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Full text of "Lepidoptera, rhopaloceres and heteroceres, indigenous and exotic; with descriptions and colored illustrations"


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INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC. 



Not only is our own and the Lepidopterous fauna of other countries constantly 
receiving numerous additions, but innumerable species of already described 
Lepidoptera, both native and exotic, have never been figured, and, as a conse- 
quent result, are in very many cases unknown to the student. The object of 
this work is to give accurate colored illustrations of new and hitherto unfigured 
species, the preference being given to those of North America. 

It is being published in monthly parts, each part containing one colored 
plate; I will put on each plate as many figures as possible, the upper and 
under surfaces will be given, also both sexes and larva, with stages of transforma- 
tion wherever possible; the figures will all be drawn and colored from nature 
by myself; as complete technical description and history of species as possible 
will always be given. 

Parts 1, 2 and 3 are already out and ready for delivery. Part 1 contains 
figures of Plalysamia Gloverii, c? 9, a magnificent new species from Arizona. 

Part 2 has Papilio Indra, ?, from Colorado, Pap. Anticostiensis, 9, new 
species, from Anticosti Island near Labrador, Papilio Pilumnus, cf, New Mex- 
ico, and Pieris Menapia, 9, Vancouver's Island, 8 figures. 

Part 3 is devoted to N. American Catocalid*, and contains 11 figures, 10 
species, viz : fig. 1, Catocala Tristis, Edw , 2, 0. Viduata, Guen., 3, C. Lachry- 
mosa, ^juen., 4, C. Obscura, New Species, 5, 6, C. Ilelicta, Walk., 7, C. Briseis, 
Edw , 8, C. Faustina, New Species, 9, C. Cocciuata, Grote, 10, C. Cerogama, 
Guen., 11, C. Serena, Edw. 

These are drawn and colored with such accuracy that a glance is sufficient to 
iden'ify the species. 

My intention is to give one month Diuruals and the next Heteroceres, and 
so on alternately; every third or fourth plate will be N. American Catocalidse 
until the genus is exhausted. 

Only a limited number of copies are printed, (after which the drawings are 
erased,) and will be furnished to subscribers only, at 50 cents per number, ex- 
clusive of postage ; persons can remit the money as they receive the parts, or 
pay a year's subscription in advance, as best may suit their convenience. 

HERMAN STRECKER, 

Box 111, Reading P. 0., Berks Co., Pennsi/lvania. 



PATES ^^ FU?LIC.hTIC!: 



!'c. 1 




January l, 1872 


2 




April, IS 73 


3 




-ay, 1873 


h 




June, 1873 


5 




July, 1873 


6 




August, 1873 


7 




September, 1873 


8 




1S7U 


o 




1C7U 


10 




137I| 


11 




I87h 


12 




IP 75 


13 




1876 


Ih 




!'arch, 18-^8 


15 




July, 1878 


Suppl. 


1 


13 ?8 ' 




2 


18?? 




3 


1?00 






LEPIDOPTERA, 



RHOPALOCERES AND HETEROCERES, 



INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC; 

WITH 

Descriptions and Colored Illustrations, 

BY 

HERMAN STRECKER. 

U 

WIIJUIAM BARKES, M. D. 
DECATUR, 11,1,. 

Reading, Pa., January i, 1872. 



flatting, ia.: 

OwEx's Steam Book and Job Printing Office, 515 Court Sjeeet, 

1872. 




/ 



b 



WILLIAM LAnJVES, 

DECATUR, ILLINOIS. 



/ 



349828 




/'\-jg& 






Dratvn by /Jcrman Strfrker 



PLATYSAMIA GL OVERT 16 2 9 



ADYERTISEMENT. 



Xot only is our own, and the Lcpidopterou.s liiuna of other oountrio?, constantly rotciving 
numerous additions, but inuuiuerable species of ali-eady described Lepidoptera, both native 
and exotic, have never been figured, and as a consequent result are in very many instances 
unknown to the student. Having, (hiring the course of over twenty years' study and collect- 
ing, amassed a great quantity of material, I have concluded to endeavor to carry out my long- 
cherished idea of publishing illustrations and descriptions of such undescribed species as I 
may possess or have access to. The numljcr is immense, embracing niany uniques, types, and 
other great rarities of the North American fauna; also to figure such species as have been 
heretofore described but not figured. I do not intend to confine myself strictly to North 
American species, but will illustrate new or unfigured species from anv other part of the 
world — as the value of exotics for purposes of comparison, I think no one will dispute. 
Inasmuch as nature, or nature's God, did not divide the earth into kingdoms, counties, or 
townships, I don't see why we should do so in scientific matters. For my part, T con- 
sider an example from Europe, Africa, or elsewhere, as interesting an object of study as 
a North American one ; but, of course, as it happened to be my luck to be born on that 
portion of the eartli's mud, stones, and water, called Ainorica, I will give jircccdenec to 
the species of this country. It is my purpose to issue one number every month — each 
number to have one plate ; but where tiie size of the species will admit, T will put as 
many figures on one plate as possible. Where they are of small size, I will give some- 
times as high as a dozen species on the same plate, but only less than tw" when the size 
is very large — as in the first illustration, where one necessarily occupied tii<' whole page. 
Of course U2)2)er and under surface will always be given, and both .'^cxes with larv;e and 
stages of transformation whenever possible. The figures will all be drawn and colored by 
myself from nature. My wish is to secure a sufficient number of subscribers, at as early 
a date as possible, to pay the expenses of printing and paper. The hope of being even 
in a small M'ay useful in this my favorite science will be more than sufficient reward for 
my own trouble and labor. As soon as I can secure an ade<(uate number of subscribers, 
I will add one other plate to each number, without increasing the i)rico — wliich is fifty 
cenits per number. I will always give as complete technical description and history of 
species as possible, also such observations or facts as I may deem of general interest to 
the Entomologist. 

Trusting that the Entomological world, and friends of Science and Art generally, will 
feel enough interest in my undertaking to send in their names and subscription price for 
A. D. 1872, viz : six dollars, at as early a date as convenient, 

I am youi-s, truly, 

HERMAN STKECKER, 
Box 111 Reading P. 0., Berks Co., Pa. 



-^-' 



PLATYSAMIA GLOYERI. NOT. SP. 



Mai,k. Expands 4i inches. 

Antennsc pectinated. Head and thorax dark l)rownish red ; collar white; ahdomeii 
alternately banded with ilark brown and white. 

Upper surface, primaries, inner half dark reddish l,rown, with a dirty white ban.l 
near the base, and a small white oval discal spot bordered on the outer and inner sides 
with black ; the dark red eolored space is bounded outwardly by a white transverse l)and 
extending from the costa to the interior margin, widening at the latter termination ; the 
space immcdiatelv beyond the white band, occupying fully two-thirds of the exterior half ot 
the surface, is dark grev, composed of black and white scales, the exterior portion being 
the darkest ; the remaining space between this' and the exterior margin is dirty grey, 
traversed by a serpentine black line ; a short space in from the apex on the costa is a 
small black spot, from which a zigzag white line extends a short distance to another larger 
black spot of an oval shape, which has within it a pale blue crescent ; the space from this 
latter black spot to the costa, and from tlie zigzag line almost to the white transverse band 

is violet. . . 

Secondaries have a white basal patch, also a white transverse band, as in Cecropia, tlie 
color between this band and the base is dark brosvnish red ; in the centre is a moderately 
large lunate disc.al spot, white edged with black ; of the remaining space, between the trans- 
verse band and the exterior margin, the inner two-thirds is composed of black and white 
scales, as in the primaries, and the outer third is light, dirty grey, wliich latter is divided by 
a black line, on the inside of which line, running parallel with it, is a row of irregularly 

shaped black spots. 

Under suriace same as above, with the exception of the ground color ot the secondaries 
between the transverse bands and base, which is composed of black and white scales instead 
of being dark red as on the upper surtace. 

Fkmai.e. Expands 5| inches. 

Antennas not as broadly pectinated as in the male. Ilea<l an<l thorax brownish or brick 
red, much the same as in ordinary forms of Cecropia ; abdomen alternately bande<l with the 

same color and white.* 

On the primaries the transverse white ban.l is somewhat irregular, and rounded out- 
wardly ; the basal band also rounded ; the diseal spot larger than in male, and slightly 
lunate ; the ground color between the transverse band and base is brownish red, ol a slightly 
different tint than the thorax ; the portion beyond the transverse band, light dirty grey as 
far as the serpentine line, the inner third of it powdered with a band of reddish scales 
broader near the exterior margin, and narrowing towards the costa ; margin outside of 
serpentine line dirty white, shaded slightly exteriorly ; the black apical spots and violet patch 
same as in male. 

* As the bodies of n.y exaiup'e.s were mucl. nibbed ^Yhe^ I received them, some allowance must be made for 
this portion of my description. 



-9- 



rLATY.SA.MlA LiLOVEKl. 

Sceon<laricr;. Color same as in primaries: ornamentation same as in male, except the 
(liscal spot whieli is tlouble tlu' size. 

lender surface marked same as ilic npi>er : coloration same as in under .surfiiec of male. 

ITal)ifut. Arizona. 

This species 1 Iiave nameil in honor of tiiat most indefatigable of all hard working- 
naturalists, Prof. Townend (Jlovcr, of ^\'ashingtu^, D. C, who fir.st .showed me examples of 
it, which were saiil to have eome from lower California, but as L. AA'eidcmeyerii, Parn. 
Smintheus, and other northern Montane s[)ecies were sent along in company with it, I ex- 
prcs.<c<l my douVjts regarding that locality, which have since been confirmed by my receiving 
a female example from Arizona. 

Of the distinctness of this species from P. lOuryale, Boisd., (!'. Californiea Grote, ) and 
P. Ceerojiia, there cannot be a i)artielc of doubt, but what relation it may bear to P. Columbia, 
Smith, I am unable to say, (tliough the wide differenee in locality convinces mo they are dis- 
tinct,) as I believe no figure has yet been published of the latter species, and Prof. S. J. Smith's 
types are all contained in some instifutinn in Massaclnisetts, and the species must consequently 
remain a blank to the scientifi<- world, until some one gives a figure of it. Apropos to this giv- 
ing (leseri|)tions without figures, 1 may say that we Americans certainly occnpy a niost inienvia- 
ble pre-eminence ; it" we had more figures and fewer ilescri[>tions there would \)v, 1 have little 
doubt, niort' satisfaction ami considerably less confusion among scientists. The idea of ex- 
pecting anythingshort of the -npernatnral to identify a TA-c;ena, llesperia, or any of the smaller 
noetuid;e, by a mere description, is jn'cjHistcrous. Why, even larger species cannot thus be 
identified. I wf)uld like to sec the Entomologist who could, by any description, identify or 
separate from each other Vanessa Polychloros, Californiea, Xanthomelas, and L'hnusa — yet 
although probably sprung from the same root, they are different in ajipcarance when placed 
side by side, and exist in localities widely remote from each other. I would say the .same of 
A"an. .1. Album and V. Album, or of many of the Coliades. Many and many a time have I, 
when a whole evening was wasted, trying with aching head to find out whether some little 
butterfly was something or something else, consigned the discoverer of the species in (juestion 
to all kinds of unspeakable torments. Here is a sample of the result of tliis st;itc of affairs, 
as show n by the latest synopsis of North American Butterflies, by W. IT. Edwards : Thccla 
llunudi, Harris, is Melinus, Hub., Pavonius, Bois. tt Lee, and Hypcrici, Lois. & Lee., 
T. Edwardsii, Saunders is Falacer, Harris and Calanus, Grote & Eobinson, while Calanus, 
Hub., is Falacer, Godt. T. Viridis, Edwards, is Humetorum, Boisd. T. Henrici, Grote, is 
Arsace, Boi,se & T,ec. fACjena Anna, Edwards, is Cajona, Reakirt, Argyrotoxus, Bchr, and 
Philemon, Boisd. 

The female of Colia> Eurydice has been in its time Gonepteryx Rhanini, Gonepteryx 
Lonpiinii, and lastly Megonost(mia Helena, Male ! and if the brilliant colored male had not 
been at last coupled to his plain spouse, heaven knows what she would not have been. I 
might go on multiplying instances ad libitum, but until the descriptions of species arc accom- 
l>anicd by correct figures, every new species descriljcd will but add to confusion confounded. 



NOTES KELATIYE TO SOME VARIETIES OF LEPlDorTKRA. 



HESPERIA rOC'llAHONTAS, SciuldtT, I am coniidont is a Melanotic Female variety 
of'H. Hobomok, Harris. During the month of June, tor a number of years, I have taken in 
riome meadows, a mile or so from Reading, Pa., ITobomok male and female in large numbers; 
also Pochahontas at the same time and place, but in upwards of twenty }-ears collecting, I 
have never yet captured or even seen a male Pochahontas, nor have I ever seen Pochaliontas 
unless Hobomok was also in the .same vicinity. A number of naturalists and collectors assure 
me of the same facts. Even a casual examination of the under surface will show that the 
markings in Hobomok and Pochahontas are the same in delineation, though not in color. 

VANESSA LINTNERII, Fitch. 1 have of this variety of V. Antiopa, lour examples, 
two of which were taken in the sexual act. 

EUCH/ETES EGLE. If the white EuehaHes Egle is an Albina var. of (he slate colored 
one, why is it that where the white one is abundant, tlie grey one docs not occur? On the line 
of the East Pennsylvania Railroad, near Reading, Pa., the white one can be taken by hun- 
dreds, but I have never met with a grey one in tliis county, (Berks), while Mr. Edw. Graef, 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., a most careful collector, says that he has taken the grey one in some 
localities in large numbers, but has never seen a white one in the .same places. 



^7 - 




Hermnn Streci'er Del 



I ■ 



IP/PILIO INDRArT'.SP.ANTICOSTIEMSIS Q .3 P. PILUMNUS <? 

4PIERlSMENAPiA^. 



PAPILIO INDRA. Rkakirt. 

PROC. EXT. SOC. PHIL, VI. p. 123, 180G. 



Male. Expands 3 inches. 

Antenna?, head and tliorax black, two small yellow spo(.s behind the eyes, sides of collar 
and patagiie dull yellow; abdomen black with a yellow dash on each side of the anal segment. 

Ui^per surface black, ])rimaries with a sub-marginal row of eight pale yellow lunate spots 
■which become gradually smaller as they approach the posterior angle; also a band of nine 
larger spots of same color, extending from costa to inner margin, the second one having a black 
mark on the inner end ; disco-cellular nervules defined by a yellow line. 

Secondaries have the yellow band of the primaries continued ; this band is divided by the 
black veins into seven parts, the three nearest to the costal and the two nearest to inner margin 
are of parallelogram form, and pretty much of one size ; the two remaining parts, laying be- 
tween the second sub-costal and third median veinlets arc of irregular shape, extending iii 
obtuse points beyond the lino of the others ; along the outer margin are five yellow spot.s, the 
one nearest the outer angle is a mere dot ; the next, which is the largest, is oval, and the 
three remaining ones are lunate ; the anal spot is large, fulvous, and encloses a black jiupil ; 
in the space between the inner band and sub-marginal spots is a series of clusters of blue scales, 
almost obsolete towards the costa, but becoming more distinct as they approach the interior 
margin, where the last and best defined one surmounts the anal ocellus ; emarginations regular 
and pale yellow, the tail, if it deserve such a distinction, is but little more than a tooth. 

Under surface, ground color, paler, that of markings much the same as on upper surface ; 
on the primaries the sub-marginal lunules are larger than above ; the inner band remains the 
same; on secondaries the markings of the upper side are al.so reproduced, with the addition of 
one more lunule placed between the first and second median nervules, also, the one nearest the 
outer angle, which is on the upper surface indicated by a mere yellow dot, is here advanced to 
the dignity of a respectable sized crescent, tinged in the middle with fulvous ; some greyish 
yellow scales are in conjunction with the blue ones intermediate between the lunular and mesial 
bands. 

Of the female I am not fortunate enough to be able to say anything, for the one reason, 
that, as far as I am aware of, no examples of the sex have yet turned up ; all the specimens I 
know of being the males in the museums of the Am. Ent. Soc, W. H. P^dwards and myself, 
which were taken by Mr. Ridings at Pike's Peak, Colorado, in 1861, nor has any collector 
since been lucky enough to obtain it. 

Mr. Reakirt in his description of this species in the Proc. Ent. Soc. says : " I cannot 
reconcile this beautiful species with Dr. Boisduval's description of Pap. Aristor Godt." neither 
can I nor do I think it was much worth the while to say so considering that Pap. Aristor 
is described as a tailed species with a band of five spots, some red, some yellow on the under 



~t - 



jQ PAPIT.IO INDRA. 

«idc of .ccomkrie., not to consider the fact that it is a tropical speeics probably Central 

trican or West indian ; he further ad.ls in continuance " to which .ah Astenns .t n.us be 
closclv allied." it donbtlcss stands nearer the Astenus group than to any othc. but it ,» 

Ut net enough to stand on its o^vn merits; we all know that Asterius as on the abdomen four 

s of spotsrtwo dorsal and two lateral, as also has P. Sadalus Luc, the > ov. Spec, described 

on the sueceedino' nn._n>, and some other tropical American spec.es ot whose ulentity I am 

t it ee"ain:wl' ii; in P. Indra the abdomen were it not for the two small lateral dashes 

on tl e anal segment would be entirely black, moreover instead of a small round spot on each 

^Hf the colhr as in Asterius, not only the sides of the coUar but the ^ -^^ surfijce^ ^ 
patacria- are yellow, of an obscure shade ; in this spec.es, on the under s.de thei^ . not the 

h1 rtest indication of fulvous on the i.u.er bands as is invariably the ease w.th Asterms and 
near allies ; it .my also be worth while to note that this is the only ta.Uess Amer.can Pap.l.o 

rio far found north of Mexico. p. , • i-i v.ffi.,.,.A 

Mr Ridin.s captured at the same time with l..d.-a, examples of Aster.u^, wh.ch d.f!e ed 
innowis'e from those found in other localities ; in connection with this fact T would quote what 
Mr W V Hewitso.i whose authoritv few would be inclined t... d.sp.ite, says: in Proc. Zool. 
ioc' of 'Lo-idon, 1850, '• that two in^sects differing but slightly are most likely dist.net species 
if they come from the same locality ; but if they come from a distance they ave most l.kcly he 
same species changed bv the difference of locality." As no illustrat.on accompanies the 
original descriptio.!, nor has any sb.ee been published, 1 thought it might not be am.ss to 
head mv seeo.id plate with a figure of this pretty insect. I bel.eve I have now said all la 
prese.,t'know in regard to this species, whi..h is one of the few out of the many deser.bed U 
Reakirt tint will be able to hold its own. 



TAriLlO ANTICOSTIENSIS, NOT. Sr. 



Mai.k. Expands 2^ inches. 

Antenna^ head and bodv black, a s.nall yellow spot behind ea.'h eye, two la,-ger spots 
of dull yellow on back of collar, patagi;e dusky yellow, four rows of yellow spots on abdo.nen, 

as in Asterius. . n i -.i ji 

Upper surface black, primaries with two rows of yellow spots running parallel with the 
exterior margin, the outer one composed of eight spots, of which the three nearest the apex 
are round and nearlv of a size ; the next four are oval and a little larger ; the last one is gem- 
inate ; the spots composing the inner band are nine in number, and much larger; the one 
nearest the costa is oval, and not in line with the others, being nearer the discal cell ; the 
second one is an oblong triangle, almost divided at the inner end by a black dash ; the next 
five arc also triangular, and increase in size as they near the interior margin ; the e.ghth .s 
the largest, and square in form ; the ninth is narrow ; a yellow discal bar ; fringes alternately 
black and vellow. 



PAPILIO ANTICOSTIENSIS. 11 

Sepondaries have six yellow sub-marginal lunules, the one nearest to anal angle much 
the smallest; also an inner baud of seven yellow spots, the two nearest the costal mar- 
gin almost square, the next four oblong, and the last triangular ; between these two macular 
bauds is a row of spots comjiosed of blue atoms; anal spot, deep fulvous, edged below with 
yellow, and contains a black pupil ; emarginations yellow ; tails one-fourth of an inch in 
Jength. 

Under surface dark brown, ornamentation much as above ; outer row of spots on superiors 
larger than on upper side, paler in color, and more round in form; inner row pale fulvous, 
margined with light yellow ; on secondaries the centres of the four outer spots between the 
costa and third median veinlct are fulvous; the spots comprising the inner band are also ful- 
vous, edged on inner sides with yellow ; a small yellow discal spot ; space between outer and 
inner bands filled with greyish yellow scales, also a few blue ones nearest the inner band. 

Female. Expands 3J inches. 

The description of the male will apply almn.~t equally mcU to the fonialc, excepting that 
the ground color is not quite .so dark, the inner bands are much broader and the black pupil 
in the anal eye, which is round in the former sex, is oblong in this ; the foregoing with the 
figure in the accompanying plate will, I trust, be sufficient for purposes of identification, for, 
after all, one good figure will do more towards determining a .species than any quantity of 
written description however careful. 

Habitat. Fox Bay, Anticosti Island ; Labrador. 

For this species I am indebted to my valued friend Mr. AVm. Coupci-, of Montreal, who 
took several specimens of both sexes, whilst on a collecting tour last summer, ( 1872,) in the above 
localities. He says : " when I arrived at Fox Bay, Anticosti, last June it was extremely rare ; 
and I captured only four specimens in fifteen dayf5, the specimens were fresh on the 20th of 
June, they generally flew low frequenting the flowers of a species of Wild Pea, which occurs 
abundantly on the banks of rivers in Anticosti and Labrador. I experienced great difficulty 
in approaching them with the net ; its flight is rapid and low, extending along the margin of 
rocky cliffs and in grassy places near the Bay, near tide mark ; I never noticed them in the 
woods, they ajipearcd to keep entirely within the circuit of the Bay and I remarked the same 
fact on the Labrador coast, where I also found them hovering about the flowers of the Wild 
Pea; towards the end of July their strength gives way and if the weather be cool, tattered 
specimens may bo taken by hand, it is the only species of Papilio, so far noticed by me, either 
in Anticosti or I^abrador. " 

When I received from frii'ud Coupcr the box of Anticosti Lopid, my first impression as 
I glanced at its contents was that this species was Asterius and thtit both examples were males 
at that, but a closer examination soon convinced me to my surprise that the one with the most 
yellow was a female, I then thought it might be Saunder's P. Brevieauda described in a foot 
note in Packard's Guide to Entomology, page 246, but on consulting that publication, I 
found it did not agree with his description in several im)>ortant particulars, in Brevieauda on 
upper side of primaries the sjiots composing the inner band, with the exception of the one 
nearest the costa arc fulvous, in my species they are all yellow without the slightest indication 
of fulvous; on secondaries the spots of inner band are "fulvous from near the middle to the 
outer edge," in Anticostiensis these spots are entirely yellow; the tails in Brevieauda, as its 
name would indicate are " very short, scarcely one-eighth of an inch long — not more than 
half the length of those of Asterius;" in the species I have just described, they are the same 



,2 PAPII.IO ANTICOSTIENSIS. 

length as tl.oso of .spwimens of Asterius, from the Exstcrii, Middle and Western States and 
Colorado, but shorter tluui those from Florida. Brcvicauda was taken at St. John's 

N<>\vfouiidland. 

I now again had the pleasant excitement incidental to endeavoring to study out bare 
descriptions, unaceompanie.l by figures, and in my misery I wrote to Mr. Conpcr, in Montreal, 
reciuestin'r him to trv to sec the types of Brevicauda, and compare his examples with them, or 
if that was impossible, to write to Mr. Saunders, of Ontario, Canada, who described 
it an.l with whom he was aequainted, concerning the species ; after some time Mr. Couper 
wrote: " I eommunieated with the Rev. Canon Innes, (in whose collation arc specimens of 
Brevicauda,) and Mr. W. Saunders, asking for information regarding P. Brevicauda; up to 
this instani', no answer irom either ;" this certainly was not very satisfactory, but as I was 
not particularlv anxious to make a fool of myself by re-christening old species, I importuned 
Mr Couper to try the gentleman with another epistolary shot ; in duo time, under date 
March 17th, 1873, came another letter from Couper, thus : "I have jHirposcly delayed a 
reply to vour favor of 2d, because since its receipt I wrote again to Mr. W. Saunders for the 
desired information, and mv letter was written in terms which could not deter him from 
answering; however, no answer has been received;" after receiving this letter, I, of course 
concluded that Mr. Saunders' time was of too much value to be encroached upon, and 
requested Mr. Couper to by no means trouble him again, as his dignified silence at last 
brought me to a proper sense of my true position, and was a merited punishment to both 
Couper and mvself for our temerity. 

However,' I believe this is distinct from Brevicauda, and if it be not, it is an absurdity 
to retain that name; the probabilitv, after all, is, that Brevicauda and Anticostiensis, (if they 
be not the same,) arc both varieties of Asterius ; if such is the case, they have the merit, at 
lea«t of bein- verv marked and interesting ones, which, I trust, will be considered sufficient 
rca,so'ii for my iiaving figure.l the latter ; 1 di,l not figure the male, as I considered the female 
the most remarkable on account of the greater width of the macular inner bands. Mr. Couper 
tookon Anticostl Isla.i.l at the same time with this species, Colias Interior, Scud ; Pieris Irig- 
ida,Scud.; Chionobas.Jutta,Hub.; Ly. Lucia, Kirby ; Ly. Scudderii, Kdw.; Ly Nov.Sp.? 
Thvatira Pudcns, Giieii.; SesiaUniformis, Grote-; and many other Lep. as well as Coleoptera ; 
he starts again for same loealitv next month on another collecting tour ; he expects to be able 
to find the larv;o of Anticostiensis, and I hope he will meet with the success he so well 
deserves. 



April, 1873. 



PAriLIO PILUMNUS. Boi.duval. 

BOISD. SP. GEN. I. p. 340, n. 181, (183(i.) 
MENETKIES, CAT. MUS. PETR. LEP. II. p. 110, t. 7. f. 2. ( 1857.) 



Male. Expands 3J inches. 

Body yellow; a broad black dorsal, narrow lateral and a broader ventne band ; antcnnie 
black. 

Upper surface, chrome yellow, primaries, costa narrowly black, five transverse black 
bauds ; first basal, second extending from inner third of costal margin to same distance on 
inner ; third, a mesial and convergent band extending from the costa to first median uervule, 
covering the disco-cellular veins ; fourth, short situated midway between third and fifth 
bands, extending from costa to first radial vein ; fifth and terminal one very broad, extending 
along whole outer margin, covering one-third of the whole area of the wing, containing two 
rows of imperfect yellow lunules, nearly confluent, outer ones large and distinct, the inner of 
segregated atoms. 

Secondaries, three transverse black bands, continuations of the first, second and fifth of 
primaries, first and second converging to a point on the abdominal margin about three-fourths 
its length and separated from the terminal border by two fulvous crescents, preceeded by a 
narrow yellow line, the outer band with six yellow long straight or lunulate bars all of 
which are more or less tinged with fulvous, interior to these the band is irrorated with four 
shining blue crescent-shaped patches, a black discal mark ; tri-tailed of which the outer is the 
longest and tapering, yellow cilicX' on inner side, other tails one-half and one-quarter the 
length of the outer one ; emarginations yellow. 

Under surface, paler than above, bands of upper surface repeated, but brown instead of 
black ; the six lunulate bars near outer margin of secondaries, fulvous ; on inner side these 
are joined by black, irregular shaped patches, M'hich are in turn surmounted by shining blue 
crescents, edged above with black. 

I have seen but one female, and as nearly as I can recollect, she resembles the male very 
closely, but was larger, probably expanding four inches, or over. 

It is a matter of astonishment that so large and beautiful a butterfly of our own Itiuna 
should be so rare in N. American collections ; in fact, I know of but two examples ; the 
female above alluded to, which came from New Mexico, and is in the collection of Mr. W. 
H. Edwards, and the male, from Avhich the accompanying figure was drawn, I received from 
Vera Cruz, jMexico. I have no better reason for giving an illustration of a butterfly that has 
been already both described and figured, than that I think it the finest of its genus found in 
North America, and, secondly, Menetries' Catalogue is not a work likely to be found at every 
book-stall and finally, must I confess it, I did not know that there was a plate of it, until, 
after I had drawn mine ; so if confession is good and wholesome, I trust I am somewhat 
benefited thereby if no one else is. 



PIERIS MENAPIA. Felder. 

Weill. Eiit. Monat. III. p. 271, n. 18. (1859.) 

Reise Nov. Lep. 11. p. 181, n. 172. t. 2.5, f. 7. ( ISC'j. ) 

Pierts Tau. Scudder. Proc. Boston Nat. Hist. See. VIII. p. 183, (ISGl.) 

PierU Xinonia, Boisd. Lep. Cal. p. 38, n. 5. ( 1869. ) 

Neophasia Menapia, Behr Trans. Am. Ent. SoC: (1869.) 

Edwards Butterflies of X. Am. Part 8, (1871.) 



Female. Expanse 2 inches. 

Antennse black, tliroax black with white hairs ; abdomen blackisii above near the tliorax, 
rest white. 

Upper surface white, primaries, costji edged with black rather broadly till to the discal 
vein on which it is continued to its extremity; a black border with inner edge sinuous, 
broader at apex and diminishing to a mere line at inner angle, extends from costa downwards, 
within this border are six irregular white spots, the one nearest the inner angle being much 
the smallest. 

Secondaries have an irregular sub-marginal black line, from which to the exterior margin 
the veins arc edged with black, which Midens at their tips, forming as it were .six large white 
s[iot,s, from the space between tlie veins and sub-marginal line and exterior margin. 

Under surface white, primaries nearly the same as above, spots in border a little larger. 
Secondaries, veins all margined with brownish black ; sub-marginal band as above ; costa and 
interior margin edged with rose or flesh color ; a row of marginal lunulate spots and a line 
of same color running parallel with and adjoining the inside of the sub-median nervure. 

This species, of which I am not aware any figure of the female has heretofore been pub- 
lished, has had almost as rough a time of it as had Colias Eurydice ; it is evident, that until 
very lately, the tcmale was entirely unknown to Lepidopterists in this country ; Mr. W. H. 
Edwards, in his Butterflies of N. Aiuerica, part 8, gives three excellent representations, all 
males, although one of them he supposed was a female, and described it as such in the accom- 
panying text. Scudder, in the Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. History, 1861, where he redcscribed it 
under the name of Pieris Tau, gives elaborate descriptions of both sexes, of which he says: "a 
large number of specimens are in the Museum of Comparative Zoology obtained by Mr. 
Agassiz at Gulf of Georgia ;" now it is evident from the description that either all of the 
specimens above alluded to were males, or else Mr. Scudder gave them a \-ery careless examina- 
tion, indeed, for the only difference he mentions between the sexes is that on the upper surface 
of secondaries the female " repeats slightly at the outer angle, the markings of the lower sur- 
face ;" then, after stating that " it rejiresents in AVashington Territory the P. Sisimbrii Boisd. 
of California," (which it does not resemble a bit, either in size, shape or markings,) he goes on 
to say that the way he distinguishes between males and females in his foregoing description 
was founded on the "cut of the hind margin of secondaries ;" lie then goes on and gives some 



PIERLS MEXAPIA. 15 

minute differences in the shape of the wings, but docs not make any mention whatever of the 
black mesial line on upper surface, or the very remarkable flesh-colored edging of costa, and 
six marginal lunules of same color on under surface of secondaries ; so we must come to the 
conclusion that Scudder fell into the same error as W. H. Edwards, and described both sexes 
from male specimens only. 

I would suggest whilst on this subject that it might be better ])erhaps, instead of heeding 
imaginary difFeranccs in the cut of the wings, which only lead to error ; to bear in mind that 
in none of the Pierida are the male and female marked alike. 

Dr. Felder in the Weiner Monatschrift is more acurate, and appears to be the only one 
who has heretofore really known the female ; he notices that while the male has but five 
white spots, in the black apical patch, the female has six and also mentions that on secondaries 
of female, below, the costa, the basal and other spots are livid. 

For the example from which I made my drawing I am indebted to my valued friend, 
Mr. Henry Edwards, of California, who i-cccived it from A'ancouver's Island. 

April, 187.'5. 



NOTES ON SOME SPECIES. 



Papilio Burtonii, Peak., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 8<J, 1868, is a synonym of P. 
Columbus, Hew., Trans. Ent. Soc, Ser. II, Vol. 1, p. 98, t. 10, f 1, 1850. 

Papilio Caleli, Peak., Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., II, p. 138, 18G3, is Papilio Polymetus, 
Godt, Enc. Meth., 1810. 

Eresia Yorita, Peak., Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., \'., p. 224, 1805, is Ercsia Ezra, Hew., 
Ex. Butt., Ill, Ercs. t. 4, f 29, 1864. In Kirby's Catalogue, this is set down as variety 
of Eresia Theona, Men.; on what grounds I do not know, there certainlv is little or no 
resemblance. 

*Colias Semperi, Reak. is C. Dimera, Doubl., IIcw., Gen. D. L., t. 9, 

f. 3, 1847. Although Reakirt's name might be retained for tlie white female variety, which 
I believe he was the first to notice and describe. 

Lycffiua Helloides, Boisd., L. Castro, Reak., L. lantlie, Edw., concerning these there 
is some confusion, either Helloides is unknown in X. American collections or two of the 
above are synonyms, which latter I am inclined to believe is the real state of affairs, for I do 
not believe any one American collection can produce examples of all three ; Mr. Edwards 
has in his I believe Helloides and lanthe ; Mr. Mead has lanthe and Helloides, and I 
have helloides and Castro, but my Helloides is the same as the lanthe of the others and 
ray Castro is like their Helloides, a specimen of the typical Helloides from Dr. Boisduval 
would be of some use here I trow. 

April, 1873. 

''I have in my possession the types of Reakirt's Semperi male and female, hut where he described it 1 cannot 
recollect or at the moment ascertain. 




Merman Sfreektr Del. 




/o 

// 






'Jnr<.s L^ 



CATOCALA TRISTIS. Edwards. 
PROC. EXT. SOC. PHIL. VOL. II, p. 'A\. (1864.) 



( PLATE HI, FIG. 1 ^ \ 



Expand-s \\ inclies. 

Head and tliorax light grcv ; abdomen above dark brown ; benoatli wliite. 

Primaries, from exterior margin to the undulate band, greyish with darker shade.? ; 
from thence to transverse posterior line white; the space interior of this to the base, with the 
exception of the wiiite open sub-reniform, is hglit grey; reniforni dark brown ; joining the 
sub-reniform on inside is a very distinct bhiek spot; another is on edge of costa at termination 
of the transverse anterior line: whole inner edge of wings .shaded with black to about one- 
fourth their width. 

Secondaries black, outer angle tipped with white. 

Under surface, primaries black, outer angle white, a broad white sub-marginal band. 

Secondaries black with white edge at outer angle as on upper side. 

Habitat. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Ehode Island. 

For the original of my figure I am indebted to Mrs. Bridgham, who collected several 
examples near Providence, Rhode Island. The smallest and rarest of all our known black 
winged species. 



CATOCALA VIDUATA, Glenee in ArrENrnx 
CATOCALA VIDUA. GUENEE, SPEC. GEN. VOL. VIII, p. 94. 



( PLATE III, FIG. 2 9 ) 



Expands 3i inches. 

Head and thorax grey ; collar banded witli chestnut; abdomen greyish brown ; beneath 
white. 

Upper surface, primaries ashen with brown shadings and powdered with black atoms ; 
a conspicuous black arc sweeps from the sub-apical dash, which forms a part of it, downwards 
to the reniform, thence obliquely upwards to the co.3ta; transver.se posterior line black, ac- 
companied outv.ardly by a brown band which is in turn succeeded ])y the grey undulate sub- 
marginal band ; reniform distinct and brown ; fringes grey. 

Secondaries black ; white fringes middle of which are jjcnciled with black; basal hair.s, 
heavy and greyish. 

Under surface white, on primaries tlic transverse bands are conrtucnt along the interior 



18 CATOCALA VIDITATA. 

Secondaries liiive marginal biiiul very broad, mesial moderate and strongly angulatc, white 
space between the two bands, very narrow. 

A southern species altiiough taken in a few rare instances in Pennsylvania. Examples 
are in the Mus. of tiie Am. Ent. Soe. and my own. The most robust and with the exception 
of the C'alifornian C. Marmoratii, the largest American Catocjda. With this species has 
freiiuentiy been <T>nfi>iindod C. Despcrata (!ucn. a smaller and slighter built insect, common 
throughout the Middh' and Southern States and which i.s figured in Abbot it Smitii, under 
the name of Plialaeno Vidua. 



CATOCALA LACHRYMOSA. (Uknkk. 

SPEC. GEN. VOL. VII p. 91!. 



^PLATE III, FIG. 3 c?) 



Expands 3 inches. 
Upper surface, primaries very dark and dusted witii minute pale grey scales, transverse 
lines black, sub-terminal distinct and sometimes sliaded interiorly with grey; the grey shad- 
ings of the transverse lines arc broader and brighter between the sub-median vein and interior 
margin ; whole surface of wings frosted and powdered in sucli a way as to make tiic markings 
very indistinct. 

Socouflarics bhuk, iVinges white, divided by black at terminations of nervules. 

I'nder surface much like ('. \'iduata. 

Habitat. Pennsylvania. 

1 iiave not seen examples from any other state ; it appeal's to be exceedingly local ; twi» 
years since a dozen or so were taken in a small piece of woods, four miles from Reading, but 
in none of the neighboring localities have I ever met with it. It is subject to much variation ; 
of six examples now bctbre me, none agree in the depth or quantity of the dark color of pri- 
maries ; the one figured on Plate III has the black, sub-terminal line, margined with grey of 
unusual brightness, whilst in another there is no accompanying grey at all ; yet another has 
tile third of the wing along the interior margin deep black, like in C". Tristis, and the most 
notable var. is one in wliieh the wliole space between the transverse anterior and sub- 
terminal lines is black, whilst the space from sub-marginal line to exterior margin is remark- 
ably ligiit and even colored, exactly after the manner of ('. Scintilians; tiiese were all taken 
the same day in one place. 

I must confess 1 can sec in this species none of the resemblance to C. Epione alluded to 
bv Mr. Grote," nmre than that they both have black inferiors ; under side of Lachrymosa is 
white, with usual black bands ; that of Epione is black, with, on primaries, a narrow white 
sub-terminal band, midway between which and the ba.se is a small white patch commencing on 
costa and running diagonally to middle of wing; secondaries have the merest trace of a very 
narrow, almost obsolete white band running from costa a short way in. 

■* Tr:ins. Am. Kill. S.ic, Vol. IV, pp. -J A 1!>. 



CATOCALA OBSCURA, NOV. SP. 

(PLATE III, FIG. 4 (J) 

Kxpands 2| to 21 inches. 

Thora.x above, dark grey ; alxloiucii black; beiieatli dirty white. 

Upper surface, ^'I'lmaries dark smoky grey, pretty evenly colored ; transverse anterior 
and posterior lines black, varying somewhat in width and distinctness in different examples ; 
a sub-terminal grey band between two brownish ones ; in some examples an almost obsolete 
reniforra, but in the majority this appears to be replaced l)y a small round deep brown or 
black discal spot; sub-reniform open. 

iSecondaries black ; fringes white, and in some cases black and white. 

Under surface white, with black bands. 

Habitat. New York. 

I received a number of this species from Mr. Angus who took them in the vicinity of the 
village of West Farms, N. Y. ; he says they are difficult to discover, as they secrete themselves 
in the crevices beneath the bark of trees, and the rustling of leaves, &c., will not start them 
from their hiding places ; nothing short of hard raps against the tree trunks will do it. It 
does not appear to be very rare ; I have seen examples in various collections for a number of 
years past under the name of Lachrymosa, Vidua, and Insolabilis, so to get it out of its ob- 
scurity, and as its a[)pearance is more obscure than any of its allies, I have christened it accord- 
ingly. 

Mav 1st, 1873. 



(JATO(JALA RELICTA. Walker 
7 CATOCALA FRAXINI, GUENEE, SPEC. GEN. VOL. VII, p. 83. 



( PLATE III, FIG. 5 cf , 6 ? ) 



Malk. Expands about 3 inches. 

Collar white ; thorax above white, mottled with black ; abdominal segments blackish, 
edged exteriorly with white ; beneath whole body is white ; anal tuft white. 

Upper surface, primaries white, with a distinct row of black terminal spots ; basal patch 
black, transverse bands and lines almost lost in C3ntre of wing, but become more distinct as 
they near the costal and interior margins ; rcniform spot tolerably distinct, sub-reniform 
almost obsolete. 

Secondaries black, with a regular narrow white median baud ; the discal spot of under 
surface is visible, the basal part of the wing not being as dark as the balance; fringes white. 

19 



i/ 



20 CATOCALA RELICTA. 

Under surface, primaries white, with broad dark brown marginal and median and paler 
basal bands; secondaries dark brown, basal patch large, wiiite, contains a black discal spot 
which connects exteriorly with tiie black nf the remaining portion of the wing, the white me- 
<lian band of the upper side repeated. 

Fkmai.e. Expands 3]- inches. 

Colors and markings as in male, but bands of primaries much intensified, heavier and 
better defined, and nearly whole surface more or less powdered with dark grey atoms. 

Under snriiicc less black on all wings than the male, discal sj)ot of inferiors smaller, 
lunate, and disconnected from the median black j)art. 

This is one of the rarest, as it certainly is the most beautiful dl" the X. American Cato- 
calidae; it is found occasionally in various parts of Xcw York, scl.lom in Pennsylvania, but 
occurs in some i)lcnty near Providence, Khode Island. 

I have little doubt, that when Guence in his Species General (N'ol. VII, p. 83,) credited 
X. America with C. Fra.xini it was from examjiles of (.'. Relicta that he drew his conclusion, 
although there are and have been rumors of a blue banded Catocala like the former occurring 
on the Pacific Coast, and time may resolve the rumors to a certainty, for we all know what a 
wonderful resemblance bears the Lepidoptcra of our Western Slope to those of Europe, and it 
would almost seem that eventually every Eumpean .Species is tt> fnid its analogue with us. 



CATOCJALA BRISEIS. Edwards 
PKOC. EXT. SOC. PHIL. II, p. .50S. (1SG4.) 



( PLATE III, FIG. 7. ? ) 

Fkmale. Ex])aiKln 2^' inches. 

Head and thorax above blackish grey, abdomen dark brown; beneath dirty white. 

Upper surfiiec, primaries blackish grey ; a sub-terminal white zig-zag band joined in- 
teriorly by a much broken space of mixed yellow and white ; reniform obscure, sub-reniform 
white, a white spot also joins the reniform on the inner side. 

Secondaries deep scarlet; a broad marginal band with two indentations on the inner edge 
towards the anal angle; median band i)roa(l and a little elbowed at centre : some i)lack mixed 
\\itli the red hairs of the basal jiortion. 

Fringes on all wings have the outer larger part white and the inner part adjoining the 
■wings black or dark grey. 

Under surface, primaries white with the usual three black bands; secondaries have inner 
three-fourths scarlet, remaining fourth white ; marginal and mesial bands as above ; a discal 
June which connects with inner edge of median band. 

Habitat. X"ew York, Rhode Island. 

Mus. Am. Ent. Soc, Mrs. Bridgham, Streckcr. 

The type is iu the museum of the Am. Ent. Soc. 

Uriscis, which is the rarest of its genus found in the Atlantic States, belongs to the same 



CATOCALA BRISEIS. 21 

group as Unijuga, Walk., Ireue, Behr, Callfornica, Edw., and the species described below, but 
the grey of the upper and red of the lower wings is much darker than in any of its congenors. 
With much regret that I can say so little of this beautiful moth, I will proceed to 

CATOCALA FAUSTINA, NOV. SP. 

( PLATE III, FIG. 8 (f ) 



Male. Expands 2| inches. 

Body above grey, beneath white. 

Upper surface, primaries blneish grey, powdered with brown atoms, marginal spots, 
transverse lines and bands well defined, reniform di.stinct, and surrounded by an outer circle 
which is produced in two points on exterior; sub-reniform white; above this and interior to 
the reniform is a Mhite space ; fringe light grey. 

Secondaries scarlet, median band moderately wide, angulated at centre outwardly, and / /' 

terminates somewhat abruptly about two lines from abdominal margin ; marginal band with a 
deep indentation between the first and second median nervules, apical spot and emargination.s 
rosy ; fringe on exterior margin white, on interior margin grey. 

Under surface, primaries white ; secondaries, interior two-thirds rosy, towards costa this 
color becomes lost in white ; almost imperceptible indications of a discal lune. 

The single type from which the accompanying figure was drawn I received from Mr. W. 
H. Edwards, who stated that it had been taken iu Arizona by Lt. Wheeler's Expedition in 
1871. It is a pretty, medium sized species, and, like most of those from the western side of 
the Rocky Mountains, resembles wonderfully some species of Europe. 

Mav 2d, 1873. 



CATOCALA COCCINATA. Grotk. 

TKANS. AM. ENT. SOC, VOL. IV., p. 6. (1872.) 



( PLATE in, FIG. 9, c? ) 



Male. Expands 2} inches. 

Upper surfiice, primaries pale grey, variegated with brown ; reniform small and ])ale 
space between this and sub-basal transverse line white, with a pink tinge caused by the red of 
under side being reflected through ; sub-reniform large and same color, transverse median Hue 
acutely dentate, a white sub-marginal spot formed of the space caused by the central inflection 
of this line. 

Secondaries bright scarlet, marginal band regular, widest towards outer angle, med 



lau 



22 CATOCALA COCCIXATA. 

band not reaching interior margin, apical spot nari'ow and red ; basal hair greyish, fringe 
white and grey. 

Under surface, superiors red, inferiors, inner two-thii'ds same color, outer third white ; 
a black discal lunulc from wliich extends along centre of discal cell almost to base of wing, a 
black streak. 

Habitat. Pennsylvania. 

This species is of rare occurrence ; the only one I ever saw on the wing was the male 
from which I made my illustration on Plato III, and which I captured a number of years 
since in some oak woods then near Reading, but the grounds are now in that city, and the noble 
old trees arc replaced by varied and execrable examples of domestic architecture. Mr. Grote's 
types are in the Mus. of the Am. ?^nt. Society ; several examples also in fine collection of 
Mr. Wilt, of Phila. 



CATOCALA CEROGAMA. ulenee. 

SPEC. GEN., VOL. YII, p. 96. 



( PLATE III, FIG. 10. ? ) 



Kxpands o| inches. 

Tliorax above light grey, with brown markings; abdomen brown, bcncatli yellowish 
white. 

Upper surface primaries, pale grey of various shades and mottled with brown, transverse 
lines distinct and dark brown, reniform moderate size, sub-reniform white ; exterior to these 
in the median space, a dark patch ; two diagonal white spaces, one interior to the reniform 
and above the sub-reniform, the other interior to the outer half of the transverse posterior 
line ; fringes brown. 

Secondaries black with a narrow yellow median baud of eipial width throughout ; basal 
part covered with long brown Lair beneath which it is yellow; apical spot and eraargi nations 
yellow; fringes white cut with black at the terminations of the ncrvules. IJcncath all wings 
are vellow ; secondaries with black marginal and median bands. 

Habitat. Xew York, Pennsylvania, ^laryland, &c. 

By no means a common species although at times occurring in some plenty in particular 
localities. 



CATOCALA SERENA. Edwards. 
PEOC. ENT. SOC. PHIL., VOL. 11, p. 510. 



( PLATE III, FIG. 11. 9 ) 

Expands 2j inches. 

Head and collar chestnut brown ; thorax smoky grey ; abdomen brown. 

Upper surface, primaries same grey as thorax with transverse brownish shade-s , transverse 
lines narrow but distinct. 

Secondaries deep yellow ; marginal band indented in middle; median narrow, irregular 
and prominently elbowed at centre ; basal hairs brown. 

Under surface yellow, all the bands pretty heavy ; bases of wings obscured with brown 
which color more or less shades the whole under sui'face. 

Habitat. New York, Pennsylvania. 

Rare. Mr. Edwards' type is in collection of Mr. Wilt, Philadelphia. I took a single 
female examples about a mile from Reading, I also received specimens from my good friend 
Mr. Angus of West-Farms, N. Y., in which locality he captured them. 



I trust this plate of Catocalid» may prove acceptable ; the confusion existing in regard 
to the nomenclature of the various .species is truly wonderful ; I do not think I would be going 
too far in asserting that there are not over three collections in America in which they are all 
correctly determined ; this is particularly the case with our typical black species. 

As I either possess or have access to examj^les of all our known .species, I mIU in future 
numbers of this work illustrate the whole of them, probably every third plate I issue will be 
of this genus until they or I am exhausted. 



NOTES ON SOME SPECIES. 

In List of Lepidoptei-a of N. America by Gi-ote and Robinson, Part 1, (1868,) on page 
VIII, Arctia Specioslssima, Mosch., is incorrect, it should be Arctia Speeiosa, Mosch. 

On same page, right below, A. Quenselii, Geyer, and A. Gelida, Mosch., are given as dis- 
tinct, whereas they are one and the same, Geyer's name having priority. 

'2.3 



24 NOTES ON SOME SPECIES. 

The autliors fell into tlie >;imc error with regard to Arctia Partlieiios, Harris, and Arctia 
Jiorea'iis, Moschler, whicli arc likewise .synonyms, Harri.s' name being nuich the older ; this 
can easily be seen by comparing examples of Parthenos with fig. 3 on plate f* of A'ol. IV., 
Weill. Ent. Monat. 



Eresia Sydra, Reak. Proe. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., 18G0, p. 335, n, 36, is Ercsia Ace.sas, 
Hew. I. c. f. 48, 40. 1804. 



Arctia Americana, Arctia Caja. 1 never had much faith in the genuineness of Harris' 
Arctia Americana, but before I had given the matter much attention I thought the white col- 
lar would seem to be entitled to some value as a specific distinction. Dr. Harris who described 
A. Americana says : " This moth closely resembles the European Caja, and especially some of 
its varieties, from all of which however it is essentially distinguished by the w^hitc edging of 
the collar and .shoulder covers and the absence of black lines on the sides of the body." As 
far as the examples of Americana and Caja in my possession go, the above amounts to nothing ; 
four e.Kamples of Caja are before me ; the first, from Saxony, expands 2\ inches, has the collar 
edged with red, patagia^ narrowly edged with white on outer edge ; five brown spots on side of 
abdomen and five ou back. 

The .second, from Osterode-ani-Harz, expands 2] inches, has collar edged with red, no 
white whatever on patagia^ ; no marks of any Icind on sides of abdomen, four black spots on 
back ; the blue spots on secondaries of this example arc very small, with the exception of two 
near the exterior margin ; they are little more than dots. 

No. 3, from England, expands 2J inches, has front edge of collar and aider edge of patagia- 
rchite ; five very small black spots on side of abdomen and four large ones on back. Primaries 
of this example have the brown markings very narrow; there is as much white as brown. 

No. 4, from S. France, expands 2| inches, front edge of collar red, outer edge of patagia- 
narrowly white ■ abdomen, except the segment nearest the thorax, black above, on sides and 
below, a little red on sides, hair on sides of anal segment red ; in this specimen the primaries 
are very dark brown with but little white ; secondaries very dark orange with spots of un- 
usually largo size, tho.se nearest the base confluent forming a band. 

Of my examples from British America, the one expands 2^ inches; collar and outer 
edge of patagia; white ; no spots on sides of abdomen ; s/.c black spots on back; primaries 
with but little white ; secondaries have four very large spots, three sub-marginal and the 
other half way between these and the base. 

The other example expands 2^ inches, has collar white ; outer edge of patagiie narrowly 
white; faint indications of five sjjots on sides and five black spots on back of abdomen; 
brown and white of primaries in same proportion as in ordinary forms of Caja ; spots on 
secondaries likewise. 

I wrote to Mr. Moschler in Germany, concerning Caja and Americana, he says in reply 
" In my collection are IG Arct. Caja from here* S examples hare distinct white collars exactly 
like my examj)lcs from N. America, Caja and Americana arc surely one species. " And I 
must .say that I agree with his conclusion. 

*Germanv. 




Herman Streektr- Dei . 



1 PAPILIO EURYMEDON S.2?. MARCt-IANDII ^. 3 COLJAS DIMERA ?. 
4C.ao.SEMPERI?.6" CHONOBAS UHLERI ^.6 SATYRUS RIDINGSIl ?. 

7 S. STHENELE c?. 8 S. var. HOFFMANI ?. 



PAPILIO EUEYMEDON. uoisduval. 

BOISD. ANN. SOC. ENT. FE. 1852, p. 280. 
LUCAS, EEV. ZOOL. 1852, p. 140. 



Male. E.'jpands 3 J inclici*. 

Antenna?, head and thorax black ; a yellowish white line runs from behind the eyes on 
the neck and the thorax to the termination of the latter; abdomen black above, white on the 
sides with black lateral lines. 

Upper surface, yellowish white, with black bauds disposed in same manner asouTurnu.s, 
but these are much broader, and the third one on primaries extends to the sub-median 
nervure • costa and veins black ; discal mark of secondaries black ; anal spot fulvous sur- 
mounted by a blue orescent, the two or three sub-marginal Innules nearest the anal angle 
fulvous; tail | inch long and a little spatulatc; emarginations white. 

Under surflice same as above, except that the sub-marginal spots on border of primaries 
are confluent, forming a continuous line; also another narrower and more obscure band 
towards the inner edge; on border of .secondaries, alwvc ail the crescents, are shining blue 

bars or lunules. 

Female. Expands 4 inches and is the same in color and markings as the male. 

Habitat. California, "\Ya.shington Ty., Vancouver's Island. 

In the examples from Vancouver's Island and Oregon the ground color is almost white, 
whilst in the Californian specimens it is a decided 3'ellow tint, on those from the latter locality 
there is also much less black than on the more northern types. 

In Cat. Lep. Ins. Brit. M. I. p. 24, Gray erroneously considered this species as a variety 

of P. Rutulus. 

It is one of the common species of California and is found in most parts of that State and 

adjoining Territories. 



PAPILIO MARCHANDII. Boisdcval. 

BOISD. SP. GEN. I., p. 350, n. 102. (1836.) 
LUCAS, ANN. SOC. ENT. FE., p. 532. (1809.) 



Male. Expands 3^ inches. 

Antenuffi black ; head and body black above, with yellow lines behind the eyes and on 
thorax above the wings; beneath yellow, a black line on each side of abdomen. 

Upper surface orange colored ; primaries black at base, also three short black bauds, first 

25 



26 PAPILIO MARCIIANDH. 

exteiuliii"- from costal margin downwards a sliort distance beyond the median nervure ; the 
second extends from costa to median nerviire, from thence it narrows and runs along the third 
median ncrvule till it joins the broad marginal, band; the third covers the disco-cellular ner- 
vulcs and is broad at costa, but diminishes to a point at the junction of the median nervure 
and second discoidal ncrvule, where it also connects with the marginal band ; witiiin the latter 
is a row of eight orange colored spots, the five nearest to costa oval, tlie others slightly 
lunulatc. 

.Secondaries have a broad black marginal band, covering half the area of the wing, and 
containing a sub-marginal row of four orange spots between the outer angle and third 
nu'diaii ncrvule, and three white crescents between third median ncrvule and anal angle ; 
inner margin of wing black ; a small orange anal spot ; tails slender, ^ inch long, with outer 
half black and inner half orange. 

Under surface vellowish, paler than above ; primaries have the markings of uj>per sur- 
face reproduced, but pale brown instead of black ; the sub-marginal spots are jonnected, form- 
ing a band. 

Secondaries with black marginal band, within which the yellow and -white spots are dis- 
posed as on superior surface, with the addition of a narrow yellow bar interior to the sub- 
niari'inal spots, and extending from costa to radial nervure ; a black basal stripe which extends 
along near the inner margin of wing ; this portion and that interior to and joining the 
marffinal band is tinged with fulvous. 

Habitat. Costa Kica, I'auama, Honduras. 

Dr. Boisduval first described this insect from examples in !Mus. of M. Marchand, to whom 
he dedicated the species. 

The specimen from which I made the drawing was given me by my old entomological 
friend, ]Mr. H. Sachs, of New York, in whose collection are several fine examples ; it belongs 
to the same group as P. Calliste, and is as graceful and beautiful as an emanation from some 
Fairy Isle. 

I have never looked at this lovely thing, with its delicate form and brilliant hue, with- 
out my thoughts reverting to the long past builders of tlic temples and altars of Palenque and 
Copan, the butterfly flitted through the tropical groves in their day, as now, but the inhabitants 
of the old dead cities have passed away, their names, their history unknown! birds, reptiles 
and insects now alone tenant the forest where once stood the populous cities, the kings and 
priests of which, with their slaves and sycophants, long ages ago have gone to rest ; naught 
remains of their past greatness but the moss-coated and time-worn ruins of altar and idol, and 
the frail, golden butterfly hovers, suspended in mid air, over the monster face of some fallen 
Dagon, which far back beyond even " the night of time," received its meed of human sacrifice ; 
in imagination, we can see the temples restored, the long trains of devotees, all the parapher- 
nalia of pagan worship, we can hear the sound of music, the shrieks of the agonized prisoner 
about to be offered as a propitiation to some monstrous conception of barbaric superstition ; 
but all now is hushed ; priest, cacique and victim, alike, are gone, fallen are the idols, giant 
trees grasp with their roots the ruins of the temples, and creeping vines and gorgeous flowers 
mingle with the sculpture of the marvelous shrines; scarce a sound is heard save the rustling 
of some snake gliding stealthily to his hole, or shimmering lizard running over leaf or twig; 
from these thoughts we turn to others more sad; it seems almost incredible that a great 



PAPILIO MARCHANDII. 27 

oouutiy like the United States would allow these monuments of Central America to decay 
away, day by day, and make no effort to secure and save them from ruin. Whilst hundreds 
of thousands of dollars are annually squandered, publicly and privately, for follies and worse 
than follies, not a movement is made or a dollar appropriated to obtain these relics of a past 
race ; each day time passes his hand with a sharper sweep over the graven record, and long 
ere some Gliddou may appear to find the key thereto, the characters in which that record is 
sculptured will have been entirely effaced ; what a sad commentary on a mighty nation — on a 
great government; thousands are criminally wasted in schemes for self-aggrandizement by 
those in high positions of honor and trust; all is "rottenness and foul corruption," from the 
meanest to the highest serf, all preying on the resources of the nation, with no thought for 
aught that is noble or good. 

That our government does not make some move towards purchasing and removing to 
some place of safety at least a portion of these memorials of a grand past is matter of equal 
astonishment and regret ; the idols or columns are all of a size that is manageable, and if not 
too many incorruptible officials are to be feed by the bidders for the contract of removing and 
transporting them, the expense would not materially affect the financial stability of the country ; 
that they could be purchased from the resident claimants, if their be any such, I do not think 
there is much doubt, as a dollar doubtless attains to a most respectable magnitude in Central 
America. But I suppose it is folly to ever hope to see anything of the S(n-t accomplished, as 
ere government could possibly arrange all preliminaries and the countless men in place 
who took an interest in the matter, receive each the perquisites for selling out the various con- 
tracts for transportation, pins, sailors, sugar, laborers, assistant engineers, envelopes, crowbars, 
assistants for laborers, milk, sealing-wax, ice, rollers, chief engineers, servant's assistants, 
derricks, red-tape, &c., &c., &c., Ac, &c., either some other country will have secured and 
removed these wonderful remains, or time will have accomplished the work of destruction. 



COLIAS DIMERA. Doubleday, Hewitson. 

Doubl. Hew. Gen. D. L. 9. Fig. 3 J*. ( 1847. ); 

C. Erjthrogranima, Koll. Denkschr. Akad. "Wiss. Wien, Math. Nat,. CI. I. p. 363. n. 34. t. 45, Fig. 13, 
14. (1850.) 

C. vSemperi, Beakirt. 

Female. Expands li inches. 

Antennte and head rose colored ; thorax black above with yellow hairs; abdomen black 
above; yellow below. 

Upper surface, primaries orange, tinged with black at base ; a broad black marginal 
band prolonged far inwards on veins ; two yellow spots in this band near the apex, discal dash 
sagittate and joined to the marginal band by a black streak ; costa and ciline rosy. 

Secondaries, lemon yellow with some black scales at base and narrowly bordered with 
black from outer angle to middle of margin, the black extending some distance up the veins ; 
discal spot orange and elongated outwardly in a line almost to the marginal band ; cilite rosy. 



28 COIJAS SEMPERI. 

Undfr surface, in-iinarifs yellow, powcleretl with blaek along the costa ; a small black 
discal point. Inferiors yellowish green, a small silver discal spot surrounded with pink which 
extends in a long dash towards the margin, anotlior dash of same color runs from base outside 
along side of the median nervure; a sub-marginal row of pink spots, the one nearest the 
inner margin being the largest; costa and fringes of all wings rosy. 

Habitat. Honduras, Panama, New Granada. 

Ab. V SKMI'IORI same size as the jircceding. 

Antennae and head rosy ; body black above, yellowisli white beneath. 

ITpper surface, ground color greenish white ; ornamentation of primaries same as in 
normal form. On secondaries the marginal ])ordor is little more than a line ; no discal spot ; 
costa and cili:e of all wings rose colored. 

Under surface, primaries yellowish with a white central patch ; discal point small. 
Secondaries greenish yellow marked as in the ordinary V form ; cilia- and costa as above. 

Habitat. Insagasuga. 

Rcakcrt described a c? C Dinuia and tliis fomi of the V under the name of C. Semperi, 
and ina-;mucli as the name of Dimcra has j)recedcnce I propose to retain that of Semperi for 
this while V form, but for the life of nie, although I have read the description and possess 
Kcakirt's types, I cannot tell where he described it, probably it is the Proc. Acad, Nat. 
Sciences of Philadelphia, which work I unfortunately do not possess, and can only have 
occasional access to by going to Philadelphia, as our town here has no library containing 
works on the natural sciences, which is one of the many disadvantages incidental to residing 
in a provincial city, the expense precludes too frequent visits to consult the libraries of Phila- 
delphia or New York, and the Philadelphia A' Heading Railroad Company would as soon 
think of running their locomotives Juggernaut style over the body of a naturalist as to be 
guilty of the folly of giving iiiiu a free pass over their lines, although to give them their 
due, I believe, as an extraordinary favor, under all kinds of restrictions, they do something 
of the sort for Clergymen. 

June 8th, 1873. 



CHIONOBAS UHLERI. Heakirt. 

PROC. ENT. SOC, PHIL., VOL. VL, p. 14:!. (1866.> 



Male. Expands IJ inches. 

Head and body brown. 

Upper surface oehraccous, costa of primaries greyish, exterior margin bordered narrowly 
with greyish; in fifth cell towards outer margin is a small black oval spot, and in the types 
are two additional small spots, one in the second, the other in the third cell. 

Secondaries bordered outwardly with grey same as primaries, the reticulated markings of 
under surface shows through the scantily scaled wings; a round black spot in the space be- 
tween the second sub-costal veinlct and radial vein, and another between the first and second 



CHIONOBAS UHLERI. 29 

median veinlets ; in one of the types is an additional spot situated between the radial vein and 
third median veinlet, and in the other type are two more spots, making four in all, which 
occupy the spaces between the second sub-costal and first median ; cilite alternately grey and 
white. 

Under surface greyish white ; pribaaries pale ochraceous towards inner margin and pen- 
ciled with brown lines, the most decided of which are those nearest the costa ; the black spot 
or spots of U2>per surface repeated and pupiled with white. 

Secondaries, whole surface striated with brown of various dei)ths of color; the black 
spots of upper surface reproduced. 

Female. Expands 2 inches. 

Superiors broader in proportion than in male. 

Upper surface same color and ornamentation as male. 

Under surface likewise as in male but with a tendency in the linear markings of inferiors 
to form a mesial band. 

Habitat. Colorado. 

From the above description it will be seen that the two types have more sub-marginal 
spots on all wings than the one from which the accompanying figures were made ; this latter, 
along with many more of the same species, was taken in Colorado by Mr. Th. L. Mead in 
1871, the types were captured by Mr. Ridings, also in Colorado, in 1864. The fact of these 
latter having three black spots on superiors and three and four on inferiors, is probably owing 
to local variation, as I believe all of Mr. Mead's have but one spot on the superiors and two 
on inferiors, although some of the females have a minute or slight rudimentary third spot on 
the secondaries. 

Reakirt's description of male and female was taken from two males, both of which are 
in my j^ossession. 

This species bears on the upper surface a considerable resemblance to the Caucasian Ch. 
Tarpeia, Pall., but on the lower surface the resemblance almost altogether ceases. 



SATYRUS RIDINGSIL Edwards. 

Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. IV, p. 201, ( 1865. ) 

Reakirt Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. VI, p. 145. ( 1866. ) 

Chimobas Streichii, Edwardfs, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 192. (1870.) 



Male. Expands If inches. 

Head and body grey. 

Upper surface ashy brown, primaries with a broad sub-marginal yellowish white band, 
separated where it is crossed by the second radial vein into two parts ; the one nearest the 
costa is palmated, being produced in four points outwardly, and has in the middle an oval 
black spot pupiled with white ; the other is divided into three oblong portions by the crossing 



30 SATYRUS RIPINGSII. 

of the first ami second iiudian veins, in the sjiace between these latter is another blaek spot, 
smaller than the one towards the eosta, but, like it, pupiled with white. The basal third of 
win"- is of a lighter eolor than the remainder, an<l in some examples yellow white, almost as 
pale as in the sub-marginal bands. 

Secondaries also have a siib-n\arginal pale band which is toothed on outer edge. 

Edges of all wings margined with a narrow brown line ; fringes grey and white. 

Under surfaee yellowish and jiale brown ; the bands and spots same as on upper side ; on 
primaries all the space not occupied by the broad baud is )narked with little wavy brown 
lines as is usual on under surface of most species of Satyrus. Secondaries have a sub-basal 
line, the space between which and the inner edge of sub-marginal band is darker than rest of 
wing, after the manner of the Chionobas ; whole surface of wing covered with little lines ; 
veins white. 

Fem.\i.i;. Expands 1^ inches and nsemblcs the male. 

The types were taken by Mr. Ridings at Burlington, Colorado ; the two which Mr. 
Edwards afterwards redescribed as Ch. Stretehii, were captured by Mr. Stretch in the vicinity 
of Virginia City, Nevada, on the hill-sides, early in Spring ere the snow had melted away, 

Mr. ^read took a number of this species in Colorado in 1871, his examples as a general 
thing are I believe lighter colored than the original types. 

S. Ridingsii belongs to the same group and strikingly resembles the Caucasian S. Hip- 
polyte, Esp.* and still more so the Turkish S. Beroe, Frr.,t it also bears much similarity in 
appearance to Coenonympha Thyrsis Frr.:|; found in crete. 
June 9tli, 1873. 



SATYRUS STHENELE. Boisduval. 

ANN. SOC. ENT. FE. 1852. p. 308, n. 60. 



Male. Expands \\ inches. 

Head and body brown. 

Upper surface brown of much the shade and depth as in Alope and Boopis ; on primaries 
are two small black round sub-marginal spots with minute white centres ; below the median 
vein is the oblong patch of short dense dark grey down peculiar to this sex. On secondaries 
is a dark sub-marginal' line ; Fringes of all the wings pale with dark alternations at termi- 
nations of nervures and nervules. 

Under surface, primaries brown, in sub-marginal space are two large round black spots 
with white pupils, and surrounded by yellow rings ; a dark brown sub-marginal line ; the 
space interior to the two ocelli is marked witli the lines so peculiar to the Satyrides. Costa 
and apex have some whiteisli grey. 

♦Esper. Schmett. I. 2. p. 164. ( 1784. ) 

tllerrich-Schaefter Sohmctt. Eur. I. f. 108-111. (1843.) 

JFreyer, Neuere Beitrage, V. t. 475. f. 1. (Jan. 1846.) Ilcrr-Schaeff. Schmett. Eur. I. (. 297-300. (1846.) 



SATYRUS STHENP:LE. 31 

Secondaries have a very irregular shaped darlv brown mesial band, joining which on 
either side is a white space which is in turn much broken and shaded off into brown, which 
latter extends to the base and outer margin ; inner margin whitish, as also is inner half of 
outer margin ; two white points surrounded by dark shading towards the anal angle ; base of 
wing very dark ; whole surface is mottled with little lines. Fringes much as on upper side. 

Female, a little larger than male, and not quite so dark in color on either surface ; the 
two black spots on upper surface primaries are much larger, and arc surrounded with ochra- 
ceous rings, beneath they are the same size as above ; the under surface, througl)out, is not so 
strongly marked as iu the male. 

Tolerably common in most parts of California and adjoining territory, where it frequents, 
in common with most of its genus, sunny spots in woods, flying low in and out under the 
bushes. 



SATYRUS HOFFMANI, NOV. ? VAR. 



Male. Expands 2 inches. 

Upper surface dark brown ; primaries have two round black spots with small white 
pupils, the one nearest the costa is geminate, being joined on its lower edge by a smaller spot, 
these spots are surrounded by a narrow circle of paler color. On the secondaries, towards the 
outer margin between the first and second median nervules, is another ocellus about one-fourth 
the size of those on the superiors ; between the second and third median nervules is a small 
black point. On all wings is an indistinct sub-marginal line ; fringes brown. 

Under surface pale greyish and brown ; primaries have ocelli as on upper side, but sur- 
rounded by broad yellow rings, the one encircling the lower ocellus has a small yellow spot 
emanating from it on the upper edge ; a narrow wavy sub-marginal and central band ; the 
whole surface penciled with short transverse brown lines. 

Secondaries with six ocelli arranged as in S. Pegala, in two rows of three each, the 
middle one of the row nearest the outer angle is oblong, and produced in a point outwardly, 
the others are round ; all are encircled with yellow and pupiled with white. Whole surface 
of wing marked with short brown streaks which tend towards segregation near the outer 
margin ; an irregular narrow band or line across the disc. 

FEjfALE. Expands 2| inches. 

Upper surface pale yellowish brown ; on primaries the outer half is much the palest, and 
contains two large ocelli, the uppermost geminate, as in male ; secondaries, also, have an 
ocellus, accompanied by a small black spot situated as iu male. Marginal, sub-marginal and 
mesial lines brown. 

Under surface white, ocelli and other markings as in male, but sharper and better defined 
throughout. 

Taken in 1871, at Owen's Lake, Nevada, by Dr. W. J. Hoffman, of this city, whose 
name I have perpetuated through it. 



\^ 



32 HATYRUS HOFFMAN 1. 

I was at first of the opinion that this might be S. Gabbii,* Edw., but Mr. ^read informs 
me that Mr. Edwards also lias examples of it, taken by the Wheeler Expedition in 1871, and 
he says that it is a different thing from (Jabbii ; as I have no example of this latter, nor so 
far have I had any opportunity of comparing the two, but, on carefully reading Enwards' 
description of Gabbii, I find there is, at any rate, one constant difference, that is in the ocellus 
nearest the costa, on primaries, being geminate in Hoffmani ; I have oned" and ten ? examples, 
and in evcrv one of the eleven is that ocellus double, but I am still inclined to believe it a 
.segregated form of Gabbii, at least until I have opportunity to compare it with male and 
female examples of the latter. It is, to say the least, difficult to draw lines between Alope, 
Pecala, Nephele, Boopis and this one ; the ornamentation is about the same in all of them, in 
size thev don't vary much, the principal difference is in the shades of the ground color ; and, 
in suo-f-esting this, I am but echoing the opinion of one of the greatest living Lepidopterists. 

June 10, 1873. 



1 am afraid this No. (lY) will nut be considered altogether orthodox by many of the 
Entomologists of the United States who persist in seeing nothing to please or interest them in 
an insect not found within the boundaries of our States or Territories, but in presenting the 
five figures numlicred 2, 3 and 4 on plate lY, I am probably only anticipating, for some day 
or other Mexico will be annexed to, or swallowed up by this Government, and then what a 
trouble there will be among our patriotic entomologists when they will have to add so many 
more rare and costly species to their purely Federal collections. 

However, to make amends, the forthcoming July No. (V) will contain figures and de- 
scriptions of N. American Catocalidaj, and will have as many species crowded into the plate 
as the size of the sheet will admit. 



•Described in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 193. (1870.) 



It 

J/ 
It 
// 
/' 






^ 



// 



/ 






CATOCALA INSOLABILIS. Glenei. 

Spec. Gen., Vol. VIF, p- 9'- 



(PLATE V, FIG. 1, (f) 



Expands 3 inclics. , , ., 

Thorax, above, dark grey ; abdomen blacki.h ; beneath ^vh.te. 

Upper surface, primaries greyish white, powdered witli nunute brown scales; tie trans- 
ver..c lines are black; rcniform small and surrounded by a brown annulus; a blaek apical 
da.«h ; interior margin shaded with black ; fringes dark grey. 

Secondaries entirely blaek, with black fringes. p v i . • r *• ^ 

Under surface has bases of all wings white, rest black, with exc^pt.on oi slight ind.cat.on. 
of narrow white bands, most noticeable on the secondaries. 

Habitat. New York, Pennsylvania, N. Jersey and Maryland. 
Easy enough to distinguish from the other species by the dark shading _ot intenor margin 
of upper surface of primaries, and the black fringes of secondaries ; it is a slighter built 
hsTt' ban either Yiduata, Lachrymosa or Desperata, to none of which does it bear a.^ 
particular resemblance when placed side by side. This may rank among our rarer species as 
nowhexe has it been found in any plenty. 



CATOCALA DESPEKATA. Guenee. 

Spec. Gen., Vol. VII, p. So. 

Phaliona ViJin. Abbot & Smith LepUl., Georgia, Vol. II, p. 181, PI- 01. 



.. / 



(PLATE V, FIG. 2, (f .) 



Sti'S^'above, light grey, with distinct daric lines ; abdomen blackish brown, 

as the transverse losterior line; very distinct and well defined; rcniform modei^tely large, 
oval and .urrounded by a double line; a blaek dash, broken in the middle, runs ftom base to 
!ub re'fo m • the usual black sub-apical dash, from which a dark shade passes to the x^nifonn 
Tod from tTeiKC inwards and upwards to the costa ; sub-terminal line joined inwardly with 

.3.3 



34 CATOCALA DESPERATA. . 

very pale grey ; tl.e space fion this laltir to the transverse posterior liuc is brown of uo very 
decided tint. 

.Secondaries, base covered witli tfreyish iiairs, rest of wing blade, witli Ijroad pure wiiite 
fri nges. 

Under surface, primaries while, with black marginal, nicdian and sub-basal bands, which 
art' confluent near interior margin ; fringis white, with grey at tiie terminations of veins. 

Secondaries white, with broad black marginal and narrower mesial bands; fringes wiiite. 

The caterpillar which is figured by Abbot feeds on various species of oak. 

The commonest of all the black winged Catocalrc, and is found in most localities from 
>i'cw York to Florida. 

Tlierc has been the most iutcrminable confusion in regard to the identity of this species ; 
for years it has been confounded with, and represented in American collections the C. Viduata 
or \'idua of Guenc'C, a larger and entirely distinct species peculiar to the Southern States; by 
comparing the figure of the latter on plate III of this work with that of the present species on 
plate Y, the many obvious points of difference will be readily perceived without inflicting on 
me the misery of pointing them out piecemeal. 



CATOCALA SUBNATA. cuote. 

Pi-oc. Eiit. Soc. Phila. Vol. Ill, j). 32G. (1^61. ) 
Traiij. Am. Eiit. Soc. Vol. IV, p. !>. ( 1872.") 

( PLATE V, fk;. .S 9 ) . ' 

Expands 3j inches. 

Head and throax, above, pale grey with dark lirown lines ; abdomen bright ochre yellow; 
beneath yellowish white. 

Upper surface, primaries greyish white with pale blueish and brown shades ; transverse 
lines and other markings dark brown and very distinct; reniform medium size, sub-reniform 
large and open ; fringes brown. 

.Secondaries bright yellow ; marginal ;uul mesial bands irregular and not extending to the 
interior margin ; frinjics vellow. 

Under surface yellow, with all the black bands narrow. 

Habitat. Middle and Southern States, of rare oceuiTeuce. 

This has the appearance of being an improved edition of and is closely allied to C 
Xeogama, but can be easily distinguished from that species by its much greater size, the more 
i)rilliant yellow of abdomen and secondaries, and by the open sub-reniform, also the ground 
color of primaries is much lighter and the markings generally more prominent. 

The c? figure on plate IV, Vol. Ill, Proc. Eat. Soc. Phil., which accompanied Mr. 
Grote's original description of C. Subnata, resembles It in size and shape, but the markings 
mainly, and the colors precisely are those of Neogama, it has even the closed sub-reniform 



CATOCALA SUBNATA. 35 

which is one of Grotcs' great points of distinction between the two species, as he says in liis 
description* of Subnata tlie " Siib-reniform large, open, formed bv a deep sinus of the t 11 
lino, t " 

The type is in the Museum of the American Ent. Society. 



CATOCALA NEOGAMA. Abbot & S.Mrrn. 
Lepid. Georgia, Vol. II, p. 175, PI. 85*. 
Guenee, Spec. Gen., Vol. VII, p. 96. 
Duncan'.s Naturalists' Library, Vol. \U, p. 202, PI. 20, fig. 1. 



-^ 



(PLATE V, FIG. 4 J", 5 ?. 



Expands 3 inches. 

Thorax above, grey ; abdomen brownish yellow ; beneath pale yellow. 

Upper surface, primaries grey, with brown shades, markings dark brown, varying in dis- 
tinctness in different examples; rcniform, which is rather small and inconspicuoas, is sur- 
rounded by a brown double line ; sub-reniform small and not connected with the transverse 
posterior line. 

Secondaries dark yellow, with irregular marginal and median bands which do not extend 
to the abdominal margin ; apical sjjot and fringes yellow. 

Under surface yellow, the black bands narrow and irregular. 

The larva is figured by Abbot, who states that it feeds ou the black American AValnut 
(Juglaus Nigra) ; it is brown in color, with dark spots on the sides and two dark lines near 
the back, and "resembles the color of the bark so much as not to be discernable from it. " 

One of our commonest species found througiioat the Atlantic States. 



CATOCALA CLINTONIL Grote. 

I'roc. Am. Ent. Soc. Phil. Vol. Ill, p. 89, PI. Ill, Fig. 4, $ (1861.) 

( PLATE V. FIG. G. ? ) 



Expands 2 inches. 

Thorax whiteish grey ; abdomen yellow. ^, 

Upper surface, primaries very pale grey, tinged a trifle in the centre and on the exterior 
and interior margins with blueish ; basal and other transverse lines fine but tolerably distinct, 

•'Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Vol. IV, p. 10. 
tTransveise posterior line. 




36 CATOCALA CLINTONII. 

ii black longitudinal line runs from the base to the transvcrs anterior line ; reniform and sub- 
rcnlform pale and indistinct, the former surrounded with white. 

Sccundarios yellow ; median band which doe.-> not extend to the abdominal margin is 
narrow in the middle and broadest near the costa; marginal band of moderate width and broken 
between the first and seeond median veiulcts, forming an oval spot near the anal angle ; 
apical spot yellow, fringes white. 

Habitat. New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island. 

The species is evidently rare, the only examples I have yet seen arc the types in museum 
(if Am. Ent. See. and the example above described >vhich was taken near Providence, 
Illiodc Island. 

It will seen by referring to Mr. Crete's original description that there are a lijw jwints of 
diflcrence between his type and my example, the principal of which is in the marginal band 
on upper surface of secondaries, which in the type is "continued " to within a short distance 
of secondaries, whilst in mine it is broken as above described, Grote's speci men also is a little 
larger, expanding 2 2-10 inches. 



CATOCALA ANTINYMPHA. Hubneb. 

Kphcsia Antinvmpha, Samml. Kx. Schmett. 
Ciitocala Affiris, 'West, Drury, N'ol. I, PI. 23, fig. 6. 
Catocala Melanympha, Guenee, Spec. Gen., \'ol. Xll, p. 98. 



(PLATE V, FIG. 79.) x/' 

Expands 2^ inches. 

Heail and thorax above black ; abdomen brown ; beneath smoky grc}-. 

I'ppcr surface, primaries black, with the markings of a deeper and more lustrous shade. 

Secondaries yellow, with black basal hairs, and rather regular marginal and mesial bands ; 
apical spot yellow ; fringes black, except at apex, where they are M'hitc. 

I'^nder surface yellow, with usual black bands, and otherwise much obscured witii black. 

Habitat. New York, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Maryland, &c. 

A rare species, and easily distinguished from all others by tlic black primaries. In some 
examples the sub-reniform is white, which color is continued from thence upwards on inner 
side of reniform towards the costa, thus forming a diagonal white bar or patch across the mid- 
dle of tlie wing. 



CATOCALA FRATEIUJULA. Grote & Robinson. 
Proc. Eiit. Soc, Phila., Vul. VI, p. 24. (ISOO.) 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Pliila. Vol. IV, p. 17. (1872.) 

(PL-VfE V, FIG. 8 c?.) ^^^2- 



E.vpauds 1 J inches. 

Thorax, greyish white, abdomen grey. 

Upper surface, primaries white, tinged and powdered with brown ; sub-costal and trans- 
verse anterior lines fine and distinct, transverse posterior line produced outwardly in a single 
tooth 02>posite the reniform ; a brown median shade starts from the inside of transverse pos- 
terior line at the second median veiulct, from thence passing inwards and upwards to the 
costa ; the reniform, which is embraced within this brown space, is edged exteriorly and on 
side towards ba.se of wing with a dai'k heavy line, but the sides towards the costal and interior 
margins have no defined boundary ; sub-reniform small, M'hite and closed ; sub-terminal band 
or line M'hite, from which to exterior margin the intervening space is Ijrown ; sub-apical dash 
di.stiuct and dark brown ; fringes brown. 

Secondaries yellow, marginal band unusually broad and abruptly terminated near the 
second median veinlet, butis replaced near the anal angle by an oval spot ; mesial band narrow 
and curved upwards whei'c it terminates at the abdominal margin ; some grey hairs mixed 
with the yellow at base of wings; fringes blackish, except at apex, where they are white. 

Under surface pale yellow, darkest near base ; very broad uninterrupted marginal and 
narrow median bauds ; no indication of sub-basal of primaries. 

The description and figure were taken from an example captured at Proviilenco, 11. I., 
and for which I am indebted to Mrs. Bridgham of New York. 

The types are in the Mu.seum of the American Ent. Society. 




CATOCALA UNIJUGA. w.^lker. 



(PLATE V, FIG. 9 ^.) 



Expands 3 inches. 

Thorax above, dark grey, abdomen light bro\vn ; beneath white. 

Upper surface, primaries pale grey, densel}' powdered witli black atoms ; all the trans- 
verse lines geminate ; reniform large and doubly ringed with black ; joining the reniform 
interiorly is a white space ; sub-reniform pale ; sub-marginal crescents large and distinct ; 
fringes white. 

Secondaries red ; marginal and mesial bands taper towards the abdominal margin which 
the latter does not cpiite reach ; apical spot white; fringes of exterior margin white, of interior 
grey. 

37 



38 CATACOLA UNIJUGA. 

Under surface, primaries white, with broad black marginal and median bands, sub-basal 
band of paler color, and docs not extend to interior margin. 

Secondaries have inner two-thirds of same red as on upper surface, the costal third is 
white ; black bands same as above, excepting that the mesial reaches in some examples quite 
to the margin ; a discal hine connects with mesial band on its inner edge. 

Habitat. Canada, Xew England, Middle and Western States. 

This fine sj>ecies, which is rather rare, belongs to the group of which C. Xupta is the type. 



CATOCALA PARTA. Guenee. 

Spec. Gen, Vol. VIT, p. S4. 



( PLATE V, FIG. 10 ? ) 



^ 



Expands 3 inches. 

Thorax, above, grey ; abdomen ochraceous ; beneath, greyish white. 

Upper surface, primaries grey shaded with yellowish brown, the whole surface has a 
smooth silky look, quite different from the squamose i^owdery appearance of C. Unijuga ; 
the transverse lines, which are arranged much as in that species, are geminate, and as well as 
all the other markings are very distinct and clear. The sub-rcniform is large and entirely 
disconnected from the transverse posterior line ; between the sub-median vein and first median 
veinlet is a dark longitudinal Hue or shade, extending from the transverse posterior line to 
exterior margin ; interior to the reniform is a pale patch ; fringes grey. 

Secondaries bright red ; median band narrow and terminates in a jwint, two lines from 
the abdominal margin. 

Under surface same as in C. Unijuga, except that the sub-basal band of primaries is as 
dark in color as the others. 

Habitat. Canada, New England and Middle States. 

In many localities quite common ; the larva feeds on various species of Salix and the 
imago appears middle or end of July. 




CATOCALA TERPLEXA. NOV. '^ VAR. 



(I'LATE V, FIG. 11 cf •) 



ExpaiBt 3| inches. 

Tliorax)^|l)ove, blueish grey, abdomen brownish yellow ; beneath, white. 

Upper surM^primarics dark blueish grey; transverse lines black and distinct as in C. 
Parta. Two whi^fc^rs cross the wing, one formed by the intervening space between the 
transverse posterior a^ sub-terminal linos, the other by the large sub-reniform and the space 
adjoining it interior to the reniform ; sub-apical dash black ; fringes concolorous with the 
ground of wing. 



CATOCALA PERPLEXA. 39 

Secoudaries red, of a somewhat deeper shade than Parta ; median band extends ahuost to 
the abdominal margin ; fringes white. 

Under surface resembles that of Parta in a great measure, the prineipal difference being 
that the mesial band extends almost to the interior margin, in which respect it is nearer to 
some examjiles of Unijuga. 

Two examjiles from which the above description was taken were captured in tiie vicinity 
of Brooklyn, N. Y., by Mr. Julian Hooper of that city, one of which, the original of the 
figure on plate V, he generously added to my cabinet. 

I am not partial or addicted to the divcrtisemeut of hunting Lepidopterological mare's 
nests, but I must confess that this insect has perplexed me considerably ; I showed it in company 
■with PartH to a valued entomological friend, asking him if he thought it might be tlie latter, 
" I would not like to figure it as the typical form" was the answer, so, without arriving at 
any definite conclusion, I have offered the figure for the inspection of lopidopterists, and with 
much doubt provisionally cite it as a variety of Parta ; the first and principal differences are 
the dark blueish color, and two conspicuous white bars of primaries, neither is there that soft 
smooth appearance so noticeable in Parta, there being more of a tendency to squamoseness as 
in Unijuga ; then again the sub-reniform is connected with the transverse posterior line whilst 
in Parta it is entirely isolated, there are besides many minor points of difference and altogether, 
after frequent examinations, I am completely at a loss what to think about it, especially as both 
Parta and Unijuga, the two species to which it is tlie nearest, ( if it be not identical with one 
or the other, ) have less tendency to variation than any others I wot of, and it would be perhaps 
venturing too far to hazard the conjecture that it be the result of a love affair between those 
two. 

July, 1873. 



CATOCALA CONCUMBENS. Walker. y 

Cat. B. M. "^P 



(PLATE V, FIG. 12 J') 



Expands 2| inches. 

Head and collar chestnut brown ; thorax ashen grey ; abdomen light brown ; beneath 
white. 

Upper surface, primaries almost unicolorous, pale silvery grey with slight shades of light 
brown ; sub-basal, transverse anterior and posterior lines black, very fine and broken, being 
in many places obsolete ; reniform indistinct and margined with white or light gi'cy ; sub- 
reniform open ; fringes same color as wing. 

Secondaries rose color with both bands broad and even, neither of them extend to tlie 
abdominal margin ; fringes yellowish white. 

Under surface, primaries white with usual dark bands ; inner base of secondaries rosy, 
outer half white ; mesial band contracted at both ends. 



40 CATOCALA CO^X•UMBl:NS. 

In \'ol. J I, Prof. Kilt. Soc. of Pliila., Mr. W. Saunders, of Canada, thus describes the 
hirva : " Icnjrtli, two to two and-a-half inclies, onisciforra. Head flat, dark greyisli, intermixed 
with red. r]>iicr surface dirty brown, witli a lightish chain-like dorsal stripe and a very 
small flcsliv protuberance on each side of this stripe on each segment. On ninth segment is a 
small protuberance of a brownish color, and on the eleventh a mark resembling an oblique 
incision. A thick lateral fringe of .short hair close to the under surface. Under surface jMnk- 
ish, with a central row of round black spots which arc larger about the middle of the body 
and much smaller towards the extremities. Food-plant, willow." 

Habitat. Canada, Eastern and Middle States; rare in Pennsylvania, but more plentiful 
in Massachusetts and other Xcw England States. 

This lovely insect is nearer allied to the European C. Pacta than to any American spe- 
cies; it is a little larger than Pactii and the color of the abdomen is difierent, (being rosy in 
that species,) otherwise it resembles it very closely in most respects. 

I liope this second plate of Catocalidic will meet with the same hearty approval as did 
the first, ([)late 111 of this work,) and, as I promised in that number, I ^\■ilI, if I live, in due 
time give fisjures of every known Xorth American species. 



Anarta Cordigcra, Thnbg. — Anarta Luteola, Grote and Ilobinsou. 

I have compared examples of Anarta Cordigera with the types of Anarta Luteola, in the 
Musuem of the Am. Ent. Soc., and can find not the slightest difference between the two, al- 
though Grote and Robinson say, in their description* of Luteola, " the difierenccs between 
the species arc jwrhaps sufficiently great to render a detailed comparison unnecessary," perhaps 
like the large lettered names on maps and placards, they arc so great that no one ever notices 
them ; in the above instance, after the closest examination, I cannot find a single point that 
would in the slightest degree indicate a specific distinction. 



n'roc. Ent. Soc, I'liila., Vol. IV, p. 493-1, (18G5,)— tlie fig. of Luteola is on Pl.ite III. 



From the Canadian Entomologist Vol. 5, No. 6, pp. 117, 118, 119. June, 1873. 

Personal. — In part No. 2, " Lepidoptera, Ehopaloceres and Heteroceres," the author, Mr. Herman Strecker, 
makes a most uncalled-for and ungentlemanly attack on me, which in justice to myself, much as I dislike introducing 
matters of this sort into a scientilic periodical, I can scarcely allow to pass unnoticed. 

It appears that Mr. Strecker received last summer, from Mr. Couper, specimens of a I'apilio which he had 
taken on the Island of Anticosti while on a collecting tour there. At tirst Mr. S. says he thought it might be ray 
P. brevicauda, described in a foot note in " Packard's Guide," but on comparing the description there given with 
his specimens, he found them to differ in some important particulars. He then proceeds to say (I copy verb, et lit.) 
" I now again had the pleasant excitement incidental to endeavoring to study out bare descriptions, unaccompanied 
by figures, and in my misery I wrote to Mr. Couper, in Montreal, requesting him to try to see the types of Brevi- 
cauda, and compare his examples with them, or if that was impossible, to write to Mr. Saunders, of Ontario, Canada, 
who described it, and with whom he was acquainted, concerning the species ; after some time Mr. Couper wrote ' I 
communicated with the Rev. Canon Innes (in whose collection are specimens of Brevicauda) and Mr. W. Saunders, 
asking for information regarding P. Brevicauda ; up to this instant no answer from either. ' This certainly was not 
very satisfactory, but as I was not particularly anxious to make a fool of myself by re-christening old species, I im- 
portuned Mr. Couper to try the gentleman with another epistolary shot; in due time, under date March 17, 1873, 
came another letter from Couper thus: 'I have purposely delayed a reply to your favor of 2nd, because since its 
receipt I wrote again to Mr. W. Saunders for the desired information, and my letter was written in terms which 
could not deter him from answering; however, no answer has been received.' After receiving this letter, I, of 
course, concluded that Mr. Saunders' time was of too much value to be encroached upon, and requested Mr. Couper 
to by no means trouble him again, as his dignified silence at last brought me to a proper sense of my true position, 
and was a merited punishment to both Couper and myself for our temerity." 

I did receive the two letters referred to from Mr. Couper. In the first, dated .Jan. 21, Mr. C. asks me where I 
obtained the Papilio described as brevicauda, and whether I would loan him a specimen, as he wished to compare it 
with some Anticosti Papilios which had been named for him by his U. S. correspondents as P. po/i/.te7)cs. There 
were other matters referred to in the letter which I wi-shed to attend to before replying to Mr. Couper, and as I was 
tlien extremely busy, and was obliged to leave home for a while, not knowing either that there was any pressing 
need of an immediate answer, I deferred writing for a time. In the second letter, dated ilarch 3rd, Mr. C. refers 
again among other matters to P. brevicauda, expresses no disappointment at my not answering his first, does not even 
now ask for a prompt reply, or hint that any of the information he desires was for anyone but himself. Indeed, 
after referring to some differences which he thought existed between his Anticosti specimens and my ftrei'i'catirfa from 
Newfoundland, he says : " It is my inlention to investigate this matter further," and referred to the opportunities he 
hoped to have on revisiting the Island. To this second letter I replied as promptly as possible, within a few days, 
and gave Mr. C. all the information in my power in reference to brevicauda, as well as satisfactory reasons why I 
had not written sooner. 

It was scarcely kind of Mr. Couper to give me no hint of the terrible state of excitement under which his friend> 
poor !Mr. Strecker, was at that time laboring, boiling over, as he evidently was, with indignation towards one who 
was perfectly innocent of all knowledge of his wants. Had I known the state of his mind my sympathies would 
at once have been aroused and I should have written promptly, when I suppose this formidable bull of his would 
never have been fulminated against me, and I should have been spared from being impaled on the sharp end of 
Mr. Strecker's irony, where, like a beetle on a pin, I am now supposed to be wriggling and writhing in great dis- 
comfort. 

I do not know Mr. Strecker and have never had any correspondence with him, but I do feel sorry for him, that 
he should in his anger have allowed himself to use language so discourteous in reference to one who was a perfect 
stranger to him, without taking pains to enquire whether it was deserved or not. I can scarcely designate such a 
proceeding under such circumstances, as anything less than contemptible, and quite unworthy of a naturalist or a 
gentleman. 

Mr. Strecker further remarks in the paragraph following that last quoted : " However, I believe this is distinct 
from Brevicauda, and if it be not, it is an absurdity to retain that name ; the probability after all is that Brevicauda 

41 



42 I'ERSOXAL. 

anil Aiitieoslieiisis (if llioy be not the same) are both varieties of Asteriiis." AVliv Mr. Streeker considers it absurd 
to call n species brevicauda he docs not deign to inform us; can it be lliat he lias a conscientious objection to any 
further references to the tails of insects under any circumstances, or is it the evident superiority in length and grandil- 
(Hiuence of sound which Anticostientis has over brcncauda which makes the use of the latter to his mind so absurd ? 
It does sei'ui strange that with all Mr. Strecker's anxiety to avoid " re-christening old species," he should astonish 
the KntonuiloKical worhl with such a name as Aniieostienaia nov. sp., when at the same time he states his belief in 
the probabilitv of its being but a variety of Aiteriat. .Such a proceeding .seems at least contradictory, and, it will 
appear to some, as if he had thus placeil himself, in his anxiety to have his name attached to a species, in the very 
(Hisiiion he professes a wisli to avoid, and which he has designated in such choice 1 language. — AV. Saundebs 
London, Ontario. 

Mv thanks afc due to ^[l•. W. Saiuulcfs of the editing committee of tlic Canadian Ento- 
mologist for the above splendid and entirely unexpeeted advertisement of this work, which I' 
find in the June number of that publication just issued ; in looking over the ever-welcome 
j>ages of the Kiitoiuologi.st, I found commendatory notices of twentv-fivc or more serials, but 
the present work on Lepidojitera was not, from some accidental cause, I sui)posed, among the 
number, but what were my feelings ou turning a few pages further to find, that whilst such 
standard works as Ilardwieke's Scicnec Gossip, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., Newman's Ento- 
mologist, iVe.. iiad received but a few lines of editorial notice, my own jioor work, owing to the 
generosity of Mr. Saunders, one of the able corps of editors, had assigned to it two and-a-half 
pages ! the emotions of Mr. Saunders must liavc been intense ; he gives rac his sympathy, 
liis compassion, he feels sorry for me to a degree that evidently lacks language to express it- 
self, and, finally, in his wonderful and rare self-abnegation, his extreme modesty, (that un- 
erring index of all great minds,) he affects to ask so unworthy au individual as myself for 
information, not tlirectly it is true, but delicately by intimation ; of course Mr. Saunders 
knows already anything I can tell him, and every one knows that he does too, which only 
further enhances the delicacy of the compliment; but still, far be it from me to be so lacking 
in resjHvt to the Ent. Autoeitit of the (."anadas as not to go through the form of a rei>ly, at 
least ; the reason I did not, to quote Mr. Saunders, " deigu to inform us," (the "us," I humbly 
presume, means Mr. Saunders,) why it wasabsurd to call a species Brevioauda was simply 
Ixvause the intormation was already given on the last few lines of page 11 and the first couple 
of pagi^ 12 of this work ; by reading the whole of the article on Papilio Auticostiensis, it will 
be seen that the expression, that it would be absurd to retain the name of Brevicauda, was 
provisional, and only in the event that Brevicauda and Anticosticusis were the same, for the 
reason that the tails of the latter are no shorter than in many other species, such for instance 
as P. Zolicaon, Maehaon, llospiton, Philenor, Sadalu.s, Ag-amemnon, Indra, Xuthulu.*, ttc, 
so that if it should eventually be proven that Auticostiensis is identical with Brevicauda I 
certainly would, in my woefid ignorance, persist in considering the name Brevicauda absurd 
when appliinl to a siKvies with tails no shorter than twenty others of the s;ime genus. 

Kegtinling my astonishing " the Entomologiciil world with such a name as Auticostiensis," 
I can only s;ty if the said world is astonished, it has expcriencctl the same .sensation before, at 
le:\st that part of it has whose studies extend beyond the narrow confines of some province 
or county, for such names as Xcelgherriensis,* I^adakensis.t Mephistophclcs,! Goschkevitschii,^ 

•Ltnhe Xeelgherriensis, Gueriu. 
tColi;is Ladakensis, Feld. 
JHeterochroa Mepbistopheles, Bull. 
{Lafiommata Goschkevilschii, Men. 



PERSONAL. 43 

Hampstediensis,* Cliimbora2ium,t ZamboaDga,J Mahallakoena,§ Madagaseariensis,|| «fcc., 
were bestowed on rare and love! j insects by the giants of Entomology, men from whose dictum 
there can scarcely be an appeal. 

I have now I trust done my duty towards Mr. Saunders, I can but make my salaam, 
reiterate my thanks, and adjure him not again to let his emotioas so far overpower him as to 
make him lose his temper in the futile attempt to prove I liad lost mine, a thing which I 
scrupulously avoid, as it unfits one for business or rational pleasures and, worst of all, it spoils 
digestion, Heemax Streckee, Reading, Pa. 

The following letter, which I received just as the above was going to press, needs no 
comment of mine, and a,? I have the writer's permission to use it as I please, I think the very 
best use I can make of it is to lay it before the "Entomological World, " not with the im- 
pression, however, that it will be astonished thereat after reading the foregoing pages : 

Boom 4, Xo. 117 Bboadwat, New Yoek, Angnst 5, 1873. 

My Dear Sir : — You Lave doubtless read Mr. Sarmders' reply to yonr observation? in the 2nd No. of your book. 
Not very satisfactory to yon, I presume, and not very creditable to Saunders. 

The reply, however, recall^ to my memory a circumstance which occurred now about a year rince, and which is 
strongly illustrative of Saunders' supercilious behavior, as I deem it 

Believing him to have access to better libraries and larger collections than were within my reach, and further- 
more induced by the invitation extended to amateurs in columns of the Canadian Entomologist, to send their collec- 
tions to the Society for determination, I sent by the hand of a pereonal friend a box of insects with the proper request. 

Not being sure that either Mr. Bavnes E«ed or Mr. Saunders was in London, I requested my friend to deliver 
the box to either party. 

I did not feel quite sure of my friend, so after waiting a coi^le of months, without receiving any notice of the 
receipt of the box, I wrote both to B«ed and Satmders enquiring if they had received such box. No answer came 
from either. I then caused enquiries to be made of my friend as to whom the box had been delivered, and the 
answer came, " to Mr. Saunders, on the day after my arrival in London." I again waited, perhaps another month, 
but no box, or acknowledgement of its receipt, arrived. 

I then wrote again to .Saunders, stating all the circumstances, and requesting return of box, but up to this mo- 
ment no reply or notice of any kind has been receiy^. 

