causes it to rain (fut. § 78, 3) and waters the ground. 
A mist [is] ascending from the sea and the earth will be 
watered We are as the grass, which sprouted in the 
Diorning and in the evening shall not be. This is youi 
breath which Jehovah breathed in your nostrils. He 
placed Adam in the garden which he had planted and in 
which lie had caused to grow every tree good for food. 
Four rivers. The four rivers. The four heads of the 
river. The six heads. The two gardens. Three days 
and three nights. Five mornings and five evenings. 
One small star. 

40. Gen. 2:11-16. 

Thou didst form Adam of dust. He made the man 
(Heb. to) a living soul. A great river is surrounding 
the land in which there is gold. The name of the garden 
is Eden. They called the garden Eden. The garden 
shall be called Eden. In the midst of the garden were 
two trees; the one was called the tree of life and he 
called the name of the second the tree of knowing good 
and evil. The place, where the garden of Eden was, is 
not known. He went. I went. He will go. We shal] 
go. To go. Going. He took the man. He took him. 
He took her. He took us. He took you. He took me. 
He took thee. He will take the tree. Keep the seventh 
day and (Heb, to) sanctify it. 

41. Gen. 2:17-20. 

Adam ate of the evil fruit and died. This fruit is 
good ; thou may est freely eat (Heb. emphatic infin.) of 
it. He ate it. She ate it. We ate it. Thou shalt eat 



170 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

it. Ye shall eat it. They shall eat it. Ye ate it. Ye 
ate of (Heb. from) it. It is not good for Adam to eat of 
it. He formed him. He formed her. He formed us 
Thou formedst us. I formed vou. I formed them. 1 
formed him. Thou didst put Adam in the garden to till 
it. He tilled the ground and kept it. Every beast of 
the field came to Adam. In the cattle of the field, the 
beast of the earth, the fish of the sea, and the fowl of 
heaven there was not found a help the counterpart of 
Adam. God gave name (Heb. called names) to the day 
and to the night. 

42. Gen. 2 : 21-25. 

Adam slept because a deep sleep from God had fallen 
upon him (§ 66. 2). A rib was taken and was made (Heb. 
built) into a woman and she was brought to him. One 
bone. His bone. His one bone. Two ribs. Her ribs. 
Her two ribs. One of (Direction 8, Lesson 25) his bones. 
Two of her ribs. Our three gardens. Three of our gar- 
dens. Four of their evenings. Five of your rivers. Six 
of the heads, into which the river was parted. Two of 
the men. Two of the women. They two, the man and 
the woman. Two of them. The woman left her father 
and her mother and clave to her husband. My mother 
has forsaken me. My father and my mother will not 
forsake me. Thou shalt do all that thy father and thy 
mother shall command thee. 



43. Gen. 3:1-5. 

The cunning serpent. This tree is the best of all the 
trees (Heb. collective) in the garden. The man was the 
greatest of all the men of [the] east. The stars are the 



LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW 171 

smallest of all the lights in the firmament. The sea is 
greater than the dry [land]. Dying (emphat. inhn.) he 
shall die. We shall die. I shall die. He died. She 
died. They died- Dying. He killed (caused to die). 
They killed. He was put to death. She shall be put to 
death. He said to the woman, Thou shalt not touch 
the tree lest thou die. Touch thou this fruit. I 
touched it and my eyes were opened and I knew good 
and evil. In the day of thy touching this tree (§ 89. 3) 
thou and thy wife shall die (§ 86. 1). 

44. Gen. 3 : 6-10. 

The woman's eyes were opened and she saw. She gave 
of the fruit to Adam and he saw and ate. A desirable 
tree. The desirable tree. The tree is desirable. He took 
of it. She took it. Ye took it. We shall take. They 
(f.) will take. Its fruit was taken and eaten and it 
opened her eyes. Open thou mine eyes and I shall see. 
Both her eyes. The eyes of them both. Two of their 
eyes. Their four eyes. They heard Jehovah walking 1 . 
She heard the voice of Jehovah [who was 2 ] walking in 
the midst of the trees. I saw the man eating 1 . Where is 
he ? Here he is (Heb. behold him !). Where art thou ? 
Here I am. I heard the tree falling \ The falling waters. 
We saw the stars falling from heaven. The woman and 
her husband hid themselves. 

1 The participle being a predicate will not agree with its subject Jehovah ia 
rtefiniteness, and hence must not receive the article, Remark 23, Lesson 13. 

2 See Bemark 3, Lesson 7. 

45. Gen. 3 : 11-15. 

Who commanded thee not to do this evil [thing] fern, ? 
Not to hear. Not to see. Not to walk m the garden 



I 72 LESSONS IN WRITING HEBREW. 

I shall command the stars not to give light in the night 
Who did this? Didst thou see the woman who ate 
(Heb. the [one] eating) this fruit ? Did the serpent de 
ceive the woman ? Eat ye of it and bless Jehovah. 1 
shall not eat the fruit which he has commanded me not 
to eat. What is this, the woman has done ? What are 
these \ Who are these ? The serpent is the most 
accursed of all cattle. Thy mother is the most blessed of 
all women. Thou art the greatest of all men. I told him. 
It was told to me. The serpent bruised his heel (Heb 
him [as to] heel). He shall bruise the serpent's head. 

46. Gen. 3 : 16-19. 

I shall bless them that bless (Heb. blessing) thee, and 
curse them that curse (Heb. cursing) thee, and all the 
earth shall be blessed in thee. The woman heard the 
roice of the serpent. The woman hearkened to the voice 
of the serpent. The man hearkened to the voice of his 
wife, and ate the fruit of which God had commanded him 
not to eat. The woman bare three sons. Sons were 
born to him. They shall be born. I was born. We 
were born. These are the names of the sons of Adam. 
Whose son art thou ? Return to dust (ye) sons of man. 
We returned. Have they returned \ Will they (f.) 
return ? He brought them back (caused them to return). 
They shall be brought back to the garden of the Lord. 

47. Gen. 3 : 20-24. 

Adam called (Heb. to) the woman Eve. The woman 
was called Eve. The woman's name was Eve. God 
called his name Adam, and said, Because from the ground 
I have taken him. Did he not call the man Adam, accord* 



LESSONS m WRITING HEBREW. 178 

ing to the name of the ground from whence he had taken 
him ? Men have given (Heb. called) names to the stars 
of heaven. God called the name of the firmament hea- 
ven, and gave names to the day and to the night. See 
thou the ground from whence thou wast taken. Take 
ye of the food which I have brought for you and eat 
of it. Coats of skin were made for the man and for the 
woman and they were clothed. These God gave to them 
instead of the fig-leaves which they had sewed for them- 
selves. He said to him, Put forth thy hand, and he put 
it forth. I shall send (Kal) him. I shall send her. He 
will send us. He will not send them. He has com- 
manded us not to send you. Ye will send me away 
(Piel). We shall send thee away. I shall drive you out 
(Piel) from my garden. He will keep me. Thou wilt 
keep them. 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



ns n. m. (const. ^ , pi. 

nina) father 
"ina v. K. (xh) to perish. P. 

to destroy 
■jafc n. m. f. a stone 
"n* n. m. mist, vapor 
Dins n. m. Edom 
yfta n. m. lord, master 
Dia n. m. man 
ni^s; n. f. ground, land 
*>5^. n. m. Lord 
ins or nna v. K. to love 
bna n. 111. (Q^nfc) tent 
fins n. m. Aaron 
■via v. K. N. to #Am& H. to 

e^stf to shine, g^g Z^Atf 
lis n. m. Z^Atf 
*W8 n. Z7r 

m'» n. m. f. (ni) sign 
T8 adv. then 
TJlk n. f. (D?it») ^^ 
Htf n. m. (const. h fl» 7 pi. 

D^na) brother 
nans n. m. .4A#6 
ins adj. cwtf 
niris n. f sister 

7 



"ins prep, after 

h s adv. (suf. i*K) xoheret 

ni^s n. f. enmity 

T\*x adv. w7^r<? ? 

ro^a adv. 7?ow f 

l^k (const, ftf) nothing 

there is not or was ?i<9£ 
*pfc adv. where ? only aftei 

T9, "P&B whence? 
ns^» n. f. ephah 
ttna n. m. (ffiiWNj) m^i, tes 

bis v. K. («i) to ^. H 

to <?<#wstf to <?$£ 
bs adv. wo^ 
bs n. m. God 

"5S prep, to, wvito, respecting 
n^s see nt 
«rib» commonly in the pL 

D^n'bs n. m. 6W 
nteba n. m. Eleazar 
DS n. f. (niiaa) mother 
Dtf conj. &f, in a disjunctive 

question or 
yq$ v. N. to fo verified, found 

true 



176 



HEBREW-ENGLISH V0CABUL ART. 



njfctf n. Amanah 
DDES adv. truly, indeed 
*\n# y K. (»i) to soy. N. 

to ^ said 
•ijtf adv. whither ? • 
Ei-tf n. in. ma?i 
^ , iiiu$ pron. 7 
5)8 n. in. (D^i») nostril, face 
C|tf conj. &&6>, even j ^ 5l« 

A<9^ mwcA m6>r<? or after a 

negative A<?^ m«<?A less ; 

Gen. iii. 1, is it even so 

^ f 
15& n. m. <2sA<?s 
<i?ia n. f. lattice, window 
n^Sitf num. four 
D^SHS num. forty 
]ii« n. in. f. «? J & 
fitf n, m. f. (tii) earth, land 
■via v. K. P. to <??wm N. 

Ho. to fo cursed 
iniSj n. Ararat 
©» n. m. f. jftrtf 
Hf8 n. f. (const. n©2$, pi. 

n*>ttjj) woman, wife 
lira: pron. wAa, which; conj. 

*VW, because; "n§S? #s 
hitch: n. f. (d\ and tri) pillar 
na sign of the definite object 
fi» prep. ?#^A 
nnK m., xjk f. pron. £A<9^ 

a prep, in, into, at, with 
182 n. f. « W6?Z 



ito n. m. garment, pi. clothea 
13 n. m. separation; TO^ 

m 7ws separation, i. e 

<^to^6 
^ia v. H. to separate, divide 

N. to fo separated 
Jibia n. bdellium 
T& n. m. emptiness 
nina n. f. 5<?#s£, <?<3^fe 
sis v. K. (fut. Kin;) to com«. 

H. to <?<msg to <?6>Mtf, bring. 

Ho. to Z>0 brought 
■pa prep, between 
n^i n. m. (fc^r-ft) Aows^ 
^nba adv. wotf, used with the 

infinitive 
15 n. m. (e^?) sew 
nbs v. K. to build 
iia§a prep. 071 account of 
^i n. m. ito#?, for<i 
ij?2 n. m. morning 
ana v. K. to <?/mto. N. to to 

created 
115 n. m. A^7 
mia n. f. covenant 
Tift v. K. P. to Wm. N. Pu. 

to ^ blessed 
HDia n. f. # blessing 
"tifca n. m. # /fes7& 
na n. f. (suf. ina , pi. niaa) 

daughter 
n5lHa n. f. virgin 

ty} v. K to redeem, P. to *&/£/* 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



m 



jijtta n. Gibeon 

bill adj. great, large 

'^% v. K. (fut. a) to be great. 
P. to make great 

''ia n. hi. nation 

jinj n. m. i<?Ky 

jinia n. Gihon 

b?| v. K. to wB 

D5 conj. a&0, (?^^tz 

^fla| n. m. benefit 

15 n. m. (D" 1 ^) garden 

EH5 v. K. P. to <$m>0 6>^ 

at?? n. m. violent rain, show- 
er 

pi"^ (fat. 0) to cleave, adhere. 
H. to overtake 

W V. P. to SjP6#& 

"D^ n. m. word 

ttlM n. m. honey 

Tm n. 1. fish 

Ti'n n. m. David 

th^\ n. f. (Q?0^) ^oor 

Q'n n. m. &fo<96? 

tffia'j h. f . likeness 

ptm n. Damascus 

ppy\ v. K. H. to crush, pulver- 
ize 

T3T3 n. m. thistle 

tfyi h. m. f . wow/ 

«©7 v. K. to spring up, said of 
grass. H. to causetc spring 
up, bring forth grass 

8^ n. m. ^ms 

«* 



•Si art. ^ 

n asks a question. 

