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Aboriginal American 

No. V. 




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Entered acoording to Act of Coiigreit» ia the yetr i88$, bf 


In die Offiee of tbe LibtarUn of Congreat. AU rl|^ leaenred* 

•••• •; 

• • • • •• 

••• • • •••• •«•• 


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I €W BnHot^oar Aitij Aiicnjioi.oot at tmb Acabsmt ov Natusal 


Fwrfdeat rf the NmaUt— tic —d AndqwwiMi Society oi Pliniililpliii ; UtmJbtrvt^ 
Amminn PIOIoeopliicAl Society, the Amerioui Aatiqiitrlui Society, the PiwmjU 
va«k HiMOfkal Society, etc.; llembre de k SocMt4 Royalt 4ee AatlqMlfet dK 
Nord: DiMgoA Otetad de flMtkatioa Ertwwff ^ p M q— ; VIce-PiMdcM dK 

priofleri Society of Weelifaigtoa, etc 

«88S. to 



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In the present volume I have grouped a series of ethno- 
logical studies of the Indians of Eastern Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey iand Maryland, around what is asserted to be one of 
the most curious records of ancient American history. 

For a long time thb record — the Walam Olum, or Red 
Score — ^was supposed to have been lost. Having obtained 
the original text complete about a yeai ago, I printed a few 
copies and sent them to several educated native Delawares 
with a request for aid in its translation and opinions on its 
authenticity. The results will be found in the following 

The interest in the subject thus excited prompted me to a 
general review of our knowledge of the Lenape or Dela- 
wares, their history and traditions, their language and cus* 
toms, This disclosed the existence of a number of MSS. not 
mentioned in bibliographies, some in the first rank of im- 
portance, especially in the field of linguistics. Of these I 
have made free use. 

In the course of these studies I ha^e teceived suggestions 
and assistance from a number of obliging friends, among 
whom I would mention the nativo Delawares, the Rev. Albert 
Anthony, and the Rev. John Kilbuck ; Mr. Horatio Hale 
and the Right Rev. E. de Schweinits ; Dr. J. Hammond 
Trumbull, Prof. A. M. Elliott and Gea. John Mason Brown. 

Not without hesitation do I send forth this volume to the 


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learned world. Regarded as an authentic memorial, the 
original text of the Walam Olum will require a more accu- 
rate rendering than I have been able to give it ; while the 
possibility that a more searching criticism will demonstrate 
it to have been a fi&brication may condemn as labor lost the 
pains that I have bestowed upon it. Yet even in the latter 
case my work will not have been in vain. There is, I trust, 
suflBcient in the volume to justify its appearance, apart from 
the Red Score ; and the latter, by means of this complete 
presentation, can now be assigned its true position in Ameri- 
can ardueology, whatever that may be. 

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• / 


CHAPTER I.— I I. Thb Aloonkin Stock..«.^ 9 

SdMM of its DIakctt.— Probftbte Prialtlv* Locattoa, 

{ 2. The Iroquois Stock 13 

Th« SaM|ddiaiiMclci.«Th« Hitrow.<-'TlM Cl iiro lwM . 

^'HATTER II.— Thb Wafamachki or Eastbrn ALGOKKiif Con- 


TIm Cmifokratcd Tribes.— TIm Mo1mcmm.«TIm NaMkekct.— TIm C»- 
■ojra.— TW Stww M w.—TW SapoalM.^TlM AwiwUnlMt. 

C HAPTER III.— Thb Lbnapb or Dblawarbs.^ 33 

POThradon of tht Nmm L«imp«.«-TIm Tlirw 8«b-TriW» : iIm Miati or 
WdC tht Uaami or TmrOt, aad tlie Unalachtgo or Torkoy Tribaa.— 
TMr To(eaM.«TlM Naw Jaraajr Tribat : tba Wapiagi, Saabtmaa aad 
lCaatas,^PoUtlcal Cooatitulioa 9i tba Lanapav— Vagaubia Poo4 Ra* 
toorcaa.^Doa n a t te ArcMtactw«.«-»liaaa(actitfas.— Palata aad Dyaa.— 
Dogs.— latanaaatfl.— Coaipitlattoa of Ttea^^Plctuia WritSag.— Racord 
Sdclu.-Moral aad Mcotal Charactar.-Riiclow BattaT.-DoccriM at 
tiM Sout*-TlM Nathra PriaMk^Ralifiaw Cw iioalM. 

<:HAPTER IV.— Thb Litiraturb and Language or the . 
Lenapb , 74 

1 I. Lharatara of tba LwwipB Toi^aa.— CaMpaiihai{ Fhm ; Tboana*; 

Zaisbafgtr; Hackawaldar; Rotb; 'Ettvaia; Graba; Daackaj 
Uckanbacb; Haary; VocabvbriM: a Nadva Lattar. 

} J. Gaacral RaaMrbs oa tba Laaaya, 

i 3. Dlakcta of dM Ltaapa. 

i 4. Spacial Straetiira of tba Lanapa.— Tha Root aad tba TboMO ; 
Praftaaa; Suftaaa; Dorivatlvaa; Crawatkal NoAa. 

CHAPTER v.— HitTORiCAL Sketches or the Lbnapb....« 109 

1 1. Tha Laaapa aa "WooMa;** 

2 a. Racaat MigfatioM of dM Unapa. 

3 J. liiMioaanr K fcr u la tba Pioir ia caa of ffo— yWaala aad Maw 




zedbyGoOgk I 

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CHAPTER VI.— Myths and TRADinoifs of the Lenapk... 

CoMROfooical and Cultwe ICytlit.— Th« Cultttre-hero, Mkhabo.^M] 
from Llnd«tro«i, EitwtiB, Jasper Donken, ZeitbeTgcr.«*Nal 
Symbolba.— TIm Satumiaa Age.— Mobegaa Coamogony aDd 
grmtioB Myth. 

NatloBal Tradiriom.— Baatty't Account.— TW Number Seven.— Hec 
welder's Account.— Prehistoric MlgratloBS.— Shawnee Legend 
Lumps Legend of the Naked Bear. 

CHAPTER VIL— The Walam Olum : Its Ouonf, Authi 
Ticmr AMD Contents 

Btbgraphical Sketch of Rafinesque.— Vahm of his Writiags.-Hte 
count of the Walvm Olvm.— Was It a Forgery f—Rallnesqi 
Character.— The Teirt Pro n o un ced Genuine hy Native Delawa 

Phonetic System of the Walom Ottm.— Metrical Form.- Plctogrt] 
S y i t om.— Derivation and Precise Meaning of Walom Olum.—' 
MS. of the Walam Onm.— Csnsnd Synopsis of the Wai 
Olvm.— Synopeto of Its Parts. 

THE WALUM OLUM.— Oeioinal Text and Translation... 

Notes*. ^ 




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S I. The Algonkin Stocic« 

SdMOM of iti Dtokctt.— PfobiOik Pri«iUv« UcmImi. 

S 2. The Iroquois Stock. 

TIm BMqtwtMiiaocki.— TIk Hure«t.<— TIm O t ro k wi. 

Si. The Algonkin Stocky 

About the period 1 500-1 600, those related tribes whom we 
now know by the name of Algonkins were at the height of 
their prosperity. They occupied the Atlantic coast from the 
Savannah river on the south to the strait of Belle Isle on the 
north. The whole of Newfoundland was in their possession ; 
in Labrador they were neighbors to the Eskimos; their north- 
ernmost branch, the Crees, dwelt along the southern shores 
of Hudson Bay, and followed the streams which flow into it 
from the west, until they met the Chipeways, closely akin 
to themselves, who roamed over the water shed of Lake Su- 
p^ior. The Blackfeet carrieda remote dialect of their tongue 
quite to the Rocky Mountains; while the fertile prairies of 
Illinois and Indiana were the homes of the Miamis. The 
area of Ohio and Kentucky, was very thinly peopled by a few 
B 9 

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of their roving bands; but east of the Alleghanies, in the 
vallejrs of the Delaware, the Potomac and the Hudson, over 
the barren hills of New England and Nova Scotia, and 
throughout the swamps and forests'of Virginia and the Caro- 
linas, their osier cabins and palisadoed strongholds, their 
maize fields and workshops of stone implements, were num- 
erously located. 

It is needless for my purpose to enumerate the many small 
tribes which made up this great group. The more prominent 
were the Micmacs of Nova Scotia, the Abnakis of Maine, the 
Pequots and Narragansets, in New England, the Mohegans 
of the Hudson, the Lenape on the Delaware, the Nanticokes 
around Chesapeake Bay, the Pascataway on the Potomac, 
and the Powhatans and Shawnees further south; while 
between the Great Lakes and the Ohio river were the 
Ottawas, the Illinois, the Pettawatomies, the Kikapoos, 
Piankishaws, etc. 

The dialects of all these were related, and evidently at 
some distant day had been derived from the same primitive 
tongue. Which of them had preserved the ancient forms 
most closely, it oiay be premature (o decide positively, but 
the tendency of modern studies has been to assign that place 
to the Cree — ^the liorthernmost of all. 

We cannot erect a genealogical tree of these dialects. It 
is not probable that they branched off, one after another, 
from a common stock. The ancient tribes each took their 
several ways from a common centre, and formed nuclei for 
subsequent development. We may, however, group them in 
such a manner as roughly to indicate their relationship.. This 
I do on the following page : — 

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Old Algonkin, 
























Minsi, '\ 

Unami, > 

Unalachtigo, J- 





Gros Ventre, 


.:>. i 

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Granting, as we must, some common geographical centre 
for these many dialects, the question where this was located 
becomes an interesting one. 

More than one attempt to answer it has been made. Mr. 
Lewis H. Morgan thought there was evidence to show that 
the valley of the Columbia river, Oregon, ** was the initial 
point from which the Algonkin stock emigrated to the great 
lake region and thence to the Atlantic coast. "^ This is in 
direct conflict with the evidence of language, as the Blackfoot 
or Satsika is the most corrupt and altered of the Algonkin 
dialects. Basing his argument on this evidence, Mr. Horatio 
Hale reaches a conclusion precisely the reverse of that of 
Morgan. ''The course of migration of the Indian tribes," 
writes Mr. Hale, ''has been from the Atlantic coast westward 
and southward. The traditions of the Algonkins seem to 
point to Hudson's Bay and the coast of Labrador.'" This 
latter view is certainly that which accords best with the testi- 
mony of language and of history. 

We know that both Chipeways and Crees have been 
steadily pressing westward since their country was first 
explored, driving before them the Blackfeet and Dakotas.* 

The Cree language is built up on a few simple, unchange- 
able radicak and elementary words, denoting being, relation, 
energy, etc.; it has extreme regularity of construction, a 

> LcwU H. Morgan, IndUn Migr^tUm^ in Beach's IndUm MimtUny^ 
p. ai8. 

s H. Hale, Indimn Migrations «i Evidmced fy Ldnpmgif p. 14. 
(Chicago, 1883.) 

* Stc tha R. P. A. Laeomba Dictionnain di im LMMgrni da Cris, 
latrod., p. xL (Montreal, 1874.) 

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single negative, is almost wholly verbal and markedly incor- 
porative, has its grammatical elements better defined than its 
neighbors, and a more consbtent phonetic system.^ For 
these and similar reasons we are justified in considering it the 
nearest representative we possess or the pristine Algonkin 
tongue, and unless strong grounds to the contrary are 
advanced, it is proper to assume that the purest dialect is 
found nearest the primeval home of the stock. 

S 2. The Iroquois S$ock. 

Surrounded on all sides by the Algonktns were the Iroquois ^ 
once called the Five or Six Nations. When first discovered 
they were on the St. Lawrence, near Montreal, and in the 
Lake Region of Central New York, Various other tribes, 
not in their confederacy, and generally at war with them, 
spoke dialects of the same language. Such were the Hurons 
or Wyandots, between the Georgian Bay and Lake Erie, the 
Neutral Nation on the Niagara river, the Eries on the 
southern shore of the lake of that name, the Nottoways in 
Virginia, and the Tuscaroras in North Carolina. T)^t 
Cherokees, found by the whites in East Tennessee, but 
whose national legend, carefully preserved for generations, 
located them originally on the head waters of the Ohio, were 
a remote offshoot of this same stem. 

Tki Susquehannocks. 

The valley of the Susquehanna river was occupied by a 
tribe of Iroquois lineage and language, known as the Smsqut' 

> See Joseph Howte, A Gramme •/ ikt Cnt Lmmpuigt^ p. 13, et aL 
(Loadon, 184a.) 

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' kamufciSf ComsUgat and Andastes. The last name is Iro 

I quoisy from amfas/ap a cabin pole. By some, ** Susquehan- 

; nock" has also been explained as an Iroquois word, but its 

form is certainly Algonkin. The terminal k is the place- 
sign, kaftna denotes a flowing stream, while the adjectival 
prefix has been identified by Heckewelder with schachage^ 
straight, from the direct course of the river near its mouth, 
and by Mr. Guss with woski^ new, which, he thinks, referred 
\ to fresh or upring water. 

! Of these the former will appear the preferable, if we allow 

I for the softening of the gutturals, which was a phonetic trait 

of the Unami dialect of the Lenape. 

The Susquehannocks were always av deadly feud with the 
Iroquois, and between wars, the smallpox and the whites, 
they were finally extenninated. The particulars of their 
short and sad history have been presented with his character- 
istic thoroughness by Dr. John G. Shea,' and later by Prof. 
j| N. L. Guss.' They were usually called by the Delawares 

i- Afengwe, which was the term they applied to all the Iroquois- 

i; speaking tribes.* The English corrupted it to Minqua and 


I > In a note to Mr. Gowan't edition of George Alaop't Prcvina of 

Maryland, pp. 117-121 (New York, 1869); also, in 1858, in an articlt 

\ •* On the Identity of the An^lastas, Minqoai, Suaqnehannocki, and Con- 

eftogas," in the Anur, Hist, Mag,, Vol. II, p. 294. 

i s Earfy Indian Hiitcry on the Susquehanna, p. 31. (Harriibiirg, 

j i«3.) 

* Mengwe b the Onondaga yenkwe, males, or men, viri, and was 
borrowed from that dialect by the Delawares, as a general term. Bishop 
■f Ettwein slates that the Iroquois called the Delawares, Mohegans, and all 

I the New England Indians Ag&uhagduta, 

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Mingo, and as the eastern trail of the Sotqnehannocks hj 
op the Conestoga Creek, and down the Christtna, both 
those streams were called ''Mingo Creek'* hj the earlj 

It is important for the ethnology of Pennsylvania, to under- 
stand that at the time of the first settlement the whcrie of 
the Susquehanna Valley, from the Chesapeake to the New 
York lakes, was owned and controlled by Iroqnots-speaking 
tribes. A different and erroneous opinion was expr es se d 
by Heckewelder, and has been generally received. He 
speaks of the Lenape Minsi as occupying the head waters 
of the Susquehanna* This was not sa in the historic 

The claims of the Susquehannocks extended down the 
Chesapeake Bay on tfie east shorCf as far as the Choptank 
River, and on the west shore as far as the Patuxent. In 
1654 they ceded to the government of Maryland their 
southern territory to these boundaries.^ The first English 
explorers met them on the Potomac, about the Falls, and the 
Pascatoways were deserting their villages and fleeing before 
them, when, in 1634, Calvert founded his colony at St. 

Their subjection to the Five Nations took place about 1680, 
and it was through the rights obtained by this conquest that, 
at the treaty of Lancaster, 1744, Canassatego, the Onondaga 
speaker for the Nation, claimed pay from the government of 
Maryland for the lands on the Potomac, or, as that river was 
called in his tongue, the C0hc9igor0ntas. 

> Bosman, Hiii9iy of Mmryf^nd^ Vol. I, p. 167. 

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The Hurons. 

The Hurons, Wyandots, or Wendats, were another Iroquois 
people, who seem, at some remote epoch, to have come into 
I contact with the Lenape. The latter called them DelamaU 

tencs^ and claimed to have driven them out of a portion of 
their possessions. A Chipeway tradition also states that the 
Hurons were driven north from the lake shores by Algonkin 

- * ^ • tribes.' We know, from the early accounts of the Jesuits, 

- - -* that there was commercial intercourse between them and the 
-" ' tribes south of the lakes, the materials of trade being princi- 

'^ '^' pally fish and corn.* The Jesuit Relations of 1648 contain 

.p.<' I quite a full account of a Huron convert who, in that year, 

--: visited the Lenape on the Delaware River, and had an inter- 

, i view with the Swedish Governor, whom he took to task for 

neglecting the morals of his men. 

The Cherokees. 

t The Cherokees were called by the Delawares Kittuwa 

4 {Kuttoowauiv^ in the spelling of the native Aupaumut). 

This word I suppose to be derived from the prefix, kit^ great, 

^ and the root tawa (Cree, yette^ tawa\ to open, whence 

tawatawikf an open, /. ^., uninhabited place, a wilderness 


The designation is geographical. According to the tradi- 

{ tion of the Cherokees, they once lived (probably about the 


> Heckewelder, History of the Indian Naiionst p. 8a 

t s Ptter Jones, History of the Ojihtoay Nation, p. 32. 

- I * RHation des Jesmtts, 1637, p. 154. The Horbnt, at that time, are 

j j slated to have had reliable Uraditiont running back more than two knndred 

1 years. Relation de 1639, p. 50. 

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fourteenth century) in the Ohio Valley^ and claimed to have 
been the constructors of the Grave Creek and other earth- 
works there.^ 3ome support b given to this claim by the 
recent linguistic investigations of Mr. Horatio Hale,* and 
the archaeological researches of Prof. Cyrus Thomas.' They 
were driven southward by their warlike neighbors, locating 
their council fire first sear Monticello, Va., and the main 
body reaching East Tonnessee about the close of the fif- 
teenth century. As late as 1730 some of them continued to 
live east of the AUeghanies, while, on the other hand, it is 
evident, from the proper names preserved by the chroniclers 
of De Soto's expedition (i543)> that at that period others 
held the mountains of Northern Georgia. To the Dclawares 
they remained kiMawa-wi^ inhabitants of the great wilder- 
ness of Southern Ohio and Kentucky. 

Delaware traditions distinctly recalled the period when 
portions of the Cherokees were on the Ohio, and recounted 

^ *' The Cherokees had an oration, in which was contained the hiHory 
of their migrations, which was lengthy." This tradition related *< that they 
came from the upper part of the Ohio, where they erected the mounds on 
Grave Creek, and that they removed hHher [to East Tennessee] from the 
country where Monticello b situated." This memofy of their migra- 
tions was preserved and handed down by official orators, who re- 
peated it annually, in public, at the national festival of the green com 
dance. J. Haywood, Natural and Abongimai ffiti^ry 0/ Tmrntssee^ pp. 
204-337. (Nashville, 1823.) Haywood addftt «'It b now nearly 
forgotten." I have made vain attempts to recover tome fragments of i 
from the present residents of the Cherokee Nation. 

* /ndiam MigraHom as Evidenctdhy Langnmgi^ p. sa. 

> Prof. Thomas has shown beyond reasonable doubt tbitt the Cherokees 
were mound builders within the historic period. 


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l! long wars with them.* When the Lenape assumed the office 

I of peacemaker, this feud ceased, and was not renewed until 

i the general turmoil of the French-Indian wars, 1 750-60. After 

this closed, in 1 768, the Cherokees sought and effected a re- 
newal of their peaceful relations with the Delawares, and in 
I 1779 they even sent a deputation of "condolence" to their 

"grandfather," the Lenape, on the death of the head chief, 

; White Eyes.' 


t ^ Lotlciel, Gackichti tUr Mission, etc., p. 160; lltcVtmtX^tx, Hisf0ry 

|, 0/ tki Indian Nations, p. 54. Bishop Ettwein states that the last Chero- 

j kees were driven from the upper Ohio river abovt 1700-ia His essay on 

\ the " Traditions and Langnages of the Indian Nations/* written for General 

Washington* in 1788, was first published in the JMlttin of tki Pa, Hist, 
\ Soc., 1844- 

! s HeckeweMer, /WiVm Nations, pp. iS, 327. Mr. H. Hale, in 7}lr 

Iroqums Book of Rita, has fully explained the meaning and importance 
of the custom of *< condolence.*' The Stockbridge Indian, Aupanmut, in 
t, \Mjmmmi, writes of the Delawares, that when they lose a relative, " ac- 

^' cording to andent custom, long as they are not comfotted, they are not to 

; speak in public, and this ceremonie of comforting each other is highly 

\ t Me eacd among these nations.'* Narratwt of Uemdritk, Aupanmut, in 

^ Mtms, JUtt, Soe. Pa,, Vol. II, p. 99. 

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The Wapanachki or Eastern Algonkin Confederacy. 

The Confederated Tribes.— The MohegsM.— The Nftaticelces.'—The Coaoyt.— Th« 
Shawnces.— The Saponiee.— The Aasiwikaleet. 

Tkf Confederated Tribes. 

All the Algonkin nations who dwelt north of the Potomac, 
on the east shore of Chesapeake Bay, and in the basins of the 
Delaware and Hudson riversi claimed near kinship and an 
identical origin, and were at times united into a loose, defens- 
ive confederacy. 

By the western and southern tribes they were collectively 
known as Wapqnachkik — "those of the eastern region"— 
which in the form Abnaki is now confined to the remnant of 
a tribe in Maine. The Delawares in the far West retain tra- 
ditionally the ancient confederate name, and still speak of 
themselves as *' Eastlanders ' ' — O-puh-narke. (Morgan.) 

The members of the confederacy were the Mohegans 
(Mahicanni) of the Hudson, who occupied the valley of that 
river to the falls above the site of Albany, the various New 
Jersey tribes, the Delawares proper on the Delaware river and 
its branches, including the Minsi or Monseys, among the 
mountains, the Nanticokes, between Chesapeake Bay and the 
Atlantic, and the small tribe called Canai, Kanawhas or Gan- 
awese, whose towns were on tributaries of the Potomac and 

That all these were united in some sort of an alliance, with 



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the Delawares at its head, is not only proved by the traditions 
of this tribe itself, but by the distinct assertion of the Mohe- 
gans and others, and by events within historical times, as the 
reunion of the Nanticokes, New Jersey and Eastern Indians 
with the Delawares as with the parent stem.^ 

ne Mokegans. 
The Mohegans, Mo-hi-kun-ne-uk^ dwelt on the tide-waters 
of the Hudson, and from this their name was derived. Dr. 
Trumbull, indeed, following Schoolcraft, thinks that they 
** took their tribal name from moingan, a wolf, and Jf^Me* 
ganick = Chip, maniganikan^ * country of wolves.' *• • They, 
themselves, however, translate it, "seaside people," or more 
fully, " people of the great waters which are constantly ebbing 

* Heckewelder, History tf ihi Indian Aaiicns, p. 60, atid Narrative 
of Hendrick Aupaumut^ 1 791, in Mems, Hist, Soc, Pa,^ Vol. H. Tht 
Utter, himself a native Mohegan, repeatedly refers to ^ the ancient cove- 
nant of our ancestors,'* by which this confederacy was instituted, which 
included the "^Venaumeew (Unami), the >Vemint)i<^ew (Minsi), the 
Wenuhtokowuk (Nanticokes) and Kuhnanwantheew (Kanawha).*' From 
old Pennsylvania documents, Proud gives the members of the confederacy 
or league as ** the Chiholacki or Delawares, the Wanami, the Munsi, the 
Mohicans and Wappingers.** History of Ptnna,^ Vol. II, p. 297, note. 
Compare J. Long, Voya^a and TVavels^ p. 10 (London, 1791)1 who gives 
the same list. Mr. Ruttenber writes : ** In considering the political rela- 
tions of the Lenapes, they should be considered as the most formidable of 
the Indian confederacies at the time of the discovery of America, and at 
having maintained for many years the position which sabteqaently fell 
to tht Iroquoit."— Ak^m THkos on Hudson Rivtr^ p. 64. 

< Trarobnll, Indian Namtt in Cmmtticni^ P* 31* Schoolcraft had 
alrtady given the tame derivation ia hit History and StatisHet of tki 
Indian THhis, 

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or flowing."' The compound is tnachaak^ great, hi^kan^ 
tide (*' ebbing tide/' Zeis.; "tide of flood/' Campanlus) 
and f>i animate plural termination. 

The Mohegans on the Hudson are said to have been 
divided into three phratries, the Bear, the Wolf and the 
Turtle, of whom the Bear had the primacy.' Mr. Morgan, 
however, who examined, in i860, the representatives of the 
nation in Kansas,* discovered that they had precisely the 

same phratries as the Delawares, that is the Wolf, the Turtle, :-t- \ 

and the Turkey, each subdivided into three or four gentes. 
He justly observes that this " proves their immediate connec- 
tion with the Delawares and Munsees by descent," and thus 
renders their myths and traditions of Ihe more import in the 
present study. 

Linguistically, the Mohegans were more closely allied to 
the tribes of New England than to those of the Delaware 
Valley. Evidently, most of the tribes, of Massachusetts and 
Connecticut were comparatively recent ofishoots of the parent 
stem on the Hudson, supposing the course of migration had 
been eastward. 

In some of his unpublished notes Mf. Heckewelder identi- 
fies the WampanoSf who lived in Connecticut, along the 
shore of Long Island Sound, smd whose council fire was 
where New Haven now stands, as Mohegans, while the 
Wdpings or Opings of the Northern Jersey shore were a mixed 

1 Capt. Hendricks, in Mass. Hist S^, (WZr., Vol. IX, p. 101. Lewis 
H. Morgan, Systems ef Censmngmmty mnd Affinity^ p. 2S9« 

> RttUenber, Hht^ry 0/ iki Indum THhs 4/ Hmdsm's Rhtr. P* 50. 

* Morgtn, AtuUni S0cu(y, pp. 173-4. 

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clan derived from intermarriages between Mohegans and 

734/ Nanticokes, 
' The Nanticokes occupied the territory between Chesapeake 

Bay and the ocean, except its southern extremity, which 
appears to have been under the control of the Powhatan tribe 
of Virginia. 

The derivation of Nanticoke is from the Delaware UfUchtgo^ 
** tide-water people/' and is merely another form of Una- 
lachtgo^ the name of one of the Lenape sub-tribes. In both 
cases it is a mere geographical term, and not a national eponym. 

In the records of the treaty at Fort Johnston, 1757, the 
,' Nanticokes are also flamed Tiawco, This is their Mohegan 

name, OtaydchgOy which means '' bridge people," or bridge 
makers, the reference being to the skill with which the Nanti- 
cokes could fasten floating logs together to construct a bridge 
across a stream. In the Delaware dialect this was Tawach' 

^ These opinions are from a MS. in the libraiy of the American Philo- 

sophical Society, in the handwriting of Mr. Heckewelder, entitled AWf/, 
I AmttulmeniM ami AJditiom to He(ke%o€ld<t^ 9 History o/tki Ituiiam (8vo, 

pp. 38.) Unfortunately, this MS. was not placed in the hands of Mr. 

Reichel when he prepared the second edition of Heckewelder's work 

for the Historical Society of Pennsylvania. 
An unpublished and hitherto unknown work on the Mohegan language 

is the Misaliama Lim^na Nationis InMea Af^kikam ditta^ curd suscepta 

d JoJk. Joe. StkmUk^ 2 vols., small 8vo. ; MS. in the possession of the 
V American Philosophical Society. Schmick was a Moravian missionary, 

\ bom in 1 7 14, died 1778. He acquired the Mohegan dialect among the 

I converts at GnadenhQtten. His work is without date, but may be placed 

i at about 1765. It is grammatical rather than lexicographical, and offen 

numerous verbal forms and familiar phrases. 

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' gudnOf from taiachqtuHin^ a bridge. The latter enables us to 
identify the Tockwhoghs^ whom Captain John Smith met on 
the Chesapeake, in 1608, with the Nanticokes. The Kus- 
carawocks^ whom he also visited, have been conclusively 
shown by Mr. Bozman' to have been also Nanticokes. 

By ancient traditions, they looked up to the Lenape as their 
"grandfather," and considered the Mohegans their ** breth- 
ren.'" That is, they were, as occasion required, attached 
to the same confederacy. 

In manners and customs they differed little from their north- 
ern relatives. The only peculiarity in this respect which . 
b noted of them was Ihe extravagant consideration they be- 
stowed on the bones of the dead. The corpse was buried for 
some months, then exhumed and the bones carefully cleaned 
and placed in an ossuary called man^to-kump (sb mamte^ with 
the locative termination, place of the mystery or spirit). 

When they removed from one place to another these bones 
were carried with them. Even those who migrated to northern 
Pennsylvania, about the middle of the last century, piously 
brought along these venerable relics, and finally interred them 
near the present site of Towanda, whence its name, Tawun- 
deunkf '^ where we bury our dead."* 

1 J. Bozman, History 0/ MaryUnd^ Vol. I, pp. 112, 114, 121, 177. 
This laboriout writer still renuUns dit best anthority. on the aboriginal 
inhabitants of Maryland. 

* " The We nuh tok o wnk are our brothers according to ancient agree- 
. \ ment." Journal of HtndrUk A^^umui^ Mtms. Nisi. Soe. Pm^ Vol. II, 
; P-77. 

^ . * Charles Beatty, JomrmU of « Jourmy^ etc., p. 87. Heckewelder, 
^ /iM^fiA^tfitfMw,pp.90,et8eq. Ibid. 7hii«/.^iii./'ilt/.5^.,VoLIV,p.362. 



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Their dialect varied considerably from the Delaware, of 
! which it u clearly a deteriorated form. It is characterized by 

abbreviated words and strongly expirated accents, as iah / 
quah I quak ! su, short ; qaoA / nah t qut^ long. 
Our knowledge of it is limited to a few vocabularies. The 
\ earliest was taken down by Captain John Smith, during his 

I exploration of the Chesapeake. The most valuable is one 

\ obtained by Mr. William Vans Murray, in 179a, from the 

; remnant in Maryland. It is in the library of the American 

* Philosophical Society, and has never been correctly or com- 

pletely printed. 

Th^ Nanticokes broke up early. Between the steady en- 
croachments of the whites and the attacks of the Iroquois 
f they found themselves between the upper and the nether 

' millstones. 

According to their own statement to Governor Evans, at a 
conference in 1707, they had at that time been tributary to 
the latter for twenty-seven years, /. /., since 1680. Their last 
head chief, or ''crowned king," Winicaco, died about 1720. 
A few years after this occurrence bands of them began to re- 
move to Pennsylvania, and at the middle of the century 
were living at the mouth of the Juniata, under the immediate 
control of the Iroquois. Thence they removed to Wyoming, 
and in 1753, "i» * A^^ of twenty-five canoes," to the Iro- 
quois lands in western New York. Others of their nation 
were brought there by the Iroquois in 1767; but by the 
dose of the century only five families survived in that 

1 The Mthoridct for thete facts are Boxman, HiO^ry pf Maryland^ 
VoL I, pp. 175-180; Heckewelder, Indimm /Vatiem, pp. 93, sqq. ; E. dt 

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A small band called the Wiwash remained on Goose creek, 
Dorchester countyi Marylandt to the same date. 

The Coneys. \ 

The fourth member of the Wapanachkt was that nation 
variously called in the old records Coneys^ Ganawese or 
Canaways, the proper form of which Mr. Heckewelder states \ 

to be Canai} , • 

Considerable obscurity has rested on the early location and * 

affiliation of this people. Mr. Heckewelder vaguely places 
them ** at a distance on the Potomac," and supposes them to 
have been the Kanawhas of West Virginia.* This is a loose 
guess. They were, in fact, none other than the Piscataways 
of Southern Maryland, who occupied the area between 
Chesapeake Bay and the lower Potomac, about St. Mary's, and 
along the Piscataway creek and Patu«ent river. 

Proof of this is fumbhed by the speech of their venerable 
head chief, ** Old Sack," at a conference in Philadelphia in 
1743.* His words were : ''Our foreiithers came from Pis- 

Schwdnits, Life 0/ Ziuhrger^ pp. ao8, 321, etc.; the Treaty Reoocds» 
and MSS. in (he libniy of the Americaa Pbiteeophiol Societj. 

That the Nanticoket came fioni the Sovlb faito MaiyUod has beea 
maintained, on the groand that at late as I77»diey claimed land la North 
Carolina. Nitw York CeUnial Decumenit^ VoL VIII, p. 243. Bat the 
term ''Carolina " was, I think, wed enoneovily in the docament reierred , 
to, instend of Maryland, where at that data liert were still many of the 

^ Hisgery0/tJUIndiamJMUm^lBta9dn0a^ 

s Ibid., pp. 90-122. 

• Mmtiit §f tki Prtvintiai Ceumit 0/ J^mmm^ VoL IV, p, 657. 

, 1 


. i 

4' •'" 

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catua to an island in Potowmeck ; and from thence down to 
Philadelphia, in old Proprietor Penn's time, to show their 
friendship to the Proprietor. After their return they brought 
down all their brothers from Potowmeck to Conejoholo, on 
the east side Sasquehannah, and built a town there." 

This interesting identification shows that they were the 
people whom Captain John Smith found (1608) in numerous 
villages along the Patuxent and the left bank of the lower 
Potomac. The local names show them to have been of 
Algonkin stock and akin to the Nanticokes. 

Conoy, Ganawese, Kanawha, are all various spellings of a 

derivative from an Algonkin root, meaning 'Mt is long" 

, (Del. gumUf long, Cree kinawaw^ it is long,) and is found 

applied to various streams in Algonkin territory.' 

* Piscataway, or Pascatoway, as it is spelled in the early 

narratives, also recurs as a local name in various parts of the 

Northern States. It is from the root pashk^ which means to 

I separate, to divide. Many derivatives from it are in use in 

\ , the Delaware tongue. In the Cree we have the impersonal 

form, pakestikweyaWf or the active animate paskeHwa^ in the 

j sense of '' the division or branch of a river.'" The site of 

F^ifther proof of this in a Treaty of Peace concluded in 1682 \rf the New 
York colonial government, between the Senecas and Maryland Indians. 

In this instrument we find this tribe referred to as •* the Canowes alias 


I Pbcatowaycs,'* and elsewhere as the '*Piscatowa7 of Cachnawayes.'* 

Nim York Colmial Documents^ Vol. Ill, pp. 32a, 323. 
^' 1 1 am aware that Mr. Johnston, deriving his information ftom Shawnee 

iateipreters, translated the name Kanawha, as *' having whirlpools." 
(Trmu, 0f tki Awur. Antiq, Soc.^ Vol. I, p. 297.) But I pfefcf the 
derivatioii given in the text 

* Lacombe, DUti&mmain di U lAi^[ut di» Cru, s. t. In Delaware the 

*. < 

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Kittamaquindi {kittamaqut-ink^ Great Beaver Placet) the so* 
called ** metropolis of Pascatoe,"* was where Tinker's creek 
and Piscataway creek branch off from their common estuary^ 
about fifteen miles south of Washington city. 

The ** emperor" Chitomacheni Strong Bear {chitani^ strong, 
macka^ bear), who bore the title Tayac (Nanticoke, tattak^ 
head chief) ruled over a dominion which extended about 130 
miles from east to west. 

The district was thinly peopled. On the upper shores of 
the west side of the Chesapeake Captain John Smith and the 
other early explorers found scarcely any inhabitants. In 
1631 Captain Henry Fleet estimated the total number of 
natives '^ in Potomack and places adjacent/' at not over 
5000 persons.* This included both sides of the river as high 
up as the FallSi and the shores of Chesapeake Bay. 

Chitomachen, with his family, was converted to the Catholic 
faith in i64o,bytheexertionsof the Jesuit missionary, Father 
Andrew White, but died the year after. When the English 
first settled at St. Mary's, the tribe was deserting its ancient 
seats, through fear of the Susquehannocks, and diminished 
rapidly after that date. 

root takes the form paek^ from which are derired, by tuflixet, the words 
pach-mt^ Xo%^\\X^paekg€£€hent where the road branches ^^ packski€4m^ a 
knife as tomethlog that divides, etc. 

> Jfelmtu JHntris im MaryUnSmm, p. 63. (Edition of the Md. Hiit 
Soc 1874.) 

t See Yihjmmmi, pubUahed in Neill't fimmders 4/ Ustylmut (AOmnf. 
1876). Fleet was a )iriioiier among the PiMcatbways for five jcars, and 
•erred as an interpreter to Galveift colony. 

" i;.- 

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Father White was among them from 1634 to 1642, and 
composed a grammar^ dictionary and catechism of their 
tongue. Of these, the catechism is yet preserved in manu- 
script, in the library of the Domus Professa of the Jesuits, in 
Rome. It would be a great benefit to students of Algonkin 
dialects to have his linguistic works sought out and published. 
How far his knowledge of the language extended b uncertain. 
In a letter from one of the missionaries, dated 164a, who 
speaks of White, the writer adds: "The difficulty of the 
language is so great that none of us can yet converse with the 
Indians without an interpreter. '* ' 

That it was an Algonkin dialect, closely akin to the Nanti- 
coke, is clear from the words and proper names preserved in 
the early records and locally to this day. The only word 
which has created doubts has been the name of "a certain 
imaginary spirit called Ochre.** ' It has been supposed that 
this was the Huron M. But it is pure Algonkin. It is the 
Cree oh'-sikow {itre du ciel^ ange^ Lacombe), the Abnaki 
0o$kcc {katini ooskoo^ Bon Esprit, matsini oosk^o^ Mauvais 
Esprit, Rasles). 

It was nearly allied to that spoken in Virginia among Pow* 

1 RiUUi0 IHneris in Afnrylandiam\ p. S4. The Rev. Mr. Kampmaii, 
at one time MoraTian missionary among the DeUwmres, told me that erea 
with the modem aids of grsunmarSt dictionaries and educated nativa 
instroctoft* it is considered to require 6Te years to obtain a sufficient know* 
ledge of their language to preach in it. The slowness of the early Maty* 
land priests to master its intricacies, therefore, need not surprise us. 

* ** Omni ver6 ratione placare conantur phantasticum qnemdam q)iritum 
quern Otkn nominant, ut ne aoceat" RetmiU Itmeris im MofylmuKmmf 

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hatan's subjects, as an English boy who had lived with that 
chieftain served as an interpreter between the settlers and the 
Patuxent and neighboring Indianib* 

The Conoys were removed, before 1 7431 from Conejoholo to 
Conoy town, further up the Susqjuehanna, and in 1744 they 
joined several other fragmentary Wnds at Shamokin (where 
Sunbury , Pa. , now stands). Later, they became merged with 
the Nanticokes.* 

The Shammes. 

The wanderings of the unstable and migratory Shawneet 
have occupied the attention of several writers, but it cannot 
be said that either their history or their affiliations have been 
satisfactorily worked out.* 

Their dialect is more akin t« the Mohegan than to the 
Delaware, and when, in 1692, they first appeared in the area 
of the Eastern Algonkin Confederacy, they came as the 
friends and relatives of the former.* 

They were divided into four bands, as follows : — 

I. Fiqua^ properly PiAawfUf **he comes from theashes.'^ 

9. Mequackake^ **% fat man filled,'* signifying completion 
or perfection. This band held the privilege of the hereditary 

^ Bosmaa, HiUvry 0/ MaryUnd^ V<d. I, p* 166. 

* " The Nanticokei and Conojrt are now one natioB." MimmUt 0/ iki 
Prwimciai C^muii 0/ PtnnM.^ I759t Vol. VIII, p. 176. 

• On this tribe tee <* The Shawnees aad Their MigrAdoos," bf Dr. 
D. G. Brinton, in the Amrrumm Ifisi0ruml Magmtitu, 1866; M. F. Foite, 
S0mi Earfy N0iicit 0/iki IndUm tf OkU. Gncinaati, 1879. 

« See Col0mml Jnsi0ry #/ I^tw Y0rk. Vol. IV. Index. Lodciel, 
GaiMiikit der Misn0mp etc, p. as* 


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3. Kiscapocoke. 

4. Chilicothe.' 

Of thesCi that which settled in Pennsylvania was the 
Pik<no€u^ who occupied and gave their name to the Pequa 
valley in Lancaster county.' 

According to ancient Mohegan tradition, the New England 
Pfquods were members of this band. These moved east- 
wardly from the Hudson river, and extended their conquests 
over the greater part of the area of Connecticut. Dr. 
Trumbull, however,' assigns a different meaning to their 
name, and a more appropriate one — Pequttbog^ the De- 
stroyers. Some countenance is given to the tradition by the 
similarity of the Shawnee to the Mohegan, standing, as it 
does, more closely related to it than to the Unami Delaware. 

It has been argued that a band of the Shawnees lived in 
Southern New Jersey when that territory first came to the 
knowledge of the whites. On a Dutch map, drawn in 161 4 
or thereabouts, a tribe called Saw wamw is located on the left 

^ These names tre ai given by John Johniton, Indian agent, in 1819. 
Arckaoifigim Amtrifamtt Vol. I, p. 275. Heckewelder layt they had 
four divitiont, W mentiont only two, the Picuw^H and WitkeimiA^L 
(MSS. in Ub. Am. Philoe. Soc.) 

• ** That branch of Shawanos which had settled part in Pennsylvania 
and part in New England were of the tribe of Shawanos then and ever 
since called Pi'e^weu or Pi'komeu^ and after emigrating to the weitward 
settled on and near the Scioto river, where, to this day, the extensive flats 
go ander the name of < Pickoway Plains.* " Heckewelder MSS. in Lib, 
Am. Phil. Soc 

* In a note to Roger Williams, Kty imU tki Lm^n^gi tf Amitica, p. 
82. The tradition referred to is mentioned in the Heckewelder MSS. 

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\ \ 

bank of the Delaware river, near the Bay ;^ and DeLaet 
speaks of the Sawanoos as living there. 

I am inclined to believe that, in both these cases, the term 
was used by the natives around New York Bay in its simple 
geographical sense of ''south" or '' southern/* and not as a 
tribal designation. It frequently appears with this original 
meaning in the Walam Olum. 

Thi Sapoonees. 

A tribe called the Sapoonees, or Saponies, is mentioned as 
living in Pennsylvania, attached to the Delawares, about the 
middle of the last century.* 

They are no doubt the Saponas who once dwelt on a branch 
of the Great Pedce river in North Carolina, and who moved 
north about the year 1720.* They were said to have joined 
the Tuscaroras, but the Pennsylvania records class them with 
the Delawares. Others, impressed by the similarity of 
S9L'P<hnees to Pa^nis^ have inuigined they were the Pawnees, 
now of the west. There is not the slightest importance to be 
attached to this casual similarity of names. 

They were called, by the Iroquois, TadirighroneSf and were 
distinctly identified by them with the nation known to the 
English as the Catawbas.* For a long time the two nations 
carried on a bitter warfare. 


1 Printed in the C$imiai Jiu$9iy 0/ Ntw Y^rk, VoL I. Coapm 
Force, M tupH^ pp. 16,^7. ^ 

* Rev. }. Mofse, Ripwt m IniUn Agmirt^ p. l6s. 

• See GaUatin, i^iM^ rf tkt Indism 7WI«r, pp. 8$, 86. 

. « See Niw Ytrk CUamiai D0amimis, VoL V, pp. 660^^3, cle. 

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The AssiwikaUs. 

This band of about fifty famiiiesy or one hundred men 
(about three hundred souls), are stated to have cOme from 
South Carolina to the Potomac late in the seventeenth century, 
and in 1731 were settled partly on the Susquehanna and partly 
on the upper Ohio or Alleghany. Their chief was named 
Aqueioma, or Achequeloma. 

Their name appears to be a compound of assin^ stone, and 
rnkwam^ house, and they were probably Algonkin neighbors 
of the Shawnees in their southern homes, and united with 
them in their northern migration.^ 

> Pmnsyhmnim Arekwts^ Vol. I, pp. 399, 300^ 30s. Gov. Gordon 
writes to the *'C3ile& of yt Shawanese and Anekebes»** mider date De- ' 
cember, 1731, *•! fiad by our Records that abont 34 Ycais anoe soma 
Naanbtis of yom Nation came to Saiqiiehanaab/' ate. IHd., p. 30s. 

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Thi Lenapb or Dblawarxs. 

DtrivatHm of Um Nunt Lempt.— TIm Thrte Sub-Tribes : tk* If iati or Wolf, Um 
Unaml or Turtit, am! tko UulaclilfO or Turkey Tribes.— TMr ToteoM.— 
The New Jerser Tribes : the Wsfhigt, Ssahtcam and Maatas.— Political Ce»- 
stitutloB of the Leaape.— VefeUbIa Pood Resovroas.— DosMstic Architectura.<— 
If amilactiires. — Paiats aad Dyes. — Dop. — latanaeals.— CoMpMatloii of 
Time.— Pictws Writiog.— Record 8tkks.<.-lforal aad Ifeaial ChaFacter.— 
Rdigioos BelieC- Doctrine of tha SooL— The Nativa Priests.— ReligioM 

Derivation 4^ Lemk Ltnape. 

The proper name of the Delaware Indians was and i» 
Lendpi (d as in father, ^ as a in nate). Dr. J. Hammond 
TrumbulP is quite wide of the mark both in calling this a 
'' misnomer/* and in attributing its introduction to Mr. 

Long before that worthy missiopary was bom, the name 
was in use in the olScial documenta of the commonwealth of 
Pennsylvania as the synonym in tke native tongue for the 
Delaware Indians/ and it is.stiU retained by their renmaat 

> See hit femarki in the Traasactioiit of the Amtricam PhiUUgumi 
Au6€%aHm^ 1873, p. 157. 

s For imtance, in Governor Patrick Gordon's Letter to the Friends, 
I7s8> where he speaks of "0«r Lenappys or Delaware Indians," in 
Pitmm, Arekhut^ Vol. I, p. sjo. At the treaty of Easton, 1756, Tedyus. 
cvng, head chief of the Delawares, is stated to have r ep w sent ed the 
«<Lenopi" Indians (MitmUi •/ ikt C$muil. Phik., 1757), and in the 
•«Conlefcnce of Eleven Nations living West of Allegheny," held at 
Philadelphia, 1759, the DeUwaits are iadnded vnder the trihal mum 


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in Kansas as the proper term to designate their collective 
nation, embracing its sub-tribes.^ 

The derivation of Lenape has been discussed with no little 
learning, as well as the adjective Unnit which often precedes 
it (Lenni Lenape). Mr. Heckewelder stated that Unni means 
'•original, pure," and that Lenape signifies ** people.*** Dr. 
Trumbull, in the course of a long examination of the words 
for ''man" in the Algonkin dialects, reaches the conclusion 
that "Len-&p^*' denotes "a common adult male," i. e.^ an 
Indian man ; lenno lendpi^ an Indian of tmr tribe or nation, 
and, consequently, vir, "a man of men."' He derives these 
two words from the roots len (= nen), a pronominal possessive, 
and ape, an inseparable generic particle, " denoting an adult 

I differ, with hesitation, from such an eminent authority ; 
but this explanation does not, to my mind, give the precise 
meaning of the term. No doubt, both Uhm, which in Dela- 
ware means man, and /en, in Lenape, are from the pronomi- 
nal radicle of the first person ne, I, we, mine, our. As the 
native considered his tribe the oldest, as well as the most 
important of created beings, "ours" with him came to be 
synonymous with what was esteemed ancient, indigenous, 
primeval, as well as human, man-like, /or exeeUence. " We" 

•^Leonopy." See Minutes of the Provi$$ciai C&muil of Pinna., Vol. 

vin, p. 418. \ I 

^ So Mr. Lewis H. Morgan tayt, and he obtained the facts on the spot. 
^ Len-i^pe was their former name, and is still used." Systems of Com* 
tsmguimity mtd Ajfinity, p. 289 (Washington, 187 1). 

s History of the Indian Nations, p. 401. 

• Thmsaetions of tAo American PAiUle^ieal Association, 1871, p. 144, 

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and ** men'* were to him the same. The initial / is bat a 
slight modification of the n sound, and is given by Campanius 
as an r, ^'rhenus, homo." 

