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BOSTON: : ::>f :\ • 


» 1832. 

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Entered, according to act of Congress, in the year 1832, by 

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This edition contains every name m the best revised Eng- 
lish edition of Lempriere's original work. It also contains all 
the matter that is either important or useful for families and 
young persons. The original work is full of indelicate pas- 
sages, which necessarily exclude it from the multitude of 
schools for young persons, to which it would otherwise be 
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only contains all that is essential in the octavo edition, (except 
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ishes which have hitherto^ prevented the work from being 
used, in the numerous schools and academies for youth in our 

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ABA and Ab jb, a town of Phocis, ftmous 
for an oracle of Apollo, gumamed Abeas. 
The inhabitants, called Abantes, were of 
Thracian origin. After the ruin of their 
country by Xerxes, they migrated to Eu- 
bcea, whieh from them was called Aban- 
tis. Some of them passed afterwards from 

Eabcea into Ionia. A city of Caria. 

Another of Arabia Felix. ^A mountain 

near Smyrna. 

Abacezts, a country of Sicily near Mes- 

Abalu*, an island in the German ocean, 
where, as the ancients supposed, the amber 
dropped from the trees. If a man was 
drowned there, and his body never appear- 
ed above the water, propitiatory sacrifices 
were offered to Ills manes during a hun- 
dred years. 

Abana, a place of Capua. 

Abantbs, a warlike people of Pelopon- 
nesus, whty built a town in Phocis called 
Aba, after their leader Abas, whence also 
their name originated: they alterwards 
went to Euboea. 

Abartias, and Abanti^dss, a patrony- 
mic given to the descendants of Abas king 
of Argos, such as Acrisius, Danae, Perseus, 
Atalanta, &c. 

Abaivtidas, made himself master of Si- 
cyon, alter he had murdered Glinias, the 
fiiither of Aratus. He was himself soon 
after assassinated, B. C. 251. 

Abaittis, or Abaktias, an ancient. name 
of the island of Eubosa, received from the 

Abantes, who settled in it from Phocis. 

Also a country of Epirus. 

Abarbarba, one of the Naiades, moth- 
er of iEsepus and Pedasus by Bucolion, 
Laomedon's eldest son. 


ABARiMoir, a country of Scythia, near 
mount Imaus. The inhabitants were said 
to have their toes behind their heels, and 
to breathe no air but that of their native 

Abaris, a man killed by Perseus. ^A 

Rutulian killed by Euryalus. A Scy* 

thian, son of Seuthes, in the age of Cra- 
sus, or the Trojan war, who received a fly- 
ing arrow from Apollo, with which he 
gave oracles, and transported himself 
wherever he pleased. He is said to have 
returned to the Hyperborean countries fhmi 
Athens without eating, and to have made 
the Trojan Palladium with the bones of 
Pelops. Some suppose that he wrote trea- 
tises in Greek ; and it is reported, that 
there is a Greek manuscript of hia epistles 
to Phalaris in the library 'of Ausburg. But 
there were probably two persons of that 

Abarus, an Arabian prince, who perfid- 
iously deserted Crassus in his expedition 
against Parthia. 

Abas, a mountain in Syria, where tlie 

Euphrates rises. A river of Armenia 

Major, where Pompey routed the Albani 

A son of Metanira, or Melaninia, 

changed into a lizard for laughing at Ceres. 

The 11th king of Argos, son of Belus, 

some say of Lynceus and Hypermnestra, 
was famous for his genius and valor. He 
was fkther to Prcetus and Acrisius, by Oca- 
lea, and built Abe. One of iEneas'a 

companions, killed in Italy. Anothei 

lost in the -storm which drove ^neas to 

Carthage. A Latian chief, whoassist^ 

ed iEneas against Tumus, and was killed 

by Lausus. A Greek, son of Euryda- 

mas, killed by iEneas during the Trojan 

Digitized by 



wwtf^ tA centaur, ftmous for his skill in 

tjunting. A soothsayer, to whom the 

iSpartans erected a statue in the temple of 

Apollo, for bis serv.oes to Lysander 

A son of Neptune.< A sophist who wrote 

two treatises, one on history, the other on 
rhetori&: the time in which he lived is un- 
known. A man who wrote an account 

of Troy. 

Abasa, an island in the Red Sea, near 
Abasitip, a part of Mysia in As)a. 
AsAssfiifAor Abassinia. FitLAbyaaijuau 
Abamus, a town of Phrygia. 
AB48T0R, one of Pluto's horses. 
Abatos, an island in the lake near Mem- 
phis in Ilcypt, abounding with flax and 
papyrus. Osiria was buried there, 

Abdalonimds^ one of the descendants 
of the kings of Sidon, so poor, that to main- 
tain himself, he worked in a garden. When 
Alexander took Sidon, he made him king, 
in the room of Strato the deposed mon- 
arch, and enlarged his possessions on ac- 
count of the great disinterestedness of his 
Abdeha, a town of Hispania Betica, 

built by the Carthaginians « A maritime 

city of Thrace, built by Hercules, in mem- 
ory of Abderus, one of his favorites. The 
Clazomenians and Teians beautified it. 
Borne suppose that Abdera^ the sister of 
Diomedes, built it. The air was so un- 
wholesome, and the inhabitants of iueb a 
sluggish disposition, that stupiditf was 
cpmmonly called Abderitiea meng. It gare 
bjrth, Ifowever, to Democritus, Protagoras, 
Anaxarcbps, and Hecatsus. 
Aboxri 4, a town of Spain. 
Abdsritcs, a people of Peonia, obliged 
to leave their country pn account of the 
great number of rats and frogs which in- 
fested it. 

Abderus, a man of Opus in liOeriS) arm- 
bearer to Hercules, torn to pijBces by the 
mares of Diomedes, which the hero had 
intrusted to his care when gojng to war 
against the fiistones. 

Abeat.c, a pe«t>(e of Acbaia, probably 
the inhabitants of Abia. 

Abeixa, a town of Campanis^, whose 
inhabitants were called Abellani. Its nuts, 
called aveUaiuBf and also its apples', were 

Abslux* a noble of Saguntum, who fa- 
vored the party of the Romans against 

Abemda, a town of Caria. whose inhab* 
itants were the first who raised temples to 
the city of Rome. 

Abia, formerly /r0, a maritime town 
of Messeniajone of the seven cities prom- 
ised to Achilles by Agamemnon. |t is 
called after Abia, daughter of Hercules, 
Vid nurse of Hyllus. 

Abii, a nation between Scythia and 
Thrace. They lived upon milk, v/ejfp fond 
^libae^y uid enemiet to war. 



A»rx.A, or AbtIa^ a moontara of Afi-ics, 
in that part which is nearest to the oppo^ 
site mountain called Calpe, on the coast of 
Spain, only eighteen miles distant. These 
two mountains are called the columns of 
Hercules, and were said formerly to be 
united, till the hero separated them, and 
made a communication between the Med- 
iterranean and Atlantic seas. 

Abisares, an Indian prince, who offer- 
ed to surrender to Alexander. 

Abisaris, a country beyond tiba Hyda»- 
pes in India. 

Abisontes. some inhabitants of the 
Abletes, a people near Troy. 
Abnoba, a mountain of Germany. 

Abobbica, a town of Lusitania. 

Another in Spain. 

Aboecritus, a Boeotian general, killed 
with a thousand men, in a battle a^ Choe- 
ronea, against the iEtolians. 
Abojlani, a people of Latium, near Alba. 
Abolus, a river of Sicily. 
Aboniteichos, a town of Galatia. 
Aboraca, a town of Sarmatia. 
Abobioirss, the original inhabitants of 
Italy; or, according to others, a nation 
conducted by Saturn into Latium, wherer 
they taught the use of letters to Evander 
the kinc of the country. Their posterity 
was called Latini, from Latinus, one of 

their kings. The word signifies toithout 

origin, or whose origrin is not knoum, and is 
generally applied to the original inhabitants 
of any country. 
Aborbas, a rii^r of M^^^iptamia. 
Abradates, a king of Susa. who, when 
his wife Panthea had been taken prisoner 
by Cvrus, and humanely treated, surrevh 
dered himself and his troops to the con-i 
qneror. He was killed in the first battle^ 
which he undertook in the cause of Cy-. 
rus, and Mb. wife stabbed herself on hia 
corpse. Cyms raised a monument oi^ 
their tomb. 

Abrbktius, was made governor of Ta- 
rentum by Annibal. He betrayed bis trust 
to the enemy to gain the favors of a beau- 
tiful woman, whose brolheir waa in tho 
Roman army. 

Abrocomas, son of Darius, was m the 
army of Xerxes, when he invaded Greece., 
He was killed at Thermopylc. 

Abroixijstus, a name given to ParrhaT 
sins the painter, on account of the sumi^- 
tuotts manner of his living. 

Abron, an Athenian, who wrote some 
treatises on the religious festivals and sacrii 
flees of the Greeks. Only the titles of his 

works are preserved. A grammarian of 

Rhodes, who tanght rhetoric at Rome. 

Another who wrote a treatise on Theocri- 
tus. A Spartan, son of Lycurgns the 

orator A native of Argoe, ftmoue for 

his debauchery. 
AsRoivTcvs^an Atheni^n^ry servicea- 

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AC - 

ble to Tliemistocles in his embassy to 

ABaoNicTs, Silo, a Latin poet in the Au- 
gostaa age. He wrote some fablea. 

Abhota, the wife of Nisus, the youngest 
of the sons, of iEgeiis. As a moauineut 
to her chastity, Nisus, after her death, or- 
dered the garments which she wore to be- 
come the models of fashion in Megara. 

Abrotonum, the mother of Theuiisto- 

cles. A town of AlHca, near the Syr- 


Abrus, a city of the Saptei. 

Abrypous, an ally of Rome, driven from 
his possessions by Perseus, the last king 
of Macedonia. 

Abssus, a giant, son of Tartarus and 

Absinthii, a people on the coast of Pon- 
tus, where there is also a mountain of the 
same name. 

Absorus, Abstrtis, ABarRTiDSs, islands 
in the Adriatic, or near Istria, where Ab- 
syrtiis was killed, whence their name. 

Abstrtos, a river falling into the Adri- 
atic sea, near which Absyrtus was mur- 

Abstrtus, a son of vEetes king of Col- 
chis, and Hypsea. His sister Medea, as 
she fled away wiUi Jason, tore bis body to 
pieces, and strewed his limbs in her fath- 
er's way, t» stop his pursuit. Some say 
that she murdered him in Colchis, others, 
near Istria. It is said, by others, that he 
was not murdered, but that he arrived safe 
in Illyricum. The place where he was 
killed has been called Tomos, and the 
river adjoining to it, Absvrtos. 

Abulites, governor of Susa, betrayed 
bis trast to Alexander, and was rewarded 
with a province. 

Abtoetius, a disciple of Aristotle, too 
much indulged by his master. He wrote 
some historical treatises on Cyprus, Delos^ 
Arabia and Assyria. 

Abydos, a town of Egypt, where was 
the famous temple of Osiris.— ^-A city of 
Asia, opposite Sestos in Europe, with 
which, from the narrowness of the Helles- 
pont, it seemed, to those who approached 
it by sea, to form only one town. It was 
^uiit by the Milesians, by permission of 
kineGyges. It is famous for the amours 
of Hero and Leander, and for the bridge 
of boats which Xerxes built there across 
the HelleapoBt. 

Abtla. Fid, AbUa. 

AsYLow, a city of Egypt. 

ABrssiiTiA, a large kingdom of Africa, 
in Upper ^Ethiopia, where the Nile takes 
its rise. The inhabitants are said to be 
of Arabian origin, and w^re little known 
to the ancients. 

AcAOALUs, a nymph, mother of Philan- 
der and Phylacis by Apollo. These chil- 
d^n were exposed to the wild beasts in 
Crete j hut a goat gave them her milk, and 


S reserved th€\t lives. — -A datlghccrr of 
linos, mother of Cydon, by Mercury, and 
of Amphiiljeinis by Apollo. 

AcACfidiuM, a town of Arcadia, built by 
Acacus son of Lycaori. Mercury, sur- 
named Acacesius, because brought up by 
Abacus as his foster-father, was worship- 
ped there. 

AcAcius, a rhetorician in the nge of the 
emperor Julian. 

Acidemia, a place near Athens, sur- 
rounded with high trees, and adorned with 
spacious covered walks, belonging to Aca- 
demus, from whom the name is derived.— 
Here Plato opened his school of Philoso- 
phy, and from this, every place sacred to 
learning has ever since been called Acad- 
ema. To exclude from it profaneness and 
dissipation, it was even forbidden to laugh 
there. It was called Academia vetus, to 
distinguish it from the second Academy 
founded b}^ Arceailaus, who made some 
few alterations in the Platonic philosophy, 
and from the t/urd which was established 
by Carneades. 

AcADEMUft,an Athenian, who discover^ 
ed to Caotor and Pollux where Theseus 
had concealed their sister Helen , for which 
they amply rewarded him. 

AcALANDRus, or AcALYNDBUs, a rlvef 
foiling into the bay of Tarentum, 

AcALLE, a daughter of Minos and PasU 

AcAMARCHis, one of the Oceanides. 

AcAMAs, son of Theseus and Pheedra, 
went with Diomedes to demand Helen 
from the Troians after her elopement from 
Menelaus. He was concerned in the Tro- 
jan war, and afterwards built the town of 
Acamantium in Phrygia, and on his return 
to Greece called a tnb^ after his own name 

at Athens. A son of Antenor in the 

Trojan war. A Thracian auxiliary of 

Priam in the Trojan war, 

AcAMPsis, a river of Colchis. 

AcANTHA, a nymph, loved by Apollo, 
and changed into the flower Acanthus. 

Acanthus, a town near Mount Athos, 
belonging to Macedonia, or, a/:cording to 
others, to Th/ace. It was fotinded by a 

colony from Andros. Another in Egypt, 

near the Nile, called also Dulopolis. 

AcARA, a town of Pannonia. Anoth- 
er in Italy. 

AcARiA, a fountain of Corinth, where 
lolas cut off'the head of Enrystbeus. 

AcARNATfiA, anciently Curetis, a conn- 
try of Epirus, at the north of the Ionian 
sea, divided from ^tolia, by the Achelous. 
The inhabitants reckoned onlv six months 
in the year ; they were luxurious, and ad- 
dicted to pleasure. Their horses were 
famous. It received its n^me ftom Acar- 

AcARNAs and AMPHoTxatrsj sons of Alc- 
m»on, and CallirhoQ. Alcmron being 
murdered by the broUjers of Alphesiba* 

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hia former wife, Callirhoe obtained from 
Jupiter, that her children, who were still 
in the cradle, might, by a supernatural 
power, suddenly grow up to punish their 
father's murderers. This was granted. 

AcARNAS, and AcARivAir, stony moun- 
tains of Attica. 

AcASTA, one of the Oceanides. 

AcASTus, son of Pelias, king of Thes- 
ealy, by Anaxibia, married Astydamia, or 
Hippolyte, who fell in love with Peleus, 
son of iEacus, when in banishment at her 
husband's court. Peleus rejecting the ad- 
dresses of Hippolyte, was accused before 
Acastus of attempts upon her virtue, and 
soon after, at a chase, exposed to wild 
beasts. Vulcan, by order of Jupiter, de- 
livered Peleus, who returned to Thessaly, 

and put to death Acastus and his wife. 

The second archon at Athens. 

AcATHANTua, a bay in the Red Sea. 

AccA Laursntia, the wifeof Faustulus, 
shepherd of king Numitor's flocks, who 
brought up Romulus and Remus, who had 
been exposed on the banks of the Tiber. 
The Romans yearly celebrated certain fes- 
tivals in honor of another of the same 

AcciA or Atia, daughter of Julia and 
M. Alius Balbus, was the mother of Au- 
gustus, and died about 40 years B. C. 

Variola, an illustrious female, whose cause 
was elegantly pleaded by Pliny. 

AcciLA, a town of Sicily. 

L. Accius, a Roman tragic poet, whose 
roughness of style duintilian has imputed 
to the- unpolished age in which he lived. 
He translated some of the tragedies of 
Sophocles, but of his numerous pieces only 
some of the names are known. The 
great marks of honor which he received at 
Rome, may be collected from this circum- 
stance : that a man was severely repri- 
manded by a magistrate for mentioning 
his name without reverence. Some few 
of his verses are preserved in Cicero and 
other writers. He died about 180 years 

B. C. A famous oratoj of Pisaurum in 

Cicero's age. Labeo, a foolish poet. 

TuUius, a prince of the Volsci, very inim- 
ical to the Romans. Coriolanus, when 
banished by hiS countrymen, fled to him 
and led his armies against Rome. 

Acco, a general of the Senones in Gaul. 

An old woman who fell mad on seeing 

her deformity in a looking-glass. 

AccuA, a town in Italy. 

Ac£, a town in Phoenicia, called also 
Ptolemais, now Acre. A place of Arca- 
dia near MenilopoUs, where Orestes was 
cured from the persecution of the furies, 
who had a temple there. 

AcsRATUs, a soothsayer, who remained 
alone at Delphi when the approach of 
Xerxes frightened away the inhabitants. 

AcsRBAs, a priest of Hercules at Tyre, 
who marzied Pido. 

AcERiifA, a colony of theBrutii in Mag. 
na Gnecia, taken by Alexander of EpL 

AcfRRjE, an anci^t town of Campania, 
near the river Clanhis. It still subsists, 
and the frequent inundations from the riv- 
er which terrified its ancient inhabitants, 
are now prevented by the large drains dug 

AcEBBEcoMEs, a sumamc of ApoUo, 
which signifies unshorn. 

Aces, a river of Asia. 

AcEsiA, part of the island of Lemnos, 
which received this name from Philoctetes, 
whose wound was cured there. 

ACE9IKE9, a river of Sicily. 

AcEsiNus or AcEsiNEs, a river of Per- 
sia falling into the Indus. Its banks pro- 
duce reeds of such an uncommon size, 
that a piece of them, particularly between 
two knots, can serve as a boat to cross 
the water. 

AcEsing, a surname of Apollo, in Elis 
and Attica, as god of medicine. 

AcESTA, a tQwn of Sicily, called after 
king Acestes, and known also by the 
name of Segesta. It was built by iEne- 
as, who left here part of his crew, as he 
was going to Italy. 

Ac£ST£s, son of Crinisus and Egesta, 
was king of the country near Drepanum 
in Sicily. He assisted Priam in the Tro- 
jan war, and kindly entertained ^neaa 
during his voyage, and helped him to 
bury his father on Mount Eryx. In com- 
memoration of this, i£neas built a city 
there, called Acesta, from Acestes. 

AcESTiuM, a woman who saw all her 
relations invested with the sacred office of 
torch-bearers in the festivals of Ceres. 

AcESToDoRUB, a Greek historian, who 
mentions the review which Xerxes made 
of his forces before the battle of Salamis. 

AcESTORiDEs, au Athenian archon.—— 
A Corinthian governor of Syracuse. 

AcETEs, one of Evander's attendants. 

AcHABYTos, alofty mountain in Rhodes, 
where Jupiter had a temple. 

AcHjEA, a surname of Pallas, whose 
temple in Daunia was defended by dogs 
who fawned upon the Greeks, but fierce- 
ly attacked all other persons. Ceres 

was called Achsa, from her lamentations 
(a;^ f a) at the loss of Proserpine., the descendants of Achffius, at 
first inhabited the country near Argos, 
but being driven by the Heraclids 80 
years after the Trojan war, they retired 
among the lonians, whose 12 cities they 
seized and kept. The names of these 
cities are Pelena, JEgin, iEges, Bura, 
Tritaea, ^gion, Rh3m8B, Olenos, Helice, 
PatrBB, Dyme, and Fharee. The inhab- 
itants of these three last began a famous 
confederacy. 284 years B. C. which con- 
tinued formidable upwards of 130 years, 
under the nune of the AcluBm league.. 

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and was most illustrioas whilst supported 
by the splendid virtues and abilities of 
Aralus and Philopoemeii. Their arms were 
directed against the iEtolians for three 
years, with the assistance of Philip of Mace- 
don, and they grew powerful by the acces- 
sion of neighboring states, and freed tlieir 
country from foreign slavery, till at last 
they were attacked by the Romans, and, 
after one year's hostilities, the Achaean 
leainie was totally destroyed, B. C. 147. 
Tlie Achsans extended the borders of 
their country by conquest, and even plant- 
ed colonies in Magna Grscia. The 

name of ^cfuei is generally applied to all 
the (r reeks indiscriminately, by the poets. 

Fid. Achaid. Also a people of Asia on 

the borders of the Euxine. 

ACH.CIUM, a place of Troas opposite Te- 

ArHJEMEXEs, a king of Persia, among 
the progenitors of Cyrus the Great ; whose 
descendants were called Achsmenide8,and 
formed a separate tribe in Persia, of which 
the kinss were members. Cambysos, son 
of (Jyrus, on his death-bed, charged his 
nobles, and particularly the Achsemenides, 
not to suffer the Medes to recover their 
fdrmer power, and abolish the empire of 

Persia. A Persian, made governor of 

E?ypt by XerXes, B. C. 484. 

AcHf MENiA, part of Persia, called after 
Achfemenes. Hence Achwmenius. 

Aci{£MENiDE9, a notive of Ithaca, son 
of Admmastus, and one of the compan- 
ions of Ulysses, abandoned on the coast 
of Sicily, where ^neas, on his voyage to 
Italy, found him. 

AcHx )RUM Li TTU8, a harbour in Cyprus 
—in Troas— in ^Eolia— in Peloponnesus— 
on the Euxlne. 

AcHjKORrM Static, a place on the coast 
of the Thracian Cheraonesua, where Po- 
lyxena was sacrificed to the shades of 
AchUles, and where Hecuba killed Polym- 
np.nor, who had murdered her son Polydo- 

AcH sus, a king of Lydia, hung by his 

subjects for his extortion. A son of 

XtitbuB of Thessaly. He fled, after the 
aroidental murder of a man, to Peloponne- 
Kiis; where the inhabitants were called 
from him, Achsei. He afterwards return- 
ed to Thessaly. A tragic poet of Eretria, 

who wrote 43 tragedies, of which some of 
the titles are preserved ; of these, only one 
obtained the prize. He lived some time 
afler Sophocles.— — Another of Syracuse, 

author of 10 trajredies. A river which 

falls into the Euxine. A relation of An- 

tiochfis the Great, appointed governor of 
all the king's provinces beyond Taurus. 
Me aiipired to sovereign power, which he 
disputed for eight years with Antiochus, 
and was at last betrayed by a Cretan. His 
limbs were cut off, and his body, sewed 
in the skin of an ass, was exposed on a 

Achat A, called also ffeUas, a eountry 
of Peloponnesus at the north of Elis on 
the bay of Corinth, which is now part 
of Livadia. It was originally called MgL- 
alus {shore) from its situation. The loni- 
ans called it Ionia, when they settled 
there ; and it received the name of Acha^ 
ia, from tlie Achsi, who dispossessed the 

lonians. A small part of Phthiotis was 

also called Acbaia, of which Alos was 
tlie capital. 

AcHAicuM Bellitm. Fid. Achtei. 

AcHARA, a town near 6ardis. 

AcHARENSEs, a people of Sicily, near 

AcHARN.K, a village of Attica. 

Achate*, a friend of iEneas, whose fi- 
delity was^o exemplary that Fidvu Acha- 
tes became a proverb. A river of Sicily, 

AcHELoiDEs, a patronymic given to the 
Sijrens as daughter of Achelous. 

AcHELoRiL'M, a river of Thessaly. 

Achelous, the son of Oceanus or Sol 
by Terra or Tetliys, god of the river of 
the same name in Epirus. As one of 
the numerous suitors of Dejanira, daugh- 
ter of CEneua, he entered the lists against 
Hercules, and being inferior, changed liiui' 
self into a serpent, and afterwards into 
an ox. Hercules broke off one of his 
horns, and Achelous, being defiiated, re- 
tired in disgrace into his bed of waters. 
The broken horn was taken up by the 
nymphs, and filled with fruits and flow- 
ers ; and after it had for some time adorn- 
ed the hand of the conqueror, it was 
presented to the goddess of Plenty. Some 
say that he was changed into a river af- 
ter the victory of Hercules. This river 
is in Epirus, and rises in mount Pindus, 
and after dividing Acarnania from ^Eto- 
lia, falls into the Ionian sea. The sand 
and mud which it carries down, have 
formed some islands at its mouth. This 
dver is said by some to have sprung 
from the earth after the deluge. A riv- 
er of Arcadia falling into the Alpheus 
Another flowing from Mount Sipylus 

AcncRDus, a tribe of Attica. 

AcHERiMi, a people of Sicily. 

AcHERow, a river of Thesprotia, in 
Epims, falling into the bay of Ambracia 
Homer called it, from the dead appear- 
ance of its waters, one of the rivers of 
hell, and the fable has been adopted 
by all succeeding poets, who make the 
god of the stream to be the son of Ce- 
res withotit a father, and say that he 
concealed hloiself in hell for fear of the 
Titans, and was changed inHo a bitter 
stream, over which the souls of the dead 
are at first conveyed. It receives, say 
they, the souls- of the dead^ because a 
deadly languor seizes them at the hour 
of dissolution. Some make him son of 
Titan, and suppose that he was plunged 
into hell by Jupiter, fi^ supplying , tba 

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Titans with water. The word Acheron 
is bften taken for hell itself,— ^-A river 

of Elis in Peloponnesus. Another on 

the Ripheean mountains. Also a river 

in the country of the Brutii in Italy. 

AcHERONTiA, a towH of ApuUa, on a 

AcHERUsiA., a lake of Egypt near Mem- 
phis, over which, as Diodorus mentions, 
the bodies of the dead were conveyed, 
and received sentence according to the 
actions of their life. Thft boat was cal- 
led Baris, and the ferryman Charon. 
Hence arose the fable of Charon and the 
Styx, &c. afterwards imported intb Greece 
by Orpheus, and adopted in the religion 

o^ the country. There was a river of 

the same name in Epirus, adi another 
in Italy in Calabria. 

AcHERusiAs, a place or cave in Cher- 
sonesus Taurica, where Hercules, as is 
reported, dragged Cerberus out of hell. 

AcHETus, a river of Sicily. 

Achillas, a general of Ptolemy, who 
murdered Pompey the Great. 

Achillea, a peninsula near the mouth 

of the Borystfaenes. An island at the 

mouth of the Ister, where was the tomb 
of Achilles, over which it is said that 

birds never flew. A fountain of Mile- 

us, whosp waters rise salted from the 
earth, and afterwards sweeten in their 

AcHiLLEUs or AquiLEUB, a Roman gen- 
eral in Egypt, in the reign of Diocle- 
Bian, who rebelled, and for five years 
maintained the imperial dignity at Alex- 
andria. Dioclesian at last marched against 
him ; and because he bad supported a 
long siege, the emperor ordered him to 
be devoured by lions. 

AcHjLLsiENsis, a peoplo near Macedo- 

AcHiLLEiB, a poem of Statins, in which 
he describes the education and memora- 
ble actions of Achilles. 

Achilles, the son of Peleus and The- 
tis, was the bravest of all the Greeks in 
the Trojan war. During his infancy, 
Thetis plunged him in the Styx, and 
made every part of his body invulnera- 
ble, except the heel, by which she held 
him. His education was intrusted to 
the centaur Chiron, who taught him the 
art of war, and made him master of mu- 
sic, and by feeding him with the marrow 
of wild beasts, rendered him vigorous and 
active. He was taught eloquence by 
Phoenix, whom he ever after loved and 
respected, Thetis, to prevent him from 
going to the Trojan war, where she knew 
he was to perish, privately sent him to 
the court of Lycomedes, where he was 
disguised in a female dress, and, by his 
Ikmiliarity with the king's daughters, made 
Deidamia mother of Neoptolerous. As 
Troy could not be ^ken without the aid 

of Achilles, Ulysses went to the court of 
Ly come'des - in the habit of a merchant, 
and exposed jewels and arms to sale. 
Achilles, choosing the arms, discovered his 
sex, and went to war. Vulcan, at the- 
entreaties of Thetis, made him a strong 
suit of armor, which was proof against 
all. weapons. He was deprived by Aga- 
memnon of his favorite mistress, Briseis, 
who had fallen to his lot at the division 
of the booty of Lyrnessus. For this af- 
front, he refused to appear in the field, 
till the death of his mend Patroclus re- 
called action, and to revenge. He 
slew Hector, the bulwark of Troy, tied 
the corpse by the heels to his cJiariot, 
and dragged it three times round the 
walls of Troy. After thus appeasing the 
shades of his friend, he yielded to the 
tears and entrealies of Priam, and per- 
mitted the aged father to ransom and to 
carry away Hector's body. In the tenth 
year of the war, Achilles was charmed 
with Polyxena; and as he solicited her 
hand in the temple of Minerva, it is said 
that Paris aimed an arrow at his vulner- 
able heel, of which wound he die(|. His 
body was buried at Sigieum, and divine 
honors were paid \o him, and temides rais- 
ed to his momory. It is said, that after 
the taking of Troy, the ghost of Achilles 
appeared to the Greeks, and demanded of 
them Polyxena, who accordingly was sac- 
rificed on his tomb by his son Keoptole- 
mus. Some say that this sacrifice was 
voluntary, and that Polyxena was so griev- 
ed at his death that she killed herself on 
his tomb. The Thessalians yearly sacri- 
ficed a black and a white bull on his tomb. 
It is reported that he married Helen after 
the siege of Troy ; but others maintain, 
that this marriage happened after his 
death, in the island of Leuce, where many 
of the ancient heroes lived, as in a sepa- 
rate elysium. When Achilles was young, 
his mother asked him, whether he prefer- 
red a long life, spent in obscurity and re- 
tirement, or a few years of military fame 
and glory ? and that, to his honor, he made 
choice of the latter. Some ages after the 
Trojan war, Alexander, going to the con- 
quest of Persia, offered sacrifices on the 
tomb of Achilles, and admired the hero 
who had found a Homer to publish his 

feme to posterity. There were other 

persons of the same name. The most 
known were — a man who received Juno 
when she fled from Jupiter's courtship — 
the preceptor of Chiron the centaur—a son 
of Jupiter and Lamia, declared by Pan to 
be fairer than Venus — a man who institut- 
ed ostracism at Athens. Tatius, a na- 
tive of Alexandria, in the ape of the em- 
peror Claudius, but originally a pagan, 
converted to Christianity and made a bish^ 
op. He wrote a mixed history of great 
men, a treatise on the sphere, tactics, a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




romance on the .loves of C^opfaon and 
Leucippe, &c. 8ome manuscripta of his 
works are preserved in the Vatican and 
Palatinate libraries. 

AcMiLxntJM, a town of Troas near the 
tomb of Achilles, built by the Mityleneans. 

AcHivi, the name of the inhabitants of 
Argos and Lacedsmon before the return 
of the Heraclidffi, by whom they were ex- 
pelled from their possessions 80 years af- 
ter the Trojan war. Being without a home, 
they drove the Tonians from ^gialus, seiz- 
ed their 12 cities, and called the country 
Achaia. The lonians were received by 
the Athenians. The appellation of ^ckioi 
is indiscriminately applied by the ancient 
poets to all the Greeks. 

AcHLAOJEus, a Corinthian general, killed 
by Aristomenes. 

AcHOLos, one of the Harpies. 

AciGHORius, a general with Brennus in 
the expedition which the Gauls undertook 
against PaBonia. 

AciDALiA, a surname of Venus, from a 
fountain of the same name in Boeotia, sa- 
cred to her. The Graces bathed in the 

AciDASA, a river of Peloponnesus, for- 
merly called Jardanus.' 

Ac I LI A, a plebian family at Rome, which 
tnced its pedigree up to the Trcjans.— — 
The mother of Lucan. 

AciLtA LEX was enacted, A. U. C. 556, 
by Acilius the tribune, for the plantation 
of five colonies in Itsily. Another cal- 
led also Calpumia, A. U. 0. 684. which 
enacted, that no person convicted of am- 
bitus, or using bribes at elections, should 
be admitted in the senate, or hold an of- 
fice. Another concerning such as were 

guilty of extortion in the provinces. 

M. Acilius Balbus, was consul with 
Portras Cato, A. U. C. 640. It is said, 
that during his consulship, milk and blood 

fell from heaven. Glabrio, a tribune of 

the people, who with a legion quelled the 
insurgent slaves in Etruria. Being consul 
with P. Com. Scipio Nasica, A. U. C. 563, 
he conquered Antiochus at Thermopyle, 
for which he obtained a triumph, and three 
days were appointed for public thanksgiv- 
ing. He stood for the censorship against 
Cato, but desisted on account of the false 

measures used by his competitor. The 

son of the preceding, erected a temple to 
Piety, which his father had vowed to this 
goddess when fighting against Antiochus. 
He raised a golden statue to his father, the 
first that appeared in Italy. The temple 
of piety was built on the spot where once 
a woman had fed with her milk her aged 
father, whom the senate had imprisoned, 

and excluded from all aliments. The 

enactor of a law against bribery. ^A 

pretor in the time that Verres was accus- 
ed by C'cero.- — A man accused of extor- 
tion, and twice defended byCicerp. He 

was proconsul of Sicily, and lieutenant to 

Cssar in the civil wars. A consul, 

whose son was killed by Domitian, be- 
cause he fought with wild beasts. The 
true cause of this murder was, that young 
Glabrio was stronger than the emperor, 
and therefore envied. 

AciLLA, a town of Africa, near Adnune- 
tum— some read AcoUa. 

Acis, a shepherd of Sicily^ son of Fau- 
nus and the nymph Simiethis. Galatea 
passionately loved him ; upon which, his 
rival Polyphemus, through jealousy, crush- 
ed him to death with a piece of a broken 
roek. The gods changed Acis into a 
stream which rises from mount JEtna.. 

AcMON, a native of Lymessus, who 
accompanied JEneaa into Italy. His fa- 
ther's name was Clytus. 

AcMopriDEs, one of the Cyclops. 

AcGBTEs, the pilot of the ship whom 
crew found Bacchus asleep, and carried 
him away. As they ridiculed the god, 
they were changed into sea monsters, but 
Accetes was preserved. 

AcoNTEs, one of Lycaon's 50 sons. 

AcoNTEus, a famous hunter, changed 
into a stone by the head of Medusa, at the 

nuptials of Perseus and Andromeda. 

A person killed in the wars of iEneas and 
Turnus, in Italy. 

AcoNTius, a youth of Cea, who, wher 
he went to Delos to see the sacrifices of 
Diana, fell in love with Cydippe, a beauti- 
ful virgin, and being unable to obtain her 
on account of the obscurity of his origin, 
\vrote these verses on an apple, which he 
threw into her b(»om : 

Juro tUri. aanettB per mystica sacra Diana^ 

Mt aM veTUMram comUem, sponsamqae fvn 
Cydippe read the verses, and being com- 
pelled by the oath she had inadvertently 

made, married Acontius. A mountain 

of BcBotia. 

AcoifTOBULus, a place of Cappadocia, 
under Hippolyte queen of the Amazons. 

AcoRis, a king of Egypt, who assisted 
Evagoras king of Cyprus syraipst Persia. 

AcRA, a town of Italy — Euboea — Cyprus 
— Acarnania — Sicily — Africa — Sarmatia, 

&c. A promontory of Calabria, now 

Cape di Leuca. 

AcRADTNA, the citadel of Syracuse, tak- 
en by Marcellus the Roman consul. 

AcRjE, a mountain in Peloponnesus. 

AcRiBA, a daughter of the river Asterion. 

A surname of Diana, from a temple 

built to her by Melampus. on a mountain 
near Argos. A surname of Juno. 

AcRjEPHifi A, a town in BoBotia j whence 
Apollo is called Acraephnius. 

AcRAGALLiDiB, R dishonost nation living 
anciently near Athens. 

AcRAOAB. PuIvAgragas. 

AcRATUs, a freed man of Nero, sent into 
Asia to plunder the temples of the gods. 

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AcsiAf, one of Hippodaihia's suitors. 
He built Acriae, a town of Laconia. 

AcRiDOPHAc:i,an iEtliiopian nation,who 
fed upon locusts, and lived not beyond 
tlieir 40tli year. At the approach of old 
age^ ewarnis of winged lice attacked them 
and gnawed their belly and breast, till the 
patient^ by rubbing himself, drew blood, 
which mcreased tlieir number, and ended 
in his deuh. 

AcRioN, a Pythagorean philosopher of 

AcRisroifxus, a patronymic applied to 
the Argives, from Acrisius, one of their 
ancient kings, or from Acrisione a town 
of Argolis, called after a daughter of Acris- 
ius of the same name. 

AcRisioNiADEt, a patronymic of Perse- 
us, from his grandfather Acrisius. 

AcRidius, son of Abas, king of Argos, 
by Ocalea, daughter of Mantineus. He 
was born at the same birth as Pnetiis, 
with whom it is said that he quarrelled 
even in his mother's womb. He was fa- 
ther of Danae, by Eurydice, daugliter of 
Lacedffimon. Fid. Danae, Perseus. 

AcRiTAs, a promontory of Messenia, in 

AcROATHow or AcROTHOos, a town on 
the top of Mount Atlios, whose inhabi- 
tants lived to an uncommon old age. 

AcRocERAUNiuM, a promontory of Epi- 
ru8, with mountains called Acroceraunia, 
which project between tlie Ionian and A(lri- 
atic seas. Tlie word comes from axQog, 
Mgk, and xiQavvogjthimder; because, on 
account of their great height, they were 
often struck with thunder. 

AcRocoRiNTHus, a lofty mountain on 
the isthmus of Corinth, taken by Aratus, 
B. C. 243. There is a temple of Venus on 
the top, and Corinth is built at the bottom. 
' AcRON, a king of Cenina, killed by Ro- 
mulus in single combat, after the rape of 
the Sabines. His spoils were dedicated 

to Jupiter Feretrius. A physician of 

Ap-igentum, B. C. 439, educated at Athens 
with Empedocles. He wrote physical 
treatises in the Doric dialect, and cured 
the Athenians of a plague, by lighting fire 

near tlie houses of the infected. One 

of the friends of iEneas, killed by Mezen- 

AcRopATos, one of Alexander's officers, 
who obtained part of Media after the 
king's death. 

Acropolis, the citadel of Athens, built 
on a rock, and accessible only en one side. 
Minerva had a temple at the bottom. 

AcROTATus, son of Cleomenes, king of 
Sparta, died 'before his father, leaving a 
Bon called Areus. 

AcRoTHoo*. Fid. AcToathon. 

AcTi or AcTE, a country of Attica. 
This word signifies shore.y and is applied 
to Attica, as being near the sea. It is de- 

rived by some writers, from Actieus a king, 
from whom the Athenians have been cal- 
led Actffii. 

Acta, a place near Mount Athos, on the 
iEgean fcea. 

AcT-tA, one of the Nereides. A sur- 
name of Ceres. A daughter of Danaus. 

AcT.*:oK, a famous huntsman, son of 
Aristieus and Autonoe daughter of Cad- 
mus, whence he is called AuU>neiiis Hcros. 
He saw Diana and her attendants bathing 
near Gargaphia, for which he was chang- 
ed into a stag, and devoured by his owii 

dogs. A beautiful youth, son of Melis- 

sus of Corinth, whom Archiar, one of tlie 
Heraclidie, endeavored to carry away. He 
was killed in tlie struggle. JVlelissus com- 
plained of the insult, and drowned him- 
self; and soon after, the country being vis- 
ited by a pestilence, Archias was expelled. 

Acta:u», a powerful person who made 
himself master of a part of Greece, which 
he called Attica. His daughter Agraulos 
married Cecrops, whom the Athenians cal- 
led their first king, though Actmus reigned 

before him. The word is of the same 

signification as Atticus an inhabitant of 

AcTE, one of the Horae. 

AcTiA, the mother of Augustus. 

Games sacred to Apollo, in commemora<- 
tion of the victory of Augustus over M> 
Antony at Actium. They were celebrated 
every third, sometimes fifth year, with 
great pomp, and the Laced {emoniaus had 

the care of them. ^A sister of Julius 


AcTis, son of Sol, went from Greece 
into Egypt, where he tauglit astrology^ 
and founded Heliopolis. 

AcTisANEs, a king of iCthiopia, wlio con^ 
quered Egypt, and expelled, king Amasis. 
He was famous for his «iuity, and his se«- 
vere punishment of robbers, whose noses 
he cut off, and whom he banished to a 
desert place, where they were in want of 
all aliment, and lived- only upon crows. 
- AcTiuW, wovfAziOy a town and promon- 
tory of Epinis, famous for the navaJ victo* 
ry which Augustus obtained over Antony 
and Cleopatra, the 2d of September, B. C. 
31, in honor of which the conqueror built 
there the town of Nicopolis, and insti- 
tuted games. A promontor>' of Cor- 
ey ra. 

Act I us, a surname of Apollo, from Ac- 
tium, where he had a temple. 

AcTius Navius, an augur who cut ft 
loadstone in two with a razor, before Tar- 
q'uin and the BonKin people, to convince 
them of his ski4l-as an aiipir. 

Actor, a companion of Hercules in hi> 

expedition against the Amazons. The 

father of Menoetius by iEgina, whence 

Patroclus is called Actorides. A matt 

calJed also Anincus. One of the friend* 

of aEiieas.— — A son of Neptune by Aga- 

Digitized by 



ine4a. A ion of Deion and Diomede. 

The father of Eurytiis, and brother of 

Augeas. A son of Acastus. one of the 

Argonauts. — »-The father or Astyoche. 

A king of Lemnos. 

AcTORioEs, a patronymic given to Pa- 

troclua, grandson of Actor. Also to 

Erithus, son of Actor. Two brothers 

so fond of each other, that in driving a 
chariot, one generally held the reins, and 
the other the whipj whence they are 
represented with two heads, four feet, 
and one body. Hercules conquered them. 
AcTORis, a maid of Ulysses. 
, M. AcTORius Naso, a Roman historian. 
C. AcoLEo, a Roman lawyer celebrated 
as much for the extent of his understand- 
ing, as for his knowledge of law. He was 
uncle to Cicero. 

AcuPHis, an ambassador from India to 

ACUSIL.A0S and IV^^^^'^tV) two broth- 
ers of Rhodes, conquerors at the Olympic 
games. The Greeks strewed flowers upon 
Diagoras their father, and called him hap- 
py in having such worthy sons. An 

historian of Argos, often quoted by Jose- 
phus. He wrote on genealogies in a style 

simple and destitute of all ornament. 

An Athenian who taught rhetoric at Rome 
Under Galba. 

M. Acu^Ticus, an ancient comic writer, 
whose plays were known under the names 
of Leones, Gemini, Anus, Bceotia. &c. 

Ada, a sister of queen Artemisia, who 
married Hidricua. After her husband's 
death, she succeeded to the throne of 
Caria-, but being expelled by her younger 
brother she retired to Alinda, which she 
delivered to Alexander, after adopting 
him as her son. 

Adad, a deity among the Assyrians, 
supposed to be the sun. 

Ad.«u9, a native - of Mitylene, who 
wrote a Greek treatise on statuaries., Jupiter's nurse in Crete, 
who suspended him in his cradle to a 
tree, that he might be found neither in the 
earth, the sea, nor in heaven. To drown 
the infant's cries, she had drums beat, 
and cymbals sounded, around the tree. 

A0AMA8, a Trojan prince, kiUed by 

Adamastus, a native of Ithaca, father 
of Acfatemenides. 

Adaspu, a people at the foot of mount 
ADDEPHAOtA, a goddess of the Sicilians. 
Addu4., now ^dda, a river of Cisalpine 
Gaul, falling into the Po near Cremona. 

AoELPHius, a friend df M. Antoninus, 
whom he accompanied in his expedition 
into Parthia, of which he wrote the his- 

AoEMON, raised a sedition in Maurita- 
nia to avengQ his master Ptolemy, whom 
Caligula had put to death. 

13 AD 

AoEs, or Hasss, the god of hef) among 
the Greeks, the same as the Phito of 
the Latins. The word is derived from 
06 and eidstVy [nffn videre] because' hell is 
deprived of light. It is often used for hell 
itself by the ancient poets. 

ADOANDE9TRI08, a priuce of Gauf who 
sent to Rome for poison to destroy Ar- 
minius, and was answered by the senate, 
that the Romans fought their enemies 
openly, and never used perfidious meas- 

AoHERBAL, son of Micipsa, and grand- 
son of Masinissa, was besieged by Cirta, 
and put to death by Jugurtha, after vainly 
imploring the aid of Rome. B. C. 113:. 

Adherbas, the husband of Dido. Kid, 
Adiante, a daughter of Danaus. 
Adiatorix, a governor of Galatia, wlloi 
to gain Antony's favor, slaughtered, iw 
one night, all the inhabitants of the Ro^ 
man colony of Heraclea, in Pontus. Met 
was taken at Actium, led in triumph by 
Augustus, and strangled in prison. 

Adimantus, a commander of the Athe- 
nian fleet, taken by the Spartans. All the 
men of the fleet were put to death, except 
Adimantus, because he had opposed the 
designs of his countrymen, who intended 
to mutilate all the Spartans. Pausaniac 
says that the Spartans had bribed him. 

A brother of Plato. A Corinthian 

general^ who reproached Themistocles' 

with his exile. A king struck with 

thunder, for saying that Jupiter deserved 
no sacrifices. 

Ad MET A, daughter of Eurystheus, was 
priestess of Juno's temple at Argos. She 
expressed a wish to possess the girdle of 
the queen of the Amazons, and Hercules 
obtained it for her. One of the Ocean- 

Admetus, the son of Pheres and Cly- 
mene, king of Pherie in Thessaly, married 
Theone daughter of Thestor, and after 
her death, Alceete daughter of Pelias. 
Apollo, when banished from heaven, is 
said to have tended his flocks for nine 
years, and to have obtained from the 
Parcae, that Admetus should never die, 
if another person laid down his life for 
him ; a proof of unbounded aflfection, 
which his wife Alceste cheerfully exhib- 
ited by devoting herself voluntarily to 
death. Admetus was one of the Argo- ^ 
nauts, and was at the hunt of the Caly< 
donian boar. Pelias promised his daueh-i 
ter in marriage only to him who could 
bring hini h chariot drawn by a lion and 
a wild boar; and Admetus eflected this 
by the aid of Apollo, and obtained Al- 
ceste's hand. Some say that Hercules 

brought him back Alceste from hell. 

A king of the Molossi,.to whom Themis- 
tocles fleft for protection. An oflicer of 

Alexander, killed at the siege of Tyre. 


Adovia, ftfltivaU In bonor of Adonis. 
Urst celebrated at Bybloa in Phoenicia. 
They lasted two days, the first of which 
was spent in howlings and lamentations, 
the second in joyful clamors, as if .Adonis 
was returned to life. In some towns of 
Greece and Egypt they lasted eight days ; 
the one half of which was spent in la- 
mentations, and the other in rejoicings. 
Only women were admitted. The time 
of the celebration was supposed to be 
very unlucky. The fleet of Nicias sailed 
from Athens to Sicily on that day, whence 
many unfortunate omens were drawn. 

AooNis, son of Cinyras, by his daugh- 
ter Myrrha,'Tuid. Myrrka] was the favorite 
of Venus. He' was fona of hunting, and 
was often cautioned by his mistress not 
to hunt wild beasts, for .fear of being 
killed in the attempt. This advice he 
slighted, and at last received a m<M:tal 
bite from a wild boar which he had 
wonnded, and Venus, after shedding 
many tears ^t his death, changed him 
into a flower called anemon^. Proserpine 
is said to have restored taim to life, on 
condition that he should spend six months 
with her, and the rest of the year with 
Venus. This implies the alternate return 
of summer and winter. Adonis is often 
taken for Osiris, because the festivals of 
both were often begun with mournful la- 
mentations^ and finished with a revival 
of joy, as if they were returning to life 
again. Adonis had temples raised to his 
memory, and is said by some to have 

been beloved by Apollo and Bacchus. 

A river of Phoenicia, which falls into the 
Mediterranean below Byblus. 

Adramyttium, an Athenian colony on 
the sea coast of Mysia, near the Caycus. 

AoRANA, a river in Gennany. 

Adrakum, a town of Sicily near iEtna. 
with a river of the same name. The chier 
deity of the place was called Adranus, 
and his temple was guarded by one thou- 
sand dogs. 

Aorasta. one of the Oceanides who 
nursed Jupiter. 

Adrastia, a fountain of Sicyon. A 

mountain. A country near Troy, called 

Adrastus, who built there a temple to 
Nemesis. Here Apollo had an oracle. 

A daughter of Jupiter and Necessity. 

She is called by some Nemesis, and is the 
punisher of injustice. The Egyptians 
placed her above the moon, whence she 
looked down upon the actions of men. 

A daughter of Melisseus, to whom 

some attribute the nursing of Jupiter. 
She is the same as Adrasta. 

Aorastii Campi, a plain near the Gran- 
icus, where Alexander first defeated Da- 

Adrastui, son of Talaus and Lysi- 
mache, was king of Argos. Polynices 
being banished from Thebes by his brother 



Eteocles, flad to Argos, where he manied 
Argia, daujghter of Adrasfus. The king 
assisted his son-in-law, and marched 
against Thebes with an army headed by 
seven of his most famous generals. Ail 
perished in the war except Adrastus, who, 
with a few men saved from slau^ter. 
fled to Athens, and Implored the aid or 
Theseus against the Thebans, who op- 
posed the burying of the Ar^ves slain in 
battle. Theseus went to his assistance, 

and was victorious. Adrastus, after a 

long reign, died through grief, occasioned 
by the death of his son iGgialeus. A tem- 
ple was raised to his memory at Sicyon, 
where a solemn festival was annually 

celebrated. A peripatetic philosopher, 

disciple to Aristotle. It is supposed that 
a copy of his treatise on harmonics is pre- 
served in the Vatican. A Phrygian 

prince, who having inadvertently killed 
his brother, fled to Ci^us, where he was 
humanely received, aVid entrusted witb 
the care of his son Atys. In hunting s 
wild boar. Adrastus slew the youne 
prince, ana in his despair killed himself 
on his grave. A Lydian, who as- 
sisted the Greeks against the Persians. 

A soothsayer in the Trojan war, son 

of Merops. The father of Eurydice, 

who married Ilus the Trojan. A king 

of Sicyon, who reigned four years B. C. 
1215. A son of Hercules. 

Adria, Aorianum, or Adriaticum 
MARE, a sea lying between Illyricum and 
Italy, now ealled the gulf of Venice, first 
made known to the Greeks by the discov- 
eries of the Phocaeans. 

Adriaropous, a town of Thrace ^n 

the Hebrus. Another in ^tolia, — - 

Pisidia, and Bythinia. 

ADRiANUs.or Hadrianus, the fifteenth 
emperor of Rome. He is represented aa 
an active, learned, warlike and austere 
general. He cam9>to Britain, where be 
built a wall between the modem towns 
of Carlisle and Newcastle eighty miles 
long, to protect the Britons from the in- 
cursions of the Caledonians. He killed 
in battle five hundred thousand Jews who 
had rebelled, and built a city on the ruins 
of Jerusalem, which he called JE\i&. His ^ 
memory was so retentive, that he remem- 
bered every incident of his life, and knew 
all the soldiers of his army by name. He 
was the first emperor who wore a long 
beard, and this he did to hide the warts 
on his ftice. His successors followed his 
example not through necessity, but for 
ornament. Adrian went always bare- 
headed, and in long marches generally 
travelled on foot. In the bei^innint; of 
his reign, he followed the virtues of his 
adopted father and predecessor Tmjnn ; 
he remitted all arrears due to his treasury 
for sixteen years, and publicly burnt the 
account-books, that^hls^^ward might not 

igi ize y ^ ^ 


15 ^D 

he Biuipected. His peace with the Par- 
thians proceeded from a wish of punish- 
ing the other enemies of Rome, more than 
from the effects of fear. The travels of 
Adrian were not for the display of impe- 
rial pride, but to see whether justice was 
distributed impartially ; and public favor 
was courted by a condescending behav- 
ior, and the meaner familiarity of bath- 
ing with the common people. It is said 
lliai he wished to enrol Christ among the 
gods of Rome ; but his apparent lenity 
towards the Christians was disproved, by 
the erection of a statue to Jupiter on the 
«pot where Jesus rose from the dead, and 
one to yenus on mount Calvary. The 
weight of diseases became intolerable. 
Adrian attempted to destroy himself; and 
when prevented, he exclaimed, that the 
lives of others were in his hands, but not 
his own. He wrote an account of his 
life, and publlsl^d it uader the name of 
one of his domestics. He died of a dys- 
entery at BaijB, July 10, A. D. 138, is the 
seventy-second year of his age, after a 

reign of twenty-one years. An officer 

of LucuUus. A rhetorician of Tyre in 

the age of M. Antoninus, who wrote 
seven books of metamorphoses, besides 
other treatises now lost. , 

Adrimetum, a town of Africa, on the 
Mediterranean, built by the Phoenicians. 

Aduataca, a town of Belgic Gaul, now 
Tongres, on the Maese. 

Adtjla, a mountain among the Rheetian 
Alps, near which the Rhine takes its rise, 
now St. Gothard. 

Aditlis, a town of Upper Egypt. 

AoTRMACHiDf, a maritime people of 
Africa, near Egypt. 

iEA, a hnntress changed into an island 
^ the same name by the gods, to rescue 
her from the pursuit of her lover, the river 
Phasis. It had a town called Mbl, which 
was the capital of Colchls.-i — -A town of 

Thessaly. Of Africa ~A fountain of 

Macedonia near Amydon. 

JBA.OV.A, gam^a at iGgina, in honor of 

ifiAGiDAS, a king of Epirus, son of Neo- 
pColemas, and brother to Olympias. He 
was expelled by his subjects for his con- 
tinual wars with Macedonia. He left a 
pon, Pyrrhus, only two years old, whom 
Chaucus king of Illyricum educated. 

iEACiD£s, a patronymic of the descend- 
ants of iEacns, such as Achilles, Peleus, 
Telamon, Pyrrhus, &c. 

/Eacus, son of Jupiter by iGgina daugh< 
ter of AsopuB, was king of the islaitd of 
(Enopia, which he called by his mother's 
name. A pestilence having destroyed all 
his subjects, he entreated Jupiter to re- 
people his kingdom ; and according to his 
desire, all the ants which were in an old 
oak were changed into men, and called 
i>y iSaciis mjfrmidQjUf from nvqfiri^j m 

ant. — JEacuB married Enddt, by whom 
be had Telamon and Peleus. He after- 
wards had Phocus by Psamatbe, one of 
the Nereids. He was a man of such in- 
tegrity that the ancients have made him 
one of the judges of hell, with Minos and 

iGjE, iEA, or ^MA, an island of Colchis, 
in the Phasis. 

iEiEA, a name given to Circe, because 
born at JEsd. 

vEanteum, a city of Troas, where Ajax 

was buried. An island near the Thra- 

cian Chersonesus. 

iEANTiDEs, a tyrant of Lampsacus, in- 
timate with Darius. He married a daugh- 
ter of Hippias, tyrant of Athens. One 

of the seven poets called Pleiades. 

iEA.wTi8, an Athenian tribe. 

iEAS, a river of Epirus falling into the 
Ionian sea. In the fable of lo, Ovid de- 
scribes it as falling into the Peneus, and 
meeting other rivers at Tempe. This 
some have supposed to be a geographical 
mistake of the poet. 

iEATus, son of Philip, and brother of 
Polyclea, was descended from Hercules. 
An oracle having said that whoever of 
the two touched the land after crossing 
the Achelous should obtain the kingdom, 
Polyclea pretended to be lame, and pre- 
vailed upon her brother to carry her across 
on his shoulders. When they came near 
the opposite side, Polyclea leaped ashore 
from her brother's back, exclaiming that 
the kingdom was her own. iEatus joined 
her in her exclamation, and afterwards 
married her, and reigned conjointly with 
her. Their son Thessalus gave his name 
to Thessaly. 

^cHMAcoEAs, a son of Hercules, by 
Phyllone, daughter of Alcimedon. When 
the father heard that his daughter had 
had a child, he exposed her and the in- 
fant in the woods to wild beasts, where 
Hercules, conducted by the noise of a 
magpie which imitated the cries of a 
child, found and delivered them. 

iEcHMis, succeeded his father Polym- 
nestor on the throne of Arcadia, in the 
reign of Theopompus, of Sparta. 

^DEPsuM, a town of Eubcea. 

iEoEssA, or Edessa, a town near Pella. 
Caranus king of Macedonia took it by 
following goats that sought shelter from 
the rain, and called it, from that circum- 
stance, (aiyccgf ccfpras) iEgeas. It was 
the burying-place of the Macedonian 
kings ; and an oracle had said, that as 
long as the kings were buried there, so 
long would their kingdom subsist. Alex- 
ander was buried in a different pla«e ; 
and on that account, some authors have 
said that the kingdom became extinct. 

^DicuLA RiDicuM, a temple raised to 
the god of mirth, from the following cir- 
cumstance : after thfTb^jlft^tt Cannae, 

■jitized b' 





Hannibal marcbed to Rome, whence he 
was driven back by the inclemency of 
the weather j which caused so much joy 
in Rome, that the Romans raised a tem- 
ple to the god of mirth. This deity was 
worshipped at Sparta. 

JQciLEf. Roman magistrates, that had 
the care or ail buildings, baths and aque- 
ducts, and examined the weights and 
measures, that nothing might be sold 
without its due value. There were three 
different sorts ; the iEdiles Plebeiiy or Mi- 
nores ; the Majores iGdiles, and the ^Ediles 
Ceretdes. — The plebeian ediles were two, 
first created with the tribunes j they pre- 
sided over the more minute affairs of the 
state, good order, and the reparation of 
the streets. They procured all the pro- 
visions of the city, and executed the de- 
crees of the people. The Majores and 
Cereaies had greater privileges, though 
they at first shared in the labor of the ple- 
beian ediles ; they appeared with more 
pomp, and were allowed to sit publicly in 
ivory chairs. The ofiice of an edile was 
lionorable, and was always the primary 
step to greater honors in the republic. 
; The ediles were chosen from the ple- 
beians for one hundred and twenty-seven 
years, till A. U. C. 338. 

iGoipsus, a town in Eubcea, now Dipso, 
abounding in hot-baths. 

Val. iEniT.uus, a Roman poet before 
the age of Cicero, successful in amorous 
poetry and epigrams. 

iEooN, daughter of Pandarus, married 
Zethus brother to Amphion, by whom she 
had a son called Itylus. ?he was so jeal- 
ous of her sister Niobe, because she had 
more children than herself, that she re- 
solved to murder the elder, who was ed- 
ucated with Itylus. She by mistake kill- 
ed her own son, and was changed into a 
goldfinch as she attempted to kill herself. 

Movit or Heoui, a powerful nation of 
Celtic Gaul, known for their valor in the 
wars of Cjesar. 

iEETA, or iEETEs, king of Colchis, son 
of Sol, and Perseis daughter of Oceanus, 
-Q'as &ther of Medea, Absyrtus and Chal- 
ciope, by Idya, one of the Oceanides. He 
killed Phryxus, son of Athamas, who had 
fied to his court on a golden ram. This 
murder he committed to obtain the fleece 
of the golden ram. The Argonauts came 
against C^olcfais, and recovered the golden 
fleece by means of Medea, though it was 
guarded by bulls that breathed fire, and 
by a venomous dragon. Their expedi- 
tion has been celebrsUed by all the ancient 

iGETiAs, a patronymic given to Medea, 
• as daughter of iCetes. 

iEoA, an island of the ^gean sea, be- 
tween Tenedos and Chios. 

iGoEAB, a town whose inhabitants are 
called iEgeatei, [Fid. JBdessa.] 

iEojE, a city of Macedonia,. the same aV 

Edessa. A town in Eubcea, whence 

Neptune is called iEgsus. 

JSojEiE, a town and seaport' of Cilicia. 

iEcfoN, one of Lycaon's fifty sons. 

The son of CcbIus, or of Pontus and Ter- 
ra, the same as Briareus. It is supposed 
that he was a notorious pirate, chiefly re- 
siding at iEga, whence his name ; and 
that the fable about his hundred bonds 
arises from his having one hundred men- 
to manage his oars in his piratical excur- 

JEqmvm mare (bow Archipelago,) part- 
of the Mediterranean, dividing Greece 
from Asia Minor. It is full of islduds,. 
some of which are called Cyelades, others- 
Sporades, &c. The word iEgwum is de- 
rived by some from iEg», a town of Eu- 
boea ; or from the number of islands' 
which it contains, that appear above the* 
sea, as aiyiq^goata ; or from the promon- 
tory iEga, or from iEgea, a queen of the 
Amazons ; or from iEgeus, who is sup- 
posed to have drowned himself there. 

iGc^us, a surname of Neptune, front 

MgTR in Eubcea. A river of Corey ra.- 

A plain in Phocis. 

iEcALEos, or iEgajeum, a mountain of 
Attica, opposite ^alamis, on which Xerxes • 
sat during the engagement of his fleet 
with the Grecian ships in the adjacent. 

iEcAFT, the iEgean sea. 

iEoA*, a place of Euboea. Another* 

near Daunia, in Italy. 

iEokTEs, a promontory o^^olia. 

Three islands opposite Cartnage, called 
Are, near which the Romans under Ca- 
tulu8, in the first Punic war, defeated the 
Carthaginian fleet, under Hanno, 243 B. C. 

ifiloELEoif, a town of Macedonia taken 
by king Attalus. 

^GERiA. Vid. Egeria. 

iGoEBTA, the daughter of Hippotes, and 

mother of iGgestus called Acestes. An 

ancient town of Sicily near mount Eryx, 
destroyed by Agathocles. It was some- 
times called Segesta and Acesta. 

iEoEus, king of Athens, son of Pan- 
dion, being desirous of having children, 
went to consult the oracle, and in his re- 
turn, stopped at the court of Pittheus king . 
of TroBz.ene, who gave him his daughter 
JFAhm in marriage. He left her pregnant, 
and told her, that if she had a son, to 
send him to Athens as soon as he could 
lift a stone under which he had concealed 
his sword. By this sword he was to be 
known to iEpeus, who did not wish to 
make any public discovery of a son, for 
fear of his nephews, the Pallantides, who 
expected his crown. iEthra became mo- 
ther of Theseus, whom she accordingly 
sent to Athens with his father's sword. 
At that time ^gens lived with Medea! 
the divorced wife ofJason. t When The- 

Digitized by VjOOQltT 




teni came to Athens, Medea attempted to 
poison him ; but he escaped, and upon 
showing iGgeus the sword he wore, dis- 
covered himself to be his son. When 
Theseus returned from Crete after the 
death of the Minotaur, he forgot, agreea- 
ble to the engagement made witii his fa- 
ther, to hoist up white sails as a signal of 
his success ; and iEgeus, at the sight of 
black sails, concluding that his son was 
dead, threw himself from a high rock into 
the sea ; which, from him, as some sup- 
|»8e, has been called the iEgean. iEgeus 
feigned forty-eight years, and died B. C. 
}3^. He ia supposed to have first intro- 
daced into Greece the worship of Venus 
Urania, to render the goddess propitious 
|o bis wishes in having a son. 

MoiAhi^iOne of Phaeton's sisters chang- 
ed into poplars, and their tears into am- 

^r. They are called Heliades. A 

jdaughter of Adrastus, by Amphitea daugh- 
ter of Pronaz. She married Diomedes. 

iEoiALBA, an island near Peloponnesus, 
$n the Cretan sea. Another m the Io- 
nian sea, near the Echinades. The 

ancient name of Peloponnesus. 

iEoiALKUf , son of Adrastus by Anmhi- 
tea or Demoanassa, was one of the £pi- 
f oni, i e. one of the sons of those generals 
who were kUled in the first Theban war. 
They went against the Thebans, who bad 
revised to give burial to their fathers, and 
were victorious. They all returned home 
safe, except iEpaleus, who was killed. 
That expediti<m im called the war of the 

£pisoni. The same as Absyrtus brother 

to Medea. 

JEoiAhva, son of Fhoroneus, was en- 
trusted with the kingdom of Achaia by 
king Apis going to Egypt. Peloponnesus 

was called iEgialea from him. ^A man 

who founded the kingdom of Sicyon 2091 
before the Christian era, and reigned fifty- 
two years. 

iBoiALCS, a name given to part of Pelo- 

innesus. An inconsiderable town of 

'ontus. A city of Asia Minor. A 

dty of Thrace near the Strymon. A 

mountain of Galatia. A city of Pontus. 

Another in iEthiopia. 

iEciDEs, a patronymic of Theseus. 

iBoiLA, a i^ace in Laconia, where Aris- 
tomenes was taken prisoner by a crowd 
of reiigioufl women whom he had at- 

.fioiLiA, an Island between Crete and 
Pdoponnesufl. A place m Eubcea. 

MaiMivtf an old man wlio lived, ac- 
cording to Anacreon, two hundred years. 
——A king of Doris, whom Hercules as- 
aisted to conquer the Lapithaa. 

iEoiMOBus, or ^GiMURUB, an island 
near Libya, mimoaed by some to be the 
Bame which Virgil mentions under the 
sameof Artt. 

Mqiwa, daughter of Afopua, had JEa- 



cus by Jupiter changed intp a flame of 
fire. She afterwards manled Actor, son 
of Myrmidon, by whom she had some 
children, who conspired against their fa- 
ther. Some say that she was changed by 
Jupiter into the island which bears her 

name. An island formedy called CEno- 

pia, and now Engia, in a part of the 
iEgean sea, called Saronicus Sinus, about 
twenty-4wo miles in circumference. The 
inhabitants were once destroyed by a pes- 
tilence, and the country was repeopled by 
ants changed into men by Jupiter, at the 
prayer of king iEacus. They were once 
a very powerful nation by sea, but they 
cowardly gave themselves up to Darius 
when he demanded submission from all 
the Greeks. The Athenians under Peri- 
cles made war against them ; and after 
taking seventy of theu: ships in a naval 
battle, they expelled them from iEgina 
The fugitives settled in Peloponnesus, 
and after the ruin of Athens by Lysander, 
they returned to their country, but never 
after rose to their former power or conse- 

iEoiiTBTA Paulus, a physician bom in 
iEgina. He flourished in the third, or 
according to others, the seventh century, 
and wrote Be Re Medica^ in seven books. 

^oiifETEs, a king of Arcadia, in whose 
age Lycurgua instituted his famous laws. 

iEoiocHus, a surname of Jupiter, from 
his being brought up by the goat Amal- 
thtea, and using her skin, instead of a 
shield, in the war of the Titans. 

iEoiPAif, a name of Pan, because he 
had goat's feet. 

iEoiRA, a town between iEtolia and 
Peloponnesus. A town of Achaia. 

iBoiROKssA, a town of iEtolia. 

iEoii, the shield of Jupiter,. aTro ri;; 
aiyogy a goafs sidn. This was the goat 
AmalthsBa, with whose skin he covered 
his shield. The goat was placed among 
the constellations. Jupiter gave this shield 
to Pallas, who placed upon it Medusa's 
head, which turned into stones all those 
who fixed their eyes npon it. 

iEoisTHus, king of Argos, was son of 
Thyestes by his daughter Pelopea. 

iEoiTUM, a town of iEolia, on a moun- 
tain eight miles from the sea. 

iEoivM, a town on the Corinthian isth- 
mus, where Jupiter was said to have 
been fed by a goat, whence the name. 

iEoLE, the youngest daughter of iEscu- 
lapius and Larapetie. — A nymph, daugh- 
ter of Sol and Neaera. A nymph, 

daughter of Panopous, beloved by The- 
seus after he had left Ariadne. One of 

the Hesperides. One of the Graces. 

iBoLEs, a Samian wrestler, born dumb. 
Seeing some unlawful measures pursued 
in a contest, he broke the string which 
held his tongue, through the desire - 
speaking, and ever after spoke with '■ 




^QLETEB, 8 Surname of Apollo. 

i^GLocE, a nurse of Nero. 

^ooBoLUs, a surname of Bacchus at 
Potnta» in BoBotia. 

iEcocERos, or Capricomus, an animal 
into which Pan transformed himself wlien 
4ying before T^hon in the wa^ with the 
giants. Jupiter made him a constella- 

iEooN, a shepherd. A promontory of 

Lemnos. A name of the iEgean Sea. 

A boxer of Zacynthus ; who dragged 

a large bull by the heel from a mountain 
into the city. 

/Egos potamos, i. e. the goat*8 river, a 
town in the Thracian Chersonesus, with 
a river of the same name, where the 
Athenian fleet, consisting of 180 ships, 
was defeated by Lysander, on the J3th 
Dec. B. C. 405, in the last year of tlie Fe- 
loponnesian war. 

i£oosAOj£, an Asiatic nation under At- 
tains, with whom he conquered Asia, and 
to whom he ^ve a settlement near the 

^GU8 and Rosciixius, two brothers 
amongst the AUobroges, w^ho deserted 
from Cssar to Pompey. 

^GusA, the middle island of the Agates 
near Sicily. 

^OY, a town near Sparta, destroyed be- 
cause its inhabitants were suspected by 
the Spartans of fevoring the Arcadians. 

iEoTPAivEs, a nation in the middle of 
Africa, whose body is human above the 
waist, and that of a goat below. 

iGoi P8US, a town of the Gets, near the 

^OTPTA, a freedman of Cicera 

iEoTPTii, the inhabitants of Egypt. 

iGovPTiuM MARE, that part of the Med- 
iterranean sea which is on the coast of 

JSoYPTUs, son of Belus, and brother to 
Danaus. gave his 50 sons in marriage to 
^ the 50 daughters of his brother. Danaus 
who had established himself at Argos, and 
was jealous of his brother, who, by follow- 
ing him from Egypt into Greece, se«med 
envious of his prosperity^ obliged all his 
daughters to murder their husbands the 
first night of their nuptials. This was ex- 
ecuted ; but Hy perm nostra alone spared 
her husband Lynceus. Even iBgyptus 
was killed by his niece Polyxena. iEg>'p- 
tus was king, after his father, of a part of 
Africa, which from him has been called 
^gyptus. An extensive country of Af- 
rica watered by the Nile, bounded on (be 
east by Arabia, and on the west by Libya. 
Its name is derived from iEgyntus brother 
to Danaus. Its extent, according to mod- 
ern calculation, is 180 leagues from north 
to south, and it measures 1^0 leagues on 
the shore of the Mediterranean ; but at the 
distance of 50 leagues from the sea, it di- 
miniahei 30 much aq scarce to measure 7 

or 8 leagues between the mountains oi» 
the east and west, it is divided into low- 
er, which lies near the Mediterranean, and 
upper, which is towards the south. Up- 
per Egypt was famous for the town of 
Thebes, but Lower Egypt was the most 
peopled, and contained the Delta, a num- 
ber of islands, which, from their form, 
have been called after the fouHh letter of 
the Greek alifliabet. This country has 
been the mother of arts and sciences. 
The greatest part of Lower Egypt has been 
formed by the mud and sand carried down 
by the' Nile. The Egyptians reckoned 
themselves the most ancient nation in the 
universe, but some authors make them of 
i£thiopiaii origin. They are remarkable 
for their superstition ; they paid as much 
honor to the cat, the crocodile, the bull, 
and even to onions, as to Isis. Kain nev- 
er or seldom falls in this country ; the 
fertility of the soil originates in the yearly 
inundations of the Nile, which rises about 
25 feet above the surface of the earth, and 
exhibits a large plain of waters, in which 
are scattered here and there, the towns 
and villages, as the Uyclades in the ^ge- 
an sea. The air is not wholesome, but 
the population is great, and the cattle very 
prolific. It is said that Egypt once con- 
tained 20,000 cities, the most remarkable 
of which were Thebes, Memphis, Alexan- 
dria, Pelusium, Coptos, Arsinoe, &c. It 
was governed by kings who have im- 
mortalized themselves by the pyramids 
they have raised and the canals they have 
opened. The priests traced the existence 
of the country for many thousand years, 
and fondly imagined that the gods were 
their first sovereigns, and that their mon- 
archy had lasted 11,340 years according to 
Herodotus. The history of Egypt can be- 
divided into three epochas ; the first be- 
ginning with the foundation of the em- 
pire, to the conquest of Cambyses ; the 
second ends at the death of Alexander j 
and the third comprehends the reign of 
the Ptolemies, and ends at the death of 

Cleopatra, in the age of Augustus. A 

minister of Mausolus king of Caria. ^Thtt 

ancient name of the Nile. 

^oT8. Vid. JEgy. 

JEovsTHVi* Vid, iEgisthus. 

iGLiA, the wifb of Sy 11a.— The name 
of some towns built or repaired by the 
emperor Adrian. 

JE.IAK LEX, enacted by ^lius Tubero the 
tribune, A. U. C. 559, to send two colonies 
into the country of the Brutii.- — AnoUier 
A. U. C. 568, ordaining, that, in public af- 
fhirs, the augurs should observe the np- 
pearance of the sky, and the magistrates 
be empowered to postptme the business. 

Another called iElia Sexta, by ^Uu» 

Sextusy A. U, C. 756, which enacted, that 
all slaves who bore any marks of ponisb* 
ment received ftom their masters, or wha 




had been imprisoned, should be set at lib- 
erty, but not rank as Roman citizens. • 

^LiA Petixa, of the family of Tubero, 
married Claudius Csesar, by whom she 
had a son. The emperor divorced her, to 
marry Messalina. 

JEviATiVi Claudus, a Roman sophist 
of Prajneste, in the reign of Adrian. He 
first taught rhetoric at Rome ; but being 
disgusted with his profession, he became 
author, and published treaties on animals 
in 17 books, on various history in 14 books, 
&.C. in Greek, a language which he prefer- 
red to Latin. In his writings be shows 
himself very fond oT the marvellous, and 
relates many stories which are often de- 
void of elegance and purity of style. JE- 
lian died in the. 60th year of his age, A. D. 

iELius and .^lia, a family in Rome, so 
poor that 16 lived in a small house, and 
were maintained by the produce of a little 
£eld. Their poverty continued till Paul- 
xis conquered Perseus king of Macedonia, 
.•and gave his son-in-law ^1. Tubero five 
pounds of gold from the booty. 

iEuus Adrianus, an African, grand- 

fotber to the emperor Adrian. Gallus. 

a Roman knight, the first who invaded 
Arabia Felix. He was very intimate with 
Strabo the geographer, and sailed on the 
Nfle with him to take a view of the coun- 
try. Publius, one of the first questors 

chosen from the plebeians at Rome. Q,. 
iE. Petus, son of Sextus or Publius. As 
be sat in the senate-house, a woodpecker 
perclied on his head ; upon which a sooth- 
sayer exclaimed) that if He preserved the 
bird, his house would flourish, and Rome 
decay ; and if he killed it, bhe contrary 
must happen. Hearing this, JFAius, in the 
presence of the senate, bit off the head of 
the bird. All the youths of his family 
were killed at Cannie, and the Roman 
arms were soon attended with success. 
— .-Satumlnus. a satirist, thrown down 
from the Tarpeian roek for writing verses 

atgainst Tiberius. Sextus Catus, censor 

with M. Cethegus. He separated the sen- 
ators from the people in the public specta- 
cles. During his consulship, the ambas- 
sadors of the iGtolians foimd him feasting 
in earthen dishes, and ofll'ered him silver 
vessels, which he refused^ satisfied with 
the earthen cups, &c. which, for his vir- 
tues, he had received from his father-in- 
law, L. Paulas, after the conquest of 

Macedonia. Spartianus, wrote the lives 

of the emperors Adrian, Antoninus Pius, 
and M, Aurellus. He flourished A. D. 240. 

rTubero, grandson of L. Paulus^ was 

austere in his morals, and a formidable 
enemy, to the Gracchi. His grandson was 
accused before Cesar, and ably defended 

by Cicero. Venis Csesar, the name of 

L. C. Commodus Verus, after Adrian had 
adopted IiIib. He wan made pretor and 

consul by the emperor, who was soon con- 
vinced of his incapacity in the discharge 
of public duty. He killed himself by 
drinking an antidote ; and Antoninus sur- 
named Pius, wi^ adopted in his place. 
iElius was father to Antoninus Verus, 
whom Pius adopted. A physician men- 
tioned by Galen., L. Gallus, a lawyer, 

who wrote 12 books concerning the signifi- 
cation of all law words. Sextus Pietus, 

a lawyer, consul at Borne A. U. C. 566. 

Stilo, a native of Lanuvium, master 

to N. Ter. Varro, and author of some 

iBLi.0, one of the Harpies. One of 

Action's dogs. 

-/Elurus, (a cat^) a deity worshipped by 
the Eg>'ptians ; and after death, embalm- 
ed, and buried in the city of Bubastis.^ 

iEMATHioK, andiGMATHiA. Fid. Eaa- 

^Emilia lbx, was enacted by the dicta- 
tor iEmilius, A. U. C. 309. It ordained 
that the censorship, which was before qui- 
quennial, should be limited to one year 
and a half. Another in the second con- 
sulship of -fimilius Mamercus, A. U. C. 
391. It gave power to the eldest pretor to 
drive a nail in the capitol cm the ides of 

September. The driving of a nail was 

a superstitious ceremony, by which the* 
Romans supposed that a pestilence- couM 
be stopped, or an impending calamity 

iEMiLiANUs (C. Julius), a native of 
Mauritania, proclaimed emperor after the 
death of Decius. He marched against 
Gallus and Valerian, but was informed 
they had been murdered by their own 
troops. He soon after shared tbeir fate. 
One of the thirty tyrants who rebel- 
led in the reign of Gallienus. 

JEuiLivt. Vid. iEmylius. 

jEmhestus, tyrant of Enna, was depo- 
sed by Dionysius the elder. 

iEMow. Vid. Haemon. 

iEMoNA, a large city of Asia. 

yEMONiA, a country of Greece, which 
received its name from iEmon, or iEmus, 
and was afterwards called Thessaly. 
Achilles is called JEvumius^ as being born 
there. It was also called Pyrrha, from 
Pyrrha, Deucalion's wife, who reigned 
tliere. — The word has been indiscriminnte- 
ly applied to all Greece by some writers. 

iEMorriDEs, a priest of Apollo in Italy, 
killed by iEneas. 

iEMus, an actor in Domitian's reign. 

iEMTLiA, a noble family in Rome, de- 
scended from Mamercus, son of Pythago- 
ras. A vestal who rekindled the fire of 

Vesta, which was extrneruished, by put- 
ting her veil over it. The wife of Afri- 

canus the elder, famous for her behavior 
to her husband, when suspected of infi- 
delity. Lepida, daughter of Lepidus, 

married Drusns the younger, whom f 




disgraced by her wantonness. A part 

of Italy, called also Flaminia. A pub- 
lic road leading from Placentia to Arimin- 
um ; called after the consul iEmylius, 
who is supposed to have made it. 

j£mylianvs, a name of Africanus the 
younger, son of P. iEmylius. In him the 
families of the Scipios and iEmylii were 
united. Many of that family bore the 
same name. 

iEMVLii, a noble family in Rome, de- 
scended from iEmylius the son of Asca- 

JEuruvBf a beautiful youth of Sybaris, 
whose wife met with the same fate as Pro- 
cris Censorinus, a cruel tyrant of Sici- 
ly, who liberally rewarded those who in- 
vented new ways of torturing. Patercu- 
"^ lus gave him a brazen horse for this pur- 
pose, and the tyrant made the first experi- 
ment upon the 'donor. — Lepidus, a youth 
who baud a statue in the capitoi, for saving 
the life of a citizen in a battle. A trium- 
vir with Octavius. Macer, a poet of 

Verona in the Augustan age. He wrote 
some poems upon serpents, birds, and as 

some suppose, on bees. Marous Scau- 

rus, a Roman who flourished about 100 
years B. C. and wrote three books con- 
cerning his own life. A poet in the age 

of Tiberius, who wrote a tragedy called 

Atlieus, and destroyed himself. Sura, 

another writer on the Roman year. 

Mamercus, three times dictator, conquer- 
ed the Fidenates, and took their city. He 
limited to one year and a half, the censor- 
ship, which before his time was exercised 

during five years. Papinianus, son of 

Hostilius Papinianus, was in favor with the 
emperor Severus, and was made governor 
to his sons Getd and Caracalla. Geta 
was killed by his brotlier, and Papinianus 
for upbraiding him, was murdered by his 
soldiers. From his school the Romans 
have had many able lawyers, who were 

called Papinianists. Pappus, a censor, 

who banished from the senate, P. Com. 
Rttifinus, who had been twice consul, be- 
cause he had at bistable ten pounds of sil- 
ver plate, A. U. C. 478. Porcina an ele- 
gant orator. Rectus, a severe governor 

of Egypt, under Tiberius. Regillus, 

conqueretl the general of Antiochusat sea, 

and obtained a naval triumph. Scau- 

nis, a noble, but poor citizen of Rome. 
His father, to maintain himself, was a 
coal-merchant. He was edile, and after- 
wards pretor, and fought against Jugurtha. 
His son Marcus was son-in-law to Sylla, 
and in his edileship he built a very mag- 
nificent theatre. A bridge at Rome, 

called also Sublicius. 

MifA.KiAj an island in the bay of Puteo- 
li, abounding with cypress trees. It re- 
ceived its name firom ^neas, who is sup- 
posed to have landed there on his way to 
tatium. It is called Pjtbecusa by the 

Gre^s, and now Ischia, and was famous 
once for its mineral waters. 

iE^ARiuM, a forest near Olenos in 
Achaia sacMM to Jupiter. 

iEwAsius, one of the Ephori at Sparta. 

JEtfZA or iErcxfiA, a town of Macedo- 
nia, 15 miles from Thessalonica, founded 
by iEneas. 

JEnEAOEif a town of Chersonesus, 
built by JEneoB. Cassander destroyed it, 
and carried the inhabitants to Thessaloair- 
ca, lately built. 

jEvkadx, a name given to the flrlendSi 
and companions of iEneas. 

^NKA9, a Trojan prince, son of Anchi-^ 
ses and the goddess Venus. The opiniona: 
of authors concerning his character are? 
difierent. His infancy was Intrusted toi. 
the care of a nymph, and at the ape of five, 
he was recalled to Troy. He after wards,- 
improved himself in Thessaly under Chi- 
ron, a venerable sage, whose house was 
frequented by the young princes and he- 
roes of the age. Soon after his return 
home he married Creusa, Priam's daugh- 
ter, by whom he had a son called Ascani- 
us. During the Trojan war, he behaved 
with great valor, in defence of his conn- 
try, and came to an engagement with Di- 
omedes and Achilles. Yet some writers 
accuse him of betraying his country to the 
Greeks, with Antenor, and of preserving 
his life and fortune by this treacherous 
measure. He lived at variance with Pri- 
am, because he received not sufficient 
marks of distinction from the king and 
his family. This might have provoked 
him to seek revenge by perfidy.— Authors 
of credit report, that when Troy was in 
flames, he carried away, upon his shoul- 
ders, his father Ancliises, and the statues 
of his household gods, leading in his hand 
his son Ascanius, and leaving his wife to 
follow behind. Some say that he retired 
to Mount Ida, where he built a fleet of 20 
ships, and set sail in quest of a settlement. 
StrabD and others maintain that JSneas 
never left his country, but rebuilt Troy, 
where he reigned, and his posterity after 
him. Even Homer, who lived 400 years 
after the Trojan war. says, that the gods 
destined if^neas and his posterity to reign 
over the Trojans. According to Virgil 
and other Latin authors, who, to make 
their court to the Roman emperors, traced 
their origin up to iflneas, and described 
his arrival into Italy ns indubitable, he with 
his fleet first came to the Thracian Cher-* 
Bonesus, where Polymnestor, one of his 
allies, reigned. After visiting Delos, the 
Strophades, and Crete, where he expect- 
ed to find the empire promised him by the 
oracle, he landed in Epinis and Drepa- 
num, the court of king Acestes. in Sicily, 
where he buried his father. From Sicily 
he sailed for Italy, but was driven on th« 
coasts of AIHca« and kindly retelved by 




Iftio qaeem of Carthage, to whom, on his 
first interview, he gave one of the gar- 
ments of the beautiful Helen. X)ido being 
enamored of him, wished to marry him ; 
but he .left Carthage hv order of the gods. 
In hi3 voyage he was clriven to Sicily, and 
from thence he passed to Cumaj, where 
the Sybil conducted him to hell, that he 
might hear from his father the fate^ which 
attended him and all his posterity. After 
a voyage of seven years, and the loss of 
thirteen ships, he came to the Tiber. 
LatinuSjtbe king of the country, feceived 
him with haspitality, and promised him 
his daughter Lavinia, who had been be- 
fore betrothed to king Turnus by her mo- 
ther Amata. To prevent this marriage, 
Turnus made war against JEneas ; and 
after many battles, the war was decided 
by a combat between the two rivals, in 
which Turnus was killed. iEneas mar- 
ried La^iQia, in whose honor he built the 
town of Lavinium, and succeeded his 
father-in-law. After a short reign , ^Eneas 
was killed in a battle against the Etru- 
rians. Some say that he was drowned in 
the Numicus, and his body weighed down 
T>y his armor j upon.which the Latins, not 
finding their king, supposed that he had 
1)een taken up to heaven, and therefore 
offered him sacrifices as to a god. Some 
authors suppose that iEneas, after the 
sieje of Troy, fell to the share of Neo- 
ptolemus, together with Andromache, and 
Ihat he was carried to Thessaly, whence 
he escaped to Italy. Others say, that 
after he had come to Italy, he returned to 
Troy, leaving Ascanius king of Latium. 
^neas has been praised for his piety, and 

submission to the will of the gods. A 

son of iGneas and Lavinia, called Sylvius, 
because his mother retired with him into 
the wooc^ his father's death.. He 
«ucceedea Ascanius in Latium, though 
opposed by Julius the son of his predeces- 
sor. An ambassador sent by the Lace- 

daenxonians to Athens, to treat of peace, 
in the eighth year of the Peloponnesian 

war. An ancient author who wrote on 

tactics, besides other treatises, which, ac- 
cording to i£lian, were epitomised by 

Cineas the friend of Pyrrhus. A native 

of Gaza, who, from a Platonic philosopher 
became a Christian,' A. D. 485, and wrote 
a dialogue called Theophraatusy on the 
immortality of the soul, and the resurrec- 

iEifEiA, or MffXA.^ a place near Rome, 

afterwards called Janiciilum. A city 

of Troas. A city of Macedonia. 

^ifEiDEs, a patronymic given to Asca- 
nius, as son of iEneas. 

^XEis, a poem of Virgil, which has for 
its subject the settlement of ^Eneas in 
Italy. The great merit of this poem is 
well known. The author has Imitated 
Homer, and, as some say, Homer is supe- 

rior to him only because he is more an- 
cient, and is an original. Virgil died be- 
fore he had corrected it, apd at his death 
desired it might be burnt. This was hap- 
pily disobeyed, and Augustus saved from 
the flames a poem which proved his fhm- 
ily to be descended from the kings of 
Troy. The iEneid had engaged the at- 
tention of the poet for eleven years, and 
in the first six books it seems that it was 
his design to imitate Homer's Odyssey, 
and in the last the Iliad. The action of^ 
the poem comprehends eight years, one 
of which only, the last, is really taken up 
by action, as the seven first are merely 
episodes, such as Juno's attempts to de- 
stroy the Trojans, the loves of iEneas and 
Dido, the relation of the fall of Troy, &c. 

iExEsiDEMUs, a brave general of Argos. 

A Cretan philosopher, who wrote 

eight books on the doctrine of his master' 

vEnesius, a surname of Jupiter, from 
mount iEnum. 

iExETus, a victor at Olympia, who, in 
the moment of victory, died through ex- 
cess of joy. 

JE,Ti\K. Vid. iEwEiA. 

iEwicus, a comic writer at Athens. 

iEwiocHi, a people of Asiatic Barma- 

iENOBARBus, or A.iEPfowARBus, the sur- 
name of Domitius. When Castor and 
Pollux acquainted him with a victory, he 
discredited them ; upon which they touch- 
ed his chin and beard, which instantly 
became of a brazen color, whence the sur- 
name given to himself and his descendants . 

^Enocles, a writer of Rhodes. 

iEwos, now Rno^ an independent city 
of Thrace, at the eastern month of the 
Hebru^, confounded with iEneia,pf which 
iEneas was the founder. 

^NUM, a town of Thrace — of Thessaly. 

A mountain in Cephallenia. A 

river and village near Ossa. A city ol 

Crete built by iEneas. 

iEwYRA, a'town of Thasos. 

iEoLiA,a name given to Arne. Sappho 
is called JEolia jniella, and lyric poetry 
JEolium carmen f because of Alcsus and 
Sappho, natives of Lesbos. 

iEoLiA, or iEoIis, a country of Asia 
Minor, near the ^Egean »ea. It has Troas 
at the north, and Ionia at the south. The 
inhabitants were of Grecian origin, and 
were masters, of many of the neighboring 
islands. They had twelve, others say 
thirty, considerable cities, of which Cumee 
and Lesbos were the most famous. They 
received their name from iEolus son of 
Hellenus. They migrated from Greece 

about .1124 B. C. Thessaly has .been 

anciently called TEoIia. BflBotus, son of 
Neptune, having settled there, called his 
followers Boeotians, and their country 

• Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


MQ, i 

JEoLix and ^Eojlidxs, seven islands 
between Sicily and Italy ; cftlled Lipara^ 
Hiera, Strongyle, Didyme, Ericusa, Phoe- 
nlcusa, and Euon^mos. They were the 
retreat of the winds. They sometimes 
bear the name of Fulcanue and Hephtssti- 
adegj and are known now among the 
modems under the general appellation of 
Lipari islands. 

iEonDA, a city of Tenedoa. Another 

near Thermopylae. 

iEoLiDEs, a patronymic of Ulysses, from 
JEolni; because Anticlea, his mother, 
was pregnant by Sisyphus, the son of 
iiilolus, when she married Laertes. It is 
also given to Athamas and Misenus, as 
sons of yEolus. 

JEoLvsy the king of storms and winds, 
was the son of Hippotas. He reigned 
over iEoIia ; and because he was the in- 
ventor of sails, and a great astronomer, 
the poets have called him the god of the 
wind. It is said that ne confined in a 
bag, and gave Ulysses, all the winds that 
could blow against his vessel, when he 
returned to Ithaca. The companions of 
Ulysses untied the bag, and gave the 
winds their liberty. The name seems to 
be derived from aioXog, variusy because 
the winds over which he presided are 

ever varying. There were two others. 

a king of Etruria, father to Macareus ana 
Canace, and a son of Hellenus, often con- 
founded with the god of the winds. This 
last married Enaretta, by whom he had 
seven sons, and five daughters. 

iEoRA, a festival in Athens, in honor 
ofErigone. - 

JEpAnvsy a king of Greece, restored to 
. his kingdom by Hercules, whose son Hyl- 
lus he adopted. 

iEpEA, a town of Crete, called Solis, in 
honor of Solon. 

iEpuLo, a general of the Istrians, who 
drank to excess, after he had stormed the 
camp of A. Manlius, the Roman general. 
Being attacked by a soldier, he fled to a 
neighboring town, which the Romans 
took, and killed himself for fear of being 

iEpT, a town of Elis, under the domin- 
ion of Nestor. 

iEpTTus, king of MyceniB, son of Chres- 
pbontes and Merope, was educated in 
Arcadia with Cypselus, his mother's fa- 
ther. To recover his kingdom, he killed 
Polyphontes, who had married his mother 
against her will, and ufurped the crown. 

A king of Arcadia, son of Elatus. 

A son of Hippothous, who forcibly enter- 
ed the temple of Neptutfe, near Mantinea, 
and was struck blind by the sudden erup- 
tion of salt water from the altar. He was 
kDIed by a serpent in hunting. 

iEfiui, or iEquicoLi, a people of lAti- 
Vm^ near Tybor j the^ were ip«at enemies ^ 


to Rome In its infant state, and were con- 
quered with much difficulty. 

iEquiMELiuM, a place in Rome where 
the house cf Melius stood, who aspired 
to sovereign power, for which crime bis 
habitation wae levelled to the ground. 

^Ri AS, an ancient king of Cyprus, who 
built the temple of Paphos. 

^Eroiw, wife of Atreus. 

iEaopus, a general of Epirus, in the 

reign of Pyrrhus. A person appointed 

regent to Orestes, the infant son of Ar- 

chelaus king of Macedonia. An officer 

of king Philip, banished for bringing a 

singer into his camp. A mountain of 


iEsAcuB, a river of Troy near Ida. 

A son of Priam, by Alexirhoe ; or accord- 
ing! to others by Arisba. He became 
enamored of Hesperia, whom he pursued 
into the woods. The nymph threw her- 
self into the sea, and was changed into a 
bird. iEsacus followed her example, and 
was changed into a cormorant -by Tethys. 

iEsAPua, a river of Mysia, in Asia, fall- 
ing into the Hellespont. 

iGsAR, or iEsARAs, a river of Magna 
Grscia, falling into the sea near Crotona. 

iEscHiNBs, an Athenian orator, who 
flourished about 343 B. C; and distin- 
guished himself by his rivalship with De- 
mosthenes. His fkther's name was Atro- 
metus, and he boasted his descent from a 
noble family. The first open signs of 
enmity between the rival orators appear- 
ed at the court of Philip, where they were 
sertt as ambassadors ; but the character 
of iEschines was tarnished by the accept- 
ancer of a bribe from the Macedonian 
prince, whose tyranny had hitherto been 
the general subject of his declamation. 
When the Athenians wished to reward 
the patriotic labors of Demosthenes* with 
a golden crown, iEschines impeached 
Cteslphon, who proposed it ; and to their 
subsequent dispute we are indebted for 
the two celebrated orations de corona. 
ifischines was defeated by his rival's su- 
perior eloquence, and banished to Rhodes j 
but as he retired frofh Athens, Demos- 
thenes ran after him, and nobly forced 
him to accept a present of silver. In his 
banishment, the orator repeated to the 
Rhodians, what he had delivered against 
Demosthenes ; and after receiving muchi 
applause, he was desired to read the an- 
swer of his antagonist. It was received 
with greater marks of approbation j but,, 
exclaimed iEschines, how much more 
would your admiration have been raised,, 
had you heard Demosthenes himself speak 
it! iEschines died in the seventy-flfth 
year of his age, at Rhodes, or, as sotne 
suppose, at Samos. He wrote three ora- 
tions, and nine epistles, which, from their 
number, received the name, the first of 
the graces, and the last of the mvisw^ 

Digitized by 





The orations alone are extant. Diogenes 
mentions seven more of tlie same name. 

A philosopher, disciple of Socrates, 

who wrote several dialogues. A man 

who wrote on oratory. An Arcadian. 

A Mitylenean. A disciple of Me- 

lanthins A Milesian writer. -A 


^scHKfon, a Mitylenean poet, Inti- 
mate with Aristotle. He accompanied 

Alexander in his Asiatic expedition. 

An Iambic poet of Samos. A physician 

commended by Galen. A lieutenant of 

Archagathus, killed by Hanno. 

iGscHrLioEs, a man who wrote a book 
•on agriculture. 

iGscHTLus, an excellent soldier and 
poet of Athens, son of Euphorion, and 
brother to Cyniegirus. He was in the 
Athenian army at the battles of Mara- 
thon, Salarais, and Plataea. But the most 
solid ftme he has obtained, is the off- 
spring less of his valor in the field of 
battle than of his writings. Of ninety 
tragedies, however, the fruit of his in- 
genious labors, forty of which were re- 
warded with the public prize, only aeven 
have come safe to us : Prometheus vinctMSf 
Septem duces apud Thebas, Pers^f -Aga- 
memnon^ Cktephori, Eumenides^ SuppUees. 
^schylus is the first who introduced two 
actors on the stage, and clothed them with 
dresses suitable to tiieir character. He 
lilcewise removed murder from the stage. 
It is said, that when he composed, his 
countenance betrayed the greatest feroci- 
ty ; and according to one of his scholiasts, 
when his Eumenides were represented, 
many children died through fear, ana 
several pregnant women actually miscar- 
ried in the house, at the sight of the hor- 
rible masks that were introduced. The 
'imagination of the poet was strong and 
comprehensive^ but diA)rderly and wild : 
fruitful in prodigies, but disdaining proba- 
bilities. His style is obscure, and the la- 
bors oi an excellent modem critic, have 
pronounced him the most difficult of all 
the Greek classics. »A few expressions of 
impious tendency in one of his plays, 
nearly proved fatal to iGschylus ; he was 
condemned to death ; but his brother 
Amynias, it is reported, reversed the sen- 
tence, by uncovering an arm, of which 
the hand had been cut off at the battle of 
Salamis in the service of his country, and 
the poet was pardoned. iGschylus has 
been accused of drinking to excess, and 
of never composing except when in a 
state of intoxication. In nls old age' he 
retired to the court of Hiero in Sicily. 
Being informed that he was to die by the 
fall of a house, he became dissatisfied with 
the fickleness of his countrymen, and 
withdrew from the city into the fields, 
where he sat down. An eagle, with a 
tortoise in her bill, flew over his bald head, 

and snpposiag It to be a stone, dropped 
her prey upon it to break the shell, and 
iEschylus instantly died of the blow, in 
the sixty-ninth year of his age, 456 B. G. 
It is said that he wrote an account of the 

battle of Marathon, in elegiac vexatsa. 

The twelfth perpetual archon af Athens. 
— A CorinUiian, brother-in-law to Tim- 
ophanes, intimate with Timolecm.— ^ — A 
Rhodian set over Egypt with Peuixstes of 
Macedonia. A native of Cnidus, teach- 
er of rhetoric to Cicero. 

iEscDLAPiua, son of Ajk)IIo, by Coronis, 
or as some say, by Larissa, daughter of 
Phlegias, was god of medicine. He was 
physician to the Argonauts, and consid- 
ered so skilled in the medicnial power of 
plants, that he was called the inventor as 
well as the god of medicine* He restored 
many to life, of which Pluto complained 
to Jupiter, who struck iRsculapius with 
thunder, but Apollo, angry at the death 
of his son, killed the Cyclops who made 
the thunderbolts. — yCsculapius received 
divine honors after death, chiefly at Epi- 
daurus, Pergamus, Athens, Smyrna, &c. 
Goats, bulls. Iambs, and pigs, were sacri- 
ficed on his altars, and the cock and the 
serpent were sacred to him. Rome, A.' 
U. C. 463, was delivered of a pfague, and 
built a temple to the god of medicine, 
who, as was supposed, had come there in 
the form of a serpent, and hid himself 
among the reeds in an island of the Tiber, 
^sculapius was represented with a large 
beard, holding in his hand a staff, round 
Which was wreathed a serpent ; his other 
band was supported on the head of a ser- 
pent. Serpents are m9re particularly sa- 
cred to him, not only as the ancient phy- 
sicians used them in thefr prescriptions, 
but because they were the symbols or 
prudence and foresight, so necessary In 
the medical profession. He married Epi- 
one, by whom he had two sons, famous 
for their skill m medicine, Machaon and 
Podalirus ; and four daughters, of whom 
Hygiea, goddess of health, is the most 
celebrated. Some have supposed that he 
lived » short time after the Trojan war. 
Hesiod makes no mention of him. Cicero 
says there were three of this name ; the 
first, a son of Apollo, worshipped in Arca- 
dia ; second, a brother of Mercury j third, 
a man who first taught medicine. 

jEsbpus, a son of Rucolion. A river. 

^sERiviA, a city of the Samnites, in 

iEsioif, an Athenian, known for his 
respect for the talents of Demosthenes. 

iEsis, a river of Italy, which separates 
Umbria from Picenum. 

iEsofT, son of Cretheus, was bom at the 
same birth as Pelias. He succeeded liis 
father in the kinsdom of lolchos, but was 
soon exiled by his brother. He married 
Alcimed.. by whom HjHg^^^. wl.«e 




education hft intrasted to Chiron, being 
Bfraid of Pe1ia«. When Jason was grown 
tip, lie demanded his father's kingdom 
from his uncle, who gave him evasive an- 
swers, and persuaded him t» go in quest 
of the golden fleece. At his return, Jason 
found his father very infirm ; and Medea, 
at his request, drew the blood from ^son's 
veins, und refilled them with the juice of 
certain herbs which she had gathered, 
and immediately the old man recovered 
the Vigor and bloom of youth. Some say 
that Mson killed himself by drinking 
bull's blood, to avoid the persecution of 

Pelias. A river oV Thessaly, with a 

town of the same name. 

-illsoKiDEs, a patronymic of Jason, as 
being descended from iEson. 

iEsopus, a Phrygian philosopher, who, 
though originally a slave, procured his 
liberty by the sallies of his genius. He 
travelled over the greatest part of Greece 
«and Egypt, but chiefly resided at the court 
X)f CroBSus, king of Lydia, by whom he 
was sent to consult the oracle of Delphi. 
9n this commission JEsop behaved with 
•great severity, and satirically compared 
the Delphians to floating sticks, which 
appear large at a distance, but are nothing 
when brought near. The Delphians, of- 
fended with his sarcastic remarks, accus- 
ed him of having secreted one of the sa- 
cred vessels of Apollo's temple, and threw 
him down from a rock, 561 B. C. Maxi- 
mus Planudes has written his life in 
Oreek ; but no credit is to be given to the 
biographer, who falsely asserts that the 
mythologist was short and deformed, 
^sop dedicated his fables to his patron 
Croesus ; but what appears now under his 
name, is no doubt a compilation of all the 
fables and apologues of wits before and 
after the age of ^sop, conjointly with his 

own. Claudus, an actor on the Roman 

stage, very intimate with Cicero. He 
amassed an immense fortune. His son, 
to be more expensive, melted precious 

stones to drink at his entertainments. 

An orator. An historian in the time of 

Anaximenes. A river of Pontus. 

An attendant of Mithridates, who wrote a 
treatise on Helen, and a panegyric on his 
royal master. 

iBsTRiA, an island in the Adriatic. 

iGsuLA, a town on a mountain between 
Tybur and Praeneste. 

iEsYETEs, a man from whose tomb Po- 
lites spied what the Greeks did in their 
ships during the Trojan war. 

./itSYMrrETEs, a surname of Bacchus. 

iEsTMwus, a person of Megara, who 
consulted Apollo to know the best method 
of governing his country. 

^Ethalia, or iETHERiA, now £Z&a, an 
island between Etruria and Corsica. 

iETHALiDEs, a herald, son of Mercury, 
to whom it was granted to be amongst the 
dead and the living at stated times. 

ilETMioN, a man slain at the nuptials of 

iExHioPiA, an extensive country of Af- 
rica, at the south of Egypt, divided into 
east and west by the ancients, the former 
division lying near Meroe, and the latter 
near the Mauri. The country, properly 
now called Abyssinia, as well as the in.- 
habitants, were little knoWn to the an- 
cients, though Homer has styled them the 
justest of men, and the favorites of the 
gods. They were the first who worsbii^- 
ped the gods, for which, as some Buppoee', 
their country has never been invaded by 
a foreign enemy. The inhabitants are of 
a dark complexion. The country is in- 
undated for five months every year, and 
their days and nights are almost of aix 
equal length. The ancients have given 
, the name of iEthiopia to every country 
whose inhabitants are of a black color. 

iETHLius, son of Jupiter by Protogenia, 
was father to Endymion. 

iExHON, a horse of the syn. A horse 

of Pallas, represented as shedding tears 

at the death of his master. A horse of 


iExHRA, daughter of Pittheus king of 
TroBzenCj had Theseus by iEgens. She 
was carried away by Castor and Pollux, 
when they recovered their sister Helen, 
whom Theseus had stolen, and intrusted 
to her care. She went to Troy with 

Helen. One of the Oceanides, wife to 

Atlas. She is more generally called Pie- 
ion e. 

-<Ethu9a, a daughter of Neptune by 
Amphitrite, or Alcyone, mother by Apollo 

of Eleuthere and two sons. An island 

near Lilybeum. 

iEriA, a poem of Callimachns, in which 
he speakB of sacrifices, and of the manner 
in which they were offered. 

^TioN, or Eetion, the father of An- 
dromache, Hector's wife. He was killed 
at Thebes, with his seven sons, by the 

Greeks. A famous painter. He drew 

a painting of Alexander going to celebrate 
his nuptials with Roxane. 

iErrrA, a mountain of Sicily, now called 
Gibello, famous for its volcano, which, 
for about three thousand years, has thrown 
out fire at intervals. It is two miles in 
perpendicular height, and measures one 
hundred miles round at the base, with an 
ascent of thirty miles. Its crater forms a 
circle about three and a half miles in cir- 
cumference, and its top is covered with 
snow and smoke at the same time, whilst 
the sides of the mountain^ from the great 
fertility of the soil, exhibit a rich scenery 
of cultivated fields and blooming vine- 
yards. The poets supposed that Jupiter 
had confined the giants under this moun- 
tain, and it was represented as the forge 
of Vulcan, where his servants the Cyclops 
fabricated thunderbolts, jcc. 

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iSroLiA, a country innded by Epirus, 
Acarnania, and Locris, supposed to be 
about the middle of Greece. It received 
its name from ^tolus. 

iExoLus, son of Endymion of Ella and 
Iphianassa, married Pronoe, by whom he 
had Pleuron and Calydon. Having acci- 
dentally killed Apis. soBof PhoroneuSjhe 
left his country, ana came to settle in that 
part of Greece which has been called, from 
biin, ^tolia. 

i£x, a rocky island between Tenedos 
and GJmos.^— A city in the country of 
the IVIarsi. The nurse of Jupiter chang- 
ed into a constellation. 

Afkr, an inhabitant of Africa. An 

informer under Tiberius and his succes- 
sors. He became also known as an ora- 
tor, and as the preceptor of Ctuintilian, 
and was made consul by Domitian. He 
died A. D. 59. 

Afrania, a Roman matron who fre- 
quented the forum, forgetful of female 

Luc. ArRANius, a Latin comic poet in 
the age of Terence, often compared to 

Menander, whose style he imitated. A 

general of Pompey, conquered by Cjesar 
in Spain. Q.. a man who wrote a se- 
vere satire against Nero, for which he was 
put to death in the Pisonian conspiracy. 

Potltus, a plebeian, who said before 

Caligula, that he would willingly die if 
the emperor could recover from the dis- 
temper he labored under. Caligula re- 
covered, and Afranius was put to death 
that he might not forfeit his word. 

Africa, called Libya by the Greeks, one 
of the three parts of the ancient world, 
and the greatest peninsula of the uni- 
verse, was bounded on the cast by Arabia 
and the Red Sea, on the north by the 
Mediterranean, south and west by the 
ocean. In its greatest length it extends 
four thousand three hundred miles, and 
in its greatest breadth it is three thousand 
five hundred miles. The ancients, through 
ignorance, peopled the southern parts of 
Africa with monsters, enchanters, and 

chimeras. There is a part of Africa 

called Propria^ which lies about the mid- 
dle, on the Mediterranean, and has Car- 
thage for its capital. 

Africanus, a blind poet commended by 
Ennius. A Christian writer, who flour- 
ished A. D. 2^X In his chronicle, which 
was universally esteemed, he reckoned 
five thousand five hundred years from the 
creation of the world to the aee of Julius 

Ciesar. A lawyer, disciple to Papinian, 

and intimate with the emperor Alexander. 

An orator mentioned by Cluintilian. 

The surname of the Scipios, from the 

conquest of Africa. 

Africum mare, is that part of the 
Mediterranean which is on the coast of 


AoAOKUiVM roRTiE, gates at Syracuse, 
near which the dead were buried. 

Agalas9£s, a nation of India, conquer- 
ed by Alexander. 

AuALLA, a woman of Corcyra, who 
wrote a treatise upon grammar. 

Agamedes and Trophqnius, two ar- 
chitects who made the entrance of the 
temple of Delphi, for which they demand- 
ed of the god, whatever gift was most 
advantageous for a man to receive. Eight 
days after they were found dead in tilieir 

Aoamemwow, king of Mycenae and Ar- 
gos, was brother to Menelaus, and son of 
Plisthenes, the son of Atreus. When 
Atreus was dead, his brother Thyestes 
seized the kingdom of Argos, and re- 
moved Agamemnon and Menelaus, who 
fled to Polyphidus king of Sicyoi\, and 
hence to (Eneus, king of iEtolia, where 
they were educated. Agamemnon mar- 
ried Clytemnestra, and Menelaus Helen, 
both daughters of Tyndarus king of Spar- 
ta, who assisted them to recover their 
father's kingdom. When Helen was sto- 
len by Paris, Agamemnon was elected 
commander in chief of the Grecian forces 
going against Troy ; and he showed his 
zeal in the cause by furnishing one hun- 
dred ships, and lending sixty more to the 
people of Arcadia; The fleet was de- 
tained at Aulis, where Agamemnon «ac- 
riflced his daughter to appease Diana. 
During the Trojan war, Agamemnon be- 
haved with much valor; but his quarrel 
with Achilles was fatal to the Greeks. 
After the ruin of Troy, Cassandra fell to 
his share, and foretold him that his wife 
would put him to death. He gave no 
credit to this, and returned to Argos with 
Cassandra. Clytemnestra, with her adul- 
terer iEgisthus, prepared to murder him ; 
and as he came from the bath, to embar- 
rass him, she gave him a tunic whose 
sleeves were sei^d together, and while he 
attempted to put it on, she brought him to 
the ground with a stroke of a hatchet, and 
^gisthus seconded her blows. — His death 
was revenged by his son Orestes. 

AoAMEMrroiTius, an epithet applied to 
Orestes, a son of Agamemnon. 

AoAMETOR, an athlete of Mantinea. 

AoAMNEBToR, R king of Athcus. 

AoANiFPE, a celebrated fountain of 
Boeotia at the foot of mount Helicon. 

AoAPExoR, the commander of Aga- 
memnon's fleet. The son of Ancceus, 
and grandson of Lycurgus, who, after the 
ruin of Troy, was carried by a storm into 
Cyprus, where he built Paphos. 

Agar, a town of Africa. 

AoAREtii, a people of Arabia. Trajan 
destroyed their city, called Agarum. 

Agarista, daughter of Clisthenes, wa» 
courted by all the princes of Greece. She 
married Megacles. -^A daughter pf 

y Google 




Hippocrates, who mairied Xantippns. She 
dreamed that she had brought forth a lion, 
and (tome time after became mother of Per- 

AoAsicLxt, king of Sparta, was son of 
Archidamus, and one of the Proclide. 
He used to say that a king ought to govern 
his subjects as a fiither governs his chil- 

Agassjk, a city of Thessaly. 

AoASTHxxBs, father to Polyxenua, was, 
as one of Helen's suitors, concerned in the 
Trojan war. A son of Augeas, who suc- 
ceeded as king of Elis. 

AoASTROFHus. a Trojan .wounded by 

AoASTHus, an archon of Athens. 

Aoisus, a harbor on the coast of Apu- 

A OATH A, a town of France near Agde, 
in Languedoc. 

AoATHAKCMiDAs, a general of Corinth 

in Uie Peloponnesian war. A Samian 

philosopher and historian, who wrote a 
treatise on stones, and a history of Persia 
and PhcBnice, besides an account of the 
Red Sea, of Europe and Asia. 

AoATHARCHus, an officer in the Syracu- 

san fleet. ^A painter in the age of Zeu- 


Aqathiab, a Greek historian of iEolia. 
A poet and historian in the age of Justini- 
an, of whose reign he published the his- 
toiy in five books. 

Aoatho, a Samian historian, who wrote 

an account of Scythia. A tragic poet, 

who flourished 406 B. C.^-^A comic po- 
et who lived in the same age. A son of 

Priam. A governor of Babylon. A 

Pythagorean philosopher. — A learned and 
melodious musician, who first intruduced 

songs in tragedy. A youth of Athens, 

loved by Plato. 

AoATHocLEA, a beautiful woman of 
Egypt. One of the Ptolemies destroyed 
his wife Eurydice to marry her. 

AoATHocLEs, an ipoble youth, son of a 
potter, who by entenng in the Sicilian ar- 
my, arrived at the greatest honors, and 
made himself master of Syracuse. He 
died in his *72d year, B. C. S89, after a 
rei^ of 2d years of mingled prosperity and 

adversity. A son of Ly simachus, taken 

prisoner by the Getas. He was ransomed, 
tind married Lysandra daughter of Ptole- 
my Lagus. His father, in his old age, 
married Arsinoe, the sister of Lysander. 
After her husband's death, Arsinoe, fear- 
flil for her children, attempted to murder 
Aqithocles. When Agathocles was dead, 

S83 B. C. Lysandra fled to Seleucus. 

A Grecian historian of Babylon, who 
wrote an account of Cyzicus.^— A Chian 

who wrote on husbandry. A Samian 

writer. A physician. An Athenian 


AoATHoif. Vid. Agatho. 

AoATHORTHcrs wrotQ an histoiy of Per- 

AoATMosTHSirBs, a poet, &c. 

AoATHTLLUs, an elegiac poet of Arcadia. 

AoATHTRxuM, a town of Sicily. 

AoATHTRsi, an efieminate nation of 
Scythia, who had their wives in common 
They received their name fi*m Agathyr- 
sus, son of Hercules. 

Agate, daughter of Cadmus and Her- 
mione, married Echion, by whom she had 
Pentheus, who was torn to pieces by the 
Bacchanals. She is said to have killed 
her husband in celebrating the orgies of 

Bacchus. One of the Nereides. A 

tragedy of Statius. 

AoAui, a northern nation who lived 
upon milk. 

Agatus, a son of Priam. 

Agdestis, a mountain of Phrygla, 

where Atys was buried. A surname of 


AoELADES, a statuary of Argos. 

AoELASTUs, a surname of Crassus, the 
grandfather of the rich Crassiis. He orily 
laughed once in his life, and this, it is said, 

was upon seeing an ass eat thistles. The 

wwrd is also applied to Pluto, from the sul- 
len and melancholy appearance of his 

AoELAUB, a king of Corinth, son of Ixion. 

One of Penelope's suitors. A son 

of Hercules and Omphale, from whom 

CroBSus was descended. A servant of 

Priam, who preserved Paris when exposed 
on mount Ida. 

AoEWDicuM, now Sens, a town of Gaul, 
the capital of the Senones. 

AoEwoR, king of Phcenicia, was son of 
Neptune and Libya, and brother to Belus. 
He married Telephassa, by whom he had 

Cadmus. Phoenix, Cilix, and Eiiropa. 

A son or Jasus and father of Argus. A 

sonof iEgyptus. A son of Phlegeus. 

A son of Pleuron, father to Pbineus.- A 

son of Amphion and Niobe. A king of 

Argos, father to Crotopus. ^A son of An- 

tenor. A Mitylen^an, who wrote a trea- 

tise- on music. 

AoExoRiDEs, a patronymic applied to 
'Cadmus, and the other descendants of 
Agenor. » 

AoERiicus, a freed man of Agrippina, 
accused of attempting Nero's life. 

Agksawder, a sculptor of Rhodes under 
Vespasian, who made a representation 
of Laocoon's history, which now passes 
for the best relict of all ancient sculpture. 

AGB9IA8. a PlatoTtic philosopher who 
taught the immortality of the soul. 

AoE8iLAU», king of Sparta, of the fam- 
ily of the Agidre, was son of Doryssus, 
and father of Archelaus. Durinc his 
reign, Lycurgus instituted his famous 
laws.— ^A son of Archidamus of the fami- 
ly of the Procttdae, made king in prefer- 
ence to his uephewl^otyehides. Though 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




ide&rmed, small of stature and lame, he 
was brave, and a greatness of soul com- 
pensated all the imperfections of nature. 
Agesilaua died after a reign of 36 years, 

382 B. C. A brother of 'Ahemistocles, 

who was sent as a spy into the Persian 
camp, where he stabbed Mardonius in- 
stead of Xerxes. A surname of Pluto. 

• — -A Greek who wrote a history of Italy. 

AoEsiFOLis, 1st, king uf Lacedaemon, 
son of Pausanias, obtained a great victory 
over the Mantineans. He reigned 14 
years, and was succeeded by his brother 
CleombrotuB, B. C. 380. — Hd^ son of Cleom- 
brotus, king of Sparta, was succeeded by 
Cleomenes, 2d, B. C. 370. 

Agesistrata, the mother of king Agis. 

Agesistratcs, a man who wrote a trea- 
tise intitled, De arte machinali. 

Aggrammes, a cruel king of the Ganga- 
rides. His father was a hair dresser. 

AcGRiNJi:, a people near mount Rhodo- 

Agidje, the descendants of Eurysthe- 
nes, who shared the throne of Sparta with 
the Proclidae ; the name is derived from 
Agis son of Eurysthenes. The family be- 
came extinct in the person of Cleomenes 
son of Le«nidas. 

AoiiiAus, king of Corinth, reigned 36 
years. One of the Ephori, almost mur- 
dered by the partisans of Cleomenes. 

Agis, king of Sparta, succeeded his 
father, Eur)'8thene8, and after a reign of 
one year, was succeeded by his son Eches- 

tratus, B. C. 1D58. Another king of 

Sparta, who waged bloody wars against 
Athens, and restored liberty to many Greek 
cities. He attempted to restore the laws 
of Lycurgus at Sparta, but in vain ; and 

was strangled by order of the Ephori. 

Another, son of Archidamus, who signal- 
ized himself in the war which the Spar- 
tans waged against Epidaurus. He reign- 
ed 27 years. Another, son of Archida- 
mus, king of Sparta, who endeavored to 
deliver Greece from the empire of Mace- 
donia, with the assistance of the Persians. 
He was conquered in the attempt, and 
slain by Antipater. Alexander's general. — 
Another, son of Kudamidas, killed in a 
battle against the Mantineans. An Ar- 
cadian in the expeditionof Cyrus against 

his brother Artaxerxes. A poet of Argos, 

who accompanied Alexander into Asia, 
and said that Bacchus and the sons of Le- 
da would give way to his hero, when a 

pod. A Lycian who followed jEneas 

into Italy, where he was killed. 

AcLAf A, one of the Graces, called some- 
times Pasiphae. Her sisters were Euphro- 
syne and Thalia, and they were all daugh- 
ters of Jupiter and Eurynome. 

AcLAONicE, daughter of Hegemon^ was 
acquainted with astronomy and eclipses, 
whence she boasted of her power to draw 
the moon from heaven. 

Aglaope, one of the Sirens. 

Aglaophon, an excellent Greek paint- 

AcLAosTHtifEs, wTote an history of 

AoLAURos, or Agraulos, dau^ter of 
Erechtheus, the oldest king of Athens, 
was changed into a stone by Mercury. 
Some make her daughter of Cecrops. ' 

A GLAUS, the poorest man of Arcadia, 
pronounced by the oracle more' happy 
than Gyges king of Lydia. 

Agna, a woman in the age of Horace, 
who, though deformed, had many admi- 

Agwo, one of the nymphs who nursed 
Jupiter. She gave her name to a fountain 
on mount Lyceus. 

Agnodice, an Athenian virgin, who 
disguised her sex to learn medicine. She 
was taught by Hie-ophilus the art of mid- 

AonoN, son of Nicias, was present at the 
taking of Samos by Pericles. In the Pe- 
loponnesian war he went against Potidaea, 
but abandoned his expedition through 
disease. He built Amphipolis, whose in- 
habitants rebelled to Brafidas, whom they 
regarded as their founder, forgetful of Ag- 
non. One of Alexander's officers. 

AoNORiDEs, a rhetorician of Athens, 
who accused Phocion of betraying the 
Piraeus to Nicanor. When the people re- 
collected what services Phocion had ren- 
dered them, they raised him statues, and 
put to death his accuser. 

Agonalia and Agonia, festivals in 
Rome, celebrated three times a year, in 
honor of Janus, or Agonius. They were 
instituted by Numa, and on the festive 
days the chief priest used to offer a ram. 

Agones Capitoliri, games celebrated 
every fifth year upon the Capitoline hill. 
— Prizes were proposed for agility and 
strength, as well as for poetical and litera- 
ry compositions. 

Agonis, a woman in the temple of Ve- 
nus, on mount Eryx. 

Agonius, a Roman deity, who patron- 
ized over the actions of men. Fid* Ago- 
nal ia. 

Agoracritus, a sculptor of Pharos, who 
made a statue of Venus for the people of 
Athens, B. C. 150. 

Agoranomi, ten magietrateb at Athens, 
who watched over the city and port, and 
inspected whatever was exposed to sale. 

Agora iTis, a river falling into the Gan- 

AGoi[jEA, a name of Minerva at Sparta. 

Agoheus, a surname of Mercury among 
the Athenians, {torn his presiding over 
the markets. 

Agra, a place of Boeotia where the Dis- 
sas dses. Diana' was called Agrea, be- 
cause she hunted thece. — ^A city of Susa-* 
of Arcadia, and AraURL* 

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Agr^ I and Aorkitsss, a people of Ara- 
bia Of iEtolia. 

AoRAGAs, or AcRAOAs, a river, town, 
and mountain of Sicily ; called also, Agri- 
geAtum. The town was built by the 
people of Gela, who were a fihodian col- 

Agraria lex was enacted to distribute 
among the Roman people all tlie lands 
which they had gained by conquest. It 
was first proposed A. U. C. 206, by the 
consul Sp. Cassius Vicellinus, and reject- 
ed by the senate. It was proposed a sec- 
ond time A. U. C. 269, by the tribune Li- 
cinius Stolo ; but with no better success. 
Mutius ScsEvola, A. U. C. 620, persuaded 
the tribune Tiberius Gracchus to propose 
it a third time ;.and thoijgh Octavius, his 
colleague in the tribuneship, opposed it, 
yePTiberius made it pass into a law, after 
much altercation, and commissioners were 
authorized to make a division of the lands. 
— This law at last proved fatal to the free- 
dom of Rome under J. Cssar. 

Agraule, a tribe of Athens. 

AoRAULiA, a festival at Athens in hon- 
or of Agraulos. The Cyprians also ob- 
served these festivals, by offering human 
victims. 1 

Agraulos, a daughter of Cecrops. A 

surname of Minerva. 

Agrauomtje, a people of Illyria. 

Agre, one of Actaeon's dogs. 

Agri ANE8, a river of Thrace A peo- 
ple that dwelt in the neighborhood of that 

Agri cola, the father-in-law of the his- 
torian Tacitus, who wrote his life. He 
was eminent for his public and private 
virtues. He was governor of Britain, and 
first discovered it to be an island. He 
died in his fifty-sixth year, A. D. 93. 

Agrigentum, now Oirventiy a town of 
Sicily, eighteen stadia from the sea, on 
mount Agragas. The inhabitants were 
famous for their hospitality and for their 
luxurious manner of living. In its flour- 
ishing situation Agrigentum contained 
two hundred thousand inhabitants. 

Agrinium, a city of Acarnania. 

Agri ONI A, annual festivals in honor of 
Bacchus, celebrated generally in the night. 

Agri o PAS, a man who wrote the hlsto- 
ly of all those who had obtained the pub- 
lic prize at Olympia. 

Agri OPE, the wife of Agenor, king of 

M. Agrippa ViPSAmus, a celebrated 
Roman, who obtained a victory over S. 
Pompey, and favored the cause of Aujjus- 
tus at the battles of Actium and Philippi, 
where he behaved with great valor. In 
bis expeditions in Gaul and Germany he 
obtained several victories, but refused the 
honors of a triumph, and turned his lib- 
erality towards thefptibellishing of Rome, 
and the raising of magnificent buildings, 

one of which, the Pantheon, still exists. 
He died universally lamented at Rome in 
the fifty-first year of his age, 12 B. C. and 
his body was placed in the tomb which 

Augustus had prepared for himself. 

Sylvius, a son of Tiberinus Sylvius, king 
of Latiuin. He reigned thirty-three years, 
and was succeeded by his son Romulus 
Sylvius. One of the servants of the mur- 
dered prince assumed his name and raised 

commotions. A consul who conquered 

th^iEqui. A philosopher. Herodes, 

a son of Aristobulus, grandson of the 
Great Herod, who became tutor to the 
grand-child of Tiberius, and was soon af- 
ter imprisoned by the suspicious tyrant. 
When Caligula ascended t|ie throne his 
favorite was released, presented with a 
chain of gold as heavy as that which had 
lately confined him, and made king of 
Judeea. He was a popular character with 
, the Jews i and it is said, that while they 
were flattering him with the. appellation 
of god, an angel of God' struck him with 
the lousy disease, of which he died, A. D. 

43. Menenius, a Roman general, who 

obtained a triumph over the Sabines, ap- ' 
peased the populace of Rome by the well- 
known fable of the belly and *the limbs, 
and erected the new ofiice of tribunes of 
the people, A. U. C. 261. He died poor, 
but universally regretted. A mathema- 
tician in the reign of Domitian } he was a 
native of Bithynia. 

Agrippina, a wife of Tiberius. The 
emperor repudiated her to marry Julia. 
A daughter of M< Agrippa, and grand- 
daughter to Augustus. She married Ger- 
manicus, whom she accompanied in 
Syria; and when Piso poisoned him, she 
carried his ashes to Italy, and accused his 
murderer, who stabbed himself. She fell 
under the displeasure of Tiberius, who 
exiled her in an island, where she died, 

A. D. 26, for want of bread. ^Julia, 

daughter of Germanicus and Agrippina, 
married Domitius ^Enobarbus, by whom 
she had Nero. After many cruelties, and 
much licentiousness, she was assassinat- 
ed by order of her son. She left memoirs 
which assisted Tacitus in the composition 
of his annals. 

AoRisius. Fid. Acrisius. 

AcRisoPE, the mother of Cadmus. 

AoRius, son of Parthaon, drove his 
brother OSneus from the throne. He was 
afterwards expelled by Diomedes, the 
grand-son of CEneus, upon which he kill- 
ed himself. A giant. A centaur kill- 
ed by Ilerrnles. A son of Ulysses by 

Circe. The father of Thersites. 

Agroi-as, surrounded the citadel of Ath- 
ens with walls, except that part which 
afterwards was repaired by Cimon. 

Agron, a king of Illyria, who, after 
conquering the ifltolians, drank to such 
excess that he died instantly, B. C. 231. 

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Agrotas, a Greek orator of Marseilles. 

AnROTERA, an anniversai^ sacrifice of 

goats offered to Diana at Athens, ft was 

instituted by Calliinaclms the Poleniarcli. 

A tenaple of ^gira in Peloponnesus, 

erected to the goddess under this name. 

AoyLEUs and Aoyieus, from uyvta, 
a street, a surname of Apollo, because sac- 
rifices were offered to him in the public 
streets of Athens. 

Ag^lla, a town of Etruria, founded by 
a colony of Pelasgians, and governed by 
Mezentius when ^Eneas came to Italy. It 
was afterwards called CKre. by the Lyd- 
ians, who took possession of it. 

Agylljeus, a gigantic wrestler of Cleo- 
nae, scarce inferior to Hercules in strength. 
Agtrus, a tyrant of Sicily, assisted by 
Dionysius against the Carthaginians. 

Agtriuh, a town of Sicily, where Dio- 
donis the historian was born. The in- 
habitants were called Jl^yrinenses. ^ 

Agyrius, an Athenian general who 
succeeded Thrasybuius. 
Agtktes, a man who killed his father. 

A piper. 

Ah ALA, the surname of the Servihi at 
Ahewobarbus. Fid. ^Enobarbus. 
Ajax, son of Telamon, was next to 
Achilles the bravest of all the Greeks in 
the Trojan war. He engaged Hector, 
with whom at parting he exchanged arms. 
After the death of Achilles, Ajax and 
Ulysses disputed their claim to the arms 
of the dead hero. When they were given 
to the latter, Ajax was so enraged, that he 
slaughtered a whole flock of sheep, sup- 
posing them to be the sons of Atreus, who 
had given the preference to Ulysses, and 
stabbed himself with his sword. The 
blood which ran to the ground from the 
wound, was changed into the flower hya- 
cinth. Some say that he was killed by 
Paris in battle, others, that he was mur- 
dered by Ulysses. His body was buried 
at SietBum, some say on mount RhoBtus, 
and his tomb was visited and honored by 

Alexander. The son of Oileus king of 

Locris, was surnamed Locrian, in contra- 
distinction to the spn of Telamon. He 
went with forty ships to the Trojan war, 
as being one of Helen's suitors. On his 
return Neptune destroyed his ship in a 
storm. Ajax swam to a rock, and said 
that he was safe in spite of all the gods. 
Such impiety offended Neptune, who 
struck the rock with his trident, and Ajax 
tumbled into the sea with part of the rock 
and was drowned. His body was after- 
wards found by the Greeks, and black 
sheep offered on his tomb. According to 
Virgil's account. Minerva seized him in a 
whirlwind, and dashed him against a 
rock, where he expired, consumed by 
thunder. The two Ajaces were, as some 
suppose, placed after death in the island 

of Leuce, a separate place reserved only 
for the bravest heroes of antiquity. 

AiuoNEUs, a surname of Pluto. — —A 
king of the Molossi, who imprisoned The- 
seus, because he and Pirithous attempted 
to ravish his daughter Proserpine, near 
the Acheron; whence arose the well- 
known fable of the descent of Theseus 

and Pirithous into hell. A river near 

Troy. . 

AiMYLrs, son of Ascanius, was, accord- 
ing to some, the progenitor of the noble 
family of the iEmylii in Rome. 