Tin n. m. majesty 

mm in. art , sin f. pron. 7*& 

she, it, that 
"rin n. m. splendor 
n?n v. K. to 6* 
Sfbn v. K. to ^o, w#£&. H. to 

cause to go, lead. Hith. to 

go for onds self, ivalk about 
in, nan int. (suf. *»5sn) fo/ 

behold ! 
nan adv. hither 
tfbn v. K. to &£to. N. to 6e 

turned. Hith. to faww 

0Wtf's s^ 
nn n. m. (pi. or^n, const. 

■nn) mountain 
"ji^n n. m. conception 

) conj. <m6? 

nj m. na'T f. b», n^a pi. proa, 

anj n. m. <7#W 

n^T n. m. olive-t/ree, olive 

"OJ v. K. to rememher 

"DT n. m. raafe 

n?T n. f. (r*j) sweat 

p?T v. K. (fut. a) to cry 

njb?T n. f. cry 

T\l v. K. to £0w. H. to pro 

duce seed 
3HT n. m. 



178 



HEBRE W-E NGL1SH VOCABULARY. 



Kin v. H. to hide. K Hitli. 

to hide one's self 
rnian n. f. apron 
bp"in n. Hiddekel, Tigris 
°70 adj. new 
E^ri n. m. month 
K^nn n. Havilah 
prn v. K. (fut. #) to Z>e strong 
^n adj. (njn) living, alive 
n*n n. f. (par agog, vowel 

irnn) ^% ? living thing, 

beast 
^n v. K. to ^>£ 
D^n n. m. pi. K/fe 
"iiSn n. m. f. window 
b5n v. H. to Z><?#w 
pbn v. P. to deliver 
ifcn v. K. P. to fern*. N. 

to &0 desired 
itfnMi num. fifth 
"pan n. m. Haman 
D^fan num. fifty 
^on n. m. kindness, mercy 
ion v. K. to &0 diminished, 

to fail 
wj n. m. ('ttn) A^ 
ann ii. f. sword 
©in adj. (0^70) cfeo^ 
*fi?n n. m. darkness 

"iina adj. clean, pure 

inia v. K. to &£ clean, pure. 

P. to purify, cleanse. N. 

to be purified 



ait: adj. ^6>6? 

Ujit? v. P. to s<^7, <3?e/2fe 

Difa adv. %#£ £6#, before 

*fi; v. K. (inf. const. n©T») 

to Z>£ <$ry 
mra? adj. f. ^r^/ land 
?i? v. K. to fo weary. P. H. 

to weary, to cause to toil 
T n. f. A<m<# 
yi; v. K. to know. H. to 

<?#?/$£ to know, let knoio 
rrnn? n. in. Judah 
*HTP n. m. e/ew 
nirn n. m. Jehovah 
Di^ n. m. (d^) dtoy 
n;ii n. f. (d\) diw* 
qpt> n. hi. Joseph 
^Ti v. K. to Z>£$r, £mfc? 

forth. N. Pu. to Z>0 ^ww. 
sfe see }?n 
D? n. m. (D*>i2P) $0# 
Ip?: n. m. Jacob 
»&J v. K. to <7<9 02^, gw 

forth. H. to <?<ms£ to <?0 

forth, briny forth 
p&? v, K. to pour 
"i*; v. K. (fut. W^) to form 
an; v. K. (fut. an^) to'/^r 
Ti; v. K. to gw down, de 

scend 
p'^rp n. Jerusalem 
rn? n. m. moon 
irvn^ n. Jericho 






HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



179 



F35 li. in. greenness 

tin; or ton; v. K. H. to drive 
out 

b&nun 11. m. Israel 

3i»; v. K. to s^, dioell, in- 
habit 

1©; v. K. (fut. 1©^) to s%? 

w). ii. m. salvation 

2 prep, according to, as, like 
lij K. (fut. a) to fo heavy. 

P. to honor. N. to &# 

honored 
TH3 n. m. honor, glory 
t k n? v. K. P. to subdue. N. 

to £<? subdued 
nb adv. tf/iws, s# 
inb n. m. priest 
n3i3 n. m. stor 
b^3 v. P. (bibs) to contain 
Ens n. in. OWA 
^3 conj. /<??', because, that ; 

after a negative &?^ 
bs n. m. (suf. i&) <zZZ, every, 

the whole 
abs v. K. to withhold, re- 
strain. N. to Z>£ restrained 
nbs v. K. to <?<9m<? to <m <??ieZ. 

P. to complete, finish. Pn. 

to be finished 
*>b3 n. in. (pbs) vessel, article 
1? adv. so. ]3 bs? therefore 
ff£? n. f. wm<7 
8D3 ii. m. (ni) throne 



£|D3 n. m. silver 

S|3 n. f. (d?63) ^>aZ??z of the 

hand, soZtf of the foot 
3*H3 n. m. cherub 
nn 3 v. K. to c^ 7 c^ ajf, ra^&d 

a covenant. H. to G"^ ojfl 

Ho. to &<? <?^ ojf 
D"Hfr3 n. m. pi. Ohaldees 
nafti n. f. (pi. niins, const 

nibns) ^mc 

b prep, to, for 

tfb adv. %<9£ 

nb n. m. (niab) /^<2r£ 

nnb n. in. (ni) A<?$r£ 

ttfni or tab v. K. (fut. a) to 

j??/£ 6>^, w<?<2r, fe clothed 

with. H. to caws<2 to jt?^ 

(9^, to clothe 
tsnb n. m. flame 
anb n. m. f. bread 
b^b n. m. (nb;b § 48. 2, pi. ni) 

night 
"pb v. K. to Zo^/tf 
^bsb see a^s 
nbb v. K. to capture 
npb v. K. to tofe N. Pa 

Ho. to Z><? to&#ft 

"Fta adv. very 

•ika num. hundred 

ni&tt li.ni. (D\ and ni) Z^tf 

luminary 
bihstfa n. in, food 



180 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



na'TQ n. m. wilderness 

rrq pron. what? whatever ; 

r«a$, nn) for what? why? 
*i6itt n. in. instruction 
Wtt n. m. (D\ and ni) season 
ma v. K. to efe Ho. to &6 

p^£ to <&«£& 
rjtt n. hl death 
napa n. m. (ni) a/to;* 
nitt n. f. J^ 

ifaa v. H. to <?a^s# to ram 
^tjtt n. m. ram 
^ pron. wAa? whoever 
d^e n. in. pi. water 
yn n. m. species, hind 
ni* v. K. to **B 
Kjfc v. K. fojSK or be full. P. 

toj^. K Pu. to be filed 
n5abtt n. f. (const, nDab'tt. 

suf. iroabtt ) work 
rmnbtt n. f. war, fighting 
rfbtt v. K. to reign. H. to 

rawstf to reign, to make 

king. Ho. to be made king 
rfbtt n. m. king 
nsb-tt n. f. $"^^7i 
n^obtt n. f. (§ 9. 7) kingdom 
nibtttt n. f. (const. 

kingdom 
nbte^tt ii. f. (const. 

dominion, rule 
Xg n. m. manna 
pa prep, from, out of; 

b D^g'P 6*72/ £A# ^a^ 0/ 



nistt n. m. rest 

v k vn v. K. to withhold, keep 
back. ~N. to be withheld 

tt&g n. a K#&? 

taiha H. to m#&£ sm#^ or few 

liipa n. m. (D\ and ni) 
fountain 

b?ia adv. above 

rn#g n. f. (const, rviina) tfdw* 

ate v. K. toj^d 

naattt n. f. stote 

n'iS'a n. f. co7nmandtnent 

rnjpp n. m. gathering together, 
collection 

Dipa n. m. f. (ni) ^>Z&<?6 

aria n. f. Mara (bitter) 

T\$y& n. m. sight, appear- 
ance 

^"ro n. m. Mordecai 

ntiha v. K. to anoint 

■pbffiti n. m. tabernacle, dwell 
ing 

bfcfc v. K. to /"^Z^, with a be- 
fore its object. H. to cause 
to ride 

tt&tttt n. m. judgment 

a; particle of entreaty, noto 1 

pray, I pray thee 
Tip v. H. to tell. Ho. to be told, 
Iji prep, before, in the pres* 

ence of over against; ijj? 

corresponding to, a coun 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



181 



*Jj v. K. to touch, with 3 

before its object 
#ij v. K. N. to approach 
inj n. in. (d\ and fri) river 
m v. K. to rest. H. (n^n 

or rpsn) to cause to rest, 

put, place 
Hi n. m. Noah 
tiJnj n. m. serpent 
tfb) v. K. to plant 
"WJ n. f. Naomi {sweet) 
i?5 n. m. young man 
nsj v. K. to breathe, blow 
bsba v. K. to fall, fail 
ttJBi n. hi. f. (or and ni) 

nngs n. f. female 

WM v. H. to deceive 

Difc see n©« 

nfe n. f. breath 

V05 v - P. to demolish 

jrii v. K. to g^tf, jpw& N. 

Ho. to 5tf 0^072- 

nno v. K. to surround 
*tto v. K. P. to s&w£, sAwtf ?/£>. 
K Pu. to Jg sAw£ H. to 

«ms£ to s/m£ 
"DO v. N. to 60 sA/w£, stopped 
y\t n. m, r<9<?& 
isd v. P. to recount, tell 

"D? v. K. to &?7w, ^'S 
"D? n. m. servant 



*ii? v. K. to ^>#ss. H. to 

cause to pass 
*t? prep. W72to, until 
n~$ n. f. company, assem 

bly 
Tji n. jElfew 
TO adv. 7/^. besides 
bw n. m. suckling, babe 
d'TO n. m. eternity ; O^i?: 

forever 
5p* n. m. jfowZ, ^tWs 
t|W v. K. P. to /t/ 
"M adj. Ww&^ 
TO n. in. (ni) s&m 
3T2 v. K. to ifozw, forsake 
1J? n. in. A<?^> 
*\b$ v. P. to crown 
V n. (with art.) ^4i 
■p* n. f. (Dji 1 *?) ^ 
TO n. f. (ffn?) <% 
dto n. m. (cp£)TO) ^afe^- 

7im, naked 
fe? prep. 7^>(m, <?-y<^, concern- 

ing 
rtiy v. K. to 0w wp. H. fo 

nby n. m. leaf 

nbb n. f. burnt-offering 

■»§? n. m. £7* 

Dbi? see apis? 

a? n. m. (c^j?) people 

D? prep. ("»&* or "HE?) <^&? 

*!»? v.. K to stowiJ 

*UJ? n. m. (ni) &^ 



182 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOBABULARY. 



f3? n. in. tree, and collectively 
frees 

2yy n. m. pain, sorrow 

fiSsy n. m. pain, sorrow 

de? n. f. (d\ and ni) bom 

^p? n. m. (const. ap? , pi. 
d\ and Mi) heel 

y^i n. m. f. (Mi) evening 

1^ n. m. raven 

ffh? adj. (n&T?) 7iaferf 

cn^? adj. cunning, subtle 

ac? n. m. (Mi) A#re> 

nib? v. K. to do, make, pro- 
duce. N. to S# <:/<9?i<?, m<3<$? 

"lite n. m. Esau 

lito? n. m. decade, ten 

■nitog num. tenth 

ny n. m. f. (Q"W) time in the 
sense of duration 

nn? adv. ^<9i# 

MS n. m. (const. *>B) mouth 

ptths n. Pison 

cn^bs n. m. pi. the Philistines 

"is conj. fes£, £/W W6>^ 

D^DB n. m. pi. face; ^5Bb or 
iSB-b? before, in the pres- 
ence of 

D?B n. m. f. time in the sense 
of repetition 

nps v. K. to open the eyes. 
N. to be opened 

tib v. K. P. H. to separate, 
pa/rt. N. Pu. to be parted 



MnB v. K. to be fruitful 
"HB n. m. fruit 
nins n. m. Pharaoh 
"ibis n. Pharpar 
M^B n. Euphrates 
tsife v. K. to to&£ 0^ clothes 
fiMB v. K. to 0j?0w. K to fi< 
opened 

an? n. m. (a* and Mi) host 

P^2 n. m. righteousness 

r\\± v. P. to command 

TV** n. f. Zwm 

obi n. m. image 

*jte n. f . (const, ybi , pi. ir 

and Mi) s^Vfe, W6 
nix v. K. P. to sprout, to shooi 

forth. EL to <?dw&?0 to sprout 
ngys n. f. cry 
Mi? n. f. (rna) Prouble 

bn£ v. P. to receive, accept 
f n]J v. P. to 0w5A<9r. K to &6 

gathered 
*iijj v. K. to &wy. N. to fo 

buried 
ong n. m. £fl^ 
ME^J? n. f. former state 

T\m$ n. f. 6WS?5 

©1j? v. K. (fut. a) to be holy 
P. H. to sanctify, conse- 
crate. N. Pu. to £<? sancti- 
fied. Hith. to sanctify oi 
purify one's self 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY. 