Lenape^ therefore, does not mean ''a common adult male," 
but rather " a male of our kind," or " our men."* 

The termination ap^ is said by Heckewelder to convey 
the idea of ''walking or being in an erect posture." A 
comparison of the various Algonkin dialects indicates that 
it was originally a locative, signifying staying in a place, 
abiding or sitting. Thus, in Cree, apA^ he is there; in 
Chipeway, abi^ he is at home ; in Delaware, n^dappin^ I am 
here. The transfer of this idea to the male sex is seen in 
the Cree, tf/, to sit upon, to place oneself on top, apa^ to 
cover (animate and active); Chipeway, nabe^ the male of 
quadrupeds. Baraga says that for a Chipeway woman to 
call her husband nin nabtm (lit. my coverer, comp. French, 
femme couverte)^ is coarse. 

^ Zeisberger'i translttion of Lcnni Lenape is ** people of the i 
nation," would be more literal if i| were pat " men of oar nation." 

President Stilei, In his Itimrmry^ makes tke statement : ** The Delaware 
tribe Is called Poh-ki-gan or Mo^kagan \fj themsdres, and Ampntum' 
JhmJ* I have not been able to seach a satlsfiutoiy solntion of the first 
and third of these names. 

That the Delawares did ose the term Lenape as their own designation. 
Is shown bf the refirain of one of their chants, p t tsen r e d by Heckewddtr. 

Tmly I— a Ltnape am. 

Ort «*I am a trae man of onr people.** Thnv. Amtr. PkiUu S$e., 

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Tkt Lenape Sub- Tribes. 

The Lenape were divided into three sub-tribes :— 

I. The Minsi, Monseys, Montheys, Munsees, or Minisinks. 

9. The Unami, or Wonameys. 

3. The Unalachtigo. 

No explanation of these designations will be found in Hecke- 
welder or the older writers. From investigations among living . 
Delawares, carried out at my request by Mr. Horatio Hale, 
it is evident that they are wholly geographical, and refer to 
the locations of these sub-tribes on the Delaware river. 

Minsi^ properly AHnslu^ and formerly Minassiniu^ means 
"people of the stony country," or briefly, ''mountaineers.** 
It is a synthesis of minthiu^ to be scattered, and acksin^ stone, . 
according to the best living native authorities.^ 

C/Mdmi\ or IV^ndmiUi means "people down the river,*' 
from naheu, down-stream. 

Unalachtigo^ properly Wnaldchtko^ means "people who 
live near the ocean,"* from wunaiawat, to go towards, and 
t^kaw or i*kdut wave. 

Historically, such were the positions of these sub-tribes 
when they first came to the knowledge of Europeans. 

The Minsi lived in the mountainous region at the head 
waters of the Delaware, above the Forks, or junction of the 
Lehigh river. One of their principal fires was on the 
Minisink plains, above the Water Gap, and another on the 

^ Mr. Eager, in hit Hisiory 0/ Orange Caumty^ qnoCei Um old wr vc y or , * 
Nicolas Scull (1730), in favor of tramladng mmitink «*the water it 
gone; " and Ruttenber, in his Hisioty of the Nativt Triha oftki Hud^m 
Rivtr^ tnppoies that it is deriTed from wunaity^ an idand. Neither of 
thcte commends itself to modern Delawarcs. 

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East Branch of the DelawarCi which they called Namaes Sifu^ 
Fish River. Their hunting grounds embraced lands now in 
the three colonies of Pennsylvania, New York and New 
Jersey. The last mentioned extinguished cheir title in 1758, 
by the pajrment of one thousand pounds. 

That, at any time, as Heckewelder asserts, their territory 
extended up the Hudson as far as tide-water, and westward 
*' far beyond the Susquehannah,*' is surely incorrect. Only 
after the beginning of the eighteenth century, when they 
had been long subject to the Iroquois, have we any 
historic evidence that they had a settlement on the last 
named river. 

The Unamis' territory on the right bank of the Delaware 
river extended from the Lehigh valley southward. It was 
with them and their southern neighbors, the Unalachtigos, 
that Penn dealt for the land ceded him in the Indian Deed 
of 1682. The Minsis did not take part in the transaction, 
and it was not until 1737 that the Colonial authorities 
treated directly with the latter for the cession of their 

The Unalachtigo or Turkey totem had its principal seat on 
the affluents of the Delaware near where Wilmington now 
stands. About this point. Captain John Smith, on his map 
(1609,) locates the Chikahokin. In later writers this name is 
spelled Chihohockies^ OUholaeki and Chikolacki^ and is stated 
by the historians Proud and Smith to be synonjrmoos with 
Delawares.' The correct form is Chikehki^ from ckUftm^t 

& See Pitma. Arckivis^ VoL I, pp. 540-1. 

* Proad, ma^ty of Pumm^ VoL II, p. 997; S. SiBitk, Mui. of Mm 
Jimy^ p. 456; Henry, Diit. of tki Dtkmmn Lmmg^ MS., p. 5J9. 

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turkey, the modern form as given by Whipple/ and aki 
land. The n^ I and r were alternating letters in this 

The population was, however, very sparse, owing to the 
predatory incursions of the Susquehannocks, whose trails, 
leading up the Octorara and Conestoga, and down the Chris- 
tina and Brandywine Creeks, were followed by war parties 
annually, and desolated the west shores of the Bay and lower 
river. When, in 1634, Captain Thomas Young explored the 
river, the few natives he found on the west side told him 
(through the medium of his Algonkin Virginian interpreter) 
that the ^'Minquaos" had killed their people, burnt their 
villages, and destroyed their crops, so that " the Indians had 
wholly left that side of the river which was next their 
enemies, and had retired themselves on the other side farre 
up into the woods. *•• 

North of the Chikelaki, Smith's map locates the Macocks. 
This name does not appear in later authors, but near that site 
were the Okahoki band, who occupied the shores of Ridley 
and Crum creeks and the land between them. There they 
remained until 1703, when they were removed to a small 
reservation of 500 acres in what is now Willistown township, 
Chester county.* 

> Delaware Vocabvlaiy in Whipple, Ewbank & Tttrner't Repft^ 1855. 
The Geman ibnii it tsUhenum. 

* A BriifRihtim ofthi yhpigi rf Cmpimpu Tk^mms y#iy, in Mui. 
mu. S$f. CM., 41^ series. Vol. IX» p. 119. 

* See die original Warrant of Snnrey and Minutet relating thereto, in 
Dr. Geoige Smith's Hiiioiy 0/ DtUwan Cauntyt A.» pp. ao^ aio 
(Fliik., 1S63). The derivatioii it unceftais. Captain John Smith gives 

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The Tctemic Animals. 

These three sub-tribes had each its totemic animal, from 
which it claimed a mjrstical descent. The Minsi had the 
Wolf, the Unami the Turtle, and the Unalachtigo the Turkey. 
The Unamis claimed and were conceded the precedence of 
the others, because their ancestor, the Turtle, was not the 
common animal, so-called, but the great original tortoise 
which bears the world on its back, and was the first of living 
beings, as I shall explain on a later page. 

In referring to the totemic animals the common names 
were not used, but metaphorical expressions. Thus the Wolf 
. was referred to as Piuksit^ Round Foot {^tuk^ round, sit^ foot, 
from the shape of its paws ;) the turtle was Pakoangp^ the 
Crawler ; and the turkey was PuUaeu^ he does not chew,^ 
referring to the bird's manner of swallowing food. 

The signs of these animals were employed in their picture 
writing, painted on their houses or inscribed on rocks, to 
designate the respective sub-tribes. But only in the case of 
the Unamis was the whole animal represented. The Turkey 

m^kcttmq for pumpkin, and this appeui to be the word in the native i 
of Chester Creek, Macopanmckhtin^ which is alto leen in Mmraa Hook. 
(See Smith's Hia, DtL Co., pp. 145, 381.) I am inclined to identify the 
Macocks with the M^okakoki as '*the people of the pumpkin piMCt^** or 
where tboae vegetablei were cnltiTated. 

> The Shawnee word it the umtf/eUewm, whence their name ibr the 
Ohio River,i'W9^iMMM^,Tvrke3r River. (Rev. David Jones, /pmtm/^ 
7\tHVisiis MMiiioSomNmHmsoflndmmmtkeWittSiiiio/tkiJiher 
OkU m 177s 4m^ 1773, p. ao.) Fkom thit is derived the shortened Ibcm 
PUum, seen in PUymick^, or PImmikU, the |own of thoee of the T^ukcj 
Tribe, in Beikt county, Pk. (Heckewelder, Indum Amma, p. 355.) 

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tribe painted only one foot of their totemic bird, and the 
Minsi the extended foot of the wolf, though they sometimes 
added an outline of the rest of the animal.* 

These three divisions of the Lenape were neither ** gentes*' 
nor **phratries/' though Mr. Morgan has endeavored to 
force them into his system by stating that they were ** of the 
nature of phratries."* Each was divided into twelve 
families bearing female names, and hence probably referring 
to some unexplained matriarchal system. They were, as I 
have called them, sub-tribes. In their own orations they 
referred to each other as " playmates." (Heclce welder.) 

Tke New Jersey Lenape. 

The native name of New Jersey b given as Sha'akbee 
(English orthography : a as in fate) ; or as the German mis- 
sionaries wrote it, Sche'jachbL It is a compound of bi^ water, 
aki^ land, and the adjective prefix schey^ which means some- 
thing long and narrow {scheyek^ a string of wampum ; schaje- 
Unquall^ the edge of the eyes, the eyelids, etc.) This would 
be equivalent to '' long-land water," and, according to the 
rules of Delaware grammar, which place the noun used in 
the genitive sense before the noun which governs it, the term 
would be more suitable to some body of water, Delaware bay 
or the ocean, than to the main land. 

The Lenape distinctly claimed the whole of the present 
area of New Jersey. Their great chief, Tedyuscung, stated 
at the Conference at Easton (1757), that their lands reached 
eastward to the sliore of the sea. The New Jersey tribes 

> Hecktwdder, Hisi, Indmn NaiUm^ pp. 253-^ 
s Lewis H. Morgan, AmcUtU Seeiety. pp. 171-2. 

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fully recognized their unity. As early as 1694, at an inter- 
view with Governor Markham at Philadelphia, when the 
famous Tamany and other Lenape chiedains were present, 
Mohocksey, a chief of the Jersey Indians, said : ** Though 
we live on the other side of the water (/. ^., the Delaware 
river), yet we reckon ourselves all one, because,*' he added, 
giving a characteristically native reason, ''because we drink 
one water. ••* 

The names, number and position of the Jersey tribes have 
not been very clearly made out. 

A pamphlet published in London, in 1648, states that there 
were twenty-three Indian kinglets in its area, with about 2000 
warriors in all. Of these. Master Robert Evelin, a sunrejror, 
who spent several years in the Province about 1635, names 
nine on the left bank of the Delaware, between Cape May 
and the Falls. The names are extremely corrupt, but it may 
be worth while giving them.' 

I. Kechemeches, 500 men, five miles above Cape May. 

a. Manteses, 100 bowmen, twelve leagues above the 

3. Sikonesses. 

4. Asomoches, 100 men. 

5. Eriwoneck, 40 men. 

6. Ramcock, 100 men. 

> Mimmia 0f tki Prtmtuimi Otnuii 0f Pimmj^htmim^ Jaly 6th» 1694. 

> Matter Bvtlia*t Letttr is priattd ia Smak'% Ottmy ^ Nfw Jtnty. 
ad td* Sont doabt has beea et« oa his letter, btcaate of its foanectigtt 
with the MidOcal ••NewAlhioQ,'*bot hit pcisoMUlyaMl pftKace ott 
the liw have hcta viadkittd. Set TheAmmimm Sfuttritmi M^gm§im, 


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7. Axion, 200 men. 

8. Calcefar, 150 men. 

9. Mosilian, 200 men, at the Falls. 

Of these, the Mantes lived on Salem creek ; Ramcock is 
Rancocas creek ; the Eriwoneck are evidently the Ermamex 
of Van der Donck's map of 1656; Axion may be for Assis- 
ctink creek, above Burlington, from Del. assiscu^ mud ; assis* 
ntfikf a muddy place. Lindstrom and Van der Donck name 
the most Southern tribe in New Jersey Naraticons. They 
were on and near Raccoon creek, which on Lindstrom's map 
is NarratUon Sipu^ the Naraticon river. Probably the Eng- 
lish name is simply a translation of the Del. nachenum^ rac- 

In 1675 the number of sachems in Jersey of sufficient im- 
portance for the then Governor Andros to treat with were 
four. It is noted that when he had made them the presents 
customary on such occasions, *' They return thanks and bll a 
kintacoying, singing kenon^ kenon.^' ^ This was the Delaware 
genan {genama^ thank ye him. 2^eis). 

The total number in New Jersey a few. years before this 
(1671) were estimated by the authorities at '' about a thousand 
persons, besides women and children." ' 

The *^Wapings^ Opings or Pomptons^^^ as they arc named 
in the old records, were the tribe which dwelt on the west 
shore of New York harbor and southwardly,- or, more 
exactly, ''from Roeloff Jansen's Rill to the sea."* They 
were of the Minsi totem, and were the earliest of the 

^ Nrmjemy Archivu^ VoL I, p. 183. 


• Ratteaber, Hisi, tf tJU Imdum TrOa tf Hmdsm Rwer. s. ▼. 

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Lenape who saw white men, when, in 1524, the keel of 
Verrazano was the Arst to plough the waters of New York 

The name Waping or Oping is derived from jyin/ant c^t, 
and was applied to them as the easternmost of the Lenape 
nation.^ Their other name, Pompton, Mr. Heckewelder 
identifies with fiAm^^m, crooked-mouthed, though its appli« 
cability is not obviovs.' 

In the middle of the eighteenth century the remains of the 
Pompton Indians resided on the Raritan river. The bound- /* ^ 
aries of their territoiy were defined in 1756, at the Treaty of 

I1ie SanhUans occupied the Delaware shore at the Falls, 
near where Trenton now stands, and extended eastward along 
the upper Indian path quite to New York bay. Heckewelder 
says that this name, Sankhicanif means a gun lock, and was 
applied by the Lenape to the Mohawks who were first furnished 
with muskets by the Europeans. This has led some writers 
to locate a band of Mohawks at the Falls. 

The Sanhicans were, however, undoubtedly Lenape. Cam- 
panius, who quotes the name of the place in 1642, classes 

> Heckewelder, io hit nnpiiblishcd MSS., tsseits that both these oamet 
mean "Opossum." It is true that the name of this animal in Lenape is 
woapinAt in the New Jersey dialect cpiing^ and in the Nanticoke of 5>mith 
0p9scn ; but all these are dcrifed from the root tcwii, which originally 
meant "white," and was applied to the East as the place of the dawn 
and the light The reference is to the light gray, or whitish, color of the 
animars hair. Compare the Cree, wapitk^west cendri, il a le poil blalard. 
Lacombe, DUtUnm^irt di U Lmmgmi da Crit, s. ▼. 

* On JndUm Nmhuz^ p. 375, in TWmi; AwurUmm PkiU$9pkitmi S^citiy^ 
Vol, III, n. ser, <i 

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them as such. In Van der Donck's map, of 1656, they are 
marked as possessing the land at the Falls and Manhattan 
Bay; and De Laet gives the numerals and a number of words 
from their dialect, which are all pure Delaware, as : — 



















Their name has lost its first syllable. It should be assan" 
hican. This means not merely and not originally a gun- 
flint, but any stone implement, from achsin^ or, in the New 
Jersey dialect, assun^ a stone, and hican^ an instrument. 
They were distinctively •' the stone-implement people." 

This is plainly with reference to their manufactures near 
Trenton. The great deposit of post-glacial gravels at this 
point abound with quartzite fragments suitable for working 
into stone implements, and to what extent they were utilized 
by the natives is shown by the enormous collection, num- 
bering over thirty thousand specimens, which Dr. Charles C. 
Abbott, of Trenton, has made in that immediate vicinity. A 
horde of over 125 beautifully chipped lance heads of quarts 
and Jasper, and the remains of a worl^shop of remarkable 
magnitude, were evidences of the extensive manufacture that 
once prevailed there. 

The left bank of the Delaware, from the vicinity of Bur- 
lington quite to and below Salem, was held by a warlike tribe 
known to the settlers as the Manias^ or Mantos^ <yt Mandes^ 
otherwise named the Frog Indians. They extended eastward 

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along the main or southern Indian path, which led from the 
Delaware, below the mouth of Rancocas Creek, to the 
extensive Indian plantations or com fields near Sandy Hook, 
mentioned by Campanius and Lindstrom.^ Z^ 

Mr. Henry has derived their name from maftp\ great/ and '?; 

others hav<^ suggested menatiy^ an island; but I do not ^ 

think either of these is tenable. I have no doubt that mamii ^ 

is simply a mis-spelling of mantket^ which is the form given 
by the East Jersey and Stockbridge Indians to the name of 
the Minsi or Monsey sub-tribe of the Delawares.' This is 
further indicated by the fact that toward the beginning 
of the eighteenth century they incorporated themselves 
wholly with the two other Lenape sub-tribes.* We thus 
find that the Minsis were not confined to the North and 
Northwest, as Heckewelder and others wrote, but had pressed 
southward in New Jersey, quite to the shores of Delaware 

The New Jersey Indians disappeared rapidly. As early as 
1721 an official document states that they were ''but few, 
and very innocent and friendly."* When, in 1745, the 
missionary Brainerd visited their settlement at Crosweeksung, 
Burlington county, he found some '' who had lived with the 

1 Proud, fflsUiy 0/ PtHfuyhmm^t Vol 1, 144, II, p. 995. Hcdicwcldcr, 
Trans. Am, Pkito, Soc.^ Vol. IV, p. 376. 

* Matthew G. Henry. DtUtwan IndUn Diitimmty. p. 709. (MS. hi 
the Libniy of the Am. Phil. Soc.) 

• ''The Monthcet who we called Wemiathevw,'* etc. Jmmml tf 
HendrUk Aupaumuit Mims, HisL S^e. A., VoL II, p. 77. 

* Heckewelder, if^* M/nf. 

• Newjtney Ankha, Vol. V, p. as. 


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white people under gospel light, had learned to read, were 
civil, etc.'" Those with whom he labored at this place 
subsequently removed to New StockbridgCi Mass., and united 
with the Mohegans and others there.' 

The Swedish traveler, Peter Kalm, who spent about a year 
in New Jersey in 1749, observes that the disappearance of 
the native population was principally due to two agencies. 
Smallpox destroyed ''incredible numbers," ''but brandy, 
has killed most of the Indians."' 

The dialect of the New Jersey Indians was soft and vocalic, 
avoiding the gutturals of their northern relatives, and with- 
out the frequent unpleasant forcible expirations of the Nanti- 
coke. A vocabulary of it, obtained for Mr. Thomas Jefferson, 
in 1793, at the village of Edgpiiliik, West New Jersey, is in 
MS. in the library of the American Philosophical Society. 

Political Constitution, 
Each totem of the Lenape recognized a chieftain, called 
sachem, sakima^ a word found in most Algonkin dialects, 
with slight variations (Chip, ogima^ Cree, okimaWf Pequot, 
sacAimma), and derived from a root oki, signifying above in 
space, and by a transfer frequent in all languages, above in 
power. Thus, in Cree,* we have sdAamow,** il projecte, il 

* Tke Rise and Progress of a Remarkable IVork of Gra^t Among the 
Indians. By David Brainerd, in Works, p. 304. 

* E. de Schweinitx, Life of Zeisberger, p. 660, note. 

» TVavels into North America, Vol. II, pp. 93-94 (London, 1771). 

« Lacombe, Dictionnairt de la Langiu des Cris, p. 7 1 1 . Dr., Tniroboll,. 
however, maintains that it is derived from sohkam-aut he pievaiU over 
(note to Roger Williams' Key, p. 163). If there is a genetic oonnection, 

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montre la tftte/' and in Delaware, w*ocAgitscAt\ the part 
above; the upper part (Zeisberger), etc. 

It appears from Mr. Morgan's inquiries, that at present 
and of later years, ** the office of sachem is hereditary in 
the gens, but elective among its members."^ Loskiel, how- 
ever, writing on the excellent authority of Zeisberger, states' 
explicitly that the chief of each totem was selected and 
inaugurated by those of the remaining two.' By common 
and ancient consent, the chief selected from the Turtle totem 
was head chief of the whole Lenape nation. 

These chieftains were the ** peace chiefs.'* They could 
neither go to war themselves, nor send nor receive the war 
belt — the ominous string of dark wampum, which indicated 
that the tempest of strife was to be let loose. Their proper 
badge was the wampum belt, with a diamond-shaped figure 
in the centre, worked in white beads, which was the symbol 
of the peaceful council fire, and was called by that name* 

War was declared by the people at the instigation of the 
** war captains," valorous braves of any birth or family who 
had distingubhed themselves by personal prowess, and espe- 
cially by good success in forays against the enemy.' 

the latter it the derivative. The word smJkims is not known among the 
MittsL In place of it they lay i*i/MV the great one, from AeJkimm^ gicaL 
From this comes the corrap^ forms is/mcA or tmtt€€k of the Nanticokcs» 
and the tayac of the Pascatoways. 

> Lewis H. Morgan, Atuiiki Scfifiy, p. 173. 

* Lotktel, GiKhicktt iif Misnon^ p. 168. 

* For these particulan see EUwdn, TVmdiiwm mnd Lm^utigt rf ike 
IndUns^ in BmUitin 0/ tki A. ffisL S^e., Vol I; Charles BtaMf^/mrmmi 
0/ « TWfT, ei<,t p. 51. 

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Nor did the authority of the chiefs extend to any infringe- 
ment on the traditional rights of the gens, as, for instance, 
that of blood revenge. The ignorance of this limitation of 
the central power led to various misunderstandings at the 
time, on the part of the colonial authorities, and since then, 
by later historians. Thus, in 1728, '' the Delaware Indians 
on Brandy wine" were summoned by the Governor to answer 
about a murder. Their chief. Civility, answered that it was 
committed by the Minisinks, *'over whom they had no 
authority.'" This did not mean but that in some matters 
authority could be exerted^ but not in a question relating to 
a feud of blood. 

Agriculture and Food Resources, 
The Lenape did not depend solely on the chase for sub* 
sistence. They were largely agricultural, and raised a variety 
of edible plants. Indian com was, as usual, the staple ; but 
in addition to that, they had extensive fields of squashes, 
beans and sweet potatoes.' The hardy variety of tobacco 
was also freely cultivated. 

The value of Indian com, the Zea maisy must have been 
known to the Algonkin tribes while they still formed one 
nation, as the same name is applied to it by tribes geo- 
graphically the widest apart. Thus the Micmacs of Nova 
Scotia call it pe-di kumun-ul whose theme (Uku-mUn re- 

^ C Tbompton, Inquiry imfo ike Causes of ike Mieus/Un 0/ ike DeU* 
wmre mud Skmwmse Indiam^ p. 16. 

* I aiiign them the tweet potato on the excellent authority of Dr. C. 
Thompeon* Esu^ 0m Imdian Affairs^ in CoUs* o/iks Hist. Soe, 0/ Pennu,^ 
Vol. I, p. 81. 

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appears in the wuskannem (Elliott) and the scannemeneask 
(Roger Williams) of New England, in the Delaware jesquem 
(Campanius), and chasqutm (2^is.)y and even in the Piegan 
Blackfoot tskihtope. 

The first radical ask^ Chip, ashk^ Del aski^ means ''green." 
The application is to the green waving plant, so conspicuous 
in the fields during the summer months. The second mun or 
miH is a generic suffix applied to all sorts of small edible fruits. 
In the Blackfoot its place is supplied by another, and in the 
Unami Delaware it is abbfeviated to the letter m. 

On the other hand, in |he Chipeway word for com, man-^ 
damifif Ottawa mindamin^ Cree maitamin^ the second radical 
is retained in full, while for the first is substituted an abbre- 
viation of maniiOf diving (''it is divine, supernatural, or 
mysterious"); if we may accept the opinion of Mr. School- 
craft, and I know of no more plaisible etymology. 

Tobacco was called by the Petawares kscha-tey^ Zeis., 
scka-ia^ Camp., or in the Engli^ orthography shuate (Vocab. 
N. J. Inds.), and koshahtake (Curamings). I am inclined to 
think that these are but dialectic variations and different 
orthographies of the root Va or Vjm {a nasal) found in 
the New England wuiidm-anog^ Micmac /umawa, Abnaki 
wVddman (Rasle), Cree UhisiimaWf Chip, assima (= asii^ 
maw)f BlsLcktoot/i'S/d-JtaH; a root which Dr. J. H. Trumbull 
has satisfactorily identified as meaning "to drink," the smoke 
being swallowed and likened to water. "To drink tobacco " 
was the usual old English expression for " to smoke." 

If this etymology is correct, it leads to the inference that 
tobacco also was known to the ancient Algonkins before they 
split up into the many nations which we now know, and 


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k \ furthermore that they must have lived in a region where these 

; I two semi-tropical or wholly tropical plants, Indian com and 

I { tobacco, had been already introduced and cultivated by some 

? I more ancient race. To conclude that they themselves brought 

\ \ them from a tropical land, would be too hazardous. 

I The pipes in which the tobacco was smoked were called 

* ^ appooke (modern Delaware o^pahokufi^ Cumings' Vocab.) 

They were of earthenware and of stone ; sometimes, it is said, 

j ' of copper. According to Kalni, the ceremonial pipes were 

« i of a red stone, possibly the western pipe stone, and were very 

highly prized.' 
^ i Of wild fruits and plants they consumed the esculent and 

' nutritious tubers on the roots of the Wild Bean, Apios tuhtrosa^ 

the large, oval, fleshy roots of the arrow-leaved Sagitiaria^ the 
former of which the Indians called kcbbenisy and the latter 
katniss^ names which they subsequently applied to the 
European turnip. They also roasted and ate the acrid 
cormus of the Indian turnip. Arum triphyUum^ in Delaware 
tauhhoy taW'hin or tuck-ah, and collected for food the seeds 
of the Golden Club, Orontium aquatUum^ common in the 
pook along the creeks and rivers. Its native name was 

House Building. 
, In their domestic architecture they differed noticeably 

I from the Iroquois and even the Mohegans. Their houses 

j 1 were sot communal, but each family had its separate resi- 

dence, a wattled hut, with rounded top, thatched with mats 

\ 1 Peter Kalm, Travth in N&rth Amtrif^ Vol. II, p. 43. 

* * See Peter Kalm, Travels im North AmtrUm^ Vol. II, pp. 110-I15 ; 
t William DarUngton, Ftor^ Cetirum, (Weit Chester, Pa., 1837.) 

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woven of the long leaves of the Indian corn or the stalks of 
the sweet flag {Acarus calamus^) or of the bark of trees 
(artacoH, a mat, Z.) These were buih in groups and sur- 
rounded with a palisade to protect the inhabitants from 
sudden inroads.^ 

In the centre was sometimes erected a mound of earth, 
both as a place of observation and as a location to place the 
children and women. The remains of these circular ram* 
parts enclosing a central mound were seen by the early 
settlers at the Falls of the Delaware and up the Lehigh 


The art of the potter was known and eiitensively practiced, 
but did not indicate any unusual proficiency, either in the 
process of manufacture or in the methods of decoration, 
although the late Mr. F. Peale thought that, in the latter 
respect, the Delaware pottery had some claims to a high 
rank.' The representation of animal forms was quite unusual, 
only some few and inferior examples having been found. 

> For these facts, set Bishop Ettweiii*s article on the Trmditiont and 
Languages of the Indians, Bmlietin 0/ the P; Hist. Soc^ 1S48, p. 31. 
Van der Donck (1656) describes these palisaded strongholds, and Cam- 
panios (1643-48) gives a picture of one. See also E. dc Schweinits, 
Lift of Zeishtrgtr. p. 83. The Mohegan honses were sometimes 180 
feet long, by about so feet wide, and occupied by nnmeioas iamilies. 
Van der Donck, Descrip, #/ ihi Niw NttktrUmdSt pp. 196-7. CM, Jf. 
Y. Hisi. Soc., Ser. II, Vol. I. 

The native name of these wooden forts was wammfkkt derived from 
mamifkim, to cut wood (Cree, mmmiJkJUt to cut with a hatchet). Roger 
Williams calls them mmmamJkt a form of the same word. 

* See the communication on *• Potteiy on the Delaware," by him, ia the 

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Their skill in manufacturing bead work and feather 

mantles, and in dressing deer skins, excited the admiration 

of the early voyagers. Although their weapons and utensils 

were mostly of stone, there was a considerable supply of 

native copper among them, in use as ornaments, for arrow 

heads and pipes. Some specimens of it have been found by 

Dr. Abbott near Trenton, and by other collectors in Penn* 
\ ... . 

sylvania,^ and its scarcity in modern collections is to be 

attributed to its being bought up and melted by the whites 

' ' rather than to its limited employment. 

Soap stone was hollowed out with considerable skill, to 

I form bowls, and the wood of the sassafras tree was highly 

esteemed for the same purpose (Kalm). 

The maize was broken up in wooden or stone mortars with 

a stone pestle, the native name of which yfz&pocohaac^ a word 

signifying also the virile member. 

Proceedings of the Am, Phil, So€,, 1868. The whole subject of the 
archscology of the Delaware valley and New Jersey hat been treated in 
the most satisfactory manner by the distinguished antiquary, Dr. Charles 
C Abbott, in his work, Primitivt Induttry (Salem, Mass., 1 881), and his 
Si0ne Age in New Jersey (187*7). 

1 Four specimens are reported from Berks Co., Pa., by Prof. D. P. 

i Brunner, in his Yolume, The Indians of Berks Co.^ Pa.^ pp. 94, 95 

(Reading, 1881). These were an axe, a chisel, a knife and a gouge. 
The metal was probably in part obtained in New Jersey, in part imported 

^ ^ from the Lake Superior region. See further, Abbott, Primitive Industry^ 

chap, xxviii. Peter Kalm, the Swedish naturalist, who visited New Jer- 
sey in 1748, says that when the copper nines ** upon the second river 

, between Elizabeth Town and New York" were discovered, old mining 

, J holes were found and tools which the Indians had Blade use of. Trrnvtit 

'^ I im N^rth Amtricm, Vol. I, p. 384. 

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Their arms were the w»r club or tomahawk, hmhickanf the* 
bow, kattapt^ and arrow, alluns^ the spear, ianganawm^ and 
for defence Bishop Ettwein states they carried a round shield 
of thick, dried hide. 

The spear was also used for spearing fish, which they, 
moreover, knew how to catch with ''brush nets," and with 
fish hooks made of bone and the dried claws of birds 

Paints and Dyes. 

The paints and dyes used by tie Lenape and neighboring 
Indians were derived both fron^ the vegetable and mineral 
realms. From the former they obtained red, white and blue 
clays, which were in such extensive demand that the vicinity 
of those streams in New Castio county, Delaware, which 
are now called White Clay Creek and Red Clay Creek, was 
widely known to the natives at Walamink^ the Place of 

The vegetable world supplied a variety of dyes in the 
colored juices of plants. These were mixed with the acid 
juice of the wild, sweet-scented cMib apple {Pyrus (oronana; 
in Lenape, t0mbUanatt\ to fix the dye. 

A red was yielded by the root of ^tSat^naria Canadcn* 
sis, still called ''Indian paint root;" an orange by the root 
of Phytdacea deeandra, the poke or pocoon ; a yellow by the 

1 Sone antiqutries appear to have doubted whether the tpear was ia 
use at a weapon of war among the Ptimsjrlvaiiia Indians (See Abbott, 
Primithi Indmtry, p. 248.) But the Snsqnehannockt are dbtinctly 
reported u employUig as a weapon ** a strong and light q>ear of locwt 
wood." RtUiU IHturit im MmryUmditm, p. 85. 

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root oi Hydrastis Cancutcnsis; a black by a mixture of sumac 
and white walnut bark, etc.^ 

The only domestic animal they possessed was a small 
species of dogs with pointed ears. These were called alium^ 
and were preserved less for protection or for use in hunting 
than for food, and especially for ceremonial purposes.' 

The custom of common ossuaries for each gens appears to 
have prevailed among the Lenape. Gabriel Thomas states 
that : *' If a person of Note dies very far away from his place 
of residence, they will convey his Bones home some consid- 
erable Time after, to be buried there.'" Bishop Ettwein 
speaks of mounds for common burial, though he appears to 
limit their use to times of war.^ 

1 For further information on this tubject, an article may be contuUed 
in the Transactions of ihi American Philosophical Society^ ist Scr., 
Vol. ni, pp. 222, et le*)., by Mr. Hugh Martin, entitled « An Account of 
the Principal Dies employed by the American Indians." 

* The Delawares had three words for dog. One was alium, which 
recurs in many Algonkin dialects, and is derived by Mr. Trumbull from 
a root signifying *< to lay hold of," or ** to hold fast.*' The second was 

> lennocAnm or IcncAnm, which means ** the quadruped belonging to man ;** 
Itnnop man; cAnm, a four-footed beast. The thiijl was mockaneu^ a 
name derived from a general Algonkin root, in Cree, mokkn^ meaning 
•• to tear in pieces," from which the Delaware word for bear, mmcAf$u, 
has it? origin, and also, significantly enough, the verb ** to eat" in some 

• Hisiory of West New Jersey^ p. 3 (Lbndo^, 1698). 
« BulUtim Hist. Soe. of Pennm.^ 1848, p. 32. 

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One of these communal graveyards of the Minsis coYers an 
area of six acres on the Neversink creek,^ while, according to 
tradition, another of great antiquity and extent was located 
on the islands in the Delaware river, above the \yater-Gap.* 

Computation of Time. 

The accuracy with which the natives computed time 
becomes a subject of prime consideration in a study of their 
annals. It would appear that the Eastern Algonkins were 
not deficient in astronomical kaowledge. Roger Williams 
remarks, '' they much observe the Starres, and their ytrj 
children can give names to many of them ;'" and the same 
testimony is borne by Wassenaer. The latter, speaking of 
the tribes around New York Harbor, in 1630, says that their 
year began with the first moon after the Febriiary moon ; and 
that the time for planting was cakulated by the rising of the 
constellation Taurus in a certain quarter. They named this 
constellation the horned head of some great fictitious 

Zeisberger observes that, in his day, the Lenape did not 
have a fixed beginning to their year, but reckoned from one 
seeding time to another, or from when the corn was ripe, etc.* 
Nevertheless, they had a word for year, gachtin^ and counted 
their ages and the sequence of events by yearly periods. The 

^ E. M. Rttttenber, History 0/ thi Indian Tribtt of Hmdton J^tWr, 
p. 96, Me* 

* MaximilUn, Prinee of Wied» TVomels in Amtricm^ p. 35. 

* A Key into the Langmige ofAmerien^ p. 105. 

« Docnnuntary History of New York^ Vol. Ill, pp. 29, 3a. 

* Grammar of the Las^gm^ge of the Ztnni Ltnape^ pp. 10S-109. 

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Chipeways count by winters {pipun-agaky in which the first 
word means winter^ and the second is a plural form similar to . 
the Del. gachtin)\ but the Lenape did not apparently follow 
them in this. They recognized only twelve moons in the 
year and not thirteen, as did the New England nations ; at 
least, the names of but twelve months have been preserved.' 
The day periods were reckoned usually by nights, but it was 
not improper to count by "suns" or days. 

Piciographic Signs. 

The picture writing of the Delawares has been quite fully 
described by Zeisberger, Loskiel and Heckewelder. It was 
scratched upon stone (Loskiel), or more frequently cut in or 
painted upon the bark of trees or pieces of wood. The 
colors were chiefly black and red. The system was highly 
conventionalized, so that it could readily be understood by 
all their tribes, and also by others with whom they came in 
contact, the Shawnees, Wyandots, Chipeways, etc. 

The subjects had reference not merely to matters of present 
interest, but to the former history of their nation, and were 
directed ** to the preservation of the memory of famous men, 
and to the recollection of events and actions of note.'* 
Therefore, their Agamemnons felt no anxiety for the absence 
of a Homer, but "confidently reckoned that their noble 
deeds would be held in memory long aAer their bodies had 
perished. "• 

The material on which the drawings were made was 

1 They are giYen, with traoilationt, in Zetsberger*! Grammmr^ p. 109. 
< See Lotkicl, CetchUhti der MMan, etc., pp. 3a, 33 ; Heckewelder, 
MuUiy ^thi IndUn NtOhm^ chap. X. 

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generally so perishable that Tew examples have been left to 
us. One, a stone about seven inches long, found in central 
New Jersey, has been described and figured by Dr. Abbott. * 
It represents an arrow crossing certain straight lines. Several 
*' gorgets'* (smooth stone tablets pierced with holes for 
suspension, and probably used for ceremonial purposes), 
stone knives and pebbles, showing inscribed marks and lines, 
and rude figures, are engraved in Dr. Abbott's book ; others 
similar have been seen in Bucks and Berks counties. Pa. 

There was a remarkable series of hieroglyphics, some 
eighty in number, on a rock at Safe Harbor, on the Susque* 
hanna. They have been photographed and described by 
Prof. T. C. Porter, of Lancaster, but have yet to be care- 
fully analyzed.' From its location, it was probably the 
work of the Susquehannocks, and did not belong to the 
general system of Algonkin pictography. 

If the rude drawings appended to the early treatises as 
signatures of native sachems be taken as a guide, little or no 
uniformity prevailed in the personal signs. The same chief- 
tain would, on various occasions, employ symbols differing to 
widely that they have no visible relation.* 

» Dr. Charles C. Abbott, Frimitive Industrj. pp. 7»» »7f 347» 11% 3«4, 
39o> 391* 1^' Abbott's suggetHon that the bird*i head teen 00 tevetml 
specimens might represent the totem of the Turkey gent of the Leaape 
cannot be well founded, if Heckewelder is correct in saying that their 
totemic mark was only the foot of the fowl. Ind. NmtUm^ p. 253. 
. ■ See Pr^ceedingt Awur, Pkih$. 5#r., Vol. X. 

• The subject is discossed, and comparative drawings of the native 
signatures leproduced, by Prof. D. B. Bmnncr, in his isefnl work, 71# 
Imlimm 0/Birks C0mnfy^ /V., p. 6S (Reading, iSSt). 

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An interesting incident is recorded by Friend John 
Richardson when on a visit to William Penn, at his 
manor of Pennsburg^ in 1701. Penn asked the Indian 
interpreter to give him some idea of what the native notion 
of God was. The interpreter^ at a loss for words, had 
recourse to picture writing, and describing a number of 
circles, one inside the other, he pointed to the centre of 
the innermost and smallest one, and there, ** placed, as he 
said, by way of representation, the Great Man.'" The ex- 
planation was striking and suggestive, and hints at the 
meaning of the not infrequent symbol of the concentric 

An alleged piece of Delaware pictography b copied by 
Schoolcraft' from the London Archaohgia^ Vol. IV. It pur- 
ports to be an inscription found on the Muskingum river in 
1780, and the interpretation is said to have been supplied by 
the celebrated Delaware chief. Captain White Eyes (Coque- 
thagechton). As interpreted, it relates to massacres of the 
whites by the Delaware chief, Wingenund, in the border war 
of 1763. 

There is a tissue of errors here. The pictograph, ** drawn 
with charcoal and oil on a tree," must have been quite recent, 
and is not likely to have referred to events seventeen years 
antecedent. There is no evidence that Wingenund took part * 
in Pontiac's conspiracy, and he was the consistent friend of 

1 John Ridmrdton'i Diary, quoted in Am Acc^umi 0/ tkt Candnti of 
tki SocUty pf Friends toward thi Indimn THket^ pp. 61, 62 (London, 

s JlisUfy mnd SMistUt if tki ImdUm TVikis, Vol. I, pUte 47, B, and 
ptget 3$3, 354- 

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the whites.* Several of the characters are not like Indian 
pictographs. And finally, White Eyes, the alleged inter- 
preter in 1780, had died at Tuscarawas, two years before, 
Nov. loth, 1778!* 

/Record Sticks. 

The Algonkin nations very generally preserved their myths, 
their chronicles, and the memory of events, speeches, etc., 
by means of marked sticks. As early as 1646, the Jesuit 
missionaries in Canada made use of these to teach their con- 
verts the prayers of the Church and their sermons.' 

The name applied to these record or tally sticks was, 
among the Crees and Chipeways, massinahigan^ which is the 
common word now for book, but which originally meant **9l 
piece of wood marked with fire,^ from the verb masindkisan^ 
I imprint a mark upon it with fire, I burn a mark upon it,* 
thus indicating the rude beginning of a system of mnemonic 
aids. The Lenape words for book, malackhickan^ Camp., 
mamaiekhican Zeis., were probably from the same root. 

In later days, instead of burning the marks upon the sticks, 
they were painted, the colors as well as the figures having 
certain conventional meanings.* 

These sticks are described as about six inches in length, 
slender, though varying in shape, and tied up in bundles.* 

1 <« Amiable tnd benevolent/' layi Heckewelder, whose life he aided 
In laving on one occaiion. Indian Naii&ns^ p. 285. 

* E. de Sdiweinita, Life 0/ Ziisberger^ p. 469. 

* Rilaiim det JtsmUs^ 1646, p. 33. 

^ Banga, A DiiHonmry of tki Oichifwi Languagt^ s. v. 

* For an example, tee de Schweiniu, Lift tf Zeishtrgtr^ p. 342. 

* Documtnimry Hiti^ty 0/ Nem Ytrk^ VoL IV, p. 437. 


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Such bundles are mentioned by the interpreter Conrad Weiser, 
as in use in 1748 when he was on his embassy in the Indian 
country.* The expression, ** we tied up in bundles/' is trans- 
lated by Mr. Heckewelder, olumaplsid^ and a head chief of 
the Lenape, usually called Ohmipees^ was thus named, ap- 
parently as preserver .of such records.' I shall return on a 
later page to the precise meaning of this term. 

The word signifying to paint was waiamin^ which does not 
appear in western dialects, but is found precisely the same in 
the Abnaki, where it is given by Rasles, Bramann^ which, 
transliterated into Delaware (where the / is substituted for .the 
r), would be vflanian. From this word came WallamUnk^ 
the name applied by the natives to a tract in New Castle 
county, Delaware, since at that locality they procured supplies' 
of colored earth, which they employed in painting. It means 
" the place of paint." * 

Roger Williams, describing the New England Indians, 

> Jmmal of Conrad Weiser^ In Early Ilisiory of Western Penna.^ p. 16. 

« Tram. Am, Phii. Soc., Vol. IV, p. 384. 

* A Dictionafy of the Abnaki Language^ s. ▼. Peinture. 

^ S«e ant^ p. 53. Mr. Francis Vincent, in bis History of the State of 
Delaware, p. 36 (Phila., 1870), says of the colored earth of that locality, 
' that it is **a highly argillaceous loam, interspersed with large and frequent 
maases of yellow, ochrey clay, some of which are remarkable for Bneneti 
of texture, not unlike lithomarge, and consists of white, yellow, red and 
dark blue clay in detached spots." 

The Shawnees applied the same word to Faint Creek, which falls into 
the Scioto, ck>se to Chilicothe. They named it Alamonee sepee^ of which 
Paint Creek it a literal rendering. R«v. David Jones, A Journal of Twa 
Fisitt to the Wetl Side of tk* Ohio in tyjM and ifjs^ p. 50. 

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speaks of '' IVitnnam, their re4 painting, which they most 
delight in, and is both the Barke of the Pine, as also a red 

The word is derived from Narr. wunne^ Del. wulUf Chip. 
gwanatsch s=x beautiful, handsome, good, pretty, etc. 

The Indian who had artistically bedaubed his skin with red, 
ochreous clay, was esteemed in full dress, and delightful to 
look upon. Hence the term wulii^ fine, pretty, came to be 
applied to the paint itself. 

The custom of using such sticks, painted or notched, was 
by no means peculiar to the Del^wares. They were (amiliar 
to the Iroquois, and the early travelers found them in common 
employment among the southern tribes.* 

As the art advanced, in place of simple sticks, painted or 
notched, wooden tablets came into use, on which the symbob 
were scratched or engraved with a sharp flint or knife. Such 
are those still in use among the Chipeway, described by Dr. 
James as ** rude pictures carved on a flat piece of wood ;'" by 
the native Copway, as ** board plates ; *' ^ and more precisely 

, * JiTey into the Lanxuagt rf AmiHcMf p. ao6. 

* Lawton, in hb New Aeeommt of Caro/ima, p. i8o, tayt that Uie aitives 
there bore in mind their trulitiont bjr memns of a *' Psiroel of Reeds of 
different Lengths, with several distinct Marks, known to none but them- 
selves.** James Adair writes of the Southern Indians: *«They6o«wtceftaia 
very remarkable things by notched square sticks, which are distribvted 
among the head warriors and other chieftains of different towns.'* Hitimy 
tfihi Imdimmt p* 75* 

* Dr. Edwin James, Nmrrmiim of John Ttmfur, p. 341. 

^Geofge Copway, TVmMiUm^i Hitifyefihi Ofikm^ Nmiim^^i^xy^ 


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by Mr. Schoolcraft, as ** a tabular piece of wood, covered on 
i both sides with a series of devices cut between parallel lines. ' ' * 

,, The Chipeway terms applied to these devices or symbols 

are, according to Mr. Schoolcraft, kckecwin^ for those in ordi- 
nary and common use, and kekeenowin^ for those connected 
1 with the mysteries, the ** meda worship" and the ** great 

'l medicine." Both words are evidently from a radical signify- 

ing a mark or sign, appearing in the words given in Baraga's 
•! "Otchipwe Dictionary," kikinawadjiion^ I mark it, I put a 

^' certain mark on it, and kikinoamawa^ I teach, instruct him. 

Moral and Menial Character. 

\ The character of the Delawares was estimated very 

differently, even by those who had the best opportunities of 
judging. The missionaries are severe upon them. Brainerd 
described them as '* unspeakably indolent and slothful. They 
have little or no ambition or resolution; not one in a 
thousand of them that has the spirit of a man."' No more 
iavorable was the opinion of Zeisberger. He speaks of their 
alleged bravery with the utmost contempt, and morally he 
puts them down as '* the most ordinary and the vilest of 

Perhaps these worthy missionaries measured them by the 
;, standard of the Christian ideal, by which, alas, we all fall 

wofully short. 
Certainly, other competent observers report much more 


> Schoolcraft, Indian THbtt^ Vol. I, p. 339. 

* Bnunerd, Life nnd Journal^ P* 410. 

* E. de Schwdnitz, Life and Tima tf Zihhtrfir^ p. 93. 

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I cheerfully. One of the first explorers of the Dclawartt 




Captain Thomas Young (1634), describes them as *• very 
i well proportioned, well featured, gentlCi tractable and 


f '.^ Of their domestic affections, Mr. Heckewelder writes: " I 

l.ji do not believe that there are any people on earth who are 

more attached to their relatives and offspring than these 
! Indians are."* 

Their action toward the Society of Friends in Pennsylvania 

indicates a sense of honor and a respect for pledges which we 

might not expect. They had learned and well understood 

that the Friends were non-combatants, and as such they 

3 never forgot to spare them, even in the bloody scenes of 


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border warfare. 

^^ ! *' Amidst all the devastating incursions of the Indians in 

North America, it is a remarkable fact that no Friend who 

( stood faithful to his principles in the dbuse of all weapons 

] of war, the cause of which was generally well understood 

I by the Indians, ever suffered personal molestation from 

( The fact that for more than forty years after the founding 

of Penn's colony there was not a single murder committed 
• 't on a settler by an Indian, itself speaks volumes for their self- 


• Am Act9imi ff tkt Cmutmi of the StiHy •/ Frietub inward ik€ 
Indian jyUa, p. 73 (London, 1844). 

, I .^ 1 Mast, Hia, S0C. CM., 4th lerict. Vol. IX, where aptaia Yoang*s 

jonmal U printed. 

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with the whites they extended them friendly aid and 

Even after they had become embittered and corrupted by 
the gross knavery of the whites (for example, the notorious 
'' long walk/') and the debasing influence of alcohol, such an 
authority as Gen. Wm. H. Harrison could write these words 
about the Delawares : ** A long and intimate knowledge of 
them, in peace and war, as enemies and friends, has left upon 
my mind the most favorable impression of their character for 
bravery, generosity and fidelity to their engagements."' 
More than this, and from a higher source, could scarcely be 

That intellectually they were by no means deficient is 
acknowledged by Brainerd himself. ''The children," he 

>The records of my own family furnish an example of this. My 

ancestor, William Brinton, arrived in the fall of 1684, and, with his wife 

and children, immediately took possession of a grant in the unbroken 

wilderness, about twenty iteilcs from Philadelphia. A severe winter set in ; 

their food supply was exhausted, and they would probably have perished 

but for the assistance of some neighboring lodges of Lenape, who provided 

theoi with food and shelter. It is, therefore, a debt of gratitude which I 

owe to this nation to gather its legends, its language, and its memories, so 

that they, 

" in bookt recorded. 