As I am Agent here for the Entomologist, and have certainly done something toward extending its circulation, 
I call this rather cavalier treatment, while even towards a stranger I think Mr. Satmders' conduct, (to use his own 
words,) " to be unworthv a naturalist or a gentleman."' Yours, truly, 

AV.' V. ANDEEWS. 

You are at liberty to make any use you please of this note. 



It js reported that Commander Greer of the Tigress, the vessel which sailed a short time 
since in search of the crew of the Polaris, has said that there is to be no time wasted pickling 
fish, bottling bugs, &c. ; that the expedition will attend only to the object of its mission — the 
finding of the Polaris. If he even thought so, it is a disgrat* to give utterance to such expres- 
sions, for, if but one new fact in science were attained, what, in comparison, are whole heca- 
tombs of paltry human lives, which, as one flickers out, legions arise to fill the place. When 
thousands have again and again been ignobly, ruthlessly, sacrificed in useless and foolish wars, 
the ofispring of insane ambition, why should any one murmur at life endangered, or lost, in 
the noble cause of science. 

*Cynthia HampstediensLs, .Steph. 

jNymphidinm Chimborazium, Bates. 

JPieris Zamboanga, Feld. 

JLycaena MahaUakoena. Walker. 

I^Godartia Madagascariensi^, Lucas, and Crenis Madagascariends, Boisd. 




Ntfnvi Streeher J)ei. 







PAPILIO DAUNUS. Boisduval. 

Sjicc. Gen. I., p. 342, ii. 182. (18.36,) 

Hidings, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., I, p. 278. (1862.) 



(PLATE VI, FIG. 1 (J', 2 ?.) 

Male. Expands 3| to 5t inches. 

Antennae black, body yellow with a broad black dorsal, and narrow lateral and ventral 
bands. 

Upper surface chrome yellow ; primaries with six transverse black bands, all of which, 
with the exception of the marginal, are very narrow ; first is basal ; second extends from 
costal to interior margin ; third from costa to first median veinlet; fourth along the disco- 
cellular veins, from third sub-costal veinlet to second radial vein ; fifth terminates in some 
scattered atoms at the second radial veinlet ; sixth, broad, extending along the whole of the 
exterior margin ami divided transversely by a row of almost confluent yellow luniiles. 

Secondaries have the basal and second black bands of primaries continued to near the 
anal spot, where they are united ; a broad marginal band, with six large crescents, the one 
nearest the anal angle fulvous, the others yellow, more or less tinged M'itli fulvous ; anal spot, 
which is also fulvous, is surmounted by a blue crescent, some patches of blue scales on the 
border, interior to the sub-marginal lunuics ; four tails, the outer and innermost of which are 
the shortest, that next llie outerinost is longest, and the remaining one is half tlic length of 
this latter ; emarginations yellow. 

Under surface much jialer ; primaries marked as on uj)per surface, except that the sub- 
marginal lunules are replaced by a broad yellow band. 

Secondaries have the sub-marginal lunules, which are, with the exception of the two 
nearest the anal angle, larger than above, succeeded by yellowish grey atoms, edged interiorly 
with shining blue, which is surmounted with black, adjoining which, between the abdominal 
margin and second sub-costal veinlet, are five triangular rufous spots or flames ; discal arc 
black ; second and third median veinlets edged with black scales. 

Female same as male, birt all the markings are much heavier, and, on upper surface, not 
so intensely black as in the male. 

Habitat. Colorado, Kansas, Mexico, Ouataniala. 

The above description of this superb species applies more particularly to the tropical 
form, found in Mexico and Central America ; the examples from Colorado present some few 
points of difference in the male, in that the third and fourth transverse bands of primaries do 
not extend beyond the median vein, and the fifth is almost obsolete ; on secondaries the lunulc 
nearest the anal angle is the only one that is fulvous, and there are no red flames on the under 
surface. 

Mr. Ridings, who, in 1804, took several of this species in the Rocky Mountains, says it 

45 



4(i PAPILIU DAT NTS. 

is rare and dirtioiilt to capture, owing to its iiigli flight and tiic almost iuaccessiblc nature of its 
haunts. 

Friend Sachs, of" New York, added another to the numberless favors already conferred bv 
loaning me from his collection the original of the :i^ figures for the purpose of illustrating the 
accompanying plate ; the ? is from one of a number which I received from Vera Cruz, Mexico. 



I'AriLlO ZOLICAOX. BoismvAi.. 

Ann. Soc. Kut. Fr., p. 281. (18.V2.^ 

P. Zeiicaon, Luca.«, Rev. Zool., p. 136. (1852.) 

I'. Machaon, var. Cull/omica, Menetries, Cat. Mu5. Petr. Lop. I, p. 09. (ISo-j.) 



(PLATE Vr, FIG. 3 $.) 

Mam; ani> Fkmai.k. Expands 3 to 3% inches. 

jVntenmv black : head and thorax black with two yellow lines ; abdomen black with a 
lateral yellow band. 

I'pper surface rich yellow, pi-iniarics with a large black basal patch, between which and 
the disco-cellular veins is a broad black band, extending from costa to median vein, another 
covers the diseo-cellular veins and reaches to the fourth radial vein, beyond this, between the 
costa and fourth sub-costal veinlet, is a black dash, immediately below this and joining it is a 
round spot ; a black marginal band, containing a row of yellow spots, round near the outer 
angle, and becoming lunate as they approach the inner, the one nearest to which is geminate; 
nervures defined with black. 

Secondaries, abdominal margin black ; discal arc, as "well as the veins, black ; a very 
broad black marginal baud : sub-marginal hniulcs yellow, above these, within the marginal 
band, a row of shining blue crescents; anal eye large, red, etlged below with yellow and 
piipilled with black ; tails .same as in P. Machaon and kindred species ; emarginations yellow. 

I'nder surface paler ; primaries marked much as above. Secondaries, interior to the 
sub-marginal luuules, a band of greyish yellow edged with blue; adjoining the marginal 
band the wing is tinged with fulvous. 

Habitat. California, Oregon, Vaucouv^er's Island. 

Although bearing a striking resemblance to P. Machaon, and particularly to its variety 
Sphyrus'^', I believe this to be a distinct species, especially as the true P. ^lachaon is found in 
the northern parts of our possessions and in British America ; but even this Mr. Scudder con- 
siders distinct from the typical P. ilachaon, and has named it P. Aliaskat, but I do not think 
on sufficient ground,*, as, after a rigid comparison, I do not find it to difler from the Eurojieau 
types more than do exam.ples from the Himalayas, Cliina, Turkey, &c., which is very little, 
indeed. 

*Hubner, Samml. Exot. Sclimett., f. 775, 776. (1818-1827. >. 
tScudder, Ent. Xotes, II, p. 45. (1869.^ 



PAPILIO ASTERIOIDES. Reak.rt. 

Proo. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 331, n. 27. (ISGG) 



(PLATE VI, FIG. 4 ? .) 



Male. Expands 3^ inclics. 

Head and body black; patagi;L' yellow; abdomen with dorsal and lateral rows of yellow 
spots like Asterius. 

Upper surface black ; primaries, a sub-marginal row of eight yellow spots, the one nearest 
the inner angle is oblong and sometimes connected at lower end witii the yellow emargination, 
the others arc round, or nearly so ; an inner regular band of eight triangular yellow spots, the 
one between the first median nervule and sub-median nervurc is broadest, the next below it is 
the narrowest, the rest are pretty much of one size ; further in, near the costa, is a small round 
yellow spot. 

Secondaries, six vellow sub-marginal hinules ; a yellow mesial band, divided by the veins 
into seven parts, between this and the sub-marginal lunules are clusters of shining blue atoms, 
the narrowest and bris-htest of which surmounts the anal eve, which is oranu^e, margined below 
with yellow and pupilled with black : cniarginations yellow. 

Under surface brown, ornamentation same as above, with the addition of a small discal 
bar on primaries, but the sub-marginal spots and lunules are paler, and the triangular spots 
composing inner band of primaries, with the exception of the one nearest the costa, are fulvous ; 
those of mesial baud of secondaries also fulvous, of a richer shade and margined interiorly with 
yellow ; the sub-marginal lunules, except the two nearest the anal angle, tinged with fulvous 
on the inner side, between these and the mesial band is a row of irregular crescents, composed 
of yellowish and blue scales, after the manner of Asterius and allied species ; anal eye as 
above ; tails like Asterius. 

Female same expanse and color as male ; all tlic wings broader ; inner baud of primaries 
a little broader and of same width throughout; pupil of anal ocellus small. 

Mr. Eeakirt's type (d ) has the spots forming the inner band of primaries nmch suffused 
with black, the suffusion increasing as they near the costa, where the last few become obsolete, 
or almost so ; there is also a variation in the anal spot, the pupil of which, instead of being a 
round spot in the centre, extends across its whole breadth, cutting it into two parts, the upper 
of which is red, the lower yellow ; this, I am eon\incod, however, has no specific value, as I 
have met with the same peculiarity in Asterius. This type in the Museum of the Am. Ent. 
Soc, Phil., is from Mexico ; the cT and ? in my collection are from Costa Rica. 

I received in the sending, along with it, examples of Sadalus taken at the same time, in 
the same locality. 

This section of the genus Papilio bids fair to become involved in almost as hopeless a 
state of confusion as that at present enjoyed the by Coliades. 

47 



48 PAPILIO A8TERIOIDES. 

Tlic gco<;raj)liical range of .Asterius and congeners is as follows : — the ordinary form of 
Astcrius, witli but little variation, ooours from Canada to Florida, inclusive, and from Maine 
westward to tiie Rocky Muuntains; in Newfoundland is Brevicauda ; the southern coast of 
Labrador and Island of Anticosti produce Anticostiensis ; Colorado, and probably other of the 
western territories, has Indra and Asterius, and, finally, in Mexico and Central America are 
Asterioides and Sadalus. 

P. Bairdii, another variety or closely allietl species, which I iiave not yet had opportunity 
to closely examine, was taken also in Mexico. 

In view of the above i)rcmises, I must adhere to my first belietj that Indra and Sad- 
alus arc true species ; Asterioides, I have not a particle of doubt, is the tropical form of Asterius, 
and Anticostiensis may be the sub-Arctic, whilst Brevicauda, if it be not identical with the 
latter, is a segregated type jwculiar to Newfoundland. 

It is curious to note, that whilst Asterius, occupying a vast extent of country lying inter- 
mediate between those in which Anticostiensis and Asterioides, &c., are found, should have 
the macular bands on wings of female almost obsolete, whilst the contrary is the case in the 
extreme northern and southern forms which unite in the peculiarity of the female having the 
bands of as great and greater width than in the male. Thus it is strange to see how extremes 
meet, and how wondcrfidly, like "a circle that ever rctiirncth into the self-same spot," are 
the works of nature i)rought to iiarmonize under the uncrrin<r direction of the Great Master. 

All my examples of Asterius cf ? from Peninsular Florida are without the round black 
spot situated in the division of macular baud of primaries nearest the costa ; in all the 
specimens of Asterius from other localities that I have ever seen, also of Indra, Sadalus and 
Anticostiensis this spot is prominent, in the majority of instances it is so large as to divide the 
yellow space into two parts. 

The macular band of primaries in the ;> Asterius above alhKlcd to, trom Florida, is of 
greater width than in any examples I have yet seen from other localities. The females present 
no other differences frcMii examples found elsewhere than in the absence of the black spot 
alluded to. 

Three other curious varieties of Asterius have came under my observation ; the first, and 
perhaps most remarkable of which, is the one described by Mr. Grote under tiie name of 
Papilio Calverleyi,* from a male captured in (^^lecns County, Long Island, August, 18Gl>; a 
female was subsequent iy taken by ilr. T. Jj. ^lead in Florida. It is a beautiful insect, the 
Siime size and form as Asterius, and with the same dorsal and lateral spots on the body; the 
wings have the basal half black and the outer half yellow, inclining to orange on a portion of 
the secondaries ; a very narrow black marginal band ; faint indications of sub-marginal lunules. 
Under surface nearly the same as above, but with more orange on secondaries; male and 
female resemble each other closely. Messrs. W. II. Edwards and Grote contend it is distinct 
from Asterius; for my part, I think it a most interesting variety t)f that species. 

The second example in Mr. T. L. Mead's collection is an undoubted female, but is 
marked precisely as in the male. 

Hirote, Proo. Eiit. Soc, Phil., II, p. 441, ^. (1864.) 
Mead, Am. Xat., Ill, p. 332, ?. (1809.) 



PAPIIJO ASTERIODES. 49 

The third is a hcrraaphrorlitc, taken by Prof. J. E. Meyer in Brooklyn, in 1863, now in 
possession of Mr. AV. H. Edwards, who described it in Proc. Ent. Soc., Phil., lY, p. 390, 
both the right wings are male and the left ones female, with no sufTnsion or mixing of color. 

Since describing P. Anticostiensis on page 10, Mr. Couper has made another entomo- 
logical tour to the Island of Anticosti, and, among other results of his most commendable 
enterprise, are some forty specimens of this species, taken at Ellis Bay, about 117 miles west 
of Fox Bay, where he took the types figured on plate II. I have examined twelve of these, 
male and female, and find they agree with the types and appear to be subject to scarcely any 
variation, except in the length of the tail, which varies in different examples from 3-lG to 
5-16 of an inch; the size of this appendage is, however, valueless for specific purposes, as in 
P. Philenor it is found from | to J- of an inch, in P. Agamemnon from a mere tooth to nearly 
J of an inch, in P. Pammon from | to J of an incli, and the same difference in length occurs 
in many others. 

Mr. Couper also secured the egg and larva ; the former, he states, "are laid singly on the 
leaves of Archangelica Atropurpurea which occurs common throughout the whole extent of 
the Island ; the egg is spherical and j>ale yellow." The larva, which I will figure on my 
next plate of diurnals, is pale green with a transverse row of black spots or dashes on each 
segment, the lateral ones running obliquely; from these spots emanate little points; unfortu- 
nately, Mr, Couper could not sojourn on the island long enough to obtain the fully matured 
larva; the one just described is | of an inch long. Mr. Couper also took at Anticosti this 
summer a dozen examples of Colias which will doubtless tend to increase the muddle into 
which that interesting genus has been thrown through the indefatigable labors of our lepidop- 
terists. 



ANTllOCHARIS LAN(;EOLATA. Bo.si-uval. 

Ann. Ent. Soc, Fr. (1852.) 

Lucas, Rev. Zool., p. 338. (1852.) 

Anthocharis Eduan's'i, Belir, Trans. Am. Ent. Hoc, Vol. II, p. 30-1. (1869.) 



(PLATE Vr, FIG. 5, c?.) 

J^xpands \'l inches. 

Antenna3 white, club black, tipped with white at extremity; head and body black above, 
beneath white. 

Upper surface white ; primaries, some black scales at base ; a broken black or dark 
brown apical patch, varying in extent in different examiiles, but in none that I have seen is it 
as heavy as in A. Ansonidcs; a black discal .spot. In the secondaries the marbleing of under 
surface is partially visible ; some black at base as in primaries. 

Under surface white; primaries, some fine brown reticulations near the anterior angle; 
discal spot black. 



oO ANTIIOCIIARIS LAXCKOLATA. 

Sooomlaries marliled with fiiu' brown lines which booomo almost cKinfliient on inner halt", 
csiXM'ially at i-osta, whore there are several irregular sha{>eil pure wliite spots, the oue nearest 
the outer angle being the largest. 

Female resembles the male. 

Habitat. California. 

This has the reputation of being one of the rarest of the Calilbrnian butterHies ; it re- 
sembles in torm ami gener.il api>earanee the female of our eastern A. Genutia, but is larger, 
auil the ornamentation of under surface of secondaries is diflcreut from any other American, 
or, in fact, any species I am acquainted with. 



ANTHOCHARIiii JULIA. Kdwards 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV, p. 61. (1872.) 



(FL-VTE VI, FIG. 6, cf. 7, ?.) 



Mai.K. Expands 1^ inches. 

Head and bo<ly black above, yellowish beneath ; antenna^ blackish, club with yellow tip. 

I'pjK'r surfaw white ; primaries, black at base; an onvnge apical jvitch, margined by a 
black kind outwaixlly. the inner etlge of which is scrratetl. inner half of the orange pitch is 
powdere^l with black atoms : costa, from diset>-cel hilar veins to lase, blackish ; an S shajK^l 
disc-al niai-k extends to the costa. 

SoiXMidaries black at base : ciliiv black at termination of veins. 

Under surfaiv white : j>riiuaries, apii>al j^rt greiiiish, the orange sjwt not near so vivid as 
above : distil mark almost divide*! in two at the centre ; costal margin with some indistinct 
markings. 

Sxxmdaries variegateil with greeaiish grey in a manner nearer approaching A. Genutia 
than anv otlier sjKxies, that is, all the marks are couuecteil with each other and have a foliate<l 
not a spotterl api>oarani.v, as in A. Sam and ? var. Rcakirtii : veins yellow. 

Fe>ial>:. Exjunds li inches. 

Upi^r surfece lemon yellow, uiarke«l much as in male, but the orange spot does not 
extend as tar outwanl, Wing Ixniudeil exteriorly by an irregular blackish sub-marginal line, 
the sjvace Wtween which and the outer margin is yellow. 

I'ndcr surtacc yellow, uiarke^l as in the other sex. 

All the examples so far known are those taken by Mr. Mead in the pine Ibrests near 
Fairplav. Colorado, in June, ISTl, and now in Mus. Am. Ent. Soc., T. L. Mead, 
W. H. Edwiinls, H. Strcoker. 

This prettv species, I think, will hold its own, the variegation of under surface of soeon- 
daries is jvcnliar and ixmstant and quite different from A. Stira and A. Reakirtii, notwith- 
standing the great tendency to variation in the latter.* 

•S*r» >nd R«akirtii, 1 believe, are identical. 




: -mta Strteitf, Jifi . 







' <^ ^'-irtrxy^-tr-L-vA c\ X^c/-c_<-< fA^^^.^ 



/^ ff ,, Ifo^.j-y J^'^^-'C/-A^^^y^/9- 



Monograph of the known Species of Smerinthus in N. America, of whicli 
the following is the Catalogue and Synonymy. 



SMERINTHUS, Latreillc. 

JuoLANDis, Abbot & Siuitli, (Sphinx J. ) Insects of Georgia, Vol. T, p. 57, t. 2i), ( 17!t7. ) 

Amorpha dentata juf/landis, Hulmer, Sam. Ex. Sclimett., A''ol. I, ( 180G. ) 

Polyptychus Juglandis, Hubncr, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 141, (181G. ) 

Smerinthus Juglandis, Harris, Sill. Am. Jul. Sc, A"ol. 30, p. 292,(1839); Ins. Injurious to 
Vegetation p. 328, Flint's Ed, (1802. ) Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 247, 
( 1850. ) Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc., Pliila., p. 185, ( 1859. ) Harris, Syn., p. 213, 
n. 7, ( 18G2. ) Lintncr, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. Ill, p. GG8, ( 18G4. ) 

.O-essonia Juglandis, Grote & Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 101, 180, (1805); 
List Lep. N. Am., 1. p. iv, (18G8.) Sanborn, Can. Ent. Vol. I, p. 48, (18G9.) 
Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 24, (1873. ) 

Pallens, Nov. Sp., Strccker, (1873.) 

ExCAECATA, Abbot & Smith, ( Sphinx, E. ) Insects of Georgia, Vol. I, ]). 49, t. 25, ( 1797.) Smerinthus E., 
Harris, Sill. Am. Jnl. Sc, Vol. 36, p. 290, ( 1839); Ins. Injurious to Vegetation, i). 
327, f. 155, Flint's Ed., ( 1802. ) 

Paonias Excaecatus, Hubncr, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 142, ( 181G. ) Grote, Bull. Buff. .Soc. Xut. 
Sc, Vol. I, p. 23, (1873.) 

Paonias Pavonina, Geyer, Zutr. Sam. Ex. Schmett., p. 12, f. 835, 830, ( 1837. ) 

Paonias Pavonimis, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 23, ( 1873. ) Smerinthus P., Grote: 
& Robinson, Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. 5, p. 100, 185, ( 18G5. ) 

Smerinthus Excaecatus, Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lej). 8, p. 240,(1850.) Clemens, Jnl. Acad. 
Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 182, ( 1 859. ) Morris, Sjn. p. 208, n. 2, (18G2.) Grote & Robinson, 
Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 100, ( 1805); List Lep. N. Am., I, p. iv, (1802.) 
Sanborn, Can. Ent., Vol. I, p. 48, ( 1809. ) Paelcard, Guide to Ent., p. 275, ( 18G9. ) 

Myoi-s, Abbot & Smith, (Sphinx M.) Insects of Georgia. Vol. I, ]>. 51, t. 20, ( 1797. ) 

Paonias IJyops, Hubner, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 142, ( 181G. ) Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc Nat. Sc, 

Vol. I, p. 23, ( 1873. ) 
Smerinthus Rosacaerum, Boisduvul, Sp. Gen. Le]>. t. 15, ( 1836. ) 

Smerinthus Myops, Harris, Sill. Am. Jnl. t'^c.. Vol. 36, p. 291, (1839;; Ins. Injurious to Vege- 
tation, p, 328, Flint's Ed., ( 1862. ) Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 245, (1856.) 
Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila. p. 181,(1859.) Morris, Syn. p. 207, n. 1, 
(1862.) Grote & Robinson, Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. lOO, (1865); List 
Lep. N. Am. I, p. iv, ( 1868. ) 

AsTYLi'w, Drury, (Sphinx A. ) 111. Exotic Ent., Vol. II, p. 45, t. 20, f. 2, ( 1773. ) 

Sphinx lo, Boisduval, Guerin, Ic. du Reg. An. t. 84, ( 1829-1844. ) Smerinthus Jo, Boisduval, 

Griffith's Ed. Cuv., Vol. II, t. 83, ( 1835. ) Wilson, Treatise, Ent. Brit. Enc, p. 

240, t. 230, (1835.) 
Smerinthus Integerrima, Harris Cat. Ins. jNIass. in Hitchcock's Rep. Geo. Bot. & Zool. of Mass., 

( 1835. ) 
Smerinthus Astylus, Westwood, Drury 111. Ex. Ent., Vol. II, p. 48, t, 26, (1837.) Harris, Sill. 

Am. Jnl. Sc, Vol. 36, p. 290, (1839.) Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 245, (1856.) 
" Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 184, (1859.) Morris, Syn. p. 211, n. 6, (1862.) 

Grote & Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, IMiila., Vol. V, p. 160, (1865); List Lep. N. Am. 

I, p. iv, (1808.) 
Calasymbolus Astylus, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 23, (1873.) 

Geminatus, Say, Am. Ent., Vol. I, p. 25, t. 12, (1824.) Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 240, (1850.) 
Leeonte, Ed. Say, Am. Ent., p. 25, t. 12, (1859.) Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, 
Phila., p. 183, (1859.) 3forris, Syn., p. 210, n. 4, (1862.) Grote A- Robinson, Proc. 

51 



52 SMERINTHUS. 

Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. IGO, 185, (1865); List I>cp. X. Am. I, p. iv, (1868.) 

Packard, (iuide, Ins., p. 275, (1869.) Linluer, 24th Report, N. Y. State, Mus. Xat. 

Hist., p. 119, (1870.) Grote, Bull. BufF. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 2.3, (1873.) 
Sinerinlhus Gtminata, Harris, Cat. Ins. Mass. in Hep. Geo. Bot. & Zool. of Mass., (1835); Sill. 

Am. Jnl. Sc., Vol. 36, p. 291, (1839.) 
Var. .Iam.vicexsis, Drurv, {Sphuix Ocellatm JamalKns!'^, ) 111. Ex. Ent., Vol. II, p. 43, t. 25, 

(1773.) Smmnthus J., Wcs(woo(J, Drury III. Ex. Ent., Vol. II, p. 47, t. 25, (1837); 

Grote <(• liobinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 160, (1865); Lintner, 24th 

Report, N. Y. State, Mus. Xat. Hist., p. 123, (1870.) 

OiTHALMicus, Boisihival, Annales, Soc. Ent. de France, t. Ill, 3me ser. xxxii, (1855.) C/£meris, Jnl. 
Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 184, (1859.) Morris, Syn., p. 211, n. 5, (1862.) Grote 
A- liobinson, Proc P^nt. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 160,(1865); List Lcp. X. Am., 
I, p. iv, (1S68.) Lintner, 24th Report, N. Y. State, Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 12-5, (1870.) 
Grote, Bull. Butf. Soc Nat. Sc, I, p. 23, (1873.) 

Ckiu.'^yi, Kirby, Fauna Boreali Americana, Vol. IV, p. 302, t. 4, f. 4, (1837.) Lintner, 24th Report, X. Y. 
State, Mus. Xat. Hist., p. 124, (1870.) 
Smerinthu-s Cerisii, Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., \(>\. \, p. 40, (1865) ; Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat 
Sc, I, p. 23, (1873.) Grote & Robinson, Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 160, 
(1865); Li,st Lep. X. Am., I, p. iv, (1868.) 

MODE.STA, Harris, Sill. Am. Jul. Sc & Art, Vol. 36, p. 292, (1839); Agassiz' Lake Superior, p. 388, t. 7, 
(1850.) Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 183, (1859.) Horns, Syn., p. 210, 
n. .3, (1862.) 

Smerinthus Modestus, Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 248, (1856.) Grote & liobinson, Proc. 
Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 161, 18-5, (1865); List Lep. N. Am. I, p. iv, (1868.) 

Smerinthus Princeps, Walkei-, Cat. Brit. Mus. Lep. 8, p. 255, (1856.) 

Laothoe Modesto, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc Nat. Sc. I, p. 24, (1873.) 



Ill ISlfi Iliibiier in liis ^'erzeic]lnisz Bekannter Schniclterlinge dividod and .«ub-dividcil tlie Smeriiitlil into several grouiw and 
gonora. His fir.-it .sub-family, I)c-ntati, comprisfd llie genera Colaces and I'olvptyclius, and tlie second, An^ulali, contained Taonias and 
Maimanles; Polvptychns was for tlie reception of the plain grey species .siicli as Dentatus ( 'r. and .Jnglandis Alil). & 8., whil.st Paonias 
wa.s for tlie species having the inferiors ornamented with eye-like spots, of which Ocellata L., and Kxcaecata Abb. & S. were types. 
But in this Ilubner was no more felicitious than in (lie numberless other instances in which he pursued the .same course ; in fact .so few 
admired the system that it fell into almost entire disuse, until within the present year, when, Mr. Cirote very injudiciously attempted 
to revive it, with addition.s of his own, in his Catalogue of the Sph. of X. Am., published in the I'ulletin of the Kuilalo Society, in which 
the uiiforlunalc Smerinthi are treated in this wi,-c on p. 23, 24. 

"Tribe, ANfiii.ATi //»6ncr. SMERINTIIl'S, Latreille (1800.) 

PAONIAS, Ilubner (ISIG.) Type: Sphinx Occllatus, Linnofui. 

Type: Siihin.x Excaecaliis, ,lMu( <(• .SihiV/i. Ophthalmicus, Boiidurat. 

California. 
!• .KC.ux-.VTUs, //»4aer. (Jemi.vatus, Say. 

Sphinx Ercaecatuf, Ah\>ot & Smith. Canada,- Mass.icliusetts; New York; Pennsylvania. 

Canada; Mas.sachuselts; New York ; Southern Stales. Cerisii, Kirby. 

„ /-, IIudsoir.s Bay Territory (Kennicott.) 

Pennsylvania (Aiith. Geyer.) An spec, pracc? Tribe: Dentatae (JTubner.) 

Myops, IMner. LAOTHOE, Fabriciiis restr. (1807.) 

Sphinx Myops, Abbot & Smith. Type: Sphinx Populi, Linnaeus. 

Smcn'n/Atts jBosacaerum, Boisduval. ,. „„^_,. 

New York; Pennsylvania; Southern States. ' " ' ' 5,„^„.„,^„, 3^„j^,„^ „„.,,;, 

CALASYMBOIA-S, Grote (1873.) S,nerinthus Princeps, \\:>\Uv. ^ 

Type, Sphinx Astyhis, Drury. Lake Superior ; Canada; Ma.s.sachuselts ; New \ork. 



ASTYIA'S. 



Sphin)- Aslylus. Drurv. „ „ , . 

Sphinx lo, lioisdnvaf. Jcglakdis, Grote <C- Robinson. 



CRESSONIA, Grote & Bobimon (18C.5.) 

'ype ; Sphinx Juglandis, Abbot it Smith. 



Smerinthus Intei/errima, Harris. Sphinx Jntjlandis, .\bbot & Smith. 

Massachusetts; New York ; Pennsylvania. Canada; Ma.ssachiisetts ; New York ; Southern States." 

From the above, which I have quoted in full, it will be seen that the compiler has not been more fortunate in this arrangement than 
was the great originator of it, in whose footsteps he endeavors to tread. The genus Cal.a.synibolus, erected for Astylus, he says : 
"diil'ers from Paonias in the shape of the secondaries, and from Smerinthus in antennal structure," in what that dillerence of antennal 
structure consists the student is not informed; I, for my part would immensely like to know, for after a patient examination of all the 
species of this country, as well as of various Exotics, I am forced to the conclusion that any real material difference in the structure 
exbts not in the antennae of the Smerinlhi but in the fervid imagination of the founder of the Calasymbolus and Cressonia Dynasties. 



SMERINTHUS. 53 

The diflerence in the shape of the wings is of no possible moment, and from the fact that Mr. Grote does not mention Iiow much more his genus 
difiers from Paoniaa in the shape of the primaries than in that of the secondaries, we are unpleasantly led to suspect that perhaps the 
genus Calasymbolus was reared without its architect having the proper material at hand for a solid foundation to build it on, i. e., the 
necessary examples of Astylus, Myops, &c., &c., for comparison : Astylus certainly differs from the others more in the shape of the outer 
margin of the primaries than in that of the secondaries ; and should any one be inclined to follow the plan adopted by Mr. Grote and 
found genera on such trivial grounds as the shape of the wings, he would be constrained to separate Jlyops from Exeaecata on account 
of the dissimilarity in shape of primaries, and to join it to Geniinatus on account of their close resemblance in this respect, whilst 
Opthalmicus, Cerisyi and Geminatus ought each to be placed in separate genera on account of each having a different outline of wing, 
and vice versa Quercus should be placed with Cerisyi, and Tiliae with Geminatus. And in fact it will be seen by comparison that there 
are scarcely any two, except Juglandis and Fallens, which could be placed in one genus if uniformity of shape in the wings were taken 
as the basis thereof; and it would be indeed a new era in natural science when the forepart of an insect belonged to one genus and the 
hindpart to another, thus, supposing .Vstylus to have the " antennal structure " and primaries the same as Exeaecata or Myops, the two 
composing Paonias, whilst the secondaries are different from those of that genus and like those of Smerinthus, as we are to infer from 
Mr. Grote's language,* especially when taken with reference to the position of the genus Calasymbolus in his Catalogue above referred 
to, then we would have the anomaly of an insect in which the antenna? and primaries belonged to the g?nus I'aoniasand the secondaries 
to Smerinthus, a comjiound only equalled l)y Mad. Merian's lower figure, on t. xlix,t and for which we would propose the name of 
Paoni — S — merinthus Astylus, the dash meaning that the head and body are left out until some other aspirant for Entomological dis- 
tinction shall place them in a third genus. 

Mr. (irote has been, to judge from his productions, in an alarming state of indecision regarding the Smerinthi, ever since he commenced 
to massacre them in 18<i5. In the Cat. N. Am. Sph., then compiled by himself and his colleague Mr. Robinson, Jamaicensis, Geminatus, 
Cerisii, Optlialmicus, Pavoninus, E.^caecatus, Myops, Astylus and Modestus, nine species, are placed in Smerinthus, and Cressonia was 
created for Juglandis, the authors entirely ignoring the previous sonorous Amorpha dentata Juglandis, which had been conceived and 
bestowed on the unhappy insect by Ilubner, whilst Mr. Grote was yet an impalpability disporting through space. 

In the accompanying notes to the above mentioned catalogue it was hinted that Modestus might at some future time be also separated, 
a threat which Mr. Grote has since fulfilled. 

In Sep. 1868 appeared List of the Lep. of N. Am. by the same authors, (containing the Sphingidae and Bombycidae,) a work so 
replete with errors and inaccuracies that to eliminate them all would leave it in much the same condition as the result of that arith- 
metical problem where " nothing from nothing and nothing remains. " In this stupendous work Jamaicensis has silently stolen away 
without any apology for such a piece of impoliteness, and Pavoninus has been degraded to a synonym prefixed with an ?, which with 
regard to Pavoninus was perfectly correct, all except the ?. Af.er tlie appearance of this work there was a pause of five years, when 
Mr. Grote's last great literary eflbrt appears in his Cat. Sph. X. Am., in which the unfortunate eight species represent five general 

In this Pavoninus, after a modest retirement of eight years, is again allowed to occupy a position as a true species, with a dash( ) 

behind it, which is the author's mode of informing his readers that he knows nothing about the insect, which seems very strange for we 
certainly should think that knocking a species in and out of place for a term of eight years ought to give opportunity of forming some 
acquaintance with its true status, and besides, how could the learned author thus define its generic position with so much certainty if he 
were entirely unacquainted with it ; in such cases it is usual to place the doubtful species at the end of the sub-family or genus, as is 
done in Kirby's great Catalogue of Diurnae. 

It would be difficult to find two species more closely allied than Myops and Astylus, and if they are to be placed in different genera, 
then all wc have to do is to give each of the Smerinthi a genus to ilself, and in order to let posterity know to whom they are in- 
debted for such a great work, the authors should perpetuate the genera thus created by bestowing on them their own names and those 
of their patrons. 

The two species perhaps most dissimilar in appearance, Ocellata and Populi, are known to hybridate, which fact ought to be of 
some value in establishing intimate relationship. 

Altogether, I do not think a much more compact group exists, and any attempt at division can only be made with violence and result 
in the increase of worse than useless .synonyms. And if separation were to be insisted on, the shape of the wings ought to be the last 
point considered, for were that taken as a generic base Lepidopterology would be lost amidst a host of endless Princeps — Heroicus, 
Laertias, Zetides, AchiUiades, Iliades, Menelaides and Fiddle-de~de-d(^dees, the same as disfigured the great works of Hubner, and 
from which we can but appeal in the language of the Litany and pray "Good Lord deliver us." 
Sei)t. 187:3. 



SMERINTHUS JUGLANDIS. abbot & Smith. 
Insects of Georgia, Vol. I, p. o7, ( 1797. ) 




( PLATE VII, FIG. 12 c?, 13 ?. ) 



Male. Expands 2^ inches. 

Head and thorax flesh colored, a brown dor-sal ridge on tlic latter ; palpi brown ; abdomen brown with 
edges of .segments flesh color, the anal segment with a terminal and side tufts. 

Upper surface, flesh colored ; primaries with transverse brown lines and shades, and a small discal mark 
of like tint. Secondaries have two transverse lines accompanied by brownish shades, and are heavily clothed 
at the ba.so with pale yellowish hair. 

Under surface, warm reddish brown ; primaries with two parallel transverse lines, between which and the 
external margin is an irregular band of flesh color ; costa and apical part same tint. Secondaries, two median 
lines with the space between them flesh colored ; ciliae white and brown. 

Female. Expands 21 to 3 inches. 

*Tlie genus differs from Paonitis in tlie shape of the secondaries, and from Smerintkus in antennal structure. Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc 
I, p. 23. 

tMetamorphis Insectorum Surinamcnsium. 



\ 



54 SMERINTHUS JUGLANDIS. 

Color more iliiU than iu male, much wanting in the i)lnki:<h tint, more inclined to ocliraceous or brown ; 
markings same as in that sex. 

Habitat. Canada, and the United .State.-; generally as far westward as the Mississippi. 

The larva is 2[ inches long; has a pointed head ; is of a pale green color with lateral stripes and grau- 
nlated with white; caudal horn much granulated. In Abbot & Smith's work t. 29, the larva is ferruginous 
in color, but the text further states that "the Caterpillar is sometimes green." It feeds on the black walnut 
(.Juglans >>igra,) and Hickory (Caiya Alba,) also on the Iron Wood (Ostrya Yirginica,) on which latter 
,Mr. Lintiicr found tiie mature larvae.* Mr. Packard's assertion that it''livcs on the Wild Cherry" is erroneous."!" 

The pupa is brown and has the three teuninal segments flattened beneath. 

This is by no means a common insect though rather wide spread. There is some variation in the color 
of the female, some examples i)cing of a decided ochrcy or brownish shade, whilst others approximate more to 
the flesh color of the male. This in common with the other Smeriuthi varies much in size in different examples. 

In Abbot's plate the colorist jjcrformed some funny work, in that the primaries in both sexes arc colored 
prettv close to nature but the secondaries arc painted yellow, and the worst feature of this is that iu the te.xt 
this difference is mentioned as a fact, and brf)Ught directly to notice by the author making some remarks in 
connection with this and a somewhat analagous JCuropean species,| it will be seen by my flgs. 12, 13, as well 
as by the description, that this has no i(>undation, except in the foncy of the ])erson who colored the plates, wiio 
doubtless imagined that a little variety introduced would improve the natural plain appearance of the insect. 

I have commenced the Catalogue which heads this paper with this species, believing the grounds for 
retaining it in a separate genus to be entirely insufficient. 



SMKiaNTllUS PALLEN8. Nov. Sr. 

(PLATE Vir, FIG. 14 ?.) 

Fkmai-K. Exjiands 2j: inches. 

.Same (i)rm as Juglandis ; wings a little broader in i)roportion tiian in that species. 

I'pper surlaec, uniforndy ochraccous ; primaries with two light brown sub-basal lines ; two other lines, 
parallel with the exterior margin, traverse the wing from inner margin to costa, near and at which they 
curve inwardly towards the base ; on the disc, between the 1st and 2nd median nervules, is a very faint greyish 
shade. Secondaries have two pale brown median lines which follow the curve of the outer margin, there are 
:dso faint iiulications of a third line nearer the base. 

Under surface, same color and markings as above, perhaps a j)ossiblc shade paler, with the exception of 
the sub-basal lines of primaries which are here wanting; emarginations whitish. 

Described from a uni(pic ? example received from Texas near the Mexican boundary. 1 would like to 
Siiy something further regarding this rather curious insect, but as the above. embodies all I really know con- 
cerning it, I will spare my readers, and not attempt to make mere verbiage supply the paucity of fact. 



SMERINTHUS EXCAECATA. Abbot & Smith. 
^1 Insects of Georgia, Vol. 1, p. 49, t. 2""), ( 1707. ) 



PLATE VII, FIG. I c?, 2 ?.) 

Mali:. Expands 2} to 2?, inches. 

Head and body fawn colored ; abroad dorsal thoracic ii.atch widest near the abdomen, narrow iu the 
middle and terminating in a line on the head ; a dor.sal stripe on the abdomen. 

Upper surface, primaries fawn colored with, ( in fresh examples, ) a faint violet shade, a broad brown 

»Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. III. p. 668. 

*C!uido to Ent., p. 274. 

;•• Mr. Abbot very justly remarks the afflnlty between this and Sphinx Populi, the Antennae which in the male are alM, in a degree pectinated; 
1 111 there is not much affinity In the markings of the wings, nor is there so great a difference ot hue between the fore and hind wings of &. Populi as 
in that now before us." Abbot & Sm. Ins. Ga., Vol. I, p. 67, (1797.) 



SMERINTHUS EXCAECATA. 55 

somewhat triangular median space crossed with shades of darker hue, from this outwards arc various transverse 
wavy lines and shades of brown ; a small black discal spot ; cmarginations acutely dentate and white. Sec- 
ondaries, base and middle rose color; costal and exterior margins fawn color, on the former some paler lines ; 
a large black ocellus with a single blue pupil ; a pale brown shade crosses the wing transverselj' from the apex 
to the ocellus, and beyond this to the anal angle, where it assumes a darker color, and with which it connects 
the latter ; cmarginations white. 

Under surface ; primaries, basal half rose colored, exterior to this is a pink transverse band, traversed 
and edged with brown lines, beyond which to the exterior margin the space is chocolate brown with an uneven 
pink transverse line widest in tlie middle, where it joins the inner band of same color; a dark yellow patch 
at posterior angle. Secondaries, chocolate brown with a pink median band, which is joined outwardly in tho 
middle by a triangular spot of the same color ; dark yellow apical and anal dashes. 

Female. Expands 3 to 3} inches. 

Marked as iu the male but paler in color, and the rosy hue of upper surface of secondaries extends to the 
exterior margin. 

The larva is light green, palest on the back, with white granulations, pale yellow stripes on the sides, and 
green caudal horn. It feeds on the leaves of various kinds of Apple, and according to Abbot on the ^Yild Rose 
(Rosa Carolina). ]\Ir. Lintner also found it on Maple. 

It is the commonest of our species and occurs throughout the Atlantic States as well as in Ohio, Ken- 
tucky, Indiana, &c., &c. 

Some Lepidopterists consider Geyer's figures, 835, 836 in the "Zutrage," as representing a distinct species, 
this theory is advocated by Grote & Robinson in the notes appended to their Cat. of 1805,* and in Grote's 
Cat. of 1873, to both of which I have referred in the introductory remarks to this paper; I cannot imagine 
how any one after seeing Geyer's figures could for a moment sujjpose them to represent anj^thing else than 
Excaecata, they are certainly more recognizable than Abbot's,t which has the primaries painted rose color like 
the secondaries, besides, Geyer's descriptive remarksj are pertinent and to the point; he even mentions that 
the female (of which he gave no figure) is generally larger and less bright in color ; he gives its locality as 
Pennsylvania. 

The most astounding revelation that we find regarding this species is where Prof. Packard tells us in his 
Guide that the ocellus or eye-like spot of hind wings has " two or three blue pii{)ilsl"§ such utterly erroneous 
and culpably careless assertions are the more lamentable as the book in question was sought after more parti- 
cularly by beginners and those who had not yet acquired the knowledge sufficient to discriminate between the 
chaff and the good grain. 



SMERINTHUS MYOPS. Abeot & smitu. 

Insects of Georgia, Vol. I, p. 51, t. 26, (1797.) 



M 



(PLATE A^II, FIG. 9, <^.) 



Male axd Female. ExpanJ 2^- to 2 J inches. 

Head and body chocolate and purplish brown ; a golden yellow dorsal ridge on thorax. On each side 
of abdomen a row of irregularly shaped yclloW' spots; a dark brown dorsal line. 

Upper surface ; primaries purplish brown ornamented with lines and shades of rich chocolate ; a brown 
discal dot ; a bright yellow spot near tho inner angle and another not far from the apex. Secondaries yellow, 
broadly bordered with chocolate at the costa and outer half of exterior margin ; a yellow spot at apex ; two 
pale transverse lines on brown margin near and at the costa ; a black ocellus, with blue centre, between ;vhich 
and the inner margin the color is pale brown and purplish. 

Under suriace ; primaries, basal half yellowish and plain ; outer half marked and colored as above, but 
more brilliantly. Secondaries with a median band, comjjoscd of alternate pale and dark lines, succeeded out- 
wardly by a somewhat broken one of rich yellow, the space beyond which to the margin is chocolate. 

* *' SMERINTHUS PiVONiNrs : A hitherto unideutiflcd, and, since Geycr wrote, unnoticed species of Smerinthvs, which the author mentions havini; 
received from Pennsylvania. It seems allied to .s". Excaecatus^ while Geyer compares it with the European 5. Occllatas ; compared with the former 
Geyer's figures offer too many points of distinctiveness to allow us to consider it us the species intended. " Grote £c Kobinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, of 
Fhila., Vol. V, p. 185, 

tAbbot & Smith, Insects of Georgia, t. 25, (1797.) 

i"PAONiAS Pavonina: Die-e unserer Sph. Ocellata sehr verwando art ist jedoch durch die eckigere gestalt der vorderfluge!, ihre durchaus 
braune Grundfarbe und deutlichere Zcichnuug, so wie durch den blinden Augcnfleck der hiuterflugel, von der anyefuhrten genugend untersehciden. 
Das Weib is gewohnlich viel grosser, und in der Farbung weuiger bunt. Heimiith, Pcnnsylvanien, von Herrn Grimm." Geyer, Zutrago zur 
Sammlung Exotiseher Schmetterlinge, p 12, (1837.) 

§"5. Excaeiatus, Smith has the hind wings rosy on tho inner angle. The "ocellus" or eye-like spot is black, with two or three blue pupils." 
Packard's Guide to the study of Insects, p 275, (1869.) 



56 SMERINTHUS MYOPS. 

Larva feeds on the Wild Cherry, and is pale green, with transvdrso oblique yellow and red lines or bands 
on the sides, the last of these extending up the caudal horn ; stigmata red. 

This is found in the same localities as Excaecata, Juglandis, &c., but is very rare. 

Chenu* has on the plate between pages 4 and 5 a male figure which, notwithstanding the exaggeration of 
the apical and outer portion of primaries, is easily recognizable as Myops, beneath we are informed it is 
"Smcrinthe Ocelli, femellc," which latter intelligence docs not fpiite take our breath, as tiie first shock is ex- 
perienced on looking at plate I of the same work where the tailless, plain antennaed female of Saturnia Isa- 
bella- is figured witii the title of '' Attacus Isabella.' male." t 



SMERINTHUS ASTYLUS. Drury. 

Illiislntlions of Exotic Enlomology, Vol. U, p. 4o, t. 2G, (1773,) 



(PLATE VII, FIG. 10, cf-) 

Mai,k. Expands 2^ to 2j; inches. 

Head and body cinnamon colored, a yellowish red dursal ridge on thorax. Abdomen with a brown 
dor.sal line, not very distinct, sides somewhat yellow. 

Upper surface ; primaries, flesh colored basal patch ; rest of wing cinnamon colored, with the inner mar- 
gin blue grey, a mere line at the pale basal patch, but beyond that it becomes wider and is abruptly terminated 
not far from the inner angle by a yellow spot; there is also another yellow spot at the apex; a submarginal 
flesh colored line, and several smaller ones at the costa ; a brown discal spot. Secondaries, inner part yellow, 
M'hich about halfway in becomes merged in cinnamon red, which color occupies the balance of the wing; near 
the costa are two pale lines ; a round black spot with blue pupil near the anal angle. 

I'nder surface very much the same as in S. Myops, with, however, more of a reddish cast throughout. 

Female differs only from the male in being a little larger, and paler in color. 

To the kindness of I'rof Meyer, of Brooklyn, who discovered the larva, and who is so far, I believe, the 
only person who has bred this rare species, I am indebted for cokircd drawings in which it is represented as 
being 1^ to 2 inches in length ; of a pale green color, beautifully variegated with dorsal and lateral yellow and 
red stripes and spots, somewhat in the manner of S. Myops. Its food plant is the tall Whortleberry or Huck- 
leberry, (Vac. Corymbosum.) 

Habitat. N. York, N. Jersey, Pennsylvania; of exceeding great rarity. 









SMERINTHUS GEMINATUS. Say 

Americin Eiilomology, Vol. 1, p. 2.5, t. 12, (1S24.) 



(PLATE VII, FIG. G, J', 7, ?.) 



Malk. Expands 2\ inches. 

Head pale grey ; palpi dark brown ; thorax pale grey with a large brown dorsal patch ; abdomen greyish 
brown. 

Upper surface, primaries, pale grey, of a somewhat pinkish tint, with various transverse brown lines and 
shades ; a dark reddish brown patch in the median space interiorly ; a pale discal mark ; a dark reddish brown 
lunate spot, edged interiorly with pale gra\', at apex, and another on interior margin near the inner angle. 
Secondaries, deep rose color, somewhat broadly margined exteriorly and on costa with clay color ; near the 
anal angle a black spot containing two blue marks, from whence the insect derives its name ; this ocellus is 
prolonged into a hook-like black mark, which connects it with the anal angle. 

* Chbhu.— Encyclopodio d'historlo NnturcUe. PapiUons Nocturnes. 

tXhe ^ of Saturnia Isabella-, Graells, (Ann. Soc. Fr. r- ^1> l^^^i) l^^^ the soconaarics tailed like our Luna, (though belonging to a different 
group,) and Xroadly pectinated antennae. 



SMERINTHUS GEMINATUS. 57 

Under surface; primaries, basal half rosy ; a dark reddish brown median line, the space frona thence to 
exterior margin marked nearly as on upper side, but more obscure. Secondaries, brown ; a white discal mark ; 
a red brown transverse line, half-way between this and posterior margin arc two parallel transverse white 
lines, with faint indications of a third one between them ; a dark brown patcli at anal angle. 

Female. Expands 2J to 3} inches, and is marked and colored like the male. 

Larva, 2 inches in length ; pale green, lightest above, with yellow lateral granulated stripes ; caudal horn 
violet ; stigmata red. It feeds on the willow. 

Habitat. Mass., N. York, Penna., Md., Va., HI., Ky., &c. 

Mr. Lintner has perfected the history of this species in his Entomological Contributions,* where he has 
followed it tlirough all its stages with his usual conscientious and exhaustive exactness, an example which 
cannot be sufficiently commended. He there states, the egg is slightly flattened, and of pale green color. His 
observations also establish the fact of this species being double brooded, the two broods occurring in June and 
August. From eggs deposited June the 12th the larvae issued on the 19th, and by the 26th all had under- 
gone their first molt, on the 30th the second took place, and on July the 4tli they patriotically commenced to 
throw off their last old garment; eight days later, after only these three moltings, tiiey went into the ground ; 
the first imago emerged on the 30th of July, and the last on the 10th of August. He obtained from thirty-six 
larvae thirty-one imagines, among them a female of the variety " .Jamaicensis," the description of which follows 
this. 

In juxtaposition to the accurateness of the paper above alluded to, we would refer to page 211 of Morris' 
Synopsis, published in 1862, where we find the following description of Gcminatus, which includes every word 
that is there mentioned of the secondaries ; " Posterior wings rosy, along exterior and terminal border yellow- 
ish gray ; ocellus black, emitting a short broad line to inner angle, and with two or three blue pupils;" this is 
quoted from Dr. Clemens, and his name is appended thereto by the conscientious compiler, wdio in a measure 
saved himself thereby, but in a measure only, for Dr. Morris was too old an entomologist not to know the 
characteristics of this species, and too good a scholar not to know better than that Geminatus, as its name indi- 
cates, would have but two marks or pupils, and two only, and in his case we can only ascribe it to sheer care- 
lessness. But this ridiculous error was not to stop here, f()r on turning to page 275 of Packard's Guide, (1869,) 
in the article already referred to in our remarks on S. Excaccata, we read, "S. Geminatus, Say, is so called 
from the two or three blue pupils in the black ocellus, the hind wings are rosy ; " Ihis is all the author says of 
Geminatus, (except that " the pupa has been found at the roots of willows," ) and it is certainly enough, and to 
spare, of the kind ; although there is neither authority or quotation marks given by Dr. Packard iu the above, 
we still apprehend tiiat he derived the information regarding the three pupils from the same source ; might it 
not, perhaps, have been as well for the author, ere he commenced writing, to have given the subject at least a 
little superficial attention, or to liave even taken a mere glance at examples of two of our commonest species, 
which are to be found in every schoolboy's collection, in order to ascertain that Excaecata had but one pupil, 
and that Geminatus had only two, and not "two or three;" in that event the student would probably not 
have been enlightened with the rather original information that the insect derived its name from having two 
or three pupils in the ocellus, and that the term geminate could with equal propriety be applied to things 
trinal as Mcll as binate. 

Var. JAMAICENSIS, Deury, Illust. Exotic Entomology, Vol. II, p. 43, t. 25, ('1773.) 

(PLATE VII, FIG. 8, $.) 

Color and ornamentation nearly as in the ordinary form, with the exception of the black ocellus of second- 
aries, which encloses but one blue spot instead of two. 

I have seen but two examples, the first, (which is the origiual of my fig. 8,) was captured near Baltimore, 
by Mr. J. P. Wild, about fifteen years since, and is at present in my possession ; from the time I first received it 
I regarded it as Drury's Jamaicensis, but, of course, could not determine its position as a true species, or as 
merely a variety of Geminatus, although I always inclined to the latter opinion, which was at length con- 
firmed, and the mooted question, of what Drury's figure was meant to represent, was at last put to rest by the 
careful observations of Mr. Lintner, who had the rare fortune, before referred to, of raising an example t from 
eggs deposited by a pinned specimen of Geminatus; this example, which I have had the opportunity of exam- 
ining and comparing with mine, is a little larger, being about 2 J inches in expanse ; and "just below the first 
median nervule " the two bands which cross the middle of the wing are nearer to each other than in my exam- 
ple or in examples of Geminatus ; in this respect, as in most others, it accords with Drury's figure. The blue 

•Entomological ContribuUons No. II, by J. A. Linthkb, in the Twentyfonrlh Annual Report of the New York State Museum of Natural 
History, p. 119-127. (1870. ) 

t " Variely.— Among the above imagines was a female, having but a single blue pupil on the black ocellated spot of the secondaries." Lintner, 
Ent. Contributions in the 24th Report N. York State Mus. Nat. Hist., p. 122. (1870.) 



68 VAR. JAMATCENSIS. 

pupil in Mr. Lintucr's example is in the upper part of the black spot, in mine it occupies the centre, in 
Drury's figure the right hand pupil is in the centre, and the left hand more towards the lower j)art. 

Drury'-^ figure in tiie original edition of 1773 lias the thorax, alxlonien and primaries flesh or fawn-eolored, 
and the costal and outer margins of secondaries yellow, of which latter color no mention whatever is made in 
the description with which ^Ir. J^intner's example and mine agree exactly. Drury mentions particularly in 
his preface that he hopes any inaccuracies in the illustrations will be credited to their proper source, the artists, 
and it is evident that in this instance the artists laid on gamboge with the intention of improving nature, for 
which they doubtless considered themselves fully comiietent. In Westwood's edition of Drury, published in 
1837, the bright yellow had grown in such favor in the sight of the artists, that in addition to the margins of 
.secondaries, they extended operations and lai<l the favored jjignient also over the abdomen. 

Drury's figures represent a male, Mr. Lintner's example and mine arc females. 

Grote and Robinson contended that Drury's figure represented a distinct species; they say " Smerinthus 
Jamaiecnais, Drury sp., seems to us, judging from Drury's figure and description, cjuite distinct from the north- 
ern species from the Atlantic District," * and Mr. (Jrote expresses the same belief in his last Catalogue,t where 
he thinks it must be conceded that Mr. I>intner's reasons are partly speculative when he refers Drury's figure 
to S. Geniinatus ; we do not think anything of the sort must be conceded, when we are fully inibrmed of the 
fact that Mr. Lintner's sj)ecimen, which agrees with Drury's description and figure, with the exception of the 
false coloring on secondaries of latter, was produced from ova deposited by Geniinatus. 

Fabrieius thought Drury's figure was intended for S. Ocellata, and as Smith says, " quotes it as such 
without any scruple.",! 

With regard to Drury's locality of Jauuiica, it is scarcely necessary to state that the earlier writers, owning 
to the want of precise information, frequently gave erroneous localities; thus, Cramer cites Dys. Boreus as a 
native of India, whilst its true home is Surinam, and to come nearer home, Donovan figures our Anth. Genutia 
in his " Insects of India." I would further remark the well attested fact, that so far thci-e is no authentic in- 
.stanee of any species of Smerinthus having yet been found in the West Indies, or South and Central America. 

We think a critical comparison of our figure with Drury's illustration and description will convince the 
most skeptical of their identity. 

That we cannot summarily dispose of the name Jamaicenn'ni, so utterly inapplicable to a form indigenous 
to New York and Maryland, is nuich to be deplored, but according to the same law of priority that allows 
the stability of such a name as Scltmidliiformis, § it will have to remain so. 



SMERINTHUS OPTHALMICUS. Boisduval. 

Ann. Soc. Ent., France. (1855.) 



(PLATE YII, FIG. 4, J', 5, ?.) 



Malk and FEJfALK. Expand 3 to 3J inches. 

Head and palpi brown ; thorax pale grey, with a large dark brown dorsal patch ; abdomen brown. 

Upper surface; primaries, a large pale grey basal patch, edged outwardly with dark brown, which latter 
extends obliquely across the wing outside of the white iliscal lune to the costa ; beyond this are several other 
brown, undulate transverse lines and shades ; the space from these to outer margin is brown, with an irregular 
grey band extending from the inner angle to within a short distance of the apex ; a grey dash at the apc-x. 
Secondaries rose-color ; outer margin clay-color; costal and inner margins yellowish white; ocellus black, 
enclosing a blue iris which encircles a black pupil ; this is connected with the anal angle by a short black 
band. 

Under surface ; primaries, basal half rosy, with a narrow white diseal mark ; outer half brown, with some 
rather indistinct whitish transverse lines; costa whilish. Secondaries brown, traversed by a broad pale median 
band and .several dark brown lines; a white diseal mark ; co.sta white. 

Of the larva I am able to say nothing; as far as I am aware, it is as yet unknown. 

Habitat. California, Washington Ty., Lake Superior. 

There is between the male and female examples from California but little difference in colouration ; but 
a female from Lake Superior (of which fig. 5 is a representation) has the markings of primaries of a less de- 

• Proo. Ent. Soc. Phila., Vol. V. p. 185. (1865 ) 

t Hull. Butr. Sne. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. -23. (1873.) 

j Abbot & Smltli, Insects of Georgia. Vol. 1, p. 49. (1797.) 

S Sesla Sclimidtiirormis, Fro^cr. (1S3C.\ 



SMERINTHUS OPTHALMIOT^S. $9 

cided character, and the color is not gray or ashen, but of a trcneral pale roddisii brown or miiber tint, on 
both upper and lower surfaces: iho costa of primarie- in this exainplo i* niiieh more rf)iindpd than in any I 
have seen from California. 

Tiiis rare insect is the nearest American analogue of the European !S. Oecllata, L., a fact alluded to by 
Dr. Boisduval in his very short description.* The species is so rare, that, until recently, but few opportunities 
have offered lor the entomologist to examine it in nature. Dr. Clemens, who had evidently never seen an ex- 
ample, thought it might ])ossil)ly bo a variety of S. ( rcminatus,'!" into -wliicli supposition \\v. was doubtless led 
by Dr. Boisduvars remark in the description above alluded to. 

The .si)eeimen referred to by Mr. Grote,| as coming from the Isthmus, is a female of this species ; the party 
from whom I obtained it had collected in Costa Iviea, but before coming east he visited California, and so- 
journed there awhile, receiving additional material from that state, which he was by no means careful to keep 
apart from his more southern collections. This example has been the victim of a series of atrocious abuses, the 
first of which was ])crj)etrated by the liiundering fool who captured it, and who merits the unmitigated con- 
tempt of all scientists on earth, and torments unspeakable hereafter, in Hades; this talented individual came 
across the poor thing just after it had emerged from the pupa, and killed it before the wings had expanded to 
one-fourth of tiieir proper size. When it camo into my possession the abdomen had been left somewhere in 
California, but the con-icientiou- nolloctor, in order to give (piantum xuflic.U, had rcjilaced it with one of Aracli- 
nis picta. 



SMERINTHUS CERISYL Kirbt. 

Fauna Boreali-Ampricana, Vol. IV, p. 302, t. -1, fig. 4. (1837.) 
(rLATE VII, FIG. 3, -^.) 



Male. Expands 2f to 3 inches. 

Head and palpi brown ; thorax pale ashen, nearly white, v.ifh :\ large dirk brown dorsal patch ; abdomen 
brownish grey above, pale ashen beneath. 

Upper surface; primaries, pale ash-colored with numerous brown, undulate, transverse lines and shades; 
a white discal mark, which color is continued along the median nervure to the pale basal j)atch ; joining this 
latter exteriorly, and between the median nervure and interior margin, is a brown patch or cloud. Secondaries 
rose-colored, but of a less lively tint than in any other species; towards the exterior margin the rose color is 
tinged with greyish; costal and interior margins white, or nearly so; ocellus black, containing a blue iris 
which almost encircles a black pupil; the blue does not quite unite, opposite the inner margin, in surrounding 
the pupil ; the occlhis is prolonged towards, and connects with the anal angle. 

Under surface ; primaries, i)asal half dull rose-colored; outer half marked as on u]iper side, but ]ialer and 
less distinctly. iSecondaries white, with pale brown, undulate, transverse bands. 

Of the female nothing is known. 

This is certainly the rarest of all the heretofore described N. American Sphingid.T ; but tlirce authentic 
examples, all male, are known ; the first was figured and described by Kirby, in 1837, S who did not know in 
what precise locality it was captured ; this example, perhaps, may still be preserved in the British iluseum, 
otherwise it is probably lost ; the second one was taken by the late Robt. Kennicott at Rupert House, in Brit- 
ish America, and is at present in the Museum of Comp. Zool. at Cambridge ; this is the largest specimen of 
the three, expanding about three inches. The third and last, the original of figure •), T received in a small 
collection of things from near Providence, Rhode Island. 

* " Lc S. Opthahnica assez rapproche de notre ocellata^ plus voisiu de Geinina'us de Say, mais I'oeil n'cst pas double et il differe de toutes k's 
cspeces du meme groupe par sa large bande brune, aDiruleuse, tiui travor--o lc milieu des ailes snperieure?.'' Ann. Soc. Ent.. Fr., t. Ill, 3me 3or. 
xxxii. (1S55 ) 

t Jnl. Acnd, Nat. 3o., Phila., p. 184. (1859.) 

j " I leai-n fmni Mr. Streokcr that aepccimen referable to this genus has boon "-ceeived from the Isthmus. " Grote, in Bull. BufT. Soo. Xat. Sc, 
Vol. I. p. a). (1S73 ) 

§ " Body ash-oolored ; thorax with a large trapezoidal brown spot dilated next the alflomen ; primaries angulatcd, ash-colored, with a transverse 
series of brown, sub-marginal crescents in a paler band, between which and the posterior margin is another obsolete piiler one ; above the crescents is 
a straight, whitish band, and a linear angular forked one, under the internal sinuses of which the wings are clouded with dark brown ; underneath, 
the above markings of the wings are very indistinct ; the secondaries are rose-color, paler at the costal and posterior margins : underneath they are 
dusky, cinereus with a whitish band coinciding with that of the primaries, a transverse series of crescents and adentated brownish band, all ratherin- 
distinct : but the most conspicuous character of the secondaries is a large eyelet situated at the anal angle, consisting of a black pupil, nearly, but not 
quite surrounded by a blue iris, and situated in a black triangular spot or atmosphere which extends to the anal angle, and is surmounted by some 
blue scales; the abdomen above is dusky ash-colored. 

This insect appears to be the American representative of S. Occllalus, from which, however, it differs considerably. It comes very near S. Gem- 
inafus, (Say, Am. £»!. I, t. xii,) but in that the evelet has two blue pupils. Taken in N'orth America, looalitv not stated.'"— Kirby, Fauna Boreall- 
Americana, Vol. IV, p. 302. (1837.) 



«0 SMERINTHUS CERISYT. 

Mr. Grote moiitioiirt (Iiat Mr. Stpli. Calvcrly of X. York, (of whom wc have licanl nothing ior .some 
yoar.s,) once informed him tiiat lie had raised this spceics from flie larva; but as there is no record of tlio par- 
ticuhirs of so interesting an event, we may be pardoned for suggesting that perhaps Mr. C. may i)ossii)Iv have 
been mistaken in tlic species, wliich, of course, can yet be determined if his examples an- still extant. ' 



SMERINTHUS MODESTA. Harris. 
Cat. X. Am. Sphingidae, Sill. Jul. Art & Sc, Vol. 'M. p. •2'.*2, (1S39.) 



(PLATE VII, FKi. 11, :j\) 

Male and Fk.mai.i;. KxpanJ 4 to 5 inches. 

Head and body pale grey. 

Upper surface : i)rimaries, basal third very pale grey, with taint transverse .shades ; .i broad olivaceous 
median band, within which is a small white disail spot; adjoining this is a pale transverse shade and a narrow 
undulate band ; the space from these to the e.xterior margin is olivaceous. Secondaries duskv rose-color ; 
costal and abdominal margins very pale grey ; exterior marg-in olivaceous ; near the anal angle is a bluish <r\\-Y 
patch surinounte<l by a curved black streak. '^ ""^ ' 

Under surface ; pale olivaceous grey, broadly margined exteriorly with a somewhat darker shade : base of 
primaries dusky rose-color, on which the pale discal spot is visible. 

The larva feeds on the Lombardy Poplar (P. Dilatata). 

Habitat. Canada, Lake Superior Region, New England and Middle States. A^ery rare. 

One can scarcely understand why Dr. Harris should have designated this noble species, the prince of its 
genus, by so humble an appellation, unless he labored under the fallacious idea that greatness and modesty are 
inseparable, which may have been the ease with his generation, but in our day it is precisely the reverse. ' Wc 
may, however, have yct^ to fall back on Walker's more appropriate name of Princeps. for should Dentatus, 
Cram.,* and ^Nlodesta, Fabr.,t be eventually determined as distinct from each other, of which there is every 
probability, then Harris' name will long have been preoccupied, and Walker's would have to be retained in its 
place 



SMERINTHUS HYBRIDUS. Westwood. 



Humphrey's British Moth-s, f. 1, (lS-13.) 

Menetries,' Wiea. Knt. .Mon.it.sclirift, Vol. II, p. 197, (IS-JS.) 

Staudinger, Cat. Lep. dos Kur. Faunengcbiets, p. 37, (1871.) 



IIIBRIDA ex S. 0CELL.\TA ET S. I'OPII.I. 
(PLATE VII, FIG. 10.) 



Same size as S. Populi. Head and body brown, ground color of i)rimarics pinkish, same a« S Occllata • 
markings brown, and same style as in S. Populi. Secondaries brown, with a reddish basal i)atch • an obscure 
grey .spot replaces the ocellus near the anal angle. ' 

Under stu-face is a complete compound of the colors and markings of both Occllata and Poi.uli favorino- 
however, the iormcr the most. ' "' 

This monstrosity, an oflenee against nature and local collectors, is, nevertheless, as :irenctries sav- at all 
events very remarkable,! and, although not of our fauna, I have fis>ured it as a curiositv, as well asVor its 
affording an illustration of the close affinity of the Smerinthid species^with each other, for fh'erc can .scarce be 
any species more unlike in appearance than the European S. Occllata and S. Po])uli, of which this abnormilv 
IS the product. 

• Cramer. Pnnillon? oiotiqucs, Vol. II, t. 12i, p. 42, (1779.) 
t Fabrliius, bntomoloftla Svstcmatlea, Toui. III. nars. I, p. 350, (1793.) 
Wlen.'En\"Mon^^^™"^P.'?97.''" ^'"'^""" "'"''"'• 'i"'"'««l'»" "l-SeWUIete Ha.lar.l run Sph. OclUla u,ut Populi. Is alk-rjinsssohr morkw„rJlg/. 







li>t»»C*8^,>rf. 



PAPILTO COPAN^. Keak.rt. 

Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. II, p. 141, (1863). 
KiThy, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 521, (1871). 



(PLATE VIII, FIC;. 1, 9. 



Fkmai,e. Expaiuls \\ inches. 

Antenna; and licad black ; thorax black, spotted with yellow on the sides. Abdomen dark shining green 
above, black on the sides and beneath, three rows of yellow streaks on each side, and two rows of white spots 
and one of yellow streaks below. 

Upper surface ; primaries blackish l)r()wn, the basal and interior part glo.ssed with shining green which 
changes in depth and shade in different lights; five sub marginal yellow, dart-shaped dashes, the first, 
between the discoidal nervules, is almost obsolete, the second is the largest, extending almost to the diseoidal 
cell, the one nearest the anal angle is double ; a narrow yellow dash on edge of eostii. 

Secondaries blackish brown, with green leflection much more noticeable than on primaries ; a mesial band 
of seven yellow spots, the one nearest the anal angle composed of a few atoms, the ne.\t large and rhomboidal 
in shape, the succeeding four larger and more or less oval, the seventh extends from tiie first sub-costal 
nervule to the costa, and is concave on bath outer and inner edges; a row of indistinct marginal lunules ; 
exterior margin dentate, with yellow emarginations. 

Under surface ; primaries, basal Jialf blackish brown, disk pale brown ; four of the spots of the upper 
sui'facc reproduced and more distinct, but not so yellow ; the largest ofthe.se spots extends into the discoidal 
cell. 

Secondaries shining brown, varying in shade in different positions; a marginal row of red spots bordered 
narrowly with black, and, as the original description very aptly says, " resembling chevrons in form." 

The male I have never seen, nor do I know if it be at all known. 

Habitat. Guatamala. 

The type from which the above descrij)tion and accompanying figures were taken, came from near Copan, 
and is in my cabinet ; the only other examjilc I know of is in the Mus. of the Am. Ent. Soc. 

This species differs entirely from the others of its group,* in tiie number and arrangement of the lateral 
and ventral rows of streaks (spots we can scarcely call them, as they are ])aralIelogramic in form,) on the abdo- 
men, of which there are in all nine, one yellow and two white below, and three yellow on each side. 

We have such ])oor facilities in this country for properly studying the exotic species, that it was a bold 
venture of Mr. Reakirt to describe this as new, especially as it belongs to a grou]i so replete with varieties; 
nevertheless, I have a strong convietif)n that it will not share the fate of so many of' that author's species. It 
is here truthfully figured and coloured from the type, and those abroad who have the advantages of larger 
material for compari.son, can pronounce their verdict as to its genuineness. 

In remarks at the close of my friend Reakirt's original description, he must have been carried away a 
little by his enthusiasm, when he said "the lustrous brilliancy of its upjier surface is alone surjiassed by the 
Morphidse." I can only .see that its lustrous brilliancy exceeds a little that of 1*. Polydamus, and is not equal 
to that of P. Ijatinus. 



PIERIS NAPI, LINN.EUS. 

Napi, Linnieus, {Papilio N.) Faiin. Suec, p. 271, n. 1037, (1761); Syst. Nat. I, 2, ]>. 760, (1767). Seba, 
Rer. Nat. Thes., Vol. IV, t. 2, (1765). Esper, Sehmett., Vol. I, 1. t. 3, (1777). 
Hubner, Eur. Sehmett., Vol. I, f. 406, 407, (1798-1803). 
Pieris Napi, Godarl, Enc. Meth., Vol. IX, p. 161, (1819). Bomhival, Sp. Gen. 1, p. 518, (1836). 
Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Eur. I, p. 3, (Jan., 1871). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 453, 
(March, 1871). 

* Sucb as composed Hubner's genus Ilhobalns, viz. : P. Hyperion, Hub., P. Polydamufi, L., P. Crassus, Cram., <&c. 

61 



62 PIERIS NAPI. 

Fontia Nnpi, Duncan, Nat. Lib. Ent., Vol. Ill, p. 121, t. 9, (1835j. 

Tacliyptera Aapi, Berye, Sclinietterlingsbucli, p. 94, t. 30, f. 4, (1842). 

Fieris Venosa , 8cudda\ Yvoc. Best. Nat. Hist. Soc, VIII, p. 182, (1861). Jform, Synopsis, 

].. ;]20. (1802). Weidemeyer, Proo. Ent. Soo., Phila., Vol. II, p. 151, (1863).-' Kirby, 

Cat. Diurnal Lcp., p. 454, (1871 ). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lcp., p. 4, (1872). 
Pierin Nanhtrlii, Jioisilural. Lop. t'al., p. 38, (1809). 
Var. Bryoni.t-;, (Vli.-enlicinior, {Papilio B.) Scliniott., Eur. I, 2, p. 151, (1808). Fieris B., 

Godart, Euc. Moth., Vol. IX, p. 162, (1819). Staudinfjer, Cat. Lcp. Enr. I, p. 3, 

(1871). A'lVft?/, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 453, (1871). 
Fapilio Napi, Esjicr, Sclnnett., I, 2, t. 64, (1743). Huhner, Enr. Sclimett., \'ul. I, f. 407, 

(1798-1803). 
Var. Sabellic.k, Stephens, (Pontia 8.) 111. Brit. Ent. Haust, 1, j). 21, t. 3, (1827). Duncan, 

Nat. Lib. Ent., Vol. Ill, p. 123, t. 8, f. 3, (1835). Fierw S., Kirby, Cat. Diurnal 

Lep., ]). 453, (1871). 
Var. NAPAK.K, Esper, (PapiHo N.) Schniett., I, 2, t. 116, f. 5, (1800). Hubner, Eur. Schmett., 

Vol. I, f 6G4, 665, (1803-1818). Pontia N., Duncan, Nat. Lib. Ent., Vol. Ill, p. 

122,(1835). PieriK N., Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Eur. I, p. 3, (1871). Kirby, Cat. 

Diurnal Lep., p. 453, (1871). 
Var. Pallida, Seudder, Proe. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soe., VIII, p. 183, (1861). Morris, Syuop.sis, 

p. 321, (1862). Weidemeyer, Frm: Ent. Soe., Phila., Vol. II, p. 151, (1863). Kirby, 

Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 455, (1871). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 5, (1872). 
Fieris Ibrridis, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 39, (1869). 
Fieris Castoria, Rcakirt, Proe. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 238, (1866). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep,, 

p. 464, (1871). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 4, (1872). 
Fieris Resedir, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 39, (1869). 

PLATE VIII, FIG 2, PIERI.S VEXOSA, Snulder, ^.3, $, 

FIG. 4, PIElilS PALLIDA, Seudder, (P. Oaaloria, lieakirl,) r^. .5, ?. 



I present the figs. 2 — 5 to my friends, the Lepidopterists that they may for themselves judge whether the 
insects represented should occupy positions as distinct species, or whether thev be, as I firmly believe, only 
forms of P. Napi. 

Figs. 4 and 5 have been drawn from Reakirt's original types of P. Castoria, which Mr. Seudder informs 
me is identical with his P. Pallida,* the description of which appeared five years previous to Mr. Reakirt's. 

In the obsolescence of the dark scales, which in orfTinary forms define the neureation on the under surface 
of P. Napi, it approaches closely the var. Napaete, in fact the only difference observal)lc is the absence of the 
two black spots on under sid<' of jn-imarics, but this is nut a specific distinction as one-third of my European 
exam]il(<s are also destitute of those spots on under surface, and in some examples on upper surtiico also. 
\ Moreover the absence or presence of these s|)ors is not a peculiarity confined particularly to this species (Napi), 

for in the common form of P. Rapie these spots are in some instances almo.st ob.solete, and in others entirely 
wanting; in the var. Ergane, found in Dalmatia and Turkey, they do not occur at all, and in the var. 
Mannii are quite indistinct and often entirely absent. 

In fact, there is no more diflerence between P. Pallida (Castoria) and the typical P. Napi, than between 
the latter and some of its I^uropean and Asiatic varieties and aberrant forms, and the more I have studied the 
many examples at my command the more am I convinced that P. Pallida is but a form of P. Napi. 

P. Venosa can scarcely be considered even as a variety ; it resembles the ordinary P. Napi to such a 
degree that we are forced to believe in their identity. 

I have a ? from Japan in nowise (littering from the California examples. 

May not, perhaps, P. Venosa and P. Pallida be the spring and summer generation, thus accounting for 
the depth of markings in the former, as is the case with P. Napi and Napaea^, P. Vernalis and P. Protodice, 
Paj). Ajax and Pap. Marcellus, Van. Levana and Van. Pror.sa, &c. Our California friends can best tell us 
if such be the case, or whether they both emerge from the chrysalis at the same season of the year. 

But neither form is by any means constant ; I have them from the almost immaculate examples of 
P. Pallida, in regular gradations, to the heaviest marked P. Venosa, and where the one ceases and the other 

*In siicikiiif; of P. Pallid.i imd P. Maifiinalis, I always do so with thi' undcrstandinf; that the former is the same as P. C.istoria, and 
the latter as P. Yreka, whii-h Mr. Si-iuhler inroriiied mo was the case, after inspectiiii; tlie ty])es of the two latter; I have not seen 
Mr. .Sciidder's tvpes of either P. Pallida or P. Marginalis, therefore 1 make this e.xplanation, although I have implicit reliance on 
Mr. Scudder's ac(|uaiiilanee with his own species, and write accordingly. 



PIERIS NAPI. 63 

begins it is, imieed, difficult to determine, but tliat Venosa is identical with Napi I am sure; Pallida may, 
perhaps, have the benefit of the shadow of a doubt, but eventually, I believe ray opinion will be substantiated 
as to the identity of all three ; both P. Pallida and P. Venosa are comnon in California and adjacenl territory, 
and could the larvte be discovered, their status as species or varieties could be then defined. 

Fiu-s. 2 and 3 are the ordinary form of P. Venosa, neither the darkest or the lightest marked ; I have 
others much heavier marked, and, as I before said, between these and P. Pallida, all the intermediate grades. 

Time will prove that tliere are much fewer true species of Le])idoptera than are at present supposed to 
exist • at first the old authors, owing to the science being in its infancy and couse(|uent want of ojjportunities 
for observation, in manv instances described males and females of the same species as distinct ; es])ecially was 
this the case with the tropical Lc])., where tiic sexes, in numerous instances, are entirely dissimilar in a])pear- 
ance. But through the labors of Horsfield, Bates, Wallace and others, the majority of these errors have been 
corrected, and latterly, though occasionally some naturalist, through negligence or inability, makes male and 
female out of one sex, it has" ceased to be a common offence, but in lieu thereof, every microscopic variation of 
tint or marking is seized upon with avidity in order to create a new species, and equally often is the sanae 
result attained through he student's negligence in obtaining the proper material for comparison, or in his 
haste to outstrip some other unfortunate in foisting an old species with a new title on the world, that will be 
honored by having the al)breviation of his name, like an antient tin-pan, dangling to its tail. 

Though not so palatable to the advowees of multiplicity of species, how much better would it be to en- 
deavor to define the true status of species already descrii)ed, than to be eternally grinding out new ones, and 
only giving to after generations the trouble of undoing what has been done, and earning for themselves few 
thanks and much ridicule. 



P1KK18 RAP.E, LiNN.Kus. 

Rap.e, Linna-us, (Papilio It.) Faun Suec. p. 270, (17G1); Svst. Nat. I, 2, p. 751), (1767). Esper, Schmett. 
I, 1, t. 3, f. 2, (1777). Hubner, Eur.' Schmett. I, f 404, 405, (1798-1803). 
Pieris liapw, Godart, Enc. Meth., Vol. IX, p. 161, (1819). BowJuval, Sp. Gen. I, \^. 520, 
(1836). Staudinger, Cat. Lep. Eur. I, p. 3, (1871). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lej)., p. 
454, (1871). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 4, (1872). 
Fontia JUipn; Duvmn, Nat. Lib. Ent., Vol. Ill, p. 117, t. 7, (1835). 
Taehyptmi. Rapir, Bergc, Schmetterlingsbucli, p. 94, t. 30, (1842). 

Pieris MurginaliH, Scuddn; Proc. Bost. Nat. Hist. Soc. VIII, p. 183, (1861). Moi-ris, Synopsis, 
p. 321, (1862). Weidemeycr, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Vol. II, p. 151, (1863). Airby, 
Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 454, (1871). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 5, (1872.) 
Pieris Yrelm, Reakirf, Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Phila., p. 238, (1866). 
Var. Nelo, Borkhausen, (Papilin N.) Eur. Schmett. I, p. 127, (1788). 

Var. Metra, Stephens, )Prnfia 31.) 111. Brit. Ent. Hanst. I, p. 19, (1827). Duncan, Nat. Lib. 
Ent., Vol. Ill, p. 119, t. 8, (1835). Pieris M., Wcstirood, Humphrey, Brit. Butt., p. 
26, t. 5, (1841) Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 454, (1871). 
Var. Ek«ANE, Ilubner, {Papilio PI) Eur. Schmett., I, f. 904-907,(1827?). Pieris E., Staudinger, 
Cat. Lep. Eur., I, p. 3, (1871). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 454, (1871). 
Pontia Aarcaa, Freyer, Beit. pAir. Schmett., I, t. 43, (1828). 
Var. Mannii, Mayer, (Ponfia M.) Stett. Ent. Zeit., p. 151, (1851), Pieris M., Staudinger, Cat. 

Lep." Eur. I, p. 3, (1871 ). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 454, (1871). 
Var. Leucotera, Stefanelli, Bull. Enf Soc. Ital. I, p. 147, (1869). 
- Var. Novangli.t:, Scndder, (Ganoris N.) Can. Ent., Vol. IV, p. 79, (1872). 



PLATE VIII, FIG. 6, 7, PIERIS MARGINALIS, Hcudder, (P. Yreka, Reakirl,) g'. 
FIG. 8, PIERIS NOVANGLI^, Scudder, J*. 



How Mr. Scudder first, and afterwards Mr. Reakirt, could have imagined the examples, which they 
respectively dubbed P. Marginalis and P. Yreka, were new species, and distinct from the old P. Rapa;, is 
beyond my ken. I even yet think that INIr. Scudder must have been mistaken when he pronounced the types 
of P. Yreka identical with P. Marginalis; then again, it can scarce be possible that he would not know his 
own species! With regard to Mr. Reakirt's determinations there can be no dispute; the figs. 6, 7, were 
drawn from his two original types of P. Yreka which he described in 1866, and which are now in my cabinet. 



(54 PIERIS RAP^. 

'I'hc very first words lie says, aftor " Xov. 8p.," arc "Size and form of Pieris Rap<v, L." ! ! and well 
could he sa}' so, for the inic which he described as the V is the comiuon 'f form of that species; the other is 
also a r?', with the dark :i|ii(:il patch of primaries represented hy a few scales only ; examjiles exactly like this 
one I also liave from (Icnnaiiy. 

But whenever I think of this conicciy (it'errors, an iineontrollahie desire overcomes me to lie back and in- 
dnlirc in a glorious i,niffa\v over the tiiliibility of ns poor humans, for in our beloved studies it is as Butler says, 
in Ilndibras, of reiiirion, " still be dointr, never done ; as if religion were intended for tiothing else but to be 
mended." 

The two types of I'. Marginalis arc in Mus. C'omp. Zool. at (Janibridge ; the ^ came from Crescent City, 
Cal., an<l the + from Gulf of (ieorgia. 

Tlic two types (i( P. Yreka are from California. 

Tlicrc is a curious thing in connection with these western examples of Rapse, (Marginalis and Yreka,) 
that tiicy sliDuhi have been found in California and Washington Territory fiuir or five years before the species 
was introduced into Canada and the United States from Europe; this fact furnishes material for .some reflection. 

I trn.-i my readers will forgive me right cheerfully for not going into elaborate griseous, luteous, cyaneous 
descriptiiius of the.-ic e( mmon species; it ncay even he considered waste of time and material to have figured 
thciii, l)Ut 1 iiavc ilone so with the purpose that all might see for them.selves that P. Marginalis and ]'. Yreka 
are nothiui; but 1'. Hapac, and i\ Pallida, P. Castoria, and P. ^'enosa are but forms of P. Xai)i, aud not have 
to depend on my determinations alone. 

Fig. 8 illustrates the curious cf variety of P. Ra|)a', first descril)ed by Mr. Scudder, under the name of 
Novangliie,* in 1.S72, and which has no analogue in the oUl world; it is not of unfrcipient occurrance, 
and some ol uiy friends inform me that these yellow males are from Iarv;e, which feed on Mignionctte, but if 
that be the case, why arc the females produced from larvae feeding on that plant not likewise lemon yellow, 
or do only the male larvae aileet that food, perhaps there may be females of like yellow colour, Itut I have 
never yet seen or licarr! of any such, all that have come under my observation were males, and I am of the 
opinion that they bear to the normal form, the same relation that Colias Heliehtaf does to C. Erate,| whatever 
that relation may be. lint it is really wonderful that within the few years that have elapsed since the time 
of P. Rapae's introduction from Europe, there should have ari.sen a variety which is so entirely unlike any- 
thing found in the old country. 



ANTHOCMAKIS OLYMPIA. e.-wakus. 

Tnins. .\ni. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 266, (1871). 



(PLATE VIII, FIG. 9, ^.) 



Mai.k. E.\|)ands If inches. 

Body black above, l)eneath white. 

Upjier .surfiice white, with black at base of all wings. Primaries have a black apical patch broken with 
white ; a black discal spot. 

Secondaries with a small black spot on costa near the a])c.x, and a minute black di.scal point. 

lJtnlcr surfiice white. Primaries, a small yellowish grey s])ot on costa not far from the apex, also a few 
specks of greyish c.\tend in a broken line from this spot to the exterior margin ; discal spot enclosing a white 
line. 

Secondaries with three irregular bands of greenish grey, the second and third ones connected on the me- 
dian ncrvnrc by a cro.ss-i)and ; on these greenish bands are a number of round, white dots. 

The female 1 have not yet had the op])ortunity of examining, but Mr. Edwards, in his description, says 
it is " similar to male." 

Habitat. Virginia, Texas, In Mus. Comp. Zool., Am. Ent. Soc, W. H. Edwards. 

This fine insect is distinct both in form and ornamentation from ail other known American species of 
Anthocharis ; though smaller, it forcibly reminds us ot the beautiful Zegris Eupheme§ of Ru.ssia and Syria, 
the markings of under side of secondaries bear a wonderful resemblance to those of that species, as does also 

*Soii(ldc'r, C;in;i(lian EntomologiRt, IV, [). 79, (1872). 
tEedcior, Vcrli. Zool. Bot. Ocs., II, p. 33, (1853). 
tlVpor, .SchiiH'll., I, i, I. 119, f. 3, (1806). 
i Esper, Schmett., I, 2. t. 113, (1800), 



ANTHOCH*ARIS OLYMPIA. 65 

the whole outline of wings ; but in A. Olympia there are no indications of the orange coloured apical spot 
that is one of the adornments of Eupheme. 

I am led to believe that in reality this species is not of much greater rarity than A. Genutia,* but it is 
doubtless owing to its colour that it has heretofore enjoyed immunity from capture, as our white butterflies 
generally are such common species that the collector passes them by in his search for others more desirable ; 
but my urgent advice would be, that in early spring these white butterflies be not despised, for, by diligence 
and patient watching, the careful observer may be right nobly rewarded by the capture of examples of this 
hitherto rare species. As the types were captured in company with A. Genutia in Virginia, and also were 
taken in Texas, and coupling this with the fact that A. Genutia is found in the United States east of the 
Mississippi generally, it is but reasonai)]e to suppose that A. Olympia will be found in the same localities, and 
should any one be fortunate enough to get a surplus of examples thereof, I will be most happy to exchange for 
one or more such indigenous or exotic species as may be acceptable. 



MELITAEA PKrrA. Edwards. 



Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 201, (1865) ; 
Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 17, (1872). 
Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 171, (1871). 



(PLATE VIII, FIG. 10, cf.) 



Male. Expands 1| inches. 

Body, black above ; j)ale yellow beneath. 

Upper surface, black with red and yellow spots and marks arranged much as in the allied species, Phaon,t 
&c. ; fringes white with black at tlie terminatious of veins. 

Under surface; primaries whitish-yellow and red, a black patch at inner angle, another on middle of in- 
terior margin, a black elbowed bar extends from this to the costa, half way between this bar and the exterior 
margin is another black dash extending from costa, where it is widest, to nearly the middle of wing, where it 
terminates in a line. 

Secondaries, entirely whitish-yellow, two black specks on costa, and two small clusters of grey scales at 
exterior margin ; fringes as above. 

Habitat. Colorado, Nebraska, Mexico. It is, as yet, represented in but few collections. 

The smallest of the N. American species yet discovered, and easily distinguished from all others by the 
almost immaculate under side of secondaries. 



MEUTAEA MATA. Reakiri. . ^""^^ 

• ^ 

Phyciodes Mata, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 177, (1871). 
Mditaea Mata, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 17, (1872). 




{Eretia M.) Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 142, (1866). .. r^ 



(PLATE VIII, FIG. 11, ?.) 



Female. Expands IJ inches. 

Body blackish above ; beneath white. 

Upper surface, blackish brown with yellowish white markings. Primaries, a marginal row of luuules, 
the one between first and second median nervules much larger than the others ; these are succeeded by two 
broad bands extending from costa to interior margin ; within the dark space betwixt these bands and base of 
wing are two other narrower white bands. 

*Fabricu9, Ent. Syst. Ill, 1, p. 193, (lim). 
t Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. II, p. 505, (1864). 



66 Mf:LITAEA MATA. 

Setondaries with a marginal row ol' limules ; two broad bauds, separated by a dark line, and the exterior 
one enclosing a row of small brown crescents, occupy the outer half of wing ; within the discoidal cell is a 
large white spot divided by a dark line. 

Under surface white ; j)rimaries have three slight brown dashes, one at posterior angle, one at middle of 
interior margin and the other extends frf>m middle of costa to first median nervule. 

yeeoiidaries with markings of up])er suri'aee iaintly re])eated in very pale brown and yellow. 

Habitat. Koeky Mts. of Colorado. 

Mr. Keakirt described this from a unique 9 example, 1 know of no other in any collection. 

The peculiarity of colouration is remarkable, though not without precedent as in the case of Eresia 
Leucodesma,* E. Myia,t E. Ofella,^ and some others, where the ornamentation is white on a dark ground. 
Mr. Reakirt's imjiression was that the example was faded, in which conclusion he was incorrect, as the portion 
of the secondaries which is overla])ped by the primaries, proved on examination to be exactly the same colour 
as the exposed parts, and the untler side is equally pale with the upj)er ; besides the example was never ex- 
posed, having passed from the collector's hands, who had his specimens in papers, direct to Mr. Reakirt and 
finally to me, in no instance was it ever exposed to the continued action of light. I at first thought it might 
be an albino variety of some species or other, but on a rigid comparison with the analogous species I cannot in 
the least identify it with any of them, and Mr. Hewitson, the greatest livingauthority on Diurnal Lepidoptera, 
to whom I sent a careful drawing of it assures me it is "quite a stranger to him. " 



SATYRUS HOFFMANI. 

Page 31, t. 4, %. 8, $ June (1873.) 



(PLATE VIII, FIG. 12, c?.) 



This species or variety,§ as the case may be, was de.scribed on page 31 of this work, and t. 4, fig. 8, repre- 
sents the ? ; 1 did not at that time figure the rj^, considering the ? the most remarkable on account of its 
conspicuous white under surface, but Mr. W. H. Edwards, on the receipt of that No. of this work, wrote a 
few lines, informing me I had re-described his species, S. Wheeleri, the description of which was printed in 
advance sheets of Trans. Am. p]nt. Soc, and were distributed end of June, 1873. 

This description of S. Wheeleri I copy below, and accompany it by that of S. Hoffmani, j^ and 9, and I 
trust, that after a comparison of the descriptions and figures of the latter with the description of the former, 
but little further need be added to prove that they are not the same. • 

'• Satyrus Wheeleri, n. sp. Satyrus Hoffmani, n. sp. 

Male. Kxpands 2.3 to 2.5 inches. Upper side light yellow- Male. Expands "2 inches. Upper surface uniform brown of 

brown, clouded with dark brown, especially on the disks of each as deep a shade throughout as in the darkest examples ofS. 

wing, the dark portion forming a broad band on primaries, a nar- Alope, S. Nephele or S. .Sylvestris. On the primaries are two 

row one on secondaries well defined outwardly but within fading ocelli, black with small white pupils, the one nearest the cosia is 

insensibly into the ground colour; hind margins pdged by a pale geminate, being joined with a smaller one at its lower edge. On 

*Felder, Wien. Ent. Monat., Vol, V, p. 103, (1861). 
tllewitsou, Exot. Butt., Vol. HI, Eresia t. 3, (1864). 

i I hold that iS. Alope, Kephele, Pegala, Boopis and Ilofl'mani are but forms of one and the same, the stem ol which was 8. .\lope. 
Between the darkest examples of Nepliele and Boopis there is really no difierence in appearance whatever; they are both the same 
colour, both liave the ocelli on upper surface primaries of female surrounded with a cloud of paler colour, both arc marked alike beneath, 
neither are restricted to the six ocelli of under surface of secondaries, both sometimes are devoid of all these ocelli, or have only one or 
raore up to the full conii)letemenl, as the case may be. Between .S. I'egala and Neiihele are all grades in the width of the yellow band 
of primaries, which is found from the merest shade surrounding the ocelli up to the broad band of S. Alope, and from thence to the 
broader uriil >till more eonsiiicuous one of S. Pegala ; my remarks regarding under surface of S. Xephele and Boopis apply equally well 
to that of S. .Mojie. In S. Pegala and S. Ilofl'mani, where the forms (one in the west, the other in the east,) appear to have reached the 
highest standard, the six ocelli of under surface, secondaries, as far as my observation of many examples goe.s, are always present ; regard- 
ing the spots of upper side of primaries, they seem to be suiy'ect io no very particular rule, (except in the case of S. Hofl'mani, where 
there are always two, the upper one of which is geminate ;) half of the examples of S. Pegala, (J' 9 , before me have one spot, the upper 
one, only on ]>riuiarics, the remaining half, (j"' 9, diliering in no other respect, have two equally large and precisely like the northern 
S. Alope; as to the latter, I have it maiked on upper surface, primaries, with two spot.-;, big spots, little spots, and with no spots 
at all. On examples of one ? variety from California, allied to S. Boopis, on the upper surface the ocellus of primaries nearest the pos- 
terior angle is double, thougli not joined together, but distinctly separated hy a dark line, the lowermost of the two is always the smaller, 
and is unrepresented on the under surface. 

The ocellus on upper side of secondaries, near anal angle, is in all the forms mentioned, (except Hotlmani), regardless of sex, either 
entirely wanting, or a mere sjieck, or from that on to the yellow ringed ocellus equal in size to those of the primaries ; nor can I find in 
any examples of the many 1 liave examined, any indications of a second or third smaller spot accompanying it, except in Hofi'mani, 
where there is always a second, and sometimes a third one. 



SATYRUS HOFFMANI. 



67 



line, preceded by a dars one, and at some distance by a dark 
common stripe, sometimes macular on secondaries; primaries 
have a broad extra-discal band as in Alope, but pale brown, in 
which are two large black ocelli, the upper one ( in all cases 
under inspection )sub-pyriform, as if two spots of unequal size had 
been compressed into one, and encloses two white points ; the 
lower ocellus is larger, reunded, with white points ; both are en- 
closed in narrow yellow rings ; secondaries usually have three 
ocelli, but sometimes the one next anal angle is wanting ; these 
spots are placed on the sub-median and two next preceding in- 
terspaces ; the middle one is round, about one-tenth inch in 
diameter, with white point and yellow ring ; the others are usually 
mere black dots. 

Under side whiteisli, covered with abbreviated brown streaks, 
most dense from base to middle of disk on primaries, but equally 
distributed over whole secondaries, both wings being crossed by 
an irregular extra-discal brown stripe, besides which secondaries 
have a second similar stripe nearer the base; the ocelli of pri- 
maries as on upper side, but surrounded by broader and paler 
rings which coalesce ; secondaries have three ocelli near costa, 
the two outer ones small, round, tlie others oval all with white 
dots and yellow circlets ; the three ocelli next anal angle distinct, 
also with dots and circlets. 



Body yellow brown ; legs same ; palpi darker ; antennse brown 
with fine white annulations; club ferruginous. 
Female. Not known. 



secodaries towards the outer margin, between first and second 
median nervules is another ocellus about one-fourth the size of 
those on priu>,aries; between the second and tliird median ner- 
vules is a small black dot or point. On all wings are indistinct 
marginal and sub-marginal lines which except the ocelli and 
usual furry sexual transverse dash of primaries, are the only 
marks on the upper surface, and were it not for the double upper- 
most ocelli it could not possibly be distinguished in appearance 
from a dark example of S. Nephele. 



Under surface brown with some grey scales mixed, which gives 
it almost the exact tint of the under side of S. Pegala, although 
it does not look as smooth as in that species, more squamose in 
appearance ; primaries have ocelli as on upjier side but surround- 
ed by broad yellow ritig>, the one encircling the lower ocellus has 
a small yellow spot emanating from its npper edge; narrow mar- 
ginal and sub-marginal lines; an irregular narrow central brown 
band; the whole surface, but especially the inner half, covered 
with short transverse lines. Secondaries have six ocelli arranged 
as in S. I'egala, in two rows of three each ; the middle one of the 
row nearest outer angle, is oblong and produced into a point in- 
wardly ; the others are round, all are encircled narrowly with 
vellow and pupilled with white ; whole surface marked with 
short brown streaks which tend towards segregation near the 
outer margin ; an irregular much broken band or line crosses the 
disc and a shorter one occurs half way in from this towards the 
base. 

Body dark brown, same colour as upper surface. 

Female. Expands 2.3 to '1.5 inches. Upper surface pale 
yellowish brown. Primaries, outer half, corresponding to the 
yellow band of S. Alope, very pale and contains two large ocelli, 
the uppermost one geminate as in male, and all surrounded with 
yellow rings. The darker basal half where it joins the outer 
paler part is well defined, but on the inner side it becomes lost 
in the general ground colour, without any line of demarkation. 
Secondaries with sub-marginal lines as on primaries ; an irregular 
narrow brown mesial band; a black ocellus accompanied by a 
black spot as in male, sometimes a third small black spot is 
between the ocellus and inner margin near anal angle. 

Under surface white, ocelli and other markings precisely as in 
male but sharper and better defined throughout. 

From one male and ten females taken by a natnralist of Lien- 
tenant Wheeler's Expedition in 1871, at Owen's Lake Nevada. 



From nine males taken by the naturalists of Lieutenant 
Wheeler's Expedition, 1871, between Cascade and Rocky Moun- 
tains, but the precise locality not indicated. This fine species is 
one of the largest, equalling the largest specimens of Alope, and 
may at once be distinguished from any other North American 
Salyrus yet known by its pale color and clouded surface, and by 
the whiteish color of under surface, and conspicuous brown trans- 
verse stripes. The Ocelli also are different from those of our 
other larger species, having small white pupil.s, and the upper one 
on primaries being peculiar in shape and doubly pupillated." 

After presenting the above two descriptions I thought I would have nothing to say, further, regarding 
them ; but as I light my jiipe and cast the approving glance, peculiar to self-satisfied quill drivers, at what I 
have written, like a flash it suggests itself, all at once, in the twinkling of an eye, as I look croisswise from 
Mr. Edwards' description to mine, and from mine to Mr. Edwards', that this might be a most curious case of 
crossed gynandromorphism, or mimicry, (of which the exotic species furnish so many instances,) where the 
male of Mr. Edwards' species mimics the female of mine, and I suppose when the female of Mr. Edwards' 
species (at present "unknown ") turns up, it will be found to look like the male of mine! " Wonderful, in- 
deed, are the works of nature," as the philo.sopher, who daily sweeps the street crossings, observed whilst he gazed 
wonderiugly and admiringly at the anatomy of a cat which he held aloft by the nape of the neck ; " wonderful, 
indeed," he repeated, "for if the holes in the cat's skin had been but a little higher up, or a little lower down, 
the cat's eyes would have been covered, and, consequently, the cat would have been unable to see." 



GRAFT A GRACILIS, grotf. .v iioniNsoN. 



Ann. Lvc, Nat. Hist. N. Y., VIII, p. 432, (1867 1. 
Edvardi, S_vn. N. Am. P.utt. ji. 20, (1872). 
Kawcwo Oracilis, Kirby, Cat. Oiuriial Lep., p. 182, (1871). 
Clraptii C. Argcnteum, rar. Sriidiier, I'loo. I'k-;. Inst., Ill, p. 169, (1862). 



(PLATE VIII, FTC. 14, ?.) 



Mai,k and P^kmale. Eximiul 2 inches. 

Hn.s tlio exact size, sliajie and markings of the western G. Zcphyrus,* but on the upper surface the colour 
i-; much dccjK'r, l)ciii<r about the same tint as G. Progne, tlie marginal band of secondaries, as well as pri- 
maries, is dark brown, whereas in its western representative the dark marginal band is confined to the primaries 
alone. 

I'lider surtiice marked al.so exactly line for line as in G. Zephyrus, but the colour of inner half of all 
wings is darker than in the latter, and of a maroon or reddish brown shade inclining to claret on its outer 
edge, the darkness of this inner part of wings as well as of the exterior margin sets the intervening white mesial 
band out in bold relief making it, certainly, the most bcaiitifid of all our s])ecies or varieties, for which it is 
time and observation will have to slmw for it is not vet given to earthly beings to know where these species 
begin or end. My belief is, though, that this is the .same as G. Zephyrus, for there is no difterence save in 
dej)th of colour, our eastern examples being much the darker. 