Aru9 LocuTius, a deity to whom the 
Romans erected an altar, from the follow- 
ing ciicumstance : one of the common 
people, called Ceditius. informed the tri- 
bunes, that as he passed one night tnrough 
one of the streets of the city, a voice more 
thrin human, issuing from above Vesta's 
temple told him that Rome would soon 
be attacked by the Gauls. His informa- 
tion was neglected, but his veracity was 
proved by the event ; and Camillus, after 
the conquest of the Gauls, built a temple 
to that supernatural voice which had given 
Rome warning of the approaching calam- 
ity, under the name of Aius Locutius. 

Alabanda, .-e, or DRUM, an inland town 
of Caria, abounding with scorpions. The 
name is derived from Alabandus, a deity 
worshipped there. 
Alabastrum, a town of EJgypt. 
Alapus, a river of Sicily. 
Al.«3a, a city on a mountain of Sicily. 
Al.ka, a surname of Bfinerva in Pelo- 
ponnesus. Her festivals are also called 

Aljei, a number of islands in the Per- 
sian gulf, abounding in tortoises. 

Al.«u3, t^e father of Auge, who mar- 
ried Hercules. 

Alaoonia, a city of Laconia. 
Alala, the goddess of war, sister to 

Alalcomen.'e, a city of BoBotia, where 
some suppose that Minerva was bom. 

Alalia, a town of Coreica, built by a 
colony of Phocaeans, destroyed by Scipio, 
562 B. C. and afterwards rebuilt by Sylla. 
Alamanes, a statuary of Athens, disci- 
ple of Phidias. 

ALAMANifi, or Alemakni, a people of 
Germany, near the Hercynian forest. 
They were very powerful, and inimical to 

Alan I, a people of Sarmatia, near the 
Palus MoBotis, who were said to have 
twenty -six different languages. 
Alares, a people of Pannonia. 
Alaricus, a famous king of the Goths, 
who plundered Rome in the reign of Ho- 
norius. He was greatly respected for his 
military valor, and during his reign he 
kept the Roman empire in contmual 
alarms. He died after a reign of thirteen 
years, A. D. 410. 

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Alabodii, a nation near Pontus. 

Alastor, a 8on of Neleus and Chloris. 

An arm-bearer to Sarpedon, king of 

Lycia, killed by Ulysses. One of Plu- 
to's horses when he carried away Proser- 

Alauo jc, soldiers of one of Cesar's le- 
gions in Gaul. 

Alazon, a river flowing from mount 
Caucasus into the Cyrus, and separating 
Albania from Iberia. 

Alba Stltius, son of Latinus Svlvius. 
succeeded his father in the kingdom of 

Latium, and reigned thirty-six years. 

Longa, a city of Latium, built by Asca- 
nius, B. C. 115Q, on the spot where ^neas 
found, according to the prophecy of Hel- 
enus, and of the god of the river, a white 
sow with thirty young ones. It was call- 
ed Longa because it extended along the 
hill Albanus. Alba, which had long been 
the powerful rival of Rome, was destroyed 
by the Romans 665 B. C. and the inhabit- 
ants were carried to Rome. A city of 

the Marsi in Italy. Pompeia, a city of 


Albani and Albenses, names applied 
to the inhabitants of the two cities of 

Albania, a country of Asia, between 
the Caspian sea and Iberia. The inhab- 
itants are said to have their eyes all blue. 
Some maintain that they followed Her- 
cules from mount Albanus in Italy, when 
he returned from the conquest of Geryon. 

The Caspian sea is called ^Ibaimm, 

as being near Albania. 

Albanus, a mountain with a lake in 
Italy, sixteen miles from Rome, near Al- 
ba. It was on this mountain that the 
LatijuB feruB were celebrated with great 
solemnity. The word taken adjectively, 
is applied to such as are natives of, or be- 
long to, the town of Alba. 

Albia Terentia, the mother of Otho. 

Albici, a people of Gallia Aquitana. 

Albietjc, a people of Latium. 

Albigaunvm, a town of Liguria. 

Albini, two Roman orators of Kreat 
merit, m'entioned by Cicero in Brut. This 
name is common to many tribunes of the 

AlrinoyanusCelsus. Fui. Celsus. 

Pedo, a poet contemporary with Ovid. 
He wrote elegies, epigrams, and heroic 
poetry in a style so elegant that he merit- 
ed the epithet of divine. 

Albintemelium, a town of Lignria. 

Albinus, was born at Adrumetum in 
Africa, and made governor of Britain, by 
Commodus. After the murder of Perti- 
nax, he was elected emperor by the sol- 
diers in Britain. Albinus was slain by 
order of Severus, A. D. 198. He was 
famous for bis voracious appetite, and 
sometimes eat for li^akfast no less than 
five hundred figs, one hundxed peaches. 

twenty pounds of dry raisins, ten melons, 

and four huncired oysters. A pretorian 

sent to Sylla, as ambassador from the 
senate during the civil wars. He was 

put to death by Sylla's soldiers. An 

usurer. A Roman plebeian who receiv- 
ed the vestals into his chariot in prefer- 
ence to his family, when they fled from 

Rome, which the Gauls had sacked. 

A. Posthumus, consul with Lucullus, A. 
U. C. 603, wrote an history of Rome in 

Albion, son of Neptune by Amphitrite, 
'came into Britain, where he established a 
kingdom, and first introduced astrology 
and the art of building ships. He was 
killed at the mouth of the RhonQ, with 
stones thrown by Jupiter, because be op- 
posed the passage of Hercules. The 

greatest island of Europe, now called 
Great Britain. The ancients compared its 
figure to a long buckler, or to the iron of 
a hatchet. 

Albib, a river of Germany falling into 
the German ocean, and now called the 

Albius, a man, father to a fkmous 

spendthrift. A name of the poet Ti- 


Albucilla, an immodest woman. 

Albula, the ancient name of the river 

Albunea, a wood near Tibur and the 
river Anio, sacred to the Muses. It re- 
ceived its name from a Sibyl, called also 
Albunea, worshipped as a goddess at Ti- 
bur, whose temple still remains. 

Alburnus, a lofty mountain of Luca- 
nia, where the Tanager takes its rise. 

Albus Pagus, a place near Sidon, 
where Antony waitea for the arrival of 

Albutiub, a prince of Celtilmria, to 
whom Scipio restored his wife. A sor- 
did man, father to Canidla. A rheto- 
rician in the age of Seneca. An an- 
cient satirist. Titus, an epicurean phi- 
losopher, born at Rome j so fond of Greece 
and Grecian manners, that he wished 
not to pass for a Roman. It is supposed 
that he died at Athens. 

Alcjeus, a celebrated lyric poet, of 
Mitylene in Lesbos, about six hundred 
years before the Christian lera. He fled , 
from a battle, and his enemies hung irp,. 
in the temple of Minerva, the armor which 
he left in the field, as a monument of his 
disgrace. He is the inventor of alcaic 
verses. He was contemporary to the fa- 
fhmous Sappho, to whom he paid his ad- 
dresses. A poet of Athens, said by 

Suidas to be the inventor of tragedy. 

A writer of epigrams. A comie poet. 

A son of Androgens, who went with 

Hercules into Thrace, and was made 

king of part of the country. A son of 

Hercules by the maid^ of Ompliale.— — A 

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son of Perseus, father of Aniphitr>-on and 
Anaxo. From him Henules has been 
called Alcides. 

Alcamenes, one of the Ag;idie, king of 
Sparta, known by his apophthegms. He 
succeeded his father Teleclus, and reign- 
ed thirty-seven years. The Helots re- 
belled in his reign. A general of the 

Achsans. A statuary, who lived 448 

B. C. and was distinguished for his stat- 
ues of Venus and Vulcan. The com- 
mander of a Spartan fleet, put to death by 
the Athenians. 

Alcander, an attendant of Sarpedon, 

killed by Ulysses. A Lacedsemonian 

youth, who accidentally put out one of 
' the eyes of Lycurgus, and was generously 

forgiven by the sage. A Trojan killed 

by Turn us. 

Alcaxdbe, the wife of Polybius, a rich 

Alc ANOR, a Trojan of mount Ida, whose 
sons Pandarus and Qitias followed JEneaB 

into Italy. A son of Phorus, killed by 


Alcathoe, a name of Megara in Attica, 
because rebuilt by Alcathous son of Pelops. 

Alcathol'8, a son of Pelops, who being 
Buspected of murdering his brother Chry- 
sippus, came to Megara, where he killed 
a lion, which had destroyed the king's 
son. He succeeded to the kingdom of 
Megara, and, in commemoration of his 
services, festivals, called Aicathoia, were 

instituted at Megara. A Trojan who 

married Hlppodamia, daughter of Anchi- 
ses. He was killed in the Trojan war, by 

Idomeneus. A son of Parthaon, killed 

by Tydeus. A friend of Mnena killed 

in the Rutulian war. 

Alce, one of Actaeon's dogs. A tonfn 

of Spain, which surrendered to Gracchus, 
now JSlcazar, a little above Toledo. 

Alcerob, an Argive, who along with 
Chromius survived the battle between 
three hundred of his countrymen and 
three hundred Lacedemonians. 

AxcssTE, or Alcestis, daughter of Pe- 
lias and Anaxibia, married Admetua. 
She, with her sisters, put to death her fa^ 
ther, that he might be restored to youth 
and vigor by Medea, who, however, re- 
fused to perform ber promise. Upon this, 
the sisters fled to Aametus, who married 
Alceate. They were soon pursued by an 
army headed by their brother Acastus; 
and A^nietus being taken prisoner, was 
redeemed from death, by the generous of- 
fer of his wife, who was sacrificed in his 
stead to appease the shades of her fa- 

Alcetas, a king of the Molossi, de- 
scended from Pyrrhus, the son of Achil- 
les. A general of Alexander's army, 

brother to Perdiccas. The eighth king 

of Macedonia, who reigned twenty-nine 
years."— An historian, who wrote an 

account of every thing that had been ded- 
icated in the temple of Delphi. A eon 

of Ar}'bas, king of Epjrus. 

Alchidas, a Rhodian, who became en- 
amored of a naked Cupid of Praxiteles, 

Alchimachus, a celebrated painter. 

Alcibiades, an Athenian general, fa- 
mous for his enterprising spirit, versatile 
genius, and natural foibles. He was dis- 
ciple to Socrates, whose lessons and ex- 
ample checked, for a while, his vicious 
propensities. He died in the forty-sixth 
year of his age, 404 B. C. after a life of 
perpetual difliculties. If the fickleness of 
his countrymen had known how to retain 
among them the talents of a man who 
distinguished himself, and was admired 
wherever he went, they might have risen 
to greater splendor, and to the sovereignty 
of Greece. 

Alcidahas, of Cos, father to Ctesilla, 
who was changed into a dove. A cele- 
brated wrestler. A philosopher and or- 
ator, who wrote a treatise on death. He 
was pupil to Gorglas, and flourished B. C. 

Alcidamea was mother of Bunus by 

Algid AVI das, a general of the Messe- 
nians, who retired to Rhegium, after the 
taking of Ithome by the Spartans, B. C^ 

Alcidamus, an Atheniait rhetorician, 

Alcidas, a Lacedemonian, sent with 
twenty-three galleys against Corcyra, in 
the Peloponnesian war. 

Alcides, a name of Hercules, from his 
strcTigthy aXxogj or from his grandfather 
Alceus. A surname of Minerva in Ma- 

Alcidick, the mother of Tyro, by Sal- 

Alcimachds, an eminent painter. 

Alcimeds, the mother of Jason, by 

Alcimedoit. a plain of Arcadia, With a 
cave, the residence of Akimedon, whose 
daughter Phillo was ravished by Hercu- 
les. An excellent carver.- — A sailor, 


Alcimenes, a tragic poet of Megara. 
A comic writer of Athens. An at- 
tendant of Demetrius. A man killed 

by his brother Bellerophou. 

Alcimus, an historian of Sicily, who 
wrote an account of Italy. An orator, 

Alcinoe, a daughter of Sthenelus son 
of Perseus. 

Alcixob. Fid. Alcenor. 

ALciifOTjs, son of Nausithous and Peri- 
bcBa, was king of Phcacia, and is praised 
for his love of agriculture. He married 
his niece Arete, by whom he had several 
sons and a daughter Naueicaa.- — A son 

of Hippocoon. A man of Plis. A 

philosopher in the stcond century, who 
wrote a book De doctrina riaiouis. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Abcioifcus, a man killed by Perseus. 

Alciphron, a philosopher of Magnesia, 
in the age of Alexander. 

Alcifpe, a daiighter of the god Mars, 
by Agraulos. She waa ravished by Ila- 

lirrhotius. The wife of Metion, and 

mother to Cupalamus. — The daughter of 
CEnomaus, and wife of Evenus, by whom 
she had Marpessa. 

Alcitpus, a reputed citizen of Sparta, 
banished by his enemies. 

Alcis, a daughter of ^Sgj'ptus. 

Alcithoje, a Thehan woman who ridi- 
culed the orgies of Bacchus. She was 
cjianged into a bat, and the spindle and 
yarn with which she worked, into % vine 
and ivy. 

Alcm.«o?t, was son of the prophet 
Amphiaraus and Eriphyle. His father 
going to the Theban war, where, accord- 
&g to an oracle, he was to perish, charged 
hini ,to revenge his death upon Eripliyle, 
who* bad betrayed him. As soon as he 
heard of his father's death, he murdered 
his mother, for which crime the Furies 
persecuted him till Phlegeus purified him 
and gave him his daughter Alphesibxa in 
marriage. AlcmiBon gave her the fatal 
collar which his mother had received to 
betray his father, and afterwards divorced 
her, and married Callirhoe the daughter 
of Achelous, to whom he promised the 
necklace he had given to Alphesiboea. 
When he attempted to recover it, Alphe- 
siboaa's brothers murdered him on ac- 
count of the treatment he had shown their 
sister, and left his body a prey to dogs and 
wild beasts. Alcraaeon's children by Cal- 
lirhoe revenged their father's death by 

killing his murderers. A son of iEgyp- 

tus, th& husband of Hippomedusa. A 

philosopher, disciple to Pythagoras, bom 
in Crotona. He wrote on physic, and he 
was the first who dissected animals to 
examine into the structure of the human 

frame. A son of the jwet yEschylus, 

the 13th archon of Athens. A son of 

Syllus, driven from Messenia with the 
rest of Nestor's family, by the Heraclidie. 
He came to Athens, and from him the 
Alcmsonidee are descended. 

ALCM.«oifiD.f:, a noble family of Ath- 
ens, descended from AlcmaRon, 

Alcmait, a very ahcient lyric poet, 
bom in Sardinia. He wrote, in the Doric 
dialect, six books of verses, besides a play 
called Colymbosas. He flourished B. C. 
670, and died of the lousy disease. Some 
of bis verses are preserved by Atheneeus 
and others. 

Alcmeita, was daughter of Electryon 
king ef Argos, by' Anaxo. Her father 
promised his crown and his daughter to 
Amphitryon, if he would revenge the 
death of his sons, who had been all killed, 
except Licymnius, by the Teleboans, a 
people of iEtolia, While Amphitryon was 

gone against the iEtolians, Jupiter intro- 
duced himself into Alcmena's bed in the 
8hai>e of her future husband. Alcmena 
became pregnant by Jupiter and after- 
wards by her husband, and was delivered 
of Hercules and Iphiclus. After Amphi- 
tryon's death, Alcmena married Rhada- 
manthus, and retired to OcaUa in Boeotia. 

Alco.v, a famous archer, who one dky 
saw his son attacked by a serpent, and 
aimed at hi:n so dexterously that he kill- 
ed the lie :i><t without hurting his son. 

A silversmith. A son of Hippocoon. 

A surgeon under Claudius^ who gain- 
ed much money by his profession, in cur- 
ing hernias and fractures. A son of 

Mars. A son of Amycus. 

Alcyone, or HALcvopfE, daughter of 
iEolus, married Ceyx, who was drowned 
as he was going to Claros to consult the 
oracle. The gods apprised Alcyone, in a 
djeam, of her husband's fate ; and on the 
morrow she threw herself into the sea, 
and w{is with her husband changed into 

birds of the same name. One of the 

Pleiades, daughter of Atlas. The 

daughter of Evenus, carried away by 

Apollo after her marriage. The wire 

of Meleager. r-A town of Thessaly, 

where Philip, Alexander's father, lost one 
of his eyes. 

Alcyone us, a youth of exemplary vir- 
tue, son to Antigonus. A giant, brother 

to Porphyrion. He was killed by Hercu- 

Alcyona, a pool of Greece, whose 
depth th3 emperor Nero attempted in vain 
to find. 

Aldescus, a river of European Sarma- 
tia, rising from the Riphoean mountains, 
and falling into the northern sea. 

Alduabis. Vid. Dubis. 

Alea, a surname of Minerva, from her 
temple, built by Aleus, son of Aphidas at 

Tegjea in Arcadia. A town of Arcadia, 

built by Aleus. It had three famous tem- 
ples, that of Minerva, Bacchus, and Diana 
the Ephesian. 

Alebab, a tyrant of Larissa, killed by 
his own guards for his cruelties. 

Alebion and Dercynus, sons of Nep> 
tune, were killed by Hercules, for steal- 
ing his oxen in Africa. 

Albcto, one of the Furies, is repre- 
sented with flaming torches, her head 
covered with serpents, and breathing ven- 
geance, war, and pestilence. 

Alector, succeeded his father Anaza- 
goras in the kingdom of Argos, and was 
father to Iphis and Capaneus. 

ALECTRYoN,ayouth whom l^fars chang- 
ed into a cock, for his negligence. 

Alectus, a tyrant of Britain, in Diocle- 
sian's reign, &c. He died 296 A. D. 

Aleihs CAMftTs, a place in Lycia, 
where Bellerophon fell from the horse Pe< 

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ALEMAirif I, or Alamakki, a people of 

Alemon, the father of Myscellus. He 
built Crotona in Magna Grscia. 

Alemusii, inhabitants of Attica, in 
whose country there was a temple of 
Ceres and of Proserpine. 

Ale ITS, a place in the island of Cos. 

Aleon, or Ales, a river of Ionia, near 

Alese, a town of Sicily, called after- 
wards Archonidion, after the founder. 

Alesia, or Alexia, now Jllisej a famous 
city of the Mandubri in Gaul, founded by 
Hercules as he returned from Iberia, on a 
high hill. J. Caesar conquered it. 

Alesiuh, a town and mountain of Pe- 

Aletea, a son of iEgisthus, murdered 
by Orestes. 

Alethes, the first of the Heraclidae, 
who was king of Corinth. ' He was son 

of Hippotaa. 'A companion of iEneas. 

described as a prudent and venerable ola 

Alethia, one of Apollo's nurses. 

Aletidas, certain sacrifices at Athens, 
in remembrance of Erigone, who wander- 
ed with a dog after her father Icarus. 

Alettuum, a town of Latium, whose in- 
habitants are called Aletrinates. 

Aletdm, a tomb near the harbor of 
Carthage in Spain. 

. A1.EUADJE, a royal family of Larissa in 
Thessaly, descended from Aleuas king of 
that country. They betrayed their coun< 
try to Xerxes. 

A1.EUS, a son of Apbidas king of Arca- 
dia, famous for his skill in building tem- ^ 

Alex, a river in the country of the 

Alezameitus, an iEtolian, who killed 
Nabis, tyrant of Lacedaemon, and was 
soon after murdered by the people. 

Ajlexanoer Ist, son of Amyntas, was 
the tenth kin;; of Macedonia. He reign- 
ed 43 years, and died 451 B. C. 

Alexander 2d, son of Amyntas 2d, 
king of Macedonia, was treacherously 
m'lrdered, B. C. 370, by his j'ounger 
brother Ptolemy, who held the kingdom 
for four years, and made way for Perdic- 
cas and iPhilip. 

Alexander 3d^ sumamed the Great, 
was son of Philip and Olympias. He 
was born B. C. 355, that night on which 
the famous temple of Diana at Ephesus 
was burnt by Erostratus. He was pupil 
to Aristotle during five years^ and he re- 
ceived his learned preceptor's instructions 
with becoming ileference and pleasure, 
and ever respected his abilities. When 
Philip went to war, Alexander, in his 15th 
year, was left governor of Macedonia, 
where he quelled a dangerous sedition 
and soon after followed his fithei* to the I 

field, and saved his life in a battle. Ha 
was highly offended when Philip di- 
vorced Olympias to marry Cleopatra, and 
he even caused the death of Attains, the 
new queen's brother. After this he re- 
tired from court to his mother Olympias, 
but was* recalled ; and when Philip was 
assassinated, he punished his murderers ; 
and, by Iris prudence and moderation, 
gained the atfection of his subjects. He 
conquered Thrace and Illyricum, and de- 
stroyed Thebes ; and after he had been 
chosen chief commander of all tlw forces 
of Greece, he declare^ war against the 
Persians, who under Darius and Xerxes 
had laid waste and plundered the noblest 
of the Grecian cities. With 32,000 foot 
and 5,000 horse, he invaded Asia, and 
after the defeat of Darius at the Granicus, 
he conquered all the provinces of Asia 
Minor. He obtained two other celebrated 
victories over Darius at Issus and Arbela, 
took Tyre after an obstinate siege of seven 
months, and the slaughter of 2.000 of 
the inhabitants in cool blood, ana made 
himself master of Egypt, Media, Syria, 
and Persia. His conquests were spread 
over India, where he fought with Porus, a 
powerful king of the country^ and after he 
had invaded Scythia, and visited^e In- 
dian Ocean, he retired to Babylon^oaded 
with the spoils of the east. His entering 
the city was foretold by the magicians aa 
fatal, Und their prediction was fulfilled. 
He died at Babylon the 21st of April, in 
the thirty-second year of his age, after 
a reign of twelve years and eight months 
of brilliant and continued success, 323 B. 
C. His death was so premature that some 
have attributed it to the efiects of poison, 
and excess of drinking. Alexander was 
always forward in every engagement, and 
bore the labors of the field as well as the 
meanest of his soldiers. During his con-^ 
quest in Asia, he founded many cities, 
which he called Alexandria. When he 
had conquered Darius, he ordered him^ 
self to be worshipped as a god ; and Callis* 
thenes, who refused to do it, was shame> 
fully put to death. His victories and suc- 
cess increased his pride ; he dressed him- 
self in the Persian manner, and gave him- 
self up to pleasure and dissipation. He 
set on fire the town of Persepolis, in a fit 
of madqess and intoxication, encouraged 
by the courtesan Thais. On his death- 
bed he gave his ring to Pcrdiccas, and it 
was supposed that by this singular pres- 
ent, he wished to make him his succes- 
sor. Some time before his death, his of- 
ficers asked him whom he appointed to 
succeed him on the throne? an41 he an- 
swered, the worthiest among you ; but I 
am afraid, acUIed he, my best friends will 
perform my funeral obsequies with bloody 
hands. Alexander, with all his pride, 
was humane and liberal, easy aJid familiar 





witli bis fiieilds, and a great patron of 
learning, iic was brave otlen to rash- 
ness i he frequently lamented that his 
father conquered every thing, and left him 
nothing to do ; and exclaimed, in all the 
pride of regal dignity, Give me kings for 
competitors, and I will enter the lists at 
Olympia. All his family and infant chil- 
dren were put to d^th by Cassander. 

A son of Alexander the Great, by 

Boxane, put to death, with his mother, by 
Cassander. — A man, who, after the expul- 
sion of Telestes, reigned in Corinth. 

A son of Cassander, king of Macedonia, 
who reigned two years conjofntly with his 
brother Antipater. Demetrius, the ion of 

Antigonus, put him to death. A king 

of Epirus, brother to Olympias, and suc- 
cessor to Arybas. He was surnamed Mo- 

lossus. A son of Pyrrhus, was king of 

Epirus. He conquered Macedonia, from 

which he was expelled by Demetrius. 

A king of Syria, driven from his king- 
dom by Nicanor^ son of Demetrius Soter, 
and his fatlier-m-law Ptolemy Philome- 

tor. A king of Syria, first called Bala, 

was a merchant, and succeeded Demetri- 
us. Ptolemy was one of the Ptolemean 

kings in Egypt. His mother Cleopatra, 
raised him to the throne, in preference to 
his brother Ptolemy Lathunis, and reign- 
ed coii^intly with him. Cleopatra, how- 
ever, expelled him, and soon after recall- 
ed him : and Alexander, to prevent being 
expelled a second time, put her to death, 
and for this unnatural action was himself 
murdered by one of his subjects. Ptole- 
my 2d, king of Eg}'pt, was son of the pre- 
ceding. He was murdered by his subjects. 

Ptolemy 3d, was king of Egj'pt^ after 

his brother Alexander the last mentioned. 
After a peaceful reign, he was banished 
by his subjects, and died at Tyre, B. C. 66. 

A youth, ordered by Alexander the 

Great to climb the rock Aaomus, with 
thirty other youths. He was killed in the 

attempt. An Epicurean philosopher. 

A governor of i£olia, who assembled a 

multitude on pretence of showing them 
an uncommon spectacle, ^nd confined 
them till they had each bought their lib- 
erty with a sum of money. A name 

given to Paris, son of Priam. Jannteus. 

n king of Jud^a, son of Hyrcanus, and 
brother of Aristobulus, who reigned as a 
tyrant, and died through excess of drink- 
ing, B. C. 79. A Paphlagonian who 

gained divine honors by his magical tricks 
and impositions. He died seventy years 

old. A native of Oaria, in the third 

century, who wrote « commentary on the 

writings of Aristotle. A peripatetic 

philosopher, said to have been preceptor 

to Nero. A poet of Ephesus, who wrote 

a poem on astronomy and geography.r 

A Thessalian, who, as he was going to en- 
gage in a naval battle, gfive to liio aoldierv 

a great number of missile weapons, and 
ordered them to dart them continually 
upon the enemy, to render their numbers 

useless. A governor of Lycia, who 

brought a reinforcement of troops to Alex- 
ander the Great.' — ^A Spartan, killed 
with two hundred of his soldiers by tM 
Argives, when he endeavored to prevent 
their passing through the country of Te- 

gea. A cruel tyrant of Pherse, in Thes- 

saly, who made war against the Macedo- 
nians, and took Pelopidas prisoner. He 

was murdered, B. C. 357, by his wife. 

Severn s, a Roman emperor. 

Alexandra, the name of some queens 

of Judfea. A nurse of Nero. — A name 

of Cassandra, because she assisted man- 
kind by her prophecies. 

Alexandri arjc, the boundaries, accor- 
ding to some, of Alexander's victories, 
near the Tanais. 

Alexandria, the name of several cities 
which were founded by Alexander, during 
his conquests in Asia ; the most famous 
are — A great and extensive city, built 
B. C. 332, by Alexander, on the we^ern 
side of the Delta. The illustrious foun- 
der intended it not only for the capital of 
Egypt, but of his immense conquests, and 
the commercial advantages which its sit- 
uation commanded continued to improve 
from the time of Alexander till the inva- 
sion of the Saracens in tlie seventh centu- 
ry. Alexandria is famous, among other 
curiosities, for the large library which the 
pride or learning of the Ptolemies had col- 
lected there, at a vast expense, from all 
parts of the earth. It has likewise been 
distinguished for its schools, not only of 
theology and philosophy, but of physic. 

Another in Albania, at the foot of 

mount Caucasus. Another in Aracho- 

sia, in India. The capital of Aria, be- 
tween Hecatompylon and Bactra An- 
other of Carmania, Another in Ci- 

licia, on the confines of Syria. An- 
other, the capital of Margiana. Another 

of Troas, &c. 

Alexandrina aqua, baths in Rome, 
built by the emperor Alexander Sevenis. 

Alexandropolis, a city of Parthia, 
built by Alexander the Great. 

Alexanor, a son of Machaon, who built 
in Sicyon a temple to his grandfather JEa- 
culapius, and received divine honors after 

Alexarchus, a Greek historian. 

Alex AS, of Laodirea, was recommend- 
ed to M. Antony by Timagenes. He was 
the cause that Antony repudiated Octavia 
to marry Cleopatra. 

Alexia, or Alesia. Vid, Alesia. 

ALExicACt79, a sumanw given to Apollo 
by the Athenians, because he delivered 
them from the plague during the Pelopon- 
nesian war. 

Als^incs, a disciple of £Iubulide« the 

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Vilesian, fkmous for the acatenes9 of hia 
fenius and judgment, and for his fond- 
ness Cor contention and argumentation. 

Alezion, a physician, intimate with 

Alsxipfus, a physician of Alexander. 

Ale&iraes, a son of Hercules by Hebe. 

A place of BiBotia, where Alexiraes 

was born, bears also this name. 

ALfixiRHOJi, a daughtei of the river 

A1.BXIS, a man of Samos, who endea- 
vored to ascertain, by his writings, the 

borders of his country. A comic poet, 

33S B. C. of Thurium, who wrote two 

hundred and fo/ty-five comedies. A 

servant of Asinius Pollio. A statuary, 

disciple to Polycletes, ei^ty-seven Olym. 
A acbool-fellow of Atticus. 

Alex ON, a native of Myndos, who 
wrote fables. 

Alfaterna, a town of Campania, be- 
yond mount Vesuvius. 

P. ALFEifus Varus, a native of Cremo- 
na, who raised himself from his original 
profession of a cobbler, to offices of trust 
at Rome, and at last became consul. 

Aloioum, a town of Latium near Tus- 
culum, about twelve miles from Rome. 
There is a mountain of the same name in 
the neighborhood. 

Aliacmoit and Haliacmoit, a river of 
Macedonia, separating it from Thessaly. 

Aliartum, a city of Boeotia, taken by 
M. Lucretius. 

Aliartus and Haliartus, a town of 

Boeotia, near the river Perniessus. 

Another in Peloponnesus, on the coast of 

A LI CIS, a town of Laconia. A tribe 

of Athens. 

Aliei*U8 Cjeciiva, a questor in Bffiotia, 
appointed, for his services, commander of 
a legion in Germany, by Galba. 

Alifje, Alifa, or Alipha, a town of 
Italy, near the Vultumus, famous for the 
making of cups. 

Aliljei, a people of Arabia Felix. 

Alimentus, C. an historian in the sec- 
ond Punic war. 

Alindj:, a town of Caria. 

Alipheria, a town of Arcadia, situate 
on a hill. 

Alirrothius, a son of Neptune. Hear- 
ing that his fkther had been defeated by 
Minerva, in his dispute about giving a 
name to Athens, he went to the citadfel, 
and endeavored to cut down the olive, 
which had sprung from the ground, and 
given the victory to Minerva j but in the 
attempt he missed his aim, and cut his 
own legs so severely that he instantly ex- 

T. Alledius Ssverus, aRoman knight 
who married his brother's daughter to 
please Agrippina.—- ^4 noted glutton in 
I reign. 

Allia, a river of Italy, Ihlling Into the 

Alliewos, a pretor of 6ici}y, under 

Allobroges, a warlike nation of Gaul 
near the Rhone, in that part of the coun- 
try now called Savoy, Dauphiii6, and Vi- 

Allobryoes, a people of Gaul supposed 
to be the same as the Allobroges. 
I Allotrioes, a nation on the southern 
parts of Spain. 

Allutius, or Albctius, a prince of the 
Celtiberi, to whom Scipio restored the 
beautiful princess he had taken in battle. 

Almo, a small river near Rome, falling 
into the Tiber. 

ALUoif, the eldest of the sons of Tyr- 
rhus. He was the first Rutulian killed by 
the Trojans. 

Aloa, festivals at Athens- in honor of 
Bacchus and Ceres, by whose beneficence 
the husbandmen received the recompense 
of their labors. 

Alobus, a giant, son of Titan and Ter- 
ra. He married Iphimedia, by whom 
Neptune had the twins, Othus and Ephi- 
altus. Aloeus educated them as his own, 
and from that circumstance they have been 
called AUtides. 

Aloides and Aloidje, the sons of Alo- 
eus. Vid. Aloeus. 

Alope, daughter of Cercyon, king of 
Eleusis, changed into a fountain by Nep- 
tune. One of the Harpies. 

AtoFECE, an island in the Palus Maeo^ 

tis. Another in the Cimmerian Bospho- 

rus. Another in the iBgean sea, oppo^ 

site Smyrna. 

Alopeces, a small village of Attica^ 
Socrates and Aristides were born there. 

Alopius, ason of Hercules and Antiope 

Alo9, a town of Achaia. 

Alotia, festivals in Arcadia,' in com-> 
memoration of a victory gained over Lace- 
dsmon by the Arcadians. 

Alfe^vus, the capital of Locris, at the 
north of Thermopylae. 

Alpes, mountains that separate Italy 
from Spain, Gaul, Rhietia, and Germany; 
considered as the highest ground in Eu- 

Alpheia, a surname of Diana in Elis. 

A surname of the nymph Arethusa, 

because loved by the Alpheus. 

Alphewor, one of Niobe's sons. 

Alvhenus. Vid. Alfenus. 

Alphesibo:a, daughter of the river Phle- 
geus, married Alcmson, son of Amphia> 
raus, who had fled to ner father's court 
after the murder of his mother. She re* 
ceived as a bridal present, the .filmons 
necklace which Polynices had given to 
Eriphyle, to induce her to betray her 
husband Amphiaraus. Alcmteon, being 
persecuted by the manes of his mother, 
left his wife by dtdor of the oracle, and 

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ntired near the Acbeioos, wbose daughter 
Callirhoe had two sons by him, and beg- 
ged of him, as a present, the neclclace 
whith was then in the hands of Alpliesi- 
bcaa. HW endeavored to obtain it, and wvm 
killed by Temenus and Aiiou, Alpliesi- 
IxBa's brothers, who thus revenged their 
«ister. who had been so innocently aban- 

Alphesiboeus, a shepherd, often men- 
tioned in' Virgil's eclogues. 

Alfheus, now ^Ipheo^ a famous river of 
Peloponnesus, which rises in Arcadia, and 
after passing through Elis falls into the sea. 
Hercules made use of the Alpheus to clean 
the stables of Augeas. 

Alphius, or Alfeus, a celebrated usu- 
rer of Rome. 

Alphiub Atitub, a writer in the ajre of 
Sevenis, who gave an account of illustri- 
ous men, and an history of the Carthagin- 
ian war. 

Alpinus, belonging to the Alps. 

Alpinus (Cornelius,) a contemptible 
poet, whom Horace ridicules for the awk- 
ward manner in which be introduces the 
death of Memnon in a tragedy, and the 
■pitiful style with which he describes the 
JShine, in an epic poem he had attempted 

on the wars in Germany. ^Julius, one of 

the chiefs of the Helvetii. 

Alpis, a small river falling into the 

Alsium, a maritime town at the west of 
the Tiber, now Statua. 

Axsus, a river of Achaia in Peloponne- 
sus, flowing fVom mount Sipylus. A 

shepherd daring the Rutulian wars. 

AvTHMAf dauf^ter of Thestius and Eu- 
rythemis, married QBnttus, king of Caly- 
don, by whom she had many children, 
among whom was Meleager. When Al- 
thaea brou^t forth Meleager, the Parcae 
placed a log of wood in the fire, and said, 
that as long as it was preserved, so long 
would the life of the child just born be 
prcdonged. The mother saved the wood 
from the flames, and kept it very careful- 
ly ; but when Meleager killed his two un- 
cles. Althaea's brothers, Altbea, to revenge 
their death, threw the log Into the fire, 
-and as soon as it was burnt, Meleager ex- 

Altm.cmeives, a son of Creteui king of 
Crete, who ignorantly killed his own fa- 
ther. When Althffimenes knew that he 
had killed his father, he entreated the 
gods to remove him, and the earth imme- 
'diately opened, and swallowed him up. 

ALTiifUM, a flourishing city of Italy 
near Aquileia, famous for its wool. 

Alti9, a sacred grove round Jupiter^s 
temple at Olympla, where the statues of 
the Olympic conquerors were placed. 

Altus, a city of Pejci^onnesus. 

Alurtium, a town of Sicily. 

ALUS, Aluus, and Halus, a village of 

Arcadia, called also the temple of iflscn-; 

Alyattes I. a king of Lydia, descend- 
ed from the Heraclidae. He reipued fifty- 
seven jears. — II. king of L} dia, of the fam- 
ily of the Mermnada;, was father to Crce- 
sus. He died when engaged in a war 
against Miletus, after a reijrn of thirty -five 
years). ' An eclipse of the sun terminated a 
t»attle between him and Cyaxares. 

Alyba, a cottiMry near Mysia. 

Alycjea, a town of Arcadia. 

ALYCKt's, son of Sciron, was killejl by 
Theseus, A place in Me^ra received its 
name from him. 

Alymon, the hufiband of Circe. 

Alyssus, a fountain of Arcadia, whose 
waters could cur^ the btte of a mad dop. 

Alyxothoe, or Alexibhoe, daughter 
of Dymus, was motlier of ^sacus by 

Altzia, a« town of Acarnania on the 
western mouth of the Acbelous, opposite 
to the Echinadcs. 

AuAoocua, a king of Thrace, defeated 
by his antagonist i?euthes. 

Amaoe, a queen of Farmatin, remarka- 
ble for her justice and fortitude. 

Amalth-ea, daughter of Melissus king 

of Crete, fed Jupiter with goat's milk. 

A J^ibyl of CumiE, called also Hierophile 
and Demopliile. She is supposed to be the 
same who brought nine books of prophe- 
cies to Tarquin king of Rome. 

Amaltheum, a public place which Atti- 
cus had ofiened in his country-house, call- 
ed Anialthea in Epirus, and provided with 
every thing which could furnish enter- 
tainment and convey instruction. 

Amana, or Amakus, part of mount Tau- 
rus in Cilicia. 

Cn. Sal. Amandus, a rebel general 
under Dioclesian, who assumed imperial 
honors, and was at last conquered by Dio- 
clesian's colleague. 

Amantes, or Amatttiwi, a people of II- 
lyrlcum descended from the Abantes of 

Amanus, one of the deities worshipped 

In Armenia and Cappadocia. A naoun- 

tain of Cilicia. 

Amaracus, an oflicer of Cinyras, chang- 
ed into marjoram. 

Amardi, a nation near the Caspian sea. 

AuARTus, a city of Greece. 

Amaryllis, the name of a country wo- 
man in Virgil's eclogues. 

Amartnceus, a king of the Epeans, 
buried at Buprasium. 

Am ART wTHcs, a village of Eubsa whence 
Diana is called Amarysia, and her festi- 
vals in that town Amarynthia. Euboea 

is sometimes called Amarynthus. 

Amas, a mountain of Laconia. 

Amabenus, a small river of Latium fall- 
ing into the Tyrrhene sea. 

Auasia, h city of Pontoa, where Mitbri- 

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dates the Great, and Strabo the feograpber, 
were born. 

AifAsis, a man who, from a common 
soldier, became king of Egypt. When 
Cambyaes came into Egypt, he ordered the 
tiody of Amasis to be dug ap, and to be in- 
sulted and burnt. ^A man who led the 

Persians against the inhabitants of Baroe. 

Amasteis, the wife of Dionyaius the 
tyrant of SicUy, was Bister to Darkis, whom 

Alexander conquered. Also, the wife 

of Xerxes king of'Peraia. A city of 

Paphlagonia, on the Euxine sea. 

Amastbus, one of the auxiliaries of 
Perses^ killed by Argus, son of Ph^zus. 
A tHend of iEneas, killed bj Ca- 

Amata, the wife of king Latinus. When 
her daughter was given in marriage to 
iEneas, she hung herself to avoid the sight 
of her son-in-law. 

Amathus, now JUsmmo, a city on the 
southern side of the island of Cyprus, pv 
ticulaiiy dedicated to Venus. 

Amaxampxus, a fiNintain of Scythia, 
whose waters embitter the stream of the 
river Hypanis. 

Amaxia, or AuAxiTA, an ancient town 

of Troas. A place of Cilicia, abounding 

with wood fit for building ships. 

Amaesitss, or MAsnicsfl, a prince of 
the island of Oaractus, who sailed for 
some time with the Macedonians and 
Nearchus in Alexander's expedition into 
the east. 

Amazorbs, or AMAzomDB8,anattonof 
femous women who lived near the river 
Thermodon in Cappadocia. All their life 
was employed in wars and manly exer- 
cises. They founded an extensive empire 
in Asia MinOT, along the shores of the^ 
Euxine, and near the Thermodon. The 
Amazons of Africa flonrished long before 
the Trojan war, and many of their actions 
have been attributed to those of Asia. It 
is said, that after thev had almost subdued 
all Asia, they invaded Attica, and wen 
conquered by Theseus. Their most A- 
moua actions. were their expedition against 
Priahi, and afterwards the assistance they 
gave him durhig the Trojan war; and 
their invasion of Attica, to punish 'Hie* 
sens, who had carried away Antiope, one 
of their queens. Among their queens, 
Hippolyte, Antiope, Lampeto, Marpesia, 
&c. are famous. The Amazons were such 
expert archers, that, to denote the good- 
ness of a bow or quiver, It was usual to 
call it Amazonian. 

Alazonia, a celebrated mistress of the 

emperor Commodus. The coun^ of 

the Amaxons, near the Caspian sea. 

Amazonium, b place in Attica, where 
Theseus obtained a victory over the Ama- 

AvAcoHiTTi, a surname of ApoUo at 


. Ambarri, a people of Oailla CelticSi oa 
the Arar, related to the iEdui. 

Ambaktalia, a joyful procession round 
tl|p ploughed fields, in honor of Ceres tiie 
goddess of com. 

Ambbros, a mountain of European Sar- 

Ambialitxs, a people of Gallia Celtics^ 

AuBiARuu, a town of Belgium, now 

Ambiathvum, a village of Germany, 
where the emperor Calisula was bom. 

Ambiqatus. a king of the Celts, in the 
time of Tarquinius Priscus. 

Ambiobix, a king of tlie Eburones in 
Gaul. He was a great enemy to Rome, 
and was killed in a battle with J. Cesart 
in which sixtv thousand of his country- 
men were slam. 

Amblaoa, a town of Pisidia. 

Ambbacia, a city of Epiras, near tho 
Acheron, the residence oi idng Pyrrhus. 
Augustus, after the battle of Aaium, call- 
ed ft Nicopolis. 

Ambbacius Siitqs, a bay of tlie Ionian 
sea. near Amhracla, now called tin gulf 

AuBBi, an Indian nation. 

Ambbonbs, certain nations of Gaul, who 
lest their possessions by the inundation of 
the 9ea, and lived upon rapine and plun> 

Ahbkosia, festivals observed in honor 
of Bacchus, in some cities ift Greece. 
They were the same as the Brumalia of 

the Romans, Ode of the daushters of 

Atlas, changed, into a constellation after 

death. The food of the gods was called 

ambrosia, and their drink nectar* The 
word signifies immortal. It had the power 
of giving immortality to all those who eat 
it. It was sweeter than honev, and of a 
most odoriferous smell. It had the power 
of healing wounds. The gods used gen- 
erally to perfume their hak with ambrnsia. 

Akbbosius, bislK>p of Milan, obliged 
tlie emperor Theodosius to make penance 
for the murder of the people of Thessalon- 
ica, and distinguished liimself by liis writ- 
inga, especially agidnst the Arians. 

Ambbtoit, a man who wrote the lilb of 
Theocritus of Chios. 

Ambbtssus, a city of Pliocis, which re- 
ceives its name finun a hero of the same 

Ambttbajjb, Syrian womeri^of inimcmil 
lives, who in the dissolute period of 
Rome, attended festivals and assembliea 
as minstrels. 

Ambulli, a surname- of Castor and Pol- 
lux, in Sparta. 

Akelxs, a river tyf hell, whose watai* 
no vessel could contain. 

ufitna, now QmdiuUo. 

Am BiriDxa, a secretaiy of Darins the taiC 

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AiixKocLst, a Coiinthlan, said to be 
tile first Grecian who built a ttaree-oared 
falley at Samoa and Corinth. 

AicKKLA, a city of Umbria, whose osiers 
wexe famous for the binding of vines to 
the elm trees. 

Amsstratos, atown of Sicily, near the 
Halesus. The Romans besieged it for 
seven months, and it yielded at last after 
u third siege, and the inhabitants were 
sold as slaves. 

Amestkis, qaeen of Persia, was wife to 
Xerxes. She cruelly treatea the mother 
of Artiante, her husband's mistress, and 
cut off her nose, ears, lips, breast, tongue, 
and eyebrows. 

Ami DA, a city of Mesopotamia, besieged 
and taken by Sapor, kin^ of Persia. 

Amilcar, a Carthaginian general of 
great eloquence and cunning, surnamed 

Rhodanus. A Carthaginian, whom the 

Syracusans called to their assistance 
against the tyrant Agathocles, who be^ 
sieged their. city. He died in Syracuse, 

B. C. 309. A Carthasinian, surnamed 

^arcas, father to the caebrated AnnibaL 
He .was killed in a batfle against (he Vet- 
tones B. C. 237. He had formed the plan 
of an invasion of Italy, by crossing the 
Alps, wbich his son afterwards carried 
into execution. His great enmity to the 
Romans was the cause of the second Pu- 
nic war. He used to say of his three sons, 
that he kept three Kons to devour the Ro- 
man power. A Carthaginian general, 

who assisted the Insubres against Rome, 

and was taken by Cn. Cornelius. A son 

of Hanno. 

Amilos, or Amilcj, a river of Mauri- 
tania, where the elephants go to wash 

themselves by moonshine. ^A town of 


Amimons, or AicTMOHB, a daughter of 
Sanaue, cli^nged into a fountain which is 
near Argos, and flows into the lake Lema 

Amiicea, or Ammiitba, a part of Cam- 
pania, where the inhabitants aro great 
husbandmen. Its wine was highly es- 
teemed. A place of Thessaly. 

Aminias, a famous pirate, whom Anti- 
jronus employed against Apoikdcans tyrant 
of Cassandrea. 

Amwius, a river of Arcadia. 

Amikocles, a native of Corinth, who 
flourished 705 B. C. &c. 

AmsErTA^ a country of Cappadocia. 

Amisias, a comic poet, whom -Aristo- 
phanes ridiculed for his insipid verses. 

Ami 88 AS, an oflicer of Megalopolis in 
Alexander's army. 

Amiternum, a town of Raly, wliere 
Sallust was bom. 

Amithaon, or Amtthaon, was father 
to Melan^us the famous prophet. 

Ammalo, a festival in honor of Jupiter 
in Greece. 

AifMiAifUfl. Ful. Marcellinus. 

Ammoit and Hammoit, ft name of Ju' 
piter, worshipped in Libya. The temple 
of Jupiter Ammon was in the deserts of 
Libya, nine days journey from Alexan- 
dria. There were above one hundred 
priests in the temple^ut only the elders 
delivered oracles. There was also an 

oracle gf Jupiter Ammon in itlthiopia. 

A king of Libya, father to Bacchus, be 
gave his name to the tfemple of Hammon. 

Ammon and Vrothas, two brothers fa- 
mous for their skill iniioxing. 

Ammo If I A^ c name of Juno in Elis, as 
being the wife of Jupiter Ammon. 

Ammo Nil, a nation of Africa, who de- 
rived their origin from the Egyptians and 

Ammo Ni us, a Christian philosopher, who 
opened a school of Platonic philosophy at 

Alexandria, 2^ A. D. An Athenian 

general surnamed Barcas. . 

Ahmothea, one of the Nereides. 

Amhias, ariver of Bithynia. 

Ammsus, a port of Gnossus, at the 
north of Crete, with a small river of tlie 
same name. 

Am(£bjeu8, an Athenian player of great 

Amqmetus, a Greek historian. 

Amor, the son of Venus, was the god of 

Amoroes, a Persian general, killed in 
Caria in the reign of Xerxes. 

Amoroos, an i^and among the Cyclades, 
where Simonides was bom. 

Amfelds, a promontory of Samos. 

A town of Crete, — Macedonia, — Lignria, 
— and Cyrene.— ^A favorite of Bacchus, 
son of a satvr and a nymph, made a con- 
stellation after death. 

Ampslusia, a promontory of Africa, in 

Amphea, a city of Messenia, taken by 
tbe Lacedtemonians. 

Amphialaus, a fkmoQB dancer in the 
island of the Pbaeacians. 

Amphianax, a king of Lyciaintbe time 
of Acrisiusund ^ra>tu8. 

Amphiaraus, son of Oicleus, or accord- 
ing to others, of Apollo, by Hypermnestra, 
was at the chase of the Calydoniah boar, 
and accompanied the Argonauts in their 
expedition. He was famous for his know- 
ledge of futurity, and thence he is called 
by some son of*^ Apollo. Amphiaraus re- 
ceived divine honors after death, and had 
a celebrated temple and oracle at Oropoa 
in Attica. His statue was made of white 
marble, and near his temple was a foun- 
tain, whose waters were ever held sacred. 
They only who had consulted his oracle, 
or bad been delivered from a disease, 
were permitted to bathe in it, after which 
they threw pieces of gold and silver into 
the stream. 

Amphiaraides, a patronymic of Ale* 
nueon, as being son of Amphiaraus. 

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AnpfficiuTss, a historian who wrote 
the Uves of Illustrious men. 

AMFHicTroN, son of Deucalion and 
Pyrrha, reigned at Athens after Cranaus, 
and first attempted to give the interpreta- 
tion of dreams, and to draw ome^s. Some 
say, that the aeluge happened in his age. 

The son of Helenus, who first est^- 

lished the celebrated council of ttie Am- 
yhictyons, composed of the wisest and most 
virtuous men of some cittes of Greece. 
Thi9 august assembly consisted of twelve 
persons, originally sent by the following 
states ; the lonians, Dorians, Perhaebians, 
Bceotians, Magnesians, Phthians, Locri- 
ans, Malians, Phocians, Thessalians, Do- 
lopes, and the people of CEta. Other 
cities in process of time sent also some of 
their citizens to the council of the Am- 
phictyons, and in the age of Antoninus 
Pius, they were increased to the number 
of thirty. They took into consideration 
the matters of difierence between the 
states of Greece. 

Amphiclka, a town of Phocis, where 
Bacchus had a temple. 

Amphioaicus, a son of Alens, brother to 
Lycurgus. He was of the family of the 

Inachidae. One of the Argonauts. 

A son of Busiris, killed by Hercules. 

Amphidromia, a festival observed by 
private families at Athens, the fifth day 
after the birth of every child. It was cus- 
tomary to run round the fire with a child 
in their arms ; whence the name of the 

AMPHiosifiA, a town of Messenia in 

Amphilochus, a son of Amphiaraua and 
Eriphyle. After the Trojan war he left 
Argos his native country, and built Amphi- 
lochus, a town of Epirus. An Athenian 

philosopher who wrote upon agriculture. 

Amphilttos, a soothsayer of Acarnania, 
who encouraged Pisistratoa to seize the 
sovereign power of Athens.£, a daughter of Amphida- 
mus, wife of Eurystheus. 

Ajcphimachus, one of Helen's suitors, 
son of Cteatus. He went to the Trojan 
war. A son of Actor and Tlieronice. 

Amphimbdon, a Libyan killed by Per- 
seus in the court of Cepheus. One of 

Penelope's suitors killed by Telemachus. 

Amphiitome, the name of one of the at- 
tendants of Thetis. 

AMPHiif CMOS, one of Penelope's suitors, 
killed by Telemachus. 

AicPHiiToMus and Aitapius, two broth- 
ers, who, when Catana and the neighbor- 
ing cities were in flames, by an eruption 
from mount ifitna, saved their parents 
upon their shoulders. The fire, as it is 
said, spared' them while ^it consumed 
others by their side ; and Pluto, to reward 
their uncommon piety, placed them fifter 
death in the island of Leace, and they re- 
oetvea divine honors in Sicily. 

AvPHioN, was 80^ of Jupiter, by Anti- 
ope daugliter of Nycteus, who had mwi- 
ried Lycus, and had been repudiated bf 
him when he married Durce. Amphioa 
was born at the same birth as Zethus, on 
mount Citheron, where Antio{)e had fled 
to avoid the resentment of Dirce ; and the 
two children were exposed in the woods, 
but preserved by a shepherd. When Am- 
phion grew up, he cultivated poetrpr, and 
made such an uncommon progress in mu- 
sic, that he is said to have been the iu>- 
ventor of it, and to have built the walla 
of Thebes at the sound of his lyre. Mer- 
cury taught him music, and ^ve him the 
lyre. He was the first who raised an altof 
to this god. 2^thu8 and Amphion united 
to avenge the wrongs which their mother 
had suffered from tlie cruelties of Dirce. 
They besieged and took Thebes, put Ly- 
cus to death, and tied his wife to the tail 
of a wild bull, who dragged her through 
precipices till she expired. The fable of 
Amphion's moving stones and raising the 
walls of Thebes at tlie sound of his lyre, 
has been explained by supposing that he 
persuaded, by his eloquence, a wild and 
uncivilized people to unite together and 
build a town to protect themselves against 

the attacks of their enemies, A son of 

Jasus king of Orcbomenoe, by Persephone 
daughter of Mius. He .married NiobOb 
daughter of Tantalus, by whom he had 
many children, among whom was Chloris 
the wife of Neleus. When Niobe boasted 
herself greater, and more deserving of 
immortality than Latona, all her children, 
except Chloris, were destroyed by the ar- 
rows of Apollo and Diana j Niobe herself 
was changed into a stone, and Amphion 

killed himself in a fit of despair. One 

of the ArgonauU. A famous painter 

and statuary, son of Acestor of Gnossus. 
One of the Greek generals in the Tro- 
jan war. 

Amphipolbs, magistrates appointed at 
Syracuse, by Timoleon, after the expul- 
sion of Dionysius the younger. The office 
existed for above three hundred years. 

Amphipolis, a town on the Strymon, 
between Macedonia and Thrace. An 
Athenian colony under Agnon, son of 
Nicias, dtove the ancient inhabitants, 
called Edonians, from the country, and 
built a city, which they called Amphipo- 
lis, i. e. a town surrounded on all sides, 
because the Strymon flowed all around it. 
It has been also called Acra, Strymon, 
Ifyrica, Eion, and tlie town of Mars. It 
was the cause of many wars between the 
Athenians and Spartans. 

Amphiptros, a surname of Diana, be- 
cause she^carrics a torch in botkher hands. 

Amphirkttjs, a man of Acanthus, who 
artfully escaped from pirates who had 
made him prisoner. 

AMrtiiRoa, one of the Oceanides. 

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AaffHii, a Greek eomla poet of Athens, 
•on of Amphicrates, contemporary with 
rlato. Besides his comedies, he wh)te 
other pieces, which are now lost. 

AicpHi SB jsTTA, a two-headed serpent in 
the deserts of Libya, whose bite was ven- 
ojnone and deadly. 

, Amphissa, or IssA, a daughter of Ma- 
(carens, beloved bv Apollo. She gave her 
name to a city or Lqcris near Phocis, in 
which wa« a temple of Minerva.— -A 
lown of the Bnitii on the east coast. 

Amphisibnk, a country of Armenia. 

Amphissus, a son of Dryope. 

Amphistmenxs, a Lacedosmonian, whe 
feu delirious in saerifiting to Diana. 

Ampuistipbs, a man so naturally des* 
tituCb of intellects, that he seldom remem- 
bered that he ever had a father. He 
wished to learn arithmetic, but never 
eould comprehend beyond the figure 4. 

AMPHisraATon and Rhecas, two men 
of Laconia, chariotoMs to Castor and Pol- 

Amphitba, the mother of ^gialeus, by 
GyanippuB, and of three daughters, Ania, 
Deipyle, and iEgialea, by Adrastus king 
of Argos. She was daughter tb Pronax. 

The wife of Autolycus, by whom she 

had Anticlea, the wife of Laertes. 

Ampmithxatbum, a large round or oval 
buildins at Rome, where the people as- 
sembled to see the combats of gladiators, 
of wild beasts,, and other exhibitions. 
The amphitheatres of Rome were gene- 
rally built with wood : StatUius Taurus 
was the first who maae one with stones, 
under Augustus. 

Amphithxmis, a Theban general, who 
involved the liicediemonians in a war 
with his country. 

Ampmithoe, one of the Nereides. 

Amphitritb, daughter of Oceanus and 
Tethys, married Neptune, though she had 
made a vow of perpetual celibacy. She 
hadTby him Triton, one of the sea deities. 
She had a statue at Corinth in the temple 
of Neptune. She is sometimes called Sa- 
latia, and is often taken for the sea Itself. 
——One of the Nereides. 

Amphitrtoiv, a Theban prince, son of 
Alceus and Hipponome. His sister Anaxo 
had married Electryon king of Mycenas, 
whose sons were killed in a battle by the 
Teleboans. Electryon promised his crown, 
and daughter Alcmena, to him who coula 
revenge the death of his sons upon the 
Teleboans ; and Amphitryon offered him- 
«elf, and was received, on condition that 
he should not approach Alcmena before 
he had obtained a victory. Jupiter, who 
was captivated with the charms of Alc- 
mena, borrowed the features of Amphi- 
tryon, when he was gone to the war, and 
introauced himself to Electryon's daugh- 
ter, as li'er husband returned victorious. 
Alcmena became pregnaqt of Hercules, 

by Jupiter, and of Iphidus by Amphitryon, 
after his retuni. When Amphitrjon re- 
turned from the war, he brought back to 
Electryon, the herds which the Teleboans 
had taken from him. One of the cows 
having strayed from the rest, Amphitry- 
on, to bring them tc^ther, threw a stick, 
which struck the horns of the cow, and 
rebounded with such violence ujmn Elec- 
tryon that he died on the spot. After 
this accidenttd murder. -Sthenelus, Elec- 
tryon*s brother, seized the kingdom of 
Mycenee, and obliged Aihphkryon to )eave 
Argolis, and' retire to Thebes with Alc- 
mena. Cseon, king of Thebes, purified 
him of the murder. 

AicPHiTRTONiADEs, a sumame of Her- 
cules, as the supposed son of Amphitryon. 

AicPHiTUs, a priest of Ceres, at the 
court of Cephetis. 

AicpHOTXRUB was appointed command- 
er of a fleet in the Hellespont by Alexan- 
der. A son of Alcmteon. 

Amphrtsus, a river of Thessaly, near 
which Apollo, when banished firom hea- 
ven, fe4 the flocks of king Admetus. 
From this cirenmstance the god has been 
called JtfnphryssiuSf and his priestess jSm- 

pkryssia, A river of Phrygia whose 

waters rendered women barren- 

Ampia LABiBifA Lex was enacted by 
T. Ampius and A. Labienus, tribunes of 
the people, A. U. C. 693. It gave Pompey 
the great the privilege of appearing in 
triumphal robes and with a golden crown 
at the Circensian games, and with a pr«- 
texta and golden crown at theatrical 

Ampracia. Fid. Ambracia. 

Amptsides, a patronymic of Mopsq^, 
aonof Ampyx. 

AvpTx, a son of Pelias. 

Amsactus, a lake in the country of the 
Hfarpini, at the east of Capua, whose wa- 
ters are so sulphureous that they infect 
and destroy whatever animals come near 
the place. It was through this place that 
Vir^ made the fliry Alecto descend into 
hell, after her visit to the upper regions. 

Amduus, king of Alba, was son of Pro- 
cas, and youngest brother to Numitor. 
The crown belonged to Numitor by right 
of birth ; but Amulius dispossessed him of 
it, and even put to death his son Lausus, 
and consecrated his daughter Rhea Sylvia 
to the service of Vesta, to prevent her 
ever becoming a mother. Yet, in spite 
of all these precautions, Rhea became 
pregnant by the god Mars, and brought 
forth twins, Romulus and Remus. Amu- 
lius, who was informed of this, ordered 
the mother to be buried alive for violating 
the laws of Vesta, which ei^oined per- 
petual chastity, and the, two children to 
be thrown into the river. They were 
providentially saved by some shepherds. 

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or, M others say, by a aha-wolf ; and when 
they bad attained the years of loan hood, 
ttiey put to death the usurper, Auiulius, 
and restored the crown to their grand- 
father. A celebrated painter. 

Amtci Portus, a place in Pontus, fa- 
mous for the death of Amycua king of the 
Bebryce^ His tomb was covered with 
laurels, whose boughs, as is reported, 
when carried on board a ship, caused un- 
common dissentions among the sailors. 

Amvcla, a daughter of Niobe, who» 
with her sister Melibosa, was spared by 
Diana, when her mother boastea herself 
greater than Diana. 

Amtclx, a town of Italy between Cale- 
ta and Tarracina, built by the corapanions 
of Castor and Pollux. The inhabitants 
were strict followers of tiw precepts of 
Pythagoras, and therefore abstained from 
flesh. They were killed by serpents, 
which they thought impious to destroy, 
though in their own defence. Once a re- 
port prevailed in Amyclie, that the ene- 
mies were coming to storm it ; upon which 
the inhabitants made a law, that fortiade 
such a report to be credited, and when 
the enemy really arrived, no one mention- 
ed it, or took up arms in his own defence, 
and the 'town was easily taken. From 
this circumstance the epithet of toette has 
been given to Amycl». A city of Pelo- 
ponnesus, built by Amyclas. Castor and 
Pollux were born there. The country was 
famous for dogs. ApoUo, called Amycloe- 
us, had 9. rich and magnificent temple 
there, surrounded with delightful groves, 

Amtclaus, a statuary. ^A surname 

of Apollo. 

Amtclas, son of Lacedffimon and Spar- 
ta, built the city of Amyciie. His sister 
Eurydice married Acrisius king of Argos, 

by whom she had Danae. .The master 

of a ship in which Cssar embarked in 
disguise. When Amyclas wished to put 
back to avoid a violent storm,Ceaar unveil- 
ing his head, discovered himself, and bid- 
ding the pilot pursue his voyage, exclaim- 
ed, GBsarem vehis, CtBsarisquefortunam^ 

Amtcus, son of Neptune, by Melia, er 
Bithynis according lo others, was king of 
the Bebryces. He was f^ous for his 
skill in the management of the cestus. 
and he challenged all strangers to a trial or 
strength. When the Argonauts, in their 
expedition, stopped on his coasts, he treat- 
ed them with great kindness, and Pollux 
accepted his challenge, and killed him 
when he attempted to overcome him by 
fraud.— ^— One of the companions of iGne- 
as, who almost perished in a storm on the 
coast of Africa. He was killed by Tur- 

nus. Another likewise killed by Tur- 

nus. A son of Ixion and the cloud. 

Amtdoit, a city of Paeonia in Macedo- 
nia, which sent auxiliaries to Priam during 
the Trojan war. 


AjcvKONB, daughter of Danaoi and En« 
ropa, married Enceladus, son of iGgyptus, 
whom she murdered the first night of her 
nuptials. It was said, tiiat she was the 
only one of the fifty sisters who was not 
condemned to fill a leaky tub with water 
in hell, because she had been continually 
employed, by order of her father, in sup- 
plying the city of Argos with water, in a 
great drought. Neptune saw her in this 
employment, and was enamoured of her. 
He carried her away^ and in the place 
where she stood, he raised a fountain, by 
striking a rock. The fountain has been 
called Amymone. A fountain and rivu- 
let of Peloponnesus, flowing through Ar- 
golis into the lake of Lerna. 

Amtittas 1st, was king of Macedonia 
after his father Alcetas. His son Alexan- 
der murdered the ambassadors of MegaU- 
yzus, for their wanton and insolent beha- 
viour to the ladies of his father's courC 
Bubares, a Persian general, was sent witk 
an anny to revenge the death of the am- 
bassadors: but instead of making wan, 
he married the king's daughter and de- 
fended his possessions, >Th9 second of 

that name was son of Menelaus, and king 
of Macedonia, after his murder of Pau- 
sanias. He was expelled by the lUyrians, 
and restored by the Thessalians and Spar- 
tans. He made war against the Illyrfans 
and Olynthians. and lived to a great age. 
His wife, Eurydice, conspired against his 
life ; but her snares were seasonably dis- 
covered by one of his daughters by a for- 
mer wife. He had Alexander, Perdiccas, 
and Philip, Alexander the Great's father, 
by his first wife ; and by the other he had 
Archelaus, Arida&us, and Menelaus. I^ 
reigned twenty- four years ; and soon aftcir 
his death, his son Philip murdered all his 
brothers, and ascended the throne. — >- 

One of Alexander's officers. Another 

oflicer who deserted to Darius, and was 

killed as he attempted to seize Egypt. 

•A son of Antiochus, who withdrew him- 
self from Macedonia, because he hat^d 

Alexander. An officer in Alexander's 

cavalry. He had two brothws called Sim- 
ias and Polemon* He was accused of 
oonspiracy against the king, on account 
of his great intimacy with Philotas, and 
acqultt^ .A Bhepherd'a name in Vir- 
gil's Eclogues. 

AMVNTiANca, an historian in the age of 
AntoninuB) who wrote- a treatise in com- 
mendation of PhHip, Olympias, and Alex« 

Amtn TOR, a king of Argos, son of Phra»- 

tor. A son of iGgyptus, killed by Da* 

mono the first night of his marriage. 

Amtrib, a man of Sybaris, who con- 
sulted the oracle of Delphi concerning 
the probable duration of his country's 
prosperity, &c. ^ „. 

AM»feicui Campus, a^lain of Thessaly. 


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Amtrius, a king by whom Cyms was 
killed in a battle. 

AuTKus, a town of Thessaly. 

Amtstis, a river of India falUng into 
ttae Ganges. 

AurTHAoiT, a son of Cretheus king of 
lolchos, by Tyro. He married Idomeoe, 
by whom he had Bias and Melampus. 
After his fether's death, he established 
himself in Messenia, with hia brother Ne- 
leus, and reestablished or regulated the 

Olympic games. Melampus is called 

jimytkaonika, from his father Amythaon. 
A son of Hippasus, who assisted Pri- 
am in the Trojan wv, and was killed by 

Amttis, a daughter of AstyagM^hom 

Cyrus married. A daughter of Xerxes. 

who married Megabyzus, and disgraced 
Jierself by her debaucheries. 

Anacss, or AvTACTBs, a name given to 
Castor and Pollux among the Athenians. 
Their festivals were called Anaceia. 

A1M.CH ARSIS, a Scythian philosopher, 
593, B. C. who on aotount of his wisdom, 
tentperance, and extensive knowledge, 
has been called one of the seven wise 
men. . Like his countrymen, he made use 
of a cart instead of a house. He was 
wont to compare laws to cobwebs, widch 
can stop only smaU flies, mid are unable 
to rssist the superior force of large insects. 
When he returned to Scythia, from 
Athens, where he had spent some tllne in 
vtudy, and in the friendship of Solon, he 
attempted to. introduce theie the laws of 
the Athenians, which so irritated his 
brother, who was then on the t)irone, that 
he killed him with an arrow. Anachar- 
His has rendered himself fkmous among 
the ancients by his writings, and his 
poems on war, the laws of Scythia, &c. 
Two of his letters to Croesus and Hanno 
are still extant. Later authors have at- 
tributed to him the invention of tinder, of 
anchors, and of the potter's wheel. 

AI7ACIUM, a mountain with a temple sa- 
cred to the Anaces in Peloponnesus. 

Anacreon, a fhmous lync poetof Teos, 
In Ionia, highly favored by Polycrates 
and Hipparchus son of Pisistratus. His 
odes are still extant, and the uncommon 
sweetness and elegance of his poetry 
have been the admiration of every age 
and country. He lived to his 89th year, 
and after every excess of pleasure and 
debauchery, choaked himself with a 
grape stone and expired. Plato says, that 
he was descended from an illustrious fam- 
ily, and that Codms, the last king of 
Atnens, was one of his progenitors. His 
statue was placed in the citadel of Athens, 
representing him as an old drunken man, 
fsinging, with every mark of dissipation 
and intemperance. Anacreon flourished 
§3S B.C. 

Aif ACToaiA aad AirAOTomiinc, a town 

of Epirus, in a peninsula towards the 

gilf of Ambracia. It was founded by a 
orinthjan colony, and was the cause of 
many quarrels between the Corcyreans 

and Corinthians.^ Augustus carried the 

inhabitants to the city of Nicopolis, after 

the battle of Actium. ^An ancient name 

of Miletus. 

Anactokib, a woman of Lesbos, loved 
by Sappho. 

ANAoroiiaNSf a valuable painting of 
Venus, represented as rising firom the sea, 
by Apelles. Augustus bought it, and pla- 
ced it in the temple of 3. Ciesar. The 
lower part of it waaa little defaced, and 
there were found no painters in Borne 
able it. 

Anaonia, now JSnagnii a city of the 
Hemici in Latium, where Antony struck 
a medal when be divorced Octavia and 
married Cleopatra. 

An AOooiA,-« festival, celebrated by the 
people of Eryx in Sicily, in honor of Ve- 

AiTAOTaoirTUM, a small village of A^ 

Anaitis, a goddess of Armenia. The 
festivals of the deity were called Sacarum 
Festa ; and when they were celebrated, 
both sexes assisted at the ceremony, and 
inebriated themselves to such a degree, 
that the whole was concluded by a scene 
of the greatest intemperance. They were 
first instituted by Cyrus, when he march- 
ed against the Sacn, and covered tables, 
with the most exquisite' dainties, that he 
might detain the enemy by the novelty 
and sweetness of food to which they 
were unaccustomed, and thus easily de- 
stroyed them. ^Diana is also worship- 
ped under this name by the Lydiana. 

Ananias, a Iambic poet. 

Anafhb, an island that rose out of 
the Cretan sea, and received this name 
ftom the Aiionauts, who, in the middle 
of a storm, suddenly saw the new moon. 
Apollo was worshipped there, and called 

Aif APHLTSTus, a small vUlage of Attica 
near the sea, called after an ancient hero 
of the same name, who was son of Troe- 
een. A small village near Athens. 

Ana PUS, a river of Epirus. Of Sicily, 

Bear Syracuse. 

Anartbs, a people of lower Pannonia. 

Anas, a river of Spain, now called Gua- 

Anatoli, one of the Hope. A moun- 
tain near the Ganges, where Apollo rav- 
ished a nymph called Anaxibia. 

Anaucmidas, a Samian wrestler. 

Anaurus, a river of Thessaly, near the 
fbot of mount Pelion, where Jason lost 

one of his sandals. A river of .Troas 

near Ida. 

Anausis, one of Medea's suitdlv, killed 
by Btyrus. 

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^ AN 



AiTAx, a floo of CoBlag and Terra, Iktber 
to Astemis, fi'om wbcMii Miletus baa been 
called Anactoria. 

Anaxasoras succeeded his father Me- 
gapenthes on the throne of Argos. He 
shared the sovereign power with Bias and 
Melampus, who bad- cured the women of 

Argoaof madness.^ A Clazomenian phi> 

losopher, son of Hegesibulus, disciple to 
Anaximenes, and preceptor to Socrates 
and Euripides. He disregarded wealth 
and honors, to indulge his fondness for 
meditation and philosophf. He applied 
himself to astronomy, was acquainted 
with eclipses, and predicted that one day 
a stone would fall from the sun^ which it 
is said really fell into the river iEgos. 
Anaxagoras travelled into Egypt fcnr im- 
provement, and used to say that be pre- 
ferred a grain of wisdom to heaps of gold.' 
Pericles was in the numbar of bis pupils, 
aad often consulted him in matters or 
state : and once dissuaded bim from starv- 
ing himself to death. The ideas of Anax- 
agoras, concerning the heavens, were wild 
and extravagant. He was accused of im- 
piety, and condemned to die ; but he rid- 
iculed the sentence, and said it bad long 
been pronounced upon bim by nature. 
Being asked whether his body should be 
carried into bis own country, be answer- 
ed, no, as the road that led to the other 
side of the grave was as long fh>m one 
place as the other. His scholar Pericles 
pleaded eloquently and successfully for 
him, and the sentence of death was ex- 
changed for banishment. When the peo- 
ple of Lampsacus asked him before his 
deathj whether he wished any thing to be 
done m commemoration of bim, Yes, says 
he, let the boys be allowed to play on the 
anniversary of my death. This was care- 
fblly observed, and that time dedicated to 
relaxation, was called Anoxagoraa. He 
died at Lampsacus in his seventy-second 
year, 408 B.C. His writings were not 

mnch esteemed by bis pupil Socrates. 

A statuary of ifigina.-^ — A grammarian, 

disciple to Zenodotus. An orator, disci- 

Irte to Socrates. A son of Echeanax, 

who, with his brothers Codrus and Dlodo- 
rus, destroyed Hegesias, tyrant of Ephe- 

AifAXANDEK, of the fiimily of the Hera- 
clidiB, was son of Eurycrates, and king of 
Sparta. The second Messenian war be- 
gan in bis reign, in which Aristomenes so 
egregiously signalized himself. His son 

was called Eurycrates. A general of 

Megalopolis, taken by the Thebans. 

Anaxaivdrides, son of Leon, and fktber 
to Cleomenes 1st, and Leonidas, was king 
of Sparta. By the order of the Ephori, be 
divorced his wife, of whom be was ex- 
tremely fond, on account of her barren- 
ness ; and be was the first Lacedemonian 
who had two wives.— -A son of Theb- 

— A comic poet of Rhodes tai tbe 
age of Philip and Alexander. He was of 
surii a passionate disposition that be tore 
to pieces all his compositions which me( 
with no success. He composed about a 
hundred plays, of which ten obtained the 
prize. Some uagments of his poetry re> 
main in Athenaeus. He was starved to 
death by order of the Athenians, for satir- 
izing tbBir government. 

Anaxarchus, a philosopher of -Abdera. 
one of the followers of Democritus, and 
the friend of Alexander. When the mon- 
arch bad been wounded in a battle, the 
philosopher pointed to the place, adding, 
that is human blood, and not the blood of 
a god. The freedcsn of Anaxarchus of- 
fended Nicocreon at Alexander'^ table, 
and tile tyrant, in revenge, seized the phi« 
losopher, and pounded him in a stone 
mortar with iron bammexs. He bore this 
with much resignation, and exclaimed, 
" Pound the body of Anaxarchus, for thou 
dost not pound ills soul." Upon this, Ni- 
cocreone threatened to cut bis tongue, and 
Anaxarchus bit it off with bis teeth, and 

spit it out into the tyrant's face. A 

Theban general. 

Anaxarets, a girl of Salamis, who so 
arrogantly despised the addresses of Iphis, 
a youth of ignoble birth, that the lover 
hung himself at her door. She saw this 
sad spectfkcle without emotion or pity, and 
was changed into a stone. 

AiTAXEiTOR, a musician whom M. An- 
tony greatly honored, and presented with 
the tribute of four cities. 

Anax'ias, a Theban ceneral. 

AaAxiRiA, a sister of Agamemnon, mo- 
ther of seven sons and two dsuighters by 

Nester. A daughter of Bia^, a brother 

to the physician Meiampus. She married 
Pelias, king of lolcfaos, by whom she had 
Acastus, and four daughters, Pisidiee, 
Pelopea, Hippotlioe, and Alceste. 

Anaxicrates, an Athenian archon. 

Ahaxidamus, succeeded his father, 
Zeuxidamus, on the throne of Sparta. 

Aif AXILA8 and Anaxilaus, a Messenian, 
tyrant of Rhegium. He took Zancle, and 
was so mild and popular during his reign, 
that when he died, 476 B. C. he left his 
infant sons to the care of one of bis ser- 
vants, and the citizens chose rather to 
obey a slave than revolt fh)m their benev- 
olent sovereign's children. A magician 

of Larissa, banished from Italy by Au- 
gustus. A Pythagorean philosopher. 

AiiAXiLiDES wrote some treatises con- 
cerning philosophers, and mentioned that 
Plato's mother became pregnant by a 
phantom of the god Apollo, from which 
circumstance her son was called the prince 
oiS wisdom. 

ArfAxiMAifDSR, a Milesian philosopher, 
the companion and disciple of Thales. 
He was the first who constructed spheres, 

y Google 




BBsertod that tli« earth was of a 6yllndri* 
cal form, and taught that m^n-were bom 
of earth and water mixed together, a»d 
heated by the beams of the sun ; that the 
earth moved, and that the moon received 
light from the sun, which he considered 
as a circle of fire like awheel about twen- 
ty-eight times bigger than the earth. He 
made the first geographical maps and sun 
dials. He diea in the sixty-fourth year of 
his age, B. C. 547. 

Anaximxm£9, a philosopher, son of 
£rasistratus, and disciple of\ Anaximan- 
der, whom he succeeded in his school. 
He said that the air wa? the cause of 
every created being, and a self-existent 
divinity, and that the sun, the moon, and 
the stars, had been made from the earth. 
He considered the earth as a plain, and 
the heavens as a solid concave sphere, on 
which the stars were fixed like nails. Ae 

died 504 years B. C. A native of Lamp- 

sacus, son of Aristocles. He was pupil to 
Diogenes the Cynic, and preceptor to Al- 
exander the great, of whose life, and that 
of Philip, ha wrote the history. When 
Alexander, in a fit of anger, threatened to 
put to death all the injbabitants of Lamp- 
sacus, because they had maintained a long 
siege against him, Anaximenes was sent 
by his countrymen to appease the king, 
who, as soon as he saw him, swore he 
would not grant the favor he was going 
to ask. Upon this, Anaximenes begged 
the king to destroy the city and enslave 
the inhabitants, and by this artful request 
the city of Lampsacus was saved from 
destruction. Besides the life of Philip and 
his son, he wrote an history of Greece in 
twelve books, all now lost. His nephew 
bore the same name, and wrote an ac- 
count of ancient paintings. 

Anaxipolis, a comic poet of 7*hasos. 
'——A writer on agriculture, likewise of 

Amaxippub, a comic writer, in the age 
of Demetrius. He used to say, that phi- 
losophers were wise only in their speech- 
es, but fools in their actions. 

Anaxirbjios, a daughter of Coronusi 
who married Epeus. 

Aif AXIS, a Boeotian historian, who wrote 
an history down to the age of Philip son 

of Amyntas. A son of Castor and Hi- 


Anaxo, a virgin of Troezene carried 

away by Theseus. A daughter of Al- 

ceus, mother of Alcmene by Electryon. 

ANca:u8>the son of Lyeurgus and An- 
tinoe, was in the expedition of the Argo- 
nauts. He was at the chase of the Caly- 

donian boarj in which he perished. 

The son of Neptune and Astypalsa. He 
went with the Argonauts, and succeeded 
Tiphis as pilot of the ship Argo. He 
reigned in Ionia, where he married. He 
was once told by one of hia servants, 

whom he pressed with hard labor In his 
vineyard, that he never would taste of 
the produce of his vines. He had already 
the cup in his hand, and called the pro- 
phet to convince him of his falsehood ; 
when the servant, yet firm in his predic- 
tion, uttered this well known proverb, 

UoXXa ^itra^v ntXtt xvXixog xat 

j[ti?.sog axQov. 
Mvita eaduTtt inter ealiceni supremaque labrtu 

And that very moment Ancsus was told 
that a wild boar had. entered hie vine- 
yard ; upon which he threw down the 
cup, and ran to drive away the wild beast. 
He was killed in the attempt. 

Ancalit£9, a people of .Britain near the 

Ancarius, a g(|d of the Jews. Vid. An- 

Ancharia, a family of Rome. The 

name of Octavia's mother. 

ANtHARius, a noble jR.oman killed by 
the partisans of Marius during the civil 
wars with Sylla. ^ 

Anchemolus, son of Khoetus, king of the 
Marrubii in Italy, ravished his mother-in- 
law, Casperia, for which he was expelled 
by his father. He fled to Tumus, and was 
killed by Pallas, son of Evander, in the 
wars of i£nea8 against the Latins. 

Anchssites, a wind which blows from 
Anchisa, a harbor of Epirus. 

ANCH£9Hus,amGuntainof Attica, where 
Jupiter Jlncfiesrmus has a statue. 

Anchiale and Anchiala, a city on the 
sea coast of Cilicia. Sardanapalns, the 
last king of Assyria, built it, with Tar9U« 
in its neighborhood, in one day. The 
founder was buried there, and had a 
statue, under which was a famous inscrip- 
tion in the Syrian language, denoting the 
great intemperance and dissipation which 
istinguished all his life. There was a 
city of the same name in Thrace, called by 
Ovid the city of Apollo. There was an- 
other in Epirus. 

ANCHIA1.US, a famous astrologer. ^A 

great warrior, father of Mentes. One 

of the Pheacians. 

Anchimolius, a Spartan general sent 
against the Pisistratidee, and killed in the 

expedition. A son of JShcetus. Fid. 


Akchinoe, a daughter of Nilus, and 
wife of Belus. 

Anchiow. Vid. Chion. 

Anchise, a city of Italy. 

Anchises, a son of Capys by Themis, 
daughter of 11 us. He was of such a beau- 
tiful complexion, that Venus came down 
from heaven on mount Ida, in the form of 
a nymph, to enjoy his company. The 
child which Venus brought forth, was 
called iEneas ; he was educated as soon 
as bom by the nymphs of Ida, and, when 

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tf a proper age, was introited to t])e care 
of Cbixon the^centaur. Wiben Troy waa 
taken, Anchisea was become so infirm that 
iEneaa, whom the Greeks pennitted to 
take away whatever he esteemed most, 
carried him through the flames upon his 
shoulders, and thus saved bis life. He 
accompanied his son in his voyage towards 
Italy, and died in Sicily in the eightieth 
year of his age. He was buried on mount 
Eryi, by JSneas and Acestes, king of the 
country, and the anniversary of his death 
was afterwards celebrated by his son and 
the Trojans on his tomb. 

Anchuia, a mountain of Arcadia, at 
the bottom of which was a monument of 

A:fCHi9iAj>8s, a patronymic of JSneas, 
as being son of Anchises. 

ArfCHOB, a place near tbd mouth of the 
Cepfaisus, where there is a lake of the 
same name. 

Ahchoiu., a fortified place in Galatia. 

Anchurus, a son of Midas, king of 
Phiygia, who sacrificed himself for the 
good of his country, when the earth had 
opened and swallowed up many build- 
ings. The oracle had b^n consulted, and 
gave for answer, that the gulf would never 
close, if Midas did not throw into it what- 
ever he had most ^cious. Though the 
king had parted with many things of kn- 
mense value, yet the gulf continued open, 
till Anchurus, thinking himself the most 
precious of his father's possessions, took a 
tender leave of his wife and familv, and 
leaped into the earth, which clo«iednmme- 
diately over his head. Midas erected there 
an attar of stones to Jupiter, and that altar 
was the first object which he turned into 
gold, when he bad received his fatal gift 
from the gods. This unpolished lump of 
gold existed still in the age of Plutarch. 

Ancile and Anctlb, a sacred shield, 
which, according to the Roman authors, 
fell from heaven in the reign of Numa, 
when the Aoman people labored under a 
pestilence. Upon the preservation of this 
shield depended the rate of the Roman 
empire, and therefore Numa ordered eleven 
of the same size and form to be made, that 
if ever any attempt was made to carry them 
away, the plunderer might find it difficult 
to distinguish the true one. They were 
made with such exactness, that the king 
promised Veterios Mamurius, the artist, 
whatever reward he desired. They were 
kept in the temple of Vesta, and an order 
of priests was chosen to watch over their 
safety. These priests were called Salii. 
and were twelve in number ; they carried 
every year, on the first of March, the 
shields in a solemn procession round the 
walls of Rome, dancing and singing praises 
to the god Mars. Thia sacred festival con- 
tinued three days, during which every 
Unportani business was stopped. It was 

deemed unfortunate to be msnted onfhsia 
days, or to undertake any expedition. 

Aifooif and ArfcoNA, a town of Piee- 
num, built by the Sicilians, with a harbor 
in the form of a crescent, on the shores of 
the Adriatic. Near this place is the fa- 
mous ohapel of Loretto, supposed by monk< 
ish historians to have been broufriit throu^ 
the air by angels, August 10, A. D. 1291, 
from Judiea, where it was m cottage, in- 
habited by the virgin Mary. The reputed 
sanctity of the place has often brought one 
hundred thousand pilgrim^ in one day to 

Aifcus Martius, the fourth king of 
Rome, was grandson to Numa, by his 
daughter. He waged a successflil war 
against the Latins, Veientes, Fidenates, 
Volsci, and Sabines, and joined mount 
Janiculum to the city by a bridge, and en- 
closed mount Marthis and the Aventine 
n^thin the walls of the city. He extended 
the confines of the Roman territories to 
the sea, where he built the town of Ostia. 
at the mouth of the Tiber. He hiherited 
the valor of Romulus with the moderation 
of Numa. He died B. C. 616, after a reign 
of twenty-four years^ iaad was succeeded 
by Tarquin the elder. 

Ahctrk, a town of Sicily. A town 


AiVDA, a city of Africa. 

AifOABATas, certain gladiators who 
fought blindfolded, whence the proverb, 
Andabatarvm more to denote rash and in- 
considerate measures. 

Andah lA, a city of Arcadia, where Aris- 
tomenes was educated. It received its 
name from a gulf of the same name. 

Andeoayia, a country of Gaul, near the 
Turones and the ocean. 

Andera, a town ofPhrygia. 

An^DEs, a nation among the Celtas now 

Anjou. A village of Italy, near Mantua, 

where Virgil was born. 

Andocides, an Athenian orator, son of^ 
Leogoras. He lived in the age of Socrates 
the philosopher, and Was intimate with 
the most illustrious men of his age. He 
was often banished, but his dexterity al- 
ways restored him to favor. 

Andomatis, a river of India, fklling Into 
the Ganges. 

ANDR^Moif, the fkther of Thoas.— • 
The son-in-law and successor of CEneus. 

AiTDRAOATHiua, a tyrant, defeated by 
Gratian, A. D. 383. 

Andraoathus, a man bribed by Lysi- 
ma£hus to betray his country. 

Andreas, a statuary of Argos. A man 

of Panormum, who wrote an account of 
all the remarkable events that had hap- 
pened In Sicily. A son of the Peneus. 

Part of Boeotia, especially where Orcho- 
menos was built, was called Andreis after 

AnoRicLUB, a mountain of Cilicia. 

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A river of Troas, falling into the Sca- 

Ardriscds, a man who wrote an his- 
tory of Naxos. A worthless person call- 
ed Pseudoj^liUippusy on account ofthe like- 
ness of his features to king Philip. He 
incited the Macedonians to revolt against 
Rome, and was conquered and led in tri- 
umph by Metellus, 152 B. C. 

Androbius, a famous painter. 

Androclea, a daughter of Antipcenus 
of Thebes. She, with her sister Alcid^, 
sacrificed herself in the service of her 
country, when the oracle had promised 
the victory to her countrymen, who were 
engaged in a war against Orchomenos, if 
any one of noble birth devofed himself for 
the Kloiy of his nation. Antip<£nus re- 
fusedto do It, and his daughters cheerful- 
ly accepted it, and received great honors 
after death. Hercules, who fought on the 
side of Thebes, dedicated ^o them the 
image of a lion m the temple of Diana. 

Androcles, a son of Phintas, who 
reigned in Messenia.^ — A man who wrote 
an history of Cyprus. 

Androclideb, a noble Theban, who de- 
fended the democratical, against the en- 
croachments ofthe oligarchical, power. He 

was killed by one of his enemies. A 

sophist in the age of Aurelian, who gave 
an account of philosophers. 

Androclus, a son of Cpdrus, who 
reigned in Ionia, and took Ephesus and 

Androcydes, a physician, who wrote 
the f(dlovving letter to Alexander : — Finum 
potaturu-tf Rex, memento te bibere sanguinem 
terra}, sicvii venenum est homini cicuta, sic 
et vinum. 

-Anorodamus. Fid. Andromadas. 

Androdvr, a slave known and protect- 
ed in the Roman circus, by a Hon whose 
Yoot he had cured. 

Androceos, a Greek, killed by ^neas 
and his A-iends, whom he took to be bis 

Androgeus, son of Minos and Pasiphae, 
was famous for his skill in wrestling. He 
overcame every antnjronist at Athens, and 
became such a favorite of the people, that 
JEgeus king of the country grew jealous 
of his popularity, and caused him to be 
assassinated as he was going to Thebes. 
Some say that he was killed by the wild bull 
of Marathon. Minos declared war against 
Athens to revenge the death of his son, 
and peace was at last reestablished on 
condition that i^geus sent yearly seven 
boys and seven girls from Athens to Crete 
to be devoured by the minotanr. The 
Athenians established festivals by order 
of Minos, in honor of his son, and called 
them Androgea. 

AifDRooTN.T,, a, fabulous nation of Afri- 
ca, beyoQd the Nasamones. Every one 
of them bore the eharacteristica of the 

male and female sex ; and one of their 
breasts was that of • man) and the other 
that of a woman. 

Andromache, » daughter of Eetion, 
king of Thebes in Cilicia, married Hectoir 
son of Priam king of Troy, by whom she 
had Astyanax. She was so fond of hei. 
husband, that she even fed his horses with 
her own hand. During the^ Trojan war 
she remained at home employed in her 
domestic concerns. Her parting with 
Hector, who was going to a battle, in 
which he perished, has always been 
deemed the best, most tender and patlietic 
of all the passages in Homer's Hiad. She 
received the news of her husband's death 
with eictreme sorrow ; and after the taking 
of Tn^, she had the misfortune to see her 
only son Astyanax, after she had saved hiok^ 
from the flames, thrown headlong from 
the walls of the city, by the hands of the 
man whose father had killed her husband. 
Andromache, in the division of the pris- 
oners by the Greeks, fell to the share of 
Neoptolemus, who treated her as his wift^ 
and carried her to Epinis. He had by her 
three sons, Molossiis, Piclus, and Pei^- 
mus, and afterwards repudiated her. Aftec- 
this divorce she married Helenus son of 
Priarti, who, as herself, was a captive of 
Pyrrhus. She reigned with him over part 
of the country, and became mother by 
him of Cestrinus. 

Andromachus, an opulent person of 
Sicily, father to the historian Timieus.. 
He assisted Timnleon in recovering the- 

liberty of the Syracusans. A general 

of Alexander, to whom Parmenio gave the 
government of Syria. He was burnt alive 
by the Samaritans. A poet of Byzan- 
tium. A sophist of Naples, in the age 

of Dioclesian. 

Andromadas, or AirDRODAMus,a native 
of Rhepium, who made laws for the Thra- 
cians concerning the i)unishment of hom- 
icide, &c. 

ANDnoMED*,^a danjrhter of Cepheus, 
king of ^Ethiopia, by Cassiope. She wn» 
promised in marriage to Fhineus, her un- 
cle, when Neptune drowned the kingdom, 
and sent a sea-monster to ravage the 
country, because Cassiope had boasted 
herself fairer than Juno and the J«Jereides. 
The oracle of Jupiter Ammon was con- 
sulted, and nothing could stop the resent- 
ment of Neptune, if Andromeda was not 
exposed to the sea -monster. She was 
accordingly tied ntked on a rock, and at 
the moment that the monster was going 
to devour her, Perseus, who returned 
thtongh the air from the conquest of the 
Gorgons, saw her, and was captivated 
with her beauty. He promised to deliver 
her and destroy the monster, if he receiv- 
ed her in marriage as a reward for hie 
tronble. Cepheus consented , and Persena 
changed the sea-monster into a rock, by 

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showing him Medusa's head, and untied 
Andromeda and married her. Some say 
Ihat Minerva made Andromeda a constel- 
lation in heaven after her death. Accord- 
ing to Pliny, it was at Joppa in Judaea that 
Andromeda was tied on a rock. He men- 
tions that the skeleton of the huge sea- 
monster, to which she had been exposed, 
^vas brought to Rome by Scauros and care- 
f illy preserved. The ftible of Andromeda 
and the sea-monster has been explained, 
bv supposing that she was courted by the 
criptain of a ship, who attempted to carry 
her away, but was prevented by the inter- 
position of another more faithful lover. 

A5DRON-, an Argive, who travelled all 
over the deiserts of Libya without drink. 
A man set over the citadel of Syra- 
cuse by Dionysius. Hermocrates advised 
liiin to seize it and revolt from the tyrant, 
which he refused to do. The tyrant put 
him to death for not discovering that Her- 
mocrates had incited him to rebellion. 

A man of Halicarnassus who composed 
some historical works. — '~Al native of 
Ephesusy who wrote an account^ of the 
seven wise men of Greece. 

AxDRoNicus LiTius. FiH. Livius. 

A?«DRowicu3, a peripatetit philosopher 
of Rhodes, who flourished 59 years B. C. 
He was the first who published and re- 
vised the works of Aristotle and Theo- 

pbrastus. A Latin poet in the age of 

C.Tsar. A Latin grammarian, whose 

life Suetonius has written. A king of 

Lydia, surriamed Alpyus. One of Al- 
exander's officers. An astronomer of 

Athens, who built a marble octagonal 
tower in honor of the eight principal 
winds, on the top of which was placed a 
Triton With a stick in his hand, pointing 
always to the side whence the wind 

ArcDRopHAOi, a savage nation of Euro- 
pean Scythia. 

AwDROPoMtua, a Theban who killed 
Xanthus in sinsile combat liy fraud. 

AxDHos, an island in the iEgean sea. 
Its chief town was called Andros. It had 
a harbor, near which Bacchus had a tern- 
phi, with a fountain, whose waters during 
the ides of January tasted like wine. It 
receivetl the name of Andros from Andros 
mu of Anius, one of its kings, who lived 
in the time of the Trojan war. 

Androsthenes, one of Alexander's 
generals, sent with a ship on the coast of 
Arabia. — r-A governor of Thessaly, who 
favored the interest of Pompey. He was 

cnnqnered by J. Casar. A statilary of 

Thebes. A geographer in the age of 


AwDROTRioiT, a Greek, who wrote a 
History of Attica, and a treatise on agri- 

Anelowtis, a river near Colophon. 

AifjERASTus, a king of Gaul. 

XiTEicoLiA, a city of Phocis, afterwarda 
called Hyampolis 

Anemosa, a village of Arcadia. 

Awgelia, a daughter of Mercury. 

Anoelion, a statuary, who made Apol- 
lo's statue at Delphi. 

Angelus, a son of Neptune, bom in 
Chios, of a nymph whose name is un- 

Amgites, a river of Thrace, falling into 
the Strymon. 

. Angli, a people of Germany, at the 
north of the Elbe, from whom, as being a 
branch of the Saxons, the English have 
derived their name. 

Angrus, a river of Illyricum, flowing in 
a northern direction. 

ANouiTiA,a wobd in the cotiBtcy of the 
Marsi, between the lake Fucinua and 
Alba. Serpent^ it is said could not injure 
the inhabitants, because they were de- 
scended from Circe, whose power over 
these venomous creatures has been much 

Ania, a Roman widow, celebrated for 
her beauty. One of her friends advised 
her to marry again. No, said she, if I 
marry a man as affectionate as my first 
husband, I shall be apprehensive for his 
death ; and if he is bad, why have him, 
after such a kind and Indulgent one ? 

Anicetus, a son of Hercules, by Hebe 

the goddess of youth. A freed man who 

directed the education of Nei;o, a^nd be- 
came the instrument of his crimes. 

Anicia, a family at Rome, whidk, in 
the flourishing times of the republic, pro- 
duced many brave and illustrious citizens. 
A relation of Atticus. 

Anicium, a town of Gaul. 

Airiciua Gallvs triumphed over the II- 
lyrians and their king Gentiiis, and wM 

propnetor of .Rome, A. U. C, 585. A 

consul with Corn. Cethegus, A. U. C. 594. 
- — Probus, a Roman consul in the fourth 
century, famous for his humanity. 

Aniords, a river of Thessaly, where the 
Centaurs washed the wounds which they 
had received from Hercules, and made 
the waters unwholesome. The nymphs 
of this river are called Anigriades. 

Arfio and Ar(riEN,now Ta«eronc, a river 
of Italy, flowing through the county of 
Tibur, and falling into the river Tiber, 
about five miles at the north of Rome. It 
receives its name, as some suppose, from 
Anius, a king of Etruria, who .drowned 
himself there when he could not recover 
his daughter, who had been carried away. 

Anitorgis, a city of Spain, near which 
a battle was fought between Asdrubal and 
the Scipios. 

Anius, the son of Apollo and Rhea, was 
king of Delos, »nd father of Andrus. He 
had by Dorippe three daughters, Oeno. 
Sperm^>, and Elai^, to whom Bacchus had 
given the power of changinj^ whatevet 

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they pleased l^to wine, corn, and oil. 
Wlien Agamemnon went to the Trojan 
war, he wished to carry them with him 
to supply bis army with provisions; but 
they complained to Bacchus, who changed 
them into doves. 

Anna, a goddess In whose honor the 
Romans instituted festivals.' She was. 
according to some, Anna the daughter or 
Belus and sister of Dido, who after her 
sister'd death, fled from Carthage, which 
Jarbas had besieged, and came to Italy, 
where Mneas met her, as he walked on 
the banks of the Tiber, and gave her an 
honorable reception, for the kindnesses 
she had shown him when he was at Car- 
thage. Lavinia, the wife of iEneas, was 
jealous of the tender treatment which was 
shown to Anna, and meditated her ruin. 
Anna was apprized of this by her sister in 
a dream, and she fled to the river Numi- 
cus, of which she became a deity, and or- 
dered the inhabitants of the ^country to 
call her Jlnna Perennaj because she would 
remain forever under the waters. Her 
festivals were performed with many re- 
joicings. They were introduced into 
Rome, and celebrated the 15th of March. 
The Romans generally sacrificed to her, 
to obtain a long and happy life : and hence 
the words Annare and Perennare. Some 
have supposed Anna to be the moon, fuia 
menaibus impleat annum i others^ call h^ 
Themis, or lo, the daughter of Inachus, 
and sometimes Maia. Another more re- 
ceived opinion maintains, that Anna was 
an old industrious woman of Bovills. 
who, when the Roman populace had fled 
from the city to mount Sacer, brought 
them cakes every day: for which kind 
treatment the Romans, when peace was 
reestablished, decreed immortal honors to 
her whom they called Perenna, ab peren- 
nitate eidtHs, and who, as they supposed, 
was become one of their deities. 

Anna Commena, a princess of Constan- 
tinople, known to the world for the Greek 
history which she wrote, of her father 
Alexius emperor of the ^east. 

Ann^us, a Roman family which was 
subdivided into the Lucani, Senecs, Flo- 
ri, &c. 

Annalxs, a chronological history wliich 
gives an account of all the important 
events of every year in a state, without 
entering into the causes which produced 
them. The annals of Tacitus may be 
considered in this light. In the first ages 
of Rome, the writing of the annals was 
one of the duties and priyileges of the 
high-priest ; whence they have been call- 
ed Annates Maximi, from the priest Pim- 
ttfez Maximus, who consecrated them, 
and gave them as truly genuine and au- 

Ankalis lkx settled the age at which, 
among the Romans, a citizen could be ad- j 

mltted to exercise the ottcea of the state. 
This law originated in Athens, and was 
introduced in Rome. No man could be a 
knight before eighteen years of age, nor 
be invested with the consular power be- 
fore be had arrived to his twenty-fifth 

Annianus, a poet in the age of Trajan. 

Annibal. a celebrated Carthaginian gen- 
eral, son of Amilcar. He was educated in 
his father's camp, and inured from his 
early years to the labors of the field. He 
passed into Spain when nine years old, 
and at the request of his father, took a 
solemn oath he never would be at peace 
with the Romans. After his father's 
death, he was appointed over the cavalry 
in Spain ; and upon the death of Asdnibal. 
he was invested with the command of all 
the ar;nies of Carthage, though not yet 
in the twenty-fifth year of his age. In 
three years of continual success, he sub- 
dued all the nations of Spain which op- 
posed the Carthaginian power, and took 
Saguntum after a siege of eight months. 
The city was in alliance with the Romans, 
and its fall was the cause of the second 
Punic war, which Annibal prepared to 
support with all the courage and prudence 
of a consummate general. He levied 
three large armies, one of which hejent 
to Africa, he left another in Spain,^and 
marched at the head of the third towards 
Italy. He came to the Alps which were 
deemed almost inaccessible, and had 
never been passed over before him but by 
Hercules, and after much trouble gained 
the top in nine days. He defeated the 
army of the consul Flaminius near the 
lake Trasimenus, and soon after met the 
two consuls C. Terentius and L. iEmiliua 
at Cannae. His army consisted of forty 
thousand foot and ten thousand horse, 
when he engaged the Romans at the cele- 
brated battle of Canne. The slaughter 
was so great, that no less than forty than.- 
sand Romans were killed, and the con- 
queror made a bridge with the dead car- 
casses; ajid as a sign of his victory, he 
sent to Carthage three bushels of gold 
rings which had been taken from five 
thousand six hundred and thirty Roman 
knights slain in the battle. Had Annibal, 
immediately after the battle, marched his 
army to .the gates of Rome, it must have 
yielded amidst the general consternation : 
but his delay gave the enemy spirit ana 
boldness. After hovering for some time 
round the city, he retired to Capua, where 
the Carthaginian soldiers soon forgot to 
conquer in the pleasures and riot of this 
luxurious city. From that circumstance 
it has been said, and with projiriety, that 
Captia was a Canne to AnnibaL After 
the battle of Cannie the Romans became 
more cautious, and when the dictator 
Fabius Maxuniu had defied the axtiflce 




If well u the valor of Annlbal, they be- 
gan to look for better times. Marcelius, 
who succeeded Fabius in the field, first 
taught the Romans that Annibal was not 
Invincible. After many important de- 
bates in the sedate, it was decreed, that 
war should be carried into Africa, to re- 
move Annibal from the gates of Roipe ; 
and Scipio, who was the first proposer of 
the plan, was empowered to put it into 
execution. When Carthage saw the en- 
emy on her coasts, she recalled Annibal 
from Italy. He and Scipio met near Car- 
thage, and after a parley, in which neither 
would give the preference to his enemy, 
they determined to come to a general en- 
jragement. The battle was fought near 
Zama: Scipio made a great slaughter of 
the enemy, twenty thousand were killed, 
and the same number made prisoners. 
Soon after this decisive battle, the Ro- 
mans panted peace to Carthage, on hard 
conditions ; and irflerwards Annibal, who 
was jealous and apprehensive of the Ro- 
man power, tied to Syria, to king Antio- 
chus, whom he advisea to make war 
against Rome, and lead an army into the 
heart of Italy. Antiochus distrusted the 
fidelitv of Annibal, ai^l was conquered by 
the R6mans, who panted him peace on 
the condition of his delivering their mortal 
enemy into their hands. Annibal, who 
was apprized of this, left the court of An- 
tiochas.and fled to Pnisias, king of Bithy- 
nia. He encouraged him to declare war 
against Rome, and even assisted him in 
weakening the power of Eumenes, king 
of Pergamus, who was In alliance with 
the Romans. The senate received intelN- 
gence that Annibal was in Bithynia, and 
mimediately sent ambassadors, amongst 
whom was L. Q,. Flaminius, to demand 
him of Prusias. The king was unwilling 
to betray Antiibal, and violate the laws of 
hospitality, but at the same time he dread- 
ed the pibwer of Rome. Annibal extri- 
eated him from his embarrassment, and 
when he heard that his house was besieg- 
ed on every side, and all means of escape 
fruitless, be took a dose of poison, which 
he always carried with him in a ring on 
his finger, and as he breathed hifUast, he 
exclaimeir, "Solvamus diutarnd curd popu- 
boH. Romanumf quando mortem senia expec- 
tare longwn cenaet. He died in his seven- 
tieth year, according to some, about 1^ 
years B. C. That year was famous ibr 
the death aS the three greatest generals of 
the age, Annibal, Scipio, and Philopoemen. 

The son of the great Annibal. A 

CartbagiQian general, son of Asdrubal, 
above one hundred and sixty years before 

the hixth of the great Annibal. A son 

of eieeon, and grandson of Amilcar, sent 
by the Cartfaagintans to the assistance of 
vEgista, a town of Sicily. He was over- 
powered by Bermocrates, an exiled Byra- 

cusan.— — -A Carthaginian, sumamed Sen- 

AivificERis, an excellent charioteer of 
Cyrene, who exhibited his skill in driving 
a chariot before Plato and the academy. 

A^vNius Scapula, a Roman of great 
dignity, put to death for conspiring against 

Aif5oNand Han no, a Carthaginian gen- 
eral conquered in Bpain by Scipio, and 
sent to Rome. — t—A Carthaginian who 
taught birds to sing "Annon is a god," 
after which he restored them to their na- 
tive, liberty ; but the birds lost with their 

slavery what they had been' taught. A 

Carthaginian who wrote the account of a 
voyage he had made round Africa.^ 

Anof^a, a mountain and road near the 
river Asopus. 

AirsER, a Roman poet, whom Ovid calls 
bold and impertinent. 

Arsibarii, a people of Germany. 
. AwT.cA, the wife of Proteus, called also 

Stenobiea. A goddess worshipped by 

the inhabitants of Antium. 

Ant^as, a king of Scythia, who said 
that the neighing of a horse was far pre- 
ferable to the music of Ismenias, a famous 
musician who had been taken captive. 

Antjecs, a giant of Libya, son of Terra 
and Neptune. Hercules attacked him, 
and as he received new strength from his 
mother as often as he touched the ground, 
the hero lifted him up in the air, ana 
squeevled him to death in his arms. 

ArrtAOoRAs, a man of Cos. A Rho- 

dian poet, much admired by Antigonus. 

Antalcidas of Sparta, son of Leon, 
was sent into Persia, where he made a 
peace with Artaxerxes, by which, B. C. 
387, the Greek cities of Asia became trib- 
utary to the Persian monarch. 

Antandeb, a general of Messeniiu 

against the Spartans. A brother or 

Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily. 

Antandbos, now St. Dimitrij a city of 
Troas, inhabited by the Leleges, near 
which iEneas built his fleet after the de- 
struction of Troy. 

Anterbrogius, an ambassador to CiBsar 
from the Rhemi, a nation of Gaul. 

Ante I us Publius was appointed over 
Syria bv Nero. He was accused of sedi- 
tion an^ conspiracy, and drank poison. 

Antemnjs, a city of the Sabines be- 
tween Rome and the Aoio. 

Antenor, a Trojan prince related to 
Priam. After the destniction of his coun- 
try, Antenor migrated to ItaJy near the 
Adriatic, where he built the town of Pa- 
dua. A statuary. A Cretan who 

wrote a history of his country. 

Antenorides. a patronymic given to 

le three sons or Antenor, all killed dur- 

g the Trojan war. 

Anteros, a son of Mara and Venus. 
Cupid and Anteros are often represented 

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Striving to seize a palm-tree from one an- 
other, to teach us that true love always 
endeavors to overcome by kindness and 

Sratitude. A grammarian of Alexan- 
ria, in the age of the emperor Claudius. 
A freeman of Atticus. 

Anthea, a town of Achaia. OfMes- 

senia. Of Troezene. 

Antheas, a son of Eumelus, killed in 
attempting to sow corn from the chariot 
of Triptolemus drawn by dragons. 

ANTHEoort, a city of Boeotia, which re- 
ceives its name from the flowery plains 
tliat surround it, or Anthedon a certain 
nymph. Bacchus and Ceres had there 
temples. A port of Peloponnesus. 

A^£LA, a town near the Asopus, near 
which "Ceres and Amphictyon had a tem- 

ArvTHEMis, an island in the Mediterra- 
nean, the same as the Ionian Samos. 

Anthemon, a Trojan. 

Anthemds, a city of Macedonia at 
Thermae.- — A city of Syria. 

Anthemusia, the same as Samoa. — A 
city of Mesopotamia. . 

Anthene, a town of Peloponnesus. 

AnthermUs, a Chian sculptor, son of 
Micciades, and grandson to Malas. He 
and his brother Biipalus made a statue of 
the poet Hipponax, which caused univer- 
sal laughter, on account of the deformity 
of its coun;tenance. The poet was so in- 
censed upon this, and inveighed with so 
much bitterness against the stat^iaiies, 
that they hung themselves, according to 
the opinion of some authors. 

Anthes, a native of Anthedon, who 
first invented hymns. A son of Nep- 

AwTHEspHdRiA, fostivals celebrated in 
Sicily, in honor of Proserpine, who was 
carried away by Pluto as she was gather- 
ing flowers. Festivals of the same 

name were also observed at Argos in hon- 
or of Juno, who was called Antheia. 

Anthesteri A, festivals in hon(»r of Bac- 
chus among the Greeks. T-he slaves had 
the permission of being merry and free 
during these festivals : and at the end of 
the-solemnity a herald proclaimed, " De- 
part, ye Carian slaves, the festivals are at 
an end." 

Antheus, aaon of Antenor, much es- 
teemed by Parfei. One of the compan- 
ions of i£|ieas. 

Anthia, a tister of Priam, seized by 
the Greeks. She compelled the people of 
Pallene to burn their shijis, and build Sci- 

one. A town. A daughter of Thes- 

pius, mistress to Hercules. 

Anthias. Vid. Aniheas. 

Anthippe, a daughter of Thestius. 

Anthium, a town of Thrace, after- 
wards called Apollonltt. -A city ofltaly. 

Anthius, (flotncry,) a name of Bacchus 
worship{>ed at Athens 

AifTMo, a dau^ter of AtauliUff king of 
Alba. . 

ANTHORE0, a companion of Hercules, 
who followed Evander, and settled in 
Italy. He was killed in the war of Tur- 
nus against ^Eneas. 

A^THRACiA, a nymph. 

Anthropinus, Tisarghus, aiid Dio< 
CLXB, three persons who laid snares for 
Agathocies tyrant of Sicily. 

ArfTHROPoPHAGf, a people of Scythia 
that fed on human flesh. 

Anthylla, a city of Egypt on the Ca- 
nopic mouth of the Nile. 

Antia lex was made for the suppres- 
sion of luxury at Rome. Its particulars 
are not known. 

Antianira, the mother of Echion. 

Anttas, the goddess of fortune, chiefly 
worshipped at Antium. A poet. 

Anticlea, a daughter of Autolycus-and 
Amphithea, and mother of Ulysses. It i» 
said that Anticlea killeil herself when she 
heard a false report of her son's death. 

Anticles, an Atheni^ arcbon. A 

man who conspired against Alexander 

with Hermolaus. An Athenian vietor 

at Olympia. 

Anticlides, a Greek historian,, whose 
works are now lost. 

' Anticraous, a moantain of Lycia, op- 
posite mount Cragcift. 

Anticrates, a Spartan, who stabbed 
Epaminondas, the Theban general, at the 
battle of Mantinea. 

Antictra, two t»wns of Greece, the 
one in Phocis, and the other near mount 
Oeta, both famous for the ellebore which 
they produced. This plant was of infinite 
service to cure diseases, and particularly 
insanity ; hence the proverb ^Ttmiget j3ntir- 
cyram. A mistress of Den^trius. 

Antidomus, a warlike soldier of king 
Philip at the siege of Perinthus. 

Antidotus, an exeellent painter, pupil 
of Euphranor. 

Antioenes, one. of Alexander's gnt- 
erals, publicly rewarded for his valor. 

AivTiGEif(DAs, a famous musician of 
Thebes, disciple to Philoxenus. 

Antigoita, daughter of Berenice, was 
wife to king Pyrrhus. 

Antigoke, a daughter of Oidipus, king 
of Thebes, by his mother Jocasta. She 
buried by night her brother Polynices, 
against the positive orders of Creon, who, 
when he heard of it, ordered her to be 
buried alive. She however killed herself 
before ti^ sentence was executed. The 
death of Antigone is the subject of one 

of the tragedies of Sophocles. A daufsh- 

ter of Eurytion king of Phthia in Thessaly. 

A daughter of Laomedon. She was 

the sister of Priam, and was changed into 
a stork for comparing herself to Juno. 

Antioonia. an inland town of Epirua. 
One of MacedoBiAj founded hy Antl- 

Digitized by 





gonaf , son of Gonatas. One In Syria, 

OD the borders of the Orontes. Anoth- 
er in Bithyaia, called also Nicaea. An- 
other in Arcadia, anciently called Manti- 
nea. One of Troas in Asia Minor. 

Antioonus, one of Alexander's gen- 
erals, universally supposed to be the ille- 
gitimate son of Philip, Alexander's father. 
In the division of the provinces after the 
king's death, he received Pamphylia, Ly- 
cia, and Phrygia. He received so many 
woiinds in a battle that he could not sur- 
vive them, and died in the 80th year of his 
age, UOl B. C During his life, he was 
master of all Asia Minor, as far as Syria, 
lie discharged some of his officers because 
they spent their time in taverns, and he 
gave their commissions to common sol- 
diers, who performed their duty with 
punctuality. A certain poet called him 
divine ; but the Icing despised his flattery, 
and bade him go and inquire of his ser- 
vants whether he was really what he sup- 
posed him. Gonatas, son of Demetrius, 

and grandson to Antigonus, was king of 
Macedonia. The guardian of his ne- 
phew, PJhilip, the son of Demetrius, who 
married the widow of Demetrius, and 
usurped the kingdom. He died B. C. 221, 
after a reign of eleven years, leaving his 
crown to the lawful possessor, Philip, who 
distinguished himself by his cruelties and 
the war he made against the Romans.-: — 
A son of Aristobulus king of Judaea, who 
obtained an army from the kingof Parthia, 
by promising him one thousand talents 
and five hundiied women. With these 
foreigou troops he attacked his country, and 
cut tbe ears of Hyrcanus to make hiih unfit 
for tbe priestnood. Herod^ with the aid 
of the Romans, took him prisoner, and he 
was put to death by Antony. — Carystius, 
an historian in the age of Pbiladelphus. 
A writer on agriculture. A statua- 
ry whe wrote on his profession. 

AwTiLco, a tyrant of Chalcis. After 
bis death, oligarchy prevailed in that city. 

Antilibanus, a mountain of Syria op- 
posite mount Libanus ; near which the 
Orontes flows. 

AwTiLocHus, a king of Messenia. The 
eldest son of Nestor, by Eurydice. He 
went to the Trojan war with his father, 
and was killed by Memnon, the son or 

Aurora. A poet who wrote a panegyric 

upon Lysander, and received a hat filled 
with silver. 

Autimachus, a historian A Greek 

poet arid musician of Ionia in the age of 
Socrates. He was reckoned the next to 
Homer in excellence, and the emperor 
Adrian was so fond of his poetry that he 
preferred him to Homer. He wrote a poem 
upon the Theban war ; and before he had 
brouglit his heroes to the city of Thebes, 

be had filled twenty-four volumes. An- 

6t]i6r poeC of the some name, saraamed 

PtecaSf because he praised hfmsetf. A 

Trojan whom Paris bribed to oppose the 
restoring of Helen to Menelaus and Ulys- 
ses, who had come as ambassadors to re- 
cover her. A son of Hercules by a 

daughter of Thestiua. A native of He- 

li'opolis, whq wrote a poem on the crea- 
tion of the world, in three thousand seven 
hundred and eighty verses. 

Antimenes, a son of Deiphon. 

AwTiNOE, one of the daughters of Peli- 
as, whose wishes to restore her father to 
youthful vigor proved so fatal. 

AtTTiivoEiA, annual sacrifices and quin- 
quennial games in honor of Antinous, in- 
stituted by the emperor Adrian at Manti- 

AivTixopo^is, a town of Egypt, built in 
honor of Antmous. 

AsTi NOUS, a youth of Bithynia, of whom 
the emperor Adrian was so extremely fond, 
that at his death he erected a temple to 
him and wished it to be believed that he 

had been changed into a constellation. 

A native of Ithaca, son of Eupeithes and 
one of JPenelope's suitors. He was brutal 
and cruel in his manners ; and excited his 
companions to destroy Telemachus, whose 
advice comforted his mother Penelope. 
AifTiocHiA, the name of a Syrian 

province. A city of Syria, once the 

third city of the world for* beauty, great- 
ness, and population. It was built by An- 
tiochus and Seleucus Nicanor, partly on a 
hill, and partly in a plain. A city call- 
ed also Nisi bis, in Mesopotamia, built b^ 

Seleucus, son of Antiochus. The*tapi- 

tal of Pisidia ninety-two miles at the east 

of Ephesus. A citjr on mount CragHs. 

Another near the river Tigris, twenty - 

five leagues from Seleucia, on the west. 
Another in Margiana, called Alexan- 
dria and Seleucia. Another near mount 

Taurus, on the confines of Syria. An- 
other of Caria, on the river Meander. 

A»TiocHi8, the name of the mother of 

Antiochus, the son of Seleucus. A tribe 

of Athens. 

ANTiocHtrs, surnamed Sotcr, was son of 
Seleucus, and king Of Syria and Asia. He 
fell into a lingering disease, which none 
of his father's physicians could cure for 
some time, till it was discovered that his 
pulse was more irregular tban usual, when 
Stratonice his step-mother entered his 
room, and that love for her was the cause 
of his illness. This was told to the fa- 
ther, who willingly gave Stratonice to his 
son, that his ^inmioderate love might not 
cause his death. He died 291 B. C. after 

areign of nineteen years. ^I'he second 

of that name, was son and successor 
of Antiochus Soter. He put an end 
feD the war which had been begun with 
Ptolemy ; and, to strengthen the peace, he 
married Berenice, the daughter of the 
Egyptain king. This so^flbnded -his for- 

Digiflzed by Vj'OOQ IC 




mer wife Laotnce^ by whom he had two 
Bong, that she poisoned him, aiM suborn- 
ed Artemon, whose features were similar 

to his, to rei)resent him as king. The 

third of that name, surnamed the Great, 
brother to Seleucus Ceraunus, was king of 
Syria and Asij;^ and reigned thirty-six 
years. He conquered the greatest part of 
Greece ; and Annibal, who had taken 
refuge at his court, encouraged him to 
make war against Italy. lie was glad to 
find himself supported by the abilities of 
such a genera] ; Jaut his measures were di- 
latory, and not agreeable to the advice of 
Annibal, and he was conquered and oblig- 
ed to retire beyond mount Taurus, and 
pay a yearly fine of two thousand talents 
to the Romans. His revenues being una- 
ble to pay the fine, he attempted to plun- 
der the temple of Belus in Susiana, which 
so incensed the inhabitants that they kill- 
ed him with his followers, ohe hundred 
and eighty-seven years before the Chris- 
tian era. The fourth Antiochus, sur- 
named Epiphanea, or Jllustrious. was king 
of Syria, after the death of his brother Se- 
leucus, and reigned eleven years. He 
destroyed Jerusalem, and was so cruel to 
the Jews, that they called him Epinumea, 
or FuriouSf and not Epiphanes.-~-^The 
fiftb| sumamed EupatoVf succeeded his 
father Epiphanes on the throne of Syria, 

164 B. C. The sixth, king of Syria, was 

mrnamed Eutheus, or ^oble. Before he 
bad been a year on the throne, Tryphon 
murdered him 143 B. C. and reigned in 

his place for three years.' ^The seventh, 

called Sidetes^ reigned nine years. The 

eighth, surnamed Qrypnsy from his a^iui- 
line nese, was son of Demetrius Nica- 
nor by CHeopatra. He killed Alexander 
Zebina, whom Ptolemy had set to oppose 
him en the throne of Syria, and was at 
last assassinated B. C. 112^ after a reign 
of eleven years. The nmth. surnam- 
ed CyreiticiM, * from the city or Cyzicus, 
where he received his education, was son 
of Antiochus Sidetes, by Cleopatra. He 

killed himself, B. C. 93. The tenth 

was ironically surnamed Pins. After his 
death, the kingdom of Syria was torn to 
pieces by the factions of the royal fftmily 
or usurpers, and B. C. 65, became a Ro- 
man province. A philosopher of Asca^ 

Ion. An historian of Syracuse. A 

rich king, tributary to the Romans in the 

age of Vespasian. A commander of the 

Athenian fleet, under Alciblades. A 

writer of Alexandria. A sculptor, said 

to have ma(fe the famous statue of^ Pat- 
las, preserved iikthe Ludovisi gardens at 

Antiop^ , daughter of Nycteuf, king of 
Thebes, by Polyxo, was beloved by Jupi- 
ter, who, to deceive her, changed' himself 
into a satyr.-( — A daughter oif Thespius 
or Thestius, mother of Alopius by Hercu- 

les. A daughter of Mars, queen of the 

Amazons, taken prisoner by Hercules, 

and given in marriage to Theseus. A 

daughter of iEolud, mother of Bcsotus and 

llellen, by Neptune. A daughter of Pi-> 

Ion, who married Eurytus. 

Antiorus, a son of Lycurgus. 

ANTIPA.R08, asmall island in the ^gean 
sea, opposite Pares, from which it is about 
six miles distant. 

Anti PATER, son of lolaus, was soldier 
under king Philip, and raised to the rank 
of a general under Alexander the Great. 
He has been suspected of giving poison to 
Alexander, to raise himself to power. — 
After Alexander's death, his generals di- 
vided the empire among themselves, and 
Macedonia was allotted to Antipater. At 
his death, B. C. 319, Antipater appointed 
Polyperchon master of all his possessions. 
A son of Cassander, king of Macedo- 
nia, and son-in-law of Lysimachus. He 
killed his mother, because she wished hia 
brother Alexander to succeed to the throne. 
Alexander, to revenge the death of bis 
mother, solicited the assistance of Deme- 
trius ; but peace was reestablished be- 
tween the two brothers by the advice of 
Lysimachus, and soon after Demetrius kill- 
ed Antipater, and made himself king of 
Macedonia, 294 B. C. A king of Mace- 
donia, who reigned only forty-five days, 
277 B. C. A kingofCicilia. A pow- 
erful prince, father to Herod. An Athe- 
nian archon. One of Alexander's sol- 
diers, who conspired against his life with 

Hermolaus. A celebrated sophist of 

Hleropolis, preceptor to. the children of 
the emperor Severus. A Stoic philoso- 
pher of Tarsus, 144 years B. C. A poet 

of Sidon, who could compose a number 
of verses extempore, upon any subjeot. 

He flourished about 80 years B. C. A 

philosopher of Phoenicia, preceptor to Cato 

of Utica. A Stoic philosopher, disciple 

to Diogenes of Babylon. A disciple of 

Aristotle, who wrote two books of letters. 

A poet of Thessalonica, in the age of 


AiiTiPATRiA, a city of Macedonia. 

Antipatridas, a governor of TelmeasuB. 

Antipatriv, a city of Palestine. 

Antiphanss, an ingenious statuary of 

Argos. A comic poet of Rhodes, or 

rather of Smyrna, who wrote above ninety 
comedies, and died in the seventy-fourth 
year of his age. A physician of Delos. 

Antiphatks, a kingof theXtestrvgones, 
descended from Lamus, who founded For- 

miie. ^A son of Sarpedon.— The 

grandfather of Amphiaraus. :A man 

killed in the Trojan war by Leonteus. 

Antiphili portus, a harbor on the Af- 
rican side of the Red sea. 

Antiphilvs, an Athenian- who succeed- 
ed Leosthenes at the siege of Lamia 
against Antipater.*<— A noble painter wji6 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




represented a youth leaning over a lire 
and blowing it, from which the whole 
honse seemed to be ilhiminated. 

AwTiPHoif, a poet. — A native of Rham- 
nusia, called Nestor, from his eloquence 

and prudence. An orator who pron^ised 

Philip, 1cin<; of Macedonia, that he would 
set on fire the citadel of Athens, for which 
he was put to death at the instigation of 
Demosthenes. — A poet who Wrote on agri- 
culture. An author who wrote a treatise 

on peacocks. A rich man introduced 

by Xenophon as disputing with Socrates. 

An Athenian who interpreted dreams, 

and wrote a history of his art. A fool- 
ish rhetorician. A poet of Attica, who 

wrote tragedies, epic poems, and orations. 
Being once asked by Dionysius, what 
brass was the best.^ he answered^ that 
with which the statued of Harmodius and 
Aristogiton are made. 

AivTiPHoifut, a son of Priam, who wertt 
with his father to 'the tent of Achilles to 
cedeem Hector. 

AHTiraus, a son of Priam, killed by 

Agamemnon during the Trojan war. A 

son of Thessalus, grandson to Hercules. 
He went to the Trcgan war in thirty 

ships. An intimate friend of Ulysses. 

A brother of Ctimenus, was son of 

Ganyctor the Naupactian. These two 
brothers murdered the poet Hesiod. The 
poet's dog discovered them, and they 
were seized and convicted of the mur- 

AiTTirtENus, a noble Theban, whose 
daughters sacrificed themselves for the 
public safety. 

AfTTiPoLis, a city of Gaul, bailt by the 
people of Marseilles. 

ArvTiREHiuif, a promontory of i£tolia, 
opposite Rhiudi in Peloponnesus, whence 
the name. 

AiTTissA, a pity at th« north of Lesbos. 
An island near it. 

AiiTi9Tnsi«E8, a philosopher, bom of an 
Athenian father, and of a Phrygian mo- 
ther. He taught rhetoric, and had among 
his pupils the famous Diogenes. He was 
the head of the sect of the Cynic phi- 
losophers. A disciple of Heraclitus. 

An historian of Rhodes. 

AirrisTius Labeo, an excellent lawyer 
at Rome, who defended the liberties of his 

country against Augustus. Petro of 

Gabii, was the author of a celebrated trea- 
ty between Rome and his country, in the 
age of Tarquin the Proud.^— — C. Reginus, 
a lieutenant of Ciesar in Ganl. A sol- 
dier of Pompey's army, so confident of his 
valor, that he challenged all (he adherents 
of Caesar. 

Atttitaurus, one of the branches of 
mount Taurus.. 

AivTiTHEus, an Athenian arcl^on. 

AivTiaif , a marilinie town of Italy, built 
by Ascanius. It was C80 capital of the 
5* » 

Vqlscl. who mode war against the Ro- 
mans for above two hundred years'. 

Antomjsites, the last king of Corinth. 
Af\ec his death, magistrates with regal 
authority were chosen annually. 

AsTONiA I.EX was enacted by M. An- 
tony, the consul, A. U. C. 710. It abro- 
gated the lex Alia^ and renewed the lez 
Cornelia, by taking away from the people 
the privilege of choosing priests, and re- 
storing it to the college &[ priests. An- 
other by the same, A. U. C. 703. It or- 
dained that a new decury of judges should 
be added to the two former, and that they 

should be chosen from the centurions. 

Another by the same. It allowed an ap- 
peal to the people, to those who were con- 
demned de majestatej or of perfidious meas- 
ures against the state. Another by the 

same J during bis triumvirate. It made it 
a capital ofience to propose ever after the 
election of a dictator, and for any person 
to accept of the office. 

AirTorriA, a daughter of M. Antony, hf 
Octavia. She married Domitius iEnobar- 
bus, and was mother of Nero, and two 

daughters. A sister of 6erm.anioas. 

A daughter of Claudius and iElia Petintf. 
She was of the fhmily of the Tuberous, 
and was repudiated for her levl^.— — The 
wife of Drusus the son of Li via, and bro- 
ther to Tiberius. She became mother of 
three children, Germanicus, Caligula's fa* 
ther: Claudius tlie emperor, and the de- 
bauched Livia. Her husband died very 
early, and she never would marry again, 
but spent her time in the education of her 
children. Some people suppose her grand- 
son Caligula ordered her to be poisoned 

A castle of Jerusalem, whicli received 

this name in honor of M. Antony. 

AifToxii, a patrician and plebeian fam- 
ily, which were said to derive their origin 
from Antones, a son of Hercules. 

AwToifiWA, the wife of Belisarius. 

AifTONiifus, Titus, sumamed PtiM, was 
adopted by the emperor Adrian, to whom 
he succeeded. This prince is remarkable 
for all the virtues that can form a perfect 
statesman, philosopher, and king. In his 
conduct towards his subjects he behaved 
with affability and humanity, and listened 
with patience to every complaint brought 
before him. He did not persecute the 
Christians like his predecessors, but his 
life was a scene of universal benevolence. 
His la^ moments were easy, though pre- 
ceded by a lingering illness. He diea in 
the seventy-fifth year of his age, after a 
reign of twenty-three years, A. D. 161. 
He was succeeded by his adopted son M. 
Aurelius Antoninus^ surnamed the phi- 
losopher, a prince as virtuous as his father. 

Rassianus Caracalla, son of the empe- 

ftor Septimus Severhs, was celebrated for 
his cruelties. After assuming the name 
and dress of AchUJes, and styling himself 




the conqueror of provinces he had never 
seen, he was assassinated at Edessa by 
Macrinus, April 8, in the forty- third year 
of bis age, A. D. 217. 

Antoniopous, a city of Mesopotamia. 

M. AwTOMus Gnipho, a poet of Gaul 
who taught rhetoric at Rome ; Cicero and 
other illustrious men frequented his school. 