188 



©7p n. m. holiness, a holy 
place or thing 

nip v. N. to he gathered to- 
gether 

blp n. m. (mi) voice, sound 

D*p v. K to arise 

yip n. m. thorn 

?*!?, IS!? adj. (nit?)?) «fcfy 
small 

"tap v. H. to <W/2, incense 

m^tbp n. f. incense 

V?Z v. K. to Z»e fe'^, dimin- 
ished 

n^p n, f. a 6'^;'6^ 

fp n. m. 6^<i 

nip n. m. end 

Kip v. K. to raB. N. Pa. to 
be called 

S'ip v. K. (fut. $) to <?0m<? 
T^ar, approach. II. to 
5rm^ w^w, offer 

3^p v. K. to rend 

rtn v. K. (fut. with Vav 
vfij) to see. N. to £tf 
5^6^, appear 

©tf"i n. m. (tn&tf ?) A^4 source 

fi^fe&n n. £ beginning 

Ty adj. (msn) much, many 

man v. K. to 56 many, inul- 
tiply intrans. P. H. (inf. 
abs. ninn) to make many, 
multiply trans. 

'tf'O'J num. fourth 

syj n. f. (b^jn) /b^ 



fiT) v. K. to wfe, A«6>6 J<»- 

minion 
a^pn'i n. m. pi. troughs 
t}T\ n. m. f. (mi) breath, wind. 

Spirit 

f ^ V. K. to W7£ 

D^lrrn adj. merciful 
D^irn n. m. pi. mercies, com- 
passions 
tfhy v. P. to brood, hover 

over 
ffrj 7. K. to was/i 
2*n v. K. to contend 
ton v. K. to cr^? 
ton n. m. creeping t?«mg, 

reptile 
T\ adj. (ruh) bad, erf I 
2?? u. m. famine 
min n. f. #w 
? n pn n. m. firmament 

rrfto n. m. (D\ and mi) field 

rnto n. m. 5^sA, shrub 

n^to v. K. to place 

bit? v. H.. to Z>0 Wsg, act wisely 

mbti) n. f. garment 

T\ryti® n. f. gladness 

pto n. m. sackcloth 

qSi? v. K. to Zwm 

litito n - m - i<?y 

rfna© n. f. remnant 
iipnu? num. seventh 
pit? v. N. to swear 



184 



HEBREW-ENGLISH VOCABULARY 



nto njja© n. in. seventeen 

in© v. P. to break in pieces 

t"Q© v. K. (fut. o and a) to 
rest, cease, keep Sabbath. 
EL to cause to rest or cease 

ni© n. m. f. (suf . fe©) Sab- 
bath 

on 1 © n. m. onyx 

^i© v. K. to retwrn. P. H. to 
tf^stf to return, bring back 

cp© v. K. to bruise, crush 

nrj© v. H. to destroy 

rv© v. K. to put 

si© v - K. ^ ^ Awwi 

ni© v. K. to forget 

ifi© v. K. to subside 

b5© v. K. (fut. &) to fo 5^- 
reaved. P. to bereave 

DD© V. H. to W 607% 

l?i* v. K. to dM^B. P. H. to 

cause to dwell, to station 
n3© v. K. P. H. to send, send 

away, put forth 
^©ib© num. third 
^b'tg v. H. to mstf 
n&b© n. m. Solomon 
D© adv. there ; he© thither 
Dtp n. m. (ni) waw 
b&itt© n. m. Samuel 
&hti n. m. pi. heaven 
l^© n. m. 0^ 
ttbri v. K. to A^r, with a 

direct object or with a ; 

to hearken 



ifattT v. K. to fc<^>, observe. N. 

to fetfp 6>Ws stf/f, to&<? >Wd 
©"13 i? n. m. f. s?m 
njtf n. f. (D\) year 
^©' n. m. crimson 
i© num. second 
D?5©' m. D^snttf f. num. two 
rv 1 ?©' adv. a second time 
n?ti n. m. f. (0\) ^«to 
nna© n. f. handmaid 
Mjbtf v. H. to cause to drink^ 

to water 
bgto n. m. shekel 
fi©' v. K. to 6T<?6£>, ^m w^/i 

increase abundantly 
TT'nte n. m. creeping thing, rep 

tile 
*»©© num. s^atfA 

nixn n. f. desire 

*n. f. (*.) fig-free, fig 

rnn n. f. ar& 

Tin n. m. desolateness 

oinn n. m. f. (ni) ocean, the 

deep 
1\)h n. m. midst 
rrftbin n. f. pi. generations 
nnn prep, under, instead of 
"pan n. m. sea-monster 
"isn v. K. to s#w; 
©J?n v. K. to foy A#M #/" 

seize 
n^*in n. f. 6/^ sleep 
tlp T W® n. f. desire 






ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



Aaron firtK 

above btf'h 

to accept bap P. 

according to 3 

on account of *vo$$ 

to adhere pa-j K. 

after nna 

Ahab nana 

Ai ^n 

alive ^ 

all » 

#to?i0 'faab 

Amcmah fij^a 

to anoint rutin K. 

apron rnian 

to appear nan N. 

appearance na^E 

to approach tD'M K. N. ; 

K. 
to #mtf o^p K. 

<M*Ucle *b$ 
as ?, -iris? 



^1? 



assembly wy& 
at a 

^a^ b$:a 

ted an 

bdellium nb'te 

to J* n;n K. 

to fooT- (bring forth) lb; BL 

fo<zs£ (domesticated) •""Jisnsi 

fo^stf (wild) fijn 

because *ngK, "»? 

<W ntDtt 

before adv. ffntt 

Sg/bptf prep. IjS , ^feb , "O^r^ 

to 5^m bbn H. 

beginning rwfcn 

behold "JO , n?n 

benefit braa 

to bereave bbra P. 

to fo bereaved bbtj K. 

besides TO 

between y% 

birds 9p9 



186 



EtfGLISH-HEBKEW VOCABULABY. 



to bless *n? K. (only in 

pass. part.) P. 
Messing rwa 
blind W 
blood w 
to blow wpj K. 
bone Dsij 
to be bom lb? N. 
bread DlnV 
to &?m& in pieces latj P. 

to breathe nsj K. 

to bring «ia H. 

to Z>rm^ £#<?& aw P. H. 

to bring forth «¥? H. 

to bring forth children ibj H. 

to bring forth grass BE^ H. 

to Jn^ w^r an)? H. 

to 6rm<7 -^ nby H. 

to 5r6>(9<^ X^n P. 

brother rr&j 

to bruise Cp© K. 

to 5w7rf npa K. 

to Zwto Spto K. 

to &wm incense "log H. 

burnt-offering T&y 

to bury ^ag K. 

to (after a negative) ^3 

to call irjg K. 
to capture lab K. 
to <?#^ sfbtj II. 
ra#fe nana 



to <?<?#s<? na© 
Ohaldees trote 
cherub aTO 

to fe cfc^m *ira K. 
to cleanse nna P. 
to efeaw^ {adhere) pa? K 
to afo$* TO'ab H. 
to &0 clothed with tt'ab oi 
riab K. 

collection rnjp'a 

to C6>m<? tfia K. 

to cama w^w a 1 !]? K. 

to command nns P. 

commandment rnapa 

company n*j? 

compassions Q^fcrn 

to complete nbj P. 

conception "p^n 

concerning by 

to consecrate tth]? P. H. 

to contain b*ia P. 

to contend a*n K. 

corresponding to *i}bi 

counterpart Tjia 

covenant trna 

to create *na K. 

to ct\?<^> tottl K., fi© K. 

creeping thing totij, TTJ? 

crimson 'W 

to crown 1W P. 






ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



187 



to crush p^ K. H., tptf K. 

to cry P?T K. 
cunning DW 
to (www T)$ K. P. 

Gush tto 

to <Htf rro K. 

to <nd e>/ rn? K. H. 

Damascus ptoiw 
darkness SjEri 
daughter M 
David Tft 
*foy ai 11 
afe^ t»'nn 

to he put to death ma TIo, 

decade I'lto? 

to deceive k©j H. 

to tfe/Efe b»j P., q?t? P. 

to deliver f^n P. 

to demolish f tip K. 

to descend TV K. 

dmV<? tfjaw, ngiWFi 

to fow'« "ran K. P. 

desolateness iritt 

to destroy in» P., nra H. 

to <fe twfi K. 

to divide Vta H. 

to eft? nto? K. 

dominion ^bitae 

to A000 dominion TTT) K, 



to <?<ms0 to drink npij H. 
to <&w 0^ tth* K. P., Bhj 

or «h; K. H. 
dry land nioa? 
to &<? dry ®*5? K. 
ete "to? 

to dw*B stf; K., ptf K. 
dioelling *$fca 

each iNk 

ear )Y* 

to rise early DDtj H. 

ew^A ?™ 

<?aw^ Cttp, ™ip 

em ^ east of b o'jjg'e 

to 00* ^?» K. 

Edom cilia 
Eleazar iT*b» 

emptiness in£ 

to e?<9m^ to <m 0wd nbs K, 

enmity nn^» 
epliah ris^a 
i&em to 
eternity d?W 
Euphrates rna 

evening ailj 

#0<9ry ft 

<sw7 adj. 3n , n. HJH 



188 



ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



face B?i», ff»?$ 
to fail bfcj K. . 
to fall bfej K. 
famine asn 
father 2& 
to fear «v> 
female *t?j?J 
to mofe ^few t3?» H. 
field rro 
fifth VftV\ 
fig* fig^ee n ?**n 
fighting n^nbtt 
to j$Z «bfc K.' P. 
to find x?tt K. 
to finish nb| P. 

firmament T 1 ^) 

fish HW 

jfewzg ttfib 

flesh ntoa 

to fly ^9 TL P. 

/<?orf bra** 

foot%) 

for conj. ''a , pre]), b 

forever obtob 

to forget hdtc K. 

to form TR K. 

former state n^ig 

to forsake ST* K. 

from yo 
fruit V^? 



to be fruitful rns K. 
to fo/WZ abtt K. 

garden "J3 

garment %)i , nttbto 

#wto n?fc 

to ^A^r fag P. 

to be gathered togethei rnjP N 

gathering together njjjp 

generations rrnbin 

6%<?<m Tfrna 

6%0?i lima 

to give 10? K. 

to <^<? light litf H. 

gladness nrrato 

^tor^ "lias 

to ^ Mr7 K. 

to ^6> &>w?& Tnj K. 

to go forth, go out «?? K. 

to <7<? ^ nby K. 

<76>Z<# aw 

<7<9<96? aits 

Godte, BWft( 

<7?m£ bins 
to &# ^w^ b'lj K. 
to m#&0 ^ra&£ b^ji P. 
greenness PJJ 
ground TWJK 

A^7 TJ$ 

half^n 
Haman pan 



ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 18S 


hcmdmaid riniptp 


incense rrnbjp 


Havilah nb*nn 


fe 5w# incense it?£ E. 


fo? Kin 


to increase abundantly Y^K 


fttfd^ tfa'n 


indeed DJEK 


fe fow 3>tt© K. 


fe inhabit ntej K. 


fe hearken y&v K. 


instead of nnn 


Amn ab , nnb 


instruction iDitt 


heaven u^hw 


wife a 


to be heavy "D? K. 


is/wZ Hnto? 


to fefe faod "naij N. 


^ Kin, *rn 


Adrf ig? 