(j. Gracilis is at home on Mt. Washington, New Hampshire, G. Zephrus is from Rocky Mountains of 
Colorado, Nevada, etc. ; there is nothing reinarkal)le in these two being identical as I believe them to be, when 
■we co;)sider (i. (Jracilis is i()und in the same locality as Chionobas Semidea and Plusia Hochenwartliii,t both 
of which are also t()iind in the Koekv Mountains of Colorado. 



Plate VIII, Fig. 13, is the immature larva of Papilio Anticostiensis, a representation of which I promised 
on page 49 ; it is from an alcoholic example brought by Mr. Couper from Anticosti Island last summer. 



Dec, 1873. 



-ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Et'DRYAS. — In Notes on /ygacnida-,! Dr. Packard refers Kiidryas to that family and associates it with Alypia, and later, in his 
" Guide," lie still maintains the same position, and to further confirm his theory, he states that he received " a piece of wood burrowed 
by E. Cirata," and also, " as K. I'nio is now known to burrow in the stems of plants, our opinion that Eudryas is allied to the (.'astniaj 
would seem to be contirmed," Ac. ; on the same ground, then, Cryptophasiaand C'ossus should be placed with Castnia, as tliey are borers to 
a fearful extent, but rnneh, I doubt, if any amount of boring would ever bring them to the Castniinae, bore they ever so wisely. 

In ISCiS a third species from Texas was described by Mr. firote, and for which he created the genus Ciris, calling it Ciris \Vilsonii,|| 
it differed from (be typical Eudryas in having the antennie pectinated.. In 18(iS he described another, also from Texa.s, calling it 
Enscirrhopterus (ilovcri,' this one has filifonu anteiui.i> like Unio and (irata, these new species as well as the two old ones he has 
placed in sub-t'aniilia Castniina', a la Packard, near Alypia in his and Robinson's Catalogue, before referred to in the.se pages. At first 
he apjicars to have had some misgivings, and ( on p. 321, Vol. IV, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., ) makes some very sensible observations 
regarding the habits of Eudryas so entirely diflerent from those of Alypia, but even there al^tcr stating that the former is nocturnal, &c., 
he cannot, however, get nut of die Zygaeni(he with it ; it still must stick there in such discordant company, but, it may go a little lower 
down near Clenucha and allies, and iinally he gave in, and adopted Dr. Packard's views, on page vi in the catalogue before Jiicntioned. 

Dr. Harris (ilaccd Eudryas in the Bombycida- near Notodonta, and Mr. Walker assigned it to the Nottuae. To tell the truth the 
beaiililiil things do not appear to fit in anywhere very well, but to place them with the Zygaenida; is too absurd! it is almost equal to 
putting Smerinthus with Colias, and could only be the result of ideas picked up during a sojourn in Schlar-affen Land. 

That their place is with the Noctua; there ought not to be the least doubt, and their probable position is near Miselia or Hadet^a. 

*Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, \'ol. Ill, p. 16, (1870). 

tPlusia Ilochenwarthii, Ilochenwarth. Beitrage zur Inscctengeschichte 1785, 335, T. 7, f. 2, P. Divergens, Fahr. Mant. 162, (1787). 
P, fgnen, Cfrote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., II, p. 274, (18B3). 
JProc. Es.se.x. Inst.. IV, (1864). 
^Heaven forbid the bans. 
llProc. Ent. Soc, Vol. II, p. 65, (1863). 
i! Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. II, p. 185, (1867). 

68 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 69 

ANTICOSTI LEPIDOPTERA. — In Paper XVI of tlie Hull. Bill'. Soe. Mr. Grote describes certain Diurnal Lep. from the Island 
of Anticosti lie mentions ten species, eight of wliieli he exuiiiined and tno more ((iraptO he heard about, "making ten species in all 
known from the Island" ; he is however in error, there were in all fourteen, viz.: Pap. Turnus, Pap. var. Anlicostiensis, Pieris Oleracea 
var C'olias Pelidne var., Colias Philodice, Argvniiis Atlaiilis, Phyciodes Tliaros, GraiJta Comma, (irapta Progne, Vanessa Atalanta, 
LvcLma Lucia, Lv. ? Penibina, Ly. Scudderii, and Larterocephaliis Panisons. ,,,,,, ii ,i m i i i 

' The examples of P. Tunius, all o' are small, expanding only three inches; the bodies are almost wholly black ; all the black bands 
of wines heavy ; but little of the blue or grey which is so consiii'cuous on the marginal band on under side of secondaries, iu ordinary 

The Colias Philodice rf' and 9 are in nowise different from those of other districts. 

Colias I'elidne these are peculiar, the c^ and ? both beingentirely lemon yellow on upper and undersurface, without the heavy grey 
powdering at base of win"s on ui-per side, and of whole under surface of secondaries ; iu all otlier respects they resemble the typical 
Pelidne of North Laiirador, of which 1 have some twentv examples, among the latter there also occurs rarely a yellow ?, and there 13 
one instance of a f^ in which the discs of the wings are orange, after the manner of some of the paler examples of C Eurytheme (Ke- 
wavdin I I thought first these Anticosti Pelidne might be Scudder's C. Interior,* hut that gentleman after inspecting them during a late 
visit here says they are different, and were iinkiuiwn to him ; hut for my part, I believe them to be nothing more than a form ot C. lel- 
idne, precisely analogous to that o'f Palaeno.t found in the Alps, in which both c? and ? are yellow, whilst in examples of that species 
froni all other localities the 9 is always white. ,,.„.,., ^ , <■ 

Giapta Comma.— One c?, small, expanding but I'i inches, differs in nothing else from the common iorm. 

Lvaena Scudderii likewise resembles those from other localities. ,,.,., j. , ,-, ,,-, j r r, 

I suppose by Cvclopides MandanJ Mr. Urote meant Carlerocephalus Paniscus? which is found in the higher latitudes of i-urope, 

^"'of the Lyca-na wliich I believe to he Pembina, but which he described as new and named " Glaucopsyche Couperil Grote," he says 
" this species difier.s'from Lymhmus and Pembina in having a much broader dark margin to the wings, " &c., on examining ten examples, 
five r? and five 2 taken bv Mr. Cooper in the two previous summers, I find that all the males are, on upper surface, m all respects 
exactlv'like Lvgda'mus I cannot find any diHerence whilst examining them side by side ; of the females some are nearly all blue but of 
much "less hriliiaucy and the border fades insensibly into the blue without any distinct line of separation between the two colours, others 
have the blue and' dark grev or brown equally divided, and one has the blue restricted to ,1 few basal scales only. Ihe under 
surfiee of both sexes is paler than in Lvgdamus, but the arrangement of the spots is [irecisely the same, i. e. on primaries a siib-margin.al 
row'of -ix Miots the one nearest the inner angle sometimes double, a diseal bar or spot. On secondaries an iiregular sub-marginal row 
of eight sposts the seventh sometimes geminate in such cases making nine in all ; a diseal bar, a spot near costa and another opposite to 
it within the di-coidal cell, between which and Ihe interior margin is another miiiule spot, these last two are often obsolete, example 
A r? in my cabinet has all the spots, except these two, almost as large and piipilled as m Lygdainus, B rf' hns all the spots likewi.se, 
but smaller and the two nearest anal angle of secondaries are without pupils. C c?, all spots ol upper wings pupiUed but small ; sec- 
r^ndaries have the diseal bar, hut traces of all the other spots are scarcely disccrnable, except on closest examination, when a lew mmiite 
white points mav be observed, the whole wing looks plain grey with a white ( diseal i mark in middle; the other two males are nearly 
like B r-f D i all spots as in A r?", well defined and pupilled ; this examiile has the upper surface nearly all bluish. E V, ground 
colour very dark ' all spots as in the one last described, upper surface dark, blue confined to basal parts. F 9 , spols of primaries large 
and pupilled, of secondaries small, the third, fourth, fifth, sixth and seventh, from costa, have minute black points in centre, this 
example is small, 1 inch in expanse, and the upper surface is like the ordinary 9 examples of Lvgdamus blue and dark about equally 
dividend G 9 marked below like F 9 , but is nearly all blue on upper side, and expands 1 3-15 inches. II 9 , spots small those nearest 
costa ami inner angle, on primaries, almost obsolete, pupils ,pilte small, secondaries have sub-marginal oce It represented by six minute 
white spots the one nearest the anal angle being wanting, no evidence of black centres, a white disc.alhar; this example comes in 
appearance'close to L. Pheres.ij but the spots of secondaries are smaller and the ground colour ol wings darker. , , „ i,- r 

I have ei.'ht examples, male and female of a species from the west and north-west, the.se are what I always supposed to be L. remtim. H 
Edwards they are about the same size, colour and ornamentation as those I have just described from Anticosti and Labrador. Ihe 
■^ '- • " . .-. . ■• -.,..1 i..,j ,i„ .,;„i^t the 9 like the darker forms. I will however go into 




brinir mvsell to aescrioe inem as new, ueiicvuij^ lucu, aa a .-^iin ^^, i.."^ i..^,t ..v.... -^ —■ —. * ---- ----■ -- _ r 1 

savs the nine examples that Mr. Grote's description were based upon, included only one male, and "all excepting one female were more 
or"le"=s rubbed, and Iheir determination was a matter of no small difficulty," and further, "the wings of the male are rubbed so that it is 
impossible to issert positively that their border was any broader or less well defined than in those specimens from which it was believed 

o be'specifically di.stinct" ; "this can, however, be no excuse for Mr. Grote, for if the specimens were in the desolate condition described, 
it would have been belter to have left them alone, even if the one great aim of having "Grote" behmd the name did not in this instance 

'obtain." 




*Scudder, Proe. Bost. Nat. Hist. iBoc, p. 108, (1862.) 

tHerr-Sch. Schmett. Eur. I, f. 41, •^2, (1843). r. n ■ r- k 

JC. Mandan, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Vol. II, p. 20, (1863), is the same as C. Paniscus, Fabr. 

3Fabr. Svst. Ent., p. 531, (1775). 

IJBoisduval, Ai.n. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 297, (1852). 

1[ Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., p. 22, (1862). , ' -c- . xt . „ n<i7^, 

** Bull. Buff'. Soc, Vol. I, " Notes on the species of Glaucopsyche from Eastern JN. Am. {1SI6). 

t+ Edwards, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc., Phil., (1862). 

tt Boisduval, Ann. Ent. Soc. Fr., p. 300, (1852J. 

il Doubleday, Ent. I, p. 209, (1842). 



^0 ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

ul.l.Ve ,t,re.t nu.nv „r „s uninitia..,!, r..^- a TS oV Xe ^^^^^^^^^^^^^ T'T'''' •■",""/••'"■ >' --'■--.ce, ami nuu-l, 

allarkiMK ll,.. lile-i;.,,;; lalK,urs of M, Walker of the lirit ^1 ' m ^. n ,', I , " '"^ ",','''' ■^"' '"* ","''' '''•'"« ^" '""^•'' '^'l»'" "P "> 

mailer.. .I,„s Me W, I.Tw n„lo,-U,„ate, o, „n ,el i:;^ ^ su tte 'o 'ts ,: ' : h^U J^r,;;:;;; 'l " «'^*^ ""^ '■'^''"'^'l'^ ;!?"/'"" '" ""'" 

tb.o„gl> an injustice rati.er than cuuntenlnce an apparent wron!-" ' ' ' \ '," V 'T " 'l "f V'f , "iV'lTr', 'I' } ^"1":'. '" ^""" 



!!!!!!!!!!!!! I I I I r I I I 1 



.t,™;f£S„Kf fi^iiSs;;:;, 1: ""•'"' ■ '•""■ -' ■- ■'""• ""■-< "- .»• -*« ip - .i„, .,„!„ „ d.„ .^ 



s£i^iEx;^!^HS— £-S:?E'HS 



Mr. Meske three exa nples" 3 Twhic hf ol', eeX n ne ••^°"'^'"",? " ^•">'"V'.'=': '''^'-" "'^'" U'-Ja'-a; I have sinc^ s.nt to 
are, bnt nevertheless ihev are at I e sa 'c d nfm, h -^ Z ' , ^ ''" '" °"" •'"'"''' *'"'"' 'lese.ihed as .Meskei, and so they 

slill have to slan.l .,s Uniin-a • Itho " h M <JrX d M "' J"'''T'''' '" '^"^ '" "■■""^'"^l'"'"-^' '»' the law of prioritv, it will 

.l.a. he has acheived a XT«u vic^^-rj o er Mr w2^^^^^^^^ ""' ">=''V'7 "f. '; ''-/"f^e:;!-'-^ GentlenKu/oon (i.'.ixote," 

spoils „f war. ^ ^ •"'^' "'"' '">" "'"'^'^^ acquired the right of annihilaling that author's .species as 

specif olhT.'B'^r'itotftm'be Ss^rprisTd"'^ ^^"^ ^"'' ''• ''^^''^^' "".''' ""' '"■■" ""' '*> ''^ "^ - "- °"- ^f Dr. Von Behi-s 

nextVa UXJ' wmrll^:;; J^'^ SJ^:!:' ''''■ ■''"' "°' ^""^^''^"""^ - «'^-^. '' ^"" -^r not be devoid of interest. The 

*Esper, Schmett., I, 2, t. 114, (1800). 

tLinn. Faun. .Suec, ]>. 277, (17GI). 

t Kdwards, Butt, X. Am. I'ieris, t. 1, (1871). 

'i Hubner, Kur. Schmett,, 1, fig. 712, 713, (1803-1818). 

II Canadian Entomologist, Vol. V, p. 1«1, (1873). 



II. 




ff'fmtn Sirirckcr, 2>et. 



/ CATOCALA ROBINSONII. Grote. ^ 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV., p. 20, (1872). -'>^'? 

(PLATE IX, FIG. 1, d"-) 



Expands 2i inclies. , . • j u-i 

Head and thorax, above, whitisli grey ; abdomen blackish. Beneath, thorax white, abdomen white, 

powdered with sn-ev atoms. i i i i 

Upper surface'; primaries whitisli grey; transverse shades very faint; transverse hnes narrow and black; 

reniform ordinary size ; snb-reniforni open. 

Secondaries "black, greyish at base; fringes white. • , . j u- u 

Under surface; primaries black; a small white basal patch; a narrow white, sub-terminal band which 
becomes almost obsolete towards the interior margin ; a white median band extending from costa to halt way 
between the latter and interior margin. . . , , t^ . n ■ uv 

Secondaries, basal third white, rest black with a narrow white mesial band. Fringes on all wings white. 

Habitat New England, Middle and Western States to the Mississippi. 

Somewhat rare, and distinguishable from all other black-winged species by the peculiar pale frosted 
appearance of the upper surface of primaries. 



(JATOCALA RETECTA. gbote. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV, p. 4, (1872). 



(PLATE IX, FIG. 2, ^.) 



^ 



Expands 2| inches. . i •* 

Head and thorax, above, grey ; abdomen blackish grey. Beneath white. 

Upper surface; primaries light grey, transverse lines black and distinct; reniform surrounded by a 
double line ; black sub-apical dash ; two other black dashes, one crossing the transverse anterior line, and the 
other the transverse posterior Hue, towards the interior margin. 

Secondaries black, with broad white fringes. ..... • .. i u ■ i i ir /i 

UiTder surface nearly the same as in C. Desperata, to which this species, though smaller, is closely allied. 

Habitat. New England, Middle, and doubtless other of the United States. 

Compared with C. Desperata and C. Flel)ili.s, it differs in the ground colour of primar.es, being brighter 
and of a less bluish cast ; the black shades sharper, not so spread or suffused ; and m the greater depth of the 
white fringe of secondaries. , , •,. ri t-> » 

It is a rare species, aud has generally, heretofore, been confounded with G. Desperata. 



CATOCAT>A FLEBILIS. Grote. 

Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV, p. 4, (1872). 



(PLATE IX, FIG. 3, c?, 4, variety c?-) 
Expands 2| inches. 



Expands "-if inciies. , , . , r> i uv 

Held and thorax above, arey ; abdomen blackish. Beneath white. .„ . , , 

Upper surJaceTpVhnaries'bluish grey ; transverse lines black and well defined ; reniform brown and not 

verydisEinct; sub-reniform open; the sub-apical dash is continued directly across the whole length of" the 

wing to its base. 



72 CATOCALA FLEBILIS. 

Secondaries black, with white friuge. 

Under surface; primaries blacii ; a small white basal patch, a white spot or space in cell, and a very 
narrow, half obsolete, white sub-marginal band. 

Secondaries white; a broad black marginal and narrower mesial band, the white space between these two 
is very narrow. 

Found in same localities as C. Desperata, but by no means as common. 

FIG. 4 is a variety, occasionally occurrinjj, in which the broad central longitudinal dash is broken in the 
middle at tiie reniform and sub-reniform. 

For the original of this figure (4) I am indebted to friend Angus, of West Farms, N. Y., who captured 
near that village, at various times, examples of this variety, and to whose goodness I have been again and 
again indebted for valuable additions to my cabinet, as well as many other acts of kindness. 



CATOCALA AHOLIBAH. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE TX, FIG. 5, 9.) 

Expands 3 inches. 

Hea<l and thorax, above, dark brown, with scattered white or grey scales ; abdomen brown. Beneath 
light brownish grey. 

Upper surface ; primaries dark brown frosted and intermixed with white and grey ; a white s])ace adjoin- 
ing the reniform inwardly; reniform indistinct; sub-reniform very small, white, surrounded with l)lack, and 
entirely disconnected with tiie transverse posterior line. 

Secondaries crimson, with brownish hair at the base ; median band rather narrow and regular, and con- 
tinued to within a short distance of the abdominal margin, where it turns upwards and is lost in the brownish 
hair that clothes that part. 

Under surface; primaries crossed by three black bands, none of which join or merge with each other; 
the spaces between tiie ba.se and sub-basal band, and between the latter and the median band, are orange col- 
oured inclining a little to crimson at the interior margin ; the space between the median an 1 marginal hands 
is white; fringe white, with black at terminations of the veins. 

Secondaries; inner two-thirds crimson, a little paler than on upper side, rest white; marginal band tinged 
with grey at and near the cosia ; median band terminates about one line from abdominal margin; slight 
indications of a discal crescent connecting with the median band ; fringe white. 

Habitat. C'alilbrnia. 

The above description and acconjpanying figure were taken from the single 5 example contain(;d in the 
collection of Mr. James Behrens, of San Francisco, to who.=e practical and extended labors in Entomology we 
are indebted for our knowledge of many of the l-'atafic species, and who, in order to enable me to present 
the species, had the almost unprecedented generosity to rob his (rtvn fine cabinet of the only example it con- 
tained of this insect. He say.s, in reft'rence to it, that " it is a frequenter of the deepest, darkest gulches and 
glens of the higher mountains of California," and further, that it llics in July and August, and was the wildest 
animal he ever saw. 

This species closely resembles C. Sponsa* and its ally, C. Dilectaf ; the primaries, on ii[)per suriiice, have 
a striking similarity, especially to Sponsa, and the ground colour of secondaries is the same, but there the 
resemblance ceases; the black bands of secondaries are different, and in the under surfice of primaries of the . 
two European sjH'cics the black ban'dsare broader, and the sub-basal and median at the inner half of the wing are 
connected, and the median antl marginal are almost confluent at and towards the interior margin, ami the narrow 
spaces between all these bands are entirely white. In the .secondaries the crimson extends much nearer to tiie costa, 
and tliere is a large black di.scal lunc or spot. I have been thus particular in my descriptive remarks of the 
above analogous Euro|)ean species, inasmuch as, no matter liow careful a drawing be made, ihe student does 
not ofcour.se feel that certainty whilst comparing his examjile with it, and is often apt to think, if tlie differ- 
ences are not very strongly marked ones, that they nuiy be the result of the artists not being exhaustively 
accurate, and is, consequently, sometimes thereby led to erroneous conclusions. But the shape of the black 
bands on upper surface of secondaries, and the spaces i)etween the black bands on under surface of primaries 

*Linnc. Syst. Nat., 841, (1767). 

t flubner, Sam. Eur. Sehmett., 388, (1793-1827). 



CATOCALA AHOLIBAH. 7S 

whioh are open aad clear from costa to interior margin, and which are also orange coloured between the median 
and sub-basal, and the latter and base, are points that are so distinctis'e as to preclude all idea of the identity 
of our species with either of its European allies alluded lo. The fact of the red on under side of primaries 
being of an entirely different tint from that of secondaries is very remarkable; I do not believe it exists in any 
other known Cato-ala. 

March 1st, 1874. 



(JATOCALA M ARMOR AT A. EnwA.a.s. 

Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. II, p. 50.S, (1864). 
(PLATE IX, KIG. 6, ? ?.) 

Expands 4 inches. 

Head and thorax light grey; abdomen is wanting in the single example so far known. 

Upj)er surface; primaries pale grey and white, more or less jwwdered with dark grey or blackish atoms,, 
(and bear a superficial resemblance to those of the European C Fraxini*); transverse lines black; beyond 
the transverse posterior line, a brown band, succeeded outwardly by another wiiich is much narrower and 
pure white; rcnifbrm dark, and shape not well defined; sub-renitbrni joined by a line to, not formed by, a 
sinus of the transverse posterior line; fringe wiiite. 

Se(«n(laries .scarlet of a lovely shade ; mesial itand narrowed in the middle, and extends almost to the 
ibdominal margin ; fringe white. 

Habitat. Yreka, California. 

A regal in.scct, exceeding in size all known American si)ecies ; the unique type from which the annexed 
figure was drawn is in the Museum of the Am. Ent. Soc. ; its sex can not be determined, as, unfortunately, the 
abdomen, as I before stated, is non est, but from general appearances I should suppose the example in question 
to be a +. 

One can hut regret that so little concerning this fine species is known ; the original description contains 
no further remarks than ''from Yreka, California," and we can only hope that time, which "at last sets all 
things even," will enable us to receive specimens, and learn more concerning this superb insect. 



CATOCALA ULTRONIA. Huhnek 



{Ennetis U.) Sam. Kxot. .Schmett., II, 2(3, f. 347, (1793-1827; 

Ottoada r., Guenee, Noct. Ill, 89, (1852). 

Caloada II., Packard, Guide, p. 317, t. 8, fig. 4, (1869). 



M 



(PLATE IX, FIG. 7, ?.) 

Expands 2 to 2^ inches. 

Head and body brown above, greyish white beneath. 

Upper surface ; primaries pale ash-coloured, a broad, longitudinal, rich deep brown space covers the lower 
one-third of the wing to the interior margin ; a broad, suffused, sub-apical dash of the same colour; reniform 
small, generally almost obsolete; snb-renifbrm open. 

Secondaries deep red ; mesial and marginal bands regular, and extending to abdominal margin ; fringe 
white. 

Under surface ; ])rimaries, base black, between this and the median band the space is red, between the 
median and marginal bands it is yellowish white. 

*Linne. Syst. Nat., 512, (1758). 



74 CATOCALA ULTRONIA. 

Secondaries rod, grevisli near the costa ; mesial band irregnlar in width and extends to inner margin ; a 
black discal Innc joins tlie mesial ; fringes white and black. 

Habitat. Canada, and tlie United States generally east of the Mississippi. 

A common and very j)rctty species which, by the peculiar appearance of the primaries, can be easily 
known tVoin all others. 



V (CATOCALA I'lATRIX. ckot.. 

Proc. Knt. Soc, I'hila., Vol. Ill, )i. 88, t. Ill, (1864;. 
I'loc. Eiit. Soc, Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 532, (1864). 
TraiiF. .\ni. KnI. Soc, Vol. IV, ).. 10, (1872). 



( PLATE IX, FIG. 8, c^.) 



Ex|)anils 2| to 3 inches. 

Head and thorax brown, with darker lines; abdomen yellowish brown. Beneath pale ochraceou.'i. 

l'|iper surface ; ]>rimares brown, varied with darker ba.sal, median and sub-apical shades ; transverse lines 
black ; rcniforni large and enclosed in a dark shade; sub-reniform open and pale, from this to the costa, in- 
terior to the rcniform, is a paler space. 

Sei'ondarics yellow, base clothed with brownish hair; bands rather broad, but narrowing towards their 
termination at the abdominal margin. 

Under surface* of all wings pale ochraceous, darker at interior margins; primaries have three transverse 
bands, the sub-basal and mesial black and distinct, the marginal pale, much suffused with yellow, especially 
towarils the exterior margin ; on .sccondai'ies the mesial band is irregular in width, narrow towards the costa, 
broader on di.sc, and is terminated some distance from inner margin ; marginal band darkest near the anal 
angle and becomes almost obsolete as it ncars the apex and costa. 

Habitat. New England, Middle and Southern States. 

A rather i^ommon species, Itelonging to the same group as Subnata and Neogama, in company with which 
it occurs in manv localities. 



CATOCALA MULIERCULA. Guenkf. 

Noct., Vol. Ill, 97, (1852). 



/W- 



(PLATE IX, FIG. 9, (f.) 



Ex|)ands 2^ to 2J inches. 

Head and IkkIv dark brown above; beneath yellowish grey. 

Upper surface; primaries dark, rich reddish brown, with none of the markings very distinct; reniform 
Bmall ; sub-reniform pale, space immediutcly interior to the reniform also a little paler; transverse lines black. 

Secondaries dee|) yellow clothed with brown hair at base and abdominal margin; marginal and mesial 
bands extend to interior margin ; fringe blackish, except near apex, where it is white. 

*The original description of ilic muier Kiirf:iue, and still more, tlie second one by the same author, which followed it a few month.i 
later, would lead on^to e.\pect, instead of a very ordinary looking Calocala, some gorgeous insect rivaling the richness of Erasmia or 
Etenisia The tirsi description says; " I'nder surface pale lutcou.s, pale ochraceous brownisli along external margins, orange coloured at 
base of posterior wings, median bunds black, slightly iridescent." Proc. Ent. Sos., Phil., Ill, 89. The second des;'rip[ion, in regard to 
which the author says, " 1 allow the present description to supersede the one given by me on p.ige 88 of the present volume," is as follows : 
"Under surface of both p.iir pale grayish uchriccous, iridescent, irrorate b.asally and subiliscally tinged with an orange shade; anterior 
wings crossed by three, posterior pair by two black transverse bands." Proc. Ent. .Soc, Phil., Ill, 533. In the third description of this 
species, in Trans. Ani. Ent. Soc, IV, 111, all the splendour of descj-iption is transferred to tlie upper surface, the author doubtless con- 
sidering thai he liad conscientiously performed his duty towards the underside in the preceding two descriptions, allows it "presently" 
to rest in peace. 



CATOCALA MULIERCULA. 75 

Under surface yellow, darkest at and near inner margin of secondaries ; three black bands on primaries, 
the sub basal and median connected near the inner margin; the two black bands of secondaries extend from 

costa to abdominal margin. tt • i q 

Habitat Middle, Western and Houthern United tetates. , t^, . , ^ i • i 

Is an exceedingly rare species with ns, but occurs more frequently in Georgia and Florida, from which 

latter states I have occasionally received it. 



CATOCALA (X)NS()RS. akbot & smith. 

PhatiFua Consors, l^epid. Georgia, Vol. II, p. 17V, t. 89, !1797i. 
OUocxiln Oomors, Ouenee, Noct. Ill, 99, (1852i. 



(PLATE IX, FIG. 10, c^.) 

Expands 2V to 2 J inches. . , , , ,, • . 

Head and thorax", above, smoky grev ; abdomen yellowish brown, beneath ye lowish grey. 

Upt^i surface ; primaries dark smoky grey ; transverse lines black, dull, and not deeply dentate ; reni- 

'''"'^:::£l^^^!:Z^ brown hair at base and abdominal margin ; marginal Ixind with three deep 
indentations interiorly, mesial band very irregular ; the shape of these bands cau.se the w,ng to have a cheq- 
uered api.earance, one point of the marginal ban.l almost touching another of the mesial, on the disc , fnnges 

^^'"'Undersllrfl'e dusky yellow; three broad black bands on primaries, mesial and marginal bands of sec- 

ondaries much as above. , r i- ; a i i7 *.• ^o„ t \ 

The larva, according to Abbot, is found on the Bastard Indigo (Amorpha Fruticosa L.). 

Habitat. From Marvland to the Gulf. " , ,-,.,.,■ n 

An exceedino-ly rare species, or at least difficult to obtaiu, as it is represented in bu few American col ec- 
tious the examiTle from which fig. 10 was drawn is in the collection of Mr. Chas. Blake, of Philadelphia 
welTkno'^ by h!s extensive labours on the N. Am. Mutillid.e,* and to whose uniform goodness I am indebted 
for innumerable favours, far more than, with my best will, I ever shall be able to repay. 



CATOCJALA NEBULOSA. Edwards. 

S;L]^S;;'«;:ori 'k^::il^'h.. .00., Phila.. Vol. v., p. .., t. 4, (1866,. Orote, Tran. A.. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV, 
p. 11, (1872). 

(PLATE IX, FIG. 11, 9.) 

Expands 3 to 3^ inches. 

Head and body brown above, and yellow beneath. , , ., i i ir„i. 

Upper surface; primaries, gound color greyish yellow, heavily clouded with maroon or dark reddish 
brown,Thich has o'n 'fresh exa'm'ples a perceptible^luish sheen especially on that portion f-- he transverse 
anterior line to the base, which is so dark as to appear almost black ; the transverse ^"t^''^/^"! l"ated 
equally from its middle upwards to the costa where it is very broad ; transverse posterior line deeply s.nuated , 
reniform moderately large and doubly annulated ; sub-reniform connected with the transverse posterior Ime 

Secondaries rich yellow; marginal band broad, space between this and the -^^^^'^^ ^^°^ "^^^ T 
portion of the wing tVom the median band to the base almost entirely covered ^'^h heavy brovvnish hair, 
giving the wing much the .same appearance as in Cerogama, Guen. ; a yellow apical spot ; fringe 7f ''7^;^^ . 
^ Under surfece yellow ; primaries with three purplish black bands, the sub-marginal, ^hie^^ s "^^wes^ 
and the median, extend from costa to interior margin, the sub-basal reaches only to the sub-median nervure , 

* In the Trani!. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, (1871 ). 



^^ CATOCALA XEBULOSA. 

none of these han.ls are ..onneeted witli each other. On secondaries the mesial an,l marginal bands extend to 
aixlmnmal margin. Fringes on all wings vellow. ^ 

Habitat. Middle, and Western States to the Mississippi ; rather rare 
fK«n " ,"'V'«"''»' description of this species we have another inslar.ce of h.nv utterly valueless aye worse 

t;^ ^^t^iri^\ '^r^ --^-"P-^d wi^'" ^^r^' ^^'- ^^- "■ K^wards-- description l/proc 
ll^nt. Nk., 1 hila., 1864,) s better than nme-tenths of such things generally are, and, moreover is written in 

recogni/u that Mess ,s. Grote * Robinson re-described this, one of the largest of our Catocahe and one so 

.ronuncn ly unlike all others, as a nevv^species, and even made remarks comparative concerning hdiftrre„'^ 

h hlllo 7l ^f"'osa and then- Ponderosa, but I ha.i belter .p.otc their own words literally and in ?ul? 

^ Fd d '",'■ n*; •'' '''■■^'''•'I/'l"" ■■ " ^''■'-'^•^^ specimens examined. Resembles the dcscriptioJ of C mu- 

W Fd uds but ddiers ,n several important particulars, the color of the ordinary .spots, conformation of the 

"ot'liih';: t'll n "" '■ ";";'"' ^'''^ f""'r'^^"1 "^'^ ^^^^ ^''^"^'•'^' -^-^ °f "-- - ^he upper surceleem 
to be .l.neient, u iile some of he minor details, such as the color of the scales clothing the nervules etc wil^ 
not apply properly to ( PonrJerom, nobis."* I believe Mr. W. H. Edwards publisid no ." es't ncH a 
he cared nothing about ,t, or ,t may be that their de.seription was as unintelligible to him as 1 s wa 't them 
for their, wa.s a third longer and infinitely more abstruse and grandiose, and, in consequence he n.y not have 
been aware of the identity of his Nebulosa and their " Ponderosa, nobis." Six yearriater Mr Grote a4in 
des<-ribe. it un.ler the name of ondero^, giving Xebulo.saas a synonym ; after hite hniea deJcripUo cSes 
tlH fo low ng (,,uoted ,n full ) : " Mr. Edwards compares the .secondaries quite wrongly with those of C CeT 
gama,, which C. Ponderosa in nowise j-esembles. The specific name cho.sen by Mr. Edwanls Ind .'iln-ady 
fr\rf^:"'''''V'\ '^\' '^'"''.^; t by this we understand that he has at last becainc^i c i le vi the 
fact that Nebulosa, Edwds., and Ponderosa, Grote & R., are the same; but in this instance i a ™ he 

law of priority must succumb in order that the G. & R. may still obtain, at all events the o'fb" we e that 

h t:"t"bu'll- f'^'^r'" "'"'h'' " ^"^^'"^^° •^^"^"^■'^'^' ''"^ t-'"^ °^ ^vnonymy would be ■;-nov«fom 
the gieat bulk of X American Heteroccres. No! Ponderosa must stand because Nebulosi " had a. -eX 
been iKsed hve tin.es in t e family/' Now, how has it been used five times? it irbeen a pi "d to n K 

feLU? S in' i;;^t;!'2 '' ^'"''"'^f ^* H ^ Taeniocampa,tt the latter, however \s Nebulosu^.ot 
i\cDuio.sa, ami lu the=e hve the name only holds for one, Mamestra Nebulosa, Jliifna-el • as retrards the others 

&;:/'Hi;f?'";;;joy;;l'x Yr rf r '^^^r^^^^ «p-- ^i-e con.;^etiorEe:1:LmS 

Eri st .^ rio i;.^^^ U ;^ebulosa, Edwds. is about as intimate as between Papilio Philenor, L,,tt and 

o w S ^^^' ■" ''- "' '''"■' '•^.^^'"'^'^^'".'^h other about as much as do those twodiurnals. Mr. ctote's 
ouuvioid. will, however, support me in retaining Mr. Edwar.ls' prior name of Nebulosa fbr he savs Hn 

Eu'idll.'""""- ''Tn' ?■ ^^rr^"^^ ""''■' --^S^-^ *° ^'- «1-"- -"-. tiis "Seady usedT/tie 
Wii.die for a species of Hadena. It has been hitherto the custom to reject such names, but th . «liould not 

aff h'fo.:; ;r;"n'N E ^^TT'^T' l'"? ■/ r 'r^^'; '' eonfusion."||||' The Hadena alhKled to i a sm 1 
tra NYl 1 hili^.: r ' ^^':'^^"'^f • ^'f^'^'^ ^»' northern Scotland; it is a little smaller than Mames- 
but H 1 ulis ff ^ e7 n ^'V-T''"' ^••^^"^"'^ secondaries; its true name, however, is not H. Marmorata, 
t^rl- /^^^"''"'"1 ."'« ft"-""-^' t'tle was bestowed on it by Dr. Herricli-Schafrer much la er ■ but in either case 
to object to a species of the large, brilliant, semi-Geomctrid genus Catocala, occupyin.. a StilTthe ter 

*Piw. Knt. .Soc, I'liila., \(,1. \'l, p. 23, (1866) 

teen ^.l^llh^lX: iLlilHr .nLi^ Enl'^SS'^ol'I^T ^^t^^^^^ '^ ^^""'"^^ '" ^^ ""™^='-^' "^ '-"'^'^^ '^^^^ "'^ 
J Irai.s. Ani. Kut. So,.., Vol. IV, ,,. 12, iJan., 1872). ' * ' •' 

i Ajrn.t.s I)«.,n., HmI, 4.-^: N,M„m. Hub., 402, Sam. Eur. Schmett. 
II Maiiioslni >eljiilos:i. iliifiKiKC'l, Berlinisches Ma<r Vnl TFI 4li) n7R7\. d- i i^ 

ttS;:t;5'yi;:vK;;.^:'i,::^.'^:;„«^^^ w.u^, Naturforsc., xm, „. 29. (1779,. 

tt Linnaeus, Mantissa, I, p .5;i.i, (1771) °'' ' ' *"*' '•"^'^- ^"^"^'"^ Hawoith, Lep. Bnttauica, p. 120, (1803-1820). 

|2Menelrie,s Cat Mus., .Si. Petersburg, Lep. I, p. 73, (1855). 

||| Cjrote, J rans. Am. Kut. Soc, Vol. IV, pr7, (1872). 

n Hadena Lxul.>,, Lefebvre, Ann. .Soc. Ent. Fr., 392, (1836). Marmorata. Herrich-SchKtTer 



CATOCALA AM ASIA. Abbot & Smith. 

Phalcma Amaaia, Lep. Georgia, Vol. II, p. 178, t, 90, upper figure, (1797). 
Catocala Avmsia, Duncan, Nat. Lib. Eiit., Vol. VII, p. 205, t. 26, (1841). 
Catocala Amasia, Queme, Noct., Vol. Ill, 103, (18.52). 

I PLATE IX, FIG. 12, cT-) 

Expands 1^ to If inches. 

Head and thorax pale grey and white, with l)hi(k mark.s ; abdomen yellowish; beneath yellowish white. 

Upper surface; primaries white, transverse lines black and distinct, reniforra and sub-reniform distinctly 
defined by black lines, space from the transverse posterior line to the exterior margin brownish, traversed from 
costa to inner margin by a narrow uhite zig-zag baud. 

Secondaries yellow, marginal band broken about two-thirds in from the costa, but replaced with a spot at 
the anal ano-le ; median band narrow and nearly straight, anil discontinued some distance from the abdominal 
margin. 

Under surface yellow, darkest at bases and at inner half of secondaries; a marginal and median band of 
ordinary width extending from costa to inner margin ; of the sub-basal band, an almost imperceptible shade is 
all that is noticeable, at least in the examples I have or have access to ; perhaps in large suites there may occur 
examples in which tliis l)and may be more distinct. Bands of secondaries same as on upper side. 

Habitat. Virginia, Georgia, Florida, and other of the Southern States. Rare. 

According to Abbot, the caterpillar is grey, with darker lines laterally, and its tbod various kinds of oaks, 
but that it also was found on the Pride of China, (Melia Azedarack, L.), that it spun the beginning of May 
and came out the end of the same month. 

On the lower part of Abbot's plate 90, where this insect was first represented, there is another species 
which purports to be its female, and which is found not only in the south, but as for north, to my knowledge, 
as Rhode Island ; it is a species of the same size as Amasia, and was described as C. Formula * ; in a succeed- 
ing plate it will also be delineated. 

The nearest European repressentative of Amasia is C. Nymphagoga,t but the similarity exists principally 
in size and markings, as the upper side of primaries in the latter are dark, whilst in our species they are white, 
but the style of ornamentation, arrangement of bands, etc., are very similar. 

But few examples of C. Amasia find their way into collections, owing to the non-residence of collectors or 
Lepidopterists in the Sonthcrn States, and, however speculative and enterprising a people the Americans may 
be, they have not yet found a way to make the natural sciences pecuniarily remunerative; and in this respect, 
as well as in some others, we need not be ashamed to learn something from the old country. 



A FEW WORDS ON THE CATOCALA NOMENCLATURE. 

I have a sort of old-fashioned respect for the way the fathers of science u.sed to name these things ; for 
iustauce, the Catocal* all had amatory names, relating to love or marriage, Amatrix, Cara, Relicta, etc., etc. 
Of course these terms would soon be exhausted, and, in fact, have been; then, names that would in a great 
measure keep up the connection would naturally be next selected, and the most appropriate ones for the purpose 
would be those of women famous in ancient history for their lust or talents, or both combined, as in the case 
of C. Messalina,! C. Helena § and.C. Bri.seis,l| of later authors, and it might be well to continue in the same 
plan. Of upwards of forty species found in Europe and Siberia, none had the names of any scientist, ancient 
or modern, bestowed upon them, though such names as Lederer, Felder, Hewifson and Moschler will, never- 
theless, stand whilst printing or science endure. But to us progressive Americans it is owing that the 
harmony of the Catocala Nomenclature has been broken ; Edwards first, with his C. Walshii, and then Grote 

*Grote & Robinson, Proc. Eat. Soc, Phil., Vol. VI, p. 27, (1866). 

t Esper, Schmett., 105, 5, (1787). 

% Catocala Messalina, Guenee, Noctuelitea, III, p. 105, (1852). 

I Catocala Helena, Eversmann, Bull. Mos., II, (1856). 

5 Catocala Briseis, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc, PhU., II, (1864). 

77 



78 ■ C'ATOCALA NOMENCLATURE. 

with C. Clintonii, C. Robinsonii, etc. ; it is, however, done, and irrevoeabiy so, and we can only in sadness 
submit. I can not, liowever, refrain from thinking that there is a great deal in the appropriateness of a name, 
for I never yet knew one of your George Washington Smiths, or John Quincy Adams Warrens, or Michael 
Angelo Jones, leaving any very perceptible foot-prints on the .sands of time, and vividly I remember, whilst 
walking, years ago, through a plantation in S. Carolina, that every third field hand was Julius C;esar Aga- 
memnon, or Mark Antony Aurelius, and one burly fellow carried, in addition to about 300 pouuds adipose 
tissue, the fearful additional load of Clarence Theophrastus Columbus Porchcr liarton. In the case of these 
overloaded unfortunates, the grandeur of the name was, like the helmet in the "Castle of Otranto," crushing 
instead of adorning. In the case of the beauteous and wonderful works of nature it is just the contrary, their 
loveliness and marvelous structure are such that the grandest names of science, art and history .seem almost too 
feeble to apply to them, whilst names of le.s.ser note cannot be exalted by the association, but serve only as a 
blot to deface the beautiful. I believe that all that is great and sublime in nature and art is more or le.ss 
intimately connected, but now, in Heaven's name, what grandeur, or historical or poetical idea can we associate 
with such names? It is true, they may answer the purpo.se of identification, but so would Catocala No. 1, 
Catocala No. 2, etc., for that matter equally as well, but how different when we gaze on the gorgeous 
Priamus Butterfly* what a flood of thought it suggests ! the court of the old Trojan King arises and is " fol- 
lowed fast anil followed faster" by each varied .scene of the Iliad; the Golden Crcesus f reminds in an instant 
of the magnificence of the Lydian monarch and the death of the hapless A tys ; and the splendid Sardanapalus,| 
of the smnptuousne.ss of that prince; and Hunil)oldtii,§ though any to whom .science is dear scarce need a 
reminder, of one far exceeding in rank all of earth's potentates, one of whom a monarch of Europe once said, 
" Der groesste inann seit Noah."|| 



EXTOMOLOGICA L NOTES. 

POLAR LKPIDOPTERA. — Diiriti'; a recent visit to Wiishins;lon I h.-id the opportunity of examiniii;;, at llie Smitlisoniaii In.stitu- 
tion, tlie few enloinolojjical c.'caraplcs cuileoteci by I>r. ICniil lio.-ssels, of tlie iinfortunate " Polaris Expedition," at Polaris Kay, N. Lat. 
81°, 83°. There are three species of Lepidoptera, Het., which 1 identilied as follows: 

Ditsychira Hossii, {L'lria R.) Curtis. Ross's 2nd Voy. App. Ts'at. Hist., p. 70, t. A, (lS35l, one pair rf ?, also the weh with egga 
Hurroundcd by the liair of the larva. Tliis species ha.s been found al.so in N. E. Labrador. 

Anarta liichardsoiii, {ILuhna R.) Curtis, Ross's App., p. 72, t X, (1835). A. Ati/ida, Lefdtvrc, \m\. Soc. Kr.. :W5, PI. 10, ;">, (1836). 
Two examples. Occurs also in Labrador ami Northern Norway, and I have seen one example taken on Mt. Washington, New 
Hampshire. 

Cidaria .Sabini, { Psijchophora S.) Curtis, Hos.s's App., p. 73, t. .\, (183-5), five or six examples. The later described C. Frigidaria, 
(in., found in Laplaml, is doubtless identical with this species. 

There are also several examples of a Ilymenopterous insect, Bombus Kirbiellus, Curtis; ami a Diptera, Tipula Arctica, Curtis, both 
figureil and described in the same work as the Lepidoptera above. 

After my e.vamination of these entomological tr«a.sures, still having some time to spare, I strolled through various other dei>artments 
of the Museum of the Institution ; on reaching the upper apartment, devoted mainly to easts and remains oi" pre-Adaniitc animals, and 
whilst gazing on these stupendous relics of a period wrapt in obscurity almost eipial to that of futurity itself, I was roused from my 
musings by the sound of a succession of raps on some evidently hard substance, when on turning my head 1 saw two animals of the 
present era, ?r?, with artilicial coverings of the texture and appearance of broadcloth and silk, comnuming together, and at short inter- 
vals striking, the one with a cane, the other with the end of a parasol, the cast of the (ilyptodon; every rap caused a white mark to' 
ap])car, the result of tlu' striking looic of the pigment from the plaster which it covered; 1 much fear I had little regard for etiquette or 
the rules of well-bred society, for without a moment's rellection I expressed to those disguised Yahoos my umpialilied o|iinion of their 
Vandalic conduct, whicli, of course, like all o)iiuions unsolicited, was by no means gracefully received; nor was mv e(|uanimitv further 
restored, after the departure of these poor mindless things, by perceiving on the frontal plate or bone of the same (ilyptoilon, that some 
wret<dies had scrawled their jiitiful, miserable, unknown, degraded names! But bidding farewell to the thoughts of these debased crea- 
tures, not one tithe ;is noble as the monster who.se semblance or remains they conlaminated, I left the ajiartment and wended my way 
towards other obie<'ts of interest. Ere I close I caimot fail to express my appreciation of the uniform kindness and attention I received 
from the various .scienliliir gentlemen connected with the Institution, as well as from those of the neighboring Museum of the Agricultural 
Ue|iartnient, the latter almost .solely the creation of the untiring, iudefatigahle Prof, (ilover. 

Finally, I can scarce avoid mentioning, among the vast nundjer of examples of nature and art accumulated in the Museum of the, 
Smithsonian Ins., the splendiil specimens of the great Rocky Mt. (ioat, an animal so rare as almost to have led one to the bilief that it 
was apocryphal ; the cast (jf the shell of an innucnse'.'Cheloniaii whieli measures nearly three paces in length and two in width, and is about 
four feet in height ; a huge Octopus (the Devil- Fish of Victor lingo's "Toilers of the Sea,") in alcohol, which we should judge to meas- 
ure, with arms extended from tip to tip some ten feet or more, and a single arm of another much larger; the luimerousand most curious 
wood carvings, etc., etc., of the Alaska Indians, their Masque of Death, the Bird that brought their fathers from the Lord only knows 
where. In the Geological and Mineralogical Department, uiuler the supervision of my fellow-townsman. Dr. Endlich, is a huge mass of 
native copper, weighing I ilon't know how nuich, and surmomited by a famous aerolite of fabulous proportions. Good friends, I must 
cIo.se, or 1 do not kn<iw when I might stop; you will perhaps sny this is not Lepidopterology, why should it be here introduced? true, 

*Ornithoptera Priannis, Linn.aeus, Mus. Lud. Ul. Reg., p. 182, (1764). 
fOrnithoptera Cnesus, Wallace, I'roc. Ent. .Soc, Ser. II, Vol. V, p. 70, (1859). 
t Agria.s Sardanapalus, Bates, Proe Ent. .Soc, Ser. II, Vol. V, p. Ill, (1860). 
^Tithorea Ilundxildtii, Latr., Perisama Humboldtii, Guer. 
II The greatest man since the flood. 



ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 79 

but each page of God'a great book is connected with the other, bound in its mighty cover, the Universe, and we cannot admire one 
without adniii-ing the other ; we do not love our mistress's hand alone, but also her brow, hair and eyes, her whole beautiful form, the 
entire faultless work. 



NOKTHEEN LEPIDOPTERA. — I here give a list of the Heterocerous Lepidoptera received by me sometime since from 
Mr. Couper, who took them in S. Labrador and Aiiticosti Island in the summers of 1S72 and 1873; there are still several Agrotis and 
Crarabis that I am not quite certain of, and which I must defer attending to until I receive the few Polar species that are yet lacking, 
to my cabinet, for coraparLson. 

Alypia Octomaciilata, Fabricius, ( Zygij;na A.) (1793), appears to have been common, as I received twelve examples; they present 
no particular differences from those found elsewhere. The opinion h.as been expressed, though I dniibt its accuracy, that these Anlicosti 
specimens are the i^ of A. Langlonii, wbicli latter has but one yellow spot on the Becondaries, whilst Octomaculata, as we all know, has 
two white ones. 

Alypia Langtonii, Couper, five examples, presenting no variation from some which I obtained in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. 
This species appears to be very closely allied to the Californian A. Sacrainenti, Boisd.. and to judge froTu Mr. Stretch's figures on Plates 
1 and 8 in his admirable work, I should consider them to be ideiuical ; Sacramenii I have not yet seen in nature. 

Deilepbila Gallii, Kott., (1775). D. Cluimenerii, Harris, one example; this is a species common both to Europe and America. 

."•esia Ruficaudis, Kirbv, Faun. Bor. Am., IV, p. 303, (1837). Hmnorrhmjia Uniformis, Grote <i Hobinson. Five examples. 

Thvatira Pudens, Guenee, Noct. I, 13, 1 18.52). The single example difi'ers from tliose found in Pennsylvania, in that the white spot 
on the middle of costa, on primaries, is indistinct on tbe inner edge, where it is much broken and merged into the grey ground colour, 
this latter is more or less freckled with white throughout. 

Agrotis Chardinyi, Boisduval, Eur. Lep. Ind. Meth., p. 94, 1 1829). .1. Ilrlara, Evifsmnnn. Bull. Mos., p. 35, (1837), two examples, 
a trifle larger, but agreeing exactly in all other respects witli the typical exauiples from Central Russia and Siberia. I believe this is ihe 
first instance of the capture of this .species in the Western Continent. It belongs to the same group as the European A. Fimbria, A. Or- 
bona, A. Pronuba, etc., commonlv known in England as yellow underwmgs, the secondaries being yellow with a plain black margin. 

Agrotis Porphyrea, Huhner. Two examples, present no diflerence whatever from those found in Piedmont and other parts of 
Europe. 

Agrotis Clande.stina, Harris, one example; this species is found as far north as Greenland. 

Agrotis Conflua, Treitschke, Schmett. Eur., VI, 1, (1827). Three; do not present any obvious points of difference from examples 
from Iceland in my possession. , , m !-• n 

Agrotis Fennica, Tauscher, Mem. Mosc, |1806). One example; in tbe British Museum are examples credited to Trenton Falls 
and Nova Scotia, but the one alluded to above is the first and only one 1 ever saw that was taken in N. .'\ruerica ; it is a handsome spe- 
cies, expanding about l.\ inches, primaries are dark purplish grey margined with pale flesh colour along interior margin, reciform and 
orbicular also flesh colour; secondaries white, outwardly greyish or smoky. 

Mamestra Coudita, Guen., Noct. II, 78. (1852). One example. 

Hadena Rurea, Fabr. Syst. Ent., filS, (1775). One example, diflering in no particular from those received from various parts of 

Europe. i i- ■ i 

Leucania,— apparently L. Albilinea, Hubner, but the single example is in too wretched a condition to speak of with any certainty. 

Drasteria Erechtea, Gnen., two small sized examples. 

Hyperetis Alienaria, H-S. Three. 

Metrocampa Perlata, Guen. Sixteen examples, all smaller than tho.se found in the United States. 

Acidalia Frigidaria, Moschler, Wiener. Ent. Monatsehrift, Vol. IV, p. 373, t. 10, (18G0). Two examples. 

Cidaria Hastata, L., var. Gothicata, Guen. Nine examples, one with secondaries entirely black, like many of those found commonly 
in Pennsylvania, N. York, etc., the others are nearer to the European stem-form Hastata, having as much white in them as in many of 
the latter; some agree exactiv with Mr. Moschler's fig. 4 on t. 10, Wieu. Ent. Monats., Vol. IV. 

Cidaria Tristata, Lin. Syst. Nat., X, 526, (17.58). One example, identical in every particular of size, colour and ornamentation, with 

those from Europe. , ,, . . , , „ . e 

Cidaria Obductata, Moscb., Wien. Ent. Monats., Vol. IV, p. 375, t. 10, (1860), three examples, all agreeing with the excellent figiire 
cited. Mr. Jloschler, in his original description, ventures the suggestion* that perhaps this may be a polar form of C. Luctuata, Hb., 
a species common in most parts of Central Europe; .so sure am I that this surmise will prove correct, tliat when I first received the ex- 
amples before I was acquainted even with the figure and description of Mr. Moschler, I placed them in my collection below C. Luctuata 
as a variety of that species ; the principal diflerence in Obducata, on the upper surface, is the absence of the white mesial band of 
secondaries, beneath it is greater, the prevalent colour being black. 
Baptria Albovittata, Guen. Seven specimens. 
Sericoris Glaciana, Mosch., Wien. Ent. Monats., Vol. IV, p. 380, t. 10, (1860). One example. 



NEMEOPHILA PLANTAGINIS.— Of this species and its varieties, Hospita, etc., I have seen in various collections, and have my- 
self received many examples from Colorada, Nevada and California, as well as some melanotic forms which are unrepre.?ented in the old 
world, one of which is the Nem. Petrosa of Walker. The .synonvmy of this species is: .^n, ,,-^t> tt-,; it i- i. xr .i i 

NEMEOPHILA PLANTAGINIS, Linnseus ( Plmlo-no p. ) Svsteraa N atura?, oOl, ( 1 / u8 ), Fauna Snec, 801, ( 1 / 61 ) ; WMes, Engli.sh Moths and 
Butt., t. 50, (1773) ; Esper, Schmett., 36, (1777-1794) ; Donovan, Nat. Hi.st, Brit. lu.s., IV, 1. 134, (1/92-1816). 
Hubner (Bombur P.) S.amm. Eur. Schmett., 127, 128, (1793-1827) ; (Paranemia P.) Verz. bek. Schmett., 181, 
(1816). Oschenheimer, Schmett. Eur., Ill, 312, (1810). Godart, Hist. Nat. Lfp. Fr., Ill, 33, (1821-1824). 
Stephens {Xeincophila P.) Brit. Ent., (1827-1835); Duncan, Nat. Lib. Ent., IV, 216, (183G); Freyer, N. 
Beit., 612, (1831-1858). Berge, {Bombyx P.) Schmetterlingsbuch, 68, t. 18, (1842). Slaudinger, (Nemeophila 
P.) Cat. Eur. Lep., 56, (1871). 
Nemeophila Qespili^, Grote A Eobiimn, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, I, p. 337, t. VI, (1868). ib. TV, 428, (1873). 
Nemeophila Cichorii, Grote & Robinson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, I, p. 338, t. VI, (1868). ib. I\, 428, (18/3). 

•"Cidaria Obductata, Moschl., Taf. 10, Fig. 3 (an luctuata var.?) Zwei von Labrador erhaltene nebereinstimmende Exemplare 
wage ich nicht mit Bestimmtheit von btetxuUa zu trennen, denn obwohl dieselben auflidlende unterschiede zeigen, ware es doch moglich, 
das» 8ie als nordische Varietaten zu jener art gehorten." Moschler, Wien. Ent. Monats., Vol. IV, p. 375, (1860). 



80 ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

Var. Matronai.is, Freyer, N. Beitr., 405, (1831-1858). Hubner, {Plantaginix) Sam. Eur. Schmett., 238, (1793-1827). 

Var HosPiTA Scliitieriiiiller, Svst. Ver/... 310, (1776). Oschenheimer, Sdimelt. Eur., Ill, 314, ; 1810). Esper, (Plantaginii) 

3G, (1777-17941. BtiinCT, Sam. Eur. Schmelt., 126, (1793-1827). 
Var. Petrosa, Walker, Cat. Brit. Mus., Ill, 620, (1855). 

Eupsi/choma Geomelrica, Grote, Proo. Ent. Soc ,_ I'liila., [V, p. 318, t. II, (1865). 
Eupsijc.hnma Geomelroides, QrrAe tt liobinson, List N. Am. Le\>., p. vii, (1865). 

I would here ?av a few woriin, more or lcs.i, regarding our American examples; the .single types of (.'a;spitis and Cichorii, which 
were taken in California by M. Luripiin. present no diflerences from some of ihe endless variations found in Europe; Cic.«pilis is like 
one of the common varieties that has the basal half of the second.-iries black, and Cichorii, really, has no points in particular to distin- 
Kiiisli it from the ordinary European examples; not even its size will save it, as I have trans- .\tlantic examples equally as small, and one 
daumlin" still smaller; it may not be out of place here to quote in full the author's remarks which follow his technical description of 
Cichorii. "This species is .smaller than N. Caespilis, and however variable in ornamentation it may prove to he, will be readily distin- 
guished by tlie black fringes and clear yellow bands of the upper surface of primarie.s. The larva' of these species are stated to be quite 
distinct and to be found on ditlerent food plants." * The black fringes may distinguish it from the single example which served as the 
foundation for Ctcspitis, but they won't separate it froni any number of European examples, one of which, now before me, has ihe fringes 
on all wini's black, another has the fringes black and yellow, according as these colours on the surface extend to the margin, the like 
colours also pi'ovail on the fringes; the same applies lo the var. Hosjjita, both PZiiropean and American examples. As regards ditlerence 
of larva; and food plant ; if the student chooses to confine himself to closet study, entirely neglecting to see nature under more favourable 
circiimslances, he must not be disappointed if error is the result; I thought that the omnivorous appetite of the .Vrctian larvie was too 
well known for any one to base specific distinctions on what they eat; 1 have had them to feed on anything from gra.ss to an old green 
pasteboard box, and I doubt if a green thing exists that they would not attempt to digest if you give them a chance. Too much stre.ss is 
also often laid on ditit'rence in appearance of caterpillars, and that too in the face of the fact that same s|)ecies in various genera are pro- 
duced from larvae presenting most remarkable differences of colouration ; it is needless to enumerate such; it will be sufficient to refer to 
Eac. Imperialis, Thyreus Abbotii, various Graptas, etc., etc., nor can I well see why there should not be variation in the larva> of the 
same species, as well as in the imago. 

We now come to var. Petrosa, examples of which I have as yet seen none from Europe, though I have litlledoubt but that they may occur 
there ; this is the form re-described later by .Mr. Grote, as Geometrica, who allied it to Ctcnucha and created the genus Enpsychorna for 
its reception, placing it in the Zyga;nidae ! t That Mr. Walker should have considered it a distinct species is not so much a matter of 
surprise, he probably not having seen the many intermediate varieties, but to create, as Mr. Grote did, a new genus for a Neineophila, 
and place it with the Zygtenida?, is aliout out-IIeroding Hei'od. Why the specific name was changed to Geometroides, in G. & R's Li.st 
N. Am. Lcp., I do not know; in the original description and plate it is Geometrica, but whatever name was meant to be retained "is 
comparatively of little moment," since this Zygsenid Arctian ally of Eudryas must lower its pretensions and fall back to Stephen's genus 
Nemeophila and Walker's name of Pelro.sa, and stand thus: Nemeophila Plantaginis L., var. Petrosa, Wlk. 

The wonderful and countless variations occurring among the Arctians are too well known to need more than a passing notice, but I 
cannot refrain from citing a few; on t. 5, Illustrations Zyg. et. Bombyc, by K, II. .Streich, are 1(5 figures representing nine varieties of 
Leptarctia Lena, Boisd., and they are most astonishingly dissimilar, some having primaries grey and secondaries yellow with plain black 
margin, some have secondaries spotted in various w.ays, some have them red, others have .secondaries all black, and wliite spots or bars 
on primarie.s, and in my possession are eighteen examples received from the author of the above work, all of "which are diflerent, more 
or less, from his figures; one has all the wings entirely black on upper surface. On t. 3 of same work are three figures of Epicallia Vir- 
ginalis, Boisd., one with yellow secondaries having broken black bands, one with black .secon<laries with ochraceous .spots, and the third, 
with the exception of a "few small spots, has the secondaries entirely black, and in the eight examples in my cabinet ai-e all sorts of 
intermediate forms between these. Of Arctia Caja L., the varieties are almost endless; they have red hind wings, orange ones and yel- 
low ones, with three spots, five spots, six spots, si)ots and bands, spots connected and spots isolated, one exanijile from British .Vm. has 
the ui)per wings almost entirely brown, the white being reduced to tine lines; and there are examples in which the upper wings are 
entirely brown and the lower ones entirely black. But to return to Plantaginis; I have received, at various times, of European and 
American examples, twenty-seven of the onlinary form in many variations, besides of var. Hospita, six from Europe and five from 
Colorado and Xevada, of var. Petrosa nine from Colorado, Nevada, etc ; some of these latter have the secondaries entirely black, and 
with three white, disconnected marks on primaries; others have a white anal spot on secondaries, and four pale marks on primaries, 
connected (all except the :^pot within the cell, which is always free,) in some instances and in others not, one example hits the two of the 
white marks connected in one of the primaries, whilst on the opposite wing the same marks are not united ; in some there is so much 
pale patching that it becomes hard to say to which variety they belong, whether to Hospila or Petrosa. 

Of Hospita, I believe the first examples found on this continent were taken by .Mr. Mead, who captured quite a number of both that var. 
and Petrosa in Colorado ; of the latter I also received specimens taken by Mr. Drexler many years since, and by the Wheeler Exped. of 
1871, as well as from others at various times. I noticed also an example, among a number of unspread Kocky Mt. Lep., in the coll. 
of Mr. Schonborn, in Washington ; this also was from the Rooky Mts., and is very close to the type of Petrosa. 

March 17, 1874. 



PARNASSIUS SMINTHEUS, Dbldy. — I was formerly a strong advocate of the distinctness of this form from the Alpine P. 
Delius, Esp., but this will only serve as another illustration of the folly of arriving at such conclusions without the fullest material for 
comparison, for having lalely received examples of P. Intermedins, Men., from the Altai Mts., S. W. .Siberia, which is by all European 
authorities considered to be but a variety of P. Delius, I can only add that our Rocky Mt. P. Smintheus is also but a form of Delius, 
as between the examples of Smintheus from Colorado and Montana, and the lately received Intermedins from .\ltai, there is simply 
no difli-'rence whatever, they are identical ; and so sure were the trans-Atlantic Lepidopterisis of this fact, that in the great Cata- 
logues of both Staudinger and Kirby, Smintheus is cited as a variety of Delius; and Mr. Hewitson has repeatedly expressed to me 
the same opinion. 

* Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, I, p. 338, (1868), Grote & Robinson. 

t " A. Zvgsenid genus allied to Ctenucha and presenting some analogies in the neureation to Eudryas." Grote, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., 
IV, p. 317, (1865). 




Mcrm 



an •, I recti r. ''i 






/^^-^j^/yo v4_6-w 



/^ VI, eu^-^-*-^ •- 



/ 



'^U » «i'Wnr 







The N. American Species of the genus Lycaena. 

I can find no sufficient grounds for retaininjj- the genus Clirysoplianus or Polyommatus for the copper- 
coloured species, as there really seems to be, in the Lycaenidie of tiiis country and Europe, no particular 
characteristics that are sufficiently constant to separate the red and tiie blue species into different genera. 

The colour and ornamentation amounts to but little; in some species the males are blue and the females 
red or brown, as in Sayiolus and TIeteronen ; in others both sexes arc brown, as Agestis,* EurypiiH,s,\ etc., or, 
again, both are blue, as Lucia, Argiolus,X and many others ; and Heteronea, though the male is blue, is cer- 
tainly much nearer to the copper-coloured Shius and Gorgon than it is to such other blue species as Lueia, 
Lygdamns or Comyntas. 

Neither is the presence or absence of a tail to the secondaries of the least moment, as these appendages are 
found in some of the fiery-coloured species as well as in many of the blue ones; as instances of the former, I 
would mention Arota, Virginieiisis and Lampon,^ and of the latter, Comyntas, Tejua, Balkanicu \\ and Theo- 
phrastus.^ In some species the spring brood is tailless, whilst the summer generation of the same insect is 
provided with those ornaments. 

In good truth I cannot see why all the N. American and European species, except the few contained in 
Eumaeus, Hub., should not be embraced within "jne genera, even including the Theclas, for on examination of 
these latter we find the same diversity of form and colour as in the others, some tailed, others destitute of those 
appurtenances, some brown, others blue, etc. ; between Afotn or Virginiensiii and Niphon ** there is certainly 
no more difference than between Niphon and Me/inus ft or between Melinm and Grunuft.H 

Lederer retained the two groups, Folyommatus and Lyctena, but arranged under the former the fiery or 
copper-coloured species, and such blue ones as Op^«7e<p,SS ^e5fo»i,|||| Battus,11i and in the latter the Theclas and 
such other blue or brown ones as Corydon,*** Z)amon, fft Telic(inuji,lXX etc. 

Hubner divided them into many groups or genera, not always placing the most closely allied together; 
for whilst he has his genus Eumaeus, (containing E. Minyas,>it%^) placed in the same sub-family and immedi- 
ately preceding Nomiades, which contains Damon, ^/.s-us,|||||| and allies, he has, not very felicitously, placed be- 
tween this and Chi-ysophanus (copper species) not only nine genera, but has even put the latter in another sub- 
family. 

At a time when comparatively tew species were known, there might have appeared plausible grounds for 
separating the red from the blue species, but since the many later perplexing and curious intermediate forms 
have been discovered in Asia Minor, Persia and California, the frail foundation on which the distinction was 
founded has not been equal to the task of sustaining it ; and the Lyciiena, like the great genus Papilio, will 
not bear disruption without violence. 

I subjoin a list of all the described species of N. America. 

Those that are unknown to me in nature are prefixed with a f. 

Those that are wanting to my collection are designated by a *. 

Such as I possess the author's original types of, are denoted by a X- 

The numbers over some species are the numbers attached to the figures of same species on plate X, thus 
" 29 c^, 30 ?, Sirius, Edwards. " 

To such as I have figured I have added no descriptions, as whether there be figures or uot, the descriptions 
of such things are little better than waste of time, although to such as I have no other knowledge of I have 
quoted the author's diagnosis in full. 

* L)-cana Agestis, Hubner, {Papilio A.) Eur. Sdimett. I, f. 303-30o, (1798-1803). 
t Lycrena Eurypilus, Freyer, Neuere Beitrage, VI, t. 573, f. 4, (1852). 
J Lycoena Argiolus, Lin., (Papilio A.) Fauna Svecica, p. 284, (17(511. 

i Lycsena Lampon, Lederer, (Polyommatus L.) Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross, VIII, p. 8, t. 1, (1870). 
II Lyaena Balkanica, Freyer, Neuere Beitrage, V, t. 421, (1844). 
II Lycajna Theophrastus, Fabricius, (Hesperia T.) Ent. Svs. Ill, 1, p. 281, (1793). 
**Thecla Niphon, Hubner, (LU^m N.) Zutr. Ex. Schmett., f. 203, 204, (1823). 
ttThecla Melinus, Hubner, (Strymones M.) Zutr. Ex. Schmett,, f. 121, 122, (1818). 
XX Thecla Grunus, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 289, (1852). 
If Lyciena Optilete, Knoch, [Papilio 0.) Beit. Ins. Ges. I., p. 76, t. 5, (1781). 
III! Lyc«na Aegon, Schifferiniller & Dennis, (Papilio A.) Wien. Verz. p. 185, (1776). 
tH Lyca;na Battus, (Papilio £.) Schift'. Wieu. Verz. p. 185, (1776). 
*** Lycaena Corydon, Poda, {Papilio O.) Musei Graecensis, p. 77, (1761). 
ttt Lyctena Damon, Schift., {PapUio D.) Wien. Verz., p. 182, (1776). 
tXX Lycsena Telicanu.s, Lang, (Papilio T.) Verzeichniss Schmett. p. 47, (1789). 
l\'i Eumaeus Minyas, Hubner, (Riisticus Adolescens M.) Samml. Exot. Schmett., ( 1806-1816 >. 
mill Lyciena Alsus, Schili:, {Papilio A.) Wien. Verz. p. 184, (1776). 

81 



LYai:NA. Ka 



IIR. 



iPL. X, F.3, (i^.) 
JTrua, Ueakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 245, (1866). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Ctipido Tejua, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 356, (1871). 
Described from a single J received from Southern California. 

(I'L. X, F. 18, o"'-) 
J Monica, Reakirt, Proc. Aoad. Nat. Sc., Phil., p. 244, 1I866). 

Oujndo Monica, Kirbi/, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 356, (1871). 
Lyrona Manild, Edwunls, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 
From same locality as the preceding. The description was taken from two males, one of which the author 
curiously mistook for a female. 

C0.MYNTAS, Godart, ( Fo/yommatu^ C.) Enc. Metb., IX, p. 6(iU, (1823). Morris, Cat. Lep. X. A., p. 12, 
(1860). Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 83, (1862). Harns, Ins. Injurious to Vegetation, Flint's Ed., 
p. 275, (1862). 
ArguK Comynta.'i, Boi-sdural tt Leconte, Lep. Am. Sept., p. 120, t. 36, (1833). 
Cupido Comyntas, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 356, (1871). 

Lycana Comyntas, Edwardx, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). Packard, Guide, p. 265, (1869). 
The commonest of our species, found in Canada and from thence southward to the Gulf of Mexico, and 
westward from the Atlantic to the Rocky Mts. It is closely allied to the European Polysperchon, Berg. 

Amyntula, Boi-sduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 294, (1852). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 

Polyommatm Amyntula, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 87, (1862). 

Mr. Kirby, in his Cat., (p. 356) I'ites this as a variety of the jireceding, which it indeed represents on the 

Pacific slope but with which 1 do not think it is identical ; it is generally of much larger size; the tails are 

not nearly so long or slender in comparison, and there are many other minor points of difference. Common 

in California and adjoining territories. 

PsEUDARGlOLUS, Boisduval & Leconte, (.ilr^iM P.) Lep. Am. Sept., p. 118, t. 36, ( 1833). Morris, Cat. 
^ I>ep. N. Am., p. 12, ( 1860) ; Syn. Lep. N. Am., p 82, ( 1862). 

Lycd'ua Pseudargiolus, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 204, ( 1867 ); Butt. X. Am., 

t. 2, Lye, ( 1869 ) ; Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 38, ( 1872 ). 
Polyommatus Pseudargiolus, Harris, Ins. Inj. to" A^eg., Flint's Eld., p. 274, ( 1862). 
Papilio Argioliis, Abbot <t- Smith, Insects of Georgia, Vol. I, t. 15, (1797). 
Lyarna Ne'qiecto, Edwards, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, I'hila., ]>. 57, (1862 ) ; Butt. X. Am., t. 2, Lye, 

(1869) ; Syn. N. Am., Butt., p. 38, ( 1872 ). Packard, Guide, p. 265, ( 1869 ). 
Oiipido Pseudargiolus et C. Neglecta, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 371, (1871 ). 
A delicate, handsome species, expanding 1 to 1^ inches; male is oti upper surface pale azure blue, sec- 
ondaries, except at outer margin, paler than primaries. Female white, blue at bases and sometimes on disc of 
primaries; costal and exterior parts of primaries broadlv margined with black. Under side .satiny white or 
light grey, markings sometimes tiilerably well defined, and in other instances faint or nearly obsolete. Found 
in the Atlantic States trom Canada, southwards. 

Mr. Edwards has exercised a great deal of ingenuity in his eflbrt.s to persuade the world and himself that 
two species were confounded under the name of Pseudargiolm, but his labors have not been crowned with 
proportionate success, in proof of which I would refer to his six figures on plate II, Lye, in Butt. N. Am., 
three of which the text informs us are Pseudargiolus, and three Neglecta, for truthfulness these figures cannot 
be excelled, but the funniest part is that with the exception of the one being a little larger than the other, the 
most critical eve will fail to detect the slightest difference between them. 

PiASUS, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 299, (1852). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872). 

Polyommatm Pia.ms, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860) ; Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 89, (1862). 
Cupido Piasits, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., |). 363, (1871). 
Lycana Echo, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. II., p. 506, (1864). 
Same size as and very near in most other respects to Pseudargiolus, the main difference being in the blue 
of upper surface, which is deeper and more inclined to violet ; the markings of under surface arc identical 
with tliat species. Common in California and adjacent couutry. 

LiciA, Kirby, Fauna Boreali Americana, Vol. IV., p. 299, t. 3, (1837). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 37, (1872). 

82 



LYC.ENA. aa 

Polyommatus Lucia, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); 8yn. Lep. N. Am., p. 90, (1862). 

Harru, Ins. Inj. Veg., Flint's Ed., p. 275, (1862). 
Oupido Lucia, et Violacea, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 368, (1871). 
Lyarna Violacea, Edwards, Proc. Elnt. Soc, Phil., Vol. VI., p. 201, (1866); Butt. N. Am. t. 1, 
Lye. (1868) ; Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872). 
About 1 inch in expanse. The male above is bright shining blue, with white fringe.^, sometimes brown 
at terminations of veins. Female is blue bordered with black at exterior margin, broadest at the apex and ex- 
tending inwarils on the costa. Southward, in Virginia, the prevalent colour of the female on the whole upper 
surface is uniform dark brown ; examples also occur in same locality, that are intermediate in colour between 
these brown ones and the common northern blue foi-m. The under surface is greyish white and varies in depth 
of markings. There is a row of brown sub-marginal spots succeeded or surmounted inwardly by a row of 
crescents, in many examples the space between these latter and the outer margin is entirely filled with dark 
brown, especially on the secondaries, thus forming a scalloped border ; in some specimens in addition to this 
latter there is on the disk of the secondaries a large brown patch ; this is represented in Kirby's figure in 
Faun. Am. Bor. ; it seems the further northward the more prominent the markings on the under side become. 
Found in Laijrador, Canada, and Eastern I'nited States to Virginia ; I have not heard of its having occurred 
further southward than tiie last named state. 

This unfortunate insect has also been a victim to the insatiable mania for manufacturing new species, 
which seems to be a national affiiction with the majority of American Lepidopterists. 

Hanno, Stoll, (Papilio H.) Supplement to Cramer, t. 39, (1790). 

Rusticm Adolescens Hanno, Hubner, Samm. Ex. Schmett., (1806-1816). 

Hemiargus Hanno, Hubner, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 69, (1816). 

Cupido Hanno, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 350, (1871). 

Polyommatus Ubaldiis, Godart, P:nc. Meth. IX, p. 682, (1823). 

Polyommatus Filenvx, Poey, Cent. Lep., (1832). 

Argus Filenns, Boi^duval & Leconic, Lep. Am., Sept., p. 114, (1833). Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., 
p. 12, (1860) ; Syn. Lep. X. Am., p. 82, (1862). 

Lycama Fiknus, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 

Argus Pseudoptiletes, Boisduval & Leconte, Lep. Am., Sept., p. 114, t. 35, (1833). 
The size of Comyvtas and much the same colour on upper surface, a black spot on secondaries towards 
the anal angle. Under surface silky brown, with a number of spots of same colour surrounded by paler rings 
and arranged in broken rows ; two black spots at costa of secondaries, one within the cell and another between 
this latter and the abdominal margin ; between the second and third median nervules, near exterior margin, a 
large, round, black spot with a few silvery green atoms at its outer eilge ; between this spot and the anal angle 
is a small, double, silver green spot. Southern States and West Indies — very common in Florida and 
Georgia. 

Exiijs, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 295, (1852). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 

Polyommatus Exilis, Morris, Cat. X. Am. Lep., p. 12, (1860); Syn. X. Am. Lep., p. 87, (1862). 

Oupido Exilis, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 357, (1871). 

Lyarna Fea, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 211, (1871). 
The smallest of all the known X. Am. Lyc.ena — expands from J to J inch. Upper side reddish brown, 
darker at the margins, fringe white except towards the inner angle of primaries where it is grey or smoky. 
Under side whitish at base of wings on primaries, from thence to outer margin reddish striated with fine, 
irregular, white lines. Secondaries, on disc coloured and marked in same way, anil with a marginal row of 
spots, the one at anal angle silver, the next four black, and the last two, at apex, silver ; these spots are 
succeeded inwardly by a white space. California, Xevada, etc. 

fSHASTA, Edwards, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc, Phila., p. 224, ( 1862) ; Syn. X. Am. Butt, p. 35, ( 1872). 
Thecla Shasta, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 401, ( 1871 ). 
This species is unknown to me, nor am I able to identify it by the original description which I here 
transcribe as another illustration of the valuelessness of such things. 

" ExpiiniU one iiicli. Male. Upper side vicik'l I)Iik- with a piiiU tinge ; hind margin bioadly I'uscoas ; a large blac-k discal spot 
on each wing; two or three obsolete spots near anal angle, the second ironi llie angle with a faint yellow hinnle; fringe brownish white. 
Under side greyish white, blneish next base; primaries liave a fnseous spot near hasu, a discal bar and transverse sinnous row of elon- 
gated fuscon> spots, each edged with whitish : along the margin obsolete spots snrmoyintcd by faint lunnles.- Secondaries have three 
fnscous points near base, a discal liar and a transverse sinuons row of fuscons spots ; whole hind margin bordered by small metallic blue 
spots, each snrmonnted by a blackish luniile. — Female: npjier side clean lirown ; the obsolete spots next anal angle, snrmonnted by a 
narrow crenated yellow band, nnder side as in male, bnt the live yellow spots next anal angle are surnioinited by nchrey yellow hmules, 
edged above willi lilack, fringe long and fuscous at lerminations iil' nervures. California, Dr. Behr. " 



84 LYC.ENA. 

*tIsoi,A, Reakirt, Proo. A.ad. Nat. Sc Phila., p. 332, (1866). EdwardU, Svn. N. Am. Butt., ,.. 35. (1872) 

C?(/>?rfo /so/rt, Air6!/, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 376, ( 1871 ). ' ' i » \ /• 

Thi.s is another speoies with whi.h I an. entirely unacquainted, the types fron. which it wae de.soribed 

were from Mexico. ^Ir. M . H. Edwanls in his synopsis says also, Waco, Texas. I append Mr. Reakirfs 

flescription. 

" l-pper Mirfacv browni.l, black, k1<«s«c1 with violet blue; « l.lack terminal line, bn.adest at the apex of the fi.re winL^ th^nn. 

hinnle; all the o hers are preceded l,v wl„t,sh crescents; above thes<. there is a suHused white belt, and still far.hrtwo lui.irrows of 
waved and creniilated whitish lines; a small sub-costal black ocellus near the base A. narrow term!.,- I, T'lin ,i . 

ma,^.,. of the f.ur win^s ; fringe ashv white. Kxpanse .88 inch. An.en.L ^^r^i^^^L^"^^, Z:^.-^^ 

*tGYA.s Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. S.,,., Vol. Ill, p. 210, (1871); Svn. N. Am. Butt., p. :;5 (1872) 

Another species (it (loiil)tful validity, the description .says: 

•• J)/»/c.-i:xpan.ls .95 ii.eh. Upper side pale violet blue, immaculate except a fuscous point near anal angle Under side uale 

brown with a wash ot whitish : primaries have a faint, discal bar, and a straight row of spots acros,s the wing the fcond and Lrh blck 

o. the line; a 1 ,dged with white: on m.trgM, traces of lunnles. Secondarie. have a similar discal bar an I a iiiedUn row of s o,^ a 

stiial round fuscous .spot m cell, two others on costa, one near middle the other near base; a faint row of Z^on h^nd mX^'of 

■ Oci^aHme'i,,"-'' ""' "'^"^ "" ''"'"""' '"''^"^''- '•"^°'" -'^''•""''' ""'<'" '^■^^ ''^- '■""-• ^^^ '" -1- c^MecC of the aSI:^:,' 

Lygdamts, Doubleday, {Polyomtiiatus L.) Entomologist, p. 209, (1842) 

Lycuna Lygdamm, E,ly-ard,, Butt. \. Am., t. 1, Lye, (1868); Svn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, |1872) 

(.Myjfrfo y.i/(/r/f(m(M, A/r%, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. :568, (1871). ' i > / 

Male c.xpancl.s 1 J- to 1 J inches upper side is beautiful silvery blue with narrow black margins exteriorly 

ant^ greyish fnngi^s. l<emale smaller, not so bright, and the outer half of wings much suffused with <.rey 

Both sexes, beneath, grey with black discal bars and sub-marginal rows of large, black spots, two spots "near 

base of secondaries, one near base ot primaries, all spots encircled with white. Southern United States— rare. 

(PL. X, F. lOd', 11 9.) 
Pembina, Edwards, Proc. Ac^d. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 224, (1862); Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872) 
Ihecla Fembina, Kvrby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 401, (1871). 
Glaucopsyche touperi, Grote, Bull. Buf. See. Nat. Sc, Vol. I., p. 185 (1874) 
Allied to Ly,jchmus which it resembles very clo.sely, especially on the upper surface ; I have made full 
comparisons betAvcen the species on p. 69 of this work. Labrador, British Columbia, Oregon 

Since Mr W . H. Edvvards described this species, it very nearly had the misfortune of losing its birth- 
right : the author having through accident lost his typeS ; and what wtis equally unfortunate, his niemory even 
when aided by the lengthy original dc^erijition would not allow him to identify with any certainty, examples 
that were subse.|uently submitted to him. This was rather placing the species'in a forlorn position, but at this 
juncture the great Species-null gave a revolution or two or three and the Lyetena was transmogrified into 
Waueopsyche a new specific name was of course added, and the whole fabrication attached to the trade mark 
ot the iriill, which atter was of course understood to make the insect immortal, but alas ! " All -lory but daz- 
zles a.id dies and so was it wit_h " (ilaueopsyche Couperi (irote," for " Like the swift shadows" of 'noon, like 
the dreams of the blin.l it vanishetl away as the dust in the wind," and in its place stands the Prodigal Pem- 
bina, tired of Ihe husks and returned to its first honourable estate and title. 

Antiacls, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 300, (1852). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37 (1872) 

FolyommaHLs Antiacis JWs, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 90, (1862) 
Viipido Antiacm, Airby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 371, (1871). 
Not quite as large as the two preceding. Male violet blue on upper side with white fringe. Female 
brownish grey^a ittlc l.lue.sli towards base— under surface in both sexes coloured and marked much as in 
Lygdamus. California. 

Behrii, Edward.s, Proc Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 224, (1862); Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872) 
Jheda Behni, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 400, (1871).*! 
Lyeana Polyphemus, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., 49, (1869;. 
Cupido Polyphtmu.^, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 373, (1871). 
Another species closely allied to Lygdamus and Pembina, but is generally a little larger than either of 
tliem ; the blue m the male is more violaceous and less lustrous, and the female on upper side is, with the 

oTr;^co';t^:ya'"th^; t-'lja'^rxS "' ''''^' '" ^''- '''^■"'' '^ ^'^^'^"^'« '^-^ ^-^''^ ^^ namrth'it^^^iLit7s to" 



LYCENA. 85 

exception of a few blue scales at base, entirely brown. Beneath, both sexes are coloured and marked as in 
Ijygdamus. Fringes white, both above and below. Common in California. 

tAMiCA, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. II, p. 80, (1863); Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cvpiflo Arnica, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 376, (1871). 
As I have no acquaintance with this Arctic species, wiiich Mr. \V. H. Edwards described from the male 
only, 1 liere append his original description : 

"Male. Expands 1 1-10 inch. Upper side silveiy-blne, brownish nlong the margins, with a narrow, straight discal niarl< on pri- 
maries; fringe while. Under side glo<sv greyish white; primaries have a narrow discal mark and a curved row of si.ic minnte black 
spots across the <lisk ; secondaries have a nearly straight row of live minnte black spots, besides two on the costa. one of which is in the 
middle, the other near the base, all edged with white; ihere is also a snb-marginal row of points and small brown Innules, sometimes 
obsolete. From Mackenzie's River, by Mrs. Boss." 

tM.\RR()i>A, Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 245, (1866). Edirarth, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupiclo Maricopn, Kii-bi/, Cat. Uiuriial Lep., p. 377, (1871). 
I do not know this species; when Mr. Heakirt's types came into my possession, tiiis was not among them, 
nor have I, to my knowledge, ever .seen it. His description reads thus: 

" .Male. Upper side brown, glossed with violet bine; a narrow terminal dark line along the outer margins; a black discal bar on 
the primaries, s(unetinies wanting, and some obsolete rounded spots on the hind margin of the secondaries. Fringe ash-coloured. Under- 
neath aah-bro'wn, darkest towards the base. Primaries: a large black discal bar, a sub-central, transverse, sinnated row of seven large 
rounded black spots all narrowlv ringed with white; following these, and parallel with the margin, another series ot seven indistinct 
spots. Secondaries: a discal b,ar and two spots, one within the cell, the other aliove it ; three tr:uisverse maculate bands; the first com- 
posed of eight large rounded black spots, and bent twice at right angles, the second of smaller, and sagittiform, and in common with the 
third, which is almost marginal, and verv indistinct, runs parallel with the border; all these markings are encircled with white, and the 
seventh spot of the first and second rows are sometimes coiiHuenl. Expanse 1.25-1.35 inches.- Body black above, with some hhieish 
hairs; beneath greyish; antenna' bl.ack with white ajinulations, lower part of club whitish. Hab. — California." 

■fMERTiLA, Edwards, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 206, (1866); Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Mert'da, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 377, (1871). 

It is almost with despair that I turn from one description to the other, always the same monotonous thing, 
the same stereotyi)ed greyish under side, the same tedious "sinuous rows of spots," and the same everlasting 
this shape or that shaped discal bar, spot or mark. Oh ! that we could but throw out every description that is 
unaccompanied l)y a figure, how our labours woidd be lightened, how we would be spared the maledictions of 
after oeuerations for all time to come. With what boumlle.ss veneration do we look on the tomes of Cramer, 
Seba,°Drury, Hubner, Hewit.son, and Herrich-Schactter, no winding into countless useless descriiitions in all 
sorts' of scattered jieriot'licals, but a great massive work— grand, compact, solid, every description accompanied 
by coloured figures. I never open these mighty volumes but I feel my soul expand in Hallelujahs to the 
Almio-hty that through his great goodness such intellects were allowed to .sojourn here and to bequeath to us 
the result of their vast labours. • » • i i 

The.se thoughts were suggested by reading the description of the above cited species " Mertila founded 
on a female example, and will apjilv to a host of other Lyctenid* equally as well as to this probably mythical 
one— and although I have not a jiarticle of faith in half the species of this author, I now copy his description 
of Mertila and hope my friends and enemies will forgive me for inflicting it on them, and my God for wasting 
the time in so doing. 

" Female. Expands 1 1-10 inch. Primaries long and narrow ; both wings brown, with slate-coloured hairs at base and along inner 
margin of primaries. Under side clear cineraceoue; bluish .at base; primaries have a single tr.ansverse sinuous row of round black spots, 
each circled with white, a-s also is the lunule in the arc; from the arc a whitish ray runs towanls base. Secondaries have a row of eight 
small black spots in points, each circled with white; of these, two are on central margin, four nearly parallel with the hind margin ; the 
seventh below the others and geminate; the eighth minute, nearlv concealed in the marginal hairs; between the 2nd and 3rd and the bth 
and 7th the spaces are wide ; on the arc a streak, and midway between this and the base a black point ;^ on the costa above this one slightly 
larger, .all circled with white. From California. The male of this dislina*) species I have not seen." 

nORCUs, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, p. 376, (1869) ; Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872). 
Cupida Orcus, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 377, (1871). 
Described from a single male specimen from California. 

" Male. Expands 1.1 inch. Upper side prninose blue, paler on costa of primaries ; hind m.argins broadly fuscous ; fringes long, 
cinereous. Under side grey cinereous, bluish at base; on arc of primaries a narrow black bar bent outwards, and faintly edged without 
bv white ; on secondaries a faint discal streak ; both wings have a sub-marginal line of points, scarcely discernable. Beneath thorax 
covered with blue, grey-hairs, abdomen grey ; palpi white above at base, black at tip, and cinereous below; antenna; black annulated with 
white; club black, tipped with cinereous." 

Pheres, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 297, (1852). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 

Polyommatus Pheres, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 89, (1862). 
Cupido Pheres, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 362, (1871). 

*i These italics are mine. 



86 



r.YCM^:xA. 



Expands 1| inche.s. Male violet blue, with narrow black border on outer margins ; fringe white. Female 
greyish brown, bluish towards base. Under side in both sexes very pale grey ; primaries, a black discal spot 
and mesial row of six black spots, the one nearest inner angle geminate; secondaries witii a mesial and sub- 
marginal row of wliite spots, also a white discal spot and another near the base ; none of the spots are pupilled. 
California, rather common. 

Xercrs, Boisduvai, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 296, (1852) ; Edwards, Syu. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 

PobjomriKitus Xereea, Murria, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 88, (1862). 
Cupido Xerces, Kirbtj, Cat. Diurnal Le|)., p. 373, 1 1871). 
IJ inch in expanse. Upper .surface, male blue, female greyish brown; fringes white. Under surface, 
botii wings wit!) white discal spot and sinuous row of large sub-marginal white spots, all spots blind. California. 

*tAKi)E.\, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 209, (1871) ; Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872). 
Unknown to me — here is a copy of the author's description : 

"Male. — Expands 0.9"> inch. I'pper side violet liliu-, irrey blue when seen oblii|iiely ; hinil rnarf;in of primaries very narrowly 
Cfl};ed by fusoons ; ol seiondaries by a black line : I'riniies lonj;, while. I'nder «ide (iiwn rolor, secondarie.s tinleil with bine at base ; pri- 
maries have a larjte black renifonn discal six)!, ed-fcd with white; an imperfect transverse median row of four black di)t.s surrounded by 
white, those at either extremity obsolete ; faint traces of a sub-maryiiial series of brown lunule.s. Secondaries have traces of a similar 
series, .-till less distinct ; no n)edian spol.s ; a large white patch on arc. IJody above concolored ; beneath white ; legs white ; palpi white 
tipped with grey : antennae annulaled white and black ; club black, tip ferruginous. From Nevada, vicinity of Virginia City." 

*tEKVMrs, Boisduvai, Lep. Cal., p. 48, (1869). EdwimU, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido En/niim, Kirby, Cat. Diurntil Lep., p. 366, (1871). 
"Oregon." Another entire stranger to me. 

(PL. .\, F. 1 J, 2 V-) 
JCatamna, Reakirt, Pioc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 244, (1866). Edtrardu, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 
Cupido Calalina, Kirby, Cat. diurnal Lep., p. 376, (1871). 

Lyavna Daunia, Ed irnrds, Tr-dt)^. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 272, (1871); Svn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 50, (1872). 
A rare species : the types came from or near Los Angelos, California ; tliose that were re-described later 
under the name of Ikmnia were taken in Colorado. 

(PL. X, F. IB, c^.) 
Orbitulis, I\-Prunner, [hipi/io 0.) Lepidoptera Picdmontana, p. 75, (1798). E.'tper, Schmntt. I, t. 112, f. 4, 
(1800). Ochsenheimer, Schmett. I, 2, 43, (1808). Hubner, Eur. Schmett. I, f. .S41, (1818-1827). 
Afjriudes OrbHidiis, Hubner, Verz. Bek. Schmett., p. 68, (1816). 
P'olyommidus Orbiln/uf!, Godort, Enc. Meth., IX, p. 688, (1823). 
LycaiM Orbitu/us, tilandinger, Cat. Lep. Eur., p. 11, (1871). 
Cupido Orbititlu.s, Kirbi/, Cat. Diurnal Lej)., p. 363, (1871). 

Fapi/io Meleaf/er, Hubner, Eur. Schmett. I, f 522-525, (1798-1803); f. 761, 762, (1803-1818). 
Li/cana Jiu.stira, Eduurda, Pioc Ent. Soc, Phila.. Vol. IV, p. 203, (1865) ; Svn. N. Am. Butt., 

p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Ruxtica, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 377, (1871). 
Lymna Tehama, Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 245, (1866). Edwards, Svn. N. Am. Butt., 

p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Tehinna, Kirby, Cat. I)iurnal Lep., p. 377, (1871). 
Lycirna Cilia, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. Ill, p. 281, (1867). Edwards, Svn. N. Am. 

Butt., p. 33, 50, (1872). 
Cupido Cilia, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 363, (1871). 
L^pper surface of female entirely brown, with a darker discal mark on each wing. Under surface precisely 
as in the male. The male figure on t. 10 was tlrawn from one of Rcakirt's original types of Tehama now in 
my possession ; some other examples which I have are much darker, showing none of the yellowish grey of this 
one which is " var. a." *; further disHnguislied bv the distinctness of the sub-marginal spots and lunules of upper 
side of secondaries. Found in the Swiss Alps and Pyrenees, as well as on the higher peaks of Colorado and 
the Sierras of California. 

Aiiiii.o, Boisduvai, {Argw^ A.) Icones, t. 12, f 7, 8, (1833). 

Lyvana, Anuilo, Herrich-8charffer,'!ii-\m\t\.i.Y.nv.,\o\.l., f. 24, 25, (1843); f. 343, 344, (1847). 
Duponchel I, 47, 6, 7. Wallengren, Skand. D.igf, p. 211, (1847). Moschler, Wien. Ent. Mon., 
Vol. IV., J). 343, (I860). Staudinger, Cat. Eur. Lep., p. 11, (1871). Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., 
p. 363, (1871). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 

lyyat^ia Franklinii, Curtis, Ross, 2d Voy. App. Nat. Hist., p. 69, t. A, (1835). 

*) In Rcakirt's description. 



LYC^ENA. 87 

Considered to be a Polar variety of Orbitulus, which it closely resembles, but is smaller, and on under sur- 
face the marks are much more sharply defined and the ground colour darker, especially on secondaries. Found 
in Labrador at 57° N. L. and from tiience northward. 

t-KoDiAK, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. III., p. 20, (1870). Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 37, (1872). 
Cupido Kodiak, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 376, (1871). 
With regard to this species I can do no more than copy the description, as I have heretofore done in the 
cases of such as I do not know and consider doubtful. 

"Male. Expands 1.2') incb. Upper siJe dull violet lilue ; margins narrowly edged with I'liscous; fringes sordid wliite. I'nder 
side fawn colour, bliieish at base ; slightlv clouded with grev on secondaries : both wings have fuscous discal bars, edged with whiteish : 
a common median row of rounded fuscoiis spots, all edged with whitish, that of primaries curved beyond the cell, of secondaries parallel 
to the margin ; a common sub-marginal row of faint spots, the second from anal angle surmounted by a round spot, perhaps belonging to 
median row, but much posterior to tlie line of same; near base, a black point on cell and a second on costa. Body above blue, thorax 
beneath blue gray ; palpi white at base, furnished with long hairs, black at tip ; antenna- black, aunulated with white ; club Ijlack above, 
feruginous below' and at tip. Female. Expands 1.3 inches. Upper side light brown, deep l>lue at base, covering half the wing on pri- 
maries, fading gradually towards the hind margin, and on secondaries covering the cell and upper alxlominal margin ; primaries have a 
curved' black line at exiremity of cell ; faint traces of fulvous spots next anal angle. Under side as in male. From Kodiak, 1 rf 1 ?. 
Collection Dr. Behr.'' 

(PL. X, 14 S\ 15 ?•) 
IRapahoe, Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 146, (_1866). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Rapahoe, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 377, (1871). 
The fio-ures on t. X arc drawn from the original types which were taken in the Rocky Mts. of Colorado. 

tXESTOS, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 50, (1869). Edwurd.s, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 33, (1872). 

Cupido Nestos, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 363, (1871). . . , •■ j 

From Oregon. Entirely unknown to me, nor have I present access to the work in wiiich it is described. 

IcARioiDES, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 297, (1852). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 

Polyommatiis Imrioidex, 3Iorri.% Cat. Lej). X. Am., p. 12, (i860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 88, (1862). 
Cupido Imrioides, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 366, (1871). i i • i 

Expands 1 1-5 inch. Male; violet blue with exterior margins of all wings narrowly bordered with 
brown ; fringes white. Female; greyisii brown tinged with violet towards the base. Underneath both sexes 
are almost wliite; on primaries a large black discal spot, a mesial row of six black spots and a sub-marginal 
row of smaller, fainter ones. Secondaries ; three biac^k points near base, a difscal bar, a mesial and sub-marginal 
row of small black spots or points ; all the spots circled with white. Sierras of California, evidently rare. 

fPHiLEROS, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 50, (1869). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Phileros, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 366, (1871). 
Probably the same as the preceding. 

*REaiA, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 46, (1869). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 
Cupido Hegiu, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 366, (1871). 
About an inch in expanse; the upper surface of the male is a most beautiful silvery blue, but what 
obviates the necessity of all further description, and distinguishes this from all other Xorth American species, 
is the large orange or gold-coloured patch near inner angle on primaries. The female is unknown to me. 
Mountains of California, very rare. 

ScuDDERii, Edwards, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phil., p. 164, (1861); Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). Morris, 
Syn. Lep. X. Am., p. 329, (1862). 
Expands \\ inch. Males dark violet blue edgetl exteriorly with a black line. Female brown, suffused 
more or less with violet near base; on secondaries a sub-marginal connected row of orange or yellow lunules, 
more or less distinct in diiferent exam|des. Fringe in both sexes white. Under surface grey ; on all wings a 
discal bar and mesial row of black spots, also sub-marginal row of spots each surmounted by a crescent; the 
space between these spots and crescents is yellow; sub-marginal spots of secondaries edged^ inwardly with sil- 
very scales. The whole under surface is very like the European Argus L. Found in X". Labrador, British 
Columbia, Canada, New England States, New York and Michigan. 

Battoides, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Xat. Sc, p. 282, (1867). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 
Cupido Battoidea, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 360, (1871). 
Expands nearly one inch. Male, on upper side, is dark violet-blue, with blackish exterior margins; 
fringe smoky. Under side yellowish-grey, marked much as in Scudderii but has an additional black spot in 
cellV primaries; all spots much heavier'than in that species, and no indications of silver or golden scales on 
the sub-marginal spots of secondaries. The female I have not yet seen, but she is doubtless brown on upper 
side. California, Colorado, etc., — scarce. 



88 LYC^NA. 

♦tALCK, Kdwards, Trans. Am. Eiit. Sof., Vol. III., p. 272, (1871); Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 50, (1872). 

Another of those doubtful affairs for which I can do no more than give the author's description : 

Male expands 1 inch. I'pper side brown with pinkish l)lue reflection, deeper blue next base ; secondaries have two fuscons points 
in tlie interspace next anal angle and a round spot in the next preceding : fringes grey-white. I'ndcr side fawn color, on the outer half 
(if both wings reticulateil witli whitish ; primaries have a mesial series of large black rounded spots, and a conrolored spot on arc, all 
edged with white. Stcomlarics have three spots on hind margin lorresponding to those of upper side, velvet black with metallic green 
edges ; two black spots im costa an<l two at ba.se. Body covered with lilue hairs, below grey ; palpi white, la.'t joint bljick ; antenna^ an- 
nulated bbnk aiul white; club lilack above, fulvous below and al tip. From Colorado, taken by Mr. Mead." 

Gi-AUCON, Kdwiirds, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. III., p. 210, (1871) ; Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 

i inch in expanse. Male resembles elo.?ely in colour and markings Battoides, Behr, already described. 
Female is brown on ujiper side, beneath same as tnale. Nevada. 

Caixhas, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. Ill, p. 281, (1867). l-Jdimrdx, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1871). 
Cii/)i(lo C(ilehn!<, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 358, (1871). 
Lynrmt Nicium, Boindnvcd, Lep. Cal., p. 47, (1869). 
Very clo.se to the preceding, to which it bears a most alarming similarity in both sexes. California. 

♦fRH.KA, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 51, (1869). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 
CnjAdo Rlxia, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 3G7, (1871). 
"California." L am nnacciuainted with this species, nor at present have I acce.ss to the work in which it 
is tle.scribed. 

(PL. X, K. 4 cT, 5 9.) 
Anna, Edwards, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 163, (1861). Morris, Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 329, (1862). 
Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt, p. 34, (1872). 
Cnpido Anna, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 358, |1871). 
XLycwna Cajona, Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 147, foot note, (1866). 
Lycamn Argyroto.rm, Behr, Proc Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. Ill, p. 281, (1867). 
Lycccna Philemon, linisdund, Lep. Cal., p. 47, (1869). 
A beautiful species, presenting on the under surface a rather different appearance from its allies. 
Californi.i, rare. 

(PL. X, F. 8 d", 9 9-) 
Met.i.ssa, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. IV, p. 346, (1873). 

Resembles very much, on upper side, the preceding, with which it has sometimes been confounded. 
California, Nevada, Colorado, Arizona. 

ACMON, Doubleday, Hewitson, (Jenera Diurnal Lep., f. 76," (1852); Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt, p. 34, (1872). 
Lycccna Antoegon, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 295, (1852). 
Polyommatus Acmon et Antcrgon, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860). 
Polyommatus Antngon, Morris, Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 87, (1862). 
Cupido Acmon et Anfa'gon, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 358, (1871). 
Ex|)ands J to 1 inch. Male, upper surface violet blue, wings e<lged with a black line; on secondaries a 
row of black sub-marginal spots succeeded inwardly by a narrow orange band ; fringe white. Female dark 
brown with orange sub-marginal band on secondaries. Beneath both .sexes nearly like Anna. California, 
common. 