May Ji1c« hoarded 

Hofuehold words, no more depart t" 

• A Discoursi en the Aborigines of the Valley of the Ohio, p. 25 (Gnn., 
1838). I add the further testimony of John Brickell, who was a captive 
among them from 1791 to 1796. He speaks of them as fairly virtuous and 
temperate, and adds ; ** Honesty, bravery and hospitality are cardinal 
virtues among them/' Narraiivt of Captivity among the Dtlawaro 
IneHam^ in the AnuHemn Pioneer. Vol. I, p. 48 (Qncinnati, 1844). 

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» ; 

writes, ** learn with surprising readiness ; their master telb 
me he never had an English school that learned, in general, 
so fast."* 

XeKgi0HS Beliefs. 

With the hints given us in various authors, it is not difficult 
to reconstruct the primitive religious notions of the Delawares. 
They resembled closely those of the other Algonkin nations, 
and were founded on those general mythical principles which, 
in my ** Myths of the New W^rld,** I have shom-n existed 
widely throughout America. These ate, the worship of Light, 
especially in its concrete manifestations of fire and the sun ; 
of the Four Winds, as typical of the cardinal points, and as 
the rain bringers; and of the Totemic Animal. 

As the embodiment of Light, some spoke of the sun as a 
deity,' while their fifth and greatest festival was held in honor 
of Fire, which they personified, and called the Grandfather 
of all Indian nations. They assigned to it twelve divine 
assistants, who were represented by so many actors in the 
ceremony, with evident reference to the twelve moons or 
months of the year, the fire being a type of the heavenly 
blaze, the sun.' 

But both Sun and Fire were only material emblems of the 
mystery of Light. This was the ** body or fountain of deity," 
which Brainerd said they described to him in terms that he 
could not clearly understand ; something ** all light ;'* a being 

^ Life and Joummt^^, 'fix. 

* •'Others imtgined the Son to be the only deity, and that all thii^ 
were made by him.'* David Brainerd, Lift and J^timmi, p. 395. 

• Loekiel, Gaekiekii der Mitti^^ p. 55. 

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*Un whom the earth, and all things in it, may be seen;" a 
** great man, clothed with the day, yea, with the brightest 
day, a day of many years^ yea, a day of everlasting continu- 
ance." From him proceeded, in him were, to him returned, 
all things and the souls of all things. 

Such was the extraordinary doctrine which a converted 
priest of the native religion informed Brainerd was the teach- 
ing of the medicine men.' 

The familiar Algonkin myth of the "Great Hare," which 
I have elsewhere shown to be distinctively a myth of Light,' 
was also well known to the Delawares, and they applied to 
this animal, also, the appellation of the " Grandfather of 
the Indians." ' Like the fire, the hare. was considered their 
ancestor, and in both instances the Light was meant, fire 
being its symbol, and the word for hare being identical with 
that of brightness and light. 

As in Mexico and elsewhere, this light or bright ancestor 
was the culture hero of their mythology, their pristine in- 
structor in the arts, and figured in some of their legends as a 
white man, who, in some remote time, visited them from the 
east, and brought them their civilization.^ 

I desire to lay especial stress on these proofs of Light wor- 
ship among the Delawares, for it has an immediate bearing 
on several points in the Walam Olum. There are no com- 

1 David Brainerd, Lift and Journal^ pp. 395, 399. 

> D. G. Brinton, 7}l< Afytks 0/ ike New W0rU,chaLp. vi; AmiHcan 
Her^ Mytks^ chap. ii. 

* Loakiel^ GestkUkte dtr Mmwn^ p. 53. 

^ He is thiis spoken of in Gimpanias, Account of New Sweden^ Book 
in, chap. xi. Compare my Mythi of ike New fVoM, p. 19a 

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pounds more frequent in that document than those with the 
root signifying ** light/' ** brightness/' etc. ; and this is one 
of the evidences of its authenticity. 

Next in order, or rather, paraltel with and a part of the 
worship of Light, was that of the Four Cardinal Points, 
always identified with the Four Winds, the bringers of rain 
and sunshine, the rulers of the weather. 

*' After the strictest inquiry respecting their notions of the 
Deity," says David Brainerd, ''I find that in ancient times, 
before the coming of the white people, some supposed there 
were four invisible powers, who presided over the four comers 
of the earth."* 

The Montauk Indians of Long Island, a branch of the 
Mohegans, also worshiped these four deities, as we are in- 
formed by the Rev. Sampson Occum ; * and Captain ArgoU 
found them again in 1616 among the accolents of the Potomact 
close relatives of the Delawares. Their chief told him : ** We 
have five gods in all ; our chief god appears often unto us in 
the form of a mighty great hare ; the other four have no 
visible shape, but are indeed the four winds, which keep the 
four corners of the earth." ' 

These are the fundamental doctrines, the universal creif^^ of 
not only all (he Algonkin faiths, but of all or nearly all primi- 
tive American religions. 

This is very far from the popular conception of Indian 
religion, with its '' Good Spirit " and '' Bad Spirit." Such 

> Brainerd, Life andj^umml^ p. 395. 

s HU fUtemenU are in the CW&. •/ iki Mm. Hid. 5^., Vol. X (tit 
Series), p. 108. 
• Wm. Strachey, Hisiorik 0/ Trmtmiie M# Virgimi4t, p. 98. 

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ideas were not familiar to the native mind. Heckewelder, 
Brainerd and Loskiel all assure us in positive terms that the 
notion of a bad spirit, a ''Devil," was wholly unknown 
to the aborigines, and entirely borrowed from the whites. 
Nor was the Divinity of Light looked upon as a benefit 
cent father, or anything of that kind. The Indian did not 
appeal to him for assistance, as to his iotemic and personal 

These were conceived to be in the form of aniinals, and 
various acts of propitiation to them were performed. Such 
acts were not a worship of the animals themselves. Brainerd 
explains this very correctly when he says: *'They do not 
suppose a divine power essential to or inhering in these 
creatures, but that some invisible beings, not distinguished 
from each other by certain names, but only notionally, 
communicate to these animals a great power, and so make 
these creatures the immediate authors of good to certain 
persons. Hence $uch a creature becomes sacred to the 
person to whom he is supposed to be the immediate author 
of good, and through him they must worship the invis^ 
ible powers, though to others he is no more than another 
creature." ' 

They rarely attempted to set forth the divinity in image. 
The rude representation of a human head, cut in wood, small 
enough to be carried on the person, or life size on a -post, was 
their only idol. This was called wsinkhoalican. They also 
drew and perhaps carved emblems of their totemic guardian. 
Mr. Beatty describes the head chiefs home as a long building 
of wood: ''Over the door a turtle is drawn, which is the 
> Brminerd, Life mnJ ThtvelSf p. 394. 

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ensign of this particular tribe. On each door post was cut 
the face of a grave old man. "^ 

Occasionally, rude representatfens of the human heady 
chipped out of stone, arc exhumed in those parts of Pennsyl- 
vania and New Jersey once inhabited by the Lenape.* These 
are doubtless the wsinkhoalican abf ve mentioned. 

Doctrine of tho Soul. 

There was a general belief in m soul, spirit or immaterial 
part of man. For this the native words were ischipey and 
^W iuhiischank (in Brainerd, ckichyny). The former is derived 

from a root signifying to be separate or apart, while th^ latter 
means " the shadow."* 

Their doctrine was that after death the soul went souths 
where it would enjoy a happy life for a certain term, and 
then could return and be bom again into the world. In 
moments of spiritual illumination it was deemed possible to 

^ Giarlet BtMitjt/ntmal, p. 44. 

* One, aboiit five inches in height, of a tough, argillaceoot stone, it 
fiipired and described by Dr. C. C. Abbott, in the Americam MUmrmUst, 
October, 1882. It was found in New Jersey. 

* From the same root, iuJki/, are derived the Lenape isMpiM, some- 
Ihing strange or wondcrfal ; isfkffisif, a stranger or foreigner ; and tsckm^ei^ 
the invocation of spirits. Among the rules agreed upon by Zcisberger's 
converted Indians was this : " We will use no tsckapiet^ or witcbcimft, 
when hunting." (De Schweinits, Lift of Ztisbtrger, p. 379.) 

The root i^^ii&ri indicates repetition, and applied to the shadow or 
tpirit of man means as much as his double or counterpart. 

A third word for soul was the verbal form vftelimmpewagan^ «* man— 
his substance ;" but thb looks as If it had been manufactured bj the mis- 

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recall past existences, and even to remember the happy epoch 

passed in the realm of bliss. ^ 

The path to this abode of the blessed was by the Milky 

Way, wherein the opinion of the Delawares coincided with 

that of various other American nations, as the Eskimos, on 

the north, and the Guaranis of Paraguay, on the south. 

- The ordinary euphemism to inform a person that his death 

was at hand was: ''You are about to visit your ancestors;"' 

but most observers agree that they were a timorous people, 

with none of that contempt of death sometimes assigned 


The Native Priests. 

An important class among the Lenape were those called 
by the whites doctors, conjurers, or medicine men, who were 
really the native priests. They appear to have been of two 
schools, the one devoting themselves mainly to divination, 
the other to healing. 

According to Brainerd, the title of the former among the 
Delawares, as among the New England Indians, if^pcwwcw^ 
a word meaning '' a dreamer ;" Chip., bawiidjagan, a dream; 
nittd apawe^ I dreanx; Cret, pauHS-miwin, a dream. They 
were the interpreters of the dreams of others, and themselves 
claimed the power of dreaming truthfully of the future and 
the absent.* In their visions their guardian spirit visited 

* CompAre Loskiel, Gackuku^ pp. 48, 49 ; Brainerd, Lift andjommml^ 
pp. 3»4. 396, 399. 400. 

* SchwdniU, Life of Znshtrgtr^ p. 472. 

* Hcdiewclder, MSS., layt that he has often heard the lamentable ciy, 
wttiim wimgi mngiln^ *< I do not want to die.'* 

^ «*Ai for the Powawt,*' lays the native Mohegan, the Rev. Sampaoa 
Occam, in hit account of the Montank Indiana of Long Iilaadt ** they 

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them ; they became, in their own words, " all light," and * | | 

they ** could see through men, and knew the thoughts of j ) 

their hearts."^ At such times they were also instructed at | f- 

what spot the hunters could successfully seek game. 

The other school of the priestly class was called, as we are 
informed by Mr. Heckewelder, modern} This b the same 
term which we find in Chipeway as mide {medaween^ School* \ , 

craft), and in Cree as mitew^ meaning a conjurer, a member 
of the Great Medicine Lodge.' I suspect the word is from 
m'/VM, heart (Chip. Kide^ thy heart), as this organ was con- 
sidered the source and centre of life and the emotions, and 
is constantly spoken of in a figurative sense in Indian con- 
versation and oratory. 

Among the natives around New York Bay there was a body 
of conjurers who professed great austerity of life. They had 
no fixed homes, pretended to absolute continence, and both 
exorcised sickness and officiated at the funeral rites. Their 
name, as reported by the Dutch» was tdhinacka^ which b 
evidently Great Snake {^ptschi^ ackkook). The interesting 
fact b added, that at certain periodical fcstivak a sacrifice 

say they get their art from dreamt." Mass, Hist, S^. CM^ VoL X, 
p. 109. Dr. Trumboirt taggested affinity of powaw with Cree A^ 
way00, be speaks the truth; Nar., imm/cwattcff, wise speakers, is, I 
think, correct ; but the latter are secondary senses. They were wise, aad 
gave true counsel, who could correctly interpret dreams. Compare the 
Iroquob kaUtstns, to dream; kattisiems^ to practice medidne, ladiaa 
fashion. Cuoq* Lixifm di h Lmmgrne Ir§psmsi, 
> David Brainerd, Lift muljtuttud^ pp. 400^ 401. 

• Hisi. Ind, Ntims^ p. aSa 

• HIH. mU SuHsHis ^ iki Indmm THIisr, Vol. I, p. 358, w¥^ 

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was prepared, which it was believed was carried off by a huge 

When the missionaries came among the Indians, the shrewd 
and able natives who had been accustomed to practice on the 
credulity of their fellows recognized that the new faith would 
destroy their power, and therefore they attacked it vigorously. 
Preachers arose among them, and claimed to have had com- 
munications from the Great Spirit about all the matters which 
the Christian teachers talked of. These native exhorters 
fabricated visions and revelations, and displayed symbolic 
drawings on deerskins, showing the journey of the soul after 
death, the path to heaven, the twelve emetics and purges 
which would clean a man of sin, etc. 

Such were the famed prophets Papunhank and Wangomen, 
who set up as rivals in opposition to David Zelsberger; and 
such those who so constantly frustrated the efforts of the 
pious Brainerd. Often do both of these self-sacrificing apos* 
ties to the Indians complain of the evil influence which such 
false teachers exerted among the Delawares.' 

The existence of this class of impostors is significant for 
the appreciation of such a document as the Walam Olum. 
They were partially acquainted with the Bible history of 

> Wasseiuter't Deicription of the New Netherlandt (1631), in Do<, Hist, 
of New YorJ^f Vol. Ill, pp. 28, 40. Other signs of serpent worship were 
common among the Lenape. Loskiel states that their cast-ofi' skins were 
treasured at po»essing wonderful curative powers {GescAuA/e, p. 147), 
and Brainerd saw an Indian offering supplications to one {Lift 4uui 
JoumMi, p. 395)- 

* See Brainerd, Lift mttd JoumeU^ pp. 310, 313, 364, 398, 435, etc., 
and E. de Schweinita, Life of Zeisjkrger^ pp. 265, 33a, etc. 

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creation ; some had learned to read and write in the mission 
schools ; they were eager to imitate the wisdom of the whites, 
while at the same time they were intent on claiming authentic 
antiquity and originality for all their sayings. 

,» Meligiaus Ctremanies. 

The principal sacred ceremony was the dance and accom- 
panying song. Thb was called kanti kanti, from a Yerbal 
found in most Algonkin dialects with the primary meaning 
to sing (Abnakii skan^ je danse et chante en m^me temps, 
Rasles; Ctttinikam; Chip., wJfOM, Ising). From this noisy 
rite, which seems to have formed a part of all the native cele- 
brations, the settlers coined the word cantico^ which has sor- 
Tived and become incorporated into the English tongue. 

2^isberger describes other festivals, some five in number. 
The most interesting is that called Ma€hi0ga^ which he trans- 
lates '' to sweat.'' This was held in honor of ** their Grand- 
father, the Fire.'' The number twelve appears in it frequently 
as regulating the actions and numbers of the performen. 
This had evident reference to the twelve months of the year, 
but his description is too vague to allowasatisfiictory aaalyiis 
of the rite. 

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The Literature and. Language of the Lenape. 

|t« lilenitiire of ih« Leupt Tongue.— Canpaniot ; Pmin; ThoouM; Zeifibtrffer; 

H«ckcw«ld«r ; Rock; Ectwdo; Gnib«; DoKke; Lockeabftch; Hoary; Vo- 

cabuUrits ; • miUvo lettor. 
1 1. Genoral Rcaarki on the Lenepe. 

1 3. Dialects of the Leaape. 

1 4. Spedal Scnicttire of the Lenape.— The Root aad the These ; Pfeixes ; Suflxet ; 

Derivatives; Gramautkal Notes. 

§ I. Literature of the Lenape Tongue. 

The first study of the Delaware language was undertaken 
by the Rev. Thomas Campanius (Holm), who was chaplain 
to the Swedish settlements, 1 643-1 649. He collected a vo- 
cabulary, wrote out a number of dialogues in Delaware and 
Swedish, and even completed a translation of the Lutheran 
catechism into the tongue. The last mentioned was published 
in Stockholm, in 1696, through the efforts of his grandson, 
under the title, Luthbri Catechismus, Ofwersattpd American- 
Virginiske Spr&ket^ i vol., sm. 8vo, pp. 160. On pages 133- 
154 it has a Vocabularium Barbaro- Virgineorum, and on pages 
155-160, Vocabula JfaAaiuassiea. The first is the Delaware 
as then current on the lower river, the second the dialect of 
the Susquehannocks or Minquas, who frequently visited the 
Swedish settlements. 

Although he managed to render all the Catechism into 
something which looks like Delaware, Campanius' knowledge 
of the tongue was exceedingly superficial. Dr. Tnimbull 
sayi of his work: ''The translator had not learned even to 


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much of the grammar as to dttlinguish the plural of a noun 
or verb from the singular, and Inew nothing of the ^* transit 
tions'' by which the pronouns of the subject and object are 
blended with the verb." * 

At the close of his ''History of New Sweden/' Campanius 
adds further linguistic material, including an imaginary con- 
versation in Lenape, and the oration of a sachem. It is of 
the same character as that found in the Catechism. 

After the English occupation very little attention was given 
to the tongue beyond what was indispensable to trading. 
William Penn, indeed, professed to have acquired a mastery 
of it. He writes : ** I have made it my business to under- 
stand it, that I might not want an interpreter on any occa- 
sion."* But it is evident, from the specimens he gives, 
that all he studied was the trader's jargon, which scorned 
etymology, syntax and prosody, and was about as near 
pure Lenape as pigeon English is to the periods of Ma- 

An ample specimen of this jargon is furnished us by Gabriel 
Thomas, in his ** Historical and Geographical Account of 
the Province and Country of Pensilvania ; and of West-New- 
Jersey in America," London, 16989 dedicated to Penn. 
Thomas telk us that he lived in the country fifteen ]rears» 
and supplies, for the convenience of those who propose visit- 
ing the province, some forms of conversation, Indian and 
English. I subjoin a short specimen, with a brief commen- 
tary: — 

> THmoiHom rftke Amiricmt PkiUltgU^al As$o€iUimt 187s, p. 158. 
* Ptnii, Letter to the Free Sodely of TMders, 1683, Sec xii. 

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I. Hitak iakomanf Friend, from whence com'it? 

J. Andegcwa nee weekin. Yonder. 

3« Tomy andegewa kee weekin t Where yonder? 

4. Arwaym^use, At Arwaymoose. 

5. Ke€9 kee katak weekin t What hoit got in thy hovise ? 

6. Net kateUk kuska weesycuse eg I hare very fat Yention and good 

kmka cketenm ekate eg ktitka itrong skins, with very good tvr- 
eHt ekekenip, keys. 

7. Ckingo kee bete nee ckasa ag When wilt thon bring me skins and 

ywtsa eika ekekenip t venison, with turkeys ? 

8. Haiapa eika niska kiskquicka. To-morrow, or two days hence. 

I. Hitah for fCischu (Mohcgan, nitap\ my friend ; takcman^ 
Zeis, takomun^ from /u, where, k^ 2d pers. sing. 

a. Andogowa^ similar to undachwe^ he comes. Heck.; 
nei^ pron. possess, ist person ; weekin = wikwam; 01 wig- 
wam. " I come from my house." 

3. Tony^ = Zeis, /am, where ? kee^ pron. possess. 2d person. 

4. Anvaymouse was the name of an Indian village, near 
Burlington, N. J. 

5. Keco^ Zeis, koeeu^ what? hatah^ Zeis, hattin^ to have. 

6. Huska, Zeis, kusea^ ''very, truly;" wees^ Zeis, wtw, 
fatty flesh, youse^ R. W. /w/, deer meat; ^, Camp, oek^ 
Zeis, woak and; chetena^ Zeis, tsehitani^ strong; ehasef Z. 
ekessak^ deerskin ; orH^ Zeis, wuiit^ good ; ekekenip^ Z. tscke* 
kenum^ turkey. 

7* CkingOt Zeis, tsckingatsck^ when ; beto^ Z. peten^ to bring ; 
etka^ R. W., ka^ and. 

8. Haiapa^ Z. alappa^ to-morrow; utrAtf, two; kiskquieka^ 
Z. gisekgUf day, guekgidk^ by day. 

The principal authority on the Delaware language is the 
Rev. David Zeisberger, the eminent Moravian missionary, 

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whose long and devoted labors may be accepted as fixing the 
standard of the tongue. 

Before him, no one had seriously set to work to master the 
structure of the languagCi and reduce it to a uniform orthog- 
raphy. With him, it was almost a lifelong study, as for more 
than sixty years it engaged his attention. To hb devotion 
to the cause in which he was engaged, he added considerable 
natural talent for languages, and learned to speak, with almost 
equal fluency, English, German, Delaware and the Onondaga 
and Mohawk dialects of the Iroquois. 

The first work he gave to the press was a '* Delaware 
Indian and English Spelling Book for the Schools of the 
Mission of the United Brethren^" printed in Philadelphia, 
1776. As he did not himself see the proofs, he com- 
plained that both in its arrangement and typographical 
accuracy it was disappointing. Shortly before his death, 
in 1806, the second edition appeared, amended in these 
respects. A '^Hymn Book," in Delaware, which he finished 
in i8oa, was printed the following year, and the last work 
of his life, a translation into Pelaware of Lieberkuhn's 
''History of Christ," was puMished at New York in 

These, however, formed but a small part of the manuscript 
materials he had prepared on and in the language. The most 
important of these were his Delaware Grammar, and his 
Dictionary in four languages, English^ GermaD> Onondaga 
and Delaware. 

The MS. of the Grammar was deposited in the Archives of 
the Moravian Sociely at Bethlehem, Fa. A translation of it 
was prepared by Mr. Peter Stephen Duponccan, and published 

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in the *' Transactions of the American Philosophical Society/' 
in iSay. 

The quadrilingual dictionary has never been printed. The 
MS. was presented^ along with others, in 1850, to the library 
of Harvard CollegCi where it now is. • The volume is an 
oblong octavo of 362 pages, containing about 9000 words 
in the English and German columns, but not more than half 
that number in the Delaware. 

A number of other MSS. of Zeisberger are also in that 
library, received from the same source. Among these are a 
German-Delaware Glossary, containing 51 pages and about 
600 words ; a Delaware-German Phrase Book of about aoo 
pages ; Sermons in Delaware, etc., mostly incomplete studies, 
but of considerable value to the student of the tongue.^ 

Associated with Zeisberger for many years was the genial 
Rev. John Heckewelder, so well known for his pleasant 
*' History of the Indian Nations of Pennsylvania," his in- 
terpretations of the Indian names of the State, and his cor- 
respondence with Mr. Duponceau. He certainly had a fluent, 
practical knowledge of the Delaware, but it has repeatedly 
been shown that he lacked analytical power in it, and that 
many of his etymologies as well as some of his grammatical 
statements are erroneous. 

Another competent Lenapist was the Rev. Johannes Roth. 
He was bom in Prussia in 1726, and educated a Catholic. 
Joining the Moravians in 1748, he emigrated to America in 
X 756, and in 1759 took charge of the missionary station called 

> Oo the Itteraiy wofkt of Zeisberger, tee Rev. E. de Schweinits, Lifk 
pf ZiitbtrgeTt chap, xlviii, who givet a full accoont of all the printed 
works, but does not describe the MSS. 

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Schechschiquanuky on the west bank of the Susquehanna, 
opposite and a little below Shesequin, in Bradford countjr, 
Pennsylvania. There he remained until 1772, when, with 
his flock, fifty-three in number, he proceeded to the new 
Gnadenhfltteh, in Ohio. There a son was bom to him, the 
first white child in the area of the piresent State of Ohio. In 
1774 he returned to Pennsylvania, and after occupying various 
pastorates, he died at York, July Md, 1791. 

Roth has left us a most important work, and one hitherto 
entirely unknown to bibliographers. He made an especial 
study of the Unami diaiict of the Lenape,and composed in 
it an extensive religious work, of which only the fifth part 
remains. It is now in the possession of the American 
Philosophical Society, and bears the title :— 

der Geschichte unsers Herm u. Heylandes 

Jesu Christi 

in dass Delawarische ttbersetzt der IMmmi 

V0H dtr Marttr IVackt an 

bis zur 

Himmelfahrt unsers Herm 


Yahr 1770 u. 73 su TschechschequanOng 


der Susquehanna. 

Wuntschi mesettschawi tipatta lammowewoagan sekauchsianup. 

Wulapensuhalinen» Woehowaolan Nihillalijeng mPatamauw^^v. 

The next page begins, <'Der fOnfte Theil,*' and § 86, and 
proceeds to § 139. It forms a quarto volume, of title, 9 pages 
of contents in German and English, and a69 pages of text 



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in Unami, written in a clear hand, with many corrections 
and interlineations. 

. This b the only work known to roe as composed distinctively 
in the Unami, and its value is proportionately great as pro- 
viding the means of studying this, the acknowledged most 
cultivated and admired of the Lenape dialects. 

It will be the task of some future Lenape scholar to edit its 
text and analyze its grammatical forms. But I believe that 
Algonkin students will be glad to see at this time an extract 
from its pages. 

I select § 96, which is the parable of the marriage feast of 
the king's son, as given in Matthew xxii, 1-14. 

I. Weak Jesus wtabptonalawoU woak lapi nuwuntschi 

Aad Jaiot h»- > pokc-wHh-them »nd afala he began 

Enendhackewoagannall nelih* woak wtellawoU. 

panibkt tlie«i*lo and iM-MkMo-ihen. 

3. Ne Wusakimawoagan Patamauwoss | ^S^^Mchi I 

The ]ii»-klncdo«i God . h-it-likc 

mejauchsid* Sakima, na Quisall mairnitauwan Witach- 

caitain klnc« his-aon 



3. Woak wtellallodilan wtallocacannall, wentschitscb nek 

And he-Mnt^-out hb-tenranis tka-Mdding tba 

Elendpannik lih* Witachpungewiwuladtpoiganndng wentsch- 

tlMM-bldden to marriage thoM- 

fancussowoak; tschuk necamawa schingipawak. 

m h» m u 9 bi d d tn, htn ihttj tKcf-were-unwiSlng. 

4. Woak lapi wtellalloddan pili wtallocacanhall woak 



**«"»{ wIm}' M»«*ao»» •»« Elendpannik, {^^^ 

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' • 

NolachtUppoagan *nkischachtiippui» nihillalachkik Wisuheng- 

TiM-feaat I-hay< wwdt di« fcMt^ thcy-M^-UlM t i ny ftmat id 

pannik auwessissak nenuctschi ahillapannkk woak weemi 
tlM^liok I-UUtdtbM Mid att 

ktak5cku 'ngischachtOppui* peeMk lih Witacbpangkari- 

I-havo-Aatohed oo«m to mat* 

5. Tschuk necamawa mattelemawoawollnenni, woak ewak 

But ihtKf 

ika, mejauchsid enda wtakihicanniing, napilll nihillatuchi 

ctruin - thither to-hlt-plaauitm-pUM othtr 

{M*hal1amawachtowoaganniing ) 
Nundauchsowoaganniing ) • 


6. Tschuk allende wtahunnawoawoll neca allocacannall 

But MMM thcy-MlMd-tbca 

{p2^J!Srr'w!Ill} -~k wunihilUwoawoU nec-naw.. 




7. Eltnenni na* Sakima pentanke, nannen lachxu, 

Wh«o th« kinc 

woak wtellallokalan Ndopaluwinawak,- woak wunihillawunga 

•ad ha ■ cm-them 

jok Nehhillowetschik, woak wOlusClmen Wtutin'nejuwaowolL 

)sa BUfacfaray aad li^'vistroyad tnai^'dtiaa* 

8. Nannen wtella I J!^l!: I nelih wtallocacannall : Ne* 
I panni ) 

Thaa ha-aaid-to-ihaai to hi t tai f a ata Tha 

Witachpungkewiwuladtpoagan khella nkischachtappui, tschuk 

n.k Elendpannlck { ''^ ISSSSKSTwunewo } , 

aia a at to dtHlowa-w wth y. 

9. Nowentschi allmassin ikali mengichOngi Ansijall» woak 

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winawammoh \i}\ Witachpungkewiwuladtpoagan ; na natta 

Mk-yt-thca to ■uurriAg* 

aween kiluwa mechkaweek (oh). 

y% iad. 

la Woak nek AUocacannak iwak ikali men^chttngi 

And Um wnmals UMf-w«ttl tkither to-flo«*-plMM 

AneijaU, woak mawehawoawoll peschuwoawak na natta 

roMk ud they-brought-thuB-togtthcr tkoM 

aween machkawoachtid, Memannungsitschik woak Wewu* 

vboM tlitH<Mm^-tl*«* tlM-bad-oiMt and die- 

lilossitschik, woak nel* EhendachpuingkiU wcemi taephikka- 

•ad tlM ftt-tht-tabkt al tfatf- 


II. Nannen mattemikxikh na Sakima, nek Elendpannik 

Thea he-emerad-ia tha king tha thoM-Wddea 

mauwi pennawoawoU, woak wunewoawoll uchtenda me- 

ha l a w thcM aad ha-taw-hiai 

jauchsid Lenno, na matta uchtellachquiwon witachpungkewt 

taia BUM tha aoc waaring amanlafa 


13. Woak wtellawoll neli;* Elanggomallen, ktelgiquiki 

Aad ha-Mki-co-liiai to-him Friend lika 

matte attemik€n jun (&r \k elin^uo wentschi jun k'mattl- 

kera not Uka dMrcfcrt kera tho«*-afl- 

mikeen,) ; woak { m(in|ach8a» | ^j^^^cu witachpungkewi 

aikaaiad and not aianiaga 

Schakhokquiwan ktellachquiwon ? Necama tschuk k*pettune(k. 

coat tkoowaarest Ha \nk ka-aoatk-t hw c t . 

13. Nannen w-tellawoU na Sakima nelih* Wtallocacan* 

Tkaa ko-taldHo-tkaai tka kiag to-tkem k ii nf 

nflng; Kachpiluhl^^^^l WunachkaU woak W'sittall* woak 

TMli r art aa-ya- h im Ut-kaadt aad kb-laal aad 

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lann^ewik quatschetnuni^ enda achwipegnGnk, nttschknda 

threv-hiai when ki pltclH^ikMM iw u am n 

Lipackcuwoagan woak Tschaetschak koalochinen. 

weeping and teedngMMlilaf 

macheli moetschi 

14. Ntitechquoh 


tschuk tatthiluwak achn^eknuksftschik. 

but Ihef-are-lew 


tlify-Te celM 

The asterisk occurs in the original apparently to indicate 
that a word is superfluous or doubtful. The interlined 
translation I have supplied from the materials in the mission* 
Delaware dialect, but my resources have not been sufficient 
to analyze each word ; and thts» indeed, is not necessary for 
my purpose, which is merely to present an example of the 
true Unami dialect. 

The Moravian Bishop, John Bttwein, was another of their 
fraternity who applied himself to the study of the Delaware. 
Fom in Europe in 171 3, he came to the New World in 17549 
and died at the great age of ninety years in xSoa. He pre- 
pared a small dictionary and phrase book, especially rich in 
verbal forms. It is an octavo MS. of 88 pages, without title, 
and comprises about 1300 entries; This manuscript exbts in 
one copy only, in the Moravian Archives at Bethlehem, 

Bishop Ettwein also prepared for General Washington, in 
1 788, an account of the traditions and language of the natives, 
including a vocabulary. This was found among the Wash- 
ington papers by Mr. Jared Sparks, and was published in the 
<< Bulletin of the Pennsylvania Historical Society/' 1848. 

One of the most laborious of the Moravian missionaries 
was the Rev. Adam Grube. His life spanned nearly a ceo* 
tiiry, from 17x5, when he was bom in Germany, until 1808, 

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when he died in Bethlehem, Pa. Many years of this were 
spent among the Delawares in Pennsylvania and Ohio. He 
was familiar with their language, but the only evidence of his 
study of it that has come to my knowledge is a MS. in the 
Harvard College Library, entitled, ^'Einige Delawarische 
Redensarten und Worte." It has seventy-five useful leaves, 
the entries without alphabetic arrangement, some of the verbs 
accompanied by partial inflections. The only date it bears 
is "Oct. lo, 1800," when he presented it to the Rev. Mr. 
Luckenbach, soon to be mentioned. 

After the War of 1812 the Moravian brother. Rev. C. F. 
Dencke, who, ten years before had attempted to teach the 
Gospel to the Chipeways, gathered together the scattered 
converts among the Delawares at New Fairfield, Canada West. 
In 1 81 8 he completed and forwarded to the Publication Board 
of the American Bible Society a translation of the Epistles 
of John, which was published the same year. 

He also stated to the Board that at that time he had finkhed 
a translation of John's Gospel and commenced that of Matthew, 
both of which he expected to send to the Board in that year. 
A donation of one hundred dollars was made to him to en- 
courage him in his work, but for some reason the prosecution 
of his labors was suspended, and the translation of the Gospels 
never appeared (contrary to the statements in some biblio- 

It b probable that Mr. Dencke was the compiler of the 
Delaware Dictionary which is. preserved in the Moravian 
Archives at Bethlehem. The MS. is an oblong octavo, in a 
fine, but beautifully clear hand, and comprises about 3700 
words. The handwriting is that of the late Rev. Mr. Kamp- 

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man, from 1840 to 1842 missionary to the Delawares on the 
Canada Reservation. On inquiring the circumsUnces con- 
nected with this MS. 9 he suted to me that it was written at 
the period named, and was a copy of some older work, pro- 
bably by Mr. Dencke, but of this he was not certain. 

While the greater part of this dictionary is identical in 
words and rendering with the second edition of Zeisberger't 
''Spelling Book" (with which I have carefully compared it), 
it also includes a number of othef words, and the whole is 
arranged in accurate alphabetical order. 

Mr. Dencke also prepared a grammar of the Delaware, as 
I am informed by his old personal friend. Rev. F. R. Holland, 
of Hope, Indiana ; but the most persistent inquiry through 
residents at Salem, N. C, where he died in 1839, and at the 
Missionary Archives at Bethlehem^ Pa., and Moraviantown, 
Canada, have failed to furnish me $, clue to its whereabouts. 
I fear that this precious document was ''sold as paper stock," 
as I am informed were most of the MSS. which he left at his 
decease 1 A sad instance of the total absence of intelligent 
interest in such subjects in our country. 

The Rev. Abraham Luckenbach may be called the last of 
the Moravian Lenapists. With him, in 1854, died out the 
traditions of native philology. Bom in 1777, in Lehigh 
county, Pennsylvania, he became a missionary among the 
Indians in 1800, and until his retirement, forty-three years 
later, was a zealous pastor to his flock or the White river, 
Indiana, and later, on the Canada Reservation. His pub- 
Ibhed work is entitled '' Forty-six Select Scripture Narratives 
from the Old Testament, embellished with Engravings, for 
the Use of Indian Youth. Translated into I> aware Indian, 

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by A. Luckenbach. New York. Printed by Daniel Fan- 
shawy 1838." 8vo, pp. xvi, 304. 

After his retire^^ent in Bethlehem, he edited, in 1847, the 
second edition of Zeisberger's ** Collection of Hymns/' the 
first of which has already been mentioned. 

A short MS. vocabulary, in German and Delaware, is in 
the possession of his family, in Bethlehem, and some loose 
papers in the language. 

One of the most recent students of the Delaware was Mr. 
Matthew G. Henry, of Philadelphia. In 1859 and i860 he 
compiled, with no little labor, a ** Delaware Indian Diction- 
ary," the MS. of which, in the library of the American 
Philosophical Society, forms a thick quarto volume of 843 
pages, with a number of maps. It is in three parts: i, 
English and Delaware ; 3, Delaware and English ; 3, Dela- 
ware Proper Names and their Translations. 

It includes, without analysis or correction, the words in 
Zeisberger's ** Spelling Book," Roger William's '*Key," 
Campanius' Vocabulary, those in Smith's and Strachey's 
''Virginia," and various Nanticokie, Mohegan, Minsi and 
other vocabularies. The derivations of the proper names are 
chiefly from Heckewelder, and in other cases are venture- 
some. The compilation, therefore, while often useful, lacks 
the salutary check of a critical, grammatical erudition, and 
in its present form is of limited value. 

Some of the later vocabularies collected by various trav- 
elers offer points for comparison, and may be mentioned here. 

In 1786 Major Denny,* at Fort Mcintosh, Ohio, collected 

> Major EbeiMxer Dtnnfu ••Journal," in Mtm0ir$ ^ Oi Hui. Sh. •/ 
Pmnm^ VoL VII, pp. 481-86. 

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a number of Delaware words, principally from Shawnee 
Indians. A comparison shows many of them to be in a 
corrupt form, owing either to the ignorance of the Shawnee 
authority, or to the inaccuracy of Major Denny in catching 
the sounds. 

While engaged on the Pacific Railroad survey, in 1853, 
Lieut. Whipple' collected a vocabulary of a little over aoo 
words from a Delaware chief, named Black Beaver, in the 
Indian Territory, which was edited, in 1856, by Prof. Turner. 
It is evidently a pure specimen, and, as the editor observes, 
''agrees remarkably" with earlier authentic vocabularies. 

In the second volume of Schoolcraft's large work' is a 
vocabulary of about 350 words, obtained by Mr. Cummings, 
U. S. Indian Agent. The precise source, date and locality 
are not given, but it is evidently from some trustworthy 
native, and is quite correct. 

Some small works for the schools of the Baptist missions 
among the Delawares in Kansas were prepared by the Rev. 
J. Meeker. They appear to be entirely elementary in char- 

It will be observed that in this list not a single native writer 
is named. So far as I have ascertained, though many learned 
to write their native tongue, not one attempted any composi- 
tion in it beyond the needs of daily life. 

To make some amends for thb, and as I wished to obtain 
an example of the Lenape of to-day, I asked Chief Gottlieb 
Tobias, an educated native on the Moravian Reservation in 

> Report mpm tki ItuKmn THitSp by Whipple, Ewbank and Tamer, 
p. 56 (Watbingtoii, 1855). 


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Canada, to give me in writing his opinion of the Delaware 
text of the Walum Olum, which I had sent him. This he 
obligingly did, and added a translation of his letter. The 
two are as follows, without alteration : — 

MORAVIANTOWN, Sept. 26, 1 884. 

I, Gottlieb Tobias, 

Nanne ni ngutschi nachguttemin, jun awen eet ma elekhigetup. 
Weak alende nenostamen weak alende taku eli wtallichsin ele- 
wondasik wiwonalatokowo pachsi wonamii lichsu weak pachsi pilli 
lichsoagan. Taku ni nenostamowin. Lamoe nemochomsinga 
achpami eet newinachke weak chash tichi kachtin nbibindameneb 
nin lichsoagan. Mauchso lenno woak mauchso chauchshissis weak 
juque mauchso chauchshissis achpo pomauchsu igabtshi lue wi- 
wonallatokowo won bambil alachshe. Woak lue lamoe ni enda. 
Mimensiane ntelsitam alowi ayachichson won elhagewit woak 
ehdop ne likhiqui. Gichgi wonami lichso shuk tatcamse woak 
gichgi minsiwi lichso. 


Then I will try to answer this (which) some one at some time 
wrote. And some I understand, and some not, because his language 
is called Wonalatoko, half Unami and half another language. I 
do not understand it Long ago my grandfather about 48 years 
ago I heard it that language. One man and one old woman and 
now another old woman here lives yet who uses this Wonalatoko 
language just Hke this book and she said, I of old time when I was 
a child heard more difficult dialect than the present, and many at 
that time pardy Unami he speak, but sometimes also partly 
Minsi he speak. 

The drift of Chief Tobias' letter is highly important to 
this present work, though his expressions are not couched in 

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the most perfect English. It will be noted that he recognizes 
the text of the Walum Olum to be a native production com- 
posed in one of the ancient southern dialects of the tongue, 
the Unami (Wonami) or the Unalachtgo (Wonalatoko). I 
shall recur to this when discussing the authenticity of that 
document on a later page. 

§ a. General Remarks on the Lene^e. 

The Lenape language is a well-defined and quite pure 
member of the great Algonkin stock, revealing markedly the 
linguistic traits of this group, and standing philologically, as 
well as geographically, between the Micmac of the extreme 
east and the Chipeway of the far West. 

These linguistic traits, common to the whole stock, I may 
briefly enumerate as follows:— 

I. All words are derived from simple, monosyllabic roots, 
by means of affixes and suffixes. 

3. The words do not come within the grammatical cate* 
gories of the Aryan language, as nouns, adjectives, verbs and 
other "parts of speech," but are '^bdifferent themes," which 
may be used at will as one or the other. To this there 
appear to be a few exceptions. 

3. Expressions of being (1. ^., nominal themes) undergo 
modifications depending on the ontological conception as 
to whether the thing spoken of is a living or a lifeless 
object. This forms the ''animate and inanimate/' or the 
''noble and ignoble" declensions and conjugations. The 
distinction is not strictly logical, but largely grammatical, 
many lifeless objects being considered living, and the 
reverse. This is the only modification of the kind known, 

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true grammatical gender not appearing in any of these 

4. Expressions of action (/. e,p verbal themes) undergo 
modifications depending on the abstract assumption as to 
whether the action is real or conjectural. If the latter, it is 
indicated by a change in the vowel of the root. This leads 
to a fundamental division of verbal modes into positive and 
suppositive modes. 

5. The expression of action is subordinate to that of being, 
so that the verbal elements of a proposition are secondary to . 
the nominal or pronominal elements, and the subjective rela- 
tion becomes closely akin to, or identical with, that of pos- 

6. The conception of number is feebly developed in its 
application \o inanimate objects, which often have no gram- 
matical plurals. The inclusive and exclusive plurals are used 
in the first person. 

7. The genius of the language is holophrastie — that is, its 
effort is to express the relationship of several ideas by com- 
bining them in one word. This is displayed : i, in nominal 
themes, by poiysynihms^ by which several such themes are 

1 I am aware that in this propositioii I am following the German and 
French linguists, Steinthal, F. Mflller, Adam, Henry, etc., and not our 
own distinguished authority on Algonkin grammar, Dr. J. Hammond 
Trumbull, who, in his essay •'On the Algonkin Verb," has learnedly 
maintained another opinion ( Transactiom of the American PkUoUgical 
AssodaHoHt 1876, p. 146). I have not been able, however, to convince 
myself that his position is correct The formative elements of the Algon* 
kin paradigms appear to me simply attached particles, and not true 
inflections. Their real character is obscured by phonetic laws, jost at 
in the Finnish when compared with the Hungarian. 

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welded into one^ according to fixed laws or elision and 
euphony; and a, by incorporation^ where the object (or a 
pronoun representing it) and the subject are united with the 
verb, forming the soK:alled ''transitions/' or ''objective 

8. There is no relative pronoun, so that the relation of 
minor to major clauses is left to be indicated either by posi- 
tion or the offices of a simple connective. 

9. The language of both sexea is identical, those differ- 
ences of speech between the males and females, so frequently 
observed in other American tongues, finding no place in the 

10. No independent verb-substantive is found, and, as 
might be anticipated, no means of predicating existence 
apart from quality and attribute. 

S 3. Dialects of the Lenape. 

Two slightly different dialects prevailed among the Dela- 
wares themselves, the one spoken by the Unami and Una- 
lachtgo, the other by the Minsi. The former is stated by the 
Moravian missionaries to have had an uncommonly soft and 
pleasant sound to the ear,^ and William Penn made the same 
remark. It was also considered to be the purer and more 
elegant dialect, and was preferred by the missionaries as the 
vehicle for their translations. 

The Minsi was harsher and more difficult to learn, but 

> *<Uiigeme»a wohlklingend." Lo^iel, GtukUhU der Misstpm, p. 14. 
An early tniTeler of English nationalStj pronounced it ** tweet, of nol>le 
•ovnd and accent" Gabriel Tboaai, IKst. and Gnf, ActmaU 0/ Fern* 
Mihfonia and IVat Nmjtm^f^ p. 47 (London, 169S). 

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would seem to have been the more archaic branch, as it U 
stated to be a key to the other, and to preserve many words 
in their integrity and original form, which in the Unami were 
abbreviated or altogether dropped. The Minsi dialect was 
closely akin to the Mohegan. 

How far the separation of the Delaware dialects had ex- 
tended may be judged from the subjoined list of words. They 
are selected, as showing the greatest variation, from a list of 
over one hundred, prepared by Mr. Heckewelder for the 
American Philosophical Society, and preserved in MS. in its 

The comparison proves that the differences are far froic 
extensive, and chiefly result from a greater use of gutturals. 


































The Sea 















No, not 



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What differences there were have been retained and perhaps 
accentuated in modem times, if we may judge from the names 
of consanguinity obtained bjr Mr. Lewis H. Morgan on the 
Kansas Reservation in i86o. These are given in part in the 
annexed table, and the Mohegan is added for the sake of ex- 
tending the comparison. 




My grandfatier 

na moh6mii 



My grandmother 




My father 




My mother 




My ion 




My daughter 


nain dlnest^ 


My grandchild 

noh whete^ 



My elder brother 


nain n^nt 


My elder sitter 




My younger brother 


nain hisesamna^ 


A noteworthy difference in the Northern and Southern 
Lenape dialects was that the latter possessed the three pho« 
netic elements n, / and r, while the former could not pro- 
nounce the r, and their neighbors, the Mohegans, neither the 
/ nor the r. 

The dialect studied by Campanius and Penn, and that 
in southern New Jersey presented the r sound where the 
Upper Vnami and Minsi had the /. Thus Campanius gives 
rhenus^ for ieHno, man ; and Penn oret^ for the Unami wmiiit 

The dialectic substitution of one of these elements for 
another is a widespread characteristic of Algonkin phonology. 

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Roger Williams early called attention to it among the tribes 
of New England.^ 

Tracing it to its origin, it clearly arises from the use of 
''alternating consonants/' so extensive in American Ian- 
guages. In very many of them it is optional with the speaker 
to employ any one of several sounds of the same class. This 
is the case with these letters in Cree, which, for various 
reasons, may be considered the most ychaic of all the Algon* 
kin dialects. In its phonetics, the M, ^, /, n and r are ''per- 
muting" or "alternating" letters.' 

Often, too, the sound falls between these letters, so that 
the foreign ear is left in doubt which to write. 

That thb is the case with the Delaware is evident from 
some of the more recent vocabularies where the r is not 
infrequent. The following words, from the vocabulary in 
Major Denny's Mettunr^ illustrate this : — 

Stone stegriana 

Buffalo sereUa 

Beaver thomagru 

Above hoqrunog^ etc. 

Even Mr. Lewis A. Morgan, who had considerable practice 

in writing the sounds of the Indian languages, inserts the r 

in a number of pure Delaware words he collected in Kansas.' 

Another difficulty presents itself in the sibilants. They 

are not always distinguished. 

> Key imt9 iki Lmnpu^i of Ntrtk Amtriem^ p. 129. See, alto, Mr. 
Piekeriag^t rtmarki on the aftine subject, in hit Appendix to Raslei^ 
DktUnmiy $/ iki Ahnaki. 

* Howte, Grammar 0/ thi Cm Lsmpui^t P* Ji^ 

* Set hk Aiuieni Seciity, pp. 17S-73. 

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Mr. Horatio Hale writes me on this point : ** In Minsi, 
and perhaps in all the Lenape dialects* the sound written s h 
intermediate between s and M (tie Greek e). Thb element 
is pronounced by placing the tongue and teeth in the position 
of the theu, and then endeavoriig to utter j." 

The guttural, represented in thft Moravian vocabularies by 
ch, was softened by the Englbh likewise to the s sound, as 
it appears also to have been by the New Jersey tribes.' 

In connection with dialectic variation, the interesting que5* 
tion arises as to the rapidity of change in language. With 
regard to the Lenape we are enabled to compare this for a 
period covering more than two centuries. To test it, I have 
arranged the subjoined table of words culled from three writers 
at about equidistant points in this period. Each wrote in the 
orthography of his own tongue, and this I have not altered. 
The words from Campanius are from the southern dialect, 
which preferred the r to the /, and this substitution should be 
allowed for in a fair comparison* 

^ The native name of WillUm Penn oflen to initance of this pliooctic 
alteration. It it given m Omof, The proper form ii IVpnack, It literally 
means the tip or extremity of anything; ai wmuh-sitait^ the tips of the 
toes; wotuuk'guiimckmlif the tips of the fingers. The inanimate phiral 
form iptfi^ivM/^ means the tail feathers of a bird. To explain the name 
Pmm to the Indians a feather was ihown them, probably a qnill pen, and 
hence they gave the translation Wmack^ cormpted into Onas. 

