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Full text of "The Lepidopterists' news : the monthly newsletter of the Lepidopterists' Society"

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Volume 10 



1956 



Numbers 1-2 



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Lepidopterists' News 



Published by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCl£T£ DES L£PIDOPT£RISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 



COLIAS HYBRIDIZATION 

A NEW MEGATHYMUS FROM NEW MEXICO 

PIERIS VIRGINIENSIS IN NEW AREAS 

THE HAND-PAIRING TECHNIQUE 

BIBLIOGRAPHY OF CATALOGUES 

j 

(Complete contents on back cover) 



10 August 1956 



EDITORIAL BOARD FOR THE SOCIETY 

Editor-in-Chief: CHARLES L. REMINGTON 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting): PETER F. BELLINGER 

Associate Editor 

("The Nearctic Butterflies"): F. MARTIN BROWN 

Associate Editor 

('Especially for Collectors"): James R. Merritt 



Harry K. Clench — Eugene G. Munroe 



NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE NEWS 

Contributions to The Lepidopterists' News may be on any aspect of the study 
and collection of Lepidoptera in any part of the world. Particularly solicited are: 1) 
review papers on subjects of general interest to lepidopterists {e.g., wing venation, 
mimicry, moth traps); 2) papers on such subjects as pre-adult stages, genetics, behavior, 
and comparative taxonomy (descriptions of new species and subspecies will be accepted); 
3) field notes of more than a very local nature; 4) notes on well-tested techniques. Papers 
of more than ten pages will not normally be accepted. 

Manuscripts should be typed if possible, but clear hand-written manuscripts are 
acceptable. ALL MANUSCRIPTS SHOULD BE DOUBLE-SPACED (blank lines 
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Ordinarily, manuscripts should be in English. However, the editors will attempt to 
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Russian. Authors of longer manuscripts who do not find English easy should prepare an 
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non-English languages with roman letters are always welcomed at the end of any paper. 

Titles must be kept as short as possible; Latin names of genera and species will be 
italicized, and authors of such Latin names WILL NOT APPEAR IN THE TITLE 
of any paper but must appear once in the text. THE STYLE SHOULD CONFORM 
TO THAT USED IN RECENT ISSUES OF THE NEWS. Please note exact style for 
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At least 50 gratis reprints of papers of more than one page (25 of short notes) 
will be provided to authors if requested at the time galley proof is received for correction. 
Additional reprints and covers may be ordered at cost, at the same time. 

Address editorial correspondence to: Dr. C. L. REMINGTON, Osborn Zoological Lab., 
Yale University, New Haven 11, Conn., U. S. A. 

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University, Ithaca, N. Y., U. S. A. 

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Printed in U. S. A. 

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New Haven, Conn. 



The Lepidopterists' News 



Volume 10 1956 Numbers 1-2 



NOTES ON MEGATHYMUS URSUS, WITH DESCRIPTION OF A 
RELATED NEW SPECIES ( MEGATHYMID^) 

by Don B. Stallings and J. R. Turner 

Megathymus ursus has intrigued us ever since we became interested in the 
genus Megathymus. There were probably two reasons: 1) its huge size and 2) its 
extreme rarity in collections. This species was described by Poling in 1902 from 
a single female specimen (Ent. News, vol 13: p. 97, pi. 4). The original des- 
cription reports the type caught in Pinal County, Arizona. No date for capture 
is given. It is interesting to note that while Poling described this as a new 
species he did not actually think that it was. He considered it the female of M. 
neumoegeni. 

Sometime in the early 1940s we started making inquiries about this species. 
We learned that at that time there were only three specimens known, all females 
and all in the Barnes Collection in the United States National Museum. The two 
specimens other than the type had the following data: Redington, Ariz., no date, 
and Santa Catalina Mts., Ariz., Pinal County, Aug. 16 — 23. 

Our first impression of M. ursus after viewing the colored plates of Poling 
and Holland was that it was an overgrown M. yuccce Bdv. & Lee. In as much as 
the Yucca feeders of this genus usually fly in the spring or early summer (whereas 
the Agave feeders usually fly in the late summer or fall), we decided that the 
normal period of flight should be in the late spring or early summer. Following 
this idea Don B. and VlOLA Stallings and sons, Dee and Jack, went into 
southeast Arizona in June of 1946 to hunt for M. ursus; that they did not find 
any was no great surprise. 

The next few years we did no active hunting for this species but did cor- 
respond with a great many collectors trying to get ideas as to when and where 
to look for it. We discussed the situation for hours with our friend, H. A. 
FREEMAN, who was just as interested in the subject as we were, and we have 
often wondered if our friend Lloyd M. Martin, of the Los Angeles County 
Museum, ever got tired of answering the many letters we wrote him on the 
subject. 

We discarded the idea of it being a Yucca feeder and turned to the Agave 
plants. One species, A. palmeri Engelmann, because of its huge size, was a prime 



2 STALLINGS & TURNER: A new Megathymus Vol.10: nos.1-2 

favorite as a possible food plant. This was not a new idea on our part, for most 
of the collectors who had hunted for M. ursus felt that A. palmeri was the plant. 

Our interest was renewed in 1949 when Martin advised us that R. H. Reid 
had captured a female in Madera Canyon in the Santa Rita Mts. of Arizona on 
Aug. 15th. In the fall of 1951 Dr. and Mrs. R. C. Turner decided to do some 
looking for this species. They returned home without any specimens, but with the 
report that while in the Museum of the Chiricahua National Monument in the 
Chiricahua Mts. of Arizona they saw a female specimen that had been caught in 
the Monument. The specimen had no date on it. They also brought back with 
them a huge bloom stalk of A. palmeri with a hole in it that had all the indica- 
tions of being the work of a larva of Megathymus. We were sure that this was 
the answer to our problem and that it was merely a matter of going back and 
collecting the larvae. We assumed that the larvae left the egg and went into the 
bloom stalk as it was growing. The following spring found Dr. and Mrs. Turner 
in Arizona again, but of course the bloom stalks had not commenced to grow. 
They returned home empty handed. 

On Aug. 24th, 1952, Robert J. Ford caught a female specimen in Madera 
Canyon. DON B. and ViOLA Stallings immediately left for Arizona. After 
considerable hunting they were able to find a bloom stalk with an occupant. It 
turned out to be a wild bee. Then they made a plant survey of all the possible 
areas where M. ursus had been found or might be expected. There was one 
potential food plant that was conspicious: Yucca schottii Engelmann. During 
1953 as we considered the problem further and discussed it with Freeman, we 
became convinced that M. ursus was a Yucca feeder and that Y. schottii was the 
food plant. That fall Martin advised us that another female had been caught in 
Madera Canyon on Aug. 10th. There were now 7 known specimens, all females, 
and four with dates of capture. 

In August of 1954 Dr. & Mrs. R. C. Turner and Don B., Viola, Dee, 
and Jack Stallings returned to Arizona in further search of M. ursus. Three 
days before they arrived in the Chiricahua Mts. there had been heavy rains which 
had done considerable eroding. On the morning of Aug. 18th at 10.30 A.M., 
while we were driving down Pinery Canyon in the Chiricahua Mts. at an eleva- 
tion of 6200 feet, a female M. ursus was spotted flying around several juvenile 
plants of Yucca schottii presumably trying to decide on which plant to deposit an 
egg. The plants were on the side of the mountain with a ten foot bank above the 
road. Jack Stallings was the first who was able to scale the bank with net in 
hand and he carefully swept the female into his net. As he flipped the net to com- 
plete the capture it caught on a thorn bush and an 18 inch hole was ripped in the 
net. The M. ursus was gone in a flash. Like Alexander he sat down and cried; — 
his father wanted to. No other specimens were observed on this trip. Careful 
search of the Y. schottii plants failed to turn up any larvae or pupae. Seven old 
"tents" were found in young plants, and in one the pupal case was still in good 
condition. There could be no doubt now as to the food plant of M. ursus. 

In March of 1955 Dr. and Mrs. Turner returned to the Chiricahua Mts. 
in a further search for larvae. In three days hard searching they found 8 larvae. On 
three of the plants with larvae the egg shell was still attached to the leaf. The eggs 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 3 

do not appear greatly different from the eggs of other Megathymus that feed on 
Yucca. The largest egg measured 4.25 mm., the average diameter was 4.0 mm. 
The female nearly always selects a tiny plant on which to lay an egg. It may be 
a new plant or a new shoot off of an old plant; it usually does not have over 15 
leaves. The plant is small enough so that normally the larva kills the plant or 
shoot, the leaves then flatten out on the ground, and tree leaves blow over the 
plant making it next to impossible to find the "tent". All larva-bearing Yucca 
were found in timber, usually on the side of a canyon or mountain. The larvae, 
still in their food plant, were brought back to Caldwell. On June 25 th three of 
the larvae were checked. All three had hymenopterous parasites (Eucoilidae). 
On July 7th the other five larvae were checked. Four of them had parasites; the 
last had an empty pupal case, still damp. Thereupon there was a frantic search of 
the basement area where these five larvae had been kept. Finally Mrs. Stallings 
found the remains: it was male; the abdomen was gone, one antenna remained, 
three wings were half gone, the fourth was in good condition. The conversation 
that ensued will not be repeated here. 

On July 17th the clan was gathered and fifteen of us left for the Chiricahua 
Mts. Seven of us were in the field for four days, despite the constant rain. The 
first day we found three "tents", all with larvae in about the third instar. This 
upset our thinking on what we should be finding until we realized that these 
were not M. ursus larvae, but were larvae of a species of the M. yuccas complex 
which normally feeds on Yucca conjinis McKelvey (our identification) but will 
on occasion lay eggs on Y. schottii. The second day one pupa was found, and on 
the third day two pupae were found. The fourth and last day yielded nothing. 
The first pupa hatched July 30th and was a male; the other two hatched August 
6th and were females. So far as we know these two males are the only males 
known. We will not go into any lengthy description, as the plates picture the male 
and female. It will be noted that the antenna of both sexes is white. The yellow 
wing-spots in both sexes have a bit more buff or orange color than we had ex- 
pected from the previous specimens we had examined. We designate the July 
30th male specimen, pictured herein, as the ALLOTYPE of M. ursus. 

We have more than 2000 specimens of Megathymus, three-fourths of which 
were reared from collected larvae or pupae. We have always been able to get a 
newly hatched specimen to crawl up on our finger and remain there for several 
minutes motionless, except with M. ursus. Once touched they seem to go crazy 
and begin to beat themselves to pieces. The party collecting the three pupae 
included Dr. and Mrs. R. C. Turner, Dr. and Mrs. J. R. Turner, Judith, 
Gayle and J. R. Jr., Mr. and Mrs. Don B. Stallings, Dee and Jack, R. L. 
Turner Jr., Mary Lee Turner, Mr. and Mrs. W. O. Raypholtz. 

In August of 1953 Dr. and Mrs. R. C. Turner, Dr. and Mrs. J. R. Turner, 
Judith and Gayle discovered some old tents in Yucca torreyi Shafer while 
doing some research in Carlsbad Caverns National Park in New Mexico. In 
March of 1954 Dr. and Mrs. R. C Turner returned to the area and collected 
7 larvae. The larvae did not look unlike larvae of members of the M. yuccas 
complex, but they continued to feed up to the first of May, whereas the larvae of 
the M. yuccas complex do little or no feeding after overwintering. Three of these 



4 Stallings & Turner: A new Megathymus Vol.10: nos.1-2 

larvae pupated and hatched. In March of 1955 Dr. and Mrs. R. C. Turner col- 
lected 4 larvae in the area as they were returning from the Chiricahua Mts. with 
the 8 M. ursus larvae. The M. ursus larvae were a full instar behind the Carlsbad 
larvae. In May 1955 more larvae were collected by Dr. J. R. Turner, Mrs. R. C. 
Turner, Jack and Mr. and Mrs. Don B. Stallings, and Kent Wilson, 
including 9 larvae in Yucca baccata Torrey. When the first specimen emerged 
in 1954 it was evident that we had something new and in our opinion the most 
beautiful of all the Megathymus now known. It is described as follows: 

Megathymus violce STALLINGS & TURNER, new species 

FEMALE. Upper surface of primaries: deep black with a small amount of white 
hairs at the base of the wing and a larger amount of white scales on the tip that gives the 
base and tip a gray appearance. Spot 1 (cell spot) is bright orange. Spots 2, 3, and 4 
(subapical spots) are elongated, the bottom two being bright orange in color and the top 
one white, with a white spot located inward from it. Spot 5 and 6 (submarginal spots) 
are bright orange and rather long. The discai band, composed of spots 7, 8, and 9, is 
bright orange. These spots are also elongated, being 8 mm. to 10 mm. long. The fringes 
are smoky with vein-tips black. Spots 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 are in alignment on the outer edge. 

Under surface of primaries: black with the tip and outer margin overscaled with 
white, giving that area a gray appearance. All dorsal spots reappear. Spots 1, 5, 6, 7, 8, 
and 9 are light orange. Spots 2, 3, and 4 are white. Spot 9 (bottom spot) extends inwardly 
(narrowly) almost to the base. 

Upper surface of secondaries: deep black with a small amount of white hairs at the 
base that creates a gray appearance in this area. There is a small, faint orange spot between 
veins Cui and M 3 . The fringes are white with vein tips black. 

Under surface of secondaries: black overscaled with white, giving a gray appearance. 
The veins do not carry the white overscaling, thus giving a very contrasting appearance. 
The costal area is heavily overscaled with white and has two white spots in it. There is 
a small white spot between veins Ai and Cu 2 in the anal area. 

Abdomen: black. Thorax: gray above, blackish below. Palpi: light gray. Antennae: 
white. Head: black around the eyes and gray around the antennae. 

Length of forewing from 35 mm. to 40 mm.; average 37 mm. Wing measurements 
of the Holotype: forewing, apex to base 39 mm., apex to outer angle 25 mm., outer angle 
to base 24 mm.; hindwing, base to end of vein Cui 28 mm. 

MALE. Upper surface of primaries: deep black with the same general overscaling as 
in the female, except in a smaller degree. The spots are the same as in the female, only 
smaller; however, spots 2 and 3 are white instead of bright orange. The fringes are check- 
ered gray and black. 

Upper surface of secondaries: deep black with a few white hairs at the base. The 
fringes are white with vein-tips black. 

Under surface of primaries: as in the female, except that spot 9 does not extend 
inwardly as much as in the female. 

Under surface of secondaries: as in the female, except that the white overscaling is 
more dense. 

Abdomen, thorax, palpi, antennae, and head as in the female. 

Length of forewing from 26 mm. to 31 mm., average 30 mm. Wing measurements of 
Allotype: forewing, apex to base 31 mm., apex to outer angle 20 mm., outer angle to base 
20 mm.; hindwing, base to end of vein Cu x 21 mm. 

The genitalia of both sexes are small compared to other species of Megathymus. 
The male genitalia of M. violce do not appear to be as dense as M. ursus. The apical portion 
of the valva of the male M. violae is less than 0.4 times as wide as the widest point in 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 5 

middle of the valva, while the apical portion of the valva of the male M. ursus is about 
0.6 times as wide as the widest point in middle of valva. In M. ursus the uncus seen in 
lateral view tapers evenly, whereas in M. violce it has a pre-apical enlargement before 
abruptly tapering to a point. In the female of M. ursus the genital plate has a strong lateral 
spur on each side, while in M. violce this spur is much weaker. (See figures.) 

Described from 21 specimens (7 males and 14 females), all ex-larvae. 
Specimens collected in the Carlsbad Caverns National Park in the Guadeloupe 
Mts., New Mexico. Food plant: Yucca torreyi Shafer. Not included in the type 
series are two females and three males, ex-larvse, that used Yucca baccata as a food 
plant. We have not been able to find characters to distinguish the Y. baccata 
feeders from the Y. torreyi feeders. 

HOLOTYPE, female, June 29, 1955 (Stallings & Turner); ALLOTYPE, 
male, June 26, 1955 (Stallings & Turner), both from Carlsbad Caverns 
National Park, New Mexico, are in the collection of the authors. One male and 
one female paratype is being deposited in each of the following collections: U. S. 
National Museum, American Museum of Natural History, Los Angeles County 
Museum, H. A. Freeman, Kent Wilson, Dr. C. L. Remington. 

We have seen fit to make the female the HOLOTYPE, particularly in view 
of the fact that M. ursus was described from a single female. We are seriously 
considering using females for Holotypes in future papers on this genus, because 
the female seems to present the distinguishing characters better. Nearly every 
entomologist with whom we have discussed this question agrees that it would 
probably be best to use the female. 

M. violce has two major characters by which it may easily be distinguished 
from M. ursus: 1) the wing spots are bright orange, almost red, in color; in 
M. ursus these are brassy yellow; 2) these spots are larger, particularly spot 9, 
which is as large as or larger than spots 8 and 7; in M. ursus spot 9 is somewhat 
smaller than 8 or 7. The food plants and habits are also quite different. M. ursus 
appears to prefer timbered areas, and the females at least, in searching for plants 
on which to deposit eggs, must fly under and through the timber and usually 
select plants on the side of mountains or canyons. M. violce nearly always selects 
plants on level terrain for oviposition. We found all of the larvae either on top 
of the mesa-like mountains or at the bottom of canyons. We doubt that the female 
normally flies above the brush line, for all larvae were found in open areas. A 
number of small areas were open and had ideal plants but were completely sur- 
rounded by brush; never did we find a "tent" in such an area. And while M. 
violce selects a small plant on which to lay her egg, it selects larger plants than 
does M. ursus, for the larva seldom kills the plant and in several instances we 
found two "tents" in a single plant, each larva with its burrow separate from 
that of its companion. 

We doubt that Y . baccata is a regular food plant of M. violce, for of the 9 
larvae collected all hatched, but 4 were unable to expand the wings. On the other 
hand, of the Y. torreyi feeders only two that hatched failed to expand. 

M. violce plays host to parasites both of the Tachinidae (Larvaevoridse) and 
the Eucoilidae, but thus far we have found M. ursus parasitized only by Eucoilidae. 



MEGATHYMUS 



PLATE 1 




Top row: Al. ursus $, Chiricahua Mts., Ariz., 6 Aug. 1955 (Specimen No. 136, 

S. & T. Coll.). 
2nd row: M. ursus 6 , Chiricahua Mts., Ariz., 30 July 1955 (No. 130, S. & T. Coll.). 

[Uppersides at left; undersides at right] 
Lower row: M. ursus genitalia, left to right: $ uncus and S valva (No. 130, S. & T. 

Coll.); 9 genital plate, Madera Canyon, Ariz., 15 Aug. 1949, R. H. Reid Coll. 

(No. 118). 



MEGATHYMUS 



PLATE 2 





Top row: M. violce HOLOTYPE 9, Carlsbad Nat. Park, N. Mex., 29 June 1955 

(S. & T. Coll.). 
2nd row: M. violce ALLOTYPE 6 , Carlsbad Nat. Park, N. Mex., 26 June 1955 

(S. & T. Coll.). 

[Uppersides at left; undersides at right] 
Lower row: M. violce genitalia, left to right: $ uncus and £ valva, Carlsbad Nat. 

Park, N. Mex., 31 May 1954 (No. 115, S. & T. Coll.); 9 genital plate, Carlsbad 

Nat. Park, N. Mex., 27 May 1954 (No. 116, S. & T. Coll.). 



8 Stallings & Turner: A new Megathymus Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Contrary to previous reports, M. ursus does have spines on the claw segment 
of the hind tibiae; however, they are few and small. M. violce has a good number 
of well developed spines in this area, twice as long as those of M. ursus. 

The M. ursus-violce complex can be distinguished from other species groups 
of the genus by the white antennae and the gray overscaling on the undersides 
of the secondaries, in which the veins do not carry the overscaling, thus creating 
a very contrasting appearance. 

M. violce is named for the wife and sister of the authors, who has played a 
major part in the work on the genus Megathymus. 

These two species seem to be combination sap feeders and pulp feeders; 
the burrow they make in the plant as larvse is usually not over six inches deep 
and they do not powder the burrow with the usual white powder of Megathymus 
until a few days before they pupate, whereas the members of the M. yuccce com- 
plex will often powder the upper portion of their burrow many weeks before they 
pupate. The burrow of other known Yucca feeding Megathymus is much deeper, 
and these appear to feed on pulp. The Agave feeders make little or no burrow 
beyond a space fitting the larval body, and these are presumed to feed on sap. 

Our limited experience with M violce and M. ursus indicates that their 
period of flight varies from year to year. The determining factor is probably the 
type of winter. If the winter is open and mild they probably fly early, and if the 
winter is severe or late they fly late. Our Carlsbad material in 1954 hatched 
from May 27th to June 4th, but in 1955 (which had a late freeze) the hatching 
period was from June 20th to July 8th. Normally we may expect M. ursus to fly 
during the month of August and M. violce to fly during the month of June, 

Some statistical information may be of interest. The average actual field 
time consumed per M. ursus collected was 11 Vi man hours (this was for the 
field work in 1955, when we knew what to look for and where to look) , and for 
M. violce it was IVa man hours per specimen. 

It is our guess that M. violce is now at the peak of a population increase, 
while M. ursus is at the bottom of a decline. This might explain in part why 
M. violce is now, in some instances, using Y. baccata as a food plant. It will be 
interesting to discover whether M. ursus ever uses any of the Y. baccata complex 
( Yucca confinis McKelvey, Yucca thornberi McKelvey, Yucca arizonica McKel- 
vey) as a food plant. 

We wish to thank the National Park Service for their cooperation in our 
research on these butterflies and particularly the personnel of Carlsbad Caverns 
National Park and Chiricahua National Monument. Our thanks also go to 
William D. Field of the U.S.N.M. for photographs of the Barnes specimens; 
Lloyd M. Martin, R. H. Reid and Robert J. Ford for the loan of specimens 
for dissection; H. A. Freeman and Drs. C. L. Remington and C. D. Michener 
for their advice and help in the preparation of this paper. 

Caldwell, Kansas, U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists* News 9 

HYBRIDS BETWEEN COLIAS EURYTHEME AND C. INTERIOR 

(PIERID^E) 

by Shigeru Albert Ae 

Hybrids in the genus Colias present problems in the fields of genetics, 
ecology, and evolution. Studies of the hybrids between C. eurytheme and C. 
philodice have been published by Gerould (1923, 1943, 1946), Hovanitz 
(1943, 1944a, 1944b, 1948, 1949a, 1949b) and Remington (1954), and 
the mechanism of it was clarified partly. This paper is a preliminary report 
on a study of hybrids between C. eurytheme and C. interior. C. interior is a 
more northern species than C. eurytheme which feeds upon the Sour Top 
Blueberry {V actinium canadense) and other V actinium. Recently the pos- 
sible existence of hybrids between C. interior and C. philodice in the field 
was suggested (Hovanitz 1949b), and later a female, combining the character- 
istics of interior and philodice, was taken near Cheboygan, Michigan, June 29, 
1951, with a large number of typical specimens of interior; Dr. A. B. Klots 
suggested that it must be a hybrid (Voss 1954). 

MATERIAL AND METHODS 

The process of obtaining intra- and interspecific ma tings of Colias which 
the writer used is the following. Healthy males, usually 6 to 12, are placed in 
the usual insect cage, of which its upper side is also of netting, under the sun, 
at 8:00-9:00 A. M.. New females usually emerge from late morning to after- 
noon. As soon as a female emerges, she is placed into the cage of males under 
the sun. A copulation usually takes place within 30 minutes, if it occurs, 
although it may occur much later occasionally. 

About 500 pupae of C. eurytheme and C. philodice were raised in the 
green house of the University of Notre Dame, in several insect cages, 30 cm. 
cubed. White Clover was used as a food plant. These pupae were brought 
to the Biological Station, University of Michigan, Cheboygan, Michigan, on 
June 28, 1954. Many females emerged between June 29 and July 9. 

Matings were tried in the above mentioned way, at Mud Lake and at 
Elliot's Creek, where C. interior is usually found, and outdoors at the Bio- 
logical Station, using females of C. eurytheme which emerged at the labora- 
tory and wild C. interior males which were collected at Mud Lake or Elliot's 
Creek. Females emerged within 24 hours, and pupae which were just about 
to emerge were brought to Mud Lake or Elliot's Creek. C. interior males were 
placed in the cage of females as soon as they were collected. Usually 6 — 12 
males and 6 — 12 females were in the cage at a time. Both interior males and 
eurytheme females were exposed at least for 2 hours under the sun. C. interior 
males were active only under the bright sun in the cages, as in the field. About 
70 males of interior, in all, were used for matings on two afternoons at Elliot's 
Creek, two afternoons at Mud Lake, and four mornings and two afternoons 
outdoors at the Station. Only at Elliot's Creek, where two bright afternoons 
were spent in the effort, did the interior males readily try to copulate with 



10 Ae: Colias hybrids Vol.10: nos.1-2 

eurytheme females. On the second afternoon at the Creek (July 9), one 
interior male, caught several minutes before, copulated from 2:08 to 3:15 P. M. 
with an orange eurytheme female which had emerged within 30 minutes. 
Mating outdoors at the Station was tried, with mating between eurytheme fe- 
males and males as a control. Although a total of 13 matings were obtained 
between eurytheme females and males during the period without any difficulty, 
no mating between e?irytheme females and interior males was obtained during 
the same period. 

The females which were used for the matings were of the species C. 
eurytheme, either the white or orange forms. Some of them might have had a 
series of C. philodice genes, because they were the progeny of the wild eury- 
theme females which were caught in a place where eurytheme and philodice 
were both abundant. But the majority of these were phenotypically eurytheme. 
It was impossible to use philodice for mating, because almost all of the philo- 
dice adults emerged before any interior was found in the field. 

RESULTS 

The orange female of C. eurytheme (W. 15. 62) which was mated to 
C. interior laid eggs on the leaves of White Clover at Notre Dame. Thirty- 
two eggs were laid on July 12 (group A), 25 on July 13 (group B), 26 on 
July 14—20 (group C). Less than 10 eggs (between 6 and 9) were excluded 
from the above count because they failed to turn red and were presumably 
infertile. One of the causes that eggs failed to turn red was observed to be 
sucking by small insects or arachnids. Towards the end of egg laying, there 
is also a possibility that the mother butterfly did not receive enough sperm 
from the C. interior male. It is difficult to determine the egg fertility under 
this condition, but even if it is presumed that all eggs which did not turn red 
were non-fertile, the percentage of non-fertile eggs is about 10%, because the 
total number laid was about 90. 

Groups A and B were bred in the greenhouse, and group C was bred in 
a special growth room which was kept at 75° F., 75 % relative humidity, and 
10 hours fluorescence light illumination per day. The eggs from intraspecific 
matings of C. eurytheme were raised at the same time in both places as controls. 

None of the fertile eggs died before hatching in groups A and B, and 
only a few died, just before hatching, in group C. No deaths of larvae were 
observed in the first and second instar stages in any of the three groups. 

From group A, 26 hybrid males emerged in 6 days (August 8 — 13). The 
growth rates of these males equalled the growth rate of 8 control C. eurytheme 
males which emerged from August 10 to August 18. But the growth rate of the 
other six larvae of group A was extremely slow. Although one of them continued 
to grow and emerged as a female on August 26 (control — 11 C. eurytheme 
females from August 9 to 17), the others stopped growing at the 3rd or 4th 
instar. 

Sixteen pupae were obtained from group B with the ordinary growth rate. 
Ten males emerged from these, while six were kept in the refrigerator. (These 
six pupae died before winter in the refrigerator.) 



1956 The Lepidopterists* News 11 

Including groups A and B, 15 larvae of the 3rd and 4th instars were counted 
on August 24. None were feeding. Nine of these larvae were refrigerated 
from August 24 to August 31, and removed to the greenhouse again. They did 
not begin to feed and died one by one, as did the other six which were not re- 
frigerated. 

The larvae of group C, in the growth room, grew at the same rate as the 
controls until the 3rd instar, but they stopped feeding at the 3rd instar (a few in 
4th instar) and remained largely motionless for about 10 days at the beginning 
of August. They were removed to the greenhouse on August 17. They were 
kept in the greenhouse only during daytime, when the temperature was 80° 
to 100° F., and were removed to the growth room at night to prevent chilling. 
After this was repeated for several days, they began to feed again one by one 
from August 21 to 23. After the evening of August 24, they were kept in the 
growth room continuously. Because of this non-feeding stage, the first larva 
of the hybrids entered the 5 th instar 22 days later than the first one of the 
C. eurytheme controls. By August 24 the number of larvae had decreased to 12 
from the initial number of 26 eggs. The first butterfly emerged on September 
5 and the last one on October 2. The total number was 10, and all were males. 
The other two seemed to grow very slowly but they died around the middle 
of October, without reaching 5 th instar. 

From the control brood which was raised in the growth room, 13 males 
emerged from August 11 to 19, and 8 females emerged from August 14 to 19. 

There was only one prominent difference observed in the shape or color- 
ation of egg, larva, and pupa of the hybrids in comparison with the control 
(C. eurytheme) . This difference is in the larva. At the 4th instar, the hybrids 
showed a crimson line along the spiracular fold, but not so bright, while C. 
eurytheme had a white line. At the 5th instar, the hybrid larvae showed a very 
clear crimson line, but C. eurytheme showed an orange line. This might be an 
expression of intermediacy of larval coloration, since C. interior larvae have 
a bright crimson line. 

The size of adult male hybrids raised in the greenhouse is the same as for 
eurytheme which emerged in the greenhouse during the same period. The 
pterine coloration was intermediate between eurytheme and interior, namely 
slightly orange. The orange pigment is distributed over most of the upper side 
of both wings. The individual variation of intensity of orange coloration is 
very slight among the 26 males. The color grade [9 (=most red) — ( = 
yellowest) of Hovanitz] is 5, and rather closer to 4 than to 6. Submarginal 
dark spots (lacking in interior but present in eurytheme) , and the dark spot 
on the costa of the hind wing (usually lacking in interior but present in eury- 
theme) exists in the hybrid, and the discocellular spot on the hind wing in the 
hybrid is double (single in interior and usually double in eurytheme) . These 
characters are uniform among the 26 hybrid males, and all of these spots are 
comparatively weak in comparison with similar spots of eurytheme. The author 
did not examine the color grade of control eurytheme in the greenhouse, since 
no reduction from typical eurytheme was found by simple checking. It will be 
possible to examine them in detail, because the samples are being saved. 



12 Ae: Colias hybrids Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Unfortunately the one hybrid female failed to extend her wings. Melanin 
coloration and the shape of the tip of the abdomen expressed clearly the female 
character. Though it is very difficult to decide the orange color grade, it seems 
to show intermediate coloration. All of the larvae of Ft hybrids which showed 
the ordinary growth rate emerged as males. These made up more than half of 
the Fx population. Only one of the larvae with the slower growth rate emerged, 
and this was a female. Hence it may be that all or most of the slow-growing 
larvae were females. 

The characteristics of males which were raised in the growth room are as 
follows. The size of these males was smaller than that of the males which emerged 
in the greenhouse, but they were equal in size to the C. eurytheme controls. 
The orange color grade was mainly reduced to 3 (8 of grade 3, 1 of grade 4, 
and 1 of grade 5 ) . The differences in melanin coloration between males raised 
in the greenhouse and males raised in the growth room were approximately the 
same as the differences between the typical C. eurytheme male and its cold 
weather form (Klots, 1951). Orange color grades of the control eurytheme in 
the growth room are the following: 7 grade 9, 2 grade 8, 2 grade 7 males and 
5 grade 8 females. The reduction of orange color toward the tip of the fore 
wings of the upper side is somewhat prominent. A part of this brood which 
was raised in the greenhouse was typical eurytheme. 

