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Attlee Comiaons ll^Maerz 
Warum wird nicht von Frankreich gesprochen?^ 



arum ist 



Frankreich keine Drohung? 






~ 1935 ^ ^ 

Iiabor,Lib.und Blschoefe empfehlen Neuverteilung 
de Kolonieen ~ 



t 



Nicht-Sanktionen :Oestreich Schweiz Ungarn Deutschland 

•^sa. Ja pan,Brasielien, Argentinien 



31. August Neutralitaetsgesetz in JSJISäUSA 



Q pß^ember HoareLaval Plan 



19. Dec. Unterhaus Hoa e;Von allen Seiten erhielten wir Berichte 
ueber die keineverantwortliche Regierung achtlos hinweggehen 
konnte:dass Italien die Oel-Sanktion als eine militaerische 

Sanktion, oder als gi// einen mit Krieg gleichbedeutenden Akt 

gegen sich auffassen wucrde. 

•"Mobilisation der franzoesischen Flotte "Militaerische~M^ssnahmen 
haben bisher nur wir ergiffen. ..lebenswichtig, dass wir durch 
Handlungen der in Frage kommenden Mitgliedstaaten tatsaechliche 
ßeweise erhalten, Auch Baldwin so 



Am, gg.Okt.iiatte. lÄval die Teilnahme d x franz. Flotte zugesagt 



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Als am 11. -overn-ber m^ ^orM v ar no.l beendigt v.ar, fand der Waffen 
stiUntand keine Anv-endun- au^ ^iejeni-en -ntert,e-^ru-nen,die bei 
vurran..V,Archam-elf,ic, in Suedrusrland anH Sibirien «tanr^en. Si« ntan- 
r'en dort den ir-i.j^.er. -^ec bolscIicTBistiüchen Reci^rune cecenueh--. 

•' "ere they at* ^^•ar with Soviet RuBsia? Certairly not',lont they shot 
Soviet RuBsi^j.* at sifVit. They ari.ed the enenies of the Soviet Jo;r- 
ernrent. They blockaded itB portB and sank ita batt^lesh i,.s . They 
earnestly Hesired and schened its dov.nfall. Bat v i^'^hocki no''. Ibter- 
ference-shar-e: It .-as.they re.eated, a r^atter of iadifference to 
then -0. RuBsians settled their ov:n internal af fairs . They .ere im..ar| 
tialYi'ang." Churchill, Th'. Afternath,^. ^.35. 



in vorld v'ar 






^^d^ 



c 



j ^^v A\.-^ -'T-f r\f^v ""^Tj cht Intervent ion'* 
Dieser iuntand ist spaeter •luroh 4ie ^rt der 

in, spanlaohen 3u|;erlcrie3 und ^uroh den"ehoot ins v.ar" 

r.0.2 iineher erlaeuter v;or1en. 

Sin grosser ^eil ^er ■-elt erv.artete, -'ass äi. Sntente.nachdem 
ihre "raefte .:.rch den Siee aeber -eutsohlani frei £:euoruen. auch 
ii«^«x«sl:mAx den fo-Jets den f!;est ee'oen »uerde. I-ieses "eyiwe ^ 
.achte a,.s seiner 'elndsohaft ee^en die ..,.er,erU=h-te utalist ische 
'He:ier.n.3en ■<eln Hehl, v.s hatte unter /ortrajBV,ruoh frieden mit 
-eatschland ceeohlos.en md dadurch die "rans^ort riesi.er deutscher 
-rupoer^assen an -e V-eatfront ernoe^Ucht. "-.s hatte Ue russischen 
Beffeutliohen "chulden refucsisert. Es hatte die Jeheimvertraege 
. ischen "ussland und der Lntente veroef fentllch. Lenin hatte die 
Lntente als die r.riaesschuMlsan angeprancert /rotzky und i^adeck 
hatten die Entente-Maechte oeffentlich .erhoehnt. ^ie diplo.atlschenj 

in ?etra^_;rad varen 

3ue^;er der l^nt ante -Staaten unrechtmaessiL' verha 

, *• **^--teR*«±xx durch Ifrrtriehe in den lintente 
^j^ ^ßv. Veitrevolution xxx^Jüäxäxxä o.uio.. 



. • A.r- lntente ^n Petrograd varen durchsucht v orden, zahlr^ 

r.i3Sionen der x,ntente -^^,^^1:^ ^f-f^^^^^y Cr.. v,..r Bciion der .jjnffi 

^ie -i^rohung 



var sc, 

3V 



laendcrn in -^ie Tat unsunetzen. 

Aber die « hie four" in Paris taten alles,u. die 



eindDcliaft 



6e 



s 



n 



-ov;jet-^^e-irnes 




£U i^rnorieren und die existente Intervention zu liquidieren. Sie 
blieben Russland se^-enueber "unparteiisch". 

V-ie var es ueberhaupt zu rier "Intervention" ijeko-ren? 






fti' 



C 



Is die 3ilschev;iken mit den LlittelniaechDen ""riedcn schlössen, lager- 
ten ungeheure ^'riegsvorraete der Alliierten auf russischem ^erritoriuj|r,, 
Die Arineen der r.ittelnaechte drohten sich ihrer ;:u bemaechti^-en. Sie 
drohten ferner ,auf russischem ?oden,v.o ihen von ceiten der Govjets 
kein faktischer '-iderstand eetoten v.ur^e, eine riesije --riegsv irtschc^ 
zu organisieren. 3ie v.aren von der"zveiten "ront" entlastet. 

'^uer die Alliierten be£;annen unmittelbar nach der "apitulation 
(?or »^o^-.jets anti-bolschevistischex Scharen zu kaenxofen. 7or allem 
stand auf russischem .loden ein bedeuten'ies Kontingent tf:chechü-slova- 
kischen "ruppen,das aus ehemaligen ^rieL^si-efanrenen un-' >^eberlaeufern 
bestand. Die Tintente hatte ein drinsendes Interesse daran, --'ass dieser 
'.'.ieHerstand nicht e stickt v-ur.^e, vielmehr romoerlich zu einer neuen 

■^'ront ausgebaut v'uerde« 

Aber selbst dieses Interesse rar lanesam erkannt an'' gev'ahrt 

vorden. 

Die erste -^eusserung scheint im ^'ariser .'^ournal des Jebats vom 
14.-^ezember l"»!? erfol^rt zu sein,v-o die Kontrolle der transsibiri3che>;| 



j^jjan 



ische Jtreitkraefte gefordert v'ur- 




^ahn -^urch amerikanische und ja 

de. ( ^eorge Stev-art, The rhite armies of Russia,1333,p . 126^. 

?Tachdem I'oskau an lli.^ebruar lOlB erklaert hatte: "The v;ar is 

mit 
over" , , wurde z^ei ^agc spaeter ein Interviev C-eneral ?och veroeffent- 

licht, in dem dieser sacte; "If /j^ierica vill look ahead I am sure she 
T:ill see another field in vhich she can render immense service vithoull 
relaxinc the efforts on the '..estern front. She should ^ive her attent-j 
ion to the Orient.it- CJermany is ^^alkins throurh Rucsia. .\merica and t| 



I 



7a^an who are in a posotion to rio no,should eo meet her in 3iberia. 



Both,for the Vv'ar and after, /u^erica and Taparijr'nc^t, -Fnrnish r^ilitary 



/^ 



nMß 



I 



o 



a 



n'^ economic resitance to Oerrran ^:)enetratiori. There sViould be imnelia 



te Steps in this inportant ratter. Don't vake un after it is too late 
Ijon't wait until the eneny ha^ too nnch nf j^ start.,'» ^.^, (/■ [Jk<r*/^) 

Am 2?. i^esenber l'^l^' enpj^ahlen die r^ilita-^rischen 7ertr-eter 
r<es '^o rsten ^^rie^srats "That all posoible support shouli. be civen 
to RuB-iang v-ho v-ere resol'/ei tj continue t'^e v'ar acainst aernany" . 






tevart ^.136; ^ ^ q^ 



ßjUjdr 31. '^eze-^'her 1^]? ^'arf Lo^^n^ng 3treet die -"^a^e der zvsi^.c.i 
^ront ^e:enue^er Vilson auf. (^^te^art :). 133} ^:.ilson erv^idert e"that 
the United otatee opposed Intervention either b/ ""apan alüne or by 
both in Concert." Ctev'art p.l33. 

'♦President V il3on,ho^ever remained unconvinced. 7or four prec- 
iou3 r>^onths a see-sav^ proce^g het^'een ^apan urld AT^rica continued in 
v;hich one or the oth^r* ßUCcesGively denurred to ever/ variant oropos- 
e^ b-r the -'"^ench an '' -^ritiGh, ''ov ever, the terrible conflict in jYance 
and 3el-iuTn anH the ino^^^apin^ "^e^-r^an exploitation of Russia present 
art^unents of Inexorahle force.l Churchill , Aftermath p.5'?'. 

:.ilaon glaubte, mit seiner W Punkten die ?olschewilcer) für die 
^ache der -.1 liierten jß^'i^nen ru koennen. 3eine rv^aeteren Aeusserunge^j 
lassen auch iie Annahme zM,daPS ihrr- das Sor jet-^^er irre nicht ICC pro- 



• ^ 



zentis ^uvider ^'ar. Vielmehr s^^'i^^« ^^ ^^'^^ moe^licnerveise eine 
Unter=tue*?'ine zu finden, ^'enn ej? -^-^^t, den Anüef.en ^en idealen 



frieden ^ 



ii^7U7vinfren. Jedenfalls behandelte Vilson in seinen 14 Punkte 



Protei amat Ion die Solf Jet-regierung als den berufenen Sprecher des 
russischen Volkes und setzte sich damit in krassen '.-iderspruch nicht 
nur zu den Allüerten.sondern auch zu seinem eigenen State i^epartment 
das am 9, ^ovember 1Q17 den bisherigen russischen Botschafter 



3 a 



^C- 



Lie IlaU.M.nc der Alliierten .len Sov jet3 jerenueToer vurde ii£est£;eleGt 

in ei nen 

JMrorardum oreoared for Lord rilner an^ Lord Cecil on 
sugeested pülicy in ^^us^J.a and accepted by I.!. Clerenceau 
and K. i^ichon on Lecember c;ü,1917. 

LS ist verfasst ^on T^alfour,.jed ruckt ;j^erican -aoers I,:^30 f. 

..'.-.e Bhould reprenent to the 3olsheviks th^t re have no 
desire to take part in any v.ay in the interaal politics of Rua.ia 
and that .aj idea that v:e favour a counter-re.olut Ion is a profound 
nistake.... ^ut ve feil it necensary to kaep the touch as far .s 
ve can -ith the lTkraine,the 3d)ssaks,^inland, 3ibcria,the Caucasus 



G 



sfraln 'rorr any ^'ord or act 



r eneries bat re should continually 



As for the var,""-e shoul-^ carefully re 

« 

counter (sie' to condonm^ tne t^eacnex^ u.i 

in^"* o^ace nerociations vith ou 

repeat our readiness to accept the principle of 3elf-deternation 

and this inclu^es that of no annexation an-' indcrnties." 

V.eiter vird die :^ereitschan erklart, die Bolschev istcn rit 



d 






r ihr -/erhalten zu '^.en deutGchen Unterhaendlern 



z'X versehen. 

Also keine ^•■ein^^selic^<eit resen '.as "ecire. 

^Zan hoffte, das spaeter beruehor.tsevordene ^selbstbestirnun^s 
recht zur Sin.rezunc der ,o] sche^-isten-ilerrschaft benatzen zu 
koennen. 



( 



-^ 



<t0nmammimm^ 



(f 



Bakhmeteff weiter als diplowati sehen V"ertreter Russlands anerkannt 
und ihm. an 24 gleichen Monats erklaert hatte, U.s. a. v-uerden fortfah*| 
ren die So^-jet-^'-ec^ «^rung zn ignorieren. ( ?re''.crick TeT-is OC^urnan, 
Arnerican ^olio^r tor-arris RuBsia,1^2'^ , o.56) ,\jn 11. Kaerz 191^ schickte 
T,ilson,r^er sich am 5. £:leichen >'onats nochr.al? ßezen Intervention 
erklaert h°^ts, ^*ri» ■^otscha^ an den Allruspl <=;chen Gov.jet-Kongress 
in ^er er pp^ne 3ympathie \in<^ *reun'^ schalt fuer r.UB^^land heten^-t«. 
rie Antwort, die er erhielt, v'ar allerrlineB "a clr.o in the face" 



-. N 



ocHuTTian j . "^j , . 



M"^ 



l^er ^« i*^ e"^>iq 



Starre Oo Position f^e^en Intervention Xax durch 



nierrn-l andere erschuettert als durch-'^rotzky . 

. Im aecensatz zu Lenin, ^er um Je^en "'reis nit Deutschland einic 
wer^ien rollte, hatte iVotzky Vnrz mv ^^-est -Litov sk 3)ehler ausge- 
streckt, oh ^^ie Sowjets im :^all^ einrn Konflikts rit Hen Llittelmar c^t e 
auf Untprf=':utzunr -^^r Inte-nte '^pchr)en koennten. (Tote ''"rotzkys an 






Colonel ^.ohin,den unof f i::iellen /ertrpter ^.er 'T. 3. vorbei e^t im 
Con^-rps3ional ..ecor^ vom ßo.^uni 1^1^, zitiert von "raves j.;2;:;,und 

lie '^'erhandlunren ':^arueber nic^il 



ji^^MwW ^^^ ^^^^,^ -^rf:3t-Litov3k liess'Trotzky . 

'r fü^„ if/i 

linJa^ll^ aVorechen. ;j" 5. 7'aerz l^r^ ,z-ei ^age nach ^rest-Litovsk schlug 

Z^/u(A>V./i^4^rotzk-r vo^; die ^^atii'ication zn hintertreiben und -forderte dafuer 
'^' ^ ' Ent,ente-3treitkreafte ziir ^lilfe. U^chuinan .».^ ,. 



/ 



m^t^^' 



O 



Trotzk/n ^^alt-mg rar -len arerikaninchen Botschafter so cuenst-j 
.^ p^c,^h^pnpn,daf? »^^ '-o^'-te,i'rot7>y ^'uerde selbst um Intervention 
off^iziell nachsuchen, un^ ries^e^en seine (Francis: eigene Forderung 
nach Intervention hin>^.usschob. .^jn 2. l'ai in*^ telgraphi erte Francis n 
nach ^-ashineton; "Tii^ie has cone to interventior" . ::er deutsche Bot- 
schafter mrbach sei der eigentliche r>iktatcr in P.ussland geworden 
( Lavid R. ^'rancis, Russia fron the /jnerican Lnbassy ,1921,0 . 296) 
••7inally I doubt the policy of the Allies lon^:er temoorizing v'ith a 



f 



r 



aovernnent advocatinc the ;»rlnci^jles of '^^C'^heviGm ar-:'. guiUy of the 

ontragen the Goviet, ■^rovernnent has practized". Francis "blieb vier 

T. ochen ohne je-'e Antwort. ::r bUeT) aber bis zuletzt ein entschiedener 

Anwalt 'Tee entschiedenen Einschreitens reßen den Bolschewismus. Sr 

-1910- 
hie]t die Tnterventio" fuer- ».^Ptw und fuer moe ,lich un-i durchfuehrbaf 



m 



it etv-'a 150 000 ''«-^" •- ^^ ^^ ^^^ Ar^'^rikanerTinr^aender und 5'ranL'.osen 



und ?0 000 -taliener). 

.\r". 3.A::'^il l^l*^ hatte eine Plor.ferenz der :^ranLoeGischer, britischen 
amerikanischen und italienischen ^otschan^-r in x^etro^rad foli-endea 



•''•esolat ion ^efasstr 

" ]^ T ' ^rt erve>^tion igoonaise est nlus cjje jarais necesf^aire 

nour conbattre 1' Allena-ijne. 

p/ ::ile n'aura son nlein effet que si eile revet le caractere 
d'une Intervention interalliee et si nn anene le gouvernen^ent h^Cche- 

ri\ a 1 ' accepter . . . 

^) Les oersonalUes alliees oui ap^^roc^^nt i'rotski_ont l'i^presl 
^ion ouMl ooürrait ^t-e prnbab.! ement amene a accepter nntp-v^-t^or 



7^ 



f 7oseoh '^oulens.T'on .\rbas3ade en Russie, 19:55, II, ,o,, 



"'a^onaise." ^ 



•Den T'ar fol'en'^^s voraus.^eicran'^en: 

Auf ^rotzK/ö Anfrage, ob er auf franzoesische Unterstuetzung 
o-e^en '^ie .deutschen .^rmeen -echnen koenne, hatte der franzoesische 
-eneral "iessel einen Vertei'^ irunsylan ausgearbeitet , den def ^uay 
d'örsav (gebilligt hatte. ->^oulens hatte ^rotzky alle verlangten ^u- 
Sicherungen ge-eben fl,2l-,n2i: Trotzkys .'jifra-e 21. ^^ebr. "iessels 
Plan ?A, -'evr. ueberreic^it . Protzky v^aete nicht »ge^en Lenin, der auf 
-^aoitulation bestand, den -iessel' sehen Plan auszufuehren, verhandelte 
aber veiter ueber concours technique et financiere (I,2£4) Lr verlang 
^e VsTfrV.oesische Offiziere, I^OO englische ^arine-of fiziere und 



anerilcanische Techniker. (Toulens II,!^5'. 



Am 25 



• April l'^l'^^ 



schlaest 



^orei^rv ^^\ 



MAI 



•■^^^^•■■^^^flSS^SHH!? 



r> 



f 



Salfour .. il^on vor ,rnlt ZuBtimnnng r?er Sowjets eine Expedition zu 
unternehnen. 

Bevor aber V. iison sich entBCheiden k:onnte, hatte der blutige 
Zu-.a^rnenntos3 zv^'ischen 'ien Tschechholovaken und Sov jet--^ru ooen die 
^raee der Intervention in ein neuef=5 Licht ^p!=^tellt. Lie tschechische 
Legion hielt straterinch v'ichtige Punkte der Ribirif=?chen iHahn beset 

Die Rettung der TschechoBlovaken erschien nun auch V.ilson als 
ein ^rund,eine bef:renzte Intervention 7ax rechtfertigen. ICr benuehte 
sich aber sofort, die -^initierung so eng v.i r^oeglich zu halten. 
Das Uebcreinkomnen ueber die Lxpedition vurde an 2. Tuli 1^1^) ge- 
troffen. (Churchill Afternath 1^^, ^fev'art 13?; Ajn ^^ . Juli 1^)1^ 
V'urde ein Proklamation erla'='Ben.nach der -ladiv^ostok: 'Minder orovisio- 
nal protection of the Alliod Rovers" geno^nen vurde... "in a soirjt 
of fr^C*idghin and syr>pathy for the Hussian people,and not in support 



of any political faction or party.?, 



t • 



(•' 



'..ilson hatte nicht allein mit seiner Op;)ösition gegen die 
Intervention jeatanden. 3ein Kriegs-'^elcretaer Baker v^ar noch ent- 
schiedner dage ;en. i:r hatte seit "^rueh.iahr l'^l^ V.ilson in interventi 



r > » 1. 



feindlichem ^inne bearbeitet, f Vorrede zu -raves n. VIII-Ia, Aoer 
das amerikanische i^riegs-^^epartement scheint die europaei^chen 
y.otiMe gar nicht begriffen zu haben. Am 20, i^'ebruar 191o hatte Cener<| 
Bliss ^em Stabschef reneral Tarch geschrieben; "The British and 
^"rench are convircced that the proposed Intervention is the only Vvay 
of consoli'^ating a streng sentiment in Russia favorable to the Allie 
... The advantage which our Allies count on is the polit ico-military 
advantage that vvoul^ result-if it should be realiz^d- from a consoli 
dation of sentiment among the ant i- -olsheviks vhich could be friend- 
ly to the Allies.^» ( Ilarch, The nation at v;ar, l'^32, p . 114-11.^^ •. 
Das hatte eine feindliche Einstellung der amerikanischen yilitaers 



r 



zur '^olgej'^ie Aie janze Inter/ention als politische An:^'eleeenheit 



an 



sahen, iind r^as nachte sich qpaeter verhaegnir^voll fuer rfie "rieg- 



(• 



faahrunp- TColtschaks benerkhar. I'arch " took the op,)ortunit/ to ur^e 
upon the SecretHr/ t'aat we keep out of ^jiberi.a.'* p.ll5, 

aerfi-al "'raves,rier T'onnandeur ^en anerikani chen r^xpedit ionskorpg 
( 7000 Va.nn] erhielt als Inr.truktion ein renorandum, ^ es.ien V.ortlaut 
er in seinem ^uch Xk \nerioa' r Siberian adventure (1^31; nitteilt; 

^'Tt is the clear an'^ fixed julsnent of the Governnent of the Unite^ 
-.taten, arriverl after reoeaterl an^^ very Bearchin.: reconsid rations of 

that nilitar/ -^'nterv^ent ion there vouid 



thr. who] e 31 uation m ^.unsia 



{ • 



add to the present sa l oonfnsion i 



• • 



n Russia rather than eure it,injure 



^er rather than helj her, and that it v;oul 



d be of no advantare in the 



or^seDHition 



'^r 



.ir nain ^e^ic^fto '• rn 



f-j-^e •" : -^^ '/"oinst Ci-errany , Tt 



cannot , ther«^fore • take part 



n 



'=^xc-i. Intervention o 



r sanction it in 



'»rinci.Dle, ? 



> r 



1 i 



1 itary Intervention t-quI ^ 



n 



it 



p-r 



e ef:^icacioi 



xr. in 4t B imne^U.ate avov 



its ^\x(]c^ment^eveii supoosing 
ed object of oelivering an 



.ttack ujon "ernany from 



the i;a3t,be r.erelj 



rr^etho'' of MakJ c ^-^^^ 







f Rus3ia,not a retho-^ of servi: 



■- \ 



-I ^ -'» 



-r-^^r^ reoole coul 



ä not jrofit b 



j 



t,i 



th 



ey profitted hy it at all, in t.ime to aa 



ve then from 



■^1 



T r- ■» "v^ 



present U stresser, and 



ei 'in arnies,no 



ble in 



Kussia ,as the lovernnen 



their sub3tance vo-xlr^ he uv^er' to r-aintain for- 

; il itary action is adnissi- 
te" Gtates sees the circuraJ 



to reconstitute their ov 



n 



t of tlie 'Tni 



stances, o 



nl/ to hel> the Crecho-Slovaks cons 



n 



li'^ate their forces and 



t into succesßful Cooperation 



Y ith their 



steady any e 



fforts of self-K:overn> ent or se 



3lavic kinsnen and to 
If-r^efense in v.hich the 



Russians t'ierselves nay 



te v'illjnr ^'^ accept assistance 



• • • • 



3^or helpin. 



the C::echo-:Uovaks 



there is irnrne^Uate necesaity an-l suffi 



ient :u3tificatio 



n 



Recent neveloonn nts have rra^ 



le it evident that iii 



that is in the intereR 



t of v.hat the Kussian p^op 



le thernselves desire, 



r 



3 



D 



Xu 



the -^overnnent o^ tvie 'rnited 3tate3 is ^lad. to contribute the snall 

force ät the rJisposal for that purpose Bat it o\^e3 to frank 

counsel to say that it can 'jo not further than tliose modetst and ex- 
perinental plans. " p. 5-lo. 

Terstaend ich ist.dass braves ni^. dieser Inotruktion rdcht 
gleich z'i ^'ande kan. 

" After car.-fully readin; the docurent ai^d feeling that I under- 
3too; the polic/,1 ver.t to be',h;it T could not sletp an: i icept vond- 

» 

erine vhat other nations v'err deine ani vhy i v-as not ijiven sone inf- 
ormations about rhat ^ as s^inc in Liberia. The follovin, da/, I read 
the docnner.t geveral tlres and tried to anal/se anc^ ret the neanintr 



of each an-'' eyery scntence. " 



p.64-o5 . 



aeneval -^aroh urteilt ueber diese InstruKtionj "Goaoidered 
purel/ as a nilitary oropositiou U 's neither :)racticc^l nor practi- 
cable....Tt voui^^ not r\ivevt a sin^jlc .^err^an fror the V. estern front." 
rh'. Hat Ion at v.a-rjp, hb. 



ti '^'^ 



::o other forei^^n repres'^ntut ives vere hol-i to such definite 
Instruction ag ^^e-e the .Vnerican -^orces. ^ror the stanlooint of activ^^ ' 
Intervention in rj.issian a:^fairs in vhich the nood and enthusiasr of 
the nonent carried the -Vench,the british, and the Tapanese a Ion- vay. ' 
Greneral ""raves ' ins truct ionsxai a handicap." Stevart j.133. 

Graves kan nicht nur in dauernde Spannung ^u Koltschak, son- »^ 

j 

dern lu den f ranzoesischen un"? britischen Offizieren. _jas an er i kan i- |j 
sehe Lxpeditionskorps v^ar -f^uer :Ue Polschevist en kein T-Iennnis, eher 
eine lirleicht erung. 

Saentliche anerikanische IConsulatsbeart en vurden von -ilson anp^:e- 



ei 



^^^^t^k^ /y vviesen , "in no v^^a/ to interf ere, recoeni;.e or becone nixed up vith 

an/ -^action or partisan strife in lussia or oiberia/' Jrav^es p. 43. ^ 
Ton einer UnterstuetLun^: der russischen Gtreitkraefte, die fuer 



dl 



le 



All 



r*T -tiJiiilMtrii.- 



t 



^ie Alliierten kaenpften, konnte also keine ^'er?e sein. 

Indessen auch in London var von Anfanc an c'er Eifer, ^ie 
^ol3Chev'i3ten zu "bekaenpfen, riurch CTerenkraefte ^ehenrnt. 
Zunaechst ^"urde der 7.otncha^ter Puchanan abteruf en, of f iziell aus 
^esuH'^heit sr:ie :kF?i?ht en, in '..irkl ichkeif^because his long residence 
in ?etro2;ra^ ha^ jn^"''elihl/ associated hin in the nind of the 3olshe- 
viki v/ith the policy of* the Gaf''ets.*' (Papers relutinj to the J^oreign 
ralations of the United Gtates (1^51] :'o . 222 I Russia 1913,p,33C) 
Aber in London vurden seine Latschlae^^e nicht beachtet , seine Lrfahrun| 
^en ^^aue nd ignoriert. :jabei var er nichts v erii^er als intransi^ent 
revesen. "^"r hatte :eraten bonne riine a riauv^ais Je|(^ au nachen und 
Russland von seiner Verp ri * ohtanj;V:eiter ""riet: ^^^ fuehren, ausdrueck-| 
lieh zu befreien. [ J'y ninsion to T{ussia, l'^^^, II, 2^5-; k:^^). Lr 
hatte bei seiner ersten Unterredung rit Balfour von einem -»ruch rr;it 
den oov'jets ab2;eraten,veil ^ies ""en deutschen voelli^ frt.ies -^eld 

lassen ruer^e ( II, 2f^'5 ] , aber er hatte Ilalfour 'wA Lloyd ^eor^^e 

a 
erklaert ,--enin un^ Trotsk/ "though very bi^j nen,represented destruc- 

tive and not a constructive ^orce" un^ sie vuer-^en nierials ehrlich 

mit "kapitali^tischpn I-n^^p-T al ist en" ^..i'^a.rnr^enarbeit en. Gpaetcr v'ar 

e^ -^uer of'^^nen -^ruch,v-eil er 'Ue Aussichten Lenikins und JColtschaks 



c 



ö"! 



uenstif^er beurteilen zu koennen t:laubte und beantragte ihr 






tiffeninj. Lr var ueberz^ujt , ^ass ein jerin^^es ^ruojenaufrebot mit 

modernen '^r.j-^^y^ rr^nue-^en v;iierde,um Petersburg einzunehmen. Ler rieic> 

Ansicht v'ar der britische I:ilitaerbe\ro] Imaecht igte 'General iü^ox.x^iii 



Lloy^ 'Teor^e verliess ?iich riehr auf peiner inoffiziellen Renten 
i^ruce Ioc<>iart, , f^ir.en fr-ieheren !:onsul,der vegen IlnrerelmaessiL'iceitei 
IR -^e-! rien^r entlassen, a^er dis'Kret iDehan-ielt vorr^en var. LleBer 



at 



blieb lan'Te in der Illusion hefan^en, eine Linic'mi" nit I.enin un^. "r 



1 ^ 



«r, 



i- 



f] 



tvotzkj fertie zn brin-en. Aehnlich arbeiteüen 'Ue inoffizieMen 
Acenten Frankreichs 3adoul,^er "^^-eter zu ^.en Pol schev irrten neherring 
uiT' der anerilcaniscb^ -T-)ent HoMns, '-'ertreter ''es Koten "reuzes. 
Diese 'rei Personen sin^' an -^er schlecht«'- '^nformcticn der entschei- 
denden -""aenner Tnitqchulr'ir' 

Tach 6e^ Jrteil .BachanariB, ^^^n -^urch "hurchill be-taeti^t värd, 
litt -^ie alliierte Intervention in allen ihren Gta^ien an nan^^einder 
Lnergie. "^lar^ie^^ out,aP it V'a5=? in a h^] f-heart ed sjirit it vas un- 
douhtlv p ni-tgVp, ^nr^ the noney sjen^ of it ^as v'ant^d." 11.^53. 
A^'=^:^ nicht die Intervention an <=^ich, sondern die -^egdenst i£:ung der 

Xiit-^ '^ejarati.snen schadete ^«>^ /JlMorten }w^. >-met:te ^en ?ni pchev^ip;-»-^ 

n 

jt Vfin tine fear that the Allie<=' vere interei^ter^ in ^^^^ ^'icrreT^berment 

.)f na<=<=^ia an^ not Intervention that -^^^'nf ^rce^^ t'^e r-i^Vp of the ^^^ed 

Lloy^ ^ieorge aher ^^ollte die Zerstueckelunc Rasslands. Um die- 
sen -"reis var er bereit, den "^^olschevisnus in ^ossrussland zu tolerie- 
ren. In lebrigen war Uoyd ^eorge ueberzeugt ,dass er ^enin bloss 
einmal Auge in Auge ge^enueberzustehen brauche, um ihn einzuv^ickeln. 
Die gleiche Ansicht von soiiher ^aehigkeit hegte Arthur --enderson. 
"R.H. .Bruce Lockhart ,^ritish agent , 1033 , j. 19^). i 

^len'^erson stimmte Lockhart sofort zu, als dieser erklaerte, 
"that it ras nadness not to establish sore contact ^ith the v^er. rho 
at that moment v pt-p r^-^r^*^?"^ ^ -^'r»;-^ \'t^<""'^'^ ^^prst-inipp •♦ > top 

Ti ^^r-^ 2e^r'<lo ^v^:xs very impressed .. by Colonel Thompson n^ the 
A^er^can Hed ^ro33 ^ho '^'ao ju9t returne.'^ ^r^^nn p.iissia and 7'ho had de- 
nounce^ i^ v,iiint •] ny^z-^xr^^^^ t.inp folVr of the Alliep in not ooeninr uo 

nejociation« '-'ith the Bolshevikic /' pj"^^. 

r^en'''.e'^^0''^ ''"»a'^te r^c^'^^"^'^^^^";)'^ a'^'np, ^^i e spTbst Lockhart refaehr^ 



lieh erschienen, i.l'^'^. 



.-.8P Pinzigp ivöi, 



Kabinett -r^t^-1: 



^ ;?^^^ -r-pv^i erst ens 



■H 



"»*" 



11 

ob^rflaecrtl iche IfenntniooC vc^ nM^-^lan^i ''-'ante,^''ar I or'i lainer. 
H'^'^^^ar^^. äC^r::on v'oJlte r^?.^"»-^ ^on Lockhart ernsthaft ^.en Unterschied 

2V7i en^ipn eineri --^axlr^aV ^^^ ^n un-' pIppt^ :2ol=5nhev isten prklaeren laricen 
0, 1^-^. 



t 



''€ 



LeutBchlands Kollaps entioe ^.en Alliierten den :Jrund,'^-en sie bisher 
fuer ihre Intervention in Rusolan-^. anir^^uehrt hatten. 

Sollte Hie Interv ention fortec-set jt oder noch verstaerkt rerden, 
so nngste politisch-idteoloeisoh ^^arbe he'<annt verden. 

?uer -^eseiticuns der lolscherücen r^it T.af "en^ev-alt var ein 
grosser Teil der erc^ -^ '^'^hAn Konservativen, die sich aber parlanento.ri 
in der Pl'derhfdt befanden, -v.-ar Churchill, der erst an 1«. Tanuar 1?10 

Ofic- uebc-nahn, waren Buchanan und der anerikaniRChe Botcchi 



das "ar 



ter ■^'rancis. 



Clenenceau ^ar politi-oh und noralisch unversoehlich. Aber 
er wollte keinen Ancri ff, sondern einen "cordon sanitaire" und er- 
wartete von der 3urchfuehnuns dieses be^aff^nten royko^ts einen 
raschen Zusa-Tnenbruch -^es bolschewistischen ''r-ir^es. 

-,eren Intervention, fner moe-lichst rasche Yerstaendi-une 
r.ir. den 3o^-iets -ar V.ilson, die T.eh^heit ^er ensli-cher Liberalen 
und^'ne .lan.e encli^^ohe Arbeiterpartei, vor allem ^^enderson und ^^arnej 
Hie in Kabinett «assen, schliesslich auch LloyH Geo-c, obv. ohl er 
.chv-ankte. Trotzky charakterisierte 5bn in einem -espraech mit 
Lockhart r -Tour IloyH George i. like a man playing roulette and 
ncattering c^ips on every number." I ockhart n. 22^. 

Lloyd -eo^.- =^tand .'ohl schon -ovembe^ 1^^ auf de- Standpunkt, 

T u ,oi-«r> ^PTr< aTr'eriT'-ni*'?chen Diplo'^^ten Tolk 

den er genau ein Jahr spaeter ^em amer 

^ T i-v,ot Tn-''oie v^ll be- menaced by a 
schilderte. "He strongly feels that ^u.ope 

^v,-.,v„ t-h-:,r Geor'^iujAiierbaijan, 
unified Ruscia. On th is account he thm^s that .eor^ia, 



—-r^mmmtltmtJmtlimmmm^m^U 



Bessarabia, the Ukraine, the i^altic provinopf3,an^ ^30f:.si>>ly Giberia, 
ghould be in^epen^ent . " ( Papers TI,l:-:C) ZesTeren '^^ar Lloyd ^eorp:e 
je^en To] ^chak un^'' c^"^/'<:in ein^e<=!tellt , di^ ^^ep-ev rjT^clanr^R ^erstueck:- 
l'ing kaenpften, 

'*L' Anglet erre a conr^ij^ une aatre erre'ir. '^/pnotic^e par le 
souci (^e maintenir sa BUprenatie ^ans l'Inde et leq :.tats voisins, 
eile n'a envisa{;fe dann la cri^e ruRse qae 1' af faibl issenent probable 
de f^a rivale et s'ent fin;ure que 1/ iriternationalismcTprofenge par les 
nouveaux ra'itreg He la RuRsie leur interdirait tout esprit de con- 
qaete.-* Die enrlische ""•. ;:ierimg '»acceptait la revolution russe conme 
un nal local dont le Royaur^e TJni pouva^t tirer quelque avantage. .. 
Ce point ^^e vne e^^oiste lui a fait reoc^'^^aitre la ;£rQiVite ^'e la 
T^enace.,, et la force expansive He cette doctrine,'' 

Diese bei'en ""enerkuntjen Hes franzoesischen Rotscha"^t ers 
^'oalens' -^reface p.I7} gruenHen Pich anf per<?oenliche Sindruecke 
auf Her ^' rAßrHenskonf erenz . LloyH George tat Hort alles, um Voulens 
als Autor itaet fuer PjisnlanH zu Hiskre itieren. (Ler^oirs of the ^eaoe 



onf erence 1,^0^^-251]. 



C^^^ 



^'^^uer alle Gtaatsr^nenBer Her Lntente ^ilt TToulens a.a.O 
" Ils ont cru que, par la force Hes choses,le re^ir^e cor^'puniste evolue- 
rait et s' a^ai"^t ^ralt aux conHitions Hes I tats cajital ists . " 

Der of ^icielle Standpunkt de^ britischen "'esierung v'ird von Lord 



(^ 



rilner in einer Zuschrift an ^ie Times vom 1^. Dezember ni8 umschrie 
ben: 



i 



TtThp reason ^^'hy AllieH,not merely british forcer^-inHeeH the 

British are only a small proportion of the total Allied troops- 

vere sent to "Ujn3ia,is that the ^olr,heviks,vhat ever their ultirriate 

ob.ject,Tere in fact asoiating our eneries in every possible vay... 

the 
This intervention ras successful . . . anH contributed naterially to 



© 



i 



13defeat of C-ernany. I Bpy nnthinp; of the fact 
t'nat a va3t portion o^ the earth's surface,anr! nillions of people 
friendly to the Allies have heen spared the unsoeakable horrors of 
T^olshevist rule. 

But in the course o*^ the Allier^ Intervention thou^an^^G of 
Rus^ians have taken amg an^ ^nw^^ht on the Bi^le of the AHieg, rTov; 
can v;e,Binply "because our o^Tj i^neHiate purposes ha.v^c been served, 
come a^ay an<^ lea^^e tbem to the ten/^er r^ercies of their and our 

enenieR,bef*ore they have ha^ tine to arm, train, an^] organize so as to 

an 
be ptronc enourh to r?e^en^ thengelves? It vould be abor.vxna'^l e betray| 

aljoontrary to every ^ritish instinct of hononr and hananity," 

Diese Ar/ninent ierunr- nachte .<'einen ^'indruck auf die liberale 

ßchri eb 
Opposition, .jer "Daily Telerraph" ÄXXiÄÄZiJfi an 11. 12. IB 

"The country is entitle^ to nore inforn^^tion than that . ly ourht 

f / ^ 

to be told v'hat )ro3oect therp is of these proteres of the Allipnce, 

arninSj ^^raininc an^^ organizin^: so thenselves. ^e 0Ui:"ht to hear sone- 

thin.^ reliable abaut the nutual ^lif -^erences of the various anti- > 

ethep 

."^olghevik el enen ts Vvith v:ho^ the Allied are co-operat ing, anr^ vhM-^^-^r 
t^iere i^ an/ rroan^ for the allegation that the intervention i <^ tur- 
Hing to the a'^vanta^e nainlv of the part^sans of the regine V'hich 
the revol^ition overthrov-, V. e have at present a v.ar on our hnnds in 
RuBsia such a5=^ voulr» he^^^ fi]leH the nevnpapers at any normal time^ 
and the nation is entitled to knov' that v aB is going, and vhat end 
to it is contenplated by the "overnnent. " 

Lloy.i hielt offiziell an den von I.ainer fixierten oü^ndpunkt 
noch in einer ^^ede von 16.Anril l'^H fest (House of oonnons ) : 

'»Bolshevisn threatene^ to inpose by Vorr^f=^. n-r arns its donination 



on those oooulations that ha^ revolte-^ against it anrl that vere org 

anize-l at our rfiqnest,. Tf ve,an soon ar^ they han ^erve.6 our !)ar )ose 

V e 



anrl as soon as they ha^' tal<:en all the risks 



,ha'1 Said: ' XVianK /" 



e 



L 



"^ 



14 

are exoeef'inj:!/ obligei to you,you iiave served o'ir purpose. 

T.e neer! you no lon^^er, ""ow let the "^o] pilievi nts cut your throuts'jVe 

Tnnerlic?! aber v.ar 1.1 ovi^^ "^eoTt^e zu gcrileunigster Liquidation 
entgcViloBsen, schon um Labor fuer sich zu ;ev innen. 

"I v^as desiroup that v;e should v.'ithHrav cur forces from thig in^ 
tervention Btru5gle,but that before doing bo v.e shoald exert our mfl- 
uence to nake peace betvveen the v'arring sections." Also Iceine -.undesg 
nossen, sonders factions. (i^enoirs of the -^eace Conference 1,207} 

'» Our honourabie Obligation to the remnants of the Russian arny 
vhich,disregardint; the -^reaty of -örest-Iiti^akjrenaineri in the field 
to fight the :}ernans,put ag in the enbarasaing pos^tion of bein^ 'inrier 
the o'bli:ation tn heT i ^re of the parties in the Rusßian nivil Var. ^^r 
\.e were thus -iriftinp: vjthout any riP'f.-r^^rp aiw of jm-^opp jrto a v/ar 
apainst the y^u^evf^ of at least tvo-rhir-'e of that vast and unconruera- 

ble country," o. .'30^^. 

"^r "•lau'h^'' nlnbt an e^nen Tl^-^ol"; ''er ont i-holRohev-ist ischen Arme^, 
H.ie-ha'' beer call ^'^ i^.to ex r '^ ^ '^r^ n o V ?.n .Uliel a^v^eal" . Aber er '/*c 



n 



icht die ^ol*5erung,'iass 'ann <ta^ ^:«r.7P ^:n3'Of^nd v?J,rlöB den '-olschevi- 



JuVlO 



ken verfallen sei. 

Ari 16. ii'ehrnar 1^1^ sa£te Iloyd ^^rre- za Beine-i '^elftr -hilipp 
Kerrr'ihere is only one iustif ication -f-or interferins in Russia-that 
Ru33ia v-ant it. If she doen,then rolchakj'rasnov and -eniicin ourht to 
be able to raif^e r^äch larger force^ than the ?o]sheviks. "^his force -< 
can efjp,and a vell-equipperl force of villin~ --en roald soon overthrcv^ 
.^^olshe^riv arny o^ unv-i]iin>2 corscripts esjecially i^ ^hole population 



is. 



■Tainst them." Churchill, A-^temath 1".. 



I^oyd aeorse e;la-.>te ric^^t an ^ino allcereine Opposition des 
ru'^-.i sollen /^IVes eei^en '^ie -^olc^heviken. 



c 



() 



10 



•iTVip pvi^^.enne "-.hc-t ca^e Vio^ne ^ro^'^ o^i.r o^T p ost t^-^^te^^ ar/^ V)est 
inforneH n<rf^,yi^<y in :::M.rcia convince^ r^e that althoujjh the Vd3t rc.;:ori-' 
:/ j^ ^^-c ^eople vrere not Con^u-.int- , ^he/ ^jreferred Polshevik rule 



to 



that of th- eupporters ^^ t>e olc^ refire." T/eroirs 215. 



m 



::r var ''^^efintel/ opposer^ to rilitar/ interv^en*:! jn x% :^"^-/ 



stoape." 215 ,.in'^ ,rie ':. ilson^ v-ereit zar de facto Anerkennung. j.PJS 

sollte erol^-en nit der r.inbera funt; eixier Konferenz äii^^^- 



::iese 



von Vertretern aller rusnischer La-er o.uf Her Trinkipo -Insel bei 

Konstant inopel. 

:)cr Vater ^ie^er Idee ist nach Ilo/d ^eorce p.21-t der -aber .:ini 



►^ -< -- -- 



c-^ ar 



nes. iirierson cri'f sie nofort "begeistert ^iif. ..ilßon 
akzeptierte aie j^-A 3etr..t,e nich aa^ -'er .rie v^nskonferen^ fuer sie 
ein. GleT-enceau v.ar daseien, aeu-serte aber ,nachden offenbar ge- 
heir:e Auneinan^erset^uncen zvigchen ihr;, Li V^ ^eore^e anr^ V.ilson 
voran,,e,janrjen v-aren, keinen '. i^ers^rich a f r'er Konferenz. 

r. i e.f. Einberufung: der .■'>-lr,ki .o-ronf erenz ist die en tBChei^ 



•pn -1.^ -..botjer.mn nicht nur r^er Inter -/_enUon^onc^ern aucli des . 
i n n -:: r - r u ssi-.ohen '..i^ie f^tandes le.^en .-Ue -olschev. ikeru„ 



tili« 



"% 



?> 



1) ^ilaons letzte i^ede 

Auf seiner grossen Agitationstour, um die Annahme des "ertrags ein- 
schliesslich Yoelkerbund populär zu machen, fuchrte ».iigon am 
i^ept ember 1919 in Kansas City 

aus;, ferrschaft der Minoritaet ueber die *ajoritaet sei ueberall V 
zu bekaerapfen, 

"The nen who now are measurably in control of the affairs of Russlai 

r#*,r«»^nt nohody but them«e]v<=5 they have no mandate from every,| 

body. 



o*» 



... There is a closer monopoly of power in Petrograd ar»'» Vonc 
than «Ter waa in Berlin, and the thlng that 1« intolerable is not 
that the Russian people are having their way t)ut that another 
group of men raore cruel that the Czar hiT-?elf is Controlling the 
destinies of that great people." 

zwei Tage nach dieser ^ede brach tUgon zusammen und musste seine 
Tour abbrechen. 

Am 4. Dezember 1919 stellte Staatssecretaer Lansing in Schreiben an 
Davis die Nutzlosigkeit einer Verstaendigung mit den Sowjets fest; 
"The ultimate airos of the Bolsherists are hostile to all existing 
gorernments.and any apparent compromise which they may nake with 
theae governments is ritiated by their arowed opportunism." 

(Am. PapersjSuppl. 1919). 

2) Hoehepunkt der anti-bolschewistischen Aktion 

Augusr 1919, 

Obwhl Kolschak im Zurueckweichen war, hielt er noch die V.olga- Front. 

Gleichzeitig bedohte Denikin Moskau, Judenitsch Petrograd, . Die 

englische Flotte hatte zwei grosse russische Panzerschiffe versenkt. 

Denikin und Kolschak hatten bereita eine lose Verbindung ihrer 

Armeen hergestellt, die bald wieder abbrach. Haette sie gehalten wer* 



den 



■^^ 



SB 



«MMMM 




c 



werden koennen,dann waere die Situation der Sowjets, die bereite 

kritisch war, verzweifelt geworden. 

Eine zusairanenfassende Darsi^ellung der militaeriachen Operationen 

gibt es nicht. Leicht reproduzierbare Karte, in der die Fortschritte 

Denikins eingezeichnet sind; Royal United Serttce Institution .Tournajl 

TOL 67, p. 603 (1922) . 

Der Machtbereich der Sowjets erstreckt sich, roh gesprochen, auf das 

alte ^rossfuerstentum Koskau des 16. Jahrhunderts zuzueglich Petrogracl 

als der V.eltkrieg no.l endet. 

Denikin hatte; 



Februar 191R 
Juni 1918 



3500 Mann 



llooo 



> )$ 



s 



November 18 50 000 •• 
Juni 1919 200 000 •« 
Schliesslich wurden evakuiert ; 100 000 Offiziere und Soldaten, 

50 000 Zivilisten, darunter 30 000 Frauen und 17000 Kinder. 
General Türangel in English ">view,vol. 45,382. 
"On paper it looked like the Great "^ar on the Eastern and '«»estern 
Front; in fact it was only its ghost." 'Raids,no battles. Churchill, 
Aftermath p.240. 

Churchill an Ll^o4d George, 29. Februar 1919; ••The lack of any 
•will to Win* comrnunicates itself to cur troops and affects thear 
norale; it coramunicates itself to cur Russian allies and retards JÜu: 
their Organization. •• Aftermath p.l79. 

Churchill an Lloyd George 14.Maerz 1919| h xhe four raonths whi( 
have passed since the armistice was signed have been disastrous al* 
most without relief for the anti-Bolshettk strfength. This is no^ due 
to any great increase of Bolshevik strength, though there has been 
a certain augmentation. It is due to the lack of any policy on the 

• ♦• /N ^ ri.e 

part of the Alliea; or of any genuine or effective support m 



(C 



Operations which are going on against thc lolsheriks at diffei^rent 

pointsx in Rusaia.«* Aftermath IRO. 

"The French checked Denikin« b erery step." Louis Fischer, Sowiets in 

V.orld Affairs, p. 232. 

Nach Miljukoff, Russia to-day and to-morrow p. 122ff. der sich auf dc^ 

russischen Oberst Lebedev beruft, wurden die Alliierten ron den russi-. 

sehen Crenera]^ ••accus ed ... of haring tied them up to a scheine of cam- 

paign based on consciously unrealizable promises.»* Lebedev sagte, 
wenn die Russen gewusst haetten,dass die Amerikeuner nicht kaempfen 
J^uerden,dann haette man sich auf die tolgafront konzentriert lanstatt 
die Truppen auf tausende ron Quadrate eilen zu Terzetteln,uin die Ver- 
bindung mit den Amerikaner^ zu erlangen. 

Miljukoff hielt die Intervention bis 1919 fuer aussichtsreich, ''iuhat 
Was possible then has becom^ impossible since.«* 

Auch Louis Fischer glaubt, dass lOfrOOO Mann alliierte Soldaten genuegt 
haetten,um den Bolschewismus zu beseitigen* p.236. 



o 



5y Prinkipo 

Lloyd George und V»iison waren einig, sobald als moeglich die Bolschewi-^ 
ki de facto anzuerkennen. Memoirs of the -'eace Conference p. 218. 

British Labor und ein grosser Teil der englischen Liberalen einrersta^^ 
den, oder sogar draengend* 

Die Bolschewisten waren L. G. deswegen sympathisch weil er ueberzeugt 
▼ ar, sie wuerden sich mit Separatisten abfinden und anderseits Separa*» 
tismus proTozieren. (s. Ouildhall Rede unter f) S* v^PH^u^ ^ 
L.G. wollte lose Konfoederation oder vollstaendige Autonomie/yerschie '^ 
denert russischeri -t^achfolgestaaten. Diese sollten so rasch als moegli^ 
auf^ocreniisich zu bekriegen. Der Plan einer gesaibtrussischen Friedens- 
konferenz stammt nach L.G. p.214 von Barnes. Ifenderson setzte sich so 

fort fuer ihn ein. 



■M 



mm 



iMl 



S.Januar 1919 Memorandum der britischen Regierung an die alliierten 



m. 



L 



^aechte und Binladung an Moskau, Kolschak^DenikinÄTschalkowsky und 
die Randstaaten zu einer allrussischen Konferenz. Zuerst ist Paris 
^ann Prinkipo als Verhandlungsort vorgesehen. 

Tranzoesische Regierung schroff gegen den Vorschlag. Aber Clemenceau 
gibt nach. Lloyd George spricht ron ♦♦Intriguen" Fochs • 

Dagegen sind, ausser den ilci^litaers, die Botschafter Franc i8,Buchanan, 
/loulens und der dae^iache Sesandte ScaveniuSf der vordem oft als •^ach- 
verstaendiger fuer Russland gehoert worden war. Dh^ Sachverstaendigen 
werden von Lloyd i^eorge und V.ilson entweder gar nicht angehoert oder 
missachtet. Lloyd George Meraoirs 215. Francis beroueht sich vergablich 
um Audienz bei -iigon lA^^^O 

Auf der -''riedenskonf ejrenz nahm Wilson den Prinkipo-Vorschlag ei^a^i»(j 
auf. Am 16. Januar 191Q verteidigt zunaechst Lljjojfd George den Prin- 
kipo-7orschlag. (Supplement p.11-13). Ueber Russland herrsche allgiier 
ne Unkenntnis. Nur eine Tatsache steht fest: "our hopes that the ^ol- 
shevik Grovernment would collapse had certainly been disappointed. Bol-| 
shevisra appears to be strenger than ever. »^ Russland ist nicht mit 
^ewalt in Ordnung zu bringen. Der von Clemenceau vorgeschlagene cor- 
don sanitaire sei inhuman. Also gebe es keinen anderen V.eg als An- 
nahme des britischen Vorschlags. 

I^ilson; ••no possible answer to -^lyyd "^eorge correspond exactly with 
informations received from Russia by the U. S. Government .•• 
Wilsons Gewaehrsmann war kein Mitglied der amerikanischen diplomati- 
schen V'ertretung sondern ein inoffizieller Agent, namens V.iiiiam H. 
luckler, dessen Berichte \iilson so hoch einschaetztc,dass er sie der 
Konfe^renz vorlegte. Buckler schrieb an House sun 19. Januar 1919; 
" If the Allied boldly say ' '»«e are now convinced that the Sowiet Got 
ernment has a firm hold on the Russian people and wil recognize it 



upon condltion8,but we shall not drive a Br^m»^ 

i^rest-Li^ 



bargain 



owb\c 



/ 




j 



% 



c- 



o 

we contemplate generous treatment and expect the same in return» such 
an attitude wln p^y both in the long xsjc run at once by strengthenim 
the raoderate like Tschitcherine and Litwinoff,it will drag the Soviet 
mpvement to the right,and keep in power wen who see that foreign Cap- 
ital and industry raust be fairly treated." 
Einen Tag vorher, 13.. Tanuar hatte er an Lansing geschrieben: 
••The Soviet Gorernnent ia prepared to coropronise on all points, includ- 
ing the Ruasian foreign debt, protection to exiating foreign enterpris 

es and the granting of new conceaaions. . . . 
r 
If pea,ce were once made, Ruasian lolaherist Propaganda in foreign coun- 

(.triea would ceaae at once. The vana declared on Ruasia bji the Alllea 
called forth that rerolutionary Propaganda aa a meaaure of retaliatio^r. 

^Supplem.nt p. 14-16. Andere -äerlchte Bucklera aind in dieser Publikati;>) 
nicht gedruckt. Aber ea aind augenacheinlich nicht die ersten geweaen 
die V.ii8on durch Houae oder Lanaing erhalten hat. ) 

Auaaerdem War T.il8on durch ein Schreiben LitTinoffa( an ihn direkt) tid 
beeindruckt: •• . . . The dictatorahip of the Workers and producers is 
not an end in itaelf,but a meana for the building up a new social 
aystein under which equal rights will be granted to all Citizens reg- 
ardlese of the claaa to which they fornierly belonged," 24 .I^eaember 19- 
13 Chainberlin p.l56. 

So fuhr V.iison auf der Konfcnrenz fort; '•There was throu^^hout the ^orÖl 
a feeling of rerolt against the large veated inttrests which influenc- 
ed the world both in the economic and in the politic aphere. The way 
to eure thia domination waa.in hia (Vilaona) opinion , a constant 
diacuaaion and a alow procesa t^xTUMt^T of reforin;but the World at 
large had grown iaipatient of delay. There were man in the United Sta- 
tea of the f inest temper, if not the fineat judgraent,who were in sym- 
pathy with lol8heTiam,because it appeared to them to offer that r^giaKS 



of opportunity to the indiridual which they desired to bring about. 



« 



C/ 



... British and American troopo were unwlliing to fight in Russia, 
because they feared their offorts might lead to the restoration of 
the old Order, Which was even nore disastrous that the preaent one... 
V.e should be fighting against the current of the times if we tried 
to prevent Russia fron finding her own path in freedom..... 
If the Bolsheviks refrained from inrading Lithuania,Poland,Finland 
-tc, he (T.ii8on) thought wc should be well adrised to allow as many 
groups as desired to do so to send representatires to Paris, te 
should then try to reconcile theni,both mutually and with the rest of 
the World," Suppl. p. 13-14. 

Lljyd ^eorge und sein Anhang waren bereit "to meet at Prinkipo or 
anyvhere eise the Sowiet representatires, eren if no other Russian 
representatire should acccpt the recent i^eace ConfcÄÄrence inritatj 
ion/' Philipp Kerr zu luckler, Suppl. p.38. 

Auch Wilson ♦'Was willlng,if necessary ,to meet the Bolshcriks alone 
at Prinicipo.'' Churchill Aftermath p.l74. 

Aber -t'rinkipo kam nicht zustande. Die Anti-Bolschewisten lehnten 
31. Januar 1919 entruestst ab. Tschlt scherin nahm durch Funkspruch 
Tora 4.^ebruar 1919 an. Aber die Zusage enthielt zwar alles, was Buck- 
1er angekuej^ndißt hatte, nur das nicht ,woij^iUf es V.iison zunaechst ro: 
allem ankam;V.ffen3tillstand. 

Cleroenceau hatte am 21 .Januar Tor der ^alle gewarnt; ••»hen the Bolshi 
vik first came to power, a breach was made with the ^apitalistic ^ot- 
ernments on questions of principle,but now they offered funds and 
concessions as a basis for treating with them. -^e need not say how 
valueless their promisit were,but If they wer« li«tened to, the 
lolsherl^s ^f^uid fr^ b^ck to thair peopit and sa^: 'V.e offered them 
great principles of justice, and the Allied would hare nothing to do 



am 



t 



If 



with US. Now we offcr noney.and they are ready to make peace.»« 
Damit machte Clenienceau Slndruok auf Wilson. deJ^roS^dSr russischen 



T am 14,*ebru»r 



. 57. 



Antwort auf die Einladung nicht befriedigt 

x9lQ erWaert«! " Tn thelr reoly the lolsherlks offered a n imber 
of thin^s T^hich had not been asked for,8uch as repayment of -ebt», 
vono«»»lvM8 and territorial compensations. This answer was not only 

Irotzdem Hessen V.iison und Lloyd ^eorge nicht ab, eine Verstaendigun 

mit Moskau zu suchen. ^ er naeohste Schritt wurde durch lullitts Missi^ 
on getan. iWt fJMiU^'UHTC^S /^t-^^^M'^- 

Prinkipo war nicht nur ein Fehlschlag. Die Wirkung War katastrophal. 
•Sie nahm den russischen Anti-Bolschewisten den Glauben an den Krnst 
der Alliierten, tiigons T)iplomaten waren entsetzt. Polk,der Lans^^ 
in T.ashington rertrat, schrieb an diesen —I.Februar 1919— «The call 
for a confe|fence will probably ciesvro^ morale of all parties opposing 
lolsheviks." Suppl.38. Reinsch, amerikanischer Gesandter in China, 
schrieb "It seemed at first the aba>)((?in ent of Russia^und beklagt 
••lack of comprehension of the character of the civil war in Russia." 
Suppl. 44. Am schaerfsten aeuaserte Bich,naech8t Francis, dessen 
Nachfolger Poole.charg^ d' affaires in Petrograd,am ^J-ebruar. Kr 
sei "perplex". Er habe daraufhin T-iisons saemtliche Kundgebungen seit 
1913 noch einmal ijelesen.wo iirmer betont werde, "That wc dare not 
turn from the principle that morality and no expediancy is the thing 
that must guide us". Er sei "not a stäbborn adrocat of any specific 
course of action against Bolshcrik Government", aber das koenne er 
nicht Bitmachenjer bitte um seine Entlassung. 

Darauf weicht Lansing einen Schritt zurueck. "The purpose of the roeet- 
ing is rather that of invcstigation in order that this GoTerm;ent may 
bc in a position intelligently to direct ita future policy in regard 



8 



VC 



to all 9MXXXMMX factions in Russla. It is not the Intention of the 
American Gorernnent in agreeing the meeting to barter in luattera of 
principle with the Bolsheriet Gorernrnent. 1 o. Februar, Suppl. 51. 
Churchill betonte an 14.-»ebruar auf der ^iedenskonf erenz »die 
Konsequena der i-inladung "would be the destruction of all non-Bolshe 
vik arwies in Russia." V^orauf \.ilson erwiderte; "At pregcnt our 
soldiera were been killed in Rus8ia,if theyxtkmj. were remored many 
Ruasians might lose their lires." Suppl.58. 
Churchill sucht am gleichen Tage ( an dessen Abend tiiaon nach Arne- 
rika wuruecVreist ) die Einsetzung eines Allied Council for Russian 
Affairs durchzusetzen. U.S, opponieren. V-Üson bleibt beipuhigt uebe 
Churchills Absichten, wird aber von Lansing telegraphisch beruhigt, 
Churchills Vorschlag sei tot. Suppl. 68-73. 



4) Streit zwischen Interventionisten und Hichtintervent ionist en. 
Argumente gegen die Intervention: 

Mindestens 150000 liann seien noetig. Die Truppen wollten 
nicht mehr weiter kaenpfen, nachdem der grosse iCrieg zu Ende ist. 
Llyod -eorgc. V.iison, 

Siegdcr Antfc-lolschewisten bedeute *^eaktion,Ru eckkehr zum 
Zarismus. Labor und Liberais. Z'iy/^^«^/ ^^^'■ 
(jlM^Mt^^t t - «Allied expeditions.were they poseible.would constitute a 
(yt^^'i clear Intervention in purely Russian affairs." Times 22. Januar 1919. 

' fflnh^if'^ ^^^^ Intervention! •• i personally believe that such a policy { cor- 
AUHi^ ^ ^^ ^^"^ sanitairc) will in the end cost us more and be less effective tH« 
(^k^U*t were we to strike boldly at the heart of the diseaae and eradicatc 

' Q the Cancer that is sapping Russia' s vital energies. Though we cannot 

employ conscripted troops for this purpose, volunteers for service in 
RuBsia might be for^heoming . . .t^ere we to supply Admiral Kolchak's 



and 



\ 



r 



c 



c 



and General ^enikin' s armies ^ith all the military equipment which 
they requlre, a complementary saall force would suffice to give theo 
the necessary stiffening. 

The task is not so gigantic a one as is generally 8Upp08ed;for the 
capture of Moecow and i^etrograd i^ould suffice to sound the death- 
knell of lolsheTisBj as a political force Buchanan^^ational Revieji/ 

May 1919, p. 351. Ebenso Churchill, s. Schluss Seite 11. 
Anhang S*12, 



5; Abbruch der Intervention. 

Arn 27. Mai 1919 hatte der Oberste ^at von Kolschalc Ibiberale Zusicherun- 
gen gefordert. Kolschalc antwortete umgehend, und seine Antwort war 
nach Inhalt und Ton so befriedigend, dass am 12. Juni beschlossen wurde^ 
ihn weiter zu amterstuetzen, Anfang Au^^ust wurde Einstellung der 
Hilfe beschlossen, Churchill, Aftermath, 180 ff. 248. 269. 
Am ft 8. November 1919 machte Lloyd "^eorge in einer üuild Hall Rede 
der '^ef fentlichkeit Mitteilung von dem Abruecken der Entente von den 
Anti-Bolschewisten. Er konstatierte die De facto Herrschaft der Bol- 
schwiken. "You must not iroagine that I am reading frow the present 
Situation any sort of prediction that the Bolshe^pists are going to 
conquer the whole of Russia. I do not believe that. (Cheer) The free 
peasantry of the South have in their heart a detestation of lolshevisiTi 
and I do not believe that the Bolshevists will conquer that aversion. 
... Lord Jeaconsfieldtremember,r6garded a great,big, colossal,growing 
Russiai rolling onwards like a glacier towards Persia and the borders 
of Afijhanistan and Indianas the greatest menace the ''^ritish Empire 
could be confronted with. And that is directly what lienikin is fighti« 
for." Fischer, p. 248, Rene Kraus, Churchill, p. 243 . 



6) Die russischen ^"Regierungen im *^ahre 1918 (Sommer) 



nach 



B 



uny^ 



•n 



10 
nach Junysm , Intervention, Civil T.ar and Comnunism in Ru88ia»1936, 
p. 277 
I In the V.olga region,Siberia and Northern Russia 

The Samara Committee of ''^cinbcrs of the Constituant Assembly 



c 



Ä JuA 



J^IJ^^'f^Jfy^ 



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8 



10 



11 



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II 



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11 



The lashkir Autonomous Grovernment 
The Ural Cossak Voieko •• 



M 



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" Provisional 

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11 



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(Ekaterinborg) 
of biestern Siberia 



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•• Provisional 



•• Autonomous 



it 



of Autonomous Siberia (Derberes ^t 

group) 

^ of the Yakut Region 



12 •• National Administration of Turko-Tatars of the Interior of 
Russia. 

13) The Provisional Administration of the ITorth (Archangel) 
jtit^x II In the region of the German occupation 



c 



1) The Ukrainian Government 

2) " Crimean • 

3) "" \.hite Russian " 
4) « Latvian • 

5) " Lithuanian • * ^ 

6 •• Esthonian • 
III In the region not occupied by foreign armies 
1) The Soviet Government R.S.T'.S.R. 
2} •• Kuban Voisko •• 

3) " Don " " 

4) " Autonomous " of Turkestan 



5) w regional 



tl N 



North Caucasus 



11 



6) The political Administration of the Volunteer Army 

!▼ In the former Russian Empire but »ith a Status of inde- 
pendendent Government 
tJXX ?inland,Poland, Georgia, Armenia,Azerl)ai Jan. 



O 



7) Meuterei Odessa. 

Die -"ranzosen landeten 6000 ^ann in Odessa »Anfang 1919. Dazu kamen 

2000 Griechen und 4ooo Polen. . Kommunistische Propaganda bearbeitete 
die ^ruppen,und die Expedition endete mit voelligem Fiasco. 
Chamberlin 11,165,151. 



Churchills ^'emoranden 



14. Februar 1919 ueber die Einrichtung eines Council for Russian Aff- 
airs. Aftermath 174. ^ 

X 15. September 1919 ueber die Inaktiritaet der Intervention . 
Aftermath 256-259. 

22. September Survey to the Cabinet Aftermath 251. 
Erwiderung auf Lloyd Georges Guildhall-Rede 20.Januar 1920 Rede in 
Sunderham. -o^raus, Churchill p.243 kurz erwaehnt . 



( 



S.12 zu Seite 9 
Nachtrag zum Streit ueber -^Intervention 



Zuschrift des Colonel Sherwood-Kelly Daily Sxpress 6. September 1919 



G 



"I have just returned from North Russia under circumstances which 

compel me to seek the earliest po; sible opportunity of making known 

North 
in England oerniiin facta in connection with Russia which otherwise 

might never come to light, 

••.. I know that my action viii render me liable to professional 

penaltiestand will prejudice my future in the army.... 

The troops of the Relief "Forces which we were told had been 

sent out purely for defense purposes,were being used for offensive 

purposeSfOn a large juxl scale and far in the interior,in furtherance 

of some ambitious plan of campaign the nature of which we were not 

allowed to know, jfy personal exoeriance of those Operations was that 

they were not even well conducted and that 

they were not calculated to benefiti^ a military or any other sense a 

sound and practical -^ritish policji of Russia* »^ 

Der Oberst sandte eine message an den "^rade Unions Congres3,der am 
8. -September in Glasgow eroeffnet wurde; "They must get our men out 
of Russia"* Amü.9, September wurde -Kellys Aufruf im Daily ^erald 
abgedruckt. Am 11. Resolution (einstimmig; die "^egierung solle alle 
britischen ^ruppen aus Russland zurueckziehen. Am 12. September macht 
''eneral Rawlinson bekannt, dass weitere '*'ruppensendungen nicht mehr 
noetig erscheinen. Coates (bolschewisant } p. 171. 



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Senatt Filibuster Against 1917 

Move to Arm Ships Led to 

Strong Denunciation 



HE CLAIMED FÜLL POWER 



But Preferred Legislative Ap- 
proval Which Never Came— 
War Declaration Ended Fight 



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President Wilson'« attempt to 
arm American merchant ships in 
the past World War arose out of 
Germany'i resumption of unre- 
stricted submarine warfare in the 
AUantic in February, 1917, after 
a previous pledge to deslst, and 
ended, just a month before the 
declaration of trar by the United 
States, in what was probably the 
most celebrated filibuster in the 
history of the Senate. 

It was that filibuster— the yse 
of the Senate rule permitting un- 
limited debate to block a decision 
—that moved President Wilson to 
issue his "Statement to the Pub- 
lic" charging that "a little group 
of wilful men, representing no 
opinion but their own, have ren- 
dered the great government of the 
United States helpless and con- 
temptible." The group. he sald, 
consisted of eleven Senators. 

That Statement was issued on 
March 5, 1917. On the night of 
March 4, the term of Congress had 
expired without a vote on the bill 
to arm American merchantmen 
and other legislation which the 
President required. The House 
had passed the arms bill by a vote 
of 403 to 13 and seventy-flve Sen- 
ators had indicated, in a manifesto 
read into the record, that they 
would Support the measure, if a 
vote could be obtained. 

The President's decision to place 
guns on American shipping fol- 
lowed long negotiations with the 
government of Imperial Germany. 

Lusitania Turned Sentiment 

The sinking of the Lusitania, 
with the loss of more than 100 
American lives in 1915, already had 
turned sentiment in the United 
States strongly against the Ger- 
man submarine warfare. President 
Wilson, however, had used his au- 
thority to defeat resolutions for- 
bidding Americans to travel on be- 
llgerent ships, declaring his Oppo- 
sition to "any abridgement to the 
rights of American Citizens in any 



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respeci 

When the attack« contlnued the 
President, in what was called a Vir- 
tual Ultimatum, demanded German 
abandonment of the unrestricted 
warfare and the German reply in 
April, 1916, in effect complied. 

However, President Wilson's at- 
tempt to bring Germany ancLthe 
Allies together on some acceptable 
peace terms failed, and on Jan. 31, 
1917, the German Ambassador, von 
Bernsdorff, informed the United 
States that the submarine attacks 
on shipping would be resumed. 

The Ambassador received his pa- 
pers four days later and on Feb. 26 
President Wilson appeared before 
a Joint Session of the House and 
Senate to make an appeal for a bill 
arming merchant shipping. 

In his message the President 
called attention to the violation of 
the previous German pledge, spe- 
cifically by the sinking of two 
American vessels since tl\e resump- 
ton of tihe campaign. They were 
the Housatonic, bound to London 
with food stuffs, and tlie Lyman 
M. Law, for Palermo, with lemon- 
box staves. In addition, even 
while the President spoke, the Sen- 
ate received word of the sinking of 
the Cunard liner Laconia, with 
American passengers. 

Wilson Cited His Powers 

In his appeal the President dis- 
cussed his power to arm shipping 
vessels. 

"No doubt I already possess that 
authority without special Warrant 
of law," he said, "by the piain im- 
plication of my constitutional du- 
ties and powers; but I prefer, in 
the present circumstances, not to 
act upon general implication. 

"I wish to feel the authority and 
power of Congress behind me in 
whatever it may become neces- 
sary for me to do. We are Jointly 
the servants of the people and 
must act together and in their 
spirit so far as we can divlne and 
Interpret it." 



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.— ^iU to give eiiect lo the Presi- 
dent's wishes was introduced in 
the House by ChaUrnan Flood of 
the Committee on Foreign Af- 
fairs. It called for an appropria- 
tion of $100,000,000 to be used by 
the President to supply "defensive 
arms" to American owned ships, 
under American registry, "should 
it in his judgment's become neces- 
sary for him to do so." 

The bill also authorized the Ex- 
ecutive to "employ such other in- 
strumentalities and methods as 
may in his judgment and discretion 
seem necessary"— a clause which, 
presumably, would have covereä 
the authority to order naval con- 
voys. 

In the Senate, Opposition to 
what was called a grant of 
"Wanket powers" to the President 
arose at once, and the Foreign Re- 
lations Committee reported a bill 
similar to that before the House, 
only with the Opposition of four 
of its members, three of them 
Democrats, and one of them the 
Democratic chairman of the body, 
Senator Stone. 



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FiUbuster Called Unparalleied 

The filibuster got under way 
when the bill reached the Senate 
floor and, although no roU-call was 
reaahed, the President charged in 
his public Statement that only 
elcven members had succeeded in 
blocking passage. 

"A Situation unparalleled in the 
country and perhaps unparalleled 
in the history of any modern gov- 
emment," was his description of 
the Situation. 

*'In the iminent presence of a 
. crisls fraught with more subtle and 
I f ar-jDteeb^ posfliblUtles of nation- 



al danger than any other govern- 
ment has knöwn within the whole 
history of international relations, 
the Congress haa been unable to 
act either to safeguard the coun- 
try or to vindicate the elementary 
rights of its Citizens. 

"The House of Representatives 
acted by an overwhelming majority 
but the Senate was unable to act, 
because a little group of eleven 
Senators had determined that it 
should not." 

The Situation, however, did not 
long remain static. On April 2, 
1917, the President asked thd dec- 
laration of war granted by the 
Senate on April 4 and two days 
later by the Houi«. 



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FRIDAY. DECEMBER 19, 1941 



New York P 



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Fair Enough 

Yes, thcy apparently werc caught with their 
hands in their pockets at Pearl Harbor. with a 
known thug and a notorious sneak-puncher, at 

that, lurking near, but weren't 
we all? 

Our present view of the cam- 
paign to remilitarize dates only 
from May, 1940, and even our 
argumenta on that phase of the 
Problem are confused, for there 
were very few among the isola- 
tionists who opposed this pro- 
gram. Those few, incidentally, 
and lest we forget, were malnly 
Communists and Nazis, not 
Americans. Most of the patri- 
otic Americans who were isola- 
tionists up to that hour of war 
believed in militarizing the country but opposed 
President Roosevelt's foreign policy which they 
thought provocative and dangerous. They did 
not counsel unarmed surrender to anyone. They 
were for armed and' mighty Isolation. 

"■üUl, iJBlore-M^y. 1940, and especially before 
Hitler started this war deliberately and wantonly 
and in violation of every assurance that he could 
give to lull the suspicions of trusting, peaceful 
people. we all were guilty and the entire nation was 
still off guard when Japan Struck. 




Not to prettify the case, we had been for a 
dozen years the drunkenest people on earth. Gin 
was our Obsession, money and luxury and pleasure 
were our consuming populär interests and we made 
gods of trashy individuals who photographed well 
in the movies or shocked us with obscene books 
which had no other appeal but filth. We even 
made a god of AI Capone, who pandered to our 
vices and sneered at our hypocritical pretense of 
respectability. 

For many years. the Protestant clergy was 
concerned with one issue to the almost total neg- 
lect of the mission of religion and that was Pro- 
hibition which was a constant provocation to drink 
and ä source of crime and political corruption. 
In New York, New Jersey, Albany, Chicago and 
Boston political corruption thrived so monstrously 
under Catholic bosses as to impair the people's 
confidence in the American way of government 



Security 



WASHINGTON. Dec. 19.— Something teils me 

I am going to chase a tired rabbit today. It's 

that dreary subject of rubber again, rubber from 
^^ the East Indies. 

{ ^1^^^ I We are afraid rubber may be 
'. ^jäK^^^ cut off, and the government is 

forbidding the sale of automo- 
bile tires. That's what thp -Jap- 
anese threat to Singapore ' - 
ing. 

Months ago, when ilr 
was being pointed out 
swer often made wa 
should Start growin? 
Brazil, the original 
rubber tree, and thi 
supply against b' 
hostile nation. 

was argued, we could isolate r 

independent. 

• • • 

But that answer was mado 

the map. We think of Brazi 
our protection from the natio 
bf the Atlantic. If the Gen 
from Dakar they will be 
our Caribbean fleet. If yoi 




By Westbrook Pegler 

and, finally, as to evoke the famous but too little 
read and almost unheeded open letter to a boss by 
Father Lord, S. J., which recognized this enor- 
mity as a special concern of the members of the 
church. Irreligious Jews abandoned their faith 
and a Police commissioner of New York who serve^ 
during the era of wonderful nonsense observed 
that the young Jewish criminals were ashamed 
of the old-fashioned piety of their old-country 
parents and spat at them when the old people 
came to weep over them in jail. 

We were not thinking of our liberties then or 
the duties of citizenship or any need to be pre- 
pared to fight a mad enemy. Profits, high wages, 
speculation and liquor were our interests and. in 
New York, at least, the papers assigned specialists 
to glamorize people who were tearing up money 
in dives run openly by criminals under political 
protection. In one of our eitles, the Mayor col- 
lected a dollar a barrel from the bootleggers for 
permitting them to dig in the public streets and 
lay a pipe line from their brewery to the outlet 
and nobody even thought of sending him to prison. 

« • * 

Long ago. Woodrow Wilson, a dying man, 
preached a waming that if we rejected the League 
of Nations this country would have to go armed 
to the teeth forever in a world of hungry and 
wolfish predators. We rejected the league and 
refused to arm even after travelers from Europe 
brought back descriptions of the rising might of 
the Fuehrer's dictatorship and of a Russian army 
of ten million men. We were too busy having a 
good time until the crash of 1929 after which we 
were too busy with a number of other Interests, 
all selfish or political. 

At all events, none recognized any danger until 
Hitler made his war and even then few Americans 
were willing to admit that he might one day 
attack US. Or if it was possible, then it would 
be up to "the government," that rieh, impersonal 
power in Washington, and not up to the individual 
to get US out of the jam, the same •'government" 
which Congressmen and Senators preyed upon for 
cash gifts to their constituencies so that they could 
be re-elected. 

Only since May, .1940, have any appreciable 
number realized that Woodrow Wilson was right 
and, as a nation, we were no more alert when 
the blow feil than the Commanders at Pearl Harbor. 

% 

By Raymond Clapper 

naval and air force under control. Our coasts 
and outposts can never be safe from attack again 
so long as naval and air strength is lef t in the hands 
of outlaw butcher regimes. This has become for 
US not some idealistic question of world peace but 
a practical and necessary method of our own de- 
fense. 

This defense requires international action, the 

^ Mng together of nations that trust each other 

lat can play the game together. The British 

rselves have a running sart on the controll- 

".e now. After victory is won we can, to- 

"ith Russia, China, the Latin-American 

id any other nations who wish to pro- 

'^Ives against aggression. hold and main- 

itrol which will be won during the war. 

only klnd of defense we can be sure 

of defense that brings all the naval 

■"•^ airpowp • ' * •'^^^^rol of 

' be 



Copyright, 1941, by New Yoi 



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The battlewagon a'^ 
followlng the Ilr 
neuver formati 

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Jul7 5 1918 

Ray St. Baker, VV.W. 



Life ana ^dtftsra 
Till 235 



of ??r?.!-°"'^ '(Assistant Seci-. 

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idea,tha?^f^?rin'fort'SrL''^ ^* '^^ ' 
be drafted now:?Airth«? League oan 
onn i\r^ ^* 4. ^^■'- i^liat the nationa 
can do ot to covenant with each 
fiJ^f^^^J^ally to defend thl?r 
territories and thelr instltiif i««- 
^galnst aggression- ^°«^^*^tions ag 



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Yersaillcr Vertrag 



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Part Tü 



Articlc 227. The Allicd and Associated Powere publicly arraijn V.iliiaj|j 
II of Kohenzolle rn, formerly rrerman Einperor,for a supreme offen^e 






ar^ainst international morality and the saÄtity of treatics* 

A special tribunal will be constituted to try the accused, 
thereby assuring him the guarantees essential to the right of defense, 
It will be conposed of five JudgeSfOne appointed by the follov^in^^ 
power8;naiBely, the United States of America, CJreat Sritain, France, Italy 



7 



and Japan. 



In its decision the tribunal will be guided by the highest ' 
motives of international policy,with a view to vindicating the solenn 
Obligations of international undertakings and the validity of inter- 
national rrorality. It will be its duty to fix the punishment which it 
considers to be iinposed, 

The Allied and Associated Powers will address a request to theGoven 
ment of the Netherlands for the surrender to them of the Ex-Sin£)eror 
in Order that he may be put in trial, 

Article 228. The German Government reco^^nizes the rifcht of the Allied 
and Associated Powers to bring before nilitary tribunals persona accu^ 
sed of having comnitted acts in violation of the laws and customs of 
war. Such persons shall,if found guilty,be sentencaöf to punishwents i 
laid down by law. Thtgjprovision will apply, notwithstanding any pro- j 
ceedings or prosecution before a tribunal in Germany or in the terri- 

» 

tory of her Allies. 

The Gerrean Government shall band over to the All. and Ass. Powe. 

j 

or to one of them as shall so request, all pwrsons accused of having 
comraitted an act in violation of the laws and customs of war,who are 



spec 



ificicd either by nane or by the rank and Office or einployment 



which they held under German authorities. 



t 



Article 228. Persona guilty of crlrrinal acts against the aationala 
one of the ALI. and Ass. Powers will be broujht before the military 

tribunals of that Power. 

crininal 
Persona guilty of, acts against the nationals of Bore than 



on 



e of the All. anrt Ass. Powers will be brought before military tribu 



nals composed of members of the military tribunals of the Poiers con- 



cerned. 



In every case the accused will be entitled to name his own 



counsel. 



Article 250 Th^ German GoTernment undertakes to furnish all documentj 

and information of every kind.the production of v«..wi ^^tr. a-p tvii» 
/^hich raay be considered necessary to ensure the füll knowledge of the 

incriminating acts, the discovery of offenders and the just appreciati*! 



on of responsibility. 



(I 



Teinperley, A 'listory of the Peace Conference of Paris, vol. III,p.2l2j^ 



f 



Unäi 



ittelbar darauf folgt der beruehmte Artikel 231 ueber die "Kriegs- 



chu]^ . 



Artikel 227 involviert keinerlei Stellungnahme der deutschen gegie- 
rung, stimuliert keinerlei "Bedingung" .sondern ist eine Mitteilung 
ueber Massnahncn gegen eine i^er8on,die sich im Ausland befindet ,bezw. 
-egen die ^-egierung, in deren -ebiet der Kaiser sich aufhaelt. Der 
Artikel sieht auch nicht eine ev. Rueckkehr V-ilhclms nach Deutschland 
und entsprechende liassnahmen dagegen vor. 



Das ^^echt einer ''acht.Angehoerige einer andern Wehrmacht «or Gericht 
zu ziehen und zu strafen, ist in der voelkerrechtlichen Literatur 
zwar nicht unumstritten, aber die grosse l^ehrheit der Juristen.auch 
der deutschen vor 1918, bejaht es. Toraussetzung dabei war.dasa die 
angeklagten irrere onen sich im Jüachtbereich der anklagenden U»cht 

s 






xX 



finden. Die -^rage der Auslieferung steht auf einem ganz andern Blatt 
Sie wird in diesem Zusaninenhang gar nicht erwaehnt. HkN -i^ip^J^ 

Vorgeschichte der Art, 227-230. 
Die Aufnahme der "penalties" in den Vertrag scheint nicht von langer 
"and vorl)ereitet worden zu sein. Lloyd i^eorge, Kemoirs of the x^eace 
Conference 1,54 y^%M9* Lord Curzon deij^ Vater der Idee. Llyojd George 
selbst nennt Clemenceau,bringtaber dafuer keinen zwingenden -"eweis. 
Curzon habe an Lloyd George aus *aris einen -«»rie^ unbekannten Datums 
-wohl unmittelbar nach dem Ifffnstillstand, Je^enfall nach der milita 
Tischen lankrotterklaerung -Deutschlands geschrieben, in dem er ueber 



^OCUüi) ein ^espraech mit Ciemenceau berichtet. Clemeceau "thought that (jg_ 

Ci4irji)C</mr(4him g^rafung der ^Kriegsverbrecher) as an act of international justice, 
' '^ of World retribution, it would be one of the most imposing events 

in history and that the conception was well worth of being pursued." 
V.er auch n r einigermassen Clemenceaus Sprache kennt, ja nur die 
allgemeinen franzoesischen Sprachgewohnheiten, wird sofort bemerken, 
das3 Ciemenceau diese «orte nicht gebraucht haette,wenn er einen 
eigenen oder bereits von ihm angeeigneten Vorschlag empfehlen woll- 
te, wohl aber,weBn er einen Vorschlag seines ^espraechspartners auf- 
griff und akzeptierte. Evident wird,da8S Ciemenceau nicht der Initi- 
ator ist, durch die anscjjliessenden »orte Curzons: He(Clemenceau| 
"prayed me to communicate with my government on the ma-ter and to 

let him have any papers or reports on the subject that we might prep 

ü 
are." Curzon fuhr fort: "I pray you to conaider it seriously. Publij 

opinion will not willingly consent to let this arch-criminal escape 
by a final act of cowardice. The supreme and colossal nature of his 
crime seems to call for some supreme and unprecedented condemnation 
lxecution,impri8onment,thefe are not or may not be necessary. But 
continued life,an inglorious and ignoble exile,under the wftight of 



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such a sentcnce as has nevcr before been given in the history of man- 

kindfWould be a penance worsc than dcath." 

L.ffeorge informierte Curzon »'that it vas a matter worthy of consideraj 

tion by the Imperial Gabinet.** p.55. 



V.erler 



,Life and letters of Curzon, noch Harald ITicolson tthe 



lant phase, erwaehnen etvas hierueber. Die Sache wird noch dunkler 
durch daa "Paktunjdass 2U dieser Zeit lalfour in Paris war und Curzon 
ihn staendig in London vertrat. Woeglich ist iminerhin,das3 Curzon 
vorueber^ehend in Paris war, aber nicht wahrscheinlich. 
Die britische Kabinet ts^sitzunr; fand an 20. TTovember 191''^ statt, die 
erste nach dem Waffenstillstand. 

"After a -jeneral discussion upon a variety of topics,Lord Curzon 
raised the specific issue of the trial of the Kaiser. This is the 



£ 



occasion upon which any allusion JüuUtx had been made to this matter 
at any Ministrial consultation»and in l±io» view of the personal res- 
ponsibility which has been attached to me for this proposal and the 



electioneering motive imputed to me as the investigation of my actior 
I musü call attention to the fact that the subject was first intro- 
duced by Lord Curzon, an<i that he definitelyx states th&t he was doinf 
so as a result of a conversation in Paris with M.Clemenceau at which 
I was not pre^sent.x I an not desirous of disclainiing my füll share 
of responsibJLity in the matter. But in view of the reiterated sneers 
as to the origin and authorship of the idea which are constantly re* 
peated in political speeches and articles of the cheaper and more re- 
petivc kind,it is necessary that I should quote textually the State- 
ments made by those who inaugurated the discussion and first proposec 
the course of action adopted by tle Allies." p.54. 

Nach L.George p.56 sagte Curzon im Cabinet: "In my view the Kaiser i. 
the arch-Criminal of the World... V.hen I spoke to Clemenceau about 
the matter he said that,as far as the Kaiser, the French Jurists 



not looked at it...bat he said public opinion in France... was streng-- 









ly in favor of steps being taken for the trial of the Kaiser and that 
he himself shared that view,althoagh he woaid be very glad to hear 
from cur (rovernroent what our ideas were on the subject." 
Lloyd George ueber seine eigene Haltung p.57: •• I followed and stron^^ 
ly supported M.Clemenceaus proposal with reservations • • . I do not thin/f 
it is sufficient punishrnent to this nian that he should get a^ay with 
20 millions of money....! think he ou^ht to stand his trial.. ..If he 
was not responsible^he can nake his case. . . . Germany ought to be invit-* 
ed to join in it,and I have no doubt shc will send inen, in her present 
State, who will judge the ex-Kaiser very impartially . • •" 
Die Sachverstaendigen empfahlen einstimmig "a prosecution of the xji±Ji 
rulers" • p.5B. Tn einer spaeteren Kabinettssitzung sagt Lord Birken- 
head; "Prime Minister, in my judgment,if this man escapes, common peop- 
le will say everywhere that he escaped because he is an Emperor.»* p60 
Kabinett billigt prosecutionsvorschlag des Attorney gtneral 65. 
Dagegen ist Balfour gegen einen Prozess. Er befuerwortet "administra- 
tives Yerfahren'' wie seinerzeir ^tz^n ^apoleon I. p.84. t.ilaon mit 
Prozess einverstanrlen. p.R6. 
Vor dem 9. Dezember IHR erfuhr die Oef fentlichkeit hiervon nichts. 

Am 10.12.18 haelt Lloyd (Jecrge seine beruehmte ^ede. Er verwahrt sich 

XXK 

dac^egen, gesa^it zu haben "hancj the Kaiser' . ^.\0^. Er sagte: 
" The Kaiser must be prosecuted.The war vras a crime. He was a crime i/l 
the way it was planned,in the deliberate wantonness with which it was 
provoked. It was also a crime in the action....in the invasion ... 
The men responsible for this outrage on the human race must not be 



let off because their 



heads were crowned when they perpetrated 



the deed." 

Am 14.12.1B sagt Poincarfe in seiner Begrueasungsrede zu Vaison in Par/p 



" In your turn,Jir .^^resident .you ^^ill be able to measure with your 



own 



(^ 



) 



\^- 



6 

eyei the extent of these di aast ers, and the French Government wüi 

make known to you the authentic documento in which the German generaJ 
staff developed,wit|) astonishing cynicism, its program of pillage an«| 
indastrial annihilation. Your noble conscience will pronounce a ver- 

1 s 

dict on these facta. X Should thMJi guilt remain unpunished^could it 
be nenewedfthe inost splendid victories would be in vain." 
Mac Master /rhe United States in t le V.orld b.ar^igSS, 11,256-7 
Nilson erwidert; (p.258) "I am sure that I shall look upon the ruin 
wrought byjc the arraies of the Central Empires with the same repulsioj 
and deep indi^nation that they stir in the hearts of man of France 
and lelgium,and I appreciate,as you do,Sir, the necessity of such 
action in the final setilement of the issues of the war as will not 
only rcbuke such acts of terror and spoliation,but make men everywhe: 
aWare that they cannot be ventured upon without the certainty of jusi 
punishment ." 

Sprachen Pqncare und Wilson die gleiche Sprache? Verstand Poincare 
unter Bestrafung die Abstrafung einzelner Individuen, wie V.ilson an- 
scheinend tat? 

Jedenfalls wird ron der Pariser ^riedenskonfe|^renz eine Kommission 
zur Pruefung der "Responsibility for V.ar and Guarantees** geschaffen. 
Ihr Praesident isJ'Lansing. Sie gliedert sich in drei Subkommissionen 
1) Crirainal Acts, Yors. i .ir.iiasslcy (New Zealand),;^} Responsibility 
for V.ar,7ors. Sir 1. Pollock, 5) Violation of laws auid customs of war, 
Vors.Lansing. Temperley^Hist .of Peace Conference, 1,500. 
Abweichend spricht Austen Chaunbr riain in der Birmingham Daily Post 
29, Dezember 13( Petrie, Letters and life of A.ChambeBlain 11,228): 

/«streitet sofort deutsche Alleinschuld und Alleinverfehlungen i» Kri<^ j 
[andelst>lad,Ainsterdain.yeroeffentlichioffizio;8en /Artikel gegen Aus- 
lieferung V-ilhelms. Stosch p,2<?. 



I I 



ff 'd 



i 



c 



Auf der Sitzung der Parisy^riedenskonferenz vom 25. Januar 1919 iiverden 
die Gutachten zweier hervorragender franzoesischer Juristen, laijaude u 
Lapradelle, verlesen, die Konferenz beschliesst derogemaess "erfolgung 
der Kriegsverbrecher, besonders des -""-aisers. 

Dagegen erfolgt der erste deutsche Protest. Einet frklaerung deutsche/" 

Staats-und i 

voelker recht sichrer, unter ihnen Anschuetz,Bindinä,Gierke,Kahl, Kollre^' 

ter,Ll8Zt,Schuecking,Zorn, wird eon 19. Febr. 19 in fast allen deutscheij 

Zeitungen vcroef fentlicht . Einspruch gegen Verfolgung des Kaisers, der 

1) nicht verantwortlich war, 2) als deutscher Volksgenosse hu|^ von 

Deutschen gerichtet Verden duerfe. 

22. April 19 Bericht der ^"ansing-Kommission ( Stosch,die Kriegsbeschufl? 

Idigtenfrajje p.29;. Meinungsverschiedenheit , ob ein Staatschef fremden 

-*^aechten verantwortlich sei. U.S.A. und Japan verneinen, die uebrigcn 

bejahen. Aber alle sind einig, dass V.ilhelra II, als Anstifter von ^riev/- 



r 



verbrechen, d.h. als Oberster ^riegsherr vor Bericht gezogen werden 
koenne. Lansing hat sich soaeter vor dem Kongress dahin geäussert. 



dass er persoenlich fuer "administrative" behandlung analog der Napo- 
leons gewesen sei. 

Die YerhandlunReu ueber die Strafbestimmungen 

\ 
(Mai/Juni 1319; 

2.Mai 19 Ueberreichung der Friedensbedingungen. -*^rockdorf-Rantzau 

bestreitet sofort deutsche Alleinschuld und Alleinverfehlungen im Kri<^ ' 

Handelsblad, Amsterdam, reroeffentlichtoffizioesÄn /Artikel gegen Aus- 



lieferung ^'.ilhelms. Stosch p.29. 



-^ - w mA ■ 



W^mmm^^^^ 



1 



% 



€■) 



8 
12. Mai 19. Protest der Nationalversammlung gegen die JViedensbedingun- 

gen ignoriert die penalties. Ebenso der Protest der "achsregierung. 

13.Jfai 19. Im preussischen Abgeordnetenhause protestieren die Rechts- 

« 

Parteien gegen Auslief erungsbegehren^u. die andern penalties. 

Torher hatte, am 11. Mai ,4raf Vestarp in der ^'reuzzeitung die penaltiej 

eine "Demuetigung,wie sie» noch keinem Kulturvolk in der V-eltgeschich- 



/. 



•^1 



te angetan worden i s t . " jk^^**'^*<^' 

29. Mai 19 deutscher Gegenvorschlag; Internationales ^ribunal,in dem | 

auch deutsche Vertreter sitzen. fuer Vergehen aller ^arteien. 

Tereperley 11,304. 

16. Juni 1^ Zurueckweisuntj dieses Vorschlags durch die Alliierten. 
t)ie Alliierten vertreten tatsaechlich die jrosse Mehrheit der Kultur- 
welt. V.eder i^eutrale noch Zentrale seien faehig ,ein unbefangenes 
-rteil abzueieben. Temperley 300." They wish to make it clear that the 
public arraignment under Article 227 frameö against the -erman ex- 
Emperor has not a Juri^ical character as regards th. substance but 
only in its form. The |ui3i±±«xxxx German ex-Kmperor is arraigned as a 
matter of high international policy.as the minimum of what is deman- 
ded for a supreae offence against international morality.the sanctity 
of the treaties.and the essential rules of justice. The Allied and 
Associated Power» have desired that judicial forms.a judicial proce- 
dure,and a regularly constituted tribunal should be set up in order t 
assure to the accusei füll rights and liberties in regard to bis de- 
fense and in order that the judgment should bc of the inost solemn cha 
racter." */'^^ hiücfi ^' 7 ^ -/f ^^^ ^^^^/^'^ ^ 

in der deutschen Presse sind die sozialdemokratischen Blaetter, einseht 
• Vorwaerts an den penalties desinteressiert, stosch.^^riegsbeschuldigte^ 
fragep. p.SOff. Scheidemann und -rockdorff--antzau treten zurueck. 
Der neue Kanzler lauer erklaert im -eichstag 22..Tuni 19; -Die Regie- 



rung der deutschen ^^epublik ist bereit,den Friedensvertrag zu unterz 



ic^ 



# 



€ 



/ 



9 

nen,ohne jedoch damit anzuerkennen, dase das deutsche Volk der Urheber 
des ^-rieges sei, und ohnc^Ü* Verpflichtung nach Artikel 227-230 zu 
uebernehBien."In derselben f^itzung Kahl: ••Nicht auf die Person des 
Kaisers kommt es dabei an, sondern darauf dass ein "^eutscher ausgelie- 
fert werden soll. Das ist eine Schanlosiökeit.die wir zurueckweisen." 
Lag«n Kaase: "legen der zwei Punl['kte,der Schuld an Kriege und der Ausr 
lieferung der Schuldigen, darf der V^ertrag nicht scheitern. •• 
Abgleichen J^age sendet -»»rockdorf fs ^'^achfolger in der Delegation, 
Harael von Haiiahausen, " äcommunication in v.hich he intiaated that Ger j; 
nsany would sii|n,if the Allies would not insist upon Article 227-230 



'I 



and 231. The Four niet at Lloyd ^eorge's house in the Rue Nitot,and 



n 



on the sapie eveingdispatched a reply rejectin4; both demands and in- 
sisting on imraediate compliance. •• Temperley 11,17. 

Darauf deutsche Einwilligung am 23.Juni 5,20 p.m. ^ Ablauf der Frist 
7 p . ra . ) 

% 

f 
Die Abstimmung des ^'eichstagcs erolgte nicht ueber Aufhebung der 

Torbehalte. Dieoe waere nicht durchgegangen, ^^n stimiDte ab, ob die 






Ak 



egierung lauer ermaechtigt sei zu untersieichnen. 

au tut ^^k^utüi'A^ 
24. Juni 19. General vLuettwitz/kn seipe TrUi)pen; •'Die Reichsregie- 
rung hat die ""riedensbedingungen angenommen. Die Reichswehr hat der 
Regierung durch ihre berufenen Vertreter rechtzeitig erklaert,das8 dlC 
Annahme der -Deutschland entehrenden Paragraphen welche die Ausliefer- 
ung deutscher Staatsbuergcr und das Anerkenntnis» der alleinigen 
Schuld ''eutsehlands am Kriege enthalten, mit ihrer und des Vaterlandes 
Ehre unvereinbar ist. Ich halte an diesem Standpunkt fest und werde 
ihn dem Reichswehrmini ater und dem preussischen ^riegsminister gegen- 
jieber erneut aufrechtzuerhalten wiesen.'» 
Am gleichen ^ag tritt Hindenburg zurueck. 2ix 
25,juni 19. Bcthmann-Hoiweg schreibt an Clemenceau. ?-H. stellt sich 



i\ 



11 



^•^ t>T»r\»yÄaa STf^cK^n f\t^n Ka/iftÄY* 



<is 



% 



10 
als verantwortlichen Minister anstelle ^'^ilhelms zur ^erfuegung. 

Einen aehnlichen ^rief schreibt Hindenburg am 25. Juni, aber nicht 

an Clemenceau, sondern an Ebert. Am 3. Juli 19 appelli ert Hindenburg 

an das "niilitaerische Ehrcefuehl*^ von '»''och zugunsten des Kaisers. 

Bethmann-Hollweg ist der einzige, der wirklich den ^ersuch machte, 

sich den Alliierten zu stellen. 

Ende Juni protestiert eine grosse Anzahl ehemaliger * Offiziere der 

preussischen Armee und der ^arine gegen die penalties. Militaerwochen 

blatt nr.l52. 

23. Juni Unterzeichnung in 'Versailles. 

Die Durchfuehrung der -Bestimmungen 
A. Allgemeine "^altung nach der Unterzeichnung. 

2«juli 19. Lloyd ^eorge verteidi^5t den ^ertrag vor den Com- 



Thnons, einschliesslich der penalties. Sitz des erichts soll London 
sein. Lord Curzon halt , im Oberhaus, London nicht fuer geeignet. 



( Curzon spricht als V'ertreter der ^'egierung). 

Sir Lonuld i 

21. Juli 19.)f^Kac Clean in den Commons. I^er Friede sei zu hart fuer \ 

Deutschland. "He supported the proposal to bring the Kaiser to justi- 
ce, but Was against a trial taking place in London. Annual "'egister 
p. 94, 1919. 

Lord Robert ecil; "As to the ex-Kaiser, he had been condemned by the ' 
public opinion of the World, and it was not clear that we should add 
to the certainty of that condemnation by bringing hiro formally to tri 



w 



al." 



i 



2.Au;3ust 1^ Rupprecht von Bayern fordert Staatsgerichtshof , um Unschul' 
ZU erweisen. Prinz ^ieinrich von -«^reussen schreibt an ^eorg T. einen 
-^rief ,der Koeniag solle gegen den frozess arbeiten, veioeff. ]"ambur 
gerNachrichten,St03Ch p.60. 



11 



(« 



^' 



B Der prozess gegen den Kaiser 

TTach Lloyd George, Memoirs itöOf, hat In den ersten i^binettssitzungißn 

ueber die Kaiserfrage i-ord Birkenhead -"^ericht erstattet. Er referiert 

dass die franzoesischen Juristen dieOäoe^lichkeit dery<\uslief erung an* 

erkennen, die englischen sie bezweifeln. Aber seiner Meinung nach sei 

die "'echtsfrage ^^anz unwesentlich, ^an habe ilolland gegenueber soriel ^^ 



•^-ruempfe in der {Jand dass The diffuculty will not be an insuperable 

one^ . p.61. Kin Teil der Minister will die Angelegenheit nach dem 

ITuster von 1^15 regeln, die andern sind fuer trial. 

Am lO.'anuar l'^'^^O trat der ^ersailler '/ertrag in xLraft. 

Ain 15. Januar 20 richten die Alliierten, ►jezeicnnet Cleraenceau eine Not 

an die liollaenv^lu^^^s *'ct>i :ir^i«iö -*^^ fu^acxü ^x^ac^iuo Aciö--.- o- aI^. 

.6J..*Januar 20 iiolland lehnt ab unter Berufung auf das Asylrecht. 

14. -Februar 20. zweites Auslieferungsersuchen an ilolland , unterzeichne^ 

von Lloyd ^eorge . 

2.iiaerz 20. i^weite hollaendische Ablehnung. 



( 



«»« ■ • 



T> ^ 



30.*^aerz 20 Schreiben Llyyd ^eorgcs an die Hollaendische "egierune. ^ 
Dieser i^ird die exklusive Verantwortung fuer alle aus der Anwesenheit 
des ehemaligen deutschen Kaisers sich etv.a erceAbe)iKen Folejen zugevie-» 

j, 

sen. Hollaendische Orgngebuch. 

5.-^aerz 1921. Lloyd ^eorge beantwortet Anfrage der Coirimons . Man koen- 
ne nicht V.ilhelms Wegen gegen Holland "'"rieg fuehren. Die franzoesische 
'•'egierung sei entschieden gegen feindseli^^e Akte gegen Holland. 
T-ilhelm II. ueber die ■''Vatje: Brief an Hindenburg 5. April 1921 (Ereig- 
nisse und Gestalten p.256) 

"Zin Gerichtshof , in den der -^'eindbund ^gleichzeitig Ankkaeger und Rieh-» 
ter waere,wuerde nicht ein Organ des ■'"echtes, sondern ein Instrument 

politischer V.iiikuer sein und nur dazu dienen, durch meine selbstver- 
staendliche Verurteilung die uns auferlegten unerhoerten *riedensbe- 
dingungen nachtrae^lich zu rechtferticen. l^atuerlich war daher das 



I 

\ 



12 







feindliche Ansinnen meinerseits zurueckzuweisen. Aber auch meine 
üestellung vor ein wie immer zusammengesetztes neutrales bricht kann 
fuer mich nicht in Frage kommen. Ich erkenne wegen der Anordnungen, die 
ich als Kaiser und Koenig.also als verfassungsmaessig unverantwortli- 
cher hepr.esentant der deutschen ^ation^nach bestem Mssen und Ge- 
wissen getroffen habe,das strafrechtliche ^rteil irgendwelchen irdi- 
schen Richters. ^'ie hoch er auch immer gestellt sein mag, nicht an,da 
ich dadurch die Ehre und ^.uerde des von mir vertretenen deutschen Vol^ 
kes preisgeben wuerde." Nach p. 240 hat Wilhelm sofort Selbststellung 
erwogen. T.enn er d2!(}'^las Schicksal ^^^'^^^^^^lands erleichtert haette, 
dann haette er sich gestellt. "NichraLlJ^ Akt unpolitischer S enti^ 



entalitaet var gedacht, sondern im Gegenteil an eine Tat, die fuer mic^ 
viel Bestechendes hatte.« vormelle Ruecksicht auf konstitutionelle 
unVerantwortlichkeit haette ihn nicht gestoert. 258. «Die Moeglich- 
lceit,dem deutschen Volk durch eine solche i'at zu helfen,bestand aber 
nicht." Deutschland haette sich durch Auslieferung auf ewig buendnis- 
unfaehig gemacht,und er,7.ilhelm wollte nicht die Rolle von ^"cin^e- 
torix spielen,der von Caesar spaet. r doch hingerichtet worden 

251. 

C Die •t'Vage der Kriegsverbrecher 

Hovember 1919 Note der ""eichsregierung an die Alliierten. 




^ 



L! 



14 




( 



Diese Note ist grundlegend fuer die deutsche /fote vom 25. Januar 20. 
Ihr sind zweifellos unoffizielle und unformelle Tuehler gefolgt, von 
denen nichts in den Akten steht. Sie bereitet anderseits vor auf 
das am 13. Dezember 1919 einstimmi g von der -Nationalversammlung an- 
genommene ^esetz zur Verfolf^ung v on Kriegsverbrechern und Kriegover 
gehen. Die Promotoren dieses Gesetzes sind die volksparteilichen 
Abgeordneten *^ahl und "raf Dohna. Das besetz mach^das Heichsgericht 
zur ersten und letzten Instanz. 

willig den Alliierten zu stellen, um dem Vaterlande /erlgenheiten zu 

ersparen. 

Darauf erklaeren am 7. Januar die Generale von Meeringen,Kluck,Boehn, 

Eberhardt und Falkenhayn: "V.ir sind der Auf fass^ing.dass es nich«- 

gegen die Ehre eines deutschen Offiziers geht, sich dem Zugriff der 

deutschen ^egierung oder Entente zu entziehen. .. .».ir duerfen uns 

keinesfalls freiwillig stellen." Folgen Verhaltungsmassregeln. 

«'^ir duerfen der deutschen i^egierung das Odium nicht ersparen." 

9. Januar 1920 Kronprinz will sich stellen,aber sein Vater verbietet 

es ihm. Am selben ^age appelliert Otto Landsberg SPD im Vorwaerts 

an die Alliierten, sie sollten aus den Kriegsverbrechern "Keine 

tyrer machen," 

20. Januar 20, üraf 7.estarp bestreitet in der Kreuzzeitung die ^echts- 

gueltlgkeit des Gesetzes vom 1^.12.19. 

25. Januar Die Generale erklaeren sich mit der Prozessfuehrung vor 
dem -eichs^eri.ht einverstanden. Am gleichen Tage geht die deutsche 
>Tote an die Alliierten,die aus der "Andeutung- vom November 19 

einen formellen Vorschlag macht, 

16 Februar 1<)?0 Antwort der Xlllierten. nie stellen z»rar fest.dass 
Beütschland efch au.e.r Stande erklaert . eine Besti.n,ung des ried.n. 

vertraaa aue.ufuehren.ercrelfen aber keine San«lonen,»i.lr,ehr neh™e| 
sie das "esetz von 1«. 1K.15 zur Kenntnis, behalten sich nur Ihre 



15 
Rechte unri weitere Schritte im Falle nicht befriedigenden Funktionie 



rens vor. 



c 



L 



4.^erz 20 Ergaenzungsjesetz zum Geaetz vom IB, 12,20. Kahl stimmt 
dafuer "nur mit acusserstem widerstreben". Aber des ^^eichsgerichts 
"unbestechlicher »»ahrheitssinn v^ird aus der Katastrophe rettentWas 







heutzuta^Se noch an Gerechtigkeit gerettet werden kann." 
yrach dem KappfPutsch kommt es zur Konferenz von Spa. ( Reichskanzler 
Fehrenbach, Justizminister ^^einze). Lloyd George anfangs sehr scharf , 
faellt dann um und aeussert Vertrauen zum *'cichsgericht , Stosch 114. 
5. Juli l'?20 V.TB amtlich: "Am raschesten ist das Problem geloest wor- 
den, das noch vor kurzer Zeit die Gemueter am heftigsten bewegte, naero- 
lieh die Bestrafung der -deutschen, welche wegen ^ergehen gegen die 
Kriev^sregeln angeschuldigt worden waren. Hier ist es einer gemischten 
Kommission von Sachverstaendigen in kuerzester Zeit gelungen, eine 

Verstaendigung ueber die einschlaegigen Methoden zu erzielen." ^ ^ 

'S.Februar dO. Liilierand uebergibt Frhrn von LerBner,dem x^raesiflenten 

der deutschen ^riedensdelegat ion, eine Liste von Namen, deren Auslie- 
ferung verlangt wurde, -^.ersner schickt am gleichen -^age die Liste 
zurueck,mit Hinweis auf die TTote vom November lO^verlaesst Paris und 
reicht seinen Abschied ein. Die Liste wird an 7.-"ehruar durch den 
franzoesischen »eachaeftetraeger in "'erlin der Reichskanzlei ueberee- 



■ben.nacheni am 5. ^ebruar die deutsche "egierungjhr^ Bedauern <:»ejjer_ 



■» % 



Lersner ausgesprochen hatte. Lucian^^raqtHistoire des violations da 

Traite de Paix, 1921, 1,346,271. Millerand erklaertj "Les gouvernments 

n'ont pas doute que l'acte de M. de. ^ersner ne, fut, pas une manifesta- 

^tion peraonnelle dont le gouverr-ewent allemand ne porte pas les respo 

Tsabilite. En efTet.elles n'ont pu admettre que le gouvernement alleraa 
cherchit a se derober aux engageiii«*ntB qu' il a souscrit par sa signatu 
re du trait^ de Versailles et'-'qu' un mois apres l'entree en vigueur j 
du traite', il se refusat int ent ioneil ement ^ executer une dispositxon 
esaentielle de ce traitfe." Luc ian-"^ran^ I,34u . 



c 



( 



16 
Inzvischen war es zu den ersten oef fentlichen englischefranzoesischen 
Konflikt gekommen, wegen der franzoeaischen Besetzung des i««.ingaus 

6. April 1920. 

Nach Spa herrscht eine ''eile Ruhe müuxxfltuxJiIxKk . -^^em ^»^eichsgericht 

wird ^itkelaosen. 

Erst als die Reparationsfrage zu neuen Konflikten fuehrtywird die 
Frage der ^Kriegsverbrecher als weiteres Moment fuer den schlechten 
V/illen Deutschlands wieder aufgeworfen. 

. Maerz 1921 kommt Lloyd George auf die Kriegsverbrecher zurueck. 
sein Vertrauen zum Keichsgericht sei auf die i^robe gestellt. (Rede 
im Parlament ueber Deutschlands "er fehlungen). 



3 



'■/ •. V » ^ 



4^ 



i^^ 



19. -aerz 1121. Attorney general nir George^ t^ewart berichtet ueber 

• die Lage im 'arlament. 
29. April 21. Fehrenbach-üeinzc holen- zum ^egenstoss aus. Sie geben 
der Entente die Schuld.die kein Material liefere. /Reichstag beschliesl 

• ie3etz,das3 der Oberreichsanwalt xlaupt Verhandlung beantragen kann, 

• Lch wenn er keine Anklageschrift einreicht. Zweck; "Alle telt ueber 
den Tatbestand unschuldig Verdaechtigter aufzuklaeren.« 

• 5. Mai 1921 Londoner Ultimatum ilfiSSxll« Reparationen erwaehnt auch 
' die ^Kriegsverbrecher, • • 

11. Mai 21. Annahme des Ultimatums nach Ruecktritt 'ehrenbachs. l>er 

• neue Kanzler ^irth : "Die deutsche "egierung ist entschlossen, 4) 
ohne /orbehalt und" Verzug die Aburteilung der Kriegsbeschuldigten 

durchzufuehren." {Jü^ü^^^f^ *^ ^^^ 

23. ^i 21 erster frozess in Leipzig. Sergeant Heynen zu lOMonaten -e 

faengnis verurteilt, 

26,*ai 21 Besprechung des Prozesses und ''rteils im Unterhaus. 

30. üai 21. General ijttorney ^ewart: Alle Üntruestung ist voreilig. 

?Jicht nach Zeitungsberichten urteilen. 

13. Juni 21. nir Brnest Pollock berichtet im Unterhaus ueber i^eipzig. 



fA , 13. Juni üi. !^ir irneot roü"«". w^**w"v-w — 

)I/M>h'^ ^^eynens Verurteilung bedeute eine schwere g,emuetigung der deutschen 



c 



( 



17 

Militaristen» Hewartj -"ach Ende der Prozesse werde man sich entscheid^^ 
7. Juli 21, Nach Freispruch des Crcnerais Stenger ruft ^riand die fran- 



zoesischen Zuhoerer zurueck. Aber Pollock bleibt in Leipzigs 

20. Juli 21. Daily Telegraph; ISnglische Kommission ist nicht befriedig^ 



7 



aber kein "^rund^-'-'eipzig zu verlassen. 

Ausist 21, Pariser Konferenz beschliesst Einsetzung einer inter-alliie 

ten Kommission zur Pruefung der ^i-riegsv erbrecherfrage. Hev^artjsieht 

drei Moeglichkeiten: 1) Fortsetzung des Leipziger Verfahrens. 2) Kon- 

tumaz-prozesse. 3) stilles -"^egraebnis. 

4. Oktober 21. Deputierter J.L. Bonnet kuendigt Interpellation uebcr 

Leipzig an. Äriand ist sehr geniert, ^ie ^^egierung habe T.ichtigeres z. 

tun. Das Publikum fange an sich zu desinteressieren. Lucian-^ranx lll 

31^. 

6. Januar 1^22 Frankreich stellt erneut Auslieferungsbegehren. 

16. Januar heftige Opposition dagegen durch Daily ExpresS|I>aily Mail, 






hron^le. 



27, Januar \uirth erklaert Auslieferung; fuer unmoeglich. 

1. Mai 1922 Englische "^egierung lehnt im -arlament ab, sich zur -^riegs 

/erbrecherfrage zu aeussern. ^^,.^4^ ^^tJ^ J^^^ l^^fr^i^^S^^ 

7. August 1922 ""ach ^reispruch Michelsohn zweite Sitzung der inter-alli' 
ierten Kommission, -^eschluss, Kontumaz-Prozesse zu fuehren. 
Die ^Vage vird noch einmal aufgeworfen im rovember 1923, anlaessl ich 
der Rueckkehr den "^ronr)rinzen nach Deutschland. Poincare sieht darin 



( n .?'^ovember } neue Vertragsverletzung, da de 



r ^ronpr 



inz an der Spitze 



der ^"riegsverbrecherliste stehe. Vorher, 15. "^^ovembery heftiger Streit 
darueber zwischen Lord Gpewe und Jules Cambon. Diplomatische ITiederla 
f^e -Frankreichs. 



In der \^ote vom Iß.'^uni 1919 hattej^die Alliierten den deutschen Vor- 
schlag mit der -^egruendung zurueck(j;ewiesen: *'The present treaty is in^ 
tended as a departure from the traditions and practices of earlier 



z 



nrPIRNATIONALISM.Since the tesirming of the Diaspora the Jews have 
maintained international relationship between each other 



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8capa Flow 
Am 21. Juni 1919, eine \'.oche vor Unterzeichnung des Versailler Ver- 
trags/ liess Admiral von Reuter die deutsche Üotte versenken; 

5 grosse Kreuzer (Derfflinger-Klasse) 
11 Li^nienschiffe (-b'riedrich der ^rosse, Kaiser etc / 
5 kleine Kreuzer (Koelnj^lasse) 

48 Torpedo-Boote » 
die Versenkung misslang bei dem J^inicnschif f Baden, den kleinen 

Kreuzern Emden, Frankfurt, >Tuernbere und zwei Torpcdo-Bot)ten,die 
alle von den Snglaendern in mehr oder 7/enijer beschaedigtem Zustand 
an Land geschleppt worden. 

Die Englaender schössen auf die deutschen -'atrosen,die auf Booten 
von den sinkenden Schiffen abfuhren, und nahmen sie dann gefangen. 
Admiral von Reuter warde in ein Offiziersgefangenenlager gebracht, 
es wurde aber kein gerichtliches Verfahren gegen ihn eroeffnet,und 
er »urde,vie alle andern deutschen *^rießsjsfan-en* n.nach Inkraft- 
treten ''es -Friedensvertrags nach I^eutschland entlassen. 



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Eng 



lisches Parlament und Ministerium zur Krie^sverbreche: 



fra^e . 



12. Februar 1920 Debatte im Parlament (einen i^ag vor der Absendung 
der alliierten Note, die den deutschen Vorschlag, in Leipzig zu verhan. 

dein, annimmt ). 

Maclean; I endorse the term....But I will say at once that I was ast 

onished and alarmed at the long list of «ames what was published the 

othevday. It seen«d to me to take the whole question out of the 

region of practicability. . . First there should be a competent tribu 

nal;secondly,it should act w-ith reasonable 3oeed,and, thirdly.it sho, 

be fair." T:iie ErledicPing der 900 ^aelle kann Jahre dauern. 

Robert Gecil: Erinnert daran ,da8S er schon 1915 Vr,:ed punishment. 



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Scapa Flow 
Am 21. Juni 1919, eine V.oche vor Unterzeichnung des Versailler Ver- 
trags/ Hess Admiral von Reuter die deutsche i'lotte versenken? 

5 grosse Kreuzer (Derfflinger-Klasse) 
11 Lifnienschiffe (i^'riedrich der ^rosse, Kaiser eto 
5 kleine Kreuzer (Koelnj^lasse) 

48 Torpedo-Boote » 
die Versenkung inisslang bei dem I^inienschiff Baden, den kleinen 

Kreuzern Emden, Frankfurt, yuernberc und zwei Torpedo-Eot>ten,die 
alle von den Englaendern in mehr oder wenijer beschaedigtem Zustand 
an Land geschleppt worden. 

Die Englaender schössen auf die deutschen '"atroBen,die auf Booten 
von den sinkenden Schiffen abfuhren, und nahmen sie dann gefangen. 
Admiral von Reuter warde in ein Offiziersgefangenenlager gebracht, 
es wurde aber kein gerichtliches Verfahren gegen ihn eroeffnet,und 
»urde,vie alle andern deutschen "riegstigfancsem n,nach Inkraft- 



er 



treten ''es Friedensvertrags nach L'eutschland entlassen 



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Eng 



ligches Parlanent und Ministerium zur Krie-sverbreche: 



f raj:e > 
12. Februar 1920 Debatte im Parlament (einen ^'ag vor der Absendung 
der alliierten Note, die den deutschen Vorschlag, in Leipzig zu verhan< 

d ein, annimmt ;• 

tlaclean ; I endorse the term....But I will say at once that I was ast 

onished and alarmed at the long list of «ajnes what was published the 

otheyday. It seem«d to me to take the whole question out of the 

region of practicability. . . First there should be a competent tribu 

nal;secondly,it should act with reasonable s.eed.and, thirdly, it sho, 

be fair." Die Erledigung der 900 Faelle kann Jahre dauern. 

Robert Cecil: Erinnert daran ,aa8S er schon 1915 *ur,:ed punishnent. 



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"I share the grave doubts of other8,whether,after viaiting for 18 



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onths after the armigt ice,you should demand 900 Grermans to be dcl- 



ivered 8tatesinen,ßenerals, I do not know who,Tnen ii^hose direct respone 



a 



ibility is,at any rate, so/n ewhat dubiou8,and i deiDand for v/hoee 
delivery inust arouse every spark of national feeling that is left in| 
Germany. I am afraid that you succeed in your demand you t/iii run 
the risk od producing revolution in rTermany,and if you fail you 
will have presented a quite unnecessary piece of victory and presti- 
gc to the nilitary party in that country. Hansart 25, p. 236. 
Balfour erwidert im i^amen der ^'egierung, die Liste sei sehr sorg- 
faeltig zusammengestellt, etwa ICO -l^'aelle seien Britisch, die andern 
franzoesisch unri belcrisch. Die Opposition duerfe sich nicht wundern 
dass die -"ranzosen und Belgier mehr -"'aelle angemeldet käetten. Das 
kaeme daher, riass diese %biete von den "deutschen besetzt gepriesen 

Vaeren. 

^.edgwood ; auch fuer Bestrafung der ^riegsberbrecher."5ut we might 

renember that the military criminals are not at all to be found in 

» 

Gerraany." Er halte es fuer unnoeglich, die -Beschuldigten in -Deutsch- 
land einzufangen. Kan moege sich mit einer brandmarkenden Lrklaerung| 

begnuegen. 

John Butcher konstatiert, dass das Haus prinzipiell einstimmig die 
•'Bestrafung der Kriegsverbrecher verlange. p352. 

Samuel Hoare ; Die Liste sei revisionsbeduerftig. So stehe z.B. Lim^ 
von ^anders darauf, der sich tadellos benommen habe. "By an impartial| 
trial I mean not only a trial that would appear to be impartial to 
the Citizens of this country,but that would be manifesay impartial 
' to the rhole world.- Sein Vorschlag zielt auf International Court of| 
the -^eague of ^^ations. Auch alliierte Kriegsverbrecher muessten 
bestraft »■erden, p.325. _^ 

Butcher protestiert gegen Hoares ganz ueberfluessige, unangebrachte 










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und mischievous Anschuldisimgen der Alliierten. 
Gir .T.D.Reeds Diese Liste von 900 ITamen bringt die diCcjenwaertige 
deutsche "egierunß,and deren Bestand England interessiert ist, in 
Sroesste Verlegenheit, verursacht vielleicht sojar ihren Sturz. l)as 
Verfahren schafft Üfaej'tyrer. 332. 

T.ieutnant-Gocinander Kenworthy ; fordert neutral court. Britische 
"arine-Offiziere nicht einverstanden git Auslief erun^^sbegehren von 
4 deutschen Admiralen. V.as v-uerde man in England sagen, wenn Jellicoe 
und Beatty ausoCliefert Verden sollten? 

Sitzung von l.niaerz 1920 
Lloyd George teilt mit,dass die ^'rozesse in Leipzig stattfinden 
wuerden. 'erweist auf !Tote der Alliierten vom 13. Februar 1920. 
•"eanfwortet juristisch^technische Anfragen. 

» • - I 

^it zunr vom 12. April 10 20 
Vi scount Gurzo n fract.was in der Kriegsverbrecher-Angelegen^heit 
geschehen sei. Bonar La w; "Nichts ^^es zu berichten". 
Sitzunt/. vom 18. Apri l 1920 
lyl e erhaelt von Bonar Law die tileiche Antwort. 

Sitzung vom 19. April 1920 

n 

. Kaiserfrage. Kenworthy wudert 8ich,d*88 die Alliierten öctzt 
Holland gegenueber so machtlos sind, nachdem sie waehrcnd des Krieges 
alles hatten durchsetzen koennen. Bonar Law ; -an duerfe keine -'ewalt 
anwenden. Jilling ; V.ozu dann Voelkerbund ? Bonar Law ; Auch Voelker- 
bund wendet nur im aeussersten Notfall Gewalt an. 

Sitzung: vom 22. April 
Mills ; Auch die Russland- Interventionisten muessen auf die Kriegsteer- 
brecher-Liste. 

i^itz unp: von I.Juli . 
Verschiedene Anfragen,»»» mit den Kriegsverbrechern geschehe, die in 



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englischem ''ewahrsan sind, Bonar Law ^ Vorlacufig nichts, ^an muss 
erst die -leipziger -t^rozesse abwarten. Anfragen; ^'^arum nicht gegen 
diese Leute prozessieren? Bonar ^a^ ; Die Vereinbarung lautet, dass 
die ersten Prozesse in Leipzig stattfinden. T.ir inuessen:;^ abiwarten. 
Es folgen nun zahlreiche Sitzungen, auf denen Bonar La'» Toertlich 

den Anfragern wiederholt, dass er seit deir 13. April nichts Neues zu 

"berichten haette. 
Am 21..Tuli 1P21 vir'l ein Amendement Bottomley, reiches eine Ruege 

der "egierung wgen ihtiÄJassivitaet in der Kaiser-und Krlegsyer'becher- 






frage involviert, mit 95 geilen 27 stimmen abgelehnt« 

Am 15 August 1921 provoziert Bottomley eine laengere Aussprache ueber 
die Leipziger Prozesse, nachdem die "egierung dem Verlangen nach einer 
tagesordnungsmaessigen l>ebatte darueber ausgewichen, bez« sie fuer ver 
frueht erklaert hatte. In dieser Aussprache erklaert Solicitor generag 
Pollock , der anstelle des ^''remierministers sprichti das Leipziger 

"erfahren sei tia^xyat»« TK ^B Kr« Kkfcxs:fcMU.3aJtKaJMtAK.x^&it<s*«^«»^ ^^Tf « ^" « "»y 

zwar heftig Kritisiert worden, aber der /.eitpunict fuer eine Kritische 
Stellungnahme sei noch nicht gekommen. Eines stehe immerhin jetzt 

schon fest: Das Leipziger Verfahren leiste, was kein ^>ericht ausserhalb 
Deutschlands leisten koenne. Seine Entscheidungen koennten von den 
•deutschen nicht als parteiisch zu Ungunsten -Deutschlands abgelehnt 
werden. Die Leipziger ^rteile muessten auch in Deutschland, gerade in 
Deutschland tiefen Eindruck machen. Daher seien die Leipziger frozeas«^ 
a new milestone in the course of international justice.. Diese Aeusse 
rung Pollocks,dcr sicher im Einverstaendnis mit dem Kabinett sprach, 
wurden vom Parlament ohne Zurufe angehoert. 

Pollock hat sich nicht mit dieser einen Ausfuehrung begnuegt. 
erklaerte im Vorwort zu dem Buch The Leipzig Trials von Glaud Mullina 
einem englischen Anwalt, der als Interpreter die englische Mission nac 



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Leipzig begleitet hatte , füe Urteile des Reichsgerichts bedeuteten 

^no vengeance bat justice^* . p.H 
••These sentences were,to our estimate, far too light,but ..they must 

be estimated according to their value in Gernany." p.lO. 

1 
Pollock weist darauf hin^dass der Vorsitzende Rechsgerichtsrat 

Schmidt, mehrmals seine JwTissbi.lligung ueber das ^erhalten der Ange- 

and similar 
klagten ausgesprochen habe, "These^incidents ^ad their effects on the 

firemans who attended the trials in Court and upon the ^ermans through 

out tke country," 

Ifullins fuehrt in seinem Buch weiter aus: 

"The Leipzig trials nay not have fulfilled the expectation 

of the public which demanded them vhen the Armistice came;but they 

were of very real importance and value none the less. They have made 

history.'*:)17-lR. 

"Populär passion must abate if justice is to be done." 29. 
"Dr. Schmidt and his Court were fair. ... I am convinced they 
performed their difficult task without fear or favour," 44. 

''To believe that the German Court was throu^'hout endeavouring to 
be fair and impart lal is not by any means to say that in all respects 
the findings of the Court were satisfactory." 196 

Mullins fuehrt vorher und nachher auS|Warum die deutschen 
^rteile dem englischen liechtsempf inden nicht eiits:)r€:chen konnten, 
•^^auptsaechlich weil nach englischem Hecht der -^eamte bei Ausfuehrung 
einer unrechtmaessigen ^^andlung nicht durch den -i^efehl seines Vorge- 



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setzten entlastet wirdtnach deutschem "^ echt aber weitgehende gedeckt 
wird. Die englische Liste fuer Leipzig habe-im Ge,;jensat2 zu der 
franzoegischen- fast nur unt ergeordnet eXJSitAftlJt Organe genannt , nicht 
diejenigen, die letzten Endes fueB die Massnahmen verantwortlich waren^ 
Ferner hatten die deutschen -'Beschuldigten fast alle ihnen zur Last 
gelegten Akte vorgenommen, um die Unbotmaessigkeit der "^efangenen zu 
brechen, rrnbotmaessigkeit we^^ in Deutschland viel schv;erer genommen 



i" 



c 



als in England, daher gelte In Deutschland Vorgehen gegen IJnbotmaessig^ 
keit als mildernder Umstand ersten ß"ange3.ugw. 

Die Reichsgcrichtsraete hatten einen sehr schweren Stand 4;egen- 
ueter den militaerischen "achverstaendigen -(Jeneral von •»'ranseckii 
und Admiral -Crotha- sowie -mit einer Ausnahne-den Verteidigern gehabt 
die alle einen sehr rueden nationalistischen Ton angestimrit haetten. 
Mullins gibt folgen'le Statistik: 



Prosecutions 
Convict ions 



British 


Belg. 


French 


* 

• 


1 


5 


ft 





1 



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Verurteilt wurden: Sergeant -^^^eynen wegen -re fang enenmisshand lang zu 
10 Monaten "^efaengnis; Hauptmann Tl.Mueller wgen gleichen Vergehens 

zu 6Monaten Tefaen^jnis, Soldat Robert T'^eumann desgleichen zu 6Monaten 
"efaengnis. \ Die U boot-Of fixiere Dithmar und Boldt v^gen Versenkung 
eines Hospitalsschiffs zu je 4 *^ahren uefaengnis. Pollock und Kullins 
aeusserten sich sehr befriedigt , iass auf ^iefaengnis und nicht auf •• 
'^'estung erkannt worden war. freigesprochen wtirde Kapitaen-Leutn."^arl 
Neumann, 

V.egen Kisshandlung belgischer Kinder angeklagt , wird ^»••ax ^amdohr 
freigesprochen. V. egen Wisshandlung franzoesi scher befangener angekl. 
wird Oberleutnant Laule freigesprochen. Ebenso Genralleutnantjr, Schack 
und Generalmajor Kruska. In dem -»-'rozess gegen ^eneral Stenger und ^aj 
ürusius wegen Misshandlung von "^ranzosen wird Gten^^er freigesprocheni 
Crusius Wgen fahrlaessiger Toetung zu 2 *^ahren ""efaengnis verurteilt. 

TS ' -^ 

ftj KapitaenleutnalA^tzig und V.erner, sowie Soldat Trinke waren ins 
Ausland geflohen. Ihr Vermengen warde beschlagnahmt, 
Dithmar und "^oldt standen nicht auf der Liste, hatten aber analog 

vie Patzig gefehlt. /%///^^/^^^vW/^ 

Mullins meint, die Franzosen und Belgier seien schlechter beöandelt 

worden als die Englaender,weil jene "animos" und "^ssvoll" vor 'derlei/ 



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auftraten, rii e Enjlaender dagegen "Unbefangen •• und^'fair" . 

Die englische ^'egierung fand das statistische Ergebnis befriedigend 

und teilt %^ nitsaunt den Vortlaut der Urteile dem "arlament mit: 



"German ^«ar i'rials. Report of Proceedings before the Supreme Court in 
Leipzig, Presented to Parliament by Command of his Majesty.'* 1921^ 



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Kapp-Putsch 
Bereits am ersten Jahreg^tag der 'Meutschen "^evolution" ,ani 9.?Tovem- 

ber 1919, zeigte sich deutlich, dass das republikanische ^'egime jKiüi 
schwach v:ar,dass rein zahlenmaessig die Gegner erstarkt waren, dass 
die Gegner in ihrem Auftreten Tag fuer Tag an Selbstbewusstsein £em 
wannen, die ^ert^r des republikanischen egimes dagegen unsicher und 
||v ungeschickt verfuhren und die entschiedenen Verteidiger der ^^epubli^ 
iw Stich Hessen oder jedenfalls nicht mit ihnen planmaessig zusam- 
men arbeiteten. Als Hindenburg am 12 .'^'^ovember 1919 nach Berlin kam, 
um vor dem Untersuchungsausschuss auszusagen, wurden die Strassen 
Berlins von den Anhaengern der Schwarzweissroten "'eaktion beherrsch^". 
Am 14. >Tovember 1919 wurden Hlnr^enburg und Ludendorf f riesige -Demon- 
strationen gebracht. Die Verhandlungen des Untersuchungsausschusses 
wurden zu einem /riumpf der j^eaktion. Die republikanischen )/:itglie- 
der des Ausschusses waren nicht imstande, den Gang der Verhandlunge >l 
zu lenken. Ihre Arbelt wurde als Propaganda-""aterial gegen die ^^epu-^ 
buk ausgenutzt. 

Im Laufe des Januars 1920 wurde die Schwaeche der Republik allen of-^ 
fenbar. Die Regierung und die hinter ihr stehenden Parteien giÄ^kltÄ 
joiJÜaJk mussten rait einer katastrophalen Niederlage rechnen, wenn nach 
der Aufloesung der ^at ionalrersammlung, die ihre Arbeit getan hatte, 

^^eichstagswahlen vorgenommen wuerden. Sie versuchten zu temporisier^, 

Heinze yi(^^ 
Am 20. Januar 1920 wurde der Antrag nestarp-aJtxjuuuMUftx auf ^^eicAi-* 



^t"' 



tagswahlen ab(jeMint und die Tagung der Nationalversammlung verlaeng^^ 
Das War, wenn auch nicht ••Verfassungsbruch'* wie die ^Rechtsparteien i 
der ^'^egierung vorwarfen, so doch ein kaum ueberbietbares Schwaed^ei-- 
chen. Im Februar wurde das ^^egime noch mehr kompromittiert durch de/j 
Prozess Erzberger-'^^clff erich. Erzberger galt dem luergertum als 
erledigt. Der andere LÜnister ,der dem ""abinett den Stempel aufdrue<:/j- 






te,>^oslce, hatte sich den Haos des Prol^riats zugezogen. Das west- 



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deutsche Industrie- ebiet rar unruhig, Sachsen un^ Berlin in «jraerung/ 
Obwohl Mehrheitssozialisten und Unabhaengige angesichts des Lrstarjc 
kens der "eaktion Verhandlungen wegen ein"er Einigung begonnen vior- 
den »««■*«, konnte die ^^egierung nicht auf Unterstützung durch die 



linksradikale Arbeiterschaft rfchnen. «?ie wurde vielmehr aeusserst 
heftig von riies'-r bekaenpft. Die linksradikal^ Agitation, die sich 
in politischen Streiks und Aufruhrversuchen aeusserte, ersqjien als 
indestens ebenso .grosse ^efahr fuer das bestehende System wie die 



m 



Agitation ier ^^echten. 

Innerhalb der rarükalen Linken gab es einen Gegensatz zwischen Ver- 
tretern gewaltsamen Umsturzes und anderen, die sich auf die politi- 
sche und gewerkschaftliche Agitation verliessen,weil sie glaubten, 
auf diesen V.ege das System beseitigen zu koennen. 
I .nerhalb der ^^echten gab es eine analoge Differenz. Die T^iehrer 
der "'raktionen un<^ die Leiter der In-^nstrie glaubten, ihre 3.i'rucht 
bau ernten zu koennen, ria die allgemeine Stimmung der »-aehler ausser 
halb des Proletariats unzweifelhaft zugunsten der ^^eaktion umgeschK' 
gen v.ar,resp. viele fruehere Anhaenger der "epublik enttaeuscht oder 
gleichgueltig geworden waren. Diesen Vuehrern kam es in erster Linid 
auf die Regirrungsgewalt an. Ob diese '^ann den Kaiser zuruckru^fen 
oder zunaechst einen monarchistischen Platzhalter einsetzen sollte, 
war eine ""rage zweiter ^rdnung,In ''er itauntsache kam es ihnen auf 
•/erdraengung der Sozialisten aus der "egierung an, und diese schien 
durch die kommenden ^^eichstagswahlen.die einmal trotz der Jferschleo- 
pung kommen mussten, gesichert zu sein. Dnr weitaus -roessere und 
einflussreichere "eil der "echten war fuer diese Politik, die im 
üahmen der Verfassung durchgefuehrt werden konnte. Es gab aber 
anch ungeduldige Elenente, die nicht mit dem Stimmzettel arbeiten 
wollten. Ihr hervorragender 'ertreter v ar Tudendorf ^Um ihn grupp- 



/f 



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« 



ierte gich die .B«*e ni/ segruen^^ete ••>^ationale ^ereinißuns" geleit^ 
Ton Hauptrrann Pab5t^Xapp,^er fruehere IJnterBtaatssekretaer Siecfrie/ 

von T-alkenhauBen n,^. ^UA^^ ^ l^^'¥^^^ ^"^ 

i'abst, 3tat$-Chef der Garde-^^avallerie-Gchuetsendivision, hatte schon 

En-^e 191-) einen Putsch vorlDereitet .^^ar aber von -eneral von LuettriT^/ 
dem Oberbefehlshaber der V-ehrmacht. ^avon ab-ebracht i^orden. Luett- 
vitz selbst bezeichnet die Schuetzendirision als "reaktionaer" . 
( Im Kampf ge^en Hie rorember-"evolat inn, 11:^4, p. *^4 } . 

Die TMehrer der "ITationalen Vereinisuns" konferierten in Ludendorff^ 
Hotelraeumen. (Margarete Luiendorff , Als ich ludendor^fs jau rar,10^f^ 
,. P.71.) Ludenrlorff v-eihte seine ^au nicht ein. "Ich Huerfe von am, 
ras jetzt geschehe,nicht8 v'issen, denn,v,'a3 man olane* und vorhabe, set 
ein gefaehrliches Spiel. 3s koenne nin3lingen,un-i da mueer.te ich un- 
ter allen 'T^staenden mit reinem uei^isoen dastehen und vor jedem Riq^- 
terkollegium aussagen koennen.das. ich an den politischen Bestrebun 
gen in unseren Hause keinen Anteil hatte. "p. 2^1 . Aus den -erichten 
aller ^auptbeteilisten geht hervor. dasd ^app keine fuehrende Rolle 
soielte. -r ^urde zum "Reichskanzler" ausersehen, reil dieses .^.t 

x^jx^^^^ ^' n ^1-it 1 rrirPi t prschien. lieben Luden- 

^öi tr , x^..^.r ^oo '^ntQnhp«* vor allem Oberst Bauer 

dorff v;aren ää <^^^r Vorbereitung des Jutscnes voi ctx±^ 

unri Hauptmann -"'abst taetiß. 

General von Luettwitz,der Ilindenburg im Oberl^pando nachgefolgt v.ay^ 
ooerierte isoliert. :.r glaubte lange l.eit ,mitKNoske zusammenarbeite;^ 
zu koennen. Aber er var von dem Treiben der "Nationalen Vereinigung 
ante richtet. Ebenso waren die Fuehrer der -eutsch#jl4t ionalen und dV 
Volkspartei im Bilde. 3ie warnten ^ie 'erschwoerer vor bewaffnetem 
7orgehen,und haben v.'ohl auch die Hohenzollern gewarnt, sich mit der ^^ 
iiat,^er. einzulassen. Der Gegensatz zwischen den «Parlamentarischen 
Monarchisten und den Putschisten war bal"^ offen,balH verBteckt,und 



machte sich bei verschiedenen i,nl.^P,«o ^^e 

Aniaessen geltend 



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"Parlamentarier" glaubten ^ie Putschisten fuer ihre Lveoke benutzen 
zxxkAKXXJEja und sie nach getaner ^^rbeit beiseite schieben su koenne^ 
ae'nnl^ch rie aoaeter im "Palle der N^zis. 

Die Verschwoerer,wie Luett^itz.und vie nie "^mrlamentari sehen 
Ifonarchisten waren sich klar.dass sie sich nach der Mac htueb er nähme 
mit den aus^aerti-^en i^acchten auseinanderzusetzen '^^'^^®"';jJ?^^/^^®^/^^^ ' 
rechneten vor allem mit dem r.ohl^ollen ICnglands. Bwr Hauptaßent ^ue/ 



auswaertige Verhandluneen war der fruehere britische Parlamentarier 
■^rebitsch-Lincoln. Sie verhandelten aber auch direk:. nit enolischen 

Offizieren. 

Lincoln Trebitsch hat in seinen Erinnerungen The autobiograyhy _ 

of an adTenturer 1931 ausfuehrlich ueber den Kapp-Putsch und seine 
'/Trbereitunsen gehandelt . Sein ^^uch deckt sich grossenteils mit 
einer ^enkschriftjdl-' «? bereits im "'ahre 1^21 der -"^e-ierung eines 
mit Frankreich verbuendeten Staates /erkauft hat. Sie wurde in der 
Europe nuuvelle , April-Kai 1-^21 abgedruckt. Da Lincoln-Trebitsch Jax 
hier ITamen nennt, die erst spaeter in der Oeffentlichkeit bekannt 
wurden, und ihre Tracjer richtig charakterisiert, so ist wenigstens 
teilweise seiiie Zuverlaessigkeit gesichert. 

Im Sommer 1919 fuhr er im Auftrag der i%tionalen »'ereinigung 
nach Anerongen und verhandelte dort mit 'lern Kaiser und dem Kronprin- 
zen. Die Entente-Dresse erfuhr davon. p.l4^. 151. -r bemerkte, dass 
eine einflussreicheiruppe der deutschen ?:onarchisten gegen den 2^^^U 
und bpsorders gegen ludendorff und seine ^uppe war. I-urope nouvellC 
^- 1921 p. f>ol. "The Chief thing was British neutrality." p.l53. Sein 




r — ^ ***=*« 




?- 



r ^ 



ifc 




T 




4^^ 






?^ 



r i 



Mittelsmann »ar ein rlrektor Seegehart in ICoeln.ii.ber den nichts 



^^ 



h 



/jeres zu ermitteln war. Er fuehrtt Lincoln mit einem i-^jor Üyan zusaW 
men. Dieser "did not care anything about the Entente. T.hat matterei 
to him was the British Empire, and nothing eise. Least of all the Pe - 



a 



ce of Versailles. He was prepared to see that scrap of paper what 



4 






5 

Sbroucht nothing but trouble,torn to 



piecen. But nevertheless, the Entjlishnan hart some niseivincs .He was 
particularly oppose^ to the restauration of V. ilheln. Bau er leplied 
that there was no thought of that . T1ne major seemed satisfied. * Bu6 
Luden^lorff^ he asked next . *He will be in connand,' The major locke/ 
straight at ^auer an^ ^.h^uc:ht fr»r a noment öl tu/ö. Ile mhaied ^ 
% couple of whiffs fron his cijaretie. ' r/Ood--beyond question the 
right man in t'ie right place, as you Germans are so fond of saying 
now--'but 30 far as the outside World is concerned he rrust atay 
rather in the backcrounr^ .Till you pronise me that?' Golonel Sauer 

promised,'* p,159. 

Luettwitz seinerseits hatte Tuehlung mit dem englischen ""eneral 
ii^alcolm. Lr sagt nicht, r!ass er mit diesem wegen des Putsches ver- 
handelt habe. Aber er hatte an ihn appelliert , al s von der AusÜefer • 
ung der Kriegsverbrecher die ^ede war, und glaubte '/erstaenrinis ge- 
funr^en zu haben. Hn^ er hatte (^en gleichen Eindruck von i^lcolm, 
als er ihn bat, die Verringerung der deutschen Armee von 2CC000 
auf looOOO hinauszuschieben. Luettwitz p. 76. Liese Verringerung 
aber war ein ifauptgrund fuer Luettwitz* -Beteiligung am Putsch. 
Luettwitz War von der Idee besessen, r^ass die Bolschewisten im 
Sommer 1^20 nach Jliederwerfung Polens in "'eutschland einfallen 
wuerden. Zr war entschlossen^ die '/erringerung des ^eeres mit 
allen Mitteln zu verhindern, und deswegen schon im Oktober 1919 



C 



von Seeckt und -^^eye bei ^oske denunziert worden. p.lOl. 



# 



Die Nationale Vereinigung verhandelte aber nicht nur mit englischen 
Offizieron( unr! wohl auch mit englischen Politikern) sondern auch 
mit Victor Kopp, dem bolschewistischen Botschafter in -^erlinjund mit 
der deutschen centrale. Lincoln 156. National review April 1920, p. 
156, sagt. Kapp "was simultaneously intrieuing v;ith the Ruasian ^oviCO 
and the local Spartaciiats ." Das trifft nicht fuer Kapp persoenlich 



/ 



A 



k^ 



Q 



zur^ieckzuhalten. Sie richteten nichts aus,nahnen ein ITltimatun Lhrh ^ 
ardts mit,<1as vom Kabinett ahrel ehnt wurr^.e. Ebert und das Kabinett 
Sini^jen nach lircBden. Vice-TCanzler Schiffer blieb ;:urueck. Er wurde 
in Sc^^zhaft j^nomirienj aber bald frei jelassen. i:benso c'i^S ^-^ ^^^ 
preus3i?^chen Wegierunc. "^"^oske, .leneral '"'einhardt un^ Oberst Heye 
wollten treten lührharit kaempfen, i>er Geeckt erkla^rte V.iderntand 
fger auR.gicht3los. !Tarh dem 7^innargch verv;eigern Geeckt, ^en und 
Oldershausen den Kappisten den I^i^nst. Sir vp.rden abp^esetzt. 
geeckt T^urde "die Seele de? T, iderstandes c^ßen nich^ . I.uett^^itz p. 
121. Die 3ehoerden,j^oT>ie ^die Unterstaatgsekretaere \rerreieern ^^app 
den "'ehor3an,auch^efxiticx ^^eichswehrpinigteriurr/ "Der kappistische 
^•ehr^inister ..rif^bers ncheitert. Die Krich?bank verv^iigert Lahlun^'e^. 
Tu i^uenchen setzt General l^oehl lie nozjall^jinchc Kerierung ab, dis- 
tanziert sich aber, ebenso vie o'er als Staatsknnmissar eingesetzte K 



^t iCapp 




Kahr von den Ilapnisten. 

'Die Leutsch-lJationalen erlassen eine Kunr!^'ebung, die 

,aber baldige Ueberleitune r.u r.inr.r yerf assunesmaensigen .» 
^^ecif-rung fordert. I^ie deutsche Volkj^paertei ist noch mehr zurueckk 
haltend in de/ Anerkennung Ka:).i3,MnterlaesHt gleichfalls irgt miv'elo- 
chen r^rotest ril'^ fordert gleichfalls eine verfassungsraessi^e "etie- 



rung 



Zahlreiche deutsch-nationale w^^ yolksoarteil i che Tuehrer sin^ . 
aber entschieden ^^e^en den Staatsstreich. Heinze.der mit Regierun^s 

n '-^ r* h .»>T* e '^ "^ c* n 

F.it£liedern im .-rleiC en Zuey^aehrt ,Teranla3St ^en^^orti^en ^^eichsv;eVir- 

al t en 
General i^arcker , sich derK^'^egierung zur '«^erfue-ung zu halten, Reichs- 

wehrkorr-nando 2(?:assel} erklaert sich geilen Kapp.^^aehrend JToenissber^ 

und der ijanze Nordosten fuer Kapp ist. 

SPD und Gev-erkschaften rufen zun Generalstreik gegen Kapp auf. Die 

Sbert-regierun^ akzeptiert die 3treikparole. 

rie Linksradikalen sind am i;^. Maerz zurueckhaltend. 2rst am 14 .7&eR 



Jf 



# 



•j 



3 



f Tinvirk-unü Hoskaus.'^.as 



erk:laerfn nie. sich segen Kapp, vermt lieh au 
von den Einverstaendnis ^er V.eis^usnen nit ^en .-ap,:)i3ten 
nen hatte. Das Rundschreiben der -TJ centrale von 
sich tv=a3 verlegen aus; (Internationale !Tr. 23; 

ITach kurzem Zoesern ist die Arbeiterschaft in Bcrl,>,^ 

in den Tencral streik getre- 



in f^einlanH and in vielen andern ^rten 



t, en 



5„t.rn scWen e. hier in ^erlin.al, ob 41e ArteiterBchaft oa.- 
,1, bleiben .■ucr^.,..nd «ir slaubtan.fall s «e Ar'oelterBChaft nicht 
attionsberelt sei, .in. Aufforderung zun Oeneralstrelk nicht «ofort 

^ ,-*-,.^ \vt^on«^n '^pr Militaerdiktatur.die 
geben zu kocnnen, sondern TM-itere Aktionen er i.ix 

die Arbeiter in "arnisch bringen, rrst abwarten zu muessen.... 



V , 



,le propaga.^st Ische Hau,tauf^:abe unserer ^no3Ben besteht 
.arln,,it der Kritik .er ;mltaer«ktatur,Hle kur. abzumachen sein 



bÜrokratie el.er unerbittlichen Kritik zu '>'"^"^i«*""^y,^/^:^,^ ^iv 
l,...,rz. Kapp ver.,rlcht -^'-^ .^^^^ 7^.:^' 

fuer ungueltie. "S S'^nCt lh„en,«ese XrWaerunc/ln Berlin zu ,er- 

brait.n.Luett.it. sieht cin,.as. die .illtaerischc Aktion ihr .iel 

• u^ inot TTQ^n aeuqsert Ruecktrit ts :edanl<en. 
nicht erreicht hat. Kapp aeuss^i . ... 