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Swedish Orthograiihy. 

German Orthogrmphy. 











nooch (my) 
















w'hittawak (pi.) 













ouitun . 


















chiUo, kitte 

ktce (thy) 



wick<»inen * 





























Campafdm, Thomas, 







I Ciutte 




3 Nissa 




3 Naha 




4 Nsevvo 




5 Pareenach Pclcnach 



6 Ciuttas 




7 Nissas 




8 Haas 




9 Paeschum Peshonk 



10 Thaeren Telen 



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I have no doubt that if a Swede, a German and an English- 
man were to-day to take down these words from the mouth 
of a Delaware Indian, each writing them in the orthography 
of his own tongue, the variations would be as numerous as 
in the above list, except, perhaps, the ancient and now dis- 
used r sound. The comparison goes to show that there has 
probably been but a very slight change in the Delaware, in 
spite of the many migrations and disturbances they have 
undergone. They speak the language of their forefathers as 
closely as do the English, although no written documents 
have aided them in keeping it alive. This b but another 
proof added to an already long list, showing that the belief 
that American languages undergo rapid changes is an error. 

The dialect which the Moravian missionaries learned, and 
in which they composed their works, was that of the Lehigh 
Valley. That it was not an impure Minsi mixed with Mo- 
began, as Dr. Trumbull seems to think,' is evident from the 
direct statements of the missionaries themselves, as well as 
from Heckewelder's Minsi vocabularies, which show many 
points of divergence from the printed books. Moreover, 
among the first converts from the Delaware nation were 
members of the Unami or Turtle tribe, and 2>isberger was 
brought into immediate contact with them.* We may (airly 
consider it to have been the upper or inland Unami, whichi 
as I have said, was recognized by the nation as the purest^ 
or at least the most polished dialect of their tongue. It 
stood midway between the Unalacbtgo and Southern Unami 
and the true Minsi. 

^ TKmw. Am. Pkii^l, As90€.t 1873, p. 157. 
s De Schweiiuts, Lift of Ziitbtrger^ p. 131. 

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§ 4. Special Structure of the Lenape. 

The Soot and the Formation of the Theme. — ^As they appear 
in the language of to-day, the Lenape radicals are chiefly 
monosyllables, which undergo more or less modifications 
in composition. They cannot be used alone, the tongue 
having long since passed from that interjectional condition 
where each of these roots conveyed a whole sentence in 

Whether they can- be resolved back into a few elementary 
sounds, primitive elements of speech, I shall not discuss. 
This has been done for the Cree roots by Mr. Joseph Howse,^ 
and most of the radicals of that tongue are identical with 
those of the Lenape. Some of his conclusions appear to me 
hazardous and hypothetical ; and certainly many of his 8up« 
posed analogies drawn from European tongues are extrava- 

As in other idioms, so in Lenape, two or more radicals 
may be compounded to form a combination, which, in 
turn, performs the offices of a radical in the construction of 

This combination is formed either by prefixes or suffixes. 
The prefixes are generally adjectival in signification, while 
the suffixes are usually classificatory. A number of these are 
secondary roots, which are themselves capable of further 

As so much of the strength of the languages depends on 
this plan of word building, I have drawn off a list of a few 

^ A Grmmmar of the Cm LMnguagt^ with wkuk is comkined an 
Anmlytis of the Chippeway Dialect^ by Joseph Howse, Eiq. (London, 
««44). • . 

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/ . 


of the more frequent affixes o{ the Lenape, with their signifi- 
cation : — 

Lmapt Pmjix4$. 

awoss', beyond* the other side o£, 
g/uwi', most, a superlative form. 
gisch', see page los. 
kit-t great, large. 
lappi^, again, indicates repetition, 
Unntht male, man, 

lippoi; wise, shrewd ; as iippontmne^ a shrewd man. 
mack', evil, bad, hurt. 

matt', negative and depreciatory ; as maUaptonen, to speak un- 
If/-, see page loi. 
ochqut't she, female. 

piuh', division, separation ; packican, a knife ; packat, to ^L 
pai', negative, as dis- or in-, from paiUt otherwheres. 
tack', pairs or doubles. 
tsckitsch', indicates repetition, 
w//-, with or in common. 
wul', or W€l', see page 104. 

Many of these are abbreviated to the extent that a single 
significant letter i^ all tliat remains, as min in msim^ hickory 
nut ; pakihm^ cranberry ; and so acki to k^ hanm to atiy as 
kitamnk (Kittanning), from gitschi^ great; kamne^ flowing 
river; ink, locative, ''at the place of the great river/* 

Lenape Suffixes. 
*akt wood, from tackan; kuwemckak, pine wood. 
•aki, place, land. 

HiMM/w, acceptance, adoption; wuUstmmtHf I accept it as 
good, I believe it See page 104. 

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-apt, male, man. From a root ap^ to cover (camall]r). In 

Chipeway applied only to lower animals. 
•^ton^ or hatton, to have, to put somewhere. The radical is at 

Also a prefix, as, hattape^ the bow ; lit., what the man has. 
-^, tree ; machtschibU papaw tree. 
-ckum, a quadruped. 
'^lendam, a verbal termination, signifying a disposition of mind« 

The root is /«, «/, «/, I ; " it is to me so." 
•^gook^ a snake ; from achgook, a serpent. 
'Aanna, properly hannek, a river ; from the root, which appears 

in Cree as anask, to stretch out along the ground ; nuch- 

hannik, a large stream. 

Heckewelder <leriv<s thit from mmhmmm^t a rhrer. Tbe terminal k te, how* 
• ever, part of the root, and not the locative termination. The w^rd b allied to 
Dd. fmtntk, long. 

'kikan, tidal water ; kittakikan^ the ocean ; thajakikoH^ the sea 

•hilleu, it is so, it is true ; impersonal form from Imin, 

•kUtuckt river, water in modon. 

•igoH, instrumental ; also shican and can, A participial termi- 
nation used with inanimate objects. 

^in or ini, of the kind ; like ; predicative form of the demon- 
strative pronoun. . 

'i$ik or unk, place where. 

•is or -//, diminutive termination. 

•Uh^ it is so, it is true. 

•meek^ a fish ; masckilamek, a trout • 

"fnin, a fruit 

•Petk^ a body of still water ; menuppek, a lake. 

•sacunk, an outlet of a stream into another ; also saquik. 

•sipu, stream ; lit, stretched, extended. 

•tu$, with, or in common. 

'Mt diminutive termination ; atfunfU, a babe. 

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'Wagan, abstract verbal termination ; mttchelemuxawagan^ the 

being honored. 
'Weheiieu, a bird. # 

'•wi, the verb-substantive termination, predicating being; tekik. 

cold ; tchikwi, he or it is cold, 
•seff , negative termination in certain verbal forms. 
•jTf/, indicates the passive recipient of the action ; wutckeUmuxii^ 

the one who is honored. 

The analysis of a series of derivatives from the same root 
offers a most instructive subject for investigation in the Lenape. 
Not only does it reveal the linguistic processes adapted, bat 
it discloses the ps}xhology of the native mind, and teaches 
us the associations of its ideas, and the range of its imagina* 
tive powers. By no other avenue can we gain access to the 
intimate thought-life of this people. Here it is unfolded to 
us by evidence which u irrefragable. 

These considerations lead me to present a few examples of 
t&e derivatives from roots of different classes. 


Subjective Root ni» /, mine. 
I. In a good sense. 

NikilUu, it is I, or, mine. 

NihillatschU self, oneKlf. 

Nihillapewi, free {ape, man«B I am my own man). 

Nihillapewii, a freeman. 

Nikillasowagan, freedom, liberty. 

Nihiilapeuken, to make free, to redeem. 

NihiUapeuhoaUd, the Redeemer, the Saviour. 
3. In a bad sense. 

IWkiUan, he is mine to beat, I beat hhn. 

A^EiiT/^, I beat him to death, I kOl him. 

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Nihiilowen, I put him to death, I murder htm. 
Nihiiiowet, a murderer. 
Nihillow€wi, murderous. 

3. In a demonstrative sense. 

Ne, pi. Hik^ or nell, this, that, the. 

Nall^ nan, nann^, nanni, this one, that one. 

Ni//, these. 

Naninga, those gone, with reference to the dead. 

4. In a possessive sense. 

Nitaton, in-my-having, I can, I am able, I know how. 
Nitaus, of-my-family, sister-in-law. 
Nitis, of-mine, a friend, a companion. 
Nitsch / my child ! exclamation of fondness. 

The strangely conflicting ideas evolved from this root 
already attracted the attention of Mr. Duponceau.^ That 
the notions for freedom and servitude, murderer and Saviour, 
should be expressed by modifications of the same radical b 
indeed striking ! But the psychological process through which 
it came about is evident on studying the above arrangement. 

OkjicHvi'inUnsive root oiscH or rich ( Cru, Kis or kir). 
Signification — successful action. 
I* Affiled to persons. 

A. Initial successful action. 

Gisckigin, to begin life, to be born. 
Gischihan, to form, to make with the hands. 
GischUon, to make ready, to prepare. 
Gischeleman, to create with the mind, to fancy. 
Gisckclcndam, to meditate a plan, to lie. 

B. Continuous successful action. 

GiuAikenam^, to increase, to produce fruit. 

> In a Bote to Zeisbcfger's Grmmmar of iki Detawan^ p. 141. 

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Ciktn, to grow better in health. 
Gikiowagan, life, health. 
Gikey. long-living, old, aged. 
C Final successitil action. ^ 

CischatUn, finished, ready, done, cooked. 
Cisckiton, to make ready, to finish. 
Gischpuen, to have eaten enough. 
Gischiliu, it has proved true. 
Gischatschimolsm, to have resolved, to have decreed. 
Gisckachpoanhit baked, cooked (the bread is). 
3. Applied to things. 

A. Initial successful action. 

Giukuck, sun, moon, day, month. The idea appears 
to be the beginning of a period of time, with the col- 
lateral notion of prosperous activity. The corre ctn e ss 
of the derivation is shown by the next word. 

Giukapatt, day-break, beginning day-light From 
wapan^ the east, or light 

GisckMckwip€Ul, the rays of the sun. 

Gisckcu, or Gisckquik, day. 

B. Continuous successful action. 

GisckUn^ clear, light, shining. 
Gisckacksummen^ to shine, to enlighten. 
GisckuUn, wann« tepid. 

Numerous other derivatives could be added, but the above 
are sufficient to show the direction of thoughts flowing from 
this root. Howse considen it identical with the root kiUkf 
great, large.* This would greatly increase iu derivatives. 
They certainly appear allied. In Cree, Lacombe gives kUfki^ 

> A Grammmrrf the Crtt Lmnpuigit p. 175. 

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great, and kijt^ finishedi perfect, both being terms applied to 


G^turmi Algonkin root 8 •{ n w. Abnaki, 8Rt ; Micmae^ 8e^u, 

Chipprway, gwan-; DeL, two forms, WUL and WIN. // 
cotw^ys the idea of pieasnrabli Sinsation. 
A« First form, wul, 

Wulit, well, good, handsome, iiiie. 

Wuiiikiiieu, it is good, etc, 

Wuliken, it grows well. 

Wuiamoe, he truth-speaks. 

Wulamoewagant truth. 

Wuiistamen, to believe, to accept as truth. 

Wuiefunsin, to be fine in appearance, to dress. 

IVu/eftensefi, to be fine to oneself, to be proud. 
B. Second form, won or wtn, 

Winu, ripe, good to eat. 

Wbnita, he is ripe for it, he can, he is able. 

Wingan, sweet, savory. 

Winktik, done, boiled, fit to eat 

Winak, sassafras. From its sweet leaves. 

^^^gi* gladly, willingly. 

Winginamen, to delight in. 

The figure 8 in the above represents the '' whistled ttr/' 
like the wk in '* which/' when strongly pronounced. 

From thb rooti as I have already said, is derived also the 
word Walam, red paint, from the sense '* to be fine in appear- 
ance, to dress," as the Indian accomplished that object by 
painting himself. 

^ Dieticnnmn de la Langui des CHi, nib voce. 

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Grammatical Sinuture ^ the Lenape. 

It would not be worth while for me to enter into the in- 
tricacies of Lenape grammar, particularly as I can add little 
to what is already known. 

The Delaware Grammar of Zeisberger remains our only 
authority, and in spite of its manifest shortcomings and state 
of incompletion, the unprejudiced student must acknowledge, 
with Albert Gallatin,^ that it is '* most honestly done," and 
showed the Delaware as it actually was spoken, though perhaps 
not as scientific linguists think it ought to have been spoken. 

A few general observations will be sufficient. 

As in other languages of the clasSn the theme is indifferently 
nominal, verbal or aldjectival ; that it, it performs the functions 
of either of these grammatical categories, according to its 

Nominal themes are either animate or inanimate. The 
characteristic of all animate plurds is k {ak^ ik^ ek). Inani- 
mate plurals are in a/, W€Ul or a. As usual, the distinction 
between animate and inanimate nouas is partly logical, partly 
grammatical, various objects being conceived as animate which 
are in fact not so. 

The possessive relation is generally indicated by placement 

1 In Tram, Amer, Antiq, Society, Vol. II, p. atj. Zeisber|;er't lUte* 
ments were criticised \rf Joseph Howse, Grammar tftkt Crtt Lat^gua^^ 
PP* I09> 310, 313. His strictures and those <^ the AbbA Cnoq, in his 
Etudet PkiMogifua sur Qiielqma Langua Sammga^ Chap. I, were col- 
lected and extended by Dr. J. Hammond TrambnU, in his peper on 
«« Some Mistaken Notions of Algonquin Grammar,** 7>mm. 0/ tJU Amiri- 
cam PJki/oleifuai Asspfiatimf t$'j4. There is a netdlcsi decree of screri^ 
in both these last named piodnctions. 

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alone, the possessor preceding the thing possessed, as lenno 
quisall^ the man's son ; but one could also say lenno w'quisaii, 
the man his son. 

Adjectives precede nouns, and when used attributively 
assume a verbal form by adding the termination tuif which 
indicates objective existence (like the Chip. -win). Thus, 
scatiek^ burning ; scatttioi vfdehin^ a burning heart — literally, 
it-is-a-burning-thing his-heart. 

The degrees of comparison are formed by prefixing allo^ 
wiwif more, and eluwi^ most. Both of these are from the 
same radical o/J, which may perhaps come from the admiral 
tionis particular aM (Abnaki, ara*) found in the northern, 
dialects as expressive of astonishment.^ 

There being no relative pronoun in Delaware, dependent 
clauses are either included in the verbal of the major clause, 
or include it as a secondary. 

The scheme of the simple sentence is usually subject-vcrb- 
object; but emphasis allows departures from this, as in the 
following sentence from Bishop Ettwcin's MSS. : — 
Jesus wemi amemensall wUaholawak. 
Jesus all children he-loved-them. 

Of the formal affixes, the inseparable pronouns are the 
most prominent. They are the same for nouns and verbs, 
and are — 

ist. #f, I, my, we, our. 

ad. *, thou, thy, you, your. 

3d. w or ^, he, she, it, his, their. 

> Raslet, DutUnmry §f iki Ahnmki^ p. 55a Dr. Tmmbiill comptres 
the Milt, anuit more thui. TVam. AmerUan PkUclogUal Ass0€imiimf 
187a, p. 168. 

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Past time is indicated by the terminal /, with a connective 
vowel, and future time by tsch^ which may be either a prefix 
or suffix, as — 

tPdclUin^ I am thus. 

N^ dellsineepf I was thus. • 




I shall be thus. 

Nantsck ridellsin^ 

The change or " flattening" of the vowel of the root in 
suppositive propositions, was recognized as a fact of speech, 
but not grammatically analyzed by Zeisberger. 

Its effect on verbal forms may be seen from the following 
examples from his Grammar:'^ 

Examples of Vowel Change in Lenape. 

N'dappin, I am there. Achpiya, if I am there* 

Epia, where I am. 
Ussiye, if I am so. 
Gewit he who sleeps. 
Pemauchsit, living. 
Eyaya, when I go. 
Eyat, going. 

Another omission in his Grammar is that of the ** obvia- 
tive" and ^'super-obviative" forms of nouns. These are 
used in the Algonkin dialects to define the relations of third 
persons. They prevent such obscurity as appears in the 
following English smtence: *' John's brother called at Rob- 
ert's, to see his wife.'' Whose wife b referred to is left 
ambiguous; but in Algonkin these third persons would have 
different forms, and there would be no room for ambiguity. 
In his writings in Lenapr;, Zeisberger makes use of obviatives, 

N'dellsin, I am so. 
ITgauwi, I sleep. 
N'pommaucksi, I walk or live. 
ITda, I go. 

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with the terminations al and /, but does not treat of them in 
his Grammar. 

As a question in philosophical grammar, it may be doubted 
whether the Lenape has any true passive voice. Cardinal 
Mezzofanti was accustomed to deny the presence of any real 
passives in American languages; and he had studied the 
Delaware among others. 

The sign of the Delaware passive is the suffix gussu or eusso. 
In the Cree dialect, which, as I have already said, preserves 
the ancient forms most closely, this is k-ussu, and is a particle 
expressing likeness or similarity in animate objects.^ Hence, 
probably, the original sense of the Lenape word translated, 
''I am loved," is <'Iam like the object of the action of 

^ J. Howie, Grammar of tki Cm LMMgudgif p. ill. 

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Historical Sicitchis of the Lbnapb. 

{ t. The Ltiuip* m " WoMta.** 

|s. Recent Mifrmdom of tiM Loiapt. 

i 3. Mitiloaery Eibrtt is tke ProviBCei of PonnylTMio tad New JeiMf. 

like Lenafie at ^^IVomen.'' 

A unique peculiarity of the political condition of the 
Lenape was that for a certain time they occupied a recog- 
nized position as non-combatants— as ^^ women/' as they 
were called by the Iroquois. 

Indian customs and phraseology attached a two-fold sig* 
nificance to this teim. 

The more honorable was that of peace-makers. Among 
the Five Nations aid SusquehannockSi certain grave matrons 
of the tribe had the right to sit in the councibi and, among 
other privileges, had that of proposing a cessation of hostili- 
ties in time of war. A proposition from them to drop the 
war club could be entertained without compromising the 
reputation of the tribe for bravery. There was an official 
orator and messenger, whose appointed duty it was to convey 
such a pacific message from the matrons, and to negotiate 
for peace.* 

Another and less honorable sense of the term arose from a 
custom prevalent throughout America, and known also among 
the ancient Scythians. Its precise purpose remains obscure, 

> H. R. Schoolcraft, N${it m tki Lrofm^U^ pp. 135-36. 

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although it has been made the subject of a careful study by 
one of our most eminent surgeons, who had facilities of 
observation among the Western tribes.* Certain young men 
of the tribe, apparently vigorous and of normal development, 
were deprived of the accoutreipents of the male sex, clothed 
like women, and assigned women's work to do. They neither 
went out to hunt nor on the war-path, and were treated as 
inferiors by their male associates. Whether this degradation 
arose from superstitious rites or sodomitic practices, it cer- 
tainly carried to its victims the contempt of both sexes. 

In their account of the transaction the Delawares claimed 
that they were appointed as peace-makers in an honorable 
manner, although the Iroquois deceived them as to their 

The Lenape account is as follows :— 

''The Iroquois sent messengers to the Delawares with the 
following speech : — 

'' ' It is not well that all nations should war; for that will 
finally bring about the destruction of the Indians. We have 
thought of a means to prevent this before it is too late. Let 
one nation be The Woman. We will place her in the middle, 
and the war nations shall be the Men and dwell around the 
Woman. No one shall harm the Woman ; and if one does, 
we shall speak to him and say, 'Why strikest thou the 
Woman?' Then all the Men shall attack him who has 

> Tkt Diseasi 0/ ike Scythians (Morbus Feminarum) and Certaim 
Anahgpfu Conditions, By William A. Hammond, M. D. (New York, 1882). 
Dr. Hammond found that the hombn mujtrado of the Paeblo Indians *' it 
the chief passive agent in the pederastic ceremonies which. form to im- 
portant a part in their religious performances,*' p. 9. 

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Struck the Woman. The Woman shall not go to war, but 
shall do her best to keep the peace. When the Men around 
her fight one another, and the strife waxes hot, the Woman 
shall have power to say : ' Ye Men 1 what do ye that ye thus 
strike one another ? Remember that your wives and children 
must perish, if ye do not cease. Will ye perish from the £ice 
of the earth ? ' Then the Men shall listen to the Woman and 
obey her.' 

** The Delawares did not at once perceive the aim of the 
Iroquois, and were pleased to take this position of the Woman. 

''Then the Iroquois made a great feast, and invited the 
Delawares, and spoke to their envo]rs an address in three 

'' First, they declared the Delaware nation to be the Woman 
in these words : — 

'' * We place upon you the long gown of a woman, and 
adorn you with earrings.' 

'' This was as much as to say that thenceforward they were 
not to bear arms. 

" The second sentence was in these words : — 

** * We hang on your arm a calabash of oil and medicine. 
With the oil you shall cleanse the ears of other nati6ns that 
they listen to good and not to evil. The medicine you shall 
use for those nations who have been foolish, that tK^y may 
return to their senses, and turn their hearts to peace.' 

"The third sentence intimated that the Delawares should 
make agriculture their chief occupation. It was : — 

'' ' We give herewith into your hands a com pestle and a 
' '' Each sentence was accompanied with a belt of wampum. 

I » 

i ; 

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These belts have ever since been carefully preserved and their 
meanings from time to time recalled." ^ 

Opinions of historians about this tradition have been vari- 
ous. It has generally been considered a fabrication of the 
Delawares, to explain their subjection in a manner consoling 
to their national vanity. Gen. Harrison dismisses it as 
impossible;' Albert Gallatin says, 'Mt is too incredible to 
require serious discussion;* Mr. Hale characterizes it as 
"preposterous;"^ and Bishop de Schweinitz as ''fabulous 
and absurd."* 

On the other hand, it is vouched for by Zeisberger, who 
furnished the account to Loskiel, and who would not have 
said that the wampum belts with their meaning were still pre- 
served unless he knew it to be a fact. It is repeated em- 
phatically by Heckewelder, who adds that his informants 
were not only Delawares but Mohegans as well, who could not 
have shared the motive suggested above.* 

There can be no question but that the neutral position of 
the Delawares was something different from that of a con- 
quered nation, and that it meant a great deal more. They 
undoubtedly were the acknowledged peace-makers over a 
wide area, and this in consequence of some formal ancient 

1 Loskiely GackUkte dir Mission^ etc*, t. 161-2. 

* Wm. Henry Harriioii, A DUcourst on Ihi Aboriginet tfiki ValUy tf 
eki Okh, pp. a4t 35 (Cincinnati, 1838). 

* Gallatin» 7>am. Amir. Antiq. Soc,, Vol. II, p. 46. 

* Horatio Hale, Tke Iroquois Bock of Rites, p. 93. 

Edmund de Schweinits, Lift and Ti/rns of David Ziisbergtr, p. 46. 

Heckewelder, Indian NoHons, pp. xxxii and 6o. 


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« i 

treaty, lliis is distinctly stated by the Stockbridge Indian^ 
Hendrick Aupaumut, in his curious Narrative : — ^ 

''The DelawarcSi who we calld Wenautneen^ are our Grand- 
fathers, according to the ancieat covenant of their and our 
ancestors, to which we adhere without any deviation in these 
near 200 years, to which nation the 5 nations and British have 
commit the whole business. For this nation has the greatest 
influence with the southern, western and northern nations." i > 

Hence Aupaumut undertook his embassy directly to them, 
so as to secure their influence for peace in 1791. 

To the (ax:i that they exerted this influence during the 
Revolutionary War, may very plausibly be attributed the sue- . 
cess of the Federal cause in the daik days of 1777 and 1778 ; 
for, as David Zeisberger wrote : ** If the Delawares had taken > 

part against the Americans in the present war, America would 
have had terrible experiences; for the neutrality of the Dela- i 

wares kept all the many nations that are their grandchildren 
neutral also, except the Shawanese, who are no longer in 
close union with their grandfathers.'" 

> NarraHvi of Hendrick Aupaumui^ Mem, Hut. Soc. Pa,, Vol. II, 
pp. 76-77. Wenaumeen f(»r Unami, the Mohegan fenn <^ the name. 
This teems to limit the peace-making power to that gens. He may mean, 
" Those of the Delawares who are called the Unamis are our Grand* 
fathers,*' etc. I 

The Chipeways, OtUwas, Shawnees, Pottawattomies, Sacs, Foxes and 
Kikapoos, all called the Delawares «« Grandfather." J. Morse, Report 
on Indian Affairs^ pp. laa, tij, 148. The term was not intended in a 
genealogical, hot solely in a political, sense. Its origin and precise mean- 
ing are alike obscure. 

• Hutory of tko Indians, MS., quoted by Bbhop SchweiniCs, Lift of 
Zeisborgtr, p. 444, note. 

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When at the close of the French War, in 1758, the treaty 
of Easton put a stop to the bloody feuds of the border, *' the 
peace-belt was sent to our brethren, the Delawares, that they 
might send it to all the nations living toward the setting 
sun,"' and they carried it as the recognized pacific envoys. 

The Iroquois, however, assumed a most arrogant and con- 
temptuous tone toward the Delawares, about the middle of 
the eighteenth century. In 1 756 they sent a belt to them, 
with a most insulting message :' '' You will remember that 
you are our women ; our forefathers made you so, and put a 
petticoat on you, and charged you to be true to us, and lie 
with no other man ; but now you have become a common 
bawd,*' etc. 

Two years later, the Cayuga chief, John Hudson, said, at 
a council at Burlington,' "The Munseys are women, and 
cannot make treaties for themselves." 

These were but repetitions of the famous diatribe of the 
Onondaga chieftain, Canassatego, at a council at Philadel- 
phia, in 1742. Turning to the representatives of the Lenape, 
he broke out upon them with the words : — 

" How came you to take upon you to sell land ? We con- 
quered you. We made women of you. You know you are 
women, and can no more sell land than women. "^ , "^ * 
We charge you to remove instantly. We don't give you the 
liberty to think about it. We assign you two places to go 

> The words are those of George Croghan, Esq., at the treaty of Fitts- 
hnrg, 1759, with the Six Nations and Wyandots. /titt^ry 4/ WttUm 
/VMM., App. p. 135. 

s Rt€9rdi §f th* Cowuilai Easton^ 1756, in Lib. Amer. Philoe. Soc. 

• Smith, Hiii^ry 0/ Newjertey^ p. 451 (2d ed.) 

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tO| either Wyoming or. Shamokin. Don't deliberate, but 
remove away ; and take this belt of wampum." 

And as he handed the belt to the Lenape head chief he 
seized him by his long hair and pushed him out of the door 
of the council room ! 

It was notorious at the time, however, that this was a scene 
arranged between the Governor of the Province, Mr, George 
Thomas, and the Iroquois deputation. The Lenape had been 
grossly cheated out of their lands by the trick of the so-called 
'* Long Walk," in 1735, and they refused to vacate their 
hunting grounds. The Governor sent secret messengers to 
the powerful and dreaded Six Nations to exert their pretended 
rights, and paid them well for it.* 

What could the Lenape do ? They were feeble, and un- 
doubtedly had been brought under the authority of their 
warlike northern neighbors. They found themselves in the 
position of the Persian chieftain Harmosar, as he stood before 
the caliph Omar, and heard the latter revile the patriot cause : 

•• In deinen H&nden iit die Macht, 
Wer einem Sieger widenpricht, der widenpricht mtt Unbedacht** 

— Vph Plaitn-HaUermundi. 

Such were the respective claims of the Lenape and Iroquois. 
Instead of discussing the antecedent probability of one or the 
other being true, I shall endeavor to ascertain from the early 
records the precise facts about this curious transaction. 

> SeetheA^«fTa/nwe/'M/Z«fi!f ffWi,byJohnW«tsoB,fiaheraiid^^ 
in Hatord't ReguUr of Pmm^,, i8jo, reprinted in Beach's Indium Mis* 
iiUat^t pp. 90-^; also the able discnanoa of the question iii Dr. Charles 
Thompson's Inquiry mU tki Causa •ftke AHiuutwn ofiki DtUnoun mud 
SJunnui Indiamt PP 3(>*34 luid 4>-4^ (London, 1759.) 

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It is certain that toward the close of the sixteenth century 
the unending wars between the Delaware confederacy and the 
Iroquois had reduced the latter almost to destruction. The 
Jesuit missionaries tell us thb.^ The turning point in their 
affairs was the settlement of the Dutrh on the Hudson. 
Quick to appreciate the value of firearmsi they bought guns 
and powder at any price, and soon had rendered themselves 
formidable to all their neighbors.' About 1670 they 
attacked successfully that family of the Minsi called the 

This was probably the victory to which the Five Nations 
referred at a treaty at Philadelphia, in 1727, when they stated 
that their conquest of the Delawares was about the time 
William Penn first landed, and that he sent congratulations 
to them on their success — ^an obvious falsehood.* 

They were certainly at that period pressing hard on the 
Susquehannocks and destroying their remnant in the valley 
of that river. Mr. William P. Foulke is quite correct in his 
conclusion that, ** Upon the whole we may conclude tliat the 

> RilatUm desJesuUts^ 1660, p. 6. Some confusion has arisen in this 
matter, from confounding the Susquehannocks with the Iroquois, both of 
whom were called " Mengwe ** by the Delawares, corrupted into *< Min* 
goes." Thus, a writer in the first half of the 17th century says of the 
** Mingoes'* that the river tribes ** are afraid of them, so that they dare not 
itir, much less go to war against them.** Thomas Campanius, DacripiUn 
tf ihi Previtui of New Sweden, p. 158. 

* See Mr. E. M. Ruttenber's able discussion of the subject in hit 
Hitfry ef ikt IndUn THhes 0/ ffitdson^s J^wer, p. 66 (Albany, 1873). 

* Dr. Charles Thompson, Am Inquiry into the Cmmes of the AlienaHon 
of iki Delaware and Shawnee Indians, pp. II, la. (London, 1759.) 

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Lancaster lands fell into the power of the Five Nations at 
some time between 1677 and 1684.'" 

Yet their conquest of the Minsi was not complete. The 
latter had the mind and the will to renew the combat. In 
1691 they appealed to the government of Pennsylvania to aid 
them in an attack on the Senecas, but the Quakers declined 
the foray. The next year the Minsi asked Governor Benjamin 
Fletcher at least to protect them against these Senecas, adding 
that with assistance they were ready to attack them, for 
^* although wee are a small number of Indians, wee are Men, 
and know fighting."' 

Evidently there was neither subjection nor womanhood 
with the Minsi at that date. 

There b also positive evidence that the Five Nations at 
that time regarded the Dekiwares as a combatant nation, and 
worthy of an invitation to join a war. On July 6th, 1694, 
Governor Wm. ?iarkham met in conference the famous chief 
Tamany and others; and the Delaware orator, Hithquoquean^ 
laid down a belt of wampum, and said :— * 

** This belt is sent us by the Onondagas and Senecas, who 
say : * You Delaware Indians do nothing but stay at home 
and boil your pots, and are like women ; while we, Onondagu 
and Senecas, go abroad and fight the enemy.* 

*' The Senecas would have us Delaware Indians to be part- 
nen with them, and fight against the French, but we, having 

1 See hit <« Notes Respectiiig the IndiAai ol L a n cat tcr Coimty, FeuuL,** 
in the ColUitUm 9f th$ IHttmrUml 5W/^ e^ TVimm., VoL IV, Ptet 
p. 19S. 

• MmmUs 4/ iJU Prvvin^isi CmmHi 4/ PumsyhmmiSfVoL I, p. 533. 

•Ibid, Vol. I, p. 410-11. 

I I- 

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alwajfs been a peaceful people, and resolving to live so ; and 
being but weak and verie few in number, cannot assist them, 
and having resolved among ourselves not to go, doe intend 
to send back, this their Belt of Wampum." 

The Lenape, therefore, did not, at that date, occupy any 
degrading position, although they were under the general 
domination of the Iroquois League. 

Both these points arc proved yet more conclusively by the 
proceedings at a conference at White Marsh, May 19th, 171 2, 
between Governor C. Gookin and the Delaware chiefs. 
Gollitchy, orator of the latter, exhibited thirty-two belts of 
wampum, which they were on their way to deliver to the 
Five Nations, adding '' that many years ago they had been 
made tributaries to the Mingoes." He also shewed ''a long 
Indian pipe, with a stone head, a wooden shaft, and feathers 
fixt to it like wings. This pipe, they said, upon making 
their submission to the Five Nations, who had subdued 
them, and obliged them to be their tributaries, those Nations 
had given to these Indians, to be kept by them." All the 
tribute belts, however, were sent by the women and chil- 
dren, as the speaker explained at length, ''as the Indian 
reckons the paying of tribute becomes none but women and 

Fortunately, however, we are able to fix the exact date 
and circumstances of the political transformation of the 
Delawares into women. It is by no means so remote as 
Mr. Heckewelder thought, who located the occurrence at 
Norman's Kill, on the Hudson, between 1609 and 1620;* 

^ AUnuia of the Provincial Coundlt Vol. II, pp, 572-73. 
* Hittoty §f iki Indian NaHom^t p. xzix. 

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and it was long after 1670, which is the date assigned by 
Mr. Ruttenber,* from a study of the New York records. 

It was in the year 1725, and was in consequence of the 
Delawares refusing to join the Iroquois in an attack on the 
English settlements. 

These data come to light in a message of the Shawnee 
chiefs, in 1 732, to Governor Gordon, who had inquired their 
reasons for migrating to the Ohio Valley. 

Their reply was as follows : — 

" About nine years agoe the 5 nations told us att Shallyschoh* 
king, wee Did nott Do well to Setle there, for there was a Greatt 
noise In the Greatt house and thatt in three years time, all Should 
know whatt they had to Say, as far as there was any Sedements 
or the Sun Sett 

" About ye Expiration of 3 years affore S', the $ nations Came 
and Said our Land is goeing to bee taken from us. Come brothers 
assistt us Lett us fall upon and fightt with the English. Wee 
answered them no, wee Came here for peace and have Leave to 
Setle here, and wee are In League with them and Canott break itt. 

" Aboutt a year after they, ye $ nations. Told the Delawares 
and us, Since you have nott hearkened to us, nor Regarded whatt 
we have said, now wee will pettycoatts on you, and Look upon 
you as women for the future, and nott as men. Therefore, you 
Shawanese Look back toward Ohioh, The place from whence you 
Came, and Return thitherward, for now wee Shall Take pitty on 
the English and Lett them have all this Land. 

"And further Said now Since you are Become women. He 
Take Peahohquelloman, and putt itt on Meheahoaming and He 
Take Meheahoaming and putt itt on Ohioh, and Ohioh lie putt 
on Woabach, and thatt shall bee the warriourt Road for the 
future.'* (Ptnna. Ankhis, VoL L) 

1 The Indian THhet 0/ ffudsm's JHver^ p. 69. 

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The circumstances attending the ceremony were probably 
pretty much as Loskiel relates. 

The correctness of this account is borne out by an ex- 
amination of law titles. 

That the river tribes at the time of Penn's treaties (1680- 
1700) could not sell their lands without the permission of the 
Iroquois has never been establbhed. Mr. Gallatin states that 
William Penn ** always purchased the right of possession from 
the Delawares, and that of sovereignty from the Five Nations."* 
This may have been the case in some later treaties of the 
colony, but certainly there is no intimation of it in the cele- 
brated ** First Indian Deed" to Penn, July isth, 1682.* 
Furthermore, in the Release which the Iroquob did give of 
their Pennsylvania lands in 1736, the boundaries are defined 
as '' Westward to the Setting of the Sun, and Eastward to the 
furthest springs of the Waters running into the said River," 
I. €., the Susquehannah ; ' and to do away with any doubt 
that the tract thus defined included all the land in thb part 
to which they had a claim, the Release goes on to recite that 
"our true intent and meaning was and is to release all our 
Right, Claim and Pretensions whatsoever to all and every the 
Lands lying within the Bounds and Limits of the Government 
of Pennsylvania, Beginning Eastward on the River Delaware, 
as far Northward as the s' Ridge or Chai;i of Endless Moun* 
tains." In other words, although the Six Nations advanced 
no claim to land east of the Susquehanna watershed, the 
Proprietors chose to include the Delaware: watershed so as to 

^ Thmt. Am, jtntif. 5<0r., VoU II, p. 46. 

* PitmtyhHmia AnAivit, Vol. I, p. 47. 

* PittrntyiiMmim ArcMvtSt Vol. I, p. 498. 

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avoid any future complication. It seems to me this Release 
does away with any ** right of sovereignty" of the Iroquois 
over the Delaware Valley south of the mountains, and brands 
Canassatego's remarks above quoted as braggart falsehoods. 

As for land east of the Delaware river, Mr. Ruttenber cor- 
rectly observes: **The Iroquois never questioned the sales 
made by the Lenapes or Minsis east of that river. * * The 
findings of Gallatin in this particular are confirmed by all the 
title deeds in New York and New Jersey." * 

It was only to the Susquehannock lands, purchased by Penn 
in 1699, that the confirmation of the Iroquois was required.* 

The close of thb condition of subjection was in 1756. In 
' that year Sir William Johnson foimally ''took off the petti- 
coat " from the Lenape, and *' handed them the war belt."' 
The year subsequent they made the public declaration that 
** they would not acknowledge but the Senecas as their su- 

Even their supremacy was soon rejected. At the Treaty of 
* Fort Pitt, October, 1778, Captain White Eyes, when reminded 
by the Senecas that the petticoats were still on his people, 
scornfully repudiated the imputation, and made good his 
words by leading a war party against them the following 

» 751/ Imdiam Trivet 0/ HudsotCt Rhtr^ p. 69. 

* Set Pinnm. Arckhfti^ Vol. I, p. 144, and Da Pdneeau, Mtmair tm iki 
Treaty ai SAacJkamax^m, CMctUm •/ iki Pemts, Hisi. 5^., VoL III, 
Pkft II, p. 73* 

> New York Cohmimi D^cmmenis^ Vol Vtl, p. 119. 

« Thoropton, Inquiry iftu HU Cam$es eftke AHm^Hm eftki Dekmare 
and Shawnee Indians^ p. 107. 
• I 

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Thie Iroquois, however, released their hold unwillingly, and 
it was not until 1794, shortly before the Treaty of Greenville, 
that their delegates came forward and ** officially declared 
that the Lenape were no longer women, but men,** and the 
famous chief, Joseph Brant, placed in their hands the war 

§ 2. Historic Migrations of the Lenape, 

It does not form part of my plan to detail the later history 
of the Lenape. But some account of their number and mi- 
grations will aid in the examination of the origin and claims 
of the Walum Olum. 

The first estimate of the whole number of native inhabitants 
of the province was by William Penn. He stated that there 
were ten different nations, with a total population of about 
6000 souls.' 

This was in 1683. Very soon after this they, began to 
diminish by disease and migration. As early as 1690, a band 
of the Minsi left for the far West, to unite with the Ottawas.* 
In 1 721 the Frenchman Durant speaks of them as '' exceed- 
ingly decreased."* Already they had yielded to the pressure 
of the whites, and were seeking homes on the head-waters of 
the Ohio, in Western Pennsylvania. Their first cabins are 
said to have been built there in 1734** 

^ Heckewelder, Indian Nations, p. 70; E. de Schweimti, Life of 
Ziitberger, pp. 430, 64I . 

• Janney» Life of Penn, p. 247. 

• Rttttenber, Indians of the Hudson River, p. 177. 

« Durant* t Memorial, in New York Co!oniai Documents, Vol. V, |>. 623. 

• Early History of Western Pennsylvania, p. 31 (Pittibarg, tS46); 
ftnd tee Penna. Archives, Vol. I, pp. 322, 33a 

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( I' 



All that remained in the Delaware valley were ordered by 
the Iroquois, at the treaty of Lancaster, 1744, to leave the 
waters of their river, and remove to Shamokin (now Sunbury) 
and Wyoming, on the Susquehanna, and most of them 
obeyed. The former was their chief town, and the residence 
of their *• king," Allemoebi. 

When the interpreter, Conrad Weiser, visited their Ohio 
settlements, in 1748, he reported their warriors there at 165, 
which was probably about one-fourth of the nation. 

In the ** French War," 1755, the Delawares united with 
the French against the Iroquois and English, and suffered 
considerable losses. At its close they were estimated to 
have, both on the Susquehanna and in Ohio, a total of 600 
available fighting men.^ 

After this date they steadily migrated from the Susqu^ 
hannah to the streams in central and eastern Ohio, es- 
tablishing their chief fire on the Tuscarawas river, at 
Gekelemukpechunk, and hunting on the Muskingum, the 
Licking, etc." 

When the war of the Revolution broke out, Zeisberger 
used all his efforts to have them remain neutral, and at least 
prevented them from joining in a general attack on the settle- 
ments. Their distinguished war-chief, . Koquethagachton, H 
known to the settlers as '^ Captain White Eyes," declared^ h 
in 1775, in '^^^^ ^^ ^^^ Federal cause, and renounced for 



himself and his people all dependence on the Iroquois. 1 

These friendly relations were confirmed at the treaty of 

1 Loikiel, GisckUkii der Mission, p. 54. The tre«t]r of Luicutcr. t 

176a, was the list treaty held with the Indiaas In cattem Ftansj^Tania. 
• Schweiaits, j^# ^ 2;rfil#i|>vr, p. 9a 


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Fort Pitt (1778), mid the next year a number of Delawares 
accompanied Col. Brodhead in an expedition against the 

The massacre of the unoffending Christian natives of 
GnadenhQtten, in 178^ was but one event in the murderous 
war between the races that continued in Ohio from 1782 to 
the treaty of peace at Greenville, in 1795. 

To escape its direful scenes, a part of the Delawares re- 
moved south, to upper Louisiana, in 1 789, where they received 
official permission from Governor Carondelet, in 1793, ^^ 
locate permanent homes. ^ Zeisbergcr also, in 1 791, conducted 
his colony of Christian Indians to Canada, and founded the 
town of Fairfield, on the Retrenche river. Thus, in both 
directions the Delawares were driven off the soil of the 
United States. Yet those that remained in Ohio, if we 
may accept the account of John Brickell, who was a captive 
among them from 1 791 to 1796, attempted to live a peaceable 
and agricultural life.' 

Peace restored, the Delawares made their next remove to 
the valley of White Water river, Indiana, where they attempted 
to rekindle the national council fire, under the head chief 
Tedpachxit. They founded six towns, the largest of which 
was Woapikamikunk or Wapeniinskink^ *' Place of Chestnut 
Trees." This tract was guaranteed them *Mn perpetuity" 

1 New York Coiomiai DocHmmts, Vol. VII, p. 583. 

s On the locations of the Delawares in Ohio, and the boundaries of their 
tract, see Ed. de Schweiniti» Life of Zeisherger^ p. 374, and an ^de by 
the Rer. Stephen D. Peet, entitled ««The Delaware Indians ip Ohio," in 
the Ameriean AnHptarum^ Vol II. 

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T-: . 


by the treaty of Vincennes, 1808.^ Nevertheless, just ten 
yean later, at the treaty of St. Mary's, they released the ' ; 

whole of their land, '^without reserve,'' to the United States, ! 

the government agreeing to remove them west of the Missis- 
sippi, and grant them land there. ^ 

At this time they numbered about 1000 souls, of whom i 

800 were Delawares, the others being Mohegans and Nanti- t 

cokes.' Their head chief was Thahutoowelent, of the Turkey { 

tribe, Tedpachxit having been assassinated, at the instigation 
of Tecumseh. • ; 

They are described as ** having a peculiar aversion to white * 

people," and ''more opposed to the Gospel and the whites 
than any other Indians,'" which is small matter of wonder, 
when they had seen the peaceful Christian converts of their 
nation massacred three times, in cold blood, once at Gnad- ' 
enhQtten, in Pennsylvania (1756); again at Gnadenhatten, | 

in Ohio (1788), and finally at Fairfield, Canada (1813). 

The Rev. Isaac McCoy, who vbited them on the White 
Water, in the winter of 1818-X9, states that they lived in 
log huts and bark shanties, and were fearfully deteriorated 
by whisky drinking.^ 

The last band of the Delawares that appeared in Ohio was 
in 1822.* 

1 The potition of the Delawares in Indiaiia it roochly ihown 00 
Hough's Map of the Tribal Districts of Indiana, in Uie J^e/&ri m tht 
GiP^gy and Naturai Hui^ry tf IndUn^t 1882. 

* J. Morse, JRipprt on thi Indimn Tribit^ p. Iia 

* Mr. John Johnston, Indian Agent, in TVtms, of thi Amtr. AmH* 
Parian Society^ Vol. I, p. 271. 

« Hiapry tf the Bapiut tndUm Mistiom^ p^ 53, etc 

* OtptivUy of Christian Fktt, in Beach, Imlimn MiueOmny^ p. 63. 




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The location assigned to the Delawares was near the mouth 
of the Kansas river, Kansas. They were reported, in 1850, 
as possessing there 375,000 acres and numbering about 1500 
souls. Four years later they ''ceded" this land, and were 
moved to various reservations in the Indian Territory. 

There still remain about sixty natives at New Westfield, 
near Ottawa, Kansas, under the charge of the Moravian 
Church. The same denomination ha? about 300 of the tribe 
on the reservation at Moraviantown, in the province of 
Ontario, Canada. A second reservation in Canada is under 
the charge of the Anglican Church. The majority of the tribe 
are scattered in different agencies in the Indian Territory. 

§ 3. Missionary Efforts in the Provinces of New Jersey 
and Pennsylvania. 

None of the American colonies enjoyed a more favorable 
opportunity to introduce the Christian religion to the natives 
than that located on the Delaware river. What use was 
made of it ? 

The Rev. Thomas Campanius, of Stockholm, a Lutheran 
clergyman, attached to the Swedish settlement from 1643 to 
1649, made a creditable effort to acquire the native tongue and 
preach Christianity to the savages about him. He translated 
the Catechism into the traders* dialect of Lenape, but we have 
no record that he succeeded in his attempts at conversion. 

One might suppose that so very religious a body as the 
early Friends would have taken some positive steps in this 
direction. Such was not the case. I have not found the record 
of any one of thetn who set seriously to work to learn the native 
tongue, without which all effort would have been fruitless. 

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William PenD was not wholly unmindful of the spiritual 
condition of his native waids. In 1699 he offered to provide 
the Friends' Meeting at Philadelphia with interpreters io con- 
vey religious instruction to the Indians. But the Meeting 
took no steps in this direction. He himself, when in the 
colony in 1701, made some attempts to address them on re- 
ligioitt subjects, as did also Friend John Richardson, who was 
with him, availing themselves of interpreters. The latter 
reports a satisfactory response to his words, but not being 
followed up, their effect was ephemeral.^ 

Nothing further was done for nearly half a century, and 
when the enthusiastic young David Brainerd began his mission 
in 1743, he distinctly states that there was not another mis- 
sionary in either province.' His labors extended over four 
years, and were productive of some permanent good results 
among the New Jersey Indians, and this in spite of the sus- 
picions, opposition and evil example of the whites around 
him. The little society of Christian Indians which he gathered 
in Burlington County, New Jersey, was even reported as a 
congregation of rioters and enemies of the State I ' 

1 See the work txiMtd,jictcut$/ of the Conduit of the Society of FHendt 
toward thi Indian Trikts^ pp. 55 teq. (London, 1844.) 

s «I have tikewite been wholly alone in mj work, there being no other 
miMionary among the Indians, in either of these Prorinces.** He wr«tt 
this in 1746. Lift of David Braimrd, p. 409. 

• See «! A State of Facts about the Riots," in New Jtruy Arckivet. 
Vol. VI, pp. 406-7, where the writer tpeftki with great suspicion of *« the 
canie pretended for tnch a number of Indians coming to lire there is that 
they are to be taught the Chriitian religion by one Mr. Braniard,*^ Well 
he might! Any such occurrence was totally unprecedented in the aaaak 
of the colony. 