Mp njj? 


e/a<?0# lp?!! 


Aari atoi 


Jehovah nirn 


Hiddekel bgin 


Jericho w*p 


fe Aufe K?n H. 


Jerusalem pbtjrn 


At/Air nan 


«/#w -htp 


fe lay hold of to&n K. 


Joseph 5]?^ 


holiness v^ 


^0^ *j*itoto 


to be holy ring K. 


Judah niw 


honey ttQI 


judgment vwn 


honor "to? 




to honor 15? P. 


to keep "waij K. 


host K?B 


fe fe^> £#£& 37:12 K. 


A0HS0 n?ii 


fe fegp Sabbath nnri K 


fe hover over t)rn P. 


&m</ n. TE 


Aow roiiN 


kindness ion 


A010 wisitfA Zm "s qa — how 


i% tjbia 


much more id. 


fe mafe &m</ Sfbtt H. 


husband ink 


kingdom tvdra , nDbtttt 




fe &ww yi; K. 


1 *m , "oba 


fe Z#£ fc^w yi; H. 


'ifm 




imaae obi 


Ztf^J WtfJ^, fix 


mi 1 


large Vitj 



190 



ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



to lead ^n H. 

leaf nb? 

to leave dt? K. 

lest -pj 

to lie doivn 3D© K. 

life njn, D^n, teb: 

%A£ "Via 

a light niana 

to ^0 %7^ "Via H. 

likeness tvtcn 
little Ibg 

to few rw, *t« K. 

living ^n 
living thing njn 
fo/ W, HW 

lord TtJtf , bfla 

to Zow 3n$ K. 
Ivminary tta 



majesty Tjn 

to ma^ nto? K. 

to wiA a covenant fH3 K. 

to make few or sma^ Wtt H. 

to m#&<? &m<7 tfbtt H. 

to mafe many H3n P. H. 

wa^ n?T 

W<m d^k , flint , «*i3K 

young man "ivi 

manna pa 

w<my 3*? 



to &<? many ran K. 
Jfora «?» 
master fna 
mercies D^rn 
merciful Dirn 
mercy ion 
midst srjn 

month tthh 
mow 1")? 
Mordecai WTO 
morning n£3 
mother Dtf 
mouth ns 
m^<?A 3n 

to multiply intrans. ran K, 
trans, ran P. H. 

naked Din^ 
nakedness tfw? 

Naomi "W3 
nation ^ 

to hring near 3njj H. 
to <%>m<? ra^ar 3np K. 

m^Atf b^b 

JVWa nb 

nostril C|K 

wotf ba , inbs , rib 

$07*0 ?s 77,02 or w#s tw T$ 

£A#£ 770 £ "]? 

77<0£ 7/^ D^tt 

tw>7# (entreaty) «2,(time) nn? 



KNGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



191 



to observe ^tt© K. 
ocean oinn 

to offer nb? H., nnp H. 
oil ]»» 

0^00, olive-tree Wl 
one ^na 
0712/a? onic 
to qpm nnB K. 
to ap^/i the eyes ripe K. 
or (in a disjunctive question) 
OK 

out of Ifi 
over b? 

ew^r against "J J 3 
overtake py* H. 

fo^ar* T»s K. P. H. 

people d? 
to perish las K. 
Pharaoh nsns 
Pharpar T|"jfi 
Philistines D^nribs 

Pisort. ptths 

jpfa<?6 Dipt) 

fo_pfoo? n« H. 3 D-to K. 

to plant 2T3J K. 

to jpowr p?J K. 

j9ra^/ / I pray thee a» 

mi the presence of 'TJ? , *3&b , 

■Wb? 
priest }*p 
to produce nto? K. 



to produce seed ant H. 
to pulverize pp? K. H. 

to he pure "in-j K. 
to purify ^sra P. 
to purify one's self fihg Hith. 
to^ rna H., 103 K., m© EL 
to put forth nbiD K. P. 
to ^>?^ cw clothes Mb or ttfcib 
K. 



queen 



vtira 



rain ina 

to cause to rain "VQtt H 

to receive bnp P. 

to recount *ibo P- 

to redeem baa K. 

to 9*1^91 Sfbft K. 

to remember "pt K. 

remnant rvnaitf 

to rend snp K. 

reptile 'iffti) , rjtj 

respecting ~ba 

to m^ n* K., ratf K. 

to return intrans. 3WD K< 

7*^6 Sbs 

righteousness Vv% 

to rise early DDflj H» 

r6><?& ?bo 

to ™JZ bba K. 

rwfe ^bw^a 

to rafa bo* K., nTi K. 



192 



ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULABY 



to run ?r\ K. 

Sabbath ftaffi 

to keep Sabbath rati K. 

sackcloth pi? 

salvation *©; 

Samuel bt&tcm 

to sanctify unp P. H. 

to say "ȣtf K. 

sea d; 

sea monster *p3ft 

season l?ifc 

second ^« 

second time m^E 

to s^ njjn K. 

to produce seed F\J H. 

to «^2» tosr; 

to sell *fifc K. 

to send, send away T\bw 

P. H. 
to separate Via H., Tifc K, 

H. 
separation *iz 
serpent tfrtt 
servant TJ? 
to serve TO K 
seventh 'Vpsi 
to sew *teP> K. 
she *m 
$hehel ^>g» 
to sAm*? Tte K. N. 
to shoot forth nm K. P. 
shrub rr*te 
to shttf, shut up "too K. 



K. 



side *V* 
sight n*n* 
sign nltf 

silver SOS 

^'sfe^ nina 
to sit mzh 

sim Ti* 

to sfe<^> *jto; K. 

small pp 

to m#fe smaZZ t»tt H 

so ni, 11 

to soil &gtt P. 

Solomon nb*bi» 

sorrow as^, fiasp 
sow? ©'sb 
sound bip 
sowrce tftn 
to saw 3T)T K. 
to sp#z& w P. 
species "pa 

splendor Tin 

to spring up (said of grass) 

w£j K. 
to sprout HttS K. P. 
to s&md To? K. 

to station fat? P. H. 

stow^ *ja& 

to fo strong ptn K. 



ENGLISH-HEBREW VOCABULARY. 



193 



to subdue ttb| K. P. 

subtle on? 

suckling bw 

sun ttf/Otp' 

to surround nno K. 

to swear ?n© N. 

sword n'nn 

vdbernacle f?»tt 

to to&# npb K. 

to to&<? 0jf clothes I3T0B H. 

to ft?£ra with pro K. 

ft? ^ TJJ H., "is? P. 

ftm* bnii 

£to conj. "i©as, "»s pron. fcttfi 

the «n 

then T» 
£A<?rtf DO 
therefore 1? ~y 

£te nj 

thither TVE& 
thorn f ip 

throne &B3 

Tigris bjjin 
to fo7Z na? K. 
tfwrag (duration) n? 
Jmg (repetition) cyo 



ft? cause to toil aft; P. H. 

to tow?A att? K. 

free, trees ?? 

trouble rns 

troughs D^O? 

to be found true T<QK N. 

to £wm span K. 
taw D?5tt 

under nnn 

mto ~b« , T| 
upon by 

vapor 18 

to fe verified p?8 N. 

virgin nbir© 
00*00 bip 

to walk *jbn K. 

to waftfc about #?n Hith 

wd^ n^nbtt 

to w#sA prri K. 

to w^tor npo H. 

wayttl 

to wear ©'3b or Mb K. 

to weary y& P. H. 

to fo weary m K 



194 



ENGLISH -HEBREW VOCABULARY 



well j). "^a 
what? m 
whatever ms 
whence? V** 
where? ^, n*a 
which ^i?tf 
whither? nj« 
who TO 
who? ^ 
whoever "»tt 
whole fe 
why? rm}, n fe^ 

wilderness ^T^ 

mwm? nil 



window rta^K 

m?^ 6|53 

to Z>0 w&tf ^?te H. 

to ##£ wisely b?to H. 

w^A ri«, a, o* 

to withhold ab3 K., *?9 K 

woman nB8 



ns© 

yotmg mcm'Vh 
ZionfP$ 



SHORT-TITLE CATALOGUE 

OF THE 

PUBLICATIONS 

OF 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, 

New York. 
London: CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited-. 



ARRANGED UNDER SUBJECTS. 



Descriptive circulars sent on application. 

Books marked with an asterisk are sold at net prices only. 

All books are bound in cloth unless otherwise stated. 



AGRICULTURE. 

Armsby's Manual of Cattle-feeding 12mo, $1 75 

Budd and Hansen's American Horticultural Manual: 

Part I. — Propagation, Culture, and Improvement .... 12mo, 1 50 
Part II. — Systematic Pomology. {In preparation.) 

Downing's Fruits and Fruit-trees of America 8vo, 5 00 

Grotenfelt's Principles of Modern Dairy Practice. (Woll.)..12mo, 2 00 

Kemp's Landscape Gardening 12mo, 2 50 

Maynard's Landscape Gardening as Applied to Home Decoration. 

12mo, 1 50 

Sanderson's Insects Injurious to Staple Crops 12mo, 1 50 

Insects Injurious to Garden Crops. {In preparation.) 
" Insects Injuring Fruits. {In preparation.) 

Stockbridge's Rocks and Soils 8vo, 2 50 

Woll's Handbook for Farmers and Dairymen 16mo, 1 50 

ARCHITECTURE. 

Baldwin'3 Steam Heating for Buildings 12mo, 2 50 

Berg's Buildings and Structures of American Railroads .... 4to, 5 00 

Birkmire's Planning and Construction of American Theatres.8vo, 3 00 

" Architectural Iron and Steel 8vo, 3 50 

Compound Riveted Girders as Applied in Buildings. 

8vo, 2 00 
Planning and Construction of High Office Buildings. 

8vo, 3 50 

Skeleton Construction in Buildings 8va, 3 00 

Briggs's Modern American School Buildings 8vo, 4 00 

Carpenter's Heating and Ventilating of Buildings 8vo, 4 00 

Freitag's Architectural Engineering. 2d Edition, Rewritten. 8vo, 3 50 

" Fireproofing of Steel Buildings 8vo, 2 50 

Gerhard's Guide to Sanitary House-inspection 16mo, 1 00 

" Theatre Fires and Panics 12mo, 1 50 

Hatfield's American House Carpenter 8vo, 5 00 

Holly's Carpenters' and Joiners' Handbook 18mo, 75 

Kidder's Architect's and Builder's Pocket-book. .16mo, morocco, 4 00 

Merrill's Stones for Building and Decoration 8vo, 5 00 

Monckton's Stair-building 4to, 4 00 

1 



5 00 


1 


50 


6 00 


6 50 


5 


00 


5 


50 


3 


00 


2 


50 


1 


25 


1 


00 



Pattern's Practical Treatise on Foundations 8vo, 

Siebert and Biggin's Modern Stone-cutting and Masonry. .8vo' 
Snow's Principal Species of Wood: Their Characteristic Proper- 
ties. {In preparation.) 

Wait's Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence.. 8vo, 

« T Sheep, 
Law of Operations Preliminary to Construction in En- 
gineering and Architecture 8vo, 

Sheep, 

Law of Contracts 8vo 

Woodbury's Fire Protection of Mills .8voi 

Worcester and Atkinson's Small Hospitals, Establishment and 
Maintenance^ and Suggestions for Hospital Architecture, 

with Plans for a Small Hospital 12mo, 

The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 Large 4to, 



ARMY AND NAVY. 