*tLrpiNi, Boisduval, Lep. Cal. p. 46, (1869). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 34, (1872). 
Cxipido Lupini, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 358, (1871). 
" California." I have no knowledge of this species. 

*tI>Y(EA, Etlwards, Proc Ent Soc, Phila., Vol. II, p. 507, (1864); Trans. Am. Ent Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 273, 
(1871); Syn. N. Am. Butt, p. 50, (1872). 
Cupido Ijycea, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. :577, (1871). 
Of this species, which is unknown to me, the original description says: 

"Male. Expands 1 2-10 inch. Upper aide purplish blue, colour of Antiacis, Poi.sd., with broad fuscous hind margins; fringes 
white. Under side grey white ; both wings have a row of brown points representing the lunules of obsolete marginal spots ; a second row 
of eight black spots, each circled with white ; the first on costa minute, the sec^md riMiiul, the third oval, the fourth, fifth and sixth cordate, 
the others round ; all, except first, conspicuous ; discal spot reniform. Secondaries have a second row of small spots nearly parallel with 
the margin ; the second and third separated by a wide space; near the base three points in a line, one upon the costa, the second in the 
cell, the third upon the abdominal margin ; all the spots circled with white; discal streak faint." 

" Female. Exjiands 1.4 inch. Same size as male. Upper side fuscous, slightly blue at base of l>oth wings, the discal spot of pri- 
maries appearing through the wing: under side fawn color, marked as in male. Taken in Colorado by Mr. Mead." 



lyc^i:na. 89 

tENOPTE«, Bois-Uival, Auu. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 298, (1852, ; Edwards, Syn \. An. Butt p. 35, (1872). 

Polyommatus Enopfes, Morrix, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860) ; Syn. Le|.. N. Am., p. 89, (1862). 
Oupido Enoptes, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., ]>. 363, (1871). 

" Umer sk/.' violet blue with a rather wide black border; the IVin-cs intersected with white and Idack n„ the primaries only, en- 
tirely whiSh ot the le'rdariT.s. Un^r side ashy-white, with a great number of black ocellate ,,oint. ; the two strue of posterior po.nU 
are «.-pnrated on the secondaries by a series of Hvc yellow Innnles. Cahtornia. 

The above is Boi.^duval's descripticn as tfanslated in Morris' Synopsis. J have little doubt but that this 
suecies is identical with sotne of those since rciescribed by later Ameii<-an authors. What a mighty reduction 
of species there would be if Boi.sduvai's, Belir's, Edward-s' and Reakiit's types were to meet together and un- 
dergo impartial comparison and examination. 

'tEvius, Boistlnval, Lep. Cal., i.. 49, (1869). Edicards, Syn. N. Am. I'.utt., ].. 36, (1872). 
(npido Erinn, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 363, (1871). 
" California." Ivikcwise, I regret to say, unknown to me. 
^tHELios, Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 208, (1871); Syn. N. Am Butt., p. 37, (1«"1). 

Here is a coi.y of the author's original description ; if any one has the spec.es, 1 only hope he will be abl« 
to identity it thereby : 

" Mnl. Fxnands 1 1 inch Upper side dull pri.inose blue ; hind niar^in of primaries fuscous, of secondaries edged by a black line ; 

iTthe iunulerand ^lots distinct and not edged with wlute. Three ,f , one I from California. H. Kdwards. 

FuMGiNosA, P^dwards, I'roc. Aca.l. Nat. Se. Phila., p. 164, (1861); _Syn. N. Am. Butt., ,.. 33, (1872). 
(upid'i Fuliyinona, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 364, (18/1). 

/>«««'«(( .S(«/sa, .SoiV/taW, Lep. Cal., p. 51, (1869). . ,. , ,• u i ,.„«,„ lender 

Expands \{ inch. Male, above, blue with brownish exterior margins; ien.alc greyisl b own. l^nde 
surtafe both ^exes crrev, brown or black tliseal marks, and mesial and sub-marginal rows ot black spots o 
pr mirie the stib-marg nal nearly obsolete. Mr. E.lwanls .says in his .lescr.ptiou that the .nale .s black. 
Lown on the upper si.lc. I hav^ seen none of these black males, all ti.u.e a.-e bh.c. Cahtornia and atljacent 
Territory. 
A(H.A.iA, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc., p. 280, (1867) ; Edwards, Sy... N. Am. Butt., p. 33, (1872). 
tupido Aeliaja, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 366, (1871). 
Lyarna Rufeacens, Boittducal, Lep. Cal., p. 48, (1869). 
Expands 1 ^ inch, n.tich resembles the preceding. Calilornia. 
nMi^THA, Edwanls, T.-ans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 194, (1870) ; Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 

.. ^./.-Expands 1.1. inch. Tpper .ide dull pruinose bh.c, ^'i^l'tlv f-.j^- -;:;,.^'!;i:"ti^'"rxtb'd:5exfaU ^^^'^2 :hUe ; 
tinge of blue at bale ; pri.narie« have a large reiutorm disc.al »P" ;;;--<' ^ ^^J^^fj^'^ds vspec' a -d uurginal row of fuscous point, 
the^ow from the third spot to mner margin straight, ■''«'^""f ^'Xiri, a maSin faint discal streak ; a row of eight spots parallel 
Secondaries have a large blac-k spot on cosla near base, a point on "^ ' "" *' "^'S/ ,V i,,'^ ^ circled with white; a submarginal row as 
to margin, the first six large, round, the seven h and eighth point oil) and ^ack^f '^« '^*=; ''^i' ,^ \ ,ij^ f„;„<,^„. beneath a shade 

on primaries. Body dull blue, below grey blue ; egs wlu e ; palpi giey. I e,mle. b.ime ui i 

darker than male. From 1 ^-T, 1 V. Nevada. Collection II. Kdwards, Ks,,. 

Probably another of those which ditter in name ot.ly from some previously described. 

nFcLLA, Edwanls, T.-ans. An.. Et.t. Soc, Vol. Ill, ,.. 1'94, (1870) ; Syn. N. Am. f ""- P. "^^V^.J^f ,2^3^,,, ,„,,, 
^ Appears, f.-on. the description, to be either the same or very near to ^«/'«''^.%^«/^^,- .l*^: 1""'"" 

had been previously used in this family by Mr. Hewitsou to designate a spec.es ot Arablypod.a. ) 

PAH1.ALI8, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. HI, p. 279, (1867). Edwards,^yu. N. Am. Butt., p. 35, (1872). 
Cupido Pardalis, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 374, (1871). 
Resembles closely Fuliginom, Edw., and .4c/«(/<t, Behr. Calitornia. 

or more dozen besides the one intended. 

*) Amblypodia Fulla, Hewitaon, Cat. Lye. B. M., t. 6, (18e2). 



90 r.YC^NA. 

" Male. — Kx)>aiHls 1.4 incli. Upper side pruinose blue with a nutallic lustre, somewhat ohecured by fuscous on Becondaries ; hind 
margin of primaries largely bordered by fuseous, of secondaries narrowly ; fringes of primaries white, black at end of nervules, of sec- 
ondaries white. Lnder side grey brown mottled with calcareous white; primaries have a sul>-marginal .series of brown lunulcs, not dis- 
tinct api<ally ; a median row of large round black spot.s, the first four from costa forming an arch, the fifth nmch anterior to fourth and 
widely separated from it< the sixth duplex ; all edged with white ; on the arc a sub-reniform black spot and one nearly similar in cell. 
Secondaries have a sub-marginal series of brown lunulcs ; a median sinuous row of round black spot.s, less conspicuous than tho.se of pri- 
maries, except the first, fourth and last ; the second, filth, sixth and seventh half the size of the first ; on arc an indistinct bent streak ; a 
small black spot in cell, a iargi' one on costa and a third below cell ; fringes beneath in both wings cut by brown. Body above blue, 
beneath thorax blue grev ; legs black and white ; palpi white, black at tip and on upper side ; aniennsp annulated black and white ; club 
bl.ick, tip fulvou.s. Kroin collection H. Edwards. Taken in the Sierra Nevada, Cal.'' 

S^PioLU.s, Boisfliiviil, Anil. Soe. Ent. Kr., p. 297, (1852). Edwards, Syn. X. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 

"olyommatm 8(ipiolus, Moi-ris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. X. Am., p. 88, (1862). 
Cupido SapioliM, Kirhy, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 373, (1871). 
E.xpands IJ inch. Malt', abo%'e, greenish blue not very hi.strou.s ; a discal mark on primaries; blackish 
borders at exterior margins, broadest on primaries; fringe white. Female dark brown, lender surface in 
both sexes grey with discal, mesial and sub-marginal spots as in allied species. California, not scarce. 

*tLoRQUlNi, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. Ill, p. 280, (1867). Edwards, .Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Lor<pimi, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Le|)., p. 377, (1871). 
" California.'" I do not know this species ; the name, at any rate, must give way, as Dr. Herrich-Sehaefter 
has already employed it in 1850 for a Mediterranean species.*) 

*tD.A;UALUS, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat.Sc, Vol. Ill, p. 280, (1867). Edu-ardu, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 36, (1872). 
Cupido Daedalus, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal T>ep., p. 366, (1871). 
" California." Unknown to me. 

(PL. X, F. 17, cf.) 
Gorgon, Boisduval, (Polyommatus G.) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 292, (1852). Morrli, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, 
(1860) ; "Syn. Le]>. N. Am., p. 86, (1862). 
Lycwna Gorgon, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 343, (1871). 
Chrysophaniui Gorgon, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 83, (1872). 
One of the largest N. American species ; I have not yet seen the female, but Boisduval says: " Upper 
side of female dull brown, spotted with fulvous, as in the allied species but of a paler tint." California, rare. 

Epixanthe, Boi.s(luval & Leconte, [Polyommatus E.) Lep. Am. Sept., p. 127, t. 38, (1833). Morris, Cat. Lep. 
N. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 85, (1862). Moschler, Stett. Ent. Zeit., p. 114, 
(1870). Stfiudinger, Cat. Eur. Lep., p. 8, (1871). 
I/ycama Epixanthe, linrri.s, Ins. Inj. Veg., Flint's Ed., p. 274, (1862). Kirby, C"at. Diurnal Lep., 

p. 343, (1871). 
Chrysophanus Epixanthe, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 32, (1872). 
5 Lycama Dorcas, Kirby, Faun. Bor. Am., Vol. IV, p. 299. t. 4, (1837). W. F. Kirby, Cat. Diurnal 
Lep., p. 343, (1871). 
Polyommatus Doreas, Morris, Cat. Lep. \. Am., p. 12, (1860); Syn. Lep. N. .Vm., p. 90, (1862). 
Chrysophanus Dorcas, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
Size of Phlaeas. Male, upper surface primaries dark brown, glossed with purple on discs, edge of costa 
orange; a black discal spot, another within the cell, and sometimes a third one between this latter and the in- 
terior margin. Secondaries, a black di.scal mark, midway between this and the exterior margin are two small 
spots; a small orange spot at anal angle continued in one or two more or less dimly defined lunules; fringe 
smoky. Female more of a reddish cast on the di-scs, no purple reflections ; in addition to the spots of the male 
there is on the primaries an irregular mesial row of nearly confluent black spots ; secondaries also with mesial 
row of like spots; fringes white. Ll^nder surface both sexes yellowish, spots on primaries arranged as above 
with the addition of a row of sub-marginal spots, the three nearest inner angle distinct, the others .scarcely dis- 
cernable. Secondaries have the spots of upper surface represented by mere black points or dots, a connected 
row of orange sub marginal lunules, the four nearest the anal angle brightest. Labrador, Canada, New Eng- 
land States and New York. Kirby's figure of Dorcas agrees exactly with Epixanthe ?, and the wonder is 
that their identity was not long ago discovered. I give below the short description of Dorcas that commences 
Kirby's article ; this is followed in the Fauna Am. Bor. by another, much longer, but in part more obscure 
diagnosis, which want of space will not allow of in.sertion here: 

" Dorca.s Lycocna, wings above brown-ferruginous dotted and spotted with black ; beneath tawney ; primaries with black spots and 
crescents ; secondaries obsoletely dotted with black ; marked at apex- with obsolete orange crescents. Expansion of wings 1 inch. Taken 
in Lat. 54°." 

•)LTetena Lorquinii, Herr.-Pch., Schmelt. Eur. I, f. 442-444, (1850); VI, p. 25, (1852). 



LYCy^^NA. 91 

Phl^,A8 var. Americana, D'Urban, Can. Nat., V, p. 246, (1857). Harrin, Ins. Inj. Veg., Flint's Ed p. 273 
(1862). A'tViy, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 344, (1871). 
Polyovimatus Americana, Morris, Syn. N. Am. Lep., p. 91, (1862). 
Chrymplinnm Americana, Edicnrds, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
Polyommuti(.i HypojMirax, Boixduml, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 293, (1852). 
Similar to the Eiir()])ean Ph/iras, of which it i.s the American form, the principal and only difference is in 
the ground colour ol' under side of secondaries, which in our form is paler and brighter. In California, exam- 
ples have been taken that accord perfectly with the European type. Ijarva green. One of the commonest of 
our diurnais, occurring from May to October throughout the United States and Canada. 
Thok, Gray, {Poh/ommnfns T.) Qv\{\. An. King. t. 56, (1832). Boisdiuml & Lecoutc, Lep. Am., Sept., p. 125, t. 38, 
(1833). Guerin., Icon. Reg. An. Ins., f. 81, (1844). Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860) ; 
Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 84, (1862). 
Ly&ena Thoe, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 343, (1871). 
Chrysophanus Hyllus, Edwards, Syn. N. Am Butt., p. 33, (1872). 
Expands \\ to 1^ inches. Male, upper surface fore wings brown with purplish reflections; hind wings 
blackish with orange margin. Female much the same colour and markings as Phkms, but lacks the brilliancy 
of that species. Canada, New England States, New York and Michigan. 

{\n.. X, F. 19, (^, lio 9.) 
Helloides, Boisduval, {Polyovimatus H.) Ann .Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 292, (1852). Morris, Cat. licp. N. Am., p. 12, 
. (1860); Syn. X. Am. Le])., p. 86, (1862). 
Lycana Hel/oides, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 342, (1871). 
Chrysophaniis Helloides, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
t PoLyommatus Castro, Reakirf, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Y"ol. VI, p. 148, (1866). 

Chrysophanus Castro, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
'.' Polyommatus Zeroe, Boi^vluval, Lep. Cal., p. 45, (1869). 
Common in Caliliirnia, Oregon, Colorado, etc. 

(PL. X, F. 23 d", 24 9.) 
Ianthb, Edwards, (Chri/sophanus [.) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 211,(1871); Syn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 32, (1872). 
Very clo.se to Helloides, mainly differing from it in the ab.sence of the black spots of upper surface of male. 
Colorado, Nevada. 

I should remark that in the males of Helloides, lantlie, Gorf/on, aud allies, the brown colour of upper sur- 
face is beautifully glos.sed with violet, the effect of which it is impossible to imitate by the colourist's art. 

(I'L. X, F. 25 cJ, 2li 9.) 
JMariposa, Reakirt, (Polyommatus M.) Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 149, foot note, (1866). 
Lycnna Mariposa, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 342, (1871). 
Chrysophanus Mariposa, Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
Polyommatus Nivalis, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 44, (1869). 
Lower California. I have seen no examples of this except the original types now in my cabinet. 

(PL. X, F. 27 cP, 28 9.) 
Arota, Boisduval, [Poli/ommatus A.) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 293, (1852). Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, 
(1860) . Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. 86, (1862). 
Lyaena Arota, Kirby, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 343, (1871). 
Chrysophanus Arota, Edwai-ds, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 32, (1872). 
California, not uncommon. 

(PL. X, F. 21 cf, 22 9.) 
ViRGiNiENSis, Edwards, [Chrysopliauus V.) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 21, (1870); Syn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 32, (1872j. 
Lycoena Virginiensis, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 345, (1871). 
Nevada. Is larger than the preceding, and spots of under surface much larger and better defined. 

tHBRMES, Edwards, (C/tr2/sop/t«nM.s- if.) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 21,(1870); Syn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 33, (1872). 
I/ycaena Hermes, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 345, (1871). 
Unknown to mo. I give the author's description as follows: 

"Male. Expands 9-10 inch. Upper siile pale fulvous; costal edge and liind margin of primaries brown ; base obscured; on disk 
several brown spots of which the outer ones form an irregular row across the wing; a spot on arc and a second in cell. Secondaries have 



92 LYCi?':NA. 

a long (Kjinted tail ; on the margin iiexl aii;il .inp;le an Indisiiiiol row of blackixti spot* ; on the arc a recurvetl black stripe, surface of wing 
miicli obscured. I nder aide of primaries pale bufi', the spots repeated but large and more distinct ; margin grayigh ; secondaries have the 
basal two-thirds grayish, the margin bull' clouded grey ; the disk crossed by a row of black spots, those at the extremities crescent ; on the 
arc a black streak ; three small spots above in a transverse line and three others ii«ar base; at anal angle a black spot and near it others 
almost obsolete. FenMle. Kxpands 1 1-10 inch, ^^imilar tn male, the markings more distinct." 

California. 

IM.. .\, V. 12 J, 13 2.) 
Xammi>i1)K>, IJoi.-diival, {Po/i/ommatus A'.lAiin. -Soc. Ent. Fr., |i. 2it2, (1852); \.v\>. Cal., p. 45, (l.S6y). 
Moi-ris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (18«0) ; Syii. L«'p. N. Am., p. 86, (1862). 
Liiciitm Xdnihnidex, Kirhi/, C'at. Diurnal Lep., p. •■?4.'5, ( 1871). 
( liii/f!(>j)li(iniix .\''tnlh')iih>:, E'lirinls^ .Syii. X. Am. Butt., p. 33, (1872). 
('aliloniia. Tlie male of (Ills line sperie.-^ iliH'ofs remarkably in colour of upper siirtace from analagou:^ 
forms. Ill many examples the ]iale parts of the iip])er surface of ^ is not as red as tlepieted in tig. 13, (PI. X), 
more of a greyish htiH'. 

*JRuKiin>, IJehr, ( Chri/xoplitiiiun h'.} Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., \'ol. \'l, p. 208, (_1866). Edwants, Syn. X. Am. Butt., 
p. 33, (1872). 
Lyciitia RubiduK, Kirhi/, Cat. Diurnal l>ep., p. 345, (1871). 
Appears from author's following description to be somewhat allied to Siriu^ : 

ifalr. Kxpands 1 2.111 inch. I'pper nide unil'onu bright copper-red, swondaries having a narrow border along the hind margin of 
lighter color ; both wings edged liy a black line ; fringes grey, several of the spots of under side of primaries show laintly through the 
wing ; on secondaries a faint <liscal streak. Inder side white, with a faint tinge of orange ; no spots on secondaries ; primaries have a 
marginal row of not very ilistiint brownish spots, wauling on the upper half of the wing ; a sinuous row of six clear, black, rounded 9i>ota 
across the disc, llie lllh spot double ; a long spot on the arc ; two round ^p(lIs in the cell and one l>elow . .Vntenna- black above, ringeil 
with white, whitish below ; tips ferruginous. (.)ne ^' received from tlie interior of Oregon."' 

*tt'UPRKl's, Edwards, ( (/()(/.so/y/i(/>i(/.v (,) Trans. Am. Km. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 20,(1870); Svn. N. Am. Butt., 
p. 33, (hS72j. ^ 
Li/fdud Cupreuri, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 345, (1871). 
1 have as yet liad no op|)ortunity of seeing exainple.s of this insect. The author describes it as i)«low : 

"Male. Kxpands 1.1 inch. I'pper side bright copper-red, color of Jiuhiilus; bind margins edged by black, th« .secondaries nar- 
rowly ; liolli wings crosse<l by a lortuouii extra di.scal row of small brown spots and points : a spot on arc of primaries and a faint spot in 
cell ; on arc of sectmdaries a bl:ii k point. 1 'nder >ide of primaries ochractous inclining to red ; spots as above, larger, etiged with white ; 
a spot near base in cell : niarginal border lawn colour, on !lie anterior tdgt of which is a row of brown points. Secondaries paler, mottled 
with white, obscnreil at base ; a marginal series of orange crescents, the one next anal angle long and narrow : traces of brown spots on 
marginal edge: extra discal spots as above, in addition lo which are eight others, ihiee on tosta, two on aic, two in cell and one in ab- 
dominal margin. Femali. 1.2 inch. I'aler red, similarly marked, spots large; underside like male. Oregon." 

I PL. X, K. ,29 cT, '»" f) 

SiRii's, Kdwards, ( ( Ar'/.vo/j/ia/KW .">'.) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. III. p. 270,(1871); Syn. \. Am. Butt., 
]). .")0, 1872). 
Colorado, rare. The male has much the same liery colour ns in the European Hippothoe, Virguarae, etc. 

(PI.. X, K. 6 ^.1 e.. 

Hetkronk.\, Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Knt. Fr., p. 297, (1852). Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., ]>. 33, (1872). 

Folyommalus Heteronea, Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 12, (1860) ; .Syn. I>ep. N. Am., p. 89, (1862). 
Cii/jido Heteronea, Kirby, Cat. Diurnal Lep., p. 363, (1871). 
California. A beautiful s|)eeies, doselv allied toSiriusatul Xanthoides, notwithstanding the dissimilarity 
of colour on upper surface of males. 

♦fDioNK, Seudder, , Chn/sop/tanuts I).) Jnl. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., XI, p. 401, (1868) ; Trans. Chicago Ae^d. Xat. 
Sc, r, p. 330, ( 1869,. Edwards, Syn. N. Am. Butt., p. 33, (ls72\ 
I do not know of the existence of this species in any collection, nor have I access to the works in which 
it is described, but 1 do not hesitate to hazard the as.sertion that I believe it to be nothing more than a syno- 
nym of some one or other of tho.se already alluded to, probably Thoe. 

Xai.s, Edwards, {Clirysop/uinua iV. '. 

Mr. W. H. Edwards, in his " Synopsis N. Am. Butterflies," has this name cited thus : " 6. Nais, Edwards, 
Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1870. Hab. — California, Nevada." I have no knowledge of this insect, and on turn- 
ing, for my better information, to the index of Vol. Ill of that work, which was issued in 1870-1871, I could 
find no Nain ■. I then hunted tor Mr. Edwards' articles in that volume, l)ut after turning page by page I 
became satisfied that no description of Nais was to be found there. Kirby, in his Catalogue Diurnal Lep., 
p. 653, has "42. L. Nais, Edw., (Chrys. A.) Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1871. Unio Amer." But a thorough 
re-«xaiui nation would produce no better results, thus an hour's time was irrevocably lost because Mr. Edwards 



LYGiENA. 



has inserted in his "Synopsis" a name which has no corresponding description. It would be always ?i great 
convenience to the student, even if not so mucli to the compiler, if the latter would favour us always with the 
No. of the Vol. and page on which the species cited may be found, and the year of its publication ; it is this that 
has made the great catalogues of Kirby and Staudinger indispensable to every Lepidopterist. When an author 
cites his species, but withholds the number of the vol. and page, it causes unwholesome ideas to suggest them- 
selves that the less such species are investigated the beiter for their stability. 



Hesperia KiowAH, Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. VI, p. 150, (1866), is a synonym o{ Hesperia Metacomet, Harris, Ins. Mass., 
p. 317. (1862). 

Hesperia Powesheik, Parker, Am. Ent. II, p. 271, (1870), is identical with Hesperia Garita, Reakirt, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil.. VI, 
p. 150, (1866). 

Bapta Viatica, Harvey, Bull. Buff. Soc, p. 265, t. 11, f. 6, (1874), is the same as the old Corycia Semidarata, Walker. 

AonoTis Depresscs, Grote, Can. Ent. Ill, p. 192, (1871), is the .^mpAipi/ra Tragopoginis of Linnxua in the Fauna Svecica, 316, 
(1746), and later in his Systema Naturse, and also in Hubner, Esper, Treitschke, Godart and others. It is a species common to both 
Europe and America. 



NOTICES OF SOME NEW AND RARE SPECIES WHICH I SHALL FIGURE AT AN EARLF DATE. 

Macroglossa Fumosa, nov. sp. 

Expands li| inch. Head and body same colour as Diffinis, but the yellow of head .and upper part of thorax slightly more inclined 
to green. Primaries : costa bl.ick with the middle third yellow ; exterior margin black, 3-10 inch wide on cossta at apex, and diminishing 
to a mere line at the inner angle ; at base of wing a triangular patch, inner two-thirds black, outer, which extends along the inner margin 
and diminishes to a point, is yellow; all the space, which in Diffinis and allied species is vitreous, is here clothed, on both upper and 
under surface, with large, he.avy, ashen or smoky scales. Secondaries have the exterior margin narrowly edged with black (but still 
broader than in Diffinis, Tenuis and Thetis) ; a broad black border on abdominal margin; disc of wing covered with same heavy ashen 
scales as on primaries. Three examples, two in collection of Mr. O. Meske, at Albany, the third — owing to the goodness of that gentle- 
man — is now in my cabinet. 

Sphinx Coniferarum, Abbot & Smith, Ins. Georgia, p. 81, t. 41, (1797). 

Of this species, which has been lost since the time of Abbot, I have had the rare good fortune to obtain two examples, both males; 
the first one I rectived about two years since from my old friend, Edward Baumhauer, of Baltimore, who bred it from a checquered cater- 
pillar which he found feeding on pine, and the description of which agreed with Abbot's figure ; the second example came from northern 
New York, .and was taken on the wing. Both examples exp.and a triHe over 2^ inches, and in all their details agree with Abbot's figure ; 
it is as different from Ellema Harrisii, with which it was so long confounded, as it is from Sphinx Eremilus. It comes amaz- 
ingly close to the European Sphinx Pinaslri, but on the primaries of the latter are two irregular, oblique, transverse, brownish sh.ides 
which are wanting in Coniferarura, but what most strikingly distinguishes this from all allied forms is the immaculate abdomen which 
has not the shadow of a line or of any mark whatsoever. 

Sphinx Eremitoides, nov. sp. ^ _ 

Male expands 3 inches. Head and thorax whitish grey; tegulse edged with a black line; abdomen with a broad, whitish-grey, 
dorsal band, destitute of any dorsal line, on its sides are seven short black b.ands, the ones at the base largest, and lessening in size as they 
approach the extremity where the last two are mere spots. Primaries whitish or silvery -grey, marked much as in Eremitas but not near 
so heavily. Secondaries greyish- white; on exterior margin a bread band, black inwardly and dark greyish nearest the margin ; at biise 
of wing a black patch which'does not extend to the abdominal margin, between this patch and the marginal band or border is a narrower 
black mesial band, but this is not entire— being broken near the middle by the white ground colour— giving to the latter the appearance of 
a large white H on a dark back-ground. Female expands 3J inches; resembles the male with the exception of the mesial band of secon- 
daries which is not broken but narrowly continued over the white space th.at breaks it in the male. Under surface, both sexes : primaries 
grey; secondaries white, greyish at exterior margin; an irregular, narrow, mesial, brown band which is also continued up the primaries 
in a double transverse line or shade. Allied to Eremilus, but easily to be known by its pale silvery-grey colour, by the almost entire ab- 
sence of a dorsal stripe, and the peculiar ornamentation of secondaries. Taken in Kansas by Mr. T. B. Ashton, to whose kindness I am 
indebted for the examples above described. 

Eud/emonia Jehovah, nov. sp. ^ 

Male. Expands 4| inches. Same form as Semiramis, Cram., but the exterior margin of primaries, between the veins, is indented a 
little more deeply, and the tails are not quite so long in proportion. The colour is a dark grey or mouse color ornamented in darker 
shades almost in the same manner .as Semirdmis. Brazil — in collection of Prof. J. E. Meyer, in New York. 
There are known to me three species of these most wonderful moths, all S. American, viz. : 

EriD.EMONiA Semiramis. Cramer, Vol. I, t. XIII, a, c^, (1775). 3faassen, Beit. Schmett., f. 5 $,6 c?, (1869). 
EuD^EJiONiA Derceto, Maassen, Beit. Schmett., f. 13, 14 c?, (1872). 
Eud^mosia Jehovah, mihi, (1874). 

Catocala Magdalena, nov. sp. 

Female expands 2| inches. Head and thorax, above, pale ashen ; abdomen yellow, body beneath whitish. Primaries pale uniform 
ash-grey nearly like the paler examples of Concumbem ; transverse posterior, anterior and sub-basal lines very narrow and inconspicuous ; ^^ 

reniform faint and double ringed ; sub-reniform caused by a widely open sinus of the transverse posterior line ; fringe concolorous with )/^ 



94 EKTOMOLOGICAL NOTES. 

tlie rest of wing. Secondaries light yellow ; marginal .ind inwial hands of ordinnrv width, the latter somewhat clhowed and does not reach 
to the abdominal margin hv over an eighth of an inch ; fringes whitish-grey. Under surface pale yellow, primaries with a pale brownish 
or grey marginal band darkest inwardly ; mesial hand widest in the middle and terminjies at both costa and interior margin in a point : 
no sub-basal band, only a faint grey spot miilw.ay between costa and interior margin; fringe white, edged otilwardly Hitli pale brown. 
Secondaries have a paie grey marginal band, palest anteriorly where it is lost in the ground color of wing, a brown mesial band strongly 
elbowed; fringe white. 

Kor the knowledj,<jof this beautifnl (species I am indebted to Dr. G. M. Levette, of the Indiana Geological Survey, a most ardent .id- 
mirer of nature, who captured it in the grove near the State Hou.se, in Indianapolis. I have also since seen e.tamples sent from Texas, in 
the Cambridge Museum. 

C.\TOCALA A.'sr.vsi.\, nov. sp. 

E.xpands 4 to 4} inches. Head and body brownish grey. Upper surface, primaries gieyish brown, having much the general appear- 
ance, in colour and markings, of the darker e.tamples of Amatrix. Secondaries scarlet, with black marginal and mesial bands. This 
species vies in size, though not in beauty, with Murmorata, and looks, at a casual glance, not unlike a gigantic edition o[ Amatriz. 

Received with a number of other things from Lower California; it also occurs in Texas. 

May, 1874. 



Dr. Herman Behr lately had the kindness to send me the types of liis following unpublished Californian species: 

Dryobota Californica, Behr, Mas. 

Size and general appearance of D. Protea, Bkh., but the primaries are more ash-grey aud devoid of the greenish cast of that species. 
<^ Secondaries white, with laint mesial line and discal spot. 

Tii-;NiocAMi'A Pavi.k, Behr, Mss. 

A triUe smaller than T. GmcilU, F., which it otherwise closely resemb'es; the most marked differences are in the sub-marginal line 
of primaries which is more uneven, in the presence of a pale transverse line running from the reniform to the interior margin, aud in most 
examples the prevalence of a more reddish cast of colour throughout the upper surface of primaries. 

CosMiA Sambuci, Behr, Mss. 

Expands H-ll inch. Upper surface primaries very pale greenish yellow, in some specimens very pale cinnamon colour, transverse 
posterior and anterior and discal spot a darker shade of the ground colour, between the two lines a transverse shade of .same colour, broad- 
est and darkest at cosia, which it reaches by crossing the transverse posterior line, which towards the costa gives an abrupt bend inwards. 
Secondaiies while. Head and body same colour as piimaries. 

Cucui.Ll.\ S0LID.\GINIS, Behr, Mss. 

Expands 1^-- inches. Head and tegulae ashen, thorax between the latter dark brown, abdomen dark grey with a brown dorsal line. 
Primaries grey, the median space suti'used with darker colour, which in one example extends to the ba.se; it comes nearer in the markings 
to Laciuc(e, Esp., but is entirely distinct from that or any other .species known of. Secondaries smoky. 

CucuLi.i.v Matricari.e, Behr, Mss. 

Expands 11-1 s inch. Head and body grey, latter with a dark dorsal line. Primaries uniform pale ashen, (he line dark lines are all 
abbreviated and have the appearance of being heavier than in any othc^ known species, and gives the whole wing a spotted rather than 
striped appearance, entirely difli;rent from its allies. Secondaries white, edged exteriorly with a fine brown line. In both this and the pre- 
ceding the wings are a little broader in proportion to their length than in the eastern species. 

Plusia EcHiNocYSTiDis, Behr, Mss. 

.Size of Precadonis. Head and ihora.x dark greyish brown; abdomen pale brown. Primaries dull dark greyish brown, which on 
close inspection proves to be intricately varied and shaded ; a silver mark much like a U, attaclied to the lower part of which is a small 
round or oval silver spot. Fringe same colour as rest of wing. Secondaries smoky, outer half darkest ; fringe white. 

Plusia Gamma, Linna-ns, Syst. Nat., X, .513, (1758). 

Thirteen examples agreeing in every respect with those from various parts of Europe. 

May, 1874. 



I 



XL 




^rtnan Strei-Aer. od 






^ '^>x^f^ CATOCALA AGRIPPINA. Nov. Sp. 




(PLATE XI, FIG. 1 cf , 2 9, 3 J' variety.; 



Male. Expands 3 inches. 

Head and body, above, blackish grey. Beneatli, greyish white. 

Upper surface ; primaries blackish grey powdered with reddish brown ; transverse lines black, heaviest 
towards the costa, less distinct as they near the inner margin ; between the transverse posterior and sub-mar- 
ginal lines the space is brownish ; reniform indistinct and brown ; sub-reniform almost obsolete. 

Secondaries black, with greyish hairs at the base and abdominal margin ; fringe white, partly cut with 
black at the terminations of the veins. 

Under surface ; primaries white; a bro.id marginal band, black inwardly and greyish exteriorly ; black 
mesial and sub-basal bands which are connected with the same colour along the inner margin ; fringes white, 
edged outwardly with blackish. 

Secondaries white, with black marginal anjl mesial bands, the space between which is narrow ; fringes 
white. 

Female. Expands 3 J inciies. 

Groundcolour of wings lighter; tiic reddish brown sub-marginal band more conspicuous ; all the lines, as 
well as the reniform and sub-reniform, distinct and much more sharply defined than in the male. 

Described from exam])ies taken in Texas by Mr. J. Boll. 

Prominently distinguishable by the reddish brown, which appears to overlay, more or le.ss, the dark grey 
of primaries and thorax. 

Fig. 3 is a variety of the above, having the inner half of primaries whitish; from same locality. 

CATOCALA SAPPHO. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XI, FIG. 4, ?.) 



Expands 3 inches. \^' 

Head and thorax, white; abdomen blackish grey. Beneath, white. 

Upper surface ; primaries milky white ; transverse anterior line broad and black at and near costa, faint 
and brownish on the inner half; transverse posterior fine and jjartialiy obsolete, outwardly this is succeeded 
by a brownish band faint until it nears the costa where it becomes darker and more conspicuous; sub-terminal 
line, faint; a row of small black sub-marginal ])uints; reniform, dark brown, which color is continued from 
thence to the costa. 

Secondaries, black ; fringes white. 

Under surface, marked as in Ar/ripj^ina, but the black bands are much heavier, leaving with the excep- 
tion of base of wings but little white. 

Habitat. Texas. Described from one example received from Mr. J. Boll. 

I can imagine nothing more lovely than this ermine of the Catocalje, which in beauty is not even excelled 
by the queenly Relicta. I hesitated a long time ere I could bring myself to describe it as a separate species 
from Agrippina, to which, notwithstanding its white color, it is closely allied, and to which I thought it 
might bear the .same relation as does Phalanr/a to Palaogama. Its smaller size and some differences in the 
undulations of the lines, however, have led me to the conclusion that it may be a species distinct. 



CATOCALA JUDITH. Nov Sp. 



(PLATE XI, FIG. .5, c?.) L^"^ ' 



Expands 2 inches. 

Head and thorax, above, light grey ; abdomen blackish grey. 

Upper surface ; primaries, jiale ashen, the same color as in Robinsonii ; transverse anterior and posterior 
lines, black, only moderately conspicuous ; sub-terminal line, whitish. 

95 

r. _ - , ■ 1 J- , „ 

'1 9 ■ *• ■ ' 



\y 



96 CATOCALA JUDITH. 

Secondaries black, with black fringes. 

Under surface ; primaries, a small white basal patch ; the black bands are so nearly confluent as to leave 
but little white. 

Secondaries, basal third white, rest l)lack with but faint indications of the pale space between the mar- 
ginal and mesial bands. 

Descrilu'd from two exam])les, ^ 9, in the collection of Mr. James Angus, of West Farms, New York, 
near which place they were captured several years since. 




CATO(JALA AMi:STRIS. Nov. sp. 



(PLATE XI, FIG. 6, ^.) 



Expands 2 inches. 

Head and thora.x, above, ash grey ; abdomen yellow. Beneath, dirty white. 

Ui)per .surface; ])rimaries ashen, transverse anterior, double and from middle to costa very heavy, form- 
ing a diagonal black bar; transverse posterior, fine but distinct; reniform moderate size, the space between 
this and transverse anterior line is much paler than the rest of the wing ; fringes concolourous with the wings. 

Secondaries bright yellow; marginal band n)odorate, broken towards the anal angle where it is replaced 
by a spot; mesial band rather narrow and does not reach to the abdominal margin; fringes white. 

Under surface yellow ; sub-basal and marginal bands brownish ; mesial bands darker and better defined 
at their edges. 

Habitat. Texas. One example from Mr. J. Boll. 

Resembles the Russian C. Neonympha* more than any American species. 



1^ 



CATOCALA DELILAH. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XI, FIG. 7, $.) 



Expands 2J inches. 

Head and thorax brown ; abdomen greyisii brown. .Beneath, yellowish. 

Upper surface; ])rimaries rich velvety brown ; transverse anterior line very heavy and dark, from the 
middle of this to the base runs a dark shade; transverse posterior dark brown or black, and distinct ; sub- 
terminal pale fawn-coloured, edged outwardly with dark brown, wliere it is prolonged into acute parallel teeth 
which reach to the exterior margin, the three upper ones being the most prominent; reniform and sub-reniform 
forming, as it were, one spot, the latter entirely disconnected from the transverse posterior line; fringe brown. 

Secondaries dark warm yellow ; marginal band broad ; mesial almost straight from costa to where it 
elbows towards the lower part of wing; apex yellow ; fringe yellow, with some greyish at the terminations of 
veins. 

Under surface dark yellow, even coloured ; sub-basal band of primaries not as dark coloured as other two 
bands, which are more sharply defined and comparatively narrow. 

Habitat. Texas ; received from Mr. J. Boll. 



'^ 



CATOCALA AHOLAH. Nov. Sp. 



y ' (PLATE XI, FIG. 8, ?. 



Expands IJ inches. 

Head and thorax ash grey; abdomen yellowish. Beneath, whitish. 

Upper surface ; ])rimaries ashen, even coloured ; transverse anterior and [)osterior lines fine but distinct, 
the latter but little dentated ; renitbrtn large, greenish white, extending from this to the apex is a dark brown 
dash or shade, the edge of which towards the costa js sharply defined ou the pale ground color of wings, whilst 

» Ksper, yehmelt., 19S, 1, 2, (179G|. 



CATOCALA AHOLAH. 97 

that towards the exterior margin does not so abruptly terminate, but somewhat gradually shades off; sub- 
reniform entirely disconnected from transverse posterior line; sub-terminal line brownish; in the space 
between the base and transverse anterior line is a kidney-shaped spot of the same greenish white and same size 
as the reniform ; this spot is not jirominent, though easily discernible ; fringe concolourous with the ground 
colour of wing. 

Secondaries bright yellow ; marginal band moderately broad, interrupted before reaching the anal angle, 
where it is replaced by a black spot ; mesial narrow, somewhat elbowed, and extends to the abdominal margin 
and thence upwards towards the base; a very small, yellow apical spot; fringe white, greyish inwardly. 

Under surface yellow, darkest near bases, at costal and apical parts white or nearly so ; no sub-basal 
band; marginal and mesial bands blackish brown, very sharp and distinct; fringes white, cut with black at 
terminations of veins. 

Texas ; from Mr. J. Boll. 

A most beautiful species, whose nearest eastern ally is C. Formula, than which, however, it is larger and 
much brighter in colour, and presents many points of difference in ornamentation. 



CATOCALA MAGDALENA. streckeb 



(PLATE XI, FltJ. 9, cf.l 

Since describing this most beautiful species on ])age 93, from a ? taken in Indianapolis, I have received 
other examples, c?9 taken by Mr. Boll in Texas. 

CATOCALA ATARAH. n..v. sp. 

(PLATE XI, FIG. 10 ^, 11 ?.) 

Male. Expands IJ inches. 

Head and thorax brownish grey ; abdomen brown. Beneath, pale greyish. 

Upper surface ; primaries brown ; transverse anterior and posterior lines broad and dark ; reniform in- 
distinct; sub-renifbrm pale and free from the transverse posterior line; the mesial area, between the reniform 
and transverse anterior line, paler than any other part, the outer half, between this and the transverse posterior 
line, is the darkest part of the wing. 

Secondaries yellow ; marginal band deeply indented towards anal angle; mesial narrow, prolonged in an 
acute angle above the indentation of marginal band, and extending almost to the abdominal margin, and from 
thence upwards towards the base ; a streak of dark colour extends from base to the indentation above the elbow 
of mesial ; fringes yellow and brownish. 

Under surface yellow; no sub-basal bands; mesial and marginal bands blackish. 

Female. Same size and markings, but the superiors are brighter in colour ; the transverse anterior is 
narrower and lined invvardly with whitish grey; reniform better defined; sub-reniform not so distinct; sub- 
terminal line white and most conspicuous near and at the costa. 

Texas ; from Mr. J. Boll. 

It is with some slight hesitation that I place these as sexes of the same species. As there were but two 
examples taken, the material for study and comparison was, consequently, limited ; I am inclined to think, 
however, that future observation will verify my present decision, as the only diiference is the narrower trans- 
verse lines and brighter colour of the female. 

CATOCALA MYRRH A. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XI, FIG. 12, cf. 



Expands 2 inches. 

Head and thorax, above, grey; abdomen yellowish. Beneath, greyish. 

Upper surface; primaries uniform sombre grey, much the same colour as in Serena; transverse lines 



l^ 



V^ 



98 CATOCALA MYRRH A. 

nearly obsolete, except near costa where they are black and distinct ; the renifbrm is the distinguishing feature 
in this species, being deep velvety black ; sub-rcnifbrm scarcely discernible. 

Secondaries yellow ; marginal band ordinary width ; mesial does not extend to within some distance of the 
abdominal margin. 

Under surface; primaries with blackish sub-basal, mesial and marginal bands; secondaries have mesial 
and marginal bands corresponding to those on upper surface. 

Texas; one example from Mr. J. Boll. 

CATOCALA CALIFORNICA. w h KnwAans 

Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. II, p. 509, (18G4). 



(PLATE XI, FIG. 13, J>.) 



Expands 2| to 2f inches. 

Belongs to the group of which the European Niipta* and Ehcataf are types, and which appears to be the 
prevalent form west of the Rocky Mountains. The priinarjps resemble very much in colour and ornamentation 
those of Elocata, but the lines are heavier and better defined, with more contrast of light and dark colours. 
Inferiors same red as in that species. Under surface ; ]>rimaries white ; marginal band black, greyish at apex 
of wing; mesial and sub basal as usual in this group. Inferiors; costal third white; inner two-thirds red; 
bands as on u[)per surface. 

Mr. VV. JI Edwards' type, now in Mus. Am. Ent. Soc, Phila., was taken in Yreka, California; one-of 
my exam|)l(s was brought by Mr. Mead from Colorado. I have also examined an example from collection of 
Mr. Henry Edwards, which was taken in Arizona. 



CATOCALA CARA. Guenee. 

Spec. Gen., Vol. VII, p. 87, (1852). 



(PL.VTE XI, FIG. 14, cf.) 

Expands 3 to 3| itiches. 

U|)per surfice of superiors and body rich deep maroon or reddish brown; transverse lines black, narrow, 
and accompanied with scattered, inconspicuous grey or pale olivaceous scales; reniform indicated by a circle 
and [)upil of same pale colour, but scarcely noticeable except on close inspection. 

Secondaries beautiful crimson, with very broad, deep black marginal band, broadest at apex and gradu- 
ally diminishing until it terminates at the anal angle ; mesial nearly even width, slijjhtly elbowed on outer 
edge, extends to abdominal margin and continued thence u]) to the base which is clothed with black hairs; 
fringes dirty white. 

This is one of the commonest and, at the .same time, the handsomest of all our known red-winged species. 
It is found from New York to Florida, and as far west as Texas, from which latter state I have received fine 
exarajiles. 

There occur, occasionally, examples in which the primaries are heavily powdered with whitish yellow or 
olivaceous scales, especially at the apex, on the part surrounding the reniform and more or less on the anterior 
half of the wing. In this variety the transverse lines are much more heavily marked than in the ordinary form. 

CATOCALA AMATRIX. Hubneb. 

Laniprosia Aniatri.x, ,'^amml. Exot. Seliinetl. II, Verz. Bek. ScUinclt., p. 277, (1816). 
Catocala Araatri.x, (iuenee, Spec. Gen., Vol. \ll, p. 86, (1852). 



(PL.\TE XI, FIG. 15 ^, 16 ?.) 



Expands from 3 to 3^ inches. 

Upper surface ; primaries and body brownish grey ; transverse lines dark brown, but not heavy ; infe- 
riors scarlet; black bands extend to inner margin ; fringe dirty white. 

*Linne. Syst. Nat., XII, (17()7). 
tEsper, Schniett., 99, 1, 2, (178(>). 



CATOCALA AMATRIX. 99 

Under surface yellowish white ; the secondaries sutfused with scarlet on the inner half; the usual bands ; 
also a discal lune, more or less prominent in different examples. 

There are two common forms of this species; (he one, Fig. 15 of Plate XI, has the primaries uuicolour- 
ous ; the other, Fig. 16, has a broad dash of dark brown on the primaries, extending the length of the wing, 
from the base to the ape.x interrupted only by the sub-reniform. Neither of these are sexual varieties, as 
plenty of both form occur in either sex. 

This species is found over tiie same great extent of country as the preceding [Cara). The Texan exam- 
j)les are the largest, averaging 3| inches in expanse. 

The first Catocala that I ever saw in nature was of this species. "Ah! distinctly I remember," though 
twenty-five years have passed si;ice then with their dreary cortege of woes, how Christian Sproesser, a stout 
German ap|)rentice of my father, returned home one Sunday — full of beer — with a specimen of Amatrix 
carefully impaled on a board with a big common pin. I sat for hours feasting my eyes on the splendor of its 
scarlet wings, and hunting through an old German illustrated book, without a title page, which then constituted 
my entomological library, to find out what it was. After profound deliberation, I arrived at the erroneous 
conclusion that it was C Nupta, and labeled it accordingly. I then pictured it in three positions, upper and 
under surface, and with the wings closed. I remember, also, how I manufactured lemonade to sumptuously 
regale my Teutonic friend and to show my appreciation of his kindness in procuring me this peerless treasure, 
and, finally, how the facial nerves of the said Sproesser contracted, especially around and about the region of 
the nose, when I proffered him the mild beverage. But that example of Amatrix, and the solid youth who 
captured it, have long passed out of sight ; the former to dust, and the latter, whom I still hold — on account 
of that Catocala — in kindly remembrance, if living, I hope is well and more prosperous than the writer of 
these lines, or, if dead, has gone to where he belongs. 

" For all have Iheir day, the grave and the gay, 
Then blow to tlie devil and vanish away." 



NOTICES OF SOME NEW SPECIES OF WESTERN CATOCALA. 

From Mr. Henry Edwards, of San Francisco, I have lately received the types of his following unpublished species, all of which I 
intend to figure at an early day. These, in common with most of the species from the Pacific Slope, belong to the Nupta group. And 
whilst on this subject I would here mention that Nupta occurs, not unfrequently, in the Atlantic States. Mr. J. Hooper captured an 
example near Brooklyn,. N. Y. ; Mr. Jos. Chase, of Holyoke, Mass., has a specimen which was taken near that place ; I have my.self 
taken three, at different times, on willows near Keading, and I have seen several other .\merican e-xaniples in various collections. 

Catocala Mariana, Henry Edwards, MSS. , 

Expands 2f inches. Thorax and head squainose, dark grey ; primaries very dark grey or blackish, sparsely powdered with I ^ 

white; transverse anterior and posterior lines blackish, accompanied with white; sub-terminal white; reniform black and indistinct; 
interior to the reniform a whitish space ; in the single specimen received the sub-reniform is open. Secondaries scarlet ; marginal band 
of moderate width ; mesial does not extend to abdominal margin ; fringe white. Under surface white, with usual bands ; inner half of 
secondaries scarlet. Closely allied to Un'sci's, but the transverse posterior line is entirely difierent, having the teeth nuich longer and 
more acute, and presenting many other points of diflereuce. In all the examples of Briseis that I have, the mesial band of .secondaries 
extends to the abdominal margin, whilst in this example of Mariana it does not reach to it by 3-16 of an inch. Taken on Vancouver's 
Island. 

Catocal.v Hippolvta, Henry Edwards, MSS. 

Expands 2J inches. Head and body above pale grey mixed with white. Upper surface primaries very pale powdery grey, trans- 
verse anterior and posterior lines brown, not dark, the latter with teeth nearly in a line with each other, of almost equal length ; reni- \_^^ 
form dull brown, indistinct ; sub-reniform whitish, not connected with the transver.se posterior line ; sub-terminal line pale and 
indistinct. Secondaries, colour as in Parta, marginal banil narrow and has two indentations on inner edge on half of wing nearest to 
abdomen ; mesial band exceedingly narrow, widest in the middle, extends to within 2-lU of tlie abdominal margin, fringe white. 
Under surface white, inner half of secondaries red ; usual bands. This is a beautiful insect. The grey of the upper surface of body 
and primaries is paler than in any red-winged species I have ever seen, and in certain lights is almost silvery in appearance. The 
extreme narrowness of the mesial on upper surface of secondaries is also most remarkable. Taken in San Mateo County, California. 

Catocala Ci.eop.\tra, Henrv Eldwards, MSS. 

Expands 2J inches. Head and thora.x dark bluish grey ; abdomen brownish grey. Upper surface ; primaries rather uniform 
dark bluish grey ; transverse lines, reniform and sub-reniform, not very distinct and accompanied by yellowish brown shades; sub- \ _^^ 

terminal line paler, not prominent ; secondaries deep scarlet, bands not broad ; mesial ceases 2-10 of an inch from the inner 
margin ; fringes white on e.xterior margin, grey on abdominal. Under surface white, inner two-thirds of secondaries red ; usual bands. 
Taken in Contra Costa County, California. 

The peculiar blue-grey tinge of superiors will serve to easily separate this from allied forms. 

Catocala Lx'cian.-v, Henry Edwards, MSS. 

Expands 3 inches. Body and primaries above colour of Amatrix ; transverse anterior and posterior lines dark brown and very 
heavy and prominent, the latter have the principal tooth more prolonged than in any of the others above alluded to; reniform large, i ^fi^ 

double lined ; sub-reniform open. Secondaries, colour of Parta ; bands narrow ; mesial same distance from inner margin as the preceding 
species ; fringe dirty white. Under surface yellowish white ; inner half of primaries red ; bands all rather narrow. Habitat, Colorado. 



100 ENTOMOLOGICAL NOTES, 

In colour and general appearance, though not in size and detail, it strongly reminds one of the European Puarpera.* 

C'atocala Perdita, Henry Edwards, MSS. 

Expands 2i inches. N'ory close to Faiuttina, but the primaries are of a more l)luish tinge, having none of the yellowish cast of that 
species; the transverse lines arc heavier, and there i« generally more sprinkling of hiacic atoms throughout. The apiceH of the secon- 
CMries of Fau*Una arc partly rosy, in this they arc cnlirely white. San Mateo Comity, California. 

There is also another example, much mutilated, whiili is so close to Irene, Behr, that I .should have considered it identical had it 
not been for the circumstance that Dr. Bclir's species lias a good sized white apical spot on tip of secondaries, whilst in the example in 
question the black marginal band fills out the whole ape.x to the fringe. .VIso the mesial band in this example is narrower, although 
that is not necessarily si>ecitic, as in some of my exani)ilcs of C yupta this band is only one-half the width that it is in other examples. 
I have retnrne<l this example to Mr. Eilwards for his further examination, considering that as he discovered it, an<l is, moreover, work- 
ing up the Heteroiera of the Ear West, it is only simple justice that he should name it. Well knowing, at the same time, that it will 
not in his hands, at least, be ilegraded with such a,s,sociations as Browniana, 8nuggsiensis or Tompkinsii. Shades of the mighty ! with 
what names do some of the .\merican Entomologists as.sociate Humboldt, Cuvierand Latreille. It remindeth one not of the lamb and lion 
lying down together, but of an illustration I once saw, where a small jioodle, with closely-shaved hind ijuarters, was complacently 
gazing on the caged monarch of the forest. 



Among k large quantity of miterial captured in Texas by Mr. J. Boll, and lately received by me, were two examples of Colia'i 
Chrysotheme (^ 9, which after the most careful comparison I found to agree exactly with the large suite of European specimens in 
my cabinet. There is the same suffu.sion of greyish atoms on upper surface of secondaries, and the same heavy greenish on under 
surface ; they are the same size as the P^uropean examples, and agree with them throughout, to the utmost minutiae of shade and mark- 
ing, and are as distinct from Jiurythemef and its var. Keewaydin X as they are from Aurora'^^ or Pyrrothoe. \\ Dr. Boisduval long since 
credited this species to X. America, but the American Lepidopterists have united in erroneously maintaining that EuryOteiiie was the 
insect he had in view, and that Chrysotheme was not found here at all. 

* Giorna, Cal. Ent., Torina, 1791. 
t Boisduval, Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 286, (1852J. 
I Edwards, Butt. N. Am., Colias 4, (18G9j. 
I Esper, Schmett. I, 2, t. 83, (1783). 
IIHubner, Samml. Ex. Schmett., (1816-1836 j. 

August, 1874. I ' * FVf->)"''»T^. 




/German -^ireokar aal. 



EUD^MONIA JEHOVAH. 

Kov. sp. on page 93 of this work. 



(PLATE XII, FIG. 1, cf .) 



Male. Expands 4| inches. 

Head and collar grey, with a pinkish tinge. Thorax and abdomen dark brownish grey. 

Upper surface ; primaries grey, paler and with a somewhat pinkish tinge towards theco'sta ; a dark brown 
basal patch ; a triangular, transparent discal mark which is prolonged in a fine line upwards to the costal 
nervure, and is surrounded with a dark brown cloud; beyond this, two irregular transverse lines cross the 
wing from inner to costal margin, the innermost one broken near the middle, from which inwards it is double 
or accompanied by a narrow shade; these two lines are close to each other from the inner margin half way, 
whence they begin to diverge and become widely separated as they near thecosta; midway, and joining on the 
outer edge of the outermost of these two lines, is a conspicuous white spot ; further up, joining, or rather emana- 
ting from the same line, is a small white spot ; and a little below the large spot, and joining the same line, is a 
small black, triangular spot ; the middle third of the outer area is clouded with dark brown. Secondaries with 
long narrow tails ; colour somewhat darker than primaries ; several narrow, submarginal lines, and a brownish, 
not very wide, transverse band ; a small patch of same colour on abdominal margin, and an obscure trans- 
parent discal spot. 

Under surface greyish brown, darkest towards exterior margin, mottled with indistinct dots or points of 
a darker shade ; a transverse brown line crosses all wings from costa to inner margin ; discal spots transparent ; 
the large white spot of upper surface repeated. 

I know of but one example of this grand insect, the original of the accompanying figure, which was 
sent to Prof Meyer of New York, from Brazil by his son, and to the courtesy of the former I am indebted 
for the opportunity of ])ublishing the species. In what precise locality it was captured is not known, as it 
was, I believe, purchased from a dealer in Rio Janiero. 

It is a hundred years since Cramer, in his voluminous work, figured the first species of Eudfemonia, the 
wonderful Scmiramis ; and the three species now composing that genus are in appearance the most remarkable 
Lepidopterous insects yet known. 

In the " Verzeichnisz " * Hiibner has placed two very dissimilar insects in his genus Eudsemonia; the 
Semiramis, Cramer, from Surinam, and the West African Argus of StolJ ; the latter, Duncan placed in his 
genus Eustero, (in the Nat. Library, Vol. VII, p. 125), and it certainly ought not to be retained in the same 
genus with Semiramis, as it comes mucli nearer the true Saturnidse, especially those composing the genus 
Tropsea, Hiib. {Actias, Leach), whilst Semiramis, Deroeto and Jehovah are near to Rhescyntis, and still nearer 
to Dysdtemonia, to which latter I think they are very closely allied. 

The present species, though not so far removed from Semiramis as is Maassen's Derceto, still differs from 
it very considerably in most particulars ; in Cramer's species the wings are narrower, especially the secondaries, 
the outer margins are scarcely dentated, the tails are nearly a third longer in proportion, the ground colours 
ai-e various shades of buiF and reddish, the discal mark is not triangular, and the white spot emanating from 
the outer edge of the transverse line is triangular, instead of having the peculiar six-sided shape of that in the 
present species. Maassen's species, in the plain edges of outer margins, is closer to Semiramis, but in the 
much greater width of the tails, which give it a heavy appearance, as well as in ornamentation, it is equally 
aberrant from both Cramer's and the species here figured. It was scarcely necessary, perhaps, to go into these 
comparative details; but, unfortunately, so little attention is paid to Exotic Lepidoptera in this country, and 
in consequence so little is known, that I may not, perhaps, be entirely amiss. 

The above remarks are entirely in connection with the males of the species alluded to, as of Derceto and 
Jehovah the females are, I believe, entirely unknown, and that of Scmiramis, according to Maassen's figure, is 
widely different in appearance from the male, having much broader wings, shorter, broader tails, and differ- 
ini considerably in the ornamentation. I hei-e cite Cramer's and Maassen's species more fully than on page 93 : 

Semiramis, Cramer, {Phake.no Bombyx Aifacus) Papillons Exotiques, Vol. I, T. XIII, A, d' (1775). Gmelin, 
Ed. Systema Naturae, I, 5, 2404, 470 (1788). 
Bombyx Semiramis, Fabricius, Genera Insectorum, 277 (1777); Species Insect. II, 170, 13 
(1781) ; Mantissa Insect. II, 109, 15 (1787) ; Ent. Syst. Ill, 1, 413, 20. Olivier Enc. 
Meth. Ins., V, 28, 18, pi. 69, f. 8. 

* Verzeichnisz bekannter Schmetterlinge, p. 151 (1816 ^ 

101 





102 EUD^MONIA JEHOVAH. 

Eudcenumia Semiramis, Hiibner, Verzeichnisz Bekannter Schmetterlinge, 151, 1585 (1816). 

Walker, Cat. B. M., VI, p. 1265 (1855). 
Copiopteryx Semiramis, Duncan, Naturalists' I.iibrary, VIT, 125 (1841). 
Eudamonia Phcenix, DeyroUe, in Maassen's Beitrage zur SclimetterliagBkuiide, Heft I, fig. 5, ? 

figs. 6, 7, c^ (1869). Anu. de. la. Soc. Ent. Belg., T. XII, 1 (1869). 
Aricia Phamix, Felder, Isovara, T. 92, 1 9. 
Derceto, Maassen, Beitrage Schmett., figs. 13, 14, d (1872). 

Since tlie pulilicition of this sjHcies there have heen objections urged tothe fpeciiie name bywiiich I h.ive designated it, and in some 
few instances from sources for which I )iave every lonsideration, hut in the major part from those whose good or ill opinion weighs alike 
with me ; to the former only are my jiresent words addressed. 

One friend, in ohjecling, writes thus: " Tlie name brings up to serious and contemplative minds everything that is sacred;" if 
such be tlie case, tlien indeed am I baiipy in my selection, for methinks anything that would lead us to think of tlie Creator, and 
would lake our thoughts away from the contemplation of the mimes with which he has peopled the earth, cannot but be well; and what 
better than to relied an sacred things, — on the evidences of the majesty and power of the Su])reme Being? Even as I write, thoughts 
arise of Nineveli in her niagniticence, of her utter destruction, of the writing by an unearthly hand on the wall in the Babylonic jialace ; 
and visions of oM Kgyjit's temples rise up — of the first-born smitten, in that awful night by the death-Angel's hand, in every liome 
throughout the land — of tlie children of Israel guided by llie fiery pillar — of the destruction of Pharaoh's army — of the Pyramids of 
Cheops, of Karnak, and of their desolation — of the researches of Champollion and Gliddon, of the cpiiet resting-place of the latter in 
his vault in Laurel Hill Cemetery, where he lias meet company in Drs. Morton, Wilson and Kane. 

Why may not the Hebrew word, used t(j designate the Suiireme Being, be bestowed on a species as well as the Hindostanee, which 
latter has several times been applied to species* and once to a genus ?f Is it because our conventional ears are more familiar with the 
former tlian with the latter? Had 1 used the term Pay-ah-taw'yah, it is scarcely likely that much objection would have been raised, 
and yet this is the word used by Dr. .Judson to express ".leliovah " in his translation of the siiored writings into the Burman language. 

It certainly cannot be more ofleusive to apply sacred names to animals than to persons, and in Spanish countries almost every 
tenth person is surnamed .lesus, jironounced by them, H'ezoos ; this may sound shockingly irreverent to the fastidious ears of Americans, 
but 1 doubt much if the Hidalgoes who bear the name of the second person of the Godhead would feel at all elated to know that their 
sponsors had acted with irreverence, and that they themselves, on account of their names, were living oflenses against decency and good 
taste, — and they, too, the most devout and punctilious people on the face of the earth. 

That there should be any reasonable objection to the bestowal of the Creator's name on one of the most interesting of His works, 
1 cannot possibly surmise, and the only cause (^f ofi'ense, in scientific nomenclature, is given where the terms are orthograjihically or 
etymologically incorrect, or where nature's noble works are degraded to the vile purpose of charioting into notice the names of obscure 
individuals whose (miy merit in the case was in giving the det^criber a dinner or lending him money ; or what is worse still, to att.ach 
to scientific objects the names of political demagogues; this is, without doubt, the vilest of all, es]iecially in our own country where 
political eminence is now solely attained by the most corrupt means, and success ensured only by the sacrifice of every principle of 
hon(^ur and honesty. 

There are names enough still left in the grand annals of past history and science, without having recourse to those of persons who, 
however estimable, have no claims for scientific honours. 

There have been hints that, notwithstanding the claims of priority, the specific name I have used will not be accepted ; should 
such be the case, and the name eniploye<) by me ignored, it matters nothing, as the species is now known and my work a.s regards it 
completed in the figuring and description, as far, at least, as at present possible to me, and whether it be known hereafter by the 
name I have used, or by another, can be of no possible moment. 

.\8 genera are each year becoming more and more divided and sub-divided, some aspirant for scientific fame may make of each 
species, comprised at present in Eudaemcuiia, a new genus, as there is, without doubt, the diftierence of a brush-hair in the details of 
the several species; of course, the author of the new arrangement would place his own name to the combination, and in that case the 
present species would be the tmly instance in which the name of the compiler would be secondary to that of the object, though, of 
course, no one could doubt that even then the great synonymist would make a mental reservation in favour of his own superiority. 

In a recent interesting jiaper on Ent. nomenclature by Dr. .T. Leconte, in that influential organ, the Canadian Entomologist, the 
author concludes with the following: "Unfortunately, under the influence of personal peculiarities, the exriteiuent of political 
.struggles," etc., " names are sometimes proposed which are in the highest degree oflensive."J -Vfter the word " ofl'en.sive " is an a.sterisk 
(*) which directs us to a foot-note by Mr. Wm. Saunders, the able editor of the periodical, who doubtless fearing that the reader might 
.suppose the author alluded to such names as Honioptera Saundersii, Leucanthiza Saundersella, and oihei-s of the same nature, gives as 
the lienetit of his conjecture, that " the author here evidently alludes to such names as Pleocoma Stati^ P^udoemonia Jehovah, and others 
of the same nature." 

Profes.aor Huxley somewhere says : " Hapjuly, the reputation and »eal succeas of a votary of the physical .sciences are now 
wholly independent of the periodicals which are jdeased to call themselves " influential organs of public opinion ; " the only opinion 
he need care about — if he care for any, and he it all the wiser and happier i/' he care for none — is that of about a dozen men ; two or three 
in these islands, as many in America, and half a dozen on the Continent. If these think well of his work, his reputation is secure from 
all the attacks of all the "able editors" of all the "infiuential organs" put together." 



SAM I A EURYALUS. Boisduval. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. Ill, 2me Ser. xxxii (1855). 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 21 (I860;. 

Walker, C. B. M., part XX-\II, p. 525 (1865). 

Samia Euryale, Packard, Prt>ceedings Ent. Soc. Phil., Vol. Ill, p. 380 (1864). 

Saturnia Cianothi, Behr, Proc. California Academy of Sciences, Vol. Ill, part IV (previous to September, 186"). 

Plalijsamia Cali/oniicu, Grote. 

*Ite>da Brahma, Moore, Cat. Lep., E. 1. C, I, p. 29, T. 1 (1857). 

Papilio Brama, (iuerin. Rev. Zool., p. 43, T. 1 (1840). 
tBralumea, Walker, C. B. M., VI, p. 1315. 
J I have only (pioted portions of the two concluding paragraphs of the article. 



SAMIA EURYALUS. 103 

(PLATE XII, FIG, 2, cJ>.) 



Male and Female. Expand 4 to 5 inches. 

Head red ; thorax red, with white collar ; abdomen annulated with red and white. 

Upper surface dull carmine red, except at the outer margins, which are clay-coloured (ochrey) ; orna- 
mentation as in allied species, but the discal lune of primaries is in some instances prolonged in a line until it 
almost touches the sub-basal band, and that of secondaries until it joins the transverse white line. In this 
species the ground colour beyond the transverse white line is of the same even hue as that interior to it, differ- 
ing in this respect from Cecropia, Columbia and Gloveri, in which the ground color beyond the transverse line, 
especially on primaries, is composed of atoms of black or grey, and red, more or less segregated. 

Under surface much as above, but the ground colour more brownish and dotted in part with white atoms. 

The larva has been described by Mr. Henry Edwards,* in Proceedings Cal. Acad. Sciences, who says: 

" Lengtli, 3.30 inches. Pale apple-green, of a very vivid tint throughout, with a slight whitish bloom over the whole surface. 
Head, with some purplish-black streaks in front and at the sides. Jtouth parts, pale-green, pitchy internally. Second segment with 
four minute black dots, edged with white anteriorly, and two very small white mammiform tubercles on the sides. Third, fourth, and 
and fifth segments, with long raised protuberances, pale yellow, with a black, swollen band in the middle, and each surmounted Ijy si.x 
blackish spines. The third segment has also four lateral raiseil white spots. The fourth and fifth segments have two mammiform 
white spots, the lateral ones on these segments becoming merely black points. On the sixth segment is a faint white raised spot, in the 
same position as the white swollen tubercles on the preceding segments. Seventh and eighth, with only black points laterally. Ninth, 
tenth, and eleventh, without any tr.ace of spots. Twelfth segment bears in the middle a long, raised protuberance, yellow, banded with 
black, exactly similar to those of three, four, and five. On this segment there are also two lateral points, white, tipped with black. 
Anal segment with foui- black dots arranged in a square, and two white and black points as in twelve. Stigmata white, edged ante- 
riorly with black. Below the stigmata, and parallel with them, is a row of very minute black dots, edged with greenish-white. Feet, 
yellowish-green, with the tips purplish-black. Abdominal legs, greenish-yellow, with the edges purplish-black. Viewed from behind, 
the anal segment is yellowish-green. 

" Food plants, Ceanolhis thyr$ifiorvs, Esch. ; Frangvla Califomica, Gray ; Rhaynnus crocerui, Nutt ; Alnus viridui, D. €. 

" When about to undergo its change, the caterpillar attaches itself usually to the under side of a twig, and spins a rather coarse 
and very compact outer case, with which no leaves or other extraneous substances are incorporated, and within this a reddish-brown 
cocoon, the filaments of which are strong, rather coarse, but glossy. The cocoon and its outer case are oval, produced into a cone at the 
end, by which the insect escapes. 

'• Chrysalis. Pitchy, almost black, very short, rounded in front, and much swollen about the abdominal region. Segments rough, 
and transversely wrinkled. 

"Length,"l.l5 inch. 

"The caterpillar changes to a chrysalis in September, and the imago appears in the following May or .June." 

Without giving the matter sufiicient attention, I adopted Grote's generic term, Platysamia, in connection with the species first 
described in this work, but have discarded it in the species here described. Kirby says, in a paper read before the Dublin Society, 
March, 1872, "Grote has changed the generic name, Samia, (used by WaHcer) without sufficient rea.son, applying it to Altcuius Cynthia;" 
which latter, if breadth of wing be a foundation for generic distinction, would be in the highest .sense a Darwinian species, as in its 
fatherland, China, it has, in a slightly modified degree, much the same form as the great Atlas ; narrow, falcate primaries, and seconda- 
ries prolonged towards the anal angle, and would be placed, conseciuently, in the genus Attacus, but after a several years' acclimatization 
in the United States, a curious change takes place ; the fore wings become less falcate, (being now not more so than in Ceanothi, 
.4nyuZ(/era, etc.), the .secondaries much less elongated, and all wings increased much in breadth ; the discal lunes also become shorter 
and broader, more like those of Cecropia, and we can now place the insect in Platysamia. 

The Chinese examples in my cabinet average 5 inches in exp.inse, those raised from eggs brought from China the same ; the first 
brood, raised from ova deposited by the latter, wer* all small, averaging only 4 inches, but preserved the typical Asiatic form ; after- 
wards I let all fly as they emerged, and those that issued from cocoons collected in the woods near Reading, four or five years later, 
(doubtless the descendants of those that I let loose), averaged 5J inches and were as broad-winged and un-Asiatic in appearance as Ce- 
cropia and allies. 

In 18-56 or 18.57, I .saw, in the collection of Mr. .1. P. Wild of Baltimore, an example of this species labeled " Eury.ale, California," 
which he had received from Mr. Becker in Europe. Dr. Boisduval, it appears, however, only published the species by that name, 
omitting the formula of a description, hence, though well known to most scientists for many years as Euryale or Euryalus, that name 
had to give way to the later one of Ceanothi, Behr, or Califomica, Grote ; which of these has precedence I cannot say, as I do not know 
where or when Grote described it, though he claims priority over the other authors. 



SAMIA COLUMBIA, s i. smith. 



Proceedings Boston Socielv Natural History, Vol. IX, p. 343 (1863). 

Packard, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 380 (1864). 

Walker, Cat. B. M., Supplement Vol. V, p. 1943 (1866). 

O. J. Bou'les, Canadian Entomologist, Vol. Ill, p. 201 (1871). 

Hagen, Bulletin Bufl^alo Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. II, p. 201 (1875). 



(PLATE XII, FIG. 3, cf •) 



The accurate original description of both sexes of this species by Prof. Smith, which was also republished 
in Mr. Bowles' paper in Canadian Entomologist, as well as the illustrations on annexed plate, make it unne- 
cessary for me to go through the same routine. 

* In order to avoid misapprehension, it might be well to caution students against confounding the work of two authors of the same 
name, Henry Edwards, of California, and W. H. Edwards, of Kanawha, West Virginia. 



104 SAMIA COLUMBIA. 

The claims of this fine moth to be a distinct species have been considered very doubtful, and its history is, in fact, yet to be com- 
pleted, as we have thus far no exact description or any figure of the larva. Mr. S. 1. Smith, who first discovered it, obtained his 
examples, 2 (^, 1 $, from cocoons, one of which was spun upon a maple twig and the others on Ehodera Canadensis, among which latter 
the maple was growing, also nianv other cocoons from which the imago failed to emerge, owing to the presence of the parasites, Cryplus 
Smilhii, Pack., and C Samicc, Pack., as shown by the careful examinations of Dr. H. Hagen, of the Cambridge Museum, where all 
Mr. Smith's tvpes of both pupa and moths are preser\-ed. 

The first notice we have of the larva is from Mr. G. J. Bowles. He says: "In August, 1864, 1 captured a full-grown larva of this 
moth {Columbia} crawling along a lence in search of some place to make its cocoon. It closely resemlileil a Cecropiu larva in size and 
appearance ; thinking it, therefore, to be a larva of that species, I did not take notes at the time', though, on a close examination, 1 could 
not quite reconcile the colour and arrangement of the tubercles with the description of Cecropia given by Morris. The principal difler- 
ence (as far as I can remember I, was in the number of red wart.s with which the larva was ornamented, S. Columbia possessing more 
than the other species;" and further, "the larva above mentioned duly spun its cocoon, which was at first of a wliilisb colour, but in a 
few days gradually turned to dark brown ; the moth died in the chrysjilis state, owing, perhaps, to the presence of parasites. Two years 
afterwards I found another cocoon attached to a twig of thorn (Cralayus), but it was full of large parasites, all dead in the jiupa." 

He I'urther states that he found, in fall of 1867, yet another cncoon s]iun on a gate-post, which in the following May produced a 
? Columbia, of which he gives a lithographic figure, iiot diliering materially from the figure of the J^ on the present Plate XII. 

The above contains all that at jiresent is known of the larva. 

The {^^ example, the original of tig. 3, was sent me from Jlontreal, Canada, by Messrs. C. W. & G. B. Pearson, most ardent 
students of Lejiidoplera, to whom I am indebted for many favours; these gentlemen wrote me, October 13, 1874, on the occa.sion of 
their sending the example, "concerning Columbia we cannot say anything further than that we found the cocoon on a maple tree in the 
ca.st suburbs of the citv, which produced the moth on the 13th of May last ; we also send the cocoon, which you will ea.sily distinguish 
from Cecropia by its smaller size and diflerent colour." 

The above cited are all the examples that I know of; i. e., the three types in the Cambridge Museum, found on maple and Eho- 
dera Cayiadensis in Norway, Maine, the one found by Mr. Bowles near CJuebec, Canada, and, lastly, the example foimd on maple near 
Montreal, Canada, bv the" Messrs. Pearson, and now in my possession. 1 have examined those in the Cambridge Museum; the ? does 
not differ in api>earanie from the male I received from Montreal, except that the discal spots of primaries are not so plainly defined; 
the males are both smaller, being not over 4 inches in expanse. 

The cocoons, which are attached longiwdinally to the twig, are double and not much more than half the size of Cecropia; the 
outer surface is .somewhat uneven, of a dark greyish-brown, with little shining spots caused by the crowding together, here and there, 
of the silk woven around it. The inner cocoon is paler in colour and woven closely to the outer, ily cocoon is not as dark as some of 
those in the Cambridge Museum, though still much darker than any Cecropia I have ever seen. 

Dr. Ilagen in his valuable paper, cited at head of this article, says: "1 confes.s frankly that only the peculiar features of the 
cocoons sujiport the opinion that Columbia is a difii;rent species." The differences iu the imago are, it is true, slight ; when taken, 
however, in detail, thev arc the following: The average smaller size of Columbia ; the almost entire absence of red on the wings, which 
gives the whole iu.sect a soolv appearance; the white transverse lines are much further removed inward from the exterior margin of 
both wings, making the sp;ice interior to the transverse lines much le.'^s in comparison than in Cecropia or Ceanothi, but assimilating in 
this respect to Gloveri. As reg;irds the smallness or almost total obsolescence of the discal lunes, 1 have seen the same thing often iu 
Cecropia, and in mv own material of that species are four large males in which the discal lune.s of primaries are assnuUl a.s in Columbia, 
and so (l:irk in colour that onlv by close inspection iire they to be defined from the ground colour of the wing. I have also two examples 
o( Cerrupia which have the abdon'ien anuulated with lilackish-brown and while instead of red and while, Inil the lateral ornamentation 
is in same stvie as in ihe normal red form and in Ceanothi, Hliercas in Columbia it isenlirely diflerent, as will be seen by comparing ihe 
figures 'i ami 3 <m Plate XII ; but, notwitlislandiug llie apparent similarity, it does not lake more than a glance to discern thai Columbia 
is differcni ; it can easilv be picked ou! amidst a hundred Cecropias through the prevalence of the sooty hue and the absence of red 
before allu(le<l to, and it looks exactly as we might sujipose a hybrid of Cecropia and Promelhea would look — a jiossibilily suggested by 
Dr. Hagen in his jiapcr, where he cites various instances of hybrids; and, iu connection with which I would stale that in my cabinet 
are examples of livbrids from Antkenca Jama-mai and Peruyi, Smerlnthus Oceltahis uiiil Populi, Cntonda Desperata and Eelccta, Colias 
Erale and Edusa, :ind others; but one fact militates strongly against the hypothesis in this case, which is th;it Promethea does not occur 
in Canada, or at least not in those parts where Coluuibia was found, though Cecropia doe.s, I believe, abundantly. Were Promethea and 
Cecropia both loui.il in the s;une locality with Columbia, I should certainly believe that the supposition of its being a hybrid of these 
would be the correct one, as the whole ap)iearance of both cocoons and imago would seem to suV)stantiale such a belief 

In mv assertion that Promethea iloes nol occur in C'anad;i I may, perhaps, be incorrect ; my principal connections there have been 
in Montreal, in the neighborhood of which, my valued correspondents inform me, Cecropia and Polyphemus are found, but neither Luna, 
Ani/ulifira or Promelhea. and it is only by the non-occurrence of the latter that 1 am led to doubt that Columbia is the result of bastardy ; 
but we inusi wait until further observation and larger material will solve the riddle. 



SATURNIA GALBINA. Clemens. 



Proceedings Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., p. 156 (1860). 

J/oiTis, ,Svno|)si« Lep. X. .Vmerica, p. 222 (1862). 

Pnofcin/, 'Proc. Knt. Phila., Vol. Ill, p. 383 (1864). 

Walker, Cat. B. .M. i Supplement i Vol. XXXII, p. 530 (1865). 



(PLATE XII, FIG. 4 J', 5 ?.) 



Male. Expands 2f inches. 

Head and body brown. 

Ujiper surface white; primaries, a sub-basal band formed by two brown parallel elbowed lines; a discal 
ocellus consisting of a black spot crossed in the middle by a vitreous line, and surrounded with a narrow 
yellow circle, to which is added on the inner side a fine blue crescent ; directly beyond this a narrow brown 
band crosses the wing from inner margin to costa; midway between this and the exterior margin is another 
much broader brown band, which is traversed by an indistinct paler line ; a black sub-apical spot, connected 
at its lower side with the exterior margin by a crimson line. 



SATURNIA GALBINA. 105 

Secondaries, discal ocellus same as on primaries, but a little smaller; sub-marginal brown band narrowest 

in the middle. ' . , , , , , ■ i , , i- ■ ^u u 

Under surface much as above, but the sub-marginal bands have a white, undulate line running through 

them from inner margin to costa. , , , , , t^ r-i v.- i w 

The female expands 2f inches, and was evidently the only sex known to Dr. Clemens, as his description, 

which I here append, applies to it and not the male. 

" \ntenna> luteous. Bodv and head rather dark brown. Fore wings yellowish-brown, with a rather faint, whitish angnlated 
band at' the ba.e On the discal nervare is a round, black ocellus having a central subvitreous streak containing a yellow circle, and 
toward tie We of the wing a slender blue crescent. A whitish band cro.sses the middle of the nervules, with a taint wavy one between 
and the hind margin. In the apical interspace is a black si,„t, with a crimson streak to the tip ol the wing. The marginal porUon 
of"t e win^ is vhuLl and is tinged in the terminal edge with pale yellowish-brown. _ Hn,l wings similar in color and ornamcn ation 
to ull fore'wings! tiie ocelli being somewhat smaller. On the under surjace, which is similar in hue to tlie upper, the famt wavy l.ands 
of the fore and hind wing.s are very distinct. 

" Texa.s. Collection of Capt. Pope." 

Thniigh in the above, which is all the author says, there is nothing to indicate which sex was described, nor is the important item 
,,r«i7p mentioned still I have no doubt that this is the species alluded to. , , ■„. ^ , , . r ^u i, <• 

I received six examples, live c^, one ?, from south-western Texas, on the border of the Eio Grande but most of them before 
cominVfnto mv , ossessio i had suflered to such an extent, from the ravages of mites or other insect depredators, as to be utterly worth- 
lesr In "he ^fu e°im of the Department of Agriculture, at Washington, are also examples which, I believe, are from the same locality. 

T i spec^ s exceedinglv rare, the ex^unples cited being, as far a.s I am aware, the only ones extant in any collec ion. As tar 
as mvknowled-e extends, this isthe onlv true Saturnia, Schranck, known to occur in the western hemisphere ; and, though of a somewhat 
slighter form, cloBely resembles the common European species, especially Spini, S^chitt. 



HEPIALUS THULE. Nov Sp 



(PLATE XII, FIG. 6 ?.) 



Female. Expands 3 inches. , . , . i ,i i j- u u 

Upper surface vellowish-white. Primaries, costa from base to two-thirds its ength reddish-brown, 
within which colour, 'about equidistant from each other, are three n shaped yellowish-white marks; the brown 
colour of costa extends into the discal space, at its base there enclosing two small silver spots, the one nearest 
the costa beincr the largest; directlv beyond the outer extremity of the discal space, the brownish colour also 
extends the same distance, likewise enclosing two closely-connected silver spots ; two sub-marginal bands com- 
posed of rather small, reddish-brown spots, the innermost extending from near inner angle to costa near the apex, 
the other not reaching to the costa, but connected with the first at the last sub-costal nervule ; half way be- 
ween the innermost sub-marginal band and the brownish costal space is a brown line extending from costa 
inwards as far as where the sub-marginal bands connect; a marginal row of small brown spots; on inner 
maro-in near the termination of the sub-median nervure, is a. small brown spot j u i ■ „i 

Secondaries tinged with reddish on the costa, and very slightly so on c.llim of exterior and abdominal 
margins ; otherwise immaculate. 

Under surface same colour as above, with the markings iaintly repeated. ,.,... i^t v v> 

From a single female sent me from Montreal, Canada, by my excellent entomological friend, Mr. i^ . ±5. 
Caulfield, who stated that it was captured in a park in that city. 

It is the only example of this grand insect I have ever seen or heard of, and is so far probably unique. 

NOTES ON VARIOUS SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 

Lyc^na Reoia, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 46 (1869), is Lyccna SonorensU, Felder, Eeise Nov., Lep. II, p. 281, T. 35, f. 3, 4 (1865). 

Lyc^na Rh^a, Boisduval, Lep. Cal., p. 51 (1869), is a synonym of Lyc^a Catalina, Reakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila., 
p. 244 (1866). 

CATOCALA LEVETTEi, Grote, in' advance sheets of Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. (under date of September, 1874), is identical with 
C. Judith, p. 96, T. XI, f. 5, in this work (printed August, 18,4). 

Catocala Anna, Grote, 1. c, is Catocala Amestris, 1. c. 

Catocala Adoptina, Grote, 1. c, is Catocala Delilah, 1. c. 

the coloratLn of abdomen' met'athorax and posterior wings, readily distinguishes the present from Hams species. 



^06 NOTES ON VARIOUS SPECIES AND VARIETIES. 




1 . ,;\"rr''' ••';'•''''' ^'."n' ^;''°^-.E"'- hoc Plula., II, p. 335, T. 8 (1863), in, without doubt, a melanotic varietv of Arctia Persephone 
nrJL^'^dpl^^L^ """^ "^ ° ""' uncommon occurrence among the Arctians ; I have seen them of Caja, Figurata^lZ:, 

^^ H. Kdwards, but this latter I have not yet had sufficient opportimi.v to examine in nature, to sneak of with anv certaintv Vn 
analogous ca.se is pre.sented in Argynms Alaandra, Men., which is an aberrant .Vsiatic form of A. Agla'a, Linn. ' ' 



lo^ ti • ,<^';^'''^""l'E^'^^,^^ •■> ker. 1 have previously remarked the close affinity of this specie.s with the Rus.sian C Pacta L 
(on p. 40) ; this lat er, except that it is smaller and has the abdomen rosy, resembles verv closelv our species. Mv friend Mr Paul 
Knetz.ng, .sent me this winter from Mon.real Canada, an example of Ccmcu,nhcns which, to mv unbounded astonishment ha's'theabdo 
men rose-red. precisely like the hind wings, thus making its resemblance to Pacta almost perfect. I receircd also, about the sametine 
from Canada another ei.amp le with the abdomen r, sy, but mixed with grey; and mv friends, the Messrs. Pearson write me from 
Mon real that thev have likewise an example " with the body red, just like the Pacta whi-ch vou sent us." The red-bodie.l "I "cu» H 
which I received ihfler in no other point whatever from the ordinary form, which is seldom subject to any variation. <'0«'^'"«'«''" 

a<lvunce^IhL^sof TrTnt'Am.''EnSc.:"' "' '" ""'^°' ''''''""■' "'«'"'^'^''' ^bscura ?. I here insert his description, published in 
"This species is intimately related with C. obscura, somewhat as C. residua with C. insolabilU. C. residua has blackish fringes the 
general color o the primaries is dusky ashen, without the linear deepening in color above internal margin of C. .W^*; wbUe he 
whitish grav sub ermmal shade contrasts will, the dusky lone of the wing. This specie.s ha.s also a black obTi,,ue subapical sh de bev, nd 
the subterm.na line more or less distinctly tuilowing the teeth of the line and apparent sometimes within the line folIowin<^ the two 
prominent teeth ol the t. p. line. This black shading is wanting in C. oh.cura and C. si,nu!.,tili,, which agree in trg.rral^To/v Is ,en 
primaries and the white tr.nges to the himl wing>, but mav be separated by the course of the l. p. line. This, in C s<mX,7 is m c 
a. m C residua and the other species, with two very prominent teeth and wide open subreniform, whereas, in C. obscZa^teVZ^ 
perpendicular and presents a series of hne teeth. The resemblance is otherwise so great between the t^o that other c om aris.m or 
description seems unnecessary. Since I onlv know males of O. obscura and females of 0. slmulatHis, I thought that niv sv.ec me, ot" the 

),v. f, "V"' ""''f '.'"' '^''•""J'"='"'«^^.I «^'.'°''" f'.'^' a"tl>or described his species at all ; he worked on entirelv too scant material and lavs 
by far too much stress on he peculiarities of his - 1. p. lines." At present are before me thirtv examples if C. Obscura, <l ? ncl dh g 
tlie onginal types ; one ot lhe.se, a male, has the .sub-reniform almost clo.sed, all the others have it open, some widelv .S o hers of 
moderately; the " ■ P- line" is, in U examples, .5 (^ 9 9, with two very prominent teeth, h, 16 e.xam\des, cT' ?, with on v one pr mi- 
ent tooth like in he figure on PI. Ill ; so this ceases, at any rate, to be "a sexual diflL-rence." As to the pcSpei dicilarit; of the line 
n difleicnt ex-.;iinples they api.ear to be like in a battalion of country militia-each one varving in position ; in some instances the tu 
line and t. a. line are almost conHuen. at the inner margin, and in one instance quite so. As I general colour 7prima"il it varies 
much, m some instances being almost black, especially on the area interior to the sub-terminal linl. pnmarie., it varies 

o.l„„. f- '■ ^'"''^ '■""';'■'■ ?",'"'!_"°1. '■"'•"'"'■.C'. /n.TO/a6i7,«, Guenee,- which is a species that varies much in the depth of ground 
colour of primaries, and in the dark shadinir of their inner mar.'in ' grounu 

,l,e b,!.';,hr/ol"°l *-'"V""^' """,'"^1^ "^'ig'" ''f^ 1"^™ «"«cl>ed by Mr. Grote to whether the snb-renilorm be open or closed, also to 
1 e liea.lth ol the bands ol secondaries, and to whether the mesial extends to the abdominal margin or not ; the fol owin.. will show how 
utterly valueless would be iliagnoses foundeil on the.se points- iuii.-«ii.^ , now now 

with i!"cr!T'',''r"'l''''''i *"'' S' ^"'"""" ^- ""'• • "■? '""'f ^","^ """''^' '■^'""'^^'^ «■'*'' «'"' -<<.l'-reniform open, and four males an,l three females 
with I completely clo.sed, an. in two it is entirely isolated from the transverse posterior line; vet Grote made the open sub-reniform 

The s', :: XTin'c r™™™f '"/'' ;^" Tfr-- *"" "'r t"'"?'^" ';'. ^- ^^'^^' '^° ••^'^•'^ "'^ snb.reniform o fen'.^^d fou clt .T. 
lie same also ,n C. Ccro!)ama. In four C. Umiv;,a, (me has the s,ib.renif.,rm open, a .second has it closed but connected with the trans- 
verse posterior line, ihe other two have it entirely isolated. I have also examples of C. Fraxini C VuLuachJZata-indO 
; fiSrin';);''"- i;'l -- V^'-'";,'' >'-/».'^-»'"-' - ^'osed, ...ml .n others open. Vwenty-two examples o. C Po^af aX ! krgre^' 
auation in ibe « .Itb ol he bhuk bands, in some instances they being twice as wide as in others. In C. Porta C Nmta and C Elocala 

nmhe;-: h';L I'rul'i-'w : '-'^ '"•'':•■"'' r^ r ''?--^l--sin some examples the mesial band extends"t'o the aC-m al nf rgfn ■ 
in oiiiei^ It (toe.- not reach ii within almost one-fourth of an inch. 



MEAGRE DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES; TO BE FOLLOWED IN A SUBSE- 
QUENT PART BY WHAT IS INFINITELY BETTER-GOOD REPRESENTATIONS. 

Si'Hixx Pi,oT.\, Nov. Sp. 

.Male. Kxpands 3.! inches. 

Head and thorax r.ilber light brownish-grey. Tegula> e<ige<l outwardly with white, inwardlv bv a dark-brown line also a brown 
line 1 middle, paralle to that ol edge, .\bdomen same light brownish-grev as thorax, with a narrow black dorsal line seven Zr 
black ban.is on each side the spaces between which are .lirty white, beneafh pale In-ownish-grev, almost white 

1 riniaries same colour as thorax, with a rather short longitudinal line in each cell; an apical line; a submarginal black line 
accompanied inwardlv bv another, broader but not so dark in colour, a black spot at base of wing all thesj l.'nes eTc a race mpat e^^^ 
more or less with whitish streaks or patches. Secondaries greyish, with dark-brown submarginal and mesial bands ' 

L nrier surlace gieyisli-brown. 

I might have m.a.le shorter work with the above by simply saying that this species was between Chersis and Kalmicc; it is neither 



MEAGRE DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES, &c. 107 

Sevei-il male* taken In- Mr. P. Knetzing near Montreal, Canada, were, through his goodness, added to my collection. 

It is evident that we have as vet but a limited acquaintance witli the iauna of Canada and British Cdumbia, as is proven by the ' 
manv new and unde.scribed species 'lately received therefrom; conspicuous in the East are the above described Sphmx and Hepialus 
Thuh and in the West, Eukucopha-us tri-cohr, Packard, and Henry Edwards' Smerinthus Occidentalis, a monstrous form ot 3Iodestus, 
expanding nearly 6 inches, and of a very pale yellowish fawn-colour, much like in the European S. Quercus. 

Mackoglossa ^Ethra, Nov. Sp. or Var. 

Female. Expands Is inches. ,,,,,, j 1 1 i i .1 

Vbove head and bodv olivaceous of a paler vellow shade towards the sides ; caudal brush yellow and black beneath same_ as 
DitKni^ Primaries, margin" much broader than in 'Diffinis and serrated on inner edge; a large carmine apical spot; base and interior 
margin reddish with olivaceous liairs on the former. Inferiors, narrow brown exterior margin ; abdominal margin carmine ; beneath, 
costa of both wings red. One example from Montreal, Canada ; from Mr. P. Knetzing. j , , w 

If this be not a new species, it is certainlv a most remarkable aberrant form ot Diffiiiis; the total ab.sence of the broad black trans- 
verse band of upper Bide of abdomen is a most'noticeable feature, as well as the entirely red costa of all wings beneath. 

Hepialus Desolatus, Nov. Sp. , . , , , , , , u . *i, i- 

Expands 2 inches Brown, same shade as H. Sylvinus, L., to which the whole insect bears a tolerable resemblance, but the lines, 
etc are better defined in the European species, than which ours is much more obscure ; on primaries the principal markings are a 
narrow sub-basal band accompanied with a darker shade, midway between this and the outer margin, running from apex to interior 
margin is another paler line with its darker shade, from which at the inner margin emanates another short line which runs somewhat 
diagonallv towards the sub-basal line. Secondaries brown, with a few barely distinguishable paler spots on costa. One example taken 
at Owen'.s Lake, Nevada, by one of the naturalists of Lieut. Wheeler's Expedition in 1871. 

Catocala Jocasta, Nov. Sp. 

HeTdlind thorax grev, abdomen vellowish-grev ; beneath, dirty white. Primaries grey on costa signs of a transverse anterior line ; 
reniform indicated by a few darker scales ; transverse posterior is not a line, but a broad shade ; beyond this, except a small intervening 
snace the wine is darker ; fringes same colour. . 1 ^i 1 j • 1 1 

Secondaries vellow, with a broad black marginal band which is deeply indented on inner exlge, towards the abdommal angle, 
where it becomes niuch narrower ; fringes white. Under surface pale yellow, primaries with a broad marginal band narrowest at inner 
angle- a rather narrow median band which does not reach to inner margin; no traces ot a sub-basal band wlui ever ; fringes gre^ . 
SeSndaries, marginal band as above, no mesial; a few scattered scales on costa, and a few more where the discal lune ought to be, 

^""^^rverv "curious and interesting species, evidently allied, notwithstanding the absence of the median band of secondaries, to TTAiJ- 
neyi, Dodge", and 3Iyrrha, figured on Plate XI ; there are no distinct markings on the primaries, which are only clouded and have a 
powdery appearance. One'example received from Dr. W. B. Carpenter, Kansas. 

MTir°Expands\hree^ndie.r Head and bodv ochrev yellow. Abdomen with very faint indications of a chain or row of con- 
fluent dark ringsf reaching from thorax to anal segment on each si.le. Primaries pale ilesh-colour. Secondaries same yellow as bod> ; i^ 

all wings with a submarginal black band, narrower than in Egtanterirui or Pica; veins, from outer margin to this band, accompanied 
with black broad at margin, narrowing to a point as thev near the transverse band ; a large black discal spot on all wings. 

Female larger than male. Priinaries whitish-yellow, very pale. Secondaries ochrev yellow ; the same black ornamentation as 

in '^^]^^ly°l^''^l^'\^\'^g-„ by Mr. Nuttall in 1836, at the Rocky Mountains, head of Snake Eiver and now in possession of 
Mr Titian K Peale, who dedicated the species to its discoverer, in his MSS. description and unpublished plate.s. 

■ Diflers from all allied forms in the immaculate abdomen, which in all the other species is heavilv annulated with black 

Harris' species Hera, (described in Report of Insects of Massachusetts, 1841, and figured m Audubon's '■ Birds ol America, 
T 3.51^1^01115 n^ofe than Eglanlerina, Boisduval (Lep. Cal., Ann, Soc. Em. Fr P- 51, 1852). The examples of ilera were aken 
b^Mr Nuttall afthe Rockv Mountains; three of them were in collection of Mr. T R. Peale, who received them trom Mr. ^u all 
h'nself- one of these three," a c?, Mr. Peale still has in excellent preservation, the other two were destroyed through accident. Anothei 
specimen was in c^^^^^^^^^^^ Doubledav, Enghind ; this one was the original of Dr. Harris' description ; and wo more are in my 

cabinet All these specimens cited were taken in 1836 by Mr. Nuttall. The species is also common m Cahtornia; but, as a general 
thino- these are not quite as heavilv marked with black as those found in the Rocky Jlountains. 

"There 's also much variation "in the position of the black discal spots ; in some examples these connect with the transverse band, 
in others are very close but disconnected, and in still others are tar removed. n „,.!„,.;„ il,o 

Walker's species, Pica, (British Mns., Cat. 6, p. 1318, 185.5) of which I possess one c? example, taken by Mr. Drexeler m the 
Rockv Mountains, is a somewhat narrower-winged species, easily known by the uniform white ground colour ot all wings. 



Dr Leeonte in liis paper on nomenclature alreadv alluded to on page 102, in speaking of the binomial svsteni, says Jte aigu- 
ments infavour of the original describer of the species in the one hand, and of the author the binomial combination a opted on he 
Xr 1 and are eouallv strong, perhaps, as regards the convenience of science, and each side has been argued with the utmo.^l ab.htx, 
raciadh Ido ori4gad has a matter of anv consequence, if each person will dlstinctiy declare mh^.^york M ^f '«- f e " '^'>- 
The numbM of instancl in which any confusion can result are few, and the synonymy in catalogues which are always at hand will at 

°°'' ThiJe'can Sutelv be nothing said in favour of the author of the combination; the specific name is the one by which we know 
the inlet No one speaks of TaneJ Antwpa as Vanessa, but every one knows what -f <='-,--"' 7,^-^;^y-;;%T'J: j,^;„, >, „„d 
In Grote & Robinson's List Lep. N. Am., Boisduval's genus, " Adelocephala, is coupled with Hams species, »'<»'o^ ""a 
Mr. G^'iaiXed behind the 'combination, thus/' ^cWo<.pWa 6,Wor,Gro,e ;" again, ^^^^^l^^^' ^,^ 
& Smith's species, Pelluclda, are made Anisota Pelluclda, Grote. The Cen-opm ot Lmnajus, Mr. Grote has placed in hi. genus, PlatNsamia, 
andTransniogri^Vd U into Platysamia Cecropia, Grote, and so on in this manner have the names of Lmna^us, labncius. Abbot ^ Smith, 
Hoi-riQ "Wnlker etc been nut aside to make place for the greater one ot Grote. , r r. j .1 

"" w)re th 'ml^ihod" i^eilllv tbllowed, th'e confusion Consequent would be truly astounding; the dragon's eeth of Cadmus or h 
fecunditv of the louse, would be as nothing to the multiplicity of synonyms that wou d issue trom each species. For instance take 
SX Armnte ■ Fkbricius first noticed this species in his Syst. Ent., and we cite him, in consequence as the au hor , gentlemen ol 
thelboveSo would sav Catopsilia Argante, H.bner, though "that author did not even place Argante in his genus Catopsilia, but in hi> 



108 MEAGRE DESCRIPTIONS OF SOME NEW SPECIES, .<4c. 

contemporarv penus, C'olias; so we have also Colias Argante, Hiibner, and as his genera Phoebis and Mnrtia are also contemporary with 
■ the above, arid embrace insects structurally the same as in his (atopsilia and Colias, we then also have Phahis Arr/anle, Hubner, ami 
Mtirtia ArgaiiU; Ilubner, and later Dr. Boisduval placed ^riya>i/e in his genus C'allidryas, where we have Catlidryns- Argante of that 
author. Again, of Pararge .l/«era, Linnceus' species: During tlie lime that has elapsed since Linnseus tirst described it as Pupilio 
Maera, it has been Dira Maera, Pararge Maera, Satgrus Maera, Lasivmmata Maera, llipparehia Mncra and ,l»i<w/o Maera. Is this not 
enon<;li to condemn a system which could only have had its foundation on personal vanity? It is a very convenient thing for the 
author of a new genus founded, in most instances, on some intinitesimal jioint, to place in it the species of Linna?us, Kabricius, Hubner, 
etc., etc., and then to allach his own name to each species so pirated, or else to re.surrect some obsolete or fortioiten genus and to crowd 
into it the specie-s of various authors, living and ilead, and behind each such combination to jilace the name of the industrious researcher 
who e.xluimed from the dust on the top shelfof some library the doubtful genus. This procedure is i)recisely analogous to that of a sign- 
painter ]ila(ing a picture of Rembrandt's in a frame of somebody or other's make, and erasing the artist's name from the picture and 
the maker's from the back of the frame, and then imtling his own more important name across the face of both picture and frame, and 
of course rendering both valueless by the liiileous defacement. 

The specific name is and always will be the abiding caic, always standing intact, the one by which we designate the object, though 
banilied from genus to genus ; the generic luime is eplunieral, — a thing, as it were, of today — therefore it is of the utmost consequence 
that the authority for liie species be given, diiubly necessary on the account of the hosts of synonyms which, with frightful recklessness, 
ambitious aspirants are continually overloading science. 