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Nor was the province of Penn inclined to greater favors 
toward Christianized natives. When the Indians were cheated 
out of their lands by the ** Long Walk/' a few who had been 
converted, among others the chief Moses Tatemy, petitioned 
the Council to remain on their lands, some of which were 
direct personal gifts from the Proprietaries. Their request 
was refused, and Moses Tatemy, who did remain, was shot 
down like a dog, in the road, by a white man.^ 

Unknown to Brainerd, however, the seeds of a Christian 
harvest had already been sown, in 1742, in the wilderness of 
Pennsylvania, by the ardent Moravian leader. Count Nicholas 
Lewis Zinzendorf; already, in 1744, the fervent Zeisberger, 
prescient of his long and marvelous service in the church 
militant, had registered himself as desiinifier Heidenbote — 
'* appointed messenger to the heathen" — in the comer-stone 
of the Brethren's House, at Bethlehem; already the pious 
Rauch had collected a small but earnest congregation of 
Mohegans at Shekomeko, who soon removed to the Lehigh 
valley, and pitched the first of those five GnadenhQtten^ 
"Tents of Grace," destined successively to mark the un- 
wearied efforts of the Moravian missionaries, and their frus- 
tration through the treachery of the conquering whites.' 

1 See Minnies of the Provinciai Conncil of Penna,^ Nov., 174a, Vol. 
IV, 624-5. Further, on Tatemy, who had been converted by Brainerd 
and served him at interpreter, see Heckewelder, Indian Nations^ second 
edition, p. 303, note of the editor. 

> The Heckewelder MSS., in the library of the Am. PhUot. Society, give 
the remits of the first twenty years, 1741-61, of the labors of the Morarian 
brethren. In that period 535 Indians were converted and baptized. Of 
these 163 were Connecticut Wampanos; iii were Mahicanni proper; 
351 were Lenape. Some of the latter were of the New Jersey Wapingi. 

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It is not my purpose to tell the stoiy of thb long struggle. 
Its thrilling events are recounted, with all desirable fullness, 
in the vivid narrative of Bishop Edmund de Schweinitz, 
grouped around the masked individuality of the devoted 
Zeisberger — ^pages which none can read without amazement 
at the undaunted courage of these Christian heroes, without 
sorrow at the sparse harvest gleaned from such devotion.* 

When, after sixty-two years of missionary labors, the ven- 
erable Zeisberger closed his eyes in death (1808), the huts of 
barely a score of converted Indians clustered around his little 
chapel. Hb aspiration that the Lenape would form a native 
Christian State, their ancient supremacy revived and applied 
to the dissemination of peace, piety and civilization among 
their fellow-tribes — this cherished hope of his life had forever 
disappeared. He had lived to seo the Lenape, a mere broken 
remnant, ^'steeped in all the abominations of heathenism, 
eke out their existence di away from their former council 

> 7%€ Lift Mu^ Ttrna tf Dmnd ZHkhtrgtr, tki Wmem Pimar mmd 
ApostU #/ iki luMam. By Edmumi dt Scbwciaits, Phikdelpliia, 1871. 

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Myths and Traditions or the Lenape. 

CoMMfoolcal aad Cultnrt Mytht.— The Cultmv-hcro, Mich«bo.*lfyt)u firom Uad- 

•trom, Ettwein, Jasper Donken, Zebberger.— NatiTe Symbolism.— Tli« Saturniaa 

Aft.— Mohegan Cosmogony and Migration Myth. 
National Traditioas.— Beatt/s Account.— The Nnmber Seven.— HecktweMer's Ac* 

eonnt.— Prehistoric If igrations.— Shawnee Legend.— Lenape Legend of the Naked 


Cosmogonical and Culture Myths. 

The Algonkins, as a stock, had a well developed creation* 
myth and a culture legendi found in more or less completeness 
in all their branches. 

Their culture hero, their ancestor and creator, he who made 
the earth and stocked it with animals, who taught them the 
arts of war and the chase, and gave them the Indian corn, 
beans and squashes, was generally called Michabo^ The Great 
Light, but was also known among the Narragansetts of New 
England as Wetucks^ The Common Father; among the Cree 
as Wisakketjdk^ the Trickster; by the Chippcways as' Nana* 
bozho {^Ntndboj), the Cheat ; by the Black Feet as Natose, 
Our Father, or Nap\w\ and by the Micmacs and Penobscots 
as GluS'Kap^ the Liar. 

I have given the details of this myth and analyzed them 
in previous works ; ^ here it is sufficient to say that it is a 

» D. G. Brinton, Myths of the New PTerM, Chap. VI. (N. Y., 1876), and 
Amerieam Hero Afyths, Chap. II (Phila., 1883). The teeming incongruity 
of applying tach terms at Trickster, Cheat and Liar to the highett diTinity 
I have explained in a paper in the Amerkam Antiquarian for the current 
year (1885) and will recur to later. 


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Light-mythi and one of noble proportion and circumstance, 
quite worthy of comparison with those of the Oriental 

Traces of it are reported among the Lenape, and I doubt 
not that had we their ancient stories in ^their completeness, 
we should find that they had preserved it as wholly as the 
Chipeways. These related of their Nanabozho that he was 
the son of a maiden who had descended from heaven. She 
conceived without knowledge of man, and having given birth 
to twins, she disappeared. One of these twins was Nanabozho. 
Having formed the earth by his miraculous powers, and done 
many wonderful things, he disappeared toward the east, where 
he still dwells beyond the sunrise. 

It was undoubtedly a fragmeat of this legend that the 
Swedish engineer, Lindstrom heard among the Lenape, on 
the Delaware, about 1650. They told him, or rather he 
understood them, as follows : — 

'* Once, one of your women (1. ^., a white woman) came 
among us, and she became pregnant, in consequence of 
drinking out of a creek ; an Indian had connection with her, 
and she became pregnant, and brought forth a son, who, 
when he came to a certain size, was so sensible and clever, 
that there never was one who could be compared to him, so 
much and so well he spoke, which excited great wonder ; he 
al30 performed many miracles. When he was quite grown 
up, he left us, and went up to heaven, and promised to come 
again, but has never returned.''^ 

This is but a mistranslation of the general Algonkin 
legend, in which the virgin mother bears a white and dark 
^ Thoaus CuDpftiiivs, A€c§mni tf Niw Sweden^ Book III, cap. id. 

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twin, the former of whom becomes the tribal culture hero 
and demiurgic deity. 

. Its interpretation is, that the virgin is the Dawn, who brings 
„forth the Day, which assures safety and knowledge, and the 
Night, which departs with her. The Day leaves us, and in its 
personified form returns no more, though ever expected. 

That such were the original form and significance of the 
myth, we have the testimony of Bishop Ettwein,* himself a 
Delaware scholar, and who drew his information from the 
natives as well as the missionaries. He tells us that their 
legend ran, that in the beginning the first woman fell from 
heaven and bore twins ; that it was toward the east that they 
directed their children to turn their faces when they prayed 
to the spirits ; and that their old men had said that it was an 
ancient belief that from that quarter some one would come 
to them to benefit them. Therefore, said they, when our 
ancestors saw the first white men, they looked upon them as 
divine, and adored them. 

The Dutch travelers, Jasi>er Donkers and Peter Sluyter, 
relate a part of this myth as they heard it from New Jersey 
Indians in 1679. These informed them that all things came 
from a tortoise. It had brought forth the world, and from 
the middle of its back had sprung up a tree, upon whose 
branches men had grown. 

This tortoise ** had a power and a nature to produce all 
things, such as earth, trees and the like.*' But it was not 
Hit primum mobile^ not the ultimate energy of the universe. 
'' The first and great beginning of all things was KUktron 

> TradiHom and Languagi of iki Jndimm^ in BuUetin Hist, Soc. A., 
VoL I,pp.30-3i. 


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or Kickerom^ who is the original of all, who has not only 
once produced or made all things, but produces every day.'* 
The tortoise brought forth what this primal divinity ''wished 
through it to produce."^ 

This is a very interesting statement. It reveals a depth of 
thought on the part of the native philosophers for which we 
were scarcely prepared. The worthy Dutch travelers do not 
pretend to explain the myth. But its sense can be clearly 

The turtle or tortoise is everywhere in Algonkin picto- 
graphy the symbol of the earth.' From the earth, from the 
soil, all organic life, the whole realm of animate existence— 
ever sharply defined in Algonkin grammar and thought from 
inanimate existence — proceeds, directly as vegetable life, or 
indirectly as animal life. The earth is the All-Mothf r, ever- 
producing, inexhaustible. 

As for Kikeron^ the eternally active, hidden spirit of the 
universe, I have but to refer the reader to the list of ideas 
associated around this root kik^ which I have given on a pre* 
vious page (p. xoa) to reveal the significance of this word. 
We may, with equal correctness, translate it Life, Light, * 
Action or Energy. It is the abstract conception back of all 

The distinction was the same as that established by the 

1 J9umai cf a Voyogt t9 Nfw York im i&^gSo, By Jasper Dookcn 
and Peter Sluyter, p. 368. Tkantlatioii in Vol. I of the 7>amta€tUtu 0/ 
tki Long htand HutorUtU Socitty (Brooklyn, 1867). 

• Schoolcraft layt of the Chipeway pictographic symholt : *< The tnitlo 
is beliered to be, in all instances, a symbol of the eaith, and is addressed 
•smother." History m%d SiaiUHa of tki Indian Tirik€t^SfA.\^^ y^ 

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scholastic philosophers between the nmndus and the anima 
mundi) between the essentia and the existentia; between 
natura naturans and natura naturaia. But who expected to 
find it among the Lenape ? 

This creation myth of the Delawares is also given in brief 
by 2^isberger. It dated back to that marvelous overflow 
which is heard of in many mythologies. The whole earth 
was submerged, and but a few persons survived. They had 
taken refuge on the back of a turtle, who had reached so 
great an age that his shell was mossy, like the bank of a 
rivulet. In this forlorn condition a loon flew that way, which 
they asked to dive and bring up land. He complied, but 
found no bottom. Then he flew far away, and returned with 
a small quantity of earth in his bill. Guided by him, the 
turtle swam to the place, where a spot of dry land was found. 
There the survivors settled and repeopled the land.^ 

This is more a tale of reconstruction than a creation myth. 
It is that which has generally been supposed to refer to the 
Deluge. But, as I have explained in my *' Myths of the New ^ 
World," all these so-called Deluge Myths are but develop- 
ments of crude cosmogonical theories. 

To understand the significance of this myth we must 
examine the Indian notion of the earth. This is the more 
germane to my theme, as the meaning of the original text 
which is printed in this volume can only be grasped by one 
acquainted with this notion. 

The Indians almost universally believed the dry land they 
knew to be a part of a great island, everywhere surrounded 

> Zeiiberger, MSS., in E. de Schwdniu, Life atut Times of Zeitbef:gerf 
pp. 218, 319; Heckewelder, Indian Nations, p. 253. 

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by wide waters whose liinits were unknown.^ Many tribes 
had vague myths of a journey from beyond this sea; many 
placed beyond it the home of the Sun and of Light, and the 
happy hunting grounds of the departed souls. The Delawares 
believed that the whole was supported by a (abled turtle, whose 
movements caused earthquakes and who had been their first 
preserver.* As above mentioned* the turtle in its amphibious 
character and rounded back represented the earth or the land 
itself, as distinguished from water. Like the turtle, the land 
lies at times under the water and at times above it. The 
spirit of the earth was the practical and visible developmental 
energy of nature. 

The medicine men, or conjurers, who professed to be in 
personal relations with this power, made their '^medicine 
rattle" of a turtle shell (Loskiel), and when they died, 
such a shell was suspended from their tomb posts (2^is- 

The Delawares also shared the belief, common to so many 
nations the world over, that the pristine age was one of un* 
alloyed prosperity, peace and happiness, an Age of Gold, a 
Saturnian Reign. Their legend. .'«sseverated that at that time 
** the killing of a man was unknown, neither had there been 
instances of their dying before they had attained to that age 
which causes the hair to become white, the eyes dim, and the 
teeth to be worn away." 
Thb happy time was brought to a close by the advent of 

1 ** The Indians call the Amcrioui continent an island; beliering k to 
be enUrely sarrovnded by water." Heckewelder, Hisi. IndUm Nmiimtt 

» Ibid, p. 308. 

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certain evil beings who taught men how to kill each other by 

Their kinsmen, the Mohegans, varied this cosmogonical 
tradition, though retaining ?ome of its main features. They 
taught that in the beginning there was nought but water and 
sky. At length from the sky a woman descended, our com- 
mon mother. As she approached the boundless ocean, a small 
point of land rose above the watery surface, and supplied her 
with firm footing. She was pregnant by some mysterious 
power, and she brought forth on this island animal triplets-— 
a bear, a deer and a wolf. From these all men and animals 
are descended. The island grew to a main land, and the 
mother of all, her mission accomplished, returned to her 
home in the sky.' 

This creation-myth, obtained from the Indians around New 
York harbor in the first generation after the advent of the 
whites, has every mark of a genuine native production, and 
coincides closely with that generally believed by the early 

It is followed by a migration myth, which ran to the effect 
that their early forefathers came out of the northwest, for- 
saking a tide-water country, and crossing over a great watery 
tract, called ukhkok-pekf "snake water, or water where snakes 
are abundant," (Jikhgookf snake, and p^k^ standing water, 

1 Heckewelder, MSS. in the Library of the American Philotophical 
Society. It if one of the points in favor of the authenticity of the Walam 
Olum that this halcyon epoch is mentioned in its lines, though no reference 
to it if contained in printed books relating to the Lenape legends. 

• Van dcr Donck, DestripHon of the Niw NetfUrUmdt^ CM M K 
I/ui. Soc^ Ser. II, Vol I, pp. 217-18. 

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probably from fCpty% water, akek^ place or country). They 
crossed many streams, but none in which the water ebbed 
and flowed, until they reached the Hudson. ^' Then they 
said, one to another, 'This is like the Muhheakunnuck 
(tidal ocean) of our nativity.' Therefore they agreed to 
kindle a fire there and hang a kettle, whereof they and their 
children after them might dip out their daily refreshment*' 
Hence came their name, the Tide-water People (see ante, 
p. ao). 

National Traditions. 

Many early writers attest the passionate fondness of the 
Delawares for their ancestral traditions and the memory of 
their ancient heroes. The missionary, David Brainerd, men- 
tions this as one of the leading difficulties in the way of 
«* evangelizing the Indians." "They are likewise much 
attached," he writes, " to the traditions and fabulous notions 
of their fathers, which they firmly believe, and thence look 
upon their ancestors to have been the best of men."^ 

To the same effect, Loskiel informs us that the Delawares 
" love to relate what great warriors their ancestors had been, 
and how many heroic deeds they had performed. It b a 
pleasure to them to rehearse their genealogies. They are so 
skilled at it that they can repeat the chief and collateral 
liAes with the utmost readiness. At the same time, they 
characterize their ancestors, by describing this one as a 
wise or skillful man, as a great chieftain, a renowned warrior, 
a rich man, and the like. This they teach to their childreni 

1 Lift mnd Jommml •/ ihi Rtv. Dmvid Brmintrd^ pp. 397, 43$ (Edin- 
boigli, 1826). 


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and embody it in pictures^ so as to make it more readily 
remembered,* ^^ 

The earliest writer who gives us any detailed description 
of what these traditions were, is the Rev. Charles Beatty, 
who visited the Delaware settlements in Ohio in 1767. On 
his way there, he met a white man, Benjamin Sutton, who 
for years had been a captive among the natives. He related 
to Beatty the following tradition, which he had heard recited 
by some old men among the Delawares : — 

*' That of old time their people were divided by a river, 
nine parts of ten passing over the river, and one part remain- 
ing behind; that they knew not, for certainty, how they 
came to this continent ; but account thus for their first coming 
into these parts where they are now settled ; that a king of 
their nation, where they formerly lived, far to the west, 
left his kingdom to his two sons ; that the one son making 
war upon the other, the latter thereupon determined to depart 
and seek some new habitation ; that accordingly he sat out, 
accompanied by a number of his people, and that, after 
wandering to and fro for the space of forty years, they at 
length came to Delaware river, where they settled 370 years 
ago. The way, he says, they keep an account of this is by 
putting on a black bead of wampum every year on a belt 
they keep for that purpose. "• 

^ So we may anderetand Loskiel to mean when he lays, " Das bringen 
tie ihren Kindem ebenfalls bej, und kleiden es in Bilder ein, nm ei noch 
eindracklicher xu machen." Gesckithie dir Misiion^ etc., s. 3a. I think 
Zeisberger, who was Lotkiers authority, meant BUdtr in its literal, not 
riietorical, sense. 

• Charles Beatty, Journal •/ a Tm Monikf Tour; with a Vum of 

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From another source Mr. Beatty obtained the traditions 
of the Nanticokes, -which is apparently a version of that of 
their relatives, the Delawares. It ran to this effect : At some 
remote age, while on their way to their present homes, "They 
came to a great water. One of the Indians that went before 
them tried the depth of it by a long pole or reed, which he 
had in his hand, and found it too deep for them to wade. 
Upon their being non-pliissed, and not knowing how to get 
over it, their God made a bridge over the water in one night, 
and the next morning, after they were all over, God took 
away the bridge."* 

A curious addition to this story is mentioned by Loskiel.* 
The number of the mythical ancestors of their race who thus 
were left on the shore of the great water was seven. This at 
once recalls the seven cxve&{Chicomozto€) or primitive stirpes 
of the Mexican tribes, the seven clans (puk amag) of the 
Cakchiquels, the seven ancestors of the Qqucchuas, etc., and 
strongly intimates that there must be some common natur^ 
occurrence to give rise to this wide-spread legend.' 

Some peculiar sacredness must have attached to this number 
among the Delawares also, as we are informed that the period 

Promoting ReHgiom among the FronHer In,\abiiants of PenmyhanU^ 
and of Introdunng Christianity among tki Indians to the Westward tf 
ike Alttghgeny Mountains, p. 2^ (London, 1768). 
1 lUd, p. 91. 

* Cesekiehte derMisston, etc, p. 31. 

• The Mobegant leem alfo to have it one time had a tevenfold 
division. At least a writer speaks of the ''seven tribes" into which 
thoM in Connecticut were divided. Mast. Mist. Soc. CaOs.^ Vol IX 
(I ler.), p. 9a 

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of isolation of their women at the catamenial period was seven 

The lunar month of 28 days, if divided and assigned equally 
to each of the four cardinal points, would give a week of seven 
days to each. Something of this kind seems to have been 
done by another Algonkin tribe, the Ottawas, who declared 
that the winds are caused (alternately ?) by seven genii or 
gods who dwelt in the air.' 

The seven day period is also a natural, physical one, whose 
influence is felt widely by vertebrate and invertebrate animals, 
as Dar^vin has pointed out,* and hence its appearance among 
these people, who lived entirely subject to the operation of 
their physical surroundings, is not so surprising. 

The most complete account of the Delaware tradition is 
that preserved by Heckeweldcr. In his pages it appears, not 
as a reminiscence of tribal history, but as the tradition of the 
whole eastern Algonkin race, and it claims for the three Dela- 
ware tribes an antiquity of organization surpassing that of any 
of their neighbors. 

It holds such an important place that I quote all the essen- 
tial passages : — 

*' The Lenni Lenape (according to the traditions handed 
down to them by their ancestors) resided many hundred years 
ago in a very distant country in the western part of the 
American continent For some reason, which I do not find 
accounted for, they determined on migrating to the eastward, 
and accordingly set out together in a body. Alter a very 

1 Charks BttMft /mrma/, etc, p. 84. 

* KeiatUn daJtsmUt^ 1648, p. 77. 

* Tkt Diutni cf Afan^ p. 165, note. 

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long journey, and many nights' encampments by the way« 
they at length arrived on the Nammsi Sipu^ where they fell 
in with the Mengwe, who had likewise emigrated from a dis- 
tant country, and had struck upon this river somewhat higher 
up. Their object was the same with that of the Delawares ; 
they were proceeding on to the eastward, until they should 
find a country that pleased them. The spies which the Lenape 
had sent forward for the purpose of reconnoitring, had long 
before their arrival discovered that the country east of the 
Mississippi was inhabited by a very powerful nation, who had 
many large towns built on the great rivers flowing through 
their land. Those people (as I was told) called themselves 
Talligeu or Talligewi. Colonel John Gibson, however, a 
gentleman who has a thorough knowledge of the Indians, 
and speaks several of their languages, is of opinion that they 
were not called Talligewi, but Alligewi. * * * 

'' Many wonderful things are told of this famous people. 
They are said to have been remarkably tall, and stout, and 
there is a tradition that there were giants among them, people 
of a much larger size than the tallest of the Lenape. It b 
related that they had built to themselves regular fortifications 
or entrenchments, from whence they would sally out, but 
were generally repulsed. * * * 

'' When the Lenape arrived on the banks of the Mississippi, 
they sent a message to the Alligewi to request permission to 
settle themselves in their neighbourhood. This was refused 
them, but they obtained leave to pass through the country 
and seek a settlement farther to the eastward. They accord- 
ingly began to cross the Namsesi Sipu, when the Alligewi, 
seeing that their numbers were so very great, and in fact they 

! \ 

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consisted of many thousands, made a furious attack on those 
who had crossed, threatening them all with destruction, if 
they dared to persbt in coming over to their side of the 
river. ♦ * * 

** Having united their forces, the Lenape and Mengwe de- 
clared war against the Alligewi, and great battles were fought, 
in which many warriors fell on both sides. The enemy forti- 
fied their large towns and erected fortifications, especially on 
large rivers and near lakes, where they were successively at- 
tacked and sometimes stormed by the allies. An engagement 
took place in which hundreds fell, who were afterwards buried 
in holes or laid together in heaps and covered over with earth. 
No quarter was given, so that the Alligewi, at last, finding 
that their destruction was inevitable if they persisted in their 
obstinacy, abandoned the country to the conquerors, and 
fled down the Mississippi river, from whence they never re- 
turned. * * * 

*' In the end the conquerors divided the country between 
themselves; the Mengwe made choice of the lands in the 
vicinity of the great lakes and on their tributary streams, and 
the Lenape took possession of the country to the south. For 
a long period of time — some say many hundred years — the 
two nations resided peaceably in this country, and increased 
very fast; some of their most enterprising huntsmen and 
warriors crossed the great swamps, and falling on streams 
running to the eastward, followed them down to the great 
Bay river, thence into the Bay itself, which we call Chesa- 
peak. As they pursued their travels, partly by land and 
partly by water, sometimes near and at other times on the 
great Salt-water Lake, as they call the sea, they discovered 

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the great river, which we call the Delaware; and thence 
exploring still eastward, the Scheyickbi country, now ynnned 
New Jersey, they arrived at another great stream, that which 
we call the Hudson or North river. * * * 

*' At last they settled on the four great rivers (which we 
call Delaware, Hudson, Susquehannah, Potomack), making 
the Delaware, to which they gave the name of *Lifuipe^ 
wihitiuck^ (the river or stream of the I^nape), the centre 
of their possessions. 

" They say, however, that the whole of their nation did 
not reach this country ; that many remained behind, in order 
to aid and assist that great body of their people which had 
not crossed the Namaesi Sipu, but had retreated into the 
interior of the country on the other side. * * * 

''Their nation finally became divided into three separate 
bodies ; the larger body, which they suppose to have been 
one-half the whole, was settled on the Atlantic, and the other 
half was again divided into two parts, one of which, the 
strongest, as they suppose, remained beyond the Mississippi, 
and the remainder where they left them, on this side of that 

''Those of the Delawares who fixed their abodes on the 
shores of the Atlantic divided themselves into three tribes. 
Two of them, distinguished by the names of the Tkriie and 
the Turkey^ the former calling themselves Undmi^ and the 
other Unaldcktgo^ chose those grounds to settle on which lay 
nearest to the sea, between the coast and the high mountains. 
As they multiplied, their settlements extended from the 
Mohicanittuck (river of the Mohicans, which we call the 
North or Hudson river) to the Potomack. * ♦ ♦ 

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'* The third tribe, the Woif^ commonly called the AKnsi, 
which we have corrupted into Monseys^ had chosen to live 
back of the other two. * * * They extended their set- 
tlements from the Minisink, a place named after them, where 
they had their council seat and fire, quite up to th^ Hudson, 
on the east ; and to the west or southward far beyond the 

** From the above three tribes, the Unamt\ Unalachtgo and 
the Mimi^ had, in the course of time, sprung many others, 

* * * the Mahicanni^ or Mohicans, who spread themselves 
over all that country which now composes the Eastern States, 

* * * and the Naniicokes^ who proceeded far to the south, 
in Maryland and Virginia.'* 

On their conquests during the period of their western mi- 
grations, the Delawares based a claim for hunting grounds in 
the Ohio valley. It b stated that when they had decided to 
remove to the valley of the Muskingum, their chief, Neta- 
watwes, presented this claim to the Hurons and Miamis, and 
had it allowed.* They also claimed lands on White River, 
Indiana, and their settlement in that region at the close of 
the last century was re^rded as a return to their ancient 
' Nevertheless, in the earliest historic times, when the whites 
first came in contact with the Lenape tribes, none of them 
dw;elt west of the mountains, nor, apparently, had they any 
towns in the valley of the west branch of the Susquehanna 
or of its nuun stream. 

Although the above mentioned facts point to a migration 
in prehistoric times from the West toward the East, there are 
^ Heckewdder, Thuu. Amtr. PhUn. Soc., Vol. IH, p. 388. 

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indications of a yet older movement from the northeast west- 
ward and southward to the upper Mississippi valley. A legend 
common to the western Algonkin tribes, the Kikapoos, Sacs, 
Foxes, Ottawas and Pottawatomies, located their original 
home north of the St. Lawrence river, near or below where 
Montreal now stands. In that distant land their ancestors 
were created by the Great Spirit, and they dwelt there, " all 
of one nation." Only when they removed or were driven 
west did they sei)arate into tribes speaking diflerent dialects.^ 
Ti\e Shawnees, who at various times were in close relation 
with the Dclawares, also possessed a vague migration myth, 
according to which, at some indefinitely remote past, they 
had arrived at the main land after crossing a wide water. 
Their ancestors succeeded in this by their great control of 
magic arts, their occult power enabling them r* walk over the 
water as if it had been land. Until within the present century 
this legend was repeated annually, and a yearly sacrifice offered 
up in memory of their safe arrival.' It is evidently a version 
of that which appears in the third part of the Walam Olum. 

1 This legend was told by the Sac Chief Masco, to Mafor Marston, about 
1819. See J. Morse, If^p^ri m /H^ian Affairs^ p. 138. 

* This myth was obtained in 1812, from the Shawnees in Missouri 
(Schoolcraft, Indinn Trihfs, Vol. IV, p. 254), and independently in 1 81 9, 
from those in Ohio (Mr. John Johnston, in TVans, 0/ the Amir, Amtif, 
Soc,t Vol. I, p. 273). Those of the tribe who now lire on the Qoapaw 
Resenration, Indian Territory, repeat every year a long, probably mythical 
and historical, chant, the words of which I hare tried, in vain, to obtain. 
They say that to repeal It to a white man would bring dtaasters on their 
nation. I mention it u a piece of aborigiiial compoeitioa most dcsirmbit 
to secure. 

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One of the curious legends of the Lenape was that of the 
Great Naked or Hairless Bear. It is told by the Rev, John 
Heckewelder, in a letter to Dr. B. S. Barton.' The missionary 
had heard it both among the Delawares and the Mohicans. 
By the former, it was spoken of as amangaMtidtmachquet 
and in the dialect of the \dXitXy ahamagachktidt mechqua.'^ 

The story told of it was that it was immense in size and 
the most ferocious of animals. Its skin was bare, except a 
tuft of white hair on its back. It attacked and ate the natives, 
and the only means of escape from it was to take to the water. 
Its sense of smell was remarkably keen/ but its sight was 
defective. As its heart was very small, it could not be easily 
killed. The surest plan was to break its back-l)one ; but so 
dangerous was an encounter with it, that those hunters who 
went in pursuit of it bade their families and friends farewell, 
as if they never expected to return. 

Fortunately, there were few of these beasts. The last one 
known was to the east, somewhere beyond the left bank of the 
Mahicanni Sipu (the Hudson river). When its presence was 
learned a number of bold hunters went there, and mounted a 
rock with precipitous sides. They then made a noise, and 
attracted the bear's attention, who rushed to the attack with 
great fury. As he could not climb the rock, he tore at it 

^ Published in the Transactions of ike AmerUan PhUosopkUal Soiiety^ 
lit ser., Vol. IV, pp. 26o» sqq. 

* From amangit great or big (in composition amangacA), with the 
accessory notion of terrible, or frightful ; Cree, amansist to frighten; A'i/, 
an abbreviated form of tawa, naked, whence the nan^e TawaiawaSt or 
Twighteet, applied to the Miami Indians in the old records. (See MM* 
mtif 0/ tki Provincial Cotmdi of PeHna.t VoL VIII, p. 418.) 


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with his teeth, while the hunters above shot him with arrows 
and threw upon him great stones, and thus killed him. 

Though this was the last of the species, the Indian mothers 
still used his name to frighten their children into obedience, 
threatening them with the words, ^' The Naked Bear wiU eat 

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The Walam Olum: Its Origin, Authenticity and 

Biographical Sketch of Rafinesque.— Value of hit Writings.—Hb Accoont of th« 
Walam Olvm.— Was it a Forgery ? — Rafincftque't Character.— The Text pro- 
•ounced Genuine by Native Delawares.— Conclusion Reached. 

Phonetic System of the Walam Olum —Metrical Form.— Pictographic Sjrstem.— 
Derivation and Precise Meaning of Walam Olvm.— The MS. of the Walam 
Cum.— General Synopsis of the Walum Olvm.— Synopsis of iu Parts. 

Rafinesque and his Writings, 

Constantine Samuel Rafinesque-Schmaltz, to whom we owe 
the preservation and first translation of the W.\lam Olum, 
was bom in Galata, a suburb of Constantinople, Oct. aid, 
1783, and died in Philadelphia, of cancer of the stomach, 
Sept. i8th, 1840. 

His first visit to this country was in 1802. He remained 
until 1804, when he went to Sicily, where he commenced 
business. As the French were unpopular there, he added 
'^Schmaltz** to his name, for "prudent considerations,'* 
that being the surname of his mother's family. 

In 1815 he returned to America, but had the misfortune to 
be shipwrecked on the coast, losing his manuscripts and much 
of his property. On his arrival, he supported himself by 
teaching, occupying his leisure time in scientific pursuits and 
travel. In 1819 he was appointed " Professor of Historical 
and Natural Sciences," in Transylvania University, Ken- 


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This position he was obliged to resign, for technical reasons, 
in 1826, when he returned to Philadelphia, which city he 
made his home during the rest of his life. 

From his early youth he was an indefatigable student, coU 
lector and writer in various branches of knowledge, especially 
in natural history. On the title-page of the last work that 
he published, ''The Good Book and Amenities of Nature'* 
(Philadelphia, 1840), he claims to be the author of 220 books, 
pamphlets, essays and tracts." Including his contributions 
to periodicals, there is no reason to doubt the correctness of 
this estimate. They began when he was nineteen, and were 
composed in English, French, Italian and Latin, all of which 
he wrote with facility. 

His earlier essays were principally on botanical subjects ; 
later, he included zoology and conchology ; and during the 
last fifteen years of his Ufe the history and antiquities of 
America appear to have occupied his most earnest attention. 

The value of his writings in these various branches has been 
canvassed by several eminent critics in their respective lines. 
First in point of time was Prof. Asa Gray, who in the year 
following Rafinesque's death published in the '^ American 
Journal of Science and Arts,'' Vol. XI, an analysis of his 
botanical writings. He awards him considerable credit for 
his earlier investigations, but much less for hb later ones. To 
quote Dr. Gray's words: ^^A gradual deterioration will be 
observed in Rafinesque's botanical writings from 1819 to 1830, 
when the passion for establishing new genera and species ap- 
pears to have become a complete m&n^mamia,** ' But modem 
believers in the doctrine of the evolution of plant forms and 
> Amirkan Jpumml 0/ Stuma, Vol. XL, p. 237. 

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the development of botanical species will incline to think 
that there was a method in this madness, when they read the 
passage from Rafinesque's writings, about 1836, which Dr. 
Gray quotes as conclusively proving that, in things botanical, 
Rafinesque had lost his wits. It b this : <' But it is needless 
to dispute about new genera, species and varieties. Every 
variety is a deviation, which becomes a species as soon as it 
b permanent by reproduction. Deviations in essential organs 
may thus gradually become new genera." This is really an 
anticipation of Darwinianism in botany. 

The next year, in the same journal, appeared a " Notice of 
the Zodlogical Writings of the late C. S. Rafinesque," by 
Prof. S. S. Haldeman. It b, on the whole, depreciatory, and 
convicts Rafinesque of errors of observation as well as of in- 
ference; at the same time, not denying hb enthusiasm and 
hb occasional quickness to appreciate zodlogical facts. 

In 1864 the conchological writings of Rafinesque were 
collected and publbhed, in Philadelphia, by A. G. Binney 
and Geo. W. Tryon, Jr., without comments. One of 
the editors informs me that they have positive merit, 
although the author was too credulous and too desirous 
of novelties. 

The antiquarian productions of Rafinesque, which interest 
us most in thb connection, were reviewed with caustic severity 
by Dr. S. F. Haven,* especially the *' Ancient Annab of 
Kentucky," which was printed as an introduction to Mar- 
thairs Hbtory of that State, in 1824. It is, indeed, an 
absurd production, a reconstruction of alleged history on the 
flimsiest foundations ; but, alas ! not a whit more absurd than 
> Samuel F. Haven, Arch^iol^ of the Uniiid StaUs, p. 40. 

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the laborioos card houses of many a subsequent antiquary of 

His principal work in this branch appeared in Philadelphia 
in 1836, entitled: ''The American Nations; or, Outlines of 
a National History ; of the Ancient and Modern Nations of 
North and South America." It was printed for the author, 
and is in two parts. Others were announced but never ap- 
pearedi nor did the maps and illustrations which the title 
page promised. Its pages are filled with extraTagant theories 
and baseless analogies. In the first part he prints with notes 
his translation of the Walam Olum, and his explanation of 
its significance. 

History cf the Walam Olum. 

Rafinesque's account of the origin of the Walam Olum 
may be introduced by a passage in the last work he published, 
'' The Good Book.'' In that erratic volume he tells us that 
he had long been collecting the signs and pictographs current 
among the North American Indians, and adds : — 

'' Of these I have now 60 used by the Southern or Floridian 
Tribes of Louisiana to Florida, based upon their language of 
Signs — 40 used by the Osages and Arkanzas, based on the 
same — 74 used by the Lenipian (Delaware and akin) tribes 
in their Wallamolum or Records — ^besides 30 simple signs 
that can be traced out of the Neobacun or Delineation of the 
Chipwas or Ninniwas, a branch of the last." * 

> Tki G0od Bo$k; or tki Amemitm cf Nmtur*. Primted for thi 
EUutkerium of Knowiidgi. PbiUdclphia, 1840^ pp. 77» 78. Tkit 
** Eleutheriitm/' to fiv as I can kara, eonnsted of nobody but Monaievr 
Rafinesqne himself. Among his manifold projects was a ^ Divilial Sjs* 


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In these lines Rafinesque makes an important statement, 
which has been amply verified by the investigations of Col. 
Garrick Mallery, Dr. W. J. Hoffman and Capt. W. P. Clark, 
within the last decade, and that is, that the Indian pictographic 
system was based on their gesture speech. 

So far as I remember, he was the first to perceive this sug- 
gestive fact ; and he had announced it some time before 1840. 
Already, in "The American Nations" (1836), he wrote, 
" the Graphic Signs correspond to these Manual Signs." * 

Here he anticipates a leading result of the latest archaeo- 
logical research ; and I give his words the greater prominence, 
because they seem to have been overlooked by all the recent 
writers on Indian Gesture-speech and Sign-language. 

The Ncobagun^ the Chipeway medicine song to which he 
alludes, is likewise spoken of in •' The American Nations," 
where he says: **The Ninniwas or Chipiwas * * have 
such painted tales or annals, called Neobagun (male tool) by 
the former." * I suspect he derived his knowledge of this 
from the Shawnee "Song for Medicine Hunting," called 
" Nah-o-bah-e-gun-num," or. The Four Sticks, the words and 
figures of which were appended by Dr. James to Tanner's 
Narrative^ published in 1830. * 

tern," by which all interested could soon become large capitalists. He 
published a book on it (of course), which might be worth the attention of 
a financial economist. The solid men of PhiUdelphia, however, like iU 
scholars, turned a deaf ear to the words of the eccentric foreigner. 

* Tki AmiTuan NiUiom, etc., p. 78. 

* Ibid, p. 123. 

* Tanner's NmroHve, p. 359. 

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Discovery of the Walam Olum, 

As for the Lenape records, he gives this not very clear 
account of his acquisition of them :-^ 

<' Having obtained, through the late Dr. AVard, of Indiana, 
some of the original Wallam-Olum (painted record) of the 
Linipi Tribe of Wapihani or White River, the translation 
will be given of the songs annexed to each."' 

On a later page he wrote : — ^ 

** Ohim implies a record^ a fwiched sticky an engraved 
piece of wood or bark. It comes from elf hollow or graved 
record. * * * These actual ohm were at first obtained 
in 1820, as a reward for a medical cure, deemed a 
curiosity ; and were unexplicable. In 1822 were obtained 
from another individual the songs annexed thereto in. 
the original language ; but no one could be found by n^ 
able to transhtte them. I had therefore to learn the 
language since, by the help of Zeisberger, Heckewelder 
and a manuscript dictionary, on purpose to translate 
them, which I only accomplished in 1833. The contents 
were totally unknown to me in 1824, when I published 
my 'Annals of Kentucky.* " 

I have attempted to identify this '' Dr. Ward, of Indiana;" 
but no such person u known in the early medical annals of 
that State. There is, however, an old and well-known Ken* 
tucky family of that name, who, about 1820, resided, and 
still do reside, in the neighborhood of Cynthiana. One of 
these, in 1824-25, was a friend of Rafinesque, invited him to 
his house, and shared his archseological tastes, as Rafinesque 

^ AmeruMm MHmt, p. 122. * Ibid, p. 151. 


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mentions in his autobiography.' It was there, no doubt, 
that he copied the signs and the original text of the Walam 
Olum. My efforts to leam further about the originals from 
living members of the family have been unsuccessful. From 
a note in Rafinesque's handwriting, on the title page of his 
MS. of 1833, it would appear that he had at least seen the 
wooden tablets. This note reads : — 

•* This Mpt & the wooden original was (x/V) procured in 
1823 in Kentucky — ^but was inexplicable till a deep study of 
the Linapi enabled me to translate them with explanations. 
(Dr. Ward.)" 

The name of Dr. Ward added in brackets is, I judge, 
merely a note, and is not intended to imply that the sentence 
u a quotation.. 

lyds it a Forgery t 

The crucial question arises: Was the Walam Olum a 
forgery by Rafinesque ? 

It is necessary to ask and to answer this question, though 
it seems, at first sight, an insult to the memory of the man 
to do so. No one has ever felt it requisite to propound such 
an inquiry about the pieces of the celebrated Mexican col- 
lection of the Chevalier Boturini, who, as ah antiquary, was 
scarcely less visionary than Rafinesque. 

But, unquestionably, an air of distrust and doubt shadowed 
Rafinesque's scientific reputation during his life, and he was 
not admitted on a favorable footing to the learned circles of 

> «< My friend, Mr. Ward, took me to CynthUna in a gig, where I tiir- 
Teyed other ancient monnments." Rafineiqne, A Lift tf TVmftit «m/ 
^iSi^nAit,**p.7^ (PhUa., 1836.) 

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the city where he spent the last fifleen years of his life. His 
articles were declined a hearing in its societies; and the 
learned linguist, Mr. Peter Stephen Duponceau, whose spe- 
cialty was the Delaware language, wholly and deliberately 
ignored everything by the author of "The American 

Why was this? 

Rafinesque was poor, eccentric, negligent of hb person, 
full of impractical schemes and extravagant theories, and 
manufactured and sold in a small way a secret nostrum which 
he called ** pulmel," for the cure of consumption. All these 
were traits calculated to lower him in the respect of the citizens 
of Philadelphia, and the conseqvence was, that although a 
member of some scientific societies, he seems to have taken 
no part in their [Proceedings, and was looked upon as an un- 
desirable acquaintance, and as a sort of scientific outcast. 

As early as 1819 Prof. Benjamin Silliman declined to publish 
contributions from him in the ^'American Journal of Science,'** 
and returned him his MSS. Dr. Gray strongly intimates that 
Rafine^ue's assertions on scientific matters were at times in- 
tentionally false, as when he said that he had seen Robin's 
collection of Louisiana plants in France, whereas that botanbt 
never prepared dried specimens ; and the like. 

I felt early in this investigation that Rafinesque's assertions 
werep therefore, an insufficient warranty for the authenticity 
of this document. 

As I failed in my efforts to substantiate them by local re- 
searches in Kentucky and Indiana, I saw that the evidence 
must come from the text itself. Nor would it be sufficient to 
^ Amiricmnjeurm^ tf SiUnei^ VoL XL, p. 237, note. 



prove that the words 6( the text were in the Lenape dialect. 
With Zeisberger and Heckewclder at hand, both of whose 
works had been years in print, it were easy to string together 
Lenape words. 

But what Rafinesque certainly had not the ability to do, 
was to write a sentence in Lenape, to compose lines which an 
educated native would recognize as in the syntax of his own 
speech, though perhaps dialectically different. 

This was the test that I determined to apply. I therefore 
communicated my doubts to my friend, the distinguished 
linguist, Mr. Horatio Hale, and asked him to state them to 
the Rev. Albert Anthony, a well educated native Delaware, 
equally conversant with his own tongue and with English. 

Mr. Anthony considered the subject fully, and concluded 
by expressing the positive opinion that the text as given was 
a genuine (;rj/ composition of a Delaware Indian. In many 
lines the etymology and syntax are correct ; in others there 
are grammatical defects, which consist chiefly in the omission 
of terminal inflections. 

The suggestion he offered to explain these defects is ex- 
tremely natural. The person who wrote down this oral 
explanation of the signs, or, to speak more accurately, these 
chants which the signs were intended to keep in memory, was 
imperfectly acquainted with the native tongue, and did not 
' always catch terminal sounds. The speaker also may have 
used here and there parts of that clipped language, or '< white 
man's Indian/' which I have before referred to as serving for 
the trading tongue between the two races. 

This was also the opinion of the Moravian natives who ex- 
amined the text. They all agreed that it impressed them as 

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being of aboriginal origin, though the difference of the forms 
of words left thero often in the dark as to the meaning. 

This very obscurity is in fact a proof that Rafinesqoe did 
not manufacture it. Had he done so, he would have used the ^ 

^* Mission Delawaie'* words which he found in Zeisberger. 
But the text has quite a number not in that dialect, nor in 
any of the mission dictionaries. 

Moreover* had ke taken the words from such sources, he 
would in hb transition have given their correct meanings ; 
but in many instances he is absurdly far from their sense. 
Thus he writes: ''The word for angels, angelatawiwak^ is 
not borrowed, but real Linapi, and is the same as the Greek 
word angehs ; *'' whereas it is a verbal with a future sense i 

from the very common Delaware verb angeln^ to die. Many ■] 

such examples will be noted in the vocabulary on a later page. 

In several cases the figures or symbols appear to me to 
bear out the corrected translations which I have given of the 
lines, and not that of Rafinesque. This, it will be observed, \ 

is an evidence, not merely that he must have received this i 

text from other hands, but the figures also, and weighs > 

heavily in favor of the authentic character of both. 

That it is a copy is also evident from some manifest mis- i 

takes in transcription, which Rafinesque preserves in his ] 

printed version, and endeavored to translate, not perceiving ] 

their erroneous ^orm. Thus, in the fourth line of the first , ^ 

chant, he wrote awak^ translating it ** much air or clouds," ; 

when it is clearly a mere transposition for woak^ the Unami j ;^ 

form of the conjunction ''and," as the sense requires. No { • 

such blunder would appear if he had forged the document. 
^ TkiAmiHc^m Naii0mtl^,lSU 


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It is true that a goodly share of the words in the earlier 
chants occur in Zeisberger. Thus it seems, at first sight, 
suspicious to find the three or four superlatives in III, 5, all 
given under examples of the superlatives, in Zeisberger's 
Grammar^ p. 105. It looks as if they had been bodily 
transferred into the song. So I thought ; but afterwards I 
found these same superlatives in Heckewelder, who added 
specifically that ** the Delawares had formed them to address 
or designate the Supreme being/" 

If we assume that this song is genuine, then Zeisberger 
was undoubtedly familiar with some version of it; had 
learned it probably, and placed most of its words in his 

Some other collateral evidences of authenticity I have re- 
ferred to on previous pages (pp. 67, 89, 136). 

From these considerations, and from a study of the text, 
the opinion I have formed of the Walah Olum is as fol- 
lows : — 

It is a genuine native production, which was repeated 
orally to some one indifferently conversant with the Delaware 
language, who wrote it down to the best of his ability. In 
its present form it can, as a whole, lay no claim either to 
antiquity, or to purity of linguistic form. Yet, as an authentic 
modem version, slightly colored by European teachings, of 
the ancient tribal traditions, it is well worth preservation, 
and will repay more study in the future than b given it in 
this volume. The narrator was probably one of the native 
chiefs or priests, who had spent his life in the Ohio and 

^ C^rmpondenti hHwtim the Rev, John HeckewtUUr mnd Peitr S, 
Dt^mifu^ E$q.^ p. 41a 

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Indiana towns of the Lenape, and who» though with some 
knowledge of Christian instruction, preferred the pagan rites, 
legends and myths of his ancestors. Probably certain lines 
and passages were repeated in the archaic form in which 
they had been handed down foi generations. 

Phonetic System. 

The phonetic system adopted by the writer, whoever he 
was, is not that of the Moravian brethren. They eroplo>'ed 
the German alphabet, which does not obtain in the present 
text. On this point Rafinesque says : ** The orthography of 
the Linapi names is reduced lo the Spanish or French pro- 
nunciation, except M, as in English ; iv, as in French ; scr, as 
in haw^^ A comparison of the words with their equivalents 
in Zeisberger's spelling shows tiiat this is generally true. 

It b obvious that the gutturals are few and soft, and that 
.the process of synthesis is carried further than in the Minsi 
dialect. For this reason, from the introduction of peculiar 
words, and from the loss of certain grammatical terminations, 
the Minsi Delawares of to-day» to whom I have submitted it, 
are of the opiniop that it belongs to one of the southern 
dialects of their nation ; perhaps to the Unalachtgo, as sug- 
gested by Chief Gabriel Tobias, in his letter printed on a 
preceding page (p. 88). 

Metrical Form. 

Even to an ear not acquainted with the language, the 
chants of the Walam Olum are obviously in metrical arrange* 
ment The rhythm is syllabic and accentual, with frequent 
> The Amiricmn //mtUm, p. 125. 

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effort to select homophones (to which the correct form of 
the words is occasionally sacrificed), and sometimes allitera- 
tion. Iteration is also called in aid» and the metrical scheme 
b varied in the different chants. 

All these rhythmical devices appear in the native American 
songs of many tribes, though I cannot point to any other 
strictly aboriginal production in Algonkin, where a tendency 
toward rhyme is as prominent as in the Walam Olum. It is 
well to remember, however, that our material for comparison 
is exceedingly scanty, and also that for nearly three -fourths 
of a century before this song was obtained, the music-loving 
Moravian missionaries had made the Delawares familiar with 
numerous hymns in their own tongue, correctly framed and 

PUtographic SysUm. 

The pictographic system which the Walam Olum presents 
is clearly that of the Western Algonkins, most familiar to us 
through examples from the Chipeways and Shawnees. It is 
quite likely, indeed, that it was the work of a Shawnee, as 
we know that they supplied such songs, with symbols, to the 
Chipeways, and were intimately associated with the Dela- 

At the time Rafinesque wrote, Tanner's Narrative had 
been it. print several years, and the numerous examples of 
Algonkin pictography it contains were before him. Yet it 
must be said that the pictographs of the Walam Olum have 
less resemblance to these than to those published by the 
Chipeway chief, George Copway, in 1850, and by School- 
craft, in his '^ History and Statistics of the Indian Tribes.'' 