Hybrid males were very active in the cages and copulated readily with 
orange C. eurytheme females. Six backcrosses were obtained within 4 days 
(August 9 — 12). About 12 females of orange eurytheme and about 20 hybrid 
males were used in the backcross attempts (according to my usual procedure). 
Three of the above females laid eggs (W.17.22.3, W. 17.22.7, and W.17.23.4), 
while the other three females died without laying eggs about 10 days after their 
copulation. W.17.22.3 laid about 140 eggs on the leaves of White Clover, and the 
fertility of these eggs was about 91%; W.17.22.7 laid about 90 eggs on the 
leaves of Alfalfa, and the fertility of her eggs was about 98^ r ; and W.17.23.4 
laid more than 50 eggs on the leaves of White Clover, but all of them failed 
to turn red and dried up. 

The progeny of W.17.22.3 was divided into 2 groups, designated D and E. 
Group D was raised in the greenhouse and group E was raised in the growth 
room from the first instar stage, under the same conditions as the Fi. White 
Clover was given to both groups as a foodplant. The progeny of W.17.22.7 
was raised in the greenhouse on Alfalfa. The growth rate of the majority of 
backcross larvae was the same as that of C. eurytheme larvae which were bred as 
controls, but a few were very slow like the F x hybrids, though no larvae stopped 
feeding. In this case the females emerged at the same time as the males, but the 
butterflies which emerged latest were all females. 

DISCUSSION 

Since C. interior has only one generation a year and has a diapause in the 
young larval stage, it is difficult to rear, and wild interior males were used for 
the first hybridization trial instead of laboratory bred males. The difficulty 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 13 

of obtaining matings between C. interior and C. eurytheme is considered rather 
natural, since this mating is interspecific. 

Although the interior male which mated with eury theme has very clear 
characteristics of interior, a doubt remains concerning its identification, since 
the difference between males of interior and philodice is rather slight. Repeti- 
tion of the experiment is required for assurance, but the peculiarity of the life 
history of the hybrid gives good support for considering it interior. The hybrid 
larvae entered the non-feeding stage at a high temperature (75 degrees F.). 
This can be considered as either the inheritance of a character related to the 
northern range of interior, or a peculiar character of this kind of hybrid. Larvae 
of philodice, eurytheme, and of hybrids between philodice and enrytheme had 
no diapause in the growth room under the same conditions under which the 
hybrids between eurytheme and interior were raised. The long emergence 
period of the backcross broods might also be a peculiar result of this hybrid 
crossing, though in this case, the decrease of density of larvae in the cage may 
be a cause of it. 

C. interior is a V actinium- feeding species. Therefore, the possible de- 
leterious effects to the hybtid from a White Clover diet must be considered for 
all results, in spite of the low mortality of the hybrid larvae in the young stage 
and the production of fertile hybrid males. 

Studies of the characteristics of the backcrossed individuals and their 
progenies have been made. However, these data are not conclusive and are 
not presented in this report. 

SUMMARY 

1. One hybrid mating was obtained between a Colias eurytheme orange fe- 
male raised at Notre Dame, Indiana, and a C. interior male collected in Cheboy- 
gan County, Michigan. 

2. From the eggs from this female, 46 males and 1 female emerged as imagines. 

3. Orange coloration intermediate between the deep orange of C. eurytheme 
and the yellow of C. interior was observed in the hybrid males. 

4. The hybrid larvae entered a non-feeding stage in the third instar under 
conditions of 75° F., 75° /r RH, and 10 hours fluorescent light a day. They 
began to feed again in the hot greenhouse. 

5. Presumed females of the hybrids entered a non-feeding stage in the green- 
house also and failed to survive the non-feeding stage (except one female 
which emerged). 

6. The hybrid males were at least partly fertile, and progeny were obtained 
by backcrossing to C. eurytheme females. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The author wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. EDWARD O. DODSON 
for direction of the research and for help in writing this paper; to other faculty of the 
Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, for their advice; to Dr. Alfred H. 



14 



AE: Colias hybrids 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 



STOCKARD, University of Michigan Biological Station, for facilities given; to Dr. W. 
HOVANITZ for the orange color grade sample of hybrid eurytheme-philodice and for his 
advice; to Dr. E. G. VOSS for his help in making crosses at Cheboygan and for his advice; 
to Dr. A. E. Brower, Dr. J. H. Gerould, Dr. H. B. Hungerford, Dr. A. B. Klots, 
Dr. T. Komai and Dr. C. L. Remington for their advice; and to Mr. W. F. Ward 
for taking care of the food plants at Notre Dame during the author's experiment at 
Michigan. 

Literature Cited 

Gerould, J. H., 1923. Inheritance of white wing color, a sex-limited (sex-controlled) 
variation in yellow pierid butterflies. Genetics 8: 495 — 551. 

, 1943. Genetic and seasonal variations of orange wing-color in Colias 

butterflies. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 86: 405—438. 

, 1946. Hybridization and female albinism in Colias pbilodice and C. 

eurytheme. A New Hampshire survey in 1943 with subsequent data. Ann. Ent. 
Soc. Amer. 39: 383—396. 

Hovanitz, W., 1943. Hybridization and seasonal segregation in two races of a butter- 
fly occurring in together in two localities. Biol. Bull. 85: 44 — 51. 

1944a. The ecological significance of the color phases of Colias 
chrysotheme in North America. Ecology 25: 45 — 60. 

, 1944b. Genetic data on the two races of Colias chrysotheme in North 

America and on a white form occurring in each Genetics 29: 1 — 30. 

, 1948. Ecological segregation of inter-fertile species of Colias. Ecology 

29: 461 — 469. 

, 1949a. Interspecific matings between Colias eurytheme and Colias 

philodice in wild populations. Evolution 3: 170 — 173. 

, 1949b. Increased variability in populations following natural hybrid- 
ization. Genetics, Paleontology, and Evolution: 339 — 355. 

Klots, A. B., 1951. A field guide to the butterflies: 183—186. 

Remington, C. L., 1954. The genetics of Colias (Lepidoptera). Advances in Genetics 

6: 403 — 450. 
Voss, E. G., 1954. The butterflies of Emmet and Cheboygan Counties, Michigan, 

with other notes on northern Michigan butterflies. Amer. Midland Nat. 51: 

87—104. 

Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind., U. S. A. 




1956 The Lepidopterists' News 15 

NOTES ON PARABASIS PRATTI, A "MISLAID" 
NOTODONTID FROM NEW GUINEA 

by Harry K. Clench 

When Bethune-Baker (1904: 429, pi. 4, fig. 26) described the new 
genus and species, Parabasis pratti, from Dinawa, British New Guinea, he 
placed it, for some unaccountable reason, in the family Noctuidse. It was so 
listed in the Zoological Record for 1904 (Sharp 1905: 267), but appears sub- 
sequently to have been nowhere referred to. Gaede ( 1934) does not mention 
it in his catalogue of the Notodontidae, nor does he (1930) list it in Seitz. 
It is apparently not mentioned in any of Hampson's volumes on the Noctuidae 
(Cat. Lep. P balance) . 

While arranging some Indo-Australian moths in the museum collection 
I found a pair of this striking and unmistakable insect: two males, one in 
excellent condition from the Kwimi River, S. of Hollandia, Dutch N. Guinea, 
I4.iii.1937 (W. Stueber); the other, somewhat worn, from Uskwar, Bewani 
Mts., nr. Hollandia, 7.iii.l937 (Stueber). These two differ from Bethune- 
Baker's excellent colored figure only in minor particulars. 

Some years later, Joicey & Talbot ( 1915: 300, pi. 12, fig. 11) described 
a second species, felixi, from two males and a female from the Angi Lakes, 
Arfak Mts. (Vogelkop), 6000 ft., Dutch N. Guinea. These authors failed to 
indicate in any way the family to which Parabasis belongs. 

It may be useful to redescribe the important structural characters of this 
genus, since Bethune-Baker's description is too brief to be of much service. 
The following description, of course, is based on P. pratti and refers only to 
the male. The female appears to remain unknown. 

Antennae equally bipectinate to within about 20 segments of the tip, the longest 
rami about the length of four shaft segments; thence to tip, simple; shaft scaled dorsally, 
the rami unsealed. Antennal scape rather large, dorsally convex, lateroventrally ex- 
cavated as a sort of eyecap, with a tuft of long hairs ventrally and mesially; the scape 
is black dorsally, yellow ventrally (not "with black sockets" as described by BETHUNE- 
Baker). Palpi (fig. 2) densely scaled, upturned to below upper border of eye, the 
second segment long and sigmoid, the last segment short, deflexed. Proboscis present. 
Vertex and frons (fig. 2) densely covered with long, nearly erect scales. The legs are 
subapressedly scaled, save for the femora which all have ventral fringes of erect hair- 
scales or scales. The fore leg has a lateral tuft of very long hair-scales, apparently aris- 
ing on the trochanter and extending to the apex of the femur, which has a subapical 
dorsal transverse fringe of curved scales grasping the end of this tuft something after 
the fashion of a retinaculum. The hind tibia has two pairs of spurs of very unequal 
length, the inner spur of each pair being over twice as long as the outer, and nearly 
half as long as the tibia itself. 

The venation is illustrated in the accompanying cut ( fig. 1 ) and needs no 
further discussion, save for one point. In Bethune-Baker's description appears 
the following: "close to the base of 8 [Sc] a short sharp spur is emitted at right 
angles to the vein." Unless a specimen is examined this is almost certain to be 
misinterpreted as a costad-directed spur vein or supernumerary vein. This, how- 
ever, is not at all the case. The spur he mentions is a most singular structure 



16 



CLENCH: Parabasis pratti 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 



(fig. 3), which leaves at right angles (or nearly so) to the lower surface of 
the wing itself, almost immediately curving posteriorly and ending in a sharp 
point. It is heavily sclerotized and almost completely hidden in the basal scal- 
ing of the under surface of the wing. It becomes visible on wetting the wing for 
venational study, but is best studied dry, when the scales around it can be 
carefully scraped away with a needle. The purpose of this curious structure 
remains unknown to me, though Jordan (1923: 154) offers some interesting 
possibilities in his discussion of the notodontid cteniophore. He observed it, 
apparently usually or always in association with the cteniophore, in a number 
of different species of the family. 




EXPLANATION OF FIGURES 

Parabasis pratti Bethune-Baker, male. 

Fig. 1. Venation. 

Fig. 2. Profile of head. 

Fig. 3. Detail of base of hind wing under surface, to show the erect hook arising out of 
the base of vein Sc. 

Fig. 4. Second and third abdominal segments, viewed from the left, showing the cten- 
iophore arising from the third sternite. 



The cteniophore of Jordan (loc. cit.) is well developed in Parabasis 
pratti (fig. 4). but presents several peculiarities. First of all, it appears to be a 
process of the third abdominal sternite, rather than the fourth as JORDAN found 
in other notodontids. Second, it is not armed with any spines at all, making 
the term "cteniophore" a misnomer in this particular instance. It arises out 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 17 

of the anterodorsal corner of the sternite, and is straight, tapering, directed 
anterodorsalJy. Its posterior or dorsal edge is a continuation of the dorsal 
border of the sternite, and its anterior or ventral edge a prolongation of the 
anterior edge of the sternite. The cteniophore is laterally (or posterolateral^ ) 
excavated, forming a long trough-like pocket which extends down the anterior 
edge of the sternite, becoming shallower and eventually disappearing. 

Immediately below the cteniophore, the second sternite (cf. fig. 4) is in 
lateral view very shallow, due to a ventral excavation of considerable pro- 
portions. 

References 

Bethune-Baker, G. T., 1904. New Lepidoptera from British New Guinea. Novit. 

Zool. 11: 367-429, pis. 4-6. 
Gaede, M., 1930. Notodontidae, in Seitz, Grossschmett. Erde 10: 605-655, pis. 

, 1934. Notodontidae. Lep. Cat., pars 59. 

Joicey, J. J., & G. Talbot, 1915. New Species of Heterocera from Dutch New Guinea. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) 15: 295-301, pi. 12. 
Jordan, K., 1923. On the Comb-Bearing Flap present on the Fourth Abdominal Segment 

in the Males of certain Notodontidae. Novit. Zool. 30: 153-154, pi. 2, figs. 9-13 
Sharp, D., Insecta in Zoological Record for 1904. 

Section of Entomology, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U. S. A. 



A NOTE ON GENITALIC STRUCTURE 

Some years ago I noted with only passing curiosity a reference by WARREN {Trans. 
Roy. Ent. Soc. London 1944: p. 9) to the fact that the eighth segment should be regarded 
as a proper part of the male genitalic apparatus. Others may be as surprised as I have been 
to learn that WARREN'S observation marks no mere academic theory, but that it is indeed 
advisable always to examine the eighth segment critically. Invariably, in the female 
anatomy, this segment is given over to modifications sexual in function, but I had pre- 
sumed that almost invariably it is unspecialized in males. Recently, however, I made a 
preparation of an unknown butterfly species from Angola in which the segment is com- 
plexly elaborated and exceedingly bizarre. This male specimen additionally bore the full 
complement of parts on the ninth segment. 

L. P. GREY, R.F.D., Lincoln, Me., U. S. A. 



18 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

NOTES ON PIER1S VIRGIN1ENSIS AND ERORA LJETA — TWO 
BUTTERFLIES HITHERTO UNREPORTED FROM MICHIGAN 1 

by Edward G. Voss and Warren H. Wagner, Jr. 

Once confused with P. napi Linne, Pieris virginiensis Edw., the "West 
Virginia White," is a rather rare and local species, heretofore known over an 
area extending from Ontario, New England, and New York, southward to North 
Carolina (cf. Merritt in Chermock, 1953). The butterfly has not previously 
been reported from the state of Michigan, although our present observations 
indicate that it occurs abundantly in certain localities in the northern part of 
the state. Once attention is called to this species and to the habits which dis- 
tinguish it from the common Cabbage Butterfly, Pieris rupee Linne, and the 
Gray-veined White, P. napi, as these species occur in Michigan, we believe that 
collectors in the state will discover localities additional to the five herein reported. 

The collections of the University of Michigan Museum of Zoology contained 
only two Michigan specimens of P. virginiensis, both having been detected in 
1955 in the series of P. napi. The earliest specimen taken in the state is apparently 
the 2 captured over 40 years ago by T. H. Hubbell at Benzonia, Benzie Co., 
May 19, 1914. This remains the southernmost record in the state, being approxi- 
mately one degree of latitude south of the other known Michigan localities, all 
of which are in the general vicinity of the Straits of Mackinac. In addition, the 
Museum collection contains a $ taken by Sherman Moore at St. Ignace, in 
the Upper Peninsula (Mackinac Co.) on May 21, 1922. 

Recognition of this species in Michigan was first made on the basis of a 
specimen taken (Voss) May 15, 1954, in Emmet Co. The determination was 
confirmed by A. B. Klots, who wrote that he did not know of any authentic 
Michigan records. This specimen, a $ , was taken in a very fine stand of mature 
beech-maple-hemlock woods ("Hastings Woods") on the southwest side of 
Crooked Lake (sec. 19, T35N, R4W), about six miles northeast of Petoskey. 
The day was cloudy, with intermittent light rain, and unfortunately no insect 
net was carried into the woods. However, several of the butterflies were seen, 
and the single specimen which was captured was taken by hand as it visited a 
blossom of Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb., which was abundant in the 
woods. Dentaria diphylla Michx., although not yet in flower, was occasional, and 
is presumably the foodplant of this species in the region, as D. laciniata Muhl. 
is extremely rare in the county. 

After the specimen was determined later in the season, it was naturally 
planned to return to the woods during the corresponding weekend the following 
spring. Two weeks earlier, however, on April 30, 1955, P. virginiensis was unex- 
pectedly encountered ( Voss ) on a sandy woods road in Bliss Township, Emmet 
Co., about 20 miles north of the previous station. This locality is described in 
detail below under the discussion of Erora Iceta, which was found here when 



1 This paper is a contribution from the Biological Station of the University of Michigan. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 19 

both of us visited the spot on May 14 — at which time virginiensis continued 
to be common. Old fields and some young second-growth woods characterize 
the roadsides here, but virginiensis was found to be even more common in the 
deeper woods about one-half mile to the west of the spring-fed damp spot where 
the species was first noticed on the open road, particularly in the morning hours 
before noon. At this locality, no P. napi were observed. (We never did return 
to the Crooked Lake woods in 1955, having found so good a place elsewhere.) 

On May 15, 1955, a very large colony of P. virginiensis was discovered 
(WAGNER) in the Upper Peninsula in rich deciduous woods in the limestone 
region near the Daggett Fire Tower, in Mackinac Co. (about four miles south 
of the Chippewa Co. line and about 9 miles southwest of Pickford). This colony 
was of special interest in making possible a comparison between the habits of 
P. virginiensis and of P. napi, the two species which were for a long time con- 
sidered by many to be only varietally distinct. Field observations on their be- 
havior wholly support the present generally accepted view that these are two 
distinct species. 

The area near Daggett Tower is made up of rich woods strewn with 
dolomite boulders and criss-crossed by old lumbering trails. The dominant 
tree here is sugar maple, Acer sac ch arum Marsh., and the most conspicuous 
herbaceous plants in mid-May were Trillium grandiflorum, Viola canadensis L., 
and Dentaria diphylla. The dissected leaves of Dicentra and the large simple 
leaves of Allium tricoccum Ait. were prominent, but the flowers of the former 
had mostly fallen and those of the latter were not to be expected for another 
month. 

Pieris virginiensis was extremely abundant in these woods and at all times 
during a period between 11:30 a.m. and 12:30 p.m. — even when the sky was 
somewhat overcast — there were several individuals in sight, flying through 
the understory vegetation. Along the main dirt road only rare individuals of 
virginiensis were seen, and these usually would alight in the damp spots. Practi- 
cally all of the specimens were flying entirely within the deep woods — a habit 
conspicuously different from the imported P. rapce. And when the occasional 
roadside specimen was frightened, it would fly straight into the woods, in con- 
trast to the habit of P. rapce of staying in the open. The minor lumbering trails 
in the woods were ideal collecting places, for they possessed muddy spots where 
individuals would land, in addition to providing access to the dense woods. 
However, the butterflies proved to be much less attracted to muddy spots here 
than to the flowers of Viola canadensis. 

Pieris napi was observed at this locality particularly along the main open 
roads, usually gathered at wet spots. The differences between this species and 
P. virginiensis were obvious and conspicuous: P. napi has a bolder, swifter flight 
than P. virginiensis; in the latter the flight is slow and weak. The color of 
P. napi is much more chalky white; in P. virginiensis the appearance of the 
flying insect is grayish. At this time, the specimens of P. virginiensis were more 
or less worn and included both <$ S and 2 2 , while those of P. napi were 
fresh and nearly all $ $ , suggesting that the first appearance of napi follows 



20 



VOSS & WAGNER: Pieris and Erora 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 




Fig. 1. Northern Michigan Pieris and Erora taken in 1955. All specimens show the 
upper surface except as specified. 
TOP: left, P. napi $ , Emmet Co., May 14; center & right, P. virginiensis 9- , Mackinac Co., 

May 15. 
SECOND: left, P. napi 6 , under side, Mackinac Co., May 15; center & right, P. virginiensis 

$ y Mackinac Co., May 15. 
THIRD: darker form of P. virginiensis $, under side: left, Emmet Co., May 14; center, 

Mackinac Co., May 15; right, Emmet Co., April 30. 
FOURTH: P. virginiensis $, under side: left & right, Mackinac Co., May 15; center, 

Emmet Co., April 30. 
FIFTH: Erora lceta, Emmet Co., May 14: left, $; center, $ under; right, 9. 



1956 The Lepi-dopterists' News 21 

that of virginiensis, at least in this area, by perhaps one or two weeks. When 
taken, the specimens of the spring form of napi are strikingly differentiated by 
the bright blackish-green shading along the veins of the under side of the hind 
wings; in virginiensis, this shading is a diffuse gray. In some very dark specimens 
of P. virginiensis, the diffuse gray bands which follow the veins are nearly con- 
fluent, practically covering the entire wing surface with shading. (See fig. 1, 
third row.) At the time of these observations, the sky was intermittently cloudy 
and clear, and there had evidently been rain in the region during the previous 
night. The only other butterflies which were seen were a few specimens of 
Lyccenopsis pseudargiolus Bdv. & Lee. and Papilio glaucus Linne. 

As noted above, it was on a return to the Bliss Township, Emmet Co., 
station for Pieris virginiensis that we joined the fraternity of Erora Iceta Edw. 
collectors on May 14, 1955. Previously unknown from Michigan — or, for that 
matter, anywhere in the northern Great Lakes region — this exceedingly rare 
butterfly had been reported, often from only one or two specimens per locality, 
at scattered places from London, Ontario (type locality, 2 S 6 taken by 
SAUNDERS in 1861), Quebec, and Nova Scotia, southward to Virginia, Ten- 
nessee, and Kentucky (cf. Clark & Clark, Field, and Klots). It seems to have 
been most often taken in Vermont, and has recently (Hessel, 1952) been 
reported above timber line on Mount Washington, New Hampshire. 

How many individuals we may have scared away in pursuit of Pieris 
virginiensis we do not care to contemplate; suffice it to say that VOSS, having 
taken adequate virginiensis at this locality two weeks before, was gathering 
small butterflies from a moist spot in the road — hardly consciously thinking of 
what they could be — Erynnis, perhaps. Indeed, the net included, among other 
things, an Erynnis lucilius Scud. & Burg. — and two S $ of Erora Iceta. When 
it was recognized that Iceta had been found, Wagner's interest in Pieris a few 
yards down the road quickly waned, and within 30 minutes he netted a $ Iceta. 
Another $ was seen ( and pursued) but not captured. The specimens were taken 
between 11:15 and 11:45 a.m. on a clear sunny day; no more were seen in 
the course of the next hour. 

Our locality (see fig. 2) is scarcely the sort of "shaded trail" in beech 
woods where one is supposed to expect — if he ever dare expect — to find 
Iceta. A sandy "dirt" road faithfully follows a section line due east and west over 
the north -facing slope of a morainic hill the crest of which is slightly to the 
south (to the left in the figure). Therefore, although the road itself, as figured, 
rises to the west, the general slope of the land is north-facing. A moist spot along 
the south side of the road (toward which WAGNER is pointing his net in the 
figure) is kept damp until late summer by a small, apparently spring-fed pool 
in the shrubbery to the side of the road. In the valley to the north of the road 
(off the right edge of the figure) are scattered shrubs, small trees, and brush — 
evidently an abandoned field. On the slight rise to the southwest of the moist 
spot (behind the trees showing in the figure) is an abandoned apple orchard; 
presumably there was once a dwelling here, for there are small lilac bushes (not 
in flower) and plants of a cultivated species of Phlox (in full bloom). Directly 
south of the moist area, and also on the opposite ( north) side of the road several 



22 



VOSS & WAGNER: Pieris and Erora 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 



yards to the east, the vegetation is a very young deciduous woods, apparently 
arising in large part from vegetative re-growth after cutting. Immediately along 
both sides of the road itself are young sprouts and suckers of assorted deciduous 
trees and shrubs, among which the following predominate: Sugar Maple, Bass- 
wood, American Elm, White Ash, Pin Cherry, Willows, and Blackberries. Several 
of the common introduced grasses and other weeds are included in the herbaceous 
vegetation along the roadsides. Although there is no Beech in the immediate 
vicinity of the moist spot, this species does occur in the woods not far away. No 
Hazelnut (Corylus) was noted anywhere near (either in the spring or on a later 
July visit to the site with A. B. Klots and F. H. RiNDGE), and conifers are 
conspicuously absent. 










# 



Li ***"' 




i."ftii 



Fig. 2. The roadside habitat in Biiss Township, Emmet Co., Michigan, at 
which both Pieris virginiensis and Erora Iceta were taken, May 14, 1955. Looking 
somewhat south of west (the road goes due west). 



The specimens are shown at the bottom of figure 1 : two $ S , slightly worn 
at the tips of the primaries, and a perfect 9 . Although on the upper side the 

$ $ are an excellent match for published figures (e.g., Holland, pi. 29, fig. 23; 
Klots, pi. 16, fig. 14), on the underside of the primaries the smoky or fuscous 
clouding is distinctly more extensive than in previously published figures. (This 
is absent in our $ .) There is apparently no evidence of such clouding shown in 
Holland's $ (pi. 29, fig. 24), Clark & Clark's $ (fronds, fig. 8; pi. 12, 
fig. b, the latter also as fig. 71 right, on p. 65 of Clark, 1940), or Ferguson's 

9 (pi. 2, fig. 4, p. 331). There is a suggestion of this clouding in the 8 figures 
of Klots (pi. 16, fig, 14, p. 129), Edwards (Thecla I, fig. 1), and Clark, 
1932 (pi. 25, fig. 6 | stated to be from Prescott, Ariz., and therefore referable to 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 23 

E. quaderna\) . Edwards' figure of the under side of a 9 (fig. 4) indicates less 
clouding than in the $ , and such a sex difference is implied in his text. The 
original description (Edwards, 1862, pp. 55-56) is unaccompanied by an illus- 
tration, but does describe the disc of the primaries beneath as "smoke color" 
obscuring the latter two red spots. It is of interest to recall that the type locality, 
London, Ontario, is the previous northwesternmost record. The under side of a $ 
figured by Field (pi. 1, fig. 7) comes closest to resembling our darkest specimen 
in this respect ( see under side in fig. 1 ) . 

For the sake of a more complete evaluation of published figures of this rare 
species, reference may be also made to Scudder, whose unsatisfactory, uncolored 
figure (pi. 14, fig. 9) of the under side of a 9 indicates none of this gray cloud- 
ing; and to Seitz, whose very poor depiction (pi. 155) of the under surface 
shows no clouding but indicates a decidedly pink, rather than greenish, ground 
color. 

The two counties, Emmet and Cheboygan, which share the northernmost 
tip of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan constitute the area under special con- 
sideration by the University of Michigan Biological Station ( located on Douglas 
Lake, in Cheboygan Co.). A recently published enumeration (Voss, 1954) of the 
butterflies found in these two counties cited 74 species for the two-county 
region, of which 66 were known from Emmet County and 70 from Cheboygan 
County (as of the 1952 season). During the past three years, a number of new 
county records have been obtained. The 1953 season added three species to the 
Cheboygan Co. list: Euphydryas phaeton Drury, Lyccena dorcas Kirby, and Polites 
manataaqua Scud. The 1954 season added Pieris virginiensis to the Emmet Co. 
list. The 1955 season added Euptoieta claudia Cramer, Erora Iceta, Glaucopsyche 
lygdamus Dbldy., Euchloe olympia Edw., and Erynnis lucilius to the Emmet Co. 
list; and Poanes viator Edw., Carterocephalus palcemon Pallas, and Atrytonopsis 
hianna Scud, to the Cheboygan Co. list. (We are indebted to M. C. Nielsen 
and J. H. NEWMAN for the latter two records.) Of these, the new records for 
the entire two-county area are Euptoieta claudia, Euphydryas phaeton, Erora 
Iceta, Pieris virginiensis, Polites manataaqua, Poanes viator, and Atrytonopsis 
hianna. 

All of these records have been made available for inclusion in Sherman 
Moore's new annotated list of the butterflies of Michigan, now in press. The 
revised totals for the University of Michigan Biological Station region are 
now as follows: For the two-county region, 81 species; for Emmet Co., 72 
species; for Cheboygan Co., 76 species. 

We believe that for a long time to come, Emmet County will remain the 
only county in Michigan — or in the nation — in which have been taken 
fresh specimens of such diverse elements as Coenonympha tullia Miiller, 
Euptoieta claudia, Nymphalis californica Bdv., Erora Iceta, Lyccena thoe Guerin, 
Eurema lisa Bdv. & Lee, Pieris virginiensis, and Hesperia laurentina Lyman. 



After completion of the present manuscript, our attention was called to the list of 
Lepidoptera in the Los Angeles County Museum by Martin & Truxal, published in 



24 VOSS & WAGNER: Pieris and Erora Vol.10: nos.1-2 

September, 1955. P. virginiensis is cited for Michigan in June and July. Believing that 
these late records may have been based on specimens of P. napi, we sent an inquiry, ac- 
companied by a copy of the photograph reproduced as figure 1, to Lloyd M. Martin, 
who kindly checked the material carefully. He writes (Nov. 2, 1955): "I find we have 
one pair which agrees with the photograph . . . taken at Petoskey, Michigan, June 19, 
1915 .. .by J. J. LlCHTER." 



References Cited 

Chermock, Ralph L., 1953. Southeast — Florida to Louisiana, North to Arkansas and 

Maryland [in "The Field Season Summary of North American Lepidoptera for 

1952"]. Lepid. News 7: 102-106. 
Clark, Austin H., 1932. The butterflies of the District of Columbia and Vicinity. Bull. 

U. S. Nat. Mus. 157: 337 pp. 
, 1940. Butterflies of Virginia. Explor. & Field Work Smiths. Inst. 1939: 

pp. 63-66. 

, & Leila F. Clark, 1951. The butterflies of Virginia. Smiths. Miscell. Coll. 

116(7): 239 pp. 

Edwards, William H., 1862. Descriptions of certain species of diurnal Lepidoptera found 
within the limits of the United States and British America — No. 2. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila. 1862: pp. 54-58. 

, 1888. The Butterflies of North America. First Series, "Text Reprinted". 

Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. 

Ferguson, Douglas C, 1955. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Part I. (Macrolepidoptera). 
Bull. N. S. Mus. Sci. 2: 161-375. [Reprinted from Proc. N. S. Inst. Sci. 23(3); 
1954.] 

Field, William D., 1941. Notes on Erora Iceta (Edwards) and Erora quaderna (Hewitson). 
Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 34: 303-316. 

Hessel, Sidney A., 1952. A new altitudinal high for Erora lata. Lepid. Neivs 6: 34. 

Holland, W. J., 1931. The butterfly book. Rev. ed. New York: Doubleday. 424 pp. 

Klots, Alexander B., 1951. A field guide to the butterflies. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin. 

349 pp. 
Martin, Lloyd M., & Fred S. Truxal, 1955. A list of North American Lepidoptera in the 

Los Angeles County Museum. L. A. Co. Mus. Sci. Ser. 18, Zool. 8: 35 pp. 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, 1889. The butterflies of the Eastern United States and Canada 
with special reference to New England. Vol. Ill, appendix, plates. Cambridge: Author. 

Seitz, Adalbert (ed.), 1924. The American Rhopalocera. The Macrolepidoptera of the 
World, Vol.5. Stuttgart: Alfred Kernen. 1139 pp. + 203 pi. 

Voss, Edward G., 1954. The butterflies of Emmet and Cheboygan counties, Michigan, 
with other notes on northern Michigan butterflies. Amer. Midi. Nat. 51: 87-104. 