-. 1 v^w,mi- uM-^ pirr.e rerantvjortunß na 

15. ^aerz. ^eneral ^a^rcker Kor^nt au. elS^^ r« 

T'^ ^wv^^yi-^i ht ihn "^orderunn; 

^,-t TnPttvIt-- za vrrhandeln. I^app utterLi«)^ ^^-^ S^ -' 
-•erlintUm nit LueLL^ii''- ^4 v xic* 

an «e alte fteclerunc^e von Meser zurueckee^iesen .er.an. Kapp n 
„,„„, eeme Behauptune..ie alte ^e.lerune habe ibn u. -/erhanaiun^en 

■.><» -«^^■hcr*-.Tie^unir,die nach Stuttgart 
ersucht. oeffentlich zurueck. ^Ue eichsret^ie.ung, 

,or, -ict beruft '^en eichstaj dorthin fae. len x . «. 
gegan^^en ist,neru!rT' '="«-' v • At 

K,. Vaerz. Vert.ef r .er ^e^. crun.s.art elen «rhan.eln i™ " e.««i- 
tae.ln >^e,en.art von .ohiffer.nlt Vertretern .er -cchtspareien. ^trC- 




/ 



( 



c 



semann teilt nit,'!as3 ^^apn zum riuecKtritt bereit sei. Dueriricer [D'^J 

und Heinze vollen Aussprache Schiff er-Obrrat ?auer. Gchiffer* erst 

4 Punkte zu erledigen: l) Rueclctritt Kapp, 2) Ruecktritt Luettvitz 

7>) sofortige Einstellung .^er Kobilisi^runs der "r JBernen r^ivis lonH., 6 ^ ^^ 

4) sofortiger Abzug der Kapp-i'ruppen aus Berlin, Oberst Trauer bittet 

um Bedenkzeit. 

17. Maerz. Auf l'ruck der "Rechtsparteien tritt Kapp zurueck. LueZZ^*' 
Witz vill noch 14 ^af^e bleiben, tritt aber ebenfalls zurueck auf ^ru^ 
der "'eicbsT^'ehriienerale. Besorechune aller Parteien excl . nSP. 
Es Verden z^ei T^oTtniuniques heraus?re.:eben; 1) Seeckt als neuer Oberbe- 
fehlshaber macht bekannt! 

"OenerallanHscharts-Urpktor Kapp ist,ur« -'en innern frieden her- 
beizufuehren,zurueck3etreten. Aus dem gleichen ^rund hat General vo;? 
Luettwitz sein Abschiedsgesuch eincereicht. Der Stellvertreter der 
Heichsregierunp; hat im Fanen des Heichspraesidenten den Abschied be* 
v^illigtyund nit der einstweilii3en '•ahrnehnuns der Of schaefte den ^e>**/- 
Major vor, ^eeckt beauftragt. Z^.-ischen '^en fuehren^^en I'itgliedern dej^* 
Mehrheitsparteien.der DT/P und -ler D'f? besteht Uebereinst ir^.Piung ueb,^ 
fol^^ende Punkte: 1} Die V-ahlen zun j^eichstag sollen spaetestens in 
Juni d.r. s attfinrien. 2; Die Vahl des ^^eichspraesidenten erfolgt 
nach iUissgabe der '"^eichsverfassunp; durch das Volk. 3) Kine alsbal- 
dige Umbildung der Regierung '»Jrd fuer erforderlich gehalten." 

2) Schiffer iuichJLx:kxkjuua erlaesst eine "ekanntrachung,die mit 
den V. orten be^^innt: 



'^, 



r 



zwischen Schiffer einerseits und den Vül^csjarteilern Gtrese- 
TTiann and Leidig anderseits v-urde eine lan3e -Debatte gefuehrt l) 
ueber die Haltunß der Rechtsparteien 2] ueber Schiffers Zusagen und 
ihre /erbindlichkeit . "Die genaue V.ahrheit ist zur "eit nicht zu er^ 



tn 



itteln. "^uer die historische -Beurteilung ^^es Putsches und seiner 



Tlnter'^rueckung ist folgendes "ichtig; 

1) Deutsch--**ationale und volk:s.)arteiÜc;ie Fuehrer haben 

entschieden gegen die Kappisten Stellung genomnen. 

2) Sie haben verstanden, diese Stellungnahme bei der 
■"eichsrejierun^ fuer ihre Pa^rteien aus7,uwerten. 

3} Schiffer ist in i^echt, wenn er behauptet, von den Kappis- 
ten keinerlei ""edinAlfte angenomnen zu haben. Aber wabrscheinlich hat 






er sich au 



f ^edinguae-en der loyal gebliebenen Rechts^iarteiler einge- 



lassen. 



4; TJie Stellungnahne der "egierung und der V-eimarer Koali- 



tion »aide beemfiusst durch die Entwj.cii*uw„ dec "e..t ü-^.r-t.'-iK-z 
im Ruhrgebict und in Sachsen. Conrad Haussroann (Streiflichter p. 3C^ ' 
"Der Vagen erhielt nach dem Stoss von rechts einen Erdstoss von liniJ 
und drohte umzufallen. " Die streikbevregung vurde durch die Niederül-' 
ge Kayps nicht eingedaemmt. Besonders im Ruhrgebiet v/urden die loya-' 
len I^enpfer gejen Kapp von den Kaempfern iujuc der "roten Arnee" ue- 
berflutet. Ler Kapp-Putsch loeste den offenen Aufatand aus, der umso 
gefaehrl icher T:urde,al8 die Erbitterung ueber die Ausschreitungen d<?/ 
"eichswehr und der ihr unterstellten ^reivrilligenfornationen, sowie 
ueber die ausbleibenden Repressalien der j^epublik viele Sozialisten 
radikallsierte. Selbst ein ^'eil der T^phrheitssozialistischen Abgeor/I^- 
neten und die Leitung der ^ewerksche^ften v^aren um den 20.-aerz heru^ 



/ 



\ 



V 



11 . 

gewillt, nur eine "rein-sozinlistische "Regierung zu tolerieren. FueK 
den Kreis um Ebert,die Demokraten und das "entrum stellt sich der 
"achverhalt so dar, wie Haussmann ihn formuliert: "Lie Erpressung; vo/) 
rechts hat den Appetit zur Irpressung von li>|lc3 her geweckt." Lie 
Arbeiter seien berauscht vom Erfolge dea Generalstreiks. 

ieser Rausch var eine Illusion, rieht der Generalstreik haZ^- 

te gesiegt. sondern, Her friede|/war durch ein Diktat der Rechtspar- 

teili^hen Vermittler . , A , ^ • r, ^ 

««IftÄXherges teilt v^orden. >ncht MiCmonarchistische Reaktion v-ar 

unterlegen, sondern nur ein radikaler ^luegel dieser Reaktion. 
Die Substanz der fechten war nicht tangiert. Ihre TTuehrer warteten 
auf den parlamentarischen 3ieg,den ihnen die -eichstacsv.-ahlen auch 
brinjen sollten. Ihr i:rfolg fiel in -^olge des Putsches geringer aus^ 
und reichte nicht hin zur Regierun :su<-bernahne durch di e ^echt e/^-^ ' 
Aber die Y.eimarer Koalition ^uvde geschlagen un^i hat sich /on dieser 

Niederlage nicht mehr erholt. 

Die Soziaiis-.ischen Gewerkschaften stellten ein i>rogramr, von ^^^^^^^^^^ 

^ ^nA^^ A-rVi^i r PVQrhft-*^t ^eiiu^^'taun^ zu verschaffen/* Es xjatx 
ten at.f,um der Arbeitetscha^t enu.t u^^^ 



,1*1-^ Gpoft-r^'c'hMnrT. ^U3''er'^er sofortigen '^'i^l;- ^^ Ter-ien droh^ "iit 
BTides'ra^fuer ^emokraten l-drjntrum unannehmbar ,^L- 
«schaerftera ^jenera] strei<c( 2u .i^aer^j »er.eicub «t ,, • .^ .,„„,-A- 

Der angebliche "Sieg der Demokratie" wurde in der -e^chtagssxt 

zung vom 1'^ .^^evz in Stuttgart gefeiert. Reichskanzler 3auer brand- 
markte Ludendorff als Ilauptanstifter des .^tsches. Diese "ede und 
seine vorherige ^Votstellungf-The most serious condition laid b/ vo^ 
^f LuettTitz before the ^erlin ^abinett v-as that the derobil ization of 
the Imperial army and the destruction of war« natcrial in accordance 
v;ith the terms of the ^reaty must no^^^ke place, and the Lmpire oudit 

to oreoare itself for a ncy^ ^'ar" (I^ati'onal -eview^ April 102Cp.l55) 

" " * und auuall^ruer , ^^ 

„achten Bauer -rntracbar" . Sr »a. ein .ngeachlcWer polfti.er.aber 

,0hl vo« allen an- aufrlchtiesten henueht, <1en /ersalller 'ertrag 
auszufuehren 



ver- 



I I 



/ 



1i 



f 



12 



^n der gleichen Sitaun- trat Gcheidenann so scharf r;esen Foske auf, 



dass ^Ueser zuruecktrat . 



Am 



l.l.Iiacrii ^gratulierten die engli sehen, italienischen und belgische/, 
geschaeftstraeger Schiffer zum Siege der -eichamgierung. Am 22. 
gratulierte der amerikanische "esc^eftstraeger . 

Am 23. gratulierte -eneral >Tollet Hen nach Berlin zurueckgekehrten 
Kanzler Bauer . "II m' e^prina 1' espoit que les gou^^ermements allies ^^ 
se d^oartiraient de la nefiance (risstrauen; qu' ils avaient teiroign^ 
jusque ll C.U gouvernenent allenand. La defaitc complete et rapide d^ 
la reaction militaire leur etait une gage de ^' attacheirent de L'Alie»- 
na^ne aux institutions repuhlicaines. re lui re^pordis que cette nef- 
iance puisqu'il avait orononce le mot,Je trouvais justifiee dans le 
oasss mr les evrnenents meneB qui venaient de sc derou3er. Je for- 
nulais l'espor qu'a l'avpnir,le gouvernement alleraand,rraintenant in 
forme, n* manquerait pas de ^aciliter la tache de la comminsion int - 



er 



romoue oar le coup d'Stat." Une experionce de desarmementp . IS*^. 



Am 24, '^^a-rz'^iÄxii.'de-' Oberste /Jat.eine abwartende ^^altung ein;:unehm«; 

•md von Massnahmen gegen l-eut^chland vorlaeufig abzusehen, rit 

diesem ^eschluss kolllriiert '^if franzocsische "anktion v^egen des 

Eindringens der "eichs^'-ehr in da^ Ruhrgebiet. 

26. I/aerz Ruecktritt Sauers. "erman Mueller " uchskanzler. 

29. i:aerz Verabschiedung der ^enerale von -storff, aercKer.Let tov- ,^r- 



beck, von Ledebur. ^« Luettv^it^;, gegen ^_e". ^, 1% Haftbefehl erii*a-^^ 
^^unauffindbar. ^oruntersuchang[gegen Karp,(JagoT,Pabst, Oberst 3auer, ^^ 
schiele, Valkenhausen,J»redereck, hoye^ Admiral von ],evetzov., -ajor y^^^^^ 
von ^.'.interfeld. Txeg, "at Pauli. Laadrat von Loev;. Keichsta^ssiti^ung. ^/Ju' 
üermann llueller verspricht purge, polemisiert scharf .^egen LF/P und_ jti^" 
DVT. Ler neue l^eichsv-ehrminister -essler; -I.eichsv-'ehr niuss auf brei* ^/^^ä^ 

tester demokratischer "rnndlag'" aufgebaut werden. 
3C^54^äßD<z Jreugeloebnis der -berliner ^a-.ni..on. » 

'^er "eichs'^ehrkommandeure auf lerfassung. 
6..Tuni 1920. Reichstagswahl. Niederlage der V.eimarer Koalition. 



^'^}n/i 



«! 



i\ 



Partei 



f5PD 



13 
ReichstagBWahl vom r^.Tuni 1920 

^"^at 1 onalvers . 1"^1^ 
oitze otiniTjen ^IMll.ionen) 



V.ahl 1020 
r>itze ntiriTTien 



U3P 



Zentr. 

n 

^^ Bayr.Vp. 



DenokrX 

Deutschn. 
Tolkso. 

Komm. 



163 



^a ^ 



R8 



11,1 
5,3 



75 

42 
21 



5,5 
2,7 
1,1 



112 

f^l 
68 
21 

45 

66 
62 



w 



5,6 
4,9 
3,5 






3.f 

3,7 

0,4 



c 



Die "»Ti. derschlagung '^es Kapn-'^utgches wurrle vom cesaJ^^en Ausland 
ohne Unterschied der " arteirichtunp und des Yerhaeltni sses zu Deuts^^- 
land.uebereinstimmend nit der offisiiellen deutschen -^esart und der 
Auffassung er jfesanten''f,inken einschliesslich des Zentrums, dem 
••unwider3tehlichftn"Creneral8treik zugesÄnrieoen. Die deutsche l^emo- 
icratie wurde kreditiert mit dem besitz einer unfehlbaren Lefensiv- 
^affe fuer den aeussersten !:otfall,w'enn sie auch der politischen 
Offensiv-^-af fen ermangelte. 

Diese Auffassung fuehrtc innerhalb und ausserhalb Deutschlands 
zu der Illusion, dass ^ie Republik im Motfall wieder eiTolgreicben 
Gebrauch dieser ^efensiv-^af'e machen koenne^und werde. 
Diese Auffassung der Vorga' nge ist falsch, mindestens schief. 
Das Schicksal des Kapp^Putschea ist bereits am lo.i'arz entschieden 
worden, als die Industriervormittatis 11 Uhr durch ihren Beschluss, 
nach Tvie vor nit denV^ererkschanen znrai^nenzuarbeiten, von dem die 
eneralko^mission der ^e^erkscnaften sofort in Kenntnis gesetzt 
urde-.sich von Kapp distanzierte, als '^ie Rechtsparteien ihre Ilit- 






/. 



6 



vdrkuns versagt en,TJindenburg abwinkte, die j'inisterien den Dienst 



^ 



o 



e 



14 XltXJiAl^ItXXMK 

\rerT/eigerten und die Kabinettsbildung Kapps nisblan^. Am 13, Jlaö^z 
vi'ar dar Erfolg des Generalstreiks noch ganz unsicher. Die radikale 
Linke entschloss sich Ja erst an 14. zur Teilnahme. Trotzderr; machte 
das aros der ''echten nicht nit Kapp i;eneinsane Sache, tat vielmehr jar 
alles, un den Putsch so schnell vie noeglich zu liquidieren. Die 
Rechte versa^ste Kapp die Mittel, den Generalstreik zu bekaempfen. 
r-er Generalstreik wirkte sich aus, ohne dass ueberhaupt ein ecnsthaf- 
ter Versuch geiracht wurde, ihn praktisch zu begeben. Dass Kapp ihm 
unterlag:, var nicht nur Folge seiner persoenlichen Unfaehi^keit. Lr 
v.ar zur Ohnmacht jesenueher den Streik verurteilt , v/eil er abgesehen 

* 

von seinen ^Vuppen ijur kein Or^jan zur 7erfueeun£ hatte, un etvas zur 
Aufrecht erhaltunj der Arbeit zu unternehren. ITaette die Industrie u)// 
die Politiker ihn ^eld und £ers*nal zur Verfuecuns jestellt, dann 
haette der Streik einen ganz anderen /erlauf '^enonrren»v^ie spaetere 
aeneralstreikberecun-en zeigen. Kapp aber rurde irr Stich gelassen, 

bevor das funktionieren des Streiks durch Teilna^ine der radikalen 
Linken ueberhaupt ernoeelichtj-eschv.eige denn gesich^ert v'ar, 

l;ie Rechte hatte alles Interesse, den Tapp-Putsch so schnell T'ie 
moeglich zu liquidieren, damit keine Schvankung in dem Ijnschrung 
der Volkssfeimmung eintraete. Tatsaechlich hat die I'^echte durch den 
Kapp-?utsch stimmen-7erluste erlitten. V-afelpolitisch brachte der 
misslungene Putsch der ».eimarer Koalition einigen Auftrieb. Ohne 
ihn waere ihre V."ahlnied erläge noch viel -roesser gev.'esen. 

Der Sinn der V.ahl.die voellige ^erdraenij^rig der SPD aus der 



▲ k 



egierung 



, ö(as Zusammengehen der unsicher ge^Jordenen beiden 



andern i^oalitionnparteion nit der Volksoartei^ ^ar das Aufge- 
ben des— "bisher »'enn auch unentschieden betaetigten--republikani- 
schen Kurses. Die Volkspartei machte keine Konzession hinsichtlich 



ihres 



im Zentrum 



monarchi'ch-schv-arz-ve53s-roten r^ekcr.ntr.isses . Dagegen gewann^ 
die ^.echts-elemente Me Oberhand, und die Demokraten lavi*,^ 



il ^11 1 I 



k 



15 



ten. Zur st das Londoner Ultiiratum von J.'ai 1921 staerkte v.-ieder die 
linken Elemente in den beiden Parteien. Aber inz^/ischen war der Ein- 
druck der republikanischen l-Tiederla^je in der deutschen :*eaF)ter.s9hal^ 

'^^^ U^hilu^ ^^^ '«mjeheuer gross und dauernd geworden, i^ine zuverlaeaf^ 
sijekSicherung schien seit dem n. 7uni 1920 nur im Anschluss nach 



Ql^ rechts gegeben, Alle spaeteren V.ahlerfolge der Linken erschienen v 



on 



nun an tenporaer, nachdem die deutschen ..ahler unmittelbar nach d 



em 



Scheitern des Kechtsputsches den Ausschlag fuer O.ia ronarchistische>j • 

-artejen se.^eben hatten. ^n^'^'^lusE nach re'^hts sichterts von nun an 
die Patrona^e offenbar fc«Rs«x^aliLA:±iK>i««±jcittÄX. 

Das Ausland het diesen Sinn r'.e^r -ah] von '".7uni verkannt. 

Ls erginj sich in Betrachtungen darueber,^iass die beiden staerk- 

sten raktionen von der ^^e;i erun^sbil'^un:]: aus^^eschlosaen v.aren, 

und dass kein*» stabile iiet-ierungsbildimg noeglich erschien. Dass 

das 'deutsche 7olk nxssüx^xx. 



149 offene üonarchioten* -neben 
zahlreichen nona^^chi st i sehen Zentrursab^eordneten und einigen 
rechts orientierten -emokraten v.ie Giemens--»5n den Keichctag; 
schickte und danit eine Saeuberune der Beamtenschaft mm republika- 
nischen Ginne desavouierte, T-urde nicht beachtet , jedenfalls nicht 

_ zu erklaeren versucht. Lo-^^or, -i^e? brachte ;ajn ^,7nni l-^i^O '^er ■Bericht 
eine, arcrr^.-. Korrespondenten ( Tch vermute Ober.t -epinrton) Z^[ß^r^^ ^^^ 

Z^. Tn ihm ^ird die -.eut,che Volk^partM an^e^rl f fen . Sie ^ehe ^^^ covert- 
ly and more cunnin^ny -, V...> ,i. ,i^ -^eut«ch--at iona] en. In der .:leichen 
-unmer »etrachtung ueber .a. Lr^-ebni. ^er p., »,,.,,.., wah 1 en. r^er Leitartikel 
zitiert den Korrespondenten und kommt am 10.,-uni nochmals darauf zurueck.Ha,^ 
die 7olk,partei "th- m-^t immediate ^an^er to the peace of ^ermany .M f^, 
peace of Europe- sei. Ä/ meint, -no ^o^...^ent ur,^er their influenae could- 
maintain relatior, ^'ith the Entente for «. w^ek." Sine TTcrV^. Hr.-P„r 1,3^^, Lor/ 
D'Abernon in .^erlin an. Die Times aeus-.ert ^roe^^t^ ^efri edi,-Tungr ueber die 
tliftderlajre der -emokrpte", die Partei ^ernj,tnrf^-«rockdr>rff-Rantzau. Das ^^^abi- 
nett ^ehrenbach/Tird nicht fuer ref aehrlich angesehen. Ss t^4^/(^/^ ''^ ^j^ 



^ 



lEnslische Presse un--^ Kapio-Putsch 



1) erste Reaktion: 

OTpserver -14.i£aerz- fuer schaerfsten r^ilitaerischen und v/irtschaftl^ 



Daily Chronlcl^ 



c» 



eben 'Druc"k auf das reaktionaere Leutschland # 
Hindenburg als Praesi^'ent T'aere fuer England 
untragbar. 



i/anchester Tuar^ian -15.Maerz- ^^enn der Kaiser zurueckkaer:e, dann Au/* 



;aj ly y e^n 



lirferung verlangen. 
fuer Intervention,^' enn Deutschland nicht allein 
nit den Tapji^ten fertig werden kann. 




2) -Nach deir ocheiflern des 'Rutsches 

Tirr^.es 3. A^'^lage 
Observe r sehr b^ sorgt v;egen der Ruhrhev/egunj;. Der Kapp-Putsch v-ar 

paradox. Sein 2xxi Progranr-» sofort ige Tceichstagsv^ahl und 
-'^raesi^entenv/ahl durch allgeneines 3timnrecht-- demokratt* 
scher als das republikanische Regime. Kappister hatten 
vorhe-^ '^it U3P ^uehlun^; genonnen, Deriokraten intri juierten 

ge^-^en Zentrum und 3PD. -"^eti'it beder^liche Konzessionen an 
die Linke. Vorige Regierung markiert durch F^rzberger und 

yoske. Obs^r'''='r zv/eif elt , aber wuenscht, dass l-bert Herr He/ 

Lage bleibe. S'^.I^aerz ge ^en J^arthou. ^^'tnn Bruch, dann 

lieber Jetzt al^^ spaeter. 
re»i/3ta^. esman ; ^, 
§/i^l^iiil /f^' ''^^ abortive and almost farcical proceedin^s ^hich 

ha^^'e taken place in ?er!^ in ^ iring pa^t ve€k reveal mor^ 
clearly t^nn r.n/ o^^^*^ ^vpnt >ince the armi«^tice tne ex- 
traor^iinary politica3 v'eakneas of "rprmany. Tt if=^ a l^nr^ 
of officers and of^jcials. ... ^^or long it vill take tße 
iibert ^over'^TTte^^ to rentore order remainp> to be seGn,but 



^e fancy that those v'ho ^^tr accuainted v:ith the real po- 



i 



iß 



r.. 






litical fjituation in G rnany ^ill be the ^lowest to cr^f^,^-^t 
pJfirvnirt i^tater^ent^ conrerriinr the ntren^rth an^ ^a^.,:er o^ t/)C 
Cpartaci«^t movement . Th^ Spa^t;;»cif5ts ar^» riangeroug of cour- 

3e becau*^^ their ^^ea^iness to resort to ^''iolence and blood.- 

so 
sberl at any r^ornprit, ,but in ^-'nyr)i:>er3 ^><*y are^insigni f ioant tlifjj*' 

there is probably not a sinjle town ivhere they could seise 
and retain power for more than a few days. At all events, 
rhen Order has been rec,tored,it will orobubly he foun'^ that 
tbe ^rarv-^-Lur^ttwitz revolutjon han ^r^np »^ore £;oo'^ than härm, 
jor Hfter r,uch a -^iasno the r^uy^z^"^ of anothe-r Military ccu^ 
d^etat can scarcely be hold to exist ,and ,v;ith that fear re- 
moTre-^jtVio jovprr.Tient shoul'^ acquire a mn.oh jreat^r -^egree 
of f=»elf-ro?ifi.dPnce anH oon^equent ly of efficjenoy. And if 
ever a country nssled a stron^; e^vernmert- U ia surely tiicjc 
in Cer^^any of l'^PC/' 

10,A)ril 1120; ^The trnth is that Taria i^ f^till 1r ?. ^to^e 
of alnof^t hyRtftrical anorehension concernin^ the poGc^'bl^ re- 

vival of '^err^/^r T^ilit^"^7 nov^er •• 
1''. .Vprf ; -V«,.« leerrs to he not the sli^htent ••^oubt that the 
neWjirainly .^ociaHst an-? Btror.;;;^!/ ant i-ril it!=^-t 3t Ger^an jcve-^/j- 
-,pv,t rp-rp!»p'^i-«5 f.v^e r.i'?'"3 of an overvhelr.inf' majoritv of the 






erman jeople*but the sco^rcely less doubtful^ fact renains thci 



ijr has /ery little control over thp or^janized forceo of that re^ 
public. Thp Reichswehr tronps in the Ruhr dintrlct acknorledse 
only fo-^^ally the jiuthority o.^ 3erlin,and are pervaded by the 
nilitary spirit in the r^nt forr^, ^^ v^^ cou-s ^'^tzt ig seriouaiy 
feared and tne supporters of the governrnent in spite o£ Lheir 
nurriber<^,have no veapon save that o^ the jenera] strikt, "^e ha- 
ye no doubt th?^ ^n tb^ Ion? run that weapon v'in afford aerman 

''enocracy the protection it needs,but for thf^ norr^ent the situ-» 



c 



Die f ra^zoeslqche Prei^se zum Jüt 
Kaoo-PutscVi 



Viele Leitar.;:en raren durch einen "Druclcerstreik an l.rscheinen 
\rerhindert. 

Poincare in der "^evue des deux mondes l.Anrll 1920: 
r^ "Les le ^jig de iiovenbre derrier,Lauf ferfoers et 

^-olf fhei^, tout PH pronant la dictatur^^ du Proletariat et 
1' a"» lia'io<=^ i^Tec IäxÄmäsIcs Sovi^ts russes, oroteataj ont 
vioicmment ,au no^ des coT^iaunists de •{L^'^^'^nrj,; r^cntre 1 es 
con^^tiong de la paix Pt denandaient au peu.)le de dcclarer a 1 
Lntente une guerre i?r;^lacable. J.orsoue LuHendorff et TCapp, 
avec leur etat-rrajor de "baron«? baltes et ie rc^^res prussi- 
eng ,cssayaient rle mettre la nain sur 1 ' empire, leur pro- 
grarr de politiqu^ ^xterieure ne Hiifere pas de celui les 



spartacist es . Et entre jes extremes qui se touchent sur ^ft 

tant de pointSfles syrjdicats ehret iens et social-democrat es 

V V ^ leur 

ne se levent*^ a lenr t^nr, que pour rr'ele^ 3tx voix au choeur 

He 1* Allema.f^Be monciTChist e, rcpuhlicaine ^ sonialiste .De 

toutes le*^ o?^rties du P.eich monte le ?^er"0 cri: A bas le 

tralte: Des concesaions. " 



T^Iurope nouv^lle, 1 .April IQCO: 

'• La sreve reneral scui a vamcu."... 

V *.e succen de la jreve generale, brutalement ^^echainejne sicni'' 

fie pas que les masses allemandes soient cagnees aux idees demtf^ 
cratiques. T/eTenerient a proure que 1 ' Allc^a^^ne ne veut pu,3 
d'une arenture militaireril ne nrnnvp: nas ^avantage," 

Le Temps ! Das rjeich ist falsch konstruiert. Intervention nnet.o 
um ein dezentralisiertes Sobilde zu schaffen, das gestand hat. 



«Nu 



^/mmmmm 



J) 



Lloyd ^eorges Reaktion auf den üapp-Putsch 

« 

"The telephone bell rang,the Secretary of Downing f.treet to speaÄ" 



L.Cj. 



L.G.( returninc) ? A 
change everythiriß. It 



revolution has broken out in Gerriany. That ma/ 
is a military risinj and rnay be royalist. 
^ 3traji£el^._t^i£-,3olshey^ Russia sent U8 v^arnint; that a revoluti- 



Q 



o n l^oulr^ take place in ^er nany. They were asked to as^-ist the revo- 
lutionary party but :}eclined,as they said it ras no part of their 
game to help to re-establish a nonarchy in Oermany. 




L.G, saici. the ''Tench ha'l kja^iÄÄ helyed to brine about the revo- 
lution by makine anr^ enforcins -»enanis v-hich had nade the poaition 
of the German eovernnent inpoisible. 

I inquirei v/hether he rould nake hig speech to the Coalition 
Liberais this v.eek as arranged. He said 'This revolution chances ev-* 
erything. To one can say v;bat rill happen. I nay have to postpone 
my Speech." Lord Ri^dell' Intinate Diary of the Peace Conference an^ 
after, 1913-19;i3 ( 1933 )_•> .1 "7. 

L.G. hielt indencen,rie vorcecehen seine ^-ede in V.estrinster 
Hall am l^.^aerz- Si^-- war aur.schliesal ich innenpolitischen Inhalts, 
gesen Asquith gerichtet ,un'i erraehnte da-s A'.:sland ueberhaupt nicht. 

Am 25. -^aerz aeussert I.G.pich in ""arlanent auf eine Anfrage 
von Asquith: 



"The Situation is not clearly '^efin^d. Vhe only thinc that i 






nerfectly apparent is that the I'ilitarist party in ^err^any attenp- 

the 
ted a c^up d'Ztat that is ^ailf.-'.and that it has &x u;3ual effect 

t 

of driYin^; t>>e peo^^le into another, I v'ill not say extrerre,but in a 
direction v-'hich was far r?ore reriove^^ fror the Tilitarist position 
than every they went before. '^he r;overnnent v'ho has been set up is 
a governr^ent v'hioh,so far as T can 3ee,lean3 rrnch more to the left 




l 



D 



than thc late government . T>^^ ne^s no far as the ^partacis^ risin 



rr 



are concerned, 13, T think,on thp whole reacsurinjjhat ve Viave no f^e- 
finite informat ion. ... 




^^ 



(^ 



Äut ^n so far ag vre are a'ble to jnr^ge events there,it a^ems to me 

« 

that orrler is beirii; restored, that the courter-r^volut ion has boen 
a complete failure,and that so far as the Spartacist novenent is 
concerned, the ^jovernment have bt en able to make terms.,.. 
Tberf* is nothinj y^.ry c1^3^:but !t in a ir^atter of con-^ratulat ion, 
not mere for ""er-^any \v\t for the rhole of Europe,that the Militarist 
plot h'jn failed. This ic very satisfactory but v-hat v'jii happen nexc. 
is very dif"^icult to conjectare. I v-'oul "i not lil<e to Gay •"X( Tir^es >fc 
L'ie folcenden Ta^e hrin^jen eine iJebatte zv/ischen encÜRChen und 
fran^oesi sehen Blaettern ueher ^ie '^^ faehrli ohkeit :^pf? rjihr-Auf stan- 



den un<^ uebbr die von der deutschen erjerun^"^ hehanoteten r^tv7en/U^^ 
keit ,Trap.)en ins r.nhr-^'^hiet zw r.cbj cl^lfen. Ti e offizielle en^li?5che 
Presa€ neigt dazn,^en ^'eiu. neben 'ps^n(^pun<t zu ^nt er^tut ti:en. I>ie 
fran7.o^^3iscbcn 31aetter erklaeren ^"^le "Ruhr-kaenof er für I/erokraten^ 
Amd erklaeren sich jejen einen '-deutschen Linnarsch. Die deutsche 
I'^egierung wartet nicht auf "'escheid auf ihren Antrac? ^^^'' s^n laesst 
an 2. April 20 000 Ifetnn ins Rubr<:;ebiet einruecken. Darauf besetzt 
-^Vankreich Frankfurt und Un^ebunc als Sanktion. Das britische Kabin^^ 
protestiert durch scharfe ITot en, [ ^-12, Aprily. 

Km gleichen -^aee v'ie L*Of. i\x den Commons, hatte -Sarthou]|: in der 
Keput iert enkanr^er sehr «?charf ge^^en die enrl^sche Deutschland-Polit^A^ 

polemisiert und von einer "crise des alliances** c^^.'^^^^^^- MilleraTl^ 

prklaerl^e "'arthou 

InBXtRz-Jtxn^zxjf^nicy^ fuer "tro^ fort" und crmoeglichte dadurch die 

Konferenz von ;}an Hemo i Torsitz IMtti). 3ie ^'ar urB^mHK'lich fuer 
di> tuerkische '"'rase beatirmt. ^\xn wur^^e auc^ -^as deutsche Problem 
dort bPharrielt. T..G. kam nach San Rerno.sehr aufgebracht gegen Frank- 
reich 



J) 



3 



^ jLhj ^/^'^ 



•«The Prench regard the uermans as a beaten enemy who should be ix 
treated as 3uch. T^he official British ooint of vio^' 13 that thc Ger- 
rnan nation ^'as not responsihie ^or the ^'ar^tht:^ thp. Tunkers hav^^- fcx 
been e.iect ed , that the ^le^^^an GovernT^<»nt shoulH be su,');')orted, the Ger- 
man in^^ustry shoi^V be revlvpd? ari'^ that , {^enerally, the Gerrrans should 
^ ^ot be regar-^ied ^ith <'uspicion," nir!'''ell p. l'^^vwf.fS^^i; 



c 



In diese Sitnu^ion platzt die deutsche ITote von 20.L-aerz,in der 
Kessler ei>.en T^egtand von 200 000 I%nn fiK^r ^M e '^wci cbsv^ehr fordert. 
"Darauf erfolj;t ::ini/j;un2 L . T« -iMlllerand , ^.1 e nun Arm in Arm in ^äP^^i^ 
lustv'an^e^ n. A^. 2*3. ^wlap-^i: ^*ird der 'leutrjche Antrag abfiel ehnt und 
Lrjit gchlands ^^rfehlung in '^er Abruestun-^fffraoC f ep^t'^estel 3 1 . ^^n^^Vw* 
rs^\r,r, Ye"^^'ahren nich '^ie Alliierten ^egen Annexion^pl aene, I^ieser 
Passus ^'ar der preis, den Llillerand zu zahlen hatte, 
I.rillerand berichtet der Tammer am 2". April jL.G.'^en Comm.ons a^ 

?9. April. "Kein neues I!:i3a33-Lot hri ngen^Y ^'>^^^1^>'' 

T..G. hatte in 3an I:emo beantragt, ^ie deiatpche ^'^e^ierune zur Konfer^Ä^ 
enz hinzuzuziehen. "'Tille-^nnd le>^nte ^as ab. :^as Kompromiss ^'ar Linl^^ 
'\\xr\z "^^r deutschen ^egierung; nach Gpa,der ersten PTnnferenz ,au(ff der 
deutsche ^e^ierun^cvertreter r^'/^ alliierten verhandeln sollten, und 
vorherige IConferenz in Kythe,ur^ reme^'^<='«^^'^ A^)'^t^'^''" en ^^er Alliierte>7 
in Soa sicherzustellen. 

L.G, blieb nicht lange im Jixnvernehmen mit lüllerand. Im 
Mai unterhielt sich L.a, nit Genf^ral i'al colm, \us ten Ch-^mberlain u. 
a. in Ge/:enrart Riddel]s. L.C. zu ^^alcolm; 

""fou had better let the Germans knov^ ^'hat our view is. They 



mus 



t disarm-nnd they munt pay. "^ut subject to that v'e are in favour 



of rehabilitatini^ Oermany. Tn fact, Germany must be rehabilitated^ if 
she is goins to pay. '-hat ir. th« -^'rench attitide to the Germans? 

Malcolm- Tt varies,but in many respects the ?rench are unnecess- 



/ 



J 



o 



arily harsh arid oh jectionaole . :^or exarr>x^le, the other day,a "^'rench ä 

hif5 hat f 

officer refused to take^off in the church rhich contains the tomb 0/ 

7rederd)ck the ^reat. That caused a c^od deal 0^ ill-fpelin^. 

L G.,-3onar Law anr^ "^hanberlain all -^ inaporover! of the actlon 
of the ''renchman, 

L.^r.: There ig no <^oubt that the ?rench have strong militciry . 

aspirationg. They vant to revive the ■''apoleonlc ideal. 
. Chanbc riain: In 'v\j opinion the Trench are not actinj; fron male- 
volcnce. Their action ig dictated by funk. Tae/j think that if the 
Gerr>ans once ßetkheir heais ap,they rill advarce at a nuch rjreater 
rate than the French,anH vi 11 hecome a ncw menace to /tance. 



L.Gr, Hi'j not a:ree v/ith thif5,but C;hanbf=Trlain kept to this loinl^ 
Riiiell :). n6. 



</ ^^ 



c 



- I 



f 










Rapallo -- 16. April 19 22. 

I.VorjL« schichte 
1921 »Novemb er: Rathenau v ird von der Reichsregierung gebeten, nach 

London zu fahren, "un fuer Deutschlands Lage dort bei 

J ^^/ '^^^ englischen Premierminister i-loyd ^eorge und den 
ß^ ,/ Finanzleuten der City Verstaendnis zu erwecken." 

1/ "^^ 
/^ Kessler, *'athenau p. 316. 

In diesen Besprechungen in London entwickelt Rathenau 
seinen Plan zum V.iederaufbau Europas: Redressement 
Sowjetrusslands durch ein Consortium, in dem R^^ssland 
Deutschland unrl die V.estmaechte vertreten sind. Russi 
land gibt die Konzessionen, Deutschland stellt die Te'^ l" 
niker und die Vestnaechte das Kapital. Kessler 319, 
Diese Idee Rathenaus ^ab Lloyd Georges Plaenen neuen 
Auftrieb. Rathenau fuhr nach Berlin zurueck mit der 
Ueberzeugung die britische ^'egierung und "Finanz fuer 
Deutschland gewonnen zu haben. 
14. Dezember 1^21; '-irth kuendigt an,dass die naejthstfaelligen Reparatio- 
nen ni.:ht geleistet »erden koennen und beantragt ein 

Moratorium. 

Die Reichsregierung hatte weder mit der franzoesischevv 

Regierung noch mit der Reparationskommission ?uehlung 
genommen. Scharfe Auseinandersetzung mit der Repko. 
Lloyd George und Irland besprechen sich in Chequers. 
1922, Januar: Sitzung des Obersten Rats der Alliierten in Cannes. 

Lloyd George setzt bei Briand durch: 1> Einberufung ei-* 
ner allgemeinen V.irtschaftskonferenz in Genua unfler 
gleichberechtigter Teilnahme Deutschlands und Russlands, 
2) Einladung deutscher TJnterhaendler nach Cannes ( was 
einen Bruch des Herkommens bedeutet, nach dem die Allix- 



1^ 



i ■^ 



:.fev.'/itf>:a^. 



tcrten zu ihren Jicgprechungen keine Vertreter ehemals fein^Cr 
lieber ^aechte zuliessen. Dieser Äpuch hat Briands Sturz zu 

folge.} 

11. Januar 1922: Rathenau mit Stab in Cannes. 

* 

12. •• •• Besprf^chungen zwischen Kathenau, Bergmann, Loucheur, Sir 

Robert Hörne, ferner Besprechungen zvvischen Kathena.u, 

Bergmann un^ der "'epko, die Rathenau nicht fuer voll 
nimmt, da sie gleichfalls Gast in Cannes ist. Rathenau 

glaubt mit den Regienungschefs ohne "'epko weiterzukomme^i , 
Abends lange Unterredung Rathenau-Lloyd <^eorge ueber da< 
russische Projekt. Kessler 347 

Bergmann, Der V.eg der -Reparation, 1926, kritisiert Rathe- 
nau Wohl mit Recht, dass er einen Kompromissvorschlag 
der "*epko, ^er ein einjaehriges Horatorium nach Zahlung 
von 750 Jlillionen vorsah, ablehnte. Dessen Annahme hae ^ ^ 
te Wahrscheinlich den p;anzen Ruhrkonflikt vermieden. 



Mitten in Rathenaus grosse ede vor dem Obersten Fiat 
platzt die Nachricht von ""riands Sturz und Poincares 
Nachfolgerschaft. Nach halbstuen^iger Pause fuehrt 
Rathenau seine Rede zu Ende, an deren Schluss er auf 
das russische Projekt hinweist und Deutschlands Bereit 
schaft zur Mitwirkung erklaert. Aber der Oberste Rat ist 
beschlugsunfaehig, und der Zeitpunkt fuer das Eingehen 
auf den Kompromissvorschlag 6.^-^v Repko ist verpasst. 

Rathenau j^laubt, Lloyd i^eorge ganz fuer sich gewonneTi/' 
zu haben. :^;r rechnet auch mit scharfer Opposition Brian// 
Loucheurs, ^rancois-Poncets gegen Poincare. 

* 

31. Januar 1922: y.athenau ueberninint 4as Auasenministeriuni, das er zu 

"aktivieren" verspricht. P.ine "oche vorher hatte er 



m 



"Vi der stand" gepredigt, falls Poincare das Ruhrgebiet be 



^^ 



31. Maerz 1122; 



I.April 1922: 



setzen sollte. Der Ton seiner Ministerrreden wird aggres - 
siv gegen die ^epko und gec?;en Poincare. Unter seinem Ein^ 
fluss verschaerft auch V.irth seine -^^altung. ''Aus den be 
den Maenner der }2rfuellun.;spolit ik waren Jiaenner gewor- 
den, die der Heparationskomnission offene ^'ehde ansagten. 

Bergmann 155. 
Rathenau haelt eine besonders scharfe Rede c^e^en Poncare 
im Hauptaasschuss «ies -Reichstags. Er spottet ueber den 
"Hagel von "^^oten" den die Repko auf Anstiften Poincares 
ueber die Reichsregierung ergehen lasse und rier sie aJB 
positiver Arbeit jlii^dere. Poincare trete^ England ueber^ 
all entgegen und nicht ohne Srfol3,v;ie die Besprechung 
Poincare-Lloyd George in Boulogne gezeigt habe. 
Diese Bemerkung wurde ihm von Lloyd "^eorge sehr uebel 
genommen. Sie hatte zur Folge, dass L.Gr. Rathenau in 

Genua schnitt. 

Lie russische Delegation trifft auf ihrer Heise nach 
-^enua in Berlin ein und wird sehr gefeiert. 



u 



I 



3. April 1922: Rathenau veranstaltet zu r.'iren der Russen ein grosses 



Diner. 



An gleichen Tage spannt -^loyd George vor den Commons die 
Erwartungen der V.elt auf ^enua; "The Confe|rence has been 
called to consider the problem of the reconstruction of 
econonic Europe." 
10. April 19'^2: Eroeffnung der Konfenenz in Genua. Lenin, der noch i^n de-» 

28. Maerz seine Teilnahme angekuendigt bat t e , Kax^RXÄiat 
liess sich durch Attentatsfurcht zurueckhalten. Die russi- 

\ seh Delegation wurde von Tschitscherin gefuehrt. Ihm standM 

\ ' 

Rakowsky, Krassin, Litvinoff und 7offe zur Seite. Poincare 



r 



\ 



\ 



blieb ebenfalls fern, weil der Praesident Millerand in TTordafrika 




Ix. A)ril 



War, Sonst waren alle verantwortlichen Staatswaenner Europas 
erschienen, begruesst von den italienischen Üinisterpraesidenten 
Facta, dejji letzten des konstitutionellen Italiens. 
Die deutsche Delegation machte bereits am 
einen Verstoss. 
Den Anlaps dazu bot das "^enoranduin, das englische und franzoe*- 
sische Experten ausgearbeitet hatten, -*als Grundlage fuer die 7e 
handlungen mit Russland wegen der Vorkriegsschulden. Die Deutsch/^/ 
nahmen daran Anstossjdass Art. 6. dieses Memorandums Russland 
auf lirrund von Art. 2 116 des Vt rsailler '/ertrags Reparat ions- 
Ansprueche freistelle und deutsche Reparat ionsansprueche an Russ- 
land ausschliesse. 

Obwohl das '^'emorandum keine der alliierten Regierungen festleg- 
te sonde: n eher eine Privatarbeit der Sachverstaendigen war, ge- 
riet Maltza n in heftige Aufregung. Er sah darin fuer Deutschland 
die Gefahr neuer Anhaeufung von Repaaationsverpflichtungen ins 
Unendliche. Er erklaerte zu Gregory, dem RusalandsachverstaendigeJ^ 
des Foreign Office, dass Deutschland von Art. 6 des Ä'emoranduras 
hoeehst unan.::enehm beruehrt sei. Ausserdem nehme er an Art. 11 und 
15 , Annex 2 Anstoss. Gregory erwiderte, ••er habe dem Artikel nicTnct 
die von ihm (Maltzan) gegebene Tragweite beigemessen, muesse aber 
pach Maltzans Darstellung gestehen, dass der V.ortlaut diese Trag- 
weite zulasse. Eb sei selbstverstaendlich, dass man einen Selbstmo^^ 



12. April 



Deutschlands nicht v^erlangen koenne.»« Kessler 335. 
Maltzan .jab sich damit nicht zufrieden. Am 
wurde er sehr scharf zu V.ise, dem britischen 



.-?>• 



1, I .^H 




Handeladeparteinents, den die Deutschen als Vertrauensmann Llo 



Georges betrachteten, und erklaerte Deutschland se 



i "zu ßVoeßSi^ 



Toraicht gezwungen", »ige versprach, Lloyd ^Jeorgc darueber zu bei- 
richten. Kessler 336. ^ ^ flfCl^fPt J Jj^- ^ 

Vor Einsetzung der Unterkonimisaion ueber die russischen Angelegen, 
heiten hielten es die Alliierten f aer zweckmaessig, sich mit den 
Russen allein zu unterhalten. Das schien ihnen itltvendig,weil 
die Vertreter der kleinen ?Teutralen Schwierigkeiten w^/en der 

t 

Zusammensetzung der Unterkoniriission gemacht hatten. 
13. April; erste entente-russische •^'esiDrechung bei -^loyd ^eorge. 

Rathenau laesat sich wiederholt bei L]!^d ^eorge melden, erhaelt 



yu 



<tKfh I 



3J/ 



aber keinen Zutritt. Mach Kefisler 337 "verdichtete sich am 
14. April das Geruecht, dass in der Tilla ^e Albertis iie Franzosen gerade 

den Artikel 116 und die daraus abzuleitenden neuen -eparations- 

Deutschlands ^ -u .. * « 

lasten^als Handelsobjekt gegenueber den Russen benutzten." 

Abends 11 Uhr sei -^er Cor^wendatore aiannini ir^ Auftrage des 
italienischen Aussenministera Schanzer bei Virth erschienen und' 
habe mitgeteilt, die Yerhandlun.ien naghmen einen "guenstigen 

Verlauf" und Deutschland^v-uerde die 3a-;he wohl billigen". 

V,irth fuehrt-- inner nach Kessler 337-- Giannini zu Rathenau. 

aiannini entwickelt ihnen den "larthou-Plan" ,dem zufolge Rusa- 

land seine i.eprationsansprueche an Prankreich ala a conto- 

Zahlung fuer die franzoesi sehen Vorkriegaglaeubiger Russlands 

zedieren solle. Einer Diskussion wich diannini aus mit der 

^«/ • 1. /^ * 

Erklaerungt "Mein Auftrag ging le iglich dahin, das eben gesagte 



/ 



zur 



Kenntnis der deutschen Delegation zu bringen." Rathenau habe 
darauf hin erklaert, Deuts* land wuerde seine ^Handlungsfreiheit 



Wahrnehmen, •'-essler 33*^, 



aus 



Kessler resueniert( 33^^) "Die deutsche Delegation gewann Axn 



X:SnHV»4lX dieser 



Unterredung die »Jeberzeugung: 




1) dass die Terhandlimgen Her V.estmaechte mit; Russland nahe 
Abschluss standen. 



am 



fi > 



2j Hass die bevorstehende '/erstaendieung zwischen den T,estmaecht^ 



und Russland die aus dem'^ Londoner Memorandum in 5 Punkten sich 
erge%benden schv-eren Nachteile fuer Deutschland nicht beseltigj^/ 



'V 



l 



v/erde und 
$) Dass die Information durch CJiannini lediglich eine Amfforderur^ 
zum Beitritt Deutschlands zu einem Abkommen darstelle, auf das 
Deutschland keinen i:influss mehr nehmen koenne/* 

Diese c^anze Darstellung v'ird von Schanzer, II Kondo fra 
il Face e la G^uerra, 1932, p. 134/5 rundweg bestritten. Itali* 
en sei von Rapallo genau so ueberrascht worden v/ie die anrler^^/i , 
^egen die Tlaubwuerdigkeit der Kesslerschen ^Darstellung 
spricht auch die -^'atsache, dass Rathenau, Virth und i^ltzan in 
ihrer Auseinandersetzung mit Lloyd George zur *'echtfertigung 



ay 



von Rapallo Giannini ueberhaupt nicht erwaehnen. Sie haetten 
sich damit laecherlich >j;emacht. ^^enn Giannini v-ar nichts weite/ 
als Leiter des Presse-Amts der Konferenz, ^altzan wurde schon 
von Lloyd George scliarf zurueck^ewiesen, als er sich auf V. ise 
berief, ^em er Andeutungen v^egen eigener schritte Deutschlands 
ht haben wolle- ^^l^ir h H^JflS^l '^X^r /fe^ 

Tatsaechlich waren die Verhandlungen der Lntente mit Russ- 
land auf einen toten Punkt ^i^l^ngt. Die Cleruechte waren ganz 
i:jrundlo3. Die Deutschen mussten das wissen bevor sie nach Ra- 
pallo gingen. * 
15. April, abends 11 Uhr ruft '.'.ise bei I/'altzan an, er habe Lloyd ^eor- 



1 ,ifH^lif' 



gemac 



k.' 
o 



ie, ^egen der beanstandeten Artikel Vortrag gehalten. Der 
Premier bitte uk genaue Angaben. In der v;leichen Kacht, 



PI 



16. April, 1 1/2 iJhr morgens ruft Joffe bei Faltzan an. Die Russen seien 

zu» Hntjexhaniiliix Abschluss mit Deutschland bereit. 



W 



!• 



oraus jeder V'erstaendige entnehmen konnte, dass die Verhandlun- 



gen mit der andern Seite ergebnislog ^:eblieben Vv'aren. 

l'^altzan nusste erwarten, dass Lloyd ^eorge audf seine -^^eanstandunge 
des i^emoranduns einzugehen bereit sei. Vach Kessler und J^ergmann 
hat er ^^athneau den Anruf V. iges xxuix verschv^iegen, Vvas er v;ohl 
einem diplomate de car:*iere geßenueber nicht riskiert haette. 
Aber auch Rathenau, selbst Vv'erin er nichts von -ises Anruf v»us8- 



* • 



te , haet t ^ .g i ip m( e ■ »arii , 4en Mitteilungen Gianninis 



■wu ö c^s en , 



&enTB die 7erBtaendip;ung zv/iochen den Alliierten Und Russland nicht 
-"^ ^^^^ ^'"'l]! »e4i»^ Hcaenw^ i "^enn Joffe in der I'acht anrief, man sei 



jetzt zum Abschluss bereit« 

V 

Die Deutschen fuhren am Vormittag des IC. Aprils nach I^apallo zur 
Unterzeichnung, und Lloyd (George konnte t^ltzan nicht erreichen, al^ 
er v.'iederholt anlaeuten liess, um. die ^ache v^gen des Iw^emorandums zu 
besprechen. 



V . ■• '.^ • 



.v.. 




8 



!!♦ Dt^r Vertr ag 



. April 1922 



Unterzcichung durch Tschit cherin und Rathenau. 
Inhalt: Art. 1-2: Gegenseitiger Verzicht auf Ersatz von 

rriegskosten und anderer 3chaeden. 

Art. 3: V.iederaufnahne der diplomatischen und 

konsularischen ^eziehun^jen. 
Art. 4: J/eistbeguenstigung. 



♦» 



5: "Die beiden Regierungen v/erden den vrir 



schaftlichen ^eduerfnissen der beiden --aender im 
Tf^ohlwollenden Geiste wechselseitig entoegenkornmen. 
Bei einer ^rundsaetzlichen ^'egelune dieser Fragen 
vrerden sie in vorherigen Gedankenaustausch treten^^^ 
Art. 6: Mit Ausnahme von Art 1 b und 4,töie ers 
nach ^Ratifikation in Kraft treten, treten alle 3esti 
munden sofort in Traft. 



V 



Inhalt und sprachliche Formulierung des Abkommens lassen auf eilige 
Imxjrovisierung schliessen- 7:3 ist uni«rahrscheinlich, dass dieses Abkom- 
TrenVon Moskau Tsezw. -öerlin nach 3enua nitseschle^^pt worden ist. 
Moeglich ist, dass nan sich in RaLmllo ueber keinen der etva vorher 
ausgearbeiteten Kntvuerfe einigen konnte und, un der V.eit etv<as 
Greifbares zu bieten, das vorliegende Abkomen verfasste. 

Die Voranstellung des Verzichts auf Krie^sschadensersatz 
sogar vor die Regelung der diplonatiachen ^^e^iehungen, die logisch 
und traditionell vorauszugehen haette-- x*xx betont die Frontstel 




lung gegen das Experten-^emorandun. ^ 

Direkte deutsche Zeugnisse ueber die Vorjaenge in Rapall 
sind nicht zugaenglich. ^on russischer Seite hat sich geaeussert: 
E. Prcobraschenko, Die Ergebnisse der Genueser Konferenz. 1922: 
"Der Vertrag vrurde v^aehrend der entscheidenden *j«? privaten 



oSC^/* 



iMMMNMMi 



/ 



Q 



\, 



) 



k 



Besprechuneen der Sowjet -Delegation nit *-loyd George unterzeich- 
net. Daraus ergeben sich fiie naheliegenden Bewe^jgruende, die die 
Deutschen sur Eile gezwungen haben. Die deutsche Delegation fuero^ 
tete offenbar, dass in ^alle einer '/ergtaendigung mit der Entente 
der Vertrag auf Kosten Deutschlands erreicht wuerde, anderseits 
T^'oliten sie fuer den "Pall eines Bruchs die deutschen Interessen 

rst eilen. Von kaufmaennischen Standpunkt v'ar diese -^erech- 



• '1 



sxcae 



nung richtig. V.enn nan sich aber v'ergegem^'aertigt, welche Kotive 
zur Unterzeichnung des Vertrages fuehrten, der eine neue Aera in 
der earopaeischen eschichte eroffnen soll, so muss nan schon 
sa^en, dass der Vertra,; klueger ist als seine deutschen ^nter- 

w 

Zeichner.... Ich T-eiss nicht, vas der Reichskanzler V.irth und der 
Aussenninister Rathenau in ihren Lande berichten ^^erden ueber die 
Rolle der deutsc ,en Delegation bei der Unterzeichnung und nach der 
Unterzeichnung des 'ertrags, als die ^rheber ''es "ersailler Vertrags 
die deutschen Vertreter aif forderten, das mit Russland geschlossene 

Abkommen zu annullieren. T. erden der Reichskanzler ».irth und Kathenall 
vom Mut der deutschen Delegation sprechen, so Tfterden sie offenbar 

uebertreiben." p. 47. 



D 



iese I^arstellung stuetzt, trot:. der ^ronisierung der 



deutschen Delegation deren eigene Darstellung. Sie ist offenbar ebeK 
so irrefuehrend wie die deutschen '-ngaben, dass eine begruendete 
Besorgnis vor einer Isolierung -'eutschlands und vor einer entente- 
russischen Einigung auf Kosten Deutschlands bestand. Sie zeigt nur, 
dass das deutsch-russische ^usamnenspiel weiterging. Das gleiche giÄ 
von Rakowsk^s Angabe, der Vertrag sei "rein zufaellig" gerade waeh- 
rend der ^enueser Konferenz geschlossen worden ( Saxon Mills, The 
^enoa Gonfenence,1^22, p. ^1), ^as uebrigens der Lrzaehlung Preobra- 
schenskis widerspricht. 

^as die deutsche Delegation betrifft, so ist klar, dass sie 



mpMüP 



tmmm^ 



I7.t 





10 



sie einerseits den Russen gegenueber unsai^bar ungeschickt verfuhy 
und anderseits Maltzan seine Vorgesetz'ten uebertoelpelt hat. 
Rathenau hat urspruenglich ein deutsch-englisch-russisches Zusarn- 
menspiel geplant un'l walirscheinlich geglaubt, als er sich auf Ve 
handlangen nit den Russen einliess, der Zuatinrnung Lloyd Georges 
sicher zu sein. Den Russen konnte nichts daran liegen, in diesem 
Zusamenspiel^die ilinoritaetsrolle des I^ritten au agieren. Sie 
haben Rathenau r^as Konzept verdorben, und dadurch 3sxÄkxjiÄDö*Jtx 
den groessten Teil des Odiums auf die ^eutschen abgelenkt, das 
ganz auf sie gefallen waere, ^^enn sie allein haetten Farbe beken- 
nen und die in Cannes gefassten Plaene von sich aus ablehnen 

nuessen. 

Rathenau hat mit Rapallo seine "europaeische V.iederaufbau-Poli- 

allgemeinen 
tik" ruiniert, da er sich hinsichtlich der|t^eaktion auf fia^allo 

verkalkuliert hat. Indessen hat er sich nicht voellig hinsichtlif^ 
-loyi Georges geirrt, der die Idee einer englischedeutsch-russi'- 
sehen Coooeration auch nach Rapallo nicht aufgab. 7.r vv'ar sich 
nur einen Moment lang darueber klar, ^ass Rapallo der Anfang 
vom Ende seiner Ministerschaft ^'ar, un.1 glaubte, den Riss flick^-f, 



ZU ücoennen. 



III.Realction 



In Genua 



"^ergnann o. 165: 



»f 



%* 



er es 



53 nicht erlebt hat, kann sich kei- 



Sir Edward ^risg ( Lloyd Georges Privatsecretaer ': "V.e have never 

yet understood the notives \vhich led ^ernan statesmen to conclu- 
de the bilateral a;;reenent at a noment v.hen all the Powers met 
together for the first tine to discuss their probleras and their 
difficulties in conPion. ..... J do not remeriber, even in the 

^ar itself. a sadder endins to an Easter l^ay." The ^reatest ex- 

perinent in history, 1Q24, 3.151, 

# '' • ' 

lusene Pequignat ( Secretaire de la ^ele^ation Suisse) Lloyd George 

"particulierement vexe." La Conference de Genes, 1^26, p. 54 . 
Kessler p. 345:"Lloyi. ^eorge tobte nalerisch.aber hicht sehr ueberx 
zeugend." . . 

Lloyd -^eorge forderte in der ersten Aufregung Annullierung 
\ 'l^£j/JC^* ^^^ ^apallo-;Abkonnens,Iie3S sich aber durch S chanz er fuer ein 
iM d* ^'**' ?^onpro!7)iss gewinnen. Die Franzosen wollten -^enua verlassen, was 
/mW/** / nuehsam verhindert wurde, brachen aber ^ie Verhandlungen mit 

^.^n deutschen "Vertretern ab. Seydoux erklaerte ^ergmann,mit dem 
er sehr jut stand, dass auch gesellschaftliche Beziehungen nicht 

« 

noegl ch vTaeren. * 

Die Deutschen suchten sich 'iamit herauszureden, dass sie 
erKlaerten; 1) sie haetten ihre Absicht, mit den Russen ab- 
zuschliessen.gar nicht verheinlicht ; 2) sie waeren nicht 
dazu -^e können, sich deutlicher zu erklaerenj 3} sie haetten 
han-^eln nuessen,un einer 3chaedigung,wie sie aus den r^per- 
ten-*enorandun zu befuerchten war, zuvurzukonnen. All das 
wurde heftig von -^loyd "^eorge, und besonders heftig von 
Uarthou zurueckgewiesen 



■«•«fei 



-* 



l\ ■- 



wtm^ 



O 



C^) 



12 . 
taehrend dee 17. Aprils fanden dauernd *'espreciiungen ^iWischen den 
Entente-Vertretern und den >Teutralen ueber Gehritte statt, die gegen 

die Unterzeichner des Rapallo-Ahkonmens zu unternehmen V'aeren. 
Lloyd. George dringt mit einem "rick durch, der seine Position 
temporaer wiederherstellt und eine ernsthafte Aktion ge^jen 
die Rapallo-Maechte erstickt. Der Trick besteht darin, dass vor- 
geschlagen wird, I^eutschland schaerfer an?,ufassen als Russland. 
Ruf^sland sei car nicht zu tadeln. Es habe den Versailler Vertrag, 
nicht unterzeichnet, koenne ihn also auch nicht verletzt haben. 
Es sei auch bisher jar nicht voelkerrechtlich anerkannt, sei daher 
nicht an die voelkerrechtlichen Konventionen gebunden. Laher "a 
distinction m sst be made." Kills p. 91-93. 

Wit diesem Schachzu^; gewann Lloyd George die Zustimmung- der Fran- 
zosen.die nicht sehen wollten, -»ass die Schonung der Russen auch 
dererc -i-^artner zugute korinen muesne. 

Deutschlands ^estrafun.j bestand-- ausser in harten V.orten-- 
darin, ^ass es nicht zur Vertretung in der Unterkommi'ssion fuer 
die Russlandfrajen zugelassen wurde. 

er deutschen Lele^ation wurde am L^. April eine Tote ueberx- 
reicht, in der sie scharf verurteilt wurde, "hinter dem Ruecken«^ 
der andern Konferenzteilnehmer ein Sonderabkommen abgeschlossen 
habe, und die dahin muendete: "Under these circumstances the under- 
signed do not consider it fair or equitable that Germany, having 
effected her own arrangement with Russia, should enter into the 
discussion of the conditions of an arrangement between their coun- 
ies and Russia." Papers relating the Intc^rnational I.conomic Con- 






tr 

•ference of Genoa. 

Diese !Tote wurde am 21. April von den Deutschen beantwortet, 
worauf am 23. April eine Zurueckweisun^ dieser Antwort erfolgte. 



' I ^rmiMiiiffinf 






h^ 



f 



13 
Jm 19. April hatte Lloyd George eine Besprecliunj; mit V.irth und 

Jt^athenau, in der er die deutschen "'echtf ertieungsvereuche iiurueck- 
wies, aber zufuegte er volle nicht "at^eravate the Situation". Kills 

7 . ?•'<••■ ' /,»_ ff, 

/tfl\ Die Konferenz ron ruenua schleppte sich noch i*-den ITai hiaein und 
C-® enc!ete danit.dass alle ihre Probiene, von denen kein einziges ge- 

loest Vforden v.i»r, einer Sachverstaendigen-Konf erenz uebenft'iesen 

v;urden, die fuer den 26. 7uni 1022 nach dem Haag einberufen v.irde 

Ausserhalb Genuas 

24. April: Rede Poincares in 3ar-le-Duc. Deutschland hat den 

•^Z6 und 
Versailler Vertrag verletzt ( Art. 260). 
Henri de Jouvend im katin: Genua vollendet Lloyd Georg*» 

Bankrott. \, . , ^ ^ 

Poincare ist sich seiner Yerantv'ortung nicht bev'usst. 

Er sieht nicht, dass die Konferenz von Genua scneitern 
kann . ^ ^' ^f ) 
Gauvain Journal des Debats 20.~April; Das deutsch-bolschewistische 



1 \ 



\ 



O 



tl 



II 



^2. 



^ Zusamnenspiel ist eine alte -»ache. Die Gefahr liegt 
nicht in einer d.eutschCrus3ischen Linigung. Die Gefahf 
liegt -;anz vo anders; "T^s handelt sich un den Anfang 



einer Erpressungskanpaene." Die Deutschen und die Russ^»» 
sind ueberzeugt, dass die Alliierten es nicht auf einen 
3ruch ankönnen lassen werden. 

• / ^ 

Ifanchester Guar-iian 21. April: " >-o one,so far v-e are a^are, has sa. 

sug,-ested that the treaty is in itself a bad thing; its off- 
■ ence lies solely in the nethods of its production and pre- 
sentation. To those nethods very serious objections have 
been taken. They were not merely tactless and provocatives, 
but definitely opposed to the spirit of this or any other x 

Conference. AlIliditXv.X Unless the Gerrans can show that X 

the Russo-Gernan treaty vras not intended to stab the Conferen- 
ce in the back it v.-ill be nuch longer before they are invi^ 




14 



Ul 



to another." Aber der Vertrag i^ nicht schlecht. 



25, L'ai 1922 Lloy? George im Unterhaus: 

"The largest gathering of nations that has ever net in the 
history of ths vorld 



CO 



\ 







\\ 



w 



(Ra;jallo,3 It v-as a nistake undoubtly for Gerpiany. I ara not 
goina to (iv^ell uoon the silly foreeries of nilitary Conventions 
which take no one in. Tt is not necesnary. The effect of this agrefi. 
raent is in itself a portent. Consid r for a rnoment Vvhat it neans. 
Here you have tv.o of the greatest nations of the World... fach hav - 
ing done sonething vhlch has discredited it vith the other nations 
of the vorld. >Tot quite received into the füll society of nations, 
peace sijned, a nominal equality, but there tas the sense of the 

super ior nations and the inferior natioi.s There vas a comnuni- 

ty of debasement , There vas a conmunity of v-hat they regarded as 
mala fides. There vas a difficulty as iÄg«i.liÄX to jetting them 
into cornnissions. Pariahs are nore gregarious than parajons..." 
Von dieser Entschuldigung der ' Paria-i^ationen" schritt Lloyd Geor- 
ge fort ;iur Aufrichtung einer jeneinsanen Front Lngland-Leutschlan/ 
Russland, als der Vertreter des neuen Geistes gejen die reaktiona 
ren ^aechte,d. i. Frankreich unr^ seine Gefolgschaft. Das geschah 
im Vor^^•ort zu 3axon ^mis ?uch ueber die -'enua-Konfenens,das aus- 
schliesslich ^ur Verherrlichung: Lloyd Georges jeschrieben ist, und 
deshalb aach die I'eutschen guenstig behandelt. L.G. sajt; 

"Genoa shov:ed the conflict betv-een t»o great forces,t)^o curreni^ 
of feeling,tv.o states of minr. i must alrost say t^o v-orlds,the old 
and new. The old v-orld is that of national blindness, national suspi- 
cion, national prejudice... The nev believes in nationalism no less 
firmly than the old, for nationalism is the individual force,the ge- 
nius* the salt in erery varied Impulse ^^hich makes up Ikje T.estern Civ- 



■vv.^ , 






15 



I 



I O 



( ■ 



w^:> 



llization as a .hole, .ut it also believcs v.Uh its vhol. heart 
nat ... the .^elfare of every nation depends upon peace, co-ope- 

ration, a helping hand fron the atronc to the ^«ak, a rejard for 
the welfare of all. The British deleeation stood for that faith 
in aenoa... The canpai^^n for peace is only bejinnine. V-e have 
won positions fron vhich ^-e mst press forvard a^ain. V.. are 
bi.ouacked in :,he field. "..e nast not rest tili v^e have von." 

I;ies in der Torrede zu einer I^arstellunc, die behauptet, 
dass die deutsche Rechtfertigung "to the Sritish this s.ened 
fairly satisfactory and conclusive" , und dass der boese -arthou 
den i'rieden stoerte, in den er die deutsche Antwort nendacious 
schalt. ..." (^uiet and dignified patience vith vhich the 
-ernans have faced a condennar.ion at the bar of vorld opinion 
havier than any nation ever incurred in the course of history •• 
Wird hier als Zeugnis fuer Deutschlands V.ert jefeiert. p.l02. 

Zur Separat ionskrise , • ' 




Rathenaus Versaeunnis in Cannes, sich nit der -epko zu ver- 
staendisen. fuehrte zu der fortgesetzten -eparatipnskrise von 
n22, die nach seiner -rnoi»4une und nach Urths Ruecktritt 
tn die Ruhrkrise uebereinp;. 

• • • 

^Tach Ti^jlndre:^^-^^ ( Teneralsekretaer der "epko)' Heparatio?, 
Heviewed l^-^O, p«^ v.-aren -n-laender und I'Vanzosen gleich stark 
an den Reparationen interesciert . Aber "Britain vas prepared to 
treat reparat ion as a sigantic business proposition; in ?rance 
it has been rejarded as a political oroblen. " 
Lie -epko v;ar, r-benso^enie ^'ie :^oincare jrundsaetzlich jejen ein 
IToratoriun, aber sie verlangte finanzielle Kefornen in I-eutschlan/. 
"There is no single para.iiraph in the Da^es Report v^hich could not 
have been oroduced by the ( Reparat ions) Connission itself .. 



i^t 



¥»*<I%^»V*%-»*- 



» • •► f 



* . -4 




( 



o 



I^A 



Irockdorff-Rantzau, Ansprache bei Ueberßabe der Akkreditive 

Moskau 6. T^ovenber 1922: 
" Mit meinein TCoennen und meiner Person werde ich mich dafuer 
einsetzen, zu beweisen, dass der Vertrag von Rapallo eine neue 
Aera eingeleitet hat fuer '^as deutsche und fuer das russische 
Volk und damit nicht nur fuer Europa, sondern fuer die cianze v-elt. 
Der Vertrag von Rapallo hat einen Strich gemacht unter die 
Vergangenheit, aber hur soweit sie traurig; ^'ar... In den unerschuet ter 
liehen Glauben an 'lie Zukunft des deutschen und des russischen Volkes 
ohne die auch die V.elt nicht gesunden kann, gehe ich an diese fried- 
liche Arbeit, die uns niemand stoeren soll." Dokumente und Gedanken 

um Versailles p. 20^. 

Kalinin antwortet; 

"Durch den Abschluss des Rapallo-Vertrags,der den Geist und 

den Forderungen der Zeit unri den Interessen beider Staaten entspri 
geben das deutsche un'^ das russische Volk der ganzen ^-elt ein ^ieug- 
nis uneingeschraenkten Vertrauens." »"Tl 7/11/22. 
Boris Stein, Iswestija ll.rov. äIxx 192S: 

« 

"Zu den ♦ Schluessen' aas Versailles jehoerte auch die Fol- 
gerung, dass Deutschland notwendig ein maechtiges Gegengewiclit haben 
mues3e,d.as ihm die Moeglichkeit gaebe, fernerhin den Druck der Sieger 
von Versilles V.iderstand zu leisten. Dieses Gegengewicht war im Osten 
vorhanden. Seine Notwendigkeit sah Russland viel frueher ein als 
die erst in Tahre 1022 zum Abschluss des /ertrages mit SSSR gelangte 
( Nachrif auf Jirockdorff-Rantzau } 



> 



i 



•Mi 



-.'^ 




n 

V- 



16 
The Coranission laclced the necessa-'y authority p.33 
The grayest "blow to t)ie authority of the Gonnission >^a8 Struck 
v.hen the U.S. failed to ratify the -^reaty... The IJ.5. nejocia- 
tors ha' taken a proninent part in the framinü of the Reparation 
hapter of the ^reaty,' and in important points their views had 






prevailed. " p 37. , 

Poincare', den der /erfasser politisch ablehnt, hat nicht di^ 
Haupt3c:iwier 5keiten verursacht. T.r bekaenpfte vor allem einen 
Starren Betriff der "Zahlunssfaehigkeit" . 

Lloyd George "Created an atrnosphere of d ishonesty and 
chicane v-'hen he vas really strivin:: to be fair and honest." 

nathenau and T.irth lehnten alle Vorschlaei^e ab, die 

I 

auf Sinschraenkun: der souvcrainm ^inanahoheit hes "eiche hinaus- 
liefen oder zu laufen schienen ( un^ die der Dav.esplan durchsetzte)- 
Lnde Kai l'^P2 schien in Aus^es gefunden zn werden, der eine 
Aufsicht der -epko unter forneller ^-ahrun^ der SouVerainitaet 
des "eJihs ermoe-lichte, als die r.rnorduni^ Rathenaas die Situa- 
tion v rschaerfte. Tn ererbst -^.r. erweiterten sich Die Divergenz 
zvischen Barthnu,der eine Verfehlung des Reichs feststellen 

« 

sollte, und -^radbury, Her daa vermeiden vrill.ohne ^arthous Rech--^ 

anzweifeln zu <oennenp.2r4. #• WW^/A^ i/r^/g>^ • '"^^^ 

Lloyd Ueorees -achfoleer Bonar Law opponiert deir fr anzoe 

aiiächen Dir«^ r^er Reparationspolitik. "/•^O/ •« •' 

In Frankreich hat Poincare' die ueberwaeltijende Mehrheit 

hinter sich. 

17. üovember 102?. erklaert sich der radikalsozialistische 

Parteitag in I^rseille fuer schaerferen >uck auf Deutschland. 
29. Novenber 3:amnersitzung. Alle Parteien mit Ausnfhne der 
Sozialisten m^ Komunisten sehen Frankreichs Sicherheit bedroht. 








*,< 



17 

Jahre 1^22 war der christliche Lenoterat Kare SangBler der 

[oarlamentarische TIauptgegner Poincares in Sachen Deutschland. 

Journalistisch wur<1e die versoehnliche rote in Oeuvre betont 

1923 wird C.uotidien neu c^egruendet und Haupt organ der 7er- 

oehnung. T)ie Sozialisten richten erst allmaehlich ihre OpL30- 

s/tion auch auf die Reparationspolitik. Sie sind lange zeit anti- 
raiiitaristisch.ohne die Deutschlandpolitik der Regierung konkret zM 

r ' f 

ekaempfen. Srst in der 'T.ahlkampa^ne 1924 >Mrd Poincare getadelt, 
4eil er keinen TTnterschied z' ischen deutschen Pazifisten und All- 



deutschen nache. Diese rote ^on 31 u n betont. 
Blum bis 1920 akademisches Parteimitglied. -^^^^^ ^^'^'^ ^eput 



i. 






Erstes Auftreten auf i.eiji x^arteitag in Tours 1920* 
Situation: Die Parteinehrheit,die waehrend des Kriegs sich fOÄr 

defense na tional e erklaert hatte, ^ar nach dem Krieg 
in eine Minderheit gev^andelt. Ihre alten ?uehrer GuesdC 4fc/ 
Sembat xxslx^tei±itxiiJk waren erschoepft und krank, hielt e>| 

aber an den nationalen Kurs fest. Die neue antinili- 
taristische'lv^phrheit.gefuehrt von Longueti Cachin 
benae«htigte sich der Humanite und des Parteiorganismi^ 
und er :laerte sich fuer Anschluss an die III. Intersa 
tionale. Blum var zwar auch fuer defense nationale ge- 
wesen, aber fuer die Partei-Oef fentlichkeit ein neuer 
Mann. Sr legte sein Amt im Conseil d'Ltat nieder, wurde 
Anwalt und versuchte als Parteifuehrer erfolgreich, die 

» 

Reste der alten Partei in eine neue R^ehrheit zu verwan- 
deln, indem er den Kommunisten, de: neuen Partei, moeg- 
lichst viel "ind aus den Segeln nahm. (Juesde und Sembat 

legten den Parteivorsitz 1921 nieder. 




\ 



Rapallo 



Vorspiel 



Lenin gibt eine Erklaerung ab, die nach den Teints rom üBJlaerz 



o 



1922 lautet: 



"NouB n»arona pas 1» Intention de soulerer des problemes 

politiques a ^enes; nous enriaageons cette Conference corane unf reunion d*ho 

mines d' affaires, conroques pour discuter des questions coimnerciales. Fous 

y 
irons donc a G<*^nes en conmercants.sachant ce que lea KtilitB Bourgeois atteh- 

dent de nous et sachant egalenent ce que nous attendons d'eux. L' etat de cho- 

ses actuel ne peut durer; il est deteatable pour la Russie et pour le reste 

du monde. II faut que nous fassions du commerce are* les Etats bourgeois qui 

de leur cöilte,ont besoin de comraercer arec nous;autrenient la reconstruction 

deic l'Europc est chose inpossible. 

Je desire surtout rencontrer W. Lloyd George qui a nontrfe de 
facon repetee qu'il est un peu realiste; kl ne permettra pas que ce que l'on 
pourrait appeler le snobisne politique rienne contrecarrer la realisation 
de buts pratiques. ."^e sens cornme lui qu'une entente est possible. Encore 
une fois, je n'attends pas une entente politique qui est inpossible entre 
des Etats bourgeois et une Republique sorietique, 

On nous dit que toute une scrie de conditions, encore mal definies 



- i: 



seront posees a la Russie arant que la Confirence aborde le ,>rogra»me pra- 



t 



tique de son ordre du jour. Ces manoeurres ne nous impressionnent pas. Si 1^ 



Uns s'imaginent nous surprendre, ils se tronpent; dans tous les marchandagej 
il y a un clenent de bluff; nous sarona bluff er nous aussi; de me^ie nous 
sommes habitues aux menaoes et nous arons connu de plus terribles que celles 
qui nous seront faites a Genes." 



\ 



Berliner Korrespondent des Teinps meldet 24.MAr2 "la collusion des 
partis extr^^es pre'oe«upe bien plus M.^.irth que les exigences de rjütente.. 

.. La propagandc bolcheriste a pene 



tre les serrices publics." Rote Fahne 



\ 



kuendige an,das8 das e;^)aration«problein mit einero Schlage gelj^oest 
i^erden werde durch ^erwoegensbeschlagnahme und Annullierung der i^- iegsanleih^ . 
Lie »ienossen des V.estens werden dann die i^erision der uebrigen ^ectragsbestirj, - 
mungen durchfuehren. Radek und Kakowsky seien fieberhaft taetig. 



c 



Lord D^Abcrnonlerlin IXarch 9,1922- Rathenau discussed Genoa with me 



this morning. He is iirpressed by ||^at he has heard froui V. iedfeld/'^^ho had an 

hour's talk vith Lloyd George. The Prime l^inister said: * I hare no definite 
Programme for Genoa. They say Russia is my pet child: well,Russia will be X 
the feature at Genoa.* Rathenau says the Soriets are mainly characterized 
by * a grandiose unreliability' • It will be easy for the French or anybody 
eise who want to upset the Confenence to put questions to the Russians v;hic/) 
will Jtkcjic Make them break out or boil orer/' 1,269, ^ 

"Lloyd George is further reported to hare said to V.iedfeldt: • Englan^^ 
cannot help you alone. foxx roust get other people to assist us in the tas^. 
:fou must make further friends." Rathenau ist ratlos. *^»en meint L.G.? 
FrÄnkrxeich unraoeglich. Russland zu unzurerlaessig. 1.270. 



r 



L 



\ 



% ^ 



X 



Rnhrkrise 






i 



Seit ier TTonferenz von Cannes v'aren r^ie Beziehungen zvdschen leic?i8ree;ie#- 
rung un.-^ Separat ionskonnission c;es,3annt. Trotzdem verschiedene n^brnachunc^.^ 
zur Ilrleichteruni; der deutschen '/eroflichtunjen. "Bergmann, ^-eg ^er Repa- 
ration 101-105. 
^-^ ^ 14, ^Tovember 19J:^2 : Reichskanzler V.irth fordert Aufschub der Bar-und 

>, I I •■■ — ■ I « IM 

Sachlieferun^^en fuer T^-i Tahre. An gleichen Tage 






I;uecktritt «.irths* 
Eer Ruecktritt .erfolt:te aus Innerpolitischen Oruefi^en, »*irth betrieb 
die "Bildung der grossen Koalition, die von der oozial'lerokrat ie vorlaeu 
fig abgelehnt »'urle, '1a sie erst kurz vorher ' 24. September 1922' sich 
nit f^en TTnabhaen3ij:en vereinigt hatte un'^ eine T'oalition mit der 7olks- 
oartei als ^efaehrlich ^ler ihren Bestand ansah. V.irths ^''achf ol£;er 



1. ilhelrn Cuno (21. Movenber 1"»22}* :j'e3sen A^:issenninigter ?rhr. von 
Rosenberg, entschlossen ien Rapallo-?:urs zu liqui^^ieren. ( Taesst aber 
Ilaltzan m-' ürock^orf f-Rantzau auf ihren '^osten}. r:uno unr^ Rosenberß 
haben sehr gute ''resse in England un^ ITGA. 

I;er deutsche Regierungs^/echsel folgte in kurzen Abstand den Regine- 
wechsel in Italien ( Mussolini ?0. Oktober 1^22' und ^.er^. Lnde der ^'oa- 
litionsoolitik in "Fingland { ^-^onar Lav l'^. Okt.^ber 1?22;. 

Cuno adoptiert V.irths Gtun'^ungsantrag. 
Darauf TCon^erenz in London '^ . Dezenber l'^22, aml der "^onar Law, 
Poincare, J-Tu^solini teilnehnen. 

Poincares Ankunft in London wird von Lloy^ 'T-eorge nit einer 
Artikelserie begruesst, ^ie 1^23 in^uchforn unt-er den Titel Is i t 
peace? erscheint. L.G. " enthuellf* , poincare habe britisch- franzoesi- 
schen Beistandspakt sabotiert, weil er ''.riand den -^riunpf nicht goennte 
uni vor aller, veil dieser Pakt ihm jeden Vorhand ^enonmen haette, '^as 

linke Rheinufer zu annektieren. 

t 
In der ersten Sitzung der "onferenz vervahrt sich poincare cej^^^ 




s. 



i^ms. 



L.a.s 3ehanptimaen: " C'est la une idee qui ne saurait pas entrer» da^s 
ar.e cervelle idncaise,^ et iiyp«ut pas etre le moins '^.u nonde question 
r^'un desir ^'annexer la fihenanie ou fle 1' inoerpure? au territoire franc- 
ais." Livre Taune. Deman.'e le noratoriun ^^u -rouvernerent allemand p.27. 
Bonar -LaT' Tr,acht seinerseits das statenent: " If an earthquake took place 

# 

vhich s^-allowed up a.rnany,and the rrst of the v;orld renained as before^ 
(Jreat Sritain vould be the gainer for the reason that Crerwany v;as ,so £a 
fornidahle a rival in trade anH industry. This is a fact not reali::ed 

4 

in ?rance." .llue ?ook 3,1^2:^, t."^?. ^a. aber Deutschland vorhanden ist 

und seine ICrise Me V.elt bedrohen kann, ist r.nclan^' fuer Bewilligung ^^«^ 

LttOrator iuris. ■■' 

Den Streit ueber das T'oratoriin hat 3onar Law spaeter ( Gonr.ons, 
13. Februar 192?; so dargestellt: "-here ras a cex:eral feelin^ vhioh 
I should have thourht the financial condition of :Jemany had nade ine- 
vitable, that a rnoratorium of sone kind vas necessary. It ras su^posed 
that that feeline vas almost universal. I thou£ht it ^as true of the 

« 

^rench also, but I found v.'hen re care to necociate that by a moratoriuin 
they Tneant to obtain ^urin: the period of the .Moratorium the sane repa- 
rat Ions as our experts hoped to obtain after that period. In other v-ords 
they rere riUine to take the nare of a Moratorium, but not the reality." 

' Die deutsche Kegierunc unterbreitet ein Projekt, dessen Urheber 
nach -ersmnn,T.es der "eparat ion, o. 199, der Direktor der -eutschen Bank 
Vassernann war. :.s schlaegt vor: Internationale .Anleihe an l>eutschland 



2iur Leistung der Reparationen, un-'. -ahrenddes^en Stabilisierung der 



/?ei<^r- 



Mark. Deutsches T.eissbuch "Die den Alliierten seit ^-af fenstillstand ueb^ 

ermittelten Angebote", 7uli l'^2?. 

Bonar lav sieht In ^en Trojelct eine verteBseran^Bfaehiae Grundlage 
fuer Verhan«an.en. Polncare' lehnt ab, .eil es keine Garantien biete.^ 
IhM stimnen Theun.is r^eljien} un^ .V^ussolini b.ei. ...ussoUni. 



>i 



\ 



. , B« • .»vw^t. nfffv»" 



\ 



replaoe la question -^'ans le r^or>aine ies realltes. II n'ya pas de temijs a 
perrire, parce que la nachine a inprimer leg "billets fonctionne actlvemeric 

en Allemagne." Li\rre Jaune j. 31. 

/ 

Poinoare fordert daraufhin RuhrhegetLuni^ bis zur Reorganisie- 

:^l runj der deutschen Finanzen. 3onar Lav erV'iriert, Poincare goreche rle 

if 

^ von einem Pique-nique niütaire pour leg sol-ats francais" • Lie 3eseti:unf 

sei ein sehr ^I^^aehrliches 'Tntp^rnehnen. 

Die Sitzung vlrd unterbrochen, -'anit ^as britiGChe Kabinett be- 

' / 

raten kann. Dann private ^Tnterredunr -lonat -^av'-poincare. 

Nach Oeorgeg ^uarez, Sdouard ^-^erriot, p. 21^, hat Bonar La^ zu 
poincare gesagt, Ilnrlan^s Teilnahme an der Ruhrbesetnung v.'uerde den 
ohnehin ^Wahrscheinlichen 3ieg der Labor Party bei f^.en naechsten ^'ahlen 
zur Oewisf^heit machen un^^ noch dazu die ^'-ahlen beschleunirjen. 



Die ^^echtsfraj;e wurde nicht erstellt. 



Part 7III 



• (^^errati 



long) Annex II, Art. 13 des Versa il 1er Vertrags: 



"The measureg Vvhich the AHied and Associated Povers shall have t 
the right to take, in case of voluntary default by (Termany, and v;hich CJef^ 
many ajrees not to re^^ard as facts of v^ar, may include econoriic and fin- 
ancial prohibijriong and rep^isals and in general such other meagureg as 
the respective jiäXäxä jo/ernnents may determine to be necessary in the 
circumstances.'' 

Aus dem Augdruck " resoective governnentB" haben die f ranzoeslschen 



Turigten gefolgert, '^ass auch eine einzelne egierung Sanktionen ver- 
haengen koenne. Tlnglir^che Juristen sinri spaeter mit der --einung hervorgC"^ 
treten, n ir ^ie Gesamtheit ^er alliierten ^Regierungen sei dazu berecht i^* 
In der Hnterhausdetiatte von 13. Jrebruar 1^23 vertraten air Robert Hörne 
uri'l -^ie Mehrheit den franzoesir-chen J(echtsstandpun'<t , Lloyd aeorge den 

* 

andern. An r^er Ruhrbesetzune von 1^21 hatte ILnjland sich beteiligt. 
Kach der Unterredung Bonar T.aw-''oincare ^ird die I^onfereni. erj^ebnis^io^ 



. abgebrochen, .Bo^a"^ Lav^' sieht keinen Ausweg, "^enn ITSA nicht inteT've- 
nieren. jVVbernon TT, I7n . 

'=5onar Lav leitete die en.^linchp Aussen Politik seit '^e^^'-inn seinej^ 
Administration, '^a sein Aussenninister ::urson sofort nach der ICabinetts- 
bil^ung nach Lausanne jefaVi:^en "ar, un 'en '^''rir-r^en rit f^en ruer!<en zu- 
stanlezubrincen. ':olanje -^iese Terhantllunren ^in^en, hatte !Eujland 
alles Interesse, -^ie Zintente mit -^'ra) kreich zu betonen. Curzon kam ersZ- 
am 1. "^'ebruar 1^2?) nach T^onion zurneck, als ^Ue Huhraktion schon in vot"" 
len ^ange var. 

Bonar T.aw hatte im Aujnst 1^14 Asquith ^^er Zusti^mun: d«-r Tonser- 
vativen zur Kri e{:3erklaerunr versichert, ^r var unter Lloyd, ^eorge 
Gchatzkanzler jev-esen, un-^ neijte ^azu, auch Ue Au3'::en )ol itik ausschl iijXi* 
lieh als "icononist zu betrachten, y.r rar ein 3chueler unr» Verehrer von 

4 

Adolf ^'ajner, aber ein ueberi (-Ureter Anhaencer ^er 'jitente, yfenn er auch 
kurz vor seineir xegierun:sbiliun'; isolationistische -esiclnts.)unkt e ver- 
treten hat te . 



26. "Dezember 1'122: Repko stellt mit allen ::ecen eine (enrlische; Stimmt 
Deutschlan-is 7erfahlun:'3 in '"^en -'olz] ief eran::^en fest. 



r , c ^ 



Inzwischen halten ^uno m^ Rosenberg ^.en -deutschen "Botschafter in ..ai 
hington, ..iedfel'^t , beauftragt, eine ^emarch«- bei !^ui:hes, secretary of 3tate, 



z<. 



X unternehmen. "Deutschland sei bereit, sich fuer ''ein Llenschenalter" zu x 



veroflichten, keinen girier ohne vorherije '-"olksabst irmunj zu crRlaeren, venn 
^i.e andern interessierten ^aechte dar. :leiche tun. "^^ujhes teilt das am den^ 
franzoesischen "^ot^chaftrr 7upnerarT^ »^Uj^Rr Poincare unterrichtet. "Dieser 
lehnt ^'as "Fanoeuvre j-^rossiere" al) . "^.i.vre Ta-me "75/" 



Am ;31 . i^ezenher -ibt Pu ^hes seinen eigenen '■''orRchla-: inoffiziell ( in ei-» 
ne-i va??-,enschaftliGhen vortra,-: bekannt: Unpolitische oachverstaendi^e soü' 
len '^oehe un^ i^ahlunnsme- 




ä ^ 



/ thoden ^er deutschen -eparationsverpfliohtuncen feststellen. Poincare 
lehnt ab. 

-* I 

2. Januar 1")2? r Pariser J-ionfene nz. J'URSolini laesst sich durch Hen 
Londoner "^otsiihafter Torretta vertreten. 

\ 

Alle bringen neue Torschlae^e vor. Auch T^er-rnann var br^auf tragt, 
einen deutBChen .""lan zu unterbreiten, behielt ihn aber fuer sichV'um 
keine seneinsane Tiestrafung' [^egen T^eutschland zu veranlassen." 213. 

Bonar Lav schlaegt vor: 'Terabsetzung -»er "poarationen auf 25 
Milliarden aol^'nark. "»tatt Repko internati nale romnission »»tit 3it?: 
• in T^erlin unter Vorsitz ^^eg deutschen ^^eichsf inanzninist ers . 

Sngland voellig; isoliert. Italien unri Belgien protestieren so 
heftig, .^^ass Poincare in Hintergrund bleiben kann, 

^er franzoesischp und italienische 7crschlar beruehren sich 

nahe, ^eide f ordernK ffaender ohne nil i taeri sehe ^e^etzung. 

4. .^anuar 1523 ; Er^jehnisloser Abbruch der Pariser Konferenz. 
9. Januar 1^23 Repko stellt neue Verfehlunc Tjeutschlandg in. 

rohlenlieferun^ fest. Frankreich zeigt England Loijt Ln^'lcinir^ 




an 



. £Z)* 



A.^ gleichen Ta^je franzoesische Karmersitzung. Poincare erhaelt 7er- 
trauensvotun 452 ße^en 7£ bei 47 Lnthaltuntjen ( darunter: Painleve, 
Ile-riot, Ghautenos, Daladier, Paul ^onc^Jir] 

Leon 31un ( nit allen fJo;iialisten un:' I\onr;unisten Geei-ner): 



ch 7,erden die' oon er ixcani sehen 



Auf die ITachricht vor. Ruhreim^ars^ 

. .^anuar. Ar. gleichen Tage fallen /- 



^esatziungstrup^^en heimberufen. 10 
franzoesische Soldat 



bei der 




Abvehr eines litauiscVie^ 



I^MM^Kll 



i 



Putaches in Wemel. 



Ebenfalls am 10. Januar ^ary^as rheinisch-vestfaelische Kohlengyndikac 
mit saeDtlichen ^eschaeftsbuechern nach Hanbur^ ueber5=5irrlelt . 

12. Januar 1923: Reichgregierun^ lehnt je^e llusannenarbeit mit dem 
von Truppen begleiteten Tngenieurkonite ab. 3ie verbietet jeie T^ohlen- 
lieferung an ^ie -^aen^ier ^er Ruhr-Okkupationsmaechte, auch solche gegen 
Bezahlung. 

Cuno erhaelt ein ueberwaeltigen^^es Vertrauengvotum vie kein anderef' 
Kanzler neit 4. August 1014. 'Nationale ^-elle". . -Auch '^Rote l^'ahne" vom 
11. •^anuar l'l^,'^ fuer Abwehr. 

In Italien ^ie fa55cist ische Presse fuer '^Vankreich, (Ue katholisch^, 
fuer Deutschland, aber ^edaempf t . '^itti scharf gegen Ruhrbeset^ung. 
?Tach Baron ^eyens, C^uatre ans a Kome,p. 1!^3, ueberschaetzte 
LTussolini erheblich die wirtschaftlichen Konsequenzen des Ruhrkonflikts 
Er sah bereits I^eutgchland in ein Agrarland zurueckverv^aiidelt . Tussolini 
wollte nichts versaeumen, um an den Vorteilen der -Besetzung zu partizipif- 
ren, bei moeglfcchst geringem Risiko. 

In Zngland ^ ar die i^ntv^icklung mit grosser "^esor^inis verfolgt 
Verden, jas Scheitern der beiden Tonferenzen, ^Ue der Ruhrbesetzun^* vorbeu 
gen sollten, jab Anlass r.u^ros3en -"ebatten in beiden "'"'aeusern. 
Edward -Tey hieltyeine sehr richtige, aber, v-ie iie reisten Cberhausreden, 

venis beachtete ^^ede: .Die Rcparutionsfra£,c datrfe nicht isoliert betrachtet 

Verden. 3ie sei ein Teil des Gicherheitsl^problens. "'rou viii not real3y 
get econoinic recovery in Europe unless you also ^et ^reater political sec- 
urüty. " Bestes Fittelj Staerkung des Voelkerbundes. Deutschland soll nach 
i^c^elung des "eparat ioH3:>roblens Aufnahme in <'Qn Voelkerbund beantrajen un/ 
zugelassen rerden. "In ny opinion one of the Chief causes of all the polit- 
ical -trouble, the difficulty of nakins any political pro^ress since the Arm- 




k m uw n m^M ^->. 



■•■m>titt^ 



istice, has teen the fact that there vere tv^o Treaties nost important to 
^•rance includ.ed in the Peace Settlement-not parts of the ^reat/ of Yersa/^ 
Itself- I rnean the Franco-.lrltish an^ the ^ranco-Anerlcan Treaties vhich 
guaranteed to -rance that. should there in the future be aenran a-ressio/t 
against her, she ^^•ould have for her aupport the rhole strength of the 
- ?ritain Empire and of the USA. Those freaties rere as r^ch part of the 
Peace "^ettlement as the Versailles "Jreaty itself. 
. Those treaties have abgolutely Hlsappeare^; the/ are eone,and I would 
ask people in this countr/ ^^ho are ^rery apt to criticise Trance as havine 
been restless or ac^ressive or contenplat Ing stronc separate action in the. 
se last years, perhaps eren at the präsent monent-I vould ask tfeem to bear 
in mind vhat ^ould be their orn feellnes had they been I'renchnen. . . t.hat 
must ha.e been the feelin^s of ^-Venchnen M:en,after a Peace vae concluded 
i^-hich they re^^arded as a vhole, those tv.o ^reaties vMch did far n,ore for 
the future security than the Versailles "reaty itself ^isappeared?. . . 

^ ""in'poUcy^" '^ '''°'' ^reaties had rerained an..! v.e three had been part- 

ners^^the Reparation nuestion roul^' have been taken in hand in the very 

earliest year after the var... Jf the Jo^rernrent fin'^ the K'rench Coverrj^erl 

too easily disposed to take streng neasures of Reparation, and fLsl^i!^ 

rore Crcrman territory 

:Cr«KÄk.^;;Ä*iHSÄic«JW; , "1 believe the real re£ison,althoajh perhaps the -'rench 

ao^^ern'ent nay not adnit it t^e-selves, is not so mach that they are anxio^; 
to get cash fron Uernany in pa/mcnt of the ^^eparations. I do not believc 
that those stronj neasures win produce the cash. They are nuch likely to 
produce the collapse of Gerr^any vhich vm ^g a disaster to ::urope.'.. I do 

not believe that security Ls to be cained in that v-ay.... i ^m sure that 

l-^renchnen' 
Vhat they v-ant nost of all is security in r.urope. as lon^ as you deal rith 

these questions bf ^^eparations solely by thenselves, and deal with them a^ 
if they vere purely econonic things, rithout facing the facts, I '^'o not 



belleve progress can be ma^^.e.^ 
Aber Bonar Law behandelt * 




e in denlcommons am 14 



laU 



/ 



Jx..mi^,^Ji^^m^Ukitmmmmh^maiäi 




4^ 



t 



die "eparat ior^sf rage ausschliesslich unter v;irtschaftliühen -esichts^unk- 
ten, War, ^ler allgeneinen englischen Auffassung entsprach. Er gin^ aus 
und endete bei '^er -e'eststellung.^eutschlancl sei zaMun^sunfaehig. , fuegt 
aber am Schluss hinzu, Aie en-li3Ch--rranzoesischen xSeziehungen duerften 
unter dieser Meinungsverschiedenheit nicht leiden. Danach hat er auch -e- 

handelt, solange er an Huder v'ar. 

Macdonald an gleichen -^ase: '"^he -reat point is tiire. Gettle nor, n)^ 
non, an-^ then begin a schene vhich v-ill enable oerrany tc meet her .obli- 
gations, and ^hich, I hope, she v-ill acceot." Las -cparationaproblen ist 
"very simple: v'e can have no rejarations until '"rernany has becän to tra- 
de." /'acdonal^ erlclaert sich ge^en .lernen ril i taerischcn schritt. :>'ie 
britische ^^ejierung sei fur-r '^en g*=c enr a er t igen Zustand "eutscbland 
mitV'-rantvortllch. 

16. Februar: SnoM^Hen ^-^richt sc^iarf Pieren ^""ranicreich un'i (^erren ^le hmeo-i- 
te nit -'rankreich, 'behauptet, '^er Yer^ailler "ertrag habe 20 Trillionen 

J,'enr.chen v-ie Vieh verhandelt und fremden Souverainen unterworfen. 

\3quith ''oricht aehnlic>^ rle l'l'^vav^ ^rev, aber die Ruhrbeset?. mrr sei k 
nicht der ^-eg, Sicherheit zu erlan/^en. Tüngland solle T^rankreich und 

Deutschland unter Jruck petzen, daT.it beide sich der Instanz des 7oelke/^ 
bundes unterwerfen. Die Labor-Abgeordneten, rorel.Puxton, xienderson 
sprechen fuer Deutschland. Lloyd George: Die Huhraktion Wachse -'rankrei^ 
ueber den. Kopf . ^.r selbst spreche fuer "J Till not aay anti-Treaty peop, 
ic ( Zv-ischenrufe Pro-^ernan: ^To, not ?ro--Jernar.,but an anti-extreme 
reparation Yieiv." U General Spears.- Die britischen VermittlungsvorschLf - 
ce haben a.i le Franzosen hinter Pcincare geeinigt. Sie sind "an error in 
Psychology that may cost Saaope very dear .ladeed!' Die 7ran;iosen seien 
unnoetig gereizt vorden. "'.•.hatever plan is fornulated mst ^ive the -reW 
security... The demilitarization of the Rhinelande v.ould be acceptable 
to iVance." Die Opposition beantragt Ar>end:rant zur Antwort auf King's 



spcech, "^as 
1-s ^^ird mit' 



,-r^ -n^n-^r ^flT be'Caerpft es entschieden, 
den Voelkerbunrl anruft, ^onc^r .-a^- oeAa^.!. i^ 



3G5 fre'!;en' 



^6 aTogeie^nti 



c 



{ 

9 

Puer -i^rankreicha echt zur Ruhrbesetzum: erklaeren sich der britische 

Han1elamini3terj^"1reanes, Iiaily Kail und die Dieharda. 

Gegen Frankreich: Tines, Iiaily Tele{:raph, Aaquith, die gesamte -"aber 
*arty. I'acdonal'3 uebernittelt., 17.7anuar Labor'? ^ruesse an die Huhrarbö»i^V* 

l*^, Januar: Poincare sipricht von '•cauchenar des reparat ions" c^en die 




V.elt endlich los sein nuesse. 

19. Januar : Reichsregierang ordnet an, 

^esat^^ungsnaechte befol^^t v;erden duerfe 



daas keine »'erfuejung der 



20. «^anuar: Ve^huft'.mj der Bergverksl eiter. 



ICoks 



Keicharegierune verhindert franzoesischetschechinche ii^hlXÄiiuetre 

un^ Zueverbin-iune Paris -'Bukarest un-^ Pari3-?rac;. 
21.^-anuar: Labor i'arty beschliesst Solidaritaet nit den Kuhrarbeitern ' 
1. -«ebruar: Hoetzsch fordert in der '^reuzzeitun^- sofortige ---aeunung dcjj 

?»uhrgebiet3 un-' Schadensersatz. 

4. -^'ebruar: Graf 'cstarp ebenda: Raeunung des janzen Rheinlands. 

Reichsregierang befolt't nicht Helfferichs "orderunj nach Abbruch de^ 

diplomatischen f^eziehungen, ruft aber den T>otschaftcr -^ayer zurueck. 

■^^achdei" die Repko an r.o. ."^anuar "eutschlands "T^ancuenent general" fest- 

gestellt hat, v»ird an 1. /pebruar je/e Kohlenlieferun^ ins unbesetzte 

^ebiet verboten, ^\r\^, an 12. %br. ein Zollguertel jelegt. 



4. "^ebr. x-oincare in der Kanner; Der passive T. iderstand bestaeti^jt und 
verstaerkt ^Frankreichs "'echtst itel. "Frankreichs Ziele bleiben unver- 
aendert: " etre dedonnages de nos ruines et n' etre piBs attaques/' 
Er sei jederzeit zu Terhandlun^en bereit, aber Pwaeunun£; auf blosse 
'* Yersprechungen könne nicht in ?rage. 

Aussenninister Rosenberc ervridert, ^^ . ?'ebr; Teine Verhandlung, bevor 
das Huhrgebiet jeraeunt ist. 
13. f^ebr. Parlanent . ^onar Lav: in 6^x\ Gonnons, Curzon in ^bertiaus verlesen 
Thronrede: Keine Zustinnung, keine Teilnahne, aber v^'ohlv oll ende reutralt 



taet in der Huhrfra 



_ ^ .^ge. [^hlechte Presse in Deutschland. Sonar Lav; vii/ 

X \ v„ iZ^-^fk Mä iiM m/'. 1^ 7^»'7v/6 fy^i>im/{ mßj^ifä, 4 /m/ 






10 

Pontius Pilatus genannt. D'Abernon II,16o 



K/.. 



/ 



%^ 



Die grosse Mehrheit, i sr Pari oT^^n ^ »y-«^"^i^ unbefriedigt. 7ordern Inter- 

« 

vention des Voelkerbunc's . ?onar Lavr lehnt ab, veü ein solches Vor- 
gehen "Frankreich verstiniren vuerde. 

Sidney V.^bb: Frankreich hat ^en Versailler /ertrag verletzt. Das 
var auch die Ansicht britischer Kronjuristen. Las britische KabineT 
hielt die Gutachten c^^ein bis zur ?^ote Clurzons von 11. Au^'ust 23. 

Die 7uehrung der liberalen Opposition gegen Bonar Lav.'s, Neutra- 

» 

litaetspolitik vird von Tohn Sinon uebrnoninen, der an 13. ""aerz 23 

( rklaert, Abvarten habe keinen Sinn, da Frankreich das Ruhrcebiet au/ 

unbestimnte Zeit besetzt halten v-ill, 

14. ^^rz: Tines konstatiert Anwachsen der englischen Volksstinnung / 
ge;?;en >^eutralitaet . 

IB. J'aerz: Curzon in Ob^-rhaus: Teutralitaet kann nicht ad inf initun 
geduldet Verden. ^ 

An l''). Iv'aerz hatte der deutsche Botschafter 3thaner der britischen Re- 
gierung vertraulich einen Reparationsvorschlag ueberjeben, der 
selbst von Curzon als ganz unzulaenglich abjelehnt ^urde. 
An 22. ^aer leugnet Cuno in einer ^-ede in I'uenchener Rathaus diesen 
Schritt ab. ^ 

1^. Waerz : L' Abern )n regt an, "Sonar Lav-s Vorschlag (s. Pariser 
Konferenz) als Grundlage fuer einen neuen deutschen Vorschlag zu 

benutzen. Rosenberg lehnt glatt ab. D*Abernon 11,1^^4. l/fj)/ 

April 4. April: Lie deutschen ^€gver::CßChaften an die Arbeiter de/^^^i^ 

23. J&iü&WI: Loucheur in London. oondjRrt vegen eines Plans, der aus de^/ 



Rheinland einen 



.Bundesstaat innerhalb des j^eichs, aber unter 



Voelkerbundskontrolle scha'^fen vill.i:i 



Abernon , 



II,l>^6f. Nach DMbernon a.a-C. soll loucheur von Lloyd George nit der ^ 
Srklaerung ueberrascht vo-den sein, er, L.5. haette an Stelle Poincares 

genau so gehandelt. 

' 4 

20. April: Gurion in Oberhaus; 1) Deutschland soll ein neues Angebot 



V 



V. 



I 



machen. 2; Sicherheit muss gecenseitig sein. 3) Keine Zerstueclcela 
Deutschlands. 



ng 



23 



Ajril 

. ?oin 



care antwortet in Bar-le-Duc: "Gans aucun interme.. iaire»* . 






Mai: Leutscher Vorschlag ( unter ^roi^est 3i;^^crns); *.0 i..iilarden 
Goldmark Keprationszahlungen. 

Curzon schwer enttaeuscht. Schlechte englische ^'resse. Hussolini 

protestiert ''con senzo di legitii^o stupore" . 

20. Vai |923: 3onar lav/ tritt zurueck wegen unheilbaren -^^ehlicopf-' 

leidens. Ihn fol^t als -t'renierninieter Stanley ?al^win. ( 1j5. -^ai ) 

11. Mai: 'Poincare nacht Aufhoeren ^es passiven ^i^^erstandes zur 

Vorbedingung fuer Jede v. eitere 7er|andlung. 

29. l'ai: Poincare erklaert in der rarmer, der passive V.i-^.erstand 

koenne nicht rehr lange fArtgesetzt werden. Er wird heftig von 

•^ardieu angegriffen, '^.er Poincares Polit ik/schwaechl j ch nennt, 

* • 

Herriot: (unter Minv^eis auf i^apoleon I): Das deutsche roblem 
kann nicht ohne iritwirking Englands und Russlands ^eloest Xjcxü 
xZt^xInAkJix Werden. 

24. ."^uni : Poincare erklaert seinen Ruecktritt v/egen eines innerpoli- 
tischen Zwischenfalls, der in gar keinen Zusa.^nenhang nit seiner 
I-weparationspolitik steht. Praesident i^illerand lehnt den Kuecktritt 
ab. Die Kanner hinter Poincare, un ein Fabinett -^'ardieu zu verneiden. 
7. Juni 1123: Deutsches ilenorandun ( unter intensiver Fitarbeit. D'Aber- 
nons und des englischen i^binetts. 1/ Konkrete ^Jarantie durch die 
i^eichsbahn. 2] TJnparteiische internationale Instanz zur Festeilung der 
^^^eparationspflicht . 3) 3rundsaetzliche Anerkennung der "^'eparationspflichT 

4) Internationale Konferenz. 

Zustinnung der englischen un-^. italienischen Presse. T?rankreich: 
Keinerlei Verhandlung vor T^eendigung des passiven '..idf^rrtands . 



/ 



\ 



Poincare stellt eiirie Liste deutscher Linnahnequellen auf, die fuer 



\ 



^^#>^ 



J^ ^ 



Sicherung ier "^epärat ionslet3tunr;-en in ''etracht korp?en. Ilvre jaune 
Locuments relatives aux notes allenandes 1?!^3. "o. P?. 

ot. Aulaire, der. die Liste Curzon MÄJc^fei uebereibt, teilt ?.<incare 

nit: •• Gontrairenent a notre avlsr-'Ut-il [ Curzon)-- le Gouverne- 

Tnent -^ritannlque teontinue a pens^er que notre action dans la Ruhr 

est contraire au "^raite ''e '/ersailles." 

■"aneer 'Notenwechsel ueher die ^echtslase. 

. . / . 

Poincare instruiert die frani:oesi sehen :.:issionen, ce^en die An- 

nahne, Frankreich verfolge Annexionspolitik iiu protestieren. An 3t. ;,u- 
laire, 2"^. "uni: 




1 



I 



? 



14. .-^uni: Mussolini fordert collective Aktion, um Beendi^junc des 
passiven -i^erstan'es durchzusetzen. Aber keine Aenderung de: Land- 
karte. 

Am 11. Juni hatte Curzon einen -S^ragebo^jen nach ^^aris und j^ruessel 
geschickt, der feststellen sollte, welche Leistungen der deutschen 

« 

^^ejienmg als Entgelt fuer las Aufhoeren des passiven V.iderstandes 
^^jeboten v. erden koennten. Poincare laesst ihn unbeantv'ortet . Larauf 
1. 7uli l'^2'^ Oberver antlich: ':>enrL ?rankreich den J'ragebogen nicht 
beantv^ortet, >^ird die britische "'egierung oeffentlich erklaeren, ''.ass 




i*mmmK>mmJm 



Mfeiüiii 




die derzeitlce ""^olitik ^Frankreichs zun Riun Luropas fuehrt, un • ^ird 
Verhandlungen rnit Deutschland auf der '^rundlac^ "^^s deutschen ^enoran- 
dums vom 7, 7uni 23 einleiten. Gie sieht auch eine Konferenz neutraler 






/i 



: M 



Staaten zur Einigunc nit Deutschland ohne 'ranVreich vor. 

Dieses TCo^Triunique v^ird von ^^er ganzen en^:lisÄhen ^'resse gebracht. 

Poincare ^rr-rlan^t Denenti des ^'^bervers. Curzon erklaesst ein . 
Dementi, das die Mit teilun^^ '^es nbserv»-^r als jxkäIimxrx "prenature 
erklaert. 
Att] 30. Tuni hatten -Tew Statesnan und Satur^^ay "*eviev; darauf hin^jev^ie- 
sen, dass die neuen englischen Luf truestunjen ijejen -Frankreich gericht^ 
seien. 
12. Juli: -^'arlanent in hni^en TTaeusern ^^\r^ erklaert, das deutr?che 

Kenoranriun '"iuerfe nicht unbeachtet r;elasr:3en v'erden. 
W. Juli: Poincare antwortet: Ln^lan-^s '^ilfe ervuenscht ,aber entbehr- 
lich. 
23. Juli: Gtresenann an ""ronnrinz: ?;n:lan^^. un-^ USä planen i-^assnahmen 



nur •'':;enkun: des ^ranken"^ . 

Cd' 

Juli neuer ].ntv'urf Cursons: 



Auflioeren des passiven "^-iderstarid 
Vvirr? j;efor^ert als Vorbedingung fuer ::in;.p;un2sverhandlun£:en. ^rank- 
reich soll sich £ehein verpflichten, das J.uhr^ebiet zu raeumen. I.ie 



englische "'ejierun^ v'ird dies^ Verpflichtung' nicht vor beginn der 



^'^aeunung bekannt ^jeben. 






^(Th . 



2. August; v'^uriLon in Oberhaus unbefriedigt . ucber Frankreichs AntV'ort 
auf seinen Vorschlag. City, ^abor, -^ie ganze liberale --'ccrtei und ein 
grosser """eil .ier Konservativen gegen ."^oinca^e. Agitation englischer 
Arbeiter^^elegationen, die von ^.er Ruhr heinkehren, gegen Besatzungs- 
graeuel. '"Ichwarse ^chftach" . 

Die Versteifung der en-^lischen ^'olitik erklaert sich daher, das 

sie nach Abschluss des "^riedenavertraes von Lausanne mit den Tuerken 



V 



,/ 



s 



nioht mehr so ririn-r^enri auf franzot^öische Unt erstueti^uiig im Orient 




.'^3: "The highest le^al authoritieg in (rreat Britain have advised 



''Tis iViajeaty' 3 jovernnent that the contention of the Gernan s 
governnent is well founied. 
55: Lie Reparat i onskonmission ist rin V.erkLeu^ franzoesisch-bel^isc^<y^ 
-Politik. Znjland '. ird dauern'"! ueberst innt , 

Deutschland habe nehr ^^eleistet als "Frankreich nach dem 

"frankfurter '*'*rie^en. Die Bestiiunj^ koenne .'^n Jahre oder ev-ig f^au- 

«. 

ern. 

Diese "*Tote, die nach Curzon von :Ur Dyre Crowe verfasst sein soll, 
schlaeft einen verrjrier^slichen Ton an. Die franzoesinche xirv'iderunc, ;n 
die in einem -^elbbuch Punkt fuer Punkt neben ^^r\ V.ortlaut der engli- ^ 

1 




sehen '^^ote veroef f ertl icht^ v ^ uC i ti e, wirkt schon deshalb sehr schlag;- 
kraeft i^,weil sie viel knapper i::ehalten ist. (rO. Aujust) 




Poincare erwir^ert: ^^^enn -Frankreich politische un^ j^ilitaerische "^ 

Liele verfolgte, '^.ann haette ( s nicht die Ruhr, soridern 'las *^aintal " 

■bea/tztjun einen TTeil zv-ischen -^reussen und 3ayern zw treiben. Der ^- 
l ^ 

->assive '^. idergtand Tcoste Deutschland viel mehr als die Lrfüelluns. ^ 

?Tach der Veroef ^entlcichunc i^er englischen "ote schrieb die 
Times an 13. Au just: In ."^ahre 1013 haette ZLngland eine solche ITote 
an Ti'rankreich nicht abc;eschickt,ohne vorher das »ar Office und die 
Admiralitaet getarnt zu haben. Aber der scharfe Ton sei berechtigt. 

Die englische yote kan in Berlin einige Stunden nach dem 
3turz der j?e2ierung Cuno an. Sie vurde inf oljer^essen von der 
deutschen "resse kaum beachtet und an belanglosen Stellen "»^leder 



'1 




^ 



1> 




" gegeben, '.'aere sie einen *ag frueher erlassen ^•orden,dann haette sie 
vielleicht der« Ruecktritt Sunos verzoegert. / ,. y ^. fL^,A hk,^ ^ //^f/ 



>«^ 



/ 



\ 



f 



Gunos letzte "'esierunsahandlung v^ar <He Sinstellunc der deutschen 
•^achleistunsen an England gevrescn. TTnterstaatssekretaer Lord Tyrrell, 

^er die JAitteilune Sthamers in A"bv.'esenheit Curzons entjegennahr^. 

spottete: "Da die en^lisch-f ranzot='sische Linhei tsf ront in die ^rueche 

gegangen sei, beeile sich C!uno, ^en Riss v'iede?* zu stopfen. Tines 14. 

Au just. 

Dem Sturz Gunos ^'ar folrjendfis vorausjeganjen: 
IB. Ajril; ^aöaminenbruch der .jrarkstueti-uiioiiukl ioii 
27, Juli CJernania: "Las ''^ertrauen zu der "^eichsregierung ist voll- 



staendiK erschuettert ." lis herrsche 



f- 



()venber-3t inpung. 



^. August Lebens^ittelkrise. Craenzliches Ausbleiben von Kartoffel- 
lieferungen. ^'Llendspolonaisen." vor ien ^^aeden. ?lu( nderuQ.^en. 

11. August; Buchdruckerstreik. Unterbrechung ^es :"^otendrucks. 

Zahlungs^ittelkrise. ^e^erV^chaft en un-^ Sozial^enokrat ie for^^ern 
Gnnos Ruecktritt. 

12. August : Gunos Ruecktritt. ' . 

13. August 3tresenann -Reichskanzler. 2^^S3e Koalition. 

14. August ^^egierungserkla- erung Stresemanns, ^er noch nicht ^eit hattf^ 
die rote Gurzons zu lesen, un'' sich -^arueber sehr vorsichtig aus- 
irueckte. O'Abernon II, r:36, 

Stresenann jing; von der Ansicht aus, Znjland benuehe sich T'rankreich 






u isolieren, aber i^eutschlanri koenne sich nicht 'len franzoesischen 



-ruck gaenzlich entziehen, auch "renn Sneland ihm beistehe. Time Lini- 
ßxinz mit Frankreich nuss erhielt TeT^en,r')'bel '^ia beiden '"aechte gegen 
einander auszuspielen seien. ")er passive '..iderstand koenne nicht den 
». inter ueberdauern. ^aher nuesse -'as Volk auf ein Xonpromiss vorberei- M 
tet >^■e^den. 3tresemann hoffte, die Linsteilung des ^.ässiven V.iderstand 
als -"auschobjekt verwerten zu koennen. . ^.tresenann, 'ernaechtnis 
ü'Abernon II, r:^6ff. In der "eichsta.:srede beschraenkt Gtresemann 
darauf, *Aufre«?hterhaltun3 der Souveralnitaet r.u fordern. 



sich 



\ 






•'Js 



i 



Die Deutach-'^'ationalen treten in O;)position zu Stresejnann. 

1. September 1-^2,-^: ZV'igchenfall in Korfji. Italienische Demonstration. 

Daraufhin Annaeherung Englanr^g an "rankreich, 
?i. 3eptenber: -^eheine 'Tnterreriang Stresenann-^arcerie ueber ^"^faencier 
und passiven V.iHerstanH , Vernaechtnia 1,102; !)Mbernon 11,24'^, 

5. Stptenber: ^tresemann schraenk:t die Ruhr--^-redite ein. 

10. September • Zveite Ttnterredun^ StreBenmann--^-^ar£;erie. ?üincare 

unnachgibig. otresemaun achver ewt Laeubolit . l^r niniint 4/i^4^i en^'lisol^ 
Vorschlags von ?.0 . ."''uli auf: 1) Auf^*eben ^ea passiven V ir^erstandes . 

2; progressive Raeurung \ir\c\ Tlerstellun.; der deutschen 7erv/altun£\ 

3} uiiparteliische ^oLChverstaendi^t;, die 4} die "'epk:o beraten. 
5-6] Pfaendcr • Jaraxit ien, Internat I unalb KontroJ lt. 
15. "3epterr?ber: Otto ^VKwn fuer unbe^inrten Verzicht auf oassiven 

^.iderstand. ^>treserann haelt das fuer untragbar, "^offt auf f>ald- 

/ 
^in, der am 1^. Seot. mit i:'oincare zu^ia'^^entref fen ^'ill. 

1^. Seotember : "^'Intrevue PqVicare-Haldv/jn in Paris. " Yoeilige Ueber- 
einstirumaniii:" , Gurzon entsetzt ueber -u>aldv«^ins ^mfall. l^'Abernon 
II, 262. Stresemann .gesteht, ^'ass seine '^offnun^ auf ^'ehrenvollen 

Rueckzug" in der ^ra;;e des passiven '^. i^erstands gescheitert ist. 

2t. September 1"23: T^nde des passiven '*.id^>- Standes . (3a/ri?cher 

Protest;, L'ussolini : '*vittoria morale" '^rankreic>^s un^ Italiens, 

Rassegna Italiana, October 1923.^ Poincare ^v.ird^ in ^' rankreich als 
Parlament r^besch] U3s : ^-'oincare a bien ner:te de la ^^atrie'' 
LV'eiter Richelieu gefeiert ,y erklaert aber in seinem* Liscours 'La 

politique francaise** ; •• "^^ous sommes loin d*en avoir fini avec les 

•* 

diff iculties" . Times: Pyrrussieg (2". "^ept,}. 

Kahr verhaen^t Ausnahmezustand ueber Bayern (;./'). ^e,>t,v 

2^ . 3ept, Ausnahmezustand im ^janzen "'eich, 

25, Gept. lUtler politischer Leiter des "T:ampn)undes^* ( Oberland, 



1 



•."4t 






m 






iveichsfla;;-e, ^^a2] . 



V 



.^0. September: "Rheinischer Tag" der Separatisten in Luesaeldorf . 



*. ., 



Polizei zersprengt cien 



seiaratietischen TTnaucbevor die fransoJ///A 



\ 



V 



Besatzung ein^jreifen kann. 

1. Oktober: Putsch-versuch "Ruchruckers in-Kuestrin. Offizielle 
""eldung bezeichnet ihn als " j^ationalbolschevrist isch" . 
7^. Oktober R'iecktritt ^treser.anns. Lveites ( Kampf- ^Kabinett 
Stresenann. Opposition 6eT Cozialdenokrat ie v;eten des 7or- 
^^ehens r!er ^^eichsret:ierune gejen Sachsen (Zei^jner; und Thae- 



. ( 



22 • 



11. 



rin-,en bei j;leichzeiticer Schv-aeche gegen -^ayernj 
15. Oktober: Rentenbank. r?eginn der »^tabili^ierangsakt ion. 
21. Oktober Proklanation der ''Rheinischen ^epublik'» in Aachen, 

General v. L0330V; v-ersagt den ''chorGarn^and v.ird von ilanr vorciSiijf^ 
Ingusche Tnt erv^ention ^ejen -eparatisrus . 

Ende Oktober erklaert Poincare seine Lustinnun^ unter Voroehalten 

zu einen Vorschlag Cooli^ges, ^^er ar 1^:. August den alten 7or- 

schlag von Hughes v'ieder aufgenonroen hatte. '^.lA gehen auf die 

franzoesischen Vorbehalte nicht ein. 

2. rovenber l'^?:i3: ICnde der grossen Toalitlon. 

^. Xovenber: -litlerput seh 
23. ^'ov. Sturz des Rumpfkabinetts Stresemann. 
30. ■'^ovember- -^arx --eichskanzler. 
l"», ■»^overj'ber. Botschafterkonferenz in ^'aris beraet uebtr Rueck- 

kehr cU-s I^ronprini^en und V i ed er a'if nähre der M] itaerkontrolle. 

1 

/ 

Frankreich isoliert. 
12, Dezember: lii&it^VA^^A.^^T:jiLxSiiX.C^^^ 

Xjol^xjslIääX ^achverstaenigenkonferenz in Washington, ( der i^Vank- 

arrj 13. Xov. zuscstinmit hat^e^. 
7anuar l'^24: I^^acdonal^ Preruerninister . 

Fai 1^24. "iederla^e Töincares und des nationalen Blocks bei den 



r.anmerV'-ahlen. r)ie3e .^In^en n? cht ur^ die Aussenpolitik, sondern 
uir die von Poincare geplante :.rhoehun.j der direkten steuern. 
Sie bringen aber die Gegner von Poncares r.uhrpolitik ans Ruder, 
aehnlich rie ^ev V.ahlsiec der Republikanischen -artei in Üs^ ^ 
im rove..ber l'^l^ der unpopulaeren i'axbill un-' nicht der Opposi- 



zu 



"„i^lfev^^i: 



« tt MBm.Vr „»:. i ■ f I ■ -^ 



■r 



j 



^ 



des ane-iicanischen /oltces gep:en ^.iisons •Tiegspolit iic zu dariKe)} 
v/ar. Das }:rgebnis v.'ar in beiden ^aellen eine ochv.enkung der 

Aussenpolitik, die bei den ^^ahlen car nicht Lur "^ebatte stand/ 
24. , ' > 



i[rr> April 1124 hatte die Repko unter LuGtirrnune Poincare 



G 



die von den Sxyerten gÄljöxÄÄXiJE in ^«ashinejton einstimmig ge- 



• *k 



fasste esölution akzeptiert, die die fiskalische und virt- 

schaftliche Einheit des "'eichs forderte. Poincare bil]/o^* 

/ 

"sans proriettre l'evacuation de la Ruhr que personne, d'ailleu^ 

ne nous denandait plus'V Ilecit- historique p. 226, 

5. Au just l'^Z^ . Zusar^nenkunft ^'erriot, 3tresemann, -»-arx, 
'^"^acdonald in London. 

1. Oktober 1^24: lunde der Ruhrbesetzung. 



Stresenann vor der Kan::lerschaft 

7. -»"aerz 1923, Reichstag: TTein rjerede ueber Verhandlungen, ••^"'oetig is^ 

MV 

vielmehr, ^asof 'urch einst imijen ..idrrstand j'rankreich 

ii^'ingen, seinen 'widerstand c^^^"^ ^^i^ internationalen '/e/- 
handlungen aufzugeben," 

17. April r3, Reichstag: "Deutschlands Leistun;sfaehigkeit und ^^redit 

nuGs der xvuscangspunkt fuer die Lntscheidung der Repara- 
tionsfragen sein... ^anz entschieden russ ich mich aber 

dagegen y'^eiv^en^renn hrute '^ie deutsche ^eitung erklaert 
•■.. ir V. ollen nicht zahlen'". 














1 




Locarno . 



\ 



Die von Tacdonald uni Herriot seit 3orrrer 1^)24 betriebene Yorbereitun^ 

33 aenfer i^rotokolls rächte der Heichsregierang scbvere yorge. Sie sachte 
aher ein I'^ittel, un den Zusannenschluss ße^^n einen eventuellen Friedens- 

stoc.rer,Vyie ihn Kacdönald und Herriot beabsichtigten, durch ein harmloserei 

j^eLcptjPade in ^"err!any, zu ersetzen/ hierbei V-ar ihr der britiaclB Botscha//^ 

Lord LMbernon behilflich. Seit 0]<tober 1024 hatte D^Abernon haeufi^ie -^e- 

' s^jrechungen rit '"^nt erstaatssekretaer von Schubert ueber einen Sicherheits- 

« 

^akt,der keine bedrohliche 3^;itze c^S^n r'eutschland trug. ( !:/( ^^becnon III, 
124 und 152 y 3ie nannten diesen Plan ihr ''lUnd*' , '^re^ardini; it more or less 
as a Joint production anr^ vatching over its earl/ life v'ith quasi-parent iau 



care. 



ff 



Lie ^Tachricht , dass las ^^-abinett :^aldv'in und dessen rwus::enriini3t er Aust^ 
Charrberlain '5a3 Genfer -f^rotokoll ablehnen v.'uerden-, brachte der Reichsregie-» 
run£; nur fuer ^eni^je Ta^e Beruhi^^ung. Denn üie erfahr sehr bald,':^as3 Chan- 

berlain beabsichtigte, '^as ^"^enfer ^^rotokol durch einen en^jüsche-franzoe- 
sischjM-belaischen -.*akt zu ersetzen, r!er fuer Deutschland noch unangenehme/ 
var. •'Soon after Austen^s return to London ( von der Ratssitzung in Rom, 



Anfang ^ezember 1'^?*} he and his collea^ues v ere cor^ing to the conclusion 
..^ that the Protocol nust be d iscarded • but the only Substitute v.hich they col 
think of to put in its place v'as the defensive alliance v'ith 7rance^'» Petrtf 




/ 



Life an^ letters of Austen Chanberlain 11,254. ITierfuer trat das ^rreign 
Office s^schlossen ein. Die oeffentliche i-'-einung i:n;_:lands v;ar in ihrer J^Tehr ' 
heit einer solchen 'Verpflichtung abgeneigt. a.a.O. 

Gtresenann hat inj£5C einen Interviev' der '^^'oelnischen Leitung an 13.^"ae^ 
1?25 er:<laert, dass die "^rohen^e T^ventualitaet :'.es Abschlusses eines Dret'*' 

erpaktes ge|j;en ^Deutschland" 'Ue Reich3rer;ierung veranlaast hal'e,nit den 

.\ ' • - 

Vorschlag eines gegenseitigen oicherheitspaktes hervorzutreten. 



/ 



v 



\ 



r 

/ 



\ 



\. 



J 




mmimmiimmmHmmmmim 




Streserrianns A'iffassung -^er Situation geht aus folsen-ien Aeusserungen her* 
vor: . 

Am 7. •^aera 1925 erklaerte er in einer -t'rr asekonferens,, der Voelkerbu«/7 
haettegev/isse Besohluesse gefasst, "die sich auf va^e Artikel des "ersaiC^ 

» 

1er Vertrages stuet^ien, in bezug auf ''ie Abtrennung der demilitarisierten 
2one. Die groesote 'lefahr lag i.arin.denn dahinter starv^en '.'ie alt vertrau- 
ten Gestalten, die Ideen einer :''eatralisierung -^eo r.heinlandes nit allere, 
ras das innen.-und aussenpolitisch fuer uns bedeuten konnte. 3ass diese ^r^^ 
ge aufgeworfen Vv^uer-le in ein&r\ Augenblick,^f"o andere grosse aussenpolitisi^t- 
Entscheidungen in EnglManl vorla'::en,narientlich bei . einer Regierung, die 
veif nehr entent istisch ^■3.fnn\ nehr eingestellt var auf das Lusannenjehe)% 
rit ^ra kreich al«? '•'1^. vorige, lag auf -'er ITand." Vernaechtnis II, •'*'^. 






xigli sehen Sotscha/- 



2 



"V. ir eroerteAen ^.unaechst private I/dskucsionen mit den e, 
ter.ob n'cht 'He IToeglichkeit v;aere,zvei Laendcr von einer Gchvieri^keit 
herunter;;ubrinjen,die ihnen als ochv ierigkeit erschien, ur dm deutschen 
"uenschen in der Besatsungsf rage entg^gen^ukonnen. I/ie Schv-ierigkeii fuer 
England var,dass es von ^er CJen'-er Politik abkommen vollte und eine andere 
-Befriedigung ""er -fransors Ischen -uensche gern sah." II, ''7. 6o kam es ::u 
"dieser" sich Hineinschieben in Ue internationalen /erhandlungen" . II, :'C. 

^ In einem" anonyifen Artikel, der am 10. April l-^T.o in Hamburger Tremdenblatt 
erschien sagt Otresemann: ^ 

":[jer Uebergang der Regierung aus den "aenden der -abor Party in riie Ilae^- 
de -^er ^nionist ischen Regierung Vvar un::^ eifelhaf t eine Verschlechterung un* 

«ere^- 'a.e. Ohamberlain var nicht unsfr -^'reund geine ersetx; Taten bcst^^- 

den... in einem Versuch ^er V.ie^'^reu-Prichtung '^.c.r alten Lntente durch ein 
Erei--aechte-2uendnis Lngland,5'rankre Ich, Belgien gegen i'Futscloland , . ,. um. 
•Frankreich ^uer -Ue Ablehnun^ ^'es Genfer Protoljs... ^u versoehnen. Lde 



oit aation Var ^i 



phal..... ''^'^r\i\ ir^en/;twas unve 



»rstaendlich ist, so. ist es die Aufregung ein 



Teils "ler 'deutschen fresse ueber -^iese Lrklaer 



ung (die Ost grenze nur auf f^" 






'*■« 




n:: 



I 



fe 




/ 



IxcheTTi V. ege aendern zu v.'oiien). Denn einen derartigen ^'antjel an Liplomati^^ 



/ 



eine aneri'<ani3cTnf Anleihe ::u cr'^'^lten. 



r 



ii 



i v'ird man hoffentlich ^er ^.eut sehen Aussenjolit ik nicht zutrauen, r^ass sie 

etwa eine mit kriegerischen rittein anLU3trebr.n^e A-n^erunr ^^er Ost^ren^^e 
/ 
/ der ZLntente notifiziert haette.'' rj ni 

I 

Xir? 2.eine pich,da?5S !=!ae^^tliche otaatf^naener der Entente der deutschen 
Au3r3en;)ülitik ^.och zutrauten, so undi^jlonatisch \r0rfahren lu v;o11 en,V'enn 

sie ei?>e Tr ie^'erigche Auseinanderset::.une; fuer noejjlich hielt. 

/ 
Ausser :^'Ahernon hat- kein enj;li^chnr ,a'ioh kein franzoesiccher 

Politiker, da?^ ^p.nt^^nhe Angebot als '^en ^ersuch, ein en^;! inchCfrani.oe3i- |j 

s-ches ZusaniTienhehen auch uiri einen hohen ^reis zu verhind.em, erkannt . 

Sic glaubten ent^e'^.er, Strerenanii sei rirlclich von -^er ''euen Geist erfasst/ 

oder 3ie na^i^en an, Deutschland sei au einer Versohn'.rnijsakt Ion t.ei,' in^en,ara J 



I 



\> 



i , 



/ 



7"^ 



/ 



/ 



Line etr^n a'b^'eichen^e rjarsteilun^j , rlie nur inx einen Eebenpunict -anrich- 
tie infor^^iert, ^a'o der ratin am 1~5. l'&evz 1925: 



t 

a 



"Le TTjinistre 'les Affaires litraneeres "'ritanniques avait ^ronis 
Y\ Herriot,lors de sÄ premier^ entretien avec ce dernier CiUe si le 
^)rotocole etait rejete, il aurait quelque chose a lui proposer en rem- 
jlacerent, Sette propof?ition, I'. Chanberlain qui est un veritable ani 
de notre pa/s, le troava ^an3 1* Idee rere du paiste de securite de 1319 
dont la non-ratification a ete la cause -'e toutes lös inqnietudes fran- 
caises jusqu'a ce jour. Je l'« fevrier '^ernier,^. Chitnberlain, ^^ans un 
r'?enoran'1un,exposa ce ^oint de vue au cabinet et proposa le renouvellenent 

'^e l'entente baeee gur une Garantie britannique ^.es frontieres francaises» 
■"•al^'/in un^ f^ie ^'^ehrheit des Tvabinetts seien fuer diesen Vorschlac ^eve- 
sen, aber Churchill und Arery haetten ihn be^^aer.pft ,un-' rlanach vaere 
Gurzon ebenfalls in -^ie Opposition getreten. ;in G. un^l 7. Maerz sei Cham- 
berlain in Paris teresen und habe seine "iederlaje eingestanden, ohne 



'..is?en ^es "*abinet ts, aber in ::inverstaendnis nit Lloyd -fearfoe habe I,urd 
L-'Abernon die l^eichsrejierunij jedraenjt, ^er franzoPsicni-'-ent;li3chje»-bel- 
gischen Pakt-j.'roje'ct ein ?aroli r.u biet.ep. 

Diese Darstellung wirft zv-'ei britische •'»■abinettsberatungen zusanraen 
und gibt ein unrichtiges ]^ild von der "'altunt Churchil/s und /o^erys (und 
Lord 3irkenheads-der die gleiche Position einnahm]. An lo. :^ebruar v-ar 










hanberlain bereits bekehrt und setzte sich fuer das deutsche -^'rojekt ein. 
h|(i*hhill,Anery un'' Pi'-'<enhead -^.aje^en be^u erkort eten die Lrneuerung der 
aarantie von 1^19. [ Ihre Opposition Tf'ar nicht von Dauer, und Churchill 
hat noch 1929 in the After-r^ath Tocarno -ebilliet . ) -Das's "i-ie frani,oesische 



•^resse 



Lord D' 'vbernons Rolle starke unterstrich und Hen deutschen '/orschlae 






als -otresenann-^'Abernon-renoran'^un'' bezeichnete, ist von '^iesen selbst ohne 

".id<^.r3pruch 111,151, notiert worden. 

Gestehen bleibt die Tatsache, -'as un ne .Vnreswen-e 1924/5 das britisch«^ 




/ 



4 

i^abinett keine» an-'.ere loer^nnz -^.es 3icherhelts.)roblens sah als in der 

nacht rae^^li che n lirneueruns des ^^arantiepaktes von 1"'10, aber |er. T.ider- 



/ 



Gref':en- 



/ 3tan-' def oeff entlichen i-elnung faerchtete. 
/ Inzwischen ^zte D'Abernon seine Bernehnn^en an ein deutBChes 

' oroiekt fort. :.r notiert an 11. ^ebriar: "To-^ay I '^iscussed the question 

-tat •^ • ' ^ 

of secur.ity v-ith oChuhert. Hn ajjearf?' inclined toforrulate sjore proposal)f 
alons the Cuno lines, eli-iinatini: fron that nro^osal th^ vor^^s rc^arding a 
. olehiscite.an-^ a^Minc to it an encac<^nent that all ouestions vhich cannot 
be arran^ed diplo-atically betveen the To^v rs sijninj the .lact shoald be 
s'ibnitted to arbitration.either to Tho ITajue or t -one other trib^^nal... 
Schubert ^ore^ared to enter into an en^acenent to respect the te-ritorial 

* 

pocser^sions of all countries intfrer-ted in the r.hine.but decllned to do 
so as re^ards the Polish fronniers. I pointed out that it riju create a \ 
bad iHDression \.f -ernany spec^.fically e:ccluded the ^olish frontier fron 






\ 



rjfiSL such a c'^^i'ö.nt ee,'' I 

krr^ iS.Tanuar n^:5 v'ur^.e ^as ^^a^inett Luther^^tresemann unter -^eteil ijung. 
^er -futsch.-ationalen jehiL^et. Ar^ 20. .^anuar s^Td Luther seine ^^ejicrungs- 






erklaerun: vor den Jei:;hr,tac ab. L'Abernon be-erkt an P,l. Januar, das 
a'issemolitische ^ro-rann -ieser techtsrecierung habe viele uebrrrascht 



H 



H' 



Tv|p 'Tp-betra^chuns vaerde aber noch viel' tjroesser 



sein, "did the p'xblio 'Cnor the content o-^" the nenorandun ?act of Ilutual . 
Securitv rhich I for^ar^ed to London last ni-ht. In readiness to neet Allie 
denands in the natter o^ 3ecurity,an' In ceneral conciliatoriness of tone, 
this. docunent dioes far beyon^ anything rhich the public of aernany expect. 

It is to be noted particularly that the i'^ea üf brincins ^erica in as a 
•i'reuhaen-ler' or as i'ru3tee ^'hich I have alvays thoujht rather inpractical, 
is not state^ a3 an essential con^ition. -^he rernan .overni- 

to ne^ociate 3ecurity on jcany reasonable oasig. .n ny , ^ ^^^^ 

se orooosals nade. are inne^iately practical or not,it 13 inportänt 








■4. 



I 



then on record of ficiall/,and to base discussion upon them. They const- 
itüte an irrimense step forTard in the r^irectlon of pac.lf ication.« . 
Am 25. -"ebruar ber'er'<f D' Abernon, ^ass nur der ::ani,l«-r luther und r^as 

k 

/ Aur,waertije Ant Kenntnis von den Menorandurn haben, nicht -Ue uebrieen 

Kinister. ' - 

I;\\bernon rechnete :^.anit,^a3B '^.er ^.eutsche 7orr.chlai: rletn tritische« 
T^abinett als willkommener Auf^^er aus ^er ^chrierdjkei t erscheinen v/uef- 
^e. Aber ^ie ^'eichsre-ierunc bejin^j den Dehler, von Austen Gharrberlai)? 
2U Yerlaneen,-'aBS erx Me Verhan.^lmjen vor Paris jeheim halten solle 

.Metrie II,?.55. *"^he result vas that A'inten at first sav; nothing in 
' * a 

the jrojositions but aomerhat clunsy C-ernan atterpt to drive ü vedge 

betreen ^reat 3ritain and ^rance. AccorrUngly ,vhen the aernan .j'ibassad- 
or Lr. rnhaner came to r,ee hin on Tanuary 3oth, Austen said that he"couV 
not receive any con^i'^ential conr-unicat ionii fron the ^ernan -rovernnent 
on the footins that I vas not at libcrty to nention ther to our ?rench 
Allie-^. Any appearance of ne:otiations betreen ^ernany and this country 
behind the back of Trance rnl/' arouse s^picion and ^lestroy any influen- 
c.e ^hich the british Tovernnent ni^ht have vith the --overnrent of ?ranc^. 



Bis SU -Hesen 



1 'fa:;e ahnte atresenann nicht, reiche 



en Plunder er z^' 



nacht hatte. Zr aeusserte zu D'Abernon steiren^e TTn^eduld ueber das Au^ 
bl'eibon jeder Antrort von :hanberlain. An ?1. zeigt otresenanh grosse 
Lnttaeuschung ieber othaners -ericht un^^ rill das Projekt ganz zt^rueck- 
ziehen. Solche Absichten aeusserte er oefter tu D* Abernon,und es dauert^ 



eini;?e -odt.bis D'Abernon das als ^luff erkannte, ^unaechst rar er er 



ns^ 



lieh beunruhigt. :3tresenann koeene ' ^^as Projekt TirXüch zurueckzlehen • 

xix^*3o' Dass die j^eichsregierung al.es Interesse hatte, die /rrhandlur^ 

in Gang zu bringen, zeijte^'ie Auseinandersetzung iuthers nit "erriot, 

.ie an gleichen ^age stattfand,an .^en Stresenann gegenueber D'Abernon 



nit der Zurueckziehung ^es Projekts drohte. 



I 



\^ 



i 



I 



71 21 . Januar sprach Herriot in der Leputierteri'^anmer . i^v hatte utreits davth 
jhanberlain Kenntnis von ''en deutschen ^-^enorandun erhalten, erv'aehnte^ner 

nichts davon,, iah sich vielmehr den Anschein, noch nit der Realisierung des 

^ Genfer Prö:<ol/3 zu rechnen. ''Janais il n'a ete rieux entendu de ^art et d*au- 

tre qae la paix generale ne saurait sVinBtituer en »-^ehors de l^accord de la 

/ France et de la 3rande ^reta^ne. i:t je r^r rejouis que r. Char^herlain ait 3w 

/ bien voulu convenir avec noi que des instructions s€raient r'onn^ aux repre'' 

sentants des -^eux pays a-^in que, reserve . ^ait e des intern. ^ts par t iculiers, 

ils vAin3ent agir en co^nun sur tous les points.... La Trance^a accepte le 

rejine 'lu Rhin qu^ i-n 'considerat ions ''.e ces pacts de ^aranties. G'est l'evi- 

erste 

dence.^ . Herriot verteidijt "»ann ^.en "'eschluss ^^er ^llil ertenmdie Rheinland* 
Zone nicht lu '^.m vorgesehenen Ternin 'iC^anuar l'^^:5' £.u raeunen,'^a die 
Abruestuneishedincunjen von ^eutschlan^^ nicht erfuellt ^' or^^en sind und -^ie 

"Nationalisten, :iindÄrnhur^,der Kronprinz usv. . Ohe-hanr' re^^innen. In Lrmanglu^J 
-^er uarantiepakte,die l''l'> n-cht ratifiziert v-or^en sind, sei die Kheinland- 

besetznng, Frankreichs letzte :Uche-hei tsmassreirel. Auf Herriot antwortet 

30. "anuar 1025 I.eicMskanzler Luther hein Ilnpfarit: der .Vaslan^'spresse: 

"Der fransoesische Minister^raesident hat seine janze Politik vürtitster^ 
zusa^'^^enTefacst in Mc drei T.orte: Gc'iieds^ericht, Gicherheit .AT^ruestung. 
Lieses Proc^ann 'rann ich f ler -e-itfjchland akzeptieren. Die Reichsre^jierun^ 
ist bereit, sich dafuer einzusetzen, -'a-'s -^'"rr 3c--iedsjerichtsjedanke, dessen 
/ervirklichun3s vielleicht -^.ee vertvollGten Teil der Iün<3oner V'ereinharunce V 
iarstellt, i'n internationalen Lehen i'"T'i'=:r allijeneiner zur Geltung könnt . i-ft» 
Minsichtlich der Abruestung hat sie eine ^eraltice Torleiatunfc, bev^irkt und 
kann nur hoffen, ^ass 'er i^^ 7ersailler Vertra^: anöe^ebene -"rund fuer diese 
Vorleistung, '^ie allc^eneine Abruestung, baT in die Tat "^-'^^^''^^^^J^^f 41^6 
LS lie::t auf der "an'1,^aPS ^as von stark -eruesteten *"achbarn un^e^ene Leut)/^- 
land -^as 3e^uerfnis nach 3icherheit selbst sr.ark en^^fin'let. Die r.eichsre£ie- 
ruAg .teht deshalb den 3icherhei tsce >nken nicht nur swathisch ce^enueber, 



7 



sondern hat an seiner YerTrir-^l ic 'rane anch pin reales Interesne. Im Grunde 
kon :retisiert sich in '^ieser? 7erlancen nach Sicherheit' '^as "^eduerfnis, '^ffif 
v;irtsGhaftlichen Vf^rstaendijanG von ^o^^^on nunnehr auch eine ^r m'^^uetzll,^ 
che Auseinani' rsetnun^; aeher -^.ie noch offenen politischen Prohlene fül- 
len zu lassen. I;ie 3icherhpit?ifraee ist der Tern 'Ueser politischen Pro- 
l)lerie.' So^bal-^ ^Mer '^i-^ 35.cherheitsfrai:e eine loes-ang ^efunrien ist,erijibt 
sich somit ^ie Loesune der meisten uebrie;en ^rajen nahez.u von seihst. 



^. e nn 



so,^^ie es ^en \n5«h6in hat,'Ue politischen V.uensche^ ;uWeier Laender 



von -^e/ cleichen Tendern: jetra^en ^er-^^n, sollte es,n^:;. , auch noe.-lich 



sein, M es e T.nen^che zn ver'i^'irVl icher. *• 

Die ■r.^ichsre;^i^'run:: schickte sich al^o an, sich 



zun Vorkaemjfer 






des uicherheits^erlanlcens au^;i:av.'erf en,^'ie sie den Vorkaerpfer '\e^ ^elhsf 

j 

hestirmun/js^-^hts un^"' •''es Ahrues.tunjsc^-^anVr-ns spielte, 
ehjuar 1^25; Chanherlain an D' Ahernon;' *' These ot^ertnres ^ere prenaLure 
and that the moment ^'as not opportune for their saccessful prosecution." 
• Petrie II.'^S'j. Zr hahe .ithaner empfohlen, ''a? ""emorandum r^em Voellcer- 
hun-' zu unterhreinen. 3tre3e"?ann un^ lut^ie^- ^in"" entsetzt. Luther haelt 
CharrlDerlain fuer so anti^eutrich, ^'ass keine Zusan.-nenarheit noe£;lich ist. 
rir^-bernon :..7ehr. "In r.y -ricv it "^-ar, a jreat r^igtake not to have res.^on-» 



de^ to 



«. v 



; ' ej 



a'vance at once in an encouracinr sense.". In diesem 3inne 



■ tel*~ra^jhiert er nach Ton''on. L.r her^erkt veiter,! cnr?on sei ar£;v>-oehnisch. 
" It is held that a ^iscussion on the pjaestion of a ?act of ::utual Securi- 
ty cannot be agefully entcred into until the attitude o';^reat ^ritain 
to the qiestion o' Jrench secnj^ity is ^efined. I hcye this does not nean 
that the Bilateral Pact , juaranteein^ both ^rance r,.n^. ;lernany,is ^oin^ to 
he coldshouldered in favor o^ an An^lo-'^rench ani anti-"erTran a^reenent. 

ouch a result woal«^ oe -^eplorahle/' 

Februar: -.'Abernon: "I have nnr- aacertaine^. that the -criran pro:>03al for 

reci^rocal security is not in any ^ay de^endent upon 



4\ 



v-l 



tiie evacuati 



Vn 



\ 



y^ 



'3 



of the rhole of the occupie'l territory. This ou.-'hli' 
to hel^-) thinfjB forrard in T.onr?3n." 
'^. ^eT^fuar: ^'Abernon: "There is another conrlition necessary to succe.s, 

nanely to aban^^on th^vier t>.at Gerr-anB are such con-erJ>r 
tal liars that there :.3 no ^^ractical a^vanta-e in obtain^ 
in„ fror then any en-a^-enent or ^eclaration. c^n this uss- 
anption pro^regs I3 inn.o^sible. Pergonally, I retard the 
CJer^ans a<^ more reli-able an' nore hound to^ritten en--«- 
Senents than r^any other nations." 
Arr -leicher; ^are ^^eberreiäht ^oesch <1as -^enoran^^-^r. ^rerriot. -3 ist nur 



In ^e>^ Linie! tu 



ng v^rRCiier^en von -^en an Lnjlam' ueber 



/ 



eoenen 



«I 



Ln G^nsl-^erant les ^.i-f* "^erent 



es :)0S3 



LI'. 