.Vs regards the " catalogues which are always at hand," that may be so in large cities blessed with such Entomological Libraries as 
that of the Acad. Nat. .Sc. of riiiladelpliia, or the Peabody Institute of Haliimore, etc., or where the student fortmuitely pos-esses ample 
means to enable him to obtain all the requisite literature; but to the less fortunate, but perhaps e<|ually zealous student, who neither 
lives in a large city nor is ble.'scd lor cursed, as demagogues preach,) with wealth, it would be in the highest degree inconvenient, for 
when we see the species' name wo want to know something about it, why so named, where founil, etc., — facts which generally are only 
fully recorded in the original ilcscription, ami which we like to sec ourselves and not depend entirely on otliers, however reliable. 

As the iearneil Dr. says, " whether the author's name remains connected permanently with his oliservation, or not, is a 
matter of small importance. " Infortunately, were that same name not to the species many and many an error now rectified would be 
still undetected ; the ill with the good we must lake, and tolerate the jiitifnl vanity that inthiences some to consider that the- name placed 
behind their species should be printed in golden i brazen I letters, in order to eventually arrive at the truth. Finally, 1 would add that 
not only should the author of the .specific name be added, but also the work, vol. and page in which his species was first described should 
be cited ; this would save many precious hours to those who, too often, are obliged to encroach on time that should be devoted to lucra- 
tive pursuits, in order to pursue their unremunerative but beloved and fascinating studies. 

Feb. :22, 187o. 



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2. f 

3 '^ 



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MACROGLOSSA RUFICAUDIS. Kirby. 

(Seaia R.) Fauna Boreali Americana, Vol. IV, p. 303 (1837). Walker, C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 82 (1S56). Moiris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., 

p. 17 (1860 ;) Synopsis Lep. IS". Am., p. 149 (1862). Couper, Can. Ent., Vol. IV, p. 205 ( 1872). 
Hwmorrhagia Rujicaudis, Grote <fe RobiTison, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., Vol. V, pp. 149. 175 (1865). 
Hmmorrhagia Buffaloensis, Orote & Eobiiison, Ann. Lvc. Xat. Hist. N. Y., Vol. VIII, (1867); List Lep. N. Am., p. 3 (1868). Grote, 

Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 18 (1873), Vol. II, p. 224 (1875). 
Sesia Uniformis, Grote & Robinson, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. II, p. 181 (1868). Lintner, 23d Report N. Y. State Caliinet Nat. Hist., 

p. 172 (1872). 
Hamorrhagia Uniformis, Grote & iJoii'jison, List. Lep. N. Am., p. 3 (1868). Grote, Bull. Buff. .Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 18(1873); 

Vol. II, p. 224 (1875). 

(PLATE XIII, FIG. 1, cf.) 



"Body yellow-olive, underneath pale yellow. Antenme black ; primaries reddish-brown, hyaline in the disk, with the hyaline 
part half divided towards the base, with a costal bar, covered with yellow olive hairs at the base; underneath tlie costa, the posterior 
margin and the nervures are dark ferruginous ; there is also a yellow stripe on the inner side of the base ; secondaries hyaline in the 
disk ; base externally and costa yellow ; internally the ba.se is ferruginous ; underneath the dark part of the wing is ferruginous, and 
the base pale yellow ; two first .segments of the body yellow-olive, two next black, the rest ferruginous with pale yellow lateral spots. 
This species appears to be the American representative of Sesia fuciformis which it greatly resembles, but differs in the colour of the 
tail and the base of the secondaries." 

No figure accompanied the above description of Kirby'.s, but there can be little doubt that a species allied to Thysbe was in- 
tended. 

Walker, in C. B. M., says : "This is probably a mere variety of 5. Thysbe,'' and states that specimens were received from "L'ni- 
ted States, Trenton Falls, New York, and Orilla, West Canada." 

Dr. Clemens, in his monograph of the Sphingidae, published in the Journal Academy Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 1859, also 
cites it as a synonym of Thysbe. 

Grote and Robinson tirst stated it to be distinct from Thysbe in Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 149, and placed it in their genus 
Scemorrhugia ; on page 175, 1. c, they give Kirby's description above cited, and remark "were we satisfied as to the species Kirby in- 
fended by S. Fitci/ormis, the present species might be regarded as related to S. Diffiyiis, Boisd. sp. As it is, we think that a species of 
Hmmorrhagia is meant, while the species has not been since identified," and further on "a mutilated specimen from the most northern 
parts of Canada West is before us, which evidently forms a dLstinct species from H. Thysbe. In this species, which is altogether slen- 
derer than its congenor, the inner margin of the terminal band of anterior wings is nowhere denticulate in the interspaces, but is medi- 
ally, somewhat inwardlj', produced. j We are not indisposed to regard this as Kirby's species, but the inferior condition of the specimen 
prevents all conclusions. The discal cell is crossed by a longitudinal scale line, the species belonging to the more typical group of the 
genus Hcemorrhagia." Three years later they re-described the species as Sesia Thysbe, variety uniformis, thus : "As Sesia thysbe, a 
uniformis nob., we will record the Sesia rujicaudis of Mr. Walker. This is not Kirby's species to judge from the description of that au- 
thor. This is a form of S. thysbe, occurring m both se.xes, in which the external bonier of the primaries is not dentate inwardly on 
the interspaces."* 

Although another specific synonym was here created on the assumption that Cirote & Robinson knew more about Kirby's species 
than himself, still their fictitious genus Hicmorrhagia was for tlie time, sensibly enough, suppressed by them, for after a rhodomontade of 
thinly-veiled and confused excuses in reference to Hamorrhacjia, they say "which latter we can, therefore, no longer consider sufficiently 
distinct from Sesia to be retained as a genus." And it was only after Mr. Robinson's death that Girote again attempted to restore it in 
one of his innumerable and ever-changing spasmodic Lists of N. Am. Sphingidie, etc., which, like mushrooms, spring up in every 
issue of the Buffalo Bull, and kindred publications. 

There can be little doubt that the species I have figured, wdiich was the one redescribed by Grote & Robinson as Uniformis, is the 
one meant by Kirby in his description of Rujicaudis. The older authors did not lay the same stress on elaborately decorated descrip- 
tions as do some of the pre.sent day, hence there are frequently trifling omissions or vague sentences in their descriptions, and in some 
instances, as in Sm. Oplhalynicus, Bdl., a line or two sufficed to describe the insect, and although said description would ajiply to almost 
any of the eyed Smerinthi having rosy hind wings, no one would endeavour on this account to question or ignore Boisduval's species. 

Rujicaudis occurs in various parts of the Middle and New England States, and more plentifully in Canada and the neighboring 
island of Anticosti, as also in S. Labrador. 

The most prominent point of distinction between this .and Thysbe is the inner edge of marginal band of primaries which is 
toothed in the latter, whilst plain in Rujicaudis, though increased inwardly in the middle, as in Thysbe. 

Between Rujicaudis, Kirby, ( Uniformis, G. & R.) and Buffaloensis, G & R., I cannot find any specific differences by 
which to separate them into distinct species. In concluding the description of Buffaloensis the authors say : "This species is 
clo.sely allied to H. thysbe O. & R., from which it may at once be separated by its smaller size and the non-dentate inner 
margin of the terminal band of the primaries in the male. We have elsewhere drawn attention to the character aflbrded by the inner 
margin of the terminal band in H. thysbe; it is, however, in the males alone that it is prominently dentate on the interspaces."! Con- 
sequently there would be nothing to separate it from Rujicaudis, (their Uniformis), which is also without indentations on inner edge of 
marginal band, excepting its "smaller size," which also ceases to be a distinction, as an example which I received from Mr. Grote himself 
in May, 1873, is quite as large as that o(- Rujicaudis figured in the accompanying plate. 

The authors finally state in connection with their published figures : "We figure a variety of the female, in which the usually 
wholly vitreous fields of the wings are sparsely and evenly clothed with scales. We have observed a similar variation in specimens 
of H. "thysbe." 

This makes the attempt of placing Buffaloensis, G & R., as a distinct species further objectionable, as the authors were ignorant that 
Thysbe and all allied species have, on emerging from the pupa, the transparent space of the wings lightly covered with scales, which 
soon disappear under the action of flight or by exposure. 

*Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. II, p. 181. 

f About two years later the authors discovered their error, and became aware that the females of Thysbe, (the commonest of all 
the N. Am. species,) had the inner edge to the marginal band of primaries dentate as well as the males ; and then it was that Rujicaudis, 
Kirby, was bisexed and again iynonymized as Uniformis, G. A R. 

109 



110 MACROGLOSSA RUFICAUDIS. 

I am not disinclined to believe that Bujicaudis is but a form of Thysbe, as one of my examples of the former is plainly though 
not deeply dentate on the inner edge of marginal band of primaries. This marginal band can scarcely be of much value specifically as 
in another examjile of i?u/icaurfis it is not widened perceptibly in the middle, but its inner edge runs in a regular line nearly as in 
Gracilis, but in the white anterior and median legs, and all other particulars, it agrees with the many other examples of Ruficaudis be- 
fore me. 

In another example of Thysbe the interspacal points of inner edge of marginal band are exaggerated to such an extent that one 
of them reaches to the discoidal cell : in this example the marginal band is of great width, as are also the brown basal parts, leaving 
comparatively little vitreous space. 

MACROGLOSSA ^THRA. Strecker 

Described on p. 107. 



d 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 2.) 



MACROGLOSSA FUMOSA. Strecker 

Described on p. 93. 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 3.) 



I have nothing to add to the original description of these two insects, save the figures on the present 
plate. 

MACROGLOSSA FLATOFASCIATA. Barnston. 

Walker, C. B. M„ Vol. VIII, p. 87 (1856). 

Clemens, N. Am. Sph., Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 131 (1859). Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 17 (1860) ; Synopsis Lep. N. 
Am., p. 151 (18621. 
Lepitesia Flavofasciala, Grole, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 39 (1865); Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 17 (1873), Vol. II, 
p. 225 1 1875). Grote & Robinnon, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, pp. 149, 171 (1865) ; List Lep. N. Am., p. iii (1868). 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 49.) 



Expands nearly If inches. 

Head and thorax above yellow; palpi black at sides, yellowish beneath ; abdomen black, yellow on basal 
segment, and yellow lateral tufts on last segment; anal larush black ; legs and under surface of body black, 
a yellow spot on middle of last segment. 

Upper surface; primaries blackish, with a broad paler sub-terminal band and black discal spot. Secon- 
daries bright yellow, blafk at base, and with an even, not broad, black margin. 

Under surface: submarginal band s|)aringly scaled, space interior to this ochraceous, marginal band 
blackish ; costa edged with black. Secondaries same as above, but yellow median space much paler, and 
inclined to ochraceous, also a yellow spot at ba.se. 

Habitat. Canada, Mus. Am. Ent. Soc. ; Holyoke, Mass., Mus. Strecker. 

The ornamentation of the wings is the only point worthy of note in which this species differs from others of the genus Macro- 
glossa; superficially, the wings have more the appearane of Plerogon. 

Grote, in erecting his genus Lepisesia, speaks of it as : ".\ genus hitherto confounded with Macroglossa, but more nearly allied 
to Sexia, from which, however, it is quite distinct." Were he to use the term Sesia in its correct sense, the alliance would be exceed- 
ingly slight ; indeed would extend only to the fact that in many species of both genera the wings are hyaline ; but in using the term 
Sesia, he alludes to the clear-winged species o( Macroglossa, such as Diffinis, Bdl., etc., to which Flarofasciata is certainly allied, as it be- 
longs to the same genus. The grounds for separating it therefrom, as design.ated by Grote, are entirely top weak to be of any value." 

"Head smaller and more obtuse than in Macrorftossum." Smaller than M. Stellaterum it certainly is, and .so is the whole insect, 
but than M. Croatica it is just as certainly not smaller, but the same in size ; as are also Bombyliformis, Fxiciformis, and the other clear- 
winged species. Neither can I see that the head is more obtuse than in those mentioned, though it is more so than in M. Thysbe. 
Nor can I see, after careful measurement, that "the eyes are smaller, compared with Sesia," (as he calls the clear-winged species of 
Macroglossa ;) compared with Thysbe they are larger, taking the relative size of the two insects into consideratiog. 

"The anterior wings are relatively much longer, narrower, external margin more oblique than in Ma/roglossum ;" he should 
have added Sleliaterum, but agreeing in this with M. Croatica. 

"The costa is medially depressed ;" so is it, more or less, in over half of the examples of Macroglossa that I possess, both opaque 
iind clear-winged. 

"The sub-costal nervure is curved upward, beyond the discal cell ;" so it is in Croatica and some examples of Thysbe, AxiUari$ 
and others. 

"The posterior wings are small ;" no smaller than in Croatica, Axillaris and Fuciformis ; larger than in Bombyliformis. 

"First, second and third median nervules less propinquitous than in Maeroglossum ; more curved ;" I cannot see that these ner- 
vules are furtlier apart than in Croatica, Bombyliformis and others. 

"The abdomen is more smoothly sealed and less obtusely terminated than in Sesia ;" not more smoothly scaled than in Thysbe, 
Axillaris, Bombyliformis and Croatica ; more smoothly scaled than Fuciformis and Ruficaudis. 



MACROGLOSSA FLAVOFASCIATA. Ill 

"The nei-vulation has undergone important modifications, while the pterogostic characters in their entiety are very distinctive, 
and, without any sudden cliange, show the position of this genus as intenuediate between Sesia and Macroglossum, while considerably 
modified from either." I doubt if any one beside the author of Lepisesia would have acuteness of vision sufficient to perceive either the 
"important modifications," or the "very distinctive" "pterogostic characters," and in the sense that he uses Sesia and Macroglossum they 
are but synonyms ; thus the genus Lepisesia is intermediate between Sesia and Sesia, or between Macroglossum and Macroglossum .' Su- 
perficially, the insect looks a good deal more as if it were between ilacrnghsaa and Pterogon, {Proserpinus, Hb.,) the body favoring the 
former, and the wings the latter. 

There is as much propriety in Grote's separating this species from Macroglossa as there was in his making the genus Calasymbolus 
for Smerinthus Asiylus, or Cressonia for Sm. Jvylandis ; although Hubner had first designated the latter as Amorpha Juglandis in Samm. 
Exol. Schmett., and afterwards taken it from that fictitious genus and placed it in PolypUjchus in Verz. bek. Scbmelt. (1816), all of 
which Mr. Grote, with his usual sagacity, has been pleased to ignore in favor of his own genus Cressonia, which, of course, is a synonym 
of Hubner's Polypiychxts, which latter, we may as well add, is but a synonym of Smerinthus, Lat. 

Smerinthis Dyras Wlk., Meander Bdl., and others are much more aberrant in appearance than either Juglandis or Astylus ; yet 
none have had tlie temerity to create new genera for them, and doubtless none will unless these species should by some mLsehance come 
under the observation of the author of Calasymbolus, Lepisesia, etc. 

Lepisesia was first placed by Grote at the head of the X. A. Sphingidfe in 1865 ; in a later elTusion Arctonolus Lucidus preceded 
it ; in his latest effort he has placed it behind Macroglossa (which he has even cut up into several genera), and wedged it in between 
Arctonolus and Proserpinus ; and in his next spasm we confidently expect to see it jerked down to Sinerinthics and placed between Astylus 
and Juglandis. Rochefocauld, I believe it was, who said that the only thing that still ought to be capable of causing us astonishment is 
that we have the power of being still astonished at anything. 



PTEROGON CLARKI^. Boisduval. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 2 me ser. X, p. 318 (1852). 
Thyreusf Clarkice, Walker, C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 262 (1856). 
Proserpinus Clarkice, Clemens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 134 (1859). Morris, Oat. Lep. N. Am., p. 18 (1860) ; Svn. Lep. 

X. Am., p. 154 (1862). Grote & Eobinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 149 (1865) ; List Lep. N. Am., p. iii (1868). 

Grote, Bull. Bufl'. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 20 (1873), Vol. II, p. 225 (1875). 
Lepisesia Victoria, Grote, 1. c, p. 147 (1874). 

(PLATE XIII, FIG. 5 ?.) 



E.f panels 1^ inches. 

Head and body above olivaceous; antennae brownish, darkest above, tips whitish yellow. 

Primaries pale olivaceous with a darker median baiul and discal spot after the manner of Proserpina, 
Pali.,* a sub-terminal dark line which widens to a large triangular at apex. Inferior wings bright yellow, 
witli narrow black marginal band ; fringe white. 

Under surface nearly same as Proserpina in colour and ornamentation. Primaries olivaceous, darker 
parts of upper surface faintly defined. Secondaries olivaceous, with a paler broad median band or space. 

Habitat. Oregon, Northern California Mus. Am. Ent. Soc, Hy. Edwards, Strecker. 

The American representative of the European P. Proserpina, which it strikingly resembles in both colour and markings ; but it is 
smaller, and the wings are not angulated. 

Grote, when he discovered that his Lepisesia Victoria, lately described in BufT. Bull., Vol. II, p. 147, was a redescription of this 
species, made the correction in a foot-note in this wise : "From a fresh specimen received from Hy. Edwards I find that my descrip- 
tion is based on a faded specimen of this species." How astonishingly powerful must have been the action of the light, to have not 
only changed the colour of the insect, but also to have actually changed the generic characters of his "faded" Pterogon (Proserpina,) 
into those of his own genus Lepisesia. Keally, Mr. Grote ouglit to see that his types are not exposed to this malicious light ; but, after 
all, there is no evil without its accompanying good, for if the action of light in fading is powerful enough to change the genus of a 
dead insect, why may not the same agent be employed, for purposes of utility, on the higher animals. For instance: Why not 
place all the half-starved, worthless curs, which range at large throujjji our streets, under the action of powerful Grotesque light, and 
transform them into porkers, ready-roasted 1 Would not Mr. Grote uius be immortalized with but a tithe of the labor necessary to 
create synonyms and combinations to precede his name ? besides, look at the reward : For the former, millions yet unborn would 
bless his name as one of the great benefactors of their race; for the latter he would only receive the maledictions of ungrateful Lepi- 
dopterists for the amusement he will have bequeathed them in trying to study what "Proserpinus Hub., Clarkite Boisd. Clem. 
Lepisesia Victoria, Grote," and the like, could possibly or impossibly mean. It appears that Mr. Grote has been lately paying consider- 
able attention to Optics, for another important discovery of his, in that branch of science, is that darkness bleaches specimens of moths, 
etc., for ip one of his numerous redescriptions of Catocolsf 'le says in allusion to the pale colour of secondaries : "The condition of 
the specimen does not allow of the suggestion that this change of colour is owing to etiolation ;" we sincerely hope not, for if that 
be the case we tremble for all the thousands of examples that we so carefully exclude from the light. What if some evening we went 
to take an inspiring look at our treasures, and found nothing bat blanched ghosts in place of our gorgeous children of the tropics 1 
no, we pray Mr. Grote may be mistaken ; we don't want our species Darwinized into Pieridse through disease contracted by exclusion 
from light. We know that celery and cabbage are white v.'hen kept in the dark whilst living, and that fish in the mammoth cave are 
white also, probably from same cause, but were it not for Mr. Grote's words we would doubt that deprivation of light would disease or 
whiten a dead insect. Will not Mr. Grote speedily give this important matter further attention, and see if the pallor of the hind wings 
of his Catocala was not owing to some other cause ? Dare we suggest, homoeopathically, perhaps, exposure to the light ; SimUia similibus 
curantur. 

*Sphini: Proserpina, Pallas, Spicilegia Zoologica 9, p. 26, T. II, 7 (1772). 

Sphinx (Enotherce, SchiffermiUer & Denis, Syst. Verz., p. 43 (1776). 
fCatocala Innubens var. Flavidalis, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. v., advance sheets of Grote's paper, printed and issued second 
week of Nov., 1874. The work itself just issued. (Dec, 1876.1 



PTEROGON JUANITA. xNov Sp 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 6 c?.) 



Male. Expands 2 inches. 

Head and body olivaceous. 

Upper surface; primaries, colour and markings much as in P. Clarkice. Secondaries bright yellow, a 
reddish marginal hiind deepening into brown nearest the outer edge, broader than in P. Clarkice; a reddish 
spot on abdominal margin towards anal angle. 

Under surface; inner half of wings retldish-brown, outer third pale olivaceous, darker towards margin ; 
the basal part of primaries is more reddish than on secondaries. 

Habitat. Mexico or S. W. Texas on borders of the Rio Grande. One example, Mus. Strecker. 

A larger species than P. Clarkice, and witli priinarits much narrower and more prolonged apically, resembling more, in this re- 
spect, P. Gaura; Ab. & S., from which it difl'ers, however, in the colour of the hind wings, wliicli are red, margined with black, in the 
lutter species. I have seen but the one example which I have portrayed, I trust faithfully, on the annexed plate. 



PTEROGON INSCRIPTUM. Harris. 



Sill. Am. .Jnl. Sc. & An, Vol. 36, p. 306 11838 1. 
TAi/reuo.' Inscriptus, Walker. C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. lOU 1 1856). 
Proserpiniis et Pti-rorjon Inftcriptum, Morric, Cat. Lep. >«. Am., p. 18 (1860). 
Deidamia Inscripla. Clemens, .Inl. .\cad. Xat. .Sc, Phila., p. 1.37 (1859 1. Morris, Svn. Lep. X. Am., p. 159 (1862). Grote A Robinson, 

Hroc. Knt. Soc, Phila , Vol. V, p.lol (1865) ; List Lep. X. Am., p. 3"(1868). Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc, Vol. I, p. 20 1 1873), 

Vol. II, p. 225 (1875). 

(PLATE Xin, FIG. 8 J>.) 



Expands 1 J — 2 inches. 

Head and body above ashen ; thorax shaded with brown ; two rows of dark brown spots on abdomen; 
anal segment tril'urcated ; anteiiniB serrated in male, plain in female. 

Upper surface. Primaries same colour as body, with bands and marks of rich brown of various shades; 
a pale discal spot and a small white triangular spot near exterior margin. Secondaries reddish ; outer margin 
greyish. 

Under surface 8shet% all wings outwardly, with darker colours ; the small triangular white spot on upper 
surface near outer edge of i)rimaries is repeated. 

Hal)itat. Middle antl New England States, Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana and doubtless other 
States east of the Mississippi, but nowhere common. 

Mr. John Akhurst, of Brooklyn, X. Y., who raised a number of examples of this species from the lar- 
vae, describes it as being, when full grown, two inches in length, of a fine green colour, caudal horn whitish 
at the tip, head small, body from third .segment tapers towards the head. It feeds on the leaves of the grape, 
and of the Virginia creeper, (ylH(^j(/ojj.'*/.s (/uini/uefolia) ; to undergo its transformation it enters the ground, 
but not very deep ; it is fre(|ucntly found near the side of a wall or the bottom of a fence ])ost, and even under 
a^ board or flat stone ; it is ftill grown about the last of June, or beginning of July, and is single brooded, the 
perfect insect appearing about the middle of May. Mr. Akhurst made neither notes nor drawings at the time, 
but the above, though brief and lacking in details, in consequence of his having to depend entirely on memory, 
lie is sure is substantially correct. 

Harris provisionally placed this species in Pterogon ; Dr. Clemens afterwards made for its reception the genus Deidamia. If, 
however, the Russian (jorfloniaJes* is to be retained in the same genus with QCtiothera, then certainly Inscriptum belongs there likewise, 
as there can be no doubt that Inscriptuin and Gor<]oniades are generically the same, at least as far as comjiarisons between the males 
extend. 'Wlullier the 9 "' Gorgoniades has simple antennae like that sex in Inscriptutn I can not now say, as I have seen only males of 
the former; but in that sex boih sincies have the antenna' serrated, the eyes sunken, the head juoduccd in a crest, the .shape of thorax 
and abdomen the .same, the anal segment trifurcaled, and the same style of ornamentation on wings and l)o<ly ; and in whatever genus 
^ystematists may place Gorgoniades, there also Inscriptwn belongs. 

*Proierpinus Gorgoniades, Hub. Verz. bek. Schmett., p. 132 (1816). 

112 



ARCTONOTUS LUCIDUS. Boisduval. 

Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 2 meSL-r. X, p. 319 |1852l. „ . „ t x- . 

Walker C B M Vol. VIII, p. 26.5 (1856i. Clemens, .Inl. Acad. X;it. So., Plui., p. 188 (18./J). Morris, Syn. Lep. N. Am., 

p. 217 (1862). Grote <0 Eohlnmn, Proo. Ent. Soc, Pl.il., Vol. V, p. 169 (1865) ; List Lep. X. Am., p. 3 (1868). Grote, Bull. 
Biift'. Soc, Vol. I, p. 17 (1873', Vol. IF, p. 225 ilS7o!. 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 7.) 



Ex])aiuls If — 1| inches. 

Bodv olive green, tegulte edged with wliitish, antennae stout and heavily serrated. 

Upper surface, primaries same colour as body, crossed by two irregular, not very conspicuous, flesh-col- 
oured bands, which connect at the inner margin ; the middle of the.se bands is dull purplish; the space be- 
tween these bands, and also the basal space, is darker than the marginal part of wing. 

Secondaries pinkish, a sub-marginal wine-red band, a purplish-black anal mariv ; fringes pale yellowish- 

" Under surface olivaceous, inclining a little to reddish on inner half of primaries ; devoid of ornamenta- 
tion. 

Hab. Oregon ; Mus. Behr., Hy. Edwards, Strecker. 

To mv friend ofnianv vears, Ilenrv Edwards, am I bevond measure indebted for two examples of this rarest of N. Am. Spliing- 
ida?. ( )f its larva, food-plain' or liabiis I'know notbincj; ; but'Mr. Edwards, in a paper he is about to publish in the Proceedings of the 
California Acad. Nat. Sc, will doubtless be aide to give further iiarticulars. 




iEuproserphvs' Photon, G. .^n.,*} and Macro'/hssa Flavf.f.,sciuta I Lepisesia F., Urote,) where it most certainly (Iiks not belong; its 
short t.)n^ue, the antennal and other characters denote its close alliance to Smeriuthus, near which it should doubtless be placed. 
Walker savs, "this genus appears to connect Smerinthus with the BombycidiE-" 



DARAPSA TERSICOLOR. h.r«is. 

I Charocampa,] Harris, Sill. Am. Jul. Sc. & Art, XXXVI, p. 3(J3 (1839) ; Ins. Inj. Veg., Flint's E.I., p, 328 (1862). Walker, C. B. M. 

Darapsa Fmico/or, «em«^sVnl. Acad. Xat. Sc, Phila., p. 148 (1859). Morris, Cat. Lep. X. Am., p. 19 (1860) ; Syn. Lep. X. Am., p. 

169 (1862.) 
0(«s IVs/fo/or, Gro/f<t i^-AiV'SOH, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. lo4 (1865). ,oi,i>,-o, rv.,. "Rnll R„f)- Sn,. 

Uarapsa Versicolor, G. £ R.. List Lep, X. Am., p. 4 (1868). Edivards, Can. Ent., Vol. II, p. 134 ilh/0). Grole, Bull. Bull. Soc, 

Vol. I, p. 22 (18731, Vol. II, i>. 226 1 18751. 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 9 c?.) 



Expands 3 inches. l i i ^u 

Body beautiful bright green ; tegulfe edged with white ; a white central dorsal line runs the who e length 
from the head to the end of abdomen ; tegulss and prothorax, and some of the last segments of abdomen, 
ed<.ed with white, also white lateral lines on the head. Beneath green and yellow; edges of abdomen white. 
^ Upper surface, primaries with alternate white and green curved bauds of varying width ; broad green 
maroinal band, a white apical line, the white space on disc tinged with purple, a green discal dash, becondanes 
rust-red, while at costa and abdominal margin, exterior edged with an irregular, narrow, greyish and greenish 

margin. , . i -^ • i i- 

Uudersurflice, primaries yellowish, basal half suffused with reddish; margin green; white apical line; 

some white marks at costa not very far from apex. Secondaries green and yellow; three white bands very 

broad at costa and abdominal margin, almost obsolete on disc of wing. 

Habitat. New England and Middle States, and probably others. 

*This "name cannot obtain," as Grote & Robinson's description of both the genus and species was based on a picture. "We 
erect this genus for a small Califoi'nia species of the present family, which, while allied to Proscrpm«s diflers by the small reduced sec- 
ondaries, longer antennae an.l tufted abdoiiien. We are indebted to Mr. J. W. Weidemeyer or the intormat.on respec ing this singular 
little speVies, which, we believe, has not been hitherto described, while an excellent fagure, shown us by Mr. S. Calverley enable, us to 
presen the present description and to fix the species. It appears that Dr Boisduval has etiquetted a specimen in his c^b'ne M 
Proscrpinns Plueton." All of which we think refreshingly cool. In after years they saw the real insect in Boisduval s collection, tlie actual 
example "etiquetted" by that great savant, and then, with impudence unparalleled, from this they made another description in Trans. 
\m Ent Soc, Vol. II,-p. 182r(1868,) where they say: "The present description should supersede that given by its as noted above, 
and which was made from a colored drawing of the species, and is necessarily inaccurate in detail. Language tails . 

113 



114 DARAPSA VERSICOLOR. 

Prof. Meyer, of Brooklyn, some years since was successful in breeding this splendid insect ; the larvae, he 
says, resembled those of 7). J/^rort, but were larger. They feed on the Cephalantha^' Occidenfalvs, a plant 
which grows on margins of creeks, in swam))*, &c ; has lanceolate leaves in twos and threes, and white flow- 
ers in clusters, and is better known as the Buttonbiish. It is a common weed, occurring in various parts of 
Long Island and New Jersey, and I have little doubt that careful search by collectors who have the plant 
within reach, would be rewarded by the finding of some of the larvae. Doubtless owing to the plants growing 
in and near water, very many of these larvae are drowned, which may in some measure account for the amazing 
rarity of this insect, which without exception is the most lovely of all our N. Am. species, and second only to 
the peerless Chcerocampa Nerii, among those of other countries. 



CHCEROCAMPA PROCNE. Cleme.ns. 



Jul. Acad. Nat. .Sc, Phila., Vol, IV, p. 1.51 (1859). Morrii, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 20 (18601. Svnopsis Lep. X. Am., p. 173 
(1862). Walker, C. B. M., .Supplement Vol. XX.XI, p. 30 (1864). Grote & Robimon. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila., Vol. V, p. 155 
(1865); List Lep. N. Am., p. 4 (1868). 
Melopsilus Procne, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Xat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 22 ( 1873), Vol. II, p. 226 (1875.) 



(PL.\TE XIII, FIG. 10.) 



"Head and thorax dull lirown, (if not faded, I with a bro.ad whitish stripe on the sides, e.xtended to the lower edge of tegulse. 
Abdomen brownish testaceous, with faint dark-brown dorsal marks in atoms. Anterior wings rather pale brownish, punctated with 
dark atoms and with obscure dark brown lines extending from the base to the tip; discal spot dark brown and small. Posterior wings 
uniform blackish brown. Under surface of the wings brownish, somewhat tinged with rulbus, and with two rows of brown spots in mid- 
dle of the posterior. California." 

Dr. Clemens' description above quoted agrees exactly with the example I have figured, which passed 
into my keeping along with the Lepitiopterous collection of the Rev. Dr. John G. Morris some years since. 
It had no name attached, but merely the locality, "S. California ;" its foriuer possessor could give rae no fur- 
ther particulars concerning it, but I have no doubt it is the species described as Procne, though this name 
may perhaps eventually ])rove a synonym of some species common to Mexico and Tropical America. 



SPHINX LUSCrriOSA. Clemens. 



Jnl. .\cad. Nat. .Sc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 172 (1859). 

Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 19 (1860); Svn. Lep. N. Am., p. 197 1 18621. Walker, C. B. M., Supplement Vol. XXXI, p. 
.36 (1864). Grote & Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 165 (1865); List Lep. N. Am., p. 5 (1868). 
Lelhea LuacUiosa, Grote, Bull. Buff. .Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 26 1 1873), Vol, II, p. 228 (1875) 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 11 ?.) 



Male. Expands 2| inches. 

Head and thorax very dark brown above, whitish-grey on sides ; abdomen light brown above, with a 
black dorsal line; on each side a row of black spot.s ; beneath grey. 

Superior wings narrow and prolonged, less in length from base to inner angle than from the latter to 
apex ; exterior margin almost straight. Upper surface light brownish, shaded with darker brown at costa 
and inner margin ; a rather broad dark brown marginal band; a very small white discal spot; a narrow 
black apical line, and a few abbreviated, almost obsolete, black lines in the cells. Fringe brownish. 

Posterior wings ochrey, with broad, black marginal band, and very faint evidences of a mesial band ; 
fringe white. 

Under surface ochrey, with a rather broad brown marginal band on all wings. 

Fem.vle. Expands 3| inches. 

Head and body as in male. 

Primaries much broader and not so much prolonged, being less from apex to inner angle than from latter 
to base. Ujjper surface clouded with light grey ; black marginal band broadest at inner angle, and diminishes 
to a point before reaching the apex ; black ajMcal and other streaks better defined than in the male; exceed- 
ingly small white discal spot. Fringe dark brown and white, former colour predominating. 

Secondaries as in male. 

Under surface, primaries greyish, with a slight yellow tinge ; marginal baud not well defined, whitish 
and brown, former colour gaining at and towards apex, the latter at inner angle. Fringes brown and white. 



SPHINX LUSCITIOSA. 115 

Secondaries yellowish grey ; brown marginal baud, paler towards outer angle, and not reaching to ab- 
dominal margin. Fringe white. 

Habitat. Canada, New England and Middle States, also Ohio, Maryland, Virginia, Indiana, Wiscon- 
sin, and probably other States. Rare. 

Dr. Clemens' description applies only to the male, which differs from the female much more than is 
generally the case in this genus. The types were captured by Mr. T. B. Ashton, who directed Dr. Clemens' 
attention to them in the collection of George Newman, Philadelphia, where they were represented, I believe, 
in both sexes. 

Of the larvfe I believe nothing is known. 



SPHINX LUGENS. Walker. 

0. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 219 (1856.) 

OtoU & Robinson, List Lep. N. Am., p. 5 (1868). 
Agriug Lugens, Orote, Bull. Buff'. Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 26 (1873), Vol. II, p. 228 (187.5). Gaumer, Observer of Nature, Vol. II, 

No. 5 (1875). 
Sphinx Eremitoides, on page 93 of this work. 

(PLATE XIII, FIG. 12 ?.) 



Since redescribing this species from examples received from Mr. Ashton, I have become indebted for 
others to Prof. Snow, of Kansas, who was the first to breed it and who describes the larva, when full-grown 
and ready to enter the ground, as follows : 

"Length 3J inches, greatest thickness .56 in., head greenish brown with a distinct white stripe on each side ; general colour of 
body pale green, with seven oblique lateral white bands ; caudal horn bl.ack and in length .37 in. It becomes full-grown from 21st of 
September to 15th of October; imago appears from May 20th to June 10th. Food plants Salvia Pilcherii, Torrev, and Salvia Trichos- 
temmoides, Parsh. The larv.f were first observed by me in October, 1873, in great abundance, and several imagines were obtained from 
them in the following May and June; the species is double brooded." Mr. Gaumer, in the "Observer," also states that "two broods of 
these caterpillars appear during the year, the first in .lune, the .second very late in autumn ; the last brood hibernate in the chrysalis 
state under ground and are much more numerous than the first." 

Walker's types in the British Museum were from Mexico, and no N. American collection, I believe, possessed it, nor was it known 
to occur in the United States until taken by Mr. Ashton and Prof. Snow, in Kansas. 

Dr. Clemens, in Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 169 (1859), gives Lugens as a synonym of Sordida, Hub., (which latter 
is, by the w.ay, a synonym of Eremitus, Hub.). 

The example described by me on page 93 as having the black mesial band of secondaries broken in the middle by the whitish 
ground is merely an aberration, as I have not observed this peculiarity in any of the eiample.s since received. 



SPHINX PLOTA. 

Described on p. 106. 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 13 (f .) 



Since describing the males taken in Canada I have received a fine female of this species from Mr. Dury, 
who captured it near Cincinnati; I have also heard of several other examples that were taken in various 
localities, so that this is evidently as widespread a species as most of its congenors. 

The female resembles the male, save that the primaries are more even coloured, there being fewer dark 
marks than on the other sex. Of the larva, as yet, nothing has come to my knowledge. 



SPHINX JASMINE ARUM. Boisduval. 

Griffith's Cuvier's Animal King., XV, T. 83, f. 1 (1832). Leconle Sr., Wilson Treat. Ent. in Enc. Brit., p. 236. f. 5, 6 (1835). 
CTemcTis, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 173 (1859). Morris, C»t. Lep. N. Am., p. 19(18601; Svn. Lep. N. \m., 
p. 198 (1862). Walker, C. B. M., Sup. Vol. XXXI, p. 36 (1864). Orote & Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 165 
(1865). 
Diludia Jasminearum, Grote & Robi)ison, List. Lep. N. Am., p. 4 (1868). Grote, Bull. Bufl^ Soc. Nat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 25 (18731, Vol. II, 
p. 227 (1875). 

(PLATE XIII, FIG. 14 cf.) 



Expands 3f to 5 inches. 

Head and body above whitish grey ; a black stripe on sides of the thorax ; on abdomen lateral white 
spots edged with black; beneath white. 



116 SPHINX JASMIiXEARUM. 

Upper surface ; primaries same colour as body, with zig-zag transverse brown lines; a dark shade ex- 
tends from a little below the middle of exterior margin to the costa interior to the discal spot, this latter white 
and inconspicuous; fringes white, brown at terminations ot veins. 

Secondaries dark brown, with obsolete traces of marginal and mesial bands; greyish at abdominal and 
inner half of exterior margins ; fringes as in superiors. 

Under surface light brown ; ba.sal half of secondaries paler and greyish. 

Habitat. New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and others of the Atlantic States. Rare. 

Larva pale yellowish-green, dorsal lines of darker colour on the sixth, seventh, eighth, ninth and tenth 
segments ; transverse narrow white lateral stripes on all the segments save the two last, where these stripes 
which extend to the caudal horn are red and green, the latter colour upjwrmost ; caudal horn green, with dull 
red serrations. Feeds on ash, and probably elm. 

Till' friniis I>iliiclin in wliiili (irote plaws lliis .species he constructed with SpAtnx £ronto, Dnirv, for his lype. Here are liis 
worii>, from wliicli il will be seen that the weii;hty rea-sons for erecting the genus Dihulia are these, that : "Kroni Maerosila the specie.s 
ditTer liy the straighter external margin of the jpriniaries. and by the exserted internal angle, in those characters resembling Amphonynx, 
while the normal jialpal conformation, with a number of other characters, amply separate them from Prof. Poey's genus. AVe do not 
give furlhcr charaiiers here of a gcnns which we are satisfied should be erected, since we have insufficient material upon which to am- 
plify from neeiled dis,seclions."* And of course, as the authors were "satisfied," it was the duty of the scientific world to huniblv submit 
without putting G. & R. to the trouble of giving "further characters." 



SPHINX CONIFERARUM. abbot & Smith. 

Lep. Insects of Georgia, p. 81, T. 42 (1797). Harris, .Sill. Jnl. Art. & Sc, XXXVI, p. 296 (1839) ; Ins. Ini. Veg. (Flint's 
Ed.), p. 328 (1862). Morris, Cat. Lep. N. Am., p. 18 (1860); Syn. Lep. N. Am., p. ]!)9 (1862). 

Hyloicus Conij'eiarum, Hubner, Verz. bek. Schniett., p. 139 (1816). Grote & Robinson, Proc. Ent. Soc., Phila., Vol. V, p. 166 (1865); 
List Lep. X. .\ni., p. .5 (lSt)8). 

Aneenjx Coni/erunim. WuWer, C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 224 (1856). 

Ellema Cnuiferarum, Gr le. Bull. But!'. Soc. Xat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 27 (1873). 

Lapura Conijerarvm, Grote, 1. c, Vol. II, p. 228 (1875). 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 15 cf.) 



Expands about 2| inches. 

Head and collar umber; thorax and abdomen ash-grey and immaculate. 

Upper surface, superiors ash-grey with two short black streaks in the cells between the median nervules, 
and an inconspicuous dentated transverse line succeeded inwardly by a slightly paler shade ; fringes white, 
with brown at terminations of venation. Inferior wings brownish-grey, paler at base; fringes as on superiors. 
Under surliice pale brownish-grey. 

Habitat. New York, Maryland, Georgia, and doubtless others of the Southern and Middle States. 
Exceedingly rare. 

The only examples I know of are in the collection of Titian Peale, Esq., and two in my own possession, 
one of which was taken in New York State, and the other was raised from a larva found feeding on pine, near 
Baltimore, Md.f 

.\bbot h:is figured the larva, which he says fed on Pinus Palustrls ; it has a yellow head, and the body 
chequered with light and dark grey squares. 



SPHINX HARRISII. Clemens 

Ellema Harrisii, C/mens, .Jnl. Acad. Xat. Sc, Phila., Vol. IV, p. 188 (1S59). Morris. Cat. Lep. X. Am., p. 20 (1860). Grote d: Bobin^ 
son, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., p. 166 (1865). Lintncr, 23d Keport X. V. State Cab. Nat. Hist., p. 170, T. 8, f. 10 ^, 11 Q 
(1869). Grote, Bull. Bufl'. Soc. Xat. Sc, Vol. I, p. 27 (1873). 

Ellema Harrisi, Mo-ris, Syn. Lep. X. .^m., p. 210 (1862). 

Hytoirus Harrisii, Grvic A Robinson, List Lep. X. Am., p. 5 (1868). 

Eitemn JInrrisii, Walker. C. B. M., Supplement Vol. XXXI, p. 37 (1864). 

Sp/ii'iii Coni/erarum, Hums, Sill. Am. .Jul. Sc, Vol. XXX^■1, p. 297 (1839). 

Lapara liombycoUles, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc, Vol. II, p. 228 (1875). 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 16 ?.) 



Expands IJ inciies. 

Head and body ash grey ; upper edge of tegulse edged with brown ; abdomen immaculate. Beneath 
brownish. 

♦Proc Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V. p. 188 (1865). 
tSee page 93. 



SPHINX HARRISII. 117 

Upper surface ; primaries ashen, with transverse undulate lines and shades ; two black streaks in the in- 
terspaces between the median nervules ; fringes white, brown at termination of veins. 

Secondaries brownish, basal half pale, nearly white ; faint evidences <jf a mesial band ; fringe as on 
primaries. 

Under surface brownish. Secondaries paler at abdominal margin. Fringe as above. 

Habitat. New England, Middle, and others of the Atlantic States. Rare. 

Larva is green, with lateral pale stripes, destitute of the caudal horn, and feeds on Pinus Sfrohus and 
doubtless other species of Conifene. 

It has long been surniLsed tliat this species might be identical with Lapara Bombycoides, Walker,* which exists at present, as far 
us is known, in the single type example in the Hopeian Collection at the University of Oxford ; originally it was contained in the 
collection ot' Mr. Saunders, of London, England, where it was described Ijy Walker ;t afterwards the whole of the Helerocera of 
Mr. Saunders' collection were added to the Oxford Museum. From lliis uniipie, whicli is in perfect condition, Prof. Westwood had the 
kindness to make for me an accurate coloured drawing which represents an insect indeed allied to Sphinx Harri«ii, but separated from 
it by the following differences, which Prof Westwood, to wliom I submitted a proof of the accompanying figure of Harrisii, has indi- 
cated in a recent letter : Bombycoides is much more brownish in tint, not near so leaden grey ; (he thorax is destitute of all black lines ; 
the dark dashes on middle, near inner margin of primaries, are more central and nearer to base of tlie wing; the secondaries are with- 
out any appearance of dark central fascia; the fringe on anal margin is of same pale dull brown as the rest of wing; under surface 
of all wings is uniform pale dull brown. 

The figure of Prof. Westwood is also larger than any example of Harrisii I have yet seen, being about 2J inches in expanse. 

In Grote's last List of N. Am. Sphingid;ehe has given Ellema Harrisii as a synonym of Bombycoides, but without stating any 
rea.son for so doing. 

With Ellema Harrisii has long been confoun<led the previously described Sph. Coniferarum, which latter was long looked on as a 
myth, owing doubtless to its great rarity. 

Dr. Clemens, in his Monograph in Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., states in connection with Sph. C'onifet arum : "The specimen 
Dr. Harris described under this name, as I have ascertained from a photograph, was E. harrisii. This is probably likewise identical 
with .S'. coniferarum. The discovery of the larva of harrisii will remove any doubt respecting the identity of the insects." 

It is not safe to depend entirely on pictures, be they ever so accurate or even photographic. Whether Dr. Clemens' opinion 
above cited be correct or not, it is at least evident that Dr. Harris was acquainted with the larva> of Coniferarum, .Abbot & Smith, as he 
says on page 328 (Ins. Inj. Veg., Ed. 1862) : "the curiously checkered caterpillar of Sphinx, Coniferarum on pines ;" the larva oi^ Har- 
ri'.si'i is not "curiously checkered," but is green with lateral and sublateral stripes of yellow and white. 



SPHINX SEQUOIA. BoisDuvAL 

Lep. de la Californie (1869). 

Henri/ Edwards, Proc. California .\cad. Nat. Sc. (1873). 
Hyloicus Sequoive, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc, Vol. I, p. 27 (1873), Vol. II, p. 228 (1875). 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 17 tS'-) 

Expands 2 inches. 

Head and body grey, two black lines on head extending thence along upper edge of tegulje; abdomen 
with a black dorsal line, sides with alternate black and white bands. 

Upper surface, primaries grey, with short black streaks in the cells, and one transverse one, accompanied 
by a shade near the exterior margin ; fringes brown and white alternately. 

Secondaries brownish, without marks ; fringes white on abdominal and inner half of exterior margins, 
rest brown and white alternately. 

Under surface brownish grey. 

Habitat. California. Mus. Boisd., Hy. Edwards. 

The original of Fig. 17 was lent me by Mr. Henry Edwards, of California, and is, probably, with the exception of Dr. Boisdu- 
val's type, the only example extant in any collection. In Mr. Edwards' Memoir on Pacific Coast Lep., above cited, he says: "I had 
the good i^orlune to take a fine (j^ of this rare species in Bear Valley, in .June, 1872. It was hovering at mid-day over a pool of water, 
darting down occasionally to drink. The specimen from which Dr. Boisduval made his description was captured by the late M. Lor- 
quin, at Grass Valley, resting on the bark of a Redwood tree, (Sequoia sempervirens — Lamb.)" To Mr. Edwards I am indebted for the 
opportunity of presenting the figure of this rare species. 

*C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 233 (1856).' 

t"Cinereous. Fore wings with a zigzag oblique black line, and with several lanceolate black marks. Hind wings brownish, 
paler towards the base ; ciliae white. Length of the bodv 10 lines; of the wings 24 lines. 
Canada. In Mr. Saunders' collection." Walker," C. B. M., Vol. VIII, p. 2.33. 



SPHINX SANIPTRI. 



(PLATE XIII, FIG. 18 <f>. 



Male. Expands 3 inches. 

Ui>per .surface in colour and ornamentation same as the European S. Pinasfri, L., with this exception — 
that the latter has two broad transverse brown bands on primaries, the outermost of which is entirely wanting 
in the present insect, and the innermost is (piite narrow and darker in colour than in Pinastri. 

Under surfiice uniform brownish-grey, flint traces of a mesial band on secondaries. In Fiiiastri are the 
marginal part of primaries a little paler and more ashen than the rest of wing; in this species there is uo 
perceptible change in the colouration. 

Fknial?:. Expan<ls 3| inches. 

Head and body same as male. 

Upper surface, |)rimaries same colour as male, destitute of all markings save a faint apical line and the 
obscure streaks in cells between the median nervules near the median nervure. 

Under surface uniform dull greyish-brown. 

Described from one d and one ? exam])lc. The former was captured in Canada and was received by me 
from Mr. Reakirt; the female I took sitting on a fence near some pine woods a mile from Reading, Pa. I 
have never seen any others. Both examples are in good condition, though the female is a little w^orn ; they 
seem to me to be an intermediate form between Sequoice aod Pinastri, though very close to the latter. 

.Sdiiie yi-ars aso in the month of October, crawling on tl\e ground among the dead pine leaves in this same piece of woods, I 
fiinnil two larva? which lielonged to some insect of this irroup, perhaps to this species. M_v notes sav : "Not quite three inches long, 
ratlicr slender, head yellow striped with red ; liodv redilish, surrounded with many transverse fine black lines; a brown .stripe on b.aek 
from head lo anal horn, this stripe lined with white on both sides ; on sides alternate bands or lines of green and yellow, green pre- 
dominating from head to last segment isave one) ; caudal horn dark reddish-brown; first few spiracles white, the others ringed with 
red and black; from base of anal horn to end of anal segment, a reddish brown ilorsal line." 

rnfortunately, with all my care, these larv.-e, though they entered the ground, failed to jiroduce perfect insects ; nor did I ever 
after see but one other, which was mutilated by .some bird, but 1 have little doubt but that they were the larva> of the species I have fig- 
ured. 

If this species be a form of Pinastri, I know not, as I have never seen an example of the latter ilesiitnte of the broad brown trans- 
verse shades of primaries ; but should this be the case, it is an easy matter to re-anagramize the name back to its original spelling, 
und alles ist wieder gut. 

OX THE GENERIC PHANTASIES OF S. H. SCUDDER. 

We fear Mr. Scudder's terrene existence is in considerable Jeoi)ardy, for has it not been said "whom the gods wish to destrov 
they first make mad," and to recapitulate all the entomological vagaries that gentleman has indidged in would take volumes; at the 
magnitude of such a synopsis oven Ilubncr's ghost would stand duinlbimded. 

The llesperiihe have been separated by him into myriads of genera, and the genera into coHntles.s species. Nisoniades Juvenalis 
lias been forced lo evolve JS. Viri/iliits, Jloratius, Enniiis, OriV/i'u.*, Tibiillus, Plnulua, Propcrtiu!!. Fvnfratis, Tcrentius* — these separated 
from the old species and each other only by a twist or two in the shape, or the millionth of an inch diliircnce in the size of the organs 
of generation 1 Krom the genus Pamphila he has educed, on what grounds it would be n wise man indeed who could tell, genera with- 
out end ; Prencs, Limochores, Ochlodes, Anlhoviaster, Polilei' and lledone are a few of the many that at the moment occur to me. 

In an evil hour, by some mischance, he came into pos.session of the old obsolete Hnbueriau tract, beginning "Tentamen determi 
nationis," etc., jirinled (without date) sometime about ISOt) ; he must needs get a reprint of the precious document for distribution at 
ten cents, or thereabouts, per copy, and, lo I broadcast, like seed of thistles, or like dire pestilence, the thing spread, bringing forth no 
goo<l fruits. .-Vs the leading sheep blindly jumps lumllong into a ditch, and the fiock as blindly follow, so (irote, ever re.idy, and 
mad for any means that might bring his name into notice, enrolled himself under the Tentamen banner, and others of still lesser note, 
stricken with Teiitamania Hocked around llie same standard. Tentamania spread with rapidity ; the pages of the Can. Ent. are filled 
with its virus, the t'ainbridge organ anil the liull'. Hull. iCirote's organ i teemed with it. ,'^cudiler, on jiages i'io — 2ti0 of publication 
just ciled, give.- his "■■iynonymic List of N. .\m. Xymphales ;" were it written in the language of the Zulus it could be no whit more 
unintelligible to the mass of students than it is. He says: "The following list has been prepared to exhibit in the briefest possible 
manner the classification, nomenclature, etc.," and that "it is" (heaven forfendl "the Prodromus of a more extended catalogue in which 
the writer hopes to include a fuller synonymy * * * * and which, through the co-operation of his colleague, Mr. \. R. Grote, will em- 
brace all the Lejiidoptera of North .Vuurica." 

He goes on to say that "the aim has been to eliminate everything unessential to the points in view," to which he might have 
added, which was to try t<i cram down our throats head and slioulders the most monstrously absurd and incongruous compilalion that 
ever em. mated from the diseased brain of man since the advent of .\dain. Here is the way you are to distinguish his genus Satyrodea: 
"Hind wings entire;" now you know all about it the moment you see this insect (there is but (me of the genusi ; you know what it is, 
iiotwilhstanding that a thousand olhei-s have the "hind wings entire;" there is a mysterious afiinity between you and the insect 
that t»lls you it belongs to Scudder's genus Satyrodes. You turn to the list and finii "Sitti/rodes Euiydice, Linn.-Johanss., Amoen. .\cad., 
6, 406 (Papi7ioi; Scudd., Rev. .\mer. Butt., ti i Argus);" s-hades of the mighty I what an exhumation of old dead bones; the insect 
meant, by referring to the synonymy, in exceedingly small italics, is the common Paran/e Canlhus, Linn.. \ Boisduvatli, Harr.), by which 
name it has been known and cited for a hundred years, and now at this late date we are called upon to change it, at Mr. Scudder's 
behest. "Neominois" is erected by Scudder for an insect (Sa/yniS iJirfmpsiitl allied to Satyrus Bcroe, Fir., 5. Hippolyle, Esp., Semele, 
Linn., etc. As a synonym of Ccrcyonig Whetleri, Edwards, he cites our Salyrus Hoffmani, entirely ignoring the figures of the male of that 

*Paper on .\ssymetry, Proc. Bost. Soc. N. H., 1870, Vol. XIII, pp. 277, 288. 
tFigured on Plate IV of this work. 

118 



ON THE GENERIC PHANTASIES OF S. H. SCUDDER. 119 

species on Plate VIII (Figs. 12, 12), which is as difi'erent from Mr. Edwards' description of his males as from Saiyrus Podaree, E-sp. ; 
he quotes only our female figures against Mr. Edwards' males, whilst Mr. Edwards himself says in his description that the female was 
"not known," and whilst our male is a brown butterfly, as dark as Atope on both surfaces, Mr. Edwards' species, according to his text, is 
a much larger butterfly, "light yellowish brown" above and whitish beneath, more like the $ of our species, cited by Scudder as a 
synonym, but Mr. Edwards himself stated that he knew not the female — that liis 9 examples were all males. 

Hdiconius Charitmiia is given as Apostraphia Charithonia. Under Cldorippe Herse and C. Lycaon are disguised beyond all recogni- 
tion Apatura Clyton and A. Cdlis, Bdl. et Lee. Our common Limenitis Ursula, Fabr., is designated as Basilarehia Astyanax. Vanessa 
is cut into four difi'erent genera, viz. : (1.) Po/^joraia for the Graptas ; (2.) Eut/onia (or V. J. Album and Calijornica; (3.) Aglais 
for MUberti in solitary grandeur. Language fails us — our hand refuses to go further — even the ink on our pen pales — must we record 
it, that actually the fourth genus taken from Vanessa Mr. Scudder has called Papilio and placed in it the one insect Vanessa Antiopa, L. 
Surely no man, not gone stark mad, would be guilty of sucli unheard of, aye, undreamt of absurdities, and — but each page of this most 
paerile affair exposes new and wilder extravagances. A separate genus called Speyeria is constructed for Argynnis Jdalia — on what 
grounds? Because, says Mr. Scudder, "outer half of upper surface of hind wings with two rows of pale markings on a blackish 
ground, none of the spots confluent ;" were I Dr. Speyer I really would prosecute, but alas, what do I say, are the unfortunate answera- 
ble in law for tlieir vagaries ? After Speyeria comes the genus Semnopsyche, Scudder — for what ? to receive Argynnis Diana ; here is the found- 
ation of Semnopsyche : "basal half of hind wings unspotted beneath, or witli only one or two faint light spots ;" after this come Argynnis, 
showing in his arrangement that Scuilder considered Idalia further removed from Cybete, Atlantis, etc., than from Diana. Euphydryas, 
Scudder, contains a single species, the common MelUrea Phceton, whilst its close ally, M. Chalcedona, is transmogrified into Lemonias 
Chalcedona. Thessalia is made for Metilcea Leanira, Bdl., Theona, Men., and Thekla, Edw. For Melitma Harrisii we now have Cinelidia 
Harrisii. Charidryas is for Melilcea Nycieis and Carlota ; and Antkanassa for Mel. Texana, Edw., and Punctata, Edw. He ends witli 
Hypatus for the Libytheida", having made out of the Nymphalida? of N. Am. od genera and 187 species, averaging about 3J species to 
each genus, and God save us from what is to follow if this be only "the Prodroinus !" 

In the same volume his colleague, Grote, has even outstripped him ; for in a catalogue of the N. Am. Sphingida? (not including 
Sesia and Trockilium) he has 36 genera and 74 species — aliout twO species to the genus I It is scarce worth while to go over these freaks 
of this vainest of egotists ; suffice it to say, that Deilephila Gallii in here Hyles Chanifrnerii; Pliilampelus is cut into three genera, i. e., 
Dupo, Philampdus and Argeus; Snierinthus into five, i. e., Paonius, Calasymbolus, Smerinthus, Amorpha and Cressonia — the latter at the 
expense, as previously state<i by us, of Po/;/p/j/e/ius, Hub. ; Sp/iiJi.( is divided into Lethia, Dolba, Dilophonta, Hyloicus, Lapara, Diludia, 
MacrosUa and several others. Mr. Mosdiler lias ably criticised this wholesale manufacturing of genera, and Grote, in a feeble attejnpt 
to vindicate iiimself, keeps in a ramliling way to the subject for a dozen lin«s or so, then goes wandering oft' into the realms of Orni- 
thology, quoting from a paper on Samia Columbia, by Dr. Hagen, which has nothing to do with the subject, and is evidently far above 
his (Grote's) comprehension, at any rate ; from this he gets to a paper by Prof. Kiley, which causes him much wonderment, because 
that author wouldn't put our N. American Apaturas into a different genus from the allied European ones; he then is not agreed that 
in proposing a generic name an autiior is obliged to construct a perfect diagnosis, and, lie might have added, when it is impossible to do 
so — and excuses himself by telling us there must be differences of opinion in Entomology as in other matters, and finally winds up 
with a covert hit at Morrison, delicately intimating that two of that author's species are .synonyms, as in fact everything must be that 
had not gone through his mill ; then comes a modest notice about "my suggestions," "affinities," something about the mountains — I 
mean "the animals which formerly may have taken refuge on Mount Washington," to escape the flood, we suppose, and we all wonder 
what the deuce he lias been trying to get at, and come to but one conclusion, that it was to exalt Grote above iloschler, and all creation 
besides. 

Here is an idea of the great fundamental principle that Scudder and Grote are working on: They take the first mentioned 
species, if it happens to suit their purpose, in any one of Hubner's innumerable ' Coitus," and make that the type of the genus; thus, 
the present genus Vanessa embraces insects placed by Hulmer in Polygonia and Euyonia ; the first name mentioned in the former is 
Polygonia Triangulum, Fabr., ( Vanessa Eyea, Oram, i, about as aberrant in appearance from the rest enumerated as it can well be, and 
not resembling any of our known species in the sub-genus Grapta: so Scudiler avoids this one, passes by the next, C. Aureum, L., like- 
wise heeds not Cramer's Progne. but seizes on 0. Album a-^ the type of Polyginia; thus he has resurrected Polygonia, wliich must stand 
as a distinct genus for the reception of those Vanessans previously comprised in Kirby's sub-genus Grapta. >io\v we come to Eugonia; 
Hubner's type of this coitus was a rather unfortunate one, as the sect)nd species emuuerated in his previous coitus Polygonia happens to 
be the first one which he placed in this next coitus Eugonia, namely, Angelica, Cram., which is but a synonym of C. Aureum, L., a 
Japanese species which is as close to such .species as Polychlorus and J. Album as it is to Progne and C Album ; but, to make all things 
square, Hubner, with wonderful .'^agacity, places it in each of his two coitus, only under a different name in each one, so that neither 
Linne nor Cramer would have their species in this instance ignored ; so extremes meet, as the last species (I. Album, Esp.,) in Polygonia 
is only the same as the first under another name, or rather under two other names. Scudder, in adopting the genus Eugonia, took no 
notice of the first mentioned species, but passing over it and the ne.xt {Rhinopalpa Polynire, wliich lias no more to do with Polychlorus 
and C. Album than it has with Ageronia Fornaxl. and likewise the next i V. Album, Wien. \eiz.,^J. Album, Edl.et Lee), he comes on 
Polychlorus which he makes his type of Eugonia, and then the first of the two species he puts in that genus is the identical J. Album= 
V. Album=L. Album, Esp., which he has ignored as tlie type in favor of Polychlorus. 

Grote, in his X. Am. Sphingida?, imitates Scudder, in following Hubner, but altering, of course, from the latter as his occasions 
may require. For instance : in adopting Hubner's genus ie/ZiiVi he takes the last species (.SpA/nx Gordii«) mentioned as his type, in- 
stead of the first, \Sph. Ligustri;) and Sph. Drupiferarum, the nearest .American ally to Ligustri, he has placed in another genus. Hub- 
ner's coitus Polyptychi, which contains Juglandis, he ignores, as it would conflict with his own genus Cressonia, created for that species. 
All that is yet wanting to complete Grote's work is to follow Hubner again and to head his genera with short lucid descriptions, (Scud- 
der has already done so, I which would enable the student at a glance to know the species included in their countless tribes, stirps, fiiin- 
ilies, coitus, etc. Here is Hubner's diagnosis of his family Angulati, comprising his Paoniee and Mimantes {Smerinthus Ocellala, Myops 
and Exceecatui in the first, Sm. Tilice in the second ; I "The body beautifully coloured ; the wings bluntly angulated, lightly shaded."* 
If that isn't enough to identify one of the Smerinthi a mile oft', I don't know what is. 

In Hubner's coitus ^4cAeroH/i'ff are ^cA. ^-I^ropus, h., Sph. Chionanlhi, .\hh. & ?■.,( Mac. Rustica, Fahr.,) and Ach. Morla {Lethe, 
West ;) the first the common European death's-hea<l, the last the African .species, and between them is put our Sphinx. Rustica ( Chionan- 
lhi,) for the one reason, doubtle.ss, that, like the other two, it has a skull-like marking on the back of the thorax ; but I much fear Hub- 
ner, like his imitator, Grote, did not know half the things he wrote about, for in his next coitus Cocytius we again find C/iiO«an(/i)' under 
its older name o£ Rustica. In the fifth stirps, Echidnas: "The body small ; the wings large, peculiarly ornamented ;"t the third family 
of this stirps, Communiformes, is thus described : "the wings of common form ; variously ornamented and coloured ;"I would the sa- 
gacity of any man living recognize Eacles Imperialis or Cith. Regalis as belonging to the above family '? Stirps 7, family D., are coitus 1, 

"*Der Runipf farbig ausgezeichnet ; die Flugel stumpf eckig, sanftschattig angelegt." Verz. p. 142. 
tDer Leib klein ; die Flugel gro.ss, sonderbar gezeichnet. Verz. p. 151. 
JDie Flugel gemeinformig ; unterschieden gezeichnet und gefarbt. 1. c, 153. 



120 NOTES, NEW SPECIES, ETC. 

Adelpha conlaiiiinf,' seven species of the insects more familiarly known as, and now embraced in Boisilnval's penus Heterochroa 




But, after all, there is tliis one most ini|iortant (litierence between Ilnbner and his present "imitators, that though his writings 
' fanciful he gave most accurate and reliable tigiires of his species, which thev do not. 

It is nnfortimale, most unfortunate, that owint; to the existence of the mutual admiration societv which embraces so manv of the 
American Lepidopicrists, there has been but little protest against the phantasms of the authors alluded to; there is no fear that the 
scientists of Kurope will at iheir diction adopt such Laputian nomenclature, but there arc here manv beginners and less jidvanced 
students who have, mdiappily, partly adopted the style of nomenclature of tliese fhams of Lcpidopterologv, as their catalogues lists 
etc., are published in cheap jieriodicals, easily obtainable, whilst the solid, real work of the older as well .%s tile present standard ai'ilhor.s 
oil entomological science are not so easily accessible, which is the more to be regretted, as though Scudder and Grote are actuated by 
widely ilitterent nKJtives in their writings, still both produce the same pernicious results ; Scudder's lists, theories, etc., seem to be gotten 
up to show what amount of time and labor one human being is capable of completely wasting; whilst, were it not for his overweening 
eg(itism, it might p(jssibly occur to Mr. Grote that there was some other object in publishing catalogues, etc., than that of the endless 
repetition of the name of the compiler. 

NOTES, NEW SPECIES, ETC. 

.Samia Ckaxothi is the correct name of the Salumia tig. 2, Plate XII. It was fullv described bv Dr. Herman Behr in Proceed- 
ings California Aca.l. Nat. 8c., Vol. I, p. 47, April, 30, IS.5.5; the author at the same time "presented the'Academv with a drawing of the 
insect, as well as a specimen of the cocoon, remarking that it was found on Ceanolhus Ihyrsijlorus, also on a Bhamnvsand a Photinua and 
that It was likely to prove valuable. Again, on pages 6S-69 ( 1. c. I, Aug. 27, ISoo, in recording donations to the Cabinet of the Academy 
IS the lollownig: "troin Dr. Behr, a specimen of the Cal. Silk Worm {Salumia Ceanothi, Behr)." ' ' 

oteina 

s : 
as 



Ten years later Grote, entirely ignoring the above description, redescribed the species as Platysamia Cali/ornica in a foot-n. 
er on "Bombycida' of Cuba" in Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. V, p. 229, Dec, 186.5. At the conclusion of his description h. 



a paper on aombycK he ot I uha m Proc. hnt. boc, Phila., \ ol. V, p. 229, Dec, 186.5. At the conclusion of his description he adds 
'It IS not impossible that this species may be 'Saturnia Euryale,' Boisd. ; if so, this latter name cannot obtain, since it has not .as far 
I am avyare, been sanctioneil by any description." ' ' 



Sancta simplicilas .' 

Lycjena Catai.ina. Dr. Behr informs me that his Lijama Lonjuini is identical with tliis species- its citations are thus- 
Lyc.f.na Catalina, Keakirt, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc, Phila., p. 244 il8«(j). 

Lyctena Lorijuini, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. Sc, Vol. III. p. 280 (1867). 

Lycirna Rhiiu, Boisduva!, Lep. Cal., p. 51 (1869). 

Lyama Daunia, W. II. Edwards, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, Vol. Ill, p. 272 (1871). 

Lyc^na Rapahoe, Reakirt. I have compared the types of this species with a large number of examples of Luc. Icarioides and 
can come to no other conclusion than that they are the same. Dr. Behr writes me that Ly. Jtapahoe as ligured in this work is identical 
with L. iMdalus, in which event the noiiienclatnre of the species would be 
Lyc.kn-a Ii-ARlolDEs, Boisduva!, ,\mi. Soc. Ent. Fr., p. 297 (18.52). 

Lycrna Bapahoe, Jteakirl, Proc. Ent. Soc, Phila., Vol. VI, p. 146 (1866). 

Lycirna Divdalvs, Behr, Proc. Cal. Acad. Nat. .Sc, Vsl. Ill, p. 280 (1867). 

Lyc.ena Pheres, Bdl., and L. Eviu.s, Bdl. Dr. Behr suggests mavbe local varieties of the same species, as he has intermediate 
e.xaiuples ; in my own cabinet are also a number of the latter, showing various gi-adations from one form to the other, and I have no doubt 
but Dr. Belli- s surmise is ccjrrect. 

Lyc.ena Gptilete Knoch. (Papilio O.) Beit. Ins. Ges., 1, p. 76, t. 5 (1781).— This species may be added to the \ \m 
tauna, as througli the kindness ot mine honored friend.'Dr. Behr, I have received several e.xamples that were taken in \laski - they 
|u-esem no diHerence whatever from the European examples ; it is a species having a wide range, being found in CJermany, Russia and 

Sphinx Si-kohi, l!dl., which has been accredited to California, I have received from South Africa. Il belongs to the simp 
group as 6'. CoHi/eraruiH, /'inas// 1, etc. *' ' 

Through the kindness of Prof. C. V. Riley I have examined the plates of Sphingidse recently published bv Dr. Boisduva! two 
new ones troui N. .\merica are figured in both imago and larva; under the names o< Sphinx Cntalpa', Bdl., and S. 'Cupressi Bdl the hit- 
ter Irom Georgia evidently belonging to the PinuMri group. Prof Rilev has had the larva> of & Catalmr, but has not .so 'far l believe 
been successful in rearing it. i • , •=, 

Mei.ix.ea Dora, N. S. 

Expands 8| inches. Head lilack, a yellow dorsal line and yellow points at the eves ; anlenme yellow, except a short space 
towards the head wliere they are black ; body above brown, below yellow ; on thorax a yellow central dorsal line Inner half of pri- 
maries iM-owuisli reil ; a yellow, somewhat irregular bar extending from below middle of exterior margin diagonally to middle of costa 
exterior to this baiul the wing is black ; in the discoidal cell is an irregular black mark, and another at end of tlie cell joins the vellow 
land, this latter IS also joined inwardly by another irregular black mark 1-e.iching from the middle to the exterior niiirgin of'win.'- 
between this mark and the one in the discoidal cell is a black spot ; a black dash at base of wing ; on costa a black streak and another 
longer, broader one at inner margin, extending Irom base to half the length of the wing. Secondaries brownish red from middle of ex- 
terior margin to apex very narrowly margined with black, widest .at veins ; beneath as above, but the black marks of primaries 
smaller J base oi secondaries yellow, accompanied with a short black streak ; a small black spot in di.scoidal cell I received this ex- 
ample from Mr. Reakirt, whose MSS. name I have retained for it; its locality was Esmeraldus. Allied closely to the lately de- 
scrilieil .)/. KMei, Stauding,-r, but diflers from it in the absence of all spots on the black apical part of primaries, in "the absence of the 
yellow spot at inner angle, in the absence of the bro.ad black margin of outer half of interior margin ami in the presence of the black 
dash on innerhalf of same; and on reverse of secondaries, in the position of the black spot, which is within the discoidal cell in ours 
and outside of it in Slaiidinger's species ; the hatter is from Central Am. To its author I am indebted for ray e-xamples ' 

It ha^een accurately figured bv Mr. Gustav Wevraer in the Stett. Entom. Zeit. (187.5). Taf II fig '4 



IsOTES, NEW SPECIES, ETC. 121 

Ageronia Anomala, Nov. Sp. 

Male expands 3 inches ; outline of wings Fume as A. Amphinfme, except that the outer half of costa of primaries is mora 
arched ; colour and ornamentation of upper surlace also precisely the same as in that species, with the single exception of the small 
white lunate spot iit costa, mid-way between the bro.ad white band and apex, which is wanting in our species; in all other respects, even 
to the smallest minutia?, it is the same in appearance, and no one, on even tlie most critical e.<amination, could by this surface separate 
it from Amphinome. Under surface of all wings same dark shining brown as in ^4. Arele, towards base a shade paler ; primaries have 
the white transverse band of upper surface repealed, and a very small white spot on apex, otherwise immaculate ; secondaries have two 
basal scarlet spots, one on costa and the other just anterior to it, tliis hitter is shaded a little exteriorly with black ; a row of scarlet sub- 
marginal spots situated as in Arele, with the exception of the anal (jne of that species which is here wanting, there being but four, whilst 
in -Ire/e there are five ; a small white apical spot. The whole under surface presents almost the exact appearance of Arele, $; the 
only point that strikes the eye as at all dilierent is the irregularity of the edges of the white band of primaries ; but the two basal spots of 
secondaries are also not like in Arele, round, but irregular, more like splashes or suffusions. 

Taken high up the Amazon in several examples, all of which, save one, however, were lost ; in same locality were taken with it 
a\any Megistanis, Deucalion :ind Bd'ot is ; also Murpho Cinseis, Bates,* Ayruulis Lucina, Feld.,t a Eunica (allied closely to A'cmena^ 
Dbldy., but smaller, and violet wliere that species is blue,) l)esides many other species of both butterflies and moths. 

CAT0C.4.LA HeRODIAS. Xov. Sp. 

Female expands 2i inches. Head and thorax dark smoky gray ; abdomen grayish brown ; beneath light gray. Primaries above 
same dark smoky gray as thorax, almost evenly coloured, only a little darker towards exterior margin ; transverse lines, tine and black, 
but inconspicuous; veins from exterior margin to transverse posterior line black ; a small black ba-al streak; reniform almost obsolete, 
subreniform widely open ; the transverse posterior line between subrenil'orm and costa in four unusually long sharp teeth ; fringe gray. 
Secondaries same red .as C'ocf ma^u, a little darker ; mesial baud, very irregular, from costa not quite one-third in broad, then <iuLte 
narrow, then broad and strongly curved like an X, then a mere line, continued suddenly to a triangular patch which does not reach 
quite to inner margin ; marginal hand broad at costa, somewhat gradually narrowing towards inner margin, which it does not quite 
reach ; apical line red ; fringe while, black at terminations of some of the veins. Under surface primaries pinkish ; all the tliree dark 
bands connected by a dark sliade on inner margin ; secondaries, inner two-thirds pink, costal part white, bands as above. 

Texas, one ? example, taken Ijy Mr. Belfrage. No. .501 of his collection. 

This insect has nuich the apjiearance of C. Liipinu, H-S., from Armenia, the colours are the same, anil the upper wings of 
both species are decorated in luucli the same manner, save that Lupina has a bold black longitudinal basal dash, which is replaced in 
ours with the merest line; the mesial bands of primaries are entirely different in the two species. Lupina is smaller than the [iresent 
species, and the under side of primaries is destitute of pink or reddish tinge. 

Catocala {Coccinata) Var. Circe. Nov. Var. or Sp. ? 

Male and female expand 2'j — 2.i inches. Head and tliorax whitish gray, with black lines, abdomen grayish brown, beneath 
white. Primaries same whitish gray as thorax ; luarks as in Coccinata, but heavily black and accompanied with black shades ; reniform 
tolerably distinct, subreniform conspicuous; a broad blackish shade extends, more or less interrupted, from base to exterior margin. 
Secondaries and under surface as in ordinary forms of Coccinata. 

1 have examined six examples taken by Mr. Belfrage in Bo.sque Co., Texas, and find them all constant to the form above de- 
scribed. I have little douijl liut that this is a form of Coccinata, but markeil ;ind constant enough to perhaps deserve a separate desig- 
nation. 

Catocai.a Semirelicta, Grote, is undoubtedly a variety of Briseis, W. H. Edw., bearing the same relation to the latter as does 
Phalanga to PoUeogama. I have many and varied intermediate examples. 

BuN.EA Eelis. Nov. Sp. 

Male expands 8| inches. Upper surlace rather dark mnber brown. Primaries falcate ; a narrow white submarginal band, or 
rather line extending from costa to inner margin ; indistinct transverse mesial and sub-basal shades, the latter undulate, the former al- 
most straight ; a small transparent di.scal lune. Secontlaries produced in an angle at middle of exterior margin ; a white submarginal 
band or line much further from exterior margin, between anal margin and middle, than between latter and costa ; from the anal margin this 
line is nearly straight to a little beyond the middle of wing, when it curves rather abruptly upwards to the costa ; in the centre of the wing is 
an ocellus nearly one inch in diameter, this is formed by a large brown spot shaded into jet black outwardly towards its edge, and 
containing in its middle a small transparent triangle; this spot is surrounded by a vermilion coloured ring, and this latter by a white 
line. Under surface brownish gray, faint traces of the white submarginal lines of upper surface made by a brown line; this submar- 
ginal line on secondaries is not bent at middle of wing as above, but goes-aliuost straight across from anal margin to apex ; the space 
from the submarginal lines to the outer margin darker colour than rest of wing ; a transverse narrow brown median shade crosses all 
wings ; transparent discal spots as above. 

From Calaliar, W. Africa, presented to me as a Christmas box by my ever dear and tried friend, Mr. T. Chapman, of Glasgow, 
Scotland, who in his letter announcing the gift remarked that be knew it would be to me far more acceptable than a turkey or a keg of 
whiskey. 

Heliothis Kegia, Nov. Sp. Expands 1^\ inches. Head and body white. Ground colour of all wings on both surfaces white. 
Primaries marked nuich in same style as Rivutosa, Guen., but widely different in colouration ; the basal part and submarginal band are 
purplish crimson ; the middle of the white central space is yellowish brown, or olivaeous, with an almost golden tint in some lights ; 
the outer part of white marginal band is also of this same colour. Secondaries with faint ill defined, rather broad purplish crimson 
marginal band. Under surface, primaries, basal part white, marginal band white, rest crimson. Secondaries with a crimson apical 
spot, and another smaller one on margin, midway between this and basal angle. Texas, taken by Mr. J. Boll. 

Heliothis Fastidiosa, Nov .Sp. Expands | — 1 inch. Head and body olive yellow, collar tinged with red. Primaries yellowish 
olive, median space tinged with j)inkish, and separated from basal and marginal parts by very narrow whitish lines, not in all cases, 
however, perceptible ; basal space palest near body, darkest towards median space ; marginal space palest outwardly, deepening into 
brown towards median space; discal mark large, but somewhat obscure. Secondaries pale dull yellowish, marked with black after the 
manner of i))^psac««s, L. Under surface yellowish white ; primaries; a black basal patch ; a large black discal spot which connects with the 
submarginal band ; inner two-thirds of this latter is black, and costal third is crimson ; inferiors marked below as above, but the outer 
half of marginal band is crimson, and the costa also is of that colour. Upper surface has, on a superficial glance, some ref emblance to Oar- 
dui, Hub. Texas, J. Boll, (No. 31). 

*Wien. Ent. Monat., Vol. IV, p. 189, T. 4 (1860). 
tl. c. Vol. VI, p. 110 (1862). 



122 >'OTES, NEW SPECIES, ETC. 



U' 



V 



J 



\y' 



\/ 



IIeliothis Siren", Xov. Sp. ExpanUs W incli. Ileail ami tliorax yellow, inclining lo nist colour; abdomen above black, 
buneatli yellowish. Upper surliice : primaries shining greyish yellow, nuich same tint as in Lynx, (jnen., ako style of decoration much 
as in that species; the basal part is rnst or sienna colonred, mi.xed with black on or towards edge nearest the median space; the snbmar- 
ginal band is also rnst coloured, with exterior and inner edges mixed with bhick ; this liand is snibb-nly narrowed to a mere line abont 
one-third in from the cosia ; an indefinite rnst coloured shade throngh middle of median space ; discal spot rather small ; fringes same 
colour as ground of |iiimaries. Seconilaries all black, witli pure while fringes, t'nder surface of primaries black, with a white exte- 
rior margin, and a narrow yellowish white edging on costa. Inferiors black, with large white apical space extending along costa, two- 
thirds in ; fringe white. Texas, J. Boll ( Xo. 4-5 1. 

IIeliothis Isci..\r.v, Xov. Sp. Expands 1 in. Head and body yellowish ; back of alidomen, except terminal segments, shaded 
■with blackish gray. Upper surface; primaries yellowish gray, uniform in shade; a basal patch of livelier darker yellow, shaded exte- 
riorly with brown, this basal patch does not reach to costa; a rather narrow snbmarginal Ijand of ilarker colour than the ground, and 
traversed througli its length by a macular shade of blackish. Secondaries greyish, with a very broad blai'k margin, discal spot almtjst 
imperceptible, fringe pure white. Under side whitish, with a slight yellow tinge, especially on inner and costal [larts of primaries, on 
which are a blackish basal patch, discal spot and liroad submargiual band, all three more or less merged into each other. Secondaries 
with a broad blackish snbmarginal band, which, however, reaches only from anal angle to about halfway between the latter and the 
apex. Texas, .J. lioU (No. 40 i, allied to the preceding i/. 5i're)i. 

IIeliothis N't'BiLA, Nov. .^p. Expands |,S in. Head and body above greyish, of an olivaceous greenish tinge ; beneath whit- 
ish. Upper surface ; primaries same colour as body ; the median lines very faintly defined, especially the inner one, which is almost 
obsolete; the sidmuirginal space of a darker shade than rest of wing ; basal part scarcely distinguishable from median space; no ilis- 
cal spot or blotch perceptible ; fringe same colour as wings. .■■Secondaries white, of a yellowish cast, marginal band liroad, black and 
.straight on innej- edge; <iiscal .spot large and black ; some black scales at base; fringe white. Under surface yellowish or tawny white; 
on primaries a longitudinal black basal patch reaching neither to co.-ta or inner uuirgiu ; a roiuid black discal sjiot ; a broad bhuk sub- 
marginal band which does not extend to either inner margin or costa; between it and the latter the colour is reddish. .Secondaries; an 
indistinct discal spot, and a submargiual band, inner half of which is black anil apical half reddish. Texa.s, .J. Boll (No. 48.) 

Heliotiii.s Ri'iiiGixosA, Nov. Sp. Expands IJ inches. Head, thorax and primaries, above, near the colour of A'an(/i/« lerrtiijin- 
oidea, Gueii., but a trifle more inclined to reddish, not so yellowish; abdomen paler, more whitish ; body below sprinkleil with cinua- 
luou coloured scales. Median lines of primaries white, faint, and rather irregular ; the outer and basal spacer shaded inconspicuously 
with grey at these lines ; otherwise no ilitit'rence in shaile of colour between meilian and outer and liasal spaces ; fringe greyish. In- 
feriors pale tawny ; broad marginal band and discal spot, very faintly defined by slightly darker shade of cinnamon, oi reddish tawny. 
Under surface same colour, p.ile.st at inner margin ; discal spots barely visible; no other definite ornamentation. Texas, J. Boll ( No. .50 1. 

Heliothis I.mperspicua, Nov. .Sp. Expands 1 j inches. Head and thora.x rather pale gray, inclining to olivaceous; abdomen 
ochrey wdiite. Upper surface ; primaries same colour as thorax, and in style of marking approach Rivulosa, Gnen., and Thorenui, Grote, 
though far paler in colour than either, resembling in this respect Schinia trifascia, Hub., Oleagina, Morrison, etc. The white line which 
.separates the basal from median space is but very little bent, and the one between the marginal and median space is not bent inwardly 
below the middle as much as in the allied species above alluded to, di.scal mark only perceptible by the slightest possible darker shade. 
Inferiors as in Rliutosa, but much paler. Under surface also much as in that species, but far paler. Texas, J. Boll (No. 53 1. This 
species has the same relative appearance to Thoreaui, Grote, as the latter has to Rivulosa, Guen. 

IIeliothis Ultima, Nov. .Si>. Expands 1 inch. Head and thorax above sober brown; alidomen yellowish-brown; beneath 
yellowish ; some redilish scales at terminal half of abdomen. U|)i>er surface ; (irimaries same brown as thorax ; median space not ditit'r- 
ing much in tint from rest of wing; median lines narrow, white and indistinct, and much bent like in Spinosce and RimUosa, but the 
meilian space is very much more contracted than in the-e ; di.scal slrade almost imperceptible; outer space a little paler at margin ; 
fringe whitish. Superior wings yellow with broad black margin ami small discal spot ; fringe white. Under surface coloured and 
marked much as in Spraguei, but much paler throughout. Texas ; J. Boll (No. 49). 

Heliothis Spectaxda, Nov. Sp. Expands 1 \ inches. Head and thorax above pale greenish ; abdomen ochraceous white ; beneath 
white ; fore f'egs didl red or maroon, median tar^i also reddish. Upper sind'ace; primaries, pale subdued green, somewhat like the tints in 
Schinia IVifascia, but greener, and crossed by three almost straight transverse paler bands or lines, the one adjoining the submargiual space 
the widest, within the latter a transverse row of faint spots ; renifbrm and orbicular spots pale, Imt clearly defined ; fringe same colour 
AS rest of wing. Secondaries white with broad brownish marginal border, broailest in the middle; fringe white. Beneath white with 
greenish tinge and opalescent reflections; a brown discal spot and faint evidences of an abbreviated snbmarginal band on the primaries. 
One example, Texas; J. Boll I No. -521. Is apparently near to Heliothis Armigera and allies, but possibly may belong to another genus. 

JCnioma, Nov. Gen. He.id very small, across the eyes at widest place scarce one-third the w idth of thorax, which latter is of 
great breadth ; palpi long, tapering and close together, giving the appearance of a snout or proboscis ; antenna' nearly the length of ab- 
domen, very .-lendiT, fililorm ; median and hind tibia' spurre<l ; abdcuneu, which is rather slight compared with the immense thorax, 
projects beyond liiuil wings ; fore wings much the same shape as in //i/^oca/a/tViVonu's, tluen., but more produced on inner margin to- 
wards but not at the base; hind wings broad, not strongly curved on outer margin. Ai the type is a unique, and not my property, I 
could not dciHide it, and can, in consecjuence, say nothing of the nervation, excepting that there appear to be a great nundier of sub- 
costal veinlets on the superiors. The insect on which I have based this genus seems in some respects lo be allied to H. Jilicomis, 
Guen., and in many more to be distinct therefrom. It is a $ example, as denoted by the forked frenulum. 

^I^XIG.M.*^ MiRlFlcuM, Nov. Sp., $. Expands IJ inches. Head, palpi and thorax above dark slate-grey; abdoiuen black with 

each .segment narrowly edged behind with yellow ; anal brush yellow; beneath, palpi, head and body pale yellow, becoming darker 
towards and at exti'emity of abdomen. I'pper surface ; primaries small, same slate-grey as ihurax, spotted over wlude surface with small 
dark points or dots which have a tendency to form t<derably regular transverse rows from costa to inner margin ; fringe conccdourous 
with wing. Inferiors black, an irregular, interrupteil yellow mesial band extending from near anal angle somewhat upwards to middle 
of wing, where it is broken by a line of the black grounil colour, and continued by and terminating in a nearly round yellow spot which 
lies luuch nearer the exterior margin than does the middle of the yellow band of which it forms a disconnecteil part ; it does not 
extend to costa or apex, but has considerable of the black ground colour intervening; from a little within the middle of exterior 
margin to the anal angle extends a conspicuous yellow marginal patch, almost as in Hypocala Jilicomis; fringe light grey. Under 
surface rather bright yellow ; primaries with black snbmarginal and median bands, neither of which extend to costa or internal margin, 
but near the latter are connected by a black Ijand which extends nearly to the base of wing; fringe grey. Inferiors with a number of 
scattered brown dots ; a large black spdt at anal angle, and another of same size close to it ; these two spots, the latter of which is con- 
tinued towards apex bv .some brown scales, form an imperfect submargiual band ; an abbreviated black dash near abdominal margin. 
One ?, Te.xas; J. Boll (No. 55). 



H 



TEN MINUTES' NOTICE OF 

"A Check List of North American Nociuidm, Part I. — by a. e. grote, a. ji., 

Containing Notes and Descriptions, Remarks on Structure and Geographical Distribution of the Group, and one Photographic Plate, 
ilhistrating the Species from California and the East. The Species (790 1 are numbered for convenience of students. The list 
will be mailed free on receipt of price." 

This tempting advertisement allured us into remitting the price, and in due time we were the recipient of a small octavo of 28 
pages, title page, preface and index included therein, whicli, on opening, discovered to us that we hail paid our dollar for the intense 
gratification of possessing twenty-eight pages full of Mr. Grote's name, printed in every imaginable variety of type, pica, long primer, 
brevier, etc., etc. 

The names of the species are in double columns ; no citation of place of original description of species, or .statement of localitv 
are given — the same old story over and over until the heart sickens at the low egotism which displays itself in everything this com- 
piler does ; it is Habrosyne Scripta, Orate, not Thyatira Scripta, Oosse ; it is not Harrisimemna SexgiUtaia, Harris, but H.' Sexguttata, Orote, 
nor Acronycta Clarescens, Guenee, but A. Clarescens, Orote, and so on. Such a tearing away of the old landmarks never was seen. 

In .some inst.ances the name of the true author of the species is placed below Sir. Grote's; in others he appropriates unbhishinglT 
the proprietorship of another's species without giving the poor .author a chance between brackets, or even in small tvpe, as in the case of 
Mamestra Imbrifera, boldly it stands out "M. Imbrifera, Orote, Aplecta hnb., Orote," no hint that Guenee was the avUhor of the species 
(Noct. II, 76, 768), but a bare-faced piece of pirating. To make up for it he has, however, given Pachnohia Caniea as Giienee's species, 
when it really was described by Thunberg (Mus. Nat. Acad. Upsal, p. 72, f. 1, 1788), before M. Guenee was Ijorn. "Hadena Lateritia, 
(Hub.)" happens to be Hufnagel's species, published in 1767, when Hubuer was aljout si.x years of age; of this species Apami/ornm, 
Oueti., is a synonym, though given as distinct by Mr. Grote. OlabeUas, Morrison, which he has placed with Amphipyra Pyraynidioidea 
and P. Tragopoginis in the genus Pyrophila, is a true Agrolis, allied to A. Baja. 

The synonyms are by no means always given, though it is stated that they are. 

The Catocalie are not embraced at all in the present list. 

Some species are entirely omitted, others are so disguised that their own fathers would never suspicion them ; .and thus, with new 
names for old genera, and verj' antique, obsolete genera — long disused, or scarce ever used — resurrected, the compilation can be of no 
value to the beginner; and to the advanced student can serve but to e.xcite a smile at the wholesale way in which the fathers of our 
science have been invited to step to the rear, whilst Mr. Grote and his friends stand forward in boldest relief, all dulv Latinized, as 
Radcliffe-i, Harvey-ana, Harvey-i, Glenny-i, Hayes-i, Chandler-i, Day-i, Stewart-i, etc., etc., etc., including the officers and the whole 
board of directors of the Buflalo Society, who will doubtless be grandly carried down to posterity on the wings of these unfortunate 
little moths. 

The foot-notes on each p.age might be condensed into one, which would take in the full meaning of all, to tliis effect : That none 
of Mr. Walker's, or Mr. Morrison's, or .anybody else's names can be identified from piiblislied data, except Mr. Grote's. 

"The "remarks on structure" and "geographical distribution" occupy two entire p.ages : three and one-fourth pages more are de- 
voted to describing eight new noctuids and in showing the author's superiority as a scientist over Mr. Morrison and everybody else. 
There are also a few more new genera ground out in these pages. 

The last IJ pages are taken up with the index of genera, where we seek in vain for the old familiar names ; all here is new ; 
varnish and veneer glare on every page. 

The "photographic plate illustrating the species from California and the East," illustrates in a gloomy, shadowy sort of way ten 
whole species by ten whole figures, (save the antenna> of some, ) of which the Hadena Badistriga and Agrotis Funeralis are recogniz.ible ; 
two others, Acronycta Lithospila and Xylina Thaxteri may perhaps be ; the remaining six, like the rural artist's drawing of a horse, re- 
quire the names to l)e written beneath them to insure identification. 

The whole thing is scarcely worth the time devoted to this review, but as the advertisement would lead us to expect quite a differ- 
ent production, than that really furnished, we have given this cursory warning because the price demanded is entirely too big to pay for 
trunk paper. 

Jan., 1876. 

123 




/^rman Siraaker, <)^l t Macroqlosna Erato.BolL. S Pteroffon Terlooii. ff}- Edwds■ 

3 Sme/'intkax Impercctur, itreck.,^ 4 Sphinx Elsa .^'treck.i. J} ^ i 

ff Sphinx Ha(feni, &rote je* . 7 Lipara Bomhwoiife!:. IV/k S S'cf'niu (^oreri Streek , j? ub. if Bu/iuecc Eblis, Sfrtck^ 






MACROGLOSSA ERATO. Bcisduval. 

Lep. Cal., (Ann. Soc. Ent. Bel. XII), p. (io, (1S6.S). 
£«&/-, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lnnci., IX, p. 629, (1S77|. 

Euproserpinus Phaeton, Grote & Rob., Proc. Kiit. Soc. Phil., V, p. 178,' (1805), Tran.s. Am. Enl. Soc, IT, p. 181, (1808). Hy. 
Edwds., Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc, (1875). 

(PLATE XIV, FIG. 1.) 

This rare little species luiving been described at length by Dr. Boisduval, and also by Grote & R., as I 
give a figure of tlie upper surface I may be spared from nauseating the student by further repetition except to 
add that the under side of primaries is wiiite bordered witli fuscous at outer margin, and secondaries pale yellow 
witli Ijlack border outwardly. 

It occurs in Los Angelos County and jn-obalily in otiier parts of Southern California. I ain indebted for 
the possession of the original of the accompanying figure, which was taken by the late G. R. Crotch, to the 
enduring goodness of the great savan, Dr. H. Hagen. 

The name Phaeton adopted by Grote cannot for a moment be entertained as his original description in Proc. Ent. Soc.,_V, 178, 
was made from a picture and not from any real in.sicct, for particulars of which piratical attempt see foot-note on page 113 of this work. 

Several years later when Grote accompanied his patron Robinson on a visit to Europe they received the species from Dr. Bois- 
duval ancT on their return home gave from said example their re-description, which however was not in time to supersede that of 
Boisduval published in Ann. Soc. Ent. Beige, (XII, p. 05). To these circumstances Dr. Boisduval alludes in the Lep. Het. (Suites a 
BufFon), p. 303, (1874), where he says that at the desire of MM. Grote & Robinson he presented them witli this rarity as well as many 
other Heterocerous Lep., as they were anxious to h.ive them to illustrate some articles on the Lep. Het. of the LJnited State.s, and he 
further adds that he cannot understand why thev substituted the name of Phaeton for his name of Erato* 

On the appearance of the above Grote "delivered himself in the Canadian Ent. (VIII, p. '28, 1876), along with other equally 
savory and modest matter, of the following: " Euproserpinus phaeton G. & R. Dr. Boisduval (Suites a Buft'on, 1874, 363) says as to the 
species which he calls Maeroglossa phaeton^ quoting Grote and Robinson's original description, that he does not know by what chance we 
changed the name of this species from erato to phaeton. This remark is based on a misunderstanding." He then goes on to say that 
when he and his colleague first described this species from a picture and from information received from Mr. S. Calverly, who_ also 
stated that the species was described in MSS. by Dr. Boisduval as Proserpinus phaeton, that ''we preserved Dr. Boisduval's name, giving 
him in our paper credit for the species." 

Would the reader like to know how Grote gave Dr. Boisduval credit for the species ? By referring to the description in question 
he will see this line : " It appears tbat Dr. Boisduval has etiquetted a specimen in his cabinet as Proserpinus Phaeton ; " that is the way 
he gave him credit for the species. 'tVasn't it a noble way? Who will dare doubt after this that nobility of soul still finds an abiding 
place in the human breast? Further on in the same article Grote states that Dr. Boisduval lent him and his colleague an example 
from which for the first time thev made their description from the real insect, (in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1878), adding that "at about 
the same time Dr. Boisduval published the .species under the name of erato." Thus goes on this Sir Arrogantissimiis from foul to 
fouler, bewraying himself with the tilth of his own conceit ; for o'f a verity, hath it not been most truly said by the world-renowned 
Sancho Panza that the higher a monkey climbs the more he- exposes himself to shame and ridicule. 

PTEROGON TERLOOII. Hy. Edwards. 

(Proserpinus T.) Proc Cal. Acad. Sc, (1875). 

(PLATE XIV, FIG. 2, <^.) 



Fully described in the work above cited. The figure on pltite XIV was drawn from one of the two orig- 
inal types" loaned for the purpose bymy very dear friend, Dr. H. Behr, in whose coll. are the only two exain|des 
so far known to science. The under side of ))riinaries is greenish yellow shaded broadly in the middle with 
dull red. Secondaries aL^o greeni.sh yellow with a taint median band of a shade darker. It is closely allied to 
the Eur. P. Proserpina, Pall. {Oenotherae, Scliitf.). Descril)ed from two c? taken at Mazatlaii, Mex., by the 
late Baron Terloot, to whom the species was dedicated by its author. 



SMERINTHUS IMPERATOR. Nov. Sp. 



(PL.'VTE XIV, FIG. 3, $.) 

Female. Expands 4| inches. 

Head above yellow fawn colour, thorax violaceous grey, not dark ; abdomen yellowish fawn shaded, sonie- 

*Nous avons prete cette rarete a MM. Grote et Robinson, ainsi que phisieurs autres Lepidopteres heteroceres pour qu'ils puissant, 
selon leur desir, les faire figurer dans un ouvrage qu'ils ont entrepris .sur les Lepidopteres Heteroceres des Etats-Unis d'Amerique. 
Nous ne savons pas par quel hasard ces messieurs ont change notre nom d'Erato pour lui substituer celui de Phaeton. 

125 



12(i 8MERINTHUS IMPERATOR. 

wliat, ilin-sally and witli a faint <liirsal liiii' of' violacooiis fxtcndiiii:' the wlmlo length. Beneatli jialc lawn; legs 
viiilaci'oiis. 

l'])])or surface; in-iiiiarit's, fioneral >tylc nl' (iniaiiuntatinn somewhat as in Mofle.sia, Harr. JJasal tiiinl <it' 
\vin<r very ]>ale violaceous ijrev, yellowisli at l)ase, and traversed in its middle from eosta to inner mar<>;in l)vau 
irreiiular darker shade; the outer edj^e of the basal third is very irregular and proehiced in a sharp an<;le at the 
innermost median nervule, and is narrowly shaded where it joins the median space by darker tint ; the inner 
half of the median space is tinted with brownish, the outer hali' is same pale violaceous <irey as the basal part ; 
the outer edu-e of the lucdian s])ace is scallo|)ed and shaded with darker jTrey ; a lar^e pale discal mark ; the 
third or terminal space is of the same pale jirey as the major part of rest of winir, shaded on costal half with 
pale yellowish fawn, a darker patch on inner mari;iu not far from inner anjile. Secondaries dull crimson, vel- 
lowish white at inner margin, and a large |)aie grey |>atch covers that ])art of the wing at and near the anal 
angle, within which patch is a blackish (hish parallel with outer margin, betw'een which latter and said dash is 
a faint grey abbreviated line extentling froiu the anal angle inwards to where the crimson colour commences. 
I'nder surface of all wings very pale yellowish f"awn with a l)road terminal I)and but a shade darker ; basal half 
of priiuaries dull crimson, which colour does not however extend to either eosta or inner margin, and the diseal 
mark is designated by the pale lawn oi' ground colour of wing. 

Hal). Ari/.oua. One i^', Mus. Streeker. 

'I'his diifers from its nearest ally, Modeda, Harr., in the far greater breadth of wing, tlic great robustness 
of body, the entirely different colour and in the difference of the undulations of the transverse lines and shades, 
also in the shape and greater size of the discal mark or bar. In ModeMa and its Pacific coast var. (Jinidtnldlis, 
Ily. Edwds , the colours are even, smooth shades, well defmed and separated from each other by demarkatiou 
lines, whilst in Imperator the colours are blended more or les< into each other and have a heavy jiowderv ap- 
IH'arance, the scales being far heavier and rougher as seen through a lens than in Harris' s])eeies. Ivijterator 
approaches the var. Occideiitalis somewhat, and somewhat only, in the i^ileness of the ground colour, but be- 
yond this there is no nearer ap|)roach than to the stem form typical Modesta, to which Occidentalis a.ssimilates 
in every respect except being jialer in coloui' and generally of larger size. 

Kor lliis species, wliicli I coiisider one (it' the {;r;uiilist ;ui|nisiliiiiis iiiir Ileteruoeroiis fauna lias for a Idiif; time received, as well 
as for a large nunilier ol oilier rare and new species from inner Arizona ami Utah, I am indebted lo llie energy and perseverance of 
Mr. li. Neumiiegen of New York. Heretofore, owing to its lieing mainly in possession of the Indians, as well as to its unfavorable 
climate and general sterility, tlie re|iresentation of tlie Lep. faniia of .\ri/.ona was of the most nieagri' description imaginalile. comprised 
in a few c.\amples in llie coll. of \V. 11. lOdwds., and fewer still in the Miis. of the Agricultural Deji. at Wasliingtoii, all derived from 
the same .source, the chance collections of government exploring and surveying parties. For years Arifi/nnis Nokomis was known only 
liy a single tattered rf , and later for a hng time by a t'cw more, ,Y' 'itid 9 ■ When my friend Netmioegen commenceil a few years since 
to study and collect Leiiidoptera, to which he applied hiin.self with an energy seldom equaled, I impre.-^sed on him the importance of 
obtaining e.xamples from .\rizona. giving bini drawings and descriptions of jVo/omis and some other prominent species. By indefati- 
gable industry he .secured coilectors who from inner .\rizona, in a remarkably short time, .*ent a large quantity of the most interesting 
mati'rial, among which wi^re the almve described splendid ^vifrinlhua, as well as a number of others new to science, which will he de- 
scribed in the present and future parts of this work. In the lirst lot received of these .Arizona Lep, were a nmnber of both sc.xes of the 
coveted yokviiiis, but nnfurtiinatidy the season was so far advanced when the onslaught cotiiinenced that all were torn <u- too long flown 
to be desirable; the glory of laier sendiugs made however ample amends fortius tirst quasi disappointnunt. .\ large [iroportion of 
these insects seem to be remarkably pale aberrant forms or repre.sentations of Pacific or Eastern species; prominent in this respect are 
Mel. Alma, n. s., Arg. Nokomis, W. H. ICdwils,, Pup. Ulalintsis, n. s. or v., Sph. KIsa, n. s., Pseud. Nullalli and others. An/. Nokomis 
I have always considered as an extreme variety of A. Cybcle. as I believe the Anioor and North China A. Sayinia* may hea form of the 
East Europe A. Lamlice; but to this subject I will revert in my description of the various new species from this wonderland. 