Department of Botany, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 25 

IN SEARCH FOR PIERIS VIRGINIENSIS IN MASSACHUSETTS 

by Walfried J. Reinthal 

Following a friendly invitation from Sidney A. Hessel I went with him 
on April 30th to visit the habitat of Pieris virginiensis Edwards in Washington, 
Connecticut. There is a dirt road running through a damp, decidous forest in a 
hilly area. A brook winds, with more or less dense scrubby vegetation, around 
this road. The foodplant of the species, Dentaria diphylla, grows locally in 
smaller or larger groups mostly on the banks of this brook, but also on the road 
sides in woods. At the time of our visit, only a few of the plants were in blossom. 
Shortly after we parked our car on the road side at 10.30 A.M. we netted the 
first male virginiensis a few yards from the road. We collected other specimens 
thereafter, which were caught on stream banks, in heavy brush, or on the road. 
At times it was not easy to follow the butterfly and handle the net in the 
dense vegetation. We stayed here for about one hour, then went to investigate 
some other places. Coming back we made a short stop at the same place in the 
early afternoon. The species was still flying at 2.30 P.M. All together we saw 
ten specimens, of which we caught six males and two females. Most specimens 
were fresh, and it seemed certain that they emerged that very morning, April 
30th, 1955, since it was the first sunny day in that area after six days of rain. 

My first acquaintance with the habitat and habits of this interesting species 
encouraged me to look for it in western Massachusetts. On May 14th I was on a 
collecting trip in the Berkshires, in the northwest corner of the state. It was a 
clear but cool day with a north wind. Along picturesque Highway 2 and in 
several seemingly good collecting spots nothing was flying, not even a Pieris 
rapce Linne or Colias eurytheme Bdv. In some moist meadows where the 
Vaccinium was in full bloom, we expected Incisalia, but we did not see one. 
In the early afternoon it turned warmer and, discouraged with no results, we 
decided to pay a short visit to Wahconah State Park near Dalton before going 
home. 

This park lies northeast of Pittsfield, Massachusetts, and occupies a wooded 
area where a stream falls into a gorge forming a little waterfall. My collecting 
guest that day, H. Wilhelm from Willimantic, Connecticut, and I decided to 
try our luck here. As soon as we stepped down to the waterfall I got a butterfly 
in my net in a damp place along the path in the woods. To my surprise it was a 
male of P. virginiensis. Of course, a feverish and diligent search began immedi- 
ately. Along a tiny stream running down a shady, woody slope, we found some 
patches of Dentaria in bloom, the foodplant of the species. And here we soon 
obtained a few other specimens some of which, however, turned out to be 
Pieris napi Linne. So both species flew here together in the same biotope. We 
soon depleted this tiny habitat after we caught a couple of specimens. We then 
turned our attention to the swampy forested area below the waterfall. There 
were two places where both the Pierids were flying. One was a steep woody slope 
with water running down in several tiny streams where in shade of some trees 
and bushes a few patches of foodplant were growing. Most of the area was 



26 REINTHAL: Pieris virginiensis Vol.10: nos.1-2 

densely covered by a growth of Equisetum about two feet high. Intermingling 
with this vegetation were also some nice patches of violets in bloom. Here a 
few P. napi and P. virginiensis were caught. The other place, even better, was 
a shady, swampy, deciduous woods at the foot of that slope, along the banks of 
a small stream. We noticed some small open spaces along the water where the 
sun found ready access and white flowers of Dentaria were waiting for the guests 
to feed upon. Both species were flying in these open spaces but also in dense 
brush and even on the steep woody slopes. The woods in this habitat were mostly 
composed of the following trees, predominantly in scrubby form: maple, birch, 
beech, hazelnut, linden, hemlock, and ash. Some more typical of the lower vegeta- 
tion, besides the several species of ferns and the Equisetum, were: Viola sp., 
Trillium erectum, Erythronium americanum, Ariscema triphyllum, Anemone 
quinquefolia, Asarum canadense, Tiarella cordijolia, Sanguinaria canadensis, etc. 
As mentioned above both species, napi and virginiensis, were thriving here to- 
gether. Since no other representatives of the Cruciferse family were noticed 
besides the Toothwort, the last one presumably formed the foodplant for both 
species. 

At times our battlefield remained empty and not one "white" was on the 
horizon. Then suddenly a single specimen emerged from the vegetation or flew 
down the woody slope to feed upon Toothwort flowers. Its normal flight is slow, 
zigzagging a foot or two above the ground, stopping for a while on flowers or 
resting on the ground enjoying the sun. P. virginiensis is a rather "nervous" and 
jerky species. If disturbed it gets panicky and goes into an erratic flight, and at 
times it really soars. I have seen it fly as high as the tree tops or hasten up a 
steep woody slope. There was some opportunity in this place to compare both 
species in their habits, and it probably would not be wrong to say that their 
habits are quite similar, except that perhaps P. napi is more temperamental, more 
sensitive, and is more easily disturbed. When this happens it flies away fast. 

Since it was getting cooler and darker in the afternoon we left Wahconah 
Park at about 4 P.M. The result of our mutual effort was: we saw about 20 
Pieris, of which we collected one male and three females of P. napi, and one 
female of P. virginiensis. The napi were more fresh than virginiensis, the last 
one being on the wing, in my estimation, for about 7-10 days. 

The next day I returned to Wahconah Park in the morning, hoping to have 
more luck with both species. I arrived at 9-30 A.M., but in spite of the sunny 
weather it was too cool and nothing was on the wing. I drove about one mile 
to Windsor Reservoir to look for some other species in more open, warmer sur- 
roundings. An inviting swampy meadow, with large patches of a low Vaccinium 
in full bloom, did not yield anything. The sandy hills on the other side of the 
road, where wild cherry was in full bloom and wild strawberry and Glechoma 
hederacea blossoms decorated the ground, remained lifeless. As I was walking 
back to my car along the sandy road, a Pieris came flying toward me. To my 
surprise it turned out be a fresh male of virginiensis, about one half mile away 
from its habitat in Wahconah Park, here in an open, sandy and meadowy terrain! 
General experience has been that the virginiensis does not go far out of its 
biotope in the woods, but evidently there are exceptions at times, as in this case. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 21 

Back in the Park again, I saw the first Pieris flying at noon. During one 
hour of collecting, I was able to catch only one male and one female of napi, 
and one male and two females of virginiensis, in addition to the above mentioned 
male obtained on the sandy road. I observed only a few more specimens but did 
not net any of them. 

Leaving Wahconah State Park, I drove north of Pittsfield on Highway 7, 
seeking other likely places for virginiensis. I remembered two suitable habitats 
in that area from the previous autumn. Today I actually located two more places 
in Berkshire County where virginiensis were breeding and flying. After passing 
New Ashford, a little village on Highway 7, 1 noticed a large patch of Toothwort 
along the road in full bloom. Five or six specimens were flying above the flowers 
or feeding on them. The area consisted of swampy ground and was shaped like 
a triangle, about 40-50 yards long and 12-15 yards wide. It lay between a narrow 
creek and the highway which leads through a dense, shady, mixed type forest. 
In this triangle were a few shrubs and some other plants, not yet in bloom, and 
a dense growth of Dentaria. In spite of it being late afternoon, though still with 
enough sunshine, I collected about one hour and obtained eleven males and two 
females, rather worn specimens, of P. virginiensis. Later, after passing Lanesboro, 
on my way back to Pittsfield, I recognized a white butterfly crossing the road 
as being undoubtedly virginiensis. I failed to catch it but then started to look 
around for the place from which it could have come. After traversing a farm 
meadow 40-50 feet wide I discovered the possible habitat. It turned out to be 
a swampy, dense, and semishady brush where several small brooks criss-crossed 
each other, thus forming a number of small islands. Among the other plants 
growing in the swampy ground were violets in full bloom, a good amount of 
them belonging to the yellow-colored Viola eriocarpa. The Toothwort, Dentaria 
diphylla, grew in small scattered groups under the brush, mostly on the very 
edge of the small brooks. P. virginiensis were still flying here at 4:00 P.M. 
During my twenty minute stop I collected two males and two females, one pair 
of them in copula. The last one was frightened from a small bush of wild roses. 

Lack of more time and good weather, together with the short flight period 
of the species, gave me little chance to look for more virginiensis this spring. 
I did, however, make one catch on May 30. While on my way home from a 
trip to Vermont, I made a short stop in the late afternoon on a dirt connecting 
road on the outskirts of Colrain, a small village northwest of Greenfield, Mas- 
sachusetts. On this abruptly ascending road, bordered by a brook in a canyon, 
I unexpectedly netted a worn male of virginiensis. A brief search along the 
brook for the foodplant was fruitless, so I concluded the specimen evidently 
came from a more distant place. 

The above brief observations of this interesting species convinced me that 
virginiensis probably has a wider distribution of localized habitats in western 
Massachusetts, since there are numerous suitable places in Berkshire County 
similar to those described in this article. This, of course, depends again on distri- 
bution of the foodplant to which this butterfly is closely bound. The short period 
of flight, no more than three to four weeks, certainly makes the study of this 



28 REINTHAL: Pieris virginiensis Vol.10: nos.1-2 

species more difficult for one who has to choose between a day off from work 
and a good weather favoring a field trip. 

There remain a few words to be said about some experiences with the 
first stages of P. virginiensis. My partner, H. Wilhelm, found one egg on 
Tooth wort on our first trip on May 14 to Wahconah State Park where the 
species flew together with P. napi. The larva from this egg was raised to maturity 
on Toothwort, producing a female of napi, of second brood, which emerged 
from chrysalid on June 7. On June 16, Mr. Wilhelm paid another visit to 
Wahconah State Park and in several hours of searching Toothwort leaves, he 
collected about three dozen or more of Pieris larvae, about one-half to full-grown 
in size. He raised them to chrysalids, but only one female Pieris napi, belonging 
to the second brood of this species, emerged on July 6. All other chrysalids are 
hibernating at this time and will probably produce butterflies in the spring of 
1956. Whether they all turn out to be virginiensis is uncertain. However, assum- 
ing a part of the chrysalids collected are napi, some of them should have emerged 
in the fall of 1955 as the third brood of napi. 

On June 17 I went to check my habitat of virginiensis near New Ashford 
in Berkshire County. It was not easy anymore to recognize the place as a biotope 
for this species. Last May, when the Dentaria was in full bloom, it was the most 
prominent feature of the vegetation in this habitat. But the place was now 
unrecognizably overgrown with man-high ferns and other planes. To find the 
fading remainder of the Toothwort in the luxuriant high vegetation, it was 
literally necessary to crawl into the dense growth and look very close to the 
ground. After working "on all fours" for a good two hours, I was able to find 
only five Pieris larvae. They were resting on the upper side of the green leaves 
of Toothwort and were five-eighths to one inch in length. Only about one-half 
of the Toothwort leaves were fresh and green. The rest were faded in color or 
entirely yellow. 

The said five caterpillars were raised in a 14x19x10 cm. plastic box with 
a tight cover and a layer of cellucotton on the bottom of the box to absorb sur- 
plus moisture. One of the caterpillars was parasitized and died the next day. 
The others pupated from June 19 to June 21, two of them on the box wall 
(one in vertical and the other in horizontal position), and two on plant leaves. 
They are hibernating as this is written and presumably are P. virginiensis, since 
only this species was seen flying in New Ashford in May. 

Northampton State Hospital, Northhampton, Mass., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 29 

A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GENERAL CATALOGUES 
AND CHECK LISTS OF NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA 

by Cyril F. dos Passos 

Introduction 

While engaged in preparing a check list and a catalogue of the North 
American Rhopalocera, north of Mexico, it has been necessary to consult most 
check lists and catalogues dealing with that subject. In the belief that it would 
prove useful to students to have the references to such publications gathered 
together in one paper, this bibliography has been compiled, the arrangement 
being chronological. 

At the outset we are met with the apparently simple questions — 1) What 
is a check list? and 2 ) What is a catalogue? They will be considered in that order. 

Webster ( 1947, p. 458) defines a [scientific] check list as "A list, usually 
alphabetic and numbered, of species, genera, etc., for the convenience of col- 
lectors and students, usually limited to a given group, region, or collection." 
Implied in that answer or definition is the further thought that the list, to be 
of scientific value, should be systematic in form. While modern check lists are 
invariably systematic in composition, the earliest ones were often alphabetical. 
Today alphabetical or chronological lists would be of little value to a systematist, 
and the former could be considered little more than in index to the names. 
Appended to a check list is often found an index, especially in modern times. 

Webster (1947, p. 420) defines a catalogue, insofar as material, as "A 
list or enumeration of names, titles, or articles arranged methodically, often in 
alphabetical order and usually with descriptive details, . ..." A catalogue then 
is an expanded check list of the scientific names of insects intended to be used 
for their systematic study. It too should be arranged systematically rather than 
alphabetically or chronologically, and for the same reason. It is often followed 
by an alphabetical index. The enlargement of the check list into a catalogue is 
accomplished by the addition of references to 1) the original description of 
each insect, 2) its distribution, and 3) its synonymy. The first two pieces of in- 
formation are usually present in a catalogue, but the synonymies may or may not 
be present without affecting the classification of the work as a catalogue. 

It is sometimes difficult to draw a line between what is a catalogue and 
what is a revision. The title of the publication is not controlling always. When- 
ever doubt has arisen in the author's mind, it has been thought best to include 
those publications concerning which there may be differences of opinion. In 
a sense, many of the scientific publications of the Eighteenth Century, such as 
those of Linn^sus and Fabricius, were catalogues, designed as they were to 
list all known animals and plants, and in many cases giving references to their 
original descriptions and habitats. However, such works were much more than 
catalogues, because they described animals and plants, often as new to science. 
Hence, they are not deemed to have any place in a bibliography of catalogues. 

It is possible that at one end of the scale ( check lists) too much has been 
included by taking into the bibliography Hubner's Index exotic orum Lepidop- 



30 DOS PASSOS: Bibliography Vol.10: nos.1-2 

terorum ( 1821 ) and his Systematisch-alphabetisches Verzeichniss ( 1822) , while 
at the other end (catalogues) something has been omitted by leaving out 
Duponchel's Catalogue methodique des Lepidopteres d' Europe (1844), 
Doubleday and Westwood's Genera of diurnal Lepidoptera (1846-1852), 
Wytsman's Genera Insectorum (1902- . . ), and similar works. 

If we place check lists at one end of the scale in dealing with these three 
kinds of scientific publications, the intermediate position would undoubtedly 
be occupied by catalogues, and the other end by revisions. While the line divid- 
ing check lists from catalogues is easily drawn, the demarcation between cata- 
logues and revisions is sometimes difficult to draw, the former sometimes being 
partly revisionary in character in spite of the title they may bear {i.e.. Systematic 
catalogue of Speyeria) . Check lists and catalogues should not be revisionary in 
nature, although a few revisionary notes may be included properly. That function 
should be reserved for revisionary works. Thus the DOS Passos & Grey ( 1947) 
work cited above could more properly have been entitled a revision of Speyeria, 
since that is its inherent nature and purpose, but is included in the bibliography 
because of the check list of Speyeria that it contains. 

Many catalogues and check lists include both Rhopalocera and Heterocera. 
The latter, while not relevant to this paper, have been included sometimes in the 
collations, if contained in the same volume or part thereof as the Rhopalocera. 
One world-wide catalogue (of Strand) deals with families or subfamilies of the 
Rhopalocera that are not represented in North American. Such families or sub- 
families are omitted insofar as possible, but when contained in a volume or part 
dealing with families or subfamilies that are represented in North America, 
they have been included. The theory followed in general is that it is better to 
include in this bibliography too much rather than too little. 

While we are interested primarily in general check lists and catalogues 
of butterflies occurring in North America, north of Mexico, including Green- 
land, some of those insects have a circumpolar distribution. After all, Nearctic 
and Palasarctic regions are merely man-made terms. It is necessary, therefore, 
to cite also in the bibliography not only the strictly Nearctic works but also 
albgeneral Palaearctic check lists and catalogues that refer to those circumpolar 
insects. While this lengthens the bibliography somewhat, it is hoped that it will 
add greatly to its value. 

. , Included also are a few lists of large areas of North America, such as 
New England, the eastern and western regions of the United States, and those 
relating solely to the preparatory stages of the Lepidoptera. Perhaps some 
of the former may not be considered general catalogues. Similar liberty 
has been taken by the inclusion of somewhat localized lists or catalogues of the 
Scandinavian fauna, but on the other hand, lists and catalogues of European 
countries, such as Wheeler's Butterflies of Switzerland ( 1903), Zerkowitz's 
Lepidoptera of Portugal (1946), and Agenjo's Catalogo ordenador de los 
lepidopteros de Espana (1946-1947), have been excluded as not sufficiently 
general. 

Hiibner, Jacob, 1816-[1'826]. Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge [sic]. Augsburg. 
432 + 72 pp. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 31 

, 1821. Index exoticorum Lepidopterorum, in foliis 244 a Jacobo Hubner 

hactenus effigi-atorum; adjectis denominationibu s emendatis, tarn communioribus quarn 
exactioribus. Augsburg. [8] pp. 

, 1822. Systematisch-alphabetisches Verzeichniss aller bisher bey den Eurbil- 

dungen zur Sammlung europaischer Schmetterlinge angegebenen Gattungsbenennungen; 
mit Vormerkung auch augsburgischer Gattungen. Augsburg, vi + 82 pp. 

Boisduval, Jean Baptiste Alphonse Dechauffour de, "1829" [1828]. Europceorum Lepi- 
dopterorum index methodicus. Paris, Mequignon-Marvis, & Brussels, Crochard. 103 pp. 

, 1840. Genera et index methodicus Europceorum Lepidopterorum. Paris, 

Roret. [2] + iii-vii + [3] + 238 pp. 

[Heydenreich, Gustav Heinrich], [1843]. Verzeichniss der europaischen Schmetterlinge 
nach Ochsenheimer und Treitschke. [Weissenfels], [publisher unknown |. [unknown] 
pp. 

Heydenreich, Gustav Heinrich, 1846. Systematisches Verzeichniss der europaischen 
Schmetterlinge [second edition]. Leipzig, Klinckhardt. 50 pp. 

, 1851. Verzeichniss der europaischen Schmetterlinge nach Ochsenheimer und 

Treitschke [second edition]. Leipzig, Klinckhardt. 22 pp. 

, 1851. Systematisches Verzeichniss der europaischen Schmetterlinge [third 

edition]. [The title in German and Latin.] Leipzig, Klinckhardt. [2] + 130 + [2] pp. 

Herrich-Schaffer, Gottlieb August Wilhelm, 1856. Synonymia Lepidopterorum Europce. 
Systematisches und synonymisches Verzeichniss der Europaeischen Schmetterlinge. 
Regensburg, G. J. Manz. [4] + 72 + 24 + 64 + 34 + 48 +52+48 + 12 pp. 

Morris, John Goodiove, I860. Catalogue of the described Lepidoptera of North America. 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll. : viii + 68 pp. 

Herrich-Schaffer, Gottlieb August Wilhelm, 1861. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Euro- 
paischen Schmetterlinge [second edition]. Regensburg, G. J. Manz. 36 + [2] pp. 

Staudinger, Otto, [in part] & Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke [in part], 1871. Catalog der 
Lepidopteren Europa's und der angrenzenden Lander [the title and the preface in Ger- 
man and French]. Dresden, O. Staudinger & Hermann Burdach. xvi + 192 pp. 

,[n.d.] Catalogus Lepidoptterorum Territorii Europcei. Dresden, [publisher un- 
known]. 24 pp. 

Morris, John Goodiove, 1862. Synopsis of the described Lepidoptera of North America. 
Part I Diurnal and crepuscular Lepidoptera. Smithsonian Misc. Coll.: xxvii + [1] 
+ 358 pp. 

Herrich-Schaffer, Gottlieb August Wilhelm, 1863. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Schmet- 
terlinge von Europe, dritte Auflage: mit Angabe des Vaterlandes. Regensburg, G. J. 
Manz. 28 pp. 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, 1863. A list of the butterflies of New England. Proc. Essex 
Inst., vol. 3: pp. 161-179. 

Weidemeyer, John William, 1863-1864. Catalogue of North American butterflies. Proc. 
Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 2: pp. 143-154, 513-542. 

Bates, Henry Walter, 1868. A catalogue of Erycinidae, a family of diurnal Lepidoptera 
Joum. Linnean Soc, vol. 9: pp. 367-459. 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, 1868. Supplement to a list of the butterflies of New England. 
Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 11: pp. 375-384. 

, 1866. Check-list of the butterflies of New England. Boston. 8 pp. 

Edwards, William Henry, [1868-1871]. Synopsis of North American butterflies. Phila- 
delphia, The American Entomological Society. [1868], pp. 1-4; [1869], pp. 5-6: 
[1870], pp, 7-14; [1871], pp. 15-38. 

Staudinger, Otto, [in part] & Maximilian Ferdinand Wocke [in part], 1871. Catalog der 
Lepidopteren des Europaeischen Eaunengebiets [another edition] [the title and the 
preface in German and French]. Dresden, O. Staudinger & Hermann Burdach. 
xxxviii + 426 pp. 

Kirby, William Forsell, 1871. A synonymic catalogue of diurnal Lepidoptera. London, 
John van Voorst, vi + [2] + 690 pp. 



32 DOS PASSOS: Bibliography Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Ross, Alexander Milton, 1872. A classified catalogue of the Lepidoptera of Canada. 
Toronto, Rowsell & Hutchison. 10 pp. 

Edwards, William Henry, 1872. Synopsis of North American butterflies. Philadelphia, 
The American Entomological Society, vi + 52 pp. 1 

Scudder, Samuel Hubbard, 1875. Synonymic list of the butterflies of North America, 
north of Mexico. Bull. Buffalo Soc. Nat. Sci., vol. 2: pp. 233-269. 

, 1876. [Same title.] Ibid., vol. 3: pp. 98-129. 

Edwards, William Henry, 1877. Catalogue of the diurnal Lepidoptera of America north 
of Mexico. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc, vol. 6: pp. 1-68. 

Kirby, William Forsell, 1877. A synonymic catalogue of diurnal Lepidoptera. Supplement. 
London, John van Voorst, iv + [4] + 691-884 pp. 

Strecker, Ferdinand Heinrich Herman, 1878. Butterflies and moths of North America, 
with full instructions for collecting, breeding, preparing, classifying, packing for ship- 
ment, etc. A complete synonymical catalogue of Macrolepidoptera, with a full biblio- 
graphy, to which is added a glossary of terms and an alphabetical and descriptive list 
of localities. Reading, Pennsylvania, B. F. Owen. [4] + ii + [2] + 284 pp., 2 pis. 

Gerhard, Bernhard, 1878. Systematisches Verzeichniss der Macro-lepidopteren von Nord- 
Amerika. Leipzig, R. Friedlander & Sohn. xvi + 196 pp. 

Anonymous, [1881]-1882. Check list of the Macro-Lepidoptera of America, north of 
Mexico. Brooklyn, N[ew] Y[ork], published by the Brooklyn Entomological Society. 
[4] + 26 + iv pp. 2 

Edwards, William Henry, 1884. Revised catalogue of the diurnal Lepidoptera of America 
north of Mexico. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. vol. 11: pp. 245-338. 

, 1884. List of species of the diurnal Lepidoptera of America north of Mexico. 

Boston & New York, Houghton, Mifflin & Company. [16] pp. :! 

Edwards, Henry, 1889. Bibliographical catalogue of the described transformations of 
North American Lepidoptera. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 35: 8 + [2] + 9-148 pp. 

Smith, John Bernhardt, et al., 1891. List of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America. Phila- 
delphia, American Entomological Society. 124 pp. 

Leech, John Henry, 1894. Systematic list of families, sub-families, genera, and species. 
In Butterflies from China, Japan and Corea\ pp. xi-xx. London, R. H. Porter. 

Skinner, Henry, 1898. A synonymic catalogue of the North American Rhopalocera. 
Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, xvi + 100 + xiv pp. 

Staudinger, Otto, [in part] & Hans Rebel [in part], 1901. Catalog der Lepidopteren dei 
Palaearctischen Faunengebietes [third edition]. Berlin, R. Friedlander & Sohn. Pt. 1, 
pp. xxx + [2] + 412, 1 portrait; pt. 2, pp [2] + 368. 

Dyar, Harrison Gray, et al., "1902" [1903]. A list of North American Lepidoptera and 
key to the literature of this order of insects. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., no. 52: xx + 
724 pp. 

Smith, John Bernhardt, et al., 1903. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Boreal America. 
Philadelphia, American Entomological Society, vi + 136 pp. 

Skinner, Henry, [1905]. A synonymic catalogue of the North American Rhopalocera, 
supplement no. 1. Philadelphia, American Entomological Society. 34 pp. 

Mengel, Levi Walter Scott, 1905. A catalogue of the Erycinidce, a family of butterflies. 
With the synonymy brought down to July 1, 1904. Reading, Pennsylvania, published 
by the author. 162 pp. 



1 This synopsis is often found bound in at the back of The butterflies of North Am- 
erica, series 1, with the same pagination. Apparently either reference would be correct. 

2 This check list was issued to subscribers in parts with volume 4, numbers 5-10 
(1881-1882) of the Bulletin of the Brooklyn Entomological Society, but paginated separate 
ly. It was also issued and sold with a title page dated 1882. 

" This list of species was issued separately with 16 unnumbered pages, but is often 
found bound in at the back of The butterflies of North America, series 2, with pages 
numbered [343-358]. Apparently either reference would be correct. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 33 

Wright, William Greenwood, 1905. Complete list of the butterflies of the United States. 

In The butterflies of the west coast of the United States: pp 47-70. San Franciscc 

The Whitaker & Ray Company (Incorporated). 
Pagenstecher, Arnold, 1911. Libytheidae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, vol. 23, pt. 3 

pp. 1-12. 
Verity, Roger, 1911. Index systematique et tableau synoptique de la variation et de la 

distribution geographique. In Verity, Roger, Rhopalocera Palaearctica iconographie et 

description des papillons diurnes de la region palearctique, pp. xiii-xli. Florence, 

S. Landi. 
Evans, William Harry, 1912. A list of Indian butterflies. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 

vol. 21: pp. 553-584, 969-1008. 
Mabille, Paul, 1912. Hesperidae: Subf. : Pyrrhopyginae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, pt. 9: 

pp. 1-18. 
McDonnough [sic] McDunnough, James Halliday, 1912. Fam. Megathymidae. Lepidop- 
terorum Catalogus, pt. 9: pp. 19-22. 
South, Richard, 1913. A list of butterflies collected by Captain F. M. Bailey in western 

China, south-eastern Tibet and the Mishmi Hills, 1911. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. 

Soc, vol. 22: pp. 345-365, 598-615. 
Barnes, William, & James Halliday McDunnough, 1917. Check list of the Lepidoptera 

of Boreal America. Decatur, Illinois, Herald Press, iii-viii + 392 + [6] pp. 
Bryk, Felix, 1923- Baroniidae, Teinopalpidae, Parnassiidae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, 

vol. 24, pt. 27: pp. [2] + 1-248. 
Lhomme, Leon, et ah. 1923-1935. Catalogue des Lepidopteres de France et de Belgique. 

Le Carriol, par Douelle, (Lot), [France], Leon Lhomme. Vol. 1: pp. iv + 800. 
Barnes, William, & Forster Hendrickson Benjamin, 1926. Check list of the diurnal 

Lepidoptera of Boreal America. Bull. Southern California Acad. Sci., vol. 25: pp. 3-27 
, 1926. Notes on diurnal Lepidoptera, with additions and corrections to th 

recent "List of diurnal Lepidoptera." Ibid., vol. 25: pp. 88-98. 
Bryk, Felix, 1929-1930. Papilionidae I-III. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, vol. 24, pts. 35, 

37, 39: pp. [2] + 676. 
Neustetter, Heinrich, 1929. Nymphalidae: Subfam. Heliconiinae. Lepidopterorum Cata- 
logus, pt. 36: pp. 1-136. 
Stichel, Hans Wolfgang, 1930-1931. Riodinidae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, vol. 26, 

pts. 38, 40, 41, 44: pp. [2] + 796. 
Gaede, Max, 1931. Satyridae I-III. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, vol. 29, pts. 43, 46 48: 

pp. [4] + 760. 
Shepard, Harold Henry, 1931-1936. Hesperidae: Subfamilia Pyrginae I-IV '. Lepidopterorum 

Catalogus. pts. 47, 64, 69, "74: pp. 1-680. 
Talbot, George, 1932-1935. Pieridae I-III. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. vol. 23, pts. 53, 

60, 66: pp. 1-698. 
Bryk, Felix, 1937. Danaidae I Subfamilia: Danainae; Danaidae II Subfam.: Ituninae, 

Tellervinae, Ithomiinae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus. vol. 28, pts. 78, 80: pp. [2] + 702. 
Davenport, Demarest, & Vincent Gaston Dethier, "1937" [1938]. Bibliography of the 

described life-histories of the Rhopalocera of America north of Mexico 1889-1937. 

Ent. Americana, neiv ser., vol. 17: pp. 155-194. 
Shepard, Harold Henry, 1937-1939. Hesperiidae: Subfamilia: Hesperiinae I-II. Lepid- 
opterorum Catalogus. pts. 83, 90: pp. 1-126 + [2] + 127-206. 
McDunnough, James Halliday, 1938. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the 

United States of America. Part I. Macrolepidoptera. Mem. Southern California Acad 

Sci.. vol. 1: pp. 1-272 + 1-4 (corrigenda). 
Bell, Ernest Layton, 1938. A catalogue of the original descriptions of the Rhopalocera 

found north of the Mexican Border. Part One. The Hesperioidea. Bull. Cheyenn* 

Mountain Mus., vol. 1, pt. 1: pp. H-l - H-36. 
Stichel, Hans Wolfgang, 1938. Nymphalidae I. Subfamilia Dioninae, Anetiinoe, Apatu- 

rinae. Lepidopterorum Catalogus, pt. 86: pp. 1-374. 



Seok, D M , 1939. A synonymic list of the butterflies of Korea (Tyosen). 

Korea, Korean Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, pp. 

dos Passos, Cyril Franklin, 1939. A catalogue of the original descriptions of the Rhopal- 

ocera found north of the Mexican Border. Part Two. The Satyridae. Bull. Cheyenne 

Mountain Mus., vol. 1, pt. 2: S-l - S-14. 
Stichel, Hans Wolfgang, 1939. Nymphalidae II. Subfam.: Charaxidinas I. Lepidoptero- 

rum Catalogus, pt. 91: pp- 376-542. 

, 1939- Nymphalidae III. Subfam.: Charaxiidinae II. Ibid., pt. 93: pp. 543-794. 

Gronblom, Thorvald, et al., 1944. Enumeratio Insectorum Fennice et Suecice. I. Lepidop- 

tera. 1. Macrolepidoptera. Helsinki, F. Tilgmann. 28 pp. 
Dethier, Vincent Gaston, 1946. Supplement to the bibliography of the described life- 
histories of the Rhopalocera of America north of Mexico. Psyche, vol. 53: pp. 15-20. 
dos Passos, Cyril Franklin, & Lionel Paul Grey, 1947. Check list: analytical index. In 

Systematic catalogue of Speyeria (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) with designations of types 

and fixations of type localities. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1370: pp. 4-6. 
Klots, Alexander Barrett, 1951. Check list of the butterflies of eastern North America. 

In A field guide to the butterflies of North America, east of the Great Plains: pp. 308- 

319- Boston, Houghton Mifflin Company. 
Evans, William Harry, 1951-1953. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidse indicating 

the classification of nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). 

London, British Museum. Part I (1951): x + 92 pp., pis. 1-9; Part II (1952): vi + 

178 pp., pis. 10-25; Part III H953): vi + 246 pp., pis 26-53; Part IV (1955: vi + 

500 pp., pis. 54-88 + [3] pp. 
Esaki, Teiso, 1955. Coloured illustrations of the butter-flies of ]apan [in Japanese]. 

Osaka, Japan. [10] + 136 + [2] pp., frontispiece (colored), 63 pis. (colored). 