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There b generally a distinct, obvious connection between 
the symbol and the sense of the text, sufficient to recall the 
latter to one who has made himself once thoroughly familiar 
with it. I have not undertaken a study of the symbols; but 
have confined mjrself to a careful reproduction of them» and 
the suggestion of their more obvious meanings, and their 
correspondences with the pictographs fumbhed by later 
writers. I shall leave it for others to determine to what 
extent they should be accepted as a pure specimen of Algon- 
kin pictographic writing. 

Derivation of Waiam Oium. 

The derivation of the name Walam Olum has been largely 
anticipated on previous pages. I have shown that scJ/Jm (in 
modern Minsi, wHlumin) means '< painted/' especially 
"painted red,^^ This b a secondary meaning, as the root 
w&H conveys the idea of something pleasant, in thb con- 
nection, pleasant to the eye, fine, pretty. (See ante p. 104.) 

Oium was the name of the scores, marks, or figures in use 
on the tally-sticks or record-boards. The native Delaware 
missionary, Mr. Albert Anthony, says that the knowledge of 
these ancient signs has been lost, but that the word oium b 
still preserved by the Delaware boys in their games when 
they keep the score by notches on a stick. These notches*- 
not the sticks — are called to thb day oium — an interesting 
example of the preservation of an archaic form in the lan- 
guage of children. 

The name WWun Oium b therefore a highly appropriate 
one for the record, and may be translated " Red Score." 


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The MS, of the Walam Olum. 

The MS. from which I have printed the Walam Olum is a 
small quarto of forty unnumbered leaves, in the handwriting 
of Rafinesque. It is in two parts with separate titles, llie 
first reads : — 

FInt Pftrt of the painted-engraved | traditions of the Llnni liiiapl, ftc | containing | th« 
3 original traditional poems. 1 1. on the Creation and Ontogony, 14 ytnm. 1 1. on th« 
Ddnge, &c. 16 v. | 3. on the passage to America, ao v. | Signs and Verses, 60 | with th« 
original gljrphs or signs | for each verse of the poemt or tongs | translated word fer 
word I by C. S. Rafinesque 1 1833. 

The title of the second part is : — 

Fint and Second Parts of the | Painted and engraved traditions | of the Lbmi linapl. 

II. Part. 

Historical Chronicles or AnnaU | In two Chronicles. 

I. From arrival in America to settlement In Ohio, &c. 4 chapters each of t6 versotf 
each of 4 words, 64 signs. 

•d. From Ohio to Atlantic States and back to Missouri, a mere snccessioa of namet 
In 3 chapters of so verse s 60 signs. 

Translated word for word by means of Zeisberger and Lin.ipl Dictionary. With tx« 
planations, &C. 

By C. S. Rafinesque. 1I33. 

When Rafinesque died, his MSS. were scattered and passed 
into various hands. Prof. Haldeman, in his notice above re- 
ferred to (p. 150), stated that he and " Mr. Poulson of Phila- 
delphia " had a large part of them. 

This particular one, and also others descriptive of Rafin- 
esque's archaeological explorations in the southwest, his surveys 
of the earthworks of Kentucky and the neighboring states, 
and the draft of a work on '' The Ancient Monuments of 
North and South America/' came into the possession of the 
Hon. Brtntz Mayer, of Baltimore,' distinguished as an able 

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1. Stiycwi talli wcmiguma wok- 


2. Hackung kwelik owanaku 

wak yutali Kitanitowit- 

3. Saycwis hallemiwis nolemiwi 

elcmamik Kitanitowit-es- 




4. Sohalawak kwelik hakik 
owak* awasagamak. 

5. Sohalawak gishuk nipahum 

y 6. Wcnii-sohalawakyulikyuch- 

7. Wich-owagan kshakan mo- 
shakwat' kwelik kshipe- 

8. Opelcken mani-menak del- 

* Rend. 7aM^. i v»r. mosfiak^nL 

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1. At fint, in that place, at all times, above the earth, 

2. On the earth, [was] an extended fog, and tiiere the 

great Manito was. 

3. At first, forever, lost in space, everywhere, the great 
Manito was. 

4. He made the extended land and the sky. 

5. He made the siin, the moon^ the stars. 

6. He made them all to move fvenly. 

7. Then the wind blew violently, and it cleared, and the 
water flowed ofl* far and strong. 

8. And groups of islands grew newly, and there re* 

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9. LappinupKitanitowitmanito 

10. Owiniwak angelatawiwak 
chichankwak wemiwak. 

II. Wtenk manito jinwis lenno- 
wak mukom. 

12. Miiap nctami gaho owini 





13. Nanicsik milap, tulpewik mi« 
lap, awcsik milap, cholen- 
sak mi lap. 

14. Makiniani shak sohalawak 
makowini nakowak aman- 


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9. Anew spoke the great Manito, a manito to manitos^ 

10. To be!ng3» mortals, souls and all» 

II. And ever after he was a manito to men, and their 

12. He gave the first mother, the mother of beings. 

13. He gave the fish, he gave the turtles, he gave the 
beasts, he gave the birds. 

14. But an evil Manito made evil beings only, monsters. 


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15. Sohalawak uchewak, sohala- 
wak pungusak. 


a o 

o o 

^ ^ 16. Nitisak wemi owini w'delsi- 



17. Kiwis, wunand wishimani- 
^ toak cssopak. 

18. Nijini netami lennowak, ni- 
goha netami okwewi, nan- 


19. Gattamin netami mitzi nijini . 
nantine. ^ 

20. Wcmi wingi-namenep, wemi 
ksin-clendamep, wcmi wul- 



21. Shukandeli-kimimekeniklnk 
wakon powako initako. 


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15. He made the flies, he made the gnats. 

16. All beings were then friendly. 

17. Truly the manitos were active and kindly 

18, To those very first men, and to those first mothers; 
fetched them wives. 

19. And fetched them food, when first they cksircd it 

30. All had cheerful knowledge, all had leisure, all 
thought in gladness. 

31. But very secretly an evil being, a mighty magician^ 
came on earth. 

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ft f 

22. Mattalogas pallalogas mak- 
taton owagan payat-chik 

23. Maktapan payat, wihillan 

payat, mboagiui payat 

24. Won wemi wiwunch kamik 

atak kitahikan netamaki 


I. Wulanio maskanako anup 
Icnnowak makowini esso- 

2. Maskanako shingalusit nijini 
essopak shawelcndamep 
ckcn shingalan. 

3. Nishawi palliton, nishawi 
machiton, nishawi matta 

4* Mattapewi wiki nihanlowit 

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32. And with him brought badness, quarreling, unhap- 

33. Brought bad weather, brought sickness,, brought 

24« All this took place of old on the earth, beyond the 
great tide-water, at the first 


1. Long ago there was a mighty snake and beings evil 
to men. 

2. This mighty snake hated those who were there (and) 
greatly disquieted those whom he hated. 

3. They both did hann, they both injured each other, 
both were not in peace. 

4. Driven from their homes they fought with this mur* 

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5. Maskanako gishi penauwe- 
Icndamcp Icnnowak owini 

6. Nakowa pctoncp, amangam 
pctonep, akopchella peto- 

7. Pehella pchclla, pohoka po- 
hoka, eshohoic eshohok, 
palliton palliton. 

8. Tulapit mcnapit Nanaboush 
maskaboush owinimokom 

9. Gishikin-pommixih tulagis* 

10. Owini linowi wemoltin, 
Pehella gahani pommixin, 
Nahiwi tatalli tulapiil. 

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5. The mighty snake firmly resolved to harm tfie 

6. He brought three persooB^ he brought a monster, he 
brought a rushing water. 

7. Between the hills the waler rushed and rushed, dash- 
ing through and through, destroying much. 

8. Nanabush, the Strong White One, grandfather of 
beings, grandfather of men, was on the Turtle 


9. There he was walking and creating, as he passed by 
and created the turtle. 

10. Beings and men all go forth, they walk in the floods 
and shallow waters, down stream thither to the 
Turtle Island. 

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^ ' ^'" |^hT> K ^'« Amanganck niakdopannck 
-1 — I I 1 "^^ alcndyuwek mctziiKinnek. 


alcndyuwek mctziiKinnek. 

12. Maiiito-dasin mokol-wichc- 
Palpal payat payat wemichc- 

13. Nanaboiish Nanaboush we- 
VVinimokom linnimokom tu- 

14. Linapi-ma tulapi-ma tulape- 
wi tapitawi. 

15. Wishaiicm tulfxiwi patanian 

tulpcwi poniton wuliton. 

16. Kshipchclen jxinkwihilen, 
Kwamipokho sitwalikho, 
Maskan wagan palliwi pal- 



I. Pchclla wtcnk Icnnapewi tu- 
lapewini psakwiken woli- 

CL tv wikgun wittank talH 

pin akpinep. 

^^^-^"yTX 2. Topan-akpinep, wineu-akpi- 

^ jQ. / nep, kshakan-akpinep, thu- 

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II. There were many monster fishes, which ate some of 

12. TIk* Mani to daughter, coming, helped with her canoe, 
helped all, as they came and came. 

13. [And also] Nanabush, Nanabush, the grandfiither of 

all, the grandfather of beings, the grandfiither of 
men, the grandfather of the turtle. 

14. The mert then were together on the turtle, like to 


15. Frightened on the turtle, they prayed on the turtle 
that what was spoiled should be restored. 

16, The water ran off, the earth dried, the lakes were at 
rest, all was silent, and the mighty snake departed 


t. Artcr the rushing Waters (had subsided) the Lenape 
of the turtle were close together, in hollow houses, 
living together there. 

2. It freezes where they abode, it snows where they 
abode, it storms where they abode, it is cold where 
they abode. 


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3. Lowankwamink wulaton 
wtakan tihill kelik mc- 
shautang sili ewak. 


4. Chintancs-sin powalessin 
pcyachik wikhichik pok- 

5. Eluwi-chitinesiteluwitakau- 
wesit, clowi chiksit, clowi- 
chik dclsincwo. 

6. Lowaniwi, wafKinlwi, shawa- 

7. Lumowaki, lowanaki tulpc- 
naki clowaki tulapiwi lina- 


8. Weniiako yagawan tcndki 
lakkawclcndam nakopowa 
wcmi owenluen atam. 


9. Akhokinkwapaneuwctnoltin 
palliaal kitclcndam apte- 

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3, At this northern place they speak Givorably of mild, 
cool (lands), with many dber and buf&loes. 

4. Afi ihcy journeyed, some being strong, some rich, 
tliey separated into house-builders and hunters; 

;, The strongest, the most united, the purest, were the 

6. The hunters showed themselves at the north, at the 
cast, at the south, at the west 

7, In that ancient country, iii that northern country, in 
that turtle country, the best of the Lenape were 
the Turtle men. 

8, All the cabin fires of that land were disquieted, and 
all said to their priest, " Let us go." 

9. To the Snake land to the east they went forth, going 
away, earnestly grieving. 

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vy p- 10. Pechimuin shakowen* nungi- 

P — ^^M^y^^H^ hillan lusasaki pikihil pok- 

1 ^ ^ — ' wiliil akomcnaki. 

^ \ < I r>^ ,1^ Nihillapcwin komelendam 

WWW lowaniwiwcmitenchihillcn 

^\ ^ /^\ winiakcn. 

^ 12. Namcsuagipck pokhapock- 

'^ hapck guncunija wapla- 

ncwa oukcn waptuniewi 





1 3. Amokolon nallahcmcn agun- 
oukcn pawasinep wapasi- 
ncp akomenep.' 

14, Wihlamok kicholen luchundi, 
Wcmatani akomcn luchundi. 

15. Witchcn weniilucn wcmaken 


16. Nguttichin lowaniwi, 
Nguttichin wapaniwi, 
r>^ \ — ^ ^ -^"'^ Agamunk toiKinpek 

^ ^ ^ Wulliton epannck. 

66 66 17. Wulelcmil w'slrakuppek, 

pN^y f ,^ 1 f ^ Wemopannek hakhsirtipek. 

"*!'il!J-^' Kitahikan pokhakhopck. 

» Var. skowoien, • Var. menaktnep. 

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10. Split asunder, weak, trembling, their land burned, 
they went, torn and broken, to the Snake Island 

1 1. Those from the north being free, without care, went 
forth from the land of snow, in different directions. 

12. The fathers of the Bald Eagle and the White Wolf 

remain along the sea, rick in fish and muscles, 

13, Floating up the streams in their canoes, our fiithers 

were riqh, they were in t^e light, when they were 
at those islands. 

14* Head Beaver and Big Bird said, 

*' Let us go to Snake IslandJ' they said 

15. All say they will go along to destroy all the land 

16, Those of the north agreed, 
Those of the east agreed. 
Over the water, the frozen sea. 
They went to enjoy it 

17. On the wonderful, slippery water, 
On the stone-hard water all went, 

On the great Tidal Sea, the muscle-bearing sea. 

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18. Tcllcnchcnkittapakki nillawi, 
u4j_y,^---^-j^ Wcmoltiii ^utikuni nillawi, 
p\ u 9 n y^ Akonicn \v»ipanawaki nillawi, 

v ^_^> ^ Ponskan, ponskan, wcmiwi 


19, Ix)\vanapi, wapiinapl, shawa- 

>j I p ll I I^incwapijtaniakwapi, tunic- 

rvT I \\ \ K I o wapi , po watapi , wi lawapi , 

Okwisapi, danisiipi, .lUumapi, 



20. \Vcnii|)ayat guneungashina- 

Wunkcnapi chahclcndam 

Allowclendam kowiycy tul- 



^T- I. Wulamo linapiokcn manup 

f^)A( ^' shinaking. 

2. Wapallancwa sittamaganat 
yukcpcchi wcmima, 

3. Akhomcnis michiliaki wel- 
laki kundokanup. 

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1 8. Ten thousand at night, 
All in one night, 

To the Snake Island, to the cast, at night, 
They walk and walk, all of them. 

19. The men from the north, the east, the south, 
The Eagle clan, the Beaver clan, the Wolf clan. 
The best men, the rich men, the head men. 

Those wHh wives, those with daughters, those with 

26. They all come, they tarry at the land of the spruce 
Those from the west come with hesitation, 
Esteeming highly their old home at the Turtle land 


I. Long ago the fiaithers of the Lenape were at the land 
of spruce pines. 

2. Hitherto the Bald Eagle band had been the pipe 

3. While they were searching for the Snake Island, that 
great and fine land. 

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4, Angomelchik elowichik el- 
musichik menalting. 

5. Wemilo kolawil sakima tiV 

6. Akhopayat kihillalcnd akho- 
pokho askiwaal. 


7. Showihilla akhowcmi gand- 
haton mashkipokhing. 


8. Wtcnkolawil shinaking saki* 
mancp wapagokhos. 

9. Wtenk nckama sakimanep 
ianotowi enolowin. 


10. Wtenk nckama sakimanep 
chilili shawaniluen. 

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4. They having died, the huaters, about to depart, met 

S. All say to BeautiTul Head, ''Be thou chieC** 

6. " Coming to the Snakes, slaughter at that Snake hill, 

that they leave it" 

7. Air of the Snake tribe were weak, and hid them- 

selves in the Swampy Vales. 

8. After Beautiful Head, White Owl was chief at Spruce 
Pine land. 

9. After him, Keeping-Guard was chief of that people. 

10. After him, Snow Bird was chief; he spoke of the 

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II. Wokcnapi nitaton wullaton 

12. Shawaniwacn chilili\wapani* 
wacn tamakwi. 

13. Akolaki shawanaki, kitshi- 
naki shabiyaki. 

14. Wapanaki namcsaki, pema- 
paki sisilakt. 

15. Wtcnkchililisakimanepaya* 
nick weminilluk. 

16. Chikonapi akhonapi maka* 
tapi assinapi. 

// y//^y//y ^7* Wtcnk aytimck tcllen saki- 
yC y^^yf ^^ machi tonanup shawa* 



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II. That our Others should possess it by scattering 

12. Snow Bird went south. White Beaver went east 

15. The Snake land was at the south, the great Spruce 
Pine land was toward the shore ; 

T4. To the east was the Fish land, toward the lakes was 
the bufialo land. 

15, After Snow Bird, the Seizer was chief, and all were 

16. The robbers, the snake3, the evil men, the stone meiu 

17. After the Seizer there were ten chieis, and there was 
much war&re south and east 

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£ - 

I ' ' " i 




I ! I [ 1 


Wtenk nellamawa sakimanep 
langundowi akolaking. 

19. Wtenk nekama sakimanep 
tasukamend shakagapipi. 

20. Wtenk nekama sakimanep 
pemaholend wulitowin. 

21. Sagimawtcnk matemik, sagfi- 
mawtenk pilsohalin. 

22. Sagimawtenkgunokeni,sagi- 
mawtenk mangipitak. 

23. Sagimawtenk olumapi, lek« 
sahowen sohalawak. 

24. Sagimawtenk taguachi sha- 
waniwaen minihakipg. 

25. Sakimawtenk huminiend mi- 
nigeman sohalgol. 

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m. - 


1 8. After them» the Peaceable was chief at Snake land 

19. After him, Not-Black was chief, who was a straight 


ao. After him, Much-Loved was chief, a good man. 

2 1 . After him, No-Blood was chief, who walked in clean- 

ai. After him, Snow-Father was chief, he of the big 


23* After him, Tally-Maker was chief, who made records. 

24. After him, Shiverer-with-G>ld ivas chief, who went 
south to the com land 

35, After him, Corn-Breaker was chief, who brought 
about the planting of com. 

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26. Sakimawtenk alkosohit saki- 
niachik apcndawj. 

A i^ 27. Sawkimawtcnk shiwapi, saki- 

u O . I L -^^ niatcnk penkwonwi. 

^ -*- f^ 28. Attasofcelan attiminin wapa- 

3"~J niwacn italissipck. 

/Y\ y^ 29. Oligonunk sisilaking nalli- 
/ a\ \ n ffn nictzin kolakwaining. 

^ i ^ 

Wtcnk penkwonwi wckwo- 
chclla, wtenk nekama chin- 

31. Wtenk nekama kwitikwond, 
slangclcndam attagatta» 

^J^^^ _ 32. Wundanuksin wapanickam^ 
' ^ " ^^ ^ "-^^y allcndyachick kimimikwi. 

33. Gunehunga wetatamowi wa- 
kaholcnd sakimatanop. 

' Var. wapanakaft. 

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36. After him, the Strong-Man was chief, who was use- 
ful to the chieftains. 

27. After him, the Salt-Man was chief; after him the 

Little-One was chieC 

28. There was no rain, and no com, so they moved fur- 

ther seaward. 

39. At the place of caves, in the buf&lo land, they at 
last had food, on a pleasant plain. 

30. After the Little-One (came) the Fatigued ; after him, 
the Stiff-One. 

31. After him, the Reprover ; disliking him, and unwil- 
ling (to remain). 

32. Being angry, some went off secretly, moving east 

33. The wise ones who remained made the Loving-One 

I i 

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34. Wisawana lappi wittank mi- 
chi mini madawasim. 

35. Weminitistamenendsakima- 
nep nekohatami. 

36. Eluwiwulit matcmcnend we- 
mi linapi nitis payat 

37. Wtcnk wulitma maskansisil 
y sakimanep w'tamaganat 

38. Machigokloos sakimanep, 
wapkicholen sakimanep. 




39. VVingenund sakimanep po- 
watanep gentikalanep. 

40. I^pawinsakimanep^wallama 
sakimanep. ^ 

41. Waptipatit sakimanep^ lappi 
mahuk lowashawa. 

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34. They settled again on the Yellow river, and had 
much corn on stoneless soil. 

35. All being friendly, the Affable was chief, the first of 
that name. 

36. He was very good, this Af&blc, and came as a friend 
to all the Lenape. 

37. After this good one, Strong*Buflalo was chief and 

38. Big-Owl was chief; White-Bird was chief. 

39. The Willing-One was chief and priest; he made fes^ 

40, Rich-Again was chief; the Painted-One was chief. 

41, White-Fowl was chief; again there was war, north 

and south. 


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42. Wcwoattan menatting tuma- 
j.(<!^ , okan sakimanep. 

43. Nitatonepwemipallitonmas- 
kansini nihillanep. 

(O) j^ 44- Mcssissuwi sakimanep ako- 

'~^ — ^ wini pallitoncp. 

45. Chitanwulit sakimanq) lo^va- 
nuski pallitonq). 

46. Alokuwi sakimanep towakon 


47. Opekasit sakimanep sakhe- 

lendam pallitonepit 


<D >i 1 1 - 

vyv^j^ j^-'-k 48. Wapagishik yuknohokluen 
•^^°«^^^ ^^-^^ makeluhuk wapaneken. 


/N^rf) ) .^">^ 49. Tschepiekcn nemassipi^ no- 

^\\ landowak gunehunga. 

* Var. mixtislpi* 

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42. The Wolf-wise-in-Counsel was chief. 

43. He knew how to make war on all ; he slew Strong- 

The Always-Ready-One was chief; he fought against 
the Snakes. 

45. The Strong-Good-One was chief; he fought against 
the nofthemers. 

46. The Lean-One was chief; he fought against the 

Tawa people. 

47. The Opossum-Like was chief; he fought in sadness, 

48. And said, ''They are many; let us go togetfier to 

the east, to the sunrise." 

49. They separated at Fish river ; the lazy ones remained 

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1^ cT 50- Yagawanend sakimanep tal- 

i i \ — ^—^ liGrewi waoawullatoh. 


ligewi wapawullatoh. 

5i. Chitanitts sakimanep wapa- 
waki gotatamen. 

fd)— . 52. Wapallendi pomisinep talc- 

I-S-JJ crawil allendhilla. 

(jp v- \^ 53. Mayoksuwi wemilowi palli- 

xrT^^ . ton palliton. 

^y^^ 54' Talamatan nitilowan payat- 

O-^-O chik wemiten. 

^X^^^i— 55. Kinehepend sakimanep ta- 

>--\y-M J maganat sipakgamen. 

j^^jSZ 56. Wulatonwi makelima palli- 

" ''>vr^ '^''•^ talegawik. 

57. Pimokhasuwt sakimanep 
wsamimaskan talegawik. 

y r£;£|^ 58. Tenchekentit sakimanep we- 

J miiat makelinik. 

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SO. Cabin-Man was chief; the Tpfligewi possessed the 

S 1. Strong-Friend was raief ; he desired the eastern land. 

S2. Some passed on east; the Talega ruler killed some 
of them. 

53. All say, in unison, "War, war." 

$4. The Taiamatan, friends from the north, come, and 
all go together. 

55. The Sharp-One was chief; he was the pipe-bearer 

beyond the river. 

56. They rejoiced greatly that they should fight and slay 

the Talega towns. 

57. The Stirrer was chief; the Talega tovms were too 

58. The Fire-Builder was chief; they all gave to him 
many towns. 

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^^^ 59. Pagan chihilla saktmanep 

'^ ^ shawanewak wemi talega. 


60. Hattan wulaton sakimanep, 
wingelendam wcmi Icnno- 


6i. Shawanipekis gunehungind 
lowanipekis talamatanitis. 

62. Attibchinitis gishelendam 
gunitakan saktmanep. 

^ ^ 63. Linniwulamen sakimanep 

IX0 palHtoncp talamatan. 


64. Shakagapcwi sakimanep nun- 
giwi talamatan. 

1. Wemilangundo wulamo talli 


2. Tamaganend saktmanep wa- 


\^hf/^>T 3. Wapushuwi sakimanep kelit- 

, [' iU/(i/\ geman. 

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59. The Brcaker-in-Picccs was chief; all the Talega go 

60. He-has-Plcasure was chief; all the people rejoice. 

61. They stay south of the lakes; the Talamatan friends 
north of the lakes. 

62. When Long-and-Mild was chief, those who were not 
his friends conspired. 

6j. Truthrul-Man was chief; the Talamatans made war. 

* .. i 

64. Just-and-True was chief; the Talamatans trembled. 1 


V. !• 

1, All wert peaceful, long ago, there at the Talega land. 

2, The Pipe-Bearer u'as chief at the White river, 

3, White-Lynx was chief; much com was planted. 

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4* Wulitshiniksaklmancpmak- 


5. Lekhihitin sakimanep wal- 


6. Kolachuisen sakimanep ma- 


7. Peniatalli sakimanep make- 


8. Pcpomahenem sakimanep 


9. Tankawon sakimanep make- 


10. Nentegowi shawanowi sha- 


II. Kichitamak sakimanep wa- 


12. Onowutok awolagan wunke* 

Q y 13. Wunpakitonis wunshawono- 

nis wunkiwikwotank. 

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4. Good-and-Strong was chief; the people were many. 

S. The Recorder was chief; he painted the records. 

6. Pretty-Blue-Bird was chief; there was much firuit 

7. Always-There was chief; the towns were many. 

8. Paddler-up-Stream was chief; he was much on the 

9. Little-Cloud was chief; many departed, 

la The Nanticokes and the Shawnees going to the 

1 1. Big-Beaver was chief, at the White Salt Lick. 

la. The Seer, the praised one, went to the west. 

13. He went to the west, to the southwest, to the western 


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14. Pawanami sakihianep tale- 

n' ' 15. Lokwelend sakimanep mak- 
^ ^ ^ palliton. 

->^r<* \y 16. Lappi towako lappi sinako 
«r*^5!55-/y^ y lappi lowako. 

17. Mokolmokom sakimanq) 

j^^ 18. Winelowich sakimanep lo- 

>^tO\ wushkakiang. 

19. Link%vekinuk sakimanep ta- 

20. Wapalawikwan sakimanep 

21. Amangaki amigaki wapaki* 

rtTi^ u n^ 22. Mattakohaki mapawaki ma- 

>< wulitenol. 

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14. The Rich-Down-River-Maii was chief, at Talega 


ly The Walker was chief; there was much war. 

16, Again with the Tawa people, again with the Stone 
people, again with the northern people. 

17, Grand(ather-of-Boats was chief; he went to lands in 


18. Snow-Hunter was chief; he went to the north land 

19. Look- About was chief; he went to the T&lega moun- 


20* East- Villager was chief; he was east of Talega. 

3K A great land and a wide land was the east land. 

32. A land without snakes, a rich land, a pleasant land. 




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vQ. I 23. Gikcnopalat sakimancp pe- 

Iv n kochilowan. 

/if: .^..^ 24. Sask-wihanang hanaholcnd 

AV£V0^ sakimanep. 

25. Gattawisi sakimanep wina- 

26. Wemi lowichik gishiksha- 
:>^, wipek lappi kichlpek. 

'tjjf 2J. Makhiawip sakimanep lapi- 

jri— I haneng. 

28. Wolomenap sakimanep mas- 

29. Wapanandtumewandwaplo- 

A S 30. Wulitpallat sakimanep pisk- 

^ 1 1 wilowan. , 

31. Mahongwi pungelika wemI 

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23. Great Fighter was chieC toward the north. 
24* At the Straight river, River-Loving was chieC 

2$. Becoming-Fat was chief at Sassafras land. 

26. All the hunters made wampum again at the great 

27. Red-Arrow was chief at the stream again. 

28. The Painted-Man was chief at the Mighty Water. 

29. The Easterners and the Wolves go northeast 

30. Good-Fighter was chief, and went to the north. 

31. The Mengwe, the Lynxes, all trembled 

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32. Lappi tamenend sakimanepit 
wcmt langundit 


33. Wemi nitis wemi takwickcn 
sakima kichwon. 


36. Kichitamak sakimanq) wiha« 


37. Wapahakcysakimanepahcy- 


38. Rlangomel sakimancp make- 

"=3 Co) 

39. Pitenumen sakimancp unchi- 
. hillen. 

40. Wonwihil wapekunchi wap- 


41. Makelomush sakimanep wu- 

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t> ■ - - ' . 


32. Again an Af&ble was chief, and made peace with all. 

33. All were friends, all were united, under this great 

36. Great-Beaver was chief, remaining in Sassafras land. 

37. White-Body was chief on the sea shore. 

38. Peace-Maker was chief, fritndly to all. 

39. He-Makes-Mistakes was chief, hurriedly coming. 

40. At this time whites came on the Eastern sea. 

41. Much*Honored was chief; he was prosperous. 

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42. Wulakeningus sakiipanq) 
. shawanipalat. 

^ "■ 



Otaliwako akcwetako ashki- 

44. Wapagamoshki sakimanep 

4S« Wapashum sakimanq) tale- 

^^^^^^^"^ 46. Mahiliniki mashawoniki ma- 


47. Nitispayat sakimanq) kipe- 

(V— O 48. Wcmiamik wcminitik kiwik- 

•" >\ ■ hotan. 

49. Paktmitzin sakimanq) tawa- 

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42. Well-Praised was chief; he fought at the souths 

43. He fought in the land of the Talega and Koweta. 

44. White-Otter was chief; a friend of the Talamatans. 

45* White- Horn was chief; he went to the Talega, 

46, To the Hilini, to the Shavmees, to the Kanawhas. 

47, Coming^^as-a-Friend was chief; he went to the Great 


48. Visiting all his children, all his friends. 

49. Cranberry-Eater was chief, friend of the Ottawas. 

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50. Lowaponskan sakimanep 

$1. Tashawinso sakimanep shay- 

52. Nakhagattamen nakhalissin 

52. bis. Unamini minstmini chi- 

53. Epallahchund sakimanep 

Ui 54. Langomuwi sakimanep ma- * 

\ \ — q\ hongwichamen. 

55. W^ngomend sakimanep ika- 

56. Otaliwi wasiotowi shingalu- 


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50. North-Walker was chier; he made festivals. 

51. Slow-Gatherer was chief at the shore. 

52. As three were desired, three those were who grew 

52. bis. The Unami, the Minsi, the Chikini. 

53. Man-Who-Fails was chief; he fought the Mengwe. 

54. He-is-Friendly was chief; he scared the Mengwe. 

55. Saluted was chief; tliither, 

56. Over there, on the Scioto, he had foes. 

4 ' 

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57. Wapachikis sakimanep shay- 
• abinitis. 

58. Ncnachihat sakimanep pek- 
. linkwekjn. 

■^A Q 59. Wonwihil lowashawa wapay- 

"* ^-^ achik. 

: =0 6a Langomuwak kitohatewa 

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57. White-Crab was chief; a friend of the shore. 

58. Watcher was chief; he looked toward the sea. 

59. At this time, from north and south, the whites came: 

6a They are peaceful; they have grta± things; who are 



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• I 

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4^T1ic icfciwc a t to authoritict oa Algoakiii fktwre-writiaff an the AppendU %• 
Taancr't Nmrrmifve ^f Cm/lfmty mmd Atlvtmtmr^t^ Cofnray't T^^tditUmml HisUry ^ 
tkt Ojiimmy NmH^n, Md Schoolcraft's Symt^tii ^ ttulmm SjmMt , in Tot I ofhit t 

Hi9i0rf ^ndStiUhiki ^f tkt tmdtmm THbtt, I liava aot pamwd as iavtitigatioa of 
Um tynbob btyoad tU ftnc clwm. 

I. * 

1. Rafincsque translates «friwijftf/ftf'* all sea-water.** The proper 
form is weminguna, "at all times ** (Anthony). The symbol is 

that of the sky and clouds above the earth. Compare Copway» * 

p. 134; Schoolcraft, Synopsis, Fig. 17. 

2. Kweiikt a dialectic form of qmemk, Z. long, stretched out. 
KitanitOt a compound of ktktan, grecit, and manito, mysterious 
being, is rendered by Raf. as Creator ; wti is the substantive vert- 
affix. ' 

Heckewelder (MSS.) distinguishes between the synthetic form, ^ 

ketaniticwitt which he translates "Majestic Being,** and th'S 
analytic form, kitscki maniio, whici he renders "Supreme ' 

Wonder-doer.*' In the latter, the sense of maniio is brought out. 
In the Delaware and related dialects it conveys the idea of making 
or doing (ftianiion, to make, Zeisberger, Gram., p. 222; maramts 
iaentio, make a (ire, Campanius ; Chipeway, win ma-niiawiU^ he 
himself makes it, or, can make it). 

The idea of making or creating is at the bottom of many native 
titles to supernatural powers, as the Shawnee Wie-sktiiapta, "he 
that made us all.** (Rev. David Jones, Jcumai of Ttvo Visits, 
etc., p. 62.) See notes to line four. The Algonkin root, tin, hs 
does, he acts, he makes, would therefore seem to be a radical of 
the word. (Sec Howse, Gram, of ike Qnt Lang., p. 16a) 

Dr. Trumbull, on the other hand, believes the only radiod to be 
an, ^iim ai, in the sense of "to be more than/* "to surpass,'* "to \ 

exceed;** and maintains that the syllaMe //, of the thems mmstii^ 
is a formative suffix. (In Oid and Now, March, 187a) 

Heckewelder, in his translation " wonder-doer/' recogniiet die 





Digitized by 



force of both elements, and from the analogous expressions I have 
quoted, is probably correct. The element an is thus an intensive 
prefix to the real root iV, and the compound radical thus formed in 
the third person, singuLir, tnanitOt means " he or it does or acts in 
a surpassing or extraordinary manner.'* 

Essop, pi. essopak, frequently recurring words, are suppositivc 
(see p. 90) forms of the verb Ihsin, "to be or do so, to be so 
situated, disposed, or acting *' •{Zcisbcrgcr, Granu p. 117). The 
terminal / is the sign of the preterite. They are dialectic for 
ihitup and ehichtitup. 

The symbol of a head with rays represents a manito. School- 
craft, Synopsis^ Fig. 10. 

3. Squier omits the word dumaiiuk. These terms are formal 
epithets applied to the highest divinity. Sec page 158. 

Squier also adds that Fig. 3 represents the sun, and is the symbol 
of the Great Spirit. Both these statements are incorrect The oval 
is the earth-plain, with its four cardinal points, and the dot in the 
centre signifies the spirit. See Copway, p. 135. 

4. Sokalawak is not a Delaware form, biit is a true Algonkin 
word, as seen in the Cree oosek-ayoo, animate, oos^h-iaw, inani- 
mate, he, it m«&, produces. (Howse, Cree Grammar^ p. 166.) 
It appears in the Shawnee w'sheiiaqua, quoted in notes to verse 2 ; 
in the Minsi dialect the corresponding word is kwishelmmvak ; 
owak is a mistake for woak, and Rafinesque translates it " much 
air.** Awasagamakt heaven, sky, literally, "the land or place 
beyond,** from awossi, beyond ; but Dr. Trumbull prefers a deriva- 
tion from a root signifiying " light,** De/. waseieu, it is clear or 
bright (Trans. Am. Philol. Soc., 1872, p. 164); this latter appears 
to me overstrained. The symbol is the earth surmounted by the 

5. The symbol represents the sun, moon and stars in the sky, 
which is repeated with change of relative positions in the next 
verse. In Minsi, the fifth line would read, Kwisheimawak kiukokk 
nipakenk aiankwewak, 

7. On the termination wa^^an see page 101. The prefix ksk, 
properly k*uk, is intensive, as it is an abbreviation of kitscki, 
great, large. Thus sokeUm^ it rains, k^schiioHt it rains very hard. 

The symbol seems to indicate the waters flowing off. 

8. Mr. Anthony renders this line in Minsi :— 

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NOTES. 221 

Piiikin atneni-menaxen epit, 

Grew-ckM frovpt of Iblasd* wl)«ff thcyan; 

Tliat is, that the islands rose dry and dean from the water, at 
they now are found. \ ' 

D€hin-€pit: the first part of this compound, properly w^dtH- 
sinruHf, is the indicative present, 3d p. pi., of /issim, to be thus, or 
to situated ; fpi/ is what Zcisbcr);er ( Gram. p. 1 1 S) calls the " ad* « 

vcrbial ** form of achpin, to be there, in a particular place. Thit 
adverbial is really the supposidv*: form of the verb, aAer the vowel- ' , 

change has taken place. (See above, page 107.) 

Fonner renderings of the line are : "It looks bright, and islandt \ 

stood there ** (Kafinesque). " All was made bright, and the islandt 
were brought into being** (Squier). 

The symbol is a three-cornered point of land, rising above the 
water under the sky. | 

9. Manito mnnitoak, "made the makers*,** Raf.; "made th^ 
Great Spirits,** Squier. Either of these renderings is defensible, 
as will appear from the senses of manito^ above given. 

This line can be read in Minsi, Lapi-np Kihtanitmvit man^ito 
mani'towak^ Again-he-spake, Great-Spirit, a spirit, spirits. The ' 

symbol represents the communion of the spirits. Compare Tan- ^ 

ner. Narrative, p. 359, fig. 24. 

10. Raf. and Squier absurdly translate ongelatawiwtLk, angels. f 
It is from a familiar Del. verb, angiin, to die. Compare Abnaki 
SanangfftcsSak, " revenants,** Raslcs, and wUani^owagan, his 
dcath,^ Zeis. The form in the text, according to Mr. Anthony, hat 
the sense, "things destined to die,** mortal, perishable. He 
gives the line in Minsi as follows : — * 

Aweniwak angelatawawak wtschitschwankwak wtmiwak. 

Beings morub touU aiKlall. 

The wak of the last word is not the plural but the conjunction 

" and ;** as in the Latin, om9iiaqm4. '} 

1 1. Raf. translates yViftE'tf at " man-being,*' and Squier thinkt it 
the Chipeway inim, men ; but it appears to be the adverb janwi^ 
ever, always. The symbol is apparently that of birth, or being 

bom. Compare Tanner, Narr., p. 351, fig^ 1, with tliat meaning, , v 

an armless figure with wide spread legs. ,; 

13. The pictograph it a woman, with breasts, but armlett. The . '] 

" first mother ** here represented wat an important pertonage in y 

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the mythology of the Chipeways and neighboring tribes. She was 
called " the grandmother of mankind *' {Me'Suk-kum-me-go-kwa^ 
in Dr. James* orthography), and it was to her that Nanabush 
(Manibozho), imparted the secrets of all roots, herbs and plants. 
Hence, the medicine men direct their songs and addresses to her 
whenever they take anything from the earth which is to be used as 
a medicine. Tanner's Narrative ^ p. 355. 

13. The figure of a square, the world, with the four varieties of 
animals named. 

14. The bad spirit was, in Algonkin mythology, the water god, 
and was represented as a serpent-like figure. See Copway, pp. 
134, 135. Schoolcraft, Synopsis, figs. 93, 100. 

Afttanj.^aMtJi\ plural fonn of the compound amangi, great; 
namacs fish; but amangi has the associate idea of terrifying, 
frightful, hence the reference is to some mythical water monster 
(Cree, am. faire peur, Lacombe). 

Raf. translates both nako7vak in this line, and nak(nva^ in U, 
6, as •• black snake.'* They can have no such meaning, black, 
in Lenape, being suckeu, and in none of the Algonkin dialects 
does nak mean black. 

16. The figure represents the earth-plain under the form of the 
area of a lodge, with central fire and the people in it, typifying 
friendliness. Comp. Tanner, Narr,, p. 348. fig, i. 

V. 16 pursues the topic of v. 13, and it looks as if v. 14 and 15 
should be transposed to follow v. 30. 

17. ITie former renderings arc.— 

" Thou being Kiwis, good God Wunand, and the good makers 
were such.** — Rafinesque. 
*' There being a good god, all spirits were good.**— .S^^iVr. 
Rafinesque mistook the adverb kijjis for a proper name. 

18. Raf. translates nij/ni, the Jins, and nantirtewak, fairies, and 
Squicr follows him in the latter, but could not go as far as the 
former! As seen in the vocabulary, I attach wholly differeilt 
notions to these words. The two figures united refer to the sexual 
relation. Compare Tanner, Narr., pp. 371, figs. 8, 9. 

19. Gaitamin cannot mean "fat fruit,** as Raf. translates it. 
He has evidently mistaken the explanation given by Heckewelder, 
of Catawissa, Gaiiawisu, becoming fat, and thought that gatta^ 
was fat, whereas wisu is " fat.** (Zeis. Gram,, p. 239.) 

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\ I. 

^ I- 

• I 


NOTES. 223 !}•* 

li^aJtM is understood by Rafinesque as the proper name of the j j 
evil spirit, connecting it with the DakoU wakam, dirine, super- 
natural. 1^ 

20. The dream of "the good old times,** the happy epoch \^ 

of yore, when men dwelt in peace and prosperity, was, as I ) 

have shown, page 135, a myth of the Delawares, and George \\ 

G>pway tells us that the Chipeway legends also recalled it with l| 

delight ( Draditional History of thi Ojihtmy Naium, pp. 98 and v, 

16^175.) 1; 

31. The symbol is the same as that of the " bad spirit under the 1 1 
earth," given by Copway, p. 135. \ 

A similar figure is given by Copway to signify "bad,** p. 135. |. 

I do not understand its allusion. ; 

32. Mattalogas; the prefix is the negative matta, no, not, and . ^ 
generally conveys a bad sense, as wuUteieman^ to despise one, 
mattehndam, to be uneasy. 2^is, . ^ ^ 

Palialogasin, to sin, from palU, elsewhere, other than, hence 
pallhiken, to shoot amiss, to miss the mark, to go wrong. 

Maktaton^ unhappiness. There is a relation in Lenape betv/een # ' 

the negative matta, in Minsi, wutckta, and the words for bad, ugly» 1 

evil, and the like; fnacktisism, here it is bad, or ugly. Ziisk, It 1 r 

would seem to be an intuitive recognition of the profound philo- | * 

sophical maxim that evil is ever a negation ; that Mephtstopheles 
is, as he sa)'s in Faust— 

" Dtr GtiM 4tr sttli vtmeiM.'' 

33. The symbol is apparently Irofs on hills, bent by a storm, 

and beneath a death's head. • 

34. The picture seems to be two countries connected by a 

Atak kitakicoH, a attack, beyond, above ; kitakicmn, the ocean, 
literally " the great tidal sea.** It is possible this has reference to 
the deluge, which is described in the next section; but usually 
kitakicoH meant the ocean. 

I. Maskanako; the Lenape words would be meek^k, great, «ri- • 

gook, snake; but maska is more allied to the Cree maskaim, strong, 
hard, solid. Raf. translates the dose of the line " ^rhea men had 
become bad.*' 

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2. Sckingaian^ to hate; from the adjective schingi^ disliking, 
unwilling. This is the contrary of wingi, liking, willing. Both 
are from the subjective radical n or ni, I, Ego, the latter with the 
prefix wel, signifying pleasurable sensation (see page 104). 

Shaweletidamep, preterite form, strengthened by the prefix ksch, 
of the verb acquvwdendam, Zeis., to disquiet, to trouble ; it has not 
the passive sense given in Rafinesquc*s translation. All verbs 
terminating in elendam signify a disposition of mind, the root 
being again the subjective m, ego. Raf. translates: "This strong 
snake had become the foe of the Jins, and they became troubled, 
hating each other.** 

3. Pailiioftt from palli, elsewhere (from what was intended), 
hence "to spoil something, to do it wrong,** and later " to fall out, 
to fight.** 

LHtigundawin, from iangan, easy, light to do, Chipeway, nin 
nangan, I find it light, of no trouble ; hence, ** peace ,* as being a 
time free from trouble ; and by a third application of the idea, 
ilangomellan, friends, those who arc at p<facc with us. 

4. Raf. translates this line : " Less men with dead-keeper fight- 
ing,** which is a total misunderstanding of the words. On the 
derivatio:! of nihanlowit see ante, page 103. 

6. On nakowa, see I, line 14. Here I consider it a derivative 
from nachut three, and both the sense of the line and the symbol, 
with three marks to the right of the figure, indicate this meaning. 
The three antagonists arc the monster, the waters, and the Great 
Snake himself. 

7. The repetition of the words is to add force to the phrase. 

8. This is an important line, as indicating the origin of the 
Walam Olum. Nanaboush is not tlie Delaware form of the name 
of the Algonkin hero-god, so far as known, but the Chipeway 
Nanabooshoo, Tanner, Nanibajou, McKinney, properly Ndnaboj, 
the Trickster, tlie Cheater, allied to Chip, vhi naiiabanis, I am 
cheated. Tliis term, like the Cree \VisakkctjiU\ which has the 
same meaning (fourbe, trompeur, Lacombe), was applied to the 
hero-god of these nations on account of his exhaustless ingenuity 
in devising tricks, ruses, disguises and transformations, to over- 
come the various other divine powers with whom he came in con- 
flict This seemingly depreciatory term arose from the same 
admiration of versatility of powers which hat imparted such uni- 

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vertal popularity to the story of the wily (x^ibr/v^xo^) Ulysses* 
and the trickery of Master Reynard. 

The appearance of this form of the Bame indicates diat the 
version of the legend here given has been influenced byChipeway 
associations, as, indeed, we might expect, since it was obtained in 
Indiana, where the Dclawares were in constant intercourse with 
their Chipeway neighbors. 

Tk/apit nunapit ^ tuipi epii, mtnatey epli, " it was then at the 
turtle, *t was then at the island.*' The form Tula has given rise to 
the strangest theorizing about this line, as, of course, the antiquaries 
could not resist the temptation to see in it a reference to the Tula 
or Tollan of Aztec mythology, the capital city of the Toltecs and 
the home of Quetzalcoatl. 

The similarity of the words is purely fortuitous. The Lenape 
word tulp4 means turtle or tortoise, especially, says Zeisbeiger, a 
water or sea turtle. In their m>thology, as I have already shown 
(ante, p. i^) the earth was supposed to be floating on a bound- 
less ocean, as a turtle floats on the surface of a pond. Hence, 
symbolically, the turtle represents the dry land. 

Afaskaboush = Chip, mashka, strong, wabos, usually translated 
hare or rabbit, but really " White One.** I have fully explained 
this mistaken sense of the word in Atnerican Hero M/tks, pp. 41 » 
43, and elsewhere. 

9. The Algonkin myth relates that Michabo or Kanaboj after 
having formed the ^artb on the primal ocean, walked round and 
round it, and by this act increased it constantly in size. 

Rafincsque*s translation is : — " Bei.ig bom ci^ping, he is ready 
to move and dwell at Tkia\ ** and in his note to the line he adds, 
"Tula is the ancient seat of the Toltecas and Mexican nations in 
Asia ; the Tulan or Titran of Central Tartary.** 

The entire absence of connected meaning in this and other lines 
of Rafinesque*s translation is strong evidence that he did not fabri* 
cate the text; otherwise he would certainly have assigned it some 
coherent sense. 

The turtle is, as usual, the symbol of the land or earth (tee 
page 133). 

13. Manito-^asin. the Divine Maiden, or the Daughter of the 
Gods, as it might be fireely translated. The reference is to the 
Virgin who at the beginning of things descended from heaven, and 


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alighting on the back of the turtle became the mother of Nanaboj 
and his brothers. She was well known in Elastem Algonkin 
mythology, as I have already shown. (Sec above, p. 131.) 

13. This and the three following versos form, observes Rafin- 
esque, a rhymed h)'mn to Nanabush. 

14. In this line the men are referred to as Linapi^ not lennowak 
as before. Here then begins the particular history of the Ltnape 
tribe, whose chief sub-tribe was the Turtle clan. 

The meaning of the line is very obscure. It seems to refer to 
the origin of the Unami, or Turtle sub-tribe of the I^elawares. 

16. Kwamipokho, translated by Raf. " plain and mountain,'* 
does not appear to me to bear any such rendering. I take it as a 
form of champcechencu, Z. "it is still or stagnant water," the 
appropriateness of which to the context is evident. 

Sihuaiikho, Raf. renders " path of cave,*' deriving it obviously 
from tsit, foot, and woaihcu, a hole. It has no sort of meaning 
in this rendering, and I assume, therefore, that it is a derivative 
from tschitqui, silent. 

Alaskan wa^an, probably an error for masJtanaJton, as in v. 1. 

PaUiwi, paiiiwi, " is elsewhere, is elsewhere,** or, " is foiled, is 


1. Ulttank talii: in the MS. these words are first translated 
" dwelling tou'n there,*' but the last two words are erased and " of 
Talli '* substituted. This is one of a number of instances where 
Rafinesque altered his first translations, which is further evidence 
that he did not manufacture the text. In this instance, as fre- 
quently, he altered it for the worse. Wlttank is from witen, to go 
with or be with, Zeis., and taili is the adverb " there." 