I cannot omit nicntiiming another still more astonishing t hie;;, it) connection with lhereceptionoftlie.se .Arizona novelties, which in- 
credible as it may ajipear, is neverthele.ss a fact, to the triilii of which I am willing at any time lo be qualified with pnqier jurat 
appended ; it i-- that when Mr. Xeunioegcn passed tlii'm to me for description he did not even hint, let alone make it the condition, that 
any of the new species should be named after himself, his wife, his aunts or his consins-german, his grandparents, the stranger within 
his gates, or even after his rich neighbor. May his sUuIclon be preserved I 



SrHINX ELS A. Nov. Sr. 

lI'L.VfE XIV, FIG. 4 cf, o ?.) 



Male. Expands 2^' inches. 

Head and thora.x above pale rose colour, hitter bhtek towtirds and at l);ise, luit with a mark compdsed of 
two contiguous rose coloured crescents tit its juncture with the abdomen; the latter marked laterallv much ti.-; in 
JtrHijifcritniin, Ab.— Sm., but owing to the scales being much rubbed from th(> back in both cf and 9 it is impo.'s- 
sible to describe that ptirt with acciiracv, thotigh from the general appetirauee of the insect 1 should b(> led to 
infer that the broad dorstil band was whitish or tinged with rose. Antennae lietivy, seri-ated ;ind black save 

* (^ A. Sagana, Dbldv.-IIew., Cen. Diur. Lep., t. '24, fig. 1, (18.50). ? is Bamrira Paulina, Nord., Bull. Mos., II, p. 440 t 1'' 
f. 1, 2, (1851). • ' ■ "' 



SPHINX ELSA. 127 

towards base where tliey tire on upper side pale rose. Beneath liead and body white tinged with rose, a 
dark brown line on sides of thorax, legs brownisii mixed with rosy wliite, tarsi blaek. 

Upper surfaee jiriniaries wdiite tinged on inner two-thirds with rose colour, a blaek jiowdery basal patch 
extending some distanee'outwards and terminating in scattered black points about the michlle of wing ; also 
three sonicwliat wa\ed lines or narrow l)ands composed of more or less segregated blaek points or atoms, these 
lines run more or less ]iarallel with the exterior margin, but all unite into one at the apex where it is most dis- 
tinctly defined. Whole wing loosely scattered more or less with minute blaek points; no indications of a discal 
spot; fringe white witli blackish at terminations of veins. Secondaries white with black mesial and submar- 
ginal bands like in Draplferarum, but not as heavy in proportion. 

Under surfiice primaries white tinged very faintly with rose, powdered with fine black points, two parallel 
submarginal lines composed of loose black atoms and converging into one better defined line at the apex. Sec- 
ondaries white tinged with pale rose and with the black bands of upj)er side faintly repeated. 

Fkmale. Expands :3 inches. 

Head white, antennae black with white tips, thorax much as in c? but with nuicli more black on back and 
less tinged with rosy, the ))atagiae and part towards head being j)ure white, abdomen also as in c?, but the white 
parts without the ros}- tint. 

Upper surface of all wings pure white exce]it a reddish tint which accompanies the fii-st black 
band from the base; black bands, etc., much as in d, but more distinct. The wings in this sex are liroader: 
the primaries less j)ointe<l at the apex and more rounded on the costal margin, and the whole insect is, ex- 
cept in the two points embraced in above description, devoid of the lively roseate hne of the c?. Its neai'cst 
American congenor is Drupi/erarum, and its European of course Liguntri, L., from both of which, as well as 
from all other species of known Sphingidce, as far as I am aware, it differs in its white colour. 

One c?, Mus. Streck. ; one ?, Mus. Ncumoegen ; both from Arizona. 

SPHINX HAGENI. Grote. 

(Ceratomia H.) Grote, Bufl'. Bull., II, p. 149, (1874) ; Butler, Tnms. Zool. Soo. Lontl , IX, p. 621, (1877). 

(PLATE XIV, KICK 6 cf.) 

This species was originally described Trom an example in the Miis. Conjp. Znol. Cambridge, taken liy Boll in Texas. Since then 
that gentlemen has bred it in some numbers from the larvie. Grote's superficiality was again made painfully evident in his description 
of this species by placing it in the genus (or sub-genus) Cera(omi'n, Harris, of which the larva Ls distinguished from all others of the 
Sphingidie, as fiir as I am aware, in the presence of lour liorns, two on the back of the second segment and two on the third, from which 
peculiarity Dr. Harris named his genus as well as the only species in it.* The fact is, lingeni is nearest to Sphinx iDaremma) Undu- 
losa, Wlk., and it is almost incredible tliat Grote, who even made some eompiirisons between that species and Ikigeni in his description 
of tlie latter, could overlook their aflinity. In truth, so close are the two that in a large series of both species, received from B<dl, there 
are some examples about which it is difSeidt to decide to which species they belong, and the absence of the greenish or olivaceous hue 
alone makes it a fair proliability that they arc Undulosa, though as a general thing this latter is by far the larger of the two, but it 
attains a greater size in the New England and Middle .States than it does to the far soutli or west, and tiie eastern examples are 
lighter coloured. 

The larva of Sphinx Hageni, when full grown, is about 2| to 3 inches in length. Generally pale apple green, but occa- 
sionally it occurs of yellowish green with darker streaks, like most of the larva of the .Sphingida' it varies somewhat in colour, but 
the apple green is the prevailing hue. The body, all over the back and sides, is covered with whitish points arranged transversely in 
regular rows; head very ciosely covered with white points not arranged with any regularity ; on the sides are diagonal white lines, 
shaded with rose red on the upper edge, this red shading being darkest in the middle. Spiracles surrounded with brown, which is 
further encircled with yellow. Caudal horn ilesh coloured, thickly studded with ^mall raised points. Feet rose red; prolegs pale 
reddish. Undergoes its transformation in the ground. For the above description, accompanied by a faithful drawing, I am under 
obligations lo Mr. Boll, who was the discoverer of the species. 



LIPARA BOMBYCOIDES. Wik. 

Cat. B. M. Lep. Het., VIII, p. 233, (18o6); C/emens, Jnl. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., p. 187, (1859); Morris, Syn., p. 21.'), (1862); 
Grote, Buti. Bull., I, p. 28, (1873) ; Streck., Lep. Khop.-Het., 1, p. 117, (1876) ; Butler, Trans. Zool., wSec. (Lond.,) IX, p. 626, 
(1877). 

(PLATE XIV, FIG. 7). 



Ever since its description by the late Mr. Walker from a unique, at that time in the collection of Mr. Saunders of Loudon, Eng., 
this insect has been a puzzle to American Lepidopterists. In 1S76, Prof. Westwuod made for me an accurate coloured figure from the 
type, which latter is now in the Hopeian coll. of Oxford University. The differences between this figure and Sphinx Harririi, of which 

*Oeraiomia QuadricomiSi Jiarr., Sill. Jnl., XXXVl, p. 293, (1839), a synonvm of Agrius Amyntor, Hub., Samm. Ex. Schmett., II, 

(1806-1824). 



128 LIPARA BOMBYCOIDES. 

most of the American Lepi(lo|>ti-iists consider it a synonym, I have deRif;nated on page 117 of this volume lafter the description of 
Sph. Ilarrim). The present H<riire on accompanying plate XIV' was carefully made from Prof Westwood's drawing, above alluded to. 
Although llic type was taken in Caiuida, nolhing of the kind is known to exist in any American colleclion ; it ap|iroaches nearest 
to Sph. Harrisii, but the latter, which I have figured on plate XIII, f. 10, though having much the same general appearance yet difl'ers 
considerably in detail, though Jinmhyroides may possibly be an aberration of it. That ii is however a distinct species that is yet to be 
re-discovered is after all not unlikely when we consider that such a conspicuous species as S. Plata escaped the notice of the many 
American collectors and students until three years since when 1 detected it in a small collei^tion sent me from Montreal, Canada. If I 
have been able to do little towards elucidating the mystery that enshrouds Bombyroides, I at least trust I have not done an unacceptable 
act in presenting the figure of Walker's type that my friends and the others may have .some better knowledge of it.s appearance. 

SAM I A GLOVER I. Streck. 

Since figuring and <lescribing this species in the commencement of this work I have received through Mr. Xeumoegen a number 
of cocoons from I'tali an<l Arizona which developed in due time the perfect insect. 1( is subject to the same variations as Cecropia in 
size of discal lime, breadth of white transverse hands, etc., etc.; also varying considerably in size, the largest being six inches in ex- 
panse, the smallest hut four. Some examples are much jialer tlian others in the red ground colour Of the larva I have as yet re- 
ceived no description, and have only learned that it is found on gooseberry and currant; but the cocoons are somewhat of the shape of 
those of S. Cecrnpia though not so large and imlike that species; the outer case tightly adheres to the inner, and is hard woven and 
giniinied, and has the appearance as though made of rough silver, not as in 5. Columbia with a few silver threads streaked through here 
and there, but the entire cocoon looks as if woven of coarse large fibres of rough silver, and is very beautiful in<leed. Were it not for 
these wonderful features of the cocoon I sliouhl unhesitatingly pronounce Gloveri but the -A rizona or I'tah form of Cecropia, for the per- 
fect in.secls dillcr in notbiug but the ground colour of wings. Dr. Hagen is of the opinion that Gloveri is a form of Columbia, but as just 
stated I rather think it a variation of Cecropia and have little doubt that successive breedings of it in the Atlantic Slates would eventu- 
ally change the crimson ground colour to the black of Cecropia. The figure S on plate XIV represents a most astonishing semi-albina 
9 aberration, the left wings of which are normal and the right aresufiused with white to the complete extinction of the crimson ground 
colour, with the exception of a small basal patch on j)rimary ; the iliscal lune on primary is surrounded by a black shade, that on sec- 
ondary is faintly outlined with grey. The under surface of this monstrosity is normal on both sides. There is a difference, as the 
figure shows, in the outline of the wings, especially of the primaries, that of the abnormal side being much more arched and fuller on 
the costa. This strange freak was captured in inner .Arizona. 

The preponderance of )>alc coloured or alliinons species and cxamides in the sail regions of Arizona and I'tah, is truly won- 
derful and without ]ireceilent. What the cause can be, climatic cu- local, that results in the production of these astonishing forms is a 
question which opens a fiehl of investigation of unparallelled intere.st to every student of natural science. 



BUNAEA EP»LIS. Stueck. 

(PLATE XIV, 1>'IG. 9, cf.) 



Of this species, described on page 121, from a single example presented to me by my ever dear friend Mr. Chapman, of Glasgow, 
Scotland, Prof We.stwood informed me that there are examples in the Oxfijrd Museum, and suggested that it might perhaps be a form 
of B. Phcedusa, Dru. 

NEW SPECIES, ^'AlUETIES, ETC. 

P.<PII,I0 {Anterius) var. Utaiiensis, n. var. (^, wings somewhat narrower than in the common form ; primaries more falcate. 
Pale yellow stripes on each side of the head and protborax ; teguhe also pale yellow ; usual lateral rows of yellow dots on abdomen ; 
anal valves pale yellow. Macular baiiils and lunules pale ycHow on both surfaces, without the orange colour so conspicuous on the 
under surface of the ordinary examples; the mesial band of secondaries does not extend into the discoidal cell on the upper surface, 
in cell on under surface are a few yellow s<'ales; anal eye a.s in common form ; submargiual row of spots on under surface primaries 
conlluent in some exampli's, seiiaralcd by the ncrvurcs only in others — piincipally it difl'iTs from AKieriiis in the head and thorax being 
striped instead o( spotted, in the yellow anal valves, in the dillerent shape of the wings, in the yellow spots and bauds being very mucli 
paler on both surfaces; in the mesial macular band being, especially on secondaries, much narrower, and in the submarginal spots of 
primaries, on under side, being confluent or almost so. .Vll the examples I have seen are of larger size than the common run of Asle.riini, 
though not larger than some examples of the latter. The 9 differs from the (^ prini'ipally in the partial obsolescence of the mesial 
macular bands. Hah. Utah. 

Pap. Rutulus, var. or ab. ? ^ expands 2| inches. Upper surface same shade of yellow as in the ordinary form, black bands 
and margin all very broad as in the heavier marked examples of P. EiirymeAon; the broad black ex'erior border of primaries on its 
inner edge between the fifth subcostal nervule and the second discoi<lal nervule is extended abruptly in a bow inwards from the regular 
line until it is almost merged into the abbreviatid transver.se ban<l ; the submarginal row of vellow spots on |)rimaries very small, and 
the tliree nearest apex not in a line with the others but iient off at the second discoi<lal nervule ; on the secondaries the yellow submar- 
ginal lunules or bars rather of diversified style and size; the apical one is a very narrow bar, a mere line; the one between the first and 
second subcostal nervules is far broader than in most cases: that between the second subcostal and di.scoidal nervules is a bar of great 
size, being twice the length of the last or of the one following it, which with the one between the first and second median nervules is 
crescent shaped and of large size; the next as well as the anal mark are exceedingly small and rust red; above these two latter, but 
with a considerable interspace between, are crescents of no great size formed of blue scales. 

Under surface bands, etc., not quile as heavy as above; primaries, the inner edge of black margin does not extend inwards be- 
tween the fifth sub<'ostal and .second discoidal nervules nearly so much as on the up|ier surface; the submarginal yellow spots are con- 
fluent, forming a broad unbroken band which covers the outer half of the black marginal band and separated from the exterior margin 
by little more than a black line. Secondaries, ali the submarginal yellow bars very large and almost confluent at their angles, the one 
between the first and second median nervules, which is largest, is lunate, the others parallelogramic in shape; interior to these are the 
.sliining blue and greenish as in the normal form. 

The body and head above black with but little indication of yellow on the pat.agise. Several examples from Arizona. 



NEW SPECIES, VARIETIES, &c. 129 

TliECLA Kali, n. sp. J* expands 1 to 1 J inches. Upper surface, bright shining yellow copperisli ; primaries with very broad 
blackish costal margin extending from sexual stigma to exterior margin where it is broadest, occupying all the space between the second 
discoidal nervule and the eosta. Exterior margins of all wings bordered with blackish, Init very narrowly, especially on the seconda- 
ries ; fringe all blackish, except between the second and third median nervules of secondaries, where it is while. 

Under surface shining silky grey or slaty, much the same colour as on laider side of Theda Alcatis, Edwds., and Thecla Quercus, , 

L., but more glossy. Secondaries at and near base powdered witli blark and while atoms Exterior margin of all wings edged with (^^/'^ 

a narrow blackishline, this is succeeded inwardly by a while line. On primaries is a submarginal row of fuscous spots edged out- 
wardly with white on disc; a white baud edged wilh black on inner edge, this band is broken in tliree entirely separate part.s; the last ' ' 
of these parts, between the last median and the submedian nervule, is nearly obsolete; a narrow white discal ring edged outwardly with \ Js* 
black and broken towards the costa. Secondaries have a submarginal row of black sagittate spots dillcrijig much in size, the sixth from / [ ^- c ^r 
apex is the largest, the seventh is much nearer the exterior margin, being only separated therefrom by the wliite marginal line, and is — " 
surmounted by a large red spot which latter is edged inwardly by a black crescent; between the eighth black spot from the apex and 
the exterior margin the space is filled with grey caused by pale blue and black scales; a black streak at margin above anal angle; 
interior to the row of submarginal spots on the disc is very irregular sinuous white line heavily edged inwardly with black ; in the cell 
are two white lines, and above these another, all edged outwardly with black. From Arizona. 

This most beautiful and conspicuoi-s species bears on the u]iper side somewhat of a resemblance to such exotic species as IT. 
Apetles, Fabr., Zeritis Pierxis, Cram., Thedor Calliinachus, Ev., etc., its rich yellowish metallic ground colour contrasting strongly with 
the blackish margins. It comes in or near to the same group as T. Damon, Cram. {Smilacis, Bdl.-Lec), but is widely different from 
that species. On the three examples examined I can discover no traces of tails to the wings, though these frail appendages may have 
been broken off. 

Thecla Fotis, n. sp. Size and shape of T. Augaslm, Kirby. Upper surface uniform dark grey. Under surface, primaries 
rather dark slaty grey, a submarginal row of almost obsolete dark points, a scarcely distinguishable irregular darker line across the ^^..^^ 

disc; interior to" this "the wing is more or less scattered wilh pale atoms; fringe grey. Secondaries edged on exterior margin with a 
wliite line which is succeeded by a band composed of loo.se black scales, directly interior to which is a row of round white spots or dots, 
one in each nerval inters])ace, each of these is surmounted by a small crescent formed of black atoms; interior to these is a not very 
conspicuous sinuous pale grey or whitish line inwardly edged wilh black ; the part of the wing interior to this line is darker than any 
other part of the under surface anil is scattered loo.-iely, especially to^vards the base, with whitish atoms; fringe grey. From Arizona. 

Augiislm, Kirby, is its nearest ally, from which it widely differs in the slaty grey colour of both surfaces and tlie row of white 
submarginal spots on under surface of secondaries. 

S.\TYRDS AsHTAROTH, n. sp. ? expands 2 inches. Upper surface of all \yings very pale ochraceous, or yellowish white, dusted 
with pale brownish at basal parts; across the disc of (u-imaries is a very irregular rather pale brownish band which becomes nearly i ^ 

obsolete towards interior margin, the brownish colour of this band extends outwardly along the .second di.scoidal and the first median '- 

nervules until it joins the rather narrow exterior border of same colour; within the broad yellow band or space between this latter and 
the middle bau<rare two large velvety black oval spots with small white centres, between these two is a quite small black spot; fringe 
pale brownish and while. Secondari'es with a pale almost obsolete zigzag submarginal line which is all that would indicate theinner 
edge of a border, interior to which acro.ss the discon costal half of wing a faint brownish half obsolete band, the outer edge of which in 
the cells is prolonged into very long teeth ; not far from exterior margin between first and second discoidal nervules is a small oval 
black spot; fringe white. 

Under surface almost the same in all respects as ? S. Hippolyie, Esp., from the Ural regions, to which the present species is vcjy 
closely allied. It belongs to the same group as S. Jtidingsii, W. H. Edwds., but is a much larger, paler insect with the brown marks 
fainter, fewer and differing in detail ; it certainly assimilates nearer to the Russian species mentioned than to the Colorado one. De- 
scribed from a single $ from Arizona not in very good condition. 

.Aedophron Grandis, n. sp. Expands li; inches. Head, thorax and prim;iries above same pale whitish citron yellow as in i ^. 

A. Phlebophora, Ld.; abdomen and secondaries pure shining silky wliite. Underside, body and all wings same shining white; tarsi i^^ 

brownish. The wings are narrower and more elongated than in the Syrian species, but I do not think ours is generically different. 

Several examples from Arizona. 

CncDLLiA Antipoda, n. sp. Expands IJ inches. Above; head, collar and patagise whitish grey, back of thorax brownish ; 
abdomen whitish dusted with brown atoms. Primaries same pale grey as the thorax more or le.ss sprinkled with brown points which — — ^ 
have a tendency to form lines in the interspaces; a dark brown marginal line interrupted at the veins; a large kidney shaped double 
ringed reniform, orbicular also conspicuous; a dark brown line runs outwards along inner margin from near base to three-fourths the 
length of the inner margin, thence it turns upwards towards the reniform, but with a great bend inwards; between the latter and inner 
margin, from exterior margin one-fourth its length from inner angle, extends a short dark brown line which does not reach to the la.st 
described zigzag line ; interior to the orbicularis a transverse zigzag line forming two great teeth, one of which connects with the 
orbicular, the other points towards but docs not meet the great tooth formed by the sinus of the brown line between the inner margin 
and reniform. Secondaries white, venation brown ; brownish at exterior margin which is edged with a dark brown rather well defined 
line; fringe white. Under surface ; body whitish grey ; primaries greyish, paler on costa, apical ]iarts and exterior margin; exterior 
margin with a dark brown line broken by the veins. Secondaries whitish faintly dusted, but not thickly, with minute brown atoms; 
interrupted marginal line as on primaries; a minute brown discal point. 

To the old world student it will be much more to the point than all the above merely to state that this species is very close to 
C. Santonici, Hub., the most noticeable differences being that the Sareptan species is iarger and there is a brownish shade in the region 
of the reniform and thence to costa; also the brown margin of upper side of secondaries is much broader as well as darker than in ours. 

Several examples from Arizona. 

Catocala {Faustina) var. Zillah, n. var., is distinguishable from the common form by the upper surfiice of primaries being 
suffused with rather scattered rust red atoms especially about the reniform an<l siibreniform, and along the transverse posterior 
lines and thence to submarginal lines. Taken in several examples along with a number of the ordinary form of same species in Arizona. 

Catocala Perdita, Hy. Edwds. Two examples from Arizona difl^er from the type first described on p. 100 of this work in 
being a little larger .and in the upper surface of primaries being less thickly covered wilh black atoms, showing more distinctly the 
white ground, especially on the part of the median space interior to the reniform and the space between the transverse posterior and 
submarginal lines. 



V 



130 NEW SPECIES, VARIETIES, &c. 

Catocala Stretchii, Belir. The several examples of what I am almost certain is this species I have not been able to compare 
with the unique type in the coll. of Dr. Belir in 8an Kraneisco, but I have received from that savan a beautifully coloured figure made 
by Stretch from the type ; with this fif,''"'^ these A rizona examples agree exce])! that in them the mesial band of .secondaries is narrower 
and some of the red ground colour extends beyond the outer edge of the black submargiiial band ; there is also some difierence in the 
red colour, that on the figure being a litlle darker, but I scarce think I am wrong in deciding the.se Arizona examples as Stretchii. Dr. 
Behr's type was taken by Mr. Stretch in Nevada and was described in Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, III, p. 24, (1870). 

Besides the above and the rare species to be de.scribed and illustrated in succeeding pages were received Papilio Daunm,* Colias 
Edwardsii,i Anth. Greusa,X Julia,'). Lycaena Oro,\\ Heleronea,'] Zeroe,'^* TheclaCi-ysatus,fi Niphon var. Eryphon,Xl Acadica,'i'i Apodemia 
iIormo,\\\\ Argyn. JVoioHiis.'i'l Aphrodite,*** Hefperis,ffi Edujnrdsii,tXt elvar. Nevademis,i'/M Coronis,\\\\\\ ./l/yrtna,1| 1' ^ MeUiaea I'alla var. 
Whilneyi,**** Xvbigei>a,jj-\+ Salyrus Xephde lar. Atiane.XXtt Famphila Ottoe,^,^, Lita 5RM(>7n'i/a,|||||||| Syneda &cia,'I"''i'i Adwn- 
hrata,***** H(mlandii,\\\-\^ Goiytodea Trilinearia,Xtit+ and sundry others which time has not yet enabled me to examine fidly. 

The iollowiiio- (le.'^ciipliDn.s (if Now i>(|)i(l((i(tcr;i are I'roiii examples cajjlured by Mr. J. Boll, mostly in the 
vicinitv of .New Braunf'els and San Antonia, Southwestern Textis : 

Mki.itaka Imitata, n. sp. fj* expands 1 inch. Wings narrower ami more elongate proportionally than in 71/. Veala which is 
probaiily its nearest ally. IJpper surface much as in Fcs/a but the blackish markings especially of seconilaries nuich lieavier; in the 
prinuiries there is no notable difU-rence, but the secondaries have a broail marginal black border comprising fully the outer third of the 
wing ; within this Ixu-der are two rows of fulvous crescents, those of the outermost one being the smaller. The under surface is peculiar, 
resembling unuh that u( M. JIarrisii both in slyie and colouration. The inner half of primaries is paler fulvous than above; the outer 
margin has a narrow darker fulvous band, interior to this is a broad black band, irregular on ils inner edge and broadest at cosla; 
within ibis band are two rows (jf cresi'cnls of various sizes ; the outermost row is pale yellow, the other fulvous; this l]|ack margituil 
band is succeeded inwardly at some distance by a very irregular narrow band or line of imequal width which extends from costa to 
inner margin; between this latter band and the base of wing are .several lilack lines of the usual style; fringes black cut with wiiite 
between the veins. Secondaries, outer margin narrowly fulvous as in primaries, ihence one-third of the wing is black ; within this 
latter colour towards outer margin is a row of pale yellow hmules, the ones nearest to apex and anal angles small, the others large and 
with the exception of the third from anal angle, which is the greatest, much of the same size. This broad black sulimarginal space or 
band is succeeded by an irregular pale yellow mesial band divided transversely by a black line and bordercil inwardly by another ; 
the rest of wing interior to this is fulvous, having a yellow spot in discoidal cell; between this spot and the base is an irregular yellow 
band lined on both edges with black also a yellow band lined with black at base. Body black or blackish brown above, below pale 
yellow; antennae black ringed with white. 

9 a litlle larger and with the black markings not ipiite as heavy. 

Met.itaka Lauunda, n. sp. Kxpands 1' inches. Wings even more elongate than in the preceding. Upper surface fulvou.s, 
not dark. Fringes whitish, grey at terminations of nervules. A fuscous band on exterior margin of all wings; tliis band is almost 
entirely occU])icd wilh lunules of the same colour as ground of wings ; on the i)riniaries three of these lunule.s nearest to the inner angle 
are largest and nearly of ecjual size, the remaining four are smaller and the one nearest to apex is a mere dot. On .secon<laries the 
lunules nearest apex and anal angle are the smallest, the others do not differ nuich in size. Interior to the.se marginal lunules on 
primaries are two irregular partly obscletc black lines extending from cosla to inner margin, heaviest near costa ; in the discoiilal cell 
and at ba.sal part are some more irregular blackish lines. On basal half of secondaries a few faint abbreviated wavy lines. Under 
surface; jirimarics uuich the same colour as above ; a narrow darker fulvous baud on exlerior margin succeeded inwardly by a row 
of lunules; the first six from costa arc pale yellow edged with blackish, the remaining two at iinier angle are fulvous and merged into 
the narrow margin of same colour; at some distance interior to this row of lunules is a blackish line heaviest at cosla and not 
reaching quile to the interior margin ; five other abbreviated lines extend from costa inwards to the median nervure. Secondaries 
fulvous wilh a marginal row of seven pale yellow lunules, the ones nearest apex and anal angle are the smallest, ihe third one from 
anal angle the largest, and the other four are nearly of ecpial size; an irregular pale yellow mesial band lined inwanlly with black 
and divided through the middle by a black lijie and further at the costal third by another black line; a ]>ale yellow spot in the dis- 
coidal cell, between which and the base an irregular (lale yellow band edged wilh black extends from cosla to inner margin ; at ba.se 
of wing also a narrow yellow band edged outwardly with black. Fringe white with grey at terminations of nervules. 

In spite of ils diminutiveness this litlle s]iecics, which is one of the most remarkable yet discovered in tliis country, brings 
strongly to mind certain species of Aeraea such as Violcc, Fab., and Rahira, Jidl. 

LlliYTHEA Larvata, n. sp. (^ size and shape of ^acAman;; Ihe black and fulvous colours of upper surface arranged nearly 
the same as in that species, but the shape and colour of the subapical spots and bars are difierent ; these are washed with fulvous in ihe 
present species whilst in Baehmani they are pure while; in the latter the while discal bar is on both surfaces entirely disconnected and 
distant from the while spot near the middle of exterior margin, neither is it in a line with it ; the present s))ecies difiers entirely ihere- 
froin in the arrangement of these spots, as follows: besides the subapical one, which is quite small, an interrupted band composed of 
three spots extends from middle of cosla nearly lo the middle of exlerior nuirgin ; Ihe first of ihe.sc spots is small and is on the costal 
nervure, the second which does not quite join it is large and at ils lower point nearest ouler margin is joined by innermost angle, near- 
est costa, of the last spot which is si|uare. Under surface, primaries have Ihe chain of Ihree spots nearly as above but a little larger and 

*P. Daunus, Bdl., Sp. Oen. I, p. ."vl2, (188(;). 
DbU: " " " " " " 

Scud." 

P- 
2me 

El! 

M.' 

VI . 

Acad. 

So. Ill, p. SS, I IS(i3). tttt-1/. NnbifjeTia, P.ehr, 1. c. p. 91. tttt-Sa'yru* Ari«ne, Bdl., Ann. Soc. Enl, Fr., 2me Ser. X, p. 307, (1852). 

•eMP"mpl"lo- Oiloe, W. H. Edwds., Proc. Ent. Soc. ^'I, p. 207, (1867). ||||||||Lj(rt Sexsigmila. Harvey, Buff. Bull. II, p. 2.S0, (1875). 

y^m] Syneda Socia, Behr, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. Ill, \i. 27, (1870). *****S. Advmbrata, Bebr, 1. c. ttttt'S'. Howiandii. Grote, Proc. 

Ent. Soc. Phil. Ill, p. 533, t. VI, (1864). XXtttOorytodei THlinearia, Pack., Havden's Geo. Survev, X, p. 202, t. IX, f. 33, (1876). 




I- 



NEW SPECIES, VARIETIES, <tc. 131 

white, and from the lowermost one to the costa extends a narrow white bar, the colour exterior to this on the apical part is white mot- 
tled with brown points, rest of outer margin brownish with a few reticulations of darker hue ; the costa the same as this latter ; space 
from base of wing to chain of white spots dark ochraeeous excepting a blotch on disc of wing towards innner margin which is whitish 
with slight sprinl<!ing of ochre. Secondaries lustrous white mottled with dark brown points or liecks ; across the middle of the wing 
from costa to inner margin these flecks become more or less confluent forming a broad irregular band heaviest at costal half; another 
band, but not so wide and more irregular, extends along the outer margin two-thirds of its lengtli from anal angle ; half way between 
the middle band and base of wing, on costa, is a brown patcli formed by the confluence of the dark specks. Fringes on both surfaces 
of secondaries brown; of primaries brown from apex to first angle, rest whitish. 

Tlie most remarkable difJ'erence between this and the three other jimerican species, Bachmani, Carinenta and Terina, is, as above 
shown, in the shape, disposition and colour of the discal and accompanying spots. It is nearer to Bachmani than to either of the others 
and may perhaps be a variety of that species. 

Charis Guadeloupe, n. sp. Allied to Borcalis. G.-R., but differs from it, as well as from all other species of the genus that 
I am aciputinted with, most remarkably in tlic shape of tiie exterior margin of the primaries, which are undulaled, being strongly 
produced opposite the discoidal cell and again at the last median iiervule. The colour of upper surface is not so reddish as in Burealis, 
ixnng somewhat of a greyish or fuscous tinge; two submarginal silvery lines with row of small black spots lietween them, these as 
well as the other dark lines are much the same as in Borealis, but not quite as heavy. Under surface same colour, reddish yellow, as in 
Borealia, markings nearly similar though not as heavy. Fringes on both surfaces of primaries white near apex then blackish to the 
middle indentation of margin, then white for a short sjiace succeeded again by blackish, then white at the indentation near inner angle, 
at angle itself blackish. On secondaries the fringes are blackish from apex to near middle of margin then white, then black, again 
white and finally near and at the anal angle blackish. (J' ? expand a little over 1 inch. The primaries in (^ are much more pro- 
duced apically, and the inferiors are smaller than in 9, but the remarkable undulate outer margin of primaries is the same in both 
sexes. The outer margin of secondaries is also tnidulate but not to such a marked degree as the primaries. 

P.\MPHIL.V SiMiLIs, n. sp. (^ 9 same size and shape as Vialis and Eos, W. H. Edwds. ; colour and markings on upper suriiice 
same as in the latter species, but differing considerably on the under surface of secondaries which are dark blackish brown with a large 
somewhat triangular whitish grey basal patch, another patch of same colour on middle of costa and still another half way between the 
basal patch and outer margin not very far from inner margin ; along the outer margin is al.so a little grey. Fringes brown from anal 
angle to middle of wing, thence to the apex alternate brown and white. The primaries on under .surface are blackish'brown with some 
whitish grey at e.xterior margin from middle lo apex ; the white spot on costa and the smaller one below it are repeated as on upper 
surface. Fringes brown except at apex and a spot near the inner angle which are white. 

Spii.othybus Notabilis, n. sp. Size and shape of Malvarum, Hffisg., and on upper surface somewhat resembles in general i ^ 

appearance that species. Body and liead above dark brown, beneath white. Ground colour of upper surface rather pale olive brown, '•'^ 

but the spaces between the nervules are so filled with sagittate and other dark brown markings as to exclude in a great measure the 
paler colour. <Jn the middle of costa of primaries are two small white send-translucent spots, these are joined by a third in the dis- 
coidal cell ; half way between these and the apex are three more connected minnte white spots, and in the middle of the wing are two 
more whicli are almost joined at their inner points; on secondaries are also two minute white spots in middle of wing and about mid- 
way between them and the costa is another single one. Fringes are pale olive alternated with dark brown at terminations of veins. 
Under surface yellowish white with the dark lines, etc., in cells, and the small white spots same as on upper surface, but owing to the 
very pale ground colour the contrast between the latter and the dark streaks is very marked and pleasing, but this is one of the host of 
species that it is useless to attempt to describe in a way that it can be with any certainty recognized, and my only excuse for worrying 
the student with such useless trumpery is that I will as soon as possible add figures of this as well as of all the other species herein 
described, for to use the words of one of the greatest of living autluu-ities, "it is by a very failhl'id figure alone that they can be satis- 
factorily separated," and that "descriptions alone are utterly inadeijuate," and "unaided by figures more than worthless" 

This is the first insect of its genus that has been found to occur in N. America. 

Arctia Oithona, n. sp., (^ expands 1}, 9 1] inches. On upper surface, head and thorax are pale pinkish yellow, the collar \ ^ 

with two broad black stripes, the thorax with three ; abdomen crim.son with a dorsal an<l two lateral rows of confluent black spots. '^ 

Primaries black with pale pinkish yellow lines arranged in precisely the same manner as in A. Speciosu, Mosch., (which is nearly as in 
A. Virguncula, Kirby,) with the single exception that there is a cro.ss bar of yellow extending from the junction of the discoidal and 
disco-cellnlar nervules to the costa. Secondaries same crimson as the abdomen, with an irregidar narrow black border to the outer 
margin and a broader one to the costa ; at anal angle a large black triangular spot joining at its lower edge the outer margin ; on the 
costa towards apex are two more large black .spots, between the onlermosi or apical one of these and the large spot at anal angle is 
a large black triangular spot. These spots, as is always the case with the Arctians, vary in size, shape and number in different 
individuals. Fringes of all wings pale jiinkish yellow. Under .surface; body i)ale yellow with black at sides. Primaries much as 
above excepting that the neuration is not denoted by pale yellow lines. Secondaries as above but colours not so intense. 

Several examples taken near Dalla.s, Tex. 

Datana Robusta, n. sp. (^ expands l|-2, $ 2J-2f inches. Tawny yellow or bull', very much the colour of Nadaia Oib- 
bosa, Wlk. Exterior margin of primaries entire. Head, thorax and primaries nnicolourtnis; outer edges of tegula- of a more greyish 
tinge in some examples, in others darker ferruginous or tawny than the thoracic patch. Abdomen and inferiors of same colour as but 
much paler than the primaries; first segments of abdomen darker, same colour as thorax. Primaries with two principal darker lines 
answering in position to the transver.se anterior and posterior lines of the NoctuidcB ; in the disc between these two lines are three more 
transverse lines, all running more or le.ss parallel with the outer one ; the third of the.se three lines is sometimes almost obsolete. A 
curveil line runs from apex to midway between costa and inner angle, sometimes joining the transverse posterior line. A large darker 
discal spot accompanied interiorly by a smaller spot. In some instances the space between the transverse anterior and posterior lines 
is suffused from the median nervure to the interior margin with reddish brown or ferruginous which in .some instances extends narrowly 
interior to the transverse anterior line to the base of thorax and to the tegula?. The veins, except the costal, between the two main 
transverse lines are all marked with .some ferruginous ; outer margin a little darker and somewhat greyish. Outer half of secondaries 
darker than near base. Fringe of primaries ferruginous, of secondaries yellowish white. 

This species differs from all the other species and varieties as follows: That the thoracic patch is same colour as ground of wing 
instead of being darker; in some instances as above stated the tegula' and ba.se of thorax are darker, having the thoracic patch paler 
instead of darker as is the case in all other species; again, in that the veins between the two principal cross lines are marked in same 
dark colour as on the transver.sc lines; it is apparently more robust and its whole appearance is so peculiar that if once seen there is 
no likelihood of its ever being confounded with any of the other known species. From vicinity of Dallas, Texas. 



1,32 ^'E^v ypEciKs, varieties, &c. 

EcDRYAS WlLSONll, Grote, (Oim W.) Proe. Enl. Soc. Phil. II, p. 65, I. 3, (1803). This beautiful species has hitherto only 
been known by two examples, one in Mus, (.'omp. Zool. at Cambridge and the other, from which the original description and figure 
were made, in Mus. Am. Ent. Soe. I'hila. It diHers remarkably from the other sjiecies in having pectinated antenna;. 

Hki.iothis Laxul, n. sp. Expands l^^^ inclies. Iliad and body white lightly tinged with sienna or rust brown at basal part 
of thorax and lips of palagia>. L"]iper surface; primaries white and not very dark rust brown; the ba.sal third is at and near ba.se 
brown, then while with scattered brown points, then conies a line which extends from costa to inner margin as in Mhyulbsa, Hegia, etc., 
but not as much bent as in these species; this Jliie is succeeded l)y the median space which is brown and encloses twoconsplcuou-s white spots, 
the largest is in the discoidal cell, the other halfway between it and the inner margin; the largest of these white spots is joineil exte- 
riorly by a metallic lead coloured distal spot ; the outer edge of the median space, which is very much produced opposite the discal 
spot, is succeeded by a wliite line edged outwardly with brown, beyond ibis is again white, then an irregular jagge<l line of brown edged 
outwardly with white; this is succeeded by the marginal band of bmwii with a row of minute black spots. Fringe white with brown 
points at tips of vein.s. Secondaries silky while with a very laint brownish submarginal band. Fringe long and white. Under sur- 
face white with markings of primaries in a manner somewhat faintly repeated on costal and exterior parts. 

Heliothis Glokiosa, n. .sp. Expands 1^, inches. Heail and body above white witJi pale olivaceous shades; beneath white. 
Antenuie and legs while. Upjier surface ; ]>riiiiaries dull purplish rid and olivaceous, neither of these colours intense, marked some- 
what after the manner of iJiVutosa and allies. The basal third of wing is purplish and is separated from the median space by a pure 
white line which widens at the veins thus forming teeth; the median space is olivaceous and encloses a purplish discal spot which 
latter is iirolonged outwardly to and beyond another while toolluil line which .separates the median from the outer space; the latter is 
|pin'plish interiorly and olivaceous marginally, the latter colour is more or less at the nervules encroached on by the purple. Fringe 
light and dark olivaceous. .Secondaries dirty while; a faint discal mark; marginal third of wing broadly shaded with brownish. 
Fringe white with brown at veins. Under surface ; primaries shining while; fuscous discal spot; a pale crimson shade near apex; 
a broad fuscous submarginal band. Fringe fuscous and white. Secondaries silky white, a very faint discal mark ; a slight pale 
crimson tint at apex ; fringe white with fuscous at nervules, which latter colour does not extend to the tcrminalions tliereof. By far 
the largest, and with the exception of liegia the most beautiful of that group of which Rivulosa is the type. 

EuDRY AS Gloverii, Grote (i'u«ciVrAopteru« G.). Larva. Length ] J inches. Same form as Grafa. (iround colour pale olive 
green.* Head and legs red, former with some small black spots. First segment red above and also with a number of small black 
spots. On the sides of all save the lirst and last segments is a transverse rallicr narrow velvet black bar which extends nearly to the 
middle of the back near which it is w idest, the.se bands <lo not connect dorsally, but the space between them in each segment except the 
the first and two last is supplied with a short red transverse band : on the next to last segment the black bands are only on the sides; 
on the back are two parallel red transverse ban<ls, on the first of which are eight and on the second f<iiir small black dots; the anal 
segment has also some round black dots. On each .■segment, esiHcially dorsally, are a number of very fine dotted black lines. From 
liead to anus extends a somewhat broad red band. Beneath on each of the fourth, fifth, tenth and eleventh segments is a transverse 
line formed by an almost connected row of .small brown spots. 

Catocal.v Ulalitme, n. sp. Size and sliape of C i?n6in«onii', Grote, and in position it might stand between that species and 
C. Desperata, Guen. The lines run njuch as in the lalter, but are not .so plainly distinguishable owing to the whole wing being heavilv 
dusted w-ith black points, thus obscuring the i)ale ground colour very much more than in Desperata; in the latter there is a suMusion of 
brown between the Iransvtrse posterior line and the stibnuirginal line, as well as on other parts of the wing; nothing of this is notice- 
able on the present species ; in many respects it resembles Laa-ymosa, Guen., but is not as dark as that species nor as large ; under surface 
nearly as in V. Venperuta, but with more tendency to sufliision in the black. Perhaps the best idea 1 can convey of Ululume is by say- 
ing that were the heavy dark brown shadings which accomiiany the tran.sverse lines and are on other parts of the primaries of Desperaia 
away, and the whole surtace peppered with black aloms, it would make a fair counterpart of the insect 1 am now hopelessly attempt- 
ing to describe in some such way that the reader may be able to identify it. 

Mr. Boll also took PniLAMPELUS Linnei, G.-R.,t near San .^ntonia ; 1 formerly received the same species from Mr. Doll, who 
captured it in east Florida. 



September, 1877. ?.^tAi.^^^ ^w.^U I Vj ? 



ON SOME LEl'lDOi'TEKA FROM THE EEGIONS WEST OF HUDSON'S I5AY, BETWEEN 

THE LATTER AND LAKE ATHABASCA. 

To Mr. Woldemar Geflcken of Stuttgart, Germany, I am indebted for a large nuuiber of Lepidoplera from those regions west of 
the Hudson's Bay, known as New North and New South AVales, mostly from the latter. This tract of country lies between ^tS^ and 63° 
N. L., and in common with most parts of British Columbia is a trackless wilderness, traversed only by the native inilians or hunters 
and those in the interest of the fur trade, and it was only after several years of cea.seless efforts, accompanied by repeated disappointments 
which would have thoroughly disheartened any one save a true lover of nature, that Mr. Geff'cken at length succeeded in securing con- 
nections that enabled him to receive from time to time large numbers of examples, though unfortunately not always in the best condition, 
owing to the lack of proficiency of the collectors employed, who were mostly Indian boys and girls. These siieeies, as will be .seen, are 
in great measure the same as or forms of those found in N. W. Labrador, though some indigenous to the latter locality, sucJi as Colias 
Najstes and Arg. Polaris, were not among the collections at various times received. 

Papilio Tbrnts, L. (^?. Examples small, somewhat more heavily marked with black than the United States and Canada 
examples and agreeing nearly with the description of those from the Island of .\nlicosti (south of Labrador) near top of page 69 of this 
work. Not uncommon. 

PlERls (Napi) var. Frigida, Scud. A' does not difTer from those fouml in .south west Labrador; i. e., with upper side immacu- 
late white, and under side of secondaries and apices of primaries yellowish, with veins of secondaries accompanied with brown. Only 
a few examples received. 

Colias Ecrytheme, Bdl. ^. One example not differing in size or colour from those found in the United States. 

*This description is from an inflated example in which the colour may not have been as vivid as during life. 
t Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil. V, p. 182, t. Ill, (1865). 



ON SOME LEPIDOPTERA FROM WEST OF HUDSON'S BAY. 133 

CoLiAS (Pelidne) var. Christina, AV. H. Edwdf. Of this a large number of examples, ^ ? , were received, mostly of extraordi- 
nary great size, the largest ((^) being 2;; indies in expanse, and the smallest (J*) IJ inches, the average size is 2 inches. That of the 
typical N. Labrador Pelidne is about 11 inches. In shade of colour the majority of examples are same as the N. Labrador ones, the 
^ lemon yellow, the $ greenish white ; but several of the males which were taken near Lake Athabasca have the upper surface suf- 
fused more or less with orange similar to those mentioned and figured in \V. H. Edwards' Butt. N. Am., the originals of which 1 have 
also .seen ; with the exception of this orange sufiusion they difler not a particle from the citron coloured ones. About one-fourth of the 
females are lemon coloured ; these yellow females show no traces of the blackish margin on upper surface of wings; this form is figured 
also in Edwards' work. On the under surface the various examples exhibit every degree of depth in the greenish colour of hind wings, 
some being quite pale yellowish green, others as dark as the darkest of the X. Labrador examples; one male has the row of submar- 
ginal points and two females have the little reddish brown mark on costa. Mr. \V. H. Edwards in describing Christina mentions that 
" in three specimens out of four there were no traces of the submarginal points." His males were all of the orange variety ; the greater 
number of those received bv me were of the yellow form ; Mr. Edwards' examples were from Slave River, farther west than mine; he 
had obtained tlience however no white female or lemon colouitd male. All my males from near Hudson's Bay were yellow, most of 
the females white; those that I received from lurtlier west (for they were oblaintd in various localities from Hudson's Bay to near 
Lake Athabasca) had both white and yellow females and orange as'well as yellow males; I know of only one orange male ever having 
been taken in N. Labrador, which example was received from there by Mr. Moschler and by him described in Wien. Ent. Mon. IV, p. 
354, (18(i0). No yellow female I believe has yet been found in N. Labrador, but on the souihern border along the St. Lawrence River 
and in Canada and along the shores of Lake Superior the females are always yellow. This more southern form is about the same size 
as those from more northern J^abrador. 

From all these facts I would deduce the conclusion that the further west we trace this species the more will we find the orange 
colour to prevail in the males and the yellow in the females, and that the white females, if they occur at all in South Labrador or west 
of Lake Athabasca, will be the rare exception. Remarkable as is the diflerence in colour in the various examples, it is oiily a matter 
of usual occurrence with the Coliades, for a more difficult group to define or in which to designate the limits of a species is not to be 
found, and a far more wonderful instance of dirti^rence in colour of males is found in C. Libanotka and C Sagartia, both forms of the 
same insect, in which the male of the first is red and that of the second greenish blue. I am also informed that intermediate forms 
between the two occur in which the red and blue colours are intermixed. Mr. Edwards has figin-cd a male example of Philodice that 
is orange, I also possess a (^ of the same colour. C. Hetichta is also an orange form of 0. Era(e (or perhaps as has been suggested 
is a hybrid between Erate and Edum) Of one thing I am most certain, that the Americans have made far too many species by giving 
to each local variation a difl'erent appellation and with a view to trying to do something towards solving the riddle I have given as 
mucJi attention as possible to this beautiful and most interesting genus, having with a few exceptions obtained all the known species 
and varieties. Whilst writing the above I have before me twenty-seven (f ? Pelid-ne from N. W. Labrador, forty from British Col- 
umbia from a region extending from Hudson's Bay to Lake Athabasca, five from South Labrador on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, 
and seven from Colorado. I have examined the tyjies of Christina, Labradorensis, Smdderii, Interior and Laurentina, and can only come 
to the conclusion that thev are but three forms of one species of which I here give a short diagnosis : 
COLIAS Pelidne. Bdl., Icones, 1. 8, (18.32) ; Sp. Gen., I, p, 044, (1836) ; Duj)., Suppl., I, t. 16, (1832) ; Bdl.-Lec, Lep. Am. Sept., 

p. 0(), t. 21, (1833) ; Herr.-Sch., Sohmett. Eur., t. 7, f. 35, 3fi, I. S, f. 43, 44, (1843) ; Frever, Neue. Beit., VI, t. 511, (1831-1858) ; 

Men., Cat. Mus. Petr. Lep., I, p. 84, (1855); MoscJi., Wien. Monat., IV, p. 349, (1860); Morris, Syn., p. 30, (1862); Kirby, 

Cat., p. 493, (1871) ; W. H. Edwds., Butt. N. Am., II, t. I. Col., (1874). 
Col. Anthyale, Sigr., Cat., p. 5, (1871). 
Col. Labradorensis, Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 107, (1862) ; Kirbv, Cat., p. 493, (1871). 

This is the typical X. W. Labrador form of small size and with 9 always white, and the c? yellow, with the single orange 
coloured exception previou-lv alluded to. 

Col. Scudderii, Reak., Proc. Ent. Soc, Phil., IV, ]). 217, (1865); Kirbv, Cat., p. 496, (1871); W. H. Edwds., Butt. N. Am., I, t. 

VIII, Col., (1872) ; Mead, Wheeler's Rep,, V, p, 749, (1875). 

Occurs in Colorado but differs in nothing of any importance from the Labrador examples, except that the ? is occasionally, 
though not often, vellow like the <^. 

var. a. Interior, Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., IX, p. 108, (1862) ; Kirby, Cat,, p. 493, (1871). 
Col. Pelidne var., Sireck., Lep., Rhop.-Het., p, 69, (1873). 
Col. Philodice var. Laurentina, Scud., Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist., p. 4, (Oct., 1875). 

.\ form found in S. Labrador and in the Lake Superior region, in which the ? is in the majority of instances yellow like the 
(^ ; this bears the same relation to the X. Labrador form as does the C. Werdandi, H-S. {nee Zett), to the typical C. Palano. 
var. b. Christina, W. H. Edwds., Proc. Em. Soc, Phil., II, y. 79, (1863) ; Butt N. Am., I, t. II, Col., (1868). 

This is the form of great size found west of Hudson's Bay in which the male is sometimes orange and sometimes yellow, and the 
females both yellow and white. * 

CoLlAs PALJ5N0, L. About twenty-five examples taken, of which seventeen, 9 cf, 89, are before me. They are all of smaller 
size than the average of those occurring in" Europe, ihe smallest ( jf) expanding IJ inches and the largest ( 9) ^ '"fl** o^'"'' IJ inches; 
otherwise the males difler onlv in the vellow colour which is a little less intense; the females also agree with the trans-Atlantic exam- 
ples; two are the yellow form' known as Werdandi, H-S,, all the others are white; the black marginal bands in both sexes present the 
same differences of width and outline found in their European congeners, some of the females having this band immaculate and in 
others enclosing spots of the white or vellow groui.d colour. 

W. H. Edwards has figured both sexes of this species in his Butt. X. Am. under the name of C. Helena, which he subsequently 
changed to Chippewa. So close is his female figure to one of the examples before me that it seems almost as if the latter had served as 
the original of it. I here append the svnonvmv of this species : 

Pai,j:no, Linn., (Pap. P.], Faun. Suec, p. 272, ( 1761 ) ; Svst. Xat., I, 2, p. 764, (1767) ; Fabr., Syst. Ent., p. 476, (1775) ; Ent. Syst., 
Ill, p. 207, (1793) ; Ochs., Schmett., I, 2, 184, (1808) ; iColias P.) Godt., Enc Meth., IX, p. 101, (1819) ; Bdl., Sp. Gen., I, p. 
045, (1836) ; Stgr., Cat., p. 5, (1871); Kirbv, Cat., p. 493, (1871). 
Pap. Europomene, Esp., Schmett., I, t. 42, (1778) ; Hub., Eur. Schmett., 434. 435, (1793-1827). 
Pap. Philomene, Hub., 1. c, 602, 003, 740, 741 ; I Col. P.) Dup. Lep., Suppl., I, t. 47, (1832). 
Col. Palceno var. Lapponica, Stgr., Cat., p. 5, (1871). 

Col. Werdandi. H-S.., Schmett. Eur., l 403, 404, ?, (1848). Yellow 9 form. 

Col. Helena, W. H. Edwds., Proc, Ent. Soc, Phila., II, p. 80, (1863) ; Butt. X. Am., I, t. I, Col., (1868). 
Col. Chippewa, W. H. Edwds., 1. c, la.st page Vol. I ; Kirby, Cat,, p. 495, (1871). 

Argynnis ChARICIjEA, Schn, 
Frelta, Thnb, 
" (Aphirape), var. Triclaris, Hub. 

" (Frigga), var. SaGA, Kaden. 



134 ON SOME LEPIDOPTERA FROM WEST OF HUDSON'S BAY. 

All four species received in :i niiiiilicr of examples, but noiu- present any parilcular points of difference from those found in 
Labrador. 

Vanessa Antiopa, L. All cxunii>les of small size. 

Vanessa {Antiopa) ab. Hvqi.ka, Ildr. ( V. Lintnerii, Fitch). One example, the black snbmarginal band with its enclosed row 
of blue spots entirely wanting'; the yellow marginal band nearly twice the width that it is in the normal form of Antiopa. 

Vaness.\ Milbeeti, Godt. The same in all respects as in other localities. Common. 

Vanessa (Zephyrus) var. Gracilis, G.-R. Only one example, whicli differs from those from the White Mts. in the basal half 
of under side, which is without the reddish suffusion ; the white mesial band is not so bright, being more covered with fine abbreviated 
dark lines. 

Limenitis Arthemis, Dm. Of small size, expanding not quite 2} inches. The white bands, especially on primaries, broa<ier 
than usual. On under side the groun<l colour very strongly suffused with reddish though not much more so than in some few extreme 
varieties I have seen from N. York and elsewhere; no indications of greenisli at base of secondaries; all the space between the white 
band on secondaries, and greenish marginal lunules, is brownish red, not set in red liinules bordered above and below with black as is 
commonly the case. Several examples were received. 

Erbbia Discoidaijs, Kirby. Of this beautiful species, so rare in collections, over a h\indre(l examples were received. It is 
a constant species exhibiting scarce any variation. 

Chionobas Jutta, HuVj. Several examples, ground colour of both surfaces darker, giving them a more opaque appearance 
than is exhibited in those from North Europe. 

Alypia MACcuiiLOCHii, Kirby. Two examples. 

Macroglossa Klavofasciata, Barnston. One ? example. 

Aectia Parthenos, Harris (A. Borealis, Mosch.). One ? example in very poor condition. 




We...i«" 



/ Mefitdeet Alma , Streck.$ . ^ JE(fiale Ch&yui,Sfreck.^ .SJfacmylossa U/alume,^^reck. i.^Sfh. Vashii/irec/cif. S'//ef!alns^^atu/cu'is,^ 
{)' G/overiaArizonenslsfnek.? T Co/orfi(?i'u Tafidorcf.JVu^*' S. SFfeudohtc^it HeraJfarr^S..9 P //eralnhei-r. W P.Fwa,W7kJ J/ BPica ^ V. 



1^ 



.^ 



A 



MELIT^A ALMA. Nov. Sp 



(PLATE XV, FIG. 1 J'.; 



Male. Expands 1-j^ inches. 

Same form as 31. Leanira, Bdl. Head and body above black, beneatli whitish yellow, legs fulvous, an- 
tennae black narrowly ringed with white. Upper surface of all wings bright fulvous of nearly the same shade 
as M. Whitneiji, Behr ; all nervures and nervules black ; fringe white alternated with black at terminations of 
veins. Primaries have a black border to exterior margin within which are seven bright fulvous spots, the 
apical one much the smallest and the third from inner angle by far the largest; tliese fulvous spots occupy by 
far the greater part of the black border ; this border is succeeded immediately ou its inner margin bv a row of 
almost confluent pale yellow spots, the two at costa being the largest; interior to this across the middle of the 
wing is another row of pale yellow spots joined inwardly by a rather broad irregular black band broken at the 
disco-cellular nervule by a fulvous patch ; the colour between this last black band and base of wing is pale 
yellow; within the discoidal cell a Itroad transverse black band; costa and base of wing blackish. Secondaries 
margined exteriorly by a black line ; basal third of wing black with two pale yellow marks in discoidal cell ; 
this black basal part is succeeded outwardly by a fair liand of pale yellow, about midway between which and the 
exterior margin is a transverse row of almost confluent pale yellow sjiots ; costa blackish. 

louder surface; primaries pale fulvous, exterior black marginal liorder enclosing pale s])ots as above, Init 
these latter are ])ale yellow here instead of fulvous except the second and third from inner angle which are 
faintly tinged with the latter colour; ail other yellow spots of upper surface faintly re]iroduced. Secondaries 
whitish yellow, veins black, a black line edges the exterior margin; a black mesial band enclosing six whitish 
yellow spots ; a small black mark or streak in upper part of discoidal cell and another at costa. The under 
surface of this insect resembles very closely that of Leanira which is the nearest allied species. 

Two examples, one from Arizona, one from S. Utah. 

This is another of (hose anomalous species from the wonder-producing s.tU regions. A glance at the under side would lead any 
one to pronounce it Leanira, but the diflerence on the upper side is astonishing; the black ground colour in that species being here 
replaced with bright fulvous ; nevertheless, despite this great dissimilarity of colour, I am inclined to think it is something of the white ■ 
peacock business, and that this may possibly be, after all, another of th'' " ' : aberrant sub-species in which Arizona and Utah seem 

to be so rich. 

^GIALE COFAQUI. Streck. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phil., p. 148, (1876). 

(PLATE XV, FIG. 2 $.) 



Since the description of this species appeared in the Proc. Phil. Acad. I have had the opportunity of 
comparing m}' type (Avhich was taken in Georgia) with two examples, l>oth females, collected in May, 1876, by 
the expedition under Lieut. E. H. EuiFner during the surveys and explorations of the region of the head waters 
of the Red River of Texas. They were taken in the Llano Estacado or Staked Plains. The only difference of 
any moment between these Texan examples and the type is in the great size of the first which expand 'i\ inches. 

The differences between this and jEg. Yiicae, Bdl.-Lec, I have fully demonstrated in the paper above alluded to and will merely 
repeat here that the most noticeable are the entirely difierent shape of the wings, the greater profusion of yellow markings on upper 
surface and the many white spots of under surface of secondaries. 

This insect as well as Yiuxce undoubtedly belongs in Felder's genus MgiaXe, of which 1 consider Scudder's Megathymus but a 

synonym. - 

MACROGLOSSA ULALUME. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XV, FIG. 3 J'.) 



Male. Expands 1| inches. 

Head above sulphur yellow, below black, antcnufe black. Thorax on back black mixed sparingly with 
yellow hairs, patagiaj sulphur yellow, collar intense velvety black ; beneath black ; legs black. Abdomen 
above velvety lilack with sulphur yellow side tufts to the two last segments, anal brush black above, yellow be- 
neath ; under side of abdomen black. 

135 



/ t 



7? 



A^ 



l^' 



136 MACROGLOSSA ULALUME. 

U])])!'!' surface all winns hlackisli, darkest on basal halt' and at abdominal margin of secondaries; a com- 
mon broad scmi-dia])lian<»ns band a shade or so paler than j^roinid colour crosses both wings, tliis band on the 
secondaries does not extend to inner nuirgiu and shows towards its inner extremity a few scattered scarce notice- 
able yellow scales. 

Under surface as above, dark colour more dull ; some loose orange hairs on basal part of primaries, and 
the inner termination of the mesial band of secondaries is slightly clothed with sulphur coloured scales. 

One c? from Oregon. 

This be.iiitiful species is near to M. Ftavofasciata, Barnston, but differs notably in the black collar ami thorax, in the absence of 
the bright yellow mesial band of secondaries, as well as in its greater size. 



SPHINX VASHTI. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XV, P^IG. 4 J>. 



Male. Expands 3 inches. 

Head and thorax above whitish grey, patagim edged M'ith a velvety black line; abdomen darker grey 
with heavy black dorsal line and white and black dcmi-bands on the sides. Beneath grey with a conspicuous 
black ventral line on abdomen ; legs brown. 

Upjicr surface ; primaries dark grey ; a broad whitish or whitish grey dash extends from base, half the 
length of the wing, along the costa, not reaching quite to the edge of the latter; at and within the inner edge 
of this whitish band the wing is strongly suliused with blackish ; a black apical line, also four other 
ablireviated black lines in the cells, the last of which is almost lost in the darkness interior to the great pale 
basal band ; exteriorlv a whitish subniaririnal band, edo'cd inwardlv bv a black line broad near the inner ansrle 
but decreasing to a j)oint not far from apex. 

Secondaries whitish grey with In-oad black mesial and submarginal bands. Fringes of all wings dark 
grey except near anal angle and on abdominal mtirgin of secondaries where they are white. 

Umler surface prinjaries smoky grey, a little paler at exterior margin ; an inconspicuous black apical line. 
Secondaries whitish grey obscured on basal half of costa with darker grey, mesial and submarginal bands well 
defined but not as dark as above. 

One d from Arizona in coll. Neumoegeu. 

Belongs to the group of & CAersi'j!, Hub., and occupies a position between that species and S. Perelegnns* Hy. Edwds., from 
California, which latter is easily distinguished from the jiresent species by its coal-black occiput and tiiorax which serve to connect it 
with DTvpiferarum, Ab.-S., and Qordius, Cram. The relative position of the N. Am. Sphingid* comprising this group would be .some- 
what in this wise: 

Si)liinx (Lethia) Chersis, Hub. 

" Vashti. 

" Pcrclcgans, Hy. Edwds. 

'' Druiiiferarura, Ab.-S. 

" Gordiiis, Cram. 

" Lucitiosa, Clemens. 



HEPIALUS SANGARIS. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XV, FIG. S.) 

Mai.k. Kxpands 1 to IJ inches. 

Head ;uid thorax salmon coloured; it is impossible to determine the colour of the abdomen owing to its 
being badly greased. 

Upper surface ; primaries salmon red ; brighter red on costa ; two transverse white bands edged with red 
lead colour do not reach to the costa; a small white half obsolete mark towards base. Secondaries smoky 
frino'cd with reddish. I 'luler surface ; j)rimaries reddish grey with edge of costa red, secondaries much as above. 

Two males from Arizona. 

GLOVERIA ARIZONENSTS. Packard. 

Annual Report Peabody Acad. Sc, p. 90, (1S71). 

(PL.\TE XV, FIG. 6 9.) 

Female. Expands 3f inches. 

*Sph. Pereiegarui, Hy. Edwds., described in Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc, (July, 1873). 



GLOVERIA ARIZONENSIS. 137 

Pale grey or ashen ; primaries with a small round white diseal spot beyond which is a brown double 
transverse line extending from inner margin to the third subcostal nervule; between this line and the exterior 
margin is a transverse zigzag line, the points of which between the veins are very acute; between this line and 
the exterior margin as well as at base and along the costa the colour is darker than in the median space. Secon- 
daries without marks, a little darker towards tlic exterior margin. 

Under surface of all wings grey without marks of any kind. 

The male is not yet known. 

One example from S. W. Arizona. 

The genus Gloveria, erected by Dr. Packard for this insect, is as its author stated closely allied to Lasiocarapa and the species to 
L. Otus, Dru., to which it bears a considerable resemblance thongh it is by no means as ponderous or heavily furred as that species. 

Never was honour more worthily bestowed than in the instance of the dedication of this genus to the most hard-working, over- 
worked, indefatigable entomologist in all America, Prof. Townend Glover, the extent of whose labors in economic entomology are yet 
to be estimated at their true value. 

COLORADIA TANDORA. Blake. 

Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. II, p. 279, t. VII, ?, (1863). 



(PIATE XV, FIG. 7 cf.) 



Male. Expands 3J inches. 

Antennte yellow and pectinated as in Pseudnhazis and Hemileucn ; liead and thorax dark brown with 
scattered white hairs ; abdomen above heavily clothed with dark brown and white hairs, beneath brown, the 
.segments widely fringed with white ; legs dark brown. Wings inclined to semi-transparency and with the ex- 
cejition that the primaries are a little more pointed apically are nearly tlie same shape as in the female. Pri- 
maries dark brown with broad irregular transverse sub-basal and median bands; between the latter and the 
exterior margin is another broader transverse band or shade edged outwardly with white scales; the spaces 
between all bands more or less covered with scattered white scales; a round black discal spot. Secondaries 
very pale rose colour more strongly tinged at base and abdominal margin ; a round black discal spot; a narrow 
brown median band ; a broad brownish border to exterior margin. 

Under surface pale rose colour, darkest on primaries and at abdominal margin of secondaries. All wings 
broadly bordered witli brown on exterior margins, also with a narrow brown median band and black discal 
spots. 

One c? from Oregon in Mus. Strecker. 

The female type, and only example of that sex yet known, is in the museum of the Am. Ent. Soc. The markings are not near 
as dark or well defined as in the male, and scarcely any indication of pink or rose colour is on the upper side of secondaries. It was 
taken at Pike's Peak, Colorado. 

I here append Mr. Blake's original description : 

" J^OTia^c— Brownish-grey. Head not prolonged, palpi extending rather beyond the head. Antenna; bright luteous, biserrate, a 
little longer than the thorax. 'Thorax densely villose. Abdomen above fuliginous, sides mixed with griseous, apex tufted, extending 
a little beyond the hind wings. Wings semi-transparent. Fore wings with two indistinct, oblique, somewhat undulating, fuliginous 
bands, the exterior one paler than the other, the space between the bands covered somewhat spar.sely with distinct white scales, a small 
black spot on the discal nervure. Hind wings with an indistinct cloudy band, broader at the interior margin, gradually tapering to the 
exterior. A pale fuliginous spot on the disc. B.asc of the wings clothed with pale pinkish hairs, cilite whitish at the extremity of the 
veins. Under side brownish-grey, tinged with pink ; the discal spots more distinct than on the upper side. Length of the body 15 
lines. Expanse of the wings 38 lines." , 

PSEUDOHAZIS HERA. Harris. 

Saturnia Hera, Harris, Rep. Ins. Mass., p. 286, (1841); Morris, Svn., p. 221, (1862); [Hemileuca H.) 
Packard, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 383, (1864) ; {Pseudohazis R.) G.-R., Ann. Lvc. 
Nat. Hist. N. Y. VIII, p. 377, (1866). 
Hemileuca Pica, Walker, Cat. Lep. B. M. VI, p. 1318, (1855); {Saturnia P.) Morris, Syn. p. 
222, (1862); {Hemileuca P.) Packard, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 383, (1864). 

Var. Eglanterina, Bdl., (So^arnia £.) Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr., 2mc Ser. X, p. 323,(1852); {Hem- 
ileuca E.) Myfc., Cat. Lep. B. M. VI, p. 1318, (1855); {Telea E.) H-S., Lep. Exot., 
p. 445, (1855); {Saturjiin E.) Morris, Syn., p. 222, (1862); {Hemileuca E.) Packard, 
Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil., Ill, p. 383, (18(34); {Pseudohazis E.) G.-R., Ann. Lye. Nat. 
Hist. N. Y. VIII, p. 377, (1866). 

Var. NuTTALLi, Streck., Lep., Rhop.-Het., p. 107, (1875). 

Var. Arizonensis, nobis. 



138 PSEITDOHAZIS HERA. 

» PLATE XV, FIG. 8, PSEUD. EGLANTERIN.V, Hdl. J>, California. 

FIG. 9, PSEUD. EGLANTKKINA. J" ^i^*'""''"". t'alifornia. 

FIG. 10, PSEUD. IIKR.\, Harris, {Pica, Wlk) cf, Utah. 

FIG. 11, PSKUD. IIEK.\, vellow var. rj", Colorado. 

FIG. 1-J, PSEUD. IIER.\. 'J' Mack aliernition, " Rockv Mt.s." 

FK;. 13, PSKUD. NUTT.VLLI, Slrcek. J" R'nkv Mt.^'', head of Snake Hiver. 

FIG. 14, PSEID. NUTT.\LLI, $ Rocky Mts., head of Snake River. 



The 9 of J°. Hera, the earliest described of the ahove forms, was figured by .Vndubon <in )>late .'i")9 in Vol. IV of his jjreat work 
on the Birds of N. Am. and on plate ■").'?, Vol. I, of his later smaller edition, but no name or word regarding the insect appeared in the 
text. Dr. Harris afterwards described and named the species from the example thai bad furnislicd Audubon with the original of his 
figure, which was in the ]>osscssion of Mr. ICd. Doulilcday of E]iping, Eng. This, as well as oibcr examples, were taken by the ornith- 
ologist Nutlall ill tiie Rockv Mts. in ISItli. .■Vudiibou's liguie is apparently a female to judge from tJie aiUcniue, lliougli Harris describes 
it as a male, and states tlial the other ligure "is probably the female of llie preceding, apparently diHers from it only in being of a deep 
Indian-vellow colour and in having the crescent in the middle of the kidney shaped spots very distinct, whereas in the male it is almost 
obsolete." This latter figure however is more likely tile female of one of the other forms, Kglanierina or Nuttalli probably, as I have 
seen and examined a number of P. Hera from I'tali in which the females as well as the males have the wings either (piite white or else 
white with a very faint vellowish tint or cast. This white form appears to be indigenous to the salt regions of Utah and nowhere else. 
I have only figured the male, but if those of my readers, who have not easy access to Audubon's work, will glance at my figure (14) of 
P. Nuttalli, 9 , and imagine the ground colour of all wings while and the abdomen ringed with black they will have a very correct idea 
of the female of the form or var. Hera, llarr. 

Both sexes of the Colorado variety of 7^. 7/era have all the wings yellow, tlie primaries not however as deep in colour as the 
secondaries and body ; the male ami female jiresent scarcely any difierence in ihe markings or outline of wings. Fig. 1 1 on plate XV 
represents the (^^ of this form ; fig. 12 on same plate depicts a melanotic aberration of P. Hera, the original of which, taken by Mr. Xut- 
tail in the "Rockv Mts.'' in l.s;it), is now in the coll. of Mr. Titian K. Peale, to whose goodness I am indebted for the privilege of 
figuring it, as well as Nos. \'i, 14, which illustrate botli sexes of P. Nntlalli described on page 1(17 of this work. At the lime 1 designated 
this latter as a ilislinct species I considered the total absence of the black bands on the abdomen as entitling it to have some claims as 
such, but lalciv having examined a uuniber of both sexes of an intermediate form received by Mr. Neumoegen from .\rizona I am con- 
vinced that P' yultalli is but an extreme variation after all. Both sexes of these .Vri/.ona examples jusl alluded to i which came into 
my hands too late to introduce on ]ilate X\' i resemble closely in outline of wing, color and markings, /'. Nitltalll V (tig. 11. plate XV) 
with the exception that the abdomen over half the leiigib from the thorax is lianded with black, the two bands nearest the tbiu-ax lieing 
broadest and thence out becoming narrower until but few traces an- noticeable on the terminal segments; the black marks on wings are 
but verv little luavier in ilic male than in the female. This form I would propose to designate as variety Arizonensis ; it seems to be 
intermediate between the Colorado form of 1'. Hera (lig. 11 1 and /'. Nuttalli. 

The best known and by lar the commonest is the Californian form Eglanterina in which the upper surface of primaries is more 
or less suH'used with pinkish ; it is very variable in Ihe black markings; in some instances being almost as heavily blacked as the 
varietv of P. llera (fig. 12i, in others it is scarcely more so than in P. Nuttalli 9 ('ig- I'D ; '""' is this <iiniimition of the black confined 
to the females only as I have males with as little black on as any female I have vet seen, and even less. .\n extreme ease in poinl is 
the male abberration (lig. !M in which the black marks are almost totally obliterated on both surlaccs. 1 have three of this type, all 
fine unbleniislud examples, but in neither of (be remaining two are the dark banils and spots so completely obscured as in tlie one 
figured. The Californian examjiles are not even constant in outline of wing, some being narrow winged like form Hera, others broad 
as in fig. S, pi. X\' ; in fact ibis is fairly dciiionslrateil by comparing the outline of fig. S with that of its aberration lig. 'J. wliicli pre- 
sents an entirely dillerent shape of wing. Though the iipiier surface of primaries is more generally llesh coloured or pinkish, this is 
not alwavs the case, as I have seen and possess examples of both sexes in which the primaries are the same yellow colour as liie second- 
aries, anil others in which [lart are yellow and part llesh coloured ; in fact the number of variations and sub-varialions ol this .and the 
other forms is truly wonderful ; I could easily have filled a plate wilh'tlicm had it been worth the while, bet I trust I have figured 
enough to illustrate the fact that all are but forms, or sports, or variations of one species. 

Tlie two examples in my collection taken by Nuttall in 18:U) in the "Rocky Mis.'' are the ordinary form of Eglanlcrina; in the 
same expedition Nuttall also took the three insects figs. 12, 13 and 14 on plate XV, as well as ibe originals of .Vudubou's figures, one of 
which furnished the type for Harris' Heia. 

IIYPKRCIIIRIA YARTA. Waikkr. 

Cat. Lep. B. M. VI, p. 1278, (ISo.Vi. 

(PLATE XV, FIG. 13 (^ aberr., U! Hermaphrodite.) 



This common but none Ihe less beautiful species is subject to many and most startling variations, two of which I have figured on 
plate XV, of which, as well as of several others, I will proceed to make further note. Fig. 1.'), a r^, has on upper surface all the usual 
brownish marks of primaries, and the red abdominal margin and siibmaiginal line of secondaries rejilaced by white or very pale yel- 
lowish. Beneath the primaries are yellow with no other colour or mark save a black discal spot jaipilled with while; the secondaries 
are vellow from where the transverse line usually is to outer margin, interior to ibis yellow part the wing is yellowish white. Two 
examples of this aberrant were raised from a large brood, ihe remaining members of which were all of the ordinary form. 

Fig. ](i riprcsents one of those incomprehensible freaks, a partial hermaphrodite. The left anteiina! is male, the right one fe- 
male; the tli(U-ax above is yellow like the male, with several isolatc<i jKilches of the reddish female colour; beneath the thorax in front 
is red, rest yellow ; legs reddish ; abdomen above and below yellow and to all ajipearance is that of a male. The left primary is male 
except a small patch on interior margin, not far from the inner angle, and a not broad mark extending along inner margin from the 
aforesaid patch inwards to the transverse sub-basal line; the right hand primary is female excepting the parts along inner margin 
which on the left wing are female are here male, also at Ihe inner angle is an irregular triangular patch of the yellow male colour. 
Secondaries on upper surface are both alike and appear to be, from the produced abdominal angle, male. Under surface all wings yel- 
low and in all other respects like the normal males with the single exception that the eosta of the right hand secondary is bordered its 

* On this accompanying plate |X\') figs. 8 and 9 are marked by mi.atake as Hera instead u( Eglanterina, and figs. 10, 11 and 12 
as Pica instead of Hera, so "that lliev should read at botlom of plate correctly thus : .S, Pseudohazis Eglanterina, Bdl., j* ; 9, P. Eglan- 
Urina, cf aberr. ; 10, P. Hera, Harris, cT ; H, P. Hera, cf var. ; 12, P. Hera, rf" aberr. 



HYPERCHIRIA VARIA. 139 

whole length bv a broad nearly even band or margin of reddish brown, Ihe same colour as on the under side of the usual female 
form. 

Although there was some slight disarrangement in the genera! sexual make-up of this individual still it had sense enough to 
assert its manhood, though bv so doing it sacrificed both liberty and life ; it (lew into an open window attracted by a captive virgin female 
which had that day emerged from the chrysalis. 

For bolli the above remarkable insects, as well as numberless other kindnesses extending through long years, am 1 indebted to 
my old friend Herman .Sachs who bred the first and captured the second at his residence in Hoboken, New jersey, some years ago; 
and as I now gaze at them many and many a pleasant recollection ari.ses of the days of "auld lang .syne" 

From the state a{ Maine I received a male example in which the median or .second submarginal line is crimson like the ou'ter 
one instead of black as in all other examples I have ever seen. 

Another male, from Maryland, has the ocellus of secondaries entirely black without any shining blue, or white discal mark. 

Two females have the lower edge of the ocellus of secondaries resting on the black transverse line. 

One female has upper surface of primaries puiplisb grey, transverse lines and discal marks white. Ocellus of secondaries of 
immense size filling nearly the whole space interior to the black line ; under surface of this example is greyish yellow. It is from Ohio. 

A female in Mus. Comp. Zool., Cambridge, is of small size and has the ocellus of secondaries suffused and irregularly spread 
over a great portion of the wii>g. 

In collection of Mr. J. Meyer of Brooklyn is a female of very large size in which the upper side primaries are ornamented with 
rays of darker colour which start from the ba.se and diverge outwards wider and wider until their points reach nearly to the exterior 
margin. 

In Mr. Neumcegen's coll., also in my own, are female examples with the upper side of primaries pale grey or ashen; one of 
these was taken near Morristown, N. Jersey, the other I bred from larva found here. 

HYPERCHIRIA LILITH. Nov. Sp. 



(PLATE XV, FIG. 17 ?.) /_,„--^ 



Fkmai,e. Expand.^* 2| inches. 

Head, tliorax and legs dark Indian red; ahdonien .same eolour with the exception that the segments 
above are edged with a somewiiat yelloAvish line. 

Upper surfaee ; primaries dark reddish hrown more inclined to red at the base, and .siimewhat paler and 
tinged with grey at enter margin; discal mark scarcely discernible; a darker inconspicuous tran,sverse median 
line or rather shade. Sccondtiries brownish not as dark as the primaries, broadly bordered at abdominal margin 
with dull crimson; a large central ocellus formed liy a distinct black ring enclosing shining blue or steel 
colour and with a sratill white discal mark, the black and blue do not merge into each other as in //. Varia 
but the l)lack ring is not wide and is clear and distinct on its inner edge as on the outer ; outside the ocellus is 
a broad black line, between this latter and the exterior margin is another broader line of reddish brown; the 
exterior margin is also bordered with the same colour. 

Under surface dark Indian red shaded towards exterior margins with brownish ; transverse lines as in 
H. ^'aria^ on ]>rimaries a very large bkick oval di.scal sj)ot with small white round spot in centre, on seconda- 
ries a small white discal spot. 

Hab. Georgia. 

I have only had the opportunity of examining tlie females, of whicli there were eight or nine, all bred at one time; the male, 
of which there were only a few examples, was dtscribed to me as being much like the female, but the primaries darker or more grey- 
ish and the secondaries [jaler. Of the eight or nine females bre<l i have exaujineif six, and all are remarkablv alike, presenting 
scarcely any diffijrence from each other in size, .shape or colour. The wings are broader and shorter than in If. Varia, which is the 
nearest allied species. My friend did not lake any particular note of the larva more than that they were of the Varia tvpeand that he 
found them feeding on some small weed which soon gave out, lie then fed them on wild cherry which they ate readily until thev were 
ready to change into the chrysalis state. This could scarce he a local form of H. Varia as the latter species I received from the same 
locality and bred at .same time in large numbers of both sexes which were in all respects the same as those found in Penna., N. York 
and other more northern lucalities. I have every hope that I will in a future plate be able to depict the male of this beautiful insectas 
my informant is confident that he has in chrysalis state another brood of it. 

I have named this species after a lady of considerable celebrity in the olden time long ago, to wit: No less a per.sonage than 
.\dam's first wife Lilith, the mother of the giants, who was eventually turned into a demon, as has been not unfrequently the case 
witli members of her sex in subsequent times, not long ago. 



ON THE NORTH AMERICAN SPHINGID.E IN MR. A. G. BUTLER'S REVISION OF THAT 
FAMILY PUBLISHED IN TRANS. ZOOL. SOC, LOND., VOL. IX., PART 10, (1877). 

Among the various works of interest to the Entomologist that have of late years appeared, two come in for considerable atten- 
tion : the " Sphingides, Sesiides, Caslnides," by Dr. Eoifd\ival (1874), and the "Revision of the .Sphingidae," by Mr. Butler (1877); 
as the latter is later and in a measure a revision of the former, I will more jiarticularly direct my attention and remarks to its contents, 
contenting myself for the present by expressing my delight at the wonderful correctness of the drawing and beauty of colouring of the 
figures in the work of Dr. Boisduval. 

Page 517, No. "2 Lepisesia victoria, Grote Bull. BufF. Soc. Nat. Sci., ii, p. 147, (1874). British Columbia." 
Was described from a faded example of Ptcrogon Clarkia, Bdl. In appendix p. 634 Butler makes the correction in a measure, 
thus: "Said to be identical with Pterocjon clarkim of Boisduval ; see Bull. Bufi'. Soc, ii, p. 225." 
On p. HI of this work 1 have slightly alluded to the above. 



140 ON SOME X. AMERICAN SPHINGID.IC IX A. G. BITLEK'S REVISION. 

Page o 18, No. "2, Uemaris fitmosa. Mucroyiossa fumom, Strwker, Lep. Rlinp. et Het., p. 93, 1874. .\lbany. Allied to 
H. diffinis; Grole believes il to be H. tenuis, in wbicli the scales on tlie pellnci<l area of the wings are slill adlieren'." 
Grote is right in his belief. 

Page 519, No. li, " Sesia thetis, Grote and Robinson, Trans. Am. ICiit. Soc, Vol. I, p. 3, pi. (!, fig. 3G. (Jan., 1868)." 
Should be p. 32.'), pi. 0, etc., not p. " 3." 

Page 521, No. " 16, IIem.^uis axillaris. Sesia axiilari*, (Jrote and Robinson, Trans. .\m. Knl. Soc, ii, p. 180, (1868). 
liEMAnis AXILLARIS, (jrole. Bull. Bufl'. Soc. Na(. Sci., p. 0, |)l. I, fig. 9, (1>>73). 
Sesia (jroUi, Butler, Ann. A Mag. Nat. Hist,, .Scr. 1, Vol. XIV, p. 365, (1874). Texas, (Bel/rage)." 
No. "17, Hemakis maroinai.is. Grote, Bull. BuH'. Soc. Nat. Sci., p. 6, pi. 1, fig. 10, (1873). Michigan. {Strecker.)" 
These two are unqiiesiioiiably the same species; the type of Mnrtfinalls has the dentations on inner edge of margin of primaries 
not as deeply cut as in the type of Axillaris, but in a number of examples all the gradations between the two extremes can be found and 
in one example which 1 passess the teeth are prohmgeil inwardly even more than in Grote's figure in Bull'. Bull. 

P. 522 No. "20 Hemakis iuff,\loexsis. Ilirjnorrhiuiia buffahensis, (irnte and Robinson, .\nn. Lye, Nat. Hist. New York, 
Vol. viii, p. 437, pi. Hi, figs, IS, Hi, i I8ti7l. BuH'.ilo. Very closely allieil to, if not identical with H. rujicuudis (jf Walker (? Kirby, ; 
the body, however, seems greener in colouring, and the cell of primaries les.s open," 

This is, as the latter part of the above quotation would lead us to infer, indentical with Ruficaudia of wliicli Sesia f/ni/ormis, G.-R., 
is also a .synonym. 

On ihe same principle that certain individuals of this iTvlicmtrlis were erected into the species Buff<tloenjiis, all those found in 
Reading could be designated a.- Readingensis, those from Kniztown as Kulzlownensis, those from Folly-bill as Folly-hiltensis, and so on. 

The svnonvmv of this species is: 
MACRociLOS,iA RiFKAUDis, KiRiiY, I Sesio Jt.), Faun. Hor. Am. IV, 303, (18.37). Walker, C. B. M, \I1I, 82, (1856). Morris, Cat. 
Lep. N. Am., 17, ( IStllli, Syn. Lep., 149, (ISi;2). Cuuper. Can. Ent. IV, 20o, (1872). 
Hcemorrhagia Rulicaudis. Urate A' Robinson, Proc. Knt. Soc, Phil. \', 149 & 175, (1865). 
Hemaris Ru/icaudis, Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud. IX, 521, (1877 I. 
HtemorrhiKiia BuffaUiensix. Grote li Robinson, .\nn. Lvc. Nat. Hist. N. Y. VIII, 437, t. 16. figs. 1.8, 19, (1867), List Lep. N. Am., 3, 

(18tiS|. ' Grote. Butr. Hull. 1. 18, (1873i, II, 224, (18751. 
Hemarii BulYaloensis, Butler, Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud. IX, 522, (1877). 

Sesia Uniformis, Grote & R^)bin.vm, Trans. Am. Knt. Soc. 11, 181, (1868). Lintner, 23d Kep. N. Y. State Cab. Nat Hist., 172,(1872). 
Uamnrrhagia Unifo'mis, Grole & Robinson, List Lep. N. Am., 3, (1868). Grole. Butt'. Bull. I, 18, (1873), II, 224, (1875). 
1 would futther refer the student to page 109 of this work where I have dwelt at .some length on this species. 

No. "23 Hemaris fuscicaudis. Sesia fiuiicittdis Walker, Lep. Het. viii, p. 83, No. 6 (1856). Hivmorrhagia/usicaudis, Grote & 
Robinson, Proc. Knt. Soc. Phil. vol. v, p. 174 (1865). 

(icorgia {Abbot). Type, H. M." 

This is the southern form of Thysbe, from which it ditlers in nothing except its greater size; the absence of Ihe greenish colour 
on the sides of the two last segments of abdomen is not specific as I Juive taken as many of Thysbe in Pennsylvania destitute of this 
greenish colour an abdomen as I have with it, and one example in my cabinet has all Ihe segments of the abdomen dark red and only 
the thorax green ; otherwise il is the same as the ordinary Thysbe. 

On p. 519 No. "3 Hemaris palpalis Cirote'' from British Columbia. 
No. 7 "Hemaris melathetis" Butler from Texas. 

On p. 635 ''Hemaris rubens, H. Eilwds." from Oregon .and " H. cynoglossum IL Kdwds," from California and Vancouver's Island, 
,\re all unknown to me save through the author's descriptions. 

Page 529, No. "41, Macrogi.ossa erato, Bdl., Lep, Cal. in Ann. Soc. Knt. Beige., xii, p, 65, no, ()7 (1868)," 

Page 536, " Euproxerj)inv.'< plutlon, (jrote and Kobin-^on, Proc. Knl. Soc. Phil. v<il. v, page 178, (1865). California ( Weidemeyer)." 

Further on page 636, "Jiuproaerpinus phaeton ofOroie is said lobe identical with Macroglossa erato of Boisduval ; see H. Edwards 

in Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc. 1875, p. ';." 

On page 113 (fool nolei and page 124, I have explained fully ill regard to the confusion of names in this .species which is fig. ] 

on plate .\1 V. 

Page 569, Deilephila (iaiii and D. Chama-nerii are cited a.s separate speeie.s, but the author adds: "according to Strecker (Can, 
Knt. IV, p. "206), i>. chamcenerii is = D. galii," and I must here repeat ihat they undoubtedly arc but one species, the only diflerence 
between them being in tiie name. 

Page 569 No. "8 Deilephila intermedia, Kirby, Fauna Amer.-Bor. vol. iv. p. 302 (1837). "Canada" {Kirby)." 
This also I believe to be nothiug more than Galii iChamcenerii, Harr.). 

Page 574 No. "2, Philampelus linnei Grote & Robinson Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. Vol. v, pp. 1.57, 179, 182, pi. .3, fig. 3, (1865). 

Sphinx vitis. Cramer. Pap. Kxot. vol. iii, pi. 268, fig. E ( 1782). 

Dupo vitis, Ilubncr, \'erz. bek. Schnietl. p. 137, no. 146(1 ( 1816). 

J'hilampelus ritis. Walker, Lep. Het. viii, p. 176, no. 4 (18-56). 

Phitampelus/asciatus, Grote, notes Cub. Sph., Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil. Vol. v, pp. -59, 84, (1865). 

Mexico (Ilarlueg] ; Haiti {Oiiming <t Tueedie) ; ? (Stevens)." 

I have an example of this species taken bv Boll near San .Vntonia, S. W. Texas; Mr. .1. Doll also look it in Florida. 

Some examples which I received from Surinam and the upper .Vmazons are nn'ch larger than the West Indian ones or tho.se 
from Fhnida and Texas, expanding 4^^ to 45 inches; these S. .\m. examples are also of a general darker hue, the dorsal stripe of aMo- 
men being not particularly noticeable; the greenish of upper side of secondaries more inclined to grey, Ihe rose-coloured inner margin 
darker, the pale lines and l>auds of primaries clouded or shaded with brown, and the veins are accompanied with while to the extreme 
edge of the exterior margin, whilst in the Cuban and I". S. examples they extend only to the grey bonier of exterior margin. They 
remind one forcibly of Menelrics' figure of P. Strenua (Cat. Mus. Pelrop. Lep. II, f. 12, 1857) and il is only by actual comparison that 
the mind can be disabused of the idea that they are identical. 



ON SOME N. AMERICAN SPHINGID.E IN A. G. BUTLER'S REVISION. 141 

The most striking point of difference is in the absence in P. Slrenua of the broad pale band that crosses the upper surface of pri- 
maries lengthwise from base to the great pale mesial band in P. Linnei, also in tiie absence of the paler border of exterior margin. 

No. "3, Philampelus hornbeckiana, Harris, Cat. N.-Am. Sph. Sill. Journ. p. l!99, (1839). "St. Thomas, West Indies." Ilmris. 
Apparently allied lo the preceding." 

It is quite likely that this and P. Linnei are the same species but as Dr. Harris' type is not to be found and his de.scription 
not fully agreeing with P. Linnei it will have to remain one of those plagues to I-epidopterists, a description without a type, unless per- 
chance time or some ai'cident solves the riddle. 

Page 575, Xo. " 9, PiriLAMrELUS pandorus. Daphnis pandorus, Hnbner." 

The author should have added to his synonyms of this species Philampelus Satellitia, Harris, instead of eiting the latter as = 
Sphinx Satellitia, Linn. 

Page 578, No. "19, Philampelus labrusc.e. Sphinx labrnsaz, Linnaetis. Mus. Lud. Ulr. p. 3-y2, (17G4)." 
This .species has to my knowledge twice been taken in the United States — once in New Jersey and once in Florida. 

Genus 18, No."l, Pachylia ficus. Sphinx Jicns, Linnjeus, ^lus. Lnd. Ulr. p. 352, (1704)." 
Has been captured in S. W. Texas. 

With the Smerinthus Mr. Butler has taken the same if not more liberty than did Grote, making out of every group a separate 
genus, though sometimes the species even in these limited genera are not happily grouped. I cannot possibly see why Smerinlhus 
Quenus, W. V., should be associated in the genus Mimas with S. Titice, L. and .S'. Decolor, Wlk., neither of which does it in any 
way closely resemlde, wliilst such species as 5. Dyras, S. Oaschkevitschii, S. Albicans, etc., which it closely resembles, are made to consti- 
tute the genus rcipto^en, and I fear it is tript and tript again all through in these Hubnerian — Groteian — Butlerian coitus-generic 
arrangements which .seem to be the only excepliimable points of any moment in the work I am now examining. In the aforesaid genus 
Triptogen is placed our S. Tl/odes^a, of which the author says " this is unquestionably the proper place for this sjiecies," lo which no 
particular objection can be made as it is as near to the Dgras group or nearer than to any other, but why, I would again ask, is S. 
Qaercns, which resembles Dyras and allies much more than does Modesta, removed so far away, with four genera intervening? 

Page 590. Is described under the name of Cressonia Robinsonii, what issuppo.sed to be a new sjiccies allied to S. Juglandis, Ab.-S. 
The author says : " We have a pair of what seems to be a second s)iecies; it is of a greyer tint and half as large again, the transverse 
lines wider a[)art, and the primaries wtih central band not darkened on the inner margin ;" and further suggests " it is quite possible 
that the above may be a large form of C. Jaglandis ; but it differs noticeably from our si.x examples of that species." 

I do not know of anything agreeing with the above description in any American collection. Is Mr. Butler quite sure that 
"New York" is the true locality of this tyiie? 

No. "3, Cres-sonia fallens. 9 Smerintlms pollens, Strecker, Lep. Ehop. & Het. pt. 7, p. 54, pi. vii, fig. 14, (1873), Texas." 
To which is appended the following foot note: "Mr. Grote is conSdent that this is only a variety of C. jmjlandis. 1 1 looks 

quite distinct." 

Mr. Butler's only ground for stating that "it looks quite distinct" is from examination of my figure, he being in England and 

the type having never left my 'cabinet. But how Grote came to be so confident as to a-ssert the species was only Juglandis is a marvel 

it being impossible for him ever to have seen the type as none but gentlemen enter my house. 

Mr. Butler says on page 590, " I find that dissimilarity in the outline of wings is almost always accomp.anied by modification of 
the discocellular nervelets, which would be sufficient in the eyes of any Lepidopterist to warrant generic separation," and on same Jiage 
commences his genus Paonias, comprised of two species, Eiccecatus and Myops. showing about as much dissimilarity in the outline of 
wings as can probably be found between any of the species among all the Smerinthus. 

Page 591, Aslylas, wliich is closer to Myops than any other species, is placed in another genus, the Calasyinbolus of Grote. In 
regard to my figure the au'hor says, "Strecker's figure of this species has the two opposite primaries rather different in outline; but 
jutlgiug from Drury's figure, I have little doubt as to its genus." As regards this dill'erence of outline he is correct; so was 1 in my 
drawing, for on examining the example from which I drew tlie figure I find the same difference in outline exists as in the figure which 
I faithfully copied. 

In this same genus Calasymbolus a.\cing with Astylus are placed Geminalus, Cerysii, Coecus and Kindermanni, which four species bear 
no particular resemblance lo Astylus in outline of wing, colour, or anything else e.xcept in the common fact that all have an ocellus on 
hind wings. This extension of Calasymbolus was too much for even Grote who in Can. Ent. IX, p. 132, says: "I am not now prepared 
to accept the extension of Ca/a.si/iH6o/u.s ; " but to make amends he immediately after makes a new genus which he calls Eusmerinthus 
for the reception of Oemina'us, in order that he can .s.ay Eusmerinthus Geminalus, (Trote, instead of iSni. Geminatns, Say. 

In his arrangement of species Mr. Butler has No. 2 Geminalus, No. 3 Cerisii, and No. 4 Oecus. Why Cerysi was placed between 
Geminatns and Ccecus 1 cannot imagine, as Cmcus is so close to Geminalus that were it not for the difference in the first principal trans- 
verse line or shade on primarie.s, which is strongly angulated in the latter, they might be considered identical. 

The variety of Geminatns figured in Drury and there named Jamaicensis, Mr. Butler has cited erroneously as a synonym of S. 
Myops. 

Page 603, No. " 3, Dilophonta merian.e. Erinnyis meriance, Cxrote, Proc. Ent. Soc. Phil, v, pp. 75 and IGS, pi. 2, fig. 2, (1865). 

"Tropical insular and continental districts!" {Grote)." 

I have received examples of the above bred from larvfe found in S. W. Texas near San Antonia and New Braunfels. 

Page 618, No. "2, Sphinx le\u:>phdeata, Clemens, .Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phil. 1859, p. 168. Sphinx lugens (part.). Walker, Lep. 
Het. viii, p. 219, No. 11, (1856). Oaxaca, Mexico, (Harlweg)." 

S. Leucophceata is unknown to American Lepidopterists further than by Clemen's description. For my part I have little 
doubt but that it is a synonym of 5. LugerK, Wlk., although of this latter Mr. Butler say.s, "although coming from the same locality as 
the preceding, and very like it in its general character, I believe this species to be quite distinct. It is altogether shorter, broader and 
darker, and has the pale bars of secondaries much narrower and whiter." 

By whom were the examples in the Britisli Museum, cited by Mr. Butler as Leucophceata, identified? 



142 ON SOME N. AMERICAN SPHINGID.T-: IN A. G. BUTLER'S REVISION. 

No. "8 Sphinx oereodaphne, II. Edwnnls, Proc. Calif. .\ca<1. Sci. v. p. 109 (1874). California." 

Tlie above is a j^viiiinyiii of CA<Ts/s, Hull. The Califoiniiin ami Oregon examples are not as large as those from the .Vllanlic 
Slates. 

Page (il9, " 12 SpiiiN.x '.' lanceolata. Sphinx lanceolato, Feliler, Reise iler Nov., Lep. iv. lal). Ixxviii. lig. ;> (Nov., 1874). 
(iiiateinala and Mexico. 

Seems allieil to S. chersis, liiit may possilily belong to the genus Pseudosphinx; willioiu seeing the insect it is impossible to 
decide." 

I have an example in my collection from Panama which agrees exactly with Felder's splendid figure ; it is close to S. Chersis. 

On page (i21 No. "3 Lint.vekia kukmitoiiif-s. Sphinx crcmiioidfs, Streeker, Lep. Rhop. and Ilel. p. 93 (1874)." 
This is a svnonvm of .V. Lumens. Mr. linller says, " .Mr. (irote thinks it prolialile thai 5. <' emitoides is = S. Luijens o( Walker; 
but ( jnilging from Mr. ti rote's previons papers on the Spliingiilie i I am doublfnl whether he knows llie ^'. tiigens of Walker. It is certain 
that Clemens did not ; for he separated ii by a wiile inlerval from his A', Icucophwala." 

/.(((/ens was unknown to .\nierican entomologists uniil after 1 rcdeseribed it on p. 93 under the name o( Erentitoides; it was 
Grole's ignorance of the species that led me into the error, as in the collection of Lei)idopte.ra made by Orole and the late Coleman 
Kobinson was an example of Sphinx JuMiciu; Hill., erroneously labeled S. Lumens, Wlk., and inasmuch as (irote and his collaborator made 
their identilicalions of the Walkerian species by comparison with the types in the British Museum, during a visit to Kngl.-iml, I had not 
the remotest idea that they would blunder on so large and conspicuous an insect as Lugt-ns. 

Mr. Hntler makes a new genus which he calls Linhteriu for the reception of Sphinx Krcmitvu. lib. and Sph. Pereleyuns, Ily. Kdwd.s., 
though the latter he prefixes with a ?. Perdegans is nearer in general appearance to Chersis Hub., and also to Drupiferurnm, Ab.-S., 
than to any others, as 1 have shown on page 13G. 

'■Ceralomiii hayeni, Orote," is closely allied to Daremma Undulosa, Wlk., and not at all to Ccratamia Amyntor, Midi., from which it 
difTers remarkably in both the larva and winged state, its will be seen by referring to page 127 of this work where 1 have treated on this 
species at length. 

In appendix T, p. 629: 

" Canadensis, Boisd.* p. 93, No. 29, = ?, Sphinx leucophaata." 

The species figured on plate XllI and described on p.age 115 under the name of Sph. Plata may be the same as S. Canadensis; if 
such should prove to be the case the name given by me must fall. Dr. Boisduval's having priority by several years. 

Sphinx strobi. Boisd. ligured pi. 5 lig. 3. 

cupressi, Boisd. p. 102, n. 41, pi. 2, figs. 3-.")." 

Neither oflhe.se are in any American collection as far as I am aware of, nor are they known here save through the figures of 
Boisduval. They ajipear to me lo belong to the Pinastri group. The habitat of 5. Cupressi is given as Georgia. 

"Sphinx calalpte, Boi.sd. p. 103, no. 42, pi. 2, figs. 1, 2." 

Prof. C. V. Riley has found the larva of this species on Catalpas, but so far has not been .successful iri .securing the imago. Boisduval 
slates, on the authority of .\bbot, that the larva was found on Culalpa Cordifolia in Georgia. 

He also says his description was drawn up from a good figure by .\bbot and the notes of I.econte; he had failed lo receive the 
species owing to the death of .Vbbol. 

The insect I believe is unrepresented in .Vmerican collections; the figure of the imagine on Boisduval's plate looks a good deal 
like something between S. Undulosa and S. Hagmi. 

Page 634, "Macrog'ossa (rth-a, Streeker, Lep. Rhop. and Kel. i, jl. 107, tl87ol ; pi. xiii, fig. 2, (1876). 

In my description of this species on page 107 I have .stated that the type was from Montreal, Canada, which it seems Mr. I'.utler 
overlooked. I have since received other examples from the same place. 

Page 035, " Hemaris RtFioAfDis, (.synonym). Macroglossa rufmiudis, Streeker, Lep. Rhop. and llet. i, pi. xiii, fig. 1, (1876)." 
" Synonym " of what ? 

Page 636, " Deidamia inscrii-ta. Plerogon in-vriptuvt, Streeker, Lep. Rhop. and Het. pi. xiii, fig. 8, (1876)." 
This belongs in the same genus with the Russian Gorgoniades, Hub., and wherever the one is placed the other likewise 
belongs. 

Page 637, "Genus Ki.iniA. Walker. Kl.iniA versicolor. Darapsa versicolor. Streeker, Lep. Rho]i. and Het. i, pi. xiii, fig. 9, 
(1876). it is evident Irom Sirecker's figure, that lliis species has been erroneously referred to the allied genus Otus." 