/ 



"'tes nui sn 



/ 



36 presentent 



actuellenent en favaur \ 



m rej;lerient -'e la cuestion r!e 



la 



/ 



/ 



j=;ecurite l'#n 



pourrait ^ in-^pirer ^')me i-iee analoc^e a oelle -qui a f 



it !• ob.iet '^ 



f / 

proposition fornulee,en -^ecenbre \"^2?^ 



e la 



14 V 



::a 



|i/. : 



unojGhanoelier 'u Reich 



a 



cette epoque. I\^ll e?>^a^iie jourrait 



pa"' exenple (Xonix^r 3 



on aihesion h vm 



pacte par lequel leg jui^^ance 



s interessees au Rhin, nfta'^r'^ent I/Ancleter 



re,la ^rance, ritalie e^ IMllenajne s' en^aceraient solennellenent et He 



vant le C'^'^v-e" nr^ent r^^.9> Ltat^-^T 



ang.:Tnrs pour un-' pericie proloneee et cui ser^U 



r 



encore a ^et err^^'ner , a ne point faire la juerre Vanr contre 1 
Avec un teT pacte,un traite '^/arl:)itr 



nutre 



aije etenr^u entre I'Allena 'ne e-t l 



a 



/ / 



France pourralt se comb^ner,tel quxMi a ete conclu au cours d 



annees entre r^ifferentes pui<=53ances eur 



es dernier 



^ 



a conclure a/ec toutes les autre?^ pu 
e<5,qui Garant iraient un^ decisi 



opeennes. I/Allenajne est dispose< 



!^3ances ^e pareils traites d'arbitr^'-' 



">n paisible aux conflits juridicues et -lo- 
litiques. . ^ . 

I> autre part ,1/ Allena;ne eotirerait conr^e acceptable un pacte qui 
garantirait f ornellenent le ntata quo territorial actuel snr le Rhin. :Tn 
tel pacte pourrait etre conclu en ces terires que les I-^tats Interesses au 




/ 



9 



Rhin f3^* enja^eraient reciproquenent a observer rigoureusenent le statu 

m 

2110 territorial sar le P.hin et nu'ils 3e £arantira.ient,non senlerient coM'- 
Jointenent,rais aussi fout Ltat se^arerent, 1' oliser'vation de oet eneaeenei^J^ 



; 



/ 



et qu' lis consi'^eraient tout acte ''ero£;at6±re a, cri^ eiv'ac'enent conme une 

carise conmuneiet conr-ie le-.ir propre cause. 

^ ff 

Dans le nene orrjre -'.' i'Tees,lr s Ltats contractants ^jourraient ^aran^ 

tir r'ans ce pacte l'execution -^e 1* oblic-atlon visant l^f '■lenilitarisat ion 
des territ'ures rhenanes,a laquelle :^,' All ena.:;ne s'est' encageej'^ans les 
articles 42 et 43 du traite ^e Yersailles, A 'in tel ->acte pourraient ega- 
lement etre jointes ces Conventions d' arhitrajel du ijenre surrentionne x 
entre I' Allera.'ne et tous les Zitats qui seraient prets, eu/ u-issi, a con- 
clure '-^e telles Conventions. 

Aux exenples nention^ies on pourrait ajouter encore lautres Dossibil 
^ / f^ ' 

tes de rcsouHre cette quegtion. "e inene,il sorait posaible Je conbiner 

V ' ß f f 

de rranierc et d'autre les id.ees 3ur lesquelles ont ete fon-^es ces exemle^ 

Cn rievra exaniner,en outre,s*il ne serait jas a reconrran.-^er "^e fornuler 

/ / k / 

le pacte 'e securite -'e teile rrianiere ou' il prejarerait ime Convention 

i 
noniiale conprenant toM^ Ic^s :.tats ^ans le r^vcr^ ^u protocole )our le 

^ • • / / f 

reilenent pacifique '^es differents internat ionauz etabli par la 3ociete -.'#5 

•'•ations, 'e gorte qu' il serait absorbe par unc teile convention'non''iale 

f / 

ou incorpore a celle-ci '^ans le cas ou cette Convention neraii: realisee." 

Das "^emorandura rar "ein I'aboratoriunspro'^ulct ,an '^en viel herungedukton 
v'orrl.en war.»' V.olf von r)ewall,Der I<;anpf un den i>ie'len,:^. ]^2 . Zj^t 

^Pferdefuss, die Verv'ei^-eriing der Anerkennunc des Status quo in Osten v'ar^ 

• . • • ■ * 

jesc^%ckt ver'bor'2;en. 

Tnzv'i-chen ^ar es DWbernon ^elun^en, Chan'oerlain zu einer s^^^^^tijef? 
Beurteilung des deutschen Vorschlags zu be^er^n. An IC. Februar schreibt 

V 

3hanb riain an Lord ^rev'e, , '^otschaftt r in ^aris: "^.hat anazin^s people 
thesf^ sare ^ernans arej "^irst they hand a copy of their secret nenorandu^tj 



V 



■ t 



'MM«A 



t^ 



erve? As to the r^enoran^urp Itself an^ the spirit, 'v^hlch It Hif^closes,! 

the 
ink that they are non 



t h^loful ^irn t^at I have yet «leei 



• • • 



I ar? firnl 



/ 



con7in 



CQ'-^ that the true line o-^ oro;';ress i?? to proce. r! fror the ^articu- 



lar to the nerieral,an^ not,a?5 Xk ha? hitherto been enbocHed in Covenant 



an 



-^ --^rotocol, to rever^^^e the :)roce?53 an^ atterot to eli>.!nate the oarti- 



cular hy the {-eneral, A forn of fruarantee v'hioh i^ so j;eneral that v'e 
undertake exactly the f5a-e ohllf^at Ions, in -»ef ense, <^hall T s-ay of the 
Poli-^-h Corri^^or ' f or v^hich no "british '^rovernr^ent ever v^iii or ever can 



rl^k th^ hones of a 



-^ritigh ■'^rena^ier' as ^-e extend to thone Internat ion 



al arran-enents or con^^itions on r^tGh,as our hi^^tory shoV's,our national 



I 
exiBtence -^eoen^^B, i*^ a 'jua'i^ant^e «»'■> ^'\^e 



-^ reneral that !t carr^e«? no 



oonviction v^hatev^r an^ '•ive«^ no 



erne-^ in our action. If then•Wf^ a 



ren^e of f^ecnrity to those v-ho are con- 
ire to reli^'ve the tenf^ion of 'Jirope in 



the only v/ay in 



v 



ich it can be done,narei^, by relieving ?rench fear,a 



nore jarticular and s^ec 



no 



t sure that in l?l?,jf 



ified e:^arantec ir> in n/ opirion necepcary. I ar- 
■:ven a lUtle lat er, L'uiaic o^inion v:ould have 



been pre^areJ uo adnit the si:;na 



ture of lerr.anyjso -lately und so fla^^rant^ 



ly Üsl-ionored, to any pac 



t of that character^but I ein: .Us^osed to think 



that in the circunstances o 



.0 



f •''rancc an^ el^^iurr; by Great -^ritam v;'oui 



to-day a guaruntee of iht Lastern frontiers 

v;'oul^ be r endered a ruoh more prac-- 



tical policy 



^ ^ 



rernany ^'a3 associaten 



"i "»' 



ith it. ^or this reason I a 



ttach 



iT^rrense importance tc this riove on the part o^ 



.«. o 



e lAiT.'ner t» 



TO^f 



ett^^' 



e^^ 



±1 
.. .More particularly becanse Streserann intinated to I/Abernon that a 

sinilar local arraneement ni^jht be possible vith the Pov-ers on the 
Lastern frontiers of Hernany.and T3eca:ise,as I have ascertained throu^ 
priVate correspondins ^ith D'Al^ernon, the Gernun Gover/iment ^Ud not 
make their' uroposal conditional on the shortenin^ of the 15 years 
perioci or the Allierl occuyation of Gerr:an territory .\Petrie TI,;:5G- 



6C. D\'ibernon erhielt eine Topie dieses --rief es • 



20. ?e'bruar: afevriot antvortet au 



f c'.as • deutsche "'^enorandun 



»♦ 



'e :ouvernrerit francais a ejca'^ine 



le rerorandur qai lui a 



/ / 
ete 



r eni i s 



/ 

le fevrie 



-» "1 



ja 



r Ics soins de son ^^^cej^i 



eiice I^i^ibassade^r crAl 



/ \ 



le^a :ne, avec 



riterefe et avec 1ä vo 



lonte '"^e ne rien ne^. 



li 'er de ce o^u 



^ 



eut contri'oue 



a 1 



a ja 



ix de ITyiro^e e 



t ^"^u ronde. T.e i;^ouverneir:er]t 



en 



1 • 



Allenan'^^ conpreniira ''ine ± exa 



t-ÄXiUijCÄ 1. e ■ c e 1 1 e r/ij^eBtion ue peut 



• • 



etre poursuivi rsang ^^u 



e la -^'rance en ait sais 



i ses Allies et se soit 



^ er -^ 



niise 



avec eux d^accord pour parvenir, ^lans 



lans le cadre du raite^ de er 



/ 



sa 



illes, a !• et<|^oli 






er 



ent "'un re^ine de securite 



tl 



-^ • 



-^ebruar 



V» • 



y Xbevnoni "London, happil/i is con-inc 



to reco^niije the va3t 



irportance o 



f t^e v^^err^an proposal... It^ ^s clear 



that v'hile a Gertai/7 



tuarar.tee <-K' "oe er.tered ir.to by ::n.laBft re^.rdinj tt.e;--r..nco-Jerna« 
. .rantier, . simlar Obligation Tor tl:e def.r.se of the rolish corridor 

• Is out o'f question." 






', '. ? t ' ' 



'. «W'j 





1*^ 

•1- *>rf 



23. 



^e^bruar; Ü 



ut' ^-'ax'gerie sagt zu dew italienischen ootschafter in 
T^erliHjBos'^arir "sobal'I 'Ue Sic'nerheitsfra^e ctuftaucht, 
muencte auch '^le canze -^raö'e der Ostrreniien _;ere^elt 
v'erien." GtreseT^ann II, ("i. 
^5.-7. '*aerz: Sesprech-mc Ghanberlain-Herriot in Paris. 

;}.-10. Iv!aers: lesprechun^en D'Xhernon-Lxther-Z^.Tesemnnn- Ochutert. 

Oharnüerlain forde:^ -eutachlanda --intritt in den VoelkcrüKu^ 
16. ^aerz: Le -'arrerie s'i otrese^iarn, ^.er •■elt'a-ie- sei in Beiv-ra'^ ent- 



A 






14 



stan^^en. !^an hefuerchte, "^in^ ein neuer •-eltkrleg •'abcrnals 
s--. inen AasGanespunkt von oiner Konflikt in Osten her nehnen 
"wuer.ie." otregenann bittet -e '^ar^'erie, "er solle nir doch 
einen '^at gelben, "-aB ran eigentlich tun solle, u?'; Polen zu 
beruhigen, -'a er loch einsehe, ^ass eine erntvate Garantie der 
Ostr:ren;:e uinoejlich sei. Der 7 :.t schalt er :iucVte die .^chseln 
un'^ "leinte, er sehe auch ^ceinen Aus"'e£:." Gtrese ann 11,-4. 



?A, T.'aerz: 'Charherlain in Unterhaus. 

Ahlehnun.: ^es' ^pn-^er Proto'kolls. "Te have an interest in the J 

eastern houn^ary of '^rance and -^eljiun v.-'Tichis more direct ,rriore 
vital, an^ to vhrch re are rore closely ^)led-;ed h/ /für si^ned v;ord 
than to the ^^^eral ohli^ation connon to eyery sijnatory of the 

Covenant and mfnher o** the League of -atlons... The need of. secu/- 
rity for i^rance is rreat. Ter rit^ht to ex.oect sonething frow us 



•*'iC* 



in that rcspect is recoi^nized. Cur interest and our duty to con- 
trihute to provide that securlty is recocnized. It is the comn »n 
policy of US all." Bericht ueher Art. 42-44 dfs Versailler Vertrag 
UH'^. ueber das ieutsche i:enorandan. 
Llo/f ^feor^e: '• I am ^orr/ to interrapt the ri;::ht honora^le gentleranibut 
this 13 really so very im^^ortant ,an^ this is t'-ie first time that 
v'e have ha-' any of.^iciel acoount of this sijnificant off er, I sho Hii(f 
like to askjan'I to un-^^rstand that C^rrany is prepared to accept 



voluntarily 



\ 



tvle hoan'^aries in Vne rest,that she '^oer, not f1.enand any reconsi^eratiopi, 
or reyiBion of those boun-^aries? Do I ^mdtratand that she nakes the 
same decl^ration v.-ith reja-'i to the Last,or is that suhject to urbitra- 



this 






tion?" ^ . 

hamberlain: "J:/ ri^^t honnrable fvien^ richtlY -mderatands, that i3,lf I 

ri--htly unterstand, rhat Gernany in pre^-^are^ to do in retard to the tesf. 
... In sutj^estin-: lirbitrat ion to the ::ast,^he does not ;)ropo8e or surf- 
est that the Lastern frontiers shoald bccone the subject of such treat- 
ies of arbitration. 3he is )re,mre^ to saj that she renouncus the i.-'ea 
of recourse to ^■■&v to chun^e the frontiers in the ;.aMt,but sbc is' not 
orepared to sa-/,ih re-ar ^ to those frtfnt " ers, that phr renouneec the hoye- 
sone day of their provision« by friemUy necociation3,by di^lonatic pro- 
cedure,or,it r..:-.y he, f or aujht I knoT,by the eoor* Offices of the T^a£ue 
of *'ations." ... The 'Tnnse,I think,rin agree rith Äin I'ajesty's ■:o7ern' 
nent that this is a sicnal a-^vance that such proposals shoal.i have reach- 
ed US even in a vac'ie fern an-l on her o^n notion frori Jerrrany.' '^v nabe 
auf der Durchreise nach ^enf an 11. ^'arz ilerriot und 3rlarid erklaert, 
' das Genfer Protokoll ablehnen ■;:u nuessen. "^ut I told then,ancl I tbld 
others,that ^e attached the hi-hest Inportance to thesc -crr.an su£-est- 

r 

ions.that vve thou^ht they should be exanined rost, curefully in or^er to 
see vhether they ■^5-' not, in ^act,öpen the '^oor to a ner and better State 
of thin^s.an^' close the door not nerely on actual T^iilitary operations.but^ 



on t 



hat rar-like atnosphere rhich has endure-^ ever since the Peace of 



■/ersailles." 
InzTischen hatte bereits eine en-lische Car^pa-ne ::ur "evision de? Ost- 

rrenze beconnen. Anfang I.Taerz veroef-entlichte Ue Tir^es einen Artikel,- 
der polen nr:.ahnte, freivillic auf ^en Korridor zu .eruichten un^. durch 

eutschland zu versoehnen. Dieser Artikel er- 

iliü,und er rueckte in eeiner Presse-i:rklaer'^J 



solch eine srosoe leste 



schien selbst Stresenann vore 



/ 1 



14 
von ihr? ab,-- vielleicht ,un ihn noch ntaerlcer rirken zu lassen. II, o^» 
• D^Ahernon, '^.er jleichfalls den Korric^or fuer untra^^har h^ielt (unhear^ 
ahle, SO.i-aerz l'^25), notiertam 13 .-^^^aerz, ^.ass Philipp ?Cerr ( spaeter 
Lord Lüthiaa) ßeifL^en den Torri^or und, '^as ^anzi^^er C^tut agitiere. 
3har^berlain hielt in einer? :^rief an D'Ahrrnon (erhalten l'^.^aer::) 
die Ost-Sch^^ieric^eiten fuer ^o^shar, v'enn T^eutBChland in den Voelker- 
hund eintritt. Lr v:ar auch besonders beruhi£t ueber Gtresenanns Er- 
'claeruns: " T.as ^'ir nicht ^oennen,daB Ist eine offiiiielle Garantie -^er 
"^renzen in Osten zu uebernehnen,denn vir nuessen uns ^ie I-:oe£;lichlceit 

vorbehalten, '^ie.sr r^in^^e auf friedlichen ^»e^e zu loesen. ^.ir haben ir- 
genivi'elche lirkla^-rungen, dass v-ir j etzt ^iese Crrenzen c^^^^'"'^^^ v'issen 
vollen, nicht aifre^eben/' Gtreserann 11,6?. IVAbrrnon 2. April 1925. 
2^.^*'aerz: Herriot ir» Senat: 



Zjiri franzoesische t?e£:ierung Icoenne niernals an einen Sicherheits- 

fr 

pakt denken, ^.er nur i*^ ente-^erntesten die Interessen Polens und der an- 
dern befreun'''et'en Ostlaender ai-iÄXÄXxAxJtX antaste, Frankreich sei berei^^y 
den Hauern-^en -^'rieden in Luropa su 'kichern, aber ni^f* unter restloser Achtun/ 

^ev Vrrtrae.^e . 
ZV'ischen ''lerriot un^ Charrbrrlain entsteht eine Leimmcsverschie^jenheit 
acber Üe Proze-^ur. '^erriot vill,riass "'eutschland zuerst in den Voelkerbund 
eintrete und -^ann '^ic Verhandlunjen uehsr 'len ^akt. bej innen, Cthc'imberlain 
b'-trachtet Leutschlan-is J^intritt in ^en Yoelkerbunr^ "not a necesc;ary,prelini- 
nar/,bat an es.^ential con-^ition." An D'Abernon ( rhalten "..v^-ril nrs) 
Lr ^'ill noclicHst venic von Osten sprechen: " .1 'lo not exoect Gerrany in an/ 



circunigtances to renounoe ^ornall/ all hope that tine anr» ri,i^)lor?acy may lead 
to 3ome no^ification o:f th^ arran^erent in t^e Last,but for the nonent I 
thlnk the less that is sai-^ about the last thr better it rm be." a.a.O. 
3elb3t in seinen l'535,nach Hitler -achtantritt veroef ^ntlichten r.rir.nerunce 



Dov;n the "^earsi, :>.ln4 , ''erharrt iharberlain bei seiner Ansicht: " 



It 



t; 



oul<^ 



":2^1i^ 




./«' 



15 



have "been unreasöna-blf to expect 'Ternany to renounce all r^esire for Chance 
in her .^a.tern front lers.as fixe^. V/ the Treaty of Versailles, as -mreasonab]^ 

as it roul*-' ha/e »een,say in 1^75 to expect --rance to rennunce h11 hope that 
Bhe r.i-.:ht nome ^ay recorer her lost provinces." Taeser 7ereleich stinnt nichjt- 
Lenn die franzoe^ische -eci-rnnc hat offiziell -en -rank^n-t. r" ^rie^en nie- 

-leans-r^rrft^or friÄrxÄinßR irrige 



rr 



>. - 



I-eatschlands ^-eyision 



;als an'^er.v'eifelt . i:"benf30 ist 'iie Parallele 
lo. \.pril: ^.turs -'es ^ahinetts Herriot 

l''.\oril: rabinett Painleve nit Brian'^ als lus^cnrinister. 
Itre.emnn i.t ueher ^en ^an^^^er 7erhan<11un:::en sehr befri^-'iet. In ^en ar. 

. ' ■ r 

10. Aoril erschienen A-ti^<el ^cWreibt er: 

X' rr-'^ü-i -,»4-T+ "".ie '■mtente de» Wahres 

"Heute ist Her '^rel '"-aechte-'^akti erledigt -i« 

Be.,t,chland,.,ein. "r.n., i. Osten .. revi,U«cn.rar nicht nur von Ohanber- 
lain.eonaern auch von Sal^.in al» ein^ zu -.oht b.at.heM« anerkannt , ohne 
aase ge^cn •'ie3es "evi^ioneT.c^uer 'ni. -in,.,ruch erholten ';ar.'e." _// /// 

' -> nuin f'Tnt>rhNns Tl.'^'^-rii l?r:4' hatten ;-^'ar 
s^'uenoche nur als " /e: stci.ciiaxica lü^x^^ 
berechtigt aner'.annt; Aher streserann .-urfte sehr .ohl sa,en.:'a.s rtiea. 
.uancen nicht ins -.wicht 'ielen.und 'an. ■'ie englischen Jtaats.aenner 
faktische auch -eutschlan.!, ""echt" .ur '-tvi.ion anerkannt hatten. 

Die T.ahl "inienbur.s .ur Reich3yra..i.'ent en in iai 1925 üefaehr<lete 
die .'aktv..rhanalani;en nur £an=: vorueher^ehend. V<=.ehrend "erriet .ehrest 
hatte.hesann -^riand .'.n ^anfi zu heschle:,ni,en. =r entwarf eine ^nt-^ort 
auf las deutsche "enoran^ur, un-i san«e o'en :.nt.:urf an Oharberlain. Dar- 
neber entspann sich ein laen^erer l.'eimm:saustaU3Ch. "riands l-rtturf Toll- 
te ein .uaa-nenhaencendes 3.steB von 'ertrae^en, 'as faktisch auf einen , 
a„,^a.einen.Ost .ie -est umfassenden Sicherheit =.akt hinauslief. Chamber- 

w '-r,-.-!«n^ aas 4«r Osten herauszuhalten.. ^rscmcKte 
lain ia»-ejen suchte x,ne;land aus .ur -s^ 

- • , 4 -i.f^ite* The british ,]overn- 

■• • A .mP^ T'ai ein L!ei-oramhar,das darin ^ip^elte. 

Irland an dö.i^-s^^ cxü ^ 



16 

ment coalo uol support tbe i'rencli propobal Lhat all öuch aroitratiün treaiit;^ 

and the Rhineland Pact shüuld form an - indivisible v.hüle aud *be cuurdinated in 
one general Convention. ••, säenden er in einen langen schreiben vom 1". Tai 

s 

fuer zahlreiche praezise T'^inLelposit ionen ^ s franzoesischen Ilntv.urfs rrildere 

und unbestimmte 7ornulieran-;en vor^^eschla^en hatte.. 

Ain 29. T.^ai errpfin^^ T^riand das Merorandun Chanberlain?? und musste feötelleni 

dass sein Plan, die Schiedsvertraege zv'iBchen -Deutschland und den Oststaaten 
nit der "^ihe inpalt 
so zu koordinieren, dass tat^aechlich ein allgeneiner Gicherheitspakt zustande 

kan, gescheitert v^ar. 7:r hatte -lie T.ahl zwischen Abbruch de^ w'erhandlunjen und 
dem,V'a3 spaeter in locarno effektuiert vur-le: einem gleichzeitigen Abschluss 
aller ^ertraege, die aber ^aktfsch keine Bindung r^es Rheinjaktes rit Ten oest- 
lichen Schi: dsvertraec;en rr;^ieite. "'•riand entschlcss sich fuer die zv-eite , 
roeglichkeit . Ir rie^ am gleichen Tage -^^ie franzoeslsche -^resse zu einer ver- 
traulichen Besprechung zusarnen, prklaerte, r^aas keine englische r.r.gierung fuer 
einen allgereinen Sicherheitspakt zu haben vaere,un1 dass Frankreich sich in 
einer ^vangslage befaen-'e. T. enn es auf seinen 3tandpunkt beharrte und die Ver'- 
handlangen abbraeche,wuerde es von der V.elt als alleinschuldi^s an den fjchei- 

% 

tern der ^efriedungsaktion veBurteilt v.erden. :Fi:r,3ric:Lnd nuesae also Ost und 
T.est als Verhandlungsobjekt trennen un^. richte einen patriotischen Appell 
an 5ic -'resse aller :''ärteien, seine I'on^jronissveThancLlun^en nicht i,u stoeren, 
rieser Appel -^urie befol-t. Auch die -echtspresae schvieg. . ^«^/^ '■^/''^^^^ ^^'^*'* 

Als Zntschaedijunj fuer ""rankreichs -^«achgeben und ;iur VerEchleierun£; de^ 
englisch-f ranzoesiüchen ^e^jensatzes ^'urd.e an . 

4. ."^uni 1^25' eine ::ntv'affnuni^snote an 'Deutschland ^es^^hickt »die ausfui/« 



te, erst nach Behebung der Verstoesse Gegen die nilitaeri;jchcn --^estinnuniien 

koenne die erste Rheinlandszone geraeurrit v'erden. 

AJP gleichen ^a^^e schrieb ^riand an Charberlain: "The -^rench -jovernnent 
considered that its anxiety to ft|(|fntain the general peace and the libery 
of all the nations of T.urope as veii as the e^i,;encies of its om defense 



17 



precluded it fron linitine its preoccupations to solicitude for its ov/n 
security alone. Its view was that any attenpt tu no.nfy by foroe the sta- 
te of affaiArs created by the treatise v.'ould constitute a wenace to peacß^ 
to vhich 7rance could not rerain indifferent. That vas vhy,in the draft 
reply to the Jernan proposalo, it considered it eseential to preserve th£^ 
liberty to tjo to the assistance of gtates to v;hich it detmed it necesaary 
to srant its i^uarantee vlthout the provisiona of the proposcd Röineland 
PactÄ beinc able to bloc'iC its v'ay and thus be tarned aüainstit." r>ieser 
Kapitalpunkt ( ^ier ^avipteinvand gJC«Ä Poincares je^en 3unos Vorschlag ^:>n 
1"22) duerfe nicht versch-p'iet^en, sondern rricsse ausdruecklich betont v. er- 
den. •* 
Darauf antwortete Ghanberlain an ^. .'uni: "The 7rench Goverrment are 
risht in assuninj that Mis -ajesty's Tov-rnnent recojni^ie that the proposed 
Rhineland '?act cannot operate as a barrier to prevent ^rance fron takinj act- 
ion in confornity v^ith such guarantees as she nay ha\re 4;iven to arbitration 

treaties bct^een ^ernany an.-^ ^ernany's neichbours The ?act and its co^natv 

agreenents nust nece-^sarily be so Irafted that.on the one band, they v iU ^-iv«^ 
the füllest possible security to all of the Povers concerned so lon^, as they 
abide by their treaty undertakinjs, and. that,- on the other hand.they cannot be 

* 

invoked'by a ^uilty po".'er to protect it fron the cons' quences of a rilful ]bxä 
breach of its treaty obligations ." ' 

IG. 7uni l''Z;5: i''ranzoes!i?che ..r.twort auf das deutsche ^^enoranduTP. 

•/ 
"le gouvernenent fran^ais et ses allies ont vu dans la denarche du gou- 

vernenent Allenand la nanifestatiou de preoccupations 'p^cifi-ues qui s'accord^f 
avec les leurs." Sevisse Tunkte sin-^ aber noch aufsuklaeren. 

1^ 'as i^enoraadun err.aehnt den Voelkcrbund nur beilaeufig, Lie andern Ix, 
eventuellen j^ertr^cspartner sind aber I'itcUeder des Voelkerbun^s und verpflich- 
tet, konforn den Oatzunjen des .Bundes zu handeln. L-utscblands -intrit.t in de;, 

Bund notv'en'5.i3. 



'.r- 



■ m ». t I I I y l» 



13 
2} Von vornherein anszuschliessen ist Jede P.evision r^es Versailler ^er- 
träges, ai-ich von 3t ipulat i onen des Vertra^^s, '!ie ^Vankreich nicht betreffen. 
3)' Belgien ist nicht T^nannt, es ,nasB aber Vr,rtrac;spartner sein. 
4} Arbitration muss sich auf alle •^ra:;en erstrecken. Jer^e '^ev.-alt nuss 

ausgeschlossen sein. [ '^ran2;op:si3cher !!;ntv'urf: conpulsory arbitrationj 
5^ Ler Hheinvertra^ kann nur effektiv wercien,v*enn ochie'^'svertrae^e riit 
den Ostlaendern zustandekonnen. ( -f^ranzoesischer Lntv urf : Kheinpakt und 
Or^tvertrae^e bil-^en ein unteilbares "'anzes). 
6} Nichts darf beseel 03f:en vT;rdV-n,ras z^C^^'^^ '"^^^ Voolkerbunr? V'^rstoecst. 
Strese^ann hatte die franzo-'sisch^ -int^'ort r'it r^rosser i/ervositaeti erv-arte"?^ 
ob'^^'^ohl "er von D'Abrrnon ueber -^en j-ang der franzoesisch-en^l ischen /erbe- 
s,)rech'\n2en orientiert v-ar. Jjn 11. Tuni v-ollte er noch einer /"ash trag stel-^ 
len,der Abkuerzunr; der -^esetzun^ und Mandate forderte. r/.vbernl)n :"I at 

once said that inny opinio-i it v'ould be extrerely unv'ise t^o r^iention eith-» 
er subject." Streserann: üin-'enbur-; rill ''reifbares. Ar^ PO. Juni notiert 
3tre^emann in s^iner^» -'-arebach: '•-Tacb^er ^He von ^^.ev^ frar.zor'sic,chen '^otschaf*^ 
ter uebergebene ITote vor 16. Tuni konkrete ;orschlaer;e :^^racht liat,^'ie die 
deu ncherseits bezeichneten Loesun jsroerlchkei ten teils aendern oder riitein* 
ander verbin-^en Lind ihnen neue Vertra^^iskonstrukt ionen binzufiier^en, ist nunre^/ 
"^as Kabinett .. .Keb^reinstininend zu de^^ Ilrjebnis r^lunct-dass die in ^er "^"ot««^. 
vorgeschlagenen Sroert ernngen zur Vorher eitnnj -^er end^^^^^lt i^en Ot ellua::nah^ 
re alsbal^' aufzunehmen sin-.^ un'^ an 

1. ."^uli; "I^'=^r "-au^t^^unkt der ?rian^scben TTote ist ■'^arin zu sehen, '^ass, sie 
versucht, ^ie Idee des polnisch-franzoeslRchcn ^uendnisses in den V.e.qtpakt 
''^ineinruarbeiten, . . . 3ie ist eine Verzerrung :^.es3cn,^'as un^er deutsches ^e** 
norandum als ^-estpakt bot, um -'ie Sicherheitsfrage nit Deutschland und nicht^ 

gesen Leutschlaiid loesen :;u li^saen 'i-as v.-ir nicht annehnen koennen, ist 

^ene'^ r^arantiee/sten, -^as sich .'amit be^nucc^ni.-'- * ''ir-o.l ^'ie I^ee ^es 
7oel'!<er'bun''e3 [ sin fes^e'^t! »»ren?) ur.'^ [ ( rla^ner nrt,ern2»"rt V) ^'ip I-i^'e von 




'•'■^^IWt* 



1-i 

von 3pe*:ialoer1uf=^r^^nis3en in ^le ja'batte zu Terzen 'ind duröhsufuehren/* 

11,111-1'. 

- ■ • • . 

Anfang Tuli brioh^ ine deutsche ^^ejieruni^^RVwrir^e auc?. Lie Leutf^chnat io 
nalen veretei^en ihre C^posit lon,un'^ T.uther rir^^ sch'-'ach. ..r T^ehauptet, 
Ton ^CT^ ""enoran^UTTi vo^. '^.^e'br. nicht?? '^ev^ji^^t zu ha>en,nn^' ^'iri ''er 
Unwahrheit 'leherfuehrt . OtreRernanns ?wnecVtrU.t ^!r^ e-oertert. i;r will 
als Partei '•'leheer in ^ie Opposition i-ietjen Luther ^ehen. Luther bietet 
ihn. f^en'LoiTloner Botscha-*'t ?5po=>ten an. ."^chHensl ich eini^-en sioh Luther 
uni otresemann* Reich?5innenminint ^r 3chiele aher ^rTrlaert am .':;;. Juli, 
'^asB er ^en 'ortlaut r'.en ^'-'enoran^.urs auch Jet^jt ni>ch nicht kenne. 

"^leichi^eitis 3eti.t eine starke raooi^chr- .^itation je>;en -iie deutsch- 

f . ' ixüt i (jr t 

alliierten ^erhanr?lun^];en ein. (von Ctreseranr. un-^ li^'.hernon yu^r.jLr.Lz^njsX 



25, Tuni : '■ eh^ ^^tp^ chum: der leutschen .intv^ort auf die frarizoesische 
Note. 3ie irt ^p^.v vrrhin.-^lich in ^^er Lin] eitunj,^"ird aher bei ^^er 

Anfrort auf* -^e einzelnen Tunkte 3chaerfer, ::;in I'lornunioue der "leutsche 

Regierung von 2"^^ . Timl ir^t wesentlich nchaerfer ^rehalten und unschreibt 

3treserianns ohi^e JTotizen vom ?/' . Tuni un^^ l.^^uli. /f^ ZO. Juni notiert 

D^Ahrrnon: "'^hc ''ll'-^Plmstra^ae is still oonvinced that --rian^ intends U 

kill the pacfjun"^ -=?r ^etzt hinzu, ^ie deutschen sollten n r ^elher auf 

richtij ^ein*. D\ihernon hiriic-t Irlands !Tote. Aher er ist {L^S^"^ ''enf 
als 'erhandlun^sort . ^uviel polnische ^--'arfuem dort. Lr ist fuer Octende» 

(7. Au.^u5?t). v^Vi/^^//5'^tf^^y ^;^'-*wA ^%,^'<r^;f /^ ^A^/^ 

24. August gleichlautende f ranzoesische, e x;lißche und helj.iache 



Antv;orten auf '"^ie deutr^ch'j ::ote von ""^.'uni. 



f 



X w 



"le ro^^YeTner^ent francais se olait a constater la communaute ^^.es 
vues." ^eher ^etailfra^en v-er-^e nan '=^^ch verstaenHi£;en. 2ie deutsche 
"^e/^ierun-: v:ird zu einer "Ton'erenz ein£:eladen. Zuerst sollen die r^dvistCu 

1 

dann ^le Aurjsenminister zur=5ammenkomr:en . 

Li^ Juristen kor^^en in London zusammen; 1-1? .September ), bevor di^ 

eichsre.^i^runc; o-^fiziell die Ilinlai^'^unc angenommen hat. Lies geschieht 



V 



ari 15. 3epten"ber l'^25. Gleichzeitig uel)trp;i>)t die lieichsrejierung den 
"beteiligten -^-aechten eine :.-rlclaerimc, in '-'^er sie iie ^^^rle/jSfjchuld er- 
neut bestreitet. Die belgische "'e^'ierunc antwortet darauf, die^-^rage 
r^.^.T ^^rtessschuld sei nicht nur durch den Versailler ^ertra^j, sondern auc^ 
durch den deutschen Kanzler -Sethnann-Üollv'e^ ( ''^ .Auj;ast ] eiitschieden. 

« 

Tae andern he^er>en, ^asf^ sie auf ihre^ Standpunkt verharren, aber dass 
^if 'fra:e nichts nit den ?alct vm tun habe. 

14. 3epteniber: '^'unsolini erVlaert seine Absicht, r^er Konfereni: bei- 
zuwohnen. Uaher r.\r\ Locarno als -''erhandlunjsort •:eraehlt,y^ohin r!er 
Luce von italieni'schem «Gebiet aus zu Schiff* fahren kann. 
4. Oktober ^ejfinn d r "Konferenz von T.ocarno. 
Der deutschen Bele^ation varen folgende Instruktionen nitre^eben 

% 

worden: 

li ^cnderun^ des -^esatzungs-^^'ej^inies 

2; L.er Londoner rur5sten-r:ntwurf sieht in '^er ^-r^anbel eine 
Befest i.:unc '^es status quo vor. lintv'eder ist liese ^raeanbel ^anz zu 
beseitis.en oder wenigstens die status quo-^ornel durch eine allgemeine 
^^erdar^mune des nrieges zu ersetzen, 

7>\ '^or^erunj -^er all^erieinen Ahruestun£. 

\\ .i.b schaff un:: der ^ontroll-Organe 



5; Terabsetzunr ^er -^rist fuer die zweite und dritte Rheinlandszon 



6, Keine .Tarantien in Osten 

\ 

7) Artikel l''^ des Voelkr.rbund.s 

4 ' 
'} 

Teilnehmer; Luther , 3tresenann, von Schubert ,j;enpner,aaus. 

3riftn4,7roma4:eot ''^urlst), "^erfielot, T'ar,oirli (delegierter 






har'oRrlain,IIur3t( ."urist' 



3c1a]o^'a ' 7o«lV:erbun'1f5-^e''. eji^iert'-^r ; ''randi ( H. -!■' . nktober 
Vand c. r V el d e , Skr z/nski , ? ene s ch . 



■) 



i 



«t 

^M 



■i 



ll 

il 



.■i:*aLi5t;. 



>'fP»'-'f ■?■■ T « 



21 



\ 



Atnosphaere ^er /erhanr^luncen nach Gtresenann II, l/'^ "''-loeflich und n 



d 



f). Okto'ber J'.iristenTsexs^jrechunG «egen '^.er i'raeanbel . Taus besehe 

« 

' vert sich bei Gtresenann, er sei sehr in r'ie :::n£e getrieben v;orden,uny 
ver^'ahrt sich ^aTe>;en,"Oin::e vertreten zu iruessen, gegen die sich sein 
juristische*^ ^e^^issen straeube." II, 1^^ 
6. Oktober tOstfrajen und Artikel 1^. 
Brian'^ ^a:t,es ^^'aere unehrenhaft fuer ^rankreich, sich den 3uendnis-^ 
ver3flichtun>ien entziehen su Tollen. ::r koenne der Pakt n'ir zusti-^nen, 
renn er ^ie roeclichkeit habe, Terpflichtunjen zu erfuellen. GtresRT^ann 
anr,T-ortet,j'ran'crrich habe ir? Osten s^/ei ^tar7<e aarantien. '^•arum noch ein ■ 
'Iritte? "ha^he^lain: Enjlani koenne in (^nten keine Garantie uebernehren. 
Zw Artikel 1' ^es Voelkerbun^es erklaert ^rian^, 'dieser Artikel biniC' 

nur moralisch. ' 

schliesslich sa^rt -^rian'l ,wenn er v-ueaste, ^ass 'lie gegen^'aertiger "' - 
ierungen und ihre Aussenninister bleiben ruerr'en, koenne er auf »Garantien 

verzichten, ^hamberlain schlae^t \r6r, einen Artikel aufzunehmen, ^ass ^riand 

3tresenann und er selbst auf -ebenszeit Aussenminister bleiben nuessten. 

12. Oktober: ''^ie deutschen "i?'or'^erunsen. ( 1,3,4,5 der InGtruktionen ■ 

Chamber lain uni ^^erthelot op,)onieren. "'^riand ra--re beinahe vom 3ofa 

gefalletmalB er meine Ausfuehrungen hoerte." ,\ber *^riand hat nichts dace'' 

■Ten einzuv:enden, "^ass die Tertreace sich nach -'ieser Richtung ausrirkte^l. 

}Tur keine sofortice Bezahlune der ^'akte. Gtresemann TIJ/M. 



(T 
O 



■■4 



P 



Cha^br.rlain zu Zuc:^Btaen<^ni533en v/eren ^er Toelner '^or\^ "b.ereit. 
Zu 3tresemanns ^or'^erun:: nach allgeneiner ^'.bruestung bemerkt -^riand, 
"^erisse Jtiaechte muessten -eruestet bleiben, '^a andere zu schrach sin^.un 

« 

sich selbst zu qchuetsen." I.ie ^bruentunrs'race ^'ir-^ au«.:eRChieden. \ 

in der .^riessschul^f-aje nac^/andervelde so leidenschaftliche Opposition 
-'as. ^har:berlain nervoe. vrlr^^: Brian- erkennt Deutschlands moralisches Ket^/ 



^'^^ ^-andate an. Oharh^rlain schv'eigt dazu. 



i 






IG. Oktober: 3chlas3itzans^ 



3chlu3t5orotolcoll : 



M ^ i 



Die Vertreter 1er r>eut'!chen,''el rif'chen, Britischen, Tran;:oc3.1schen, 
Ttali'^ninchpn,?oln^ acher. nn^ -^schechoslora^^i pchen "ecieruneen.die von 5. 
bis zun l'.^ktoher nr^5 in Locarno vprsar"-elt ^'arenjun -ereinsar '^ie ritte^ 
zurr, Schutze ^er Voelker, vor ^e.r Tei^-el ^es Krieces nu suchen unl fuerV!.ie 
frie-^liche ^^e^elune; von '"^treiti'^'cei ^.en jeglicher Artj'^le etra 2:^isch^in. ihn^ 

I 

/ 

entste^^^n y-^f^rmXftrxyvn sorgen, hah«-n ihre ru^tlrmmg cu 'en Tlntwuerfen -ler 
sie hetreffenHen Tertrae.'^ft um' Abkorinen ^ecehent-'^' '- i'" Laufe ^er ge^renT'aer* 
tifren Konferenz aus rearbeitet ^"or'len sin-' unr' .,i.v anfpint^n^er be-ie>^en: 

I 

Vertrau zwischen Deut schlank, i^el.^ien, "rankreich, ^rosabritannien un'1 I" 

tauen. -- \nla^e A 
Schic^sabkonnen zwiscl.en -^.eutschlan'l un'1 ^elfien-- An]."^ 



ff 



II 



f1 



2 Frankreich " 



\j 



" D 



3chie''''-^ertrac z'^ischen '"/eiitschland un Polen 

M « " # "Tschechoslovalcei - 



- Anl.L 



Diese Urkunden, ^ie schon jetzt' »ne varietur' paraphiert Verden, soUe#; 
,1as heaMre I;atun traeen. I^ie -Vertreter der heteili^ten ^^arteien konren ± 
daba'rein, sr 1. Dez^rhe- d,_ ^. in lonr'on zupannenzutreter und in einer 
Jitüun- 'l^. foernliche "nterzeichnunc ''e- sie betreffenden ^rkunden vor- 

T.er franzoesische Minister der aur^b^ert i^en ..njele^enheiten n^acht 
i'itteilunt; davon, dass irr. Ansohlüss an die obenervaehnten l^ntruerfe von 
ac|iedsvertrae£en Frankreich, Polen un ^ ric -\schechoslcVakei gleichfalls 
Zntruerfe von Ahkonnen aufgestellt haben, un sicii je^ciiseitiü ix'ixx !Tutzen ± 
der /ertraetie zu sichern. Diese Abko-nen verd&n re£clrccht bein Voelkerbu«/ 
hinterlegt Verden. Herr ^"'rland haelt aber schon jetzt Abschriften davon 



^ .. • 



zur Verfueisunö der hier vertretenen -aechte. 

taat33ekretaer 'uer aasv^aerti-e Angelegenheiten 



"Oer 'Jrossbritanuii^che 3 



a. 



in -^ 



schlaect v^i-, iass *^ "eantvortunß ceTis3er,von deutschen "eichs 
kamzltr aml Au^senminister eeptellter Porlerun^en nach Aufklaerungen ueber 

den Artikel ir> der Voelkrrbum's Satzung das ir LntV'urf hier Gleichfalls bei 
eeschlosoene Schreiben (Anlac:e ^; ^leichzeitij nit der .foernlichen T^ntercei- 
nung der obenv er^aehnten ""rkunden an sie jerichtet v irr^_ Lies^ '/orschlac: X 
vird ajn^enonnen. , ' , - 

"Die Vertreter der liier vertretenen 'Vrierunjen erklc.eren ihre feste 
^eberüeusunsjdass die Inkraftsetiun;: dieser ^ertrae^-e und Abkommen in hohen 
i:'asse dazu beitrajen rird, eine noraliRohe r;nts )annun : zvischen den "ationen ja 



herbei2afuehren,dasr-. «^ Ue Loesunj vieler jolitischer und- v irtachamicher 
i'robleme gemaesc -^en Interessen ;in:l linpfiadan^jen der Vuelker stark er] eichter'^ 

I 

v.ird,un-' 'ass sie 30,inden sie -^rieden un^^ Sicherheit in luurogcL festigen, das 
geeirnete Mittel %MtA^ vevlen, in v-irksaner V.eise die in Arti:cel 1- der Voelkc^- 
bundsatzunj vorgesehene Sritv-af fnuriij ;:u heschleuni^en. 

Sie verpflichten sich, an den vod '/oelkt.rt'und bereits aafc*enor:ir:enen Ar- 
beiten hinoichtlich de- :.ntra^fnanr aaf richti'^' rit;:.urirken an:' die Verrirkli-- 






iun£: der Lntvaffnung in einer alljeneinen '/erstaendit^ung anLUbtreben. " 



Anläje A 

« 

"Art.l; Li e Hohen vf-rtracschlies^enden Teile garantieren, jeder fuer sich 
und insgesarit^in ^^.er in den fol^en-^en Artikeln bestinnten V.eise <^ie Aufrecht- 

erhaltung des sich a:isÄ den Crren2:,en Lv:ischen Leutschland und .3el^ien and l'- ir^ti}^ 

lieh ^ 
Deutschland 'inr' i^'ran'creich ergehbnden Status quo, die UnverletzJSiÄrkeit dieser 

'Jreni:en,T^ie sie durch den in Versailles an 2^^, Tuni 1013 anter::.eichneten -^'rie- 

densvertrag oder in dessen A^isfuehrang festgesetzt sind,3ovie die Beachtung dV* 

f^estirrmungen der Artikel 42 und 13 -^.es bezeichneten 'ertra^:es ueber die denill'^ 



- / 



t • 



tarisierte Zone. 



Art. 2r Teutschland un':^^elj;ien un'^ ebenso Deutschland und -Frankreich verpfl 



Uflkf 



s 



ich gegenseitig, in keinen 7all zu einem Angriff oder zu einen Linfall oder 



zu einen -^'^rieg gegeneinander zu sqhreiten. Diese T^estinnung findet jedoch kei 
^e Anv:endung, wenn es sich handelt, . 






--^.^•_«,---,^ iU Kfc 



' ... \,''N... '.. J,^- 



PA 



1; um rUe A'isuebun,: des ^echtes zur Celbstirerteidijung, d .h. un den 
"idorstand je^en eine Verletzung der yer,)flichtunc -^es vorstehenden Abi 
sat;ue3 oder -ejen einen flacranten Verstoss c^ßen die Art. 42 und 43 des 
/ertrages von _ersailles, sofern ein solcher '/erstoss eine nicht provosier- 
te An_^^rif^shandlung darstellt 'm'' v^eeen der Zusanneniiiehune von otreitkrar/. 
ten in -^er demilitarisierten Lone notven^ic ist, 



c, um eirre Aktion auf urund des Art. IG der 7oel!<(-rbunrissati.unj, 
3; um eine A>:tion,die auf -^rund der I.ntscheidun?; fer 'ersaranlun-;, ^de^ 
■ des ^'ates des Voelktrbun-'es oder au^ "rund des Art-. 15, Abs at;. 7 der '/oelker- 
bundssatzung erfolgt, vorausseset;it, 'ass sich •^ie, Aktion in diesem letzten 
7alle üegen einen 3taat richtet, ^er :<uerst zum An-rif^ rieschritten ist. 
Art, 3: Jede 3t eitfraje ist einer Ver^jleichs'Kommis-sion zu unterbreiten. 
Art.l: Bei 7ertra/rsverletzun^ ist '^er 7o^,lkt-rbun'' anzurufen, "^alls der /oelke/^ 
bun'^ auch seinerseits ''ertracsverletzung feststellt, zei^t er dies den 
Si£natarmaechten an^die dann zum Beistand '^es erletzten verpflichtet sind. 
Im ?all flasranter Verletztinj von Art. 2 des locarno- ''ertrat^es oder Art. 42 

und 43 des ''"er^ailler "/rrtra^es jsijui Me oijnatarmaechte zu sofortigen ^ass- 

nahr^en zu schreiten. , • 

Art. 5: Falls ein »^ertrae?^ Partner Art.i; 3 zuv iderhandelt, findet Art. 4 Ariden- 

Art, 5: Ler '/'ersailler '/ertrac "bleil^t unberuehrt, 

Art, "y . Ler Voel verbünd vird in keiner V.eise 'Virch r'as £eijenVvaertip:e Abkomnen 



."1*4 ■ 



beschraenkt . 
Art. i: Z^GT Vertraj bleibt ^uelti^jbia der Voelkerbund hinreichende Garantien 
bietet, die ihn ueberfluessij machen. In -Uesem 7all kann -..in Antrag auf 
l^rsatz -Meses Abkommens durch die Voelkerbundgarant ie gestellt T-erden. 
Art. f; Ler /ertraj verpflichtet nicht die :>oninlüns des -ritish ^ 



.Vrt. IC bezieht sich -'ie ""'ati-rizierunr:. 



Anlagen B un 



d C regeln die ?ornalitacten ^^er^ oChicdü£crichte . 



benso 



.'.i'.ijjit nun 1 



rsrr- 



nscsni^r 



25 



Anla^^e ?: 



^ I;ie (ieutschex Delegation hat ;^'ev'i<3s^ iriarst ell'ui^i^en hinsieht lieh des 
Art. 13 der 7oel"k-e^hunds3atan£: verlangt. 



^' • 



• ir sind nicht zastaen^^i^, im Taren '^es Voelkerhundes i.u sprechen. ..Ir 

i:oe_':ern aber nicht, nach ^en in der 7er sanr^l^^mL 'in^' der üonnission ^es /oelker 

bundes bereits tJ®P f'loG^'^^^^'^ -^cratun^^en und nach den ^.wischen uns aiis.:etauscht e 

-roert erangen Ihnen Mc A'^slejunj zu ^eben,die v^ir unsererseits ilem Art. IC 



geben. 



TTach dieser AM3le^j;un£; sind Ue sich ^uer die 3un^^esnit2;lieder aus (^.em 



Art. ergeben'ien /erpflichtunsen so zu verstehen, -^ass Jeder '-'er Llt^liedstaat eW^ 
5es -Bundes ^jehalten ist, loyal un-' vir'csaF' ritLUarbei ten, un der ^atzun^;:; Achtung/- 
LU verschaffen und je^r-r Anjrif ^shan^l^.nj cnt^je^enzutret en, in einer^ I'asse,das 
nit seiner nilitaerischen La^e vertrae^lich ist un^^ ^"^as seiner geo^jraphischen 



k 



Lar:e rti^chnun:: trae^t. ^ ^ ^ > * 

In ^e^ Schi •Jss-Gitzunr 3a^::te 3trese^ann: 

\ 

'' V. ir haben die ^ erant^ortunr; fuer -Ue Parapbierunc der ^ertraege uebe«/^ 
_ nor^r.:en,v;eil wir -'es ilauben? i£ben,dass nur auf dem "T.'e^e frlf^dlichen ?^ebenein- 
anderlebens '1er .Staaten \n^ '/oelker jene Lntv'icklun^ £;esichert rerden kann,di« 
"^uer keinen L-^^'Heil so rieht ij ist ^'ir -^uer r^ap grosse euro^^aeijche ICulturlan^ 
dessen Voelker in -^en «^a^ren, •''ir hinter uns lie£;en,so unendlich e:;elitten habe?!» 
"ir haben sie insbesondere uebernor^en,v.eil ^"i-^ zu ^ler Vertrauen berechtigt 
slnd,dass politische Auswirkungen der erschlossenen yertrae:^e insbt:sündere au^^ 
-^en deutschen Volke in -^er ^orn '.er Lrleicht cruno seiner Bedingungen -^es' poli-* 
tischen "'ebens zugute- konmen werden Z<^ C^oss '^.ie -^cleutunj .''er ^bnachunren l^t / 
Me hier i^re- "l^a-^sun^ ^.rhalten hubon^io rerden ^ie 'ertraere voh T-ocarno doch 
nur dann ihre tiefe -"er^eutunc in ^e- ZntTicklunj -^er "'ationen haben, v;enn Looa;/-^ 
no nicht, ^as Zrr^e, sondern '^er Anfan~ einer Periode ver-rauensvollen /.usar?renl(^ - 
benf5 ier **ationen sein ^'ir-'i." II.r02 f. . ■ 






■v. 



HG 



"!Tacb 3tre°enü.nn sprach ■•riand; 






ff '^ 



'>iFie represer.tant, ^e la ^rance,Je tiens r^associer de plein "^Ij^f/ 

aux BentiTnents exprines par le dele^ue '^e 1' AlleT^arne, et Je nanojaerais a 1* 

V 

esprit 'ir .justice si .je ne voyais pa? et si ;''=' tt» f'ainni? pas le e'este coura- 
geux qui est a l'oricine de cette con-^erence. 

/ / / J 

Je n'Qu"blie pas le netrorandum a:lresse 1^ ? 'evrier par le couyernerer.z^ 
n"'"»«reand[,s'ir 1' initlatire 'le r,':tr'^cer?ann,au goüvf rnement. francais. Ce fut le 
point r!e depart de nos efforts.et c' est le resultat de ce ^jeste auquel je vetix 

I 

rendre honreage que nous enregistrons aujourd'hui. 

^- 

Je riens de parapher le traite et If^s Conventions qui XÄüa ont ete pre 

>ares a Locarno. Mor\ nandat est ainsl ternine. ^'♦est r'^onc en pon non per?onner 

/ 

qae Je' parle naintenant ,'-ai'? arec la certit'.i'^e :■' ' -?rietor lc 3entirnent,non 
seule?riftnt de n.on .;;ou'/ernerent,'*iais ericore ^^ la sran'te -ajorite d*^ -"p^ cc^pa- 



flotCB. 



• 



/ 



31 a. 



'^ nou3 n'avions 'ait ici -j'^ nf^jocier lers terr.es d'un traite 




et si, '^nsaite.naus rentrions ohacun dans notre pays',n-^'ir en renettant a des 

^^^,^^^•^1 nu^un r'^^t* valn. 3: co ^^^31:^ ^^ oorre^spon-' paf? ,a nn ^r^prit nou'/eau, 
s' 11 ne narque pas le ^e'but d'urc ere de confiunoe et -le colla'ooration, il ne 
produira pas Ics Stands e'^'ets que no'is en atten-lcn«. 

r. iM^'ner et r.3treseT^ann,avec lui j'ai eu^horg -le cette Conference, ^.e 
con^ersations o'^fici^-3?5^s 1.ani=i l^squelles nous nous eomr^es expliques j-ranclie- 
rrpnt,m'ont ^i.t a^ec quel -;spoir tls en'/i5a2ea5 ent l'H'^VTe quM.lr> a^^conpli?^2a6- 
^nt ici. Te leur ai r«*oondu a^ec une co?i^plete loyaute. .yntre nofr '^eux pay3,ii 
reste des surfaces ^^ frictlon. II / a des ^oints douloureux.il faut ./ae le g 
jact^ sl-ne ici soit un "baune sur 003 plaies,n 'aut que les ^i r:*icultes qui 
exi3t(^nt soient aplanies. r. Jtresena^n,avec une discretion .'ont je lui sais 

r ^^ ^^^.,«n•'^n c. n^rtnin^Q Y><r*rr4or«? ^e notr^ pa^^'s '-^.ont voü?? n'ave^ pas le 

/ ' , • t de ri' ^^ 

-^-- it -^e vous desinteresser. I'oi non ,^lu3,je n'ai pas 1« '^^"^ 



Ä>^- 



ief^interesser . ^e suie Cf^^rtain que ]a Trance cor^-)rendra toute la ^jortee de cc 

entre-^ nou3 un sentlTnent '^V apalsement et .-^r. Hetente. Ceiix oul la re^resent<?nt 

■ > - 

a':iront a ooeur ie faire aa^;3.1tot qu'ils le pourront,ce qui dependra rreux-^ou)^ 
qae soient realisa^,en ce qui nous conoerne,leB conditions oal permet tront , 
entre nos deux pHy«^,vine polit:iqae de f^etente pr'^'^on^^e ot,Je l*espere,1e colla** 
boration conflante. Cela fait, quari'^ auront ct^ r(*:;lee3 les curstions qui res*^ 
tent a resoudre/nous ponrron^? travailler en conmun, 'a.n;?, Irs donaines, aio: re^.^ 
lisations -^.e cette Idee qui est la notre: une IJurope aocorpl isaant son. iestin 
en resta/it -^i-^ele a tout ?5on passe d^ clvilisation et le nolilosse-. J^est-'^ars 

cetjc e!5 >rit cAe les nn^ et 1 f:f? aiitre«>j, nous eornrieG venus icl. T'eGpere que nos 

^ n ts I j^ 

^eax pays eprou^'-ront TD5entot leo 'l^ien^aixÄKKÄÄ de cette politique,et qu iljj^ 

ne pje passera lon^terrps avant que nous pni^^aons enre^istrer les heureux effet^ 
n'e l'acte que noüs' venonn de parapher/» f La oooiete des nationf?, iih/c<^^ / ) 



Jtresenann ^eht auf -^rian'^ zu und dankt Ih^.-^riand; ^»^.ein, sprechen 
ji<^: nicht von V.orten. Tch ter^e Pnnen den ?e^'eis erbringen, dass ^as iilcht V. or<- 
te Tiaren, sondern Taten ^in^/' mimtUm jLj fji 



n. ^TovenlDer 1325 -Touse of Conrons. 
j>i:i'^hrrlaln: •^ I had not ret representat ives of the Jcr^an :>p1re until I ret 
t'ierr: at that confer'ence. I very soon v'as atele to ^atisfy nyself that they caD/^ 
there aninated by the sane sincere desire for peace an^^ reconciliÄt ion that 
ani^ated the T.^-cstern '^'at ions, and .tha't they v:ould rork ^'\i th u? in the same rho^ 
le-hearted splrit to secure an ^.n^^ so eqsential for the prosper-lty of all cur 



peoples 



A turnins point in the history of Lurope,and it ray he in the hintory of 
the T:orld..,. an ornen o^ the nev int ermitl onal spirit. 

The que^tion of the r^^kctlon of the -^rench treaties and of the relationjf 
of -^rance ^ith Toland and J^echoslovakia v.as found on exanination to br far 
less dif^icult than any of us had 3Uppo3ed,and l rust say that sone 



r .? ' tvt *r*! t sr«rriw.s-.? 






.7-4»^ ^ «V . ;i > fe afe& l .» -A: : '''l l t<« VT 



'WPlf^: 



28 
v;as done to Poland an^. the dist in^ui.hed represenr.ative of Polaml in that Con- 
ference becanse v;hen even ther-e ras thoucht to be a'hitc^ in cur ^)roceedin::s 

^ .,*«^^ f-^^-i- "^ni':»rw^ roTil'^ loe the obctacle in oa/* 
the ^resB re:^resentat ives . . . . apsunei tActt .. oiari'^. y-oni. f 

oath. ^t Tas not so. The -reatr^st ohr^tacie ^ cts -n.e enr^ctn^^ 

the -^ea^iie of -^"^at ioriF! . . . . 

In the fir^t olace.it Is a treaty Th^ch '> alned at nobor^y .polnted out 
at no one,threatin3 no one an^ '.enacln- no one. Tn the ..econ-^ ^lace,it is a 
Trelty of Mutual Gnar.ntee. ^he obli.atlons of -rance to -er:r,any arc the sane 
as the oblirations .f -errnany to ^•rance.... an^ the ohli.ationr, of the ^uaran^ 
teeinr porer., Italy an,^ ^reat -ritain, are the -.amc to -ermny as they are to 
-rance.as they are to ^el£iun. ' This in not,then,a treaty,. Ureoted by one - 
.^rouo of porers a^ainst any Power or ^ro^^? ^T Peters.... -he thir^. point... i 

ig that all the a^reer^ents conforr- strictl/ to the .pi.iT: 

'.•hat 1. the oblijation that re un^^ertaVc? There 5s no cas. in rhich re 
.:. can be called upon to take r^ilitary action except in p-;^4uance of the Zov. 
enant an^ ^the action of the Learne or rhere action is taken by one of the 
oarti^s in breach of its oblications rhlch le.aio to snch an i^rcdiate danger 
that you cannot rait even the -er ^ays that ray be necessar-y for a meeting of 
the Court. In that case,the -ritish .1overr.r.-.nt o' the ^ay rerains the .ju-Ve, 
an^ the only j-i-ge o^ w^ether that case of irninant ^^ancer has arisen. 
raclonall betracLt ^en Pact -rith ine eye very symyathetic an.' the other eye 
VThich is equally critical... I bave ne^^er Irnom ^oue^isr carriei on on such a 
large soale.an. rith such a nass effect... n ras that extraorMnary psycho- 
lo-ical effect that attaine' to a porer -ar. creater than arries or force,that 
s^ashed ''.orn barriers o- the^-in^l rhich had Kept the oeoples separate^. . .3ut 
,e ,,a,t rerrember this that a osychological effect is alrays a passins one. Tt 
cones:it -oes . . .'^nless ,the opportnnity is ta<en s^iftly.unJ ...o . 

. -tr th.t that Chance in r^fn^ has opene^Z un,then the harvest rill nevef 
opportnnity that tnat. cnan^^t^ in ^ ^ 

rioen." Daher begr-ie.st V. ^ie Raeurung Xoelns uni fordert 
Schaft erkonferenz, '"a remnant of rar -achinery." 



20 
. .."Locarno ^oeg not r'eal V'ith any of the sr^all arirt. no^e intirrate causes,like 






/^ 



raclal conflicts,in the ?1^-Ue an^ TCast of rjirr)pe,v'hich may barst intarar... 
Tou can have as^^-^ri^nt?? c^^'b^ut cirbitration an^!. all that,but rmless the f^elin^ 
13 re^ovei an^ coole^ ^o^^n,unl^«''^ the problen 1r face^i an^ none better agree- ' 
T^ent«^ aXÄ cor^e to than that Thich exlst no^s^'e are going; to have v'ar..." 
Dahfr fordert V.. Revision -^^^=5 Ver^aill er ^ertra^B nn^ mmt vor Tnol3>rims 
Ru«5nlan'^s. ... ^-?There i^ noboiy \n r^urope to-^ay v'ho belleveg that a v%ar can 
arif^e over a quarrel in the Rhine val3ey. It is inpopf^ible. There have been nQ 
vars betv^een "^rance an"* ^ernany on a ^irect i«??.ae as t^ rhether the Hhine or 
go'^ethin- el??e than th^ Rhine 1.55 CI'^'^^S to be the front ier betv^een the'tro conjf^ 
trie«. That r>rohi^ni,if a v-ar '^oe?^ ari?;e,T^ay orobably prolonp* the v-ar,as it pr^^ 
longe^. the la^^t ^'ar, orobably ^or years,but ^'here the rar rül arir^e is nearer 
th** "Danube than the Rhine... T'herefore.vhen ^^'e lonk qt th^ rap of "^ur^pe and 
fiee whsit arep.«^ anH what nroblem*^ are cor-irei by thp looarno ?act,re igee how x 
very thin and narro^ they arc an'^ ^hat a trenendous hinterland of v'ar risks 
is still left untouched.*' Indessen "the psycholüjioal effect of that Pact is 
going to advance us substancial]/. •^ . * - 

^v^i.f racdonalds :'auptein^'and ist keiri brj. tischer ?oli"* 'er '^in^^-^^ancen. • 
"'^acr^onal^ hat seine Ct ellun(;;nahr:e prae;:isi^rt ir- 7orv:ort lu George Crla.Sc.ov.s 
lach '»^ron Laves to Locarno'' ^l?r;5 ) : "Looar>i0 doec not face any of the problen^j 
that Goul^l be,in the videst ctretch 0^ irae;lnation, an innediate cuuse of an i:i(^ 

ropean v.ar. I have iiever net ahybody yet--and I think I knovv- nach of then--v.h* 

'^^ " oar 

sits in a Huropean ^orei^n Office and T:ho believes that in/^1 if et iine, or in any 

body's lifetirre, there is join^ to^be a ^ ar bttT;een -^erroany c^Ji^^ Trance direotl/ 

and specifically caused ove^' the Rhine frontier. ""hat is not hov- trie v^ar vill 

be in Lurope. T^ anybo'^./ think s that "by ^etting agreenent on the Rhine frontr- 

ier ^'e have Trade Eunjean var in;ossl'ble,he shoul-^ think a£ain. Jf there shou.^' 

be another European v.ar,it is perfectly true that the Rhine frontier vill be 

elen^ent In its but it vill be raised only after rar had broken out. There- 



I 



an 



i-: 



Hill iVkmeiUf^--'~-'—^-mmt'— ^•" 



i^^mmtmmmm^' 



fore it is true fron one ^oint of yie^ rhat the locarno "^reat/,b/ settlirit; th^ 
Khine frontier ,has c^ealt vMth sonethin^ that never coul''' l^ecome a yvLne cause 
0^ a lüuropean V'ar. I'oreover,!^ var breaka out, and if the concUtiüns have been 
prepared for aerrTiany t'^ have her revenje..,. than the locarno Treaty v^ill not 
prevent Gerr!iany fron fii;;htina -^'rance over other peoples^ quarreis, and, vfhen thaT 
has begun.fron fi^j'itiriij it dv..er its ova." (Aber 'Uese richtige Linsicht hat 

t 

Wac-ionald nicht da2,a ^efuehrt, das deutsche Antiebot des rjieinpakts und das 
öemuehen der deutächen ^^ecie^'un^:, sich auf den "heinpalct zu heschraenken, richtrV 

zu l^ennseichnen. ) ' , 

In der ITnterha^sclebat t e sa^te ""lo/d -cor^^e;' 
"V. e should acknovledcje the high GOuraL;e v;hich inspired that off er nn the part 
of ■^erniany... The intro''iict io.i o^ ^errany to the ^ea^ae alters in a very lar^^ 
rscctsure the charctcter of that Too;V '^^v di^ficult it v ar. to "be alv.ays stan^ 

/ 

/ . . ■ 

din^: there alone pleä-^ini; for fair :^la:/ and concil iat ion/' L.G.-r-eint dass 
Art. 6. -'es Rheinpaktes a-^-ar 'en '/orsailler Vertrag; anerkennt, ater dass cUeseV 
durch iie Gchiedssjrueche reviliert ver-^en kann. •• I consider tliat to be an 
enorirous achieverient ." Ghanberlain veißt diese Auffassung iurueck; "The inter- 
pre-tation of i-'reaties, includine; the ^reaty of Versailles, is referable to jud- 
icial Determination. The treaties therselves are part of the public la?- of 



,*t\ 



.urope /• 



/ 



i>uf 



-c n 







per: '''^h^. -^'reaty of Locarno ^ill prove in the future to he part of 



the foundation of a peaceful j.urope.'^ 

Lie -e^batte dreht sich ir uebri^en uri Russland, J:ntru£fnune und obligatorisch'^ 
.jchiedsjericht. I^er .«jitrac: der Opposition, in diesen drei Punkten Gichcrheiten 
au verschaffen," Ird Tnit 532 z'i 13C abjeleh.nt . 

ILdrard ^rcy sprach (I'anchester ::Juardian 22.^ktober' ^reatest satisfaction 
aus. "It is really a case of applyin^ the policy of the Lea^ue of Tations and 
o-f stengthcninj the Leajue of ^^ations. 3o|^et]iin: has been planted at locarno 

.as in it the possibility of Jrorint: into a ^reat tree under thr sheltey 

— • / 



vhich ha 



/ 



31 
of vihich in future /ears all the nations v'ho have become Partners to these tr^4^ 

ties nay find a refu^e an^ assured secarity/» in uebri^^^n sei der s^^irit of 

Loiarno mehr v'er.t als das Abkommen. 

j 

Robert Cecil spach '^.a^ecen an 1^3. *^tctober in Aberdeen ( Manchester Guardl^ 



23.0kt; "^''obody re^arda it as conplete or final." 

In Genf v.ar die alltemeine Tendenz, je^en Locarno. (Times 10. -^cptembtr) 
i;er litauische 7ertreter Voldemaras und .^aul-.3oncaur setzten oich fuer das 
Genfer -'rotokoll ein. Alle Lrvaehnuncen dets ?rotoll3 wurden stuerrisch applau- 



diert . 



V 



Ildrar'' "'rey sprach nochmals ueber Locarno &r 11. üoverr'brr ( i.:a,nchester :}aaK'' 
^ian 12«?'oveTr!ber ' :_ "The Locarno treatise had settled sorc'.hin^ nuch wore thaX- 
the Rhinelanl frontier... If,Jn consequence of the Locarno ""reatise, this coun-' 
try Tere ever enjajicd in a ^ar in vhich it hai allics fn on side and an enem|/ 
on the other,it voul''' Tdc not because it had ^Iven a i)ledee to any ^articular 
nation a^ainst an/ other,"hut sinply "because it had ^iren a ^led„e to uphold 
the principle of arbitration, vhich, thou^h it ni^it cü\:er a front ltr,v:a3 a -uc/» 



o 



ireater thing than an/ front i er .'' 'ji^-se ^^^^en T'acdonaldx ^ 



erichtcte l-rklaerun/ 



Greys bestreitet T-'acdonalds These nicht ^ 

In 7ranl<:reich var r^i^ Kritik ;i':naechst ;.uru eckhaltend. Lin begeisterte)^ 
Lübredner "^'ar -^^enri de' Touvenel, der locarno als dar> c^^^zhte historiGche 
Ereignis der 'Tachkxle^rs^fschichte bezeichnete ( Tenps l^. Oktober) 



r>t 



eor'-es i-andel ''•''evue •'^ebdomadaire, riover^bre \'>\i^)\ Leiitschlands ein- 



facher- Beitritt zun Voelkcrbun'i vuer'U £;enaeüt hüben, um u3 1e alo positiv be- 
ute 
trachteten Lr^rebnisse zu erzielen. "T'ai^ n' est-il .^as une belle habii^xÄ^ de la 



s 



art 



de la T.llhelnstrasse d' etre ainsl parvenue a se faire de-iander com-e^ un 



acrifice,ce qu' eile avalt le plus C^und interet a solliclter ." ... Au 'esir 



/ 



de paix.on aura sacrifie les "aranties les jIus ce 



irtaines de la jjaix. Les Allf 



-ands n\ont ete que olus encoura^es dans 1 eu- effort de de£tru.ct ion^ a.s trui' 
te's. AU neu de desar^ner , ils se sont ^is en quete dejious desarner St l l'in- 



sti^ation de lord D'Abernon qui a souvent paru plus occup 



^^ L de= int^rJt. ^=^ 



\ 



'- \ 



r^aniques que de ceax des All.1 ee,::. Jtreßenann a fait cptte propositl on du fe ' 
v^rier par laquelle I^'^riand a eu le co^i.race ''e le fellciter ^u.n2 son diccours 
'^e cloture d^. la Conference 'e I.ocarno, . , , , , ^jae* nous s^'rvirait des lors la 
promesse britannique au 3ujet -le la ^rontlere du Ilhln? Poarrions nous laoser 
ecraser la Polo^ne et la ?ohecoslovaqni e?. . . . J.ocarno l'a tout a la fois eni^a."^ 
gee et liberee. 7.n lui inoo^ant des devoirs jrecisjle ^aote rhenan qui est le 
seul auquel eile ait consenti '^dadherer,a nettcrient delinltc las tres rares 
circonstances :^.ans lesquelles eile faudrait intervenir . . . II n'e3t pas possi- 

s 

ble de concilier plus habilor^ent des avantac^s 'C la politiqiie du splendide 
isolement avec les jarantir^s de la pol^.^irue de l'entente cordiale^'» 

Georges 3celle (l'Inforpatl n Z\."^oy.]: "TI'. Luther et Gtresemann, repris . . 

oar 1' ar^>^1 ance riei^? t1 que 'es lüttes int erfract innelles, influences par la 

\ 

vi^lente oppocition des national] stes, ont perdu^a I'erlin, une partie de la 

serenite qu^^ 1 eur av^ait ins^ire le ciel entrevu -'^ ^ I.ocarriO... luh Jj-lena^ne, 

W 

il fau^ le con^ta^^r ave? "^er;ret,ce qu^ 1 ' on envlsac^j^^^ r*e?t pas le :<='U l^ic>a*" 
f a1 sant des acoor^s .eux-nemesjc* r^st da repercussfon qu^oa cn attend. Ze oul 
orouve n-xe le snuci -^.^^ uicif icat 1 on generale est r^oins pui?.--ant quo celui -e 
la liberation r?<=.s entraves du raite '-^e >^^ •d'^l^s.^ 



ratf=j"decMlioh lejt.A r?5e K^ich^re.::^ erv.ng in der ^'eichsta^sdebatte ue^eK 
die ^Ratification von locamo [2o-2^ r^overihf^.r] '^as Ilaupt^ev. ic>it auf die -- 
nicht im Y^^rtraK fixierten, aber von -r?an^ un** 3hanberlain jes^.r aechsveise 



verBorochenen^:^.''i'=^c'-r^-l^Vun-*r^n" un^ brachte -^a^it Hric^n'^. in frosr.e «^erl 



e^jen- 



)f 



heit. L'en deutr;chf=^n Jt an-'pun'ct in der Locarno-''^^'rape dru^r^v^^ '"^^r VolVs 



fct • , f* 



fij,^ u 



r p^ 



eily 



Scholz a^ b<»3ten aTj?? rv^it peiner -^e-f^uerT.'ortuni^ der ^Ratification; "Li'-- '^•affe dei 
starken int -^^^-^ Kriep;,'»e^ o'-^'-'Utz '*<^' Sch^'ac'-rr' i^-t -^er •^'"i'^'^e." 



1. leicr^ber 1125: jnt er::eichnuns d^s Locamo-^^ertrae^e '- London, (Tires 2.iy 

ixtutx^x L-rther; ''iVelco^o ^r^^ ^^^ rhn-rt heart ^'in -ajest^V^ conviction that 

1-^e •^onnda'^'"-^'^ 
I-^carno '^ilT b^ a ^^"'orV o^ paclfication ar.--' reconc51iat lon as -^ 




L.i^ 







M;^..''^ 




t» -• 7 1 



.^ s real ^rlem'sliin ^et-e.n th. n^tlons repre3«nted,h.r.,-hat furthernore 

:;n-e ^'-^t ^eac? -HiC- all" peoples '^o nreently n«e^. as a T^acis of their 
. T.« earncstly ho^^cmreo^er, t'^.at the ^ishes p^xo r e s r? e d by the .'^rit-.ah 

i -n Affairs r>ay "be fulf ille-Uriore sjeciallj as reg 



recovery 



3f!crctar.7 of Gtate for ?orc 



aros the rel3t.lon3 "between - country an-' t-^ -ation^ renre.ented here....Ul 
,eo,l.s mst untte to rele^atc V^^^^ejndi..^ and thtä^l.t?nit Ki^^rder to . 
o.er. >-he Tay to;a f:ture -1eTel6pnent Ir, -hich r. r^n.t all oollabo-.te... . -.^.«n 
rore i'^portant t>.an the con^,?nt^,of tne •tr'-:aty t» .^ enor, ,.. nt 
In the rorld,T.nst be t^^.e nn^ty of nnrpo.e - -or^ neac^fn^y to,.ther,rhioh 
fin^s .xore.slön in th. ro-c .' T.oca^-no. ^-r^any to-day jladl./ onc. nore i-^en- 
tiries her3.elf rith this ror^< in har^onjt vi-, v.^ .re^Tion. attitude and her . 



he rreat Treaties ?'hic9 



ovn initiative." 

^-i.an-l: " It i? not rlt^-o-it e-^of on *hat I -hall sijn t 
are ^^..tin.d,to dra^ the nations o^ Luro.-,c cloeer to^.t-e^ an^^ to narv the in- 
n;ration of an era of p.ace -.ich correspon^s to th. nost profoun^ r.el inc3 



au. 



.atlon-^ 7ho suffered so terribly in th'e var." 



an-^ to the desires ■'^■*' .^l"- th-i na' 

genesch: -In the na-e o' t^e -ore-nrert o^ the :zeohoclovahian "cpuhUc I ass- 

.ciate.-/.elf -Ud. the nohle v,ords spoken hy t-. .:hancellor,^!err Luther and tU 

.•resident of Council :'.3rian^. . . . T have come rlth the conviotion that by nur 

Signatur, to-.ay -e shall inaururate a Ion., perto.' o- peace." -enesch a..ch 

sonst sehr enthusia-,ti-.ch nebe- 'ocarno. 

^'ach Unterseichnun: -^^ankett beir. Ior1 Tayor. • , • , 

3riand; The s,ir5.t of .cli^'arlty takes the place o- that of distrust and sus. 

picion. It. 13 not by an accurmlation o' -..;c.i.t^ 

'•^oo.sible but by the bon-^s of nutual asnistance and huran soHdarlty 



^.trenrth t^at i^^ "^op 



"-oj^-'^ to ren/'er T^r 



■Vi 

1 



I 




KM 



re?--nc.in: "To^sther Tith the convulsions <^^ "^he rorld War emer'^e'i the one 
fact that a connunity of fate "bin^s un to,one anotVier. If ^/e ^o nnder,re go x 
ander t02;ether;if v:n roul^ rise ^e cannot -^o 30 in conflict v'ith each other^ 
"bu^. only by ^'orkinL: torether, Accordinjlly v'e cannot a^f ord, if "^ e believe u,t k 
all in t>^e fut^re o-^ our • nat long, 1 live in ^iscor^ an^^ erinity rith each athef* 
but v'e r?n<5t join han'3 in a ^'ork o-^ jf=^neral Cooperation, ^nly then vill it be 
oossible to \3:j t^^e foun^ations fo"^ a future of vhich you 3aid,!'.-ör iand, in ^'0)^7^ 
vhich I can onl;y endor3e,that it nuBt proceed fror rivalry to cultural develo^-' 
^ent. The jreat najorit'^ of t^f -^er^an ieo-)Te are in favor o-^ this oeace. 3up** 
ported b/ th!^ v'ill for ^eace ^'e af^ix oiir f^icnature to thi«; treaty. It rill 
usher in a ne^ era o^ Cooperation botreen nationn/' 

3chon arr "" . "orenber l'SS raren ^ie in T.ocarno- offfiioes beTil listen 



Lrleichterunsen fuer r?ag "best^^t. 



t-e j,...-h< 



Let Ir ".raft getreten. 



^ 



f 



7, 



i 



Sin ^eutsc^er "^eichsko^riissar. fuer '^a3 l:^entrte jebiet (lanererth v^on 3innern', 
funktionierte :inXnx francoeGich-en^liEher An^rkennim^; ^eit 7. roverbcr 

?!• Tanaar" l"^::": Raenriin-.: ^7 er ersten ^one, 

3r>rlinGr • 

Luther hatte an ll.r'ovenber 1^2^ ir '^prein iJCMXxakiir Taufleute und Inciustr^' 

eller tT-esagt :. ( l^'rank-fnrt'^r-eTtijrrl' ."or.'f 



4 



o^, ^Frbraar -3.'**aerLj Locarnc^ehatte in der rrun^.ooFic^l'^en rarrmcr. 
nno application partielle -leB ^irlncipes du:^ protooolc a oertain<^.s hypotHeces 



," e j;r aph i qa es* et 



le rmrite ''.'-- r.^r!and"ci cte ne vaincre la resintarjce 'le'l 



Ane;l<r;terre a ieö en^^ac^^ncnts nniveroels pamr l^ar'f-ner a ^les eri^a^er'ents limi- 
tes,et de conc"it ionner ?.a sijnature des accorda rhenane u la ßi^naturf^ ^^' 
traite i' arbitrac^e concrmant ] es -^^ont i^-r^^B orlentales. . . .TV a^ressear evcntu^ 
el contrp lequel sont to.irnecs les Forces, est anori/ir;e. I,a \raleiir Inconparable 
du pacte rhenan,c'est qu'il a cor'cle la lacune de l'article IT. ...r^er arr5ve 
a la cu'^stion -^s ^rontieres or^^-ntales. Ic^leö ^raitec sont iroino> ne.tä cpae 
le jacte rhenaxi.... oi ."^ e voub denan^'^e cepen^'ant dt voter la rat if icat lon- c' eJ, , 
parce quM.1 ne fant pas consi'^^erer les ^aits seuls.mciis qu^ il curvient de re- 
cherch^^r', quelles uar^iit i-s nouj? aviona auparavant . . . Tes traites orientaux re- 
jresentent leux caracteres de fa^'^^lesse relative (::-ir.r -deutsche Garantie, 



/ V 



• • 



'<eine derül .Uä^isiört c Lone], Juis :• repete: qu' avions-nous aupära'/cs.nt? •' 
Tean ^abry; " (^u' avions-nouB aupara'/aüt ? '.wM- avions le traite de ■/ersailles 

et en ^articulier les articles 12 <^t -i? J.es accor^^s ftaoliasent une clao- 

si^icaticn entre les ^^an^ers de ^uerre, 'anders I oiritains . . . et :^an_ers irntdi 
atxs . en •lernier resscrt,tout -^epen?^ du jU(_,er.ent qae ^urtera ] ' .Uii^leterre 

s'Jir la Situation." 

f ' ' ' 

.aroel riaisant: " Les accor-^s -■'e 'ocamo ont ete l'objet d/ int er^;i-etatiou 

MTerentes .".an-i l^s -'Ivers .^a/s. les '.ms s' en r^^ferent sartout a l'esprit de 



=\ 



V / 



I,oGarno,les autros =t la lettre ^^\ traite.- 

Toseph -^arthe'leny: " ^;,i wn jour les arnees alleran'ifts se diri^ent a r;arches t 
forcees nach ^^ari3,il faut que ncis a-yons autre chcse a ^aire cntendre que le 

1 de par Locarno' la paix est a l'ombre 



si:!iple af.firnation 'l'acte est nu 

de l'ejee. " - 

I.riand: "C'est une r.aitresse exi^eante r-ir la .paix,pluö exi^eante 'que la 
guerre, ,- . 



? 



\v 



^INWapPIPpnWM^SSWR^'i**!»-:«! -;■;■ fiP "»^ "^ 'i'^ •»" 



Je a'exaÄ'e 



ere pas la portee de l'afcte de T.ocarno, ^ 



e connais selö lirites,Je 



dirai toute-a -^l^heure ses lacanes;r:ais je sais ausai ce c^u* il contient de 
rassuranCx. Ge gm' il / a de neilleur ,r^* entendez-vous? c' est qu'il a donne la 
con-^iance aux peupT <^ 3, , . A locarno nons avons parle Luropeen. C'est la langue 
nouvelle qu' il faut "bien que l'on l'apprenne. Tocarno c' e&t une tarriere cont»- 
re IMrreflexion. locarno c'es^ la necesBite de discater. C* est poar les peup-* 



les la po-^silDilite de sc donner une raison ''e ne pas tomber aveu^leneüt les 
uns s'ir les autres/' ' • 



V 



ranklin-^ouillon ( pr(^si'''ent de la corri3s>on ''.es affaires etranjeres): 



'• locarno est une exp^'-rienoe; il ^c^ut la tenter,.. locarno ne ^eut vi\rre qu' 

V 

a/ec la bonne foi entiere et la bonne volonte de l\tll erahne, et Je croirai 

que les Allenan's sont pr^ts a realiscr votre oeuvre,T\ Ir President de Consc/^^ 



/ 



le lender^ain du jour ou j'aurais connalssance qu'on a. prorionce,ci la, tribune 

du -^eichstao* ^in ''iscours conme le votre. •• ^ ^ 

Bria-"' ist ne'ber dieser, ötich s^-hr au.f^ielDracht. .^ber I^ran'.cl in-:'ouillon,vie 

alle Vorr(]ener , sin-', ^uer at if ikat ion. 

^aginot verkuerK-let Lnthaltunj seiner -^rinpe. 'Die Opposition konint rit Louis 

Marin i,-> '.'.ort, der dessen Rede i"- fenps fast vollstaendig nnterschlat^en v,lrd. 

Anna^i^e der ^'atif ikat ion 41? _^e^en 71. 






•t: 



ffu- 



zo 



-.-jfViteV'^^aso wir in'ien Voelkftrbuni eintreten noec'hten,T"uesnr:n ^ir ein 
l^vipn hegrnesnen ^^u^^r •-'ie TrVenntni«^ ^^r ^rp'^^en Rerierun-en.^aj^s eine -^e- 
^^^xn-^^incT yMVOo&.n ohnp ein c^l eic'^'herrchtigte«? '['eutscMan^ un^^en^^bar i??t. 

Th^ ?armer? Loan an^ ^Vitst : or^ o any , '>^- :^^rV yr ran-^taltete eine Un:frcise 

ueber T.ocarno. ' 

-Ts^,-^^,^ ant^'ortete: *'(^r]^, i^ r)f=iver r^^nre o"^ havin^ eMninate^ all the riskn of 
,,^^.^^^ yyr, ''HTiht, also, cause«* of conflicf^; re^-ain in other parts of ZLorope. 
^ut rhat thes- -^reatien of^er -i- i* « tv,« oertpi-ty that the rery i-iea of rar 
ig c':n'^e"'ne'^ hj all To^-ers ^>^o nre partn^-^i to tbe si'nature , " ->? 12. 
-tre»e'"^nn? "The rost imno-tant oolitico-econoT^ic rer^-ilt is ^ore^h^'^ov'o'i in 
the finsl '^rotocol of Tocarno itr^elf: universal ^ isarF-arent . Tt roäl-^ >^^ nn- 



•i 






«MWHPMPPP 



Houbte'^ly -lelf-'^ecepti-'- f^ .-^ssnne t^nt a -»a-ic -^or-nln ha-^ heen ^iscovere'^ 
at Tocarno i-hich r>^onl'^ -"^l.re.at orn^ «t.rnVe,P-^H to ^veryone'p nati'^faction, 



thi«. ynr^ttfn -T.^-bl»m T'h^ch ^o-.inate5, the whole polit^-^al an-^ econirnic ^^evel Or- 
ient of the 'lay. " A-erika sei an rier .?.ntTaf fnun- interr.ssiert . f> ,_ 



]v'upsolini: " It is a poli^ical instrurent ü^ the s 



ort -.hctt in the unite. 



V 



o 



^^ AT 33chlus3 des Ruhr konflikts 

?Tach r?en be^^incuneslosen Abblasen <^es passiven V-iderstandes schien 
ier Ruhrkonflikt nit einer. Siege ['''rankr^lchs un-l der eindeutigen ?.Tieder- 
lage -Deutschlands zu endigen. Ttaran aenderte zunaechst die mit Frankreic/jj 
zustirmunj erfolgte Ilinsetsung einer ^achrerstaenri.igenkon^enz nichts. 
API ''. Januar 1924 trafen Da^'eg und Tounc'^ie aneri'<ani sehen Jachver- 
staendigen, in .'aris ein. 

11. ."^anuar 24: l^ranzoesisch-beljische rote ueber einen I'o^us irivendi 



unter Aufrechterhaltung ^er x'faenr'er. 



14. 



Januar: Sitzung des 1. Sachverstaendigenausschusses ( Lur H^rstell 

des 3u^jetj;leichgev.ichts). 2av;es haelt eii?e7pr ovo kante 



Hede, in der er den "nationalen Hochmut" fuer die iCri 



se 



v-erantvortlich nacht. Aber die Arbeiten '^es Ausschusses 
gehen in ^^er von Poincare geriesenen Richtung, die Zahlungs 
faehigkeit Deutschlands f« st zu st eilen, ohne r'ie politisch- 
militaerlschen -^'Vagen zu behandeln. 
21. Januar. Sitzung des z^^eiten Ausschusses unter Vorsitz von I'ac I'enn^i 

(^ekaemofunj r?er ^Kapitalflucht ^ ""ieser Ausschuss leistet 
die positive Arbeit. Sein "Bericht, vom 1. Ausschuss ueber- 
nonmen und leicht korrigiert, bildet den eigentlichen 



29. 
5. 



"Dav--esplan" . 
Januar: beide Ausschuesse in Berlin. 



f 



l'aerz -Botschafterkonferenz ueber Tilitaerkontrolle. Deutschlan^is 



r. 



Verfehlungen un4 irrtnenliche Auffassungen Verden f rstgest eliü^. 
dabei aber '/ereinfachuneen unH i;in3Chraen^<un£en der Kontrolle 
vorgesGhla-en. Reichsreeierune einv rstanden. 
?Tachdei?i Macdonald 'Ue ^'^en;ierunc uebernonmen hat, ist er bemueht sich mit 



■) 



oincare noeglichst freundlich zu stellen. 

$. Maerz: /Tacdonald er'<laert im TTnterhaus, sein Liel sei "tp stabi/- 

lize i;urope and to assure that the Just demands of 7rancd. 



mma^ — 



will be satisfiefl. 



n 



<*'^ 



(/.. 



27. feerz: Macdonal'"» v-e4(jert sich, Hie I'ICUI! Vertrae^e zu nissbillicen. 
0. April 1924: Gutachten der bei-^en Ausschuesse. "^uestions of nilitary 
occupation are not mithin our terms of reference. Our plane is based 
upon the assunption that existinc measutes, in so far as they hanper 
that activity ( des Davegplans) v;iil be rithdra^n or sufficiently 
iTiodified, . . . an^ that they v'ill not be reinposed except in the cane 
of fla.:rant failure.'' Der Da^'esplan forderte also keinesve^s -aeui^ung 
des Ruhrjebiets und sah auch riederholte nilitaerische Sanktionen vor, 
roincare' ist daher sehr befriedigt, r.r schreibt an 14. April an -acdo- 
nal'1, 7:n2lanri nn^ Frankreich seien darueber einig, ''ass die Ruhr nur 
eraeunt v-erde"a nesure '^es paienenta" , un^ er faehrt fort: "Vous 



g 



/ 



avez bien voulu -?ire a TT^ Theunis et Hynans que, '^ans 1» eventualite 
d'une rupture -^es en^^acenents contractes par l'Allenagne, celle-ci 
trouverait devant eile inflexiblenent unies.conne elles le furent pen- 
Hant la'cuerre, 1' Anjleterre, le ^elgique et la France.- Tewps 29. Mai 24. 
::iese E-kla rang hatte I-acdonal-^ tatsaechlich den belgischen rinistern 
a^£egeben,v,'ie er am <i3 . -^ai bestaetlgte. 

15. April: ?oincare feiert auf einen "Bankett der Tonnart-^-artei das 
Sachverstaendisengutachten,''as beweise, dass !)eut3Chland seine ^ahlungs- 
unfaehi'^keit betruegeri-^cherreise h^-rbeicefuehrt habe und sehr v:ohl in 
'^er -age sei zu zahlen, ^ine franzoesische Regierungserklaerung von 25. 
Aoril ruehnt das Gutachten als "unparteiisch un^ reali^-tisch" . Sie be- 
gruesst ^ie Zustinnung .^er *^epko,Hie :in 11. April grun.^saetzlich und, 
nach der ZustiTinunr ^er -eichsre-jierung von l^^Vpril, an 17. April faktis/^ 
erfolgt T^'ar. Die andern alliierten ^^e^iernnpen st innen • eoenfalls an X;& 
. 35. April ^zu. /" /^y /^*^ ^^ ^^^^^^ , 

1. 7uni l')24 Ruecktritt Poincare4. 11. ."uni -^eseitiTung rilleran^s. 
*13. 7uni Dounergu? zun Praesifenten der ^'^epublik rev^aehlt. ("icht 

?ainleve,der ICanii^at Herriots). 



J. 



(•' 



( 



in^.i.ohen hatten am 4.ral T!eicMtac.'>aM en stattjefurt^en, «e nach .'er 
Tines vo. %Ual "«10« ermtl^.n." a...eefallen -'aren. (Seutsch.-Kati.na 
le 00 .tatt r,% ,o..iallnten ICO ,tatt l~t, 5er,o!.raten 2? .tatt 39, 
TilHspartei 32 statt 43,IConr!unisten '"VJ statt is: 



22. Wal Herriot enpfaenct /"ertreter les 
-neue Politik' -^ .r Versoehmme" an. 



kuendiet 



21-22. 



Juni. Zu.an-.enkunft nerrlot-rac^onald in 'Ihequers. 

Kach .euter • freundliche un. inti.e Aa«snrache- . .acdonald 

^ . -^iniri^eit" ford rt aber Zugestat^ndnisac an 
betont "unbeugsame i:.iniii£eii , loru 

^ , -. j ' „«^Vi^f^m ''eutschland am 4, l^ai 

ein pazifistisches Deutschland .nachdem ^eutsc 

geicaehlt hatte). Von Chequers aus vird an , ■ , ^^ 

; .vr. T-ote an -eichskaniiler u'arX i- eschicr;»'^ 
22. .Tunl eine englisch-franzoesische >.ote an 

^ ,1 Avtivita--* nilitaerischer und nat]o- 
,ne Bcunruhißune ueher die Aktivita-- nixi 

nal^sti.che^ Organisationen in Deutschland ausspricht. 

\.^Y-fie «Ich nur um Orjanlsat ion/(, 
50 .-uni F.elohsregierur.ü antwortet, es har.dle sich 

... ..oer.erlicnen Xrtuechti.un,. . Indessen sei die LrMtterung 
• .eher «e Huhrhesetzunc In ..utschXand aU^eneln un. nicht a.f 

l^ationalisten beschraenkt. 



26. 



. • ' vot i-n ^er rariner ueber Gheauers. "II fallait 
Juni: Herriot bericntet m der Kar^nex 

te interalliee et 



•>, 



') , Juli 



choisir entre le retablissenent de l'Lnten 

.■ ^ ^oniee " Tn Ghequers sei ueber die 
le naintien d' une action isolee. .n^^ 

V „. ♦• i An c-irherh'eit verhandelt 
interalliierten Schulden, Separat ion,.ic,i .. e 

, -le VuB'ueh>-un^ des :.av:splans sei an die Ruhr-Raeu- 

V . ft -)iese lrt;:te J^nthaellunß erregt Sensation x 
mune seknuepft. Diese iex.*.oo 

•T • t r.-hirett Auf seinen Hilferuf koir.nt 
und efefaehrdet .lerriots j-abmett. a*^ 

,,-p o-5ni p "^oliti .er ein 
A '•■ii .• nach Paris, um auf einige -uj-j---^ 
i'-acdonald ar 5 . -uli naca .d.xx., 

v^^.- -Int Wren 3eydoux repariert 
zuvirken und einige xu..KLe ^u 
eini-e Sohaeden des -.V«r.ens von Sheciuers. ir, 

■ ches AV<on.en «e.er -.urohfueUrun. des Da'*« 
enrliscb-fransoesisches ^b^onrnen 




r 




A... 
ät 



( 



plansidas die eventuellen Geldgeber beruhigen soll, indem es ein"Re^ime 
des Vertrauens'* schafft . ••lUne gev-ollte "^Uchterfuellunt:' vichtigerer Art 
Vv'uerde indessen sofoert die p^aje der Aufrichti^^keit ^Deutschlands auf- 
rollen." ^ 
Herriot erv'artete Englands uegenleistung zu seinen ^ujestaendnissen von 

i^^acdonal^^s Versprechen, '^as '^ann in ''C-enfer Protokoll" "estalt annahn, 
aber nicht sur- Ausfuehrung gelangte, s. u. p. 5 Schluss. 
16. Tuli-lo. Au jast Tonferenz in Tonc^on 

• 1 ■ I II»»— »^ II II I I ■ II « M l I mmmmmmm, «iii i ■ i i n ■ i i ■ i l lii i 

An>^esend: I'acdonaldjSnowden, 7.-^\Thonas, Sir Lyrie Crov*e ^i:.njland^ 

T-Terriot jClenentel, >^neral TTollet, ?eretti della Iwocca 
Le otefani,!:ava,Della Torretta, Pirelli ( Italien) 

.Theunii^/T/r?ans , t^aron Iv^oncheur ( Belgien^ 

Ha/achi, Ishii (7apan) ,sov;.!e Je ein Vertreter 
x^ortu^^cilsf hurnaeriienü, Jri echeulaiius und rufe,0 3laV»'iens . 
Kuri. vor Beginn der Konferenz ^-ar Kughes in i:uropa eingetroffen, um auf 

He riot staerksten Druck in der Raeunungsfrage auszuueben. D'Ahecnon* 






X 






rance 



) 



c 



11,33. 



/ / 



In der Lroef funesans^^rac'ne fordert J*acdonald "que l'unite econonique et 
fiscale de l'^llera^ne soit retablie" und "une Garantie adequate 
puisse '^tre donnee aux creanciers ( der I'av^es-Anleihe ) . Belgische^ 
C^raubuch ^a Conference de J.ondres, 

' Herriot: '• II s'agit fie concilier des interets des peuples qui ont 

/ 

soufert profondenent et longuenent d'une guerre atroce 



\ 



avec lr>s necessites de retablir la paix. 



II 



25. Juli Macdonald an Herriot: Lie -^^atur der von (Itn Banken gefor- 

derten Garantien lassen die Raeununj; vuenschensV'ert erscheinen« 
27. 7ali: Herriot erhebt keine erundsa^^tzlichen bedenken, v.enn die 

7ra^'en der interalliierten Schulden und der aichcrheit 



FI 



it dem Plan verbunden rerden. Facdonald danit einverstan 



''en. 



y 



I '«■./.'"■ M 



c 



^ 



( 



5. August: Hintreffen der deutschen Vertreter Marx,3tresenann, luthe/) 

von Schubert. . 

11. Auj;ast: '^eutsch-franzoesischer Meinungsaustausch. 

13. Au just: Herriot erklaert, ia53 Ruhrgehiet verde ffoechstens ein 

^"^ahr nach Anvcendunj -'es Gutachtens zx£.&1^j^ e;;eraeurnt 
v;erden. Tuther besteht auf Ablcuerzunj der -'-^'rifit. Kanp.f 
um unnittelhare ^'aeunung. I\;ello<^IJ.5.3oti3chaft^:r in 
London} un'^ Macdonald unterstuetzen Herriot . '14. Aujust/. 
Herriot: aeusserste's Zujestaendnis: -3e^inii der -^aeunung 
ein -ahr nach Hnt erzeichun^; des Schlussjrotokolls der 

i 

Londoner T'ionferenz statt nach Anvendung, des Plans. 
15. Aujust: -i^acrlonald fuer Ahkuerzunj der "^aeur.uncsfrist» ^;fH3: l^iE Mfc S K 

3iSL}Vlj^s^xjf:yi^Jijüi'iii.nÄSMxx^Xx ^ ^''erriot ^ibt nicht veiter nach, 
unr" in ler ■'"acht von 15. suw 16. Aueust erklacren sich die 
Deutschen nit "^erriots "'"ermin einverstanden. 
13. August- -acdonal^ an Herriot: Lie britische "'e-ierung hat nieirials 

die ^echtnaes3ii;keit der Ruhrbesetzunc anerkannt. Sie 
nimnt bloss Kenntnis von der -deutsch- franzoesischen Lini- 
ijung. ^Tnt erzeiöhnunr; des ochlussprotokolls • 
Voraussetzung fuer 'Ue Anvendunr; der r'riit sehten sind, nach Pranzoesis/^«- 
gri tischen iiemorandun von 9. .^uli 24: 

rLeich3tac;s"beschluesse und Proriuljation der notwendigen ''esetze. 



^ 



Installierung der Kontroll-un-^ Ausfuehrun^-gor^ane 
Definive Tonstituierung der Reichsbank und ^^eichsbahn 
Ueber^^abe der Zertifikate un^? Ob/i^ationen 



ueucT kacdunalds 




Abschluss ueber'?^CO Millionen doldnark Anleihe. 
1. September - <.. Oktober Voelkerbunds^'/erliandlun^en 

Plan kollektiver Sicherheit ' -^enf er Protokoll'. 
10. Oktober 24: Ruecktritt ilacdonalds. 15. TToveinber: Austen Chanberlain 
gegen das Genfer ?rotol<oll . IR. T^ebruar 1926 : Britisches -^Kibinett 
lehnt das Protokoll ab. 



r^.1. «,1* 









,*"*• r" ' 



* /^^i 



i 



i 



^■■^ V 




l' 



lieutcich land s Eintritt In d e n Voelkerbmid 
Zu den deutschen Gegenvorschlaeeien gegen rias V«^^rsailler Vertragsinstrur, 
hatte auch ein Antra<j amf sofort i^^e Aufnahme in den Voelkerhund £;ehoer 
Nach dessen Ablehnunc kan keine deutsche ^^e^ierung auf einen derartig 

Antrag aurueck. (Vilson hatte l>eutt=?c^i3and Bofnrt aufnehmen vvolien. Lansi 
The reace ^^egociat ion?? p. '<?3-47) 
In ooptenber 1920 stellte Totta den Antrag auf I^eutschlands Aufnahne, 11 

v.'i'^ersprach Viviani heftig un<^ brachte den Antrag ;:.un Scheitern. 

Im 7uni 1022 hahn das britische ^abinett '■len Plan auf. "Reearding the 
Lea..-ue of T^ations.Tloyd "eorce v'as decidedly of opinion that Germany ou 
to be broujht in. Tt v-as essential that the v'orld should leara to treat' 
Germany again an an equal." L' Ah rnon 11,45^- ir:.7unil9^2 

21 ..""uni 22 notiert D^Abernon in London: **The question of C/ermany^ s 
entry into the Leajue of I^ations is beconin^; urgent, and is being much 
cussed here in C^ove^nment circles. 11,46. Tloyd George ist uuch dafuer, 
Deutschland sofort einen staen^^igen -^atssitz zu geben* 

13. "^uli 22: D'Abernon sondiert "^.irth und andere massgebende Politiker! 
V.irth ist persoenlich fuer Beitritt, aber ':^ie meisten andern aeussern ^ 



\ 



A 



25 



1 # 



risstrauen. 

' i ' 

24. .'^uli 22. Ü'Ah'^rnon kla;:t,dass die deutschen nicht die Vorteile seh€|^ 
^ie ihnen aus der :.:it^liedschan in 7oei:<erbund erv.-achsen. 
, Juli. Brief V.irths an 'j'A'bernon. >r Voelkerhun'l sei in Deutschland i 

dacht bestaerktjer sei nur ein Instrument der Sieger. Er werde r^it 
Versaill'^s identifiziert. Keine deutsche i-^ejierune koenne einer 
Orjanisation beitreten, ^ie soff en£ mit '^en '/ers.ailler ■ ^ertra^ ver- 
banden ist. 3ie »uerde -'anit '^en Vertrag nochnils, und diesr-al fr#t 



ho^t unpopulaer. Seine bisherigen :;;ntscheidun£;en haetten den V 



l 






v'illig anerkennen. 
5. Aurust. ^■'oincare, der erst jetzt von -^en englischen schritten durch 

Robert ^ecil unterrichtet r.-ird, erklaert sich r%z^n Deutschlands 



.«i 






\> 



Zulassung, '0\^^'bernon 11, "^s. 



;•' \ 



J 



21. Tfai 1923: Maltzan aeussert sich zu D'Abernon ablehnend ueb 



¥ 



lands 7.intritt in ^en ?un^ . 



^^ _ • 



ere' 



ij 



& 



^■ann ist eine ..eile keine ^^edehehr von '^.en britischen Projekt, ej 

Erst ^aehreni der Lori'^oner Forferen:: im Augast 1924 v.ird der "^edciy 
zv;iachen f[arx,!/acdonald und Herriot "besprochen; 



r( 



4. September 1"^24 : Ilacdonald sact in C^enf: " Leutschland kann nichts 
ausserhalb rles Voelkerbim'^es bleiben, ^^-enn ich eine ^orrrel jebrauc^ 
kann, die nan hoffentlich nicht ni^sverst ehen v.'l.r^.so moechte ich s;' 



l 



15. 



dass '^"'ir ihm nicht r;r statten duerf en, -^rauGsen zu bleiben. Es cibt n, 

' ' • ^ V 

eine einsige -Debatte ueber Abruestun^f , ueher '^"riedensbedin^un^en, ueb|. 
Sicherheit, 3ichcrunj; der Lxir-tenz ^f^-r kleinen ^^ati onalitaeteni nicht 
eine eini^ire p'ro<?se ""^race, ueber die wir ^iekutieren y.oennen '^-ith t^\ 
menacin^ v^cant chair in cur midst/' 
I 5. ^eptem.ber: Herriot; In London hat :>eut3Chla) -'' aus freien Gt^ueckeraj 
sich bereit erklaert, seinen -^eparat lorsverpflichtun^en nachzukommen 

... ?uer unseren Bun'-l soll es keine Ausnahmen und /orrechte ^eben. 

September : "^rithjof :'''ansen verhandelt mit ^arx. n2::>ept. 3tresemann-D^v 
29. September 1*^24: Deutsches ^emorandun. 

'•Unter den gcjebcncn '/crh:iel tr.is jen'^ sieht, die hcichGrcjierung im 

Voelkerbund*' "das aussichtsreichste llttel, -^ie sicherunj: des ^'riedens un^ 



der internav.ionalen Soli'^ar itaet zu verwirklichen.'* ITach^^em ^Vie ^Londoner 
YLon^er^nz ein "gedeihliches ilusammen^^'irken" geschaffen hat, ist die Reic^J 
ref:ierun: brreit zum liintritt. Sie kann aber nicht ohne v.'eiteres iL,ula3SU^< 
beantraG.en, -'a '^^^ichtije ""edenken entge£:enstehen, ^ie sie freimuetig er- 



\ 



I 7i) oertern Till, 




1) ''Ls liert der deutschen *'e£;ierun£; fern,fuer Deutschland besonder^ 
ifüXXÄÄkXÄx Verj;uensti::un2en zu verlangen. Sie ist der .-^nsicht , ^ass das 
Ziel 1er Lntwicklins les "/oelkerb'in-^es nur '•Ue voellije Gleichstellung 
aller in ihn vereinigten .Staaten sein i|fann." Da aber nun einnal eine 
Unterscheidung ^enacht virrtjmuss Leutschlan'1 einen 8taei^r;en Ratssit;: *^ 

for-^ern. 



/ • 



... \ i 



I 



(Ö) 



• I 

2) Artikel 16 der Voelkerbunisalcte fordert Beteilic^nC an zv.'anesrrar 

■ • ! ■ 

gegen PriedenslDrecher. De-itschland. ist iafol^e ^er Begchraenkunj 

V.eht'Tiacht au?r>er stände, an solchen ;;chritten teilsunehnen. -^l 

3) Artikel 1 der Yoelkerbundgakte iracht A'.ifnahne von lirfuell'.ancj in^'i^ 

nalrr Veroflicht-mcen abhaencig. . Die deutsche *'e<3ierunc ist ber.y, 



/' 



6. 



Abjabe einer ent3j>rechen^en l.rklaeruni;." Diese darf aber nicht so 
stan-ien Verden, als ob l^ehauptun^en anerkannt Tuerden,die eine morr^ 
sehe ":!5elastunj; des '\eutschcn '/olkes in sich schliessen." Ausserdc; 

W^ ■*■■ i 

seien die ycrpflichfin-en Deutschlands so gross, dass ihre Lrfuellui|^ 

« 

allein von reuten 'UUen Leuoschlanls .abhacug-t . _ - 

# 

4) Deutschland ervvartet, dass ibn ^-andate zugesprochen ^ erden. 
Oktober na-l: Frankreich erklaert sich nit einen staendigen -atssits |, 

hland einverstanden. Der deutsche Antra^ r^usa aber ohne Vorbe; 



Deut sc 



.-restellt v-f.r-'en. 



10. Oktober. Die englische ''ejierung br^jrnesst das deutsche Vorhuben, le! 
aber Vorbehalte ab. oie ist niit Deutschlands staendigen Ratssits ein 

!0 0t aj.. 



12. 



standen. Die Zutellun.- ist aber 3ache des Yoelxer-om:^e'=!, nicht de 

egicrungen. 

Dezeraber 1 '24 : Zv'eite deutsche ?'ote. ' 

^ena 'tuun • weher Aufnahrr^e -^^es T-'e^orandurris. Aber ^ie Bedenken 



\ 



ir 



l' (tV 



betr. Art. 16 nocht nicht beschv ichtigt . "Der? deutschen ^^eich nuss 
fuer den 7all internationaler Ton^likte -Ue Xoeglichkeit belassen 
Verden, das I-^ass seiner akt iven, -^eilnahne selbst zu bestiranen." 
17. -Februar n 25; k3ie deutsche Toten forrnulieren keine t^edingungen, sende 

nur Dinraende ^egen Art.l''?. 
14. i/^aerz lT?,5r Antwort '^es Voelkerbundsrates. Als Ratsnitjlied v-'ird 

Deutschland Dinfluss auf -He 3!:ntscheidun£en des 3un'ies haben. Vorbe- 
halte sind unzulae3sig,'i.a sie" die -rundlage des ?.undes unterminieren 
' v-uerden. Auch andere 3taaten,^enen ^.uestungsbeschraenkungen auferlegt 




sind, haben vorbehaltlos ihren Eintritt 



': "*> San trafst . 



/ 



ö 



» . - 



2S. Kaerz 1025 ?Ierriot in der i-a,. 

4 Deutschlands Eintritt in den Voel 

'ist die VorbudinguHfe, fuer jedes 1 
Inzv'ischen hatten an 9. -"ebrtiar l925 (iie Verhandluneen beconnen,- 



zum Locarno-Pakt fuehrten. 



ands zun 



16. runi 1^525: Frankreich erklaert. deljTBeitritt Leutschlä 



Voelkerbund suLe Vorbedingung fuer den Sichefheitspakt . 



V 



20. 7uli 1925? Die deutsche/'^e.^ierunp; sieht kein Bedenken, die bei 
Fra^^en zusam'^enhaenL^erKi zu behandeln. 
7. September 1325 Gtresemann -^w den fruohcren i.ron^rin^-en (Verniacc 



\' 



\ 



II, 552' i 

I ■: 



■" Zu der .?raje des Lintritts in den /oelkerbund noechte ich fc'p. 

gen'^es benerk'^m. 

' • Die deutsche Aussenoolit ik hat nach- neiner Auffassung fuer d *. 

naechste absehbare -eit '"^rei grosse Aufraben. 

Zinnal die Loesun: ^^x Heoarat ionsfraje in einen fuer ^euts 
land ertraeglichen 3inne un^ ^ie nicherung des ^'riedens,die die Vorau 
setzunr fuer eine '.' iedererstarkung •Deutschlands ist. « 



Lweitens 



rechne ich ■'azu "".en Gchutz der Auslanrisdeutschen, jery 



\ 



i'i""4 ) 



10-12 L'illionen Gtannesjenossen.-^ie jetzt unfer frenHer> Joch in frerad^, 

Laendern leben. 

Die dritte grosse Aufgabe ist '^ie Korrektur der rst;.;renzen; di\ 
T.iederge"»rinnunG Danzigs,deo polnischen Forridors und eine Korrektur 

-3 er ^renze in Obe Schlesien. # -# 

In Hintergrund steht der Anschluss Deutsch- Oesterreichs, obwohl j^ 
ich nir sehr klar darueber bi -..dass dieser Aüschluss nicht nur Vor- 
teile fuer Deutschlan.^. bringt , sondern das Prob en des deutschen "eichti 

\ 

sehr konoliziert. 

^.ollen v>ir diese Ziele erreichen, so nue;^sen vir ans aber auf dies^ 
Aufgaben konzentrienen. Daher ^^.er Gicherheitspakt, '1er luis einmal den 
ieden gt-.rant ieren un^ England 3orie,^^-enn Mussolini nitnacht, Itali^ 



-^^ 



hT 



f 3Che" 



tFrenze festlecen soll. Der Sicherheit;- 



als "laranten '^er ^ea'J sehen v.estg 

pakt birgt anderseits in sich ^^en Verzicht auf eine kriegerische Aus^ 



^SuB^ 



I «I ma ^ im. > 



I r 



Ö 



r 



-> yj^'' *■- 



i u 



J 
elnaniergetzung rr^it Frankreich y^ecen ^er Rueckcev^innune Elsass-Lq 

ririr^ens, einen Heutschen Yerzichti'ier aber insoveit nur theoreti.^^c 

Charakter hat, als keine roerliohkeit eines Ilrieges eegen ■»'rankre.^. 

besteht. Die n/parat ionslasten.die rier Davesplan uns auferlegt ,ver^^j 

voraussichtlich schon nP.? untra.:bar sein. 'V-ir nuessen r^ann eine n^^ 

Konferenz verlan^jen ::ur "eufeststellun,: '1er de*tschen ^ahlun^sfaeh 



•*9l. 



pie Sorre f'.i'^r iie Auslan^lsdeutscben spricht fuer den ZUntritt irl^ 
den Yoelkerbuni. Auch das Saarland... ist fuer ^en 'intritt. Vir verd^ 
in Genf ^er T.ortfuehrer "ler ^ane.en deutschen ::ulturcereinschan sein _ 



I ' 







*JtkHr''if' • 



Die "bedenken, 'lass v,-ir in '^oelkerbun-^e uebersti^nt verr'en koennen, 

gehen von 'ler falschen Yorau-setruncr aus, ''ass in ^er^ 7oelkeroun-israt^. 

^ ■ "^ \' 

der die ':ntschei^.:m<r hat, eine TTeberstirrun^ Ci^^t. Die ^eschluesae des 

Yoelkerbun^srates nies-en einsti-'nic eefasst rer-^en. Deutschlands stae:, 
dijer "atssitz ist ihn zugesichert, "'^-ev.rx v-ir .jetzt ir Toelkerbundsrat 
raeren,vuerde Polen in Danzig in der ^rare d er Post nicht durchkommen, 
weil der lUnsprnch -'es deutschen 'ertreters jenue^en vuerde, um diese 
Anspruch zurueckzuveisen. ?olenrt!dlp rschechoslovakei, Tucoslav^ien und 
RuTnaenien.^ir saeT^tlich '^urch internationale vertrae :e ^ebun-^en sind, 
fuer ihre :,;in^erheiten,d'h. speziell fuer die deutschen T'inderheiten zn{^ 
sor-^en. Verden sich nicht so straeflich ueber ihre Verpflichtuneen hinv'eß- ; 
setzen koennen, ^enn si<- wissen, -^ass Deutschland alle '^iese 'erfehlungen 
vor en voelk^rband briniren kann. Zuden sin^^ alle ^'iese 7rajen,Hie dem 
deutr^chen '»'olk auf den ^'erzen brennen, z.^. ^ra^en der Kriegsschuld »allse- 
neine Abruestunr:,DanziF:,3aar rebiet u.-..^. An^elef^enheiten des 7oelkerbun4^ 
die durch einen beschickten J^edner in Plenun des Voelk^^rbundes zxx ebenso 
vielen TTnannehnlichkeiten fuer die Lntente Verden koennen. Prankreich 
von le," Gedanker, des Eintritte ^eutscWam^s In den Voel.:<erT,und durohaua 
nicht e„tzueckt,.aev,r.nd Sn.land ihn herteiv-uenseht .unlTankreiohB ueber- 




80 I 




\ 



ragenden Sinfluss ir\ 7oelkerbund entgegentreten zu koennen. 
Keine Option z^'ischen Ost un:^ ^«est. 



ff 



"Lie Ärosse ?5ewe2un^,die jet:ut r^urch die -»^^aturvoelker jeht,cUe sich -ej 
'"^ie koloniale Beherrschune grosser Voelicer v;en^et,v;ird, glaube ich, durch. 
. unsei-en liintritt in den ToelTcerbund in keiner -eise zun Gehaden diesf^r Vt 
ker beeinflusst-. Das Vic^ti^ste ist fuer die unter 1 beruehrte -"rage t^er ^ 

deutschen x^olitik -^ar^. ^Veiv.'er'^en r^eutschen Tandes von frerrider Besetzung, i 

II 

• V.ir nuessen r^en '-urger erst vor^. ^^alse hahen. i^eshal'o v-ird <^ie deutsche Po. 

tiic^^ie retternich von Oesterreich v.ohl nach 1^09 sajte, in dieser -^ezie-> 
hung zunaechst '^arin hegtehen nue^aenjza finascieren wnr^ den t^ossen ^.nt- 
gcbeidunsen an 8zuv>' eichen." 

l.*Dezember l'^r.5. Atschluss des 3icherheitspaktes von Iocarno,der 
aber unjjuelti-: vrir'i, renn *'eutschland "»en '/oelkerhunde nicht beitritt. 
Anlai;e ? enthaelt Praezisionen uehr Art 1^% d^-p Voelkerhun^sakt e. 

3. ^abrjar l'^26: r>er AusVv'aerti^e Ausschuss J.es' "'eichstabS ernaechtigt 
die Keic>^srejierun3, -^en Bnitritt ?;ur. Voelkerhun-^ zu vollziehen. 
•Bayern erhebt ir> -^eichsrat -bedenken, vird £iher uete^^^t irrt . 









■ 3. Februar. Di' -eichsre^iieruni:-; beschliesst einstirräg Absendun^ i 
einer "ote,''ie den liintritt ankuendiiit. 

rachden die ^lote abcssch^ckt 1^•ar, erfolgte aber eine unterv-arte- 

te IConplikation: 

1-3. ^ebr'iar : ^lerrt er'claert in AusVaerti^jen AuBschuss, saemtliche 
j:^artelen,mit Ausnahne der "/oelkischen nn<'^ der T'onrnunisteri, seien bei 
ihrer Zustirnunr zun Lintritt Deutschlands in ^en 7oelkerV;und von der 
/oraussetzuni: austje^^anjen, daES Deutschland einen staen^i^i^en "atssitz 
erhaelt,ohne ^a^dabei veitere ^eraenderun^Ten in der Lusarrnensetzune 

des Rates erfolgen, 

Diese I.ntschlie?!sunc,die bestirnt nicht aus der Intitiative der -ar^ 
teien hervor-esan-en ist, sondern von der "eichsrcEierung inspiriert v.'uT' 




X 



w 



I 



< 



^ 

1 



22x 7 • • \ 

de, richtete ihre Gpitse z^C^tt. ,1'ankreich, das £,leich;ieitig mit 

Deutachland einen staen-'Uijen "atssitz an Polen £;eben vollte. Austei 
Ghamb'-rlain hatte ^riand seine Unterstuetzun^ zu der; .Uitraj zu^esae 
v-ur^e aber nach der deutschon Irklaerun^ von I'^binett ir, Gtich gel 
sen. Robe-t "eceil , A sreat experiment,n4C,p. 17r,.i^o. 

Der ' ^ f» li i i fn II I II i n "^at" des Voelkerbundes V'ar eine Schoepfung ^eci 
die einerr^ praktischen -"eduerfnis entsprang, da ^as Plenum ein Lxecu 
Organ drinjend brauchte. Geit 1122 Var der -at so konstituiert, da 
Lnjland, ''rankreich, Italien und 3eljien je einen staendijen "ert'rete: 
irr f(at hatten, zu denen 6 andere 'ertreter karen,faer deren Turnus 
keine Vorschriften bestanden, so dass r^ehrere von ihnen senipermanent 
v.aren,d.h. inner wieder je^aehlt rurden. Zu diesen jehoerten der 
spanische, brasilianische und polnische «^ertreter. r^a nun die --"efuer 
tung entstand, ^a:3s j)eutschland als staendijes "atsnitglied diesen 
permanenten ^-ieder^ahlen Gchv.-ierigkeiten Fachen vuerde, stellten 

'^ie drei Gtaaten r'en Antrag auf F.rteilun- eines wirklichen staendi?. 
^'atssitzes- 3ie grollten also aus einer jf'erohnheitsrecht ein fornale * 
^ccht nachen. J.as deutsche 7or.:ehen richtete sich in erster Linie gt 

4 

den polnischen ""atssitz- 

1. I^aerz 2o: Louis ^rin in der ^eputirrten kanr-er: I/eutschlands' 

i'riurpf in der Voelkcrbundf raje zeirt seine erste Ausv^irkung in 

der ^aha.idlung Polens. - i 

2, "'arz 26. I'^eichskanzler Luther in "arburg: "Der Locarno-Pakt wird 
erst virksan ^urch den Eintritt Deutschlands in ^.en Voelkerbund. Die Rei//j- 
regierunp hat desv-ejen ^'en Atifnahneantra- ;:estellt,nachder '^er Anspruch 
auf -^aeunung der ersten P.heinlandzone -endlich erfuellt vurde." L. pro- t 
testiert ^e.en Irveiter-mj dfs ^^ates. "T.er auf -'rund bestinrr.ter Abrö^fcn ^ 
seine Aufnahme in eine Organisation beantragt . darf erwarten, 'iiese Orea- 



« 

nisation bei seinen Lintritt in unveraencierter "estalt vorzufinden. 



• • • 



\ 

w 



i 



\ 







Deutschland mugs iie "^rajeiob es in ^en Voelkerbund eintreten soll, ein- 
fach yfon der Lntschei<^un^ darueber abhaengij machen, ob es glaubt, inner- 
ausscrhalb des Voelkerbundes den deutschen Interessen besser dienen zu k 
x\^x\. '^.ird die ^rage des lUntritts aber bejaht, so bedeutet das, dass Ö^ut 
land ^ie grossen ^e^anken des Voelkffbundesjeneinschaft sich £.ü eijen na 
"?uer seine besonderen -Interesocn erv-artet "Deutschland ir Rahmen der '/oel. 
bundsjerrieinschart in gleicher ^-eige ^eruecksicht ijunc un^^ Verständnis, w: 
es sie selbst den Interessen d^^r andern Voelker entge^enbrin^^t ," 

5. ^aerz Abreise der 'deutschen -^elejation nach ""enf. 
^, ^^^aerz Ausse^^ordentl iche Tagung des Voelkerbundes. 

« 

9-1^.. ''"a;:rz "^ erhandlungen ueber -«-atserv/eit erurfg. Die deutsche 
Delegation beharrt auf ihrem ''Rechtsstand pnnkt" und verv:eijert jedes «/"e 

sprechen, in Zukunft ^er Scha'^funj eines staeridigen j\atssitLes zuzustimm« 

17. ^arz '/eto -Brasiliens. Briand beantragt eine ^'esolution des 

Bedauerns, Deutschland^ noch nicht als Pundesmitg] ied begruesoen zu 

koennen. Li -deutschen reisen ab. Tn ::-en'^ hatten d.ie ♦'! ocarnomaechte" 

zusammengearbeitet. Brian'' sagte: ^enf hat sich nicht bevaehrt , Locarnc 

Chambcrlain zu Gtresemann: ""Thenever ^^^e make a co? 



\ 



hat sich bev/aehrt . t? 'ou^instead of acknov'l edging it /ou ask for m 

7rland:^'3y no means a bad systen/* L' ^vbernon III, . 
23. ^aerz : Au:.-ten Chambcrlain im TTnterhaus, rjtresemann im "'eichstag. 

Ghamberlain : "l^eutschlands ^^or'^erung, in ^^n unveraenderten "^'at einzutre 

ten, hat eine neue Lage geschaffen. V.eder vor noch in T.ocarno vvar von' ' 

solchen -3edinj;uggen die rede. ZCs v ar kein schlechter "^'ille -Deutschlands^ M 

aber mangeln-^e 7orau«^^>sicht . 7^^ seien neue Tnstrikt i onen an den britischüi 

Vertreter c.^.z^^{^ v;orden, keinen '*. echsel im Kate zu dulden, der -^eutschlait^^ 

Bpaeteren beitritt unmoeglich macherx vuerde. ( ^ecil p.l73, er sei 

instruiert vor'^en, auf Deutschlands Zulassung zum Kat zu bestehen, kein/*? 

* 

anderen neuen ^»^atssitze zu tolerieren, aber to do vhat I could to satis^ 
fy Sr^ain and "^rasil./ 
otreaenann: Deutschlnn-^ hat sich nicht, zun Voelkerhund c'edraengt . Is hat ■■ 
seiner ''-uer-le nichts verjehen. "In Au3V.'aert i^en Ausschuss hat einer m 





H 



Ferren Abgeorr^neten 'darauf hingewiesen, wie denuetigenrl es fuer "'eutßch- 
lan^ sein wuerr^e,nunnehr vor einer Aufnahnekorinissiori za stehen, einen 
T'^ra^^eho^en aasxxf'iellen zu nuessen, un rerissermassen darzutun, ^^ass es 
vert sei, in ^en Voelkerhun^ aufrenomren zu werben, und hat sehr starken 
^veifel -'^eaeussert.als ich erklaerte, das w-erde nan Leutschland nicht zu 
muten_./:.i'= Kommission ist nach den Satzungen '^es Voelkerbundes ver^jfli 
tet, Fragen an -'iejeni^en -"ationen zu stellen, 'Uc sich un Aufnahne an de; 

» 

Voelkerbunfi vetr^en. Tue erste IComnirjsion hat "beschlossen, nicht nur von 

de^ 'rai'ebo^en abzusehen, sondern von jeder >-'efrHjun{:,unfi einstinni^, zu 

erklaeren,-'a3s li^eutschland S'-. Ine internationalen 7er,)flichtuncen erfueK 

ein 
habe. Auf '^ir=?en "atz let;e ich aus aussenpoliti sehen ruenden ]Q£ji.fijuLo:x 

«ehr P'r^nsec^ ''rwicht, Tahrrlan/r ic?t \r\9>^.r 1/arpf in der Vel-t rjarun je- 
j;an4;en, die Veit ^^avon :l-u ueherzeu^en, ^-isr; Leutschland seine Internat. 

onaleri 7er,jflichtun£;en nach ^^echt \\n^> }?illijkeit erfuelU habe, und inir 

^^ieder ist 'Ues' Tllr^-rla- run^: "»er an-:eblich rrchlechte '.'llle :::eut schlank? 

entrcjenr-esetzt ▼••or'^en. '^uer vielo fra:en,dif- ^ejcnraertiij; schweben, 

?ra~en,iie sich nicht nur auf '^ie Rejarationslei stunden be2,iehen, ist, di, 

se einnuetije Lrklaerung all-'r T-'aechte, dartmter doch fast aller uegner,! 

n croesster Bedeutung, dass sie ohne Jede Befragune Deutschlands, ob 6' 



vo 



sich selbst auf diesen 3Ktandi5unkt stellt, vor der »elt erKlaeren, i^eu 
•and habe seine internationalen Verpflichtungen erfuellt." ,- - 

31. Ivlaerz : Deutschland, obwohl nicht 2an.^esnitjlied v-ird in die 
.udienkonr.i^.sion fu> ^'atsreforn ^ev^aehlt. Seine /ertreter sind Iloesch 




.0'' Gaus. 

15. April., Beginn der '^rbeit 'er Gt'^ienVonrrssion. 

4. jeoternber ^^atsreform beschlog-en ( 15 rit^lie v^r, -lavon 6 staendi 

a-e 3 drei iaehri^e mit T.ier^erv.aehlbarkeit, 3 zveijaehri^^e und 3 



f 

W. 



ein.jaehrii:e) . 
'5. Septemhe- Deutschlands Aufnahre heschlosaen 



10. ^eptenher -^eutschlan 

• Sept. Locarno ratifiziert 



1s T.intritt. -eOen Stre^eranns 



and -Irlands 



» — 

m 




• . ♦- 



[■•♦■ t 



■^m 



l'aRMISTICE du 11 NOVEMBRE 1918 163 

C*eßt seulement une foi» ce d<iJai ^coul6 et les con- 
ditions remplies, que le ravitaillement de Tennemi 
pourra Ätre autorisö, suivant les accords spöciaux 
qui le r6gleront ; 

70 Les prisonnip.s alli6s seront reüdus, dans le 
plus bref dölai possible, dans des conditiong dont 
le detail sera i-6gl6 ult6rieiirement. 



■•■y 



Le 29 octobre commencdrent les confÄrences 
alliöes pour rexamen des conditions de Tarmistice k 
imposer aux Allemands, lorsqu'ils en adresseraient 
la demande. EI'.« üurem liwu, la^.lCl zvi Q^^ai 
d'0r?-7, tanti:t au minist^re de Ir. Guerre, tantöt 
chez le colonel House, et enfin a Versaüles, siÄee 

La premi^re eut lieu au Quai d'Orsay. M. Lloyd 
George, arriv6 la veille de Londrep, y assis- 
tait, ainsi que le colonel House (i), qui repr6- 

(1) Quana on avait un peu « pratiqu^ » K colonel House 
on se rendai 1 1* As bien comp te des raisons qui avaient inciW 
Wilson k lui acoorder sa confiance et möme son amiti* 
Le colonel Hous*^ est un homme trös cultiv.S, particu^ 
li^rement On, dou6 d'une intelligence des plis vives 
^^ courtois. distingu6, qui a retW de ses voyages ä travers 
>j Je monde, et surtout en Flurope, non seulement une pro- 
' ^ 4onde connaissance des hommes et des choses, mais encore 
I .f, ^ des id6es g^n^rales trös d6vc:opp6es. EnOn, il repi^sonte 
^ ^ le type de Thonnöte homme pai excellence, profond6mtnt 
estim6 de lous ceux qui l'ont approchö. Wilson s'^tait 
tr^s bien rendu compte que le colonel avait tout pour 
i^ussir auprds des hommos d'lSut fimgais et anglais, et 
J. !^urtoiit qu'il poss^dait ce qui manquiit surtout 4 'lui 
^V Wilson : la connaissance de TEurope. ' 

II aurait du, par consöquent, s'en remettrt ä lui en tou les 



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164 l'akmistice du H novembke 1918 

sentait Wilson et par consÄquent TAmörique. 

La seance fut assez orageuse. Clemenceau en 
sortit trös 6nerv6, exaspörö mßme, et le soir, quand 
il m'en relata las principaux incidents, il en 6tait 
encore päle d'emotion. 

Dös que la lecture du projet 6tabli par le mar6- 
chal Foch fut terminö, M. Lloyd George et le 
colonel House demandörent la parole et l'on put 
voir alors, nettement, qu'ils 6taient bien d6cid68 ä 
ne pas laisser imposer ä TAllemagne les conditions 
propos6es par la France. M. Lloyd George, en par- 
ticulier, reprit presque tous les arguments exposes, 
ä Senlis, le 25 octobre, par le maröchal Haig : les 
armöes allemandes etaient loin d'etre detruites, 
elles se battaient encore trös bravement ; enfin, 
les arm^es anglaises et fran^aises ötaient trös 
fatigu6es, combattant sans reläche depuis quatre 

mois. Q'^'.'^t ^ l'armpo fivn^r\nn[ir*2^ zllz Ü^Ctait 

T>»o cnc^'^e 3n 6tat de voler de ses prcpres ailes. 
II ne fallait donc pas pousser les Ailemands ä 
bout, mais. au contraire, leur impose* des condi- 
tions acceptables, donc raisonnabl^s. En con- 
s6quence, vouloir occuper la rive'gauche du 
Rhin, avfc des tetes de pont sur ia rive droite 
et reclan.er la livraison du mat6;iel de guerre 



circonstan :es et jusqu'au bout. II ne le it pas. Pourquoi? 
Nous rign irons. D'ailleurs, dös que l'on poussait le colonel 
House h fond, on constatait souvent, chez lui, certaines 
h^sitaliors, certains scrupules, contraires cependant ä sa 
nature d'abord, ä ses opinions ensuita, qui 6taient tr6s 
nettes. C n voyait bien, dös lors, combien il avait de peine 
ä adapt« r les rßveries de Wilson auc röalitös des vieux 
ittats europöens, r6alit6s que lui, co'onel House, connais- 
sait mi(ux que personne. 



i"Ä 






L*ARMISTICE DU 11 NOVEMBRE 1918 165 
r--«Huo oo«v oliwu., .u: CC-.bIii^ vittiiueiit e*ttgeie 

Le coJonel House, sans Ätre aussi absolu, fit, de 
son c6t6, de nombreusea röserves qui 6tonn^rent 
dautant plus Clemenceau que le gönöral Blies 
reprösentant des ßtats-Unis au Conseil des deI6- 
gu68 mihtaires, dans les discussions qui venaient 
d'avoir heu au sujet des conditions de rarmistice, 
8 6tait montri particuliörement dur pour les Alle- 
mands. D6s que l'on avait parlö de l'armistice, il 
n avait pas h^sitö k d6clarer qu'A son avis « le 
moment n'6tait pas encore venu de le conclure, et 
qu il n y aurait lieu de le signer que lorsque les" 
AJJi6s seraient ä Berlin ». 

8int6 par le maröchal Foch 6tp;c'beaucoup trop 
lo lg et que les conditions Hc l'armistice prövues 
pa-les Alhöspouvaient sc rösumir en deux lignes 
dösHrmement total e» d^raobilisanon complöt^ 

J^joute que io partageais con«pI6teracnt 'les 
idees du gönörui Bliss et ne manqua..^ jp.mais l'oc- 
casiop de V. clamer urhi et orbi, surtcuJ aupr^s du 

En vain, Clemenceau d6ploya-t-il toute son 61o- 
quence, toute son ardeur patriotique k essayer de 
convaincre ses partenaires. II n'y r^ussit pas et vit 
bien que, ce jour-lä, il s'adressait k des gens abso- 
lument irreductibles. II demanda donc k remettre 
la s6ance au lendemain et Ton se donna rendez- 
vous au ministere de la Guerre. 

Je vis rarement le President aussi triste, aussi 
soucieux, aussi nerveux que ce soir-lä, et le lende- 
mam matm, en effet, quand je lui demandai com- 
ment il avait pass^ la nuit, il me r^pondit « qu'il 
n avait pas ferm6 l'ceil mais qu'il en avait proflt6 



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166 l'armistice du H novembre 1918 

pour reflöchir longuement et que, quoi qu'il arrive, 
il ne laisserait pas saboter la ^ictoire ». 



Le lendemain, 30 octobre, ä 10 h. 30, M. Lloyd 
George et le colonel House etaient reunis rue Saint- 
Dominique. Le colonel House, sur la demande de 
Clemenoeau, je crois, 6tait arriv6 vers 10 heures et 
put ainsi, avant la Conference, causer longuement 
et seul ä seul, avec le President. Cette conversa- 
tion eut une influence considerable sur les deci- 
sions qui furent ensuite prises. Clemenceau qui, 
ainsi qu'il venait de me le dire, avait beaucoup 
reflechi ä la question pendant son Insomnie de la 
nuit, avait sans doute trouv6 des argumenta 
nouveaux et Ires puissants, car il fmit par obtenir 
de AI. Lloyd George et du colonel que Ton occu- 
perait la rive gauche du Hhin et des tetes de pont 
sur la rive droite. Quant au materiel a exiger des 
Allemands, les representants de l'Angleterre et de 
TAmerique semblerent y attacher beaucoup moins 
d'unportance que la veille. '"I^mpnr.pan n'insipfr» 
ii3i.c^ pao, voyant bicn q\ic Ion arriverait assez 
ficilement a les faire ceder sur ce point. 

Par contre, quand on aborda la question de 
sivoir quelle ville serait choisie comme siege des 
negociations pour le traite de paix et que l'on se 
fut mis d'accord pour une ville situee sur le conti- 
n}nt nieme, M. Lloyd Gporge proposa imm6diate- 
n ent Geneve. II fut faule de demontrer que l'on ne 
pouvait reserver un tel honneur ä la capitale d'un 
pays qui etait reste neutre. M. Lloyd George pro- 
pcsa alors iMce. Clemenceau Hp^Io^o rr.,n in Fron-'% 



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i/armistice du U novlmdre 1918 



ponr rrnechir lon^uornont ot quo, quoi qu'il arrive, 
// HC Imssvrait pas saboter la {^ictoire ». 



!.o liMidoniain, 30 od obre, h 10 h. 30, M. Lloyd 
( ieorircMM lo Colone] Hojise elnierit reunis rue Saint- 
DoHunique. Le eolonel llouse, sur Ja deinande de 
Cli'rnencoai], je er(»is, elait arrive vers 10 lieures et 
jMil aiiisi, avaiit la eonference, eaiiser longuemeni 
ot seul a seiil, avec le l'residenl. Celle conversa- 
tion eilt inif iTifliienee eonsiderable sur les deci- 
sioiis qui tiireiil (wisuile prises. Clemenceau qui, 
ainsi qii'jl venail de nie le dire, avail beauconp 
rellerhi a la qih^slion pendani son insornnie de la 
niiil, avail sans doule Irouve des argurnenls 
Moiiveaux et (res puissanis, rar il firiil par obtenir 
de AI. IJoyd (;,^orrre et du colonel qiie Ton occii- 
piM-ait la rive ^^iiidie du lijiin et des letes de pout 
sin- la live dnulr. Quant au maleriel a exiger des 
Allcniaiids, \i^<s rcpresenlanls de TAn^rJeterre et de 
I Aincrifiue seniLlerenl y al I adhM beaueoup moins 
d iniporlance que la wille. ^^l'^moTH-onn n'inm'vf'. 
<i -^ i---, »\\v:!!i» bicp. :jl:c ' on arriverait assez 
t i< ilernent ä les faire ceder sur ce poinl. 

l^^• coMire, quarid on aborda la question de 
> VDir quelle ville serait choisie oomme sie^^e des 
n 'uorialions ])our le iraile de paix el que Ton se 
liil Ulis d^R'oord pour une viiie siluee sur Je conli- 
n nt nirine, M. IJoyd (leorge proposa imniediale- 
n eilt ( u-neve. II tut la' ile de denionirer que Ton ne 
pMivait reserver \k\ [A honneur a la eapitale d'un 
p.iys (jui elail :esle neutre. AI. IJoyd George pro- 
p< Sri alors .\.re. Clerneneean Hör.ip»»o ^.,o lo Pr^nr'^ 



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Anna Maria Davis, /^. 



in 1 Kc/» «11 T II tii 









1 C- INTIMA i E FAPERS OF COLON^L HOUSE 

Wilsonian programme, and neither Clemenceau nor Sonnino 
was plcased by the prospect. All Ihree seemed entirely dis- 
mclined to acccpt the Wilsonian programme as a whole. 

•If WC agree upon the terms of an armistice,' said the 
British Prime Minister, 'do we not assume that we accept 
the Füurteen Points as stated by President Wilson? Ger- 
many has askcd for an armistice on condition of President 
W ilson's Fourteen Points being the terms of peace. If we 
send conditions across, it would appear that we accept those 
terms. Therefore we should consider whether we are pre- 
pared to accept the Fourteen Points....! ask Colonel 
House whcthcr the German Government is accepting terms 
of an armistice on the President's conditions of peace. The 
question is: Do we or do we not accept the whole of Presi- 
dent Wilson's Fourteen Points? I am going to put quite 
clcarly the points which I do not accept. Should we not 
make it clcar to the German Government that we are not 
going in on the Fourteen Points of peace?' 

Clemenceau at once stated that he was not inclined to com- 
mit himself and France blindly. ' Have you ever been asked 
by President Wilson,' he said to Lloyd George, 'whether 
you acccpt the Fourteen Points? I have never been asked.' 

'I have not been asked either,' replied the British Prime 
Minister; and, luming to Colonel House: 'What is your 
View? Do you think that if we agree to an armistice we 
acccpt the President's peace terms?' 

'That is my view,' replied Colonel House. 

Pichon bclieved the matter could be pushed to one side. 
' We can say to Germany that we are only stating terms of 
an armistice, not terms of peace.' 

But the British pointed out that it was impossible to 
separate the differcnt portions of the correspondence that 
had been passed with Germany, since the rcqucst for the 



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■%■■: 



INTENTIONAL SElCOi^D ßXPOSüRE 



Anna Maria Davis, ^. 






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J62 INTIMATE PAPERS OF COLONEL HOUSE 

Wilftonian Programme, and neither Clemenceau nor Somiino 
was pleased by the prospect. All three seemed entirely dis- 
inclined to accept the Wilsonian Programme as a whole. 

*If we agree upon the terms of an annistice,* 8ai4 the 
British Prime Minister, *do we not assume that we accept 
the Fourteen Points as stated by President Wilson? Ger- 
many has asked for an annistice on condition of President 
Wilson's Fourteen Points being the terms of peace. If we 
send conditions across, it would appear that we accept those 
terms. Therefore we should consider whether we are pre- 

pared to accept the Fourteen Pomts I ask Colonel 

House whether the Geiman Government is accepting terms 
of an armistice on the President's conditions of peace. The 
question is: Do we or do we not accept the whole of Presi- 
dent Wilson's Fourteen Points? I am going to put quite 
clearly the points which I do not accept. Should we not 
make it clear to the German Government that we are not 
going in on the Fourteen Points of peace?* 

V 

Clemenceau at once stated that he was not incUned to com- 
mit himself and France bündly. 'Have you ever been asked 
by President Wilson,' he said to Lloyd George, 'whether 
you accept the Fourteen Points? I have never been asked.* 

'I have not been asked either,' replied the British Prime 
Minister; and, tuming to Colonel House: 'What is your 
View? Do you think that if we agree to an annistice we 
accept the President's peace terms?' 

*That is my view,' replied Colonel House. 

Pichon believed the matter could be pushed to one side. 
'We can say to Germany that we are only stating terms of 
an armistice, not terms of peace.* 

But the British pointed out that it was impossible to 
separate the different portions of the correspondence that 
had been passed with Germany, since the request for the 



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OPEN CÖVENANTS 



163 



Annistice was conditioned upon the Fourteen Points. ' What 
we are afraid of,' added Mr. Balfour, 'is that we cannot say 
that we are merely interested in the terms of an annistice. 
For the moment, unquestionably, we are not bound by 
President Wilson's terms; but if we assent to an annistice 
without making our position clear, we shall certainly be so 
bound.' 

'Then,* said Clemenceau, 'I want to hear the Fourteen 
Points.' 

*Yes,' said Sonnino, none too well pleased, 'and the five 
more and the others.' 

Thus began the discussion, which at the start seemed most 
inauspicious for House's hope of winning acceptance of the 
Wilsonian Programme. The first point was read aloud: 
'Open covenants of peace, openly arrived at . . .' 

Clemenceau's reaction was not for a moment a matter of 
doubt. • I cannot agree,' he said, 'never to make a private or 
secret diplomatic agreement of any kind.' To which Mr. 
Lloyd George added, with equal brevity and decision : ' I do 
not think it possible so to limit oneself.* 

Colonel House, however, produced the commentary on 
the point, illustrated by a speech of Wilson to the Senate, 
showing that the proposal did not mean open Conferences but 
merely Publicity of results. He was supported by Mr. Bal- 
four, who argued that the intent was to prohibit secret 
treaties. 

The discussion passed to the second point, regarding the 
Freedom of the Seas, which Mr. Lloyd George interpreted 
as the abolition of the right of blockade and against which he 
inveighed with force. 



-,-v 



*This point,' he insisted, 'we cannot accept under any 
conditions; it means that the power of blockade goes; Ger- 
many has been broken almost as much by the blockade as 
by military methods; if this power is to be handed over tp 



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V 



m INTIMATE PAPERS OF COLONEL HOUSE 

Ihe League of Nations and Great Britain were fighting for her 
' no league of nations would prevent her from defending 
licrscif. This power has prevented Gennany from gettmg 
rubbcr, cotton. and food through HoUand and the S^andi- 
navian countnes. Therefore my view is that I should like to 
See this League of Nations established first before I let this 

t'oXSs the tue^r ^^ ^^^^^-^^ '' ^ -^"^^' ' - -"^^« 
Colone' House did not interpret the terni 'F^Jom of the 

him it signilKd merely a codification of maritime usaBe that 

would «.„ctify the doctrine of the immuni." of pri^te p^ 

perty ot sea m lime of war. Unless the Bril J,^SS 

ho demand of the United States that their trade with nTn- 

crtai^th rn'-rV """rP^-^d »" the high seas. it wL 
ccrtarn hat British control of the seas would be resented- 
mevitably the United States would feel the need ofSto« 

rii. , fj- ^"'"^ '■"""' *' P«* "f na^' competition, 
n case of another war British interference with Aineri ™n 
trade would throw the United States inlo the a^sTCSJ 
Bnlam s enemy, whoever that might be. 

'Great Britain.' he said. 'might find itself at war with 

DX^of f h ^r^; ' Pr^Jy F^nce ; in the past war th s^- 
pathy of the United States had been with the Alhes. becaCe 

F^^rnT ' f ^^"^'"^^^« "^val practices; in a future war i? 
France did not resort to any of these practices and was the 

Ars ?Z;.^ '^^'''^ ^^ ^'^ ^^^ted Sta^^: 

The French and the Italians were not impressed by the 
dangers to Anglo-American amity that mighl proceed f rom 
British control of the sea unless i^gulated by a rvlionS 



W 



f'^pt^t^H 



THREAT OF SEPAR/.TE PEACE 



165 



;<^,. 



maritime law. Furthcmiorc, thcy had their own objections 
lo the Fourteen Points, and they readily joined with Mr. 
Lloyd George in Opposition to a general endorsement of them. 
The Italian Foreign Secretary demanded that the President 
be informed categorically that at this time the Allies could 
give him no assurance that his Points would be acceptable. 
It was impossible, said Sonnino, to agree upon a peace pro- 
granrime at the moment of making the Armistice. As regards 
British use of naval power, 'it had to be remembered that 
nations, like animals, had different weapons; one animal had 
teeth, another tusks, another claws, and so it was with na- 
tions.' All that could be done at the moment, he feit, was to 
settle the military and naval terms of the Armistice; the 
bases of peace must be left until later. 

Such postponement of an agreement upon principles was, 
of course, exactly what House desired to avoid. So long as 
Germany was st411 in the field and the Allies were uncertain 
of her acceptance of the Armistice, the inlluence of the United 
States remained very strong; once Germany had surrendered, 
it might prove easier for the Allies to disregard that influence 
and make any sort of peace they pleased. Colonel House, 
accordingly, maintained inflexibly the position which he had 
assumed. If the Allies persisted in their refusal to accept the 
Fourteen Points, upon which Germany based her request for 
an armistice, there could be only one result: the negotiations 
with Germany would have to be wiped off the slate ; Presi- 
dent Wilson would have no alternative but to teil the enemy 
that his conditions were not accepted by the Alües. The 
question would then arise whether America would not have 
to take these matters up directly with Germany and Austria. 

'That would amount,' said Clemenceau, Ho a separate 
peace between the United States and the Central Powers.' 

• It might,' replied Colonel House. 

'My Statement,' he telegraphed the President, 'had a very 
exciting effect on those present.' 



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INTENTIONAL SECOtiD EXPOS ÜRE 



TIIRI<:A'r OF SEPAR/.TE PEACE 



165 






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■ * 



1 ui wicnTiCrc, thcy had their own objcctions 
lo the Fourtccn Points, and Ihcy readily joined with Mr. 
Lloyd George in Opposition to a gcneral endorsement of thcm. 
The Ilalian Foreign Secretary demanded thät the President 
be informcd catcgorically that at this time the Allies could 
give him no assurance that his Points would bc acceptable. 
It was impossiblc, said Sonnino, to agree upon a peace Pro- 
gramme al the momcnt of making the Armistice. As regards 
British use of naval power, 'it had to be remembered that 
nations, Hke animals, had differcnt weapons; one animal had 
Iceth,^ another tusks, anothcr claws, and so it was with na- 
tions.' All that could be done at the moment, he feit, was to 
settlc the military and naval terms of the Armistice; the 
bases of peace must be left until later. 

Such postponcment of an agreement upon principles was, 
of course, exactly what House desired to avoid. So long as 
Germany was still in the field and the Allies were uncertain 
of her acceptance of the Armistice, the influence of the United 
States rcmaincd vcry strong; once Germany had surrendered, 
it might prove easier for the Allies to disregard that influence 
and make any sort of peace they pleased. Colonel House, 
accordingly, maintained inflexibly the position which he had 
assumcd. If the Allies persisted in their refusal to accept the 
Fourteen Points, upon which Germany based her request for 
an armistice, there could be only one result: the negotiations 
with Germany would have to be wiped off the slate; Presi- 
dent Wilson would have no alternative but to teil the enemy 
that his conditions were not accepted by the Allies. The 
question would then arise whether America would not have 
to take thesc matters up directly with Germany and Austria. 

'That would amount,' said Clemenceau, 'to a separate 
peace bctween the United States and the Central Powers.' 

'It might,' -rcplied Colonel House. 

'My Statement,' he telegraphed the President, 'had a very 
exciting efTcct on those present.' 



L;;'W. 



i%«i. 



■..£>../.. 



\ , 



Marshall Foch 




Der Generalissimus begruendet in einer Sitzung! 



Vom 1. November 1918 zum letzten mal seine 



gemaessigteren Bedingungen fuer die deutsche 



t Waffenstillstands-Armee. Er begruendet , warum 




er die weitergehenden Forderungen der ameri- 



kanischen Generale fuer ueberfluessig haelt. 