Bernadou's Smokeless Powder, Nitro-cellulose, and the Theory 

of the Cellulose Molecule 12mo, 2 50 

* Bruff's Text-book Ordnance and Gunnery 8vo, 6 00 

Chase's Screw Propellers and Marine Propulsion 8 vo, 3 00 

Craig's Azimuth 4to, 3 50 

Crehore and Squire's Polarizing Photo-chronograph 8vo, 3 00 

Cronkhite's Gunnery for Non-commissioned Officers. .24mo,mor., 2 00 

* Davis's Elements of Law 8vo, 2 50 

* " Treatise on the Military Law of United States. .8vo, 7 00 

* Sheep, 7 50 
De Brack's Cavalry Outpost Duties. (Carr.) . . . .24mo, morocco, 2 00 
Dietz's Soldier's First Aid Handbook 16mo, morocco, 1 25 

* Dredge's Modern French Artillery 4to, half morocco, 15 00 

Durand's Resistance and Populsion of Ships 8vo, 5 00 

* Dyer's Handbook of Light Artillery 12mo, 3 00 

Eissler's Modern High Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

* Fiebeger's Text-book oil Field Fortification Small 8vo, 2 00 

Hamilton's The Gunner's Catechism 18mo, 1 00 

* Hoff's Elementary Naval Tactics 8vo, 1 50 

Ingalls's Handbook of Problems in Direct Fire 8vo, 4 00 

* " Ballistic Tables 8vo, 1 50 

Lyons's Treatise on Electromagnetic Phenomena 8vo, 6 00 

* Mahan's Permanent Fortifications. (Mercur.)..8vo, half mor., 7 50 
Manual for Courts-martial 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

* Mercur's Attack of Fortified Places 12mo, 2 00 

* " Elements of the Art of War 8vo, 4 00 

Metcalf's Cost of Manufactures — And the Administration of 

Workshops, Public and Private 8vo, 5 00 

* " Ordnance and Gunnery 12mo, 5 00 

Murray's Infantry Drill Regulations 18mo, paper, 10 

* Phelps's Practical Marine Surveying 8vo, 2 50 

Powell's Army Officer's Examiner 12mo, 4 00 

Sharpe's Art of Subsisting Armies in War 18mo, morocco, 1 50 

Walke's Lectures on Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

* Wheeler's Siege Operations and Military Mining 8vo, 2 00 

Winthrop's Abridgment of Military Law 12mo, 2 50 

WoodhulPs Notes on Military Hygiene 16mo, 1 50 

Young's Simple Elements of Navigation 16mo, morocco, 1 00 

Second Edition, Enlarged and Revised 16mo, mor., 2 00 






ASSAYING. 

Fletcher's Practical Instructions in Quantitative Assaying with 

the Blowpipe 12mo, morocco, 1 50 

Furman's Manual of Practical Assaying 8vo, 3 00 

Miller's Manual of Assaying 12mo, 1 00 

O'Driscoll's Notes on the Treatment of Gold Ores 8vo, 2 00 

Ricketts and Miller's Notes on Assaying 8vo, 3 00 

Wilson's Cyanide Processes. . .' 12mo, 1 50 

" Chlorination Process 12mo, 1 50 

ASTRONOMY. 

Craig's Azimuth 4to, 3 50 

Doolittle's Treatise on Practical Astronomy 8vo, 4 00 

Gore's Elements of Geodesy 8vo, 2 50 

Hayford's Text-book of Geodetic Astronomy 8vo, 3 00 

Merriman's Elements of Precise Surveying and Geodesy. . . .8vo, 2 50 

* Michie and Harlow's Practical Astronomy 8vo, 3 00 

* White's Elements of Theoretical and Descriptive Astronomy. 

12mo, 2 00 

BOTANY. 

Baldwin's Orchids of New England Small 8vo, 1 50 

Davenport's Statistical Methods, with Special Reference to Bio- 
logical Variation 16mo, morocco, 1 25 

Thome - and Bennett's Structural and Physiological Botany. 

16mo, 2 25 

Westermaier's Compendium of General Botany. (Schneider.) 8vo, 2 00 

CHEMISTRY. 

Adriance's Laboratory Calculations and Specific Gravity Tables. 

12mo, 1 25 

Allen's Tables for Iron Analysis 8vo, 3 00 

Arnold's Compendium of Chemistry. (Mandel.) {In preparation.) 

Austen's Notes for Chemical Students 12mo, 1 50 

Bernadou's Smokeless Powder. — Nitro-cellulose, and Theory of 

the Cellulose Molecule 12mo, 2 50 

Bolton's Quantitative Analysis 8vo, 

Brush and Penfield's Manual of Determinative Mineralogy.. .8vo, 
Classen's Quantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis. (Her- 

rick — Boltwood.) 8vo, 

Cohn's Indicators and Test-papers 12mo, 

Craft's Short Course in Qualitative Chemical Analysis. (Schaef- 

fer.) 12mo, 

Drechsel's Chemical Reactions. (Merrill.) 12mo, 

Eissler's Modern High Explosives 8vo, 

EfTront's Enzymes and their Applications. (Prescott.) . . . ,8vo, 
Erdmann's Introduction to Chemical Preparations. (Dunlap.) 

12mo, 
Fletcher's Practical Instructions in Quantitative Assaying with 

the Blowpipe 12mo, morocco, 

Fowler's Sewage Works Analyses 12mo, 

Fresenius's Manual of Qualitative Chemical Anatysis. (Wells.) 8vo, 
" Manual of Qualitative Chemical Analysis. Part I. 

Descriptive. (Wells.) .* 8vo, 3 00 

System of Instruction in Quantitative Chemical 

Analysis. (Allen.) 8vo, 6 00 

3 



1 50 
4 00 


3 00 
2 00 


2 00 
1 25 
4 00 

3 00 


1 25 


1 50 

2 00 
5 00 



Fuertes's Water and Public Health 12mo, 1 50 

Furman's Manual of Practical Assaying 8vo, 3 00 

Gill's Gas and Fuel Analysis for Engineers 12mo, 1 25 

Grotenfelt's Principles of Modern Dairy Practice. (Woll.)..12nio, 2 00 
Hammarsten's Text-book of Physiological Chemistry. (Mandel.) 

8vo, 4 00 

Helm's Principles of Mathematical Chemistry. (Morgan.) 12mo, 1 50 

Hinds's Inorganic Chemistry 8vo, 3 00 

* " Laboratory Manual for Students 12mo, 75 

Holleman's Text-book of Inorganic Chemistry. (Cooper.) . . .8vo, 2 50 

" " Organic " (Walker and Mott.) 

{In preparation.) 

Hopkins's Oil-chemists' Handbook 8vo, 3 00 

Keep's Cast Iron 8vo, 2 50 

Ladd's Manual of Quantitative Chemical Analysis 12mo, 1 00 

Landauer's Spectrum Analysis. (Tingle.) 8vo, 3 00 

Lassar-Cohn's Practical Urinary Analysis. (Lorenz.) {In preparation.) 
Leach's The Inspection and Analysis of Food with Special Refer- 
ence to State Control. {In preparation.) 
Lob's Electrolysis and Electrosynthesis of Organic Compounds. 

(Lorenz.) 12mo, 1 00 

Mandel's Handbook for Bio-chemical Laboratory 12mo, 1 50 

Mason's Water-supply. (Considered Principally from a Sani- 
tary Standpoint.) 3d Edition, Rewritten 8vo, 4 00 

" Examination of water. (Chemical and Bacterio- 
logical.) 12mo, 1 25 

Meyer's Determination of Radicles in Carbon Compounds. 

(Tingle.) 12mo, 1 00 

Miller's Manual of Assaying 12mo, 1 00 

Mixter's Elementary Text-book of Chemistry 12mo, 1 50 

Morgan's Outline of Theory of Solution and its Results. .12mo, 1 00 

" Elements of Physical Chemistry 12mo, 2 00 

Nichols's Water-supply. (Considered mainly from a Chemical 

and Sanitary Standpoint, 1883.) 8vo, 2 50 

O'Brine's Laboratory Guide in Chemical Analysis 8vo, 2 00 

O'Driscoll's Notes on the Treatment of Gold Ores 8vo, 2 00 

Ost and Kolbeck's Text-book of Chemical Technology. (Lo- 
renz — Bozart.) [In preparation.) 

* Penfield's Notes on Determinative Mineralogy and Record of 

Mineral Tests 8vo, paper, 50 

Pinner's Introduction to Organic Chemistry. (Austen.) 12mo, 1 50 

Poole's Calorific Power of Fuels 8vo, 3 00 

* Reisig's Guide to Piece-dyeing 8vd, 25 00 

Richards and Woodman's Air, Water, and Food from a Sanitary 

Standpoint 8vo, 2 00 

Richards's Cost of Living as Modified by Sanitary Science ]2mo, 100 

" Cost of Food, a Study in Dietaries. 12mo, 1 00 

* Richards and Williams's The Dietary Computer 8vo, 1 50 

Ricketts and Russell's Skeleton Notes upon Inorganic Chem- 
istry. (Parti. — Non-metallic Elements.) . .8vo, morocco, 75 

Ricketts and Miller's Notes on Assaying 8vo, 3 00 

Rideal's Sewage and the Bacterial Purification of Sewage. .8vo, 3 50 

Ruddiman's Incompatibilities in Prescriptions 8vo, 2 00 

Schimpf's Text-book of Volumetric Analysis 12mo, 2 50 

Spencer's Handbook for Chemists of Beet-sugar Houses. 16mo, 

mor., 3 00 
" Handbook for Sugar Manufacturers and their Chem- 
ists 16mo, morocco, 2 00 

Stockbridge's Rocks and Soils 8vo, 2 50 

4 



* Tillman's Elementary Lessons in Heat 8vo, 1 50 

" Descriptive General Chemistry 8vo, 3 00 

Turneaure and Russell's Public Water-supplies 8vo, 5 00 

Van Deventer's Physical Chemistry for Beginners. (Boltwood.) 

12mo, 1 50 

Walke's Lectures on Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

Wells's Laboratory Guide in Qualitative Chemical Analysis..8vo, 1 50 
" Short Course in Inorganic Qualitative Chemical Analy- 
sis for Engineering Students 12mo, 1 50 

Whipple's Microscopy of Drinking-water 8vo, 3 50 

Wiechmann's Sugar Analysis Small 8vo, 2 50 

Lecture-notes on Theoretical Chemistry. .. .12mo, 3 00 

Wilson's Cyanide Processes 12mo, 1 50 

" Chlorination Process 12mo, 1 50 

Wulling's Elementary Course in Inorganic Pharmaceutical and 

Medical Chemistry 12mo, 2 00 

CIVIL ENGINEERING. 

BRIDGES AND ROOFS. HYDRAULICS. MATERIALS OF 
ENGINEERING. RAILWAY ENGINEERING. 

Baker's Engineers' Surveying Instruments 12mo, 3 00 

Bixby's Graphical Computing Table ... Paper, 19£ x 24| inches. 25 

Davis's Elevation and Stadia Tables 8vo, 1 00 

Folwell's Sewerage. (Designing and Maintenance.) 8vo, 3 00 

Freitag's Architectural Engineering. 2d Ed., Rewritten . . . 8vo, 3 50 

French and Ives's Stereotomy 8vo, 2 50 

Goodhue's Municipal Improvements 12mo, 1 75 

Goodrich's Economic Disposal of Towns' Refuse 8vo, 3 50 

Gore's Elements of Geodesy 8vo, 2 50 

Hayford's Text-book of Geodetic Astronomy 8vo, 3 00 

Howe's Retaining- walls for Earth 12mo, 1 25 

Johnson's Theory and Practice of Surveying Small 8vo, 4 00 

" Stadia and Earth-work Tables 8vo, 1 25 

Kiersted's Sewage Disposal 12mo, 1 25 

Laplace's Philosophical Essav on Probabilities. (Truscott and 

Emory.) 12mo, 2 00 

Mahan's Treatise on Civil Engineering. (1873.) (Wood.) . .8vo, 5 00 

* Mahan's Descriptive Geometry 8vo, 1 50 

Merriman's Elements of Precise Surveying and Geodesy. . . .8vo, 2 50 

Merriman and Brooks's Handbook for Surveyors. . . .16mo, mor., 2 00 

Merriman's Elements of Sanitary Engineering 8vo, 2 00 

Nugent's Plane Surveying 8vo, 3 50 

Ogden's Sewer Design 12mo, 2 00 

Patton's Treatise on Civil Engineering 8vo, half leather, 7 50 

Reed's Topographical Drawing and Sketching 4to, 5 00 

Rideal's Sewage and the Bacterial Purification of Sewage. . . 8vo, 3 50 

Siebert and Biggin's Modern Stone-cutting and Masonry. . . .8vo, 1 50 

Smith's Manual of Topographical Drawing. (McMillan.) . .8vo, 2 50 

•Trautwine's Civil Engineer's Pocket-book. .. .16mo, morocco, 5 00 

Wait's Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence 8vo, 6 00 

Sheep, 6 50 
" Law of Operations Preliminary to Construction in En- 
gineering and Architecture 8vo, 5 00 

Sheep, 5 50 

Wait's Law of Contracts 8vo, 3 00 

Warren's Stereotomy — Problems in Stone-cutting 8vo, 2 50 

Webb's Problems in the Use and Adjustment of Engineering 

Instruments 16mo, morocco, 1 25 



* Wheeler's Elementary Course of Civil Engineering 8vo, 4 00 

Wilson's Topographic Surveying 8vo, 3 50 

BRIDGES AND ROOFS. 