Conclusion 

All of the foregoing works have been examined personally, with the 
exception of three by Heydenreich, none of which is available in the Library 
of the American Museum of Natural History. The collation of those publications 
has been taken in part from the Catalogue of the books, manuscripts, maps and 
drawings in the British Museum (Natural History) ( 1903-1940), and the Index 
Litteraturse Entomologies by Horn & Schenkling (1928). 

If any omission in the foregoing list (and there must be some) is found 
by a reader, the author would appreciate being informed thereof. 

At some future date it is hoped to publish a somewhat similar bibliography 
of local lists of butterflies of North America, arranged by Canadian Provinces 
and States of the United States of America, a card index of which has been 
maintained for a number of years. 

Literature Cited 

British Museum (Natural History), 1903-1940. Catalogue of the books, manuscripts, 
maps and drawings in the British Museum (Natural History). London & Aylesbury, 
Hazell, Watson & Viney Ld. Vol. 1 (1903) A-D: pp. viii + 500; vol. 2 (1904) 
E-K: pp. [8] + 501-1038 + [2]; vol. 3 (1910) L-O: pp. [8] + 1039-1494; vol. 4 
(1913) P-Sn: pp. [8] + 1495-1956 + [2]; vol. 5 (1915) So-Z: pp. [8] + 1957- 
2404. London, William Clowes & Sons, Limited, supplements. Vol. 6 (1922) A-I: 
pp. [8] + 512 + addenda and corrigenda to vols. 1 and 2, A-Hooker, pp. [2] + 
48 + [2]. Oxford, University Press, John Johnson, supplements. Vol. 7 (1933) 
J-O: pp. [8] + 513-968 + [2]; vol. 8 (1940) P-Z: pp. [8] + 969-1480 .+ [2]. 

Horn, Walther, & Sigmund Schenkling, 1928-1929. Index Litteraturce Entomological, 
Serie 1 : Die Welt-Literatur uber die gesamte Entomologie bis inklusive 1863. Berlin- 
Dahlem, Walther Horn, vol. 1 (1928): pp. [2] + 352, frontispiece; vol. 2 (1928): 
pp. [2] + 353-704, frontispiece; vol. 3 (1928): pp. [2] + 705-1056, frontispiece; 
vol. 4 (1929): pp. [4] + xxii + 1057-1426. 

Neilson, William Allan, (Editor-in-Chief), et al.. 1947. Webster's new international 
dictionary of the English language. [Second edition unabridged.] Springfield, Mass- 
achusetts], G. & C. Merriam Company, [2] + cxii + 3210 + [2] pp., frontispiece, 
viii + [16] (colored) + [18] pis. 

Webster, Noah, 1947. See Neilson, William Allan, (Editor-in-Chief), et. al, 1947. 

Washington Corners, Mendham, N. J., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 35 

ON THE LIMITING OF SUBSPECIES 
by William T. M. Forbes 

In his recent discussion (Lepid. News 9: 1; 1955), van Son proposes to 
solve the question "what is a subspecies" by excluding all the problematic cases 
and limiting the term to the relatively small group where physical barriers are 
definite, sharply marked, and can be considered complete. It is true that the per- 
sons who have put the most emphasis have been chiefly those who are work- 
ing on species with interrupted distributions, but in fact the great majority of 
species fall into the other category, for the major part of the habitable earth is 
not cut into sharply defined areas but is formed of the broad continents. And 
even where there is probably a complete barrier, there may often be no sub- 
specific difference. Thus the isolated colony of Carterocephalus palcemon mandan 
Edw. at McLean, N. Y., appears no different from the population further north, 
— at least no one has tried to make a subspecies of it; yet the latter is the eastern 
end of a cline which becomes true palcemon at its western end in Europe. And 
the many isolated colonies of Euphydryas chalcedon which HovANlTZ studied 
in southern California, show minute racial differences, each from each, yet as a 
whole form a couple of clines at an angle to each other. 

If we treat cases of this sort as clines rather than isolates in spite of their 
actual physical isolation, we will have very few true subspecies left. And it 
seems to me hardly worth while to make a separate category in nomenclature 
for such relatively rare cases as Papilio ophidicephalus Oberthur. 

Dr. VAN Son's difficulty, — that the size of subspecies becomes arbitrary 
in the case of a species with continuous distribution, — is not at all unique at 
this level, but applies equally to all the units of classification save only the 
species; for the size of all alike is purely arbitrary, and we have had always the 
same difficulty in agreeing on a proper size. Thus I have seen subfamilies sug- 
gested in the Lycaenidas which I should personally consider very good subgenera, 
perhaps weak genera. And the Heliconius group is a clear concept in classification 
whether we include or not Cethosia and Dione, and whether we call it a family 
or merely an aberrant series of Argynnines. 

The real problems as I see it are in quite another direction, and basically in 
the attitude of the Code, rather than this slight inexactitude. Firstly if subspecies 
are anything, they are statistical, and should be based only on substantial blocks 
of material, yet the Code provides they must be based on holotypes, not on blocks 
of cotypes; secondly in the great majority of cases they are in fact clinally con- 
nected, yet by chance the type locality may turn out to be at the blend-point of 
otherwise pretty well defined populations, with the result that the races may 
appear much less tangible than they are in nature. (Lakehurst, New Jersey, and 
Surinam are frequently such blend-points.) Thirdly the Code limits the machin- 
ery of the "trinomial" to subspecies as now defined, while other types of variation 
are in many cases definitely more important and more worthy of names. It 
would seem that they were originally singled out on the assumption that they 



36 FORBES: Subspecies Vol.10: nos.1-2 

were the source of speciation. I have never seen any evidence presented to sup- 
port this assumption; personally, I believe it only a minor source of new species 
(as against other isolating mechanisms, chiefly biological), and consider this 
feature of the Code a great hindrance to sound biological thinking. 

I should personally suggest, then, some very different reforms: 1) recognize 
no holotypes of subspecies, but consider subspecific names based only on the 
whole block of material on which they were originally defined; 2) find some 
means of allowing a shift of "type locality" where the actual locality turns out 
to lie in a blend-zone; 3) redefine "trinomial" to include all nameable units below 
species and recommend the insertion of a vernacular word between the species 
and variety name to indicate the category of variety (as believed by the given 
writer); — this interpolated word not to be considered part of the name and 
to be changed as needed by increased knowledge. 

Thus for instance we have the Green Swallowtail: Papilio philenor, and 
the lower name hirsutus. This latter is now considered the California race; in 
fact the hirsute condition is an early spring one both east and west, but it happens 
that early specimens are rare in the east, and the late ones rare and very local in 
the west. So I consider it a personal matter whether one writes "philenor spring 
form hirsutus" or "philenor race hirsutus". 

16 Garden St., Cambridge 38, Mass., U. S. A. 



Bishop SKAT Hoffmeyer, of Aarhus, Denmark, lectured on biology of Danish Lepi- 
doptera to the New Haven Entomological Society in October 1954, while visiting the 
United States. In the course of his engrossing talk, he told of an astonishing recent experi- 
ment by a Danish observer and kindly promised to send us the information for the News 
when it had been published. The note, by P. L. JORGENSEN, has now appeared, and 
the English summary sent by Bishop Hoffmeyer follows. 

SUMMARY 

ACANTHOPSYCHE ATRA LARVAE HATCHED FROM BIRDS' EXCREMENTS 
This paper describes a probable method of dispersal of Lepidoptera species with wingless 
females. It was observed that the females of Acanthopsyche atra L. (Psychidae) leave their 
sacs a few days after pairing. They drop to the ground, where they are easily discovered 
by birds. Eleven of these fertilized females were fed to a captive Robin (Erithacus rubeculd). 
Its fecal droppings from the following 24 hours were placed in a special cage. Once in a 
while they were sprinkled with water, and a fortnight later the first larvae hatched from 
the droppings. In all, 30 — 40 larvae were hatched, not a very big number, but enough 
to show that the species may be dispersed by birds in the way described. 

C. L. Remington 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 37 

THE HONEY GLAND AND TUBERCLES OF LARV^ 

OF THE LYC^NID^ 

by Gowan C. Clark and C. G. C Dickson 

A considerable amount of data having been gathered concerning the honey 
gland and its attendant tubercles of larvae of the Lycaenidae, it is presented here 
to help anybody studying this interesting subject. The honey gland is an orifice 
dorsally placed on the 10th segment, which is capable of exuding a liquid much 
sought after by ants. It is, in some, a simple transverse slit on the surface, in 
others the slit is sunken in an elliptical trough, and in others it is raised above 
the surface on an elongated mole, while another form is an elongated mole sunk 
in a depression. The gland is placed in the centre of the segment, toward the 
posterior edge, or is tucked away in a fold between the 10th and 11th segments. 
It is often protected by spined setae. When the larva exudes a bead of liquid, 
the gland of most species unfolds into a bulge before the liquid appears. 

The tubercles, if they are present, are situated on the 11th segment, one 
on each side, in the vicinity of the spiracle. In a primitive form, they may be 
present in the first instar or they may not appear till some later instar, while 
in a few they are only present in the final instar. The table on pages 38-39 in- 
dicates the range of variation in the honey gland and tubercle characters in 
South African lycaenids. 

In the South African larvae studied, there are two forms of tubercles, (a) 
what may be called warning beacons, and (b) what are definitely whips. Two 
species at least which possess the former type, namely of Castalius and Syntarucus, 
use their tubercles as whips. In both of these the spines are long and, with the 
tubercle half extended, they form a stiff cluster with which the vicinity of the 
honey gland is dusted. In (b) the tubercles are encased in protruding cylinders 
the rims of which are, in most cases, provided with hard spines to protect the 
bristles of the tubercles which are too long to be totally withdrawn. The portion 
of the rim facing the honey gland usually has no spines or has very small spines 
so as to allow full freedom of action to the tubercle. Cylinders which rise well 
above the surface are capable of swaying from side to side to giwe a bigger dust- 
ing range. The tubercles are eversible rods which are forced straight out, then 
bent over. The spines, some placed on the end and some on the side, sweep 
a large area as they unfold. 

When an ant wishes to "milk" a lycaenid larva, it generally takes a stance 
on the dorsum and caresses the vicinity of the gland with its antennae. The 
larva responds by exuding a bead of liquid, which the ant removes. After swal- 
lowing this it again caresses the vicinity of the gland until satisfied or driven 
away by the tubercles. 

The warning beacon type of tubercles are generally very sluggish and are 
normally drawn below the surface of the skin, but when the larva is annoyed 
by the attentions of insects other than its accustomed ants, the tubercles are fully 
extended after a few nervous tremblings and half-threatening attempts. The 
tubercles remain in the fully extended state for about 3 to 4 seconds and are then 



38 



Clark & Dickson: Honey glands 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 



withdrawn, but if the interference continues, out come the tubercles again. They 
can be operated independently. In some cases the tubercles may be made to 
extend by tickling the vicinity of the honey gland with a paint brush. 

The whip type tubercles are all very active and shoot out in rapid deter- 
mined flashes, one to two flashes per second, some slightly faster. When crawl- 
ing about, the larva seldom has its tubercles completely dormant, and they are 
seen to be trembling in and out with occassional flashes as if in a state of 
nervousness or a warning to insects to keep away. 





INSTAR OF FIRST 


NO. OF 


SPINES ON 




APPEARANCE 


TUBERCLES (INS! AP 


SPECIES 












GLAND 


TUBERCLES 


FIRST 


LAST 


Cacyreus lingeus Cram. 


2nd 


none 


none 






Cacyreus palemon Cram. 


none 


none 


none 






Cacyreus marshalli Butl. 


none 


none 


none 






Actizera stellata Trim. 


3rd 


3rd 


? 


16-20 


Actizera lucida Trim. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


? 


Lampides boeticus Linne 


3rd 


3rd 


? 


20 


Castalius melcena Trim. 


penultimate 


penultimate 


? 


36-40 


Zizeeria knysna Trim. 


penultimate 


penultimate 


p 


24 


Tarucus thespis Linne 


2nd 


3rd 


p 


18-20 


Tarucus bowkeri Trim. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


18 


Tarucus tbeophrastus Fab. 


2nd 


2nd 


? 


24 


Azanus jesous Guer. 


2nd 


3rd 


p 


30 


Azanus moriqua Wallgr. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


11 


Azanus ubaldus Cram. 


2nd 


3rd 


p 


19-20 


Syntarucus telicanus Lang 


2nd 


final 


p 


30 


Syntarucus jeanneli Stpffr. 


2nd 


final 


p 


31 


Lepidochrysops patricia Trim. 


2nd 


none 


none 






Lepidochrysops caffrarice Trim. 


2nd 


none 


none 






Lepidochrysops methymna Trim. 


2nd 


none 


none 






Lepidochysops bacchus Riley 


2nd 


none 


none 






Lepidochrysops lacrimosa B. Bak. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


? 


Euchrysops dolorosa Trim. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


18 


Eicochrysops messapus Godt. 


2nd 


penultimate 


p 


20 


Anthene otacilia Trim. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


20-25 


Anthene amarah Guer. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


32 


Anthene livida Trim. 


2nd 


2nd 


? 


20 


Anthene lemnos Hew. 


3rd 


3rd 


? 


30-34 


Anthene definita Butl. 


2nd 


3rd 


? 


18 


P has is sardonyx Trim. 


? 


1st 


? 


? 


Phasis thero Linne 


3rd 


1st 


? 


11 


Aloeides aranda Wallgr. 


3rd? 


1st 


4 


p 


Aloeides almeida Feld. 


3rd? 


1st 


6 


p 


Aloeides pier us Cram. 


3rd? 


1st 


6 


15 


Aloeides thyra Linne 


3rd? 


1st 


? 


26 


Aloeides taikosama Wallgr. 


3rd? 


1st 


10 


10 


Axiocerces bambana Gr.-Sm. 


3rd 


1st 


? 


5 


Aphn&us hutchinsonii Trim. 


3rd 


1st 


3 


? 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' Neics 



39 



SPECIES 


1NSTAR OF FIRST 
APPEARANCE 


NO. OF SPINES ON 
TUBERCLES (INSTAR) 




GLAND 


TUBERCLES 


FIRST 


LAST 


Capys alphasus Cram. 
Deudorix antalus Hoff. 
Deudorix diodes Hew. 
Leptomyrina lara Linne 
Thestor basutus Wallgr. 
Thestor dicksoni Riley 
Lachnocnema bibulus Fab. 
Lachnocnema durbani Trim. 
Durbania amakosa Trim. 


4th 

2nd 

3rd 

2nd 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

2nd 

3rd 

3rd 

final 

2nd 

2nd 

2nd 

2nd 

2nd 

2nd 

3rd 

2nd 


none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

3rd 

3rd 

final 

3rd 

final 

2nd 

2nd 

2nd 

1st 

1st 

1st 


none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 

none 
? 

p 

? 
? 
? 
? 

? 

2 
none 

2 






















Hypolyccena philippus Fab. 
Epamera sidus Trim. 
Epamera cemulus Trim. 

Epamera mimosa? Trim. 
Epamera alienus Trim. 
Stugeta bowkeri Trim. 
Argiolaus si las Westw. 
Aiyrina ficedula Trim. 
Myrina dermaptera Wallgr. 
Poecilmitis thysbe Linne 
Spindasis natalensis Dbl. & Hew. 
Cmdaria leroma Wallgr. 




5 rows of 5-6 

18-20 rows 

of 8 

40-45 

40 

30 

75 

14 rows of 6 

24 rows of 10 

8 

8 

6 



The majority of species illustrated have been studied with ants in attend- 
ance, and to obtain the detailed drawings larvae have had to be killed in order 
to force out the tubercles for examination. The illustrations show: a semi-dia- 
gramatic view of the last four segments of the final instar; a scale drawing of 
the honey gland as seen from above; if present, the fully developed tubercles 
extended; and, where possible, the earliest form of the tubercle. All drawings 
are drawn more or less to one size for ease of comparison. 

Referring to the illustrations, Cacyreus lingeus has no tubercle; the space 
is therefore utilized to show the honey gland bulged out and exuding a bead of 
liquid. The drawings of Castalius melcena include a view of the partially ex- 
tended tubercle with spines bunched ready to be used as a brush, and the draw- 
ing of Syntarucus telicanus shows the method of brushing. The honey gland 
of Epamera sidus is difficult to detect as it resembles an ill-defined wrinkle 
between the 10th and 11th segements; consequently a side view of the larva 
is given with an enlarged view of the open gland. Leptomyrina. Capys, Deudorix, 
Hypolyccena, and Lepidochrysops have no tubercles, and only the honey gland 
is shown. In Capys alph&us two views are shown at right angles to each other, 
of the sunken gland, one showing the gland dormant, the other exuding a bead 
of liquid. The illustration of Castalius hintza shows the dormant tubercle and 
the spiracle. 

In the whip type the tubercles are present in the 1st instar, and drawings of 
the 1st instar tubercles are shown in all except P basis thero, Axiocerses bambana, 



40 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

md Pcecilmitis. The small tubercle in the illustrations of P. felthami is that of 
;he second instar. 

The protective rim spines of the cylinders of the tubercles are clearly 
shown, and in order not to foul these when extended, Spindasis natalensis has 
five spines on one side of the tubercle and only three on the other. In Poecilmitis 
tbysbe three illustrations are given to show the unfolding of the tubercle and 
one front view to show the spread of the bristles. The honey gland of the 
Alceides is tucked away under a fold of the junction of the 10th and 11th seg- 
ments and is difficult to find until it functions. Its position in the drawings is 
marked by an arrow. The Spindasis and Crudaria have, in the centre of the seg- 
ment, on the dorsum, a saucer-like dishing which suppurates a liquid similar 
to the honey gland, and ants are seen to take the liquid from these. These patches, 
called "dew patches" for want of a better name, first appear on the 5th segment 
in the 3rd instar of C. leroma. In the 4th instar the patch is prominent on the 
5th segment, and there may be one on the 8th, though less developed, and there 
may be traces of patches on the 6th and 7th segments. In the final instar they 
are fully developed on segments 5 to 8, as shown in the illustration. In the 
Spindasis the first appearance of this patch is on the 5th segment of the penulti- 
mate instar, but in the final instar there is a fully developed patch on each of 
segments 5 to 8. 

In captivity, the honey gland and "dew patches" of C. leroma suppurate 
freely, especially in the later instars, and unless ants are in attendance the liquid 
develops mildew which kills the larva. To prevent this, the liquid can be drawn 
off by a point of blotting paper. It may be as well to "wash" the glands with 
a very wet paint brush and thoroughly dry the larva with points of blotting 
paper. 

Museum & Snake Park, Port Elizabeth, SOUTH AFRICA 

and 
Cambridge Ave., St. Michael's Est., Cape Town, SOUTH AFRICA 




LYCJENIDJE LARVJE 



PLATE 1 



Caci/ret/d //rtyeud 




Acf/zera dfe//dtd 




(.•^■■i 1 ^*^^ 



/,*..Vs s J I. 



^&&* 

/*"^- 



Lamp ides boeticus 





Cdsfa/ivs me/de/?d 



Zizeeria knysno 




Tdrucu3 thesph 



mm 




Azarws moriqua 

Vh// S r. 




Aidnuj jesous 

Sue/: 








Syntdrucus fe/icdnus 

Lang. 




Tdrucus Theophr$stus 



^&£ll&: 




Euchrysops do/or osd 




T. 



LepMochrysopj pdfrfcid 




.:&$ft%fr 








.&z&&r 







E/'cochrysops messopus 




Qo</t. 



Anthene ofaci/io T. 



Anfhene dmardh 




£."***** 



C.C.C. ♦ C.G.CD. 





* \C*/«7T 








Anthene /iv/dd T. 




41 



LYOENID/E LARV/E 



PLATE 2 



Anthene def/n/fr 



Anthene temnod 





Epdmerd s/dua r Epdmerd aemu/t/d 







Epamera m/'mosdi 




dtugeta bou/ker/ 




ArQW/dUS 3//dS MS* 




Alyr/hd f/cedu/0 T. 





'%m& 



■&>rm 



fc'tf 



■ ■■■: : a: ■ 













Mb 






4 



>*\?. n 






fturina dermdpterd 

J r Vb// 9 r. 



Cdpysdlphdeud Cr. 






Sfepf 




Cdpus d/sjvncfus 




T. 



Deudonx anta/as 




^c 










Deudorix dioc/es 




Lepfomyrind lard l 






V3 







/typo/ycde/?d pM/ppca 



Cd3tdt/os h/htzd T. 




f ^^ 







tzttzzht. 



42 



LYOENID/E LARV/E 



PLATE 3 



Sp/ndasis ndtolens/s $6/. * Hew. 




Cruduria 

fa 



/eromti wa//jA 




Aloeides aronda „ 

" Wa/fyr. 





PoecilmitiS t/rysbe £ 




P/jasis thero L. 



Aloe/des fa/kosama 




Aloeides p/'erus 




Aloeides Thuro l 




^xiocerses bambdna 





Foe aim if is cbrysdor T. 

o 



PoecilmitiS pdlmus 

1 -=> Cam, 



o o o 



% 








Poec/lmif/5 py roefs r. 




Poec/lmilis/eflbam/ r. 







ace * cs.c.z?. 



44 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

FIELD NOTES 

MONARCHS NUMEROUS IN AN IOWA RAVINE 

West of Cedar Falls, Iowa, along the Cedar River following the railroad tracks 
west about two miles is an excellent territory in which to collect butterflies. I have 
taken many fine specimens from this vicinity for several years. On Sept. 4, 1955, the 
weather was ideal for collecting, being clear with a high temperature of about 84° F., 
wind south-west but not strong. About one mile west there is a small wooded ravine 
sloping from the south to the north and about a quarter of a mile long. It was 2 :45 
P. M. when I decided to investigate this ravine. Upon entering at the junction of the 
tracks I counted 15 Monarchs (Danaus plexippus L. ) flying about the opening of the 
high culvert under the tracks. While walking up the ravine I saw many Monarchs fly- 
ing up and down the valley; all were in lazy flight, some would light on the trees or 
bushes, or even on the ground. One resting Monarch allowed me to walk up to it and 
pick it off the twig with my fingers. It was a male, and upon release he flew away 
in easy flight apparently not frightened by being caught. I easily captured 2 males and 
2 females with my net for my collection, made no further attempt to catch any more. At 
another spot I counted 12 resting on a bush and about as many in the air. It was im- 
possible to make an accurate count of numbers since there were so many flying all 
about me as I walked up and down the ravine. I probably saw at least 100 or more 
of these butterflies although not all at one time. 1 watched these Monarchs playing 
about until 4:00 o'clock, at which time I left the valley. The noticeable fact was their 
lazy easy flight and not being frightened by my presence. 

There is another ravine similar to this one about a quarter of a mile to the east, 
so I thought it best to check this one also for Monarchs. I saw only four. This ravine 
was not quite as deep as the other and was noticeably dryer, and not so cool; possibly 
this would account for the fact that the Monarchs had a preference for that particular 
ravine. None of the Monarchs observed had any marks on their wings. Along the 
tracks away from the two ravines I saw seven Monarchs. Their manners of flying were 
definitely not lazy. Perhaps they were in a hurry to get to their "Valley of Enchantment". 

Leonard S. Phillips 
Armour Research Foundation of The Illinois Institute of Technology, Biochemistry Dept., 

35 W. 33rd St., Chicago 16, 111., U. S. A. 



A SMALL MIGRATION IN VIRGINIA 



September 25, 1955, on a party fishing boat off Colonial Beach, Viriginia, I observed 
over a period of about one-half hour (10 to 10:30 A. M.) eleven Monarchs (Danaus plex- 
ippus Linne), seven dark-colored butterflies of which two appeared to be Buckeyes (Jun- 
onia coenia Hbn.) and one a Red-spotted Purple (Limenitis astyanax Fab.), and one 
Yellow Sulfur. All were flying a course approximately in line from Rock Point, Mary- 
land, to Colonial Beach, across the Potomac River. All were quartering into the breeze 
which was blowing mildly but steadily from the northwest directly down the river. 

On landing at Colonial Beach I attempted to follow the flight in the area from there 
to Wakefield by road. I observed only four Monarchs, three of which were feeding on 
flowers, but too shy to be captured for branding and one which was definitely migrating 
south at treetop level, slowing up occasionally to soar momentarily on rising air currents, 
as though "sniffing" the breeze. 

There were three Buckeyes in one group resting on the grass, but they left at my 
approach and did not return. I captured one Red-spotted Purple which was resting on 
a leaf and appeared sluggish. 

C. W. Stafford. 1125 Tennessee Ave., Pittsburgh 16, Pa., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 45 

VARIATION IN THE POLYPHEMUS MOTH (SATURNIIDi€) 

One female Anthercea (=Telea) polyphemus (Hiibner), which emerged from a 
cocoon on 5 May 1954, showed interesting deviations from the normal markings and 
coloration of the underside of its wings. The underside of this moth is shown in the 
accompanying figure, to the left (A); a normal specimen appears alongside it to the right 
(B). 




Fore Wing: The most striking difference in A is the appearance of a white box 
surrounding the eye-spot on each of the fore wings. This box is bounded on two sides 
by the veins Mi and M 3 ; the other two sides are tangent to the eye-spot itself. The box is 
perfectly symmetrical on both wings. The color of the box is a whitish brown with a 
dark brown outline which separates it from the rest of the wing. The brown diagonal 
band, that runs from the point where udc intersects Sc to the point where M3 and Cui 
intersect Cu 2 , is black on specimen A. This band on A is bounded on the postbasal side 
by a rich reddish brown band, and on the other side by a large area of the same brown 
which extends from the main band to the box around the eye-spot. This appears in A 
as a darker area between the diagonal band and the box that surrounds the eye-spot. In the 
apical area of the wing of the normal moth B there are two black spots between R a and 
R4. These spots are arranged one below the other separated by R 3 with the upper spot 
lying between veins R 2 and R 3 and the lower spot being just below R 3 . In the aberrant 
female the only spot that appears is the upper one between veins R 2 and R 3 . The lower 
spot is so much reduced as to be negligible. In the submarginal area of B there is a gray 
band that runs from R 4 through Mi, M 2 , and terminates at M 3 . In the aberrant moth this 
band starts at Mi and terminates at M 3 . The general allover coloring of A is darker and 
richer than B or any normal moth with which it was compared. 

Hind Wing: In moth B there is a bridge which starts on the vein M a just tangent to 
the eye-spot and continues along udc until it reaches the point where udc meets R5. Here 
it blends into the light area that extends from the base of the wing reaching from Sc to 
3dA. Along the bottom of the eye-spot there is a second but almost invisible bridge from 
M 3 . This bridge continues as a faint line that bypasses Cui and Cu- and then blends into 
the light area. These two bridges as described above are of the normal moth. After a 
comparison of A to B it was found that in A the upper bridge was extremely wide and 
has an offshoot which continues along R-. This is entirely absent in B. In moth B this 
bridge is no more than a faint line about one thirty-second of an inch in width; in A 
it is one-eighth of an inch. As mentioned above, the lower bridge in B is almost non- 
existant while in A it is clearly visible (see the figure). The overall coloring of moth B 
is a light brownish white with a deep brown between the two bridges, the deep brown 
extending from the upper bridge to the vein 2dA. In moth A these colors are darker and 
the dark brown is replaced by a reddish brown. In moth A there is a purple band running 
through 2dA to Sc which skirts the margin of the hind wing. Although there is a similar 
band in moth B, it is not purple but gray and therefore shows up in the photographs 
lighter than that of moth A. 



46 FIELD NOTES Vol.10: nos.1-2 

One difference was noticed in the antennae. In moth A they are blond; in B they are 
brown, as in ail other moths in my collection. 

Moth A was checked with all specimens in the collection of The American Museum 
of Natural History. We found after careful comparison that there were no specimens 
with similar variations in the markings and coloration of the wings. 

Melvin Goliger, 369 Alabama Ave., Brooklyn 7, N. Y., U. S. A. 



HEMILEUCA MAI A IN OHIO IN 1955 (SATURNIID^E) 

A heavy flight of Buck Moths, Hemileuca maia Dru., took place in Ohio in 1955. 
On October 23, at Fort Hill State Memorial, Highland County, my brother, John S. 
Thomas, and I noticed exceptional numbers of the moths. My niece and nephews, 
Virginia, John N. and David Thomas, captured 15 specimens in about 30 minutes' 
time. All were in fresh condition. Incidentally, agile young people are much more 
effective in capturing these swift-flying insects than middle-aged naturalists! 

On the same day, Mr. CONRAD ROTH, Portsmouth, reported that Shawnee State 
Forest in Scioto County was "full of them" and that many seemed to be just emerging. 
He sent two specimens to the Museum, both teneral. 

Mr. Arthur R. Harper, of Columbus, tells me that he saw "hundreds" of Buck 
Moths in Adams County at Blue Creek and at Lynx, over a period extending from some 
time prior to October 15 until November 11. Prof. J. N. K.NULL, curator of insect collec- 
tions, Ohio State University, observed many individuals in southern Hocking County on 
October 20. 

In my experience, Buck Moths have been found flying on sunny days, mostly during 
the middle hours of the day. Mr. ROTH, however, states that on November 10, a dark, 
cloudy day, he found them "flying every where" early in the morning and on November 
13 he saw "a good many" flying after sunset. The temperatures on November 10 were 
below normal, but November 13 was an exceptionally warm day: at Columbus the ther- 
mometer attained a maximum of 74 degrees Fahrenheit, equalling the all-time record 
for so late in the season. 

EDWARD S. THOMAS, Curator of Natural History, Ohio State Museum, 

Columbus, Ohio, U. S. A. 



EUPHYDRAS PHAETON IN SOUTHERN INDIANA 

A number of larva? of the Baltimore {Euphydryas phaeton Drury) were found 
May 8, 1955, crawling on the ground and on small maples along a hillside in Brown 
County State Park, Indiana. On May 14, further search turned up more larvae, some of 
which were apparently feeding on already badly chewed plants of Chelone glabra. The 
characteristic webs made by the caterpillars were also noted. The larvae readily ate Chelone 
when presented to them in captivity, and some had pupated by May 19. BLATCHLEY {17th 
Ann. Kept. Indiana Dept. Geol. and Nat. Res., 1892) records phaeton as uncommon in 
Decatur, Vanderburgh, Vigo, and Monroe counties, and it probably occurs in local 
colonies throughout Indiana. 

A dry, west-facing hillside seems far from the bog or marshy meadow habitat usually 
ascribed to this species. The humidity on the slope is doubtless influenced by an adjacent 
artificial lake, but the presence of the preferred foodplant is probably more important than 
the physical conditions. A study of the reported foodplants from the viewpoint of their 
biochemical affinities would be interesting. 

FRANK N. YOUNG, Dept. of Zoology, Indiana University, Bloomington, Ind., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lcpidopterists' News 47 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

(Under the supervision of James 11. Merritt) 

HAND-PAIRING OF BUTTERFLIES 
by C. A. Clarke and P. M. Sheppard 

The ability to effect copulation in certain species of butterflies by the 
method of hand-pairing has been known for many years. In England early in this 
century a well known professional dealer used the method to mate Papilio 
machaon but it remained a secret "held so tightly that only rumours reached the 
ears of his friends" (T. W. Jeferson, 1952, personal communication). In 1919 
SwYNNERTON, working with Papilio dardanus in Africa, gave details of the 
method which he used to obtain artificial matings:- "Pairing now offers little 
difficulty. I have made it compulsory. The genitalia are brought into the cor- 
rect juxtaposition, very slight pressure is exercised on the sides of the two ab- 
domens with finger and thumb of each hand, and as soon as the male is seen 
(by abdominal movements) to take on, he is allowed to hang and both are 
placed in a box, better dark. Some males refuse". 