"Will you teil us,M.le Marechal,""* said House,"solely 



from the military point of view, apart from any other consi- 



deration,whether you would prefer the Germ^ns to reject or 



to sign the amistice as outlined here?*' 



"Fighting'', replied Foch/'means struggling for certai>i. 



results,{On ne fait la guerre que pour ses re^sultats) .If the 



\ 



h 



Ci 



Germans now sign itiiuB an armist ice under the general cöndi- 



tions we have just determined,those results are in our . 



yrnTOTHraTfim possession. This beeing a chieved^no man has the 



right to cause anoth^r drop of blood to be shed." 



Se^rqjour :The Intimate 
Paper s of Col.House,Vol*IV,p.91 



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566 1/j:y experiences in the world war 

prcparcd, and in vicw of thc first paragraph of thc mcssagc 
I also cablvvl lic substancc of thc IctcCr to Washington; 

"Paris, Octobcr 30, 19 18. 
To thc Allicd Suprcmc War Council, 
"Paris. 

"Gentlemen: 

"In considcring the qucstion of whcthcr or not Gcrmany's rcqucst 
for an armisticc should bc grantcd, thc following cxprcsscs my opinion 
from thc military point of vicw: 

"i. Judging by thcir cxccllcnt conduct during thc past thrcc months, 
thc British, Frcnch, Bclgian and American Armics appcar capablc of 
continuing thc offensive indefinitely. Thcir moralc is high and thc 
prospects of certain victory should keep it so. 

"2. Thc American Army is constandy increasing in strength and 
cxpcrience, and should bc ablc to take an increasingly important part 
in thc Allicd offensive. Its growth both in personncl and matcricl, 
with such reserves as the AUies may furnish, not counting the Italian 
Arniy, should bc more than equal to thc combined losses of thc Allicd 
armics. * 

"3. German manpower is constandy diminishing and her armics 
havc lost over 300,000 prisoners and over one-third of thcir artillery 
during the past thrcc months in thcir cffort to cxtricatc themselvcs 
from a difl&cult Situation and avoid disaster. 

"4. Th^ cstimated strrnpth n^ rhr AlliV. no ±^ Western Front, not 
counting Italy, and of German-, in riflcs is: 

-^^'^^^ 1,563,000 

Germany 1,134,000 

An advantage in ^avor of thc Mies 
of 37 per Cent. 

"In guns: 

AlHcs 22,413 

Germany 16^95 

An advantag'; of 35 per cent in favor 
of thc Allifs. 

"If Italy*s forces should bc added to thc Western Front wc should 

"5. Gcrmany's moralc is undoubtcdly low, her Allies havc dc- 
icrted her onc by onc and shc can no longcr hope to win. Therefore 



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,^l.t v.,-.A.- -. .. -'. .. . -1.« 



MY EXPERffiNCES IN THE WORLD WAR 367 

WC should takc füll advantagc of thc Situation and continuc the 
offensive until wc compcl her unconditional surrender. 

Art .y^u'""- """"'^ '"'"'^y '^' '°^ ^P'"'* °f the German 
Army and enable .t to reorganize and resist later on, and would 

dcpr.vc the Ail.es of the füll measure of victory by failing to pre« 
thcir prcsent advantage to its completc military end 

7- As thc apparcnt humility of German leadcrs in talking of pcace 
may bc te.gncd, tne Allics should distrust the.r sincerity and ^eir 

ZTa"' , r^ ^PP^^' *°' "" "'"'«'" " undoubtedly to enable the 
wuhdrawal from a critical Situation to one more advantageou!. 

8. On the other hand, the internal political conditions of Ger- 
many, .f correctly reportcd, are such that she is practically forccd to 
ask for an arm.st.ce to save the overthrow of her prcsent Government, 
a consummation which should bc sought by thc Allics as precedcn 
to permanent pcace. *^ 

"9- A cessation of hostilities short of capitulation postponcs, if it 
docs not render .mpossiblc, thc imposition of satisfactory jiacc erms, 
bccausc u would allow Germany to withdraw her "r^y withT, 

Clr to^hcf '° '"""' *'°""'"" *^ *""" "^"^ °°' ""*- 

th^'A^I TT'"'" '7"''^ ^^'^ '''' ^"''*^ «""'" to Wieve this 
he end of fightmg and it would be difficult, if not impossiblc. to 

resume hosülitics wuh our prcsent advantagc in morale in thc cvcnt 

of failurc to sccurc at a pcace Conference what wc havc fought for. 

11. By agreemg to an armisticc undcr thc prcsent favorablc mUi- 
ury Situation of thc Allics and accepting thc principlc of a negotiated 
pcace rather than a dicuted pcace thc Allics would jcopardize thc 
moral pos.t.on thcy now hold and possibly lose thc chancc actually 
to sccurc World pcace on terms that would insurc its permanence. 

12. It IS thc cxpcricnce of history that victorious armics are pronc 
to ovcrcstimatc the cncmy's strength and too cagerly seck an op- 
portumty for pcace. This mistake is likcly to bc made now on 
account of thc rcputation Germany has gaincd through her victorics 
ot thc last four ycars. 

"13. Finally, I bclicvc thc compicte victory can only bc obtaincd 
by continumg thc war until wc forcc unconditional surrender from 
Germany, but it thc Allicd Govcrnmcnts dccidc to ^rant an armisticc 
thc terms should bc so rigid that undcr no circumstances could 
Germany again takc up arms. 

"Rcspcctfully submitted: 

"John J. Pershing, 
"Commandcr-in-Chief, A£ J." 



">! 



■ .' t 



, r 



'i 



l'r 



.:! 












7 1 



'*'l 



INTENTIONAL SßCOND EXPOSÜRE 






♦ 



MY EXPERIENCES IN THE WORLD WAR 367 

WC should take füll advantage of thc Situation and continuc thc 
oficnsivc until vve compcl her unconditional surrender. 

*'6. An armistice would revivify the low spirits of the German 
Army and enable it to reorganize and resist latcr on, and would 
dcprive thc Allies of thc füll measure of victory by failing to prcss 
thcir prescnt advantage to its complctc military cnd. 

**7. As thc apparcnt humility of (jcrman Icadcrs in talking of peacc 
may hc tcigned, tnc /^llies should distrust thcir sinccrity and thcir 
motives. 1 hc appcal tor an armistice is undoubtcdly to enable thc 
withdravval from a critical Situation to one more advantageous. 

"8. On the other band, thc internal political conditions of Ger- 
many, if corrcctly rcported, arc such that shc is practically forced to 
ask for an armistice to save thc overthrow of her prescnt Government, 
a consummation which should bc sought by thc Allies as precedent 
to permanent peacc. 

"9. A cessation of hostilitics short of capitulation postponcs, if it 
does not render impossiblc, thc imposition of satisfactory peacc terms, 
bccause it would allow Germany to withdraw her army with its 
prescnt strength, ready to rcsumc hostilitics if terms wcre not satis- 
factory to her. 

"10. An armistice would Icad thc Allicd armies to bclievc this 
thc cnd of fighting and it would bc difficult, if not impossiblc, to 
rcsumc hostilitics with our prescnt advantage in morale in the cvcnt 
of failure to secure at a peacc Conference what wc have fought for. 

*'ii. By agrccing to an armistice under thc prescnt favorable mili- 
tary Situation of thc Allies and accepting thc principlc of a negotiatcd 
peacc rather than a dictatcd peacc thc Allies would jcopardize thc 
moral position they now hold and possibly lose thc chance actually 
to secure world peacc on terms that would insurc its permanencc. 

"12. It is thc cxperience of history that victorious armies arc pronc 
to overestimate thc encmy's strength and too eagcrly seck an op- 
portunity for peacc. This mistake is likcly to bc made now on 
account of thc reputation Germany has gained through her victorics 
of thc last four ycars. 

"13. Finally, I bclievc thc comnlcte victory can only bc obtained 
by continuing the war until wc force unconditional surrender from 
Germany, but it thc Aliicd Governments decide to ßrant an armistice, 
the terms should bc so rigid that under no circumstances could 

Germany agam take up arms. 

"Rcspcctfully submitted: 

*'JoHN J. Pershing, 
**Commandcr-in-Chicf, A.E.F." 



r I 



f 




/ 






• • ^ 



"Whcn Publicity hasT)ecn robbed of thc possibility of cluci- 
dating by discussion a question that is a burning topic of fatc- 
ful import to thc Gcrman peoplc, thc ncccssity of dcbating on 
it inside thc Cabinct and of Coming to somc dccision bccomcs 
doubly important. For this rcason I find myself forccd to lay 
bcforc thc Cabinct thc dcmand that cannot bc pubhshcd in 
thc Press, and it is, namely, this: Thc Sccretarics of State Winld 
Iura t^i ask thc Imperial Chancellor to advisc His Majesty to 
retirc of his own free will. 



Ai-f.v. . 



"Thcrc is no doubt that thc great majority of thc inhabit- 
ants of thc Gcrman Empire arc convinced that thc prospects 
of getting tolerablc terms for thc Armistice and thc Peacc 
arc being ruincd by thc Empcror*s rcmaining in his exaltcd 
office. Were an unfavourablc peacc concluded while thc 
Empcror remains in oflScc, both he and thc Government would 
bc reproached for having preferred inflicting heavy trials on 

thc peoplc, to taking a coursc, cntailcd by circumstanccs, for 
thc good of thc common wcal. r 

^ "It camiot bc doubtcd, cithcr, that thc peacc ncgotiations 
would prcscnt morc favourablc prospects if thc rcforms of 
thc Constitution in thc Gcrman Empire werc madc clcar at 
home and abroad by a changc in thc highest position of thc 
Empire. Thc prcscnt crisis leads us to supposc that thc step 
herc proposcd can only bc postponed, but not avoided. It is 
thercforc better if thc Emperor now takes thc step entailed 
by cxisting circumstanccs— wh ich is thought thc only onc 
possiblc by many Gcrman statcsmcn— as soon as possible. 
"I am your Grand Ducal Highness' most 

obedient servant, 
[('5'«CT^^) Ph. Scheidemann." 



d^.. 






1 



/t. ^/i 






k 



* - *-.-'-*♦ . - 



.*-.^ ■ 



.;v . 






l"Tf l 



* >• 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOS ÜRfi 



/^ Jcüc/cU**^a^f^ 






i' ' 



'*Whcn Publicity has becn roBbed of the possibility of eluci- 
dating by discussion a qucstion that is a burning topic of fate- 
ful import to thc Gcrman pcoplc, the necessity of dcbating on 
it insidc the Cabinet and of Coming to some dccision becomes 
doubly iniportant. For this reason I find myself forced to lay 
before thc Cabinet the demand that cannot be pubhshed in 
thc Press, and it is, namcly, this: The Sccretaries of State Wu ■ ■■! 
Li'fi Uj ask the Imperial Chancellor to advise His Majesty to 
retire of his own free will. 



hvcafi/^ 



"There is no doubt that the great majority of the inhabit- 
ants of the Gcrman Empire are convinced that the prospects 
of gctting tolerable terms for the Armistice and the Peace 
are being ruined by the Emperor's remaining in his exalted 
office. Wcrc an unfavourable peace concludcd while the 
Empcror remains in office, both he and the Government would 
be rejiroachcd for having preferred inflicting heavy trials on 

thc people, to taking a course, entailcd by circumstanccs, for 
thc good of thc common weal. 

"It cannot be doubted, either, that the peace negotiations 
would prescnt morc favourable prospects if the reforms of 
the Constitution in the German Empire were made clear at 
home and abroad by a change in the liighest position of the 
Empire. The prcsent crisis leads us to suppose that the stcji 
hcre proposed can only be postponed, but not avoided. It is 
therefore better if the Empcror now takes the stcp entailed 
by cxisting circumstanccs— which is thought the only one 
possible by many German statcsmen— as soon as possiblc. 
"I am your Grand Ducal Highness' most 

obedicnt servant, 
"{Signed) Ph. Scheidemann." 



OHft 












240 



PRINCE MAX OF BAÖÜN 



would theyVake an offical step which/ould no longer be 
kcpt fro.T, th Vblic ? This questicnLs like a nightoare 
robbmg n-e of\leep. I resolved i^ it Lre anyhow posdb k 

further pressure i^oon me-in che f/eling that he had onlv 
taken back h.s lettV out of a sympTthetic consideration ?o^ 
meinmypersoralsiViation. 7 «»"on lor 

The meeting o5 3,^^ October Jz^ the first at which I was 
again present. I coeneJ it witUhe following declaration : 

k'J.L*'''"'!^'*'^" ''°'' ''1"'"S V 'l"«'*'*'" of H« Majesty the 
Wr s abdication w.^hout intTrmission for days. Confidantt 

question thorojghly w.»Ji /em. I have given them such 
matenal as would enable vUn to inform His Majes y Tto "he 
Situation at home and abrol^. I shall see that this process of 
mformatici goes on. / \ process oi 

But I declare expressl/tha\any abdication of His Majestv 

wi 1. Only so can daii/age to fenpire and army be avoided 
only so can Germany/dignity iL jreserved. /can oJv take 
aaion .n the matter/ my freedln' u- not impaired and i all 
attempts to exert pr^ure on me \ avcided.' 

Herr Scheidemanfi was visibly tal^n ab.ick ; he declared 
that the mention 0/ the Kaiser questi^ had taken him bv 
surpnse and that j^ything he might say oh it would therefore 



- r 



f„' P^ Situation has got considerabJy worse in about the last 
fourteen days.-especially the morale of the army Thi 

are stationed Then there is the desertion of our allies The 

nave shick in the publik mf.mory. The efTeV jf these utter 
ances o\i opinion at honW is universal, and leXls to attacS on 

" wofern'''? " " ''S "^ ^™" '"^ -«- -^ morrvblent 
It would, be true to say th\t among the middle Aasses and the 

Kaiser, khile our vvorkersUre convincfd that X shall not 
get any pVace su-.h as will allow our people thlhance of 



■\: 



*'-•-■ '*•♦•■•«'- 



.nih 



. * 'II jig'ii(<Mifr ' 



'. .» 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOS ÜRfi 






240 



\ 



PRINCK MAX OF BAlVivN 

uofld theyWc an official step which could no longer be 
kcpt fro . thcVublic ? This questir.n was like a nightmarc 
rohb.n« n-e ofVep. I resolved i^ it were anvhow possibl 
o b„ul ScuMdc^iann beforc thr Cabinct not to exert anv 
nrflu-r presv.re Hpon me-in die fcclinj, that he had onlv 
takcn back Ins lott^r out of a sympathctic consideration for 
mcinmypcrsoialsiWition. , 

Tbc mcctinu^ o.' 3, st OaoluT was the first at uhich I was 
apain prcscnt. I , ocnc J it uith thc f.,llouin,ir declaration :" 

'I J'avc bcen con .idering th/ question of Mis Majestv thc 
Kaiser s ahd.cat.on .,MK,ut in Emission for days. Confi lant 
"I Hi^Majcsty have b.-en ^^i/, „,e and I have discussed th^ 
.lucs„o„ ,hon, .,hly uvh Xn,. I have pven . em lu h 
nmcnal as u„„ld enahle d,/n ,.. inforn. His^Majesty Tto he 
Mtuat.pn at ..on.c and abro/d. I shall see that this proce s ,5 
inforniatio.i pocs on. / 1 ' "ctss 01 

Hut I dedare expressiytha:' any alulication „f Ilis Majestv 
he Ka.ser can o„Iy and /„sh, „Hy to takc place of bis oun' free 
^^i I. Only so can dan/age to fücpire and armv be avoided 
".1. so can CerrnanyV d„ni,y be , ^eserved. Tcan onlv take 
a';'on n, ,he nu.trer »f my freed.vn ,. not i,npaired and i Tl 
attempts to exert pressure on n,c al-^. av, idcd.' 

Herr Schcidcmaa/ uas ^ isibly taken ab.ck ; I,e dcclarcd 
that thc nicnt.on ,^ thc Ka[s,r cp.cstion had takcn hin, bv 
surpnsc and th at a/iy thing hc nnght sav on it would thcrcf<.rc 



1 lie s.tuaf o,. has got considerablv worsc in about the last 
fourteen days.-especially the n.orale of ,hc arnn-. Th 
gets vvorse and worse the furihcr back fro,„ ,he front the troops 
are s at.oncd. Then ,here is the descrtion of onr allies. The 
World ,s iookmi, around to (ind a scapegoat for all the mischief 
that has been done. " ^ ''• ,,, • , v ■ m im^ , • 

have sluck ni the publit n,r,norv. The e.fAt ,f these ut er 
ances o^ op.n.on at honV is „„ivcrsai. and IcXs to a.tacklon 
.s Majc-.ty s pcrson u 1„ .V, are grouing more a.\l ,„ore violent 
It uould be true ,0 say th\t an,o,m thc midJle c\sses and thc 
peasants no, a sn,,]. persoV has been fou.ul ,0 l,n>p ,"n Ic 

«et an> peace su.h as ud/ allou our people the^chance of 



/ 



.'MLtk~»l^, . 



THE ALTERNATIVES .^, 

But the Foreign Office °vilfcorK"^ '^" ^"'^^^'^ abdication. 
Wilson ntcnds to sav ■ " V^.. '".„ "^"^ »e. They believe that 

the Kaiser hasUen goi rid of " Sh^'' u^T' P'''' ^^''^ ""-•« 
that we cannot accent ^h.^ / "''^ '^^ conditions be such 
the uttermöst thenToV'^"" '"'^ ? '""'^ ^^'"«"'J «"«elves to 
struggle ifTe- Kair^Tt ^thetar^^ ^" ^"^»^ ^ '^"P^^^ 

that hrsLuId"aK:t: ':T '°' "f '" ^"^^'^^^ '« '^' Kaiser 
Kaiser to be forccd into nlfv '"'{• ^ '^""''^ "°' '"^e the 

for instance W been nl r^r/'ü^'i'^"''^^'' P''^^- ^' ^">"'d 
the Order .hieY' ^^:s^öt?e'ti't•jtf ^'"k''"'''''^'^^^ 

occasion of the constit,uional reSs lu I ^"" "" '^^^ 

enough in itself hi.t r\;A ! "^^'"rms. Its language was fine 

nature. Xo was i? dfjn fi"". 7^^^-^^""^ t« the Kaiser's real 
under W Isön ' hsh t^^n^W "^ "' '"'" '^"^'"^'^-^^ "^^ ^riven 
"ught to have ong a^o madl T'"'""""'' ^'^^"«^^ "h'ch wo 
■>e equally undlg^nTfied" foTthelrirr T "'"; '' ^^""'^ 

'-day has nnK'kft/^;! on ,w:,.i. ^^, . »^'^•. ' -'«^ 



censprshiprer-- „„nc /li "^ ^'""' f».'nc,B of the 



ccnsprsnip 

gf:::::;^ de;.and:;;',e; ;:;;;;:£ '::^:^^^ 

^iSiinetoSght noiib" 4"L';htrrth t n'^^'^^r^-" 

Mj///-^ «,„•//•.■„,, ,,/■ //,^ /,. ^ -/' ,' '5«"""« '//'^ ''v^ not. Before 

a.no; 'i::v;;:ts";: j • ;t;d;i;!f r-^^'?^'" -- -^^^--e 

S<nith CJcrmanv. where the .V ri I ' """'"'' «^^P^^iallv in 
I'. Havnri., ,he c v is " Cu i ' '"'' ,?"^*^'»'^nt is growing. 

^-nn.n-Ausuia ! 'uav ' c wt'^' ^' n'^ ' J"'? "'^ " ''' 

i.M.i.n. i"^>mpiic! Ihat uould he the 



:*. 



.■;:.. Vj 



^ . ■ , X- ■ 



,« ,' •T*».*'-^-. 






242 



PRINCE MAX OF BADEN 



worst fate which could befall us. The Empire must be 
mamtained ,n all its greatness and power with a ünited peoDle 
who reahze what their country means to them. ^ ^ 

And the n,o,, ,^^^7^^^^«^ 

he officals. I had never thought it possible for these ^opfe 
to change round so easily. ^ pcopje 

Quite a number of officers even have been with me and have 

expressed the same opinion. They were officers of all ranks Jp 

o and including that of Colonel. It was very disagreeable to 

deSre h^ ^^V ° "^ '" ''"^ '^'^ ^^'^ themselves^o^nd to 
AnH M ' ^''■T'^ ^"^ '"°''*^ ^•^ '^^"^ than the Kaiser 

And they were r.ght. If the interests of the Countrv and of 

tor which I have the greatest respect. This is also to act in 

He TT/ '^\^'''''' *"'"^^'f ^"'l «f his name in historl 
"o!unrily.' ■■'" "'^ -"«-q-nces of defeat and withS 



" * «< 






r< 



".„."V "V '"^."'i ^"^ U-UU^Iil Ihe discussion on to the 
nght Wk m poinÄng out th« in this matter we could not 
pass re^luttons as a ^ y^ut cnly express individual opinion 
for he ^ons.derationVf the Chancellor. In his opinion a 

H.S Majesty-m a retirement wi-ich must be uninfluenced 
by pressure from at home or abroad. Up to the last Sunday 
he had expet^d to be able t\spa^e the Kaiser this step^ 
The Situation Vust be clearly ikd bcfore him. This was a 
necessary conseVience of the coXfideace which they oult 
to feel in the kW. in his envlnn ent and also^n fhe 






\ 



Cf. Paycr, op. dt. pp\ 14c' ff. 



\ 



;>..i,* Ä ■'•it0ftil^-1' -'k^v*" 



; ;....v:.::r,:!l' 



m 



t* 



INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOS üRß 



242 



PRINCE MAX OF BADEN 



worst fate which could befall us. The Empire must he 
maintained in all its grcatness and power with a united people 
\vh() rcalize what thcir country means to them 

'rhe peasants, too, espet4ft% iT^-StnHk Gxi4wai^^^ai:c^ 
- KniserV-ahJivation ; all the'news to the tT^ntf=i«:y. is false— 
And the most siirprisin^^ thin^ for mc has becn the attitiide of 
the officials. I had never thought it possible for these people 
to Chance round so easilv. 

Quite a number of ofliccrs evcn havc bcen with me and have 
expressed the same opinion. They were officers of all ranks up 
to and includin^r that of Coloncl. ' It was very disagreeable to 
thein all to have to say so but they feit themselves bound to 
declare that the Country was more to thcni than the Kaiser. 

And they were right. If the interests of the Country and of 
the people require it, one must he prepared to override feelings 
for which I have the p:reatest rcspect. This is also to act in 
the interest of the I<»aiser hiinsclf and of his name in history. 
He must draw the consccpiences of dcfeat and withdraw 
\oluntarily.* 



/JÄO' 



jJin : v^Ä^^^i^^,/^ 



^ 



(>» lieii viMi ia\L-i • iie rroiii^^nt the cliscussion on to the 
rii^dit t^ack in pointki.ir out thit in this matter wc could not 
pass rcsolutions as a ^ody but r nly exprcss individual opinion 
for the considcration of the C nmcellor. In his opinion a 
Solution was only to bc found in the voluntary retircment of 
Ilis Majesty— in a retircment wi ich must be uninilucnccci 
by pressure from at homc or abroad. Vy^ to the last Sunday 
he had expected to bc ablc to spa-e the Kaiser this stcp. 
The Situation must be clcarly laid Inforc hini. 'I^iis was a 
nccessary conscqucnce of the conliclcice w hich thcv ouulu 
to feel in the Kaiser, in his cnvirunn cnt and also in the 

KT Paycr, o/>. dt. pp. 14.' [\. 



■ *- 



G 



Kl 



'jien^ Uyüie^ ^ 



t 

V 



JIh 'Kailf^ ^ ^^t«4 CaüaJ^ ^(^.^Syt ^ 



Ü'aC^u ^^P>M ^s*«!^ ♦<ä^x^ U'Jj ^ e^ 



"5 



/ 



'^ 



Z^hß/i^cJ^ ^f^ 




/H ^'Um ^^^i^H^'^^M^ -4^ /^ 




^ 



— "•••. ünmtttelba^t nachher j^abe ich mich mit den beiden- 
_ Generaladjutanten des Kaisers, dem diensttuenden und dem 



vortragenden, im Garten xant erhalten. Ich sagte den beiden. 



die Stellung des Kaisers sei unhaltbar, es sei uninoeglich ,die 



Sache so weiterzumachen.. . .Es heisse nun,ei-.en ganzen Enschluss 
w f as s en . pa~i ch per s oeiniich ' gegen~d'ie~ Abdarücüng die"ällergröesste 
~ Abneigung hatte — aus Gruenden der Psychologie, besonders der 
— Offizierspasychülogie, — ^habe ich bei diesem Gespr iech den beiden 

Generaladjutantan vorgeschlagen, dass Seine üajestaet unver- _: 

zueglich m die Front gehen solle, und zwar nicht etwa zu Paradei^ 



,Besichtigu;ig , Verleihung von Eisernen Kreuzen, sondern in den 



Kampf, — nicht etwa in der Fürm,dass der Kaiser sich an die 



Spitze einer Truppe stellen sollte, uri einen Todesritt oder 

i 

Todesangriff zu machen, sondern einfach an die Front, in den 
Schuetzengraben,dorthin,wo viele iamaffliiuie Hunderttausende 
deutscher Soldaten und Offiziere auch standen. Dort sou.le es 
der Kaiser darauf ankommen Mssen,oto eine Kugel ihn treffe. 






Wenn der Kaiser falle, gaebe es kein schoeners Ende 



fuer ihn, und wenn er verwundet wu.;rde,so sei nach meiner 
persoenlichen Überzeugung mit demselben Moment ein Umschlag 



I 



( 



in der Stimmung des deutschen Volkes zu urwartenjdas deutsche 
Volk neige ja zu einer gewissen sentimentalen Einstell\ing. 



Die beiden Herren Generaladjutanten erwiderten 



nichts Rechtos. Es ginge nicht an, sie waeren mit der Sach 



nicht einverstanden. E's gehe nicht, den Kaiser dahin zu brin^ien. 

I 

Ich ging dann weg', und fuhr mit dem Feldmarscliall (von 
Hindenburg) von der Villa in den Generalstab zxirueck.Waehrend 
der Fahrt habe ich auch dem Feldmarschall meinen Vorschlag ge- _ 



macht, aber er billi^gte ihn ebenfalls nicht. .... . 

Es haben aber meinen Vorschlag auch andere Offizier 



der Obersten Heeres -Leitung wieder aufgenommen und haben bis 



zijm 



8. daran f estgehalten,der Kaiser moege sich an die Front 



begeben und eine Kugel suchen. Am 8. wurde dieser Vorschlag 



endgueltig abgelehnt. 



II — 



. . 



"Eine Ehrenrettung des deutschen VolKes".Der 



Dolchstoss-Prozess in_MAenchen, Oktober -Noveinber 
1925. Zeug en-und Sachverstaehdigen-Aussagen. 



Verlag G.Eirk & Co. ,Muenchen, p. 5314-18 



Vernehmung vom 89. Oktober 1925 



.^'^ M-dr^ ^£>, 



a^*y,a^^ 






^/7^<^K<2 



^^e<'iC^ 



^^ ^iU^ /^^^^j^ ,t^t 



•^t<i 



ON thc morning of gth November, 1918, the Reichstag 
was hke an armcd camp. Working men and soldicrs 
were going in and out. Many bore arms. With 
Ebert, who had come from the Chancery to the Reichstag, 
and other friends, I sat hungry in the dining-hall. Thin, watery 

soup was the only thing to bc had Then a crowd of 

workers and soldiers rushed into the hall and madc straight 
for our table. 

Fifty of thcm yelled out at the same time, "Scheidemann, 
come along with us at oncc. Philip, you must come out and 
spcak." 

I refused; how many times had I not already spoken! 
"You must, you must, if trouble is to be avoided. Therc arc 
thousands upon thousands outside shouting for you to speak. 
Come along, quick, Scheidemann! Liebknecht is already 
speaking from the balcony of the Schloss." 
"Well, if I must." 
"Come along now. You must." 
Dozens urged it upon me, tili I went off with them., V 
TThc-manHobby prcsented a dramatic spectacle. -Guns werc 
l»l«i-«p-ifl-stacks. From the courtyard the trampling and - 
-n«ghmg of horscs could be heard-. (In the hall thousands of 
husthng men seemed to be talking and shouting at die same 
time. We hurried away towards the rcading-room. I in- 
tcndcd to spcak to the crowd from a window. 

261 



A,; 



ff 



V 



i' •■ », .'^fC ,'4,-.i. 



Ä^Tr f; 



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INTENTIONAL SECOND EXPOSüRß 



/-^•^ 



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.A-. ^_.— ^'>. 



yioj 






ON the morning of yth November, 1918, the Reichstag 
was like an armed camp. Working mcn and soldiers 
wcrc going in and out. Many bore arms. With 
Ebert, who had come froin tlic Chancery to the Reichstag, 
and other fricnds, I sat hungry in the dining-hall. Thin, watery 

soup was the only thing to be had Then a crowd of 

workers and soldiers rushed into the hall and made straight 
for our table. 

Fifty of thcm yelled out at the same time, "Scheidemann, 
come along with us at once. Philip, you must come out and 
speak." 

I refused ; how many times had I not alrcady spoken ! 
"You must, you must, if trouble is to be avoidcd. There are 
thousands upön thousands outside shouting for you to speak. 
Come along, quick, Scheidemann! Liebknecht is already 
speaking from the balcony of the Schloss." 
"Well, if I must." 
"Come along now. You rtiüst." 
Dozens urged it upon me, tili I went oflF with them.,,, 
The main lobby prescnted a dramatic spectaclc. Guns werc 
piled up in Stacks. From the courtyard the trampling and 
neighing of horscs could be heard. /in the hall thousands of 
husthng men scemed to be talking and shouting at the same 
time. We hurried away towards the rcading-room. I in- 
tcnded to speak to the crowd from a window. 

261 



V 



THE 



fBLIC PROCLAIMED 



■V'- 



^^ssiA. — ThcGC focs a rc^ it ia to be WM^^ gnnc for goru\ - 
The Empcror has abdicatcd. Hc and his fricnds havc dc- 
campcd. The pcoplc havc triumphed over them all along thc 
linc. Princc Max of Baden has handed over his office as 
Chancellor to Ebcrt. Our fricnd will form a Labour Govern- 
ment to which all Socialist Parties will belong. The new Gov- 
ernment must not be hampered in their work for peace or 
their efforts for supplying food and work. 

"Workmen and soldiers realize the historic importance of 
to-day. Miracles have happened. Long and incessant toil is 
bcfore us. Everything for the people; everything by the peo- 
ple! Nothing must be done that brings dishonour to the 
Labour movement. Stand united and loyal, and be conscious 
of your duty. The old and thc rotten— thc monarchy— has 
broken down. Long live thc new! Long live thc German 

Rcpublic!" 

Endless cheering broke out. Then thc crowds began to 
move towards the Schloss. The Bolshevist wave that threat- 
ened to engulf Germany had spent its force. Thc German 
Republic had bccomc a thing of lifc in thc brains and heart 
of thc masscs. 



« r 






X-i-- 



Directly after my speech I went back to the dining-hall of 
thc Reichstag to rescue my **skilly." Thc scene that then took 
place I havc never mcntioned,^ and vrould - havs I gft « r.Vn ^T^ 
tJ unrü i ruV'r^Tfti:^ r . nt th^ ff^^^ ^^U^n <^^<'^r^hp A^ in hts-hoch^ 
A few working men and soldiers, who had come with me into 
the hall that was now only partially füll, were all agog to 
spcak with Princc Max, and bawled into the hall: "Scheide- 
mann has proclaimed the Republic.V, L^;^ — -^ 

263 



V 



'■*' ■ Wi«'->.«.y^*-';*i*-«k'«»'.''-'.''V«it"-Hi- w ^, J. 






ni 



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THE MAKI^fÖ OF NEW GFPvÄIaNY 

who can only hay^n informcd by Ebcrt or on^of his imi. 
matc fncnds, wiftcs on thc cubjcct: 

"Ebcrt hjiomficd and calls out to his feiend- This is aD 
rf r!IS;::!!;L^ » ''™'"' ^""°^"y niust^c die futurc form 



^crnmrnc. 



it. 



Ibcrt's face turncd livid widi wradi whcn hc hcardw^J 

tc^o^coursc, hc madc a scenc which passcd my undcrstanding. 
You havc no nght to proclaim thc Rcpublk. What bccomcs 

dsc-a Consütucnt Asscmbly must dccidc.» How could so 

on pA November of a regency, a substimte, an administrator 
tor tiie Empire, and such old monarchist rubbish Aat had 
becn totally scrapped ! Now, many years after this critical 
day, I understand Ebcrt's conduct better, for now we have 
vanous books and reports, from which it can be gathered diat 
these private conversations about monarchy, republic, a sub- 
stitute for Ae Kaiser, about which I knew Uing, 'alluy 
^Place. Eberttoacertain extent was not a L agent! 

Pnnde Max says that he wasNurgendy requested bJ Ebert 
between Vc and six to remain ih Berlin. On the Prince's 
askmg hmi why, Ebert answered, "I ^hould like you to remain 
as an administrator of thc Empire.'\prince Max as an Im- 
~nal admmistrator! Who could fail \ think of the rc^olu- 

U)f the National Assembly of 1848, about abstaining from 
usin^revolutionary power and elcrting an Wrial adminis- 
tratorJNArchduke Johann was then chosen, ahd this time hc 
was tob^aPrinccof Baden! It seems to mc that Princc Max 

264 \ 



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Thbse widi me, right and left, pressed me to look at wfaat 
^was going on in thc strcct. Bctwccn thc Schlots and thc 
Reichstag, so diey said, masses c^ pcople were moving up and 
down. /:,.•'./,• 

'liebknecht intends to prodaim thc Sovict Rcpublic!** 

Now I clcarly saw what was afoot I kncw his slogan-« 
suprcmc audiority tot thc Workcn* and Sdidicrs* Councils. 
Gcrmany to bc thcrcfore a Russian province^ a branch cf thc 
Sovict? No, no^ a thousand timcs no! v 

Thcrc was no doubt at all. Thc man who could bring along 
thc "Bolshics** £rom thc Schloss to thc Reichstag or thc Social 
DciUocrats from thc Reichstag to thc Schloss had won thc day. 

I saw thc Russian folly staring mc in thc face— thc Bolshevist 
tyranny, thc Substitute for thc tyranny of thc CzarsI No, no, 
Gcrmany should not have that on thc top (tf all her othcr 
miscrics. 

I was aheady Standing at thc window. Many thousands of 
poor folk were trying to wavc their hats and caps. Thc shouts 
of thc crowds soundcd like a mighty chorus. Then thcrc was 
silcnce. I only said a fcw words, which were rcccivcd with 
tremendous cheering. 

"Workers and soldicrs, frightful were thosc foiir ycars of 
war, ghastly thc sacrificcs thc pcople made in Wood and 
trcasurc. The cursed War is at an rnd HtwiV[ iim rnyt^ 
To c Lfuitü üf w^5 woiii and liL^i y , wil^ '^iidcn us for jcars. 
Thc cntastrop^ we tried our bci^t to av^d has not becn^pared 
US, bccaasc/6ur p roposals for peace by consent wcjc rcjcctcd 
and we^x>?irsc!ves scorncd and dcspiscd. The/tocs of an 
industribus pct)ple, thc real ibes in our midst, th^ have caused 
Gcrmany 's downfall, arc silent and invL<siblc. 
warriors who stopppd at home, promotipg their demands for 
annexation, bitterif ooposing any rc^Mto of thc Constitution, 

y^ 262 --m:; • 



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Tnt.raffn^infjykonferenz 1??2 



^ nfnvt n^rh ^. ^m Khnc^'n^u'.^ '^^.T T . ocp .mQ- Vert rae fi e nahm Qtregenann 




■Ue Pa^g? - 



ir- .i^r ;n^^-..^..,^n ^-.>--i..- :in g n:if. ^'e ^Ijel ? ^^r >un^5tein cclnpr AU'c^'n - 



B^„^^.,^^^ ;- ^^.^^-rv.T^^^er,-itl'r nr -^'^-^-j 



Politik und 3'ur d i» y on 



# 



4,4::. ri^r — a:^ 






,.^^.^..o.-- . - - ^ n--^n ->^^,r r> 1 r r ^11^ rn<^>i \Tnr^^rt->-£ fO 



*>»? 



- ^■:-i.thien 



fort neic^ 



.g e mein ^e^' O ^ i 



» ilson hatt -e-Jra--&»i-ft^^^44^4»-Hfcft- d a n Senat >i n 22. ■ " 



L l?]? tJAB&^t-t 



.11 ty 



:^reat oreponderatini, annanents are henceforth to continue her« and there 
to be bullt and naintained. The ,tatesnen of the World irast pl>tn for peacC. 



and nations mst adjust and accomnodate thrir policy to it as they planne^ 
for rar and made ready for giti)(lf>0B conc^ueat and arinainent. .ue ^xti^zioia 



kind." 



Punkt 4 der 14 Punkte: "Adequate quarantec giren and taken that nat i onal 
arwainents Tin "&e-Temice^-Tö-Th-e ^ov^arT^lnt" cüngl8lrentr-rlth-(Hmrectt<r 

»»fety^i' — 



Vereailler 7ertrÄß, Praca mbel zu Teil V: 



M 



Tue de rendre poasible la pr^naratlon d^une linitation generale 



d en arrrenenta de toutea lee nations ,1,' All erna.^n_e ^'engage a oba^rver 



strictement lea clauaea militairea^navales et aeriennes ci-aprea atl- 



pulcca." 



fi 



W- 



Damit war nicht geaagV-^.aaa die in Auaaicht genommene ..ms cKraen-Smg- 



die anderen Heere aur d^FTleichen -^as mit der deutacnen ^eicnaw^eHr 



Agitat 
machte unbesehen diese 7olgeruns. 



i 



an »8. Mal 1«1» «tl« AbrueatunesTorschriften fuer i-eutBCnj.»na »i ^ 
l.„.w.„„ di. Ulli.rt=n »ich „rpfllohteten. .p.et.,t..n, .r,i Jah^e nach 
T'rieiensschlusa ''ad 'bleiche zu tun. 




of ann ament8,whether on land or gea,ls the coat immediately and inteneirely ^ 

practical queation connected t-jUi the futu re fortunea of nations and of mati- 



I 



,-* 



p^l I I *■< 




Die Antrottnote der Alliierten, uiiterr.eicii.riet vor Cleirerc6>.u,l''" • ."^uni 



191?, lelin 



'e (U..P ab,rit 'l. r "^en^r-'^ian^ : 



»•The |\llicd an^. Associated ?.-^T^'?r9 '^i.vi to naic^J it cl^ar that t:iej:r 
requirenftbts in re^i^r.I .to l^r^r^n •arma'rtftnt.«! ^r« aot ^ctle solely vitAi the 



r'^alerin^; it i^^^ossi'J^lo for lernany to retsune lier policy of 



-* 



|.litary a^grcÄsion. The/ are alao the first ste^) tov:ardß that ^^^^^^slI 



%/ 



rt^duction an^. limitation of armanents v^hich they seek to l:ring about 
■~äs' one öf the ifjost jrev^entives of Trariand ^hich iz v'tlT"'^"e öne of the 

firatu dutxeB af- r.hr Lf-.a,Kiie of l^^ations tu urumüte, — 



They rnua i t point out,hovever,t Icat the coloF.sal c^ro^^th in armamentö of 



the last four decades ▼'as forced upon the nations of Lurope by CJermany. 



t: 



Ab Germany increased in po^er,thfe nei^Lbourb h<Äd to follov: i^i^k buit un- 



less they viere to becorne inpotent to re«ist Terriän \ i c t c^.t i on or the Jernai^. 



gTf jrd , — Xt^ 



ia, t^- - it^re T'jr t jy ri - ;jit — hr% — IX — l^ nec ea4»ary 



the proceaa— af--liini-> 
tation of arirjamenta shoaH bg^in ^it'i th^ nation ^^hlch haa been responsib-^ 



le for their expansion. Tjr ib not ujitil tl e afegressor has led üae r^y th.^t 






the attacked in safrty fifford to follo^ suit. 



Germany muat consent anconclitionally tu ^isarro in a^'^vance of the Allie^f 

i 



and Associated Porera,,. 7o deviation from the orfe^anization in armairent 



can bc periritted Jus until Gerinany ib adnic- 



laid doTn in the present -^reaty 
ted to lh2 -^eac^e of ^-at Jona vrhich vmy tl^en a.e^ree to 



dif 1 cation aa. 



nay Qr.em deairahl-e^*!- 



.Ai^ 



-4 



X-der 7oelk6rbuiid^>akt-e^ 



^Th e TTiemb e^rs of th#^-^#ague r e^ 



^at— tlve 



.t.-en^ nc e o f p e fci c e 



r e qul T^s 4^b-e -r^duct^i^on^ -of— n a tion a l a rm a m e nt a to th e l ore s t po in t - c o nüia t^ 



t 


ent i^'ith n^tioiial aafety aiid the 


enf orceirjent by co^-iin on 


action of 


int er- 


t ..... 

nat i onal obl igat iona . 










""^ The Council takin^^ account of 


the 


geographica! situa 


,tion aivi o 


ircun- 


' 


stancea of each.otate, ehÄll forniUli 
the consideration ^üJ cxction of th« 


^tc plans for such reaacLions 
e several Coverimcntb .'' 


f ur 


*. 


Art. t iieht 3chaffunj einer " 


'pennanent advisory conriirsion'* vor. 




1 
Auf der Ratssitiiung von 1'^. 


I'ai 


1*^20 vird eine aol 


che rcrmis 


sion 




p-eachaffeii. Auf A3itra£ von T.eon 


'•ou: 


rgcois aoll diese ^' 


Pe man ent 


ConnigaL 


'■M'iM 


on rilitary,?Taval,an^ Air ^ueations'* 

,,^__ \ 1 


aus 5'achleuten ier 

— *— 


1rei V.fcff 


cngattun- 





I 



gen bestehen. Diese Komassion erstattet am 20. Worenber 1920 auf der 



ersten Vollsitzung des Voclkerbundes in <ienf einen Bericht, der i» 



V.e8 entliehen negatir war. 



Darauf wird eine «Teaporary ICixed Conmisaion" gebildet, die 1922 zu 



arbeiten anfaengt. Sie besteht aus ZiTili8ten,die nicht als ^>gierungs- 



£) Tertreter zu betrachten sind mid_^row V oelkerbund gewaehlt werden. 



Ihr werden beigeordnet: 6 Mil&e rs ( Je 2 ariny,naTy, air), 2 Wirtscha ft- 



liehe und 2 finanzielle Ixperten und Je 3 Vertreter der Arbeiter und 



Angestellten, delegiert t ow Int ernat i o nal en Arb e i t sbur eau . 



Vorsitzender dieser Ko«»**«ion wird Lord Robert Cecil ,der Ton dann an 



leitenden Einflus s hat. 



Die KonnAs ion beraet zuerst Lord l8her8_fir8t_g_en^raL^lMj:or^^ 



_reduction of arBaaent' kommt aber ün de 1922 zu dem IIn tschlu8 e,]Sntwaffnunc 
und Sicherheit zuwamme n zu behand eln, — 



1924 nifflit dieJCoiMLission Macdonald-Herriots Carole - Arbi t r^ation^^ 



ity=JJii»: 



otokoll»^ Das kons etTatiiA/l^tiiiAehe 
im_.Zu|^ der Locarno-^erhandlungen g 



l P.S24-25 Coordinate Comaission genannt )-Xon den allgem**nen JPlAenen zu 



Spezialabmachungen ueber^ 



f nähme 



-P*^paratory Coamission for the Disarmament Conference. 

— *i«^ttnfas8t Vertreter der Mitgliedstaaten d«s Voelkerbundes und Ver- 



J^ tr^ter *nder^r Staaten, die aus geographi sehen oder *ndar»^ueadeB 

-«B-^i«r *llgemelneB Abruestung interessiert sinAr-Är Praesideat i»t- 




I 






5 



( nachdem Paul-Boneour die wähl a bgelehnt haQ^de^ Hol laend er Loudon. 
Si^ arbeitet auf ^er ersten Sitzung einen Jragebogen aus. 

1) Definition ron -ar-ment« und seiner ^«"«^^^^^S^«" '^"♦^'^^°^- 
1| Dermiti ^ .ü^itation" . Soll Kriegs-oder Friedens- 

staerke zu lirundegelegt ^werden? 



_J 




3) \ielcher Ilasstab ist anzulegen? 

4) Offensire und defensire ^affen. 

5) Jeroelkeruncsziffemilodensehaetze, geographische Lage, 

SeeTcrtoindungcn, Eisenbahnnetze. 

6) Verwundbarkeit der Frenzen und Lebenszentren > ^^^ 



-Ä 



I la - 

7) Verschiedenheit der Mobilnachungsgeschwindigtelten 
r)- ZtvirTnierTIiltXäCr^urtTährfund belschi f f e~l 
a4-iteeurity 






21. Maerz 1927 Beratung ron Cecils Entwurf. 
22i •• ~~w — — n " — Paul - Jone oursSotwürf, der vom 

potentiet^e^^uwi^-tti^ ti«- InterdepeM 

^y^^ ^^..^ jLA-^^»>^^A^m^m^^mf^^^ aI« Grundlaße an^t e s eh^n^f^B s e n w i^f;- 



Ir ford»rt-i'e r ne r l nternat4^nala^ Koatrolla^ 

In der Dislcussion sagt der deutsche Vertreter ^raf -iernstorff: 



^The States which have been disariied by international i'reaties are per- 
f eetly ^ ntil l ^- 1 ö-dcmaiid thsr^ene raX dtFarawi ent shoald be-a«hleTed." 



jjann wirc f die Frage der ausgebildeten "'eserTist en, v er handelt 



Der amerikanische Vertjfeter Ol bson erklaert, dass USA sich nieials 



einer internationalen Kontrolle unterwerfen wuerden. Paul-lone our: 



Dann sollen nur Voelkerbundsnitglieder^er Kontro lle unte rworfenjsein. 



April 1^29; »we ite Deba tte u eber den Rntwur f^ 



f 



•ibson: Nur die ftrossaaechte sollen reduzieren,. " It i« not liiaitation 



we need no exaot balan ce of ships and guns— what is really wantcd is a 
.aoaifflon sensc agreenent^based^-an. tHe idea tba^t wc are goinä to be frienda. 



arid s ettlfe our problei8_by peaceful ae ans genui ne disarmawent will 

follow oniy fron a ehange of attitude H owards J.he^ use of force." 

Allgeaeiner Beifall. (Kellogg-palct liegt roraus. ) 



Sibson polenisiert weiter gegen Paul-lonco«r. USA koenne sich keine 
.Reduktion 



(' 



Die frag» der geschulten "eserren wird ron der Tagesord nung abgesetzt ^ 

unter -frotest •^'eutsehlands und Russlands. ^ , t, «^ •«t,w-^.« 
rtim-r quallt*tl«-Li»itation: Deutschland, Ru83land,Kolland,Schwedett» 

Dagegen: Trankreith, Italien, Japan, Kleine Entente. 



iernstorff: "The Comniissi on has lost sight of its task at any rate as 
i^ a» iLnd ifor«es are^oneerned^v.^!^ ge^^^naent ha« neT^r l*ft i4^ f o^ 



. „...rnnr, in '^»"bt. nhat it eould not aGaep^.^.crg«j»P_ » -^ - 

,ould not brl n« »bout »n appreclabl« raduotion in the exoesairrw- 



I 



I 

1 



*' I 



•t 



p- 



3. Oktober lf2f: Tod f^tresenanns. 30. Mai IWÖt Irland fordwTW-Sürope 

flepte*>>er^ ifSar »•4«h8tag8wahl» Nazi» 107 Abgeordnete. 

._ „. . ' ^t . ,ii-«v.„-- «4«. ÄAiehatAizea fordert Glei<l|beiiegk 



-ttganrr^fussolini wird Wrtfuehrer d«P Revisionisten^ 



IS^ 15 
JÖ— — 'rankl i n-loull i on t 



Die franzoesisehe Dienstpflicht ist 1§23 Ton 2 Jahren auf IS 



lionate lerabge.etzt worden, 1§28 auf 12 Monate. ?.arun. eehweigt die 



franzoesisehe "'egierung darueber in "^«"f? 



Deutsehland gibt fuer .eine 100 ÖÖO Mann üeiehswher au.: 
1.^24 2700 Millionen ^rancs " 



1§26 



4032 



1*30 



472» 



yucr die Tlotte -^OerMiTTIenen Frane8-1924, 1200 Millionen lf30.- 



60 M l 



nur dureh Yerstaendigung zu gewinnen. 
Tardieu ( Irlands Ministerprae.i dent): i^rankr eich und DeutscminTT^^t^ 



m der Rue.tüngsf i^it^'''in"7r'eonfiiet both or doctri ne aiHröTTäit-XT 
^T^^^t-d^-dTu t sehen Anspruch auf -TerWlgeüäesslW Recht, -ednction^ ztr 
-»erlangen, seharf zurue.k und driült_mit J^irestigations. 



jLter in t?i^"f bleibt .jeder Widerspruch aus,als_n^ening erklaertj 

-The Ger«an Sorern-ent and people ask their own disarmaaent »hould be 

- ^: • S » «~~ 



followed by general disar-anent. This is aenaany'. legal and »oral right 



in d er Nore-uertagung 1»30 aender t die deutsehe Delegation ihre 
i'aktik und ging zur Obstruktion ueber. (lruening,Curtiu8,lern8torff ). 



Das war de» Auswaertigen Aussehus s nicht gen u g. Br nah» aa 2. Deze»Der 
■fe^ einen nationalsozialistischen Antrag auf Abberufung ^ernstorffs an. 



I 



7 



/^ 20. HoTWiber 1»50 erreicht« Ourtlus in einer lesgrechung.it de. 
OS* an« ÜSSR Y.rtreter. d... die beiden Mut.ehlwd. .qu.l right. und dl. 

Terpni.htung der «dem «ur Abrue.tung .nerkMnten. ^ 

Deufhland. Italien und USA .uehen ge.eln.a- die e.ervenfr«^ 

lapet .u bringen. Beut.ehland und USA .tl.-en gegen ,udgetb...hraen.ung.n; 





England dagegen ist dureh dae Tasehenpanzersehlff ^Deutsehländ"* eöKeu 



t 



i 

r i 



I • 



ft 






geworden« Ceeil erlclaertynieht Tonnage, sondern Judget sei ausschlagge- 

band. Deutschland fordert spaeter (ll. April 193| ) , al 1 e~istegvtisnirtrwi 
— ueb^rlO 000 tona -aollten ab.jeachafi:t_Jg^Lrleii^ Italien und U3A ue ber» 



4^l0ten eieh Im Fordern tüh Absehaffungen: AirQxaftJJjfcrriersxtÄnkj^ 



«ehwere %8ehuetM. I4twinoff fordert 11« Februar 1'31 t^otale Intwaff- 



^ nung als ••only infallible remedy " 




••Reduction of ariBaraents iiuplies confidence. • . Should any atteMpt be 
intde,foi^lnstanee, in the naite of a theoretical principle of equality^to. 



►odify the relatire Situat ion cr jyttedjby^ the^^ orisions of Part Y of the 



Peace ^reatiesfit would be impossible to maintain the reductlons already 
aeconpllshedyand still lest practicable would beco»e the general li»itatioa" 

of ansaiiBHtV^ Ir fordert: 1) security, 2} statu« qu^ der ^affenrelatiea« 



ignst 



~Septe»ber 1931: 12 Voelkerbundstagung* Grandi fordert Rueatun^Bfeier^MtL 
bis Schluss der Konferenz. Jeifall Englands, Deutsehlands, USA. 



lorah fuer ^erision des ^ersailler Vertrags. Mussolini, der an gleichen | 



25^ Oktober l»31jHeftiger Ausfall lorahs ia US Senat gegen -Frankreich. 



Tage in ^eapel spricht tbegruesstrJorahs Rede. 




Praesident: Arthur ^enderson. 
ii^eg i nn~T. "Tebruar 1^3». Ajif?l ei ehen -^age lesehi essung Schanghais durch die 



'apancr.._ 



Jtenderson. Aufgabe 1) To arrire at a colleetiTe agreement on an effcctirt 



~ — — — — 1 . 

program of practival proposals speeding to secure a substancial reductio)^ 




and linitation of all national arnaments. 



2^)^-^o deternine that no armaicents should be naintainAd outside the 



scop e of the treaty by which all nations represented at the Conference 



would Make the achierenent of unirersal disarmaiDent their eonnon clal». ^ 



il 



3) To ensure continuity of adrance in disariDaiBent,without detracting^ 
in any tmxmx way froa the füllest measure of sucoess of the immediate 

ef fort of the Conference, by arranging for sirailar Conferences to weet at 
reasonably short in^er^als of tine." 






Tardieu greift auf den Plan einer internationalen Polizeiaaeht ron 
1919 und das (Jenfer Protokoll ron 1§24 zurueek. 



i 



örandi (10. Februar): "To go on arguing whether eecurity p: oduoed dis- 
arBaaent or riee rerea is just the kind of sophistry that we niast leare 



behind u»." 



I- 



^ Dagegen hatte Madariaga,ein langjaehriger Ifunk tionaer der Voelkerbunde- 

icoMMJesion in seinem luch "Disarmanient" ( 1929) getrieben: 

"The problei of disaraament is not the problem of disarmanent. It 



really is the problew of the Organization of the ^.prld Comnunity" . p.60. 



Yorsehauend hatte er gesagt; "Krery delegation goes to the eonferance 



deterwined to seeure a n inoreaseinthe relative armaments of its own 



nation,even though the oonferenee night lead to a n all-round reduetion of 



absolute arBaments." p.61. 



T 



26. Apr^ 1932j_Be8preohung St iwaon-Macdonald-lruening ^inigune; auf 



den Plan I die Di enatzeJJL_der^ReijihflWeJir„au f_§_Jfthre herabzusetzen und 



i-A 



tnn Uiliz^ zu zulaaa 



alfeeschraenkung^Dieser Plan wird durch Sohlei eher aabotiert^ticr dumh 







tTmrdleu mitteilen laesst, Jruening stehe vor .de« Stutz..^ 

ut^DisaxBament*^ •'^eadlofik.l§34 n. 7,A . 



iO,-llai 1932: Sturz ■«'ruenings. — Tardieus Wahlniederlage^ 



L. 



Ju»i 1932^ Ingl and und USA erklaeren, capitalships seien keine 



^ngFifps**f feftr-Sie dienen nur Eur Verteidigung-^^ron-KonvolSr 



^*i^aB4i4-*The KaTal Poxwers wanted land disarnaffient^the Land Power 



funt^ed 



^— »*^*1 disarBanient.and the delegateg at^fienera wanted ^ ncwjDentaltty^^ 
Vhbeler-iennett p, 38. 



I 




13. Hai 1932 Churehill im Unterhaus: 



The disarmaaent Con ference »erely encouraged friction and exaggerated 
Claims to alrB,and hart irr~Taet,wea1cen«d^oire" great factor^ln preserring peace 
the Aritish navy.He. »ould itery nuch regret to see ^ y approx iaation in 



■ilitary strength between Jranoe and Serwany,and to those who wjshed for it. 



r 



he WQuld aay: Do you ^is h w^r? He v^as eur e that the th eory that they 
aho uld be p lae e d on »n e quäl will t ary Jjo o t i ng Ufas one wis h^ lf it eaier ged 
liLjuraaticetWould^ bring thew all wjthin practical dictanoe of alaoet 



lameasurabl e c alapi i tx^" 



4{it dieser Stellungnahme war Churchill Toellig isoliert^ 




^ Die Agitation fuer Ahruestung hatte im Jahre 1951 riesige DigenBione^ 



angenomm en. Im April 1§31 hatte die Conference of the Christian Churches 
beschlossen, ihre Gefolgschaft aufzufordern, jeden einzelnen Abgieordneten 
dureh Zuschriften oder muendliche Agitation i« Sinne der Abruestung zu 



bearbeiten. Zahllose andere religloese *^ganisationen, PrauenTcreine, 



» «esellschaften fuer Yoelkerbund usw. schlugen die gleichen Taktik ein. 
Die Aufzaehlung der Resolutionen alle^ des Jahres 1§31 wuerde »eheBC 



Seiten fuellen. In "Frankreich hatte Leon Blum schon an 27. Oktober 19Z 



f 



Icnapp swei Monate nach Hitlers erstem grossen V*ahlsieg,die Parole ausge- 



geben: ••La Trance doit prendre 1' initiative du desarroement qui est le pliö 



surfet peut-etre le seul iDoyen de parer au danger. La preuve est falte 



raaintenant que l'augmentation des armements cree un etat d^esprit favorab- 



le a la guerre.... Je ne crois pas que l'Allemagne veut la guerre. Si le 



danger derenait irmainent,le peuple allemand reagirait contre cette folie. 



TT 



II faut avoir confiance dans les forces ourrieresf organisees 

Texaps k:8. 




le syn- 
brr 1931 



'dicalisme et dans le socialisine ennemi de la guerre*** In diesem Sinne wur- 



den die Resolutionen des Parteitags der franzoesischcn Sozialisten besch 



f 



lossen« 



dret 



In der Entwicklung des englischen Pazifismus lassen sich ÜESi 
^ erkennen: ZuerstTlst die Mehrheit gewillt, die Xf^eTtctSr TortereiTien- 



den Kommission in Senf anzuerTcennen und siögar gegen fleutsche Angriffe zu 



»••^ 



rerteidigen. Ab 24. Januar 1«31 veroeffentlicht Frof. P.Noel laker im - 
Manchester fuardian einen Artikel «Gcrmany and the Draft Conference on 

I 

Disarmament-, in dem er die Kritik der deutschen ^r-azifisten abwehrt. 

i 

Die Arbelt der Kommission sei gut, wenn sie auch nur, was die deutschen 



! 



! 



Pazifiaten nicht einsaehen/^tSf den Rahmen 8cliarfe,den dTc ltonfcre»7 



. mit Inhalt auszufuellen habe. 



Am 5. Mal 1*31 zeigt sich eine Differenz unter den Labor Lovds. 




Poneonby greift die Kommission an, weil sie unzulaenglich sei, Lord"ilien 
und Lord Parmoor verteidigen sie. Im Unterhaus spricht Lansbury ^egen 



(^ die Kommission, die Mehrheit der Labor- Abgeordneten settt weiter ih- 



re Hoffnung auf 6^ie Arbeit der Kommission. 

2. Stadium: die Mitation der Ligen fuer totale Abruestung begllnt^l^ 
irawzuwirkein-f>te Unzuf ri edenhei t mi t d«r Komai 3S ion_waecliat ,_und^^di e_ nat__ 



üermme IConsequenz- tBti-dass die deutsche Agitation fuer, Abriißatung_jler 



andern aur Symftpthie stoesstr 



16. Juni 1932 : Jeginn der Reparat ions Verhandlungen in Lausanne mit 



Herr iot, Macdonald und Papen. Die yolge ist eine engliBCh-franzoe8i8ch<^ 

i ^nnaeherun g im Sinne ei ner dilatorischen ^aktik. Herriot und Macd onal/ 

rersuchen.die Abruestungsverhandlungen hinauszuziehen, bis die Teltwir 
-'^^ * ^ ^ Grandi tritt zurueek^ 

sehaftkonferenz vo^fueber ist.rpa erfolgt 



{: 



r 



1 



H 



! , 



pi>.Juni 1932 Intervention Koover8,der Ve r min derung aller Reustungen u m 



-i/T. fordert, " increasin g the co mpa rative power of defense through decre^ ^ 



as ea in the power of the attack." Der ICftllosgpakt muesse von 
^ner Reduktion aller ^affen begleitet werden, (lotschaft an den KongrejS 



Juli4-Jaldwin le hnt im Unter haus H oovers Yt^rlangen hoeflich ab. 



4»--rul 



Ltwaffnun^skonferenz nimmt eine R esolution an, die den 



^^emisch-bakteriologisclLen Kriege in_den Bann tut, aber alle andern gra- 

^-*en Inder Schweba laesst. Deutschland^ Ital ien und Russland unterzeie<f 

weiteren 
n e n n ieht^T"yote»tleren,blglben al^er 8ur Mitarb e it bere ijt. 



26. Jul i« Rundfunkrede des detusohen Wehrmiriisters Schleicher. S r 



labe bei seinem Amtsantritt versprochen, Deutschland eine icaapt 

Armee zu schaffen,und werde sein Versprechen halten. Deutschland muesst 

moderne * äffen haben. 

Li Am VOll*'^ 

Deutschland wird jeg^ i»> ^ 



2*. .Tuli. 



* Pertinax im ^c^o <1« «arist 



I 



j 

i 



J 



m0m 



-•. =^1 iT TTl ^ ~ 



f 



t 



Tageslicht ausfuehren, was es die letzten 10 Jahre hindurch im tehei- 

men ^etan hat." 

I 

2. August: Robert Ceeil in Oxford (Manchester Guardian 3. 8): 

"l^hen gemians ask for equal i ty of Stat us in disarmament I think theV 



are on streng, indeed on unass ailable grounds.J^Mjtx^Thej^Htlon how 



_^. , to allay Tr ench fears. Intelligente Franzosen saehen ein,da8s es auf 
<iie ^auer un woeglieh s e 1^ d i e Ver sa i 11 er l estimmungen fuer die 



Int waf fnun g a 



g 2. AU( a :^8t: News Chronicle ( Uoxd Seorge' s llatte): "Abo ut tke j uatiae: 



's claia 



iiaa 



in faot i a 

*ixokei 



■Jten ha ve ad m ltted.-t^ be rcasonabl e, and -thft Iritish Gover^nment 
* disaraaMcnt prograame «hich leaves that Claim- un»ati»f4«4^ 



*»,-^usu8t^-ireurath uebergibt -»rangois-Poncet^in aide-meisoire 

1 ) A n erken n u n g des Pr lnzi pa ^tLeiL^lei chbereohtignng 



2) Sechsjaehrige Dienstzeit der Reichswehr. 



3) Äine Reserre Ton Freiwilligen 



Keine Klausel des Tersailler Tertrags erlaubt laps of the 



peraanent obl igations. »ith this reservat ion, France is ready to take 



part on the sane terms as all the accepte d parties in the examination 



ruestung sei, 2) w eil a uf de r Konfer enz auch NichtUnterzeichner des 

j • (^-, T — - 

I Tersailler »ertrage vertreten seien. 



xLes- JUisrjicha auf fflei chberjftfiht iguijg^ 



IB. Sep feaber : ^enderson verteidigt die hesolution von 23. Juli 

gegen ^eurath. Darauf erfolgt Deutschlands erster Austritt aus de/ 



Konferenz, 



I 




of this Problem." Die deutschen Forde rungen koennten nicht auf der 
Konferenz erledigt werden, weil 1) deren Z^eck Abraastung nicht Auf- i 



1^* Seftyember: geurath p rotestiert bei Henderson wegen Kichterfuellunj ■ 



f - 









11 



Mussolini ^ar von Deutschlands bevorstehendem Ruecktritt unterrichtet 

Ir hatte am 11. September einen Artikel in der Sunday •^imes reroeffen^- 

I 
licht: "In order to aroid tfermany's absence frora the Conference her 



right t'o juridicar eqüälTty in t h^ mat t^^ör-armafflent 8 rau«lr-iireTl t ab ly 
be reeagnlzed." 



r 



Deutschlands Ruecktritt verursachte in England grosse ^estuerzung, 



Die britische Regierung veroeffentlichte am 1« September ein 



t; 



]^ 



Statement of polieyt 

Deutschlands Forderung nach Gleichberechtigung sei angesicnts aer 



wirtschaftlichen Situation ebenso unzeitgemaess wie angesichts der 

I 



gros^en Konzessionen in der Reparat ions frage. Sie sei Juristisch 
nicht legitimiert r^räther an appeal for adjustment." 



Dagegeii erhob sich scharfe Opposition. Das Kabinett blieö indessen 
zunaeohst fest. 



"Scpt 



J^a? 



serait le debut d'un retour aux anciennes folies. II est bien vrai que 



i 



^ 



les Allics de la derniere guerre ont promis de reduire leurs armement." 



yrankreich hat abgeruestet und wird weiter abruesten dans la securite. 



( Temps 26.9 , ) 



ö^&eFJ 



t igung iL T-Töelltg gerechtfertigt. Is soll aber nicht sofort sein» 



ÄnÄruecHe rn^r oll em Ha« w rcÄltBl CTem; 
>%o r i 



20. ökto' 



lin e^t^pütäTl b n gngl i s^hei^Klrchenmaenner unter Fuefarunr 
des irzbischofs rou 13äriterbury sprl^hT-bel John Simon and Macdonald 



— L 



■9 afti 



^>e fulfilled. J^he •overnmen t wpuld have their enthusiastic support in 

I ,. , ._ -^ -1 4. 



^ttl^4114ng^ 4;] 



willini ^ness to g ive ^ermany a pl aoe of equality 



:e disa: 






^rtone Pf th.ir polloy.>^h« Sl^on an t,»ortn »It An.rlcennung ron I).ut.chl4.^ 

! Ah/wAai ^ _!.„,. zur üeW^-'^ '. l 



12 



-Ä— JToTeinljert Jlie brltiachen Geverka chaft en unt ernehmen den gleichen 
-aohrltt wlB die TCirchenmae nner. Att lee stellt im Unterhaus Antrag auf 



1 




1 



Abeofeaffung der milltaeri sehen Klauseln des Yeraailler J^ertrag» und 

— fordert -Deutschlands Sleiohberechtigung,^ 

^Unterhaua) ^ 

~±0. Jforemheif/t '3^hn Simon akzeptiert Deutschlands Anspruch auf aieich- 

berecht ifeungj>^,_>*j^t^j^ object of the DisarMament Conference? 



f Its object is to bring about the maximum of positive disarmament that 

— _ _ _ ^ 

' can generali/ agreed upon, and not to authorize, in the name 6f equality 



increase of armed strengtTTT^ 



iriTtroir-lcoimnentiert in dieser ^ede ein Britisches ^eissbuch ( Cznd^ 



ximtzMXXJUfixxMsmx 



tnZMWl M t x tJUfMXti X MX f tJnnMt x xt x ^siJfj Die Limitationen des *ersailler 



Tertra^s "were intended to,and expressed to be,the precursor of the gene 



ral llmltatlon bf armaraents. .T~Great Jritain effected immense reductions — 
...^-^ Any hesitation v;hich migiit arise in any quarter wouj^ not proceed fr^i^ 



a d es ire to in flict upon (Jermany a permanent inferior ity of Status. It 



wo uld s pring^ fron anxiety as to the use vhich might be made of the new 






Situation and fr cm fear of the resulting dang er s which might threat the 



-tranoillity of luro p e^" Dies e l^'urchtkoenne durch feierlichen Verzicht 



auf_^ewalt_be8chworen werden. 



-Jn^wlschcn hatten H erriot u nd Paul-loncour ein neues Projekt ausge- 



a rbe i te t^das am 4^ November _Aeia b ritischen ^^abinett mi tgeteilt worden 
war^-Is sah yor: 



f~ 




JlX Alle Kontinental Staaten sollen Armeen mit kurzer 



Dienstpflicht 4ind eingeschraenkten "^'eservistenbestaenden einfuehren. 



2) Alle anderen ?o*rmationen sollen aufgeloest Verden. 



^ ^internationale Kontrolle und obl igatorisches Schiede- 



^gericht^. 



Dieses Projekt sagte der britischen *egi 
Verhandlungen mit Deutschland an. 



erung sehr zu. Sie knuepfte 



3. Dezember 1932: Herriot, Macdonald, Aloisi,Forroan Davis kommen in 



7 




/■ 



I 



f 



Genf z 



13 
asaramen. Ueurath trifft incognito ein und nimmt ( zunaechst 



inoffiziell) an den lesprechungen teil, 
I 
11. Dezember Abkommen. 



ri 

f 

i 




I 

I 



2) On the basis of this Peclaration»Germany has signified its wiliing- 



nes s to reaume its p l ace at the D iaarmament Conference. 



5) The Govern i pentB of the United Kingd om» Franc e^Germa ny and Italy 



are ready to join in a solemn reaf firmation to be made by all European 



States that they w ill n ot in any circumstances attempt to reserve any 



prÄflent _ar__future differenoee betvi^een the signatories by reeort to force 



This^ BhalX be done witho ut prejudice to fuller discuss i ons of the 




xjuestion of securityj«. 



Itlt <de m letzten Absatz wurde -tf rankreich abgespeist. Die Forderu ngen 



des Herriot-loncourschen Entwurfs wurden spaeter von -Deutschland bruesk 



abgelehnt. Deutschland gewann die Anerkennung der Gleichberechtigung 



und die Zusicherung, dass etwaige praktische J^eschraenkungen seiner 



Ruestungen nicht mehr aus dem Versailler ^ertrag abgeleitet wuerden, 



sondern in der neuen Konvention selbst umschrieben werden sollten. 



Das kam in dem englischen Plan vom 23. Januar 1§33 zum Ausdruck. 



\ 



^---Januar 1^33 j neuer eTTgllsch^Fl«^ 



^ 



i.'^. 



_ « 



c 



i 



i 



__Q 



Kammer , lo .Nov . ,33 



y 



Georges Mandel : Er verlang t,olass die Regierung eine Unter. Buchung 
des deutschen Ruestungs stand es im Vielkerbund beanrtragew "Verha ren 

Sie-^n »Jenf nicht aenger als Angeklagte, ve wandeln Sie sich dort - 
unten im Gegenteil in oeff entliche Anklaeger." 



Aussenmin. Paul-Boncour, 14. Nov, erklaert,dass ein Antrag auf Unter- 



suchung der deutschen Ruestungen keine Mehrheit mehr im V B. finden 
werde.'- - NTB ,33,488 



ä 



Polen 14,Wov,33 -J^ 

Stunden langes ^espraech des neuen Botschafters Lipski mit Hit- 



ler^und Ne u ath. Gemeinsame Deklaration:Absicht,Wirtschaftspakt 

I 
zu schliessen.i-eschluss,sich nicht mit Krieg zu ueberziehen , 



Ende Nov. 



An der oesterreischischeri ^renze wird der Keichswehrsöldat 



Schumacher erschossen. Hitler haolt an seinem Grab eine i^ede voll von 
Drihungen gegen Oesterreich, dessen ^^egierimg er 'Moeraet "nennt, und . 
forde rt kar zum Umsturz her aus NTB, 55 536 



Louis Thomas, Midi, gegen ituestungsindustrie, NTB 33 ^0 560 



Dez. 33 Pilsudski erklaert Voelkerbund als tot. NTE 35 584 






1 , 

ii 



Jan. 34 Bet'ruend\jng des ital. Marineminist. f.d. Budget 1953/54 _ 

''Der Ja aner sieht im Kriege nicht dasselbe wie der weisse 
Mann. Seine Vorstellungswelt kreist um seine geschichtliche ...issi n, 
den Triumph un d die Herrschaft seine Rasse. Da bereitet sich die . 

Tragoedie von morgen vor. Dieses Volk stoesst mit de Macht seiner / 

Waffen vürwaerts,und noch staerker mit der Macht einer Psychologie, 
die in der Lehre von einer historischen Berufung wurzelt. Heute faeixtji 
es in Qiina ein urrl organisiert es. Morgen, vom nassenfanatismus | 
voewaertsgetrieben, wird es den ^m f gegen den v.eissen Mann 
aufnehmen. 




r '-iZ-itii ,1^'^^^^ff^^^'^^' 



^»r - 



e 



^ 



Kriegsteilnehmer NTB 102,54 I 



i 



\ 




Polnisches Goebbels-Interview 

ks ist eine tief bedauerliche Erscheinunfc;,dass die Entscheidung 
der Schicksalsfrage eines Volkes, der Frage ueber ^rieg und Frieden, 
in den meisten Laendern in der M acht von Schichten oder Persoen- 
lichkeiten ruht, die den Krieg aus eigener Erf ihrung ueberhaupt nicht 
]ifil^t^^vi oder nur teilweise kennen*. • Wenn der Gedanke des i^eichskahz- 
lers,dass in allen Laendern vor allem den ehemaligen Kriegs teilnehin x 
ein vorzugsweises Mitbestimmungsrecht an der Eints heidung ueber Krieg 
und Frieden einzuraeumen ist, verwirklicht werden wuerde,so v/uerde f 
hier in die sicherste Garantie gegen jeden fii^4^ Krieg zu erblicke^ _ 
sein. "' \ 



Deuts dipolni scher Pakt, ebenso Oesterreich NTB 34 I 105 



Aufi*uestung Forschritte NTB 34 I 112 ,Lager-Anhaeufung 113 

I 

Bluttag in Oesterreich waehrend eines 24stuendigen Generalstrieks 
^ in Frankrecih NTB 34 147 




Daladier gelobhudelt im Voelkischen Beobachter 6 »Februar 54, dem 
selben Tag, an dem er gestuerzt wurde. Seine "Kuehnheit und Enhschluss 
k aft" wird gefieret .Der "Frontsoldat, der uz handeln gelernt hat", 
"Schnell" "geschickt" und "ruecksichtslos". Er besitzt "die Gunst 
des Volkes und der jungen Kraefte". Er will "autoritaer" regieren. 
Er v/ill sich "auf Ausserparlamentarisches stuetzen,auf neuauf brechen- 
de, f eie , Volks tuemliche Kraefte »iL 34,1 155 _^_ 

• I 
"Puse des Sozicilismus" 34,1,156-57 . 



'\bruestung.Rede Sir j. Simons in Brigh ton, 16. Februar :"nüt the 



remotest possibility" auf Abruestung .Deshalb muesse man eine 
l'regulierte Aufreustung" anstreben, eine "limitierte" 

34 I 171 ^. 



Oesterreich, Labor wuenscht Ende seiner Unterstuetzung 34 I 176 

Barthous Kampf um volonte und garantir 196 



Heeres 
Frankreich Militaer-Etat 1383 5.7 Millia den Francs 

I Deutscher " ja.y " " (485 Millionen Mark) 

Franz. Luft-Etat 33 1.8 Milliardon Francs - - 

Plan einer Erhoehung des Luftetats um je d80 Millionen Francs 

^ in den folgenden H^H^/ 3 Jahren (intrans 24 II 34) 

34 I 2;d9 
Oesterreich :Benesch in einem amerik. Interview: "Ich fuer mein 



1 



Teil bin vollkommen bereit, der Richtung zu folgen, die Signor 
-Mussolini zeigen wird." 34 I 234 

Ba thou empfeangt Jlenesch,Titulesco, reist nach Bruessei,im vpril 
I nach Warschau und Prag 34 I 364 



Rolls oyce Motoren fuer Deutschi. 34 I 436 




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14 



1) Tcierlicher Kriegsverzicht aller eui^opäel scher saaateri. 

2) Sol'ortiges Studiun? fuer Arrangements, politischer Streitfragen in 
— iuropa., — 



3) -Pcutwche und andere Ruestungs b eschraenkungen sollen in ein u nd 
demselben "ertrag festgelegt rerden,al8 Ersatz fuer xeii V des 




Tersailler Vertrags. 



4) »leiche Laufzeit fuer alle -»eschraenkungen. 
6>fleicher allgemeiner Typ der Heeresorganisation^ 



-örttei-^^ebatte erklaert «teh der deutsche-lCerlxetej^-^adQlBXufuer 



3^;^ST-?unkt-^ tind 2 »ollen spaeter^roertert » erden», J'aiLl-lanoaur da- 



* gegeir^estelnrdarau^dass zuerst punkt 1 und 2 erledigt V/erdem 



IJacrolny ": Äbru^estTmg hau ml t s icherung des--^ i «d ens niclit a - au _t ua* 



3ü;~ Januar 1§33: Hitler-^^ichskanzler-r— 

ST^ebrü aft E den im Unterhaus r-Die vorhendenen -»riedensgarantien 



sTnd " real and: sübstancialr*^ 



8. februar: Paul -lonc cur: Ohne ^ecurity keine Abrueatung-^ 



Maerz 1§33. Abermals neuer englischer PI anr 



1} die Konvention solTiruer ^orlaeuf ig & "ahre gkfcten^ 



^Keine Aufruestung^ 



5) Internationale Kontrolle. 



j4.) ZöllÜache Studienkommission 



5) Herstellung allgemeinen Vertrauens. 




In Punkt 2 und 3 die franzoesischen Vorschlaege nineineearbeitet . 



Nadolliy opponiert heftig. Die SA seien keine mlllTaerl sehen Effektivst 



toiy 



4 



ould remain bound by obligat ions which are consldered mconsisl; ent wltir 

_^ t 

its Honour." Treiwillige Verpflichtungen sind allerhetBaa^^eft; 



Churchill: ••Macdonald' s plan had come at the vorat p oa albl e-^lire ; TT 



was^foolish moment to preas on Trance when there wäs-g-tumultuous-ltiaarg-^- 
enoe of ferocity in Sermany. " Eden: Churchill ist der einitge unproduktive 

Kritiker im Parlament, 
20. -aeri: « Millionen ehe,n.llge 'rontkaempfer treten bei »enderson fuer 



? 




*leichberechtigung ein. ^ordern *• 



/ 



^ 



15 



>J 



leichzeitig obligatorisches Schiedsgericht und seelische Abruestung, 




ittiniatjer 



jjcx ajbcx 30, Haerz 1953> Judendebatte im Unterhaus, Kriegs* 

ilsham warnt vor Einmischung in die Innern ^e rhae Itnls 



se Deutschlands und Verletzung des deutschen ^elbstgefuehls. 



^ai^—Maerz Viermaechte-i^akt^ 



1 3 > Apr i l ^-Aus ten £!li6üiib er lala. JjdlUj 



: ^ Event s in Cermary m ade thg 
«owent Inopportune for talking of treaty revision^J!_J:L*^Qhn Simpja_verurtejL,^ 



4i^ deutschen Judenmassnahmen^ 



i5^v April Deutscher Proteat gegen die -4Ärl am entad^ßbattJteJBL 



11. Hai: ITeurath kuendigt in der Leipziger Illustrierten Leitung 



Deutschlands Aufruestung an. 



12. Mai 5 Papen haelt in Muenchen eine Rede, in der er den Strcytod ver- 
hoehm^^i — Hailsham droht mit^ Sanktionen^ Cecll: Keine ^eit fuer 



.4/ 

trc^c 



Grenzveraenderungentaber l^'eutschlands Anspruch auf Gleichberechtigu/y 



bleibt bestehen. 



16. Hai Roosevelts ^ede to the rulers of the World. Spricht fuer Mac- 



dinalds Plan und fuer ?richtangriffpakte. Droht dem Priedensstoerer. 



17. Mai Hitlers ^eichstagsrede. ••Kein neuer ^rieg»'. V.iil Macdonalds Plan 



annehmen, vvenn 1) qualitative Gleichberechtigung anerkannt wird, 2) 



wenn die Umwandlung der Reichswehr parallel zu der Abruestung anderer 

_ — . — _ _ ___ — . j 



_ — . — _ _ ___ — . j — 

Staaten erfolgen kann. Bereit zu allen Nichtangriffspakten, ^r 



osser 



aussenpoli tischer Srfolg^ 



18. Maerz: Lippmann in Mew York ^erald ^ribune: Hitler ein grosser 



Staatsmann. 
-Q_ Die 




ueber ^d do nalds In t^yurf^die America s Mitwirku ng 



wurrian torp ediert durch den amerikanischen Senat sau sschuss (lorah). 



l 



im Falle einer Verletzun g des Kelloggpaktes zur Yoraussetzugg hatten, | 



~ , ? 

der an 27. Mai 1§33 einen Antrag Johns on-Tandenberg annimmt, im Kriegs- . 
falle das Imbargo fuer alle Kriegfuehrenden Laender ohne Ruecksicht 

auf die J'rage des Angreifers du rchzufu ehren. (Inspiriert von Prof. 
John lassett Moore). Lcr Antrag .ird am 28. Februar 1934 debattelos 

angenormnen. 



HM 



<■ J ' » > 



16 

r — — — • ■ ■ ■ — -_______— 

Unter dem Sindruck von Hitlers iViedensbeteuerungen erklaerte Macd^ 



nald am 23. 




1933 im Unterhaus: "^b are plcdged to give equality to 



^ 



termany, The time is gone by when by a combination of any Powers any lurp- 

■ — — — — — — ■ — ( 

pean peoplcs can be kept down by obligations which it regards as being in 




\^ ly clear that the obligations that are to be placed upon the nations 



of lurope are to be obligations of honor and moral responsibility. 



Churchill widersprach sofort dieser ^ede,die auch ^aurath oder Hitler 



haette 
selbst halten koennen. 



;j^|JMiÜtxtByyM»BtlOSXijgXJt3KXl«3Qj^^ 






John Simon (ü nt e rhaus) lobte am 26. Ifai Hitlers Hede>wuen8Cht aber,dass 
den geroaes si^jten Porten auch Taten folgen werden ^ *l ut I am the more_ 



jdLsquieted that there has been no direct_ri5pudiation by anyone in^^authojü. 



rit y lii_iennany-_af soine other^^tatementÄ-j^eß^ently JDadt_Jüf-^öll5aßu«^ 

If 1 

j_Chaüicellor.i._JtaJt I may take the ChajDcellor' g declaration aa-^eajoing 

ilie withdrawal of the Scrman Foreign Mini st er 'js writtenjword that if — 



eertain thiings did not happen as Crermany wished she- «ould-r^aniL-Xn. apil^ 



h^r^reaty obligations; if X raay take it as the refmdiation o f. that X 
terribla speech of Vioe Chanoellor Von Papen, in whioh he said warfare was' 
be to men what ^hild bearing was to womanj if-i^^nay take tt as- a repudia- 
t^efr-ef^ those utterances, I welcome it more heaxily,ajid r would go as far- 



can to roeet the newer and wiser spirit which the Chanoellor ee«Bs t^ 

^i ndtcatev'' 



Tünt erhaus^ 



-XaiÄmry lobt am 5t 5. J41tx^l4l35 the^reassuring speech of Herr Hitler 
obwohl er den Kriegsgeist in Deutschland nicht i;jnorieren will. ••The 



Opposition wanted Cermany to have fair play,but they were none of 

them going to sit by and,without prote8t,see Ciermany rearm.« 
Austen Chamberlain; ^ Y.hile soinething is refused to vJermany,it is vit- 
al. If you say »V-elltWe will give it to you,and now our relations wilC 



i.- - — — «-^ 



•t3:,=-xr?_- -r_ ^, t ^ „ . r rr-- 



i 




XBfXillMTfl8^lB«yHV«fril»ttT^*''*"*y-^ 



17 



ofcourse be on a satiafactory footing», it loses all value for the 

— .• — . , . . ) 



Moaent that they o bt aln l.t,and It Is ta k en by theni merely as a steppl y 
att pla ce for a fur ther demand^ 



-Aft_long as every spee ch made in Sermany, aa long as every bit o f 



'.; tlieir Propa ganda is nen acln f;,i rlflai nnia tory, bia8ed»one- 8ided»how can 



■Ihey expeot-ltiiat those whon by this propaaanda they^ menac e shoüld 



4i»ar» in^jjrdfir that-J'Ännany may be in a better Position to attack 



JlSBL 




tk& ß von Hitlers Reichs tags r ede , hatte Lloyd george in 8carboro/>/4 
il rueckhaltlos die Partei Deutschlands ergriffen: (Manchester Guardian If/f) 



" Therc are two questions arising out of the (Terraan position^and it is 



a fatal error to mix thera up. One is the aboj^jinable treatment or zhe JewJ 
-in «cr»any,ani the other is the abominable treatment of Germany by th e 



Allies over the question of diaarmament. . . lut vfhen you come to diaar ma- 

ment,! feel a special personal responaibility in this matter. I was oneof 
ttre-four w ho d rafted the disarmament elauees of the Peace ""reaty. I f eveY- 



there were clauses of the ''reaty that were just, the disarmament clauses 



were just. Those clauses provided that Germany should^ dlsmalrtlw "that tre--^ 
mend bua pöverful armanent ttiat precipitated t^e war an4-«ane^ery near to — 
.accomplishing its nefarioua purpoaea. The promoters o f the treaty aa id; 



' lefore we begin to rJisarra we do not feel safe to do so until that greaC 



army is disintegrated,but,we said,the moraent that is done,we will all 
1 ^foTlow^.^'^edid not merely put that as a promise in writing,we sct ap a 
— special machinery in the League of Nations to carry out that pl edge. In 



two years Sermany was disarmed to the limit fixed by that treaty. I took 



wy just part in i nsisting that that should be done. ''.hat have the Signato« 



kt^ 



ries to the treaty done? ^hat have the nations done that coropelled 



Germany to si^^n that -treaty? 



Not only have they failed to carry ouirTheIr~predge but "They have" 
— tncrgäsed-^irmam en i s and mad e i^hem-mare po%erftb3n.-Y«ar by year ttermany._iiaa 
been pleading for a iulfilment of that pledge— not for a revision of the 
treaty but for the execution of the treaty. Prance,^üland,Gzecho-Siovakia 
have thousands of heavy i;uns,tanks and heavy bombinfj aeroplans. Germany is 

. . #-nr. 14 veara thC^^^" 
allowed none. Are you surprised that after waiting for i.^ j "^ 



/ 



1§ 



1 



\ 



18 



have lioi angry? 



j^e ought to h ave noticed in the swelling number of the Nazis that the 



young men of the nation were resenting it« It ia ill provoking to a brave 
I peopie by i^he flagrant iinpoBition of >'*rong;we drive them to frency by in- 



iiJLflJLLcij«And then we malce that an excuse for not redresaing the wrong. That 



iJ is n 



not Britiah fair play. 



I do not 11 ke s on e o f ^tlLe_ iMng s t h at are bee n aaid J u st now by people 



in \rery high places. That %as a foolish sptech that vas A 




T 



delivered by the Secretary of ^«ar the other day vhen he talked at)out aanc- 



tions against ''ermany . . . . Let us before ve rush into anpther blander 



,thi)iiC 



and appeal for caution and good counael, Let us talk to Germany in the 



League of »ations on the basis of insistina on a juat levcl of fair play. 



Allroudd fair play for the 600000 Jews in CTernany, fair play for the 



GO 000 000 Äermana. — If each party ia called to carry out ita promiae,if 



not only Sermany ia called upon to carry out the treaty, but if the others 



are prepared to carry out their part,then what seema to me to be a aituati— ^ 
on which growa more and raore alarming and more reminiacent of lfl4,^hen »-ar j 




ii»urd_e abe r vo n dtr deutschen "ropaganda intenaiv auagebeutet. Im Unter- 




haua zur ^ede t^eatellt, behaptete et -^ngland von aeinen Anklagen auagenom 



jn 



fcn zu haben, wurde aber von John Simon der Unwahrheit (in dieaem Punkte) 



uftber f uehr t^ 



r ^. , 



In T:nfl»i:re-ich oroteatierte Leon llum gegen energiachea Auftreten, 
iat fuer automatlacne uiia penneuicjiv^ ivw..---^-^ . ^ 



<f 



r«r tH«^ Abrueatung formulieren. 




konlre'te" -^eainf^ — o — — . 4*„«*«in. 

Dieaer Vorschlag wird Neurath am 2^ . September mitgeteilt. 

24.-2«. September Beratung dieaea Vorschlage in Genf mit Neurath. 
6.- Oktober Deutsches Aide-Memoire .rj^^±^ und USa' , nicht an 

Frankreich» ' 



/ 



■J!-- '- 



If 



30. Juni 1933 Vertagung de Abru stungskonferenz im allgemeinen Ein- 

, , 1 

▼erstaendnis. 



Am 24. Juni 33 hatte die deutsche Presse gemeldet, dass angeblich frmede 



Tlieger "R'lugblaetter auf Berlin abgeworfen haetten. befunden wurden 

1 

zolche TliUi^blaetter nui. in der 7.ilhelmstras3e). Darauf kuendigt 



O Soering die Schaffung einer Polizeifliegertruppe an 



I 

Ir 



Art. ## 3: 



12. Juni 1<^33 leginndei Ihitwirtschaftskonf erenz in London. 

15. Juli Unterzeichnung des 4^ Maechte-Pakts. Mur^solidis Entwurf 



""France, Great Jritain and 5taly de»lare that lircase the Sisarmament 



Conference attains only partial resulTsrthe equality of rights recognir 
ed for -ermany shall have an effective meaning ähd tJermany undirtakes ttr 



■■.I 



realize this equality of rights by stages which wiiT-^Se-determincd by 
^' .succ essive agre menis among the -4- Powers through the usual diplomatifl. 
-ehannels," Von Frankreich und England abgelehnt^ ] 



Im Tanfft des Sommers wurde das franzoesische Kabin ett du rch d4t 
deutschen Ruestungen mehr und mehr beunruhigt? Öaiadler teiTr^der 



englischen %gierung mit, dass er nicht mehr den Macdonaldschen Entwurr 

'_2 1 

annehmen koenne. 22x l«-22. September ^esprechuncien "Mensrait ipaladleiru 



22. September 1>33 Frankreich, England undTrSÄ einigen sich auf den 

TöT^chlag^,-die Abruestung in zwei Stadien erfolgen zu lassen^ 

U -Stadium soll 3-4 Jahre dauern. V. »ehr endd essen soll die ^^eichs- 



wehr in eine Armee mit kurzer Dienstpflicht umgewandelt werden. 



2) Stadium soll ebenfalls 3-4 Jahre r! au er n. taehrenddessen soll eine 



^ allgemeine Abruestung unter internationaler^Kontrolle erfolgen. 

V tJeber die IControlle entstehen Meinun^^sverschiedenheiten. i-rankreich 



üt-^ui. iutä.«ls<=.* a« pemanent. Kon^olle. -*«a«^-m- Ue.« 



ko nkrete ^ec Tlrifflnigen^ fuer die Abruestung formulieren. 

Dieser Vorschlag wird Neurath am 2^ . September mitgeteilt. 



24.-2«. September Beratung dieses Vorschlags in iJenf m 



it ii 



iTeurath. 



6. Oktober Deutsches Aide-memoire a 



nJSÜkSiiKX und USA »nicht an 




^rankreicH » 



ch 



:^hs^« 



"t 




\ 



i 



1^ 




^a 



II » m ' — w 



■»■»' " V * 



18 nimmt grundsaetzlieb Jiaedonal4»^KntÄ'uriL-an,leiint_^al^er jfide Proben 
*eU AW-Deutschland sei zu. allen leschraenkungen bereit^die au ch den 



andern auferlegt wuerden. Da^ wird ein Hauptschlagwort der deutschen Agita 

. ] — 



tion. Hitler sagt am 20, Oktober, er werde das letzte deutsche J^schinen- 



gewehr zerschlagen, wenn die andern das gleiche taeten,und erzielt damit 



O- 



i 



§-11. Oktober: Beratung ueber das Memorandum vom 6. 10. und ueber Milde 



rungen der Bedingungen vom 22. *. Nadolny sehr steif. 



11. Oktober abends: ^Tadolny erhaelt die endgueltigen Vorschlaege, in 
TTehen wieder die Probezeit vorgesehen isti 



13 . Okt ob er : d eut s clie Kabinettsberatung. 

14. Oktober H33: Hitler erklaert Deu tschlands Ruecktritt von der Ent- 



waffnungskonferenz und seinen Austritt aas den V oelkerbund. 



Plebiszit zur Stellungnahme des deutschen Volkes vorbereitet . In der 



hierfuer entfachten Agitatio n ,eben80Wie in der Bearbeitung des 






Auslandes wird Deutschlands Friedenswill e betont. Ss gaebe bessere 



l5^e der Friedens Sicherung als den ueber ^^ enf. 



England '^r^^rinit.rjit.nt.nchla.nda Aust ritt aus dem Voelkerbund als schwere 

_IalamitaeW^e .abfiX._ni Qhi_eMguel.tl£_8ei^^8 hofft Deutschland zurueckzu- 



iriügen und- vertraut aut Hitlers Friedensbeteuerungen, 



lend«rson sagt in einer Rundfunkrede vom,! 6 . Oktober; "V.ithdr^wal 8eem _ei. 
to me premature and- JJifortunatfeJiecauae^Jt.hfe_GeneraL^pmmission, has not 

^Plually-^ormulated its concrete profiosalSn^ — : 



^ohn Simon in Radioansprache vom 17.^_Oktober4^-?iYoj( majc be-aurfi-_thalL^nÄ 

I 



^O-^werd e«fflin& f ^?em me- witl b« ^hosen-^ to^ 



e the situation^-I— am|jjQL= 



1 



ing t o -oeeupy these rew minuxies nov ih -a aiBwu^BJ.«** «■■- ""-- 

^,* n^^t.,but in jL4)lain »tat ement of recent events... The Ir iti s h Sovern- 
ment are quite unable to accept the reasons which Gemany has ^given...- 

Henderson.ltanchester Guardian 21. Oktober: Ingland muss 




jetzt ein Beispiel internationaler Loyalitaet geben. indem^ es die 
allgemeine Abruestung beschleunigt. 



I 



jj/lfa 



^'l 



if 



21 



Macdonald (Unterhaus) 24. Oktober: "This country can look Germany in the 



faoe without any blush or without any apology. . .The British Government 




is not going to give up its attempt to secure an agreed scheine of dis- 



tr^ 



IrL-Irankreicli- -folgen sich waehrcnddessen die_ Minist erkrisen, die zur 

Revolte vom 6. Februar 1934 fuehren.Die Aussenpolitik, von Paul-loncof^y' 



geleitet, haelt festjdass ausserhalb des Voelkerbunds keine Verstaen- 



digung erzielt werden kann. Deutschland muesse nach ^enf zurueckkehren 



bevor weiterverhandelt wird. Das ist weder der Standpunkt der engli8ch<>^ 
noch der^dreux sehen "egierung:;^ : ~ 



Der amef ikaili sChe^lXeleg ler t c TTörraan^ Dari 



aert-am 16. -Oktober r 



« V.e j.e n ot int eres t ed in the politi cal demanda of the purfety 



luropean a^pect of the queation. Ve emphasize once maaee aga tn tha t we are 



in no wise politically allied to any European Power. •' 



24. Oktober Hitler im Sportpalast. Bereit zur Versoehnung mit 



I 



Frankreich. 



6. irovenber: Keurath scTilaegt eufbpacische ZüsSwBcnaj 



leTha«^ 



(ienfs in neuer tiriedensgesinnung mit neuen Ideen vor. 



7. jToveinber: John Simon ^unterhäilsT» "^e must earnesny trust that 
fM^.m^ mti^tpmenta (Hit 1 ers u nd ^eura ths ) may 1 ead Jn. some form or oth er to 

hft rantval' of contact." 5o auch ^acdonald am 9, Novemb er im Unterh a us. 



Austen Charaberlam fuer Fortsetzung der ü aitwaff n ungsko nferenz. 

Lloyd George: Ausser England hat kein Alliierter seine Verpflichtungen 



erfuellt. Deutschland wolle Macdonalds Plan ausfuehren. 



12. November: Deutsches Plebiszit. 



13. November: Macdonald: "^e ask Germany to wome in." 



\l 14. November: Albert Sarraut, Ministerpraesident: "Gardons notre 
sanif i'roid. 2Sgalite sana oontre-partie? Non^i? 



15, Kov^emb *r : Pftnt.wQh-Poln iache Y erstaendigung. 




November: De i*rinon veroeffentlicht im "Matin- sein Interview mit 



dem dieser seine Loyalitaet gegenueber Frankreich beteuert. 



i 



21. November: John Simon findet dieses Interview »remarkable" . Er 



k 



wuerde Jede deutÄCh-franzoesiache-Verataendigung begru^^ 



en und un 





/. 



22 Tage 
stuetzen. (Unterhaus) SM «t*x gleichen Silziu« erklaert i^cdonald iir 



Oberhausler hoffe auf eine Verstaendigung mit l^eutschland. 

inde Hoveaber 1«33 verhandelt Hitler mit dem britischen und aneri 
kanischln Botschafter ueber Wiederaufnahme der Entwaffnuggsverhandj^un- 



gen 



18. Dezember : Deutsches Aide-^mo ire an •" rankreich. 



^"^ Zehnjaehriger Tlichtangriffspak t mit grankreich,le lgien,Polen, T8cji_ec,;^ 



k 



oslovakfi. Dafuer Au fhebung der Rh einla ndbeachr^enküj,£en und Freiheit^ 



die deutsche Ostgrenze zu befestige n. Iteich sweh^^jiQU 300_ilß0 Mann jnit- 

-4— ~^ 



' einjaehriger Dienstpflicht unfas8en;_ Kont rolle erflt, nacJidem Deutschlani 

1^ ^ ^ ^ -■ - 



ifortige JiuAckk! 



Ruestungsglei chheit realisiert hat. t 

- — 1 — 

line franzoe8ische^nfrage^an_die britische Regierung wegen Sankt^iön«^ 



bej_eigermaecht iger^ Auf *uest ung Deutachlands-Äir^ ausweichend beantwor- 
tet .^^heeler-lennett,p^_l*5. r— 



1 . JanuaxLJJMJLJranzoesische Antwort -aa I^utochlandr 



Die jeut gehen Vorschlaege bieten weniger Car^kntien-al^iiOcarnaTmd: 
Kcllogg-.Pak.t_»_ Keine Revision des Versailler- Vertrages . Keine Auf ru^stiln 



/ 



eben JfakCdoiial ds 



JLfeiclisweht,wcnn paramilitaerische Verbaende aufgelijert-iferacir. Kont: 
JLfi_jier^2liTil-Luft fahrt* Dafuer will Prankreich 50 f, seiner schweren 



Defen&lT^^ffen 



— Ä-^-Januar 1934r Iden: »^The first need öT^^e T«forTam'Tör~än~iigree- 

»ent uDon disarmaroent.not only öTJ-aCTraürrt oi ine~importha"ce of that 

I _-_ -^-.-^- 



l 



f-prol 1^1 c äir 8 ignTflcahc 




It-now embodies. The c oiwer sät i ohs thr bügE"a[rpl omat 1 c Channel s and 
t)thenripe^ilve rec entry^been -pröcee^TInr^S^^b^ii^^^ 
.^„»»e^-^ey ^e no iratost itutir-Tor 5eneTäTT'K€y-ar^^n-Tn^^lT:üae-tö-eF^^^ 

e theforl^jof_Geneva_t^^oc^ 

at their conclusion.« «ff .^f^V JatÄz-^A^^'^l^'^^^^ 






äöT^JänuarTD^uts^h^P^iia^cher Pakt .V ^l'K^^WH^^'^^^''^'^''''^* ' 

^^te ein-^^iichei-dÄtT^'^"* 7.u6^»^^ 



1 



I 



*r-^ 



Tschcchoslovak^^ ^ 



^»«iMWMHwaSi 



4 



23 



/ abgelehnt. 

2f . Januar Jritishes Memorandum on Di aarmament . 

"Iven thxough Increase of armed strength may be actuated by reasone of 
defense, it ja an index of fear of attack from another quarter, and a meaeu* 




i 



j^^— n^-tlre äXirm and disqulet exi8tingn)etireeirpeyp-l¥ir7 



Conreröely a generai agreement securing the Ümitati^^^f armamentlT 

uxxica b i ft l e vPl woi il d be t ho ernst., eff#cUv^-attd-&4g»4^ 
jiternational appeaaement and an encouragen ent of the 



relatifti 



8equentlj„ Hisjfajeg ty» g Governwen lL^gard agreement Äbout armamenta_no'. 
asan end itaelf but rather a concoroitant of World peace and as an out- 




corae of oolitical aitielioration." Das Kabinett bleibt bei Macdonalds W- 



wurf. -Fo agreement is no Solution at all, and the World win he thrown 



back upon unreatrfcted competition the end of whlch no man can see •• 
Die hochgeruesteteü )4aecht« sollen nicht- »€itel^-r«««t•»^•n^^-^ti- 



^ ^°^' abruesten »olleiu-auaer«^akte-w«r4#n b«gru^9t^-«tHie^ ifejeetyi »^ 

•1 Sovernmeni are glad to unde ratand that r.h^nf>.m^^r>r. Mit.i,,r h«.^ d'^Alnred 



- ■ ■'" - — ~ii r -mi^ m m mm ^m jMe ,J_ -!_■- Jl jl ■ ^ ^A-^t ^^ A 1 ,1 r^ p^ l 1 F^ t. ^ 1 Xv. i^ 

that Germany roluntarily renouncea any Claim to possesa ' offensives 

— ■ 1 — — 

i»ea^ona and limita heraelf to normal MefaBse« armaroents. A positive 



conufl^üt^on ^y the Tieavlly armed Powers will help to bringthe scale 
down all *ound and shouldr r^duoe *he 4««and» which «emany night other- 



wise be disposed to put forward." Reichswehr soll aus 300000 Mann beste- 



hen. "Agreemen ts as to thi s figure win enable all European Continental 



armiea to be reduced. - Das Iritische Kabinett freut sich, von Hitler 

rlnen ral 



•u_v->_ ... ■_,. — ^^ "•* •"*•'* «»''i j. civ.iicii vyiitfci auter 

haben. Ausser Flugzeugen soll Deutachland alle V.affen -. ötons tanks us»^ 



erhalten, aber es muss dann nach ''enf zurueckkehren, 

Strr^anuar lf34. Hitler Im jreiclrstag!: Als aufrrchtTger Itnhäenger 
j einer Politik der Teraoehnung» sei er #uer Deutschland« ^leiehbereehti^ 



g,"^ ^^" ^etreten und habe damit den groessten J* eitrag zum -frieden E uro - 
pas geliefert, leziehungen zu Polen und Russland seien gobessert. Kein 



\ 



Deutsch er bedrohe ^rankr ei ch . ~ ~ 

- Sr-Petortaarf ^A:ttie# im Unterhau« tmisuf^ieden mit— dero bri^iB^hen^ 



i 




aper is in the roain a proposal for the rearmarae nt of 



flrermanjVJ Labor Cheera. Austen Chamberlain: •• I never did admit the rig4^ 



of Germany to parity of arroaroents ^ith the Powers to v^hoin the provisions 



Hl 



V of the 



24 



of the 'treaty did not apply." Sonet aber mit J^^emoranduin einverstanden. 



Stafford Gripps: Alle muesaen disarm to Germany's level." 

7. Februar Churchill im Unterhaus: iald wird ^Deutschland auch gleiche 
Rechte fuer Flotte und Kolonien fordern. _^ 



14. Februar 1S34 : larthou, neuer AuBsenminister im Kabinett Doumergue 



I -. qtn Aus^aertit^ea Amt. E^ vermisst deutsches Eingehen auf fran z oesischen 

Kontr oll- Vor schlag . SA .SS und andere param i 1 i t aer i sehe Ver baende seien 



(i 



u 



i-i 



( 



in die Sf fek'fciYbestae nde der Reichswehr einaubeziehen. Deut s da 1 and 



ti 



aoil m^t Z fei deutigkeit en aufhoe ren. Damit finden die _deut seh- f ranzoc:;: 
ai sehe" Verhandlungen ihr JEnde . Di e engl i sehe Reg ieru ng gchickt am 



16. Februar gden nach_. 



e_JEJQXti'ueh»ULn^ d er Verhand lungen. 



zu_bßfuerwort en^_lan 



ordftrr, Sanlctlonen ( Y.heeler-lennet tp, %^lX 



JEden faehrt dann Berlin. Hitler fordert 



1) mindestens 1000 Kampf- Flugzeuge 

157 "Aufhoeren der Ve r s üch^,T7eu t s c h 1 ands Ru e c Ick ehma ch l»e nf 
^Btt-y^r langen . ( So auo h-Deutsoh«e Me mor a ndum vo» 16^ April- 1*344^. 



^^. Februar: Daily Jfctit ▼eroeffent^lteht^nt.erv^i«w~Go«r4j^-1^ard Pri€«nr 



— ^k>«ring fordert deutsehe^ I>efen»iy-Irtrf**af fe^i 

8._Maer5iJaldwin im l^nterhaust " I ag ree wjth Mr. Churchi ll that the 

European Situation has changed in the last^J^^months.owing to various^ 
circumstance8"ln"variou8 L)art8~ör the World *Eicß"T need not deal^tö- 



-nlshtr-^t-l-am convinced thart whatever he--tlte- «1 1 imat e motive that 

I 
makes «ermai^ at thia moment so anxiöu» fo^^her air force--it may be 



fron 



militaristic ideas alone and from a feeling of natio- 



nal pridfe— there is the aame feeling of apprehension of the people 



which my rlght hon*rable friend showed and which ve all feel about Lond(^. 



T 



23. Maerz» Frankreich lehnt das -»ri tische Memorandum ab. 
17 . ' AprlTTIarthoua Note ah^öhlT Simon, ^el st auf das deutsche 

.dget 



das britische üemorandura ueberreicht wurde. Deutschland verachte alle 
Vertraege. Cea faita -prouvent que le gouvernement du Tle Ich ä , d^isröx^ 



x_ 



:ist0i 



eliberc ou non, renau irapussxuxc w^d ..^3>— - — "-- ■n^„*««uioi^y 

ruine Xee baaea.^:erhandlungen,koennten_nur erfolgen, nachdem Deutschlajfy 



1 "len Austritt aus dem Voelkerbund ruecicg^yVj 



'.. ■ i 



/ 






i 




25 



gemacht haben wird;aber Edens Besuch in Berlin habe ervviesenidaas 

I 

Deutschland gar nicht an Rueckkehr nach Genf denkt. 

Diese Note errejt in Deutschland ungeheure Aufregung. Neurath 



-Monaten gßfuehrteft Verhandlungen zwischen den hauptsaeoh^tt^h bete^illgten- 

«eohten -&i nd von grank F cich bru oo k -a^ge^F^ehen w^rdenyiind gwar 



^ndung 



land in sich achliesst." 



16. Mai! Besprechung iarWiou-Liwinow ueher O s t -Pakt» 



29. Mai: V.ied eraufnahm e der Entwaffnungskonf erenz in Genf. 



LitVin^ schlacgt vor. sie solle si ch in Permanenz erklaeren,um 
Sicherheit und Fr ieaen zu schuet z enl 



^ofih Si mört tfitt fuer deutsch- rranzoes ische-yerstaendigung -mm~m.c- 



jionalds Entvvu-f ein*. 



Jarthou polemisiert ^^^en das britische Memoraiiduin. 



Die Konferenz teilt sich in z^ei Lager. 

— Dii^^ine unteF Wehru"Sg^HgIiinds,voh Italien aktiv unterstuetzt. 



Wruic^^ Bsionen an Deu tschland, um irgerT^In Abkommen zu erreTdhen. 



Das ander e, Wiiril^erch7!Üriiliti^i^ Entente. Viir Vertagung. bis' 



befrleSigende Abkommen ueber seicuritaet erzTeTr^sTfid; 



Henderaons Komproraissvoraehlaeg^ von larthou abgel^hatnr 



_a^_Juni KomproraiaarefliJluttQn Angenoromens 



Alle Ar b e i t en . d i e au 1^ Sekur i^ ae V^JI^ugv ese 
zlelcn,sollen dem Bureau ueberlassen werden. 



11. Juni 1934: Vertagung sine die. 



"« 



\ 



9^ 



Lloyd ^eorge 



29. April 1020 



Triumphiert, 'lass San riero alle befriedist habe. 
"In Pari«,! find , they are pleased ?>'iti' tbe deciaion to ea- 
force the treaty. In "ernany, T see that they are equally p] eas 



C 



•d that ▼e havf^ r\f^.D7^rt^A for the first t ine fron tVie nili^.u- 



ri3t poMcy of -""aris,*' 

^ra.r.kreich rrus^ auf -ias Rheinlanr! verzichten. 

•• T.e camiot liequeath to cur children another ^J Gace-T orraire.'» 

" The J?^^:u" Governnent have no authority in their cv^n 
lani. I do not v.'ant to say anythlr^ that in harch/out this ^ov 
eT.fent does not conmand the authorlty vhich vould enahle it 
to nake its ^lecrees resjected. Sol-Uers defy it. States defy i 1/ / 
^0 I un^^ergtanH. Tlmt is the createst ''i-f'iculty of all. ':ou 
are ^ealinc ▼•^ith a girwIsliex/CA "brokeri-'H^oV rreature vhioh has 
not g-^t the coT"r:and of its linba and ita nuscles. Its actiona 
are convulsive. It has the comnand of 8peech,H'~.''. that is 
aToout al 1 



C 



;*? 



tvii' «r 



f"o Conference, 14^4 

Order that we should 
lat the Position was. 
ho, ronfoi(»nce it was 
ionld know what wore 
k'e to bc tho subjects 
tlmt we arrived at an 
[iscuss the main (jues- 
the exccution of the 
'lip'e was (lisarma- 
,M th(Mi insult to 
iIk^ Arrny of Oociipa ' 
the niain «n'<^stions. 
|.nnanieiit, I shall have 
>^<>. We are all a^reed 
k^>le weapons of war 
^ menace, not merely 
the lih(»rty of fh^ 
^Htroyed. lipon that 
[<•< of opinion hetween 
the Chief char^e of 
h\vinK these W(\apon8 
^oneral, actin^^ as a 
lission sittinf,' under 
y-Vench ^MMieral. An- 
is in eliar^e of the 
fvroplanes. Thr first 
^.« ate thesr mins, ncxt 
•'hfr into (Irpots. and 

^4*t'a1v qnite frankly. I 
|ani hefort^ 1 wtnt to 
^«•ry anxious to know 
and asked him to 
[«• s<M' nie. Ile told rae 
had (|uite faithfully, 
li en an aceoiint of all 
f':;^ard to rilles, he ex- 
Jicnlty ; tlie inen had 
That, of eoiirse, is 
jy to tlie peace of 
ll^Jternal peace of (icr- 
i,'us one. They liave 
Ur riHes and not sTir- 
t'al reason. I under- 
f < -»'rnian (io\ ernnienl 
tlieir own land. I 
Ivtln'n;; that is harsh, 
>loes not ('(»niniand 
|vonld (Mia})le it to 
Ipect^MJ. Soldiers 
so I iinder.-;l;ind. 
ij. *«lini(ulty of all. V(Mi 
iff 'rken-haek creaturc, 
:jie eonnnand <»f its 
H's. Its actions arc 
«rthr coniniand <)f 
M>iit all. Inforiiiii- 
British ofhcers 



]4(>5 Sat, Uviun Cnnferrnce. 29 APK 



that there is famine in the land. 1 have 
had reports from British officers in dis- 
tricts where the popnlation are not get- 
tin^^ niore than betwecn one-third and 
one-half of the calorics that enable lif(^ to 
be efTi'ctively maintained. They are livinK 
wholly lipon sloshy ve^^etabk's with no 
yitahty. That is the trouble in (J(^rmany 
ii IS suffenn^^ froni that kind of shell- 
shock whcM'e it has not recovered the use 
of Its niusdes and its linibs, and it is 
Imli paralysed. This 1 get from British 
ofhcers. J have taken the trouble to see 
theni and to talk to them and they are 
quit(^ frank about it. One I sent for 
fioni Berlin teils me (,uite frankly what 
tlie |)()sition is. 

That is the difhculty. When'you come 
to Order disarniament you may ^et a j^er 
fcetly willinf,^ (ioverninent which issues 
decrees hopin- that they will be obeyed, 
biit there is no one at the present momerit 
in that country who seems to me to havp 
the power to enforce the decrees, and 
that is one of the ^n-eatest tronbles with 
whieh w(^ are eonfronted. If the Cerman 
Oovernment say, " We can issue Orders 
but we can ^vt no one to obey them '' 
then we shall know what to do, but it will 
he action of a tolally different sort. You 
may lake one kind of action a^^-iinst a 
Ciovernment which you know threatens 
.>ou. But you may take another form of 
action a^Niinst a (Jovernment which you 
know IS perfecdy helpl(^ss. The action 
.von take deprnds very hu^cdy upon the 
<lia;inosis of thi' facts, and therefore it is 
vital that we should aseertain exactly 
Nvliat the Position is. That is one of tlu' 
advanta-rs of meetin- the people who 
aiv. al any ratr ncuninally, in authoritv, 
•'n<i iiavr estahlished niorr than nominal 
aiitl.unly f<»r the tinie bein- in Berlin. 

Thr (.(Immms -ave nir a dt\scription of thr 
maifh of the t,ro()|,s int.» Berlin. There 
wrrr ..fily ;j,o(k> nr 4,()iM),>f t hmi, and they 
'vxprclotl to l»c haihMJ as deliverers. The 
l'"pulation were simply stunned and 
Mupefird. Thry lo„ked likr a stupefied 
l"""l''<'. not Kiiowin;:; what (he thin«; 
iiMMiit. S<» far from bc^in- friendiv, they 
^WM-e deeply hostile. The troops neveV 
'•<'-•: lised Uli (JH^y ^rot tli(>re that (;ernian\ 
•^ it'»i merely siek and tired of niilitarisni, 
"•'" that i\ will h.ive Ilolhin^^ whatever t(. 
*'" with it. This is what was told nie by 
i>iilish oliieers who were there. These 
''»" llie facts whieh have lM«..n ^iveii t(. 
"" ^^^>*^^it the positifui. In a very short 



IL 1920 San licma Conference^ i 1466^ 

time these wretched creatures, who had 
hoped to carry out a coup rretat, found 
that nobody wanted it, and that the 
whole of the popnlation were set against 
them ; not merely the workmen, but the 
middle classes, and also many of the 
higher classes who had fought, and, as 
they thou^rht, had made this sort of thing 
impossible. That is the position, then, in 
regard to disarmament. The gims we 
must get. The aeroplanes we must get.' 
ihat IS essential. We cannot allow these 
te^rrihc weapons of war to be left lying 
about m Germany, where there is nobody 
in real authority to deal with them. It is 
too dangerous. You can never teil what 
may happen. Someone may arise who 
may know what use to make of these 
weapons. They must, therefore, be 
cleared out. The riHes are infinitely more 
diflicult to get at : but rifles without guns, 
machine guns, and aeroplanes are not very 
formidable as weapons of invasion, 
though they may be very dangerous as 
weapons of disorder. We shall, however, 
have to do cur best to secure them. 

I come now to reparation. In regard 
to this two or three cpu^stions arise. As 
1 pointed out in the discuj^sion here some 
fcw weeks ago, it is no use pointing to 
the present conditio» of ({ermany and 
Sc^ying, " How can (iermany pay repara- 
tion when she is starvirig ? " Germany 
will not always be starving. She "" 
has a Population of 60,(MK),noO or 70,000,000. 
It is an intelligent popnlation. It is a 
highly skilled one. It is a popnlation 
Ol cratt.smen, a popnlation having all the 
arts of wealth production. 8he will 
HH-over : What w<« warit to know is, what 
Steps (iorniany is taking to estimate her 
nabihtie:;, to assess her liabilities ; what 
l»'0|H.sals she is going to make for 
Inpiidating her liabilities. WV know 
i;:'';»'^'^tly well that in her present con- 
ditio,, she cannot pay. She cannot main- 
;•'"• 1'^«' «l-contly. We want to see that 
••;;-"^a„y ,eally acknowhulg.s her lia- 
M\\y. and ,s thinking about the best 
»'n'thod of li(,uidating it. To meet a 
^MAnv who owes you a lar.ue sum of 
•^»'onev w hich he has not paid, who is not 
Pav.nu „iteivst u]Mm it. and. who, when 
'\" "»^'<'ts you, talks about everything 
ylse e.xcept about that de})t, is exaspera 
tii,g. ilie (iermans must be got t» take 
Steps to assess their liabilily, and to make 
some )),-()posals to pay. 

('rifieisms hav(^ been h^velled at mc 
Irom two sides in respect to this d(^bt. 



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ICell 0^:5-^ r iand --"'alct 



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Sehr iDald nach den A'oschluos der Locarno-''^crtraet;e nähr, die ;^iLation 
•fuer UntTaffnuns einen starken «tca .lafschrunß. 3ie vurde der franzoesi- 
len ^egierunc unbequem. In ?ruehjahr 1^27 sah ^rankr. ich sich in die unange 
ine Situation versetzt, bei der -lot tenkonferenz in -enf,ro eine ^eschruenkuy, 
^--der 3ce-Ruestun,:en verhandelt v^ur de, offen in den Streik ^u treten. Die 



Konferenz 



var eia vollkonnener 7ehl schlag, und d> r jfauptteil\ des Odiums faf 



ihr nc 



cheitern fiel au/ "" rankreich. 



I 



Locarno" bedeutete fuer "rankreich eine grosse r.nt t^jeuschun-, der deut- 
sche Nationalismus ^uchs ir-er bf>drohlioher an, und der "neue aeist" der 

deutschen "e-ierung bekundete sich hauptsaechlich darin, '"lass sie nit «-e- 
steieerter Intensitaet die allger^eine - d.h. vor allen die frani^oesioche 
--Abrucstung offiziell forderte. 

•^riand seinerseits, von der franzoesischen Rechten dauernd nit :iin- 
weisen auf den 1eut3chen >tlonalisnus bedraen-t, körnte nicht d^^ran denken 
in der Abruestun-s^rage der internationalen J^itatiun nachzugeben. Auf 
r^er bleichen lünlsterbank rie er sass in ral;re IjZI Poincar/. Lr -laubte, 
* nit sei.ien orat'.rischen ^riedenskult. -.as Abrnpstuni^sverlan^en ablenken zu 
koennen. Er bezeichnete seinen -^rier' enskult riederholt als :.:/stik, als die-^ 
^•eni^e Art von T'ystik, die der Menschheit des 20. Jahrhunderts eine neue -e- 
ligion bedeuten sollte, und beteuerte, dass der ^ralaube an den ^-ieden die 
Vorbeiingunc fuer die ^efrie^lun^ der Menschheit sei. Priands Spekulation 

schlug ^ehl. :.ie -rystik" des ^'ationalisrus erT/ies sich in Leutschland 
^ als die staerkere, und nit ien Benuehen, die "Abruestung' der -eister" 

zu propagieren, un von der technischen Abruestunjsfra^e abzulenken, nanS 
rrierte -riand ^''ran.reich auch in ier technischen AbruestungpolxtiK in ei- 
ne inner schlechtere Situation. So er.-inc es ihn auch r.it seinen Angs^-t ^ 

an A^vierika, den Xrie- zu "aechten". 



»riand hatte erfahren, dass in ^en VereiniiVten Staaten 



seit 1313 eine 



i— n»»*^r <a lii r 



2 



i 



•ev^e^ung p^rstarkt ^ar, ^.ie '•outlav;ry of var" forderte. Ihr erster ^erku^u 
^.er v^ar Salmon 0. Levinson, ein attorne/ in Chicaco, der IjI'^ in der 
*• Ne^ ^^epuT^lic'» einen ArtiVel "Qatla^'ry of v'ar*' veroeff entlicht hatte. 
Levinson v'ar Yen einfluscreichen ^e^soenliohkeitcn^ v ie '^er -^'hilosü^h 



# 



Tohn !Deweyy applaudiert ^'orden. ^'^1'^ arheitete Levinson ^erreinsarr] rit 
Senator T^nox einen Plan i^nr Aechtinr;; den ^rie^es aus, '"'er in Lezenber 



1321 in d^:^ l-eitschrift Unit/ veme^f^-ntlicht v'ar'^e. "The Christian Cen- 
tury^' uehernahn -diesen Plan, und. der Leiter dieser Zeitschrift, Lr. T^orri- 
3on Turde fuer •''ie Zriegsaechtun^hev f*£;im£; ehenso r inf] ussreich vie I^evin- 
3on, vielleicht noch nehr,'^enn er c^^'^nn ^'eite kirchliche Triise fuer '^ie 
outla^'ry of ^'ar . 1?23 orac^.te ^orah ir ::enat einen Antraj auf outla^ry of 
v'ar ein,ien er l?^^'^ ^'ie-^erau^nahr^. 

Tfelr-^en '^er ^evinson-7'or^ison-"^orah--^c^'e£^un£;; ent^-ickelte sich in A^erik^ 
eine z^^eite '^er^z'^nr zur Ausschaltung ies ^^rie^es. Ihr ''Tauptpprecher T'ar 
der ^Tistoriker Professor ^ares T. Ihot^'ell. Dieser v'arf der outlav:ry-'*^erej/^r 
vor , einzeitig r^oralisch-.juri'^t isch orienti^^t zu sein und die poiiti??che 
^^ealitaet zu v^rkennftn. 

Shot^ell v'ar 1^2'^ Carnegie-Professor an der -^erlin^r '-^ochpchule ^uer 
Politik. Dort hielt er in Anwesenheit der deutschen '"^^ahinett ->^ '^ --] j e^^er 



einen Vortrag '\Kr^ ^e at a tu^ning poin: in the history o^ thr Vj 
<*tr] er ausfuehrt c, -»ie tr^.^'it ioneile -^V-utrHli-ae!; cei .i<^>) erlebt. 



Id'j", :n 
"The /.e 



•*inttTon of ac^res^or T'ar rust "be rieveloped an"? apjili«'^ so that automatical- 
l:^the naohinery of international Justice as a sahst itute for war ▼ ould he 



w 



enhanced an-^ at the sane tine all v'ar hut defense ^"oul"' he outla^'ed*. 



1 



.. The conviction that t^'* inst itut ion of Tar--that is ^ar practii:e^ as 

a means of policy-- has hecor^e suh^tanoially an international crine,i5 

just as 'ö^^rorir^ly roote'"* in the conscience of .\rerica as it ever ^'«.s,*^ 

An 22. Laerz l'^^.? hat ghotr^»!! in Paris eine Unterredung r^it 3rian^» 



I l\ 



n 



o:iotv'ell regt eine frani^oe^lnchp. Intit5atx/e an. •■'oiiu? ■'■'ar\je'ber ^ehen die 
^einunscn auseinander. 3'intT;fii, Or. t,he rir o^ thc ;.>^:;cc,^: . 132, sact von 

-^^riand: ''V.'hat he Viad in nir]d,us ^«'ac clear fron cur convcrj^at ion,'»"u,s to u?*e 
the proposed ac^'^'^nent to outla^' "^'ar in the r-ay in >"hich the United Gtatei 

i^elf has used It suhsec.uentl/, nanely,as ähe l^asis for action in the r.oot 






serious prohlen y-'hich "h-d '^et con^ront^d the Leac^e of ""at ions, that 



of -^isarTrarr^ent.rLI. . "'he pro^oeal to ontlc.'" "^'ar ^as viered hy hiTr,accor- 
din£^to his ov'n statenent^as the extension to the '"nited Citatee of the prin^ 
ciple ^hich "Trance had already accepte-^ in the Covenant o^ the I^ea;3ue of ?^att% 
ions and the '*'reati«^!? o^ looarno. It ▼'aB clear ^ror this statenfrnt that he i 
-^id not thin>i o^ it in exactly the !=^are tems a« tho^e rho had advocated lYt 
OTAtla^'ry of ^'ar in th^ 'Mite-' 3tates." Aher au55 der unten folc^-nden ?.otschaf^ 

Brian-*^,^ an das arer iTcani^ohe 7olk seht durchaus nicht hervor, dacs ^rian''. 
den vor ihr vor;:eschla£:enen ?a>t al ^ Aur:£,an;;s:^^^Tn'<t der allj'^'^einen Tlnt.raff- 
lungsaktion ansah. In ^e^-ent eil , er na^^t ..Verlieh ''e^jtlich, ^.u.ss ^-r -Vie technl-^/'^f 
'^ Inf^a'^'^nunj nicht ▼'olle. ?"ach "ryn- .'^on^«'^ '^r'^^-;;raohie von Teil oc^, ^ie 



^■^elloc*3 '''achla!;S ver^'ertet, «^teht -^ert , '^a-.s C'^tt^^ell -^^n V. ortlaut der Bot- 
schaft "^rianis in v.esentlichen entworfen hat . 3hotrell seihst hat ^-'arueher 
geschTie£"en, CS aher in sein<^n spaeteren ^'^roef f entl ichun^en auch nicht be- 
stritten. Minsichtlich der I;ntv'a^^nuns3a'<:t Ion nuss ""riand ihn culso irre- 
/;efuehrt hahen. T'r.^'.an' -rn^. 3hotT;ell ▼'aren sicli in -^en ininkte einig, dass die 
oef^entliche L*einunr ."U^erikas ''urch ein T'anifest von -^er Verstinnung ^jegen 






nkreich geheilt ^er-^.en nu^^s'-^e, die rr^^^n Frankreichs *^altunr in^der 



Plottenahruestuncs'^rar-e entr,tan^en ▼'ar. 

'HO 



An ^». April/ '^en £0 . '"^ahrestac« des Eintritts der ^ereini^t^^n hatten in d/i; 
"^•eltkries, erlie'js -Irland ein^ Botschaft an das arf^>:'ih^tni3che Volk (nicht a>^ 
'iie "'esicrunr:) . 
* "^ran^kri-tch v.u(«nnn'--it Alirn^fltnns. 5'raMlcreich und USA sin^i einig in 



II 



!» 



iiiel, renn t^i^ auch in ^rac^^n ^.er Proze^^ur a'h'^eichen. Die r^nen T.ehrr;«- 



i5f5tze "^rankreich bev^'etsen, ^ans seine P.uestunf: rein riefenssiv sf^i. 
Srian^ schlagt Organisation cin<*is '»etat-najor general de la paix"vor, 
Frankreich un^^ TT3A '•poralement ?5oli'!aires , . . 3*11 en etait lof^soin, entre 
ces 'ieux 2^^^^^s "^er^ocrat ies, nour tenoijner encore plus hautenent en TavnnY 

de la paix et properer aux peuple«? un exenple plus solennel,la "^rance se- 
rait prete a souscrire pu'bliouen^^.nt '^vec les :::tat s-^inis tout enj^jenent 
rriutuel teniant a nettre en ces ^.eux pays,suivant 1' exprerision americaine, 
»•la ^uerre hors la loi'' . Gchon -^le Locarno-Yertrae^e haetten (^.en Verzicht 
auf I'rie^ aus^^esprochen. "Tout eneecenant souscrit ^^ans le meme espritjpar ± 
les Ijt.ats 'Jnis enver«? une autr« natio^ co'-^e la "-'rance, oontrjl^aerait _;rande- 
?rent,aux y-«ux ''u non^(*,a elar^ir «»t fortifier la "base sur laquelle s'edifie 
une oolitiGue internationale ie la paix. Ainsi '^eux jrandes nations amies, 
e^alerrent ^evoue'^es a la cau?^e ^^ la paix, auraient -^ourni au nonde la neilleii- 



re Illustration 



de cette v'^rite rue la Realisation la plus irrnedicite et atteint- 



dre n^e-^t pas tant le '^ej^arner^^nt cue la pratiouc -^e la oaix." 

Liese ^.otschaft ^riands hlleh \n P.n-ooa fast unbeachtet ,un^^ als 3hot- \ 

rell nach V^erika zurueck]<:ar,rar -^ie ^o^^t voellir ^rerfressen. »^ryn-Tones : 25 
Zhotrell, "ar as an instrurient of natir.al polic;'- 42. 



3hotT.e21 -b^-ami zn arbeiten. 'Iv garann ^'icholas Turray Butler fuer die 
Jache, -^er arn 2f>. April 1^27 einen -^rief an -^tn "ditor ^er i-er Tork Times 
schrieb. Butler ^rief hatte einen c^-ossen '.'. i <^ erhal 1 . i:s rechet e ^uschrifte/j^ 
und an-^ere "^laetter nahnen ■'. ie •i-'eabtte auf. 



W Ander? ^ar 'te T.irk'mr diese? Anr«bots einejj Kri-csTerzichtj LV-ischen 

Freunden, die an keinen ""rieg ;>;«*: «neinander dachten, auf '^as ütate Dep- 
artment. Kellogs notierte. :g. 2-1) "I did not rake any forral anst^er to it 
at once. It -^i'l. not seen to ne that a treaty betreen france and thc United 
Statesjthat these t^o conntrie, roul^ never ßo to rar.roul" have any .ract- 
ical ef'ect in the rorld at lar-e. ^jrthernore, it quite likely vouL^ do ror« 



J 



f' 



I 



« 



5 
harn than cood,as thc other nations of larope rouli v.'onder rhy thc TTnit- 

ei otates ^as enterinc into '^ach a trectty t ith -^*rance anri not ^ith thc 

other Towers. Thls ^as "born^ out hy the fact that ir^reiiat ely it vas 

kncvTi that i:. Irland Tna"?. addrer^sel such a cornunicat ion to T^e,the .'jr'bass^ 

adors of ^r^at -'?r itain, Ter^any, Ttaly, an ' the .^iploratic reprenentat ives 

of other countrie55 in th^ ^^nite"^ "taten ^a^e in'.yiiries of ne as to v.'hat 

I intended to -^o. T in:^or'^-^d ther^ that T hai not come to any conclup'ion 

bat that they Kxx^-wfex ni:;ht be reasRure^' that the TTniter^ 3tates '^'ould not 

r>ake any treaty ^ith -^ranoe that it ^'"a?^ not rill inj to ^ak^^ vith any 

other nation in th* '^orld.'» 

Praesident Cool.irU/e und der '">erir:it ^ aren in 7erien. 
"V.hen the Senate ^et,in ;:,ecerher l'^r^^, '^ had a conversation ^-ith 3enator 

"^orah ,chair'^an of the ^orei;;:n ^'^elation? '^or^r j tt ^, '=»n'^' "^'it^ '^ther r^r^hpr« of x 
the Cor^r^it tee,-R.n^ T car^e t "» the conclTif^ion, t^,?t they voul^ ^^ ot approve p. hi- 
Iqterql tr<"<>tv h<»t.V(»(»n '"''rp.nc« arri th« TTnitP-' ";tates;bur, T r^p. 1 e<^ to believe 
... that they voulri aonroTe a, nult rlat'»ral treaty, such as I ha"? in nirr^ ,▼' jth 
all the ntitionn o^ thr worl-i." 

Tn'^«<*'-en war Hl»» '^chMl ter. ''1. <• '^"'•llop na';^' «^jier '■1'-f<»nep '^ar^tellunp- 



«r i an'?jc^^?»«l»sj.:V«5i»AJtiiLxJSJC^j?JÜ€;iXl.l 



■x3E»JCÄJC^JCtxijt)EA3£X3iXxx*rxiixJt zciz" 



te, nicht ^anz so kalt, Tic es hier eeschildert ist. "3a ^riands -"otscnaft an 
das amerikanische Volk und nicht an die j^egierunc. der Vereinigten Staaten ge- 
richtet War, konnte Kellogg Ton einer offiziellen Antt;ort abschen, aber doch 

von April bis Z^ezeT-ber 
nicht Jiriands Projekt ganz ij^norieren . Zr koni-.te das schon deshalb nicht jT eil 



\ 



1 



f.r staendi^' von i:it -li*d?rn -'-r vcrso^.iedr'.nen -^riedens-und Paict-J 



Mh^ 



An f ane 
redraftH'-t. *"i^-''f. Zr. '.. irVlic^V^U hat T^eiloppr npaetes*ens Ki-R.^« --^uni d«n 

amerikanischen Botschafter in x'aris.IIerrlck.beauftratJt .rr-i t P.riand /-rhandlunt;^ 
-eetn d. s j^eun'^schaftspalctes aufa-unehnen.rovon -'ar. itate Le^oartnent ar. ll.ruv- 
ni offiziell die Cef fentliohkeit •mterrichtete, im^' ai^ '^0 . Timi ir^^ ueberrab 



1* 



i 



ipl 



e 



/ / 

Briand sein Projekt eines "racte d'anit.ie pcr^^etuelle cntrf; .a -'rance 

t les itats Unis" •^'"n are-ikani^chen Botschafter. I^as "bilciterale Projekt 



kdinn also anfan-^s von IZellOot; nicht gan^ so un^uensti^ auf^fno-nen forden 
sein, sonst haette "ellor;^ es nicht zu .'Irian.^s zweiten achritt koninen lassen. 
Ä Auch ueter iieses Projekt dujs e-nstha-^t verhandelt forden sein. 



)anc'ben riinften '/erhandlun~e,; n.rber --tinen f ranzoe^^lsch-anc- ikanisohen Sc^ie 



''^ c ». 



• A \ m. V, m. 1 '^ 



vertraj,ier !en erloeschen'^ n -^'akt \ron •l'^C'^ ersetzen -,ollte; -^ ^ c oei^ien 
-'akte rur'en jetrsnat v^erhandelt ,aber jelecentlich na^^hte -^-iand den '^rsuch^ 
sie zu verschneiden ^^^i.^ch^n I^ello^j mh'-'' -^en fran;.oos ischen ^.otschafter in 
Vashinrton,?Hul ClaU'^.el, :-i'i3S auc^i ein .^ e-^ankena'istausch aeTr>er den '»Trennd- 



scha^tspakt stattjrfun^.en ^alorn. Tellojc sagt p. C3£; "I 



a; 



nn^ler tlie inprec-^ 



aion that thc I^renc^n 'Jovera^ient had received sorc inforriation of that Tas 
in mj rnind atout a treat/ renouncinc var,Tnecause the "rench :j-!bassa:Ior r?ade 
inforral su^^eations to re t'-^at I place in thr pr^arl^lc n-r the cärLitrat ion 
treaty a jencral statencnt aboat the relations bctv.cen '"rance and the 'Tnited 
States, ho'? ever '^akin^; it not u part of th^ treat/." 

Sj^. 2*^. I-eüenber l'^L'^,sat:t "ello^-^e;» sei seine Antwortnote a'if Q.tn frani.ce- 
sischen V'orschlaj eines bilateralen- Paktes, d .:t. ::elloi:cs '/orschlaö <^-incs 
multilateralfeB Paktes, ferti- gestellt rorden. Da habe 31<*ndel bei ihn ange- 
rufen, er habe eben eine vichtije Tote von Irland erhalt en, die gerade dechiff- 



-3 \ \ 



'1? 



riert verde. Zr ruerde ur .t Uhr nachnitta^s zw "elloj^; kor^ren ana mn die 
IJote brin£:en. Darauf schickt T'ellojg seine eigene, eben fertiet^fstellte ITote 
\1 nach ischlcmi^st einjeholter "enehrijung Goolid^es, ansehend räch Paris 
und sendet Claudel Abschrift davon, ehe Claudel s^ch «u-^ den ''ee au Ilell^^^ 
piachen konnte. Inf olJede?!aen unterblieb Clu-udels -esuch, und Ilelloj^^ hat nie 
erfahren, v.elche '/orschlaeje -^riand ihn cJ^L" . le^erber machen rollte. 

TIellogs :Tote von 2'». -r;:enber sa^t : "...In vicv. of the traditional 
ship betrren "^rance and the '^nited otatC3,a friendship fhich happily 



fr i end 
is not 



^■.ijji 



«- '_ 



■■■«* » JUl^tj 






i 



1 



aependent upon the existence of any fornal en^ajenent, ...it has ocourred 
to ne that the tro ÄfliiJifcxiÄ&x gov^rnnents, inctead of contendirii^ ther?selves 
rith a "bilateral declaration. . .-^i^ht make a rore si^nal contri'but ion to v orld 
peace b/ joinirii^ in an effort to obtain the adlierence of «ill the principal 
• /|ä^ pov/ers of t^e v'orld to a declaration renouncin^ var as aii instrunent of 
national pollc/," 

"V.ar as an in.^"-. runent of national polic/'' das ^-ar Gliof^'ells 7ornel, 
die nicht -^riei;;;3bandluncen als solche infarzieren rollte, sondern den ^-rieg 
als rittel des nationalen Z^^'^is^us. 

Am 5. Januar 1"^^^ m eherreicht Claudel „^riands Antvort an r.ello^^. Frank- 
reich sei durchaus danit '^inverjstanden, dass a-ich andere ^»-aechte den 
franzo •sisch-aneriani'^chen -^akt heitreten sollr^n. 

ßjr^. 11» Januar 192^ antortet 'Tellojj; Claudel. i:r,::ello£,r, sei in all4;;e- 
meinen sehr b«. ^riedijt vm :7.riands Lin^jehen auf die Idee des multilateralen 
"^alctes. Aher Jriand scheine lu meinen, ^^ass erst l^rankreich und U3A den Jakt 
schliessen un-^ "ann ^1<^- andern zum 3f^jtrit*: eingeladen ^'erden sollen. Das 
halte er faer nicht ^ulaer.sij .Ls nuecoten sofort Me r, j cht i;;st en andern 
l?aechte an -^en Verhandlungen teilnehmen. 

21* ^''ebruar Claudel lu ICellOtr<T; Ucher ^ic l^in:-el?ici ten der rroLedur verde 



Oo 



man sich einijen, I^ur mue^sten die Ve'r^j-^lichtun^en, ' ie aus Art. IG des '/oelker-^ 
bundcs und den Locarno-Vertrae^jen er"7'ac'i3en koen::t en,berueGksicht i^t Verden, 
Briand schlaegt eine a^'lccjmeine Tonferen;: vor,^'as ^'^ello::^;, ablehnt .I!e 11 ogg 
^ will keine Belastung des Paktes mit Juristischer Taschinerie, -Bestimmung 
'^ '^es Anjreif ers,Canktionen us^'. "The only thinj to do ^as to State an ab- 
solute, broad princi^jle and marshall ^'orld opinion in its favor and a^'ainst thc- 
recurrence o-^ ^*ar.'' Z^^. 

2^. ?cbruar ::ellojg zn Claudel: V.enn ^\e Genfer /er.jf lichtun^en hinein- 

soiPlen,dann hat die ^anze Vf^^j^Q^ndlunc keinen ^reck. 7m^ekehrt aber foerdert 



j 



j 



die VeriTlichtixnz der c^^anten Voelkerfanil ie Lun Kr j erinverzicht die 



Liele Irs Voelkcr'bun^^es. .>de linschraenVun^; der al Ic^^^^einen 7orrel der 
"*^:^'ie3saeGhtun2 Truerde eine A'oschvaechunc sein. 

30.^aerz Claudel zu Ilelloce: ""-ithout in anv v.a/ lonin^ sij.ht of its 
(^ international o'bli-;ation3,l:)oth t^^ a nenber n-r the Lr^a^ue o"^ Tationc and 

as a party to the -^reaties of I.ocarno or treaties ;juarant f ein^:; neutral i- 
t/,^rance, for the purpoae of fin-Ung a cornon basis for initial n^^^ociations 
is vholly '^'i3po5ed,a'^t<«»r a nr^r exar^ination o^ th^ -^roposals forrulated by 
^yo'.ir excellency,to «?u:7re*^t i^^e^Mately to the Cerran, -^rlt f sh, Ttal ian an^ "apa- 
nege lover^-inents that they join in S'ekin^,in the spirit and in the letter 
of thr lasp A^^rican note,any ad just^-^^ntB ^'hich in the la?<t analysis nay be 
forthcorring; v'ith r^^oect to th^ po'^sihili^y o"^ reconcillnj ^rr-vlous ohli^at- 
iong Tinh the terns o"^ the contenplated nev treaty... At thf^ r^dJ^e time it in 
cl ear that in order not f^ turn an in'^truncnt o^ projres^ into a means of 
op^^re^oion, i-^ on^ ^f ^h<^ »J-^natory -^tate^ shoul-' ^ail to )^e^p ^Is ror"^, th-j 
other (".irTicitorirc; shoul'^ bn rt lea'=^e'i fro^ ^>fir en,7ft^;erent ^'ith res'^eöt to 
the offf^n-^in-; ^^tate.'' 

r'a^1t,*'.h. rit ''er ''"eherlasr^un-* ''er '^.<r\r)tir-f^y\ Trohlere an ^ie rJtrjrVun^ 

- -- ««^ 

der an-^e -^^ ra-^chte, i«?t -^ ^ e "Tin^^un:; i.^'inohen ^^iand un^ "'eno-'ij erri^lt. 
13. April 1^^:^: a^jr1d<:ani!°;che :'nte c^n "-reat --'ri taln, :jentr.chland , Ital ien und 
Tapan^^^it --1 ^.1 rhzeit i^r^ "'"^ tt (»ilMn;;: ^e-5 hir^her if^n fr-'^r^joe^.i-oh-a'^cr ikarlp.'-h'ij, 



"*'''^t'»n^*ech*5^1?^. 
^g^: lie Verhan-'lun^'^^ r^-'-^^oh^n '"':;., un' "Frankreich ^^f^.^er- '^ er^ ?iA^ r er i einen uriw 



lU 



7eri.ioht£ s'^i^^^ pioT-«^* 






I 



ehen, -^ass -"^ i f". . äin-l cm /^ j : e^^ur"*e'^ ^>.rerf^i"J 
'^ie Iloe^lichk«^^ t ^rhalt'^-^^ '^'i^s^r^n, u^b'^^ l^^^'^ '^cllnahne un-^ '^^«^ lass •'er 7u 
uebernehrenden Verpf lichtun£;en sicM zu aeusscrn.* Sine v;eitere Anlage enthaelt 
l den amerikanischen Paktentwurf und einen franzoesi sehen, ( der 6 Artikel umfassZ^ 



mit Vorbehalten hinsichtlich Genf und Locarno;. 



[ 



u. ' fti ' m >:jii^ 



27. April: deutsche Zustimmuntj, ( die erste der andern ^^echte), Deutschlands 
erpflichtungen aus Grenf und Locarno ?riu^.ssen unverletzlich "bleiTjenjatcr Ton- 
riikte zv»'i-5Chen diesen Verpflichtungen un-^ der' all jeneinen Krie£;s7erLiGht r^ei 
5n un^'ahr^icheinllch. "'^he .'^er'^an J--)ver>-^c..at :)roceed3 r)n the hellef than a 



' 




^act iTtrv t>' ja'*^*^'^n '^u'^-iit tc'-' "'o^r thr ^n^mr^rir^nt of thr "Tnit^»'^ Jtates ^'ould 
not put In nu'='-f5t1on t'^^^-- «o^e^^ljn ^ijht of any '^tate to riefend itspl-^/' 
1 .l^al^Zu-rtlrnnun : :.:u!«5 3ol inis . 
•. l'^Jial : en '•ll3ch^ Ant^-o>^t '.i. Jhar^>>— 1 ^iri) . syroathetlc ooüsi^'er^t ion. 
3^1h3tvrrteidl:unj *-^: nic^t p/i^r#^e?chl o^rocn. TTonn^'-'*-^ ^"^"f -nhr^n ^ie^.^-^ Takt 



md Voelkerbund od?=^ ''">carno ?5eicn r^^^ -li^^.. ~>^'' u.n'*. Lc^cM^^no '^u^rften nicht 



mteminiert '^'er-'en. Tunkt "^ "^ -'-r h-^-iti '^^'-»^n /^ntrort; " '"hcr^; 



,re certain r-^rr. 



!ons :^f th^ rorl -^ the ^el^are nn^. Inte^rit^r of" ^'hich con^^tltute a sof.cial and 
;'ital •intere-st r^r cur •)'*ace a^^-^ «^afet^^ •' 

23. 7uni l'^"." arieriVani.^.chf-' :'.ote an .Ue antwortenden I-archte. 
1) J^:l^'^t7'-rt ri-^i^nr^ -^uer^e nicht h^^f-sc^-^ra^nkt ^:er:^en. 






•^\renant \^.-)nr^^m nc a'^'^f ^^at ive >rl^ar'^ ^Ml. -ctt Ion to '-'o t 



*'ar...Tne 3oTenant can.it ?^ trnejhe .con-^truct ed af? a^^thorliin^ ^ur ir certa*/J^ 

.;5^^,^^^^^^^^^^^3^^\,f. 4^ j.^ .,^^ authori-ation an^ not a positive re-uir ement . " 

^) "he '^3 15 entijr-iy v-illinc ^^''^-^t rJ ^ .^u^rtien to the Locarno trcat- 
ies becone partie^ to It*^ ^-^mp -r^rred anti-'^ar treaty." 






i, ::ein ?.Hktunterr.eic'v/-/;r kann -^ i e garantierte -^^eutral itaef der be- 
treffenden 3taat^-n verlet::en, oh>ie den -'a!ct z'\ ^erletrerj '^<»jen Hchtunt'^rzei c/|f- 
ler besteht keine "^indun^; hin«? ichtl ich '^es VerzJc^^ts auf """^rie-. 



c 



•*^ ] I^'Tr ^'^aktbr'^chf^r hat ?elh«^tv^-r??taendlich ke.lnen Anspruch auf oChu^^ 



-^urch "^^n -^'akt . 



11-20.. "^uli Lu5«t t^^^inr; der -'aechte i:^ ^Meser Tote. 
2^. Auju^t 1^"'^- TTnterzeichnunj '^ei? Pciktes in Paris, 
Iriand: ''?or th^ ^irst ti^o in the face c^ the rholc ^orld throuch 



a so 



^:^ 



l 



1^ 



>w- 



f^rr^.n covenant involvier the 'lonor nf -r-^at »^a^ .^ on!»,all o^ ^hich have tt- 



unreserv- 



hind then a heavy past . of political cnn'lict, r^^r i« renounce'^. 

edly as an ln-.r.rurent of national politic/, that is to ca/, In its r^ost 

«i)eclflc ani ■Irr^-ie^t forn--selfi?h and viif„i rar." Auf oounktiorftn ko«n- 



'e verzichtet '"•rrrlen, -^ 1.e Int»r1r ■»en-' 



en 



-r /» 



t^ 



•^r ataaten sei ^ie ^ ichernte C-arantie^^ 



jer ?a.<t -ur-^c 7on 15 jtaat^n aner^cannt . Lnrie 1^30 von- "1 



Staaten.. '^rasiMen, Ar :^nt5 fi5 en,^ol i^ia lehnt r^n den :3e*tritt ab. Unauf^ 
Sefordert blieben ne^jaz nn-' Terzen. 

In ^einF.r en^.jue.l ti 2:en ^"a^^r/m^ lautet er: 

.... D'^^oT:/ ^«•n'?lble of thel-^ «solei-nr. •^'ity to oronote, the ^elfare of 
ranl-rini? 

P'ir^uad'bd thnt the tirne ha^ co'^-^ -rh^n a frank renubdation of rar 

as nn instrn'^-^nt of nat-ional oolic/ should Id't nade to th»» ftn'^ that the jci 

c-f-n an-^ fri-nn- r^lations n-W-lntinj ^-t^^ca the ,>fto;les may be je 
tuateij 

Convlnc^d that all chanjcs in their relation-^ " ith one another 
shoul-1 b- son-ht only b.- oaci^ic -»-an« and be the re^ult of 



d 



roe 



a peaceful and 



orderly nroce^^jan^^ tbat any «i^nator-^ ro^'cr 

% 

!T^ote it^ national inter^.^^r by re?ort to v^r 
furninhel b/ th« treaty; 



'■■■■Ich hf;reaftftr seeks t 



o oro- 



"houl-' be deriied the benefit;? 



'■lopef'jl that,encoura::e:1 b" t^eir exa!^ple,all thp nther nations of 
. the rorld rill join in this hurane enr^eavor an-» by a-^h^^rinj to the pre-cnt 
treaty as soon as it cone-5 into -force bring their oeoolr^ '"ithin thr- ^co-<» 

(L . . - - . .c 

^«^ 0*" Tt^ ben--PicBnt provis-ionn, th'is unitinc the civil i:.ed nations of th^, 

rorli in a cor^-non renuno iation o^ rar as an instruncnt of national polict// 

(the Ili^-h contractin- :-o"^-ers) have decl-^e'^ to .concl'j-'e a treat-r 

Art.l: -"he "i:h cnntraotin.3 I'^^ptt solerny ?eolare In the naries of tY^^ 

resTective leoole«) that they con-'enn reconrse to var for the Solution of 
j 
I international controver^ici.an'i renonnce it as an inf?trurent of national 






i 



H 



policy in t/ipi^ -^r^l^-tinnÄ r-i^h 




^nnther 



Art. 2: The ^\-\ oon' ra.ctln- 2tX«lÄJi ^'a-ties a^rec th-t thc settlenent or 

»olution of all ^Mr5p'it(*!« or con'f'l 1 ct^ , o*^ ^'hp.tever nature or of rho^tcver 
ortgin they may hf^yTTiioh nay ari^f^, -^hall never be soujht excrpt by paci- 



ic nftan«? 