Boiler's Practical Treatise on the Construction of Iron Highway 

Bridges 8vo, 2 00 

* Boiler's Thames River Bridge 4to, paper, 5 00 

Burr's Course on the Stresses in Bridges and Roof Trusses, 

Arched Ribs, and Suspension Bridges 8vo, 3 50 

Du Bois's Mechanics of Engineering. Vol. II Small 4to, 10 00 

Foster's Treatise on Wooden Trestle Bridges 4to, 5 00 

Fowler's Coffer-dam Process for Piers 8vo, 2 50 

Greene's Roof Trusses 8vo, 1 25 

" Bridge Trusses 8vo, 2 50 

" Arches in Wood, Iron, and Stone .8vo, 2 50 

Howe's Treatise on Arches 8vo, 4 00 

" Design of Simple Roof-trusses in Wood and Steel. 8vo, 2 00 
Johnson, Bryan and Turneaure's Theory and Practice in the 

Designing of Modern Framed Structures Small 4to, 10 00 

Merriman and Jacoby's Text-book on Roofs and Bridges: 

Part I.— Stresses in Simple Trusses 8vo, 2 50 

Part II— Graphic Statics 8vo, 2 50 

Part III.— Bridge Design. Fourth Ed., Rewritten 8vo, 2 50 

Part IV.— Higher Structures ".". .8vo, 2 50 

Morison's Memphis Bridge 4to, 10 00 

Waddell's De Pontibus, a Pocket Book for Bridge Engineers. 

16mo, mor., 3 00 

Specifications for Steel Bridges 12mo, 1 25 

Wood's Treatise on the Theory of the Construction of Bridges 

and Roofs 8vo, 2 00 

Wright's Designing of Draw-spans: 

Part I.— Plate-girder Draws 8vo, 2 50 

Part II. — Riveted-truss and Pin-connected Long-span Draws. 

8vo, 2 50 

Two parts in one volume , 8vo, 3 50 

HYDRAULICS. 

Bazin's Experiments upon the Contraction of the Liquid Vein 

Issuing from an Orifice. (Trau twine.) 8vo, 2 00 

Bovey's Treatise on Hydraulics 8vo, 5 00 

Church's Mechanics of Engineering 8vo, 6 00 

" Diagrams of Mean Velocity of Water in Open Channels 

paper, 1 50 

Coffin's Graphical Solution of Hydraulic Problems. .16mo, mor., 2 50 

Flather's Dynamometers, and the Measurement of Power. 12mo, 3 00 

Folwell's Water-supply Engineering 8vo, 4 00 

FrizeH's Water-power 8vo, 5 00 

Fuertes's Water and Public Health 12mo, 1 50 

" Water-filtration Works 12mo, 2 50 

Ganguillet and Kutter^s General Formula .for the Uniform 
Flow of Water in Rivers and Other Channels. (Her- 

ing and Trautwine.) 8vo, 4 00 

Hazen's Filtration of Public Water-supply 8vo, 3 00 

Hazlehurst's Towers and Tanks for Water-works 8vo, 2 50 

Herschel's 115 Experiments on the Carrying Capacity of Large, 

Riveted, Metal Conduits 8vo, 2 00 

6 



Mason's Water-supply. (Considered Principally from a Sani- 
tary Standpoint.) 8vo, 

Merriman's Treatise on Hydraulics 8vo, 

* Michie's Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 

Schuyler's Reservoirs for Irrigation, Water-power, and Domestic 

Water-supply Large 8vo, 

Turneaure and Russell. Public Water-supplies 8vo, 

Wegmann's Design and Construction of Dams 4to, 

" Water-supply of the City of New York from 1658 to 

1895 4to, 

Weisbach's Hydraulics and Hydraulic Motors. (Du Bois.) . .8vo, 

Wilson's Manual of Irrigation Engineering Small 8vo, 

Wolff's Windmill as a Prime Mover 8vo, 

Wood's Turbines 8vo, 

" Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 



MATERIALS OF ENGINEERING. 

Baker's Treatise on Masonry Construction 8vo, 

Black's United States Public Works Oblong 4to, 

Bovey's Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures .... 8vo,. 
Burr's Elasticity and Resistance of the Materials of Engineer- 
ing ,. .8vo, 

Byrne's Highway Construction 8vo, 

" Inspection of the Materials and Workmanship Em- 
ployed in Construction 16mo, 

Church's Mechanics of Engineering 8vo, 

Du Bois's Mechanics of Engineering. Vol. I Small 4to, 

Johnson's Materials of Construction Large 8vo, 

Keep's Cast Iron 8vo, 

Lanza's Applied Mechanics 8vo, 

Martens's Handbook on Testing Materials. (Henning.).2 v., 8vo, 

Merrill's Stones for Building and Decoration 8vo, 

Merriman's Text-book on the Mechanics of Materials 8vo, 

Merriman's Strength of Materials 12mo, 

Metcalf's Steel. A Manual for Steel-users 12mo, 

Patton's Practical Treatise on Foundations 8vo, 

Rockwell's Roads and Pavements in France 12mo, 

Smith's Wire: Its Use and Manufacture Small 4to, 

" Materials of Machines 12mo, 

Snow's Principal Species of Wood: Their Characteristic Proper- 
ties. {In preparation.) 

Spalding's Hydraulic Cement 12mo, 

Text-book on Roads and Pavements 12mo, 

Thurston's Materials of Engineering 3 Parts, 8vo, 

Part I. — Non-metallic Materials of Engineering and Metal- 
lurgy 8vo, 

Part II. — Iron and Steel ." 8vo, 

Part III. — A Treatise on Brasses, Bronzes and Other Alloys 

and Their Constituents 8vo, 

Thurston's Text-book of the Materials of Construction 8vo, 

Tillson's Street Pavements and Paving Materials 8vo, 

Waddell's De Pontibus. (A Pocket-book for Bridge Engineers.) 

16mo, morocco, 

" Specifications for Steel Bridges 12mo, 

Wood's Treatise on the Resistance of Materials, and an Ap- 
pendix on the Preservation of Timber 8vo, 

" Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 

7 



4 00 


4 00 


4 00 


5 00 


5 00 


5 00 


10 00 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


2 50 


3 00 



5 00 


5 00 


7 50 


5 00 


5 00 


3 00 


6 00 


7 50 


6 00 


2 50 


7 50 


7 50 


5 00 


4 00 


1 00 


2 00 


5 00 


1 25 


3 00 


1 00 


2 00 


2 00 


8 00 


2 00 


3 50 


2 50 


5 00 


4 00 


3 00 


1 25 


2 00 


3 00 



RAILWAY ENGINEERING. 

Andrews's Handbook for Street Railway Engineers. 3x5 in. mor., 1 25 

Berg's Buildings and Structures of American Railroads ... 4to, 5 00 

Brooks's Handbook of Street Railroad Location. . 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

Butts's Civil Engineer's Field-book 16mo, morocco, 2 50 

Crandall's Transition Curve 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

" Railway and Other Earthwork Tables 8vo, 1 50 

Dawson's Electric Railways and Tramways . Small 4to, half mor., 12 50 

" "Engineering" and Electric Traction Pocket-book. 

16mo, morocco, 4 00 

Dredge's History of the Pennsylvania Railroad: (1879.) .Paper, 5 00 

* Drinker's Tunneling, Explosive Compounds, and Rock Drills. 

4to, half morocco, 25 00 

Fisher's Table of Cubic Yards Cardboard, 25 

Godwin's Railroad Engineers' Field-book and Explorers' Guide. 

16mo, morocco, 2 50 

Howard's Transition Curve Field-book 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

Hudson's Tables for Calculating the Cubic Contents of Exca- 
vations and Embankments 8vo, 1 00 

Nagle's Field Manual for Railroad Engineers 16mo, morocco, 3 00 

Philbrick's Field Manual for Engineers 16mo, morocco, 3 00 

Pratt and Alden's Street-railway Road-bed 8vo, 2 00 

Searles's Field Engineering 16mo, morocco, 3 00 

" Railroad Spiral 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

Taylor's Prismoidal Formulae and Earthwork 8vo, 1 50 

* Trautwine's Method of Calculating the Cubic Contents of Ex- 

cavations and Embankments by the Aid of Dia- 
grams 8vo, 2 00 

* " The Field Practice of Laying Out Circular Curves 

for Railroads 12mo, morocco, 2 50 

* Cross-section Sheet Paper, 25 

Webb's Railroad Construction 8vo, 4 00 

Wellington's Economic Theory of the Location of Railways. . 

Small 8vo, 5 00 



DRAWING. 

Barr's Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 2 50 

* Bartlett's Mechanical Drawing 8vo, 3 00 

Coolidge's Manual of Drawing 8vo, paper, 1 00 

Durley's Elementary Text-book of the Kinematics of Machines. 

{In preparation.) 

Hill's Text-book on Shades and Shadows, and Perspective. . 8vo, 2 00 
Jones's Machine Design : 

Part I. — Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 1 50 

Part II. — Form, Strength and Proportions of Parts 8vo, 3 00 

MacCord's Elements of Descriptive Geometry. 8vo, 3 00 

" Kinematics; or, Practical Mechanism 8vo, 5 00 

Mechanical Drawing 4to, 4 00 

" Velocity Diagrams 8vo, 1 50 

•Mahan's Descriptive Geometry and Stone-cutting 8vo, 1 50 

Mahan's Industrial Drawing. (Thompson.) 8vo, 3 50 

Reed's Topographical Drawing and Sketching 4to, 5 00 

Reid's Course in Mechanical Drawing 8vo, 2 00 

" Text-book of Mechanical Drawing and Elementary Ma- 
chine Design 8vo, 3 00 

Robinson's Principles of Mechanism 8vo, 3 00 

8 



Smith's Manual of Topographical DrawiDg. (McMillan.) .8vo, 2 50 
Warren's Elements of Plane and Solid Free-hand Geometrical 

Drawing 12mo, 1 00 

" Drafting Instruments and Operations 12mo, 1 25 

" Manual of Elementary Projection Drawing 12mo, 1 50 

" Manual of Elementary Problems in the Linear Per- 
spective of Form and Shadow 12mo, 1 00 

" Plane Problems in Elementary Geometry 12mo, 1 25 

" Primary Geometry 12mo, 75 

" Elements of Descriptive Geometry, Shadows, and Per- 
spective 8vo, 3 50 

" General Problems of Shades and Shadows 8vo, 3 00 

" Elements of Machine Construction and Drawing . . 8 vo, 7 50 
" Problems, Theorems, and Examples in Descriptive 

Geometry 8vo, 2 50 

Weisbach's Kinematics and the Power of Transmission. (Herr- 
mann and Klein. ) 8vo, 5 00 

Whelpley's Practical Instruction in the Art of Letter En- 
graving 12mo, 2 00 

Wilson's Topographic Surveying 8vo, 3 50 

Wilson's Free-hand Perspective 8vo, 2 50 

Woolf's Elementary Course in Descriptive Geometry. .Large 8vo, 3 00 



ELECTRICITY AND PHYSICS. 

Anthony and Brackett's Text-book of Physics. (Magie.) 

Small 8vo, 3 00 
Anthony's Lecture-notes on the Theory of Electrical Measur- 

ments 12mo, 1 00 

Benjamin's History of Electricity 8vo, 3 00 

Benjamin's Voltaic Cell 8vo, 3 00 

Classen's Qantitative Chemical Analysis by Electrolysis. Her- 

rick and Boltwood.) 8vo, 3 00 

Crehore and Squier's Polarizing Photo-chronograph 8vo, 3 00 

Dawson's Electric Hallways and Tramways.. Small 4to, half mor., 12 50 
Dawson's " Engineering " and Electric Traction Pocket-book. 