An orator, grandfather to the triumvir 

of the same name. He was killed in the 
civil wars of Marius, and his head was 

hung in the Forum. Marcus, the eldest 

son of the orator of the same name^ by 
means of Cotta and Cethegus, obtained 
from the senate the office of managing the 
corn on the maritime coasts of the Medi- 
terranean with unlimited ^power. This 
gave him many opportunities of plunder- 
ing the prcxvinces and euriching himself. 
He died of a broken heart.— -Caius, a 
son of the orator of that name, who ob- 
tained a troop of horse from Sylla, and 

plundered Achaia. Caius, son of Anto- 

nius Caius, was consul with Cicero, and 
assisted him to destrov the conspiracy of 

Catiline in Gaul. >Iarcu8, the triumvir, 

was grandson to the orator M. Antonius, 
and son of Antonius, sumamed Creteiuu, 
from his wars in Crete. He was augur 
and tribune of the people, in which he 
distinguished himself by his ambitious 
views. When Caesar was assassinated in 
the senate house, his friond Antony spoke 
an oration over his body f and to ingra- 
tiate himself and his party with the popu- 
lace, he reminded them of the liberal 
treatment they had received from Ciesar. 
He besieged Mutina, which had been al- 
lotted to D. Brutus, for which the senate 
judged him an enemy to the republic, at 
the remonstration of Cicero. He was con- 
quered by the consuls Hirtius and Pansa, 
and by ^oung; Ciesar, who soon after join- 
ed his interest witli that of Antony, and 
formed the celebrated triumvirate, which 
was established with such cruel proscrip- 
tions, that Antony did not ipren spare his 
own uncle, that he miglit strike off the 
head of his enemy Cicero. The triumvi- 
rate divided the Roman empire among 
themselves ; Lepidus was set Over all 
Italy, Augustus had the west, and Antony 
returned into the east, where he enlarged 
his dominions by different conquests. 
During his residence in the east, he be- 
came enamoured of the fair Cleopatra 
queen of Egypt, and repudiated Octavia 
the sister of Augustus, to marry her. Thte 
divorce inceniM Augustus, who now pre- 
pared to deprive Antony of all his power. 
Antony, in the mean time, assembled all 
the forces of the east, and with Cleopatra 
marched against -Octavius Cssar. These 
two enemies met at Actium, where a na- 
val engagement soon began, and Cleopa- 
tra, by flying with sixty sail drew Antony 
''--^m the battle, and ruined his cause. 

After the battle of Actium, Antony follow^ 
ed Cleopatra into Egypt, where he wast 
soon informed of the defection of all his. 
allies and adherents, and saw the con- 
queror on his shores. He stabbed himself^ 
and Cleopatra likewise killed herself by 
the bite of an asp. Antony died in tbe- 

fifty-sixth year of his age, B. C. 30, . 

Julius, son of Antony the triumvir, by 
Fulvia, was consul with Paulus Fabiua 
Maximus. He was sumamed Africanus,^ 
and put to death by order of Augustus.^ 
Some say that he killed himself. Lu- 
cius, the triumvir's brother, was besieged 
in Pelusium by Augustus, and oblige^ tiQi, 
surrender himself with three hundred. »«i^ 
by famine. The conqueror snaredibJ^ life^ 

Felix, a freedman of CUudius, ap- 

pointefl governor of Judsa.-.^^ — Flwnina. i^ 
Roman, condemned for extqjtion, uader 
Vespasian. Q,. Merenda, a military tri- 
bune, A. U. C. 332. « 

AiTToaiDBS, a painter, disciple to Aris- 

Aif TKo CoKACius. Fid, Ooracius. 

AiTTTiXA. Fid, Anthylla. 

Anubis, an Egyptian deity, represented 
mnder the form of a nuui with the head of 
a dog. His worship was introduced inmt 
Egypt inlo Greece and Italy. 

AivxiDB, a river of Armenia, ftlling ii^tov 
the Euphrates. 

Anzoa, called also Tarracina, a city oT 
the Volsci, taken by the Romans, A. U. C 

Anyta, a Greek woman, some of whos* 
elegant verses are still extant. 

Alt TTus, an Athenian rhetorician, who, 
with Melitus and LyQon, accused Socrates 
of impiety, and was the cause of his con- 
demnation. One of the Titans. 

Anzabb, a river near the Tigris. 

A0U.IU9, a son of Romulus by Hersilia, 
afterwards called Abillius. 

Ac IV, a son of Neptune, who came to 
EubcBa and Boeotia, from Apulia, where 
he collected the inhabitants Into cities, 
and reigned over them. 

AoNss, the Inhabitants of AvniOy called 
afterwards Boeotia. The muses have been 
called Aomdes, because Aonia was more 
particularly frequented by them. 

AoHiA, one of the ancient nameb of 

AoRit, a famous hunter, son of Aras 

king of Corinth. The wife of Neleni, 

called more commonly Chloris. 

AoKNo, AoRKVt, or AoBNis, a lofty 
rock, supposed to be near the Ganges in 
India, taken by Alexander.^— A place in 

Epirus, with an oracle. A certain lake 

near Tartessus. Another near Baia 

and Futeoli. It was also called Avemus. 

AoTi, a people of Thrace near the Get«^ 
on the ister. ^ 

Apaitje, a people of Asia Minor. 

Apama, ^a . daj^hter of Aitaxerxes, whow 




married Phamabazus eatrap of loula.-— — 
A daughter of Antiochus. 

Apam£, the mother of Nic6medes by 

Pritsias king of Bithynia. The motlier 

f>( Antiochus Soter, by Seleucus Nlcanor. 

Apamia, or Apamea, a city of Fhrygia, 

An the Marsyaa. A city of Bithynia — 

of Medfa — Mesopotamia. Another near 

(he Tiftris. 

Aparni, a nation of shepherds near the 
iCaspian sea. 

Apaturia, a festival at Athens, was 
instituted in memory of a stratagem by 
which Xanthus king of Boeotia was killed 
by Meianthus kins of Athens. This fes- 
tival was adopted by the lonians. A 

j9umanie of Minerva — of Venus. 

Apbaurob, a mountain in Peloponnesus. 

Apsllics, a celebrated painter of Cos, 
or, as others say, of Ephesus or Oelophon, 
son of .Pithius. He lived in the age of 
Alexander the Great, who honored him 
8o much that he forbade anyjnan but 
Apelles to draliv his picture. Apelles 
never put his name to any pictures but 
three ; a sleeping Venus, Venus Anadyo- 
mene, and an Alexander. The proverb 
of JV*e sutor vUra erepidam^ is applied to 
him by some.^— A tragic writer.— ^A 
Macedonian general. 

Apbllicoh , a Xeian Peripatetic philoso- 
pher, whose fondness for books was so 
great that he is accused of stealing them, 
when be could not obtain them with 
money. He died about eighty-six years 
before Clirist. 

Apcifiviirns, a ridge of high mountains 
wbicb run throng the middle of Italy, 
fimn Lignria to Arhninum and Ancoiia. 
Tbey are joined to the Alps. 

Apsm, Mabcub, a Latin orator of Gaul, 
wbo distinguished himself as a politician, 
as well as by his genius. He died A. D. 

ArxROPiA, a small island on the coast 
of Argolis. 

ApBstrs, Apxsas, or Apbs aittus, a moun- 
tain of Peloponnesus near Lema. 

Aphaoa, a town of Palestine, where Ve< 
BUS was worshipped. 

AniJEA, a name of Diana, who bad a 
temple in iEgina. • 

Aphar, the capital city of Arabia, near 
the Red sea. 

ArHABBTirs fell in love with Marpes- 
ta, daugMer of (Enomaus, and carried her 

ArHABxus. a king of Meaeenia, 9on of 
Perieres ana Gorgophone.—— A relation 
of laocrates, who wrote thirty-seven tra- 

Aphas, a river of Greece, which flill9 
int« the bay of Ambracia. 

Aphxixas, a king of Cyrene, who en- 
deavored to reduce all Africa under his 

ArvxiAt, a mountain In Pelopoimesas. 

Aphkt.v, a city of Magnesia, where the 
ship Argo was launched. 

Ai'hidas, a son of Areas king of Arca- 

Aphidna, a part of Attica. 

Aphidkus, a friend of i£neas, killjed by 

Aphoibetus, one of the conspirators 
against Alexander. 

. Aphrices, an Indian prince, who de- 
fended the rock Aonius with twenty thou- 
sand foot and fifteen eleplmnts. He was 
killed by his troops, and his head sent to 

ApHRoDisrA, an island in the Persian 
gulf where Venus is worshipped. Fes- 
tivals in honor of Venus, celebrated in 
different parts of Greece, but chiefly in 

<Aphrodi8ias, a town of Caria. sacred 
to Venus. ' 

Aphrodisium or a, a town of Apulia 
built by Diomede in honor of Venus. 

Aphhodisum, a city on the eastern parts 

of Cyprus, nine miles from Salamis. A 

promontory with an island of the same 
name on the coast of Spain. 

Aphroditb, the Grecian name of Ve- 

Aphttjk, or Aphttis, a city of Thrace, 
near Pallena, where Jupiter Aniraon was 

Apia, an ancient name of Peloponnesus, 

which it received from king Apis. 

Also the name of the earth, worshipped 
aaiong the Lydians as a powerful deity. 

ApiAtfus, or Apiow, was born at Oasis 
in Egypt, whence be went to Alexandria, 
of which he was deemed a citizen.. He 
succeeded Theus in the profession of rhet- 
oric in the reign of Tiberius, and wrote a 
book against the Jews, which Josephus 

Apicata, married SeJaAus, by whom 
she had three children. She was repu- 

Apicius, • famous glutton of Rome. 
There were three of the same name, all 
famous for their voracious appetite. 

Aj'idaivus, one of the chief rivets of 
TlMHsaly, at the south of the Peneus. 

ApiTfA and ApIw j, a city of Apulia, de- 
stroyed with Trica, in its neighborhood, 
by Diomedes. 

Apiola and Apiolx, a town of Italy, 
taken by Tarquin the Proud. 

Apioit, a surname of Ptolemy, one of 

the descendants of Ptolemy Lagus. A 


Apib, one of the ancient kings of Pelo- 
pennesus, son of Phoroneos and Laodice. 
He received divine honors after death, as 
be had been munificent and humane to his 
subjects.- The country where he reigned 
was called Apia ; and aOerwaids it re- 
ceived the name of Pelasjria, Argia, or 
ArgoUt, an.d at last that of Peloponnesus, 




from Pelops. A eon of Jason, bom In 

Arcadia j he was killed by the horses of 

iGtoIus. A town of Egypt on tlie lake 

Mareotis. A god of the Egyptians, wor- 
shipped under tlie form of au ox. The ox 
that was chosen was always distingnisbed 
by particular marks ; his body wjis black ; 
he had a square white spot upon the fore- 
bead, the figure of an eagle upon the back, 
a knot under the tongue like a beetle, the 
hairs of his l»il were double, and bis right 
side was marked with a whitish spot, re- 
sembling the crescent of the moon. With- 
out the^e, an ox could not be taken as the 
god Apis ; and it i8 to be iuiiigined that 
tlie priests gave these disstinguishing char- 
acteristics to the animal on whom their 
credit and even prosperity depended. The 
festival of Apis lasted seven days. 

Apisaon, son of Hippasus, assisted 
Priam against the Greeks, at the head of 
a Paeon ian army. He was killed by Ly- 
comedes. Another on the same side. 

Apiti us Galba^ a celebrated buffoon in 
the time of Tiberius. 

Apollinares ludi, games celebrated at 
Rome in honor of Apollo. The people 
generally sat crowned with laurel at the 
representaticm of these games, which 
were usually celebrated at the option of 
the pretor, tUl tJie year U. C. 545, when a 
law was passed to settle the celebration 
yearly on the same day about the nones of 

Apollittaris, C. Sul|)itius, a gramma- 
rian of Cartilage, in the second century, 
who ie supposed to be the author of the 
verses prefixed 'to Terence's plays as ar- 

Apollo RIDE 9, a Greek in the wars of 
Dariirs and Alexander. 

Apollinis Arx, a place at the entrance 

of the Sibyl's cave. Promontorium, a 

promontory of Africa. Templum, a 

place in Thrace, in Lycia. 

Apollo, son of Jupiter and^Latona, 
called also Phoebus, is often confounded 
with the sun. According to Cicero, there 
were four persons of this name. The tra- 
dition that the son of Latona was born in 
the floating island of Delos, is taken from 
the Egyptian mythology. Apollo was tbe 
god of all the fine arts, of medicine, mu- 
sic, poetry, and eloquence, of all which 
he was deemed the inventor. He had re- 
ceived from Jupiter the power of knowing 
futurity, and he was the only one of the 
gods whose oracles were in general repute 
over the world.* He was very fond of 
young Hyacinthus, whom he accidentally 
killed with a quoit ; as also of Cyparissue, 
who was changed into a cypress tree. 
When his son iGscnlapius had been killed 
with the thunders of Jupiter, for raising 
the 4ead to life, Apollo, in his resentment, 
killed the Cyclops who had fkbricated the 
thunderbolts. Jupiter was incensed at 

tlili act of violence, and he banished Apol- 
lo from heaven, and deprived him 'Ofhi» 
dignity. The exiled deity came to Adme- 
tus king of Thessaly, and hired himself 
to be one of his shepherds, in which igno- 
ble employment he remained nine years : 
from which circumstance he was called 
the god of shepherds, and at his sacri- 
fices a wolf was generally offered, as that 
animal is the declared enemy of the 

sheepfold. He assisted Neptune in 

building the walls of Troy ; and when he 
was refused the promised reward from 
Laomedon, the king of the country, he 
destroyed the inhabitants by a pestilence. 
— As soon as he was liom, Apollo destroy- 
ed with arrows the serpent Python, whom 
Juno had sent to persecute Latona ; hence 
he was called Pythias ; and he afterwards 
vindicated the honor of his mother by put- 
ting to death the children of the proud 
Niobe. He was not \the inventor of the 
lyre, as some have imagined, but Mercury 
gave it him, and received as a reward the 
fhmous caduceus with which Ap<41o was 
wont to drive the flocks of Admetus. 
Apollo is generally represented with long 
hair, and the Romans were fond of im- 
itating his figure ; and therefore in their 
youth they were remarkable for their fine 
head of liair, which they cut short at the 
age of seventeen or eighteen ; he is always 
represented as a tall beardless younj^ man 
with a handsome «hape, holding in his 
hand a bow, and sometimes a lyre ; his 
head is generally surrounded with beams 
of light. He was the deity who, accor- 
ding to the notions of the ancients, inflict- 
ed plagues,'and in that moment he appear- 
ed surrounded with clouds. His worship 
and power were universally acknowledg- 
ed ; he had temples and statues in every 
country, particularly in Egypt, Greece, 
and Italy. His most splendid temple was 
at Delphi, where every- nation and individ- 
ual made considerable presents when they 
consulted the oracle. He had a famous 
Colossus in Rhodes, which was one of the 

seven wonders of the world. One of 

the ships in the fleet of iEneas. Also a 

temple of Apollo upon mount Leucas, 
which appeared at a great distance at 

Apollocrates, a friend of Dion, sup- 
posed by some to be the son of Dionysti/s. 

Apollodorus, a ftmous grammarian 
and mytbologist of Athens, son of Ascle* 
pias, and disciple to Panetiui the Rbodl- 
an philosopher. He flourished about 115 
years before the Christian era. A trag- 
ic poet of Cilicia, who wrote tragedies 

entitled Ulysses, Thyestes, &c A 

comic poet of Gela in Sicily, in tbe age of 

Menander who wrote 47 plays. An 

architect of Damascus, who directed tbe 
building of Trajan's bridge across the 
Danube.—^ — ^A discptu^f Epicurus, the 




most learned of his school, and deserved* 
ly sumamed the illustriofis.^'— A painter 
of Athens, of whom Zeuxis was a pupil. 

A rhetorician of Perganius, preceptor 

and friend to Augustus, who wrote a book 

on rhetoric. A tragic poet of Tarsus. 

A Lemnian who wrote on husbandry. 

A physician of Tarentum.—— Anoth- 
er of Cytium. 
Apollonia, a festival at ^gialea in 

honor of Apollo and Diana. A town of 

Mygdonia.— -Of Crete.— Of SicUy.— On the 
coast of Asia. Minor. 

AroLLoif I ASj the wife of Attains king of 
Phrygia, to whom she bore four children. 
Apolloniades, a tyrant of Sicily, com- 
pelled to lay down his power by Timoleon. 

Apollonioes, a writer of Nicea. A 

physician of Cos at the court of Arta- 

Apollo iriU9, a Stoic philosopher of 
Chalcis, sent for bv Antoninus Pius, to 
instruct his adopted son Marcus Antoni- 
nus. A geometrician of Perge in Pam- 

phylia. A poet of Naucratis in Egypt, 

generally called ApoUonius of Rhodes^ be- 
cause he lived for some time there. A 

Greek orator, surnamed Molo, was a na-'' 
live of Alabanda in Caria. He opened a 
school of rhetoric at Rhodes and Bome, 
and had J. CsBsar and Cicero among his 
pupils.— < — A Greek historian about the 
age of Augustus, who wrote upon the phi- 
losophy of Zenoand of his followers. A 

Stoic philosopher who attended Cato of 

Utica in his last moments. Thyaneus,* 

a Pythagorean philosopher, well skilled in 
the secret arts of magic. Being one day 
haranguing the populace at Ephesus, he 
suddenly exclaimed, " Strike the tyrant, 
strike him ; the blow is given, he is 
wounded, and fallen !" At that very mo- 
ment the emperor iDomitian had been 
stabbed at Bome. The magician acquired 
much reputation when this circumstance 
was knowp. He was courted by kings 
and princes, and commanded unusual at- 
tention by his numberless artifices. His 
friend and companion, called Damis, wrote 
his life, which two hundred years after 
engaged the attention of Philostratus. In 
his history the biographer relates so many 
curious and extraordinary anecdotes of 
his hero, that many have justly deemed it 
ft romance ; yet for all this, Hieroeles had 
the presumption to compare the impos- 
tures of ApoUonius with the miracles of 
Jesus Christ. 

Apollo PH AH Es, a Stoic, who greatly 
flattered king Antigonus, and maintained 
that there existed but one virtue, pru- 
Apomtios, a surname of Jupiter. 
Aponiaiva, an island near Lilybaeum* 
M. Apoifius, a governor of MoBSia, re- 
warded with a triumphal statue by Otho, 
for defeating nine thousand horburiani. 

Apoitus, now Jlbano, a fountain, with a 
village of the same name near Patavimo , 
in Italy. The waters of the fountain, 
which were hot, were wholesome, ana 
were supposed to have an oracular power. 

Apostrophia, a surname t>f Venus in 
Boeotia, who was distinguished under 
these names, Venus Urania, Vulgaria, and 

Apotheosis, a ceremony observed hf 
the ancient nations of the world, by which 
they raised their kings, heroei. and great 
men, to the rank of deities. The nations 
of the east were the first -who paid divine 
honors to their great men, and the Romkna 
followed their example, and not only dei- 
fied the most prudent and humane of their 
emperors, bnt also the most cruel and 
profligate. Herodian has left us an ac- 
count of the apotheosis of a Roman empe- 
ror. After the body of the deceased \^aa 
burnt, an ivory image was laid on a couch 
for seven days, representing the emperor 
under the agonies of disease. The. city 
was in sorrow, the senate visited it in 
mourning, and the physicians pronounced 
it every day in a more decaying state. 
When the death was announced, a younff 
band of senators carried the couch and 
image to the Campus Martins, where it 
was deposited I on an edifice in the form 
of a pyramid, where spices and combusti- 
ble materials were thrown After this the 
knights walked round the pile in solemn 
procession, and the images of the most il- 
lustrious Romans were drawn in state, 
and immediately the new emperor, with 
a torch, set fire to the pile, and was 
assisted by the surrounding multitude. 
Meanwhile an eagle was let fiy from the 
middle of the pile, which was supposed to 
carry the soul of the deceased to heaven, 
where he was ranked among the gods. 
If the deified was a female, a neacock, 
and not an eagle, was sent from the 
flames.—The Greeks observed ceremonies 
much of the same nature. 

Appia via, a celebrated road leading 
from the porta Capena at Rome to Brun-- 
dusium, through Capua. Appius Claudius 
made it as far as Capua, and it received 
its name from him. It was continued and 
finished by Gracchus, J. Cssar, and Au- 

Appiades, a name given to these five 
deities, Venus, Pallas, Vesta, Concord, 
and Peace, because a temple was erected 
to them near the Appian road. 

Appiaitus, a Greek historian of Alex- 
andria, wbo flourished A. D. 133. His 
universal history, which consisted of 
twenty-four books, was a series of history 
of all the nations that had been conquered 
by the Romans in the order of time ; and / 
in the composition, the writer displayed, 
with a style simple and unadorned, a 
great knowledge ofmllitaiy ^ftflWrs, and 

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described bis battles in- a masterly man- 
ner. This excellent tirork is greatly mu- 
tilated, and there is extant now only the 
account of the Panic, Syrian, Parthian,' 
Mithridatic, and Spanish wars, with those 
of Illyrlcum and the civil dissensions, 
with a fragment of the Celtic wars. 

A.PII FoRDM, now Borgo Longo, a little 
village not far from Rome, built by the 
consul Appius. 

Appius, the pnenomen of an illustrious 

family of Rome. A censor of that nama, 

A. U. C. 442. 

Appius Claudius, a decemvir who "ob- 
tained his power by force and oppression. 
He attempted the Ttrtue of Virginia, whom 
her father killed to preserve her chastity. 
This act of violence was the cause of a 
revolution in J:he state, and the ravisber 
destroyed himself when cited to appear 

before the tribunal of 4»is country. 

Claudius Cascus, a Roman orator, who 
built the Appian way and many aque- 
ducts in Rome. When Pyrrhus, who was 
come to assist the Tarentines against 
Rome, demanded peace of the senators, 
Appius, grown old in the service of the 
republic, caused himsetf to be carried to 
the senate house, and, by his authority, 
dissuaded them from granting a peace 
which would prove dishonoriwle to the 

Roman n^e. A Roman who, when 

he heard*lhat ke had been proscribed by 
the triumvirs, divided his riches among 
his servants, and embarked with them for 
Sicily. In their passage the vessel was 
shipwrecked, and Appius alone saved his 

life. Claudius Crasaus, a consul, who, 

with Sp. Naut. Rutulius, conquered the 
Celtiberians, and was defeated by Per- 
seus, king of Macedonia. Claudius 

Pulcher, a grandson of Ap. CI. Ceecus, 
consul in the age of Sylla, retired from 
grandeur to enjoy the pleasures of a pri- 
vate life. Clausus, a general of the 

' Sabines, who, upon being ill-treated by 
his countrymen, retired to Rome with five 
thousand of his friends, and was admitted 
into the senate In the early ages of the 

republic. Herdonius seized the capitol 

with four thousand exiles, A. U. C. 292, 
and was soon after overthrown. Clau- 
dius Lentulus, a consul with M. Perpen- 

Apries and ApRiD8,oneof the kings of 
Egypt in the age of Cyrus, supposed to be 
the Pharaoh Hophra of scripture. He 
tpok Sidon, and lived in great prosperity 
till his subjects revolted to Amasis, by 
whom he was conquered and strangled. 

ApsinthiIj a people of Thrace: they 
received their name from a river called 
Apsinthus, which flowed through their 

Apbinus, an Athenian sophist in the 
third century, author of a work called 
Prmctftor de Arte RhOorinA, 

58 AQ 

Avpcs, a riv^ of Macedonia falling Into 
the Ionian sea between Dyrrhachium and 

AfTERA, an inland town of Crete. 

Apulkia lex, was enacted by L. Apu- 
Iclus the tribune, A. U. C. (i52^for inflict- 
ing a punishment upon such as were 
guilty of raising seditions, or showing vi- 
olence in the city. Varilia, a grand- 
daughter of Augustus, convicted or adul- 
tery with a certain Manlius in the reigD 
of Tiberius. 

Apuleius, a learned maiK bom at Ma- 
daura in Africa. He studied at Carthage, 
Athens, and Rome, where he marrieff s 
rich widow called Pudentilla, for which 
he was accused by some of her lelation? 
of using magical arts to win hej heart. 
His apology was a masterly composition. 
In his youth, Apuleius had been very ex- 
pensive ; but he was, in a maturer age,^ 
more devoted to study, and learnt Latin, 
without a master. The most famous of 
his works extant is the Oolden A»8y in ' 
eleven books, kn allegorical piece replete- 
with morality. 

Apulia, now Puglia, a country of Italy 
between Daunia and Calabria. It was 
part of the ancient Magna Grscia, and 
generally divided into Apulia Daunia, and 
Apulia Peucetia. It was famous for its 
wools, superior- to all the produce of Italy. 
Some snppose that it is called ^fter Apu- 
lus, an ancient king of the country before 
the Trojan war. 

Apuscidamus, a lake of Africa. Alt 
bodies, however heavy, were said to swim: 
on th6 surface of its waters. 

AquARius, one of the signs of the zodi- 
ac, rising in January, and setting in Feb- 
ruary. Some suppose that Ganymede was 
changed into this sign. 

AquiLARiA, a place of ^rica. 

AquiLEi A, or AquiLEci a', a town found- 
ed by a Roman colony, called, from its- 
grandeur, Roma secunday and situated* at 
the north of the Adriatic sea, on the con- 
fines of Italy. The Romans built it chiefljr 
to oppose the frequent incursions of the 
barbarians. The Roman emperors en- 
larged and beautified it, and often made it 
their residence. 

AquiLius NioER, an historian. Mar- 
cus, a Roman consul who had the gov- 
ernment of Asia Minor. Sabinus, a 

lawyer of Rome, surnamed the Cato of 
his' age. He was father to Aquilia Severa, 

whom Heliogabalus married. Severus, 

a poet and historian in the age of Valen- 

AquiLLiA.and Aquilia, a patrician ftun- 
ily at Rome, from which few illustrious 
men rose. 

AquiLo, a wind blowing from the north. 
Its name ia derived, according to some, 
from jSquUiif on account of its keenneoa 
and velocity. 

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A401L0KIA, a city of tba HJiplnl In It- 

AquiNias, a poet of moderate capacity. 

AqoiNUM, a toirn of Latium, oa the 
borders of the Samnites, where Juvenal 
was born. A dye was invented there, 
which greatly resembled the real purple, 

A<iuiTANiA, a country of Gaul, bounded 
on the west by Spain, north by the prov- 
ince of Lugdunum, south by th^ province 
called Gallia Narbonensis. Its inhabitants 
are called Aquitaoi. 

Ara, a constellation, consisting of seven 
stars, near the tail of the scorpion. 

Ara lugourensis, a place at the con- 
fluence of the Arar and Rhone. 

Arabarches, a vulgar person among 
the Egyptians, or perhaps an usual ex- 
pression for the leaders of the Arabians, 
who resided in Rome. 

Abasia, a large country of Asia, form- 
ing a peninsula between the Arabian and 
Persian gulfs. It is generally divided into 
three different parts, Petrwa, Deserta, and 
Felix. It is famous for its frankincense 
and aromatic plants. The inhabitants 
were formerly under their own chiefs, an 
uncivilized people, who paid adoration to 
the sun, moon, and even serpents, and who 
had their wives in common, and circum- 
cised their children. The country has 
often been invaded, but never totally 
subdued. Alexander the Great expressed 
his wish to place the seat of his empire in 
their territories. The soil is rocky and 
sandy, the inhabitants are scarce, the 
mountains nigged, and the country with- 
out water. In Arabia, whatever woman 
was convicted of adultery was capitally 
punished. The Arabians for some time 
supported the splendor of literature, which 
was extinguished by the tyranny and su- 
perstition which prevailed in Egypt, and 
to them we are indebted for the invention 
of algebra, or the application of signs and 
letters to represent lines, numbers and 
quantities, and also for the 'numerical 
characters of 1, 2, 3, &c. first used in Eu- 
rope, A. D. 1253. Also, the name of the 

wife of ^gyptus. 

Arabicus stnub, a sea between Egypt 
and Arabia, different, according to some 
authors, from the Red sea, which they 
suppose to be between ^Ethiopia and In- 
dia, and the Arabian gulf further above, 
between Egypt and Arabia. It Ls about 
forty days* sail m length, and not half a 
day's in its most extensive breadth. 

AiLABis, Arabiub, or Arbis, an Indian 

Arabs and Arabos, a son of Apollo and 
Babylone, who first invented medicine, 
and taught it in Arabia, which is called 
after his name. 

Aracca and Arecca, a city of Susi- 

AaACHirz, a yrojnan of Colophon, daugh- 

ter to Idnion a dyer. Bhe was eo tkUiU 
m wdrking with the needle, that sh^ chal- 
lenged Minerva, the goddess of the art, to 
a trial of skill. But though her piece wee 
perfect and jnast^ly, she was defeated by 
Minerva, and hanged herself in despair, 
and was changed into a spider by the god- 
dess. A city of Thessaly. 

Aracbosia, a city of Asia, near the 
Massagetie^ It was built by Semiramis. 

One 01 the Persian {Kovinces beyond 

the Indus. 

Arachotje and Arachoti, a people of 
India, who received their name from the 
river Arachotus, which flows down from 
mount Caucasus. 

Arachthias, one of the four capital 
rivers of Epirus, near Nicopolis, falling 
into the bay of Ambracia. 

Aracillum, a town of Hispania Tarra- 

ARACosii,an Indian nation. 

Aract NTHus, a mountain of Acamania, 
between the Achelous and Evenus, not 
&r from the shore, and called Actsus. 

Aradus, an island near Phoenicia, joined 
to the continent by a bridge. 

Arje, rocks in the middle of the Medi- 
terranean, between Africa and Sardinia, 
where the Romans and' Africans ratified a 
treaty. It was upon them that ^neas 
lost the greatest part of his fleet : they are 
supposed to be those islands whica are 
commonly called ^Egates. 

Arje Phil.cnorum, a maritime city of 
Africa, on the borders of Cyrene. 

Arar, now the Saone, a river of Gaul, 
flowing into the Rhone, over which C«b- 
sar's soldiers made a bridfre in one day. 

Ara rus , a Scythian river flowingthrough 

Arathtrea, a small province of Achaia, 
afterwards called Asophis, with a city of 
the same name. 

Aratus, a Greek poet of Cicilia, about 
277 B. C. He was greatly esteemed by 
Antigonus Gonatas, king of Macedonia, at 
whose court he passed much of his time, 
and by whose desire he wrote a poem on 
astronomy, in which he gives an account of 
the situations, rising and setting, number 
and motion of^the stars. Aratus wrote be> 
sides, hymns and epigrams, &c. and had 
among his interpreters and commentators 
many of the learned men of Greece whose 
works are lost, besides Cicero, Claudius, 
and Germanicus Caesar, who, in their 
youtb, or moments of relaxation, translat- 
ed the pJuvnamena into Latin verse. The 

son of Clinias and Aristodama, was bom 
at Sicyon in Achaia, near the river Aso- 
pus. When he was but seven years of 
age, his father, who held the government 
of Sicyon, was assassinated by Abantidas, 
who made himself absolute. After some 
revolutions, the sovereignty came into the 
handf of Nicocles, whom Aratus murder- 
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ed, to restore bis country to liberty. He 
WHS 80 Jealous of tyrannical power, that 
he even destroyed a picture, which was 
the representation of a tyrant. He joined 
the republic of Sicynn in the Achiean 
league, which he 6tren{;thened, by makihg 
a treaty of alliance with the Corinthians, 
and with Ptolemy king of Egypt. He was 
chosen chief commander of the forces of 
the Achaeans, and drove away the Macedo- 
nians from Athens and Corinth. He made 
war against the Spartans, but was con- 
quered in a battle by their king Cleomenes. 
To repair the losses he had sustained, he 
solicited the assistance of king Antigonus, 
and drove away Cleomenes from Sparta, 
who fled to Epypt, where he killed him- 
self. The iEtoliajjs soon after attacked the 
Achsans ; and Aratus, to support his char- 
acter, was obliged to call to hi^ aid Philip 
king of Macedonia. His friendship with 
this new ally did not long continue. Phi- 
lip showed himself cruel and oppressive : 
and put to death some of the noblest of 
the Achaians, and even seduced the wife 
of the son of Aratns. Aratus, who was 
now advanced in years, showed his dis- 
pleasure by withdrawing himself from the 
society and friendship of Philip. But this 
rupture was fatal. Philip dreaded the 
power and influence of Aratus, and there- 
fore he caused him and his son to be poi- 
soned. Some days before his death, Ara- 
tus was observed to spit blood ; and when 
apprized of it by his friends, he replied, 
*' 9uch,are the rewards which a connexion 
with kings will {M-oduce." He was buried 
whh great pomp, by his countrymen ; and 
two solemn sacrifices were annually made 
to him. the first on the day that he deliv- 
ered Sicyon from tyranny, and the second 
on the day of his birth. During thelse sa- 
crifices, which were called Jlraieia^ the 
priests wore a ribbon bespanpled with 
white and purple spots, and the public 
school-master walked In procession at the 
head of his scholars, and was always ac- 
companied by the richest and most emi- 
nent senators, adorned with garlands. 
Aratns died in the sixty-second year of his 
age, B. C. 213. Fie wrote a historv of the 
AchseaQ league, much commended by Po- 

Araxes, now Arras, a celebrated river 
which separates Armenia from Media, and 

falls into the Caspian sea. Another 

w^ich falls into the Euphrates.-— ii^oth- 
er in Europe, now called Volpa. 

Arbaces, a Mede who revolted with 
Belesis against Sardanapalus, and founded 
the empire of Media upon the ruins of the 
Assyrian power, eight hundred and twen- 
ty years before the Christian era. He 
reigned above fifty years, and was famous 
for the greatness of his undertakings, as 
well as for his valor. 

Arbxla, now Irbil, a town of Por«ia,on 

the river Lyciu, fhmous for a battle fought 
there between Alexander and Darius, the 
second of October, B. C. 331. 

Arbela, a town of Sicily, whose inhab* 
ita«ta were very credulous. - 

Arbi0, a river on the western bounda- 
ries of India. 

Arbocala, a city taken by Annibal aa 
he marched against Rome. 

Arbuscula, an actress oh the Roman 
stage, who laughed at the hisses of the 
populace, while she received the applauses 
of the knights. 

Arcadia, a country in the middle of 
Peloponnesus, surrounded on every side 
by land. It received its name from Atcas 
son of Jupiter, and was anciently called 
Dry modes, on account of the great number 
of onks (J^vc) it produced, and afterwards 
Lycaonia and Pelasgia. The country has 
been much celebrated by the poets, and 
was famous for its mountains. The in- 
habitants were for the most part all shep- 
herds, who lived upon acorns^ were skil- 
ful warriors, and able musicians. They 
thought themselves more ancient than the 
moon. Pan, the god of shepherds, chiefly 

lived among them. A fortified village 

of Zacynthus. 

Arcaoius, eldest son of Theodosius the 
Great, succeeded his father A. D. 395 
Under him the Roman power was divided 
into the eastern and western empire. He 
made the eastern empire his choice, and 
fixed his residence at Constantinople ; 
while iiis brother Honorius was made 
einpferor of the west, and lived in Rome. 
In the reign of Arcadius, Alaricus atttack- 
ed the western empire, and plundered 
Rome. Arcadius married Eudoxia, a bold 
ambitious woman, and died in the thirty- 
first year of his age, after a reign of thir- 
teen years, in which he bore the charac- 
ter of an efleminate prince, who suflered 
himself to be governed by favorites, and 
who abandoned his subjects to the tyran- 
ny of ministers^ while he lost himself in 
the pleasures of a voluptuous court. 

Arcanum, a villa of Cicero's near the 

Arcas, a son of Jupiter and Callisto.. 
He nearly killed his mother, whom Juno 
had changed into a bear. He reigned in 
Pelasgia, which from him was called Ar- 
cadia, and taught his subjects agriculture, 
and the art of spinning wool. After his 
death, Jupiter made him a constellation, 
with his mother. As he was one day 
hunting, he met a wood nymph, who beg- 
ged his assistance, because the tr^ over 
which she presided, and on whose pre- 
servation her life depended, was going to 
be carried away by the impetuous torrent 
of a river. Arcas changed the course of 
the waters, and pre8erve4 the tree, and 
married the nymph, bv whom he had 
three sons, Azan, Aplildtf, ud Elatus, 

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Among whom he divided bis kingdom.—^ 
One of Actaeon's dngs. 

AftcK, a daughter of Thaumas, son of 
Pontus and Terra. 

AitcENA, a town of Phcsnicia, where 
Alexander Severns was born. 

Arc ENS, a Sicilian who permitted his 
son to accompany iGneas into Italy, where 
he was killed by Itfezentius. 

Arcbsilaus, son of Batttis, king of Gy- 
rene, was driven from his kingdom in a 
sedition, and died B. C. 575. Tiie second 

of that name died B. C. 550 One of 

Alexander's generals, who obtained Mes- 
opotamia at the general division of the 

provinces after the king's de^th. A 

chief of Catana, which he betrayed to Di- 

onysius the elder. A philosopher of 

Pitane in A^^olla.^ disciple of Polemon. He 
visited Sardes and Athens, and was the 
founder of the middle academy, as Socra- 
tes founded the ancient, and Cameades 
the new one. He pretended to know 
nothing, and accused others of the same 
ignorance. He was very fond of Homer, 
and generally divided his time among the 
pleasures of philosophy, love, reading, and 
the table. He died in his seventy-fifth 
year, B. C. 241, or 300 according to some. 

The name of two painters. A 

statuary. A leader of the Boeotians dur- 
ing the Trojan war. A comic and ele- 
giac poet. 

Arcebius, son of Jupiter, was grand- 
father to Ulysses. 
Arcm-ea, a city of iEoIia. 
Arch^anax of Mitylene was intimate 
with Pisistratus tyrant of Athens. He 
fortified Si{«xeum with a wall from the 
ruins of aifcient Troy. 

Arch^atidas, a country of Peloponne- 

ARCHAOATHas, son of Archagathns, was 
slain in Africa by his soldiers, B. C. 285. 
He killed his grandfather Agnthocles, ty- 
rant of Svracuse. A physician at'llome, 

B. C. 219. 
Archander, father-in-law to Danaus. 
Archaitoros, a town of Egypt. 
Arghe, one of the muses, according to 
Archboetes, a surname of Hercules. 
Archelaus, a r^anie common to some 
kings of Cappadocia. A king of Mace- 
donia, who succeeded his father Perdiccas 
the second. He patronized the poet Euri- 
pides.^— A king of the .lews, surnamcd 
Herod. Caisar banished him, for his cru- 
elties, to Vienna, where he died. A 

kuieof Lacedffimon, son of Agesilaus. — A 
celebrated general of Mithridates, against 

Sylla. A philosopher of Athens or Mes- 

senia, son of Apollodorns, and successor 
to Anaxagoras. He was preceptor to So- 
crates, and was called Phtj.^icus. A 

man set over Susa by Alexander, with a 

eurrison of three thousand men . A 


Greek philosopher, who wrote a history 

of animals. A son of Electryon and 

Anaxo. A sculptor of Priene. in the 

age of Claudius. A writer of Thrace. 

Archemachus, a Greek writer, who 
pubUBhed an history of Eubcea.— ~A son 
of Hercules— of Priam. 

Archemorcs, or Opheltes, son of Ly- 
curgus, king of Nemoea, in Thrace, by 
Eurydice, waij brought up by Hypsipyle, 
queen of Lemnos, who had fled to Thrace, 
and was employed as a nurse jn the king's 
family. Hypsipyle was met by the ar- 
my of Adrastus, who was going agsinst 
Thebes j and she was forced to show them 
a fountain where they might quench their 
thirst. To do this more expeditiously, she 
put down the child on the grass, and* at 
her return found him killed by a serpent. 

Archepolis, a man in Alexander's ar> 
my who conspired against the king with 

Archeptolemus, son of Iphitus, king 
of Elis, went to the Trojan war, and 
fought against the Greeks. As he was 
fighting near Hector, he was killed by 
Ajax son of Telamon. 

Archestratus, a tragic poet, whose 
pieces were acted during the Peloponne- 

sian war. A man so small and lean, 

that he could be placed in a dish without 
filling it.— — A follower of Epicurus. 

ARCHETiBiuB,the first philosophical wri- 
ter in the age of the seven wise men of 

Archetiub, a Rutulian, killed by the 

Archia, one of tho Oceanides, wife to 

Archia 8, a Corinthian descended from 
Hercules. He founded Syracuse B. C. 

732. A poet of Antioch, intimate with 

the Luculli. He obtained the rank and 
name of a Roman citizen by the means of 
Cicero, who defended him in an elegant 
oration, when his enemies had disputed 

his privileges of citizen of Rome. A 

Polemarch of Thebes, assassinated in the 

conspiracy of Pelopidas. A high-priest 

of Athens, contemporary and intimate 
with the Polemarch of the same name. 

Archibiades. a philosopher of Athens, 
wlio affected tne manners of the Spar- 

Archibius, the son of the geographer 

ARCHtBAViA, a priestess of Ceres, who, 
on account of her affection for Aristo- 
menes, restored him to liberty when he 
had been taken prisoner by her female at- 
tendants at the celebration of their festi- 
vals.-~— A danghter of Cleadas, who, jipon 
hearing that her countrymen the Spartans, 
were debating whether they should send 
away their women to Crete against the 
hostile approach of Pytrhus, seized a 
sword, ana ran to thrMnate house, er 

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claiming that the women were as able to 
fighl as the men. Upon this the decree 
was repealed. 

Archidamus, son of Theopompus, king 
of Sparta, died before his father. An- 
other, Icing of Sparta, son of Anaxida- 
mus, succeeded by Agasicles. Another, 

Sandson of Leotychidas, by his son Zeux- 
amus. He was called to the aid of Ta^ 
renUim against the Romans, and killed 
there in a battle, af^er a reign of thirty- 
three years. 

Archidas, a tyrant of Athens, killed by 
his troops. 

Archidehcs. a Stoic philosopher, who 
willingly exiled himself among the Par- 

Archideus, a son of Amyntas, king of 

Archidium, a city of Crete, named af- 
ter Archidius son of Tegeates. 

Archioallus, the high-priest of Cybele's 
temple. Vid. Galli. 

Archi GENES, a physician, born at Apa- 
mea, in Syria. He lived in the reign of 
Domitian, Nerva, and Trajan, and died 
in the seventy-third year of his age. 

Archilochus, a poet of Paros, who wrote 
elegies, satires, odes, and epigrams, and 
was the first who introduced iambics in 
his verses. He flourished 685 B. C. and it 
is said that he was assassinated. Some 
fragments of his poetry remain, which 
display vigor and animation, boldness and 
vehemence in the highest degree ; from 
which reason, perhaps, Cicero calls viru- 
lent edicts, Archilochia edicta. A son 

of Nestor, killed by Memnon in tlie Tro- 
jan war. 

Archimedes, a famous geometrician of 
Syracuse, who invented a machine of 
glass that faithfully represented the mo- 
tion of all the heavenly bodies. When 
Marcellus, the Soman consul, besieged 
Syracuse, Archimedes constructed ma- 
chines which suddenly raised up in the 
air the ships of the enemy from the bay 
before the city, and then let them fall with 
such violence into the water that they 
sunk. He set them also on fire with his 
burning glasses. When the town was 
taken, the Roman general gave strict or- 
ders to his soldiers not to hurt Archimedes, 
and even offered a reward to him who 
should bring him alive and safe into bis 
presence. All these precautions were 
useless : the philosopher was so deeply 
engaged in solving a problem, that he was 
even ignorant that the enemy were in 
possession of the town ; and a soldier, 
without knowing wh(<he was, killed him, 
because he refused to follow him, B. C. 212. 

Archi Nus, a man t^o, virhen he was 
appointed to distribute new arms among 
the populace of Argos, raised a mercenary 

band, and itiade himself absolute. A 

rhetorician of Athens. 

Archifelaovs, a part of a sea where 
islands in great number are interspersed, 
such as that part of the Mediterranean 
which lies between Greece and Asia Mi- 
nor, and is generally called Mare i£geum. 

Archi FOLis, a soldier who conspired 
against Alexander with Dymnus. 

Archi pps, a city of the Marsi, destroy- 
ed by an earthquake, and lost in the lake 
of Fucinus. 

Archi FPUS, a king of Italy, from wUom 
perhaps the town of Archippe received its 

name. A philosopher of Thebes, pupil 

to Pythagoras. An archon at Athens. 

A comic poet of Athens, of whose 

eight comedies only one obtained the prize. 
' A philosopher in the age of Trajan. 

Architis, a name of Venus, worship- 
ped on mount Libanua. 

Archon, one of Alexander's generals, 
who received the provinces of Babylon, 
at the general division after the king's 

Archontes, the name of the chief ma- 
gistrates of Athens. They were nine in 
number, and none were chosen but such 
as were descended from ancestors who 
had been free citizens of the republic for 
three generations. They took a solemn 
oath, that they would observe the laws, 
administer justice with impartiality, and 
never suffer themselves to be corrupted. 
They all had the power of punishing mal- 
efactors with death. The chief among 
them was called Archon, and the year took 
its denomination from him. These offi- 
cers of state were chosen after the death 
of king Codrus ; their power was origin- 
ally for life, but afterwards it was limited 
to ten years, and at last to one year. 

Archylub Thurius, a general of Dio- 
nysius the elder. 

Archttas, a musician of Mit|rlene, who 

wrote a treatise on agriculture. — • The 

son of HestisBus of Tarentum, was a fol- 
lower of the,Pythagorean philosophy, and 
an able astronomer and geometrician. He 
invented some mathematical instruments, 
and made a wooden pigeon Which could 
fly. He perished in a shipwreck, about 
three hundred and ninety-four years be- 
fore the Christian era. 

ARciTENEN8,an epithet applied to Apol- 
lo, from his bearing a hoto. 

Arctinus, a Milesian poet said to be 
pupil to Homer. 

Arctophylax, a star near the great 
bear, called also Bootes. 

Arctos, a mountain near Propontis, in- 
habited by giants and monsters. ^Two 

celestial constellations near the north 

)le, commonly called Ursa Major and 


Arcturus, a star near the tail of the 
great b6ar, whose rising and setting were 
generally sappoeed to portend great teio- 


y Google 




AmDiXTTs, a son of Vuldfli, said to have 
been the first who invented the pipe. 

Ardania, a country of Egypt. 

Ardaxanus, a small river of Illyricunu 

Ardsa, formerly Ardua, a town of La- 
tium, built by Danae, or according to some, 
by a don of Ulysses and Circe. It was 
the capital of the Rutuli. 

Ardebicca, a small town on the Eu- 
phrates, north of Babylon. 

Ardi^i, a people of lUyricum, whose 
capital was called Ardia. 

Ardoitea, a town of Apulia. 

Ardua, an ancient name of Ardea. 

Arduenna, now Ardenne, a large forest 
of Gaul, in the time of J. Ccesar, which 
extended fifty miles from the Rhine to the 
borders of the Nervii. 

Arouine, the goddess of hunting among 
the Gauls ;. represented with the same at- 
tributes as the Diana of the Romans. 

Arotetcsbs, a nation near the Rhone. 

Ardts, a son of Gyges, king of Lydia, 
who reigned forty-nine years, took Priene, 
and made war against Miletus. 

Area, a surname of Minerva, from her 
temple on Mars' hill (aQ>7?) erected by 

Arbacioje, a nation of Numidia. 

Areas, a general chosen by the Greeks 
against iEtolia. 

Arboonis, the mother of Mopsus by 

Arelatum, a town of Gallia Harbonen- 

Arellius, a celebrated painter of Rome, 
in the age of Augustus. He painted the 
goddesses in the form of his mistresses. 

Aremorica, a part of Gaul, at the north 
of the Loire, now called Brittany. 

Arena and Areite, a city of Messenia, 
in Peloponnesus. 

ARBiTAcuif, a town of Germany. 

ARBOPAOiTiB, the judges of the Areopa- 
gus, a seat of justice on a small eminence 
near Athens. The number of judges that 
composed this august assembly is not 
known. ' The most worthy and religious 
of the Athenians were admitted as mem- 
bers, and such archons as had discharged 
tbeir duty with care and faithfulness. 
The Areopagites took cognizance of mur- 
ders, impiety, and immoral behavior, and 
particularly of idleness, which they deem- 
ed the cause of all vice. They watched 
over the laws, and they had the manage- 
ment of the public treasury ;• they had the 
liberty of rewarding the virtuous, and of 
inflicting severe punishment upon such 
as blasphemed against the gods, or slight- 
ed the celebration of the holy mysteries. 
They always sat in the open air, because 
they took cognizance of murder : and by 
tbeir laws it was not permitted for the 
murderer and his accuser to be both under i 
the same roof, 

Areopagus, a hill in the nelghborbood 
of Athens. Vid, Areopadtv. 

Arestje, a people of India, conquered 
by Alexander. 

Aresthanas, a countryman, whoee goat 
suckled ^sculapius, when exposed by hi* 

Arestorides, a patronymic given to 
the hundred-eyed Argus, as son of Ares- 

Areta, the mother of Aristippus the 

philosopher. A daughter of Dlonysius, 

who married Dion. She was thrown into 
the sea. A female philosoplier of Gy- 
rene, B. C. 377. 

Areta, a daughter of Rhexenor, de- 
scended from Neptune. 

Aretjeus, a physician of Cappadocia, 
very inquisitive after the operations of na- 

Arbtaphila, the wife of Melanippua, a 
priest of Gyrene. 

Aretales, a Cnidian, who wrote an 
history of Macedonia, besides a treatise 
on islands. 

Arete. Fid. Areta. 

Aretes, one of Alexander's officers. 

Arethcsa, a nyihph of Elis, dauabter 
of Oceanus, and one of Diana's atwnd- 
ants. ^s she returned one day from hunt- 
ing, she sat near the Alpheus, and bathed 
in the stream. The god of the river was 
enamored of her, and he pursued her over 
the mountains and all the country, when 
Arethusa ready to sink under fatigue, 
implored Diana, wtio changed her into a 
fountain. The Alpheus immediately min- 
gled his streams with hers, and Diana 
opened a secret passage under the earth 
and under the sea, where the waters of 
Arethusa disappeared, and rose in the is- 
land of Ortygia, near Syracuse in Sicily. 
The river Alpheus followed her also under 

the sea, and rose also in Ortygia. One 

of the Hesperides. A daughter of Heri- 

leus, mother of Abas, by Neptune. 

One of Actaeon's dogs.— —A lake of Qpper 
Armenia, near the fountains of the Tigris. 
Nothing can sink under its waters.^— A 
town of Thrace. Another in Syria. 

Aretin uM, a Roman colony in Etruria. 

Arbtus, a son of Nestor and Anaxibia. 

A Trojan against the Greeks. He 

was killed by Automedon. A famous 

warrior, whose only weapon was an iron 
club. He was treacherously killed by I»y« 
curgus, king of Arcadia. 

Areus, a king of Sparta, preferred Jq 
the succession to Cleonymos, brother of 
Acrotatus, who had made an alliance with 
Pyrrhus. A king of Sparta. A phi- 
losopher of Alexandria, intimate with Au- 

giTstus. A poet of Laconia. 

Aro.bus and Argeus, a son of Apollo 

and Cyrene. A son of Perdiccas, who 

succeeded his father in the kingdom of 
Macedonia. A mountain of Cappado- 

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dA, eovemd witli 

eovemd witli perpetual gnowi.— — A 
of Ptolemy, killed by his brother. 

AaoALUs, a Icing of Sparta, son of Amy- 

Argathoit A, a huntress of Cios in Bitby- 
nia, whom Rhesus married before he went 
to the Trojan war. When she heard of 
bis death, she died in despair. 

Aroathoitius, a kingof Tartessus, who, 
according to Pliny, lived one hundred and 
twenty years, and three hundred accord- 
ing to ItaUcus. 

A ROE, a beautiful hunttess, changed 
into a stag by ApoUo.^— One of the Cy- 
clops. A daughter of Thespius, by 

whom Hercules had two sons. 

Aroea, a place at Kome, where certain 
Argives were buried. 

Aro^:ath.1£, a village of Arcadia. 

Aroennum, a promontory of Ionia. 

Aroes, a son of Coelus and Terra, who 
had only one eye in his forehead. 

Aroestratus, a king of Lacedemon, 
who reigned thirty-five years. 

Argeus, a son of Perdiccaa, king of Ma- 
cedonia, who obtained the kingdom when 
Amyntas was deposed by the lllyrians. 

Aroia, daugliter of Adrastus, married 
Polynices, whom she loved with uncom- 
mon tenderness. When he was killed in 
the war, she buried his body in the night, 
against the positive orders of Creon, fur 
<whicli pious action she was punished with 

death. A country of Peloponnesus, 

called also Argolis. One of the Oceani- 

des. ^The wife of Inachus, and mother 

of lo. The mother of Argos by Poiybus. 

A daughter of Autesion. 

Aroias, a man who founded Chalcedon, 
A. U. C. 148. 

Aroilstum, a place at Rome, where the 
tradesmen generally kept their shops. 

Argilius, a favorite youth of Pausanlas, 
who revealed bis master's correspondence 
with the Persian king, to the Ephori. 

Aroillus, a mountain of Egypt near 
the Nile. 

Aroilus, a town of Thrace, near the 
Strymon, built by a colony of Andrians. 

AROiifusjK, tl^ree small islands near the 
continent, between Mitylene and Me- 

Aroiofe, a nymph of mount Parnassus. 

Argiphontes, a surname given to Mer- 
cury, because he killed the hundred«eyed 
'Argus, by order of Jupiter. 

Argippei, a nation among the Sauro- 
matians, bom bald, and with j3at noses. 

Aroi VA, a surname of Juno, worshipped 
at Argos. 

- Aroivi, the inhabitants of the city of 
Argos and the neighboring country. The 
word is indiscriminately applied to all the 
inhabitants of Greece. 

Argius, a steward of Galba, who pri- 
vately interred the body of his roaster in 
his gardens. 

Aboo, the name of the fkmous ahip 
which carried Jason- and his flfliy-four 
companions to Colchis, when they re- 
solved to recover the golden fleece. The 
poets have made her a constellation in 

Aroolicus sinus, a bay on the coast of 

Argolis and Aroia, a country of Pelo- 
ponnesus between Arcadia and the iGgean 
sea. Its chief city was called Argos. 

Argon', one of the descendants of Her- 
cules, who reigned in Lydia five hundred 
and nve years before Gyges. 

Argon AUTJE, a name given to those an- 
cient heroes who went with Jason on 
board, the ship Argo to Colchis, about 
seventy-nine years before the taking of 
Troy, or 1263 B. C. The causes of this 
expedition arose from the following cir- 
cumstance: — Athanias, king of Thebes, 
had married Ino,the daughter of Cadmus, 
whom he divorced to marry Nephele, by 
whom he had two children, Phryxus and 
Heile. As Nephele was subject to-certain 
fits of madness, Athanias repudiated her, 
and took a second time Ino, by whom he 
had soon after two sons, Learchus and 
Melicerta. As the children of Nephele 
were to succeed to their father by right of 
birth, Ino conceived an immortal hatred 
against them, and she caused the eity of 
Thebes to be visited by a pestilence, by 
poisoning all the grain which had been 
sown in the earth. Upon this the oracle 
was consulted ; and as it had been cor- 
rupted by means of Ino, the answer was, 
that Nephele's children should be immo- 
lated to the gods. Phryxus was apprized 
of this, and he immediately embarked 
with his sister Helle, and fled to the court 
of ^etes, king of Colchis, one of his near 
relations. The poets have embellished the 
flight of PhryxOe, by supposing that he 
and Helle fled through the air on a ram 
which had a golden fleece and wings, and 
was endowed with the faculties of speech. 
As they were going to be sacrificed, the 
ram took them on his back, and instantly 
disappeared in the air. On their w^ay 
Helle was giddy, and fell into that part of 
the sea which from her was called the 
Hellespont. When Phryxus came to Col- 
chis, he sacrificed the ram to Jupiter, or, 
according to others, to Mars, to whom he 
also dedic&ted the golden fleece. He soon 
after married Chalciope the daughter of 
iGetes ; but his father-in-law envied him 
the possession of the golden fleece, and 
therefore to obtain it he murdered him. 
Pome time after this event, when Jason 
the son of iEson, demanded of his uncle 
Pelias the crown which he usurped, Pelias 
said that he would restore it to him, pro- 
vided he avenged the death of their com- 
mon relation Phryxus, whoih ^etes had 
basely murdered in Colchis. Jason, who 

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was in fbe vigor of youth, and of an am- 
bitious aoul, cheerfully undertook the ex- 
pedition, and embarked with all the young 
princes of Greece in die ship Argo. They 
stopped at the island of Lemnos, where 
they remained two years. After they had 
left Lemnos, they visited Samothrace, 

I where they offered sacrifices to the gods, 
and thence passed to Troas and to Cyzi- 

f cum. Here they met with a favorable 
reception from Cyzicus the king of the 
country. From Cyzicum they visited 
Bebrycia, and were driven from Bebrycia 
by a storm, to Salmydessa, on the coast of 
Thiace, where they delivered Phineus, 
king of the place, from the persecution of 
the harpies. Phineus directed their course 
through the Cyanean rock or the Symple- 
gades, and they safely entered the Euxine 
sea. They visited the country of the Ma- 
riandinians, where Lycus reigned, and 
lost two of their companions, Idmon, and 
Tiphis their pilot. After they had left 
this coast, they w«re driven upon the is- 
land of Arecia, where they found the chil- 
dren of PhryxuB, whom iGetes their grand- 
father had sent to Greece to take pos- 
session of their father's kingdom. From 
this island they at last arrived safe in iEa. 
the capital of Colchis. Jason explained 
the causes of his voyage to iEetes ; but the 
conditions on which he was to recover the 
golden fleece, were so h&rd, that the Ar- 
gonauts must have perished in the attempt, 
bad not Medea, the king's daughter, fallen 
in lore with their leader. She had a con- 
ference with Jason, and after mutual oaths 
of fidelity in the temple of Hecate, Medea 
pledged herself to deliver the Argonauts 
Rom her father's hard conditions, if Jason 
married her, and carried her witn him to 
Greece. He was to tame two bulls, which 
had brazen feet and horns, and which 
vomited clouds of fire and smoke, and to 
tie them to a plough made of adamant 
stone, and to plough a field of two acres 
of ground never before cultivated. After 
this he was to sow in the plain, the teeth 
of a dragon, from which an armed multi- 
tude were to rise up, and to be all destroy- 
ed by his hands. This done, he was to 
kill an ever-watchful dragon, which was 
at the bottom of the tree, on which the 
golden fleece was suspended. All these 
labors were to be performed in one day ; 
and Medea's assistance, whose knowledge 
of herbs, magic, and potions, was unpa- 
mlleled, easily extricated Jason from all 
danger, to the astonishment and terror of 
bis companions, and of JSetes, and the 

rple of Colchis, who had assembled to 
spectators of this wonderful action. 
He obtained the golden fleece, and imme- 
diately set sail with Medea. He was soon 
pursued by Abayrtus, the king's son, who 
eame up to them, and was seized and mur- 
dered by Jason and Medea. The mangled 

limbs of Absyrtus were strewed In the 
way through which iGetes was to pass, 
that his further pursuit might be stopped. 
After the murder of Absyrtus, they en- 
tered the Pal us Macotis, and by pursuing 
their course towards the left, according to 
tiie foolish account of poets who were ig- 
norant of geography, they came to the is- 
land Peucestes, and to that of Circe. Af- 
ter many disasters, they at last came in 
sight of the promontory of Melea, in tJie 
Peloponnesus, where Jason was purified 
of the murder of Absyrtus, and soon after 
arrived safe in Thessaly. This famous 
expedition has been celebrated in the 
ancient ages of the world ; many writ- 
ers have given an extensive account of 
its most remarkable particulars. The 
number of the Argonauts is not exactly 
known. Apollodorus and Diodorus say 
that they were fifty-four. Tzetzes admit* 
the number of fifty, but Apollodorus men- 
tions only forty-five. Jason, son of JEaon^ 
as is well known, was the chief of the 
rest. iBscul^pius was physician, and Ti- 
phys was pilot. 

Aroos, an ancient city, capital of Argo- 
lis in Peloponnesus, about two miles from 
the sea, on the bay called jfr^o2iciM sinus. 
Juno was the chief deity of the place. 
The kingdom of Argos was founded by 
Inachus eighteen hundred and fiftv-six 
years before the Christian era, and after it 
had fiourished for ahout five hundred and 
fifty years it was united to the crown of 

Mycence. A town of Thessaly, called 

Pelasgicon by the Pelas^ans. Another 

in EpiruB, called Amphilochium. 

Arous, a king of Argos, who reigned 

seventy years. A son of Arestor, 

whence he is often called Ariatorides, 
As he had an hundred eyes, of which only 
two were asleep at one time, Juno set him 
to watch lo, Jwhom Jupiter had changed 
into a heifer ; but Mercury, by order of 
Jupiter, slew him, by lulling all his eyes 
asleep with the sound of his lyre. Juno 
put the eyes of Argus on the tail of the 

peacock, a bird sacred to her^divinity. 

A son m Agenor. A son of Danaus, 

who built the ship Argo.-r^ — A son of Jupi- 
ter and Niobe,the first child which the la- 
ther of the gods had by a mortal.-»— A 

son of Pyras and Callirhoe. A son of 

Phryxus. A son of Polybus.- One 

of Acteon's dogs. .. ■■ -A dog of Ulysses, 
who knew his master after an absence 
of twenty years. 

ArotlluK, an ancient name of Cere, in 

ARorsrins, a name of Venus, which 
she received firom AxgynntUy a favorite 
youth of Agamemnon, who was drowned 
in the Cephisus. 

Arotra, a nymph greatly beloved by 
a shepherd called Selimnus. She was 
changed into afountmp, and the shepbevd 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




into a river of the same name, whose 
waters make lovers forget the object of 

their affections. A city of Troas. 

Also the native place of Diodorus Sicu- 
lus, in Sicily. 

Arortaspid£9, a Macedonian legion 
which received this name from their silver 

Aroyrs, an island beyond the mouth 
of the river Indus, abounding in metal. 

Aroyripa, a town of Apulia, built by 
Diomedes after the Trojan war, and call- 
ed by Potybius Argipana. 

Aria, a country of Asia, situate at the 

east of Parthia. The wife of Pstus 

Cecinna, of Padua, a Roman senator who 
was accused of conspiracy against Clau- 
dius, «nd carried to Rome by sea. She 
accompanied him, and in the boat she 
slabbed herself, and presented the sword 
to her husband, who followed her exam- 

Ariaoni!, daughter of Minos 2d, king of 
Crete, by Pasiphae, fell in love with The- 
seus, who was shut up in the labyrinth to 
be devoured by the Minotaur, and gave 
bim a clue of thread, by which he extri- 
cated himself from the difficult windings 
of his confinement. After he had con- 
quered the Minotaur, he carrried her 
away according to the promise he had 
made, and married her ; but when he ar- 
rived at the island of Naxos he forsook 
her. Plutarch says, that Ariadne lived 
many years after, and had some children 
by Onanis, the priest of Bacchus. 

Aar jius, an officer who succeeded to 
the command of the surviving army after 
the death of Cyrus the younger, after the 
battle of Cunaxa. 

Ariani and Arieiti, a people of Asia. 

Ariantas, a Jcing of Scvthia, who year- 
ly ordered every one of his subjects to 
present him with an arrow. 

Ariamnes, a king of Cappadocia, son 
of Ariarathes 3d. 

Ariarathes, the name of several kings 
of Cappadocia. 

■ Aribbjkus, a general mentioned by 

Aricia, an Athenian princess, niece to 
^geus, whom Hippolytus married after 
lie had been raised from the dead by iEs- 
c'ulapius. He built a city in Italy, which 

he called by her name. A very ancient 

town of Italy, now Atccta, built by Hip- 
poly tud, son of Theseus, after he had been 
raised from the dead by iEsculapius, and 
transported into Italy by Diana. In a 
grove in the neighbourhood of Aricia, 
Theseus built a temple to Diana, where 
he established the same rites as were in 

the temple of that goddess in Tauris. 

Egeria the favorite nymph, and invisible 
protectress of Noma, generally resided in 
this femous grove, which was situated on 
the Appian way, beyond mount Albanus. 

Ariciita« a surname of Diana, from her 

temple near Aricia. The mother of 


Aridjcus, a companion of Cyrus the 
younger. An illegitimate son of Philip, 
who, after the death of Alexander, was 
made king of Macedonia, till Roxane^ 
who was pregnant by Alexander, brought 
into tlie world a legitimate male successor. 
He was seven years in possession of the 
sovereign power, and was put to death, 
with his wife £ur>'dice, by Olympias. 

Arienis, daughter of Alyattes, married 
Astyages king of Media. 

ARIO.KUM, a town of India, which Alex- 
ander found burnt, and without inhabit- 

ARii,a savage people of India. Of 

Arabia. Of Scythia. Of Germany. 

Arima, a place of Cilicia or Syria, 
where Typhoeus was overwhelbied under 
the ground. 

Arimarius, a god of Persia and Media. 

Arimasfi, a people conquered by Alex- 
ander the Great. 

Arimasfias, a river of Scythia with 
golden sands. The neighbouring inhabi- 
tants had but one eye in the middle of 
their forehead, and waged continual war 
against the Griffins, monstrous animals 
th^t collected the gold of the river. 

Ariamsthje, a people near the Euxine 

Arimazes, a<powerfuI prince of Sog- 
diana, who treated Alexander with much 
insolence, and eveh asked, whether he 
cpuld fly to aspire to so extensive a domin- 
ion. He surrendered, and was exposed 
on a cross with bis friends and relations. 

Arimi, a nation of Syria. 

Ariminum, (now Atmini) an ancient city 
of Italy, near the Rubicon. 

Arimi Rus^ a river of Italy, rising in 
the Appennme mountains. 

Arimph£i, a people of Scythia, near 
the Riphaean mountains. 

Arimus, a king of Mysia. 

Ariobarzanes, a man made king of 
Cappadocia by the Romans, after the trou- 
bles, which the false Ariarathes had rais- 
ed, had subsided. He followed the inter- 
est of Pompey, And fought at Pharsalia 
against J. Ciesar. He and his kingdom 

were preserved by means of Cicero. 

A satrap of Phrygia, who, after the death 
of Mithridates, invaded the kingdom of 
Pontuji, and kept it for twenty-six years. 

A general of Darius, who defended 

the passes of Susa with fifteen thousand 
foot against Alexander. After a bloody 
encounter with the Macedonians, he was 
killed as he attempted to seize the city of 

Persepolis. A Mede of elegant stature, 

and great prudence, whom Tiberius ap- 
pointed to settle the troubles of Armenia. 

A mountain between Parthia and the 

country of the Massagets. ^A satrap, 

who revolted from the Persian king. 

Digitized by 





AsioMJLivDEs, Boaof Gobryas, was^n- 
eral of Athens against the Persians. 

Ariomardus, a son of Diirius, in the 
army of Xerxes when he went against 

Ariombobs, a pilot of Xerxes. 

Arion, a famous lyric poet and musi- 
cian, son of Cycios, of Methymna, in the 
island of Lesbos. He went into Italy 
with Peri^nder, tyrant of Corinth, where 
he obtained immense riches b^ his profes- 
sion. Some time after, he wished to re- 
visit his country ; and the sailors of the 
ship, in which he embarked, resolved to 
murder him, to obtain the riches which 
he was carrying to Lesbos. Arion seeing 
them inflexible in their resolutions, beg- 
ged that he might be permitted to play 
some melodious tune ; and as soon as he 
had finished it, he threw himself into the 
sea. A number of Dolphins had been at- 
tracted tound the ship by the sweetness 
of his mtisic ; and it is said, that one of 
them carried him safe on his back to Te- 
narus, whence he hastened to the court of 
Periander, who ordered all the sailors to 

be crucified at their return. A horse 

sprung from Ceres and Neptune. It had 
the power of speech, the feet on the rig^t 
side like those of a man, and the rest of 
the body like a horse. 

Ariotistus, a king of Germany, who 
professed himself a friend of Rome. 
When Csesar was in Gaul, Ariovistus 
marched against him, and was conquered 
with the loss of eighty thousaad men. 

Aris, a river of Messenia. 

Aribba, a town of Lesbos, destroyed by 

an earthquake. A colony of the Mity- 

leneans in Troas, destroyed by the Tro- 
jans before the coming of the Greeks. 

The name of Priam's first wife, divorced 
that the monarch might marry Hecuba. 

Aristae If BTus, a writer whose epistles 
have been beautifully edited by Abresch. 
Zwollas, 1749. 

Aristjbum, a city of Thrace at the foot 
of mount Hemus. 

Aristjkus, son of Apollo and the nymph 
Cyrene, was born in the deserts of Lybia. 
and brought up by the Seasons, and fta 
upo? nectar and ambrosia. He fell in 
love with Eurydice, the wife of Orpheus, 
and pursued her in the fields. She was 
stung by a serpent that lay in the grass, 
and died, for which the ^ods destroyed all 
the bees of Aristsus. In this calamity hK 
applied to his mother, who directed him 
tn seize the sea-god Proteus, and consult 
him how he might repair the losses he had 
sustained. Proteus advised him to ap- 
pease the manes of Eurydice by the sac- 
rifice of four bulls and four heifers : and 
as soon as he had done it, and left them 
in the air, swarms of bees immediately 
sprang from the rotten carcasses, and re- 
T Aristsus to his former prosperity. 

Aristeus went to live on mount Bffimas, 
where he died. He was, after death. 

worshipped as a denii-god. A general 

who commanded the Corinthian forces at 
the siege of Potiderf. 

Aristaooras, a writer who composed 

an history of Egypt. A son-in-law of 

Hlstiffius tyrant of Miletus, who revolted 
from Darius, and incited the Athenians 
against Persia, and burnt Sardis. He was 
killed in a battle against the Persians, 
B. C. 499. 

Aristander, a celebrated soothsayer, 

greatly esteemed by Alexander. An 

Athenian, who wrote on agriculture. 

ARI8TANDR09, R statusxy of Sparta. 

Aristarche, a matron of Ephesus, who 
by order of Diana sailed to the coasts of 
Gaul with the Phocsans, and was made 

Aristarchus, a celebrated grammarian 
of Samos, disciple of Aristophanes. He 
lived the sreatest part of his life at Alex- 
andria. He was famous for his critical 
powers, and he revised the poems of Ho- 
mer with such severity, that ever after all 
severe critics were called Arutarcki, In 
his old age he became dropsical, upon 
which he starved himself, and died in his 

72d year, B. C. 157. A tragic poet of 

Tegea in Arcadia, about 454 years B. C. 

A physician to tqueen Berenice, the 

widow of Antiochus.'-— An orator of 

Ambracia. An astronomer of Samos. 

who first sui)posed that the earth turned 
round its axis, and revolved round the 

Aristazarbb, a noble Persian in fovor 
with Artaxerxes Ochus. 

Aristsas, a poet of Proconnesus, who. 
as fables report, appeared seven years al- 
ter his death to his countrymen, and five 
hundred and forty years after to the peo* 
pie of Metapontum in Italy, and com- 
manded them to raise him a statue near 

the temple of Apollo. A physician of 

Rhodes.^— A geometriciaUf intimate with 

Euclid. A poet, son of Demochares, in 

the age of Croesus. 

ARisTERiip, an island on the coast of 

Aristeus, a man of Argos, who excited 
king Pyrrhus to take up arms against his 
countrymen, the Argives. 

Aristhekes, a shepherd who found 
iEsculapius, when he had been exposed 
in the woods by his mother Coronis. 

Aristhub, an historian of Arcadia. 

Aristibus, a river of Pseonia. 

Aristidss, a celebrated Athenian, son 
of Lysimachus, whose great temperance 
and virtue procured him the surname 'ai 
Just. He was rival to Tbemistocles, by 
whose influence he was banished for ten 
years, B. C. 484 ; but before six years of 
his exile had elapsed, he was recaUed by 
the Athenians. He-died so poor, that 

-jitized by V^OOQIC 

AR 6 

axpenses of his ftaneral were defrayed at 
the publie charge, and hia two daughters, 
on account of their father's virtues, receiv- 
ed a dowry from the public treasury when 
they were come to marriageable years. 

^An historian of Miletus, fonder of 

dories and of anecdotes, than of truth. 

An Athlete, who obtained a prize 

at the Olympian, Nemean and Pythian 

games. A painter of Thebes in Bcsotia, 

in the age of Alexander the Great. A 

Greek orator who wrote fifty orations, be- 
sides other tracts. A man of Locris, 

who died by the bite of a weasel. A 

philosopher of Mysia, intimate with M. 

Antoninus. An Athenian, who wrote 

treatises on animals, trees, and agricul- 

Aribtiixus, a philosopher of the Alex- 
andrian school. 

Ahistio, a sophist of Athens, who 
■eized the government of his country, 
and made himself absolute. He potsonea 
himself when defeated by Bylla. 

Aristippub, the elder, a philosopher of 
Cvrene, disciple to Socrates, and founder 

of the Cyreaaic sect. His grandson of 

the same name, called Vie younger, was a 
warm defender of his opinions. He flour- 
ished about 363 years B. C. A tyrant 

of Argos. — ^A man who wrote an histo- 
Xy of Arcadia, 

M. Aristics, a tribune of the soldiei's 

in Gasar's army. A satirist, who wrote 

a poem called Cyclops. 

Ariito. Fid. Ariston. 

Aristobula, a name given to Diana 1^ 

Aribtobulus, a name common to some 
of the high priests and kings of Judcea. 

A brother of Epicurus. One of 

Alexander's attevdants, who wrote the 
king's life, replete with adulation and un- 
truth.—— —A philosopher of Judaea, B. C. 

Aristoclxa, a beautiful woman, seen 
naked by Strato, 09 she was offenng a 
sacrifice. She was passionately loved by 
Callisthenes, and was equally admired by 
fitrato. The two rivals so fuiiously con- 
tended for her hand, that she died during 
their quarrel, upon which Strato killed 
himself, and Callisthenes was never seen 

Ari^ocles, a peripatetic philosopher of 
Messenia, who reviewed, in a treatise on 
philosophy, the opinions of his predeces- 
sors. A granunarian of Rhodes. A 

stoic of Lampsacus. An historian. 

A musician. A prince of Tegaea. 

This name is common to many Greeks, of 
whom few or no particulars are recorded. 

Aribtoclidxb, a tyrant of Orchome- 

Aribtocrateb, a king of Arcadia, put 
to death by his subjects for ofiering vio- 
lence to the priestess of Diana. A Rho- 


dian. A man who endeavored to de- 
stroy th$ democratical power at Athens. 
An Athenian general sent to the as- 
sistance of Corey ra with twenty-five gal- 
lies. A Greek historian, son of HJjjH 


ARisTocRsoif, the writer of a book on 

Aristocritus, wrote a treatise conceiB- 
ing Miletus. 

Aristodxms, a daughter of Priam. 

Aristooemus, son of AristomachuSy 
was one of the Heraclidie. He, with his 
brothers Temenns and Chrespontes, in- 
vaded Peloponnesus, conquered it, and di- 
vided the country among themselves, 1104 

years before the Christian era. ^A king 

of Messenia, who maintained a famous 
war against Sparta. Aristodemus put hia 
daughter to death for the good of his 
country ; but being afterwards persecuted 
in a dream by her manes, he killed him* 
self, after a reign of six years and aome 
months, in which he had obtained much 

military glory, B. C. 724. A tyrant of 

CumiB. A philosopher of JBgina. A 

Spartan who taught tlie children of Pan- 

sanias. A man who was preceptor to 

the children of Pompey. A tyrant of 

Arcadia. — ^A Carian who wrote an his- 
tory of painting. A philosopher of Ny* 

sa, B. C. 63. 

ARiBTooxifxs, a physician of Cnidos. 
— • — A Thasian who wrote twenty-four 
books on medicine. 

Aristooiton and Harmodiui, two cel- 
ebrated friends of Athens, who, by their 
joint efforts, delivered their coontry from 
the tyranny of the Pisistratids, B. C. 510. 
They received immortal honors from the 
Athenians, and had statues raised to their 

memory. An Athenian orator, siimsm- 

ed Canif, for his impudence.— A statr 

Aristolav», a painter. 

Aristom ACHE, the wife of Dianysim of 

Syracuse. The wife of Dioa.— — A 

poetess. A daughter of Priam, who 

married Critolaus. 

Aribtomachds, an Athenian, who 
wrote concerning the preparation of whie^ 
A man so excessively fond of I 

that he devoted fifty-eight years of his 

life in raising swarms of them. The 

son of Cleodffius, and grandson of Hyllus^ 
whose three sons, Cresphontes, Temo- 
nus, and Aristodemus, called Heraelide^ 

conquered Peloponnesus. A man who 

laid aside his sovereign power at Argos, 
at the persuasion of Aratus. 

Aribtomedes, a Thessalian general in 
the interest of Darius 3d. 

Aribtomjsnsb, a commander of the 
fleet of Darius on the Hellespont, con- 
quered by the Macedonians. A famous 

general of Messenia. who eneourased 
his countrymen to shake off the Lacea»- 

"jitizedby VjOOQIC 




I yoke, under whlcb tbey had la- 
bored for above thirty years. He refused 
to assame tlie title of king, but wat satis- 
fied with that of commander. He acquir- 
ed the surname of Jiut, from his equity, 
Co which he joined the true valor,, sagaci- 
ty, and perseverance of a general. He 

died 671 B. C. A Spartai> sent to the 

assistance of Dionysius. 

Aristov, the son of Agasicles, king of 

Sparta. A general of iGtolia. A 

sculptor. A Corinthian who assistr- 

ed the Syracusans against the Athenians. 

An officer in Alexander's army. 

A tyrant of Methymna, who. being igno- 
rant that Chios had surrendered to the 
Macedonians, entered into the harbor, and 
was taken and put to death. ^A philos- 
opher of Chios, pupil to ^eno the stoic, 
and founder of a sect which continued 

but a little while. A lawyer in Trar- 

jan's reign. A peripatetic philosopher 

of Alexandria, who wrote concerning the 

course of the Nile. A wrestler of Ar- 

gos, under whom Plato {»eiformed some 
exercises.— -—^A musician of Athens. 

A tragic poet. A peripatetic of 

Cos.-^— A niUive of PeUa, in the age of 
Adrian, who wrote on the rebellion of the 
Aristohact^, a naval dock of Pellene. 
Aristoxicus, son of Eumenes, by a 
concubine of Ephesus, 126 B. C. invaded 
Asia and the kingdom of Pergamus, which 
Attains had left by his will to the Roman 
people. He was conquered by the consul 

Perpenna, and strangled in prison. A 

musician of Olynthus. A grammarian 

of Alexandria. 
AaitTosuDBs, a noble statuary. 
Aristoh'ui, a captain of Alexander's 

AaisToirTHirs, a comic poet under Phi- 
ladelphus, keeper of the library of Alex- 
andria. One of Alexander's musicians. 

Aristophareb, a celebrated comic poet 
of Athens, son of Philip of Khodes. He 
wrote fifty-four comedies, of which only 
eleven are come down to us. He lived in 
the age of Socrates, Demosthenes, and 
Euripides, B. C. 434, and lashed the vices 
of his age with a masterly hand. The 
wit and excellence of his comedies are 
well known ; but they abound sometimes 
too much with obscenity, and his attack 
upon the venerable character of Socrates 
has been always censured, aud with jus- 
tice. A grammarian of Byzantium, 

keeper of the library of Alexandria under 

Ptolemy Evergetes. A Greek historian 

of BcBotia. A writer on agriculture. 

AaisTOFHrLioEs, a king of Tareatum 
in the reign of Darius son of Hystaspes. 

Aribtofhon, a painter in the age of So- 
crates. A comic poet in the age of Al- 
exander, many of whose firagmenta are col- 
lected in Athencua. 

Aristor. the fkther of Argua the fauii- 
dred-eyed keeper of lo. 

Aristorip£s, the patronymic of Argus. 

Aristutclria, festivals in honor of 
Aristotle, because he obtained the restitu- 
tion of his country from Alexander., a famous philbsopher, son 
of the physician Nicomaclius by Festiada, 
bom at Stagira. After his father's death 
he went to Athens, to hear Plato's lec- 
tures, where he soon signalized himself by 
the brightness of his genius. He had been 
of an inactive and dissolute disposition In 
bis youth, but now he applied himself 
with uncommon diligence, and after ho 
had spent twenty years in hearing ttie in- 
structions of Plato, he opened a school for 
himself, for which he was accused of in- 
gratitude and illiberality b^ his ancient 
master. He was moderate in his meals ; 
he slept little, and always had one arm 
out of his couch with a bullet in it, which 
by falling into a brazen bason underneath, 
early awakened him. He was, according 
to some, ten years preceptor to Alexander, 
who received his instructions widi much 
pleasure and deference, and always re- 
spected him. Almost all his writings, 
which are composed on a variety of sub- 
jects, are extant : he gave them to Theo- 
phrastus at his death, and they were bought 
by one of the Ptolemies, and placed in the 
famoas library of Alexandria. The writ- 
ings of Aristotle have been compared with 
those of Plato ; but the one are the efiVt- 
sions of a lively and fruitful imagination, 
whilst the philosopher of Stagira studied 
nature more than art. and had recourse to 
simplicity of expression more than orna- 
ment. He died in the sixty-third year 6f 
his age, B. C. 322. The people of Stagha 
instituted festivals in his honor, because 
he had rendered important services to 
their city. There were besides seven of 
the same name, — A magistrate of Athens. 

A commentator on Homer's Iliad. 

— -^An orator of Sicily, who answered 

the panegyric of Isocrates. A friend of 

ifischines. A man of Cyrene who 

wrote on poetry. A schoolmaster men- 
tioned in Plato's life, written by Aristo- 
xenus. An obscure grammarian. 

Aristotiiius, a tyrant of £li«, S71 years 

Aribtoxevus, a celebrated musician, 
disciple of Aristotle, and bom at Taren- 

tum. A philosopher of Cyrene.— —A 

physician whose writings are quoted by 
Galen. A poet of Selinus. A Pytha- 
gorean philosopher. 

Aristus, a Greek historian of Salamis, 
who wrote an account of Alexander's ex- 

Aribtyllub, an obscure poet. An 

astronomer of Alexandria, 295? B. C. , 
Arittb, a river of Gaul, and of Asia. 
L The inhabitants In the neighborhood are 

Digitized by 





called Arit- A celebrated writer, tlm 
origin of the Arian controversy, that de- 
nied the eternal divinity and teonsubstan- 
tiality of the' word. He died the very 
night he was going to enter the church of 
Constantinople in triumph. 

Armk nes, a son of Nabls, led in triuniph 
at Rome. 

Armenia, a large country of Asia, di- 
vided into Upper and Lower Armenia. 
The Armenians were a long time under 
the dominion of the Modes and Persians, 
till they were conquered, with the rest or 
Asia, by Alexander and liia successors. 
The Romans made it one of their pro- 
vinces, and, under some of the emperors, 
the Armenians had the privilege of choos- 
ing their own kings, but they were after- 
wards reduced. 

Arms NTARi us, a Cssar in Dioelesian's 

Arxillatcs, one of Domitian's favor- 

Armilustrium, a festival at Rome on 
the nineteenth of October. When the 
sacrifices were offered, all the people ap- 
peared under arms. 

Arminius, a warlike general of the 
Germans, who supported a bloody war 
against Rome for some time, and was at 
last conquered by German icus in two great 
battles. He was poisoned by one of his 
friends. A. D. 19, in the thirty-seventh 
year of^ his ftge. 

Armoric JE, cities of Celtic Gaul, femous 
for the warlike, rebellious, and inconstant 
disposition of the inhabitants oalled Ar- 
morici. . Armorica extended Iretween th«) 
rivers Liger, and Sequana, and compre- 
hended those rich and populous provinces 
now called Britany and Normandy. 

Arns, a city of Lyeia, called afterwards 

Zanthus. A town of Umbria in Italy. 

A daughter of i£oIus, who gave her 

name to two towns, one in Thessaly, the 
other in Boeotia. 

Arni, a people of Italy, destroyed by 

ARif lEvsis, a tribe In Rome. 

Arnobius, a philosopher in Dioclesian's 
reign, who became a convert to Christ- 
ianity. He applied for ordination, but was 
refused by the bishops till be gave them a 
proof of his sincerity. 

Arnus, a river of Etruria, rising on, the 
Appennine mountains, and falling into the 

Aroa, a town of Achaia. 

Aroma, a town of Caria— — ^f Cappa- 

Arpani, a people of Italy. 

Arpi, a city of Apulia, built byDiome- 
des after the Trojan war. 

ArpinuMj a town of the Volsci, famous 

for giving birth to Cicero and Marius. 

A town of Magna Grecia. 

Arkai, a people of Thrace. 

Arbhab JCU9, the kins of a nation in tli0 
neighborhood of Macedonia, who greatly 
distressed Arcbelaus. 
^ Arria. Fid. Aria. 

Arri A Galla, a beautiful but immodest 
woman in the re^ of the emperors. 

Arrianus, a philosopher of Nicomedia, 
priest of Ceres and Proserpine, and disci- 
ple of Epictetus, called a second Xenophon 
from the elegance and sweetness of his 
diction, and distinguished for his ac- 
quaintance with military and political 
life. He flourished about the one hun- 
dred and fortieth year of Christ, and was 
rewarded with the consulship and gor- 
ernment of Cappadocia, by M. Antoni- 
nus. A Greek historian. ^An Athe- 
nian who wrot« a treatise on hunting, 

and the manner of keeping dogs. A 

poet who wrote an epic poem in twenty- 
four books on Alexander. 

Arrius, a friend of Cicero. Aper, a 

Roman general who murdered the em- 

Arrius and Arius^ a philosopher of 
Alexandria, who so ingratiated himself 
with Augustus, after the battle of Acti- 
um, that the conqueror declared the peo- 
ple of Alexandria owed the preservation 
of their city to three causes; because 
Alexander was their founder, because of 
the beauty of the situation, ^nd because 
Arrius was a native of the place. 

Arbuwtius, a Roman consul. A fh- 

motts geographer, who, upon being accus* 
cd of adultery and treason, under Tibe- 
rius, opened his veins. 

Ar>a3be8, c B".ta«ip of Armenia. Of 


Absaces, a man of obscure origin, who, 
upon seeing Seleucus defeated by the 
Gauls, invaded Parthia, and conquered 
the governor of the province called An^ 
dragoras, and laid the foundations of an 
empire, 250 B. C. His son and succes- 
sor bore the same name. He carried w^ar 
against Antiochus the son of Seleucus. 
who entered the field with one hundred 
thousand foot and twenty thousand horse. 
He afterwards made peace with Antio- 
chus, and died B. C. 217. The third kin^ 

of Parthia, of the ftoiily of the Arsacidae. 
bore the same name, and was also callea 

Priapatius. He reigned twelve years. 

A Icmg of Pontus and Armenia, in alli- 
ance with the Romans. The eldest son 

of Artabanus, appointed over Armenia by 
his father, after the death of king Artax- 
ias. A servant of Themistodes. 

Arbacidjb, a name given to some of the 
monarchs of Parthia, in honor of Arsaces, 
the fbunder of the empire. 

Arsamenes, a satrap of Persia, at the 
battle of the Granicus. 

Ars AMETEs, a river of Asia, near Parthia. 

Arsamob ATA, a town of Armeoia Sfajor, 
seventy miles uom the Euphrates. 

Digitized by 





Absaites, the son of OchuB, and fatlier 
of uodomanus. 

Arsanias, a river of Armenia. 

Arskna, a marsh of Armenia Major, 
whose fishes are ail of the same sort. 

Akses, the youngest a»n of Oclius,ivbom 
Bagoajs raised to the tlirone of Persia, and 
destroyed with his children, after a reign 
of three years. 

Arsia, a wood of Etruria, famous for a 
battle between the Romans and the Vei- 

entes. A small river between Illyri- 

cum and latria, falling into tlie Adriatic. 

^A river of Italy, flowing through 


Arsid^ u>, a son of Datames. 

Arsinoe, daughter of Leucippus and 
Phllodice, was mother of iGsculapius by 
Apollo, according to some authors. She 
Teceived divine honors after death at 
Sparta. A daughter of Phlegeus, pro- 
mised in marriage to Alcmseon A 

fountain of Peloponnesus. The sister 

and wife of Ptolemy Philadelphus, wor- 
shipped after death under the name of 
Venus Zephyritis. A daughter of Pto- 
lemy Lagus, who married Lysimachus 
king of Macedonia. A younger daugh- 
ter of Ptolemy Auletes, sister to Cleopa- 
tra.-^— A daughter of Lysimachus. A 

town of Egypt, situated near the lake of 
Moeris, on the western shore of the Nile, 
where the inhabitants paid the highest 

veneration to the crocodiles. A town 

of Cilicia of iEolia of Syria of 

Cyprus— of Lycia, &c. 

Arsites, a satrap of Paphlagonia. 

Artabanus, son of Hystaspes, was bro- 
ther to Darius the flrst. He dissuaded his 
nephew Xerxes from making war against 
the Greeks, and at his return, he assassi- 
nated him with the hopes of ascending 
the throne. Darius^ the son of Xerxes. 
was murdered in a similar manner ; kna 
Artaxerxes, his brother, would have shar- 
ed the same fate, had not he discovered 
the snares of the assassin, and punished 

bira with deajth. A king of Parthia 

after the death of his liephew Phraates2d. 
He undertook a war a^inst a nation of 

Scythia^ in which he perished. A king 

of Media, and afterwards of Parthia, a^ 
ter the expulsion of Vonones, whom Ti- 
berius bad made king there. He was ex- 
pelled from his throne, which Tiridates 
usurped j and some time after, he was 
restored again to his ancient power, and 

died A. D. 48. A king of Parthia, very 

inimica] to the interest of Vespasisln. 

Another king of Parthia, Who made war 
against the emperoi' Caracalla, who had 
attempted his life on pretence of courting 
his daughter. He was murdered, and the 
power of Parthia abolished, and the crown 
translated to the Persian monarchs. 

ArtaBAzanes or Artaiienes„ the eld- 
est wm of Darius, when a private person. 

He attempted to succeed to the Fenian 
throne, in preference to Xerxes. 

Artabasus, a son of Pharnaces, general 
in the army of Xerxes. He fied from 
Greece upon the ill success of Mardonius. 

A general who made war against 

Artaxerxes, and was defeated. He was 
afterwards reconciled to his prince, and 
became the familiar friend of^ Darius Sd. 
An officer of Artaxerxes against Da- 

Artabri and Artabritjc, a people of 

Artac^as, an officer in the army of 
Xerxes, the tallest of all the troops, the 
king excepted. 

Artacjera, a cityof Asia^ near Aria. 

Art AGE, a town and seaport near GyzJ- 
cus. It did not exist in the age of Pliny. 

A city of Phry gia. A fortified place 

of Bithynia. 

Artacene, a countrv of Assyria near 
Arbela, where Alexander conquered Da- 

Artacia, a fountain in the country of 
the Lsstrygones. 

Artjei, a name by which the Persiani 
were called among their neighbors. 

Artageras, a town of Upper Armenia. 

Artageries, a general in the army of 
Artaxerxes, killed by Cyrus the younger. 

Artanes, a king of the southern parts 
of Armenia. — -A river of Thrace flow- 
ing into the later. ^A rivor of Colchis. 

Artaphernes, a general whom Darius 
sent into Greece with Datis. He was con- 
quered at the battle of Marathon, by Mit- 

Artatus, a river of IHyria. 

Artatasoes, a son of Tigranes king 0f 
Upper Armenia, who wrote tragedies, and 
shone as an elegant orator and Ikltfaful 
historian. He was murdered. Thei crown 
of Armenia was given by Tiberius to a 
person of the same name, who was ex- 
pelled. Augustus had also raised to the 

throne of Armenia a person of the same 

Artaxa and Artaxiai, a general of 
Antiochus the Great, who erected the 

Erovince of Armenia into a kingdom, by 
is reliance on the friendship of the Ro- 

Ahtaxta, {orum) now Ardesh, a strongly 
fortified town of Upper Armenia, the cap- 
ital of the empire, where the kings gen- 
erally resided. 

Artaxerxes Ist, succeeded to the khig- 
dom of Persia, after his fhther Xerxes. 
He destroyed Artabanus who had mur- 
dered Xerxes, and attempted to destroy 
the royal fhmily to raise himself to the 
throne. He reigned thirty-nine years, and 

died B. C. 425. The 3d of that name, 

king of Persia, was sumamed Mnemon, 
on account of his extensive memory. His 
biotliiBr Cyrus was of such an amhitloita 

Digitized by 





disposition, that he resolved to make him- 
self king, in opposition to Artaxerxes. 
Having been appointed over Lydia and 
the sea coasts, he assembled a large army 
under various pretences, and at last 
marched against his brother at the head 
of one hundred thousand Barbarians and 
thirteen thousand Greeks. He was op- 
posed by Artaxerxes with nine hundred 
thousand men, and a bloody battle was 
fought at Cunaxa, in which Cyrus was 
killed, and his forces routed. Artaxerxes 
died of a broken heart, in consequence 
of his son's unnatural behaviour, in the 
ninety-fourth year of his age, after a 

reign of 46. years, B. C. 358. The .3d, 

Bumamed Ochus, succeeded his father 
Artaxerxes 2d, and established himself on 
his throne by murdering about eighty of 
his nearest relations. His behaviour in 
Egypt, and his cruelty towards the inhab- 
itants, offended his subjects, and Bagoas 
at last obliged his physician to poison 
him, B. C. ^, and afterwards gave his 
flesh to be devoured by cats, and made 
handles for swords with his bones. 

Artaxerxes or Artaxares 1st, a com- 
mon soldier of Persia, who killed Artaba- 
nus, A. D. 228, and erected Persia a^in 
into a kingdom, which had been extinct 

since the death of Darius. One of his 

successors, son of Sapor, bore his name, 
and reigned eleven years, during which 
he distinguished himself by his cruelties. 

Artaxias, son of Artavasdes, king of 
Armenia, was proclaimed king by his 
father's troops. He opposed Antony, by 
whom he was defeated, and became so 
odious that the Romans, at the request 
of the Armenians, raised Tigranes to the 
throne.— ^Another, son of Polemon, 
whose original name wag Zeno. After 
the expulsion of Venones from Armenia, 
he was made king by Germanicus. 

Artatctes, a Persian appointed gov- 
ernor of Sestos by Xerxes. He was hung 
on a cross by the Athenians for his cruel- 

Artatnta, a Persian lady, whom 
Xerxes gave in marriage to his son Da- 

Artatntes, a Persian appointed over a 
fleet in Greece, by Xerxes. 

Artembares, a celebrated Mede in the 
reign of Cyrus the Great. 

Artemidorus, a native of Ephesus, 
who wrote an history and description of 
the earth, in eleven books. He flourished 

about 104 years B. C. A physician in 

the age of Adrian. A man in the reign 

of Antoninus, who wrote a teamed work 

on the interpretation of dreams. A 

uian of Cnidus, son to the historian The- 
opompus. As he was a friend of J. Csesar, 
he wrote down an accQunt of the con- 
spiracy which was formed against him. 

He gave it to the dictator fVom among the 
crowd as he was going to the senate, but 
J . Ctesar put it with other papers which 
he held in his hand, thinking it to be of 
no material consequence. 

Artemis, the Greek name oC Diana. 
Her festivals, called Artemisia, were ce- 
lebrated in several parts of Greece, par- 
ticularly at Delphi. There was a solem- 
nity of the same name at Syracuse. 

Artemisia, daughter of Lygdamis of 
Halicamassus, reigned over Halicamas- 
sus and the neighboring country. It is 
said that she was fond of a youth of Aby- 
dos, called Dardanus, and that, to punish 
hi^ disdain, she put out his eyes while he 
was asleep, and afterwards leaped down 

the promontory of Leucas. There was 

also another queen of Caria of that name. 
She was married to Mausolus, famous for 
his personal beauty. She was so fond 
of her husband, that at his death she 
drank in her liquor his ashes after his 
body had been burned, and erected to his 
memory a monument, which for its gran- 
deur and magnificence^ was called one 
of the seven wonders of the world. This 
monument she called Mausoleum, a name 
which has been given from that time to 
all monuments of unusual splendor. 

Artemisia. Fid. Artemis. 

Artemisium, a promontory of Eubcea, 
where Diana had a temple. The neigli- 
boring part of the sea bore the same 

name. A lake near the grove Aricia, 

with a temple sacred to Artemis. 

Artemita, a city at the east of Seleu- 

cia. An island opposite the mouth of 

the Achelous. 

Artehon, an historian of Pergamus. 

A native of Clazomene, who was 

with Pericles at the siege of Samos, where 
it is said he invented the batterine-ram, 
the testydOf and other equally valuable 

military engines. A man who wrote a 

treatise on collecting books. A native 

of Magnesia, who wrote the history of 

illustrious women. A physician of 

Clazomense. A painter. A Syrian 

whose features resembled, in the strong- 
est manner, those of Antiochus. 

Artimfasa, a name. of Venus among 
the Scythians. 

Artobarzanss, a son of Darius, who 
endeavored to ascend the throne in pre- 
ference to his brother Xerxes, but to no 

Artochhes, a general of Xerxes, who 
married one of the daughters of Darius. 

Artona, a town of the Latins, taken 
by the ^qui. 

Artontes, a son of Mardonius. 

Artonius, a physician of Atigustus. 

Artoxares, an eunuch of Paphlagonia, 
in the reign of Artaxerxes 1st, cruelly put 
to death by Paiysatis. 

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A&Ti7RitT8, an obscure fellow, raised to 
honors and wealth by his flatteries. 

Arttnes, a king of Media. 

Arttnia, a lake of Asia Minor. 

Arttstora, a daughter of Darius. 

Arua, a people of Hyrcania, where 
Alexander kindly received the chief offi>- 
cers of Darius. 

Art ALKs, a name given to twelve priests 
who celebrated the festivals called Am- 

Aruxris, a god of the Egyptians, son 
of Isis and Osiris. 

Arysriti, a powerful people of Gaul, 
now Jtuvergne, near the Ligeris, who 
took up arms against J. Cesar. They 
were conquered with great slaughter. 

Aryiraous, a king.of Britain. 

Aryisicm and Artisus, a promontory 
of Chios, famous for its wine. 

L. ARuircuLEi us Costa, an officer sent 
by J. Caesar against tlie Gauls, by whom 
he was killed. 

Ardits, an Etrurian soothsayer in the 

a«je of Marius. A soldier who' slew 

Onmilla, and was killed by a dart of Di- 
ana. A brother of Tarquin the Proud. 

He married Tullia, who murdered him to 
espouse Tarquin, who had assassinated 

hi3 wife. A son of Tarquin the Proud, 

A son of Porsena kin^ of Etruria, 

sent by his father to take Aricia. 

Aruxtics; a Roman who ridiculed the 

rites of Bacchus. A man who wrote 

an account of the Punic war9 in the style 

of Sallust, in the reign of Augustus. 

Another Latin writer.— —Paterculus, a 
man who gave iGmylius Censorinud, ty- 
rant of iEgesta, a brazen horse to torment 
criminals. The tyrant made the first ex- 
periment upon the body of the donor. 
Stella, a poet descended of a con- 
sular ihmily in the age of Domitian. 

Arupinits, a maritime town of Istria. 

Arospsx. Fid. Haruspez. 

Arxata, a town of Armenia, near the 

Artaicdbs, a Persian appointed gov- 
ernor of Egypt by Cambyses. He was 
{lut to death because he imitated Darius 
n whatever he did, and wished to make 
himself immortal. 

Artbas, a native of Sidon, whose 
daughter was carried away by pirates. 
«-~A king of the Moloasl, who reigned 
ten years. 

Artptjevs, a prince of the Molossi, 
who privately encouraged the Greeks 
against Macedonia, and afterwards em- 
braced the party of the Macedonians. 

Asander, a man who separated, by a 
wall, Chersonesus Taurica from the con- 

Asbbst.v and Abbtstjb, a people of 
Libya above Cyrcne, where the temple 
of Ammon is built. Jupiter is sometimes 
called oa that account Jttbjfgtius, 

AsBOLUs (Mack hair)^ one of Actaron's 

Ascalafhus^ the son of AcheroQ and 
Nox ; turned into an owl by Ceres, for 
informing Pluto that Proserpine had eaten 
some grains of a pomegranate in hell. 

AsoALoN, a town of Syri^l, near ^e 
Mediterranean, about five hundred and 
twenty stadia from Jerusalem, still in 
being. It was anciently fiunous for its 

AscAKiA, an island of the uEgean sea. 
A city of Troas, built by Ascanius. 

AscAifim, son of ^neas by Creusa, 
was saved from the flames of Troy by 
his father, whom he accompanie(f in his 
voyage to Italy. He was afterwards call- 
ed lulus. The descendants of Ascanius 
reigned in Alba for above four hundred 
and twenty years. A rivdr of Bithynia. 

Ascii, a nation of India, in whose 
country objects at noon have no shadow. 

AscLEPiA, festivals in honor ,of Ascle- 
pius, or JBsculapiut, celebrated all dver 
Greece, when prizes for poetical and mu- 
sical compodiuons were honorably dis- 

AscLRPiAOEs. a rhetorician in tbe age 
of Eumenes, who wrote an historileal ac- 
count of Alexander. A disciple of 

Plato. A philosopher, disciple to 

Stilpo, and very intimate with Mene- 
demus. The two friends lived toge- 
ther, and that they njight not be sepa- 
rated when they married, Asclepiades 
married the daughter, and Menedemus, 
though much tlie younger, the mother. 
A physician of Bithynia, B. C. 90, 
who acquired great reputation at Rome, 
and was the founder of a sect in physic. 
An Egyptian, who wrote hymns on 

the gods of his country, and a treatise on 
the coincidence of all religions* ^A na- 
tive of Alexandria, who gave an history 

of the Athl»nian archons. A disciple 

of Isocrate^. A physician in tbe age 

of Pompey. A tragic poet. Another 

physician of Bithynia, undet Trajan. 

AscLEPioDORua. a painter in the age of 
Apelles, twelve or whose pictures of the 
gods were sold for three hundred mine 
each, to an African prince.*— A soldier 
who conspired against Alexander with 

AscLEPioDOTrs, a general of Mithri- 

AscLEPiUB. Fid. ^sculapius. 

AscLETARroN, a mathematician in the 
age of Domitian, who said that he should 
be torn by dogs. The emperor ordered 
him to1)e put to death, and his body care- 
fully secured ; but as soon as he. was set 
on the burning pile, a sudden storm arose 
which put out the flames, and the dom 
came and tore to pieces the mathemati- 
cian's body. ^ 

AscLos,"u town of Italy 


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AscoLi A, a festival in honor of Bacchus, 
celebrated, about December, by the Athe- 
nian husbandmen, who generally sacri- 
ficed a goat to the god, because that ani- 
mal is a great enemy to the vine. 

AscoRius Lj«£o, a preceptor of Nero. 
Pedia, a man intimate with Virpil 
and Livy.— Another of the same fiimily 
In the ace of Vespasian, who became 
Mind in his old age, and lived twelve 
years after. 

AscaA, a town of BcBotia, built, accord- 
ing to some, by the giants Qtus and Spfai- 
altes, at the foot of mount H«1icon. 

Aacu%pii, now Jiscoli, a town of Pioe- 
num, famous for the defeat of Pyrrhus by 
Curius and Fahricius. Another in Apu- 
lia, near the Aufidus. 

AsoauBAL, a Carthaginian, son-in-law 
of Hamilcar. He distinguished himself in 
nhe Numidian war, and was appointed 
chief general on the death of his father- 
in-law, and for ei^ht years presided with 
:nuch prudence and valor over Spain, 
Which submitted to his arms with cheer- 
fulness. Here he bddvtfie foundation of 
new Carthage, and saw it complete. He 
was JkAled in the midst of his soldiers. 
B. C. A, "by a slave whose master he haa 

murdered. A son of Hamilcar, who 

came from Spain with a large reinforce- 
ment for his brother Amiibal. He crossed 
the Alps and entered Italy ; "buft some of 
his letters toTiknnibal having faBea into 
the hands of the Somans, the consuls M. 
Livius Salinator aad Claudius Neva, at- 
tacked him suddenly Bear the Uetannis, 
and defeated him, B. C. 907. He was 
* killed in the battle, and flfty-six thousand 
of his men shared his fate, and Ave thou- 
sand four hundred were takea prisoners ; 
about eight thousand Romans were kQIed. 
— : — A Carthaginian general, snmamed 
C(Uvns, appointed governor of Sardinia, 

and taken prisoner by the Romans. 

Another, son of Gisgon, appointed general 
of the Carthaginian forces in Spain, in the 
time of the great Annibal. He made head 
against the Romans in Africa, with the 
assistance of Scyphax, but he was soon 
nfter defeated by Scipio. He died B. C. 
206. Another, who advised his coun- 
trymen to make peace with Rome, and 
. «tf)braided Annibal for laughing in the 

rarthaginian senate. A grandson of 

Masintssa, murdered bi the senate-house 

by th^ Qwthaginians. Another, whose 

camp was destroyed in Africa by Scipio. 
though at'tiie head of twenty thousand 
men, in the last Punic war. He was not 
of the same family as Hannibal. — A Car- 
thaginian general, conquered hy L. Caecil- 
ius Metellus in Sicily, in a battle in which 
lie lost one hundred and thirty elephants. 

AsELLio, SsHPRonius, an historian and 
■military tribune, who wrote an account of 
ihe actions in which he was present. 

Asia, one of the three parts of the m* 
cient world, separated from Europe by the 
Tanais, the £uxine,iEifean. and Mediter- 
ranean seas. The Nile and Egypt divide 
it from Africa. It receives its name from 
Asia, the dau^ter of Oceanua. This part 
of the globe has given birth to many ofthe 
greatest monarchies of the universe, and 
to tlie ancient inhabitants o( Asia we are 
indebted for most of the arts and sciences. 
The soil is fruitAil, and abounds with all 
the nec essar ies as well as luxuries of life. 

One of the Oceanides, who married 

Japetus, and gave her name to one of the 

three quarters of the ancient globe. 

One of the Nereides.-r-~A mountain of 

Asia PAi.vt, a lake in Mysia. 

AsiATicuB, a Qaul, in the age of Vitel- 

lius. The surname of one ofthe Scl- 

pios, and others, for theur conquests or 
campaigns in Asia. 

As I LAS, an aygur, who assisted ^Eneas 
against Tumus. A Trojan officer. 

AsmAMA, a festival in Sicily. 

AsiiiAaios, a river of Siciljr. 

Aiiifn, one of the Spcwades. An is- 
land of the Adriatic ^Three towns of 

Peloponnesus bore thM name, viz. in La- 
conia, Argolis, and Messenia. 

AsiRBi, a river of Sicily. 

AsiNius Gallus, son of Asinios Pollio 
the orator, married Vipsania after she had 
been divorced by Tiberius. This marriage 
gave rise to a secret enmity between the 
emperor and Asinius, who starved him- 
self to death, either voluntarily, or by or- 
der of his imperial enemy. Marcellns. 

grandson of Asinius Pollio, was accused 

of some misdemeanors, but acquitted. 

l^rilio, an excellent orator, poet, and his- 
torian, intimate with Augustus. He tri- 
umphed over the Dalmatians, and wrote an 
account ofthe wan of Cesar and Pompey , 
in seventeen books, besides poems. He 
died in the eightieth year of his age, A. D. 

4. A commander of Mauritania, under 

the first emperors, &c. ^An historian in 

the age of Pompey. Another in the 

third century. C^adratus, a man who 

published the history of Paithia, Greece, 
and Rome. 

Atius, a son of Dvmas, brother of Hec- 
uba. He assisted Pnam in the Trojan war, 

and was killed by Idomeneus. A poet 

of Samos, who wrote about the genealogy 

of ancient heroes and heroines. A son 

of Imbracus, who accompanied iBneas in- 
to Italy. 

Asius Campus, a place near the Cayster. 

AsNAUs, a mountain of Macedonia, near 
which the river Aous flows. 

AsoPHis, a small country of Peloponne- 
sus, near the Asopus. 

AsopiA, the ancient name of Sicyon. 

AsopiADEV,a patronymic of iEacos, son 
of iEgina, the daughter uiAaopoM, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Asopis,the daughter of the Asopus. 

A daughter of Thespius, mother of Men- 

Aid PUS, a river of Tfaesaaiy, fallinf into 
the bay of Malia, at the north of Ther- 
mopylae. A river of BcBotia. A river 

of Asia', flowing into the Lycus hear La- 
odicea. — ^-A rive^ of Peloponnesus, paus- 
ing by Sicyon. Another of Macedonia, 

flowing near Heraclea. A river of Ph<B- 

nicia. A son of Neptune, who gave 

his name to a river of Peloponnesus. 

As PA, a town of Patthia, now IgftJuan, 
the capital of the Persian empire. 

AsPAMiTHaKs, a favorite of Xerxes, who 
ceaspined with Artabanus to destroy the 
king and the royal finnily. 

AsPARAOiuH. a town near Dyrrhachium. 

AsPAsiA, a aaughter of Hermotimas of 
Phocea, fkmous for her personal charms 
and elegance. She was called Jtftlto, Ver- 
mUUon, on account of the beauty of her 
complexion. Another woman, daugh- 
ter of Axiochus, bom at Miletus. She 
came to Atliens, where slie tansfat elo- 
quence, and Socrates was proud to be 
among her scholars. She so captivated 
Pericles, by her mental and personal ac- 
eoraptishments, that he became her pupil, 
and at last took her for his mistress and 

AsFAsius, a peripatetic philosopher in 

the second century. A soj^iist, who 

wrote a panegyric on Adrian. 

AsPAflTKs, a satrap of Carraaaia, sus- 
pected of infidelity to his trust while Al- 
exander was in the east. 

AsFATHiiTxs, one of the seven noble- 
men of Persia, who e<nispired against the 
usurper Smerdis. 

AspSfTDus, a town of PamphyUa, at tlw 
mouth of the river Eurvmedon. The in- 
habltaata sacrificed swfne to Venus. 

AsyKAt.TiTX8, a lake. Fid. Mare Mor- 

A$tt», a satrap of Chaonia, who revolt- 
ed from Artaxerxes. He was reduced by 
Dataraes. A city and mountain of Af- 
rica. One of the Cyclades. A eity 

of Macedonia. 

AtPLKDOR, a son <^ Neptune. He gave 
his name to a city of BoMMla, whose in- 
habitants went to the Trojan war. 

AsFORKif us, a mountain of Asia Minor, 
near Pergamus. 

AssA, a town near. mount Athoe. 

AssABiirus, the Jupiter of the Arabians. 

AssAaAcus, a Trojan prince, son of Tros 
by Caliirhoe. He. was fkther to Capys. 

the Ather to Anchiiies. ^Two friends of 

Mn^m in the Rutulian war. * 

AsscmiNi, a people of Sicily. 

At8oau», a town of SicMy, between En- 
na and Argyrium. 
' Assos, a town of Lycia on the sea coast. 

AssvaiA. The name of Assyria is ap- 
plied to all that territory which lieB be- 

tween Media Mesopotamia, Arftienia, and 
Babylon. I'he Assyrian eminre is the 
most ancient in the world. It was found- 
ed by Ninus or Belus, B. C. 2059, and last- 
ed till the reign of Sardanapolus, the ttfir- 
ty-first sovereign since Ninus, B. C. 890^ 
In ancient authors, the As^rians are ofte;i 
called Syrians, and the Syrians Assyrians. 
Thfe king of Assyria generally styled him- 
self king of kings, as a demonstration of 
his power and greatness. The country is 
now called Curdistan. 

A&TA, a city in Spain. 

AsTACiSiri, a people of India, near tlie 

AsTAcusi, a town of Bith^nia* f*y8ima- 
chus deMroyed it, and carried the inhabit- 
ants to th» town of Nicomedia, which was 
then lately built.-— —A city of Acarnauia. 

AsTAPA, a town of Hispania Bstica. 

AsTAPus, a rivMT of JBthiopia, (klling in- 
to the Nito. 

ArrABTK, a powerf>il divinity of Syria, 
the same as the Venus of the Greeks. 
She was represented in medals with a 
long habit, and a maatle over it, tucked 
up on the left arm. 

Asaria, a dexterous archer of Amphipo- 
lis, who ofiTered his service to Ph^ip kin« 
of Macedonia. Upon being slighted, lie 
retired into the city, and aimed an arrow 
at Philip, who pressed it with a siege. 
The arrow, on which was written, " aim- 
ed at Philip's ri^t eye," struck the king's 
eye, and put it out ; and Philip, to return 
the pleasantry, threw hack the same ar- 
row, with these wor^, ** If Philip takes 
the town. Aster shall be battgwl." The 
conqueror kept his word. 

AtTEitiA, a daughter of Ceus, one 0f the 
Titans, by PhCBbe, daughter of Ccelus and 
Terra. Falling under the displeasure of 

Jupiter, she was changed into a quail. 

A town of Greece, whose inhabitants 

went to the Trojan war. One of the 

daughters of Danaus, who married Chs 

tus, son of iEgyptus. One of the daugh- . 

ters of Atlas, moth^ of Q^omaus, king 
of pifliL A mistress of 6y ges. 

AsTxaioN and AsTsaius.a river of Pe- . 
loponnesus, which flowed through the 

country of Argolis. A son of Cometes, 

who was one of the Argonauts. A 

atatuarv, son of iEschylns. A son of 

Minos 2d, king of Crete, by Pasiphae. He 

was killed by Theseus. A mm of Ne 

lens and Chloris. 

AsTSKODiA, the wife of Endymion. 

AsTEKOPB and Asteropj a, one of the 
Pleiades, who were beloved by the gods' 
and most illustrious heroes, and made 

constellations after death. A daughter 

of PeJias, king of lolchos. A daughter 

of Delon by Diomede. ^The wife of 


AsTEROPJius, a king of Pconia, son of 

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AsTEKUstus, a mountain at the south of 
Crete.— n^A town of Arabia FoJix. 

AsTiNoME, the wife of Hipponous. 

AsTiocHus, a general of Lacedseinon, 
who conquered tJie Athenians near Cni- 
dus, and tooic Phocca and Curoae, B. C. 

AsTRjEA, a daughter of Astrieufl, king of 
Arcadia, or, according to others, of Titan, 
Saturn's brother, by Aurora. She was 
called JuHieSy of which virtue she was the 
goddess. She lived upon the earth, as the 
poets mention, during the golden age. but 
the wickedness and impiety of mankind 
drove her to heaven in the brazen and 
iron afies, and she was placed among the 
constellations of the zodiac, under the 
name of Virgo. 

AsTajBus, one of the Titans who made 
war against Jupiter. A ilver of Mace- 
donia, near Therm«. 

AsTu, a Greek word which signifies 
eitify generally applied by way of distinc- 
tion, to Athens, which was the most capi- 
tal city of Greece. 

AsTUR, an Etrurian, who assisted iBneaa 
against Turnus. 

AsTURA, a small river and village of La- 
tium, where Antony's soldiers cut off Ci- 
cero's head. 

AsTuass, a people of Hispania Tarraco- 

AsTTAOB, a daughter of Hypseus, who 
married Periphas. by whom she bad An- 
tion, the father or Ixion. 

AsTTAoxs, son of Cyaxares, was the last 
king of Media. He was father to Man- 
dane, whom he gave in marriage to Cam- 
byses, an ignoble person of Persia, be- 
cause he was told by a dream, that his 
daughter's son would dispossess him of 
his crown. Astyages was very cruel and 
oppressive ; and Harpagus, one of his of- 
ficers, whose son he had wantonly mur- 
dered, e4icoaraged Mandane'a son, who 
was called Cyrus, to take up arms against 
his grandfStner, and he conquered him 

and took him prisoner, i>59 B. G. A 

crammarian who wrote a commentary on 

Callimachus. A man changed into a 

■tone by Medusa's head. 

AsTTALus, a Trojan killed by Neoptole- 

AsTTAivAx, a son of Hector and An- 
dromache. ^n Arcadian, who had a 

statue in the temple of Jupiter, on mount 
Lyceus. A son of Hercules. A wri- 
ter in the age of Gallienus. 

AsTYCRATiA, a daughtor of iGolus. 

A daughter of Amphion and Niobe. 

Aattoamas, an Athenian, pupil to Iso- 
crates. He wrote two hundred and forty 
tragedies, of which only fifteen obtained 
the poetical prize. . A Milenian, three 
times victorious at Olympia. He was fh- 
nious fbr bis strength, as well as for his 
voracious appetite. Two tragic writers 

bore. the same name, one of whom yfna 

disciple to Socrates. A comic poet of 


AsTYOAMtA, or AsTTADAMiA, daughter 
of Amyntor. kliig of Orchonienos in B<fo- 
tia, married Acastus, son or Pelias, who 
was king of lolchos. She became en- 
amored of Peleus, son of iEacus, and ac- 
cused him of attempting her virtue. Acas- 
tus readily believed his wife's accusatioti, 
but dissembled his resentment. At last 
they went in a hunting party to-mount 
Pelion, where Peleus was tied to a tree, 
by order of Acastus, that he might be de- 
voured by wild beasts. Jupiter was n)ov- 
ed at the innocence of Peleus, and sent 
Vulcan to deliver him. When Peleus was 
set at liberty, he marched with an army 
against Acastus, whom he dethroned, and 
punished with death the cmel and false 

Astydamia. A daughter of Ormenus., 

carried away by Hercules. 

AsTTLus, one of the centaurs, who liad 

the knowledge of f^iturity. A man of 

Crotona, who was victorious three suc- 
cessive times at the Olympic games. 

Abttmedusa, a woman whom (Edipus 
married after he had divorced Jocasta. 

AsTTiroHs, the daughter of Chryses the 
priest of Apollo, sometimes called Ckry- 
8M. She (ell to the share of Achilles, at 
the division of the spoDs of Lymessus. 
A daughter of Amphion, — of Talaus. 

AsTTNous, a Trojan prince. 

AsTTocHE and Asttochia, a daughter 
of Actor, who had by Mars, Ascalaphus, 
and lalmenus. who were at the Trojan 
war. - A aaughter of Laomedon, by 
Strymo.— — A dautehter of Amphion tind 

Niobe. A daughter of the Simois, who 

married Erichthonius. The wUe of 

Stropbius, sister to Agamemnon. 

AsTvPALJEA, one of the Cyclodes, be- 
tween Cos and Carpathps, called altor As- 
typalaea, the daughter of Phoenix, and mo- 
ther of Ancoeus, by Neptune. 

AsTYpHiLus, a soothsayer, well skilled 
in the knowled^re of futurity. 

AsxrHojf, a town built by the Argo- 
nauts, on the coast of Illyricum. 

AsTCHia,a king of E^pt, who succeed- 
ed Mycerinus, and made a law, that who- 
ever borrowed money, must deposit his 
father's body in the hand of his creditors, 
as a pledge of hjs promise of payment. He 
built a magnificent pyramid. 

AsTLAs, a friend of ^neas, skilled in 

AsTLLcs^ a ^diator. 

AxABULua, a wind which was frequent 
in Apulia. 

Atabyrm, a mountain in Rhodes, where 
Jupiter Imd a temple, whence he was sur- 

Ataoe, a town of Gaul. 

Atalanta, a daughter of Schfleneus 
king of Scyros. Atalanta determined to 

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live in perpetual celibacy ; l^at her beauty 
gained her many admirers, apd to free 
herself from their importunities, she pro- 
posed to run a rdce with them. Her lovers 
were to start first, and whoever arrived at 
the goal before her, would be made her 
husband; but all those whom she over- 
tiMk, were to be killed. As she was aU 
meet Invincible in running, many of her 
vnitoTS perished in the attempt, till Hippo- 
inenes the son of Macareus, proposed him- 
«elf as* her admirer. Venus had presented 
iiim with three golden apples AY>m the 
garden of tlie Hesperides, and as soon as 
he had started in the course, he artfhlly 
threw down the apples, at some distance 
one ftom the other. While Atalaiita, 
charmed at the sight, stopped to father 
the apples, Hippomenes hastened on his 
course, arrived first at the goal, and ob- 
tained Atalantain marriage. — -*An island 
near £ttb<Ba and Loeris. 

Atarantxs, a people of Africa, ten days' 
journey from the Garamantee. 

ATA.aBBCHis, a town in one of Ut» is- 
lands of the Delta, where Venus imd a 

Ataboatis, a divinity among the Syri- 
ima, represented as a Siren. 

AvARif CA, a part of Mysia, opposite Les- 
boa, with a small town in the neighbor- 
hood of the same name. 

Atas and Atras, a youth oC wonderful 
velocity, who is said to have run seventy- 
five miles between noon and the evening. 

Atax, now jf tt/fo, a river of Gaul Nar- 
bonensis, fklling into the Mediterranean 

Atk, the goddess of all evil, and daugh- 
ter of Jupiter. She is the same as the Dis- 
cord of the Latins. 

Atella, a town of Campania, famous 
for a splendid amphitheatre, where inter- 
ludes were first exhibited,* and thence 
called Atellans Fabule. 

ATxifOMAatra, a chieftain of Graul, who 
made war against the Romans. 

AxHAMAifEs, an ancient people of Epi- 
ras, who existed long before the Trojan 
war, and still preserved their name and 
customs in the age of Alexander. There 
was a fountain in their territories, whose 
wateirs, about the last quarter of the moon, 
were to sulphureous that they could set 
wood on fire. 

Athamas, king of Thebes, In BoBotia, 
was son of iEolns. He married Themisto, 
whoni some call Nephele, and Pindar, De- 
motlce, and by her he had Phryxus and 
Helle. SAme time after, on pretence that 
Nephele was subject to nts or madness, he 
married Ino, the daughter of Cadmus, by 
whom he had two sons, Learchus and 
Melicerta« Ino became jealous of the 
children of Nephele ; because they were 
to ascend their father's throne iu prefer- 
ence to her own, therefore she resolved to 

destroy them : but they escaped ftom her 
fury to Colchis, on a ^Iden ram. The 
prosperity of Ino was displeasing to Juno, 
and more particularly because she was de- 
scended fVoni Venus. The goddess there- 
fore sent Tisiphone, one of t^e furies, to 
the bouse of AthiCimas, who became In- 
flamed with such sudden fiiry, that he 
took Ino to be a lioness, and her two chil- 
dren to be whelps. In this fit of madness 
he snatched: Learchus from her, and killed 
him against a wall ; upon which. Ino fied 
with Melicerta, and, with him in tier arnv, 
she threw herself into the sea, from a high 
rock, and was changed into a sea deity. 
After this, Athamas recovered the use of 
his ^nses ; and' as he was without chll- 
dreik, he adopted Coiiontts and Aliartus, 

the sons of Thersunder his nephew. 

A servant of Atticus. A stage dancer. 

— -A tragic poet One of the Greeks, 

oontealed in the wooden horse at the siege 
of Troy. 

Atmamantiadxi, a patronymic of Mell* 
certa, Phryxus, or Helie,children of Atha- 

Athahasius, a bishop of Alexandria, 
celebrated fi>r his sufferings, and the de- 
termined opposition he maintained against 
Arius and his doctrine. The creed which 
bears his name, is supposed by some not 
to be bis composition. Athanasius died 
3d May, 373 A. D. after filling the archi- 
episcopod chair forty-seven years, and 
leading alternately a life of exile and of 

Athaitii, a man who wrote an account 
of Sicily. 

Athxas, a king of Bcythia, who Inv- 
idored the assistance oi Philip of Mace, 
donia against the Istrians, and laughed at 
him when he had furnished him with bm 

Athbita, the name of Minerva 9mpng 
the Greeks; and also among the Egyp- 
tians, before Cecrops had Introduced the 
worsnip of the goddess Into Greece^ 

ATHBifjB, a celebrated city p^ Attica, 
founded about 1556 years befbre the Chris- 
tian era, by Cecrops and an Egyptian 
colonv. It was called Cterojria ftom its 
founder, and afterwards Athma in honor 
of Minerva. U was governed by seven- 
teen kings; comn^uclng with Cecrops, 
and ending with Codnis 1113 B. C. After 
the death of Codrus, the monarchical 
power was aboltehed, and the state was 
governed by thirteen perpetual, and, three 
hundred an^ seventeen, y.ears after, by 
seven decennial, and lastly, B. C. 664, 
after an annrchy of three years, by aiinufU 
magistrates, called Archons. Under th^ 
den:K)pracy, the- Athenians signattzed 
themsehres by their valor in the field, 
their munificence, and the cultivation of 
the fine arts. They were deemed so pow- 
erful by the Peratans^that XerXea, when 

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he invaded Greece, chletly directed bis 
' arms aguinst Athens, which he took and 
burnt. The ancients^ to distinguit>]i 
Athens in a more peculiar manner, called 
It Astu, one of the eyes of Greece, the 
learned city, the school of the worm, tlie 
common patroness of Greece. The Athe- 
nians thought themselves the most an- 
cient nation of Greece, and the original 
inhabitants of Attica. They sometimes 
wore golden grasshoppers in their hair as 
badges of honor, to distinguish them from 
other people of later origin and less noble 
extraction, because those insects are sup- 
posed to be sprung from the ground. 

Athex.i^a, festivals in honor of Miner- 
va, celebrated at Athens. 

Athexjcum. a place at Athens, sacred 
to Minerva, where the poets, philosophers, 
and rhetoricians generally aeclaimed ana 
repeated their compositions. A pro- 
montory of Italy. A fortified place be- 
tween iEtolia and Macedonia. 

Athxnj:us, a Greek cosmograpber. 

A peripatetic philosopher of Cilicia in the 
time of Augustus.- — A Spartan sent by 
his countrymen to Athens, to settle the 

peace during the Peloponnesian war. 

A grammarian of Naucratis. A histo- 
rian, who wrote an account of Semira- 

miss A brother of king Eumenes 2d, 

famous for hia paternal affection. A 

Roman general, in the age of Galljenus, 
who is supposed to have written a book 

on military engines. A physician of 

Cilicia in the age of PJiny, who made 
heat, co)d. wet, dry, and air, the elements, 
instead or the four commonly received. 

Athsnaooras, a Greek in the time of 
Darius, to whom Phamabazus gave the 
government of Chios,— —A writer on 

agriculture. -A Christian philosopher 

In the age of Aurelius. The romance of 
Tbeagenes and Charia is falsely ascribed 
to him. 

Atmeraib, a Sibyl of Erythrssa, In the 

Bge of Alexander. A daughter of the 

philosopher Leontius. 

Athenion, a peripatetic philosopher, 108 

B. C. A general of the Sicilian slaves. 

r*. — A tyrant of Athens, surnamed Arlston. 
- Athenocles, a general. — i^ — A turner 
of Mitylene. 

Athewodoru*. a philosopher of Tar- 
dus, intimate with Augustus. The em- 
peror often profited by his lessons, and 
was advised by him always to repeat the 
twenty-four letters of the Greek alphabet, 
before he gave way to the impulse of an- 
ger.— A poet who wrote in the age of 

Alexander. A stoic philosopher of 

Cana, near Tarsus, in the age of Augus- 
tas. He was intimate with Strabo. A 

philosopher, disciple to Zeno, and keeper 

of the royal library at Pergamus. A 

marble sculptor. A man assassinated 

9X Bactra for making himself absolute. 

! Athcos, a sutname of DiagorRs and 
TheodoruB, because they denied the ex- 
istence of a deity. 

Athesis, now Adige, a river of Cisal- 
pine Gaul, near the Po, falling into the 
Adriatic sea. 

Athos, a very high mountain of Mace- 
donia, one hundred and fifty miles in cir- 
cumference, prpjecting into (he uSgean 
sea like a promontor}'. When Xerxes in- 
vaded Greece, he made a trench of a mile 
and a haJf in len^h at tlie foot of the 
mountain, into which he brought the sea- 
water, and conveyed his fleet over it. A 
sculptor, called Denocrates, offercd^Alex- 
ander to cut mount Athos, and to make 
with it a statue of the king holding a town 
in hialeft liaud^ and in the right a spacious 
basin, to receive all the waters which r 
flowed Arom it. Athos is now called 
Monte SantOj famous for monasteries, 
said to contain some ancient and valu- 
able manuscripts. 

Athrulla, a town of Arabia. 

Athtmbra, a city of Caria, afterwards 
called Nyssa. 

At I a. a city of Campania. A law 

enacted A. U. C. 690, by T. Atius Labi- 
en us, IJie tribune of the people. It abo- 
lished the Cornelian law, and put in 
full force the Lex Domitia^ by transfer- 
ring the right of electing priests from the 

college of uriests to the people. The 

mother of Augustus. Fid. Accia. , 

Atilia lex gave thepretorand a ma- 
jority of the tribunes, power of appointing 
guardians to those minors who were not 
previously provided for by their parents. 

It was enacted about ^. U. C. 560. 

Another A. U. C. 443, which gave the 
people power of electing twenty tribunes 
of the soldiers in four legions. 

A'fiLius, a freed man, who exhibited 
combats of gladiators at Fidene. The 
amphitheatre, which contained the specta- 
tors, fell during the exhibition, and about 
fifty thousand persons were lulled or mu- 

Atilla, the mother of the poet Lucan. 
She was accused of conspiracy by her 
son, who expected to clear himself of the 

Atina, an ancient town of the Volsci, 
one of the first that began hostilities 
against ^neas. 

AriifAs, a friend of Tumus. 

ATiif lA LEX, was enacted by the tribune 
Atinius. It gave a tribune of the people 
the privileges of a senator, and the right 
of sitting in'the senate. 

Atlantes, a savage people of Africa in 
the neighborhood of Mount Atlas. . 

ATLANTiADE.t.a patrouy mlc of Mercury, 
as grandson of Atlas. 

Atlantid^s, a people of Africa^ near 
mount Atlas. They boasted of bemg in 
possession of the country in which all the 

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C of antiquity recei^^d dieir birth.— > 
daughter* of Atlas, seven innuiuber^ 
Maia, Electra, Tavgeta, Asterope, Me- 
rope, Alcyone, and Oeleno. They mar- 
ried some. of the gods, and most illustrious 
heroes, and their children were founders 
of many nations and cities. 