»I 



ti 



Art. :^ hf-zi^ht ?lch a^^ Tiat i-^iVat ion nn^ "^<*itritte 



as ist ■ v.'ar as an instrur^ent o-^ *rar, jonal jolicy"? 



TT 



Lxactly v-'Viat these ^'or-''^ mean nobody kno^'s althoiich they are ^^^enor- 



ally Tin^e/'^jtoo'l to refer to ^morovoVe'^ v'ar«? o^ rjon:"ue«=;t or ar 'resr^ion/' 



D. Allen, Th« fi-'-ht for :^eacc,l'^ 



t r> 



10^ 



nl>)'5tvftrei lip^nn': '^'ar aus'^ru'^cVlich alf? ber c^tirt anr-rkannt 



elbst 



■"evin^nn nn-1 T'orr^.son ak;-ept f •: rt »^n ^f^n .Vi'^s?i"'ic'h ^'es arirrikanl sehen ütaats- 
recht??lehrer5 Tohn ^a;^!^ot ?'oore,'^er 1^20 an J.evinaon :=5Chrieb: "Tae 
rijht of self-'ief eni^e ir? inhcrent an'' m«*t be pr ^r>erye^, biU. is no ^ar.'* 
IJoore hatte -^e-shalb enofohlen.in -^.er "Tr l^-rtfsaechtun 'r:f or^e] ^as "^ort 



ti 



▼•ar^' '^irC'i ein an'^.eres zu er^rtr^n. Alleno.l 



o r 



i:orri5on_:in^ 50 veit zu erkla^ren: "Outla^ry abolutely has no point 
of contact ^Ith t^'-^e que?=5tion of t>^e ri::ht n^ »el f-'^ef <^nse. '» :.llen -^.l^'^ 
Im '-{inter'jrun^ -^er T.evi:i3on-!''orr1.<«on-^orah-?cben ^^itlctvry-'^f re^ung 
stan^ etT'as an'^.eres: Praktisch ric'itete f^ich i'-^re rolcrik Jl^ftMM^^Mll^ 



gegen 



(C 



1^^ 7ebernahr^e ier 7erant^t)rtjung fuer ien Status quo 

2; Tnilitaeri«>che 'Sanktionen 

3) -Ue Auffasf3un<:, ^ler "^rie:: sei die ultirnu. ratio. 

Die -^ e^' e ni n--^ v'ar also vor aller! ant 1- Int rrventioni^^t l!?ch. 3ie 



1 



V 



ertrat "-evi ^serr^a^sen ien Tsolat ionif^nus aln '-elteinr ichtung 



ShotT.ell, -^er auf r^ie ^ornulier-mg ^es -^'aktes ^asr.gebnn^en Linflup.s ausgeu 



f'f 



hat, sagt nicht,v'rin sichJt "var as an 



in^trurent o-^ national policy von 



erlaubten I'^riegen unt ersc^ei'^et . Lr ist kein Isolationist. I^ar 



e;:en ^:ibt 



i^ c-* 



^^.ezr 



^^mOb^tmi^^mAi 



r 



er, renn a'ich k^^ine I>^ f ini t ion, no 'loch eine '^sc^^'.reibanrr rU'S3en,ras 
er "friedliche Kittel'» nennt, "^s ir^t ^if;3 iie alte Dinlo^c-tie: me^iation 
reconciliation. . . 



C) 



Shotrpll hatt^ ir' -5'rnejahr 1^^" 7.nnRm^en rit :^rof f-f^c;or 7ohn ::hctr^berlain 
einen inoffiziellen Pa^tent^'urf aua'^ear'h^it et . Tarin r^^r ^}i^. 3elb3t-' 



Tertei-^i nmp; auf^-^rueckl ich vor» '>rbnt aup^^-enonnen, ebenso r^i] ita<^ri!='.che 
Intervention in '^^rf ei''in;'m : ^er '*onroe^' oVtr in-- -acts ixn by the 113 in 
our«uance of the tra^it i on-:»! ^njicy ^ ith vf^^f^vf^vc^ to th^ Ar'^rica.n con- 
tinmts". ':ello-^^ hat ^ie ronroe-:jok:trin uner^aehnt p'e]aj^«?en. ""^ichtf^ 
berechtigt aber ru ^cr Annahr^e/^^A hatte in ^ir^er^ ?an1<:te nach ^'nterreich- 
n\ir)z ^e?^ .'aK:tei^ ihre .^olitiV: b^aen^^ert. ^chl ie«^i^l ich y-rboten ^ot^'ell 
un-^ "'na^b^^rlain in ihner-» ^ntv'u^^ a'ich ."^eH'e -nt er»tuet run^ r^.ei? ^r iedenr^bre^ 
cher^ 

"Th^ :3rn^t ^^eaty ^'as v-rittcr. ^^or>^ c-jk -^ii^fAnvt \r^rican an::le.^' 
"hotv'ell ,'.' ar a«? an in«?'.rur^ent o-^ nat ^' onal nolic/.^r hntf* ein^ »chl f»c>it^ 
•^ref^^e in "^r.-^nVreic^ , e jne rute in ^^ut •^chlar^^ , un^ ";n;3lanr! v^^rharrte in 
totaler Trir^if^^r^nz. n, r^^-^q ^ 



-)r 



t 



>llo^(^ urteilte ueber -^ein ^. ^rk: "T nake no ciain to n^^^rf ect ion, All/the 

•^tepf«! ^'''^Ich have been ta'-c«»n to prevent ▼arjto inorovf» the con^i- 
tion^ ^f th^ T-^-ri^ ny*^ ^-f <*n>ir*5e •!:ib.ject to th*» error« of judg- 



(C 



meni, ano ^iie fxaij-oics oi nunariity.. I do nui, say tnat tl is tr^a* 
ty vill ini-nediatcly accor.vl'sli all tVi^t ^jeoples hav^c ctr.i^^led 



i- 



for thron jhont atjej'but I :lo say t:iat ii. v ould^xot clia.ne,e one 
^■ord--"^o atjreerent coul'' be rore r^ir.^l e,nncon' it ional and o^t- 
tcr underotood," .'^ryji- Tones 2»'^^. 



riand in der Hat i-^i>at ionsdebat te der Tarrcr ;l-2.i-aerL l'^^3^; 

"II ]eMr( ^rance ^.t Itats ''iiis' eut ete inpossible d^: nener a bon 



( 



I 



1 



13 
terre la concl'fs^.on <V nn contrat aussl oarfait q,ue vous le pourrie^, souhüf^ 
ter,contrr la juerre,avec une or^jan*^ rat Ion arbitrale f,t des sanctions. 3l 

/ N / / 

^ une pareille t entat i vf^, .;^e le rrpete, avait ete poursul.vie par les deujc 

/ 

gonve-'^ner^ents, eile a'iralt avortc.** 

'f^'/' In der I^at ifr-:at ^.ons'Ietat te icc 'J3 Senats brachten Iwccd un^"' :.:ose5 



c:ine ^"^csolation e\n. 

1) ""'-at t'ie treaty Injofets n.^ ol-;Ii jat ior.s on the 'J3. to resort to 
coercirc or pnnitTvcs re&surt-^s cit:ainst et.n7 of .''endin^ nc-.t.ion. 



2' That the treaty •'o'^s not ir..mir o-- ö-hri-'X^t t^e r?.^ht of tie U3 
to d-^fend its territory or vital other intercsts in accordance rj.th 



tra''.Hional .\merican policies."' 

irellojei er'rci-aerte lleoc ^'esolution 
L'^r erste otaait.'.er den Ta'kt ratiri 



;.ierte ^'oX Oov jetrusr.land, das 'ois dal.;«i 



hefti- -f -en die /eryiandlunL-en polarisiert harter. Ls rat i f ii,ierte 
schon ar 31. August 1'^:.^, vier Ta^e nach dcsren Luntandelior-en. "'rar.kreio^^ 
ratifizierte in T'aeri, 1^2^,- U3A an l'^. -^anuar l^-T^. 



Hoover in se 



-Botschaft an den Kon^rcss (l.^e^tr.ccr i^^J , 
iner I^HXH$5by^^M^iH| ; -Jnder t^-..e I.ello- pact re have unaer- 



. .. c ha VC 



ta^^en never to use v'ar as an instrunent of uational policy 

* 

therefore unde-t^'^en "by coir-nant to use thene cq'iiprents sole.ly for de 
fensive purpose.".. ^r ÄRtSfi^Sf rc^^^^H^^^'tit^^Sf Sgii^.Uep.i/^^lct of 
^■"arisjthen.the ';3 helped to esta'olish a aniverü«i: aystem of minir^al 
o"blifoations for t>ie rainten*nce of •$^ö.c^ e7eryThere--a system vhose du- 
C tiea rinst "loe nore precisely definei in the future." 



Hoove 



r and L'-acdonald sagten in ihrer -e'-einsa-:en Zinladunt, i.nr Londoner 



Flottenkonfer^nz 'Oktober 1''--''): 

•5oth cur jbvernnrnts resolved to acocpt the Peace -act not only as 

a.-^eclaratlon of ^ood intentions bnt as a positive Obligation to direct 

national policy in accorc'ance Tith this pledtje The Paris xa 



1 A 



C 



based on the force of ^jublic opinion vhich is £reat,bn.t Its nethodical 
application has not /et oeen or;;;iin5.Le '. ." 

Die An3Chau'nit:,der -elln— -"a>t rn|,esae er^aenzt Verden, erstarkte in 
U3A 50,dass l^ei der rraeoi'lenten^'ahl n''^:: V.c-l^ie ^artfder eine solche 
Forderung nach ::r^aenünn- 5n ih- - -o^-ann aufr.ahren. 3hotve:i , Cn the rin 

of the aby^s.p. 130. Di^ y.onseqnenz var aher nicht, "Vctr ö,s » neans 
of international policy" , onndern ''ie :7ordernni^ wirtschaftlicher '^anktior^, 
Z'ir An- cnd'uij koi- der ^'akt ein eini^i^es -al : in den russisch- 
chioesi^chf.n ITonflikt ve^ftn -'er .Chinese Sastcrn "'ailT.ay 11^1. 
'a:ian nahn 1"'.'^2 'an --echt der "'-.i'ostvf.rtcidio'>n_; in Anspruch, v^s von 
der I./tton-::onri3oion bestritten V]irde,ohne daas ^jrakt i^che 7ol^en 
2ur^ Lachteil -^.es Anci'^i'^^^3 entr^tanden. 

Devitschlani fo];;ertft! 

** :>ie neue -^^ied^nc^^^ant ie rruss der Zu chfnehrunc ^ler all^je- 



neinen Abruestunj r:inen vir^sa-^en I>^;)uls jeben.*» ritr^scrarui Ifi Hei 
1. ^ebruar 1^^"^. 



Chsti 



O U €X^ 



( 



1_ 



o 




/ 






C^ a^p^r^^^iry% ^^^ /2^^^e 




^-^0^2^, 






! 



/- 



y 





\ 



^rti**^ 



/ 



S^/ 




4 



l 



^.^ 



rrr-r 



h% 



J 






-^1 r>t t',f»n-'^''or»'^^r ^rr^r! 



T. 






onfence on T. i 



JL U Cb U/ U. 



n j^ Jj^^ancnLs 11. Li^-Lerber 1921 - o. 






Das i'ro^ra'^r •■'ir«e>' Yonfcvenz sah ur-pruenglich eine s-llgeireine 
Sinschraenkuni: '^er "^^p'-af fnunc voraus. :S? v-urde ater Taehrind der 

. lizznn^en infolge -^er '-^altun^ Her 'ranzoeci ncV'n Ijrle-ation auf die 
See-P.aestun^cn r,inijeschraenkt . 

'^' Ao'^ers'iits v-ar'^-- ^a?? projra.nn -^.ieser TTonf'^ranz i^chon vor ihrer ^in- 
beru'un^ auf '^en Plan einer ^eilejimc al''c«^i^« '^^-.-^"^ 3' ^ is*^-'^^^ Gtreit- 

fra;:en 'es 'fernen Ostens un^ -les ^'azific otusr''''«''!''''' • ^^e '.Mchrune ''^er 
/erhandlurif^en trtaTo ein Ineinan^er-reif eri hfidci' ri ubl' nikreisc . 

Intellektueller Urheber .^.ierier ^..<nf ernnz ist Üe \^ün Lod^^ 'i^'- P.orah 
refuehrts ^rup^iae i«olat ionistischer 7.3. Senatoren, die sofort nach 
dem .iu-itsantritt -i.es Praesidenten Kardint; die Leitunj v^.er cu- erikanischr.lV 
Aur. -cn;» Ol ^tik ucbernahn. "arcUn- "ol^te ihrer -^uehrun^ freivlllio; 
sein citaatssekr^taer 'lujies uehernahr^ ^ihre Lirektiven, suchte ahrr 
auch seine eigenen Ideen, die au^ internationale DchiedP^erichtsbarkeit 
zielten, jeltenl au rachm. 
Hauptziele -'.er Jenr.t ^jra;)pe Taren: 

• 1'' Ta^j^ Z^Z^^- "^-^^ '/oelk'T'bund 

Z) Abschaffung -1er Allicxnzen, inr,b-sondere des Britisch-Ta^ani-chen 

IWuendnisses • 

21. Februar 1121; Annahrre einer -'«Solution -nrah durch Hen Senat, die den 

Praesident-n au^'ordert, eine Plottenkonfcrcnz einzube- 
rufen, (aelee-entlich der dZ ?lott,en Pill] . 
^6.7uni 13k;l: -lardinj billigt die hesolution. 

'.ruli 1-^-^1: :iujhes fra^t vertraulich bei -mssbritanaien, Prankreich, Italt/j^ 

und Japan tin,ob sie bereit raeren,an einer I'onferenL zur 
-inschra^nkun- der Be^a^^nun^ teilzunahnen. ;-Tu^he3 fue-t 
hinzu, -^a.s die Linitation of arr.anents in en^eir^ Lusamnen- 



1 



I 



. I 




hanre rit vichtijen t.^ ,, , 

^robie^g^ 



er 



nen Ostens und t* 



\e5 



'- _ - 



2 



■D 



acific stehe. 



11. Aunist 1921: ^orr^elle liinladung znr Ilonferenz in V.ashin^ton. 

Znr .oeteilijunj; an den 0??t fragen v» erden anch ITolland, 
3eljien, Portugal I China einjeladen. 
i^k 11. joz^-'^^er l'>22r Lroeffnung der ironfercn*: durch Ilardin^. .^af ati- 

traj :Balfours vlr^^ Ilu^hes i.un Chairran ^evaehlt. 
Die Verhandlungen Verden durch -^as -ebet einT;S Geist- 
lichen ur eoettlichr Erleuchtung dc^* ""eilnahner einr;e- 
1^-itet und durch e^.n Dank::ebet heschj oss' n. 
Ss v:erden z^'eA Kor^ni^sionen jebildet , eine fuer -Ue J.htTaf fnung, di e 



et 



in^'ere fuer -^.ie Pstfrajen, 



21 7on sitzurgen >n'-^ 31 ro^L^i^.s.^ onssitzun^en,his an 
^. ^ehruar 1^22 ''i^ /ertrae>:e unt erzeic'^net verd^'n. 
Tn de^ ersten 3iti-unc ueberraschte I'ujhes 'Ue auslaendischrn -^eilnch^ 
mer, besonders ''ie enjli-chen, -hirch Aufstellung ->-r ar:^rikanicchen prin- 
i,ipien,-3ie sor-faelti : z^htir] je'!:alten vor den raren: 

»•1} That all ca^^ital shi^j buildin^ ^^rotrar:nes, eithf^:r actaal or pro- 
jected, should be abandone.U ( Capital ship; a vesael of rar,::ot 
an aircraft ca^'ri^r ,vhüse -* isplacer:ent exceed.ÄS loCOC tons,or 

mcheU . 



v'hich carriea a jun v:ith a calibre exceed^*^ 






9 



2} That further reductions shoul^^ be Fiade throu^^h thc scraping of 

certciin of the ol'ler ..s^'^ips . 
3; That^in gen^^ral, retard should be had to the existing naval strenfÄ 

of the Pov'^rs concerned. 

4)' That the capital ship tonnage sh-^uld be used a& thc neasurerent 
of strcngth for nav^iesfan^ a ^roport ionned allovance of auxilicciv 



conbatant craft j)re3cnted/' 

Conference of Tiritation o^ Arrarcnts. Cr^nate 



ocu^ents 10^2 



IT^ 



125 



^•j 




mm 



3 



< -lu-neg T'.jL^ 'rtf: 



d.'-X3, ■a.'ir! .1er Gc-iif ^sbau-V, ettlauf C'^'sto^pt '•crr^en muesete. 
•^These sanrif5.cff« cnnl-^ .horei^er, be reasonablj ex/ected of the u.G. the 
'f British Snplre an-' -'anarijan'^, thes'» rere t>',T jo^'p^r. cCtually en^ace'^ in 
the cornpetitiTFB huildlne of T-ar??hi^3s" j indessen -^ei e\n ^^eharrAn]-: 



rconmen 



® 



1^11-0 '2,-1 ich O'^er un^.-.irksan,renn nicht ^Va. kr eich nnr\ Italien einbezogen 
▼•uerien. p.5''. Die n.^. seien bereit, ihr 2 






i( 



'^toeren,-?.!!. 1? caoital-^hips, ^ bat t], r.^hTpr^ an-^ cruio^i^ ^n^e'r constract i on i 
'^--'•ner to ».crap all the olri-r battl'-'^.hips up to but not inclu^ing the 
r.elaT.-are an-! "orth-Bakota-- inscep.ant '^45'^4C tons einr.chliesolich '^.er . 



noch ir 5au befin^^lichen 3chiff"e. Tluehes err^rtet , .^ass V^reat ^r itain and 
. apan shoul ' be fairly co-^'^-^n^urat e. 'T-ros-bri tannien hacttc ry'':-3'^5 tons, 
7apan t4Tn-3 ton;^ i.n ..er'^t oeren. ~ann tuer^.en -lebri ■: bleiben; ' 

':'rroRbr-'.t,'^nni^:n 22 -- '^3. 1^-- .X^an IC captalships. 
Anzustreben sei ''le P-eiiation : 



Tr. 



. 73 



•. a.oan 



5 



5 



7> 



"The incl'ision o^' the prop'^sal ^or th 'i^c-is^ion o*" thf x^'acific an--' "^ar ' 
Zastern qu^^tton«=5 v-.^^ ^ot fo>* th^ j^Tirpose o^ erhiirrH^.sin£j or ^ela/ing ö.n 
asreement for linitation of arT-ianent ,bnt to suj^port that un^ertakin^ by 
av^ailirg ourselves of thi,^ vr.^.ftfAnc to en^^.i^vor to reach a comrori un'-^.er- 
stand|^ing as to the princijler^ an-?, policief^ to bf follot-ed in th^ "^ar last 
•^an-^ thus sreatly to -^Irrinish an^.,.if possibl e,v'holly t ojcrerove, ^ iscLrniblen 
^* ^^fcsources of contr o^/^ rsy .'* Ilu^^hes '^rinncrt rit rue'inen-^^en "'.orten an -^en 

Abnr ':'tan_:sTO^'^cbTa;:: '^«'^ Z.w^-^ri '^Tcolau«^ II mh ^ an ?>entf^chlanii ".. i "^erntatv/ 
a'^"^ ^e.i- ^^';aac'^'J" ""^nferenz. '"^'xt if v«-'«« ar^ ^arne-^ by the ina'^ec^uacy of ear-i 
lier en^lÄVor!=: for linitation of aman^^nt, v'r sannot "^ail to r» cojniie the 
r-xtraor-'^inary opoortunity no^* oresentr-^ . T.e no ' orl;/ have th^' ler.oons of 




^mst to c^^i'^^ n.«5,not only Äh ^o v.-e have thr reaction -^ro^ the Us- 



ive Äcono^lc '^#»*^?^n^«' 



• • f • • «i 



**!;nor^on'? «•nr^'r ^lli >)(^ r^T^a«^e^ to al<^ t'^e oro- 






re?«? of clvilirat ion . -rrftoa^r^^.-^ on ^n^ of^i^n^iy^«» naval ^'ar v ni «^too ^ot^ 



v^^ 



iBvnit pnVii^ ''^Ti^vi^j« nas Leitmoti7 a'a«? -^^ar^ in'"'' "'irof^f '^nnnrr^re*'^'» "^ie-^^r 



a'if. Tar^in^« hatt 



p p- p «r q f r 



M 



./ • 



* • 



^>ir, of th* catacl^/ 



)f thb .0 



rl 



»• et, 



^^^ ri^v; fello7-5hio,nev* conviot ion?,ne^ -^'-^Liirati ons . Tt is ours to -^'>>e th^ 



'^«^t n^ th 



Am 



• r • > ^ 



rnt «•^'^l.at in.^ th«^ n <**;=» «!'ir«»l^«"* co«»t of v-^r ar^' th*^ ^ontin- 



uinp* bar-^^n of pr^^'^^^^nt .all tho'i '•^tful n^ooi'»'» ithrnh vri«v^ -for r'^'=)l l^'r^itat* 



rqr. 



Ion of arT^^ar^nt an^ vnul^ like/mitl^^'"*'^ 



"^n «ohere^it -^e-^leotion the v'orlr^'s 



hun^re^«^ of ^1,11 ion«^ ^'^n 0^"^'' ^^ '-^^ao^ p'H'^ '^i^ i/n ^'r**^ ^ ^* «^^"' tJ'^^lr 5^ta t ^r«!TT^en 



c «/ 



to turn the ••xn»n^5 ture^ for (lestrucLion xni 



ü irj^cins ox Ciib v^i civ^ üXK^ii 



II 



lajhes hatte in »^^eine^ ernten Ar»«5 )rc^cht ;.u v crzl'^^.'^r 



t:; -ooen. c 



I '. ■Ci.b 



TT':« 



3 nic^t an o^ner T;a.n 'aor-acaturxf;:, non'^^-'^>^. 'r err>tf:r "'^-.^^ a.r f- iner ^lot- 



ten^a'brarstunj int eresßiert reien, ^.ar> ^'irlcte r^ehr /eri^cV^ieclen auf cUe 
englischen und fri.nzoesischen '^ ertrctun;:en. 



^■y^ 



-^ \ 






ch ^'.ir'i^r Lur "or-^c'^c-n auf^ef or:^. er^. 



- . t 



V' 



on tl;e '''c.r 



t o£;ether ,T"e coal"^ not turn a. ''oaf t^ut to 



'-> r» 



u:^nor:s to co.-jtr ihute oixv eff- 



orts to an en^^eavor to secvi"^'^ a ^^astinr )eace 



»I 



-^ -.r. 



rrince i0hu£,a^'a 



'i;. «% ,>. 



an| seriou55ly to ^^roriote true an-^ honest fi'iend- 



chi^ aron.;:: nations,nct to inpair it. '..e pro^oose not to ^jrf;5Gri'be t^rns ojT 
to Mietete a Constitution to a doubtin^ ^•orld;l'i^.t to oarr/ out" the ^lain 



dictates of cororion sensu» V^.e v.orld needs .jftace 



tf 



"Balfour: "^e^innt: nit leicht ironischer Anerkennung^ der 



*-v *^, 



le .-.u^nes 



der das -'^hcinni^ seiner 7ors-hlaei^e , laen;:end ^^.^"a'irt hct 



t^ ^ L^ 



>J 



• t 



O ^ CL ^ 



^• r r^-r- 



ccren 



of all countrics are Ijet^innin^ to discover 



^ xCv 



l the labors and dif ^icui- 



ies of peace are alnost a^ ar!oous an^ require alrost as ffrecit quct-^itie^ 



^0 L^a.Oo& 



V ^ ^^ 



1 .-» ' 1 .-, •>-•» 



.^ ^ ^ 



CmI. 



(; ;':e^anded ^')V t^^e condac 



r? IT .'^ '^ 



J V 



c;- 



."j^JCC CO öful V 



• • • • -^ '^ 



British Lnpire a"i'' ^reat -^r itair., ^he tro t o.jetherrare rore j>rofoanill/ 




concerned v ith all that touches th- rat t er 



s nu 



val V'iuii :'-3 it .-^ossible 



for any other natlon to 'oejan-^. this not ,1)61 ie\re r^:,for any reason of 
antition. . .but for the hard brutal necessities o^ ^Ictin and otvious 



fac 



ac o s 



M '»"^,. >^'» 



aca e:.n: e^'^_cn''er r>ars tel l'inj der Eieoc^rajhischrn l^edia un, en 



♦» 



m 



x.r]jj irt 



rou v'iii inKV*r«^tand vhy it ia that e\rer/ citi;jen of the 3ritish 
aev^v Carl for^'et t'iat/ i s by sea c ornn n.^.catio/; that he lives cx'rA that 



vitaout «sea co-runicat ion hc und the linoirc to rhich he belon^s V'üuld 



perish 



»I ^ 



n 



teilt riiolc heart^^ cooj-ration 5n Amp.- .1. cht 



Tl3/d '-^or^es Instrulct ionen ver j^l icht eten "".alfour, auf n 
ru'^stune ^u bestehen. :,^v^nr ent^'ecaete ^ric^nd: 



.ndab- 



♦f 



It is onl-j an e-conoric probler th^t iö beinj .-.'.iccusbed in th^Con- 



f erence? 



• • * - 



^ r: c^ncr-rned only 






fi : ir 



e 



r: 



-» . ^ 



f. w v>. 



.n a u u 



et 



^ ' 



.: i 



i reuli ty, t'-^e 



qarr.ti.3n I3 to ascertaii; vhcthvr t'ie nat 



ons 



••» -_ v^ 



dii. c«. 



V 1 ^' 



tl- 



e. atrocities of 



^'ar . - - I ar c on v i nc 



t:-^ 



at,v'ith the s^^irit of Justice vhich insjires 'r 



ou 



all,you v-iii und ^^r 3t and 



o >• 



T' 1-, 



la 



t r^a53ons o*^ s^-curi.t/ it 



s riCcess 



o.. 



for 



rance to naintain an a-^ecuate arn'y 



• • >^ 



It takes tv.o to rnakc ^tace: your 



seif otnd ^''our nei hbour,-- 



A .-d 



tion ^ust al so 



jc 



rrounc'.ed by ^n atros^ 



phere of peace.-- I readiiy adrit that 



^ C). 






en of the 'J.,3 



ni^dit say 



f -^1^ 



ni*? T'ar has b^en v'on; peace 15 si^nel? G-ernany nor 



las but an lir;ited 



•5 »> • 



arny-4^ -hy does -^raiicc still 



aintain a considerable arny?' '^ravce h 



as no 



rijnt to relax 



»1 



3 ^aebe in ::eutsc!iland friedliebende I^iensohen, aber c'ie 



krie£:slusti^;en :.:ili 



aers seien nicht einflu33lo3. --.itiert lu-^.endorff 



II 



»« 



© 



eil "^rance looks on. 3hr- -^ocs ^-^o 



cxa::,:er 



TV , t 



c t h e 



anj^rtsne is v.atchm,^ 



it 



M 



'O-r» 4 



an-^G Intervention hatte vollen Zrfolr 



crreic'ite die .Ausschaltung 



der -^andabrufistun/:. le^n Archinbaud,Ic^ Jonference -Ic V-^shinr-ton ^.^-b 



3alfour ^av vnn ^rian-^ hin,-:er issen 



• .< 4 



r er^'i lerte 



In the lanr;uar;e of Tr. -^'^riand, there has been, in rcttters ricÄ-ritine 



WMm 



the ph/sical ari'-'^ raterial VTsarr^^anent !s c^in^ ^-o be built. »' Ln^lund ver 
lor im I'Irlege T^einahe eine Lllllon I'^nsc^i^n. "V. e ^rieve ovcr the sacr^.fice 

^e iö not reoent it. And if thc cauce nf international libert/ va3 V'orthy 

imncnse 
f, of t'iisiTsacrif ice, --if the lu-t o^ .'oninat ion --should ^.^ain threaten 




■_ -^ 



the j)cace, ho^' shoul^'' it b<^ possible that ve vho ha'.^ -'one 30 nach for. 
the great cause of int ern^t t onal li'berty shoal-' see that causü per!sh he- 
fore our ej^:z rathcr than to ^ake further cacr.ifices ^or its defense?" 

üujhes: "That hril liant , eloquent , Qnv\^v z"- ^-rzive an- in^tructivc addresi 
statin^' the ^os't!on an^. polic/ n-^ ^^c^nce.... There is n^ roral isoTatio>i 
for the '^efe^nders 0^ Üh^rty ^n^ Justice." 

Ll.oy'' Jeor^e ^ar vuetenrl neher 3alfoars Ilaltunc:. Archinbaud DG. 



,r -'rahtetc .^.alfour nenn ^n3tru'<:t 1 -^nen, un- "^alfour ^'ar ^e'^'nn-en^ 



r^ ^ 



le 



r.andabruestunjsfraje nochmals vorL-ihr 5n^en, an. i^^.r^ i^erher ,:^erade als 
üriani seine /^bschiedsrede jehalten hatte. -ric».nd, Ter iiv Betriff var, 
abzurei::en, ^^.rv•i^^.erte sehr errejt ^o.^?l ^f und setzte 'it rnd^^aelti^e 

# 

Auflschl i er.sun ' -''er -an'a'i">ru' f^tun^- ■^n'^ch. 

T. enx. "^ran^reich in •'e'^ '^raje '"^er -^an-'a'brucstunj die InteresoCn der 
U.3. nicht verleti-t '^j 30 laj "^ie Sache ander» ^ci "*rankrei c^/is C^jposition 
Cegen ^^ie ""j^ote ^.er TTapitalschif fc an ! .Besonders ''e^ andern -^r iejsschif f e# 



Die 7'o^r?i«5sionen ^<anen 






r. 



zn iem ^entseti^un^ der Tapitalschif fsquoten: 
."^apan 'Frankreich Italien 



^oOO ooc 



r r r» 
«J w v*> 



-^ 

u 



CO 



300 cco 



1"'5 COC 



i's reo 



octrraut ,?rian'is -'achfol^er in der Leitung der franzoesi ^chen -^ele£;ation, 
protestierte sehr scharf ^e^en ^lese f r st«,etL-un_^unterstuetLt von .^^^riral 



Le ^^on , der in ^er T'o^ri'-a^ on<as it7unr ccusfuehrte: 

A 



A 



»•Unr narine ne construit jcl^j "e hateanx pour avoir ''es hatec^.ux; il y a 



M 



••Uie anite tactique r^ininura a.-a 'essous 'e Jac/ielle on ne ^eut jas deoceni- 
'ire . l-'^OOC tonnes r.r -^onnent nene pc-i-j une escadrc. oi li. -^ra.nce reste 
üvec .^j navir^s fsenl^r^-nt, «He est ^rat Iqu.-rent desarree t^u o^int '^c -/nc 
naTal. Avec - "oat inents, eile -«st ^aiblc rai;; eile ^oeut ce:irr,.-'ant re'alicer 
||k une orcanioation-ayant la v!^." 

ÜMfrhes o-T-i.i«rt; " It hal not l^rcn' ritate;] !n the .■u-ierican ^;ro^^os- 
al that ths re^^uctton to 1"''^CCC ton? for ^ranc an- Ital;-- touI-' li-^it 
then to f= shlps. '^^at connlnsion va«! a ledMct^.on V ^^'ft -'Verch and Tt- 
alfan del^ _-at ion^ . 'Tslnj 35ooo tons as foc neci-aary s5ie o^ ^ capUal 
5hi_i,it v'as c'/idcnt that the rcmlt ^-om"! '' "be r> 3h!-)5,b'.jt no courtr'- t- ■ <• 
required tj V^-']^ ^^e^-eT-^ o^ t'^at ^nr.-.acc The 7rench navy hac' ut ^^rr^- 
ent " caDital «?hf )s totalln- t«;*"^'' ■^'^ne: •• 



ledere pon 
nee.** 



A 

lies "hatl^ents "'^nr^^ pul^.^^ance e^^ale a celle :^et5 autre ^ari' 



-utV.^«^ '''nnr.te VciVfjn f^.rlcr-- A^'^.^''*^ -^ • -^^ti ^^-^'^^^ ^n t ^»7 r raohieren 



U(.L - 



caf-chllc'' v<„,4.,^,f.i --^v ;>,-^ '^ajU.al.'^hipfl n.-^cV,^"'-- >> ^v.p^ hf.n-ic'it] ich 



<-# Ol >^ 



^17 






,V^" 



Z-ic ^ustimnunj Japans zu der TTapitalschif fsquote r-ar schrieri- er 
1 frlan^en. ».a dieser «"-^clc ^ar Tuches jenoeti^^t ,die L'ethoden der C-e- 
,^ heiridi^oloTScitie, II« er 7e,rdar:nte, ^ieder ixi ;^irendun^ l.u TDrin^en. 



.in c. ": 



e:-;en>)er l^r:i '-^- 'le neue ordentliche Liploratle heim ^^anlcr^f 



an^Canjt, und -''■' "-'^-"er^nii haettr rrrehn?. alos a"'o::ebrochen ^T-^cn 
r"ie';cen,''enn ?i -hes ' nn' l^alfour) sich an' ""It "neue ^--tho-'e" 
he^chraenkt ha'^tten. Z' r- hcjannen aber ^o''^ei"iv"'='rhandlun{;'cn -^it den 
Japaner ::ato '. Arohlr-^bau^ o. !::.•:, :^-iel.l -^^^ ^'ashincton Confcr»»pce IS-^J: 



/ 



•:: ■,.,. Cr. -,r. 5,5C0C ton, .apUalAlp., -,,=. .i;crc t,n,. n:,Ue„ 
Delation v-ur^r ^h^r ^j.\^^.,f^f ^.-^ ^ 



ser 






- a' 



12.. . Vor ullr.n: \'-er^ofliohtct 



■r. -<-h, ^1, :.„, „,.,, „,„,, ^,„ v,,..^,_.,„_,^,„^, .-anUa-Ca.ite 






1 "bases ?.r ^uci^ic v^y^-^. 



en 



n n V» 



i:ff2:enT,aert^:<-n ^^ri^r ^o^--t liftner 



o'"rrn5 rächten 3 ich im 



•Vi-i--, r> 



Tn 'Ter 7rac;e ^?r ar.''ern "r"«^,- 



r-lt ro--rr -t,K. '-,„-■>.* -•i-,^t -'.,v<- 



CSf^ohif "e -'ran'<»n 73 'm-' "»• '^.r 



e ein 



^1- '..i,.~.v. A-r-.iralit.aet trat r„.r Ah.cha-'anc allrr 'J -.ot 

. vor ^e ,«,c-. rennen O^oosition --a-v>^ei eh., TtaMrns' 



■ w - 



> ^nrr -'le ^^ndrrn Krie-j-chi^ 



-^Ti» ^ 



ren vie fu^r ^1 



ihre 7 17 01» »-^i -it *« "•>• rf ~i^-,-, * ^ 



'<oennen, rraa^-eich Icon.nt- In -^^^ -»va.^e ift 



n U.^not-v 'ni.^tt^ hauen 



* * '- kJ -w ^^ ♦ l u 

, C..1 1, .orlt^3Che A^riralitu.-t ^ie U -ooote fuer c-l.--^i 
•sah, ihnen ~ar '-ceinen ::ar>o'>: 



^^ie^.i-t an 
^ ■ ' -^•^•''- '1.' cn ^iRjirach un'1 . 

W " -^ "^^ -a. e im ..an^>l«i-:rie^ betrah^-^ete . 




:^as id/ar r.>ni^«ten3 der 3tan'!Dn.n'-ct 



Chefs ..j^ 
'■'eg TMJ- ^eit amt jeren'len .V^rira- 



^'^^"^^ ^^''' """^ 'I-SlÜ^^'^^"^^ Jluehen-'en Yerbhrers von Ilo/d Georce . 
Ihm o^...onierte au^ ^er "on^^renz der -britit^h. --.ir..! -eatty, «e^ehls 
haher ^^, hritiochen ^^ruzerjeBChra-^.er«, in .'er Gka-erak-.chlacht ^ 
-^ern-r sprachen :e-n T.ee M.e Ad-irale 3irg, lor.- -isher,-er 7ater der ' 



readnourht 



,o'^ ->rcy Ocnt , 'T»?r>)ert ''/rat 






rr^ral I'itchrll, Assist 



an 



/ 



'hirf ^-^ th^ 'T p- 



• .j » 



Zf^vvice. Aach ^er ^'n.tr^ohe A^nircJ 3cheer Melt 



!««*•? rvtan-'iunVt -^nr-r vrr-*^^Tnit^ '^hI^ou'^ ^ 



ig^rte 310'-^ in''f-*3cn,anr'.r-re 



3achvrrf«?ta<-n'1i^<» anzu' 



h o t- -r 



^n. :::ütll ^.i-^^^ell,^ 



jiarier? o 



14. ^n^l 






■m 



ijhis j'jLjji^rtnt Lrgebiiis Jer Ilouferei:^ v/^re 



n 



^«f^olüt ionri 



n 



^ 



;crorc:tege und 1 






'«'*■ 



ava 



1 i'- 



c 



rn/^'vf 



f 



Je 



■M. 



Art. 1: The contractinc po^-er« itjree to Unit th^i 



ref;;>rctive naval 



arnai^ent 






• '^ • 



t:. t -^p.ait 



^) -' 'V i_ ■> 



,t , v'^lc^-e üapital'^chlfre sie brhalt-n ^ 



uerf p.n 



tt 



Th^ contr-tctinc Torf^rn i^hall aban^'on t^ 



e.:r rec^ective caoital 



shi.: 'buil^in.'^ ^V'^^rr^. 



•1 , 1 1 



II 



T o nnac ^ 



•»rr^ 



in^ ^T 



V* ^" 



^ 



o, r f* r> /^ 

»<i« ^J w/ ^ V<' 



ton?? 



a 



'»an •''>15ooo tons 



o • 



in<rftic'i •m-^ Ttal^'*n 1"5CCC tonr- 



it 



f9r 



"»'^ 



-axi^nr ''i-5placenent of cajital 



;:j i - ^ : .^ «j w L' 



)n 



'^ • 



ii 



ft 



ff 



cal .Tbr<* 



^ i 



mchfi^ 



j • 



7 



?h 



ot 



r^ 1 '^ 



ax tonna-^e Tir aircraft carri-r?^ shal 1 



not excced 



i:5500C Ton 



IJS an^? ^;r. "^^r 



IC 00 •• 



50CCC " 



. a;)an 

"T* TT. O v-j p *i . ,-1 ~f .- 1 ^ 



?-9 



re::elt 



r> »^ -> •> 



axinun v-'^oo :üns, und I^rsa^tz der Aircraft 



carr .lers 



10 



ro uirorc^'t carrier shall carry a 'im rith a call 



brc in cxcess. of 



m 



2' mches 



11: rein ICr iej-^c^-i^^ uu«3ser^.alh ^.er :^lasse der capUalshi^s .^ar 



roeps'^r '^<?in al» IC 000 ton^^ 



1*^ 



ein 'vrie^sscMff ausserhalb der 






^italsh-i^n '^arf Jeschuet^ie rit 



2;roe««->'''ren -.a 



li 



V, A-r» 



> '^Z 



clx 



inchCG fuehrcn 



3-^1 



rejeln rcini^elheiten bez. r^r-^atz -m'-^ verbleibc^n^e Linhel.te 



n 




JjbJ- ^ • 1^0 • 



iV 



Art. 22 ': 7all? <^iner -ler vertrac^c^H^J^3en''!en Staaten in einen /"ricg 

YcrTlckelt ver^f^n r^olltc, 50 i^t er fuer ^i^ Dauer les Kriegs 



Z' 



von icn -^esc''^'ra<^^nV'in^en ^'*^^^ S!^\o^y^.^.r\*>' ^ is^^n^^iert . 



as A'blco^nen erli3^'"'t ar^ 31. L^^zenber l'^ 



.) 'j 



M»^ 



'^' 2) U 3Qtt>:-. b Vorn(^n . 

Art. 1: "A nerc^.H'-it ve«5G'sl ^vist >'e orlered to ^'iV^rit tu visit arid 

searc'1 to '.etr^rr^ine it-=^ charact<*r >'efore it ca^ "^^ c ^ ^-i:^?^:'' . 

" .": : "* ... ^^i'^t not '*"•'• attacVr'-' >^'ror^- it rc^n^es to «.ulD^it t^ 

7 i !s i t , ■ . 



»I 



* 

haVe "b^^.en -^iri^t jlace'' in ^h.f^Xy.y\ 
" 1 .'. '^nn ^In :crier:fu'^.'^.ren'^«^Ä '• ^oot nicht konfor'^ Art 1-7 

han-^cln '^ann^^n?^:. '^^ an^ An2:ri^r<^ ^^ errichten. 
!I/ir ^ol -^n.len ^^-^t i^^^rur^en ?nch^n c^^n ^ehrpnf?h ron Tarpf- 

* 

las z^i re^^^eln, 
3-5 .iblcor:rcn uf-her '''en jacifischen In!5elbe«« Hr . 
6) '^''eMn raec'^'e -•^a'kt lehf^r J^"5.na 



•^} 



::hln^*^i3cher ^oll-?a'<t. 



A"?? oluti jnen 



1] Z^.^^'^l^xxi^ eines Turict enkoni^ees l^i^ ^^^M-V\tzr-,:\n.\^ der Tr Ic-^St^c ,. J^^ » 
2) HinschraenVinr; '''^^ l^oroeooür^ <^iej?es Itomitees- 



« 



1' ^ch^-^'^Mnr^ eines -^^onsnltat ir-'^^omiteef! frier ^ar :.ast 
ö-i:' betr. :>iina. 



<^tj:}tt, ^-»r M '•her •c^^^e^f^l "^ '^h^^ nr?^ <^ ^-v-r^Vn^r»- ^-pnz "banalen ^^e^^.en ^.er an ^er 



Ko 



nferenz beteil i-:ten Itaat wa<^nner sei nur -^us ^rt<-il de^ britischen 



liirsten Lord? ^' er >.^'r^iralitaet ::itiert. "^or^^ T.ee n^^ranh ar^ '^ . T^ai 1^22 Hi^. 



# 



11 

f 

Ho/al Colonial Institute -ir^^er ^le Ilon-^f^ren:. 



^ ▼▼ 

' 1 1 



nite^'^ Lnoire l'^HS 



p* ^'^l "^f^r '' I can onl/ f5a7 that the rea]it/ "^^a^ i^urpasoed one^s 
h!j>ie«^t ••xo<^ctationn. T an con^i'^ent hir?tory '^ill rec^^r^ that the 
\\ r^^jultfl nf t'iat 3onTerftnce arply vin-^icatd th^. v:.5^ion, f o^i^^ht an^ 
i^itatenanr^hip of if«5 or ijinat orn-- .Te«ii''''^nt ^arr^inr ar-^ jfcretary 
of- 3tate '"u^h<»?--, "'h<5rr. '»•'aj^ Trnjtch. ^^re accnnpl i«^h^d than the ^ater^ 
ial ^Cf^ult*^ en«",h^'n^^ in thr rav?^! ^r^at'/. '!'hf^ Confer^noe oro<1ucftr? 
a conplet<^ chan.^e in th<^ attitu-'^'' -^^ rr^in^ o^ thp nat!on?? therfi aj^i^»* 
ei^hle-^, , . . . As a result o-^ Xrfc.-^'h<^ -aval -^re^-t/, a Mof^-' ".hirct/ con- 
batant of th'^ fut'ire vill fin-' it exceedinrl/ -^ .* ^'"^ic^lt , ' f nnt i.r^- 
po>?>ible, to :et at the rne'^/ for ^'hore hloo" ^.^^ '«^ thir^tin'", " 



ee •»chlie^^'^t ^it '^'n^r^ 'ry^^^n'i^ a'»"^ -^ar^^in^j 'f^'^'-^n ^^ealif5ru«5 Lun 



ir^el T*a£;e, ''^?r>en "^ori^e-*''-'???'* nh^r ^^h^r«'^ '^•In «•<»»' rip ^r 



r ^r^r\ 



,C*A 



^ '^er 1 »chatte ^a:te 'J. 



"a^""^ Allen, Tijh Jo-^ri'^.n ioner of ^.^^x ^'^.alan-!: 



ff T 



enter^'l/ ajree ^'ith':"o^'^ Tee. ^very ine of u^ ix rejoiced in t^ 



ne^' -^eel in;;; rhich ha« he^n c^eat^^ af? th<^ result ^f tv»r^ Vr-^.hin'^tr 



on 



on^'^^ence." Zlr he^^au^re nur, ^^a??«' nieht a'Jo^ neher ^\^ an^'crn :jchi^-f*!«?'- 
einhctte>i ein A^Vor-^ zustan-^e^e'^onri-n r^ei. j. -"'^. 

:>er "britische ^lottcn^^ach^eri^taendice ^rc^-^ ihal'' Tlur'^ erkiaertc 



i^-j>jHxx^^xx.i^iiSxi5 ^^ortni^htly "^^rievr 
Karrpfrrit tel f :er erle'-U^t. 



-• -^ o 



1,^. lO'ff'-^ic '^ .^ootr als 



V* 



l/' 



• ^ • 



:Cr 1 1 '' t^er : 



'^''or'^an ^^^.^ "Ziavi-* ^ Council of for 



"The ce'-'.ation o^ naval coroetition 



i'^n rel^."-iori3 1"\ ?ebr . l'^.cr:; 
i«5 a vise economic r.ove and also 



has a ten-^encT tn ^^isoel ^ea:»" an^ «5U^o * e i nn.l^Mt it ' ill not orevent v'l^y. 
Eintritt der '"^3 in '^en '''oel''<:erh'in'^ ^--irr^e nehr Vrie^rerhin^ern'* T'irl<e;^. 
" ^.e refu!^e to :':;ive any ^uar^ntee to "^rance,or hetter r^till, to enter 



, 7 



12 



the ""e^^.^ue of -^^ation^ an-' ra'ce it •'^ch a -^actor that 7ranoe T.oul^. not 
reqiiire -^urt.her a*5'5urance,>)ut ^-e have ai^Ve^ -Vance to Join T'ith u« in 
tM«^ "^our Pov'^r treat'^ to --^larante^: ?eace in the Pacific an^ tranquill- 



it ^ to 



aoan 



(I 



K 



l;icf5er ^a.kt f^ri ur^n^ce^^^ary ;^.rr? in^ef^irable 



er (^urtvfe 



aber nicht ab:'':<^lehnt ▼^er^en 



veil ^'ie ^.elt nicht Lur r^'eiten ?'ale sehen 



v<l^ 



Vierfe 



a^ 



«! <^ » Y* 



on 



-re^^s '^en •*• raesi^enten '^er u:: ie-avoaicrt 



'l^'''i3, tr ^t e nach ^'i'^ v^^r f.ier 



IC^ 



tifika^ion ■'•-•^ '/er^ailUr 7ertra£s 



in 



Tanoelot T.»Tton 



f Vf»y.-r;y„, -,pT» »»i<tVi-r.^T»5y. -^.^ f, r;^ p-r .jioV»'»' 7apa'!^ 'ITT^ 'JO'^ J »^t T U P fl - 



l^v,^> -v,o evasion^ o-f '.a-^hin-ton, ""ortni :'itly :^ vi^v. i'«'^'?,ÄZ^.'?f fjt 



•t 



The fticcet-? i«^ onl '' «^^^ctacalar an^ «5aper^:c^al /' "a.^an '^?. 



,b e '■• en 



'Tri 



1 ^tvort ei 



• - 1 



- j ^ 



*^ 1 ^ 



t -'urch ^1e Ab'k:^^'^^^ nnan-^r^^j ^h^r ^e^nr'^^.':. '' In viev 



/" 



of the 



r; p '- P 0, 



f- 



ra^h^*cal r^alitie-i, t^^e rationin- of t.t tle«^h i^)s ^-a« not '^o 



onrtant to " • )an a« r^n 



%n 



7 o"^ a« helieT 



»t 



<^ o •• 



^^^ 1 on 



.-; 



; I 



e e' 



^ e ^ • s - 



er^^ei«! ^.^ n-^^nua 



t f! "^^^ e^t of ^'.;hT^r»,r i'»^'**=* a 



yn 



1. ^ol 



r o 



Tool anen ,>^.er on^ :.t i'^ 



n i ^ a •? 



r^qr *: "> hpin-'^ It^-^-i^p -riohl rj a* ^^''' ^o^iti'^n coal^ Teil "be 



M 



»f 



ashin.'^ton hq* ^'^t '•^en prrar 



.-^ ^ 



-^ vhat the 



ac 



ific or'^h]rr ^eall 



• 1 



• --» 



9^'^ 



•* 



*ueil, '""h^ . ^ 
A'" a re?^ult -^ 



m'^^yii'^tn'n "] OTn"^*^*!^ •'HC e • 1 



n o«.^ 



r t.v 



•3 e 



v,;y|rrt^nr ^'^rn^f ^fc-^^rr»^ ^ t;^^ ' nt *^rv •nt 1 or of -f*orei';"n 



oo^er** 



n 



V» .o fr -r p « ^ 



a-^ane^e ir* 



o ^ri all «i^*' '^' 



rv 



ont in^nt of v.-^ia 



f 



i^ TinnT*^ ir^oo^^lbl^ ^^'^ 



P Vi (r"»r 



a^an 



e-<e iTr')eria] i?5^ ^n«^t be ^eacefully 



ove-^thrown 



«f 



'a^ ^ 



i »r.ff-abp der la^an'-ohen "Iberaler u>r"' T^enoVr^-^t en 



"^eon *rch!^ 



h'^M 



o f* '"> 



>^f*pr»^"»n<^» '-1 



\, 



p «» T-^ *» "n 



in.i'^'^? 



.^ 



TTt^ frV» 



^•) 



r>|r»r)(^^ 



^ :r»p "^^cil*" r»pf* fni|«^«i^ #^t in.vi ««ti*? •^ol.ut, Ion ^ir^pliflte 



«t 



'^•m 



v^ 



i'^-tion co^olexe," o.l^C 



':oloncl :;ejinjton : ^^ 



i-^hei^ V CT renkte rit f^^^n^r -e 



^1 ,- 



1- 



r>}'\ 



y- ^.nl^ 1 -^-T 



c n 1 



Uv . 



l'^ ir:end 



ein Adr^i 
f 



j 



\^-r .Ü4 ;>":^ •'^rP*-'»r'' -a'n ""he TJ.3. control of the ^ 
CO-* -Dl o'" -^ar La-^tern ratcr2,-r. ^ t ic ^ -^ . 



Philip ~err 

Pacific, ra;a 

of the InJian Oc^-cn.'* ?rcface to Tlach Latir:er 



aster^l 
ontro^ 



- c\ 



V 



al ^isarr^arent (10?C 



1"^ 



Tloo^'V-la^nc cinnn.^t^iien luvl rlas 







fTlosch, ::a'^ ^'-n^u^r-m^; hastt^* jo^-^'icri-keit f^n ,-(?racht. \:i-^ c>r Iroerial 



Conference 






«^' 



-> -» 



'■mi-.''.AM,:uj?t 1'' 1 hatten :ant-.':a,Au«tra,lien und Suedafril«, 

c'ie /:rneuer;ine ^er ancl^'J- jannnir.chfn All ian- -i/.-^-ec.^r :^chrn. 



J.loy^ "eorje '^'ar ent r5Chlo!i5<5en, .-^if ent^'-^'^T c^J^n ^en '.'.ill^n -'eT 



voz:5i^.r\ l.or'inien lurchLU'n^tLen o-^<^r '^^jrch -^inrn Takt, 



"'"»♦. V ^ -*' - 



JI^^c >riti rche 



.v,n*5'"'^.fin,al*^ haette er r'ie z^-^eit- --oer,lichkf^it verwirklicht, ^nlfour 



sa^'^t 



au"^ ■' ^"^ .\^' ■• n *••» 1 



J^:.lu'-sir.z:inj, -^ie en':^^ ^'^c'':-Jaj)a.:i;ic^'^ .JDianL rei "re- 
place.'? \:j ^o-^^t^ii-r- n^^ , • ^^-^'•thinr; e-^rectiTe ^^-'c'-: r;:\y.\l' ..r>?racc al] the 
Jo'Tere concerne'? in the v'a?5t area of the racific.'' 

« 

Frankreich ^'ar henach*: --il i^t ' rch ^Ue ';r)ot i'^i erun^, c^ ie den au^cn- 
hlicklichen Stan-^ "^er 3eerue*t jr^en z xr- ;'jji!^jctn^spunkt riahri. 3ein '^lotten- 
:^'rojra^^n v-ar ar erpf inrUich-5t en .jetro^'^en. :>i^ ^] ei che.t el ] -rn^ nit Italien 
bedeutete ^rankrciche In'^'^r ^* or 1 taet in Ilttflr-^er. Tvie f ranr.oe-i^rche 



/^ 



T^i 



Politik der f.ol^T'^en -ahre ^'ar ^araif ein -^rt eilt , dieee Taritaet r.xeck^ 
jaen.::i£: .'^u ^^ach^n. Tln^lan^ hatte in V.ui^hinjton Italien i:\f J^^e Art be- 
gienstijt un-' faet in ."e'ier ^rac<^ ^^^ f ranr^oe^i^chen Interessen bekaerpf^» 
Frankreich jalt ale --^er :;rosse ^t oerenfried. '• Thf '^hxo;'^. Prench polic/ z.'t 
T.ashin^^ton injurer^ the sacce*s o:^ -.h-^ Conference an^:'. unrirrtakably harred 
the 3tandinir of '"rance throu::hout the ^oyl-^. "^njeneroue fron be^innin^ 



e 



to end,thi^ policy preventer^ an/ action in the ratter of land c.rparen^ 
an^ it jrphibited ""'"^e liritat ion--l^t alone the abolition-- of the 
eubnarines,an-^ coneequently of ant i-^ubrarine aircraft." ^uell 2!^?. 






i 



'^•''ach "a^ihinjton, beeon^ere nach ^e^ 3tur;. -^loy ' -eorj^ec T^urdc die 

'ir "^lotten^aritaet nit 
oef "«nnliche I.-einun(j r.r^lair^?' ^«"^ahr, -'ars -li" 2ÄXiiJi«i^±ftJLv2lÄJti:AJa>v 

U 



1^ 

US fuer n^» -britisc^^r-, -^lott,e,nr "^ Ozeane zu vertei-^i^-n hatte, Inferi- 
oritaet "befeutete rrv^ -^as- '^ie '/ertei'^icung -'^s Lr^nires in Traje gestellt 
rar. Aur»ten ^hanberlain suchte reni^^ten^ in ^.«r ^'raj^ '^«-.r kleinen i:reui:^ 
jede reif-re Linschraenkunj zu verhindern, '^ aehrend ' ^. '■ Politik Hardines 
^ seines ^^achfoljers Coolidje benueht rar, ^1^ .vhko'-en von Vashin^ton 
^ r-oe^lichn -bal-^ a-i^'alle an'^.ern "-i^-.chi .^r-ITatejor 5 cn auszudehnen. 

30 >ar ^a*5 en^lif?che TTaTol-n^tt z'i e^'nf^r AMxafthcrur.j ::'i -'rankreich auch 
in :'. rr ^«^1 ot Len^raj^. 

rat ^5 in ^.o^^. i;nt*r ?et e lli j-inj Z^"^ y-'-r'X^^.'ls.n-'^^ . P.^.^altat :'ull in^bije 



ra1i'<ale.r Oroosition ^en 3o^' '^ta'^^r'» ^al : , 



/«< 



1^.. ::ai l-'^So "^.rjinn '1^-r Arbeit -'-^r rrft-.arator/ Corru-J^ion for Lis- ' 
arrriamcny! li- Arb\eit^n en-'^ten ar "• -r-p-i^^- n'^r. ^'i^s^-and nähr ni^cht 



teil, jie ^"3 ^'aren /crtr-^.ten. 






vo!'- -^ . Tanaar 



3oolil£;e hatte in sei^ier "^otf^cha'^t an --^en ^^^n^re 
1126 erklaert: " The ^encral oolic/ - '^ ^^-- --v^rii^-nt in fa\ror of ^is- 



arrar^ent anc'' li^itation of arra^ent caunot he enphari^e-'. too frequer.tly • 
an"^ too * tr on;:!//- 

^r IC- ^'^briar 1^27 lur^. :-^01i^':;^ ^'^^ einer ^lot -• nkonferenz ein, 'Me 
i^ ^.ahnen de^ Ar'''>"i^-n "^ '^r r r'^'^arat ory Jo^^"^i*3!!^5 on stattfinden sollte. 



'•"'he American "ov 



ernnent an^ neoole ar««-. convinne-' that c-^n^oetive arr^-» 



ar^ent 



con^titute nne r^^ t/ne ro?t -^anc^er ^^'le an-^ contrihutin^ caueer. of int- 



e 



\ 



ernatrlDnal flUs.)ioLon an-^ M«(Cor^ an--" are calculated eventuall/ to lead to 

»■„^ The 7a»'''in-'tnn a^n^^e-^enne orovi'^e-^ a specific tonna^,« lir'itat'V)^ 



■loon caoital shio-. an-' aircr-^'t carrler- "f--ith c^rtain rr-.-trict iono as to 

^ize an-' -axinu-- calihr* cf £un« ^or othe- ve^r'-ls. T^v-ry nation ^.a? been 

^t eon,.lete lihert/ to -buil-^ a nurher o' crui--r., ''«.troyer- and .ubr-arines. 

Cnly si.e and ar-^aPent o^ .Vui.er= -.re li-^ited." Da. alles sei con allen 



aan 



\ 



14 



lo/al ans£efuehrt ^orien. trotr-len "hleih*; a'bffr corpetition bestehen. Zuhcf 
ruesö^^n alle J'atejo^ ^ •ri linitiert '^•'er'^n. 






oill'^r;^ fue^te -meiner Un] ac^.im:' f^in '•■'erioran^Un "bei: 



M^v,^ American 'rov«'"^>-*r«-nt, inqi. follnTT(*<^ T'ith cl. o«^ at, tf^r^-^, ion th«: j^roree^- 

ar»:<T t'-^e rioi^t careful r^el jh^rat \on,^a- r-^^^nl w-"^e'' that It caa hel^fully 
^ake certaln -)b'!«*rT...t ion^ a^. tv^i.r, t Vf^ ,Thic>i , U. vo-^^-,Tr'^y co^trlbat^ ratc- 
rlrlly to th^ ^'zcoe«?r! o^ Vi^.t r^onr^i^* ^on--ri •mc^'*"'» ^arr-**tly r^<c«iir<^^ b/ 
the goverrmenr and people of the IT.S, The rery cornplexities and diff iculticS^ 
as brought out in the Pre^paratory Conmission,have clearly pointed out that 
a final Solution for the problem of arnanent nay not be irnmediately p^ctiCj^ 
able. Adrnitting reluctantly that the exif5ting political situations in cert-» 
ain parts of the "world may render the problen of universal limitati -n inca^ 
pable of immediate Solution a» a whole,the American Government believes that 
it is entirely practicat)le for the nations of the World to proceed at once 
to the isolation an'^ separate Solution of such problems as may appear 
susceptible of such treatment. The ^)roblem of the limitation of naval arm-' 
arnent,xkiÄk while not regional in character, can be iealt »^ith as a practi- 
cal matter by measures affecting the navies of a limited c^roup of poT.ers.* 

Dieser .Schritt Coolidges wurde in Frankreich als Versuch, das beginnende 
franzoesisch-efilische Einvernehmen zu stoercn,aufgefasst . Aber auch rein 
sachlich erschien der Vorschlag jLex anfechtbar. 

^ 15. Febr. lHiiV : IJ'rankreich lehnt die Beteiligung an der von Colfclidge 
vorheochlagenen Konferenz ab, mit der 3egruendung, sie sei geeii^net ,den 

Voelkerbund zu achi^aechen. 

21. Februar ;''27: Italien lehnt gleichfalls ab, weil seine jeographiscie^ 
Bedingungen keine weitere naval limitation erlauben. 

14. Kaerz 1^27: amerikknische» -^einorandum an 'Frankreich und Italien, 



i 




/ 



r 



r 



15 
lias iie beiden c*a*'iss«T*ten 'Bedenken zu beseitigen sucht .'Frankreich und 

Italien bleiben bei ihrer Ablehnunj^. "^rans^oesische "ote von P,. April, italie- 
nische VD!- l'^.IIai 1^'"'^. 



. , , , ^ 4- 4 n '*, n --^ 



V. 



^ .lau^t^ejcHRtancl d'ir Debatten As": \it brit l*ch-aneri Manische Liffe* 



y. 0, V. 



3r: '^-^-an, erster Lor^^. der A'\nirulit.u':t Ir: TVoinett ^al/^rin, i«ft i:u 
▼'eiteren ^eschraenkunjen ,-^.er caj^i^al ^hios l^er^.i t , '-rerlarii^t ct'ber '^ac^nls.f'r.i^i^/^uy 



in '1er "^ra:^ ^ '^"^ kleinen 



r V« Ä ' 






Prn>):er^s* "Tonnage i^ like a :)ie. It ray ^e a vcry o^od thin£,T;ut it all 
depends on V7hat is insidc it." 

" It is not ^)arity rith America that i» troublinti as. ?Tor are re troub - 
led by the prpportion to vhich .^apan Trnuid be entitlcri, It is our oTn sec** 
urity T^ith which ve are concerned,an1 o'ir power in f iture to protect our 
sea coininunications a^^^aini^t hostile raids." 

Adrniral Jellicoe haelt ein grosses ">ferat ueber den deutschen .^»^reuzer-» 

krieg. 

Hugh Gribson, "c^uehrer der amerikanischen Deleejation: "I confesa,hov.every 
that t .e \nerican dele^ation entertains very serious misgivings in re^jar^ 
to the effort to prepare in time of peace for all possible contingcncies 
of this character in tine of V'^ar... It is difficult for us to accept the 
idea of absolute naral needs. -e feel that the conception of relative na- 
^\ ral needs alone nakes international agreements for limitation of nav- 
ies possible. If ^^e ansume that naval needs are absolute, each country 



m\x 



st be the sole jud^e of the naval needs, ^hich cannot then be a subject 



to reduction by agreement with other Po^. rs" . 

Jridgeman: " A nunber of snall cruisers are of vital necessity to our 
Empire." Er statuiert z^ei Klassen von Kreuzern: 1) grosse (10000 tons) 




r 



IG 



Das seien Offensivraffen.und die nuessten limitiert T'erden. 2r schlaegt 
^or: Je 12 faer CJr. Bp. und U.S., und 8 fuer Jamn. 2} kleine Kreuzer, 
-iie ausschliesslich fuer die 'jJefensive jeeignet raeren. In.'land braucht 



70. einschliesslich der 12 grossen Kreuzer. 
(T ^* Au just, aibson erklaert.dass er hof fnun^^slos jevorden sei. 

TT. 3. koenne sich nicht in den grosser Kreusern Ijeöähraejiken, ia sie 
nicht soviele J^lot tenst letzpunkte drausenn in der V.elt besitzen T*ie üngi- 
land. "The A'nerican Lelegation cannot but feel that every ▼•arship possess- 
es essential offensive characteriatica and that no ship is bullt for the 
solc purpose of defending itself ajainst attack. -e are told that the/ 
TMll police trade routes and protect -British conmerce on the sea. 3ut in 

m 

Order to afford effecti/e defense to 3ritifth commerce upon the aeas these 
criisers ^ust ]u in tine of war' effectively den/ the sea to others- " 

Mit dieser Feststellung ^grundlegender I^ifferenzen T'ird die Konferenz 
beendet ( formell verta^;t,\ ( Records of the Three .-^oTer ConferBBce) 

Churchill saßt in einer Rede vom ^. Aujust 1^27 (Tines ^/'^]i 
"The fundanental cause vhich prevented agrement la/ in the different 
views taken of "v/hat constitutes naval equality by the Ajnericans and ourselv^f, 
V.e are in favor of broad principles. . .but the .V>iericans hold that equality, 
or as they call it parity, must be measured by equal tonna^e and should be 
expressed in exact matherriat ical parity. ».e hold,on the contrary, that the 
principle of naval equality nust be based not on mere nunbers of tonnage/out^ 
• £^ must take into consideration the quite different conditions of these 
t^o coninunities." 
U.S., sehr rerstinrnt gegen "inglsuid wegen des Scheiterns der TTonferenj, 
planen in rTovernber 1'^^'' i^rosse "^lottenaufruestung: 25 grosse -^reuzer, 9 
Zerstoerer,5^ Aircraft carriers, 32 TT «,oote, :^'achden <*■ r ^-^erger -/erraucht 
ist, ▼'erden nur 15 Grosse 1-reuzer -r-^ 1 aircraft carrier _;ebaut. 



i 



'7 



III. Znrl 1 ff c^ n ^r an:! o e g i ^ ch<«? ^ ""lot trnVomnror- ' »r 



April 1"'^'?. 
IleaFst erhaelt .'iurch *"5^techur£; T'e-'-t-is v-'H üsr .Lnt"^urf anc'. reroeffen^' 
T'^^-.t :h- In "'- V^tK -■"""i'^a^-- -'darauf -'rl das «täte r-jartnent offi^:*^ 
eil u-t 'Errichtet 'm5 an «U"?t i'"nan^_; ersucht ,^'lc T«rrci^ert vird. 



C 



Im P.ahren der Arbeiten ^er Prt-^jcvfatory JoMirjioaion einie,en sich 



Ghamberlain und ;iriand( Tardieua Aassenninij^ter ) ueber folgende P'mkte : 
1) Keine Beschraenkung in leichten l'ireixzevn und IT booten. 
2] England verpflichtet sich, 'Frankreich i:u unt erstuctsen,^. enn es bei 

den naech!5ten 7erhandlun;:;en ueber linltation Paritaet mit Or, und IJ.3. 
in r^en fttwa neu zu limitierenden Sohif fskatejorien fordert. 
Punkt 1^] geht ueber die ^lottenfrage hinaus und verpflichtet England, den 
frahzoesiachen 3^ajidpunkt in der ^ratje der ''tralneci reservea" bei 
rien Landabruestungen zu unt erstuetzen. * 



"Die franzoesische ^.'resse hoffte und ein Teil de/ englischen Presse 
fuerchtete, dass diese Ab:^achunj;en von anderen ( Zusarrric.narbi.it der 
Adniralstaebe, Verteilung der Seestreitkraef te im jegenseiti jen LinverTieh/ü-^^ 
Aufteilun^: der V'er^eidi^ungsJebiete ) begleitet seinTuerd^n. 

Tl. 3. erKlaeren an 2^. 3eptenber l^r/'^ "they cannot consent to proposals 
which would leare the door open to unlimited building of certain types 
of ships of a highly cornbatant value and inpose ÜKiljidÜLfi restrictions 
only on types peculiarly suitable to Anerican needs." 



c 



LaiTiit "War das ICompromiss tot» J]s var aber v'ichtig als Anfang neuer 
Zusammenarbeit ^njlands nit Frankreich. Die deutsche ^'»^egierung vurde 



nervoes, und der englische Botschafter telegraphierte an 5, August an 






hanberlain,er bitte un Lrnaechtigung, zu versichern, "there is nothlng 



in the Conpronise inconsistent rith the :^.ocarno -^reaty." 3harr.berlain er- 
teilte f-^iese Lrmaechtirung uj^jehr^n-i . 



i 



.i 






/ 



1* 



<J 



i 



^uer ^Ibp "T;"Tro^U3P trotten ■^.Ime* n. ' "Trrtlni-pnsit ein, ."^aily T,ele^ra 

;4^aily l*x,ort:&b und I/aily -lerald boKaer.ipften es. 

^ ._ ^ -^ doca 

.i^aily ''lerald: "Tra^icorf]ic SLSX&JLrent of Berit ig] ental Trancophile ser 



\rilit/.'« 



i 1 



Iv'acdonald: *' a residue of thc old- ,)re-T;ar ^.olltics'' 



Lloyd G-eorge: ''In si.-jnin^; that ^'act v.e baita^onized tro of the ^reatcj/^ 
friendly Powers of the v^orld,iynerica and Italy, To anta^onize Italy is th^ 
V hei-^lit of folly,bat to nnta^onize .irnerica is slieer madneas**^ 

i ■ " ■ ' 

Ängely, The Politics of TTaval ^Uf5arnanient,p. 57. 

*' IV'. Londoner i:orfe renz 'M. «Tanuar -22, April 1930 
In ^en Verhandlun^^en der Preparatory Gommission v.ar es x^aul^ooncour e- - 
langen, '!en aun er i^cani gehen De^le^ierten Tabson fue: seinen Vorschlag 2,u ge- 
winnen, das3 jede JvTacht innerhalb einer festzusetzenden Gesamt tonnage die 
'/ertdilung ihrer rsee-otreitkraefte innerhalb der verschiedenen Itategorien- 
aach eigenem Lrrrieseen bestimmen <^uerfe. 

4* Slaerz 1923 Iloover in geiner Inau^ural-Address- 
''I covet for this adninistration a record of having further contrib- 
uted to ad/ance the cause of j)eace," 

22. A,)ril: aibsons Intervention in '-^enf sugunsten des franzoesische/j 
Vorschlags! liraitation of total toni.'age bei freier !i'estiirj:?]uno der Katego- 
rien'. 



f 



30. U&i l'529Hoover, Kenioraal ')ay IJpeech: :^ir t, uv^ei-iten r4-..üer>taebe 
«30 far the v;orld has faileci. to flri'^ auoh a 7ard-3tick. To say t;ic.t 



such a measure cannot "be foanrJ i« the counael of -^ispair. It is a challen^ 

ge to. the naval authorities of the T^:;>'l'',it iß t'mr coi-i:^ernation oT the 

''^orl'l t.o th-e ;^i37 ohean t\oil . -f cor^oetive c'.r-^vB.irent-^. 

The jresent Auminis tiration of the U.3. iic^^ü aadertaken to ajoroach 

this vital problein v'ith a new prograrnme. T.e feel tiicit iu is useless for 



f 



US to talk; of t'ie linitation of arns if such limitation^ are to be set so 



high as virtually to be an incitenent to increase ari^ianent /« 

i 

Juni 1029 bildet J/Tacdonald sein zweites Labor Kabinett rri^ den kons. 
Robert GecMil ala Vertr eter fut^-r .le uf und T.ntv.af fuun ^.s-L xperten« 



lA. .^unin2 ^; der neue U,S. Botschafter Da^res trifft in London ein. 



15-16. Jiini. Besprechung Da>ve8-i;acdüuald ^'rnoat sat isfactury'' . 
^ ' ^eldfe geben aiiT' 1*^. Juni !i:r!<lacrung en ab^in - ^ efie i i sie a u f das T ^ inde i i 



ein es neuen Yard stick hint eis en. "Das ,:;leiche tut die britische Thronrede 
am 1.7uli. Dann Besprechungen DaT^es-Gribson-JTacdonald. 



23. .'^uli; Hoorer erklaert, der Kellogg-Pakt habe die ganze Gituation 
Yeraend ert^-ljlaannarn en t zu besohle unigen, 



24. Juli: liacdonald erklaert vor den Gonnions. er habe den Dau der ge- 



planten 2 lOOOOKreuzer und mehrerer TJ BoCt-Tutterschif fe einstellen las- 



sen. Am t^;leichen Tage rdrkuendet 'loover Abstriche am US 71ottenbaui)rograniV/. 

''MV. i/acdonaid has intro^^tfced:" the oriiTC IpTe xrf ~T5^aiTri;y , v. htx^h > ^e ha v e rnrw 

• ^ , I , .^ . , ^jrreat ^ritaifi an^l ^ 

aaop t ed , axaii-JLt^ con^uminatiiDn ineanÄ-JJaat^-th.e_Ll^^ hence for th ar e not to 



comoete in armaments as potential opponent3,but to co-operate as friends 
in th ei r r e d uct ion. — ^ 



25X 7ull 3tinson, secretary of r>tate,:"The british CJovernment' s decisio/i< 
tr e m e ndous st e p for^ 'a rd a n- a o oord bet^ ^ ^ e n the two n a tion s , 



4-15. pktober ; iacdonald in V.ashington. . Von dort ergeht seine LinladfH(i 
zur ivonf erenz--an 10. Oktober an '\3.,Hr IT. Oktober an '-^ie andern T'aec:^/^^ 



t 



-^ ■ 



Ted er techrTi zc'ie Akkor-l muespe eiru^ii i)oi it, j. ^^j^ien ivKikord zur ITüTaH s s tf f* 
zung ha^en^ "Der Kelloj< g- Patct sei keine ^^e ei ^^ nete "Grundlage, T ar d i eu 



T^uerde Art. 3 der Yoelkcrbund-Satzung vorziehen^der nicht auf mathematt- 
sche i.-'roiJort i-ürien -zlei1rT~'^rankrt^clr rniesse ^ire^ S eewege -&u z einem Koloni ^- 




reich retteldlgen. ParlLaet milr Tt all en be d eute .^ r ankr e i cfes-^tf^ri o r i t a^ 
im Mittelmeer. T. fordert fuer y r anKreioh eine ^fesa rtit-Toünage von 725GÜ0 
bis l'^36.i . 

Tardieus' okepsts d'e^en den irello;g--^"'ak1r 



Ihm- s ehr r eruebe^l^tr 



\ 



Saily Ilerald, 15. ^^'ebr. 1050; *' a heavy blov bo th at the prospectus 



and Lhc very cüuccpt uf the a«tval oouTt/- 
reuc e," 



Jt'anchester ^ruarüan, gleiches l>iatum: •♦Tardieu caused serious misgirin^» 

21. ^^anuar -22. April Lomdojrjer Konr^venz' ~ ' 

^S^bf^Hso ll d i ' rf A ' K^>^>nn^n ^^ ^r i V .:^i >^hi n fa t ( ni e r g^cuzen^ Konji nt aber im v^esentli-^ j 



chen nur zur Beratung europaeischer iVa>rine-?rat:gn. tias Projekt eines 
TvTittelmeerpakts scheitert. 



.XLeimeeroaKLS scacii.c:rx>. -j , 

3^n^x.:,r^^4-^ r^ . ^i r^r. h T .TacdonRlrl.TIenderson und den Seelo rd Alexande i|yertre(7^ 



-j 



7ranicreich daroi Tardieuj-Tiand.Pietri. Aber von 17. um 



f 



i- 



r 



20 

7.1^aer2 ist ^Vankreich politif^ch unvertreten^da Tardieu am 17. 2. 50 
gestuerzt v;urde and erst öun 2. Liacri; ein neues --abinett bildete/ 

U.S. vertreten durch Stimson.i3awes,Gibson. 7oseph T. Robinjon, Char- 
les ^. Adainjü. 

^3ie iJ^ragenkomolexe zer fielen in einen anglo-aneri^anischen, einen 

japanisch-anftrikanischen, einen franco- italieni-^cher \mi anglo-konti — 
fient tjil ^ni, . *^ 



I 



U>G. lii o lten ü ^ü Z5 QUO i 






O w 



r i«-| V» 



.w - '-' < j. 






' J^^ . .. c 



f esttT/aelirend Ue lincslaender eine niedere noi^t^vkjn'^e T-oüten. 



Ajn 6. Jv'aerz nu^ste .Stimson flieh pexpen "Terf ~\n!!chein >rer v ahren* 

-^4^^ar^--s^«mfl- -4^a-be--.an-Jj:!ior.es3iQii t^a t the rork of thc .Iraerican del e^ 

iation at thi« Cinference i.^ likely to result in an increase instea^ 

reducl ion uf i h ^-nav i e s o f^ th e wü^^^-ji 



London -^ ^ a v al ^P r-eaty 1^3^ — 



Art. 1; '|The Hi^h contra ctj.n.j ^'arties agree not to exercibo Llieir rii/C^ 

lay -^o^^n the keels of caoital »hips replaceicent tonnage 
In^ LhT^-year^ l^^i-:^4.r-^JJ¥^no€ -and -14^0^ j:nay-.,JmY:fi if^r ^ b üil^ 
the repiacenent tonnage Thich Lhey are entitled to lay do^n. 




Art. 2: C-reat "ritain •cfaps 5,^^5. ^f Tapan 1 capital ships. 
3-5^ betreffen Alrcrafr Ga rr l ers — 



IT 

ff 



3-7 I Haxinan faer TT ^Noote üOGC t.:)ns an^ 5,1 inches IZaliber. 



- 8 



Au 



Aber Fra*\kre:ich kann seine groesseren unri ataerker beöCuec^'* 



sserhalb der capital ships ^'erden fucr U.T. Gr. ^ir. unH 7apart 



fo|lv3en'^e Llaxina stat'iiertt 




. IJ,S, l'lOO OO tons fl3 ochi ffc^ 



1fr. -r.-lloCCC t. [ 15 »» 

r^x^aa 103 CCC »* 12 »' 



Kleine Kreuzer: 'J.3. 14?)000 '•v . 

TH:^;:^n 1004 50 t . 



,er^t oer<*r ; 






V» 



-i. > \^ V- ^ w 



' . •^, r, V 



■■^ ^ r- /> i «K f^ . 



«^ « 



Lie r.r^tirrur^en tiel^er I^m ^ 3>)rai^von TTlTooten lauten ae hnl Ich ? i e 

-4m-Abko]T]^pn von V'fiffhln^to n. :Der ^'ert r ao sol^ c.^ie3,t i>>; sein bis 31. 12.3^. 



:5^ankreäch__iinJ^XtaJJ^ei3Uijl^ nicht J-art III des Abkonnens 

(Art. S). Sie Waren auch von len Beschraenkungen des Art. 1 ausge- 



non^en. "Oie franzoesische und italienTsche i^resse v-ar Tnit -"d-en i^r^r^b^ 
nii^ ^ on i aufrift d ^n. 'Oap'^^g^n r a.r die en;.Tlische -^Vesse nit ?rankrei. c h s 



""altunM: nicht zufrieden. "The London Naval -'reaty should uever hav 

— - — »-< — t _^ 



bcen siined until and unle«^s sr»ne forn of coatrÄl have been pi'acea 



nTgrrr~Tffs~3T^*TTC^^ ""^'^^'^^^-""^ Ttniy i n TüXijs^ cruisVs.destro/ers and 
>^nbin;^rinea." The ITav./ ,'Toveniber 195C,p. 3C1. 



Obwohl <ne fra.n7.nnrixfiche und italienische :)elet:at.ioii ctUf J-er ^-O"- 



21 



ferenz meist eleich stimnten, trat ^loch '\er politische Gerjensatz beide 



Wacchte otTen zutaüe. Italien v'ur-te von den L'rWlaender in jeder V.eise 
beguensti^t. "Der fasciatische TliatoriKer Ln^ely stellt ruio -fexia^t *uufe 
^est, dass die Labor Politiker und die Radikalen liberalen ihre prinzi- 



pielle Gtellungnahme jegen den '^ascismus voelli«- in den Hintert,rund draeng- 



^ten oder janz vergassen, vor allen Daily Herald und J'achester Guardian, 



aber auch in persoenlichen Yerkehr. ""hp Politics of ?\ival 'Jisarnarnent 
p, 163.. 



2. -^erz ^ 1931; Italienisch- jY an;^o esisc hes Abkornnen. vermittelt durch 
lienderson un-' Alexander. Capitaliships 27>7)7>7> tons,£;iins 1" inches. 



>T 



7. London i^aval Conference l'^^)5-3e 



(l ci cr>:ei- -7'c.eri,} 



H e rbst 1Q5 4 — ^^^^ i-nft-4^^ r / o rta ^ r ^ it'ing e n. 



21. ^Dezember l'^?54: 7apan kiiendigt dai^ Abkor^rien von «.aahin^ton. 



II. r-mi 1^35 



Lnnlisch-LeatRches ""l ot trna'bkomnen. 



Alg die 7:pnferenz beganrifhatte ^luropa Gor^^en^ "^i^^ "^en ^^re^^en^tand der Xon^ 

feij^renz voel^Ii^; ueberschatteten. ".A.g drueckte sich auch darin aas* das s 

'R'rankreich nar --^urch ^ f^.n Londoner ^otgcViaf t r^r anH }'='ar inc-'^achleate, nicht 
durch ein K|egi^^ane^3nitslied vertreten v-urde, ^ald^ans Lroeffn.in^jsansprachd 



^ ar s ehr ri u e cht er n. — "^or e ig^n a c c rixrj^^Ld-eft- iia l in e s t — soa e t e r an d r '^^^onforen^ 
teil> U.S>i V-ar di rc h ''" or i^an javi n ve rtr eten.. T^er 7oe1 kerbund V'ar offizle^ 



eingeladen- und hattn zV/ei '*I3eobachte-r-*' entsandt^ 



s ilei i ch a uf der ersten Sit z ung l-eote der J a p a n i s G ? ie— V^^4^€^t e r , Adn i r a C 



>Tagano 'Ui,3 i:^rojekt eine» "connon uo^^er lirnit" vor, eii^er LöüLiwal toiixiac^; 
f 

fuer ."^apan,U.3« lui' '-^as "ritish Ijnpire, md unterstrich Japans dringen- 



des Inte 




resae an üahlenrnaessiger ^rleichlieit nit '-^e?! anr^ern Taechten. 
Las Kb^omrcen von V.ashin^^^ton sei unter d^onormen ilnistaencien cs^schios- 
■1^^^ i^W r de n und nue i^ s e r e kti fi z iert werden , Di e U e ba ^^te-u-e^^r-d^n 



japaxiischen Vorschlag nahm ein halbes I)at;u.enu oitL.^ii^en in i^LüSjruch. 



ra^ano: '• I an a^arc that there ray t^ell be differences betv'een 



nation-i a^ re^ards the drgree of vulnerabili ty . . . T fivmlj believe,höv eveyy 



that the l^rrate-^t f'actor to rhich ?^ n^tlon'.^ vilnerabil ity Tay bo attrib r 





uted 


13 




he 


^i'Ain^ 


o^ dirrerent 


J '^tve.l 3 


-^or 


r:hn 


arri e d 


foi'c;?:)« 


lü be poL^s- 


, 




• 


























Na"v&.l Cor;"nerfrce o. 71o. 



' '■'-- T,o>i»o' 



I 



ViRGOin^t TTonsftll, Chairr^an (^irst Lor^ of thn A-Imiralit/ ) : 
*• I wouli point out that equilibriun of 'lefense has not meant equali- 



ty of navift? and ^-loes not nean eq'iality of navies. '^ut I an ver/ macli 



^ afraid that the "cornnion upjer lirnit'* Hoe^s rjean eq^ality of navies. if 

^^ ^' g Ha v e 'g cnality o f navic ! ^, — T an very n uu^ ' afrai< 1 that that entlrfily 
upfsets that eguality of security ve all so nach vish to ke^p." 312 



::nT. 



Oman Davis? '» .. c suhnit that this proposal v-hich takes no account 



^ 



of varying need3,^ill not -;ive cach aation that ser.se of sccarity yhic^ 
coiTies froin tht. aljü ity to y^rote ct ita yital iiitt.- reBtH ^t^] v.hia ' * '"^^ 



cntial corrMtion orecedent to naval linitat ion»" 7>M, 



**T, 



a^ano; /^ It ig absolut ely impossible for Tajan tp acceot an a^^ree- 
ment vhich ^iv^eg rise t o a Sit uation rherehy one country is allov-ed to 
possesö a 3U oerior force.'' 731. *' I-'^- v ier of the ease ani speed ^'ith rhic^ 



nav^ai forces Cd^n be moved,it ig inpossi'ble for Japan to share the -ritis^ 



viev that nav^al forces located in different T'aters are separate entities 



Davis; ^'">:jiil€ the Japanese have reco<_:niLed that there a re different Ue^-^.,. 

rees of neer^s and vulnerahiüty , they hsv^ not reco:;ni2ei ho^- very difficu 



it woul-^ be to .-gtahlish on the hasis o^ a oonron upper linit a Standard 



of neasure hy rhich th^ vital cueYtTön?. --ay be ?olved.'' 3-1^, 
^"ar-^ano; '* Tnj our poinio a the , ;rir? caus e of UfferenGe.^. in vnl n^r^hn -: t. y 
is differejice in the btren^ith of arnanents, Thercfjrc if armariicut^ caii uC 



-ia<ie c-;:al>"''^e cMe-^ cause -^f V-r ^ * ^^crence''^ ^n vulnera.blllty 



"^> c 



•xr hf 












tirr <\*^r ö. pe-*od of years. '» 4i:iff. 



-^ ^^ ^. T-, : CCTf tT^/"- 



^ ; 



]^:agano: tir. -.eratunc^ 'Ueses Vorschlags ist zwecklos, bevor ein corr^^on 
Upper liinit - f e^tg^i^et^t-i s-t^i 



S .Ja n u^^ r 1136; ?r a n za ( ^'^i s ehr It al ieni s ch«-^rit i sc her Vorschl ^g-^^^b^^- 
:"e£;elr:ae:^55i.jen Austausch von Jjifnrrati onen . 



ra^ano wiederholt seine Ai^sfurhrurreji vom 17. 12. 35 



S>ajci.JLX 15. Januar 30: liavis: luquality of security can neun only su^er-^ 



iority of defense in each countrjÄ's ov'n Vaters." 

Japan verlaej!^st rlie IConf^renz. T.ar-.r.t 2 ^eobö.chter i-urae 



P,3 



jie r.onferenz beschliesst, ihre Arbeit troti,deni f ort2U2ei:;-f^n. 



Die ".erattmjen -irehen sich nu:imehr um "cmal Itative nisariMuiremi" . 

Lngland schlaegt •AbüOö alS-^oechstriasa f'ier napital «hlp« vor., 

TT, 3. bleiht- li^rtziaegT^ic; "b e i "5Q QQ t , \ 



■SZ 



>T.rMar. "rT^nr^i.-ffiTtTeter Ital iens, erlclaert, da ss (^-e Sanktionen 



; ^ 



es s 



einen Lande anmoe.aich machen, t^ineu nt.uen i'^nl zu unit^rk-eicuufcn. 






Italien bleibe aber bereit zur Veit erbrratin^. 



?.5. jaerz 1^:^5 : 'Tnt er;-eichnun(;: ^^.es Pakte??. Italien, Irland unr^. 



Sueiafrika unterk^eiclinen nicht. 



•«. \ 



•/isgount roft ^«-l l i " T hB t ^^atx JV^ox 



"e_-a 



tu-day,difrer3 froK it3 jrericcessoro in thut thcre 



the point of si.:niM 

are no provisions 



for thft direct quantitative linitation o^ naval arnart^nt ."aoc^ die 

i.uthaa e hen) bi e t e 



einen i^rsat;:. aIcIi lIoriTikn Lavio bedauert d.s 7«^.lci. .ur .in.LaLi.ju 
quantitative, Ist ab.r -nit der q ia^ itat Ivtii «^fi^c lün. Itd.lx.Mijj 
"'rTonstr aktiv er ...iiteil'' t.jrd vuv- ^oiisell a.nerkanr.t . 



"'r'onstraktiver .^nteil'' v,ird voVi ^oiisell ü..i-ierkani;t . 








■^p.^ '/ertrag fuellt ^'^ a-^iten ,ein „ani,es 


-left 




ur 


riscellarico-is ''c-. \^~-^rr{^:. rffice ' l.!""'"). 




_ . . . . • / «TP fr /> "^ .'^ ♦ 


. 


1 


/ •) Vi r > !•.*.«■• 



Part 



X Ot i- ^ 



ZJT. rvTTKTT^ 



^dti^ic 



o^ J-Oü ;-.'' 






-hr 



» 4 ■ i-f 



•«.-kyi 



' i it . ioiib ■ — Ta de Re ^ii e '^ 



rung ist Ycr>: 



oflichtet, Jaehrlich ihr -^lot ;.enbaapro«ranr. und alle 






1 .-> 



Aenderuniien den andern -Jnterzeic'^en-:r nlt^uteilen. Fart ^ IT: General and 



Safe^iaardinc Glausea. Verbot de? ver:-:aufs voa 



--- - ^L> 



s s c hiff e n an ■ frer.d e 



i^-a-inen. V<-.rlugte dü ft rfftn eri ' iüLzL Verden. A r t. P.5 ; V. e nn ein r'ic'.Uunter- 

i.eichner Vpen baut, die Ue vori^jesehene qualitative linitatici verletae^,^ 



i* -J.iter^eicliner ber echt ii^t, auch ihrerseits, die lirrit«; zu 



dann s in 



^ ■* 



ueberschreiten. ^h? gleich ült f )er ien -^rifi^sfall . 
?art 5: ^inal Claudes, auelti^keit bis :U .!:.? Lenber 



-«-»^ 



t 



C • 



-rr x'akt v-'arde von 1er Oef ^entl ichk^it so jut rie unbeachtet ^elas 



{_ r,>tn. Abe.-3sinien un^ Ue T'.estz-.n-; der lheinland;.one x^>i:tvmtn das 

Tnt^re.^e in Anspruch. lAt- crutrc^-er jpocket -rhio. >»rrlesen ^ie >-ut 



ix 



losifcikeit -ier qualitative limitation. ".l. ^'ar ^enoeti^t.in London die 
Ar^umente^^u e. ^brauchen, ' l it h'^ -ii '•■ashinfetoii b e k>teTO,jft c hatt e . T i ap ^n ^ .c.i f .,> 
nahm drn Standrmkt eln,^en ir.s. in .arshington den andern aufgedraengt 



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Cutting from iMue 4«t«d /.fTT....^r7rrT»^.7Z.... 



^M 



171 



; Till- ILMSTRATED LOXDOX NEWS 



Aug. II, üM.'i 




-^ 



-i^H^ ^J te^. 



THE 



PERIOD OF THE ARMISTICE, 191 8-1 939 



^'^Ö^i 



fr 



W^O/?LD /TV TRANCE": By LEOPOLD SCHWARZSCHILD.* 

An appreciation by SIR JOHN SQUIRE. 

N.B.—The illustration on this page is not front the book. 




TWi: NTV years of folly " is a phrasc that Herr 
Schwarzschild, a refugee, uses towards the 
cnd of his calamitous commentary on the uncasy 
period betwcen the two wars. And how fully he 
(lescribes those years ! He has done a remarkable 
thiMK' ; he has written a history crowded with facts 
and references. and at the same time not allowcd 
his intense zeal for the truth, as he sees it, and the 
welfare of mankind, to be smothered under the dust 
of his rescarches. 

" Twenty years of folly " — describcd by a man 

" aii-desaus de la mtU'e." Professor Brogan sum- 

marises the thing in a preface ; a preface all the more 

powerful because Professor Brogan, in youth, was 

deluded. He has grown up and sees now that his 

dreams could not be fulhlled. " The dominant 

Gerinan state in the modern world, I'russia, has bocn 

from its first appearance as a leading actor on the 

" • - iii.l.l^iy State, an army posscssing a 

State, rather than 

a State possessing 

an army. It is 

unnecessary to go 

back to Tacitus. 

Mirabeau is quite 

far cnough away." 

I am not quite sure. 

But it was Mirabeau 

or another who 

said in the French 

National Assembly 

that "The Prussian 

is a military animal, 

and to him war is a 

national industry." 

.\ d a m Smith, 

Ricardo and John 

Stuart Mill, those 

plaster-cast men, 

would not have 

believed it. But it 

is true. And to 

fight armed Drag- 

ons WC must be 

armed St. Georges. 

Nonsense is still 

talked, by pcople 

who want to doflge 

the facts of breed 

and tradition and 

the human vices of 

pride and ambition, 

about all wars 

originating from 

"economic causes." 

Kven in the British 

Government there 

werc traces of this 

theory in the era 

during which the 

British Government 

simply would not 

say point - blank 

that the former 

Gcrman Colonics 

(which would have 

been of vast 

naval and military advantage to Germany during 
this war, and any future wars) would never be 
restored to Germany. I remember that, very early 
in this war, I was Walking home at midnight 
in the black-out, and heard at the corner of Park 
Lane and Piccadilly thin young men whispering 
to every passing soldier : " All wars are made by 
capitalists, all wars are made by capitalists " — the 
Said young men probably believing what they .said 
(though they may have changed their tune after Russia 
was attacked). while every boy one knew was donning 
uniform to do, and pcrhaps to die. not for dividends. 
but for decency. The whole doctrine derives from the 
early profcssors of " the dismal .science " who thought 
that man was actuated by greed alone. leaving out of 
account all the othcr vices. and, incidentally. the 
virtues, which still prevail in some hundrcds of millions 
of souls. And the theory that. provided everybody is 
given a sufficiency of föod, bathrooms. refrigerators, 
motor-cars, big roads and wireless sets. and votes, 
everybody will settle down and be happy (including 



the Prussians. the Japanese and the Pathans of the 
North-Wcst Frontier) is made up by men in 
libraries. Plato had the notion that we should be all 
all-right if the philosophers were kings. It seems to 
me that. during the last 150 years, the philosophers 
have been kings — with the most disastrous results. 
Think of the influence of Rousseau, who couldn't 
have shot a haystack at ten yards and left his 
numerous illegitimate children on other people's door- 
steps — all in the name of human perfectibility. Think 
of the influence of that sour, sardonic Karl Marx, 
who mugged away in the British Museum, knowing 
nothing of hunianity as it is, and produced theories 
which Ted Lenin (a much more amiable and sensible 
man) to say that he didn't care if nine-tenths of the 
Kussian population were exterminated provided that 
he got his way about the future of Russia — living 
ivople, to these men who are always thinking of 
l topias on earth rather than Paradises in heaven. 




• •■ World in Trance." By Leopold Schwarzschild. 
wo.<! Iiy U. W. Broy.iii. (Hainish Hariiiltnri ; i«. M.) 



THE NATIONAL OAI.LERV nCTt'RE OF THE MONTH : - TH. FMBARKAT.ON OF S. TRSVLA " ; BY CLAUDE (160O-168.) 

CANVAS, H IV. HIGH BV SQ I.V. WIDE. 

never counting at all as against the unborn. who 
are presumed to agree with the theorists. And think 
of Nietzsche. Vou can derive almost anything from 
him ; for instance (possibly he was of Polish extraction), 
he warned the Italians against the eternally stupid 
and military Germans. But the half-baked ego- 
maniac Hitler is füll of him (imperfectly digested, for 
he has imperfectly digested everything) and is reported 
in the Press to have sent Mussolini a completc bound 
set of Nietzsche's works for his sixtieth birthday— 
inadvertently it was in the nature of a p.p.c. card. 

" Myths " are the trouble ; myths and shibbolcths 
like " democracy." Kindness as against cruelty 
means something, and justice against injustice, and 
free law-courts. But jwlitical forms are mislcading. 
The Germans voted Hitler in and he was nominatcd 
Chancellor ; his party had the largest vote and he 
was as entitled to consider himself a " democratically- 
elected Prime Minister" as ever was Ram.say 
MacDonald. As soon as he was in the saddle, Prussia- 
infected Germany backed him in all his misdeeds 
(even his cold-blooded murdcr of thousands of untricd 
men in one night) so long as he was successful. Whcn 
he fails (and this is one of our author's themes) the 



With a Fore- 



army will take control. discard him as they di.scardcd 
the Kaiser, produce a " democratic " fa<;ade. do a good 
death-bed whimper, and, unless we are careful. rearm. 
Not for economic reasons, but for historic " glory." 

"Never again," says Herr Schwarzschild, "must 
we succumb to the myth that power and armaments 
and compulsion are of themselves sinful and evil as 
such. They can be the opposite as well All order, 
all civilisation, all law and dignity rest on the existence 
of weapons and power." The chivalry of the Middle 
Ages knew it. and Sir Thomas Mallory knew it ; there 
were good knights and evil knights. and if the good 
knights. believing that some Great Dawn had come. 
disarmed themselves, so much the worse for the 
good knights. / 

This whole book is a chronicle of mistakes made 
by the good about the wicked. There are also mistakes 
made by America about Veteran Europe ; President 
VVi/son reduced the Italian Prime Minister to despair 

by saying that he 
knew more about 
the Italians than 
the Italian knew. 
But we mustn't 
throw up the 
sponge, and we 
must learn by our 
mistakes. And if 
there is one thing 
dead certain to be 
derived from this 
book and the facts. 
it is that the " de- 
mocracies " must 
segrcgate foreign 
affairs and defence 
measures from the 
control of an clec- 
torate which is 
voting about coal- 
m i n e r s' w a g e s, 
widows' pensions, 
or whatever, at the 
moment. may be 
pinching the shoe. 
Over and over 
again. in the last 
hundrcd years. the 
franchise has been 
extended. Every 
time there has been 
domestic justifica- 
tion ; for the rieh, 
not through beastli- 
ness. but through 
ignorance, do not 
know how the poor 
live. But every time 
(and whcn the wo- 
men, interested in 
husbands, children, 
cooking and hats, 
came in, this was 
trucr than ever) the 
electoral roll has 
been diliited by 
one per.son who 
knew .something about history and geography and 
racial and religious passions to nineteen who knew 
nothing about such things. 

1 think it was Lord Cranborne who, in the House of 

Lords a year or two ago, put out a tentative Suggestion 

that in future there should be a Committee in Cape 

Town running our Foreign Aflfairs and Dcfences, 

indrpendent of such things as the Fulham Bye- 

Elertion, which prevented Mr. Baldwin from telling 

US the whole truth about German Rearmament. 

That is a good, and a practicable. dream. The ordinary 

Enplish voter doesn't even know what 's in the Empire 

(cxcept for Australia. which sends over Test Teams) 

and is content to do his day's work and play darts 

or shove-ha'penny (Shakespeare called it " push- 

shilling ") in the evening. And he wouldn't mind in 

the least, provided he had the vote as a protection 

agamst .sweating, if Uncle Anthony Eden and All ran the 

foreign affairs and prevented his grandchildren having 

to die against the Germans, without Consulting him. 

" Czechoslovakia. Czechoslovakia— <ioes that belong 
to US ? " I quoted that on this page long years ago 
from a gallant scrgeant of the last war who knew 
I was taking a 'plane to Prague to apologi.sc for Munich. 



The great drivc for ua.te papcr ,^oes on, and ü ,nust never slackcn or eease a.. lort^ as there ts a war to ^cin-so turn out every scrap you have. 



-» 



most dramauc cvenib m 
its long history at the 
present day. i5^- ^*^^ 

SCHWARZSCHILD'S 

World in 
j) Trance 

Having a snowball salc as 
a group of cnthusiasts 
throughout the country 
sprcads vord of its im- 
portance. 

'This is a remarkable 
book which evcryonc 
should read' — 

DUFF COOPER 

125. 6d. net 



W 



».- 



New Editions Rcady of 
D. W. BROCAN'S 

The English 

PeOplC 105. 6rf. net 
OTTO TOLISCMÜS' 

Tokvo Keiord 

125. 6(f. net 
Read 

La France Libre 

Monthly 25. 6d. net 

* 
HAMISH HAMILTON LTD 



Two pictures transmitled by wireless from Algiers of the Operations in the Fiftli 
fac ne an enemy strongly entrenched in advantageous positions. They sho^^ 
tacing an enemy b^ h y ^^^ ^^.^.^^ infantry going into action ( 



are 




AN 8 000 LB. BOMB. -One o( ihe tirst photographs to 
be released ofan S,00() Ib. bomb. These huge bombs have 
been used with dcvasiating cflect by the R.A.F. recently. 



NEW COTT ACiES- 

cottagcs tbr t.irm \^ 
which are lo hc bu 




rsiiina scimu.*'- 



Obssrver 



WAY 23 1943 



) ••World in Trance: From Versail- 
pes to Pearl Harbor," by LeoDold 
fe^hild. (New' York L.'^ a 
Snn„7 * A ?"•«'"> and detailed ac- 
Uh L^n '"««'•national indecisions 

'Ä^«nS *" °'"^"'''' ««**«' 



Copy to: Mr. Landshof f 

Mr. Schwarz Schild 



/ 



Department of Hietory 
Berkeley, California 



üniversity of California 



Deceifiber 20, 1942 (until 
Febr. 15; later on: 131 
East 93d Street, New York) 



». 



Dear Mr. Wallach: 

Thanks for SchwarBschild» s WORLD IN TRANCE, Giving here, 
durlng this semester, a series of lectures on Contemporary 
Dlploraacy I have quoted and recomraended the book more than 
onc e . 

I made only, about it, one crltical remark: that, in my 
opinion, the hidden complicity of the Prench and British 
Cabinets with Mussolini from the Ethiopian war until 1939 
had not been stressed enough. But I have alwaye added that 
in spite of this lacuna the book is one of the best recent 
contributions to the origins of the War. 



^ 



Truly yours. 



(Sgd) Sforza 
(Count Sforza) 



\ 



/ 



.? 



Copy to: Mr. Landshoff 

Mr. Schwarzschild 



V 



Department ot Hlstory 
Berrceley, California 



Unlverslty of California 



Deceuiber 20, 1942 (untll 
Febi*. 15; later on: 131 
East 03cl itreet, Uev Yorlc) 



Dear Mr. ff&il&ch: 

Thanks for Schwarsschlld» s WORLD IN TRANCE. Olvlng here, 
durlng thls seiüester, a serlee of lectures on Coatemporary 
Dlplomacy I have quoted and recomraended the booK more than 
once. 

I made cnly, abcut It, one crltical remark: that, In my 
oplnlon, the hldden coniDllclty of the French and British 
Cablnets wlth Mus5=ollnl froui the Ethloplsui war untll 195Ö 
had not been stressed enough. But I have plways added that 
In svlte of thls lacuna the book Is one of the best recent 
contrlbutlons to the orlglns of the War. 



Truly yours, 



\ 



(Sgd) Sforza 
(Count Sforza) 



'» t 



' f 




to 80,000 families, aggregating niore than $100,000,000. 
"The security has been solely the family's earnest inten- 
tion to repay. These famiHes have been called the coun- 
try's worst credit risks, yet repayments have amounted 
to 90 per cent of the sums due/' Hundreds of thousands 
of families, needy and eligible for aid, have gone unas- 
sisted because of lack of funds. 

Only a fev^ samples of insightful observations can be 
given here. Professional code-making (of which the au- 
thor has made a special study) **is an expression of vague 
idealism, noi of the brass tacks of a strategy for the good 
Society " In striking a balance between voluntary and 
governhiental enterprise, the '^common sense of the com- 
mon man is the final arbiter, unless the common man is 
confused by overwhelming crisis, or bis own political 
leaders." Yet "experience seems to indicate that the 
people can only control what they own/* And finally, the 
current emphasis on **independence'' as expressive of the 
genius of American democracy ''overlooks the evidence 
that the individual in business for himself was the bulwark 
of an individnaKstic democracy, but that for some decades 
we have been evolving a relatively social democracy. Many 
socially minded persons hope there will always be self- 
employed people, and that we will always have a society 
in which a person may enter many tyi)es of business 'for 
himself.' The very term independent appeals to most of 
US. We like to think of free, dignified, responsible in- 
dividuals. Yet for many of these individuals, the most 
satisfactory life does not lie in 'going it alone.' The füllest 
economic life, the greatest freedom, lies in free association 
y^,^^ with one's fellows." p £ j 

"^IX^ ANi^prld In Trance: From Versailles to Pearl Harbor. By 
V>'>4.eopold Schwarzschild. New York, L. B. Fischer Pub- 
lishing Corporation, 1942. $3.50. 

A German anti-Nazi Journalist and historian reinter- 
prets the period between the two world wars. The book 
is important and challenging, distinguished, forceful and 
ably documented. 

The year 1914, says Mr. Schwarzschild, opened a 
thirty years' war in which the 1918 armistice was a Ger- 
man Strategie retreat for regrouping of forces, mending of 
defenses, reconnaissance and infiltration of the enemy. 
The Weimar Republic (its proclamation a "slip") was 
the unpopulär price paid for an easy peace, and was domi- 
nated by the Army Officers Corps as an instrument toward 
the reopening of the military offensive. 

The basis of the peace treaty was a misreading of the 
Situation by the Allies which greatly aided German plans. 
British and American leaders presupposed a strong France 
and a weak Germany. Clemenceau, Poincare and Austen 
Chamberlain realized the terrifying weakness of devastated 
and decimated France vis ä vis an intact Germany with a 
mounting population. Tardieu predicted that the over- 
running of France "in a few days" would see the Allies 
deprived of bases from which to mount land Operations, 
and so reduced to naval and economic action. (Today 
the United Nations air forces strive to retrieve that loss.) 
Clemenceau early feit the division of viewpoint which 
culminated in the defection of bis allies through fear of 
French ''intransigeance" and he fought despairingly to 
hold them through Allied occupation of the Rhineland. 
The purpose of bis Rhineland project was "to establish 
not a French, but a collective military power.*' The treaty 
actually written could be maintained only if America and 
Britain should back up France. They supported Ger- 
many. 



Saturday, June 26, 1943 

President Wilson's dealing with emissaries of the Kaiser 
and bis Omission of discussion with bis "anxious and un- 
easy'* allies are recounted. Mr. Schwarzschild finds him 
arbitrary and illogical in action. "He had called German 
democracy inadequate; he treated it as adequate.'' He 
fought for a strong German armistice army, as bis tele- 
gram to Colonel House said, "because it is certain that too 
much success or security on the part of the Allies will make 
a genuine peace settlement exceedingly difficult, if not im- 
possible." It was to be "insecurity guaranteed by the 
enemy army," hardly "compatible'' with bis own solemn 
ban on the "balance of power." He had "never ceased 
to waver in an insoluble dilemma," that "the League of 
Nations needed effective power over its members — ^yet 
the League of Nations must not have effective power over 
them." He was unprepared for the logical consequence 
of bis own proposition, a surrender to some extent of 
"the free will and the military power of the individual 
States" to the League. 

Hitler's dramatic propensities have obscured the fact 
that he has, in the main, developed a course whose lines 
had been already well laid. "Whatever novelties Hitler 
brought about in every other political field, in the field 
of foreign policy it was only the continuation of previous 
German policy." That policy will not change over night. 

"Never again," says Mr. Schwarzschild, "must we suc- 
cumb to the myth that power and armaments and com- 
pulsion are of themselves sinful and evil as such. . . . The 
'morar value of power and weapons and compulsions is 
determined exclusively by the purpose they serve. . 

". . . The voice of twenly years wams us that in the 
business of enforcing peace and order there is no Substi- 
tute for our own will and our own power." e. T. 

It's Your Souls We Want. By Stewart W. Herman, Jr New 
York, Harper & Brothers, 1943. $2.50. 

In this volume the pastor of the American Church in 
Berlin from 1936 to December, 1941, summarizes the 
church-state struggle in Germany from 1933 through 
1941. He describes the Nazi effort to provide an ersatz 
religion and draws two major conclusions: (1) "the Nazi 
government has no real sympathy for the Christian cause 
which it at first pretended to espouse" ; (2) "the Nazi 
State itself had either started from or arrived at the view- 
point that a new religion must be siX)nsored by the New 
Germany." The Nazis who wanted "a purely Nazi 
church" have been able to impose "their will upon the 
nation." The church's support of the war has been 
"largely physical and ethical, rather than spiritual." Even 
during the war many special restrictions have been im- 
I)Osed on the churches. In June, 1941, all religious pub- 
lications were banned. Churches were ordered to celebrate 
secondary feast days on the Sunday following them, rather 
than on the appropriate weekday. Services could not be 
held before ten o'clock in the morning following an air 
raid — which meant that workers could not attend early 
mass. A "deliberate attempt" was made to wean Chris- 
tian children evacuated from bonibed areas away from 
the church. In 1941 pastors were allowed to visit patients 
in hospitals and clinics only under rigid restrictions. A 
number of the smaller Christian sects were "suppressed 
without warning or announcement." The book, Gott und 
Volk, which called on "all Germans to decide between 
Christ and country" was distributed "throughout army 
and party." There was a new "epidemic of confiscations 
of Protestant and Catholic property." Certain Nazi poli- 
cies are "irreconcilable with the Christian ethic." 



[2] 



to 80,000 families, aggregating more than $100,000,000. 
"The security has been solely the family's earnest inten- 
tion to repay. These families have been called the coun- 
try*s worst credit risks, yet repayments have amounted 
to 90 per cent of the sums due." Hundreds of thousands 
of families, needy and eligible for aid, have gone unas- 
sisted because of lack of funds. 

Only a few samples of insightfui observations can be 
given here. Professional code-making*(of whkh the au- 
thor has made a special study) **is an expression of vague 
idealism, noi of the brass tacks of a strategy for the good 
Society" In striking a balance between voluntary and 
governiiiental enterprise, the "common sense of the com- 
mon man is the final arbiter, unless the common man is 
confused by overwhelming crisis, or bis own political 
leaders." Yet *'experience seems to indicate that the 
people can only control what they own." And finally, the 
current emphasis on ''independence'* as expressive of the 
genius of American democracy *'overlooks the evidence 
that the individual in business for himself was the bulwark 
of an individualistic democracy, but that for some decades 
we have been evolving a relatively social democracy. Many 
socially minded persons hope there will always be self- 
employed people, and that we will always have a society 
in which a person may enter many types of business 'for 
himself.' The very term independent appeals to most of 
US. We like to think of free, dignified, responsible in- 
dividuals. Yet for many of these individuals, the most 
satisfactory life does not lie in going it alone.' The füllest 
economic life, the greatest frecdom, lies in free association 
with one's fellows." F. E J 

World In Trance: From Versailles to Pearl Harbor. By 
Leopold Schwarzschild. New York, L. B. Fischer Pub- 
lishing Corporation, 1942. $3.50. 

A German anti-Nazi Journalist and historian reinter- 
prets the period between the two world wars. The book 
is important and challenging, distinguished, forceful and 
ably documented. 

The year 1914, says Mr. Sehwarzschild, opened a 
thirty years* war in which the 1918 armistice was a Ger- 
man Strategie retreat for regrouping of forces, mending of 
defenses, reconnaissance and infiltration of the enemy. 
The Weimar Republic (its proclamation a "slip") was 
the unpopulär price paid for an easy peace, and was domi- 
nated by the Army Officers Corps as an instrument toward 
the reopening of the military offensive. 

The basis of the peace treaty was a misreading of the 
sitiiation by the AI lies which greatly aided German plans. 
British and American leaders presupposed a strong France 
and a weak Germany. Clemenceau, Poincare and Austen 
Chamberlain realized the terrifying weakness of devastated 
and decimated France vis a vis an intact Germany with a 
mounting population. Tardieu predicted that the over- 
running of France "in a few days'* would see the Allies 
deprived of bases from which to mount land Operations, 
and so reduced to naval and economic action. (Today 
the United Nations air forces strive to retrieve that loss.) 
Clemenceau early feit the division of viewpoint which 
culminated in the defection of his allies through fear of 
French '*intransigeance'* and he fought despairingly to 
hold them through Allied occupation of the Rhineland. 
The purpose of his Rhineland project was "to establish 
not a French, but a collective military power.*' The treaty 
actually written could be maintained only if America and 
Britain should back up France. They supported Ger- 
many. 



Saturday, June 26, 1943 

President Wilson's dealing with emissaries of the Kaiser 
and his Omission of discussion with his "anxious and un- 
easy" allies are recounted. Mr. Schwarzschild finds him 
arbitrary and illogical in action. ''He had called German 
democracy inadequate ; he treated it as adequate." He 
fought for a strong German armistice army, as his tele- 
gram to Colonel House said, "because it is certain that too 
much success or security on the part of the Allies will make 
a genuine peace settlement exceedingly difficult, if not im- 
possible." It was to be "insecurity guaranteed by the 
enemy army/' hardly "compatible" with his own solemn 
ban on the "balance of power." He had "never ceased 
to waver in an insoluble dilemma," that "the League of 
Nations needed effective power over its members — ^yet 
the League of Nations must not have effective power over 
them." He was unprepared for the logical consequence 
of his own proposition, a surrender to some extent of 
"the free will and the military power of the individual 
States" to the League. 

Hitler's dramatic propensities have obscured the fact 
that he has, in the main, developed a course whose lines 
had been already well laid. "Whatever novelties Hitler 
brought about in every other political field, in the field 
of foreign policy it was only the continuation of previous 
German policy." That policy will not change over night. 

"Never again," says Mr. Schwarzschild, "must we suc- 
cumb to the myth that power and armaments and com- 
pulsion afe of themselves sinful and evil as such. . . . The 
'moral' value of power and weapons and compulsions is 
determined exclusively by the purpose they serve. . . . 

". . . The voice of twenty years wams us that in the 
business of enforcing peace and order there is no Substi- 
tute for our own will and our own power." e. T. 

It's Your Souls We Want. By Stewart W. fierman, Tr. New 
York, Harper & Brothers, 1943. $2.50. 

In this volume the pastor of the American Church in 
Berlin from 1936 to December, 1941, summarizes the 
church-state struggle in Germany from 1933 through 
1941. He describes the Nazi effort to provide an ersatz 
religion and draws two major conclusions: (1) "the Nazi 
government has no real sympathy for the Christian cause 
which it at first pretended to espouse" ; (2) "the Nazi 
State itself had either started from or arrived at the view- 
point that a new religion must be sponsored by the New 
Germany." The Nazis who wanted "a purely Nazi 
church" have been able to impose "their will upon the 
nation." The church's support of the war has been 
"largely physical and ethical, rather than spiritual." Even 
during the war many special restrictions have been im- 
posed on the churches. In June, 1941, all religious pub- 
lications were banned. Churches were ordered to celebrate 
secondary feast days on the Sunday following them, rather 
than on the appropriate weekday. Services could not be 
held before ten o clock in the morning following an air 
raid — which meant that workers could not attend early 
mass. A "deliberate attempt" was made to wean Chris- 
tian children evacuated from bombed areas away from 
the church. In 1941 pastors were allowed to visit patients 
in hospitals and clinics only under rigid restrictions. A 
number of the smaller Christian sects were "suppressed 
without warning or announcement." The book, Gott und 
Volk, which called on "all Germans to decide between 
Christ and country" was distributed "throughout army 
and party." There was a new "epidemic of confiscations 
of Protestant and Catholic property." Certain Nazi poli- 
cies are "irreconcilable with the Christian ethic." 



[2] 



1 



MAY 



t> , 



t 






c 



CUMULATIVE INDEX 

(Serie« III, January-May 1942) 



The index, nou 
firsf of the year. 

the neu! index 



appearing as separate Sectio n with 



7 eac 



The new index each month supplants all preredinfr 



used in ref erring to or looking up 



'u7"''r '""5 "' '\' ^"f ">'"•<:'"■ " l"lh >u.„ulmve 10 the 
ketriies published at any Urne Juring ihe currenl 



year. 



A«.o«. CHaHes ... coU. pro,."' m"" "'"'"T^' ::T' 'T T"^ "" " "^ """ "^ ---' 
Abend, Hallett, author . m.73 ^p**' '^'^"""°' ex-President 

Abrahamaon, HaroldA.,phy8lciaii . UI-66 A..if"^*t- i * VL* * /. '. '""^ 

' ' . XX* uw ^,.,j pe^gp ^^ phytopathologlst . . IU-90 



Abnl Kalam Asad, pres. of All- 
India Congress 

Achelia, Elizabeth, pres. World 
Calendar Assn., Ine 



ni-93 

III-73 

Adamlc, Louis, author III -51 

Adams, Charles F., phyaician . . III-65 
Adams, Eimer W., chemlst . . . .HI- 109 
Adams, Francis J., elec. engr. . ^-89 
Adams, William R., forester . . . in-89 
Adamson, Hans C, author .... III-73 

Adel, Arthur, physicist III-89 

Aguinaldo, Emillo, Philippine 

polltician 111-73 

Ahlqnlst, Raymond P.,pharmacist . in-89 
Aicher, Louis C, agriculturist . . III- 89 
Alken, Charles B., cons. engr. . . 111-42 

Aikman, John M., botanist 111-109 

Albers, Vernon M., physicist . . . III-89 

Albi, Joseph A., lawyer HI -74 

Albright, John (G.), physicist ... in -42 
Albritton, Claude C, Jr., geologist. 111-89 

Alcock, Gudrun, editor III- 27 

Alderfer, Harold F., univ. prof. . . III-74 
Aldous, Shaler E., bloecologlst . .111-109 
Aldrich, Loyal B.,ob8ervatory dir. III-89 
Alezander, A.E., mineralogist . . III-65 
Alexander, Ben, pres. Masonite 

Corp., govt. offl III- 93 

Alexander, Gordon, biologist . . .ID-llO 
Alexander, Harold R.L.G., British 

army officer III-74 

Alezander, Lloyd E., biologist . . ni-89 
Alexander, Shirley, writer .... UI-Sl 

Alford, Leon P., engineer III-27 

Alger, Philip L., elec. engr. . . . ni-43 
Algren, Nelson, Journalist .... III-74 
Allen, Adam (pseudonym); see 

Epstein, Samuel, Williams, Beryl . 111-74 
Allen, Arthur E., physician .... III-74 
Allen, Glover M., naturalist .... 111-74 

Allen, Jay, author III- 74 

Allen, NathanielN., univ. prof. . . 10-89 
Allen, Paul W., research chemist . III-43 
Allen, Winfred E., oceanographer . III-89 
Allison, James B., Jr., biochemist . III-89 

Ailison, John H., forester III- 110 

Alt, Howard L., physician HI- 110 

Alrarado, Alfonso M., chemist . . III-89 

Amberg, Charles R., prof III-43 

Ambrose, Anthony M., biochemist .111-65 
Ananda Mahidoi, King of Thalland . III- 1 
Anderegg, F.O., cons. specialist . III-43 
Andersen, Paul, structural engr. . III-89 
Anderson, Alexander P., educator . III-43 
Anderoon, Alfred C, soilscientist. III-43 
Anderson, Arthur, agronomist . . Hl- 110 
Anderson, Arthur von K., chemist .HI- 110 
Andersem, Edwin J.A.,entomologist.ni-89 

Anderson, Ernest, chemist ni-65 

Anderson, Jacob Peter, botanlst . . ni-43 
Anderson, Sir John, Brit. govt. offl. in-74 
Anderson, Oscar G., horticulturist .ni-89 
Anderson, Robert J., metallurgist . in-65 
Andress, James M., psychologist . HI- 51 
Andrews, Albert L., philologlst . . m-89 
Andrews, Andrew Irving, engr. . . ni-89 
Andrews, Frank L., hotel exec. . . 111-74 
Andrews, F.M., U.S. army offr. . . ni-27 
Ani^y, Edward., newspaper corr. . 10-74 
Annand, P.N., entomologist .... IIl-llO 
Anters, Ernest V., geologist . . . III-43 
Anthony, Edgar W., research artist IU-65 
Aoata, Duke of, Italian govt. offl. . in-74 
Aranha, Oswaldo, Brazilian diplo- 
mat UI-1 



Arkin, Aaron, physician UI-1 10 

Armoor, Norman, U.S. ambassador. III-2 
Armstrong, George M., plant 

pathologist in- 110 

Arnold, Bion J., engineer III- 51 

Arnold, George S., lawyer .... HI- 51 
Arnold, H.H., U.S. army officer . in-2 
Arnold, Thurman W., author ... m-93 
Arroyo del Rio, Carlos, President 

Ecuador , m-2 

Anmundson, Vigfus S., poultry 

husbandry III-llO 

Atherton, John C, artist 111-93 

Attlee, Sir Clement Richard, Brit. 

govt. offlcial III-74 

Aubel, Cliff E., coli, prof HI- 90 

Auchlnleck, Sir Claude John Eyre, 

British army officer iii-2 

Auchy, George, chemist III-43 

Austin, Albert E.,ex-congressman. III- 51 
Avüa Camacho, Manuel; see 

Camacho, Manuel Avila III-3 

Ayer, Leslie J., lawyer ni-65 

Ayres, Samuel Jr., physician . . . III-65 
Azoy, Anastasio CM., U.S. army 
otiicer m. 93 



Baade, Paul W., U.S. army offr. . .in-27 
Babcock, Donald E., chemist . . . in-43 
Bacon, Franklin J., botanlst .... ni-65 
Badertsclier, A. Edison, horU- 

culturlst III-90 

Bagley, David W., U.S. naval offr.* HI- 93 
Bahrt, George M., soll chemist . . ln-43 

Bailey, Austin, engr in-90 

BaUey, Ethel H., mech. engr. . . .111-110 
Bailey, John H., bacteriologist . . . in-65 
BaUlleu, Clive L., Australian 

industrialist in-51 

Baip, George J., technician .... in-65 
Bajpal, Sir Girja Shankar, diplo- 

mat of India III-27 

Baker, Charles L., geologist . . . ni-llO 
Baker, Donald M., cons. engr. . . m~65 
Baker, Edwin M., ehem. engr. . . ni-90 

Baker, Ellis Crain, engr ni-90 

Baker, Horace G., biologist . . . .ni-llO 

Baker, Nina B., author III-93 

Baker, Roger D., pathologist . . . lU-llO 
Bakken, Herman E., chemist . . . in-43 
Baldomir, Alfredo, President 

Uruguay in-2 

Baldwin, Hanson W., author .... III -94 

Balk, Robert, geologist ni-llO 

Bau, Charles 0.,food technologist. m-43 

Ball, Harriet, author ni-74 

Balloo, W.A., mathematician . . . 10-65 
Bancroft, George R., chemist . . . 10-66 

Bane, Frank, govt. offl 01-27 

Bannlng, Margaret Culkln, author . 10-74 
Barber, George W., entomologist .111-110 
Barber, Harry G., entomologist . .10-90 
Barclay, Hartley Wade, author . . 10-94 
Bargeron, Carlisle, newspaperman 10-51 
Barker, George E., chemist . . . .10-11 
Barker, Horace A., biochemist . .HI-lll 
Barker, LeweUys F., physician . . 10-94 
Barker, Maurice E., chemist . . . ID-90 
Barker, Prince P., physician . . .UI-111 

Barkley, John F., fuel engr III -90 

Barlow, Wayne B., composer . . . 10-94 

Barne, Kitty, author 10-27 

Barnes, John L., radio engr. . . . IU-90 



Barnes, Ralph M., indsl. engr. . . 10-66 
Barnhart, John H., physician . . . 10-66 
Barnum, Malvern-Hill, U.S. army 

officer 10-74 

Barr, WiUiam M., engineer .... 01-66 
Barrett, Elliott P., phys. chemist . 01-66 
Barrett, Leslie B., botanlst .... 01-90 
Barrows, Marjorie, Compiler . . . 01-51 
Bartimeua (nom de plume) ; see 

Ritchie, Lewis 10-38 

BarUaal, John R., C.P.A * IO-90 

Barüett, Frederick B., bishop . . 01-27 
BarUey, S.Howard, psychologist. 01-90 
Bartnsek, Libushka, author .... 01-27 
Barwick, Arthur R., geologist . . 01-111 
Basore, Cleburne A., ehem. engr. . 10-66 
Bast, Theodore H., histologist . . 01-111 
Bateman, George M., chemist . . 01-111 

Bates, Blanche, actress 10-28 

Bates, John R., chemist III-90 

Bates, Philip K., bacteriologist . .lO-lll 
Bates, Robert W., chemist . . . . lO-lll 
Batlsta, Fulgencio, Pres. Cuba . . III- 2 
Batt, WiUiam L., mem. W.P.B. . . 01-28 
Batües, Marietta, executive . . . 01-111 

Baum, Vlcki, author 10-51 

Baumeister, Theodore, engr. . . . III-90 
Bayles, Burton B., agronomist . . 10-111 

Baylis, John R., chemist 10-66 

Beaber, Nathaniel J., chemist . . .10-111 

Beach, Robin, elec. engr 10-111 

Bean, Howards., mech. engr. . . IU-111 
BeardaU, John R., U.S. naval offr. IU-28 
Beaverbrook, Lord (Sir W.M. 
Aitken), Brit. cabinet minister . in-2 

Beck, Warren, author III- 51 

Beck, WiUiam A., biologist . . . .01-111 

Becker, Carl L., author 01-74 

Becker, Maurice, artist 10-52 

Becker, May L., editor 01-52 

Beckington, Alice, painter 10-28 

Beebe, WiUiam, author 10-74 

Begg, John, artist 01-74 

BeUoc, Hilaire, author 10-74 

Bemis, Harold M., U.S. army offr. 10-2 

Benchley, Robert, author 10-52 

Bender, Lauretta, psychlatrist . . 10-111 
Bennett, Henry G., Australian 

army officer 10-28 

Benrimo, Joseph H., playwright . . 01-94 

Benson, Sally, author 01-52 

Berggrav, Elvlnd, bishop 10-74 

Berckman, Evelyn, composer . . . 10-94 
Berrey, Lester V., philologist . . OI-94 
Berry, Martha M., philanthropist . 10-75 
Bess, Demaree C, Journalist . . 10-28 

Bessle, Alvah, author 01-28 

Beuf, Carlo M.L., author . ... UI-75 
Bevin, Alice Conklin, artist . . . 10-75 
Bevin, Ernest, British govt. offl. . 10-75 

Blala, Janice, artist 01-52 

Bierman, Bernie, football coach . 01-94 

BiU, Virginia, artist 10-28 

Binder, Abraham W., composer . . 01-94 

Blrney, Hoff man, author 10-94 

BiShop, Ciaire H., author IiI-28 

Blackall, Clarence H., architect . Ili-75 
Blake, William (real name William 

J. Blech), author IO-28 

Blakely, John R.Y., U.S. naval offr. 10-94 
Blakley, Chas. A., U.S. naval offr. IÜ-2 
Blamey, Sir Thomas Albert, 

Australian army officer 10-94 

Blanco, Juan Carlos, Uruguayan 

statesman Ol- 94 

Blatas, Arbit, artist 01-94 

Blease, Coleman L., ex-congress- 
man m-52 



L 



-*Mta 



■'>^'*~ 



2— Cumulative Index 



Serie« III, No. 5 



Bli88, Eleanor A., bacterlologist . III-91 
Bliven, Bruce, editor, author . . . III-94 
Bloch, Claude Charles, U.S. 

naval officer UI-2 

Bluemel, Clifford, U.S. army offr. III- 28 
Blum, Leon, former premier of 

France III-75 

Blumer, Herbert G., psychologist . III-91 
Boal, Pierre de Lagarde, U. S. 

govt. official 111-75 

Boggs, S. Whittemore, geographer III- 28 

Bohrod, Aaron, artist III- 28 

Bolton, Guy, pla3n»rrlght III-75 

Bolton, Reginald P., engr III-75 

Bonesteel, C.H.,U.S. army officer. III-3 
Bonnet, Harriet H., author .... III-75 
Bormann, Martin L., Nazi govt. 

official "1-94 

Borovsky, Alexander K., pianist . III-75 

Borst, Beatrice, author 111-75 

Boschen, Frederick W., U. S. 

army officer III-94 

Böse, Subhas Chandra, politician 

of India "I-Ö^ 

Bostwick, Arthur E., llbrarlan . . III-75 
Boucher, Hiram A., U.S. fgn. 

Service III-29 

Boudin, Eleanor, sculptor III -75 

Bourne, Geoffrey, author III-52 

Bowler, Harold, artist III-75 

Bcnrron, Fletcher, mayor 111-3 

Boyce, Burke, writer III-75 

Boyce, Wm. H., ex-congressman . ni-52 
Boyden, Edward A., anatomist . . III-66 
Bradbrook, Muriel C, author . . III-75 
Braden, Spruille, U.S. govt. offl. . in-75 
Bradley, James L., U.S. army offr. III-28 
Brady, Austin C, U.S. consul . . . III-3 
Brant, Gerald C, U.S. army offr. . III-29 
Brauchitsch, H.A.H. Walther von, 

German army officer III-3 

Brecher, Samuel, artist III-75 

Breckinridge, James C, U. S. 

marine officer ni-75 

Brehm, George, artist III-52 

Brenner, Anita, author III -94 

Brett, George H., U.S. army offr. III -29 
Brewer, Earl LeRoy, ex-gov. . . . ni-94 
Brewster, Andre W., U.S. army offrIII-94 
Brewster, WUliam R., educator . . ni-75 
Brlcken, Carl E., musician .... III-94 
Briggs, Eins O., U.S. fgn. offr. . ni-29 
Briggs, J. Emmons, surgeon ... III -29 
Britt, Steuart H., psychologist . . III- 95 
Brodrick, James, clergyman . . . III- 29 

Brodsky, George, author III- 52 

Bromfield, Louis, author III- 52 

Brooke, Sir Charles Vyner, Rajah 

of Sarawak "^"^ 

Brooke- Popham, Sir Robert, Brit. 

army officer ^^^"'1 

Brookes, Jean Ingram, author . . . III -29 
Brooks, Howard L., clergyman . . ni-75 
Brougher, Wm.E., U.S. armyoffr. UI-29 
Brown, Benjamin C, artist .... III-52 

Brown, Dee, llbrarlan III-76 

Brown, Dugald E.S., scientist . . . III- 52 

Brown, Edwy R., corp exec III -52 

Brown, Gertrude G.,water-coloristin-29 
Brown, John M., author, critlc . . .in-95 

Brown, Marel, writer HI -29 

Brown, Robert C, author HI -95 

Brown, Rose, author Vt^iii 

Bruch, Hilde, physiclan "r oa 

Bryan, Robert C, surgeon .... III-Z9 
Bryson, John G., Jr., author .... 111-76 
Bück, Pearl, author "I"»^ 



Buckner, Simon B., Jr. U.S. 

army officer III-29 

Bulliet, Clarence J., critlc .... III- 29 
Bullitt, William C, U.S. fgn. 

Service officer III- 29 

Burebett, Wilfred G., author . . . III-95 
Bnrchfield, Albert H., merchant . . III-76 
Burgin, Henry T., U.S. army offr. 10-29 
Bums, James H.,U.S. army offr. . III- 95 

Busch, Fritz, conductor 111-29 

Byoir, Carl, pub. relations counsel HI- 95 

Cabot, Philip, univ. prof in-29 

Caffrey, Jefferson, U.S. am- 

bassador ^-^ 

Caldecott, Sir Andrew, gov. of 

Ceylon .^ . . . . III-3 

Calder6o Ouardla, Rafael Angel, 

President of Costa Rica III-52 

Caldwell, Erskine, writer III-76 

Camacho, Manuel Avila, Pres, of 

Mexico in-3 

Campbell, Dan H., immunologist . HI- 95 
Campbell, Edna Fay, author . . . .111-52 
Cannon, LeGrand, Jr., author . . . III-95 
Cantilo, Jose Maria, Argentine 

diplomat IU-4 

Cantor, Nathaniel, sociologlst . . .111-91 
Caperton, Wm.B.,U.S. naval offr. . III-29 
Cardenas, Lazaro, ex- President 

Mexico "I-^ 

Carey, Harry, actor III- 29 

Carlas Andino, Tiburcio, 

President Honduras IH-^ 

Carlisle, Donald T., cartoonist . . ni-76 

Carpenter, Bruce, writer III-29 

Carr, Philip V.C, Journalist . . . IU-29 
Carter, Wm. H., Jr., newspaperman . m-95 
Cassidy, Claudia, music editor . . jn-29 

Castiglioni, Arhiro, prof III-43 

Castillo, Ramon S., acting Pres. 

Argentina UI-4 

Catledge, Wm. T., newspaperman . III-29 
Cavallero, Count Ugo, Italian 

army officer ni-4 

Chagall, Marc, arUst m-30 

Chalmers, Frederick R., ad- 

mlnstr. Nauru, Central Pacific . . ni-5 
Chambers, Dana (pseudonym); see 

Leffingwell, Albert in-76 

Chaney, James E., U.S. army offr. 111-52 

Charlot, Jean, artist III- 52 

Chaae, Florence Meier (Mrs.) 

plant Physiologist III-91 

Chaae, Gilbert, music critlc . . . .111-30 
Chaae, Mary Ellen, author .... III- 52 

Chavez, Carlos, musician III-95 

Chen Cheng, Chinese army offr. . III-95 
Chennault, C. L.,U.S. army offr. . m-52 

eherne, Leo M., author III-76 

Chevalier, Elizabeth P., scenarist. m-30 
Chiang Kai-ahek, generalissimo 

of Chinese forces III-5 

Chlckerlng, William H., author . . III-76 

Child, Nellise, author III -30 

Childs, Harwood L., author .... ni-95 
Childs, Marquis W., author ... .111-76 
Chute, Mary Grace, writer .... III-76 
Chu Teh, Chinese army officer . . UI-95 
Clane, Count Galeazzo, Italian 

fgn. minister ni-5 

Cltron, Minna, artist III- 52 

ClageU, Henry B., U.S. air force 

officer in-30 

Ciaire, Marion, slnger IU-76 

Claney, Howard M., arUst m-76 



aapp, Sir Harold W., Australian 

govt. official in-5 

Clark, Thomas Blake, author . . . JII-76 
aarke, WUliam H.C., lawyer . . . IU-53 
Clement, Frederick W., physiclan . III-91 

Coffln, Robert P.T., poet UI-96 

Cohen, Bella; see Spewack, Bella . m-76 

Colby, Elbridge, author m-96 

Colby, Frances B., author III -96 

Cole, Frank R., entomologist . . . m-66 
Cole, Gordon E., advertising exec. III -53 
Coleman, Laurence Vail, author . .m-53 
Coningham, Arthur, Brit. air 

vice marshal III-5 

Cook, Thomas I., polit. scientist . m-91 
Cooper, Alfred Duff-, Brit. govt. 

official III-* 

Cooper, Gary, movie actor .... m-30 
Cooper, Louise Field, author . . . m-96 
CopenhaTer, Wilfred M., prof. . . m-91 
Comli^, Erastus, 2d, mayor ... m-53 
Comyn, John H., newspaperman . m-30 

Coaper, Lloyd C, author m-76 

Cotlow, Lewis N., explorer .... III-66 

Cotüer,Jo8epJ. , author m-96 

Cowden, Dudley J., economist . . . m-91 
Cowham, June Provines; see 

Provlnes, June m-76 

Cowles, Edward S., author .... m-30 
Coa, Herald R., bacterlologist . . m-30 
Cox, Raymond E., U.S. consul gen. m-5 
Craigle, Sir Robert (Leslie), Brit. 

ambassador to Japan in-5 

Cranborne, Lord (Robert Arthur 

James C.),Brit. govt. offl m-76 

Crandall, Bradshaw, artist .... m-30 
Crawford, Cheryl, producer . . . m-76 
Gripps, Sir Stafford, Brit. lord . . m-53 

Crias, Mildred, author m-30 

Crowell, ehester T., writer . . . .m-30 

Cuff, Samuel H., writer m-76 

Cuming, Beatrice, artist m-76 

Cunningbam, Lt. Gen. Alan G., 

Brit. army officer III-6 

Cunningham, J.H., U.S. army offr. ni-30 
Cortln, John, premier of Australia . III- 6 
Curtls, Heber D., astronomer . . . m-30 

Curtla, Leland, artist m-53 

Cutter, William D., educator ... m-53 

Dabney, Virglnius, editor m-96 

Dahnke, Marye, home econ. dir. . m-53 
Dalton, Hugh, Brit. govt. offl. ... m-96 
Damonte Taborda, Raul, Argentine 

poliUcan Ul-bZ 

Daniel, Hawthorne, author .... m-76 

Daniel, Lewis C, artist m-30 

Danla, Anthony L.,U.S. naval offr. . m-76 

Dark, Eleanor, author m-76 

Darlan, Jean Francols, French 

(Vichy) vice premier III-6 

Davles, Raymond A., Journalist . . m-77 
Davin, Tom, editor, author .... m-77 
Davia, Boothe C, educator .... m-53 

DaTla, Fitzroy, author m-30 

Davia, Forrest, author III- 30 

Davis, Julia (M.), author m-96 

Davis, Phil, arUst, deslgner . . . .m-53 

Davis, Shelby C, author UI-53 

Davis, Wm. H., U.S. govt. offl. . . m-30 
Davison, Charles, surgeon .... HI- 63 
Dawson, Alden B., biologlst .... m-43 
Deal, Joseph T., ex-congressman . m-77 
Dean, Vera Micheles, reaearcher . m-30 

Dean, Sldney W., author ni-96 

de Brlnoa, Count Fernand, French 

(Vichy) envoy to Paris & Germana . m-6 




• 



^ 



May 1942 



Cumulative Index— 3 





DeCott, Branson, lecturer III-31 

d« Forest, Lee, author III- 53 

D«G«rl«, Charles F., physician . . in-66 
de Qwille, Charles, leader Free 

French forces III-6 

Dsgen, Ida Day, sculptor HI- 96 

I>6c«iihard, William, author .... 10-96 
Dehn, Adolf, water colorist . . . . III- 31 
DeLee, Joseph Bolivar, obstet. . . in-96 
Delehanty, Elisabeth; see O'Connor, 

Elisabeth Delehanty 111-83 

D«ming, Dorothy, author III-31 

Denby, Howard, newspaperedltor . III-77 
DeRouen, Rene L., congressman . III- 96 
deRoussy de Sales, Raoul, author . in -77 
Dery, Desiderius C, silk mfr. . . m-77 
de Sousa CosU, Arthur, Brasillan 

govt. dflclal III-53 

Deuel, Wallace R., author HI- 53 

De Witt, John L., U.S. army offr. . m-6 
DeWitt, Josephine, arüst, writer . .111-96 
Diamond, David L., composer . . .111-96 
Dlat, Louis (Felix), hotel chef . . . in-31 

DickBon, Cecll B., corr III-77 

Dill, Sir John, Brlt. army offlcer . in-53 
Doenlta, Karl, Germannavaloffr. . III- 53 
Doherty, Edward J., editorial 

writer III-53 

Doihara,Kenji, Japanese chlef of 

air forces 111-7 

Doman, Nicholas, prof., author . . III-96 
Donaldson, John M., architect . . . in-31 

Donato, Louis, arüst III-53 

Donovan, Howard, U.S. consul ... III -7 
Donovan, Gel. Wm. J., U.S. govt. 

offlcial m-7 

Dorman-Smith, Reginald Hugh, 

gov. Burma III-7 

Dorsey, Florence L., author . . . .111-31 
Douglas, Bruce (pseudonym); see 

Douglas, Theodore W III -53 

Douglas, Frederic H., anthro- 

pologist 111-66 

Douglas, Theodore W., author . . . ni-54 

Downey, Fairfax, author IQ- 31 

Downs, Cornelia M.,bacteriologist. 111-91 
Drake, Chas. C, U.S. army offr. . III-31 
Drakeford, Arthur, Australlan 

govt. officlal III-54 

Dreher, Carl, author III-77 

Drum, Hugh A., U.S. army offlcer. III-7 

Dollng, John F., geologist III-91 

do ICaurier, Daphne, author .... III -54 
Duncan, Sir Andrew, Brit. govt. 

offlcial m-54 

Dunham, Katherine, dancer .... III-54 
Dünn, Matthew A., ex-congress- 

man 111-77 

Donnlngtoo, Lewis L., clergyman . III- 77 
Durfee, William P., coli, dean . . in-31 

Dustin, Agnes B., author III-77 

Dyer, John P., author III-31 

Dyer, Nancy A., artist, lecturer . . III-77 



Eastman, Jos. B., U.S. govt. offl. . in-31 

Eaton, John W., unlv. prof III-77 

Eberhart, Richard, poet 111-96 

Eberle, Abastenla St. Leger, 

sculptor III-77 

Eberstadt, Ferdinand, Invest- 
ments III-77 

Eden, Anthony, Brit. govt. offl. . . III-77 
Edgerton, den E., gov. Panama 

Canal in-31 

Edmunds, Albert J., librarian . . . III-31 

Egri, Lajos N., dramatlst III-77 

Eilshemins, Louis M., artist . . . UI-31 



El8enlwwer,D.D.,U.S.army offr. ... in-77 
Elklns, Frank, newspaperman . . III-91 

Elwell, Herbert, composer III-96 

Emblck, Stanley D., U.S. army 

offlcer III-31 

Emmons, Delos C, U.S. army offr. III -7 
Emrys-Evans, Paul V., Brlt. 

govt. officlal III-77 

Engel, A. Lehman, composer . . . III-97 

Epstein, Samuel, writer III -77 

Essary, Jesse F., newspaperman . III-97 
Essex, Hlram E., physlologlst . . III -67 

Etnler, Stephen, artist III -54 

Eubank, Eugene L., U.S. army offr. III-97 
Eurlch, Alvin C, psychologist . . III -67 
Evatt, Herbert V., Australlan 

govt. officlal ni-77 

Farago, Ladislas, writer III-78 

Farley, Jas. A., U.S. govt. offl. . . III-31 

Fast, Howard, author in -97 

Faulkner, William, author III-54 

Favllle, Katherine, dir. nursing 

Service . . . ^ III-54 

Fedorova, Nina, author ni-97 

FeUows, George E., luüv. prof. . . III-54 
Fenner, Phyllls Reld, librarian . . ni-54 

Ferguson, Erna, author in-78 

Fernande*- Artucio, Hugo, prof. . III -97 
Fiedler, Reglnald H., govt. offl. . in-54 

Field, Medora, author in-78 

Fleld, Rachel, author III- 97 

Field, Robert D., writer ni-31 

Flnkelstein, J.Joe, anthropologist .lU-lll 
Flrestone, Clark B., author .... III-31 
Fisher, George J.B., govt. offl. . . III -54 

Fisher, M.F.K., writer III-31 

Flske, Bradley A., U.S. navaloffr. in-97 

Flske, Charles, blshop in -54 

Flannery, Vaughn, painter .... III-97 
Fleek, John S., Investment banker . III -54 

Flelsher, Wllfrld, author III -78 

Fleury, Barbara F., librarian . . . III-97 

Fllnt, Margaret, author III -78 

FUnt, Wesley P., entomologlst . . ni-91 
Foote, Walter A., U.S. consul gen. . III-7 
Forbes, W.T.M., entomologlst . . ni-91 
Ford, John, movie director .... in-31 
Forde, Francis M., Australlan 

govt. offlcial in-97 

Foreman, Grant, author III -97 

Forester, CS., author III-78 

Fortune, William, corp. exec. . . m-54 
Foscue, Edwin J., geographer . . . III- 91 

Foster, Joseph O., author III-78 

Foster, Paul D., physician .... in-67 
Foster, Marcellus E., editor . . . III-97 

Fox, Herbert, pathologlst in-78 

France, Harry C, financial writer. III-97 
Franco Bahamonde, Francisco, 

dictator of Spain in-31 

Fraaer, Peter, prlme minister 

New Zealand III-7 

Fredenthal, David, artist HI- 54 

Freedley, George, librarian .... III-91 
Freeman, Charles S., U.S. naval 

offlcer in-7 

French, Herbert E., author .... III-78 

Freund, Philip, author in-78 

Frick, William J., surgeon III-97 

Friedlander, Frieda R., artist . . in-55 
Friedman, W.F., cryptologist . . . in-31 

Frost, Robert, poet III-78 

Frost, Wesley, U.S. ambassador . 111-78 
Fulmer, Silas C, physician . . . III-ll? 
Furniss, Henry D., physician . . . 111-55 
Fyfe, David P.M., solicltor gen. . in-78 



Gandhi, Mohandas Karamchand, 

Hindu religious and social leader .111-97 
Galarsa, Ernesto, economlst . . . III-91 
Galtsoff, Paul S., zoologist .... HI- 67 
Gamelln, Maurice -Gustave, former 

generalissimo of Allled Forces . III- 78 
Garnett, David, Brit. author. . . . III-31 
Garrett, Garet, writer ..*.... III-97 
Gasser, L.D., U.S. army offr. . . . 10-31 
Gauss, Clarence E., U. S. am- 
bassador to China III -7 

Gayda, Virginio, Itallan editor . . . III -7 
Gelber, Lionel (Morris), author . . III-32 
Geoffrey, Theodate, writer .... in -44 
Gerbrandy, Pieter S., premler 

Netherlands govt. in exile .... III-78 
Germann, Frank E. E., prof. . . . in-44 
Gervasl, Frank (H.), fgn. corr. . . III -97 

Gessler, Clifford, author III-32 

Geyer, Harold C, author III-97 

GlaneUa, Vincent P., geologist . . III -44 

Gibbons, Stella, author HI -54 

Giddings, Thaddeus P., music 

Supervisor III-98 

Glfford, Robert L., cons. engr. . . III -44 
GllflUan, S. Colum, sociologist . . in-44 
GUI, Frederick C, Brit. clergy- 
man in-78 

GiU, Wm. H., U. S. army offr. . . ni-55 
Gillespie, Robert D., psychlatrist . III- 98 
GlUet, Joseph E., prof. Spanish . . III -44 
Gilmour, Margaret, author .... III-32 

Ginsberg, Eli, economlst UI-98 

Ginsburgfa, A. Robert, U.S. army 

offlcer in-98 

Gisborne, Harry T., forester . . . III-67 
Glass, James M., educator .... III-44 
Glassford, William A.,II, U.S. 

naval offlcer III- 55 

Glenn, Leonidas C, geologist . . . III -44 

Glenn, Mabelle, musiclan III-44 

Godard, Mary, artist III-55 

Codfrey, Albert E., Canadian air 

Service comdr III-7 

Godfrey, James L., prof III-32 

Cfoebbels, Paul Joseph, Nazi 

minister of Propaganda III- 8 

Goerlng, Hermann, Nazi offl III-8 

Gogarty, Oliver St. John, author . . III- 55 
Goldman, Hetty, archaeologist . . 111-44 

Ciolubov, Maurice, artist III-78 

Cionzales, Irma, soprano III- 55 

Gooden, Arthur H., author III- 55 

(jordon, Caroline, author 111-32 

Gordon, Paul H., manufacturer . III-ll 2 

Gordon, William, lawyer III- 55 

Gore, Herbert C, chemlst .... III-44 
(}orman, James E., ry. pres. . . . III-98 
Gould, Charles N., geologist . . . 111-44 
Grady, Henry F., head U.S. War 

Mission to China III-78 

Graf, Herbert, stage dir III-98 

Graham, Frank D., economlst . . . III-98 
Grant, Joseph D., merchant .... UI-79 
Gras, Norman S.B., coli. prof. . . III-44 
Grattan, C. Hartley, aathor .... ni-79 
Gravatt, William Loyall, bishop . HI -79 

Graves, Blbb, ex-gov III-98 

Graves, William W., physician . . 01-45 

Gray, George W., author 10-55 

Gray, Henry David, author .... 10-3.? 

Green, Alan B., author 10-98 

Green, Joseph A., U.S. army offr. 10-32 
Greenslade, John W., U.S. naval 

offlcer 01-8 

Greenwood, Arthur, Brlt. govt. 
officlal ni-79 



\ \ 



Uik. 



4— Cumulative Index 



•s 



Serie« III, No. 5 



j 



Gregory, Col. Wm.E., supt. 