Ford ( 1936) drew attention to the method when writing of the genetics 
of Papilio dardanus and thought that it was so important that it should be used 
in all future work on this butterfly. He pointed out that results based on a 
study of females fertilised in nature are always open to suspicion because of the 
possibility that broods may be of mixed paternity. Swynnerton's method 
obviates this and moreover, if it is possible to mate the same male with two 
or more females of different forms ( such as are found in dardanus) the genetic 
analysis is greatly simplified. Hand-pairing is also referred to by Ford (1945) 
in Butterflies, where he mentions that the wings of the female should be held 
either with a clip of the type used on retort stands or simply in a cleft cane. 

Lorkovic (1947, 1953, 1954) pointed out that natural pairing of butter- 
flies is an instinctive act composed of several successive reflexes initiated by 
sight, odour, and touch and influenced also by external conditions such as tem- 
perature. It is also dependent on the integrity of the nervous system. In captivity 
butterflies are often unwilling to pair because the precise conditions necessary 
are not easy to obtain artificially; as a result matings in many species are effected 
only with the greatest difficulty or not at all. It is well known, however, that 
in some insects such as the mantis, copulation can be carried out successfully 
even when the abdomen is severed from the body. Lorkovic, therefore, thought 
that in butterflies ablation of the head and thorax might enable pairing to take 
place more readily because inhibitory influences initiated by the cerebral ganglia 
might then be removed. On testing this hypothesis he found that separation 
of the abdomen from the head or, more simply, that squeezing the head and 
thorax of the male (so as to render the insect semi-paralysed) enabled matings 
to be obtained in many species of butterflies. The details of his method are as 
follows:- The female butterfly is placed on a table and the abdomen is pulled 



48 Clarke & Sheppard: Hand-pairing Vol.10: nos.1-2 

out from between the wings and a pin put in above it. The wings are folded 
above the body and are kept in place by a piece of glass. (See fig. 1.) The 
abdomen of a male butterfly, emerged preferably two or three days previously, 
and in whom the head and thorax have been crushed, is then taken in forceps 
and placed against the copulatory organs of the female. With a second pair of 
fine forceps the claspers of the male are opened and the two abdomens brought 
into apposition: at this moment the uncus engages, the claspers close round the 
body of the female, and thrusting movements by the male indicate that pairing 
has begun. When this occurs the female is removed from under the glass and 
placed on some object so that the male can hang from her abdomen. When 
pairing is finished the male breaks away from the female and falls down. The 
insect generally recovers and can then be used for subsequent matings. 




Fig. 1. Lorkovic method of positioning a female. 

The method has been particularly useful in the Papilionidae and Pieridae, 
and Lorkovic states that he has had no failures in any of the European members 
of these families which he has tested, except in the genus Leptidea. He has 
also succeeded in the Satyridse with many species of Erebia, Pararge, and Coen- 
onympha and among Nymphalidae with the genera Limenitis, Neptis, and 
Melitcea. Success is also claimed with some of the Hesperiidae. In Lycaenidae 
the method is difficult to apply because in this family the genital armature is 
buried very deeply in the abdomen and it only emerges by reflexes provoked 
by the excitement of sight or scent. 

The following list shows the various interspecific crosses which LORKOVIC 
has obtained, and he considers that method is here all-important because be- 
havioural barriers would normally be a bar to copulation in these butterflies. 
It also enables successive broods to be obtained even when external factors are 
adverse — for instance it is invaluable for the continued breeding of Colias 
croceus through out the winter. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



49 



1. Papilio p. podalirius X P- P> feisthamelii 

2. Pieris rapce X P- manni (hybr. lorkovici) 

3. Pieris napi S X P- ergane 9 (hybr. naperga) 

4. Pieris napi $ X P- manni 9 (hybr. namanni) 

5. Pieris napi $ X P- rapce 9 (hybr. narapce) 

6. Pieris rapce o X ?• daplidice 9 

7. Pieris napi $ ~X P. daplidice 9 

8. Euchloe cardamines $ X -& euphenoides 9 (hybr. cardaphenoides) 

9. Euchloe cardamines $ X £• ^^/w 9 (hybr. cardabelia) 

10. Erebia stirius S X •£• pronoe 9 

11. Erebia cethiops $ X £• J"0 ,;c " 2 

12. Erebia tyndarus $ X £• ottomana 9 

13. Hesperia alveus $ X H. arm oric anus 9 




Fig. 2. Technique of hand-pairing; 9 P. asterius and 5 f- machaon. 

Clarke (1952), working independently with Papilio machaon, found 
that it was easy to hand-pair this butterfly and that much less attention to detail 
was necessary than with "natural" matings obtained under greenhouse conditions. 
The method he employed was essentially that of Swynnerton, the details 
being as follows: -First the butterflies are warmed in a cage for about V4 hour 
at a temperature of between 65° and 80° F. They are then held as shown in 
figure 2, the male being easily distinguished by the triangular claspers 
on the last abdominal segment. Slight pressure causes the male to open his 
claspers widely and these then embrace the terminal segment of the female, 
correct positioning being facilitated by slight rotatory movements on the part 



50 



CLARKE & SHEPPARD: Hand-pairing 



Vol.10: nos.1-2 



of the operator. After some minutes "locking" occurs and moderate tension 
on the abdomens does not then cause separation. Simultaneously the head and 
thorax of the male appear to become lifeless. The butterflies normally remain 
together for half to three quarters of an hour, during which time thrusting 
movements by the male indicate that insemination is taking place. The photo- 
graphs (fig. 3) show a pair of butterflies after hand-mating. 




Fig. 3- P- dardanus cenea: $ form "leighi" pairing with S ■ 

Over 1,000 matings have been carried out in this way during the past three 
years and the method has been successful with the. following species and sub- 
species:- P. machaon (various races), P. hospiton, P. machaon hippocrates, 
P. podalirius, P. demodocus, P. xuthus, P. asterius, P. bairdii, P. podalirius, 
P. zelicaon, P. indra, P. glaucus, P. rutulns, P. thoas, P. dardanus, P. polytes. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neirs 51 

It should be pointed out that Lorkovic's method of severing the abdomen 
has not been employed by us. Futhermore, on the occasions when our technique 
has failed, compression of the head and thorax has not brought about successful 
pairings and in our experience males maimed in this way do not survive so 
well for future matings, although they probably would do so in warningly 
coloured species which have tougher bodies. 

Certain difficulties in our technique of hand-mating have been found in all 
the forms tested, and the following observations on this matter may be helpful. 

( 1 ) There is considerable variability with regard to the ease with which 
mating can be effected. Some males refuse all females, and many refuse some, 
though they may mate with a previously refused female after an interval of 
some hours, or even a day or two. The same remarks apply to females. If pairing 
does not occur within a very few minutes the butterflies should be left for a 
few hours. 

(2) In the machaon group males of the races britannicus, gorganus, and 
mediterraneus appear to copulate much more readily than do those of asterius, 
brevicauda, and zelicaon. This is so marked that it is usually easier to obtain 
hybrids with these three butterflies using machaon males than it is to effect mat- 
ings using males of their own species. 

(3) Care must be taken to see that the butterflies are correctly approx- 
imated. Sometimes they appear to be so, but closer inspection with a hand lens 
may show the sedeagus to be improperly engaged. This is particularly so in 
dardanus, and in this species the bodies should be at an angle of less than the 
usual 180°. Matings lasting less than 10 minutes or more than 3 hours, particu- 
larly the former, may be unsatisfactory. 

(4) Some of the insects of all the species tested have soft, flabby bodies 
and these, particularly the male, are most difficult to hand-pair. In P. perrhebus 
successful matings have never been obtained because of flabbiness and inability 
of the male to "take on". 

(5) Some males appear willing but the sedeagus retracts when brought 
into contact with the female. Such insects are often unsatisfactory but success- 
ful pairing sometimes takes place after an interval. 

LAYING 

After a period of time, varying between one and seven days, the females 
may start laying, a temperature between 70° and 90° F. being optimum. The 
habits of the different species vary. ( 1 ) The machaon group oviposit best when 
allowed to flutter unconfined on the growing food plant (fennel or rue) in 
the greenhouse. A minority, however, will lay in cages to picked food plant. 
(2) P. glaucus and P. rutulus need to be walked repeatedly up a flat leaf of 
Liriodendron. (3) In P. dardanus it seems obligatory for the butterfly to be 
sleeved on the growing food plant. These insects flutter like moths before 
depositing and frequently lay best in the evening under a strong electric light. 

In all the species tested there is very great variability in the number and 
fertility of the eggs laid; 70 eggs is a good total but some females produce 
more. Not infrequently even after apparently satisfactory pairings either no 



52 Clarkf. & Sheppard: Hand-pairing Vol.10: nos.1-2 

eggs or infertile ones are produced. Length of life in the butterflies is also 
variable, with females living from a few days up to three weeks. Life can be 
prolonged by keeping the insects cool when they are not in use, and by feeding 
daily in hot weather with sugar and water. This, in our opinion, is preferable to 
honey and water which may make the legs of the insects sticky and more liable 
to be torn off during the laying period. 

APPLICATION OF HAND-PAIRING TO THE STUDY OF THE 
GENETICS OF THE PAPILIONID^E 

In the machaon complex it was found that many of the North American, 
European, North African, and Japanese subspecies could be freely hybridised, 
and those that have been obtained are shown in the following list. Nearly always 
the Fj of these pairings were infertile inter se, yet offspring could often be 
obtained by backcrossing the hybrids to either parent form. This has enabled 
some information to be obtained as to the method of inheritance of various 
characters. (Clarke & Knudsen, 1953, and Clarke & Sheppard, 1953, 1955a, 
1955b, 1955c, and in press.) 

1. P. asterius 9 X P- machaon S and reciprocal cross 

2. P. asterius 9 X P- brevicauda S and reciprocal cross 

3. P. zelicaon 9 X P- machaon $ and reciprocal cross 

4. P. asterius 9 X P- zelicaon $ and reciprocal cross 

5. P. brevicauda 9 X P- machaon £ 

6. P. brevicauda 9 X P- zelicaon S 

7. P. machaon 9 X P- bairdii 6 

8. P. machaon 9 X P- indra $ 

9. P. machaon 9 X P- hospiton $ 

10. P. machaon hippocrates 9 X P- machaon & and reciprocal cross 

11. P. asterius 9 X P- machaon hippocrates $ 

In P. glaucus information is accumulating as to the method of inheritance 
of the black and yellow female forms, the mating of the same male to the two 
different kinds of females having been effected on several occasions. P. glaucus 
has also been crossed with P. rutulus and a fertile backcross to P. glaucus has been 
obtained. (Clarke & Sheppard, 1955b.) 

A start has also been made on breeding P. dardanus cenea in England. 
Again it has been found possible to mate the same male with more than one 
type of female. This has enabled some preliminary work to be done on the 
genetic difference between the the female forms "leighi" and "hippocoonides". 
The method is of particular importance when the characters concerned are 
sex-controlled to the female, as so often in mimicry. 

It is clear that the application of the technique of hand-pairing to the 
Papilionidae has shown that they provide some of the most suitable material 
ever investigated in animals for studying the process of speciation in detail. 
Moreover the method can be used with great advantage to study the genetics 
of the polymorphism and mimicry which occur so frequently in this family. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 53 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are indebted to Dr. E. B. Ford, F. R. S., for the trouble he has taken 
in reading the manuscript, and for his helpful comments. One of us (P. M. 
Sheppard) is grateful to the Nuffield Foundation for its generous support. 

References 

Clarke, C. A., 1952. Operation Swallowtail. Bull. Amat. Ent. Soc. vol.2, no.134: pp. 10-11. 
, 1952. Hand-pairing of Papilio machaon in February. Ent. Rec. & Journ. Var., 

vol.64: p.98. 

, & J. P. Knudsen, 1953. A hybrid swallowtail. Ent. Rec. & Journ. Var., vol.65: p. 76. 

,& P. M. Sheppard, 1953- Further observations on hybrid swallowtails. Supplt. to 

Ent. Rec & Journ. Var., vol.65, No. 9. 
, 1955. A preliminary report on the genetics of the machaon group of Swallowtail 

butterflies. Evolution, vol.9: pp. 182-201. 
,1955b. The breeding in captivity of the hybrid Papilio rutulus $ X Papilio 

glaucus 6- Lepid. News, vol.9: pp.46-48. 
,1955c. The breeding in captivity of the hybrid swallowtail Papilio machaon 

gorganus Fruhstorfer $ X Papilio hospiton Gene 6 . Entomologist, vol.88: pp. 265- 

270. 
, 1956. A further report on the genetics of the machaon group of Swallowtail 

butterflies. Evolution: (in press). 
Ford, E. B., 1936. The genetics of Papilio dardanus Brown. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, 

vol.85: pp.435-466. 

, 1945. Butterflies. Collins. London. 

Lorkovic, Z., 1947. Modes artificielles d' accouplement des papillons. Glasnik Bioloske 

Sekcije. Period. Biol. Zagreb. 
, 1953. L'accouplement artificiel chez les Lepidopteres et son application dans les 

recherches sur la fonction de 1' appareil genital des insectes. Physiologia Comparata 

et (Ecologia. vol.3, No.2-3. 
, 1954. Experiences de croisements dans le genre Erehia (Lepidopteres Satyridae). 

Bull. Soc. Zool. France, tome 79: p.31. 
Swynnerton, C. F. M., 1919. Proc. Ent. Soc. London: xxx-xxxiii. 

"High Close", Thorsway, Caldy, Cheshire, UNITED KINGDOM 

and 
Genetics Laboratory, University Museum, Oxford, UNITED KINGDOM 



ARCTIC COLLECTING IN NEW ENGLAND 
by Donald J. Lennox 

When the southern edge of the last great ice sheet had been forced to 
recede northward and had reached the latitude of northern New England there 
appeared mountains of imposing height, the White Mountains of the present 
day. Because of their loftiness they extended up into layers of air so cold that 



54 Lennox: Mt. Washington Vol.10: nos.1-2 

secondary glaciers continued to linger on their higher shoulders for a long period, 
carving deep cirques in the mica schist composing this great wrinkle in the sur- 
face of the earth. It follows, then, that these peaks were also able to hold many 
of the forms of animal and plant life that had become acclimated to the glacier's 
edge. 

Mount Washington has the reputation of being the stormiest summit in 
the east. Its wintry blasts commonly reach velocities of one hundred miles an 
hour and more, with temperatures tumbling to 30° and 40° below zero. Snow 
seldom lies where it falls but is speedily whisked into one or another of the 
many glacial cirques. However, during the brief summer, many Hudsonian forms 
of life have time to come forth and bloom, or fly, and carry out the activities of 
their species. There are numerous small terraces scattered over the mountain 
where plants and sedges indigenous to the arctic are to be found and it is from 
these spare beginnings that the native life springs. 

Here, in mid-July, the lepidopterist will find the drab but exciting butterfly, 
Qineis melissa semidea, in its natural habitat, and the beautiful little noctuid, 
Anarta melanopa. The butterfly will rely for safety upon its coloration, which 
so nearly matches the lichen-encrusted rock surfaces and upon the ever-present 
wind which aids it swiftly beyond the outcroppings of rock and out of sight. The 
moth, relying more upon its remarkable likeness to the rough gray rock, will 
disappear at his feet. 

If the collector returns again in mid-August he may expect to find the even 
more choice butterfly, Boloria titania montina. Confining itself closely to the 
many damp areas immediately about and below the ice-cold mountain springs, 
it is by far the rarer of the two butterflies peculiar to the mountain. The tree-line 
is reached on the White Mountains at between 4200 and 5000 feet, according to 
exposure. B. montina extends its territory down into the scrub wherever its 
favored wet terrain is found, and it may also be found well above the limit of 
trees where alpine springs flow from the mountain. It gathers sweets from the 
Alpine Goldenrod and the Blue Fall Aster. Montina is a rather easy butterfly to 
capture, and since it is quite restricted as to locale it should be collected con- 
servatively. There is a definite chance of causing it to become scarce or even 
extinct from too much collecting in its accessible habitat. 

Mount Washington presents extremes in jagged rock and delicate flower. 
The rock-strewn summit is like a massive rock garden during the brief summer, 
Arenaria groenlandica nestles among the rocks in company with Diapensia lap- 
ponica. Rhododendron lapponicum hugs the boulders in company with alpine 
blueberries, and in especially favored spots, beneath the shoulders of great rocks, 
the extremely delicate little Cassiope hypnoides may be found. 

Thus it is in such enchanting surroundings that the collector, fortunate 
enough to find himself able to reach them, may spend happy exciting hours of 
real arctic collecting in New England. But he who chooses a whole fair day is 
extremely lucky, for there is seldom one during the warm months when fluffy 
daytime clouds do not condense and obscure the sun at some time during the day. 

Route #1, Whitefield, New Hampshire, U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 55 

WHAT'S IN YOUR BACKYARD? 

Those who have read SAMUEL H. SCUDDER'S Butterflies of the Eastern United 
States and Canada may remember many references to New Britain, Conn. Our little farm, 
just inside the city, is a wooded 5 Vi acre hilltop. The flora includes White, Yellow, 
and Black Birch, several oaks, Shagbark and Pignut Hickory, several maples, Hop Horn- 
beam and Ironwood, Beech, White Ash, Poplar, Spicebush, Alder, Hemlock, Red Cedar, 
pines, Tulip Tree, Basswood, Dogwood, Sumach, Sassafras, Willow, Chokecherry, Witch 
Hazel, Kalmia, Vaccinium, Viburnum, Myrica, flowering Raspberry, Blackberry, Elder- 
berry, and other low shrubs. 

Dr. REMINGTONS interesting article on a one day record around New Haven 
on July 14th is really something to shoot at next year. Meantime, I wonder whether 
other "backyards" of similar extent to ours have as large a butterfly population. We 
have collected 47 species on our farm during the last year (1955), as follows: 

Lethe portlandia Lycasna phlceas 

Euptychta cymela Ereres comyntas 

Cercyonis alope Lycainopsis argiolus 

Danaus plexippus Papilio polyxenes 

Speyeria cybele P. cresphontes 

S. aphrodite P. glaucus 

Phyciodes tharos P. troilus 

Polygonia interrogations Anthocaris genutia 

P. comma Colias eurytheme 

Nymphalis j-album C. philodice 

N. antiopa Eurema Visa 

Vanessa atalanta Pieris rapce 

V . virginiensis P. virginiensis 

Precis lavinia Epargyreus clarus 

Limenitis astyanax Achalarus lyciades 

L. arthemis proserpina Thorybes pylades 

L. archippus Pholisora catullus 

Asterocampa celtis Erynnis icelus 

Strymon m-album E. brizo 

S. titus Ancyloxipha numitor 

S. melinus Polites themistocles 

S. falacer P. peckius 

Mitoura gryneus Poanes hobomok 
Eeniseca tarquinius 

Credit must be given to Oscar, one of our cats, for the single battered specimen 
we have of P. cresphontes. 

Within a mile of our farm, we have collected 24 additional species: 

Lethe eurydice H. metea 

Euptoieta claudia Polites verna 

Boloria selene P. manataaqua 

B. toddi P. mystic 

Euphydryas phaeton Wallengrenia otho 

Melitcea harrisii Poanes massasoit 

Strymon acadica P. zabulon 

Incisalia niphon Atrytone logan 

Thorybes bat hy 11 us A. conspicua 

Erynnis horatius A. ruricola 

E. juvenalis Atrytonopsis hianna 

Hesperia sassacus Lerodea Vherminieri 

Edward J. & George T. Austin, 99 May St., New Britain, Conn., U. S. A. 



56 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

REVIEWS 

ZUR MORPHOLOGIE DER SCHMETTERLINGSEIER [On the morphology of the eggs 
of Lepidoptera] . By Ewald Doring. 154 pp., 61 pis. (3 colored). 1955. Publisher: 
Akademie-Verlag, Mohrenstrasse 39, Berlin W 8, Germany. [Price, bound, 33 Marks.] 

This book is one of the most noteworthy works ever written on classification of the 
immature stages of Lepidoptera. It stands alone as a manual for the identification of the 
eggs. Herr DORING has prepared a key to the eggs of 622 species and has given drawings 
of the dorsal and lateral views, micropyle, and lateral details of all of them. Some of the 
figures are rather badly blurred in reproduction, but all are usable. There are also 128 
colored figures, showing the color changes during maturation of the egg in 30 species, and 
six plates showing diagrammatically the variations of micropyle type, surface sculpturing, 
profile;, and natural groupings of eggs following oviposition. The nomenclature is the 
1910 usage of Seitz, but for convenience the Register at the end of the text also gives 
the comparable usage of BERGE & Rebel and of newer authors, especially BOURSIN and 
FORSTER. 

In the body of the key, the plate and figure numbers are given for each species, and 
the figures also show the couplet number in which the species is to be found in the key. 
Throughout the key, in addition to the identification characters there is a brief description 
of the egg and its measurements. 

Geographically, most of the species are from Germany, although a few other species 
popular with breeders are included. However, lepidopterists from all parts of the world 
can expect to find the book useful for comparison, and in many cases North Americans 
will be able to infer correctly the determination of their own species, which should often 
run in the key to a related German species. 

Herr DORING sticks pretty close to the problem of identifying the eggs, but he 
devotes some space to evidence in the egg shape for phylogenetic classification. 

The book deals with the so-called Macrolepidoptera and a few micros. The species are 
distributed as follows: 89 butterflies, 9 Zygaenidae, 22 Arctioidea, 11 Lymantriidae, 14 
Lasiocampidae, 5 Drepanidae, 5 Saturniidae, 12 Sphingidae, 20 Notodontidae, 7 Thyatiridae, 
310 Noctuidae, 112 Geometridse, 1 Lemoniidae, 1 Bombycidae, 1 Endromididae, 1 ^geriidae, 
and 2 Cossidae. 

C. L. Remington 



DIE SCHMETTERLINGE SVDBAYERNS UND DER ANGRENZENDEN 
NORDLICHEN KALKALPEN. II. TEIL — DIE KLEINSCHMETTERLINGE. 2. HEFT 
— GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE BIS A1ICROPTERYGIDAE. By Ludwig Osthelder. Beilage 
zum 41. Jahrg., Mitt. Munchn. Ent. Ges. 135 pp. 1951. [Available from Miinchner 
Entomologische Gesellschaft, Munich, Germany.] 

The first Heft of this annotated checklist of the Microlepidoptera of southern Bavaria 
appeared with volume 29 of the Mitteilungen. Since the families are given in reversed 
phylogenetic sequence (i.e., most primitive are last), this Heft completes the work. Locali- 
ties, dates, and for some species other notes are given for each species, falling in families 
as follows: 14 species of Glyphipterygidae, 48 Yponomeutidae, 22 Plutellidae, 276 Gelechi- 
idae, 245 Elachistidae, 101 Gracilariidae, 28 Lyonetiidae, 80 Nepticulidae, 5 Talaeporiidae, 
90 Tineidae, 5 Eriocraniidae, 10 Micropterygidae. Family lines are drawn more broadly than 
most contemporary authors would prefer. The type is unusually large and clear. 

C. L. Remington 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 57 

INSECTS CLOSE UP. By Edward S. Ross. 81 pp. 1953. Publisher: University of Cali- 
fornia Press, Berkeley, Calif., U. S. A. [Price S1.50, paper bound.] 

This little book is a gallery of the finest group of photographs of insects I have ever 
seen in print. The author is Curator of Entomology at the California Academy of Sciences 
and is a distinguished authority on classification of Embiids, some Coleoptera, and mos- 
quitoes. Most recently he has concentrated on close-up photography of all groups of 
insects, and he presents a tantalizing sample of his work in this book. The text is written 
in an informal, conversational style, with comments on each group shown in the photo- 
graphs. At the back of the book is a section on techniques of collecting, studying, and 
photographing insects. 

C. L. Remington 



CHECK LIST OF THE LEPIDOPTERA OF JAPAN. PART 2: ALUCITIDM — 
EPICOPE1DM. By Hiroshi Inoue. 105 pp. 15 October 1955. Publisher: Rikusuisha Co., 
112/4 Iriarai, Otaku, Tokyo, Japan. [Obtainable from the publisher, unbound, for $2.00 
postpaid.] 

The first part of this List has been reviewed recently [Lepid. News 9: p. 159]. Part 2 is 
in the same style and includes the following: 2 species of Alucitidae, 414 Pyralididar 
(written "Pyralidas", but superfamily spelled "Pyralidoidea"), 10 Thyrididae, 18 Zygaenidse, 
2 Epipyropidae, 17 Heterogeneidae ( = Eucleidae, Limacodidae). The pagination is con- 
tinuous with that of Part 1. There are also 2 pages of "Additions and Corrections to Part 1." 
The author notes (in lift.) that only 500 copies of each part of this List are being printed. 

C. L. Remington 



TWO NEW JAPANESE PERIODICALS 

SIEBOLDIA is apparently to be devoted to all areas of biology. Volume 1, no. 1, is 
dated September 1952; no. 2 is dated April 1953. It is published by the Biological Labora- 
tory, General Education Dept., Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan; the subscription price 
is not shown in European characters on either number under review. In these two numbers 
are the first two parts of T. SHIROZU'S "New or little known butterflies from Northeastern 
Asia, with some synonymic notes" (38 pp., 12 pis.) and a shorter, well-illustrated paper 
by SHIROZU & YAMAMOTO on morphology of the male genitalia of Argyronome laodice 
japonic a Men. 

In November 1953, the first issue appeared of a new periodical devoted to papers on 
moths. This journal is called TINEA. The editor and publisher is Toshiro Sugi, 112 1 A, 
Iriari, Otaku, Tokyo, Japan. Each annual volume is to consist of two numbers. The sub- 
scription fee is $2.00 per volume, which seems rather expensive in view of the size (vol. 1 
contained 58 pages) and the very poor quality of paper. Volume 1, no. 1 and no. 2 (July 
1954), are devoted largely to four papers on Geometridae by H. INOUE; these are in 
English. The editor is author of two on Noctuidae. There are four other papers and reviews 
of literature. Most papers are in Japanese, but all but one have English summaries and 
figure captions. Several new genera and species are described. This periodical should be a 
significant and much-needed encouragement to potential moth students in Japan, where 
such excellent biological work has been done since the War by the very numerous group 
of butterfly enthusiasts. 

C. L. Remington 



58 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

(Under the supervision of Peter F. Bellinger) 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to lepidop- 
terists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended that every 
work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here; omissions of papers 
more than 3 or 4 years old should be called to Dr. Bellinger's attention. New genera 
and higher categories are shown in CAPITALS, with types in parentheses; new species 
and subspecies are noted, with type localities if given in print. Larval foodplants are 
usually listed. Critical comments by abstractors may be made. Papers of only local 
interest and papers from The Lepidopterists' News are listed without abstract. Readers, 
particularly outside of North America, interested in assisting with this very large task, 
are invited to write Dr. BELLINGER (University College of the West Indies, Mona, St. 
Andrew, Jamaica, B.W.I. ). Abstractors' initials are as follows: [P.B.] — P. F. BELLIN- 
GER; [I.C.] — I. F. B. Common; [W.C.|— W. C. Cook; [A.D.] — A. Diakonoff; 
[W.H.] — W. HACKMAN; [J.M.] — J. MOUCHA; [E.M.] — E. G. MUNROE; [N.O.] — 
N. S. OBRAZTSOV; [C.R.] — C. L. REMINGTON; [J.T.] — J. W. TlLDEN; [P.V.] — 
P. E. L. VlETTE. 

A. GENERAL 

Komarek, Julius, & Jaroslav Tykac, Atlas motylu, 115 pp., 48 col. pis. Prague. 1953. [See 

note in Lepid. News, vol.9: p. 158.] 
Schwarz, Rudolf, Motyli. 3. 157 pp., 48 col. pis. Prague. 1953. [See note in Lepid. Neivs, 

vol.9: p.158.] 
Swanepoel, D. A., Butterflies of South Africa: where, u>hen and how they fly. 320 pp., 17 

pis. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Ltd. 1953- [See review in Lepid. News, vol.9; p. 81.] 

B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Amsel, H. G., "Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der zoologischen Expedition des National 
Museums in Prag nach der Turkei. Microlepidoptera" [in German]. Acta Ent. Mus. 
Nat. Pragte, vol.27: pp.41 1-429, 19 figs. 1952. Describes as new Ethmia anatolica (Sulu- 
han); Sarisophora occidentella (Granada, Spain); XANTHOCERA, X. luticostella. Fig- 
ures genitalia of new spp. and adult of E. anatolica. Lists 40 spp., 6 new to Turkey. 
[J- M.] 

Angel, F. M., "Notes on the Lepidoptera of the Northern Territory of Australia, with 
description of a new species." Trans. Roy. Soc. So. Australia, vol.74: ppXS-14, 1 pi. 
1951. Describes as new Ogyris hewitsoni parsonsi (Lycaenidae) (Aileron, N.T.); Synemon 
tvulwulam (Castniidse) (Pine Creek, N. T.); figures wings. [I. C] 

Bauer, David L., "Notes on the Papilio machaon complex in Arizona." Lepid. Neivs, 
vol.9: pp.7-10. 8 April 1955. 

Bernardi, Georges, "Note a propos de la Leuconea cratcegioides H. Lucas (Lep. Pierididae)" 
[in French, Czech summary]. Folia Ent., vol.11: pp.28-29. 30 Sept. 1948. L. cratcegioides, 
described from China, is a good species and not a synonym of Aporia hippia. [J. M.] 

Bernardi, G., "Notes sur la taxonomie de deux Colotis malgaches" [in French]. Naturaliste 
Malgache, vol.6: pp.57-60, 6 figs. March 1955. C. evanthe is confined to Madagascar, 
Juan de Nova, & Comoro Is.; C. evanthides, confined to Madagascar, Aldabra Is., & 
Comoro Is., has no affinity with the continental African species; C. evippe, in the 
Madagascar area, is known only from the Comoro Is. [P. V.] 

Biezanko, C. M., "Colias leshia pyrrhothea Hiibn., 1823 (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera, 
Pieridae), inimigo de alfalfa e de outras plantas aparentadas" [in Portuguese; English 
summary]. Escola Agron. "Eliseu Maciel" Bol. (Pelotas), no. 29: 23 pp., 2 pis. 1954. 
Describes generic characters and immature stages, female forms, economic aspects of 
C. 1. pyrrhothea; figures venation and adults. [C. R.] 

Bourgogne, J., "Un Oreopsyche nouveau de la chaine des Pyrenees" [in French]. Rev. 
ftanq. Lepid., vol. 14: pp. 199-203, 9 figs. Jan. 1955. Describes as new O. lessei 
(Psychidae); describes last stage larvae & case, distribution, & ethology. [P.V.] 

Brown, F. Martin, Donald Eff, & Bernard Rottger, "Colorado butterflies. Part I. Satyridas." 
Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist., no.3 : 32 pp., 23 figs. 30 Sept. 1954. See review in Lepid. 
News, vol.9: p.21. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 59 

Burns, A. N., "Notes on Australian Rhopalocera with descriptions of new subspecies and 
life histories." Mem. Nat. Mus. Victoria, no.17: pp.83-105, 6 pis., 2 figs. 1951. Describes 
as new Geitoneura klugi insula (Rottnest Is., W. Australia) (Satyridae) and lalmenus 
icilius parvus (Geraldton, W. Australia) (Lycaenidae). Figures wings; gives life history 
notes and figures of wings and some genitalia of several other Rhopalocera. [I. C] 

Clench, Harry K., "Another case of a partially replaced lost vein in a new nyctemerid from 
West Africa." Rev. Zool. Bot. Afric, vol.50: pp.296-301, 1 fig. 1954. Describes as new 
NOCTASOTA, N. curiosa (Cameroons). Replacement of lost vein previously reported 
for Masurgina Iceta (Agaristidae). [P. V.] 