Atlartii, a celebrated island mention- 
ed by the ancients. Its situation is un- 
known,* and even its existence doubted by 
8<Hne writers. 

Atlas, one of the Titans, son of Jape- 
tus and Clyraene, one of the Oceanides. 
He married Pleione, daughter of Oceanus. 
by whom he had seven daughters, caUea- 
Atlantidesr He was kins of Mauritania, 
and master of a thousand flocks of every 
k'mdj as also of beautiful gardens, abonnd- 
ing in every species of fniit. which he 
had intrusted to the care or a dragon. 
Perseus, alter the conquest of the Gor- 

5 one, passed by the palace of Atlas,.and 
emanded hospitality. The king rethsed 
to receive him, and even offered him vio- 
lence. Perseus who Was unequal in 
strength, showed him Medusa's head, and 
Atlas was instantly changed into a large 
mountain. This mountain is so higbthat 
the ancients have imagined . that the hea- 
vens rested on its top, and that Atlas sup- 
ported the world on his shoulders. A 

river flowing fh>m mount Hemus int5 the 

Atossa, a daughter of Gyms, who was 
one of the wives of Gambyses, Smerdia, 
and afterwards of Darius, by whom she 
bad Xerxes. She is supposed by some to 
be the Vasthi of scripture. 

Ateaccs, a peoptar of iEtolia, who re- 
ceived tbeir name from Atrax, son of ^Eto^ 
lus. Tbeir country was ealled Atracia. 

ATRAMTTTiirif , a town of MysiK 

A-rmAPBs, an officer of Alexander, who 
at the general division of the provinces, 
received Media. ** 

Atrax, a son of iEtolus, or, according to 
others, of the river Peneus. He was king 
of Thessaly, and built a town which he 
called Atrax or Atracia, and which became 

very Ikmous. A city of Thessaly, 

whence the epithet of Atracius. A 

river of ^tolia, which falls into the Ionian 

Atrkbatjb, a people of Britain, who 
were in possession of the modern counties 
of Berks, Oxford, See, 

At&sbates, now ArtoiSy a people of 
Gaul, who, together with the Nervii, op- 
posed J. Gaesar with fifteen thousand men. 
/They were conquered, and Comius, a 
friend of the general, was set over them 
as king. They were reinstated in their 
former liberty and independence, on ac-' 
count of the services of Gomius. 

Arnxiri, a people of Armenia. 

Atbxui, son of Pelops by Hippodamia, 
daughter of GBnomaua kiig of Pisa, was 

king of Mycen») and brother to Pittheos, 
Tniizen, Thyestea, and Chrysippus. As 
Chrysippus was an illegitimate son, and 
at tlie same time a favorite of his father, 
Hippodamia resolved to remove him. ^e 
persuaded her sons Thyestes and Atreus 
to murder him ; but their refusal exasper- 
ated her more, and she executed it herself. 
This murder was grievous to Pelops ; he 
suspected his two sons, who fled away 
from his presence. Atreus retired to the 
court of Eurystheus king of Argos, his ne- 
phew, and upon his death he succeeded 
him on the throne. He married as some 
report, iErope, his predecessor's daughter. 
Thyestes had followed his brother to Ar- 
gos, where he lived with him and de- 
bauched his wife. ^This incestuous com- 
merce offended Atreus, and Thyestes was 
banished from his court. He was how- 
ever soon after recalled by his brother, 
who determined cruelly to revenge the 
violence offered to his bed. To effect this 
purpose, he invited his brother to a sumi>- 
tuous feast, where Thy^tes was served^ 
up with the nesh of his own children. Af- 
ter the repast was finished, the arms and 
the heads of the murdered children were 
produced, to convince Thyestes of what 
he had feasted upon. This action appear- 
ed so cruel and impious, that the sun is 
said to have shrunk bacic in his course at 
the bloody sight. Thyestes immediately 
fled to the court of Thesjj^ptus, and thence 
to Sicyon. 

AraiDA, a patronymic given by Homer 
to Agamemnon ftnd Menefaius, as being 
the sons of Atreus. 

Atrosius, a friend of Tumus, killed by 
the Trojans. 

Atropatia, a part of Media. 

Atropob, one of the Pares, daughters 
of Nox and Erebus. She is inexorable, 
and inflexible, and her duty among the 
three sisters is to cut the thread of life, 
withput any regard to sex, age, or quality. 

T. a. Atta, a writer of merit in the 
Augustan age, who seems to have receiv- 
ed this name from some deformity in his 
legs or feet. 

Attalia, a city of Famphylia, built by 
king Attains. 

Attalicus. Vid, Attalus 3d. 

Attalus Ist, king of Pergamus, suc- 
ceeded Eumenes 1st. He dfefeated the 
Gauls who' had invaded his dominions, 
extended his conquests to mount Taurus, 
and obtained the assistance of the Romans 
against Antiochus. He died at Pergamus 
after a reitin of forty-four years, B. G. 197. 

The 2d of that name, was sent on an 

embassy to Rome by his brother Eumenes 
the 2d, and at his return was appointed 
guardian to his nephew Attains the 3d, 
who was then an infant. Attalus, who 
has received the name of PhiladtlvhuK, 
from his fraternal love, was a munilicent 

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patron of learning, and the founder of sey- 
eral eities. He was poisoned by his ne- 

8 hew in the eighty -second year of his age, 
I. C. 138. The 3d, succeeded to the 

kingdom of Pergamus, by the murder of 
Attains the 2d, and made himself odious 
by his cruelty to his relations, and his 
wanton exercise of power. He lived In 
great amity with the Komans ; and as he 
died without issue by his wire Berenice, 
be left in his will the words P. R. steonmi 
kmrta estOy whidi the Romans interpreted 
as themselves, and therefore took posses- 
sion of his kingdom, B. G. 183. From this 
circumstance whatever was a valuable ac- 
quisition, or an ample fortune, was called 
by the epithet of JtttaUau, Attalus. as 
well as his jMredecessorSit made themselves 
celebrated for the valuable libraries which 
they collected at Pergamus, and for the 
patronage which merit and virtne always 
found at their court. An officer in Al- 
exander's army.— ^Another very inimical 
to Alexander. He was put to death by 
Parmenio,aBd Alexander was accused oi 

the murder. A philosopher preceptor to 

Seneca. An ttlronomer of Rhodes.- 

Attarsas, aa oflcer who seized thoee 
that had conspired with Dymnus againM 

ATTirus CAPiTo,a consul in the age of 
Augustus, who wrote treatises on sacer- 
dotal laws, public courts of Justice, and 
the duty or a seottor. 

ATTxa, f^ son' of Calaue c€ Phrygia. 
He introduced tb* worship of f ybele 
among the Lydians, and became a ureft 
Ikvorite of the goddess. Jupiter was 
jealous of his success, and sent a wild 
boar to lay waste the country and destroy 

Atthis, a daughter of Cranaus Xlip 2d, 
king of Athens, who gave her name to 

Attica, a country of Achaia or Hellas, 
at the south of ficBotia, west of the ^gean 
sea, north of the Saronicus Sinus, and 
east of Megara. The most flimous of its 
cities is called Athens, whose Inhabitants 
sometimes bear the name of JlUiei. 

Atticus, one of Galba's servants, who 
entered bis palace with a bloody sword, 
and declared he had killed Otho.— (T. 
Pomponius) a celebrated Roman knight to 
whom Cicero wrote a great number of let- 
ters, which contained the general history 
of the age.. They are now extant, and di- 
vided into seventeen books. Tn the time 
of Marius and Sylla, Atticus retired to 
Athens, where he so endeared himself to 
the citizens, that after his departure, they 
erected statues to him in commemoration 
of Jile muqiieence and liberality. It is 
said that be refused to take aliments when 
nnahle to get the better of a fever, and died 
in his s#venty-seventh year, B. C. 32, af- 
ter bearing the amiable character of peace- 

maker among his fHends.— --Herodes, an 
Athenian in the age of the Antonines, de- 
scended from Miitiadea, and celebrated 
for his munificence. His son of the same 
name was honored with the consulship. 
A consul in the age of Nero. 

Attila, a celebrated king of the Huns, 
a nation in the southern parts of Scythia, 
who invaded the Roman empire in the 
reign of Valentinian, with an army of 
five hundred thousand men. He took the 
town of Aquileia, and marched against 
Rome I but his retreat and peace were 
purchased with a large sum of money by 
the feeble emperor. Attila, who boasted 
in the appellation of the scourge tf Ood, 
died, A. D. 453. 

Attilius, a Roman consul In the first 

Punic war. Fid. Regulus. Calatinus, 

a Roman consul who fought the Cartha- 
ginian fleet.— x-Marcus, a poet.— Regu- 
lus, a Roman censor who built a temple to 

the goddess of concord. The name of 

Attiikis was common among the Romans, 
and many of the public magistrates ate 
called Attilii ; their lift however is not 
fiimous for any illustrious event. 

A9T11VAS, an officer set over Badriaaa 
by Alexander. 

Attiub Pkliokui, an officer of Cesar. 

^Tullitts, the general of the Yolsci, to 

whom Coriolanus fled when banished 

fi-om Rome. Varus seized Auxinum in 

Pompey's name, whence he was expelled. 
After this he fled to Africa, which he 

alienated f^om J. Cesar The family 

of the Attii was descended from Atys, one 
of the companions of ^aeas. 

ATuaut, a river of Oaul, now the Adour, 
wlkich runs at Jbe foot of the Pyrenean 
mountains intolbe bay of Biscav. 

Attada, the descendants of Atys the 

Atti, an ancienjLking of Lydia, who 
sent away his son rn^rrhenus. with a co- 
lony of Lydians, who settled in Italy. 

A son of Croesus king of Lydia. He was 
forbidden the use of all weapons by his fa- 
ther, who had dreamt that he had been 
killed. Som^ time after this, Atys pre- 
vailed on his fkther to permit him to go to 
hunt a wild boar, which laid waste the 
country of Mvsia, and he was killed in the 
attempt by Adrastus, whom CnBSHs had 
appointed guardian over his son, and thus 
the apprehensions of the monarch were 

realized. A Trojan, who came to Italy 

with iBneas. and is supposed to be the 
progenitor or the family of the Attii at 

Rome. A vouth to whom Ismene the 

daughter of (Edipns was promised in mar- 
riage. He was killed by Tydeus before 

his nuptials. A son of Limniace, the 

daughter of the river Ganges, who assist- 
ed Cepheus in preventing the roaniage of * 
Andromeda, and was kilted by Perseus 
.with a burning log of wood. ^A cela- 

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brated shepherd of Phrygia, of whom the 
mother of the gods, generally called Cy- 

bele, became enamoured Sylvius, son 

of Albius fc^ylvius, was king of Alba. 

Av ARi CUM, a strong and fortifiod town 
of Gaul, now called Bourges the capital of 

Ay EU.A, a town of Campania, abound- 
ing in nuts, whence nuts have been called 

Atbwti wus, a son of Hercules, by Rhea, 
who assisted Tumus against iGneas, and 

distinguished himself by his valor. A 

king of Alba buried upon mount Aven- 

tine. ^One of the seven hills on which 

part of the city of Rome was built. It 
was thirteen thousand and three hundred 
feet in circumference, and was giveft to 
the people to build houses upon, by king 
Ancus Martius. 

AvKRiTus or AvEKifA, a lake of Campa- 
nia, near Baiee, whose waters were so un- 
wholesome and putrid, that no birds were 
seen on its banks. The ancients made it 
the entrance of hell, as also one of its rivers. 

Ayxsta, a book composed by Zoroaster. 

AuFKiA A(iUA, called afterwards Marcia, 
was the sweetest and most wholesome Wa- 
ter in Rome. 

AuPiDKNA, now Alfidena^ a city ofthe 
Peligni in Italy. 

AupiDiA LBx, was enacted by the tri- 
bune Aafidius Lurco, A. U. C. 6^. It or- 
dained, that if any candidate in canvass- 
ing for an office, promised money to the 
tribunes and failed in the performance, 
be should be excused ; but u he actually 
paid it, he should be compelled to pay 
every tribune six thousand sesterces. 

Avrioius, an effeminate person 4< 
Chios.— ^Bassus, a faoKMis historiaft in 
the age of duintllian, who wrote an ac- 
count of Germany, and of the civil wars. 

A Roman senator, fiimous for hi» 

blindness and abilities. Lurco, a man 

«ho enriched himself by fattening pea- 
icks, and selling them for meat. Lus- 

cua, a man obscurely bom, and made a 
pretor of Fundi, in the age of Horace. 

A0PIDU8, a river of Apulia falling into 
the Adriatie sea, and now called Ofanto. 
It was on its banks that the Romans were 
defeated by Hannibal at Cannis. The 
spot is still shown by the inhabitants, and 
bears the name of the field of blood. 

AT^oA and Auge and Auoea, daughter 
of Aleus king of Tegea, by Neera. 

AuoARiTs, an Arabian, who, for his 
good offices, obtained the favors of Pom* 

pey, whom he vilely deceived. A king 

of Osroene, whom Caracalla imprisoned, 
after he had given him solemn promises 
of Ari^ndship and support. 

AuoBX, atown of Laccmia. — —Another 
of Locris. 

AuoiAs and AuoEAs, son of Eleus, or 
EliuB, was one of tho Argonauts, and af- 

terwards ascended the throne of Elis. 
Ue had an immense number of oxen And 
gdats, and the stables in which they were 
Kept had never been cleaned, so that the 
task seemed an impossibility to any man 
Hercules' undertook it on promise of ta- 
ceiving for a reward, the tenth part ofthe 
herds of Aufias, or something equivalent. 
The hero cmmged the course of the river 
Alpheus, or, according to others, of the 
Peneus, whiclr immediately carried away 
the dung and filth from the stables. Au- 
gias refused the promised recompense, on 
pretence that Hercules had made use of 
artifice, and had not experienced any la- 
bor or trouble, and he fUrther drove hia 
own son Phyleus from his kingdom, be- 
cause he supported the claims ofthe hero. 
The refusal was a declaration of war. 
Hercules conquered Elis, put to death Au- 
gias, and gave the crown to Phyleus. 

AooiLA, a people of Africa, who sup- 
posed that there were no gods except the 
manes of the dead, of whom they soui^t 

AnoiRus, a mountain of Lignria. 

AuoDREs, certain officeis at Rome who 
foretold fhture events. They were first 
created by Romulus, to the number of 
three. Servius Tullias added a fourth, 
and the tribunes of the people A. U. C. 
454, increased the number to nine ; and 
Sylla added six more, during his dictator- 
ship. They bad a particular college, and 
, the chief amongst them was called magia^' 
ter coUegii. Their office was honorable j 
And if any one of them was convicted of 
any Crime, he could not be deprived of hit 
privileges ; an indulgence granted to no 
other sacerdotal body at Rome. 

Augusta, a name given to seventy cities 
in the Roman provinces, in honor of Au- 
gustus Casar.^ London, as capital of 

the country of the Trinobantes, waS called 
Augusta Trinobantina. Messaiina, fa- 
mous for her debaucheries, was called Au- 
gusta, as wife of the emperor Claudius. 

AuousTALiA, a festival at Rome, in 
commemoration of the day on which Au- 
gustus returned to Rome, after he had es- 
tablished peace over the different parts of 
the empire. 

AuousTiRo, bishop of Hippo^in Africa, 
distinguished himself by his writings, as 
well as by the austerity of his life. He 
died in the seventy-sixth year of ^is age, 
A. D. 430. 

AuocsToouNuu, now jfaten, a town of .■ 
Gaul, the capital of the ancient ^dui. 

AuGusTULus, the last Roman emperor 
of the west, A. D. 475, conquered by Od- 
oacer, king of the Heruli. 

Augustus Octavianus Cjesar, second 
emperor of Rome, was soil of Octavlus a 
senator, and Accia daughter of Julius, and 
sister to Julius Ciesar. He was adopted 
by bis uncle Caesar, and inherited the 

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greateirt port of bis fortiMA. .He lost his 
father at the age of four ; and though only 
eighteen when his oncle was murdered, 
he hastened to Roni#, where he ingratiat- 
ed himself with the senatis and people, 
nnd received the honors of fiie cdUsulship 
two years after, as the reward of hia hy-^ 
pocrisy. But- when he perceived thijl by 
makine him fight a(pinst Aii0ny, the se- 
nate wished to debilitate both anwgonists, 
he changed bis views, and uniting himself 
with his enemy, soon formed the second 
triumvirate, in which his cruel proscrip- 
tions shad the Innocent blood of three 
hundred senators and two hundred 
knights.^nd did not even spare the life 
oMiis iriend Cicero. By the divisions 
which were made among the triumvirs, 
Augustus retained for himself the more 
important provinces of the west, and ban* 
i8h9d. as it were, his colleagues, Lepidus 
and Antony, tot more distant territories. 
But a» long as the murderers of Cesar 
were alive, the reigning tyrants had •rea- 
sons for apprehension, and therefore the 
forces of the triumvirate w^re directed 
against the partisans of Brutus and the 
senate. The battle was decided at Phi- 
lippi, where it is said that the valor and 
conduct of AntcMiy alone preserved the 
combined armies, and effected ifye defeat 
of the republican forces. The friendship 
which iiubsisted between Augustus and 
Antony was broken as soop as the fears of 
a third rival vanished away, and the as- 
piring heir of Cesar wasteasily indused to 
take up arms by the little jealousies and 
resentment of Fulvia. Her death, how- 
ever, retarded hostilities ; the two rivals 
were reconciled ; their united forces were 
successfully directed against the younger 
Pompey ; and, to strengthen their friend- 
ship, Antony agreed to marry Octavia, the 
sister of Augustus. But as this step was 
political, and' not dictated by affection, 
Octuvia was slighted, and Antony resign- 
ed himself to the pleasures and company 
of the beautiftil Cleopatra. Augustuii was 
incensed, and immediately took up arms 
to avenge the wroilgs of his sister, and 
p«r%ape more eagerly to remove a man 
whose power and existence kept him in 
continual alarms, and made him depend- 
ent. Both parties met at Actium, B. C. 31 , 
to decide the fate of Rome. Antony was 
supported by all the power of the east, 
and Augustus by Italy. Cleopatra fled 
from the battle with sixty ships, and her 
flight ruined the interest of Antony, who 
followed her into Egypt. The conqueror 
soon after passed into Egypt, besieged 
Alexandria, and honored, with a magni- 
ficent funeral, the unfortunate Roman, 
and the celebrate/A queen ,^ whom the fear 
of being led in the victor's triumph at 
Rome had driven to commit suicide. .Af- 
ter he had established peace all over the 
world, Augustus shut up the gates of the 

temple of Janus, the year our S^aviour was 
bom. He died at Nola, in the seventy- 
sixth year of his age, A. D. 14. after he 
had held the sovereign power duhng forty- 
four years. The name of Augustus was 

afterwards given to the successors of Oc- 
tavianus in the Roman empire as a per- 
sonal, and the name of Ccaiir, as a famih', 
distinction. In a more distant period of^ 
the empire, the title of Augustus was 
given only to the emperor, while that of 
Cesar was bestowed on the second person 
in the state, who was considered as pre- 
sumptive heir. 
, ATiDiEi«us,a rich and sordid man. 

-AviDius CiMiuk, a man salutc^d em- 
peror, A. D. 175. He reigned only three 
months and was assassinated by a centu- 

RuFus Festus Atierus, a poet in the 
age of Theodosius. 

AviTui, a governor of Britain under 
Nero. Alcinus, a christian poet. 

Atium, a city between Tyre and Sidon. 

AuLBRci,.a people of Gaul, between the 
Seine and the Loire. 

AuLESTEa,a king of the Etrurians .when 
iEn^ts came into Italy. 

AuLSTEs, a general who assisted* iEneas 

in Italy, with one hundred ships. The 

surname of one of the Ptolemean kings, 
father to Cleopatra. 

Auus, a daughter of- Ogyges. A 

town of BoBotia near Chalcis on the sea 
coast, where all the Greeks conspired 
againsi Troy. 

AuLoir, a mountain of Calabria, 9Ppo- 

site Tarentqra, famous for its wine. 

A place of Messenia. 

AuLONiuB, a surname of .£sculapius. 

At7Lus, a pnenomen, common among 
the Romans. 

AuKAs, an European river, flowing into 
the Ister fVora mount Hemus. 
' AuRELiA LEX, was ^uactcd A. U. C. 
653, by the pretor L. Aurelius Cotta, tol^ 
vest the Senatorian and Equestrian «^ 
ders, and the Tribuni ^rarii, with ^di- 

cial power. Another, A. U. C C78, 

It abrogated a clause of the Lex Cornelia, 
and permitted the tribunes to bold other 
offices after the expiration of the tribune- 

AuRELiA, a town of Hispania Betica. 

The mother of J. Cesar. A fisb 


AuRELiAifus, emperor of Rome after 
Flavius Claudius, was austere, and even 
cruel in the execution of the lawn, and 
punished his soldiers with unusual sever- 
ity. He rendered himself famous for his 
military character; and his expedition 
against Zenobia, the celebrated queen of 
Fftlmyra, gairifed him great honors. He 
beautified Rome, was charitable to the 
poor, and the author of many salutary 
laws. He was naturally bmve : and ia 
all the battles he feujdit, itiis said, 1m kill- 
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ed no leas than eight hundred men with 
his own hand. In his triumph he exhibit- 
ed to the Romans^ people of fifteen differ- 
•>QC nations, all of which he had conquer- 
ed. He was the first emperor who wore 
a diadera. After a glorious reign of six 
years, as he n^arched against the northern 
barbarians, he was assassinated' near By- 
zantium, A. D. 375. A physician of the 

fourth century. 

AuRELius, emperor of Rome. Fid. An- 
toninus Ba^sianus. A painter in the 

age of Augustus. Victor, an historian 

in the age of Julian. Antoninus, an 

emperor. Fid. Antoninus. , . 

AuRsoLDs, a general wbo assumed the 
purple in the age of Gallienus. 

AuRi iTi A, a prophetess held ^n great ven- 
eration by the Germans. 

AoRORA, a goddess, daughter of Hype- 
rion and Thia or Thea, or, according to 
others, of Titan and Terra. She married 
.^3tneu3, by whom she had the winds, the 
stars, &c. Aurora is generally represents 
ed by the poets drawn in a rose coloMd 
chariot, and opening with her rosy Angers 
the gates of the east, pouring tbe dew upon 
the earthy and making the flowers grow. 
Her chariot is generally drawn by white 
horses, and she is covered with a veil. 
Nox and Somnus fly before her, and the 
constellations of heaven disappear at her 

AuRUHcs, an ancient town of Latium, 
built by Auson, the son of Ulysses by Ca- 

AuscHisjt, a people of Libya. 

Arjsci. a people of Gaul. 

AtrsxR, AussRis, and Aitsxa, a river of 

AusBs, a people of AfVica, whose vir- 
gins yearly fight with sticks in honor of 

AasoN, a son of Ulysses and Calypso. 

Ausoifi4j one of the ancient names of 
Italy, which it received from Auson the 
son of Ulysses. 

Decim. MAonns Ausomus, a poet, born 
at Bourdeaux in Gaul, in the fourth centu- 
ry, preceptor to Gratian, son of the empe- 
ror Valentinian, and made consul by the 
means of his pupil. His compositioo^have 
been long admired. 

Auspices, a sacerdotal order at Roae, 
nearly the same as the augurs. 

AusTKR,one of the winds blowing from 
the south, whose breath was pernicious to 
flowers as well as to health. He was pa- 
rent of rain. 

Adstesio^, a Theban, son of Tisame- 
nus. His son Theras led a colony into 
an island, which, from him, was called 

AuTOBULus, a painter. 

Adtochthoives, the original inhabitants 
of a country who are the first possessors 
of it, and who never have mingled with 
other nations. 

AuTocLKs, an Athi>nian, sent by bis 
countrymen with a fleet to tbe assistance 
of Alexander of Fbeni. 

AuTocRATEtf an historian. 

Automla, ft people of Mauritania, de- 
scended from tbe G«tuli. Ttiey exceHed ' 
all their neicbbors In running. 

AdtoltcIs, a son of Meieury by Chi- 
one, a daughter of Dedalion. He wais one 
of the Argonauts. His craft as a thief has 

been greatlv celebrated. ^A ■on of 

Phiyxus and Chalciope. 

AuToifAtK, one of the^yclades, ealted 
also Hera. A daughter of Danaus. 

AuTOMZDorr, a son. of Diorena, who 
went to the Trojan war with ten shlpt 
He was the charioteer of Achilles. 

AuToif xDUSA, a daughter of Alcafhom, 
killed by Tydeus. 

AuToMKirss, one of the Heraclids, kijig 
of Corinth. 

AuToifOLi, a nation of Ethiopia. 

Auto ROE, a daughter of Cadmus, who 
married Aristsus, by whom she had Ac- 

teon, often called jiutoneiuB kw9. One 

of tbe Danaides. One of the Nerekles. 

A female servant of Penelope. 

AuTOPHEAOAXcs, a satrap of Lydia, who 
revolted from Artaxerxes. 

AuTURA, the £itre, a liver of Gaol which 
falls Into the Seine. 

AvzEsiA and Damia, two virgins who 
came from Crete to TrtBzene, where the 
inhabitants stoned them to death in a se- 

AzEifui, the ancient name of tbe Eux- 
ine sea. 

Axi ocHus, a philosopher, to whom Plato 
dedicated % treatise concerning death. 

A X I o IT, brother of Alphesiboea, murdered 
Alcmaeon, her sister's husband, because 
he wished to reeover from her a golden 

AxioTSA, a woman who regularly went 
in a man's dress to hear the lectures of 

Atiothea, the wife of Nicocles, king 
of Cyprus. 

Axis, a town of Umbria. 

Alius, a river of Macedonia. 

AxovA, a river of Belgic Gaul, which 
falls into the Seine below Paris. 

AxuR and Anxur, a surname of Jupi • 
ter, who had a temple at Trachis in Thes- 

Axus, a town about the middle of Crete. 

AzAN, a mountain of Arcadia, sacred to 
Cybele. A son of Areas, king of Arca- 
dia, by Erato, one of the Dryades. 

AziRis, a place of Libya, surrounded on 
both sides by delightful hills covered with 
trees, and watered by a river where Bat- 
tus built a town. 

AzoNAx, a man who taught Zoroaster 
the vt of ma<pc. 

AzoRus, one of the Argonauts. 

AzoTus, now Asdod^ a large town of Sy- 
ria, on the borders of the Mediterranean. 




BABILIUS, a RomaD,"who, by the help 
of a certain herb, is said to have pass- 
ed in six days from the Sicilian sea to Al- 

BA,BiLt^, aa astrologer in Nero's age. 

Fabylon, acel^brat^d city on the banfcs 
of fbe iluphrates, the capital of the Assy- 
rian empire. It was anciently the most 
magnificent city in tlie world, and became 
famous for the death of Alexander the 
Great, and for the new empire which was 
aflerwiards established there under the Se- 
leucidee. Its gifeatness was so reduced in 
succeeding ^ges, that in the time of Pliny 
it nfft 4)ut a desolate wilderness j and at 
present, the place where it stood is un- 
known to travellers. • Its inhabitants, call- 
ed Babylonii, were early acquainted with 

astrology. There is also a town of the 

same name near the Bubastic branch of 
the Nile, in Egypt. 

Babtlonia, a large province of Assyria, 
of which Babylon was the capital. 

BAWLoirii, the inhabitants of Babylon, 
famous for their knowledge of astrology, 
first divided the year into twelve months, 
and the zodiac into twelve signs. 

Babtrsa, a fortified castle near Artaz- 

Babttace, a city of Armenia, whose in- 
habitants despise gold. 

Bacabasus, betrayed the snares of Ar- 
tabanus, brother of Darius, against Arta- 

Bacch^, the priestesses of Bacchus. 

BAccHANXLf A, Testlvals in honor of Bac- 
chus at Rome, the same as the Dionysia 
of the Greeks 

Bacchantes^ priestesses of Bacchus, 
who are represented at the celebration of 
the orgies almost naked, with garlands ^ 
ivy, with a thyrsus and dishevelled hair. 

Bacchi, a mountain of Thrace, near 

Bacchiadje, a Corinthian family de- 
scended from Bacchia, daughter of Diuny- 

Bacchides, a general who betrayed the 
town of Sinope to Lucullus. 

Bacchis, or Balus, king of Corinth, 
succeeded his father Prumnides. His suc- 
cessors were always called BacchideSy in 
remembrance of tlie equity and modera- 
tion of his reign. 

Bacchium, a small island in the -iE^ean 
sea, opposite Smyrna. 

Bacchius and Bithus, two celebrated 
gladiators of equal . age and strength ; 
whence the proverb to express equality, 
Bithus contra Bacchium. ^ 

Bacchus, was son of Jupiter a;;d Se- 
mele, the oaughter of Cadmus. Bacchus 
is the Osiris of the Egyptians, and his his- 
tory is drawn from the Egyptian traditions 
concerning that ancient king. In his 
youth he was taken asleep in the island 
of Naxos, and carried away by some mari- 

ners whom he changec} into dolphins, ex- 
cept the pilot, who had expressed some 
concern at his misfortune. His expedition 
into the east is most celebrated. He 
marched, at the head of an army composed 
of men, as well as of women, all-inepired 
with divine fury, an^ armed with thyr- 
euses, cymbals, and other musical instru- 
ments. .He has received the jiame of Li- 
ber, Bromius, Lyeus, Evan, Thyonseus, 
Psilas, &.C. which are mostly, derived from 
the places where he received adoration, or 
from the ceremonies observed in his festi- 
vals. As he was the god of vintage, of 
wine, and of drinkers, he is gelierally 
represented crowned with vine and ivy 
leaves, with a thyrsus .in his hand. His 
figure is that of an efifeminate young man, 
to denote the joys which commonly pre 
vail at feasts ; and sometimes that of an 
old man, to teach us that wine taken im- 
moderately will enervate us, consume oui 
health, render us loquacious and childish 
4ike old men, and unable to keep secrets. 
He is sometimes represented like an in- 
fant, holding a thyrsus and clusters of 
grapes with a horn. He pften appears 
naked, and riding upon the shoulders of 
Pan, or in the arms of Silenus, who was 
his foster ihther. He also sits upon a ce- 
lestial globe, bespangled with stars, and 
is then the same as the Sun or Osiris of 
Egypt. The festivals of Bacchus, gene- 
rally called Orgies, Bacchanalia, or Diony- 
sia, were introduced into Greece from 
Egypt by Danaus and his daughters. Bac- 
chus married Ariadne, after she had been 
forsaken by Theseus in the island of Nax- 
os ; and by her he had many children. 
According to some, he was the father of 
HymensBus, whom the Athenians made 
the god of marriage. The Egyptians sa- 
crificed pigs to him, before the doors of 
their houses. The fir-tree, the yew-tree, 
tbe fig-tree, the ivy, and the vine, were 
sacred to him ; and the goat w^s {generally 
sacrificed to him, on account of the great 
propensity of that animal to destroy the 

Bacchtlides, a Lyric poet of Cos, ne- 
phew to Simonides, who, like Pindar, 
wrote the praises of Hiefo. 

Bacsnis, a wood in~ Germany. 

BAcfs, a fkmous soothsayer of Bceotia. 

A king of Corinth, called also Bacchis. 

An athlete of Troezene. 

Bactra, (orum), now Balk, the capital 
of Bactriana, on the river Bactros in 

Bactri and Bactriaivi, the inhabitants 
of Bactriana, who lived upon plunder, 
and were always under arms. They were 
conquered by Alexander the Great. 

BACTRiArvA, a country of Asia, firuitftal 
as well as extensive. It formed once part 
of the Persian empire, on the eastern parts 
of whicli' it if Bitiut^. 

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Bactkos, now DaAethj a river on the 
borders of Asiatic Scytbia. 

BACuNTias, a river of Pannonia, which 
falls into the Save above Birmium. 

Badaca, a town of Media. 

Badia, a town of Spain. 

Baditts, a Campanian, who challenged 
T. CI. Crispinus. one of his friends, by 
whom he was killed. 

Baduhenitje, a 'place in the country of 
the Frisii, where nine hundred Romans 
were killed. 

Bab I A VEX was enacted for the election 
of four pretors every other year. An- 
other law by M. Bsbius a tribune of the 
people, which forbade the division of the 
lands, whilst it substituted a yearly tax to 
be paid by the possessors, and to be di- 
vided among the people. 

M. BfBius, a Roman, in whose consul- 
ship the tomb of Numa was discovered. 

Lucitts, a Roman pretor, who, being 

surprised by the Ligurians, fled t<r Mar- 
seilles, where he died three days after. 

Bf Tis, a river of Spain, from which a 
part of the country has received the name 
of BcBtica. It now bears the name of Gua- 

BxToif, a Greek historian in the age of 

Baoistame, a delightfhl country of Me*, 

BAOT9TAif£9, a friend of Bessus, whom 
he abandoned when he murdered Darius. 

Baooas and Bagosai, an Egyptian in 
the court of Artaxerxes Ochus, so power- 
ful that nothing could be done without his 
consent. He was at last killed^ 6. C. 335, 
by Darius, whom, after raismg to the 

crown, he had attempted to poison. 

Another, greatly esteemed by Alexander. 
^The name of Bagoas occurs very fre- 
quently in the Persian history. 

Baoodakes, a friend of Bessus, whom 
he abandoned when he attempted the life 
of Darius. 

BAoopHAirxs, a governor of Babylon, 
who, when Alexander approached the 
city, strewed all the ^streets and burned 
incense on the altars, &c. 

Baokada, now Megerda, a river of Af- 
rica near Utica, where Regulus killed a 
serpent one hundred and twenty feet long. 

Baix, a city of Campania near the sea, 
founded by Bisdus, one of the companions 
of Ulysses. It was fhmous for its delight- 
ful situation and baths, where many of the 
Roman senators had country houses. 

Bala, a surname of Alexander king of 

Balacsus, an officer in Alexander's ar- 
my, who took Miletus. Another officer, 

who commanded some auxiliaries. 

Bala If AGRA, a town of Cyrene. 

Balanka, a town between Syria and 

Balarus, b prince of Gaol, who aiiiited 

the Romans in their Macedonian war, 
A. U. C. 581. 

Balari, a people of Sardinia. 

C. Baumllus, a learned and benevolent 
man, governor of Egypt, of Which he wrote 
the history, under Nero. 

Balbixus, an admirer of Agna. A 

Roman, who, after governing provinces 
with credit and honor, assassinated the 
Gordians, and se^d the purple. He was 
some time after murdeiawby his soldiera, 
A. D. 238. 

Balbui, a mountain of Africa, famous 
for the retreat of Masinissa, after hn had 
fought a battle against Syphaz. 

iZ Balbus, a lawjer, &c. one among the 

pupils of Scevola. A man killed by the 

assassins of the triumvirs. 

Bale ARES, three islands in the Mediter- 
ranean, modernly called Mmorcat Minorca^ 
and Finca, on the coast of Spain. 

Baletus, a son of Hippo, t(rho first 
founded Corinth. 

Baliu^, a horse of Achilla. 

Balibta, alnountain of Liguria. 

Ballonoti, a people of European Sar- 

Balfteje {baths) were very numerous at 
Rome, private as well as public. In the 
ancient times simplicity was observed, but 
in the age of the emperors they became* 
expensive ; they were used after walking, 
exercise, or labor, and were deemed more 
necessary than luxurious. It is said, that 
Dioclesian employed forty thousand of his 
soldiers in buildme his baths ; and when 
they were finishen, he destroyed all the* 
workmen. Alexander Severus first per- 
mitted the people to use them in the night, 
and he himself often bathed with the com- 
UMn people. 

Balventics, a centurion of great valor 
in Cssar*9 army, killed by Ambiorix. 

Baltras, a river of Peloponnesus. 

Bahuruj:, a people of Libya. 

Bantia, now Sie. Maria de Foiwe, atown 
of Apulia, whence Bantinus. 

h. Ba If TICS, a gallant youth of Nola. 
whom Annibal^ found, after the battle or 
Cannie, almost dead amongst the heap of 
slain. He was sent back home with great 
humanity, upon which he resolved to be- 
tray nis country to so generous an enemv. 
Marcellus the Roman general heard of it, 
and rebuked Bantius, who continued firm 
and faithful to the interest of Rome. 

Baphtrus, a river of Macedonia. 

Bapt^e, the priests of Cotytto. A 

comedy of Eupolis. 

Bar-ki, a people of Cholcis and Iberia, 
who burnt the bodies of their friends who 
died by disease, but gave to the fowls of 
the air such as fell in war. 

Barathrum, a deep and obscure gulf at 
Athens, where crimmals were thrown^ 

Barbari, a name originally applied to 
those who spoke ineleganayM or witb 





harshness and difRcitlty* The Greeks 
and Romans generally called all nations, 
except their own, by the despicable name 
of Barbarians. 

Barbaria, a river of Macedonia. A 

name given to Phrygia and Troy. 

Bakbatus, the surname of a Roman 

Barbostheives. a mountain of Pelopon- 
nesus, ten miles from Sparta. 

Barbythacs, a city of Persia. 

Barca, a friend of Cato the elder. - 

Barcjei, or Barcitje, a warlike nation 
of Africa, near Carthage* 

Barcs) the nurse of Sichcus. A 

large country of Africa. Also a city 

about nine miles from the sea, founded by 
the brothers of Arcesilaus king of Cyrene, 
five hundred and fifteen years before the 
Christian era.— ^A small village of Bac- 
triana, where the people who h^ beeri 
taken prisoners by Darius in Afirica, were 
confined. A city of Media. 

Barcha, the surname of a noble family 
at Carthage, of which Annibal and Ham- 
ilcar were descended. 

Bardjci, a people of Illyricum, concern- 
ed in the factions of Marius. 

Bardi, a celebrated sacerdotal order 
among the ancient Gauls, who praised 
their heroes, and published their fame in 
their verses, or on musical instruments. 

Bardylms, an Illyrian prince, whose 
daughter Bircenna married king Pyrrhus. 

Bareas Soraivus, a youth killed by his 
tuto'r Egnatius, a Btoic philosopher. 

Bares, a naval ofllcer pf Persia, who 
wished to destroy Cyrene, but was oppos- 
ed by Amasis. 

Bargusii, a people of Spain, at the east 
of the Ibenis. 

Bargylijk, a town of Caria. 

Barisses, one of the seven conspirators 
against the usurper Smerdis. 

Barium, a town of Apulia, on the Adri- 
atic, now called Bari, and remarkable.for 
its fine fish. 

BARiruns, a town of Macedonia,- near 

Barrus, a man ridiculed by Horace as 
proud of his beauty. 

Bars I ITS and Barsens, a daughter of 
Darius, who married Alexander, by whom 
she had a son called Hercules. Cassan- 
der ordered her and her child to be put to 

Barzaeivtes, a satrap who revolted from 
Alexander, &c. 

Barzanes, a king of Armenia, tributary 

Basilea, a daughter of CobIus and Ter- 
ra, who was mother of all the gods. 

An island at the north of Gaul, fkmous 

for its amber. An island in the Euxine 


Basilidje, European Sarmatians, de- 
scended from Hercules and Echidna. 

BAiiLtoiks, the fother of Herodotiu, who 
with others, attempted to destroy Strattesr, 
tyrant of Chios.-' — A family who held an 

oligarchical power at Erythrie. A priest 

of mount Carmel, who foretold many mo- 
mentous events to Vespasian, when he 
offered sacrifices. 

Basilxpotamoi, the ancient name of 
the Eurotas. 

Basilis, an historian who wrote con- 
cerning India. A city of Arcadia, built 

by Cypselus, near the river Alpbeus. 

Basiuus, a river of Mesopotamia fall- 
ing into the Euphrates. A celebrated 

bishop of Africa, very animated against 
the Arians, whoee tenets and doctrines he 
refuted with warmth^ but great ability. 
Erasmus has placed him in the number of 
the sreatest orators of antiquity. He died 
in his fifty -first year, A. D. 379. 

Basilus, a generaJ who assisted Anto- 
ny. An insignificant lawyer. A pre- 

tor who plundered the provinces. 

Bassje, a place of Arcadia, where Apol- 
lo had a temple. 

BAtsAifiA, a town of Macedonia near 

Bassarsus, a surname of Bacchus, from 
the dress or long robe, called Bagsaris, 
which his priests wore. 

Bassaridbs, a name given to the vota- 
ries of Bacchus, and to Agave by Persius^ 

Bassus Aufidius. an historian in the 
age of Augustus, who wrote on the Ger- 
manic war. Cffisius, a lyric poet in 

Nero's age, to whom Persius addressed 
his sixth satire. Some of %is verses are 

extant. Julius, an orator in the reigfi 

of Augustus, some of whose orations have 
been preserved by Seneca. A man spo- 
ken of by Horace, and described tis fond 
of wine and women. 

Bastarnje and B astern jb, a people of 
European Sarmatia, destroyed by a sud- 
den storm as they pursued the Thracians. 

Bastia, the wife of Metellus. 

Bata, a sea-port of Asia, on the Eux- 
ine, opposite Sinope. 

Bata VI, a people of Germany, who in- 
habited that part of the continent known 
under the modem name of Holland, and 
called by the ancients, Batavorum insulv. 

Bathos, a river near the i^Ipheus. 

Bathtcleb, a celebrated artist of Mag- 

Bathyllus, a beautiful youth of Sarnos^ 
greatly beloved by Polycrates the tyrant, 

and by Anacreon. Mecajnas was also 

fond of a youth of Alexandria, of the same 

name. The poet who claimed as his 

own Vlrgil*» distich, J^ocU pluit totd, ^e. 
bore also the same namoi' ■ A fountain 
of Arcadia. 

Lbkt. Batiatus. a man of Campania, 
who kept a honse nril of gladiators, who 
rebelled against him. 

Batia, a naiad who manrfod (Ebaliuw — 

' Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




A daughter of Teucer, who married Dlur- 

Batina and Baxtima. Fid^ Bantia. 

Batis, governor of Gaza, who, upon be- 
ing, unwilling to yield, was dragged round 
the city tied by the heels to Alexander's 

Bato, a Dardanian, who revolted to 
Home, from king Philip. 

'JATOff of Sinope wrote commentaries 

, the Persian affairs. A charioteer of 

A iiphiaraus. 

BATRACHoifroMACHiA,a poem, describ- 
ing the fight between firogs and mice, writ- 
ten by Homer. 

Battiades^ a patronymic of Q^llima- 

chus, from his father Battus. A name 

given to the people of Cyrene from king 

Battis, a girl celebrated by Philetaa the 
elegiac poet. 

Battus 1st, a lAcedsmonian who built 
the town of Cyrene, B. C. 63a, with acol- 

ony from the island of Thera. The 

second of that name was grandson to Bat- 
tus 1st, by Arcesilaus. A shepherd of 

Pylos, who promised Mercury that he 
would not discover his having stolen the 
ilocks of Adinetus, which Apollo tended. 
He violated his promise, and was turned 

into a. pumice stone. A general of 

Corinth against Athens. A huffoon of 


Batulum, a town of Campania, whose 
inhabitants assisted Turnus against iEne- 

Batulus, a surname of Demosthenes, 
from his effeminacy when young. 

Bat vLLus, a celebrated dancer in Domi- 
tian's reign. 

Baubo, a woman who received Ceres 
when she sought her daughter all over the 
world, and gave her some water to quench 
her thirst, 

Baucis, a poor old woman^of Phrygia ; 
who, with lier hudband, Philemon, lived 
in a penurious manner in a small cottage, 
and entertained Jupiter and Mercury, 
wlien they travelled in disguise over Asia% 
The gods were so pleased with their hos- 
pitality, that they metamorphosed their 
dwelling into a magnificent temple, of 
which Baucis and her husband were made 
priests. They both died at the same hour, 
and at an extremely oid age ; and their 
bodies were changed into trees before the 
doors of the temple. 

Batius and Mjbtius, two stupid and 
malevolent poets in the age of Augustus, 
who attacked the superior talents of the 
contemporary writers.* 

Bauli, a small tovfrn of Latium, near 

Baxaentes, a friend of Bessus. 

BAZAaiA, a country of Asia. 

Bbbius, a'fiunous informer in Vespa- 
•iui's reigm 

Bebriacum, ftow Caneto, a village be- 
tween Cremona and Verona, where vitel- 
lius overcame Otho. 

Bkbryce, a daughter of Danaus,^wbo is 
said to have spared her husband. Most 
authors, however, attribute that character 
of humanity to Hypermiiestra. 

Bebbycss and Bebrycii, a nation of 
Asia near Pontus^ of Thracian origin. 
They were expert in the battle of the ces- 

Bebrtcia^ an ancient name of Bithy- 
nia, from Bebryce, the daughter of Da- 

BxLEMiiTA, a town of Laconia. 

BsLXfTus, a divinity of the Gauls, the 
same as the Apollo of the Greeks, and the 
Orus of the Egyptians. 

Belephantes, a Chaldean, who^ from 
his knowledge of astronomy, told Alex- 
ander that his entering Babylon would be 
attended with fatal consequences to him. 

Belesis, a priest of Babylon, who told 
Arbaces governor of Media, that he should 
reign one day in the place of Sardanapa- 
lus. His prophecy was verified. 

Belga, a warlike people of ancient 
Gaul, separated from the Celte by the riv- 
ers Matrona and Sequana. 

Belgica, one of the four provinces of 
Gaul near the Rhine. 

Belgium, the capital of Gallia Belgica. 
The word is often used to express the 
whole country. 

Belgius, a general of Gaul, who de- 
stroyed an army of Macedonians. 

Belidbs, a sdrname given to the daugh- 
ters of Belus. 

Belides, a name applied to Palamedes, 
as descended from Belus. 

Belisamaj the name of Minerva among 
the Gauls, signifying queen of heaven. \ 

Belisarius, a celebrated general in the 
reign of Justinian emperor of Constanti- 
nople. He died, after a life of military 
glory, and the trial of royal ingratitude, in 
the five hundred and sixty-fifth year of 
the Christian era. 

Be'listida, a woman who obtained a 
prize at Olympia. 
, Belitje, a nation of Asia. 

Bellerofhon, son of Grlaucus king of 
Ephyre, by Eurymede, was at first called 
Hipponous. The murder of his brother, 
whoni some call AJcimenus and Beller, 
procured him the nameof Bellerophon, or 
murderer of BeUer. After this murder, Bel- 
lerophon fled to the court of Proetus king 
of Argos. As he was of a handsome ap-. 
pearance, the king's wife, called Antea 
or Stenoboea, fell in love with him ; and 
as he slighted her passion, she accused 
him before her husband of attempts upon 
her virtue. ProBtus, unwilling to violate 
the laws of hospitality, by punishing Bel- 
lerophon, sent him away to his fkther-in- 
law Jobates king of I^ia, and gave hiir 

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a letter, in whicb he begged Che king (b 
punish with death, a man who liad ao dis- 
honorably treated his daughter. Jobates, 
to satisfy his son-irtlaw, sent Bellerophon 
to conqaer a horrible nioiititer called Clii- 
mffira, in which dangerous ex{)edition Jie 
hoped, and was even assured, he must 
perish. But the providence of Minerva 
supported him, and, with the aid of the 
winged horse Pegasus, he conquered the 
monster, and returned'victorioUB. Jobates 
afterwards gave him his daughter in mar-, 
riage, and made him his successor on the 
throne of Lycia. 

BELLsmuB and Bbllkr, a brother of 
Hipponous. Fid. Bellerophon. 

Belliknus, a Roman, whose house wasT 
«et on flames at Cesar's funeral. 

BsLLoirA, the goddess of war, daughter 
toPhorcysandCeto. She prepared the char 
riot of Mars when he was going to war ; 
and she appeared in battles armed with a 
whip to animate the combatants, with 
dishevelled hair^ and a torch 4n her hand. 
The Romans paid peat adoration to her ; 
but she was held m the greatest venerar 
tion bylhaCappadocians, and chieQy at 
Comana, where she had above three thou- 
sand priests. 

BsLLoifARii, the priests of Bellona. 

Beixotaci, a people of Gaul, conquered 
by J. Cesar. They inhabited the modem 
Beauvais in the isle of France. 

Bellotesus, a king of the Celts, who, 
in the reign of Tarquin Priscus was sent 
at the head of a colony to Italy by his un- 
cle Ambigatus. 

Beloiv, a general of Alexander's. A 

city and river of Hispania Betica. 

Belus, one of the most ancient kings 
of Babylon, about one thousand eigh^ hun- 
dred years before the age of Semii-^mis, 
was made a god after death, and Wbrship- 
ped with much ceremony by the Assyri- 
ans and Babvlonians.— — A king of Egypt, 
son of Epaphus and Libya, and father or 

Agenor. Another son of Phoenix the 

son of Agenor, who reigned in Phoenicia. 

A river of Syria, where glass was first 


Beitacui, a lake of Italy, now Logo di 
Oarda, from which the Mincius flows into 

Bendidium, a temple of Diana Bendis. 

BsifDrs, a name of Diana among the 
Thracians and their northern neighbors. 
Her festivals, called Bendidia, were intro- 
duced froi|i Thrace into Athens. 

BBKEVEivTuif, a town of the Hirpini, 
built by Diomedes, twenty-ei^t mil^8 
from Capua. It abounds in remains of 
ancient sculpture above any other town in 

BBifTasiicTME,adau||^ter of Neptune, 
the nilfie of Eumolpus. 

Bbpolitaitus. a youth whose life was 
sayed by the aeUy of the executioner, 

who wished not to stain the youth's fintf 
clothes with blood. 

BEienicK. a nation who destroyed their 
relations when arrived at a certain age. 

BsRjcA, a town of Syria, ninety miles 
from the sea, and one hjiindred from the 
Euphrates, now called Aleppo. 

Berectkthia, a surname of Cybele. 

Berenice and Beronice, a woman fa- 
mous for her beauty, mother of Ptolemy 

Philadelphus by Lagus. A daughter 

of Philadelphus, who married Antiochus 
king of Syria, after he had divorced Lao- 
dice, his former wife. After the death of 
Philadelphus, Laodice was recalled, and 
mindful of the treatment she had receiv- 
ed, she poisoned her husband, placed her 
son on the vacant throne, and murdered 
Berenice and her child at Antioch, where 

she had fled, B. C. 248. A daughter of 

Ptolemy Auletes, who usurpe^l her father's 
throne for some- time, strangled her hus- 
band Seleucus, and married Archelaus a 
priest of Bellona. Her father regained his 

power^ and put her to death, B. C. 55. 

The wife of Mithridates, who, when con- 
quered by LucuUus, ordered all his wives 

to destroy themselves. ^The mother of 

Agrippa, who shines in the history of the 
Jews, as daughter-in-law of Herod the 
Great. — ^ — A dauehter of Agrippa, who 
married her uncle Herod, and afterwards 

Polemon king of Cilicia. A wife of 

king Attalus. Another, daughter of 

Philadelphus and Arsinoe, who married 
her own brother Evergetes, whom she 
loved with much tenderness. She was 

put to death by her son, B. C. 221. 

This name is common to many of the 
queens and princesses in the Ptolemean 

family in Egypt. A city of Libya 

Two towns of Arabia. One in Egypt» 

on the Red sea, where the ships from In- 
dia generally landed then: cargoes. r An- 
other near the Syrtesy fcc. 

Berenicis, a part of Africa, near the 
town of Berenice. 

Beroioit and Albion, two giants, sons 
of Neptune, who opposed Hercules as he 
attempted to cross the Rhone, and were 
killed with stones from heaven. 

Bergistatti, a people of Spain, at the 
east of the Iberus. 

BsRis and Baris, a river of Cappadocia. 
A mountain of Armenia. 

BERifiui,amount^n of Macedonia. 

Beroe, an old woman of Epidaunxs, 
nurse to Semele. Juno assumed her shape 
when she [iersuaded Semele not to grant 
her ftivors to Jupiter, if he did not appear 

in the majesty of a god. The wife of 

Dorvclus, whose form was assumed by Iris 
at the instigation of Juno, when she ad- 
vised the Trojan women to bum the fleet 

of iEneas In Sicily. One of the Oceanl- 

des, attendant upon Q^rene. 

Bxrcea, a town of Thessaly. 

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Bbbonics. Fid. riereni(jl6. 

B£Rosx7s, a native of Babylon, priest to 

B£R«H(EA, a town of Macedonia. 

Berttus, now Berutj an ancient town 
of Phcenlcia, on the coast of the Mediter- 

Besa, a fountain in Thessaly. 

BssioiiE, a town of the Brntii. 

Besippo, a town of Uispania Betica, 
where Mela was bom. 

Bstsi, a people of Thrace, on the left 
aide of the Strymon, who lived upon rapine. 

Bessus, a governor of Bactriana, who, 
after the battle of Arbela, seized Darius, 
his sovereign, and put him to death. Af- 
ter this murder, he assumed the title of 
king, and was some time after brought be- 
fore Alexander, who gave him to Oxatres, 
the brother of Darius. The prince or- 
dered bis hands and ears to be cut off*, and 
his body to be exposed on a cross, and shot 
at by the soldiers. 

L. Bestia, a seditious Boman, who con- 
spired with Catiline a^inst his country. 

Betis, a river in Spain. Fid. Boetis. 

A governor of Gaza, who bravely de- 

Cended himself against Alexander, for 
which he was treated with cruelty by the 

Bbturia, a country in Spain. ' 

BiA, a daughter of Pallas by Stvx. 

Bianor, ason of Tiberius and Manto 
the daughter of Tiresias, who received the 
surname of Ocnus, and reigned over £t- 
ruria. ^A Trojan chief killed by Agam- 
emnon. A Centaur killed by Theseus. 

Bias, son of Amythaon and Idomene, 
was king of Argos, and brother to the fh- 
mous soothsayer Melampus. He fell in 
love with Perone, daughter of Neleus king 
of Pylos j but the father refused to give his 
daughter in marriage before he received 
the oxen of Iphiclus. Melampus at his 
brother's request, went to seize the oxen, 
and was caught in the fkct. He, however, 
one year after received his Hbertv from 
Iphiclus, who presented him with his oxen 
as a reward for his great services. Bias 
received the oxen from his brother, and 
obliged Nelens to give him his dauj^ter in 

marria«e. A Grecian prince, who went 

to the Trojan war. A river of Pelopon- 
nesus.-; — One of the seven wise men of 

Bm AcuLvs, (M. Farius) a Latin poet, in 
the age of Cicero. 

BiBLiA and Billia, a Roman lady &- 
mous for her chastity. She married Duil- 

Biblis, a woman who became ena- 
moured of her brother Caunus. and was 
changed into a fountain near Miletus. 

BiBLiNA, a countiy of Thrace. 

BiBLUt, a city of Phcenicia. 

Bi BRACTS, a large town of the iEdui in 
Gaol, nfhere Ciesar often wintered. 

BiBVL rs, a son of M. Calpumius Bibu- 
lus by Portia, Cato's daughter.— ^One of 
the friends of Horace pate that name. 

Bices, a marsh near the Palus Moeotis. 

Bicoiv, a Greek who assassinated Athe- 
nodorus, because he made Himself master 
of a colony which Alexander had left at 

BicoRNiGBR, a surname of Bacchus. 

BicuRiviB, the name of Alexander among 
the Arabians. « 

BiFORMis, {two forms,) a surname of 
Bacchus and of Janus. 

Bi FRO KB, a surname of Janus, because 
he was retiresented with Uoo faces among 
the Romans, as acquainted with the past 
and future. 

BiLBiLiB, a town of Celtiberia, where 
Martial was bom. A river of Spain. 

BntATER, a surname of Bacchus, which 
signifies that he had two mothers. 

BmaiuM, a town of Germany. 

BioN, a philosopher and sophist of Bo- 
rysthenes in Scythia, who rendered him- 
self fieimous for his knowledge of poetry, 
music, and philosophy. He died 241 B. C. 

A Greek poet of Smyrna, who wrote 

pastorals in an elegant style. A soldier 

in Alexander's army .^— -A native of Prc^ 

pontis in the age of Pberecydes. A 

man of Syracuse, who wrote on rhetoric. 
A native of Abdera, disciple to De- 

mocritus. — ^A man of Soli, who compos- 
ed an history of iGthlopia. Another 

who wrote nine books on rhetoric. 

BiRRHUs. Fid. Coelius. 

Bi8ALT£,a people of Scythia, or accords 
ing to some, of Thrace or Macedonia. 

BisAJLTBB, a man of Abydos. 

BiBALTiB, a patronymic of Theophane. 

BisANTHE, a town on the Hellespont. 

BiBTON, son of Mars and Callirhoe, built 
Bistoma in Thrace, whence the Thracians 
are often called BisUme9. 

BiiToiris, a lake orThrace, near Ab- 

BiTHUB. Fid. Bacchius. 

BiTHv^, a certain race of women in 
Scythia, whose eyes, as PUntv reports, kill- 
ed those who gazed upon them for some 

BiTHTifi A, a country of Asia Minor, for- 
merly called Bebrycia. It was bounded 
by the Euxine on the north, on the south 
by Phrygia and Mysia, on the west bv the 
Iropontis, and tin east "by Paphlagonia. 

BiTiM, a Trojan, son of Alcanor and 
Hiera, brought up in a wood sacred to Ju- 
piter. He followed the fortune of jfineas, 
and, with his brother, was killed by the 
Rutuli in Italy. One of Dido's lovers. 

BiTorr. Fid. Cloebis. 

BiTuiTUs, a king of the Allobroges, con- 
quered by a small number of Romans. 

BiTUHTOM, a town of Spain. ^ .^ ^ 

BiTURioBB, a people of Gaul divided 
from the iEdui by the Ligeris. 


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BiTURincsf, a |pwn of Gaul, formerly 
the capital of the Belgs. 

BiziA, a citadel near Rhodope belong- 
ing to the' icings of Thrace. ' Tereua was 
born there. 

Bljena, a fruitful country of Pontus. 

Bljesii, two Romans, who killed them- 
selves because Tiberius deprived them of 
the priesthood. 

Jon. Bljesus, a governor of Gaul. . 

Blandbwowa, a place near Placentia. 

VLANDUBiA,a fountain on the borders of 
the country of 'the Sabines near Mandela, 
Horace's country seat. 

Blastoph(knic£8, a people of Lusitanla. 
> Ulemmteb, a people of Africa, who, as 
is fabulously reported, had no heads, but 
had the eyes and mouth placed in the 

Bleniita, a town of Arcadia. 

Blitiub Catulinus, was banished into 
the iEgean sea after Piso's conspiracy. 

Blucium, a castle where king Dejotarus 
kept his treasures^ in Bithynia. 

BoADicsA. Fid. Boudicea. 

BojE and Boea, a town of Laconia. 

BoAGRiu*, a river of Locris. 

Bog ALIAS, a river in the island of Sala- 

BoccAR, a king of Mauritania. Applied 
in a general sense to any native of Africa. 

BoccHORis, a wise king and legislator 
of Egypt. 

BoccHus, a king of Getulia, in alliance 
with Rome, who perfidiously delivered 
Jugurtha to Sylla, the lieutenant of Mari- 

Bqduaonatus, a leader of the Nervii, 
when Cssar made war against them. 

BoDUNi, a people of Britain who sur- 
rendered to Claudius Caesar. 

Boea. Fid.BofB, 

BtBBs, a^ town of Thessaly. A lake 

of Crete. 

BcEBEis, a lake tf Thessaly near mount 

B(EBiA Lzx was enacted to elect four 

pretors every year, Another to insure 

proprietors in the possession of their lands. 

Another, A. U.C. 671, against using 

bribes at elections. 

BoEORoifiA, an Athenian festival. 

BflEOTARCHiE, the chlcf magistrates in 

BoBOTiA, a country of Greece, bounded 
on the north by PhQpis, south by Attica, 
east by Eubosa, and west by the bay or 
Corinth. The inhabitants were reckon- 
ed rude and illiterate, fonder of bodily 
strength than of mental excellence ; ye't 
their country produced many illustrious 
men, such as Pindar, Hesiod, Plutarch, 

BaoTUi, a son of Itonus by Menalippa. 

BosoROBiBTAs, a mau who made himself 
absolute among the Getie, by the strictness 
of his discipline. 

BozTHins, a celebrated Roman, banidi- 
ed and afterwards punished with death, 
on a suspicion of a conspiracy, by Theo- 
doric king of the Ostrogoths, A. D. 5:25. 

Bumrus, a foolish poet of^Tarsus^ who 

wrote a poem on the battle of Philippi. 

A river of Spain, more properly called 

B(EU8, one of the Heraclids. 

BooEs and Boeb, a Persian who des- 
troyed himself and family when besieged 
by the Athenians. 

BoouD^ a king of Mauritania in the in- 
tei'est of Caesar. 

Bogus, a king of the Maurusii, present 
at tlie battle of Actium. 

Bon, a people of Celtic Gaul, who mi- 
grated into Cisalpine Gaul, and the north 
of Italy on the banks of the Po. 

BojocALus, a general of the Germans 
in the age of Tiberius, &.c. 

BoLA, a town of tbe JEqui in Italy. 

BoLANUB. Vid. Bollanus. 

BoLBs, a marsh near Mygdonia. 

BoLBiTiNuu, one of the mouths of the 
Nile, with a town of the same name. 
Naucrautis was built near it. 

BoLGirsj a general of Gaul, in an expe- 
dition against Ptolemy king of Macedo- 

BoLiivA, a virgin of Achaia, who reject- 
ed the addresses of Apollo, and threw her- 
self into the sea to avoid his importunities. 

BoLiiTAUs, a river near Bolina. 

BoLissus,atown and island near Chios. 

BoLLAiruB, a man whom Horace repre- 
sents, as of the most irascible temper, and 
the most inimical to loquacity. 

Bolus, a king of the Cimbrl, who kill- 
ed a Roman ambassador. 

BouiENBEs, a people near iEtoIia. 

BouiLCAR, a Carthaginian general, son 
of Amilcar. He was suspected of a con* 
spiracy with Agathocles, and hung in the 
forum, where he had received all his dig- 
nity. An African, for some time the 

instrument of all Jugurtha*s cruelties. 
He conspired against Jugurtha, who put 
him to death. 

BouoRicjE, youths that were whipt at 
the altar of Diana Ortbia, during the fes- 
tivals of the goddess. 

Bona Dea, a name given to Ops, Vesta, 
Cybele, Rhea, by the weeks t and by the 
Latins, to Fauna, or Fatoa. Her feativala 
were celebrated onlv In the nicht by the 
Roman matrons in the houses of the high- 
est officers of the state. In the latter agea 
of the republic, however, the sanctity of 
these mysteries was profaned. 

Bononia, called also Felsina, a town 
on the borders of the Rhine. 

BoirosiuB, an officer of Probus, who as- 
sumed the Imperial purple in Gaul. 

Bonus Etentus, a Roman deity, whoao 
worship Wtu9 first introduced by toe peai- 

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BoosusA, (bovis eauda) a town of Cy- 
prus, where Veous had an ancient temple. 

Bootes, a northern constellation near 
ihe Ursa Major, also called Bubulcua and 
Arctophylax. . v 

BooTus and Bceotus, a son of Neptune 
and Menalippe, exposed by his mother, 
but preserved by shepherds. 

BoasA, a town taken by Sext. Pompey. 

BoKEADss', the descendants of Boreas, 
who long' possessed the supreme power 
and the priesthood in the island of ttie 

BoKXAs, the name of the north wind 
blowing from the Hyperborean mountains. 
According to the poets, he was son of As- 
trcus and Aurora, but others make hini 
«OB of the Strymon. He was worshipped 
lu a deity, and represented with wings 
and wUite hair. 

BoRB ASMi, a festival at Athens in honor 
of Boreas. 

BoKsus, a Persian. 

BoKocs, a Persian who burnt himself ra- 
ther than submit to the enemy. 

Boaifos, a place of Thrace. 

BoBsippA, a town of Babylonia, sacred 
to Apollo and Diana. The inhabitants 
eat bats. 

BoRus, a son of Perieres, who married 
Polydora the daughter of Peleus. 

BoRrsTHKNKS, a large river of Scythia, 
falling into the Euxine sea, now called 

flie Ihtieper, There was a city of the 

same name on the borders of the river, 
built by a a?lony of Milesians, 655 years 
before the christian era. It was also call- 
ed Olba Salvia. A horse with which 

the emperor Adrian used to hunt. At his 
death, he was honored with a monument. 

BospHORus and Bosporus, two narrow 
straits, situate at the confines of Europe 
and Asia. One was called Cimmerian, 
and the other, Thracian Bosporus. 

Botsr, a f^eedman of Claudius. 

BoTTiA, a colony of Macedonians in 
Thrace. The people were called Bottiai. 

BoTTiJcis, a country at the north of 
Macedonia, on the bay of Therma. 

BouDiccA, a queen in Britain, who re- 
belled upon being insulted by the Ro- 
mans. She poisoned herself when con- 
quered, A. D. 61. 

BouiAKUM, an ancient colony of the 
Samnites, at the foot of the Apennines 
not far from Beneventum. 

BowivLXf a town of Latium near Rome. 
Another in Campania. 

Bhachmarbs, Indian philosophers, who 
derive their name ttom Brahma, one of 
the three beings whom God, according to 
their theology, created, and with whoae 
assistance he mrmed the world. 

BR.K8IA, a daughter of Cinyras and Me- 

Bramchialbs, « surname of Apollo. 

Branchipje, a people of Asia near the 

river Ojdis, put to the awmd I7 Alexan- 
der. The priests of Apollo Didymeus, 

who i^ave oracles in Caria. 

BRANCHTixiDEs, a chl^f of the BODO- 
tians. ^ 

Branchus, a youth of Miletus, son of 
Smicrus, beloved 4)y Apollo, who gave 
him the power of prophecy. He gave ora- 
cles at Didyme, which became inferior to 
none of the Grecian oracles, except Del- 

Brasije, a town of Laconia. 

Brasidas, a famous general of Lace- 
dsmon, son of Tellus, who, after many 
great victories over AUiens and other Gre- 
cian states, died of a wound at Amphi- 
polis, which Cleon, the Athenian, had be- 
sieged, B. C. 422. A man of Cos. 

Brasidbia, festivals at Lacedaemon, in 
honor of Brasidas. 

Brasilas, a man of Cos. 

Braurs, a woman who assisted in the 
murder of Pittacus, king of the Edoni. 

Bra u RON, a town of Attica, where Di« 
ana had a temple. The goddess had 
three festivals called Brauronia, celebrated 
once every fifth year. They sacrificed a 
goat to t]ie goddess, and it was usual to 
sing one of the books of Homer's Iliad. 
The most remarkable that attended were 
young virgins in yellow gowns, consecrat- 
ed to Diana. 

BRBfTiTi and Brbufti, a people of Nori- 

Brennus, a general of the Galli Seno- 
nes, who invaded Italy, defeated the Ro- 
mans at the river AUia, and entered their 
city without opposition. . The Romans 
fled into the capitol^ and left the whole 
city in the possession of the enemies. 
The Gauls climbed the Tarpeian rock in 
the night, and the capltol would have 
been taken had not the Romans been 
awakened by the noise of geese which 
were before the doors, and immediately 
repelled the enemy. Camillus, who was 
in banishment, marched to the relief of 
his country, and so totally defeated the 
Gauls, that not one remained to carry 

the news of their destruction. Another 

Gaul, who made an irruption into Greece 
with 150,000 men and 15,000 horse, and 
endeavoured to plunder the temple of 
Apollo at Delphi. He killed himself in a 
fit of intoxication, B. C. 378, after being 
defeated by the Delphians. 

Brbrthb, a ruined city of Arcadia. 

Brescia, a city of Italy, which had 
gods peculiar to itself. 

Brettii, a people of Italy. 

Bri ARBUs, a famous giant, son of Ccelns 
and Terra, who had 100 hands and 50 
heads, and was called by men iEgeon, 

and only by the gods Briareus. ^'^^2 

clops, niade judge between Apollo and 
Neptune, in their dispute about the isth- 
mus and promontory of Corinth. He gave 

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the former to Neptune, and the latter to 
Apollo. ' ■ 

. JSrias, a town of Pisidia. 

BRUiA?rTE8, a people in the northern 
parts of Britain. 

Brigantinus, a lake of Kboetla between 
the Alps, now the lake of Constance. — 
The town on its eastern bank is now 
Bregeiltz in the Tyrol, anciently called 

Bril,£ssu9, a mountain of Attica. 
, Brimo, (terror) a name given to Proser- 
pine and Hecate. 

Briseis^ a woman of Lyrnessus, call- 
ed also Hippodamia. When her country 
was taken by the Greeks, and her hus- 
band Mines and brother killed in the 
fjght, she fell to the share of Achilles, in 
the division of the spoils. 

Brises, a man of Lymessus, brother to 
the priest Chryses. His daughter Hippo- 
damia was called Briseis from him. 

Briseus, a surname ofBacchus, from 
his nurse Brisa, or his temple at Brisa, a 
promontory at Lesbos. 

Britanni, the inhabitants of Britain. 

(Vid. Britannia.) lA nation in Gallia 


Britaitnia, an island in the Northern 
ocean, the greatest in Europe, conquered 
by Julius Csesar during his Gallic wars. 
B. C. 55, and first known to be an islana 
by Agricola, who sailed round it. - It was 
a Roman province from the time of its 
conquest till the 44^th year of the christian 
era. The name of Britain was unknown 
to the Romans before CsKtsar coqquered it. 

Britanicicus, a son of Claudius Cicsar 
by Messalina. Nero was raised to the 
throne in preference to him, by means of 
Agrippina, and caused him to be poisoned. 
His corpse was buried in the night ; but 
it is said that a shower of rain wa^ed 
away the white paint whicli the murderer 
had put over his face, so that it appeared 
quite black, and discovered the effects of 

Britomartis, a beautiful nymph of 
Crete, daughter of Jupiter and Charme, 
who devoted herself to hunting, and be- 
came a great favorite of Diana. A sur- 
name of .Diana. 

fijisToMARus, a chief of the Galli Insu- 
bres, 'conquered by iEmilius. 

Britones, the inhabitants of Britain. 

Brixellum, a town in Italy near Man- 
tua, where Otho slew himself when de- 

Brixia, a town of Italy beyond the Po, 
at the north of Creraone, now Brescia. 

Brizo, the goddess of dreams, worship- 
ped in Delos. 

Brocubelds, a governor of Syria, who 
fled to Alexander, when Darius was mur- 
dered by Bessus. 

BaoMiua, a surname of Bacchus. A 

■on of iEgyptus. 

Bromus, one of the Centaurs. 

Brottgcs, a river falling into thfi later. 

Brontes, {thunder) one^uf the Cyclops. 

Brontinus, a Pythagorean philoeoplier. 

The father of Theano, the wife of 


Broteas and Ammon, two men famoufl 

for their skill in the cestus. One of the 


Brotheus, a son of Vulcan and Miner- 
va, who burned himself to avoid the ridi- 
cule to which his deformity subjected him. 

Bructeri, a people of Germany, inhab- 
iting the country at the east of Holland. 

Brum AM A, festivals celebrated at Rome 
in honor.of Bacchus, about the month of 
December. They were first instituted by 

Brundusium now Bruvdiaiy an ancient 
^city of Calabria, on the Adriatic sea, where 
the Appian road was terminated. The 
Romans generally embarked at Brundusi- 
um for Greece. It is famous for the birth 
of the poet Pacuvius, and the death of 
Virgil, and likewise for its harbor. Little 
remains of the ancient city, and even its 
harbor has now been Choked up by the 
negligence of the inhabitants. 

Brutidius, a man dragged to prison in 
Juvenal's age, on suspicion of his favoring 

Brutii, a people in the furthest parts of 
Italy, who were originally shepherds of 
the Lucanians, but reVolted, and went in 
quest of a settlement. 

Brutulus, a 8amnite, who killed him- 
self, upon being delivered to the Romans 
for violating a treaty. 

Brutus, Lucius Juwius, a celebrated 
Roman, son of M.^ Junius and Tarquinia; 
who, on the murder of his father and bro- 
ther by Tarquin the Proud, being unable to 
revenge their death, pretended insanity, 
which artifice saved his life. He was called 
Brutus for his stupidity, which, however, 
he soon afterwards showed to be feigned. 
When Lucretia, to avoid the brutality of 
Tarquin, killed herself, Brutus snatched 
the dagger from the wound, and swore 
immortal haired to the royal family. (B. C. 
509.) This animated the Romans; the 
' Tarquins were proscribed, and the royal 
authority vested in the hand» of consuls. 
Brutus made the people swear they never 
would again submit to kingly authority; 
but the first who violated their oaths were 
his own sons, who conspired with the 
Tuscans to restore the Tarqtfins. They 
were tried and condemned before their 
father, who attended at their execution. 
Brutus was slain in a battle with Aruns, 
and his body conveyed to Rome ; where 
the matrons testified their grief by mourn- 
ing a whole year for the father of the re- 
public. Marew Junius Brutus^ who 

was lineally descended from Junius Bru- 
tus. He inherited the republican princi- 

Digitized by 





plei of his great progenitors and in the 
civil wars joined liimself to ttie side of 
Pompey. At tlie battle of Phars^lia, Cie- 
sar not only spared the life of Brutus, but 
made him one of bis iiiost intimate friends. 
He, however, soon forgot Uie favors of 
Cesar, who was now become ambitious 
and tyrannical; and he conspired with 
many illustrious citizens of Rome, and 
stabbed him in the senate-house. B. C. 
42. Antony, whom firutus, contrary to 
the opinion of his associates, refused to 
seize, gained ground in behalf of his Mend 
Cssar, and the murderers were soon oblig- 
ed to leave Rome. Brutus retired into 
Greece, where he gained himself many 
friends by his arms, as well as by persua- 
sion, and he was soon after pursued thither 
by Antony, whom young Octavius ac- 
companied*. A battle was fought at Phi- 
lippi. Brutus, who commanded ttie right 
wing of the republican army, defeated the 
enemy; but Cassius, who had the care 
of the left, was overpowered, and as he 
knew not the situation of his friend, and 
erew desperate, he ordered one of his 
fireedmen to run him through. Brutus 
deeply deplored bis fall, and in the ful- 
ness of Ais grief, called him the last of 
the R<Mnans. In another battle, the wing 
which Brutus commanded obtained a vic- 
tory ; but the other was defeated, and he 
found himself surrounded by the soldiers 
of Antony. He however made his es- 
cape, and soon after fell upon his sword, 
B. C. 43. Antony honored him with a 
magnificent funeral. Brutus is not less 
celebrated for his literary talents, than 
his valor in the field. He married Portia, 
the daughter of Gato, who killed herself, 
by swallowing burning coals when she 

heard the fate of her husband. ^D. Jun. 

Albiniis, one of Ciesar's murderers, who. 
after the battle of Mutina, was deserted 
by the legions, with which he wished to 
march against Antony. " He was put to 
death by Antony's orders, though consul 
^lect. — -nJun., one of the first tribunes of 

the people. One of Carbo's generals. 

' Brtas, a general of the Argives against 
Sparta, put to death by a woman, to whom 
he had offered vicrience.^-— A general in 
the army of Xerxes. 

Bar AXIS, a marble sculptor, who assist- 
ed in making the Mausoleum. 

BnTcn, a daughter of Danam by Po- 

Bar OSS, a people of Tliraee, afterwards 
called Phiyges. 

Baroi, a people of Macedonia, conquer- 
ed by Mardonius. 

BartBA, a town of Laconia. 

BuBACENE, a town of Asia. 

Bob ACES, an eunuch of Darius, &c, 

BoBARis, a Persian who married the 
daughter of Amyntas, against whom he 
had been sent with an army. 

BuBASTiACus, one of the mouths of the 

BuBA§Ti9, a city of E^'pt, in the east- 
ern parts of the Delta, where cats were 
held in great veneration. 

BuRAsus, a country of Caria, whence 
BubasidM applied to the natives. 

BuBoiv, an inland city of Lycia. 

BucEFHALA, a clty of India, near the 
Hydaspes, built by Alexander, in honor of 
his favorite horse Bucephalus. 

Bucephalus, a horse of Alexander's, 
whose head resembled that of a bull. 
'Alexander was the onlv one who could 
mount on his back, and he always knelt 
down to take up his master. He was 
thirty years old when he died. 

BuciMAiTus, one of Cesar's murderers. 

BncoLicA, a sort of poem which treats 
of the care of the flocks, and of the plea- 
sures and occupations of the rural life, 
with simplicity and elegance. 

BucojLicuM, ene of the mouths of the 

BucojLioiT, a king of Arcadia, after La- 

ias. A son of Laomedon and the 

nymph Calybe. A son of Hercules and 

Praxithea. A son of Lycaon, king of 


BuGOLus, a son of Hercules and Biarse. 
A son of Hippocoon. 

Bum I, a nation of Media. 

BuDiiTi, a people of Scythia. 

BuDORUM, a promontory of Salamis. 

BuLBut, a Roman senatm*, remarkable 
for his meanness. 

Bums, a town of Phocis, built by a co- 
lony from Doris near the sea, above the 

bay of Corinth. A Spartan given up 

to Xerxes, to atone for the ofience his 
countrymen had done for putting the 
king's messengers to death. 

Bullatius, a friend of Horace. 

Bulli 9, a town of Ulyricum, near the 
sea, south of Apollonia. 

BuMELLus, a river of Assyria. 

Burrs A, a surname of Juno. 

Buirus, a son of Mercury and ^Icida- 
mea, who obtained the gwi^emmen^ of 
Corinth when iEetes went to Colchis. 

BuPALUi, a statuary of Clazomens. 
Fid. Anthermus. 

BupHAous, a son of Japetus and Tbor- 
nax killed by Diana. A river of Aresdia 
bears his name. A surname of Hercu- 
les, given him on account of his gluttony. 

BvPHONiA) a festival in honor of Jupi- 
ter at Athens, where an ox was immo- 

BuPRABiuif, a city, country, and river 
of Ells. 

BuRA, a daughter of Jupiter, from whom 
Bura or Buris, once a flourishing city in 
the bay of Corinth received its name. 

BuRAicus, an epithet applied to Hercu- 
les, from his temple near; Bura. A river 

of Acbaia. 

Digitized by 





BiTRRnus Afranics, a chief of the pne- 

torian guards, put to death by Nero. 

A brother-in-law of the emperor Com- 

Bursa, the capital city of Bithynia. 

BiTRsxA, a town of Babylonia. 

BusA, a woman of Apulia who enter- 
tained one thousand Romans after the 
battle of Cannffi. 

BusjE, a nation of Media. 

BusiRis, a iLing of Egypt, son of Nep- 
tune and Lybia, or Lysianassa, who sacri- 
ficed all foreigners lo Jupiter with the 
greatest cruelty. When Hercules visited 
Egypt, Busiris carried him to the altar 
Imund hand and foot. The hero soon 
disentangled himself, and offered the ty- 
rant, his son Amphidamas, and the ndn- 
isters of his cruelty on the altar. 

Bdta, a town of Achaia. 

BuTEo, a surname of M. Fabius. A 

Roman orator. 

BuTEs, one of the descendants of Amy- 
cus, king of tim Bebryce8,very expert in the 
combat of the cestus. One of the Argo- 
nauts. A Trojan slain by Camilla. — — 

A son of Boreas who built Naxos. 

A son of Pandion and Zeuxippe, priest 
of Minerva and Neptune. He married 

Chthonia, daughter of Erechtheus. An 

arm-bearer to Anchises, and afterwards to 
Ascanius, killed by Tumus. A gov- 
ernor of Darius, besieged by Conon the 

BUTHROTUM, now Butrinto^ a sea-port 
totv^ii of Epirus opposite Corcyra, visited 
by iEneas, in h\» way to Italy from Troy. 

BuTHRotus, a river in Italy near Locri. 

BuTHYRsuB, a noble statuary, disciple to 

BuTOA, an Island in the Mediterranean, 
near Crete. 

BvToRiDSs, an historian who wrote 
concerning the pyramids. 

BuTos, a town of Egypt, where there 

was a temple of Apollo and Diana, and 
an oracle of Latona. 

BuTuirruM, an inland town of Apulia. 

Bdtub, a son of Pandion.' 

BuzvGEB,an Athenian who ^rstlflougb- 
ed with hameissed oxen. . 

Byblesia and Bybassia, a country of 

Byblia, a name of Venus. 

Byblii, a people of Syria. 

Btblis, a daughter of Miletus and Cy- 
anea«— >— A small island in the Mediterra- 

BrBLus, a town of Syria, not far from 
the sea, where Adonis had a temple. 

Btllioives, a people of Illyricum* 

Byrrhus, a robber, famous for his dissi- 

Byrsa, a citadel in the middle of Car- 
tB^ge, on which was the temple of ^scu- 
lapms. Asdrubal's wife burnt it when 
the city was taken. When Dido came to 
Africa, she bought of the inhabitants as 
much land as could be encompassed by a 
bull's hide. After the agreement, she cut 
the hide in small thongs, and enclosed a 
large piece of territory, on which she built 
a citadel which she called Byrsa, {Bv^aa^ 
a hide.) 

Byzacivm, a country of Africa. 

Byzantium, a town situate on the Thra- 
cian Bosphorus. and chosen by Constan- 
tine the Great for the capital of the east- 
em Roman empire j afterwards called Con- 

BYZAS,ason of Neptune, king of Thrace, 
from whom it is said Byzantium received 
its name. 

Byzeres, a people of Pontus, between 
Cappadocia and Colchis. 

BrzEs, a celebrated artist In the age of 

Btzia. a town in the possession of the 
kings or Thrace, hated by swallows, on 
account of the horrible crimes of Tereus. 


CAANTHUS, a son of Oceanus and 
Tethys. He was ordered by his fa- 
ther to seek his sister Malia, whom Apollo 
had carried away, and he burnt in re- 
venge the ravisher's temple near the Isth- 
mus. He was killed for this impiety by 
the god, and a monument raised to his 

Cabades, a king of Persia. 

Cabala, a place of Sicily where the 
Carthaginians were conquered by Diony- 

Cab ALE 8, a people of Africa, v 

Cabajlii, a people of Asia Minor. 


Cabaliitvi, a clear fountain on mount 
Helicon, sacred to the muses, and called 
also Htppoerene^ as raised from the ground 
by the foot of Pegasus. 

Caballinum, a town of the ^dui, now 
Chalonsy on the Baone. 

Cabarnoi, a deity worshipped at Faroe. 
His priests were called Cabami. 

Cababsus, a town of Cappadocia.^— --A 
village near Tarsus. 

Caballio, a town of Gaul. 

Cabira, a wife of Vulcan, by whom sh« 

had three sons. A town of Paphla- 


Digitized by 





Cabiri, certain deities held in tlie great- 
est ^neration at Thebes, Lemnos^ Mace- 
donia, and Phrygia, but more particularly 
in the islands of Samothrace and Imbros. 

Cabiria, a surnanie of Ceres. The 

festivals of the Cabiri. 

Cabura, a fountain of Mesopotamia. 

Caburus, a chief of the Helvii. 

Caca, a goddess among the Romans, 
sister to Cacus. The vestals offered sa- 
crifices in her temple. 

C ACHATS 9, a river of Pbocis. 

Cacus, a famous robber, son of Vulcan 
and Medusa, represented as a three-head- 
ed monster, and as vomiting flames. He 
resided in Italy, and the avenues of his 
cave were covered with human bones. 
He was killed b^ Hercules. 

Cacuthis, a nver of India flowing into 
the Ganges. ' 

Cactparis, a river of Sicily. 

Cadi, a town of Phrygia— of Lydia. 

Cadmka, a citadel of Thebes, buHt by 

Cacmeis, an ancient name of Boeotia. 

Cadmus, son of Agenor, king of Phoeni- 
cia, by Telephassa or Agriope. He was 
sent in search of his sister Europa, but as 
his search proved fruitless, he consulted 
the oracle of Apollo, and was ordered to 
build a city, and to call the country Bob- 
otia. He obeyed the directions of the 
oracle ;. and as he wished to thank the 
god by a sacrifice, he sent his companions 
to fetch water from a neighboring grove. 
The waters were sacred to Mars, and 
guarded by a dragon. Cadmus attacked 
the dragon, and overcame it, and sowed 
the teeth in a plain, upon which armed 
men suddenly rose up from the ground. 
He threw a stone in the midst or them, 
and they instantly turned their arms one 
ai^inst the other, till all perished except, 
five, who assisted him in building his city.' 
Cadmus was the first who introduced the 
use of letters into Greece ; but some main- 
tain, that the alphabet which he brought 
from Phoenicia, was only different from 
that which is used by the ancient inhabit- 
ants of Greece. This alphabet consisted 
only of sixteen letters, to which Palame- 
des afterwards added four, and Simonides 
of Melos the same number. The worship 
of many of the Egyptian and Phoenician 
deities was also introduced by Cadmus, 
who is supposed to have come into Greece 
one thousand four hundred and ninety- 
three years before the Christian era, and 
to have died sixty-one years after. He also 

founded the city of Thebes. A son of 

Pandion of Miletus, celebrated as an his- 
torian in the age of Croesus, and as the 
writer of an account of some cities of 
Ionia, in four books. lie is called the an- 
cientf in contradistinction from another of 
the same name and place, son of Arche- 
laufl. ^Afioman executioner. 

Cadba, a hill of Asia Minor. 

Caducrus, a rod intwined at one end 
by two serpents, in the form of two equal 
semicircles, it was the attribute of Mer- 
cury and the emblem of power, and it 
bad been given him by Apollo inretom 
for the lyre. 

Cadurci, a people of Gaul, at the east 
of the Garonne. 

Cadusci, a people near the Caspian sea. 

Cadytis, a town of Syria. 

Cjea, an island of the iEgean sea among 
the Cyclades, called also Ceoa and Cea, 
from Ceus the son of Titan. 

C^ciAs, a wind blowing from the north. 

Cjecilia, the wife of Sylla. The 

mother of LucuUus. A daughter of 


CECILIA Caia, or TAKAquiL. Vid. Ta- 

Cjecilia uex, was proposed A. tJ. C. 
G93, by CeecU. Mietellus Nepos, to remove 
taxes from all the Italian states, and to 
give them free exportation.-*—— Another 
called also Didia, A. U. C. 656, by the 
consul Q,. Ciecilius Metellus, and T. Di- 
dius. It required that no more than one 
single matter should be proposed to the 
people in one question : and that every 
law, before it was preferred, should be 
exposed to public view on three market 

days. Another, concerning fullers. 

Another, A. U. C. 701, to restore to the 
censors their original rights and privileges* 
which had been lessened by P. Clodius 
the tribune.— ——Another called also <«a- 
binia, A.V. C. 685, a^inst usury. 

Caciliands, a Latin iifriter before the 
age of Cicem. 

CfciLii, a plebeian fhmily at Rome, 
which gave birth to many illustrious gen- 
erals and patriots. 

Cjecilius Claudius Isiporub, a man 
who left in his will to his heirs, four thou- 
sand one hundred and sixteen slaves, three 
thousand six hundred yokes of oxen, two 
hundred and fifty-seven thousand small 
cattle, and six hundred thousand pounds 

of silver. Epirus, a freednian of Atti- 

cus. who opened a school at Rome, and is 
said to have first taught reading to Virgil 
and some other growing poets.^; — A Sici- 
lian orator in the age of Augustus, who 
wrote on the Servile wars, a comparison 
between Demosthenes and Cicero, and 
an account of the orations of Demosthenes. 

-^ — Metellus. Fid. Metellus. Statius, 

a comic poet, deservedly commended by 
Cicero and Q,uintilian. 

C.1SCINA Tuscus, a son of Nero*s nurse, 

made governor of Egypt. A Roman 

who wrote some physical treatises. A 

citizen of Volaterr© defended by Cicero. 

Cjecubum, a town of Campania in Italy, 
near the bay of Caicta, famous for the ex- 
cellence and plenty of its wines. 

CJ6CUI.US, a son of Vulcan. He was 

Digitized by 




called -OfBCulus, becaase bis eyes were 
small. After a life spent in plundering 
and rapine, he built Pneneete ; but be- 
ing unable to find inhabitants, he implored ' 
Vulcan to show whether he really was 
his father. Upou this a flame suddenly 
shone among a multitude who were as- 
sembled to see some spectacle, and they 
were' immediately persuaded to become 
the subjects of Ceculus. 

a. Cfoicit'9, a consul, A. U. C. 498. 

Another, A. U. C. 465. ^A military 

tribune in Sicily, who bravely devoted 
himself to rescue the Roman army from 
the Carthasinians, B. C. 354. He escaped 
with his life. A friend of Tumus. 

CiBLiA. L£x, was enacted A. U. C. 635, 
by Cselius, a tribune. It ordained, that in 
judicial proceedings before the people, in 
cases of treason, the votes should be given 
upon tablets contrary to the excepticm of 
the Cassian law. 

C.KLius, an orator, disciple to Cicero. 

He died very young. A man of Tarra- 

cina, found murdered in his bed. His 
sons were suspected of the murder, but 

acquitted. Aurelianus, a writer about 

three hundred years after Christ. L. 

Antipater, wrote an history of Rome. 

Tubero, a roan who came to life after he 

bad been carried to the burning pile. 

Vibienus, a king of Etruria, who assisted 

Romulus against the Cieninenses. Sa- 

binus, a writer in the age of Vespasian, 
who composed a treatise on the edicts of 

the curule ediles. One of the seven 

hills on which Rome was built. 

CcMARO, a Greek, who wrote an ac- 
count of India. 

Cjgne, a small island in the Sicilian 

sea. A town on the coast of Laconia, 

whence Jupiter is called Caenius. 

CENSUS, one of the Argonauts. A 

Trojan killed by Tumus. 

Cjenides, a patronymic of Eetioni as 
descended from Caeneus. 

C-BNiNA, a town of Latium near Rome. 

Cjehis, a promontory of Italy, opposite 
to Pelorus in Sicily. 

' CiEivis, a Thessalian woman, daughter 
of Elatus. In the wars of the Lapitbie 
against the Centaurs, she offended Jupi- 
ter, and wael' overwhelmed with a huge 
pile of wood, and changed into a bird. 

Q.. Sertilius CiEPio, a Roman consul, 
A. U. C. 648, in the Cimbrian war. He 
plundered a temple at Tolossa, for which 
he was punished by divine vengeance. — 
A quaestor who opposed Saturninus. 

Cjebatus, a town of Crete. A river. 

C^RE, Cjcres, anciently Agtixa, how 
Cer-veterit a city of Etruria, once the cap- 
ital of the whole couYitry. It was in be- 
ing in the age of Strabo. 

Ojeresi, a people of Germany. 

Cjesar, a surname given to. the Julian 
fiunily at Rome, either beteuse one of 

them kept an et^hmtt, which bears the 
same name in the Punic tongue, or be- 
cause one was bom with a thick head of 
hair. The twelve first R#Bian emperora 
were distinguished by the surname of 
Casar. In Domitian, or rather in Nero, 
the family of Julius Cesar was extinguish- 
ed. But after such-'a lapse of time, the 
appellation of Caesar seemed inseparable 
from the imperial dignity, and therefore it 
was assumed by the successors of the Ju- 
lian l^unily.— — C. Julius Caesar, the first 
emperor of Rome, was son of L. Csesar 
and Aurelia the daughter of Cotta. He 
was descended, according ' to some ac- 
counts, from Julus the son of ^neas. 
When he reached his fifteenth year he lost 
his fkther, and the year after he was made 
priest of Jupiter. Sylla was aware of his 
ambition, and endeavored to remove him ;. 
but Caesar understood his intentions, and, 
to avoid discovery, changed every day his 
lodgings. He was received into Bylla's 
friendship some time after. His eloquence 
procured him friends at Rome ; and the 
generous manner in whjcb he lived, equal- 
ly served to promote his interest. He ob- 
tained the office of high priest, and after 
he had passed through the inferior em- 
ployments Of the state, he was appointed 
over Spain. At his return to Rome, he 
was made consul. He was appointed for 
the space of five years over the Gauls, by 
the interest of Pompey, to whom he had 
given his daughter Julia in marriage. 
Here he enlarged the boundaries of the 
Roman empire by conquest, and invaded 
Britain, which was then unknown to the 
Roman people. ' The death of Julia and 
of Crassus, the corrupted state .of the Ro- 
man senate, and the ambition of Gmeat 
,and Pompey, sobA became the causes of a 
civil war. Caesar's petitions were receiv- 
ed with coldness or indilTerence by the 
Roman senate ; and, by the influence of 
Pompey, a decree was passed to strip him - 
of his power. Antony, who opposed it as 
tribune, fled to Ciesar's camp with the 
news ; and the ambitious general at once 
made it a plea of resistance* On pretence 
of avenging the violence which bad been 
offered to the sacred office of tribune, he 
crossed the Rubicon, which was the boun- 
dary of his province. This was a decla- 
ration of war, and Cssar entered Italy 
sword in hand* Upqn thisr, Pompey, with 
all the friends of liberty, left Rome, and 
retired to Dyrrachium ; and Caesar, after 
he had subdued all Italy, in sixty da}*s, 
entered Rome, and provided himself with 
money from the public treasury. He went 
to Spain, where he conquered the parti- 
sans of Pompey, and, at his return to 
Rome, was declared dictator, and soon 
after consul. VHien^ie left Rome, he went 
in quest of Pompey. In. the plains of 
Pharsalia, B. C. 48, tlie two liosUle gen- 

Digitized by 





erals engaged. Pompey was conquered, 
and fled into Egypt, where he was mur- 
dered. CaBsar, after he had made a noble 
use of victory, pursued his adversary into 
Egy^t, where be for some time foraot his 
fame and character in the arms of Cleo- 
patra. After several conquests in AfHca. 
the defeat of Cato, Seipio, and Juba, ana 
that of Pompe^'s sons in Spain, he entered 
Rome, and triumphed over five different 
nations, Oaul, Alexandria, Pontus, Africa, 
and Spain, and was created perpetual dic- 
tator. But now his uncommon success 
created him enemies, and the chiefest of 
the senators, among whom was Brutus his 
most intimate ftiand, conspired against 
liim, and stabbed him in the senate-house 
on the ides of March. He died, pierced 
with twenty- three wounds, the 15th of 
March, B. C. 44, in the fifty-sixth year of 
his age. Casca gave biiu the first blow, 
and immediately he attempted to make 
some resistance ; but when he saw Brutus 
among the coMpiratore, be submitted to 
his fate, and fell down at their feet, muf- 
fling up his manUe, and exclaiming, Tu 
qitoque BruU ! The learning of Caesar de- 
serves commettdation, as well as his mili- 
tary character. He reformed the calendar. 
He wrote his commentaries on the Gallic 
wars, on the spot where he fought his 
battles : and the composition has been ad- 
mired tor the elegance as well as the cor- 
rectness of ita style. His qualities were 
such that in every battle he could not but 
be conqueror, and in every republic, mas- 
ter. It was after his conquest over Phar- 
naces in one day, that he made use of 
these remarkable words, to express the 
celerity of hia opemtions ; Feni, vidi^ via. 
Conscious of the services of a man who 
beautified and enriched the capital of his 
eonntry with public buildinps, libraries, 
and porticos, the senate permitted the dic- 
tator to wear a laurel crown on his bald 
head ; and itois said, that they were going 
to give him the title of king all over the 
Roman empire, except Italy, when he 
was murdered. It is said that he con- 
quered three hundred nations, took eight 
handred cities, and defeated three millions 
of men, one of which fell in the field of 
battle. Plmy says that he could employ 
at the same time, his ears to listen, his 
eyes to read, bis hand to write, and his 
mind to dictate. His death was preceded 
by uncommon prodigies ; and immediately 
after bis death, a large comet made its ap- 
pearance.— ——Lucius, was fhther to the 
dictator. He died suddenly, when putting 
on his shoes.— ——Octavianus. Vid. Au- 

rus. Caius, a tragic poet and orator, 
brother C. Lucius was consul, and 
followed, as well as himself, the party of 
Sylla. They were both put to death by 

order of Marius. Lucius^ an undo of 

M*. Antony, who followed the interest of 

Pompey, and was proscribed by Angustus, 
for which Antony proscribed Cicero, the 
friend of Augustus. His son Lucius- was 

put to death by J. Cesar, in his youth. 

Two sons of Agrippa bore also the name * 
of CiBsors, Caius, and Lucius. Augus- 
ta, a town of Spain, built by Augustus, on 
the Iberus, and now called Saragossa, 

Cjesabxa, a city of Cfippadocia,— of Bi- 
thynia, — of Mauritania, — of Palestine. 
There are many small insignificant towns 
of that name. 

Cjesarion, the son of J. Cesar, by queen 
Cleopatra. He was put to death by Au- 

Cjesennius Pjctus, a general sent by 
Nero to Armenia. 

Cksbtius, a Roman who protected his 
cbiUlren against Cssar. 

C^tiA, a surname of Minerva. A 

wood in Germany. 

Cjksius, a Latin poet, whose talents 

were not of uncommon brilliancy. A 

lyric and heroic poet in the reign of Nero. 

C.vso, a son of U. Cincinnatus, who re- 
volted to the Volsci. 

Cjesonia, an infamous woman who 
married Caligula, and was murdered at 
the same time with her daughter Julia. 

CvsoiTjtM Maxim us, was banished from 
Italy by Nero, on account of his friendship 
with Seneca, &c. 

Cjetulum, a town of Spain i 

Caoaco, a fountain of Laconia. 

Caicinus, a river of Locris. 

Caicub. a companion of ^neas. A 

river of Mysia, falling into th^ ^gean sea, 
opposite Lesbos. 

Cai£ta, a town, promontory, and bar* 
bor of Campania, which received its name 
from Caieta, the nurse of ^neas, wh»wa8 
buried there. 

Caius and CAiA,a prasnomen very com- 
mon at Rome to both sexes. 

Caius, a son of Agrippa by Julia. 

a. Calaber, called also Smyrnaeus, 
wrote a Greek poem in fourteen books, as 
a continuation^ of Homer's Iliad, about the 
beginning of the third century. 

Calabria, a country of Italy in Magna 
Griecia. It was fertile, and produced a 
variety of fruits, much cattle, and excel- 
lent honey. 

Calabrus, a river of Calabria. 

Calaourritani, a people of Spain, who 
ate their wives and children, rather than 
yield to Pompey. 

Calais ana Zbthss. Vid. Zethes. 

Calagutib, a river of Spain. 

Calamis, an excellent carver. 

Calamisa, a place of Samos. 

Calamos, a town of Asia, near momit 
Libanus. A town of Phoenicia. ^An- 
other of Babylonia. 

Calamus, a son of the river Mieanaer, 
who was tenderly attached to Carpo. 

Calaitus, a celebrated Indian philoeo- 

Digitized byAjOOQlC 




pher, one of the ^'mnosopliists. He fol- 
iowed Alexander in his Indian expedition, 
and being sick, in his eighty-third year, 
he ordered a pile to be raised, upon which 
he mounted, to the' astonishment of the 
king and of the army. When the pile was 
fired, Alexander asked him whether he 
bad any thing to say : " No," said he, " I 
shall meet you again in a very short time." 
Alexander died three months after in Bab- 

Calaon, a river of Asia, near Colophon. 

Calarib, a city of Sardinia. 

Calathawa, a town of Macedonia. 
, Calathion, a mountain of Laconia. 

Calathus, a son of Jupiter and An- 

Calate*, a town of Thrace near To- 
nus, on the Euxine sea. 

CAX.ATIA, a town of Campania, oa the 
Appian way. It was made a Roman col- 
ony in ^e age of Julius Ceesar. 

CalatijE) a people of India, who eitf 
the flesh of their parents. 

Calatii, a people of Campania. 

Calatius, a magistrate of Capua, who 
rescued. some Roman senators from death. 

Calacrea and CALAURiA,an island near 
TrcBzene in the bay of Argos. The tomb 
of Demosthenes was seen there. 

Calbis, a river of Caria. 

Calce^ a city of Campania. 

Oalchas, a celebrated soothsayer, son 
of Thestor. He accompanied the Greeks 
to Troy, in the office of high priest. He 
had received the power of divination froip 
Apollo. Calchas was informed, that as 
soon as he found a man more skilled than 
himself in divination, he must perish ; 
and this happened near Colophon, after 
the Trojan war. He was unable to tell 
how many figs were in the branches of a 
certain fig-tree ; and when Mopsus men- 
tioned the exact number, Calchas died 
through grief. 

CALCHEDoifiA. Fid. Calchcdon. 
•Calchiria, a daughter of Leucippus. 
She had a son by Neptune, who inherited 
his grandfather's kingdom of Sicyon. 

Caldus C.KLIU8, a Roman who killed 
himself when detained by the Germans. 

Cale, Caleb, and Calenuh, now Ctd- 
vi, a town of Campania. 

Caledonia, a country at the north of 
Britain, now called Scotland. The red- 
dish hair and lofty stature of its inhabit- 
ants seemed to denote a German extrac- 

CALEifTtTM, a place of Spain, where it 
is said they made bricks so light that they 
swam on the surfhce of the water. 

Calenub, a famous soothsayer of Etru- 

rhi, in the age of Tarquin. A lieutenant 

of Ciesar's army. Afler Cresar's murder, 
he concealed some that had been pro- 
scribed by the triumvirs, and behayed 
With great honor to them. 

Caleb. Vid. Cale. A city of Bitby^ 

nia on the Euxine. ■ 

Calesius, a charipteer of Axylus, killed 
by Diomedes in the 'fVojan war. 

Calet.«, a people of Deigic Gaul, now 
Pays de CauXf in Normandy. Their town 
is called Caletum. 

Caletor, a Trojan prince, slain by 
Ajax as he was gqing to set fire to the ship 
of Protesilaus. 

Calex, a river of Asia Minor, falling 
into the Euxine sea. 

Caliadihe, the wife of Egyptus. 

Caliceni, a people of Macedonia. 

M. Calidius, an orator and pretorian 
who died in the civil wars, &,c. L. Ju- 
lius, a man remarkable for his riches, the 
excellency of his character, his learning 
and poetical abilities. He was proscribe* 
by Volumnius, but delivered by Atticus. 

Caligula, Caesar, fourth emperor of 
the Romans, was son of German icus, and 
grandson of Tiberius. He was a most 
cruel and tyrannical mooarch, and often 
immolated innocent persons for his amuse- 
ment. Wild beasts were fed in his palace 
with human victims, and a favorite horse 
was made high priest and consul, kept in 
marble apartments, and adorned with the" 
mo^ valuable trappings and pearls. He 
frequently appeared in public places in 
the most indecent manner, encouraging' 
roguery, committing incest with his three 
sisters, and establishing public places of 
prostitution. He was at length murdered, 
in his twenty-ninth year, by his subjects 

Calipub, a mathematician of Cyzicus, 
B. C. 330. 

Calis, a man in Alexander^ army, tor- 
tured for consftiring against the' king. 

Calljebcherub, the father of Critias. 

Callaici, a pcrople of Lusitania, now 
OaUicia^ at the north of 3pain. 

Callas, a general of Alexander. Of 

Cassander against Polyperchon. A riv- 
er of Ettbcea. 

Callatebub, a town of Caria. 

Calle, a town of ancient Spain, now 
OportOf at the mouth of the Dottfo in Por- 

Callxtsria, a town of Campania. 

CALLEffi, a people of Campania. 

Callia, a town of Arcadia. 

Calliadeb, a magistrate of Athens whev 
Xerxes invaded Greece. 

Calli AS, an Athenian appointed tomakft 
peace between Artaxerxes and his coun- 
try. A son of Temenus, who murdered 

his father with the assistance of his bro- 
thers. A Greek poet, son of Lysima- 

chus. His compositions are lost. A 

partial historian of Syracuse. An Athe- 
nian greatly revered for his patriotism. 
A soothsayer. An Athenian, com- 
mander of a fleet against Philip, whose 
ships he took. - - A rich Athenian, who- 
libertted Cimon from prison} on condition 

Digitized by 





of marrying his sister and wife Elpinice. 
A historian, who wrote an explana- 
tion of fhe pyeins ofAlcoBUS and Sappho. 

Callibil's, a peneral in the war be- 
tween Mantinea and Sparta. 

Callicerus, a Greek poet, some of 
whose epigrams are preserved in the An- 

Calli CHORUS, a place of Phocis, where 
the orgies of Bacchus were yearly cele- 

Callicles, an Athenian, whose house 
was not searched on account of his recent 
marriage, when an inquiry was made af- 
ter the raone^ given by Ilarpalua. A 

statuary cf Megara. 

Callicolo5a, a place of Troy, near the 

CALLicaATEs, an Athenian, who seized 
upon the sovereignty of Syracuse, by im- 
posing upon Dion when he had lost his 
popularity. He was expelled by the 
sons of Dionyslus, after reigning thirteen 

months. An officer intrusted with the 

care of the treasures of Susa by Alexan- 
der. An artist, who made, with ivory, 

ants and other insects, so small that they 

could scarcely be seen. An Athenian, 

who, by his perfidy constrained the Athe- 
nians to submit to Rome. A Syrian, 

who wrote an account of Aurelian's life. 

A brave Athenian killed at the battle 

of Platiea. 

Callicratidas, a Spartan, who suc- 
ceeded Lysanfler in the command of the 
fleet. He was defeated and killed near 
the Arginuss, in a naval battle, B. C. 406. 

One of the four ambassadors sent by 

the Lacedemonians to Daflus, upon the 
rupture of their alliance with Alexander. 
A Pythagorean writer. 

Callidius, a celebritod Roman orator, 
contemporary with Cicero. 

Caixidromus, a place near Thermopy- 

Calmoetus, a man of Megara, received 
\n his banishment by Phamabazus. 

Callimachus, an historian and poet of 
Oyrene. He had, in the age of Ptolemy 
Philadelphus, kept a school at Alexandria, 
and h&d ApolloniiM of Rhodes among his 
pupi's, whose ingratitude obli.Ted Calli- 
machus to lash him severely in a satirical 
poem, under the name of Ibis. He wrote 
a work in one hundred and twenty books 
on famous men, beside;! treatises on birds ; 
hitt of all his numerous compo:4itions, only 
thirty-one epigrams, an elegv, and some 

hymns on the ffods, arc extfint. An 

Athenian general killed in the battle of 
Marathon. His body was found in an 
erect posture, all covered with wounds. 

A ColoplKtniaii, who wrote the life of 


CALLiMEDoif,« partisan of Phocion, at 
Athens, condemned by the populace. 

Cai^libcklxs, a youth ordered to be kill- 

ed and served up as meat by Apollodorut 
of Cassandrea. 

Calli ttus, an orator, who is said to have 
first invented elegiac poetry, B. C. 776. 
Some of his verses are to be found in Sto- 


^ Calliope, one of the Muses, daughter 
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne, who presided 
over eloquence and heroic poetry. She is 
said to be the mother of Orpheus by Apof- 
loj and Horace supposes her able to play 
on any musical instrument. 

Calli PATiRA, daughter of Diagoras, and 
wife of Callianax the alhlete, went dis- 
guised in man's clothes with her son Pi- 
sidorus, to the Olympic games. When 
Pisidorus was declared victor, she discov- 
ered her sex through excess of Joy, and 
was arrested, as women were not permit- 
ted to appear there on pain of death. The 
victory of 'her son obtained her release ; 
and a law was instantly oMIde, which 
forbade any wrestlers to appear but na- 

Calliphon, a painter of Samoa, fkmous 

for his historical pieces. A philosopher 

who made the snmmum bonum consist in 
pleasure joined to the love of honesty. 
This system was opposed bv Cicero. 

Calli PHRoif, a celebrated dancing mas- 
ter, who had Epaminondas among his pu- 

Callipid.v, a people of Scythia. 

Callipolis, a city of Thrace on the Htfk 

lespont. A town of Sicily near JEtn&, 

A city of Calabria on the coast of Ta- 

rentum, now called Gallipoli. 

Callipus, or Calippus, a;i Athenian, 
disciple to Plato. He destroyed Dion, 4:c. 

Vid. Callicrates. A Corinthian, who 

wrote an history of Orchomenos. A 

philosopher. A general of the Atheni- 
ans when th^ Gauls invaded Oreece by 

Calliptoes, a surname of Venus. 

Callirhoe, a daughter of the Scaman- 
der, who married Tros, by whom she had 

Ilus, Ganymede, and Assaracus. A 

fountain of Attica where Callirhoe killed 

herself. Vid. (^oresus. A dauehter of 

OCeanus and Tethys mother of Echidna, 
Orthos, and Cerberus, by Chrysaor.— — A 
dauehter of Lvcus tyrant of Libya, who 
kindly received Diomedes at his return 
from Troy. He abandoned her, upon which 

she killed herself. A daughter of the 

Achelous, who ^larried Alcmreon. A 

daughter of Phocus the Boeotian, whose 

beauty procured her many admirers. A 

daughter of Piras and Nlobe. 

Calliste, an island of the ^Egean sea 
called afterwards Thera. Its chief town 
was founded one thousand one hundred 
and fiftv years before the Christian era, 
by Theras. 

Calliste I A, a festival at Lesbos, during 
which, ail t|«^v»»n|e% |prei»t#avthcm- 





•elves in the temide of Juno, and the fair- 
est was rewarded in a public manner. 

Callistbeitss, a Greek who wrote an 
history of his own country in ten books. 

^^ A man who with others attempted 

to expel the garrison of Demetrius from 

Athens. A philosopher of Olynthus, 

intimate with Alexander, whom be ac- 
companied in his oriental expedition, in 
the cafocity of a precentor. He reftised to 
pay divine honors to the king, for which 
he was accused of conspiracy, mutilated, 
•xppsed to wild beasts, and dragged about 
in chains, till Lysimacnus gave him poison 
which ended together his tortures and his 

life, B. C. :S8f- A writer of Sy bans. 

A freedman of Lucullus. It is said that he 
gave poison to his master* 

Caixisto and Calistq, called also He- 
lice^ was daughter of Lycaon king of Ar- 
cadia, and one of Diana's attendants. 

Callistoricus, a celebrated statuary at 

Callistratus, an Athenian, appointed 
general with Timotbeus and Chabrias 

against Lacedemon. An orator of 

Aphidna, in the time of Epaminondas, the 

most cIoQuent of his age. An Athenian 

orator, witb whom Demosthenes made an 
intimate acquaintance after he had heard 

him plead. A Greek historian. A 

comic poet, rival of Aristophanes. A 

statuary.— ^— A secretary of Mithridates. 
——A grammarian, who made the alpha- 
bet of the Samians consist of twenty-four 

CALLikEifA, pa infamous woman of 

Callixsnus, a general who perished by 

famine. An Athenian, Imprisoned for 

passing sentence of death upon some pris- 

CALoif, a statuary. 

Calor, now Colore, a riverin Italy near 

Calps, a lofty mountain in the most 
southern parts of Spain, opposite to mount 
Abyla on the African coast. These two 
mountains were called the pillars of Her- 
'cules. Calpe is now called Gibraltar. 

Calphurnia, a daughter of L. Plso, 
who was Julius Csesar's fourth wife. The 
night previous to her husband's murder, 
she dreamed that the roof of heK house 
had fallen, and that he Tiad been stabbed 
in her arms ; and on that account she at- 
tempted, but in vain, to detain him at 

Calphurrius Bxstia, a noble Roman 
bribed by Jugurtha. It is said that he 

murdered his wives when asleep. 

Crassus, a patrician, who went with Reg- 
ulus against the Massyli. He was seized 
by the enemy, and was ordered to be sac- 
rificed to Neptune. Bisaltia, the king's 
daughter, fell in love with him, and gave 
him an oppoctunity of escaping and con- 

quering her father. Calphumius returned 
victorious, and Bisaltia destroyed herself. 
A man wl^o conspiied against the em- 
peror Nerva. Galerianus, son of Piso. 

Piso, condemned for using seditious 

words a^inst Tit^erius. Another fer- 

mous for his abstinence. Titus, a Latin 

poet, born in Sicily in the age of Diocle- 
sian, seven of whose eclogues are extant, 
and generally found with the works of 
the poets who have written on hunting. 

Calpurnia, or Calpuurnia, a noble 
family in Rome, derived from Calpus son 
of Numa. It branched into the families 
of the Pisones Bibuli, Flammae, Ccesen- 
nini, Aspranates, &c. 

Calpubnia and Calprurnia lsx, was 
enacted A. U. C. 604, severely to punish 
such as were guilty of using bribes, &c. 
A daughter of Marius, sacrificed to 

the gods by her«father, wjio was advised 
to do it, in a dream, if he wished to con- 
quer the Cimbri. A woman who killed 

herself when she heard thlit her hnsband 
was murdered in the civil wars of Marius. 

The wife of J. Caesar; A favorite 

of the emperor Claudius.-^ A woman 

ruined by Agrippina on account of her 

Calvia, a female minister of Nero's 

CALTiif A, an inftimous woman of Rome. 

Calvisius, a friend of Augustus. 

Calumnia ^nd Impudentia, two dei- 
ties worshH)ped at Athens. 

CALU8IDIU8, a soldier in the army of 
Germanicus. When this general wished 
to stab himself with his own sword, Calu- 
sidius offered him his own, observing that 
it was sharper. 

Calusium, a town of Etruria. 

Caltus Cork. Licinmus, a famons ora- 
tor, equally known for writing iambics. 

Caltbx, a town of Thrace. The 

mother of Bucolion by Laomedon. An 

old woman priestess in the temple which 
Juno had at Ardea. 

Caltcadnus, a river of Cilicia. 

Caltcx, a daughter of iEolus, son of 
Helenus and Enaretta daughter of Dei- 

machus. A Grecian gifl, who fell in 

love with a youth called Evathlus. As 
she was unable to gain the object of her 
love, she threw herself from a precipice. 

A daughter of Hecaton mother of 


Calvdium, a town on the Appian way. 

Caltdna, an island in the Myrtoan sea. 

CALrDOff,a citvof iF.tolia, where CEne- 
us, the father of Meleager, reigned. Dur- 
ing the reign of CEneus, Diana sent a wild 
boar to ravage the country, on account of 
the neglect which had been shown to her 
divinity by the king. All the princes of 
the age assembled to hunt this boar, which 
is grq^tly celebrated by the poets, under 
the name of tlie chase of Calydon, or the 

Digitized by 





Calydonian boar. Meleager killed the an- 
inxal with his own hand, and gave the 
head to Atalanta, of whom he was en- 
amored. A son of yEtolus and ProniKJ 

daughter of Phorbas. He gave his name 
to a town of iEtolia. 

Calydonis, a name of Deianira, as liv- 
ing in Calydon. 

Caltdoicius, a Surname of Bacchus. 

Caltmns, an island near Jjebynthos. 

Calynda, a town of Caria. 

Calypso, one of the Oceanides, was 
goddess of silence, and reigned in the is- 
land of Ogygia, whose situation-and even 
existence is doubted. When Ulysses was 
shipwrecked on her coasts, she received 
him with great hospitality, and offered 
him Lhimortality if he would remain with 
her as a husband. 

CAMALODuNVM,a Rouian colony in Bri- 
tain, supposed Mitlden, or Colchester. 

Cama:«tium, a town of Asia Minor. 

Camarixa, a town of Italy. A lake 

' of Sicily, with a town of the same name, 
built B. C 552. It was destroyed by the 
Syracusans, ami rebuilt by a certain Hij)- 

Camraules, a general of some Gauls 
who invaded Greece. 

Cambes, a prince of Lydia, of such vo- 
racious appetite that he ate his own 

Cambse, a place near Puteoli. 

Cambunii, mountains of Macedonia. 

Cambyses, king of Persia, was son of 
Cyrus the Great. He conquered Egypt, 
and was so offended at the superstition of 
the Egyptians, that he killed their god 
Apis, and plundered their temples. He 
killed his brother Smerdis from mere sus- 
picion, and flead alive a partial judge, 
whose skin he nailed on the judgment 
seat, and appointed his son to succeed 
him, telling him to remember where be 
sat. He died oC a small wound he had 
given himself with his sword as he mount- 
ed on horseback, five hundred and flven- 
ty-one years before Christ. He left no 
)ssue to succeed him, and his throne was 
usurped by the magi, and ascended by Dar- 

rius soon after. A person of obscure 

origin, to whom king Astya^s gave his 

daughter Mandane in marriage. A 

river of Asia trhich flows from mount 
Caucasus Into the Cyrus. 

Camelani, a people of Italy. 

Cakelita, a people of Mesopotamia. 

Camera, a field of Calabria. 

Gamerinum and CAMERTTuM,a townof 
Umbria, very faithful to Rome. The in- 
habitants were called Camertes. 

Camerinuj, a Latin poet, who wrote a 
poem on the taking of Troy by Hercules. 

Some of the family of the Camerini 

TVere distinguished for their zeal as citi- 
zens, as well as for their abilities as schol- 


Camehium, an ancient -town of Italy 
near Rome, taken by Romulus. 

Camertks, a friend of Turnus killed bjK 
JEiwAn. Fid. Cauierinum. 

Camilla, queen of the Volsci, was 
dauglittM- of Metabus and Casmilla. She 
was educated in the woods, inured to the 
labors of hunting, and fed U|)on the milk 
of mares. Her father devoted ber, when 
young, to the service of Diank. When 
she was declared queen, she marched at 
the head of an army and accompanied by 
three youthful females of equal courage as 
herseff, to assist Turnus against ^neas. 
She was so swift that she could run, or 
rather fly over a field of corn without 
bending the bk^es, and make her way 
over the sea without wetting her feet. 
She died by a wound she had received 
from Aruns. 

Cam I LI I and Camillje, the priests in- 
stituted by Romulus for the service of the 

Camillus, L. FuRirs,B celebrated Ro- 
man, called a second Romulus, from his 
services to his country. He was banished 
by the people for distributing, contrary to 
his vow, the spoils he ha4 obtained at 
Veil. During his exile, Rome was be- 
sieged by the Gauls under Brennus. In 
the midst of their misfortunes, the besieg- 
ed Romans elected him dictator, and he 
forgot their ingratitude, ahd marched to 
the relief of his country, which he deliv- 
ered, after it had been for some time in 
the possession of the enemy. He died in 
the eightieth year of his age, B. C. 365. 

A name of Mercury. An intimate 

friend of Cicero. 

Camiro and Clytia, two daughters of 
Pandaras of Crete. Jupiter to punish 
upon them the crime of their father, who 
was accessary to the impiety of Tantalus^ 
ordered the harpies to «arry them away 
and deliver them to the Airtes. 

Camirus and Camira, atown of Rhode». 

Camissares, a governor of part of Cili- 
cia, father to Datames. 

Camma, a woman of Galatia, wcho aveng- 
ed the death of her husband Sinetus upon 
his murderer Sinorix;-by makine him 
drink in a cup. of which the liquor was 
poisoned. ^ 

Camoen-c, a name given, to the muses 
fh)m the sweetness and melody of their 

* Campana lex, or Julian agrarian law, 
was enacted by J. Ciesar, A. U. C. 691, to 
divide some lands among the people. 

Campahia, a country of Italy, of which 
Capua was the capital. It is celebrated 
for its deliehtftil views, and for its fertili- 
ty. Capua is often called Campana urbs. 

Campe, kept th« hundred-handed mon- 
sters confined in Tartarus. Jupiter killed 
her, because she reftised to give them their 
liberty to come to (1%-assistance against 
the Titans, litized by N^Ut 




Cah»asf£ aiKl Pancaste, a beautiful 
concubine of ^exander, wtioiQ the kiiig 
gave to Apelles. 

CaMpi Diomxois, a plain situate in 

Campsa, a town near Pallene. 

Campus Marti us, a large plain at Rome, 
witiiout the walls of the city, where the 
Roman youths performed their exercises, 
and learnt to wrestle and box, to throw 
the discus, hurl the javelin, ride a horse, 
dAve a chariot, &,c. The public assem- 
blies were held there, and the officers of 
state chosen, and auaience given to for- 
eign ambassadors. It was adorned with 
statues, columns, arches, and porticos, 
and its pleasant situation made it very 
frequented. It was called Martins, be- 
cause dedicated to Mars. 

Camuloginus, a Gaul raised to great 
honors by Cesar, for his military abili> 

Cahulus. a surname of Mars among the 
Sabines ana Etriyians. 

Car A, a city and. promontory of ^olia. 

Canacs, a daughter of uSeius and £na- 

Canacme, one of Action's dogs. 

Caicachus, a statuary of Sicyon. 

OAifiE, a city of Locris— of iEoIia. 

Canarii, a people near mount Atlas in 
Africa, who received this name because 
they fed in common with their dogs. The 
islands which they inhabited were cajled 
Fortunate by the ancients, and are now 
known by the name of the Canaries, 

Canathus, a fountain of Nauplia. 

Candace, a queen of iEthiopia, in the 
age of Augustus.. 

Candavia, a mountain of Epirus, which 
separates Illyria from Macedonia. 

Candaules, or Mtrsilus, son of Myr- 
8US, was the last of the Heraclidie who 
sat on the throne of Lydia. 

Caivdsi, a people of Arabia who fed en 

Carbiofe, a daughter of Oenopion. 

Gandtba, a town of ^ycia. 

CAirxifs, a nymph called also Venilia, 
daughter of Janus and wife to Picus king 
of the Laurentes. When Circe had chang- 
ed her husband into a bird, she lamented 
him so much, that she pined away, and 
was changed mto a voice. She was iteck- 
oned as a deity by the inhabitants. 

Carephorj^, festivals at Athens in 
honor of Bacchus, or, according to others, 
of Diana. 

Canbthum, a place of Eubea.— ; A 

mountain in Boeotia. 

Caiticularxs diss, certain days in the 
summer, in whioh the star Canis is said 
to influence the season, aad to make the 
days more warm during its appearance. 

Cakidia, 8 certain womtf) of Neapolis, 
against whom Horace Jnveigfaed as a sor- 

Canidius, a tribune, who proposed a 
law to empower Ponipey to go only with 
two lie tors, to reconcile Ptolemy and the 

Caminefates, a people near Batavia, 
where modern Holland now is situate. 

C. Caninius Rebilus, a consul with J. 
CsBSar, after the death of Trebonius. He 
wa^ consul only for seven hours, because 
his predecessor died the last day of the 
year, and he was chosen only for the re- 
maining part of the day. Lucius, a 

lieutenant of Ciesar's army in Gaul. 

Rufus, a friend of Pliny the younger. 

Gallus, an intimate friend of Cicero. 

Canistius, a Lacedemoniaif courier, 
who ran one thousand two hundred stadia 
in one day. 

Cam us, a poet of Gades, cotemporary 
with Martial. He was so i(|ituraUy merry 

that he always laughed. A Roman 

knight, who went to Sicily f6r his amuse- 
ment, where, he bought gardens well 
stocked with fish, which disappeared on 
the morrow. 

CANiTiE, a small village of Apulia, near 
the Ausidus, where Hannibal conquered 
the Romans. The spot where this famous 
battle was fought is now shown by the 
natives, and denominated the field of 

Canopicuh ostium, one of the mouths 
of the Nile, twelve miles from Alexan- 

Cawopus, a city of Egypt, twelve miles 
from Alexandria, celebrated for the tem- 
ple of Serapis. It was founded by the 
Spartans, and it received its name from 
Canopus the pilot of the vessel of Mene- 
laus, who was buried in this place. Ttad 
inhabitants were dissolute in their man- 
ners. The pilot of the ship of Mene- 

laus, who died in Jiis youth on the coast 
of Egypt, by the bite of a serpent. 

Oaxitabra, a^ver falling into the In- 

Cahtabri, a ferocious and warlike peo- 
ple of Spain. 

Cantabria lacus, a lake in Spain, 
where a thunderbolt fell, and in which 
twelve axes were fbund. 

Cantharus, a famous sculptor of Si- 
cyon. A comic poet of Athens. 

Canthus, a son of Mkaa, one of the 

Cantium, a country in the eastern parts 
of Britain, now called Kent. 

Caituleia, one of the first vestals cho- 

sen by Numa. A law. Fid. Cann- 


C. CAifULxius, a tribune of the people 
of Rome, A. U. C. 310, who made a law 
to render it constitutional for the patri- 
cians and plebeians tolntermarry. , 

CAffULiA, a Roman girl. 

CAifVsiuM, now Canosay a town of Apu- 

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Carusius, a Greek historian under Pto- 
lemy Auletes. 

CAifUTius TiBERiifvs, R trlbunc of the 
people, who, like Cicero, furiously attack- 
ed Antony when declared an enemy to 

the state. His satire cost him his life. 

A Roman actor. 

Capazveus, a noble Argive, son of Hip- 
ponous and Astinome, and husband to 
Evadne. He was so impious, that when 
he went to the Theban war, he declared 
that he would take Thebes even in spite 
of Jupiter. Such contempt provoked the ' 
god, who struck him dead with a thun- 

Ca FELLA, an elepiac poet in the age of 

J. Cesar. Martianus, a Carthaginian, 

A. D. 490, who wrote a poem on the mar- 
riage of Mercury and philology, and in 
praise of the iib^l arts. A gladiator. 

Cape If A, a gate of Rome. 

CAPBNAa, a small river of Italy. 

Capbiti, a people of Etruria, in whose 
territory Feronia had a grove and a temple. 

Caper, a river of Asia Minor. 

Cafetus, a king of Alba, who reigned 
36 yean.— ~— A suitor of Hippodamia. 

CAPHAEBua, a lofty mountain and pro- 
montory of Euboea. 

Capmt JB, a town of Arcadia. 

Capio, a Roman, famous for his friend- 
ship with Cato. 

Capito, the uncle of Paterculus, who 

joined Agrippa against Crassus. Fon- 

teius, a man sent by Antony to settle his 
disputes with Au^stus. A man ac- 
cused of extortion m Cilicia, and severely 

punished by the senate. An epic poet 

of Alexandria, who wrote on love. An 

historian of Lycia. A poet who wrote 

on illustrious men. 

Capitolini luoi, games yearly celo'^ 
brated at Rome in honor of Jupitor, who 
preserved the capito) from the Gauls.* 

Capitolinus, a surname of Jupitor, 
from his temple on mount Capitolinus. — 
A surname of M. Manlius, who, for bit 
ambition, was thrown down from the 
Tarpeian rock which he had so nobly de- 
fended. A mountain at Rome, called 

also Mons Tarpeius, and Mons Batumi. 
The eapitol was built upon it. A con- 
sal with Marcellus. Julius, an author 

in Dioclesian's reigK* 

CapitoliuM) a celebrated temple and 
citadel at Rome on the Tarpeian rock. It 
was begun by Servius TuUius, finished by 
Tarquin Superbus, and consecrated by 
tlie consul Horatius after the expulsion 
of the Taiqiiintf from Rome. It was built 
npoik four acres of ground ; the front was 
adorned with three rows of pillars, and 
the other sides with two. The ascent to 
it frond the ground wdfe by an hundred 
steps. Its thresholds were made of brass, 
and its roof was gold. It was adorned 
with veasehi and shields of solid silver, 

with golden chariots, A:c. It was bftmt 
during the civil wars of Marius, and Syl- 
la rebuilt it, but died before the dedica- 
tion, which was performed by Q,. Catnlus. 
It was again destroyed in the troubles 
under Vitellius ; and Vespasian, who en- 
deavoured to repair it, saw it again in 
ruins kt his death. Domitian raised it 
again, for the last time, and made it more 
grand and magnificent than any of his 
predecessors, and spent 12,000 talents in 
gilding it. The consuls and magistrates 
ofiTered sacrifies there, when they first en- 
tered upon their ofiices, and the proces- 
sion in triumphs was always conducted 
to the eapitol. 

Cappadocia, a country of Asia Minor, 
between the Halys, and the Euphrates, 
and the Euxine. The inhabitants were 
of a dull and submissive disposition, and 
addicted to every vice. The kings of 
Cappadocia mostly bore the name of Aria- 

Capfaoox, a river of Cappadocia. 

Capraria, now Cabrera^ a mountain is- 
land on the coast of €pain, famous for its 

Capreje, now Capri^ an Ssli^d on the 
coast of Campania, abounding in quatts, 
and famous for the residence and de- 
baucheries of the emperor Tiberius, dur- 
ingthe seven last years of his life. 

CApRSiE Palusj a place near Rome, 
where Romulus duappearsd. 

Capricornus, a sign of the Zodiac, in 
which appear 28 stars in the form of a 
goat, when the sun enters this sign it is 
the winter solstice, or the longest night 
in the year. 

Capri FiciALis, a day sacred to Vulcan, 
on which the Athenians offered him mo- 

Caprima, a town of Caria. 

Capripedes, a surname of Pan, the 
Fauni and the Satyrs, from their having 
goats' ^eet. 

Capri us, a great informer in Horace's 

Caprotina, a festiral celebrated at 
Rome in July, in honor of Juno, at which 
women only ofiiciated. 

Caprus, a harbor near mount Athos. 

Capsa, a town of Libya, surrounded by 
vast deserts full of snakes. 

Capiage, a town of Syria. 

Capua, the chief city of Campania in 
Italy, supposed to have been founded by 
Capys, the companion of Anchises. The 
city was very ancient, and 8o« opulent that 
it even rivalled Rome, and was called al- 
tera Roma. 

Capvs, a Trojan who came with JSneas 
into Italy, and founded Capua. A son of 
Assaracus by a daughter of the Slmois. 
He was father of Anchises by Themis. 