Culver Military Academy . . . . HI- 98 
Grenfell, Russell, off. Brit. navy . III- 32 
Crew, Joseph C, U.S. ambassador . III-8 

Grlffls, Elliot, composer III-98 

GriflK» Sir (Percy) James, Brit. 

govt. official III-79 

Gross, Milt, artist III-98 

Grover, Beatrice B., Illustrator . III-98 
Grueninf, Ernest, gov. Alaska . . . III -8 
Guanl, Alberto, Uruguayan govt. 

official III-79 

Guedalla, Philip, Brit. author . . .111-79 
Günther, Franklin Mott, diplomatic 

officer III-32 

Ootbeim, Frederick A., writer . . III-32 
Guthrie, Robert R., merchant . . . III-98 
Gayton, Boone T., aviator, author . III- 55 
OwattEin, Frederick, Brit. army 

officer III-8 

Gvenn, Edmund, Brit. actor .... III-32 



Hack, Morton, U.S. army officer . III-79 

Haekett, Charles, tenor III-32 

Hackney, Louise W., orientallst . III- 112 

Baden, Beatrice S., artist III-79 

Halifax, Vlscount, Brit. am- 
bassador to U. S III-8 

Hall, Norrls F., chemlst III-92 

Halpert, Edith G. (Mrs.),art. dir. III-112 
Halsey, Wm. F.,Jr.,U.S. navaloffr. UI-79 

Hamar, Irene, sculptor III-98 

Hamblen, Stewart B., writer . . . III-98 
Hamill, James A., ex-congressman III-32 

Hamilton, Edith, author III-79 

Hamilton, Edward P., publisher . . III -99 
Hamilton, W.J., Jr., zoologist . . . III-67 
Hamm, Beth C. (Mrs.), painter . . III-32 
Hampel, Elizabeth, author .... III-79 

Hanc, Josef, author III -99 

Hanley, James, novellst III-32 

Hanna, WlUard A., teacher, author. III-32 

Hannah, Evelyn I., writer III-79 

Hannah, John Alfred, coli. pres. . . III- 55 

Hanus, Paul H., univ. prof III- 3? 

Härder, Charles M., deslgner . . III-92 
Harding, Robert, Jr., englneer . . III-79 
Hardy, David P.,U.S. army offr. . in-55 

Hardy, William G., author m.99 

Harmon, Mlllard F., U.S. army 

officer III-55 

Harris, Arthur T., Brit. alr 

marshal III- 55 

Harris, Katherine, food economist . HI- 55 
Harrlson, Harold C, chemlst . . III-112 
Harrlson, Wm. H., raem. W.P.B. . III-32 

Hart, Alan L., physlcian III-99 

Hart, Albert G., economist . ... III-99 
Hart, Thos. C, U.S. naval offr. . . III-8 
Hartlgan, John J., clergyman . . . III-55 
HarUe, Russell P., U.S. army offr. III-56 
Harüey, Alan F., Brit. army offr. in-56 
Hai-tshorne, Edward Y., author . . III-56 
Harwood, Chas., gov. Virgin 

Islands III-8 

Hastlngs, John R., editor III-99 

Hata, Gen. Shunroku, comdr. in 

Chief, Jap. forces in China .... III- 99 
Hathaway, Cynthia, author .... III -32 
Hanck, Louise Platt, author .... III- 56 

Hauser, Heinrich, aythor III-79 ^ 

Hanshof er, Karl, Nazi prof HI -8 

Hawes, Elizabeth, author III-99 

Hawley, Lee F., chemlst III-112 

Hayden, Joseph R., author III-56 

Hayes, Carlton J.H., ambassador 

to Spain III-99 

Hsynes, Williams, author III-79 

Haystead, Ladd, author III-79 



Hayworth, Rita (real name Marga- 

rita C. Canslno), actress III-33 

Hsaly, George Wm., Jr., editor . . III-79 

Heath, Frank M., author III-79 

Heath, Louis M., Brit. navaloffr. . m-8 

Hellin, Alma G., aviator III- 99 

Hegner, Robert Wm., zoologist . . 111-99 

Heiden, Konrad, author III- 33 

Helfer, Walter, musiclan III- 99 

Helfrich, C.E.L., Dutch adAiral . in-79 
Hellman, Geoffrey T., writer . . . III-99 

Helseth, Henry E., author III-99 

Henderson, Kenneth A., mountain 

climber ni-80 

Henderson, Lawrence J., chemlst . III- 56 
Henderson, Leon, mem. W.P.B. . . III-33 
Henry, Gene ( Pseudonym); see 

Sheldon, Jean Pendieton III -99 

Hepbura, Arthur J., U.S. naval 

officer in-8 

Hepner, Harry W., psychologist . . III-67 
Hemaadez Martlnez, Gen. Maxi- 

milllano, Pres. El Salvador . . . III-8 
Hero, Andrew, Jr., U.S. army offr. .111-56 
Herrera, Luis Alberto de, 

Uruguayan polltlcian 111-80 

Her ring, (Edward) Pendieton, 

teacher, author III-33 

Hershey, Lewis B., U. S. army 

officer III-56 

Hess, Walther Richard Rudolph, 

forraer Nazi official III-9 

Hewes, Agnes D., author III-33 

Hewes, Margaret (Mrs. Ambrose 

T. Gosling), playwrlght III -99 

Heyllger, William, author III-99 

Hlbbard, Hall L., englneer .... III-56 

Hlbbs, Ben, editor III-99 

Hickerson, Clyde V., clergyman . in-80 

Hlle, Henry L, surgeon III- 56 

Hill, Helen, author III-33 

Hillary, Richard, author III -56 

Hillman, Sldney, raem. W.P.B. . . III-33 
Himmler, Heinrich, chlef German 

Gestapo III-33 

Hinchman, Walter S., author ... III -33 

Hindus, Maurice, author III- 56 

Hiner, L.D., pharmacognocist . . III-ll? 
Hlnman, Dale D., U.S. army offr. . III-56 
Hinton, Harold B., author,editor . . III -56 
Hirons, Frederic C, archltect . . ni-56 
Hirsch, Isaac S., X-ray expert . . III-99 
Hiss, Philip H., photographer . . . III-33 
Hitchcock, Henry-Russell, educator III-80 
Hodges, Courtney H., U.S. army 

officer ni-33 

Hofmann, Jeane (Margaret Jeane- 
Marie H.), Sports reporter . . . III-99 

Hogue, Alexandre, artist III- 100 

Holcomb, Thos., U.S. Marine offr. III-9 

Holden, Paul E., unlv. prof III- 56 

Holdridge, Elizabeth, author . . . III-80 
Hollander, Lester, physlcian . . .111-112 
Hollls, Chrlstophcr, Brit. author . ni-33 
Holmboe, Frlthjof, botanlst . . . . III -67 

Holt, Isabella, author III-80 

Hoover, Herbert, ex- Pres. U.S. . III- 33 
Hopkins, Harry, mem. W,P.B. . . III-33 
Hörn, Paul V., cons. fgn. trade . . III -92 
Hom, Thoraas S., U.S. consul . . . III-9 
Horney, Karen, psychiatrlst ... UI-80 

Honritz, Leo, geochemist III-92 

Howard, Charles G., lawyer . . . III-112 

Howe, Gertrude H., arUst III -33 

Ho Ying-Chin, Chinese war 

minister III- 100 

Hslung Shi-Hui, Chinese govt. off l.IU- 100 
Hubbard, Elizabeth V., educator . III-80 
Hubbard, Luden, writer, producer.lll- 100 
Hughes, Charles Evans, ex-chlef 
Justice Supreme Court III- 33 



Haches, W.M., Australian govt. 

official m-9 

Hughes, Langston, poet III -80 

Hughes, William M., Australian 

minister of Navy III-9 

Hole, William B., author III-80 

Hüll, Cordeil, U.S. sec. of SUte . . m-9 

Hüll, Roger B., lawyer ni-56 

Humphries, George R., educator . III-80 
Hungerford, Herbert B., prof. . . . III-92 

Hurst, Fpnnie, author III-33 

Hurst, Vida, author HI- 100 

Huseini, Ha] Amin Effendi El, 

Arab statesman III -33 

Hn Shlh, Chinese ambassador to 

U.S III-9 

Hussey, Ruth, actress HI- 100 

Hatcheson, Ernest, musiclan . . .lU-lOO 
Hutchins, John G.B., economist . . III-33 
Hutton, Thos. J., Brit. army offr. . III -56 
Hylander, Clarence John, biologlst. III -34 

Ib^es del Campe, Carlos, Chilean 

polltlcan UI-56 

lida, ShoJiro, Jap. army officer . . III -80 
Infeld, Leopold, physicist, author . III -80 

Ingersoll, Ralph, author III -56 

Imrsoll, Royal E., U.S. navaloffr. III-34 
InSnu, Ismet, President Turkey . . in-9 
Irwin, Malcolm R., physlologlst . . III-67 
Ishii, Ko, Japanese statesman . . . III-9 
Itagakl, Selshlro, Japanese general .111-80 
Ittner, Martin H., chemlst m-81 

Jackson, Glles (pseudonym); see 

Lefflngwell, Albert ni-81 

Jacob, Naomi, novellst III -34 

James, Preston E., geographer . . III-IOO 
James, Will, artist, author .... IH- 100 

Janls, Sidney, art crltlc III- 100 

Jaynes, Cläre (pseudonym); see 
Spiegel, Clara G., & Mayer, Jane IH-IOO 

Jefferson, Howard B., prof III -34 

Jenklas, W. S., artist III-34 

Jinnah, Mohammed Ali, pres. All- 

Indla Moslem League III- 100 

Johl, Janet P., author III-34 

Johns, Bessie W., teacher III-81 

Johnson, Edith C, coli. prof. . . . IU-81 
Johnson, Frank H., bacterlologist .UI-56 
Johnson, Gerald W., author .... III-34 

Johnson, Helen L, writer III- 100 

Johnson, Gen. Hugh S., columnist 

and former head N.R.A lU-lOO 

Johnson, Loren B.T., psychiatrlst . 111-34 
Johnson, Louis A.,U.S. govt. offl. .111-100 
Johnson, Margaret S., writer . . . IU-100 
Johnson, Nelson T., U.S. minister . m-9 
Johnson, Tom L., mural painter . . III-34 
Johnstone, William C, author . . . UI-81 
Jonassoll, Hermann, premier Ice- 
land iii_9 

Jones, Albert M., U.S. army ofir. . III-34 
Jones, Harry S.V., univ. prof. . . . III-34 

Jones, Jesse, mem. W.P.B in-34 

Jones, Thomas H., U.S. army offr. III- 34 
Jones, Volney H., ethnologlst . . . III-92 

Jordan, Emil, author III-57 

Jordanoff, Assen, author in-57 

Jowltt, Sir William Allen, Brit. 

govt. official ni-81 

Jules, Mervin, arUst m-34 



Kadner, Carl G., biologlst .... III-92 
Kaldls, Arlstodlraos, artist .... m-57 
KaUay (de Nagy Kallo), Nicolas, 

Hungarlan premier IIJ-lOl 

Kane, Harnett T., newspaperman . III-34 
Kanzler. Ernest C, mem. W.P.B. UI-34 



• 




'^"f^ 




May 1942 



Cumulative Index — 5 



• 



/ 



(I 



Kapell, William, planist III-lOl 

Kiiki, Betty, artist III -57 

Kato, Sotomatsu, Jap. ambassador . III -9 
Kauf f mann, Stanley, writer .... III- 34 
Kaufman, Schlma, musiclan . . . III-57 
Kaulman, Wolfe, drama critlc . . III-57 
Knwai, TatBuo, Japanese minister 

to Australla III-IO 

Kean, Hamilton Fish, ex-Senator . III- 34 
Keitel, Gen. Wilhelm, German 

army officer III- 10 

Kelthley, Maud M.(Mrs.), writer . III -34 
Kelland, Clarence Budington, Pub- 
licity dir., Rep. Nat. Com III-34 

Kelley, Douglas M., psychlatrlst . III-34 
Kelly, Wallace McElroy, author . . ni-35 
Kennan, Kent W., composer . . . . IQ- 101 
Kennerly, Byron F., flying Instr. .111-101 
Kent, Sidney R., pres. 20th 

Century-Fox .ni-101 

Keppel, Harold, artist UI-57 

Kerner, Robert J., author III-lOl 

Kesselrinf, Albert, German air 

force officer in-57 

Keyes, Frances P., author .... III -81 
Klelstra, Johannes C, gov. Dutch 

Gulana (Surinam) HI- 10 

KlWert (Benjamin Sayre) Cory 

artist III-81 

Klmball, George C, steel mfr. . . III-57 
Kimmel, Husband E., U.S. naval 

officer III-IO 

King, Dorothy N. (Mrs. James 

Werblow), author in-35 

King, Edward Posteil, Jr., U.S. 

army officer 111-35 

Kii«, Ernest J., U.S. naval offr. . . IU-35 

Kingman, Eugene, artist in-112 

Kiplinger, W. M., puthor lU-Bl 

Kirchwey, George W., lawyer . . . lU-Bl 
Kirk, Grayson L., prof., author . . III- 35 
Kirkpatrlck, Ralph, harpslchordist III-Bl 
Kisch, Egon E., reporter, author . III -57 

Kiser, Samuel E., author III- 57 

Klss, Joseph A., author III-lOl 

Klem, Grace, author, Illustrator . III-35 
Knlckert>ocker, H.R., newspaper- 

man in-35 

Knlght, Eric, author HI-Bl 

Knlght, Ralph T., anesthetlst ... III -92 
Knowlson, J.S., mem. W.P.B. . . . III-35 
Knox, Frank., U.S. sec. of Navy . m-35 
Knudsen, William S., dir. W.P.B. . UI-35 

Kobak, Edgar, radio exec III-35 

Kobayashi, Seizo, gov.-gen. 

Taiwan "^-^^ 

Koenigsberg, Moses, founder news 

syndicate, author III-lOl 

Koeves, Tibor, author III- 35 

Koga, Minelchi, Jap. naval offr. . . III-IO 
Kolachov, Paul J., scientist . . . .111-101 
Kolbe, Parke R., coli. pres. . . . IIl-Bl 
Kondo, Nobutake, Jap. naval offr. . III-IO 
Koneff, Ivan S., Russian army offr. in-101 
Konoye, Prince Fuminaro, ex- 

premier Japan III-IO 

Koo, Dr. Vi Kyuin Wellington, 

Chinese ambassador to England. III- 11 

Kopac, M.J., biologist 111-67 

Koyre, Alexandre, prof III-lOl 

Kreider, Carl, educator .111-101 

KroneiAerger, Louis, author . . . III -81 
Krsesinskl, Andrew J., prof. . . . HI- 81 

Kubik, Gail T., composer in-101 

Kung, Dr. H.H., v.p. China VL\-U 

Kuo, Helena (Gln-Chiu), author . . ni-»i 
Kurusu, Saburo, Jap. diplomat . . . III- 11 

Ladd, Maynard, oediatrician . . III-lOl 
La Guardia, Fiorello H., mayor . .111-11 



Laliey, Edwin A., columnlst .... III- 81 
Lamb, Charles R., archltect . . . III-Bl 
Lambert, Clara, writer III-Bl 

Lambert, Samuel W., physiclan . . 10-57 

LaMore, Chet, artist ni-35 

Lamotte, Bernard, artist DI- 57 

Land, Emory S., U.S. govt. offl. . HI- 11 
Landis, James M., law dean, govt. 

offlcial III-35 

Landry, Robert J., editor, crlUc . III-Bl 
Landsberg, Helmut, geophysicist . ni-92 
Lane, Arthur B., U.S. ambassador. Ul-Bl 
Lane, Wheaton J., historlan .... UI-Bl 
Lange, Otto F., U.S. army officer . III-57 
Langham, James R., writer .... m-81 
Lanka, Herbert C, teacher .... UI-Bl 
Larmon, Sigurd S., advt. exec. . . III-57 
Larrlmore, Lida (Lida Larri- 

more Thomas), author III-35 

La Rue, George R., biologist . . . III-92 
Latham, Natalie W., war worker . m-lOl 

Lauferty, Lilian, author III-lOl 

Lauterbach, Albert T., educator . III- 101 
Laral, Pierre, French (Vichy) 

statesman III-102 

Lawrence, Henry W., coli. prof. . III-57 

Lawrence, Jacob A., artist III-35 

Lawther, William, Brlt. labor 

officlal in-35 

Layton, Sir Geoffrey, Brlt. naval 

officer m-11 

Leahy, Wm. D., U.S. ambassador . III- 11 
Leary, H.F., U.S. naval offr. . . . III-57 
Leatbera, Freder Ick J.; see 

Leathers of Purfleet, Baron . . . III- 57 
Leathers of Purfleet, Baron, Brlt. 

govt. offlcial UI-57 

Lee, Dwlght E., unlv. prof III-B2 

Leeming, Joseph, writer III- 35 

LeffingweU, Albert, author .... IU-B2 
Lefft, Harold H., X-ray speclallst, m-57 
LeMaltre, Georges, professor . . III-35 

Levln, Abraham, artist III- 35 

Lerlnson, Abraham F., artist . . . III-B2 
Lewis, Esslngton, Australian 

govt. offlcial ni-11 

Lewis, Herbert C, author in-82 

Lewis, Lloyd, author UI-102 

Lewisohn, Ludwig, author III -58 

Leyburn, James G., soclologist . . III-82 

Liebling, A.J., writer UI-58 

Limbach, Russell T., artist, author III-35 
Llndahl, Martin L., econoralst . . III-92 
Lindbergh, Charles A., aviation 

expert "1-102 

Lindquist, H.L., Philatelist .... ni-67 
Lindaay, Maxwell H.A., elec.engr. m-58 
Linlithgow, 2d Marquess of (Victor 

Alexander John Hope), viceroy 

India ^^^'^J 

Lipman, Jean H., editor 01-102 

Litten, Frederic N., engineer . . . III-36 
Lltüe, Chas. J.C, Brlt. naval offr. in-58 

Litüe, Philip, artist IU-102 

LitTlnov, Maxim (. J name, 
Moysheev Vallakh), Russian am- 
bassador to U.S III-12 

LleweUin, John J., pres. Brlt. Bd. 

Trade ^"-JJ 

LobeU, Milton J., biologist .... IU-58 
Lockwood, K.F., newspaperman . III-45 
Lockwood, Myna, artist, writer . . III-36 

Lofberg, Lila, author III-36 

Lohrke, Eugene W., author .... III- 36 

Lombard, Carole, actress HI- 58 

Lombard, Helen, author III- 36 

Long, Boaz, U.S. ambassador . . . III- 82 
Longlno, Andrew H., ex-gov. . . . III-B2 
Loomis, H.F., U.S. army officer . III-58 
Lorant, Stefan, author 111-58 



Lord, F. Townley, author, clergy- 

man III-82 

Louderback, Harold, Judge III-36 

Loudon, Dr. A., minister from 

Netherlands to U.S m-lQ2 

Lowenstein, Solomon, social 

worker III-5B 

Lowrey, Janette S., author in-102 

Luke, Sir Harry (Charles), Brlt. 

govt. officlal ni-12 

Lutea, LeRoy, U.S. army officer . HI- 58 
Luyet, Basile J., biologist, prof. . HI- 67 



Mabon, Mary Frost, writer .... III- 82 
MacArthur, Douglas, U.S. army 

officer in-12 

MacCormac, John, author III -82 

MacCnrdy, Hattle, arUst HI- 58 

ICacDonald, Jeanette, soprano . . . III-36 
Maclanea, Helen (Mrs. Gilbert 

Hlghet), author in-36 

Mack, William, editor Hl -36 

Mackay, Iven Giffard, Australian 

army officer III- 13 

MacKeachle, Douglas C, mem. War 

Prodn. Bd III-36 

MacLean, John A.Jr., neurosurgeonIII-102 
MacmiUan, Harold, Brlt. polit. . . III- 58 
liacMlnn, George R., educator . . III-36 
MacPherson, Marie M, painter . . IU-36 
Maganini, Quinto, composer . . . ,111-102 
liahln, Frank C.,U.S. army offr. . III-5B 

Mahler, Rebecca, artist HI- 102 

Mallett, Wilbert Grant, educator . III- 58 
Maluf, N.S. Rustum, physlologist . III-68 
Mann, Horace L., pub. Utilities 

exec in-5B 

Mannerhelm, Baron Carl Gustav 

Emil, Finnlsh army officer . . . III-13 
Marder, Arthur P., historlan . . . III-92 

Markan, Maria, slnger III -36 

Markwardt, L. Joseph, engr III-92 

Marqoand, John P., author III-82 

Marshall, Gen. George C, Chief 

of staff, U.S. Army HI- 13 

Marsland, Douglas A., prof in-82 

Marün, F. L., U.S. army officer . .111-58 
Mason, F. Van Wyck, author . . . III-82 
Matsuoka, Yosuke, ex-foreign 

minister Japan III- 13 

Matthews, Blayney F., director 

personnel III- 102 

Maurer, Irving, coli, pres III-B2 

Maurois, Andre, author III-82 

May, Stacy, mem. W.P.B in-36 

May, Stella (Mrs. Earl C. May), 

writer "1-36 

Mayer, Albert I., Jr., author . . . m-102 

Mayer, Jane R., author III-102 

McBride, Katharlne E., coli. pres. m-36 
McBride, Mary M., radio Speaker, 

author III-B2 

McCorquodale, Malcolm S., Brlt. 

govt. offlcial UI-102 

McCrea, John L., U.S. naval offr. . III- 58 
McCue, Charles A., educator . . . ni-59 
McCune, George S., educator . . . IU-36 
McDonald, Angus H., soll con- 

servationist ni-36 

McDonald, Jesse F., ex-gov. Colo. ni-82 
McEwen, John, Australian air 

forces minister in-13 

McGrath, Dan, writer UI-36 

McGuire, Dominic P., corr III-82 

Mcindoo, Norman E . , entomologlst. IU-6B 
Mdntlre, Mrs. Glenn, author . . . JII-36 
McKay, George F., composer . . .111-102 
McKee, Samuel, Jr., historlan . . . ni-92 
McMeekin, Clark (co-pseudonym), 

author I"-82 



i i 



« 



i 



6— Cumulative Index 



Serie« III, No, 5 



T 



mliUBtrator New Guinea . . m n 

Mc».tt, P.„i V., U.S. govt öm.' ■ m ig 

»««"»• Aru-lU, Gen. Isai» '"'" 

President VenenieU .... j,, ,4 

govt. officlal „. ,- 

Menken, Arthur von Erlesen 

news photographer . . . ' itt 07 

MenotU. Gian Carlo, composi; .' .m-ioi 
Merrlam, Carroll B., banker m 37 

Merrlck, Elllott. teacher, wrltir* .* Tu-ll 

Miil^J^illh"^ J.homeeconomlst. m.83 
Messeramlth, George S., u. S 

ambassador * ' jjj 3^ 

uUrl' ^*".T'' "•^- *^"y °^'-- • -'111-59 

U !I • ^"f^ ^" *""»°''' *^to' •• . in-83 
Mlfnone, Francisco, Braxillan 
composer j^ ^^ 

MlhaUovltch, Dragolub (-Draja*) 
Jugo-Slav army offlcer .' IU-103 

Uml ' S'^^y J"<»*^. biShop .... m- 83 
MUler, Henry, author ... jjj g« 

MiUer, Lehman W., U.S. mllltiu^y' 
»stäche jy 3 

MUler, Robert C, blologlst . . *. * m.oo 

Mitchell, Charles B., bishop . . . iii.83 

Ui* w*I!' «*** ^°"*®®' *"^*'0'' • • • "1-83 
Mitchell, Susanna V., author . . . in- 103 
Mlxwa, Stephen P., exec. dir. 

Kosciusrko Foundation . m 33 

Moffat, (Jay) Pierrepont, U.S ' ' 

minister to Canada . . . . ' m 14 

Mohaupt, Richard E.E.,*coiiiposer III-103 
Molotov, Vyacheslav, Russlan 

forelgn minister III- 14 

Montgomery, Bernard L., Brlt. 

army offlcer III-37 

MonülU, Gll, Speaker of Assembly 

of Philippines III-14 

Mooney, James D., U.S. naval offl . ' mls? 
Moore, George F., U.S. army offr. IH-SQ 
Moore, Ward, wrlter .... III- 103 

Moore, William E., edltor . . .' ' in.37 
Moore-Brabason, John T.C., Brlt. 

govt. officlal lu 83 

Morris, Ira N., dJplomat . .*.*." * in.59 
Morton, H.V., Brlt. wrlter ... * IU-103 

MoschowlU, Paul, artlst ni-37 

M088, Sanford A., aviatlon engr. . ni-37 
Mower, Charles D., naval 

architect ni-59 

Moyne, Lord Walter Edward 

Gulness, Brlt. govt. offlcial . . . in-83 
Mueller, Paul J., U.S. army offr. . m-83 
Munger, Thomas C, Judge .... 111.37 

Moret, Charlotte, author UI-37 

Murray, Chalmer S., author . . . . ni-83 
Murray, Hubert L., admlnlstrator 

J^ P*P"a UI.14 

Mnrray, W.S. engr in.37 

Museller, EmUe Henry, Free 

French naval offlcer ni-37 



Nabokov, Vladimir, author .... 111.59 

Nagano, Osaml, Jap. naval offr. . ' ui- 14 
Nash, Walter, New Zealand mlkls-' 

*^'^°"S III.59 



* Nehm,' Jawaharlal, Pandlt, 

polltlclan of Indla 111-14 

MelaoD, Donald M., chmn. W.P.b! . IU-37 

Nelson, Julius, artlst III-68 

Netüeton, Bertha, home econ. . . in-59 

Neumann, Alfred, author UI-IOS 

NewaU, Sir Cyrll Louis Norton, 

gov.-gen. New Zealand ui-U 

Newcomb, CoveUe, author in-37 

Newman, Harry, publisher .... .ni-37 

Nlchols, Beverley, author 111-103 

Nüml, Masaichl, Jap. naval offr. . in-83 
Nlles, Walter L., physiclan .... ui-37 
Nlmltx, ehester W., U.S. naval offr. UI- 15 
Nlssley, Chas. H., horticulturist . UI-83 
Noel Baker, PhUlp J., Brlt. 

Labor polltlclan IU-59 

Nolte, Lewis G., surgeon .....* in-83 
Nomura, Kichlsaburo, Japanese 

ambassador to U.S lU-lS 

Norgren, Paul H., labor econ.* *. *. in-59 

Norlln, George, univ. pres XU- 103 

Norval, Theophllus L., Judge . . . .in-83 
Novln, Serge, arUst .... m 93 

Nuhn, Ferner R., author . . . *. *. ui.103 
Nye, Archlbald E., Brlt. army offr. lU-lS 

SS*"!"' !?^ ^" "«m. W.P.B. . . ni.37 
O-Brlen. Maurice N.. wrlter . . . ni.37 
O Casey, Sean, author . . m 103 

O'Connor, Elizabeth D., author .* . in.83 

CMlum, Jerome, novellst HI- 103 

O'Hara, Eliot, water colorlst ... 111.37 
O^re, Edward H., U.S. ace. . . in.103 

Ofden, Samuel R., author 111.103 

Oldham, Etta B., author . . m 37 

OUver, Wade W., bacterlologlst '. .' iJiIes 

Orr, Elllot, artlst lU-M 

Orüz, Roberto M., President * * 

Argentina III 15 

Osaka, Prince Yasuhlko, Jap.* gov * 

of Philippine Islands ... lU 103 

Osborn, Frederick, corp. exic*.,' 

U.S. army offlcer UI-37 

OÄurn, Raymond C, entomol'o^ist. iu'68 
0«hlma, Hlroshi, Japanese am- 
bassador to Germany III- 15 

Osmena, Sergio, v.p. Phlllppl'ne 

Islands III-15 

Ott, Lester, aviatlon authority . *ni 103 
Ottkralnsky, Serge (Leonide Orlay 

de Carva), choreographer . . . iiI-45 
Over Street, Bonaro W., author . . m-37 
Owens, James F., public Utility 
°P«'*»^o«' . ni-84 

Packard, Frank L., author . . . in-84 
PadiUa, Ezequlel, Mexlcan fgn. 

nainister uj_5g 

Page, Irvlne H., physiclan ...*.* 'iU-45 
Pal Chung-hsl, Chinese army offr. UI- 104 
Palmer, Courtlandt, pianist . . . IU-104 
Palmer, Ely J., U.S. govt.offl. . . . UI-15 
Palmer, Harold D., physiclan . . .UI-104 

Palmer, John M., author IU-38 

Papen, Franz von, Nazi am- 
bassador to Turkey III- 15 

Pardue, Austin, dean, author . . '. TU- 104 

Parker^eorgeM., U.S. army offr. IU-38 
Parra Pferes, Caracciolo, 

Venezuelan fgn. minister .... in-59 
Paton, Stewart, psychiatrist .... IU-38 
PatUson, Abbott L., sculptor . . . UI-104 
Patton, Kenneth S., U.S. consul 

gen. at Singapore UI 16 

Paul, Elliot, author ' * m 59 



Payne, Elisabeth S., author .... lU-38 
Pease, Josephine vanD., author . . III- 104 
Peat, Charles U., Brlt. govt. offl. in-84 
PeatUe, Donald Culross, author . IU-104 
PtCk, Willys R., U.S. govt. offl. . . lU-lö 
P^irm, Sir Richard E.C., comdr. 

R.A.F. In Indla ni-104 

Pendieton, Jos. H., U.S. army offr. IU-59 
Perclval, Arthur E., Brlt. army 

oWicer jy gg 

Percy, WiUiam A., author ....*. iU-59 
Petaln, Marshai (Henri) Philippe, 

Premier of France ' in-16 

Peters, LeRoy S., physiclan . .* * . in-38 
Petersen, WUllam J., wrlter . . . .m-59 

Petry, Ray C, prof m 34 

PettengiU, Geo. G., U.S. naval offr. lU-lö 

Pfanaüehl, Carl, engr ui.84 

PMlllps, Arthur G., author . . . .UI-104 
Phillips, Sir Tom S. V., Brlt. adm. m-38 
PhUoon WaUace C, U.S. army offr. IU-38 
Pick, Albert, hotel exec. . . . in-104 
Pierson, Eleanor S., author . . .*. m-84 
PUklngton, Capt. Richard Antony. 

Brlt. govt. officlal 111.84 

Plne, Geri, painter III-38 

Planck, Charles E.,aviatlon wrlter JII- 104 
Pleak, Frances A.,Spanlsh Instr. .ni-104 
Pleissner, Ogden M., artlst .... in-84 
Polndezter, Joseph B., gov. of 

JIl'^*" IU.16 

Pope, Francis, pllot, author . . . . in-84 
Portal, Sir. Chas., R.A.F. offr. . . UI-16 
Portal, Lord, Brlt. govt. offl. . . . in- 84 
Porter, Katherine A., wrlter . . .IU-104 
Porter, Wm. N., U.S. army offr. . IU-38 
Porterfleld, Lewis B.,U.S. naval 

„o'^^fe»- UI-104 

Posadas, Juan, mayor of Manila . . lU-lö 
Pound, Admiral Sir A(lfred) Dud- 

ley, Brlt. Ist Sea Lord III- 16 

PoweU, Louis H., museum dir.'.*.' iU-59 
Pownall, H.N., Brlt. army offr. . . UI-38 
Pozner, Vladimir, author . . . in-104 
Prado Ugarteche, Manuel, Pres. 

J"^^^: • 1X1-17 

PramoJ, Mom Rajowonge Senl, 

Thai minister to U.S UI-17 

Prendergast, Charles, artlst. '.'.ui- 104 

PrenUce, George G., mfr m.sg 

Price, Byron, wartime censor U.S. UI-17 

Prlce, Lita, author UI 84 

Prosser, W.E., U.S. army offr.*.*. UI-38 
Provines, June, newspaper 

columnist XU 84 

Puleston, William D.,* U.S.N., * * 

»"^or in-17 

I>utnam, George P., publisher . . m-104 
PutUck, Edward, New Zealand 

army officar IU-17 

Pu-Yl, Henry, emperor of 

Manchukuo III- 17 

Pye, William S., U.S. naial offr* .* lU-17 

Queson y Molina, Don Manuel 
Luis, Pres. Philippines . . Ili 17 

Qulrt, Walter, artlst .... ' * ' m 34 

QuisUag, Vidkun A., Norwegian * 
premiew III 60 

Quo Tal-chl, Dr., Chinese* fgil. ' 
"**"^«*" IU-18 

Raborg, Paul C, milltary analyst.XU-104 
Raeder, Grand Admiral Erich, 

Nazi naval offlcer III-18 

Ragan, Leslie, artist *. .IU-60 

Ramond, Albert, indsl. engr. . . . Ui-104 

Ramsey, Robert, novellst III-84 

Rand, Ellen E., artlst in.38 

Randau, Carl, newspaperman . . . III-84 




* -< 






—Ja 



• 



• 



May 1942 



k 
Randolph, Marion (pseudonym); 

See Rodeil, Marie F III-84 

Raskln, Joseph, artist lil-38 

Raskln, Saul, artist III-60 

Rath, Virginia, author JIM 04 

Rawllngs, Marjorle K., author . . .111-84 
Raymond, Margaret T., author . . III -60 
Redlngton, Paul G., sclentlst . . . ni-60 

Reld, All>ert C, prof III -84 

Relffel, Chas., landscape painter .in 104 
Reinhard, Jacob E., zoologist . . . III -84 
Relnebeck, Otto, Nazi minister to 

Central America III- 18 

Reiner, Anna, author III-60 

Relth, Lord, Brit. govt. offl III-85 

Reybold, Eugene, U.S. army offr. . III-38 
Reynolds, Quentln, corr., author . III-85 
Rhonle, Aline, artist, avlatrlx . . III-38 
Ribbentrop, Joachim von, Nazi 

forelgn minister III- 19 

Riccardi, Arturo, Itallan naval offr. III- 19 
Rice, Alice C, Hegan, author . . . III- 60 

Rieh, Louise D., author 111-60 

Richmond, Winlfred V., psycho- 
logist III 104 

Rlddle, John W., dlplomat III -38 

Rlos, Juan A., President of Chile . III-60 

Rlpley, Clements, author III- 105 

Rltchle, Lewis (pseudonym, 

Bartimeus), Brit. naval off leer. . III- 38 
Rltchle, Neil M., Brit. army offr. III- 19 
Roberts, Owen J., U.S. Supreme 

Court justice III- 19 

Roberts, W. Adolphe, author . . . III-85 
Robinson, Mabel L., author . . . . III -60 
Rockefeller, Nelson A., dir. Inter- 
national relatlons III- 19 

Rockwen, F.W.,U.S. naval offr. . . III-85 
Rodell, Marie F., author, editor . . III-85 
Rodyenko, Peter, U.S. army offr. . III-85 

Rosers, Agnes, author III- 85 

Rolo, Charles J., writer III -60 

Romains, Jules, author III- 85 

Ronald, James, novelist III- 105 

Rooney, Mlckey, movle actor . . . III-38 
Roosevelt, Theodore, U.S. army 

offlcer III-39 

Rosaire, Esme E., geocheralst . . III-45 
Rosalla ( of Maryknoll), Slster 

Mary, author, mlssionary .... III- 39 
Rosenberg, Alfred, Nazi minister 

toRussla III-19 

Rosenborg, Ralph, artist JII-105 

Rosensteel, George, factory 

worker, author III-85 

Roslnskl, Herbert (Fritz Bernard 

Heinrich), lecturer UI 105 

Ross, Murray, economlst, writer . III-39 

Rossl, Angelo J., mayor III-19 

Rovenstine, E.A., physlclan .... III-68 
Rowell, Ross E., U.S. marine 

offlcer III-60 

Royce, Ralph, U.S. army offr. . . III- 105 
Royle, Edwin M., dramatlst .... III-85 
Royle, Sir Guy, Australlan naval 

officer ni-105 

Rozeboom, Lloyd E., entomologlst. III-39 
Rubinstein, Beryl, composer . . . III- 105 
Rulz Gulnazu, Enrique, Argentlne 

fgn. minister III-19 

Runbeck, Margaret L., author . . . III-60 
Russell, Sir Andrew H., New 

Zealand mllitary offlcer 111-20 

RusseU, William L., geologist . . in-60 
Ryan, Wm. Ord., U.S. army offr. . IU-20 
Ryder, Marlon Crowell, author . . III- 39 

Sadler, Frank H., U.S. naval offr. . m-20 

Sagendorph, Kent, author III- 105 

Salto, Jlro, Japanese agent .... III- 20 



Cumulative Index— 7 



Ssilamanca, Lucy (N.) writer . . .111-105 

Sampson, George, writer ni-85 

Santa Cruz Wilson, Domingo, 

Chllean composer 111-105 

Santos, Eduardo, Pres. Colombla . III-20 
Saracoglu, Shukru, Turklsh fgn. 

minister III-20 

Sarawak, Rajah of; see Brooke, 

Sir Charles Vyner III-3 

Sarg, Tony, puppeteer, artist . . . 111-85 
Saylor, Parry D., corp. exec. . . . III-85 
Sayre, Francis B., U.S. govt! offl. III-105 
Scatterthwalt, Alfred F., ento- 
mologlst in-92 

Schanfarber, Toblas, rabbl .... 111-85 
Scheinfeld, Amram, author . . . .111-105 

Schell, Frank C, artist III-85 

Schlytter, Leslle E., author . . . . III- 39 
Schmitt, Gladys, editor, author . . III -85 
Schnabel, Artur, muslclan . . . . III-85 
Schofield, Frank H., U.S. naval 

offlcer III-85 

Schurz, William Lytle, author . . . III- 39 

Schwarts, Leon, physlclan III-45 

Scfawartz, Herbert F., research 

entomologlst III-45 

Schwarzschlld, Leopold, author . .ni-105 

Scott, Henri D., basso III-106 

Scott, M. Gladys, phys. ( ducator . III-85 
Scotten, Robert M., U.S. govt. offl.in-106 

Scruggs, Philip L., writer III-85 

Seifert, Elizabeth, author 111-85 

Seltzer, Charles A., author .... III-60 
Seymour, Sir Horace J., Brit. 

ambassador to China III -60 

Shaposhnlkov, Boris M., Russlan 

army offlcer III- 20 

Sharp, Margery, Brit. author . . . JII-39 
Sharp, Wm. F., U.S. army offlcer . III-39 

Shaub, B.M., mlneraloglst III-68 

Shaw, Archer H., author III-60 

Shedd, Wm.E.,Jr.,U.S. army offr. . III-39 

Shelby, Lila, artist III-39 

Sheldon, Jean P. (pseudonym, 

Gene Henry), author III- 106 

Shelton, Alphonse J., artist .... III-85 
Shlelds, Wllmer, offlce of Clvlllan 

Defense official 10-39 

Shigemltsu, Mamoru, Japanese 

ambassador to England III-20 

Shimada, Shlgetaro, Japanese 

minister of Navy III- ?1 

Shiras, George, naturallst .... III- 106 
Short, Walter C.,U.S. army offr. . III-21 

Shuman, Edwin L., author 111-39 

Shute, Nevll, author III-lOG 

Sihler, Ernest G., univ. prof. . . . III-39 
Sikorski, Wladyslaw, Pollsh 

prime minister III-106 

Slmmons, Thomas J., coli. pres. . III- 106 
Simon, Robert E., Jr., writer . . . III-39 
Slrln, Vladimir; see Nabokov, 

Vladimir 111-60 

Sitten, John M., artist III-60 

Skillln, MarJorieE.,proofreader . III-85 

Sklnner, Otis, actor III-39 

Slaughter, Frank G., surgeon . . . III-85 
Sleyster, Rock, psychiatrist .... III- 85 
Sloane, Eric, artist, avlator, 

author III-85 

Small, Edward, movle producer . . III-39 

Smart, Charles A., author III-61 

Smith, Arthur St. Clalr, U.S. 

naval officer 10-106 

Smith, C. Aubrey, actor III-61 

Smith, Charles R., gov. North 

Borneo III-?1 

Smith, Frank, zoologist III-61 

Smith, Henry Ladd, author .... III-85 
Smith, Katherlne R., home 

economlst .• • • ni-85 



Smith, Thomas L., corp. offl. . . III-39 

Smuts, Jan C, prlme minister 

Union South Afrlca 1X1-61 

Socha, John M., artist m-61 

Solf y Muro, Alfredo, Peruvlan 

fgn. minister III-61 

Somers, Mrs. Ethel, home econ. 

editor in-61 

Somervell, BrehonD., U.S. army 

offlcer in-8® 

Somoza, Anastaslo, President 

Nicaragua III-21 

Soong, T.V., Chinese govt. offl. . .111-106 
Sorensen, Virginia E., author . . .111-86 

Soule, George, author 111-106 

Soothard, Addison E., U.S. consul 

gen. at Hongkong III-21 

Sowers, Phyllls A., author .... III-86 
Spaatz, Carl, U.S. army offlcer . . III- 61 
Spaulding, Rolland H., ex-gov. . . III- 106 

Specht, Paul L., muslclan III-39 

Spender, Percy C, Australlan 

minister III-21 

Spewack, Bella, playwrlght, 

scenarlst III-86 

Spewack, Samuel, playwrlght, 

scenarlst 111-86 

Spiegal, Clara G., author in-106 

Spruance, Raymond A., U.S. 

naval offlcer III-21 

Spylunan, Nlcholas John, author . .111-106 
St. John, Robert, newspaperman . . III-61 

SUce, W. T., author III-40 

Staehle, Henry C, chemist .... III-86 

Standen, Anthony, chemist III-61 

Standley, Wm.H., U.S. ambassador. III-61 
Stark, Harold R., U.S. naval offr. . III- 21 

Starrett, Vincent, author III-61 

Stefansson, Vüjalmur, author . . . III- 86 

Stein, Annle, artist III-61 

Steinbeck, John, author III-86 

Steinhard, Laurence A., U.S. am- 
bassador III-40 

Steinman, David B., co-author . . .111-61 
Stern, Madelelne B., biographer . . III-86 
Stetson, Willis K., llbrarlan .... III-40 
Stevens, Will Henry, artist .... III-40 
Stevens, William O., author .... III-40 
Stevenson, Donald F., R.A.F. offr. III-61 
Stevenson, William F., ex- 

congressman III-86 

Stewart, James B., U.S. minister 

to Nicaragua 111-106 

Stewart, James C, engineer . . . .111-61 
Stewart, Russell C, lawyer .... III-61 
Stieger, Andrew J., fgn. corr. . . .111-106 

Still, Dorris S., author in--106 

Stillians, Arthur W., physlclan . . III- 112 
Stilwell, Joseph W., Chiang Kai- 

shek's Am. Chief of staff .... III-86 
Stimson, Henry L., U.S. see. of 

War III-40 

Stockton, Edward A., Jr., U.S. 

army officer III-40 

Stokley, James, sei. writer .... III- 106 
Stooe, Judson F., corp. official . . .111-40 
Stone, Mrs. Meryl, food Con- 
sultant III-61 

Stone, William L., author III-86 

Story, Russell M., coli. pres. . . .111-106 
Stouman, Knud, pub. health offl. . . III-40 
Stout, Wesley W., former editor. .111-106 

Strabel, Thelma, writer III-61 

Strasser, Alfred C, art. dir., 

publisher III-40 

Stringham, Edwin J., composer . . III- 106 
Strunsky, Manya Gordon, writer . III-45 
Stryker, Perrln, writer, author . . III-40 
Stuckey, Jasper L., geologist . . . III-68 
Sugiyama, Gen. Hajlme, Japanese 

army offlcer III-?1 






H 



^- 



8 — Cumulative Index 



Series III, No. 5 



Suma, Yaklchlro, Japanese 

minister to Spain III- ?1 

Sumlyama, Tokutaro, Japanese * * 

marine officer III-.?l 

Surles, Alexander D., U.S. govt 

°/"^*,»l • * . III-86 

Sutherland, R.K., U.S. arm y off r. . III-61 

Sweezy, Maxine Y., economist . . .IH-ÖJ 



Talbert, Ansei E., aviation writer. 111-40 
Tatekawa, Yoshitsugu, Japanese 

ambassador to Russia 111-21 

Tavenner, C.H.,ex-congressman ! III-61 
Taylor, Alfred S., surgeon .... III-61 

Taylor, Anna H., artist lU-6] 

Taylor, Florence W., author ... iii-SÖ 
Taylor, George W., v. chmn. War 

Labor Board ni-62 

Taylor, Marions., radioperformer. III-62 
Taylor, Rdchard D.), cartoonist . 111-106 
Temple, Shirley, movie actress . . III-40 
Temple, William, archbishop of 

Canterbury III-86 

Terauchi, Count, Japanese gen. . .' in-86 
Terhune, Albert Payson, author . . III-86 
ter Poorten, Hein, Netherlands 

East Indian army officer . . III-21 

Thlelens, Mrs. Carrie O., author .m-106 

Thlrkell, Angela, author III- 62 

Thomas, Roland J., labor exec. .*.' m-62 
Thomas, Sir (Thomas) Shenton, 

Brit. gov. of Malaya '. . iii-22 

Thomas, William S., physiciaii .' .' III-40 
Thompson, Charles M., author . . III-40 
Thompson, James M., writer . . . 111-IO6 
Thompson, Jim (pseudonym, see 

Thompson, James M.), writer . .111-106 
Thompson, (John) Edward, news- 

paperman III-40 

Tllton, Frederic A., govt. offl.*. *. * iiüse 
Timoshenko, Semion, Russian 

army officer III-22 

Tinker, Clarence I., U.S. air 

force official 111-22 

Tinker, Miles A., psychologist . .111-106 

Tobln, Maurice J., mayor III-22 

Togo, Shigenori, Japanese fgn. 

minister III-22 

Tojo, Eiki, Japanese premier . . III-22 
Tolegian, Manuel J., artist .... III-40 
Tolstoy, (Countess) Alexandra, 

lecturer 111.40 

TomiU, Kojiro, art authority . . . III-CS 
Toner, Helen L., theologlan .... HI- SC 

Torchlo, Philip, engineer III-62 

Torrey, Emily G., war worker . . Ill-tn"' 
Tower, Harry B., tech. educator . IU-40 
Towers, John H., U.S. naval offr. . III-22 
Townsend, Edward W., author . . III- 107 

Treat, Ida, writer 111-^07 

Trippe, Juan T., President Pan- 
American Airways III-22 

Truex, Van Day, artist III-40 

Tsao, W.Y., Chinese consular 

Service in.gg 

Tugwell, Rexford G., governor 

Puerto Rico III-22 

Tupper, Ernest A., researcher . . III-40 



Ubico, Gen. Jorge, Dictator 

Guatemala III-2r 

Underwood, Frederick D.,pres. ry. III-86 



Undset, Sigrid, author III-86 

Updike, Daniel B., printer, pub- 

lisher iji_4Q 

Utley, Freda, writer III -86 



VanDelden, Maria, soprano . . . .111-40 
Vanderbllt, Cornelius, III, 

capitalist m-86 

Van der Fller, Hendricks, artist . III-62 
Van Der Veer, Stewart, author . . m-40 

Van Doren, Carl, author III-62 

van Kleffens, Dr. Eelco Nicolaas, 
Netherlands (Govt. in Exile) 

minister of fgn. affairs ni-2? 

Tan Mook, Hubertus J., Dutch 

East Indian official III -23 

▼an Starkenborgh Stachouwer, A. 
W.L. Tjarda, gov. -gen. of 

Netherlands East Indies m-23 

Van Voorhls, Cornelius W., Jr., 

radio commentator III-41 

Vargas, Getuiio, Dr., President 

Brazil III-23 

Varnay, Astrid, singer ....!.* .111-62 

Vezin, Charles, artist III- 107 

von Bock, Feder, Nazi army offr. . in-23 
von Brauchitsch, Heinrich A.H. 

Walther, Nazi army officer .... in-3 
von Leeb, Wilhelm Joseph Franz, 

Nazi army officer III-23 

von Papen, Franz, German am- 
bassador to Turkey III-15 

von Ribbentrop, Joachim, German 
govt. official III-19 



Wainright, Jonathan M., U.S. army 

officer III-41 

Waknitz, Frederick Wm., surgeon . III-87 
Waldeck, Rosie G., (Countess), 

author ni-107 

Wallace, Henry A., v.p. U.S., 

mem. War Prodn. Bd III-41 

Wallis, James H., author III- 107 

Walsh, James J., physician .... in-87 
Walsh, J. Raymond, prof. econ. . . III-62 

Wang, Chl-Chen, teacher III- 107 

Wang, Ching-wei, President 

Nanking (China) govt III-41 

Warren, Avra M., U.S. minister 

to Dominican Republic III- 107 

Warriner, Samuel D., corp. exec. .III- 1D7 
Washburn, Ruth W., psychologist . III- 0.' 
Watson, Samuel N., clergyman . . Ill-iüi 
Wavell, Sir Archibald Percival, 

Brit. army officer ni-23 

Weaver, Walter R., U.S.armyoffr. in-41 

Webber, Malcolm, writer III-41 

Webster, Robert L., entomologlst . III-68 
Weddell, Alexander W., former 

U.S. ambassador to Spain .... iTj-IOV 
Weiss, Harry B(ischoff), re- 

search cntomologist III-45 

Welles, Orson, movie actor and 

producer III-41 

Welles, Sumner, U.S. under-sec. 

of State III-41 

Wells, Carolyn, author III- 107 

Welty, Eudora, author III-6? 

Wemyss, Henry C, Brit. army 
officer III-62 



Wenstrom, Wm. H., aerologist, 

author III-62 

Werfel, Franz, co-editor 111-108 

Werner, Nat, sculptor III-62 

Wesley, Charles H., dean lU- 108 

Wessel, Mark, composer HI- 108 

Weyr, Hugo S. artist III -63 

Whale, J.S., coli, pres III-63 

Wheeler, Blanche, author III -87 

White, Chas. H., U.S. army offr. . III-41 
White, Katharine S., editor .... III -63 

White, Stewart E., author III-63 

Whitman, Cedric H., poet III-108 

Whltton, John B., author 111-108 

WUcox, John W., U.S. naval 

officer III-108 

Wild, Laurence, U.S. naval offr. , III -24 

Wilder, Laura I., author III-63 

WlIlcoK, Oswin W., chemist . . . .111-108 
Williams, Beryl, writer III-87 

Williams, Edwin M., newspaperman HI- 108 
Williams, Thomas A., radio 

commentator III- 108 

Willkle, Wenden L., lawyer .'.'.. iii-4i 

Willson, Dixie, author 111.41 

Wülson, Russell, U.S. naval offl.*. Ili-4i 
Wilman, Allan A., composer . . . III-108 
Wilson, Charles M., author . . . .Ul-108 
Wilson, Thomas M., U.S. consul- 

gen. at Calcutta, India III-24 

Winant, Joiui Gilbert, U. S. am- 
bassador to Great Britain .... III- 24 
Winkelman, Barnie F., lawyer, 

author \ ^ III-87 

Winter, Keith, Brit. playwright . *. III- 87 

Wittlin, Joseph, author III-41 

Wolceske, R.W., etcher ni_63 

Wolraer, Lord (Roundell Cecil 

Palmer), Brit. govt. offl iii_87 

Wood, Casey A., physician .... in-63 

Wood, Grant, artist in-63 

Wood, Sir Kingsley, Brit. 

government official III-87 

Woolley, Monty, actor III-108 

Wright, David M., author ni-108 

Wrong, H. Hume, Canadian govt. 
representative III- 108 



Yamada, Otozo, Jap. army offr. . . III-24 
Yamamoto, Isoroku, Jap. army offr. III-24 
Yamashita, Tomoyuki, Japanese 

army officer ni-87 

Yennl, Julia Truitt, author III-87 

Yonai, Mitsumasa, former 

Premier of Japan III-24 

Yoshizawa, Kenkichi, Japanese 

ambassador to Indo-China .... III-24 
Toung, Sir Mark Aitchlson, gov. 

of Hongkong in-24 

Yount, Barton K.,U.S. army offr. . m-63 



Zentmyer, George A., Jr. 

pathologist III-63 

Zhukov, Gregory, Russian army 

officer 111-24 

Zlmmerman, Godfrey F., writer . 111-108 
Zingg, Robert M., anthropologist . III-45 
Zobell, Claude E., bacterlologist. III-68 

Zweig, Stefan, author III-87 

Zylstra, treida, author, 

photographer III-63 







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16 



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SATURDAY NIGHT 



July 10, 1943 



^ 



I 



II 

I 



WORLD IN TRANCE, by LoopoW 
Schwarzschild. ( Fischer, $4.50. ) 

WE CANNOT ESCAPE HTSTORY 
by John T. Whitaker. (Macmillans, 
$3.00.) 

THIS AGE OF CONFLICT, by Cham 
bers, Grant and Bayley. (Norton, 

^.^A^CTORY IS NOT ENOUGH, by E. 

^^ Ranshofen - Wertheimer. (Norton 
$3.00.) 

QNE afternoon in tho late summor 
of 1934 I made my way through 
a courtyard behind the rue de la 
Faubourg St. Honore, up two flights 
and along a twisting passageway, to 
rap on a nameless door. Inside I met 
Leopold Schwarzschild, cditor of the 
German emigre weekly Dan Neue 
Tagebuch. In this, our first conversa- 
tion he predicted that Nazism would 
last for ten years, and invited me to 
contribute an article. 

This brought me the great pleas- 

ure and pride of appearing in tho 

same paper as Winston Churchill, 

who was a frequent contributor to 

the Tagebuch in those days, and an 

admirer of Schwarzschild's Journal- 

ism and judgment. As far as I know 

I never missed reading a number, 

and never destroyed one, right up 

until the German Invasion threw a 

curtain of silence over the Tagebuch. 

Although I asked many people who 

had escaped from France, tho first 

news I ever had of him was the ar- 

rival of this new book of his on my 

desk. 

The news was worth waiting for, 
for World In Trance, the story of 
what happened to all of us after 
the last peace and how we went 
wrong in dealing with Germany is. 
I believe, one of the most brilliant 
• and valuable books of our time. Tho 



w War Books 



Where We Went Wrong With Germany Last Time 



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reason I have been so late with this 
review is because of the feeling of 
inadequacy which overtakes me each 
time I pick it up. 

One reads almost incredibly now 
of how President Wilson and Colonel 
House forced down the throats of the 
Allies their idea of an armistice, and 
an easy peace granted to a "demo- 
cratizod" Germany and secured by 
an untried League of Nations. What 
folly shrieks out of the telegrams 
exchanged between the two Amer- 
icans while they were achieving this, 
tiireatcning in October 1918 to nego- 
tiate a separate peace with Germany, 
talking of cutting down "gently" on 
troop transports, money, food and 
material until the Allies saw reason, 
and exulting "Autocracy is dead; long 
live democracy and its immortal 
leaderl" (House to Wilson) when the 
German republic was proclaimed. 

Clemenceau and Wilson 

Clemenceau, in dealing with this 
sort of mentality, was nearly beside 
himself. By the end of March 1919 
the Peace Conference was headed 
for a breakup and Wilson for home. 
Would not Clemenceau just talk 
things over once more with Wilson? 
"How can I talk to a fellow who 
thinks himself the first man in two 
thousand years to know anything 
about peace on earth?" 

To Clemenceau the war had re 
vealed the terrifying fact that Ger- 
many was many times stronger than 
anyone had dreamed. It had required 
half of mankind to subdue her. She 
stood as a colossus alongside a weak 
oning France. Strong measures were 
needed to deal with this menace. 
And how wise do Clemenceau's judg 
ments on what to do with Germany, 
and on what is politically possible 
considering the nature of man, seem 
today. 

Another notable episode in the han- 
dling of Germany after the last war, 
which appears very different in 
Schwarzschild's presentation from 
the populär conception at the time 
and long afterwards, is the Ruhr oc- 
cupation. What diatribes we heard 
then against the French "arch-mili 
tarists", kicking around a man who 
was down! The British Labor Party 
hastened to declare its solemn sol 
idarity with "the German workers." 
Actually, the "spontaneous resistance 
of the German population" was, as 
in later Nazi days, a carefully-direct 
od effort of the Berlin Government 
to break the Treaty, using the paci- 
fist sympathies of the British and 
Amerlcans against the realist Poin- 
care. 

But Poincare resisted the tremend- 
ous pressure brought against him 
and fought the thing through to the 
"unconditional surrender" which he 
had demanded all along from the 
Germans. Result: the effect of this 
unconditional surrender on the Ger- 
mans was greater than even the de- 
feat of 1918. After five years of pat- 
ting Germany on the back by hu- 
manitarians and progressives and 
recommending that she be treated 



BY WILLSON WOODSIDE 

kindly, one man had seized her by 
the throat. 

"As if by magic six years of rea- 
sonableness foUowed"; the murder- 
ous and self-destroying furor teuton- 
icus which drove Germany from one 
extremist move to another was con- 
tained for that period while German 
leaders movod more warily. This 
seems a good augury for our pre.«- 
ent policy of demanding uncondition 
al surrender from Germany, espe- 
cially as the proposal was made by 
President Roosevelt in a complete 
reversal of American policy of 1918 

"The relatively Golden Age that 
began immediately after Germany's 
capitulation in the Ruhr and lasted 
for six years, might have lasted for 
sixty." Suddenly, in the terror and 
Chaos of unprecedented impoverish- 
ment, it became possible for the Ger- 
mans to stabilize the mark, as they 
had been "unable" to do before. Pol 
itical Order was stabilized as quick 
ly and easily. But unfortunately 
"Poincare's successors spoiled the 
eure." Schwarzschild dates the end of 
France's role as a great power from 
June 1, 1924, when Poincare was 
overthrown. 

"Magic House of Paper" 



it to say that the account is sustained 
with brilliance to the end. By the 
time we had got as far as sanctions 
against Italy, the whole game, as in 
chess, had already been lost by the 
early moves. In Spain Russia's ob- 
vious purpose in intervening, the 
author suggests, was to induce 
Fiance to intervene as well. At Mun- 
ich, once again no good move was 
possible, 

Finally, in France in a few weeks 
of 1940, "a destiny was accomplished 
in which all the evil of two accursed 
decades was focussed." No French 
faction had the right to point at an- 
other. No country could accuse 
crushed France. All of them, in the 
course of 20 years, had contributed 



their share. But France's collapse 
marked the end of this epoch. Britain 
revived, and America awakened, to 
such effect that Schwarzschild now 
declares that "rarely has mankind 
been better prepared for a tremend 
ous task than it is for the next peace 
settlement." 

It is ours to Profit from the terrlble 
fact that we are experiencing the 
same thing for the second time with- 
in a generation. Dispelled forever 
must be "the dream of 1918, that 
once this powerful, energetic and 
highly gifted nation is freed from 
its bad rulers it will be saved and 
be as other nations. It will not." Its 
spirit and instincts have been mold 
ed by an age-long tradition, and the 
process of reform will take gener- 
ations. 

Only the most thorough-going 
treatment will suffice to eure this 
extremist nation. Before it can be 
considered demilitarized, generations 
will have to pass during which no one 
has ever held a gun in his hand, oi- 



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Now came the era of the "Magic 
House of Paper", from Locarno 
through two hundred other pacts and 
agreements, to disarmament. Strese- 
mann discovered that "the most pas- 
sionate desire of his era was the necd 
to find the World beautiful at any 
price and to avoid all unpleasant 
ness. . . He became king among the 
one-eyed men of politics." 
^^ To the Crown Prince he wrote that 
"German policy must be subtle and 
avoid great decisions" for the pres 
ent. Locarno had a hypnotic effect 
on the British and French, and re- 
duced fhem to a somnambulistic State. 
But not on Germany: she proceeded 
to elect the chief of the "war crim- 
inals" as President. 

From here the story becomes ever 
more painful. In the interests of 
"peace" and the precious "spirit of 
Locarno" the report of the Inter-Al 
Med Military Commission showing 
that German disarmament was not 
being carried out satisfactorily and 
there were even signs of rearmament. 
was suppressed by the British and 
French Governments. A British mem- 
ber of the Commission, General Mor- 
gan, could not swallow this, and made 
the truth public. But the Allies pre- 
feried to bolster peace with the Kel- 
logg-Briand Pact. And final folly -^ 
with the disarmament of the Victors, 
especially those fanatical French mil- 
i t a r i s t s and reactionaries, who 
wouldn't treat Germany "fairly". 

Breaking Ihe Trealy 

Perhaps Schwarzschild's most valu- 
able contribution is his account of how 
the insatiable German nationalists set 
to work to break the Treaty and the 
Republic, starting the movement 
which Hitler later took hold of. Once 
they had gained from the Disarma- 
ment Conference the concession of 
German "(-quality in principle", the 
only difficulty remaining in their 
path was to get by the period of dan- 
ger in their rearmament with the 
maximum speed. To develop and con 
trol the füll energy of the country 
for this purpose the German schemers 
needed Hitler's fanatical following. 
So they made him chancellor. 

Here, as Schwarzschild says, was 
the Allies' last chance. "It was as 
though fate said: 'Listen, I am going 
to do my best for you. I will show you 
German reality in all its bare ugli- 
ness. I will put it under your very 
nose. I will hit you over the head 
with it. You shall not be led to a 
miserable doom by politicians who 
look like honest burghers, or by gen- 
erals who look like distinguished cav- 
aliers. . . Once you see Hitler, you will 
no longer be able to make mistakes^ 
or will you?' " 

We did, and I shan't go all through 
that nightmare of 1933-39 here. Suffice 




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WHO'S WHO 



• 




MONTHLY SUPPLEMENT 

CURRENT BIOGRAPHICAL REFERENCE SERVICE 



May, 1942 



Series III, Number 5 



INTERNATIONAL - CUMULATIVE INDEX - STANDARD PRONUNCIATION 

IMPORTANT: It is vital to keep in mind that the Monthly Supplement and the 
current volume of Who's Who in America are a unit; together they should care 
lor a high percentage of the normal type of biographical inquiries serviced by 
libranes, or occurnng in the class-room. A recent checking by library specialists 
proves this to be so m actual practice. No other combination can possibly eive 
this adequacy of practical coverage— and the Supplement and Who's Who are 
mtended for use m combination. It is f or that reason that the Supplement is 
available only to reference users of Who^s Who. The Supplement is keyed to 
m^Vie the combination an outstanding reference tool— and that it succeeds, expert 
investigation proves. On the other band it is not intended to alone provide ade- 
quacy for practical reference use—expert checking indicates no current Service 

could undertake such a task successfully. 

See Pasre 107 for Keys to Reference Citations and Pronunciation. 
See Pa»e 109 for "Who Knows— The Index to Authorities." 

Who's Who In The News— And Why 

314 NAMES-IN-THE-NEWS IN THIS ISSUE 



kL*v'^%t"wn fnT r*"'*"? f^r?/*l .^PP^^L^'^/TKf Who" are given a one line listing 
keyed (t) tomdicate that füll biographical details may be found in "Who's Who" 

o«!f l^ a'^^^I'''^ runm the same alphabetical sequence as Sketches of the living 
and are keyed (♦) to mdicate death, or (*t) to indicate the subject's sketch may also be 

found in "Who's Who." 



ABUL Kalam Azad (ä-l)()?)l'käMäin ä'zäd), pres. 
AlI-ItMlia Congress; b. Mecca, Arahia. 18S8; Student 
at Moslem AI Azhar U., Cairo. becoming a seholar 
in Persian aml Arabic Began oareer in Calcut-ta; 
pub. weekly paper a^Kwatintj Jnwleniizing reforms for 
iMoslems and spreading Moslem culture; suppresswl by 
Brit. and jalled. 1»16: released and startwl aiiottier 
newspaper, faiied; lipon release joine<I (landhi, work- 
ing for ('ongress, 11)20; became youngest elected pres. 
Congress, 1923, since pres. several time.s incliiding. 
1941. Travels extensiveiy and speaks, for Rightists; 
is closer to (Jandhi tban Böse (see this issiie, this 
Supplement) or Nehm (see this Supplement, III-14) 
and Supports Nationalist Imlia arul Dominion Status 
from (Jreat Britain. Author: Commentaiy on the 
Koran. 

References: NSW, Mar. 9, 1942. p. 33; 
Asia, Apr. 1940, p. 198; J. Günther, Inside 
Asia. 

tALEXANOER, Ben, pres. Masonite Corp.; apptd. 
actiifg Chief of textile, clothiiig and leather goods 
brauch of Bureau of Industry Brauches, succeeding 
Robert R. (iuthrie (see this issue, this Supplement) . 

TARNOLD, Thurman W., asst. U.S. atty. gen. who 
has cracked down on both capitiil and labor for 
violation of anti-trust laws; author: Deinocracy and 
Free Enterprise (U. of Okla. Press; $1.50), 11M2. 

ATHERTON, John C, artist; b. Brainerd, Minn., 
June 7, 1900; s. James C. and Carrie (Martin) A.; 
Hl. in pub. schs., «pokane, Wash., Coli, of the 



Pacific. San Jose, Calif., and Calif. Seh. of Fine 
Arts, San Francisco; m. Maxine Breese, Nov. 6 
1926; 1 dau., Mary. Joined navy, 1918; worked in 
mines, shipyards, as sign pairiter, clerk, musician 
etc., 1919-25; advt. artist, on Pacific Coast and 
N.Y. i'ity, since 1920; has painted in spare time 
since art study. 1923. Has exhbtil. paintings at 
Julien Levy (;allery (N.Y. City), 1939-1942; museums 
in N. Am. and Latin Am. have exhibited his work; 
represented in collections of Museum of Modern 
Art, Wadsworth Athenaeum (Hartford. Conn.), and 
Whitney Museum of American Art (New York) 
Served in U.S. Navy as Seaman 2d class, June 
1918-March 1919. Winner, competition in war 
posters sponsored by Museum of Mo<lern Art 1941 
poster competition for World's Fair, New' York' 
Club: Angler's of New York. .Address: Ridgefield' 
Conn. 

AZOY, Anastasio C. M. (a-thoi'), army offleer; 
b. Merida, Yueatan, Mexico (parents U.S. Citizens), 
Nov. 9, 1891; s. Anastasio C. M. and Mary L. 
(Bolton) A.; grad. Carteret Acad., Orange, N.J. 
1910; Litt.B., Princeton U., 1914; m. Margaret Field 
(Jroves, June 12, 1918; 1 son, Philip Livingston. 
Copy writer for Street Railways Advertising Co, 
N.Y. City, 1914-17; advertising with Batten, Bar- 
ton, Üurstine & Osborn, 1920-23; advertising mgr 
Rogers Pect Co., 1923-31; mercliaiidise mgr. Best 
& Co., N.Y. City, 1932-34; promotion mgr. Town 
and Country and Hoiuse Beautiful, 1934-40; occa- 
sional lecturer on advertising, Columhia U. and 



Katherine Gibbs Seh. Served as 2d lt. Coast Arty. 
Corps, U.S. Army. 1917-18, Ist lt., 1918-19; ad- 
vanced through the grades of the Reserve to lt. 
col.; recalled to active duty with 2d Corps Area 
Staff, N.Y. City, Sept. IIMO; now assigned to 
Hdqrs. Staff, West Point, N.Y., 1942; was one 
of 4 Reserve officers chosen by War Dept. to assist 
in establishment Ist C.M.T.C, Plattsburg, N.Y, 
1920; same work at Ft. Hancock, N.J., 1921; asst 
Chief artillery umpire, Ist Army maneuvers, 1939: 
asst. to Chief of Pub. Relations Div., G.H.Q Ist 
Army maneuvers, 1941; ehief induction sect.', 2d 
Corps Area, 1940-41. Mem. Soc. Colonial Wars, 
Colonial Lords of the Manor, Am. Legion. Republi- 
can. Episcopalian. Club: Princeton (N.Y. City) 
Author: (toal Lines, 1922; A Curious Catalog, 1924; 
A Princeton Almanac, 1932 (foregoing with F D 
Halsey); The Reserve Officer's Handbook, 1929; A 
Primer of Advertising, 1930; They Were Not Afraid 
to Die, 1939. Eklitor and Compiler: The Army Of- 
ficer's Manual (Appleton-Century; $2.50), 1942 
Contbr. to Am. Legion Mag., Town and Country, 
Coast Artillery Jour., Infantry Journal, Sati>rday 
Evening Post, The New Yorker, N.Y. Times \d- 
dress: U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y. 

tBAGLEY, Rear Adm. David W., apptd. naval 
C()nimaii<lai>l of Hawaiian dist. succeeding Rear Adm 
Bloch (see this Suppl^^ment, III-2). 

BAKER, Nina Brown, author; h. Galena. Kan 
Dec. 31, 1888; d. Frank and Belle (Warren) Brown' 
ed. Kansas pub. schs.; Student U. of Colo 1910-11" 



Pages are numbered consecutively from month to month and each issue contains, as a separate unit on 
colored paper an index fully cumulative to the first of the year. This index is print^'^leparaÄ so 
that each month when the new cumulative index arrives, the old index may be discarded 



^•*» 



(Copyright, 1942, by the A. N. Marquis Co.) 

Page 93 



Page 94 



m. Sidney Jacques Baker. June 27. 1915; children— 

Beniice (Mrs. Leslie Bennett), Nina. Teacber el€- 

tnentary schs., 2 yra.; teacher. Alliaon, Colo., 1 yr.; 

stenograpber, 1911-15; first short story pub. In 

Argosy, 1923; editor trade mags. pub. by Smart 

Pub. Co., Chicago, 1925-26; wrote and edited flrst 

2 nurabers of Gentleman's Quarterly (forerunner of 

Bsqulfe); traveled in South America and Mexico; 

interested In building oC inter-Am. good will by 

maicing heroes of other Americas Icnown to young 

people of U.S. Awarded gold medal, La Sociedad 

inter-Am. good feeUng, 1941. Author: Secrct of 

para Las Americas, for outstanding contribution to 

Inter-Am. good feeling. 1941. Author: Secret of 

HaUam House, 1931; Chinese Riddle, 1932; Ranee's 

Buby, 1934; Cinderella Secret, 1938; Mystery at 

Four Chimneys, 1939; Luclc of the Salabars, 1938* 

Inca Gold, 1940; He Wouldn't be King: The Story 

or Simon Bolivar (Jr. Ut. Guild selection) (Van- 

ßuard; 52.50), 1941. Home: 49 Garden PI., Brwlt- 

lyn, N.Y. 

tBALDWIN, NansM W., author; Strategy for Vic- 
tory (Norton; |2), 1942. 

tBARCLAY, Hartlor Wade, author: How Your Busi- 
ness Can Help Win tbe War (Simon & Schuster; 
II), 1942. 

tBARKER, LeweHys F., physician; author; Time 
and the Physician (Putnara's; $3.50), 1942. 

BARLOW, Wayne Brewster, composer, teacher; b. 
Elyria, 0., Sept. 6, 1912; s. Edmund Brewster and 
Josephine (Muenscher) B.; B.M.. Eastman Seh. of 
Muslc, 1934, M.M., 1935, Ph.D. in Composition. 
1937; m. Helen Hutzen. Aug. 7, 1937; 1 son, Robert 
wayne. Instr. in musical theory and composition 
Eastman Seh. of Music, Rochester, N.Y. Awarded 
Llliian Fairchild Memorial award for outstanding 
achievement In the arts, 1936. Mem. Phi Mu Alpha 
Sinfonia. Baptist. Rotarian. Compositlons: SJn- 
fonietta for Chamber Orchestra, 1936; Zion in Exile 
(canUU), 1937; Songs from The Silence of Amor 
(for soprano and smaJl orchestra), 1937; The Win- 
ter's Past— Appalachian Mountain Folk Songs (rbap- 
80dy for oboe and strings), 1938; Three Moods for 
Dancing (Choreographie suite), 1940; The Black 
Madonna (ballet), 1942. Works performed at Am. 
Composers* Concerts, Tacoma Philharmonie Orches- 
tra, and NBC String Symphony. Co-editor and 
Compiler: The American Orchestral Repertory (now 
iLP!;?'^**^on). Contbr. to N.Y. Times. Home: 
170 Elmcroft Rd. Offlee: Eastman School of Music 
Rocliester, N.Y. ' 

Refer«nce: J. T. Howard. Our Contempo- 
rary Composcrs. 



Series III, No. 5 



(Wittes) B.; Student Columbia U., 1917-20. Mosen- 
thal fellow; Mus.B., New York Coli, of Music, 
1922; m. Priscilla Dreyer, Dec. 24, 1937; children— 
Iveah. Hadassah. Dir. of music Y.M.H.A.. N.Y. 
City, since 1918; condr. Jewish Choral Soc. sitjce 
1918; instr. in Jewish liturgical music, Jewish Inst, 
of Religion. N.Y. aty, since 1922, prof. since 1937; 
gave concert of original compositlons, Town Hall, 
1929; guest condr. Manhattan Symphony Orchestra, 
1931, Palestine Symphonie Ensemble, 1931; organized 
conf. on "The Status of Synagogue Music in Amer- 
ica," 1941; works hafe been performed by Palestine 
Symphonie Ensemble, Manhattan Symphony Orches- 
tra, Detroit Symphony Orchestra, and radio sta- 
tions WABC and WOR. Composer: (werture) Ha- 
Chalut&lm, Holy Land Impressions, Concertante for 
String Orchestra. Author: Hibbath Shabbath. 1928; 
Rinnath Shabbath, 1933; Palestinian Song Suite. 
1935; Evenlng Service for the New Year. IJMO; Kab- 
balath ShabbeUi, 1941. Editor or Compiler: New 
Palestinian Folk Songs, Book I, 1925, Book II 
1932; Palestine in Song. 1937; Pioneer Songs of 
Palestine, 1942. Mem. .\m. Soc. Composers and 
Publishers, Jewish Music Forum (founder). Am. 
GuUd of Organists, Jewish Acad. of Arts and Sci- 
ences (bd. go?s.). Appt. music editor 3d edit. of 
Union Hymnal by Central Conf. of Am. Rabbis 
1929. Home: 865 West End Av. Address: 1393 
Lexington Av., New York, N.Y. 

Reference«: Baker, Biog. Dictionary of 
Musicians; J. T. Howard, Our Contemporary 
Composers. 

tBIRNEY, Htflman, aiitlior: Brothers of Doom: 
The Story of the Pizarros of Peru (Putnam's Sons; 
$3.50), 1942. 



*tBENRIMO, Joseph Henry, playwright (Mar. 26, 
1942) (tVol. 12). 
Reference: NYT, Mar. 27, 1942. 

BERCKMAN, Evelyn, composer, pianist; b. Phila- 
delphia, Pa., Oct. 18, 1900; d. Aaron and Anne 
(Besman) Berckman; ed. in pub. schs. and by pri- 
vate teachers; Student Columhia U.; unmarried. Com- 
positlons hare been performed by Philadelphia 
Symphony Orchestra. Rocheater Symphony, Pro Arte 
Quartet, La Scala Quartet, Bennington CoH., Yaddo, 
and orer radio sUtions WEAF, WOR, and others 
Address: New Hope. Pa. 

Reference: J. T. Howard, Our Contempo- 
rary Composers. 

BERREY, Ustcr V., philologist, lexicographer; b. 
Davenport, Okla., May 2, 1904; s. William Vergil 
and Katie (Gregg) B.; B.A., U. of Calif. at Los 
Angeles, 1928; m. Viola Roine, Jan. 12, 1929; 1 
son, Norman Lydell. Book Clerk. Jones Book Store, 
Los Angeles, 1923; Student, writer, 1924-31; re- 
search on Am. colloquial epeech, aided by faculty 
and students, Los Angeles City CoU. and U. of 
Nebr., 1931-42; language Consultant. R.K.O. «nd 
Samuel Goldwyn Motion Picture Studios; N.B.C. and 
C.B.S. radio broadcasting on Am. colloquial speech, 
1942; Mem. Am. Dialect Soc. Demoerat. Author: 
(with Melrin Van den Bark) Tbe American Thesaurus 
of Slang (CroweH; $5), 1942. Contbr. on Am. 
dlaJeet, colloquial speech to Esquire, American 
Speech, Nation, Current History, Forum. Address: 
3055 Landa St.. Los Angeles, Calif. 

tBIERMAN, Btniic, football coach; becomes head 
«thletic actirities In air training Station at U. of 
Iowa. 

BINDER, Abraham Wslfe, composer, conductor 
and educator; b. Jan. 13, 1895; s. Shalom and Leah 



♦tBLAKELY, John Russell Ytuni, U.S. Naval offleer 
(Mar. 28, 1942). 

References: NYT, Mar. 29, 1942; Nary 
Register. 

BLAMEY, Lt Gm. Sir Thomas Albert (blä'ml). 
Australian Army offleer; b. Wagga. New South Wales. 
Australia, Jan. 24. 1884; m. Minnie Millartl, Sept. 
8, 1908 (died 1935); 1 son. Began with Common- 
wealth Mil. Forces, 1906; served in World War I 
1914-18; served as chief of stafT, Australian Coips. 
1918, Australian Imperial Force, 1919; bpcame dep. 
Chief of gen. staff, Australia, 1920; AustraUan de- 
fense rep. in London, attached to War Offlee, 1922- 
24; heeame 2d chief of gen. sUff, Commonwealth 
Mil. Force«, 1923-25; served as chief commr. of 
Police. Victoria, 1925-37; comdr. 3d Australian Div., 
1931-37; controller-gen. of Recruiting Secretariat. 
Australia, 1938-39; became comdr. Australian Army 
Corps, 1940; apptd. comdr. Australian Forces in 
Middle East. 1940; apptd. dept. comdr. -in-chief Brit. 
Forces in Middle East. 1941; returned to Austraüa 
to take command of Australian Forces in war 
against Japanese, and to serve under Gen. Mac- 
Arthur, Mar. 1942. Awarded Distinguished Service 
Order; mentioned in 7 dlspatches, World War I; 
Companion of Bath, 1919; Companion of St. Michael 
and St. George. 

Reference: TM, May 5, 1941. p. 28. 

BLANCO, Juan Carlss (blän'kö, hwän kär'lös), 
ßtatesman and diplomat; b. Montevideo, Un»guay; s 
Juan Carlos Blanco and Luisa (Acevedo) B.; ed. in 
law, UniT. of Montevideo; m. Margarita Borda. 1923; 
children — Margarita, Juan Carlos. Began as sec. of 
the Port Bd., Montevideo; became successively dep 
minister of pub. works, minister of the interior and 
see. of State (minister of forelgn relations); nine 
years plenipotentiary minister, Paris; then became 
successirely flrst ambassador to Argentina, flrst am- 
bassador to Brazil; now flrst ambassador to US 
Decorated Grand Cross of Legion of Honor; Grand 
Cposs of the British Empire; Grand Cross of Brazil- 
Grand Cross of Simon Bolivar the Liberator, Ven- 
ezuela, etc. Address: 1010 Vermont Av., Washington. 

Reference: Bull. Pan Am. Union. Nov. 

1941, p. 642. 

BLATAS, Arbit (blä'täs), artist; b. Kaunas. 
Lithuania, Nov. 19. 1908; s. Ilya Arbit and Ida 
(Ncercik) B.; ed. elemenUry and high schs., Russia 
and Lithuania; painted and studied in Oermany, 
1924-25; Student Acad. Julien, Paris, and by seif 
1925; m. Sylvia Satenstein, July 13, 1933; 1 dau , 
Doroth^e Renöe. Came to U.S., 1939. Exhibited in 
Uthuania, 1926; Galerie Van Leer, Paris, 1933; 
Pierre Matisse Gallery, N.Y. City, 1934; Galerie de 
l'Elysee, Paris, 1937; Galerie Mouradian and Vallo- 



ton, Paris, 1939; French Art Gallcries, N.Y. City. 
1940, 41 and 42; Robert C. Vose Gallery, Boston. 
1941; annually at Salon des Tuileries and Salon 
d'Automne, Paris, 1929-39; Worid's Fair Expn.. 
Paris. 1937; Galerie Bembeim Jeune. for the Prix 
Paul Gulllaume, 1938. Rep. in Musee National du 
Jeu-de-Paume, Paris; Museum of Grenoble. France; 
Nat. Museum of Lithuania; Museum of Modern .\rt, 
\.Y. City; also varlous private coUections in France, 
England and America. Home: 56 W. 56th St., New 
York. N.Y. 

tBLIVEN, Bruce, editor; author: The Men Who 
Make the Future (Duell; $3). 1W2. 

BORMANN, Martin Ludwif (bör'män), Nazi dep- 
uty fuehrer No. 3; b. Halberstadt, Germany, June 17, 
1900. Became me.m. polit. Propaganda group, repre- 
senting Mechlenburg dist. in Rossbach Orgn., 1923; 
imprisonod for murder. 1923-24; Joined Nazis. 1925; 
apptd. Nazi press chief, Thuringia dist., 1926, to 
sUff of Nazi investigation bd., 1928; mem. highest 
governing body of Nazi party since 1933; mem. 
Reichstag since 1933; chief of staff of former dep. 
fuehrer. Rudolf Hess (see thls Supplement, 11-83) 
since 1933; followlng flight of Hess to Scotland, .May 
1941, Hitler apptd. Bormann dep. fuehrer No 3 
Mar. 1942. 

References: TM. Mar. 2, 1942. p. 30 ; NSW. 
Mar. 2, 1942, p. 37. 

*tBOSCNEN, Frederick W., U.S. army offleer (.\pr. 
1. 1942). 

References: NYT. Apr. 3, 1942; Army 
Register. 

BÖSE, Subhas Chandra (bös, so'()b-häsh' chfm'dri) 
politician of India; b. Oitt^ick. Bengal. 1897; Stu- 
dent. Protestant European Seh. at Onttacic, Presl- 
dency Coli, at Caleutta. Went to England passed 
Civil Service cxam., ranking 4th, and ent>ereyl' Service; 
retired to Join Gandhi's movement, 1921 ; worked with 
great Bengalese leader. C. R. Das; a.spired to succeed 
him until Gandhi chose Ws Opponent whereupon 
Böse, unlike Nohru (see this Siiivplemenf. IIT-14) 
disagreed openly with Gandhi; Bosc advocated forma- 
tion of Independenee League seeicing Dominion Status 
from Brit,, and opposed to Gandhi tactics 1928- 
Böse disagreed over Trade Union Movement. 1929-31 ' 
elect^d mayor of CalcutU. whlle In jall, 1936 (al- 
together imprisoned 12 times. from 1926 to 1941 
aftcr which he secured an apology and 2,000 rupees)' 
Most aetive of the Britlsh-haters; English openly 
name Böse India's terrorist leadcr; although elected 
Pres.. Indian National Congress. 1938, was defeated 
by Brit. influences in 1939; fled to Germany 1941 
Böse calls Gandhi insipid and admires strong-man 
tactics of Hitler, but lacks enough general popularity 
to attempt dictator methods. During reeent Indlan- 
Brit. negotiations he broadcast frequently. usually 
i^l''.-^^'''"*" *"^ Japanese stations, against the " 
British and is considered a potenUal Nazi Quisllng 
for Irjdla. Author: the Indian Struggle. Editor of 
Bengalese newspaper. "Forward " 

^^•«'f^^r- ^SW' Mar. 16, 1942. p. 34; 

T?*- fl% ^2' ^^i^' P- 3* • Mar. 7. '1938. p 
19 : SCH. Apr. 8, 1940, p. 9 ; J. Günther. 
Inside Asia. 

BRENNER, Anita, author: The Boy Who fould Do 
An.vthinR and Other Mexican Folk Tales (Scott. Ine ; 
?2.o0). 1942 (see this Supplement, 11-132 [QD. 
*tBREWER, Earl LeRay, ex-gov. (Mar. 10, 1M2). 

Reference: NYHT. Mar. 11, 1942. 

References: NYT, Mar. 29, 1942: Army 
Reirister. 

BRICKEN, Carl Erncst, prof. music; b. Shelby- 
V^i^'^^^T-J^^^^^S. 1898; 8. Bird B. and Ullie M. 
(Martin) B.; A.B., Yale U., 1922; studied com- 
position under Sealero and piano under Leopold and 
Bert David Mannes Seh.; studied under Cortot 
(Paris) and Weisse (Vienna); m. Dorothy Moran, 
Dec 17, 1927; children— Anne, Alexander. Teacher 
of piano David Mannes Seh., 1925-29; teacher theory, 
Inst, of Musical Art, 1929-30; chmn. music dept. 
U of Chicago, 1931-38; dir. Seh. of Music. U. of 
Wis., since 1938; Awarded Pultlzer Prize, 1929; 
Guggenheim fei owship, 1930-31. Menv Am. Assn. 
UniT. Profs., Am. Musicological Soc., Am. Com- 
posers Alliance. Methodist. Club: Elizabethan. 
Composer: Symphony No. l, D minor; Symphony No. 
2, F major; Suite for Orchestra, B Fiat major; 
Variations for Two Pianos; String Quartet, C minor; 



S 



May, 1942 



s 



I 



n 



• 



miscellaneous songs. Home: Blacivhawic A\.. Madi- 
son, Wis. 

Reference: J. T. Howard, Our Contempo- 
rary Composers. 

BRUT, Steuart Henderson, psycliologist, lawyer; 
b. Fulton, Mo.. June 16, 1907; s. Aylett Treville 
and Kathmne Birch (Henderson) B.; student Junior 
IT •tn^li^^"^^'^''^^' ^°- 1924-26; Wasiihigton 
iV;' v}.^'\,^^^' °^ ^^^' «ame, 1927-28; A.B., 
Wasiilngton U., 1931, A.M. in psychology, 1932 
Ih.I) in psychology, Yale U., 1935; Student Colum- 
. no^^' ^^ ^^^' 1935-36 and summers, 1935, 37 
and 38; m. Marian May Hansell, June 1 1936 
Asso. With law firm Proctor and PhiHips, 1928-*>9' 
admiitted to Mo. bar, 1929; legal worl( for Joint 
Mock Laiid Bank System, 1929-30; fellow Inst, of 
Human Kelations, Yale U., 1932-35; asst. in psy- 
clwlogy, Yale U., 1933-35; rescarch asst. div of 
psychology. Inst, of Ednl. Researcii. Teachers Coli 
iolumbia Univ., 1935-36; admitted to N Y bar' 
1936; asst. prof. psychology, George Wasliington U ' 
since 1936; admitted U.S. Supreme Court, im'- 
?IfnlJ' , •^- ^"""^ "^ Appeals for Dist. of Columbia 
1937; lecturer in psycliology, Mt. Vernon Sem., since 
1938; cl>mn. subcom. on Listing of Personneli in 
Psychology of Nat. Research Council since 1941- 
visi ing lecturer in psychology, U. of Va., summer. 
1941; Consultant Nat. Koster of Scientific and Spe- 
cialized Personnel since 1941; exoc. sec. Com on 
\\artime Requirements for Spwialized Personnel 
1932; mem. Emergeiicy Com. in Psychology since 
1942; exec. dir. ültice of Psychological Personnel 
since 1W2. Fellow A.A.A.S., Am. Assn. Applied 
Psychology (sec. bd. of aOlliates since 1941); mem 
Am. Psyclwl. Assn. (asst. sec. 1942), Am Bar 
Assn., Am. Sociol. Soc. Eastern Psycliol. .\ssn , 
Lastern Sociol. Soc.. Southern Soc. for Pliilosophy 
aiMi Psycliology. Soc. for Psyclwl. Stu<Iy of Social 
Issues, Washington-Baltimore Branch of \m 

l(un'?,'\ '^'"' ^l'?- ^P-^^' ^-P- 1939-40. Pres." 
1(M0-41). Sigma Xi. Phi Delta Phi, Delta Signia 
Rho, Kappa Alpha. Author: Sections in Eklucational 
Broa<icasting 1936 (C. S. Marsh, editor). U of 
\'al?^\}.?^^' ^^^''^ Psychology of .Modern Life. 
}t\'i S'^?5 1^^^'^ ^^^^''"^ (Jraeber): Jows in a 
Oentile World: The Problem of Anti-Semitism (Mac- 
mlllan; $4) 1942. Contbr. to numerous psycliol 
sociol., ednl., and law jours. Editor spl. sect Psv- 
chology and the War (Psychol. Bull.) since' 194^ 
Home: 2910 Dumbarton Av. N.W.. Washington, D c" 
Reference: MS. 



Key to indicatora : f see "Who's Who In America" ; ♦ died (date of death in oarenth*»«»*^ • ♦♦ Ai^A # n 
bioirraphical details may be found in "Whos Who in America/^ (Referenc« Ster skei^h«; Itn n v/"" 
are restricted to bio«rraphical material considered »ufficiently comp^henswftTbS^ of p^r^ 



tBROWN, John Mason, critic; author: .Accustomed 
As I Am (Norton; $2), 1942. 

BROWN, Robert Cariton (Bob Brown), author; 
b Chicago. HJ.. June 14, 1886; s. Robert Carlton 
w, S^'S. i?^'^ (Brackett) B.; student U. of 
« u'J ?V ."•*' '"• ^^^^ Johnston. 1918; children— 
Robert Cariton, CV)rnelia (dec.). Began Latin-Amer- 
ican goodwill work with U.S. Com. of Public In- 
formation in Santiago. Chile. 1918; after signing 
of armistice, Crosse«! .the Arides to Buenos Aires 
spending 1 yr. writing for local English pre.ss,' also 
assisted in organizing The American Weekly in 
Buenos Aires; founded (with wife) Brazilian Amer- 
ican. 1919. runmng it for 10 yrs.; also pubs. of 
Me.xican American (.Mexico City) and British (Lon- 
don); known as Latin- Am. specialist; rare book and 
bibelot collector with exhibits in Library of Con- 
gress. Field .MiLseum (Chicago) and Uys Angeles 
Museum. Mem. Psi Upsilon. Clubs: American (Ix)n- 
don); Jockey. Country, Gavea CJolf (Rio de Jan- 
eiro). Autlwr: The Remarkable Adventures of 
Cliristophcr Poe, 1913; Wbat llapperied to M,iry 
1913; My Marjonary, 1916; 1450-1950, 1929; The 
Readies, 1930; Globe-Gliding, 1930; Gems, 1931; 
Nomadne^, 1931; Words. 1931; Demonics, 1931; 
Readles for Bob Brown's Macliine. 1931; U't There 
Be Beer!, 1932; You Gotta Live. 1932; Can We Co- 
operate?, 1940; also several booklets and more than 
one thousand short stories, articies. poems, etc 
Co-author: (with Cora Brown, Rose Brown) The Wlne 
Cookbook, 1934; America Cooks. 1940; Look Before 
You Cook. 1941; (with Rose Brown) Amazing Am- 
azon (Modern Age; $3), 1942. Home: 2416 .Argosy 
Way, Hollywood, Calif. 

BROWN, Rose, author; b. Middletown, 0., Jan. 
6. 1883; d. Robert Edgar and Sarah (Rose) John- 
ston; A.B., Barnard Coli., 1904; B.E., Teach«rs 
College, Columbia U.; m. Robert Carlton Brown, 
1918. Journalist in South America, beginnfng with 
Compub, Chile, during World War I. then went to 
Argentina; founded and pub. with husband, Brazilian 
American, Rio de Janeiro; published, wrote and 
edited (with headquarters in Rio de Janeiro) mags. 
In Mexico, South America and London; has lived 



abroad, including Europe and the Orient, most of 
the tinie since 1918; traveled 8,000 miles with 
husband on Amazon rivers and revisited Colombia, 
Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, 1940- 
41. Mem. Delta Delta Delta. Author: Two Cliildren 
of Brazil, 1940 (Jr. Lit. Guild selection, 1941); 
(with Robert Carlton Brown) Amazing Amazon 
(Modern Age; $3), 1912; Amazon Adventures of 
l^vo Children and American Bmperor, Dom Pedro II 
in preparation. Co-author (with Cora Brown and Bob 
Brown) of 14 books about food and cooking. Home- 
2416 Argosy Way, Hollywood, Calif. 

BURCHETT, Wjlfred G., Australian author; b. 

Poowong, Victoria, Australia, Sept. 16, 1911; s 

George Harold Burchett; m. Erna Hammar, Feb. 5,* 

1938. Left liome at an early age to see Australia 

on foot; went to Englaud and became mem. staff of 

Ihomas Cook & Sons; reorganized and managed 

Intourist (Soviet Tourist Bureau) in London; shortly 

betöre the war broke out was engaged in arranging 

the emigration of political and Jewish refugees from 

Germany; in Australia when World War II broke out 

and he was apptd. rep. to New Caledoiüa for the 

Australian Associated Press; then special rep. to Far 

East and covered the war in Singapore, Burma and 

Ihailand. Author: Pacillc Treasure Island— New 

«J^rn?'"^,n/f- .^- Cheshire, Melbourne, Australia; 

JJ.dü), 1942. Contbr. to various Australian mags 

ßroadcasts for Dept. of Information, Commonwealth 

of Australia. Address: care F. W. Cheshire Pty. 

Ltd., 338 Little Collins St., Melbourne, Victoria. 

Australia. * 

tSURNS, MaJ. Gen. James H.; apptd. chief of 
army ordnance, April 1942. 

tBYOlR, Carl (bi'oir), pub. relations counscl; b 
Des Moines, la., June 24, 1888; s. Benjamin and 
Minna (Gunyan) B.; A.B., U. of la., LL.B.. Colum- 
bia; m Grace Lancaster. Dec. 7, 1921. Reporter, 
Iowa State Register, 1903-05; city editor Waterloo 
(la.) limes-Tribune. 1905-06; largely instrumental in 
jntroducing the Montessori System in America 191*) • 
pres. House of Childhood. Inc.. 1912; with Morga'n 
bhepard founded John Martin's Book for Children 
1913; circulation mgr. The Cosmopolitan (mag)' 
1916; asso. chmn. Committee U.S. Govt. on Public 
Information, 1917-18; chmn. bd. American Gear Co 
?; t}"^ ^^,1^'^^' "'^^ ■P''^s- American Gear Co. of 
\Solol^' ^^•' chmn bd. Am. Gear Co. of Mass., 
l»oS'-^A-^''^^* ^^""^ ^^'°^'' *"^ Associates, Inc. since 
1930. Director of orgn. United Action Campaign for 

flSö ^^ß^o"' A-f^-L.. and Assn. of Nat. Advertisers, 
1932. Gen. dir. of the birthday ball for the Presi- 
dent, 1934, 35. 36, 37. Lt. col. U.S. Army Reserve. 
Decorated Chevalier Order of the Crown of Italy 
Demoerat. Clubs: Advertising. Westchester Country 
(New York); La Gorce Golf (Miami). In 1941 the 
Antitrust Div. of the Dept. of Justice alleged Carl 
Byoir Associates, several grocery chains. two labor 
unions and others had conspired to fix bread prices 
illcgally. ün Coming to trial recently thcse cliarges 
were summarily tlirown out of court, the judge 
obserying: "I have never in aH my forty years' 
experience seen tried a ease that was as absolutely 
devoid of evidence as this." Home: 3 E 77th Ät 
üftice: 10 E. 40th St., New York, N.Y 

Reference: BW, Jan. 17, 1942, p. 45. 

CAMPBELL, Dan Hampton, research in immun- 
Ä^ ^' JT'."^' ?,v '''^"- 18' 1907; s. Ralph C. 

^Sl^^i-^^uT".'. ^^°^''^ ^•' •'^•ß- Wabash Coli.. 
1930, M.S Washington U., 1932; Ph.D., U. of 
Chicago, 193o; m. Margaret Ka-thryn Dorr, May P 
1930; 1 son, John Hampton. Logan research fellow 
U. of Chicago, 1935-37, instr. in bacteriology ami 
ioTSS^T;. 1937-39, a^st. prof. of immunology, 
l?'^?,ir; fellow Ol Rockefeller Foundation Ednl. Bd 
at Cahf. Inst Tech., 1940; asst. prof. immunology.* 
Cahf. Inst. Tech, after June 1942. Began research 
on meehanics of immunity to infeoüous agents at 
VVashington U. and conünued at U. of Chicago 
where he continued immunoehemical studies of 
'Polysaccharides and the significance of antibodies 
produced against chemical portions of infeeüous 
agents; also studied role of inflammation in immune 
responses and significance of sex hormones in natural 
immunity; recently in the news for a method of 
modification of protein molecules to produce antibody 
properties. Received the Howard Taylor Ricketts 
award, U. of Chicago, 1936. Mem. Am. Soc. Im- 
munologists, A.A.A.S., Sigma Xi, Phi Chi. Tau 
Kappa Epsilon. Methodist. Contbr. to scientific 
jours. Home: 5514 Blackstone Av., Chicago, 111. 
Reference: MS. 

CANNON, LeGrand, Jr., author; b. New Ilaven, 
Conn., Dec. 1, 1899; s. LeGrand and Florenee 



Page 95 



(Pond) C; Ph.B., Yale U., 1920; M.B.A., Harvard 
U.. 1922; m. Jeannette Peabody, Dec. 30, 1922; 
children— Jeannette. LeGrand, 3d, Wintlirop. Mar- 
garet. Author: A Mighty Fortrcss, 1937; The Kents, 
1938; Look to the Mountain (Henry Holt; $2 75) 
1942. Home: 56 Laurel Rd,, New llaven, Conn. 

CARTER, William Hoddino, Jr., newspaper pub- 
lisher, author; b. Hammond, La., Feb. 2, 1907; s 
William Hodding and Irma (Dutarte) C ; A B 
Bowdoin Coli., 1927; grad. student in journalism' 
Columbia. 1927-28; teaching fellow, Tulane, 1928-'>9' 
Nieman fellow, Harvard, llMO; m. Betty Brunhilde 
Werlein, Oct. 14, 1931; children— William Hodding 
III, Philip Dutarte. Reporter New Orleans Item 
1929; United Press corr., 1929-31; Associated Press 
corr. and bureau mgr., 1931-32; published Hammond 
(La.) Courier, 1932-36; began Publishing Delta Star 
daily, Greenville, Miss., 1936, accjuired Democrat- 
liines. merging both papers iiito Delta Democrat- 
Times (daily and Sunday). 1938; (on leave) or- 
ganized Nat. Cotton Council (toured 15 states) 
J??'^,'^'"/^^ ^^^^ Newspaper PM, 1940. Enlisted in 
114 F.A., Miss. Nat. Guard, Nov. 1938; entered 
active serv ce as 2d lt., Nov. 25. 1940; duty Camp 
Blandmg Ha., to Apr. 1911; Mil. Intelligence, War 
Dept., Washington, D.C., since Apr. 1941. Mem. 
Miss Press ASS71. (v.p.), S. La. Press Assn. (past 
pres ), Alpha Delta Phi, PI Delta Epsilon Inde- 
pendent Demoerat. Episcopalian. Author: (with Col 
R. Ernest Dupuy) Civilian Defense of the United 
States (Farrar & Rinehart; $2.50). 1942; The Lower 
Mississippi (Rivers of America series; now in prep- 
aration). Contbr. to mags. Home: Greenville Miss 



tCHAVEZ, Carlos, musician; author: Toward a New 
Music (Norton; $2.25), 1942. 

ir^**if^ ^i*^5!u^..*^^*^^" cheng), mil. heir to Chiang 
Kai-shek; b Chekiang, 1900; student Paoting Mil. 
Offlcers Coli.; m. (through introduction of Chiang 
Kai-shek), Tan Chang, dau. of lato pres. of Exec 
Yuan, 1932. Became instr., Whampoa Mil. Cadets 
Acad ; advanced to field comdr., arty. of Nationalist 
Bevolu lonary Forces; chief of mil. edn. of Mil 
Council; dir. of Canton Mil. govt.; comdr. of istli 
Nationalist Army, 1930; field comdr. of NortJiern 
Koute of Communist Suppression Forces, 1934; chief 
V .:^,^^''•»^^¥*^• ^'^^'''s Commn.; pju-ticipated in 
E^r, E^'^F'^ Expdns.; comd. Chinese armies on 
Shanghai Front since 1937. Chen Cheng is the lead- 
er of Whampoa group, soldiers trained under Chiang 
Kai-shek, and is bis mil. heir. In World War II has 
a high place among tJie group directing Chinese 
future Plans; throughout bis career has variously 
stiidied and taugbt polit. science and cconomics 

17, 1939. p. 21; J. Günther, Inside Asia. 

M^"li"°^\ "*'*'oo<' Uwrenee, author; b. Gray 
J?""-' ^*^.„ ^ ^^^^' s- «^•'•"'an Andrew ar>d Eudora 
Fnuices WhUtemore) C; AB., Dartmouth. 19?9; 
P^tAU:w\'u'^V ^-.f Chicago. 1928; m. Willa 
Patricia Whitson June 28. 1922; children— Elizabeth 
Ann Margaret Frances. Martha Louise. Instr. pub 

S^ 9v' l^'^'^'f' ^"•' l»lÖ-20. instr. economki 
19J0-21, asst. prof. economics, Syracuse U i0'^->-'>4' 
asso. prof. govt.. Coli, of William and Mary m^l 

nio^o^i^^S"^^' ^''^• ^'''^- 'P«li"cs, Princeton U.. 
S"5^ ^n?r- I^«seareh asst. Nat. Industrial Conf Bd 
^\l ^^'' FF\ ^^'^ Science Research Councü 
fe ow for study in Germany, 1931-32; Guggenheim 

IaZ v'^ r^"^.r ."? ^'™^"y' 1»3>38; founder and 

1, V.'T. ^^^'^•.^*^'"- '^"i- Assn. Univ. Profs.. Am 
vul^' f'""'!^^ .^'\"- ^'Ph^ Chi Rho. Delta Sigma 
Rho. Served in U.S. Naval Res., 918. Author 
I.abor and Capital in National Politics, 1930 Ref- 
erence Guide to the Study of Public oiinion 1^34' 
An Introduction to Public Opinion 1940- I»r(>oairindi' 
by Short Wave (Princeton U. P/essr$3.75) m^o' 
Translator: The Nazi Primer, 1938. Edi or- Prona: 
ganda and Dictatorshlp, 1936; also May 1935 iss'ue 
of .Annais of .\m. Acad. Polit. and Sociaf Science 

Am ^Pnm ''«.^''"P'n *"^ Propaganda. Contbr to 
Am. Poht Science Review, Am. Jour. of Socio o4 

ah"^h °/, ^'Z?; ^^^- P«"t. and Social Sdenw' 
Atlantic Monthly. etc. Home: 106 Broadmead Adl 
dress: Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. 

CHU TEH (jo-o tä), Chinese army officcr; b. 
Szechwan. 1892; student in Germany and France 
Served as govt. offlcial in Yunnan. until Revolution.* 
1927; went to Russia to study Marxism. joined 
Commiuiists; elected comdr. in chief of the Red 
Army by first Chinese Soviet Cong., 1931; organized 
Communist revolt against Chiang, showed pro-Jap 
tendencies, 1927-37; made peace with Chiang at Jap 



-? 



I I 



Page 96 



Series III, No. 5 



aI^hT 'bS^^^cI.^'^'I 1 n "r%Äman"Trd VaS'fu'^an^d^tdir^'^^^^ ?^'" ''^' ^^""«^ ^^-' '^^' Michael Sebast 

Philosopher, he stand's amorH.''"the' S' oT Chia's uSe AVo^rs^MarS t J^^^^^ S'' düiur^i- SS^^i^^"'^^ ^f?!V ^^'P^'..^^^ 



Sebastian McKinley 
j 1942, a sequel to 

rnil. taeticians. " " ' SliVeV w ""wlrrwTT'^Vk^rnTiiv ?«//'?-' w'^IJ^t'/lT '^'^^ Fisherman and His Cat. Ilas also illu&trated 

Reference: J. Günther. Insidc Asia. U w te.\^^^^^^^ if^^^^STT ""' J'''' ^L"^°S^ ^^.'^ «^^^°«^' ^^^ 

tCOFFIN, Robert P. T., poet; author: There Will and. Suburban: üoston^or»:! "WstS^fk^ecÄd- ^/tnU^Ärtril mV^^^^«hÄ Hoad* 

Bc Breud and Love (iMacmillan; $2), 1W2. vertiser and Boston Herald. 1898-1906; jnng. klitor i-hllad? nhi« p« i>berwoüd Koad. 

Boston Herald, 1906-09, Journal, 1909-11; editor * "IJ^^'^^P^**' * »• 

**""""" Datld Lee, composer; b. Rochester, 
1915; s. Oslas and Anna (Schild- 
student Eastman Seh. of Muslc (U. of 



tCOLBY, Elbridge, author: Arniy Talk (Princeton . " " , '? u' ^*^ö-09, Journal, 1909-11; editor ^.^J^' 

U. Press; S2) 194'> U rincwon ^^^^^ ^ikI tech. publs. (0dl, Paint aiwi Drug Ke- DIAMOND, 

rni Dv r ' "b . w .j 1 .. porter, Pbarmaceutical Era, Soda Fouiitain. Chem- N.Y., July 9, 

M V t7jI ?,"'*?aÄ 5 "R^ l""l*^' ^- ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^'^' «roceries, all of N.Y. City), 1911-38; now ^^"s) D.; stuüeui iwisinian öcn. or music (u. or 

/«:V,»!«f; 1^ li ^^^} d-. J^ambridge and Nathalie writer of biography for boys. Mem. press-^ublicity Rochester). 1930-34; Cleyeland Inst, of Music, 1928- 

(öedtwlck) Colby; ed. private schools and Barnard Mass. SUte Dem. Com.; mem. Good Uovt Assn 30; Am. Conservatory. Fontainebleau, France, sura- 

innJ 7i'„o5Ä i^^ieron Kogers, June 16, 1925 Boston. Brookline (Mass.) Dem. Town Com., Brook' ">«"• 1937 and 1938, New Music and Dalcroze Inst., 

Ä w!l pi;™"iT.o? J^^^^^\^9: Au^^r-, T^« li»e Edn. Soc. Independtnt Democrat. Clubs: Nat. N.Y. City, 1934-36. Composer: Symphony No. 1 for 

2 nnrü . «?ln; •'»^' ^!?A^ ^o® 1^'°^ ^^'"'''' ^'»"^s^ (Washington, D.C.); Kockaway Point Yacht »rchcstra; Concerto for Chamber orchestra; Elegy in 

linmi" im S iol' t:^^ J^K ?°"1?'",V ^° '"^ss. (Queens. N.Y.). Autiwr: He Fought for Freedom Memory of Bavel for brass, harps aiid percussion; 

Jiome. lüü h. 78th i)t., New York, N.Y. (boys* life of Bthan Alkn), 1940; Knight of \he t>v«rture for orchestra; Psalm for orchestra; Con- 

COOPER, Louise Fleld, autiwr; b. Hartford. Revolution (Francis Marion) (Macrae -Smith; $2 50) ^^^^^ ^°^ ^^^^"8 Quartet; Concerto for Violin and 

Conn.. Ma 

(Dunning) 

mingt( 

26. 

Brintnal. 

paper and later iii a bookshop. Author: The Lighted DEGEN. Ida Day. sculotor- b San" Fr.irw.kr.n ?^^^^ ^'•^•^- Symphony. Orchestra of Radio-Zür- 
Box (Duell. Sloan & Pearce; $2.50), m2. Home: Calif.. Oct 10 1888' d See' Fr^nkUn aiJ^^^^^^^^^^ l^' ««^^h^^ter Philharmonie, St. Louis Symphony, 
Clark Road, Wo6dbridge. Conn. Angie (Cole) Day- «md (i^l^^ S^^" "^«^hestral Assn.. Barr^e-Britt Ensemble and 

COTTLER, Joseph, author; b. near Kiev. Russia. Francisco; Student Vk HopünTlnst.of iJ?;'lÄ- ^o^sL^^g^^'iL,^^^^^^^^^^ 
Oot. 20. 1899; s. David and Gertrude (Meltzer) C. 07 CaUf. Seh. Fine Arts. 1935-38; studied umkr CuÄeim felÄ^n ift^^^^ ^aT^' i}?^^} 

brought to U.S., 1901; B.S. in Economics, U. of falph Stackpole and Maurice Stern; also Student PuSion award Ä?- Siof r^^M 
Pa., 1921; m. Elizabeth Steinbrook, Dec. 27, 1927. t'ogswell Polytechnic Coli, and extension courses at i^mn^^l ZJZVi'.J^^^ ?? ^vJ^ ?.'/'""J-„^° 
Worked as Violinist in Italy, July 1921-Mar 1922; U- ot Calif.; m. Walter Degen, Aug. 14, 1909; 1 13? ^T^p nlm nf "17.7? VVescott 's ballet 
teacher of English. Franklin High Seh.. Phila., since smi, Wallace Donald. Exhibited at San 'Francisco mXi mJic De^itl hIp"^^^^^^ 
1922; lived in Mexico City, May 1938-Jan. 1939. Museum of Art; Calif. Palace of Legion of Honor; r,?^ Kpr N v '^'^*'*°"' "°'"'" '^^ Edgerton St., 
Enlisted in Naval R.O.T.C, Oot. 1918; hon. dis- Oakland Art üallery Nat. Sculpture shows; Golden nTflr^^J^'J-' nu\.^. m t^- *• 
charged, 1921. Vice pres. Local 3, Am. Federation ^^»t« Internat. Expn.; Crocker Art Galkry, Sacra- «iri/n« ' '' '^*<^*»«"*''y of Mu- 

of Teachers. Author: Heroes of Civilization (with mt^^lo; Pomona Nat. Sculpture Show; Bbell Gallery ***^'*"'' 

Ilaym Jaffe). 1931; Careers Ahead (with Harold Lo^* Angeles; Denver Art Museum; Fine Arts Gallery, DOMAN, Nicholas, prof.. author, lecturer; b 
Brecht), 1933; Mapmakers (with Haym Jaffe). 1935; ^*^^ York; Corcoran Gallery of Art; Pa. Acad. Fine Bi^lapest. Huiigary. April 10. 1913; s. Edmund aixi 
Champions of Democracy, 1936; Man with Wings A^ts; Isaac Dclgado Museum. New Orleans; small ^•"^"^ Donian; Student London Seh. of Economic» 
(Little, Brown; $2.50), 1942. Contbr. musical sculptures at San Francisco Museum of Art, Mar '*'^32; Dr. Jurisprudence and Polit. Science. U of 
criticism to trade jours. and to RCA-Victor Record 1^1» one-raan stiow of sculpture and mosaic at Butlapcst, 1934; Student U. of Milan. 1934; M \ 
Review. Home: Gladstone Hotel, Philadelphia, Pa. -^^«ent GaUeries, N.Y. City, Feö. m2. Demon- ^- ^^ <^o'o-. li>35; Student Geneva Seh. of Internat* 
tDABNEY, Vlralnjus, editor Richmond Times- au- fffl^^ Ü™^ ^Ü^^ sculpture daily for 3 months, filf^^?^/ J?37, unmarried. See, Danube League,* 
thor: Below^inotonmc (^^^^^ ^''^''' ^/»^? Expn. 1940. Bepresented at Calif! 1933-^; with fgn. exchange div.. Hungarian (Jen-* 

naiTfiM IJ..-I. n .• 77'""'*^^';*^- I'alace of Legion of Honor; Gothic stone ligure ""» Creditbank. Budapest, 1936-38; asso. with Re- 

,oii "..* ""^"u' 5f 'M^^' J^^°'' ^^''^y ^^^^''' ^' ^^^^^^ 0" ^riice Cathedral, San Francisco (Ist per- ''^^^ ^^ Foreign Affairs. Budapest. 1936-39; lecturer 
1887; s llev. John Neale D.; Student Bton Coli.; son to do this). Hon. mention Calif. Seh Fine ^- ®^ ^^^°-' ^939; on research faculty U of CIU- 
M.A. with Iwnors) King's Coli. Cambridge U., Arts, 1938; hon. mention for stone carving * Marin ^^^°' 1939-40; lecturer. Rotary Internat. Inst am! 
Eng. ; Student Ivoiidon School of Economics and Polit. Artists annual. Drake Auditorium. San Anselmo ^dult Edn. Council, lMO-41; asst. prof eovt and 
fecience. U. of I^ndon; D.Sc, London U. and U. of 1940, Ist prize in sculpture 1941. Served on juries ««>nomiM, Coli, of William and Mary 1941-4'>- 
Sydney (Austraia); m. Ruth Fox, former mem. of seleetion for sculpture at Marin Artists annual ^a^^io ««"imentator on Internat. afTalrs. lecturer since 

Brit. House of Commons (Labor party), 1940. Quali- show s.m Anc*.imn /'«nf m^n m«,. l.„.. ,^ = iqh(% Mpm Am v:^ t„» * t/_. . •. . 

fied as lawyer (Middle Tehiple London), senior 

Brit. ranking, 1914. Served as Heut, in Brit. Army 

Service Corps and Arty., 1914-19; on both French 

and Italian front^( decorat ed with Italian Mil. lo^uij^tuic, uam. ocu. rine jvris, iwi. Mem. Nat. .""'**•' ' "*"» »' me Äieuiierranean, 1939; The Com- 

Medal of Valor. 1017). Special invcstigaüon work Assn. Women Artists, San Francisco Art Assn San ^"^ -^ß« «^ World Control (Haroers; $3) 1(M2 

Sonnmir.« T'^Ir i^l ^^^''iail^oS' ^'^^"'"'» ?" Francisco Soc. Women Artists (exec. sec.. mem. öd. A^^'i'^^- !>"»<« of Gioucester StreTt. Williamsirr.' 

Economics, U. of London, 1919-36; mem. Brit. dirs., artists Council. 1940. 1941) Mann Soc of Virginia. 

House of Commons at various times since 1924, and Artists, New Orleans Art Assn Conglist Joined 

currently; under sec. of State for foreign affairs. stock Company Fulton Theatre. (jakland 1927- mpm 

1929-31; chmn. nat. Organization of Brit. Labor Actors Equity, 2 yrs. Home: 2717 (ireenwiVh ir 

party, 1936-37 (called one of the most brilliant of Studio: 802 Moutgomery iyt.. San Francisco rälif 

Brit. Labor party leaders); minister of economic DEGCNHARn wniL T , 'f * ^^''^• 

• " - DEBENHARD, William, author; b. San Fran- 



Gioucester Street, Williamsburg. 

r ^«JF^^^^^J» '*'«'»"«» P«et; b- Austin. MInn.. .\pr. 
5. 1904; Student U. of Minn., 1922-23; A B Dart- 
mouth Coli. 1926; Cambridge U.. 1929; Student 
(irad Seh. of Arts and Sciences. Hanard U. 193*>- 
.U; M.A., Umbridge U., 1933; m. Helen Elizabeth 



warfare in Churchill Cabinet. 1940-42- ores Brit • "f;,.,^"T? **""*'"» author; b. San Fran- •^•«. m.a., LamDrWge U., 1933; m. Helen EUzabeth 

Bd. of Trade since Feb. 1W2 Mem. Statutöry ?S?.' ^^'^•' J^^' P'J^^^' ^B.. Fordham U.. £"l^''^i"^^,29 ^Ml. Master in English, St. 

Commn. of Cambridge U. sincf 1923. Lm^ündl K- Tt^V^^-kuo"^^/- .P' Regulators (Diai ^r^J^^'-}.^''^^^^^^ Mass., 1933-41; Header 

of Brit. Royal Statis. Soc., 1923-25. Author: Un- tl?i ' E\i'\ ^^^' S°"^^^- "»ystery and de- ff English, Coli. Entrance Examination Bd., Colum- 

balanced Budgets; A Study of the Financial Crisis S %5 v '"*^^- "'^™^- ^^^^ ^^"^ A^-» New ^'^ U., annually since 1934; teadier of English 

in Fifteen Count^ies. 1934; Praetical Soeialism for ' ^•** Cambridge Seh., Kendal Green, Mass., since 1941* 

Britain, 1935; Prineiples of Public Finance, 1936. *tDeLEE, Joseph Bollvar, obstetrician (Apr 2 ^^^^'"'■- ^ Bravery of Barth (London and New 

References: CSM, Aug. 16. 1941, p. 3; New ^^2). • York). 1930; Reading the Spirit (London and New 

Repubnc, June 28, 1939. p. 206. References: Chicago TriKn». a». o tn^o. York). ]g.?8. .t7r Snntr .n^ r^n. /f»..^.„v «».. 



suciitiwj rress. lyzö; cniiarens agent, Child Plac- Sch NY Citv itkd \ y ^^h vir!: a r" Llstener (London). The Soecl 

ing Bureau. State Charities .^d Assn.. 1933-37. plied Arts' 1925- Student Ar? Hit. i^^^^ *'!'^ ^^' «thers; also in anthologles 2 

rfhf vlSngs'^^te-'^a^r'IS^T. ^'''^r. '^T' ?9:^-29;^udief illuÄ ulider'Ä^^C Ä' ^«^-" ^erse, Tw D^onl. 

get, 1930; No Other White Men. 1936: Peter Haie. FrSi«?' Ä., ^vJl^^'-f^^,^*!"-'^^""^^ P« Witt, ^^«^ York, N.Y. 



The 

and 

The Faber Book of 

Vertical, The Lyric 

Oxford üniversity Press, 



DEAN. 



Key to indicators: f see "Who's Who in America»'- • r?i«wl M<if<> «# ^ av . 
biographical deUiL n,ay be found ?n "Whö'rwho in America^' (Ref««;" ^»«n'hesM) ; »f died. füll 



• 



May, 1942 



• 



2» 



• 



Cecchlnl, July 27, 1927. Teacher of advanced theory 
and compositJon, Cleveland Inst, of Music since 
1928. asst dir.. 1935; program note editor for 
Cleveland Orchestra. 1929-34; music eriüc on Cleve- 
land Piain Dealer since 1932. Fellow Am. Acad in 
Korne; mem. League of Composers, Am. Composers 
Alllance. Pi Kappa Lambda. Compositions: Quintet 
for Piano and Strings; Piano Sonata; Tiie llappy 
Hypocrite (ballet); Suite from The Happy Hypo- 
crite; Sonata for Violin and Piano; String Quartet 
in E Minor (Cleveland. 1940); also songs and piano 
fan^ü ^^^ ^' ^^^y^'f« ^oad, Cleve- 

References: Baker, Bioir. Dictionary of 
MoaicUna; J. T. Howard, Our Contemp. 
Composers. *^ 

1 f*^*? \ Lehman, composer, conductor. author 

l^^T,'. ^» ''^/V"'?"' ^'''•' ^P^- 14' l«iO; s. Eliis 
and Juliette (Lehman) E.; music Student. Cincin- 

naü. 1926-28, Cincinnati Coli, of Music 19'>7-'>i)- 
JLo?"!!' co'^'^W'^ion, Julliard Grad. Seh., N.Y.\^ilty' 
lWO-34; ^unmamed. Orgaiiizer, condr., Madrigal 
Singers, in 1000 concerto. t>roadcasts. recordings ' 
writer condr. music for 33 Broadway producüoiis' 
Inc uding Within the Gates. Murder in the Cathe- 

ÄJ^A.. ^^'"*^^'''' ""^^^y» ll^fnl^t, Midsummer 
Naht's Dream, The Time of Your Life; condr 
t^ra Preinieres, Der Jasager, Second ilurricane* 
Cradle Will Rock. Johnny Johnson; composer, SJ' 
music lexaco oroadeasts, 1939-40; condr. orciies- 
tra, Gene Autry broadcasts; condr. (also staged) 
Beggar's Opera, Carnegie Inst.. Pittsburgh. a^ d 
Bucks County Playhouse (New Hope, Pa) 194 • 
founder. pres Arrow Music Press, Inc.. iin-Ät 
^,Z:r!uiJ \t^^ contenvporary music; Jeeturer at 
unwers^ ies, coUeges, schools; composer of 2 operas 

cinnaU. 1929), 1 symplwny, quartet, ciioral pieces 
Piano Sonata etc. Author: (4 vols.) Renaiss^c« 
to Baroque: Three Centuries of Choral Music (Sd 

F fmT \' ^^^^l?- ^^«^ '^' *"J ^«"PiJed Strange 
E'"'^*'^ Jf'^ ^"8^ of Henry VIII. Contbr. to 
MJi/°2»..T^' ,^f^ York Herald- rnbune. Mode r 
Muse. Southern Literary Messenger, Theatre Arts 

Al"f "^Nei York n' y' ^"'"^'''' ^^'^''''- ^^ ^'''"^*' 
References; Baker, Bioar. Dictionary of 

CompiteV^ '' ^- «^"^••^' «"' ^^-te-np. 
lV^2)''^* **"" Frederlck, newspapernvan (Mar. 

Reference: Chicago Tribüne. Mar. 12, 1942. 

EUBANK, Euflene L. (yo~o-bangk). U s' armv 
T^r'J'Jt'-'-' ?:'■ ?• .^«Ö2; joh/ed Army 7Z 
iQ^TtJ^h^ ' o\^ u "^"^i^" ^^<^^' ^'Snal Corps, 
in J" L^^*""' ^V^' ">^'<^^»« seh., aviation sect. 

.V .V*"*"^"^- *^ Gen. Staff Seil.. 1938 and 
ra ed Pilo combat observer; became füll maj.. June 

i?i^- li^'^i'^ ^" ^^'^^ ^''' " in Australia with 
y;ü:..r.tlü ^Ofc^'„anno»"ced that Am. bombers liud 
accounted for 46 Jap transports and 16 warsliins 
within war's rtrst 11 weeks. warsnips 

Reference: Army Rerbter. 

r f^5y»»*owanl, author: Goethals and tiie Panama 
1M431Q1k''""' ' ^^^ ^''' ^^'' öupplement, 

II ^^''OROVA, Nina, author: The Cliildren (Uttle 
.5r,7"- »2.50), im (see this Supplement, i: 

FERNANDEZ-ARTüCiO, Hugo. (fSr-nän'dgs-är- 

«mJ °', '"'^J'^K' ^'^J- ^^ «>»"l«s"Phy. U. of Monte- 
Vl •» ^'^ Montevideo, Uruguay, Mar. 30. 1912; s 
Alberto Fernandez and Maria Artueio; student Liceö 
Jose Enrique Rodo, Montevideo, and U. of Monte- 
video; unmarned. Became prof. of philosopliy, U 
of Montevideo. 1935; has lectured at Univs. of San- 
tiago (Ctnle), Mexico. Columbia. 1938-42. Exposed 
Nazi plot to overthrow tlie Govt. of Republic of 
Uruguay and direoted the flrst Congressional in- 
vestigation of subversive acüvities in S. America; 
appeared as witness for U.S. in Tranocean News 
Agency Trial; invtted by Brit. Council to vlsit Eng- 
land to witness the war efforts of Great Britain; 
lectured at Chatbam House and Oxford; pres. In- 
ternat. Commn. to study religious and philos. bases 
for peaoe, 2d World Youth Congress, 1938; sec. 
Sooialist party of Uruguay. 1933; now dir. for Latin 
America of Free World Movement. Acquitted in 
Charge of Übel preferred by Nat. Socialist agents 
in Uruguay. Author: Tlie Nazi Underground in 
South America (Farrar & Rinehart; $3), 1942; also 



books pub. in Uruguay. Contbr. to mags. in S 
America, U.S. and Eng. Home: 18 de julio 1465 
Montevideo, Uruguay. Address: 55 W. 42nd St. 
New York. N.Y. 



Page 97 



♦TFIELD, Rachel, author (Mar. 15, 1942). 

nA^^^J^Jf^^^^^' ^^'^» Mar. 16, 1942; TM. Oct. 
24 1938. p. 69; CSM. Nov. 2. 1938. p. 11; 
SRL, Oct. 22, 1938. p. 10. Oct. 15. 1938. p. 1 
Millett. Contemp. Am. Authors. 
*tnSKE, Bradley Allen, U.S. naval offleer (Apr. 7. 

7 ^;![o""''?n' ^y^' ^P''- ^' 1Ö42 ; NYr. Feb. 
7. 1942. p. 10 ; Navy Register. 

i^ r^'^1!'!.^' Vauohn, painter; b. Louisville. Ky.. 
;%*■,?' .^'' ^- •'^"•*^ä Benjamin and Nancy Kent 
(Maddüx) F.; student Art Inst., Chicago, and pri- 
i1^ lao^^' ??:. Elizabeth Anderson Ettinger. June 
14, 1926; children— Kent Vaughn. Liza Maddox. 
itepresented in Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh; Bal- 
timore Museum; Phillips Memorial. Washington. 
D.(..; Kraushaar Galleries, N.Y. City; and privat^ 
eolleotions of Jotm Hay Whitney, Gerald Uuch, ctc 
Now serving as ohief. Graphic Div.. Offlee of Facts 
and I-igures, Office of Bmergency Management 
Washington D.C. Dir. Md. Horsebreeders Assn '; 
l* T^.' ^^' Ai>erdeen-Angus Breeder Assn. Club: 

Sgtt.'Md!' ^"^"'^ """'•' ^''^^ ^^^'"^' 

n f*"^»"1T»u^"?*" Frances, librarian. author; b. 
Detroit, Mich Nov 20, 1907; j. George Tliomas 

(dec.) and Edith Mary (Jacobs) Fleury; student 
n ""[ ^^'?^^' ^^26-27; A.B., in Library Science, 
U. of Mich., 1930. A.M.. Aug. 1942; unmarried! 

• .^" ^'^'^^ librarian, Detroit public sdiools 
since 1930, now at Wilson Intermediate Sch ; staff 
mem m cliarge wriüng for cliildren and' young 
people, Bread Loaf (Vt.) Writers Conf. since 
IMO. Now serving as teacher of air raid wardens. 
Mem. Am. Library Assn., Mich. Library Assn.. 
AutJiors League. Nat. League Am. Penwomen, Black 

?oQ«. ^"A^^Vk Luekypiece, 1936; Runaway Deer. 

800 'inni ?./^' ^^^ A^^^^^"' ^^-SO). 1942. Home 
800 LongteUow Av.. Detroit, Mich. 

,• /""P^'w^?"*'* Michael, Australian army min- 
wi,!['rK,^'^^«"' ^"^^"sland. July 18, 1890; stu- 
r "nÄ"^, ^'■°'- ^^- '^'oowoomba; ,m. Veronica 
C ÜReilly; 1 son, 3 daus. Became teaclicr eiec 

mf'lo/T o^- ^'■^'" Queensland, Legislative Assem- 
bly. 1917-22; mem. House of Reps. since 1922. of 
Royal Commn. of Motion Pieture Industry. 1927-28 
of I üb. Accounts Com., 1929; asst. minister of 
irade and Customs in Scullin Govt., 1929-30 then 
»""ister 1930-31; acting minister of mrkets and 
transport 1930-31; dep. leader of Fed. Labor party 
since 1932; Australian army minister since 1942. 

//t^^^mI'.^'*»»^'^"*' author: A History of Oklahoma 
(U. of Okla. Press; $3.50), 1942. 



jJ^^OSTER, Marcellus Elllott, editor (April 1, 

Reference: NYHT, Apr. 2. 1942. 

FRANCE, Harry Clinton, financial writer. lec- 
turer; b. Richmondville. N.Y.. July 17, 1890; s 
Julius Henry and EHen Rocelia (Leonard) F ; AB* 
Wesleyan U., 1913; grad. student U. of Pa 1915- 
17, Columbia 1923-25; grad. Sch. of Öratory. 
Northwestern U.. 1918; m. Beulah Sanford Osborn 
Mar. 26 1927; 1 step-daughter. Winifred Osborn 

?,*!^?L''ir/ ^^''^^''^^^'^> N.Y.. 1908-09; head 
English dept. Banks Business Coli., Phila., 1915-17; 
mi-r 10. K^- Pi^^JJC-speaking courses, Chicago, 
1917-18, public relations successively with Govt 
Loan Orgn of U.S. Treasury, Guaranty Trust Co.' 
lamilton Nat. Bank, N.Y. City, 1919-26; sec.-treas 
Holnies-Franee Security Corp., Detroit, 1926-30- fi- 
nancial writer, lecturer. adviser since 1931; lecturer 
at various times at Columbia, New York U., Wayne 
U sinee 1919; writer of weekly syndicated column 
on flnance and Investments since 1933; lecturer 
before clubs aiid soes., bankers' groups, etc. Lec- 
T'.^'""? ?f ist lt.). O.T.C.. Camp Jos;ph E 
Johnston. Jacksonyille, Fla.. June-Dec. 1918. Tre^.' 
N Y. Deaconess Assn.; trustee I8th St. Methodist 
Church. Mem. Beta Theta. Clubs: Faculty (Colum- 

DH ; Ä ^^iV^M^?^^- "^'"«•- 258'RiveSe 
Drive. Office: 347 Madison Av., New York. N.Y. 

♦fFRICK, William Jacob, siu-geon (Apr. 1. 1942) 
Reference: NYHT, Apr. 8, 1942. 

GANDHI, Mohandas Karamchand (gän'dS, mö- 

lan'dös kä-räm'chänd), Hindu religious and social 

leader; b. Porbander, India. Oot. 2, 1869, the son 

and grandson of two local prime ministers; mother 

was devoutly religious and given to frequent fasts; 



Student, U. of Almedabad, and law sch., London, 
1889-91; m. Kasturbai, 1882; 4 children. Began 
practice of law, Bombay, 1891; removed practiee to 
large Indian S. African colony, where he prospered; 
founded newspaper "Indian Opinion"; wrote as his 
llrst book "Indian Independenee"; helped Brit or- 
ganize med. corps, Boer War, 1893; going personally 
to London, 1914, volunteered to establish Indian 
ambulanee corps, World War I; returned to India at 
45, beginning bis great work, the hermitage for 
Untouchables— now grown to modern problem of 
Indian-British relations; Gandhi worked in cause of 
Untouciiables hut himself believes steadfastly in 
Hinduism; achieved Indian acceptance of internal 
civil obedience but kept it an unarmed State; 
originated Indian effort for escape from Britain yet 
since 1939 has been Britain's best friend in India- 
rww a non-mem. Indian Congress. yet India's most 
im^rtant liying Citizen who leads 350,000,000 people, 
a fifth of human race. Following the tragedy of 
Amritsar 1919 (by a Brit. generalis Orders, hundreds 
of unarmed Indians unable to escape. were killed) 
Gandhi proclaimed "Satyagraha," his theory of pas- 
siye-resistance: that Indians endure every violence 
without resistanee or complaint under threat of his 
undertakmg a fast to avenge Üieir failure. FormaJly 
broke with Gt. Brit. and returned several ,medals 
received for S. African work; suggested Britain 
cooperate with India. 1921; was arrested by Brit 
and sentenced to 6 yrs.. released in 2; gained 
increasing support for anti-Brit. movement 19->3-34- 
resigned from Indian Nat. Cong.. 1934, retiring to' 
remote Segaon in the midst of Untouchables colony 
to work prodigiously but behind the scenes; sees 
thousands of visitors, polit. and relig., working on 
rural reconstruction hut also on India's ambitiun for 
dominion Status which was negotiated, Mar 194-i 
if ""^"i "^/Jtiations with Sir Stafford Gripps took 
stand that. -though he opposed Japs. India siiould not 
become further involved in the war). Arrested se^-- 
eral tmes since 1921. ending each with unique fasts 
done in the name of Indian polit. progress and the 
social progress of Untouchables (essentially weapon 

'wmv%t hP^ 't"^^'' '^^"^*"« to take responsi- 
?nH L , ^-f "^^^J ?^'" starvation); gains support 
and popularity with his 5-point program: for village 
welfare support of home spinning for which he 

Hon? 1/^\T/^^' *^'^"^^«" i" ^^"as^s for voca 
tional edn.. better sanitation. inclusion of Untouch- 
ables in Community life. and increased village indus- 
trlal Iife. Author: Indian Home Rule- Universil 

?.Thi a'?!;^ '"'i^' ^'"'^ «^ ^y Experiments wtl 
Jr 5;if ro'^rif^'i'^^.^ .jP^b- I'^ia) ; Seif Indulgence 
vs. Seif Control; Guide to Health 

^u'^fff.""*^??* Kotarian. Feb.* 1942. p 14- 
Christian Century. Nov. 5, 1941 n 135« • 
July 24. 1940, p. 921; July 12 1939 n 8ß7 ^ 
Apr. 19. 1939. p. 520 ;' Dec.^4.• 1938 p 1552 : 
S^^^o 2' 1938. p. 269 : Education. Ma?. mo.* 

"'ff^^JS'**®*^' l^ec. 1939, p. 25: May 1941 

1939' 'r, T/- ""a^"^- 1-«1«*Ö' P. 29; Srar.''l3; 
i»dy, p. 24 ; Asia, Sept. 1941 n 4fi7 • n««^ 

l»40. p. 564 ; LI, May 12. 1941 n 92 • NVT 
Sept. 15. 1940, p. 20f CSM. Mar^'l 194^^p' 

l • f.^^*« i^' }^^h P- 5 ' COL. July 20 1940' 
P. 16: school and Society. Nov 27 iqq7 «' 

694; RD. Dec. 1938. p lll NA ' Mal' 27* 

1939, p. 617 ; J. Günther. liside Asia. "^ ^^' 

tGARRETT, Garet; resigns as cliief editorial writer 
Saturday Evening Post. March, 1942. 

GERVASI, Frank (Henry) (ger-vä'sl), foreign 
corr.; h. Baltimore. Md., Feb. 5, 1906; s. Eugene 
Leone and Ther^se (Guarner) G.; grad. South Phil- 
ade phia High Sch., 1926; Student Drexel Inst of 
Technology, 1927-28, U. of Fa., 1928-29; m. Kath- 
ryn Elizabeth McGuigan, Jan. 6, 1930; 2 sons, Sean 
David Eugene Michael. Reporter, Philadelphia 
Jr^üi?' 1929-30, Associated Press, N.Y. City. 1930- 
34; Washington corr. covering diplomaüc beat. Uni- 
versal Service, Jan.-Aug. 1934; Madrid corr.. Ilearst 
Newspapers, Aug. 1934-Jan. 1935, London bureau of 
same, Jan 1935-May 1935; Chief Rome bureau of 
Internat. News Service. May 1935-April 1939; rov- 
ing corr.. Collier's Weekly. since 1939; has covered 
Europe Asia. Middle East. Africa. India, Singa- 
pore, Slam, Philippines; has interviewed many im- 
portant World figures of today. Mem. Am. Acad. 
Polit. and Social Science. Club: Overseas Press 

«0 .0°^' i^.'J ^^ ^''^" ^*^^« (Doubleday, Doran'; 
!t V 'v.l^^-« "^'"^- 79 Sagamore Rd., Bronxville. 
N.Y. Office: 250 Park .\v.. New York, N.Y. 

c S^^^S'x, "*'"''* ^''» ^^^^'^' ai'tist; b. Cold 
Spring, N.Y., Aug. 16. 1905; s. Harold Carl and 



I I 



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Series III, No. 5 



I 



Mary Brindsmaid (de Camp) G.; A.B., Yale, 1920; 
n.F.A., Yüle «eh. of Architecture, 1930; studei>t 
Fontainebleau-Ecüle Americaiiic dos Beaux Arts, 
1930. Lived in France, 1930-33 and suninier of 1935. 
Has exhibited at Acad. of Design, 1941, and ex- 
hibition of Am. Etchers Soc, 1942 (prints in each 
acquired through Penneil Fund for Library of i'on- 
gress). Mem. Pili Beta Kappa. Deinocrat. Mem. 
Dutcii Refornied Cii. Autiror: All Meri Ilave Ix)ved 
Thee: A Song of France (Richard R. Smith; $3.75), 

1941. Home: Boonton, N.J. Studio: 37 W. 14th 
St., New York, N.Y. 

GIDDINGS, Thaddeus Philander, music Super- 
visor, writer; b. Anoka, Minn., Feb. 19, 1869; s. 
Aurora VV. and Mary Eleanor (Simons) G.; grad. 
Anoka High 8ch.; Master Public Seh. Music, Mac- 
Phail i5eh. of Music, Minneapolis; unmarriod. Su- 
pervisor of music, Anoka, 1886-88; taught country 
seh., 1889-90; Supervisor of music. Moline (111.) 
schs., 1891-94, üak Park (111.), 1894-1910, Min- 
neapolis, since 1910-42 (retiring) ; taught pub. seh. 
music methods, U. of Minn., 14 yrs., MaePhail 
Seh. of Music, 22 yrs. Founder (with J. E. Mad- 
dy) and vice pres., Nat. Music CJamp, Interlochen, 
Mich. Author: Grade School MiLsic Teaching, 1912; 
High School Music Teaching, 1920; Music Educa- 
tion, 1920-25; Universal Teacher, 1926; Willis Grad- 
ed ürchestra Series (3 vols.), 1924-26; Instrumental 
Technic, 1928; Fun in Music (25 vols.), 1938. 
Home: Anoka, Minn. 

References: Etüde, Feb. 1942, p. 89; Nat. 
Edn. Assn. Jour., Sept. 1940, p. 181 ; CSM, 
Aug. 31. 1939, p. 3. 

GILLESPIE, Robert D., psychiatrist; b. Glasgow, 
Sootland, Dec. 15, 1896; s. Campbell and Eleanor 
(Chalmers) G.; Student Glasgow U.. 1915-24 (M.B.. 
1920, M.D. with honors, 1924); Diploma in Psychol. 
Medicin^, U. of London, 1922; Pinsent-Darwin re- 
search Student, Cambridge U., 1926-29; m. Audrey 
Margaret Mary Howard, Aug. 8, 1930; 1 dau., 
Cliristina Audrey. Asst. resident psychiatrist, John 
Hopkins Hosp., Baltimore, 1923-25; physician in 
psychol. medicine, Guy's Hosp., London, since 1926; 
examiner in psychol. medicine, London U., 1934-39; 
McNeil lecturer in psychopathology, Aberdeen U., 
1935: Salmon lecturer N.Y. City, 1941. Psychiatric 
specialist Royal Air Force Vol. Reserve (wing 
comdr.) since 1939. Fellow Royal Coli. Physicians, 
Ivondon; fellow Royal Soc. Medicine; corr. mem. 
.\m. Psychiatric Assn. Mem. Ch. of England. Club: 
.\thenaeum (Ix)n(ion). Author: Text Book of 
Psychiatry (with D. K. Henderson). 5th edit., 1940; 
Sleep, 1929; Mind in Daily Life, 1933; PsjThological 
Effects of War on Citizen and Soldier (Norton; $3), 

1942. Contbr. to med. Jours. Home: Brown's 
Copse, Heyshott, Midhurst, Sussex, England. Of- 
fice: Nuffleld House, Guy's Hospital, London, S.E.l, 
England. 

GINSBERG, Eli, economist, author; b. N.Y. City, 
Apr. 30, 1911; s. Louis and Adele (Katzenstein) 
G.; A.B., Columbia, 1931, A.M., 1932, Ph.D., 1933; 
Student Heidelberg U., 1928-29, Grenoble U., Sum- 
mer 1929; unmarried. Research associate, Columbia 
U. Council for Research in Social Sciences, 1934-35; 
instr. of economics. Seh. of Business, Columbia, 
since 1935; dir. of research In economics and group 
behavior, Columbia U. Council for Research in 
Social Sciences, 1939-41; dir. of research, Allot- 
ment Com., United Jewish Appeal, 1941; dir. of 
research In determinants of occupational choice and 
adjustment under Roekefeller grant, 1941-42. Mem. 
com. on war time requirements for specialized per- 
sonnel, Nat. Resources Planning Bd. Mem. A..\.A,S., 
Acad. Polit. Science, Am. Econ. Assn., Beta Gamma 
Sigma, Phl Beta Kappa. .\uthor: Economics of the 
Bible, 1932; The House of Adam Smith, 1934; The 
Illusion of Eiconomic Stability, 1939; Report to 
.\merican Jews on Overseas Relief, Palestine, and 
Refugees in the U.S., 1942; Grass on the Slag Heaps 
—The Story of the Welsh Miner (Harper; $2.50), 
1942; What Unemployment Does to People (2 vols.) 
and Patterns of Labor Leadership (in preparation). 
Contbr. to Sat. Review Lit., Am. Econ. Review, 
Polit. Science Quarterly, etc. Home: 435 W. 119th 
St., New York, N.Y. 

GINSBURGH, A. Robert (gins'bürg), army of- 
ficer, dir. public relations and information, Services 
of Supply, War Dept.; b. Russia, May 30, 1895; s. 
David and Anne (Ellion) G.; brought to U.S., 1904; 
A.B., magna cum laude, Harvard U., 1917, LL.B., 



1936; M.A. in hisim, U. of Loiüsville, 1922; M.A. 
in journalism, U. of Mo., 1931; grad. Field Artillery 
Seh., 1922, Army Industrial Coli., 1938; m. Elsie 
BuUitt Pinney, Dec. 29, 1922; children— Robert, 
Anne and Martha (twins). Commd. 2d lt., Regulär 
Army, 1917, iiow col.; servcd as pub. relations of- 
licer for See. of War Patrick J. llurley, 1931-33; 
admitted to D.C. bar, 1936; press relations offleer 
for Asst. See. of War Johnson, and Under See. of 
War Patterson, 1937-42; dir. public relations and 
Information, Services of Supply, War Dept., since 
1942. Autiwr of miscellaneous Army Articles for 
current mags. Mem. Phi Beta Kappa, Delta Sigma 
Rho. Unitarian. Home: 13 E. Underwood, Chevy 
Chase, Md. Office: Munitions Bldg., Washington, 
D.C. 

References: Army Register; Am. Mercury, 
Oet. 1940. p. 223. 

*tGORMAN, James Edward, ry. pres. (Mar. 25, 
1942). 

Reference: Chicago Tribüne, Mar. 26. 1942. 

GRAF, Herbert, »tage dir.; b. Vienna, Austria, 
Apr. 10, 1903; s. Max and Olga (Hoenig) G.; od. 
State Acad. of Music, Vienna, 1921-25; Pli.D. and 
Mus.D., U. of Vienna, 1925; m. Liselotte Auster- 
litz, Feb. 28, 1927; 1 son, Werner. Came to U.S., 
1934. Singer and stage dir., Muenster, Westphalia, 
Germany, 1925-26; head stage dir. Municipal Dpera 
House, Breslau, 1920-29; head stage dir. Municipal 
Opera House, Franl(furt, Germany, and head opera 
dept. Music Academy, 1929-33; stage dir. Basel, 
Switzerland, with Felix Weingartner, and in Prague, 
Czeehoslovaliia, of productions of Handel's "Josua," 
1933-34; stage dir. Phila. Ürchestra Assn., 1934-35, 
Salzburg Festivals, 1935, 36, 37, Florcnce May 
Festival (wiUi Arturo Toscanini, and Bruno Walter), 
1935-38, Metropolitan Oi>era, N.Y. City, since 1936; 
guest stage dir. San Francisco Opera sirice 1937; 
head opera dept. Berksliire Music Center sinco 1940; 
was also guest stage dir. Central City, Cleveland, 
Rome, Vienna, Paris, etc. Lectures at Leland Stan- 
ford ü., U. of Southern Calif. and Harvard U. 
Mem. bd. govs. American Guild of Musical Artists. 
Author: The Opera and Its Future in America 
(Norton; $4.75), 1941. Contbr. to mags. Home: 
Bedlord, N.Y. Address: Metropolitan Opera House, 
39th St. and Broadway, New Yoric, N.Y. 

Reference: Theatre Arts, June 1938, p. 
393. 

tGRAHAM, Frank D., economist; author: Design 
for Demoeracy (Princeton U. Press; $3.50), 1942. 

♦tGRAVES, Bibb, ex-gov. (Mar. 14, 1942). 

References: NYT, Mar. 15. 1942; TM, Aug. 
30, 1937, p. 15. 

GREEN, Alan Baer, advertising, autlior: b. Pltts- 
burgh, Pa., üct. 30, 1906; s. Morris A. and Jose- 
phine (Baer) ü.; Student Berkeley Irving Prep. 
Seh,, N.Y. City, 1922-24; special courses Columbia, 
1924-26; m. Gladys Elizabeth Blun, June 16, 1931; 
children — Christopher, Stephen, Thomas. Founded 
Green-Brodie, Inc., advertising, N.Y. City, 1928; 
also author and contbr. to mags. Author: (mys- 
teries under co-pseudonyms of Roger Denbie and 
Glen Burne) Death on the Limited (with Julian 
Brodle), 1934; Death Cruiscs South (with Julian 
Brodie), 1935; Murder to Music (with Gladys E. 
Blun Green), 1935; (with Jaclc Goodman) Iiow to 
Do Praoticaliy Anything (Simon & Schuster; $1.75), 
1942; also (with Julian Brodie) Love on Uie Run, 
full-iength novel published in Cosmopolitan and 
later produced as moüon picture, 1937. Contbr. to 
mags. Home: 430 E. 86th St. Offlee: 485 Madison 
Av., New York, N.Y. 

tGREGORY, Col. William Edward, supt. Culver 
Mil. Acad.; ordered to aotive duty in 5th Armored 
Div., beginning May 1, and granted leave of absence 
for duration. 

GRIFFIS, Elliot, composer, planist, teaclwr; b. 
Boston, Mass., Jan. 28. 1893; ß. Rev. William 
Elliot and Katharine Lyra (Stanton) G.; Student 
Ithaca (N.Y.) High Seh., and Ithaca CoH. (music), 
1909-13, Yale Seh. of Music, 1913-15 (studied uiKler 
Horaüo Parker), Yale Seh. of Fine Arts. 1915-16, 
New England Conservatory of Music, 1917-18 (studied 
under G. W. Chadwick, Stuart Mason, Lee Patti- 
son); also study in London, Paris, Vienna; hon. 
Mus.D., N.Y. Coli. Music, 1937; unmarried. Instr. 
in piano playing, Grinnell (la.) Coli., 1920-22, 
Brooklyn (N.Y.) Settlement Seh., 1923-24; head 
theory dept. St. Louis Inst, of Music, 1935-36; 



teacher of piano and theory; lecturer, lecture reeital- 
ist; radio appearances as pianist and aecompanist. 
Comiwser: (for orchestra) First Symphony; A Per- 
sian Fable (ballade); Montevallo Suite; Paul Bun- 
yan, Colossus (sym-phonic poem); Variations for 
Strings; symphony for strings, Fantastic l*ursuit 
(performed under Sevitzky, Phila., 1941); (Chamber 
music) 3 String Quartets; Quintet; Suite for Trio; 
Sonata for Violin and Piano; (for piano) Sonata; 
Letters from a Maine Farm; A Set of Eight; 
Rousseau Variations; (for voiee) Song Cycle: Sun- 
light and Shadow; A Caravan from China Comes; 
Men Are the Devil; El Dorado, etc.; (some 60 
published compositions). Awarded JuHliard scholar- 
ship, 1922; Pulitzer traveling fellowshlp, 1931. 
Served with Chem. Warfare Service, U.S. Army, 
1918-19. Mem. A.S.C.A.P., Am. Soc. Composers and 
Condrs., League of Composers, Phi Mu Alpha Sin- 
fonia. Bpiscopalian. Club: Bohemians (N.Y. City). 
Author: Rain in May, 1918. Contbr. to jours. Ad- 
dress: New Canaan, Conn. 

References: Musician, Sept. 1939, p. 159: 
J. T. Howard. Our Contemp. Composers. 

tGROSS, Milt; has one-man show of paintings of 
western scenes, Perls Gallery, Hol^-wood, 1942. 

GROVER, Beatrice Beard, Illustrator, author; b. 
Brooklyn, N.Y., Dec. 29, 1901; d. Jeremiah Robin- 
son and Grace Piermont (Benedict) Beard; grad. 
Miss Spence's Seh., N.Y. City, 1919; studied paint- 
ing under .\lon Bement, Mabel Welch, Luis Mora; 
anatomy and sculptitre under Selon Borglum; Student 
Art Students Leagi»e; m. Allen GroviT, Jan. 24, 
1929; children — Loraine, Robinson Allen. Exliibited 
at Nat. Acad., Nat. Assn. Women Painters and 
Sculptors, Nat, Water Color Soc, did Portrait 
Sketches for N.Y. Herald Tribüne. Mem. Nat. 
Assn. Women Artists. Episcopalian. Author and 
Illustrator: Broad Strlpes and Bright Stars (Grey- 
stone Press; $1), 1941, Juvenile book. Home: Clover 
Farm, South Kent, Conn. 