Common, I. F. B., "The Australian species of Heliothis (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their 
pest status." Australian Journ. Zool.. vol.1: pp. 319-344, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1953- Four Aus- 
tralian species are recognized, three of which (armigera, punctigera, rubrescens) were 
previously confused under the name of H. armigera. The North American species is 
distinguished from H. armigera. Figures genitalia & wings of both sexes. [I. C] 

Common, I. F. B., "The Australian armyworms of the genus Persectania (Lepidoptera: 
Noctuidae)." Australian Journ. Zool., vol.2: pp. 86-99, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1954. Describes as 
new P. dyscrita (Canberra, A. C. T.); retains 2 Australian & 1 New Zealand species. 
Figures genitalia and wings of both sexes. [I. C] 

Couchman, L. E., "Notes on a collection of Hesperiidae made by F. M. Angel in the 
Northern Territory." Trans. Roy. Soc. So. Australia, vol.74: pp. 15-17, 1 pi. 1951. 
Describes as new Suniana larrakia (Darwin, Australia) and figures the wings. [I. C] 

Descimon, H., & H. de Lesse, "Nouvelle note sur Erebia serotina escimon et Lesse" [in 
French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.14: pp. 237-241. March 1955. New captures of E. sero- 
tina in the Pyrenees, with study of the S genitalia and the chromosome number. [P. V.| 

Diakonoff, A., "Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the Third Archbold Expedition 
(American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part I." Verhandel. K. Nederl. 
Akad. Wetensch., Natuurk., Sect. 2, vol.49: pp.1-167, 1 pi., 208 figs., 1 map., Dec. 1952. 
Describes as new: (Alucitidae) Diacrotricha guttuligera; FLETCHERELLA, and type F. 
niphadothysana; Platypodia monotrigona, P. phanerozona; Oidematophorus mesoleucus, 

0. irenceus; Stenoptilia galactostacta, S. iriana; (Phaloniidae) ARACHNIOTES, and type 
A. dactylota; Clysiana scytalephora; ( Tortricidae, Tortricinae) Zacorisca aptycha, Z. 
basilica, Z. aquamarina, Z. bovisanguis; CHIONOTHREMMA. and type C. placida. 
C. mesoxantha, C. ferratilis, C. sanguens. C. obscura, C. gracilis. C. ochricauda, C. nebu- 
licola, C. atmpes, C. ccelestis, C. combusta, C. ocellata, C. citricaput. C. carbonifera, C. 
nigrangula, C. marginata, C. euxantha, C. mutatis, C. pallescens, C. nivisperennis, C. 
auriflua, C. soligena; DIPHTHEROPYGA. and type D. niphadea; Isotenes megalea. 

1. melanotes, I. pudens, I. mesonephela, I. marmorata, I. prosantes, I. erasa, I. rhodosphen, 
I. sematophora, I. melanopa, I. melancalymma: ANISOTENES, and type A. leuco- 
pbthalma, A. cacotechna, A. phanerogonia, A. schizolitha, A. dracontodonta, A. bathy- 
grapha. A. libidinosa, A. stemmatostola, A. decora, A. pyrra, A. amphiloga, A. fallax, 
A. scoliographa, A. ellipegrapha, A. oxygrapta, A. spodotes, A. acrodasys; PARA- 
CHORISTA, and type P. cricophora, P. apheles. P. mimela, P. oligosta, P. pityrochroa, 
P. rhopalodes, P. colobodesma, P. anthracograpta, P. verecunda, P. acmemorpha, P. 
anassa, P. psara, P. lagaroptycha, P. stenoptera. P. ochra, P. euphyes. P. truUigera, P. 
anisographa, P. lutescens; HETEROCHORIST A. and type H. dispersa; Isochorista 
papuana, I. sulcata, I. polysperma; Trincophora archboldi. T. leucotorna. T. nebulosa; 
Adoxophyes controversa, A. acropeta, A. marmarygodes; Chresmarcha encemargyrea. 
Describes allotypes of Adoxophyes vindicata ( $ ) , A. nebrodes (9), Chresmarcha 
sybillina ( 9 ) • All from Snow Mts. Describes & figures genitalia; gives keys to New 
Guinea genera & species; discusses distribution of Tortricidae & Zacoriscini (map). 
[See review in Lepid. News, vol.7: p.128.]. [A. D.] 

Diakonoff, A., "New Guinea Microlepidoptera. I." Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., 
ser.C, vol.55: pp.382-393, 8 figs. 1952. Describes as new (Tortricidae): Zacorisca angi; 
PARADICHELIA, and type P. rostrata, P. brongersmai. P. euryptycha; MACROTHYMA 
(type Adoxophyes sanguinolenta Diak.). Describes 9 of M. sanguinolenta. All from 
New Guinea. Key to spp. of Paradichelia. Figures genitalia & venation. Notes on distri- 
bution of 4 other Tortricidae. [N. O.l 

Diakonoff, A., "New Guinea Microlepidoptera. II." Proc. Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., 
ser.C, vol.55: pp. 394-406, 8 figs. 1952. Describes as new Isotenes ornata, I. punctosa. 
I. clarisecta, Thrincophora deloptycha, T. microtera; all from New Guinea. Describes 
the hitherto unknown 9 9 of /. crobylota, I. tetrops. Dicellitis cornucopiae. Notes on 
distribution of 4 other spp. Genitalia figured. [N. O.] 

Diakonoff, A., "Presidential address to the Pittsburgh Meeting of the Lepidopterists' 
Society." Lepid. News, vol.9: pp.4l-45. 10 Aug. 1955. 



60 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Dixon, Bruce W., "A new subspecies of Epargyreus clarus from Arizona, with distribu- 
tional notes." Eut. News, vol.66: pp.6-9. 1955. Describes as new E. c. huachuca (Hua- 
chuca Mts., Cochise, Co., Ariz.). [J.T. | 

Eliot, J. N., "Notes on the Nacaduba hem/us (C. Felder) complex (Lepidoptera: Lycae- 
nicfae)." Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B), vol.24: pp. 15 3- 15 8, 2 figs. 31 Oct. 1955. 
Describes as new N. subperexia nadia (Geelvink Bay, New Guinea); N. s. paska (Sula 
Besi, Sula Is.); N. s. martha (Geelvink Bay); N. asaga solta (Siboga, Sumatra). Key to 
pavana group of Nacaduba in the Indomalayan region. Notes on other subspecies of 
above spp. and of N. sanaya. [P.B.] 

Evans, W. H., A catalogue of the American Hesperiidce including the classification and 
nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part II (Groups B, 

C, D) Pyrgince. Section 1. v -\- 178 pp., 25 pis. Part 111 (Groups E, F, G) Pyrgince. 
Section 2. v -f- 246 pp., 28 pis. London: British Museum (Natural History). 1952, 

1953. Complete catalogue of American Pyrginae, in key form; with numerous figures 
of S genitalia, and localities of British Museum specimens. Describes as new (Part II): 
Augiades group: Phocides distans silra (Tarapote, Peru), P. metrodorus metron (Para- 
guay), P. nor alls (Rio Colorado, Peru), P. thermus bellina (Macas, E. Ecuador), P. 
partia (Rio Colorado, Peru), P. padrona (Cajon, Cuzco, Peru); Tarsoctenus corytus corba 
(Pebas, Amazonas), T. prcecia luna (Buenavista, E. Bolivia); Phanus rilma (Guerrero, 
Mex.); Drephalys oriander oria (Honduras), D. opifex ( Berg-en-Daal, Dutch Guiana), 

D. olrina (Carimang R., Br. Guiana), D. olra (Isle Marajo, Para); Hyalothyrus infer- 
nal is infa (Florida, Upper Putumayo, Amazonas), H. neleus neda (Farinas La Paz, 
Bolivia); Entheus priassus pralina (Espirito Santo, Brazil); Cabirus procas junta 
(Chanchamayo, Peru), C. p. purda (Pebas, Amazons). Urbanus group: R1DENS (type 
Eudamus ridens); VENADA (type Telegonus ad vena); Epargyreus enispe elta (Ta- 
nampaya, Bolivia), E. spanna (Santo Domingo), E. socus cania (Guerrero, Mex.), E. c. 
chota (Trinidad), E. c. dicta (Mapiri, Bolivia), E. c. sinus (Para), E. exadeus cruza 
(Cordova, Vera Cruz, Mex.), E. nutra (Cauca, Colombia), E. aspina (Bogota, Colom- 
bia), E. spina spina (Bogota, Colombia), E. s. rerruga (Verrugas, E. Peru), E. spinta 
(Bogota, Colombia), E. spinosa (Guerrero, Mex.); Polygonus leo hagar (Jamaica), 

P. I. ishmael (Haiti); Chioides catillus albius (Panama), C. c. vintra (St. Vincent), 
C. irerna (Chorica, Peru), C. zilpa namba (Magdalena, N. Sonora, Mex.); Aguna 
asander jasper (Jamaica), A. megaeles malia (Valencia, Venezuela), A. claxon (Atoyac, 
Vera Cruz, Mex.), A. clina (Bogota, Colombia), A. cirrus (Alto de Sierra, Sao Paulo); 
Typhedanus optica optica (Br. Guiana), T. o. goya (Goyaz, Campinas); Polythrix roma 
(Para), P. gyges (Rio Colorado, Peru); Chrysoplectrum perna (Bogota, Colombia); 
Codatractus carlos carlos (Honduras), C. c. rowena (Putao Guiria, Venezuela), C. c. 
arguta (N. Mts., Trinidad), C. alcceus apulia (Ecuador); Ridens philistus philia (Cauca, 
Juntas, Colombia), R. fulima (Espirito Santo, Brazil), R. nora (Huacamayo, Carabaya); 
Urbanus riterbeana alba (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), U. pronta (San Pedro Sula, Hon- 
duras), U. pronus (Ambato, Ecuador), U. esma (Obidos), U. erona (Zapote, Colombia), 
U. elmina (Rio Pastaza, Ecuador), U. esta (Alto de Sierra, Sao Paulo), U. tanna (Sta. 
Rita, Cauca R., Colombia), U. cindra (Buena Vista, E. Bolivia), U. carmelita barra 
(Bahia), U. albimargo takuta (Takutu R., Br. Guiana), U. a. rica (Villa Rica, Sapucay, 
Paraguay); Astraptes apastus pusa (Bahia), A. narcosius aulina (Fr. Guiana), A. samson 
(Colombia), A. colossus rhoda (Tarapote, Peru), A. c. dosula (Rio Grande do Sul), A. 
parisi helen (San Pedro Sula, Honduras), A. alardus latia (Costa Rica), A. a. aquila 
Cauca Valley, Colombia), A. alfius alfius (St. Paulo d'Olivenca, Amazon), A. a. adoba 
(Espirito Santo), A. creteus crana (San Geronimo, Guatemala), A. c. crilla (Zamora, 
Ecuador), A. c. Cyprus (Bolivia), A. latimargo tinda (Para), A. chiriquensis erana (Bal- 
zapamba, Ecuador), A. galesus cassius (Irazu, Costa Rica), A. anaphus (Tres Rios, Costa 
Rica), A. a. anoma (Trinidad), A. a. aniza (Callao, Peru); Thorybes mexicana dobra (Ft. 
Grant, Ariz.), T. m. ducia (Panama); Cabares rinta (Tucuman, Argentina). Celcenorrhi- 
nus group: SALATIS (type Papilio salatis); CEPHISE (type Goniurus cephise); Bunga- 
lotis borax borax (Fr. Guiana), B. b. lactos (Chanchamayo, Peru), B. quadratum barba 
(Para), B. clusia (Para); Sarmientoia dinka (no locality); Dyscophellus phraxanor lama 
(Cayuga, Guatemala), D. p. mena (Ecuador), D. marian (Zamora, Ecuador), D. 
ramusis ramon (Bugaba, Panama); Nascus solon cori/la (Venezuela), N. prax (Para); 
Porphyrogenes stupa (no locality), P. sura (La Merced, Peru), P. zohra stresa (Tarapote, 
Peru), P. bolira (Venezuela), P. spoda (Chiriqui), P. spanda (Para), P. sparta 
(Para), P. glaria (Panama); Ablapsis amazonensis renta (San Gaban, Peru); Orneates 
saria (Rio Cachiyaca, Iquitos); Celcenorrhinus shema ochra (St. Paulo d'Olivenca, 
Amazons), C. s. rox (Iquitos, Upper Amazons), C. ragra (Naula, Amazons), C. similis 
stola (Panima, Guatemala), C. saroma saroma (Colombia), C. s. tonio (Colombia), 
C. s. timor (Moyabamba, Peru), C. cy napes darius (Chimbo, Ecuador). Part III, 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 61 

Telemiades group: Ml Ml A (type Cyclosemia phidyle); POLY CT OR (type Prygus 
(sic!) polyctor); MORVINA (type Tagiades morvus); MYRINIA (type Cyclosemia 
myris); OCELLA (type Cyclosemia albata); VIOLA (type Staphylus alicus); PLUM- 
BAGO (type Achlyodes plumbago); TR1NA (type Helias geometrina); ZERA (type 
Achlyodes zera); CEchydrus chersis rufus (Novo Friborgo); Marela tamyris tamba 
(Iquitos, Upper Amazons); Cogia hippalus hiska (Coriilo, Costa Rica), C. h. hestor 
(Merida, Venezuela), C. azila (Santiago de Chiquitos, Bolivia), C. mala (Guatemala); 
Telemiades vansa (Rio Demerara, Br. Guiana), T. centralis contra (Chimbo, Ecuador), 
T. squanda (Lake Sacuaresma, Rio de Janeiro), T. trenda (Surinam), T. epicalus sila 
(Venezuela), T. antiope tosca (Ega, Amazons); Pyrdalus corbulo cora (Honduras); 
Mimia phidyle pazana (Yungas La Paz, Bolivia); Ectomis cythna ega (Ega, Amazons); 
Nerula tuba (Itaituba, Amazons); Eracon pebana (Pebas, Amazons), E. mnemon clada 
(Maranham); Spioniades abbreviata anta (Bolivia); lliana heros heroica (Rio Dagua, 
Colombia); Sophista latifasciata matto (Cuyaba, Matto Grosso); Polyctor polyctor cleta 
(Acapulco, Guerrero, Mex.), P. p. dagua (R. Dagua, Colombia), P. fera falla (Vene- 
zuela), P. tensa (Brazil); Nisoniades bessus godma (Chontal, Nicaragua), N. b. panama 
(Chiriqui, Panama), N. b. benda (Chimbo, Ecuador), N. b. cauca ( Cauca, Distrito de 
Pereira, Colombia), N. b. remo (San Remo, Peru), N. brazia (Novo Friborgo, Brazil); 
Pachyneuria jaguar (Pozuza, Huanco, Peru), P. lineatopunctata belema (Para, Belem), 
P. duidae pozuza (Pozuzo, Huanco, Peru), P. licisca lista (Fr. Guiana); Pel/icia 
costimacula arina (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), P. tyana toza (Magdalena Valley, Colom- 
bia), P. angra angra (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), P. a. axina (Paramba, Ecuador), P. 
theon tonga (L. Sapatoza region, Colombia), P. t. trax (Ecuador), P. rant a ranta 
(Laguna de Sacuaresma, Rio de Janeiro), P. r. rancida (Paraguay); Morvina morvus 
cyclopa (Bolivia), M. m. para (Para), AI. fissimacula lenia (El Banco, Magdalena, 
Colombia), AI. /. rema (Santarem, Amazons), Al. falisca falia (Iquitos, Upper Ama- 
zons); Myrinia santa santa (Espirito Santo), M. s. monka (Para); Cyclosemia leppa 
(R. Songo, Bolivia); Gorgopas gutta ( Chanchamayo, Peru); Viola olla (San Gaban, 
Solimoes, S. Paulo de Olivenca, Upper Amazons), V. egra (L. Sapatoza, Chirigua, 
Colombia); Bolla cybele (Coatepec, Mex.), B. cyclops sonda (Orizaba, Mex.), B. ziza 
(Cuernavaca, Mex.), B. antha (Cauca Valley, Colombia), B. brennus vexta (Manizales, 
Colombia), B. tetra oriza (Orizaba, Mex.), B. t. guerra (Omilteme, Guerrero), B. t. 
tornea (Torne, Cauca, Colombia), B. zora (Ecuador); Staphylus chlora (Yungas, La 
Paz, Bolivia), S. eryx (Santarem, Amazons), S. putumayo sambo (Juhuty, Amazons), 
S. epicaste stanga (Paramba, Ecuador), S. shola (no locality), S. perna (Pernambuco), 
S. mazans tierra (Tierra Colorado, Guerrero, Mex.), S. huigra canka (Callao, Peru), 
S. mossi (Peru), 5". saxos saxos (Cali, Colombia), S. s. satrap (San Jose, Bolivia), 
S. minor manx (Cauca, Colombia); Diaeus lacaena verna (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), 
D. 1. ambata (Ambato, Ecuador); Gorgythion beggina vox (S. Geronimo, Guatemala), 
G. canda (central Paraguay); Ouleus matria dampa (Fr. Guiana), O. m. matria (Iquitos, 
Upper Amazons), O. fridericus salvina (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), O. f. panna 
(Panama), O. f. trina (Trinidad), O. f. riona (Novo Friborgo, Brazil), O. dilla 
(Chimbo, Ecuador), O. accedens finda (Espirito Santo, Brazil); Zera phi/a hasta 
(Costa Rica); Quadrus fanda (Para), Q. tros (Espirito Santo, Brazil), Q. deyrollei 
porta (Teffe, Amazons); Gindanes brontinus bronta (Chanchamayo, Peru), G. brebissoni 
bvebna (Cochabamba, Bolivia), G. bora (Espirito Santo); Pythonides tullia (Laguna 
de Sacuaresma, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), P. braga (Roraima, Br. Guiana), P. homer 
(Chapada, Matto Grosso), P. eminus pasha (Chapada, Matto Grosso), P. hampa 
(Santarem, Amazons); Sostrata grippa (Rio Verde, Rio Pastaza, Ecuador), S. jinna 
(Coreato, Cauca, Colombia), S. bifasciata nordica (Mexico), S. pusilla pulsa (Zamora, 
Ecuador); Paches loxus loxana (Buenavista, Bolivia), P. era (Rio Pacaya, Lower Ucayali, 
Peru) \Milanion hemes pemba ( Cavallo-Cocho, Amazonas, Peru), M. h. memba (Nivac, 
Matto Grosso), M. cramba (Rio Colorado, Peru), M. pilumnus pilta (Moyabamba, Peru); 
Paramimus stigma stanna (Taboga Is.); Charidia lucaria pilea (Bogota), C. I. pocus (Cuz- 
co, Peru), C. I. mayo (Chanchamayo, Peru); Potomanaxas flavofasciata pantra (R. Songo 
to R. Suapi, Bolivia), P. hirta paphos (Paramba, Ecuador), P. thestia cranda (Costa Rica). 
P. latrea tusca (Ambato, Ecuador), P. I. tyndarus (Chanchamayo, Peru), P. laoma trex 
Ecuador), P. I. trigga (R. Tabaconas, N. Peru), P. /. cosna (Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia), P. 
frenda (Peru), P. andrcemon fuma (Huancabamba, Peru), P. a. forum (Yungas, La Paz, 
Bolivia); Mylon illineatus toxina (Florida, Upper Putumayo, Amazons), AI. orsa (Cache, 
Costa Rica), Al. mestor (Ecuador), AI. salvia ( Bugaba, Panama), Af. ander ander 
(Rio [de Janeiro]), Af. a. andrea (Colombia 1 !, M. cajus hera (Panama); Carrkenes 
fuscescens conia (Fr. Guiana), C. f. bamba (Chanchamayo, Peru); Clito littera anda 
(Fr. Guiana), C. sompa (S. Antonio de Barra, Bahia, Brazil), C. zenda (Surinam), C. 



62 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

tuva (Para); Onenses ke/so (Carimang R., Br. Guiana); Antigonus liborius areta 

(Rio Grande do Sul, Sta. Maria); Timochreon satyrus forta (Para), T. s. tampa 

(Chapada, Matto Grosso): Zopyrion evenor tressa (Para), Z. e. thania (Pernambuco), 

Z. subvariegata thyas ( Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru); Anisochoria pedaliodina bacchus 

(Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), A. minorella verda (Rio Verde, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador), 

A. bahia (S. Antonio da Barra, Bahia), A. vianna (Goyaz, Viannopolis), A. albida alco 

(Tanampayo, Bolivia). Erynnis group: TOST A (type T. tosta Evans); GESTA (type 

Thanaos gesta); Achlyodes busirus rioja (Rio de Janeiro); A. tbraso sagra (Haiti;, 

A. minna (Bahia), A. selva (Jalapa, Mex.); Grais stigmaticus juncta (Jamaica); 

Timochares trifasciata sanda (Tucuman, Argentina), T. ruptifasciata runla (Jamaica); 

Anastrus petius peto (Banos, Guatemala), A. meliboea bactra (Cochabamba, Bolivia), 

A. ubscurus narva (Florida, Upper Putumayo, Bolivia), A. o. chaqua (Chaquimayo, 

S. Peru); Tosta tosta (Iquitos), T. taurus (Moyabamba, Peru); Cycloglypha thrasibulus 

flinta (Paramba, Ecuador), C. polax (Chapada, Matto Grosso); Helias phalcenoides cama 

(Mexico); Chiomara asychis simon (Puebla Viejo, Colombia), C. a. zania (Chachapoyas, 

Amazonas, Peru), C. a. vincenta (St. Vincent), C. a. grenada (St. Georges, Grenada), 

C. crenda (Castro, Parana); Gesta inga (Bahia). Pyrgus group: Pyrgus centaurea loki 
(Long Peak Trail, Colorado); Heliopetes randa (Alto da Sierra, Sao Paulo), H. chimbo 
( Chimbo, Ecuador ) . A few corrections to Parts I and II are given at the end of 
Part III, including [Pyrrhopyge thericles] grinda (British Guiana), [P. /.] ronda (Trini- 
dad) , n. sspp. [P.B.] 

Evans, W. H., A catalogue of the American Hesperiidce indicating the classification and 

nomenclature adopted in the British Museum {Natural History). Part IV (Groups H 

to P) Hesperiince and Megathymince. v + 499 pp., 88 pis. London: British Museum 

(Natural History). 1955. Concluding volume of the catalogue. Keys to generic groups, 

genera, species and subspecies; figures of genitalia of many spp. Some named forms 

which have not been studied are listed at the end of the genera. Describes as new: 

Carterocephalus group: PIRUNA (type Pholisora pirus); P. sticta (Bolanos, Jalisco, 

Mex.), P. cingo cingo (Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Mex.), P. c. sombra (Guatemala); 

Dardina rana (Castro, Parana), D. castra (Castro, Parana), D. jonesi (Castro, 

Parana); Dalla thalia (Ecuador), D. grovius amba (near Ambato, Ecuador), D. g. floxa 

(Chachapoyas, Amazons, Peru), D. agathocles lanna (Loja, Ecuador), D. a. Ionia 

( Huancabamba, Peru). D. lenda (Loja, Ecuador), D. lorda (Loja, Ecuador), D. costala 

ascha (Huancabamba, Peru), D. c. zona (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), D. c. costala 

(Yungas del Espirito Santo, Cochabamba, Bolivia), D. huanca (Huancabamba, N. Peru), 

D. sepia (W. slopes of Andes, N. Peru), D. hesperioides hister (Limbani, S. Peru), D. 
polycrates ambala (Ambato, Ecuador), D. p. lania (Aqualani, SE Peru), D. epiphaneus 
poya (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), D. e. anca ( Hunancabamba, Peru), D. e. limba 

(Limbani, Carabaya, Peru), D. e. junga (Bolivia), D. frontinia frontinia (Frontinia, 
Antioquia), D. f. venda (Venezuela), D. f. vanca (Huancabamba, Peru), D. cyprius 
quinka (Marcapata, Peru), D. taza (Banos, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador), D. dimidiatus lilla 
(La Oroya, Rio Inambari, SE Peru), D. d. pucer (Huayabamba, S. of Chachapoyas, 
Amazonas, Peru), D. cocha (Cochabamba, Bolivia), D. miser (Carabaya, Peru), D. 
genes golia (Huancabamba, NE Peru), D. g. nona (La Paz, Bolivia), D. vinca (Huan- 
cabamba, NE Peru), D. spica livta (Cochabamba, Bolivia), D. cupavia elka (Chacha- 
poyas, Amazons, Peru), D. merida (Merida, Venezuela), D. mentor (Ecuador), D. mora 
(Loja, Ecuador), D. carnis sondra (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), D. c. carnis (Chaco, 
Bolivia), D. pantha (Huancabamba, N. Peru), D. tona (Huancabamba), D. decca decca 
(Banos, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador), D. d. doppa (Huancabamba, N. Peru), D. eburones 
elna (Buenaventura, Bogota, Colombia), D. e. ena (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), 
D. rosea (Buenaventura, Bogota, Colombia), D. parma (Ecuador), D. mars (Colombia), 
D. quadristriga regia (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), D. q. rota (Uruhasi, S. Peru), 
D. q. rusa (Chaco, Bolivia), D. rubia (Huancabamba, NE Peru), D. xicca paza (Yungas, 
La Paz, Bolivia), D. curia (Bogota, Colombia), D. curiosa (Mexico). Vinius group: 
LENTO (type Pamphila lento); LEVIN A (type Apaustus levina); CORTICEA 
(type Hesperia corticea); CANTHA (type Cyclopides celeus); MISIUS (type Pamphila 
misius); RACTA (type R. racta); Falga jeconia jacta (Rio Titaco, W. Colombia), F. j. 
ombra (El Topo, Rio Pastaza, Ecuador), F. j. odol (Uruhasi, S. Peru), E. farina (Yungas 
del Espirito Santo, Cochabamba, Bolivia); Synapte malitiosa pecta (Mexico), S. m. 
puma (Balboa, Panama), S. m. equa (Sara, Sta. Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia), S. salenus 
silna (Guerrero, Mex.), S. s. osta (Sara, Sta. Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia); Lento hermione 
vina (Inambari, Oroya, Peru), L. longa (Cavallo Cocho, Amazonas, Peru), L. kadeni 
(no locality), L. lucto (Cavallo Cocho, Amazonas, Peru), L. listo (no locality), L. apta 
(Chapada, Matto Grosso), L. krexoides lor a (Takutu R., Br. Guiana); L. k. ludo 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 63 

(Bolivar, Balzapamba, Ecuador), L. k. gent a (Espirito Santo), L. pyra (Espirito Santo), 
L. muska (Cali, Colombia); Corticea lysias potex (Fr. Guiana), C. I. pena (Pena Branca, 
Brazil); Zalomes biforis merida (Merida, Venezuela), Z. b. wanda (W. Andes, N. 
Peru), Z. b. illimanensis (Illimani, Bolivia), Z. kenava tassa (interior of Colombia), 
Z. k. vola (Carabaya, Limbani, S. Peru); Cantha celeus calva (Ega, Upper Amazons), 
C. ivea ivea (Theresopolis), C. i. honor (Sao Paulo); Vinius tryhana '/stria (Iguassu, Pa- 
rana); Pherceus honta (Cavallo Cocho, Amazonas, Peru), P. centra (Iguassu, Parana).. 
P. rumba (Brazil); Alo/o muzo (Muzo, Colombia), Af. petra (Bogota), Af. stygia (Iqui- 
tos), Af. menta ponda (Cananche, Cundinamarca, Colombia), Af. m. menta (Corcovada, 
Rio de Janeiro); Racta apella raza (Reyes, Bolivia), R. phasma (Balzapamba, Ecuador), 
R. racta (Uruhasi, S. Peru), R. chir'/a (Chirimayo, Peru), R. dalla (Zamora, Ecuador). 
Apaustus group: VIRGA (type Apaustus virginius); LUDENS (type Cobalus ludens); 
PANCA (type Lerodea subpunctuli); SOD ALIA (type Pamphila soda/is); GALLIO 
(type Stomy/es gallio); VENAS (type Pamphila evans); PAMBA (type P. pamba); 
SABINA (type Hesperia sabina); REPENS (type R. repens); LUCID A (type Carystus 
lucia); VIDIUS (type Narga vidius); MONCA (type Cobalus telata); N ASTRA (type 
Hesper/a I'herminieri); SUCOVA (type Hesperia? sucova); MOLL A (type Af. molla); 
ARITA (type Cobalus arita); CUMBRE (type Phanes cumbre); JUSTINIA (type 
Hesper/a justinianus); LAMPONIA (type Hesper/a lamponia); Apaustus gracilis smart'/ 
(Kaiteur, Br. Guiana); Callimormus radiola janna ( Sta. Rita, Cauca Valley, Colombia); 
Eutocus matildce v'/nda (Cavallo Cocha, Amazonas, Peru); Virga phola (Matta Grosso); 
Esprius veleda palta (Para, Amazons); Methionopsis dolor (Juntas, Cauca, Colombia): 
Mnestheus damma (Balzapamba, Ecuador); Artines focus (Roraima, Br. Guiana), A. 
trogon (Merida, Venezuela), A. satyr (Sao Paulo), A. fosca (St. Paulo d'Olivenca) ; 
Mnaseas bicolor macia (Rio Magdalena, Colombia); Pamba pamba (Bolivar, Bal- 
zapamba, Ecuador); Repens repens (Sta. Catharina), R. repta (Guadalajara, Mex.); 
Luc/da rogan (Alto de Sierra, Sao Paulo); Phanes espa (Corcovado); Vidius fido 
Castro, Parana), V. nappa (Castro, Parana), V. mictra (Castro, Parana), V. tinta 
(Goyaz), V. nostra (Santarem), V. laska (Chapada, Matto Grosso); Monca telata penda 
(Pena Branca, Brazil), Af. branca (Pena Branca, Brazil); Nastra tanta (Chapada, 
Matto Grosso); Cymaines idria (Paraguay), C. cavalla (Cavallo Cocho, Amazonas, 
Peru), C. laureolus loxa (Para), C. chela (Ciudad Bolivar, Venezuela), C. odilia pacer 
(Limbani, Carabaya, SE Peru), C. gisca (Sapucay, Paraguay), C. jamba (Cachi, Salta, 
Argentina); Vehilius stictomenes madra (Manabi, W. Ecuador), V. gorta (Goyaz); 
Mnasitheus form-a (Para), Af. nitra (Castro, Parana), Af. nella (Castro, Parana), M. 
continua conta (Rio Pastaza, Ecuador), Af. c. continua (Bolivia), Af. spangla (Rio 
Blanco, Ecuador); Mceris tita (Duenas, Guatemala), Af. duena (Duenas, Guatemala), 
Af. padus (Uruhasi, S. Peru), Af. striga stroma (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, Mex.), Af. s. strada 
(Trinidad), Af. ekka (Ecuador); Parphorus storax sorra (Paramba, Ecuador), P. felta 
(La Merced, Peru), P. oca (Panama), P. prosper (Obidos), P. granta (Panama); Molla 
molla (Castro, Parana); Pap/as quigua (Les Quigues, Esteban Valley, N. Venezuela); 
Cobalopsis prospa (Sao Paulo), C. prado (El Prado), C. dagon (Sapucay, Paraguay); 
Arita serra (Alto de Sierra, Sao Paulo); Lerema ancillaris liris (Atoyac, Vera Cruz, 
Mex.), L. lenta (Itanhaen, Sao Paulo); Afory.r Valerius ralda (Valladolid, Yucatan), M. 
subgrisea prada (Angostura, Venezuela), Af. sinta (Obidos, Amazons), Af. yahua 
(Yahuarmayo, Peru); Cumbre belli eberti (Minas Geraes, "Bergland um Ouro Preta, 
Fazenda Barcellos"); Adlerodea lemba (St. Paulo d'Olivenca, Amazon); Psoralis vent a 
(Venezuela), P. rusta (Venezuela), P. gota (Colombia), P. ravus (Sao Paulo); Tigasis 
altona (Alto da Serra, Sao Paulo), T. coda (La Chima, Ecuador); Vettius crispa (St. 
Paulo d'Olivenca), V. diana felix (La Merced, Peru), V. phyllus pura (Cavallo Cocho, 
Amazonas), V. p. yunga (Yungas del Espirito Santo, Cochabamba, Bolivia), V. p. prona 
(Alto da Sierra, Sao Paulo), V. diver sa donga ( Huancabamba, N. Peru), V. d. drona 
(Yungas, La Paz, Bolivia), V. drova (Ambato, Ecuador), V. fantasos onaca (Polochic 
Valley, Guatemala), V. yalta (Espirito Santo, Brazil), V. arva (Rio [de Janeiro]), V. 
coryna conka (San Geronimo, Guatemala); T uresis basta (Santarem); Thoon slopa 
(Br. Guiana), T. canta (Cananche, Cundinamarca, Colombia), T. ponka (Para), T. 
yesta (Oroya, Inambari, Peru), T. rinka (Rio Colorado, Peru); Justin ia phcetusa norda 
(Guatemala), /. gava (Carimang R., Br. Guiana), /. justinianus cappa (Paramba, 
Ecuador), /. ;'. dappa (Para), /. septa (Minas Geraes); Euty chide sempa (Br. Guiana), 
E. angus (Petropolis); Naevolus mevus (probably intended to be ssp. of N. orius) 
(Paramba, Ecuador). Carystus group: VERTICA (type Hesperia verticalis); EBUSUS 
(type Papilio ebusus); ARGON (type Carystus argus); SACRATOR (type Hesperia 
sacrator): TROMBA (type T. tromba); TURMADA (type Dion turmada); MCEROS 
(type Proteides moeros); CARYSTINA (type Carystus lysiteles); T ELLON A (type 