Capt» Sylvius, a king of Alba, who 
reigned twenty-eight ye^- , 

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Cab, a SOB of Plioroneqs, king of Me- 

gara. A son of Manes, who married 

Caliirtioe, daugliter of the Mieander. Ca- 
ria received its name from him, 

Carabactra, a place in India. 

Carabis, a town of Spain. 

Caracaixa. Fid. Antoninus. 

Caracates, a people of Germany, 
• Caractacus, a king of the Britons, con- 
quered by an officer of Claudius Ciesar, 
A. D. 47. 

Carjs, certain places between Susa and 
the Tigris, where Alexander pitched bis 
pamp. ~ 

Cakj:u8, a surname of Jupiter in Boeo- 
tia,— in Caria. 

Caralis, the chief city of Sardinia. 

Carambis, now Kerempi^ a promontory 
of Paphlagonia. 

Caraivus, one of the Heraclide, the first 
who laid thf> foundation of the Macedo- 
nian empire, B. C. 814. A general of 

Alexandep.-'r«— An harbor of Phoenicia. 

Caravsihs, a tyxam of Britain for seven 
years, A. D. 993. 

Carbo, a Roman orator who killed him- 
self because he could not eurD the licen- 
tious manners of his countrwen. 

' Cneas, a son of the orator Carbo, who 
embraced the party of Marias, and after 
the death of Cinna succeeded to the gov- 
ernment. He was killed in Bpaia, in his 

third consulship. An orator, son of 

Carbo the orator, killed by tlie army when 
desirous of reestablishing the ancient mil- 
itary diacipline. 

Carchxdoit, the Greek name of Car- 

Caroinus. a tragic poet of Agrigentum, 
in the age or Philip of Macedon.—— Ano- 
ther of Athens. Another of Naupac- 

tum. A manof Rhegium.* An Athe- 
nian general, who laid waste Peloponne- 
sus in the time Periclei. 

Carcinus, a constellation, the same as 
^he Cancer. 

Pardaces, a people of Asia Minor, 

Cardahtle, a town of Argos. 

Caroia, a town in the Thraaian Cher- 

CARencMi, a warlike nation of Media, 
along t|}^ t)orders of the Tigris. 

Cares, a nation which inhabited Caria, 
and thought themselves the original pos- 
sessors of that country. 

Care«a, an island of tbe ^gean sea, 
opposite Attica. 

CARBssua, a river of Troas. 

Carfiitia, an immodest woman of 
Bome. , 

Caria, now .^uttneSi, a country of Asia 
Minor, whose bouffilaries have be^n dif- 
ferent in different ages. It was at the 
south of Ionia, at the east and north of 
^be leariao sea, and at the west of Phry- 
pa Major and Lycia. It has been called 

Phoenicia. The chief town was UaJicar- 
nassus. A port of Thrace. 

C arias, a town of Peloponnesus.^— A 

Cariate, a town of Bactriana, where 
Alexander imprisoned Callistheues. 

Cariixa, a town of the Piceni, destroy- 
ed by Aunibal, for its great attachment to 
Bome. • 

Carijva, a virgin of Caria. 

Carina, certain edifices at Rome, built 
in the manner of ships, which were in 
the temple of Tellus. Some suppose that 
it was a street in whidh Pompey's house 
was built. 

Carine, a town near the Caicus in Asia 

Carinus, (M. Aurelius) a Roman who 
attempted to succeed his father Cams as 
emperor. He was famous for his de- 
baucheries and cruelties. Dioclesian de- 
feated him in Dalmatia, and he was kill- 
ed by a soldier. A, D. 268. 

Carisiacum, a town of ancient Gaul, 
now Cressy in Picardy. ■ 

Carissanum, a place of Italy near 
which Milo was killed. 

Caristum, a town of Ligaria. 

Cabmaxia, a country of Asia, between 
Persia and India. 

Carmanor, a Cretan, who purified 
Apollo of slaughter. 

Carme, a nymphj daughter of Eubulus 
and motlipr of Bntomartis by Jupiter. 
She was one of Diana's attendants. 

Carmelus, a god among the inhabitant9 
of mount Carmel, situate between Syria 
and Judeea. 

CARMBffTA and CiRMERTis, B prophet- 
ess of Arcadia, mother of Evander, wit)} 
whom she came to Italy, and was receiv- 
ed by king Faunus, about 60 years before 
the Trojan war. She was the oracle of 
the people of Italy during her life, and 
after death she received divine honors. 
She had a temple at Rome, and the Greeks 
offered her sacrifices under tlie name of 

Carmentales, festivals at Rome in ho- 
nor of Carmenta, celebrated the 11th of 
January, near the Porta Carmentalis, be- 
low the oapitoU 

Cabmentams Fobta, one of the gates 
of Rome in the neighborhood of the cap- 
itol. It was afterwards called Sctlerala, 
because the Fabii passed through it in 
going to that fatal expedition where they 

Carmides, a Greek of an uneoBunon 

Carna and CABoiifEA, a goddess at 
Rome. The Romans offered her beana, 
bacon, and vegetables, to represent the 
simplicity of their ancestors. 

Carnasius, a village of Messenia in 

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Carhbadbs, a phi]odM>ph0r of Cyrene in 
ATrica, foander of a sect called the third 
or new Acadeniv. Carneadea denied that 
any thing eoold be perceived or under- 
stood in the world, and he was the first 
who iatroduced an universal suspension 
of assent. He died in the 90th year of 
liis age, B. G. 12ti. . 

CAaifsiA, a festival observed in most of 
the Grecian cities, but more particularlv 
at Sparta, where it was first instituted, 
about 675 B. C. in honor of Apollo sur- 
■amed Cameus. 

Cabwioii, a town of Laeonia. ^A 

river of Arcadia. 

CAairus, a prophet of Acamania, from 
w^hora Apollo was called Cameua. 

CAairaTss, a people of Celtic Gaul. 

Cabpasia and CAaPAsiuM, a town of 

CAaPATRus, an island in the Mediterra- 
nean between Rhodes and Crete, now 
called Scapantp. *' 

Cabpia, an ancient namtf of Tartessus. 

Carpis, a river of Mysia. 

GAapo. a daughter of Zephyras, and 
one of tne Seasons. She was drowned ' 
^ in the Maander, and was changed by 
Jupiter into all sorts of fruit. 

CAapopfURA, a aame of Ceres and Pro- 
serpine in Tegea. 

CAapoPHomas, an actor greatly estetfm- 
> ad by Doraitian. 

CAaajE and Carrhjc, a town of Meso- 
I potamia, near which Crassua was killed. 

CAaaiiTATas Sscuirons, a yeor but in- 
genious rhetorician, who came from Ath- 
ens to Rome, where the boldness of his 
\ expreasioDS exposed him to Caligula's re- 

CAsaucA, a town of Spain. 

CAassoLi, a town of the iBqui, at the 
west of the lake Fucinus. 

Ca»taua9, a town of Spain. 

Casts I A, a town at the extremity of 
Spain, supposed to be the same as Calpe« 

Casts If A, a town of Mauritania, now 
TeiMz, on the shores of the Mediterrar 

CASTHiEA, a town in the island of Cea. 

CASTHAGiiriaiffSEs, the inhabitants of 
Carthage, a rich and commercial nation. 

Casthaoo, a celebrated city of AiMca, 
the rival of Rome, and long the capital 
of the country, and mistress of Spain, Si- 
cily, and Sardinia. Most writers seem to 
agree that it was first built by Dido, about 
869 years before the christian eia. This 
citv and republic flourished for 737 years, 
and the time of Its greatest glory was un- 
der Annibal and Amiloar. It maintained 
three famous wars against Rome, called 
the Punic wars ; iji the third of which 
Carthage was totally destroyed by Scipio 
the seeond Africanns, B. C. 147, and only 
5000 persons were found within the vyalls. 
It was 33 miles in circumference, and 

when it was set on fire by the Romans, it 
burned incessantly during 17 days. It 
was afterwards partly rebuilt by the dif- 
ferent emperors. Carthage was conquer- 
ed from the Romans by the arms of Gen- 
seric, A. D. 439 j and it was for more than 
a century the seat of the Vandal empire 
in Africa, and fell into the hands of the 
Saracens (n the seventh century. The Car- 
thaginians were governed as a republic, 
and had two persons yearly chosen among 
them with regal authority. They were 
very superstitious, and generally offered 
human victims to their gods. They bore 
the character of a faithless and treacher- 
ous people, and the proverb Punica fides 
is well known. Nova,' a town buUt in 
Spain, on the coasts of the Mediterra- 
nean, by Asdrubal the Carthaginian gene- 
ral. It now bears the same of Carthagetui, 
A daughter of Hercules. 

CARTHAiia, a Scythian, &c. 

Carthsa, a town of Cos. 

Castiuus, a king of Britian, who at- 
tacked Cesar's naval station by order of 

Cassivelaunus, Ate. Spurius, a Roman 

who made a latge image of the breast- 
plates taken fk-om the Saranites, and 
placed it In the capitol. The first Ro- 
man whs divorced his wi^ during the 
space of above 600 years. 

Casus, a Roman emperor who succeed- 
ed ProbiiB. He was a prudent and active 
general, be conquered the Sarmatians, 
and continued the Persian war which his 
predecessor had commenced. He reigned 
two years, and died on the banks of the 
Tigris as he was going in an expedition 

against Persia, A. D. 283. -One of those 

who attempted to scale the rock Aornus, 
by order of Alexander. 

Carta, a town of Arcadia. A city 

of Laeonia. Here a festival was observed 
in honor of Diana Caryaiis. It was then 
usual for virgins to meet at the celebra- 
tion, and join in a certain dance, said 
to have been first instituted by Castor and 

Cartaitda, a town and island on the 
coast of Caria, now Karacoion. 

Cart^t jc, a people of Arcadia. 

Cartstius Antioomus, an historian, 
B. C. d48. 

Cartstus, a maritime town on the 
south of Eubma, still in existence, famous 
for its marble. 

Cartum, a place of Laeonia. where 
Aristomenes pfreserved some virgins. 

Casca, one of Csesar's assassns, who 
gave him the first blow. 

Cascellius AuLua, a lawyer of great 
merit in the Augustan age. 

CAsiLiifUH, a town of» Campania.— 
When it was besieged by Hannibal, a 
mouse sold for 900 denarii. 

Casina and Casiwum, a town of Cam- 



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C48iu«, a mountain near the Euphrates. 
. Another at the east of Pelusium, 
where Pompey's tomb was raised by Adri- 
an. Another in Syria, from whose top 

the aun can be seen rising, though it be 
still the darkfless of night at the bottom 
of the mountain.' 

Gasmen^, a town built by the Syracti- 
sans in Bicily. 

Casmilla, the mother of Camilla. 

Casferia, wife of Khoetus king of the 
Marrubii. A town of thift Sabines. 

CASPEaiTLA, a town of*the Sabines. 

Caspi-k Pobtje, certain passes of Asia, 
which some place about Caucasus and the 
Caspian s^a, and others between Persia 
and the Caspian sea. 

Caspiana, a country of Armenia. 

Caspii, a Scythian nation near the Cas- 
pian sea. Such as had lived beyond their 
seventieth year were starved to death. 
Their dogs were remarkable for their 

Caspium MARE, or Hyrcanum, a large 
pea in the form of a lal{£, which lies be- 
tween the Caspian and Hyrcanian moun- 
tains, at the north of Parthia, receiving in 
'ts capacious bed the tribute of several 
large rivers. Ancient authors assure us, 
that it produced enormous serpents and 
fishes, different in color and kind from 
. those of all other waters. 

Casfius mons, a branch of mount Tau- 
rus, between Media and Armenia, at the 
east of the Euphrates. 

Cassandine, the motiler of Cambyses 
hy Cyrus. 

Cassarder, son of Antipatei', made 
himself matster of Macedonia after his fa- 
ther's death, where he reigned for eighteen 
years. He died of a dropsy. 

Cassandra, daughter of Priam and He- 
cuba, was passionately loved by Apollo, 
who promised to grant her whatever she 
might require. She asked the power of 
knowing futurity ; and as soon as she had 
received it, slighted her heavenly lover. 
The god, in his disappointment, wetted 
her lips with his tongue, and by this ac- 
tion effected that no credit or lyliance 
should «rer be put upon hef predictions'^ 
however true or faithfVil they mi|^t be. 
She wag looked upon by the Trojans a« 
insane, and she was even confined, and her 
predictions were disregarded. In the divi- 
sion of the spoils ofTroy, Agamemnon, 
who was enamored of her, |ook her as his 
wife, and returned with her to Greece. 
She repd'atedly foretold to him the sudden 
' calamities that awaited his return ; but 
he gave n» credit t(f her, and was assas- 
sinated by his w)fe Clytemnestra. Cas- 
saiidra 'shared his fate, and saw all her 
prophecies but too truly fulfilled* 

CAJSANDBtA, a* town, of the peninsula 
of Pallene in Macedonia, called tlso Po- 

Cassia lex was enacted by Cassius 
Longinus, A. U. C. 649. By H no man 
condemned or deprived of military power 
was permitted to enter the senate-house. 

Another enacted by C. Cass^us, the 

pretor, to choose some of the plebeians to 

be admitted among the patriciai\s. 

Anotfter* A. U. C. 616, to make the suf- 
frages or the Roman people free and inde- 
pendent. It ordained that they should Le 
received upon tablets.-- — Another A. U. 

C. 267, to make a division of the territin 
ries taken from the Hemici, half to the 

Roman people, and half to the Latins. 

Another enacted A. U. C. 596, to grant a 
consular power to P. Anicius atid Octa- 
vlus on the day they triumphed over Ma- 

Cassiodorus, a great statesman and 
writer in the sixth century. He died A. 

D. 562, at the age of one hundred. 
ObissioPE and Cassiopea, married Ce- 

pheus, king of iBthiopia, by whom she 
had Andromeda. She boasted herself to 
be fairer than the Nereides j upon which, 
Neptune punished the insolence of Cas- 
siope, and sent a huge sea-monster to 
ravage ^Ethiopia. The wrath of Neptune 
could be appeased only by exposing An- 
dromeda to the fury of a s^-monster j 
and just as she was going to be devoured, 
Perseus delivered her. Cassiope was made 
a southern constellation, consisting of 

thirteen stars called Cassiope. A city 

pf Epirus near Thesprotia. Another in 

the island of Corcyra,- The wife of 

Epaphus, ' 

Cassyterides, islands in the western 
ocean, wbere tin was found, supposed to 
be the Se&ly islands, the Land's end, and 
Lif ard point, of the moderns. 

Cassivelaunus, a Britain invested witli 
sovereign authori^ when J. Csesar made 
a descent upon Britain. 

O, Cassius;, a celebrated Roman, who 
made, himself known by being first quaes- 
tor to Crassus in his expedition against 
Parthia. He married Junia the sister of 
Brutus, and with him he resolved to mur- 
der CsBsar on account of his oppressive 
ambition. When the provinces were di- 
vided among Caesar's murderers, Cassiusr 
received Africa ; aAd when his party had 
lo^t ground at Rome, by the superior in- 
fluence of Augustus and M. Antony, he 
retired to Philippi, with his friend Brutus 
and theii adherents. In the battle that 
was fought there, the wing which Cas- 
sius commanded was defeated, and his 
camp was plundered. Fearful to fall into 
the enemy's hands, ha ordered one of bis 
freedmett to run him through, and he per- 
ished by that very sword which had given 
wounds to Caesar. He was a strict fol- 
lower of the doctrine of Epicurus. ^A 

Roman citizen, who condemned his son 
to death, on pretence of bis raising corn- 
Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




motions in th6 state. ^A tribune of the 

people, who made many laws tending to di- 
minish the influence of the Roman nobili- 
ty. One of Pompey'B officers, who, dur- 
ing the civil wars, revolted to Caesar with 

ten ships. A ^et of Parma, of gfeat 

genius. Spurius, a Roman, put to death 

on suspicion of his aspiring to tyia.nny, 
after he had been three times consul, B. C. 

485. Brutus, a Roman who betrayed 

his country to the Latins, and fled to the 
temple of Pallas, where his fatlier coa- 
fin«d him, and he was starved to death. 

Lons^iuus, an officer of Caesar in 

Spain, much disJilced. A consul to 

whom Tiberius married Drusilla, daugh- 
ter of Germanicus. A lawyer whom' 

Nero put to death because he bore the 

name of J. Caesar's murderer. L. He- 

mina, the most ancient writer of annals 
at Rome. Hfe lived A. U. C. G08. Lu- 
cius, a Roman lawyer; whose severity in 
the execution of the law has rendered the 
words Cassiant judices applicable to rigid 

judges. Longinus, a critic. Lucius, 

a consul with C. Marius, slain with his 

army by the Gauls Senones. An officer 

under Aurelius, made emperor byliis so^ 
diers, and murdered three months after. 
Felix, a physician in the age of Tibe- 
rius, who wrote on animals.— >-deverus, 
an orator who wrote a severe treatise on 
illustrious men and women. He died in 
exile, in "his twenty-fifth year. The fam- 
ily of the Cassii branched into the sur- 
name of Longinus, VisceliinuSy Brutus, 

Cassotii, a nymph and fountain of 

Castabala, a city of Cilicia, whose in- 
habitants made war with their do^^s. 

Castabus, a town of Chersonesus. 

Castalia, a town near Phocis. A 

daughter of the Achelous. 

Castalius foxs, or Castalia, a foun- 
tain of Parnassus, sacred to the muSes. 
The waters of this fountain were cool and 
exrelleHt, and they bad the power of in- 
spiring those that drank of them with the 
Ime fire of poetry. The miise> have re- 
ceived the surname of Castaiidos from tius 

CASTAffEA, a town near the Peneus, 
whence the nwiea Castanea received their 

Castellum MZTfAriouvMy, a town of 

Belgium on the Maese, now Kessel. 

Morinorum, now numnt Casatly in Flan- 
ders. Cattorum, now Hesse Cassel. 

Casthszvei, a bay of Thrace, near By- 

CASTiAifiKA, a Tbracian mistress of 
Priam, and moth^^of Gorgythion. 

Castoh and Pollux, were twin broth* 
ers, sons of Jupiter, by Leda, the wife of 

Tyndarus, king of Sparta. Mercury, 

immediately after their birth, cairled the 

two brothers to Pallena, where thev wertf 
educated ^ and as soon as they haa arriv- 
ed to yeru-s of maturity, they embarked 
with Jasun to go in quest uf the golden 
fleece. In this expedition both behaved 
with superior courage : Pollux conquered 
and slew Amycus, in the combat of the 
cestus, and was ever after reckoned the 
god and patron of boxing and wrestling. 
Castor distinguished himself in the man- 
agement of horses. The brothers cleared 
the Hellespont, and the neighboring seas, 
from pirates, «ter their return from Col- 
chis, from which circumstance they have 
been always deemed the friends of navi- 
gation. During the Argonautic expedi- 
tion, in a violent storm, two dames of 
fire were seen to play around the heads 
of the sons of Leda, and immediately the 
tempest ceased and the sea was calmed. 
From this occurrence their power to pro- 
tect sailors has been more firmly credited^ 
and the two mentioned fires, which ^are 
very common in storms, have since been 
known by the name of Castor and Pollux j 
and when they both appeared it was a 
sign of fair weather ; but if only one was 
seen it prognosticated storms,, and the aid 
of Castor and Pollux was consequently- 
solicited.- Castor and Pollux made war 
against ;he Athenians ta recover their sis- 
ter Helen, whom Tlieseus had carried 
away ; and from their clemency to the 
conquered, they acquired the surname of 
Anaces, or benefiictors. They were in- 
itiated in the sacred mysteries of the Ca- 
biri, and in those of Ceres of Eleusis. 
They were invited to a feast when Lyn- 
ceus and Icfns were going to celebrate' 
theu" marriage with Phnebe and Talaira, 
the daughters of Leucippus, who was- 
brother to Tyndarus. Their behavior af- 
ter this invitation was cruel. They be- 
came enamored of the two women whose' 
nupti.ils they were to celebrate, and re* 
solved to carry them away and many 
them. This violent step provoked Lyn- 
ceus and Idas : a battle ensued, and Cas- 
tor killed Lynceus, and was Rilled by 
Idas. Pollux revenged the death of his 
brother by killing Idas; and as he was 
immortal, and tenderly attached to his 
brother, he entreated Jupiter to restore 
him ta Iffb, or to be deprived himself of 
immortality.. Jupiter permitted Castor to 
shar^ the immortali^ of bis brother ; and 
consequently ^as long as the one was upon 
the earth, so ibng was the other detained 
in tlte infernal regions, and theyidternate- 
ly lived and died every day ; or according 
to others, every six aoonths. This act of 
fraternal love Jupiter rewarded by making 
the two brothers constellations in heaven, 
under this name of Oeminiy which never 
appear together, but wjjen one rises ttaa 
Other sets, and sb on -alternately. They 
recelTed divine houow aAcr ilMta^ ana 

Digitized by 





were generally called Dioscuri^ sons of 

Jupiter. An ancient physician. A 

swift runner. A friend of iEneas, who 

accompanied him into Italy. An ora- 
tor of Rhodes, related to king Deiotarus. 
He wrote two books on Babylon, and one 

on the Nile. A gladiator. 

Castra AxsxAifDRi, a place of Egypt 

about Pelusium. Cornelia, a maritime 

town of Africa, l^tween Carthage and 

Utica. Anrthalis, a town of the Brutii, 

BOW RocceUa. Cyri, a country of Cili- 

cia, where Cyrus encamped when be 
marched against Croesus.^-— Julia, a town 

of Spain. Poethumiana, a place of 


Gastkatius, a governor of Placentia 
iluring the civil wars of Marius. 

Castrum Novum, a place on the coast 
of Etruria,— — '^Truentinum, a town of 

Ficenam. fnui, a town on the shores 

of the Tyrrhene* sea. 

Castulo, a town of Spain, where An- 
nibal married one' of the natives. 

Catabathmos, a great declivity near 
Cyrene, fixed by Sallost as the boundary 
of Africa. 

Catadupa, the name of the large cata- 
racts of the Nile. 

CATAooot A, faetivals in honor of Venns 
celebrated by the people of Eryx. Fid. 

Catahentel&s, a king of the Sequani, 
in alliance with Rojne, &c. 

Catana, a town of Sicily, at the foot of 
mount ^tna, founded by a colony from 
Chalcis, seven hundred and fifty-three 
years before the Christian era. Ceres had 
there a temple, in which noBe but women 
were permitted to appev* 

Caxaonia, a country above Cilicia, near 
Cataract A, a City of the Samnites. 
Gataractes, a river of Pamphylia, now 

CATXNS9, a Persian by whose means 
Bessus was seized. 
Gathjea, a country of India. 
Gathart, certain gods of the Arcadians. 
An Indian nation, where the wives 
accompany their husbands to the burning 
pile, and are burnt with tbenu 

C a Ti A , an immodest woman, mentioned 
by Horace, 

Catiena, an Infamous woman in Juve- 
nal's age. 

Catieivus, an actor at Rome in Horace's 

L. Seroius Catilitta, a celebrated Ro- 
man descended of a noble family. When 
he had squandered away his fortune by 
his debaucheries and 'extravagance, ^d 
been refused the consulship, he seemly 
meditated the ruin of his cauntry, and 
conspired with many of the most illustri- 
ous of the Romans, as dissolute as him- 
self, to extirpate the senate, plunder the 

treasury, and set Rome on ire. Tbiseon- 
spiracy was timely discovered by the con- 
sul Cicero, wbom he had resolved to mur- 
der ; and Catiline, after he bad declared 
his intentions in the full senate, and at- 
tempted to vindicate himself, on seeing 
five of his accomplices arrested, retired to 
Gaul, where his partisans were assem- 
bling an army; while Cicero at Rome 
punished the condemned conspirators. 
Petreius,the other consuls lieutenant, at- 
tacked Catiline's iU disciplined troops, 
and routed them. Catlike was kiUed in 
the engagement, bravely fighting, abont 
the middle of December, B. C. 63. His 
character has been deservedly bnmded 
with the foulest infiimy. 
Catiu.1, a people near the river Anio. 
Catilius, a pirate of Dalmatia. 
Gatillos, or Catilus, a son of Ampbi- 
araus, who came to Italy with his bnrtb- 
ere Coras and Tiburtus, where be boiit 
Tibur, and assisted Turnus againat ^ne- 
Catina, a town of Sicily, called also 

Gatana. Another of Arcadia. 

M. Catius, an epicurean philosopher of 

Insubria. Vestinas, a military tribune 

in M. Antony's army. 

Catizi, a people of the Pygmsans, Bap- 
posed to have been driven from their cotitt- 
try by oanes. 

Gato, a surname of the Porcian family, 
rendered illustrious by M. Porcius Cato, a 
celebrated Roman, afterwards called Ce»- 
sorms, from his having exercised the ottce 
of censor. He rose to all the honors of 
the state, and- the first battle be ever saw 
was against Annibal, aft the age of seven- 
teen, where be l^haved with uncommon 
valor. He waa remarkable for bis love of 
temperance j be never drank but water, 
and was always satisfied with whatever 
meats were laid upon his table by bis ser- 
vants, whom be never reproved with an 
angry wi>rd. During bis censorship, be 
behaved with the greatest rigor and im- 
partiality, showed himself an enemy to all 
luxury and dissipation, and even accused 
his colleague of embezzling the public 
money. He is famous for the great oppo- 
sition which be made against the intro- 
duction of the finer arts of Greece into 
Italy. It appears, however, that he chang- 
ed his opinion, and made Umself remark- 
able for the knowledge of Greek, which 
he acquired in his old age. He himself 
educated his son, and inntructed him in 
writing and grammar. He was univer- 
sally deemed so strict in bis morals, that 
Virgil makes him one of the Judges (if 
hell. He repented only of three things 
during his life ; to have gone b^ sea when 
he could go by land, to have passed a day 
inactive, and to have told a secret to bis 
wife. In Cicero's age there were one 
hundred and fifty oratioiw of his, besides 

Digitized by 





tottan, and a celebrated work calTed Ori- 
^mec. Cato died in an extreme old age, 

about 150 Q. C. Marcus, Uie son of the 

censor. He lost his sword in a battle, and 
thoucfa wounded .and tired^ he went to 
his triendSy and, with their assistance, 
renewed the battle, and recovered his 

sword. A courageous Roman, grand- 

fttther to Cato the censor. Valerius, a 

grammarian of Gallia Narbonensis, in the 
time of Sylla.-^—— Marcus, sumamed Uti- 
censis^ from his death at utica, was great 

S-andson to the 4(ensor of the same name, 
e was austere in his morals, and a strict 
follower of the tenets of the Stoics ; he 
was careless of his drees, often appeared 
barefooted in public, and never travelled 
but on foot. He was such a lover of dis- 
cipline, that in whatever office he was 
employed, he always leformed its abu- 
ses, and restored the ancient regulations. 
When he was set Dver the troops in the 
capacity of a commander, liis removal was 
universally lamented, and deemed almost 
a public loss by his affectionate soldiers. 
In the conspiracy of Catiline, he support- 
ed Cicero, and was the chief cause that 
the conspirators were capitally punished* 
WHien the first Mumvirate was formed 
between CsBsar, Pompey, and CJrassus. 
Cato opposed them with all his might, ana 
with an independent spirit foQstold to the 
Roman people all the misfortunes wl}ich 
soon after followed. After repeated ap- 
plications he was made pretor, but he 
seemed rather to disgrace than support 
the dignity of that office, by the meanness 
of his dress. He applied for the consul- 
ship, but could never obtain it. After the 
battle of Pharsalia, Cato took the com- 
mand of the Corcyrean fleet -, and when 
he heard of Pompey's death, on the coast 
of Africa, he Inversed the deserts of 
Libya, to join himself to Scipio. When 
Scipio had been defeated, partly for not 
paylns regard to Cato's advice, Cato forti- 
fied himself in Utica^ but, however, not 
with the intentions or supporting a siege. 
When Cfesar approached near the city^ 
Cato disdained to fly, and rathw than fall 
alive into the conqueror's hands, he stab- 
bed himself, after he had read Plate's 
treatise on the immortality of the soul, 
B. C. 46, in the fifty-ninth year of his age. 
——A son of Cato of Utica. who was kill- 
ed in a battle, after he Bad'acquired much 

C ATRi A , a town of Crete. 

Catrcus, a king of Crete, killed by his 
son at Rhodes, unknowingly. 

Catta, a woman who had the gift of 

Catti, a people of Gaul and Germany. 

Catuliana, a surname of Minerva, from 
L. Catulus, who dedicated a standard to 

Catullus, C. or QL VALsaius, a poet 

of Verona, whose eonpoaitioiui, etegmt 
and simple, are the Mbiwing of a luxuri- 
ant imagination. Catullas was the first 
Roman who imitated with success the 
Greek Vriters, and introduced their nam* 
bers amon^ the Latins. Catallus died ia 
the forty-sixth year of his age,-^ C. 40. 

A man •umame.d UrHuBrvu^ was a 


Q,. LUCTATius CatuluS) went with three 
hundred sh^s during the first Punic war 
against the Carthaginians, aad destroyed 
six hundred of their ships under HamiK. 
car, near the Agates. This celebrated 
victory put an end to the war.~— An ora- 
tor distinguished also as a writer of epi- 
grams, and admired for the neatness, ele- 
gance, and polished style of his composi- 
tions. A Roman sent by his countif- 

mem to eairy a preseat Xx^ the god of Del- 
phi, from the spoils taken from Asdrubal. 

CaturioIes, a people of Gaul, now CAor* 
gea, near the source of the Durance. 

Cavarss, a people of Gaul, who inhab- 
ited the present provineeof Comtat in Pro- 

Catarillus, a commander of some 
troops of tlie ^dul in 'Cesar's army. 

Cavarinus, a Gaul, made king of the 
Sttiones by Ca>sar, and banishea by His 

Caucasus, a celelHrated mountain be- 
tween the Euxine and Caspian seas, which 
may be considered as the continuation of 
the ridge of mount Taurus. Its height is 
immense. It was inhabited anciently by 
various savage nations who lived upon the 
wild fruits of the earth. Prometheus was 
tied on the top of Caucasus by Jupiter, and 
continually devoured by vultures j accord* 
ing to ancient authors. 

CAUcoif, a son of Clinus, who Urst in^ 
troduced the Orgies into Messenia, from 

Gauoombs, a people of Pftphlagcmia. 
originally inhabitants of Aroadia, or of 

' Caudi and Caudium, a town af Uie 

Cavii, a people of lHyricum. 

Caulonia, or Cauloit, a town of Italy 
near the country of the BrutU, destroyed 
in the wars between Pyrrhiis and the Ro- 

Caumus, a man raised to affluence from 
poverty l^ Artaxerxes. 

Caunus, a son of Miletus and Cyane. 
I. A city of Caria, opposite Rhodes, 
whcpna Protogenes was bom. The climate 
was considered as unwholesome, espe- 
cially in sumiper. 
^ Cauros, an island in the ^gean sea. 

Caurus, a wind blowing from the west. 

Caus, a village of Arcadia. 

Catoz, or Chauci, a nation of Ctermaj 
ny, now the peeple of Friesland an<l 

y Google 




Catovs, a river of Mysls. 

Catstsk, or Catstrui, now MUekedt- 
Meimder, a rapid river of Alia. Accord- 
ing to tbe poets, the banks and neiglibor- 
hood of this river were generally frequent- 
ed by swans. 

CsA Of Ckos, an island near Eubcea, 
called also Cp. 

Ceades, a Thracian, whose son Euphe- 
nms was concerned in the Trojan war. 

Ceba, row C«v4^ a town ot modtita 
Piedmont, famous for cheese. 

Ceballinu*, a man who gaveinfcnma- 
tion of the snares laid against Alexander. 

Cebarekses, a people of Gaul. 

Cebenna mountains, now the Ceoennea. 

Cbbes, a Theban j)hilosopher, one of 
the disciples of Socrates, B. C. 405. 

Cx BRETT, the father of Asterope. 

Ckbrbnia, a country of Troas with a 
town of the same name, called af&r the 
river Cebraauy which is in the neighbor- 

GsBKiojTxs, one of the giants conquer- 
ed by Venus.— —Aa ^legitimate son of' 

'CxKROs now Zebriso a river falling into 
the Danube. 

"Cecidas, an ancient dithyrambic poet. 

'Cecilius. Vid. Cecilius. 

Ceciiia, ariver near Volaterra, in Etra- 

A. CBCii»iiA,a Boman lEnight in the in- 
terest of Pompey, who used to breed ^p 
young swallows, and send them to carry 

news to his flriends as messengers. 

A scribe of OctaVhis Cssar. A consu- 
lar man suspected of conspiracy, and mur- 
dered hy Titus, after an Invitation to sup- 

CxcROPiA.the original name of Athens, 
in honor of Cecrops, itA first founder. 

CxcROPiDA, an ancient name of tiie 

Cecrops, a native of fiais In Egypt, who 
led a colony to Attica about 1556 years be- 
fore the Christian era, and reigned over 
imrt of the ceuntiv which was called from 
bini Cecropia. He married the daughter 
of Actsus a .Grecian prince, and was 
deemed the iiTSt founder of Athens. Af- 
ter a reign of 50 years, spent in regulating 
his newly formed kingdom, and in polish- 
ing the minds of his subjects, Cecrope died, 
leaving three daughters, Agianros, Herse, 

and Pandrosos. The second of that 

name, was the seventh king of Athens, 
and the son and successor of Erechtheus. 
He reigned 40 years, and died 1307, B. C. 

CxRCYPHAiiic, a place of Greece, where 
the Athenians defeated the fleet of the 

Cedrxatis, the name of Diana among 
the Orchomenians. 

CxDOir, an Athenian general, killed in 
tea engagement against the Spartans. 

<<sDausii| an Indian nation. 

CSOU7SA, the mother of Aaopin liy Nep- 

Cei, the inhabitants of the istandCea. 

CsLADorr, n man killed by Perseus, at 

Che marriage of Andromeda. A river 

of Greece, flowing into the Alplieu^ 

Celadus, a river of Arcadia. An l»> 

land of the Adriatic sea. 

Celjenje, Of Cblene, a city of Phiy* 
gia, of which it was once the capital. 

.Ckla:zto, one of ti>e daughters of Attas, 

ravished by J^ieptuiie. One of the har* 

pies.-- . One of the Danaides. A 

daughter of Neptune aiMl Ergea.^ A 

daughter of Hyamus, xatother of Delpbui^ 
by Apollo. 

Cejlejc, a town of Peloponnesus. 

CxLxiA and Cela, a town of Noricum. 

CxLBijiTBs, a people of Liguria. 

CsLxifDEJE, CfiUiirDRiSf and Csleitdr- 
Rii, a colony of the Samians in Cilicia, 
with a harbor of the same name at the 
mouth of the Selinus. 

Celeneus, a Cimmerian, who fiirt 
taught how persons guilty of murder 
might be expiated. 

Celenzta orCxLJBNA, a town ofCten- 
pania, where Juno was worshipped. 

CxLBR, a man who with Severus un* 
dertook to rebuild .Nero*s palace after the 

burning of Eome. A man called Fabi- 

us, who ki^fld Remus when he leaped 
over the waus of Rome, by order of Rom- 
ulus. Metius, a nolile youth to whom 

Statius dedicated a poem. 

Cbubrxs, three hundred of the noblest 
and strongest youths at Rome, chpsen by 
Romulus to be his body guards, to at- 
tend him wherever he went, and to pro- 
tect his person. 

Celbtrum, a town of Macedonia. 

Celeus, a king of Eleusis, (httier to 
Triptolemus by Metanini,. He gave a 
kind reception to Ceres, who taught his 

son the cultivation of the earth. A 

king of Cephallenia. 

CxLMus, a man who nursed Jupiter, 
by whom he was greatly esteemed. He 
was changed into a magnet stone for 8ay> 
ing that Jupiter was mortal. 

Celon J, a place of Mesopotamia. 

Cblsus, an epicurean philosopher in 

the second century. Corn, a physician, 

in the age of Tiberius, who wrote eight 
books on medicine, besides treatises' on 
agriculture, rhetoric, and military affkirs. 

Albinovanus, a friend of Horace. — 

Some of his elegies have been preserved. 

Juventius, a lawyer who conspired 

against Domitian. Titus, a man pro- 

claimed emperor, A. D. 265, against his 
will, and murdered seven days after. 

Celta, a name given to the nation that 
inhabited the country between the Ocean 
and the Palus Meeotis, more particularly 
given to a part of the Gauls, whose coun- 
try, called Gallia Celtica, was situate he< 

Digitized by 





tweea the riVBn Sequana and Gafamna, 
aodemly eaUed la Seate, and la Oaronne. 

Celtibbm, a peofle of S^ain, descend- 
ed from the Celte. Tbeir country, called 
CeltiberiOf ia uow known by the name of 

Cbltica, a well populated part of Gaul, 
iababited by ttae Celtae. 

CsLTici, a people of Spain. The pro- 
Boatoiy which bora their name is now 
Cape Fausterre. 

CEx,rti.LU8, the father of Vercingetorix 
among the Ar^emi. 

CcLTORix, a people of Gaul, near the 

Cbltoicvthje, a northern nation of 

CaMMCirus, a lofty mountain of Gaul. 

Cbmpsi, a people of Spain at the bot- 
tom of the Pyrenean mountains. 

CsNABUM, or Gbhabom. Fid. Gena- 

CtKMvm, a promontory of Eubma, 
where Jupiter Ctuuiu had an aitar raised 
by Hercules. ' 

Cbkchbxje, now Kenkri, % town of Pe- 
lopoanesua on the isthmus of Gorintib—— 
A harbor of Corinth. 

CBifCHanis, the wife of Cinyras kliig of 
Cyprus, or «s others say, of Assyria. 

Cbbcmbkus, a son of Neptune. and 8a- 
lamis, or as some say of Ffrene. He 
killed a large serpent at Salamls. 

Gbvchriuv) a river of Ionia near Ephe- 
sns, where some suppose that Latona was 
washed after she had brought forth. 

Cbbbpous. a town of Spain, the same 
as Carthago Nova. , 

CbwbI^um, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Cbnhbus. FhL Cenis. 

CBictMAoiri, a people on the western 
parts of Britain. 

CsififfA. *Fid. CetUna. 

CiifoN, atown ofltely. . 

Cbn S0RB9. two magistrates of great aM- 
tboiity at Rome, ftrst created, B. C. 443. 
Their office was to number the people, 
estimate the pomessions of every citizen, 
reform and watch over the manners of the 
people, and regulate the taxes. They could 
loqutre into the expenses of every citizen, 
and even degrade a senator from all his pri- 
vileges and honors, if guilty of any extrav- 
agance. The office of public censor was 
originally exercised by the kings. The 
emperors abolished the censors, and took 
upon themselves to execute their office. 

CsiisoBiifus. Ap. C\* was compelled, 
after many services to the state, to assume 
the imperial purple by the soldiers, by 
whom he was murdered some days after, 
A. D. 370,.— ~->Martius. a consul. — r— A 
grammarian of the third century. 

CxiTstrt, the numbering of the people at 
Rome. A god worshipped at Rome, 

t^e same as Consus. 
CaifTAasTUs, a Ghlatlan, whtf, when 

Antiochcb was killed, mounted his horse 
in the greatest exultation. The horse, as 
if conscious of disgrace, immediately leap- 
ed down a precipice, and killed Iiimself 
and hisHder. 

Gentauri. a peojde of Thessaly, half 
men and half horses. They were the off- 
spring of Centaurus, son of Apollo, by 
Stilba, daughter of the Peiieus. This fa- 
ble of the existence of the Centaurs, 
monsters supported upon the four legs of 
a horse, arises from the ancient people of 
Tiiessaly having tamed horses, and hav- 
ing appeared to the neighbors mounted 
on horseback, a sight very uncommon at 
that time, and which, when at a dis- 
tance, seems only one body, and conse- 
quently one creature. Many of tlie Cen- 
taurs were slain by Hercules. 

Centaurus, a ship In the fleet of iEneas, 
which had the figure of a, Centaur. 

CsifTOBRicA, a town of Celtiberia. 

GhsNTOREs, a people ofScythia. 

CEHTORirA, or Cbhturipa. Fid* Cen- 

CBirtRiTxs, a river betweea Armenia 
and Media. , 

Centroitbs, a people of Gaul, severely 
beaten by J. Caesar when they attem()ted 
to obstruct his passage. They inhabited 
the modern country of TarantaiBe in Sa- 
voy. There was a horde of Gauls of the 
same name subject to the Nervii, now 
supposed to be near Courtray in Flanders. 

CBNTRoirics, a man who squandered 
his immense riches on useless and whim- 
sical buildings. 

CEiTTUM[viRi,the members of a court of 
justice at Rome. They were originally cho- 
sen, three from the tliirtv-fVi^e tribes of the 
people, and though,one hundred and ftve» 
they were always called Centum virs. — 
Tlioy were afterwards increased t» the 
number of one hundred and eighty^ and 
still kept their original name. The pretor 
sent to their tribunal causes of the great- 
est importance, as their knowledS<e of the 
law was extensive. Their tribunal was 
distinguished by a spear wHh an iron 
head, whence a decree of thetr court was 
called Haatm judidwn. Their sentences 
were very impartial, and without appeal. 

CEtvTuv CELLuai. a soa-port town (»f 
Etruria built by Trajan, who had there a 
villa. It is now Civita Feeckiaf and be- 
longs to the Pope. 

Cbnturia, a division of th^ people 
among the Romans, consisting of a hun- 
dred. The Roman people were originally 
divided into three tribes, and each tribe 
into ten Curift. Servius Tullius made a 
census *, and when he had the place of 
habitation, name, and profession of every 
citizen, wfiieh amounted to eighty thou- 
sand men, all able to bear arras, he divid- 
ed them into six classes, and each class 
into several centuries or comnonies of a 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




hundred imn. Tbe first class consisted 
jaf 80 centuries. Tbe word Cenbfrm is 
also applied to a subdivision of one of the 
Roman legions which consisted of an 
hundred men, and wdi the half of a 
manipulus. the sixth part of a cohort, and 
the sixtieth part of a legion. The coed- 
mander of a centuria was called eenCw- 
rioitf and he was distinguished from the 
rest by the branch of a vine which he 
earried in his hand. 

CiNTuaiPA, now Centorht, a town of 
Sicily at the foot of Mount iEtna. 

Cbos and Cba, an island, yid. Co. 

CarMALAfl, a loftv promontory of Africa 
near the Syrtis Major. 

CsrHALBDioif, a tov^n of Sicily, near 
the river Himera. 

CsPMALuiif , a noble musician, son of 

Cbphalbita, and Cbphallbnia, an 
island in the Ionian sea, below Corcyra, 
whose inhabitants went with Ulysses to 
the Trojan war. It abounds in oil and 
excellent wines. It is about 90 miles in 
circumference, and from its capital Samo. 
or Samoe, it has flrequently been called 

Cbpmalo, an officer of Eumenes. 

CXPMAJ.OBDIS and Cbphaludiuh, now 
Cephaluy a town at the north of Sicily. 

CxpHALoif, a Greelr of Ionia, who 
wrote an history of Troy, besfdes an 
epitome of universal history from the age 
of Ninus to Alexander, which he divided 
into nine books, inscribed with the name 
ol the nine muses. He nffbcted not to 
Icnow tlw plaee of hit birth, expecting it 
would be disputed like Horner^. He 
lived In the reign of Adrian. 

Cbpralus, son of 0eioneus, king of 
Thessaly, by Biomede. daughter of Xa- 
thus, married Procris, daughter of Eiech* 
theus, king of Athens. Aurora fell in 
love with him, and carried him away; 
but he reAised to listen to her addresses, 
and was impatient to return to Procris. 
The goddess sent him back ; and to try 
the fidelity of his wife, she made him put 
on a dififerent form, and he arrived at the 
house of Procris in tlie habit of a mer- 
chant. He found her unfaithful, and she 
fl^d from her husband, and devoted her- 
self to hunting in the island of Bubcea, 
where she was admitted among the at- 
tendants of Diana, who presented her 
with a dog always sure of bis prey, and 
ft dart which never missed its «im, and 
always retiimed to the hands of its mis- 
Cress of its own aecord. After this, Pro- 
cris returned in disguise to Cephalus, 
and a reconciliation was easily made be- 
tween them. They loved ooe another 
with more tenderness than before, and 
Cephalus received from his wife the pre- 
sents of Diana. As he was particularly 
fond of hunting, he every morning early 

repahidr to the woods, and after mach 
toil and fatigue, laid himself down in the 
cool shade, and eoniestly called for Aura, 
or the refreshing breeze. This arahtguou« 
word was mistaken for the name of a 
mistress ; and some informer reported to 
the Jealous Procris, that Cephalus daily 
paid a visit to a mistress, whose name 
was Aura. Procris too readily believed 
the information, and secretly followed 
her husband into the woods. According 
to his daily custom, Cephalus retired to 
tbe cool, and called after Aura. At tbe 
name of Aura, Procris eagerly lifted up 
her head to see her expected rival. Her 
motion occasioned a rustling aoatong the 
leaves of the bush that concealed her; 
and OS Cephalus listened, he thought it to 
be a wild beast, and he let fly his uner- 
ring dart. Procris was struck to the heart, 
and instantly expired in the arms of her 
husband, confessing that ill-grounded 

Jealousy was the cause of her death. 

A Corinthian lawyer, who assisted Timo- 
leon in regulating the republic of Syra- 
cuse. A king of Epirus. An orator 

firequently mentioned by Demosthenes. 

CfspHEis, a name given to Andromeda 
as daughter of Cepheus. 

CxPHXRBs, an ancient name of the 
Persians.— —A name of the iEthiopians, 
from Cepheus, one of their kin^. 

Cbphbus, a king of iEtbiopia, lather 
of Andromeda, by Cassiope. He was 
one of the Argonauts, and was changed 

into a constellation after his death. ^A 

son of Lycurgus present at the chase of 
the Calydonian boar. 

Cbphisia, a part of Attica^ through 
which the Cephlsus flows. 

CiPHiaiADxs, a patronymic of Eteocles. 

CxPHisiDORus, a tragic poet of Athens, 
in the age of .£schylus.— An histcnrian 
who wrote an account of the Fhocian 

Cbmhsion, the commander of some 
troops sent by the Thebans to assist Me- 

Cbphisodotus, a disciple of iBocrates, 
a great reviler of Aristotle, wlio wrote a 
book of proverbs. 

CBPMiaus and Cbphissui, a celebrated 
river of Greece, which flows into the lake 
Copals. The Graces were particularly 
fond of this river, whence they are called 
tbe goddesses or the Cephisus. There 
was a river of the same name in Atti- 
ca, and another in Argolis. A man 

changed into a sea-monster, by Apollo, 
when lamenting the death of his grand- 

CBPHOBif, a king of Egypt, who built 
one of the fr^ramids. 

Cbpio or Cjcpio, a man who by a quar- 
rel with Dnisus caused a civil war at 

Rome. Servilius, a Roman consul, 

who put an end to the war in Spain. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




CirioN, » musieian. 

CcKACA, a town of Micedonia. 

CsaACATBs, a people of Germany. 

Cbrambus, a man changed into a 
beetle, or, according to others, into a bird, 
•B mount PamaBsua, by the nymphs, be- 
fore the deluge. 

Cbaamicui, bow Keiwmo^ a bay of Ca- 
litt near Ualicamassus, opposite Cm, re- 
ceiving its name from Ceramus. A 

public walk, and a place to bury those 
that were killed in defence of their coun- 
tjy, at Athens. 

Cbbamium, a place of Rome, where 
Cicero's house was built. 

Cebamus, a town at the west of Asia 


Cbba«, a people of Cyprus metamor- 
phosed into bulls. 

Cbbaios, now ITerefMji, a maritime 
city of Cappadocia, from wliich cherries 
were first brought to Rome by Lucullus. 

Another, buUt by a Greek colony from 


Cbbata, a place near Megara. 

Cbbatu>, a river of Crete. 

Cbbaunia, a town of Achaiafl 

CERAUifiA and CbbaV"} \ax^ moun- 
tains of JSpirus, extending fiur into the 
•ea^ and uirroinK a promontory which 
divides the lonfain and Adriatic seas. 

Mount Taurus is also called Cerau- 


Cbbaukii, mountains of A«iat opposite 
the Caspian sea. . 

Cbbauwcs, a river of Cajmadocia. 

A surname of Ptolemy the ad, from his 

Cbrai7siui, a mountain of Arcadia. 

Cbbbaluh, a river of Apulia. 

Ceb^bbion, a town of the Cimmerian 

Cbbrbbus, a dog of Pluto, the fruit of 
Echidna's union with Typhon. He was 
stationed at the entrance of hell, to pre- 
vent the living from entering the infernal 
legions, and the dead from escaping from 
their confinement. 

Cbbcaphus, a son c^ ifiolua. — >>-A son 
of 8ol, of great power at lUiodes. 

CBBCAsoauM, a town of Egypt, where 
the Nile divides itself into the Pelusian 
&nd Canopic mouths. 

Cbbcbis, one of the Oceanldes. 

Cbboxitb, a oountiy of Africa. 

Cbbcxitxs, a son of JSgyptus and 

Cbbcidbs, a native of Megalopolis, 
who wrote iambics. 

CsRcii, a people of Italy. 

CBBciifA and CxBoinifA, a small island 
of the Mediterranean, near the smaller 
Syrtis, on ttie eoast of Africa.-— A moaii- 
tain of Thrace, towards Macedonia. 

CBROf NiuM, a town of Macedonia. 

Cbrcius and Rhbtiui, charioteeiip of 
Castor and Pollux. 


Cbbcopii, a people of Ephesns, mtda 

prisoners by Hercules. The inhabitants 

of <M island Pithecusa changed into 
morikles on account of their dishonesty. 

Cbbcops, a Milesian, author of a nb- 
ulous history, mentioned by Athencus. 
A Pythagorean philosopher. 

Cbbcton and CBBcyoifBt| a king of 
Eleusis, son of Neptune, or, according to 
others, of Vulcan. He obliged all stran- 
gers to wrestle with him ; and as he wm 
a dexterous wrestler, they were eafclly 
conquered and put to deat^ After many 
cruelties, he challenged Theseus in wrest- 
ling, ana he was conquered and put to 
death by bis antagonist. 

Ckbctba and Cobcvba, an is^nd fn 
the Ionian sea. 

Cbboylium. a place near Amphipolis. 

CsBiALiA, festivals in honor of Ceres.; 
first instituted at Rome by Memmlus the 
edlle,and celebrated on the 19th of April. 

CbbbS) the goddess of com and of bar- 
vests, was daughter of Saturn and Vesta. 
She had a daughter by Jupiter, whom she 
called Pherephata,>Viut-freartii^, and after- 
wards Proserpine. This daughter was 
carried awav by Pluto, as she Was gather- 
ing flowers fn the plains near Enna. The 
grief of Ceres for the loss of her daughter 
was so great,, that Jupiter granted Proser- 
pine to pass six months with her mother, 
and the rest of the year with Pluto. — 
The Sicilians made a yearly sacrifice to 
Ceres, every man according to his abilities; 
and the fountain of Cyane, through which 
Pluto opened himself a passage with his 
trident, whes carrying away Proserpine, 
w«s publiclv howlred mitii ui offering 
of hills, and the blood of the victims 
was shed in the waters of tlie fountain. 
Ceres was reinresented with a garland of 
ears of corn on her headi^ hoUin^ in one 
hand a Hghted torch,, and in the other % > 
poppy, which was sacred to her. 

Cbrb8su>, a place of Boeotia. , 

CsRETiK, a people of Crete. 

CsftTALis Anicius, a consul elect, who 
wished a temple- to be raised to Nero^ as 
to a god, after the discovery of the Piso- 
aian conspiracy. 

Cbbii, a people of Etrurisu 

Cbmlli or Cabilljb, now (^anOa^ a 
town of the- Brutil near the Laus. 

Cbbiixum, a place of Lucania. 

CsBiifTHua, now Z^ro^ a town of £u- 
boNi, whose inhabnants went to the Tro- 
jan war, headed by Elphenor, son of 

Chalcedon. A beautiftil youth, lone 

the fhvorite of the Roma^ ladies, and 
especially of Sulpitia.-^— One of the eaily 
heretics from Christianity. 

CsBMAifOs, a place where Romahis 
was exposed by one of the servants of 
Amulius. . 

Cbbne, an island without the pillars of 
Hercules, on the AlHoan ooast. 

Digitized by 





Cxiinit, a inriest of Cybele. 

Cbeov, a fountain of Histisotis, whose 
waters rendered Mack all the sheep that 
drank of them. 

CsROFASADss, a SOU of Phraates king 
of Persia, given as an hostile to Augustus. 

CsHossui, a place of the lonian^eea*. 

Cbhprkhsb, a king of Egypt, who is 
nIppoBed to bave built the smallMit pyra- 

CsaBHJBi, a people of Greece, who 
profaned the temple of Delphi. 

Cerrstani, a people of Spain that in- 
habited the modem district of Cerdana 
in Catalonia. 

CsRsoBLKPTBt, a king of Thrace, con- 
quered by Philip king of Macedonia. 

Cbbtima, a town of Celtiberia. 

Cbrton lUM, a town of Asia Minor. 

CxBTAliiuf , a Roman knight wbo con- 
spired with Piso against Nero. 

P. CsKTiua, an officer under Verres. 

Cbktcbs, a sacerdotal family at Athens. 

Ckrvoics, a mountain of Boeotia. 

Cbrtmica, a town of Cyiprus. 

Cbrtrea, a townof Achaia^and moun- 
tain of Arcadia. 

CERViriTBii a river of Arcadia. 

CKSBixiua Salsus, a turbulent and 
avaricious Carthaginian. 

CBSEHiitA. an iafBimous woman, bom 
of an illustrious family at Rome. 

Cbbtius, an epicurean of Smyrna, who 
taught Thetoric st Rhodes, in the age of 

Cicero.~~-A governor of Syria. Seve- 

Tus, an Inforaier under Nero. — Proculus, 
a man acquitted of an accusation of em- 
bezzling the public money. A bridge 

at Rope. 

Cbstrin A, part of Epiras. 

CESTRiifus, son of Helenus and Andro- 
mache ; after his f>|ther's death he settled 
in Epiras, above the river Thyamis, and 
ealled the country Cestrina. 

Cbtbs, a king of Egypt, the same as 

Cethbovb, the surname of one of the 
branches of the Cornelii— Marcus, a con- 
sul in the second Punic war. — A tribune 
at Rome, who Joined Catiline in his con- 
spiracy aninst the state. He was ap- 
prehended, and, with Lentnlus, put to 
death by the Roman senate. — A Trojan, 

killed by Turnus. P. Cora, a powerful 

Roman, who embraced the party of Ma- 
rius against Sylla. 
,Cetii, a people of Cilicia. 

Cbtius, a river of Mysia. A moun- 
tain which separates Noricum from Pan- 

Cbto, a daufthter erf Pontus and Terra, 
who married Ph<>reys, by whom she had 
the three Gorgons. 

Czus and Cjkus, a son of. CobIus and 
Terra, who married Phcebe, by whom he 
bad Latona and Asteria.—— The father 
ofTnezan. . 

Cktx, a king of Trachinia, son of Lq' 
cifer, and husband of Alcyone. He was 
drowned, as he went to consult the oracle 
of Claros. His wife was apprized of his 
misfortune in a dream, and found iiis 
dead body washed on the sea shore. They 
were both changed into birds called Al- 

CHABiifUB, a mountain of Arabia Ffelix. 

Chabria, a village of Egypt. 

Chabrias, an Athenian general and 
philosopher, who chiefly signalized him- 
self when he assisted the Boeotians against 
Agesilaus. He at last fell a sacrifice to 
his excessive courage, B. C. 376. 

CHABftYis, a king of Egypt. 

CHMAwnxy a people at the foot of 
Caucasus. . 

Chjbrbas, an Athenian, who wrote on 

agriculture. An officer who murdered 

Caligula, A. D. 41 An Athenian, ft^c. 

CHiERxoBMUs, a brother of Epicurus. 
"^ Charbmon, a comic poet, and disciple 

of Socrates. A stoic, who wrote on 

the Egyptian priests. 

CHAREPHoif, a tragic poet of Athena, 
in the ag« of Philip of Macedonia. 

Chjersstrata, the mother of Epicnnia, 
descended of a nme family. 

Chjerinthcs, a beautiful youth. 

Ch.erippus, an extortioner. 

Charo, the fbunder of Chieronea. 

CnjERoifiA, Ch^ronba, and Chebko- 
VEA, a city of Bceotia, on the Cepbisns, 
celebrated for a defeat of the Athenians, 
by the Boeotians, B. C. 447, and for the 
victorv which Philip of Macedonia ob- 
tained theite with 33,000 men, over the 
confederate army of the Thebans and 
the Athenians, consisting of 30,000 men, 
the 3d of August, B. C. 338. Plutarch 
was born there. The town was anciently 
called Arae. , 

Chaljbon, a city of Locris. A port 

of BoBotia. 

Chales, a herald of Busiris, pot to 
death by Hercules. 

Chalcaa, a town of Caria— of Hicb- 

Chalgba, an island with a town near 
Rhodes. A festival at Athens. 

Chalcbdon and Chalcbdoria, now 
Kadi-Kenij an ancient city of Bithynia. 

Chalcioene, a part of Syria, very fmit- 

CHALciDBitsEs, the inhabitants of the 

isthmns between Teos and Erythre. 

A people near the Phasis. 

Chalcidius, a commander of the Lace- 
daemonian fleet killed by the Athenians, 

Chalcidica, a country of Thrace— of 

Chalcioicub, an epithet applied to Cu- 
mie in Italy, as built by a colony fimn 

Qralckeus, a surname of Minerva, be- 

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ciiuse she had a temple at Chalcis in 

CHAx^iora, a dau|[hter of iEetes king 
of Colchis, who raamed Phryzus son of 
Athamas, who had fled to her father's 
court for protection. She had some chil- 
dren by Phryjins, and she preserved her 
life from the avarice and cruelty of her 
fktber, who had murdered her husband to 

obtain the golden fleece. The mother 

of Thessalus by Hercules. The daugh- 
ter of Rhexenor, who married ^geus. 

Cm ALOIS, now Egr'tpo^ the chief city of 
£ub<Ba, in that part which is nearest to 
Ilusotia. There were three other towns 
of the same name in Thrace, Acarnania, 
and Sicily, all belonging to the Corinth- 

Chalcitis, a country of Ionia. 

CHAix:oDon, a son of ifigyptus, by Ara- 
bia. A man of Cos, who wounded Her- 
cules. ^The father of Elephenor, one of 

the Grecian chiefs in the Trojan war. 

A man who assisted Hercules in his war 
against Augias. 

CHALcoif, a Messenian, who reminded 
Antiloehas, son of Nestor, to beware of 
the iBthiopians, by whom he was to per- 

CHAIX3US, a man made gpvemor of Cy- 
aicus by Alexander. 

Chaloaa, a country of Asia, between 
the Euphrates and Tigris. Its capital is 

Chalojci, the inhabitants of Chaldsa. 

C/fAi.BSTaA, a town of Macedonia. 

CHA1.0NITI8, a country of Media. 

CMALraxs and Caltbss, a people of 
Asia Minor, near Pontus, once very pow- 
erful, and possessed of a great extent of 
country, aboanding in Iron mines, where 
the inhabitants worked naked. 

CHALTBoif, now supposed to be Aleppo. 
a town of Syria, which gave the name of 
CkalfbomHis to the neighboring country. 

Chaltbohitis, a country of Syria, fit- 
mous for its wines. 

Chaltbs, a river of Spain. 

Chamami and Chamatihi, a people of 

Chahe, a river between Armenia and 
Albania, fklling into the Caspian sea. 

Chao{v, a mountain of Peloponnesus. 
A son of Priam. 

CHAOiras, a people of Epirus. 

Chaori A, a mountainous part of Epirus. 

Chaoivitis, a country of Assyria. 

Chaos, a rude and shapeless mass of 
matter, and confUsed^assemblage of inac- 
tive elements, which, 'as the poets suppose. 
preexisted the formation of the world, and 
from which the universe was formed by 
the hand and power of a superior being. 
Chaos was deemed, by some, as one of 
the oldest of the gods, and invoked as one 
of the infemal^deities. ' 

CMAaAoaA, a town of Phocis 

CHARAoaos, a river of Phocis, falliag 
into tlie Cephisus. 

Charaorus, a place of Argos, when 
military causes were tried. 

CharxadascAo Athenian general, sent 
with twenty ships to Sicily during the Pel- 
oponnesian war. He died 426, B. C. 

Chajunojki, a people near Pontus. 

Charax, a town of Armenia. A phi- 
losopher of Pergamus, who wrote an his- 
tory of Greece in forty books. 

Cmabaxbs and Charaxds, a Mityle- 
nean, brother to Sappho, who became pas- 
sionately fond of Rhodope, upon whom he 
squandered all his possessions, and reduc- 
ed himself to poverty, and the^ necessity 
of piratical excursions. 

Charaxus, one of the centaurs. 

Charss, an Athenian general. A 

sLituary of Lindas, who was twelve years 
employed in making the famous Colossus 

at Rhodes. An historian of Mitylene, 

who wrote a life of Alexander. An 

Athenian who fought with Darius against 
Alexander. A river of Peloponnesus. 

Chariclxs, one of the thirty tyrants set 

over Athens by the Lacedaemonians. 

A famous physician under Tiberius. 

Chari GLIDES, an officer of Dionysius 
the younger, whom Dion gained to de- 
throne the tyrant. 

Chariclo, the mother of Tiresias, great- 
ly favored by Minerva. A daughter of 

Apollo, who married the centaur Chiron. 

Charidkmus, a Roman exposed to wHd 

beasts. An Athenian, banished by 

Alexander, and killed by Darius. 

Chari LA, a festival observed once in 
nine years by the Delphlans. 

Chasiu^us and Cmarillus, a son of 
Polydectes king of Sparta, educated and 
protected by bis uncle Lycurgua. He died 

in the sixty- fourth year of his age. A 

Spartan, who changed the monarchical 
power into an aristocrAcy. 

Charillus, one of the ancestors of Leu- 
ty chides. 

Chari iri and Cariivi, a people of Ger- 

Charis, a goddess among the Greeks, 
surrounded with pleasures, graces, and 
delight. She was the wife of Vulcan. 

Charisia, a town of Arcadia. A fes- 
tival in honor of the Graces, with dances 
which continued all night. 

Charisius, an orator at Athens. 

Gharistia, festivals at Rome, celebrat- 
ed on the twentieth of February, by the 
distribution of mutual presents, with the 
intention of reconciling friends and rela- ' 

Charitss and Gratis, the Graces, 
daughters of Venus by Jupiter or Bacchus, 
are three in number, Aglaia, Thalia, and 
Euphrosyne. They were the constant at- 
tendants of Venus, and they were repre- 
sented as three young, beautiful, and mo- 

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dest virsiiii, all holding one another by 
the hand. 

Charito*, a writer of Aphrodisium, at 
the latter end of the fourth century. 

Chahmadas, a philosbpber of uncom- 
mon memory. 

Charmk and CarmBi the mother of Bri- 
tomartifl by Jupiter. 

Charmiokb, a Lacedaemonian, cent by 

the king to qiiell seditions in Crete. A 

boxer. A philosopher of the third 

academy, B. C. 95. 

Charminus, Ml Athenian general, who 
defeated the Peloponnesians. 

Charmions, a servant maid of Cleopa- 
tra, who stabbed herself after the example 
of her mistress. 

Charm I >, a physician of Marseilles, in 
Nero's age, who used cold kaths for his 

Charmostna, a festival in Egypt. 

Charmota*, a part of Arabia. 

Charmus, a poet of Syracuse. 

Charon, a Theban, who received into 
bis house Pelopidas. and his (Hends, when 

they delivered Thebes from tyranny. 

An historian of Lampsacus, son of Py- 

theus. An historian of Naucratis, who 

wrote an history of his country, and of 

Egypt. A Carthannlan writer, See, 

A gpd of hell, son of Erebus and Nox, who 
conducted the souls of the dead in a boat 
iDver the river Styx and Acheron to the 
infernal regions, for an obelus. This (t- 
ble o/ Charon and his boat is borrowed 
from the Egyptians. 

CHARoifDAs, a man of Catana, who 
gave laws to the people of Tfaurium, and 
made a law that np man should be per- 
mitted to come armea into the asiiembly. 
He inadvertently broke this law, and when 
told of it, he fell upon his sword, B. C. 

Charonka, a place of Asia, &c. 
' Charonia scrobs, a place of Italy emit- 
ting deadly vapors. 

Charonium, a cave near Nysa, where 
the sick were mipposed to be delivered 
from their disorders by certain supersti- 
tious solemnities. 

Charops and CHARprcs, a Trojan, kill- 
ed by Ulysses. A powerful Epirot 

who assisted Flaminiutf when making war 
against Philip the king of Macedonia.- — 
rnie first decennial archcfn at Athens. 

Chartbdis. a dangerous whirlpool on 
the coast of Sicily, opposite another whirl- 
pool called Scylla, on the coast of Italy. 

Chaubi and Chauci. a people of Ger- 
many, supposed to inhabit the country 
now called Friesland and Bremen. 

Chaula, a village of Egypt. 

Chauro. Fid. Cauros. 

Chsa, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Chsljk, a Greek word, signifying e{aw«, 
which is applied to tbe Scorpion, one of 
the signs of the zodiac. 

Chslks, a satrap of Seleucus . 

Chklidon, a mistress of Vetres. 

QHKiADoytAf a festival at Rhodes, in 
which it was customary for bovs to go 
begging from door to door, and singing 

certain songs. The wind Favqnius was 

called also Cheiidonia, 

Chelidomije, now JTdtidoin, small is- 
lands opposite the promontory of Taurus, 
of the same name, very dangerous to sail- 

Chkudoztib, a daughter of king Leoty- 

CHELiDoifiuM, a promontory of mount 
Taurus, projecting into the Pamphylian 

Chslonk, a nymph changed into a tor- 
toise by Mercury. 

CHSLoiria, a daughter of Leonidas king 
of Sparta, who married Cleombrotus. 

Chelonophagi, a people of Carmania, 
who fed upon turtle, and covered their 
habitations with the shells. 

Chklydoria, a mountain of Arcadfa. 

Chemmis, an island in a deep lake of 

Chena, a town of Laconia. 

CHEiTjb, a village on mount (Eta. 

Che It ID If, a mountain in Asia MiiKM*, 
from which the ten thousand Greeks first 
saw the sea. 

Chenius, a mountain near Colchis. 

Cheops and CHso8PEii,a king of Egypt, 
after Bhampsinitus, who built famous py- 

CHEPHERSif, a brother of Cheops, who 
also built a pyramid. The Egyptians in- 
veterately hated these two royal brothers. 

Cheremocrates, an artist who built 
Diana's temple at Epnesus. 

Cherisophus, a commander of eight 
hundred Spartans, in tbe expedition of 

Cherophoit, a tragic writer of Atbenf, 
in the age of Philip. 

Chersias, an Orchomenlan, reconcUed 
to Periander by Chilo. 

CHERsroAMAs, a Trojan killed by Ulys- 
ses in the Trojan war. 

Chersipho, an architect. 

CHERsoNEaus, a Greek word, rendered 
by the Latins Peninsula. 

Cherusct, a people of Germany, who 
long maintained a war against Rome. 

Chidnai, a people near Pontus. 

Chidorus, a river of Macedonia near 

Chili archu*, a great officer of state at 
the court of Persia. 

Chilics and Arcadian who 
advised the Lacedieraonians, when Xerxes 
was in Greece, not to desert the common 
cause of their country. 

Chilo, a Spartan philosopher, w^ho baa 
been called one of the se\;en wise men of 
Greece. He died through excess of Joy, in 
the arms of bis son, who bad obtained n 

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victory at Olympia, B. C. 597.— One of 
the Ephori at Sparta, B. C. 556. 

CHiLoiTii, the wife of Theopompus king 
of Sparta. 

CHiMJBBA,a celebrated monster^ sprung 
^m EchiiiDa and Typbon, which had 
three heads, thaTof a lion, of a goat, and 
a dragon, and continnally vomited flames. 
From the union of the Chimera with Or- 
thos, sprung the Sphinx, and the lion uf 
Nemsa.— — One of the ships in the fleet 

Chimaku>, a river of Argolis. 

Cmimxeium, a mountain of Phthiotis, in 

Chiomaba, a woman who cut off the 
head of a Roman tribune when she bad 
been taken prisoner. 

Chi ON, a Greek writer. 

Cuioifs, a*daughter of Dedalion, of 
whom Apollo and Mercury became en- 
amored. Chione grew so proud that she 
even preferred her beauty to that of Dia- 
na, for which impiety she was killed by 
the goddess, and changed into a hawk. 
— ^— A daughter of Boreas and OriChyia, 
who had Eumolpus by Neptune. She 
threw her son into the sea, but he was 
preserved by his father. 

CMioiriDEt, an Athenian poet, suppoeed 
by some to be the inventor of comedy. 

Chiohis, a victor at Olympia. 

Chios, now Scio. an islana in the Mgo- 
an sea, between Lesbos and Samos, on 
the coast of Asia Minor. It was well in- 
habited, and could once equip a hundred 
■hips ; and its chief town, called Chios, 
had a beautiful harbor, which could con- 
tain eighty ships. The wine of this island, 
so mueh celebrated by the ancienta, is 
still in general esteem. Chios was an- 
ciently called iEthalia, Macris, and Pity- 

CHiaoir, a centaur, half a man and half 
a hone, eon of Philvra and Saturn. He 
was famous for his knowledge of music, 
medicine, and shooting ; and he instruct- 
ed, in all the polite arts, the greatest he- 
roes of his age. He was wounded in the 
knee by a poisoned arrow, by Hercules, 
in his pursuit at the centaurs. As the 
wound was incurable, and the cause of 
the most excruciating pains, Chiron beg- 

S^ Japiter to deprive him of immortality, 
is prayers were heard, and he was piac- 
«d by the god among the constellations, 
under the name of Sagittarius. 

CntoB. a surname of Ceres at Athens. 
Her yearly festivals, called Chloeia, were 
celebrated with much mirth and rejoicing, 
and a ram was always sacrificed to her. 

CHboaBut, a priest of Cybele, who 
came with iEneas Into Italy, and was 
killed by Tumus.— —Another, &c. 

CHLoaiB, the goddess of flowers, who 

married Zei^yms. A daughter of Am- 

phion, who named Neleua king of Pylos, 

by whom she had one daughter and twelve 
sons, who all, except Nestor, were killed 
by Hercules. 

CHLoRua, a river of Cilicia. Con- 

stantine, one of the Cesars, in Dloele- 
sian's age, who reigned two year* after 
the emperor's abdication, and died July 
25, A. D. 306. 

CHOAaiiTA, a country near India, reduc- 
ed by Craterus. 

Choaspbb, a son of Pbasis, &c. An 

Indian river. A river of Media, flow- 
ing into the Tigris, and now called Jr»- 
nui. Its waters are so sweet ^at the 
kings of Persia drank no other. 

Oho BUS, a river of Colchis. 

Chcxbadbs and Phabos, two iilands op- 
posite Alexandria in Egypt. Others in 

the Euxine sea. An island in the Io- 
nian sea, or near the Hellespont. 

Chsbilus, a tragic poet of Athens, wJio 
wrote one hundred and fifty tragedies, of 

which thirteen obtained the prize. An 

historian of Samos.-r— Two other poets, 
one of whom was very intimate with He- 
rodotus. The other Vi^as one of Alexan- 
der's flatterers and friends, and a poor 

Chixbbjb, a place of Bcsotia. 

Chonitidas, a man made preceptor to 
Theseus, by hia grandfather Pittheus king 
of Trmzene. 

Chokitphis, an Egyptian prbphet. 

Ch(>«asmi, a people of Asia near the 

Chobiskus, a man killed in the Rutn- 

lian war.— Another. A priest with 


CHOBfRBns, a man of Elis, who obtained 

a prize the first olympiad. A youth of 

Mygdonia, who was enamored of Cassan- 

CHoaoMifjEi, a peojde subdued by Ni- 

Chosbobs, a king of Persia, in Justin- 
ian's reign. 

Chrembs, a sordid old man, mentioned 
in Terence's- Andria. 

Chbbmetbs, a river of Libya. 

CHRE9iPH0!f, an architect of Diana's 
temple in Ephesus. 

Chre(phoi«tes, a son of Aristomachusi 
Vul, Aristodemha. 

Ghbbstus, an approved writer of Ath- 

Chromia, a daughter of Itonus. 

Chromios, a son of Neleus and Cblo- 
ris, who, with ten brothers, was killed in 

a battle by Hercules. A son of Priam, 

killed by Diomedes. 

Chromib, a captain in the Trojan war. 

A young shepherd. A Phrygian, 

killed by Camilla. A son of Hercules. 

Chromius, a son of Pterilaus. An 

Argive, who, alone with Alcenor, surviv- 
ed a battle between three hundred of his 
countrymen and three hundred Spartans. 

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- Chror iu«, a man wlio built a temple of 
Diana at OiphomenoB. ' 

CHaoifos, the Greek name of Saturn, or 

Chrt ASUS, a king of Argus, descended 
from Inachus. 

Chkysa and Crrtss, a, town of Cilicia, 
Ikmous fw a temple of Apollo Smintheus. 

A daughter of Halmus, mother of 

Phlegias by Mars. 

CHRrsAMB, a Tbessallan, priestess of 
Diana Trivia. She fed a bull with poison, 
which she sent 'to the enemies of her 
country, who eat the flesh and became 
delirious, and were an easy conqueit. 

Chrtsaictas, a man who refrained from 
killing another, by hearing a dog bark. 

Chrtsakthi us, a philosopher in the age 
of Julian. 

Cmrtsahtis, a nymph who told Cere^, 
when she was at Argos with Pelasgus, 
that her daughter had been earrftd away. 

CHRrsAOR, a son o( Medusa by Nep- 
tune. He married Callirhoe, one of the 
Oeeanides, by whom he had Geryon, 

Echidna, and the Chimeera. A rich 

king of Iberia.~~>A son of Glaucus. 

Chrtsaorkus, a surname of Jupiter, 
. from his temple at Stratonice. 

Chrtsaoris, a town of Cilicia. 

Chrtsas, a river of Sicily. 

Chrtseis, the daughter of Chryses. 

Chrvsxrmus, a Corinthian, who wrote 
an history of Peloponnesus, and of InUia, 
besides a treatise on rivers. 

Chrtses, the priest of Apollo, fkther of 

Astynome, called from him Cferysew. 

A daughter of Minos. 

Chrtsifpe, a daughter of Danaus. 

Chrtsippus,- a nuural son of Pelops, 
highly favored by his fotber, for which 
Hippodamia, his step-'mother, ordered her 
own eons, Atreus and Thveetes, to kill 
him, and to throw his body into a well, 
on account of which they wove banished. 

A stoic philosopher of Tarsus, who 

wrote about three hundred and eleven 
treatises. He died through excess of wine, 
or as others say, fVem laughing too much 
on seeing an ass eating tigs on a silver 
plate, 907 B. C. in the eightieth year of 
his age. A freedmaa of Cicero. 

Chrtsis, a mistress of Demetrius.— » 
A priestess (rf* Juno at-Mycenn. 

Chrvsoaspides, soldiers in the armies 
of Persia, whose arms were all covered 
with silver. 

. CHRvsoGoifnt, a flreedman of Bylla.'— 
A celebrated singer in Donritian*s reign. 

Chrtsolaus, a tyrant of Methymna. 

CnaTsoiTDiVM, a town of Macedonia. 

CHarsopoLis, a promontory and port of 

Chrtsorrhojk, a people in whose coun- 
try are golden streams. 

Chrtsorhoas, a river of Peloponnesus. 

Chrtsostom, a bishop of Constantino- 

ple, who died A. D. 407, in his fifty-4bii4 

Chrtsothsmis, a name given by Ho- 
mer to Iphigenia, daughter of Agamem- 
non and Clytemnestra. A Cretan, who 

first obtained the poetical prize at the 
Pythian gauges. 

Cmrtxus, a leader of the Boii, grand- 
son of Brennus, who took Borne. 

Chthoztia, a daughter of Erechtheus^ 
who married Butes.-— A surname of Ce- 
res, from a temple built to her by Chtho- 
nia, at Hermione. 

CHTHoif lus, a centaur, killed by Nestor 

in a battle at the nuptials of Pirithoua. 

One of the soldiers who sprang from the 
dragon's teeth,' sown by Cadmus.^^A 
son of iEgyptus and Calliadne. 

Chitrium, a name given to part of the 
town of Ciazomena). * 

CiBALjB, now SvtM, a town of Panno- 

CiBARiTBs, a country of Asia. 

CiBVRA now HitrMii, a town of Phrygia 
of Carta. 

C. CicxR*iD8, a secretaiT of Bcipto Af- 
ricanns, who obtained a triumph overtbo 

M. T. CicxRo, bom at Arpinum, was 
son of a Roman knight, and^ lineally de- 
scended from the ancient kings of the 8a- 
bines. His mother's name was Helvia. 
After displaying many promising abilities 
at school, he was taught philosophy by Piso, 
and law by Mutius Scevola; he was natur- 
ally of a weak and delicate constitution,and 
he visited Greece on account of his health ; 
though, perhaps, the true cause of his ab- 
sence from Rome might be attributed to 
his fear of Sylla. Bin fHends were 
anxious for his return ; and when at last 
he obeyed their solicitations, he applied 
himself with uncommon dili{[^nce to ora- 
tory, and was soon distinguished above 
all the speakers of his age in the Roman 
forum. After he had pamed through the 
offices of edile and pretor, he stood a can- 
didate for the consulship, A. U. C. 691 ; 
and the patricians and the plebeiahB were 
eqoally anxious to raise him to that dig- 
nity, against tbe efforts and bribery of 
Catiline. Catiline, with many dissolute 
and desperate Romans, had conspired 
against their country, and combined to 
murder Cicero hineeif. In this dilemma, 
Cicero, in fUll senate, accused Catiline 
of treason against the state ; but as bis 
evidence was not clear, his efforts were 
unavailing. He, however, stood upon his 
guard, and bv the information of his 
friends, his life was saved firom the dag- 
ger of Marcius and Cethegus, whom Cat- 
Dine had sent to assassinate him. After 
nils, Cicero commanded Catiline, in the 
senate, to leave the city ; and this despe- 
rate conspirator marched out in triumph to 
meet the twenty thousand men who waie 

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uiembled to rapport hif cause. Tbelteu- 
tenaot of C. Antony, the othor contul, de- 
feated them in Gaul : and Cicero, at Kome, 
pQiiisbed tbe rest or the conspirators with 
death. After this memorable deliverance, 
Cicero was styled Tlu father of kit country, 
and « second founder qJT Rome. The ve- 
hemence with which he had attacked 
Clodius, proved uoOurlous to him; and 
when his enemy was made tribune, Ci- 
cero was banished from Rome, though 
twenty thousand young men were sup- 
iwrters of his innocence. Wherever he 
went, he was received with the highest 
marks of approbation and reverence ; and 
wben tbe faction had subsided at Rome, 
the whole senate and people were unani- 
mous for his return. Alter sixteen montliB 
absence, be entered Rome with universal 
mtisfaction. After much hesitation dur- 
ing tbe civil commotions between Cssar 
and Pompey, he joined himself to the 
latter, and followed him to Greece. When 
victoiy had declared in fovor of Cesar, at 
the battle of Pharsalia, Cicero went to 
Brunduaium, and was reconciled to the 
conqueror, who treated him with great 
humanity. When Cesar had been stab- 
bed in tbe senate, Cicero recommended a 
general amnesty, and was the most earn- 
est to decree the provinces to Brutus and 
Tassius. But when he sayv the interest 
of Cesar's murderers decrease, and Anto- 
nv come into power, he retirea to Athens. 
He floon after returned, but lived in per- 
petual fear of assassination. Augustus 
courted tbe approbation of Cicero, and ex- 
pressed his wish to be his colleague in 
the consulship. |*;|t^his wis]i was not 
liacere : he sOon forgot hie former profes- 
■ioDaof^ friendship: and wben the two 
eoniQls bad been killed at Mutina. Au- 
Kuatus Joined his interest to that of An- 
^y, and the triumvirate was soon after 
formed.. The great enmity which Cicero 
owe to wAntony was Attal to him ; and 
Attgtistus, Antony, and Lepidus, the tri- 
umvirs, to destroy all cause of quaml, 
«Dd each to dispatch his enemies, produc- 
ed their list of proscription. About two 
hundred were doomed to death, and Cice- 
ro was among tbe number upon the list 
of Antony. Augustus yielded a man to 
J^om he partly owed his greatness, and 
Cicero was Vu^Bued by the emissaries 
of Antony, among whom was Popilius, 
^bou he had defended upon an accusa- 
«on of parricide. He had fled in a litter 
towards the sea of Caieta ; and When the 
'"WMsins came uptoliim, he put his head 
'Nil of the titter, and it was severed from 
the body by Herennius. This memorable 
^vent happened in December, 43 B. C. af- 
ter the enjoyment of life for sixty-three 
yews, eleven months, and five days. The 
^niiiK and the abilities of Cicero have 
o^n the admiratioii of every 0ige and 

coantiy, and his style has always been ac- 
counted as the standard of pure latinity, 

Marcus, the son of Cicero, disgraced 

his father's virtues, and was fond of 
drinking.— -duintos, the brother of the ' 
orator, was Cesar's lieutenant in Gaul, 
and proconsul of Asia for three years. 

CicsRORifl TiuLA, a placo nefur Pi|teoli 
in Campania. 

CicHvais, a town of Epirus. 

Ci coif as, a people (^ Thrace near the 

CicoTA, an old avaricious usurer. 

CiLioiA, a country of Asia Minor, on 
the sea coast, at the north of Cyprus, the 
south of mount Taurus, and the west of . 
the Euphrates. The country w as opulent, 
and was governed by kings, under some 
of the Roman emperors ; but reduced into 

a province by Vespasian. Part of the 

country between .£olia and Troas. 

C I LI as A, a town of Phrygia. 

CiLix, a son of PhcBnix, who after seek- 
ing in vain his sister Europe, settled in a 
country to which he gave the name of 

CiuLA, a town of AfHca Propria.——— 
A town of iEolia— of Troas. 

Ciixas, a general of Ptolemy, conquered 
by Demetrius. 

Ciixus. a charioteer of Pelope, in whose 
honor a city was built. 

CiLHius, the surname of Mecenas. 

CiLo. Jun. an oppreaiive governor of* 
Bithynia and Pontus. 

CiMBaa, Tcix. one of Cesar% mur- 
derers. He laid hold of the dictator's 
robe, which was a signal for the rest to 

CiMBKaios, a chief of the Buevi. 

CiMBai, a people of Gerpaany. 

CiMBRicDM BsuLDM, was bogun by the 
Clmbri and Teutones, by an invasion of 
the Roman territories, B. C. 109. These 
barbarians were so courageous, and even 
desperate, that they fastened their first 
ranks each to tbe other, with cords. In 
the first battle thev destroyed eighty thou- 
sand Romans, under the Consuls Manlius 
and Servilius Ca;pio. The war was fin- 
ished by a very bloody engagement in the 
consulship of Marius. 

CiMi If us, now VUerbe, a lake and moun- 
tain of Etruria. 

CiMM£Rii, a people near the Palus Mos- 
Otis, who invaded Asia Minor, and seized 
upon the kingdom of Cyaxares. An- 
other nation on the western coast of Italy, 
generally imagined to nave lived in caves 
near the sea-shore of Campania, and there, 
in concealing themselves from the light or 
the Sun, to have made their retreat the re»- 
ceptacle of their plunder. 

CiMMBRis^ a town of Troas, formerly 
called Edonis. 

CiMMKRiDM, now Oun, a town of Taa- 
rica Chersonesua. 

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CiMoLis and Cizrous, a town of PapV 

CiMOLua, nov jfr^0nti«ra, an island in 
the Cretan sea, producing chalk and ful- 
ler's earth. 

Ciuoif, an Athenian, son of Miltiades 
and Hegisipyle, fkmous fur his debauche- 
ries in his youth, and the reformation of 
his morals when arrived to years of dis- 
cretion. He tiehaved with great courage 
at the battle of Salamis, and rendered 
himself popular by his munificence and 
valor. He died as he was besieging the 
town of Citium in Cyprus, B. C. 449, in 
the fifty-first year of his age. He may be 
called the last of the Greeks, whose spirit 
and boldness defeated the armies of the 

barbarians. An Athenian, father of 

Miltiades. A Roman, supported in 

prison by the milk of his dau^iter. 

An Athenian, who wrote an account of 
the war of the Amazons against his coun- 

CiirjKTHoif, an ancient poet of Laeede- 

CiNARADAs, one of the descendants of 
Cinyras, who presided over the ceremo- 
nies of Venus at Paphos. 

CiNciA LKx, was enacted by M. Cinci- 
us, tribune of the people, A. U. C. 5^^ 
By it no man was permitted to take anj^ 
money as a gift or a fee in judging a cause. 

L. Q,. CiMciNNATus, a celebrated Ro- 
man, who was informed, as he ploughed 
his field, that the senate had chosen him 
dictator. Upon this be left his ploughed 
land with regret, and repaired to the field 
of battle, where his countrymen were 
closely besieged by the Volsci and ^qui. 
He conquered the enemy and returned to 
Rome in triumph ; and sixteen days after 
his appointment, he laid down his office, 
and retired back to plough his fields. He 
flourished about four hundred and six^ 
years before Christ. 

L. Ciwcius AuMEifTUi, a prtetor of Si- 
cily in the second Punic war. — ^Marcus, 
a tribune of the peofde, A. U. C. 549, au- 
thor of the Cincia lex. 

CiKKAs, a Thessalian, minister and 
friend to Pyrrhus king of Epirus. He 
was sent to Rome by his master to sue for 
a peace, which he, however, could not 

obtain. A king of Thessaly. An 

Athenian, &c. 

CiNEtiAs, a Greek poet of Thebes in 

CiNBTHoir, a Spartan, who wrote gene- 
alogical poems. 

CiifOA, now Cinea. a river of Spain. 
.CiNOETORix, a prince of Gaul, in alli- 
ance with Rome. A prince of Britain, 

who attacked Cesar's camp. 

CiffouLUM, now CingoU, a town of Pi- 
cenum, whose inhabitants are called GbH' 

Cm I ATA« ai»lace of Galatia. 

CiifiTRii, ft people of Africa. 

L. Corn. Cinna, a Roman who Op- 
pressed the republic with bli crueitiot, 
and was banished by Oclavius, for at- 
tempting to make the fugitive slavev free. 
One of Cesar's murderers.- " 

Ilelvius Cinna, a poet intimate With Ce- 
sar. He went to attend the obsequies of 
Cesar, and being mistaken by the popu- 
lace for the other Cinna, be was torn to 

pieces. A grandson of Pompey. He 

conspired against Augustus, who pardcm- 
ed him, and made him one of bis moat in- 
timate fViends. A town of Italy taken 

by the Romans from the Samniteo. 

CiNifADoif, a Lacedemonian youth, 
who resolved to put to death the Ephori, 
and seize upon the sovereini power. His 
conspiracy was discovered, and he was 
put to death. 

CitTifAMcs, a hair-dresser at Rome. 

CiNNiANA, a town of l^usitania, famoua 
for the valor of its citizens. 

CiNxiA, a surname of Juoo, who pre- 
sided over marriages. 

CifiiYvt and CiifrvHus, a river, and 
country of Africa near the Gararaantes, 
whence Cinyphius. 

' CirrvRAs, a king of Cypnis, son of Pa- 
phus, who married Cencnreis, by whom 
he had a daughter called Myrrha. He was 
so rich that his opulence became pro- 
verbial. lA son of Laodice.— — -A man 

who brought a colony from Syria to Cy- ^ 
pnis.-— A Ligurian, wlio aisin^ iBneaa 
against Tumus. 

Cios, a river of Thrace. A oomner- 

cial plaice of Phrygia.— — The name of 
three citiecrla Bithyni^^ 

Cr»pu8, a nohle -Roman, wlio. as he re- 
turned home victorious, was told that if 
he entered the city he must reign there. 
Unwilling to enslave his eountiy, he as- 
sembled the senate without the walls, and 
banished himself for ever from tlie city, 
and retired to live up<m a single acre or 

CiRCJKUM, now CircelUy a prommitory 
of lAtium, near a small town called Or- 
cciL at the south of the Pontine marshes. 

Circe, a daughter of Sol and Varsefs, 
celebrated for her knowledge of magic and 
venomous herbs. She was sister to .fetes 
king of Colchis, and 1*asiphao the wife of 
likfinos. She married a Sarmatian prinre 
of Colchis, whom she mardered to obtain 
his kingdom. - She was expelled by her 
subjects, and ^Carried by her fluher upon 
the coasts of Italy, in an Island called 


the circus at Rome. They w«re in hnita- 
tion of the Olympian lOines tmang the 
Greeks, and, by wi^ <^ eminence, were 
often called (be treat aamea^ The cele- 
bration continued 0^0 days, beginaiag oa 
the fifteenth of fieptembor, Sonia soa- 

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f ^ts and skirmishes, called fay the Ro- 
mtafl Naumacbiae, were aderwards ex< 
hibked in the circus. 

Cimcius, a part of mount Taunia. A 

rapid and tempestuous wind frequent in 
Gallia Narbonensis, and unlcnown in any 
other country. 

CiRcuM PADAifi AtfRi, the country aroand 
the river Po. 

CiKcus, a, large and elegant building at 
Rome, where plays and shows were ex- 
hibited. There were about eight at Rome ; 
the first, called Mazimus Circus, was the 
grandest, raised and embellished by Tar- 
quin Priscus. 

CiRis, the name of Scylla daughter of 
NisQS, who was changed into a bird. 

CiKR.«ATUM, a place near Arpinvm, 
where C. Marius lived when young. 

CiRBHA and CvRRHA, a town of Phocis, 
at the foot of t*arna&sus, where Apollo 
was worshipped. 

CiRTHA and CiRTA,atown of Numidia. 

CisALPiNA Gallia, a part of Gaul, call- 
ed also Citerior and Togata. 

CispAOANA Gallia, a part of ancient 
9aul, south of the Po. 

CisRHSRANi, part of the Germans who 
ived nearest Some, on the west of the 

CissA, a river of Pontua. An island 

lear Istria; 

Cisssis, a patronymic given to Hecuba 
as daughter of Cissens. 

Ciss£us, a king of Thrace, fathw to He- 
cuba, according to some authors. A 

son of Melampas, killed by vEneas. A 

son of iGgyptus. 

C I SSI A, a country of Susiana, of which 
Sosa was the capital. 

Oissif, some gates in Babylon. % 

CissiDEs, a general of Dionysius sent 
with nine gallies to assist the Spartans, 

CfssoEssA, a fountain of BoBOtia. 

Cissus, a mountain of Macedonia. A 

city of Thrace. A man who acquainted 

Alexander with the flight of flarpalus. 

CissusA, a fountain where Bacchuawas 
washed when young. 

CisTRif A, a town of iGolia. A town 


CiTHJBRotT. a king who gave his name 
to a mountatpi of Bflsotia, situate at the 
south of Uie river Asopus, and sacred to 
Japiter and the Muses. 

CiTHARisTA, a promontory of Gaul. 

CiTiuM, now Chitti, a town of Cyprus, 
where Cimon died in his expedition against 

CiDs, « town of Mysift. 

J. CfviLis, a powerful Batavian, who 
nised a sedition against Galba. 

CizTCTTM, a city of Asia in the Propon- 
tis, the same as Cyzicus. 

Cladeus, a river of Elis. 

CuuxiMt a liver falling into the later. 


Clawts, a centaur killed by Thesena. 

Clanius, or Cla:«is, a riVer of Campa* 
nia — of £truria, now CHana. 

Clarus, or Claros, a town of Ionia, fa- 
mous for aa-oracle of Apollo. An is- 
land of the iEgean, between Tenedos and 
Scios.- ■ One of the companions of 

Clastioium, now ScAuifetzo, a town of 
Ldguria. A village of Gaul. 

Claudia, a patrician family at Rome,< 
descended from Clausus a king of the Sa- 
bines. It gave birth to many illustrioua 
patriots in the republic. 

Claudia, a vestal virgin accused of in- 
continence. She proved her innocence by 
removing a ship which had brought the 
image of Vesta to Rome, and had stuck in 

one of the shallow places of the river. 

A step-daughter of M. Antony, whom Au- 
gustus married. The wife of the poet 

Statins. A daughter of Appius Clau- 
dius, betrothed to Tib. Gracchus. The 

wife of Metellus Celer. A town of No- 

ricum. A Roman road, which led from 

the Milvian bridjfe to the Flamininn way. 

A tribe which received its name from 

Appius Claudius. Q,Hinta, a daughter 

of Appius Ckcus, whose statue in the ves- 
^ulum of Cvbele's temple was unhurt 
when that edifice was reduced to ashes. 

Antonia, a danghterof the emperor 

Claudius, killed by Nero. 

Claudia lrx, the title of several laws, 
De ComituSf de uswa^ de neirotiatimiey &c. 

CLAUDiie A<iujE, the first water brought 
to Rome by means of an aqueduct of 
eleven miles, erected A. U. C. 441. 

Claudia ivus, a celebrated poet of Alex* 
andria in Egypt. 

Claudiopolis, a town of Capnadocia. 

Claudius L (Tiber. Drusus Nero) son 
of Drusus, Livia*s second son, succeeded 
as emperor of Rome, after the murder of 
Caligula, whose memory he endeavored 
US annihilate. He was at last poisoned by 
his wife Agrippina, who wished to raise 
her son Nero to the throne. Ue died in 
the sixty-third year of his age. ■ The 
second emperor of that name, was a Dal- 
matian, who Succeeded Gallienus. His 
character was marked with bravery, and 
tempered with justice and benevolence. 

Nero, a consul with Li v. Salinator, 

who defeated and killed Asdnibal, near 

the rtver Metaurum. Thcyfather of the 

emperor Tiberius. Polios, an historian. 

Pontius, a general of the Samnites, 

who conquered the Romans at Furcie Cau- 

diniB. Petilius, a dictator. ^yVppius, 

an orator. App. Ctecus, a RomaDi cen» 

sor, who built an aqueduct, A. U. C. 441, 
Which brought water to Rome from Tus- 
culum, at the distance of seven or eight 

miles. A praetor of Sicily. PuWuis, 

a great enemy to Cicero. Pulcher, a 

consul, wh©, when consulting the sacreo 

Digitized bK^OOgle 




chiekens, oidered them to be dipped in 
water, because they would not eat. He 
was unsuccessful In his expedition, and 

disgraced on his return to Rome. The 

name of Claudius is common to many Ro- 
man consuls, and other officers of state ; 
but nothing is recorded Qf them,, and their 
name is but barely mentioned. 
' Clatibhus, an obscure poet in Juve- 
nal's age. 

Clatiobr, a surname of Janus, from 
his befng represented with a key. Hercu- 
les received also that surname, as he was 
armed with a eiuA. 

Clausius, or Ctusius, a surname of 

Clausus, or CLAUDM71, a king of the 
Sabines, who assisted Tumus against 

Clazomenjb and Clazomsiva, now 
Vmurlaj a city of Ionia, on the coasts of 
the iEgean sea, between Smyrna and 

Clbadas, a man of Platea, who raised 
tombs over those who had been killed in 
the battle against Mardonius. 

Clsandkb. one of Alexander's officers, 
who killed Parmenio by the king's com- 
mand. The first tyrant of Gela. A 

soothsayer of Arcadia. A favorite of 

the emperor Commodus, who was put to 
death, A. D. 190. 

CLEANDRiDAs,a Spartan general. A 

man punished with death for bribing two 
of the Ephori. 

Clkai«i-R£s, a stoic philosopher of As- 
Bos in Troas, successor of Zeno. Out of 
respect for his virtues, the Roman senate 
raised a statue to him in Assos. It it said 
that he starved himself in his ninetieth 
year, B. C. 940. 

Clsarchus. a tyrant of Heraclea in Pon- 
tuB, who was killed during the celebration 
of the' festivals of Bacchus, after the en- 
joyment of the sovereign power during 

twelve years, 353 B. C ^The second 

tyrant of Heraclea of that name, died B. C. 

S^.T A Lacedaemonian sent to quiet 

the Byzantines. He was recalled, but 
refused to obey, and fled to Cyrus the 
younger, who made him captain of thir- 
teen thyusand Greek soldiers. He ob- 
tauied a victory over Artaxerxes, who was 
80 enraged at the defeat, that when Clear- 
chos fell into his hands, by the treachery 
of Tissaphemes. he put him to immediate 

death. A disciple of Aristotle, who 

wrote a treatise on tactics. 

Clkaridss, a son of Cleonymus, gov- 
ernor of Amphipolis. 

C1.BMEN8 RoMANus, one of the fathers 
of the chil^ch, said to be contemporary 

with St. Paul. Anotjier of Alexandria. 

A senator who favored the party of 

Niger against Severtis. 

Clemsivtia, one of the virtues to whom 
the Romans paid adoration. 

Cleo, a (Sicilian am&ng Alexander'! 

Cleobis and Biton, two youths, sons 
of Cydippe, the priestess of Juno at Argos. 
When oxen could not be procured to draw 
their mother's chariot to the temple of 
Juno, they put themselves under the yoke, 
and drew it forty-five stadia to the tem- 
ple, amidst the acclamations of the multi- 
tude. Cydippe entreated the goddess to 
reward the piety of her sons with the best 
gift that could be granted to a mortal* 
They went to rest, and awoke no more. 

Cleobula, the wife of Amyntor. A 

daughter of Boreas and^ Orithya. called 

also Cleopatra. A woman, mother of a 

son cijled Euripides, by Apollo. An- 
other who bore Cepheus and Am{>hida- 
mus to ^geus. The mother of Pithos. 

Cleobulina, a daughter of Cleobulus, 
remarkable for her genius, learning, judg- 
ment, and courage. 

Cleobulus, one of the seven wise men 
of Greece. He died in the seventieth year 

of his age, B. C. 564; An histraian. 

One of the Ephori. 

Cleochares, a man sent by Alexander 
to demand Porus to surrender. 

Cleocharia, the mother of Eurotas. 

Cleodaus, a son of Hyllus. 

Cleodamus, a Roman general under 

Cleodemus, a physician. 

Cleodora, a nymph, mother of Parnas- 
sus. One of the Danaides. 

Cleodoxa, a daughter of Niobe and 
Amphion, changed into a stone. 

Cleooenes, a son of Silenus. 

Cleolaus, a son of Hercules, by Ar- 

Cleomachub, a boxer of Magnesia. 

Cleomahteb, a Lacediemonian sooth- 

Cleohbrotus, son of Pausanias, a king 
of Sparta, after his brother Agesipolis 1st. 
He was killed in the engagement at Leuc- 
tra, and his eu'my destroyed, B. C. 371. 

A son-in-law of Leonidas king of 

Sparta, who, for a while, usurped the 
kmgdom, after tlie expulsion of his father- 
in-law. A youth of Ambracia. 

Cleomsdes, a famous athlete of Asty- 
palaea, above Crete. Divine honors were 
p^d to him after his death. 

Cleomenss Ist, king of Sparta, con- 
quered the Argives, and freed Athens from 
the tyranny of the Pisistratide. He killed 

himself in a fit of madness, 491 B. C. 

The second, succeeded his brother Ai^esi- 
polis Sd. He reigned ^sixty-one years in 

the ^eatest tranquillity. The third, 

succeeded his father Leonidas. He made 
war against the Acheans, and attempted 
to destroy their league. Aratus, the gen- 
eral of the Acheans, who supposed him- 
self inferior to his enemy, called Antigo- 
nus to his assistance 3 and Cleomene^, 

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when he had fought the unfortunate bat- 
tle of Sellaski, B. C. 2^, retired into Egypt, 
to the court of Ptolemy Evergetes. Ptole- 
my received him with great cordiality; 
but hia successor Soon expressed his jeal- 
ousy of this noble stranger, and imprison- 
ed him. Cleomenes killed himself, B. C. 

Clbow, an Athenian, who, though ori- 
ginally a taniier, became general of the 
armies of the state, by his intrigues and 
eloquence. He was killed at Amphipolis, 
in a battle with Brasidas the Spartan gen- 
eral, 423 B. C. A general of Messenia. 

A statuary. A poet who wrote a 

poem on the Argonauts. An orator of 

Halicarnassus. A Sicilian, one of Al- 

eiander's flatterers. A tyrant of Si- 

cyon A friend of Phocion. 

Clbo!i.b and Cleona., a village of Pelo- 
ponnesus, between Corinth and Argos. 
— -A town of Phocis. 

Clboive, a daughter ofAsopua. 

Clsonica, a virgin of Byzantium, acci- 
dentally killed by Pausanias. Cleonica 
often appeared to him, and he was anx- 
ious to make a proper expiation to her 

CLBoificus, a fireedman of Seneca. 

CLcoifNis. a Messenian, who disputed 
with Aristoaemoa for the sovereign power 
of his country. 

CLsoifrMus, a son of Cleomenes 2d, 
who called Pyrrhus to hia as&istance, be- 
cause Areus hia brother's son, had been 
preferred to him in the succession ; but 
the measure was unpopular, and even 
the women united to repel the foreign 

prince. A general who assisted the 

Tarentines, and was conquered by iGmyl- 

iasthe Roman conaul. A person so 

cowardly that CUonymo Umidior became 

Clcopater, an officer of Aratus. 

Cleopatra, the grand -daughter of At- 
talus, betrothed to Philip of Macedonia, 
after he had divorced Olymplas. When 
Philip was murdered by Pausaniaa, Cleo- 
patra was seized by order of Olymplas, 
and put to death. A sister of Alexan- 
der the Great. A daughter of Boreas. 

——A 'daughter of Idas and Marpessa. 
One of the Danaides. A daugh- 
ter of Amyntas of Ephesus.^- A sister of 

Mithridates. A daughtef of Tros and 

Callirhoe. A daughter of .Ptolemy Phil- 

ometor. A wife and sister of Ptolemy 

Everi>etes. A queen of Egypt, celebrat- 
ed for her beauty and her cunning. As 
she had supported Brutfls, Aptony, in his 
expedition to Parthia, summoned her to 
appear before him. She arrayed herself 
in the most magnificent apparel, and ap- 
peared btffore her Judge in the most cap- 
tivating attire.: Her artifice succeeded ; 
Antony became enamoured of her, and 
publicly married berj forgetful of liia oon- 

nexlona with Octavia, the sister of Au- 
gustus. This behaviour was the cause 
of a rupture between Augustus and An- 
tony ; and these two celebrated Romans 
met at Actium, where Cleopatra, by fly- 
ing with sixty sail, ruined the interest of 
Antony, and he was defeated. Cleopatra 
had retired to Egypt, where soon after 
Antony followed her. Antony killed 
himself upon the false information that 
Cleopatra was dead ; and as his wound 
was not mortal, he was carried to the 
queen, who drew him np by a cord from 
one of the windows of the monument, 
where she had retired and concealed her- 
self. Antony soon after died of his 
wounds ; and Cleopatra destroyed her- 
self by the bite of an asp, not to fall into 
the conqueror's hand. Cleopatra was a 
voluptuous and extravagant woman, and 
in one of the feasts she gave to Antony at 
Alexandria, she melted pearls into hrr 
drink to render her entertainment more 
sumptuous and expensive. She died B. 
C. 30 years, after a reign of SM years, aged 
39. Egypt became a Roman province at 

her death. A daughter of Ptolemy 


Clbopatbis or Arbinob, a fortified 
town of Egypt on the Arabian gulf. 

Clbophanes, an orator. 

CLEOPHAiTTHUt, a SOU of Themistocles, 
famous for his skill in riding. 

Clbophbs, a queen of India., a Samian who wrote an 
account of Hercules. 

Cleophon , a tragic poet of Athens. 

Cleophylui, a man whose posterity 
saved the poems of Homer. 

Cleopompus, an Athenian, wbo took 
Thronium, and conquered the Locriana, 
&c.— ~A man who married the nymph 
Cleodora, by whom he had Parnassus. 

Cleoptolbmub, a man of Chalcto; 
whose daughter was given in marriage to 

Cleopus, a Son of Codrus. 

Cleora, the wife of Agesilaua. 

Clbostratvs, a youth devoted to be 
sacrificed to a serpent, among the Thes- 
pians, Set. An ancient philosopher and 

astronomer of Tenedos. 

Cleoxenvs, wrote an history of Persia. 

CLEPtTDBA, a fountain of Messenia. 

Cleri, a people of Attica. 

Clesiobs, a Greek painter, about 976 
years before Christ. 

OLE'i'A and PHASirirA, two of the 
Graces, according to some. 

Clidemus, a Greek who wrote the his- 
tory of Attica. 

Climax, a pass of mount Taurus. 

Climenus, a descendant of Hercules. 

Clin I AS, a Pythagorean philosopher. 

A son of Alciblades. The fhther of 

Alcibiades. The ihther of Aratus, kill- 
ed B. C. S»3 A friend, of Sokm. 

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Clinifpioss, an Athenian general in 

Cllncb of Cos, was ^neral of 7,000 
Greeks, in the pay of king Nectanebus. 
He was killed with some of his troops, 
by Nicostratus and the Argives, as he 
passed the Nile. 

Clio, the first of the Muses, daughter 
of Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided 
over history. She is represented crowned 
with laurels, holding in one hand a trum- 
pet, and a book in the other. One of 

Gyrene's nymphs. 

CLiBiTHsaA, a daughter of Idomeneus, 
murdered by Leucus. 

Clisthcnbs, the last tyrant of Sicyon. 
— An Athenian of the family of Alcmie- 

on. An effeminate and incontinent 

person. An orator. 

Clita, a people of Cilicia.— — A place 
near mount Athos. 

Clitarchus, a man who made himself 
absolute at Eretria, by means of Philip of 
Macedonia. He was ejected by Phocion. 
An historian, who accompanied Al- 
exander the Great. 

Clit£, the wife of Cyzicus, who hung 
herself when she saw her husband dead. 

Clitcrivia, a town of Italy. 

Clitooemus, an <incient writer. 

Clitomachus, a Carthaginian philoso- 
pher. An athlete of a modest counte- 
nance and behavior. 

Clitohtmus, wrote a treatise on Syba- 
ris and Italy. 

Clitophoiv, h man of Rhodes, who 
wrote an history of India. 

Clitor, a son of Lycaon. A son of 

Azan, who founded a city in Arcadia, 
called after his name.— —A river of Arca- 

Clitoria, the wife of Cimon the Athe- 

Clitumnus, a river of Campania, whose 
waters, when drunk, made oxen white. 

Coitus, a fkmiliar friend and foster- 
brother of Alexander. Alexander killed 
him with a javelin, in a fit of anger, at a 

feast. A commander of Polyperchon's 

ships, defeated by Antigonus. A Tro- 
jan prince, killed by Teucer. A disci- 
ple of Aristotle. 

CLOAcitfA, a goddess at Rome, who 
presided over the Cloacie. 

Clo Air THUS, one of the companions of 

Clodia, the wife of LucuUas, repudi- 
ated for her lasciviousness. An opulent 

matron at Rome. A vestal virgin. 

Another of the same family. A woman 

who married Q,. Metellus, and afterwards 
disgraced herself. 

Clodia lex, the title of several laws, 
de C3rpro, de Magistratibus, de Religione, 
de Provinciis, &c. 

Clodii roRcif, a town of Italy. 

Pb. Clodius, a Roman descended fiom I 

an illustrious family, and remarkable for 
his licentiousness, avarice, and ambition. 
He was an enemy to Cato, and was also 
an inveterate enemy to Cicero j and by 
his influence, he banished him fVom 
Rome. In spite of Clodius, Cicero wa» 
recalled, and all his goods restored to him. 
Clodius was some time afler murdered by 
-Licinius, wrote an history of 

iluirinalis, a rhetorician in 
Sextus, a rhetorician of 

Nero*s age.- 

Clcelia, a Roman virgin given with 
other maidens as hostages to Porsenna 
king of Etruria. She escaped from l^i 
couBneinent, and swam across the Tiber 
to Rome. Her unprecedented virtue wav 
rewarded by her countrymen, with an 

equestrian statue in the Via Sacra. A 

patrician family descended from Clcelius, 
one of the companions of iEneas. 

Cloeli.s foss.v, a place near Rome. 

Clcelius- Gracchus, a general of the 
Volsci and Sabines, conquered by Q,. Cin- 
cinnatus. Tullus, a Roman ambassa- 
dor put to death by Tolumnius king <^ 
the Veientes. 

Clonas, a musician. 

Clo HI A, the mother of Nycteus. 

Clonius, a BcBotian, who went with 50 
ships to the Trojan war. — A Trojan kill- 
ed by Messapus in Italy. Another^ 

killed by Turnus. 

Clotho, the youngest of the three Pnr- 
cae, daughter of Jupiter and Themis, was 
supposed to preside over the moment that 
we are born. She held the distaff in her 
hand, and span the thread of life. 

Cluaciita, a name of Venus. 

Cluentius, a Roman citizen, accused 
by his mother of having muraefed hia 
father, 54 years B C. He was ably de- 
fended by Cicero. 

Cluilia rossA, a place 5 miles distant 
from Rome. 

Clupea and Cltpea, now JSkUMa, a 
town 22 miles east of Carthage. 

Clusia, a daughter of an Etrurian king, 
ot whom V. Torquatus the Roman gen- 
eral became enamored. 

Clusini pontes, baths in Etruria. 

Clusium , now Chiusiy a town of Etruria. 

Cldsius, a river of Cisalpine Gaul. 

The surname of Janus, When his temple 
was shut. 

Cluvia, a noted debauchee. 

Clutius Rukus, a qusstor, A. U.C. 693.. 
A man of Puteoli appointed by Ce- 
sar to divide the lands of Gaul. 

Cltmene, a daughter of Oceanus and 

Tethys, who married Japetus. One of 

the Nereides. A daughter of Mymas, 

mother of Atalanta by Jasus. The 

mother of Phaeton by Apollo. 

Clymeneides, a patronymic given to 
Pheton's sisters. 

Cltmxiius, a kingof Orchomenos. Ha 

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received a. wound from a stone thrown 

by a The{)an. of which he died. One 

of the descendants of Hercules. A son 

of Phoroneus. A king of Elis. — ; — A 

son of CBneus king of Calydon. 

Cltsontmus, a son of Amphidamas, 
killed by Patroclus. 

Clttsmnestra, a daughter of Tynda- 
rus king of Sparta, by Leda, who married 
Agamemnon king of Argos. When Aga- 
memnon went to the Trojan war, he left 
his cousin iEgysthus to take care of his 
wife, of his fiunily, and all his domestic 
affairs. In the absence of Agamemnon, 
yEgystbuB made his court to Clytemnes- 
Cra, and publicly lived with her. Her in- 
fidelity reached the ears of Agamemnon 
before the walls of Troy, and he resolved 
to take full revenge upon the adulterers 
at his return. He was prevented from 
putting his schemes into execution ; Cly- 
temnestra, with her adulterer, murdered 
him at his arrival, as he came out of the 
bath. Cassandra, whom Agamemnon had 
brought tVom Troy, shared his fate. Aft^r 
this n\urder, Clytemnestrm publicly mar- 
ried iEgysthus, and he ascended the 
throne of Argos. Orestes, after an ab- 
sence of seven years, returned to Myce- 
nc, resolved to avenge his father's mur- 
der. He concealed himself in the house 
of his sister Electra, who had been mar- 
ried to a person of mean extraction and 
indigent circumstances. His death was 
publicly announced ; and when iGgystbus 
and Clytemnestra repahred to the temple 
of Apollo, to return th&nks to the god. for 
the death of the surviving son of Aga- 
memnon, Orestes, who with his faithful 
friend Pyiades, had concealed himself in 
the temple, rushed upon the adulterers, 
and killed them with his own hand. 

Clttia, or Clttik, daughter of Ocean- 
us and Tetbys. beloved by Apollo. She 

was changed into a sun-flower. A 

mother of Pelope, by Tantalus. A 

' daughter of Pandarus. 

Clvtius, a son of Laomedon by Btrymo. 

A youth in the army of Tumus.-^-A 

pant, killed by Vulcan. ^Tfae fiitber of 

Pireus, who faithfully attended Telema- 
chus.^^— A son of iEolus. 

Clttus, a Greek in the Trojan war. 

CifACApiuM, a mountain of Laconia. 

CiTACALis, a mountain of Arcadia. 

Cn AoiA, a surname of Diana. 

CifXMUi, a Macedonian general. 

Cifxos, or CvMV»i a pnenomen common 
to many Itomans. 

Cifix>iifiu>c,'a name given to a monu- 
ment near Ephesus. 

CifiDUs and Gw ibcs. a town and prom- 
ontory of Doris in Cana. 

Giro PUS, one of the descendants of Co- 
drus, who went to settle a colony, &c. 

CifOMi A, a mistress of Menelaus. 

Cnosus. or Gitomus, a town of Crete. 

Co, Coos and Cos, now Zta, one of the 
Cycladte, situate near the coasts of Asia. 
Its chief town is called Cos. It was fa- 
mous for its fertility. 

Co AM A If I, a people of Asia. 

CoASTRjK ai\4 CoACTRji, a people of 

CoBAaKs, a celebrated magician of Me- 
dia. ^ 

CocALus, a king of Sicily, who hospita- 
bly received Daedalus, when he fled be- 
fore Minos. 

QpccEius NaavA, a friend of Horace 

aillt Mecienas. An architect of Rome. 

A nephew of Otho. 

CoccToius, a mountain of Peloponne- 

CooiitTUM, a promontory of the Brutii, 
now cape StUo. 

CocLEs, Pub. Horat. a celebrated Ro- 
man, who, alone, opposed the whole army 
of Porsenna at the head of a bridge, while 
his companions behind him were cutting 
off the communieation with the other 
shore. When the bridge wad destroyed, 
Cocles leapt into the Tiber, and swam 
across with his arms. 

CocTiJc and Cottijk, certain parts ol 
the Alps. 

CocTTUs, a river of Epiriis. Its ety- 
mology, the unwholesomeness of its wa- 
ter, ano above all^ its viciiiity to the Ache- 
ron, have made the poets call It one of 

the rivers of hell. A river of Campa> 


CoDAirus SINUS, one of the ancient 
names of the Baltic. 

CoDOMANus, a surname of Darius the 
third, king of Persia. 

CoDRiDJB, the descendants of Codrus. 

CoDROFOLis, a town of lUyriium. 

Codrus, the seventeenth and last king 
of Athena, son of Melanthus. When the 
Heradids made war against Athens, the 
oracle declared that the victory would be 
granted to that nation whose king was 
kiUed in battle. The Heraclidv upon this 

Siive strict orders to spare the life of Co- 
rus ; but the patriotic king disguised him- 
self, and attacked one of the enemy, by 
whom he was killed. The Athenians ob- 
tained the victory, and Codrus was de- 
servedly called -the father of his country. 

A man who killed Hegesias, tyrant of 

Ephesus. A Latin poet. Another, 

in the reign of Domitian, whose poverty 
became a proverb. 

CoeciLii/t, a centurion. 

CoELA, a place in the bay of EubOBa. 
A part of Attica. 

CacLALBTJB, a people of Thrace. 

CfELBsraiA and CsLotraiA, a country 
of Syria. Its capital was Damascus. 

Cosu A, the wife of Sylla. ^ 

CoELius, a Roman, defended by Cicero. 

A generakof Carbo. An orator. 

^A Ueutenant of Antony's. Cur- 

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■or, a Roman ksight. in tlic age of Tibe- 
rius. A man, wbo after spending his 

all in dissipation and luxury, became a 

public robber. A RMnan historian, who 

flourished B. C. 121. A hill of Rome. 

CfELUs, or Uranus, an ancient deity, 
supposed to be the fatlier of Saturn, Ocean- 
us, Hyperion, &c. He was son of Terra, 
whom he afterwards married. The num- 
ber of his children, according to some, 
amounted to forty-five. Tbey were called 

CoBiTus, ah officer of Alexander, son-in- 
law to I'armenio. 

CcERAifus, a stoic philosopher.—: A 

person slain bv Ulysses. A Greek cha- 
rioteer to Merlon. 

CoKs, a man of Mitylene, made sove- 
reign master of his country, by Darius. His 
countrymen stoned him to death. 

CcEUs, a son of Ccelus and Terra.— ~-A 
river of Messenia, flowing by Electra. 

CoGAMus, a river of Lydia. 

GooiDunus, a king of Britain. 

CoHiBDs, a river of Asia near Pontus. 

CoHORs, a division in the Roman ar- 
mies, consisting of about six hundred men. 
It was the sixth part of a legion. 

CoLiE#fua, a king of Attica, before the 
age of Cecrope. 

CoLAXEs, a son of Jupiter and Ora. 

CoLAXAis^ oi)e of the remote ancestors 
of the Scythians. 

CoLCHi, the inhabitants of Colchis. 

Colchis and Colchos, a country of 
Asia, famous for the expedition of the Ar-> 
gonauts^ and the birthplace of Medea. It 
was fruitful in poisonous herbs, and pro- 
duced excellent flax. The inhabitants 
- were originally Eeyptians. 

CoLsifDA, a town of Spain. 

CoLiAs, now ./9j^ MSeolo, a promontory 
of Attica. 

CoLLATiA, a town on the Anio, built>by 
the people orAlba. , 

L. TAR(iniiviu9 CoLLATiNus, a nephew 
of Tarquin the Proud, who married Lu- 
. cretia, to whom Sext. Tarquin offered vi- 
olence. He, with Brutus, drove the Tar- 
€[uins from Rome, and were made first 
consuls.— ——One of the seven hills of 

Colli NA, one of the gates of Rome. 

A goddess at Rome, who pKsided over 
hills. One of the original tribes estab- 
lished by Romulus. 

CoLLuciA, an infamous woman. 

Juir. Colo, a governor of Pontus. 

Colon JE, a place of Troas. 

Colons, a city of Phocis — of Erythraea — 

of Thesaaly — of Messenia. A rock of 

Asia, on the Thracian Bosphorus. 

CoLONiA AoRippiNA, a City of Germany 

on the Rhine, now Cologne. ^The name 

of several towns in different parts of the 
Roman empire. 

CoLoifos, an eminence near Athens, 

where a341pd8 retire! during his banish- 

CoLoPHoit, a town of Ionia, vX a small 
distance from the sea. It was one of the 
cities which disputed for the hohor of 
having given birth to Homer. 

CoLosSE and Colossis, a large town of 
Phrygia, near Loadicea. One of the first 
Christian churches was established there, 
and one of St. Paul's epistles was address- 
ed to it. 

Colossus, a celebrated brazen image at 
Rhodes, which passed for one of the seven 
wonders of the world. Its feet were upon 
the two moles which fwmed the entrance 
of the harbor, and ships passed UxW sail 
brtween its legs. It was one hundred and 
five feet high, and every thing in equal 
proportion, and few could clasp ronnd ita 
thumb. It was the work of Chares, thOi 
disciple of Lysippns, and the artist was 
twelve years in making it. It was begun 
three hundred years before Christ ; and 
after it tiad remained unhurt during fifty- 
six or eighty-eight years, it was partly de^ 
molished by an earthquake, 234 B. C. 

CoLOTxs, a Teian painter, disciida of 

Phidias. A disciple of Epictetua. A 

follower of Epicurus.— A sculptor, who, 
made a statue of ^sculapius. 

CoLPx, a city of Ionia. 

CoLUBRARiA, now Jfottttf Colubre, a. 
small island at the east of Spain. 

CoLUMBA, a dove^e symbol of Venus 
among the poets. Doves were supposed 
to give oracles in the oaks, of the forest of 

Columella, (L. Jun. Moder^us), a 
native of Gades, who wrote, among other 
works, twelve books on agriculture, of 
which, the tenth, on gardening, is in verse. 

CoLUMNJi Hkrculis, a name given te 
two mountains on the extreraest parts of 
Spain and Africa, at the entrance into the 

Mediterranean. Protei. the boundariee 

of Egypt, or the extent or the kingdom of 

CoLUTHus, a native of Lycopolis in 
Egypt, who wrote' a short poem on the 
rape of Helen, in imitation or Homer* 

CoLTTTus, a tribe of Athena. 

CoMAOsNA, a part of Syria above CiU' 

CoMAif A, a town of Pontus.— > Another 
in Cappadocia, famous for a temide of 
Bellona^ where there were above six thon^ 
sand ministers of both sexes. 

CoMANiA, a country of Asia. 

CoMAasA, the ancient name of e^w 
Comorin In India. 

CoMARi, a people of Asia. 

Comarus, a port in the bay of Ambracla. 

CoMASTus, a place of Persia. 

CoMBABus, a favorite of Stratonice, wife 
of Antiochus. 

^oMBK, a daughter of Ophiua, who first 
invented a brazen ault of armor. 

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CoMBi, or Ombi, s city of Egypt on the 

CoMBREA, a town near Pallene. 

CoMBUTis, a general under Brennus. 

CoMETEs, the father of Asterion, and 
one of the Argonauts. One of the Cen- 
taurs, killed at the nuptials of Piritbous. 

A son of Thestius, killed at the chase 

of the Calydonian boar.— One of the 

Magi, intimate with Cambyses Ming of 
Persia. A son oC Orestes. 

CoMETHo, a daughter -of Pterilaus, who 
deprived her father of a golden hair in his 
bead, upon which depended his fate. Bbe 
was put to death by Amphitryon for' her 

€L CoMiNius, a Roman knight Who 
wrote woam illib«al verses against Tibe- 

CoMiTiA, (oRirM)) an assembly of the 
Soman people. The Comitium was a 
large hall, which was le|t uncovered at 
the top, in the first ages of the republic : 
00 that the assembly was often dissolvea 
in rainy weather. Tlie Comitia were call- 
ed, some eoTuularia, for the election of the 
consuls i others pratoria, for the election 
of prstois, &c. These assemblies were 
more generally known by the name of 
Comiiioy Cwriata, Centuriataf and TnJbvta. 
Their object was ^the electing of magis- 
trates, and all the public ofiicers of state. 

Comics, a man appointed king over the 
Attrebates, by J. Cesar, for his servtces. 

CoiiMAOBifE. Vyu Coraagena. 

CoMMooui, (L. Aurelius Antoninus), 
son of M. Antoninus, succeeded his father 
in the Soman empire. He was naturally 
cruel and licentious. H^ required divine 
honors from th» senate, and they were 
granted. He was wont to put such an im- 
mense quantity of gold dust in h» hair^ 
that wbea he appeared bare-headed in the 
Bun-shino, his head glittered as if sur- 
nmnded with sun-beams. He was mur-' 
dered in the thirty-first year of his age, 
and the thirteenth of his reign, A. D. 

CoHMORis, a village of Cilicia. 

CoMoir, a general of Messenia. 

CoMPiTALiA, fesuvals,^ celebrated by the 
Romans the twelfth of January and the 
sixth of March, in the cross ways, in hon- 
or of the household gods called Lares. 

CoMTSA, now Conaa^ a town of the Hir- 
pinl in Italy, at the east of Vesuvius. 

CoMPSATUfl, a river of Thrace. 

CoBcriMA, a town of Bithynia. 

Gi»mL now Como, a town at the north 
oflniWim, in the modem dutchy of Mi- 
lan. It was the birth-place of the younger 
Pliny. • 

OoMus, the god of reveiry, feasting, and 
noctumal entertainments. He was rep- 
fesMited^ as a young and drunken man, 
witii a CBrland of flowers on his head, a»d 
a (ordi m his band* whicli seemed foiling. 

CowcAifi, a people of Sfiain, who lived 
chiefly on milk mixed with horses' blood. 

CorrcEUDiA, a town belonging to Venice 
in Italy. 

Concordia, the goddess of peace and 
concord at Rome, to whom Camiilus first 
raised a temple in the capitol. 

CoNDATE, a town of Gaul, now Remua 
in Brittany. 

CowDAi.u», an avaricious officer. 

CoRDiYicNmf, a town of Gaul, now 
Mantes in Brittany. 

OoNDocHATEs, a r^vcr of India, fluwing 
into the Ganges. 

CoiTDRUsi, a people of Belgium, now 
Condrotz in Lelge. 

CoNoVLi A, a town (^Arcadia. 

Gone, a small island at the mouth of 
the Ister. 

CowETODUwus and Cotcatus, two des- 
perate Gauls, who raised their country- 
men against Rome. 

Co If FLUE NTEs, a town at the confluence 
of the Moselle and Rhfne, now Cohlentu 

Coif Fccius, a Chinese philosopher, who 
died about 479 years B. C. 

Coif osDCs, a river of Spain. 

CoiriAci, a people of Spain. 

CoNiMBRiCA, a town of Spain, now Co- 
mfrra of Portugal. 

Coif isALTtrs, a god worshipped at Ath- 

Coifisci, a people of Spain. 

CoNifioAs, the preceptor of Theseus, In 
whose honor the Athenians instituted a 
festival called Connideia. 

Coif ON, a famous general of Athens, son 
of Timotheus. By his means the Athe> 
nians fortified their city with a strong 
wall, and attempted to recover Ionia and 
JSkAia., He was perfidiously betrayed by 
a Persian, and died in prison, B. C. 393. 

A Greek astronomer of Samos. He 

was intimate with Archimedes, and flour- 
ished 247 B. C. A Grecian mythologist, 

in the age of Julius Cesar. 

GfoifSENTEs, the name which the Ro- 
mans gave to the twelve superior gods, the 
2>tt majorum gentium. They were twelve 
in number, whose names Eimius^has 
briefly expressed in these lines : v 

Juno, Vesta, MmeroafCer^fDUmaj VemtSy 

MercwnMa, Jam, JWptuniM, Vvlcanus, Apol- 
lo. Vwrro, de R. R. 

CoivsBifTiA, now Cosenia, a town in 
the country of the Brutii. 

CoifsiDins Mqvvty a Roman knight. 
Caius, one of Pompey's adherents. 

CoifsiLiifUM, a town of Italy. 

CoifsTAifs, a son of Constantine. Fid. 

CowsTAWTiA. a grand-daughter of the 
gi^at Constantine, who married this empe- 
ror Grrftian. . _ ^. 

CoKsTAHTiWA, a princess, wife of the 

y Google 




emperor Gallus. Another of the impe- 
rial family. * s 

CoNSTAirTiNOPOLiB, {Stambotil) formerly 
Byzantium, the capital of Thrace, a noble 
and magnincent city, built by Constantino 
the Great, and solemnly dedicated A. D. 
330. It was the capital of the eastern Bo- 
man empire, and was called, after its 
foundation, Roma nova, on account of its 
greatness, which seemed to rival Rome, 
the beauty of its situation, with all its 
conveniences, have been the admiration 
of every age. 

CoNSTANTiifus, Burnamed tht Qreal, 
from the greatness of bis exploits, was 
Boji of Constantius. As soon as he be- 
came independent, he assumed the title 
of AugustuSj'and made war against Licin- 
ius, his brother-in-law, and colleague on 
the throne, because he was cruel and ambi- 
tious. He c»nquefed hint, and obliged him 
to lay aside the imperial power. He after- 
wards became BOle emperor, and began to 
refprin the slate. He fbundled a city in a 
most eligible situation, where old Byzanti- 
um formerly stood, and called it by his 
own name. Conatantinopolis. Thither he 
transportea part of the Roman senate ; 
and by keeping his court there, he niade 
it the rival of Rome, in population and 
magnificence. • From that time the two 
imperial «ities began to look upon each 
other with an eye of envy ; and soon af- 
ter the age of Constantine, a separation 
was made of the two empires, iind Rome 
was called the capital of the western, and 
Cofistantinopolis was called the capital of 
the eastern dominions of Rome. The em- 
peror has be^n distinguished for personal 
courage, and praised for the protection he 
extended to the christians. Constantine 
was learned, and preached, as well as 
cOQiposed, many sermons, one of which 
remains. He died A. O. 337, after a reign 
of thirty-one years of the greatest glory 
and success. He left three sons, Constan- 
tinus, Constans, and Constantius,. among 

whom he divided his empire. The 

name of Constantine was very common 
to the emperors of the east, in a later pe- 
riod. A private soldier in Britain, 

raised on account of bis name to the im- 
perial dignity. A general of Belisarius. 

Constantius Chlokus, son of ISutropi- 
us, and father of the great' Constantine. 

The second son of Constantine the 

Great. The father of Julian and Cal- 
lus, was son of Constantius by Theodora, 

and died A. D. 337. A Roman general 

of Nyssa, who married Placidia, the sistei; 
of Honorius, and was proclafnusd empdror, 
an honor he enjoyed only seven months. 
He died universally regretted, 491 A. D. 
end was succeeded by his son Valentinian 

in the west. One of the servants of 


CoifsuALxs LuDi, or Coifs^ALiA, festi- 

vals at Rome iiT boner of Consus, the god 
of counsel, whose altar Romulus discov- 
ered under the ground. 