GUTHRIE, Robert Rifers, former Chief textile. 
leather, clothing brauch of O.P.M. and W.P.B., 
mercbant; b. Paducah. Ky., Jan. 22, 1890; s. El- 
bridge and Mary (McElroy) G.; grad. Paducah High 
Seh., 1906, Centre Coli., Danville, Ky., 1910; m. 
Julann Caffrey, Jan. 6, 1938; 1 dau. (by previous 
marriage), Demia (Mrs. Joshua Macdonald). OwrxT 
E. Guthrie Co. Dept. Store, Paducah, 1911-38; asso. 
with Goodbody & Co. (mems. N.Y. Stock Excliango), 
1930 35; partner Engel & Co. (mems. N.Y. Stock 
Exchange), 1936-38; owned seats on N.Y. Cotton 
Exchange, N.Y. Coffee and Sugar Exchange, Com- 
modity Exchange, 1936-38; Consultant to See. of War 
on Post exchange matters, 1941-42; chief textile, 
leather, clothing branch of O.P..M. and W.P.B., 
Aug. 1941-Mar. 1942 (resigned); asst. chief Bur. of 
Industry Branches, W.P.B., Feb.-Mar. 1942; dir. 
Interstate Dept. Stores. 1936-37, Allled Stores Corp. 
since 1937, White Sewing .Machine Corp. since 1935, 
Childs Co. since 1940. Past pres. Paducah (Ky.) 
Rotary Club, Board of Trade, Retail .Morchants 
.\ssn.; past v.p. and dir. Nat. Retail Dry Goods 
Assn. Democrat. Mason (all degrees). Clubs: 
Delta Kappa Epsilon (pres.), Yale (New York). 
Home: 417 Park Av.. New York, N.Y. 

HAMAR, Irene (ä-mär'), South Am. sculptor; b. 
Brazil, 1912; daugbter of Brazilian coffee planter; 
studied in Paris and worked under an asst. of the 
French sculptor, Bourdelle; represented in numerous 
South .\m. art museums Including Museo Nacional 
de Bellas Artes, Buenos Aires, Aeademia de Bellas 
Artes, Rio de Janeiro; now in U.S. by special 
arrangement of the co-ordinator of Inter-Am. Affairs 
as part of the good neighbor policy and during 
March held a one-man show at Accjuavella Galleries. 
N.Y. C^ty. Miss Hamar prefers direct carving on 
stone and uses white and rose marble, Brazilian 
alabaster and granite; she also has work in bronze 
in her U.S. exhibit of 20 sculptures. .\ddress: care 
Nicholas M. Acquavella Galleries, 38 E. 57th St., 
New York, N.Y. 

NAMBLEN, Stewart Belknap, teacher, writer; b. 
Gorham, Me., Oct. 26, 1905; s. Lewis Arch and 
Jessie Pamela (Belknap) H.; B.S., Teachers Coli., 
Columbia U., 1930, M.A., 1938; m. Elizal)eth Belle 
Kater, Oct. 10, 1931. Teacher, Wilson's Mills, Me., 
1924-25, Milton, N.H., 1925-26, Westfleld, N.J., 
1927, Sharon, Conn., 1927-29, Westwood, N.J., 1930- 
32; sales mgr., Cumulative Sales Corp., N.Y. City, 
1932-34; teacher, Cranford, N.J., since 1934. Mem. 
Nat. Edn. Assn.; Columbia Chapter, Acacia Frat., 




May, 1942 



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9 




9 



A.F. and A.M. Mem. N.J. State Com. on Consumer 
Edn. Democrat. Congregationalist. Author (with G. 
F. Zimmerman) : Wise Spending: An Introduction to 
Consumer Economics, 1941; How «to Spend Wisely 
(Harpers; $2.50), 1942. Home: 1 University PI., 
New York, N.Y. Office: Cranford High School, Cran- 
ford, N.J. 

HAMILTON, Edward Parmalee, publisher; b. East 
Orange. N.J.. üct. 3, 1883; s. Edward P. and Alice 
(Wiley) H.; Student Hill Seh., Pottstown, Pa., 
1899-1903, Rensselaer Poly. Inst., Troy, N.Y., 1903- 
07; unmarried. Began in civil engring, work, 1907; 
with Cuban Engring. & Contracting Co., building 
»ewer in Ilavana, 2 years; with Snare & Triest Co., 
constrn. of Catskill aqueduct, li/^ years; with New 
England Power Co., design and constrn. of water 
power plants in Mass., 2 years; with John Wiley & 
Sons, pub«. of scientilic and tech. books, N.Y. City, 
Siince Jan. 1, 1914, sec., 1916-25, v.p. and treas., 
1925-41, pres. since Sept. 1941. Served with Troop 
D, Squadron A, N.Y. Nat. Guard (6 months on 
Mexican border), 1914-17; commd. 2d lt., Field 
Arty., U.S. Army, 1917, Ist lt., 1918; with A.E.F. 
in France at Oise-.\isne and Meuse-.\rgonne; capt. 
P.A. Reserves for several years. Pres. bd. trustees 
Kips Bay Boys Club, N.Y. City. Mem. Am. Inst. 
Mining and Metall. Engrs., Soc. for Promotion 
Engring. Edn., A.A..\.S., Theta Xi (past pres.), 
Sigma Xi; associate mem. Am. Soc. C.E. Clubs: 
University, Engincers (N.Y. City); Bedford (N.Y.) 
Golf and Tennis. Home: Pea Pond IW., Katonah, 
N.Y. Offlee: 440 Fourth Av., New York, N.Y. 

Reference: PW, Sept. 20, 1941, p. 1121. 

HANG, Josef (häneh), lecturer, author; b. Libstat, 
Czeclioslovakia, June 20, 1895; s. Jan and Marie 
(Dejmek) H.; Student Teachers Coli., Hradec Kra- 
love, Czeehoslovakia, 1910-14, Inst, of Technology, 
Prague, 1920-24; m. Marie Fiala, Nov. 22, 1924; 
children — Jan, Jirl. Entered Czechoslovak diplo- 
matic senice, 1920; sec. Czechoslovak Legation, 
London, 1925-29; in Charge of research, Dept. of 
State, Prague. 1929-34; consul, N.Y. City, 1934-39; 
lecturer Fletcher Seh. of Law and Diplomacy since 
1939. Mobilized in Austro-Hungarian .\rmy, 1915; 
joined Czechoslovak Legions in Russia, 1916; served 
as capt. Czechoslovak Army in Russia and Siberia, 
1916-20. Decorated Czechoslovak War Cross; Mili- 
tary Order of Sokol. Autlior: Far East, 1932; Cen- 
tral Europe, 1933; Tornado across Eastcrn Europe 
(Greystone Press; $3), 1942. Contbr. articles on 
Internat. Problems to mags. Home; 11 Clewley Rd.. 
Medford, Mass. 

HARDY, William George, educator, author; b. 
Oakwood, Ont., Canada, Feb. 3, 1896; s. George 
William and Anne (White) H.; B.A., U. of Toronto, 
1917 (also received Gov.-Gen's. gold medal, gold 
medal in classics and medal in English), M.A., 
1920; Ph.D., U. of Chicago, 1922. Lecturer in 
classics and ancient history, U. of Toronto, 1918-20; 
asst. prof., U. of Alberta, 1920-24, asso. prof., 
1925-31, prof. since 1932, head dept. of classics 
since 1938; has traveled in U.S., Caribbean, and 
Europe with particular attention to Mediterranean 
area; special intcrest in archeology and anthropol- 
ogy with research articles on classical history and 
lit erat ure. Served 14 months in World War I; now 
offleer Canadian Army (Res.) assisting in training 
U. of Alberta C.O.T.C. Pres. Canadian Amateur 
Hockey .\ssn., 1938-40; now pres. Internat. Ice 
Hockey Assn.; pres. Edmonton Little Theatre, 1931- 
32, producer of its plays, 4 yrs. Mem. Am. Philol. 
Assn., British Seh. of Archeology, Delta Upsilon, 
etc. Mason. Autlior: Father Abraham, 1935 (Abra- 
ham, Prince of Ur. in U.S.); Tum Back the 
River, 1938; All the Trumpots Sounded (Coward- 
McCann; $2.75), 1942. Contbr. articles and lletion 
to MacLean's Mag., Canadian Home Journal, Col- 
Her's, etc. Has given about 40 lectures for Can- 
adian Broadcasüng Corp. Home: 10828 79th Av., 
Edmonton, Alberta, Can. 

HART, Alan L, physician, author; b. Halls Sum- 
mit, Kans., Oct. 4, 1890; s. Albert Lawrence and 
Edna (Bamford) H.; A.B., Albany Coli. (Albany, 
Ore.), Stanford U., 1912; M.D., U. of Ore. Med. 
Seh., 1917; M.Sc. (Medicine), Grad. Seh. of Med- 
icine, U. of Pa., 1930. Private practice of medicine, 
1918-21; staff, tuberculosis instns., 1921-26; roent- 
genologist, Sacred Heart Hosp., Spokane, Wash.. 
1926-28; Student Grad. Seh. of Medicine, U. of Pa.. 
1928-29; research fellow, Henry Phipps Inst., Phila- 
delphia, 1929-30; roentgenologlst, Tacoma (Wash.) 
General Hosp., 1930-33; Consultant in tuberculosis, 
Idaho Tuberculosis Assn., Idaho State Dept. of 
Public Health, since 1938. Mem. various med. and 
specialist assns.. Am. Pub. Health Assn., Authors 



League of Am. Author: Dr. Mallory, 1935; The 
Undaunted, 1936; In the Lives of Men, 1937; Dr. 
Finlay Sees it Through (Harpers; $2.50), 1942. 
Address: 307 Capital Seeurities Bldg., Boise, Idaho. 

HART, Albert Gallord, economist; b. Oak Park, 
111., Mar. 9, 1909; s. Hastings Hornell and Josephine 
(Newton) H.; B.A. in economics, summa cum 
laude, Harvard U., 1930; glud. study, U. of Chicago, 
1931-36, Ph.D., 1936; »tudied in Vienna and Ger- 
many, 1930-31, London, 1934-35; m. Ann Elizabeth 
Webster, July 27, 1936; children— Josephine Webster, 
Mary Gailord. Sheldon traveling fellow, Harvard U., 
1930-31; teaching asst., U. of Chicago, 1932-34, 
instr., 1934-39; econ. analyst, U.S. Treasury, Sum- 
mer, 1934; lecturer In economics, U. of Calif., 
Berkeley, autumn, 1936; dir. research (3om. on Debt 
Adjustment, 20th Century Fund, 1937-38; asso. prof. 
economics, Iowa State Coli., since 1939; was drafts- 
man for revenue proposals placed before Ways and 
Means Com., May 1941, by 178 economists; pre- 
sented proposals for the group (in conjunction with 
S. E. Harris); these proposals advocate taxing at 
source; presented further developed Version of these 
proposals on behalf of research economists in War 
Finanee Study, Iowa State Coli.. Mar. 1942. Chmn. 
advisory com. Story County Defense Council. Mem. 
Am. Econ. Assn., Am. Assn. Univ. Profs., Conf. on 
Research In Nat. Income and Wealth, Phi Beta 
Kappa. Autlior: Debts and Recovery, 1929-37, 1938; 
Anticipations, Uneertainty and Dynamic Planning, 
1940; Paying for Defense (with E. D. Allen and 
others), 1941; also several pamphlets. Contbr. ar- 
ticles and revlews to professional jours. and to 
several Symposium volumes; also populär articles to 
mags. Mem. editorial bd. Am. Econ. Assn.; mem. 
exec. com. Conf. on Research in Nat. Income and 
Wealth. Home: 1011 Burnett St., Ames, Iowa. 

*tHASTINGS, John Russell, editor (.\pr. 2, 1942). 
Reference: NYT, Apr. 4, 1942. 

RATA, Gen. Shunroku, (hä-tä, shün-rö-köö), 
comdr. in chief Jap forces in China; b. Hokkaido 
July 1879: grad. Mil. Acad., 1901; m. Chiyo Ikebe; 
3 sons. Promoted to arty., 2d lt., 1901; mem. Gen. 
Staff Office Staff of Naval Staff Bd.; various posts in 
arty. to lt. gen., 1931; comdr. of 14th div., 1933; 
Chief of Aviation Dept.. 1935-36; comdr. of Taiwan 
Army, 1936-37; insp.-gen. of Mil. Training Dept. 
and supreme war eouncillor, 1937; comdr. in chief, 
Shanghai forces in China, 1938; Jap minister of war, 
1939, and former chief a.d.c. to Bmpcror; following 
Japan's entrance Into World War II, apptd. comdr. 
in Chief of Jap forces in China. 

tHAWES, Elliabeth, author: Why Is A Dress? 
(Viking; $2), 1942. 

tHAYES, Carlton J. H.; apptd. ambassador to 
Spain, April 1942. 

HEFLIN, Alma Goldla (Sally), aviator, author; 
b. Winona, Mo.; d. Irvin Elgin and Nora Edith 
(Kelley) Heffln; A.B. in Edn., Coli, of Edn. of 
Eastem Wash., Cheney, Wash., 1936; Student Bige- 
low-Johnson Aviation Seh., Spokane, 1935, Dallas 
Aviation Seh., 1937; unmarried. Teacher in ele- 
mentary schools, Spokane, 1929-36; factory appren- 
tice, Piper Aircraft Corp., Lock Haven, Pa., 1937, 
asst. in sales promotion, 1938, dir. sales promotion 
and Publicity, 1938-40; test pilot for Piper Air- 
craft Corp. since 1941, now testing the Cubs (ligbt 
plane being used by U.S. Army for reconnaisanee, 
artillery Spotting, etc.). Directed Cub Calvacade 
of 226 civilian planes gathered from all U.S. to 
meeting at Miami, 1938; exec. chmn. of com. lead- 
ing 578 planes to St. Petersburg, Fla., in Light- 
plane Calvacade, 1939. Toured Alaska by air, 1940, 
probably flrst pilot to make Juneau-Fairbanks flight 
over Yukon Territory In a light plane; has flown 
over 44 states, 2 Canadian provinees and 1 Mexican 
province. Author: Adventure Was the Compass (Lit- 
tle, Brown; $2.75), 1942 (the story of her flight 
over Alaska). Contbr. to Air Trails, Populär Avia- 
tion, etc. Will lecture during April on her aviation 
career and observations on Alaska as änvolved in 
military vulnerability. Home: 2024 E. Sharp Av., 
Spokane. Wash. Address: Piper Aircraft Corp., Lock 
Haven, Pa. 

Reference: AM, Apr. 1942, p. 84. 

«tHEGNER, Robert William, zoologist (Mar. 11, 
1942). 

References: ChicasTo Tribüne» Mar. 12, 
1942; Leaders in Edn.; M.S. 

HELFER, Walter, prof. music; b. Lawrence, Mass., 
Sept. 30, 1896; s. Michael and Margaret (Naumann) 
H.; A.B., Harvard U., 1919; M.A., Columbia U., 
1934; m. Dorothy Sutcliffe, July 28, 1927; children— 



Walter, Michael. Teacher of Latin and French, 
Mitchell Mil Seh., Lowell, Mass., 1922-24; dir. of 
music, Deane Seh., Santa Barbara, 1924-25; fellow 
in music composition. Am. Acad. in Rome (pirpil of 
Respighi), 1925-28; asst. prof. music. Hunter Coli., 
1929-39, asso. prof. music and chmn. dept. since 
1939. Served as wireless Operator, 34th Baloon Co., 
A.E.F., 1917-19. Awarded Endicott prize, Boston, 
1922; Rome prize in 1925 competition; Paderewski 
prize, 1939; Fellow of American Academy in Rome 
(in perpetuity), 1929. Mem. Am. Assn. Univ. 
Profs., \m. Soc. Composers, Authors and Publishers, 
Phi Beta Kappa. Composer: Eiegiac Sonata for 
Piano, 1932; Quartet in G for Strings, 1928; .\p- 
passionata for Violin and Piano, 1929; works for 
male, female, mixed choir and orchestra, 1940-42; 
also symphony and Chamber orchestra works. Home: 
New Rochclle, N.Y. 

Reference: Baker, Biogr. Dictionary of 
Musicians. 

HELLMAN, Geoffrey Theodore, writer; b. N.Y. 
City, Feb. 13, 1907; s. George S. and Hilda E. 
(Josephthal) IL; grad. Taft Seh.. Watertown, Conn., 
1924; A.B., Yale, 1928; m. Daphne van Beuren 
Bayne, Aug. 12, 1941. Reporter, later associate 
editor, The New Yorker, 1929-31; associate editor, 
Fortune, 1931-32; staflf writer, The New Yorker, 
1932-36; associate editor, Life, 1936-38; staff writer 
The New Yorker since 1938 (has written many 
"Profiles" and "Reporter at Large" pioces, several 
hundred "Talk-of-the-Town" pieces, also 30-40 sa- 
tirieal pieces). Mem. Chi Delta Theta. Clubs: Yale, 
Dutch Treat, Coffee House (N.Y. City); Eiizabethan 
(Yale; mem. bd. govs. 1926-27). Writings have 
appeared in several anthologies; he is now writing a 
book on the lecture business of America. Home: 38 
E. 85th St. Offlee: The New Yorker, 25 W. 43d 
St., New York, N.Y. 

HELSETH, Henry Edward, author; b. Minneapolis, 
Minn., Jan. 10, 1912; s. Edward Gustave and Leone 
Harda Bertina (Hansen) IL; ed. Minneapolis gram- 
mar seh.; m. Margaret Lorraine Camden, Sept. 1940; 
1 son, Kyrie. Held various positions aS laborer, 
Clerk, shipyard worker and many othcr Jobs. Author: 
The Yellow Angels, 1940; The Devil's Behind You 
(Harpers; $2), 1942. Home: 1500 Park Av., Min- 
neapolis, Minn. 

HENRY, Gene (Pseudonym); sce Sheldon, Jean 
Pendieton. 

HEWES, Margaret (Mrs. Ambrose T. Gosling), 
playwright, producer; b. Canada, June 7, 1898; d. 
H. Havelock and Mary (Orr) Warman; ed. in pub. 
schs., private tutors; grad., Jacqueline Mellor Seh. 
of Daleroze Eurytbmics, and Leland Powers Seh., 
Boston, Mass.; m. Dr. Henry Fox Hewes, 1925 (died 
1926); m. 2d, Lt. Col. the Hon. Ambrose T. Gosling, 
Feb. 11, 1937; 1 son, Henry Fox Hewes; came to 
U.S., 1915, naturalized, 1915. Owned, managed, The 
Wharf Theatre and The Wharf Players of Province- 
town, 1929-36; producer on Broadway, Ray & Hewes, 
1931-32; co-producer, Wild Waves, Times Square 
Theatre, 1931 (prod. as "The Big Broadeast" by 
Paramount Pictures Corp., 1931 and later); pro- 
ducer, Nine Pine Street, Longacre Theatre, 1933, 
Alley Cat, Forty-eighth Street Theatre, and Roll, 
Sweet Chariot, Cort Theatre, 1934; head of editorial 
dept., The Independent Producers Co. (motion pic- 
tures), Elstree, England, 1935-38; producer (for 
Warner Bros.), The Woman Brown, Biltmore Theatre, 
1939, First Stop to Heaven, Windsor Theatre, 1941. 
Mem., N.Y. League of Theater Mgrs. Author: Dol- 
lars Want You (M. S. Mill Co.; $1), 1942. Home: 
Strawberry Hill, Paget, Bermuda. Offlee: 1331 Mad- 
ison Av., New York, N.Y. 

fHEYLIGER, William, author: SOS Radio Patrol 
(Dodd, Mead; $2), 1942. 

tHIBBS, Ben; becomes editor Saturday Evening 
Post. 

■^t HIRSCH, isaac Seth, X-ray expert (Mar. 24, 
1942). 

Reference: NYT, Mar. 25, 1942. 

HOFMANN, Jeane (Margaret Jeane-Marie Hof- 
mann), Sports reporter and cartoonist; b. Los 
Angeles, Calif., Apr. 24, 1919; d. Henry Peter and 
Ada May (Leu) Hof mann; grad. Los Angeles High 
Seh., 1937; Student U. of Calif. Night Seh., 6 
months; studied cartooning after school but at- 
♦ended no art school; unmarried. At the age of 15 
ieeided on career of sports writing and cartooning 
is something different for giris; began covering boys' 
Sports at Los Angeles High Seh., 1935; started 
contributing sport Cartoons to Hollywood Citizen- 
News, 1936; as reporter cartoonist for Citizen-Newg 



n 



h 



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Page 100 



Series III, No. 5 



covcred Coast League baseball, Loyola U. football Kiangsi was occupied; mem. Kiangsi Provincial Par- nis (New York) since 1925. Autbor- Thev Tanrfit 

and nockey, wrcstling, boxing and basketball, 1937- ty Hdqrs.; comdr. of 13th Nationalist Army Corps. Themselves (Dial Press; $3.50) 1942 Contbr «rt 

40, also Chicago Cubs spring tralning camp at CaU- 1927, comdr. of 37tb Dif. and associate camdr. of articles to Decision, View, Art News*(N Y Citv) 

nna Mar. 1940; drew cover for Tenn.-S.C. Rose 13th Nationalist Army Corps; acting garrison comdr. Pacific (San Francisco) Review Minotaur«' (Lausan' 

«owi game, 1939 (flrst girl to do so); press agent of Shanghai and Woosung Area, 1928; resigned to ne) and catalogs of Museum of Modern Art \ Y 

ror Jim Murphy, Stanford football player, for movies, participate in NortJiem Puniti?« Expdn., Mar. 1928; City. Art talks over WABC KY\ and CBS tp'lJ' 

1940; Sports cartoonist with Phila. Evening Bulletin re-apptd. garrison comdr. of Shanghai -Woosung Area, Vision; also at Art Institute Chicago aiid M*Hp 

fiince Sept. 1940; as cartoonist covered hockey, 1929-31; chmn., Kiangsi Provincial GovI., 1931-42; Jlarriman Gallery. Now engaged in writinz 2 books 

SQuash, tennis, U. of Pa. football, basketball, golf. apptd. head Chine.se mission to U.S., March 1942. on Amemrican art.; Four Centurier of AmerZn 

SVarTSt e?rl a minä^n'T4 »iTf^'ü/' HÜBBARD, Lüci«., writer. «lotion picture pro- I'rimttiye Painting. arvd American Abstrict SS 

Äe sports Nov 04^ dX « S ^'^''' ^' Cincinnati. 0.. Dec. 21. 1888; s. Frank ?"H;j'"ft Art (both scheduled for fall publication. 

with cartom.s;coVd 10 spring ^^^^ T/^^lJw^lS^oFn'^ri' ^^' "' AHce Helen JAYNES dar« (co-pseudonym) ; see Spiegel. Gara 

camps. Fla.. Feb.-Mar. 1942%L n^t particSlaJS g'"tit2 irf Bml Kt^'-'nJZ^J'^n.^Z] ^''''''' *"^ '^''''' ^""^ ^°^*^^^^^^- 

actively in any sport; likes to watch baseball games. fim^ Star IM? no^r^i^'.o ^[^ 'v.J TJ J'NNAH, Mohammed Ali (jin'nä). pres. All-India 

also fond of watching football and Iwckey games A Ss it^m mfhn^nZu V^^\u Ln^^lr ^^^'"^ ^''^'''' ^- ^"^i*. ^^<^- 25. 1876; st Xd 

Vrtr T'.l '^r.?.- '' .T*"'"'^' '^«"^^ "''« t° niÄÄtor^fwÄ^ law; married; 1 dau. Began es lawy'er and' attainS 

trave with he Phillies this summer as flrst girl dty «dito^ Nei York Tr^m^^L^ ^^ utl ^^^^^^^ successful practice. Bombay; became private 

reporter to do straight coverage. Home: Y.W.C.A., S^rLn wri^^r i^ia- c^I^^ free lance sec. to Dadal)hoy Naoroji. a foundlng father of 

1421 .Arcli St. Offlee: Evening Bulleün. Philadelphia ?Siq JlnJ« ISu^' ^ ^ • ' ^^^^^^ ^- I'HÜan Nat. Cr — ^ ^ ^^ 

Pa • '^""""'^**""". 1919; scenario editor, producor, Universal, Paramount, lative Council 

..R"««P5"= NSW, Mar. 9. 1942. p. 55: TM, ?S;.""^„r.;S'' lo,??!" .^?l-,.^.?}'i'-}i- 9PP«'!»»" *» 



-ongrcss, 1906; as mem. Imperial Legis- 

HOGUe!'aLU artist; b. Memphis. Mo.. Feb. S ^Z' ^^^VS^-H '^ÄVcr^rim ^^^^ ^i^t^.^'^JTl^':^ 

22, 1898; s. Rev. Cliarles Lehman and Marthi Springs. Ca if.Author- Rivers tothe Sa (S^m^^^ p*^"'"^ ?'"" Congress, 1921; in protest traveled in 

Amelia (Hoover) H.; ed. Dallas High Seh., Min- & Schuke^ $150) iwi Addre^ Ä^ 1' f *^ff, P^il^^Ü Passive-resistance poUcy; 

neapoUs Inst, of Art and by private Instruction Rd.. Beverly Hills Calif ^°'^- «-» ^- "^^^«^^^^ tiL7i^n,P''V /':/"? ^ ^^?^'T ^*«"^' ^»34; pub- 

under Frank Reaugh; m. Maggie Joe Watson. July murst vih. „^Z k t u « . «o ^'<^ ? .P^fented "PakisUn" plan (plan of gaining 

16, 1938. Head art dept. Hockaday Jr. Coli Dallas istK d ^pnrl^,^l °J^^^ ^3' H ^^' ^/'T^'^ nation of H ndu India and Moslem India) 

since Ifl*?«- m<»m sirmmpr «rt f«i.niVv Tnl oV ♦' J, . ' "« .P^ Warder and Anna (Davidson Hurst; at Annual Session of Moslem League at LahorP 

Coli for Warnen nZnn .ini qqo p f f^^ ^r\ ^^^^2 ^^^'^ ^"- ^912; Student (short 1938; togethef with 25 colleagues was abLnt f?om 

X \ n«rrpi pL Anni P KM?^' t"* "**? 9' Ostefstrom Oot. 1, 1914 (divorced. 1932); 1 British satisfied Indian polit. demands; now enwÄed 

(lex.) larcel Post Annex. Exhibited Internat, dau., Ann (Mrs Georce E \lIi«ioni Sfjirf*./i in nfcnti«tinns vUh ««r c».»«-^ i^ iIL. # «"**«^»' 

f(a?"M''"''^rM'^^''';JT^^W «^^""*^' ^"^'^ early.^wiVgTw'JsLt''i'',;"Ue^Tm f^S ÄrUc^^^^^^^^ 

1940, Museum of Modern Art, Nat. Acad., Whitney Des Meines Register Tribüne lO^n 1901 • sold tn PcrsonalUv creat^ hJ^th frlw? .!S . *^"**"' 

Museum. Rockefeiler Center (New York). CamegiJ pulps. 1920-25; wrote forTn^ramliscoNVws^^B^^^^ belTcr he Suy ^1^^^^^^^ 

Ir>ternat. (Pittsburgh). 1938. 39. Corcoran Biennial Syndicate. 1925-31; under corrtract to Reeire'r a^d and to slve thS. fr^ tv^nnv ^^ *2^T"^'ir 

Venezuela, and Mexico Citv Mpt Ran in f^r\ /r..i..n,M; ml'Jl. .^^^K\^^^^' ^^^^. ^^^^ JOHNSON. Heien LksIim. ^Erritnr ni,..»^ 



Milles Collection. Cranbrookl'Mich:; PWla. MuseTm^ (Mon^g;;*^ 'rilms""l93rTa.go"7lXible Tc' M'^H^I "!t". ''^''''' '^'^'' ^"""«-^n '' 
of Art. Dallas Museum of Fine Arts. Internat, tures). 1935; (nove s) Th^ CrTater Lov?Tanslat^ «^ "^»?," <Sweet)I>)ssing; ed. by tutor and private 
Business .Machines. N.Y Titv Jph r^« Pq,.«,« \ntn. c»^{«i.\. e*„: ,. .^, .'*^*'' uransiaiea seh.. N.Y. Citv: stiid<»nt \»t Aa..i «r n^i»^ m v 



Business .lachines. N.Y. City. Jeu de Paum^ into SwÄ) äraVrrM^^^^^^^^ jch.. N. Y.City; Student. Nat. A 

Museum. Paris, and John Glen Sample CoUection. Norwegian); Single UdiV (Gramercf P el? tT ^\ t?" l"?" ^'^ ^^^ 

Chicago, also many others. Paintings have been 1941. Home: 3675 Fillmore St San F^a^iri^^i' h™"" ^'^*'' •'^^"^"' ^°'' 17. 

reproduced^ in various mags. and books on art. Calif. Offlee: care of RpT/tpr .nH ^?h.,!J^c'!!5?' ?*'^"^- ^^^met S.. Eleanor L. 



Brooklyn. N.Y.; m. 

reproduc«! in variöiis mags. -^iiä'Tooi^ron "in. C^lYf. OfflciV caT^'^oflSlr l^d ^bun^sS' f'?' 'h^r S-^ Eleinor* U 7Siei^^^^ 
Awarded Kiest Purchase prize. 1930: Lawren«. Pol- catP. Dpr Mninp* t. ^ " *"^ ^^^°""® ^>^^- trator of books. inclucUng 1888 edit of John Gilpin 

and several books written by her father. 1886-1889; 



1937; Printmakers Guild priVe öillas: 1941 Mm' S - -h7o ' "^'^ '' ^' ?^ ^''^■'' ""'"^^^^' "'^ ^"^^"''^ "^^ ^^"^ A™ ArtlatT P^fe^loSl 

Dallas Art Assn.. Lone Star Printmakers. Dallas ?art in nJld F^J^f t°" ^^"^ ^^*'^^' ^^" ^^ ^''^'^' Westchester Countr Hist S^c A^hSJ^ 

.\rtists Tnbe. Home: 912 Moreland St. Studio: Go]a^^nM^L^^ ^'^'^^ «hjw) ; now with Metro- Guild. Yonkers .Art Assn. Repub lican EdÄ? 

3312 Reagan St., Dallas, Tex. Sol^ r .k',-' ^^11'^ *" "• *'• ''"'harn. Esq. Club: Fortnightly Uterary cShoJ and rn^b?i' 

Reference: LI. Feb. 10. 1941. p. 40. ^ngX.'^Ä^* ^^^^^^•' ^"« ^^^"^"^ Av.. Los \r^or. miy-Uo! mel"Ts,ZT^'^^^^^ 



ijiat.. i/L-vaiiic uuifi ui ivweiyang roiice liept.; chier — «.•v„vv,oi uiuaiLiaus uin-r Services. 

instr. and dean. Whampoa Mil. Cadets Acad.. 1924; t JAMES, Presttn E., geographer author- lAtin 

suppressed certain N. China insurrentionists in co- America (Lothrop. Lee; |6). 1942 ' ' ♦tJOHNSON 6eii Huah « ^^, 1 ♦ ^ , 

Operation with Chiang Kai-shek. appearing at times JAMES. Wlil artist Ltw th» a ^ n hej^ NR " (AnnT'l«; tQ4oV «'^""''^st »»^ Former 

pro-Jap; took part in several mil. expdns.; in Charge bor(sSbner' • $2 50 ' 1942 *^''^''" ^°^' References • NYHT a « ip; ,a.o ^^ 

of various provincial police forces; mem. Central >^ ^J^"°""s. ^j.öü). 1942. July 8 1 $40* ^^^J^^"".}^' ^^^^ ; TM. 

rÄ "l-'tF*^; I^' "'8h Seh.. Buflalo. 1915; 

..iro led at U. of Buffalo but left to enter Navil 

apptd. acting chmn. Peiping Brauch NatT Üfn' -km^ "' ]?^^' J^- Harrtet Grossman, Sept. 2. 1925* 

Affairs Commn. dir. gen. V Govt ?f InnVr Moni ta f "Ä^^nÄ' ^j^» .J^tt.^Dancei on i/JONNSO". Uuis A., U.S. govt. offlclal; heads 

goha. 1934; resident rep. of Exec. Yuan at Peiping. Ä; r„1'°,'. ^Vn.'i^J. advertising and fumiture ^.S. advisory mission to India. 

1935; negotiated Ho-Umedzu Agreement complying Tfi \i'j^\l^^S'^^K «^^^cutive, founder and JOHNSON. Manaret Sw»*t r^*.. m ♦ ♦ u 

with Jap demands in N. China. 1935. * Jf!!:' JJ,^ ^^^«^ SJ» ^'^- ^■^- ^ity. 1924-40; Brooklyn nV X 1 iSV Tp' "J"S?*°'' **J 

Reference: J. Günther, In«de Asi«. S^' ff^l'^Tno?'"- J*"^«"™ 'J Modern Art. N.Y. Helen (Lo sing) jXison- ed in Von?."ri n^h^*' J"*^ 

HSiüNG SHI-Hüi (shi-üngshi-ho-o-l). head Chi- in h^ding'^vS' aXH^^^ ^»^«^«"J^^t. 'A^rÄ^ Art^^^ 

ese mission to U.S.. general; b. Anyi Hsien. Klang- "—1911" (1940) whi^ i, nnw nn ♦«. ^^Z ^^sso unmarried. Illustrator. St. Nicholas Bovs' Life Si 

• •^^,^^.f'^- ?"°^*"« **"• A^- ^China), Jap. Im- in U.S Naval Res Forec NaTaT ASaüon ' n,?"^ m'^ ^^?f ^*^°"« *>^k«. 1 »26-30 ;did oU paintfngs of 

peria Mil. Acad.. Tokyo. Assisted Dr. Sun Yat-sen 1918; grad. Aeronautical' Seh (hJ^ iJil" n?^ «^»^ animals for N.Y. Zoological Soc C portX 

in ist Revolution. 1911; apptd. dir. edn.. Mil. .\cad. 1919. with roting ö m clas's neUv Iml^'- il^' ^""Jj^'l^ *"^ ^^ream mag., etc Exhibit^ p^^« 

af 3d Nationalist Army Corps; comdr. of Ist div. and dlscharged. 1919 ^th rating o^ 1 J ^Z' n*^?* f^ ^''"'''" ^'^ •^^"•. N.Y art gaHer^es «edalS 

Chief Of poht. bureau of 14th Army Corps when offleer; hoi. dischargelj iTl^ cYubl^lliÄ Tl ti^T^^ir'^;:^n^-'J^' S?- 

Key to Indicators: f see "Who's Who in America»' • • d{#H M*f^ «# ^ *i. . ^'^ ' " 
biofirraphical details may be found in "Who's Who in AmericS " ?Ref!rpLi; ^^'«"*h^«e«) : *f died. füll 

•re restricted to biographical material considered sufficieTtircomp?ehen8?ve to bl^"^^ !^;^*"" 



nese 
si 






X 



L. 



May, 1942 



Page 101 



nigbtly (Yonkers). Co-author and co-illustrator of 
seriea of dog etortes. for which see Helen Lossing 
Johnson (this Issue this Service). Address: 16 Gil- 
bert Place, Yonkers, N.Y. 

KALLAY (de Naoy Kili«), Nicolas (kä lä'^). 
Hungarian premier; b. 1887. Served as county lord lt., 
1921-29; parliamentary del, to trade confs. in Rio de 
Janeiro and Rome and mem. Minist ry of Tra<le, 1929; 
minister of agriculture in late Premier Gombos' pro- 
Nazi Cabinet, 1929. until he resigned in protest, 1935; 
became privy councillor. 1936. pres. National Irri- 
gation Bd.. 1937; life mem. nat. governing bd. since 
1937; pres. agrtcultural Internat. Tech, and Chem. 
Cong.. since 1939; Regent Horthy appointed Kallay 
Hungarian premier, 1942, to succeed retiring I>adislas 
de Bardossy, successor of late Count Teleki. (Recent 
Hungarian rumors include sulcide of Teleki, April 
1941, when Nazis needed assistance against the 
Yugo-Slavs. and de Bardossy's resignation because 
of ill health following Nazi request for 20 more 
divs. for their Eastem front. Mar. 1942). 

KAPELL, Wliilam, plaiiist; b. N.Y. City, Sept. 
20, 1922; 8. Harry and F^ith (Wolfson) K.; ed. 
New York pub. schs., Columbia Grammar Seh.; 
fitudied piano since age of 10; also studied under 
Olga Samaroff-Stokowski; recelved scholarship Phila. 
Conservatory of Music and fellowshlp Jilliard Seh. 
of Music, 1940. VVon Youth Piano Contest at age 
of 17 and appeareti with Phila. Orchestra. also 
Naumburg award recital. Oct. 28. 1941; awarded 
Town Hall Endowment award, 1942; has appeared 
in many concerts in New York and Calif., also on 
radio. Home: 3535 203d St., Bayside, L.I.. N.Y. 
.\d<lress: 1144 Lexington .\v., New York. N.Y. 

KENNAN, Kent Wlieeler, composer, music teacher; 
b. Milwaukee, Wis.. Apr. 18. 1913; s. Kossuth Kent 
an<l Sara Louise (Wheeler) K.; Student U. of Mich., 
19.'?0-32; B.Mus. In composilion am! theory. Eastman 
Seh. of Music (U. of Rochester), 1934, M.Mus, in 
composition, 1936; Student Royal Acad. of Santa 
Cecilia, Rome, 1938. Teacher Kent (Ohio) State 
U., 1939-40; teacher composition, orchostration, 
coimterpoint and theory. U. of Tex., since 1940. 
Recipient Hopwood award (|250) for short story 
writing, U. of Mich., 1932; 2d prize, Whitemau 
contest for orchestral work, 1935; Prix de Rome in 
Music, 1936. Mem. Delta Tau Delta. Presbyterian. 
O)mposcr: Symphony; Night Soliloquy; Promenade; 
Air de Ballet; Lament; Jig; II Campo di Fiori; 
.Nocturne; Andante: Quintet; Sea Sonata; Blessed 
Are They; Piano Sonata; Three Songs; Three Prel- 
udes; Piano Concertino. Works have been performed 
by Rochester Philharmonie and Civic Orchestras, 
N.B.C. Symphony, Detroit Symphony, Wis. S>Tn- 
phony, Phila. Little Symphony. Rochester Little 
Symphony, N.Y. Civic, Milwaukee Yoinig People's 
orchestras, Orchestra dl Santa Cecilia (Rome), Nat. 
Orchestral Assn., Kraueter Quartet, Station WQXR, 
etc. Home: Kalamazoo, Mich. Ad<lress: Music Dept., 
University of Texas, Austin. Tex. 

References: Baker, Biogr. Dictionary of 
Masicians; J. T. Howard, Onr Contemp. 
Composers. 

KENNERLY, Byron Fees, flying instr., author; b. 
Robinson. Kan., Sept. 30, 1908; s. Orlie Alden and 
Ethel (Cloe) K.; Student Klamath Falls (Ore.) 
High Seh., 1925-29, Frank Wigglns Seh. of Aero- 
nautics, Los Angeles. Feb.-June 1939; m. Dorothy 
Collins, 1941. On active duty as offleer ftghter pilot 
in Royal Air Force, England, Aug. 1940-Mar. 1941; 
one of Ist elght pilots to join Royal Air Force, 
World War II, and one of Ist members of now 
famous "Eagle Squadron"; upon retum from Eng- 
land, became tech. adviser to Warner Bros, for pro- 
duction of "International Squadron." Baiptist. 
Author: The Eagles Roar (Harper; $3), 1942. Wrote 
mag. arliclc, "Squadron 71, Scramblc," for Harper's 
mag. Home: 507 San demente, Ventura. Calif. 

♦tKENT, Sldney R., pres. 20th Century-Fox (Mar. 
19 1942). 
References: NYT. Mar. 24. 1942; MPAI. 

t KERN ER, Robert J., author: The Urge to the 
Sea: The Coursc of Russian History (U. of Calif. 
Press; $2.50), 1942. 

KiSS, Josepli Arclier (kish), author, teacher; 
lecturcr on advt.; b. Chicago, Hl.. Feb. 17. 1896; s. 
Isador and Anna (Wittkower) K. Entered adver- 
tising fleld, Chicago, 1918; advertising writer Chicago 
Tribüne. 1918-23; H. W. Kastor & Sons. 1923-25; 
deptl. advt. mgr. Montgomery Ward & Co., 1925-29; 
pres. Joseph Archer Kiss Advertising Agency since 
1929; dir. Ray Seh. of Advertising, 1929-39; dir. 
Croydon Inst, of Advertising since 1939; teacher 
advertising. salesmanship. human relations, Chicago 



Pub. Schs.. since 1939; contbr. Printers* Ink. Inland 
Printer, etc., and to European periodicals; lecturer 
on Personality problems, Chicago Park Dist. Com- 
munity Centers; lecturer on human relations and 
psychology before clubs, schools, Chambers of com- 
merce, etc.; lecturer for Civilian Defense Commn., 
Chicago ^rea; vocational counselor. Author: It's All 
in Your Mind— How to Get What You Want Out of 
Life (Reilly & Lee; $2), 1941; Principles of Adver- 
tising and Marketing (Henry Holt & Co.), 1942; 
How to Live and Like It (in preparation). Address; 
30 W. Washington St.. Chicago, 111. 

tKOENIGSBERG, Moses, founder of news syndi- 
cate; author: King News (Stokes; $3.50), 1942. 

KOLACHOV, Paul Jolin (kö-lä'chöf), dir. of rc- 
seareh and development; b. Atamanskaja, Don, Rus- 
sia, June 28. 1899; s. John and Anna (Kolesov) K.; 
B.S., Teachers Inst., Russia, 1918; Engr. of Tedi., 
Prague Polytechnic Inst.. 1926. M.S., 1928, D.Sc. 
1937; grad. work Prague DIstilling Inst.. Brunn 
Polytechnic Inst.; m. Eugenie de Glazoff. Feb. 22, 
1925; 1 son, Sergei. Came to U.S.. 1929, natural- 
ized, 1936. Instr. In high seh., Russia, 1918-20; 
research chemist, French Nat. Seh. Agr., 1923-26; 
dir. of distillery and brewing firm, Prague, 1926-29; 
instr., Columbia U., 1929-30; in Charge research and 
control labs. for dalry Company, Lincoln, Neb., 
1930-33; brewmastcr in Charge of research for brew- 
ing Company, York, Neb., 1933-34; research ehemlst 
Hiram Walker & Sons, Inc., since 1937, now as dir. 
of research and development, Joseph E. Seagram & 
Sons, Inc., Louisville, Ky.; lecturer at Prague Poly. 
Inst., U. of Louisville. Mem. Russian Emigrant 
Student Congress of Prague; pres. Russian Cossack 
Univ. Grads. Assn.; active in Cossack Emigrant 
Agrl. Assn. while in Europe; active In Chemurglc 
movement in this country and recently in the news 
for stating that a plant used in Russia as a source 
of rubber could be grown in U.S.; also advocate of 
other new crops. such as drugs, spices, essential 
oils, etc. Mem, Am. Chem. Soc, A.A.A.S., Soc. 
Am. Bacteriologists, N.Y. Acad. Science, Ky. Acad. 
Science, Inst. Food Technologists. Episcopalian. 
Author: Domestic Production of Essential Oils from 
Aromatic Plauts (with H. F. Willkie), 1940; U.S. 
Imports as Possible New Crops (with R. T. Willkie), 
1941; Kok-sagyz, as a Practical Source of Natural 
Rubber, 1942; also 60 publs. on fermentation, par- 
ticularly in brewing. distilling, and yeast industry. 
Home: 1808 Alfresco Place. Office: Joseph E. Sea- 
gram & Sons, Inc., Louisville, Ky. 
Reference: MS. 

KONEFF, ivan S., (kö-ngf), Russian comdr. on 
Central Front; b. Archangel region, Russia; Student 
only until 12 yrs. old; much later retumed to seh. 
and grad. Frunze Acad., the mil. seh. becoming 
famous in World War II as training seh. of young 
Russian offlcers. Joined Russian Army, 1913, served 
in Revolution and Sino-Jap. war; given divisional 
rank in Army, 1934; became active in World War 
II, Sept. 1941, and as successful head Russian 
counteroffensive in the central scctor was sent to 
southern sector for similar command; retumed to 
central sector comdg. under Zhukov (see this Sup- 
plement, 111-24) in the Tula section; outwitted the 
Gormans on Kalinin front capturing 34 towns along 
with tremendous quantites of supplies, .\pr. 1942. 

KOYR^, Aiexandre (kwä-räM. univ. prof.; b. 
Taganrog, France, Aug. 29, 1892; s. Vladimir and 
Catherine (Lieven) K.; Student of Univ. of Paris, 
and Göttingen, 1909-14, at the Univ. of Paris, 
1909-14 (diploma, 1913; doctor's degree, 1923; doc- 
tor of lit., 1929); m. Dora (Reyberman) Feb. 27, 
1922. Came to U.S., 1941. Lecturer, Ecole des 
Hautes Etudes and the Institut d'Etudes Slaves. 
1922-30; lecturer. Sorbonne. 1929-30; asso. prof.. 
Univ. of Montpelier. 1930-31; became prof.. Ecole 
des Hautes Etudes (Sorbonne). 1931; was prof. at 
Univ. of Cairo. 1986. 37, 38; visiting lecturer at 
Univs. of Prague. Amsterdam, Groningen, Damascus, 
at Institut de Hautes Etudes at Brussells, at Centre 
d'llistoire des Sciences of Belgium, etc. Mem. 
French Soc. of Philosophy, Soc. of Psychology; mem. 
Institute of History of Sciences of Univ. of Paris 
(advisory dir.) and Center of History of the Sci- 
ences of Brüssels, etc., now asso. prof. New School 
for Social Research. N.Y. City. Editor: Recherches 
Philosophiques; co-editor: Revue d'llistoire et de 
Philosophie Religieuses. Awarded prizes La Dissez 
de Pefiarun. 1923. Prix Gegner. 1927, 1929, by the 
Acad^mie des Sciences Morales et Politiques. Served 
as volunteer in World War I. 1914-19; awarded 
Croix de Guerre, Croix de Saint Georges. Home: 
532 W. 114th St., New York, N.Y. 



KREiDER, Cari, cducator, author; b. Wadsworth, 
0., Sept. 26, 1914; s. Lloyd and Adelia (Stover) 
Kreider; B.A., Gohen Coli., 1936; M.A., Princeton 
U., 1938. Ph.D.. 1941; Student I>ondon Seh. of 
Economics, 1938-39; m. Evelyn Burkholder. June 8, 
1939; 1 son. Alan Fetter. Field research fellow 
and research asst., Brookings Instn., 1939-40; instr. 
economics, Goshen Coli., since 1940; e.xtensiou lec- 
turer (part time), Indiana U., since 1941. Awarded 
Mary Campbell Memorial traveling fellowship. Mem. 
Am. Econ. Assn. Independent Democrat. Mennon- 
ite. Author: The Anglo-.American Trade Agreement 
(Princeton U.), 1942. Contbr. to mags. Home: 
1612 S. Sth, Goshen, Ind. 

KUBIK, Gaii Thompson, composer; b. South Cof- 
feyville, Okla., Sept. 5, 1914; s. Henry H. and Kva 
0. (Thompson) K.; Mus.B., Eastman Seh., U. of 
Rochester, 1934; Mus.M., Am. Ck)nservatory of Music, 
Chicago. 1935; Student Grad. Seh. Arts and Sciences 
(Div. of Music). Harvard U., 1937-38; m. Jessie 
Louise Maver. April 5, 1939. Mem. music faculty, 
Monmouth Coli. (Monmouth. 111.), 1934-36, Dakota 
Wesleyan U. (Mitchell, S.D.), 1936-37; music critic, 
Chicago Musical Leader, 1934-38; instr. music his- 
tory, advanced composition and orchestration, Teach- 
ers Coli., Columbia U., 1938-40; stafT composer, 
mus. program adviser. National Broadcasting Co., 
1940-41; guest condr., N.B.C. Sympiiony, summer, 
1941; writer for radio, tilms, theater; commissioned 
works for Columbia Broadcasting Co., Am. Recorder 
Soc, G. Schirmer Pub. Co., Mercury Music Corp., 
U.S. Maritime Commission, etc. Mem. Am. Om- 
posers Alliance; Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia. Awards: 
Ist in 4 nat. competitions: Sinfonia, 1934, Mac- 
Dowell fellowships, 1937-38, Chicago Symphony 
Golden Jubilee, 1941, Jascha Ileifetz Violin Con- 
certo, 1941. Clubs: Harvard; Bohemian (N.Y. City). 
Composer: Solace (song), 1938; Daniel Drew (for 
Chorus), 1939; Suite for Three Recorders, 1941; 
Sonatina for Piano, Dance Soliloquy (for piano), 
1942; concerto for violin and orchestra, 19-10; sona- 
tina for violin and piano, 1941; cantata: In Praise 
of Johnny Appleseed, 1938; "Stewball": Variations 
for band, 1942; film scores for film "Men and 
Ships," mo. and "World War No. II," 1942. 
Editor: American Music for Piano (series), 1942. 
Home: 204 E. 18th St. Offlee: 115 W. 63rd St.. 
New York, N.Y. 

Reference: J. T. Howard, Our Contemp. 
Composers. 

*tLADD, Maynard, pediatrician (Mar. 9, 1942). 
Reference: NYT, Mar. 11, 1942. 

LATHAM, Nataiie Waies, pres. Bundlos for 
America, Inc.; b. Cohasset, Mass., Aug. 8, 1309; d. 
Nathaniel Brackett and Enid (Searritt) Wales; ed. 
Miss Spence's Seh. and Nightingale Bamford Seh., 
N.Y. City; hon. Dr. Humanity. Rollins Coli.. Winter 
Park, Fla., 1942; m. Kenehn Winslow, April 27, 
1929 (divorced); children — Nataiie Wales, Mary 
Chilton; m. 2d Edward Mathews Latham. J.me 2, 
1937 (divorced). Founder, 1940, and hon. pres. 
Bundles for Britain, Inc.; pres. Bundles for America, 
Inc., and (naval div.) Bundles for Bluejackets since 
1942; these orgns. are dedicated to men of U.S. 
Armed Forces and their families and to all Citizens 
adversely alTected by war. Member of staflf, New 
York Times, since 1941. Episcopalian. Home: 141 
B. 88th St. Address: 475 Sth Av., New York, N.Y. 

References: LI, May 19, 1941, p. 132; NYr, 
Apr. 19, 1941, p. 21. 

LAUFERTY, Liiian (law'fer-ti), author; b. Fort 
Wayne, Ind., d. Alexander and Minnie (Eliel) 
Lauferty; B.A., Smith Coli., Nortliampton, Mass.; 
m. James Wolfe, Oct. 15, 1924. Began as ''The 
Girl Reporter," New York Evening Journal, 1917. 
dramatic Interviewer. 1918-19; left newspaper work, 
1924; originated radio Script show "Big Sister," 
1936; wrote "Your Family and Mine" (original 
program) which was produced, 1938-40; also appeared 
on several other programs; on lecture tours with 
husband, 1926; lecturer Summer Conference, Olivet 
(Mich.) Coli., 1941. Mem. Authors League America 
(former mem. Council Radio Guild). Club: Shore 
and Country (Norwalk). .\uthor: The Street of 
Chains, 1929; A Pair of Sixes; The Crimson Thread 
(Simon & Schuster; $2), 1942. Contbr. to Liberty, 
Red Book, Cosmopolitan, Collier's, Harper's, etc. 
Engaged in Publicity for husband, James Wolfe 
(basso with Met. Opera Co.. 19 yrs.) Home: Wolfe- 
Den. Silvermine .\v., Norwalk. Conn. 

LAUTERBACH, Aibert T. (lou'ter-bäK). e<lucator. 
author; b. Austria. June 24. 1904; s. Dr. Isidor and 
Augusta (Wiesenberg) L.; stiident Commerce Coli.. 
Vienna, 1922-23; Dr. rer. pol. (Ph.D.), U. gf 



.• 



nV 



Page 102 



Series III, No. 5 



1(1 



|ii' 



! I 



1« 



Vlonna, 1925; m. Tilly Lauterbach. Aug. 17, 1929. LOWREY, Janette Scbring (lö're), author; b. (Central Europe In lOth centurv) • nox\ nnv^i h*«u 

With Escompte-Gesellschaft (bank), Vienna. 3 yrs.. Orange. Tex.. Mar. 2. 1892; d. Ruluph aiKJ Janette wU earir Xek Vmes- n^^^^^ 

1926-29; Central European corr. Financial News (Scurry) Sebring; B.A.. U. of Texa.. 1929; m. Fred m histary of Northwes?' TeJr^torrCüy of One n 

(Lotidon), Reynolds News (London) and regulär V. Lowrey, Aug. 3, 1922; 1 son, Alfred Sebring. nati. Mem Ohio State Archeol and Ilht w 

contbr. to vanous (Jerman Swedish. Dutch and Teacher high school English, 1913-22. Democrat. Hist. and Philos. Soc. of Ohio Beta Theta Pi' 

Czechoslovak periodicals. 1927-38; lecturer on econ- Episoopalian. Author: Annunciata and the Shep- Renubllcan Conglist Aiithor- Defense of thp r««tio' 

omics, soclology and Internat, relations. Extension herds, 1938; The Silver Dollar, 1940; Rings on Her 1937; Olynipiad 1938« Falconer^s Son (XV^tmfnlll 

Colls. (Volkshochschulen). Vienna. 1926-34. also Fingers. 1941; Tap-A-Tan (Harper; $1.50). 1942. Trei ; $2 50) 1041 th/^^g^^^^^ 

lectured m Switzerland, France. England. Czecho- Ilas contributed several short stories and an essay lOth Century against a bacKround of nSmiAl n 

slovakla and C^rmany and radio commentator on to mags. Home: 211 E. Magnolia, San Antonio. Te.x rigW n1 erfgäged on ^^^^^^^^^^ 

and^Zn^MuS'of ^^clir^if "vtnnr^' 930"34'- '«-«^^'-' J»"- Arthur, Jr., neurosurgeon; b. the^lver (earl^. iJo^y^rän^L' ti)""ä'/b?"t: 

J^anslatoT-Int^nT Ubor^'office Se o'^Na-' L^ln^rM^^^Ä' t i''^ ''^'^'V^'^rhrl ^liT "'"'"' ""''' " ^'^ ""'" ^'''''' "*'''' ^^' 

tions), 1937; went to London after German in- ^^'\ ^' ? ""^'^Z ^}:^^'^ ^yaon' ""/ ^^''^- .^''^' ^^^^^^ J«"« Rothschild, author; b. Kansas City, 

vasion of Austria and wrote series of featur« articles 7v}ü'^\!t: ^/i"^. ^^^^"' ^^^i J ?^".' ^^Ü^^J ^o- ^ec. 30. 1903; d. Louis P. and Nora (VVest- 

for Financial News; came to U.S., 1938; research i^ ia,- /t: *"^"<'^"ß «"^seo", N.Y Univ. Med. heim«r) Rothschild; B.A., Vassar Coli.. 1925; m. 

asso.. Inst, of Social Research. Columbia U., 1939- tiÄ' Jl U u ^^Tl^^^^} ^'^:' I^ost-(.raduate David Mayer. Jr., Dec. 28. 1927; 3 children— David 

40; instr. economics, Brooklyn Coli., 1940; with ^*''^' ^^"- «"^ "»fP- N.Y. City since 1939; cons. III, Mary Jane. Philip. Mem. The Arts Club of 

Inst, for .\dvanced «tndy. Princeton. N.J., Sept. "eurosurgeon St. Agnw Hosp., White Plains, N.Y., Chicago. Co-author (with Clara Spiegel under pen 

1941; asst. prof. economics, U. of Denver, since »'W Memorial Hosp., N.Y. City. Reported to N.Y. name of Cläre Jaynes) : Instruct My Sorrows (Ran- 

«ept. 1941; now also ^-ngaged in research work on T •,«.« Medicine new method of X-raying brain. dorn House; $2.50), 1942. CoDtbr. flction to mags. 

Internat, aspects of post-war economics under grant- ''^"; ^^'' vl°/ov^ w ^^^*^ i^.^^J'? ^'^- ^^"^ "^ '^' «"^ pwiodicals. Address: 614 Sheridan Rd.. Glen- 

in-aid from Carnegie Corp., in connection with I"^' ^^^^^ ^^^^- ^^^- ^^^ ^^^ ^*^^"s. Repub- coe. 111. 

Trade Relations Project at U. of Calif. Mem. Am. jcan Um^tarian. Clubs: Western Univ( N.Y. City), McCORQUODALE. Malcolm S (mäk-kör'kwö däl\ 

Ecori. Assn. Club: Denver. Economics. Author: ^^.'^X^t';,.,^^^^^^^ Brit. parlLenta^'ser of Tabor S na^^^ 

Modern War — Its Econonüc and Social Aspects ^^^^^' ^^ ^- 20th St., New York, N.Y. j^p. j,. Eng., 1901; Student Harrow- M 7 cS 

(bibliography. 1941; (co-author with Grayson Kirk. MAGANINI, Quinto (mä-gä-ne'ne), composer. €hurch. Oxford; m. Winif red Clark; 2' daiis ' Started 

Richard P. Stebbins and others) ; War and National condr.; b. Fairfleld. Calif.. Nov. 30. 1897; s. Jose5)h busincss career in printing and stationery firms' now 

Defense 1942; Miitary Economy and Social Struc- Francis and Mary (Cereghino) M.; ed. in Calif. pub. dir.. Blades. East and Blades. Ltd.. Liverpool Print- 

' iL l^""* •^?.- V- K'',f' H\' ^f^^- '^°"^*'''- "■ ^^'- ^"^ P'^^^^^^y '" Kurope; Student Conservatoire Ing and Stationery Co.. Ltd.. McCorqiKKlale and 

ticles to periodicals. Address: U. of Denver, Denver, Americain. Fontainebleau. France, 1925-26; m. Mar- <^o.. Ltd.; Conser>-ativc mem. of Parliament from 

AUiii «• t. u /,r- .V ,. . m^ia, Mason Kingsbury, May 28. 1927; 1 dau.. Yorkshlre since 1931; In World War II served in 

,000 *h' "'*' K^".^" (Vichy) pohtician; born. MargarctU Mason. Member San Francisco Symphony Royal Air Force Volunteer Res 1939-40' aootd 

1883. Attorney qualifled to practice before the high- Orchestra, 1918-19, New York Symphony Orchestra. parliamentiiry sec. of labor and nat service \Q4'> ' 

est French courts; mem. Chamber of Deputies 1919-28; guest condr. San Francisco Symphony 19W MrkAv riu.r-. r,«rf..i.i. • *"*'^^ ^-h. 

(French socialist party), Paris dist.. 1914; under N.Y. Philharmonie Symphony. 1938; coXite^^^^^ Ha^r n.fon' W^sh W > 

sec. of State, French Council of ministers and Fgn. Chamber Symphony, since 1932, Nirwalk Symphony i Ln^fn^ 11« nJ^nth /n^' ^?!?\^' J'^"^^^""- 

Affairs ministry (Briand govt.), 1925; mem. French since 1940; editor Edition Musfeus (New YorM S ?astman Srh n?Ä /i?nf^J"L^'*^' ,S>J'"'- 

Senate (Independent) Paris dist., Dept. of Puy-de- 1936; prof. counterpoint and oUestration Teachere ptfn^r m^hk° n ''' ^^i °^ ^J'^^n'I''^' J.^^' »"• 

Dome, 1926; successively minister of Public Works Coli. Columbia U surSrs S lo^^^^ ^'i- ^^"^^ ^^^^^^ Aug. 15, 1923; children- 

(Painlev6 govt.). 1925. of Justice (Briand govts.) Greenwich ( Conn. ) LibrarJ^ As"n and Relation Bd- n.'.h 'X'' r'^'^^'t *^Tll'' "f^i^*^"- '^'^'^'' 

1926, of Labor (Tardieu govt.). 1930 and 1932. Am. Composers Alliance.Vs c\ P • ^^^^^^^^ ?" Äpr^^'^if ^/Jl'^ ^,?' T^ k'^' ^•^■' ^ 

Foreign Affairs (Doumergiw and Flandin govts.). Am. Composers and Condrs \wards' Pn it7or ^m,, " • ^^^^^^^t».;«"-. Kirksville. Mo.. 1 yr.; teacher 

1934-35. ofColonies, 1934; French prime minister and sie). 1927r Gu^enK felSp ^^^^0^^^^^^ ,Tf n^^''^' •"' F' ^^J4^l"«*r' '^"^ ^»^8. 

minister of Fgn. Affairs. 1931-32, 1935-36; mayor of David Bispham Memorial medall94''> R(J,ublic^' Jnmnn^ifTn; "T^'^r^J^-^'^'V.*;^"" ''"^'- '""^*^ 

Aubervilliers, France, a mfg. dist. of met. Paris; bc- Congregationalist. Club Tac^iUy (ColumWa u f' .nrnmorJ ioi«"'.a ' 5°"*^T- ^i'^'V ^' *^"'^''"' 

came vice premier and fgn. minister in P6tain govt. Composer: Tuolumne, Ist performed by NY Phil in »n ? J3r ^^- ,"'" ^i'^lished about 50 pieces 

after fall of France, 1940; ousted from govt., Dec. harmonic Symphony Orchestra 1905- The 4renm,, u l S\ ^?^ ""^ TIV''^' S*\^ T>articular emphasis on 

IMG, on Charge of scheming to wrest greater'powe (A Californian TetraTogy of ^our (^Was) • a^ mo e 1^ /o'r^^i.'^Tf ^'"l^^","?^"^'.'" ^?''^' ^'' ^ <2 

from govt.; detainedunderguarduntil Otto Abetz (see tban 200 pub. works in stamLrTconcWt^Jr?^^^ T ii "'?^- '^''^Hl^ ^'^ ^^^ American Guild 

4his Service II-2[Q]) appeared in Occupied France radio repertoire/nome GreenS cSnn ' Offleo' fn i.^'ri'^V'°'"^^*o'"L ^^^^' ^"" P^formances 

as Nazi delegate; remained in background during 23 W. 47t h St New York NY »n l»t Am Concert Rochoster. 1925; hon. mention 

1941. repeatedly scheming for further collaboration References":' Baker ' Bioi^ Dl^ti««.,^ «f ^^- , ^Tn^^^^*!?^ S^' «0"«>ö^'5t'"n. 1937. Helfetz 

with Germany. during which time at least one at- Musicfan"; J. T Howard OuJ Conf.mn T''^' ^^L. ^"L^-'' '^^' Technique of Modern 

tempt was made on his life; named Premier April Composers. "oward, Our Contemp. armony 1941 Editor: Foster Songs for Treble 

1942; with füll comrol of govt., though Marshall mami fp d^ / -„- . . wT* ^^'' """"'' "^^ '^^^ ^- N-^- Seattle. 

Petam (see this Supplement, III-16> still nominal v vt\. ***•"■ (ma'ler). artist; b. New York. *^'»^^- 

head and Adm. Darlin (III-6) remains successor ü'lv •'^"; i^' 1^7'' ^- ^^"^^ ^"^ Eva I>oebenthal ^ Reference; J. T. Howard, Our Contemp. 

to Potain and Comdr.-in-chief armed forces- return ♦ 5- ü' ^^^^^^^ "unter Coli, and N.Y. Seh. of Art; Composers. 

of Laval. leading collaborationist with Nazis, said T.'i^Z ^t^h^Si^r ^ f^f • .^'^^erested in McNAUGHTON, Andrew George Latta, comdr 

to be move to pre^ent Hitler setting up French 1^^?? ^ a chUd; began Portrait and flower paint- Canadian Army in England- b Moosomin Saskatrh 

gauleiter in Paris; has asked for complete colIalK)^- ^Ji'^J?"; ^^"^^ p^t exhibit in Acad. Fine .Arts. ewan. 1887; s. R. D McNauS B S M ^^^^ 

tion with Nazis. Member Council, League of Nations. wl'hin}* ' ^^i?^' ,'?^^ exhlbited in Chicago, Phila.. McGill U.; hon. LL.D.." McGIlI m- hon "d CI " 

Geneva. Switzerland. 1934-35. ' S^^^^"«^^"' Brooklyn; one-man show recently In Bishops U.. 1937; grad Roya Staff All r^mheriev* 



May, 1942 



Morton Galleries N.Y. City'.-" Re;ro"sen;;d 'i7 the' ^^T^Am.nT^^^^^^^^ 

Barn^a;^^!!?.^ ""'^Z'^'^L^.'' ^^}}^! -"-J-" -^ .^J'-!.,1- fi.-'rrey _Weir. •'lir4T'^5"'ch"dJ:f 'se^^^ 



References: TM, Sept. 8. 1941, p. 15; Dec. 
23. 1940, p. 26; NSW. Sept. 8, 1941, i. 21 

NA 
1940 

1Q41 TA 7 " "' — «^«.j^, Mail, lu, MATTu««-. _. _ "--.,... ..«.r^, ifiiiiu nar ii. now COm«r, 

+ ici«i*c .. .. .u „, . h ""{^VHEWS, Blayney F., personnel supt.. author; F»?"''^n ?v. ^?P^ ^" ^"^»'"- Decorated Companlon of 

tLEWIS, Lloyd, author: Wright. Prophet of the ?• Dubuque. la., June 30, 1894; Student U of \^^ ^^^^' Companlon St. Michael and St. George: 

Praines (Farmer; $2.50), 1942. /,»•; Northwestern U. I^iw Seh., U. of Southern ^""^PanJon Distinguished Senice Order 

tLINDBERGH, Charles A.; accepts Position with aS ^^^nntn^",!!''^ ^* ";?• ^'''"y« ^^17. commd. ^ ^*'f '*"*'«'• ™V,*^*"- ^' ^^^^' P- 28: NB. 

Ford Motor Co., at Willow Run bbmbing .plant. luvest SSonQ^R^^^^H^r^^/^- !? f^' ß'"^^" «^ ^c^Y, Tl' ^^nuJ ^anadUn Geoirraphy. July 

iiDUAM I.«. u ^•» •. . .. mvesiigaiion. 1926; chief invest gator Dist 4t- 1941. p. 8; KHbk. 

N,"'^"4"'3f^9?9-'- Br'wTue'slev'ci^r-Mt- ÄL^T/h "^l ^"f "'• 'A-'»: dir. of „hnt , «cSHERRY. F«,» J.. dop. dir. In Charge «f 

N.Y.' Unk.: ra.' Howard L^imarm'MZ'?^^^^^^^ pS W«t Zi « r™""""' '^'""'" «™»- v^Z Tl''- •""'!.<" Productlon Managemerft; b. 

4«o PHUnr Art in a«.TJs« u,- Ü' *^^r * t» . 3 "^^ ^°^^^ Studios, siucc 1935 Mem Eldorado Springs. Mo.. Oct 18 18Q'>- s J s «nri 

Painting (Oxford Press; $5), 1942. Contbr to Art uivro ..tÜT'. ^/.T Lh ^; ^?-^' ^^^^i ^ommand and Gen. 

in America, Antiques. Parnassus. Art Bulletin etc n,H n i' ^'^tJ!"*"' ''''•♦ "ovelist; b. Cincin- w,r mii '10,7' ^^y.P"^orth. 1934; grad. Army 

Address: Weston Rd., €annondale Conn i"*"'/^",''""^^' '^^Ö; s. Albert Ignace and Kather- !I-,^^°"'t^^'^^'.'"- ^hzabeth Jones. Sept. 28. 1925; 

♦ tLITTLF Phiiin o^icf /l^" 01 ,n?r: Ine (Delmuth) M.; A.B.. U. of Cincinnati inofi- <^hildren-James Michael, Milllcent. Elizabeth Melis- 

ReTIre^ce • NYHT A?r 1 ^ Q^^^^^^ !"' ^'J^f^^^' B^^ara Ebert. June 1 1938 En-' L •^^'"'"l' i^d ^^^ ^•^- Army.' 1917; now brig. 

.n.mnu ; ^™^'. ^P'' ^' ^^^^' ^^red business. 1928; spent leisure timj in writinc w"' f^.l ^" ^'^"^« ^^^ 62d Coast Arty., World 

LOUDON, Dr. A., minister from Netherlands to ^-specially sport stories which were published in S^frr ^^ Offlee Chief of Coast Arty., 4 yrs.; Gen. 

U.S.; named to Pacific war Council by Pres. Roose- boys' mags.; spent several years in hist research ni?. / W War Dept., 1937; War Dept. liaison 

for background of first novel. Defense of the'S Sst^^l*' a"nT^'e.^''"'r"-pr^e^fde.rs Kf 

^io^^rÄr^^^^^^^ -t died, füll 

are restricted to biographical material considered -ufflciÄTom JreS^Jrto'^fo/'^^^^^^ v" lueT 




t 



<r 



• 



> 



partmental Com. on Mechanics Training for Aircraft 
Industry, 1938-40; War Dept. liaison officer with 
Labor Div., Advisory Commn. to Council of Nat 
Defense, since July 1, 1940; administrative asst., 
Labor Div.. Advisory Commn. to Council of Nat 
Defense, 1940; dir. of Defense Training. Fed. Security 
Agency and Chief Defense Training Brauch. O.P.M., 
1941; dep. dir. for labor supply and training. Labor 
Div., W.P.B., 1942. Mem. Sigma Epsilon; Mason 
(32°, Shriner). Presbytierian. Clirb: Army-Navy 
Country (Washington). Home: 3232, Garfield St 
N.W. Office: War Production Board, Washington,' 

MEARS, Helen, writer. editor; b. N.Y. City 
Nov. 1, 1900; d. Henry and Elizabeth Salsbury 
(Owen) Mears; A.B., Goucher Coli., 1922. With 
Survey Associates, pubs. of The Survey and Survey 
Graphic, as asst. editor, 1929-35; readcr and com- 
mentator for Japan Issue of Fortune (pub. Sept. 
1936). Has traveled around the world twice; spent 
one year In China, 1925-26; spent 8 months in 
Japan, 1935; has also traveled extensively in Europe 
and elsewhere. Author: Year of the Wild Boar (Lip- 
pincott); 1942. an account of her visit in Japan 
Contbr. to periodicals. Home: 26 Locust St. 
Towanda. Pa. 

Reference: CSM, May 27, 1939, p. 12. 

MENOTTI, Glan Carlo (mä-nöt'tl). composer; b 
Ca^legliano, Italy. July 7. 1911; s. Alfonso and Ines 
(Pellini) M.; studied composition Curtis Inst of 
Music (grad. 1933). Came to U.S.. 1928. Writer 
of Chamber music. souks and 3 operas; teacher 
Curtis Inst, of Music since 1941. Composer (operas) 
Amelia Goes to the Ball (premiere Acad. of Music 
Phila., 1936, later performed at Mt. Opera House 
and in many European eitles); The Old Maid and 
the Thief (writtcn for Nat. Broadcasting Co., later 
performed with Phila. Opera Co.); The Island God 
(Premiere Met. Opera House, Feb. 20. 1942). Writer 
of own libretti. Home: 166 E. 96th St., New York, 
N.Y. 

References: TM, May 1. 1939. p. 56; Baker, 
Biojr. Dictionary of Musicians; Howard, Our 
Contemp. Composers. 

MIHAILOVITCH, Dragoljub ("Draja") M. (me- 
härö-vlch), leader of Jugo-Slavian anti-Nazi revolt; 
b. Pozarevac, Serbia (now Yugo-Slavia). 1893; Stu- 
dent public grade and high schs.; entered Serbian 
Mil. Acad., Beigrade. 1910; married; 4 children. 
With other cadets mustered into Army. 1912. for 
Balkan War with Turkey and Bulgaria; promoted to 
2d lt.; retumed to seh.; mustered into World War 
I, 1914; became prof.. Beigrade Mil. Acad.; mil. 
attachß at Sofia. 1934-36, at Prague. Czechoslovakia, 
1936-37; had been promoted through ranks to col. 
by 1940. time of Nazi occupation. Has fought con- 
tinuously for his country's freedom since its sur- 
render to Hitler; when King Peter and his govt. 
were forced to flee into exile, Mihailovitch finally 
obtalncd royal permission 'to organize a force for 
continued resistance to Nazi occupation; now has 
armed force (no longer only guerrilla fighters) 
rounded up from over the mountains, and wages füll 
Scale war against Nazis; reported to his Govt in 
Exile via Cairo that Yugo-Slav forces of 80,000 held 
their positions south of Beigrade. Dec. 1941; im- 
proved his strength whenever possible by coordinat- 
ing with Greek and Albanian guerrilla forces; recog- 
nized by his Govt. in Exile for outstanding work 
hy Promotion to füll gen.. Dec. 1941; when Nazis 
threatened. April 11M2. to take his family hostage, 
aml families of his offlcers. if he did not surrender, 
replied would continue fight to the death for libera- 
tion. Awarded gold medal for bravery (Serbia), 
Military Order of the White Eagle with Swords, 
and highest mil. decoration of Yugo-Slavia. 

References: TM, Mar. 9, 1942, p. 24; Jan. 
26, 1942, p. 32 ; NSW. Jan. 26, 1942. p. 37. 

MITCHELL, Susanna Valentine, author; b. Phila- 
delphia, Pa.; d. Langdon El\v>'n and Marion (Lea) 
Mitchell; grand daughter of Dr. S. Weir Mitchell 
neurologist and writer; m. William Gammeil. Jr.[ 
Feb. 24, 1925; 3 children — Helena Hope, Mary 
I^angdon, Arthur Middleton. Author: Journey Taken 
by a Woman, 1935; No Second Spring (Harper; 
$2.50), 1942. Address: The Meadows, Warwick 
R.L 

MOHAUPT, Richard Ernst Eduard, composer; b. 
Breslau. Germany. Sept. 14. 1904; s. Richard and 
Marie (Kühnel) M.; Student U. of Breslau; studied 
music with Julius Pruever and Rudolph Büke; m. 
Rosa Gottlieb. Nov. 18. 1930. Came to U.S.. 1939. 
Began as condr. of opera In Aachen. Breslau and 
Weimar; tour as condr. of symphony concerts, East- 
ern Europe, 1931-32; first notable success as com- 



Page 103 



poser was with ballet "Die Gaunerstrelche der 
Courache" performed at German Opera House. Ber- 
lin, Aug. 5, 1936; first Performance of '"Die Wiriin 
von Pinsk" at State Opera in Dresden, Feb. 
10, 1938; then at Zürich, Switzeriand, April 
3, 1938; first Performance "Concerto for Piano, 
Strings, Brass and Percussion" under Fiteiberg, at 
Warsaw, Poland, Oct. 3, 1938 (played piano solo 
himself); first Performance "Drei Episoden" with 
Concertgebouw Orchestra, Amsterdam, under Menge- 
berg, Nov. 27, 1938; asked by Nazi Govt. to divorce 
his "non-Aryan" wife and when he refused his 
works were forbidden in Germany; came to U.S. 
Mar. 4, 1939; orchestral work "Townpipcr Music" 
first performed over Station WJZ. Dec. 7, 1941; 
"Symphony" first performed by N.Y. Philharmonie 
Orchestra under Goossens, Mar. 5. 1942; has also 
written ednl music. Home: 321 W. 105th St., New 
York, N.Y. 

Reference: Baker, Bieg. Dictionary of Mu- 
sicians. 

MOORE, Ward, writer; b. Madison, N.J., Aug. 10, 
1903; s. Samuel Ward and ßtella (Lemlein) M.; 
education largely unacademic; m. Dorothy Terry, 
1922; children— Fredrica, Chariotte; m.. 2d, Violka 
Strouf, 1927; dau., Rebekah (died 1937). Has 
worked in department Stores, steel foundrles, farms, 
Sheet metal works, book stores and as laborer and 
research worker. Author: Breathe the Air Again 
(Harper; $2.75), m2, novel dealing with the triple 
conflict between busfness, flnance and labor, first of 
3 covering aspects of American life. Home: 2247 V^ 
Clifl'ord St., Los Angeles, Calif. 

MORTON, H. V., Brit. writer; b. Ashton-under- 
Lyne, Lancashire, Eng., July 25, 1892; m. Violet M. 
Gre-ig. Became asst. editor Birmingham Express, 
1912, sub-editor Daily Mail, 1913-14; served with 
Navy in World War I, 1914-18; became mem. edi- 
torial stafT Evening Standard, 1919-21, of Daily Ex- 
press, 1921-31; special writer for Daily Herald, 
since 1931. Awarded Knight Commander. Order of 
the Phoenix (Greece). Author: The Heart of Lon- 
don. 1923; The London Year. 1926; London, 1926; 
The Spell of London, 1926; The Nights of London, 
1926; In Search of England, 1927; The Call of Eng- 
land. 1928; In Search of Scotland. 1929; In Search 
of Ireland. 1930; In Search of Wales, 1932; Blue 
Days at Sea, 1932; In Scotland Again, 1933; In the 
Steps of The Master, 1934; Our Fellow Men, 1936; 
In the Steps of St. Paul. 1936; Through Unds of 
the Bible. 1938; Ghosts of London. 1939; In Search 
of the Northern Isles, 1940; Middle East (Dodd 
Mead; $3), 1942. 



NEUMANN, Alfred, author. scenarist, playwright; 
b. Lautengurg. Germany, Oct. 15, 1895; s. Wolff and 
Malvina (Joseph) N.; Student univs. of Beriin. 
Munioh, Genevia; Ph.D.; m. Katharina Schatzberger. 
June 23. 1924; came to U.S.. 1941. received Ist 
papers, 1941. Left Germany, 1933, since which time 
«ill his books have bcen bumed and banished, house 
and property confiscated, citizenship withdrawn; lived 
in exile in Italy. France; came to U.S. on emer- 
gcncy Visa granted by State Dept. under auspices of 
the President's Advisory Com. on Polit. Refugees, 
1941; screen writer, Warner Bros.. Burbank. Calif.. 
1941-42. Mem. PEN Club; Authors Guild of the 
Authors League of Am.; Screen Writers Guild. 
Awarded: Kleist Prize. (annual German literature 
prize). 1926, for his novel, The Devil. Author: 
(biographies) Alfred de Musset (doctor's thesis) 
1920; Queen Christine of Sweden, 1934; (novels) 
The Patriot, 1924 (also prod. as play in Europe, 
S.A., 1926, U.S., 1928, and as motion picture by 
Paramount, 1928, by F.C.L., Paris, 1937); King 
Haber, 1925; The Devil. 1926 (motion picture rights 
purchased by Universal Piotures) ; Rebeis. 1927; 
Guerra, 1928; The Hero, 1930; Mirror of Fools, 
1932; The New Caesar, 1934; The Gaudy Empire. 
1936; Die Goldquelle (pub. in German only). 1937; 
The Friends of the People, tranl. hy Countess Nora 
Wydenbruck and the author (Macmillan; $2.50), 
1942. Most of the above works pub. In several 
languages. Also author of three plays— Koenigsmaske, 
1927. Frauenschuh, 1930, Haus Daniele. 1931 (prod. 
in Germany, Austria, Switzerland), War and Peace. 
dramatization of Tolstoi's novel (in collaboration 
with Erwin Piscator) for Gilbert Miller; motion 
picture scenarios— D'Isola (for Italian film co.). 
Rinaldo Rinaldini (for Cari Laemmle. Sr.). I>a 
Tragedie In>periale (Raspoirtine) prod. by Arcadia- 
Film. Paris, Ist shown in New York, 1940. Home: 
1527 N. Stanley Av., Hollywood, Calif. Offlee: care 
Macmillan Co., New York, N.Y. 

tNICHOLS, Beverfey, author: Men Do Not Weep 
(Harcourt, Brace; $2.59), 1942. 



*tNORLIN, George, unlv. pres. (Mar. 30, 1942). 
References: NYHT, Apr. 1, 1942; Leaders 
in Edn. 

NUHN, Ferner Rall (nun), author; b. Cedar Falls, 
la., July 25, 1903; s. William C. and Anna (Rall) 
N.; B.A., North Central Coli., Naperville, III., 1924; 
M.A., U. of 111., 1925; studied Grad. Seh., Colum- 
bia U.; m. Ruth Suckow, Mar. 11, 1929. Instr. 
in rhetoric, U. of 111., 1925-26; reviewer and contbr. 
to mags., 1928-34; asso. with Information Div. Agrl. 
Adjustment Adminstrn., Washington, 1934-36. As- 
sisted in orgn. of Cedar Falls Art Assn., 1940. 
Author: The Wind Blew from the East: A Study 
in the Orientation of American Culture (Harper; 
$3), 1942. Contbr. articles to mags. Home: 2215 
Grand Blvd., Cedar Falls. la. 

tOXASEY, Sean, author: Piotures in the Hallway 
(Macmillan; $2.75), 1942. 

ODLUM, Jerome, novelist; b. Minneapolis, Minn., 
Aug. 26, 1905; s. George and Maude (Kurtzman) 
0.; ed. in pub. schs., Minneapolis, U. of Minn.; m. 
2d Shirley Elaine Booker. Offlee Clerk, accountant, 
salesman, telegraph Operator, etc., 1920-31; rang, 
editor, columnist, feature writer, cameraman, re- 
porter, inake-up editor for various Minneapolis and 
St. Paul newspapers; scenarist, Warner Brothers, 
1938-39, Paramount Pictures, since 1938. Mem. 
Screen Writers Guild. Author: Each Dawn I Die, 
1938; Nine Lives Are Not Enough, 1940; Lady Sour- 
dough, 1941; Dust Be My Destiny, 1942; Night and 
No Moon (Howell, Soskin; $2), 1942. Ehch Dawn 
I Die. Dust Be My Destiny, Nine Lives Are Not 
Enough prod. as motion pictures by Warner Broth- 
ers. Contbr. fiction, articles, to Esquire, Golfer and 
öportsman (Minneapolis). Home: Stony Brook, N.Y. 

OGDEN, Samuel Robinson, conservation, author; b. 
Elizabeth, N.J., July 19, 1896; s. Samuel R. and 
Ella (Loney) 0.; A.B., Swarthmore Coli., 1920; 
attended U. of Grenoble, 3 months while with 
A.E.F.; m. Mary Campbell, Jan. 1921; children — 
Jane Campbell (dec), Samuel Robinson, III, Dun- 
can Grant. Purchased deserted village in Landgrove, 
Vt., and rehabilitated bldgs. and built up a sum- 
mer colony, 1929; also continued in reconstruction 
of Vt. farmhouses in Bennington and Windham 
counties; developed interest in conservation, and 
after serving in town Offices was elected to State 
Legislature, 1935, re-elected, 1937 and 1939 (chmn. 
Com. on Conservation and Development last 2 yrs.); 
apptd. mem. State Planning Bd., 1939, State Bd. 
of Conservation and Development, 1940. Sailed 
with A.E.F., Aug. 1917 with rank of private; re- 
turned as Ist lt., 142d Inf., July 1919. Mem. Vt. 
Symphony Assn. (mem. bd. 1938; pres. 1939); mem. 
bd. Burr and Burton Sem., Manchester, Vt., 1939; 
mem. bd. dirs. New England Council; mem. Delta 
Upsilon. Republican. Presbyterian. Author: How 
to Grow Food for Your Family (Barnes & Co.; 
$2.50), 1942. Home: Landgrove. Vt., R.D., London- 
derry, Vt. 

O'HARE, Edward Henry, U.S. Navy air ace; b. 
lil., 1914; Student Mil. Acad., Alton, IlL; grad. 
Annapolis Naval Acad., 1937, Pensacola air school 
with wings, 1939; married. Became instr. Pensacola 
Station; later joined a fighter squadron, San Diego; 
was promoted to lt. (j.g.), sent to Pacific zone, Dec. 

1941. U.S. Navy announced he not only qualified 
as ace, but exceeded record for 1 plane by shooting 
down 6 Jap planes in one day in) fighting near 
Gilbert Islands, Mar. 1942; returned to U.S., April, 
.promoted to lt. comdr. and given Congl. Medal of 
Honor. 

References: TM, Mar. 16, 1942, p. 22; 
NSW. Mar. 16. 1942, p. 22; LI, Mar. 16. 

1942, p. 39. 

OSAKA, Prince Yasuhiko (ö-sä-kä, yä-so'o-hi-kö). 
Jap. gov. of Philippine Islands; b. Japan, Oct. 2, 
1887; m. Princess Nobuko, 8th dau. of late Emperor 
Meiji. Apptd. gen. and supreme war councillor; was 
comdr. of Japanese forces after fall of Nanking, 
China; reported apptd. gov. of Philippine Islands! 
Mar. 1942. Belongs to 3d class of Jap nobility 
(which compares with Brit. peerage from viscount 
to prince) created after the Meiji Restoration as a 
polit. -move to resist old feudal-baron monopoly; 
Prince Osaka's title was first in House of Osaka 
created 1905. 

OTT, Lester, aviation authority; b. Baltimore, 
Md., Dec. 8, 1910; s. Lewis and Clara (Bussey) 0.; 
Student business adminstrn., John Hopkins U., 1928- 
30, fine arts, Md. Inst, of Art, 1926-27; m. Mary 
Mäfshall, Feb. 17, 1940. Free lance advertising and 
advertising mgr. retail stores, 1931-36; owner and 
Operator The Lester Ott Co., advertising agency, N.Y. 



S».=.^ 



(1 



I 



II 



Page 104 



Series III, No. S 



ence on D.C. author of other booka pub. in France but not 

Corps, PEASE, Josephine van Dolzen, author; b. Au translated into EnKlish. Contbr. of articles and 

Defense g^ble, Mich.; d. Max L. and Helen (Hewitt) "91'°".*® ?!*ß^- Address: care Maxim Lieber, 545 

'• *1)/ Peas«; »tudent Mich. Normal Coli. (Ypsilanü), '^'"" ^t., New Yorl(, N.Y. 



City, 1936-37; asso. editor Aircraft Publs., a year- shows throughout country, and recently at Phila. Jan. 5, 1905; married; 2 chUdren; came to US 

boolt used by govt. and industry; spent mucti time and Cincinnati. Winner Logan prize for sculpture, 1941. Sened in French Army a5 pvt., Aug 27* 

visiting aircraft factories throughout U.S. gathcring "Kneeling Women," 1942. Apptd. midshipman, U.S. 1939-July 16, 1940. Author: Bloody Baron 'l938- 

material. Writer of syndicatcd daily feature, "IIow Navy, Mar. 1942. Presbyterian. Home: 419 Belmont Deuil en 24 Heures (in FreiKh), 1942; The Edce 

to Spot Planes." Mem. Aviation Writcrs Assn. Av., Chicago, 111. Address: Navy Dept., Washington, of the Sword (Modern Age; J2.50), 1942 Also 

Author: Aircraft Spotter (Ist American reference on D.C. author of other boolu pub. in France but not 

aircraft IdentiHcation; in use by Army Air Corps, _...-. 

U.S. Navy Bur. of Aeronautics and Civilian Defense 

Z York Suiiday T mTs Ke' noTwh's' 5i^'^^«° ^^' "^^^^^'^^^ Art. Hollins Seh. (Va.). PRENDER6AST, Charles, artist; b. Boston. Mass 

Office 370 LeSonAv New York NY B^&an as teachor in pub. schools, Poplar BUKT. Began as carver in wood. Represented in AtwS 

D*; run^n u c. Vul' f- . • M«-' *^" **«*^^'' P"'"^''y ß^^^s and special class- (Jallerj- Am. Art; Phillips Acad., Andover MasT " 

u- ? • . - ^'i*^' ^°^ joong-she), Chinese vice es for maladjusted cbildren, pub. sciwols, Gary, Barnes Foundation, Merion. Pa.; Phillips Memorlii' 

Chief of staff and one of "two Kwangsi war lords"; Ind. Has done volunteer social work at HuH House Washington, D.C; Rhode Island Seh of D^i^n 

b. Kwangsi 1893; Student Paoting Mil .\cad. Joined and Traveller's Aid, Chicago. Author: Nimbo. the Providence; Newark (N.J.) Museum- Museum mS 

Revolution, 1911; though an anti-Communist, he op- story of an African Boy, 1934; The Story of em Art, Whitney Museum. Internal House N Y 

posed Red-opposkion of Chiang Kai-shek, and fa- Houses. 1938; The Story of Food, 1938; The Story City; also many private col ecUons Associate mem 

vored preservation of U.S.S.R. supply route through of Clothes, 1938; The Story of Heat and Light, Nat Acad. Design (.^N A ) Ilome^ wLtoorT 

N. China. 1926-27; joined U Tsung-Jen (2d of the 1938; Safe All Day wlth the Happies. 1939; wi Conn. Iai^i.a.;. liomt. Westport, 

Kwangsi war lords) In Nanking Punitive Expedition; Love America, 1941; The Happy Book (Rand, Mc- tpuTnaii c^^ d.i»^ k„ u 

became his vice comdr. in chief, Nationalist 4th Nally; $2). 1942 Contbr to encyclooedias* also iJ!i w 7» .!^^^ Paimer, publisher; author: 

Army, 1927-28; occomplishing ca«>ture of 4 Icading verse and stori^ ^o cEen^^ mags Home: 64^ ^'^' ^''«^"' (Harcourt. Brace; |3), 1942. 

northern eitles, uniüng China provisionally; became Sheridan Road, Chicago, 111, RABORC, Paul Christtphcr (MaJ. Paul C ) (ra'- 

mem. Wuhan^Div.,. Central Poiit, Cuncil. 1928; ^tPH^y-^^^^O^^^^^^^ Forward .he ^.i^TZ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ 

Dr?p«r *r« w f i; ^i ^ . . . ^""^'^^^^ ^»'- Acad.; Student Columbia U. Seh o 

n f^"'?'^r^' "**"^' ^' "''•""* ^- ^' «^^''- Mines; divorced; 2 daus.. Patricia, Dora Mae En- 

"—: -• — ,».x^..m^ x...i..cac /ii.uy siiice lyöo. «••)•*•• 1" Indla, which has now been aiigmented by listed In U.S. Army as private; served with 2d U S 

Works for reforms of training soldiers politically, ^J^^J^^^^^ "«^ ^^- Planes (see this Service, II- Cav. (commd. 2d k., Regulär Cavalry and servej 

abolishing scorched-earth policy; considered Chinese 171 [Q]). as such on the Mexlcan border; appointed ai(kMie- 

Äll rhin^^Ä^ ih-H ^^^*•^^^^;^• ^*"- PHILUPS, Arthur Gorden, author; b. Pawtucket. ?""P i« C^"- Tasker H. Bliss, outstanding stu- 

Stilwell. Chinas Am. chief of staff. for drafting war R.I.. Sept. 24, 1916; s. Arthur H. and ElizabeUi ^«"t «^ »"'»• ^istory and strategy. later <o C.en. 

nif^T^^r.' T r„«*u tu*, (Camac) P.; A.B., U. of Ala.. 1940. A.M.. 1942; «'«'"^ ^,^^^?' ^"« both werc successively in com- 

p/iLrS ; ^:*.Ji* .'.""***• ^■*"- ">• "^'<^" Korman. Oct. 21, 1940. Taught English 1»*"^ «^ ^hc Southern Dept.; sent to France for 

v^riT i?v ' n ",? ""Avi''^'"^^' composer; b. New at U. of Ala.; wrote Ist novel, story centering about '''»^^ ^^^^ french and British armies in 1917; later 

.%^nl' ? JL'l, vS' "'.»P«' ®- ^ouftlandt and Cath- race track. 1940-41. Won Llppincott award ($1.000). ?^"^^ " machine gun offleer with 3 Am. front 

5^h v^^v^?^""f^y ?'' P'^P- ^"' *^ Berkeley May 1941; won Ist prize in contest at R.I. State ""<^ dirisions; was wounded, and twiee cited; holder 

p«2;VpS l^oiw^ wn '""«'« "l^er Leschetizky, Coli, with play, Sketch in Afriea, 1938. Author: ^J ^^^^ "»^^als and deeorations from U.S. and 

M.r^hTJp '/Ä^w i^r?^' Schreyer (Dresden), Vietory In the Dust (Lippincott; 12.50), 1942. l'^"^'- «<'"<'<^ ^^^ Allied Army of Oceupation in 

Marechale (Paris). Waddington (London). Denereaz Home: Tuscaloosa, Ala. ' ^ f» r,ermany; resigned commlssion. Has travcled widely 

(Swizerland); unmarried. Has spent most of his p,cK Albert rhmn pi.i, iin* i r u n^- continued his extensive studies of latest develoo- 

life m Europe; has lived In Italy, Egypt, France, -aeo in mJ!' 17 ^ifio'. ^^^'H ^"^^y }*' ^'" ^^^^^ i" »trategy aiKl wea4)ons of mJdeni warfai?' 

Switzeriand. England, during past 18 yrs.; has tour^ ?&& 1- V H o^A Vu^t^.^"^ i'T^' ""'' '^^ commerWator. T^paper «)l?,^n?s on 

ed as pianist-composer with Kneisel Quartet- has '^"'*<'^*' ^•'^- »^""^^KO Pub- Schools and Notre mil and nolit *u./.i/i>m««». IkL,.T^ ♦ i. 

played with Boston Sympho^^ (under GeSe) New ?*'"' n •',"'• 9.'!^'''^' ^'"^"'^' ^«^- 27. 1892; chil- m1 "ipha cL tf dX im it f^Tni ^%^i 

Santa Cecllia Orchestm RomP- «1^^! k-c «"!: 5.^8»" as merchant. 1893; pres. Albert Pick & Co.. rhrVV"'"^' ^^^^' Address, care M. Antlwny 



mem. Pollt. Council of South West, 1930; dept. 
comdr. Kwangsi Provincial Army, 1935; upon Jap 
Invasion of Cliina joined Chiang Kai-shek, 1935; vice 
Chief of staff of National Chinese Army since 1935. 



Santa Cecllia Orche.tra. Rome; played his oin Sa" '%rjan"'^ ^fSUZl'' ^ 
piano concerto with Philadelphia Symphony Orches- tn S l \}' J929. pres. 
tra (Sir^Thoma..Beacham co'nducting) in wSg- 1 J^L'^S"; ^iJ^^^^^^i.^' 



Began as merchant. 1893; pres. Albert Pick & Co.. ciuh N Y 

1930. Mem. Chi- „ hAMOND, Albert, Industrial engr.; b. Nevers, 



condueting) in Washinc- '^*"' ^"T" ^; ^'"^ ^^- *'• ^^30. M..... v...- ^ -- . - .>... «. *-»..., 

ton, D.C, Baltimore. Carnegie Hall New York ?.^^ » '**-.,i^^- ^""^ ^"*^- ^^^^ß^. Clubs: Illinois f'?"f^' J""^ 1894; s. .\rmand and Marguerite Marie 

Clubs: The Bohemians (N.y! City);' MacDowVll ^if^^^l^T,^^!?'^^!?^' Oommittee of One Hundred i/^t^»"'*!») R.; grad. mech. engr.. .\rt8 arnl Trades 

Composer: In Memoriam (for orchestra); also sones ij '*T^ n^*^' S*'^' "<""^- ^^^O U Gorce Drive, Ji»^; <^2"-. Cluny. France, 1913; m. Marguerite 

(many orchestrated), Choral works/ÄetU Zf- pm?* ^;?^ ^^^' ^^''' 20 N. Wacker Drive ^^^^ P*''^/; JÖ20; children - .Adeline. Rcn^e. 

tetts, fugues for organ. sonatas. ^tc. Unrn^-rL ^^^'^^^^ ^"- ^^"^ ^ J^:,^' ^^^^'' "«turalized Citizen, 1927. 

Engring, rtudent Schneider k Co.. Diesel div.. I>e- 

-,.. -... .,. .„^ „ ^^rri. r »nn ^'^^^\' 1913-14, tfch. rpp. wlth French Navy, samc 

PALM«. „„.« D«.. pH.,c<a„ p.^atH3U l^^^b; ^",5.'™,^.^ ileL/'^ÄfL A»[ ^i^^ ^^f^'^-"^:^^'^ ^ 

Id C\^ Sil ^'^*' ^^^^ R^^rt. Started 
Acad.. 1920; B.S.. U. ofMJnn'' 1924 MD 1928 • 1^1 '^^'"'•" ^" ^^^«^^^ Free Pn 

m. Margaret Almira Adams. 1928: r'hilHrpn-Mnr.' L''*.^*°"l »"«". f»»" «^'atlon business since 1927; has S,""" since""! 937 *"cont'br" 



tetts, fugues for organ, sonatas, etc. Home- The p -_« _. ^ ' ;; x....«..., 

sfT8 ^iiT Ä^w z^: ^y'. ^-^ '^ ^- ste';!fng~^^Kv!^'t? riÄ^r^F^' z ~ ?^^' -^" - ^tMiM: 
b.^\s "mT re'ifi^r's«^s ^^l9^o;Ä^•^H^L,^9Ä^^^^^ ^^^t^'^-^^^^ 

m Wgaret AfmVa AdarJ^^^^^^^^ ^^f'' ^^'«/*°"« »"«" for aviatlon b^nfss since '?907.1^^ r^W^'^^\V.'. ^''J' T'' ^»24; pres. The Bedaux 

garet Ann. Harold Dea^ ' Prof of tychiJ^^Jv" ^«^»^«J /^r flying schools. airiines and arcaft mfg Shi, TiL^^inJ^J^^'; W'^^ T'^'- ^"^ ^™'''' 

Woman's Med. Coli, of Pa . since IWQ- Äate JS"*?f «^ ^'"^"^ *« P"'«te. U.S. Marine Corpf Ji. % "mT^^i^"^^ l^'^^l'L"^- ^^V"*^' '"• 

P«)f. of psychiatry. Med. &h U. of Pa^nJ SfJl ^f/. L. ^em, Christian Church. Author': ^^ilT^^^'J^J?'" ^'^•'/'^'^e«''' 1' • . 



Reference: TM. Jan. 19,' 1942, p. 69. 

RATH, Virginia, author; b. Colusa, Callf., Sept. 
1, 1905; d. Willie Nelson and Mamie (Jrace (Raw- 
Iins) McVay; B.A.. with Iwnors in History. U. of 
Calif.. 1925. also gra<I. Student. 1925-26; m. Cari 
Menr>' Rath, Jan. 12, 1929. Mem. avil Air Patrol. 



Prof, of psychiatry, xMed^ 'Sch."'~U ' oF Pa "since w^'^ ^^L L- ^^^- ^^^stJan Church. Authör 

1933; visiting chief physieian ti psych atric' dept ^oTV^v ^'-"'^ i.",^^^' ^2-75). 1942. Home 

Phila. Cen. Hosp.; psychiatrist to Student health r?u a^* P^r?^»"^ I>rive. Arlington, Va. Offlee: 

Service. U. of Pa.; cons. psychiatrist to dept of ^''^^ Aeronautics Administration, Washington. D.C. 

mental and nervous diseases. Pa. Hosp.; formeriy « PLEAK, Frances Afery, instr. In Sronish- b St 

psychiatrist to Juvenile Court. Wilmington Del ^^aul. Ind.. July 4 ]9P- d RavmnS t.,;..« nn 1 - «--^ -.. 

Fellow Am Coli. Physicians. Am S 'A^n.' Josephine Hill (Ho^aJd) Pleakf s^n^ Miw'uk'e" i'/"^' «a^h. Jan. 12. 1929. Me^. äTil Air Patrol. 

Am Psychiatric Assn., Coli, of Physicians of ^««^^r Coli., 1929-30; A.B.. U of Wis loii JJ^")' F*^^^"^ ^^"' '^«'moerat. Author: Death at 

Phila ; mem. Alpha Kappa Kappa. Certified by Am. A.M.. 19.35. Ph.D.. mO; unmarried S* in^ r* ^^*>' «" » ^«"y. I»35; Murder on the Day of Judg- 

Bd. Neurology and Psvchiatrv 1057 ri.j,. tTr,?^.. of Soanish. IT of Wi» morr on #.i;__ . V, " . v ment. 1936: FerrvmÄn T«k«» iiim A..mcQ lao«. 
League. Contbr. 
Hughes* Practice . 

n?vÄl°"?^''" ^r^?^^'^ '^^'^ ^" treatmSS^t in r);^ ^J!^*^'' "^^^ ^^^^ry of Jorge Är?PrS- ü?' ?,^^5l, ?''""'. *^« K*"^» ^^l; F^iitaph for 

u^^ ± ^^^LraJ^'^tion and treatment of involu- to" U Pre^s; 12.50). 1942. critical analys^s and (I^^bleday. Doran; |2). 1942. Home: 1843 

iTril l^^^jc^i'^' /^cently in the news for his selected translations of the contemporarv Snarfish ''''^^'^"«'o^^h. San Francisco. Calif. 

report on treatment of migraine headache with P^et. now a risHing lecturer at Wellesley Coir Homp •*»'^'-— — - • • . . -- 

Vitamin B,. Home: 612 Ballytore Rd.. Wynne- 723 W. Culver St.. Phoenix. Ariz '"'• 

Toaom.c /\!" ^' ^^^ ^'•' ™^^^^P^'^' ^«- tPORTER, K.therlne Anne, w;iter translator- 

(Se'rfbn?r"%)^"m^ '''"' '"^'^^^ ^°"^ ""''''' 'J^'ifh'^^.l't^l'll''^ J^' .^^^^^^^^ 



*tREIFFEL, Charles, landscape painter (Mar. 14. 
1942). 

Reference: Chicaaro Tribüne. Mar. 16. 1942. 

RICK MONO, WInifred V^ psychologist; b. Eliza- 



paTT.enu ..k .. . 1S2 ' '^"^ ^"''^ (Doubleday; |2.50). beth W.Va.. July 30. 1876; d. Caleb and Lucy 

TU V!^°?^ ^^«^? Lawrence, sculptor; b. Chicago. !_ /,^*^",^°"^ Riehmond; D.S., Ohio U.. 1910; M.A.. 

]kyJ\?j}^' 1916.- 8. William L. and Bonnie !tPORTERFIELD, Lewis Brouohton, US Naval of ^'"'w ,"• ^^^^' ^^•^" ^^^^'' unmarried. Instr. 

Ubbott) P.; grad. Francis W. Parker Seh., 1933; ^^^^ ^Apr. 5. 1942). ' ' ^**"' °^ psychology, State Normal Seh., Gorham. Me., 1916- 

f^^t:.oMJ\^?^l\ ^iL!^' ^^^^- English traveHng „Reference»: NYT, Apr. 7 1942- Naw W' ^^ychologist Walter E. Fernald State Seh., 

fellowsh p. Yale U., 1939; travelied in Orient, Japan Reifiater. ^''' '' ^^*^ ' ^«^^ VVaveriy. Mass.. 1917-19; asso. psycho-elinician, B.ir! 

and China, 1940. Has exhibited at 6 important POZNER, Vladimir author- h v.r-,. r v. /T?''« Research. Columbus. 0.. 1919-20; psy- 

„ . ' vianimir, author. b. Paris. France, chologist, State Training Seh., Lander. Wyo., 1920- 

^l^orraÄ'Ttaifsra;ri"un^^^^ in Parenthese»); -f died. füll 

are re»tricted to bio.raphical n^aterial ^nll^^ef^^^^t^nt^^^^ Ä? 





J 






9 



• 



May, 1942 



21, St. Elizabeth's Hosp., Washington, D.C, since 
1921; Instructor in psychology, U.S. Navy Med. Seh 
since 1926; elin. instr. in psychiatry, George Wash- 
ington U. Med. Seh.. 1932-39; instr. in mental 
hygiene, U. of Calif. at Berkeley, summers, 1929 
30, 31, 37, 38, 39. One of fouiKicrs, 1929, Wash' 
Inst, for Mental Hygiene, mem. bd., 1929-37; mem 
bd. dirs.. Juvenile Protcotive Assn., 1926-33, Social 
Hygiene Soc. of Wash., 1925-32. Mem. A.A.A.S., 
Am. Psychol. Assn., Assn. for Applied Psychology 
Am. Psyciiopatiwlogical Assn., Orthopsychiatric Assn ' 
Soc. for Psychol. Study of Social Issues, Am Mu- 
seum of Natural History, Am. Assn. Univ. Women 
Plu Beta Kappa. Presbyterian. Contributor to 
psychol. and educational Journals. Author: The 
Adolescent Ciri, 1926; The Adoleseent Boy, 1933; 
An Introduction to Sex Etiucation, 1934; Persofiality 
Its Development and Hygiene, 1937; Psychological" 
Studies in Dementia Praecox (with I. Kendig) 
1940; Maklng the Most of Your Personality (Farrar 
& Rinelwrt; $1.75). 1942. Home: 1303 Maple View 
PI. S.E. Office: St. Elizabeth's Hosp., Washington, 

tRIPLEY, Clements, author: Mississippi Belle (.\p- 
pleton; |2.50), 1942. 

RONALD, James (Jack), novelist; b. Glasgow, 
Scotland, May 11, 1905; s. James Jack and Kath- 
erine Hamilton (Spaulding) R.; ed. in elementary 
and secondary schs. of Glasgow until age of 14; 
unmarried; 1 adopted son, John Richard Ronald (now 
with Brit. army). Worked on newspapers, at taxl- 
driving, road-making, dishwashing, theater-managing, 
danee-hall promoting, etc.. 1919-1927; flction writer, 
ßince 1928; pub. Speaker, mainly in England and 
Scotland, on behalf of the Liberal pariiamentary 
party and such urgent causes as slum clearance; 
was capt. in Charge of ambulance post in London 
at beginning of war until coUapse brought on by 
overwork. Has visited U.S. many times since 1922. 
last time. May 1940. Author: They Can't Hang 
Me!; Murder in the Family, 1940; This Way Out. 
1941; She Got What She .\sked For, 1941; Old 
Soldiers Never Die (Lippincott; $2.50), 1942. Also 
other novels pub. in Eng. Contbr. flction to Cos- 
mopolitan mag. .\ddress: Fairfleld. Conn. 

ROSENBORG, Ralph, artist; b. New York. N.Y., 
June 9. 1911; s. Mozart and Helen (Frederickson) 
R.; studied art privately -with Heneriett Reiss 7 
yrs.; unmarried. Has exhibited in fine and graphie 
arts since 1932. Has had one-man shows at Artists' 
(Jallery, 1939; Lincoln Seh., N.Y. City, 1940; 
Phillips Memorial Gallery, Washington, D.C. 1941; 
Willard Gallery, N.Y. City., Feb. 17-Mar. 8, Nov. 
3-22 (gouaches), 1941. Paintings have been shown 
In the following galleries: Morton, 1936; East River, 
1937-38; Boyer, 1937-38; Passadoit, 1938; Nieren- 
dorf, 1938-41; J. B. Neumann-Willard, 1938-40; 
Bonestell, 1939-40; Artists, 1938-41; Willard, 1940- 
41. Work represented in collections of Dunean 
Phillips, Katherine Dreier (Sodete Anonyme), Jere 
Abbott (Smith Coli.), Marion G. Willard, Ernest 
Weyhe, Ralph Barton Perry, Jr.. I. N. P. Stokes. 
2d. and many others. Participant in circuit exhbns 
of Phila. .\rt Allianee. 1936; Phila. Soc. of Etchers. 
1937; Wichita Art Assn., 1936; Printmakers' Soc. 
of Calif., 1937; Am. Artists Congress, 1939-41; Am. 
Abstract Artists, 1937-40; in museum annuals of 
Chicago Art Inst., San Francisco Museum, Los 
Angeles Museum. Denver Museum. Detroit Art Inst., 
Portland Museum, City Art Museum (St. Louis, 
Mo.) Mem. Am. Artists Congress, 1938-40; Am. 
Abstract Artists, 1937-40; the "Ten," 1938-40; 
Fedn. of Modem Painters and Sculptors. IWO; 
Swedish-Ameriean Artists (Chicago). 1937-38; 
Southern Printmakers (Birmingham. Ala.). 1937; 
N.W. Printmakers (Seattle). 1938. Home: 1151 
Broadway. Office: Willard Gallery, 32 E. 57th St.. 
New York, N.Y. 



Gesellschaft für Wehrpolitik und Wehrwissenschaf- 
ten, 1933. Mem. Am. Mil. Inst. Author: The 
German Army (Harcourt, Brace; $3), 1940; also 
author of mil. books published in Germany. Contbr. 
to Inf. Jour.. The Nation, Atlantic Monthly. Home: 
19 Everett St.. Cambridge, Mass. 

t ROYCE, Brif. 6cn. Ralph, comdr. U.S. bomber 
squadron which flew from Australia to attack Japs 
in Phillipines and evacuated 25 persons from 
Islands. 



Page 105 



ROSINSKI, Herbert (Fritz Bernhard Heinrich) 

(rö-zln'ski), lecturer on mil. and naval aflfairs; b. 
Koenigsberg, East Prussia, Jan. 30, 1903; s. Prof. 
Bernhard and Sophie (Leo) R.; U. of Tubingen, 
1921, U. of Koenigsberg, 1922, 1923-24, U. of Halle, 
1924, U. of Berlin, 1925-32 (Japanese diploma, 
Oriental Seminar, 1927; Ph.D., 1930); m. Maria 
Luise Trip, June 2, 1934. Came to U.S., 1940. 
Chief lecturer In mil. and naval theory, German 
Naval Acad. (StalT Coli.), 1932-36; writer on mil. 
and naval affairs, London, 1936-40; lecturer on de- 
velopment of Clausenwitz' theory of war, Oxford 
U., Eng., Oct.-Nov. 1937; mem. Inst, of Advanced 
Study, Princeton, N.J., 1940-41; leetures on eom- 
mand of the sea. Lowell Inst., Boston, 1941; lec- 
turer in mil. and naval affairs, Fletcher Seh., Tufts 
Coli., Boston, siiKe 1941. Founding mem. Deutsche 



ROYLE, Sir Guy, Australian naval offleer; b. Sur- 
rey. Eng., 1885; m. EHis Gilmer. Served in Worid 
War, 1914-19, Including Battle of Jutiand, 1916, 
gunnery offleer of Marlborough, staff mem. of 2d itj 
command of Grand Fleet, 1917-20; apptd. exec. of- 
fieer of flagship of Mediterranean Fleet, 1920-22; 
asst. to dir. of naval ordnance, 1923; naval attache 
to Brit. embassy in Tokyo, 1924-26; comdg. ships, 
1928-34; naval sec. Ist lord of Admiralty, 1Ö34-37; 
vice a<im. of aircraft carriers, 1937-39; lord commr. 
of Admiralty and chief of naval alr Services, 1939- 
41; flst mem. Australian naval bd. since 1941; apptd. 
2d in command to U.S. Vice Admiral Leary, head 
of Navy Sect. of Australian-Am. staff in Pacific 
Zone of World War II, 1942. Awarded Knight Com- 
mander of ithe Bath, Companion of the Bath. Com- 
mander of St. Michael and St. George. 

RUBINSTEIN, Beryl, composer; b. Athens. Ga., 
Oct. 26, 1898; s. Isaac and Matilda (Abrahams) 
R.; studied under father and Alexander Lambert, in 
Europe with Jos6 Vianna da Motta and Ferrucio 
Busoni, 1913-14; bon. Mus.D., Western Reserve U.. 
1931; m. Elsa Landesman. Dec. 29, 1925; children— 
Eilen, David. Toured America as child pianist, 
1905-11; made debut with Metropolitan Opera Or- 
chestra. 1911, professional debut, N.Y. City, 1916; 
joined faculty Cleveland Inst, of Music, 1921, head 
piano dept., 1925-29, dean of faculty, 1929-32, dir. 
since 1932; dir. Singers Club of Cleveland, 1930-36; 
soloist with New York Philharmonie, Cleveland De- 
troit, Philadelphia, San Francisco and London 'sym- 
phony orchestras; premiSre of second Piano Con- 
certo with Dr. Rodzinski and Cleveland Orchestra, 
Nov. 1936. Hon. mem. Phi Mu Alpha; nat. patron 
Delta Omicron. Composer: (for orchestra) Scherzo, 
Suite; (opera) The Sleeping Beauty; (for piano) 
Sonatina in C Sharp Minor; Two Studies, Four 
Fantastic Pieces, Suite Ronmantique, Musical 
Faneies, Thirty-two piano studies, A Day in the 
Country (5 Impromptus), Gavotte, Sarabande, Gigue, 
Arabesque, Nocturne, Capriee, Concerto in C for 
piano and orchestra, Suite for Two Pianos; (for vio- 
lin) Scherzo Serenade, Plainte de Pierrot; (for 
st ring quartet) Passepied; (for voiee) Three Songs. 
Prayer of Praise (for male chorus). Author: Out- 
line of Piano Pedagogy. Ilas made several record- 
ings. Home: 2195 St. James Parkway. Cleveland 
Heights. 0. Address: 3411 Euclid Av., Cleveland, 
References: Baker, Bioar. Dictionary of 
Musicians; Howard. Our Contemp. Com- 
posers. 

SAGENDORPH, Kent (sä'gön-dörf), author. lee- 
urer; b. Jackson, Mich., Apr. 23, 1902; s. William 
Kent and Ethel (Abbott) S.; grad. Jackson High 
Seh., 1920; Student U. of Mich, and U.S. Army 
Tech. Seh., 1922; m. Ruth D. Howard, Nov 11 
1933; children— Mary Lou, Wallace Kent. Aeriai 
photographer, V.S. Army Air Service, Clark Fleld 
and Nichols Field, Philippine Islands, 1922-24; 
travel in China. Siberia, Japan, summer and fall 
1924; commercial aeriai photographer, Los Angeles' 
1925, Mexico, 1926; mem. staff Fairchild Aeriai 
hurveys, preparing tech. manuals and trade mag 
summaries. to 1929; eontbg. editor Aero Digest* 
1929-31; free lancing, aviation and allied lines, since 
1931; author of 300 mag. articles; now writing a 
bunday ariation fea-ture syndicated by Chicago Times 
and Toronto Star Weekly; lecturing on military 
aviation since 1939. Has had close relations and 
co-operation with the Air Corps in preparation öf 
mag. articles and leetures; has flown in army planes 
and lived with alr pilots. Mem. Nat. Aeronautic 
Assn Conglist. Club: Aeronautic (Omaha); Box 
14 (Jackson). Author: Radium Island, 1937; Beyond 
the Amazon 1937; Sin Klan« Castle, 1938; Thunder 
Aloft (Reilly & Lee; 12.50), 1942. Compiler: Fly- 
ing and Populär Aviation, 1941. Contbr. to Coronet. 
Esqulre, etc. Made appearances in 19 states during 
leeture season. 1941-42. Home: 333 W. Mason St., 
Jackson, Mich. 

SALAMANCA, Lucy (Nuttall), writer. research 
librarian; b. London, Eng.; d. Joseph and Anne 
(Robinson) Nuttall; ed. privately in U.S.. South 
America and Eiirope; m. Dr. Raoul Iräm Salamanca 
y Torres (divorced); 2 sons, Raoul Joseph, Jack 



Richard; m. 2d, Robert Ilavens Morey, scientist, Mar. 
21. 1942. Began career as writer flction, spl. articles 
pub. in mags.. newspapers, news syndicates in U.S. 
and London, many translated into Scandinavian 
languages; signed feature articles on pub. affairs, 
llterature, interviews with Cabinet membcrs, foreign 
dignitaries, visiting royalty, etc.. pub. leading news- 
papers. mags.; traveled through W.I.. Panama, 
Colombia and other South American countries. liv- 
ing for yr. among Indians of Boyaed, Colombia, col- 
keting data for writing; apptd. Chief Research 
Counsel, Legislative Reference Service, Library of 
Congress, Feb. 1940, Chief of Inquiry Sect., July 
1, 1940, in Charge of adminstrn. of professional 
staff preparing manuscripts, surveys, gen. research 
studies for members of Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives to be used as basis for legislation or 
for publication as Senate or House documents. 
Author: Fortress of Freedom (Lippincott; |4), 1942, 
which is first coiriplete history of Library of (:k)n- 
gress, from first Congress meeting in New York 
to present. Also author Short Btories, 2 of whidi 
included in Fifty Famous Short Stories of 1932. 
Contbr. to mags., newspapers. Home: The Diplomat, 
2420 16th St. Offlee: Library of Congress. Washing- 
ton, D.C. 

SANTA CRUZ WILSON, Domingo (sän'tä kro'os 
wel-sön') Chilean composer; b. La Cruz, July 5, 
1899; bachelor's degree in humanities. Coli, of 
Saered Heart, 1916; LL.B., U. of Chile, 1918; 
studied music under Enrique Soro of Chile and 
Conrado del Campo of Madrid; m. Wanda Moria 
Lynch; 1 son. Admitted to bar, 1921; dir. (and 
founder) of Bach Soc, 1919-32; sec. Chilean Em- 
bassy in Spain, 1921-24; decoding offlcial for Min- 
istry of Foreign Affairs, 1924-27; prof. of musical 
history and composition. Nat. Conservatory, since 
1928, dean of faculty of fine arts, since 1932. Coun- 
sellor of U. of Chile; editor of Art Review; mem. 
and dir. of Nat. Assn. of Symphony Concerts; v.p. 
of Nat. Assn. of Composers. Founded Inst, of Music 
Extension of U. of Chile, IMO. Came to U.S. as 
guest of State Dept., 1941, as guest of Pan-Am. 
Union. 1942 and with Francisco Mignone (see this 
Supplement III-83), was guest at Music Educators 
Nat. Conf., Milwaukee, Feb. 1942. Composed: 
sonatas, etudes and symphonlc poems for piano; 
songs. pieces for piano and violin. Choral music. 
Chamber music and orchestral seleetions. Contbr. 
musical mags. Address: Facultad de Bellas Artes 
Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile. 

Reference: Baker, Bioar. Dictionary of Mu- 
sicians. 

tSAYRE, Francis B., high commr. to Philippines; 
arrives in Washington, Mar. 23, 1942. 

.,?^*!rf'"^^^'*» Amram, author, lecturer; b. Louis- 
V}}\ ^y-' '^""^ 1' 1897; s. Solomon I. and Sanna 

(Sachs) S.; grad. North Division High Seh., Mil- 
waukee, 1914; Student U. of Wis., New York U 
New Seh. of Social Research (N.Y. City) and 
private study; studied art at Chicago Acad. Fine 
Arts, N.Y. Art Students League, Ecole de la Grande 
Chaumiere, Academie Colarossi, Paris; unmarried 
Variously employed as reporter, feature writer car- 
toomst, editorial writer, editor, with Milwaukee Free 
Press, Wis. News, Milwaul(ee Telegram, 1915-2'>- 
with Baltimore American, 1923-24, N.Y. American 
and King Features Syndicate, 1925-29, McNaught 
•Syndicate, 1930-34; contbr. to nat. mags., writing 
and lecturing on social scienees since 1930. Mem 
Authors League, Geneties Soc. of America, A.A.AS.* 
Author: You and Heredity. 1939; The Sexcs (sched- 
uled for fall. 1942); All That We Are: A Study of 
the American Public (in preparation. with Merie 
Colby). Home: 24 W. 8th St.. New York. N.Y. 

♦u^^l^^'^^^"''-'*» *■«•»»•" (sbvärts'shilt). au- 
thor; b Frankfort Germany, Dec. 8, 1891; s. Aron 
M and Sarah (Lewis) S.; Student U. of Frank- 
fort, 1909-12; m. Valerie Gerstl, Apr. 11, 1927 

* •^r,^*^,,"^^^P^P^'' ^^^«^e- 1»12; mem. editorial 
staff Frankfurter Zeltung and Frankfurter Generalan- 
zeiger, 1919-21; became founder and editor Das Tage- 
Buch. 1920. Der Montag Morgen, 1923, Magazin der 
Wirtschaft (all in Berhn). 1924; left Germany. 1933; 
papers were destroyed and property conflscated; 
was one of 33 prominent anti-Hiteriites whose 
German citizenship was deelared void by Ist degree 
of this kind, summer 1933; established Das Neue 
Tage-Buch, weekly newspaper, Paris and Amster- 
dam 1933, which eontinued to appear until Invasion 
by Germany, May 1940; came to U.S., 1940. Author- 
(drama) Sumpf (produced in Czechoslovakia, Aus- 
*,«^.*^^ 5^^™^"y^' 1^0; Das Ende der Illusionen 
1934; End to Illusion, 1934; Worid in Trance (L B 
Fischer; $3.50), 1942. Home: 225 E. 57th St., New 

X vir K| ii • I • 



'1-' 



i 



Page 106 



Series III, No. 5 



♦tSCOTT, Henri D., basso (Apr. 2, 1942) (fVol. fSTEWART, James B.; apptd. minister to Nicarag- Dances Exotiques; ßympliony No. 1 B Hat Minor; 

21). ua, Feb. 1942. Nocturne No. 1; Symphonie Suite; Nocturne No. 2; 

Reference: NYT. Apr. 6. 1942. STIEGER Andrew J rstp'cer) foroicn corr Ni>tturno for Woodwinds, Hofns and Harp; Phantasy 

tSCOTTEN, Robert M.; apptd. minister to Costa autholf b PittTuS pk./j ?y'l 'lü^; s aS J^V'^TÄ JllT%tir o!lf/^ ""^«^ ^^^^^ 

Rica. Jnrnh «nd Marv M^rtrnmV ^Rrpfhnnor^ Ä! erfld ^L^' (c»>amber music) Stnng Quartet in F Minor; 



Jacob and Mary Mirgaret (Brethauer) S.; grad. ^^ ^^n^ S^^'l vZlrfTK.l'' F v^ "°'' 

SHELDON, Jean Pendieton (Pseudonym, Gene Elmhurst Jr. Coli.. 1926; stu<fent Chicago U.. 1926- t.J^J Wnmil vi .L 2' ^m^'I ^m'''.' 

Henry), author; b. Hazelwood, Pa., Oct. 27, 1889; 29; M.A.. Columbia U., 1931; m. Alexandra Mik- ^^?^ t^^LJZ^ZLltlZ' t^' ^'^^', ^'^"^ 

d. Huntington King and Martha Wellman (Paxton) hailovna, 1939. Began at 13 yrs. as farm worker. ^^^nf^HnPt.J^Ä^nH c^r J? ^ / h f'^i^*''' ^^f, 

Pendieton; Ist ancestor arrived in Virginia, 17tb later mechanic. mech. draftsman; began cdn., 1921; r.Hif.ÄTntol" r T^^ Contributed o, am!/ 

Century; ed. pub. and private schs.; m. Henry English teach;r. lit. translator, newspaper writer, J^Lllnt^ ?n?.nf.Ä.' £h^ 

Hargrave Sheldon. Feb. 1, 1933. Writer of adver- Germany, France, Finland, Soviel Union. 1931-40; fw^^.Tnnl Mnci."^^^^^^^ ÄTl^°Tti^,''^'li*"°"' 

tisHig copy and Publicity for some years. Served in offlce sec, New York Times Moscow Bureau. Asso- K'^h " .^ Ä i'in^J^^r^ ^.^\.^v '^^le Voices; 

Polyclinic Hosp.. N.Y. City, prcparing to go over- ciated Press. Moscow, 1938; returned to U.S. via ^ .7 ^ m.-I" ir». rli^^J n"^' ' ^"^ m"!^ ^l""}' 

seas as surg nurse with neurol. unit, World War; Siberia, Japan. IWO; free lance writer. 1940-41; «r V" i?^ Histo^- C^p ^ 

due to sal just as Armistice was signed. Ilepub- foreign news reporter, Columbia Broadcasting Sys- nL.» Si,/^ 11 ^hrnnr th? Lp« fo n, '?l m"*' 

hcan EPiscopalian. Author: Miss Bronska (Dodd. tem's short-wave listening Station, covering foreign S^Jlt^nn^'^tL Ä^U^^^^ ^"''^ 

Mead; $2). 1942. Home: 637 Drake Road, Bcnd, broadeasts. slnce July 1941 Served in A E F ^"catlon in the High ^chool. Khythmic Games and 

"'■'''"• ^^^^^' 1918-19 Mem. AlLniof Columbia u! ft?Sts rÄ!?rn^\'l'pi?'/^' rL ^r^''''J'" 

♦tSHIRAS, Geome, naturalist (Mar. 24. 1942). League of Am. Writers. Author (with R. A. Davies) Sr» 'radi^ 0^^^^^^^^^ 

ReferenceszNYT. Mar. 25, 1942;MS. Soviel Asia (Dial Press; |3). 11M2. Translator me^ta o^Ä rÄ^^^^ 

SHÜTE, Nevll, author: Pied Piper (Morrow; i^^^'" «r^?>-\ ''l!,« Q"^.^/ ^'^ i^^V' ''''' 1^8^^^']^«^^^^^^^^ 

$2.50). 1942. (See this Service, I-368[Q]). Sbr^t'^'S' Sas'f Free" World^'pS (hi«tory'of\music of Ä.'Xlbr ^oSnlTrn^f 

aS: TraveL Nation"^ Ä, a ^o^/Ämi^ o'" ^'^'^^'^^ .«^ ^usic and Musicians, also to mags 




1-.WÜW aisi. againsi UKrainians, 191ü; served as ^m-i.» i/sm» snaiun, auinor, lecuH-er; o. or sicians 

comdr. 5th and 3d Army Corps in war againsi ^^' Parents al Ta Chienlu. West China, Aug. 25, posers. 

Bolshcviks; Chief of gen. staflf, 1921-22; prime min- 1905; d. Albert LeRoy and Flora Flavia (Beal) taylor Rnrhani n»iii<ii»\ /,.►♦«««<=♦. k c ♦ 

ister, 1922-23; minister of mil. affa rs! 1923-25; ^'^elton; received early edn. from parents; grad. willf^m L ^ ?,^^ , rÄ 

comdr. Lwow Army Region. 1926-28; comdr. in chie Pomona (Calif.) High Seh., 1923; A.B., Pomona at Ätt^El&th (?o^^^^^^^^ 

Polish Army and prime minister (now in exile) f°»-' Ea^e'"«'*^' <^alif.. 1927; A.M.. Tex. Christian ^ch sc, «'^ «^^^^ 

since 1939; now visiting in U.S. U.. 1929; also grad. Student al U. of Southern l'^/lu^'ih nf Trt Ini n«!?.». ™^ It -^'v.^^ 

Rcferences: CSM. Oct. 25, 1941, p. 3 : TM. faUf. and U. of Hawaii; m. Dr. Charles E. Still. Ä l^t fi if^fl Rp.^h^ Äol/^hJ'"',^'!''" 

Dee 4 iq^Q n 9Q • q^r^f 11 iQQQ « \n. Jr.. 1936: 1 son Charles Shelton 4<?st dpqn nf }^^^^' •'"'y 6' 1»38. Began caroer by coloring 

C:nt.i;pi?^?y''R.v'ewflu^'l94o''p.''-n?; g.'''' Tex! ChÄn U ' I92I; ednl. df ort;"h.n LT^o'lTo 'V?"^?/, T.'n'.^ '""'^"'^'•, ""."'V' 

»,_,. . •', -^.2 ^•.-■'^ "' ^' ■^" • home, Dallas Tex 19'>9- vice orin for cirN Rp '"^^- Toronto. 1927; free lance commercial artist, 

dondo Union' IHgh Seh!' ReSoZ Bc^l'ch! Cal" . E 'ülTtl^'^l ^'A7. ?'^''l^J '^^' ^.«^■ 

1932-34; dean at a private school for girls Los ^"^ ^'f ^^'^^ i" Collier's. Saturday Evening 

Angeles. 1935: teacher of mihlir <«.P.k5n..' .mi ^ "s^' V'^ ''anous adv . campaigns. Has had one- 



Contemporary Review, Aug. 1940, p. 177 : 
Liring: Age, June 1940, p. 348. 

*tSIMMONS, Thomas Jackson, coli, pres (Mar. 17. 

m2). 

Ref erences : Chicagro Tribüne 
1942 ; Leaders in Edn. 

♦tSMITH, Arthur St. Clalr, U.S. naval offleer Tibet (Day; $2), 1M2. story based on her 16 years If^n' ^^nl' .^*^lnu, ^aUery (.\ndover. Mass.). 

(Mar. 26. 1942). in Tibet, where her father was a med. missioJiary. t "i ''^l^^lnHil'' nLn'i^"^ ^?llf7 ?.'' 

Refercnces: NYT, Mar. 28, 1942; Navy EdUor: Chants from Shangri-la (Tibetan chants mVu J ? } ? ^P^^., 1^'^; ^*l^l'. J^^;,. ^'*^ 

Register. translated by her mother). Home: Kirksville ^'j'^^^/^^ »^ I"temat. Watercolor Exhibit. Cliicago 

SOONG, T. V. (Sung. Tse-ven) (so'ong), pres. Missouri. ' i^"! .J^^^-vJ^^iJ^J^' ^l"«;?^"«- «xhibil. Brooklyn 

l^e"c' ^YuSn Ist-'s'^Ss i"nes''^(cÄ eiLf Tm^VT' U^^T^^^ ^^^?I^^ JL'^^^^-' ^^^ ^^^^rZmln\^^^^ 

iiixec. luan, o. io\fi, s. vnaries jones V'Cnanie; ence Ke-makes Our World (Ivcs Washbiirn- $14 rnllPTtinno nf Vfnoonm nt ufA^inm A^f n«»»«« \t.. 

Soone: m«mber of Soone familv rnlinff China tndav! iai«> ^ ^ nasnourn, jj), coJlecilons or Museum of Modem Art, Boston Mu 



„ ,^ Angeles. 1935: teacher of public speaking and * "^^' ^ ''^P^^ adv . campaigns. Has had one- 

B, Mar. 18, drama for Junior high school. HonoliXu. 1935-36. r^ilritTv v r^^"^ W watercolors at Walker 

Mem. Christian Ch. RepubUcan. Autho : Sue In Tf n'^^J^^* /^^^' ^"^'^^^'^^r^l^"^« ^T?"^^^^ 

1 _«--_ TiK«^ /n«.,. 9ti\ min _* 1 1 - . -- tOWn. Ohio) Addison flal prv f 4ndnrpr Mae« \ 



Soong; member of Soong family ruling China today; 1942 
brother of Madame Chiang Kai-shek; Student St. 
John's, Shanghai; A.B., Harvard. 1915; Ph.D.. Co- 
lumbia. Sec. Canlon Govt., 1923; pres. Canton _ 
Central Bank, then Slianghai Central Bank, 1924: . ^i*' 
State councilor Nat. Chinese Govt.. 1928; minister of *" *'**"• 
flnance of Nat. Govt.. 1928-33 (resigned); vice pres. ,«.«^., „„.^^ 
Exec. Yuan, later acting pres., 1930. pres. since day Evening Post. 
1939: mem. Nat. Econ. Council of China since 1932; 



♦tSTORY, Russell McCulloch, coli. pres. (Mar. 26, 
1942) . 

References: NYT. Mar. 28, 1942; Leaders 
Edn. 

fSTOUT, Wesley W,; resigns as editor of Satur- 



seum of Eine Art, The Albright Art Gallery 
(Buffalo), Wichita (Kans.) Museum, and several 
private collections. .\ddress: Putnam Park Rd.. 
Bethel. Conn. 
Reference: COL, Sept. 28, 1940, p. 66. 

THIELENS, Mrs. Carrie Ollier (Üie'lCnz), author; 
b. Detroit, Mich.. Dec. 10. 1909; d. Louis Joseph 
and Mae_ (Lutton) Ollier; Student Chlteau Moni 

Crandon 
I/)n- 



luay; mem. wat. Kcon. i;ouncii or cnma since 1932; ctdimpuau c-.it ■ ■. ^^^ '*"^ (Uition) üllier; Student Chlleau 

founder Bank of China and cbmn. since 1936; chmn. ^,u ' . ? '^ ♦ u «v ,,' composer. teacher. Ohoisi, Lausanne, Switzerland 1922-24 Ci 

of bd. Bank of Canton since 1936: minister of f^^ „n'hn' «nT* ' ^i^' "^"^^ U' li^^L^' ''""'' "'''". «»me. Italy. 1924-26. 133 Queens' Gate, i/in- 

finance since 1939; recently negotiated large U.S. „Ij/L« tt in^""*T.^ ^""^^^^^"^ S.; Mns.B., North- don. 1926-28; studied privat oly In Beriin and Paris, 

loan to China; became China's rep. on Pacific War T^J^,, -Inoo. n V, ^l^^gogy. Cmcinnati Con- 1928-30; m. Wagner Perrin Thlelens, Dec. 31. 1932; 

Couneil. Mar. 1942. Considered "best financier ever p!,7i «/» ^^^^\^l- ^'"^'f • ^"^ris causa, Denver children— Wagner Perrin. Jr. (stco-son) Alexis 

produced by China" (John Giinther) ; establishexl !,^^'- ^^ ^usic ip; certifiMte in com^^^^^^ Ollier. Anne Haie. Christian Scientist ' Author- 

(^inese finance on Western System, and world-re- „ ^\T. 'li* ilsn « f* • . ^"«'^' ^"'"^' ^^^^y« ^^^' -^^»ke! My Heart. 1940; The Moon ües Fair (Har- 

nowned as a financier. 2' n * n^""!" P/>tts. Aug. 26. 1916; 1 son. Edward per; $2.50). 1942. Contbr fiction to maes Home- 

References: TM. Jan. 5. 1942. p. 28; June K'''rhi.Jo''fo!;n'iV^!|!"' J^'''^. ^^''' ^^'^- '^ ^««O Dearing PI., Tuscalla. Ala ^ 

; 1QQQ « 01. ¥¥ TLi„, o>i -in-ii ^ ftrt . Muslc. Chicago. 1910-14: djr firand Fnrkc «/.h nt 



THOMPSON, Jim (pen name of James Myers 
Thompson), writer, editor; b. Anadarko, Okla., Sept. 
27, 1906; s. James Sherman and Birdie Edith 
(.Myers) T.; ed. pub. schs. of Okla., Texas. Neb., 

Neb., 



research fellowship in building-Industry Problems for 
Rockefeller Foundation. U. of N.C. Press. 1940; 



26. 1939. p. 31; LI, Mar. 24, 1941. p. 00; JJS' i?t. i^.' r^^L^",^^Vr'^\."^^"'^ ^"^'^^ ^'^- »' 

Hörn Bk., Sept. 1939. p. 306; New Republic. ??"• ' .^^,l^'J'^\^'^?^ *" ^^^ ^^'^'''«. 1916-19; mem 

Jan. 26. 1942, p. 111; J. Günther, Inside tll n^n ^\\' ^; Sl ^P^"^' ^^^^' Organizer anc 

^gi3 ' dean Denver Coli, of Mnsic, 1920-29; chmn musit m 

+cniiiP raoMA »,,iUr.,. TV,« IT wv, «f XT ♦«« ^^- 'CoJo- State Bd. of Edn. 19'>'>-'>9- mm\c rritir (Wrs) T.; ed. pub. schs. of Okla., Texas. 

(MaJmiHaV- $2ri94?. ' "''^'^ '' ^"''""' ^Zn ?h^l '^l^'''^^}' J^^k^^^^^ •?!ri ^«^ ^»^^•..'?t"^^nL,Coll. of Agr.'. U. of 

*tSPAULDING, Rolland Harty, ex-gov. (Mar. 14, composition).' JuillJard 

1^42). Musio and Teachers 

Reference: NYT, Mar. 15, 1942. chmn. music dept . , 

SPIEGAL, Clara Gatzert, author; b. Chicago, 111., 1938; music editor 'Carl FisclTer,"lncV.'i93'o-3i;"Äm n u , 

Dec. 6, 1904; d. August and Isabel (Florsheim) Bool« Co. since 1932; mem. bd. dirs. and penerai 1 ^ * , ,- — - 

Gatzert; Student Vassar Coli., 1922-23; m. Frederick "i"sic editor, Music Press. Inc.. since 19.19 Or. w"^".?". »'^craft. free lance writer. since 1940. 

Spiegal. Dec. 1. 1923; 2 sons 

drew G. Mem. The Arts ._ 

author (with Jane Rothschild Mayer unoer pen '"'"• ^^»' «wnrue« i^romweu traveimg r^llowxhip '*"** '-"■""'• «'utii-s. ncuun 10 irane. ciass. gen- 

name Cläre Jaynes) : Instrucl My Sorrows (Random ^^ (Jermany, 1936; scholarship to Royal Acad of ^^^ "^^^- Address: care Modern Age Books, 245 

House: $2.50), 1942. Contbr. fiction to mags. and Music, Rome. Italy. 1929. Mem. Am. Musicol Soc ^^^^^ ''^^" ^^^ York. N.Y. 

Sfn'i^p'^l'- TM '^*'''- ^^^^ ^- ^"'" ^^y ^^" "^«^" ;^««°"«"JJ^ ^«/;- of America, Phi Mu Alpha, pi TINKER. Miles Albert, psychologisf b Hunting- 

land Park. 111. Gamma Mu, Ph De ta Kappa. Episconalian Club- ton Mas«« Ai»r oo i^aaV- V d «. . ' ^' Yii ^ 

tSPYKMAN, Nicholas John, author: .Vmerica's Bohemians (New York). SposS: X o!ches a) Kalie MaUlda (Ho'a.f T ^ 

ßtrat^y m World Polilics: The United States and The Phantom, Symphonie Poem? ffee iSs^^ U 1917-18 4 bX^^^ 

th^^Balance of Power (Harcourl Brace; $3.75), Visions; Ancienl Mariner; Overture: Springüme; grad.''stuie;t;'L''T92M3;''ph:D';\an^^^^^^ t, 

Key to indicatorg : f see "Who's Who in America»' ; • died (date of death in Darpnthp«*.«^ • •+ a;^a * 11 

biofirraphical details may be found in "Who's Who in America/' (Reference afle^I^kpSh^ 

are restricted to biofirraphical material considered sufficiently com},rehen8?ve to be of pe^^^^^ value"') 



• 



< 1^ 




I 



May, 1942 



1927; m. Eva Llewella Carter, 1925; children— 
Milton Eliiott, Gordon Edwin, Karen Jane. Teaching 
fellow, Clark U., 1921-23, Stanford U., 1925-27- 
instr. in edn., Stanford U., summer 1926. asst. prof 
in e<ln.. summer, 1927; asst. prof. of psychology. U 
of Minn.. 1927-35, asso. prof. since 1935. Served as 
hosp. apprentice. 2d class. U.S. Naval Resene. 
1918-19. Fellow in DisUnguished Service Foundation 
of üptometry. Fellow A.A.A.A., Am. Psychol. Assn.. 
Am. EdnI. Research .\ssn.; mem. Am. Legion. Alpha 
Epsilon Upsilon. Sigma Xi, Delta Mu. Psi Chi 
Episcopalian. Mason. Author: Experiments in Psy- 
chology (with W. S. Foster). 1929; Inlroduction to 
Methods in Experimental Psychology, 1938; How to 
Make Type Readable, 1940. Contbr. numerous ar- 
ticles to Jour. Ednl. Psychology, Jour. Ednl. Re- 
search, Jour. Applied Psychology, etc. Research in 
Visual perceptiori and reading. Home: 2291 Folwell 
St., St. Paul, Minn. 

References: Leaders in Edn.; MS. 

TORREY, Emily Gertrude, exec. v.p. Bundles for 
America; b. Kvanston. 111., May 10. 1890; d. Thomas 
Dewar and Emily Gerirude (Hayward) McChesney; 
grad. Horace Mann Seh.. 1907, Mounl Ida Seh, 
Newton. Mass., 1908; extcnsion course in journalism 
Columbia U.. 1911-13; m. Owen Cates Torrey. Mar' 
4, 1910; children— Thomas Hayward McChesney. 
Emily Dickson (Mrs. John Price Cuddeback). Owen 
Cates. Exec. Am. Red Cross. 1914-18; mem. League 
of Nations Assn., 1928-30; Westchcster County chmn 
Bundles for Britain, 1939-41; exec. v.p. Bundles for 
America. Inc.. since 1942. an or^'n. dedicated to 
men of U.S. Armed Forces and their families and to 
all Citizens adversely afTected by war. Republican. 
Episcopalian. Mem. Metropolitan Museum Assn 
Clubs: Maniu*sing Island; Noroton Yacht. Home: 8 
Heathcote Rd.. Scarsdale, N.Y. Address: 475 5th 
Av.. New York, N.Y. 

♦tTOWNSEND, Edward Waterman, author, ex-con- 
gressman (Mar. 16. 1912) (tVol. 15). 

Reference: NYT, Mar. 17. 1942. 

TREAT, Ida, writer, paleontologist; b. Joliet. 111.; 
d. Francis Henry and Ida May (Johnson) Treat; 
A.B.. Coli, for Women. Western Reserve U.; Docteur 
es Lettres. Sorbonne. Paris, 1913; m. Andre Bergeret 
(Lt. de Vaisseau, Free French Navy), Sept. 30. 
1939. Instr.. asst. prof. of Romance lang., Coli, 
for Women, Western Resene U., 1913-19; excavated 
prehistoric Sites in Pyrenees Mts. for Inst, de 
Puleontologie Humaine (Paris). 1924-28; scientific 
and joumalistic assignments in Europe. East Africa. 
China, South Seas, The Hebrides, New Caledonia, 



Page 107 



Australia, 1928-36; living In France when World 
War II broke out, remained In oocupied France 
until Dec, 1940, when she came to N.Y. (husband, 
an officer in the French merchant marine, is fight- 
ing with the de Gaule forces.) Episcopal. Author: 
(with Ruth Sawtell) Primitive Hearths in the 
Pyrenees, 1924; Pearls, Arms andl Hashish, 1930; 
La Croisiere Seeröte, 1931; The Anchored Heart 
(Harcourl, Brace; $2.50), 1941. Contbr. <to Nat. 
Geographie, Scientific American, Asia, Travel, and 
French scientific publs. Hom«: Ile de Brehat, Cötes 
du Nord, France. Address: 121 E. 82d St.. New 
York, N.Y. 

♦tVEZIN, Charles, landscape artist (Mar. 13, 1942). 
Reference: NYT, Mar. 15, 1942. 

WALDECK, Rosle G. (Counless), author, Journa- 
list; b. Mannheim, Germany, July 24. 1898; d. 
Max and Johanna (Staadecker) Goldschmidl; Stu- 
dent U. of Munich. 1917-19, Heidelberg U., 1919-21 
(Ph.D., 1921). Came to U.S., 1931, naturalized 
Citizen, 1938. Foreign correspondent in Paris, Geneva, 
Soviel Russia, the French African Empire, the Far 
East. Author: Prelude to the Past, 1934; Athene 
Palace (McBride & Co.; $2.75), 1942; various 
arlicles In Foreign Affairs, The American Mercury, 
etc. Home: 114 E. 52d St., New York, N.Y. 

Reference: TM, Feb. 16, 1942, p. 90. 

WALLIS, James Harold, author; b. Dubuque. la.. 
Jan. 23, 1885; s. John WHliani and Mary (Burion) 
W.; B.A., Yale Coli., 1906; m. Sara Francis O'Neil. 
Oct. 18, 1910; children— Jane O'Neil (Mrs. David 
Hamlin Burrell, III), John Herod, Mary-Burton. 
Editor Dubuque Times-Journal, 1917-1919; editor Du- 
buque Daily News, 1919-1921. Served as alderman, 
Dubuque, 1912-18. Mem. Phi Beta Kappa, Zela Psi, 
Eiihu Club. Democrat. Mason. Author: Youth 
(verse), 1907; The Testament of WiHiam Windune 
(verse). 1916; Laughter of Omnipotence (verse), 
1927; Murder by Formula, 1931; The Capital City 
Mystery, 1932; The Servant of Death, 1932; The 
Mystery of Vaucluse, 1933; Cries in the Night, 
1933; Murder Mansion, 1934; The Woman He Chose, 
1934; The Politician: His Habits, Outcries and 
Protective Coloring (polil. satire), 1935; Onee OfT 
Guard (Dutton; $2.50), 1942. Home: 94 Old Army 
Rd.. Scarsdale, N.Y. 

WANG, Chi-Chen, teacher, writer; b. Huantai, 
Sliantung, China. Feb. 24. 1899; s. Kung-Chen and 
Shu-Wen (Tien) W.; Student Tsing Hua Coli., 
Peking, China. 1913-21; A.B., U. of Wis., 1924; 
Student Columbia U., 1924-27; m. 2d, Bliss Kao, 



June 28, 1937; 1 son, Chlng-Lin Wang; came to 
U.S., 1922. Research asst., Dept. of Far Bastern 
Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1928-36; lecturer 
in Chinese, Columbia U., since 1929, and curator 
of the Chinese collection. Columbia U. Library, 
slnce 1937. Author: Dream of the Red Chamber 
(translated from Chinese), 1929; The Technique of 
Chinese Rubbings. 1938; (translator) Ah Q and 
Others: Selected Stories of Lusin (Columbia U. 
Press; $2.50). 1941. Home: 21 Claremonl Av. Of- 
fice: care Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

t WARREN, A»ra M.; apptd. minister to Dominican 
Republic. 

^tWARRINER, Samuel Dexter, corp. exec. (Apr. 3, 
1942). 
Reference: NYT, Apr. 4, 1942. 

WASHBURN, Ruth Wendell, psychologisl; b. 
Norihampton, Mass., Jan. 19, 1890; d. Philip and 
Miriam Phillips (Storrs) Washburn; B.A., Vassar 
Coli., 1913; M.A., RadclifTe Coli., 1922; Ph.D., 
Yale, 1929. In training, London University, London, 
England. 1919-1920; Judge Baker Foundation, Bos- 
ton, Mar. -July 1921; studied under Prof. Jean 
Plaget, Institut Jean Jacques Rousseau, Geneva, 
Oct.-Jan. 1938; unmarried. Visitor Associated 
Charities, Colorado Springs, Colo., 1915-18; asst. 
sec. Charity Orgn. Soc, N.Y. City, spring of 1918; 
with Social Service Dept. Dispensary for French 
and Belgian Children, Am. Red Cross. Le Havre, 
France, 1918-19; research asso., Child Weifare 
Research Station, U. of Iowa, 1922-23; instr., later 
asst. prof., Clinic of Child Development, Yale, 
1923-38; don, dept. of psychology, Sarah Lawrence 
Coli., Bronxville, N.Y., 1938-39; cons. in child 
development. Milton (Mass.) Prep. Seh., Park 
Seh. (Brookline, Mass.) aiid Brooks Seh. (Concord, 
Mass.) since 1938. Mem. Am. Psychol. Assn., 
A.A.A.S.; asso. mem. Sigma Xi. Republican. Epis- 
copalian. Author: Children Have Their Reasons (Ap- 
pleton-Century; $2), 1942; also many arlicles on 
child study. Home: 5 Acorn St.. Boston, Mass. 

References: Leaders in Edn.; MS. 
♦tWATSON, Samuel Newell, clergyman (Mar. 27, 

1 tri ^ / • 

References: NYT, Mar. 29, 1942. 

tWEDDELL, Alexander W.; resigns as U.S. am- 
bassador to Spain. 

♦tWELLS, CariMyn, author (Mar. 26, 1942). 

References: NYT. Mar. 28, 1942; SCH, 
Apr. 15, 1940, p. 23; CSM, Oct. 21, 1939, 
p. 6. 



Key to Reference Citations 



Below is an explanation of the reference citations found at the end of the biographical sketches in the 
Supplement. Where no symbol is used in the citation, the füll name, or a clear abbreviation thereof, appears. 



AM — American Magazine 
AT— Atlantic Monthly 
BP — Burke's Peerage 
BW— Business Week 
CBRS— Current Biographical 

Reference Service (issues of Series 

I and II, 1940, 1941). 
COL— Collier's 

CSM — Christian Science Monitor 
HA — Harper's Magazine 
KHbk— Kelly's Handbook of 

Distinsruished People 



ä as in äle. 