64 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Hesperia variegata), Styrioides quota (Carimang R., Br. Guiana), S. penna (Teffe, 
Amazons), S. quaka (Bolivia); Dion carmenta coma (Bolivar, Balzapamba, Ecuador); 
Enosis iccius (Takutu R., Br. Guiana); E. blenda (Teffe); E. blotta (St. Anne, Trini- 
dad), E. immaculata demon (Tarapote, Amazons); Vertica ibis (Bolivia), V. pudor 
(Joinville, S. Brazil); Sacrator polites pilla (Oxapampa, W. Peru); Lycbnuchus victa 
(Uruhasi, S. Peru), L. brasta (Chanchamayo, Peru), L. pelta (Zamora, Ecuador); 
Talides sinois cantra (Guatemala), T. s. riosa (Antonio dos Brotos, San Fidelis, Rio de 
Janeiro), T. alternata hispa (Bugaba, Panma); Tromba tro?nba (Chanchamayo, Peru); 
Carystus hocus (Demerara), C. periphas amax (Cananche, Cundinamarca, Colombia), 
C. junior (Amazons); Telles pyrex (Florida, Upper Putumayo); Tisias rinda (Merida, 
Venezuela), T. lesueuri canna (La Oroya, Carabaya, Peru); Cobalus virbius hanta 
( Pernambuco) ; Dubiella fiscella belpa (Chiriqui); Carystoides basoches yenna 
(Cayenne), C. balza (Balzapamba, Ecuador), C. Ma (L. Sapatoza region, Chirigua 
District, Colombia), C. hondura (Honduras), C. lebbceus cundina (Cananche, Cundi- 
namarca, central Colombia), C. manta (W. Cordillera ,Colombia); Lychnucoides ozias 
ozina (Balzapamba, Bolivar, Ecuador); Perichares philetes aurina (Castro, Parana), 
P. p. limana (Lima, Peru), P. mat ha (La Chima, Ecuador), P. deceptus drina (Dept. 
de Magdalena, Colombia), P. chima (La Chima, Ecuador). Phlebodes group: 
SATURN US (type Apaustus tiberius); JOANNA (type /. Joanna); PUNT A (type P. 
punta); BRUNA (type B. bruna); QUINT A (type Cobalus cannce); CYNEA (type 
Hesperia cynea); PENICULA (type Pamphila bryanti); DECINEA (type Hesperia 
decinea); ORTHOS (type Euty chide orthos); CONGA (type Pamphila chydcea); 
HOLGUINIA (type H. holguin); Saturnus saturnus servus (Castro, Parana); Phlebodes 
campo sifax (Amazons), P. notex (Tonantins, Amazons), P. virgo (Amazons), P. torax 
(Lagoon of Sacuaresma, Rio de Janeiro); Joanna Joanna (Veragua, Panama), P. boxi 
(Berbice, Br. Guiana); Punta punta (Para); Bruna bruna ("Masun" — ? Amazons); 
Cynea cyrus hippo (Trinidad), C. c. rhino (Cayenne), C. fista (Petropolis), C. popla 
(Trinidad), C. robba robba (Kaiteur Falls, Br. Guiana), C. r. nippa (Chapada, Matto 
Grosso), C. hycsos somba (Brazil); Aiucia visa (Rio de Janeiro); Penicula criska (Boa 
Vista, Tapajos, Amazons), P. cristina (Cananche, Cundinamarca, Colombia), C. crista 
( Suapure, Venezuela); Decinea decinea denta (La Merced, Peru), D. d. pruda (Sapucay, 
Paraguay), D. zapota (Zapote, Guatemala); CEonus egma (Espirito Santo); Cyclosma 
glamis (La Merced, Peru); Orthos orthos minka (Manaos, Amazons), O. trinka (King 
Frederick William IV Falls, Upper Courantyne R., Br. Guiana); Holguinia holguin 
(Holguin, Cuba). Hesperia group: STING A (type Pamphila morrisoni); APPIA (type 
A. appia); LINK A (type Hesperia Una); POMPEIUS (type Hesperia pompeius); 
LIBRITA (type Hesperia librita); LIBRA (type Augiades? aligula); HANS A (type 
Hesperia hyboma); CHALCONE (type Augiades chalcone); PROPERTIUS (type 
Hesperia propertius); Ancyloxypha ramba (Paramba, Ecuador); Copaiodes jean jean 
(Kaiteur, Br. Guiana), C. j. favor (Castro, Parana); Hylephila phylceus taxus (Banos, 
Rio Pastaza, Ecuador), H. p. anca (Limbani), H. isonira mima (L. Titicaca, Capachica), 
H. zapala (Zapala, Neuquen, Argentina), H. gal era (Galera Pass, Junin, Peru); Appia 
appia (Soledad, Entre Rios, Argentina); Polites vibex calla (Callao, Peru), P. baracoa 
loma (Haiti); Wallengrenia druryi sapuca (Sapucay, Paraguay); Pompeius darina 
(Matto Grosso), P. tinga (Honduras); Atalopedes campestris carteri (Bahamas); 
Ochlodes snoivi pilza (Pinal, Puebla): Paratrytone melane poa (Mt. Poas, Costa Rica), 
P. barroni (Zamora, Ecuador); Mellana sista (Venezuela), M. pazina (Yungas, La Paz, 
Bolivia), Ai. noka (no locality), /U. myron verba (Balzapamba, Ecuador), M. angra 
(Para), M. villa (Teffe, Amazons); Librita raspa (Zamora, Ecuador); Euphyes vestris 
agra (Bahamas), E. ampa (Honduras), E. tuba (Itaituba, R. Tapajos), E. bryna 
(Roraima, Br. Guiana), E. antra (Lima, Peru), E. cherra (Nericagua, R. Orinoco); 
Hansa devergens hydra (Castro, Parana) Chalcone chalcone corta (Yungas, La Paz, 
Bolivia); Serdis statius dives ( Huancabamba, NE Peru), S. Venezuelan fulla (near 
Ambato, Ecuador), S. viridicans lupus (Merida, Venezuela), S. v. pandra (Loja, Ecua- 
dor), S. v. edith (Chachapoyas, Amazonas, Peru), S. v. junta (W. slopes of Andes, N. 
Peru); Metron chrysogastra gades (Chanchamayo, Peru), M. schrottkyi tomba (Tom- 
bador, 16 mi. S. of Diamantino, Matto Grosso); Phemiades pohli cidra (Archidona, NE 
Ecuador), P. vergens (Cosnipata, E. Peru), P. milvius milor (Yahuarmayo, Peru). 
Lerodea group: Amblyscirtes tolteca prenda (Tucson, Ariz.); Lerodea emba (Cha- 
chapoyas, Amazonas, Peru). Calpodes group: LINDRA (type Carystus simulius); 
SALIANA (type Papilio salius); AROMA (type Hesperia aroma); Panoquina pano- 
quinoides calna (Callao, Peru), P. chapada (Chapada, Matto Grosso), P. trix (Chapada, 
Matto Grosso), P. fusina sonta (Chiriqui), P. f. viola (Rio Grande, Brazil), P. f. jumbo 
(Jamaica), P. luctuosa fonda (Zamora, Ecuador), P. 1. cineas (Huancabamba, N. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 65 

Peru); Zenis jebus janka (Bugaba, Panama); Tirynthia conda (Yungas, La Paz, 
Bolivia); Thespieus pinda (Limbani, Carabaya, SE Peru), T. tihoneta pampa (Oxapampa, 
Peru), T. jora (Castro, Parana), T. xarippe hallia ( Sta. Elena, Antioquia, Colombia), 
T. othna tinka ( Atanques, Colombia), T. thona (Huancabamba, Peru), T. paula ( Para- 
napanama, Sao Paulo, Brazil), T. caraca (Caraca, Minas Geraes, S. Brazil), Vacerra 
bonfilius bonta (Bolivia), V. caniola elva (La Merced, Peru); Niconiades gladys ( Canan- 
che, Cundinamarca, Colombia), N. yoka (Porto Velho, Matto Grosso), N. linga (Iguassu, 
Parana), N. loda (Caraca, Minas Geraes, Brazil), N. nabona (Bolivia), N. riridis vista 
(Colombia), N. parna (Para); Aides epitus duma (Santiago del Estero, E. Bolivia); Xeni- 
ades chalestra coma (Sao Paulo), X. victoria (Castro, Parana); Saliana salva (Para), 5". 
fusta (Para), S. nigel (Para), S. vixen (Fr. Guiana), S. esperi (La Chima, Ecuador), 
S. salona (Para), S. morsa (El Banco, Magdalena Valley, Colombia), 5". saladin saladin 
( Paramba, Ecuador), S. s. culta (Para), S. s. catha (Sta. Catharina); Thracides cleanthes 
binota (Venezuela), T. c. quarta (Rio Tono, C. Peru), T. c. trebla (Sara, Sta. Cruz, 
E. Bolivia), T. c. quinta (Bahia), T. nanea nida (Colombia); Neoxeniades brcesia aqua 
(R. Dagua, Colombia), N. bajula peri (Para), N. seron sexton (Para), N. scipio posta 
(Mayabamba, Peru), N. s. nosa (Bahia), N. tropa (Sta. Fe de Bogota, Colombia), 
N. myra (Florida, Upper Putumayo), N. irena ( Ambato, Ecuador); Aroma henricus 
balba (Bolivar, Balzapamba, Ecuador); Pyrrhopygopsis agaricon nanta (Paramba, 
Ecuador). In the addenda and corrigenda to the first three valumes are proposed: 
(Part II) tenda n.n. for [Epargyreus clavicornis] orizaba (the true orizaba is the proper 
name for [E. socus] cama); (Part III) MICTRIS (type Pellicia crispus) to replace 
Mycteris, a homonym. In another appendix are listed names incorrectly assigned to 
America, with their true localities and identity. Numerous changes are made in the 
names of North American skippers. [P-B.] 

Fletcher, David S., "Lepidoptera Geometridae." Pare National de I'Upemba I. Mission 
G. F. de Witte (1946-49). fasc. 32: pp.79-92, 1 pi., 10 figs. 1954. Describes as new 
Scopula cinnamomata, (Mubale R. ) 5\ nipha (Lusinga). List of Geometridae collected in 
the Upemba National Park, Belgian Congo. [P.V.] 

Fletcher, D. S., 8c P. Viette, "Description de nouveaux genres et de nouvelles especes de 
noctuelles quadrifides d'Afrique occidentale (Lep. Noctuidae)" [in French]. Bull. Inst. 
Franc. Afr. Noire, vol.17: pp. 168-184, 1 pi., 16 figs. Feb. 1955. Describes as new (from 
Mt. Nimba, Fr. Guinea, unless otherwise noted) (Noctuidae) : Goniocalpe subviolacea; 
Marcipa nigropunctifera; Anoba subatriplaga (Cameroons); Oglasa plagiata (Cam- 
eroons); Bocula lamottei; Caryonopera royi; Trichopalpina nimba; Plecoptera nimba, 
P. mollardi; Zethesides simplex; EUNIAIBATANA (Ophiderinae), & type E. lobata: 
PSEUDUGIA (Ophiderinae), & type P. bistriata; ZIELA (Hypeninae) , & type Z. biplaga; 
GAEDEODES (Hypeninae), & type G. testacea; G. collenettei (Ivory Coast). [P. V.] 

Gregor, Frantisek, "The quercicolous Lithocolletis Hb. in CSR" [in Czech, Russian & 
English summaries]. Folia Zool. Ent., vol.1: pp. 24-56, 11 pis., 5 figs. 1952. Describes 
as new L. quercifoliella cerris (Kovacovske hills, S. Slovakia; larvae in Quercus cerris). 
Important study of the genus. Gives remarks on bionomics, ecological & sociological 
analysis, phylogenetic conclusions, etc. All imagos are figured in color. Keys, in Czech. 
[J. M.] 

Gregor, Fr., & D. Povolny, "What is Lithocolletis staintoniella Stt.?" [in English, Czech 
summary]. Folia Ent., vol.12: pp.4-9, 1 pi., 8 figs. 1949. Describes all stages and ecology; 
figures larvae, pupa, imago, & S genitalia (larvae & imago in color). [J. M.] 

Gregor, F., & D. Povolny, "The members of Lithocolletis Hb. minine Acer and Alnus" [in 
Czech, English & Russian summaries]. Folia Ent.. vol.13: pp. 129-151, 3 col. pis., 87 
figs. 30 Dec. 1950. Important study of Lithocolletis mining Acer and Alnus in Central 
Europe. Data on bionomy and ecology are given; some spp. are figured in color. [J. M.] 

Gregor, Frant., & Dal. Povolny, "Contribution a la faune lepidopterologique de la 
Tchecoslovaquie" [in Czech, French summary] . Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice. vol.48 : 
pp. 74-80, 8 figs. 1 Sept. 1951. Records of 19 spp. Figures Gelechia dzieduszykii. Tinea 
ankerella, Nothris lemniscella; also genitalia of first & last, & of Czechoslovak spp. of 
Anaitis (Geom.). [J. M.] 

Gregor, F., & D. Povolny, "Systematische und zoogeographische Studie iiber die Gruppe der 
Arten Gnorimoschema Busck mit Riicksicht auf die richtige Diagnostik des Schadlings 
Gnorimoschema ocellatellum Boyd" [in German, Czech introduction & Russian sum- 
mary]. Folia Zool. Ent., vol.3: pp. 83-96, 2 pis., 3 figs. March 1954. Describes as new 
G. ocellatellum orientale (Pohronsky Ruskov, S. Slovakia); G. corsicanum (Corsica); 
G. ignotum (E. France); subgenus CARYOCOLUM (type G. leucomelanellum). 
Revision of European spp. of genus. Lit a paniculatella a synonym of G. art e mi si ell um. 



66 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Figures some adults in color, & genitalia of new spp. The taxonomy, phylogeny, and 
ecology of the group are discussed. [J. M.] 

Herbulot, C, "Deux nouveaux Neocleora malgaches (Lep. Geometridae ) " [in French]. 
Bull. Soc. Ent. France, vol.60: pp. 38-40, 2 figs. 1955. Describes as new, from Madagascar, 
N. macracantha and N. legrasi. [P. V.] 

Herbulot, C, "Nouveaux Geometrinae de Madagascar et des Comores (Lep. Geometridae)" 
[in French]. Ann. Soc. Ent. France, vol.123: pp.1 15-126, 15 figs. Jan. 1955. Describes 
as new Archichlora ioannis (Anjouan, Comoro Archipelago), A. alophias (central 
Madagascar), A. alophias catalai (E. Madagascar); Leptocolpia decaryi (E. Madagascar); 
Epigelasma corrupta (central Madagascar), E. rhodostigma (E. Madagascar), E. nobilis 
(central Madagascar); Heterorkachis harpifera, H. acuta, H. reducta, H. amplior, 
H. defossa, H. abdita, H. viettei; Omphax interfulgens (all from central Madagascar); 
Syncollesis pauliani (S. Madagascar). [P. V.] 
. Higgins, L. G., "A descriptive catalogue of the genus Mellicta Billberg (Lepidoptera: 
Nymphalidae) and its species, with supplementary notes on the genera Melitcea and 
Euphydryas." Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.106: pp. 1-131, 2 pis., 88 figs., 4 maps. 
15 April 1955. Redescribes genus, which includes the athalia group of Melitcea. Describes 
as new M. aurelia distans (Tekkes Valley, NW Tian-Shan); also 2 "modifications" 
(color forms below subspecific rank). Redescribes all species, subspecies, and modifica- 
tions; catalogues all named "forms"; discusses geographical and other variation. Figures 
$ genitalia of all spp. Gives extensive suplementary notes to his catalogue of the 
Melitcea (1941). Summarizes classification of the Palearctic Melitaeini (genera Mellicta, 
Melitcea, Euphydryas). [P. B.] 

Hovanitz, William, "Amphi-atlantic study of Colias hecla, Colias nastes and Colias palceno." 
Yearb. Amer. Philos. Soc, 1951: pp. 142-144. 1952. Progress report on a study on a 
relationships between Palearctic and Nearctic populations of these spp. [P. B.] 

Hruby, Karel, "The distinguishing between the Oporinia species (Geometr.)" [in Czech, 
Russian & English summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 135-145, 4 
figs. 15 Nov. 1952. Gives important characteristics of all the Central European species 
(O. dilutata, O. autumnalis, & O. chrystyi). [J. M.] 

Kiriakoff, Serge G., "Lepidoptera Heterocera" [in French]. Explor. Pare National de 
I'Upemba, Mission G. F. de Witte, fasc.26: 69 pp., 7 pis. Sept. 1954. List of the 253 
species of Macroheterocera (excluding Geometridae) collected by de Witte and col- 
laborators (1946-49) in the National Park of Upemba (Belgian Congo). Describes as 
new: (Sphingidae) Prcedora marshalli meridionalis ; (Limacodidae) Birthama saturata; 
Phorma limbata, P. subericolor; ( Noctodontidae) Pygcea leloupi; Notoxantha witteana; 
Polienus ochraceus orientalis, P. lusingce; Pydna indecora; (Thyretidae) Metarctia 
(CEnarctia) upembce; (Arctiidae) Aglossosia pallidula; Caripodia jansseni; Pseudelpista 
unicolor; (Edaleosia sordidula; Eilema danieli; Ctenosia fageli, C. roscidella, C. rotundula; 
Phryganopsis brunneitincta; Amata tomasina reducticincta; (Agaristidae) Pais straeleni- 
ana; (Noctuidae) Timcea janmoullei; Matopo tamsi; Ethiopica subpurpurea; Isadelphina 
mariceclarce. The loaation of the types is not given; no doubt in the Brussels Museum. 

de Lesse, H., "£tat actuel de la systematique du groupe d'Erebia tyndarus Esp. (s.L). 
Note complementaire" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.14: pp.258-259. March 1955. 
E. nivalis (chromosome number n^ll) and E. callis (n=15) are probably good species; 
E. calcarius is also no doubt a good species; the problem of E. tyndarus & E. cassioides 
(both n= 10) remains. [P. V.] 

Lorkovic, Z., & H. de Lesse, "Nouvelles decouvertes concernant le degre de parente 
d'Erebia tyndarus Esp. et E. c o : des Hohenw." [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 
pp. 58-67, 78-86, 2 figs. 25 D< . 1954. New notes on the relationship between E. 
tyndarus and E. cassioides. The si bspecies ("race" in the French text) aquitania belongs 
to cassioides, as well as the subspp. macedonica, illyrica, and illyromacedonica. The 
distribution of E. tyndarus is not as extensive as was thought, being limited to the 
central Alps. The authors distinguish a new semispecies nivalis, the altitudinal popula- 
tion of Pasterzen. As concluded from previous studies, in place of two species E. 
tyndarus and E. cassioides, we have today the two species E. hispania and E. tyndarus, 
this last with two semispecies E. (t.) cassioides and E. (t.) nivalis. The end of the paper 
is a long study of the contact areas between E. (/.) tyndarus, E. (t.) cassioides, and E. 
(t.) nivalis. [P.V.] 

McDunnough, James H., "New Microlepidoptera from the region of Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, with notes on other species." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 1686: 15 pp., 9 figs. 
11 Aug. 1954. Describes as new Anchylopera rhodorana (Point Pleasant Park, Halifax; 
on Rhodora); Coleophora peregrincevorella (Halifax; on Comptonia peregrina); C, 



1956 The Lepido pterins' News 67 

multicristatella (Point Pleasant Park; on Gaylussacia and Rbodora); C. bispinatella 
(Wellington, N. S.; on J uncus canadensis); Gracillaria rhodorella (Halifax; on Rhodora). 
Figures genitalia and some larval cases of new Coleophora spp. Redescribes C. paludicola 
(larva on sweetfern and bay berry); Gracillaria flavella (larva on bayberry). Coleophora 
zelleriella Chambers, unrecognizable, a homonym of zelleriella Heinemann. New food- 
plant records: Aphania bifida (Alnus crispa); Exartema melanomesum (Kalmia); 
Pseudexentera costomaculana (Hamamelis virginiana). [P.B.] 
McDunnough, James H., "The species of the genus Hydriomepa occurring in America 
north of Mexico (Geometridae, Larentiinse)." Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol.104: 
pp. 237-358, 3 pis., 185 figs. 6 July 1954. Describes as new H. exculpata josepha (Chief 
Joseph Mts., Oregon); H. e. nanata (Hopedale, Labr.); H. expurgata nicolensis (Nicola, 

B. C); H. e. alticola (Estes Park, Colo.); H. irata lobata (Mt. Lolo, Kamloops, B. C); H. 
charlestonia (Sawmill Spr., Charleston Mts., Nev.); H. edenata prasinata (Inverness, 
Marin Co., Calif.); H. e. baueri (Anderson Spr., Lake Co., Calif.); H. johnstoni 
(Inverness, Marin Co., Calif.); H. divisaria brunnescens (McLean Bogs Reserve, Tomkins 
Co., N. Y.); H. renunciata viridescens (Inverness, Marin Co., Calif.); H. pluviata 
meridianata (Crailhope, Green Co., Ky.); H. rita (Madera Canyon, Sta. Rita Mts., Ariz.); 
H. furcata fergusoni (Peggy's Cove, Halifax Co., N. S.); H. cyriadoides (Tucson, Ariz.); 
HYMENODRIA (type Hydriomena mediodentata). Figures adults of new entities and 
some others, and genitalia of almost all spp. Key to 9 species groups. Also names one 
"form". See review in Lepid. Neirs, vol.8: p. 171. [P.B.] 

McDunnough, James H., "Critical remarks on the synonymy of certain Anchylopera 
species, with descripticn of new species (Lepidoptera, Eucosmidae)." Amer. Mus. Novit.. 
no. 1725: 16 pp., 1 fig. 11 May. 1955. Dscribes as new A. columbiana columbiana 
(Penticton, B.C.); A. c. shastensis (Shasta Retreat, Siskiyou Co., Calif); A. simuloides 
simuloides (Deep Creek, Peachland, B.C.); A. s. sierrce (Mineral King, Tulare Co., 
Calif.); A. s. litoris (Carmel, Calif.). Sinks Phoxoperis angulifasciana to A. metamelana; 
also discusses A. discigerana, A. laciniana, and A. spiratafoliana. Describes genitalia of 
genus. [P.B.] 

McDunnough, James H., "New species of Coleophoridae, with notes on other species (Lepi- 
doptera)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 17 19: 7 pp., 2 figs. 22 April 1955. Describes as new 

C, canadensisella (Halifax, N. S.; on Cornus canadensis); C. vacciniivorella (Halifax; 
on Vaccinium). Compares C. salicivorella with C. viminilella. Records C. ccespititiella, 
new to North America. Sinks C. thalasella to C. versurella. [P.B.] 

Marion, H., "Deux pyrales palearctiques nouvelles: Mecyna joannisalis n.sp. et M. 
syriacalis n.sp. (Lep. Pyraustidae)" [in French]. Entomologiste, vol.11: pp. 20-23, 6 figs. 
April 1955. Describes as new M, joannisalis (Algeria) and M. syriacalis (Glazir, Syria). 

Marion, H., "Synonymie de quelques pyrales decrites de Madagascar" [in French]. 
Naturaliste Malgache, vol.6: pp.75-78. March 1955. New synonymy: Botys poeyalis 
{—Marasmia venilialis); B. docalis (=Filodes grisealis); Hyalobathra filalis and H. aurata 
are not synonyms; Sameodes cancellalis and S. vespertinalis are different species. [P. V.] 

Miller, Fr., & Dal. Povonly, "Homeosoma nebulellum Hbn. — novy skudce slunecnice 
u nas" [in Czech, Russian and English summaries]. Folia Ent., vol.14: pp.49-59, 56 
figs. 31 July 1951. Bionomy, systematics, and control of H. nebulellum — a pest of 
sunflower in South Moravia — are given. [J. M.] 

Moucha, J., "Contribution a la connaissance de Papilio machaon L. de Palestine — Lep. 
Papilionidas" [in French]. Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse 1954: pp.69-75, 8 figs. Dec. 1954. 
Refers Palestine specimens to P. m. syriacus; P. m. palcestinensis Eller is a nomen nudum. 
Detailed description of two local populations. [P. B.] 

Moucha, Josef, & Dalibor Povolny, "The Czechoslovak species of the genus Ophiusa Ochs. 
(Phalaenidae)" [in English; Czech introduction and Russian summary]. Acta Ent. Mus. 
Nat. Pragce, vol.29: pp. 25-40, 4 pis. 20 June 1955. Distribution, morphology and 
phylogeny of the 5 Czechoslovak spp. are given; imagos and $ 8c 2 genitalia of all 
are figured. [J. M.] 

Moucha, J., & D. Weiss, "Einiges iiber Hyphantria cunea Drury und Spilosoma menthastri 
Espenhan (Lepid.)" [in German]. Nachr. Naturw. Mus. Aschaffenburg. vol.39: po. 57-62, 
2 pis. 1953. Careful comparison of these superficially similar arctiids. [P. B.] 

Pack, Jifi, "Spectrum Scop, a Trochilium Scop., dva zanikle rody v Lepidopterologii" 
[in Czech, English summary]. Folia Ent., vol.11: pp. 25-28. 30 April 1948. Considers 
the genus Spectrum as isogenerotypic with Sphinx L. Consequently, selects one of four 
spp. contained originally in the work of Scopoli — ligustri L. — as the type of that 
genus. By this action a confusion in the nomenclature of Sphingidae may be avoided. 
The subfamily names Sesiinae and Chcerocampinas (=Celerioninae) are not available 



68 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

according to the Regies. The former must be called ^ELLOPIN^ nom.nov., the latter 
Deilephilinae. As to the genus Trochilium, refers to the designation by Stephens,. 1828, 
of apiformis as type. [J. M.] 

Pack, Jifi, "Nomenclator sive enumeratio critica Lepidopterorum Slovaciae (Satyridae- 
Sphingidae)" [in Latin, Czech introduction]. Folia Ent., vol.12: pp. 140-1 5 5. 1949. 

Pack, Jifi, & Jifi Smelhaus, "De dignitate spinulae tibiae anterioris in taxonomia generis 
Plebejus Kluk (Lep., Lycaenidae)" [in Czech; Russian & Latin summaries]. Acta Soc. 
Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 154-155. 15 Nov. 1952. Correction, ibid., vol.50: p.252. 

Patocka, Jan, "Contribution a la morphologie et au systeme des Pyralidides" [in Czech, 
French summaryj. Folia Ent., vol 13: pp. 107-109, 9 figs. 30 Oct. 1950. Describes as new 
Paraponyx (subg. PSEUDOPARAPONYX), type stagnata Don. [J. M.] 

Patocka, Jan, "Die Sarrotbripus-Atten als Schadlinge der Pappeln" [in Czech, Russian & 
German summaries |. Fol. Zool. Ent., vol.2: pp. 76-88, l pi., 8 figs. June 1953- Describes 
as new, from S. Slovakia, S. populana & S. cuneana; figures $ & 9 genitalia of these 
& wing pattern of central European spp. Keys in German. [J. M.] 

Pescott, R. T. M., "Lepidoptera of the Russell Grimwade Expedition." Mem. Nat. Mus. 

Victoria, no.17: pp.27-28, 1 pi. 1951. Describes as new Thallarcha eremicola (Balla- 

donia, Western Australia) (Arctiidae); figures wings. [I. C] 
Povolny, D., & F. Gregor, "Contributions to the knowledge of genus Lithocolletis Hb." 

[in English, German introduction]. Folia Ent., vol.13: pp-33-36, 1 pi., 2 figs. 30 Apr. 

1950. In the first part of the paper some information is given about L. staintoniella 

(Stt. ). In the second part L. cavella milleri is described as new (Hodejovice, S. Bohemia). 

The foodplant of the nominate form is Betula; of the new ssp., Prunus cerasus. New 

ssp. figured in color. [J. M.] 
Povolny, D., & J. Smelhaus, "Ceskoslovenske druhy rodu Procris Fabr." [in English; Czech 

introduction & keys, Russian summary]. Folia Ent., vol. 14: pp. 180-188, 2 pis., 22 figs. 

1 Dec. 1951. All Czechoslovak spp. are figured in color; genitalia figured. Problems of 

nomenclature in Procris are discussed. [J. M.] 
Povolny, Dal., & Jar. Zakopal, "Vyskyt mola fepneho (Phthorim&a ocellatella Boyd) v 

Madarsku" [in Czech, Russian summary]. Folia Ent., pp. 97-106, 23 figs. 1 Oct. 1951. 