3. Meshautang, " many deer '* (sec Vocabulary), translated by 
Rafinesque, "game." 

Siiiewak, rendered by Rafinesque sili, cattle, iwak, they go. 
The wak is the terminal "and" (see notes to I. v. 10). The 
word sisile, in modem Delaware sixiVia (Whipple's Vocabulary), 
means " bufifalo.'* Its older form is seen in the MS. vocab. of 
the New Jersey Indians, 1792, where it is sisiiiamttus. This is 
a compound of the generic termination muus^ Cree, mustus 
(whence our word " moose **), meaning any large quadruped, and 

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probably the prefix tsckilani, strong, powerful, with an intensive 

4. Pmjaiessim^ from the same root as p0wwow (see page 70). ' 
The course of thought was that the dreamer {p4ni'W(r:i*) became 
wise beyond his followers, and hence obtained power and rich^ 
though not of a martial character. 

Elowickik, hunters ; allowin, to hunt, doubtless connected with 
aliuns, an arrow. 

5, 6. A note in the MS. states that the symbols of these t^ro . 
verses were united together in the original draianngs. 

7. In this verse the pre-eminence of the Turtle sub-tribe, the 
Unami, is asserted to have obtained from the most ancient times. 

8. The verses 8, 9. 10, are referred in Rafincsquc's free trans- 
lation to the " Snake people.*' They seem to me to be descriptive 
of the grief of the Lenape on leaving their ancient home. 

12. Pokhapokkapek, "Gaping Sea,*' Raf. Br.h this and the 
preceding word are descriptive of the sea, refe. red to as offering 
means of subsistence ; namaes, fish, pocquen^ muscles or clams, 
being the two main food-products of the water for the Indians. 

The location of this productive spot I leave for future investi- 
gators to determine. The Detroit River and the Thousand Isles 
in the St. Lawrence are the most appropriate localities, to my 

13. The last word of the line is given in the MS. both as 
menakinep^ and akomcnep, the latter a later interlineation. I pre- 
fer the former. 

Wapasinep, may mean " at the East," as well as •• in the light," 
The latter is a metaphor, common in the native tongues, for pros- 

Verses 13 to 20 inclusive were printed by Rafincsque in the origi- 
nal, and called by him, •* the poem on the passage to America," as 
he understood this narrative to refer to the period when the ai- 
cestors of the Lenape crossed Dehring straits ftt>m Asia to America 
on the ice. 

17. Kitakuan. This is the term given by Zeisberger to the 
Ocean. The prefix Kit is *' great,** and the termination kicttm 
appears to have been confined to tidal waters (tee above, p. 31). 
Elsewhere thb termination signifies an instrument Probably it 
was applicable to all large bodies of water. 


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On pokhakhop^k, doubtless a carelessness for pokhapokhapck, 
line 13, see note to the latter. 

iS. Squier does not give the numerals, but says simply " in vast 
numbers.** No doubt this is the intention of the expression. 

20. S/tkcakin^, '* the place of spruce firs '* (sec Vocab). 

They crossed in mid-winter a broad stream, rich in fish and 
shell-fish, and arrived at a land covered with forests of spruce. 
For a long time this appears to have remained their home. 


2. Sittiimaganat, Raf. translates "Path Leader.*' The word 
tamaganat appears in other verses, as w' tamaganat, IV, 37 ; 
tamagiUiat, IV, 55 ; iamagancNd, V, 2. I derive it from the root 
tarn, literally to drink, but generally, to smoke tobacco, as in 
Roger Williams* Key ivut-tammagon, a pipe (sec above, page 49). 
Hence I take tantagamat to be the pipc-bearcr, he who had charge 
of the Sacred Calumet. If it is objected that this puts the use of 
tobacco by the Lcnape too remote, I reply that we do not know 
when they began to use it, and moreover, this may be an anach- 
ronism of tradition. 

13, 14. The lands toward the four cardinal points are described 
from a centre the tribe was then located. Neither Rafi- 
nesque nor Squier understood this, and their renderings do not 
mention the territories North and West From the description, I 
should place the then location of the tribe in Western New York 
and Northern Ohio. 

16. The four names seem to be appellatives of different tribes. 
One of the extinct tribes remembered in Chipeway tradition was 
the A$si:^unaik, Stone People (Schoolcraft, History and i/a/isfiCs 
of the Ind, Tribes, Vol. I. p. 305). • 

25. The legend here relates that the cultivation of maize began 
after they had reached a low latitude, presumably Southern In* 
diana or Ohio. The legend of the New England Indians was 
that a crow flew down from the great God Kitantowit, bringing in 
one ear a grain of com, in the other a bean, and taught them the 
cultivation of these plants. (Roger Williams, Key into thi Lan* 
guagt of America, p. 1 14.) See further, ante» p. 48. 

34. W^awana, the Yellow River. There is a small river, so* 
called, in the State of Indiana, a branch of the Kankakee, called 

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NOTES. 229 

on Hough's "Map of the Indian Names of Indiana** We-iko-^^am^ 
a corruption of wisawanna. (See Hough's map, in Ts^clffk Am- 
nual Report of the Giohgy mnd Natural History of Indiana. 
1883.) When the Minsi made their first migration west, about 
1690, they directed their course to this spot, where they were (bund 
by Charlevoix in 1721. 

36. Tamentnd, the name of the celebrated chief now better 
known to us as Tammany, who dealt with William Penn. Hccke* 
welder translates it as " Aflable.** This is the first of the name. 
A second is mentioned, V, 32. The friend of Penn was the third. 

46. Tawakon paiHtcmep, Raf. translates " faxher snake, he was 
mad! ** 

48. Perhaps this line should be translated : " They speak well 
of the east ; many go to the east** 

49. Netnassipi, Fish River. In the MS. this name was first 
written mixtu sipi. The name " Fish River *' was applied to 
varimis streams by the Delawarcs, but newer, so far as I know, to 
the Mississippi. In the present connection it seems to refer eit];er 
to the St Lawrence, about the Thousand Isles, or else its upper 
stream, the Detroit River, both of which were famous fishing i 

50. Talligewi, No name in the Lenape legends has given rise 
to more extensive discussion than thjs. It is usually connected 
with Ailigiwi and this again with Alligkany. This seems sup- 
ported by Loskiel, who, writing on the authority of Zeisber^ger, 
says, " Nun nennen die Delawaren die ganze Gegend« so weit die 
Gew^sser reichen, die in dem Ohio fallen, Alligewinengk, welches 
so vid bedeutet. als das Land, in welches sie sich aus weit ent- 
femten Orten begeben haben.*' (Geukkkti dir Mission, etc^ p. 

The meaning here assigned to Alligewinengk, " land where they 
arrived firom distant places,** is evidently based on the resolution 
of the compound into tdiii, there, ickm, to that place, iwak, they 
go, with a locative final. The initial / b often omitted in adverbial 
compounds of taiU (itself a compound of M, locative particle, and 
U, to), as aUamunk, in there* 

Bishop Ettwein gives to the word a different meaning. He 
writes : *' The Delawares call the western country AUigewehork. 
which signifies a War-Pftth ; the river itself they call Aliigtwi 


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Sipo.'* (Legends and Traditions, etc., in Buil of ike Pd, Hist' 
Soc, p. 34.) Here the derivation would be from palliton, to fight, 
€wak, they go, and a locative, "they go there to fight.** The 
omission of the initial / was not uncommon, as Campanius gives 
ayuta •=aUiton, to make war. [Catechismus, p. 141.) 

Basing his opinion on an expression in the Journal of C. F. 
Post, to the effect that Alleghany means " fine or fair river,** Dr. 
J. H. Trumbull analyzes it into wuUk, hanni, sifiu, which he trans- 
lates *• best, rapid-stream, long-river ( ConfucL Hist. Soc, CoUs, 
Vol. II). 

Rafinesque, in the MS. of the Walum Olum, gives Talligewi the 
tr.inslation "there found,'* from talli, there, and I know not what 
word for " found.** 

There have not been want'ng those who would derive the name 
Alleghany from Iroquois roots, as the Seneca De^o-na-m^no, 
•• cold water'* (Amer, Hist, Mag, Vol. IV, p. 184). But there is 
no probability that the wor^ is Iroquois, 

Whatever its origin, the name was not confined to the Alle- 
ghany river, but included the whole of the Upper Ohio, as the 
interpreter Post distinctly says. 

The Rev. Mr. Heckewelder was of opinion that Talligewi 
was a word foreign to the Algonkin, a nomen gentile of another 
tribe, adopted by the Delawares, just as they adopted Mettgwe for 
the Iroquois from the Onondaga YenkwetXtitn (see above, page 
14). It is not necessarily connected with Alleghany, which may 
be pure Algonkin. He says. "Those people called themselves 
Talligcti or Tallige 7ui.'* (Indian Nations p. 48.) The accent, as 
hegives it, Tallige' wi, shows that the word is, Tallike, with the sub- 
stantive verb termination, so that Talligewi means, " He is a TaU 
liki\" or, " It is of (belongs to) the Tallik6.** 

This appears to mc the most probable supposition of any I have 
quoted, and it reduces our quest to that of a nation who called 
themselves by a name which, to Lenape ears, would sound like 
Tallike, Such a nation presents itself at once in the Cherokees, 
who call themselves Tsa'laki, Moreover, they fill the require- 
ments in other particulars. Their ancient traditions assign them a 
residence precisely where the Delaware legends locate the Tallike, 
to wit, on the upper waters of the Ohio (see above,, page 17). 
Fragments of them continued there until within the historic 

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period; and the persistent hostility between them and the Dela- 
wares points to some ancient and important contest 

Name, location and legends, therefore, combine to identify the 
Cherokees or Tsalaki with the Tallike ; and this is as much evi- 
dence as we can expect to produce in such researches. I can see 
no reason whaterer for Dr. Shea's opinion that the Lenape ** in 
their progress eastward drove out of Ohio the Quappas, called by 
the Algonkins, Alkanxas or Alligewi, who retreated down the 
Ohio and Mississippi.** (Shea, Notes to Alsop's MtayhMd^ p. 
1 18.) 

The question remains, whether the Tallike were the " Mound 
Builders/* It is not so suted in the Walam Glum. The infer- 
ence rather is that the " Snake people/* Ak&u.*iftz or Akonapi, dwelt 
in tiie river valleys north 0/ the Ohio river, in the a^-ea of Western 
Ohio and Indiana, where the most important earth-works are 
found — and singularly enough none more remarkable than the 
immense effigy of the serpent in Adams County, Ohio, which winds 
its gigantic coils over 700 feet in length on the summit of a bold 
bluff overlooking Brush Creik. 

According to the Red Score, the Snake people were conquered 
by the Algonkins long before the contest with the Tallike began. 
These latter lay between the position then occupied by the Lenape 
and the eastern territory where they were found by the whites. 
In other words, the Tallike were on the Upper Ohio and its tribu- 
taries, and they had to be driven south before the path across the 
mountains was open. For this reason they are called wapaumi- 
laton, " possessing the East,** that is, with reference to the then 
position of the Lenape in southwestern Ohio. 

54. Taiamaian, This was the Lenape name of the Huron- 
Iroquois or Wyandots. It is found in the form TciamtUimos in a 
"List of II Nations. living West of Allegheny*' present by deputy 
at a Conference in Philadelphia, 1759 {MinnUs of ikt Prmf.Comndi 
0/ Ptnna., Vol VIII, p. 418). Heckewelder gives IMmmaiUnas 
(l9id. NoHom, p. 80). 

Raiuiesque translates the name in one place by ** not Tal&s,** 
and in another by " not of us,** from Len. mmtta^ not, Latin iMtf» 
us. That the Lenape did not speak Latin made no difference in 
his linguistic theory, as be held all languages to be at core die 
\\ On the Hurons, see above, p. 16. 



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3. Wdpalafungt apparently the White River, Indiana, or else 
the Wabash. 

16. In this line the three tribes are mentioned which were previ- 
ously named in IV, 44, 45, 46, and the difference in the spelling 
shows that the chant was written down by one unacquainted with 
the forms of the language. The correspondent names are:— 
IV. V. 

Akowini, Sinako. 

Towakon, Towako. 

Lowanuski, Lowako. 

The termination ako, uniformly rendered by Rafinesque snake, 
appears to be either the animate plural in ak, or the locative aki^ 
place or land. 

The Towako are probably the Ot-tawa called by the Delaware 
. Taway: or the Twightees, called by them Tawaiawee (see " List 
of 1 1 Nations/* etc., in AfinuUs of thi Prov* Council of Pa,^ Vol. 
VIII, p. 418). 

There is difficulty in reconciling Akowini and Sinako, In the 
former, the prefix ako may be from achgook, snake, as Rafinesque 
and Squier rendered it 

The word Lowanuski appears again in v. 18, where Raf. inserts 
the note, " Lowushkis are Esquimaux.** It means simply " winter 
land,** or " Northern people,** and is not likely to have any refer- 
ence to the Eskimo. 

33. "Without snakes,** 1*. /., free from enemies. 

34. On the derivation of Susquehannah, see page 14. 

3S* Winakaking, Sassafras Land, the native name of eastern 

39. The Wapings and the Minsi seem to be referred to. 

33, 36. The omission of the nunibers 34 and 3$ is in the 
original MS. 

5a Ganskowinik; Raf. translates this "the noisy place, or 
Niagara.** It is a derivative from the root kan. See Vocab. 

60. EwemkikUi, may be translated "whites** or "Europeans.** 
See Vocabulary. 

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U tkt Mlovlag Voctbulwy tW ■— if plaetd JMtditttly after tW «oH it ikat 
■MigMd to It la ItmllMaqut's oricfMl MS.; tWt pnUbk eompotMrn of it it llwa 
addtd, with Its earroct laadcriaf . Hit ttaadard of tW laagaagt ad ppta< it tkai of 
tkt Moravlaa aOMloaaftet (tat above, p. 97). Tba laldalt lalbfriac ta antkacitiaa 
an: Z.» Ibr Zebbatgar, K., Car Kaipitn, H., Ibr Ha ckt waMtf , R. V., Rofar 
WnUaaM, C Off Caatp., Caaipaalai, aic 

Aan. I, 6. To movei to go ; Z. conjiurftted, Grmm.^ p. 142. CUfi. cni^ , 

he goes; aunj^k^ \ft moTCt. QU PaymU \ 

Af amunk. Ill, 16. Over wtter. Atawtnutk^ orer the water. R. W. 

AiawmmoakUt Und on the other tide of the water, f . e. England. > 

R. W. The proper names Accomac, Algonkin, etc* are from the 

lame rooti. 
Agunouken. Ill, 13. Always our iiiidiers. A^iwri, my frther» Z. bt i 

which n is the possasdve #«r or my. ^ 

Akbokink. Ill, o. Snake land at Derivatives beginning with mJtJU, } 

and tome with aJko appear to be compounds of m€kg9ok^ Mohegaa 

ukkok^ the generic name for snake. f 

Akhomenis. IV, 3. Snake Island. MtntOtyt ill«nd» and mdkg^^k. 

Akhonapi. IV, 16. Snaking man. Ack^^ek, and mpe^ man ; a m^mim 

Akhopayat. IV, 6. Snake coming. ^r4r>^»s>udce; /tff«/, becomes. ^ 

Akhopokho. IV, 6. Snake hilL A€kgmk, snake. Pockkifkmk. a 

river between hills. Heck. 1 

AkbowemL IV, 7. Snake all. Ackgt^k^ snake, and tnnw^ alL i 

Ako. II, I, a. Snake. Ackg^^k^ snake. See AkiUkitUk, 
Akolaki. IV, 13, and Akolaking. IV, iS. At beantifbl Uad. Atk^ 

go9k^ snake ; mki^ land. A form of AkkMnk^ q. v. 
Akomen. Ill, 14, 18. Island snake. Atk^^^ snake; mm^ty. 

Akomenaki« III, la Snake foitilied islaad* Akmmm^ q. ▼., and mH^ 

Akomenep. III9 13. Snake idand was. Akmmm^ witkrtbe pccterit 

Akopehella. II, 6. Snake water nisbiBg. Xuk^ffikdkm. itraa^ 

stream in a river. Z. S^ Pekitt^^ 
p 233 

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Akowetako. V, 43. CoweU makes. JVt/a, a house, H.» and aJh\ 

land ; the Coweta land. 
Akowini. IV, 44. Snake beings or like. The Snake people; a nemen 

Akpinep. Ill, 2, Was there. Achpit^ to sUj, abide; mehpiney, a 

sleeping place. 
Alankwak. 1, 5. Stars. Alank^ !itar. 
Alkosohit. IV, 36. Keeper and preserver. AlleueksU^ strong and 

mighty. K. 
AUendyachick* IV, 33. Some going. Alende^ some. 
Allendhilla. IV, $2. Some kill. Alende^ tome, and nihillan^Kt^ kill. 
Allendyumek. 11, ii. Some of them. 
AUowelendam. Ill, 20. Preferring above all. AllaweUmlnmen, to 

esteem highly.- Z. 
Allutnapi. Ill, 19. With dogs of man. AUum^ dog; nyV, man; men 

h.iving dogs. 
Alokuwi. IV, 46. Lean he. Aloeuwoagan^ leanness. Z. 
Amangaki. V, 21. I^rgc land. Amangi^ great, large. See p. 146, 

Amangaro. II, 6. Monster. Anufngi, See p. 146, note. 
Amangamek. I, 14. Manitos or large reptiles. II, 11. Waters of 

sea. Amangemek^ a large fish. 
Amokolen. Ill, 13. Boating. Amoehol^ canoe or boat. 
Amigaki. V, 21. Long land. Amangi, great; aki, land. 
Angelotawiwak. I» 10. Angels also. , From angiln^ to die. See note 

to the passage. 
ADgomelchik. IV, 4. The friends or friendly souls. MeleehHsekant, 
soul. Z.; 1W//M, corruption, Z., and aMgeln^ Ko6\t\ "the souls de- 
Anup. II, I. When. Aanup^ when ^ if I went Zeis. Gram.,p, 143. 

Apakacbik. 111,6. Spreaders. i^/^M i^^4i/^^«M, to display, to attach 

oneself to or upon. K. 
Apakchikton. IV, 11. Spreading, ^tt ApaUekik, 
Apendawi. IV, 26. Useful he. Apendamen, to make use of; apenmwi^ 

useful, enjoyable. 
Aptelendam. Ill, 9. Grieving. To grieve to death. 2^is. 
Atkipalliton. V, 43. Must make war. Aski^ must, obliged, and pal- 

Asktwaal. FV. They must go. Aiki^ must, and aan or e^ to go. 
Aasinapl. IV, 16. Stone man. ^xxim, a stone ; tf/f, aman; a nomm 

Atak. 1, 24. Beyond. Atimek^ beyond, above. Zeis. 
Atain. Ill, 8. Let us go. AUm^ let us go. Z. Gram, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Attagatta. IV, 3 1 . UnwUling. Atim^ or mmUm. ncgattve prefix ; /vtti, 
to want, or with. 

AtUlcbinitit. IV, 63. Not always friend. AtU^ aeg. prefix; miOt^ 

friend, or our friend. 
Attaminin. IV, 38. No com. Attm^ neg. prefix ; mm^ beny or ooim. 
Attasokelan. IV, 2S. No raining. Atim^ neg. prefix ; s^Mm^ laia. 
Awatagamek. 1, 4. Much heaven. Aw^stgame, heaTcn. Z. 
Aweoik. I, 13. BeaAt. Awettit, a beait 
Awolagan. V, la. IleaYenly. A w m ffaitmim, to prain. K. 
Ajamak. IV, 15, 17. The great warrior. A mmwtfn^ to \my 9 Tmnhuit^ 

K. ; from iryf, take it! hence "the Dayer,^'^or ^'the Seixcr.*^ 


Cbanelendam. Ill, ja Doubting. Tkksnmelendmm^ to cowidtr, to 

be in doubt K. 
Cbichankwak. I, la Souli also. Tkkituhmmk^ soul. 
Chibillen. Ill, 11. Separating. Tkkituk^kkm^ to spHl atander; 

cf. ckipeu^ it separates. 
Chikimini. V, 53. Turkey tribe. See abovei p. 37* 
Chikonapi. IV, 16. Robbing man. Ck^tlU^ to fob» R. W., Xty^ p. 

Chikait. Ill, 5. Holy. Xuhutktk^ dean; ksekijckmnckt^unik^ 

holy. Z. 
Chiim. IV, 10, 13, 15. Snow.bird. CkiUH. snow.biid, Hcdu JmL 

Aamfs, p. 363. 
Cbingalaiiwi. IV, 30. Stiffened he. T^/kimgmltth i/dM. 
Cbintanea. Ill, 4. Strong. TiMmi^mm^ tdnng, Z. 
Cbitaneait. Ill, 5. Strong. T/rii^^Mf , stroi^. K. 
Cbitanitia. IV, 51. Strong friend. TViilAMM, stroi^ ; is^, friend. 
ChiUnwulit. IV, 45. Strong and good. Tm-AsAmi^ Miong; wmHe, 

Cbolenaak. 1, 13. Birds. Tkhelem^ bird. 

Daain. II, 13. Daughter. A^iAhvAm, my daughter. 
Danivapi. Ill, 19. Daughters of man. ATdmrnihSt my daughter; ^, 

Delain. I, 8. Is there. fPWUSMs, he is #r does so. Zeis, ^mai., 
p. 117. 

Dalainawo. 111,$. They are. fPidU^bMinM^ they are or do so. Zdi. 

Bktn. II, a. Together. Probably an error for n/iwaM, those. 
BlangomaL V, 38. Friendly to alL SUmg^meiUtm^mj tAtad. Z. 
Bltmamik. 1, 3. Everywhere, £Uw$€imik^ everywhere. Z. 


Digitized by VjOOQlfe 


Elendamep. I, 20, Thinking. On tttndam^ see above, p. 100. 

Eli. 1,31. While. i?/i, because, then, 10, that K. Also a superlative 

prefix, as eli kimi^ very privately. 
Elmutlcbik. IV, 4. The goers. Elemmtit^ he who goes away. Z, 
Ek>waki. Ill, 17. Hunting country. Elttiuak, most powerful. Z. In 

this word and in elcfuxipi^ Rafinesque mistook the meaning of the 

prefix. Compare elnvichik, 
Blowapi. Ill, 19. Hunting manly. EH^ intensive, best or most, and 

<?/(•, man, or perhaps wapiy knowing. 
Elowichik. Ill, 4, ^, 6. Hunters. From allauwin^ to hunt. Z. ; aUau" 

wiiaa, let us go hunting. H. 
Bluwi. Ill, 5. Most The superlative form ^/t, with the substantive 

verb suffix, wi, 
Eluwiwulit. IV, 36. The best. From elmtn^ and wuliU good. 
Enolowin. IV, 9. Things who. Doubtful, perhaps, nannt^ those; 

€wini^ beings, people. 
Epallahchund. V» 53. Failer, who fails. /\i//ii6/i/ir, to shoot amiss; 

paliiaaHf to go away. 
Epit. I, 8. Being there. I, 34. At. This is a suppositive form from 

achpin, called the "adverbial** by 2^is., Gram,, p. 115, who trans* 

lates it " where he is.** It may also be translated by the preposition 

"at.** See Heckewelder, Correspondence wUk Duponeeaut Letter 

Esbohok. II, 7. Much penetrate. Eukooekwtn, to go through. Z. 
Bttiop. I, 3, 3. He was. 
Etsopak. 1,17. Were. II» i| 3. Had become. A form from /uitii, 

to be or do so. 
Bwak. HI, 3. They go. Eft»ak, they go. Z. ; from aan, to go. 
Ewenikiktit. V, 60. Who are they ? Amoenik, who are they ? Z. Gram,, 

1 16. The term Awannls was that applied to the whites in general 

by the New England Indians. The Abbi Maurault derives it from 

aSeni, who, uji, whence; 3= whence come they? Histoire da Ahknm* 

kis, p. la 

Oahani. II, 10. Shallow water. Gakan, shallow. K. 

Oabo. T, 13. Mother. See Nigoka, 

Oandhaton. IV, 7. Concealing or hiding themselves. GandkaHon, 

to hide, to conceal. K. 
Oanshowenik. V, 50. Noisy place (Niagara). Ganscketsfen, to roar, 

to make a great noise, Z. ; or from kantt. See above, p. 73. 
Qattainin. 1,19. Fat fruits. A^*^/iimfi», I wish, desire. Z. See note 

to passage. 
Oattawiai. V, 35. Becoming fat. (7i</At, do you want ? Z. ; ^/«wf xt , 

becoming fitt, proper form of Catawissa. lieck^y Imdt Nmme^ p. 360. 

Set note. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


OtntikaUnep. IV, 39. FetdTtls he made. AkiiA', to sag aad daace. 
Sec p. 73. 

Oichi. II, 5. Ready. See iht rool JkuJk^ p. loa. 

Oikenopalat. V, 23. Great wanior. Ciukigm^ to bt bom; nH^p^ 
lUak = warrior. Z. 

Oiaheltndaiii. IV, 63. Conspiring. ^r^Mnf^w, to lutch or medi- 
tate aomething good or bad. 5>ee p. 103. 

Oiahikin. 11,9. Being bom. ^/urivM, to be bom. Seepp.lo»-3. 

Oiahikabawip«k« V, a6. Sna tak tea. Gi$€kikmm^\»makit\ icktjtk^ 

Oiabuk. 1, 5. Son. See p. 103. 

QoUtamen. IV, 51. He detirei. IPgmiUwum^ I want, #r wiib. Z. 

Ounehuiif a. IV, 33. They tarry. Cmntimf^ tbey tfay long. Heck., 
Jnd, Aamit, p. 36$. 

Qunehungtit. IV, 61. They settle. Gmmehmmgm^ they tfay. 

Quncunga. Ill, la, 20. They tarry. See Gmiuhtmgm. • .r. / 

Ouniiakan. IV, 6a. Long-and-mild. Cmmeu^ long. ' 

Ounoktm. IV, aa. Long while iatherly. (?««#, snow. Z. CVri, fiuher. ^ 

Outikuni. Ill, 18. Single night (7«M',oac; ««iA|pMMl,oaeaaght 

R. W. . 

Hackung. I, a. Above, ffaeki, the eaith. Z. Htuhmk^ on or at the | 

earth. Raf. translates it as k^cktmf^ the place above, the diy, heaven. • * 

Camp. . ' 

Hakhainipek. Ill, 17. On hard, stony sea. itfrAjMi,a stone; /fi,a 

sea. It may mean ** stony sea;" bnt in the connection I think it is I 

metaphorical " stone -hard,*' u e^ frosen sea. A 

Haklk. 1,4. Much land. /r«rit, the earth. Z. > 

Hallemiwia. 1,3. Eternal being. //Sii/ras.^*, eternally. Z. Kc 

Hanaholend. V^ 24. River loving. ^m^Uhis/, rivtr. H. AhmU^^o /> 

love. ♦ 

Hattanwulatoa. FV, 6a He^haa-posicsiion. HmJmm^ to have; wm J m 

t^n^ to own, to pois ew . ^ ;; 

Hominiand. IV, 25. Cora eater. Pik-A tmimm^ paichad and bulcn 
com, R. W., whence our word k0»$my. 

Ikalawit. V, 55. Yonder between. /laA; thither. 

Init'ako. I, 21. Worship snake. Amm^ to coasa; alt, earth. RaL 

derives the snfEx from ^kgmk^ snaka. j! 

Italiaaipek. IV, aS. . Far from the tea. IkmlM^ Inrther, anm; pek^ 

standing water, or sea. ^ '^i 

JaaotowL IV^ 9. Time-maker. W^mmHkmrit ha kaepe watch. Z. 

JInwia. It II. Maa^iaing. Sea note to pamage. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC* 


Katnik. I, 24. Age or foretime. **ICamig, at the end of words, allodet 

to the grottnd/' Baraga, Otck. Dit. Gamunk^ on the other aide of 

the water. Z. 
Kelik. Ill, 3. Much. Comp. Xwetik, An intensive preSx. 
Kelitgeman. V, 3. Much planting com. Qoxap, kelik ; min^ cam 9i 

KIchipek. V, 26. Big sea. Kitstki, great ; /ri, a body of still water. 

See p. loa 
KichiUmak* V, 11, 36. Big Beaver. Afy^M/, great ; ArMa^M/, beaver. 
Kicholen. Ill, 14. Big bird. Kitcki^ great ; tsckolenst bird. 
KihiUalend. IV, 6. Thou killest some. A7>kf7/<tM, to kiU, ^, thou. 
Kimi. 1, 21. Secretly. Kimi, privately. Z. 
Kiminikwi. IV, 32. Secretly far off. KimU privately. 
Kinchepend. IV, 55. Sharp he was. JCintUt sharp. 
Kipemapekan. V, 47. Big Lake going. KiUcku great; pek^ lake; 

OcJIf, to go. 
KiUhikan. I, 21. Great ocean. III» 17. Of great ocean. KUakitmm^ 

the sea, ocean. Z. 
Kitanitowit. I, 2, 3, 9. God-Creator. See p. 218. 
Kitelendam. 111,9. Earnestly. To be in earnest. Z. 
Kitohatewa. V, 60. Big ships or birds. Kiio, great ; ksttn^ he has. 
Kitshinaki. IV, 13. Big firland. Kitseki, great, and tkinaku 
Kiwis. 1, 17. Thou being. JCUschiwit truly, verily. Z. 
Kiwikhotan. V, 48. Visiting. AtW/^^, to visit. 
Kolachutien. V, 6. Pretty bluebird. Kola^vmlit^^pttXCf. Doubtful. 
Kolakwaming. IV, 29. Fine fdain at Wuiit^ fine» beautiful The 

sense is doubtful. 
Kolawil. Beautiful head. IV, 5, 8. IVuHt^ fine ; wii. head. 
Komelendam. Ill, 11. Having no trouble. To be free from trouble 

or care. K. 
Kowiyer-tulpakiiig. Ill, 2a Old turtle land at XUtyt old. K. 

Tuipt, turtle. DoubtfuL 
Kahakan. 1, 7. It blows hard. Ill, 2. It storms. Xuka^Asm^ the 

wind blows hard. K. 
Kshipebelen. II, 16. Water running off. Ksckippekeltan^ the water 

flows rapidly, a strong current Z, Z. also uses 4(fiA kiiiiUf the 

waterfalls. Speiling Bookt^, 122, 
Kthipehelep. I, 7. It ran off. JC sthippekilUup^ the water nui off. 

Zeis. Cram.f p. 224. 
Ksin. I, 20. Easy. KsiHtkpo^ he is at leisure. 
Kundokanup. IV9 3. Searching when. IPimikin^ I seek, or, fCdo* 

nmm, Z. 
Kwamipokho. II, 16. Plain aad moontain. XUmfetcktnm^ it it ttiU 

or stagnant water. Z. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Kwelik. 1,1,4. Mach water. 1,7. Dcq> water. QuemksikwtUk^ 

long, extended. .Z. Compirt MfA. 
Kwitikwond. IV^ji. Reproter. ^MflW, to rtprove. Z. 

X«akka welendain. Ill, 8. TronbM #r afraid. Ijukmm wdemd^m^ 

to be troubled in mind. K. 
Lainataaitin. V, 44. Lmwu^tm (llvoo), ffienda. See abovc» p. 16). 
Lanewnpi. Ill, 19. Eagle aunly. W^pmimtuu^ bald eagle. Z. 

?aiswak. V, 6a Friendly tbey. Lmmgtmm winmxn^ \m looks 
iriendly. Z. 
LangomuwL V, 54. Friendly he. Lmnpmd^^ pencelnL Z. Tnm 

langaHt light, easy. 
Langundit. V, 3a. Made peace. 24M|pnM^, peaoelnL 
Langundo. V, I. PeacefitL Lmngntuh^ peacelaL Z. 

LangundowL IV, 18. Peacelnl he. See aboye. 1 

Lapawin. IV, 40. MOiitened. .£4^', again ; /mm, ridi. 
Lappimahuk. IV, 41. Again there b war. Zjr/^agaia; sM^Ci^p^ ^ 

«%ti, they are at war. Z. 
Lappinup. 1,9. Again when. Mr. Anthony translates tkb* again he 

tpoke ; *' mpiotuH^ to ipeak. Zeis. ^ 

Lapihnneng. V, 37. Tide water at. Z4^^ again ; Mii«iMir,iowinf ;' 

water. H. I f 

Lekhibitin. V, S* Writer writing. LikkikH^ writer; kkkiJkm. to . | 

write. K. 1 1 

Leksahowen. IV, 13. Writing who. Z/4i«iti, written. K. I 

Ltnnowak. I, 11, 18. Men. II, i, S* Men also. Lemm^^muu 
Lessin. Ill, 4. To be. Lissim^ to be #r do so. 
Linapi-ma. II, 14. Men there. Litu^^ with safln s««, there. 
Linapioken. IV, 1. Men fatheis. Qy. ••The Cithers of the Unapt** • 

X^inkwekinuk. V, 19. Lookinc well about. Limfmckim^ to look, be- 

hold; Hn^t€kin4€kl Look here, behold I Z. .j 

Linnapewt III, i. Tme manly. III» 7. Tme iMn. '"They art 

Liimi wttlaraen. IV, 63. Man of trath. Lemtm^ man; ww/ssarw. 

See p. 104. 
UaowL II, la Men. L im m0 tw , he is a bmui. '} 

Linowimokom. II, 8, 13. Of aaen grandfather. Lm$^ man; smI#> 

svau, grandfather. 
LiMilmn. IV, 5. Be thon there. UstU^ in^>enKife of Ihtm. Zeis. 

Grmm^^ 1 18. 
Lohziii. 11,0. To BBOvt and dwell. Z^iwms to pais by. K. Lmck- 

iui, to w«Ik, to live. Zeis, (rnist., p. 13a. 
Lokweland. V, 15. Walker. Z4nMi]rMi, to Bft, to waOu l. 

Lownko. V9I6. North flMke. L m it mm ^ winter; M^ land, t 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 


Lowaniwi. in» 6^ it» i6. Nottherlings. Ltwan^ winter; httumnh 

north. Z. 
Lowanaki. HI, 7. North country. Z^imift winter; tf if, iand. 
Lowanapi. HI, 19. Northern manly. Lowmn^ winter; «/r, man; a 

nomen gentiU* 
Lowanipekia. IV, 61. North of the lakes. Lotoan^ winter ; ptk^ lake ; 

or Icwan^ ape^ man ; aki^ land, ** the land of the Northern men." 
Lowankwamink. HI, 3. In northerly plain. Lvwin^ winter or north; 

tsfemengue, as we came from. Z. ; with the locative sufllix nk, 
Lowanuaki. IV, 45. Northern foes. LoTvan, north or winter. 
Lowaponskan. V, 50. North walker. ZtfiMiM» winter; north; /^nufis, 

to v/alk. Z. 
Lowashawa. IV, 41; V^ 59. North and south. Lcwan, north; 

skawano, south. 
LoiRrushkakfng* V, 18. North land going. Z(*iimifi, north; tfit, land. 

Luchundi. HI, 14. They saying. Luehmndu they say, or, it is said. 

Z. Cram,^ p. 175. 
Lumowaki. IH, 7. White country. L<fampi, long ago, ancient ; aki, 

Lungundowin. II, 3. Peaceful or keeping peace. Langund^wi^ 

Luaaaaki. HI, 10. Burned land. Ziif/fM, to bum ; /«/ax«, burnt Z. 

Macbelinik. IV, 58. Many places or towns. Afachili, much. K. 
Machigokloa. IV, 38. Big owl. Macheu^ great; goklos^ owl. 
Machiton. 11, 3. Spoiling. Matsehihilltu^ spoiled. K« Mattchiton^ 

to spoil something, to make mischief. Z. Gram,, p. 322. 
Machitonanep. IV, 17. Much warfare then. Made mischief. Set 

Madawaaim. IV, 34. Great meadow. Matta, no, not ; amn, stone. 
MahUiniki. V, 46. There was Hilinis. Perhaps. «« Illini," the Chipe- 

ways or Illinois. 
Mahongwi. V, 31. There Hong (Mengui) w lickings. Metigwe? 

Sec p. 14. 
Mahongwipallat. V, 53. Mengwi was. See last word. 
Mahongwichamen. V, 54. Mengwi frightened. 
Makatapi. IV, 16. Blacking man. J/arii/, bad, aril ; tf/r, man. 
Makdopannik, V, 4, and Makdupannek, II, 11. They were many. 

Machtii, many. 
Makeleyachick. V, 9. Many going. See abore. 
Maktlohok. IV, 48. They are many. See abore. 
MakcUminr. V, 6. Much fruiu at MacheUmtnifit honorable, pre- 

cious. IC. Or ma^A/Zt^ much; aff'if, fruits. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Makelininf • V, 8. Much river at Mticktietmm, to be pcovd or U^ 

minded. K. Or, mmrJUM^ mndk or naay; atmkmnmi^ iiTen»**tlK 

place of manx atreamt.'* 
Makellma. IV, 56. Much there it. MkeJUH.mwthvx 
Makelinik. V, 7. Many towna. MmcktK, maa> ; wik. 1 
Makeliwulit. V^jS. Mvch ^ood dose. Afm€kiii^mwdk\ wmUt.fBoc^ 
MakelomutlL V» 41. Much hoaored. MmcMtmmxii^ he that ii ho»> 

ored. Z. 
Makhiawlp. V.sf. Red arrow. JUkriitr, red. 
MakimanL I» 14. Bad spirit A/Sri-ii Mtfm^» the bad maaito. 
Makonowiki. V, 46. Toere was Konowis. Qy. ^^V*****^ ^ ^ 

clothed. Z* Mfht = red ; tmec^mem^ dog. 
Makowini. !» 14; II, 1. Bad \mm^ A/k^i, from mmcktii^ bad; 

ffWfMf, q. ▼. 
MakpAllitoa. V, 15. Modi wurCue. UacktH^ mach, and /aZB^ 

t9M, q. ▼. 
MaktApan. 1. 23. Bad weatiier. Mtkt^pmm^ ttanaj weadier. K. 
Makuton. 1, 2S. Uahappineas. MarkimiemsMMigmm^ anhappnesa. VL 
Mani^iuk. IV, 1$. Big teeth. Ammmgi, big, great; wipii^ hia 

Mani. 1,8. Made. AAfiii>^, to make. 
Manito. 1, 9, 10. He made. II, la. Spirit. See Botes. 
Manitoak. I, 9, 17. The spirits or nsakers. 
Manup. IV, 1. Theie were then. Donbtfrd. Comp. mttmp. 
Mapawaki. V, ». There is rich land. Pmmm^ rich; mJH^ land. 


Maahawonikl. V,46. There was Shawonia. Mttkit great, in comp. 
Maahkipokhinir. IV, 7. Bear hills at Mmekk. bear; bat probably 

from masktik. Chip, maskki/:^ swamp or BMirsh, and ^kimk^ tlM 

division or valley between the mountains. 
Maakabouab. II, 8, Strong hare. Mmshm and smJmv, hart. See 

ant^, p. 13a 
Maakan. II, 1, 3, 5« 16. Powerful or dire. Meckek^ great* huge; 

manrnin^ Nant. maskka. Chip, strong. Miskmtu^ itrong» lapid. 

Heck., Jud, Nama, p. 355. 
liaa k a n a ko . II, 1, 3, $• Strong snake. Matkmm^ kige or strong; 

aehgook^ snake. 
MaskanslaO. IV, 37. Strong bnffalo. Mmskmn^nAtUIL 
Maakanaini. IV, 43. Strong stone. Maskmn^ and mmm^ a stone. 
MaakeUtong. V,^ Strong frdls at nTrenton). Mmshm^uA kkkmmme^ 

main stream. Sec Heck., Ind. Nrntius^ p. 355; where thb word ia 

given and analysed. 
Mattmik. IV, ja BoUder of towns. Msitm^ Mt; wuptik^ blood. Z. 
Mattn. II»3. Hot JKiMhno,not 


Digitized by 




MatUkohakl. V» 23. Withont inake land. Mattat not; ackgoek, 

uiake ; «ii, land. 
Mattalogas. I, 33. Wickedness. Maekiii^ bad, evil; mnttalpgrn^ 

wagoH^ a sinful act 2^is. Cram., p. 103. 
Mattap«wi. II, 4. Less man. Afa/tapeu, he is not at home. Z. 
Matemenend. IV, 36. There or now Tamenend. 
Mawulittnal. V, 33. There is good thing. fr«/i>,cood. 
MayoksuwL IV, 53. Of one mind. Mawat^ one, only one. K. 
Mboagan. 1, 23. Death. M'boagan, death. Z. 
Mekenikink. I, 31. On eArth. Mackt prefix indicating eril or mis- 
fortune, from mm€kiit, 
Mekwasoan. 11,4. Fighting. J/^r^Ai^tfM, to fight. K. 
Mtnak. 1, 8. Islands. Menatey^ an island. 
Menalting. IV, 4,42. In assembly met. i1/iriftf^4/ifi, to drink together. K. 

AiendltiMkt the place sphere we drank. 1^1. Jnd, NameSt p* 371* 
Menapit. II, 8* At that island. Menatey^ island ; epit^ at. 
Mtshautang. Ill, 3- Game. Mechtit, much; achtn^ deer. Z. In 

the N. J. dialect, deer is aaiu ; hence the meaning is <' many deer." 
Metaisuwi. IV, 44. Whole he. Meis^ki-uhawi^ very, ready. Z. 
Metsipannek. II, 11. They did eat. Mtufpannik^ i\ity have eaten. 

Zeis. Gram,, p. 124. 
Micbibaki IV, 3. Big land. Afukti, much ; aJH, land. 
Michimini. IV, 34. Much com. MtcAiii, much ; mitt, edible fruit 
MUap. 1,12,13. He ga re him. il/i/ or MiZTiM, to give. The terminal 

/ marks the preterit. 
Minigeman. IV, 25. Com planting. Mm, edible fruit; for com, tee 

p. 48. 
Minibaking. IV, 24. Cora land at. A/m, edible fruit; tfib', land. 
Minaimini. V, 52. Wolf tribe. See p. 36. 
Mitsi. I, 19. Food. Afi/Min, to eat. 

Mokol. II, 12. Boat. Am^koi, a boat. Zeis. Gram,, p. loi. 
Mokolakolin. V, 17. In boau he snaking. See above. Aki, land. 
Mokom. V, 17. Grandfather. Afuckcmsina, our grandfather. Z. 
Mokolmokom. V, 17. Boats grandfather. Amcckoi, boat; muekom, 

Motbakwat. 1,7. It clears up. Mosckkakquat, tXtax vrt»Aitt. K. 
Mvlnifn. 1,11. Ancestor. iAf^^^v/x, grandfather. K. 

Nabiwi. II, la Above water or afloat Nakhoi, down the water, 

down stream. K. 
Nakbagattamen. V, 52. 3 desiring. Ndtka, three; gattamtm^ to 

Nakkalialn. V, 52. 3 to be. Niacka, three; Ussm, to be #r do to. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



N«kopowm« III, 8. The snake prictt AtM, prieit Sec abovc» pw 

70. The prd^ dovbtfol. 
Nakowa. II, 6. Black snake. Nafknik^ three persons. Z. 
Nakowak. I, 14. Black snakes. Nmr.UtJksmm^ he is alone* Z. SmJk- 

ackj^oaJk, black snake. Z. DonUfoL 
Nallabemen. III» 13. HavigaUng. N^Omkiwun^ to boat np the 

stream. K. 
Nallimeuia. IV, 19. Atksltoeat A^that,atlasl; ai«flKit,l^ei«. 
Namenep. I, ao. Pleased. Nmmun^ to know, nnderstand* 
Nameaaki IV, 14. Fish land; Nmmmes, fish; «it, land. 
Nameaik* I, 13. Fishes. NmmisMii. fishes. Zeis. Gr^m,. p. loi. 
Nameauafipek. 111,13. Fish resort sea. A^mmm, fish ; /rtd, kko. 
Naaaboush. II, S, 13. Nana-hare. See p. i^o. 
Nantin^. 1, 19. The fairies. Nmtm^ to fe*ch. Z. 
Nantinewak. I, 18. Fairies also. PL form from mdem^ to fclch. 
Nekama. IV^ 9, 10^ 19. Him. Him, them, 
NekohaumL IV, 35. Alone the first. A^ieteur^ the fint 
Nemaaaipi. IV, 49. Fish river. Aimm^t, fish; /^ river. 
Nenacbihat. V, $8. Watcher. Ntmmckgisimwmcktm^ to listen to one 

another, to hear one. K. Hence hemrtr, 
Nentefowl. V, 16. The Nentegoa. NtmUg^ is the Draper name of 

the Naaticokes, who inhabited the eastern dMre of lUryland. Sot 

p. aa. 
NetamaU. I, 24. First land. NHmmi^ first ; uH^ land. 
Netatnl. I, i a, 18, 19. The first Nttatm^ the first Z. Grmm^ p. 108. 
NfutUcbin. Ill, 16. All agreed. *NjpiitiUkm. to be of one hesrt 

and mind. Z, 
Nigoba. I, 18. Mother. NgaJUmit^ my mother. See Zeis. Grmm^ 

p. loa 
Nibantowlt. II, 4. Dead keeper. *imiikmH. uwrdeier {mkiOmmtmtfy, 

See p. loa. 
NibUlanop. IV, 43. He killed. See p. loa. 
NibUlapewin. Ill, 11. Being free. NikiUmpewi. firne. Z. Sea 

p. lOI. 
NibiUen. Ill, 15. To kill #r annihilate. 

p. 101. 
Nyini. I, 10^ 10; II, a. The Tins. Aid, ( 

the first, the foremost Z. See notes. 
NtUawL III, 18. By night or in the daric 
Nipabttin. 1,5. Moon. A^ciiM^moon 
NiabawL 11,3. Both. MuAm^tmo. 
NlUtoo* IV, II. To be able. To know how to do it 
Mitntootp. IV94J. Hewaaabla. Saeabofv. 


• ' 

■■ J: 

• k-' 


*•_ * 

•,- ■ 





jmatm. I kiiL z. Set 

, these, those. K. A%»b^ 

A^«4»d;bsrnVit Z. 

Digitized by 



Nitisak. I» i6. Friends. Nitis, confidential friend. (Heck, p. 43S.) 
Kitilowan. IV» 54. Friends of north. Nitis^ and iownn^ north. 
Nolandowak. IV, 49. Lazy they. Nolkand^ lazy. K. 
Nolemiwi. 1,3. Invisible. Invisible. Z. 

Nungihillan. Ill/ 10. By trembling. A^tiM^Mi7/<ni, to tremble. K. 
Nungiwi. IV, 64. Trembling he. See above. 

Okwewi. I, 18. Wives. Ockqaewakf women. Z. 

Okwisapi. Ill, 19. With wives or women of man. OcAfue, woman ; 

<i/V, man. 
Oligonunk. IV, 29. Hollow mountain over. IVakht a cavern or a 

hollow between hills. OA7, in Berks county, Pa., the name of a 

Moravian settlement, is from this root 
Olini. Ill, 18. The men or people. From root nf, p. loi. 
Oluroapi. IV, 33. Bundler of written sticks. See p. 161. 
Onowutck. V, 13. Prophet. Oufcaian, to know. K. 
Opannck. Ill, 16. They went From aan, to go, and perhaps with 

prefix wab or op, east. 
Opekasit. IV, 47. Eosteriy looking. Waopink or ofRnk, opossum. 

From the root tMi^, white. See p. 43. 
Opeleken. I, 8. It looks bright Root wai or op. See last word.. 
Otaliwako. V, 43. There snake or Otalis (Cherokis). 
Otaliwi. V, 56. Cherokeet of Mu. 

Ottken. Ill, 13. Fathers. Othwatl, his father. Zeis. Gram,, p. loo. 
Owagan, I, 23, or Owagon, I, 7. Deeds, action. A verbal suffix. See 

p. 101. 
Owak. 1, 4. Much air or clouds. An error for woak, and. Comp. Zeis. 

Spelling Book, p. I32. 
Owanaku. 1, 2. Foggy. Awonn, Z. Auan, N. J., fog. 
Owini. 1,12. First beings. I, 16; 11,5,9. Beings. Rafinesque says 

of this word, that it ** may be analyzed o-wi-m, 'such they men* or 

beings.'* It would seem to be a form of the substantive verb termi- 
nation wi, 
Owinkwak. I, la First beings also. Owimi, and wok, and. 