ä as in Senate. 

a as in care. 

a.. ..••.•••• as in am. 

ä as in arm. 

ä as in sof ä. 

e as in eve. 



LI— Life 

ME — American Mercury 
MPAl — Motion Picture Almanac 
MS — American Men of Science 
NA— The Nation 
NB — Nation's Business 
NR— The New Republic 
NSW— Newsweek 
NYr— New Yorker 
NYHT— New York Herald-Tribune 
NYHTB— New York Herald-Tribune 
Book Section 



Key to Pronunciation 

e as in event. 

f as in gnd. 

e as in maker. 

i as in ice. 

! as in ül. 

ö as in 51d. 

6 as in obey. 



NYT— New York Times 
NYTB— New York Times Book Section 
PM— PM (N. Y. City newspaper) 
PW— Publishers' Weekly 
RD— Reader's Digest 
SCH— Scholastic 
SEP — Saturday Evening Post 
SRL — Saturday Review o£ Literature 
TM— Time 

WWC&I— Who's Who in Commerce 
and Industry 



6 as in örb. 

ö as in odd. 

ü as in üse. 

ü as in ünite. 

ü as in ürn. 

ü as in üp. 

ü as in menü. 



The yowel sound in a few syllables is indicated, as in fööd, fobt: ' indicates accented 
syllable. 

Note— The smaU capital c or k at the end of a syllable indicates the German sound, which has no exact 
cquivalent in English. The smaH capiui n at the end of a syllable representa the French sound, as in •'hon ton." 



..< 



'I 



Page 108 

tWERFEL, Franz, co-editor with Paul Stefan: 
Verdi (Fischer; $3.50), 1942. 

WESLEY, Charles Harris, dean; b. Louisville. Ky., 
Dec. 2, 1891; s. Charles Snowden and Matilda (Har- 
ris) W.; B.A.. Fislc U., 1911; M.A., Yale U., 1913; 
Student Cuilde Internationale, Paris, 1914; Howard 
U. Law Seh., 1915-16; Ph.D., Harvard U., 1925; 
D.D., Wilberforce U., 1928; m. Louise Johnson, 
Nov. 25, 1915; children — Louise Johnson, Char- 
lotte Harris. Instr. In teaching of history, Howard 
U.. 1913, instf. history, 1914-18, asst. prof., 1918- 
19, asso. prof., 1919-20, prof. history and head of 
dept. sinoe 1921, dir. Summer Seh., 1937, acting 
dean Coli, of Liberal Arts, 1937-38, dean since 
1938; pastor and presiding eldef African M.E.Ch., 
1918-37. Ednl. sec. Army Y.M.C.A., Camp Meade, 
Md., 1918; sec. for overseas work, Colored Men's 
Dept., Nat. War Work Council, Y.M.C.A., 1919. 
Guggenheim Fellow, London, 1930-31; grant-in-aid 
Social Science Research Council, 1936-37. Sec. bd. 
trustees Fisk U.; trustee Kittrell Coli. (N.C.). Mem. 
Assn. for Study of Negro Life and History (exec. 
Council), Am. Hist. Assn., Nat. Council Social 
Studies, N.E.A., Am. Assn. Seh. Adminstrs., Soc. 
for .\dvancement of Edn., Am. Assn. Univ. Profs., 
Alpha Phi Alpha (gen. pres. 1931-40; past gen. pres. 
and historian since 1940). Mason, Odd Fellow. 
Author: Negro Labor In the United Statea, 1850- 
1925, 1927; Richard Allen: Apostle of Freedom, 1935; 
The Oollapse of the Confederacy, 1938; A Manual of 
Research and Thesis Writing for Graduate Student«, 
1941. Editor: The Negro in the Americas, 1910. 
Home: 731 Falrmont St. N.W., Washington. D.C. 
References: Christian Century, Jan. 15. 
1941. p. 81 ; Leaders in Edn. 

WESSEL, Mark, composer, pianist, teacher; b. 
Coldwater, Mich., Mar. 26, 1894; s. Perry B. and 
EunJce Luella (Smead) W.; M.M., Northwestern U., 
1918. Llved abroad, mostly in Vienna, composing 
and concertizing, 1928-32; head of piano dept. and 
prof. of coraposition, U. of Colo., since 1934. Mem. 
Na»t. Assn. Am. Composers and Condrs. Awarded 
Guggenheim fellowship, 1931-33; Pulitzer travellng 
scholarship, 1930. Composltions: Scherzo Burlesque 
(piano, orehestra); Concertino (flute, orchestra) : 
Symphony Concertante (hörn, piano, orchestra); 
Symphony (orchestra); Ballade (violin, oboe, or- 
chestra); The King of Babylon (opera, pantomime) ; 
Concerto (piano, orchestra) ; Variations on a Moun- 
tain Tune (small orchestra); Trio (piano, violin, 
cello); Plains and Mountains (trio); Quartette 
(strings); Sextette (woodwlnds); Lento Fantasia € 
Funebre (hom, piano); (for piano) Promenade of 
Respectable People, Feminine Conversation, Isle of 
Death, Study in Lydian, etc. Home: 900 13th St., 
Boulder, (}olo. 

References: Baker, Blog, Dictionarj of 
Masicians; J. T. Howard, Our Contemp. 
Composers. 

WHITMAN, Cedrie Hubbelf, poet; b. Provldence, 
R.I.. Dec. 1, 1916; s. George Alfred and Muriel 
Augusta (Hubbell) W.; grad. Rogers High Seh., 
Newport, R.I.. 1932; Student Harvard U., 1934-35 
and since 1940; m. Ruth Adele Bashein, Oet. 13, 
IWl. Left College, 1935, and devoted most of time 
to writing verse; held various positions such as 
shoe salesman, oil salesman, bookkeeper, private 
tutor in English, Freneh er Latin, also taught fenc- 
ing; established class at Rogers High Seh., Newport, 
and helped establish Little Theatre Group in New- 
port, producing several of his own plays; three of 
bis plays bave been broadcast over Eastern net- 
works; returned to coli., 1940; taught verse writing 
for Short time at Boston Centre for Adult Edn.; 
rep. Harvard U. at Glasgock Poetry Contest at 
Mt. Holyoke Coli., winning with "Orpheus and the 
Moon Craters." Awarded high seh. prizes for Greek 
and Latin, also various scholarshlps; Elinor Frost 
scholarship, Bread Loaf, 1941. Author: Orpheus and 
the Moon Craters and Other Poems (Middlebury 
Coli. Perss, W, 1941. Home: 49 Sparks St., Cam- 
bridge. Mass. 

tWHITTON, John B., author: Propaganda by Short 
Wave (Princeton Univ.; $3.75), 1942. 
♦tWILCOX, John Walter, U.S. naval offleer (.\pr. 
1942 — lost overboard). 

References: NYT, Apr. 7, 1942. 



Series III, No. 5 



WILLCOX, Oswin William, chemist, author, edi- 
tor; b. Austin, Tex., Oct. 11, 1870; s. Oswin and 
Philippina (Bothmer) W.; B.S., U. of Tex., 1901; 
Ph.D., U. of Chicago (Lowenthal fellow), 1904; m. 
Margaret Kostenbauder, Oct. 25, 1906; children— 
Isabel, Ortrude, Oswin Burr. Farmer, country seh. 
teacher and newspaper reporter, 1889-99; instr. 
ehemistry, U. of Utah, 19O1-02; asst. In soils. Ja. 
State Coli., 1904; chemist Ordnance Dept., U.S. 
Army, 1905-08; cons. and tnfg. cliemist, 1909-22; 
teeh. editor Sugar (trade Jour,), Consulting agro- 
biologist and wrlter on agroblologic and social econ. 
subjects, since 1923. Mem. Am. Soc. Agronomy, 
Am. Soc. Sugar Beet Technologists. Mason. Author: 
Principles of Agrobiology, 1930; Reshaping Agri- 
culture, 1934; Nations Can Live at Home, 1935; Can 
Industry Govem Itself?, 1936; A B C of Agrobiology 
1937; Working Models of a Different World (in 
preparation). Translator (from Duteh): Studies on 
Sugar Boiling, by J. G. Thieme, 1938. Home: 197 
Union St., Ridgewood, N.J. 
Reference: MS. 

WILLIAMS, Edwin Miss, T.p. United Press Assns.; 
b. Columbia, Mo., Sept. 12, 1903; s. Walter and 
Hulda (Hamed) W.; grad. Culver M^l. .\cad.. 1918- 
22; B.J., U. of Mo.. 1925; m. Evelyn Branch, Sept. 
29, 1931; 1 son, Edwin Moss. Business mgr. Gulf 
Coast Guide, Gulfport, Miss., 1925; sec. Press Con- 
gress of the World, Geneva, Switzerland, 1925; pub. 
Marfa (Tex.) SenÜnel, 1926, Border Times, Presl- 
dio, Tex., 1926; southwestem rep. United Press 
Assns., Kansas City, Mo., 1927-29, mgr. southem 
div., Atlanta, Ga., 1929-35. gen. sales mgr.. New 
York, since 1935, v.p. since 1938; dir. British Unit- 
ed Press. Mem. Phi Delta Theta, Sigma DelU Chi. 
Clubs: Cloud (New York); Quaker Hill Rod and 
Gun (Pawling, N.Y.). Home: 223 E. 49th St. Of- 
fice: 220 E. 42d St., New York, N.Y. 

WILLIAMS, Thomas AntJiaiiy, radio garden com- 
mentator; b. Nashville, Tenn., July 12, 1891; s. 
Henry Franklin and Ella Dora (Maultsby) W.; ed. 
Hume-Fogg High Seh., Nashville; m. Edna Earie 
Welch, Sept. 6, 1925; 1 dau., Peggy Jean. Began 
career as designer, show-card writer, Nashville, 
Tenn., 1910-14; field sec. Nat. Highways .\ssn., 
Washington, D.C, 1915-16; artist, designer, Wil- 
liams Printing Co., Nashville, since 1919: art dir., 
N.Y. City, 1921-24; mem. plan bd., Sales Guild, 
N.Y. City, 1924-28; radio garden eommentator. "The 
Cid Dirt Dobber." WLAC, Nashville. sii>ce 1934. 
Columbia Broadcasting System, since 1940. Created 
"The Order of the Green Thumb," club of garden- 
ers nominated for having special knack of making 
everything grow. Sened as acting sergt., training 
Cooks and mess sergts., U.S. Army, 1917-18. Awarded 
silver medal. Am. Iris Soc., 1935; accredlted judge, 
of same society. Mem. Am. Hort. Soc., Washing- 
ton, D.C. Mem. Church of Christ. Author: The Old 
Dirt Dobber's Garden Book (McBride; J2.75), 1942; 
also several booklels on gardening. Contbr. to mags. 
Home: Hill Rd., Brentwood, Tenn. Offlee: care 
WL\C, NashvIHe, Tenn. 

WILMAN, Allan Arthur, composer, pianist; b. 
Hinekley, 111., May 11, 1909; s. Arthur Burton and 
Louise (Wilman) Simpkins; Mus.B.. Knox Coli., 
Galesburg, 111., 1928; Mus.M., Chicago Musical Coli., 
1930; private study of composition with Albert 
Noelte and Thorvald Otterstrom, of piano with 
Alexander Raab and Rudolph Ganz; unmarried. 
Teacher in a Chicago conservatory, also professional 
accompanist and arranger, and appearances in re- 
cital as composer-pianist, 1931-34; travel In Europe 
with study in Paris, with Nadia Boulanger and 
Thomas de Hartmann, 1935-36; asso. prof. of music. 
U. of Wyoming, since 1936. acting chmn. of div. of 
music since IWl; accompanist for artlsts on tours 
since 1939. Residence at MaeDowell Colony (for 
Creative artlsts), Peterboro. N.H.. summer, 1940 
Received Paderewski award (11,000) for original 
orchestral work, 1935. Mem. .\m. Composers Alllanec, 
Nat. Assn. for Am. Composers and Condrs. Com- 
posltions inelude: (for orchestra) Solitude; Sym- 
phonie Overture; Idyl; ( Chamber music) A Ballade 
of the Night (voiee and strlng quartet); (miseel- 
laneous) Two Sonatas (piano); various shorter 
pieces for piano; songs, etc. Composltions have 



been played by Boston Symphony Orchestra under 
Koussevitzky and at Am. Music Festivals of Eastman 
Seh. of Music; conipositions have been played over 
radio Systems of U.S., Sweden, Australia. Home: 
1316 Ivinson Av. Offlee: Division of Music, Univer- 
sity of Wyoming, liaramie, Wyo. 

Reference: Howard, Our Contemp. Com- 
posers. 

t WILSON, Charles Merrow, author: Ambassadors In 
White (Holt; 13.50), 1942. 

WOOLLEY, MMty (Edgar Montlllion Wolley). ac- 
tor; b. N.Y. City, Aug. 17, 1888; s. William Edgar 
and Jessie (Arms) W.; prep. edn. Maekenzie Seh., 
Dobbs Ferry, N.Y., 1902-07; A.B., Yale, 1911, A.M., 
1912; grad. work, Harvard. Left Harvard for prac- 
tieal stage work, N.Y. City; dramatie coach, Yale, 
1914-17 (produced Troilius and Cressida, Tambur- 
lalne. The Frogs. for the flrst time in U.S.); en- 
listed In Conn. Nat. Guard. 1916, Ist O.T.C., Ft. 
Sln'ridan. 111., 1917; commd. lt. and sent as mem. 
intelligence dept. Gen. Staff, France, 1918; dis- 
charged Mar. 1919; returned to Yale as asst. prof. 
of drama, later beeame asst. dir. of exptl. theater, 
Yale; resigned and began direeting plays in N Y 
CMty, 1927; directed Fifty Million Frenchmen. 1929,* 
The New Yorkers. 1930, Jubilee, 1935; directed Soc- 
ond Little Show. Jubilee; went to Hollywood. 1937, 
and appeared In several motion pictures including 
Nothing Sacred, Arsene Lupin Returns, Giri of the 
Golden West. Man »bout Town. Dancing Co-Ed; 
appeared as aotor in stage plays On Your Toes and 
Knißhts of Song; created role of Sheridan Whiteside 
in the play The Man Who Came to Dinner, whieh 
enjoyed a 2-year nm in N.Y. City; also plays White- 
side in the film Version (Paramount) of the famoiis 
play. Mem. Alpha DelU Phi. Clul)s: Players (N.Y. 
City); Elizabethan (New Haven. Conn.). .\ddress: 
718 N. Broadway, Saratoga Springs, N.Y. 

References: HoaM and Garden, Mar. 1942. 
p. 37 : MPAl. 

WRIGNT, Dafid McCarrf, author, ediicator. lawyer; 
b. Savannah, Ga., Aug. 1, 1909; s. Anton P(H)e and 
Hannah MeCord (Smythe) W.; Student The CiUdcl. 
1926-27. U. of Pa.. 1927-30; LL.B., U. of Va.. 
1935; M.A.. Harvard U., 1939, Ph.D., 1940: m. 
Caroline Noble Jones, June 27, 1940. Admitted to 
Ga. bar, 1935; atty. Reeonstruction Finance Corp.. 
1936-37; leeturer on trade regulation. U. of Va. Law 
•Seh.. 1940; asst. prof. eeonomics, U. of Va., since 
1939. Mem. R.O.T.C. 1926-27. Mem. Am. Eeon. 
Assn., Phi Delta Phi. Alpha Kappa Psl. IMta Psi; 
hon. mem. Royal Econ. Soc. Awarded David A. 
Wells prize, Harvard, IWl. Episcopalian. Chib: 
Colonnade. Author: The Creation of Purchasing 
Power (Harvard U. Press; $3). 1M2. Notes editor 
Va. Law Review. Contbr. articles to eeon. and legal 
jours. Home: 3 Dawson's Row, U. of Virginia. 
Charlottesville, Va. 

WR0N6, H. Hume, Can. mem. Pacific War Coun- 
cil; b. Toronto, Ont., Sept. 10, 18M; Student Upper 
Can. Coli., Toronto. Ridley Coli., St. Catharines, 
Ont.; B.A„ U. of Toronto, 1915; M.A.. B. Utt., 
Oxford U.. 1921; m. Joyce Hution; 1 son. 1 dau. 
Beeame leeturer, asst. prof. history. U. of Toronto, 
1921-27; apptd. Ist sec. Can. Legation in Washing- 
ton D.C, 1927-42: named to Pacific War Council, 
1W2. Served in Inf. and Air Force Worid War I, 
1515-19. commd. capt. on demobllization. Author: 
The Government of the West Indies; Sir Alexander 
Maekenzie, Explorer and Für Trader. 

ZIMMERMAN, Gedfrey Frank, teacher, writer; b. 
Millvllle, N.J.. July 24, 1909; s. Godfrey Roe and 
Amy .Mary (Bullock) Z. B.A., Bucknell U.. 1930; 
Student U. of Pa.. 1932; M.A., Teaehers Coli., 
Columbia U., 1933-35; Student U. of Calif. at Los 
Angeles, summer, 1937; m. Ida Frances Barber. Aug. 
15. 1935. Teacher of social studies. Millville (N.J.) 
High Seh., 1930-35. Cranford (N.J.) High Seh., 
since 1935. Mem. N.J. State Com. on Consumor 
Edn. Mem. Nat. Edn. .\ssn., Kappa Delta Rho 
(Iota Chap.) Baptist. Author (with S. B. Ham- 
blen) : Wise Spending: An Introduetion to Consumer 
Eeonomics. 1941; How to Spend Wisely (Harpers; 
$2.50), 1W2. Home: 529 Wells St., Westfleld. N.J. 
Offlee: care High School, Cranford, N.J. 



Appearance of a sketch in this SUPPLEMENT does not necessarily mean it will later he inrluHeH in WWnS 
WHO; however, all sketches appearing in the SUPPLEMENT, and^not ?ater Tncluded in WHO'S W^^^ 

be listed in that volume in a special index to the SUPPLEMENT. ' 




c 




m 



WHO Y.HOSNS-<^Ihe Smkxtb Authmim 

iwil[«"^7'"li"u*l*'''*l"''* ''°? .***• *'*■ complled for WHO KNOWS— The Book of Aothoritfe«, corrent pub- 
If /fc- .! I "«» been rescheduled because of the inadviaability, in the public intereat, of circulatin» certain 

w;ii«i*.fJ . ** '? II I**lr*? ^^urinr war time. The f ollowin» sketches are selective in so f ar as each biorraphee ia 
llVwt^^ specialiat. but they are not. of coarse, the only outatandinr speciaHsta in their reapective flelds, nor 
I- wS^ iJSJfiJJ^ . ! I"®"* outstandinar— they are merely some of many speciaHsta selected for eventual inclusion 
m WMU KISUWS, fketchea of whom are available now for publication in the MONTHLY SUPPLEMENT in the 
Itope they will be of interest and yalae to iU nsera. Similar aketchea wUl be published periodically. 



AGRL. PLANNING (Econ.) 
Anderson. Arthur 

ARCHAEOLOGY 
Finkelstein, J. Joe 

ARCHERY 

Gordon, Paul H. 

ARGYRIA 

Stillians, Arthur W. 

BEHAVIOR ASPECTS 
Bruch, Hilde 

BIOCHEMISTRY 
Anderson, Arthur von K. 

BIRDS 
Aldous, Shaler E. 

BONES (Growth and Repair) 
Bast, Theodore H. 

BUSINESS LAW 
Howard, Charles G. 

CARDIOLOGY 
Arkin, Aaron 

CHEMISTRY (Aerl.) 
Bateman, George M. 

CHEMISTRY (Indsl.) 
Beaber, Nathan iel J. 

CHEMISTRY (Physiol.) 
Bates. Robert W. 

CHILD PSYCHIATRY 
Bender, Lauretta 
Bruch. Hilde 

CHINESE PAINTING 
Hackney, Louise W. 

COTTON 

ArmstroniT» George M. 

DERMATOLOGY 
Hollander, Lester 
StiUians, Arthur W. 

DRUG MANUFACTURING 
Bates, Philip K. 

ECOLOGY 

Aikman, John M. 
Alezander, Gordon 

ECOLOGY (of Birds) 
Barber, George W. 

ETHNOHISTORY 
Finkelstein, J. Joe 



INDEX BY SPECIALISMS 



FLUIDS (Measurement of) 
Bean, Howard S. 

FOLK ART (American) 

Halpert, Edith Gregor (Mrs.) 

FOREST MANAGEMENT 
Allison, John H. 

FUNGUS DISEASES 
Baker, Roger D. 

GENETICS (Human) 
Baker, Horace G. 

GEOLOGY (Structural) 
Balk, Robert 

GEOLOGY (Structural and 
Physiographical ) 
Baker, Charles L. 

HEMATOLOGY 
Alt, Howard L. 

INDLAN LORE 
Gordon, Paul H. 

INSECTICIDES 
Adams. Eimer W. 

INSECT PEST CONTROL 
Barber, George W. 

INSECT PESTS 
Annand, P. N. 

INTERNAL MEDICINE 
Arkin, Aaron 
Fulmer, Silas C. 

LIBRARIES (Application of Engrinff. 
Principles to) 
Bailey, Ethel H. 

MAMMALS 

Aldous, Shaler E. 

METABOLISM (Fungus) 
Anderson, Arthur von K. 

MEXICO (Geology of) 
Baker, Charles L. 

MICROBIOLOGY 
Barker, Horace A. 

NEEDLEWORK 

Battles, Marietta 

NEGRO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY 
Barker, Prince P. 

NEUROLOGY 
Barker, Prince P. 



ORTHOPSYCHIATRY 
Bender, Lauretta 

PALEONTOLOGY 
Barwick, Arthur R. 

PATHOLOGY (Ear) 
Bast. Theodore H. 

PEDIATRICS 
Bruch, Hilde 

PETROLEUM PRODUCTS 

Adams, Eimer W. 

PLANT DRUGS (Crude) 
Hiner, Lovell David 

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY 
Beck, William A. 

POULTRY GENETICS 
Asmundson, Vigfus S. 

POWER ENGRING. 
Beach, Robin 

PRE-HISTORY (Portrayal of) 
Kingman, Eugene 

PSYCHIATRY 
Barker, Prince P. 

PUPPETRY 
McPharlin, Paul 

SOUTH AMERICA (Geology of) 
Baker, Charles L. 

SOY BEANS 

Beaber, Nathaniel J. 

SPECTROSCOPY (Applied to Ceramica) 
Harrison, Harold C. 

SYPHILOLOGY 
Hollander, Lester 
Stillians, Arthur W. 

TRANSMISSION ENGRING. 
Beach. Robin 

WEAVING 

Baker, Horace G. 

WHEAT 

Bayles, Burton B. 

WOOD CHEMISTRY 
Hawley, Lee F. 

WOOD DISTILLATION 
Hawley, Lee F. 

ZOOLGGY 

Alexander, Gordon 









ADAMS, Eimer Wade, rpsearch chemist. Petroleum 
Products and By-Products. Home: 7443 Oleott Av., 
Hammond, Ind.; offlce: Standard Oil (^., Whiting. 
Ind. Chemist Standard Oil Co. since 1925; spccialist 
in Petroleum greases, gen. and spl. lubricants, pol- 
ishes. waxes and spl. applications of petroleum prod- 
ucts and by-products. (Contbr. tech. articles to pro- 
fessional and sei. jours. Mem. .\m. Chem. Soc., 
Chem. Arts Forum. Sigma Xi. Also Indexed under 
Insccticides (animal. housebold and agrl.) B. Oct. 
7. 1897. Deer Park. Tex.; B.S., M.S.. U. of 111. 
(1919-20); Ph.D.. U. of Wis. (1922-24). 

AIKMAN, John Mulvaney, botanist. Ecology 
(Native and Crop Plants). Home: 3213 Oalvland 



Av.; offlce: Botany Hall, Ja. State Coli., Arnes, la. 
Supt. seh., Hiel(man, Neb., 1917-18, Whitman, Neb., 
1919-20; asso. prof. biology. Neb. Wesleyan Univ., 
1921-27; asso. prof. botany. Ja. State Coli, since 
1927; sr. botanist, in Charge bot. research westem 
shelterbelt, U.S. Forest Service, 1934-35; project 
Supervisor, Soll Consenration Senice, part time since 
1937; made special study of the interactions of 
plants and their environment with special emphasis 
on rate of growth, yield, soll building and soll 
proteeting properties of native and crop plants un- 
der variations in environmental conditions, Keg- 
ular contbr. to jours. of ecology since 1925. Mem. 
editorial bd. Ecology, 1937-40. Developed spl. 



teehniques for quantitative determination of vege- 
tative Cover; developed radiometer for radiajit energy 
determinations. Mem. Sigma Xi; sec., Grassland 
Research Foundation. B. Mar. 24, 1893. Mason 
City, Neb.; B.A., M.A., Neb. Wesleyan U. (1910- 
12. 1915-17; Grad. Seh., 1920-21); Student U. of 
Chicago, 1922; Ph.D., U. of Neb. (1923-28). 

ALDOUS, Shaler Eugene, forest bioecologist. (1) 
Mammals; (2) Birds. Home: 1494 Grantham St • 
Office: Lake States Forest Expt. Sta., University 
Farm. St. Paul, Minn. Instr. zoology, U. of Utah 
1924-26; ranger naturalist, Yosemite Nat. Park,' 
1927; instr. biology and physiology, hig seh., Tooele,' 
Utah, 1927-28; engaged in control methods research 



Page 109 



l\ 



i I 



Page HO — Who Knows 

on rodents and predators on forest a«d ränge, U.S. 
Biol. öurv€y, 1928-31, food habits research and 
econ. mammalügy and ornitlwlogy, 1931-36, forest 
Wildlife researcJi since 1936; has done 5 yrs. neld 
and lab. work on the white-necked raven; has given 
special attention to beavers, deer and small rodents. 
Frequeiit contbr. to tech, and sei. jours. Mem. 
Sigma Xi. B. Apr. 19. 1900, lluntsville UUh; 
H.A., U. of Utah (1920-24); M.A., U. of Calaf. 
(ürad. Seh., 1926-27). 

ALEXANDER, Gordon, biologist. Ecology. Home: 
765 14th St.; Office: Univ. of Colo., Boulder, Colo. 
Asst. prof. biology. Central Coli.. Fayette, Mo., 
1926-28; visiting prof. biology, Chulalongkorn U., 
Bangkok, öiam, 1928-30 (engaged In study of fauna 
of Siam); asso. prof. biology, U. of Colo., 1931- 
39, prof. and head dept. sinee 1939. Now engaged 
in researcii study of relation of altitude U) distbn. 
of birds and grasshoppers in Rocky Mts, Author: 
An Outline of General Biology. 1935; An Outhne 
of (leneral Zoology, 1940. Mem. Am. Soc. Zo- 
ologists, Ecol. Soc. of America. Entomol. Soc. of 
America, Am. Soc. Icbthyologists and Herpetolo- 
gists. Am. ümithDl. Union, A.A.A.S. Also indexed 
under Zoolofly. B. Aug. 18, 1901, Rieh Hill, Mo.; 
B.A., Central Coli. (1919-23); M.A., Ph.D., Prince- 
ton (1923-26. 1930-31). 

ALLISON, John Howard, forester. Forest Manage- 
ment. Home: 1509 Hythe St.; Office: Univ. Farm, 
St. Paul, Mimi. Jr. forester, U.S. Forest Service, 
1906-09, forest examiner, 1910-13; prof. forestry, U. 
of Minn. since 1913; forestry fellow, Am.-Scandi- 
navian Foundation (Sweden), 1923-24. Made study 
of history of govtl. forestry in U.S.; authority on 
forest taxation and appraisal. Contbr. to jours. of 
forestry and to bulletins of U. of Minn. Agrl. Sta. 
Sr. mem. Soc. Am. Foresters. B. Sept. 25, 1883, 
Fast Granby, Conn.; Ph.B. M.F.. Yale (1902-05; 
Seh. Forestry, 1905-06); grad. Student U. of Minn. 
(1921-25). 

ALT, Howard Lang, physician. Hematology. Home: 
1144 Michigan Avenue, Evanston, Illinois, offlce: 720 
North Micliigan Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. House 
offleer medicine and surgery, Wesley Memorial Hosp., 
1923-25; asst. resident, later resident medicine, 
Peter Bent Brigham Hosp., 1925-29; teaching fel- 
low medicine, Hanard Med. Seh., 1927-29; asst., 
Kaiser Wilhelm Inst., Berlin-Dahlem (Germany), 
1929-30; asst.. Medizinische Klinik, Wurzburg, 1930; 
asso. medicine, Northwestern Med. Seh., 1930-36, 
dir. hematology clinic since 1936, dir. labs. and in 
Charge clin. pathology, 1935-39; instr. in chemistry 
since 1931; asst. prof. of medicine since 1936. Fre- 
quent contbr. to med. jours. on hematology and 
nutrition. Made discoverles concerned with Patho- 
logie physiology of anemias. Mem. Central Soc. for 
Clin. Research, Inst. Medicine of Chicago, Chicago 
Society of Internal Medicine, Sigma Xi. B. July 28, 
1900, Chicago. ID.; B.S., M.D.. M.S.. Ph.D., North- 
western U. (1917-24; grad. seh., 1930-34). 

ANDERSON, Arthur, agronomist. Agrl. Planning 
(Econ,). Home: 1140 S. 52nd St.; Office: Coli, of 
Agr., U. of Neb., Lincoln, Neb. Asst. in agronomy, 
later asst. agronomist, Coli, of Agr., U. of Neb., 
1917-18 and 1919-34, asso. prof. since 1934; also 
sijccessively sirM!e 1934, cons. land planning, special- 
ist land use, State rep., Bur. of Agl. Economics, 
U.S. Dept. of Agr., to develop coop. land utilization 
program with C^ll. of Agr., U. of Neb. Authority 
on production of forage crops, especially alfalfa, and 
of grains, and in field of land use. Regulär contbr. 
to agrl. jours. Fellow A.A.A.S.; mem. Am. »Soc. 
Agronomy, Sigma Xi, Gamma Sigma Delta, Alpha 
Zeta. B. June 29, 1889. Butler County, Neb.; B.S., 
OT.S., Coli, of Agr., U. of Neb. (1912-16; Grad. 
Seh., 1923); Ph.D., Ohio State U. (1930-32). 

ANDERSON, Arthur von Krogh, physiol. chemist. 
Biochemistry, Home: 123 S. Sparks St.; offlce: Pa. 
State Coli., State College, Pa. Prof. chemistry, St. 
Olaf Coir., Northfield. Minn., 1916-18; instr. chem- 
istry, U. of Minn., 1919-20, instr. agrl. biochemistry, 
1920-23; prof. physiol. chemistry, Pa. State CoU. 
since 1923. Author: Essentials of Physlological 
Chf-mistry, 1935, 2d edit., 1939; Laboratory Experi- 
ments in Physlological Chemistry, 1936; contbr. to 
sei. jours. Has developed several new methods of 
analysis. Fellow A.A.A.S.; mem. Am. Chem. Soc. 
(past chmn. Central Pa. Sect.), Pa. Acad. of Sci- 
ence, Pa. Chem. Soc. (founder), Sigma Xi. Also 
inrlexe/l under Metabolism (Fungus). B. Feb. 27, 
1890, MoDtevideo, Minn.; B.S.. M.S.. Ph.D., U. of 
Minn. (1909-13; Grad. Seh., 1913-16, 1919-23). 

ANHAND, P(ercy) N(icol), entomologist. Insect 
Pests. Home: 4247 Vacation Lane, Arlington, Va.; 



Series III, No. 5 



Office: Dept. of Agr.. Washüigton, D.C. A». ento- 
mologist, Creat Western Sugar Co 1920-2 ; asst 
instr biology, Starvford U »»21-22; bead dept of 
biol. science, San Mateo (Cahf.) Junior Coli.. 1922- 
•>9: asso. entomologist, Bur. Entomology and I lant 
guarantine. U.S. Dept. of Agr.. 1929-30. n Charge 
sugar beet insect Investigation. 1931-34. Chief ceroa 
and forage Insect investigation. 1934-36, asst. chief 
of bur. in Charge of research, 1937-41, Chief of bur. 
since 1941. Contbr. to entomol. and agrl. jours. 
Fellow Am. Entomol. Soc., A.A.A.S.. Mem. Am. 
Assn. Econ. Entomologists, Sigma Xi. B. Nov 16, 
1898 TeUuride. Colo.; B.S.. Oolo. SUte Coli. (1917- 
20); M.A., Ph.D.. Stanford U. (1921-22. 1926-28). 
ARKIN, Aaron, physician. Caidlolny. "oj»«: 200 
E. Chestnut St.; offlce: 25 E. Washington St.. Chi- 
cago, 111. Instr. in pharmacology. U. of Wis., 1909- 
1910; prof. pathology and bacteriology. U. of W. 
Va 1914-1922; research fellow and asst. in medi- 
cine. U. of Vienna, 1922-1926; prof. of medicine, 
Cook County Grad. Seh., and Rush Medical Coli. 
since 1928. Reported on 50 original rcsearches In 
chemotherapy. immunity, and especially internal med- 
icine and cardiology for tech. and sei. jours. First 
to demonstrate spirocheta pallida in acquired syphi- 
litic ulcers of bowel, 1909; discovered new clinical 
and x-ray picture of persistent right aortic arch 
with Stenosis of left aortic arch, new clinical pic- 
ture of histologically healed periarteritis nodosa, etc. 
Certificate from Am. Bd. of Internal Medicine. Fel- 
low Am. Coli. Physicians: mem. Am. Heart Assn., 
Am. Soc. of Clinical Pathology, Am. Assn. of Path- 
ologists and Bacteriologists, Am. Physiol. Soc, 
Am. Pharmacol. Soc., Inst, of Medicine. Received 
L.C.P. Freer Medal and Jirst prize for research at 
Rush -Med. Coli., 1912. Also indexed under iBtcriul 
Medicine (considerabie study and research in renal 
diseases, vascular diseases, bronchogeiiic Carcinoma, 
and Hodgkins disease). B. Sept. 6. 1888, Llbau, 
Utvia; B.S., U. of Chicago (1905-09); M.A., U. 
of Wis., (1909 to 1910); M.D., Ph.D.. U. of Chicago 
(Rush Med. Coli., 1910-12, Grad. Seh,, 1912-13). 

ARMSTRONG, George Miller, plant pathologist. 
Cotton. Home: 122 S. Palmelto Blvd.; offlce: Long 
.\grl. Hall, Clemson, S.C. Grad, asst., Clemson 
CoU., 1914-15, instr., 1917-18, head dept. of botany 
and bacteriology since 1928; grad. asst.. U. of Wis., 
1915-17; extension plant pathologist, Ala., 1918-19; 
instr., Washington U., 1921-24; head cotton research 
div., Pee Dee Expt. Sta., 1924-28. Has specialized 
in cotton diseases, physiology and ttbers; coUab- 
orator cotton projects, U.S. Dept. Agr. Frequent 
contbr. to tech. and sei. jours. Mem, A..\.A,S., Am. 
Ph>'topaih. Soc., Am. Soc. Plant Physiology, S.C. 
Acad. Science. B. Nov. 13. 1893, Appleton. S.C; 
B.S., Clemson Agrl. and Mech. Coli. (1910-14); 
.M.A.. U. of Wis. (1915-17); Ph.D.. Washington U., 
St. Louis (1919-21). 

ASMUNDSON, Vlffus Samundur, poultry husbanu- 
ry. Poultry Genctics. Home: 503 E St.; offlce: Div. 
of Poultry Husbandry, U. of Calif., Davis, Calif. 
Asst. prof. poultry husbandry, U. of B.C., Can., 
1921, asso, prof. 1927-32; asso, poultry husbandry, 
U of Calif., 1932-33, asst. prof., 1933-38, asso. prof. 
since 1938; visiting prof., A. and M. Coli, of Tex., 
1941. Frequent contbr. to agrl. publs. Mad» 
discoveries on inheritance of skeletal abnormalities 
of domestic fowl and turkeys; inheritance of ezg 
production of turkeys; formation of the avian e^jt' 
.Mem. Onetic Soc. of America, Am. Genetic Assn., 
Soc, of Exptl, Biology and Medicine, Poultry Sci- 
ence .\ssn., A.A.A.S.. Sigma XI. Received Poultry 
Science Research Prize 1931. B. Sept. 24, 1895. 
Reykjavik, Iceland; B.S.A., U. of Saskatchewan, 
Can., (1912-18); M.S.A., CorneH U. (1919-20); 
Ph.D., U. of Wis. (1929-30). 

BAILEY, Ethel H., mech. engr. Application of 
Engring. Principles to Library Ficld. Home: 17 
Montclair Av.; offlce: Montclair Pub. Library, Mont- 
clair, N.J. Insp. airplanes and airplane fnör>es, 
S.C, 1917-18; asso. with aircraft dif., Bur. of 
Construction and Repair, Washington, D.C, 1919-22; 
aero material engr,, LW,F. Engring, Co., College 
Pt., N.Y., 1922-23; engr. research dept., Soc. Auto- 
motive Engrs., N.Y. City, 1924-26; mech. engr., 
Art Metal Works, Newark, N.J., 1927-29; mech. engr. 
and sec. Suggestion com., Gen. Electric Co., 
Bloomfield, 1929-32; mech. engr., E.R.A., SUte 
of W.J., 1933-35; mech. engr., Montclair Pub. Li- 
^brary, since 1938. Was Instrumental In introducing 
various practices used in mfg. into library work. in- 
cluding scbeduling, use of mech. equipment, keep- 
ing of records; assisted in Inauguration of cost 
study of pub. libraries, micropbotography and I.B.M. 



equipment. Fellow A.A.A.S.; mem. Am. Soc. Mech. 
Engrs., Nat. Assn. Professional Engrs., Soc. Am! 
Mil. Engrs., Am. Library Assn., Am. Assn. U. Wom- 
en, Womens Engring, Soc, London. Awardcd schol- 
arship in micropliotography, Columbia U. Seh, of 
Library Service, 1939. B. Aug. 18, 1896, Houlton 
Me.; Student Rutgers U., 1928-29, 1931-32, Mont- 
clair State Teaehers C\)ll., 1938-39, Columbia U 
1939. U. of Newark (N.J.). 1939-40. Internat. 
Business Macliines, Customer Administrative Seh 
Endicott, N.Y., 1942 

BAKER, Charles Laurence. geologist. Geology 
(Structural and Physiographical). Address: Tex. Agrl 
L Mech, Coli., College SU„ Texas. Field asst 
U.S. (;eol. Suney. 1908, 1910; Instr. geology, U. of 
Calif., 1911; geologist. S.P.R.R. Co.. 1912-31; with 
Bur. of Econ. Geol., U. of Tex,, 1914-35; instr 
geology. U. of Tex., 1916; with Standard Oil Co. of 
Calif., 1921-22, Indian Ter. Illuminating Oil Co., 
1922-23; professorial lecturer, Northwestern U., 1932; 
head dept. geology, Tex, Agrl. & .Mech, Coli., since 
1935, Author about 50 books am! papers dealing 
with various phases of pure aiKl applied geology of 
westem U.S., Mexico and South America. Special- 
ized in origln of red beds and saline residues; 
ancient Lake Cabeza de Vaca; peneplanation and 
westward overthrusting of central Rockles; geology of 
Southwest ern U.S. and northeastem Mexico, of River 
Plate basin of South America and Isthmus of Tehu- 
antepec, .Mexico. Fellow Geol. Soc, of America, 
Royal Scottish (ieog. Soc.; f.p. Tex. Acad. of Sci- 
ence. Also indexed under (1) Mexico (Geology of); 
(2) South America (Geology of). B. Oot. lO. 1887. 
Cordova, lU.; Student Moumouth College, 1903-05, 
Oberlin Coli.. 1905-07; S.B., U. of Chicago, (grad. 
seh. 1907-10); M.A., U. of Calif. (1910-12). 

BAKER, Horace Greeiey, biologist, puhlisher. 
Genetics (Human). Address: 1716 S, Tacoma Av., 
Tacoma, Wash. Corr, sec, 1890-1907; mfr. 1007-20; 
asso. prof, biology, Southwestem 0)11., 1925-29; pn)f. 
and head dept. biology, Dakota Wesleyan Univ., 
1929-31; owner and mgr., Fkonomy Publishers, Ta- 
coma (\Va.sh.). 1932-40; research biologist. human 
genetics, since 1931. .\uthor: Dictionary of Eugenical 
and GenetJeal Terms. 1930; New Road to Civil ization. 
1932; also ten biol. text books, book reviews ainl 
newspaper articles; frequent contbr. to social scieiK-e 
mags. Mem. Kan, Acad. of Science. A.A.A.S.. Phl 
Beta Kappa. Awarded Demorest .Medal of Oratory, 
1893. Also Indexed under Weaving (holds Patents 
relating to weaving macliines, acccssuries to rüg and 
loom maklng). B. Blar. 5, 1873. Altoona. Kan.; 
B.A.. .M..\., U. of la. (1920-24; Grad. Seh., 1924 25 
and 1930). 

BAKER, Rofcr DeRio, pathologist. Fungous Di- 
seases. Home: 1111 Watts St.; offloe: Duk.« Hosp., 
Durham, N.C. Asst. resident pathology, John Hop- 
kins Ho»p., 1928-30; asst. later instr. patlwlojjy, 
Johns Hopkins U., 1928-30; instr. auatomy, Duke U., 
19,30-32. Instr. pathology, 1932-34, asst. prof. since 
1934; asst. pathologist, Duke Hosp. since 19.'^4. 
Made study of path. features, using morphological 
an<l exptl. methods, of the fungous disea.ses of man. 
notably blastomycocis. Frequent contbr. to meil. and 
sei. jours. on gen. path. 8iH)jects. Demonstratttl 
that mouse Is prccmlnently suited to exptl. prodn. 
of blastomycosls; that thread-like and yeast forms 
of caus&tivc fungus are equally InfecUous; empha- 
sizKl dissimilarities betweon human blastomycosls 
and human tuberculosis. Mem. A.M.A., Am. Assn. 
Pathologist« and Bacteriologists. Soc. Exptl. Patliol- 
ogy, A.A.A.S., Nu Sigma Nu, Alpha Omega Alpha, 
Sigma XI. "RecelTed accessory flnancial support for 
research from John and Mary R. Markle Foumlation 
and from Duke Univ. Research Fund. B. Apr. 10, 
1902. East I^slng. Mich.; B.A., U. of Wis. (1920- 
24); .MD., Hanard (Med. Seh., 1924-28). 

BALK, Robert, geologist. Goology (StructunI). 
Home: 5 Wright PL; offlce: Mt. Holyoke Coli.. S. 
Hadley, Mass, Independent fleld work since 1923 in 
Italy, Germany. Norway. U.S.A.; geologist, N.Y. 
State Mus., 1925-26, Minn. Geol. Survey, 1930, U.S. 
Geol. Suney since 1938; Instr. Hunter Coli.. 1925-28. 
asso, prof, 1928-.35; visiting prof.. Stanford U., 1934; 
asso. prof.. 1935-37, head dept. geol. and geography, 
since 1935, prof. «Ince 1937. Mt. Holyoke CoW. 
Autiwr: Structural Behavlor of Igneous R(>ok.s, 1937, 
Mem. Geol. Society of America, Am. Geophys. Union. 
Soc. Rheology. Norsk Geol, Forening. B, May 31, 
1899. Reval, Bstonla; Ph,D,. U. Greifswaid, Göt- 
tlngen, Breslau. German (1919-24). 

BARBER. George W(arc), entomologist, Insect 
Pest Control. Home: 274 Dwight St.; offlce: 56 
lUllhüuse At,, New Haien, Conn. Research entomol- 



1 



May, 1942 




c 






• 



t 



ogist in various parts of U.S.. Bur. Entomology and 
Plant Quarantine, U.S. Dept. Agr., since 1914; 
speciaUst on habits and control of European com 
borer and com ear worm since 1919. Author many 
reports and buUs., frequent contbr. to sei. jours. 
Holds 3 U.S. Patents on insect control. Fellow 
A.A.A.S.; mem. Entomol. Soc. of America, Am. 
Assn. Econ. Entomologists, Entomol. Soc. of Wash- 
ington, N.Y. Entomol. Soc., Agrl. History Soc. Also 
indexed under Ecolofly (of Birds) (mem. Am. Orni- 
tfaologlsts Union). B. Aug. 3, 1890. Hyde Park. 
Mass.; B.Sc, Mass. SUte Coli. (1909-13); M.Sc., 
D.Sc.. Harvard (1925-27). 

BARKER, Horace AKiert, blochemlst. Micro- 
bioltiy. Home: 992 Ventura Av.; offlce: Plant 
Nutrition Dept., U. of Calif., Berkeley. Calif. 
National research Council fellow biological sciences. 
Hopkins Marine Sta., Paciflc (kove (Calif.), 1933- 
35; gen, edn. bd. fellow, microbiology lab.. Delft 
(Holland), 1935-36; instr. and asst. prof. soll 
microbiology, U. of Calif. since 1936: Guggenheim 
fellow, Yale, Mass, Gen, Hospital, U. of Wis., 
1941-42. Contbr. numerous sei, papers to tech. 
jours. Conducted research on biological methane 
formation, anaerobic decomposition of nitrogenous 
Compounds, microbial physiology. Mem, Soc, Am. 
Bacteriologists. Phi Lambda Upsilon. Gamma Alpha, 
Phl Beta Kappa, Sigma XI. B. Nov. 29, 1907, Oak- 
land. Calif.; B.A., Ph.D.. Stanford U. (1925-29; 
Grad. Seh., 1929-33); Student U. of Chicago (1930- 
31). 

BARKER, Prince Patanllla, physician. (1) 
Neurtlofly; (2) Psyciilatry. Address: Vets. 
.\dmin8tm. Faclüty, Tuskegee, Ala. Asso. editor, 
Jour. Nat. Med. .\ssn., since 1930; chief acu-te 
mental senrice, Vets. Adminstm. Facillty, since 
1939. Fellow Am. Psychiat. Assn.; dlplomate Nat. 
Bd. of Psychiatry and Neurology; mem. Nat. Med. 
Assn., A.A.A.S., Assn, Mil Surgeons of U.S. .\lso 
indexed under Nein Psyckopathology (has done re- 
search work on neuroses and Insulin shock therapy 
in negro ex-serrice men. Frequent contbr. to tech. 
and sei. jours, Propounded hypothesis: Qualitative 
alterations in functlonal psychoses In negroes are 
traceable and due to certain special aspects in their 
psychopatbology and normal psychology which are en- 
vironmentally conditioned). B, Dec. 15, 1897. Bar- 
badoei. B.W.I.; B,A., CoH. City of N.Y. (1915- 
18); M,D.. Howard U., Wash. (Coli, of Medicine, 
1919-23). 

BARWICK. Arthur Ricbanison, geologist. economic 
geologist; Palctntolofy. Home: 10 Wessex Rd.. 9Ugo 
Park Hills, Silver Spring, Md.; offlce: Non-ferrous 
MctAl Div., Offlce of Price Administration, Washing- 
ton, D.C, Control chemist, Secaw Chem. Co., Irving- 
ton (N.J.), 1919-21; instr. geology, N.Y. Univ., 
1922-29; asso. prof, geology. Cath. Univ. of America, 
1929-32. actlng head dept.. 1932-38, chmn. dept. 
geology and geography, 1938-1941. Has done re- 
search work in econ. geology and paleontology with 
more reoent papers princlpally on fossil whales of 
Chesapeake Bay Region. Mem, Paleontological Soc,, 
PaleontologicaJ Soc. of Washington (D.C), Geol. 
Soc. of Washington, Biol. Soc. of Washington, Am. 
Inst, of Mining and Metall. Engrs., Am. Assn. 
Univ. Profs., A.A.A.S. Received Ward Medal in 
geology, CoH. City of New York, 1917. B. Mar. 9, 
1896, New York, N.Y.; B.S., Coli, of City of New 
York (1913-17); M.S., Ph.D., New York U. (1921- 
26). 

BAST, Thesdoro Nieromymus, histologist. Bonos 
(Grtwth and Rcpair). Home: Stwrewood Hills: 
offlce: Science Hall, U. of Wis., Madlson, Wis. 
Instr. anatomy, U. of Chicago, 1919-20; asst. prof. 
anatomy, U. of Wis., 1920-25, asso. prof., 1925-32, 
prof. since 1932. Author: The Life and Time of 
Adolf Kussmaul. 1926; frequent contbr. to sei. jours. 
Discovered "The Utriculo-endolymphatic Valve." Fel- 
low A.A.A.S.; mem. Am. Assn. Anatomists, Soc. 
Exptl. Biology and Medicine. Phi Beta Pi, Sigma 
Xi. Also indexed under Patkology (Ear) (research 
work on development of otic capsule in relation to 
otosclerosls). B. Sept. 1. 1890, Rockfteld, Wis.; 
H.A., Rlpon Coli., 1912; Ph.D., Rush Med. Sch„ U. 
of (^cago, 1922. 

BATEMAN, Gcone Monroe, chemist. Chemistry 
(Airl.). Home: 1106 Van Ness Av.; Ariz. State 
Teaehers CoH., Tempc, Ariz. Instr. chemistry, Utah 
Agrl. Coli., 1920-21; instr. science ai>d mathematics. 
Grace (Ida.) High Seh.. 1921-22; prin. schs., 
Arlmo, 1922-24; research asst. and Instr. dairy 
chemistry, Comell U., 1926-27; prof. phys. science, 
Ariz. SUte Teaehers CoH.. 1927-30, head science 
dept. and prof. chemistry since 1930; especially 



u>terested in application of chemistry to Community 
life. Frequent contbr. to research publs. Capt.. 
Chem. Warfare Res., extended active duty. offlce of 
Chief, C.W.S.. since 1941. Fellow A.A.A.S.; mem. 
Am. Chem. Soc., Nat. Edn. .4ssn.. Sigma XI. B. 
Sept. 12, 1897. Bloomington. Ida.; B.S., Utah State 
Agrl. CoU.; MJS., Ph.D., Cornell U. 

BATES, Philip K., bacterlologlst. Dru| Manufac- 
turing. Home: 156 Scbool St., Belmont, Mass.; 
offlce: United Drug Co., 43 Leon St., Boston, Mass. 
Engaged in research on bacteriology of refrigerated 
foods, Frigidaire Corp., 1928-32, research on survival 
of pathogenic hacteria under refrigeration, antlsep- 
tics in soap and bacteriology of ice refrigeration, 
Mass. Inst. Tech., 1932-35; engaged in development 
work on Vitamins, United Drug Co., 1936-40, dir. 
dept. research and control since 1941. Mem. Soc. 
.\m. Bacteriologists, .\m. Chem. Soc, .^m. Pub. 
Health Assn., Inst. Food Tech. B. July 2, 1902, 
Cdiasset, Mass.; B.S., Ph.D., Mass. Inst. Tech. 
(1920-24; ürad. Seh., 1924-27). 

BATES, Robert Wesley, chemist. Chemistry 
(Physlological). Address: Di fco Lbs., 920 Henry St., 
Detroit, Mich. Research asst., physico-chemical 
properties of Insulin, E. R. Squibb & Sons, New 
Brunswick, N.J., 1927-1929; grad. thesis, Trypsino- 
gen, Trypsin, and Enterokinase Relationships, U. of 
Chicago, 1930-31; investigator on prcparation and 
properties of anterior pituitary hormones, Carnegie 
Inst, of Washington, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y., 
1931-41. Developed assay metbod for prolaotin; 
rapid method of tryptopbane determlnation; assay 
metbod for enterokinase; Isolation of prolactin. 
Mem. Am. Chem. Soc., Am. Soc. Biol. Chemists, 
Assn. for Study of Internal Secretions, Soc. for 
Exptl. Biology and Medicine. B. Jan. 31, 1904, 
Columbia, la.; A.B., Simpson Coli. (1921-25); Ph.D., 
U. of Chicago (1925-26, 1929-31). 

BATTLES, Marietta, executive. Needlework. Home: 
201 E. 35th St.; offlce: 11 E. 26th St., N.Y. City. 
Needlework advisor, Hobby Gulld of America, since 
1939; sales promotion and Publicity mgr,, Helrloora 
.Needlework Guild Ine,, since 1939, advt. mgr. since 
1939; has trained aalespeople in art needlework 
depts,, and been lecturer, contest judge; designs 
needlepoint. Author: Needlepoint Questions and 
Answers, 1939; Romance of Needlepoint, 1939; Tap- 
estrles Throughout The Ages, 1939; Needlepoint Rüg 
Instruction Booklet, 1940. Mem. Advt. Women of 
N.Y., Hobby Guild of America, Advt. Club of N.Y. 
(asso.) B. Methuen, Mass. Student George Seh. of 
Design, Boston, (1928-30) and Designers Seh. of 
.\rt, Boston, (1930-32). 

BAYLES, Burton Bernard, agronomist, Wheat. 
Home: 1306 Woodside Parkway, Silver Spring, Md.; 
offlce: Bur. of Plant Industry, U.S. Dept. Agr., 
Washington, D.C. Jr. plant breeder for Offlce of Ce- 
real Oops and Diseases, Hayes, Kan., 1922-23; jr. 
agronomist in Charge of breedlng Investigations, 
Sherman County Br. Sta., Moro, Ore,, 1923-27; asst. 
agronomist, Judith Basin Substa., Moccasln, Mont., 
1927-30; asso. agronomist in Charge wheat investi- 
gations in Rocky Mountain and Pacific coast states, 
Oreal Crops and Diseases, Washington, D.C, 1930- 
37, in diarge wheat research in eastem region since 
1938. Frequent contbr. to tech. and sei. jours. 
Mem. Am. Soc. Agronomy, Sigma Xi. B. Jan. 10, 
1900, Manhattan, Kan.; B.S.. M,S,, Kan. State Agr. 
Coli. (1918-22; Grad. Seh., 1923, 1926); Ph.D., U. 
of Wis, (1929, 1936). 

BEABER, Nathaniel John, chemist. (1) Chemis- 
try (Indsl.); (2) S«y Beans. Home, 240 CaUlpa 
PI., Mt. Lebanon, Pa.; offlce: Mellon Institute, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. Grad. asst.. la. State Coli., 1921- 
26; indsl. fellow. Mellon Institute, since 1926. De- 
veloped Grlgnard reagent. sulfonic esters, sulfones; 
special research in phenöl still residues, impregnating 
compourids for transformer colls, tobacco byproducts, 
dewaxlng of oUs, soy Ibean protein, and other in- 
dustrlal «ppllcations. Mem. Am. Chem, Soc,, Sigma 
Xi, Phl Lambda UpsUon. B. Sept. 13, 1897, Fort 
Wayne, Ind.; B^S., Kalamazoo CoH., (1915-20); 
M.S.; U. of Chicago (1921); Ph.D.. la. State CoH.. 
(1921-25). 

BEACH, Robin, elec. engr. (1) Power Engring.; 
(2) Transmission Engring. Home: 67 Hanson PI.; 
offloe: 85 Livingston St., Brooklyn, N.Y. Testing 
engr.. Gen. Electric Co., 1908-09, Westinghouse Co., 
1917; Consultant on power electriflcation, Boston 
and Me. R.R.. 1913; with Brookilyn Edison Co,, 
as dir. educatlon and co-dir. education, 1922-33; 
with Consolidated Edison Co., 1930-33. in 



Who Knows— Page 111 

Charge organizing instrn. in tech. and comm. courses 
relating to employes' work; with McCrossin & Co., 
since 1933. in Charge appraisals and teoh. reports on 
Are losses or Elec. failures of machines In power 
houses, substations. indsl. plants and of transmis- 
sion and distbn. line equipment; prof. elec. engring, 
and head dept., Polytech. Inst, of Brooklyn, since 
1921. Author: Electricity and Magnelism (2 vols.), 
1921-22; Electricity and Magnetism (1 vol.), r»;- 
vised edit., 1940; contbr. research studies to tech. 
and sei. Jours. Has Patents now pending on meth- 
ods of eUminating stalle electricity on rubber-tirod 
vehlcles. Fellow Am. Inst. E.E.; mem. Soc. for 
Promotion of Engring. Edn,, Tau Beta Pi, ETA 
Kappa Nu. Licensed engr.; N.Y. State, Pa. B, 
Aug. 30, 1889, Robin's Island, N,Y.; B.S, in Elec. 
Engring., E.E.. U. of N.H. (1913-22); M.S., N.Y. 
Univ., 1922. 

BEAN, Howard Stewart, mech, engr, Measurement 
of Fluids. Home: 18 Prospect St,, Kensington, Md.; 
offlce: Nat. Bur, of Standards, Washington, D.C. 
Chief gas measuring Instruments sect., Nat. Bur. of 
Standards, since 1920. Author and oo-author rarious 
papers for tech. and sd. jours. Mem. Am. Soc. 
M.E. (mem. fluid meters com. since 1930; edited 
4th edit, of part 1 of com. 's report; chmn. subcom. 
on flow nozzle research covering all types of fluids 
since 1937; mem. subcom. on volumeter research in 
liquids since 1938), Am. Gas Assn. (dlrected test 
work of gas measurement com., natural gas sect., 
1927-31) (mem. Am. Gas .\ssn.-Am. Soc. M.E. ori- 
flce meter com. coverlng all fluids, 1931-35), Sigma 
XI. B. Oct. 23. 1893. Santa Clara County, Calif.; 
B.S. in Meoh. Engring., U. of Caüf.. 1917. 

BECK, William A., biologist. Plant Physiology. 

Address: Univ. of Dayton, Dayton. 0. Teaching, lab. 
direction and research, Univ. of Dayton since 1912; 
lias made suney of flora of Switzerland, France, 
Italy, Germany and eastem U.S.; specialized in 
Solution of Problems of plant physiology; ascent of 
sap in plants, plant Cancer, osmotic quantitle«, 
suctiontension, production of solutes and pigments 
in plants and effect of environmental factors, Contbr, 
to bot. jours. Holds patent on illuminating device 
for microscope, used for microscoplc examlnation of 
opaque materials, invented 1923. FeHow A.A.A.S.; 
mem. Am. Plant Physiologists, Am. Micros, Soc.. 
Soc. of Mary; stafT Mem, Institution Divi Thomae 
sitice 1935. B. Dec. 17, 188,3, Pittsburgh, Pa.; B,Sc., 
Univ. of Dayton (1908); M.Sc. Univ. Fribourg 
(Switzerland), 1912. Ph.D. (1926). 

BENDER, Uuretta, psychiatrist. Child Psychia- 
try. Home: 325 E. 41st St.; offlce: Bellevue Hosp., 
New York, N.Y. Psychiatrist since 1926; traveüng 
fellow, Rockef eller Foundation, Holland, 1926-27; 
neurological resident, U. of Chicago Clinics, 1927-28; 
mem. staff, Boston Psychopathie Hosp., 1928-29; 
mem. staff, Phipps Clinic, Johns Hopkins Hosp., 
1929; BeUevue Hosp. since 1930; asso. prof. psychia- 
try, N.Y. (City) U., Med, Seh., since 1941. Fre- 
quent contbr. to med. and psychol. jours. Mem. 
A.M.A,, Am. Psychiat. Assn., Am. Neurol. Assn., 
Sigma Xi. Also indexed under Orthopsychiatry. B. 
Aug. 9, 1897, Butte, Mont.; Student Leland Stan- 
ford U. 1916-18; B.S,, M,A., U. of Chicago (1918- 
23); M,D„ State U, of la. (Med. Seh., 1923-26). 

BRUCH, Hilde, physician. Pediatrics; Child Psy- 
chiatry. New York, N.Y,; and Baltimore, Mary- 
land. Engaged in practice of medicine since 1929; 
pediatrician, Bables Hosp., N.Y. City, since 1934; 
instr. pediatrics, CoH. of Physicians and Surgeons, 
Columbia U.; instr. Child Psychiatry, Johns Hop- 
kins Hosp., Baltimore. Frequent contbr. to med. 
jours. Specialized in endocrine disorders; dls- 
turbances of growth and development; childhood & 
adolesoent obesity; abnormal puberty. Also in- 
dexed under Behavlor Aspects (made study of physiol. 
and psychol. aspects of developmcntal disturbances, 
including growth retardation and acceleration, hypo- 
and hyperthyroldlsm and other endocrine disturb- 
ances). B. Mar. 11, 1904, Dulken, Germany; M.D., 
U. of Freiburg (Germany), and Student U. of 
Munich. U. of Cologne and U. of Wursburg (1923- 
29). 

FINKELSTEIN, J. Joe, anthropologist. Ethn^ 
history. Home: 10 Maplehurst Park, Apt. #1; 
Office: Div. Anthropology, U. of Tenn., Knoxvüle, 
Tenn. Supervisor archaeol. excavations. Wagoner, 
Wagoner County (Okla.), U. of Okla., 1934-36. 
Spiro. LeFlore County, 1936-37, Grove. Delaware 
County. 1937; ethno-historian. div, anthropology, U. 
of Tenn. since 1938; asst. Supervisor archaeol.. ex- 
cavation Kincaid site, Pope County (111.), U. of 
111., suramer 1938. 0)ntbr. to encys., American 



,•• 



Page 112 — Who Knows 

Antiquity. 1937; Oklahoma Prehistorian, 1940. Mem. 
Am. Amhropol. Assn., Soc. Am. Archaeology, Okla. 
Archaeol. itoc. (hon.); chmn., 4th Soutbeaslern 
Archaeol. Conf., 1939; fellow Lab. of Amhropology, 
Santa Fe, (N.M.), 1933; fellow Dept. Arrthropology, 
U. of Chicago, 1938. Also indexed unckr Archaeol- 
Hy. B. S^pt. 9, 1910, Oklahoma City, Okla.; B.A., 
U. of Okla. (1928-32); Student U. of Okla., 1932-33; 
Student U. of Chicago, 1937-38. 

FULMER, Silas Crumc, physician. Inttrml Med- 
icine. Home: 2018 Wolfe St.. offlce: 701 iMain St., 
Little Rock, Ark. Prof. uiedicine U. of Ark. Seh. 
of iMedicine since 193«, asst. dean since 1941. Mem. 
Am. Heart Assn., Am. Bd. Internal Medicine (diplo- 
mate). B. Jan. 26, 1891, Harmontown, Miss.; B.A., 
Hendri.\ Coli. (1911-15); B.S. in Medicine, U. of 
Ark. Seh. of Medicine, 1920; M.D., Tulane U. (Med. 
Seh. 1920-22). 

60RD0N, Paul H., manufacturer and author. 
Archery. Home: (J3 E. Main St.; office: 15 Tioronda 
. Av., B4?acon, N.Y. Archery couriselor (and scout- 
craft dir.), Camp Raiiachqua, 1923-24; professional 
maker archery equipment since 1925; dir. Beacon 
Hill Craftsmen (makers archery equipment) since 
1933; dir. outdoor crafts, Maple Lake Camp, siim- 
mer 1933; adviser on archery, Advisory Bd., Hobby 
Guild of America, since 1941; merit badge examiner 
archery, Dutchess County Council, B.S.A.; special 
inst, to staff, Ten Mile River Scout Camps, 1940-41. 
Co-author: .Making Bows ajxl Arrows, 1926; The 
Archery Workshop, 1929; author: The New Archery 
—Hobby. Sport, Craft, 1939. Eagle Scout. Mem. 
Nat. Archer>' Assn., .Nat. Field Archery Assn. Also 
indexed under Indian Lore. B. June 15, 1902. New- 
port .News, Va.; B.A., Columbia U., (1921-25). 

HACKNEY, Louise Wallace, Orientalist. Chinese 
Painting. .\ddress: 10 Park Av., New York. N.Y. 
Has lectured at Columbia U., U. of Chicago, Balti- 
more (.Md.) Art .Museum, Detroit (Mich.) Art Inst., 
Internat. Congress of Orientalists. Oxford (Eng.) U., 
etc.; was engaged in research work in Europe and 
Asia. 1928-.S8. Author: Guideposts to Chinese 
Painting, 1927; A Study of Chinese Paintings in the 
Collection of Ada Small Moore, 1941. Mem. Am. 
üriental Soc., Royal Asiatic Soc. of Great Britain 
and Ireland. P.E.N. Club, Poetry Soc. of America, 
Soc. Women (ieographers, Cosmopolitan Chib of N.Y. 
City. B. Chicago, 111.; student Columbia U. {Ch\- 
nese (lept., 1924. 1926); did sn)\. work in China 

HALPERT, Edith Gregor (Mrs.), art dir. Am. 
Folk Art. .\d<lress: 43 E. ölst St., New York, N.Y. 
Dir.. Downtown Gallery. .specializing in coivtemporary 
Am. art, N.Y. City, since 1926; dir. Am. Folk Art 
Gallery, specializing in Am. art of 1720-1860 by 
little known and anonymous painters and sculptors, 
since 1929. .Author various art catalogs. Organized 
Contemporary Am. .\rt Exhbn., Municipal .Art Gal- 
lery, Atlar>tic City, N.J., 1929; Ist Municipal Art 
Exhbn., Radio City, 1934. B. Apr. 25. 1899, Odessa. 
Ukraine; student Columbia U., .Nat. Aead. and 
Art Students I^ague. 

HARRISON, Harold C, chemist, spectroscopist, 
Spectroscopy (applied to Ceramics and Mining). 

Address: 102 Woodlark Bldg., Portland, Ore, Asst. 
prof. chemistr>', N.Y. State Coli, of Ceramics, 1936- 
41; Chief chemist and spectroscopist, research worker 
on spectroscopy as applied to ceramics and mining, 
Ore. State Dept. Geology and Mineral Industries, 
smce 1941; Consultant, cos. mfg. abrasives, white- 



Series III, No. 5 



wares, refractories, glass, heavy clay producta, ce- 
ments, vitreous enamels and pottery; consul-tant on 
application of spectroscopy to criminology and for- 
ensic investigations. Mem. Am. (^em. Soc, Am. 
Assn. U. of Profs. B. Feb. 10, 1907, Rutland, Vt.; 
BS., Washington and Lee U. (1927-31); Ph.D. 
Cornell U. (Grad. Seh., 1931-36). 

HAWLEY, Lee Fred, chemist. (1) Wood Chem- 
istry; (2) Wood Oistillation. Home: 237 Langdon 
St.; offlce: Forest Products Lab., Madison, Wis. 
Research in wood distillation, U.S. Forest Service, 
1907-13, research in wood chemistry. Forest Prod- 
ucts Lab., 1916-19, Supervisor, 1920-29, gen. super- 
vision research in wood utilization «nee 1930; 
researcii in wood distillation, Arthur D. Little, Inc. 
1914-15. Author: Wood Distillation, 1923; also 
govt. bulls. and numerous articles in chem. jours. ; 
co-autlior: Wood Cliemistry, 1926. Holds U.S. 
Patents on refining wood alcohol, increasing yield 
of wood distillation products, artificially dense 
ciiarcoal for gas masks, medicinal ("beechwood") 
creosote from hardwooil tar. Mem. Am. Chem. 
Soc, Am. Foresters. B. Feb. 12, 1882, Steam- 
burg, N.Y.; B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Cornell U. (1899- 
1903: Grad. Seh., 1903-07). 

HINER, Lovell David, pharmacognocist, pharma- 
cologist. Crude Plant Drugs. Home: 2666 Kerrt 
Road; office: Coli, of Pharmacy, 0. State Univ., 
ColumbiK, 0. Grad. asst. pliarmacognosy, U. of 
Fla., 1929, instr. pliarmacognosy am! pharmacology 
and dir. medicinal plant garden, 1931-33; instr. 
pharmacognosy and dir. medicinal plant garden, 
S.D. State Coli. 1933-35, asst. prof. pharma- 
cognosy and pharmacology, 1935-37, prof. and head 
of dept., 1937-39; prof. pharmacognosy, 0. State 
Univ. since 1940; especially interested in cultivation 
of medicinal plants; dir. 0. State Medicinal Plant 
Garden now in process of dt^elopment, dir. of 
grad. research in pharmacognosy. Contbr. articles 
and monographs to jours. of pharmacy. Invented 
Iliner Heart Chamber for demonstrating action of 
cardiac drugs. .Mem. Central Ohio .\cad. of Phar- 
macy, .Am. Pharm. Assn., Sigma Xi. Awarded 
honorarium for research compk'ted on "Ephedra 
sinica Cultivation", 19;t5. B. May 6, 1905. Platte, 
S.D.; B.S., Ph.C, S.D. State Coli. (1924-29); 
M.S., Ph.D., U. of Fla. (Coli, of Pharmacy, 1929- 
31, 1938). 

HOLLANDER. Lcster, physician. (1) Dermatol- 
ogy; (2) Syphilology. Home: 5622 Bartlett St.. of- 
fice: 631 Jenkins Bldg., Pittsburgh, Pa. Asst. der- 
matologist to Dr. John G. Biu-ke, 1916-19; staff 
dermatolngist, Passavant Hosp., 1919-23; Chief 
dermalologist, City Hosp. of Pittsburgh, since 1923; 
med. dir. Pittsburgh Skin and Cancer Foundation, 
since 1923; Chief dermatologist, Montefiore Hosp., 
sir)ce 1928, Leech Farm Tuberculosis Sanitarium, 
since 1930, Crippled Children's Home, since 1930, 
Pittsburgh House for Babies, since 1938. Contbr. 
numerous articles to tech. and sei. jours. Diplomate 
Am. Bd. Dermatologists and Syphilogists; mem. 
A..M.A.. Pa. State and Allegheny (>)unty Med. Socs., 
Am. Coli. Physicians, Am. Radiol. Soc, Am. .Acad. 
Dermatology ami Syphilology, Central States 
Dermatol. Soc, Pittsburgh Dermatol. Soc B. Nov. 
S, 1890. Plavnitza. Hutjgary; M.D., U. of Pitts- 
burgh (.Med. Seh. 1908-12). 

HOWARD, Charles Gerard, lawyer. Business Uw. 

Home: 2243 Potter St.; office: Seh. of Law, U. of 



Ore., Eugene, Ore. Praetitioner comm. law, 1922-28; 
asst. prof. business law and comm. subjects, U. of 
111., 1924-28; prof. law, U. of Ore., since 1928. 
Author: Oregon Annotations of the Restatement of 
the Law of Contraets, 1934. Editor-in-ehief: Ore. 
Law Review; co-author: Prineiples of Business Law, 
1928, rev. edit., 1935, 40. Admitted to 111. bar, 
1922. Order of the CoW, 1922. B. Mar. 13, 1892, 
Oakwood, 111.; B.A., J.D., U. of 111. (1914-17. 
1919-20; Seh. of Uw, 1919-22). 

KINGMAN, Eugene, artist. Pre-bistory (portroyal 
of). Home: 2727 S. Rockford Rd.; offlce: Philbrook 
Art .Museum, Tulsa, Okla. Seven paintings for Nat. 
Park Senice Exhibit in Paris «xpoaition, 1931; 
painting of aerial vitw, Medicine Bow Range, Colo., 
during Plelstocene period, 1934; seven paintings, 
the Geol. Story of Yosemite Valley, 1935; six 
paintings, geol. story of Oaler Lake, Ore., 1935; 
block diagrams of type topography, 1937; four 
mural paintings of Geology of Glaeier Nat. Park, 
for museum, 1938; mural decorations depicting 
prehistoric Wyo. in P.O. at Kemmerer, Wyo., 1938; 
three dioramas and paintings depicting stages in 
development of plains country, its geology and 
archeology, in preparation. Coiithr. to tech. jours. 
Mem. Nat. Soc. of Mural Painters, Okla. Hiat. 
vSoc, Okla. Archeol. .Soc. B. Nov. 10, 1909. Provi- 
dence, R.I.; A.B., B.F..\., Yale U. (1928-32, Scto. 
of Fine Arts, 1933-35). 

McPHARLIN, Paul, publisher. Puppctry. .\d- 
dre«s: 155 Wimbleton Dr., Birmingham, Mich. 
Columbia Coli. Marionette- Players, 1922; founded 
Marionette fellowship, Evanston, 111., 1928; instr. 
in puppetry, Wayne U., Detroit, since 1932; pro- 
duced Fielding's Tragedy of Tragedies, Sliakespeare's 
Taming of the Shrew, etc., with puppets; organiisef 
.Nat. puppet r>' exhibit ion, Chicago Fair, 1933; or- 
ganized flrst Am. Puppetry Festival and Conf., De- 
troit, 1936; co-foun<ler Puppeteers of Am., 1937; 
toured sixty European puppet t^eatres in 1938; 
colleeted 2,000 puppet books and many old puppets. 
Author: A R<T)ertory of .Marionette Plays, 1929; 
Puppet Heads, Haiuls, and Feet and Their .Making, 
1932; Animal .MarioiH'ttes. 1935; Puppets in 
America, 1739 to Today, 1936; e<litof of Puppetr>', 
19;jn-41; publisher: The Puppetry Imprints. Mem. 
Puppeteers of America (flrst hon. pres.). Experi- 
mentation and Performances with string puppets, 
rod puppets, liami pi»ppets, harMl-and-rcHl puppets, 
aiMl shadow figures; design and construction, manipu- 
lation, and direetion of puppet plays. B. Dee. 22, 
1903, Detroit, .Mich.; A.B., Columbia Coli. (1921- 
24); .M.A.. Wayne U., (19.37.18); Ph.D., U. of 
.Mich. (Inst, of Fine Arts, 1938-40). 

STILLIANS, Arthur William, physician. (1) 
Dermatology; (2) Syphilology. Home: 1373 Hudson 
Av.; Office: 104 S. .Michigan Av., Chicago. 111. Prof. 
dermatology aixi sypliilology, Northwestern U. of 
.Med. Seh., 1919-40. now prof. emeritus; lias done 
research work on treatment of syphilis. Author: In- 
troduction to Dermatology and Syphilology, 1936. 
.Mem. Am. Dermatol. A.ssn.. Soc for Investigative 
Dermatology, Chicago Med. Soc, Chicago Dermatol. 
Soc, Chicago Inst. .Medicine. Also Imlexed under 
Argyria (has done research work; discovered success- 
ful treatment in collaboration with T.K. Lawless.). 
B. Dec 24. 1871, Chicago, 111.; M.D.. U. of 111., 
1899; post-grad. work in Vienna, 1910. Freiburg, and 
Heidelberg, 1914. 





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THE SPliCTATOR, htbrMary ir, 1944. 
99 GOWl-R SrKbEl\ W.C.i. 

Subscription 30s. a year 
to any pari of the world. 



(^fU ^V^Uy fth^ÖC U.'Ti^ «t ^Ißlr-^^ 

THE NETTUNO MYSTERY 



SPECTATOR 



No. 6033 [e„stL%»] FRIDAY, FEBRUARY ii, 1944 



fRegistered asl 
a NewspapcrJ 



Price 6 d 



CONTENTS 



• •• 



• • • 



LEADING ARTICLE : The Machinery of Democracy. .. 

A SPECTATOR'S NOTEBOOK (Janus) 

MIDDLES : 

The Nettuno Mystery (Strategicüs) 
Canada and the World (Basil Wright) ... 
Stalingrad Symbols (E. Taborsky) 
Coventry Progress (J. R. Glorney Bolton) 
Is English Doomed? (C S. Lewis) ... 

MARGINAL COMMENT (Harold Nicolson) 



••• 



•• • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • • 



• • t 



115 

116 

117 
118 

119 

120 

121 

122 



THEATRE, CINEMA, GRAMOPHONE NOTES ... 

LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 

From Professor D. W. Brogan, Norman Sheldon, Rose 
Macaulay, &c. 

COUNTRY LIFE (Sir William Beach Thomas) 

BOOKS OF THE DAY 

Reviews by Kenneth Lindsay, M.P., C. Henry Warren, 
Captain S. H. F. Johnston, Sir Henry Bashford, John 
Hampson, &c. 



123 
124 



126 
128 



NEWS OF THE WEEK 



SPECULATIONS regarding the precise significance of the con- 
stitutional changes in Russia announced last week are to some 
cxtent satisfied by examination of the füll text of M. Molotov*s 
address, which makes it clear that the projected decentralisation is to 
be of a limited character. Ii would probably be correct, indeed, to say 
that whenever Moscow thinks centralised action desirable, either 
in the military or the diplomatic sphere, centralised action will be 
taken. Meanwhile the first application of the new enactment is a 
development of considerable interest. The Ukrainian Socialist Soviet 
Republic, in which considerable Polish lerritories were incorporated 
ii^ 1939, has appointcd as iis Commissar for Foreign Aflfairs M. 
Alexander Korneichuk, the dramatist, who has resigned his position 
as Vice-Commissar for Foreign Affairs at Moscow to take up his 
new post. M. Korneichuk is an ardent Ukrainian Nationalist who has 
in the past assumed a markedly antagonistic attitude towards Poland. 
His wife is Wanda Wasilewska, who has organised at Moscow the 
Union of Polish Patriots, which the Russians appear to regard as a 
possible alternative Polish Government to the administration of 
M. Mikolaiczyk in London. What M. Korneichuk's appointment 
portends, if it portends anything at all, will no doubt be revealed 
as events unfold themselves. Meanwhile, the Moscow paper. War 
and the Working Classes, ridicules the idea that the constitutional 
changes point in any way to the inclusion of other countries in the 
Soviet Union. If the Journal had said any part of other countries 
it would have been more reassuring. s • - 

Britarn and the French Committee 

The Chancellor of the Exchequer announced on Tuesday that 
two agreements had been signed between the French Committee of 
National Liberation and the British Government, one fixing the rate 
of exchange with Sterling for all countries controlled by the Com- 
mittee, the other providing that each party shall supply the other 
with all possible military assistance free of cost. Sir John Anderson 
spoke of these agreements as a happy augury for our future financial 
and economic relations with France. They are that and more. Such 
negotiations with the French Committee presuppose that it is 
qualified to undertake certain responsibilities in the name of France, 
and that it is entitled to sign an agreement which confers obligations 
on US in relation to France. No more could have been doile between 
the two parties if the Committee had been a fully recognised 
provisional Government. This demonstration of confidence at this 
moment was desirable for more reasons than one. The Committee 
has gained prestige in North Africa not only by its executive conduct 



of affairs but by the regard it has shown to the deliberations of the 
Consultative Assembly, and by its readiness to respond to criticism. 
Anything that could prudently be done to enhance its prestige in 
externa! relations was worth doing. In addition the Committee is 
in control of increasingiy powerful armed forces which will scon be 
called upon to take their part in the liberation of France, and it is 
peculiarly fitting that at such a moment its authority should have 
füll Support. There cannot, tili a large portion of France has been 
freed from the enemy, be a fully established French Government ; 
but at the present stage there is no authority so well qualified 
to act in its place as the French Committee of National Liberation. 

Ambiguous Turkey 

Recent news from Turkey is not satisfactory. That country's 
attitude as an ally has always provoked a little perplexity, for Turkey 
has been receiving large deliveries both of war-material and of 
ordinary consumers' goods from both Great Britain and the United 
States and has been granted by the latter the benefits of Lend-Lease. 
She insists on the importance she attaches to regarding herseif as 
an ally of Great Britain but gives rather too frequent indications of 
a desire to make the best of both worlds. So far Turkey, with the 
füll agreement of the Allies, has maintained an attitude of strict 
non-belligerency. She has a treaty of friendship with Germany, and 
the German legation at Ankara, under the unwearying von Papen, 
is the scene of ceaseless, if not highly productive, diplomatic activity. 
Through the good offices of Britain and America cordial relations 
between Turkey and the Soviet Union have been re-estabhshed, 
and while there is no thought of urging Turkey to take any step 
that would seriously jeopardise her own security it has always been 
assumed that she would so interpret hei alliance as at least to grant 
the United Nations, when the opportune moment came, certain 
facilities on and around her soil. That would involve her in little 
risk today, with the German armies in South Russia in füll retreat 
and the whole German position in the Balkans threatened. Turkey 
can hardly interpret her treaty contract with Great Britain as 
meaning that she should act only when she can act without any 
modicum of risk at all. It was announced on Wednesday both 
that a British military mission which has been in Turkey for some 
time has left Turkey and that Herr Pritsche, Goebbels' second in 
command, has arrived there. There may be no connexion between 
the two events ; there probably is none. But a rather clearer 
definition of Turkey's conception of her position secms to be 
called for. • " 



>'• 



f» 



114 



i^'t ^ :>cv 






Latin American Frlendship 

The elevation of the British Legations at Mexico City and Lima 
to the rank of Embassies, with ihe prospect of similar action being 
taken in one or two other Latin American capitals, is a sign of the 
recognition being rightly accorded, with a view not only to the 
purposes of war but to the longer and more beneficent purposes of 
peace, to that great and still developing continent. Few of the South 
or Central American Republics have hesitated about their choice 
between the Allies and the Axis Powers. Bolivia is still maintaining 
an equivocal attitude, and neither this country nor the United 
States has seen fit to recognise the new government recently 
established by a coup d'etat at La Paz. In Argentina on the 
other hand the Situation is improving. Thanks largely to evidence 
provided by British agents President Ramirez' government appears to 
realise fully at last how active and extensive is the system of 
espionage which both Germany and Japan, with no doubt a little 
dubious assistance from Italy, have created in Buenos Aires and 
other Argentine cities. With the realisation has come resolve. The 
Argentine Republic has broken relations not only with Germany 
but with all her satelHtes, including Vichy, and on Wednesday it 
was announced that a German general and a Japanese admiral, 
attaches at their respective countries' embassies, had been placed 
under open arrest. These Steps are decisive. Argentina has made 
her choice, and it is a choice as wise from her own point of view 
as it is satisfaxrtory from the Allies'. Bolivia is now the only South 
American Republic from which the Allied Powers need withhold 
co-operation, and it will not be surprising if there too a retreat 
from isolation is sought and achieved. 

American Oil in the Middle East 

The decision of the United States Government, announced by 
the Secretary of the Inierioi, Mr. Harold Ickes, to construct an oil 
pipe-line from the Persian Gulf refineries to the Mediterranean, is 
a new departure of considerable significance. It marks the conclusion 
of long negotiations with the American oil companies owning interests 
in the Persian Gulf and involves a contract for a limited parmership 
between the Government and the companies, the former constructing 
the pipe-line, the latter keeping in their hands the business of 
producing or refining. The decision should be judged in the light 
both of present and permanent world needs of oil. The quantity 
of oil in the world is limited and diminishing, and as a fuel it is a 
necessity for both military and industrial purposes. The British 
Government already owns a Controlling interest in the Anglo-Iranian 
Oil Company. There has been much concern in America about 
the heavy calls on American oil during the war period, and also 
close consideration of new naval and military needs of the United 
States in distant parts of the world. Mr. Ickes also speaks of future 
naval and military needs " in view of the obligations which this 
country [the U.S.A.] must assume for the maintenance of collective 
security." The new departure, therefore, should be regarded less as 
a new enterprise by which the American Government enters business 
in the Aliddle East, than as a means of Controlling the use of oil 
for the purposes of American policy. Under the agreement petroleum 
will not be sold to Govemments or individuals where such sales 
would be deemed unwise by the State Department in the light of 
United States foreign policy. It is a measure which indicates the 
Government's sense of the necessity not only of increasing its share 
of control of the world's oil, but also of increasing the means by 
which its infiuence abroad can be exercised. 



Mr, Butler 's Bill 

The opening of the Committee stage of the Education Bill in the 
House of Commons, on Tuesday, revealed the interest which the 
House generally takes in this vitally important subject. At the same 
time, unless eloquence is a little curbed either the time allotted to 
the Committee stage will have to be extended or some of the principal 
provisions of the Bill will go undebated. On Tuesday Mr. Butler 
successfully allayed anxiety lest there should be too much centralised 



THE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY II, I944 



control of local education authorities, and then so far bowed to a 
predominant desire that he and his successors should bear the 
title Minister of Education, not President of the Board of Educa- 
tion, as to withdraw the clause in question for further consideration. 
With the semi-mythical Board now finally abolished the retention 
of an obsolete title can hardly be defended. In discussion on the 
Advisory Councils by which the Board (as for the moment it must 
still be called) is to be assisted the appeal that they should be widely 
representative, with special regard to the interests of technical educa- 
tion, was met sympathetically by Mr. Butler, who made it clear that 
there was no question of confining membership of the Councils to 
persons with some professional connexion with education. The dis- 
cussion on rural schools on Wednesday elicited a number of speeches 
from Members with special knowledge of village schools, and a lively 
consciousness of the deficiencies of many of them. Mr. Butler 
made it clear that he was as conscious of the Situation as anyone, and 
mentioned that hfe hoped to work out with the Minister of Agri- 
culture a plan for developinjj rural education on practical lines. Many 
of the village schools are of the " non-provided " class, and a large 
Proportion of them will no doubt be handed over to the local educa- 
tion authority owing to the inability of their trustees to finance the 
necessary reconditioning and reconstruction. The dual system un- 
questionably handicaps rural education. 

Short-term Housing 

The Minister of Works, Lord Portal, made a reassuring Statement 
on Tuesday about that side of the housing problem with which his 
department is concerned. Its most striking feature was the declara- 
tion of the Government's intention to erect immediately after the 
war large numbers of " pre-fabricated " houses which would be 
publicly Qwned and have an estimated life-time of ten years. Only 
sc can the clamant need for housing be met while the long term Pro- 
gramme, which has to providc some four million houses, is being 
carried out. To build ten-year houses and then scrap them is 
obviously wasteful, but it is as obviously the most effcctivc way of 
meeting an urgent and insistent need. Lord Portal is to be con- 
gratulated on his foresight and decision, but local authorities are 
still left complctely in the dark about major issucs of Govern- 
ment policy, regarding the powers that are to be enuusted 
to them, the financial help that will be given, the location of popula- 
tion to be housed and many other matters which must be settlcd 
before they can complete their plans. 

Back to Employment 

Though the second reading of the Reinstatement in Civil Em- 
ployment Bill was carried in the House of Commons without a 
division, the measure evoked no conspicuous enthusiasm. That is 
natural enough, for while much of the Bill is just and right, it is 
almost impossible to draft it in such a way as to obviate constant con- 
troversy. A succession of employees may have held a particular 
post as one after another was called up for service. Yet it is 
clear that only one of them can be reinstated (for a minimum of 
26 weeks) in that particular post after the war. That difficulty is 
to be solved under the Bill by giving the post to the senior reiuming 
service-man who applies to it. The others must be found more 
or less similar work, so far as that is " reasonable and practicable," 
and it was admitted by the Parlianientary Secretary of the Ministry 
of Labour that over the Interpretation of those words almost endless 
dispute might arise ; to meet this difficulty, reinstatement committees 
are to be appointed, with an appeal from them in certain circum- 
stances to some tribunal not specified. It is too much to hope that 
their findings will give general satisfaction. The fault, if the Bill 
works only indifferently well, is not the Government's ; the circum- 
stanccs are such that no more than partial success is possible. But 
it is essential that the men in the Forces should be given whatever 
assurance is possible about their future employment, and the Bill • 
goes a considerable way in that direction. In one respect it remedies 
a manifest injustice. The 1939 Act on similar lines dealt only with 
conscribed men; this covcrs the case of voluntecrs. 




THE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY II, I944 

THE MACHINERY OF DEMOCRACY 



115 



THE Brighton by-election is to be foUowed by contests in West 
Derbyshire and at Bury St. Edmunds ; but the political 
restiveness which comes to light in these skirmishes has not deeply 
touched the life of the House of Commons. There, at least, ever 
since Mr. Churchill became Prime Minister, the political truce has 
governed the Situation. It is well that it has been so, for it has 
enabled Parliament to stand 100 per cent. behind the Government 
^ in the prosecution of the war, a Statement which is not stultified by 
the fact that from time to time members, actuated by the desire for 
greater efficiency, have severely criticised the Government's 
conduct in this or that particular. The more serious differences 
that have latterly arisen do not concern the prosecution of the 
war or the domestic measures which it demands, but matters 
relating to the future, such as social security, planning, post-war 
reconstruction in general. In this sphere, to which belongi 
preparation for the first years of peace, it is natural that Labour 
Members, Liberais and Lcft-wing Conservatives should some- 
times feel aggrieved at the conditions of the political truce, which, 
in ruling out all change that is controversial, goes wholly in favour 
of the vast Conservative majority. They feel cömpelled in some 
degree to sacrifice the future and let their cause go by default 
because of the more imperative need to preserve unity in face 
of the enemy. 

That imperative need is still the overriding consideration, and 
never more so than at this moment when, as Mr. Churchill said 
in his much-criticised message to Brighton, we " stand on the 
threshold of world events." In this crucial period k k especially 
necessary that all criticisms of the Government which might 
be likely to weaken it should be in minor key. None the less 
this attitude must not be strained beyond the realitics of the 
Situation, and we cannot be blind to the fact that there are many 
politicians who whole-heartedly support the war effort as conducted 
by the Prime Minister but are as whole-hcartedly dissatisfied with 
the planning of the domestic future of this country in accordance 
with the heart's desire of the Conservative majority in Parliament. 
It is because of this dissatisfaction that candidates, honestly intend- 
ing to Support the war policy of Mr. Churchill, stand in 
constituencies to oppose the nominees of the Conservative Party, 
and that large numbers of electors give them their votes. 

There may be no coir^lete remedy for this embarrassing 
Situation during the life of the present Parhament, but two steps 
might and ought to be taken which would go far to mitigate it. 
In the first place, an assurance should be given in unequivocal 
terms that the General Election, when it comes, will not bc a 
Coupon election — that Conservatives, Liberais and Labour men 
in the constituencies, and the local party organisations, will be 
free to work for the return of candidates of their own choice 
to the House of Commons. That is one thing. The second is 
that the Speaker's Conference on Electoral Reform should result 
in a real reform of the machinery of representative government, 
such that we may be sure of having a House of Commons whose 
majority is really chosen by a majority of the people, and one 
in which minorities get adequate representation. The present 
House of Commons is in the ninth year of its existence. It was 
elected in a time of apparently profound peace when as yet Mr. 
Baldwin,then Prime Minister, did not feel the necessity of informing 
the country that Garmany was far advanccd in re-armatpent. Mr. 
Baldwin won at that time what was regarded as a grcat victory 
at the polls, and indeed it was a great victory in the House of 
Commons, for his majority was no less than 247 for his sup- 
porters over all other parties. But in fact his majority, if it had 



been reckoned in terms of votes given in the country as a whole, 
would have been, not 247, but only 41. He secured 190 more 
seats than he would have had if every vote had carried the same 
weight. If the present House of Commons did not adequately 
represent the country then, how much less so today. 

It falls to the Speaker's Conference, then, to prepare the way 
for carrying out an essential part of our professed war aims, 
that is, for creating an electoral machinery without which demo- 
cracy must be incomplete. In the debate last week on electoral 
reform there wcre a good many members, Labour as well as Con- 
servatives, who professed themselves as quite satisfied with the 
rough justice of our present methods. The former especially are 
advised to look back on the results achieved by our present 
System of voting from 191 8 to 1935. They would do well to 
study some figures adduced by Mr. R. W. G. Mackay in a little 
book entitled Coupon or Free ?^ From these they will learn that 
in 19 18 the Coalition had a majority of 347 among contested seats, 
but would only have had 75 if all votes had counted equally. The 
results in 1922 were more striking still. The Conservatives werc 
returned to power. But if the contested seats had been distributed 
in accordance with the total number of votes recorded, the Labour 
and Liberal Parties together would have had a majority of 118. 
Again in 1924, instead of a Conservative majority of 206 among 
contested seats, there would have been a Labour-Liberal majority 
of 36. In the four elections, then, from 1922 to 1929, which put 
the Conservatives into power for more than eight years, the wkole 
balance of power would have been altered if the votes had been 
equitably distributed, and in 1922 the decision of the majority was 
actually reversed. There is no rough justice here. The method 
of holding elections and distributing seats was such as to defeat the 
desires of a majority of the electorate. That is not representative 
government. 

This is a question which the Speaker's Conference must tackte 
seriously. The theoretically perfect Solution is that of Propor- 
tional Representation. The second best is that of the Alternative 
Vote. On this question some very extraordinary doctrines were 
enunciated in the House last week in quarters from which we 
should not have expected them. The most remarkable of these 
came from none other than Mr. Greenwood. His desire that 
there should be only two parties in politics is easily intelligible, but 
his Statement that those outside " should make up their minds 
under which umbrella they were going to shelter " — in other 
words that the electoral machinery should provide for the extinc- 
tion of the Liberal Party — is unadulterated Nazism. It is only 
necessary to go one step further in a reductio ad absurdum and \ 
obliterate, in Hitler's manner, all parties but one. Hitler justified 
his procedure exactly as Mr. Greenwood does — that he was making 
his " political system as effective as possible." 

Another doctrine opposed to all the principles of democracy 
that have been traditionally held in this country was enunciated 
by another member of the Labour Party, Mr. Woodburn, who 
said that the purpose of a general election was not to elect people 
to give voice to minority opinion in the House of Commons but 
to decide what Government was going to conduct the afFairs 
of this country. That is directly opposed to his own Statement 
that " if the majority is simply to club the minority, that is not 
democracy." Both his speech and Mr. Greenwood's should 
be remembered as urging that the machinery they favour should 
be used to club minorities. In fact we have seen that in the last 
twenty-five years the present machinery does not even empower 
a majorit y t o decide w hat Government shall come into cffice ; 

* Allen & Ünwin. 5s. 



U 11 

II 



" "TWE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY II 

on one occasion a Government of opposite complexion to that of the 



• i^i *^ *'v*"»-'*vAiv»ii ivi uiüi ui uie 

conceptions of democracy. ^ 

These are questions lo which it must be hoped the Speaker's 
Conference will give its consideration in a spirit as far as "ossible 
of detachment from party interests. There are undoubtedly 
some drawbacks to Proportional Representation. It requires 
large constituencies, and makes the personal relationship between 
members and those whom they represent less intimate. But the 



1944 

growth in the size of constituencies has already gonc far to 
weaken this intimate relationship. It is also likely to produce 
smaller majorities for the ruling party, and the Government 
of the day willl have less assurance of strong party support in 
the House. These are matters to be considered and weighed. But 
it will be a grave reproach to our System if we cannot devise a 
machinery which will make impossible the Situation that arose in 
1922, or which depHves large minorities of any adequate 
representation in the House of Commons. 






IN repnnting a letter cabled to The Times from Moscow by the 
Army The Da,ly Worker describes the document as " remarkable » 

Ba ,c Repubhcs with Soviet Russia in 1940, and declares that the 

felec^e/'^^ t" k"^ ' u"'" '.^'"*^^" " '^* ^''^ "»ey have freely 
.sejected. I have betn refreshing my memory regarding this 

reedom of selection, by reference to that objective record of con- 
ternporary h.story, The Annml Register, checked by other similar 
publjcations. In 1939 Russia demanded from each of the three 
republ CS, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, naval and other bases, and 
got them. In May each republic was required by Moscow to set 
es^.hlfr"'"'^""' more favourable to Moscow. All three complied, 
csiablishing Sociahst administrations, which at once legalised the 
Coaimun>st parties and created workers' soviets and collective farms. 
In July a general election was held in eacA State. Only candidates 
of one party, thc newly-formed Working Pecple's Union, were put 
forward ; votmg was compulsory and it was not secret. every 
electors vote being stamped on his passport. In such circum- 
stances the Working People's Union secured over 90 per cent ofX 
possible votes. The new Parliaments, thus elected, voted at their 
first meetings a week later for incorporation in the Soviet Union I 

Trhlnlf ''a'"! t"^'". P^«*^"'-«- R"ssia had her own security 
to think of. And I takc it for granted that the Baltic States will 
contmue to be incorporated in the Soviet Union. But inaccurate 
h.story IS a treacherous basis for arguments and conclusions, so it 
» as well to recall the facts about the declaration of the Baltic 
States for the Soviet Union. 

* * * * 
TThe controversy between Mr. H. G. Wells and Professor Brogan 
in the Sunday Express has cenain points of interest. Mr Wells 
apropos, apparently of nothing, launched-I will not say a'violent' 
but a petulant-attack on that striking book, Leopold Schwarzschild's 
World m Trance, which he described as " superficially intelligent 
and massively stupid," and on a preface to the book by Professor 
Brogan. Why Professor Brogan has irritated Mr. Wells so much 
is hard to say, nor does the column or so of denigration by a Wells 
w-ho wields a strangely spluttering pen compared with the author 
of Mmktnd in the Makirtg and Atm Veronica and Mr. Brithng Sees 
It 1 hrough, provide any answer to that question. But it was not 
really prudent to draw Professor Brogan into the lists. One sentence 
in his re,omdergoes deep through the joints of Mr. Wells's armour: 
II is an error to assume that if you are not being listened to enough 
the farst time it is necessarily wise to scream." Mr. Wells, I am 
afraid, is suffenng from the conviction that he is not being listened 
to enough. As for World in Trance, some of the best judges both 
of luerature and of politics in this country have declared themselves 
profoundly impressed by it. They may all be wrong and Mr WeUs 
nght, but I think it unlikely. " ' 

* * * * 
I doubt whether the average Citizen realises quite how zealous 
the Government is to increase his knowledge about its manifold 
activiües. For that purpose it employs-that is to say its various 
administrative departments do-Public Relations Ofiicers to teil the 
public, mainly through the Press. This is an admirable departure 
when pursued with moderation. How far moderation is being 
observcd the average Citizen can decide for himself on the basis 
of a reply to a question in Parliament last week. Unfortunately thc 



A SPECTATOR'S NOTEBOOK 



statistician who drafted the reply omitted to add up the items, and 
the calculation is beyond my limited capacity. It is a pity, for 
üie total would be impressive. The Admiralty has a Public Relations 
Stafi of 115, the War Office of 530, the Air Ministry of 371 ; but 
m the two latter cases a lot of people are for some reason included 
jvho are not doing what normally ranks as Public Relations work 
at all. The only other department to reach three figures is the 
Ministry of Supply, with 136, but thc National Savings Committee 
comes near it with 98. The other end of the scale is interesting. 
Ihe rreasury runs to one, and he, I fancy, is not concerned with 
ordmary Treasurj business as such. Inland Revenue, with two, 
practises 'aimost equal reticence, and so, surprisingly, does the 
Ministry of Pensions, also with a mere brace. Here is the one case 

.t w " •'^"^ "'°"^*'' ^" '""'^^^ ""'Sht be justified. Could 
not the Mmister of Supply spare Sir Walter Womersley, say, a pair 
of brace— or is it braces? 

» * * * * 

Thc death of Raymond Clapper in an aeroplane accident in the 
Pacific has depnved American journalism and American radio of 
one of its most remarkable servants. Servants, not Ornaments. For 
first among Clapper's qualities was the complete absence in him 
ot the pnma donna temperament. He did not bccome a great 
national figure by any short cut, by any cultivation of personality, 
by any parade of discretion or of indiscretion. He rose steadüy 
because he was a reporter, quick, acute, accurate and honest. More 
and more people camc to read him, not because they agreed with 
what he said aU the time or even most of the time, but because 
there must be something in it if Clapper saw it that way. In his 
syndicated column and on the air he spent a lot of time making-up 
and changing his own mind. He was a most genuinely modest 
man and under-estimated rhe value of his own untutored judgement 
But he was righ: in avoiding the snap verdicis affected by manv 
of his colleagues, for in his career as an informer and maker of 
American opinion he did nothing more useful than teach by example 
that this IS not a simple world to be ser right by simple formulas- 
and that if you are on the side of the angels, as Clapper most 
certainly was, ther<v is all the more reason for seeing what the othci 
side have in the way of ideas, prejudices, resources. 

* * * * 
Cornwall, to my great personal regret, is as good as obliterated 
It IS become as Latvia, it is even as Estonia The authnrnf t ^ 
Corn^äl .MACornish ChMhood has cast h off ö 'e er (Sh^ 
shght loophole for subsequent recantation). Invited recen^v ,. 
give an address before the Youth Club at St. Austell, whJl he 
was born and brought up, Mr. A. L. Rowse has thus repliedT 

"When I gave up being a political candidate in Cornwall T ™,^- 
up my mind not to waste my time speaking to peSp^Tn rir^^fil 
who failed totake their opportunity in the pas° 10 years ^Tt^l 
as well that that shou d be generallv known thlt t if '^ '"*' 

. principle again.t speaking i„^ C^'i^l'allTthouTh V L^/'L^slS 
make an except.on since it will save me a good dcal^f trmfh J 
in replying to people. I am sorry for you-sin^it is not rhJf^ .! 
of you young men. I should have quite Ikedtö haJi l^' ^^"1' 
spoken to you. But as things are I only do that ki^H^'u^"'' 
outside CornwaU nowadays. \ou may°tomtunicLte^tt"Ä 

So that— with great finality— is that. 

Thebes did his green, unknowing youth engage 

He stamps upon it in his riper age. \Ki^\}% 



THE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY II, 1944 

THE NETTUNO MYSTERY 

By STRATEGICÜS 



117 



IN Washington and in Italy there have been comments on the 
Nettuno beach-head that wear the appearance of authority. It 
was perhaps high time, since no one can pretend that the landing 
has fitted into any recognised pattern. It was not necessarily any 
the worse for that ; and, writing immediately after it occurred, I 
suggested that it was sui generis. Neither I nor anyone eise, how- 
cver, could have imagined that the Operation would foUow the 
extraordinary rhythm that has characterised this most promising 
initiative. 

It is well to be perfectly clear about what remains mysterious in 
the Operation. There is already a tendency to mark the contrast 
between the Italian and the Russian campaigns. That would be as 
ridiculous as to contrast the Lovat river front with the Kiev sector. 
The sector which looks towards Pskov and Ostrov at the moment 
appears as if it were forgotten and useless. So one might have 
regarded the Leningrad sector but a short while ago. So it will 
probably be with many sectors of the European front at some time. 
They do not all burst into flame at the same time ; some may always 
move at a depressingly slow pace. Much will depend upon the nature 
of the ground, the balance of forces deployed upon it and the Com- 
munications that supply it. This is a characteristic of all wars. 
Nevertheless the sectors upon which considerable forces are pinned 
down, whether by actual Operations or by the threat of them, play 
their part in the general plan. 

There is, therefore, no need to be excessively apologetic about the 
pace of thc Italian campaign. The ground is to the last degree 
forbidding ; the weather is appalling. There is hardly any chance 
of manoeuvre. In default of an initiative based upon the superior 
mobility which sea-power gives us, and a supreme air-power assures 
and increases, " inching " seems aimost inevitable. But let us not 
make the mistake of thinking the Russian Operations majestic and 
these, in comparison, absurd. It has been said that there are abmit 
twenty-five German divisions in Italy ; and, according to a recent 
report, one has been brought down to the beach-head from the south 
of France. It is while this force is detained in Italy that the Russians 
have isolated some ten divisions below Kanev and flung a noose 
about another five in the neighbourhood of Nikopol. When we begin 
to ask why it is that fifteen enemy divisions are now marked for 
annihilation we are driven to conclude that it is because of a shortage 
of reserves. We may more readily agree that Manstein blundered in 
holding on too long ; but that is a more obvious than ultimate 
conclusion. Hitler has determined to live dangerously, to make the 
Allies fight all the way ; and this entails taking risks that skate along 
the edge of disaster. 

But in Order that they should end in blunders it is necessary that 
the available reserves should be pinned down away from the critical 
point ; and this Stalin ensures by the development of his offensive 
in depth operating upon an area-shortage created by the campaign 
in Italy and the threats and Operations in the west. Would Manstein 
have been unable to make any impression on the Vinnitsa sector 
of Vatutin's troops if he had had at his disposal the divisions 
detained in Italy? He was allowed to batter away there even while 
Vatutin and Koniev were making their preparations to join hands 
below Kanev. This simply means that he had not the force to effect 
anything more than small local penetrations. But, if he had had 
another twenty-five divisions, there might have been a very different 
result both there and north of Lemberg. It is unjust, and indeed not 
a little ridiculous to ignore the part that the Italian campaign plays 
in the Russian victories. 

It is some little time since I pointed out that the Germans were 
paying more attention to the south and west. They cannot, of 
course, permit many repetitions of the encirclement below Kanev 
aad about Nikopol without danger of collapse. Neither dare they 
ignore the danger which the descent upon Lemberg involves. They 
are determined to keep the Allies out of the Balkans ; but they 
must withdraw through Rumania if the Lemberg junction is cap- 



tured ; and complete success in Italy would threaten to open the 
way into the Balkans from the west. But it is against the Allies of 
Russia that the Germans think they have a belter chance of success. 
They have nothing to lose if they attempt to multiply over the 
south and west of Europe a series of " Dunkirks " ; but their 
gain would be enormous. We have to remember that now, and 
increasingly in the future, the moral and political repercussions of 
what the Allies do will be of prime importance. 

The landing about Nettuno took place against that background. 
It seemed at first that we were at length beginning to make use 
of the advantages of our sea and air power, though it was evident 
that an unopposed landing was not expected. The preliminary 
preparation was aimost as perfect as one could wish ; and then came 
tht land'Ug, as it were, in a vacuum. The enemy surprise was 
complete ; and what the force landed did was simply a matter for 
the Allied decision. But what followed was a period of ten 
days given over to consohdation. The golden period, when the 
enemy command had no force to resist any sort of exploitation 
which the expedition might desire, was frittered away ; and even 
when at last a move was made it was merely a matter cf patrols, 
who never advanced more than some six or eight miles. In so 
leisurely a spirit did the advance take place that Kes?*_lring was 
able to bring back divisions from the main Fifth Army front and 
apparently summon one from the south of France. 

In the two explanatory Statements that have been made the tone 
of apology is obvious. The Washington Statement says " the 
original plan " was to cut the Appian Way " and divide the German 
Army" and that this was impossible because " the Germans were 
in considerable strength in this area." As far as one can judge 
from the>^;^gorts, they were in such inconsiderable strength that 
the Allies wer? faken aimost as completely by surprise as Kesselring. 
^ The Italian Statement riiaintains that the reason why the forces of 
the beach-head " did not push on 30 to 40 miles inland will be 
given when all the facts are known." Neither of these Statements 
can be described as very happily phrased. The second went on 
to say the time may come when we shall " have to show the ability 
not to criticise generals when they take risks for a very great 
advantage even if they come to grief." 

That is an ominous remark ; and, moreover, it completely mis- 
reads the " criticism," which is directed not at taking riskSy but at 
not taking them. It is obvious that every landing in hostile territory 
entails some risk ; but, in the event, the risk was negligible. Indeed, 
how happy should we be if we were certain that the Allied landing 
in the west would meet no greater Opposition for ten days ; but 
candour impels us to refiect that if no better use is made of so 
long a respite we are extremely unlikely to harvest the " very great 
advantages." The mystery about this Operation has been explained 
by the faulty execution of a sound plan. The iwo Statements 
sufficiently admit that something went astray ; but, as far as the 
facts can be verified, it was not due to faulty execution. Another 
explanation has been found in the rigidity of the plan ; and there 
is certainly some truth here. It appears to be established that 
the failure to exploit the original success while the golden opportunity 
beckoned was entirely deliberate. 

But even the over-perfect application of a cast-iron plan do«s not 
whoUy explain the mystery. It is, of course, true that when con- 
ditions different from those provided for in the plan were encoun- 
tered the officer in immediate command should have seized his 
chance. But the plan seems to have been deliberately shaped to rule 
out all chances. Its governing idea was to play safe ; and in warf are 
those who are obsessed with the noiion of safety first commonly run 
into deadly peril. 

The consequences of this handling of the Nettuno Operation remaln. 
The beach-head seems to have been narrowed to a depth of about 
eight miles. Long-range enemy guns are now beginning to cast 
their shells into the port of Anzio. Thc position shows a tendency 



\ 



\ 



140 



THE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY l8, 1944 



give Poland access to the sea, would be to perpetuate friction and 
hostility indefinitely. If the Russian armies sweep over East 
Prussia, as they well may, most of its inhabitants will flee before 
them and the problem of a transfer of population will be splved. 
Thcre is much to be said for and against such a Solution, but it is 
not for Britain or America to protest against it. But one thing is 
piain and it would be folly to ignore it. Russia has made it clear 
that a settlement on these lines is possible only at the price of the 
surrender of considerable territory which Poland held tili 1939 to 



the east of the Curzon Line. It is for M. Mikolaiczyk and his 
colleagues to consider whether they can assent to that — knowing 
that whether they assent or not they will suffer it. To do so might 
cost the Prime Minister the resignation of some members of 
Cabinet, but that fate has befallen other Prime Ministers before in 
history. Time manifestly presses. The question who shall ad- 
minister the liberated regions of Poland is becoming urgent. The 
Polish Government will deserve, and can count on, the sympathy 
of all its AUies in its crisis of decision. 



THE SPECTATOR, FEBRUARY iS, 1944 

GERMANY'S OBJECTIVES 



141 



A SPECTATOR'S NOTEBOOK 



IAM not surprised that American correspondents are protesting 
with the vigour of which they are habilually capable at the ap- 
pointment of a retired Ambassador and a retired Minister, Sir Robert 
Hodgson and Sir Reginald Hoare, to censor outgoing Press messages 
from London. For this is quite undisgnisedly a censorship of 
opinion, applied not on grounds of security, but because the new 
censors or advisers think, as one of them has frankly put it, that 
a particular story " is likely to stir up discord between the Allies." 
On that it may be said that, so far at least as Britain and America are 
concerned, the average American correspondent is much moreJikely 
to know what is likely to " stir up discord " than a retired Ambassador 
to Russia or a retired Minister tc Rumania, neither of whom appears 
10 have served in the United States, at any rate at any recent date. 
Furthermore, the likeliest of all things to stir up discord in America 
is rhe knowledge that American correspondents' messages to their 
own country are being placed under this new surveillance. If an 
additional censorship, over and above the ordinary machinery, is 
need^d, which I doubt, why not have messages to America censored 
by competent Americans? They would know much better than any 
EngÜshman can what effect a particular message would have in their 
own country. 

• • • • 

I had something to say last week about a widely-read book called 
World in Trance, in connexion with an ill-conditioned attack by 
Mr. H. G. Wells on Professor D. W. Brogan, who wrote a preface 
to it. I expressed no opinion on the book itself, for the good reason 
that I had not read it, but I observed that some of the best judges 
of literature and politics were profoundly impressed by it, and that it 
was pDSsible^ but unlikely, that they were all wrong in praising and 
Mr. Wells right in condemning it. Since then someone has lent me 
the book, and my conscience, almost atrophied though it is, compels 
me to affirm that I differ from the best judges — without, however, 
agreeing with Mr. Wells. He describes World in Trance as " super- 
ficially clever and massively stupid." Superficially clever, if you 
will — for it is written in ihat peculiarly irritating, superiorly cynical, 
style so characteristic of much modern German and some modern 
English literature. But stupid it most certainly is not. I should 
prefer to call it astutely tendentious — a thesis being adopted, and the 
facts carefully selected (or ignored) to give body to it. The first 
section of the book, on the last Peace Conference, designed to depre- 
ciate President Wilson and denigrate the League of Nations in every 
way possible, deals with a subject of which I have some knowledge. 
The author's treatment of that makes me profoundly distrustful of 
his conclusions on other matters, such as Germany*s internal politics, 
which are less familiär ground. 

In writing recently of the working of E.P.T. I said that though 
there was a strong case for amending the present enactment, some 
measure of the kind was necessary because " the spectacle of any- 
one making and retaining far larger profits out of war-trading than 
hc can make out of peace-trading would have the worst effect on 
national morale." What, a very much respected correspondent asks 
me, do I think about the spectacle of thousands of workers who are 
earning far higher wages under war-conditions than they ever eamed 
in peace-time? It is a fair challenge, and though the subject is far 
too large to be dealt with in a note, I can State my general opinion 
quite briefly. Broadly speaking, therc is as little to be said for war- 



profiteering in the one casc as in the other (assuming hours and con- 
ditions of work in peace and war to be substantially the same), and 
the pressure some unions are exerting for perpetual rises of wages 
is grossly unsocial and might easily become financially disastrous. 
To say that increases are needed to meet the rising cost of living is 
equivalent to claiming that large classes of the population (whose 
brothers and sons are exposing themselves to be killed for a few 
Shillings a week) should bear no part of the war-burden which rising 
prices impose. The case of the iowest-paid workers, who might be 
driven by rising prices below a reasonable subsistence-level, Stands 
by itself, but some of the Claims advanced in the higher-paid 
quarters are blatantly unpatriotic. The Claims usually have to 
be conceded, because in the national emergency the work is indis- 
pensable. The reason the effect on national morale is not more 
serious is that the vast total of the increases is never so presented 

as to strike the public eye as a Company balance-sheet does. 

• * * • * 

I was very glad to read the tribute Mr. Eden paid in the House 
of Commons to the success Mr. Malcolm MacDonald is achieving 
as High Commissioner in Ottawa, for it confirms what I have heard 
repeatedly from various unofficial and v^ry reliable sources in the 
past year. I imagine that Mr. MacDonald accepted rather as a 
public duty than as " a thing to be grasped at '* the translaiion from 
an administrative office and a House of Commons career at home to 
the post he at present holds. But he is still young enough to regain 
the ear of the House quickly, and meanwhile he is beyond question 
doing invaluable service wherc he is. There have been plenty of 
opportunitics for misunderstanding and friction between the United 
Kingdom and Canada in the last year or two, and though credit for 
avoiding or minimising those evils is shared by Mr. Mackenzie King 
and successive Dominion Secretaries here, the major part of it, 
from all I can hear, should go to Malcolm MacDonald. He has 
presented Great Britain at its best to Canadians, and it will be 
remembered how effectively he placed the facts about Canada's war 
effort before this country when he came home recently on short 
leave. Some of his most valuable Services must be left unrecounted, 
but it can be well understood that Canadians regard him as the best 
High Commissionei" they have ever had. 

- • • • * 

It is a Httle disturbing to learn that the B.B.C. in its French 
transmissions is accustomed, in the course of a feature called 
Au Pilori," to denounce individual Frenchmen now in France as 
collaborationists," with the obvious effect, and presumably the 
Intention, of exposing them to attack by patriotic partisans. I have 
no softness in my heart for collaborationists, but their names are 
clearly supplied by agents or informers of some kind, and it is easy 
to conceive how private hostility or animus may in individual cases 
be the cause of denunciation ; in Germany that is a commonplace. 
The B.B.C, of course, is only an agent in the matter, acting for 
higher authorities, French or British. But surely this kind of thing 
could be left to the Algiers radio, which is controlled by the French 
themselves. Incidentally, by what freak of mismanagement does it 
happen that the only Algiers paper obtainable in London (so I am 
told) is the Marseillaise, whose publication here was banned 
last July on äccount of its violent and extreme attitude? There 
are three or four more important and responsible Algiers weeklies, 
but they, it appears, fail to reach London. Janus. 



t( 



ii 



By STRA 

IT is perhaps a good thing that we cannot read the immediate 
future and are discouraged from speculating tco particularly 
about the AUies' intended use of it. What we can see, however, 
is a certain shift of emphasis in the German plans that make time, 
ever golden, now vital. This has received endorsement from Hitler 
in a recent Order to the troops in Italy to "hold to the last man 
because of the political repercussions." The gist of the plan is to 
drag out the dangerous winter months until the spring pause arrives 
without admitting the Russians into the Balkans and as far as 
possible without allowing the Allies any spectacular success in Italy 
that might have some effect in stimulating restive States to overt 
action. It is in this light that. the whole of the European battlefield 
must be considered today; it is in this light that the battle in the 
bridgehead must be assessed. 

It can hardly be questioned now that a great chance was lost 
when the Germans were so completely taken by surpnse by the 
Anzio landing. They claim so to have weakened a Guards brigade 
that it has had to be filled up by heavy fresh drafts, and, although 
there has been falsification of the news in order to reflect the 
shift in policy, some notice must be taken of the claim. Ground 
]pas been given. That seems obvious, in spite of the Statement of a 
correspondent that the size of the bridgehead remains much the 
same as it was on February 3rd. German Communications have not 
been interrupted as was possible and intended, though the Navy are 
now said to have cut the Appian Way. The relief afforded the main 
body of the Fifth Army seems to have been inappreciable, and is 
certainly not effective. The enemy has not even been cleared from 
the positions that command the beaches. 

What then has been accomplished? Have reserves been drawn 

tin from other sectors or from a central pool? Even that cannot 
be affirmed, since the division brought from the south of France 
was probably part of the force available for the whole southern 
area. It has apparently been roughly handled ; and we can be 
certain that all the divisions which have figured in Italy have suffered 
a drastic attrition. But have they fared very distinctly worse than 
our own? The terrain suits the defence. It might even seem to 
have been designed for it. But, in holding the Allied armies down 
to an advance by " inching," the Germans have carried out their 
present role, which by Hitler's admission has now a distincdy 
political fiavour. In the beachhead this is particularly obvious. We 
can, of course, claim to have established a base on the flank of the 
German troops facing the main bodies of the Fifth and Eighth 
armies ; and -when the weather improves the leaden fetters that act 
V as a brake on their progress may be removed. But on the whole, so 
far as the plan has now been disclosed, it seems that we have made 
a poor bargain where we were on the verge of a brilliant success. 

At one point in the Tunisian campaign a German prisoner 
gloomily made the comment, " We began too well." That might 
well refiect a general view of this new initiative. But the difficulty 
is that, so far, we have played into the enemy's hands. It is his 
purpose to show up the Allies as poor tacticians, as frittering away 
the admitted and obvious advantages of their super ior mobility and 
supreme air-power ; and, although it is clear that we must attempt 
to accelerate the pace of our advance by the use of these advantages, 
up to the present we have shown little sign that we know more than 
how to open the door upon a great opportunity. We have not 
shown that we know how to pass through and seize the chance that 
we create with unmistakable ability. 

There would be no point whatever in emphasising these con- 
clusions if it were not that almost the whole of Hitler's hopes are 
based on the possibility of demonstrating that they are of general 
application and not merely special to this particular Operation. 
Clearly anything that could be represented ^s a real Allied defeat 
would be of the greatest importance to the Germans at this moment, 
even if it were only of a local character. But the lesson that seems 

V 



TEGICUS 

to be exemplified by the Anzio Operation is that we may as easily 
blunder by excess of caution as by daring. No one expected the ^ 
Allies to venture too much ; but everyone waited to see them do 
some damage before settling down, since it was realised that they ^ 
would endanger themselves as much by too much caution as by 
deliberate risk. This at least could be measured and controlled ; the 
shape of the alternative we have seen. If the outlook seems fairer at 
present, it is obvious that we are not yet entirely out of the wood. 
We are certainly engaging more troops from an allocation which 
is strictly limited, because it already makes as great inroads on 
the German resources as can be afforded. 

It is well over a year ago since I wrote that it was not the 

German offensive tliat was so mucii to be feared as the Germans 

on the defensive. Hitler said on a notorious occasion, " what we 

have we hold." He has lost thousands of Square miles since 

then, lost hundreds of thousands of men who are of much greater 

value than miles ; but, on the whole, even m Russia, my Suggestion 

appears to be most strikingly borne out. He reels from one cris»s 

to another, and ever seems to escape from disaster by a hair's 

breadth. In the Ukraine hc still holds on to parts of the Dnieper 

in spite of blows that have driven him from one position after 

another. He is now fighting with tactics that are at least as old 

as war to cut through to the beleaguered Kanev divisicns. They 

can no longer number ten. They must have been worn down to 

something like half ; but, here again, in pursuii of purposes that 

are not immediately or wholly military, he compels them to hold 

out. It would be foolish to conclude that their stubborn defence 

confers no benefit upon his armies, as foolish as to ignore the 

Service of the unfortunate Von Paulus. Manstein has his hands 

füll at present with a battlefront for some hundreds of miles 

facing a vital railway and tending ever to involve the use of more 

troops in mere maintenance. He cannot afford to see Lwow fall 

into the Russian grasp, and, at the moment, it is between Rovno 

and that junction that the pressure of Vatutin appears to be greatest. 

But the rescue of th^ beleagured divisions can be no longer a direct 

military issue. Worn down and dazed by a constant storm of 

artillery and air-bombardment, they cannot be of much value to 

him as troops. But as a demonstration of the continued German 

power to bring an Allied project to nothing, as a reductio ad 

absurdum, their relief would be valuable. Would it seem to justify 

putting his neck into a noose? The correct answer to that question 

would give us a better reading of the present German strength than 

anything. At least we can realise that by driving his wedge into 

the Russian outer encircling lines he is taking a risk, and the 

Russians are weighing the chances with a cold, calculating air that 

bodes little good for him. 

By striking this blow, of course, Manstein is encouraging the 
surrounded Germans to resist in a way that he could not otherwise 
accomplish. The surrounded men are trying to strike towards the 
south-west as Manstein thrusts up towards them. But is not the 
local success too late? And have not the Russians shown a hundred 
times that they know how to deal with this wedge attack? Vatutin 
is meeting the German armour at present with his abundant artillery, 
used, as is now the Russian practice, in divisions and corps. But 
he has armOur at his disposal, too ; and, when he is satisfied with 
the Situation, he may launch it either here or towards Lwow. 
Manstein's risks grow ; but, for some time, the Germans have had 
to live on risks. They cannot permit the Russians to enter Rumania, 
and this prolonged defensive battle sees the Germans at their best. 
But they fight for time. One of the reasons they cannot allow the 
Russians to enter the Balkans is the certainty that the Allies would 
receive a strong reinforcement there. They cannot contemplate 
an offensive in Russia while they are defending themselves against 
the füll power of the Allies in the Balkans, in Italy and in the west. 
So they must spin out the time to the spring lull — if there is one. 

The questions are can xYjej do it and will it be effective? The 



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31,700 Biographies 

Over 3,500 entirely 
new sketches 

New size—easier 
to handle 

New type face 

Pronunciation of all 
difficult names 

Geograpliical Index 

Index to Gross 
References 

Gross index to this 
Monthly Snpplenient 

Educational . 
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FuU Cloth — 2,650 Pages 
Price: $10.00* 

*Subject to change later 




1 



.1 



WHO 




WHO 



IN AMERICA 



Volume 22 



1942-1943 



^i 



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the 22d issuance since the volume was founded by 
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Who's Who in Chicago and Vicinity (Eniarged to indude lUiuois) 

Äiled fn^q^r^^TL^^^hT^^'t^'''^^^^^ ^^ Who's Wno itself. this Volume was first 

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Who's Who in New Englantl 

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i 






«•» 



TY 



n 







DR. PAUL SCHW ARZ 



V. 



L/^ 



17 bat/er/place 



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^U/üJi/UJtM^ 



'PiriM.yy*^^ d^/lJX^U^ m-iAj^^^^^c^ 




tu be done on the basis of hoopla and "free offers." 
I he fact is piain from our own national experience, 
that nobody treasures a freedom he does not have 
to struggle for, or honors a cause which does not 
demand sacrifice. Our good neighburs, many of 
them, are making serious sacrifices and many are 
at war: the tone of our presentation of our own 
cause (and theirs) ought more consistently to meet 
the level of expression suitable to such a state of 
affairs. In many ways it does, but it has too often 
failed to do so. There is a danger in this — a danger 
that it should coine to be thought (quite mistakenfy) 
that we as a nation and a government prefer to ac- 
quire support by offering "inducements" rather 
than by offering aggressive leadership to the denio- 
cratically-niinded. But— the reader is referred to 
Mr. Bradford. 

John Toop. 

WORLD IN TRANCE— FROM VERSAILLES TO 
PEARL HARBOR, by Leopold Schwarzschild, 
L. B. Fischer Publishing Corporation, New YorL 
1942. 

This book, although only one of a long series on 
the resurgence of Germany following the defeat of 
1918, takes high rank in that series by reason of the 
clarity and compactness of the argument, the able 
use of a Wide ränge of published quotations, and the 
author's original testimony as a former resident of 
the Rhineland. It is one of the three books with 
which this reviewer happens to be acquainted that 
he would choose for reading and re-reading, if he 
could have only three as sources of information on 
Europe between the wars. (The other two: GAN 
EUROPE KEEP THE PEAGE? by Frank Simonds, 
and TWENTY YEARS' CRISIS, by Edward H. 
Carr ) . 

It is Clemencaeu that has influenced the author 
most, and he is many times quoted with approval: 
e.g. bis 1919 size-up of the German republic as 
"mere window dressing"; bis view that the world 
must be either a directorate of the great powers or 
anarchy; bis admonition to the Ghamber in present- 
ing the Treaty of Versailles. "\f you go to peace 
resolutely, as our men went to war!! you will give it 
life . . . if you waste time vou will have given our 
country a thing of death instead of a thing of life"; 
bis 1922 pre-vision of 1940. '^We are marching to'- 
ward a catastrophe so complete that I find it im- 
possible to see any way out of it. Among us I see 
only the lowest kind of ambition and a lapse into 
total apathy." And his collaborator Tardieu and 
bis Opponent Foch are quoted, both from 1919, in 
equally prophetic Statements. 

The central theme is a record of what Germany 

June, 1943 



did between 1919 and 1935 to turn the defeat of 
1918 into the victories of 1938-41; and the author 
holds that the military caste ruled always (quoting 
Mirabeau's definition of the old Reich: "Not a coun- 
try with an army, but an army with a country") 
and that never at any time did it change by a hair's 
breadth its aim of rebuilding German military pow- 
er and resuming the war. And that applied to 
Ebert and bis Republic, to Stresemann and his Lo- 
carno. By 1935 the rearmament was beyond stop- 
ping, and the author prophesied in 1933 and 1934 
that it would soon be too late. 

But the villain of the piece is not vengcance-bent 
Germany, but the misguided statesmanship of the 
ex-Allies: Lloyd George, looking at a gravely weak- 
ened France and thinking that the Rhineland occu- 
pation pointed to renewed Napoleonic ambitions; 
Stanley Baldwin, solenmly assuring the House of 
Commons in 1934 that Germany had 260 first-line 
planes to Britain's 560; Austen Ghamberlain and 
Briand, thinking that Germany's joining the League 
( at the price of Brazil's defection, and of suppress- 
ing evidence of Germany's failure to disarm) 
meant the dawn of a new day in Europe, while 
Stresemann was saying privately to the Crown 
Prince that now Germany's preoccupations "can be 
transformed into as many vexations for the Entente 
by a skillful orator before the League of Nations." 
And Ramsey MacDonald and his pressure upon 
France to accept German equality in arms. And 
Frank Kellogg and his renunciation-of-war pact 
And Clement Atlee and his 1935 statement that 
From the danger of war one cannot protect one's 
seif by weapons." 

Lumping together the efforts of "the perfection- 
ists —I.e. those people in the sick world who strove 
for prefection by ignoring the quicksands,— the 
author s|)eaks of the "euphoria" mood in which the 
World drifted to catastrophe. (The word means 
Ihe State of feelmg well, especially when occur- 
rmg in a diseased person.") 

He pleads for a different attitude towards the 
use of force, and holds that "The moral' value of 
power and weapons and compulsions is determined 
exclusively by the purpose they serve ... The voice 
of twenty years wams us to defend peace and jus- 
tice and freedom with pride and assurance; to 
accumulate weapons; to build up superiority; and 
to cultivate and use these instruments of freedom 
with wisdom and resolution." 

One may differ from his conclusions, but one can 
scarcely think clearly about the problems he dis- 
cusses without awareness of the facts which he 
recites so well. 

Walton C. Ferris. 



(Conti nued on page 314) 



r 



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301 



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// 



PÄGE'ß— EVENING STANDAHD 






Mr. Wells j 




By MICHAEL FOOT 



H 



Nothing 
gives a 
quality 



G. WELLS'S new 
book,* published 
to-day, is described on the 
front as '* a contemporary 
memoir upon human 
behaviour during the crisis 
of the World revolution." 
in this phrase 
true idea of its 
except the word 
'*revolution.'' 

In fact, Wells h^s produced a 
book rieh with the flavoup of 
Paris in . the hey-day of the 
Terror. It might even have been 
written by the immortal Marat, 
whom Wells himself, in his 
Outline of History, häs rescued 
from the clutches of defamation. 
One by one the victims are led 
out from their cells, all to be 
placed in the same tumbril : 
Ministers and ex-Ministers, Lord 
Vansittart and General de Gaulle, 
Sir Richard Acland and Palme 
Dutt, Mr. Arthur Bryani and Sir 
OsWald Mosley, all these and a 
host of others. The reader is 




to 

■5/.',',.. ..:>.>^ •■ :, i«' 




tÄ- 



tiA 



such a flood that no one 
could aecept them all. Herehe 



^uns 



Claim to have been aUl his life, 
first and foremost, a propa-^ 



their companions at the clufcl 
with sniggers of complacency. 



makes and substantiates the IThey will find something here to 



ns wer and a better remedy than 
itiable resort to a new Holy 



gandist for world Socialism. ^ y iAlUance. • 

Catastrophe/ with a heavy list !{''& j'Vl^ ♦^'''"li'^tf Ä°'",^i^ 
towards the side of optfmismj -^'-ance or the s'.ps^^^^ half- 



has all the excitement of David 
with his sling and pebbles going 
forth to meet Goliath. And, these 
are but four items in the long 
record of debt. v 

I remember the ^ debt and 
rememberalso againstwhat odds 
he performed his chosen task. 



He is still an Optimist/ " With fi"^'^!^?^^^ is. "We 

the awakening self-respect of the }^^^\^ ^fP 7 ^"^^ ^^ preserve 

- ;ttie fruits of two great inter- 



common people, a new State of,_^x.„„, , ^. - --- - i 

affairs began which I believe 5 " u J^^°^",^^°^^' ^^^ ^^^^^ 
must lead us ultimately to a new \J^^^ Revolution, which 



x.wc,v ^x v^wa.^.o. ^»^ .^«v.^^ xo The Godj under whom and the 
invited to do little more than sitpo^ial System in which he was 
comfortably beside the guillotine ^^rn took every precaution to 



and count the heads as they fall 
into the basket. 

Altogether, therefore, this is a 
most agreeable book. From 
Cover to cover it is angry, 
explosive and morally indignant. 
It revives all that is best in the 
great tradition of English invec- 
tive. and even if you yourself 
miejht have preferred a slightly 
different or less extensive selec- 
tion (or even a few additions 
here and there), you have hardly 
the heart to complain. 

•^A few innocents must always 
suffer in any such holocaust. 
The tears you may feel prompted 
to shed for them should not 
diminish the overflowing sense 
of gratitude to this brave old 
man, who in thi^ age of prevalent 
eervility and literary impotence, 
rather than bend his knee to one 
human God or sulTer one fool 
^'gladly, prefers to march towards 
his grave with the execrations 
of hiis increasing number of 
enemies sounding in his ears. 
Like Cato, he would rather 
people should ask why iie had 
not a monument erected to him 
than why he had. 



stunt and smother this child who 
would seek to overthrow them. 
They kept him poor and weak 
and spitting blood at every 
crisis of his life. They blocked 
his road to a career seven times 
and more. They made him learn 
everything he did learn by the 
light of wretched candles, in 
precarious garrets and through 
harsh experience 



and infinitely happier world. . r . ^^e^f.^J m a n k i n d liberty, 
V o u may murder worjd ^3"^^^*^ ^^^ fraternity, and the | 
socialism now and hide it in tfeeP"^^ mightier effort of Russia to 
?ellar, and when you go upstafrsff^^fSanise society upon a basis 
again you will find it astradöler ^* would abolish the economic 
yourhearth." '' ; enslavement of the masses of 

rnuTc- 1- \ . • Ji ^,^"^anity. Both thes^ great 

'^pHIS IS his conclusion» superljly 



TT is a wonderfuj Performance, 
•*- and this review will be 
wholly laudätory. However, lest 
anyone buying the book should 
Claim to have been deceived, it 
~' 1 _bg.. adniit^ßd that this 
reviewefrf.has a strong, unshak- 
able prejudice in favour of 
H. G. Wells. V 

For me, Tono Bungay* is still 
just about the finest novel of 
the Century, and Mr. Polly the 
best in English humpur ; each 
were first read on a strict ration- 
ing System of 50 pages a day for 
fear that the pleasure should pass 
too soon. The Outline of History 
brought new planets swimming 



^HESE circumstances do not 
-^ makehimagreaterwriter, but 
just as the knowledge of the 
bleeding, chilblained hands with 
which Michelet wrote his French 
Revolution enhance the wonder 
of every page, so the fact that 
Wells might easily have 
stayed a draper's assistant in 
Bromley .should make us 
treasure his achievements thi» 
more. 

At the age of 20 he still 
weighed no more than s^ven 
and a half stone and yet what 
mountains have been moved and 
what landscapes have been 
cleared by that compact embodi- 
ment of energy ! And to-day 
when his old competitor, Bernard 
Shaw, has settled down to a silly 
and interminable quarrel with 
the Inland Revenue Department 
Wells is not content; he girds up 
his ancient loins for new strife 
and sets out to educate the 
peoples of the world-^all 3000 
million of them— in the princi 
pl^s of his Rights of Man. 



^ p r o c 1 a i m e d in defiarjce 
of all that has happened to cloud 
the hopes of his early Socialist 
days. The book is dedicated 
to. the eternal memory: 'Cf 
John Ball, the peasaijt leaaer 
who first raised the Standard of 
Socialism in Kent. Richard II. 
cheated him and his foUowers, 
ftnd all over the world I the 
struggle has continued .eyer 
since. • * \ ^ 

Richard, says Wells, is stUl|at 
work at his subterfuges^ reyeal- 
ing the ** deep resentment of.jhe 
needy, half-educated, prietentiöus, 
incompetent middie-class^at- *he 
growing insolence and intract- 
ability of the lower orders.'f? 

Indeed, Richard now appears 
in a fouler, more brutal guise 
than ever before. Wells doesf not 
shirk the challenge of the Fascist 
counter-revoiution and the ijide- 
scribable cruelties which ii has 
unleashed. A chief part of the 
book consists in ^n analysij of 
Fascism in terms of the fight for 
a classless society. 7.^-*- 

/ Some weeks ago Wells was.' id 
irouble for a slashlng attacl^ 
Which he deliyered on a populär 
,000k of the moment^cälled 
World in Trance by Leopold 
ßchwarzschild. It is ä facilej 
scintillating treatise which seek^ 
to explain the modern ctisis ad 
a purely German problem, which 



thrusts trace their beginning to 
oldef^ revolutionary drives in 
Britain ai^i America ; ^ach has 
betrayed the weaknesses Of 
experiment, and it is the piain 
täsk of all right-minded men to 
defend all that has been gained 
by these • great upheavals, and 
carry us to that complete world- 
wide reconstruction modern 
conditions have made necessary." 



rpHE author of the Outline of 
-*• History has not renounced 
the ' bursting eloquence and 
glorious hopes with which that 
great book concludes. His 
detractors and traducers cannot 
make him budge. The gospel of 
internationalism still Stands as 
the creed which sane and döcent 
men should strive for and f oster; 
the division between master and 
man remains as the profound 
cause of the world's misei^. 
After all the turmoil of his 
life and the horror of our 
present times. he. is still able 
to proclaim with all the assur- 
ance of one of his heroes, Tom 
Paine: "It is not true that God 
made ^ men rieh and poor; he 
made them male and female and 
gave them the whole earth for 
their inheritance.*' '\^ 

.. England and London should be 
proud to; have produced so 
fearless and towering a prophet. 



indicts the Utopians and-idea.Ms' s^^^^^ should have m. him, the 



as the real provokers of c'alamity, 
which recommends as;^a.' remedy 
that the world should ' re^^er 
its engines and: turn back a. 
System modelled on the^jiin- 
ciples of Metternich. The?y'o<)ok 
(which incidentally omit$ ^ to 



The new book is described as mention the Russian RevoKitiori 
a continuation of Wells's and several kindred Sotiaj 



Experiment in Autobiography 
It is not quite that. It turnr 
aside too often to slice off an- 
other head or pulverise anothe: 
prejudice. Yet it will serve the 
excellent purpose of consolidat 
ing the doctrines which he has 
preached and of fixing his place 



into my ken. For me, hislamong the prophets. The ideas 
£.xperiment m Autobiography have poured forth from him in' 



phenomena) has received wide 
5pread applause from those 
weary brains, who prefer the 
dismal past to an adventurous 
future and 'do not wish to woyry 
their heads about the internal 
>tresses of our society. 

Let them read Wells's new 
book before they continue recom- 
mending World in Trance to 



same kihd bf pride which he has 

in the true achievements of his 

jia^ive coüntry, a pride which 

naKeS aiV tjrie-SXliülnrtV clUlIrrtr^/i.-« 

the narrpw nationalists appear 
tawdry and worthless. 

He sings an anthem made up 
of the great names in English 
history, from John Ball forwards 
to the present age. It is the 
story of a mighty throng of rebels 
unsurpassed iÄ any land, and 
to-day H. G. Wells, the great 
educator of these generations, 
has established the title to see 
his name also set down upon that 
scroll. .^^ • •' ':• • • 

♦ '42 to '44, hy H. G. Wells. 
Secker and Warburg, £2 2s. 1 



^ 



. < 



- \ 



PAGE 6— EVENING STANDARD 




Mr. Wells sticks ^yMicHAELFoor 



H 



G. WELLS^S new 
book,* published 
to-day, is described on the 
front as '' a contemporary 
memoir upon human 
behaviour during the crisis 
of the World revolution." 
Nothing in this phrase 
gives a true idea of its 
quality except the word 
'' revolution.** 

In fact, Wells h^s produced a 
book rieh with the flavour of 
Paris in the heynday of the 
Terror. It might even have been 
written by the immortal Marat, 
whom Wells himself, in his 
Outline of History, has rescued 
from the clutches of defamation. 

One by one the victims are led 
out from their cells, all to be 
placed in the same tumbril : 
Ministers and ex-Ministers, Lord 
Vansittart and General de Gaulle, 
Sir Richard Acland and Palme 
Dutt, Mr. Arthur Bryani and Sir 
Oswald Mosley, all these and a 
host of others. The reader is 
invited to do little more than sit 
comfortably besidc the guillotine 
and count the heads as they fall 
into the basket. 




to his guns 



Altogether, therefore, this is a 
most agreeable book. From 
Cover to cover it is angry, 
explosive and morally indignant. 
It revives all that is best in the 
great tradition of English invec- 
tive, and even if you yourself 
mieht have preferred a slightly 
diflferent or less extensive selec- 
tion (or even a few additions 
here and there), you have hardly 
the heart to complain. 

^•A few innocents must always 
sufter in any such holocaust. 
The tears you may feel prompted 
to shed for them should not 
diminish the overflowing sense 
of gratitude to this brave old 
man, who in ihis age of prevalent 
eervility and literary impotence, 
rather than bend his knee to one 
human God or sufTer one fool 
''gladly, prefers to march towards 
his grave with the exccrations 
of hiis increasin^ number of 
enemies sounding in his ears. 
Like Cato, he would rather 
people should ask why he had 
not a monument erected to him 
than why he had. 

TT is a wonderfuj Performance, 
■*■ and this review will be 
wholly iaudatory. However, lest 
anyone buying the book should 
Claim to have been deceived, it 



has all the excitement of David 
with his sling and pebbles going 
forth to meet Goliath. And these 
are but four items in the long 
record of debt. 

I remember the debt and 
rememberalso againstwhat odds 
he performed his chosen task. 
The Godj under whom and the 
social System in which he was 
born took every precaution to 
stunt and smother this child who 
would seek to overthrow them. 
They kept him poor and weak 
and spitting blood at every 
crisis of his life. They blocked 
his road to a career seven times 
and more. They made him learn 
everything he did learn by the 
light of wretched candles, in 
precarious garrets and through 
harsh experience 



such a fiood that no one 
could accept them all. Here he 
makes and substantiates the 
Claim to have been atll bis life, 
first and foremost, a Propa- 
gandist for world Socialism. 

His prophecy has always 
been "World Socialism pr 
Catastrophe," with a heayy hst 
towards the side of optimisiu. 
He is still an Optimist. "With 
the awakening self-respect of the 
common people, a new state of 
affairs began which I believe 
must lead us ultimately to a lujw 
and infinitely happier world. . . . 
7 o u may murder world 
^ociaiism now and hide it in the 
?ellar, and when you go upstairs 
jigain you will find it astradc^le 
your hearth." ' ' 



tljoir 
with 



ce 



K^^^* admit4cd that ^TT5*^^s of the world— all 



reviewer ^ ha« a sLiong, unshak- 
ablc prejudice in favour of 
H. G. Wells. 

For me, Tono Bungay' is stilJ 
just about the finest novel of 
the Century, and Mr. Polly the 
best in English humour ; each 
were first read on a strict ration- 
ing System of 50 pages a day for 
fear that the pleasure should pass 
too soon. The Outline of History 
brought new planets swimming 
into my ken. For me, his 



nPHESE circumstances do not 
-■■ makehimagreaterwriter, but 
just as the knowledge of the 
bleeding, chilblained hands with 
which Michelet wrote his French 
Revolution enhance the wonder 
of every page, so the fact that 
Wells might easily have 
stayed a draper's assistant in 
Bromley . should make us 
treasure his achievements th»^ 
more. 

At the age of 20 he still 
weighed no more than s^e^ 
and a half stone and yet wh^t 
mountains have been moved and 
what landscapes have been 
cleared by that compact embodi- 
ment of energy ! And to-da} 
when his old competitor, Bernard 
Shaw, has settled down to a silly 
and interminable quarrel with 
the Inland Revenue Department 
Wells is not content; he girds up 
his ancient loins for new strife 
and sets out to educate the 

3000 



^HIS is his conclusion, super! 
^ proclaimed in defiar 
of all that has happened to cloUd 
the hopes of his early SociaHst 
days. The book is dedicated 
to. the eternal memory cf 
John Ball, the peasar>t leader 
who first raised the Standard of 
Socialism in Kent. Richard II. 
cheated him and his followcrs, 
Änd all over the world the 
struggle has continued ever 
since. 1 

Richard, says Wells, is still at 
work at his subterfuges, revt^al- 
ing the ** deep resentment of the 
needy, half-educated, pretentious, 
incompetent middle-class at ihe 
growing insolence and intrr.ct- 
ability of the lower Orders." 

Indeed, Richard now appears 
in a fouler, more brutal gleise 
than ever before. Wells does not 
shirk the challenge of the Fascist 
counter-revolution and the inde- 
scribable cruelties which it .las 
unleashed. A chief part of the 
book consists in £vn analysi^ of 
Pascism in terms of the fight >for 
a classless society. - 

Some weeks ago Wells was ir\ 
rouble for a slashing atlacl^ 
hich he dellvered on a populär 
ok of the moment"" called' 
orld in Trance by Leopold 
ßchwarzschild. It is ä facilei 
scintillating treatise which seek^ 
to explain the modern crisis a$ 
a purely German problem. whicli 
indicts the Utopians aüd JdeaV?'s 
as the real provokers of calamity,^ 
which recommends as a remip.lj 
that the world, should r^vcr 



companions at the club 
sniggers of complacency. 

iney will find something here to 

»IS wer and a better remedy than. 

jwtiable resort to a new Holy" 

Ailiance. 

;They will find also a theory of 
i-iotory which dismisses World 
ii Trance for the sUpshod half- 
ritüth defeatism that it is. " We 
Jight," says Wells, '* to preserve 
tiie fruits of two great inter- 
national revolutions, the great 
French Revolution, which 
ülTered m a n k i n d liberty, 
oquality and fraternity, and the 
.still mightier effort of Russia to 
reorganise society upon a basis 
that would abolish the economic 
enslavement of the masses of 
humanity. Both thesfi great 
thrusts trace their beginning to 
older revolutionary drives in 
Britain aryl America ; ^ach has 
betrayed the weaknesses of 
experiment, and it is the piain 
task of all right-minded men to 
defend all that has been gained 
by these • great upheavals, and 
carry us to that complete world- 
Wide reconstruction modern 
conditions have made necessary." 




million of them — in the princi 
pl^s of his Rights of Mari. 

The new book is described as 
a continuation of Wellst 
Experiment in Autobiography 
It is not quite that. It turnj 
aside too often to slice off an- 
other head or pulverise anothe. 
prejudice. Yet it will serve the 
excellent purpose of consolidat 
ing the doctrines which he hae 
preached and of fixing his place 
among the prophets. The idea^ 



Experiment in Autobiography have poured forth from him in 



U eMgmeraria t^n back a makc^s aiV tele s.Vitx^x-.ki««^' 
Hb eMgmes ana xuin OdCK..- a., normw naf nnal «?tj; ^annear 






System modelled on the. 
ciples of Mettern ich. The\l:>dokf 
(which incidentally omit$ t 
nriention the Russian Revolutjo 
and several kindred icci 
phenomena) has received wid 
spread applause from thpse? 
weary brains, who prefer Ihe 
dismal past to an adventuious 
fut'Ure and "do not wish to wotry 
their heads about the internal; 
Uresses of our society. 

Let them read Wells's new 
book before they continue recomt 
mending World in Trance td 



nPHE author of the Outline of 
-■" History has not renounced 
the bursting eloquence and 
glorious hopes with which that 
great book concludes. His 
detractors and traducers cannot 
make him budge. The gospel of 
internationalism still Stands as 
the creed which sane and decent 
men should strive for and foster; 
the division betwcen master and 
man remains as the profound 
cause of the world's misery. 
After all the turmoil of his 
life and the horror of our 
present timcs he. is still able 
to proclaim with all the assur- 
ance of one of his heroes, Tom 
Paine: " It is not true that God 
made , men rieh and poor: he 
made them male and female and 
gave them the whole earth for 
their inheritance." 

England and London should be 
proud to have produced so 
fearless and towering a prophet. 
They should have in him the 
same kind of pride which he has 
in the true achievements of his 
na^iye count ry, a pride which 



1 
1 



the narrow nationalists ^appear 
tawdry and worthless. 

He sings an anthem made up 
of the great names in English 
history, from John- Ball forwards 
to the present age. It is the 
story of a mighty throng of rebels 
unsurpassed iA any land, and 
to-day H. G. Wells, the great 
educator of these generations, 
has established the title to see 
his name also set down upon that 
scroll. 

* '42 to '44, by H. G. Wclls.^i 
Secker and Warburg, £2 2s. fa 



afl 

C01 

Stj 

ai 
h< 



THE SPECTATOR, AUGUST 



2 5> 1944 



167 



of World affairs and of America*s place in thc Community of nations 
may incidentally buik larger in thc light of history than thc early 
achievemcnts of his administration in domestic policy. 

There are undeniable elcments of greatness in this man. But 
nothing will avail to maintain his poUtieal authority after the con- 
clusion of thc war. His various reluctant supporters are bound to 
fall out amongst themselves between the end of the war and the 
end of thc fourth term ; and even Roosevelt's political dexterity 
will not be able to cope with the anticipated frictions. The fact is 
that his uncanny dexterity would long since have been subject to the 
law of diminishing returns had not the war intervened. A certain 
young Democratic Congressman, personally devoted to Roosevelt, 
dcclared some months ago that if Mr. Willkie were nominated he 
would inform his constitiiency that he intended to vote for the 
Republican candidate, despjte Mr. Roosevelt's great achievements. 
He would justify this action by the fear of the chaos which might 
occur in Washington between the close of the war and the end of 
the fourth term. The Repubhcan rejection of Mr. Willkie has 
undoubtedly prompted a revision in the young Congressman's plans. 
But his fears are fairly typical of the apprehensions with which many 
will cast their votes for Mr. Roosevelt. These apprehensions are 
naturally mixed with gratitude for his real achievements in both 
cfomestic and foreign policy. . » . . 



,/.' 



"UNITED" NATIONS? 

By DAVID THOMSON • v 

THE meeting of British, Russian and United States representatives 
at Dumbarton Oak