CoirsuL, a magistrate at Rome, with re- 
gal authority for. the space of one year. 
There were two consuls, a consvlendOf 
annually chosen in the Campus Martins. 
Tie two first consuls were L. Jun. Brutus, 
and L. Tarquiniua Collatinus, chosen A. 
U. C. S44, after the expulsion of the Tar- 
quins. In the first ages of the republic, 
the two consuls were always chosen from 
patrician families, or noblemen r but tbe 
people obtained the privilege A. U. C. 388, 
of electing one of the consuls from their 
' own body j and sometimes both were 
plebeians. The first consul among the 
plebeians was L. Sextius. Ifl^'as requir- 
ed that every candidate for the consulship 
should be forty-three years of age, called 
legUimum tentpns. He was always to ap- 
pear at the election as a private man, 
without a retinue ; and it was requisite 
before he canvassed for the office, to have 
discharged the inferior functions of qoes- 
tor, edile, and pretor. Sometimes these 
qualifications were disregarded. The 
power of tbe consuls was unbounded, and 
tbey knew no superior but the gods and 
tbe laws : but after the expiration of their 
office, their conduct was minutely scruti- 
nized by the people, and misbehaviour 
was often punished by the laws. The 
badge of their office was the prmtexta, a ' 
robe fringed with purple, afterwards ex- 
changed fur the toga pitta or pabnata. 
They were preceded by twelve llctors, 
carrying the fasces or bundle of sticks, in 
tbe middle of which appeared an axe. The 
office of consul, so dignified during the 
times of the commonwealth, became a 
mere title under the emperors, and retain- 
ed nothing of its authority but the useiesa 
ensigns of original dignity. 

Consus, a deity at Rome, who presided 
over ccnmcils. His temple was covered 
in the Maximus Circus, tp show that coun- 
cils ought to be secret and inviolable. 

Cons YON A, the wife of Nicomedes king 
of Bithynia, torn in pieces by dogs. 

CoNTADssDus, a rlvor of Thraco. 

CoNTUBiA, a town in Spain. 

Coon, the eldest son of Antenor, killed 
by Agamemnon. 

Coos, Cos, Cba, and Co, an island of 
the ^gean sea. 

CopjE, a place of Greece, near the Ce- 

CopAis LACus, now Lmmey a lake of Bcb- 
otia, famous for its excellent eels. 

CoPHAS, asonof Artabazus.-~-Ariver 
of India. 

CopHoNTis, a burning mountain of Bao> 

CoprA, the goddess of plen^, among 
the Romans represented as bearing a liom 
filled with grapes, fruits, Ace. 

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Copiixns, a genenil of the Tectosags, 
taken by the Romans. 

C. CoroNius, a commander of the fleet 
of Rhodes, at Dyracchium, in the interest 
of Pompey. 

CopRjLTjBs, a river of Asia, falling into 
tbe Tigris. 

Coras D», a son of Peiops, who -fled to 
Mycens, at the death of Iphitus. 

CoFTUB and Copto«,' now Kypt, a town 
of Egypt, about one Aundred leagues frop 

Cora, a town of Latium, on the confines 
of the Volsci. 

CoRACBsiuM and Coracsitsium, a mari- 
time town of Pampbylia. 

CoRAcoif ASUS, a town of Arcadia. 

CoRALETJE, a people of Scythia. 

CoBAJxi, a savage people of Pontus. 

CoRANus, a miser. ^ 

Coras, a brother of Catillus and Tybur- 
tns, who fought against iEneas. 

CoRAx, an ancient rhetorician of Sidly. 
A mountain of iEtolia. 

CoRAxi, a people of Colchis. 

CoRBBUs, a Gaul, &c. 

GoRRis and Orsca^ two brothers, who 
Ibught for the dominion of a city, ul tlie 
presence of Scipio, in Spain. ' 

CoRBULo, Domitius, a prefect of Bel- 
gium, who, when governor of Syria, rout- 
ed the Parthians. destroyed Artaxata, and 
made Tigranra king of Armenia. Nero, 
jealous of hu virtues, ordered him to te 
murdered ; and Corbulo hearing this, feir 
upon his sword, A. D. 66. 

CoROTRA, an island In thb Ionian sea, 
«bout twelve miles from Buthrotum, on 
the coast of Epirus ; famous for the ship- 
wreck of Ulysses, and the gardens of Al- 
«inous. It is now called Corfu. 

CoRouBA, now Cordova, a ftmous city 
of Hispania Bstica. 

CoRDTLA. a port of Pontus. 

Cork, a (laughter of Ceres, the saae as 

CoRssscs, a hill near Ephesus. 

CoRBsus, a priest of Bacchus at Caly- 
don in Beeotia, who was deeply enamored 
of the nymph Callirhoe, who treated him 
with disdain. He complained to Bacchus, 
who visited the coun.try with a pestilence. 
The Calydoniaas were directed by the 
oracle, to appease the god by sacrificing 
Callirtaoe on his altar. The nymph was 
led to the altar, and Coresus, who was to 
sacrifice her, nirgot his resentment, and 
stabbed himself. Callirhoe, conscious of 
her ingratitude to the love of Coresus, 
killed herself on the brink of a fountain, 
which afterwards bore her name. 

CoRKTAs, a man who first gave oracles 
at Delphi. 

CoRFiifiuM, now SanFervM, the capi- 
tal of the Pallgni. 

CoRiA, a Bomame of Minerva, among 
the ArcadiaDB. 

CoRiivirA, a celebrated woman of Tana- 
gra, near Thebes, disciple to Myrtis. It 
is said, that she obtained five times a po- 
etical prize, in which Pindar was her com- 
petitor; but it must he acknowledged, 
that her beauty greatly contributed to de- 
feat her rivals. A woman of Thespis, 

celebrated for her beauty. Ovid's mis- 
tress was also called Corinna. 

CoRiNNus, an ancient poet in the time 
of (he Trojan war, on which he wrote a ' 

CoRiNTHiAcus sfNus, is uow callod the 
gulf of Lepanto. 

CoRiNTHus, an ancient city of Greece, 
now called Corito, situated on the middle 
of the Isthmus of Corinth, at the distance 
of about sixty stadia on either side from 
the sea. It was first founded by Sisyphus 
son of iGolus, A. M. 2616. The inhabi- 
tants were once very powerful, and had 
great influence among the Greciui states. 
They colonized Syracuse in Sicily, and 
delivered it from the tyranny cMf its op- • 
pressors, by the means of Timoleon. Co- 
rinth was totally destragred by Ii»'Mum- 
mius, the Roman consul, and burnt to 
tfa« ground, 146 B. C. The riches which 
the Romans found there, were immense. 
During the conflagration, all the mfetals 
which were in the city melted and mix- 
ed together, and formed tliat valuable 
composition of metals, which has since 
b^n kno\yn by the name of CorwUmaix 
JEs. J. Ceesar planted a colony at Co- 
rinth, and endeavored to raise it from its 
ruins, a^ restore it to its former gran> 
deur. The government of Corinth was 
monarchical, till 779 years B. C. when 
officers called Prytanes were instituted .> 
An actor at Rome. 

CoRioLANus, the surname of Caius 
Martins, from his victory over Corioli, 
where, from being a private soldltr, he 
gained great honors. After a number of 
military exploits, and manv services to 
hie country, he was refused the consul- 
ship by the people. This raised his re- 
sentment; and, when the Romans had 
received a present of com from Gelo, king 
of Sicily, he insisted that it should be 
sold for money, and not distributed gratis. 
His imprudent advice provoked the peo- 
ple, who wished him to be put to death : 
but this rigorous sentence was prevented 
by the influence of the senators, and he 
was banished. Coriolanus retired among 
the Volsci to Attius Tullus, his greatest 
enemy, from whom he met a friendly re- 
ception. Attius advised him to declare 
war against Rome, and Coriolanus march- 
ed at the head of the Volsci as general. 
His approach greatly alarmed the Romans, ' 

Sd they sent several embassies to recon- 
e him to his country, and solicit his re- 
turn ; but he wad deaf to aH proposals, 
and bade them prepare for war. He pitcn- 

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ed his camp at the distance of five miles 
from tbe city j and his enmity' against his 
country woaid have proved fatal, had not 
his wife, Volumnia, and his mother, Ve- 
turia, been prevailed upon by the Roman 
matrons to ^o and appease his resentment. 
Their meeting was tender and affecting ; 
Coriolanus long remained inexorable ; but 
their tears and entreaties at length suc- 
ceeded, and be marched the troops from 
the neighborhood of Rome. The conduct 
of Coriolafius displeased the Volsci, ai^ 
he was summoned to appear before the 
people at Antium ; but the clamours 
which his enemies raised were so preva- 
lent, that he was murdered at the place 
appointed for his trial, B. C. 488. 

CoRioLi and Cokiolla, a town of La- 
tium on the borders of the Volsci, taken 
by the Romans under C. Martins, called 
fh>m thence Coriolanus. 

C0RIS8U8, a town of Ionia. 

CoaiTus. Vid, Corytus. 

CoRMAssA, a town of Pamphylia. 

CoRMus, a river near Assyria. 

CoRifELiA LEX, de CimtoUf was enact- 
ed A. U. C. 670, by L. Com. Sylla. It 
confirmed the Sulpician law, and requir- 
ed that the citizens of the eight newly 
elected tribes should be divined among 
the 35 ancient tribes. Other laws were 
also enacted under this titte-, viz. de 
JudieU* ; de Sumptibne} deMtaUdpiu} de 
MagUiratibugf ^. ^e, 

CoRifKLiA, a daughter of Cinna, who 
was the first wife of J. Cesar. She be" 
came mother of Julia,' Pompey'fl wife.-^— 
A daughter or Metellus Scipio, who mar- 
ried Pompey, after the death of her bos- 
band P. Crassus. She has been praised 

for her great virtues. A dauj^ter of 

Scipio Africanus, who married Sempro> 
nius Gracchus, and was the mother of 
Tiberius and Caius Gracchus. Her vir- 
tues have been deservedly commended, 
as wen as the wholesome principles she 
inculcated in her two sons. When a 
Campanian lady made once a show of 
her jewels at Cfomelia*s bouse, and en- 
treated her to favor her with a sight of 
her own, Cornelia produced her two sons, 
saying. These arc my Jewels. A ves- 
tal virgin, buried alive In Domitlan's age, 
as guUty of incontinence. 
• CoRrfSLii, an illustrious family at 
Rome. — Dolobella, a friend and admirer 

of Cleopatra. An-ofiicer of Sylla, 

whom J. Cwsar bribed to escape the pro- 
scription which threatened his life. 

Cetheffus, a priest, degraded from his 
oflice for want of attention. — Cn. a man 
chosen by Mercellus to be his colleague 

In the consulship. Balbus, a man 

who hindered J. Cesar from rising im at 

the 'arrival of the senators. OossiO^ a 

military tribune. Balbus, a man of 

Gades, intimate with Cicero.^— A freed- 

man of Sylla the dictator.— —-Scipio, a 
man appointed master of the horse, by 

Camillus, when dictator. Gallus, an 

elegiac poet. Marcellus, a man killed 

in Spain, by Galba. C. Nepos, an his- 
torian.— >-Merula, a consul, sent against 
the Boil in Gaul. He killed 14i)0 of them. 

Severuf , an JKaic poet in the age of 

Augustus. Thuscils, a mischievous 

person. Lentulus Cefjpeme, a consul. 

Aur. Celsus, wrote eight books on 

medicine, still extant. Cn. and Pabl. 

Scipio. Lentulus, a high priest. 

CoRNicuLtJM, a town of Latium. 

CeRiTiFiciuS) a poet and general in tbe 

age of Augustus. A lieutenant of J. 

Cesar. ■ A friend of Cicero, and his 
c<41eague in the ofilce of augur. 

CoRif oisR, a surname of Bacchus. 

CoRMUTus, a stoic philosopher, of Af- 
rica, preceptor to Persius the satirist. 

A pretor of Rome, in the age of Cicero. 

A Roman, saved from the proacrip- 

tion of Marius, by his servants, who 
hung up a dead man in his room, and 
said ic was their master. 

GoROEBUB, a Phrygian, son of Mygdon 
and Anaximena. He assisted Priam in 
the Trojaif watr, with tbe hopes of being 
rewarded with the hand of Cassandra for 
his services. Cassandra advised him in 
vain to retiro from the war. He was 

killed by Fenaleus. A courier of fills, 

killed by Neoptolemus. ^A hero of Ar- 

g(4is, who killed a serpent called Paene. 
sent by Apollo to avenge Argos, and 
placed by some authors in the numbers 
of the fUries. 

Corona, a town of Messenia. 

CoRoivBA, a town of Bteotia. — ^A town 
of Peloponnesus— of Corinth— of Cyinras 
—of Ambiaehir-of Phthiotis. 

CoRoifis, a daughter of Phlegias, loved 

bv Apcrflo. and mother of iEsculapius. 

The daughter of Coroneus, king of Pho- 
cis, changed into a crow by Minerva. 

when flying before Neptune. One of 

tbe daughters of Atlas and Pleione. 

CoRoirtA, a town' of Acamania. 

CoRoifus. a son of Apollo. — -A son of 
PhoroneiM king of the Lapithc. 

CoRRHAoiuM, a town or Macedonia. 

C0R81, a people of Sardinia, descend- 
ed from the Corsicans. 

C0R8IA, a town of BcBotia. 

Corsica, a mountainous island in the 
Mediterranean, on the coast of Italy. Its 
inhabitants wero savage, and bore the 
character of robbers, liars, ahd atheists. 
They lived to a great age, and fed on 
honey. The Greeks called it Cymoe 

CoRsoTB, a town of Armenia. 

CoRsuRA, an island in the bay of Car- 

CoRToNA, an ancient town of Etruria* 

CoRTitru*, a name given to M. Valerius 
from a croWf which assisted him wbea lia 

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was fitting jig&inflt a Ganl. — An oiator. 

Maasala,' an eloquent orator, in the 

Augu4tan age, distinguished for integrity 
and patriotism. 

T. CoRuircANUs, the first plebeian who 

was made high-priest at Rome. The 

family of the Coruncani was fkmous for 
the numbtr of its greai men. 

CoBvs, a river of Arabia. 

CoRTBAWTEs, the prlests of Cybele, 
called also GalH. In the celebration oi 
their festivals, they beat their cymbdls, 
and behaved as if delirious. 

CoKTBAS, a son of Jasus and Cybele. 
A painter, disciple to Nicomachus. 

CoarBAssA, a city of Mysia. 

CoRTBus, a promontory of Crete. 

CaarciA, a nymph, mother of Lyeoius, 
by Apollo. 

CoRrciDBs, the nymphs who inhabited 
the foot of Parnassus. 

CoRTciuB, an old man of Tarentum, 
whose time was happily employed in 
taking care of his bees. 

CoRTcus, now Ctureo^ a lofty mountain 
of Cilicia, with a town of the same name, 
and ajso a cave, with a grove which pro- 
duced excellent saffron. Another at 

the foot of Parnassus. 
^CoRTooif, a fictitious name of a shep- 

ComrLA, and Cortleum, a village of 

CoRTivA, a town of Ionia. 

CoRTMBiFER, a sumame of Bacchus. 

CoRTifsTA and CoRTifsTss a famous 
robber killed by Theseus. 

CoRTPHAsiUM, a promontory of Pelo- 

CoRTPHB, a daughter of Oceanus. 

GoRTTHEirsEs, a place of Tegea. 

CoRTTHus, a king of Corinth. 

CoRTTUs, a king of Etruria; father to 
Jasiiu, whom Dardanus is said to have 
pat to death, to obtain the kingdom. It 
IS also a town and mountain of Etruria. 

Cos, an island. 

CosA and Co»A, or Cosjb, a town of 

Coscozrius, a Latin writer.— A wretch- 
ed epigram writer. 

CosiNOAt, a Thracian priest of Juno. 

Costs, a brother to the king of Albania, 
killed by Pompey. 

Coufus, an effeminate Roman. 

CoasEA, a part of Persia. 

Co^sus, a surname given to the fkmily 

of the Comelii. A Roman, who killed 

Volumnius, king of Veii, and obtained 
the Spoli^ Ophna, A. U. C. 317. 

CoasuTii, a family at Rome, of which ■ 
Cossutia, Caesar's wife, was descended. 
One of the family was distinguished as 
an architect about 300 B. C. 

Co8TOB(Ei, robbers in Gallatia. 

CosrRA, a barren island in th6 African 

Coirss and Cottks, a promontory of 

CoTHon, a small island near the citadel 
of Carthage, with a convenient bay. 

CoTHONEA, the mother of Triptolemus. 

CoTiso, a king of the Daci. island near the Echinadea. 

CoTTA M. AuRELiua, a Roman, who 
opposed Marius. He was surnamed Pon- 
ticiu, because he took Heraclea of Pontus 
by treachery. An orator, greatly com- 
mended by Ctc«ro.— — — A aovemor of 

Paphlagonia. A spendthrltl, in the age 

of Nero, &.c. An officer of Ciesar, in 

Gaul. A poet mentioned by Ovid. 

CoiTiM Alpes, a certain part of the 

CoTTua, a giant, son of C<b1us and Ter- 
ra, who had one hundred hands, and fifty 
heads. A man among the iEclui, &c. 

CoTTJBcif, a town of Galatia— of Phry- 

CoTTLJBus, a sumame t»f.£sculaplii«. 

CoTTLiua, a mountain of Arcadia. 

CoTTORA, a city of Asia Minor, founded 
by a colony from Sinope. 

CoTTs, the father of A8ia.-~-A son of 
Manes by Callirhoe, who succeeded his 

father on the throne of Mffionia. A 

king of Thrace. — ^A king of the Odryse. 

A kin^ of Armenia Minor, who fought 

a^inst Mithridates, in the age of Clau- 

CoTrTTo. the goddess of all debauchery, 
whose festivals were called C»e|ttia. A 
festival of the same name was observed in 
Sicily. The goddess Cotvtto is supposed 
to be the same as Proserpine or Ceres. 

Craou8, a woody mountain of Cilicla, 
part of mount Taurus, sacred to Apollo. 

CRAMBuaA, a town of Lycia. 

Cranai, a sumame of the Athenians, 
from their king Cranaus. 

Cra NAPES, a Persian, &c. 

Craitaus, the second king of Athens. 
A city of Caria. 

Crane, a nymph. — A town of Arcadia. 

Cranbum, a gymnastic school at Co- 

Cra Nil, a town of Cephallenia. 

Cranon and Crannon, a town of Thes- 
saly, on the borders of Macedonia. 

Crantor, a philosopher of Soli, among 
the pupils of Plato^ B. C. 310. An ar- 
mor-bearer of f eleus. 

CRAaaiPEs, a sumame of the ftmily of 
the Furii. 

L. CRAasinus, a man who opened a 
school at Rome. 

Crassus, a grandfkther of Crassus the 

Rich, who never laughed. ^Publ. Licin- 

ius, a Roman high-priest, about 131 years 
B. C. who went into Asia with an arniy 
against Aristonicus, where he was killed, 

aid buried at Smyrna. M. LIcinius, a 

celebrated Roman, surnamed Ruh, ^J^^ 
tount of hifl opulence. When the gladia- 

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tors, with Spartacns at their head, had 
spread an universal alarm in Italy, and 
defeated some of the Roman generals, 
Crassus was sent against them. A battle 
was fought, in which Crassus slaughtered 
twelve thousand of the slaves, and by this 
decisive blow, be soon put an end to the 
war. He was soon after made consul 
with Pompey 3 and in this high, office he 
displayed his 'opulence, by entertaining 
the populace at ten thousand tables. He 
was afterwards censor, and farmed the 
first triumvirate witli Pompey and Ctesar. 
As his love of riches was more predomi- 
nant than that of glory, Crassus never 
imitated the ambitious conduct of his col- 
leagues, but was satisfied with the pro- 
vince of Syria, which seemed to promise 
an inexhaustible source of wealth. He 
was conquered by the general of the king 
of Parthia, and his head.was cut off, B. C. 
53. Publius, the son of the rich Cras- 
sus, went into Parthia with his father. 
When he' saw 'himself surrounded by the 
enemy, and without any hope of escape, 
he ordered one of his men to run him 
through. L. Licinius, a celebrated Ro- 
man orator. A son of Crassus the Rich, 

killed in the civil wars. 

Crastinus, a man in Ceesar's army, 
killed at the battle of Pharsalia. 

Cratais, the mother of Sylla, supposed 
to be the same as Hecate. 

CRATJsus,'conspired against Archelaus. 
, CraYbr, a bay of Campania near Mise- 

Crilterus, one of Alexander's generals. 
He rendered himself conspicuous by his 
literary fame, as well as by *his valor in 
the field. He was killed in a battle against 

Sumenes, B. C. 321. A physician of 

Atticus. A painter whose pieces adorn- 
ed the public buildings of Athens. An 

Athenian, who collected into one body, 
all the decrees which had passed in the 

public assemblies at Athens. A famous 


Crates, a philosopher of B(Botia, son of 
Ascondus. and disciple of Diogenes the 
Cynic, B.C. 334. He sold his estates, 
and gave the money to his fellow-citizens. 
He was naturally deformed, and he ren- 
dered himself more hideous by sewing 
sheep's skins to his mantle, and by the 

singularity of ins matfners. A stoic, 

who opened a school at Rome, where he 

taught grammar. A native of Perga- 

mus. who wrote an account of the most 
striking events of every age, B. C. 165. 
A philosopher of Athens. An Athe- 
nian comic poet. 

Cratesiclea, the mother of Cleomenes. 

Cratesipolis, a qu^en of Sicyon. 

Cratesipidas, a commander of the La- 
cedemonian fleet. 

Orate ▼ AS, a general of Cassander. 

Ckateus a SOD of Minos. 

Crathis, a river of Achaia, falling into 

the bay of Corinth. Another in Maeiia 

Graecia whose watefli/were supposed to 
give a yellow color to the hair and beard 
of those tliat drank them. 

Cratinus, a native of Athens, celebrat- 
ed for his comic writings, and his fond- 
ness for drinking. He died at the age of 
ninety-seven, B. C. 431 years. A wrest- 
ler of an uncommon beauty, A river 

of Asia. 

Cratippus, a philosopher of Mitylene, 
who, among others, taught Cicero's son at 

Athens.^ An historian contemporary 

with Thucydides. 

Cratylus, a philosopher, preceptor to 
Plato after Socrates. 

Crausijc, two islands on the coast of 

Crausis, the father ofPhilopoemen. 

Crauxidas, a man who obtained an 
Olympic erown at a horse race. 

Cremera, a small river of Tuscany, 
falling into the Tib^. . 

Cremma, a town of Lycia. 

Cremmton and Crommyon, a town near 

Cremiti and Cremnos, a commercial 
place on the Palus Mceotis. 

CREMorTA, a town of Cisalpine Gaul, on 
the Po, near Mantua. 

Crsmonis JunuM, a part of the Alps. 

Cremides, a place of Bithynia. 

Cremutius Cordus, an historian who 
starved himself for fear of the resentment 
of Tiberius, whom he had offended, by 
calling Cassius the last of the Romans. 

Crenis,' a nymph mentioned by Ovid. 

Creoic, king of Corinth, was son of Si- 
syphus. He promised his daughter Glauce 
to Jason, who repudiated Medea. To re- 
venge the success of her rival, Medea sent 
her for a present, a gown covered with 
poison. Glauce put it on, and was seized 
with sudden pains. Her body took fire, 
and she expired in the grektest torments. 

A son of MeniPtius, father to Jocasta, 

the wife and mother of (Ed ipus. At the 
death of I*aius, who had married Jocas- 
ta, Cieon ascended the vacant throne of 
Thebes. As the ravages df the Sphinx 
were intolerable, Creon offered his crewn, 
and daughter in marriage, to him who 
could explain the aenigmas which the mon- 
ster proposed. iEdipus was happy in his 
explanations, and he ascended the throne 
of Thebes, and married Jocasta without 
knowing that she was his mother, and by 
her he had two sons, Polynices and Eteo- 
cles. Creon was afterwards killed by 

Theseus. The first annual archon at 

Athens, 684 B. C. 

Creowtiades, a son of Hercules, killed 
by his father, because he had slain Lycvs., a Samian, who hospitably 
entertained' Homer. An historian. 

CursRJus PojLLio, a Roman, who spent 

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bis all in tbe most extraragant debauch- 

Ores, an inhaMtant of Crete.-: — The 
first king of Crete. 

C«£3A and Crbssa, a town of Caila. 

Cre h us , a hUJ pf Arcadia. t 

CRBAFHoifTEs, a son of Aristomachus, 
who attempted to recover the PeLoponne- 

Cressiv^ belonging to Crete. 

Cheston, a town of Thrace, capital of 
a part of the country called Oreatoma. 

CREsas and Ephesus, two men who 
built the temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

Creta, one of the lareest islands of the 
Mediterranean sea, at the sontlfof all the 
Cyclades. |t was once famous for its hun- 
dred' cities, and for the laws which the 
wisdom of Minos establiri)ed there. 

Cr£tj£09, a poet mentioned by Proper* 

Cretk, the wife of Minos. A daugh- 
ter of Deucalion. 

Cretea, a countiy of Arcadia. 

Cretes, inhabitants of Crete. 

Creteus, a Trojan, distinguished as a 

poet and musieian. Another, killed by 


Cretmbis, the wife of Acastus, kinif of 
lolchos, who fell in love with Peleus, son 
of iCacus. 

Crbtheus, a son of ^olus, fiuher of 
iEsoa, by Tyro his brother*s daughter. 

Crbtmoit, a so;n of Diodes, engaged in 
the Trojan war on the side of Greece. He 
was slain by ^neas. 

CRBTict78, a certain orator. A siir- 

name of M. Antony's ihther. 

Crs^sas, a famous boxer. 

Crbusa, a daughter of Cre<Mi kiaf of 
Corinth. As she was aoing to marry Ja> 
son, who had divorced Medea, she put on 
a poisoned garment, which immediately 
set her body on fire, and she expired in the 
most excruciating torments. — ^-A daugh- 
ter of Priam, king of Troy, by Hecuba. 
She married ^neas, by whom she had 
some children, among which was Asca- 

nias A daughter of Erechtheus king 

of Athena. A town of BoBotia. 

Crbusis, a naval station of the Thes- 

Criabos, a son of Al^os, king in Pelo- 

Cririppps, a general of Dionysius the 

Crihis, a stoic philosopher. A priest 

of Apollo. . 

CRiifisus and Crimisus, now CaltabO- 
lota, a river on the western parts of Sicily 
near Segesta. 

Griho, a daughter of Antenor. One 

of the Danaides. 

CRiBoif, a man^of Himera, who obtain- 
ed a prize at Olympia. 

Cribpina, a Roman matron. 

CuBPiAct, a prtetoiriaB, who, thoagh 

originally a slave in Egypt, was, after the 
acquisition of riches, raised to the honors 

of Roman knightliood by Domitian. A 

stoic philosopher, remarkable for his lo* 

Cribpub Sallu»tiu8. Fid, Sallnstitis. 

— — -Virio, a famous orator. The second 

husband of Agirippina. Flav. Jul. a son' 

of the ^eat Constantine, made Ciesar by 
his father, and distinguished for valor and 
extensive knowledge. 

CRiBBiBUB Biivus, a bay oa the coasts of 
Peloponnesus, near Corinth, .now the bay 
of S<Uona» 

CaiTAiiA, a town of Cappadocia. 

Oritheis, a daughter of Melanippus. 

Crithqte, a town of the Thracian Gher- 

Critiab, one of the thirty tyrants set 
over Athens by the Spartans. He was, 
Sequent and well bred, but of dangerous 
principles, and he cruelly persecuted his 
enemies, and put them to death. He was 
killed in a battle against those citizehs 

whom hto oppression had banished. A 

philosopher.—: — A man who wrotb on re- 
publics. Another, who addressed an 

elegy to Alcibiades. 

Crito, one of the discif^es of Socrates. 

A physician in the age of Artaxerxes 

Longimanus. An historian of Naxus. 

——A Macedonian historian. 

OaiTOBULOB, a general of Phocis.-~>A 
physician in the age of Philip kin^ of Ma- 
cedonia.— ~-~— A son of Cjlto, disciple to 

Crito6ehub, an ancient historian. 

CRiTooiTiiTUs, a celebrated warrior of 
Aleeia, when Cesar was in Oaul. 

CRiToLAUs.a-citizenofTegea in Ajc»- 
dia, who, wiw two broUiers, fought against 
the two sons of Demostratus of Pheneus, 
to put an end to a long war between their 
rrapective nations. The brothers of Cri- 
toRHis were both killed, and he alone re- 
mauied to withstand his three bold antag. 
onists. He conquered them ; and when, 
at his return, his sister deplored the death 
of one of his ahtagonists, to whom she 
was betrothed, he killed her in a lit of r^ 
sentment. The offence deserved capital 
punishment ; but he was pardoned, on 
account of the services he had rendered 
his country.— ^A peripatetic philosopher 

of Athens. An fa&torian who wrote 

about Epirus. 

Caius, a soothsayer.— ^A man of ^gi- 
na.-^— A river of Achala. 

Crobialus, a town of Paphlagonia. 

Crobtzi, a people of Thrace. 

Crocale, one of Diana's attendants. 

Crocbje, a town of Laconia. 

Crocodilopoub, a town of Egyi^, near 
the Nile, above Memphis. 

Crocub, a beautiful youth enamored of 
the nymph Smilax. He was changed into 
a flower of the mme name, o« account of 

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the impatieiice of bis love, and Smilax 
was metamorpliosed into a yew-tree. 

Crssus, the fifth and last of the Merm- 
nadie, who reigned in Lydia, was son of 
Alyattes, and passed for the richest of 
mankind. He was the first who made the 
Greeks of Asia tributary to the Lydians. 
His court was the asylum of learning -, and 
JEaopf the famous fable-writer, among 
others, lived nnder his patronage. The 
kingdom of Lydia became extinct in his 
person, and the power was transferred to 

Chomi, a people of Arcadia. 

Crohitis, a country of Arcadia. 

CBOMMToif and Cromton, a place of 
Attioe, where Hercules killed a large sow. 
A town near Corinth. 

Cromiva, a town of Bithynia. 

CaoMca, a son of Neptune. A son of 


Cronia, a festival at Athens, in bonot 
of Saturn. 

Crokium, a town of Elis — of Sicily. 

Crophi, a mountain of Egypt, near 
~ which were the sources of the Nile. 

Crossaa, a country situate partly in 
Thrace, and partly in Macedonia. 

Crotalus, a navigable river Of Italy. 

Crotoit, a man killed by Hercules. 

Crotona, a town of Italy, still known 
by the same name, in the bay of Taren< 
tum. The inhabitants were excellent war- 
riors, and great wrestlers. 
' Crotoitiata, the inhabitants of Cro- 

CaoToifiATiB, a part of Italy, of if hich 
Crotona is the capital. , 

Crotopiades and Crotopias, patroay- 
mics of Linus, grandson of Crotopus. '« 

Crotopvs, a king of Argos. 

Crotu9, a son of Eumene the nurse of 
the Muses He devoted his life to the la-' 
bors of the chase, and after death Jupiter 
placed him among the constellations under 
the name of Sagittarius. 

Crunos, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Crusis, a place near Olynthos. 

Cr9stum£rium and Crustumsria, a 
town of the Sabines. 

Crustuminom, a town of Etruria, near 
Veil, famous for pears. 

Crustumium, Crustuwus and Crus- 
TURNSNIU8, now Coneay a river flowing 
from the Apennines, by Ariminum. 

Crynis, a river of Bithynia. 

Crtfta, a passage through mount Pau- 

CxKATus, one of the Grecian chiefs be- 
fore Troy. 

C.TBMSHi:, a town of Thessaly. 

Ctenos, a harbor of Chersonesus Taa- 

Ctebias, a Greek historian and physi- 
cian of Cnldos, taken prisoner by Artaz- 
erxes Mnemon at the battle of Cunaxa. 
Be cured tbe king's wounds, and w&s his 

physician for Iwveiiteen yeftrs. He \ 

an history of tne Assyrians and Persians. 
A sycophant of AtheuB.»»~An histo- 
rian of Ephesus. 

. Ctssibivs, a mathematician of Alexan- 
dria, who flourished 136 years B. C. He 
was the inventor of the pump, and other 
hydraulic instruments. He also invented 
a clepsydra, or a water-clock. The modem 
manner of measuring time with^Jui hour- 
daes is an imitation of the clepsydra of 

Utesibius. A cynic philosopher. An 

historian, who flourished 254 years B. C. 
and died in his hundred and fourth year. 

CTS8ICI.E8, a general of Zacynthos, &c. 

Cts8idemu9, a painter who had Anti- 
philus for pupil. 

Ctssilochus, a noble painter,' who rep- 
resented Jupiter as bringing forth Bacchus. 

CTssiFHo^r, an Athenian, son of Leoe- 
thenes, who advised his fellow -citizens 
publicly to present Demosthenes with a 

¥)Iden crown for his probity and virtue, 
his was opposed by the orator iEschines, 
the rival of Demosthenes, who accused 
Ctesiphon of seditious views. Demosthe- 
nes undertook the defence of his friend, 
in a celebrated oration still extant, ana 
i£schines was banished. A Greek ar- 
chitect, who made tbe plan of Diana's 

temple at Ephesus. An elegiac poet, 

whom king Attains set over his posses- 
sions in ^olia. A Greek historian . 

A large village of Assyria. 

Ctxsipfus, a son of Chabrias. ■ . -A 

man who wrote an history of Seythia. 

Chie of the descendants of Hercules. 

CriMEifE, the youngest daughter of La< 
ertes by Anticlea. 

Colaro, a town of the Allobroges in 
Gaul, called afterwards QratianopoUa, and 
now OrenobU. 

Cum A and Cvujr, a town of iBolia, in 

Asia Minor. — • A city of Campania, 

near Puteoli. There was one of the Sibyls, 
that fixed her residence in a cave in tbe 
neighborhood, and was called the dmuKm 

CuMANUM, a country house of Pompey 
near Gum®. Another of Varro. 

Cttitaxa, a place of Assyria, five hun- 
dred stadia from Babylon, famous for a 
battle fought there between* Artaxerxes 
and his brother Cyrus the younger B. C. 

Currscs, a cape of Spain, now Alffarve. 

CuPATo, ason ofCycnus who assisted 
iGneas against Tumus. 

CuPSNTus, a friend of Tumus, killed by 

CupiDo, a celebrated deity among the 
ancients, god of love, and love itself. 
There are, according to the more received 
opinions, two Cupids, one of whom is a 
lively ingenious youth, son of Jupiter and 
Venus ; whilst the other son of Nox and 
Erebus, is distinguished by his debaacb^- 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




ry and riotous disposition. Cupid is rep- 
resented as a winged infaut, haked, drm- 
ed vrith a bow and a quiver full of arrows. 
On gems, and all other pieces of antiquity, 
lie is represented as amusing iiimself with 
Borne childish diTecsion. His power was 
generally known by his riding on the back 
of a lion, or on a dolphin, or breaking to 
pieces the thunderbolts of Jupiter. Among 
the ancients he was worshipped with the 
same solemnity as his mother Venus. 

CuFiENitius, a friend of Augustus, who 
made himself ridiculous for the eflemina- 
cy of his dress. 

Cdrss, a town of the Sabines, of which 
Tatius was king. 

CuRBTss, a people of Crete, called also 
Corybantea. They were entrusted with 
the education of Jnpiter. 

CuRSTiSj a name given to Crete, as be- 
ing the residence of the Curetes. 

Curia, a division of the Roman tribes. 
Romulus originally divided the people in- 
to three trilMs, and each tribe Into ten 
Curie. Over each Curia was appointed 
a priest, who oiliciateid at the sacrifices of 
his respective assembly. The sacrifices 
were called Ctarioma, and kHiB priest Ourio. 
He was to be alK)ve the ase of fifty. His 
morals were to be pure and unexceptiona- 
ble, and his body free from all uefecta. 
- — The word Cvria was also applied to 
puUic edifices among the Romans. These 
were generally of two sorts, divine and 
civil. The Curia was solemnly consecra- 
ted by thd Augurs, before a lawful assem- 

bhr could be convened there. A town 

of the Rhsti, now Coire^ the capital of 
the Orisons. 

Curia lex, de Comitm, was enacted by 
M. Curias Dentatus the tribune. 

Curias. Fid. Curium. 

CuRiATii, a fiunily of Alba. The three 
Cifriatii, who engaged the Horatii, and 
lost the victory, were of this family. 

Q. CvRio, an excellent orator, who call- 
ed Cesar in full senate, Omnhm. mvligrum 

trimm, et omnium mrarum muHereTn. 

His son, C. 9criboniu8, was tribune of 
the people, and an intimate friend of 

CcRioflOLiTA, a people among the Cekis. 

CoRiuM, a town of Cyprus. 

CdRIUS DsNTATUf Marcus Aiviviui, a 
Koman, celebrated for bis fortitude and 
fnii^Uty . He was three times consul , and 

was twice honored with a triumph. 

A lieutenant of Ciesar's cavalry, to whom 
>ix cohortk of Pompey revolted. 

CoRTiA, a patrician fhmily, which mi- 
gnted with Tatius to Rome. 

CuRTiLLus, a celebrated epicure. 

M. C<!HTiU8, a Roman yootih who de- 
moted himself to the gods Manes for the 
nfety of his country about 360 yeare B. C. ■ 
A wide gap called afterwards Curtius 
Mew, had suddenly opened in the forum, 

and the oracfe had said that it never 
would close before Rome threw into it 
whatever it had most precious. Curtius 
immediately perceived that no less than a 
human sacrifice was required. He armed 
himself; mounted his horse, and solemn- 
ly threw himself into the gulf, which in- 
stantly closed over his head. Q. Rufus. 

Vid. Cluintus. Nicias, a grammarian, 

intimate with Pompey. MontaDus,an 

orator and poet under Vespasian. Atti- 
cns, a Roman knight, who accompanied 

Tiberius in his retreat into Campania.;;^ 

Lacus, the gulf into which Curtius leaped. 

Pons/ a stream which conveyed water 

to Rome from the distance of forty miles, 
by an aqueduct. 

CuRULis Maoistratus, a state officer at 
Rome, who had the privilege of sitting in 
an ivory chair in public assemblies. The 
dictator, the consuls, the censors, the prae- 
tors, ana ediles, claimed that privilege, and 
therefore were called curules magittratua, 

Cuss.Ei, a nation of Asia, destroyed by 

Cusut, a river of Hungary fhlling into 
the Danube, now the Vag. 

CuTiLiuM, a town of the Sabines. 

Ctamosor(7s, a river of Sicily. 

Ctane, a nymph of Syracuse. A 

nyjnph of Sicily, who endeavtned to as- 
sist Proserpine when she was carried 
away by Pluto. The god changed tier in- 
to a fountain now called Pi^m, a few 

miles from Syracuse. A town of Lycia. 

——An inkeeper. 

Ctane jc, now the PavoraiUf two rugged 
islands at the entrance of the Euxine sea. 
about twenty Stadia from the motlth of 
the Thracian Bosphorus. * They were 
sometimes called Symplegadea and Planeta. 

Ctaites and Ctanea, a daughter of the 
Msander, mother of Byblis and Caunua, 
by Miletus, Apollo's son. 

Ctaneus, a large river of Colchis. 

Ctakifpe, a daughter of Adrastus. 

CrAHippua, a Syracusan, who derided 

the orgies of'^ Bacchus. A Thessalian, 

whose wife met with the same flite as 

Ctaraxes. or Ctaxares, son of Phm- 
ortes, was king of Media and Persia. He 
died after a reign of forty years, B. C. 685. 

Another prince, supposed by some to 

be the same as Darius the Mede. 

CrsEBE, a name of Cybele. 

Ctrele, a goddess, daughter of CobIus 
and Terra, and wife of Saturn. In Pbry- 
gia the festivals of Cybele were observed 
with the greatest solemnity. Her priests, 
called Corybantes, Galli, in the celebration 
of the festivals, imitated the manners of 
madmen, and filled the air with dreadful 
shrieks and bowlings, mixed with the 
confHised noise of drums, tabrets, bucklers 
and spears. This was in commemoration 
of the sorrow of CybelefoV the loss of he^ 

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fkvorite Atys. Cybele held keys In her 
hand, and her head was crowned with 
rising turrets, and sometimes with the 
leaves of an oak. She sometimes appears 
riding in a chariot drawn by two tame 
lions ; Atys follows by her side, carr> ing 
a ball in his band, and supporting himself, 
lipon a fir-tree, which is sacred to the god- 
dess. The Romans, by order of the Si- 
bylline books, brought the .«tatue of the 
goddess from Pessmus into Italy. It is 
supposed that the mysteries of Cybele 
were first known about 1580 years B. C. 
Ctbsls and CrBsLA, a town of Phiy- 

CrBBbcs, a mountain of Phrygia, where 
Cybele was worshipped. 

Cybira, a town of Phrygia, whence Cy- 

Ctbi STRIA, a town of Cappadocia. 

Ctcesium, 41 town of Peloponnesus, 
near Pisa. 

CrcHRKUs, a son of Naptune and Sala- 
mis. Alter death he was honored as a 
god in Salamis sgid Attica. 

CTCLADBB,a name given to certain is- 
lands of the iGgean sea, those particularly 
that puiround Delos. They were about 
fifty-three in number. 

Cyclopes, a certain race of men of gi- 
gantic stature, supposed to be the sons of 
Coelus and Terra. They had but one eye 
in the middle of the forehead. They in- 
habited the western parts of the island of 
Sicily J and because they were uncivil- 
ized in their manners, the poets speak of 
them as men-eaters. From theu- vicinity 
to mount iGtna, they have been supposed 
to be the workiiien of Vulcan, and to hafe 
fabricated the thunderbolts of Jupiter.*^ 
The most solid walls and impre^able 
fortresses were said, among the ancients, 
to be the work of the Cyclops. The Cy- 
clops were reckoned among the {pds. 
Apollo destroyed them all, because they 
had made the thunderbolts of Jupiter, 
with which his son iEsculapius had been 
JciUed.>~>~A people of Asia. 

Crcirus, a son of Mars by Pelopea, kill- 
ed by Hercules. A son of Neptune, in- 
vulnerable in every part of his body. 
Achilles fought against him ; but when he 
saw that his darts were of no effect, he 
. threw him on the ground and smothered 
him. He stripped him of his armor, and 
saw him suddenly changed into a bird of 

the same name. A son of Hyrie, 

changed into a swan. A son of Sthe- 

nelus, king of Liguria. , He was deeply' 
afflicted at the death of his friend and re- 
lation Phaeton, and metamorphosed into 

a swan. A horse's name. 

• CroAs, a profligate Cretan, made judge 
at Rome by Antony. 

CroiAS, an Athenian of great valor. 

A painter who made a painting of the Ar- 

Ctdipps, the wife of AnaxlUms.— -— 

The inother of Cleobis and Bihm, ^A 

girl beloved by Acontius. One of Gy- 
rene's attendants. 

Ctdnus, a rivet of Cilicia, near Tarsus, 
where Alexander batbed when covered 
with sweat. The consequences proved 
almost fatal to the monarch. 

Ctdon, a friend <^ Turnus against 

CrnoN and Ctdoitia,' now Consa, a 
town of Crete, built by a colony from Sa- 

Ctoonia, an island opposite Lesbos. 

Ctorara, a city of Phrygia. 

Cydrolaus, a man who led a colony to 

C YON us. Fid. Cycnus, 

Cylabus, a place near Argos in Pelo- 

CYLBiANi,'*mountains of Phrygia where 
the Cayster takea its rise. 

Cylicsb, a people among the Illyrians. 

CVU9DUB, a son of Phryzus and Cal- 

Cyllabaris, a public place for exercises 
at Argos. 

Cyllabaruv, a gallant o^ the wife of 

Cyllarcb, the most beautiful of all 
the Centaurs, passionately fond of Hylo- 
nome. They perished both at the same 

time. A celebrated horse of Pollux or 

of Castor, according to Seneca. 

Ctixbn, a son of Elatus. 

Cyllekb, the mother of Lyfeaon,by Po- 
lasgus. A naval station of E^\b in Pelo- 
ponnesus. — A mountain of Arcadia, with 
a small town on its declivity. 

Cyllbneius, a sui'name of Mercury, 
from his being born en the mountain Cyl- 

Cylltrii, certain slaves at Syracuse. 

Cylon, an Athenian, who aspired to 

Cyma or Cymje, the largest and ^lost 
beautiful townof ^olia. 

Cymodocb, Cvmb, and Cymo^ one oi 
the Nereides. 

Cymolus and CiMoLus,'hn island of the 
Cretan sea. 

CYMoTHOEf one of the Nereides. 

Cynara, one of Horace's favorites. 

C YNJcoiRus, an Athenian, celebrated for 
his extraordinary courage. He was bro- 
ther to tl^e poet iGschylus. 

CYif jETHiuM, a town of Arcadia. 

Cynane, a daughter of Philip, king of 
. Cynapes, a river falling into the Euxine. 

Cynebii and Cynetjb, a nation of Eu- 

Cyrbthcssa, an island in the ^geau 

CvRiA, a lake of Acarnania. 

Cykici, a sect of philosophers founded 
hy Antisthenei the Atheniail. Tliey weie 

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flimoiia for their contempt of riches, for 
the negl ifgfnce of their dres3, and the length 
of their beards. 

Cywisca, a daughter of Archidamus 
king of Sparta, ww obtained the first 
prize in the chariot races at the Olympic 
games. - 

Cyno, a woman who preserved the life 
of Cyrus. 

CrrrocEPHALE, a town of Thessaly. 

CriTocEPHALi, a nation in India, who 
have the head of a dog. 

Ctnophontis, a festival at Argos, ob- 
served during the dog-days. 

Ctnortas, one of the ancient kings of 

Ctnortion, a mountain of Peloponne- 

Ctnos, a town of Locris. Another 

in Thessaly. 

Ctwosaroes, a surname of Hercules. 
A small village of Attica. 

CrivoasEMA, a promontory of the Tlu-a- 
cian Chersonesus. 

CrwoBURA, a nymph of Ida in Crete. 
She nursed Jupiter who changed her into 
a star. 

Ctitthia, a beautiful woman. A 

surname of Diana. 

CrivTHius, a surname of Apollo. 

Ct If THUS, a mountain of Delos, so hieh 
that it is said to overshadow the whole is- 

CriruREKSEs, a people of Arcadia. 

Crivus, a naval station of Opuns. 

CrPARissi and Ctparissia, a town of 

Oyparissus, a youth, son of Telephus 
of Cea, beloved by Apollo. He was chang- 
ed into a cypress tree. A town near 


Ctphara, a fortified place of Thessaly. 

CrpRiANus, a native of Carthage, who, 
though born of heathen parents, became a 
convert to Christianity, and the bishop of 
his country. He died a martyr, A. D. 358. 

Cyprus, a daughter of Antony and Cle- 
opatra. A large island in the Mediter- 
ranean sea. It has been celebrated for 
giving birth to Venus, surnamed Cypris. 

CrpssLiDEs, the name of three princes 
as descendants of Cypselus, who reigned 
at Corinth during seventy-three years. 

CrpsELus, a king of Arcadia. A man 

of Corinth, son of Eetion, and father of 
Periander. He destroyed the Bacchiadse, 
and seized upon the sovereign powejr, 

*fcout 659 years before Christ. The 

father of Miltiades. 

Ctrauris, an island ofLibya. 

CrRBiAif A, a province of the EljnnsBans. 

CvBB, a fountain near Cyrene. 

Cyreivaica, a. country of Africa, of 
which Cyrene is the capital. 

CvRKNi^ici. a sect of philosophers who 
followed the aoctrine of Aristippus. They 
placed their suntmum howum in pleasttre. 

CvRBRx, the daughter of the river Be- 
neus, of whom Apollo became enamored. 

She was the mother of Aristeus.-* A - 

celebrated city of Libya, to which Ari8> 
tsus, who was the chief of the colonists 
settled ttiere,g3ve his mother's name. It 
was situate in a beautiful and fertile plain, 
about eleven miles from the Mediterra- 
nean sea. 

Ctriades, one of the thirty tyrants who 
harassed the Roman empire, in the reign 
of Gallienus. He died A. D. 259. 

Ctrillus, a bishop of Jerusalem, who 
died A. D. 386. A bishop of Alexan- 
dria, who died A. D. 444. 

CvRxs, a place of Eubcea. 

CvRirus, a driver in the games which 

Scipio exhibited in Africa. A man of 

Argos, who founded a city in Chersone- 
sus. A river tliat falls into the Caspian 

sea. An island on the coast of Liguria, 

the same as Corsica. 

Ctrr.isi, a people of JBthiopia. 

Ctrrhadje, an Indian nation. 

Ctrrhes, a people of Macedonia. 

CvRRHESTicA, ti country of Syria near 

Ctkrhus and Cyrus, a river of Iberia, 
in Asia. 

Cyrsilus, an Athenian, stoned to death 
by his countrymen. 

Cyrus, a king of Persia, son of Camby- 
ses and Mapdane, daughter of Astyages, 
king of Media. Cyrus subdued the east- 
ern parts of Asia, and made war against 
Croesus, king of Lydia,'whom he conquer- 
ed, B. C. 548. He invaded the kingdom 
of Assyria, and took the city of Babylon, 
by drying the channels of the Euphrates, 
and marching his troops through the bed 
of the river, while the people were cele- 
brating a grand festival. He afterwards 
marched against Tomyris, the queen of the 
.Massagets, a Scythian nation, and was 
defeated in a Woody battle, B. C. 530. 
The victorious queen, who had lost her son 
in a previous encounter, was so incensed 
against Cyrus, that she cut ofiT his head, 
and threw it into a vessel filled with hu- 
man blood, exclaiming Satia te sanguine 
quern siMsti. Xenophon has written the 
life of Cyrus j but his history is not per- 
fectly authentic. The younger Cyrus, 

was the younger son of Darius Nothus, 
and the brother of Artaxerxes. He was 
sent by his father^at the age of sixteen, to 
assist the Lacedtemonians against Athens. 
Artaxerxes succeeded- to the throne at the 
death of Nothus ; and Cyrus, who was tf 
an aspiring soul, attempted to assassinate 
him. At last he took, the field with an 
army of one hundred thousand barbarians, 
and tliirteen thousand Greeks under the 
^command of Clearchus. Artaxerxes met 
hira with nine hundred thousand men near 
Cunaxa. It is said that the two royal bro- 
thers met in person, and engaged wi^** 

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•d by the hands of one of bis flons-ln-law, 
fluade his daughters Bolemnl^ promise that 
they would destroy their hustNinds. They 
were provided with daggers by their fa- 
ther, and all, except Hypermnestra, Staiiv- 
ed their hands with the blood of tlieir cou- 
ains, the first night of tlieir nuptials. The 
aisterS were purified of this murder by 
Mercury and Minerva, by order of Jupiter; 
but according to the more received opin- 
ion, they* were condemned to severe pun- 
ishment in hell, and were compelled to fill 
with water a vessel full of holes, so that 
tk# water ton out as soon as poured into 
it, and therefore their labor was infinite, 
and their punishment eternal. 

Dan ALA, • castle of Galaltia. 

Daiiai>ris, noV the ^fiepery a name given 
in the middle ages to the Borysthenes. 

Da2«a08, a son of Belus and Anchinoej 
king of Egypt, and father of the Danaides. 

Dandari and DANOARioja, certain in- 
habitants near mount Caucasus. 

Danoom, a man of lUyricum, who, as 
Plitiy reports, lived five hundred years, 

DAiruBiVB,a celebrated river, the great- 
est in Europe. The Greeks called it Uter, 
The Danube was generally supposed to be 
the northern boundary of the lloman em- 
pire in Europe. 
. Daochus, an ofiicer of Philip. 

Daphr.v, a town of Egypt, on one of the 
mouths of the Nile. 

DArHNJBus, a general of Syracuse, 
against Carthage. 

DArHiTs, a daughter of the river Peneus 
or of the Ladon, by the goddess Terra, of 
whom Apollo became enamored. This 
passion had been raised by Cupid, with 
whom Apollo, proud of his late conquest 
over the serpent Python, had disputed the 
power of his darts. Daphne heard with 
horror the addresses of the god, and en- 
deavored to remove herself M)m his im- 
portunities by flight. Apollo pursued her; 
and Daphne, fearful of being caught, en- 
treated the assistance of the gods, who 
changed her into a laurel. Apollo crown- 
ed his head with the leaves of the laurel, 
and for ever ordered that that tree should 
be sacred to his divinity.— -A daughter' 
of Tiresias, priestess in the temple of Del- 
phi, supposed by some to be the same as 
Manto. She was called Sibyl, on account 
of the wildness of her looks and expres- 
sions, when she delivered oracles. A 

Ikmous grove near Antioch, consecrated to 

Daphnkphoria^ a festival in honor of 
Apollo, celebrated every.nintfa year by the 
Bffiotians. It Wna then usual to adorn an 
(dive boufih with garlands of laurel and 
other flowers, and place on the top a brazen 
globe, on which were suspended atnallar 
pnes. In the middle was placed a nninbcr 
0f crowns, and a globe of inferior size, and 
tb9 bottom was adorned with asaAron col- 

ored garment. The ^be on the top re]»e- 
sented the Sun, or Apollo; that in the mid- 
dle was an emblem of the moon, and the 

others of the stars. The crowns, which 
were 65 in number, represented the sun^s 
annual revolutions. This bough was car- 
ried in solemn procession by a beautifbl 
youth of an Illustrious family, and whose 
parents were both living. He was prece- 
ded by one of hts nearest relations, bearing 
a rod adorned with garlands, and behind 
him f(4lowed atrain of virgins with branch- 
es in their hands. In this order the pro- 
cession advanced as fiir as the temple of 
ApoUOj surnamed Ismenins, where supfdi- 
catory hymns were sung to the god. 

Daphitis, a shepherd of Sicily, son of 
Mercury by a Sicilian nymph. He was 
educated by the nymphs. Pan tauf^t him 
to sing and pla^ upon the pipe, and the mu- 
ses insphfed him with the love of poetry. 
Jt is supposed he was the first who wrote 
pastoral poetry, in which his successor 
Theocritus so happily excelled.^— >A ser- 
vant of Nicocrates, tyrant of Cyrene. 

A grammarian.-*— A son of Paris and 

Dapmitus, a river of Locris. A phym- 

eian who preferred a supper to a dinner, 
because he supposed that the moon assisted 

Daraba, a town of Arabia. 

Darantasia, atown of BelgicGaul, call- 
ed also Forum Claudii. and now Motier. 

Daraps, a kin(( of the Gangaridie. 

Dardani, the inhabitants of Dardania. 
——Also a people of Moesia very inimical 
to the neighboring power of Macedonia. 

Dardania, a town or country of Troas, 
iirom which the Trojans were called Dar- 
dani and Dardamdm. There is also a coon- 
' try of the same name near Illyricum. 

Dardanipes, a name given to ./Eneas, aa 
descended from Dardanus. 

Dardanium, a promontory of Troas, call- 
ed from the small town of DordaitiM, about 
seven miles from Abydoe. 

Dardantts, a son of Jupiter and Eleetra. 
He built the city of Dardania, and was 
reckoned the founder of the kintdmn of 
Troy. A Trojan killed bv Achilles. 

Dardarii, a nation near the Palus Me- 

Dares, a Phrygian, who lived during the 
Trojan war, of which he wrote tlie history 

in Greek. One of the companion^ of 

^neas, killed by Turnus in Italy. 

Darstis, a country of Macedonia. 

Daria, a town of Mesopotamia. 

Dariatss, the name or Darius in Per- 

Dariobrioum, a town of Ganl, now 
Vennea in Britany. 

Daritje, a people of Persia. 

Dariub, a noble satrap of Pereia, son of- 
Tlystaspes, who conspired with six other 
noblemen to destroy Smerdis, who usurped 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




tbe erown of Persia after the deatb of 
Cambyses. On the murder of the luarper, 
tile seven conspirators universally agreed, 
that be whose horse beighed firs) should be 
^pointed king. On the morrow before 
■UD-ride, when they proceeded altogether, 
tbe horse of Darius suddenly neighed; anu 
at tbe same time a clap of thunder waa 
beard, as if in approbation of the choice. 
Darius was 39 years old when he ascended 
the throne, and he soon distinguished him- 
self by his activity and military accom- 
plishments. He besieged Babylon; which 
he took, after a siege of ^0 mpnths, by the 
artifice of Zopyrus. From thence he 
marched against the Scythians, and in his 
way conquered Thrace. The burning bf 
Sardia, which was a Grecian colony, ia- 
ceoaed the Athenians, and a war was kin- 
dled between Greece and Persia. Mardo- 
nius, the king's son-in-law, was intrusted 
with the care of the war, bat his army was 
destroyed by tbe Thracians ; and Darius, 
more animated by his loss, s^nt a more 
considerable force, under the command of 
Datis and Artaphemes. They were con- 
quered at the celebrated battle of Mara- 
thon, by 10,000 Athenians -, and the Per- 
sians lost in that expedition no less than 
206,000 men. Darius was not dishearten- 
ed by this severe blow, but be resolved to 
carry oq the war in person, and immedi- 
ately ordered a still lanser army to be lev- 
ied. He died in the midst of his prepara- 
tions, B. C. 485, after a •reign of 36 years. 

in the 65th year of his age. The second 

king oi Persia of that name, was also call- 
ed Ockut, or M'othua, because he was the 
Ulegitinate son of Artaxerxes. He died 

B. C. 404, after a reign of 19 years. 

Tbe third of that name was tbe last king 
•f Persia, surnamed Codomanus. He was 
•00 of Arsanes and Sysigambis. and de- 
Mended ftom Darius Nothus. The peace 
of Darius was early disturbed, and Alex- 
snder invaded Persia to avenge tbe injuries 
wliich the Greeks had suffered from the 
predecessors of Darius. The king of Per- 
sia met his advecsary in person, at the head 
or 600,000 men. A battle was fought near 
the Granicus, in which the Persians were 
easily defeated. Another was soon after 
fought near Issus; and Alexander left 
110,000 of the enemy dead on the field of 
battle, and took among the prisoners of 
war, the mother, wife, and children of Da- 
"u«. These losses weakened, but discour- 
&eed not Darius, he assembled another 
more powerful army, and tbe last decisive 
battle was fought at Arbela. The intrepid- 
ly of Alexander, and the superior valor 
of the Macedonians, prevailed over the ef- 
feminate Persians ; and Darius, sensible of 
his djgprrace and rutn, fled towards Media. 

His Diiafortunes were now completed. 

wjwus, the governor of Bactjiana, took 
airay bis life, in hopes of succeeding him 

on tbe tbfone j and Darius waa found by 
the Macedonians in h'n chariot, covered 
with \Vounds, and almost expiring, B. C. 
331. In him the empire of Per^a was ex- 
tinguished 228 years after it had been first 

founded by Cyrus the Great. A son of 

Xerxes, who married Artaynta, and waa 
killed by Artabanus. A son of Artax- 
erxes, who conspired against his father'9 
life, and was capitally punished. 
. Dabcon, a man who founded Camarina. 

Dascylitik, a province of Persia. 

Dasctlus, tbe father of Gy^s. 

Das£a, a town of Arcadia. 

Dasius, a chief of Salapia, who favored 


Dassaritii, a people of Illyricum, Or Mac- 

Datahes, a son of Camissares, governor 
of Caria, and general of the armies of Ax- 
taxerxes, 3G2 B. C. 

DiLTAPHXRNEs, oue of the friends of Befl- 
sas. After the murder of Darius, be be- 
trayed Bessus into Alexander's hands. 

Datis, a general of Darius 1st, defeated 
at tbe celebrated battle of Marathon, by 
Miltiades, and some time after put to death 
by the Spartans. 

Datos, or Datok, a town of Thrace, on 
a small eminence, near the Strymon. 

Datara, a liill near Mount Taurus, in 
Asia Minor. 

Daulis, a nymph, from whom the eity 
of Daulis in Phocis, anciently called Anor- 
erisy received its name. 

Dauri, a people on tbe eastern part of 

Daunia, a name given to the northern 
parts of Apulia, on the coast of the Adri- 
atic. Juturna, the sister of Tumus, 

was called DauniOj after she had been made 
a goddess by Jupiter. 

Daunub, a son of Pilumnus, and Danae. 
He came from Illyricum into Apulia, where 
be reigned over part of the country.—— 
A river of Apulia, now CarapeUe. 

Daurifer andDAURisEB, a brave gene- 
ral of Darius, treacherously killed by the 

DaVub, a comic character, in tbe Andria 
of Terence. 

Deb£, a nation of Arabia. % , 

Decapolis, a district of Judea fnom itf 
ten cities. 

DscEBALiTB, a warlike king of tbe Daci, 
who made a successful war against Domi- 
tian, who was conquered bjr Trajan. He 
destroyed himself, and his head waa 
brought to Rome, and Dacia became a Ro- 
man province, A. D. 103. 

Deceleum, or ea. now Siala Castro, a 
small village of Attica, north of Athens. 

DfficEWJB, a man who informed Castor " 
and Pollux, that their sister, whom The- 
seus had carried away, was concealed at 

y Google 




^DicBMviKi, ten maglstrfttes of absolute 
jiutbority among the Romans. Tfieir pow- 
er was absolute ; all othef offices ceased 
after their election, and they presided over 
tbe city with regal authority. The first 
decemvirs were Appius Claudius, 9*. €re- 
nutius^P. Sextus, Sp. Veturius, C. Julius, 
A. Manlius, Ser. Sulpitius Pluriatius, T. 
Romulus, Sp. Posthumiua, A. U. C. 303. 
Under them, the laws which had been ex- 
posed to public view, that every citizen 
might speak his sentiments, were publicly 
approved of as constitutional, and ratified 
by the priests and augurs in the most sol- 
emn and religious manner. These laws 
were ten in number, and were engraved 
on tables of brass ; two were afterwards 
added, and they were called the laws of 
the twelve tables, leges duodecim tabularum, 
and Ufes decemviriUes. In the third year 
after uieir creation, the decemvirs became 
odious, on account of their tyranny ; and 
the attempt of Ap. Claudius to ravish Vir- 
ginia, was followed by the total abolition 
of the ofiice. There were other offi- 
cers in Rome, called decemvirs j who were 
origihally appointed, in the absence of the 
prstor, to aamlnister Justice. 

DxcsTiA, a town of Gaul. 

Decia LEX, was enacted A. U. C 44S, 
to empower the people to appoint two pro- 
per persons to fit and repair the fleets. 

L. Oecidius Saxa, a Celtiberian in Cie- 
f«r'8 camp. 

Decineus, a celebrated sootiisayer. 
* Decius Mu9, a celebrated Roman coa- 
sul, who, after many glorious exploits, 
devoted himself to the gods Manes for the 
safety of his country, in a battle against 
the Latins, 338 years B. C. Kis son Deci- 
Us imitated his example, and devoted him- 
self in like manner in his fourth consul- 
Chip, when fighting against the Gauls and 
Samnites, B. C. 296.' His grandson also 
did the same in the war ac^ainst Pyrrhus 

and the Tarentines, B. C. 380. Brutus, 

cooducted Qesar to the Senate-house tbe 
day that he was murdered. (Cn. Me- 
lius, Q. Trajan us) a native of Pannonia, 
sent by tbe emiieror Philip, to appease a 
sedition io'Mffisia. Instead of obeying his 
master's command, he assumed the impe- 
rial purple, and soon after marched against 
him, and at his death became the only 

DacDRTo, a subaltern officer in the Ro- 
man armies. He commitnded a deetaiA, 
which consisted of ten men, and was the 
third part of a turma, or the 30th pah of a 

legio of horse. There were certain 

magistrates in the provinces, called deeu- 
riones munidpales. 

Becumates aori, lands -in Germany. 

DsDiTAMEifEB, a friend of Alexander. 

Deois, a brother of Dccebalus king of 

Dsjasira, a daughter of CBneas, king 

of ^toHa, and wife of Hercules. As t^ 
Janira was once travelling with her hus- 
band, they were stopped by the swollen 
streams of the Evenus, and the "centaur 
Nessus offered Hercules to convey her 
safe to the opposite shore. The hero con- 
sented ; but no sooner had Nessus gained 
the bank, than he attempted to carry De- 
janira away in the sight of her husband. 
Hercules, upon this, aimed, from tbe other 
shore, a poisoned arrow at the seducer, 
and mortally wounded him. Nessas, as 
he expired, wished to avenge bis death 
upon his murderer ; and he gave Dejanira 
his tunic, which was covered with blood, 
poisoned and infected by the arrow, ob- 
serving, that it had the power of reclaim- 
ing a husband from unlawful loves. De- 
janira accepted the present: and wlien 
Hercules proved faithless to her bed, she 
sent him the centaur's tunic, which in- 
stantly caused his death. Dejanira was 
so disconsolate at the death of faer hu»- 
band, which she bad ignorantly occasion- 
ed, that she destroyed herself. 

DEicoorv, a Trojan prince, intimate 

with iGneas. ^A son of Hercules and 


Detdakia, a daughter of Lycomedes, 

kin g of Scy ros. A daughter of Pyrrhus, '• 

killed by the Epirots. A daughter of 

Adrastus, king of Argos. ^ 

DEiLEoir^a companion of Hercules in 
his expedition against the AroaKons. 

DsiLocHus, a son of Hercules. 

Deimachus, a son of Neleus and Chlo- 

ris, killed by Hercules. The father of 


Deioces, a son of Phraortes,' by whose 
means the Modes ddivei^d themselves < 
from the yoke of the Assyrians. - i 

Deiochus, a Greek captain, killed by 't' 
Paris in the Trojan war. h 

Deionsi the mother of Miletus by \: 
Apollo. S 

DEIOIVE179. a king of Pliocis, who mar- Cn 
ried Diomede, daughter of Xnthas, by i-i 
whom he had Dia. He gave his daughter >i| 
Dia in marriage to Ixion, who promised %■, 
to make a present to his father-in-law. Hk 
Deioneos accordingly visited the house of '^ 
Ixion, and was thrown into a large hole ^^ 
filled with burning coals, by his son-in- m,^ 
law. ^ 

Deiopsia, a nymph, the fbirest of aU i ; 
tbe fourteen nymphs that attended upcm ^^ 

Juno. One of tiie attendant nymphs ot ^ 

Cyrene. «i!, 

Deiotarus, a governor of Galatia, made f[ 
king of that province by the Roman people, ij^ 
He joined Brutus with a large army, and ^^ 
fhithfVilly supported the republican cause, n' 
Deiotarus died in an advanced old age. }h 

Deiphila. Vid. Deipyle. >» 

Deifhobs, a sibyl of Cume, daughter «^ 
of Glaucus. C 

Deiprobcs, a son of Priam and Hecubgi i^^ 

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wlM, VHoi the death of his brother Pazia, 
manried Helen. HJs wife unworthily be- 
trayed him, to her old husband Menelaus, 
to. whom she wished to reconcile herself, 

and he was shamefully killed by him. 

A aoB of Hipp<^ytu8, who purified Hercu- 
les after the murder of Iphitus. 

DsiPHQN, the son of Triptolemos and 
Megan ira ; whom Ceres loved so passion- 
ately, that she wanted to make him im- 
mortal, and made him pass through fire 
for that purpose ; but, being disturbed by 
the cries of his motter, the goddess, in a 
hurry, mounted her car, and left Deiphon 

to perish in the flames. The husband 

of Hyrnetho, daughter of Temenus, king 
of Argos. 

DaiPHONTBs, a general of Temenus, 
who took Epidauria.^— A general ef the 

Deiptls, a daughter of Adrastus, who 
married Tydeus, by whom she had Dio- 

Bbiptlus, a son of Sthenelus, in the 
Trojan war. 

Dbiptbus, a Grecian chief, during the 
Trojan war. 

Dsi^Doir, a king of Mysia, defeated by 

Delia, a festival celebrated every fifth 
year in the island of Delos, in honor of 

Delia, a surname of Diana, because she 
was bom in Delos. 

DsLiAinis, a son of Glaucus, killed by 
his brother Bellerophon.— ~— -The priest^ 
esses in Apollo's temple. 

Delium, a temple of Apollo. A 

town of BcBotia opposite Calchis. 

Delius, a surname of Apollo, because 
I he was born in Delos. Ctuint., an> offi- 
cer of Antony, who, when he was sent to 
cite Cleopatra before his master, advised 
I ber to make her appearance in the most 
captivating attire. 

Delmatius, F1. Jul., a nephew of Con- 

I Btantine the Great, honored with the title 

of Cesar, and put in possession of Thrace^ 

I Macedonia, and Achaia. He was assas- 

I linated by his own soldiers. 

DsLMiiriuM, a town of Dalmatia. 

Dklos, one of the Cyclades at the north 
I of Naxofl, which now bears the name of 
I BaiUes. The island is celebrated for the 
Isativity ot Apollo and Diana ; and one of 
lOie altard of^ Apollo, in the island, was 
iKckoned among the seven wonders of the 
liroild. The whole island of Delos was 
Ikeld in the hie^est veneration. 
I Delphi, now Castri, a town of Phocls, 
|litnate in a valley at the south-west side 

f mount Parnassus. It was also called 

"^ho, because the serpent Python was 

^iled there ; and it received the name of 

" ' hi, from Delpbus, the son of Apollo. 

3 have also called it Pamassia JW^s, 

e 00^, of PBinasBUB. It was fiunous 

for a temple of ApoUo, and tat an oneki. 
celebrated in every age ana country. 

DsLPHicus, a surname of ApolK>, firoid 
the worship paid to his divinify at Delphi. 

Delphinia, festivals at iGgina, in honor 
of Aj^llo of Delphi. 

DELPHiifiuM, a place in Bosotia, <qq;NH 
site Eubo^a. 

Delphis, the priestess of Delphi. 

Delphus, a son of Apcdlo who buiK*^ 
Delphi, and consecrated it to his father. 

Delphtite, a serpent which watched 
over Jupiter. 

Delta, a part of Egypt, which lies be- 
tween the Canopian and Pelusian mouths 
of the Nile. 

Demadbs, an Athenian, who, ttom a 
sailor, became an eloquent orator, and ob^ 
tained much influence in the state. He 
was put to death, with hit son, on suspi- 
cion of treason, B. C. 39S. One of his 
orations is extant. 

Demjenetus, a rhetorician of Syracuse, 
enemy to Timoleon. 

Demagoras, one of Alexander's flatter- 
ers. An historiari who wrote concern-' 

ing the foundation of Rome. 

Demarata, a daughter of Hiero. 

Dem ARATUB, the son and successor of^ 
Ariston on the throne of Sparta, B. C. 596. 
A rich citizen of Corinth, of the fam- 
ily of the Bacchiads. A Corinthian 

exile at the court of Philip king of Mace< 

Dem ARCHU8, a Syraensan, put to deatb 
by Dionysius. 

Dem ARETA, 4he wife of Gelon. 

Dem ARiBTB, the mother of Timoleon. 

Dem ATRIA, a Spartan mother, who kill- 
ed her son, because he returned from a 
battle without glory. 

DeMetria, a festival in honor of Ceres 
called by Uie Greeks Denver. 

Demetrias, a town of Thesaaly.— The 
name was common to other places. 

Demetrius, a son of A&tigonus and 
Stratonice,8umamed Poliorcetes, dsaCroyer 
ofunons. At the age of twenty-two, he 
was sent by his father agtflnst Ptolemy, 
who invaded Syria. He was defeatea 
near Gaza ; but he soon repaired his loss, 
by a victory over one of the generals of 
the enemy. He afterwards sailed with a 
fleet of two hundred and fifty ships to 
Athens, and restored the Athenians to 
liberty. His uncommtm success raised 
the jealousy of the successors of Alexan- 
der ; and they united to destroy Antigo- 
nus and his son. Their hostile armies 
met at Ipsus, B. C. 301. Antigonus was 
killed in the battle ; and DemetriuH, after 
a severe loss, retired to Ephesua. His ill 
success raised him many enemies ; and 
the Athenians, who had lately adored ^ 
him as a god, reftised to admit him Into 
their city. Demetrius died in the fifty- 
Ibimb yeai of bii Age, after a oonflttement 

Digitized by 





«[f three yean, In the power of his 8on-ii>* 
law SeleucoB.-*— A prince who sucteed* 
•d his father Antigonue on the throne of 
Macedonia. He reigned eleven years, 
and was succeeded by Antisonus Doson. 

A son of Philip king of Mace4iDit, 

delivered as an hostage to the Romans. 
When be returned to Macedonia, he was 
fklsely accused by his brother Perseus, who 
was jealous of his popularity, and his 
father too creduloaely consented to his 

death, 0. C. IHO. A Magnesian. 

A servant of Cassius. A son ef Deme- 
trius of Cyrene. A freed man of 

Pompey. A eon of Demetrius, sur- 

named Slender. A prince surnamed 

Soter, was son of ^eleucus Philopater, the 
eon of Antiochus tlie Great, king of iSyria^ 
His father gave him as a hostage to the 
Romans.— >— The second, surnamed JW- 
tanor, or Conquerort was son of Boter, to 
whom he succeeded by the assistance of 
Ptolemy Philometer, after he had driven 
out the usurper Alexander Bala, B. C. 
146. His pride and oppression rendered 
him odious, and Demetrius, unable to re- 
sist the power of his enemies, fled to Pto- 
lemais, which was then in the hands of 
his wife Cleopatra. The gates were shut 
^p against his approach, by Cleopatra; 
and he was killed by order of the governor 
of Tyre, whither he had fled for protec> 

tion. The third, surnamed EuceruSf 

was son of Antiochus Gryphus. He was 
taken in a battle against the Parthians, 
and died in captivity. Phalereus, a dis- 
ciple of Theophrastus, who f;a|nea such 
an influence over the Athenians, by hie 
eloquence, and the purity of his manners, 
that he was elected decennial archon, B. 
€.317. He so embellished the c{ty,mid 
tendered himself SO popular by his nHinlfi- 
«ence, that the Athenians raised three 
hundred and sixty brazen statues to his 
honor. Yet in the midst of all this popu- 
larity, his enemies raised a sedition against 
him, and he was condemned to death, and 
all his statues thrown down, after obtain- 
ing the sovereign power for Jten years. He 
put an end to his life by the bite of an asp, 
284 B. C. According to some, Demetrius 
enjoyed the confidence of Philadelphus, 
and enriched bis library at Alexandria 

with two hundred thousand volumes. 

A Cynic philosof»her, disciple of Apollo- 
nius Thyaneus, in the age of Caligula. 
He died in a great old age ; and Beneca 
observes, that riature had brought him forth, 
to show mankind^ that an ezalted gemnu earn 
live securely without being eorrupted dy the 

vices cfthe surronnding world. One of 

Alexander's batterers. A native of By- 
zantium, who wrote on the Greek poets. 
An Athenian killed at Mantinea, 

when fighting against the Thebans. 

A writer who published an history of the 
uiuptiuM of the Gauls ioto Aeia. . A 

philological writer, in the age of Cicero. 

A stage phiyer. Syrus, a rhetoric 

cian at Athens. A geographer, sur- 
named the Calatian. 

DsMo, a Sibyl of Curas. 

DxHOAHASsA, the mother of ^gialens. 

DsMocEDss, a celebrated physician of 
Crotona, son of Calliphon, aqd intimate 
with Polycrates. 

Dbuocharsi, an Athenian satit with 
some of his countrymen with an embassy 
to Philip king of Macedonia. The mon- 
arch gave them audience ; and when he 
asked them what be could do to please 
the people of Athens? Democliares r»- 

pUed, »» Hang yourself." A poet of 

i^oli. A statuary, who wished to make 

a statue of mount Athos.— ^A general of 
Poirtpey the younger, who died B. C. 36. 

Democles, a man accused of disafiec- 
tiOtt towards Dionyeins. 

DsuocaoK, aniUuraJson of Priam, kill- 
ed by Ulysses. 

DxiiocnATEs, an architect of Alexan- 
dria. A wrestler. An At^niaa who 

fou^t on the side of Darius, against the 

DxiioaaiTas, a celebrated philosopher 
of'Abdera, disciple to Leucippus. He 
travelled over the greatest part of Europe, 
Asia, and Africa, in quest of knowledge, 
and returned home in the greatest pov- 
erty. He was accused of insanity, and 
Hippocrates was ordered to inquire into 
the nature of his disorder. The pbysi- 
cian had a confevence with the philoeo- 

gher, and declared that not Democritus, 
ut his enemies were insane. He contin- 
ually laughed at the follies and vanity ot 
mankind, who distract themselves with 
care, and are at once a prey to hope and 
to anxiety. He died in the one hundred 
and ninth year of his age, B. C. 361. 
An Bphesian, who wrote a book on Di- 
ana's teuiple. A powerftil man of 


' Dbm ODiok, the wife of Cretheas, king 
of lolchos. Some call her Biadice, or 

Demodochus. a musician at the coart of 
Alcinous.— — -A Trojan chief, who came 
with iEneas into Italy, where he was 
killed.— —An historian. 

Demoleds, a Greek, killed by iflneas in 
the Trcjan war. 

Demoleoit, a centaur, killed by The- 
seus at the nuptials of Pirithous.—- . — .A 
son of Antenor, killed by Achilles. 

Demon, an Athenian, nephew to De- 
mosthenes. He was at the bead of the 
government during the abeencd of his 
uncle, and obtained a decree that Demos- 
thenes should be recalled, and that a ship 
should be sent to bring him back. 

DBMoifABSA, a daughter of Amphiaiaus, 
who married Thersander. 

DanevAx, a celebrated DbilosoplMr of 

Digitized byA^OOQlC 




Crete, fci the reign of Adrian. He^ied 
In his hundredth year. A man of Man- 
tinea, sent to settle the government of Gy- 

DEMoificA, a woman who betrayed 
Epbesas to Brennus. 

DfiMorHAzrxus, a general killed by An- 

DsMopmLs, a name given to the sibyl 
of Gums. I 

DcMOPHiLUs, an Athenian archon. 

An officer of Agathocles. 

Demophon, an Athenian, who assisted 
the Thebans in recovering Gadmea. 

Demophoon, son of Theseus and Phae- 
dra, was king of Athene, B. G. 1183, and 

reigned thirty-three years. A friend of 

iEneas, killed by Gamilla. 

DEMOPOLis,a son of Themistocles. 

Demos, a place of Ithaca. 

Demosthenes, a celebrated Athenian, 
SOD of a rich black-smith, called Demosthe- 
nes and of Cleobule. At the age of seven- 
teen he gave an early proof of bis elo- 
quence and abilities against his guardians, 
rrom whom he obtained the retribution 
of the greatest part of bis estate. His 
rising talents were however impeded tigr 
weak lungs, and a difficulty of pronuncia- 
tion. To correct th^ stammering of his 
voice, he spoke with ^bbles in his mouth; 
and removed the distortion of his features, 
which acconipanied his utterance, by 
watching the motions of his countenance 
in a looking-glass. That his pronuncia- 
tion might pe loud and full of emphasis, 
be frequently ran up the steepest and most 
uneven walks, where his voice acquired 
force and energy ; and on the sea-shore, 
when the waves were violently agitated, 
he declaimed aloud, to accustom himselr 
to the noise and tumults of a public as- 
sembly. He also confined himself in a 
BQbterraneous cave, to devote himself 
more closely to studious pursuits ; and to 
eradicate all curiosity of appearing in pub- 
lic, he shaved one half of his head. His 
abilities, as an orator, raised him to con- 
sequence at Athens, and he was soon 
placed at the head of the government. 
His triumph and popularity, however, 
were short. When Antipater made war 
against Greece, he demanded that all the 
orators should be delivered up into his 
hands. Demosthenes with all his adher- 
ents fled to the temple of Neptune in Ca- 
lauria, and when he saw that all hopes of 
safety were banished, he took a dose of 
poison, which he always carried in a quill, 
and expired on the day that the Thesmo- 
phoria were celebrated, in the sixtieth 
year of his age, B. G. 322. The Athen- 
ians raised a brazen statue to his honor 
with an Inscription tninslated into this 
distich : 

Si tibi par menti robur^ Vir mg.9ne^fiiis$etf 

Onteia nan Miuedm tuceubuuset Kero. 


B^ostfaenes ha* desenredly'been called 

the prince of orators. An Athenian 

general, sent to succeed Alcibiades in Si> 
cily. He was put to death hy the Syra- 

cuaiaas, B. G. 413. The father of the 

orator Demosthenes. He was very rich. 
A governor of Gesarea. 

Demostratus, an Athenian orator. 

Demuchus, a Trojan, son of Philetor, 
killed by Achilles. 

Demtlus, a tyrant who tortured the phi- 
losopher Zeno. 

DENSELSTiB, a pooplc of Thnce. 

Deobriga, a town on the Ibenis in 
Spain, now Miranda de Ebro. 

Dsodatus, an Athenian who opposed 
the cruel resolutions of Gleon against the 
captive prisoners of Mitylene. 

Deo IS, a name given to Proserpine from 
her mother Geres, who was called Deo, 

Derje, a place of Messenia. 

Derbx, a town of Lycaonia. 

DERBicxs,a people near Gaucasus, who 
killed all those that had reached their 
seventieth yaar. They buried such as died 
a natural death. 

Derce, a fountain in Spain, whose wa^ 
ters were said to be uncommonly cold. 

DxRcxififus, an ancient king in Latium. 

Dbrceto and Dxrcxtis, a goddess f!^ 
Syria, called also Atergads, whom some 
suppose to be the same as Astarte. 

Derctllidas, a general of Sparta, cele- 
brated for his military exploits. He took 
nine different cities in eight davs. 

DxRCTLEUi, a man appointed over Attf* 
ca by Antipater. 

Dercyitus, a son of Neptune, killed by 

PERfjEi, a people of Thrace. 

Dbsthona, now TerUma, a town of Li- 

Dertose, now Tortoaay a town of Spain 
near the Iberus. 

Dehusijei, a people of Persia. 

DxsuDABA, a town of Media. 

Dbta,b town of Britain, now CktstaTf 
on the Dee. 

DsucALiorr, a son of Prometheus, who 
married Pyrrha, the daoghter of Epime- 
theufl. He reigned over part of Thessaly, 
and in his age the whole earth was over- 
whelmed with a deluge. Prometheus ad- 
vised his son to make himself a ship, and 
by this means he saved himself and hie 
wife Pyrrha. The vessel was tossed about 
during nine successive jdays, and at last 
stopped on the top of mount Parnassus, 
where Deucalion remained till the waters 
had mibsided. As soon as the waters had 
retired from the surface of the earth, Deu- 
calion and his wife went to consult the 
oracle of Themis, and were directed to re- ^ 
pair the loss of mankind, by throwing be- 
hind them the bonea of their grandmother. 
This was nothing but the stones of the 
eaith.j and atte'r sage heaitadon about 




the ineanlng of the ox^le, they pbeyecl. 
The stones thrown by Deucalion became 
men, and those of Pyrrha women. The 
deluge of Deucalion, so much celebrated 
in ancient hi8tor>', is supposed to hi^ve 

happened 1503 years B. C. One of the 

Argonauts. A son of Minos. A son 

of Abas. 

Deucetius, a Sicilian general. 

DxuooRix. one of the Cherusci, led in 
triumph by German icus. 

Dexamene, one (if the Nereides. 

Dexameitus, a man delivered by Her- 
cules from the hands of his daughter's 
suitors. A king of Olenus in Acliaia. 

Dexipfus, a Spartan who assisted tlie 
people of Agrigentum. 

Dexithea, the wife of Minosi 

Dexius, a Greek, father of Iphinous, 
killed by Glaucus in the Trojan war. 

DiA, a daughter of Deion, mother of Pi- 

rithous by Ixion. An island in the 

^gean sea, seventeen miles from Delos. 

it is the same as Naxos. Anotlier on 

the coast of Crete. A city of Thrace — 

Euboea — Peloponnesus — Lusitania — Italy 
— i^cythia — Caria — Bithynia — and Thes- 

DiAcrosiDEs. one of Agarista's suitors. 

The fathe/of Eurydame, the wife of 


DiiEus, of Megalopolis, a general of the 
Achffians, who killed himself when his 
bffairs became desperate. ^ 

DiADUMERiANUf, a SOU of Macrlnus, 
who enjoyed the title of Cssar during his 
father's lifetime. 

Di AOON and Di AorM, a river of Pelopon- 
nesus, flowing into the Alpheus, and se- 
parating Pisa from Arcadia. 

DiA6oifDAs,aTheban who abolished all 
nocturnal sacrifices. 

DiAooRAs, an Athenian philosopher. 
Bis father's name was^Teleclytus. From 
the greatest superstition, he became a 
most unconquerable atheist; because he 
flaw a man who laid a false claim to one 
of his poems, and who perjured himself^ 
f!0 unpunished. He lived about four hun- 

"dred and sixteen years before Christ. 

An athlete of Rhodes, four hundred and 
Htxty years before the Christian era. Pin- 
•dar celebrated his merit in a beautiful ode 
«till extant. He saw his three sons crown- 
«d the same day at Olympia, and died 
through excess of joy. 

DiALi0,a priest of Jupiter at Rome, first 
instituted by Numa. 

DiALLua, an Athenian, who wrote an 
history of all the memorable occurrences 
of his age. 

DiAMASTioosis, a festival at Sparta in 
•honor of Diana Orthia, when boys were 
whipped before the altar of the goddess. 
These boys, called Bomonicte, were ori- 
ginally free-born Spartans; but, in the 
mora delicate ages, they were of mean 

birth, and generally of 91 slavish j»rigio« 
These llagellations were so severe, that 
the blood gushed in profuse torrents, and 
many expired under the lash of the wfifp 
without uttering a groan, or betraying any 
marks of fear. Such a death was reckon- 
ed vary honorable, and the corpse was 
buried with much solemnity, with a gar- 
lafnd of flowers on its head. 

DiAif A was the goddess of hunting. She 
was bom at the same birth as Apollo, and 
obtained from her father the permission to 
live in perpetual celibacy, and to preside 
over the travails of women. She devoted 
herself to hunting, and obtained permis- 
sion of Jupiter to have for henattendants 
sixty of the Oceanldes, and twenty other 
nyrtiphs, all of whom, like herself, abjur- 
ed the use of marriage. She is represent- 
ed with a bent bow and quiver, and at- 
tended with dogs, and sometimes drawn 
in a chariot by two white stags. Some- 
times she appears with wings, holdiag a 
Hon in one hand, and a panther in the 
other, with a chariot drawn by two heif- 
ers, or two horses of diflerent colors. She 
was called Lucina, Ily^hia, or Juno Pro- 
nuba, when invoked by women in child- 
bed, and Trivia when worshipped in the 
cross- ways where her statues were gene- 
rally erected. She was supposed to be 
the same as the moon, and Proserpine or 
Hecate, and from that circumstance she 
was called Triformis. The most famous 
of her temples was that of Ephesus, which 
was one of the seven wonders of the 

D1ANA8A, the mother of Lycurgus. 

DiANiuM, a town and promontory of 
Spain, now Cape Martin, where Diana 
was worshipped. 

DiAsiA, f^tivals in honor of Jupiter at 

DiBio. a town of France, now Dijon in 

Dicj^A and Dicsarchea, a town' of 

DicjEUB, an Athenian who was super- 
naturally apprised of the defeat of the Per- 
sians in Greece. 

Dice, one of the Here, daughters of Ju- 

DicEARcnus, a Messenian famous for 
his knowledge of philosophy, history, and 

DicEMiBus, an Egyptian philosopher in 
the age of Augustus. 

DicoMAi, a king of the Gete. 

DicTji and DicT^us mons, a mountain 
of Crete. Jupiter was called IHetiEusj be- 
cause worshipped there. 
* DicTAMNuM and Dicttkna, a town of 
Crete, where the herb called dietamnus 
chiefly grows. 

Dictator, a magistrate at Rome invest- 
ed with regal authority. This ofiScer was 
fiittchoflOQ dariJig the Roman wars a^unst 




tin Latins. 7)ie consnla being unable to 
raise corces for the defence of the state. 
because the plebeians refused to enlist, ii 
they were not dischaiged from all the 
debts they had contracted with the patri- 
cians, the senate • found it necessary to 
elect a new magistrate with absoluti; and 
incontrollable power to take care of the 
state. The dictator remained in office 
for six months, after which he was again 
elected, if the affairs of the state seemed 
to be desperate ; but if tranquillity was 
reestablished, he generally laid down bis 
power before the time was expired. ■ He 
knew no superior in the republic, and 
even the laws were sufagected to him. He 
was choeen only when the state was in 
imminent dangers from foreign enemies 
or inward seditions. The dictator, as soon 
as elected, chose a aubondinate officer, 
called his master of horse, magwter eguir- 
Utm. TMis officer was totally subservient 
to the will of the dictator. 

DicTiDiENsss, certain inhabitants of 
mount AthoB. 

DicTTif i»A, a nymph of Crete, who first 

invented hunting nets. A festival at 

Sparta in honor of Diana.— A eity of 


DicTTs, a Cretan, who went with Ido- 
meneus to the Trojan war. — ^-A king of 
the island of Beriphus, son of Magnes and 

Nays. A centaur, killed at the nuptials 

of Pirithous. 

DiDAS, a Macedonian who was employ- 
ed by Perseus to render Demetrius sus- 
pected to his father Pl^ilip. 

DfOfA LEX, de SumptUmSf by Didius, 
A. U. C. 606, to restrain the expenses that 
attended public festivals and entertain- 

DiDios, a governor of Spaii^ conquered 

by Sertorius. A man who Drought CaB- 

«ar the head of Pompey's eldest son. A 

governor of Britain, under Claudius. 

Julianas, a rich Roman, who, after the 
murder of Pertinax, bought the empire 
which the Pretorians had exposed to sale, 
A. D. I9Q. The soldiers revolted against 
bim, and put him to death, after a short 
reign. . 

Dido, a daughter of Belus king of Tyre, 
who married Sichsus, her uncle, who 
was priest of Hercules. Pygmalion, who 
sncceeded to the throne of Tyre after Be- 
lus, murdered Sichsus, to get possession 
of the immense riches wfiich he possess- 
ed ; and Dido set sail in quest of a settle- 
ment, with a number of Tyrians, to whom 
the cruelty of the tyrant became odious. 
A storm drove her fleet on the African 
coast, and she bought of the inhabitants 
as much land as could be covered by a 
bull's hide, cut into thongs. Upon this 
piece of land she built a citadel, called 
Byrsa. Her beauty, as well as the fame 
of ber enterprise, gained ber many ad* 

mirers ; and her subjects w(tibed to com- 
pel her to marry Jarbas, king of Maurita- 
, nia, who threatened them with a dreadful 
war. Dido begt^d three months to give 
her 4ecisive answer ; and during that 
time, she erected a funeral pile, as if wish- 
ing, by a solemn sacrifice, to appease the 
manes of Sichseus, to whom she had pro- 
mised eternal fidelity. When all was 
prepared, she stabbed herself on the pile 
in presence of her people. According to 
Virgil and Ovid, the death of Dido was 
caased by the suaden departure of iEneas. 
This poetical fiction represents iEneas aa 
living in the age of Dido, and introduces 
an anachronism of near three hundred 

DiDTMA, a place of Miletus. -An is- 
land in the Sicilian sea. 

DiDTMJEns, a surname of Apollo. 

DiDYMAOif, an excellent artist. 

DiDTHx, one of the Cyclades. A cky 

of Sicily. One of the Lipari'isles, now 

Salifu. A place near Miletus, where 

the Branchidffi had their famous oracle. 
' DiDTMUH, a mountain of Asia Minor. 

DiDTMUs, a freedman of Tiberius. 1^ 

A scholiast on Homer, flourished B. C„ 

DiEiTEcss, a Spartan, who, upon heaiv 
ing, before the battle of Thermopylffi, that 
the Persians were so numerous that their 
airows would darkan the light of the sun, 
observed, that it would be a great convene 
ience, for they then should fight in the 

DiESFiTER, a surname of Jupiter, as be- 
ing the father of light. 

DiGENTiA, a small river which watered 
Horace's farm, in the country of the Sa- 

DioMA, a part of the Piraeus at Athens. 

Dii, the divinities of the ancient inhab- 
itant^ of the earth were very numerous. 
Every object which caused terror, inspired 
gratitude, or bestowed affluence, received 
the tribute of veneration. The Romans, 
generally speaking, reckoned two classes 
of the gods, the dii majorum genia^.m, or dii 
coruulentesy and the dti ntinorum gentium. 
The former were twelve in number, six 
males and six females. In the class of 
the latter, were ranked all the gods which 
were worshipped in different parts of the 
earth. There were also some called demi- 
gods, who deserved immortality by the • 
greatness of their exploits, and for their 
uncommon services to mankind. In pro- 
cess of time also, all the passions, and the 
moral virtues, were reckoned as powerful 
deities, and temples were raised to a god- 
dess of concord, peace, &c. Afterwards, 
not only good and virtuous men, who had 
been the patrons of learning and the sup- 
porters of liberty, but also thieves and pi- 
rates, were admitted among the gods : 
and the Roman senate courteously grantea 




ImmoitBllty to the most ereel and aban- 
doned of their emperors. 

Dii, a people of Thrace, on mount Sho- 

DiMASsus, an^island near Rhodes. 

DiNARCHus, a Greek on^r, son of Bob- 
tratua, and disciple to Theophrastus, at 
Athena. He suffered himself to be bribed 
by the enemies of the Athenians, 307 B. 

C. A Corinthian ambassador, put to 

death by Polyperchon.— — A natiVe of De- 
les, who collected some faMea in Crete. 

DiiTDTMus or A (onuit,) a u^ountain of 

Diifi A, a town of Phrygia. A town 

of Gaul, now Digne in Provence. 

DiivicH£, the wife of Archidamus. 

Dim AS, a general of Cassahder. A 

man of Phers, who seized the supreme 

power at Cranon. A man who wrote 

an history of Argos. 

DiifocHAR£g,an architect, who finished 
the temple of Diana at Epbesus, after it 
had been burnt by Erostratus. 

DiNocRATEd, au architect of Macedonia, 
who proposed to Alexander to ci;t mount 
Athos in the form of a statue, holding a 
city in one hand, and in the other a bason, 
into which all the waters of the mountain 

should empty themselves. A general 

of Agatbocles.— — A Messenian, who be- 
haved with great eifeminacy.and wanton- 
ness. He defeated Philopcemen, and put 
Idm to death, B. C. 183. 

DiifODocHus, a swift runner. 

BiNOLocHus, a Syracusan, who compos- 
ed fourteen comedies. 

DiHOMSNEs, a tyrant of Syracuse. 

DiNoir, a governor of Damascus, under 

Ptolemy. The father of Clitarchus, 

who wrote an history of Persia in Alexan- 
der's age. 

DiivosTHEif E8, a man who made himself 
a statue of an Olympian victor. 

DiiTosTaATus, a celebrated geometrician 
in the age of Plato. 

DiocLBA, festivals in the spring at Me- 
^ra, in honor of Diocles.^— — A town on 
the coast of Dalmatia. 

DiocLss, a general of Athens. A 

ccHnic poet of Athens. An historian, 

the first Grecian who ever wrote concern- 
ing the origin of the Romans. One of 

the four brothers placed over the citadel 

of Corinth^ by Archelaus. A rich man 

of Messenia. A general of Syracuse. 

DiocLETiAiropoLis, atown of Tbessaly, 
called so in honor of Dioctfesian. 

DiQCLKTiANUB, (Calus Valerius Jovius) 
A celebrated Roman Emperor, tibrn of an 
obscure fhmily in Dalmatia. He was first 
A common soldier, and by merit and suc- 
cess he gradually rose to the ofilce of a gen- 
eral, and at the death of Numerian, he 
was invested with the imperial purple. — 
He was bold and resolute, active and dili- 
gent. Bieeraelty, however, against the 

followers of Christianity fa«s been deserr- 
edly branded with the appellation of un- 
bounded tyranny,, and insolent wanton- 
ness. After he had reigned 21 years in the 
greatest prosperity, he publicly abdicated 
the crown at Nicomedia, on the first of 
May, ^. D. 304, and retired to a private sta- 
tion at Salona. Maximian, his colleague, 
followed bis example, but not from volun- 
tary choice. He livjed nine years after bis 
abdication in tiie greatest security And en- 
joyment at Salona, and died in the e8th 
year of his age. Dioclesian is the first 
sovereign whOv voluntarily resigned his 

J)ioDoRV8, an historian, sumatned Sicu- 
lua, because he was born at Argyra in Sic- 
ily. He wrote an history of Egyfit, Persia, 
Syria, Media, Greece, Rome, and Car- 
thage, which was divided into 40 books, 
of which only 1.5 are extant, with some 
few fragments. This valuable compositiun 
was the work of an accurate inquirer, and 
it is said. that he visited all the places of 
which he has made mention in his history. 

It was the labor of 30 years. A disciple 

of Euclid, in the age of Plato. A comic 

poet. A son of Ecbeanax, who, with 

his brothers Codrus and Anaxagoras, mur- 
dered Hegesias the tyrant of Ephesus. 

An Ephesian, who wrote an account of the 

life of Anaximander. An oratorof Sar- 

des, in the time of the Mithridatic war. 

A stoic philosopher, preceptor to Cicero 

A general of Demetrius. A writer, 

surnamed Periegetus, who wrote a descrip- 
tion of the earth. An African. 

DiosTAB, a general of Achaia. 

DiooxifEs, a celebrated Cynic philoso- 
pher of Sinope, pupil of Antisthenes j re- 
markable for the singularity of his man- 
ners, and contempt of riches. It was his 
practice to dress in the garb which distin- 
guished the Cynics, and walk about the 
streets with a tub over his head, which 
served him as a house and a place of re- 
pose. Alexander III. once condescended 
to visit the philosopher in his tub ; and 
asked him if there was anything in which 
he could gratify or .oblige him. "Get ont 
of my sunshine," was the answer of the 
cynic. Such an independence of mind so 
pleased the monarch, that he turned to his 
courtiers, and said, "Were I not Alexan- 
der, I would wish to be Diogenes." After 
a life spent in the greatest indigence; he 

died, in his 96th year, B. C. 334. There 

was also a philosopher of this name who 
attended Alexander in his Asiatic expedi- 
tion, for the purpose of marking out and 

delineating his march, &.c. ^A stoic of 

Babylon. lUsciple of ChrysippuQ. He died 
In the 68th year of his age, after a life of 

the most exemplary virtue. A native 

of Apollonia, celebrated for his knowledge 

of philosophy and physic. ^Laeifius, 

aa epicurean ptailoMpher, bom in CiUcia. 




niogenes died A. D. 233. A Maeedo- 

mian, who betrayed Salamis to Aratus. 

DioGE?»iA, a daughter of Celeus. 

A daughter of Che Cephisns, who married 

DiooENTjs, a man ^wbo -conspired with 
Dymnus against Alexander. 

DioGXETus, a philosopher who instruct- 
ed Marcus Aurelius in philosophy, and in 
writing dialogues. 

DioMEOA, a daughter of Phorbas, whom 
Achillea brought Trom Leranos, to be his 

mistress after the loss of Briseit. The 

wife of Deion of Amyclas. 

DioMEDEs, son of Tydeus, and Deiptayie, 
king of iElotla, and one of the bravest of 
Che Grecian chiefs in the Trojan wzur. He 
went witli Ulysses to steal the palladium 
from the temple of Minerva at Troy ; and 
assisted in murdering Rhesas, kmg of 

Thrace, and cariying away his horses. 

On his return from' the siege of Troy, he 
found that his wife ^^ale h&d been un- 
faithfaU He resolved to abandon his na- 
tive country which was the seat of his dis- 
grace . He came to that part of Ualy which 
has been called Magna Gra^cia, where he 
built a city called Argyrippa, and married 
the daughter of Daunus, the king of the 
country. He died there in extreme old 

age. A king of Thrace, son of Man 

and Cyrene, who fed his horses with hu- 
man flesh. A friend of Alcibiades. 

A grammarian. 

DioMEDON, an Athenian general, put to 
death for his negligence at Arginuss. 

Dion, a Sy'racusan, fhmous for his pow- 
ers ana abilities : he was betrayed ^nd 
murdered by his friend, Callicrates, B.C. 
354. His death was universally lamented 
"by the Syracusans, and a monument was 
raised t^ his memory. A town of Mac- 
edonia. Cassius, a native of Niciea in 

Hithynia. His fhther's name was Aproni- 
aniis. He was raised to the' greatest offi- 
ces of state in the Roman empire by Perti- 
naz and his three successors. Natur^-Uy 
fond of study, he Improved himself by 
unwearied application, and was ten years 
in collecting materials for an history of 
Rome, which he made public in 80 books, 
'after a laborious employment of 19 years 
in composing it. IHon flourished about 

the 230th year of the christian era. A 

&mou8 Christian writer, sumamed Ckry- 
fostom. ' 

DioN^A, a surname of Venus, supposed 
to he the daughter of Jupiter and Dione. 

BioivB, a nymph, daughter of Nereus 
and Doris. 

DioNYsiA, festiv^ds in honor of Bacchus 
among the Greeks^ At first they were 
celebrated with great simplicity, and the 
time was consecrated to mirth. It was 
then usual to bring a vessel of wine adorn- 
ed with » vine branch, after which folldw- 
ed a goat, a basket of figs, and the tfaXXoi, 

The worshippers Imitated in their dress 
and actions the poetical fictions concerning 
Bacchus. They clothed themselves in 
fawn's skins, fine li^en, and mitres, they 
carried thyrsi, drums, pipes, and riutes, 
and crowned themselves with garlands df 
ivy, vine, fir, &c. Some imitated Sileuus, 
Pan, and the satyrs by the uncouth man^ 
ner of thflir> dress, and their fantastical 
motions. Some rode upon asses, and others 
drove the i^ats to slaughter for the sacri- 
fice. In this manner both sexes joined in 
the solemnity, and ran about the hills and 
country, nodding their heads, dancing in 
ridiculous postures, and filling the air with 
hideous shrieks and shouts, and crying 
aloud, Evoe Bacche ! lo ! lo ! Evoe ! Iac« 
Che ! lobacohe ! Evohe ! With such so< 
lemnities were the festivals of Bacchus 
celebrated by the Greeks, pmticularly the 
Athenians. The festivals of Bacchus were 
almost innumerable. They were celebrat- 
ed by the Greeks with great licentiousnessj^ 
and contributed much to the corruption or 
morals among all ranks of people. They 
were also introduced into Tuscany, and 
from thence to Rome. 

DioNTsioEs, two small islands near 
Crete. — ^Festivals in honor of Bacchus, 

DioifrsiAs, a fountain.. 

DiovTsiDEs, a tragic poet of Tarsus. 

DioNTsioDORUs, a famous geometer. — ^ 
A Boeotian historian.— ^^— A "Tarentine, 
who obtained a prize at Olympla. 

DioNrsioN, a temple of Bacchus in At- 

DioNTBiPOLis, a town of Thrace. 

Diorrrsius Ist, a tyrant of Sicily, who 
usurped the throne, and vowed eternal 
enmity against Carthage. He experienced 
various success in his wars against that 
republic ; but his tyranny and cruelty at 
home rendered him odious to his subjects ; 
and he became so suspicious, that he 
would not admit even his wife or chil- 
dren to big private apartments, without 
a previous examination of their ^rments ; 
and never trusted his head to a barber, 
but always burned 'his beard. He made 
a subterraneous cave in a rock cut in 
the form of a human ear, eighty feet in 
height, and 250 in length, for the pur- 
pose of hearing the discourse of his vic- 
tims, who were confined la chambers 
above. He died B. C. 368, at the age oK 
63, after a reign of '38 years ; and was suc- 
ceeded by his son, Dionysius II., who in- 
herited all Ms fhther^ vices,- yet wished 
to be thought a great poet ; and It is said 
that he died through excess of joy, at 
hearing that a tragedy of his own compo- 
sition had been rewarded with a poetical 

prize. An historian of Halieamassuay 

who left his country and came to reside at 
Rome, that he might carefully study all 
the Greek and Latin writers, whose com- 
positions treated of ibe JLomaU lutf^ 

Digitized by VjOOQ I 




After an niiremltted appUefttion, daring 
twenty-four.yeara, he gave totbe worldliis 
Soman aotiquitiea in twenty books, of 
which only the eleven first are now ex- 
tant, neariy containlhg the account of 
three hundred and twelve years. To the 
merits of the elegant historian, Diony- 
slus, also -added the equally respectable 
character of the eloquent oratoiu the critic, 
and the politician. He lived luring the 
Augustan age, and came to Rome about 

thirty years before the Christian era. 

A ^rant of Heraclea in Pontus, in the age 
of Alexander the Great. , He was of sucl! 
an uncommon CMrpulence that he never 
exposed his person in public. A sur- 
name of Bacchus. A disciple of Che- 

rempn. — A native of Chalcis, who wrote 

a book entitled the origms of eiUea, 

A commander of the Ionian fleet against 

the Persians. A general of Antiochus 

Bierax. A philosopher of Heraclea, dis- 
ciple to Zeno.-^ — An epic poet of Mitylene. 

A sophist of Pergamus.— A writer 

In the Augustan age. The music mas- 
ter of Epaminondas. A celebrated 

critic. A rhetorician of Magnesia. 

A Hessenian madman. A native of 

Thrace, generally called the Rhodian, 
because he lived there. He wrote some 
nrammatical treatises and commentaries, 
B. C. 64. A painter of Colophon. 

DiopHANxa. a man who joined Pelopon- 
nesus to the Acheean league. A rheto- 
rician intimate with Tib. Gracchus. 

DidPHAiTTus, an Athenian general of 
tlie Greek troops in the service of Necta- 

nebas of Egypt. A Greek orator of 

Mitylene, preceptor to Tib. Gracchas. 

~— An arithmetician of Alexandria in the 
fourth century. 

DioFdNus, a noble sculptor of Crete. 

DioroLit, a name of Cabira, a town of 

Dioacs, a ftlend of iEneas, killed by 

DioRTCTUB, a place of Acamania, where 
a canal was cut to make Leueadia an is- 

DioBcoaiDis, a native of Cilicia who 
was physician to Antony and Cleopatra, 
or lived as some suppose in the age of Na- 
re.— A man who wrote an account of the 

republic af Lacedsmon. A nephew 

of Antigonns. A Cyprian, blind of one 

eye. A disciple of Isocrates.-— >— An 


DtoscoaiDif iivfULA, an Island at the 
aouth of the entrance of the Aiabic Gulf. 

Dioscuai, or itont of Jupiter ^ a name giv- 
en to Castor and Pollux. 

Dioscuri AS, a town of Colchis. 

DiosPAos, a town of Mesopotamia. 

DiospoLis, or VwMBMy a famous city of 

Di oTiMB, a woman who gave lectures 
upon phlHoBoplip 

DioTiHVB, an Athenian skilled in mari- 
time afilUrs.- — A stoic who flourished 65, 

DioTRSPHss, an Athenian officer. 

DtoYippx, one of the Danaides. 

Dioxippus, a soldier of Alexander. 

An Athenian boxer. A Trojan kUled 

by Turnns. 

DipjuE, a place of Peloponnesus, where 
a battle was fought between the Arcadi- 
ans and BpartiMe. 

DiPHiLAS, a man sent to Rhodes by the 
Spartans to destroy the Athenian ihiction 

there. A governor of Babylon. An 


DtPHiLcs, an Athenian general, A. U. C. 
311.-: — An architect so slow in finishing 
his works, that Diphilo tardior became a 
proverb.-»^A tragic writer. . 

DiPHORioAs, one of the Ephori at Bparta. 

DiPosKjE, a town Of Arcadia. 

DiPOLis, B name given to Lemnos^ as 
having two cities, Hephestia and M^nna. 

DiPSAs, a river of Cilicia, flowing firom 

mount Taurus. A profligate and incon< 

tinent woman. A kind of serpent. 

DiPTLoiT, one of the gates of Athens. 

DiRJB, the daughters of Acheron and 
Nox, who persecuted the souls of the guilty. 
They are the same as the Furies, and some 
suppose that they are called Furies in hell. 
Harpies on earth, and Dirte in heaven. 

DiRcx, a woman whom Lycus, king of 
Thebes, married after he bad divorced 
Antiope. She treated Antiope with great 
cruelty, and was so severely punished for 
it by her sons, that ther gods from pity 
changed her into a fountain. 

IdiRCBNirA, a cold fountain of Spain, 
near Biibilis. 

DiRPHTA, a surname of Juno. 

Dis, a god of the Gauls, the same as 
Pluto the god of hell. 

DiscoBoi A, a malevolent deity, daughter 
of Vox, and sister to Nemesis, the Parce 
and Death. She was driven from heaven 
by Jupiter, because she sowed dissentions 
among the gods, and was the cause of con- 
tinual quarrels. 

DiTHTRAMBus, a sumamc of Bacchus. 

DiTTANi, a people of Spain. 

DiTi, a name chiefly apm-opriated to 
those who were made gods alter death, or 
the Lares, and Penates, and other domestic 

DiTiTiAcuf, one of the ifidui, intimate 
with Cesar. 

DiuM, a town of Euboea. A promon- 
tory of Crete.- — A town of Macedonia. 

DiTODURUM a town of Gaul, now Meti 
in Lorraim 

DiTUf FiDius, a god of the Sabines. 

DiTLLus, an Athenian historian. A 


DoBBRxs, a people of Peonia. 
*Dociu8, a gladiator at Rome. 

DoojMus, a man of Tarentom', depriyed 




of Ids military dignity by Pliilip, son of 

Amyntas. An officer of Antigonua. 

An officer of PerdiccaSjtalcen by Antigonua. 

Dodo » A, a town of Thesprotia, in £pi- 
nis, or according to others, in Tliessaly. 
Tliere was in its neigh borliood, upon a 
amall hill called Tmarus a celebrated ora- 
cle of Jupiter. The town and temple of- 
the god were first built by Deucalion, after 
tbe universal deluge. It was supposed to 
be tbe most ancient oracle of all (rreece, 
aud according to the traditions of tbe 
Bgyptians mentioned by Herodotus, it was 
founded by a dove. • 

DoDORjiUB, a surname of Jupiter from 

Do BO ITS, a daughter of Jupiter and Eu- 
ropa. A fountain in the forest of Do- 

DoDONiDxs, tbe priestesses who gave 
oracles in the temple of Jupiter in Do- 

Don, a people of Arabia Felix. 

DoLABBSLA, P. CoRiT., a Romau who 
married the daughter of Cicero. After 
the death of J. Cesar, he received the 
government of Syria, as his province. He 
was besieged by Cassius in Jjaodicea, and 
when he saw that all was lost, he killed 
himself, in the twenty-seventh year of his 
age. A proconsul of Africa. Anoth- 
er who conquered the Gauls, Etrurians, 
and Boii at the lake Vadimonis, B. C. 283. 
The family of the Dolabells distin- 
guished themselves at Rome. 

DoLicHAOR, the father of the Hebrus. 

DoLicHB, an island in the iEgean sea. 
A town of Syria— of Macedonia* ^ 

DoLius, a faithful servant of Ulysses. 

DoLOMKNA, a country of Assyria. 

DoLON, a Trojan, son of Eumedet, fa- 
mous for his swiftness. A poet. 

DoLoirci, a people of Thrace. 

Doix>PE». a people of Thessaly, near 
mount Pinaus. 

DoLoriA, tbe country of the Dolopes, 
near Pindus. 

DoLOPs, a Trojan, son of Lampus, kill- 
ed by Menelaus. 

DoiiDucus, a god who presided over 

Doifi\iCA,a daughter of Petroniusy who 
married the ein^ror Valens. 

DoBfiTiA LKx de ReUgione, transferred 
the right of electing priests from the col- 
lege to the people, A. U. C. 630. 

BoMiTfA LoifoiiVA, an infamous Roman 
lady, wife of the emperor Domitian. 

DoMiTiARUf, Titus Flavius, son of Ves- 
pasian and Flavia DomatUla, made him- 
self emperor of Rome, at the death of his 
brother Titus, whom according to some 
accounts he destroyed by poison. In the 
latter part of his reign Domitian became 
mispicious, and bis anxieties were increas- 
ed by the stings of remorse. He was so 
distrufltflil even when alone, that round 

the terrace, where he usually walked, h« 
built a wall with shining stone, that from 
them he might perceive as in a looking- 
glass whether any. body followed him. 
All these precautions were unavailing, 
he perished by the hand of an assassin 
the eighteenth of September, A. D. 96, in 
the forty-fifth year of hi^ age, and the fif- 
teenth of llis reign. He was the last of 
the twelve Ceesars. 

DoMiTiLLA, Flavia, wife of Vespasian. 
A niece of the emperor Domitian. 

DoMiTius DoMiTiANus, a general of Di- 
oclesian in Egypt. He assumed the im- 
perial purple at Alexandria, A. D. 3^, and 
supported the dignity of emperor for about 

two years. He died a violent death. 

Cn. iEnobarbus, a Roman consul, who 
conquered Bituitus the Gaul, and left 
twenty thousand of theeifemyon the field 
of battle, and took three thousand prison- 
ers. A grammarian in ike reign of 

Adrian. ARomanwhojevolted from 

Antonv to Augustus. The father of 

Nero, famous for his cruelties and debauch- 
eries. — A tribune of the people, who 

conquered the AUobroges. A consul. 

Another consul under Caligula. 

A Latin poet called also Marsus in the 

age of Horace. Afer. an orator, who 

was preceptor to Quintilian. He was 
made a consul by ^ero, and died A. D. 59. 

^iBLius DozvATU8,~a grammarian who 

flourished A. D. 353. A bishop of Numi- 

dia, A. D. 311. A bishop of Africa. 

DoiriLAUs, a prince of Gallogriecia. 

DoNucA, a mountain of Thrace. 

DoNTSA, one of the Cyclades. 

DoaACTx, an island in the Persian gulf. 

DoREs, the inhabitants of Doris. 

DoRi and Dorica, a part of Achaia near 

DoRicus, an epithet applied not only to 
Doris, but to all tbe Greeks in general. 

DoRisNsss, a people of Crete-^— of Cy- 

DoRisui, a son of Anaxandridas, who 

went with a colony into Sicily. A son 

of Diagoras of Rhodes. 

DoRiLAs, a rich Libyan prince, killed 
in the court of Cepheus. 

DoRiLAus, a general of the great Mith- 

DoRioir, a town of Thessaly. 

Doris, a country of Greece, between 
Phocis, Thessaly, and Acarnania. It was 
called TetrapoUs, from' tbe four cities of 
Pindus or Dryopis, Erineiim, Cyliniura, 
Borium, which it contained. The name 
of dbris has been common to many parts 

of Greece. A goddess of the sea, 

daughter of Oceanus and Tethys. She 
married her brother Nereus, by whom she 

bad fifty daughters called Nereides 

k woman of Locri, whom Dionysius the 
elder, married the same day with Aristo- 
mache. One of the flftyNweides. 

Digitized by VjOOyic 




DoRiscTJs, a place of Tbrace near the 
sea, where Xerxes numbered his forces. 

DoRiUM, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Onq of the Danaides. * 

DoRius, a mountain of Asia Minor. 

DoRsKNNus, a comic poet of great merit. 

DoRso, C. Fabius, k Roman, who when 
Kome was in the possession of the Gauls, 
issued from the capitol, whidrwas then 
besieged, to go and otTer a sacrifice, which 
was to be offered on mount (^uirinalis. 

DoRus, a son of Deucalion, who left 
Phthiotis, and went to make a settlement 
near mount Ossa. The country was call- 
ed Doris. A city of Phcenicia. 

DoRYAsus, a Spartan, father to Agesilaua. 

DoRTCLus, an illegitimate son of Priam. 
A brother of Phineus king of Thrace. 

DoRTL^uH and Dortljeus, a city of 
Phrygia, now Egki Shehr. 

Dorylas, one of the centaurs killed by 

Dorylaus, a warlike person, intimate 
with MithrMates Evergetes, and general 
of the Gnossians, B. C, 125. 

DoRYssus, a king of Lacediemon, killed 
in a tumult. 

Dosci, a people near the Euxine. 

D0SIAPA8, a poet who wrote a piece of 
poetry in the form of an altar which The- 
ocritus has imitated. 

DosiADEs, aGreek, who wrote an histo- 
ry of Crete. 

DosoN, a surname of Antigonus, be- 
cause he promised and never performed. 

DosflKNus. yid. Dorsennus. 

Dot ADAS, a king of Messenia. 

Do to, one of the Nereides. 

DoTus, a general of the Papblagonians, 
in the army of Xerx^. 
. DoxANDXR, a man mentioned by ^ria- 
toUe. ^ 

Dracanus, a mountain where Jupiter 
took Bacchus from his thigh. 

Dr.«.co, a celebrated lawgiver of Athens. 
Wben he exercised the office of archon, 
he made a code of laws, B. C. 623, which, 
on account of their severity, were said to 
be written in letters of blood. By them, 
idleness was punished with as much se- 
verity as piuraer, and death was denounc- 
ed against the one as well as the other. 
These laws were at first enforced, but 
they were often neglected on account of 
their extreme severity, and Solon totally 
abMished them, except that one which 
punished a murderer with death. The 

popularity of Draco was very great. 

A man who instructed Plato in musi£^ 

Dracontioes, a wicked citizen of 

Drag us, a general of the Achseans, con- 
quered by Mummius. 

Drances, a fViend of Latinus, remarl^- 
|>le for his weakness and eloquence. 

Dranoina, a province of Persia. 

Dbafes, a seditious Gaul. 

Dravus, a river of Noricum. 

DRBPAifA and Drepanum, now TVopont, 
a town of Sicily near mount Eryx, in the 
form of a scythe. A promontoiy of Pe- 

Drilo, a river of Macedonia. 

Drimachus, a famous robber of Chios. 

Drinus, a small rivei falling into the 
Save and Danube. 

Driopides, ftD Athenian ambassador 
sent to Darius when the peace with Alex- 
ander had been violated. 
, Drios, a mountain of Arcadia. 

Droi, a people of Thrace. 

Drom^us, a surname of Apollo in Crete. 

Dropici, a people of Persia. 

Dropior, a kins of Peonia. 

Drcentius and Druentia, now JDt^ 
ranee, a rapid river of Gaul. 

Drugeri, a people of Thrace. 

Druidje, the ministers of religion 
among the ancient Gauls and Britons. 
They were held in the greatest venera- 
tion by the people. Tbeir liAsr was aus- 
tere and recluse from the world, their 
dress was peculiar to themselves, and 
they generally appeared / with a tunic 
which reached a little below the knee. 
As the chief power was lodged in their 
hands, they punished as they pleased, and 
could declare war and make peace (t their 
option. Their power was extended not 
only over private families, but they could 
depose magistrates and even kings, if their 
actions in any manner deviated from the 
laws of the state. 

Dauif A, the Drome, a river of Gaul, faU> 
ing into the Rhone. 

, Drusilla Ltvia, a daughter of Germa- 
nicus and Agrippina, famous for ber licen- 
tiousness. A daughter of Agrippa king 

of Judea. 

Druso, an unskilflil historian and mean 
usurer. ' 

Drusus, a son of Tiberius and Vipsania, 
who made himself famous by his intrepid- 
ity and courage in the provinces </f Illyri- 

cum and Pannonia. A son of Gennani- 

cus and Agrippina, who enjoyed offices of 
the greatest trust under Tiberius. The 
emperor became suspicious of him, and 
put him to death. A son of the em- 
peror Claudius, who died by swallowing 

a pear thrown in the air. An ambitious 

Itoman, grandfather to Cato.-^— Livhis, 
father of Julia Augusta, was inthnate with 
Brutus, and killed himself with him tfUr 

the battle of Philippi. M. Livhis, « 

celebrated Roman who renewed the pro- 
posals of the Agrarian laws, which had 
proved fatal to thl» Gracchi. He was mur^ ■ 
dered as he entered his house, B. C. 190. 

Nero Claudius, a son of Tiberias N© 

ro and Livia, adopted by Augustus.-""— ~ 

Marcus, a prstor. The plebeian family 

of the Drusi produced eight consuls, two 
censors, and one dictf ^ 

Digitized by V 





DsTADKs, nyjnpbs that presided pver 
the woods. 

Drtantiades, a patronymic of Lycur- 
gaa, king of Thrace, son of Dry as. 

Drtab, a son of Hippolocus. He went 
with Eteocles to the The ban war, where 

be perished. A son of Mars, who 

went to the chase of the Calydonian boar. 

A centaur at the nuptials bfPirithous, 

who killed Rh<etas. A daughter of 

Faiinus, who so hated the sight of men, 

that she never appeared in public. A 

son of Lycurgus, killed by his own father 
in a fury. — ^A son of i£gyptua, murdered 
by his wife Eurydice. 

DarMJEA, a town of Phocia. 

Drtmo, a sea nymph, one of the attend- 
ants of Cyrene. 

Drtmus, a town between Attica and 

Dhyofe, a woman of Lemnoa* A 

virein of CEchalia. A nymph, mother 

of Tarquitus by Faun us. A nymph of 

Arcadia, mother of Pan by Mercury. 

Drtopeia, an anniversary day observ- 
ed at Asine in Argolis, in honor of Dry- 
ops the son of Apollo. 

Drtopes, a people of Greece, near 
mount CEta. 

Dryofis and Dryopida, a small country 
at the foot of mount (Eta in Thessaty. 

Dryoi^, a son of Priam. — = — A son of 
Apollo. A friend of iEneas. 

Drtpbtii, the younger daughter of Da- 

Ddbis, or Ajlduaovbis, the Daux, a 
river of Gaul. 

DuBRis, a town of Britain. 

DucBTiuB, a Sicilian general, who died 
B. C. 440. 

Duilua..Lbx, a. U. C. 304. Jtmade it 
a crime to leave the Roman people with- 
out its tribunes. Another, A. U. C. 393. 

to regulate what interest ought to be paia 
for money lent. 

C. DviLLitTs Nxpos, a Roman consul, 
the first who obtained a victory over the 
naval power of Carthage, B. C. 260. 

Ddlichium, an island of.the Ionian sea, 
opposite the Achelous. 

DuMRORix, a powerful chief among the 

DuNAX, a mountain of Thrace. 

DuRATiDs PicTo, R Gaul, who remained 

in perpetual friendahip with the Roman 

DuRis-, an historian of Samoe, who flour- 
ished B. €. 257. 

DuRiui, a large river of ancient Spain, 
now called the Duero, 

DuRocAssEs, the chief residence of the 
Druids in Gaul, now Drtux. 

DuRoifiiu « town of the Samnites. 

Bush, solne deities among the Gauls. 

Duumviri, two noble patricians at 
Rome, first appointed b^ Tarquin to keep 
the Sybilline books, which were supposed 
to contain the fate of the Roman empire. 
These priests continued in their original 
institution till the year U. C. 388, when a 
law was proposed by the tribunes to in- 
crease the number to ten, to be chosen 
promiscuously from patrician and plebeian 

Dyaoondas, a Theban legislator, who 
abolished all nocturnal sacrifices. 

DvARDEif sEi, a river in the extremities 
of India. 
^Dyh^, a town of Achaia. 
*DymjEi, a people of iEtolia. 

Dymas, a Trojan, wbo jdlned himself to 
iEneas when Troy was taken, and was at 
last killed by his countrymen, who took 
him to be an enemy because he had dress- 
ed himself in the armor of one of the 

Greeks he had slain. The fkther of 


Dymnus, one of Alexander's ofilcers. 
He con^ired with many of his fellow sol- 
diers against his master's life. The con- 
spiracy was discovered) and Dymnus stab- 
bed himself before he was brought before 
•the king. 

Dy NAME ITS, one of the Nereides. 

Dyitaste, a daughter of Tbespius. 

Dyras, a river of Trachinia. 

Dyraspzs, a river of Scythia. 

Dyris, the name of mount Atlas among 
the inhabitants of that neighborhood. 

Dyrrachium, now Duratie, a large city 
of Macedonia, bordering on the Adriatic 

Dysaulbs, a brother of Celeus, who in- 
stitued the mysteries of Ceres at Ce- 

Dysciivetus, an Athenian arcbon. 

DvsoRUM, a mountain of Thrace. 

Dyspoittii, a people of Elis. 


EANE8, a man supposed to have killed 
Patroclus, and to have fled to Peleus 
in Tbessaly. 

EAiruf. the name of Janus among the 
ancient Latins. 

EB . 

Earinus, a beautiful boy, in the service 
of Domitian. 

Easium, a town of Achaia In Pelopon- 
nesus. - - * ,T 

Ebdomb, a festival in honor of Apo» 




at Atbena on the seventh day of every lu- 
nar month. 
Ebon, a name given to Bacchus. 

Ebora, a town of Portugal, now Evora. 

Eboracum, York in England. 

Ebud.e, the western ^sles of Britain, 
now Hebrides. , 

Eburones, b people of Belgium, now 
the CQunly of Liege. 

Ebuscs, one of the Baleares, one hun- 
dred miles in circumference, which pro- 
duces no hurtful animals. A man en- 
gaged in the Rutulian war. 

Ecbataica (orum) now Hamsdan, the 
capital of Media. A town of Syria. 

EoBCHiRiA, the wife of Iphitus. 

ficsTRA, a town of the Volsci. 

EcHscRATEs, a Thessalian, who offered 
violence to Phosbas the priestess of Apol- 
lo's temple of Delphi. 

EcHEDAMiA, a town of Phocis. 

EcHELATos, a man who led a colony to 

EcHELTA, a fortified town in Sicily. 

EcHBLUs, a Trojan chief., killed by Pa- 

troclus. Another, son of Agenor, killed 

by AchUles. 

EcHEMBRdTos, att Arcadian, who ob- 
tained the prize at the Pythian games. 

EcHEMoif, a son of Priam, killed by Di- 

EcHEMUs, an Arcadian, who conquered 
the Dorians. A king of Arcadia. 

EcHENEUs, a Pheacian. 

EcHEPHROK, one of Nestor's sons. 

A son of Priam. — ^A son of Hercules. 

EcMEPOLis, a Trojan, killed by Antilo- 

EcHESTRATus, a SOU of Agis 1st, king 
of Sparta, who succeeded his father, B. C. 

EcHBysTHsiTsss, 8 people of Tegea in 

Echidna, a celebrated monster, repre- 
sented as a beautiflil woman in the upper 
parts of the body, but as a serpent below 
the waist. 

EcHiooRUs, a river of Thrace. 

EcHiiTAOBs or EcHiiiJB, five small is- 
lands near Acarnania, at the month of the 
river Achelous. 

EcHiiroN, a city of Thrace. 

EcHi Nua, an island in the iE^an. A 

town of Acarnania of Phthiotis. 

EcHiNUSBA, an island near Eubcea. 

EcHipif, one of those men who sprung 
from the dragon's teeth sown by Cad- 
mus. He succeeded Cadmus on the throne 

of Thebes. A son of Mercury and An- 

tianira, who was the herald of the Argo- 
nauts. A man who often obtained a 

prize in running. A musician at Rome 

in Domitian's age. A statuary. A 

painter. , 

EcHioNiDBs, a patronymic of Pentheus. 

EcHioifius, an epithet applied to a per- 
MD bom in Thebes. ' 

Echo, a daughter of the Air and Tellofl^ 
one of Juno's attendants. Her loquacity 
displeased Jj|U)iter ; and she was deprived 
of the power of speech by Juno. Echo 
fell in love with Narcissus, and on being 
despised by him, she pined away, and waa 
changed into a stone. 

EcNOMos, a mountain of Sicily. 

Edessa and Edeia, a town of Syria. 

Edbss^: portus, a harbor of Sicily, near 

Edbta or Lbria, a town oC Spain along 
the river Sucre. 

Edissa and iBosssA, a town of Mace- 

Edo If, a mountain of Thrace, called also 

Edoni or Edoites, a people of Thrace. 

Edoitides, a name given to the priest* 
esses of Bacchus. 

Edtlius, a mountain which Sylla seized 
to attack the people of Cheronaea. 

Eetior, the father of Andromache, kill- 
ed by Achilles. The commander of the 

Athenian fleet conquered by the Macedo- 
nians under -Clytus. 

Egelidus, a river of Etruria. 

EoERiA, a nymph of Aricia in Italy. 
Egeria was courted by Numa, and accord- 
ing to Ovid she became his wife. 

EoESARETus, a Thcssalian of Larissa^ 
who favored the interest of Pqm^y du- 
ring the civil wars. 

Eossinus, a philosopher, pupil to Evan- 

EoESTA, a daughter of Hii^potes the 

EoNATiA Maximilla, a woman who 
accompanied her husband into banishment 
under Nero. A town. Vid. Gnatia. 

P. Eon ATI us, a crafty and perfidious Ro- 
man in the reign of Nero. 

EioN, a commercial place at tha mouth 
of the Strymon. 

Eigne 8, a village of Peloponnesus. 

EioNEus, a Greek killed by Hector in 

the Trojan war. A Thracian, father to 


Elabortas, a raver near Antioch. 

Elaa, a town of iBolia. An island 

in the Propontis. 

El^kus, a part of Epirus. A surname 

of Jupiter. A town of the Thratian 


Elaoabalus, the surname of the sun at 

Elaites, a grove near Canopus in JQgypt. 

Elaius, a mountain of Arcadia. 

Elafhijea, a surname of Diana In Elis. 

Elaphus, a river of Arcadia. 

Elaphebolia, a festival in honor of D^ 
ana the Huntress. In the celebration a 
cake was made in the form of a deer, and 
offered to the goddess. 

Elaptonius, a youth who conspired 
against Alexander. 




ter« A daaghter of Orchomenus Icing 
of Arcadia. 

Elats A, tbe largest town of Phocis, near 
the Cephisus. 