PaganchibiUa. IV, 59. Great Mfiller. /WV^i/bn, to break, break 

asunder. K. 
Pakimltstn. V, 49. Cranberry eating. Pakikm, cranberries; svitetiiy 

. to eat 
PaUalogat. I, 22. Crime. Patlalogoiawagan^ crime, evil deed. Zeis. 

Gram,, p. 103. 
PalliaaL III, > ^ away. The tame. Zeis. Gram^ p. 343. An 

imperativt ; but not so used in the text 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


VOCABULARY. 245 '<l 


PaUihina. IV, 56. SpoO tad kiniaf. From pmUmstim, to do vroi^ ;:. 

Zeis. Gram,, p. 343. w 

Palliton. 11,3. Fighting. 11,5. To deftror or tpoO. 11,7. Mock 

spoiling or destroying. PmUittm^ lo do ill, to spoiL Zdsi <rmsi^ ^> 

p. a«^ J' 

Pallitonep. IV, 44, 46. He war made. It is tlie imperfect of /«/fito«^ 

to de^>oil, fight. .:. 

Pallitonepit. IV, 47. Atthewarfue. Preterit of the abofo. >-/ 

Palliwi. 11,16. Elsewhere. Ibid. Z. 
Palpal. II, I a. Come, come. PaHie^ when he comes. Z. 
Paniton. II, 15. Let it be. PaHim.^ lo spoil, injure. Z. 
Pataman. II, 15. Praying. Paimman^ to pray. K. 
Pawanami. V, 14. Rich water turtle. PawtUttsm, to be rich. 
Pawasinep. Ill, 13. Rich was. Asm, rich. 
Payat. I, 23. Coming. Pasm^ to oome. Conjugated la Zeis. Grmm^ ] 

p. 148. Psymi, he who comes #r is coming. From the root mm, to 

move. Cf. jiam, ^ 

Pajrat-chik. I, aa. Coming them. See abore. 
Payaking. Ill, 90. Coming at. See above. 

Payat payat. II, la. Coming, coming. See abovo. t 

Pechimin. Ill, 10. Thus escaping. /Vri-, to sepaiitey divide, to splk 

asunder. ' 

Pehella. 11,7. Much water rushing. II, la Flood. Set AkljMtf^ 

M/fH, I 

Peklinkwtkiii. V, $9. Set looking. /Vi, still water, lake, sea. 
Pekochilowan. V, t$. Near north. Lewam, north. 
Pemabolend. IV, ao. Constantly bek>ved. jiAmltt to feve. 
Pemapaki. IV, 14, Lake Und. Apparently for w$imtfifeiimit it tho 

Pematalli. V, 17. Constant those. Ttf //if, there. 
Penauwelendamep. II, 5. Resolved. Pmamweiemdkm, to coniidtr 

about something. Z, 
Penkwihilen. II, 16. It is drying. PmfmJkiff.m, dried. K. 
Pepomahemen. V, 8. Navigator up. Doubtful. 
Petonep. II, 6. He brought Pti^m^ to bring. 7. 
Peyachik. 111,4. Comers. Stt Pa/mt. 
Pikihil. ni, 10. Is torn. Pikikiiin^ torn, rent in pieces. K. 
PUwhalin. IV, ai. Holy goer. /V£iA/l, dean, pure. 
Pimikhasiiwi. IV, 57. Stirring about he. 
Piskwikmaii. V, 31. Agaimt north. T^^wfan; tgtinst Z. Lnmm, 

Pittnamon. V, 39. Mistaken, /^mmvsim, to make a miitako. Z. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC /- 


Poboka. II, 7. Mnch go to hillt. Pokawackne^ creek between two 

hills. The word does not refer to hilli, but to the division, cleft or 

Yftlley between hills. 
Pokbapokhapek. Ill, la. Gaping tea. Po€quen^ a muscle, clam. Z. 

An important article of food to the natives; ptk^ a lake or sea. 
Pokbakbopak. Ill, 17. At gap snake sea. See above. 
Pokwibil. Ill, 4. Divided or broken. III^ la Is broken. Popd' ' 

hillm or poquiecktn^ broken. K. The root is/ari, to split, divide. 
Pomitinep. IV, 53. Went or passed. Pomsin^ to walk. K. 
Pommixin. II, 9, 10. Creeping. Pommisgen^ to begin to walk ; /mv- 

mixtm, to creep. K. 
Pontkan. Ill, 18. Mnch walking. Pommamcksm, to walk. 
Powa. Ill, 4. Rich, foi Pawa, rich, etc. See p. 70. See words under 

Powako. I, 21. Priest snake. See above. 

Powatanep. IV, 39. rontiff was. See above. 

Powatapi. Ill, 19. Priest manly. See above. 

Psakwiken. Ill, 1. Close together. /V<i>(fm/^4m, close together. K. 

Pungelika. V, 31. Lynx well like (Eries). PompUtUnA fly. K. 

Pangutak. I, 15. Gnats. , Po/fptt, sand fly, K. 

Sakelendam. IV, 47. Being sad. Sakquelemlamf to be sad. K. 

Sakima. IV, 5. King. See p. 46. 

Sakiniacbik. IV, 26. See above. 

Sakimak. IV, 17. Kings. See above. 

Sakiroakichwon. V, 33. With this great king. See above. 

Sakimalanop. IV, 33. King was made. See above. 

Sakimanep. IV, 8, 9, 15, 18. King was. See alx>ve. Preterite form. 

8atkwihaiiang. V, 24. Susquehanah (branchy R.) at. See p. 14. 

Sayevria. I, 3. First being. ScAawi, immediately, directly. Z, 

Shabigald. IV, 13. Shore land. This seems a more correct form than 

Heckewelder's scktyickH, See p. 4a 
Shak. I, 14. But. Seknk, but. 
8hakagapewi. IV, 64. Just and upright he. Stkackackgitpewi^ he it 

honest, righteous. K. 
Sbakagapip. IV, 19. A just man he was. 5^itfr>l«r>l, straight; here 

used in a metaphorical sense for just. 
Shawmniwatn. IV, la, 34. South he goes. Skawtuu^ south 
ShawanakL IV, 13. South land. SkawamOf south; aif;iand. Zeis. 

f!^vt» ukawenneu for south. 
Sbawanakiiif • V, la South land at. See above. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


in« 19. Sondwni BMalj. S k mrnn m, wd tfe^ ■■». 

Shawattilocn. IV, la So«di 1m vyuic. SImmim^ avd Imi^ lo Mf . -jt^' 

SbttwaaiwalL IV, 59. Sovditlwyfo. SImmim^ avd npi^ ■*::: 

8lMW«ilp«lat. V,4J. SoMliwsnior. SUi>iw^ —d kmpmki. -''; 
8lMw«ap«kto. IV,6a ScMNk of Hm Ukct. .SUwM^aa4>«l,kke. C; 

ShawanhrL 111,6. Sonthcrioiei. ^i^nptiM^ witk tdb «£ *v 
Shawaaowi V, la The SImwabL See mbovc 

tbcwKfMma. IV, 17. Sovtli and cmI tlwre. Skmmm^wtfm^^m. f 

and MM, there. v-V " 
Shaweleiidasiitp. n, 1. Beoooe tfMbled. ArpdmAmdmrn^ I9 db- 

qniet 21 Willi loteMlTe prefix iyril. -^l/' 

BliawolMfU in, la So Our going. 5riAMi, weak? j^^; 

Shaxmbinhis. ¥,57. Shore friend. See next wocda. Air£r, frieftd. ^T^\ 
Shajabian. V, 37. Shore (or Jeney) going. Sckffek^ a Miiaf of V'. 

wampum. Z. ->/ 

Shaxabing. V, 51. At New Jener #r riMce. Scktjnckhi^lmSmMmum v'l 

ofNewJeriey. (Heck., p. 51.) See p. 4a < ^S, 

Shinaktng. Ill, JO; IV, 1, 5. At fir-land. Chip. >uhf«d, tpnioe fir. 1* 

Bar. ^r^iW, tpmce. Z. ^i(t; land ; «i^ locative teraiiaation.«llw ^ > 

place of ipnice fire." i^v 
Shingalaa. II, 2. Hating. Sckimgmlmm^ to hate tooiefaody. K. 
Shingalutit II, 2\ V, 56. Foe, foea. Scktmgmhaii^ cnemTt adfww ( 

••ry. K. ^ 

Shiwapi. IV, 27. Sahmaa. 5^il«nMii, mH flMit ; jr4i7, aak. 

ShowibUla. IV, 7. Weak. ScJUmtk.mtMk. . !^r 

Shukand. I, ao. Bat then. A'ilMfMu/, only, b«t then. ' 'V/ 

8ili. 111,3. Cattle. 5rVt/i, a hoflak). See note to vena. 

Bin. 111,4. To be. Zf#fui, to be ^ do to. ^^^- 

Binako. V, 16. Strong make. ^j«/4v, ttone ; aiK land. zvV 

Bipakgamtn. IV, 55. River over agaimt. 5i>f, river. See^franMiA. ?:': 

Biailaki. IV, 14. Cattle land. 5^itAtf nftwf, a bdEUo, N. J. ^< 

Biailaking. IV, 39. Cattle Und at SCn/i, biiAdo; mJti. land. "^ ; 
Bittamaganat. V, a. Path leader. Pipe-^Karer. See note to lY, 2. 
Bitwahikho! 11, 16. Path of cave. TWAitfm^ riknt; isckUpdkilk^ <!'. 

iMiil, they arc silent Z. 

Blangalaadam. IV, 31. Disliking. SlaiV/ibMAriif , to kMlhe, to hata. 'v- 
Bobalawnk. 1, 4, $, 6, 14, 15 ; IV, 23. He caatet theat Sea Mia. 

BohalfoL IV, 25. Hecanaetit. See kit word. v' 

- r*" 

TaquAcbi. IV, 24. Shiverer with coUL ThrAfiMiMii* froaca. K. \^\ 
Takaawttlt. Ill, 5. The beat rar4» together, la tk» etc HtMa 

united, hannoniow. - 4, 

TaUmatan. IV, $4, 6I9 63, 64. VaioM. Sea p. ifi. v; 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Talamaunitit. IV, 6i. Huron friends. See Lamatanitis. 

Talegachukanf . V, 19. Allegheny Mu. going. Donbdnl. 

Talegaking, V, 1. Talega land at See p. 230. 

Taleganah. V, 14. Talega R, at. See p. 23a 

Talegawik. IV, 56. Talega they. See p. 230, 

Talegawil. IV, 52. Talega head 0r emperor. See p. 33a IVU^ 

Talega¥runkik. V, 45. Talegas west YisHor. See p. 23a IVunktn^ 

west ; kiwiJtem, to visit. 
Talligewi. IV, 50. Talegas or there found. See p. 229. 
Tatnaganat. IV, 55. Leader. (;^/^/^m^ii^= the leader. Heck. /W. 

Aames, p. 392. See note to IV, 2. 
Tamaganena. V, 2. Chieftain such or Beaver leader. Pipe-bearer. 

See note to IV, 2. 
Tamakwapi. Ill, 19. Denver manly. Tamaque, Camp; JQtmaqui, 

Zeis. A beaver. Mohegan, amuchke^ Schmick. 
Tamakwi. IV, 12. Beaver he. See last word. 
Tamenend, IV, 35 ; Taraanead, V, 32. hSalk^t (beaver like). 7W»i#- 

ntnd^ aiiable. Heck. 
Tankavrun. V, 9. Little cloud. Tangelenmwi^ modest, humble; 

tangitUf small. 
Tapitawi. II, 14. Altogether. Tack^mrn^ together. Z. 
Tashawinso. V, 51. At leisure gatherer. 
Tatukamend. IV, 19. Never black or bad. Ta^ not, smcJteu, Mack. 

Tatalli. II, 10. Which iK-ay ^ shall there. r«/a//i; whitherwardi. K. 
Tawanitip. V, 49. Ottawas made friends; niHsp friend. 
Tellen. IV, 17. Ten. 
Tellenchen kitupakki. Ill, 18. 10,00a 
Tenche kentit. IV, 58. Opening path. TWii, ti/it, little. K. 

Tendki. 111,8. Bein^ there. 7fii^/,iire. Z, Trndtfh Mu.; yawt' 

gan tindki^ the cabin-fires. 
Tank wonwi. IV, 27, 30. Dry-he. Teng' or tenk- =5 little. K. 
Thupin. 111,2. It is cold. 7>«, it is cold. K. 
Tibill. 111,3. Coolness. 7i7/M/rii, it is cool. K. 
Topan, III, 2. It freeses. Tepan^ white frost 
Topanptk. Ill, 16. Frozen sea. Ttpam^ and; /^i, lake. 
Towakoa. IV, 46. Towako. V, 16. Father snake. Tvwa and mki^ 

the OtUwM or Twightees. See note to V, 16. 
Taahepickan. IV, 49. Separated. TUhitsckpitthiH^ to separate. K. 
Tttlaffjahatten. II, 9. At Tola he is ready. Tkipe^ turtle ; giuA^Uimp 

it is ready, done, finished. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


TaUmokoiii. II, 13. A t«itk*s gnmdtaAv. Tk^ tvtft. 8m . .^ 

AfoAom. y^ 

TuUpewi. II, 14. Twite there. 7W^, a water toitk. K* ^: 

TuUpewini. Ill, l. Tartle being. See abor^ y^ . 

Tulapima. 11, 14. Turtle there. TWj^, aad mm, there. ^' 

Tulapin. II, la Tartle-back. Tm//e, taille. >; 
Tttlapit. II, S. At Tala or taitle bad. 7kj^, aad ^V, q. ▼. 

TolapiwL 111,7. The tattling. 7k]^, and nURa wtL ^. 
TulpenakL 111,7. Turtle coantij. Tirj^, aad #i/, laad. 
TulpewL 11,15. Taitlebe. Seeitbore. TWa/ewi. 

Tulpewik. I, 13. Tattks. See above. V 
Tumaakaii. IV, 43. Wolf strong. Tmavnr, wolf, Z. 

Tumtwand. V, 39. The wolfen (mohicaa). Temwum, wol( rnrnk s 
the wolf god, or magiciaa. 

TamewapL III, 19. Wolf manly. Ttmmem^ mtA ^ mtm} a — ■ #■ :^ 

ientiU, .1 .* 

Ucbtwak. 1,15. Flies. ^S'lrJlAMi, flies. Z. V 

Unamini. V, 5a. Ttiitle tribe. See p. 36. * ' 

Unchihillen. V, 39. Coming frontoaMwhere. M^rAOiiteiteoaMa 

fro'Ji somewhere rapidly, to flow out * 

Wagan. II, t6. Action. See Ot^igan. (^ 

Wak. 1,1. And. Id. • 

Wakaholend. IV, 33. Loving, beloved. ^il««/tif,to love* Wkmkm' *' 

koltmd. Heck. /W. NameSt p. 395. f '^ . 

Wakon. I, 21. Snake god. ffW>l«iii^ high (Mia.) P^rhapaa fem ^ 

of aiiuk^ earthward. ";/ 

Wallama. IV, 4a Painted. Seep. 161 • 

WallamoluiBiii. V, 5. Painted4»oking. See p. l6l. •; 

Wangomend. V, 55. Saluted. Id. Heck. Jmd. Nmrna^ p. 39$. V 

WapacbiUa. V. $7. White crab. Wotipem^ white. Z. The root > 

wab^ wapt or 4^, white, light, the cast, etc.9 occars ia ■—€!«« 

words. « 
WapagumoabkL V,44. White otter. See above. 

Wapagiahik. IV, 48. East san «r sanrise. W^^vtAgUikmh. ;> 

Wapagokhoa. IV, 8. White owL W^ and /wMm^ owL Z. 

Wapahackl. V, 37. White body. Mr/, aad iiiriof, body. C 

Wapaboninr. V, 11. White lick at lV4i/,udmsJkmit^. Z. A ^' 

the deer Udu 
Wapakiainep. V,ai. East land was. W^ and «4( laad* with pva- 

terit suffix. \ T; 

Wapalantof • V, a. White river at m^ and mmkmmmimk at Iha 

river. V 

■0 ' - '^' 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC ' 


Wapalu w^kwan. V, 20. East settling place. fKr/» ^^^ wiJkwam, 

WapalUnewa. IV» a. White eagle. Woapiannit the bald eagle. Z. 
Wapallendi. IV» 52. Easr some. lVap,t9aX\ allende^^omt, 
Wapanaki. Ill, 18. Eastern land. IVap, east; akit land. 
Wapanapi. Ill, 19. Eastern manly, ^f^/, east or white ; tf/r, man. 
Wapaneken. IV, 48. East goini; together. JVap^ east ; tee Ektn, 
Wapanen. 111,9* Easterly, ff/?/, east. 
Wapanand. V, 29. The easters. Wi/, east. 
Wapanichan. IV, 32. East moving. IVap^tzsIL, 
Wapaniwaen. IV, 12, 28. £ast he goes. IVap^ east; aan, to go. 
Wapaniwi. Ill, 6, 16. Easterlings. IVap, east ; nv', substantive verb 

Wapashum. V, 45. White big horn. IVap^ white ; wsckummo^ horn. 

Wapatinep. Ill, 13. East was or bright. IVap, east; preterit termi- 
Wapawaki. IV, 51. East rich land. 
Wapawullaton. IV, 50. East possessing. ffTi/, east; wmHaion, to 

Wapayachik. V, 59. >^^ite or east coming. IVap, east ; payat^ q. y. 
Wapekunchi, V, 40. East sea from. IVap^ east ; donbtfaL 
Wapkicholaa. IV, 38. White crane pr big bird. IVap, white ; tsek^ 

ien, bird. 
Waplanowa. Ill, 12. White eagle. IVoaplanne^ a bald eagle. Z. 
Waplowaan. V, 29. East, north, do go. IVap, east; iowan, noith, 

aan^ to go. 
Wapsipajrat. V, 40. Whites coming. IVap, white ; payai^ q. y. 
WapUlegawing. V, 20. East of Talega at. IVlap, east ; iaUga^ q. y. 
Waptipatit. IV, 41. White chicken. IVap, white ; tipatit^ chicken. 
WaptumewL III, 12. White wolf. IVap, white ; temmeu^ wolf. 
Waputhuwi. V, 3. White lynx he. Wap^mYk^t. 
Wasiotowi. V. 56. Wasioto. DonbtfnL 
W*deltinewap. I, 16. Were there. Preterit of Ussin^ to be so. 
Wekwochella. IV, 3a Much fatigued. WiquikiUa. to be tired. Z. 
WeUaki. IV, 3. Fine land. WulU, fine ; aki, land. 
Wemaken. Ill, 15. All snakii^. ffWwf,all; aH^ land, eaith; the 

whole land. 
Wematan. Ill, 14. All let ni go. If^/, and aAiM, q. y. 
Wemelowichik. V,.a6. AU. hnntert. Wtmi, 93X\ eUmwiiuhik. 

Wtmi. 1,7,6,16^20. AU. Id. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 




Wemiako. III»8. AH the WDtkm, WewU, all; m€k^09i^ snake; or, 

aii^ land. 
WemUmik. V, 48. AU children IMiamU). Doobtlal. 
Wemichemap. II, 12. AU helped. Wemi^ aU; mUschiwmk. he 

helpe me. Z. 
Wemiifuina. 1, 1. Wlemi^ all ; /w«m» tea water. See note to pawift* * 
Werailuen* III* 1$. All laying. Wltmu all ; imem^ to ny. 
Wemimokom. II, 13. Of all frandfather. Wemi^ and m^k ^ m , q. ▼. 
. Wemilowi. IV, 53. All lay. fVHm, all ; Amu, Io lay. 
V^Teminitit. IV, 3c AU bei«ig IHfndi. V, 33. AU friendly. fV^mi, 

all; Mttis, friendf. 
WemipaUiton. IV, 43. Towaro^aU. fKrMi, and /ai7i/#ii, q. ▼. 
Wemimn. IV, 2. All there. IfVMf; all ; mm, there. 
V^TemUat. IV, 58. AUgWentohim. H^mi, vnd minima q. r. 
WTemUo. IV, 5. AUtaytohim. fKrwi, and /«/», to lay. , 

WeminiUuk. IV, 15. AU waire L mm\ and nikiiUn, q. t. < 

V^reminitUc. V, 48. AU friends ^ aUiet. ffWwi, and ni/^. 
V^feminufifwi. V, 31. AU trembling. Wtmi and mrnngikiUmm^ lo 

tremble. ;. 

V\f emi owenluen. Ill, 8. To aU saying. Wleimi^ and Amu, to say. V]^ 

V\femi Uckwicken. V, 33. All anted. Tnckpuwi^ together. ( 

Wemiten. 111,11. AUgooat IV, 54- To go aU naked. W!tmi» k r.v 

ttn (infin), to go all forth or abroad. Z. <7r. 244. .^, 

V^femoltin. II, 10. AU go forth. Ill, 9, 1 8. They go forth. They / 

are aU going forth. Z. <;r. p.a44. 
Wemopannek. Ill, 17. AU went Wiemi^ with past preterit snflbu l^i 

Wenchikit. V, 52. Oflbpring. WinisckiMm^ to descend, to grow t*. 

out of. Z, ^? 

V^feUmalowi, IV, 33. The wise they. WiW0taammminet wise man. Z. 
WTewoattan. IV, 42. To be wise #r by wise. WnUm. to know. Z. ':\ 

WIch. 1,7. With. ff%irAi;wHh. ^^ 

Wichemap. II, 1 a. Helped. ff'E^iMMii, to help somebmfy. > 

WTihillan. I, 23. Destroying or distemper. NikiUmm^ to destroy. :./ 

Wihlamok. Ill, 14. Head beaver. WH head; ^mmckJUt beaver. 'X 

Moh. y; 

WUchichUK. 111,4. TiUers. fTtiiUi^faAl, caltivators of the earth. Z. V 

WUd. 11,4. With. ffS^4i,with. jC^ 

WUcwan. V, 2a ffSlmaiii, house. J 

WUawi^i. IU,I9. Rich manly. m% head; ^, man. ^> 

Winakicking. V, 25, 27. Sassafras land at or Penna. Wimmk^ sMsa- / 

fras. Z. .i: 

Winakgnaikbi. V, 36. Sassafras tarry. Wimmk^ sssisfras, /■wriwys^ 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 



Winelowicb. V, i8. Snow hunter. H^neu, wooyf ; tIattwUicA,\ivaAtt. 

Wmeu. Ill, 2. It snows. IVtHem^ it snows. 

Wingelendam. IVy6o. ^f7if^/fif4/am» to approve, to like. Z. 

Wingenuad. IV» 39. Mindful. 

Wingi. 1,2a Willingly, m'nyri; fain, gUdly, willing. 

Winiaken. Ill, 11. At the land of snow. Winm^ it snows; aii, 

Wininu>kom. 11,13. Of beings grandfather. OmnivoA Mok0mti{,r. 
Witawana. IV, 34. Yellow River. Wisaweu^ yellow; amkanntf 

Withanem. II, 15. Frightened. fVucAa/eu, he is frightened. Z, 
Withi. 1, 17. Good. Probably for mesiicke — Chip, mifcAa, j/r., great. 
Witchen. 111,15. Going with, ff^^if , to go with. K. 
Wittank. IV, 34. Town. m'f€H, to go or dwell with. 
WitUnktalli. Ill, 1. Dwelling of Talli. H^en^ to go with. Z. 

ta/U, there. Z. 
Wiwunch. I, 24, Very long. IViwutUscki^ before now, of old. K. 
Wokenapi. IV, 11. Fathers men. IK^iil/ii/^i repeatedly, again. K. 

V^fokgeUki. I, I. IVokgei^ on the top; aii, land. Wockgittckh 
above, on top ; aki, land, earth. 

V^foliwikgun. Ill, i. Cane house. Wmlak^ hole; waUkeu^\kt\» dig- 
ging a hole. Z. 

Wolomenap. V, 28. Hollow men. fVaAkillemato, wide, far. K. 

Won. I, 24. This. fVcn, this, this one. K. 

Wonwihil. V, 40^59. At this time. fT^ii, this, iot/, head. 

Waamimatkan. IV, 57. Too much strong. Afaskan^ gre^t 

V^f'ahakuppek. Ill, 17. Smooth deep water. Wsckackiu^ it is slip- 
pery, smooth, glossy; pek, lake, sea. 

Wukan. 111,3. Mild. fF/oi^ soft, tender. Z. 

W*uniaganat. IV, 37. And chieftain. The smoker or pipe bearer. 
See note to IV, 2. 

Wtenk. I, II. After. Ibid. 

Wulakeningua. V, 42. Well praised. IVuMeniirngmsmf to be 
praised. K. 

Wulamo. II, 1 ; I V, i ; V, i. Loug ago. fVmlam^t long ago. 

Wulaton. Ill, 3; IV, II. To possess. 

WolUton. Ill, 16. IVmlsiomi to save, to put up. K. IVtUiim^ to 

make well. K. 
Wulatenamen. V, 41. To be happy. lUd. 
WulelemU. 111,17. Wonderful. fTW^i^Mi, wonderful. 
Wuliton* II» 15. To make well^ to do well. Z, Gr. p. 222. 
WuUtowin. . IV, 2a Good who (did). See last wufd. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



WuUtthinik. ¥,4. Good Hosy #r well, bardy. fVmJii, piod; mstAt, 

WulUpalUt. V,^a Good wsnior,. Wm/it, good; H^^mOiti, wmrior. 
Wunand. 1,17. Agoodgod« K<m fVtm, See p. 104. 'i -ij^^^ 

Wundanuksin. IV, 3a. Being tngqr* H^mmdammxim, to be uigvyM |' •'^^ 

or for. K. 1 ';^V 

WunkenAhep. V, 1 a. Wett he went lymtidfkmem, H is wetL 1 

Wunkenapi. Ill, aa Western «m» IfVi/rim, wesi; ^V,mb. 
WunkeniwL III, 6. Wesleriings. See above. S"^^ 

WankiwikwotaniL V, 13. West be visited. See above JOwkkm. V 

toviiit oi 

Wttnpakitonia. V, 13. West abaaioned. PrnkU^n^ to tbtow away. ^, 

Wuaahawoiioiiia, V, 13. West sovtbemen. SImmmm, soadu v 

Yagawan. III.S. (latbe)bvts. Ibid. 
Yagawanend. IV, 5a Hat maker. See last word. 

Yucb. 1,6. WelL Yuk. H. Ymk. K. JIO, these. K. | 

YiikepMhi. IV, I. TiUthere. KO^^IkM tiU now, Mchetlo. K« 
Yuknohokluan. IV, 48. Let as go saying. DoabliaL 
Yolik. 1,6. These, hOtl, these. IL 
Ytttali. I,t,8J. There. >/«Zfir, Jnst here. K. 

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1 :^. 

» :=?^ 

aoozhagXuta. (/(t^ //• Note,) 
With reference to this word I have been favored with the opin- 
ions of Gen. Clark. Mr. Horatio Hale, and the Rev. J. A. Cuoq, 
all able Iroquois scholars. 

Gen. Clark and Mr. Hale believe that it is a dialectic or corrupt 
form for agotsaganha, which is a deri\'ature from atsaganmen 
(Druyas, Radices Verhcmm hoquaarum^ p. 42). This verbal 
means, in one conjugation, " to speak a foreign language,** and 
in another, " to be of a different language, to be a foreigner.'* The 
prefix ago or ciko is an indefinite pronoun, having the same form 
in both singular and plural, and is used with nat'onal or tribal 
appellations, as in akoncnsicHHi, " People of the Long House/* 
the general name of the Five Nations. Gen. Clark notes that the 
term agoisaganens, or mgotsaganes, was the term applied by the 
Iroquois to the Mohegans, = " People who speak a foreign tongue.** 
(Jogues, Novum Belgium (1646), and A. Coiomied Records^ v<d. 
vi, p. 183.) 

The Rev. Mr. Cuoq believes that the proper form Is mkotsa* >>'i 

kannka, which in his alphabet is the same as tigotsagmnka^ but he \ .^*> 

limits its meaning to " on est Abnaquis,** frcm miisakammt " ^tre -^t. 

Abnaquis.** (See his Lexique de Id Langue Iroquoiu^ pp. i, 15$.) <^A 

The general name applied by the Iroquois to the Algonkins be 
gives as Ratirontaks, from karonta, tree, and ikeks^ to eat, ** Tree* 
eaters ** (Lexique, p. 88) ; probably they were so called from their 4, 

love of the product of the sugar maple. 


An interesting specimen of the South Jersey dialect of the 
Lenape is preserved in the office of the Searetary of State, Tren- 
ton, N. J. It is a list of 237 words and phrases obtained in i684« 
at Salem, N. J. It was published in the Americem HisiericeU 
Record, vol. I, pp. 308-311, 1872. The ordiography is English,* 
and it is evidently the same trader's jaigon which Gabriel Thomas 
gives. (See p. 76.) The r is frequent ; man is renus Umo; devil :^<^ 

is meuUiio; God is kockung tappin (literally, " he who Is above **). 
There are several typographical errors in the printed vocabulary. 


^^>"^^ . 


REV. ADAM GRUBB. (/. 84.) 

His full name was Bernhard Adam Gnibe. Between 1760-63 
he was missionary in charge of the Moravian mission at Wech- 
quctank, Monroe County, Pa., and there translated into Delaware, 
with the aid of a native named Anton, a '* Harmony of the 
Gospels,'* and prepared an '* Essay of a Delaware Hymn Book.*' 
Both these were printed by J. Brandmiiller, at Friedensthal, Pa., 
and issued in 1763; but no copy of cither is known to exist. 


Quite recently M. Emile Pctitot, in an article entitled, 2)/ /a 
pnUndue Origine OrientaU des Algonquins'^ {Buiieiin de ia 
Socieie d*Anthropciogu, 1884, p. 248). has attacked the theory 
that the Algonkin migrations were from the northeasterly por- 
tions of the American continent, toward the west and south. His 
arguments are based on two Crce legends which he relates, one of 
which is certainly and the other probably of modern date, as the 
incidents show ; and on his criticism of the derivation of the name 
" Abnaki.*' Of this he says : " IVabang sxgnxfkt plut6t detroit que 
orient ; et quant au mot askiy ou ahkiy, il vent dire tcrre^ et non 
pas pettpuy 

Now, no one ever claimed that abnaki meant eastern people. 
The Abb^ Maurault translates the form Abanki by "terre au 
Levant** {Hisioire des Abenakis, Introd. p. ii, Quebec, 1866.) 
In Cree wapaw, in Chipeway wabU mean narrows or strait ; but 
they are derivatives from the root wab^ and mean a light or open 
place between two approaching shores, as Chip, wabigama, or 
wabim(^ad, " there is a strait between the two shores.** (Baraga, 
Oichifiwe Dictionary,) The name Abnaki is, moreover, no argu- 
ment either for or against the eastern origin of the Algonkin stock, 
as it was merely a local term applied to a very small branch of it 
by the French. Hence M. Petitot*s criticisms on the theory under 
consideration are misplaced and of no weight. 

To what has been said in the text I may add that the Algonkins 
who visited Montreal early in the 17th century retained distinct 
traditions that they had once possessed the land to the east of that 
city, and had been driven south and west by the Huron*lroquois. 
See the Abb6 Maurault, ffistoin dts Abinakls, p. iii, and Wm. 
W. Warren, Hist, of tki Ojibways, Chap. IV (Minnesota, Hbt 
Colls., 1885). 

Digitized by 



( Tkt^rindpai rtftremtts art in fiM'fa€$d t)fe.) 

Abbott, C C, 44. 5^. 57» ^ 

Adair, J., 6l. 

Alsop, G., 14. 

Anthony, A^ 156, 161, 219. 

Anpanmut, H., 18, jo, ty, 45* 113. 

b»ragi^T.,3S, 59,62. 
Barton, B. S., 146. 
Beadi, W. W., 115, 135. 
Beattjr, C, 23, 47, 69, 138. 
Bozman, J., 15, 23, 29. 
Brainerd, D., 46, 62, 6$, 127^ 137. 
Brickell, T^ 64. 
Bfumier, D. F., 52, 57. 

Campanint, T., 66,76, 96, 1 16» 146^ 

aark, W. P., 152. 
Copway, G., 61, 160^ St9- 
Cnmmingt, A.» 87. 
Cuoq, F.H., 71, 105. 

Darlington, W., 5a 

Darwin, C, 14a 

De Laet, ji, 44. 

Dencke, C. F., 84. 

Denny, E., 86, 94. 

Donkert, J., 132. 

Drake, S. G., 163. 

Duponosaa, P. S^77, los, 121, 155. 

Dnrant, M., 122. 

Eager, 36. 


220, etc. 

Fait, C 125. 
Fleet, H., 27, 
Force, M. J., 29^ 31. 
FoolkCy W.P^ 116. 


Gallatin, A., 31, 112, 120. 
Gray, A., I49» ^SS- 
Gmbe, B. A., 83, 256. 
Gust, N. L., 14- 

Haldeman, S. S., 150^ 162. 

Hale, H., 12, 17, 18, 36^ 9$, lit. 

Hammond, W. A., 1 10. 
Harrison, W. H., 64, 112. 
Haven, S. F., 15a 
Haywood, J., 17. 
Heckewelder, J., 1$, 16^ 18, M^ 2l» 

22, 23, 30, 35, 43. 7«. 9»* iai» 

136, 140, 146, 219, elc. 
Hendncki, Capt., 21. 

Henry. M.U 37. 45.36- 
Hoffman, W. J., 152, 
Holland, F. R., 85. 
Hough, 125, 229. 
Howte, J., 13. 94. 9>. "OJ. «o$- 

[amet, E., 61, 152. 

[oguet, I., 255, 

[ones, D., 6a 

[ones, P., 16. 

[ohniton, J^ 26, 30, 125, 145. 

Kalro, P., 46, 50, 52. 
Kampman, Rer., 28, 84. 

Lacombe, A., It, 261439 103, «IC 
Lawson, J., 61. 
Lindstrom, 131. 
Long, T., 20. 

■ "rf,r • 

Lodael, G. H., 18, J9, 47, 70^ 91, 

117, 229, etc 
LudienbAch, A., 85* 

McCoy, L, 12c 
McKcaaey, T. L.* 224. 



Digitized by VjOOQlfe 

i ■'■ 



' ( 

Mallery, G., 152. 

Martin, H., 54* 

MauranU, J. A., 256. 

Mayer, B., 162. 

Meeker, J., 87. 

Mezzofanti, Cardinal, 108. 

Morgan, L. H., 12, 19, ai, 34, 40^ 

47» 93- 
Monc,J.,3i, 1 13» US' 
Murray, W. V^ 24. 

Neill, E. D., 27. 

Ocoini, S., 67, 70. 

Peale, F., 51. 
Peet, S. D., 124. 
?enn,Wm., 58,7$, 122, 
Petitot, E., 256. 
Porter, T. C, 57. 
P»oud, R^ JO, 37, 4$. 

Rafmetque, C S., 146, etc 
Rasles, S., 60^ 94, etc 
Reichel, W. C, 22, 
Richardson, J., 58. 
Roth, J., 78. 

Riittenber, E. M., 20^ 21, 36, 42, 
5$, 116, 119. 

Schmick, T. J;, 22. 

Schoolcraft, H. R., 20^ 58, 62, 87, 

i<>9» «33. >^ a«9. «tc. 
Schweimtt, E. de, 25, 62, 129, etc 
ScuU, N., 36. 

Shea, J. G., 14, 231. 

Silliman, If., 155. 

Sluyter, IVirr, 132. 

Smith. Cr. t^. 

Smith, !., r , 26, 114. 

Smith. S , j-f. 

Squier, K. C, 163, 167, 219, etc. 

Stiles Prct., 35. 

Strachey, W., 67. 

Tanner, J., 152, 160, 219. 

Thomas, C, 17. 

Thomas, G., 54, 75, 9«» 0. 

Thompson, C, 48, 1 15, 12 1. 

Tobias, G., 87, 88. 

Trumbull, J. 11., 20, 30, 33, 46* 49, 

71, 74, 90* 97. 105, 219, etc 
Tryon, G. W., 150. 

Van der Donck, 44, 51, 136, 
Vincent, F., 60. 

Ward, Dr., 153-4. 
Wassenaer, 55, 72. 

Weiser, Conrad, 60, 123. 
Whipple, Lt., 87, 96. 
White, A., 27, 28. 
Wied, Prince of, 55. 
Williams, R., 30, 55, 61, 94. 

Young, T., 38, 63. 

Zeisberger, 35, 55, 62, 69, 76, I0$, 
"3. "9» «34t etc 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


( The prinapai rtftr m ut mrt infrntt-fmcid t)fe.) 

Abnaki, ii, 19. 

derivation of name, 256. 
Age of Gold, 135, aaa. 
Agoxhagauia, 14, 255. 

derivation of, 355. 
Algonkini, location, 9. 

dialects, II, 89, 93. 

dialectt, traits of, 89. 

.Tiyths, 67, I JO, 164, 167. 

legends, 145. 

eastern origin of, 14, 145^ 256. 
AlleoKcbi, chief, 123. 
Alligcwi, 141-2, 229-31. 
Alleghany, derivation, 229-31. 
Alternating consonants, 94. 
Andastes, 14* 
Arms, native, 53. 
Astigunaik, 228. 
Asftiwikales, 32. 
Auqtiitsaukon, 35. 

Bear, Naked, legend of, 146^ 

Blackfeet,9,49* >30- 

Bones, preservation of, 25, 54. 

Book, Lenape word for, 59. 

Brandy wine creek, Indians on, 48. 

Brant, Joseph, 122. 

Brush nets, 53. 

Ba0alo, the, 226. 

Cachnawayes, 26. 
Canai. Sec Comttyt, 
Canaisatego, 15, 114, 121. 
Canaways. See Ccnoys. 
Cantico, derivation, 73. 
Cape May, tribes at, 41. 
Cardinal Points, the, 67. 
Carolina, tribes from, 25, 31, 32. 
Catawbaa, 31. 

Cberokeea, 13. XO, 166, 23a 
Chesapeake Bay, Indians on, 15,23, 

Chieomoztoc, 139. 

Chihohockies, 37. 

Chiholacki, the, 23^ 37. 

Chilicothe, ja 

Chipewayt, 9» 5^ ^ > IJ* > 3^ «3«» 

Christina Creek, 1$. 
Civility, chief, 48. 
Cohongorontas, 15. 
CondoTence, custoai of, 18. 
Conestoga Creek, 15. 
Concatogas, 14. 
Confederacv, Alfookia, 19. 
Cottoy town, 29. 
Copper, nsc of, 50^ 52. 
Cree dialect, 10^ 12, 98. 
Crotwceksang, #r Crown kki , 45. 

Dance, sacred, 73. 
Deed, First Indias, 12a 
Delamattenos, 16. St Tilaasal— # 

and Hwrmu* 
Dela wares. See- Lenmpe. 
Deluge, Mjrth of, 134, 167. 
Dialecu of tiM LeMM LeM 

Dreaasa, belief ia, 7a 
Dyes, laa of, 53* 

Eaitlanders, 19. 
Eries, 13. 
Ermoinex, 42. 
EakiMot, 70^ 232. 

Fairfidd, (Minding o( 124. 
Sfw ::«"Wp» 65, 73. 
FIsb River, 229. 
Five Natiom. See Ir$pt$i$. 
«Fow Sticks," tbe, 152. 
Fo«r wiftda m dcilk^ ^ 67* 



Digitized by 


Google ^ 




Foxes, tr ' :\ 13. 
Frirml*., IIk -r re u > 

dians, 63, 126. 
Frog Indians, 44. 

to i 


t ', ln<lir.:is of, ^'; 
.t . >i5, 12 

Ganawese. Sec Cflnflvs, 
Gekelcmnkpcchunk, town, 1 23. 
Gesture-speech, native, 152. 
Glus-kap, Micmac god, 130. 
Gnadenhatten, 124, 125, 128. 
Gollitchy, chief, liS. 
Gookin, Governor, 118. 
Gordon, Governor, 1 19. 
Grave Creek Moands, 17. 
Grandfathers, Delawares as, 33, 

Grandfathers, Fire as, 65, 73. 
Gaaranis, the, 70. 

Hare, the Great, 66. 

Head, idols of, 68. 

Heart, symbolic meaning of, 71. 

Hieroglyphics, native, 57. 

Hithqu<vm !5, chief, 117. 

Hurons, 13, 16, U*. 165, i6&, / . 

Idols, 68. 
' Indian com. See Afahe, 
Indian paths, the, 45. 
Inscri)>cd stones, 57. 
Interments, 54. 
Iroquois, location, 13. 
history, no, 114, 120. 

Kanawha, derivation, 26. 
Kanawhas. Sec Contys. 
Kansas, Delawares in, 126. 
Kikeron. 132, 133. 
Kittawa-Cherokecs, 16. 
Koquethagachton, chief. Stt IVhiie 

Kiiscarawocks, 23. 

Lenape, the, 33. 

mjrths of, 130. 
Lenape dialects, 91, sqq. 

prefixes, 99. 

grammatical structure, 105. 

derivation, 33. 
ligbt, worship of, 65, 130, 133. 

Machtoga, a festival, 73. 
Macocks, 38. 

Mahic.inni SctA/o/iej^nns, 
Mni/c, native name of, 48. 

origin of, 228. 
Manabozho, 167. See Mifhaho, 
Manito, derivation of, 219. 
Mantes, 42, 44. 
M.inuractures, 51. 
Marcus Hook, derivation, 39. 
Masco, chief, 145. 
Meday worship, 71. 
Medicine men, 71, 13$. 

rattle, 13$. 

lodge, 71. 
Mengwe, derivation, 14, 1 16, I4I. 
Mcsukkummcgokwa, 222. 
Miamis, 9, 144, 146. 
Micha)>o, 130, 167. 
Micmacs, 10, 48, 1 ;o. 
Milky \Vp ni- iVr •>. 7' 



Minquas, 14. 

Minsi, 19,36, 114, 116,117, 122. 

di.ilcci, 92. 
Mission Delaware dialect,' 97. 
Mohegan dialect, 22. 93. 
Mohegans, 10, 20, 165. 

myths of, 136. 139. 
Monscy. See Minsi, 
Montauk Indians, 67. 
Mounds, building of, 17, 51. 

builders, 231. 
Munsees. See A/insi, 
Myths of Lenapcs, 130, 

Namaes sipu, 141, 143. 
Nanabo^ho, 130, 131, 1 66, 224. 
Nanticoke dialect, 24. 
Nanticokes, 22, 145. 
traditions of, 139. 
Narraticons, 42. 
Neohagun, the, 151, 152. 
Neutral Nation, 13. 
New Albion, 41. 
New Jersey Lenape, 40, 127, 356. 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

iNnrx OF sri:jECTS. 


Ntnniwat, 151. 
NottowAji, 13. 

Obvialivc, in T a nape, 107. 

Ohio, l)c!aw.iits in, 124, 125. 

Okahokis, 3S. 

OM Sack, 25. 

Ou»M, derivation of, 15^. 

Onas, name of rcnn, denvatbiit 95. 

Ononilacat, 1 17. 

Opingt, 21, 42. 

0|x»s.%um, the, 43. 

Opuhnarke, the, 19. 

Otages, 151, 161. 

Otsuariet, 23, 54. 

Otayachgo, tribe, 22. 

CHtawas, 113. 122, 140, 14$, 33a. 

Paint, word for. fo 

Paints use of, 53. 

Paint Crctk, ( '^ 

Pftlividv 51. 

I'.l ,tfU v, .». •. ♦. , ■>(}. 

r*i>!»tvc, 111 iimctium lan- 
guages 'oS 
Peace-belt, tl.^. 47 1 114. 
PiMcc r • »^, 4, 
Pcnn. V .... 7v. I J 6, 122, 127. 

hit Jiviioi ttauK, 95. 

hift trt.itKn 120. 
Pe«iuo<lv, ;o 
Piciograi'ljs, 56. 
Pipes 50, 118. 
Piquas. 29. 

Piscatou- ' . See Patcatcvtayt, 
Playwick' y. derivation, 39. 
Pohhegaii, the, 35. 
Poni|>tons 42, 43* 
Potomac, Indians near, 25, 67. 

Iro(|uoit name of, 15. 
PMtawatomies, II, 1 13. 
Pottery, native, 51. 
Powwow, derivation, 70^ 227. 
Phests native, 70. 
Pueblo InJtanSy lia 

Ktcord Sticks, 59. 
IUu>SooRB,tbe, 161. 

, Icii' »h, 41. 
Sacs^ Sauks, 1 1, 113. 
Safe Harbor, inscripciofi, 57. . 
Sanhkans, 43. 
5Mipoonies, the, 3 1 . 
Scheyichl4, 40, 143. 
Scythians disease of, 1 10. 
Senecas, 117, 121. 
Serpent worship, 71-2, 167, 221^ 

Seven, as a sacred number, 139. 
Shamoktn, 29, 1 15, 123. 
Shawnees,a9» 39. "3. "9. USt 

sacred song of, 145, note, 
fttiekomeko, 128. 
Sign-language, native, 152. 
Snake, the Great, 71, 167. 
Snake people, the, 165, 227, 331. 

bnd, the, 167, 331. 

water, 136. 
5>oai» stone, use of, 52. 
Soul, doctrine of. 69. 
S| */ tfs, use of, 53 
, St.i kno\vlr«|-o r.f. 55. 
j Slocl'iid'^e If 't t. •3- "3. 
Sun worship, 65. 
Sttsquebannn, derivation of, 14. 

lands, 120. 
bu^'l uIja mocks, 13, ^3, in , »^ i. 

Tadiuj;!'*!! s 31. 
Talamat..'. , 16$. 1 68, 231. 
TaJc^a, tSe, 165 6 
TaIIi-^'cwi. 141-2. 2. . 231. 
♦ Tflm ny, 41, 117, ^•y. 
Tatcni), Muses, 1 28. 
Taui us, constellaiioQ of, 55. 
Tawatawas, 146. 
Taway ct 'i'awas 232. 
Ted)>achxit, chief, 124-5. 
Tedyuscung, 33, 40. 
Thahutoolert, chief, 125. 
Thousand Isles the, 165. 
Tiawco, the, 22. 
Time, computation of, 55. 
Tobacco, name and culture, 49, 228. 
Tockmhoghs 23. 
Follan, 225. 

Tolcnic nnimals Ike* 39» 68. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Towanda, derivation^ 33* 

Tsalaki, 166, aja 

Tula, 225. 

Turkey River = Ohio, 39. 

Turkey sub- tribe. See Unalacki* 

Turtle, symbol of, 132-35. 
Turtle sub-tribe. See Unamiu 
Twelve, a sacred number, 73. 
Twighteet, 146, 232. 

Unalachtgo, derivation, 36. 
Unalachtgof, 37. 
Unami, derivation, 36. 
dialect, 79, 80, 91. 
Unarois, 37. 

Virgin-mother, myth of, 131. 
Vowel change in Lenape, 107. 

Walam, dcrival'on, 60, 10 1, 161. 
Walam Olum. 

evidences of its authenticity, 

^7 ^-7 \^C T^f I5S :• - 

:.^ ystcm, 159 

I furm, 159. 

Walam Olum. 

pictographic system. l6o, 

MS. of, 162. 

synopsis of, 164. 
WallamUnk, 53, 60. 
Wampanos, 21, 128. 
Wampum bclm, 47, 138. 
Wapanachki, the, 10, 
Wapeminskink, town, 124. 
Wapings, 21, 42, 128. 
Wappingcrs, the, 2a 
War captains, 47. 
Water god, the, 222. 
Wendais. See I/nrons. 
We-shcllaqua, 210, 220. 
While Kycs, chief, 58, 121, 123. 
White River, the, 124, 144, 153, 
Winicaco, 24. 
Wingcnund, chief, 58. 
Wiwash, the, 25. 
Women, ihc Lcnaj^e as, I09. 
Wonamcys, 36. 
Wolf sub.tril>e. See Afinsis, 
Wyandots, 13, 16, 231. 

j - V . , the nali\. , ^^. 

I /,»n/.ei»viOff, Count, 128. 

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DEl; 1 " 1302