16mo, morocco, 4 00 

Flather's Dynamometers, and the Measurement of Power . . 12mo, 3 00 

Gilbert's De Magnete. (Mottelay.) 8vo, 2 50 

Holman's Precision of Measurements 8vo, 2 00 

" Telescopic Mirror-scale Method, Adjustments, and 

Tests Large 8vo, 75 

Landauer's Spectrum Analysis. (Tingle.) 8vo, 3 00 

Le Chatelier's High-temperature Measurements. (Boudouard — 

Burgess.) 12mo, 3 00 

L6b's Electrolysis and Electrosynthesis of Organic Compounds. 

(Lorenz.) 12mo, 1 00 

Lyons's Treatise on Electromagnetic Phenomena 8vo, 6 00 

* Michie. Elements of Wave Motion Relating to Sound and 

Light 8vo, 4 00 

Niaudet's Elementary Treatise on Electric Batteries (Fish- 
back.) 12mo, 2 50 

* Parshall and Hobart's Electric Generators. .Small 4to, half mor., 10 00 
Ryan, Norris, and Hoxie's Electrical Machinery. (In preparation.) 
Thurston's Stationary Steam-engines 8vo, 2 50 

* Tillman. Elementary Lessons in Heat 8vo, 1 50 

Tory and Pitcher. Manual of Laboratory Physics .. Small 8vo, 2 00 

9 



LAW. 

* Davis. Elements of Law 8vo, 2 50 

Treatise on the Military Law of United States. .8vo, 7 00 

Sheep, 7 50 

Manual for Courts-martial 16mo, morocco, 1 50 

Wait's Engineering and Architectural Jurisprudence 8vo, 6 00 

Sheep, 6 50 
" Law of Operations Preliminary to Construction in En- 
gineering and Architecture 8vo, 5 00 

Sheep, 5 50 

" Law of Contracts 8vo, 3 00 

Winthrop's Abridgment of Military Law 12mo, 2 50 

MANUFACTURES. 

Beaumont's Woollen and Worsted Cloth Manufacture. . . .12mo, 1 50 
Bernadou's Smokeless Powder — Nitro-cellulose and Theory of 

the Cellulose Molecule l2mo, 2 50 

Bolland's Iron Founder 12mo, cloth, 2 50 

" The Iron Founder " Supplement 12mo, 2 50 

" Encyclopedia of Founding and Dictionary of Foundry 

Terms Used in the Practice of Moulding. ... 12mo, 3 00 

Eissler's Modern High Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

Effront's Enzymes and their Applications. (Prescott.).. ,8vo, 3 00 

Fitzgerald's Boston Machinist 18mo. 1 00 

Ford's Boiler Making for Boiler Makers 18mo, 1 00 

Hopkins's Oil-chemists' Handbook 8vo, 3 00 

Keep's Cast Iron 8vo 2 50 

Leach's The Inspection and Analysis of Food with Special 
Reference to State Control. {In preparation.) 

Metcalfs Steel. A Manual for Steel-users 12mo, 2 00 

Metcalf's Cost of Manufactures — And the administration of 

Workshops, Public and Private 8vo, 5 00 

Meyer's Modern Locomotive Construction 4to, 10 00 

* Reisig's Guide to Piece-dyeing 8vo, 25 00 

Smith's Press-working of Metals 8vo, 3 00 

" Wire: Its Use and Manufacture Small 4to, 3 00 

Spalding's Hydraulic Cement 12mo, 2 00 

Spencer's Handbook for Chemists of Beet-sugar Houses. 

16mo, morocco, 3 00 
" Handbook for Sugar Manufacturers and their Chem- 
ists 16mo, morocco, 2 00 

Thurston's Manual of Steam-boilers, their Designs, Construc- 
tion and Operation 8vo, 5 00 

Walke's Lectures on Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

West's American Foundry Practice 12mo, 2 50 

" Moulder's Text-book 12mo, 2 50 

Wiechmann's Sugar Analysis Small 8vo, 2 50 

Wolff's Windmill as a Prime Mover 8vo, 3 00 

Woodbury's Fire Protection of Mills 8vo, 2 50 

MATHEMATICS. 

Baker's Elliptic Functions 8vo, 1 50 

* Bass's Elements of Differential Calculus 12mo, 4 00 

Briggs's Elements of Plane Analytic Geometry 12mo, 1 00 

Chapman's Elementary Course in Theory of Equations. . .12mo, 1 50 

Compton's Manual of Logarithmic Computations 12mo, 1 50 

10 



Davis's Introduction to the Logic of Algebra 8vo, 1 60 

•Dickson's College Algebra Large 12mo, 1 50 

Halsted's Elements of Geometry - 8vo, 1 75 

" Elementary Synthetic Geometry 8vo, 1 50 

* Johnson's Three-place Logarithmic Tables : Vest-pocket size, 

pap., 15 

100 copies for 5 00 

* Mounted on heavy cardboard, 8 X 10 inches, 25 

10 copies for 2 00 
Elementary Treatise on the Integral Calculus. 

Small 8vo, 1 50 

" Curve Tracing in Cartesian Co-ordinates 12mo, 1 00 

" Treatise on Ordinary and Partial Differential 

Equations Small 8vo, 3 50 

" Theory of Errors and the Method of Least 

Squares 12mo, 1 50 

* " Theoretical Mechanics _„ . .12mo, 3 00 

Laplace's Philosophical Essay on Probabilities. CTruscott and 

Emory.) \ 12mo, 2 00 

* Ludlow and Bass. Elements of Trigonometry and Logarith- 

mic and Other Tables 8vo, 3 00 

" Trigonometry. Tables published separately. .Each, 2 00 

Merriman and Woodward. Higher Mathematics 8vo, 5 00 

Merriman's Method of Least Squares 8vo, 2 00 

Rice and Johnson's Elementary Treatise on the Differential 

Calculus Small 8vo, 3 00 

" Differential and Integral Calculus. 2 vols. 

in one Small 8vo, 2 50 

Wood's Elements of Co-ordinate Geometry 8vo, 2 00 

" Trigometry : Analytical, Plane, and Spherical 12mo, 1 00 



MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. 

MATERIALS OF ENGINEERING, STEAM ENGINES 
AND BOILERS. 

Baldwin's Steam Heating for Buildings 12mo, 2 50 

Barr's Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 2 50 

* Bartlett's Mechanical Drawing 8vo, 3 00 

Benjamin's Wrinkles and Recipes 12mo, 2 00 

Carpenter's Experimental Engineering 8vo, 6 00 

Heating and Ventilating Buildings 8vo, 4 00 

Clerk's Gas and Oil Engine Small 8vo, 4 00 

Coolidge's Manual of Drawing 8vo, paper, 1 00 

Cromwell's Treatise on Toothed Gearing 12mo, 1 50 

" Treatise on Belts and Pulleys 12mo, 1 50 

Durley's Elementary Text-book of the Kinematics of Machines. 

{In preparation.) 

Mather's Dynamometers, and the Measurement of Power . . 12mo, 3 00 

" Rope Driving 12mo, 2 00 

Gill's Gas an Fuel Analysis for Engineers 12mo, 1 25 

Hall's Car Lubrication 12mo, 1 00 

Jones's Machine Design: 

Part I. — Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 1 50 

Part II. — Form, Strength and Proportions of Parts 8vo, 3 00 

Kent's Mechanical Engineers' Pocket-book 16mo, morocco, 5 00 

Kerr's Power and Power Transmission 8vo, 2 00 

11 



MacCord's Kinematics; or, Practical Mechanism 8vo, 5 00 

Mechanical Drawing 4to, 4 00 

Velocity Diagrams. 8vo, 1 50 

Mahan's Industrial Drawing. (Thompson.) 8vo, 3 50 

Poole's Calorific Power of Fuels 8vo, 3 00 

Reid's Course in Mechanical Drawing 8vo, 2 00 

" Text-book of Mechanical Drawing and Elementary 

Machine Design 8vo, 3 00 

Richards's Compressed Air 12mo, 1 50 

Robinson's Principles of Mechanism 8vo, 3 00 

Smith's Press-working of Metals 8vo, 3 00 

Thurston's Treatise on Friction and Lost Work in Machin- 
ery and Mill Work 8vo, 3 00 

Animal as a Machine and Prime Motor and the 

Laws of Energetics 12mo, 1 00 

Warren's Elements of Machine Construction and Drawing. .8vo, 7 50 
Weisbach's Kinematics and the Power of Transmission. (Herr- 
mann—Klein.) 8vo, 5 00 

Machinery of Transmission and Governors. (Herr- 
mann—Klein.) 8vo, 5 00 

Hydraulics and Hydraulic Motors. (Du Bois.) .8vo, 5 00 

Wolff's Windmill as a Prime Mover 8vo, 3 00 

Wood's Turbines 8vo, 2 50 

MATERIALS OF ENGINEERING. 

Bovey's Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures. .8 vo, 7 50 
Burr's Elasticity and Resistance of the Materials of Engineer- 
ing 8vo, 5 00 

Church's Mechanics of Engineering 8vo, 6 00 

Johnson's Materials of Construction Large 8vo, 6 00 

Keep's Cast Iron 8vo, 2 50 

Lanza's Applied Mechanics 8vo, 7 50 

Martens's Handbook on Testing Materials. (Henning.) 8vo, 7 50 

Merriman's Text-book on the Mechanics of Materials 8vo, 4 00 

Strength of Materials 12mo, 1 00 

Metcalf's Steel. A Manual for Steel-users 12mo, 2 00 

Smith's Wire: Its Use and Manufacture Small 4to, 3 00 

" Materials of Machines 12mo, 1 00 

Thurston's Materials of Engineering 3 vols., 8vo, 8 00 

Part II.— Iron and Steel 8vo, 3 50 

Part III. — A Treatise on Brasses, Bronzes and Other Alloys 

and their Constituents 8vo, 2 50 

Thurston's Text-book of the Materials of Construction 8vo, 5 00 

Wood's Treatise on the Resistance of Materials and an Ap- 
pendix on the Preservation of Timber 8vo, 2 00 

" Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 3 00 

STEAM ENGINES AND BOILERS. 

Carnot's Reflections on the Motive Power of Heat. (Thurston.) 

12mo, 1 50 
Dawson's " Engineering " and Electric Traction Pocket-book. 

16mo, morocco, 4 00 

Ford's Boiler Making for Boiler Makers 18mo, 1 00 

Goss's Locomotive Sparks 8vo, 2 00 

Hemenway's Indicator Practice and Steam-engine Economy. 

12mo, 2 00 

Hutton's Mechanical Engineering of Power Plants 8vo, 5 00 

" Heat and Heat-engines 8vo, 5 00 

12 



Kent's Steam-boiler Economy 8vo, 4 00 

Kneass's Practice and Theory of the Injector 8vo, 1 50 

MacCord's Slide-valves 8vo, 2 00 

Meyer's Modern Locomotive Construction 4to, 10 00 

Peabody's Manual of the Steam-engine Indicator 12mo, 1 50 

" Tables of the Properties of Saturated Steam and 

Other Vapors 8vo, 1 00 

" Thermodynamics of the Steam-engine and Other 

Heat-engines 8vo, 5 00 

" Valve-gears for Steam-engines 8vo, 2 50 

Peabody and Miller. Steam-boilers 8vo, 4 00 

Pray's Twenty Years with the Indicator Large 8vo, 2 50 

Pupin's Thermodynamics of Reversible Cycles in Gases and 

Saturated Vapors. (Osterberg.) 12mo, 1 25 

Reagan's Locomotive Mechanism and Engineering 12mo, 2 00 

Rontgen's Principles of Thermodynamics. (Du Bois.) 8vo, 5 00 

Sinclair's Locomotive Engine Running and Management. .12mo, 2 00 

Smart's Handbook of Engineering Laboratory Practice. .12mo, 2 50 

Snow's Steam-boiler Practice 8vo, 3 00 

Spangler's Valve-gears 8vo, 2 50 

" Notes on Thermodynamics 12mo, 1 00 

Thurston's Handy Tables 8vo, 1 50 

" Manual of the Steam-engine. 2 vols., 8vo, 10 00 

Part I. — History, Structure, and Theory 8vo, 6 00 

Part II. — Design, Construction, and Operation 8vo, 6 00 

Thurston's Handbook of Engine and Boiler Trials, and the Use 

of the Indicator and the Prony Brake 8vo, 5 00 

" Stationary Steam-engines 8vo, 2 50 

" Steam-boiler Explosions in Theory and in Prac- 
tice 12mo, 1 50 

" Manual of Steam-boilers, Their Designs, Construc- 
tion, and Operation 8vo, 5 00 

Weisbach's Heat, Steam, and Steam-engines. (Du Bois.)..8vo, 5 00 

Whitham's Steam-engine Design 8vo, 5 00 

Wilson's Treatise on Steam-boilers. (Flather.) 16mo, 2 50 

Wood's Thermodynamics, Heat Motors, and Refrigerating 

Machines 8vo, 4 00 

MECHANICS AND MACHINERY. 