Wliat in all the earth could cause Biuler to place this species in the genus Elibia is beyond all comprelunsion. In Elibia are 
but lwos]ieeies, bolh from India, Dolichus, West., and Dolichoides. Feld.; with ihe first only am 1 ac(|Uainleil in nature and the only 
point in common iielwein it and Versicolor is the pale dorsal line, which decoration is also shared in by ground squirrels (lamias) and 
garler snakes, and the mo.st rabid genus-fabricator would scanc on that account place these animals in one genus. 

Mr. .1. Meyer of Brooklyn, N. Y., who was the first person that bred Versicolor from the larva, informed me thai Ihe latter are, 
with the e.xccpliou of being a little larger, almost precisely like those of i). Myton, Cram. And there cannot be Ihe least doubt but 
that Versicolor belongs to the same genus with Choerilus and Myron. 

Darapsa was used to rejilace 0^(8 on account of the latter being preoccupied in ornithology. 

Page 63S. The author says of Chreroc impa Procne (fig. 10, plate XIII of this work) from California : " It is much more probable 
that this is an .Vsiatic species allied lo C. lucasii." 

The example from which my figure was drawn agrees in all particulars exactly with Clemen's description in Jnl. .\cad. Nat. Se. 
Phil., 1859. 1 obtained it along with the collection of Rev. Dr. J. 0. Morris some Iwenty years since; it had a small slip on ihe pin 
with llie locality "S. California" written thereon, and I candidly confess that 1 still think this locality the correct one; there is no 

* Lep. Het. 1, Sph., Sesiides, Castnides., Suites a Buflbn. 



(3N SOME N. AMERICAN SPHINGID.E IN A. Li. BUTLER'S REVISION. 143 

reason wliv it slioulil imt be; even if llic insect ia allied to an Asiatic species, is it more wonderful to find a species of C hmrocampa 
on tlie Pacitic coant allied to an Asiatic one than to Knd such closely allied things as Smerinthus Gecus and 5. Oeminnlus, the ilrst in 
Asia, the latter in the Atlantic United States, or Parnassius Intermedia^ and P. Sminlheus, which I believe are identical, the former in 
the Altai Mts. and the latter in the Mts. of Colorado? 

Page 642, " Hyloicus saniptei. Sphinx Saniptri, Strecker, Lep. Rhop. and Het. i, pi. xiii, tig. 18 (1876J." 

I am now cimvinced this is identical with Sph. Pinasiri. My principal grounds, apart from its being found in the United Stales, 
which is of small moment, was the absence of the broad dark transverse shade of primaries, but 1 have since received examples from 
Germany which are also destitute of this band or shade. 

Attached to this monograph are five coloured plates representing various species, mostly new, of Sphingidae, and aNo a number 
of larvse. 

1 cannot say I am enamoured with the frightfal number of genera adopted, which is the one objectionable feature lo this other- 
wise e.xcellent work, but it apjiears Mr. Butler has equal want of a}li?ction for the paucity of genera accepted by myself, for he alludes 
pleasantly on p. G2I to " Mr. Strecker's imcomprehensible atli'ction for unmanageably extensive genera." 

But in truth it is greatly to lie dephu-ed that the plan (insanity offspring of Grote's vanity) of dividing and subdividing so 
natural a genus .as ,Smerinlhus should be here adopted; but I have treated fully this subject on pp. 62, 53, as well as elsewhere in this 
volume. What better proof of thecoTnpactness of a genus is required than the knowledge that two of its most dissimilar-looking species 
will copulate and produce hybrids as in the case of S. Populi and S. Ocellata. 

In speaking on p. 61S of Diludia Brontes, Dru., {Sphinx Cubensis, (irote, is a .synonym,) the author expresses himself in the fol- 
lowing langiuigc which eertauily will meet the sincere approval of all true lovers of .science. He there says: "I cannot but regret that 
Mr. (irote has thought it necessary to add to the synonymy by pro|josing names for species before they were required. It is true that he 
might otherwise have been suiierscded ; hut as a fact it docs not matter who names a species, so long as the name given be euphonious, 
whilst on the other hand a cumbrous synonymy is a great evil." 

In the Can. Enl. l.\, p. 130-133, Grote save what he calls a " Notice of Mr. Butler's Revision of the .Sphingidie," though^ as 
usual it i.-. a dissertation on himself, in which the tirst seven lines are devoted to praising Mr. Butler, being prefatory to the renuiining 
seventy odd which are mainly devoted to the highly gratifying and instructive (lurpose of praising himself. 

Novendjer, 1877. 



I.EPIDOPTERA, 



RHOPALOCERES AND HETEROCERES, 



INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC. 



SUPPLEMENT No. 1. 



BY 



HERMAN STRECKER. 



DECATUR, ILL. 



READING, PA., U.S.A., 1898. 



Printed for The Author. 



/■: 7 



«> 



PREFACE. 



FoK some time past I have been rearranging the North American Noctuidse in my collec- 
tion and incorporating therein the acquisitions of the last twenty years ; in doing this I found 
a number of species which I am unable to identify either through the bibliography, or the exami- 
nation of other collections, or by the aid of specialists, the result of which is the issuing of this 
jjamphlet. My intention was to give a photogravure plate of the species described, but unfor- 
tunately, with all the care and trouble possible, the results were in nowise satisfactory. I fear 
we are not far enough advanced in the mysteries of the art. Could I have had something pro- 
duced that would have equalled the "Lichtdruck von Kimmler u. Jonas in Dresden," published 
in the Berl. Ent. Zeitschrift, I would indeed have been happy, but here it is impossible ; the 
photographic figures were so misleading that I dropj^ed the idea of the plate at once, and to 
draw it on stone as I did in former years is too great an undertaking with the limited time at 
my disposal. 

/ But rather than leave the things as unnamed blots in my collection, I concluded to describe 
them without figuring, though a friend reminds me that I have said many times, "a descrij)tion 
without a figure was good for nothing," and in most cases I fear that opinion still holds. But I 
am only joining a big band of sinners, dead and alive, whose descriptions I have worried and 
wearied over oft ; but I trust others may not have to worry over my efforts to the same extent, 
as the types are all carefully marked in my collection, and it is scarce likely that when I can 
no longer attend to it, owing to my leaving this world, that it will not find some permanent 
abiding-place, where those who desire may consult and refer to it. At any rate, as I cannot get 
a plate that is creditable, I will not offer a decej)tive 2)hotograph or miserable half-tone, de- 
spite that my friend Prof. J. B. Smith (who in his "Catalogue Biographical and Synonymical, 
Noctuidfe Bor. Am.," has done more to advance the study of that family as regards the North 
American species than all his contemporaries combined) kindly tells me my "descriptions have 
usually been of the most perfunctory form" and begs me to issue the plate along, that otherwise 
I "will impose a burden of unrecognizable sjDecies upon the future worker." Probably he is 
right, but as I have just said, the tyjDcs will remain to speak for themselves, and regarding 

myself, as " Says the great Pinlez Fernando, 
What can a man do 
More than he can do 1" 



HERMAN STRECKER. 



Reading, Pa., U.S.A., 

September 15, 1898. 



m 



NEAV^ SPECIES OF I.EPIDOPTERA. 



By HERMAN STRECKER. 



CossHS Zaboliciis □. »p. 

Comes in with Robiitiir, but is a heavier, far more roljust-looking insect, the wings are broader and less pointed, more stumpy, 
and secondaries as well as primaries are opaque without any tendency to semitransparency. The color is a dirty yellowish or ochrey 
white. The secondaries are as strongly striated as the primaries. As the reticulations and stria; are diflerent in every example of any 
species of Cossus, it is an impossibility to describe them. I have now in sight a dozen $ $ Robiniir and the markings in no two are 
alike, all differing more or le.ss from each other; the one example I am now describing is a $, and I will say the markings are in the 
style of Jiobini(c but heavier, and as I already remarked, the hind wings are as heavily marked as the superiors. The same yellowish 
white color prevails over the whole insect as well as on the wings. 

This single 9 type expands 3j inches, and was found emerging from the chrysalis by Charles Dury in 
Florida some twenty years since, when he sent it to me. The chrysalis was diiFerent from that of Rohinkv. 

Cyniatopliora Teioa n. sp. 

Head and collar brown. Patagia? grayish white edged with brown, .\bdomen brownish. Wings, basal and apical patches same 
color as patagia', the first which is strongly angulate extends to the inner margin and is succeeded by a dusky liand traversed by dark 
brown lines. The median space is paler and succeeded by another dusky dark-lined band. Keniform indistinct. Terminal space paler 
gray, a dark line edges outwardly the pale apical patch. Secondaries light gray, showing indistinct mesial and marginal bands. 

Expands If inches. Habitat, State of Washington. Type, one example. 

Acronyeta Ariooh n. sp. 

Head, body, and wings creamy ochraceous white, four black dots or points in the discoidal cell, a row of small sagittate marks 
indicate the t. p. line, a row of very faint subniarginal dashes, and a marginal row of distinct round black dots, fringe white, whol& 
wing more or less faintly powdered with brown, more especially along the costal part. Secondaries pure white. 

Expands 2J inches. Type, one example taken at New Orleans. 

This makes a third in the group of Oblinata and Lanceolaria, from both of which it is easily distinguished 
by the yellowish tint of primaries and much lighter and less distinct markings. 

Acronycta diasta n. sp. 

Head and body above gray, beneath white. Primaries sordid white, in most part shaded or covered with rather dark smoky 
gray. The reniform and orbicular are fairly distinct, as is also the double t. a. line. A white, somewhat triangular patch exterior to the 
reniforra and extending thence to the t. p. line, and terminating inwardly on vein o. A white streak extends from base along and 
anterior to vein 2 to the t. p. line. An irregular white submarginal band. A row of black marginal points. Secondaries wliite, 
powdered slightly witli brown on inner part. Veins indicated by brown, as also a broken marginal line. All fringes white. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one exam]ile taken near Chicago, 111. 

This differs widel}^ from all other known American species, its nearest ally being the European A. 
Megacephala, F to which in a general way it bears considerable superficial resemblance, which is not, however^ 
carried out on any point in detail. 

Cerina Cialva n. sp. 

Entire ground color white. Patagite and collar edged and sprinkled with black atoms, as is also more or less the surface of pri- 
maries. The basal, t. a., t. p., and submarginal lines bhack, which contrasted with the white ground color shows these lines as well as 
the reniform and orbicular very distinctly. Fringe black and white. Secondaries with a pale gray discal mark and mesial line, space 
between the latter and the margin light gray. Fringe white. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one cJ* example from Clyde, N. Y. 

This insect bears a most remarkable superficial resemblance to Acronycta Fragilis Gn., for which, in fact,. 
before close inspection, I first mistook it. 

Agrotis IViinia n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries brown of a slightly reddish cast. Secondaries a paler tint of the same color. T. a. line well defined 
and edged outwardly with darker brown, as is also the t. p. line on its inner edge; a distinct dark submarginal shade, as also a rather 
broad median shade. Reniform and orbicular well defined, the latter the more distinct. A row of dark marginal points on the spaces 
between the veins. Fringe concolorous with the rest of wing. Secondaries darker towards and at exterior margin ; a faint discal mark. 
Fringe brown marginally and white beyond. 

Expands 1| inches. From Seattle, Wash. Type, one example. 

This insect belongs to the group Carneades Grote along with Alticola and Basiflava, than which, however,, 
it is smaller and by no means as richly colored or conspicuous. 



Ul 



Agroti!« Cona n. sp. 

Head, lioHy, and primaries pale ochraceous. The t. a. and t. p. serrated and distinct, a slight median shade; a pale submarginal 
line between which and the margin the color is gray. Reniform inconspicunns. Orliionlar large and quite distinct. A row of marginal 
black points. Fringe ochraceous. Secondaries pure white with a faint discal dash and row of marginal points. 

Expands 1^ inches. Types, four examples from Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 
This species belongs to the group Carneades and comes nearest to A. Moerens Grote. 

Agrolis Aiiiiir n. s]i. 

Head, thora.x, and primaries ochraceous of a somewhat gray tinge, caused bv the sprinkling of minute dark atoms. Abdomen paler, 
body beneath white. T. a. and t. p. lines brown and geminate; gi.t brown marks on the costa. three being at the anterior terminations 
of the transverse lines, two being between these, and one being subterminal. Reniform denoted by a cluster of dark scales; a row of 
faint marginal dots; fringe color of wing. Secondaries white with a faint discal dash, a fairly well-defiued mesial line, and broad mar- 
ginal shade. Tringe pure white. 

Expands IJ inches. From Loveland, Colorado, four types. 

Agrolis Dnrgo n. sp. 

Resembles NiveiUnci fJrote, but is a smaller species, and the sharp white lines whence the former derived its name are not here 
defined. The two teeth of the submarginal band that are i)rolonged on veins 3 and 4 to the margin e.ictend here very little farther 
than the other serrations, merely forming an angle in the band on vein 3. The ground color of primaries somewhat brighter, not so in- 
clined to black as in many examples of yircilinm. .Secondaries white with broad pale brown marginal band and a faint discal mark. 
Fringe pure white. 

Expands Iy\ inches. From a number of examples taken near Loveland, Colorado, some half dozen 
years since. 

Agrotiiii Keiida n. sp. 

Xear Allicoki and Infiiusia, size and build of the first, r^' he.ad, thora.T, and primaries above dark fuscous, much inclined to black. 
T. a. and t. p. lines pale and distinct, as are also the reniform and orbicular: the space in the discoidal cell between the transverse lines 
and not occupied by these spots is black. Subterminal shade black. A fine |>ale marginal line separates the wing from the dark fringe. 
Abdomen and secondaries smoky white, latter with broad d;nker mar^diial shade, a pale marginal line succeeded by the dark fringe 
as in primaries. ? not nearly as dark as the (^, showing the lines and spots consequently more distinct. 

Expands Its inches. Types, five c?c?, two ??. Seattle, Washington. 

Agrotis Allia n. sp. 

Belongs to Walker's group Feltia and is nearest to Sem!<-l(imln, than which it is a darker-colored species with markings generally 
less well-defined. The head and primaries redilish fuscous, patagi;e fawn-eolored, .abdomen gray. Primaries, basal line extending to the 
snbjnedian vein, t. a. line black edged basally with fawn, t. ]i. line black and edged outwardly with fawn; between this and the margin a 
row of pale points, an intervenular row of black dots on margin; reniform and orbicular distinct, the discoidal space between these 
blackish. Claviform small and sharply defined, extending in one example in a slreak to the base, in the others terminated by the t. a. 
line. Fringe concolorous with the wing. Secondaries white, costal third of wing and outer marginal band brown. Fringe white on 
margin, then gray finally edged with white. 

Size of the preceding. Types, three 9 ?, from Seattle," Washington. 

Agrotis Giaii n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries above cinnamon-colored or reddish ochraceous, not very dark. Abdomen above yellowish white. 
Primaries, markings all fairly <lefincd, in a darker shade of the ground color. T. a. and t. p. lines double, their terminations on the costa 
showing dark marks. Reniform and orbicular distinct but not prominent, the space between the submarginal line and margin dark gray, 
showing a marked contrast to all the rest of the wing. A row of black triangular intervenular marginal points. Fringe concolorous 
with rest of wing. Secon<laries pure white. 

Expands If inches. Type, one d, taken by Doll, in Arizona. 

Agrotis .izif n. sp. 

Nearest to Piliichrouii but diflering therefrom in its larger size, and the color, which is of a somewhat salmon-colored or 
pinkish gray, this color prevailing on the whole upi)cr surface, even to the secondaries. There is no sign of the long pale dash between 
veins 1 Find 2 on the primaries so conspicuous on most exaniiilcs of I'iliichrous. Markings otherwise much the same but having a 
more potvdery appearance. Fringe same color as wings. Secondaries with a broad, darker, marginal band. Fringe pure white. 

Expands If inches. Type, one example taken in Clyde, N. Y. 

Agrotii^ Colla n. sp. 

Very near in general appearance to .1. PaUipenni.i, but the color of head, thorax, and primaries above is somewhat darker and 
more even,' the markings do not show .as distinctly, being only in a darker shade of the same color, a kind of yellowish gray, .\bdomen 
white. All the lines of primaries are designated, the orbicular large, the reniform not very conspicuous. A very faint discal bar, 
mesial line, and marginal band on the silky white secondaries. 

Expands If inches. Type, one example from Loveland, Colorado. 



Agrotis Conar n, sp. 

Head, body, and primaries very light silky gray or ashen, a little darker along edge of costa. Indications of a basal line. The 
t. a. and t. p. lines dark brown except where cut by the veins. The orbicular and reniforra dark brown. Terminal space a shade 
darker than the re.st of wing. A row of intervenular marginal lunules. Fringe at wing forms a clean pale line, succeeded outwardly by 
brown, which is finally edged with pale grayish. Secondaries white with a very light brown or smoky marginal band, a dark brown 
marginal line. Fringe as in primaries, but the brown part very much paler. 

Es|)an(l.s 1| inches. Ty]ie, one example taken in New Mexico near the borders of Chihuahua. 

This is a light-built species, and with its distinct almost black reniforni and orbicular, which contrast so 
markedly with the otherwise pale-colored wings, may help to denote the insect, which at a first glance calls to 
mind some of the sj)ecies of Caradrina. 

Itlaniestra Selama n. sp. 

Belongs to the first group, having serrated and bristled antenna', and might be placed between Meditata and Lmlralis. It is not 
as dark as the first or as light-colored as the last, though having its silky lustre. Head and thorax fuscous inclined to gray, as are also 
the primaries, the markings of which are black edged more or less with ashen, and all tolerably well defined except the claviform and 
basal streak, of which there are no evidence. Terminal space ashen, marginal line black and inconspicuous. Fringe fuscous. 
Secondaries fuscous, palest at base and darkening exteriorly. A fine pale marginal line. Fringe fuscous at margin, outwardly white. 

Expands 1^ inches. One example, the ty))e from Boll, who took it at Dalla,s, Texas. 

9Ianief«tra Doira n. sp. 

Nearest ti> Lonqiclava J. B. S. (^ head, thorax, and primaries light gniy. Edges of palagia> and collar slightly defined by dark 
brown. Abdomen white. Primaries a brown basal line which fuses into a basal streak, t. a., t. p., and s. t. lines white, and except the 
last scarcely noticeable. Reniform and orbicular distinct and outlined by white. Costa whitish. Basal space between the basal line 
and thorax white. A conspicuous white dash starting in the reniforra and extending thence along and anterior to vein 5, towards the 
apex, where it is merged into the white apical dash. A large white oval spot near the inner angle and between veins 1 and 2. 
Veins in the subterminal space indicated by brown or black. A fine black marginal line. Fringe checkered brown and white. 
Secondaries white, faintly brown towards exterior margin, where the veins are faintly indicated by the same color. Fringe white. 

Expands l^j- inches. ? like the d*, a little darker in color and evidences of a mesial line and discal spot 
on secondaries. Types, two examples in Mas. Strecker, captured in Utah by Capt. Murdoch, from whom they 
were received. 

Iladenn Cliina n. sp. 

Allied to Carioan and Vcrbnscoidfs, than which it is a somewhat smaller species and broader in proportion in the wings. The 
color is about the same as C'iriosa, but the present species has none of the striated appearance of primaries caused in Cariosa by the 
veins being finely outlined with whitish fawn and by their accompanying dark intervenular lines or streaks. The t. a. and t. p. are 
distinct and geminate. The s. t. is very pronounced, as are tlie large reniform and orbicular, the latter is circular, not oval. Secondaries 
dark fuscous. Fringe fawn with indications of fuscous near the nervular terminations. 

Expands IJ to 1| inches. Types, six examples taken near Chicago, Illinois. 

Iladena L.ona n. sp. 

Nearest to Maclnta, but larger and somewhat more even-colored, not as sharp contrast as are found generally in the former. 
Color fuscous, subterminal space paler as are all the lines, the reniform and orbicular; markings much as in Mactata. Abdomen and 
secondaries paler fuscous. 

Expands If inches. Type, one example captured at Clyde, New York. 

This is one of those eyesore things that whilst in a general way reminding one of a dozen others, still on 
examination will agree with none. 

Hadeua Dilara n. sp. 

Entire insect of a very pale gray with a rust red or cinnamon-colored suffiision, below as well as above. Thorax rust brown, as 
is also the basal area of primaries. T. a., s. t. lines indistinct. Terminal space powdered with same brown as the base. Reniform and 
orbicular large and fairly well defined by the rust-colored median shade, a row of small dark marginal points. Fringe concolorous 
with wings and terminally brown. Secondaries somewhat smoky with a feint darker marginal line and a large faint lunate discal mark. 
Fringe nearly as in primaries. 

Expands ly^g- inches. One example, the type, taken by Doll a number of years since in Colorado. 
Rather a frail-looking species, reminding one somewhat of Cerma Olivacea. 

Hadeua Tliiila n. sp. 

Thorax and abdomen smoky gray, which color also occupies the median area of primaries extending a little beyond the t. p. line, 
from thence to the margin it is paler with the s. t. almost white and well defined. A black basal streak. Reniform large, very pale 
gray and edged basally with black. Orbicular same color as the dark median space but well defined by a fine black line surrounding it. 
At the inner angle a whitish spot (being the inner termination of the s. t.), edged basally with a brown line and exteriorly with a brown 
patch extending to exterior margin. A row of small black marginal marks. Fringe gray. Secondaries smoky, a little darker towards 
exterior margin. Fringe same color. 

Expands 1 inch. Type, one example from Seattle, Wash. 

A small species whose nearest ally is H. Algens; but it bears a close general appearance to some species 
of Mamestra as 31. Cuneata and 31. Olivacea. 



8 

Ilaclena I.nila n. sp. 

Above the licaj ami thorax are black sprinkled with white, the scapulae and patagiie with deep black marginal lines and edged 
narrowly with white. Abdomen blackish gray, paler towards thorax. Primaries black and blackish gray sparsely sprinkled with 
white atoms. All the lines more or less sharply defined by pore white. Kenif<irni and orbicular conspicuous, white pupilled with dark 
grav. A marginal row of small, intensely black sagittate marks. Fringe black with white at terminations of the veins. Secondaries 
white with a faint cloudy submarginal line, and some black scales at and near the apex, a small discal spot and black marginal line. 
Fringe black, terminally white. 

Expands 1 J inches. One example from Seattle, Wash.-' 

This is a beautiful and conspionoiis insect, its only two colors black and white, and the sharply defined 
markings give it a striking and handsome apjjearance. 

Iladena DIoileiia n. sp. 

Head and thorax blackish gray, palpi, collar, and patagi.-e on edges with an intermixture of paler scales. Primaries dark brown 
or black and white intermixed. A short basal streak. T. a. and t. p. lines double, formed each of two fine black lines with pale gray or 
sordid white lietween theui. The s. t. dentate and conspicuously white, between the veins on its inner edge it is joined by black sagitt^ite 
marks, and is also shaded exteriorly more or less with black. A row of black marginal lunules. A clean white line separates the 
brown fringe from the edge of wing. Orbicular and reniforni large, pale, and outlined with black. Median space from vein 2 to the 
inner margin darker than the rest of the wing. C'laviform indicated. Secondaries white, a faint smoky mesial line and marginal shading 
and a discal point. Fringe what is left of it appears to be white. 

Exjiands H inches. One example, the type, from Loveland, Colorado, This species is nearest a Z)uc/a 
Grote. 

Iladona Satiiia n. sp. 

Body, head, and primaries brown somewhat the shade of Lalerilia, but not as dark. T. a. line dark brown. T. p. geminate. S. t. 
pale and very indistinct. Reuiform obscure and paler than the rest of wing. Secondaries dirty whiie with exterior half and 
fringe smoky. 

Expands If inches. Type, one example taken in 1873 in Anticosti Island by W. Couper. 
This insect is nearest to Lateritia and Dubilans {Spulatrix) but is a smaller species and otherwise 
quite different. 

Polia Saiii^ar n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries even ashen gray. Abdomen and secondaries paler and more inclined to fuscous. No markings on 
head and body. Primaries, biisal line only noticeable at the costa. T. a. line distinct and brown. C'laviform outlined with brown, as is 
also the small orbicular and the reniform. T. p. plain, but not conspicuous. 8. t. deeply and irregularly dentate and heavily shaded 
exteriorly with dark brown. \ row of black marginal dots. Fringe gray. Secondaries with a large obscure discal mark, a faint mesial 
line, a dark marginal line, and pale gray fringe. 

Expands 2 inches. Type, one example from Seattle, Wash. 

Cleoceris Popnii n. sp. 

Ground color yellowish white. Collar edged with a black line. Patagia' have a dark gray edging. Basal line extends to sub- 
median vein. T. a. barely denoted by a few gray scales. T. p. line geminate but only marked on the veins, .-\long the costa between 
the t. a. and t. p. lines some scattered gray scales. Reniform and orbicular outlined with very pale yellow and pupilled with a few 
gray scales. S. t. scarcely defined. At the inner angle a dark gray spot, as is also at and near the costa exterior to the t. p. line. A 
marginal row of black points. Fringe white. Secondaries white with, a faint discal mark, a row of black marginal points and 
white fringe. 

Expands 1^ inches. One example, the type taken near Loveland, Colorado. 

I have but ti)is single example and my description is of course taken from it alone, but Prof J. B. Smith 
tells me he has eight or ten specimens and that they show a very great range of variation, no two being alike. 
In some there is a tendency to form an almost rigidly straight median shade which may be narrow and black, 
or may be diffuse and broad, taking up most of the median space. However, there is nothing with which this 
species can conflict, hence it should not be difKcult to recognize. Further, Prof. Smith says that the insect had 
been bred by Mr. Niswander at Laramie and that it was quite destructive to the cottonwood, that the larvfe 
curl the leaf as do the leaf-rollers, sallying out at stated periods to feed, and that it fed on Populus. 

llydrceoia ^Kelita n. sp. 

At first glance might be taken for a small yilela, but it is a darker, warmer color, more towards a rich chestnut. The t p. is not 
so conspicuous and is much more upright, and its course is rather from the costa outwardly oblique than inwardly oblique. One ex- 
ample has the space from the base to t. p. chestnut brown, exteriorly the t. p. is .tccompanied by a bro.-id paler ashen shade, beyond 
which the brown again prevails. In another the whole wing is brown, the t. p. only being discernible on the closest inspection. 
Beyond what I have mentioned the difference between this and S^itda excepting size are not very marked. 

Expands 1 inch. Types, two examples from Chicago, Illinois. 

Orthodes I mora n. sp. 

This is almost identical in the colors of all the parts with Amp. Tragopoginh, and having the same silky lustre prevailing in that 
insect. There is a very small grayish white discal spot on primaries, and under a glass may be discerned the faintest suggestion of the 
transverse lines, otherwise there is no ornamentation. 

Expands 1| inches. One example, the type taken near Racine, Wisconsin. 



9 

Ufeiis Faiinns n. sp. i 

Body and primaries same grayish brown as the other species of the genus. There are no markings of^ny description on the 
head or body. Primaries have the veins designated by a somewhat darker tint. A pale inconspicuous t. p. line the course of which 
is inwardly oblique to the costa. A row of marginal spots which start as black points on the margin, but extend over the fringe, wid- 
ening as they do so to its outer edge, thus making an even serrated margin of the same color as the wing. Secondaries pure white 
with a'very faint pale brown marginal line. 

Expands \\ inches. Ty(ie, one example from New Mexico, near the border of Chihuahua. 

Tricholita IVotata n. sp. 

Head, body, and primaries brown somewhat of the tint but much darker than in Semiaperta, and sprinkled sparsely with minute 
white scales which gives them a somewhat heavy squamose appearance. The t. a. and t. p. lines well defined but not conspicuous, 
space between these darker than the rest of wing. A milk white discal spot tinged with yellow on the half towards costa. Fringe same 
dark color as median space. Secondaries brown but not as dark as the primaries. 

Expands If inches. The single type of this species I received a number of years since from E. A. 
Dodge, who took it in Nebrasita. , 

l<encania Coniplicata n. sp. 

Is almost exactly the colorof the small species Ligafa. Veins white, spaces between them striated with gray. A small white d^cal 
spot centred with a black point. The median nervure accompanied by a slightly darker shading which does not extend to the venular 
row of black dots which represent the t. p. line. Subterminal space slightly darker. A pale apical mark ; a row of minute black mar- 
ginal dots. Fringe concolorous with rest of wing. Secondaries lustrous white, slightly margined with pale gray. 

Expands 1 1\ inches. The type was captured in New Mexico near the southern border. 

Ciiciillia Alfarata n. sp. ' 

Same light gray as Luiifica and Speyeri. Collar edged and barred with darker lines. Abdomen white with a row of brown dorsal 
tufts, the last three segments brown. T. a. line, composed of three long teeth within the middle one, is a black longitudinal line. The- 
t. p. only noticeable from^^he inner margin of wing to vein 2, forming a deep sinus shaded with black between veins 1 and 2, from this 
to the exterior margin at vein 2 a black line extends. The veins are shown by black. A darker shade along the costa. A dark sub- 
apiciil shade. A row of black marginal lunules. No indication of orbicular or reniform. Secondaries white with brown marginal 
band. Fringe white. 

Expands 1| inches. Type from St. Augustine, Florida. 

Schinia Dol©sa,,n. sp. -^ 

Is nearest to .S'. Pnckardi! Grote, but smaller and the color of primaries and thorax above less inclined to ochraceous, more of a 
dull grayish brown, and the secondaries white instead of yellow. I have two examples which differ from each other, as do different ex- 
amples of Paclmrdit, one with primaries and thorax of a more uniform color and lines and shades not sharply defined; the other with 
the basal and submarginal spaces and discal spot much d^irker than the median space. The t. a. line will readily distinguish this species 
from Packardii (of which I have twelve before me), in which it is tripartite, forming three lobes as it were, whilst in Dolosa it forms a 
semicircle arching oirtrfrom costa to the middle of wing, thence receding in like manner until it reaches the inner margin. The t. p. is 
fine and white. Fringe concolorous with wing. Secondaries while with a very broad even black border and a black discal spot. Fringe 
in the pale example white, in the darker one white and fuscous. Underneath dirty white marked somewhat as in Packardii and other 
species, but more diffused arid fuscous, not black or sharp. 

. Expands § inch and 1 inch. Both the types were received from Boll, who took them near San Antonio, 
Texas. 

Schiuia Pyraloides n. sp. 

Head and thorax olivaceous brown, abdomen a shade paler. Primaries, basal space same color as thorax. Median space white 
sprinkled with olivacebus, darkest at costa and towards t. p. line and inner margin, leaving it paler within the discoidal cell. Subter- 
minal space same color as basal but darkest towards costal and inner margins, leaving a somewhat paler space between. Marginal space 
paler like the median. , Discal spot indicated by a darker shade as in S. Marginata, the transverse lines are white and nm nearly as in 
that species. The fringe which succeeds a tine white marginal line is formed of three lines, the first olivaceous, next white, last olivaceous. 
Secondaries white with faint gray discal lunule and marginal border, on the inner half of which latter is a pale mark. 

Expands | inch and 1 inch. Four types from Bruce, who took them at Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 

This moth bears an astonishing resemblance to the Pyralid Asopia Farinalis, in fact so complete is the 
mimicry that on opening the box in which they were sent, among other thing.-?, I mistook them for that insect, 
and even after having discerned their true status, I never look at them without the phantom of the meal moth 
obtruding itself. 

Sctainia Hanga n. sp. 

Size of Marginnia, Thormui, and Imperspicua to which it is allied. Body dull grayish brown. Primaries, median space dull 
ochrdceous, basal and subterminal spaces grayish brown, not as dark as in Thoreaui, terminal space a shade paler. Discal spot incon- 
spicuous, a mere shade. T. a. line white and forming irregularly the arc of a circle, whilst in all the species above mentioned it forms 
a strong elbow. T. p. line has not the bend in the middle ne.ir as abrupt as in Manjimtta. Fringe yellowish white checkered with 
brown intervenularly. Secondaries dirty white with a broad fuscous exterior border, within which is a pale mark from the anal angle 
to about vein 5. Fringe fuscous, outwardly edged with white. 

Expands 1| inches. One example, the type from Dallas, Texas, received from Boll. 
The somewhat crenulated transverse lines and checkered fringe of primaries as well as the curve of the 
t. a. line will serve to readily separate this froiu its three nearest allies. 



10 

Soliinia Ar n. sp. 

Dull ochniceoiis. Primaries, basal space brown, with the groumi color prevailing on costal part. Terminal and subterminal 
space also brown. The t. a. line white, inconspicuons, convex oiitwanllv and somcwliat tripartite. T. p. white, running abont the same 
as in Faslirlinm Siren and other allied species, but with a slight tendency to crenulation. S. t. also white and toothed and forming a 
sinus inwardly about vein 5. Discal spot brown and not prominent. Fringe alternately brown and white. Secondaries fuscous, ochra- 
ceous at base and on inner half of costa and wiih a small spot of same color in middle of wing denoting what would be the exterior 
of the discal spot. Fringe dusky at margin and white exteriorly. 

Expands f iiicli. A single example from Dallas, Texa.s, received from Boll. 

Scliinia I..abc n. sp. 

Pale dull ochre. Primaries with ba-ial and space exterior to the t. p. dull brown but little darker than the ground color. Discal 
spot barely noticeable. Transverse lines whitish and scarcely distinguishable. Fringe pale ochraceous. At first glance the primaries 
appear aliuost as if unicolorous, and only on close inspection or with a gla.ss the markings become defined. Secondaries with a dull 
fuscous marginal band and large discal spot. Fringe pale ochre, interspersed with dull fuscous. 

Size of the preceding. Two examples from Dallas, Texas, captured by Boll. 

Sctainia I..oi'a n. sp. 

Occiput and abdomen yellowish white. Thorax dull ochraceous of an olivaceous tint. Primaries, basal space dull fuscous, 
median space pale ochraceous, snbterminal fuscous, in one example almost black, terminal pale ochraceous. Transverse lines not 
sharplv defined. No evidence of discal marks. Fringe fuscous intermixed with pale ochraceous. Secondaries yellowish white with a 
broad plain black exterior border. In one example faint imlications of a discal mark. Fringe white. 

Expands | inch. Three examples, two from Boll taken near Dallas, Texas, and one from Heiligbrodt 
in Bastrop, Texas. 

Schinia Approxiiuata n. sp. 

Ground color nearly as in the several preceding described species. Primaries, basal space fuscous, darker at margins and at t. a. 
line. Subterminal space dark fuscous; terminal space in two examples pale ochre, almost white; in the third example the dark color 
of the subterminal is continued to the margin, only divided by the pale jagged s. t. line. A large quadrate discal spot. A dark brown 
shade traverses the median space from coslu to inner margin. Transverse lines distinct, almost white and crenulated. A row of dark 
marginal points I in one example these are wanting). Fringe yellowish white, fuscous at veins. Secondaries dull pale ochre, almost 
white, with broad black marginal band connected inwardly with a very large black discal mark; base also bl.ack, which color more or 
less suftuses the whole wing. Fringe fuscous at margin, exteriorly white. 

Expands J inch. The three types are from Boll, wiio took them near Dallas, Texas. 
This is a more strongly marked insect than most of its allies, and in colors and decoration is strongly 
suggestive of Schinia Brerix, though a much smaller slighter in.sect. 

Seliiiiia Obsciirata n. .sp. 

Head and thorax olivaceous brown, abdomen appears to be inclined to black dorsally, but being somewhat greased the color cannot 
be determined with certainty. Primaries pale clear ochre, basal space olivaceous brown extended outwardly in a point on the discoidal 
vein. The subterminal space also of same color as is likewise a large quadrate discal mark which extends to the costa and is from thence 
connected by a costal line or band of same color to the basal space. There are no transverse lines, but the dark basal and subterminal 
spaces and large discal mark stand clearly out from the clear, pale median and terminal spaces, a dark fine marginal line. Fringe 
concolorous ' " " " ' ' ' , . . . . .. . . .^ . 



L»V a COMUl line Ol uailU *Jt ^^lIllU tJUlVil lU IIJC uuoai ;i^a».c j^iivi^ .iic *im h nii.-? » vi .-,^ iiiii..-^, uui iiiv vi«i& .ji.otii tiiiv. ci.ul\., 

large discal mark stand clearly out from the clear, pale median and terminal spaces, a dark fine marginal line. F 
8 with the median and marginal spaces. Secondaries black, yellow at base. Fringe black, at margin exteriorly white. 



Expands ^ inch. Tiie type, one example taken at Latrobe, Penna., by Rev. Jerome Sciimidt, of St. 
Vincent's College, from whom I received it. 

Scliinia Tanena n. sp. 

Is nearest to the one just described but is a smaller insect, being but a little over | inch in expanse. The color is brighter, more 
of a yellow tint. The almost white t. a. and t. p. lines are clearly defined by the darker shading of the intermedial space. No dark 
marginal line on primaries. The abdomen above clear yellow like the base of secondaries. Although resembling in a general way 
Obscurala, the two when placed side by side would never be confounded. 

One example received from Heiligbrodt, who took it at Bastrop, Texas. 

Schinia iWeglecta n. sp. 

Head, bo<ly, and primaries pale ochre, much the same as in the paler examples of Oalymnia Orina. The only indications of orna- 
mentation are shown when under a glass by the faintest imaginable traces of a discal spot and the t. a. and t. p. lines, but so exceedingly 
indefinite are these that I hesitate to mention them at all, the more so as the single example, though in fair condition, is slightly 
abraded. The fringe is white. The secondaries white with an ochrey tint, strongest just along the edge of the exterior margin. 
Fringe white. 

This comes nearest I think to Lanul, but the almost absolute absence of markings separates it from that 
as well as other species. It may in fact not fit well in this genus or group, but I do not pretend to be specialist 
enough to send forth a dictum on that point. 

Expands 1 incli. The single type was taken at Loveland, Colorado, from whence I received it. 



11 

Khododipsa Aden n. sp. 

Head and thorax yellow. Abdomen black or smoky with anal segment yellow. Primaries, ground color white. Basal and sub- 
terminal spaces and median shade much the same purplish crimson as in Da.<^itipouckn Lvcens, but not so bright, more tinged or mixed 
with grayish, especially on the subterminal and terminal spaces. The discal spot small and obscured and enveloped in the red shade that 
almost fills the median space. The primaries have somewhat the general appearance of D. Lucens, but the contrast between the red and 
white is not so decided, they are more blurred and running into each other in the present species ; the t. a. line in this runs almost 
straight from inner margin to costa; the fringe fuscous. Secondaries entirely smoky black. Fringe fuscous on outer half of wing, 
inclining more and more to yellow from thence to the inner margin. 

Expands | inch. One example from Colorado, where it wa.s captured by Doll, from whom I received it. 
Acontia Areli n. sp. 

Head blacki.sh brown, body pure white. Primaries, basal third white, the t. a. faint brown and double, interior to this several 
other faint-colored abbreviated lines. Orbicular outlined by a fine black line. Outer two-thirds of wing purplish brown, variegated in 
various lighter and darker shades. T. p. line much broken, not very distinguishable. S. t. white and very irregular. A large milk- 
white triangular spot on costa. Reniforra round, steel blue ringed, ami pupilled with black. Midway between the orbicular and the 
inner margin, within the dark two-thirds outer space, is a conglomeration of blue and black scales forming a sort of broken ocellus. A 
fine black marginal line slightly broken by the veins. Fringe is brown at apex, then white, then brown, then largely white, and finally 
again brown at inner angle. Secondaries white with slight brown shading at exterior margin. Fringe white. 9 like the i^, excepting 
that the secondaries are smoky. 

Types, two c?c? from New Mexico and one ? from Arizona, latter taken by Morrison, from whom I 
received them. Same size and build as Aprica, to which it is nearest, though otherwise quite different. 

Acontia Gonella n. sp. 

Head and thorax dark brown. Abdomen brown, beneath white. Primaries white, basal third dark shining olivaceous brown, 
same as back of thorax, within this is a large white patch extending from costa to about the discoidal vein. A white median space 
very narrow below the discal cell, but from thence widening until it takes in the small reniforra. The orbicular indicated by a black 
dot. Outer two-thirds of the wing shining dark brown with a large white patch at inner angle which extends over the fringe. A large 
white spot on the costa. A row of black marginal points. Fringe dark at and near apex. Secondaries pale fuscous, darkest at 
exterior margin. Fringe white. 

Expands | inch. One ? from Doll, taken in Arizona. 
The build and size of Candefada, but has more the style of ornamentation of Augustipennis. 

Agropliila Velata n. sp. 

Head and body olivaceous yellow. Primaries mainly shining reddish brown ( rust-colored \ a yellowish basal space. A large 
costal space of same color which takes in the reniforra and extends to the orbicular, which latter is small, dark, and round. A 
yellowish white triangular costal subapical mark. Between the reniform and the inner margin and extending diagonally to the inner 
angle is a continuation of the large pale median costal space, but it is here suffused with fuscous, its edges alone margined by white lines. 
A fine white marginal line which, however, does not r.ach quite to either the apex or inner angle. Fringe, inner two-thirds black, 
apical part brown and pale yellow. Secondaries white, shading into fuscous towards the exterior margin. Fringe brown, 
exteriorly white. 

Expands xs inch. Two examples from Boll taken near Dallas, Texas. 

Syueda Nigroniarginata n. sp. 

Head and body above pale fawn-color, beneath white. Primaries marked and colored almost as in Tejonim. Secondaries rosy 
pink merging into vphite towards the base. .\ black marginal band extending from a point near the inner angle .and gradually widening 
until it reaches the costa, where it is one-third the width of the wing; within this band, about the middle, is a large inverted lune of 
the rosy ground color, the two ends or horns of which extend to the exterior edge of wing. A small black discal mark. Fringe white. 
Under surface, primaries white, costa tinged with pink. A broad black band occupies the whole space between the subterminal line and 
edge, connected with this near the inner angle is a black mesial band which extends obliquely to the costa. Fringe white with black at 
nervures. Secondaries tinged with pink, white at base. The broad black marginal band of upper side is repeated, but with a faint 
shadowy suggestion of the lunate mark. Fringe white, black in the middle. 

Expands 1| inches. Type, one example taken in Arizona by Doll, from whom I received it. 
Though bearing considerable resemblance to several of its congeners, it can at once be distinguished from 
all other species b}- the solid broad black marginal band of under side. 

Syneda Decepla n. sp. 

Head and body above pale ochraceous almost white, beneath pure white. Primaries very nearly as in the preceding species and 
Tqonieii, but brighter, more of a yellow, less of a brownish tint on the pale parts. Secondaries pure white with a bright yellow spot in 
the centre of wing exterior to the small black discal mark. A broad black marginal band the same as in Nigromarginala and like that 
■enclosing an inverted lune, which in this case, however, is bright yellow like in Dedncta. Fringe white, between veins 2 and 4 black. 
"Undersurface white. Primaries have a broad black marginal band enclosing a whitish spot at inner angle, and an elongated one of 
mixed black and white extends from between veins 4 and 5 nearly to the apex, where the black prevails. An oblique curved median 
line or band is connected with the marginal band at its inner edge at vein 2, and extends thence obliguely to vein 7, from thence to 
costal edge it is indicated by a few black marks. Fringe white with black at veins. Secondaries with a broad black band as in Nigra- 
margimita, within which are two connected inverted white lunes. Fringe white with black between veins 2 and 4. 

Expands 1| inches. Type, one c?, Colorado, received from Bruce. 

Although the white secondaries with the bright yellow mark in margin and the whole general appearance 
would suggest Deducta, it is nevertheless a close ally to 1 ejonica Stretchii, &c. One point will easily separate it 
from Deducta, which is that the t. a. line which in the latter is elbowed inwardly, in our species is just the 
reverse. 




Sjnodu FI(iTofn<4oiata n. !<p. 

Head and l>i)d_v almre lirnwnish gray, lieiicath while. Upper surface, primaries, base pale gray, t. a. line broad and dark brown, 
exterior to this a yelinw band a little wider at inner margin, and tlience of nearly eqnal width to the median nerviire, thence narrowing 
to less than half its width at the costa, where it is joined exteriorly by a black somewhat triangular mark which is succeeded by a large 
while patch with dentaled e<lge. There is a black wedge-shaped mark on the exterior edge of the yellow band at vein two, and a small 
black edge is at and near the inner margin. All the space exterior to the yellow band and large reniform is bluish gray. S. t. line 
geminate, pale brown and serrate<l. Fringe gray. Secondaries pure white, a very broad black band almost straight on its inner edge, 
and containing the usual curved mark, which in this species is white. Undersurface, pure silky white. A subterminal blacki«h band 
widest at costa, between which and the exterior margin the wings are very pale gray. A wedge-shaped black discal mark. Secondaries 
with a blackish submarginal band, between which and the margin the space is white. A black marginal spot between veins two and four. 

Expands H inches. Type, one example taken in Arizona by Dull, fronKwhom I received it. 
Syiieda Fiiinosa n. sp. ^~~~ — '' "^ 

Head and body above pale gray. Two brown streaks on the protliorax. Upper surface, primaries light gray. An abbreviated 
black basal line. T. a. line black and' forming an acute angle outwardly between tin- dorsal and discoidal veins. A broad whitish median 
band or space exteriorly edged with black and joined by the usua'" large renifonn-like patch, which is likewise edged with black. 
A subapical dash containing two small wedge-like black' marks. Secondaries di/ty white with abroad smoky-gray marginal band, 
which merges into the white Without delined line of demarkation and cuntains the curved mark, which is however in<listinct, in fact 
the whole wing has smoky s\ifrn.sed appearance. Under surface white. Primaries with faint sullused gray marginal and submarginal 
bands and an oblique median shade. Secondaries have a faint transverse band and marginal mark. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one example from Texas, exact locality unknown. 



Apatiira .48laiisa n. sp. 

^ head and body above black ; beneath white. The abortive forelegs green as in other species of the group Chlorippe. Upper- 
surface all wings dark blackish brown, with a paler submarginal band formed of connected lunules. On primaries three small 
gr.ayish white spots on the apical part. Indications of an oblicpie macular band across the wing from middle of costa to ihe third median 
nervule. Undersurf;ue, primaries, basal third of wing yellow, rest brown. A white bar edged with brown crosses the discoidal cell in 
the middle, another at its termination, three large white spots between this and the inner margin; three small ones in apical part. .Vn 
irregular submarginal row of white lunules, Ihe arrangement- of all the spots almost as in Kallinn. The apical part of wing violaceous 
gray reticulated with brown, rmlorsurface of secondaries white tinged with violaceous and reticulated and mottled with fine riist- 
bro'wn abbreviated .streaks and dashes, and cros.sed in the middle by an irregular red line. A darker shade extends from the second sub- 
costal nervule outwardly to the co.sla ; on the costa between this shade and the transverse median line a large oval spot is formed by the 
white ground color. Margin edged with rust color. An indistinct row of submarginal hmules, 

$ form a. wings broader than (^ sis is usual in the genus. Primaries black, more brownish towards base a white bar within the 
discordal cell, between this and the inner angle a white spot. X bar composed of three confluent white spots at termination of cell, 
between this ami third median nervule two white spots, three subapical white spots, the innermost very minute. A narrow irregular 
submarginal row of small whitish lunules. Secondaries brown with a darker submarginal band encbsing a connected row of lunules, 
undersurface much the same as (^ sa<'e that the markings of secondaries arc not as sharp or dark. 9 form b. primaries with basal two- 
thirds orange ochre, outer part black Enclosing subapical and submarginal spots as in form a. yellow instead of white. A black bar in 
middle and another wider one at termination of the discoidal cell. The basal part of wing shaded with brown. Secondaries orange ochre 
with brown marginal band enclosing lunules as in form a. Undersurface primaries much as above, secondaries as in form a. but yellowish 
instead of white. 

c? expands U inches, 9 1^ to If inches. Types, three d'd, two ?? form a. Two 9 9 form b. 
Taken near Pctropolis, province of Kio .laneiro. 
^^ A most remarkable insect, the inider surface of secondaries resembling in its striated mottling many of the 

Satyridce and in nowise whatever any Apatura. 



Agrotis Hospitaiis, Grote, Can. Ent., 1882, is identical with Ag. Brannea, Fab. Mant. Ins., 1787. 

Copablepharon Subflavidens, Grote, Can. Eiit., 1882, is a synonym of Cop. {yEdephro7i) Grandis, Strecker, 
Lep. Rhop. Het., 1875. " 

^_' Schinia Chrynellus, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc, 1874, is the .same as 8ch. Conchula Felder Reis Nov., 187^ 

Schinia Oleagina, Morrison, and S. Jmpeispicna, Strecker, have been quoted as synonyms of S. Oracile-ntti^ 
Hiibner, which is not the case, all three being valid species, and bearing no resemblance at all to each other. % 

Schinia Digitalis, J. B. Smitii, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 1891, is synonymical with Sch. Imperspicua, 
Strecker, 1876. 

Schinia Ochreifascia, J. B. Smith, 1883, and Sch. Velaris, Grote, Can. Ent., 1879, are synonyms of Sch. 
Lanul, Strecker, Lep. Rhop. Het., 1877. 



LEPIDOPTERA, 



RHOPALOCERES AND HETEROCERES. 



INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC. 



SUPPLEMENT No. 2. 



BY 



HERMAN STRECKER. 



PECATUE, ILI*. 



READIN<;^, PA., U.S.A., 1899. 



Printed for The Author. 



/ 



V 



NEM^ SPECIES OF L.EPIDOPTERA. 



By HERMAN STRECKER. 



Euptoieta Colombia n. sp. 

Wliole upper surface pale tawny, a little dusky at the base. The black markings are in a general way as in Chnidia, but not near 
as heavy, and the indentations in the lines, etc., are not as acute. Under surface, primaries basal half interior to the transverse zigzag 
band fulvous, but not as rich or deep as in Claudia. Exterior half of wing yellowish white. A fine brown marginal line, a crenulated 
submarginal line, the veins between these are accompanied broadly by brown. A white triangular mark on costa near the apical part, 
which is edged exteriorly heavily with brown. Three round black spots in the three inner cells. The zigzag median band and the lines 
in the discoidal cell are fainter repetitions of those of the upper surface. Fringe white with brown at terminations of the veins. Sec- 
ondaries dirty white, a crenulated brown submarginal line, the space between which and the margin is heavily powdered with brown, 
leaving only a white lining to the outer edge of the submarginal line; interior to the latter is a broad pale space within which are four 
round brown spots, one each in cells 3, 4, 6, and 7, the space interior to this, which comprises the bijsal two-thirds of the wing, is heavily 
powdered with brown, and contains a pale triangular spot at the outer termination of the discoidal cell ; this spot is connected to the 
costal vein by a bilobed white line which is succeeded exteriorly by another white mark extending from costa to the second subcostal 
veinlet. ? like the (^, but not as darkly colored beneath. 

d expands If inches; ? 1| inches. Types, one cf, one ?, from Bogota, Colombia, South America. 

This species or form (for all of the so-far-described species, Hegesia, Claudia, Hortensia, and Thekla, avd 
close allies) can be known at once by the sha])e of the wings, which are broad and in nowise falcate or angfilar 
bnt full and rounded, bearing in this the same relation to the others as does Vanessa Ladakensis to its allies 
Uriicce, etc. In Claudia on secondaries, beneath, the space between the submarginal line and the margin is 
white or ashen from apex to the middle of wing, from thence to the anal angle it is more or less brown ; in 
Columbia it is uniformly whitish powdered with brown. In Claudia from the submarginal line inward is a 
brown band widest in the middle and narrowing at the costa and anal angle, interior to this is a paler space 
which is inwardly separated from the darker ba.sal third of wing. In Columbia the submarginal line is suc- 
ceeded by a broad yellowish white band containing the round black spots ; interior to this band the entire wing 
is powdered with brownish, excepting the white marks already spoken of. 

Cyclograninia Terlia n. sp. 

Upper surface dark brown. Primaries with abroad scarlet band from middle of costa diagonally to the inner angle, a white sub- 
apical spot. Under surface, primaries scarlet, whitish at base, narrowly brown along the inner margin. Apex pale ashen with a sub- 
marginal brown line and the white subapical spot of upper side repeated ; a dark brown band from costa to inner angle separates the 
grayish apical space from the inner scarlet part. Secondaries ashen white, a reddish brown shade from the apex to middle of the 
exterior margin and extending inward to the disco-cellular. A scarlet line on costa which does not reach to the apex. A submarginal 
line scarlet from anal angle to the median, thence to the costa brown ; this is succeeded by an almost parallel black line. A black line on 
the costal vein at the base. A subbasal line from the costal vein to the subcostal, where it is broken but again continued in an even 
inwardly bowed line to the termination of the interior vein. Two connected black rings between the snbmedian veins, and two conflu- 
ent ones between these and the base ; the color within these rings is the same brown shade as the outer apical half of the wing, and in the 
centres this shade is darker, making a weak attempt at ocelli. 

Expands 1| inches. Type, one c?, which I received in 1871 from Dr. Van Patten, who took it at 
Cartaga, Costa Rica. 

This is a larger species than Pandama and differs from it in the band on upper side of primaries being 
scarlet, and beneath in the much narrower brown shading along inner margin, in the submarginal Hue on 
apical part being even instead of crenulated. On the secondaries in" the submarginal lines not being scalloped 
in the outer and with very little tendency to be so in the inner. The black subbasal line being evenly curved 
from the subcostal to the end of the interior vein, whilst this in Pandama is strongly trilobed. 

Satyriis Azorinus n. sp. 

Body, head, and antenn;e black. Wings dark brown. Primaries somewhat dull ochreous on the disk. A small round sub- 
apical spot between veins 5 and 6. Secondaries with a strongly sinuate dull ochreous mesial band, this has a deep sinus inwardly 
between veins 2 and 3, and another at vein 6. Fringe of all wings white with black at termination of veins. The disk and mesial 
band are not decided or well defined, but dull and suffused, as if showing through from the under side. Under surface, primaries dull 
pale ochre. Costa brown. At end of and beyond the discoidal cell a brown mark extends from the costa to vein 4. The subapical 
spot of upper side is repeated, beyond this spot to the costa brown. A brown marginal band, two small white spots interior to this band 
between veins 6 and 8. Secondaries dark brown, somewhat striated. A mesial band as above but pure white and sharply defined, 
interior to this band are two white m.irks, one near the base is irregular and extends from the costa to within the discoidal cell. The 
other nearly square is below this in the cell. Fringe as above. 

Expands 1 J inches. Type, one ji received from Prof. E. T. Owen, who informs me it came from the 
Azores. 

The place for this most interesting species I think would be with or near Satyrus {Chionobas) Pumilus, 
Lama, etc. In a remote way it also reminds one of 8. Neomiris, 



Cydosia Tosiisollatilla n. sp. 

Resembles Imilclln, Stretoli, but is a larger insect and otherwise differs in the following particulars: The patagise are orange 
bronze, in Imililld they are white crossed liy metallic dark blue band. The costa near the base is bronze which is succeeded by a dark 
blue space extending from the interior to the inner margin and containing three white spots, the niidiUe one the largest, in ImilcUa this 
bluish space reaches only to the subcostal and contains in my examples but two white spots, anterior to this the costal margin is broadly 
orange bronze, which color connects with the first bronze transverse band. The large while twin spots at inner niargin between the t.p. 
and subterniinal bronze bands are horizontally bisected by a dark bbie line, making in this space seven principal while spots instead of 
five as in Imltrlln, the white spots contained in the dark blue marginal band are very different in shape from those in Imitella, the two 
principal ones being shaped like a U. Secindarics black, under surface differs from Lniklla on primaries by having a large white discal 
semilunate spot and a regular white marginal band cut sharply by the black veins, on secondaries are two distinct white apical spots. 
In two of my examples the end of abdomen is yellow as is ImiteUa, but ia the third the entire abdomen is shining bluish black, which I 
think is doubtless a sexual difference. 

Expands 1 J to IJ inches. Types, three examples received from Mr. Jacob Knab, who took them at San- 
tarem, Brazil, some twelve years since. 

Cteiiiiolia Tigrina n. sp. 

Head blue in front, red on top. Palpi (which are broken) are yellow beneath. Throat red. Collar and thorax metallic blue. 
Tegulse dark brown margined inwardly with ochraceouf. Abdomen above black with a bluish hi.stre, beneath blackish brown. Primaries 
dark slaty brown as in C. W-no.vi. A pale ochraceons stripe along the costa, a very tine abbreviated one on vein 7, one along vein 6 its 
whole length t<j the exterior margin, another very broad one extends along the median from the base, forking out on veins 2, 3, and 
4 to the margin, another extends the whole length of the dorsal vein. Fringe white. Secondaries same brown color as the primaries. 
Fringe white, smoky about vein 5, but this part of secondaries is damaged. Under surface not as dark as above.. Fringes as above. 

Expands 1 ij inches. Type, one cT from Cartaga, Costa Rica, received from Dr. Van Patten about 1871. 

Close to Venosa, but has the additional yellow streaks on vein 7 and 2, and in tho.se on veins 1, 3, 4, and 
6 extending to the e.xterior margin and in the entire wiiite fringe of primaries. In these particulars agreeing 
more with the larger species VUtigera, Blanch. 

&»l>ilo80iiia Atlioiia n. sp. 

Head, body, and wings pure silky white. Palpi dark brown. Antenna; deep black. Fore coxse and femora ochre yellow. 
Tibia^ and tarsi brown in front, white inwardly. Middle and posterior legs white with tarsi dark brown in front. Primaries with 
a broken t. p. line composed of indistinct blackish dots, a few blackish scales also at apex and between the t. p. line and the exterior 
margin. ScKmodaries immaculate. 

Expands 1| inches. Type, one cT received from Bruce, who took it in Colorado. 

This species will readily be known from the allied North American species by the entirely black antennse. 

Spilo.sonia Tlioiia n. sp. 

Head, ])ale ocbraceous. Autcnnne with brown pectinations. Thorax white. Patagia' yellow and edged inwardly with a sharp 
black line. .Vbdomcn pale ochraceous above, inclined to brownish below. Tarsi and outside of tibiic brown. Primaries white with a 
slight i)inkisli gray tint. The cnsta edged with blackish scales very slightly near base but more markedly as it nears the apex. A 
black streak along the median vein to the termination of vein 4, at the junction of the median with vein 2, and with the lower 
discal vein this streak is heaviest, being there of lanceolate form, half way between the discal vein and the margin of the wing it is 
broken. .Vnother black ftreak along the inner margin which does not extend to the base or the inner angle. Another on the submedian 
extending from the exterior margin inwardly one-third of its length. A shorter one on vein 6 some distance from the exterior margin, 
above this on vein 7 a mere dot. A small spot on the anterior discal vein hnd another smaller exterior to this above vein 4. Secondaries 
same pinkish white as primaries and immaculate. 

I*]xpand.s H inches. Type, one cf from New Mexico. 

Thi.s sjiecics brings somewhat to mind the much larger and stronger marked S. Clio. 

Parasa I'retiusa n. sp. 

Head and collar bright beautiful green of a more bluish tint than in Viridux, Chloris, Punka, etc. Palpi brown. Patagiae pale 
ochraceius behind the collar and terminally green. Abdomen white with a slight yellow tint. Primaries bright green. A narrow 
continuous pale ochraceous band surrounds the wing on all margins, widest on the exterior margin and at the base of wing. Fringe 
brown. Secondaries silky white with a slight oclirey lint. Whole under surface of wings silky ochraceous white, with light brown on 
costa and fringe of primaries. 

Expands J inch. Type, one c? taken at Pelropolis, S. Brazil, March 12, 1873, by Mrs. O. C. James, to 
whose kindness I am indebted for it. 

]Ielorofaiii|>a Aoiiiile)^ n. sp. 

Head and thorax dark brown intermixed with gray. Abdomen gray. Primaries grayish brown. Indications of a t. a. line. A 
double t. p. line somewhat irregular running much as in LitodnnUi Ihjilromdi, making on the costa two conspicuous black marks extend- 
ing nearly to the apex. -V lunate bl.ack discal mark. Secondaries pure white except at costa, where they are shaded with brown. Under 
surface, primaries gray, secondaries white. No markings whatever. 

Expands ]\ inches. Type, one S', taken by A. S. Fuller in New Mexico. 

This .'species will be known from all others by the antennae being pectinated to the extreme end. At 
first glance this insect might easily be mistaken for Aon Noctuiformis, so close is the superficial resemblance of 
the two. 



laiisisssi Pallida n. sp. 

vSize and sliape of /. Llr/nicolor. Head ashen gray. Thorax above ashen gray, reddish brown towards the abdomen. Abdomen- 
very pale pinkish ocljraceoua or salmon color. Primaries, ground color same as abdomen, shaded along the costa with light gray, 
more widely at the apical part. An abbreviated very dark brown basal streak. A scalloped doiiliK reddish t. a. band which does not 
reach to the inner margin. A dual reddish t. p. line. A dark brown discal streak succeeded exteriorly by a grayish shade. A double 
black subapical dash on the costa. Inner angle reddish brown with a small white dash as in Lignicohi: Exterior to the t. p. line there 
is a dusting of reddish and gray with pale rays in the cells. Tuft of inner margin reddish. Secondaries pure white, near inner angle 
on margin a brown mark, a few brown scales on costa near the apex. Veins tinged with reddish near and at the exterior margin. 

Types, four cfc?, two from Seattle, Wash., and two from Colorado. 

This de.scription applies to the strongest marked example, the other three are not near so distinctly 
marked, in fact, in these tiie primaries show no markings beyond the discal line succeeded exteriorly by mixed 
gray and red shade, the double subapical dash, and a few dark .scales at the anal angle. 

Agrotis Abar n, sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries dull smoky brown. Abdomen and secondaries brownish white. The basal and t. a. lines double 
and distinct, t. p. also double and more sharply defined on its inner edge. Space between darker than the rest of wing. Keniforni and 
orbicular distinct and well defined, the latter round and not very large. Claviform dark as is the sjjace in the discoidal cell not occupied 
by the reniform and orbicular. Terminal space darker than subterminal and diminishing to a point at the apex. A suba|iieal patch of 
same sliade. Very slight indications of a row of marginal points. Fringe concolorous with the wing. Secondaries have a faint marginal 
line and discal lune. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one examjile from Bruce, taken at Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 
It belongs to the group Carneades, Grote, coming in with Decolor, Morr., Insignata, Wlk., though having 
narrower, more elongated wings compared with those or others. 

Agrotis Aehor d. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries above much the same light silky gray or fawn as in McdiaUs, J. B. S., and Cfenis, Grote, nearest which 
it should probably be placed. The abdomen is paler as are also the secondaries. Primaries, the transverse lines very indistinct, the 
t. p. being the most visible, a small dark spot at its termination on the costa. A small basal streak. Keniform large but indistinct. 
Orbicular more distinct but very small, the space between these in the cell is darker than the rest of the wing, as is also the exterior 
marginal shade and a small subapical patch. A row of intervenular marginal points. Fringe same as rest of wing. Secondaries white 
tinged with same color as primaries, which is darkest towards the margin. Fringe white. 

Expands If inches. One example, the type, received from Bruce, who took it in Colorado. 
Agi'Otis Agcuia n. sp. 

Head and collar dark brown, latter with a black stripe and edged with white, patagia; dark brown margined with grayish white; 
of which color is also the thorax. Abdomen gray. Primaries dark brown more or less interspersed with grayish white. T. a. obscure,- 
denoted by white scales. T. p. line whitish with black on the veins. S. t. irregular, whitish, and more distinct, ending at apex in a 
gray patch. A dark marginal line. From the base to the reniform the subcostal and discoidal veins are white. The reniform and 
orbicular distinctly edged with white. The discoidal cell and basal and marginal spaces darker, and not mixed with gray as in the rest 
of the wing. Claviform outlined witli dark brown. Fringe brown. Secondaries white tinged with brown, more so towards the exterior 
margin. Fringe pure white. 

Expands IJ inches. Type, one example taken in Colorado by Bruce. This comes in the group with 
Oblong osligma, J. B. S., Plagigera, Morr., etc. 

Agrotis Alko n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries above uniform medium brown. Abdomen paler. Primaries, t. a. brown geminate and very nearly 
straight. T. p. also double, and is somewhat sinuate, at its exterior edge, and extending a little beyond, the veins are denoted by dark 
brown. A large subapical patch interior to which on the costa are two small dark spots. Keniform and orbicular finely outlined with 
dark brown. A small basal streak. Secondaries white with a brownish tinge, which latter prevails most at and towards the exterior mar- 
gin. An indistinct discal lune. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one example taken by Bruce in Colorado. Its nearest ally is 3Iessoria, Harr.,. 
from which, however, it can be distinguished at a glance. 

Mainestra IMania n. sp. 

Head yellowish fawn. Thorax and abdomen grayish fawn. Primaries ochreous fawn, basal and t. a. lines geminate and curved 
outwardly between the veins, t. p. geminate, the outer one designated only on the veins. Median space darker. An indistinct reniform. 
S. t. line pale and distinct with two dark sagittate spots at its inner edge between veins 4 and 6. A large subapical spot. A row of 
intervenular marginal spots. Secondaries fuscous. 

Expands 1 J inches. Type, one example from Colorado taken by Bruce. 

Except the sagittate marks and the marginal dots, none of tlie ornamentation is sharply defined, and the 
insect retuinds one in a general way of such species at Agrotis Rubefadalis, Grote, A. Fyrophiloides, Harvey, 
and the like. 



6 

Tricholita Sj-rissia n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries very nearly the same color as Uydracia Niclitans. T. a. and t. p. lines indistinct, the space between 
these is a shade darker than the basal or subterimnal areas, terminal space also darker. A conspicuous white ovate reniform crossed in 
middle by a scarcely noticeable reddish double line. Secondaries brownish with a faint mesial shade, between which and the exterior 
margin the wing is darkest. Fringe paler. 

Expands IJ indies. One example, taken near Chicago, 111. 

Without close examination this might easily be mistaken for the variety of Bydrcecia Nictilans having 
the white reniform. 

liCucaiiia 9Iiiiiica n. sp. 

Resembles in size and general appearance Commoides, to which it is undoubtedly nearest, but differs therefrom in having three 
dark lines across the collar instead of one. In the veins of primaries not being conspicuously white as in Commoides. In only dark 
dash or line being the basal one, and in the discoidal cell being brown. Secondaries are white. 

One example, taken by Bruce in Colorado, furnished the type. 

IIy«lroccia I>atia n. sp. 

Head rust brown. Thorax same color but not as dark, abdomen paler. Primaries, color much the same as in Marginidens. 
T. a. line purplish and indistinct. T. p. line extending straight across the wing from costa to inner margin is heavy, and dark purplish. 
Median line, which is also dark, is straight from inner margin to median vein, thence it bends inwardly to the costa. S. t. line sinuate. 
Subterminal space of a purplish tint. Veins in the terminal space marked with purple. Reniform white with a few rust-colored scales. 
Orbicular white, round, and very small. Secondaries white tinged with reddish. 

Expands 1| inches. The single type was taken near Chicago, 111. 

A large species not closely allied to any other and easy to identify by the heavy dark t. p. line. 

Ortliocles Akalii»< n. sp. 

Head, body, and primaries brown of much the same shade as Cremdtila, Butl. Primaries, t. a. double and tripartite, t. p. blurred 
and pale, and is curved inwards at the costa. A well-defined s. t. line from which to exterior margin the space is darker brown. A 
darker shading is also interior to the t. p. Emanating from the t. p. from its inner margin are four dark sagittate dashes, the two middle 
ones elongated, the inner and outer ones small. Reniform obscure and shaded over with darker brown. C'laviform slightly outlined, 
but no indications of an orbicular. A paler marginal line succeeded by the brown fringe. Secondaries smoky with indistinct discal 
lune. Fringe very pale brown. 

Ex])ands 1 ^ inches. One example, the type, was taken in Colorado by Bruce. 

Tlii.s comes nearer perhaps to Irrorata, J. B. S., than any other, but is a larger insect with proportionally 
longer, narrower primaries. 

Sabiilo<le!4 Xoiiaiigiilata n. sp. 

Color much the same .as Dnsilhecda, Gn. Primaries have a basiil line indicated by some dark atoms, an outer line formed mainly 
by black dots on the veins e.xtends from inner margin to the apex but is somewhat irregular. Costal dots and shade from base to apex. 
The exterior part of wing a shade darker, as is also a band interior to the transverse line. A minute discal spot. Secondaries crossed by 
a line of ncrvular dots, interior to which is a broad mesial band a shade darker than the rest of the wing, also a broad marginal band of 
same tint. 

Expands IJ- inches. Type, taken near Dallas, Texas by Boll, from whom I received it about twenty 
years since. This is easy to distinguish from Dositheata, Gn. {^Egrotata, Gn.), by the wings being so slightly 
.angulated as to be noticeable only on sharp inspection. 

nictaiiciiia Vaiiiisaria n. sp. 

Color pale ochrcous nearly as in the lighter examples of Clmrndes Tranxversala, to which it bears some superficial resemblance. A 
transverse pale line, shaded slightly on its inner edge, crosses all wings, mesially on the secondaries, and on the primaries continued 
from the inner base one fourth from the inner angle to within a short distance of the apex, where it is joined to a rather conspicuous 
triangular brown spot ; another brfiwn somewhat oval spot interru|its it near the inner margin, where there are also a few indistinct brown 
atoms. On secondaries is a broken line formed of brown atoms extending from anal angle to about vein 3. All wings with a minute 
black discal spot. 

Expands IJ inches. The single type from New Mexico I received from Mr. A. S. Fuller. 

Eiidropia Aiiiotliy.staria n. sp. 

Dark shining re<ldisli ochieoua. Wings crossed with angulated lines as in the larger II)/pochraria, the space between these lines 
and the exterior margin has a slight grayish sheen, .smooth and immaculate. Thesp-ace interior to the lines more inclined to yellowish 
and finely mottled with abbreviated sti i;e. A ditluse basal line or shade on primaries. Small discal spots on all wings. Under surface, 
the lines are sharper, not dillused as above, the space interior to them bright orange yellow minutely striated, that exterior with a slight 
purplish tinge and much paler than on upper surface. 

Expands IJ inches. The type I received sixteen years since from Doll, who took it in Florida. There 
is on the upper side of this insect nothing sharply defined, but the lines are diffuse and everything has a 
blurred appearance; beneath, it is the contrary. 



V 



Endropia Juciindaria n. sp. 

Size and shaped much as Armalaria, H. — S. Color slate gray. Primaries, a not very distinct inner line. A broad, extra-discal 
shade coming abruptly to a point on the costa, exterior and interior to which, as also along the costa, are some scattered white scales. A 
deep black lunate mark on the exterior margin below the apex, and a small triangular one at the inner angle. Secondaries with a 
mesial shade darkest towards its basal edge, on each side of this are some scattered white atoms. A lunate black mark on the margin 
and a small one at the anal angle as on the primaries. Under surface, the basal half of primaries and basal third of secondaries light 
yellow, heavily marked with rust-colored and gray striae, outer part slate gray crossed by an irregular band of scattered white stria;. A 
rust-colored lunate spot on outer half of exterior margin. 

Expands 1| inches. A sinsjle example, the type taken near Baltimore. 
A beautiful species, noticeable for its fine dark bluish gray color. 

Endropia Sirenaria n. sp. 

Ochreous. Primaries with an inner line composed of segregated brown scales or strise. A clean well-defined brown outer line 
which is but slightly curved, and is edged inwardly by a narrow shade which is paler than the ground color. Between the outer line and 
the exterior edge the wing is a darker color. A pale apical mark accompained by a dark oblique shade. On the secondaries the outer 
line is continued and there is the same darker color between it and the outer margin. Discal dots black. A black spot on primaries 
below the apical mark between veins .5 and 6, and another on the middle of secondaries beyond the outer line; in two examples this is 
wanting. All wings more or less sprinkled with black atoms. Under surface has the color brighter and paler, a strong broken median 
shade or line. On primaries the outer line not as dark as above, more diffuse, and is serrated. On the inferiors the outer line is 
doubled, as it were, first there being a repetition of the fine straight one of upper surface, then a diffused scalloped one running parallel 
with the exterior margin of the wing and connecting with the first line at its terminations on the costal and inner margins. Other mark- 
ings as on upper surface. 

Expands If to If inches. Types, four d examples from Latrobe, Pa., Amherst, Mass., Leavenworth, 
Ks., Chicago, 111. The Latrobe example is an aberration in that it is unicolorous, the space beyond the outer 
lines being the same light color as rest of wing. The scalloped second line of under side of secondaries being 
repeated above, and in having a large black spot near inner angle of primaries. I cannot but believe that the 
insect No. 18, plate XII., Packard's " Geometrid Moths," which is figured as the female of Endropia Pedi- 
naria, was taken from an example of this species. On the same plate. No. 11, is a figure of Peotinaria c? which 
agrees with six (two d'd', four ? 9) examples in my collection, the females only diifering from the males in the 
simple antennte. Saving this, my four females of Pectinaria agree with Packard's figure 11, and my four males 
of the species just described agree with his figure 18. I cannot but believe that by some mistake this was 
erroneously figured as the female of Pectinaria, as there are no points of agreement between them, the lines 
are quite diflf'erent, the wings of the present species are not as sharply toothed, not to speak of the many minor 
differences. 

Endropia Caiiidiaria n. sp. 

Ground color ochraceous, but all wings are densely strigated and spotted with reddish brown. Primaries, a dark brown inner 
line which exterjds only from the costa to the discoidal vein, in the middle of the cell it is sharply elbowed outwardly. The outer line 
extends from the inner margin to the costa, not far from the apex ; this line is zigzag, and is shaded outwardly with gray and is accom- 
pained inwardly by a second diff'use brown line which diverges somewhat from it beyond the discoidal vein. A dark brown discal spot. 
Secondaries with an extra discal zigzag brown line shaded outwardly on its inner half with gray. Interior to this line and to the dis- 
coidal vein is a somewhat quadrate semi-diaphanous spot edged exteriorly with gray ; an obliterate discal mark. The shape of the 
wings is nearly as in Hilumaria, Hulst, and the lines run much in the same way, but are zigzag and diffuse, not clear and sharp as in 
that species, otherwise it is also widely different. 

Expands IJ inches. Type, one ? from Chihuahua, Mexico. 

Sicya Faiistinaria n. sp. 

Pale sulphur yellow. Primaries, basal part of costa edged with reddish. Inner line composed of a few inconspicuous light 
reddish brown spots, the largest of which is at the inner margin. The outer line extends from the inner margin to vein 4, from thence 
to costa it is represented by two small very faint spots and a larger triangular costal one not far from the apex. The space exterior to 
this line from vein 4 to the inner margin is reddish lorown, forming a large rhomboidal patch ; the fringe is brown at this and yellow from 
thence to the apex. A minute discal spot. Secondaries whitish, outer line extends only from inner margin to middle of wing, the space 
beyond this abbreviated line to the exterior margin is flushed with pale reddish brown. A small darker shade at edge of exterior margin 
near the anal angle. An almost obsolete minute discal spot. Underneath as above, but the brown marks and shading very much paler. 

Expands If inches. Three types, all 9?, Holyoke, Mass., taken by Mr. Jos. Chase, Norwich, Conn., 
Mr. A. A. Pearson, Latrobe, Pa., Rev. Jerome Schmidt. 

A handsome and conspicuously marked species, reminding one much of .some of the species of Plagodis. 

Liycbiiosea Ruiicinaria n. sp. 

Body, head, and forewings pale ochre yellow. Primaries, a faint brown irregular inner line. Outer line is light brown, slightly 
scalloped intervenularly, and running parallel with the exterior margin, about the same interior to it as in Hdveolariti, Hiilst. A very 
faint straight discal bar. Secondaries yellowish white with the outer line as on primaries, but very much less pronounced.^ Beneath 
all wings pale ochraceous, sprinkled somwhat sparsely with brown atoms. All the outer lines as above, but much more distinct on the 
secondaries. Brown discal marks on all wings. 

Expands If inches. Type, one 9 from Colorado, taken by Doll. 



8 

Tlioriiisi Fndiaria n. ep. 

Entirely shining silky white with a slightly yellowish tint. Antennie brown. Wings somewhat semidiaphanous. Primaries 
are crossed by two almost straight faint brown lines, one subbasal, the other median, though nearer the base of wing than to the 
exterior margin, with which latter it runs parallel. 

Expands ]i inches. One d, tlie type I received from the late Mr. F. B. Caulfield, who took it near 
Montreal, Canada. 

Cicoinelrn RcIIonaria n. sp. 

Green as in [ritlariii, (in. Primaries slightly edged with reddish on the apical half of costa. A fairly broad white inner line 
starts from middle of inner margin and runs obliquely inwards to the costa, which it strikes at two-thirds its distance from the apex, 
thus being much nearer the base nn the costa than on the inner margin. The outer white line commences on the inner margin, one- 
third from the inner angle, and runs in a straight line exactly parallel with and equidistant from the exterior margin until it terminates 
on the costa. A fine reddish brown marginal line which is succeeded liy white fringe. A minute black discal point. Secondaries 
have the outer white line of primaries continued and bent in the middle. The same dark marginal lines, white fringe, and minute 
discal pcjint as on primaries. Under side as above, but very much paler. 

Expands IJ inches. One example from Bruce, who tooii it in Colorado. 
IVenioria .4iiraiiticoiorata n. sp. 

Shape nearly as in Viripoxidi, (in., but secondaries not quite as much angulated. Front of hea<l brown. Body and wings uniform 
bright ochre or orange yellow, on wings very faint paler almost indistinguishable outer lines, on the primaries curved inwardly from 
inner margin tu vein 3, thence curved outwardly. On secondaries running parallel with the exterior margin, angled in the middle. 
Fringes darker. Under side bright clear ochre yellow a shade lighter than above and devoid of the lines. Fringe brownish. 

Expands f inch. One example, taken by Whitfield in Florida. 
Soliidax Coroiiaria n. sp. 

Same curious shape as the larger .V. TTcH/.sd, F. — R. Head, bod}', and wings shining gray, very much the color of Phri/ffionis 
Cullrarid and Aryenlislriata. On primaries indications of a fine broken strongly zigzag black outer line, but this only at all visible between 
the inner margin and vein 5. A few dark marks on the outer two-thirds of the costa. Some very tine, scarcely noticeable dark striga>. 
Secondaries slightly striated with brown, more decidedly so near the exterior margin. Underneath, uniform pale gray with two white 
submarginal spots on inner half of secondaries. 

Expands IJ inches. The type, one example from Kcebele, who captured it a number of years since in 
Florida. 

Itlaoaria Teuoaria n. sp. 

Pale fawn color, powdered with fine brown scales, more so In the $. Primaries have three distinct brown lines reaching from 
inner margin to costa, the inner one straight to the costal vein, whence it bends inwardly. A medial one nearly straight, having a slight 
angle only at the median vein. An outer one somewhat curved inwardly between inner margin and vein 4, where it forms an obtuse 
angle. At vein 4 is a small black spot divided into three parts, one on the line and the other two which are geminate, divided from it 
by a tine light line. In the 9 this spot is not indicated on the line but is exterior to it and not conspicuous. On the secondaries the 
median and outer lines, but only extending about half way frotu the inner margin. Small inconspicuous discal dot. Under surface as 
above but the lines not as distinct, and more heavily powdered with brown scales, especially on the 9 . Secondaries rounded. 

Expands 1^ inches. Types, one cf, one 9, from Seattle, Wash. 
Iflaoaria Aiicillaria n. sp. 

Ground white, powdered more or le.ss with brown slrig;c. Primaries with a brown inner line curved outwardly, an oblique median 
line curved outwardly near costa, a slightly irregular outer line, bent inwardly about vein 6. A rather broad submarginal shade rim- 
ning nearly parallel with the exterior margin. A |)aler marginal shade. A distinct dark brown marginal line cut by the veins; this is 
succeeded by a white line and light gray fringe. An indistinct discal spot. Secondaries have the lines, etc., continued as on primaries. 
Under side as above, but the markings instead of being grayish brown are strongly tinteij with ochraceous. 

Expands 1 inch. Type, one 9, received from Doll, who took it in Florida fifteen or more years since. The 
wings of this species are rounded, with no tendency to angulation whatever. 

niaoaria I..api(aria n. sp. 

Primaries in nowise falcated, no indications whatever of being excavated below the apex as in Grunitata and allied species. 
Secondaries evenly rounded, not angular. Color white. Wings sprinkled with pale brown atoms. Primaries, inner line curved out- 
wardly, but only indicated on the veins. Median line irregular and broken. Outer line, mostly nervular, is nearly straight to vein 6, 
whence it ben<ls at an angle towards the costa. .Ml these lines are most conspicuous at their termination on the costa. A submarginal 
shade crosses the wing irregularly parallel with the exterior margin ; this band as well as the outer line between veins .3 and 4 are a shade 
darker than elsewhere, forming as it were a spot ; this and the termination of the outer line at the costa are the most conspicuous 
features. A small di.sc.il mark. .\ row of dark intcrvenular marginal dots. Secondaries have the markings of primaries more or less 
continued. Under surface nearly as above, but with a tendency to ochreous in the markings and in the discal spots being more distinct. 

Expands^ to 1 inch. Types, two Waco, Texas, Belfrage; one Dallas, Texas, Boll ; three Chihuahua, 
Mexico, A. Ellsworth. The Mexican ones have the dark spot or shade of the middle of the .submarginal .sjiace 
darker and more pronounced than in the Texan examples. Thi.s in.sect is nearest to Granitata and Enotata, 
but the plain unangulated wings effectually separates it regardless of the other marked differences. 



9 

Macaria .1i:g;ai*ia □. sp. 

Head, body, and primaries very light ashen gray, a fine brown inner line bending inwards at the costal vein. A small distinct 
black discal mark, above which on costa is a brown mark. A somewhat diffuse brownish outer line curved inwards on the inner half 
and somewhat outwardly above, terminating on costa in a dark brown mark. An irregular subterminal sliade most prominent towards 
the costa, where it is a conspicuous brown line or mark at about the middle. Beyond this, except towards the apex, the wing is darker, 
as is alsothe space between the outer line and the subterminal space. A row of black marginal dots. Fringe concolorous with wing. 
Secondaries paler than primaries, slightly powdered with minute scales. A mere point suggests the discal spot. Under side light gray 
tinged with yellowish, more markedly so along the costal part. 

Expands IJ inches. One 6', taken in Colorado by Bruce. 

Mariuopteryx Topazafa n. sp. 

Head and body apparently brown, but being discolored cannot be positive. Wings bright ochreous. Primaries blackish brown 
at base. A brown marginal band which suddenly widens at the middle from thence to costa, where its width is increased double. 
Interior to this and separated from it by a costally white and inwardly ochreous band is a dark line extending from costa to vein 4, 
dark brown along costa save where it is interrupted on inner half by two white costal marks. Secondaries with a brown marginal band 
which widens considerably at the apex. Under surface paler and the markings instead of being solid brown are composed of loose, light 
brown strire ; these stri;e are more or less over the whole of the inferiors, condensing in the middle, forming somewhat of a rudimentary 
mesial band. 

Expands | inch. The type, one example taken in Utah by Mr. A. J. Snyder. 

Thainnoiioiiia Marinaria n. sp. 

The whole insect is white of a grayish yellow tint. Beneath brighter and paler. Entirely destitute of any marking whatever. 
It is the shape of ArgiUacearia but unlike it in color. 

Expands | inch. One example, the type from Seattle, Wash. 

liozograiuiua Mercediilata n. sp. 

Very light fawn. Wings densely sprinkled with minute brown atoms. On primaries a broken indistinct submarginal line 
formed by a segregation of atoms. Black discal point on all wings. Black marginal intervenular dots. Under side much as above 
but paler, and no attempt at the submarginal line. 

Expands 1| inches. The type is from near San Francisco, Cal., whence I received it from Stretch many 
years since. It is the siiape of Detersata, but resembles it in no other way. 

Caripcta Scdiictaria n. sp. 

Head, thorax, and primaries very nearly the red orange color as in ^qualiaria, abdomen yellowish white. Primaries, a broad 
white inner line prolonged outwardly in an acute angle along and below the median vein, almost reaching the transverse outer band, 
interior to this is a conspicuous white basal streak. A large white discal spot which is prolonged in a streak towards the inner line. 
The while outer line is curved strongly' inward below the median vein, and again opposite the discal spot, at both of which points it 
suddenly widens, the rest of the line is very narrow; near the apcc, to which it extends, it appears as two dashes. Between this band and 
the exterior margin is a row of five white sagittate marks, the largest lieing at the inner angle. Fringe alternate white and orange. 
Secondaries yellowish white, with faint rust-colored rays suffusing the veins. Under side, body orange yellow. Wings silvery white, 
along the costal margin broadly suffused with orange, as also are all the veins, the latter more heavily on the exterior half of wings. 

Expands 1 J inches. Type, one example near Bethlehem, Pa., from Mr. A. Conradi. 

Anisodes Uinatillaria n. sp. 

Head brown. Body and wings ashen white. Primaries, an inner line indicated by a few venular dots. An outer line formed of 
faint venular dots runs almost parallel with the exterior margin. A faint grayish submarginal line or shade. Black marginal dots. 
Fring concolorous with wing. Secondaries, faint dotted mesial and submarginal lines. Marginal dots and fringe as in primaries. 
Minute discal points on all wings. Under surface devoid of all marks save minute discal points. 

Expands lyV inches. Type, one cf from Doll, who took it in Florida some eighteen years since. 

Cleora (?) Deniori^aria n. sp. 

Head and body brown and grayish white mixed, but being shrunken and a little discolored it is not easy to speak with certainty 
on this point. Wings of a flimsy semidiaphanous dirty white. The primaries densely covered with brown scales, less so on the basal 
area. An attempt at an irregular white edging exterior to the median space, on this edging on veins 4, 5, 6, and 7 are black dots. 
Terminal area also heavily covered with brown scales. A conspicuous brown subapical mark on costa. A large diffuse brown discal spot. 
Secondaries covered with loosely scattered brown scales. A brown discal spot. Under surface of all wings sprinkled with brown but 
not nearly so dense as on primaries above. The subapical mark visible and on secondaries a conspicuous round, intensely black discal 
spot. 

Expands IJ inches. Type, one ?, from Seattle, Wash. 

This insect in color and general appearance somewhat resembles Gleora Perangulala, Hulst, but the pri- 
maries are abruptly felcate and there is no agreement in details. And our insect I do not think really belongs 
to Chora at all, though allied to it. 



10 

Cleora Fiiiuoiiiaria n. sp. 

AlmcBt uniform smoky gray. Wings semidiaphanous. Inner and outer lines and discal spots much as in C. Pulchra, but the 
lines are not quite as deeply scalloped and not so dark or sharply defined. Under surface with very slight indications of the lines. 

Expands If inches. Type.s, two d^d*, one taken in Florida by Koebele, and the other near Chicago, III. 
This is hardly a variety of Pulchra, its much greater size, more flimsy, less opaque wings and somewhat 
diffuse markings all would .seem to indicate its distinctness. 

Cleora Pliaiitasniaria n. sp. 

Pale glossy aslicn, almost white. Primaries with two broad blackish lines, the inner one is four lobed, the outer scalloped much 
as in Pulchra, a blackish discal spot, the space below this and between the two lines is .sulliiseil with dark smoky gray, leaving only a spct 
of the pale ground color at the inner margin. Distinct round black spots at the terminations of the veins. Secondaries with a sinuate 
blackish outer line, a discal spot and dots at terminations of veins. Under side much as above, but markings fainter. 

Expands 1^ inches. Ty])e, one c?, from Seattle, Wasli. 

A beautiful insect, conspicuous from its clear, glossy ground color, devoid of any sprinkling of scales and 
the sharply defined markings. 

Boai'inia I^aiiiiaria n. sp. 

Head and collar brown. Thorax pale ashen, inwardly crossed by a brown line, a continuation of the brown inner line of primaries. 
Abdomen pale a.shen bamled with brown. Primaries, three oblicjue black lines, the inner and succeeding one not reaching to the costa, 
the third, which is the outer line, is most distinct, and the discal spot is merged into it, merely making a sudden widening of the line 
at the end of the discoidalcell, where it is joined by a small but very noticeable white spot. The third line is succeeded closely by a narrow 
brown shade. In the wide space between this latter and the exterior margin is an irregular scalloped subniarginal white line or shade 
narrow at the inner part but suddenly widening at the middle, where it terminates or is prolonged in a brownish shade to the ape.T. A 
narrow black marginal line. Secondaries have the lines of primaries continued, and have a small discal dot. Under surface ashen, devoid 
of markings except faint discal spots. 

Expands \\ inches. Type, one ? received many years since from Stretch, who took it near San Francisco, 
California. 

The white spot at end of discoidal cell, and that formed in the middle of subterminal line, are characters 
that cannot fail to identify this insect. 

Bosiruiia iiiiolaria n. sp. 

Pale ashen. Primaries with dark brown oblique lines, that nearest the base is double. The second is curved inwardly below the 
discoidal vein and outwardly above. The third is sinuous and extends from the middle of the inner margin to the apex, this is accom- 
panied exteriorly by another parallel, more dittiise line reaching also from inner margin to apex, beyond this is a strongly serrated line. 
A narrow marginal line, heaviest intervenularly. Fringe alternately brown and ash. .Secondaries, an abbreviated line interior to the 
middle of the wing. .Vn outer double line reaching from inner margin to apex, a somewhat difluse submarginal line. Marginal line 
and fringe as on primaries. Under side pale ash with a sparse sprinkling of atoms and a faint discal spot on primaries. 

Expands 1^ inches. Types, six ? ? from near El Paso, Chihuahua. 

Boarniia Exoclsaria n. sp. 

Ash gray. Head between the eyes brown. Primaries, a black inper line forming an obtuse angle at the median vein and again 
bending inward but more sharply at the subcostal. Interior to this and separated from it by the paler ground color is a broad brown 
shade. A black outer line extends from the middle of the inner margin to the costa at two-thirds its length from the base and followed 
exteriorly by a brown shade from wliich it is separated by a pale line. Between the inner and outer lines is another line, but less 
marked. A submarginal, serrated, almost white line accompanied inwardly by a dark shade. A tine black marginal line most marked 
intervenularly. .Secondaries have a black line which is a continuation of the outer line of primaries, this is succeeded by another black 
line, this by two diHuse brownish lines, then an almost white one. A marginal line as on primaries. All fringes ashen. Under surface 
very pale ashen, devoid of all markings. 

Expands 1| inches. Type, one 9 from Seattle, Wash. 

This species has very broad even primaries, strongly suggesting Phigalia. The markings are more 
distinct and <%nspicuous than in any other Boarmia that I know of, and is a species which once seen would 
always be recognized. 

Lobopliora BTigroangnlata n. sp. 

Body light gray. Patagia' black, edged with gray. Primaries grayish white. A black trilobed basal line, a less distinct median 
line, this is most strongly marked costally and where it strikes the veins. Between these two are three more or less indistinct lines. 
The outer line is heavily shaded with brown exteriorly, and rounded inwardly between the inner margin and median vein, and out- 
wardly between the latter and costa. Exterior to the outer line is a series of irregular scalloped lines more or less distinct. A discal mark 
which extends across the termination of the cell in a straight, intensely black line which forms a right angle where it strikes the discoidal 
vein at vein 4, thence it extends inwardly along the discoidal vein to .about halfway between veinsS and 2, forming a perfect black L. A 
row of geminate marginal dots. Secondaries grayish white. Two faint submarginal lines. A slight gray marginal shading. A very 
small straight black discal mark. All fringes white with gray at termination of veins. Under surface grayish white with the more 
prominent markings faintly reproduced. Discal marks designated by small black lines. 

Expands If inches. Type, one example, Seattle, Wash. 

This is the largest species I know of and can be easily known by the conspicuous black L-shaped discal 
mark of primaries. 



11 

Philerenie Optiiuata n. sp. 

(^ body reddish brown. Primaries divided into four distinct bands, a small gray basal one crossed by a blackish line and edged 
exteriorly by another. This is succeeded by a broad, not very dark reddish or copper brown space devoid of marks except some fuscous 
spots at costa. This is followed by a broad gray median space widest at costa and bent inwardly, forming an angle between veins 6 and 
7. The edges of this space are slightly scalloped and defined by a dark line, there is also an intermediate line and accompanying shades. 
Within this space between vein 6 and the costa is a somewhat quadrate pale brown patch. The space beyond the outer line is the same 
copper brown as the subbasal area, with a few fuscous spots on costa and a broken white submarginal line edged with fuscous. A small 
discalspot, a black marginal line. Fringes fuscous. Secondaries copper brown, inner half tinged with gray, a faint fuscous line crosses 
the wing in the middle and another with indications of a third are interior to it. A faint discal spot. A black marginal line. Fringe 
fuscous. Under surface light reddish brown with repetitions of the principal lines of upper side on the costal half of wings. Discal 
spots black and largest on primaries. ? larger, somewhat darker colored and heavier marked. On secondaries is a submarginal 
scalloped white line and some faint fuscous lines or shades between it and the middle line. 

The types are one ? taken near Seattle, Wash., by Prof. O. B. Johnson, and one d, one ?, by Brnce, 
in Colorado. 

This species is the size of Meadii, Pack., or a little larger. 

Octayria Anticostiata n. sp. 

Colored much as in Dejensaria, Gn., to which it is nearest, but the wings, especially the secondaries, have somewhat of a slight 
pinkish tinge, the primaries are not as acute. The inner line is evenly rounded outwardly, the distance from the base being the same 
on costal and inner margins. The outer line is angled and produced in a large tooth at vein 4. The median space is rather evenly 
brown, darker only at the inner and outer edges. A brown spot on the costa beyond the outer line. An indistinct white scalloped 
submarginal line shaded on both sides with gray. A pale apical spot. A discal point. A black dotted marginal line. Fringe gray. 
Secondaries crossed in the middle by a faint angulate line, interior to which (he wing is slightly darker. Marginal line and fringe as on 
primaries. Under surface pinkish ash. At costa of primaries a few dark spots. The outer line designated obscurely. Secondaries, 
a discal point and faint median line, between which and the exterior margin are faint traces of several more lines. 

Expands 1 inch. Types, two (?c? taken on Anticosti Island by Wm. Conper, in 1872. 

Ilydrioniena BanaTalirata n. sp. 

Body ashen white, patagia? brownish. Wings white with a very slight tendency towards ashen. Primaries, basal space white 
with a small brown mark at costa. Subbasal area light brown edged inwardly and outwardly with a brown line, which bends inwardly 
somewhat from the median vein at the costa, this space is white. Within this area are two irregular dark lines, forming as it were 
confluent circles. The middle area is white and immaculate and is edged exteriorly by a brown line slightly bowed inwardly from inner 
margin to vein 5, where it forms an angle and extends thence inwardly to the costa. This line is joined outwardly by a "light brown 
shade which extends from inner margin to opposite the discoidal cell, where at its termination are two dark spots. Intermediate between 
this shade and the exterior margin is a not very sharply defined brown line which extends to the apex. On this line below the apex 
are two dark spots. On the costa between the outer line and apex are two quadrate patches formed of the white ground of the wing. 
A row of small marginal spots. Fringe white. Secondaries with a very obscure submarginal shade. 

Expands 1 inch. The type, one 9 I received from Stretch some eighteen years since, who took it in 
California, probably somewhere in the regions adjacent to San Francisco. 

Hydrioinena Elisata n. sp. 

Very pale ashen. Primaries, a median band somewhat irregular on its inner edge and with three large curves outwardly on its 
exterior edge; this band is darker than the basal or outer areas, and contains two small black geminate discal dots. Outwardly from the 
median space and parallel to it is a faint line, beyond this is a white subterminal line running parallel to the exterior margin and 
shaded on both sides with faint ashen. Faint marginal dots. Fringe ashen white. Secondaries with slightly grayish shading 
marginally. Faint marginal line. Fringe ashen white. Under side destitute of all markings. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one ^ taken near New Berne, N. Carolina. 

This insect comes somewhat near to Neomexicana, but resembles the European Ortholilha Bipunctaria, 
Schiff., far more closely than any N. American species. 



Enpitlieoia Golgolala n. sp. 

Wings shaped as in Subapicata. Ash gray. Primaries, subbasal line only visible on the veins, where it is shown in prolonged 
dashes. An outer line starts on the inner margin near to the subbasal line and extends obliquely and straight to vein 3, at and above 
which it is produced in two teeth, beyond which again it is nearly straight to the costa, interior to this outer line oj^yie median space 
the veins are dark. Exteriorly the outer line is accompanied by a fine while line. A white, regularly and deeply scaHKd submarginal 
line runs parallel to the exterior margin and is shaded with gray on both sides. A dark marginal line. Fringe gray. ^Secondaries, two 
faint mesial lines most noticeable at the inner margin, where they nearly join. A grayish marginal band widest at ape^^nd enclosing a 
marginal row of obscure white spots. A marginal line. Under surface with brownish gray submarginal shades oi^Rlperiors, widest 
near apex. Dull discal spots on all wings. 

Expands IJ inches. Type, one ? from Nevada. This is the largest species and is easy to be known 
from all others. 

Eiipitliecia Liaisata n. sp. 

Very pale brownish ochre. Primaries, an outer and inner line formed by the pale ground, the veins interior and exterior to 
them being more or less marked with black. A black discal spot. A row of irregular-sized black submarginal spots. An intervenular 
black marginal line. Secondaries crossed by five lines broken by the veins and more strongly defined on inner half of wing. A discal 
dot. A marginal line. All fringes white. 

Expands | inch. Type, one example from California, Hy. Edwards. 
Reading, Pa., U.S.A., June 30, 1899. 




1 



LEPIDOPTERA, 



RHOPALOCERES AND HETEROCERES, 



INDIGENOUS AND EXOTIC. 



SUPPLEMENT No. 3. 



BY 



HERMAN STRECKER. 



READING, PA., U.S.A., 1900. 



Printed for The Author. 



PREFACE. 

It is always a wholesome thing to know where types of sj^ecies are to be found, and in 
this belief I have given herein a list with necessary remarks of all those in my own collection, 
numbering in all 425 species and varieties in 683 examples. These embrace nearly all of 
Reakirt's types and, many of those of Behr and Morrison, some of Hy. Edwards, W. H. 
Edwards, Grote, Lintner, Hewitson, Walker, Westwood, and others, as well as, with two excep- 
tions, all described by myself. 

Incidentally I may be allowed to state that this collection of Lepidoptera, containing many 
thousands of examples illustrating the various genera of native and foreign butterflies and 
moths, was commenced by myself over fifty years since ; and during the half century following, 
neither time, labour, nor expense have been spared to bring it to its present status. In my 
earlier collecting days there were but few collections in this country, and the opportunities of 
acquiring material from our Western regions were about insurmountable, and the same could 
be said of exotics. The earliest collections of any pretensions were those of Titian Peale and 
Rev. J. G. JMorris. Peale received some Western material from Nuttall, who collected in the 
Cascade Range, and he himself obtained exotic species at various i)laces whilst attached to 
Wilkes's South Sea Expedition in 1838-1842. His collection, which was kept in small book- 
shaped boxes, was bequeathed to the Academy of Natural Sciences, of Philadelphia, but was not 
kept intact, being distributed through the general collection. 

Rev. Morris's passed entire into my possession about forty years since. It contained, as did 
Peale's, both native and foreign species. Some of Morris' examples have not been duplicated 
to this day. Drexler and Kennicott made collections in the West and Northwest. Of Drex- 
ler's collection I also became the owner, as well as of that of J. P. Wild, a most assiduous 
collector in Baltimore. His collection contained probably the first female Argynnis Diana 
known, which he captured in copuli with the male in Missouri about 1853, which examples I 
still have. Reakirt's was the first general collection in this country that attained any propor- 
tions. All of his types that it contained are now in my collection. 

All species in my collection are indicated by labels, with name, author, locality, etc. In 
the case of types these labels have red borders ; in all others, black. Each individual example 
has its separate label. Besides the types here mentioned there are vast numbers of co-types, as 
in the case of the large and almost complete collection of Chili Lepidoptera, formed by Mr. 
Edmonds during a number of years' sojourn in that country, and which were worked over by 
Butler, of the British Museum, who described the large amount of new material contained 
therein. Of these I received from Mr. Edmonds of almost every species, inclusive of the 
Noctuidce and Phakenida', as well as of the Diurnals and Bombycidm. Of the numberless 
things Pakearctic and exotic described by Dr. Staudinger, I have received from him most 
liberally during the last tliiity or more years. With this and ten years' correspondence with 
the Grand Duke Nicolas, I have been enabled to have the Palaearctic fauna rejjresented with 
extraordinary richness, scarcely any of the Parnassius, Colias, or Argynnis being wanting. In 
the obtaining of exotics, nothing has been spared ; of the splendid Ornithoptera, all known 
species are represented. This collection is also exceedingly rich in aberrations, albinos, melanos, 
suffused forms, hybrids, hermaphrodites, and other monstrosities, both native and foreign. In 
the North American Heterocera are to be found the greatest rarities, numbers being uniques 
or types collected by Drexler, Ridings, Stretch, Boll, Heiligbrodt, Doll, Morrison, Kcebele, 
Bruce, and a host of others less known. 