Elatia, a town of Phocis— of Tbes- 

Elatui, one of the first Ephori of Sparta, 

B. C. 760.- — A mountain of Asia of 

Zacynthus. A Mhg in the army of 

Priam, killed by Agamemnon. 

Elater, a river in Gaul. 

Elba, a town of Campania— of iEolia. 

Elbctra, one of the Oceanides.— — —A 
daughter of Atlas, changed into a constel- 
lation.— —One of the Danaides. A 

daughter of Agamemnon king of Argos. 
Her adventures and misfortunes form one 
of the interesting tragedies of the poet 

Sophodea. 'A sister of Cadmus. A 

city and river of Messenia in Peloponne- 
sus. One of Helen's female atlBndantf. 

ELECTRja, a gate of Thebes. 

Electridks. islands in the Adriatic sea, 
which received their name from the quan- 
tity of amber, (^eUctrum) whicii they pro- 

Electrtoiv, a king of Argos, son of 
Perseus and Andromeda. He sent his sons 
a^inst the Teleboans, who had ravaged 
his country, add they were all killed ex- 
cept Lycimnius. Upon this Electryon 
promised hia^ crown and daughter in mar- 
riage to him who could undertake to pun- 
ish the Teleboans for the death of his sons. 
Amphitryon offered himself and succeed- 
ed. Electryon inadvertently perished by 
the hand of his son-in-law. 

Elxi, a people of Elis in Peloponnesus. 
They were formerly called EpeL 

Elelbus, a surname of Bacchus. 

Elbon^ a village of BoBotia. ^Another 

in Phocis. 

Elrovtvu^ a town of the Thracian 

Elefhawtis, a poetess. A princess 

by whom Danaus had two daughters. 

An island in the river Nile. 

ElepIiantophagi, a people of ^Ethiopia. 

Elepmenor^ sonofChalcedon, was one 
of Helen's suitors. 

EiffipoKDs, a river of Magna Gnecia. 

Ele0chia, a daaghter of Thespius. 

Eleus, a city of Thrace. A river of 

Media. A king of Elis. 

Eleusinia, a great festival, the most 
celebrated of all the religious ceremonies 
of Greece, whence it is often called by 
way of eminence, uvartjQiay themynteries. 
This festival was sacked to Ceres and Pro- 
serpine, every thing contained a mystery, 
and Ceres herself was known only by the 
Bame of <xj|f^^eia from the sorrow and gri^ 
• (0/^0$) which she suffered for the loss of _ 
faer daughter. The Hierophantes had three 
attendants. The Eleusinianmvsteries have 
been deemed the most sacrecf and lolemn 

of all the festivals observed by the Greeks . 
Some have supposed them to be obscene 
and abominable, and that from thence pro- 
ceeded all the mysterious secrecy. They 
were carried from lAeusis to Rome in the 
reign of Adrian, where they were observ- 
ed with the same ceremonies as before, 
though perhaps with more freedom and 
licentiousness. They lasted about 1,800 
years, and were at last abolished by Theo- 
dosius the Great. 

Eleusis, or Elbusiw, a town of Attica, 
celebrated for the festivals of Ceres. 

Eleuther, a son of Apollo. One of 

the Curetes. 

Eleuthera, a village of Boeotia. 

Elsutheria, a festival celebrated at 
Flatffia in honor of Jupiter Eleutherius, or 
the assertor of liberty, by delegates from 
almost all the cities of Greece. The Pla- 
tseans celebrated also an anniversary festi- 
val in memory of those who had lost their 
lives in the famous victory obtained by the 
Grecians under Pausanias over Mardonius 
the Persian general. After him followed 
chariots loaded with myrrh, garlands, 
and a black bull, and certain free young 
men. There was alto a festival of the 
same name observed by the Samians in 
honor of the god of Love. Slaves .also, 
when they obtained their liber^, kept a 
holyday which they called Eleutheria. 

'Elbutho, a surname of Juno Lucina. 

Eleutmerocimves, a people of Cilicia. 

Eleutheros, a river of Syria. 

Elicius, a surname of Jupiter. 

Elieivsis and Eliaca, a sect of philoso- 
phers founded by Phsedon of Elis. 

Elimea, or Elimiotis, a district of Ma- 

Elis, a country of Peloponnesus. The 
capital of the country called EUs^ now 
Bdvidere, became large and populous in 
the age aS Demosthenes, though in the age 
of Homer it did not exist. Elis was m- 
mous for its horses. 

Eli PH ASH, a people of Peloponnesus. 

Elissa, a queen of Tyre, more common- 
ly known by the name of Dido. 

Elissdb, a river of Elis. 

Ellopia, a town of Eubcoa. An ao* 

cient name of that island. 

Elorus, a river of Sicily. 

Elds, a cityof Achaia. 

ELOTiB. Fid. Helotae. 

Elf Elf OR, one of the companions of 
Ulysses, changed into a hog by Circe's 
potions, and afterwards restored to his for- 
mer shape. 

Elpinice, a daughter of Miltiades, who 
married a man that promised to release 
from confinement l^er brother and hus- 
band, whom the laws of Athens had made 
responsible for the fine imposed on hi« 

Elui na, a surname of Ceres. 

ELTcas, a man kiUed^by Porseua. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




ELTMAif, a country of Penift. between 
the Persian gulf and Media. The capital 
of the country was called Elymais, and 
was famous for a rich temple of Diana. 

Eltmi, a nation descended from the 

Eltmus, a man at the court of Acestes 
in Sicily. 

ELTRtJs, a town of Crete. 

Eltmdm and Eltsii Gampi, a place or 
island in the infernal regions, where, ac- 
cording to the mythology of the ancients, 
the souls of the virtuous were placed after 
death. There happiness was complete, 
the pleasures were innocent and refined. 
The air was wholesome, serene, and tem- 
perate ; the birds continually warbled in 
the ^oves, and the inhabitants were bless- 
ed with another sun and other starts. The 
Elysian fields were, according to some, in 
the Fortunate islands on the coast of Af- 
rica, in th^ Atlantic. 

EMATHiA,a name given anciently to the 
countries which formed the empires of 
Macedonia and Thessaly. 

Em ATHioiff, a son of Titan and Aurora, 

who reigned in Macedonia. A man 

killed at the nuptials of Perseus and An- 

Emathioiv, a man killed in the wars of 

Embatcm, a place of Asia, opposite 

Embolima, a town of India. 

Emerita, a town of Bpoin, fhmous for 
dying wool. 

Emsssa and Emissa, a town of Phceni- 

Emoda, a mountain of India. 

Empedocles, a philosopher, poet, patri- 
ot, and historian of Agrigentum in Sicily, 
who flourished 444 B. C. It is reported 
that his curiosity to visit the flames of the 
crater of iEtna, proved fatal to him. Some 
maintain that he wished it to be believed 
that he was a fod. and that his death 
might be unknown, ne threw himself into 
the crater and perished in the flames. 
The volcano, however, by throwing up 
one of his sandals, discovered to the world 
that Empedocles had perished by fire. 

Emperamus. a Lacedfemonian general 
in the second Messenlan war. 

Empoclus, an historian. 

Emporia Punic a, certain places near 
the Syrtes. 

Emporijb, a town of Spain in Catalonia, 
now Antpuriaa. 

ErrcELADVs, a son of Titan and Terra, 
struck with Jupiter's thunders, and over- 
whelmed under mount yEtna.— — *A son 
of iEgyptus. 

Erchblea, a town of Illyricum. 

Endeis, a nymph, daughter of Chiron. 

PONDERA, a place of iEthiopia. 

Endymioit, a shepherd, son of iEtblius 
and Calyce. It is said that he required of 

Jupiter to gnat to him to be alwaya 
young, and tp sleep as much a« he would ; 
whence came the proverb of Undymionis 
,«omnttmi2onittre to express a longsleep. The 
fable of Endymion^s amours with Diana, 
or the moon, arises from his knowledge of 
astronomy, and as he passed the night on 
some high mQuntalI^ to observe the hea- 
venly bodies, it has been reported that he 
was courted by the moon. 

EifBTi, or HsifETi, a peopl^near Papb- 

EtvoruM, now Oangi, a town of Sicily. 

E N I E N8£« , a people of Greece. 

Elf roPEus, a charioteer of Hector. 

EiTiPBUs, a river of Thessaly, flowing 
near Pharealia. A river of Elis in Pelo- 

EiTtBPx, a town of Arcadia. 

Elf NA, now Castro Janm, a town of Si- 
cily, wfib a beautiful plain. 

Elf If I A, was the wife of Macro,^and af- 
terwards of the emperor Caligula.* 

CI. Elf Nius, an ancient poet, bom at Ru- 
dir in Calabria. He obtained the name 
and privileges of a Roman citizen by his 

Enius and the brilliancy of his learning, 
is style is rough and unpolished, but his 
defects, which are more particularly at- 
tributed to the age in which he lived, have 
been fully compensated by the energy of 
his expressions and the fire of his poetry. 
He wrote in verse eighteen books of the 
history of the Roman repuMic. He died 
of the gout, contracted by frequent intoxi- 
cation, about one hundred and sixty-nine 
years before the Christian era, in the 
seventieth year of his age. 

EififoMUf, a Trojan prince killed by 

Eirif on ojBUf , Cems concMwor, a Bumame 
of Neptune. 

Eifopx, a town of Peloponnesus, near 

Elf opt, a shepherd loved by the nymph 

Neis, by whom he had Satnius. The 

father of Tbestos. A Trqjan killed by 


Elf OS, a maritime town of Thiace. 

EifosicHTHON, a surname of Neptune. 

EifOTocffiTJE, a nation whose ears are 
described as hanging down to their 

EifTxixA, a town of Sicily inhabited by 

Elf TELLus, a famous athlete among the 
friends of iEneas. 

Elf T ALIUS, a surnane of Mara. 

EifYo, a sister of Mars, called by the 
Latins Bellona. 

EoifE, a daughter of Thespins. 
- EoROAA, a district at the west of Bftace- 
donia. . 

Eos, the name of Aurora amoi^g the 

Eous, one of the horses of tlie sun. 

EpAGBig^ !i^n^ pf the Cyclades. 




Epaminondas, a famous Theban de- 
scended from the ancient kings of BoBotia. 
He hau3 been celebrated for his private vir- 
tues ano' military accomplish me nta. He 
foraged a most sacred and inviolable friend- 
ship with Pelopidas, whose life he saved 
in a battle. By his advice Pelopidas de- 
livered Thebes from the power of Lace- 
demon. This was the signal of war. 
Epaminondas was set at the head of the 
Theban armies, and defeated the Spartans 
at the celebrated battle of Leuctra, about 
371 years B. C. He was successful in a 
war in Theasaly, and assisted the Eleans 
against the Lacedaemonians. The hostile 
armies met near Mantinea, and while 
Bpaminondas was bravely fighting in the 
thickest of the enemy, he receiyed a fatal 
wound in the breast, and expired exclaioa- 
sng, that he died unconquered, when he 
ieard that the Boeotians obtained the vic- 
tory, in the forty-ei|hth year of bis age, 
Ihree hundred and sixty-three years before 
Christ. The Thebans severely lamented 
bis death. \ 

Epaittbmi, a people of Italy. 

Epaphroditus, a freedman punished 
with death for assisting Nero to destroy 

himself. A freedman of Augustus sent 

to spy Cleopatra. A name assumed by 


Epaphus, a son of Jupiter and lo, who 
SMinded a city in Egypt, which he called 

EPABNActtTs, a Gaul in alliance with 

Epbbolus, a soothsayer of Messenia. 

Epei and Elki, a people of Feloponne- 

Epxtium, now Fiscioy a town of Illyri- 

Epeus, a son of Endymion. A son 

of Panopeus, who was the fabricator of 
the famous wooden horse which proved 
the rain of Troy. 

Ephesus, a city of Ionia. It is famous 
for a temple of Diana, which was reckon- 
ed one of the seven wonders of the world, 
and was four hundred and twenty-five 
f«et long and two hundred feet broad. 
The roof was supported by one hundred 
and twenty-seven columns, sixty feet high, 
which had been placed there by s? many 
kings. This celebrated building was not 
totally completed till two hundred and 
twenty years after its foundation. Ctesi- 
phon was the chief architect. 

Ephetjb, a number of magistrates at 
Athens first instituted by Demophoon, the 
son of Theseus. They were superior to 
the Areopagites, and their privileges were 
great and numerous. 

Ephialtes, or EphialtuSj a giant, son 
of Neptnne, who grew nine inches every 

month. An Athenian famous for bis 

courage and strength. — ; — ^A Trachinian 
who led a detadiment of the army of 

Xerxes by a secret path to attack the Spar- 
tans at Thermopylae. 

Ephori, powerful magistrates at Sparta, 
who were first created by Lycurgus ; or, 
according to some, by Theopompus, B» C. 
760. They were five in number. They 
were much the same as the tribunes of 
the people at Bome, created to watch with 
a jealous eye over the liberties ^d rights 
of the populace. 

Efhorus, an orator and historiaa afCvt- 
mae in iGolia, about three hundred and 
fifty -two years before Christ. 

Ephtra, the ancient name of Corinth. 
A city of Threspotia in Epirus An- 
other in Elis— JEtolia. One of Cyrene's 


Epicaste, a name of Jocasta the mo- 
ther and wife of CEdlpus. -A daughter 

of iEgeus, mother of Tnestalus by Hercu- 

Eptcerides, a man of Cyrene, greatly 
esteemed for his beneficence. 

Epicharis, a woman accused of conspi- 
racy against Nero. 

Epicharmus, a poet and Pythagorean 
philosopher of^ Sicily, who introduced 
comedy at Syracuse in the reign of Hiero. 

Epicles, a Trojan prince killed by A^ax. 

Epicliosb, a I^icedeemonian of the fam- 
ily of the Eurysthenids. He was raised 
to the throne by his brother Cleomenes 3d, 
against the laws and constitution of Spar- 

Epioratbs, a Milesian, servant to J. 

Cesar. A poetof Ambracia. The name 

is applied to Pompey, as expressive of su- 
preme authority. 

Epictetus, a Stoic philosopher of Hie- 
ropolis in Phrygia, originally the slave of 
EpaphrodituSj the fteedman of Nero. His 
style is concise and devoid of all orna- 
ment, full of energy and useful maxims. 
'The value of his compositions is well 
known from the saying of the emperor 
Antoninus, who thanked the gods he 
could collect from the wHtings of Epicte- 
tus wherewith to conduct life with honor 
to himself and advantage to his country. 

Epicurus, a celebrated philosopher of 
Attica : who, after improving*his mind by 
travel Img, visfted Athens, where he es- 
tablished himself, and soon attracted a 
number of followers by the sweetness and 
gravity of his manners. He taught them 
that thq happiness of mankind consisted 
in that pleasure which arises not from 
sensual ip^ttfication or from vice, but from 
the enjoyments of the mind and the 
sweets of Virtifle. This doctrioe was warm- 
ly attacked by the philosophers of the dif- 
ferent sects, and particularly by the stoics ; 
bat Epicurus refuted all tlie aceusationa 
of his adversaries by the purity of his mor- 
als, and by his frequent attendance at 
places of public worship. Of all the phi- 
losophers x)t antiquity, Epicurus is tlie 

Digitized by 





only one whose writings deserve attention 
for their nui^ber ; tie having written no 
less than three hundred volumes. Be 
died at the age of seventj'-two, B. C. 270. 
EpicroEs, a tyrant of Syracuse, B. C. 

Epioamnub, ft town of "Macedonia on 
the Adriatic, nearly "opposite Bnindusium. 
Epidaphne, a town of Syria, called alsp 

Epidauhia, a festival at Athehs. A 

cquntiy of Peloponnesus. 

Epidxurus, a town at the north of Ar- 
golis in Peloponnesus, chiefly dedicated to 

the worship of iEsculapius. A town of 

Dalmatia, now Ragusi yuchio—o( Laco- 

Epidium, one of the western isles of 

Epidius, a man who wrote concerning 
unusual prodigies. 

Epidotje, certain deities who presided 
over the birth and growth of children, and 
were known among the Romans by the 
name of Dii averrunci. They were wor- 
shipped by the Lacedflemonians, and chief- 
ly invoked by those who were persecsted 
by the ghosts of the dead. 

Epi GENES, a Babylonian astrologer and 

EpioEU8,ti Greek killed by Hector. 

EpiGoiri, the sons and descendants of 
the Grecian heroes who were killed in the 
first Theban war.—This name has been 
applied to the sons of those Macedonian 
veterans who in the age of Alexander 
formed connexions with the women of 
Asia. ' 

Epioonui, a mathematician of Ambra- 
* Epioranea, a fountain of BiBotia. 

Epii and £pEr, a people of Elis. 

EprLAKin, a daughter of Thespius. 

Epimklidis, the founder of Corone. 

EpiMEirSfl, a man who conspired against 
Alexander's life. 

EprMENiDEs. an epic poet of Crete, con- 
temporary with Solon. He is reckoned 
one of the seven wise men. 

Epimetheus. a son of Japetns and Cly- 
mene, one of tne Ocean ides, who incon- 
siderately married Pandora. Epimetheus 
was changed into a monkey by the gods, 
and sent to the island of Pithecusa. 

Epimethis, a patronymic of Pyrrha, the 
daughter of Epimetheus. 

Epiochus, a son of Lycurgus, who re- 
ceived divine honors in Arcadia. 

Bfigitx, the wife of JSsculapius. 

EpiPHAifBA, a town of Cilicia. An- 
other of Syria. 

Epiphanes, a surname given to the An- 

tiochus's, kings of Syria. A surname 

of one of the Ptolemies. 

Epiphanius, a bishop of Salamis, who 
' waa active in refuting the writings of Ori- 
gen. He died A D. 403. 

Epipolje, a district of Syracuse, on tbr 
north side, surrounded by a wall, by Di- 

EpfRus, a country situate between Ma- 
cedonia, i^haia, and the Ionian sea. 

Epistrophus, a son of Iphitus king of 
Phocis, who went to the Trojan war. 

Epitades, a man who first violated a 
law of Lycu/gus, which forbade laws to 
be made. 

Epium, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Epoif a, a beautiful girl. 

Epopeus, a son of ^'eptune and Canace^ 

• A grandson to Phoibas. He reigned 

at Corinth. 

Eporedorix, a powerful person amone 
the iEdui. 

Epulo, a Butulian killed b^ Achates, 

EprriDEs, a patronymic given to Perf' 
phas the companion of Ascanius. 

Epttcs, a kin| of Alba. A king of 

Arcadia. A king of Messenia. A 

herald In the Trojan war. 

EquAJusTA, a town of Thessaly. 

EquicoLvs, a Rutilian. 

EquiRiA, festivals establisbed at Rome 
in honor of Mars. 

EquoTUTicuM, now Ca3td fyaneOf a. 
little town of Apulia. 

Eracon, an officer of Alexander. 

Era: A, a city of Greece. 

Erara, a small village -of Cilicia. 

Erase NITS, a river of Peloponnesus. 

Erasippus, a son of Hercules and Ly« 


iRAsrsTRATus, a celebrated physician, 
grandson to the philosopher Aristotle. 

£rato, one of the Muse's, who presided 

over lyric, tender and amorous poetry. 

One of the Nereides. One of the Dry- 

ades, wife of Areas, king of Arcadia. 

One of the Danaides who married Bromius. 
A queen of the Armenians. 

Eratosthenes, was a native of Cyrene, 
and the second intrusted with the care or 
the Alexandrian library. He dedicated bis 
time to grammatical criticism and philos- 
ophy, but more particularly to poetir and 
mathematics. He starved himself after he 
had lived to his eighty-second year, B. Q. 

Eratostratus, an Ephesian who, in the 
hope of immortalizing his name, burnt 
the famous temple or Diana, the same 
night that Alexander the Great was born. 

Eratus, a son of Hercules and Dynaste. 
A king of Sicyon. 

Erbessus, a town of Sicily. 

EacnrA, a small village of Attica. 

Erebus, a deity of hell, eon of Cliao* 
and Darkness. 

Erechtheos, son of Pandion first, wbs 
the sixth king of Athens. After death h* 
received divine honors at Athens. He 
reigned fifty years, and died B. C. 1347. 

ERECHTHfDEs, a uamo given to tb* 
Attienians, from their kinf foechtbeua. 

Digitized by 


ER • 



Brsmbi, a people of Arabia. 

Bremcs, a country of iflthiopia. ' 

IBrensa, a village of Megara. 

Eressa, a town of MoliA, 

Erxsus, a town of Lesbos, where The- 
«phrastu8 was Irarn. 

Erxtri A, a city of Eubosa on the Euri- 

Eretum, a town of the Sabines. 

ERsuTHALion,aman killed by Nestor. 

Eroane, a river whose waters intoxi- 
cate as wine. A surname of Minerva. 

Ergenna, a celebrated soothsayer of 

Eroi A8, a Rbodian who wrote a liistory 
of his country. ^ 

ERGiifusy a king of Orchomenos, son of 
Clyaienus. He obliged the Thebans to 
pay him a yearly tribute of one hundred 
oxeojbecause his father had been killed 
by a Theban. Hercules attacked his ser- 
vants, who came to raise the tribute, and 
mutilated them, and he afterwards killed 

Erginus. A river of Thrace. A son 

of Neptune. 

ERGitrnus, a man made master of the 
sfaip Argo, after the death of Typhis. 

Ekibcea, a surname of Juno. The 

mother of Ajax Telamon. 

Eribotes, a man skilled in medicine, 

Ericeteb, a man of Lycaonia, killed 
by Messapus in Italy. 

Erichtho, a Thessalian woman famous 
for ber knowledge of poisonous herbs and 
medicine. ^One of the Furies. 

EaicHTHorfius, the fourth king of Ath- 
ens. He was very deformed, and had the 

tails of serpents instead of legs. Erich- 

thon was voung when he ascended the 
.throne of Athens. He reigned fifty years, 
and died B. C. 1437. He was made a con- 
stellation after (Jc&tb under the name of 
Bootes. A son of Dardanus who reign- 
ed in Troy, and died 1374 B. C. after a long 
reign of about seventy-five years. 

Ericinium, a town of Macedonia. 

EaictTSA, one of the Lipari isles, now 

Eridaitus, one of the largest rivers of 
Italy, now called the po. 

Erioone, a daughter of Icarlus. She 
was made a constellation, under the name 

of Virgo. A daughter of iEgisthus and 


Erioor EIU9, a name applied to the Dog- 

Eriooitus, a river of Thrace. A paint- 

Eriotui, one of Alexander's officers. 

Erillus, a philosopher of Carthage. 

ERiivosf, a river of Asia, near Parthia. 

Erinna, a poetess of Lesbos, intimate^ 
with Sappho. 

Eaiif iTTs, the Greek name of the Eume- 

des. The word signifies thefinry of the 

jnin^—A surname of^Ceres. 

E^iopis, a daughter of Medea 

Eriphaivis, a tireek woman famous tot 
her poetical compositions. • 

Eriphidas, a Lacedsemonian. who being 
sent to suppress a sedition at Heraclea, 
assembled the people, and beheaded five 
hundred of tlie ringleaders. 

Eriputle, a sister of Adrastus king of 
Argos, who married Amphiaraus. The 
treachery of Eriphyle compelled her hus- 
band to go to a war in wbich it was fore- 
told that he would perish \ but he charged 
his son Alcmaeon to murder his mother as 
soon as he was informed of his death. 
Amphiaraus perished in the expedition, 
and his death was no sooner known than 
bis last injunctions were obeyed. 

Eris, the goddess of discord among the 
Greeks. She is the same,as the Discordia 
of the Latins, , 

Erisicthon. a Thessalian, son of Tri- 
ops, who deriaed Ceres and cut down her 
groves. This impiety irritated the god- 
dess, who afSicted him with continual 

Erithus, a son of Actor, killed by Per- 

ERtxo, a Boman knight condemned for 
having whipped his son to death. 

Erochus, a town of Phocis. 

Eropus or yEaoFAS, a king of Macedo- 
nia. B. C. 692. 

Eros, a servant, of whom Antony de- 
raandeii a sword to kill himself. Eros 
produced the instrument, but instead of 
givin<; it to his master be killed himself in 

his presence. A comedian. A son 

of Chronos or Saturn, god of love. 

ER0STRATU9. Vid. Eratostratus. 

Erotia, a festival in honor of Eros the 
god of love. 

Errvca, a town of the Volsci in Italy. 

Erse, a daughter of Cecrops. 

Erxias, a man who wrote an history of 
Colophon. * 4f 

Ertalus, a Trojan chief, killed by Pa- 

Ertmas, a Trojan killed by Tumus. 

Ertbium, a town at the foot of mount 

Ertcixa, a surname of Venus fVom 
mount Eryx, where she had a temple. 

Ertmanthis, a surname of Callisto. 

Arcadia is also known by that name. 

Ertmanthus, a mountain, river, and 
town of Arcadia. 

ERrMN.E, a town of Thessaly. 

Ertmneus, a Peripatetic philosopher. 

Ertmus, a huntsman of Cyzicus. 

Ertthea, an island between Gades and 
Spain. A daughter of Geryon. 

Ertthiiti, a town of Paphlagonia. 

BRY-THR.f:, a town of Ionia, once the 
residence of a Sibyl.— —A town of Bobo- 

tia ope in Libya another inLo- 


Ertthrj:um mare, apart of the ocean 
on the coast of Arabia. 

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EtTTRRAfl, a son of Hercules. A s6n 

of Perseud and Andromeda. 

ERTTHRion, a son of ^thamas and The- 

Ertthros, a place of Latium. 

Ertx, a son of Butes and Venus, killed 

in combat, by Hercules. An Indian 

killed by his subjects for opposing Alexan- 
der. A mountain of Sicily now Otvii- 

ano near Drepanum. 

Ertxo, the mother of Battus, who art- 
fully killed the tyrant Learchus. 

EsERNus, a famous gladiator. 

EsquiLiiB and Esqu'iLiNDs mohs, one 
of the seven hills of Rome, which was 
joined to the city by king Tullus. 

EssEDONKs, a people of Asia. 

Essui, a people of Gaul. 

EsTi JEoTis, a district of Thessaly on the 
river Peneus. 

EsuLA, a town of Italy near Tibur. 

EsTiAiA, solemn sacrifices to Vesta. 

Etearchus, a king of Oaxus in Crete. 

Eteoclus andPoLYirrcEs, sons of CEdi- 

pus, who hated and killed each other. 

A Greek, the first who raised altars to the 

Eteoclus, one of the seven chiefs of 
the army of Adrastus, celebrated for his 
valor, disinterestedness and magnanimity. 
A son of Iphis. 

Eteocrkt^, an ancient people of Crete. 

^TEoKEs, a town of BcBotia. 

Eteoneus, an officer at the court of Me- 
- Eteonicus^ a Lacedaemonian general. 

Etesije, winds of a gentle and mild na- 
ture, very common Tor five or six weeks 
in spring and autumn. 

Ethalion, one of the Tyrrhene sailors, 
cbanged into dolphins for carrying away 

Etheleum, a river of Asia. 

Ethoda, a daughter of Amphion and 

Ethemon, a person killed at the mar- 
riage of Andromeda. 

Etia«, a daughter of iEneas. 

Etis, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Etrusci, the inhabitants of Etrurla. 

Etylus, the father of Theocles. 

EvADNE, a daughter of Iphis or Iphicles 
of Argos, who slighted the addresses of 
ApoUo, and married Capaneus one of the 
aeven chiefs who went against Thebes. 
-^^ — A daughter of Ne»ra. 

EvAGfis, a poet famous for his genius 
but not for his learning. 

Etaooras, a king of Cyprus, who re- 
took Salamis, which bad been taken from 
his father by the Persians. He was as- 
sassipated by an eunuch, 374 B. C. Eva- 
goras deserves to be commended for his 
sobriety, moderation, and magnanimity. 

A man of Ells who obUiined a prize at 

the Olympian games. A Spartan fa- 
mous lor bis services to the peppl($ of Eli?' 

EvAOORfi, one of the Nerei({ed< 

£tan, a surname of Bacchus^ 

EvAi«D£R,,ason of the prophetesi Car- 
mente, king of Arcadia. An accidental 
murder obliged him to leave his country, 
and he came to Italy. It is said that he 
first brought the Greek alphabet into Italy, 
and introduced there the worship of the 

Greek deities. A philosopher who floa- 

rished B. C. 215. 

EvANGELus, a Greek historian. A 

comic poet. 

Etangorides, a man of Elis, who wrote 
an account of all those who had obtained 
a prize at Olyrapia. 

EvANTHEs, a man who planted a colony 

in Lticania. A celebrated Greek poet. 

An historian of Miletus. A philo- 
sopher of Samos. 

EvARCHus, a nver of Asia Minor. 

Etas, a native of Phiygia, who accom- 
panied iEneas into Italy. 

Etax, an Arabian pnnce. 

Eubages, certain priests held in great 
veneration among the Gauls and Britona. 

EuBATAs, an athlete of Cyrene. 

EuBius, an obscene writer. 

EuBOEA, the largest island in the iEgean 
sea after Crete, now called JVegropont, It 
is separated from the continent of Boeotia 

by the narrow straits of the Euripus. 

One of the three daughters of the river 
Asterion. A town of Sicily. 

EuBoicus, belonging to Euboea. 

EuBOTE, a aaughter of Thespius. 

EuBOTEs, a son of Hercules. 

EuBULE, an Athenian virgin, daughter 
of Leon, sacrificed with her sisters, by 
order of the oracle of Delphi. 

EuBULiDEs, a philosopher of Miletus. 

An historian. A fkmous statuary 

of Athens. 

EuBULus, an Athenian orator.-— ^A 
comic poet. An historian. A philo- 

EucfiRns,^man of Alexandria. 

EucHEiroR, a son of iEgyptus and Ara- 

Euc^iDBs, an Athenian who went to 
Delphi and returned the same day. a jour- 
ney of about one hundred and seven 

EucLiDEs, a native of Megara, disciple 
of Socrates, B. C. 404. A mathemati- 
cian of Alexandria, who flourished 300 
B. C. Euclid established a school at Al- 
exandria, which became very famous. 

EucLus, a prophet of Cyprus. 

EucRATE, one of the Nereides. 

EucRATEs, the father of Procles the his- 

EucTEMoN, a Greek of Cnro>e, exposed 
to great barbarities An astronomer. 

EucTBEsii, a people of Peloponnesus. 

EuDJEMON, a general of Al^^xander. 

EuDAMiDAs, a son of Archidaraus 4th, 
brother to Agls 4Uu— — A 9Q<) qC Archlda- 

Digitized by 





aas, king of Sparta. Tbe 'commander 

4)f a garrison stationed at Troezene. 

EuDAMus, a son of^Agesilaua of the 
Heraclid». A learned naturalist. 

EuDEMus, the physician of Livm, the 
wife of Drusus. An opitorof Megalopo- 
lis. An historian of Xaxos. 

EuDoci A^ the wife of the emperor The- 
odosius the younger. 

EuDociMns, a man who appeased a mu- 
tiny among some soldiers by telling thenl 
that an hostile army was in sight. 

EuooKA, one of the Nereides.— ——One 
of the Atlantides. 

EuDORus, a son of Mercury.' 

EuDoxi 'Specula, a place in Egypt. 

EoDoziA, the wife of Arcadius. A 

daughter of Tbeodosius the younger. 

fiuDoxus, a son of iCschines of Cnidus, 
who distinguished himself by his know- 
ledge of astrology, medicine, and geome- 
try. He died in his fifty -third year, B. C. 
35r2. A native of Cyzicus. A Si- 
cilian , son of Agathocles. A physi- 

EvsLTHOif, a king of Salamis in Cy- 
prus. V 

EuxMSRiDAs, an historian of Cnidus. 

EvEMBRua, an ancient historian of Mes- 
senia, intimate with Cassander. 

EvEifoR, a painter, father of Parrhasius. 

Erxivusj an elegiac poet of Paros. A 

nver running through iEtoIia, and falling 

into the Ionian sea. A son of Jason 

and Hypsipyle, queen of Leranos. 

Etephenus, a Pythagorean philosopher, 
whom Dionysius condemned to death be- 
cause he bad alienated the people of Me- 
tapontura firom his power. 

Eterss, a son of Peteralaus, the only 
one of bis family who did not perish in a 
battle against Electryon. A son of Her- 
cules and Parthenope. The fhther of 


Eteroktjb^ a people of Scythia called 
also Arimaspi. 

Etkroxtss, a Bomame signifying ben»- 
fattoTy given to Philip of Macedonia, and 
to AntlgaviaB Doson, and Ptolemy of 
Egypt. It was also commonly given to 
^ tbe kings of Syria and Pontus, and to some 
of the Roman emperors. 

Etbspsrides, a people of Africa. 

EuoAif SI, a people of Italy on the bor- 
ders of tbe Adriatic. 

EuGEoiv, an ancient historian before the 
Peloponnesian war. 

EuGxitius, an usurper of the imperial 
tHle, A. D. 393. 

EuHXMXRUs. Fid. Evemerus. ^ 

EuHTDROM, a town of Thessaly. 

EuHTUs and £yin«, a surname 6f Bac- 

Eripps, one of the Danaides, An- 
other. The mother of the Pibrides. 

Eripptra, a son of Thestius, killed by 
bii brother Iphiclus, in tbe chase of the 

Calydofllan boar A Trojan killed by 


EuLiMENE, one of the Nereides. 

EiHjACHius, a Campjinian who wrote 
an history of Annibal. 

EuM.«:u9, a herdsman and steward of 

EUMEDES, a Trojan, who came to Italy 
with iEneas. 

£uM£Li9, a famous augur. 

luHELus, a son of Admetus, king of 
Pherae in Thessaly. He went to the Tro- 
jan war,^and had the fleetest hordes in 

the Grecian army. A man whose 

daughter was changed into a bird. A 

man contemporary with Trlpt(Uemus. 

One of the followers of ^Eneas. One 

of the Bacchiadffi. A king of tiie Cim'- 

merian Bo^phorus, who died B.C. 304. 

EuME.vEs, a Greek ofiicer in the army 
of Alexander, son of a charioteer. He 
was the most worthy of all tbe officers of 
Alexander to succeed after the death of 
his master. He conquered Paphlagonia. 
and Cappadocia, of which he obtained tber 
government, till the power and Jealousy 
of Antigonus obliged him to retire. Ha 
was put to death by Antigonus, B. C. 315. 

Asking of Pergamus, B. C. 263. Ho 

was a great patron of learning, and given > 
much to wine. He died after a reign of 

twenty-two years. The second of that 

name succeeded his father Attains on the 
throne of Asia and Pergamus. His king- 
dom was small and poor, but he rendered 
it powerful and opulent, and his alliance 
with the Romans did not a little contri- 
bute to the increase of his dominions. He 
died B. C. 159, after a reign of thirty-eight 

years. A celebrated orator of Athens. 

An historical writer in Alexander.ti 


EuHsiriA, a city of Phfj'gia. A cfty 

of Thrace— of Carla — of Hyrcania. 

EuMENiDEs and Bumenes, a man men- 
tioned by Ovid. 

EuMENiDEs, {^name given to the Furies 
by the ancients.* They sprang from the 
drops of blood which flowed from the 
wound which Coelus received fh)m his 
son Saturn. They were supposed to be 
the ministers of the vengeance of the gods, 
and therefore appeared stem and inexora- 
ble ; always employed in punishili^ the 
guilty upon earth, as well as in the infer- 
nal regions. 

EuMENiDiA, festivals in honor of the 

EuMEMius, a Trojan killed by Camilla 
in Italy. 

EuMOLPx, one of the Nereides. 

EuMOLFiD£, the priests of Ceres at the 
celebration of her festivals of Eleusis. 
The Eumolpids were descended from 
Eumolpus, a king of Thrace, who was 
made priest of Ceres by Erechtheus king 
of Athena. The priesthood continued in 

Digitized by 




. EU 

the family of Eumolpus for one thousand 
two hundred years. 

EuMoLrus, a king of Thrace, son of 
Neptune and Chione. 
£uMoiviDE», a Theban. 
EuMiEUB, a son of Jason by Hypsipyle, 
daughter of Thoas. 

EeivAPius, a physician, sophist, and his- 
torian, hern at Sard is. 

EuiroMiA, a daughter of Juno, one of 
the Hore. 

EuffoMvs, a son of Prytanes, who suc- 
ceeded his father on the throne of Sparta. 

A famous musician of Locris. A 

man liiHed by Hercules. A Thracian, 

who advised Demosthenes not to be dis- 
couraged by his ill success in h^^ first at- 
tempts to speak in public. The father 

of Lycurgus killed by a kitchen knife. 

EuNDs, a Syrian slave, who inflamed the 
minds of the servile multitude by pretend- 
ed inspiration and enthusiasm. Oppres- 
sion and misery compelled two thousand 
slaves to join his cause, and he soon saw 
himself at the head of fifty thousand men. 
With such a force he defeated the Roman 
armies, till Perpenna k)bliged him to sur- 
render by famine, and exposed on a cross 
the greatest part of his rollowers 3 B. C. 
EuoiTTMos, one of the Ltpari isles. 
EuoRAs, a grove of Laconia. 
EuPAGiuM, a town of Peloponnesus. 
EuPALAMoif, one of the hunters of the 
Calydonian boar. 

EcpALAMus, the fhther of Dsdalus and 
of Metiadusa. 

EuPATOR, a son of Antiochus. ^The 

surname of £upator was given to many of 
the Asiatic princes. 

EuPAToaiA, a town of Paphlagonia. 

Another in Pontus, now Tehentkek. 

f!uPEiTH£s, a prince of Ithaca, father to 

EuPHAxs, succeeded Androcles on the 
throne of Messenia, and died B. C. 730. 

EupKANTus, a poet and historian of 

EuPHEMK, a woman who was nurse to 
the Muses. 

EuPHEMus, a son of Neptune and Euro- 
pa, so swift and light that %e could run 
over the sea without scarce wetting his 

feet. One of the Greek captains before 


EuPHORBUs, a famous Trojan, the first 
who wounded Patroclus, whom Hector 

killed. A physician of Juba, king of 

Mauritania. , 

EtTPHORioir, a Greek poet of Chalcis in 
£u))aa, in the age of Antiochus the Great. 
He Aied in his fifty-sixth year, B. C. ^0. 
— -^The fa^Hnv of iEschylus bore the same 
name. ^ 

EuPHRANOR, a ftmcKis painter and sculp- 
tor of Corinth. This name was common 
to many Greeks. 

Euphrates, a ^isciple of Plato wlio 
governed Macedonia with absolute author- 

ity in the reign of Perdiccae.-. A stoic 

philosopher in the aee of Adrian. A 

large and celebrated river of Mesopota.- 

EuPHRON, an aspiring man of Sicyon. 
, EupHRosTNA^ one of the Graces. 
EuPLJEA, an island of the Tyrrhene sea. 
EupoL.18, a comic poet of Athens, who 
flourished four hundred and thirty-fivo 
years before the Christian era. 
EupoMPUB, a geometrician of Mace4l(%- 

nia. A painter. 

EuRiANAssA, a town near Chios. 
EuRiPiDEB, a celebrated tragic poet bomt 
at Salamis the day on which the army of 
Xerxes was defeated by the Greeks. He^ 
applied himself to dramatical com position ,. 
and his writings became so much the ad- 
miration of his countrymen, that the un- 
fortunate Greeks, who had accompanied 
Nicias in his expedition against Syracuse, 
were freed from slavery, only by repeating 
some verses from the pieces of Euripides. 
Euripides retired from Athens to the court 
of Archelaus king of Macedonia, where 
he received the most conspicuous marks, 
of royal munificence and friendship. It 
is said that the dogs of Archelaus met hint 
in his solitary walks, and tore his body to 
pieces four hundred and seven years be- 
fore the christian era, in the seventy- 
eighth year of his age. Euripides wrote 
seventy-five tragedies, of which only 
nineteen are extant. In his person he 
was noble and majestic, and his deport- 
ment was always grave and serious. He 
was slow in composing, and labored with 
difficulty. . 

EuRiPus, a narrow strait which sepa- 
rates the island of Eubcea from the coast 
of BoBotia. 
EuRisTHENEs. Vid. Eurysthcnes. 
EuROMus, a city of Cariiu 
Euro PA, one of the three grand divi- 
sions of the earth, kpown among the an- 
cients, extending, according to modem 
surveys, about three thousand miles from 
north to south, and twenty-five hundred 
from east to west. It is supposed to re- 
ceive its name from Europa, who was car- 
ried there by Jupiter. A daughter of 

Agenor king of Phoenicia, and Telephassa. 
She was so beautiful that Jupiterbecame 
enamored of her, and assumed the shape 
of a bull and mingled with the herds of 
Agenor, while Europa, with her female 
attendants, was gathering flowers in the 
meadows. Europa caressed the beautifbl 
animal, and at last had the courage to 6it 
upon his back. The god precipitatelv re- 
tired towards the shore, and crossed the 
sea with Europa on his back, and arrived 

safe in Crete. One of the Oceanides. 

A part of Thrace near mount Haemus. 

Eurofacb, a patronymic of Mhoios. 

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EuKopt, a king of Sieyon. 

EuROPus, a ^ing of Macedonia.^^-^A 
town of Macedonia. 

EuKOTAs, a son of Lelex, father to 
Sparta, who married Lacedcmon.— ^A 
river of Laconia, flowing by Sparta. Laa> 
rels. reeds, myrtles, and olives grew on its 

banks in great abundance. A river in 

Tiiesaaly near mount Olympus. 

£uaoTO,a daughter of Danaus by Polyzo. 

£uRu», a wind blowing from the < 

parts of the world. 

EuarA!.!. a queen of the Amazons. 

•^— A daughter of Minos. A dauebter 

of ProBttts, king of Argos. One of the 


EuRTALus, one of the Peloponnesian 

chiofa who went to the Trojan war. 

An illegitimate son of Ulysses. A son 

4>f Melas, taken prisoner by Hercules. 

A Trojan who came with iEneas into 

Italy. A pleasant place of SicUy near 

Syracuse. A Lacedaemonian general. 

EoRTSATRs, a herald in the Trojan war. 
■^—^A warrior of Argos, often victorious 
at th« Nemean games. One of the Ar- 

£uRTBi4, the mother of Lucifer and all 

tbe stars A daughter of Pontus and 

Tarra. — -A daughter of Thespius. 

EcRTBiADEs, a Spartan general. He 
has been charged with want of courage, 
and with ambition. 

Edrtbiuh, a son of Eurytus king of 
Argoa.-^-^A son of Nereus and Ghloris. 

EuarcLSA, a beautiful daughter of Ops 
of Itbaca. 

EuaroLss, an orator of Syracuse. A 

soothsayer of Athens. 

EuRTCRATEs, R king of Sparta. 

EuRTCRATiDAs, a SOU of Anazander. 

EuRrDAKASj'aTrojan skilled in the in- 
terpretation of dreams. One of Pe- 
nelope's suitors.— —A wrestler of Gyrene. 

EuRTDAHB, the wife of Leotychides, 
king of Sparta. 

EuRTDAMiDAt, R king of Lacedemon, 
of the flunily of the Proclidc. 

EuRToiCB, the wife of Amyntas. king 
ol*Macedonia.^-^A daughter 'of Amyn- 
tas, who married her uncle Arideus, the 
illecitimate son of Philip. She hungher- 

■elf by the order of Olympias The 

wife of the poet Orpheus. Fid, Orpheus. 

—A daughter of Adrastus. ^One of 

the Danaides who married Dyas. ^The 

wife of Lycurgus, king of Nemna in Pe- 

EuaroAiviA, a wife of CEdipus. 

EmiruBOfr, a king of the Latins. 

EuRTi.ocHus,one of the companions of 
Ulysses, the only one who did not taste 

the potions of Circe. A man who broke 

a conduit which conveyed water into Cyrr- 
he. A man who discovered the con- 
spiracy which was made against Alexan- 
der, by Hermolaus and others. 

EuRTUACHUJ, a poweifhl Theban 

One of Penelope's suitors. 

EuRTM SDE, the wife of Glaucus kitg of 

EuRTMEDON, the father of Peribcea, by 

whom Neptune had Nausitheus. A 

river of Pampbylia. 

EuRTMEHEs, aton of Neleus and Chio* 

EcRTNOME, one of the Oceanides. A 

daughter of Apollo. A woman of Lem- . 

nos. The wife of Lycurgus. The 

mother of Asopus by Jupiter. 

EuRFNOMUs, one of the deities of hell. 

EuRYoME, a daughter of Amyntas king 
of Macedonia. 

EuRTPOTT, a celebrated king of Sparta. 

EuRTpYLE, a daughter of Thespius. 

EuRTPYLus, a son of Telephus and As- 

tyoche. A Grecian at the Trojan war. 

A prince of Olenus. — ^A son of Te- 

menus king of Messenia who conspired 

against his father's life. A soothsayer 

in the Grecian camp before Troy. 

EuRYSTHENEs, a SOU of Aflstodemus, 
who lived in perpetual dissention with his 
twin brother Procles, while they both sat 
on the Spartan throne. After the death 
of the two brothers, the Lacedemonians 
permitted two kings to sit on the thruYie, 
one of each fhmily. There sat on the 
throne of Sparta thirty-one kings of the 
family of Eurysthenes, and only twenty- 
four of the Proclidoe. 

EuRYsxHEus, the son of Sthenelus, 
and king of Mycens; who, at Juno's in- 
stigation, set his brother Hercules twelve 
difficult labors. 

EuRYTE, a daughter of Hippodamus. 

The mother of Hallirhotius. 

EuRYTBJE, a town of Achaia. 

EuRYTELB, a daughter of Thespius. 

EuRYTHEMia, the wife of Thestius. 

EuRYTHioiv and Eurytion, a centaur 
whose insolence to Hippodamia was the 
cause of the quarrel between the Lapithe 
and Centaurs, at the nuptials of Pirithous. 
A herdsman of Geryon killed by Her- 
cules. A son of Lycaon. A silver- 
smith. ^A man of Heraclea convicted 

of adultery. 

' EoRYTis, a patronyinic of lole. 

Eurytus, a son of Mercury, among the 

Argonauts. A king of (Echalia, father 

to lole. Hercules conquered him, and put 
him to death because he rerased him liis 
daughter as the prize of his victory.-^*— A 

son of Actor. A son of Augias killed 

by Hercules.— ——A person killed in hunt- 
ing the Calydonian boar. A son of 

EusBBiA, an empress, wife to Constaa- 

BusEBius, a bishop of Caesarea. 

EusEBiua, a surname of Bacchus. 

EuiEPus and Pedasui, the twin sons of 
Bttcolion killed in the Trojan war. 

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EusTATHius, a Greek commentator on 

the works of Homer. A man who wrote 

a very fooliih romance in Greek. 

EuT^A) a town of Arcadia. 

EutEMDAs, a famous statuary of Argos. 
I EuTsaPE, one of the Muses, daughter 
to Jupiter and Mnemosyne. She presided 
over music, and was looked upon as the 
inventress of the Hute and of all wind in- 
struments. The name of the mother of 


EuTHTCRATEs, E sculptor of Sicyou, son 
of Lysippus. He was peculiarly happy in 

the proportions of his statues. A man 

who betrayed Olynthus to Philip. 

EcTHVDEMUs, an orator and rhetorician. 

EuTHTtaus, a celebrated boxer. 

EuTRAPELus, a nian described as artful 

and fallacious by Horace, A hair-dres- 


Edtrapelus, a friend of M. Antony. 

EuTROPica, a Latin historian in the age 
of Julian, under whom he carried arms. 

Edtvchide, a woman who was thirty 
times brought to bed. 

EuTTcniDES, a learned servant of Attl« 
cus. A sculptor. , 

EiTXANTHius, a daughter of Minos and 

EvxEifiDAS, a painter. 

EuxEircs, a man who wrote a poetical 
history of the fabulous ages of Italy. 

EuxiNus PoNTus, a sea between Asiak 
and Europe, partly at the north of Asia 
Minor and at the west of Colchis. It 
abounds in all varieties of fish, and re- 
ceives the tribute of above forty rivers. Iti 
is called the BUuk sea, from the thick dark 
fogs which cover it. 

EuxippE, a woman who killed herself' 
because the ambassadors of Sparta had> 
offered violence to hep- virtue. 

Ex AD I us, one of the Lapithae at the nup- 
tials of Pirithous. 

ExjETHEs, a Parthian who cut off the 
head of Crassus. 

ExAooNus, the ambassador of a nation 
in Cyprus to Rome. 

ExoMATRjE, a people of Asiatic Sanna- 
, tia. 


FAB ARIA, festivals at Romft in hon- 
or of Cftrmt wife of Janus. 

Fabaris, now Farfa^ a river of Italy. 

Fabia Lex, «fo ambitn^ was to circum- 
scribe the number of Sectatmrea or attend- 
ants which^were allowed to candidates in 
canvassing for some high otiicc. 

Fakia, a tribe at Rome. A ves- 
tal virgin, sister to Terentia, Cicero's 

Fabiani, some of the Luperci at Rome. 

Fabii, a noble and powerful family at 
Rome, who were once so numerous that 
they took upon themselves to wage war 
against the Veientes. They came to a 
general engagement near the Cremera, in 
which all the family, consisting of three 
hundred and six men, were totally slain, 
B. C. 477. There only remained one 
wboBe tender age had detained him at 
Rome, and from him arose the noble Fabii 
in the following ages. 

Pabius Maxlmus RuUianus was the first 
of the Fabii who obtained the surname of 
J\Saximu8^ for lessening the power of the 
populace at elections. He was five times 
consul, twice dictator, and once censor. 
Rusticus, an historian in the age of 
Claudius and Nero. He was Intilnate 

with Seneca. Marcellinus, a historian 

in the second century. Q.. Mazimus, a 

celebrated Roman, first surnamed Verrv^ 
C9siig A-om a wart on his lip, and Aanicula 
from his inoffensive manners. In nis first 


consulship, he obtained a victory over Li- 
guria,and the fatal battle of Thrasymenas 
occasioned his election to the dictatorship. 
In this important office he began to op- 
pose Annibal, by harassing his army by 
countermarches and ambuscades, for 
which he received the surname of Cunc- 
tator or delayer. Such operations for the 
commander of the Roman armies, gave 
offence to some, and Fabiua was even ac- 
cused of cowardice. He died in the one 
hundredth year of his age, after he had 
been five times consul, and twice honored 
with a triumph. The Romans were so 
sensible of his great merit and services, 
that the expenses of his funeral were de- 
frayed from the public treasury. His 

son bore the same name, and showed him- 
self worthy of his noble father's vutues. 

Pictor, the first Roman who wrote an 

historical account of his country, ^om the 
age of Romulus to the year of Rdme five 

hundred and thirty-six. A loquacious 

person mentioned by Horace. A Roman 

consul, surnamed Ambustus, because be 
was struck with lightning. A lieuten- 
ant of Cesar in Gaul A chief priest at 

Rome when Brennus took the city. A 

Roman sent to consult th§ oracle of Del- 
phi, while Annibal was in Italy. An- 
other chosen dictator merely to create new 

Fabratxria, a colony and town of the 

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PAftAieiu«, a latin writer in the reign 
of Nero, who employed his pen in satiriz- 
ing and defaming the senators. — ■ — Caius 
Luscinus, a celebrated Roman who, in 
his first consulship obtained several victo- 
ries over the Bamnites and Lucanians, 
and was honored with a triumph. The 
riches which were acquired in those bat- 
tles were immense, the soldiers were lib- 
erally rewar,ded by the consul, and the 
treasuiy was enriched with 400 talents. 
Fabricius never used rich plate at his 
table : a small salt cellar, whose feet were 
of ham, was the only silver vessel which 
appeared in his house. He lived and died 

in the greatest poverty. A bridge at 


Fabulla, an infamous woman. 

FACsLiif A, a small place on the north of 

Faous, a Rutilian killed in the night by 

F jBsuLJE, a town of Etrarja. 

Faixsidia LSI was enacRd by the tri- 
bune Falcidius^ A. U. C. 713, concexning 
wills and the right of heirs. 

Falskia, a town of Picen^tn. 

Falxrii, now Palari, a town ofEtniria. 

Falsri it a, a tribe at Rome. 

Falxrnus, a fertile mountain and plain 
of Cannpania, famous for its wine. 

Fai^isci, a people of Etroria, originally a 
Macedonian colony. 

Fama, was worshipped by the ancients 
as a powerful goddess, and generally re- 
presented blowmg a trumpet. 

Fajvuia, a woman of Minturna; who 
hospitably entertained Marius in his lli^t. 

Faitnia lex, de SumptibuSy by Fannius 
the consul, A. U. G. 593. 

Far 1*1 1, two oiators of whom Cicero 

FAiTirius, an inferior poet ridiculed by 
Horace.— —Caius, an author in Trajan's 

Faitum VACUNiB, a ▼illage in the coun- 
try of the Sabines. 

Farfarus, a river of the Sabines. 

Fascelis, a surname of Diana. 

Fascblliiva, a town of Sicily near Pan- 

Faitcula, a woman who privately con- 
veyed food to the Roman prisoners at 
Faventia, a town of Spain— of Italy. 

Favbria, a town of Istria. 
\ Faula, a mistress of Hercules. 

Fauna, a deity among the Romans, 
daughter dt Ficus, and originally called 

FAUffALi A, festivals at Rome in honor 
of Faunus. 

Fauri, certain deities of the country, 
represented as having the legs, feet, and 
ears of goats, a^d the rest of the body hu- 
man. They VMB called satyrt by the 

FAunos, a son of Picus,, who is said to 
have reigned in Italy about 1300 years B. 
C. His bravery as well as wisdom have 
given rise to the tradition that he was son 
of Mars. 

Favo, a Rbman mimic. 

Fatorirus, a philosopher under Adrian. 

Fausta, a daughter of Sylla. ^The 

wife of the emperor Constaiuine. 

Faustira, the wife of the emperor An- 
toninus, famous for her debaucheries. Her 
daughter, of the same name, became the 

most abandoned of her sex. The third 

wife of the emperor, Heliogabalus. 

Faustitas, a goddess among the Bo- 
mans supposed to preside over cattle. 

Faustulus, a shepherd ordered to ex- 
pose RcHnulus and Remus. He privately 
brought them up at home. 

Fau9tu») an obscure poet under the first 
Roman emperors. 

Februus, a god at Rome, who presided 
over purifications. The Feralia, sacri- 
fices which the Romans offered to the gods 
Manes, were called Februa. 

Feciales, a number of priests at Rome, 
employed in declaring war and making 

Felgiras, a Roman knight UHed by 

Felix, M. Artorius, a freed man of 
Claudius Ciesar, ihade governor of Judea, 
Samaria, and Palestine. 

FELTRfA, a town of Italy. 

Ferestella, a Roman hlitorian in the 

age of Augustus. One of the gates at 


Ferri or Firri, the inhabitants of Fin- 
ningia, or Eningia, considered as Finland. 

Feralia, a festival in honor of the dead, 
observed at Rome the seventeenth or 
twenty-first of February. It continued 
for eleven days, during which time pre- 
sents were carried to the graves of the de- 
ceased, marriages were forbidden, and 
the temples of the gods were shut. 

FerertiruiT, a town of the Hemici, at 
the east of Rome. 

Ferertum, or Forbrtuh, a town of 

FsRETRius, a surname of Jupiter, af&- 
rmdOf because he had assisted the Ro- 
mans, or a feriendo, because he had con- 
quered their enemies under Romulus. 

Ferijb Latin iE, fbstlvals at Rome in- 
stituted by Tarquin the Proud. The 
principal magistrates of fbrty-seven towns 
m Latium usually assembled on a mount 
near Rome, where they altogether -with 
the Roman magistrates offered a bull to 
Jupiter Latialis, of which they carried 
home some part after the immolation, af- 
ter they had sworn mutual friendship and 
alliance. It continued bnt one day origin- 
ally, but in process of time four days were 
dedicated to its celebration. The feria 
among the' Romans were certain days set 

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apart to telebrate festivals, And during 
that time it was unlawful fur any person 
to work. They were either jpublie or pri- 
vate. The public were of four different 
kinds. The /erus mrivaUg were observed 
only ia families, n commemoration of 
birtb days, marriages, funerals, and the 

FEaoniA, a goddess at Rome, who pre- 
sided over the wolds and aroves. 

FxacENNiA, a town 6f Etruria, now 

f^tmufty or Fjbsulje, a town of Etruria. 

FasTtrt, a IHend of Domitian. Porci- 

Qs, a proconsul who succeeded Felix as 
governor of Judea, under Claudius. 

FiBUBims, a river of Italy. 

FiCAH A, a town of Latium. 

FicAKiA, a small island on the east of 

FicuLBA, or FicuLRXA, a town of La- 
tium. % 

FiDKHA, an inland town of Latium, 
whose inhabitants are called Fidenates. 

FioEHTiA, a town of Gaul on tbe south 

Fides, the goddess of faith, oaths, and 
honesty, worshipped by the Romans. 

FioitnTLJE, a ]dace of Italy. 

Fioius Dius, a divinity by whom the 
Romans generally swore. Some suppose 
bim to be Hercules. 

Fimbria, a Roman officer who besieged 
Mithridates in Pritane. He was deserted 
by his troops for his cruelty, upon which 
he killed himself. 

FiBMuM, now FerntOf a town of Pice- 
num on the Adriatic. 

M. FiRMius, a powerftil native of Se- 
leucia, who proclaimed himself emperor, 
and was at last conquered by Aurelian. 

Fisc£, a part of the Apennine 
mountains in Umbria. 

Flacilla AiTToiriA,aRoman matron in 
Nero'« agOi 

Flaccus, a consul wbomaithed against 
6ylla, and was assassinated by Fimbria. 

A poet. A governor of Egypt who 

died A. D. 39. 

FLAciLLAiGLiA, the mother of Arcadi- 
us and Honorius. 

Flamixia Lex agrariay by C. Flaml- 
nius, the tribune, A. U. C. 525. 

FLAMT4NIA VIA, a celebrated road which 
led from Rome to Aciminum and Aqui- 
leia A gate of Rome. 

C. Flaminius, a Roman consul of a 
turbulent disposition, who was drawn 
into a battle near the lake of Thrasyme- 
nus, by the artifice of Annibal. He was 
killed in the engagement, with an im- 
mense number of Ronftins, B. C. 317. 

T. Q.. Flamikius, or Flamiwiwcs, a cel- 
ebrated Roman raised to the consulship, 
A. U. C. 556. He was trained in the art He was sent at 
the head of the Roman troops against 

Fhilip, king of Macedonia, and in his ex- 
pedition he met -with uncommon success, 
and received the name of father and de- 
liverer of Greece. Flaininius was found 
dead in his bed, after a life spent in the 
greatest glory, in wliich he had imitated 
\jl\ih success the virtues of his model 
Scipid. Lucius, the brother of the pre- 
ceding, signalized himself in the wars of 
Greece. Calp. Flamma, a tribune. 

Flanaticus sinus, a bay of the Flana- 
t6s,in Liburnia. 

Flatia lsx agratia. by L. Flavius, A. 
U. C. 693. ^ 

FlaviaKuk, a town of Etruria. 

Flatinia, a town of Latium. 

Flatids, a senator who conspired with 

Piso against Nero. A tribune of the 

people deposed by J. Cssar. A Roman 

who ^informed Gracchus of the violent 
measures of the senate against bim. 

Fletus, the rights branch of tlie Rhine, 
which- formed a large lake on its filing 
into the sea, called FUnOj now Zvider-Zee. 

Flora, the goddess of^ flowers and gar- 
dens among the Romans, the same as the 
Chloris of the Greeks. She was repre- 
sentcfd as crowned with flowers, and hold- 
ing in her hand the horn of plenty. A 

celebrated woman passionately loved by 
Pompey the Great. 

Floralia, games, in honor of Flora at 
Rome. They were observed yearly, and 
exhibited a scene of the most unbounded 
licentiousness. ' 

Florxatia, a town of Italyj now Flor- 

Florianub, a man who wore the impe- 
rial purple at Some only for two month!, 

FloruIb, L. AnncuB Julius, a Latin his- 
torian of the same family which produced 

Seneca and Lucan, A. D. 116. Julius, 

a friend of Horace. 

Flu ONI A, a surname of Juno Lucina. 

Folia, a woman of Ariminum, famous 
for hei-knowledge of poisonous herbs. 

FoNs SoLis, a fountain in the province 
of Cyrene, cool at mid-day and warm at 
the rising and setting of the sun. 

FoNTAWus, a poet. 

FoNTEiA, a vestal virgin. 

FoNTEius Capito, au intimate friend 
of Horace. A Roman who raised com- 
motions in Oerraany afler the death of 
Nero. A man who conducted Cleopa- 
tra into Syria by order of Antony., a maritime town of Campania 
at the south east of Gaieta. 

FoRMiANUM, a villa of Cicero, near 
which the orator was assassinated. 

FcRMio, now Bisanoy a river of Istria. 

Fornax, a goddess at Home, who pre- 
sided over the baking of bread. 

Ford Appii, a people of Italy, whose 
capital was railed Forum Appi. 

FoRTUNA, a powerful deity amottf tho 

Digitized iDyVjOOQl 




aocientfl, daashter of Oceanns. She wu 
the goddess of fortune, and from ber hand 
were derived riches and poverty, pleas- 
ures and misfortunes, blessings and pains. 
She was worshipped in different parts of 
Greece, and in Achaia her statue held the 
horn of plenty in one hand, and had a 
winged cupid at its feet. Her most famous 
temple in Italy was at Antiura, in Latium, 
where presents and ofierings were regu- 
larly sent from every part of the country. 

FoRTUXAT.B inguLJE, Islands at the 
west of Mauritania in the Atlantic sea. 
They are supposed the Canary isles 
of the moderns, and were represented as 
the seats of the blessed, where the souls 
of the virtuous were placed after death. . 

FoRULi, a town of the Sabines built on 
a stony place. ^ 

Forum — appii, a town of Latium on 

the Appia via. Augustum, a place at 

Rome. Allien!, a town of Italy, now 

Ferrara. Many places bore -the name of 
Forum wherever there was a public mar- 
ket, or rather where the prxtor held his 
court of justice. 

Fosi, a people of Germany near the 

Fossa, the straits of Bonifaeio between 

Corsica and Sardinia. Drusi or Dnisi- 

ana, a canal, opened by Drusus from the 

I Rhine to the Issel. Mariana, a ca- 

' nal cut by Marius from the Rhone to Mar- 
' seilles. 

Fossx PHIL.8ITIITJ, one of the moutlis 
of the Po. 

Franc I , a people of Germany ifhd Oaul, 
whose country was called Francia. 

Fraus, a divinity worshipped among the 
Romans, daughter of Orcus and Night. 

FaEoxu.A, a fiuaous town of the Vol- 


Freoxhjc, a town of Etniria. 

Frxntahi, a people of Italy, near Apu- 

Fretum, (the sea) is sometimes applied 
by eminence to the Sicilian sea, or the 
straits of Messina. 

Frigidus, a river of Tuscany. 

Frisii, a people of Germany near the 

Sex. Jin*. Prontiwus. a celebrated ge- 
ometrician, who made himself known by 
the books he wrote on stratagems and 
aqueducts, dedicated to Tiiitn. 

Pronto, a preceptor of M. Antoniniu, 
by whom he was veatly esteemed. 

Julius, a learned Roman, who delighted 
in the company of poets. 

pRusiNo, a small town of the Volsci. 

Pucimrs, a lake of Italy in the country 
of the Marsi, at the north of the Liris, 
attempted to be drained by J. Cssar and 
afterwards by Claudius, but with no suc- 
cess. The lake surrounded by a ridge of 
high mountains is now called QeUaw*. 

Furu»iu«| a wretched usurer. 

Purius OcMiNus, a man greatly promo- 
ted by the interest of Livia. 

FuoAjLiA, festivals at Rome to celebnte 
the flight of tbe-Tarquins. 
PuLoi NATES, a people of Umbria. 
Q,. FU1.0INUS, a brave officer in.Cfe8ar'8 

PuLGORA. a goddess at Rome who pre* 
sided over lightning. 

Fullinum and Fulcu Vubc, a small town 
of Umbria. 

PuLviA LEX was proposed but rejected 
A. U. C. (>a8, by Flaccus FuhriiM. It 
tended to make all the people of Italy cit< 
izens of Rome. 

FuLTiA, a bold and ambitious woman 
who married the tribune Cl<yliu8, and 
afterwards Curio, and at last M. Antong^* 
She took a part in all the intrigues of her 
husband's triumvirate and showed herself 
cruel as well as revengeful. Antony di> 
vorced her to m^rry Cleopatra, and after 
ineffectual attempts at revenge, she died 
forty years before the Christian era. 
A woman who discovered to Cicero the 
designs of Catiline upon his life. 
FuLvius, a Roman senator, intimate 

with Augustus. A friend of C. Grac> 

chus who was killed in a sedition with 

his son. Flaccus Censor, a Roman who 

plundered a marble temple ctf Juno, to 
finish the building of one which he had 

erected to Fortune. Ser. Nobllior. a 

Roman consul who went to Africa after 
the defeat of Regulus. After he had ac- 
quired much glory against the Carthagi- 
nians, he was shipwrecked at his return 
with two hundred, Roman ships. 
FuNDANUs, a lake near Fundi In Italy. 
FuNoi, a town of Italy near Caieta. 
FuRii, a family which migrated from 
MeduUia in Latium and came to settle at 
Rome undar Romulus. 

FuRiA LEX de TeatamentiSf by C. Furiuar 
the tribune. It forbade any person to 
leave as a legacy mMe than a thousand 
asses J except to the relations of the master 
who manumitted, with a few more excep- 
Purina, the goddess of robbers. 
FuRius, a military trihune with Camil- 

lus. A Roman slave who obtained hia 

freedom. M. Bibaeulus, a Latin poet of 

FuRNius, aman condemned of adultery.. 

Arist. Fuscus, a friend of Horace. 

Com. a prstor sent by Domitian against 
the Daci, where he perished. 

FuBiA LEX de ConutHa, A. U. C. SS7, 
forbade any business to be transacted at 
the public assemblies on certain days, 

though among the fiuti. Another, A. 

U. C. 690. Ganinia, another by Camil- 

lus and C. Caninius Galbus, A. U. C, 751. 

Fusius, a Roman orator. A Roman, 

killed in Gaul. A Roman actor, whom 

Horace ridicules. ^ , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 





TAB ALES, a people of Aquitain. 

GabakA) a country of Asia. 

Gabeixvs, now La Seccldat a river fldl- 
ing into the Po. 

Gabxne and Gabixnb, a coantry of 

Gabisi^ur, a friend of Augustui, he- 
beaded by order of Seat. Pompey. 

Gabii, a city of the VoUci, built by the 
kings of Alba, but now no longer in exist- 
ence. Romulus and Remus were edu- 
cated there. 

Gabina, the name of Juno, worshipped 
at Oabil. 

Gabiw|a lkx de ComiUiSf by A. Gabi- 
nius, the tribune, A. U. C. 614. It re- 
quired that in the public assemblies for 
electing magistrates, the votes should be 

given by tablets, and not viva voce. 

The title of other laws De CondtUSf De Mir 
litidy De Usura, &,c. 

Gabinianus, a rhetorician, in the reign 
of Vespasian. 

Gabinius, a Roman historian. Au- 

lius, a Roman consul, who made war in 
Judea, and reestablished tranquillity 
there. He died about forty years before 

Christ, at Salona. A lieutenant of 

Antony. A consul, who behaved with 

uncommon rudeness to Cicero. 

Gadxs, Gadis, and Gadira, a small is- 
land in the Atlantic, on the Spanish coast, 
twenty- five miles from the columns or 

Gaditanus, a surname of Hercules, 
from Gades. 

G JE9ATJB, a people on the Rhone. 

Gjetulia, a country of Libya, the favor- 
ite retreat of wild beasts, and now called 

GiETULicus, Cw. Leittulub. an officer 

In the age of Tiberius. A poet who 

wrote some witty but indelicate epigrams. 

Gala, fother of Masinissa, was king of 

Galabbii, a nation near Thrace. 
. Galactophaoi, a people of Asiatic Scy- 

Galaittris, a servant maid of Alcme- 
na, whose sagacity eased the labors of 
her mistress. 

Galata, a town of Syria. An island 

near Sicily. Attfwn of SicUy. A 

mountain of Phocis. 

G\LATA, the inhabitants of Galatia. 

Galatjba and Galathjea, a sell nymph, 
daughter of Nereus and Doris. She was 
passionately loved by the Cyclops Poly- 
phemus, wnom she treated with coldness 
and disdain ; while Acis, a shepherd of 
Sicily, enjoyed her unbounded affection. 

— —The daughter of a Celtic king. A 

country girl. 

Galatia, or Gallogrjecia. a country 
of Asia Minor, between Phrygia, the 
Buzine, Cappadocia, and Bithynia. 

The pame of ancient Gaul among tbe 

Galaxia, a festival, in which they boil- 
ed a mixture of barley, pulse, and milk, 
called raXa^ia by the Greeks. 

Galb A, a surname of the first of the Sul- 
pitii, from tbe smallness of his stature. 

A king among the Gauls, who made 

war against J. Cesar. A brother of 

the emperor Galba, who killed himself. 
A mean buffoon, in the age of Tibe- 
rias.; Serviusj an infamous lawyer af 

Rome. Servius Sulpicius, a Roman 

who rose gradually to tbe greatest offices 
of the state, and exercised his power in 
the provinces with equity and unremitted 
diligence. He dedicated the greatest part 
of his timo to solitary pursuits, chiefly to 
avoid the suspicions of Nero. fWfo or- 
dered him to be put to death, but he es- 
caped from the hands oTtbe executioner, 
and was publicly saluted emperor. When 
he was seated on the throne, he suffered 
himself to be governed by favorites, who 
exposed to sale the goods of the citizens 
to gratify their avarice. He was assassin- 
ated in the seventy-third year of his age, 
and in the eighth of his reigo, and Otbo 
proclaimed emperor in his room, Januarir 
16th, A. D. 69. A learned man, grand- 
father to the emperor of tbe same name. 

Sergius, a celebrated orator before the 

age of Cicero. 

Galsnus Claud I ui, a celebrated physi- 
cian in the age of M. Antoninus and bis 
successors, bom at Pergamus, the son of an 
architect. He was very intimate with 
Marcos Aurelius tbe emperor, after whose 
death he returned to Pergamus, where he 
died, in his ninetieth year, A. D. 193. 

GALEOLiB, certain prophets in Sicily. 

Galeria, one of the Roman tribes. 

The wife of Vitellius. Faustina, the 

wife of the emperor Antoninus Pius. 

Galeriub, a native of Dacia, made em- 
peror of Rome, by Dioclesian. 

Galesus, now Oaleto. a river of Cala- 
bria, flowing into the bay of Tarentum. 

A rich person of Latium, killed as he 

attempted to make a reconciliation be- 
tween the Trojans and Rutulians. 

GALiLJ£A,a celebrated country of Syria. 

GALiNTHiADiA^a fcBtival at Tbebes, in 
honor of Galinthias, a daughter of Prnetus. 

Galli, a nation of Europe, naturally 
fierce, and inclined to war. They were 
very superstitious j and in their sacrifices 

they often immolated human victims. 

The priests of Cybele. 

Gallia, a large country- of Europe, call- 
ed Galatia by the Greeks. The inhabit- 
ants were called OoZ/i, Celtiberif and Cd- 
toscftha, by themselves Ce2<<p, by the 
Greeks Otdata. Ancient Gaul was di- 
vided into four different parts by the Ro- 
mans, called Gallia Belgica, Narbonensis, 
Aquitania, and peltii^ Jftie inhabitant* 

jitized by 




were great wiurriora ; and their Talor over- 
came the Roman armies, took the cities 
of Rome, and invaded ^feece, in different 
ages. They spread themselves over the 
greatest part of the world. They were 
very superstitions. 
6AU.ICA1VUS MORS, a mountahi of Cam- 

Gau.iou« Aoxaj was applied to the 
country between Picenum and'Ariminum. 

Sinus, a part of the Mediterranean on 

the coast of Gaul, now called the gulf of 
* Lyons. 

Gallienus Publ. LuciNins, a son of 
the emperor Valerian. He reigned con- 
jointly with his father for seven years, 
and ascended the throne as sole emperor, 
A. D. SS60. In his youth, he showed activ- 
ity aiid military talent, but when he came 
to t;tf#purple, he delivered himself up to 
pleasure and indolence. His time was 
spent in the greatest debauchery. He often 
appeared with his. hair powdered with 
golden dust ; and enjoyed tranquillity at 
home, while his provinces abroad were 
torn by oivil quarrels and seditions. His 
cruelties irritated the. people and the army ; 
emperors wejie dected, and no less than 
thirty tyrants aspired to the imperial pur- 

gle. Gallienus was assassinated at Milan 
y some of hia officers, in the fiftieth year 
ofhisage, A. D.268. 

Gaixiitahia ^tlta, a wood near Cumc 
in Italy. 

GAu.fpox.xs, a fortified town of thjB Sa- 

Gaxj^oorjkcia, a countrv of Asia Minor, 
near Btthynia and Cappadocia. 

G. Gaclonius, a Roman knight appoint^ 
ed over Gades. 

P. Gaixoitius, a luxurious Roman. 

Gal, Fid. Alectryoa*— •— A general 

of Otfao. A lieutenant of Sylla. An 

officer of M. Antony. &c.->>-— rCaius, a 
friend of the great Arricanus, famous ror 

his knowledge of astronomy. ^iElios. 

the third governor of Egypt in the age oi 

Augustus. Cornelius, a Roman knight, 

who tendered himself famous by his poet- 
ical, as well as military talents. Vlbius 

Galius, a celebrated orator of Gaul, in the 
age of Augustus. A Uomftn who assas- 
sinated Decius, the emperor, and raised 
himself to the throne. He showed him- 
self ihdolent and cruel, and was at last 
assassinated by his soldiers, A. D, 5253. 
Flavius Claudius Constantinus, a bro- 
ther of the emperor Julian, raised to the 
imperial throne under the title of Cesar, 
by CoBstantius his relation. He. conspir- 
ed against his benefactor, and was 'be- 
headed, A. D. 354. A small river of 


Gamaycs, an Indian prince. 

GAMax.iA, a surname of Juno. A fes- 
tival privately observed at three diflbrent 
The first was the celebration of a 
15 ' 

marriage, the second was in eonunemom- 
tion of a birthday, had the third was an 
anniversary of the death of a person. 

Ganoarits, an Indian nation. 

Gakgam A, a place near the Palus Mco- 

GArroAsiDJB, a powerftil people near the 
mouths of the Ganges. 

Gaitoes, a large river of India, falling 
into the Indian ocean. It was held in the 
greatest veneration b^' the inhabitants, 
and this superstition is said to exist still 
in some particular instances. 

Gannascus, an ally of Rome,, put to 
death by Corbulo, the Roman general. 

GAivTMKDE.a $p>ddess, better known by 
the name of Hebe. 

Gakthsdss, a beautiful youth of Phry- 
gia. He was taken up to heaven by Ju- 
piter as he was hunting, or rather tending 
his fhther's flocks on mount Ida, and he ' 
became the cap-bearer of the gods in the 
place of Hebe. He is generally represent- 
ed sitting on the back of a flying eagle in 
the air. 

Gakjeticum, a town of Africa. 

GaIumartss, a people in the int^or 
parts of Africa, now ctdled the,deserts of 

Garamantis, a nymph who became 
mother of larbas, Phileus, and Pilumnus, 
by Jupiter. 

Garam AS, a king of Libya. 

Garatas, a river of Arcadia. 

Gareata, a people of Arcadia. 

Gareathtra, a town of Cappadocia. 

Garoaitus, now St. Angdoy a lofty 
mountain of Apulia. 

Garoaphia, a valley near Platea, with 
a fountain of the same name. 

Garoaris, a king of the Curetes, who 
first found |be manner of collecting ho- 

Garoarus, a town and mountain of 
Troas, &mous for its fertility. 

Garoettus, a village of Attica. 

Gargittius, a dog which kept Geryon's 
flocks. He was killed by Hercules. 

Garoilius Martialis, an historian. 

A celebrated hunter. 

Garites, a people of Aquitain, in Gaul. 

Garumna, a river of Gaul, now called 

Gastron, a general of Lacedemon. 

Gathe^Ei a town 9f Arcadia. 

Gatheatas, a river of Arcadia. 

GAUGAMELAjf village near Arbela be« 
yond the TlgfiS. 

Gaulus and Gauleor, an island in the 
Mediterranean sea, Opposite Libya. It pro- 
duces no venomous creatures* 

Gaurus, a mountain of Campania, fh- 
mous for its wines. 

Gaus and Gaos, a man who followed 
the interest of Artaxerxes, from whom 
he revolted, and by whom he was put to 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Gixi., a Amons town of Palestine. 

OsBSRirA, a town and mountain of 

Gbdrosia, a barren province of Persia. 

GcoAifii, a family pf Alba, part of which 
migrated to Rome, under Romulus. 

Gkla, a town on the southern parts of 
Sicily, about ten miles fh>m the sea. 

GEL.AIVOR, a king of Argos. 

Gelma UoavELiA LEX, iU CivitaUf by 
L. Gellius and Cn. Cftmel. Lentulus, A. 
U. C. 681. It enacted; that all those who 
had been presented with the privilege of 
citizens of Rome by Pompey, should re- 
main in the possession of that liberty. 

GsLLiAs, a native of Agrigentum, fa- 
mous for his munificence. 

Gellius, a censor. A consul who 

defeated a party of Crermans, in the inte- 
rest of Spartacus. 

AuLua Gellivs, a Roman grammarian 
in the axe of M. Antoninus, about 130 
A. D. He published a v^rork which be 
called J^octes Attiea, because he composed 
it at Athens during the long nights of the 

Geld and Gelon, a son of Dinomenes, 
who made himself absolute at Syracuse, 
four hundred and* ninety-one years before 
the Christian era. He reigned seven years, 
and his death was universally lamented 

at Syracuse. A man who attempted 

to poison Pyrrhus. A governor of 


Geloi, the inhabitants of Gela. 

Gelones and Geloni, a people of Scy- 
thia, inured from their youth to labor and 

Gelds, a' port of Caria. 

Gemini, a sign of the zodiac, which re- 
presents Castor and Pollux, the twin sons 
of Leda. 

Geminius, a, Roman who acquainted 
M. Antony with the situation of his affairs 

at Rome. An inveterate enemy of Ma- 

rius. A friend of Pompey. 

6£Mirru8,an astronomer and mathema- 
tician of Rhodes, B. C. 77. 

Gemonije, a place at Rome where the 
caitasses of criminals were thrown. 

Gsif ABUM, a town of Gaul, now Orle- 
ansy on the Loire. 

Geivauni, a people of Vindelicia. 

Obhbta, an ancient, populous, and 
well fortified city in the country of the 

GsiTisus, a man of Cyxicus, killed by 
the Argonauts. 

Genius, a spirit^ or dsmon. which, ac- 
cording to the ancients, presided over the 
birth and life of every man. 

Gbnsebic, a famous Vandal prince 
who passed from Spain to Africa, where 
be took Carthage. 

Gentius, a king of Illyricum, who was 
conquered, and ted in triumph by the Ro- 
mans, B. C. 169. 

Gbntta, now Oenottj a celebrated tows 
of Liguria, which Annibal destroyed. 

Gendcius, a tribune of th« people. 

A consul. 

Genusus, now SenmOf a river ^of Mace- 

Gbnutia lex, de magistratilnu, by L. 
Genutius the tribune, A. U. C. 411. It 
ordained that no person should exercise 
the same magistracy withiB ten years, or 
be invested with two c^ces in one year. 

Georoica, a poem of Virgil in four 
books, which treats of husbandry. 

Gbphtea, one of the cities of the Sele- 
ucidc in Syria. 

Gefhtkai, a people of Phoenicia. 

Gebjestus, a port of Eubcea. 

Gbrania, a mountain between Megaia 
and Corinth. 

GxRANTHRjE, a towu of Lacouia. 

GERESTrcuB, a harbor of Teios in Ionia. 

Gergithum, a town near Cumoe in 

Geroobia, a town of Gaul. 

Gerion, an ancient augur. 

Germania, an exteniive country of En- 
rope, at the east of Gaul. Its inhabitants 
were warlike, fierce, and uncivilized, and 
always proved a watcbfid enemy against 
the Romans. Cesar first entered their 
country, but he rather checked their fury 
than conquered them. The ancient Ger- 
mans were very superstitions, and, in 
many instances, their religion was the 
same as that of their neighbors, the Gauls. 
Their rude institutions, gradually gave 
rise to the laws and manners which still 
prevail in the countries of £ur<nie, which 
their arms invaded or conquered. 

Germanicub CfsAR, a son of Prusas 
and Antonia, the niece of Augustus. He 
was adopted by his uncle Tiberius, and 
raised to the most important offices of the 
state. He distinguished himself by his 
success in the German wars, and was 
rewarded with a trium{^ on his return to 
Rome. He was secretly poisoned at 
Daphne near Antioch by Piso, A. D. 19, 
in the thirty-fourth year of his age. The 
news of his death was received with the 
greatest grief, iCnd the most bitter lamen- 
tetions,- and Tiberius seemed to be the 
only one who rejoiced in his fall. Ger- 
manicus has been commended not only for 
his military accomplishments, but for his 

learning, humanity and benevolence. 

This name was common in the age of the 
emperors, not only to those who bad ob- 
tained victories over the Germans, but 
even to those who had entered the borders 
of their country at thfe head of an army. 

Gerhanii, a people of Persia. 

Gerrha, a people of Scythia. 

Gbrub and Gerrhus, a river of Sethis. 

Geronthrje, a town of Laconia, where 
a yearly festival, called Oerontkrea, wia 
observed in honor of Mai8« 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Gerton and Gbrtottes, a celebrated 
monster,' represented as having iliree bod- 
ies and three heads. He was destroyed 
by Hercides. 

GEssATii:, a people of Gallia Togata. 

Gemokiacum, a town of Gaul. 

Gessus, a river of Ionia. 

Geta, a man who raised seditions at 

Rome in Neroli reign. Septimiiis, a 

son of tiSB emperor Sevdrus, brother to 
Caracftlla. After his father's death he 
reigned at Rome, conjointly with his 
brother ; but Caracalla, who envied his 
virtues, and was jealous of his popularity, 
murdered him in the arms of his mother. 
Creta had not reached the twenty-third 
year of his age, and the Romans had rea- 
son to lament the death of so virtuous a 

Getje, a people of European Scythia, 
near the Daci. 

GioAiTTEs, the sons of Ccelus and Ter- 
ra, represented as men of uncommon 
stature, with strength proportioned to 
their gigantic size. Some of them, as 
Cottus, Briareus, and Gyges, had fifty 
heads and one hundred arms, and serpbnts 
instead of legs. They were of a terrible 
aspect, their hair hung loose about their 
shoulders, and their beard was suffered to 
grow untouched. Pallene and its neigh- 
borhood was the place of their residence. 
They conspired to dethrone Jupiter, who 
was obliged to call Hercules to his assist- 
ance. With the aid of this celebrated 
hero, the giants were soon put to flight 
and defeated. Some were crushed to 
pieces under mountains or buried in the 
sea ; and others were iiayed alive, or beat- 
en to death with clubs. 

GioARTUM, a town of Phoeniciat 

G1G19, one of the female attendants t)f 
Parvsatis, who was privy to the poisoning 
of Statira. 

GiLoo. a governor of Africa, in the reign 
of Arcadius. 

GiLLo, an infamous adulterer, in Juve- 
nal's age. 

GiNDArrss, a people of Libya.. 

GiNDEs, a river of Albania. Another 

of Mesopotamia. 

GiiroE. Fid. Gigis. 

GiifouNUM, a mountain of Umbria. 

Gippius, an infamous Roman. 

Gisco, son of Hamilcon the Carthagin- 
ian general, was banished frbm his coun- 
try by the influence of his enemies. He 
was afterwards recalled, and empowered 
by the Carthaginians to punish in what 
manner he pleased, those who had occa- 
sioned his banishment. He was made a 
general soon after, in SiciTy, against the 
Corinthians, about three hundred and nine 
years before the Christian era ; and by his 
success and intrepidity, he obliged the 
enemies of his country to sue for peace. 

GijAOiATOBii LUDi, combats originally 

exhibited on the grave of deceased persons 
■Tit Rome. They were first introduced at 
Rome by the Bruti, upon the death of their 
fother, A. U. C. 4«8. Originally captives, 
criminals, or disobedient slaves, Were 
trained up for combat ; but when the di* 
version became more frequent, and was 
exhiliited on the smallest occasion, to pro- 
cure esteem and popularity, many of the 
Roman citizens edl^ted themselves among 
the gladiators, and Nero at one show, ex- 
hibited no less than four hundred senatojs 
and six hundred knights. After these 
cruel exhibitions had been continued for 
the amusement of the Roman populace, 
they were abolished by Constantine the 
Great, near six hundred years after their 
first institution. 

GLAms, a river of Cume— of Iberia>-> 
of Italy. 

Glai«um, a town of Gau[I, now iSe. Readf 
in Provence. 

Glaphtre and Glaphtra, a daughter 
of Archelaus the high-priest of Beliona in 
Cappadocia, celebrated for her beauty and 
intrigues. Mark Antony gave the king- 
dom of Cappadocia to her two sons. 

Glaphyrus, an infhmous Roman. 

Glauce, the wife of Acteus, daughter 

of Cychrffius. A daughter of Cretheus, 

mother of Telamon. — -One of the Nerei- 

Glaucia, a surname of th^ Servilian 

Glaucippe, one of the Danaides. 

Glaucippus, a Greek who wrote a trea- 
tise concerning the sacred rights of Athens. 

Glaucow, a writer of> dialogues at 

Glauco5ome, one of the Nereides. 

Glaucopis, a surname of Minerva, firam 
the blueness of her eyes. 

Glaucus, a son of Hippok)chns, the son 
0f Bellerophon. He assisted Priam in the 
Trojan war, and had the simplicity to ex- 
change his golden suit of armor with Dio- 
medes for an iron one, whence came the 
proverb of Olauci et Diomedis permMtaUa^ 
to express a foolish purchase. He was 

killed by Ajax. A fisherman of Anthe- 

don in Boeotia, son of Neptune and Nais, 
or according to others of Polybius the son 
of Mercury. He leaped into the water, 
and was made "a sea deity by Oceanus ana 

Tet'hys, at the request of the gods. A 

son of Sisyphus king of Corinth, by Me- 
rope the daughter of Atlas, bom at Potnia 

a village of Bceotia. A son of Minos 

the 2d, and Pasiphae, who was smothered 
in a cask of hpney, restored to life by" the 

physician Polyidus. A son of Epytus. 

who succeeded his father on the throne of 

Messenia. A son of Antenor, killed by 

Agamemnon. An Argonaut. A son 

of Imbrasus, killed by Turnus. — —A son 
of Hippolytus, whose descendants reigned 
in Ionia.— An athlete^of Ettboea.— ~^ 

Digitized by 





•on of Priam.— -A physician of Cleopa- 
tra. A warrior, in the age of Phocion. 

A physician exposed on a cross, be- 
cause Uephlbstion died while under his 

care. An artist of Chios. ^A Spartan. 

^A grove of Bceotia. A bay of Caria. 

-^— An historian of Rhegiuni in Italy. 

A bay and river of Libya — of Pelopon- 
nesus—of Colchis. 

Glautias, a king of 'niyricum. 

Glicon, a physician of Pansa. 

Glissas, a town of BoBotia, with a small 
river in the neighborhood. 

Gltcera, a beautiiul woman, celebrat- 
ed by Horace. A woman of Sicyon 

skilful in making garlands. 

Gltcerium, an infamous woman of 
Thespis, who presented her countrymen 
with the painting of Cupid, which Praxi- 
teles had given her. 

Gltcon, a man remarkable for his 

strength. A physician who attended 

Pansa, and was accused of poisoning his 
patron's wound. 

Gltmpes, a town on the borders of the 
Lacedemonians and Messenians. 

Gnatia, a town of Apulia. 

GiTossis and Gnobsia, an epithet given 
to Ariadne, because she lived, or was Iwrn 
at Gnossus. 

Grvoflsus, a famous city of Crete, the 
residence of king Minos. 

GobaMtio, a chief of the Arvemi. 

GoBAft, a governor of Mesopotamia. 

GoBAREs, a Persian governor. 

GosRTAs, a Persian, one of the seven 
noblemen who conspired against the usur- 
per Smerdis. ! 

GoLGi, a place of Cyprus, sacred to Ve- 
nus Oolgia, and to Cupid. 

GoMPHi, a town of Thessaly. 

GoNATAs, one of the Antigoni. 

GoNiADEa, nymphs in the neighbor- 
hood of the river Cytherus. 

Gomppus and PANORUua, two youths of 

Goifiri and GoKocoiforLos, a town of 

GoNOEssA, a town of Troas. 

GoifussA, a town of Sicyon. 

GoRD I JE I, mountains in Armenia. 

GoRi>iANus, M. Antonius Africanus, a 
son of Melius Marcellus, descended from 
Trajan,' by his mother's side. In the 
greatest affluence, he cultivated learning, 
and was an example of piety and virtue. 
He applied himself to the study of poetry, 
and composed a poem in thirty books upon 
the virtues of Titus Antonius, and M. 
Aurelius. After he had attained his 80th 
year in the greatest splendor and domestic 
traoquillity. he was roused from his peace- 
flil occupations by the tyrannical reign of 
the Maximini, and he was proclaimed 
emperor by the rebellious troops of his 
province. Maximinus marched against 
aim \mh the greatest indignation; and 

Gordian sent his son, with whom he shar* 
ed the imperkil dignity, to oppose the ene- 
my. Young Gprdlan was killed ; and the 
father, worn out with age, and iirown des- 
perate on account of his misfortunes, 
strangled himself at Carthage, before he 
had been six weeks at the head of the 
empire, A. D. 236- M. Antonius Afri- 
canus, son of Gordianus. {Je passed into 
Africa, in the character of lieutenant to 
his father, and seven years after he was 
elected emperor, in conjunction with him. 
He marched against the partisans of Maxi- 
minus, his antagonist in Mauritania, and 
was killed in a bloody battle on the 25th 
of June, A. D. 236^ after a reijn of about 
six weeks. M. Antonius Pius, grand- 
son of the first Gordian, was but twelve 
years old when he was honored with the 
title of Cicsar. He was proclaimed em- 
peror, in the sixteenth vear of his a^e,and 
his election was attended with universal 
marks of approbation. Gordian was as- 
sassinated in the east, A. D. 244. The 
senate, sensible of his merit, honored him 
with a most splendid funeral. 

GoRDiuM, a town of Phrygia. 

G0RDIU9, a husbandman, afterwards 
king of Phrygia ; remarkable for tying a 
knot, on which the empire of Asia de- 
pended, in so intricate a manner, that 
Alexander the Great, unable to unravel it, 
cut it to pieces. A tyrant of Corinth. 

G0ROASTT8, a man who received divine 
honors at Phene in Messenia. 

Gorge, a daughter of CEneus, king of 
Calydon. Her tomb was seen at Amphis- 
sa in Locris. One of the Danaides. 

GoRoiAfl, a celebrated sophist and ora- 
tor, born at Leontium in Sicily. He lived 
to his one hundred and eighth year, and 

died B. C. 400. An officer of Antiocbus 

Epiphanes. A Macedonian, forced to 

war with Amyntas. 

GoRoo, the wife of Leqnidas king of 

Sparta. The name of the ship which 

carried Perseus, after be had conquered 

G0R00NB8. three celebrated sisters, 
daughters of Phorcys and Ceto, whose 
names were Stheno, Kuryale, and Medu- 
sa, all immortal except Medusa. Accord- 
ing'^to the mythologists, their hairs were 
entwined with serpents, their hands were 
of brass, their wings of the color of gold, 
their boay was covered with Impenetrable 
scales, and their teeth were as king as the 
tusks of a wild boar, and they turned to 
stones all those on whom they fixed their 
eyes. Medusa alone had serpents in her 

GoROoNiA, a surname of Pallas, because 
Perseus, armed with her shield, had con- 
quered the Gorgon, who had polluted her 
temple with Neptune. 

G0RGOKIU8, a man ridiculed bv Horace. 

GoRoo PHONE, a daughter 01 Perieoa 

Digitized by 





and Andromeda^ wbo married Periered 
king of Messenia. After the death of 
Per&res, she married CEbalus. She is the 
first whom the mythologists mention as 

having had a second husband. One of 

the Daaaides. 

GoRooPHonus, a son of Electryon and 

GoRooPHoRj;, ^ Bumame of Minerva, 
firom hef egis, on which was the head of 
the gorgoli Medusa. 

GoKGus, the son of Aristomenes the 

Messenian. A son of Theron tyrant of 

Agrigentum. A man whose knowledge 

of metals proved very serviceable to Alex- 

GoROTTHioir, a son of Priam, killed by 

GoRTUJE, a people of Euboea. 

GoRTTN, GoRTYs, aud GoRTTifA, Rn in- 
land town of Crete. 

GoRTTRiA, a town of Arcadia in Pelo- 

GoTTHi, a celebrated nation of Germa- 
ny, called also Gothones, Gutones, Gy tho- 
nes, and Guttones. They were warriors 
by profession, as well as all their savage 
neighbors. They plundered Rome, un- 
der Alaric, one of their most celebrated 
kings, A. D. 410. 

Gracchus, T. Sempronius, father of 
Tiberius and Caius Gracchus, twice con- 
sul, and once censor, was distinguished 
by his integrity, as well as his prudence 
and superior ability either in the senate 
or at the head of the armies. He made 
war in Gaul, and met with much suc- 
cess in SpaiUf He married Sempronia, of 
the family of the Scipio's, a woman of 
great virtue, piety, and learning. Their 
children, Tiberius and Caius, who had 
been educated under the watchAil eye of 
their mother, rendered themselves famous 
for their eloquence, seditions, and an ob- 
stinate attachment to the interests of the 
populaee. which at last proved fotal to 
them. After lives of violent dissension 
with the patrician orders, they both perish- 
ed by a violent death. Semnronius, a 

Roman, banished to the coast \)f Africa 
and assassinated by order of Tiberius, 
after he had been banished fourteen years. 

A general of the Sabines, taken by 

Q,. Cincinnatus. A Roman consul, de- 
feated by Annibal. 

Gradivus, a surname of Mars among 
the Romans. 

Grjeci, the inhabitants of Greece. 

GRiEciA, a celebrated country of Europe, 
bounded on the west by the Ionian sea, 
south by the Mediterranean sea, east by 
the JSgean, and north by Thrace and Dal- 
matia. It is generally divided into ibur 
large provinces ; Macedonia, Epiras, 
Achaia or Hellas, and Peloponnesus. 
This country has been reckoned superior 

to every other part of the earth, on oe- 
count of the salubrity of the air, the tem- 
perature of the climate, the fertility of 
tiie soil, and, above all, the fame, learning, 
and arts of its inhabitants. While the 
Greeks rendered themselves illustrious by 
their military exploits, the arts and scien- 
ces were assisted by conquest, and receiv- 
ed fresh lustre from the application and 
industry of their professors. The labors 
of the learned were received with admi- 
ration, and the merit of a composition was 
determined by the applause or disappro- 
bation of a multitude. Their generals 
were orators ; and eloquence seemed to be 
so nearly connected with the military pro- 
fession, that he was despised by his sol- 
diers who could not address them upon 
any emergency with a spirited and well- 
delivered oration. The learning, as well 
as the virtues of Socrates, procured him a 
name ; and the writings of Aristotle have, 
perhaps, gained him a more lasting fkme 
than all the conquests and trophies of his 
reyal pupil. The Greeks planted several 
colonies, and totally peopled the western 
coasts of Asia Minor. For soma time 
Greece submitted to the yoke of Alexan- 
der and his saccessors ; and at last, after 
a spkited though ineffectual struggle in 
the Achean league, it fell under the pow- 
er of Rome, and became one of its de- 
pendent provinces governed by a procon- 

Grjecia m aowa, a part of Italy, whdre 
the Greeks planted colonies, whence the 

GrjbcinuA a senator put to death by. 

Gracus, a man from whom some sup- 
pose that Greece received its name. 

GraiOs, an inhabitant of Greece. 

GftAMPius Moifs, the Grampian moun- 
tains in Scotland. 

Granicus, a river of Bithynia. 

Granius PsTRomuB, an officer, who 
being taken by Pompey's geneials, re- 
fused the life which was tendered to him : 
observing that Caesar's soldiers received 
not, but granted life. He killed himself. 

A questor whom Sylla had ordered to 

he strangled, only one day before he died 

a natural death. A son of the wife of 

Marius, by a former husband. — »— Q-i^in- 
tus, a man intimate with Crassus and 
other illustrious men of Rome, whose vices 
he lashed with an unsparing hand. 

Gratijc, three goddesses. Vid. Cha- 

Gratiahus, a native of Pannonia, father 
to the emperor Valentinian l&t. He who 
became sole emperor in the sixteenth year 
of his age. He soon after took, as his 
imperial colleague, Theodosius, whom he 
appointed over the eastern parts of the. 
empire. • His enmity to the Pagan supers 

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■titl(« of his subjects proved his rain ; 
and Maximinus, who undertook the de- 
fence of the worship of Jupiter and of all 
the'goda, was joined by an infinite nuiu- 
ber of discontented Romans, and met Gra- 
tian near Paris in Gaul. Gratian was for- 
saken by his'troops in the field of battle, 
and was murdered Jky the rebels, A. D. 
383, in the twenty-fourth year of his age. 
A Roman soldier, invested with the im- 

Krial purple by the rebellious army in 
itain, and asi ' ' ' 

assassinated four months 


GRATiDiA.awoman at Neapolis, called 
Canidia by Horace. 

Gratioit, a giant killed by Diana. 

Gratius Faliscus, a Latin poet, con- 
temporary with Ovid. 

Gratii, a people of Spain. 

Graviscje:, now Eremode St. JlugtutinOy 
a maritime town of Etruria. 

Graviub, a Roman knight of Puteoli. 

Greooriub, Theod, Thaqmaturgus, a 
disciple of Origen, afterwards bishop of 
Neocssarea, the place of his birlh. He 
died A. D. 366,^nd it is said he left only 
seventeen idolaters in his diocese, where 
be had found only seventeen Christians. 

Nazianzen, surnamed the Divine^ 

was bishop of Constantinople. His wri- 
tings rival those of the most celebrated 
orators of Greece, in eloquence, sublimity, 
and variety. — ^-A bishop of Nyssa, author 
of the Nicene creed. 

Gri NHEs, a people among the Batavians. 

Grophusj a man distinguished as much 
for his probity as his riches. 

Grcdii, a people tributary to the Ner- 

GauMxirTaif^ now JtrmeiUOy an inland 
town of Lucania. 

Gryllus, a son of Xenophon, who kill- 
ed Epaminondas, and was himself slain, 

at the batUe of Mantinea, B. C. 363 

One of the companions of Ulysses, chang- 
ed into a swine by Circe. 

Grtitkum and Grtnivm, a town near 
Clazomenae, where Apollo had a temple 
with an oracle. 

Grtneub, one of the Centaurs. 

Gtarus and Gtaros, an island In the 
^gean sea, near Delos. 

Gtas, one of the companions of iGneas. 

A part of the territories of Syracuse^ 

A Rutulian, killed by iEneas in Italy. 

Groans, a lake of Lydla. 

Gros, ajn«UI ofParysatts. 

Grasa, or Gtbs, a son of CcbIob and 
Terra, represented as having fifty heads 
and a hundred hands. He, with his 
brothers, made war against the geds, and 

was afterwards punished in Tartarus. 

A Lydian, to whom Candaules, king of 

the country, showed his wife naked. 

A man killed by Turnus, in his wars witt 
iEneas. A beautiful boy of Cnidus. 

Gym FPUS, a Lacedemonian, sei|t B. C 
414^ by his countr>'men to assist Sjnracuse, 
against the Athenians. He obtained a 
celebrated victory over Nicias and Demos- 
thenes, the enemy's generals, and obliged 
them to surrender. He accompanied Ly- 
sander, in bis expedition against Athens 
and was present at the taking of that cele- 
brated town. After the fall of Athens, 
he disgraced himself by embezzling pub- 
lic money committted to his care. An 

Arcadian in the Rutulian war. 

Gymnasia, a large city near Colchis. 

Gymnasium, a place among the Greeks, 
where all the public exercises were per- 
formed, and where not only wrestlers and 
dancers exhibited, but also philosophers, 
poets, and rhetoricians repeated their 
compositions. The room was high and 
spacious, and could contain many thou- 
sands of spectators. The laborious exer- 
cises of the Gymnasium were running, 
leaping, throwing the quoit, wrestling, 
and boxing. 

GrMKEsiJi, two islands in the Mediter- 
ranean, called Baleares by the Greeks. 

Gymnetss, a people of ^Ethiopia, who 
lived almost naked. 

Gymni£, a town of Colchis. 

Gymnosophistje, a certain sect of phi- 
losophers in India, who according to some, 
placed their svmmum bojutm in pleasure, 
and their sunmum malum in pain. They 
lived naked as their name implies, and 
for thirty-seven years they exposed them- 
selves in the open air, to the' heat of the 
sun, the inclemency of the seasons, and 
the coldness of the night. ■ 

Gyna cEAs, a woman said to have been 
the wife of Faun us, and the mother of 
Bacchus and of Midas. 

GYNfcoTHocNAs, a name of Mars at 
Tegea, on account of a sacrifice oflTered 
by the women without the assistance of 
the n>en. 

Gyndes, now Zeindeh, a river of Assy- 
ria, falling into the Tigris. 

Gythxum, a seaport town of Laconia 

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HABIS, a king of Spain, who ^rst 
taught bis subjects agriculture. 

Haorianopous, a town of Thrace. 

Haoriaitds, <a Roman emperor. C. 

Fabius, a praetor in 'Africa. 

HiBMoir, a Theban youth, son of Creon, 
who was so captivated with the beauty of 
Antigone, that he killed himself on her 
tomb.-^ — A Hutulian engagedtn the wars 

of Turnus. A friend of iEneas against 


H^uus, a high mountaih which sepa- 
rates Thrace from Thessaly A stage- 

Haobs, a brother of king Porus who op- 
posed Alexander, &c. One of Alexan- 

der»s flatterers. A man of Cyzicus, 

killed by Pollux. 

Hagno, a nymph. A fountain of Ar- 

HAGirAooRA, asister of Aristomenes. 

Halxsus and Halssus, a son of Aga- 
memnon by Briseis or Clytemnestra. He 

was killed by Pallas. A river in Asia 


Halala, a village at the foot of mount 

H ALEiTTDH, a towii at the north of Sicily. 

Halesa, a town of Sicily. 

Halssius, a mountain and river near 

Uai,ia,i one of the Nereides. A festi- 
val at Rhodes in honor of the sun. 

Haliacmon, a river which separates 
Thessaly from Macedonia, and falls into 
the Sinus Thermiacus. 

Haliartus, a town of B<Botia, founded 

by Haliartus, the son of Thersander. 

A town of Peloponnesus. 

HAi.iCARirA89u>, now Bodroun, a mail- 
time city of Caria, in Asia Minor, where 
the mausoleum was erected. 

Halictjp, a town of Sicily, now Saleme. 

Haucis, a town of Argolis. 

Halimeos, a Nereid. 

Halirrhotius, a son of Neptune and 
Euryte, who offered violence to Alcippe, 
daughter of Mars. This offended Mars, 
and he killed the ravisher. Neptune cited 
Mars to appear before the tribunal of jus- 
tice to answer for the murder of his son. 
The cause was tried at Athens, and the 
murderer was acquitted. 

Hacithbrsus, an old man, who fore- 
told to Penelope's suitors the return of 
Ulysses. ^ ^ 

Halius, a son of Alcinous, famous for 

his skill in dancing. A Trojan, who 

came with jGneas into ItaJv. 

Halizones, a people of Paphlagonia. 

Halmus, a son of Sysiphus, father to 
Cbrysogone. * ^.^ 

HAUCTDESstTs, a town of Thrace. 

Halocrates, a son of Hercules and 

Halo ITS, an island of Propontis, oppo- 
site CyKicus. 

HALoiTTfEsra, an island on the coast of 
Macedonia, at the bottom of the Sinus 
Thermiacus. ' 

Ha LOT I A, a festival in.Tegea. 

Halotus, an eunuch, who used to taste 
the meat of Claudius. He poisoned the 
emperor's food by order of Agrippina. 

Halus, a city of Jlphaia of Thessaly 

of Parthia. 

Halt^etus, a man changed into a bird 
of the same name. 

Halycus, now Platanij a river at the 
south of Sicily. 

Halts, now Riil-ermarkj a river of Asia 
Minor, rising in Cappadocia, and falling 

into the Euxine sea. A man of Cysi- 

CUB killed by Pollux. 

Halyzia, a town of Epirus near the 
Achelous. ' V 

HAHADRTiiDEs, nymphs who lived in 
the country, and presided over trees, with 
which they were said to live and die. 

Hamje, a town of Campania. 

Hamaxia, a city of Cilicia.- 

Harcalo, a man famous for his kn6w> 
l€Pdge of poisonous herbs^ &c. He touch- 
ed the most venomous serpents and rep- 
tiles without receiving the smallest injury. 

Harmatelia, a town of the Brachma- 
nes in India. 

Harmatris, a town of iEolia. 

Hamiixus, an infamous debauchee. 

Harmodius, a friend of Aristogiton, 
Who delivered his country from the ty- 
ranny of the Pisistratidffi, B. C. 510. 

Harmotiides, a Trojan belovefi by Ifi- 

Harpaoua, a general of Cyrus. A 

river near Colchis. 

Harpalion, a son of Pylasmenes king 
4?f Paphlagonia who assisted frialn during 
the Trojan war. 

Harpalus, a man intrusted with the 
treasures of Babylon by Alexander. His 
hopes that Alexander would perish in his 
•expedition, rendered him dissipate, negli- 
gent, and vicious. When brought to jus- 
tice, he escaped with impunity to Crete, 
where he was at last assassinated by 

Thimbro, B. C. 325. A robber who 

scorired the gods. A celebrated as- 
tronomer of Greece. 

Harfalycx, the daughter of Harpalycus, 
"king of Thrace. Her mother died when 
she was biit a child, and her father fed 
her with the ml!k of cows and mares, and 
inured her early to sustain the fatigues of 
hunting. A beautiful virgin, daugh- 
ter of Clymenus and Epicaste of Argos. 
She was changed into an owl. A mis- 
tress of Iphiclus, son of Thestius. She 
died through despair on seeing herself de- 
spised by her lover. 

Harpalycus, one of the companions of 

^neas, killed by Camilla. ^The flither 

of Harpatyce. 
, Habpasa, atowB ofOaii*. 

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BAsrAtut, a river of Caria. 

HAKPocEATsa) a divinity supposed to 
be the same as Orus the son of Isis, 
among the figyptians. The Romans plac- 
ed his statues at the entrance of their 

Haepocration, a platonic philosopher 

of Argos. A sophist called also iEUus. 

Valerius, a rhetorician of Alexandria. 

r— -Another, surnamed Caius. 

Harptijc, winged monsters, who had 
the face of a woman, the body of a vul- 
ture, and had their feet and fingers arm- 
ed with sharp claws. They were three 
In number, Aello, Ocypete, and Celeno, 
daughters of Neptune and Terra. 

Haeud£s, a people of Germany. 

Haeuspex, a soothsayer at Rome, who 
drew omens by consulting the entrails of 
beasts that were sacrificed. He received 
the name of Aruspex^ ah oris aspiciendis, 
and that of Extispexj ah extis inspiciendis. 
The order of Aruspices was first estab- 
lished at Rome by Romulus, and the first 
•Aruspices were Tuscans by origin, as they 
were, particularly famous in that branch 
of divMiation. This custom of consulting ' 
the entrails of victims did not originate in 
Tuscany, but it was in use among the 
Chaldeans, Greeks, Egyptians, &c.,and 
the more enlightened part of^ mankind 
well knew how to render it subservient to 
their wishes or tyranny, 

Q„ Hateeius, a patrician and orator at 

Rome under the first emperors. Agrip- 

pa, a senator in the age of Tiberius. 

Antoninus, a dissipated senator, supported 
by Nero. * *^ ' *^*^ 

Haustan Es; a man who conspired with 
9o88Us against Darius. 

Heboolb. Fid, Ebdome. 

Hebe, a daughter of Jupiter and Juno. 
As she was fair, and always in the bloom 
pf youth, she was called the goddess of 
youth, and made by her mother cup-bearer 
to all the gods. 

HsBEsus, a Rutulian, killed in the night 
by Euryalus. 

Hebeds, now Marissa^ a river of Thrace, 
which was supposed to roll its waters 

upon golden sands. A youth of Lipara, 

beloved by Neobnle. A man of Cyzi- 

cuB, killed by Pollux. ^A friend of 

JEnena son of Dolichaon, killed by Me- 
dentins in the Rutulian war. 

Hecals, 4t6wn of Attica.^ 

Hecalbsia, a festival in honor of Jupi- 
ter of Hecale, instituted by Thei^eus. 

Hbcamsob, a daughter of Ar^inous. 

Hecata faitdm, a celebrated temple at 
Btratonice in Caria. 

Hbcatjeos, an historian of Miletus. 

A Macedonian, intimate with Alexander. 
■ , ■ ■ ■ ■ A Maceaonian brought to the army 
mainst his will by Amyntas. 

Hecate, a daughter of Parses and As- 
l^ria, the s^e as Proserpine, or Diana. 

She was called Luna In heaven, Dians 
on earth, and Hecate or Proserpine in hell, 
whence ner name of Diva tnformis, ttr- 
gemina, triceps* 

Hecatesia, a yearly festival observed 
in honor of Iiecate. 

Hecato, a native of Rhodes, pupil to 
Pana»tius. He wrote on the duties of 

Hecatovboia, a festival celebrated in 
honor of Juno by the Argians and people 
of iEgina. There were also public games 
first instituted by Archiiius, a king of Ar- 
gos, in which the prize was a shield of 
brass with a crown of myrtle. 

Hecatumfhonia, a solemn sacrifice 
ofTered by the Messenians to Jupiter, 
when any of them had killed an hundred 

Hecatompolts, an epithet given to 
Crete, from the hundred cities which it 
once contained. 

Hecatompylos, an epithet applied to 
Thebes in Egypt on account of its hun- 
dred gates. Also the capital of Parthia, 

in the reign of the Arsacides. 

HECATonifEBi, small islands between 
Lesbos and Asia. 

Hector, son of king Priam and Hecu- 
ba^ was the most valiant of all the Trojan 
chiefs that fought against the Greeks. He 
married Andromache the daughter of Ee- 
tion, by whom he had Astyanax. Be was 
appointed captain of all the Trojan forces,, 
when Troy was besieged by the Greeks : 
and the valor with wliich he behaved 
showed how well qualified he was totlis- 
charge that important office. When Achil- 
les bad driven back the Trojans towards 
tlie city. Hector too great to fly, waited 
the approach of his enemy near the 8cean 
gates. The sight of Achilles terrified him^ 
and he fled before him in the plain. The 
Greek pursued and Hector was killed, and 
his body was dragged in cruel triumph by 
the conqueror round the tomb of Fatro- 

clus. A son of Parmenio drowned in 

the Nile. Alexander honored 'faisremains 
with a magnificent funeral. 

Hbcuba, daughter of Dymas a Phry^n 
prince, was the second wife of Priam 
king of Trov, and proved the chastest of 
women, and the inqst tender and unfortu- 
nate of mothers. During the Trojan war 
she saw the greatest part of her children 
perish by the hands of the enemy. When 
Trq^ was taken, Hepuba, as one of the 
captives, fell to the lot of Ulysses, and 
embarked with the conquerors for Greece. 
The Greeks landed in the Thracian Cher- 
sonesus to joad with fresh honors the 

grave of Achilles. During their stav the 
ero's ghost appeared to them, and de- 
manded, to ensure the safety of- tbeir re- 
turn, the sacrifice of Polyxena, Hecuba's 
daughter. They complied ana Polyxena 
was torn from her mother to be sacnflced. 

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Hecuba was inconsolable, and her grief 
was still more.inci^ased at the sight of 
the body of her sou Polydorus washed on 
the shore, who had been recommended by 
his father to the care and humanity of 
Polymneslor king of the country. She 
determined to revenge the death of her 
son, but was hindered from executing her 
bloody purpose, and fled with the female 
companions of her captivity. She after- 
wards threw herself into Uie sea. Hecuba 
was tBe mother of many children, among 
whom were Hector, Paris, Troilus, Creu- 
sa, Cassai^dra, &c. &,c, 

Hecubje Skfolchrum, a promontory of 

Hediva, a poetess of Samos. 

JTedoi«.«um, a village of BoBotia. 

{Iedymeles, an admired musician in 
Domitian's .ige. 

IIcGELocHus, a general of six thousand 
Athenians sent to Mantinea. An Egyp- 
tian general who flourished B. C. 128. 

Ii£aEMonr,aThrasian poet in the age of 

Alcibiades. Another poet, who wrote a 

poem on the war of Leuc&a. 

Megesiabtax, an historian of Alexan- 

Hboxsius, a tyrant of Ephesus A 

philosopher who ^o eloquently convinced 
his auditors of their failiggs and follies, 
and persuaded them that there were no 
dangers after death, that many were guilty 

or suicide.— —An historian. A famous 

orator of Magnesid. 

Heoesilochus, one of the chief ma£is> 
(rates of Rhodes in the age of Alexander. 

Another native of Rhodes, 171 years 

before the christian era. 

H£GEsiNous,aman who wrotea poem 
OB Attica. 

UEGEsiiftTs, a philosopher of Pergaraus, 
who flourished B. C. 193. 

Heoesifpos, an historian who wrote 
some things upon Pallene. 

Heoksiptle, the mother of Cimon. 

HEOEsitTKATus, an Ephesian who con- 
sulted the orade to know in what partic- 
ular place he should fix his residence. He 
was directed to settle where he found 
peasants dancing with crowns of olives. 
This was in Asia, where he founded 
filea, &c. 

Heoctohides, a Th|;ptaian, who, upon 
seeiaf; his country besieged by the Athe- 
nians, and a law forbidding any one on 
pain of death to speak of peace, went to 
the market place with a rope about his 
neck, and boldly told his countrymen to 
treat him as they pleased, provided they 
saved the city from the calamities which 
the continuation of thQ war seemed to 
threaten The Thrasians were awakened, 
the law was abrogated, and Hegetorides 

Helesa. the most beautiful woman of 
her age, daughter of Leda and Jupiter. 

Her beauty was universally admired, and 
her hand eagerly sought afler by all the 
' young princes of Greece. Tyndarus was 
rather alarmed than pleased at the sight 
of such a nuaiber of illustrious suitors. 
He knew that he could not prefer one 
without displeasing all the rest, and from 
this perplexity he was at hist drawn by 
the artifice of Ulysses. This prince ad- 
vised ihe king to bind, by a solemn oath, 
all the suitors, that they would approve of 
the uninfluenced choice which Helen 
should make of one among them ; and 
engage to unite together to defend her 
person and character if ever any attemptsT 
were made to ravish her from the arms of 
her husband. The advice of Ulysses was 
followed, the princes consented, and Helen 
fixed her choice upon Menelaus and mar- 
ried him. Hermione was the early fruit 
of this union, w^bich continued for three 
years with n^tual happiness. After this, 
Paris, son of Priam king of Troy, came 
to Laoedsmon on pretence of sacrificing 
to Apollo. He , was kindly received by 
Menelaus, but shamefully abused his fa- 
vors, and in his absence in Crete he cor- 
rupted the fidelity of his wife Helen, and 
persuaded her to follow him to Troy B. C. 
1198. At bis return Menelaus, highly sen- 
sible of the injury he had received, assem- 
bled the princes, and reminded them 
of their solemn promises. They resolv- 
ed to make war against the Trojans ; and 
soon their combined forces assembled and 
sailed for the coast of Asia. ■ The behav- 
ior of Helen during the Trojan war is not 
clearly known. When Paris was killed 
in the ninth year of the war, she volunta- 
rily married Deiphobus, one of Priam's 
sons, and when Troy was taken she made 
no scruple to betray him, and to introduce 
the Greeks into his chamber, to ingratiate 
herself with Menelau». She returned to 
Sparta, and the love of Menelaus forgave 
the errors which dhe had committed — 
The age of Helen has been a matter of 

deep inquiry among the chronologists. 

A young woman of Sparta, often con- 
founded with the daughter of Leda. As 
she was going to be sacrificed, l)ecause 
the lot had fallen upon her, an eagle came 
and carried away the knife of the priest. 

An island on the coast of Attica. 

A daughter of the emperor Constantino 

who married Julian. The mother of 


Helenia, a festival in Laconia, in ho- 
nor of Helen, who received their divine 

Ht:LEBroR, a Lydian prince who accom- 
panied iEneas to Italy. 

Heleitus, a celebrated soothsayer, son 
of Priam ancjl Hecuba, greatly respected 
by all the Trojans. He was the only one 
of Priam's sons who survived the ruin of 
his country. — A RutoUaa kiUed by PaUaa. 

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Hblkkni Lvcvb, a place near Rome. 

HxLss or Hales^ a river of Lucania 
near Velia. 

Heliadcs, the daughters of the Sun and 
Clyinene. They were three in number, 
Lampetie, Phaetusa, and Lampcthusa. 
They were so afflicted at the death of their 
brother Phaeton, that they were changed 
by the gods into poplars, and their tears 
into precious amber, on the banks of tiie 

river Po. The first inhabitants of 


Heliast.c, a name given to the judges 
of the most numerous tribunal at Athens. 
They consisted of one thousand, and 
sometimes of one tuousand 3ve hundred. 

HfLicAON, a Trojun prince, son of An- 

HxLicx, a star near the north pole, ge- 
nerally called Ursa major. A town of 

Achaia. A daughter of Silenus, king of 

iGgiale. A daughter of Lycaon, king 

of Arcadia. 

Hblicor, now 2^aro-Voumj a moun- 
tain of BcBOtia, on the borders of Phocis. 
It was sacred to the Muses, who had there 
a temple. A river of Macedonia. 

Helicoi«iaobs, a name given to the 

Helicoitis, a daughter of Tbespius. 

Hbliodorus, one of the favorites of 

Seleucus Philopator, kins of 8yria. A 

Greek mathematician of Larissa. A 

famous sophist and author of an entertain- 
ing romance, called JEthiopica. A learn- 
ed Greek rhetorician in the age of Horace. 

A man who wrote a treatise on tombs. 

A poet. A geographer.^— A iur- 

geon at Rome in Juvenal's age. 

HxuooABALua, a deity among the PhoB- 
nicians.— — —M. Aureliua Antoninus, a 
Roman emperor, ion of Varius Marcellus, 
caHed Heliogabalua, because be bad been 
priest of that divinity in Phoenicia. After 
the death of Macrinus he was invested 
with the imperial purple, and the senate, 
bowever unwilling to submit to a youth 
only fourteen years of age, approved of 
hia election, anil bestowed upon him the 
title of Augustus. Rome however soon 
displayed a scene of cruelty and debaueb- 
ery. The prince raised his horse to the 
honors of the consulship, and obliged his 
subjects to pay adoration to the god fieli- 
ogabalus, which was no other than a large 
black stone, whose figure resembled that 
of a cone. His licentiousness soon dis- 
pleased the populace, and Heliogabalus, 
was slain by his soldiers in the eighteenth 
yew of his age, after a reign of three yean, 
nine months and four days. His cruelties 
were as conspicuous as his licentiousness. 

Heliopolis, now Matareoj a famous city 
of Lower Egypt.— —— There was a small 
village of the same name near Babylon. 
——A town of Syria, now Balbeek. 

HxListoir, a town and river of Arcadia. 

Heuum, a name given to the mouth of 
the Maese in Germany. 

llsLivs, a celebrated fkvorite of the 
emperor Nero, put to death 'by order of 

Gatba, for his cruellies. The Greek 

name of the sun, or Apollo. 

Hemxu9, a river of Cos. 

Hellamce, a sister of Clitus, who waa 
nurse to Alexander. 

Hellanicus, a celebrated Greek histo- 
rian, bom at Mitylene. A brave officer 

rewarded by Alexander. An historian 

of Miletus. 

Hellanocrates, a man of Larissa. 

Hellas, an ancient name of Thessaly, 

sometimes applied to all Greece. A 

beautiful woman mentioned by Horace a» 
beloved by Marius ; the lover killed her 
in a fit of passion, and afterwards destroy- 
ed himself. 

Helue, a daughter of Athamas and Ne- 
phele, sister to Phryxus. She fled from 
her father's house with her brother, to 
avoid the cruel oppression of her mother- 
in-law, Ino. According to some accounts 
she was carried through the air on a f^ld- 
en ram which her mother had received 
fiom Neptune, and in her passage she be- 
came giddy and fell from her seat into that 
part of the sea which from her received 
the name of HaMespont. 

HsLLEif, son of Deucalion and Pyrrha' 
reigned in Phthiotis about one thousand 
four hundred and ninety- fiv« years before 
the Christian era, and gave the name of 
Hellenians to his subjects. 

Hbllbmes, the inhabitants of Greece. 

Hbllbspoi«tias, a wind blowing from 
the north-east. 

HBiXB>'oiTtut, now the DardandUty a 
narrow strait between Asia and Buropey 
near the Propontis, which received its 
name from Helle who was drowned there 
in her voyage to Colchis. It is celebrated 
fw the love and death of Leander, and 
for the bridge of boats which Xerxes built 

over it when he invaded Greece. The 

country along the Hellespont on the Asiat- 
ic coast bears the same name. 

Hbelopia, a small country of Eubcea. 
The people were called ffellapeg. 

Hellotia, two festivals, one of which 
was observed in Crete, in honor of Euro- 
pa, whose bones were then carried in sol- 
emn procession, with a myrtle garland no 
less than twenty cubits in circumference. 
The other festival was celebrated at Cor- 
inth with games and races, where young 
men entered the lists and generally ran 
with burning torches in their hands. It 
was instituted in honor of Minerva. 

Hblnbs, dn ancient king of Arcadia, ice, 

Heloris, a general of the people of 
Rhegium, sent to besiege Messana, which 
Dionysius the tyrant defended. He feU 
in battle. 

Hblobum and Hslokus, now JUnri Ucd^' 

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a town and rwer of SicUy. A river of 

Magna Grscia. 

Helos, a place of Arcadia. A town 

of Laconia taken and destroyed by the 
Lacedsemonians under Agis the third, of 
the race of the Heraclidte, because they 
refused to pay the tribute which was im- 
posed upon thein. The conquerors reduc- 
ed the inhabitants to the lo-A^est and most 
miserable slavery, a.rid made a law which 
forbade their masters either to give them 
their liberty, or to sell them in any other 

HfLOTJE and Helotss, the pQblic slaves 
of Sparta. ' 

Hex,vetia, a vestal virgin struck dead 
with lightning in Trajan's reign. 

Helvstii, an ancient nation of Gaul, 
conquered by J. Caesar. 

HsLviA, the mother of Cicero. Riei- 

na, a town of Picenum. 

Heltioia, the name of a Roman fa- 
mily. , 

Helvii, now Fiversy a people of Gaul, 
along the Rhone. 

Heltillum, a town of Umbria, now 

HELVf WA, a fountain of Aquinum. 

Helvius Ginna proposed a law, which 
however was not passed, to permit Caesar 

to marry whatever woman he chose. 

A poet. 

Helch, a river of Scythia. 

HEi.rMus and PArropxs, two hunters at 
the court of Acestes in Sicily. 

Hemathion, a son of Aurora and Ce- 
phaluB, or Tithonus. 

Hemithea, a daughter of Cycnus and 
Proqlea, exposed with her brother Tones 
by her father, and carried by the wind to 
Tenftdos. Achilles offered her violence, 
but the earth opened and swallowed her 
after she had entreated the assistance of 
the ^ds. 

Henkti, a people of Paphlagonia, who 
are said to have settled in Italy near the 
Adriatic, where they gave the name of 
f^enetia to their habNItions. 

Heniochi, a people of Asiatic Sarma- 
tia, near Colchis. 

Hepha rriA, the capital town of Lem- 

nos. A festival in honor of Vulcan at 


AEPHjEstiADEs, a oamc applied to the 
iiipari isles as sacred to Viiican. 

Hephjbstii, mountains in Lycia Which 
are 0et on fire by the lightest touch of a 
burning torch. 

Hbphastio, a Greek grammarian of 
Alexandria in the age of the emperor Ve- 

Hephjestion, a Macedonian famous for 
his iAimacy with Alexander. Alexander 
often observed that Craterus was the 
friend of the king, but Hephasstion the 
friend of Alexander. He died at Ecbata- 
na, three hundred and twenty-five years 
before the Cfhristian era. 

HEPTAPHoifos, a portico, which receiv- 
ed this name, because the voice was re- 
echoed seven times in it. 

Heptapolis, a country of Egypt, which 
contained seven cities. 

Heptapylos, a surname of Thebes In 
B(£otia. from its seven gates. 

Hera, the name of Juno among the 

Greeks. A daughter of Neotune and 

Ceres. A town of iBolia ana of Arcar- 

dia. A town of Sicily, called also 


Hkraclba, an ancient town of Sicily, 
near Agrigentum. A town of Macedo- 
nia. Another in Pontus, celebrated for 

its naval power. There were no less 

than forty cities of that name in difllbrent 
jparts of the world, all built in honor of 

TIercules. A daughter irf Hiero, tyrant 

of Sicily. 

Heracleia, a festival at Athens cele- 
brated every fifth year, in honor of Hercu- 
les. The Thisbians and Thebans in Bceo- 
tia, observed a festival of the same name, 
in which they offered ^apples to the god. 

There was afso a festival at Sicyon in 

honor of Hercules. — ; — At Lindus, a so- 
lemnity of the same name was also ob- 
served, and at the celebration nothing was 
heard but execrations and profline words. 

Heracleum, a promontory of Cappado- 

cia. A town of Egypt Tie port 

town of Gnossus in Crete. 

Heracleotes, a surname of Dionyaius 

the philosopher. A philosopher of Be- 

raclea, who, like his master Zeno, and aH - 
the Stoics, firmly believed that pain was 
not an evil. A severe illness, attended 
with the most acute pains) obliged him to 
repounce his principles, and at the same 
time the philosophy of the Stoics, abo^t 
two hundred and sixty^four yeiars beforb 
the Christian era. 

Heracliojb, the descendants of Hercu- 
les, grealty celebrated in ancient history. 
Hercules at his death left to his son Hyllas 
all the rights and claims which he had 
lipon the Peloponnesus. The recovery of 
the Peloponnesus by the descendants of 
Hercules forms an interesting epoch in an- 
cient history, which is universally believ- 
ed to have happened eighty years after the 
Trojan war, or one thousand one hundred 
and four years before the Christian era. 
This conquest was totally achieved about 
one hundred and twenty yean after the 
Rtat attempt of Hyllus. 

HEBACuDis^a philosopher of Heraclea 
in Pontus, for i^ome time disciple of 8eti-, 
sippus and Aristotle. He lived about 
three hundred afid thirty-five years before 

^the Christian era. An historian of Poiy- 

tus sumamed Lemhns. who flourished B. 

C. 177. A mai\who, after the retreat 

of Dionysius the younger from Sicily, rais- 
« ed cabals against Dion, in whose hands 
' the sovereign power was lodged. He was 

Digitized by 





pat to death by Dio»*s order. A yoatb 

4^" ^rracuse ia tho battle in which Nkias 
was defeated. A 0on of Agathoc|^. 

Hkkaclitus, a celebrjUed Greek pbilo- 
■opher of Epheaus, who flourished about 
five hundred years before the Christian 
era. Naturally of a melancholy disposi- 
tion, he passed his time in a solitary and 
unsocial manner, and received the appel- 
lation of the obscure philosopher, and the 
mourner, from his unconquerable custom 
of weeping at the follies, frailty, and vi- 
cissitaoe of human affairs. lie fixed his 
residence in a dunghill, in hopes that the 
continual warmth which proceeded from 
it might dissipate a dropsical complaint, 
and restore him to the enjoyment of his 
former health. Such a remedy proved 
ineffectual, and the philosopher suffered 
himself to die in the sixtieth year of his 
age. Some say that he was torn to pieces 

by dogs. A Lyric poet. A writer 

of Halicamassus, intimate with Callima- 

chus. A native of Lesbos. A writer 

of 8icyon. 

Heraclius, a river of Greece. —A 

brother of Gonstantine. A Roman em- 
peror, &c. 

Herjea, a town of Arcadia. Festi- 
vals at Argos in hwior of Juno, who was 
the patroness of that city. They were also 
observed by the colonies of the Argives 
which had been planted at Samos and 
jEgina. There was a festival of the same 
name in Elis, celebrated every fifth year, 
in which sixteen matrons wove a garment 

for. the goddess. There were also 

others instituted by Hippodaraia, who had 
received assistance from Juno when she 
married Pelops. Sixteen matrons, each 
attended by a maid, presided at the cele- 
bration. There was also a solemn day 

of mourning at Corinth which bore the 
«ame name, in commemoration of Medea's 
children, who were buried in Juno's Ifim- 

ple. Another festival of the same name 

at Pallene. 