Barr's Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 2 50 

Bovey's Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures. .8 vo, 7 50 

Chordal.— Extracts from Letters 12mo, 2 00 

Church's Mechanics of Engineering 8vo, 6 00 

" Notes and Examples in Mechanics 8 vo, 2 00 

Compton's First Lessons in Metal-working 12mo, 1 50 

Compton and De Groodt. The Speed Lathe 12mo, 1 50 

Cromwell's Treatise on Toothed Gearing 12m o, 1 50 

" Treatise on Belts and Pulleys 12mo, 1 50 

Dana's Text-book of Elementary Mechanics for the Use of 

Colleges and Schools 12mo, 1 50 

Dingey's Machinery Pattern Making 12mo, 2 00 

Dredge's Record of the Transportation Exhibits Building of the 

World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 4to, half mor., 5 00 

Du Bois's Elementary Principles of Mechanics: 

Vol. L— Kinematics 8vo, 3 50 

Vol. II.— Statics 8vo, 4 00 

Vol. III.— Kinetics 8vo, 3 50 

Du Bois's Mechanics of Engineering. Vol. I Small 4to, 7 50 

" " Vol.11 Small 4to, 10 00 

13 



Durley's Elementary Text-book of the Kinematics of Machines. 

(In preparation.) 

Fitzgerald's Boston Machinist 16mo, 1 00 

Mather's Dynamometers, and the Measurement of Power. 12mo, 3 00 

" Rope Driving 12mo, 2 00 

Goss's Locomotive Sparks 8vo, 2 00 

Hall's Car Lubrication 12mo, 1 00 

Holly's Art of Saw Filing 18mo, 75 

* Johnson's Theoretical Mechanics 12mo, 3 00 

Johnson's Short Course in Statics by Graphic and Algebraic 

Methods. (In preparation.) 
Jones's Machine Design: 

Part I. — Kinematics of Machinery 8vo, 1 50 

Part II. — Form, Strength and Proportions of Parts 8vo, 3 00 

Kerr's Power and Power Transmission 8vo, 2 00 

Lanza's Applied Mechanics 8vo, 7 50 

MacCord's Kinematics; or, Practical Mechanism 8vo, 5 00 

" Velocity Diagrams 8vo, 1 50 

Merriman's Text-book on the Mechanics of Materials 8vo, 4 00 

* Michie's Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 4 00 

Reagan's Locomotive Mechanism and Engineering 12mo, 2 00 

Reid's Course in Mechanical Drawing 8vo, 2 00 

" Text-book of Mechanical Drawing and Elementary 

Machine Design 8vo, 3 00 

Richards's Compressed Air 12mo, 1 50 

Robinson's Principles of Mechanism 8vo, 3 00 

Ryan, Norris, and Hoxie's Electrical Machinery. (In preparation.) 

Sinclair's Locomotive-engine Running and Management. .12mo, 2 00 

Smith's Press-working of Metals 8vo, 3 00 

" Materials of Machines 12mo, 1 00 

Thurston's Treatise on Friction and Lost Work in Machin- 
ery and Mill Work 8vo, 3 00 

" Animal as a Machine and Prime Motor, and the 

Laws of Energetics 12mo, 1 00 

Warren's Elements of Machine Construction and Drawing. .8vo, 7 50 
Weisbach's Kinematics and the Power of Transmission. 

(Herrman — Klein.) 8vo, 5 00 

" Machinery of Transmission and Governors. (Herr- 

(man — Klein.) 8vo, 5 00 

Wood's Elements of Analytical Mechanics 8vo, 3 00 

" Principles of Elementary Mechanics 12mo, 1 25 

" Turbines 8vo, 2 50 

The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 4to, 1 00 

METALLURGY. 

Egleston's Metallurgy of Silver, Gold, and Mercury: 

Vol. I.-Silver 8vo, 7 50 

Vol. II. — Gold and Mercury 8vo, 7 50 

** Iles's Lead-smelting 12mo, 2 50 

Keep's Cast Iron 8vo, 2 50 

Kunhardt's Practice of Ore Dressing in LUrope 8vo, 1 50 

Le Chatelier's High- temperature Measurements. (Boudouard — 

Burgess.) 12mo, 3 00 

Metcalf's Steel. A Manual for Steel-users 12mo, 2 00 

Smith's Materials of Machines 12mo, 1 00 

Thurston's Materials of Engineering. In Three Parts 8vo, 8 00 

Part II.— Iron and Steel 8vo, 3 50 

Part III. — A Treatise on Brasses, Bronzes and Other Alloys 

and Their Constituents 8vo, 2 50 

14 



MINERALOGY. 

Barringer's Description of Minerals of Commercial Value. 

Oblong, morocco, 2 50 

Boyd's Resources of Southwest Virginia 8vo, 3 00 

" Map of Southwest Virginia Pocket-book form, 2 00 

Brush's Manual of Determinative Mineralogy. (Penfield.) .8vo, 4 00 

Chester's Catalogue of Minerals 8vo, paper, 1 00 

Cloth, 1 25 

" Dictionary of the Names of Minerals 8vo, 3 50 

Dana's System of Mineralogy Large 8vo, half leather, 12 50 

" First Appendix to Dana's New " System of Mineralogy." 

Large 8vo, I 00 

" Text-book of Mineralogy 8vo, 4 00 

" Minerals and How to Study Them 12mo, 1 50 

" Catalogue of American Localities of Minerals . Large 8vo, 1 00 

" Manual of Mineralogy and Petrography 12mo, 2 00 

Egleston's Catalogue of Minerals and Synonyms 8vo, 2 50 

Hussak's The Determination of Rock-forming Minerals. 

(Smith.) Small 8vo, 2 00 

* Penfield's Notes on Determinative Mineralogy and Record of 

Mineral Tests 8vo, paper, 50 

Rosenbusch's Microscopical Physiography of the Rock-making 

Minerals. (Idding's.) 8vo, 5 00 

•Tillman's Text-book of Important Minerals and Rocks.. 8vo, 2 00 

Williams's Manual of Lithology 8vo, 3 00 



MINING. 

Beard's Ventilation of Mines 12mo, 2 50 

Boyd's Resources of Southwest Virginia 8vo, 3 00 

" Map of Southwest Virginia Pocket-book form, 2 00 

* Drinker's Tunneling, Explosive Compounds, and Rock 

Drills 4to, half morocco, 25 00 

Eissler's Modern High Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

Fowler's Sewage Works Analyses 12mo, 2 00 

Goodyear's Coal-mines of the Western Coast of the United 

States 12mo, 2 50 

Ihlseng's Manual of Mining 8vo, 4 00 

** Iles's Lead-smelting 12mo, 2 50 

Kunhardt's Practice of Ore Dressing in Europe 8vo, 1 50 

O'Driscoll's Notes on the Treatment of Gold Ores 8vo, 2 00 

Sawyer's Accidents in Mines 8vo, 7 00 

Walke's Lectures on Explosives 8vo, 4 00 

Wilson's Cyanide Processes 12mo, 1 50 

Wilson's Chlorination Process 12mo, 1 50 

Wilson's Hydraulic and Placer Mining 12mo, 2 00 

Wilson's Treatise on Practical and Theoretical Mine Ventila- 
tion 12mo, 1 25 

SANITARY SCIENCE. 

Folwell's Sewerage. (Designing, Construction and Maintenance.) 

8vo, 3 00 

Water-supply Engineering 8vo, 4 00 

Fuertes's Water and Public Health 12mo, 1 50 

" Water-filtration Works 12mo, 2 50 

15 



Gerhard's Guide to Sanitary House-inspection 16mo, 1 00 

Goodrich's Economical Disposal of Towns' Refuse. . .Demy 8vo, 3 50 

Hazen's Filtration of Public Water-supplies 8vo, 3 00 

Kiersted's Sewage Disposal 12mo, 1 25 

Leach's The Inspection and Analysis of Food with Special 

Reference to State Control. (In preparation.) 
Mason's Water-supply. (Considered Principally from a San- 
itary Standpoint. 3d Edition, Rewritten 8vo, 4 00 

" Examination of Water. (Chemical and Bacterio- 
logical.) 12mo, 1 25 

Merriman's Elements of Sanitary Engineering 8vo, 2 00 

Nichols's Water-supply. (Considered Mainly from a Chemical 

and Sanitary Standpoint.) ( 1883.) 8vo, 2 50 

Ogden's Sewer Design 12mo, 2 00 

* Price's Handbook on Sanitation 12mo, 1 50 

Richards's Cost of Food. A Study in Dietaries 12mo, 1 00 

Richards and Woodman's Air, Water, and Food from a Sani- 
tary Standpoint 8vo, 2 00 

Richards's Cost of Living as Modified by Sanitary Science. 12mo, 1 00 

* Richards and Williams's The Dietary Computer 8vo, 1 50 

RideaFs Sewage and Bacterial Purification of Sewage 8vo, 3 50 

Turneaure and Russell's Public Water-supplies 8vo, 5 00 

Whipple's Microscopy of Drinking-water 8vo, 3 50 

Woodhull's Notes on Military Hygiene 16mo, 1 50 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Barker's Deep-sea Soundings 8vo, 2 00 

EmmoL.s's Geological Guide-book of the Rocky Mountain Ex- 
cursion of the International Congress of Geologists. 

Large 8vo, 1 50 

Ferrel's Popular Treatise on the Winds 8vo, 4 00 

Haines's American Railway Management 12mo, 2 50 

Mott's Composition, Digestibility, and Nutritive Value of Food. 

Mounted chart, 1 25 

" Fallacy of the Present Theory of Sound 16mo, 1 00 

Ricketts's History of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 1824- 

1894 Small 8vo, 3 00 

Rotherham's Emphasised New Testament Large 8vo, 2 00 

" Critical Emphasised New Testament 12mo, 1 50 

Steel's Treatise on the Diseases of the Dog 8vo, 3 50 

Totten's Important Question in Metrology 8vo, 2 50 

The World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 4to, 1 00 

Worcester and Atkinson. Small Hospitals, Establishment and 
Maintenance, and Suggestions for Hospital Architecture, 

with Plans for a Small Hospital 12mo, 1 25 



HEBREW AND CHALDEE TEXT-BOOKS. 

Green's Grammar of the Hebrew Language 8vo, 3 00 

" Elementary Hebrew Grammar 12mo, 125 

" Hebrew Chrestomathy 8vo, 2 00 

Gesenius's Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon to the Old Testament 

Scriptures. (Tregelles.) Small 4to, half morocco, 5 00 

Letteris's Hebrew Bible • -8vo, 2 25 

16 






i c 



904 







. 



Deacidified using the Bookkeeper proce 
Neutralizing agent: Magnesium Oxide 
Treatment Date: June 2007 



PreservationTechnologies 

A WORLD LEADER IN PAPER PRESERVATION 

111 Thomson Park Drive 
Cranberry Township, PA 16066 
(724)779-2111 




■ ■ 



Wf-Sf 






ssn 












■ 













LIBRARY 



019 383 635 5 



IIlllI 



wmm 



■ 




— ■ mi 

Wmwmwm 




mtmmi 



imm Hi 

ililflllli 







Bl 



PlHi 

iilliil 



Wmm 



Wmm 



ttllflffff Hfiw 

■ 

IHRBi