Later, the acquiring of Western and exotic material became, through commerce and travel, 
a comparatively easy task. Doll, Bruce, and others collected extensively and intelligently in 
our own territories. Dr. Staudinger has made the Palsearctic and exotic species as familiar as 
our own, whilst to the Grand Duke Nicolas we are indebted for an extended knowledge of the 
species of Siberia and Central Asia, hundreds of which are figured in the superb " Memoires" 
edited by himself. 

HERMAN STRECKER. 

Eeadino, Pa., U.S.A., March 9, 1900. 



15 



List of Types in the Collection of Lepiboptera 

OF 

Dr. HERMAN STRECKER. 



RHOPALOCERA. 



Pa|>ilioiii(l»'. 



Papilio Xear,aliiialoo.yotl Streok. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pliila. p. 174, 1885. One d, New Mexico. v ''P 

Pap. Acauda Oherth. Etud. d'Eiit. 4, 98, 1880. 

Pap. Corbis et Orsua. God.-Sal. Biol. Cent. Am. II. 205, t. 66, f. 7, 8, 9, 10, 1890. 

Papilio C'looiiibrotiis Streok. Proc. Acad. Nat. 8c. Pliila. p. 175, 1885. One example, Pebas, Peru. 

Papilio C'opaiise Koak. Pi'oc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 141, 1863. One 9, Copan, Guatemala, coll. Reakirt. 

Papilio C'aleli Kcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 1.38, 1863. One d, Copdn, Guatemala, coll. Reak. 
Pap. Alcamedes Feld. Reise Nov. Lep. I. p. 36, t. 7, c. 1865. 

Papilio Toiiila Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 140, 1863. One ?, Guatemala, coll. Reakirt. 
This is the female to tlie preceding P. Caleli, but is not tlie same as Pup. Ariniomenes Feld. as is given in Kirby'a Catalogue. 

Papilio Tiilaiia Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 140, 1863. One d', Chiapa.s, Max., coll. Reakirt. 
Pap. Montezuma Westio. Arc. Ent. I. t. 18, f. 3, 1842. 

Papilio Biirtoiiii Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 89, 1868. One c?, New Granada, coll. Reakirt. 
Pap. Hippodamus Feld. Yerh. Zool. Bot. Ges. XIY. p. 300, 1864. 

Papilio Moorei Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. III. p. 485, 1863. One c?, Philippines, coll. Reak. 
P. Euphrates Feld. Wien. Ent. Mon. YI. p. 283, 1862. 

Papilio Gyas var. Poms. n. var. One 9 from tlic Garo Hills, Assam. 

A dimorphic 9 of Gyas differing from the normal form in having the central band of wings of the same ochre yellow as the 
submarginal spots, etc., and in the band being only one-third the width of the broad white band of the ordinary $ ; on the whole resem- 
bling the (^ much more than the normal 9 . 

Papilio Kriliioiiiiii!! var. b Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Pliila. III. p. 474, 1864. One 9, Philippines, coll. 
Reakirt. 

Papilio Iiidra Reak. 9 Streek. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 150, 1876. One 9 received from Mr. 
Duncan Putman, who took it at Clear Creek Canon, Colorado. This is also the original of f. 5, t. 35, 
Proc. Davenport Acad. Sc. I. 1876, which was the first illustration of this sex published. 

Papilio Aiitieostiensis Streok. Lep. Rhop. Het., p. 10, f 2, 2, 1873. Two c^c?, two 9 9, Fox Bay 
and Ellis Bay, Aiiticosti Isld., from Wm. Couper. This differs from Brevicauda in all the bands being 
lemon yellow instead of rich orange as in the latter. 

Papilio Utalieiisis Slreek. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. N. Am. p. 72, 1878. Two c?c?, one 9, Utah. This is 
only a variety of P. Bairdii, W. H. Edwds. One of these c? types has lateral spots on abdomen till 
towards anal segment where it is yellow on the sides, the other has the sides of the abdomen yellow as 
in Muchaon. 

Pap. Hollandii W. H. Edwds. Can. Ent. XXI Y. p. 50, 1892. 

/ Papilio Troilus var.V Radiatiis. jm-vtw. 

Pap. Troilus ab. a. Strecl:. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. N. Am. p. 72, 1878. Two cfcf, Washington, D. C, Titian 

R. Peale, Allegheny Co., Pa., Geo. Ehrman. One 9, Frank M. Jones, Wilmington, Del. \ y 

In this aberrant the submarginal lunules of secondaries are enormously elongated inwardly. The submarginal spots of primaries x/ 7^ 

also much larger than normally. Underneath the orange submarginal lunules of secondaries are also enormously prolonged into rays. 
This bears the same relation to the normal Troihis as does the ab. Caleerleiji to As(e.rim. 



--iV 



18 

Papilio lloi-Kiu'ldii Kesik. I'loc. Kiit. Sue. Phila. III. p. 47(), 1864. Two c?d", Philippines, coll. 

Kcakirt. One of tlioe males was erroncoiislv deseribed as a female by Reakirt. 
Pap. Ledebouria Kich. Kotzeb. Reise III. p. 200, t. 3, f. 7, 1821. 

Papilio Varsisi I8«'aU. Proc. Ent. Soe. Phila. III. p. 4t}0, 1863. One d, Philippines, coll. Reakirt. 
J'ajj. lL/stai<jM.s Fdd. Www. Ent. Mon. VI. p. 2S:5, 1862. 

Papilio I.orfiiiiiii Itcak. Proc. Ent. 8oc. Phila. III. p. 462, 1864. One ?, Philippines, coll. Reakirt. 

Papilio l>aliiinriiN Itoak. Proc. Ent. .Soc. Phila. III. p. 463, 1864. One c?, Philippines, coll. Reakirt. 
Pap. Thnhihi.t /'(>/</. Willi. Ent. Mon. V. p. 2!l8, M^iW. 

.itropliaiH'iira Kr.vtliroMonia Itcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 111. p. 447, 1864. One cf, Philippines, 

coll. Reakirt. 
Pap. Scmperi FeM. W'uu. Ent. Mon. V. p. 296, 1861. 

L.«>'Pto<'irou»4 Wilsoiiii Kcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. III. p. 49."), 1864. Two cfcf (Reakirt described 

them as c?9), Philippines, coll. Reakirt. 

I do not believe this is other than L. Mcc/cs Zi»k, which name oug^ht to cover all the so-called Leptocircus 
species except L. Ciiriu.^ Fabr., which can be distinguished by the cross bands being white instead of 
green as in all the others, and of which the others are doubtless weak local varieties. 

Soriciiiiis C'rosMtiiii Koak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. p. 499, 1864. One ?, China, coll. Reakirt. 
^<ricinu.s Montckt (t'rai/. Proc. Ent. Soc. Lond. p. 71, 1852. 
Sericiiiiis Fortnnci (irai/. 1. c. p. 72, 18.")2. 

PariiaNMiiiM SiiiiiitlioiiM Ubldy. Itcak. var. a. c?. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. p. 128, 1866. 
Yar. a. ? 1. c. p. 130, 1866. 
Yar. b. d 1. c. p. 128, 1866. 
Yar./. ? 1. c. p. 128, 1866. 
All taken by Ridings in Colorado and from coll. Reakirt. 

Ficriilae. 

Sljx Iiircriiaiis SlaiKlV- ^'cl•ll. /- B. Wicii XXV. p. 93, 1876. One c?', Chanchamayo, Peru. Dr. 

Staudingcr described this curious insect from two :Su, one 9, taken by his collector Tliamni. One c? and 
the ? are in his own coll., and the other d I accjuired. These three types are, I believe, the only examples 
yet known. 

Eiili-i-p«- ArtM-liiza Krak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 244, 186(). One d, Mexico, coll. Reakirt. 

F.iilcrpt' Irclioiiias) Xoqiie ^loiigol. Ent. News. X. p. ]()(!, 1899. Two cTJ*, Colombia. 

£iiU>rp«' KiHloii-a K«'ak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 345, 1863. One *," Honduras," coll. Reakirt. 
I doubt if Reakirt's locality, "Honduras," be correct. All my other examples came from Jalapa, Mex. 
Enterpe Si'biiintca Luc. Rev. Zool. p. 294, 1852. 

PieriN liioalia IJoak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 34i», 1863. One 9, Honduras, coll. Reakirt. Conies 
in with the grouj) of I'lsonig, Marnna, and XotistrUja , all of which I believe to be but varieties of 
one thing. 

Pieris Yreka ISoak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Soc. Phila. \^. 238, 1866. Two c?c? (Reakirt described one of 
these as a 9), California, coll. Reakirt. The originals of f. 6, 7, t. VIII. Lep Rhop. Het. 

Pkrix Maiyinalig ,Scud. Proc. Bost. Xat. Hist. Soc. VIII. p. 183, 1S61. 
Both the above are synonyms of Pap. Rapw L., not even varieties. 

Pioris (iiNloria Kcak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 238, 186(). One d, California, coll. Reakirt, the 

original off. 4, t. S, Lep. Rhop. Het. 
Pierh Pallida Scud. Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. VIII. p. 183, 1861. 

Pieris 0<-«-i«i4'iilalis ICt'ak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. \'I. p. 133, 1866. One cf, one 9, Colorado. One d, 
three 9 9, California, coll. Reakirt. 



19 

IVatlialiiii lole Bdl. ? Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 134, 18G(J. Que ?, Colorado, coll. Keakirt. 

IVathali»« I.iitooIii8 Roak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 350, 1863. One ?, Honduras, coll. Reakirt. 
Nothing but a darker lalr. I have other 9 ? from Texas still darker. 

Callidryaiii TliauriiiMa Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 238, 1866. One d, one ?, Madagasscar, 

coll. Reakirt. 
Callidryas Fladuna Hew. Exot. Butt. IX. Call. t. I. f. 1-4, 1867. 

Meganostonia Helena Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 3-58, 1863. One ? (described as a c? by 

Reakirt), "Chiapas," coll. Reakirt. 
Rhodocera Lorquini Bdl. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. .5 '2, 185-5. 

Both the above are syuoiivms of Meg. Eiirydlce 9. 

Colias Diiiiera ab. Semperi Streek. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 28, f. 4, t. lY., 1873. One 9 (the original of 
the figure cited), Insagasuga, Colombia, coll. Reakirt. Is the 9 Albina form of C. Dimera. 

Colia.s Eiirytlieiiie ab. Fiiiiiosa, n. var. 9 like the normal form, but ground color above dark smoky Y^ 
green, beneath paler green. One 9, Colorado, Bruce. 

Collar Philodiee ab. IVigriiia Streek. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. N. Am. p. 82, No. 58, ab. b, 1878. Three "r 
dd, Bethlehem, Pa., A. Conradi, Montreal Can., C. W. Pearson, Orillia, Can., C. E. Grant. 

C'olia»« Philodiee ab. Virida Sireok. 1. c. No. 58, ab. c, 1878. One d, Montreal, Can., C. W. Pearson. Y- ^ 

€oIias Philodiee ab. /, Reakirt. Proc. Ent, Soc. Phila. lY. p. 218, 1865. One 9, Harrisburg,- Pa., 
coll. Reakirt. 

C'oliaix C'lirysomelas Hy. Edw. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc. 1877. One cT, Napa Co., Cal., Hy. Edwards. 

Tiiis example Mr. Edwards sent me at the time he described it, saying it was one of the types and that 
he had not yet seen the female. It is his No. 4693, and is absolutely nothing but the following, differing 
from it in no respect whatever. 
Colim Occidentalis Scvd. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. IX. p. 109, 1862. 

C'olias Pelidiie var. Ciiigaiitea Streek. Differs from the Labrador Pelidne in the groat size, being from 2 
to 2J inches in expanse, in having very little of the black sprinkling at base of wings, in being in the 
males of a livelier, warmer yellow. There were two yellow females, tiie others were white with mostly not 
much indication of the dark borders. Five (d^, 7 9 9, west coast Hudson Bay, above Fort York, 
Archdeacon Kirtby. 

C'olias Elis Streek. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 24, 1885. One 9, Kicking Horse Pass, Brit. Col., 
10,000 feet, Capt. Gamble (Jeddes. 

C'olias Hela Streek. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. III. j). 33, 1880. One cf, two 9 9, above Fort Churchill, 
west coast Hudson Bay, ^\.rciideacon Kirtby. 

Colias 9Ioiiia Streek. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. III. p. 34, 1880. Four i'J, two 9 9, above Fort Churchill, 
west coast Hudson Bay, Archdeacon Kirtby. 

C'olias Streekeri Cir.-CJr. Horse Soc. Ent. Ross. XXIX. p. 290, 1895. Three c^d", three 9 9, Laggan, 
Alberta, Canada, Tiios. E. Bean. 

C'olia,s Heeate Streek. Proc. N. Eng. Zool. Club, 1900. Two c?c?, one 9, Ovim Bunda, Congo, W. 
Afr., A. G. Weeks, Jr. 

Terias Xieippe ab. Flava Streek. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. N. Am. No. 68 ab. a. p. 84, 1878. One c?, >^ 
one 9, Berks County, Pa. ' 

Terias Ciratiosa Reak. Proc. Ent, Soc. Phila. II. p. 359, 1863. One cf, Honduras, coll. Reakirt, 
Terius Ingrata Feld. Yerh. Zool, Bot. Ges. p. 465, 1869. 

Terias Solatia Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Soc. Phila. p. 240, 1866. One 9, described by Reakirt as the 
c?, Ycra Cruz, Mex., coll. Reakirt, 



20 

l<yca'ui<l:r. 

Tliooroina Titaiiisi Slreok. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 17G, 1885. One ?, Costa Rica, Prof. Gabb. 

Thcorema Euiunnia Jlctr. ■» , 111. Diiir. Lop. p. 08, t. 27, f. 1, 2, 1865. 

Tlioola Kali Slreok. Lcp. Rhop. Het. p. 129, 1877. One cf, Arizona. 
Thecla Behrii. W. H. Edird. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. III. p. 18, 1870. 

Tlioola FotiN Str«'«'k. Lcp. Rhop. Het. p. 129, 1877. One c?, one 9, Arizona. 

LjOHMia Tojiia Kcak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 24.'), 186(5. One d', " California," coll. Reakirt. 

Hcspcria Stmbo Fabr. Ent. Syst. III. 1, p. 287, 17!i:5. 

Reakirt received at various times considerable material from Lorqnin, Jr., a dealer in San Francisco, who sent him indiscrimin- 
ately exaoiples from the Philippines, California, and Europe not accurately ticketed as to locality, hence such mistakes as the above, 
as the real home of 'I'rjiin, which is only a synonym of Strabo, was somewhere in the Philippines or the Dutch East Indies. 

L..yoH'iia Monica It«'ak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 244, 1866. Two dd", one Reakirt described as 

the 9, "California," coll. Reakirt. 
Hesperia Cnejiis Fabr. Ent. Syst. Siippl. p. 43(1, 1798. The remarks on the preceding apply equally to this. 

- Lycspiia Isola Keak, Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. ;J32, 1866. One £, Vera Cruz, Mex., coll. Reakirt. 

Ljcsi'iia Marina Itcak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 87, 1868. One d", one 9, Orizaba, Mex., coll. 
Reakirt. 

L.yciieiia t'ajoiia ICoak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 147, 1866. One d, one 9, California, coll. Reakirt. 
lyyewna Anna II'. JI. Edwd. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 16.3, 1861. 

tyc-a-iia Toliaiiia Uoak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 24(), ] 866. Three cfc?, California, coll. Reakirt. 
Lycwna Eiistim 11'. J I. Edw. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. IV. p. 203, 186-"). 
Lycwna Podaree Feld. Reise Nov. Lep. II. t. 35, 1865. 

These names all ajiply to one sj)ccies, which is the American fnrni of L. OrhUulus DePntn. - 

Liycivita Mola n. sp. 

\Vings narrow and much elongated, pale violaceous blue. On primaries a broad brown marginal band covers the exterior third 
of the wing, starting a little beyond the middle of the costa where it is widest, and ending on inner margin within the inner angle. On 
secondaries a narrower brown border en costal and exterior margins, tnder surface pide grayish. All wings with a brown marginal 
/ line succeeded inwardly by a row of triangular spots surmounted by a connected row of lunular or sagittate marks, interior to which is a 

\_/ mesial row of spots, seven on primaries and six on secondaries. Brown discal mark on primaries, a round spot interior to this and 

another at the costa. On secondaries a spot between the discal mark and costa and a row of three others between it and the base. $ 
brownish with dull blue on basal third of wings. 

f? expands g inch, * f inch. Two dd, one Colorado,- ( )slar, one Bastrop, Tex., Heiligbrodt, two 9?, 

one Chiliiiahna, A. Ellsworth, one Muso, Colombia, S. America, Rarossa. 

I.ycsnia C'alaiiiia Itoak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 244, 'iAtyli. One d^, one 9, California, coll. 

Pveakirt. 
Lj/i-aita S(((/itt!c/era Feld. Reise Xov. I^cp. II. t. .35, 18(55. 

liyca'iia liapalioo Kcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. [). 146, 1S6(). One d', one 9, Rocky Mts., Colorado, 

coll. Reakirt. 
Lyccvna IcarioideN JklL Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. 2me Ser. X. p. 297, 1852. 

I^yosma Maricopa ICeak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 245, 1866. 9, which was described as the d*, 
California, coll. Reakirt. 

liycH'iia I'lilscas al>. I'asciata SJrcck. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. X. Am. p. 101, 1878. One 9, Florida, 

Chas. Dnry. 

PolyoiiiiiialiiN C'asiro Kcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. \l. p. 148, 1866. Three Jd", two 9 9 Rocky Mts., 

Colorado, coll. Reakirt. 
Poly. Hdloides Bdl. Ann. Soc. i:nt. Fr. 2me Ser. X. p. 292, 1862. 

Polyoiiiiiiatiis IIclloiilOM I«cak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 148, 1866. Four d'd', Rky. Mts., Col- 
orado, coll. Reakirt. 
Poly. Zeroe Bdl. Lep. Cal., p. 45, 1869. 



21 

Polyoiiiiiiafus :vi:iriiM>sa Iteak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. YI. p. 149, 1866. Three d'd', one ?, California, 

coll. Keakirt. 

C'liryt^opliaiiiis £ditlia l^Ieacl. Can. Ent. X. p. 198, 1878. One d, one ?, Lake Tahoe, California, 
^ Th. L. Mead. 

Erycinida?. 

/ I.il>.yt]ioa I^arvata Stroek. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 130, Sept., 1877. Two c^c?, San Antonia, Tex., J. Boll. 

C'liari>!; (•riia<loloui>o Sireok, Lep. Rhop. Het. p. l.'Jl, Sept., 1877. Two cTc?, one ?, San Antonio, Tex. 
^ J. Boll. 

Charis Audmll.^ W. H. Edwd. Field and Forest III. p. 87, Nov., 1877. 

Daiiaidic. 
Eiiplcra Papiiana Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 240, 1806. One (J', New Guinea, coll. Reakirt. 
( ]>aiiais Plexippiis ab.lPiiIclira Streek. n. var. 

The basal third of all wings same reddish color as in normal form, the rest yellowish white. Under side primaries as above, v/^ 

secondaries entirely yellowish white. All black markings of both surfaces as usual. 

One c?, Colorado, received from Dr. Skinner. This reminds one of the remarkable African species 

I). Formosa. 

Mcchaiiitis I'teiiiaia Roak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 241, 1866. One ?, Honduras, coll. Reakirt. 

Mcoliaiiitis Fraiiis Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 90, 1868. Two c?c?, Insagasuga, New 
Granada, coll. Reakirt. 

necliaiiitis C'alifornica Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. p. 223, 1865. Two c?c?, "Los Angeles, Califa.," 
coll. Reakirt. 

Diroeniia Rairdii Roak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 89, 1868. Twod^c?, Insagasuga, New Granada, 
coll. Reakirt. 

Ceratiiiia I.yoasle " Fabr. sp. Type" Roak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. Y. p. 219, 1865. One d', "Los 
Angeles, Cala.," John C. Love, coll. Reakirt. 



C'eratinia Lijcastp var. Xegreta Reak. 1. c. p. 220, 1865. One rj*, "Los Angelas, Cal.," John C. Love, 
coll. Reakirt. The fig. 3, t. VIII., Holland's Buttei-fly Book, purporting to represent this insect, is 
entirely different in every respect and was taken from the common Columbian form. 

C'eratiiiia L.yoaste var. Pmiioiisis Reak. J. c. One c?, Caracas, coll. Reakirt. 

Ceratinia Liycaste var. Ciiiiiiborazaiia Reak. 1. c. p. 221. One ?, "valley west side of Chimborazo," 
H. W. Bates, coll. Reakirt. 

Itlioiiiia Sosuiijsa Reak. Proc. Ent, Soc. Phila. Y. p. 217, 1865. One c?, Honduras, coll. Reakirt. 

itleliua^a Paraija. Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 242, 1866. Two c?c?, Rio Janeiro and Sta. 
Catharina, Brazil, coll. Reakirt. 

]tleliiia!a Dora Streek. Lep. Rhop. Hot. p. 120, 187(i. One c?, Esmeraldus, coll. Reakirt. 

Kymphalidie. 

Helieoiiiiis H'allaeei Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 242, 1866. Two cJ'd', "Amazons," coll. 

Reakirt. 
Hel. Cbjtia Bates. Trans. Linn. Soc. p. 566, 1862. 

Ilelieoniiis Giiariea Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 91, 1868. Two -.ftf, N. Granada, coll. 
Reakirt. 

Eiieides Zoreaoii Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 243, 1866. Three ?9,two Guatemala, one 
Orizaba, coll. Reakirt. Reakirt's description states " male," but all his types are females ; there was not a 
single male in his collection. 



1/ 



22 

A<T8«'si <»riz:Mii U«>sik. Proc. Acad. Xat. 8c. Phila. p. 243, 18(5<>. One ?, Mexico, coll. Kcakirt. Differs 

in iiotliiiig wliatc'Ver from TjencomelaK, which is the » of Nn.r. 
Acrcea Nor. Bates d". Ent. ^Mo. Mag. I. p. 59, 18iit. 
Aercea Leitcomelas Bates ?. 1. c. 18(54. 

.iKi-iiiiliK IlnaM-iiiiia Kcak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 24-3, ISfifi. One f, Mexico, coll. Kcakirt. 

1':ii|»loicla <'oloinl»ia S(ro<-k. Siippl. 2, p. :), ISilil. One d", one 9, Bogota, Colombia, bought along 
with other Colombian material from a dealer. 

Argjiiiiis <'.vIm'I«' al). Itaal. Strook. Syn. Cat. Macrolep., X. .\m., p. Ill, 1S78. Two d'd^, one from 
Toledo, the (ithcr fniin some other localitv in (^hio. 

ArK.V■••l■^« Kdwardsii Koak. Proc. I']nt. Soc. Piiila. VI. p. lo7, 1S()G. One f, two 5 2, Empire City, 
Colorado, Jas. Ridings, coll. Reakirt. 

Ar^fyiiiiiN CoroiiiM. Itclir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. II. p. 17:5, 1862. One J', one ?, California, Dr. Behr. 

Argyiiiiis MonlifaK'o Belli'. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. II. p. 174, 18(32. Five cT J, one ?, California, 
Dr. Behr. 

ArK.viniis Rii|M>s(riM Kelir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. II. p. 17'), 1S()2. Four d'd', two 9?, California, 
Dr. Belir. 

Arj^yiiiiis Hoiitioola Itolir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. II. p. 17-"), 1802. One d, California, Dr. Behr. 

ArgyiiniK Ai-gc Sli-4M-k. Svn. Cat. Macrolep. X. Am. p. 114, 1878. Three -?-''", three 9 9, California, 

Dr. Behr. 

Argynnls- Asfartc W. If. Edwds {not Dhkhi). Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. III. p. 4;',.j, 1S(;4. 

Regarding these Ari/t/nnis types, Dr. Belir sent them to me with other typical e.xamples June 27, ISTIi, writing at the time, "I 
send you all my .-Vrgynnides in their doubtful state, and with your lietter collections and literature you can do far more than 1 with my 
limited opportunities. Many are bad specimens, but I thought sulliciency of material was more necessary than faultless specimens. 
There is no doubt that most of our species of the AijUiin type are artificial, but it is better to distinguish too much than to neglect ; the 
superscription of your letter, 'Time at last sets all things even,' refers as well to science as to indivirlual aflairs. If you look at the 
.■^rgynnides of ancient European authors with their A. Eurt/bid, Prlopea, Si/rinx, etc., you will see we are only in the beginning of the 
process through which they have gone. We are collecting the material and those after ns will sift our harvest." 

ArgyiiiiiM lirioiiiliild Slreck. Ruffnor Rept. Dcpt. Missouri app. SS. p. 18.j4, t. 1, f o, 6, 1878. Two 

dd, one Kio, Mdrida, Col. McCaiilev, one Utah ; one ?, Arizona. 

Ic 
BroiifliiM .tlorriMii ISeak. Proc. .Vcad. Xat. .Sc. Phila.'p. 24^, 18(i(i. One :?," California," coll. Reakirt. 
An/y)uii.-< /■jijiIinMi/iic L. Faun. Suec. 17()1. My remarks under Lt/cirna Tejuu apply e(jually to this and 

the following. 

Iti-oiitliis Xviioqiiis K«-ak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 247, 18(3(j. One cf, "California," coll. Reakirt. 
AnjtiniUH Dill L. Syst. Xat. 1767. 

Mtolitwa Pliacloii ah. Siiperba sn-«><-k. Svn. Cat. Macrolep. X. Am. p. 12"), 1878. Two ■S'S', Long 
Island, Xew York, Rev. C. D. Ilulst. 

.Moliiii-a 4tiiiiio lt«>hi-. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. III. p. 90, 1863. One d*, one 9, California, Dr. Behr. 

9It'lil:i>a ('o»|>«-i-i Kolir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. III. p. 90, 1863. One 9, California, Dr. Behr. 
Mel. Perdkea.^ II'. //. Edird. Papilio, I. j). 44, 1.S81. 

Melila'a (;al>l»ii IJelir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. III. p. 89, 1863. Two c?c?, Santa Barbara, California, 

Dr. Behr. -^' 

9l4'liltpa llofriiiaiiiii Belir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. III. j). S9, 1863. Two c^d", one ?, California, 
Dr. J'.ehr. 

.M<'lilH>a Mliiliie.vi Belir. Proc. Caiifa. Acad. Sc. III. p. 88, 1863. One c^, two 9 9, California, 
Dr. Behr. 



23 

Melitsea Araeliiio W. 11. Kdmls. Trans. Am. Eiit. Soe. II. p. .372, 1S()9. One ?, Ci.lora.lo, coll. 

Keakirt. 
Mel. Mhmta W. H. Edwds. :Mead, Report Wheeler's Explor. & Surveys V. t. .'5(3, f. 1, 2, IS?."). Tlie type 

of Arachnc agrees exactly with the fine figures of Mliiidn in Wheeler's Report, save tiiat tlie latter is -f 

and the former ?. . Hence if these figures in Wheeler's Re]iort represent the insect described by Edwds. 

as Minida in the Proc. Acad. Nat. Se. Phila. p. Kil, isijl, tlie svnonvmv would be 
Melibm Minuta W. 11. Edwdx. Proc. Phila. Acad. 1S(31. 
3Mitcm Arachne W. H. Edwds. Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. 1869. 
Melitwa Nympha W. H. Edirds. Papilio IV. p. 53, 18X4. 

lfIelitH>a Approxiiiiata n. sp. 

Is closely allied to tlie above M. Arachne (Minuta), but differs from it in the more elongated primaries, in the deeper and uniform 
fulvous color of upper surface. The fulvous of under surface is also darker and prevails more; the yellowish white mesial band of 
secondaries is more regular; the black markings of under side of primaries fewer and not as distinct. 

Types one c?, one 9, Texas, J. Boll. In .some collections this insect is erroneously designated as Arachne, 
but as this name is a .synonym of Minuta, I have de.scribed it as above ; it bears about the same re- 
lation to Minuta as does Tiivia to Dkhjiiia. 

Melilsva Iiiiitala Slre<-k. Lep. Rhop. Het. \). 130, Sept., 1877. Two cf^, two 9 9, San Antonio, v/ 

Texas, J. Boll. 

Mel. Ulrica W. H. EdimU. Can. Ent. IX. p. 189, Oct., 1877. 

The above names have been cited lately as synonyms of Eresia Elmla Hew. (Exot. Butterflies IV. Eresia t. 7, f. 54, 55. 1867-1871). 
My examples of Imitata do not agree with the figures of Hewitson at all, whether Edwards' Ulrica (which is said to be identical with 
Imituta) dots, I do not know. 

Melitfea I^ariiiida Strcck. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 130, Sept., 1877. One i", three 9 9, San Antonio, i/^ 

Texas, J. Boll. 
Mel. Di/mas II'. H. Edmh. Can. Ent. IX. p. 190, Oct., 1877. 



9IelitH>a I>t>fiiiita Aaron. Papilio lY. p. 17(i, 1884. One f, S. W. Texas, S. F. Aaron. 

Molilsiea Aliita Streok. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 135, 1877. One :?, Arizona. - — 

Eris^ia Yorita Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. Y. p. 224, 1865. One 6", Honduras, coll. Reakirt. 
Eresia Ezra Hew. Ex. Butt. III. Eresia t. 4, f. 29, 1864. 

Eresia C'arlota ISeak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. \'I. p. 141, 1866. One c?, one 9, Colorado, coll. Reakirt. 
Melitwa Ismeria Bdl.-Lce. Lep. Am., Sept., p. 168, t. 46, 18.")3. 

Erosia Mata ISoak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. YL p. 142, 1866. One 9, Rocky Mts., Colorado, coll. 
Reakirt. TJiis is an albino of Pallida, W. H. Edwds. 

Eresia Batesii Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. Y. p. 226, 1865. One cf, Ct)lorado, one V, ^^'inchester, 
Ya., coll. Reakirt. 

Eresia Coiiiaela Reak. Proc. Ent, Soc. Pliila. V. p. 224, 1865. One c?, Brazil, coll. Reakirt. 

Eresia Sydra Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 335, 1866. One <?, Mexico, coll. Reakirt. 
Eresia ^ce.sm- Heu: Exot. Butt. III. t. 6, f. 48, 49, 1864. 

Eresia Genigiieli Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. Y. p. 225, 18()5. Two c?^, "IjOS Angeles, Cal'a," 

coll. Reakirt. 
Eresia Hennas Hew. Exot. Butt. III. Eresia t. 5, f 32, 1864. 

Grapta Satyrus M". If . Edwds. Trans. Am. Eut. Soc. II. p. 374, 1869. One :^, two 9 9,"Rockv 
Mts., Col," coll. Reakirt. 

Vanessa L.iiiti>erii Fiteli. 3d Rept. Trans. New York State Agr. Soc. p. 485, 1856. One d", Schoharie, 

N. Y., coll. Fitch. I obtained this by purchase through jNIr. Aaron from A. E. Foote, in whoso hands ^^ 

Fitch's collection was placed for sale. It is an aberration of Antiopa, lacking the band of blue spot.-*, and 
liaving the yellow marginal band more than double the ordinary \\-idth. 

Vanes.m Hygia'a Hdrch. Yerz. Eur. Schmett. p. 7, 1851. 



^ 



24 

J y- Pyranu-is <'ar«iiii all. AJo Slr«'<-k. Svn. Cat. Macrolep. X. Am. p. l-iT, 187S. One ?, Summit Co., 
( )liici, \\ . \'. AmlrcwH. ^V sutt'iiscd Ijlackish aberration of Cardni. 

Aiiarlia l>oiiiini<-a Kkiniicr. Trans. Am. ?]nt. Soc. XVI. p. 8(i, 1<SS<). One ■f, San Domin>ro, Dr. H. 
.Skinner. 

C'roniK lttMi;;ii«'lsi> <iiai»iiiaii. Ent. Mo. MaLT. \'III. ji. 17"), 1872. One c?, Benguela, Congo, Tlio.s. A. 
Ciiapmaii. Some time before iiis deatli, and ))revions to the disposing of hi.s collection, Mr. Chapman 
presented me witii tliis and otlier types in hi.s collection. 

C'yclograiiiiiia Torlia SIreok. Siippl. 2, p. 3, 1899. One c?, Costa Kica, Dr. Van Patten. 

]»[.vM-clia Skiiiiiori Meiigcl. Kiit. Xews V. p. 9G, 1894. One f, Bayemena, Sinoloa, Mex., L. Mengel. 

M.vs<'«'lia Slr«'<'kvri Nkiiiiier. Trans. Am. Ent. Soe. XAT. p. 87, 1889. One ■ , Lower California, near 
Cape St. Lneas, l)i-. II. Skinner. 

^lysi-Mia Il.ipatia SIrock n. sp. 

M.ile, size and much the shape of Orxix Urn but wings rot as deeply argnlated. Wings blackish brown, basal half of primaries 
dark sliining blue but not by any means as rich and intense as in Ori-is. This blue does not extend to the cista but is separated there- 
from by a margin of the black ground color, the bluish white mark on the median and the other light spots so conspicuous in Orsis are 
here entirely wanting. Secondaries with blue on inner part interior to the median vein, which color does not extend to either the inner 
or exterior margins. The large sexual black spot on costal half of wing as in Orsif. Under side much as in Orsia but not so reddish or 
quite as distinctly marked. Named after a noble Roman lady who was martyred, brutally torn to pieces by early Christians in one 
of their churches. 

One d^, upper Amazon, H. W. Smitli. 
A$i;4M-4»iiia iiioiiiala Streok. I.,ep. Khop. Het. ji. 121, 1876. One d', upper Amazon, Dr. Fariasi. 
C'.V!«tiiioiira Floriclaiia n. sp. 

'' head and body blackish above, white beneath. Wings, ujiier surface dark smoky ashen, darker at exterior margins, a marginal 
row of small gray lunules on secondaries. Under surface dull ocliraeeoihs, with a blackish line on exterior margins and white fringe. 
Primaries, two white marks in discoidal cell, one linear near the base, the other larger and triangular at the outer part. A transverse 
siibmarginal row of four white spots in the cells between veins 3 and 7. A row ol white marginal lunules, the two nearest the inner 

V angle the most distinct, the inner margin is white. Secondaries have a somewhat narrow subbasal white band edged with grayish. A 

mesial row of seven whiie spots, the innermost one small and clievn n-shaped, the next three larger and oval, the fifth largest and also 
oval, the sixth is small — all these are edged with ashen; the seventh is large oval and not edged with gray. Seven white marginal 
lunules. 

Two '":<", Everglades of Florida, L. M'. Mengel. 

C'jrostiM ArAi n. sp. 

(^ orange ochre. Primaries crossed by six bands of grayish browp, secondaries by five — all these hands are edged inwardly and 
outwardly with a darker line. On primaries the first is basal, the second is straighl, tlie third slightly lounded outwardly, the fourth 
makes a slight angle outwardly above vein 3, the fifth is somewhat sinuate and double its width from about its middle to the costa, 
between veins 3 and 4 it is encroached on by a large spot of the orange ground color, there is also a smaller spot of the same at the costal 
end : within this band nearest its outer edge are two dark marks, ore between veins '2 and 3. the other between veins 4 and t>. The sixth 
band is marginal. On the .secondaries all five bands cross the wing, they are equidistant at the costa, and all terminate towards the anal 
angle, the first, or subbasal, however, not reaching to the inner margin. The fourth has within it a chain-like row of dark marks. 
Under surface paler than above with markings re|ieated. Jt is nearest lo Ealirin. but is mu<h paler in color, the fourth transverse band of 
primaries as well as the third of secondaries is in linhriu a somewhat narrow shade not ujargined on its edges by a dark line as it is in 
common with all the bands in the present species; the wings also in this are rounded, whilst in Ruhrid the outer margins are straight, 
and in secondaries distinctly pointed at vein 4. 

Types, two cfcT, Trong, I..ower Siani, Dr. A\'. L. Abbott. One in Xational Jlii.setim, \\'ashington, D. C, 
the other in my own. 

I.iiiiciiilis >Iisi|»|>iiM wh. Psoii«l4Mi<ii-ip|>ii«< KtrtM-lt. Svn. Cat. Macrolep. X. Am. ji. 14.3, 1878. One 
> , Holyoke, Mass., Jos. E. Chase. 

J.iiiieiiiti!ii ;»Iisippus var. Floriclciisis Strock. Syn. Cat. Maerole|). X. Am. p. 14.3, 1878. Two c?c?, 

I'"lorid;i, Dr. A. AV. Chapman. 
Liinenilis Eros W. H. Edwd.s. Can. Ent. XII. p. 24(5, 1880. 

Uiiu'iiitis Misippiis ab. \i$;ri<-aiiK SIrock. Syn. Cat. Maerolep. X. Am. p. 143, 1878. One c?, 
I'lorida, .1. l)oll, A melanotie ;iberratioii of/.. Misijijm.s var. F/oridi'iisi.f. 

I.iui4'iiiii!« Kpli4'Nli<»ii ab. Kiibidiis Slroek. Syn. Cat. Macrolep. X'. Am. p. 144, 1878. One S\ Berks 
Co., Penna. This is a hybrid between L. MisippKs- and L. Ephvstion. 



25 

Apatiira Aslauga Streok. Siippl. No. 1, p. 12, 1898. Three c?c?, four 9 ?, latter, two black brown, two 
yellow form. Petropolis, Rio Janeiro, Brazil. 

Agrias Aiiiydon Hew. V Streok. Proc. Acad. Nat. So. Phila. p. 177, 1885. One 9, which came to 
me in a lot of several thousand butterflies taken near Pebas, Peruvian Amazons. 

ISatyridie. 

Ert'bia Sofia Streok. P>ull. Brooklyn Ent. Soo. III. p. 3.5, 1880. One 9, Fort Churchill, west coast 

Hudson Bay, Archdeacon Kirtby. 
E)-ebia Ethc/u iv. H. Edwards. Can. Ent. Vol. 23, p. 31, 1891. 

£rol>ia :T[ag;<laIeiia Strwk. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. III. p. 35, 1880. Three cfc?, Georgetown, Col- 
orado, E. T. Owen. 

Erohia :VI(>riiIa Howilsoii, • Ent. Mon. Mag. XII. p. 121, 1875. One example. New Zealand. I sent 
this example with other things for identification to Mr. Hewitson, who on returning it to me said it was 
new and that he had described it as above. 

C'liiuiiol>a»« Uaiira Streok. Can. Ent. XXVI. p. 225, 1894. One 9, Mt. Graham, Arizona, H. K. 
Morrison. 

Chioiiobas Ihlori Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 143, 1866. One c?, one 9, Colorado, coll. Reakirt. 
Satyrns Azoriuns Streok. Lep. Rhop. Het. Suppl. II. p. 3, 1899. One cf, Azores, E. T. Owen. 

Salyrns Aslitarotli Streek. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 129, Sept., 1877. One 9, Arizona. This is the same 
insect as Neominoifi Dionysius, later described by Scudder in Bidl. U. S. Geolog. Geograph. Survey (Hay- 
den) VoL IV. p. 254, Feb., 1878. 

Satyriis Iloft'inaiii Strcck. I^ep. Rhop. Het. p. 31, t. 4 ?, p. 66, t. 8 (f, 1873. One cf, two 9 9, 

Owen's Lake, Cal., BischofF. 
Satyrus Wheekri ^Y. H. Edwds. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. IV. p. 34, 1873. 

Ctenoiiyiiiplia Paiiipliiloides Rcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 146, 1866. One 9, California, 
coll. Reakirt. 

Coenoiiyiiiplia Brciula W, II. Edwds. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. II. p. 375, 1869. One c?, one 9, Los 

Angeles, Cal., coll. Reakirt. 

Hesperidse. 

Pyrrhopygo Bogotana Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 89, 1868. One cT, New Granada, coll. 

Reakirt. 
Pyrrhopyr/e Zereda Ilea: Trans. Ent. Soc. Ser. III. Vol. II. p. 484, 1866. 
Tamyris Hygieia Feld. Reise Nov. Lep. t. 70, f 1, 1866. 

Goniloba Poyas Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 337, 1866. One d, coll. Reakirt. 

Painphila Kiowali Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. VI. p. 150, 1866. One c?, Colorado, coll. Reakirt. 
Hcsperia Vestris Bdl. Ann. Soc. Ent. Fr. p. 317, 1852. Very close if not the same as Metucomet. 

\J Painphila Aleiiia Skinner. Ent. News IV. p. 513, 1893. Two c?c?, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

Painphila A>hl Skinner. Ent. News IV. p. 212, 1893. Two d'c?, Florida and Stewart Co., Ga., latter 
from A. W. Latimer. 

Painphila Stigma Skinner; Can. Ent. XXVIII. p. 188, 1896. One d, New Mexico, A. S. Fuller, 
one cT, Texas. 

Painphila Streekeri Skinner. Ent. News IV. p. 212, 1893. One d", Florida. 

^ Pauiphila Carolina Skinner. Ent. News III. p. 222, 1892. One c?, Hamlet, N. Carolina, F. M. Jones. 



• 



^ 



u^ 



y^ 



26 

/ Pampliila Itidiiiesii Hvtxh. Proc. Ent. Soc. Pliilu. VT. p. lol, 1866. One ?, Colorado, Jas. Ridings, 

^' eoU. lieakirt. 

Pamphila Uncm W. H. Edwds. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. ]>. l!i, 1S()3. 

; riiiiipliila Molaiu' M. II. K<Im<Ik. Trans. Am. Knt. Soc. II. p. 312, 1869. One d', one 9, California, 
"^•^ coll. Rcakirt. 

Aii<*yIo\.v|>lia <>arila Itcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Pliila. \'T. p. 1.50, 1866. One example, Colorado, coll. 
'' Kcakirt. 

Aiiil>ly<-irU-M SiiiiiliH Mirock. Lcp. Rliop. Hot. p. 131, Sept., 1877. One J', one ?, New Brannfel.s, 

Texas, J. Roll. 
Amhli/cirtcs Xi/si, II'. //. /Ohrdx. Can. Ent. IX. p. 191, Oct., 1S77. 

— ^ .KKial«' t'ofatiui Strock. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 14S, 1876. One 9, Georgia, H. K. Morrison. 

V' .Kg;is>l*' Streokori Skiiiiicr. Can. Ent. XXVII. p. 179, 189.5. One d", San Antonio, Texas, J. Boll, 

one 9, Rio Elorida, Colorado, C. McCanley. 

V .Kp^ialo X<Miiiia''K<'>iii W- II. Kdwtls. Papilin TI. j). 27, 1882. One 9, Arizona, taken l)v .T. Doll, 

received in mi H. Xciimijgen. 

- PyrKiis Macaira Itoak. Proc. Acad. Xat. Sc. Phila. p. 334, 18G6. One c?, Orizaba, Mex., coll. Reakirt. 

I'ysiis liana Itcak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 90, 1868. One 9, Insagasuga, N. Granada, coll. 
Reakirt. 

Pyrsii* MoiilivaKiis Reak. Proc. Acad. Nat. Se. Phila. p. 334, 1866. One cf, one 9, Rocky Mts., 

^ Colorailo, coll. Kcakirt. 

SpilolliyriiK XotabiliN S(rt>ck. Lcp. Riioj). Ilct. p. 131, Sept., 1S77. Three f d, one 5, San Antonio, 

Texas, J. Boll. 
Pholimra iVW».v li'. //. Edwdn. Can. Ent. IX. p. 192, Oct., 1877. 



HETEROCERA. 



Npliiiigida^. 

Nphiiix i;i»a Slr«'«'k. Lep. Riiop. Hct. j). 12G, 1877. One i', one 9, Arizona. The originals of figs. 
4-">, t. 14, 1. ('., the J' was described from an example in my coll., and the 9 from Nenmogen's. These 
were tlien the only two known examples, later when Doll bronght more and finer ones from Arizona I ob- 
tained this 9 type from X^eunuigcn. 

^ipliiiix Vasliti >»lr«'ek. Lej). Rhop. Het. \). 1 •")•>, 1877. One J', Arizona, B. Xenmiigen. 

Sphinx Plola .Slr«'ek. Lcp. lihop. Het. p. 106, 187o. One d, Montreal, Can., P. Knetzing. 
Sphinx Canadeihsix lid/. Sp. (ien. Lep. Het. p. 93, 1874. 

!>iphiii\ Kr4-iiiiloi4l(>» Slrerk. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 93, f. 12, t. 13, 1874. One \ one -, Kansas, T. B. 
.Vshton. This insect has been confounded with Sph. Luyens Wlk., an entirely different species, fi-om 
Mexico, which was redescribed later as Sph. Separatus by Neumogen. 

^iphiiix Ilali<-ai-iii4> Slr«M-k. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. III. p. 35, 1880. One 9, Florida, Rev. Geo. D. Hulst. 

Kpiiiiix l>ollii ."Vjiii. Papilio I. p. 149, 1881. One c?, Prescott, Arizona, J. Doll, received from B. 
Xeumrigcn. 

Siii<>riiilliiiM I'alloiiM S(roek. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 54, t. VII. , f 14, 187.3. One 9, Texas, Jas. Ridings. 

I^iiioriiilhiis Iiiipcralor SiriM-k, Lcp. Rhop. Het. p. 125, t. XIV., f 3. One 9, Arizona. 

.Smcriiitliu!^ Modosta var. OccidoiilaliN Hy. Kdwds. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc. VI. p. 92, 1876. One 
?, California, Hy. PMwards. 

Siiu'riiilliiis ANlai-tt' Xtrt'ok. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 283, 1884. Three d'd', Colorado, D. Bruce. 



27 

Pro^(>rpiiiiii« Terlooii IIj, Edwd^. Proc. Cal. Acad. Sc. VII. p. 90, 1875. 

Pterofjon T. Street Lep. Rliop. Het. p. 125, t. XIY. f. 2, 1877. One 9, Mexico, Dr. H. Belir. This 

species was described fniiu two examples in coll. of Dr. Behr, one of which, tiie original of niv figure, wa.s 

given to me Uy that gentleman. 

Pterogoii Jiiaiiita Streek. Lep. Riiop. Het. p. 112, f 6, t. XIII. 1876. One c?, S. W. Texas. Some 
simpletons have from the first issuing of the figure published and republished this as only a var. of 
Gaura', though it comes tVom entirely different larva, the latter even has au anal horn which Juanifa has not. 

Maoroglot^sa i:ialiiiiu' Slrock. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 1:35, f .3, t. XIY. 1877. One d, Oregon, O. B. 
Johnson. 

Heiiiari^ Teiiiii»« Urote. Bull. Buff. Soc. Xat. Hist. I. p. 4, f 1, t. I., 187:5. One c?, Berks Co., Pa., 
one ?, West Farms, N. York, latter from .Tas. Angus. 

]Ieiiiari!« .llargiiialis Cii'ole. Bull. BuflF. Soc. Xat. Hist. I. p. 6, f 10, t. I., 187.3. Two cTJ', Michigan. 
Grote's figure is a d^ though he mistook it for a ?, as he later stated. 

Macroglossa Fiimosa Strook. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 93, f 3, t. XIII., 1874. One ?, Albany, X. V., 
Otto Meske. 

Mac-roglossa .Ethra Strot-k. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 107, f 2, t. XIII., 1875. One ?, Montreal, Canada, 
P. Knetzing. 

MaoroglosNa Sfiita Slrot-k. Ruffner's Rep. Surveys, etc., app. SS. p. 1858, f 1, t. II., 1878. One d', 
Tierra Amarilla, C. McCauley. 

Troeliiliiiiii Oraiulo Strook. Can. Ent XIII. p. 156, 1881. One d, Texas, J. Boll. 

Cydosia Tessellatella Streok. Supp. II. p. 4, 1899. Ojie cT, two 9 9, Santarem, Amazons, J. Knabb. 

Ctoniiclia Saiigiiiiiaria Slreok. Rulfner's Rep. Surveys, etc., app. SS. p. 1858, f 2, t. II., 1878. One 
V, Rio Blanco, Colorado, C. McCauley. 

Cteiuiolia Tigriiia SIrofk. Suppl. II. p. 4, 1899. One d, Cartago, Costa Rica, Dr. Yan Patten. 

liycoinorpha Paliiierii I*aok. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sc. lY. p. 84, 1872. One example, Arizona, from 

Prof. T. Glover. 
Anatolmk (Jrotei Fad:. Proc. Essex Inst. IV. p. 47, 1864. 

Boiiib.yi'i<la>. 

Croeota Fragili^ Strook. Rutfner's Rep. Surveys, etc., app. SS. p. 1859, 1878. One d, Pagosa Spring.?, 
Colorado, C. McCauley. This is not, as some authors were led to suppose, the same as Aiacria Unkolor 
Rob., from which it is entirely different generically as well as specifically. 

C'rooola Ciiorioiia Koak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. 11. p. 371, 1864. One d, one 9, Phila., Pa., coll. 
Reakirt. Prof Dyar sa}-s this d type is a var. of Aiirantiaca Hub. and the 9 type is same as Qinnarin 
Grote. 

Crooota Xisrioans Roak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 371, 1864. One d, Phila., Pa., coll. Reakirt. 

C'rooula Iiiiiuaoulala Roak. Proc. Ent. S>c. Phila. II. p. 372, 1864. One 9, Phila., Pa., coll. Reakirt. 

Crooota TriiiiaoiilOMa Roak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 373, 1864. One -j, one 9, Phila., Pa., 
coll. Reakirt. 

Surina IIyp!«oidos Wlk. Proc. Xat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow I. p. 333, 1869. One 9, Congo, Afr., Thos. 
Chapman. 

Hypopropia C'adavorowi Strook. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sc. II. p. 270, f 4, t. IX., 1878. One 

example taken in Colorado by H. K. Morrison, received from W. Geffcken. 



r 



28 

HybridH between Callimorpha Ijceontri and Ccdl. Interrupto-Marginuta Strv^i^yi.. Pmc. Davenport Acad. 

So. II. p. 27;-), t. IV., f. -), H, 7, 1878. Two d<3', two 9 ?, S. Indiana, W. Mattern. 

.irolia F>i>alll«la Strock. Ruftner's Rep. Surveys, etc., app. SS. p. 1860, f. .3, t. II., 1878. One cf, 
Rio Navajo, Col., C. McCanley. 

Arclia Briio«>i Ily. lOdwds. Eiit. \m. III. p. 183, 1888. One c?, Denver, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

Arolia Orviiioidos Kirock. Proe. Acad. Nat. St\ Phiia. \>. lol, 187G. One cf, Mt. Flora, Col., above 

tilt' timlior line, July, 1872. 
Ar«-lia (ioiK'iira Str«>«-k. Proc. Davenixirt Acad. Sc. II. p. 270, f. .■>, t. IX., 1878. One c?, Gilpin Co., 
Colorado, 85UO feet elevation, G. H. French. 

Ar<-«ia Oitlioiia Streck. Lcp. Rhop. Hot. p. 131, 1877. One ?, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. 

ArMia 4tiiadraiiolata Stroi-k. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sc. II. p. 271, f. 6, t. IX., 1878. One 9, Dalla.s, 
Texa.s, .1. Boll. Is a variety oi' Phalwm Phccntia Abb.-Sm. Lep. Ins. Ga. t. 65, 1797. 

Ar<-lia Spofiosa :»Iu>m'Ii. Wien. Ent. Mon. p. l!».j, f. 1-3, 14, t. V., 1864. One ?, Labrador, H. B. 
^I schler. A'ery close to .4. Vin/nnciila but not inuoh over lialf its size, doubtless a diminutive northern 
form of the same. 

S|»iIosoina Tlioiia .Streok. Suppl. II. p. 4, 18!t!». One d", New Mexico. 

SpiloMuiiia XiolK' SIrook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 284, 1884. One example, Florida, A. Bolter. 
Fhaltmo Echo Abb.-Sm. Lep. Ins. Ga. t. (58, 17!»7. 

SpiloNoiiia Virgiiiu-a al). Fninosa S<rr«'k. n. var. ? body and wiufrs blackish brown, veins upper side 
of primaries narrowly white. (_)iic 9 taken at Batavia, N. Y., by D. Bruce, who bred from ova depos- 
ited by it a large number of the imago but all nornsal of the usual pure white. 

Spilos4>iiia AiiliKoiK' Sirofk. Ruffner Rep. Survevs, etc., app. SS. [i. 18()0, 1878. One 9, Rio Blanco, 
Col., C. McCauley. 

Spilosoiiia Allioiia SIrt'ok, Suppl. II. p. 4, 18f)0. One cf, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

Ilypliaiitria Ciinoa ab. Siifiii»<a Strt't-k. n. var. cT All spots of primaries fused together, making the 
whole wing brown excepting narrow exterior and inner margins and the veins which are white. One c?, 
Berks Co., Peniia. 

Ilypliaiilria Ilriiiiiioa n. sp. or var. cT size and shape of JTi/p. Cioira, but entirely of a uniform brown 
much same colour as Spi/. J.tirluom and .S)>(7. Sordida, nf< spots or otiicr markings. One d, West Farms, 
N. Y., Jas. Angus. This may be a melanotic variety of Cunea. 

TA'pttntUvriix Can-a Strook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 283, 1884. One d, Colorado, D. Bruce. 
Ec. rennacu/afa Pack Rep. Peab. Acad. p. 86, IV., 1872. 
Ec. Rediicta Grnte. Bull. U. S. Geol. Survey p. 799, 1878. 

llaliKiilola AinbiKiia Strook. Proc. Davenport Acad. Sc. II. p. 274, 1878. One d, Colorado, A. Bolter. 
H. Bolteri Hy. Edwds. Papilio IV. p. 121, 1884. 

Parana I»r«'liosa SIrook. Suppl. 11. j). 4, 1899. One d", Petropolis, Brazil, Mrs. O. C. James. 

I.inuH-odes Viridis Itcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. III. p. 251, 18(;4. Two, 6\ 9, Philadelphia, Pa., 
coll. Keakirt. This is not the same as Pantsa Chlorw H.-S. Sam. Aiiss. Sclunett. as has been supposed, 
this figure representing a different insect, the Parasa Fraterna Grote. 

JAtnuvotWs I.orqiiiiii Kcak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Piiila. III. p. 250, 186 4. One 9, Philippine Islands, coll. 
Reakirt. 

Heterogenea Princepa Sk/r. Romanoti" Mem. Lep. 111. p. 199, t. XA'., f. 7, 1887. Kirby gives in his 
catalogue this and Parana Tcsscllata Moore as synonyms of Parasa Consocia Wlk., whether correctly or not 
I cannot sav, but that Staudingcr's and Reakirt's species arc identical I am convinced, having both sexes 
of Princep.'i from Dr. Staudiuger himself, and his female agrees with Reakirt's type absolutely in every 
respect. 



29 

L.iiiiaco<Ies Xiiloiia Reak. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. III. p. 441, 18(54. One 5, Pliilippinc Islands, ooll. 
Keakirt. 

C'osiiiia Pfrophoroidt's Streok. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 152, 1876. One 9, Florida, J. Doll. 

Is a Ilyparpax. 
Hyparpa.v Aurostriata- (rracf. Ent. Am. IV. p. 58, 1888. 

Orgyia Libora n. sp. 

(J' head and thorax light brownish ochre. Primaries brown with a broad light ochraceous exterior border occupying nearly the 
outer third of the wing. Secondaries and abdomen brown. All fringes brown. Under surface ochraceous, darker on inner two-thirds 
of wings, and with faint discal marks on all wings. 

Expands If inches. One cP, Colorado, from Bruce, distinct from all other N. xVm. species. 

Parorgj ia l^Ianto n. sp. 

^ head and body brownish gray, paler beneath. Primaries rich chestnut brown, a trilobed narrow white subbasal line. An 
irregular black t. a. line. A black t. p. line curved irregularly inwardly between veins 1 and 4, heaviest from vein 4 to costa. A 
large kidney-shaped discal spot surrounded by a white line, from this to the costa between the t. a. and t. p. lines white sprinkled with 
black; on the inner margin between these lines some white scales. A sinuate white submarginul line exterior to which the wing is 
hoary. Fringe brown, paler at terminations of veins. Secondaries dark brown. Fringe paler. Under surface rather pale smoky brown 
crossed by a regular difl'use mesial shade. Distinct discal lunes on all wings, thrse of primaries joined exteriorly by a pale spot. \ 

Fringes as above. 

Expands 1 ^ inches. One c?, SteM'art Co., Georgia, A. W. Latimer. All the markings on this species 
are bright and sharply defined. 

Dataiia Rol>ii!«la SIrtH'k. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 131, 1877. Three J'c?, two 9 9, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. 

Hotoroi'aiiipa Aoui«U»« SIret'k. Snppl. Lep. Rhop. Het, p. 4, 1899. One c?. New Mexico, A. >S. Fnller. 

Ilarp.yia Alltieoiiia Strofk. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 284, 1884. Two cTcT, two 9 9, Colorado, 
D. Bruce. 

Cerura Candida IJiit. Ent. Contributions IV. p. 87, 1878. One c?, New Braunfels, Texas, J. Boll. 
Mr. Boll bred from the stime brood two forms of this insect, one nearly immaculate, the other marked 
nearly like Scitiscripfa TIV/;. (= MuUiscripAa Bilti/). Of the first form I sent two c?d' and of the second 
two examples, 1^9, to Prof Lintner, from the first he drew his description of Candida, retaining one ex- 
ample as I requested him and returning the others. The heavily marked pair he persisted in believing to 
be " Multiscripta" and returned one labeled with that name (which label is still on the example), notwith- 
standing I had plainly intijrraed him that Boll had raised them all from one lot of ova, he evidently sup- 
posing there was some mistake. Prof. Lintner gives through some error Kansas as the habitat, wiiieh was 
Texas as above. It is a larger species than Scitiscripfa and all the examples were alike save in the mark- 
ings, being more or less pronounced or half obsolete in the different examples. 

laiiassa Pallida Strook. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het, II. p. 5, 1899. Four d'd, two Seattle, Wtish., O. B. 
Johnson, two Colorado, Bruce. 

I.ophoploryx Elegant Streok. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 285, 1884. One d", Oldtown, Maine, Fish. 

Lophopteryx ElegaiiM var. Orisea Slret-k. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 286, 1884. Two cfc?', 

Colorado, D. Bruce. 
Notodonta Notaria Hy. Edwds. Ent. Am. I. p. 17, 1885. 

]Iopialii8 ^liaiigaris Strock. Lep. Rhop. Het, p. 1.36, t. XV., f. 5, 1877. One d", Arizona. 

Hepialns Doi^iolatiis Stro«*k. Lep. Rhop. Het, p. 107, 1875. One example, Owen's Lake, Califa., 

Wheeler's Exp., 1871. 
Sthenoj}is Montana Stretch. 111. Zyg. and Bomb. N. Am. p. 105, t. IV., f 7, 1872-1873. 

Hepialiis Tluilo Strook. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 105, t. XII., f. 6, 1875. One 9, Montreal, Canada, F. B. 
Caulfield. 

Hepialiii^ I.OS 8(reck. Proc. Acad. Nat, Sc. Phila. p. 282, 1893. One 9, Bangor, Maine, C. Braun. 

C'ot^siiM Ore jiitrook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 282, 1893. One d", one 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. — 
Johnson. 



■J 



30 

f'oMMiis :VaiiiiM slr<M-k. Proo. Acad. Nat. So. Pliilada. p. 151, 1876. One c?, Texa.*, J. Boll. By .some 

mistake tlu' lial). in mv description was given erroneously as " Colorado." 

CoMMiN KabolioiiN H«r«M-k. Siippl. I^ej). Kliop. Het. I. p. 5, 1898. One 2, Florida, C Dury. 

f'OMsiila rCyiiialopliorsii .MsiKiiilica S(r«>«'k. Proc. Aead. Nat. Se. Pliilada. p. l')l, 187(5. One c?, 

Florida,'-!. Doll. 
Ciin.vilii M(ii/iiijic(i Iliiily. I'apilio II. p. 9."!, ISS-J. 
fju/iirnmorj)li(i S/oxsoiiii lly. Kihnh. Yjui. Am. HI. p. 1X3, 1888. 

Il.ypoptsi Kxalaiia n. .sp. 

Head, l)ody, and primarie.s wliitish gray. Antenna' serrated. Abdomen with a dorsal row of brownish spots. Primaries, the 
sulxostal nerviire marked with black from near the ba.«e to one-third the length of the winj;. Two lower branches of the subcostal partly 
defined with bliick. Median nerviire black as are also the three branches, the upper one only [lartly so, the black not extendinp; to the 
e.xtcrior margin. The internal vein black, a couple of tine black lines run from this to the inner margin near the base and also at and 
near the apical .ingle. Secondaries white sprinkled witli gray atoms. Under surface nearly as above, and with a few faint stria- on costa 
of secondaries. 

Expands 1 -^ inches. Type, one ^, Arizona. 

liasio4-aiii|»a (>ar$:aiii«'ll«' Slro<-k. Proc. Acad. Nat. Se. Pliilada. p. 280, 1884. One cf, Arizona, 

.1. Do!!. 

l<aMi«><-aiii|>a M«'«ln!*a S(ro<'k. Fiit. News IX. p. 13, 1898. One 9, Los Angeles, Califa., M. Albright. 

( illicroiiia liil'oriialis S(r«M'k. Papilio IV. p. 7.'}, 1HS4. One V, Rdtiinore, Md., E. Baiimliauer. 
Tills splendid insect may be a liylirid between C. RvgalU and ( '. •Sepulchmlis. 

Ili'.t 4»|>l«'i*is Adoiia n. sp. 

9 shape of /'. Irromln , but with the anal angle of secondaries much more produced. Primaries, basal third ochraceous mottled with 
a darker, more reddish shade, the outer two-thirds reddish ochre darker than base and crossed by a pale line which extends from near 
the apex to the inner margin niK-third in fiipm the inner angle. A s<arcely noticeable tine grayish-white discal line or mark. Secon- 
daries ochraceous crossed liy a mesial band of a darker shade which is very irregidar on its exterior edge, being produced in a strong 
toolh about the middle. I'nder surface paler than above and primaries strongly mottled with red and gray. Secondaries only 
slightly mottled. 

Expands almost If inches. One ?, Florida, J. Doll. 

Ilyporc-liiria l-ili»li Slreok. Lep. Ulmp. liel. p. !•;!>, t. XV., f. 17, iS77. Four 99, Atlanta, Ga., 
Ij. Sclielpert. I^ater Mr. Schelpert sent nie numerous males which had smoky-gray primaries and yellow 
sccondarie.s, he also sent me living larva- which were just like ITi/p. lo, except that instead of being green 
were lemon yellow. 

Coloradia l*aii«lora Itlake ; Strofk. Le|). Klio]). Het. ]>. 1.'57, t. NIV., f. 7, 1877. One c?, Oregon, 
Dr. Behr. 

I>s«'iid4»lia7.is Ari/.4»iioiisis S<r4>4-k. Lep. Ivhop. Hot. p. 137, 1S77. One '^, Arizona, B. Neiimogen. 

I':iil4'ii4-4»|>litiMis ^4'iiiii4i>K4>iii llj. i:4ln4lK. PaplHo I. p. 171, 1881. One J, Prescott, Arizona, B. 
XciuniVgcii. Kdwards descrilied this insect from two d^d^, one 9, taken by Doll, and in the collection of 
Neumi'igen, from whom 1 obttiined one of the male types. 

Il4>iiiil4>ii4-a .Iuii4» I>a4-k. Kept. Peabody Aead. IV. ]>. 87, 1871. One -f, Arizona, Prof Townend Glover. 

Aiilliora'a Iiil4'riuis4'4-iis Wlk. Proc. Nat. I list , flop . Glasgow I. p. 3 14, 18tj9. One V, Calabar, Africa, 
T. A. Cha])maii. 

Saliiriiia Ariutbia W4'sIm. I'roe. Zool. Soc. London p. 142, t. XII., f 2, 1881. One 9, Calabar, Afr., 
T. A. C^hapman. This .species was ;i coiii)le of years since redescribed a.s Bnnwa Aronosa. 

'IVl4'a P4>l.vi»li4'iini!* var. <>4'nl4'a XHein's'". Pajiilio III. p. 71, 1883. One :^, Arizona, B. Neumogen. 

Biiiiica Kbiis Stro4-k. Lep. Ivlio]). Ilet. p. 121, t. XIV., f 9, 1877. One c?, Calabar, W. Afr., T. A. 
Chapman. 



31 

^Voctuiflie. 

Cyiiiatopliora Tenia Streok. 8upj)l. Lep. Khop. Het. I. p. 5, 1898. One example, Seattle, Wash., O. 
■^ B. Johnson. 

Aoronyota Arioeli Slreek. 1. c. One 9, New Orleans. 

Aeronyota Oasta Streek. 1. c. One example, near Chicago, Illinois. 

C'ornia (jialva Strofk. 1. c. One &, Clyde, N. Y., W. L. Devereaux. >< "f 

Agrolis ITIaiiirosIa Morr. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. XYIII. p. 116, 1875. One example. Long 
Island, N. Y., F. Tepper. 

Agrotiii« Oblata Morr. 1. e. One c?, Anticosti Island, W. Couper. 
Agrotis HiUkma Harvey. Can. Ent. X. p. 55, 1878. 

Agrotis Trioosa IJnJ. Ent. Cont. III. p. 159, 1874. One c?, Albany, N. Y., J. A. Lintner. 
ik— Agrotis Atlia Stroek. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Ilet. I. p. (3, 1898. Three ? 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 
^-- Agrotis Aiiiiir Streek. 1. c. One (?', three 9?, Loveland, Colorado. 
^— Agrotis Ageiiia Streek. 1. c. II. p. 5, 1 899. One examjile, Colorado, D. Bruce. 
i_ Agrotis I>argo Streek. 1. c. I. p. 6, 1898. Four examples, Loveland, Colorado. ^ T 
^-- Agrotis C'oiia Streek. 1. c. Four examples, Glenwood Springs, Colorado. 
»-^ Agrotis Ciiiaii Streek. 1. c. One c?, Colorado, J. Doll. ''' ^ 

y. Agrotis Axif Streek. 1. c. One example, Clyde, N. Y., W. Ij. Devereaux. 

^^ Agrotis Aelior Streek. 1. c. II. p. 5, 1899. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. X T 

^ Agrotis AIko Streek. 1. c. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

i,— Agrotis Xiiiiia Streek. 1. c. I. p. 5, 1898. One example, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

Agrotis ISeiirta Streek. 1. c. p. 6. Five c^c?, two 9 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

Agr4»tis Abar Streek. 1. c. II. p. 5. One example, Glenwood Springs, Colorado, D. Bruce. ^ 7^ 
^ Agrotis C'olla Streek. 1. e. I. p. (!. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

:, Agrotis Satiiriiiis n. sp. 

Hrail, body, and primaries reddish gray, somewhat the colour but not so bright as Trirjona, to which it bears some superficial 
resemblance. The basal and t. a. lines regularly scalloped, but very obscure, as are all the markings. T. p. line only indicated by dots 
on the veins. Reniforni gray, margined with a pale line. Orbicular very small, concolourous with wing and ringed with a pale line. 
A pale submarginal line, the space exterior to which is somewhat tinged with gray. Secondaries dull pale fuscous, darkening gradually 
towards the exterior margin. An indistinct discal lune. Fringe paler. 



V 



Expands IJ inches. Type, one c?, from S. Wisconsin. 

Iflaniestra Mania Streek. 1. e. II. p. 5. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 7~ 

Maniestra Olivaeea Morr. Proc. Bo.ston Soc. Nat. Hist. XVII. p. 143, 1874. One example, N. >- 7~ 
Hampshire, H. K. Morrison. 

Maiiiestra Selaiiia Streek. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 7, 1898. One example, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. 

Maniestra Doira Streek. I.e. One cT, one 9, Utah, Capt. Murdoch. - "^ 

Haiiiestra Taeoiiia n. sp. ^ 

Head and thorax ashen. Abdomen more brownish. Primaries coloured much as in Lilacina. T. a. line trilobed, brownish and 
double, t. !>. also geminate, the inner line darker. The space between the t. a. and t. p. lines brown with some hoary scales on the veins 
and small central patch at the claviform. Subterminal line pale ochraceous, distinct, extending from the anal angle to the apex, and 
toothed outwardly on veins 3 and 4 ; exterior to this, as well as shading its inner edge the colour is reddish brown. The space between 
the subterminal and t. p. is pale grayish lilac. The reniform is yellow and brown and on its inner and lower edges outlined with black. 
Orbicular whitish lilac. Claviform distinct and very dark brown. .Secondaries smoky, darker basally and at exterior margin. 

Expands 1^ inches. Type, one c?, from Seattle, Washington, Prof. O. B. Johnson. 

Superficially having some resemblance to Lilacina and Ritr/om but agreeing in detail with neither. 



32 

I>i:iiillia'cia Itlodesta Worr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. XVII. p. 144, 1874. Oue example, Mass., 
II. K. Morrisun. 

Iladeiia Ifloriia Strook. Ruff'n. Rej)ort Purveys, etc., app. SS. p. ISGl, 1878. One example, Kio Blanco, 

Colorado, C. McC'auley. 
Hadena Huktii Grote. N. Aiu. Ent. I. p. 9:^, 1880. 

lla«l«'iia (Tspiiio<-aiii|>a) Pavisp Itohr. Streok. Lep. Iiliop. Hot. p. fl4, 1874. Three examples, 
( 'alil'driiia, I>r. llclir. 

Iladi-iia Oilara SIroek. Siippl. Lep. Rhop. Ilet. I. p. 7, 180S. One example, Colorado, J. Doll. 

IIa<leiia I,oiia Slrcok. 1. c. One example, Clyde, N. Y., \\ . L. Devereaux. 

Hadena AlgoiiN <;rolo. Can. Ent. X. p. 'I'M), 1878. One ?, Orono, Maine, Prof. Fernald. 

Hadena Tliula SIreek. Su])])!. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 7, 1898. One example, Seattle, Wash., O. B. 
Johnson. 

lla<l«>Ma Saliiia Streek. 1. e. }>. 8. One example, Antieosti Island, \X. Couper. 
^ Hadena .Moilena Streek. 1. e. One example, Loveland, Colorado. 

Ilatleiia I^oda SIreek. 1. c. One example, Seattle, ^Yash., O. B. Johnson. 
•>c f IIa«leiia <'liina Streek. 1. c. p. 7. Three d^cf, three 9 9, near Chicago, III. 

Ha<i«-iia I iia n. sp. y' 

Tills insect conies nearest to Tndir^la, but is slightly smaller and somewhat broader winged. The head, body, and secondaries are 
coloured much as in that species. Primaries of a pale silky lirnwnlsh gray, the basal line black, prolonged in a bmg tooth outwardly near 
the inner margin. T. a. black somewhat serrated, broken at the veins but heavily black in the interspaces. T. p. bends inwardly 
below the median vein, not very distinct and also broken by the veins. Median space with an irrei;nlar black mark between veins 1 and 
2. Keniforni and orliicular coneolourous with ground of wing, inconspicuous and edged on the Inner and exterior edges with black. 
A W-shaped sublerndnal line extends from the inner margin to about vein 7, and is outwardly edged with black, most markedly near 
the inner angle and between veins .5 and 6. In the space between the I. p. and snbterminal the veins are more or less slightly indicated 
by black dots. Black marginal intervenular marks. Fringe brown and black. Secondaries fuscous. 

Expands ly'^ inches. Type, one V, S. Wisconsin. 

Sej;etia (Perigea) Mersa ;»Iorr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. XVIII. p. 120, 187-"). One example, Cal- 
ifornia, Stretch. 

Polia Saiisar Ktreek. Siippl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 8, 1898. One example, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

Trielutlila \otata StiHM-k. 1. c. 9. One example, Nebraska, E. A. Dodge. 

Tricholita Syrissa Streek. 1. c. 11. (>. One '\ Chicago, Illinois. 

liydreeeia l.atia Streek. 1. c. One example, Chicago, 111. 

Ilyilrtreia .Velita Streek. 1. c. I. p. S. Two examples, Chicago, 111. 

.trzania Obliquata Ciirote-Roh. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. I. p. 339, t. VI., f. 47, 18(58. One 9, W. Farms, 
X. Y., J. Angus. 

Ileli4»i»iiila IVrtraeta >Iorr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Xat. Hist. XVIII. p. 120, 187-5. Oue example, Falls 
of Schuylkill, Phila., Pa., Wm. Robinson. 

Tieneaiiia ^liiniea Stre«'k. Suppl. L( p. Rhop. Het. II. p. 6, 1899. One example, Colorado, Bruce. 

l,eneania C'oinplieala Streek. 1. c. I. p. 9, 1898. One example. New Mexico. 

C'ara<lrina ln>>i|>i<la n. sp. 

Head, body, anil primaries pale, glo.ssy, brownish gray (much the same .as C. Mcrulis), latter slightly darker as it nears the 
exterior margin. Faint indications of a subterminal line. In the centre of the wing is a small somewhat oblong dull fuscous spot, 
which is the only noticeable feature. Secondaries grayish white. 

A second example has the colour of a more reddish-brown hue with the median vein from the base to the central spot with some 
ashen scales, as has also the costal margin as far as to the end of the discoidal cell. 

Expands | inch. Types, two examples from Wisconsin. This .species is nearest to Fragosa Grote. 

t 



JSf' 



Jidr- 



33 

I'feiis Fainiii8 Slrt-ok. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 9, 1808. One example, New Mexico, A. S. Fuller. 

Orthodox Irrorata J. B. Smith. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. X. p. 478, 1887. One 9, Brit. Columbia, B. 
Neumogen. 

OrlliodoM Iiiiora Sirpok. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 8, 1898. One example, Racine, Wisconsin. 

t^^ Ortliodeiii Akaliis Strofk. 1. c. II. p. 6, 1 899. One example, Colorado, Bruce. 

Ordiodes C'aloeoIariuH n. .sp. 

Head, body, and primaries dark, smoky shining brown of a somewhat reddish tint. Primaries with an abbreviated basal line 
composed of hoary scales. T. a. line also of grayish white crosses the wing in a fairly straight line to the inner margin where it is 
considerably further from the base. T. p. line bowed outwardly and not as distinct as the t, a. and is preceded by a fuscous median line 
or shade slightly darker than the ground of wing. A small, very distinct white discal spot. A dark fuscous subterminal line, the space 
exterior to which is slightly paler than rest of wing. Fringe concolourous. The basal, t. a. and t. p. lines are composed of hoary, more 
or less segregated scales and though distinct are really not sharply defined lines. Secondaries light smoky with paler fringe. Under 
surface, primaries smoky with pale terminal space. Secondaries same colour as this last and with a distinct discal mark and mesial line. 

Expands 1^ inche.s. Type, one example. Long Island, N. Y., taken by Mr. Ernest Shoemaker. 

Ta^iiiooaiiipa Modifloa Morr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. XVII. p. 150, 1874. One c?, Mass., H. K. 

Morri.son. 

Tieiiiocaiupa C'oiiar Streck. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 7, 1898. One example, New Mexico. In 
publishing the original description this was in some inexplicable way designated as an Agrotls. 

C'osiiiia Saiiibiiei Belir. Ktrech. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 94, 1874. Six examples, Califa., Dr. Behr. 
Zolhem Tranqnilla Grote. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sc. 11. p. 69, 1874. 

C'leoceris Popiili Strei'k. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 8, 1898. One example, Loveland, Colorado. 

Dryobota C'aliloriiiea Belir. Streck. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 94, 1874. Three dd, one 9, Califa., Dr. 

Behr. 
Xylomlge.^ Hiemalis Gh-ote. Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sc. II. p. 71, r874. 

C'noiillia Antipoda Streok. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 129, 1877. One example, Arizona, J. Doll. 

i,,j_ . C'lifiillia Alfarata Streok. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 9, 1898. One examjjle, St. Augustine, Fla. 

Ciieiiliia Solidagiiiis Belir. Strecl: Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 94, 1874. Two examples, Califa., Dr. Behr. 

Cuciillia Matricarite Belir. 1. c. May, 1874. Two example.?, Califa., Dr. Behr. 
CueuUia Serratieornis Lint. Ent. Cont. III. p. 174, May, 1874. 

CiioiiUia Lriiiia Morr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. XVIII. p. 122, 1875. One example, Yellowstone. 
Nyctcrophieta Magdalena HuM. Bull. Brook. Ent. Soc. IV. p. 45, 1882. 
Epiru/otiii Notatella Grote. Can. Ent. XIV. p. 45, 1882. 

Bipogeiiii8 Piilelierriiiia Grote. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. IV. p. 326, 1865. One example, Hoboken, 
N. Jersey, H. Sachs. Mr. Sachs captured three examples, two of these furnished the types, one of \\hich 
is now in the British Museum, the other in my own collection, his third example is now in the coll. of the 
Brooklyn Institute, formerly Neumogen's. It belongs to the genus Eurhipla B., represented in Europe by 
E. Adidatrix Hub. 

Eutelia Ikntifera Wlk. C. B. Mus. Het. XXXIII. p. 818, 1865. Walker described it under this name the 
same year that Grote published it as R. Pulcherrima ; which name should have priority is a matter of doubt. 

Pliisia Ecliiiioej'stides Belir. Streck. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 94, 1874. Two examples, Calilli., Dr. Behr. 
Plusia Brasskiti Riley. 2d Rept. Ins. Mo. p. 110, f 81, 1870. 

Plii»«ia C'orusoa Streek. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Phila. p. 178, 1885. One d", Colorado, J. Doll. 

Phisia Alteriia Streek. I.e. 

Plmia Ampla W/L C. B. Mus. Het. XII. p. 910, 1857. 

C'liarielea Pretiosa Morr. Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. XVIII. p. 122, 1875. One example, Leaven- 

, worth, Kansas. 
Cirrhophanm Triangidifer Grote. Can. Ent. IV. p. 187, 1872. 



34 



V 



\s 




< 



i-^^ 



Sliria <'«»iisiiola n. s|>. 

Head ami collar chalky grayish white. I'atagiie pale ashen, abdomen the same, paler towards the extremity. Primaries ashen 
white like head and collar, .shading into pale purplish gray at e.xlerior margin, towards liase the barest suspicion of yellow. An even 
light purplish ashen t. p. line runs fairly parallel with the exterior margin, turning inwards at the costa. A large gray mark occupies 
the centre of the wing on the inner margin much as in Miif/ifroiif. A minute discal point. Fringe pale gray. Secondaries pale pur- 
plish gray, immaculate. Fringe pure white. Under surface, primaries gray bordered on costa and exterior margin with white. Sec- 
ondaries pure white. 

K.xpanils 13 iiu'lics. Type, oiii' >, Arizona. 

KcliMiisi .M4><lia .Morr. I'ltic. IJn.st. Sic. Xat. Hist. XVIII. p. l"."!, 1S7"). Tlirii- examples from Berks 

Co., Pa., one from Leavenwortli, Kansas. 
P/iif/ioniimiois I'iti/chromits Crofc. Bull. Biiflf'. Sic. Xat. Se. I. p. 1S2, IST.'^. 

Scliinia (Julnaro Str«'<-k. I'roe. Dav. Acad. Sc. II. p. i'74, t. IX., f. 1, 1878. One +, Illinoi.s, G. H. 
Frencli. 

A<>4l«'|>liroii <>raii«liM Str*'<'k. Le|). Hhop. Het. p. 129, 1877. Two examples, Arizona. 
('ojjab(cph(in,n Suhjiaridcit-s Grotc. Can. Knt. XH'. p. 169, 1882. 

Ncliiiiia (Iloliotlii!^! Iiii|M>rspi<-Ha Stro<-k. 1. c. p. 122, 1876. Two e.xamples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. ^ 7" 
Srl,i„i>i DiiiiUdis ./. II. Sniitli. Trans. Am. Ent. So<-. XVIII. p. 128, 1891. 

Ncliiiiia lloliotliisi KiiluKiiiosa S(r<'<'k. 1. c. ji. 122, 187(3. Six examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. A / 

Ncliinia i ll4>li«>tliiM) l<4's;ia S(r«'<'k. 1. e. p. 121, 187(). Six examples, Dallas, Te.^., J. Boll. X 7" 

Ncliiiiia (lIc'liolliiM) (^luriosa S(r«M'k. 1. c. 1.'52, 1877. On^9, San Antonio, Tex., J. Boll. 
Sckitiift Sfuiguinea Neitm'g'n. Pap. III. p. 142, 1883. 

Si'liiiiia I>oloKa Sitrcok. Snp])l. Lcp. R1h)]i. Ilet. I. p. 9, 1898. Two examples, San Antonio, Tex., 
.1. IJoll. 

Soliiiiia l».v«*aIoi«l«'s StrtH-k. I. c. Foiir examples, Coloi~ado, D. Bruce. 
Schinid Se.rpla(jiaU( J. B. Smith. Tran.«. Am. Ent. Soe. XVIII. ]>. 124, 1891. 

Soliinia Halloa .S(rock. 1. c. I. [>. 9, 1,S98. One example, Dalla.s, Tex., J. Boll. 

.Ncliiiiia Ar SIrt'rk. 1. c. p. 111. One e.xamjile, Dallas, Te.v., J. Boll. 

^(■Iiiiiia I. alio Streck. 1. c. Two examples, T)allas, Tex., J. Boll. 

Kcliiiiia l-ora Slreok, 1. c. Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. 

Scliiiiia (lloliolliisi lii«-lara Strook. Lep. Rlio]). Het. |>. 122, 187<). Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. "'^ 7~ 

Kcliiiiia tlI<'liolliisi Sir«>ii SIriM'k, 1. c. Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. "?c ~j~ 

5>tcliiiiia ilIoliotliiMi Fa.^tidiosa S<r«'«*k. 1. c. ]). 121. Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll, y- F" 

Soliiiiia illrliolliisi I'lliiiia Str«><-k. 1. c. 122. Two e.xamples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. 

N<-liiiiia (IlolioiliiM) .\iibila SIrcok. I. c. Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. I>oll. 

S<-iiiiiia A|>|»r«i\iiiiata Mtr«M'k. Siijjpl. Lep. Rliop. Het. I. p. 10, 1S9S. Three examples, Dallas, Tex., 
.1. iJoll. 

Koliiiiia <H»s«'iirala SirtM-k. ^A^l. <•• One example, Latrobe, Peuna., Kev. J. Selimidt. ^ 7~ 

>»<-liiiiia 'I'aiioiia Slr«'«'k. 1. c. One example, Bastrop, Tex., L. Heiligbrodt. 

Scliiiiia (lloliolliiM) ■.aiiiil Mi-vok. Lep. Kliop. Het. p. 132, 1877. One e.xanipic, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. ^7" 

Tamil<i Velaris (ivok. Can. Ent. XI. p. I!t7, 1879. 

Srhhiia Orlmifascla J. B. Smith. Trans. .\m. Ent. Soe. X. ]>. 229, 1883. 

Scliiiiia Xoe;l«'<'la Strock. Sujtpl. Lep. Khojt. Het. I. p. 10, 1898. One cxaiii[)le, Loveland, Colorado. 

Kli4»il4Hli|i<>a A«l«>ii Hirook. 1. e. |>. 11. One example, Colorado, J. Doll. 

.Hi'li<-I«>|>(ria I*iilcliri|>eiiiiis (;rol(>. Proc. Bost. Soe. Xat. Hist. XVI. p. 241, 1.S74. Two examples, 
Califa. Museum, Comp. Zool. Cambridge, 1876, through Dr. H. Hagen. 



85 

Aooiitia Art-li Strefk. Suppl. Lep. Khop. Het. I. p. 11, 1898. Two cTcf, New Mexico, one 9, Arizona, 
latter from H. K. Morrison. 

Aoontia (jioiiella StrtK-k. 1. c. One e.xample, Arizona, J. Doll. 

Agropliila ^'I'lata StrtH-k. 1. c. Two examples, San Aiitonia, Tex., J.' Boll. 

Synecia Wivcrgoiis Itolir. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. III. p. 27, l.STO. One example, Califa., Dr. Behr. 

Syiieda A<liiiiil>rata Itclir. 1. c. One example, Califa., Dr. Behr. 

Syneila Alleiii lirotv. Can. Ent. IX. p. 215, 1877. One example, Orono, Maine, Prof. C. H. Feruald. 

8.riie«la Strc'tekii Bohr. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. III. p. 27, 1870. One example, Nevada, Dr. Behr. 

Syiieda Xi$;roiiiargiiia(a Strook. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. I. p. 11, 1898. One example, Arizona, 
J. Doll. 

Syiie«Ia Dcfopta SIrefk. I. c. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

Synoda FlavotsiM-iala Slr«M'k. 1. c. p. 12. One example, Arizona, J. Doll. 

Syiioda Fiiiiiosa StrtH'k. 1. c. One example, Texas, B. Gerhard. 

KyiKHia ;»l<'xifaiia var. All»iiia n. var. 

Like il/c)i'ca«(j, except that the ground colour of head, body, and primaries is yellowish white, and the secondaries are pure 
white with the dark marginal and the inferior edging of the yellow lunate spot rather slight and shadowy. 

Two examples, from Chihuahua, Mex. 

*• Catocala A^'rippina StrtM-k. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 95, t. XL, f 1, 2, :!, 1874. Two 9 9, one -:?, Dallas, 
Texas, J. Br.ll. 

I C'alocala Sappho S(r«>«'k. 1. c. f 4. One example, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. 

/ ('at<K-ala Oh)«i-ura S(i-t'ok. 1. c. p. 19, t. III., f 4, 187.']. Five examples, W. Farms, N. Y., J. Angus. 

Catooala I'laliiiiio Sd-et-k. 1. c. p. 1.32, LS77. Two d'c?, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. I have very little 
doubt but tiiat these are hybrids betwixt C. Dcsperata and C. Lacrymosa. 

C'atot'ala I>t'Je<-ta SIroek. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. II. p. 97, 1880. Two examples, N. York. Perhaps 

a cross between C. iJespcrata and C Flehilis. 

Catocala C'occiiiata var. Circe Strcck. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 121. Five examples, Bosque Co., Texas, 
Belfrage. 

Catocala Ilcrodias Strc<'k. 1. c. One 9, Bosque Co., Texas, Belfrage. By various authors who have 
never seen the unique type this insect has been cited as a variety of C. Ultronia, from wiiich it is abso- 
lutely and entirely different. 

r- Catocala AlioIii»ah Strcck. 1. c. p. 72, t. IX., f 5, 1874. One 9, California, J. Behrens. 

v'Catocala Faustina Strcck. 1. c. p. 21, t. III., f. 8. One c?, Arizona, Lt. Wheeler's Expedition, 1871. 
Received it from W. H. Edwards. 

' Catocala Fansf iiia var. Zillah Strcck. 1. c. p. ] 29. One example, Arizona. 

; Catocala Pcrdita Hi/. Edwds. Strcck. 1. c. ji. 1**0. One exiunple, San Mateo Co., Califa., Hy. 
Edwards. I would here say that this, as well as 3Iariana, Hippolyta, Cleopatra, and Luciana, generally 
credited to Mr. Edwards, were not described by iiim, but by myself from specimens sent to me by him ; 
his only other connection with them is the names I adopted at his suggestion. 

Catocala i^Iariaiia JTy. Edwd>i. Strcck. 1. c. \>. 99. One c?, A'ancouver, Hy. Edwards. This example, 
the only one sent me by Edwards, from which I drew the description and which lias Edwards' label on it, 
is entirely different from wiiat he afterwards distributed as Mariana, which is au insect witii dark gray 
rather even-coloured primaries, which he had received from O. T. Baron in large numbers, he evidently 
not remembering what the type was like. 

Catocala Califoriiica W. H. Edwds. Proc. Ent. Soc. Phila. II. p. 500, 1864. One examjjle, Yreka, 
Caljfa., Til. Mead. 



36 

<'alo<'»lii Aspjisisi NIrook. 1. c. ]>. !M, 1S74. Tlirec exaiiij)lc!<, C'alifa. 

Calocala Itabayaea Sir«'<-k. I'Mjiilio ]\. \). 7:\, 1SS4. Four cxamitlcs, Arizona, J. Doll. 

<'alo4-ala AiiM'slrix Str«M-k. lycp. l!liii|). Ilct. ]>. ill!, t. XI., f. fi, 1S74. One t-xamplc, Dallas, Texas, 

.1. H,.ll. 
Catocala Anna Grote. Trans. Am. Ent. Sdc. \'. p. iXi, 1874. 

CaWu-ala Mas;<lal4>iia Strock, 1. c. p. !)."!, t. XI., f. 9, 1S74. One oxamplc, Indianapolis, Ind., Dr. G. 

.M. Livc'tte. 
Catocala Illecta 117/;. 0. H. Mns. Hot. XIII. p. 120o, ISo?. 

v'C'ulocala .lo4-a!iila SIrock. 1. c. p. It 17, 1S7'). One example, Kansas, Dr. W. B. Carpenter. 

Catocdlit Missdfiiia (ill. Sp. Gen. Noe. III. p. 107, 1852. 

Cafooa/n Bv//ra;/l,nia Ilanri/. Bull. Hnrt'. Soe. Nat. Si-. II. p. 28, 1874. 

Cnlooala I>clilali Nlr4'<-k. i. c. \i. OO, t. XI., f. 7, 1874. Two examples, Dalla.s, Texas, J. Boll. 
Catocala Adoptit'a tlrote. Trans. Am. Ent. Soc. \'. p. 96, 1874. 

» Cal«>4-ala Ali4>lali SJr4M'k. I. e. f. 8. One example, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll. 

t C'at4»4-ala Alarali >»(r«><'k. 1. e. p. 97, f. 10, 11. Two examples, Dallas, Tex., J. Boll. 
Catiiciilii Micnnii/iiijiliii (In. Spee. Gen. X^oct. III. ]>. 102, 1852. 
• Catocala Fratercula (i.-R. Proe. Ent. Soe. Phila. W. p. 21, t. I\'., f. 3, 1866. 

1 C'al4>4-ala ^I.yrrlm S(r«M'k. 1. e. p. 98. One example, Dallas, Texas, J. B(,)ll. 
(\it,H-alii Xiijitiuiiis H7/,-. ('. B. Mus. Het. III. p. 12(>t;, 1857. 

('al4»4-ala Jair >»(ri'4-k. Ent. Xews VIII. p. 1 Ki, 1897. Six examples, Florida, ('. Leonliard. 

<>l»lii<l4'r4'M l>ivili4>Ma Wlk, Proe. Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow I. p. 356, t. VII., f. 11, 18(!9. One example, 
Congo, AtV., T. A. Cliapman. 

T4»liia V4'r>*i4'4>lor >Vlk. 1. c. 355, t. \'11I., f". 10. One example, Congo, AtV., T. .V. ('Iia])man. 

EpixoiixiN ? \i;;('lliiM n. sp. 

He;ul and thornx dark purplish brown. Abdomen fuscous ;ind paler. Primaries dark purplish brown, a short black basal line. T. 
a. black, sliarplv defined and Irilobed. T. p. black, distinct, serrated, and bent sharply inward from above the discal spot to the costa 
where it is exteriorly edged with white. On the costa between this and the apex there are four small distinct white marks. .\ l>lack 
median shade. A small white conspicuous lunate discal mark. An irregular blackish subterminal shade, a row of sagittate black inter- 
vcnular marginal dots, the uppermost five of these are tipped exteriorly with white. Fringe same as ground colour of wing, ."second- 
aries fuscous same as abdomen with the faintest traces of mesial and submarginal lines. Under surface fuscous, the white marks on costa 
of upper side of primaries repeatetl; there is also a faint t. p. line. On secondaries faint mesial and submarginal lines and discal spot. 

Ex|)ands | inch. 1 y])e, one ex^imple, Illinois. I am not "eertaiii that tliis in.sect belongs to A);/sf((.r/.v, liiit if 

not it is closely allied thereto. 

\ Plialsi'iiida^. 

J — Nnl»iil4>4l4>M \4>iiaiiKnlala Strock. ^tippl. Lej). Pliop. Het. 2 p. 6, 1899. One example, Dallas, Texas, 

.1. B..11. I 

-^7-«Hr.ViiM'iM' (T«'<('ra4-is) ICxcH^sa Slro«-k, KiitK Kept. Dept. Missouri app. 8S. p. 18()3, t. II., f. 9, 187s. 
One examplev' Pagosi Springs, Col., MeCaidey. 

_y-^ .M4>iaii4>iiia VaiiiiMaria S«r4'«'k. Siippl. Lep. Khop. Het. 2 p. 6, 1899. One example, Xcw Mexico, 

.\. S. Fuller. 

^— -V'Eii4lr4»pia f 'aiii4liaria S(i't»4-k. 1. e. j). 7. One example, Chihiiahiia, Mcx. 

^ -Eu4lr4n>ia AiiM>lli.>staria Slr4'4'k. 1. e. p. 6. One example, Florida, J. Doll. 

~I':ii4lr4»pia Kirciiaria Slr4>4-k. I. e. p. 7. Four examples, Lativ)he, Pa., Amherst, Ma.ss., Leavenworth, 
Ks., and Cliieago, 111. 

Eii4lr4»pia Jn4-iiii4laria SlriM-k. 1. e. One example, Baltimore, Md. 

Tlu'i-iiia I'aliiaria Str4'4'k. 1. c. p. 8. One example, Montreal, Canada, F. B. Caulfield. 

,-Sio.va FaiiNliiiaria S»r4'4'k. 1. e. p. 7. Three ??, Holyoke, Mass., J. Chase, Norwich, Conn., A. Pear- 
son, Latrohe, Pa., Rev. .1. Sehniidt. 



37 

v' -Liyoliiiosea Riiiiciiiaria Sireek. 1. e. One example, Colorado, J. Doll. 

~C>ooiiietra Bellonaria SIrock. 1. c. ]). 8. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

— »»^A|>lo«los I'liilinaria Strook. Ruffner's Rept. Expl. Snrveys, Missouri, app. Sfs. ]>. 1862, t. II., f. 8, 1878. 
One example, Rio Navajo, Col., McCauley. 

IVemoria Aiiraiiticolorata Streck. Siippl. Lep. Rhop. Het. II. p. 8, 1899. One example, Florida, 

Whitfield. 

— JU Sc'liidax C'oroiiaria Stroi'k. 1. c. One example, Florida, A. Koebele. 

Phrygioiiis ArgpiitiMriata Strook. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sc. Pliila. p 152, 1876. One example, Florida, 
J. Doll. 

Mat-aria Tenearia Streck. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. p. 8, 1899. Two examples, Seattle, Wash., O. B. 
Johnson. 

Macaria AHoillaria Streck. 1. c. One example, Florida, J. Doll. 

Macaria I..apitaria Streck. 1. c. Two examples, Waco, Texas, Belfrage.; one, Dallas, Texas, J. Boll ; 
three, Chihuahua, Mex., A. Ellsworth. 

\ Maearia .Egaria Streck. 1. c. p. 9. One example, Colorado, D. Bruce. 

Mariiiopteryx Topazata Streck. 1. c. One example, Utah, A. J. Snyder. 

J Mariiiopteryx Forinosata Streck. Ruffner's Rept. Expl. Surveys Mo. app. SS. p. 1864. Two examples, 
Rio Florida, Col., McCauley. 

Thaiiinonoina Marinaria Streck. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. 2 p. 9, 1899. One example, Seattle, Wash., 
O. B. Johnson. 

Xozograiiiiiia Mcrcedulata Streck. 1. c. One example, San Francisco, Califa., R. H. Stretch. x- 

- Selitloseiiia Xigresceiis Iliilst. Can. Ent. XXX. p. 214, 1898. One example. New Mexico. . ,' 

C'arlpeta Sedactaria Streck. App. Lep. Rhop. Het. 2 p. 9, 1899. One example, Bethlehem, Penna., 
A. Conradi. 

U Fidoiiia Stalaclitaria Streck. Ruffner's Rept. Expl. Surveys, Mo. app. SS. p. 1862, t. II., f. 6, 1878. 
One example, Rio Navaj(i, Col., McCauley. 

Aiii«^ode8 I'inatillaria Streck. Suppl. Lep. Rhop. Het. 2 p. 9, 1899. One c?, Florida, J. Doll. 

t'leora Deiiiorsaria Streck. 1. c. One 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

C'leora Fiiuio»«aria Streck. 1. c. p. 10. Two d^c?, Florida, and Chicago, 111. 

t'leora Pliaiitasiiiaria Streck. 1. c. One cf, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

Itoariiiia Laiiiiaria Streck. 1. c. One ?, San Francisco, Cal., R. H. Stretch. 

Buariiiia Aiiielaria Streck. 1. c. Six ? 9, near El Paso, Chihuahua. 

-Boarinia Excelsaria Streck. 1. c. One 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

- liobopliora Si^igroaiigiilata Streck. 1. c. One example, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson. 

Pliilereiiie Optiinata Streck. 1. c. p. 11. One 9, Seattle, Wash., O. B. Johnson, c? 9, Colorado, D. 
Bruce. 

Oclirj'ia Aiitico»^tiata Streck. 1. c. Two J'c?, Anticosti Island, W. Couper. 

Ilydrioineiia BaiiaTalirata Streck. 1. c. One 9, San Francisco, Cal., R. H. Stretch. 

Hydrioiiieiia Ellitiata Streck. 1. c. One c?. New Berne, N. Carolina. 

Eiipithecia Crolgolata Streck. 1. c. One 9, Nevada. 

£upithecia liaisata Streck. 1. c. One example, Califa., Hy. Edwards. 



38 



DESCRIPTION 



NEOPHASIA EPYAXA, 

A new and curious Pierid from Arizona. 



By Dr. Herman Strecker, Reading, Pa., April 21, 1900. 



A remarkable insect was figured iu the last issue (April) of the Entomological News, No. 28, of t. II., 
and designated in the text as Archonias Lyceas God.-Salv. This, however, is a mistake, as the insect iu 
question is not an Archonias at all, hut a Neophasla, as is shown by the neuration, and for which I jjropose 
the name Neophasia Epija.ra. 

I have only seen the female in nature, and from this a full description is scarcely necessary, as the figure 
alluded to, which shows the upjier side, was made by photographic process, and is, of course, true to nature. 
This female I received from Mr. O. C. Poling, wlio took it in Cochise County, Southern Arizona, last 
year, and who also furnished the original of the figure already alluded to. It is the shape and size of 
Neophaaia Jlenapia ?. The ground colour aljove is a bright orange, and the black markings are nearly as in 
Menapia 9, but differ in that the whole discoidal cell of primaries is filled with black, which black extends 
•beyoad-tlie middle disco-cellular veii>, and connects on third median with the black border. On all wings 
tiie veins are heavily marked with black. The secondaries have a rather broad black outer margin, within 
which is a row of not very conspicuous intervenular orange spots. Under surface, jirimaries marked as above, 
and are orange except the marks or spots in the outer marginal band, which are light yellowish or buff. The 
secondaries are also of this latter colour. The black outer marginal band contains conspicuous light yellowish 
spots ; these are joined outwardly and connected with the edge by bright scarlet or vermilion spots. This 
colour is also on the edge of costa and inner margin, near and where they join the body, and also extends 
inwardly a short distance along the snbmedian, almost as in the more heavily red marked examples of 
Menapia 9. The antennse are entirely lilack. Head and body black. Eyes encircled Ijelow and in front by 
a yellow line. Abdomen with two pale ventnil lines, but being somewhat shriveled I cannot on this point 
define more exactly. 

The male I have not seen in nature, Ijut am informed it is white. If this be the case, and I believe it is, 
it presents the same sexual difference of colouration as is shown in the species of Perrhybrin, in which the 
males are white and the females red or yellow. In the group of Archonias, containing Dismorphitcs, Eurytda, 
etc., with a species of which this was confounded, the males do not differ iu colour from the females — both 
sexes being dark coloured, mostly l)lack and ferruginous. 

Were it not for the orange colour of the female, the resemblance of this insect to Menapia would be startling. 
It struck me the first time I saw it, especially the outer marginal parts of the under surface of secondaries, and 
serves to illustrate further what a wonderland is Arizona and the contingent country, one of the latest marvels 
from thence being a remarkable forni oi Ar<jynnis Nokomis, in which the female is blue. 



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31965 (^