IIer^i MONTE9. a cIl^B of mouDtaius 
at the north of Sicily. 

IIeh^uu, a temple and grove of Juno, 

situate between Argos and Mycens. A 

town of Thrace. 

Herbxssus, a town of Sicily. 

Hekjiita, an inland town of Sicily. 

Herceius, an epithet given to Jupiter. 

Herculanea tia, a mound raised be- 
tween the Lucrine lake and the sea, called 
also Herculeum iter. 

HsrculankuMj a town of Campania 
swallowed ap, With Pompeii, by an earth- 
quake, produced froiA an eruption of 
mount Vesuvius. August d4th, A. D. 79, 
in the reign of Titus. After being buried 
under the lava for more than one thou- 
saad six hojidred years, these famous 
cities were-discovered in the beginning of 
the last centuxy. 

HsacuLst, a celebrated hero ; who, of. 
ter death, was ranked amMig the gods, 
and received divine honors. He was Ae 
son of Jupiter and Alcmena ; and his birth 
was attended with many supernatural 
events. In his eighteenth year he deliv- 
ered the neighborhood of mount Cithcron 
from a huge Hon, and released his country 
from the annual tribute of an hundred 
oxen, which it paid to Erginus, king of 
Orcbomenos. As Hercules, by the will 
of -Jupiter, was subjected to the power of 
Eurystheus, his brotheV, kiifg of Argos, 
and obliged to obey him in every respect, 
Eurystheus ordered him to appear at My- 
cense, and perform whatever labors he 
should impose upon him. Hercules re- 
fused i but afterwards consulted the oracle 
of Ap<ffio, and was told that he most be 
subservient for twelve years to the wilt of 
Eurystheus. He therefore repaired to My- 
cense, determined to bear with fortitude 
whatever gods or men imposed upon him. 
Eurystheus commanded him to achieve a 
number of enten>rises the most difficult 
and arduous ever kflown, generally called 
the Twelve Labors of Hercules ; which 
were as follows :«-!. He vma to kill the 
lion of Nemtca, which ravaged the coun- 
try near Mycenee. The hero boldly at- 
tacked him with his club, pursued him to 
his den, and, after a sharp engagement, 
choked him to death. He then carried 
the dead beast on his shoulders to Myce- 
na;.— 21 To destroy the Lernxan hydra, 
which, according to Diodorus, had* one 
hundred heads.— 3. To bring alive and 
unhurt Into the presence of Enrysthens a 
stag, famous for its incredible swiftness, 
its golden horns, and brazen feet. In the 
accomplishment of this task Hercules was 
a whole yeaf occupied ;• but he at length 
caught the Mag in a trap. — 4. To bring 
alive a wild boar which ravaged the neigh- 
borhood of Erymanthus. — 5. To clean the 
stables of Augias, where three thousand 
oxen had been confined for many years. — 
6. To kill the carnivorous birds which in- 
fested the countty near the lake Stympba- 
lis, in Arcadia. — 7. To bring alive a pro- 
digious wild boar which laid waste the 
island of Crete.— 8. To obtain the mares 
of Diomedes, which fed upon ^man 
flesh. — 9. To obtain the girdle of thequeea 
of the Amazons.— 10. To kill the nM>nster 
of Geryon, king of Gades, and bring to 
Argos his numerous flocks, which lived 
upon human bodies. — 11. To gather ap- 
ples from the garden of the Hesp^ides.— 
12. This Was the last and most dangerous 
of his exploits, in which he was com- 
manded to bring upon earth the three- 
headed dog, Cerberus. Hercules descend- 
ed into hell by a cave on mount Tenants, 
seized the monster, whom he carried be- 
for» Eurystheus : and afterwards convey- 
ed hira back. Besides these ardaous la- 

Digitized by 





bora, HercnleS" achieved a number of 
others, of his own accord, eqaally great 
and wonderful.— Sucji are somS of the 
mos^ sUiking characteristics of the life of 
Hercules, vt^ho is said to have supported 
for a while the weight of the heavens upon 
his shoulders, and to have separated by 
the force of his arm the celebrated moun- 
tains which were afterwards called the 
boundaries pf his labors/ He is held up by 
the ancients as a true pattern of virtue and 
piety I and. as his whole life had be^n 
employed for the common benefit of man- 
kind, he was deservedly rewarded with 

immortality. A son of Alexander the 

Great. A surname of the emperor Com- 

modus, &.G. 

Herculeum, a promontory in theiBoun- 

try of the Brutii. ^Fretum, a name 

given to the strait which forms a commu- 
nication between the Atlantic and Medi- 

Hkrculeus, one of Agrippina's mur- 

Herculeus Lacus, a lake of Sicily. 

HsBcuus CoLUMiTf , tw» lofty moun- 
tains, situate see on the most southern 
extremities of Spain, and the other on the 
opposite part of Africa. They were call- 
ed by the ancients ^byla and Caipe. They 
are reckoned the boundaries of the labors 
of Hercules. ^Labronis vel Liburni Tor- 
tus, a seaport town, now Leghorn. ' ■■ ~ " 
Promoatorium, a c^e at the bottom of 

Italy, now Spartivento. ^Insule, two 

islands near Sardinia. Portus, a sea- 
port of the Brutii, on the western coast. 

Lueus, a wood in Germany sacred to 

Hercules. A small island on the coast 

of Spain. 

Herctiva, a nymph who accompanied 

Ceres as she travelled over the world. 

A river of BoBOtia. 

Hercthia, a celebrated forest of Gee-' 
many. It contained the modern countries 
of Switzerland, Basil, Spires, Transylva- 
nia, and a great part of Russia. 

Herookia, a small town of Apulia. 

Hsrdorics, a man put to death by Tar- 

Here A, a town of Arcadia on an emi- 
nence, the bottom of which was watered 
by the Alpheoa. 

Heremnius Senecio, a Roman histo- 
rian under Doraitian.— — •'An officer of 
Seitorius defeated by Pomi[>ey. A cen- 
turion sent in pursuit of Cicero by Anto- 
ny. He cut off the orator's head.-— — 
Caius, a man to whom Cicero dedicates 
his beok de RhetorUA. A Samnite gen- 
eral.— —Fhilo, a Phcenician who wrote a 
book an Adrian's reign. 

Hbreus, a son of Lycaon, who founded 
a dty itt Arcadia, called Herea. 

HsRitbus, a philosopher of Chalcedon. 

Hehiuts, a king of Freneste, boa of the 
nymph Feronla. 


BsRMACRus, a native of Mitylene, shoa 
cessor and disciple of :&»icUnis, B. C. 
267. ^ 

Heru^, statues of Mercury in the' city 

of Athens. Two youths who attended 

those who consulted the oracie of Tropho- 

HERMiBA, a festival in Crete, where the 
masters waited upon the servants. , 

Hermjeuh, a town of Arcadia. A 

promontory at the east of Carthage, now 
cape Bon. 

Hermaooras Bolides, a lamous rheto- ' 

rician. A philosopher of Amphipolis. 

A famous orator and philosopher. 

Hsrmakdica, a town of the Vaccei in 

HsRHANDURi, a people of Germany. . 

HERHAifNi, a people of Germany. 

Hermaphroditus, a son of Venus and 
Mercury, educated on mount Ida by the 

Hebmas, an ancient father of the church, 
in or near the age of the apostles. 

Hermathena, a statue which repre- 
sented Mercury and Minerva in the same 
body. This statue was generally placed 
in schools where eloquence and pbiloso- 
phy were taught. 

Herueas, a tyrant of Mysia. A gen- 
eral of Antiochus. 

Hermeias, a native of Methymna who 
wrote an history of Sicily. 

Hermes, the name of Mercury among 

the Greeks. A famous gladiator.— —*s. 

Am Egyptian i&ilosopher. 

HBaMSiiiAiiAx, an elegiac poet of Colo- 
phon, son of Agoneus. A native of 

Cyprus, who wrote an history of Phrygia. 

HsRMiAs, a Galatian philosopher in the 
second cent<kry. 

Hermiitius, a general of the Hermanni* 

A Roman who defended a bridge with 

Codes against the army of Porsenna.^— « 
A Trorjan killed by Catillus in the Rutu^ 
lian war. 

Hebmiomb, a daughter of Mars and Ve-' 
nus, who married Cadmus. The gods, 
except Judo, honored her nuptials with 
their presence, and she received, as a pre- 
sent, a rich veil and a splendid necklace 
which had been made by Vulcan. She 
Was chiwged into a serpent with her hus- 
band Cadmus, and placed in the Elysiait 

gelds. A daughter of Menelaus and 

Helen. She was privately promised in 
marriage to Orestes the son of Agamem- 
non ; but her father gave her hand to Pyrr- 
hus the son of Achilles, whose services he 
had experienced In the Trojan war. Pyrr- 
hus, at liis return from Troy, carried 
home Hermio^e and married her. Her- 
mione, tenderly attached to her cousin 
Orestes, looked upon Pyrrhus with hvror 
and indignation. She gave herself to 
Orestes after the murder of Pyrrhus, and 
received the kingdom of Sparta as a dow- 

Digitized by 




ry.— A town of Argolis where Ceres had 
a famous temple. 

Hkrmionia:, a city near the Riphaean 

HsRMioificTrs siNCB,,a bay on the coast 
of Argulis near i^crinione. 

Hermifpus, a fieedman, dnciple of Phi- 
lo, in the reign of Adrian, by whom he 
was greatly esteemed. He wrote five 

books upon dreams.- Tlie son of Lysis, 

who distinguished himself as a poet by 

forty theatrical pieces. A Peripatetic 

philosopher of Smyrna, who flourished 
B. C. 210. 

HsiufocRATEs, a general of Syracuse. 
A sophist celebrated for his rising tal- 
ents. The father-in-law of Dionysius, 

tyrant of Sicily. A Rhodian emploj^' 

ed by Artaxerxes to corrupt the Grecian 

Hermodorus, a Sicilian, pupil to Plato. 

A philosopher of Ephesus. who is said 

to have assisted the Roman aecemvirs in 
the composition of the ten tables of laws. 

A native of Salamis. A poet who 

wrote a book on the laws of different na- 

HERMooErTEs, an architect of Alabanda 

in Caria. A rhetorician in the second 

century. He died A. D. 1(31, and tt is said 
that his body was opened, and his heart 
found hairy and of an extraordinary size. 

A lawyer in the ape of Dioclesian. 

A musician. A sophist of Tarsus, 

of brilliant talents. 

Hermolaus, a young Macedonian 
among the attendants of Alexander. As 
he was one day hunting with the king he 
'killed a wild boar whieh was coming to- 
wards him. Alexander, who followed 
«lose behind him, was so disappointed 
l>ecan8e the beast had been killed before 
iie could dart at it, that he ordered Her- 
molaus to be severely whipped. This 
treatment irritated Hermolaus, and he con- 
<«pired to take away the king's life, with 
others who were displeased with the cru- 
el treatment he had received. The plot 
was discovered by one of the conspira- 
tors, and Hermolans was put to death. 

Hermopolis, two towns of Egypt, now 
Jishmunein and Demtnkur. 

Hermotimus, a famous prophet of Cla^ 
^omentf!. It is said that his soul separat- 
ed itself from his body, and wandered in 
«very part of the earth to explain futurity, 
afler which it returned again and animat- 
ed his frame. 

Hermunduri, a people of Germany, 
«ubdued by Aurelius. They were at the 
north of the Danube. 

Hermus, a river of Asia Minor, whose 
sands, according to the poets, were cover- 
«d with gold. It flows into the JBgevn 

HERNfci, a people of Campania, cele- 
brated for their inveterate eBmity to Rome. 

Hero, a beautiful priestess (tf Venus a< 
Sestos, greatly enamored of Leander, a. 
youth of AbyiiiM. These two lovers wer© 
so faithful to one another, that Leander in 
the night escaped from the vigilance of 
his family, and swam across the He!les> 
pont, while Hero in Sestos directed hi9 
course by holding a burniBg torch on the 
top of a high tower. After many inter- 
views of mutual affection and tenderness, 
Leander was drowned in a tempestuous 
night as he attempted his usual course, 
and Hero in despau- threw herself down 
from her tower and perished in the sea. 

Herodes, surnamed the Great and j9«- 
ctUonita, followed the interest of Brutus 
and Cassius, and afterwards that of Anto- 
ny. He was made king of Judtea by 
means of Antony. He died in the seven- 
tieth year of his age, after a reign' of forty 
years.— —Antipas, a son of Herod the 

Great, governor of Galilcea. Agrippa, 

a Jew, intimate with the emperor Caligu- 
la. This name was common to many of 
the Jews. 

Herodvaitds, a Greek historian who 
flourished A. D. 247. He was bora at Al- 
exandria, and he was employed among 
the olficeiB of the Roman emperors. He 
wrote a Roman history in eight books. 

HcnoDocus, a physician surnamed Oym- 

naaticy who flourished B. C. 443. A 

grammarian surnamed Crateleus^ B. C. 123. 

Herodotus, a celebrated historian of 
Halicarnassus. To procure a lastin g fame 
he publicly repeated at the Olympic games 
the history- which he had composed, in 
his thirty-ninth year, B. C. 445. it waa 
received with universal applause. Hero- 
dotus is among the historians what Homer 
is among the poets, and Demosthenes 

among the orators. A man who wrote 

a treatise concerning Epicurus. A The- 

ban wrestler of M«gara, in the age of De- 
metrius, son of Antigonus. He was six 

feet and a half in height. Another, 

whose victories are celebrated by Pindar. 

Heroes, a namfe which was given by 
the ancients to such as were born from a 
god, or to such as had signalized them- 
selves by their actions, and seemed to de- 
serve immortality by the service they had 
rendered their country. According to the 
notions of the stoics, they inhabited a 
pure apd serene climate, situate above the 

Herois, a festival, celebrated every 
ninth year by the Delphians, in honor of 
a heroine. 

Heroh, two mathematicians, one of 
whom is called the ancient and the other 
the younger. 

Heroopolis, a town of Egypt on the 
Arabic gulf. 

HsRoPHiLA, a Sybil, who, as some sup- 
pose, came to Rome in the reign of Tar- 

Digitized by 





HsaoPHiLuaf an impostor, in the reign 
of J. Cssar, who pretended to be the 
grandson of Marias. ■ - A Greek physi- 
cian about five luindred and' seventy years 
before tbe.vhristian era. 

Heap A, a town of Cappadoclt. 

IIcRSE, a daughter of Cecrops, king of 
Athens, belovecf by Mercury. IlerSe be- 
came mother of Cephalus by Mercury, 
and after death she received divine hon- 
ors at Athens. A wife of Danaus. 

Herskphoria, festu'als of 'Athens in 
boner of Minerva. " 

Hkrsilia, one of the Sabines carried 
atway by the Romans at the celebration of 
the Consualia. She was given and mar- 
ried to Romulus. 

Hertha and Hbrta, a goddess among 
the (lermaas supposed to be the same as 
tiie earth. ^' 

HsRULf, a savage nation in the northern 
parts' of Europe. 

IlEs.crrus, a mountain near Pseonia. 

Hesiodus, a celebrated poet born at As- 
cra, in Boeotia. He lived in the age of 
Homer, and even obtained a poetical prize 
in competition witli him, according to 
Varro and Plutarch. His poems are called" 
JThe Works and, the Days^ Theogony^ and 
the Shield of Hercules ; besides these he 
virrote others now lost. ' Hesiod was mur- 
dered by th^ son» of Ganyctor of Naupac- 
tum, and his body was thrown into the 
sea. Some dolphins brought back the 
body to the shore, which was immediately 
known, and the murderers were discov- 
ered by the poet's dogs, and thrown into 
tbe sea. If Hesiod flourished in tte age 
of Homer, he lived 907 B. C. 

Hesio.nb, a daughter of Itaomedon, 
king of Troy. It fell to her lot to be eif- 
posed to a sea-monster, to whom the Tro- 
jans yearly presented a marriageable vir- 
gin, to appease the resentment of Apollo 
and Neptune, whom Laomedon had of- 
fended, but Hercules promised to deliver 
her, provided he received as a reward six 
beautiful horses. Laomedon consented, 
and Hercules attacked the monster just as 
be was going to devour Ilesione, and he 
killed him with his club. Laomedon, 
bowever, refused to reward the hero's 
services ; and Herculetf, incensed at his 
treachery, besieged Troy, and put the king 
and all his family to the sword,, except 
Podarces, or Priam, who had advised his 
father to give the promised horses to his 
sister's deliverer. The conqueror gave 
Ilesione in raarriace to his friend Tela- 
mon, and he established Priam upon his 
father's throne. 'Paris was afterwards 
sent to Greece to reclaim the po.ssessions 
of Hesione, and from this incident arose 
the Trojan war. The wife of \auplius. 

Hesperi Ky a large island of Africa, once 

the residence of Hw Amazons. A name 

common both to Italy and Spaio. It is 

derived from Heaper or Vesper, the setting 
'sun, or the evening, whence the Greeks 
called Italy Hesperia, because it was sit- 
uate at the setting suo, or il^the west.^— 
A daughter of the Cebrenus. 

IIesperides, three celebrated nymphs, 
daughters of llespcrus. They %ere ap- 
pointed to guard the golden apples which 
Juno gave to Jupiter on the day of their 
nuptials ; and the place of their residence, 
placed beyond the ocean by Hesiod, is 
more universally believed to be near mount 
Atlas in Africa, according to Apollodorus. 
This celebrated place or garden abounded 
with fruits of the most delicious kind, and 
was carefully guarded by a dreadful drag- 
on which never slept. 

Hssperis, a town of Cyrenaica, now 
Bernic or BengaiL 

IIesperitis, a country of Africa. 

Hesperus, a son of Japetus, brother tn» 
Atlas. He came to Italy, and the coun~ 
tjy received the name of Hesperia from 

him, according to some accounts. Tha 

name of Hesperus was also applied to the 
planet Venus, when it appeared after the 
setting of the sun. 

Hestia, one of the Hesperides. 

Hestijsa, a town of Euboea. 

Hesus, a deity among the Gauls, th» 
same as the Mars of the Romans. 

IIesychia, a daughter of Thespius. 

Hesychiu*, the author of a valuable 
Greek lexicon in the beginning of the third 

IIetriculvic, now Lattarico, a town in 
the country of^ the Brutii. 

Hetruria and Etruria, a celebrated 
cotmtry of Italy, at the west of the Tiber. 
The inhabitants were particularly famous 
for their superstition, and great confidence 
in omens, dreams, and auguries. 

Heurippa, a surname of Diana. 

Hexapylum, a gate at Syracuse. 

Hi arras or Iarbas, a king of Gsetulia. 

Hibcb, a name applied to a Spaniard, as 
living near the river Hiberus or Iberus. 

HiBERNiA and IIybernia, a large island 
at the west of Britain, now called Ireland, 

Hibrildes, an Athenian general. 

Hi c ETA ox, a son of Laomedon, brother 

to Priam. The father of Thymaetes, 

who came to Italy with ^Eneas. 

HiCETAs, a philosopher of Syracuse. • 

A tyrant of Syracuse. 

IIiEMPSAL, a king of Numidia. 

HiERA, a woman who married Tele- 

phns, king of Mysia, The mother of 

Pandarus and Bitias, by AIcanor.-« — One 
of tlie Lipari islands. 

H1ERAFOL19, a town of Syria, near the 
Euphrates. Another of Phrygia, fa- 
mous for hot baths. Another of Crete. 

HiERAx, a youth who awoke Argus to 
inform him that Mercury was stealing lo. 
Mercury killed him, and changed him Into 
a bird of prey. Antiochus king of Syr- 

y Google 




t», and brother to Seleueus, receiTed the 
•umame of Hierax. An Egyptian phi- 
losopher in the third century. 

HiERicHus, the naime of Jericho in the 
boly land, called the city of palm-trees. 

HiERo 1st, a king of Syracuse, after his 
brother Gelon, who rendered hiiq^elf odi- 
ous in the beginning of his reign by his 
cruelty and avarice. \ He obtained three 
different crowns at the Olympic games, 
two in horse races, and one at a chariot 
race. In the latter part of his reign he 
became the patron of learning, genius, and 
merit. He died, after a reign of eighteen 

years, B. C. 467. The secofldof that 

name, king of Syracuse, and for fifty-nine 
years a firm ally of the Romans. He died 
ifl the ninety-fourtli year of his age, about 
two hundred and twenty -five years before 
the christian era. He liberally patronized 
the learned, and employed the talents of 
Archimedes for the good of his country. 
■ ■ ■ An Athenian, intimate with Nicias 
the general. 

HisRociESARSA, a town of Lydia. 

HiERooxPiA, an islaod near Paphos In 

HiERocLES) a persecutor of the Chris- 
tians under Dioclesian. A Platonic phi- 
losopher, who taught at Alexandria.— —A 

general in the interest of Demetrius. 

A governor of Bithynia and Alexandria, 
under Dioclesian. An officer. 

HiERODULUM, a town of Libya. 

HiERONicA LEX, by Hiero, tyrant of Si- 
cily, to settle* the quantity of corn, the 
price and time of receiving it, between the 
fanners of Sicily, and the collector of the 
corn tax at Rome. 

HiEHoNYMus, a tyrant of Sicily who 
succeeded his father or grandfather Hiero, 
whenonly fifteen years old. He rendered 
himself odious by hia cnielty, oppression, 
and debauchery. He was assassinated, 
and all his family was overwhelmed in 
his fall, and totally extirpated, B. G. 214. 
An historian of Rhodes An Athe- 
nian set over the fleet, while Conon went 
to the king of Persia. A Christian wri- 
ter, commonly called St. Jerome^ born in 
Fannonia, and distinguished for his zeal 
against heretics. He died A. D. 4i20, in 
his ninety-first year. 

HiEROFHiLus, a Greek physician. 

HiERosoLYMA, a celebrated city of Pa- 
lestine, the capital of JtidsRa, taken by 
Pompey, who, on that account, is sur- 
named Hierosoivmarius. Titus also took 
it and destroyed it the 8th of September, 
A. D. 70. 

HioNATiA Via, a large road which led 
fi-'Om the Ionian sea to the Hellespont. 
Hcross Macedonia, about five hundred ana 
thirty Qiiles. 

HiLARiA, a daughter of Leucippuy and 
Philodice. An she and her sister Phoebe 
were going to marry their cousins LyA- 

ceus and Idas, they were carried away liy 

Castor and Pollux, who married them. 

Festivals at Rome in honor of the mother 
of the gods. 

HiLARius, a bishop of Poictiers, in 
France, who -^vrote several treatises, the 
most famous of which 'is on the Trinity, 
in twelve books. Hilary died A. D. 372, 
in his eightieth year. 

HiLLEVioNES, a people of Scandinavia. 

HiMELLA, now ^ia, a small river in the 
country of the Sabines. 

HiMERA, a city of Sicily built by the 
people of Zancle, and destroyed by the 
Carthaginians two hundred and forty 

years after. There were two rivers of 

Sicily of the same name. The ancient 

name of the Eurotae. 

HiMi&do, a Carthaginian sent to explore 

the western parts of Europe. A son of 

Amilcar, who succeeded his father in the 
command of the Carthaginian armies in 
Sicily. He died, with his army, by a 
plague, B. C. 398. 

HippAOORAs, a man who wrote an ac- 
count of the republic of Carthage. 

HippALciMus, a son of Pelops and Hip- 
podamia, who was among the Argonauts. 

HippALCs, the first who sailed in open 
sea from Arabia to India. 

HiFFARCHiA, a woman in Alexander's 
age, who became enamo^d of Crates, the 
Cynic philosopher, because she heard him 
discourse. She married him, though be 
at first tedained her addresses, and rep- 
resented his poverty and meanness. 

HippARCHus, a son of Pisistratus, who 
succeeded his father as tyrant of Athens, 
with his brother Hippias. He patronized 

toe of the learned men of the age, and 
tinguished himself by his fondness for 
literature. The seduction of a sister of 
Harmodius raised him many enemies, and 
he was at last assassinated by a desperate 
band of conspirators, with Harmodius and 
Aristogiton at their head, five hundred 

and thhrteen years be'fore Christ. One 

of Antony's ft-eedmen. Th« first person 

who was banished by ostracism at Athens. 
The father of Asclepiades. A cele- 
brated mathematician and astronomer of 
Nicjfca. He was the first who, after 
Thales and Sulpicius Gallus, found out 
the exact time of eclipses, of which he 
made a calculation for six hundred years. 
He died one hundred and twenty-five 

years before the Christian era. An 

Athenian who conspired against Heracli- 
des, who kept Athens for Demetrius. 

HipfARmus, ason ofDionysins. The 

fkther of Dion. 

HippARioR, one of Dion's sons. 

HipPAscs, a son of Ceyx, who awlsted 

Hercules against Eurytus. A pupil of 

Pythagoras, htxn at Metapontum. He 
sui^posed that every thing was produced 
from fire.— A centaur, killed at the nnp- 

Digitized by 





tkJs of Pirltbous. ^An Illegitimate son 

; ofPriam. 

HippEus, a son of Hercules by Procris, 

eldest of the fifty daugliters of Thestius. 
Hippr, four small islands near Erythaj. 
HippiA, an infamous woman. Asur- 

n»aie ©f M tnerva, an d also of Ju no. 

fliFPFAs, a philosopher of Elis, who 
maintained that virtue consisted in not 
being in want of the assistance of men. 
— A son of Pisistratus, who became ty- 
rant of Athens after the death of his la- 
tber, with his brother Hipparchus. 

Hippis, an historian ana poet of Rhegi- 
■m, in the reign of Xerxes. 

HippiDs, a surname of Neptune. 

Hippo, a daughter of Scedasus, who, 
npon being ravished by the ambassadors 

of Sparta, killed herself. A celebrated 

town of Africa, on the Mediterranean.-^ 
Also a town of Spain — of the Brutii. 

HippoBOTEs, a large meadow near the 
Caspian sea, wliere fifty thousand horses 
could graze. 

HippoBOTu», a Greek historian, who 
composed a treatise on philosophers. 

HippocxifTAuai, a race of monsters 
who dwelt in Thessaly. 

Hippocooiv, a son of CEbalus, brother to 
Tyndarus. He was put to death by Her- 
cules.; AfrieodofiEneas, who distin- 

cuished himself in the funeral games of 

HippocoRTSTss, a son of ^gyptus ' 

of Hippocoon. 

UiPFocRATs, a daughter of Th^spius. 

Hippocrates, a famous physician of 
Cos; who delivered Athens from a dread- 
ful pestilence, in the beginning of the Pe- 
loponnesian war, and was publicly jb- 
warded with a golden crown, and tile 
privileges of a citizen. His memory Is 
still venerated at Cos, and the present in- 
habitants of the island show a small 
bouse, which Hippocrates, as they men- 
tion, once inhabited. An Athenian 

general in the Peloponnesian war. 

A inatheraMiclan. An officer of Chal- 

eedon, killed by Alcibiades. A Syra- 

cusan defeated by Marcellus -^The 

father of Pisistratus. A tyrant of Gela. 

HiPFocRATiA, a festival in bonor of 
Neptune in Arcadia. 

HippocREifs, a fountain of BoBotia, near 
mouQt Helicon, sacred to the muses. It 
first rose from the ground, when struck by 
the feet of the horse Pegasus. 

HippoDAMAs, a son of the Achelous 1 

of Priam. 

HiFpoDAMiA, the daughter of (Eno- 
maas, who promised her in marriage to 
him ^ho should outrun hun in a chariot, 
on condition that the defeated should 
snffer death. After thirteen had forfeited 
their lives, Pelops conquered, and obtain- 
ed the prize.-— <-A daughter of Adrastu^r, 
king of Argoa who mtirrled Pvithoua, king 

of the Lapithffi. A daughter of Danavi. 

A mistress of Achilles, daughter of 


HippooAUUB, a man of Miletus, who 
settled a republic without any previout 
knovyledge of government. A Pytha- 
gorean philosopher. An Athenian ar- 

chon. A man famous for his voracious 


Hi ppoDicB, one of the Danaldes. 

HiPFDDRoMus, a son of Hefcules. 
A Thessalian, who succeeded in a school 

at Athras. A place where liorse racea 

were exhibited. 

HiproLA, a town of Peloponnesus. 

HippoLocHUs, a son of Bellerophon.-^-« 
A sou of Giaucus also bore the same name.. 

A son of Antimachus, slain in tbet 

Trojan war. 

HiFPOLYTs, a queen of the Amazons, 
given in marriage to Theseus by Hercules^ 
who had conquered her, and taken away 
her girdle by order of Eurystheus. She 
had a son by Theseus, called Hippolytus. 
— i—The wife of Acastus, who fell in love 
with Peleus, who was in exile at her hus- 
band's court, A daughter of Cretheus«. 

HiPFOLYTUs, a son of Theseus and Hip- 
polyte, famous fur his virtues and his mis' 
fortunes. Hippolytus fled from the re> 
sentment of his fether, excited by a falsa 
accusation of his step-mother, and, as he 
pursued his.way along the sea shore, his 
horses were so frightened at the noise of 
sea-calves, which Neptune had purposely 
sent there, that they ran among tHe rocks 
till his chariot was broken and his body 
torn to pieces. Temples were raised to 
his memory, particularly at Trvzene,. 

where he received divine honors. A 

son of Ropalus, king of Sicyon, greatly be- 
loved by Apollo. A giant, killed bv 


-A son of iEgyptus.- 

christian writer in the third century. 

HippoMACHDs, a musi^an, who seveise- 
ly rebuked one of his pupils because he- 
was pra,ised. by the multitude, and observe 
ed, that it was the greatest proof of his 

HippoMEDON, a son of Nisimachus and 
Mythidice, who Was one of the seven 
chiefs who went against Thebes. 

HippoMEDusA, a daughter of Dankus. 

HippoMENEa, an Athenian arohon, who 
exposed his daughter Liroone to be de- 
voured by horses. A son of Macareus 

and Merope, who married Atalanta with 
the assistance of Venas. .These two 

fond lovers were changed into lions. 

The father of Megarens. 

HippoMoLoi, a people of Scythia, who 
lived upon the milk of horses. 

HippoN and Hi pro, a town of Africa. 

HippoNA, a goddess who presided over 
hones. " 

HippoiTAX, a Qreek satirist, bom at 
Ephesus, 540 years before the CUnstiaa 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




en. As be was naturally deformed, two 
brothers, Buplialus aud Anthernius, made 
a statue of him, WhicJb, by the derormity 
of its featureyB^ exposed the poet to uni- 
versal ridicule. Hipponax resolved to 
avenge the injury, and be wrote such 
bitter invectives and satirical lampoons 
against them, that they hanged them- 
selves in despair. 

HiPFOiciATss, a bay iii tbe country of 
the Bmtfi. 

HrppoiriuBf, a city in the country of the 

HippoNous, the father of Peribcea and 
Capaneus. He was killed by thethun- 
derboKs of Jupiter, before the walls of 

Thebes. The first name of Bellero- 

phon.-^A son of Priam. 
9 HippopooES, a people of Scythia, who 
have harats^ feet. 

Hippo8TRA'E47s, a favorite of Lais. 

H1PPOTADE8, the patronymic of ^Golns. 

HippoTAs or HippoTEs, a Trojan prince, 

changed into a river. ^The father of 

^olus, who from thence is called Hippo- 

HippoTROE, a daughter of Mestor and 
Lvsidice, carried away to the islands call- 
ed Echinades, by Neptune. One of 

tJie Nereides. A daughter of Pelias. 

HippoTHooN, a son of Neptune and 
Alope, daughter of Cercyon, exposed in 
the woods by his mother. Her shame 
was discovered, and her father ordered 
her to be put to death. Neptune changed 
her into a fountain. 

HippoTHooNTis, one of the twelve 
Athenian tribes. 

HippoTfloua, a son of tiethns, killed by 

Ajax in the Troj«i war. A son of 

Priam. ?* 

HippoTiopc, a prince who assisted the 
Trojans, and was killed by Merion. 

H1PPUR19, on«of the Cyclades. 

Hippus, a river falling into the Phasis. 

HiPsiDEs, a Macedonian. 

HiBA, a maritime town of Peloponne- 

HiRfiiTi, a pec^le of the Samnites. 
. Q.. HiRpiNus, %. EomaUj to whom Ho- 
race dedicated two of his odes. 

HiRTUs, a debauched fellow. 

HiRTiA LEX de matfistrati^us, by A. Hir- 
tius. It required tliat none of Pompey's 
adherents should be raised to any office or 
dignity in the state. 

HiRTius, AuLus, a consul with Pansa, 
who assisted Brutus when besieged at 
Mutina by Antoiw. They defeated An- 
tony, but were both killed in battle B. C. 
43. An historian. 

HisBON, a Rutulian killed by Pallas. 

HisPALis, au ancient town of Spain, 
now cdled Sevilh. 

HisPAiriA or HjaPAiri;c, called by the 
poets Iberia, Hegperia, and Hesperia Ultima^ 
a large country of Europe, separated from 

Gaul by the Pyrenenn mountains, and 
bounded on ,every other side by the sea. 
Spain was famous for its rich mines of 
silver, which employed forty thousand 
workmen, and daily yielded to the Ro- 
mans no less than twenty thousand 
drachms. These have long since tailed. 

HisFANUs, a native of Spain. 

HisPELLUM, a town of Umbria. 

Hi9Po, a noted debauchee. 

HispuLLA, an infamous woman. 

HrsTASPEs, a reIati,on of Darius IIL kill- 
ed in a battle. 

HisTER, a river. Fid. Ister. 

HisTER P^ci vius, a man distinguished 
as much by his vices as his immense 
riches. ' 

HisTijEA, a city of Eubcea, anciently 
called Talantia. 

HisTi^OTis, a country of Thessaly, sit- 
uate below monnt Olympus and mount 

Ossa, anciently called Doris. A small 

country of Euboea, of which Histiea, or 
Estisa, was the capital. 

HisTiiEus, a tyrant of Miletus, who ex- 
cited the Greeks to take up arms against 
Persia. An historian of Miletus. 

H0DIU8, a herald in the Trojan war. 

H0LOCR017, a mountain of Macedon. 

HoMERoMASTix, a sumamo given to 
Zoilus the critic. 

HoMERUs, a celebrated Greek poet^ the 
most ancient of all the profane writers. 
The age in which he lived is not Jcnown, 
though some suppose it to be about one 
hundred and sixty-eight years after the 
Trojan war, or, according to otbers, one 
hundred and sixtv years before the found- 
ation of Rome. The Arundelian Marbles 
flk Ins era nine hundred and seven years 
before Christ, and make him also the con- 
temporary with Hesiod. No less than 
seven illustrious cities disputed the right 
of having given birth to the greatest of 
poets, as it is well expressed in these 
lines : 

Smyrna, CMes, Colophon, Salofiia, Rhodasy 
Argos, AthetuB, « 

Orhis de patrid eertat, Homere, t»d. 

He was caHed Melesiffenes, because sup- 
posed to be born on the borders of the 
river M^les. In his two celebrated poems 
called the tliad and Odyssey, Homer has 
displayed the nrast consummate know- 
ledge of human nature, and rendered him- 
self immortal by the sublimity, the fire, 
sweetness and elegance of his poetry. He 
deserves a greater share of admiratiMi 
when we consider that he wrote without 
a model, and that none of his poetical Im- 
itators have been able to surpass, or, per- 
haps, to equal their great master. Alexan- 
der was so fond of Iloraer^ that he gene- 
rally placed hfs compositions under hia 
pillow, with his sword ; and he carefUIly 
deposited tlie Iliad hi one of the richest 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC - 




and most ralaable caskets of Dariaa, ob- 
serving, that the most perfect work of hu- 
man genius ought to be preiserved in a bos 
the tnost valuable ana precious in the 
world. It is said, that Pisistratus, tyrant 
of Athens, was the first who collect- 
ed and arranged the Iliad and Odyssey 
in the manner in which they now appear 
to us I and that it is to the well-directed 
pursuits Qf Lycurgus that we are Indebted 
for their preservation. Besides the Iliad 
and Odyssey, Homer wrote^ according to 
the opinion of some authors, a poem upon 
Amphiaraus's expedition against Thebes, 
besides the Phoceir, the Cercopes, the 
small Iliad, the Epicichlldes, and the Ba- 
trachomyomachia, and many hymns to 
some of the gods. One of tlie Greek 

rits called Pleiades, born at Hierapolis, 
C. 263. He wrote forty-five tragedies, 

all lost. iTiere were seven other poets, 

of inferior note, who bore the name of Ho- 

HoHOLs, a lofty monntain of Thessaly, 
once the residence of the Centaurs. 

HoMoCBA, a mountain of Magnesia. 

HoMoLippus, a son of Hercules and 

HoMoLoiDEs, one of the seven gates of 

HoMoiTADERSEs, a people of Cilieia. 

Honor, a virtue worshipped at Rome. 

Hoivoaiua, an emperor of the western 
empire of Rome, who succeeded his fa- 
ther Theodosios the Great, with his bro- 
ther Arcadlus. He conquered his ene- 
mies by means of his generals, and sufl^er- 
ed himself and his people to be governed 
by ministers, who took advantage oftbeir 
imperial master's indolehce and inactivity. 
He died of a dropsy in the thirty-ninth 
year of his age. fifteenth of August A. D. 
423. Under him and his hcother the Re- 
man power was divided into two different 
empires. The successors of Honorius, 
who fixed their residence at Rome, were 
called the emperors of the w«st, and the 
successors of-Arcadius, who sat on the 
throne of Constantinople, were distin- 
gnished by the name of emperors of the 
eastern Roman empire. This division of 
power proved fatal to both empires. 

HoKA, a goddess at Rome, supposed to 
be Hersilia, who married- Romulus. She 
was said to preside over beauty. 

IIoKAciTjE, a people near Illyricum. 

HoRAPoixo, a Greek writer, whose age 
is unknown ; author of HierogltfpJuca, a 
curious and entertainin«r book. 

HoR.«, tlirec sisters, daughters of Jupi- 
ter and Tliemis, called Eunomia. Dice, 
and Irene. They were the same as the 
seasons who presided over the spring, 
summer, and winter, and were repre- 
sentod by the poets as openingHhe gates 
of heaven and of Olympus. 

HoRATiA, the sister of the Iloratii, kilt- 

'ed by her brother for mourning the death 
of the Curiatil. 


Flaccus, a celebrated poet, born at Venu- 
sia. His father was a freedman, and, 
though poor in his circumstances, he lib- 
erally educated his son. His rising talents 
claimed the attention of Virgil and Varius, 
who recommended liim to the care of Me- 
cieaas and Augustus, the most celebrated 
patrons of literature. Under the fostering 
patronage of the emperor and of his minis- 
ter, Horace gave himself up to indolence 
and refined pleasure. He was a follower 
of Epicurus, and, while he libenally indulg- 
ed his appetites, he neglected the calls of 
ambition, and never suffered himself to 
be carried away by the tide of popularity 
or public employments. He even refused 
to become the secretary of Augustus^ and 
the emperor was not offended at his re- 
fusal, lie lived at the table of his illus- 
trious patrons as if he were in his own 
house ; and Augustus sat at his meals with 
Virgil at his right hand, and Horace at 
his left. Horace was Warm in bis friend- 
ship, and, if ever any ill-judged reflection 
had caused offence, the poet immediately 
made every concession which could effect 
a reconciliation, and not destroy the good - 
purposes of friendly society. Horace 
died ia the fifty -seventh year of his age, 
B. G. 8. In his'odes Horace is ingenious 
and elegant ; in his satires and epistles, 
lively and witty j in his Art of Poetry 

judicious and tasteful. Three brave 

Romans, bom at the same birth, who 
fought against the three Curiatii, and con- 
quered them about six hundred and sixty- 
seven years before Christ. This celebrat- 
ed fight was fought between the hostile 
camps of the people of Alba and Rome, 
and on their success depended the victory. 

A consul, who dedicated the temple 

of Jupiter Capitolinns. 

HoRciAS, the general of three thousand 
Macedonians, who revolted llrora Antigo* 
nus in Cappadocia. 

HoRESTi, a people of Britain. 

HoRMisDAs, a name of some of the Per- 
sian kin^. 

HoRRATus, a Macedonian soldier, who 
fought with another private soldier in sight 
of the whole army of Alexander. 

HoRTENsiA, a celebrated Roman lady, 
daughter of the orator Hortensius, whose 
eloquence she had inherited in the most 
eminent degree. 

HoRTEirsiA LET, by Q,. Hcurtensius, the 
dictator, A. TI. C. 867. It ordered the 
whole body of the Roman people to pay 
implicit obedience to whatever was enact- 
ed by the commons. 

HoRTA, a divinity among the Romans, 
who presided over youth. 

HoRTA, or HoRTiKUM»a town of the S»- 

bihes. Digitized by dOOg IC 




Q. HoBTCHsttrs, a celebrated orotor^who 
began to distinguish himself by his elo- 
quence, in the Roman forum, at the age 
of nineteen. His friend and successor 
Ciceru speaks with great eulogium of his 
oratorical powers, and mentions the un- 
common extent of his memory. The af- 
fected actions of Hortensius at the bar 
procured him the ridiculous surname of 
DwnyatA, a celebrated stage dancer at that 
time. He was prstor and consul, and 
died fifty years before Christ in his sixty- 
third year. His orations are not extant* 
'Hortensius was very rich, and not less 
than ten thousand casks of Arvisian wine 
were foqnd in his cellar after his death. 

Corbio, a grandson of the orator of 

tfte same name. A Roman, slain by 

Antony on his brother's tomb. A prae- 
tor, who gave up Macedonia to Brutus. 
One of Sylla*s lieutenants. A Ro- 
man, the first who introduced the eating 
of peacocks at Rome. 

RoRTonA, a town of Italy. 

HoRTTs, a son of Isis, one of the deities 
of tjie Egyptians. A king of Assyria. 

HospiTALis, a surname of Jupiter. 

HoRTiLiA L£x was enacted A. U. G. 
583. By it such as were among the ene- 
mies of the republic, or absent when tlie 
state required their assistance, were guilty 
of rapine. 

HosTiuA, a large town on the Po. 

HosTius HosTiLius, a warlike Roman, 
presented with a crown of boughs by Ro- 
mulus, for his intrepid behavior in a bat- 
tle. A consul. A Jjatin poet, in the 

age of J. Cesar, who composed a poem 
on the wars of Istria. 

Hdnni, a people of Sarmatia. 

Htacinthia, an annual solemnity at 
Amyelv, in Laconia, in honor of Hyacin- 
thus and Apollo. 

.Htacinthvs, ason of Amyclas and Dio- 
mede, greatly beloved by Apollo and Ze- 
phyrus. He returned the former's love, and 
Zephyrus resolved to punish his rival. 
As Apollo, who was intrusted with the 
educati<|ii of Hyacinthus, once played at 
quoit with his pupil, Zephyrils blew the 
quoit, as soon as it was thrown by Apollo, 
upon the head of Hyacinthus, and he was 
killed with the blow. 

Htadss, five daughters of Atlas, king 
, of Mauritania, who were so disconsolate 
at the death of their brother Hyas, who 
bad been hilled by a wild boar, that they 
pined away and died. They became stars 
after death, and were placed near Taurus, 
one of the twelve signs of the Zodiac. 

HrAonis, a Phrygian, father of Marsy- 
as. He invented the flute. 

HrALA,acity at the mouth of the Indus. 
One of Diana's attendant nymphs. 

Htampolis, a city of Phocis. 

HTAifTHBs, the ancient name of the 
inhabitants of BoBotia, from king Hyaa. 

Htantis, an ancientname of Boeotia. 

HrARRTTA, a man who endeavoured to 
imitate Timogenes. 

Hr AS, a son of Atlas, of Mauritania, by 
i£thra. His extreme fondness for shoot- 
ing proved fatal to him, and, in bia at- 
tempts to rob a lioness of her whelps, he 
was ki>led by the enraged animal. His 
sisters mourned his death with such con- 
stant lamentations, that Jdpiter, in com- 
passion of their sorrow, changed them 
into stars. 

Hybla, a mountain in Sicily, called af- 
terwards Megaray where thyme and odori- 
ferous flowers of all sorts grew i^ abun- 
dance. It is famous for its honey. ^JEliere 
is, at the foot of the mountain, a toiwil of 
the same name. There is also another 

near, mount .£tna. A city "of Attica 

bears also the name of Hybla. 

Hvbrsas, an orator of Caria. 

HrBRiANEs, a people near Thrace. 

HrccARON, a town of Sicily. 

Htoa and Hyde, a town of Lydia. 

HroARA, a town of Armenia. 

Hydarnes, one of the seven noble Per- 
sians who conspired to destroy the usurper 

Hyoaspbs, a river of Asia, flowing by 

Susa. Another in India. A filend 

of iEneas. 

Hydra, a celebrated monster, which in- 
fested the neighborhood of the lake Lema 
in Peloponnesus. It had an hundred 
heads, according to Diodorus; fifty, ac- 
cording to Simonides: and mne, accord- 
ing to the more received opinion. As soon 
as one of these heads was cut off, two im- 
mediately grew up, if the wound was not 
stopped by fire. It was one of the labots 
of Hercules to destroy this dreadful mon- 

Hypraotes, a river of India, crossed by 

Hydrophoria, a festival observed at 
Athens, in commemoration of those who 
perished in the deluge of Deucalion and 

Hybruntum and Hydbus, a city of Ca- 
labria, fifty miles south of Brundusium, 
now OtraMOy an insignificant town, scarce 
containing three thousand inhabitants. 

Hyor0»a, a town of Attica. 

Hyela, a town of Lucania. 

Hyempsal, a son of Miqipsa, murdered 
by Jugurttaa. 

Hyettus, a town of Bceotla. 

Hyoeia or Hygiea, the goddess of 
health, daughter of ^sculapius, held in 
great veneration among the ancients. Her 
statues represented her with a veil, and 
the matrons usually consecrated their locks 
to her. 

Hygia:va, a town of Peloponnesus. 

C.Jul. Hygiitus, ^ grammarian, one of 
the freed men of Augustus. He was a 
Bative of Alezavdria ; 6r, accorduiK to 




■odne, lie wa» a Spaniard, very intimate 
with OVid. He was appointed librarian to 
the library of mount Palatine. He wrote 
a mythological history, which he called 
fables, and Poeticon Jistronamicon, and se- 
verafl tueatises now lost. 

HtllA. and Hvlas, a river of Mysia. 
A colony of Phocis. 

Hylactor, one of Action's dogs. 

Htlje, a small town of Bfsotia. 

HvLicns, a name given to some cen- 

Htlas, a son of Thiodamas, king of 
Mysia and Menodioe, stolen away by Her- 
cules, and carried on board the ship Argo 
to Cohdtis. On the Asiatic coast the Ar- 
gonauts landed to take a supply of fresh 
water, snd Hylas, foUowlng the example 
of his companions, went to the fountain 
with a pitcher, and fell into the water and 
wa« drowned, A river of Bithynia. 

HrLAX, a dog mentioned by Virgil. 

Htli AS, a river of Magna Grecia. 

HTU.AICUS, a part of Peloponnesus. * 

HrLLUs, a son of Hercules and Dejani- 
ra, who, soon after his father's death, mar- 
ried lole. He, as well as his father, was 
persecuted by the envy of Eurystheus, and 
obliged to fly from the Peloponnesus. 
Some time after be attempted to recover 
the Peloponnesus with the Heraclidae, and 
was killed in single combat by E«hemu3, 
king of Arcadia. A x\\et of Lydia. 

HrLONOME, the wife of Cyllaros. 

HvLorHAGi, a people of iiJthiopia. 

Htm£njeu> and Htmen, the god of maro 
riage among the Greeks, was son of Bac- 
chds and Venus, or according to others, 
of Apollo and one of the muses. Hymen 
was generally represented as crowned 
with flowers, chiefly with maijoram or 
roses, and holding a burning torch in one 
hand, and in the other a vest of a purple 
color. It was supposed that he always at- 
tended at nuptials ; for, if not, matrimo- 
nial connexions were fatal, and ended in 
the most dreadfUl calamities; and hence 
people ran about, caUiag alottd. Hymen ! 
Hymen ! 

Hymxttus, a mountain of Attica, about 
two miles from Athens, still famous for Its 
bees and excellent honf^. There was 
also a quarry of marble there. 

HrrjEPA or Ipepjb, now BarXtt, a town 
a€ Lydia. 

Hypjbsia, a country of Peloponnesus. 

HYPAifis, a river of European Scythia, 

now called Bog. A river of India. 

Another of Pontus. — A Trojan who 

Joined himself to ^Eneas, and was killed 
by his own people. 

HrpARirrus, a son of Dion. The fa- 
ther of Dion. 

Hypates, a river of Sicily. 

Hypatha, a town of Thew^aly. 

Hypatia, a celebrated native of Alex- 
andria. She was assassinatei 415 A. D, 

Htpenoh, a Trojan killed by Diomedes. 

Htperbatus, a pretor of the Achsans, 
B. C. 5B4. 

HypERBius, a son of i£gyptus. 

Hyperborei, a nation in the northern 
parts of Europe and Asia, who were said 
to live to an incredible age, even to a thou- 
sand ^ears, and in the enjoyment of all 
possible felicity. The sun was said to 
rise and set to them but once a year. 

Hyperea and Hyperia, a fountain of 
Thessaly. with a town of the same napie. 
Another in Messenia. 

Hyperesia, a town of Achaia. 

Hyperides, an Athenian orator, disciple 
to Plato and Socrates, and long the rival 
of Demosthenes. He distinguuhed him- 
self foy his eloquence, and the active part 
be took in the majiagement of the Athe- 
nian republic. He was put to death by 
order of Antipater, B. C. 323. 

Hyperion, a son of CcbIus and Terra, 
who married Thea, by whom he had Au- 
rora, the SUA and moon. A son of 


Hypermnestra, one of the fifty daugh- 
ters of Danaus, who married Lynceus, 
son of iBgyptus. She disobeyed her fa- 
ther's bloody commands, who had ordered 
her to murder her husband the first night 
of her nuptials, and sufifered Lynceus to 

escape unhurt from the bridal bed. A 

daughter of Thestius. 

£irp£RocHU8, a man who wrote a poet- 
ical history of Cuma. 

Hyprjeus, a mountain of Campania. 

Hypsa, now BeUei, a river cS Sicily. 

Htpsea, a Roman matron, of the family 
of the Plautii. 

Hypsenor, a priest of the Scamander. 

|]yp«£U8, a son of the river Penens.— — 
A pleader at the Roman bar before the age 
of Cicero. 

Htpsicratba, the wife of AQfliridateB. 

Hypsicrates. a Phcenician, who wrote 
an history of his country, in the PlMsni- 
cian language. 

HrpsiPiDEs, a Maced(»iian in Alexan- 
der's tu-my. ' 

Hypsipylb, a queen of Lemmis, daugh- 
ter of Thoas and Myrine, celebrated for 
her crimes and misfortunes. 

HrRCAiriA, a large and mountainous 
country of Asia, at the north of Parthia, 
and at the west of Media, abounding in 

serpents, and wild beasts. A town of 

Lydia, destroyed by & violent earthquake 
in the age of Tibenus. 

HYRCANuaf MARE, a large sea, called also 

Hyrcanus, a name common to some of 
the high priests of Judea. 

Hyria, a country of Bceotia, near Aulis, 
with a lake, river, and -town of the same 

name. A town of Isauria, on the Caly- 


Htriuus and Hvanui, a peasant, or, as 

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some say, a prince of Tanagra^ son of 
Neptune and Alcyone, wJio kindly en- 
tertained Jupiter, Neptune, and Mejrcury, 
when travelling over Ikeotia. Vid. Orion. 

HrRMiNA, a town of £lis, in Pelopon- 

Hyrneto and Hyrnetho, a daughter 
of Temenus, king of Argos, who married 
Deyphon, son of Celeus. 

(Itrmthium, a plain of Argos, fertile 
in olives. 

Hybtacds, a Trojan of mount Ida, fa- 
ther to Nisus, one of the companions of 

Hysia, a town of Boeotia. A village 

of Argos. A city of Arcadia. Tbe 

royal residence of the king of Parthia. 

HvsFA, a river of Sicily. 

Hyssus and Hvssi, a port and river of 

Hystaspes, a noble Persian, of the fa- 
mily of the Achaemenides. H^s son Dari- 
iis reigned in Persia atler the murder of 
the usurper Smerdis. Hystaspes was the 
first who Introduced the learning and mys- 
teries oC the Indian Brachmans in Persia, 
and to his researches in India the sciences 
were greatly indebted, particularly in Per- 



1A. the daughter of Midas, who married 

Iacohus, a surname of Bacchus. 

Iader, a river of Dalmatia. 

Ialemus, a wretched singer, son of the 
muse Calliope. 

Ialmenus, a son of Mars and Astyoche, 
who went to the Trojan war with his 
brother Ascalaphus, with thirty ships. 

Ialysus, a town of Rhodes. 

Iambe, a servant maid of Metanira, Wife 
of Celeus, king of Eleusis. 

lAMBLictTii, a Greek author, who wrote 
the life of Pythagoras, and the history of 
his followers, &c. He died A. D. 363. 

Iamenus, a Trojan killed by Leonteus. 

Iamid^, certain prophets among the 
Greeks, descended from lamus, a son of 

Ianira, one of the Nereides. 

Ianthe, a girl of Crete, who married 

Ianthea, one of the Oceanides. One 

of the Nereides. 

I API 9, ?in iEtolian, who founded a city 

npon the banks of the Timavus. A 

Trojan favorite of Apollo. 

Iapydia, a district of Illyricum, now 

Iapyoia, a country on the confines of 
Italy, called by some Messapia, Peucetia^ 
and Salentinum. 

Iaptx, a son of Daedalus, who conquer- 
ed a part of rtaly,,vvhich he called lapygia. 

■ A wind which blows from Apulia, 

and Is favorable to such as sailed from 
Italy towards Greece. 

lARfiAs, a king of Ga?tulia, from v^thora 
Dido bought land to build Carthage. He 
courted Dido, but the queen, rather than 
marry him, destroyed herself. 

Iarchas and Jarchas, a celebrated In- 
dian philosopher. His seven rings are fa- , 

mous for their jiower of restoring old men 
to the bloom and vigor of youth. 

Iarda Nus, a Ly dian, father of Omphale. 

the mistress of' Hercules. A river or 

Arcadia. Another in Crete. 

Iasides, a patronymic given to Palinu- 
rus — also of Jasus. 

Iasion and Iasius, a son of Japiter and 
Electra, one of the Atlantides, who reign- 
ed over part of Arcadia, where he diligent- 
ly applied himself to agriculture. He mar- 
ried the goddess Cybele or Ceres, and all 
the gods were present at the celebration 
of his nuptials. He had by Ceres two 
sons, and a f!aughter, Atalanta, whom he 
exposed as soon as born, saying that he 
would raise only male children. 

Iasis, a name given to Atalanta, daugh- 
ter of Iasius. 

Iasius, a son of Abas, king of Argos. 
A son of Jupiter. 

Iasus, a king of Argos, who succeeded 
his father Triopas. A son of Argus fa- 
ther of Agenor. A son of Argus and 

Ismena. A son of Lycurgus of Arca- 
dia. An island with a town of the same 

name on the coast of Caria. 

Iaxartes, now Sit or SVion, a river of 

Iaziges, a people on the borders of the 
Pains Maeotis. 

Iberia, a country of Asia, between Col- 
chis on the west, and Albania on tbe east, 
governed by kings. It is now called Geor- 
gia. An ancient name of Spain, deriv»- 

ed from the river Iberua. 

Iberus, a river of Spain, now called 

Ehro. A river of Iberia in Asia. A 

fabulous king of Spain. 

Ibi, an Indian nation. 
- Ibis, a poem of the poet Calliraachus. 

Ibycus, a lyric poet of Rhegium about 
five hundred and forty years before Christ. ^ 

Digitized by 





Be was mnrdered by robbers', and at tDe 
moment of death he implored the assist- 
ance of some cranes which at that mo^ 
ment flew over his head. Borne time after 
as the murderers were in the marlcet 
place, one of them observed some cranes 
in the air, and said to his companions, 
tMere are the birds that are conscious of the 
death qf Ibyeua, These words and the re- 
cent murder of Ibycus raised suspicions in 
the people : the assassins were seized and 
tortured, and they confessed their guilt. 
The husband of Chloris, whom Ho- 
race ridicules. 

IcADius, a robber killed by a stone. 

IcAKiA, a small island in the .£gean 

IcARis and Icariotis, a name given to 
Penelope as daughter of Icarlus. 

IcARiuM HARE, a part of the iGgean 
sea near the islands of Mycone and Gya- 

IcARius, an Athenian, father of Eri- 
gone. He gave wine to some peasants 
who drank it with the greatest avidity, 
ignorant of its intoxicating nature. They 
were soon, deprived of their reason, and 
the. fury and resentment of their friends 
and neighbors were immediately turned 
upon Icarius, who perished by their hands. 
After death he was honored with public 

festivals. A son of CEbalus of Lacedc- 

mon. He gave his daughter Penelope in 
marriage to Ulysses king of Ithaca. 

Icarus, a son of Dsedalus, who, with his 
father, fled with wings from Crete to es- 
cape the resentment of Minos. " His flight 
being too high proved fatal to him, the 
siAi melted the wax which cemented his 
wings, and he fell into that part of the 
^geaa sea which was callea atler his 
name.; A moantain of Attica. 

Icciui, a lieutenant of Agrippa iu Sici- 
ly One of the Rhemi in Gaul. 

IcELos, one of the sons of Somnus. 

IcBNi, a people of Britain who submit- 
ted to the Reman power. 

IcBTAs, a man who obtained the su- 
preme power at Syracuse after the death 
of Dion. 

IcHivjE, a town of Macedonia. 

IcHirusA, an ancient name of Sardinia. 

IcHoifuPMis, a priest of Heliopolis. 

IcHTHToPHAOi, a pooplo of iEtfaiopia, 
who received this name from their eating 

IcH^Hyn, a promontory of Ells in Acha- 

L. IciLius, a tribune of the people who 
made a law A. U. C. 397, by which mount 
Aventine was given to the Roman people 

to build houses upon. A tribune who 

made a law A. U. C. 261, that forbade any 
man to oppose or interrupt a tribune while 
he was speaking in an assembly. 

Icins, a harbor in Gaul, on the modem 
straits of Dover. 

IcoiriirM, the capital of Lycaonia. 

Ices, a small island near Eubwa. 

IcTsifus, a celebrated architect, 430 
years before Christ. 

IcTUMULORUM VICU9, a place at the foot 
of the Alps abounding in gold minea. 

IcuusMA, a town of Gaul, now ^ngou' 

Ida, a nymph of Crete who went into 
Phry^a, where she gave her name to a 

mountain of that country. ^The mother 

of Minos 2d. A celebrated mountain, 

or more properly a ridge of mountains in 
Troas, chieidy in the neighborhood of 
Troy. It was covered with green wood, 
and the elevation of its top opened a fine 
extensive view- of the Hellespont and the 

adjacent countries. A mountain of 

Crete, the highest in the island. 
. loAA, the surname of Cybele. 

Id^us, a surname of Jupiter. An 

arm-bearer of king Priam.-* — One> of the 
attendants of Ascanius. ; 

Idalis, the country round mount Ida. 

Idalus, a mountain of Cyprus. 

loArvTHTRSus, a powerful king of Scy- 
thia, who refused to give his daughter in 
marriage ta Darius the 1st, king of Persia. 
I^his refusal was the cause of a war be- 
tween the two nations, and Darius march- 
ed against 1 dan thyrsus, at the head of 
seven hundred thousand men. He was 
defeated and retired to Persia, a^er an in- 
glcfflous campaign. 

Idarnes, an officer of Darius. 

Idas." a son of Aphareus and Arane, fk- 
mous for bis valor and military glory. He 
was among the Argonauts, and married 
Marpessa, the daughter of Evenus king of 
^tolia. Marpessa was carried away by 
Apollo, and Idas pursued his wife's rav- 
isher with bows and arrows, and obliged 

him to restore her. A sen of iEgyptus. 

A Trojan killed by TumuSi 

Idea, or Iojba, a daughter of Darda- 

nus. The mother of Teucer by Sca- 


Idsssa, a town of Iberia. • ' 

Idex, a small river of Italy. 

Idistavisus, a plain, now Hastenbaeh, 
near Oldendorp on the Weser in West- 

iDMoif, son of Apollo and Astoria, was 
the prophet of th» Argonauts. He was 
killed in hunting a wild boar in Bithy- 

nia. A dyer of Colophon, father to 

Arachne. A man of Cyzicus, killed by 

Hercules.-: — A son of iEgyptus, killed by 
his wife. 

looMEifE, a daughter of Pheres, who 
married Amythaon. 

Idomeweus,- succeeded his father Deu- 
calion on the tlirone of Crete, and accom- 
panied the Greeks to the Trojan war, with 
a fleet of ninety ships. During this cele- 
brated war he rendered himself famous 
by his valor, and slaughtered many of the 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




enemy. At his return he made a vow to 
Neptune in a dangerous tempest, that if 
he escaped from the fury of the seas and 
storms he would offer to the god whatever 
living creature first presented itself to his 
eye on the Cretan shore. This was no 
other than his son, who came to congratu- 
late his father upon his safe return. Ido- 
meneus performed his promise to the god, 

and was banished by his subjects. A 

son of Priam. A Greek historian of 

Lampsacus, in the age of Epicurus. 

Idothea, a daughter of Proetus, king of 

Argos. A daughter of the god Proteus. 

One of the nymphs who educated Ju- 

Idrikui, brother to Artemisia, whosuc- 
teeded to Mausolus, and invaded Cyprus. 

Idubeoa, a river and mountain of Spain. 

Idum£ and Idumsa, a country of Syria, 
famous for palm trees. 

Idta, one of the Oceanides. 

Igeiti, a people of Britain. 

loiLiuM, now Oiglio^ an island of the 

loiNATius, an officer of Crassus in his 

I^rthian expedition. A bishop of An- 

tioch, torn to pieces in the amphitheatre 
at Rome, by lions, A. D. 107. 

louTiuM, a town of Umbria, on the via 
Flaminia, now Ghibio. 

Ilaira, a daughter of Leucippus, carried 
away With her sister Phcsbe, by the sons 
of Leda. 

Ilba, mors properly Ilva, an island of 
the Tyrrhene sea. 

Ilecagnbs and iLxcAoirKirsxs, a i>eople 
of Spain. 

Ileroa, now Lerida, a town of Spain. 

Ilia, or Rhea, a daughter of Numitor, 
king of Alba, consecrated by her uncle 
Amulius to toe service of Vesta, which 
required perpetual chastity. He was how- 
ever disappointed; violence was offered 
to Ilia, and she brought forth Romulus 
and Remus, who drove the usurper from 
his throne, and restored the crown to their 
grandfather Numitor, its lawAil possessor. 
Ilia was buried alive for violating the laws 
of Vesta. 

Iliaoi lttdi, games institqCed by Au- 
gustus, in commemoration of the victory 
he had obtained over Antony and Cle€)pa- 

Iliac us, an epithet applied to such as 
belong to Troy. 

Iliaues, a surname given to Romulus, 

as son of Ilia. A name given to the 

Trojan women. 

Ilias, a celebrated poem composed by 
Homer upon the Tro}^ war. A sur- 
name of Minerva. 

Iliensss, a people of Sardinia. 

Iliow, a town of Macedonia. 

Ilionb, the eldest daughter of Priam. 

Ilionxus, a Trpjan who came into Italy 
with iEneaa — ^One of Niobe'i sons. 

Ilipa, a town of Beetica. 

Ilissus, a small river of Attica, falling 
into the sea near the Pirsus. There was 
a temple on its banks, sacred to the Miisea. 

Ilithyia, a goddess called also Juno 
Lucina. Some suppose her to be the same 
u Diana. 

Ilium, or Ilioit, a citadel of Troy, built 
by Ilus, one of the Trojan kings, from 
whom it received its name. It is general- 
ly taken for Troy itself; and some have 
supposed that the town was called Hiumy 
and the adjacent country Troja. 

Illiberis, a town of Gaul. 

Illicx, now fUeke, a town of Spain with 
a harbor and bay. 

Illipula, two towns of Spain, one of 
which is called Major, and the other Mi- 

Illiturois, luTURois, or luBoiA, a 
city of Spain. 

Ilorcis, now Lorea, a town of Spain. 

Illtricuh, Illtrib, and Iixtria, a 
country bordering on the Adriatic sea, 
opposite Italy. 

Illtricus ■iHcs, that part of the Adri- 
atic which is on the coast of Illyricum. 

Illtriub, a son of Cadmus and Herini- 

Ilua, now Elba, an island in the Tyr- 
rhene sea, celebrated for its iron mines. 

Iluro, now OieroUy a town of Gascony 
in France. 

Ilus, the fourth klngof Troy, was soti 
of Tros by Callirhoe. He built, or rather 
embellished, the city of Ilium, called also 
Troy, from his father Tros. Jiipi|er gave 
him the Palladium, a celebrated statue of 
Minerva, and promised that as long as it 
remained in Troy, so long would the town 

remain impregnable. A name of Asca.- 

nius. A friend of Tumus. ^ 

Iltrgis, a towh of Hispania Betica. 

Ihanusrtius, a king of part of Britain, 
killed by Cassivelaunus. 

Ihaus, a large mountain of Scythia, 
which is part of mount Taurus. 

Imbarus, a part of mount Taurus in 

Imbracides, a patronymic given to 
Asius, as son of Imbracus. 

Imbra SIDES, a patronymic given to 
Olaucus and Lades. 

Imbrasus, or PARTHENiU8,ariverof Sa- 

mos. The father of Pirns, the leader 

of the Thracians during the Trojan war. 

Im^reub, one of the Centaurs. 

Imbrex, C. Licmius. a poet. 

Imbrics, a Trcjan killed by Tencer, soA 
of Mentor. 

lMBRiviTTM,a place of Samnium. 

Imbrob, now EmJbr.o, an island of the 
JBgean sea, near Thince, thirty-two miles 
from Samothrace, with a small river and 
town of the same name. 

Inachi, a name given to the Greeks, 
particularly the Argiyes. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




fiTACHTA, a name gi^en to Peloponne- 

mig, from the river Inachus. A festival 

In Crete. 

I.XACHiDjf:, the name of the eight first 
successors of Inachus, on the throne of 

Ika^hides, a patronymic of'Epaphus 
as grandson of Inachus and of Per- 
seus descended ft-om Inachus. 

Ittachis, a patronymic of lo, as daugh- 
ter of Inachus. 

Inachium, a town of Peloponnesus. 

Inachus, a son of Oceanus and Te- 
thys, father of lo. He founded the king- 
dom of Argos, and was succeeded by 
Pboroneus, B. C. 1807. ^A river of Ar- 
gos. Another in Epims. 

Itvamames, a river in the east of Asia. 

IivARiME, an island near Campania, 
with a mountain, under which Jupiter 
confined the giant, Typhmu'S. 

I WARDS, a town of Egypt. A tyrant 

of Eg>pt, who died B. C. 456. 

In-citatus, a horse of the emperor Cali- 
gula, made high priest. 

Iifoi A, the most celebrated and opulent 
of all the countries of Asia, bounded on 
one side by the Indus, from which it de- 
rives its name. It is situate at the south 
of the kingdoms of Persia, Parthia," &c., 
along the maritime coasts. It has always 
betn reckoned famous for the riches it 
contains ; and so persuaded were th6 an- 
cients of its wealth, that .they supposed 
that its very sand^were gold. It contain- 
ed nine thousand different nations, and 
five thousand remarkable cities, accord- 
ing to geographers. Bacchus was the first 
who conquered it. 

IiTDiBiLis, a princess of Spain, betrothed 
to Albutins. 

Iif DioETxs, a name given to those dei- 
ties who were worshipped only in some 
particular places, or who were become 
gods from men, as Hercules, Bacchus, &c. 

IiTDioBTi, ^people of Spain. 

Indus, now Sindej a large river of Asia, 
from which the adjacent country has re- 
ceived the name of India. A river of 


IifDUTioMARtra, a Gaul conquered by 

IiTFBRUM MARiB, the Tuscau sea. 

lire, a daughter of Cadmus and Har- 
monia^ wife of Athamas, changed into a 
sea-goddess by Neptune. 

IwoA, festivals In memory of lao, cele- 
brated yearly with sports and sacrifices at 
Corinth .>— Another in Laconia, in honor 
of the same. 

Iif ous, a patronymic given to the god 
Paleemou, as son of Ino. 

In OPUS, a river of Delos. 

Insdbres, the inhabitants of Insubria, 
a country near the Po, supposeid to ba of 
Gallic origin. 

IffTAPJUAirxs, one of ttieaeVen Fenian 

iM)blemen who eonsplred against Smwdis, 
who- usurped the crown of Persia. 

Intemelium, a town at the west of Li- 
guria, on the seashore. 

Interamita, an ancient city of Umbria. 

A colony on the cpnfihes of Samfni- 


Intercatia, a town of Spain. 

IprrERREx, a supreme magistrate at 
Home, who was intrusted with the care 
of the government after the death of a 
king, till the election of another. This 
office was exercised by the senators alone, 
and none continued in power longer than 
five days, or, according to Plutarch, only 
twelve hours. 

Iwui CASTRUM. It received its name 
from Inuus, a divinity supposed to be the 
same as the Faunus of the Latins. 

InrrcuB, a city of 8icily. 

lo, the daughter of Inachus and Isme- 
na, turned by Jupiter into a ccmr, to pre^ 
vent the suspicion of Juno, and worship- 
ped after her death by the Egyptians, 
under the name of Isis. 

loBATEs and Jobates, a king of Lycia, 
father of Stenobea, th« wife of Proetusj 
king of Argos. 

loBEs, a son ef Hercules. 

IcLAiA, a festival at Thebes, the same , 
as that called Heracleia. It was institu- 
ted in honor of Hercules and his friend 
lolas, who assisted him in conquering the 
hydra. The place where the exercises 
were exhibited was called lolaion, where 
there were to be seen the monument of 
Amphitryon, and the cenatoph of lolas, 
who was buried in Sardinia. 

loLAS or loLAUs, a son of Iphlclns, king 
of Thessaly. who assisted Hercules iq 
conquering tne hydra. He was restored 
to his youth and vigor by Heb«, at the re< 
quest of his friend Hercules. Some time 
afterwards, lolas assisted the Heraclidn 
against Eurystbeus, and killed th^ tyrant 

with his own hand. A compiler of a 

PhcBnician history. A friend of iEneas. 

A son of Antipater, cup-bearer to 


loLCHos, a town of Magnesia, above 
Demetrias, where Jason was bom. 

Idle, a daughter of Eurytus, king of 
OSchalia. Her fhther promised her in 
marriage to Hercules, but He. refused to 
perform bis engagements, and lole was 
clirried away by force. It was to extin- 
guish the love of Hercules for loIe, that 
Dejanira sent him the poisoned tunic, 
which caused his death. 

Ion, a son of Xuthus, and Creusa, who 
married Helice, the daughter of Selinua, 
king of MgMe. He succeeded on the 
throne of his iather-in-law, and built a 
city, which he called Helice, on account 

of his wife. A tragic poet of Chios. 

-^ — A native of Epheeus. 

loNB, one of the Neraldes. 





loirii, a name originally given to the 
subjects of Ion, who dwelt at Helice. 

Ionia, a country of Asia Minor, bound- 
ed on the north by iEolia, on the west by 
the >Egean and Icarian seas, on the south 
by Caria, and on the east by Lydia and 
part of Caria. It was founded by colo- 
nies from Greece. Ionia has been always 
celebrated for the salubrity of the climate, 
the fruitfulness of the ground, and the 

genius of its inhabitants. An ancient 

name given to Hellas, or Achaia. 

Ionium mare, a part of the Mediterra- 
nean sea, at the bottom of the Adriatic, 
lying between Sicily ^nd Greece. ^ 

loPAs, a king of Africa, among the suit- 
ors of Dido. He was an excellent musi- 
cian, poet, and philosophe*. 

loPE and JoppA, now Jojiiy an ancient 
and famous town of Phoenicia. It was 
about forty miles from the capital of Judaea. 

A daughter of Iphicles, who married 


lopHON, a son of Sophocles.— —A poet 
of Gnossus, in Crete. 

Io8, now MOf an island in the Myrtoan 

Iphianassa, a daughter of Proetus, king 
of Argos, who, with her sisters Iphinoe 

and Lysippe, ridiculed Juno. The wife 

of Endymion. 

Iphiclus, or Iphiclcb, a son of Amphi- 
tryon and Alcmena, born at the same 

birth with Hercules. A king of Pby- 

lace, in Pbthiotis, son of Phylacus and 
Clymene. He had bulls famous for their 
bigness, and the monster which kept them. 
A son of Thestius, king of Pleuron. 

Iphicratss, a celebrated general of 
Athens, who, though son of a shoemaker, 
rose from the lowest station to the highest 
offices in the state. He married a daugh- 
ter of Cotys,^ing of Thrace, by whom he 
had a ton called Mnestheus, and died 

380 B. C. ^A sculptor of Athens. 

An Athenian, sent to Darius the third, 
king ef Persia. 

Iphidamus, ason ofAntenorand The- 
ano, killed by Agamemnon. 

Ipridsmia, a Thessalian woman, rav- 
ished by the Naxians. 

Iphigenia, a daughter of Agamemnon 
and Clytemnestra. When the Greeks, 
going to the Trojan war, were detained by 
<sontrary winds at Aulis, they were in- 
formed by one of the soothsayers, that, to 
appease the gods, they fnustjsacrifice Iphi- 
genia, Agamemnon's daughter, to Diana. 
Agamemnon consented to immolate his 
daughter for the common cause of Greecd. 
Iphigenia capie to Aulis : here she saw the 
bloody preparations for the sacrifice ; she 
implored the forgiveness and protection 
of her father, but tears and entreaties were 
unavailing. Calchas took the knife in his 
hand, and, as he was going to strike the 
fatal blow, Iphigenia suddenly disappear- 

ed, and a goat of uncommon size and 
beauty wasibund in her place for the sao 
rifice. This supernatural change anima- 
ted the'Greeks, the wind suddenly became 
favorable, and the combined fleet set sail 
from Aulis. Iphigenia's innocence had 
raised the compassion of the goddess on 
whose altar she was going to be sacrificed, 
and she carried her to Taurica, where she 
entrusted her with the care of her tem- 

Iphimkdia, a daughter of Triopas, who 
married the giant Al(eus. 

Iphimedon, ason of Eurystheus, killed 
in war. 

Ipuimedusa, one of the daughters of 

Iphinoe, one of the principal women of 
Lemnos, who conspired to destroy all 

the males of the island. ^One of the 

daughters of Proetus. 

Iphinous, one of the centaurs. 

Iphis, son of Alector, succeeded his 
father on the throne of Argos. A beau- 
tiful youth of Salamis, of ignoble birth. 
He became enamored of Anaxarete, and 
the coldness and contempt he met with 
rendered him so desperate that h6 hung 

himself. A daughter of Thespius. 

A mistress of Patroclus. A daughter of 

Ligdus and Telethusa, of Crete. 

IpHiTioNjanally of the Trojans, son of 
Otryntheus and Nais, killed by Achilles. 

Iphitu«, a son of Eurytu«, king of 
(Echalia, killed by Hercules. A Tro- 
jan, who survived the ruin of his country, 

and fled with JEneaa to Italy. A king 

of Elis, son of Praxonides, in the age of 
liycurgus. He reestj^blished the Olym- 
pic games three hundred and thirty-eight 
years after their institution by Hercules. 

Iphthime, a sister of Penelope, who 
married Eumelus. 

Ipsea, the mother of Medea. 

Ipsus, a place of Phrygia, celebrated for 
a battle which was fought there, between 
Antigonus and his son, and Seleucus, 
Ptolemy, Lysimachus, and Caasander. 

Ira, a city of Messenia. This place ia 
famous in history as having supported a 
siege of eleven ye^rs against the Lacede- 

Irenjeus, a native of Greece, disciple of 
Polycarp, and bishop of Lyons in France. 
His opinions concerning the soul are cu- 
rious. He suffered martj'rdom, A. D. 202. 

Irene, a daughter of Cratinus the 

painter. One of the seasons among the 

Greeks, called by the modems Hore. 

Iresub, a delightful spot in Lybia, near 

Iris, a daughter of Thau mas and Elec- 
tra, one of the Oceanides, messenger of 
the gods, and more particularly of Juno. 
Her office was to cut the thrend which 
seemed to detain the soul in the body of 
those that were expiring. She is the same 

Digitized by 





as tbe rainbov^.-— -A ri^er of Asia Minor. 
A river of Pontus. 

Irub, a beggar of Itbaca, who executed 

the commissions of Penelope's suitors. 

A moaotain of India. 

Is, a small river falling into the Eo- 

pbrates. A small town on the river of 

the same name. 

I9AOA.S, a> Spartan, who, upon seeing 
the Thebans entering the city, stripped 
himself naked, and, with a spear and 
sword, engaged the enemy. 

Is^A, one of the Nereides. 

Is.cus, an orator of Cdchis, in Euboea, 
who came to Athens, and became there 
the pupil of Lysias, and soon after the 
master of Demosthenes. Demosthenes 
Imitated him in preference to Isocrates. 
Another Greek orator, who came to Rome 
A. D. 17. 

IsAMus, a river of India. 

IsANDER, a son of Bellerophon. ^ 

Is API 9, a river of Umbria. 

IsAKand IsARA, the laore, a river of Gaul. 

Another called the Oysc, which falls 

iato the Seine below Paris. 

IsAK and IsiEUft, a river of Vindelicia. 

IsARCHus, an Athenian archon,B.C. 44. 

IsAURA, the chief town of Isauria. 

Ibauria, a country of Asia Minor, near 
mount Taurus. 

IsAURieus, a surname of P. Servilius. 

Isaurus, a river of Umbria. Anoth^ 

er in Magna Grscia. 

IscHE Ni A, an annual festival at Olympia. 

IscHoLAus, a brave and prudent general 
of Sparta. 

IscHoMACHCs, a noble athlete of Cro- 

IscHOPOLis, a town of Pontus. 

IsDEOKRDEs, a king of Persia, appointed 
by the will of Arcadius, guardian to The- 
odoaius the second. He dfied in his thirty- 
first year, A. D. 408. 

Isi A, certain festivals observed in hon- 
or of Ms, which continued nine days. 
These festivals were adopted by the Ro- 
mans, among whom they soon degenera- 
ted into licentiousness. 

IsiACORUM PORTU8, a harbor on the 
jhore of the Euxine, near Dacia. 

IsiDORus, a native of Charax, in the age 
of Ptolemy Lagus, who wrote some histo- 
rical treatises. A disciple of ChrysM- 

tom. A Christian Greek writer, who 

ItouriBbed in the seventh century. 

Isis, a celebrated deity of the Egyptians, 
daughter of Satam and Rhea, according to 
Diodoms of Sicily. Osiris and Isis reign- 
ed conjointly in Egypt ; but the rebellion 
of Typhon, the brother of Osiris, proved 
fatal to this sovereign. As Isis was sup- 
posed to be the moon and Osiris the sun, 
sh9 was represented as holding a globe in 
ber hand, with a vessel fUll of ears of 

IsMABus, a ragged mountain of Thrace, 

covered with vines and olives. Its 

wines are excellent. A Theban, son of 

Astacus. A son of Eumolpos. A 

Lydian who accompanied iEneas to Italy. 

Isms If s, a daughter of CEdipus and Jo- 
easta, who, when her sistw Antigone had 
been condemned to be buried alive by 
Creon, for giving burial to her brother 
Polynices against the tyrant's positive or- 
ders, declared herself as guilty as her sis- 
ter, and insisted upon 4>eing equally pun^ 

ished with her. A daughter of the river 


IsMEivi AS, a celebrated musician of The- 
bes. A Theban, bribed by Timocrates 

of Rhodes. A Theban general, sent to 

Persia with an embassy by his countrymen. 
As none were admitted into the kiirg's 
presence without prostrating themselves 
at his feet, Ismenias had recourse to arti- 
fice to avoid doing an action which would 
prove disgraceful to his country. When 
he was introduced he dropped his ring, 
and the motion be made to recover it from 
the (H'ound wVis mistaken for the most 
subiQissive homage, and Ismenias had a 

satisfactory audience of the monarch. 

A river of Boeotia. 

IsMENiDEs, an epithet applied to tb« 
Theban women. 

IsMENius, a surname of Apollo. . 

IsMENus, a son of Apollo and Melia. 

A son of Asopus and Metope. 

A son of Niobe, killed by Apollo. 

Isocrates, a celebrated orator, son of 
Theodoras, a rich musical instrument 
maker at Athens. The defeat of the 
Athenians at Chernniea had such an effect 
upon his spirits, that be did not survive 
the disgrace of his country, but died, after 
he had been four days without taking any 
aliment, in the ninety-ninth year of his 
age, about three hundred and thirty-eight 
years before Christ. Isocrates has always 
been much admired for the sweetness and 
graceful simplicity of his btyle. for the 
harmony of his expressions, and- tb« dig- 
nfty of his language. One of the offi- 
cers of the Peloponnesian fleet. One 

of the disciples ofJsocrates. A rhetoric 

cian of Syria. 

IssA, now lM8a, an island in the Adri- 
atic sea. A town of Illyricum. 

IssE, a daughter of Macareus, the son 
of Lycaon. She was beloved by Apollo^ 
who to obtain her confidence changed 
himself into the form of a shepherd. 

Issus, now AisBe, a town of Cilicia, on 
the confines of Syria, famous for a battle 
fought there between Alexander the Great 
and the Persians under Darius their king, 
in^ October, B. C. 333, in consequence or 
which it was called JVUopolif. 

IsTER and IsTRus, an historian, discir 

pie to Callimachus. A large river of 

Europe, called also the Danube* A son 

ftfJSgyptus. ■ , 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




IsTRHiA, sacred gataies among the 
Greeks, which received their name from 
the isthmus of Corinth, where tliey were 
observed. They were celebrated in com- 
memoration of Melicerta, who was chang- 
ed into a sea deity, when his mother Ino 
had thrown herself into the sea with him 
in her ^rms. These games were observed 
every third, or rather fifth, year. 

IsTHHiDs, a k'mg of Messenia. 

Isthmus, a 6m^l neck of land which 
joins one country to another. 

IsTLjEoTis, a country of Greece, near 

IsTEiA, a province at the west of lUyri- 
cum,whoBe mhabitanta were originally pi- 
rates, and lived on plunder. 

IsTROPOLiB, a city of Thrace. 

Itxn and Antiphus, sons of Priam, the 
latter by Hecuba, and the former by a 
coi^cubine. They were both killed by 
Agamemnon. A city of Bcsotia. 

Italia, a celebrated country of Eu- 
rope, bounded by the Adriatic and Tyor- 
bene seas and the Alpine mountains. 
The boundaries of Italy appeared to have 
been formed by natui^ itself, which seems 
to have been particularly careful in sup- 
p]yin|; this country with whatever may 
contribute not only to the support, but also 
to the pleasures and luxuries or life. It 
has been called the garden of Europe. 
The ancient inhabitants called themselves 
AborigiTtes, offspring of the soil, and the 
country was soon after peopled by colo- 
nies from Greece. 

Italica, a town of Italy, called also 

Corfinium. A town of Spain, now Se- 

viUa la Figa. 

iTALfcus, a poet. 

It ALUS, a son of Telegonus.— — An Ar- 
cadian prince, who came to Italy, where 
he established a kingdom, called after him. 

" A prince whose daughter Roma is 

said to have -cnfMied JEiytBM or Ascanius. 

Itaroris, a river of Gennany. 

Itca, a daifghter of Danaus. 

Itehalxs, an old man who exposed 
(Edipus on mount Citheeron. 

Ithaca, a celebrated island in the Io- 
nian sea, on the western parts of Greece, 
with a city of the same name. It is very 
rocky and mountaioMui, and is now 

known by the name of Isola dd Con^^ait^ 
or ThiachL 

Ithacesije, three islands opposite Vibo, 
on the coast of the Brutii. 

Ithobalus, a king of Tyre, who died 
B. C. 596. 

Ithome, a town of Phthicftis.-i An* 

other of Messenia J 

Ithomai A, a festival in which musiciand 
contended, observed at Ithome, in honor 
of Jupiter* 

iTHTPHAU^tTS} an obscene name of Pria^ 

Itius PoiiTD% a town of Gaul^ bow 
Wetsand, or Boulogne in Picardy. 

Itoma, a surname of Minerva. 

Itokus, a king of Thessaly, son «f Dett* 

Ituna, a river of Britain. 

Itursa, a country of Palestine, whose 
inhabitants were very skilful in drawing 
the bow. 

Iturum, a town of Umbria. 

Ittldi, a son of Zetheus, and iEdon, 
killed by his mother. 

Ittr^i, a people of Palestine. 

Itt«, a son or Tereus king of Thrace, 
by Procne, daughter of Pandion, kfaig or 
Athens. He was killed by his mother 
when he was about six years old, and 
served up as meat before his father. He 
was changed into a pheasant, his mother 
into a swallow, and his father into an 

owl. A Trojan who came to Italy with 


luLUs, the name of Ascanius, the son 
of iEneas. A son of Ascanius. - 

IxiBATJB, a people of Pontus. 

IxioN, a king of Thessaly, son of Phle- 
gas. Jupiter carried him to heaven, and 
introduced him at the tables of the gods. 
Such a fkvor, which ought to have awak- 
ened gratitude in Ixion, served only to in- 
flame his lust ; he became enamored of 
Juno, and attempted to seduce her. Ju- 
piter struck him with his thunder, and 
ordered Mercury to tie him to a wheel 
in hell which continually whirls round. 
The wheel was perpetually in motion, 
therefore the punishment of Ixion was 
eternal One of the Heraclids. 

IxioNiDEs, the patronymic of Pirithom 
son of Ixion. 


JANICULUM and Jaiticularius mows. 
one of the seven hills at Rome, joined 
to the city by Ancus Martius, and made a 
kind of icltadel, to protect the place apiinst 
an invasion. This hill was less inhabited 
than the other parts of f he city, on account 
oT the grossnesfl of the air } though from its 


top, the eye could have a commanding 
view of the whole city. It is famous for 
the burial of king Numa and the poet Itali- 

Janus, the most ancient kinff who reign- 
ed in Italy. He was a native of Thes- 
saly, and son pf Apollo, according to i 

Digitized by 





1^ eame to Italy, wbere be planted a col- 
ony and built a small town on the river 
Tiber, whicb he called Janiculum. Janus 
is represented with two faces, because he 
was acquainted with the past and the fu- 
ture ; or, according to others, because he 
was taken for the sun who opens the day 
at his rising, and shuts it at his setting. 
Sonae statues represent Janus with four 
heads. He was chiefly worshipped among 
the Romans, where he had maoy temples. 
His teYnple, which was always open in 
times of war, was shut Qnly three times 
4]uring above seven hundfed years, under 
Z*funia, 234 B. C. and under Augustus; 
•and during that long period of time, the 
Komans were continually employed in 
■war. A street at Rome, near the tem- 
ple of Janns. It was generally frequented 
by usurers, money-brokers, and booksel- 

Japetides, a musician at the nuptials 
4>{ Perseus and Andromeda. 

jAP£TU8,a8on ofCcelus or Titan, who 
married Asia. The Greeks looked upon 
him as the father of all mankind. 

Jasoit, a celebrated hero, son of ^son, 
king of lolchos, whose throne was usurp- 
ed by PeliaSj and the lawful successor 
driven to retirement and obscurity. Ja- 
son was commanded by the oracle to visit 
lolchos, his native country, and demand 
the kingdom from the usurper. Pel las 
consented to abdicate the crown, provid- 
ed Jason would undertake an expedition 
against iEetes, king of Colchis, who had 
murdered their common relation, Phryx- 
us. Jason accordingly embarked on board 
a ship called Argo, accompanied by the 
youngest and bravest of the Greeks ; and, 
after a series of adventures, arrived at 
Colchis. iEetes promised to restqre the 

Snlden fleece, which was the cause of the 
eath of Phi^xus, and of the voyage of 
the Argonauts, provided they submitted to 
his conditions. Jason was to tame bulls 
which breathed flames, and had feet and 
horns of brass, and to plough with them a 
field sacred to Mars. After this he was to 
BOW in the ground the teeth of a serpent, 
from which armed men would arise, 
whose fury would be converted against 
him who ploughed the field. He was also 
to kill a monstrous draeon, who watched 
day and night at the Ibot of the tree on 
which the golden fleece was suspended. 
All these labors were to be performed in 
one day ; but Medea, the king's daughter. 
whose knowledge of herbs, magic, and 
potions, was unparalleled, easily extricat- 
ed Jason from all dangers, to the aston- 
ishment and terror of his companions, 
and of JEetea and the people of Colchis. 
who had assembled to be spectators or 
these wonderful actions. Jason tamed 
the bulls with ease, ploughed the fleld, 
99wed the dragon's te«>th, and, when the 

armed men sinraAg from the earth, he 
threw a stone in the midst of them, and 
they immediately turned their weapons 
one against tl^e other till they all perished. 
He next went to the dragon, and, by 
means of enchanted herbs, given him by 
Medea, he lulled the monster to sleep, and 
took from the tree the celebrated golden 
fleece, which was the sole object of his 
voyage. Jason then set sail fur Europe 
with Medea, whom he had married ; and, 
after numerous disasters, arrived safely 
in Thessraly. This expedition has been 
much celebrated in the ancient ages of the 
world, and has employed the pens of 
many writers. Some authors say that 
Jason afterwards returned to Colchis, 
where he reigned in great security ; others, 
that, as he was one day reposing by the 
side of the ship which had carried him to 
Colchis, a beam fell upon his head, and he 

was crushed to death. A native of Ar- 

gos who wrote an history of Greece in four 

books. A tyrant of Thessaly. Tral- 

lia^us, a man who wrote tragedies and 
gained the esteem of the kings of Parthia. 

Jasosio£, a patronymic of Thoas and 
Euneijs, sons of Jason and Hipsipyle. 

Jekisu», a town of Syria. ' 

Jera, one of the Nereides. 

Jericho, a city, of Palestine, besieged 
and taken by the Romans under Vespa- 
sian and Titus. 

Jerkb, a name of Ireland. 

Jeromus and JEiioNYMUs, a Greek of 
Cardia, who wrote an history of Alexan- 
der.— A native of Rhodes, disciple of 

Jerusalem, the capital of Judea. Fid. 

Jetjb, a place of Sicily. 

JocASTA, a daughter of Menoecens, who 
married Lains, king of Thebes, by whom 
she had CEdipus. She afterwards married 
her son CEdipus, without knowing who 
he was. When she discovered that she 
had married her own son, she banged 
herself in despair. 

JoRDANEs, a river of Judea, illustrious 
in sacred history. 

JoRWANofcs, an historian who wrote on 
the Goths. He died A. O. .552. 

JosEPHus, Flavius, a celebrated Jew- 
ish author born at Jerusalem ; who wrote 
the history of the wars of the Jews, first in 
Syriac, and afterwards translated it into 
Greek. He was the author, also, of seve- 
ral other works on the antiquities of the 
Jews ; and though, in some respects, in- 
imical to the Christians, yet he has com- 
mended our Saviour so warmly, that St. 
Jerome calls him a Christian writer. Jo- 
senhus died at the age of 56, A. D. 93. 

JoviANus Flavins Claudius, a native of 
Pannonia, elected emperor of Rome by the 
soldiers after the death of Julian. He at 
first reAised to be invested with the Im- 

Digitized by 

,y Google 




periol purple, because his siilo'jcta follow- 
ed the religious principles of the late. em- 
peror; but they removed his groundless 
apprehensions, and, when tliey assured 
him that they were warm for Christianity, 
he accepted the crown. Jovian died seven 
months and twenty days after his ascen- 

JuBA, a king of Numidia and Maurita- 
nia, who favored the cause of Pompey 
fkgainst J. Cssar. He was conquered in a 
battle at Thapsus, and totally abandoned 
by his subjects. He killed himself with 
Petrelus, who had shared his good fortune 
and his adversity. His kingdom became 
a Roman province, of wbfch Sallust was 

the first governor. The second of that 

name was the son of Juba the first. He 
was led among the captives to Rome, to 
adorn the triumph of Caesar. His captivi- 
ty was the source of the greatest 4ionors, 
and his application to study procured him 
more glory than he could have obtained 
from the inheritance of a kingdom. He 
gained the heart of the Romans by the 
eourteousness of his manners, and Augus- 
tus rewarded his fidelity by giving him in 
marriage Cleopatra the daughter of Anto- 
ny, and conferring upon him the title of 
king, and making him master of all the 
territories which his father once possess- 

JuoAciLii^s, a native of Asculum, cele- 
brated for his patriotism. 

JuDXA, a famous country of Syria, 
bounded by Arabia, Egypt, Phuenicia, the 
Mediterranean sea, ana part of Syria. 
The inhabitants, whose history is best col- 
lected from the Holy Scriptures, were 
chiefly governed, af\er the Babylonish cap- 
tivity, by the bign priests. 

JuQALis, a surname of Juno, because 
she presided over marriage. 

JuoANTss, a people of Britain. 

JcoARius, a street in Home, below the 

JuouHtha, the illegitimate son of Ma- 
nastabaY, the brother of Micipsa. Micipsa 
and Manastabal were the sons of Masinis- 
sa, king of Numidia. Micipsa, who had 
inherited his father's kingdom, educated 
his nephew with his two sons Adherbal 
and Hiempsal ; but, as he was of an as- 
piring disposition, he sent him with a body 
of troops to the assistance of Scipio, who 
was besieging Numantia, hoping to lose' a 
youth whose ambition seemed to threaten 
the tranquillity of his children. His hopes 
were frustrated, Jugurtha showed himself 
brave and active, and endeared himself to 
the Roman general. Micipsa appointed 
him successor to his kingdom with his two 
sons, but the kindness of the father prov- 
ed fatal to the children. Jugurtha de- 
stroyed Hiempsal, and stripped AdherbiU 
of his possessions, and obliged him to'fly to 
Rome for safety, The Romans listened to 

the welKgrounded complaints of Adher- 
bal, bufe Jugurtha's gold prevailed among 
the^ senators, and the suppliant monarch, 
forsaken in his distress, perished by the 
snares of his enemy. Coecilius Metellus 
was at last sent against Jugurtha, and his 
firmness and success soon reduced the 
crafty Numidian, and obliged him to, fly 
among his savage neighbors for support^ 
Marius and Sylla succeeded Metellus, an<fc 
fought with equal success. Jugurtha waft 
at last betrayed by his father-in-law Boc- 
chus, from whom he claimed assistance,, 
and he was delivered into the hands of 
Sylla, after Carrying on a war of five years.. 
He was exposed to the view of the Roman 
people, and dragged in chains to adorn th& 
triumph of Marius. He was afterwards 
put 'in a prison, where he died six days 
after of hunger, B. C. 106. The name and 
the wars of Jugurtha have been immortal- 
ized by the pen of Sallust. 

Julia lex, the name of several laws 
passed in Rome j de ^ovindiSi de eumpti- 
hu8, de civiiate, de judicibiis, de ambitu, 
&c. ScCi 

Julia, a daughter of J. Ciesar, by Cor- 
nelia, famous for her personal charms and 
for her virtues. She married Corn. Ccepio, 
whom her fkther obliged her to divorce to 
marry Pompey the Great. Her amiable 
disposition more strongly cemented the 
friendship of the father and of the son-in- 
law ; but her sudden death in child- bed, 
B. C. 53^ broke all ties of intimacy and re- 
lationship, and soon produced a civil war. 
The mother of M, Antony, whose hu- 
manity is greatly celebrated in saving her 
brotlierin-law J. Caesar from the cruel 

prosecutions of her son.- An aunt of 

J. Cssar, who married C. Marius. Her 
ftineral. oration was publicly pronounced 

by her nephew. The only daughter of 

the emperor Augustus, remarkable for her 
beauty, genius, and debaucheries. She 
was starved to death, A. D. 14, by order 
of Tiberius. A daughter of the empe- 
ror Titus. A daughter of Julia, the 

wife of Agrippa, who married Lepidus, 
and was banished for her lirentiousness. 

A licentious daughter of Germanicus 

and Agrippina, bom in the island of Les- 
bos, A. D. 17. She married k senator 
called M. Vinucius, at the age of sixteen, 
and was put to death about the twenty- 
fourth year of her age. A celebrated ' 

woman, born in Phcenicia. She is also 
called Domna. She applied herself to the 
study of geometry and philosophy, &c. 
and rendered herself conspicuotts,as much 
by her mental as by her personal charms. 
She came to Rome, where her learning 
recommended her to all the literati of the 
age. She married Septimius Severus, 
who, twenty y^ars after this matrimonial 
connexion, was invested with the impe- 
rial purple. She stervedj^rself when her 




unbitions views were defeated by Macri- 
nu8, who aspired to the empire io prefer- 
ence to her, after the death of Caracalla. 
A town of Gallia Togata. 

JuLiAcoM, a town of Germany, now 

JuLiANUs, a son of Julias Constantius, 
the brother of Constantine the Great, born 
at Constantinople. In his youth he was 
taught the doctrines of the Christian reli- 
gion, and exhorted to be modest and tem- 
perate i but he soon afterwards showed 
his dislike fyr Christianity, by secretly 
cherishing a desire to become one of the 
votaries of Paganism, and applied himself 
.to the study of magic and astrology. 
About the twenty-sixth year of his age, 
fie was appointed by Constans over Gaul, 
Kvith the title of CiBsar; and he distin- 
^ished himself by his prudence, valor. 
and the numerous victories he obtainea 
over the enemies of Rome in Gaul and 
Germany. His mildness and condescen- 
sion gained him the hearts of his soldiers ; 
and when Constans, to whom Julian was 
become suspected, ordered him to send 
him part of his forces, to be sent into the 
east, the army mutinied, and refused to 
obey the mandate of the emperor. They 
compelled Julian to accept th# title of in- 
dependent emperor and of Augustus ; and 
the death of Constans, which shortly after- 
wards happened, left him sole master of 
the Roman empire. Julian then disclosed 
bis religious sentiments, and publicly dis- 
avowed the doctrines of Christianity'. Af- 
ter he had made his public entry into Con- 
stantinople, he determined to continue the 
Persian war ; and, when he had crossed 
the Tigris, he destroyed his fleet, and ad- 
vanced into the enemy's coui'try. He 
was, however obliged to retire ; and he 
inarched up the sources of the river, de- 
termined to imitate the bold return of the 
ten thousand Greeks. As he advanced 
throngh the country, he defeated the offi- 
cers or Sapor, king of Persia ; but an en- 
gagement proved fatal to him, and he re- 
ceived a deadly wound while animating 
his soldiers. The last moments of Julian 
were spent in a conversation with a phi- 
losopher concerning the immortality of the 
soul ; and he died without showing any 
sorrow for his fate, or the suddenness of 

his death. A son of Constantine. A 

maternal uncle of the emperor Julian. 

A Roman emperor. A Roman who pro- 
claimed himself emperor in Italy during 
the reign of Dioclesian. — -A governor of 

JuLii, a family of Alba, brought to 
Borne by Romulus, where tbey soon rose 
to the greatest honors of the state. J. 
Cesar and Augustus were of this family. 

JuLioMAOus^a city of Gaul, now Angers 
jn Anjou. 

JuLioroLis, a town of Bithynia. ' 

JuLis, A town of the island of Cos, 
which gave birth to Simonides, Sec. The 
walls of this city were all marble. 

Julius Cjesar. Vid. Cjesar.——— Agri- 
cola, a governor of Britain, A. C. 80, who 
first discovered that Briftiin was an island 

by sailing round it. Obsequens, a Latin 

writer, who flourished A. D. 214. Titi- 

anus, a writer in the age of Dioclesian. 
His son became famous for his oratorical 
powers, and was made preceptor in the 

family of Maximinus. Africanus, a 

chronologer, who flourished A. D. 220. 

Constantius, the father of ttie emperor 

Julian. Pollux, a grammarian of Nau- 

pactus, in Egypt. Canus, a celebrated 

Roman, put to death by order of Caracal- 
la. Proculus, a Roman, who solemnly 

declared to his countrymen, after Romu- 
lus had disappeared, that he had seen 
him above an human shape, and that he 
had orderea him to tell the Romans to 
honor him as a god. L. Ctesar, a Ro- 
man consul, uncle to Antony the triumvir. 

Atnia lex, Saerata, by L. Junius Bru- 
tus, the first tribune of the people, A. U. 
C. 260. It ordained that the pierson of the 
tribune should Ite held sacred and inviola- 
ble. Another, A. U. C. 627, which ex- 
cluded aU foreigners from enjoying the 
privileges or names of Roman citizens. 

JuwiA, a niece of Cato of Utica, who 

married Cassius. Calviua, a beautiful 

Roman lady 

Junius Bl^sus, a proconsul of Africa 

under the emperors. Lupus, a senator 

who accused Vitellias of aspiring to the 

Juno, the daughter of Saturn and Ops, 
sister and wife of Jupiter, queen of heaven, 
and goddess of marriages and births. Her 
temples were numerous, the most famous 
of which were at Argos, Glympia, &ic. 
No woman of debauched character was 
permitted to enter, or even touch them. 
She protected cleanliness, patronised the 
most faithful and virtuous of the sex, and 
severely punished incontinence and lewd- 
ness in matrons. The surnames of Juno 
are various, they are derived either from 
the function or things over which she pre- 
sided, oc from the places where her wor- 
ship was established. She is represented 
sitting on a throne with a diadem on her 
head, and a golden sceptre in her right 
hand. Some peacocks generally sat by 
het, and a cuckoo often perched on her 
sceptre, while Iris behind her displayed 
the thousand colors of her beautiful rain- 
bow. She is sometimes carried through 
the air in a rich chariot drawn by pea- 
cocks. The Roman consuls, when they^' 
entered upon oflice, were always obliged 
to ofl^er her a solemn sacrifice. The Juno 
of the Romans was called Matrona or Ro- 
mana. She was generally represented as 
veiled from bead to foot* . 

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JuNoNALiA and JuironiA, festivals at 
Rome in honor of Juno. ^ 

JuNONEs, a name of the protecting ge- 
nii of the women timiong the Romans. 
' Juno Ml, two islamis, supposed to be 

among the Fortunate islands. A name 

which Gracchus gave to Carthage, when 
he went with six thousand Romans to re- 
build it. \ 

JuNONioENA, a surname of Vulcan aa 
son of Juno. 

JuNONis, promontorium, a promontory 

of Peloponnesus. Lacinis temphim, a 

temple of Juno in Italy. 

Jupiter, the most powerful of all the 
gods of the ancients. Several of this 
name are mentioned by the ancient wri- 
ters. To that of Crete, who passed for the 
son of Saturn and Ops, the actions of the 
rest have been attributed. As soon as he 
was a year old, Jupiter found himself suffi- 
ciently strong to make war against the Ti- 
tans, who had imprisoned his father be- 
cause he had brought up male children i 
The Titans were conquered, and Saturn 
set at liberty by the hands of his son. Sa- 
turn, However, soon after, apprehensive 
of the power of Jupiter, conspired against 
his life, and was, for this treachery, driven 
from his kingdom, and obliged to fly for 
safety into Latium. Jupiter, now become 
the sole master of the empire of the world, 
divided it with his brothers. He reserved 
for himself the kingdom of heaven, and 
gave the empire of the sea to Neptune, 
and that of the infernal regions to Pluto. 
The peaceful beginning of his reign was 
soon interrupted by ,the rebellion of the 
f iants, who were sons of the earth, and 
■who wished to revenge the death of their 
relations the Titans. They were so pow- 
erful that they hurled rocks, knd heaped 
up mountains upon mountains, to scale 
heaven, so that' all the gods to avoid their 
fury fled to Egypt, where they escaped 
from the danger by assuming the form of 
dlflbrent animals. Jupiter, however, an- 
imated them, and by the assistance of 
Hercules, he totally overpowered the gi- 
gantic race, which .had proved such tre- 
mendous enemies.' Jupiter, now freed 
from every apprehension, gave himself up 
to the pursuit of pleasures. The worship 
of Jupiter was universal ; he was the 
Ammon of the Africans, the Belus of 
Babylon, the Osiris of Egypt, &c. His 
surnames were numerous, many of which 
he received from the place or function 
over which he presided. The worship of 
Jupiter surpassed that of the other gods in 

solemnity. He is generally represented 
as sitting upon a golden or ivory throne, 
holding, in one hand, thunderbolts just 
ready to be hurled, and, in the other, a 
sceptre of cypress. His looks express ma- 
jesty, his beard flows long and neglected, 
and the eagle stands with ex|)anded w^ings 
at his feet. He was represented at 01ym<. 
pia with a crown like olive branches, his 
mantle was variegated with different 
flowers, particularly by the lily, and the 
eagle perched on the top of the sceptre 
which he held in his hand. 

Jura, a high ridge of mountains sepa- 
rating the Helvetii from the Sequani, or 
Switzerland from Burgundy. 

JljsTiNus M. JuNiANDSj a Latin histo- 
rian in the age of Antonmus, who epito-. 
mised the history of Trogus Pompeius. 
This epitome is replete with many judi- 
cious reflections, and animated harangues; 
but the author is often too credulous, and 
sometimes examines events two minutely^ 
while others' are related only in a few 

words too often obscure. Martyr, a 

Greek father formerly a Platonic phiioso* 

pher, bora in Palestine. An empieix>r of 

the east who reigned nine years, and died 

A. D. 526. Another, who died A. D. 

564, after a reign of thirty-eight years. 

Another, who died 577 A. P. after a reign 
of thirteen years. 

JuTURrTA,a sister of Turnus, kingoft|]e 
Rutuli. She heard with contempt the ad^ 
dresses of Jupiter, or, according to others, 
she was not unfavorable to his passion^ so 
that the god rewarded her love with im- 

JuvENALia, Decius Junius, a poet boHi 
at Aquinum in Italy. He came early to 
Rome, and. passed some time in declaim- 
ing; after which he applied himself to 
write satires, sixteen of which are extant. 
After the death of Nero, the satirist was 
sent by Domitian as governor on the fron- 
tiers of Egypt. Juvenal was then in the 
eightieth year of his age, and he suflfered 
much from the trouble which attended his 
oflice, or rather his exile. He returned, 
however, to Rome and died in the reign of. 
Trajan, A. D. 128. His writings are fiery ' 
and animated, and thev abound with hu- 
mor. He may be called^ and with reason, 
perhaps, the last of the Roman poets. 

JuvENTAS or JuvENTus, s goddess at 
Rome, who presided over youth and vi- 

JuTERNA, or HiBERNiA, au Islaud at the 
west of Britain, now called IreUand, 

y Google 




LAANBER, a youth, brotlier to Nico- 
crates, tyrant of Cyrene. 

Laarchus, thQ guardian of Battus of 
Cyrene. He usurped the sovereign power 
and was assassinated. 

Labaris, a king of Egypt after Sesos- 

Laboa, a daughter ot AmphJon, one of 
the Bacchiadse, bom lame. 

Labdacides, a name given to CEdipus, 
■as descended from Labdacus. 

Labdacus, a son of Polydorus by Nyc- 
teis, and father to Laiua. It is unkJiown 
whether he jever sat on the throne of 

Labdalon, a promontory of Sicily. 

Labzalis, a lake in Oalmatia. 

liABjso, Antistitts, a celebrated lawyer 
in the age of Augustus, whose views he 
opposed, and whose offers of the consul- 
ship he refused. His works are lost. 

A tribune of the people at Rome, who 
condemned the censor Metellus to be 

thrown down from the Tarpeiah rock. 

Q,. Fabius, a Roman consul, A. U. C. 571, 
who obtained a naval victory over the fleet 

of the Cretans. Actius, an obscure 


LiABSRius, J. Dkcimus, a Roman knieht 
famous for his poetical talents in writing 
pantomimes. J. Caesar compelled him to 
act one of his characters on the stage. 
Laberius died ten months after the mur- 
der of J. Cssar. Q,. Durus, a tribune 

of the soldiers in Cssar's legions. 

Lab I CUM, now CoZoAna,.a town of Italy, 
called also Laoicum. 

ItABiKNus, aq.^ofIicer of Cesar in the 
'wars of Gaul. -^ A* Roman who followed 
the interest of Brutii^ and Cassius, 

Titus, an historian and orator at Rome in 
the age of Augustus. The senate ordered 
his papers to be burnt on account of their 
seditious contents ; and Labienus, unab.Ie 
to survive the loss of his writings, destroy- 
ed himself. 

LABiifRTus or Labtitbtus, a king of 
Babylon, Stc. 

liABoTAs, a river near Antioch in Syria. 

A son of Echestratus, who made war 

«gainst Argos. 

Labradbus, a surname of Jupiter in 

Labroit, a part of Italy on the Mediter- 

Labtrinthus, a building whose nume- 
rous passages and perplexing windings 
render the escape from it difficult, and 
almost impracticable. There were four 
very famous among the ancients, one near 
the city of Crocodiles or Arsinoe, another 
in Crete, a third at Lemnos, and a fourth 
in Italy built by Porsenna. That of Egypt 
was theimost ancient, and Herodotus, who 
jaw it, declares that the beauty and the 
art of tho building were almost beyond 
belief. Xt was built by twelve kings who 

at one time leigned in Egjrpt, and it was 
intended for the place of their burial, and 
to commemorate the actions of their reign. 

LAcasNA, an epithet applied to a female 
native of Laconia. 

LAC£DjiM05, a sdn of Jupiter and Tay- 

Seta the daughter of Atlas. From Lace- 
amon and his wife, the capital of Laconia 

was called Lacedwmon and Sparta. A 

noble city of Peloponnesus, the capital of 
Ldiconia, called also" ^artUj and now 
known by the name of Miaitnu In the 
year 191, B C. Lacedeemon joined the 
Achaean league, and about three years af- 
ter the walls were demolished by order of 
Phllopcemen. The territories of Laconia 
shared the fate of the Achaean confede- 
racy, and the whole was conquered by 
Mummius, 147 B. C. and converted into a 
Roman province. The inhabitants of 
Lacedeemon have rendered themselves il- 
lustrious for their courage and intrepidity, 
for their love of honor and liberty, and for 
their aversion to sloth and luxury. In the 
affairs of Greece, the interest of the La- 
cedaemonians was often powerful, and oh- 
tained the superiority for five hundred 
years. Their jealousy of the power and 

?eatness of .the Athenians is well known, 
he authority of their monarchs was 
checked by the watchful eye of the Epho- 
ri, who had the power of imprisoning 
the kings themselves if guilty of misde- 
meanors. The names of Lacedamon and 
Sparta are promiscuously applied to the 
capital of Laconia, and often confounded 
together. The latter was applied to t^e 
metropolis, and the former was reserved 
for the inhabitants of the suburbs, or rath- 
er of the country contiguous to the walls 
of the city. The place where the city 
stood is now called Paleo Chori, {the old 
town,) and the new one erected on its ruins 
at some distance on the west is called Jtfi- 
satra. There were some festivals cele- 
brated at Lacedeemon the names of which 
are not known. It was customary for the 
women to drag all the old bachelors round 
the altars and beat them with their fists, 
that the shame and ignominy to which 
they were exposed mi^t induce them to 

LACEDAHonrii and LAcsDJCMoifsa, the 
iBhabitants of Lacedaemon. 

LACSD-KMoifius, a son of Cimon by CU- 

Lagerta, a rich soothsayer in Domi- 
tiaa's age. 

LACETArviA, a district at the north of 

Lachareb, a man who seized the su- 
preme power at Athens and was banished 

B. C. 396. An Athenian three times 

taken prisoner. — —A son of Mithridates 
king of Bosphorus. -A robber condemn- 
ed' by M. Antony. An Egyptian burled 

la the labyrinth near Arsinoe. 

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Laches, an Athenian general in the age 

of Epaminondas*. An Athenian sent 

with Cartas at the head of a fleet in the 
first expedition undertaken against Sicily 

in the Peloponnesian war. An artist 

who finished the Colossus of Rhodes. 

Lachesis, one of the Parcse. She pre- 
sided over futurity, and was represented 
as spinning the thread of life, or accord* 
ing to others, holding the spinale. 

Lacidas, a Greek philosopher of Cyrene, 
who flourished B. C. 241. He was greatly 
esteemed hy king Attains who gave him a 
carden where he spent his hours ifi study. 
He died through excess of drinking. 

Lac IDES, a village near Athens. 

Lacinia, a surname of Juno from her' 
temple at Lacinium in Italy. 

Lacixiensis, a people of Liburnia. 

Lacinium, ajiroinontory of Magna Gre- 
ciiu now cape Colonna. 

Lacmon, a part of mount Pindus. 

Laco, a favorite of Galba, mean and 
cowardly in his character. An inhabi- 
tant of Laconia or Lacedemon. 

Lacobriga, a city of Spain. 

Laconia, Laconica, and LACBD^CMoif, 
a country on the southern parts of Pelo- 
ponnesus, having Argos and Arcadia on 
the north, Messenia on the west, the Me- 
diterranean on the south, and the bay of 
Argos at the east, ita extent from north 
tp south was about fifty miles. It is wa- 
tered by the river Eurotas. The capital is 
called Sparta or Laced temon. 

Lacrates, a Thebao general. 

Lacrines, a Lacedaemonian ambassa- 
dor to Cyrus. 

Lactantius, % celebrated Christian vni- 
ter. The expressive purity, elegance, and 
energy of his style have gained him the 
name of tlie Christiati Cicero. He died 
A. D. 335. 

Lacter, a promontory of the island of 

Lacvdes, a philosopher. 

Lacydus, an effeminate king of Argos. 

Ladas, a celebrated courier of Alexan- 
der, born at Sicyon. 

Lade, an island of the /Bgean sea. 

Lades, a son of Imbrasus, killed by 

Ladooea, a village of Arcadia. 

Ladon, a river of Arcadia falling into 
the Alpheus. An'Arcadian who follow- 
ed iEneas into Italy. One of Actaeon's 


Ljelaps, one of Actaeon's dogs. The 

dog of Cephalus. 

LiELiA, a vfstal virgin. 

Ljkl'ianps, a general, proclaimed em- 
peror in Gaul by his soldiers, A. D. 268, 
after the death of Gallienus. His triumph 
was short ; he was conquered and put to 
death after a few months reign. 

C. Ljelius, a Romkn consul, A. t^, C. 
614, surnamed SapieM, His modesty, hu- 

manity, and the manner fn which fiepal^ 
ronised letters, are as celebrated as hit 
greatness of mind and integrity in the 

character of a statesman. Another 

consul. Archelaus, a famous gramma- 

Lf NA and Lbjbna, the mistress of Har- 

modius and Arlstogiton. A man who 

was acquainted with the conspiracy form- 
ed against Cssar. 

Lj£nas, a surname of the Popilii at 

Ljbneus, a river of Crete. 

La FA Magna, a town of Spain. 

Laertes, a king of Ithaca, son of Ar- 
cesius and Chalcomedusa, who married 
Anticlea the daughter of Autolycus. An- 
ticlea was pregnant by Sisyphus when she 
married Laertes, and eight months after 
her union with the king of Ithaca she 
brought forth a son called Ulyss^. Ultfs- 
ses was treated with parental care by La- 
ertes, though not really his son, and Laer- 
tes ceded to him his crown and retired into 
the country, where he spent his time in 
gardening. A city of Cilicia. 

Laertius DioosNBs, a writer born at 

Ljestrvgones, the most ancient inha- 
bitants of Sicily. They fed on human 
flesh, and when Ulysses came on their 
coasts, they sunk his ships and devoured 
his companions. 

Ljeta, the wife of the emperor Gratian. 

Ljctoria Lex ordered that proper per- 
sons should be appointed to provide for 
the security and the possessions of such aa 
were insane, or squandered away their 

Ljetus, a Roman whom Commodus con- 
demned to be put to death. A general 

of the emperor Severus, pot to death for 
hiii treachery to the emperor. 

Ljevi, the ancient inhabitants of Gallia 

L^viNus, a Roman consul sent against 
Pyrrhus, A. U. C. 474^ and defeated. 

Laoaria, a town of^ Lucania. 

Laoia, a name of the island Deloa. 

Laginia, a town of Caria. 

Lagub, a Macedonian of mean extrao- 
tlon. He received in marriage Arsinoe 
the daughter of Meleager, who was then 
pregnant of king Philip, and being willing 
to hide the disgmce of^ his wife, he expos- 
ed the child in the woods. An eagle pre- 
served the life of the infant, and fed him 
with her prey. This uncomiiion preserv- 
ation was divulged by Lagus, who adopted 
the child as his own, and called him Pto- 
lemy, conjecturing that as bis life had 
been so miraculously preserved, hit days 
would be spent in grandeur and affluencah 
This Ptolemy became king of Egypt alter 
the death of Alexander. The first of the 
Ptolemies is called Lagus, to distinguish 
him fh>m hit succetsori of the tame niune« 

Digitized by 




The floraame of Logides was transmitted 
to iiA his descendants on the Egyptian 
throne till tbe reign of Cleopatra, Antony's 

mistress. A Rutulian, killed by Pallas 

son of Evander. 

Laousa, an island in the Pamphylian 
sea.— — Another near Crete. 

Laotra, a city of Taurica Chersonesus. 

Ijaiad£«, a patronymic of (Edipus son 

Liai AS, a king of Arcadia who succeeded 
bis father Cypselus. A king of Elis. 

LiAis, a celebrated courtezan, daughter 
nf Timandra the mistress of Alcibiades, 
"bom at Hyccara in Sicily. She was car- 
ried away from her native country into 
Oreece, when Nicias the Athenian gen- 
eral invaded Sicily. 

Lai us, a son of Labdacus, who succeed- 
ed to the throne of Thebes. An ora^e ia- 
tbrmed him that he should perish by the 
band of his son. The child as soon as 
horn was given to a servant, with orders 
to put him to death. The servant was 
moved with compassion, and only exposed 
him on mount Cithteron, where bis life 
was preserved by a gfliepherd. The child 
called GBdipus was educated in tbe court 
of Polybus, and an unfortunate meeting 
with his father in a narrow road proved 
his ruin. GBdipus ordered his father to 
make way for him without knowing who 
he was ; Laius refused, and was instantly 
murdered by his irritated son. 

Lalaoe, one of Horace's favorite mis- 
tresses. A woman censured for her 


Lalassis, a river of Isauria. 

Lamachds, 'a son of Xenophanes, sent 
into Sicily with Nicias. He was killed 
B. C. 414, hefore Syracuse. A govern- 
or of Heraclea in Pontus, who betrayed 
his trust to Mithridates. 

Lamaluon, a large moantain of iGthio- 

Lambrani, a people of Italy. 

Lambrus, a river of Cisalpine Gaul, fall- 
ing into the Po. 

Lamia, a town of Thessaly, fanious for 
a ^ege it supported after Alexander's 
death. — A riverof Greece, opposite mount 

GBta. A daughter of Neptune, mother 

of Hierophil'e. an ancient Sibyl, by Jupiter. 

Lahia and Auxssia, two deities of 
Crete, whose worship was the same as at 

Lamiacum Bbllum happened after the 
death of Alexander, when the Greeks, 
and particularly the Athenians, incited by 
their orators, resolved to free Greece fh)m 
the garrisons of the Macedonians. 

Lamije, small islands of the iEgean, op- 
posite Trbaa. A celebrated family at 

Home, descended from Lamus. Cer- 
tain monsters of Africa, who had the face 
and breast of a woman, and tbe rest of the 
body like that of a seipent. 

Lamias JEuv; a govenior of Syria Qn< 

der Tiberius. Another, during the reign 

of Domitian. 

Lamirus, a son of Hercules by lole. 

LAMPECto, a woman of Lacedcemon, 
who was daughter, wife, sister, and mo- 
ther 'of a king. She lived in the age of 

Lampetia, a daughter of Apollo and 
Neera. She with her sister Phietusa 
guarded her father's flocks in Sicily when 
Ulysses arrived on the coasts of that is- 
land. These flocks it waa deemed un- 
lawful and sacrilegious to touch. The 
companions of Ulysses, impelled byhun- 
ger, paid no regard to their sanctity, or to 
the threats and entreaties of their chief; 
but they carried away and killed some of 
the oxen. The watchful keepers com- 
plained to their father, and Jupiter, at the 
request of Apollo, punished the offence of 
the Greeks. The hides of the oxen ap- 
peared to walk, and the flesh which was 
roasting by the fire began to bellow, and 
nothing was heard but dreadful noises 
and loud lowings. The companions of 
Ulysses embarked on board their. ships, 
hut here the resentment of Jupiter follow- 
ed them. A storm arose, and they all per- 
ished except Ulysses, who saved himself 
on the broken" piece of a mast. Accord- 
ing to Ovidf lAmpetia is one of the He^ 
liades, who was changed into a poplar 
tree at the death of her brother Phaeton. 

Lampeto and Lampedo, a queen of the 
Amazons, who boasted herself to be the 
daughter of Mars. 

Lampeus and Lampia, a mountain of 

Lampon, Lampos, or Lampus, one of 
the horses of Diomedes — of Hector— of 

Aurora. A son of Laomedon father of 

Dolops. A soothsayer of Athens. 

Lahponia and La'mponium, a city of 

Troas. An island on the coast of 


Lampoivius, an Athenian general. 

Lampridius iELics, a Latin historian in, 
the fourth century, who wrote the Uvea 
of some of the Roman emperors. 

Lamprus, a celebrated musician. 

Lampsacus and^LAMPSAcuM, now Lam- 
^aki, a town of Asia Minor on the borders 
of the Propontis at the north of Abydos . 
The wine of Lampsacus was famous. 

Lamptera, a town of Phocjea in Ionia. 

Lampterta, a festival at Pellene in 
Achaia, in honor of Bacchus. 

Lampus, a son of iEgyptus. A man 

of Elis. 

Lamus, a king of the Lwstrygones, who 
is supposed by some to have founded For- 
miae in Italy. The family of the Lamias 
at Rome was, according to the opinion of. 

some, descended from him. A son of 

Hercules and Omphale A Latian chief 

killed by Nisuf. A rjver of Boeotia. 

Digitized by 




LAMTRtrs, htf^on, a surname of one of 
the Ptolenies. 

Lanassa, a daughter of Cleodseus, who 

married Pyrrhus, the son of Achilles. 

A daughter of Agathocles. 

Lancsa, a fountain. 

Lancia, a town of Lusitallia. 

Landi, a people of Germany. 

Laitoia, a river of Peloponnesus. 

Langobardi, a warlike nation of Ger- 

Langrobrioa, a town of Lusitania. 

Lanuvium, a town of Latium, about 
sixteen miles from Rome on the Appian 
^road. Juno had there a celebrated tem- 

Laobotas, or Labotas, a Spartan king, 
of the family of the Agid®, who succeed- 
ed his father Echestratus, B. C. 1023. He 
sat on the throne for thirty-seven-years. 
. La oc CON, a son of Priam and Hecuba. 
As being priest of Apollo, he was commis- 
sioned by the Trojans to offer a bullock to 
Neptune to render him pnipitious. During 
the sacrifice two enormous serpents issued 
from the sea, and attacked Laocoon's two 
sons who stood next to the altar. The 
father immediately attempted to defend 
his sons, but the serpents falling upon 
him squeezed him in thpir complicated 
wreaths, so that he died in the greatest 
agonies. This punishment was inflicted 
upon him for his temerity in dissvading 
the Trojans to bring into the city the fatal 
wooden horse. 

Laodamas, a son of Alcinous, king of 
the Phaeacians, who offered to wrestle 
with Ulysse'is, while at his father's court. 

A son of Eteocles, king of Thebes. 

. Laodamia, a daughter of Acastus and 
Astydamia, who married Protesilaus, the 
son of Iphiclus king of a part of Thessaly. 
The departure of her husband for the Tro- 
jan war was the source of grief to her, 
■ but wjien she heard that he had fallen by 
the hand of Hector her sorrow was in- 
creased. She destroyed herself. A 

daughter of Bellerophon by Achemone the 
daughter of king lobates. She had a son 
by Jupiter, called Sarpedon. She dedi- 
cated herself to the service of Diana, and 
-hunted with her, but her haughtiness 
proved fatal to her, and she perished by 

the arrows of the goddess. A daughter 

of Alexander, king of Epirus, by Olympia 
the daughter of Pyrrhus. She was assas- 
shiated in the temple of Diana. 

Laodice, a daughter of Priam and He- 
cuba. Laodice threw herself down from 
the top of a tower and was killed when 

Troy wa» sacked by the Greeks. One 

of the Oceanides. A daughter of Ciny- 

ras, by whom Elatus had some children; 
•—A daughter of Agamemnon. A sis- 
ter of Mithridates. A queen of Cappa- 

docia, put to death by her subjects for poi- 
soning five of her children. A sister 

and wife of Antiochas 3d. She put to 
deatli Berenice, wlK)m her husband had 
married. She was murdered by order of 
Ptolemy Evergetes, B. C 246. 

Laodicxa, now Ladik^ a city of Asia, 
celebrated for its commerce, and the fine 
soft and biack wool of its sheep. An- 
other in Media. Another in Syria. 

Another on the borders of Coelesyria. 

Laodicenk, a province of Syria, which 
receives its name from Laodicea, its capi- 

LAODootJs, a son of Antenor, whose 
form Minerva borrowed to advise Panda- 
nis to break the tieaty which subsisted 

between the Greeks and Trojans. An 

attendant of Antilochus. A son of 


Laoooitus, a son of Bias, killed by 

Achilles at the siege of Troy. A priest 

of Jupiter, killed in the Trojan war. 

Laogoras, a king of the Dryopes, who 
accustomed his subjects to become rob- 

Laogore, a dau^ter of Cinyras and 
Metharme, daughter of Pygmalion. She 
died in Egypt. 

Laomedon, a king of Troy, killed by 
Hercules for denying him his daughter 
Hesione, after he had delivered her from 
the sea-monster, to which she had been 
exposed, on account of her father's refusal 
to pay Neptune and Apollo their reward 
for building the city walls. A dema- 
gogue of Messina. 

Laomedonteus, an epithet applied to 
tlie Trojans from their king Laomedon. 

Laoheoontiadje, a patronymic given to 
the Trojans from Laomedon their king. 

Laoitome, the wife of Polyphemus one 
of the Argonauts. 

Laonomeive, a daughter of Thespius, 
by whom Hercules had two sons and two 

Laothoe, a daughter of Altes, who 

married Priam. One of the daagbters 

of Thespius, mother of Antidus, by Her- 

Laous, a river of Lacedsemon. 

Lapathus, a city of Cyprus. 

Laphria, a surname of Diana at Patne 
in Achaia, where she had a temple with % 
statue ef gold and ivory, which represent- 
ed her in the habit of a huntress. 

Laphtstium, a mountain in Bceotia. 

Lafideus, a surname of Jupiter among 
the Romans. 

LAPiTHiE, a people of Thessaly. 

Lapitho^ a city of Cyprus. 

Lapithus, a son of Apollo, by Stilbe. 
He was brother to Centaurus, and" mar- 
ried Orsinome, daughter of Enronymus, 
by whom he had Phorbas and Peiiphas. 
The name of Lapkha was given to the nu- 
merous children of Phorbas and Periphas, 
or rather tn the inhabitants or the country 
of which th^ hs^obtained the sovereign- 
Digitized by CiiOOglc 


t7. The invention «f bits ^nd bridles for 
hones is attributed to the Lapitbe. 
LiAPiTHjfiUM, a town of Arcadia* 
LtAWLAf or JaAimwDA, ene of the Naiads, 
Ikmoc^s ibr her beauty and her loquacity. 
liAKEirTiA and Laukbhtia, a courtezan 
in the first -ages of Rome. 

Ijarxs, goas of inferior power at RonM, 
wbo presided over houses and families. 
In process of time their power was ex- 
tended not only over houses, but also over 
the country and the sea. The statnes of 
the Lares resembling monkeys, and eover- 
ed with the skin ota dog, were placed in 
a niche behind the doprs of the houses, or 
around the hearths. 

Ijaroa, an infamous woman in Juve- 
nal's age. 

LiARoos, a Latin pt>et who composed 
wi th eaae and elegance. ' 

LiARiDss, a son of Daucus or Daunus 
who assisted Turnus against ^neas. 

L.ARINA, a virgin oC Italy, who accom- 
panied Camilla in her war against JEneaa. 
Larirum, or Larina, now Larino. a 
town of the Frentani on the Tifernus be- 
fore it falls into the Adriatic. 

LiARissA, a daughter of Pelasgus, who 
gave her name to some cities in Greece. 

A city between Palestine and Egypt. 

where Pompey was murdered and buriea 

according to some accounts. A large 

city on the banks of the Tigris. A city 

of Asia Minor. Another in ifiolia, 

seventy stadia from Cyme. Another 

near Ephesus. Another on the borders 

of the Peneus in Thessaly, the most fa- 
mous of all the cities of that name. Jupi- 
ter had there a famous temple, on account 
of which he is called Larissaua. 

Larissus, a river of Peloponnesus flow- 
ing between Elis and Achaia. 
Larius, a large lake of Cisalpine Gaul. 
LARif OS, a smaH desolate island on the 
coast of Thrace. 

Laroria, a shameless courtezan in Ju- 
venal's age. 

Lars Tolumivius, a king of the Veientes 
conquered by the Romans,