Information is given on systematics, bionomy and control. [J. M.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., & William P. Comstock, "An unnamed lycaenid from Trinidad 
(Lepidoptera)." Journ, N.Y. Ent. Soc, vol. 61: pp. 99-100. June 1953. Describes as new 
Echinargus buntingtoni (Hololo Mt. Road, St. Ann's Trinidad, B. W. I.). [W.C.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "Synonymic notes on North American Geometridse (Lepidoptera)." 
Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc, vol.6 1: pp.141-142. Sept. 1953. Gueneria similaria, new comb, 
replacing G. basiaria; Syrrhodia sphceromacharia replaced by S. cruentaria; species 
called sphceromacharia by Rindge, 1950 (Amer. Mus. Novit. no.1469) is now coloraria. 
[W.C.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "A revision of the genus Tornos Morrison (Lepidoptera, Geo- 
metridae)." Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol.104: pp.177-236, 35 figs. 21 June 1954. 
Describes as new T. capitaneus (San Sebastian, Retalhuleu, Guatemala); T. apiatus 
(Paraguay); T. phoxus (San Sebastian, Retalhuleu, Guatemala); T. hoffmanni (Tehua- 
can, Puebla, Mex.); T. brutus (Volcan Turrialba, Costa Rica); T. pusillus (Cordoba, 
Mex.); T. spinosus (Juan Vinas, Costa Rica, 3000'); T. mistus (Buenavista, E. Bolivia); 
T. scolopacinus spodius (St. Petersburg, Fla.); T. abjectarius ravus (Port Sewall, Martin 
Co., Fla.); T. a. kimballi (Siesta Key, Sarasota Co., Fla.). Redescribes other spp.; figures 
genitalia of all. Keys to S and 9 genitalia, and to adults of the 12 forms occurring in 
the United States. [P.B.] 

Rindge, Frederick H., "The butterflies of the Van Vorst-American Museum of Natural 
History expedition to the Bahama Islands, British West Indies." Amer. Mus. Novit., 
no.17 16: 20 pp., 8 figs. 25 March 1955. Describes as new Lucinia sida albo?naculata 
(Port Nelson, Rum Cay); Burca braco castibata (New Portsmouth, Eleuthera Is.); 
B. b. atrata (The Bight, Cat Is.). Annotated list includes 42 other spp. [P.B.] 

Rindge, Frererick H., "The type material in the J. B. Smith and G. D. Hulst collections 
of Lepidoptera in the American Museum of Natural History." Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 
Hist., vol.106: pp.91-172. 25 April 1955. [See review in Lepid. News, vol.9: p.160.] 

Rougeot, P. C, "Les Attacides (Saturnidae) de l'Equateur africain francais" [in French]. 
Encycl. Ent., vol.34: 116 pp., 12 pis. (4 colored), 160 figs. 1955. Study of Attacidae 
of French Equatorial Africa, with keys to subfamilies, tribes, genera, and species. The 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 69 

biology of the larvae (bred by the author for many years) is described, with drawings. 
Describes as new: subtribes MELANOCERINI, BUINLEINI; Nudaurelia oyemensis 
(Oyem, Gaboon); Gonimbrasia hecate (Ivory Coast); Athletes ethra albicans (Oyem, 
Gaboon); Epiphora intermedia (Katanga). The species nictitans Fabr. is an lmbrasia, 
not a Nudaurelia. The nomenclature of this last genus is to be taken up again. [P.V.] 

Salazar Torres, Juan, "El barrenarod del zapallo y de otras cucurbitaceas: Melittia sp." 
[in Spanish]. Agronomia, Lima, vol.19: pp.105-123, 2 figs. [1954?]. Detailed descrip- 
tion of all stages of an unnamed species near M. cucurbitce. [P.B.] 

Sauter, W., "Zur Morphologie und Systematik der schweizerischen Solenobia-Anen 
(Lep. Psychidae)" [in German]. Mitt. Schiveiz. Ent. Ges., vol.27: pp. 429-434. 30 Dec. 
1954. Morphological and systematic study of the Swiss species of Solenobia. Describes 
as new S. seileri (Goppenstein, Wallis); S. goppensteinensis goppensteinensis (Goppen- 
stein, Wallis), S. g. generosensis (Monte Generoso, Tessin); S. rupicolella (Brugniasco, 
Tessin); S. {Brevantennia) siederi (Monte Generoso, Tessin). [P.V.] 

Tindale, N. B., "On a new form of Heteronympha penelope Waterhouse ( Lepidoptera 
Rhopalocera, family Satyridae)." Trans. Roy. Soc. So. Australia, vol.75: pp.25-29, 1 pi., 
1 fig. 1952. Describes as new H. p. maraia (Grampian Mts., western Victoria) and dis- 
cusses the several races of this species. Figures the pupa and the wings of four sub- 
species. [I.C.] 

Tindale, N. B., "New Rhopalocera, and a list of species from the Grampian Mountains, 
western Victoria." Rec. So. Australia Mus., vol.11: pp. 43-68, 4 pis., 4 figs. 1953. List 
of 39 species of butterflies recorded for this area; describes as new Heteronympha 
banksii nevina (Mt. Rosea, Victoria), H. b. mariposa (McPherson Range, Queensland), 
H. solandri angela (Mt. Rosea); Pseudalmenus chlorinda fisheri (Mt. Victory, Victoria); 
and Hesperilla crypsargyra lesouefi (Mt. William, Victoria). Figures immature stages 
of four sspp. and the wings of new and other races. [I. C] 

Tindale, N. B., "On a new species of CEnetus (Lepidoptera, family Hepialidse) damaging 
Eucalyptus saplings in Tasmania." Trans. Roy Soc. So. Australia, vol.76: pp:77-79, 1 pi. 
1953. Describes as new O. paradiseus (Ridgeway, Tasmania) and O. p. montanus (Mt. 
Gingera, Australian Capital Territory). Figures wings of O. paradiseus and O. scotti. 
[I. C] 

Tindale, N. B., "On some Australian Cossidae including the moth of the Witjuti ( Witchety) 
grub." Trans. Roy. Soc. So. Australia, vol.76: pp. 56-65, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1953. Describes 
as new Xyleutes biarpiti (Ooldea Soak, South Australia) and redescribes and gives life 
history notes on two other species whose larvae are sought as food by the aboriginals. 
Figures immature stages and the wings of both sexes. [I. V.] 

Turner, A. J., "A revision of the Australian Phycitidae, Part I." Trans. Roy. Soc. So. 
Australia, vol.71: pp. 28-53. 1947. Describes as new in the subfamily Anerastriinae: 
Anerastria rhodochros (Cape York, N. Queensland). A. albivena (Murrurundi, N.S.W.), 
A. xylodes (Cairns, N. Queensland), A. clepsiphronica (Brisbane, Queensland); 
LIOPROSOPA (type Heosphora chlorogramma Meyrick), L. dimochla (Brock's Creek, 
N. Australia), L. phaulodes (Dunk Island, Queensland), L. pelopa (Darwin, N. Aus- 
tralia), L. phceochiton (Cape York), L. pachyzancla (Cape York), L. sporadica (Cape 
York), L. rhadinodes (Dunk Island), L. tanybela (Lindeman Island, N. Queensland), L. 
haploa (Lindeman Island), L. thiomochla (Darwin, Dalby, Queensland); Kimberley, 
N.W. Australia), L. colobela (Gordonvale, N. Queensland), L. platymochla (Cunna- 
mulla, Queensland), L. transecta (Injune, Queensland), L. poliosticha (Herberton, N. 
Queensland), L. rhantista (Lindeman Island); ANCHYLOBELA, and type species A. 
haplodes (Kuranda, N. Queensland); Saluria stereochorda (Bunya Mts., Queensland), 
S. pelochroa (Burnie, Tasmania); ANARESCA, and type species A. xuthochroa (Linde- 
man Island); ALLOEA, and type species A. xylochroa (Wyndham, N.W. Australia). 
Subfamily Phycitinae: ABARYS, and type species A. amaurodes (Brisbane); Ephestia 
pelopis (Kuranda); Homeosoma centosticha (Brisbane; Bunya Mts.; Murrurundi), 
H. rhapta (Aramac and Stanthorpe, Queensland), H. euryleuca (Cape York), H. 
contracta (Murrurundi), H. pelosticta (Biloela, Queensland; Ebor, N.S.W. ) , H. 
ochropasta (Kuranda), H. atechna (Derwent Bridge, Tasmania); Euzopherodes con- 
cinella (Cape York), E. homophcea (Kuranda), E. homocapna (Cunnamulla) , E. 
schematica (Cape York), E. phaulopa (Scone, N.S.W. ); SCYTHROPHANES (type 



70 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 10: nos.1-2 

Unadilla apatelia Turner); Euzophera albicosta (Denmark and Yanchop, Western 
Australia) , E. flavicosta (Cape York), E. iscbnopa (Cape York), E. arrhythmopis (Cairns 
and Redland Bay, Queensland); EUAGETA, and type species E. arestodes (Injune); 
Cateremna cataxutha (Darwin; Toowoomba, Queensland), C. mediolinea (Cape York), 
C. leptoptila (Broken Hill, N.S.W.), C. melanomita (Mackay, N. Queensland); 
Ty/ocbares epaxia (Lake Barrine, N. Queensland), T. prays (Bunya Mts. and Stanthorpe, 
Queensland), T. gypsotypa (Cape York), T. anaxia (Cape York), T. paucinotata (Cape 
York), T. chionopleura (Warwick, Queensland), T. endophaga (Bribie Island, Queens- 
land), T. pastopleura (Cape York); Trissonca clytopa (Kuranda); Hypogryphia 
amictodes (Duaringa and Toowoomba, Queensland); Ancylosis thiosticha (Injune). 
Type localities not specified; no figures included; keys to genera are provided. [I. C] 

Van Son, G., "A proposal for the restriction of the use of the term subspecies." Lepid. 
Neivs, vol.9: pp.1-3. 8 April 1955. 

Viette, P., "Btude d'une petite collection de Lepidopteres de la Reunion" [in French]. 
Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., ser. 2, vol.26: pp.50,6-510, 1 fig. Dec. 1954. Study of a 
small collection from Reunion Is. ( Indian Ocean ) ; describes as new Metachanda 
hamonella (Metachandidae). [P. V.] 

Viette, P., "Les travaux de S. Le Marchand" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.14: 
pp. 204-2 10. Jan. 1955. List of Le Marchand's publications and list of the types in his 
collection. [P. V.] 

Viette, P. E. L., "Une nouvelle famille de Lepidopteres pour la faune malgache" [in French]. 
Naturaliste Malgache, vol.6: pp.7 1-73, 1 pi., 1 fig- March 1955. Family Eupterotidae 
new to Madagascar. Describes as new Jana palliatella. [P. V.] 

Viette, Pierre E. L., "Nouveaux Tineoidas (s.l.) de Madagascar (Lep.)" [in French]. Ann. 
Soc. Ent. France, vol.123: pp. 75-1 14, 32 figs. Jan. 1955. Describes as new: (Tineidae) 
Melasma decaryella (central Madagascar), M. vadonella (N.E. Madagascar); Mon- 
achoptilas paulianella (S.E. Madagascar); Sporada-rthra vadonella (N.E. Madagascar); 
(Lyonetiidse) Oinophila antongilella, O. herbulotella; Hieroxestis masoalella (all from 
N.E. Madagascar); ( Yponomeutidse ) Parahyponomeuta malgassaella (central S. Madag- 
ascar); (Ethmiidas) BETROKA, and type B. Jacob sella (central S. Madagascar); 
( Glyphipterygidae) Nigilgia seyrigella, N. toulgoetella (both from central S. Madag- 
ascar); (y^Egeriidas) Tipulamima ivondro (S.E. Madagascar), T. seyrigi (central S. Mad- 
agascar); Lepidopoda xanthopimplceformis (E. Madagascar), L. sylvestralis (E. Mada- 
gascar); Malgassesia seyrigi (N. Madagascar), M. pauliani (far S. Madagascar); MICRO- 
SYN ANTHEDON , and type M. ambrensis (N. Madagascar); (Xylorictidae) Phracyps 
lebisella (S.E. Madagascar), P. longifasciella (central Madagascar); Exoditis vadonella, 
E. janinece, E. sylvestriella, E. dominiquece (all from N.E. Madagascar); ( (Ecophoridae) 
Eutorna punctinigrella; Tyriograptis elegantella (both N.E. Madagascar); Meleonoma 
diehlella (central S. Madagascar); Lasiomactra maisongrosella; Cryptolechia quadri- 
punctella (both N.E. Madagascar); ( Cosmopterygidae ) Mompha millotella (E. Madag- 
ascar); Pyroderces ocreella (N.E. Madagascar); (Metachandidas) Metachanda benoistella 
(central Madagascar), M. rungsella (N.E. Madagascar); (Gelechiidae) Dichomeris 
vadonella (N.E. Madagascar), L. decaryella (E. Madagascar), L. adelella, L. masoalella, 
L. mocquerysella, L. paulianella; Pachnistis nigropunctella (all N.E. Madagascar). [P. V.] 

C. MORPHOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY 

Amanieu, Michel, "Effets de la section des sericiductes pratiquee sur des vers a soie 
(Bombyx mori)" [in French]. C. R. Soc. Biol., vol.148: pp. 679-680. April 1954. 
Sectioning of silk gland ducts results in death at metamorphosis because silk is ex- 
creted into body cavity. [P. B.]. 

Edwards, George A., Persio de Souza Santos, Helena de Souza Santos, & Paulo Sawaya, 
"Electron microscope studies of insect muscle. III. Variations in ultra structure" [in 
English, Spanish summary]. Bol. Zool. Univ. Sao Paulo, vol.19: pp. 391-406, 14 pis. 
1954. Material included muscles from Caligo beltrao & Thysania agrippina. [P. B.] 

Ezhikov, I. I., "Organization of bagworms of the genus Fumea (Lepidoptera, Psychidas)" 
[in Russian]. Trudy Inst. Morph. Zhivotnykh Akad. Nauk SSSR, no. 8: pp. 154-169- 
1953. [Not seen]. 



1956 The Lepidopterists* News 71 

de Lesse, Herbert, "Formules chromosomiques nouvelles du genre Erebia (Lepid. Rhopal.)" 
[in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci., vol.237: pp. 758-759, 3 figs. 1953. Lists, with comments, 
chromosome numbers of E. hispana rondoui, E. t. tyndarus, E. mnestra, E. scipio. [P. B.] 

de Lesse, H., "Nouvelles formules chromosomiques dans le groupe d' Erebia tyndarus Esp. 
(Lepidopteres Satyrinae)" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.240: pp. 347-379. 
Jan. 1955. Newly recorded chromosome numbers: callias, n=15; nivalis, n=ll; 
calcarius, n=8; tyndarus, 2n=l6; cassioides, 2n=20. [P.V.] 

de Lesse, H., "Recherche de formules chromosomiques chez les Zygcena" [in French]. 
Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol.24: pp. 142-144. June 1955. Records of chromosome 
numbers: purpuralis, n_-30; lonicerce, 2n=about 60; fulvia (=achillece), 2n = 54-55. 

Moucha, J., "Forme interessante des ecailles des ailes de Polyommatus bellargus Rott. 
(Lep. Lycsenidae)" [in French]. Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, July-Aug. 1955: pp. 35-36, 
1 fig. Some interesting shapes of scales on the wings of L. bellargus. [P.V.] 

Novak, Vladimir J. A., "Growth of the corpora allata during the postembryonal develop- 
ment in insects" [in English, Czech and Russian summaries]. Acta soc. Zool Bohemo- 
slovenicce, vol.18: pp.98-133, 8 figs. 16 June 1954. Discusses the development of cor- 
pora allata in Ephestia kuhniella and Bombyx mori, among Lepidoptera. [J.M.] 

Richards, A. Glenn, "Studies on arthropod cuticle. XI. The ecdysial membrane." Journ. 
Morph., vol.96: pp.537-544, 5 pis. May 1955. Fine structure of a very thin (.15 micron) 
membrane found between pupal and adult cuticles of Platysamia cecropia and Telea 
polyphemus. [P.B.] 

Shumakov, E. M., & L. A. IAkhimovich, "Morphologic and histologic characteristics of the 
metamorphosis of cotton bollworm (Chloridea obsoleta F.) and the phenomenon of 
diapause" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.101: pp. 779-782, 2 figs. April 
1955. 

Tykac, Jar., "Sphragis ou sphragidoid chez les lepidopteres" [in Czech, French summary]. 
Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 127-131. 30 Nov. 1951. Information on 
morphology and description of abdominal pouch in Polyommatus coridon. [J. M.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "The occurrence and significance of the peritrophic membrane, with 
special reference to adult Lepidoptera and Diptera." Austral. Journ. Zool., vol.1: 
pp. 299-3 18, 2 pis., 5 figs. 1953. A tubular chitinous peritrophic membrane is reported 
in the adults of several lepidopterous families and in the adults of most cyclorrhaphous 
Diptera. [I. C] 

D. VARIATION AND GENETICS 

Astaurov, B. L., "Polyploidy and parthenogenesis in silkworms (Bombyx mori). Report 
no.l: Producing triploid artificial parthenogenesis" [in Russian]. Biull. Moskovskoe 
Obshch. Isp. Prirody, vol.60: pp.37-64. March/ April 1955. [Not Seen]. 

Beebe, William, "Polymorphism in reared broods of Heliconius butterflies from Surinam 
and Trinidad." Zoologica, N.Y., vol-40: pp. 139-143, 6 pis. 14 Nov. 1955. Describes 
variation in six broods of H. eratj and H. melpomene; figures all offspring and 
known parents. [P.B.] 

Bryk, F., "Zwei neue Schmetterlingsformen aus Finnland" [in German]. Notul. Ent., vol.34: 
pp. 139-140, 1 fig. 1954. Describes and names aberrations of Tholera popularis and 
Apamea fucosa. [W.H.] 

Clarke, C. A., & P. M. Sheppard, "A preliminary report on the genetics of the machaon 
group of swallowtail butterflies." Evolution, vol.9: pp. 182-201, 5 figs. 28 June 1955. 
Study of various crosses between P. machaon, P. polyxenes asterius, P. brevicauda, and 
P. zelicaon, with analysis of the genetics of some pattern characters of larvae and adults. 
Hybrids are infertile except when backcrossed. [P.B.] 

Dowdeswell, W. H., & E. B. Ford, "Ecological genetics of Maniola jurtina L. on the isles 
of Scilly." Heredity, vol.9: pp. 265-272. Aug. 1955. Further data on the differences 
between small local populations as revealed by hind-wing spot number in females. [P.B.] 

Elmhurst, Edward, "A butterfly experiment." Country Life, vol.118: pp.553-554, 5 figs. 
15 Sept. 1955. On the effects of X-ray irradiation of Pieris brassicce; treated and 
and marked individuals have been released at Ipswich, England, and abnormal descend- 
ants are to be sought. [P.B.] 

Hanser, Gisela, "Eine neue glasfliigelige Mutante (gl) von Ephestia kuhniella" [in Ger- 
man]. Zeits. Naturf., vol. 10b: pp. 161-166, 4 figs. March 1955. Describes a new recessive 
mutant with scaleless wings, and the expression and inheritance of the character. [P.B.] 

Lucas, D., "Nouveaux lepidopteres pour la faune francaise" [in French]. Bull Mens. Soc. 



72 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.1-2 

Linn. Lyon, vol.24: p.230. Nov. 1955. Description of new aberrations of Lyccena bel- 
largus, Gluphisia crenata, and Agrotis constant], from the West of France. [P.V.] 

Williams, J. R., "A note on intra-specific variation of chaetotaxy in a lepidopterous larva." 
Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London {A), vol. 30: pp. 82-86. 15 June 1955. Individual varia- 
tion studies in some hundreds of specimens of Cryptophlebia willianisi (Eucosmidae); 
variations minor except for one group of setae. [P.B. | 

Wolsky, Alexander, "The analysis of eye-development in insects as a tool in developmental 
genetics." Anat. Rec, vol.122: p.472. July 1955. Abstract only. 

E. DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY 

Barrague, G., "Contribution a une faune des Lepidopteres Rhopaloceres des environs d' 

Alger" [in French |. Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Afr. Nord, vol.45: pp.179-188, 1 map. 1954. 

Notes on the Rhopalocera in the Algiers district (Algeria). [P.V.] 
Beebe, Ralph, "A new North American record and a second rarity." Lepid. News, vol.8: 

p.27, 1 fig. 25 Jan. 1954. 
Bellinger, Peter, "The satyrid butterflies in the West Indies." Nat. Hist. Notes Nat. Hist. 

Soc. Jamaica, vol.6: pp. 100-101, 2 maps. "May" 1954. Discusses distribution of the 

endemic genus Calisto and the possible geological origin of this distribution. [P.B.] 
Biezanko, Ceslau M., "II. Acraeidae Heliconiidae et Nymphalidae de Pelotas e seus arredores" 

[in Portuguese]. Pelotas, Brazil (publ. by author). 16 pp., 1 pi., cover fig. 1949- 

Annotated checklist of Pelotas species, with 7 Acraeidae, 6 Heliconiidae, 43 Nymphalidae; 

Metamorpha stelenes bipunctata and Hypolimnas misippus figured. [C.R.] 
Biezanko, Ceslau M., "VII. Sphingidae de Pelotas e seus arredores" [in Portuguese]. 

Pelotas, Brazil (publ. by author). 8 pp., cover fig. 1948. Annotated checklist of Pelotas 

Sphingidae, with 37 spp.; Phlegethontius incisa figured. [C.R.] 
Bigot, L., & H. Stempffer, "Un lycene nouveau pour la faune europeene: Zizeeria 

karsendra Moore" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol. 14: pp. 189-191. Nov. 1954. 

Z. karsandra, collected in Sicily, a new lycaenid for the European fauna. [P.V.] 
Bourgogne, J., "Un Rhopalocere americain observe sur la cote bretonne" [in French]. 

Rev. franc. Lepid., vol. 14: p. 138. 1954. Record of the capture of Vanessa virginiensis 

on the French coast near St.-Nazaire. [P.V.| 
Bourgogne, J., "La repartition francaise de Liffia ferchaultella Stph., espece partheno- 

genetique (Psychidae)" [in French |. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.14: pp. 245-249. March 1955. 

Study of the distribution in France of this parthenogenetic psychid. [P.V.] 
Break, Jaroslav, "L'essai sur la biocenologie des macroiepidoptercs du terrain tourbeaux 

situe pres de Veseli dans le sud la Boheme" | in Czech; French summary]. Folia Ent., 

vol.11: pp. 92-1 11, 5 figs. 1948. Gives information about biotopes in this area and 

records the occurrence of 419 spp. [J-M.] 
Break, Jaroslav, "Contribution a la connaissance des Lepidopteres des Hautes Tatras [in 

Czech, French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenia, vol.48: pp. 167- 178. 3 figs. 

1951. Lists 77 spp. from Vysoke Tatry (N. Slovakia). Describes and names aberration 

of Anaitis prceformata. Semasia mercuriana new to Czechoslovakia. [J.M.] 
Bros de Puechredon, E., "Lepidopteres de la Tremezzina (Lac de Come)" [in French]. 

Rev. franc. Lepid., vol. 14: pp.21 1-217. Jan. 1955. List of Lepidoptera from Tremezzina 

(L. Como, N. Italy). [P.V.] 
Brown, F. Martin, "Some notes on Boloria in central Colorado (Nyhphalidae)." Lepid. 

News, vol.8: pp.64-66. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Chalmers-Hunt, J. M., "Notes sur les Lepidopteres rencontres en Belgique en 1953, 

avec quelques remarques comparatives sur ceux de Grande Bretagne" [in French |. 

Lambillionea, vol.54: pp. 5-9. Sept. 1954. Collecting trip in Belgium with some remarks 

on some species found also in Great Britain. [P.V.] 
Chermock, Ottilie D., "New records of Rhopalocera from southeastern Arizona." Lepid. 

News, vol.8: p.25. 25 June 1954. _ 
Condamin, M., & H. Stempffer, "Lepidopteres Rhopaloceres recoltes au Cameroun par C. 

de Raemy" [in French]. Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, vol.15: pp. 1037-1044. July 1953. 

Annotated list: 7 Papilionidae, 1 Riodinidae, 12 Acraeidae, 47 Nymphalidae, 6 Danaidae; 

appendix by Stempffer, 18 Lycaenidae. [P.B.] 
Dekeyser, P., & A. Villiers, "Essai sur le peuplement zoologique terrestre de l'ouest 

africain" [in French]. Bull. Inst. Franc. Afr. Noire, vol.16 : pp.957-970. July 1954. 

Characterizes the biogeographical regions of West Africa by brief lists of species, 

including Lepidoptera. [P.B. ] 
Diehl, M., "Liste des Lepidopteres Rhopaloceres rencontres au sud de Madagascar et surtout 

sur le plateau du sud" [in French]. Naturaliste Malgache, vol.6: pp. 61-70. March 1955. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 73 

List of Rhopalocera collected in S. Madagascar, chiefly in the southern highlands. [P.V.I 

Droit, P.-A., "Note sur les Lepidopteres Heteroceres du bassin moyen de la Durance" 
[in French]. Entomologiste, vol.9: pp. 100-106. "1953" [March 1954]. List of the 
Heterocera (except micros and Geometridae) collected in the French Alps. The genus 
Spirts is rightly employed for the species striata (Arctiidae Lithosiinae). [P.V.j 

Eidkum, Frantisek, "Novy motyl pro Cechy — vakonos Psychidea pectinella Den. et 
Schiff." [in Czech]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: 235-236. 15 Dec. 1952. 
First record for Bohemia. [J.M.] 

Ferguson, D. C, "The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Part I. Macrolepidoptera." Proc. Nova 
Scotian Inst. Sci., vol.23: pp. 161-375, 16 pis., 7 figs., 1 map. Feb. 1954. Discusses 
faunal areas and local habitats. Annotated list of 68 butterflies and 764 macro- 
heterocera, based on study of over 50,000 specimens. Food plants and other biological 
notes are given; a few larvae (apparently previously unknown) are described. Notes 
on identification of some species in difficult groups (Eubaphe, deltoid noctuids among 
others). Some 220 figures of interesting specimens, with full data. (See review in 
Lepid. News. 8: 170; 1955.) [P.B.] 

Hamilton, G. Rostrevor, "Butterflies in eastern France." Country Life, vol.110: p.1390. 
26 Oct. 1951. Collecting in French Jura. 

Herbulot, C, "Une interessante acquisition pour la faune francaise: Scopula rubellata Stgr. 
(Lep. Geometridae)" [in French]. Bull. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol.23: pp. 181-182. Sept. 
1954. S. rubellata new for the French fauna, formerly known only from Spain. The 
citation of this species from Morocco by Oberthur applies perhaps to another species. 

Hovanitz, William, "The biology of Colias butterflies. I. The distribution of the North 

American species." Wasmann Journ. Biol., vol.8: pp. 49-75. 1950. This paper gives 

distributional maps as well as verbal explanations of the distributions. There is a gen- 
eral discussion of the distribution of the genus from a world-wide viewpoint. This 

paper has many small comparative details of the type that become apparent only after 

long and painstaking study. A valuable piece of work. [J.T.] 
Hruby, Karel, "Some new and rare Lepidoptera in North-Eastern Bohemia" [in Czech; 

English summary]. Acta Soc. Ent, Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 80-85. 1 Sept. 1951. 

Lists 43 spp. [J.M.] 
Hruby, Karel, "Tri nalezy vzacnejSich motylii ve stfednich Cechach" [in Czech; Russian 

summary]. Acta Soc. Ent, Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 87-88. 1 Oct. 1952. 3 rare spp. 

from central Bohemia (Chloroclystis coronata, Campcea honoraria, Harmodia xantho- 

cyanea). [J,M.] 
Hruby, Karel, "Further report on some interesting Lepidoptera in North-Eastern Bohemia" 

[in Czech; Russian & English summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.50: pp.56- 

61. 20 Jan. 1954. Interesting finds of Lepidoptera from Dvur Kralove (N.E. Bohemia). 

[J.M.] 
Hruby, Karel, "Some interesting Lepidoptera inside the city of Praha" [in Czech, Russian 

& English summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.50: pp. 62-64. 20 Jan. 1954. 

Information on Lepidoptera captured in June and Sept. 1951, using the ultra-violet 

light. [J.M.] 
Iwase, Taro, "First Danaus plexippus caught in Japan." Lepid. News, vol.8: p. 27, 1 fig. 

25 June 1954. 
Janmoulle, E., "Especes nouvelles pour la faune beige" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 

DO. 3-4. '954. Coleophora sternipenella, C. prunifolice, Nemophora pilulella, Adela 

congruella new records for Belgium. [P.V.] 
Janmoulle, E., "Especes nouvelles pour la faune beige" — "Remarques sur la faune beige" 

[in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: pp. 33-34, 51-53. 1954. Notes on the Belgian fauna 

and two new records: Argyresthia aurulentella & Coleophora glitzella. [P.V.] 
Janmoulle, E., "Lithocolletis platani Stgr. en Belgique" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 

p. 34. 25 Aug. 1954. L. platani in Belgium, an introduced species. [P.V.] 
Komarek, Oldrich, "Quelques microlepidopteres interessants dans le Bassin suoerieur du 

fleuve de l'Elbe (Boheme)" [in Czech, French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice. 

vol.48: pp. 86-89. 1 Sept. 1951. Records 17 spp. and their distribution in Bohemia. 

[J.M.] 
Komarek, Oldrich, "Zygcena Iceta Hb. et si repartition en Boheme (Zygaenidae)" [in 

Czech, French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 179-181. 15 Dec. 

1951. Information on this sp. in Bohemia. [J.M.] 
Kralicek, Milan, "Hfbetozubec Odontosia sieversi Men. a jeho vyskyt na Uherskohra- 

distsku" [in Czech]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp.240-24l. 15 Dec. 1952. 

New record from district Uherske Hradiste (S.E. Moravia). [J.M.] 



74 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

MINUTES OF THE SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING OF THE 
LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

The sixth Annual Meeting of The Lepidopterists' Society was held at the Archbold 
Biological Station, near Lake Placid, Florida, on 28-30 December 1955. 

The first day was of an informal nature, with arrivals, registration, and accomodation 
arrangements. Almost all of the members and guests were housed at the Station, and 
all meals were served at the Station at one big table, which made possible a spirit of 
warm camaraderie among those attending. In the afternoon there was an escorted tour 
of the excellent facilities and beautiful grounds of the Station, including a visit to the 
Lepidoptera foodplant garden developed for Dr. REMINGTON'S research. 

On Thursday, the 29th, an early tour of the extensive grounds was conducted by 
RICHARD ARCHBOLD, Director of the Station, primarily for those who had not arrived on 
Wednesday. After the return to the laboratory meeting room, the formal meeting was 
called to order by C. L. REMINGTON and commenced with welcoming remarks by Mr. 
Archbold. Stanley V. Fuller presided over the morning session. The first paper 
was given by CHARLES P. KlMBALL on the history of lepidopterology in Florida: WIL- 
LIAM Bartram in 1774 published the first paper on Florida butterflies, with 3 figures: 
other early Florida collectors were Doubleday, in the 1830's, Chapman and KOEBELE. 
from the 1860's to 1880's, Dyar (who did much with Microlepidoptera) , and ANNIE 
TRUMBULL SLOSSON, both in the 1890's; most notable among later collectors, in addition 
to those present at the meeting, were Frank Morton Jones. Dean F. Berry, and Mrs. 
Marguerite Forsyth. Mr. Kimball then gave a progress report on his Florida check- 
list, which he expects to complete this summer. Next, C. L. REMINGTON explained the 
structure of the forthcoming DOS PASSOS list of North American Lepidoptera; the first 
part will be a checklist, followed by a catalog. E. G. MUNROE's brief paper on the inter- 
national holotype-photographing project was given in his absence by Dr. REMINGTON 
(see Lepid. News 9: 140-141). 

A round-table discussion on techniques followed, including: a description of the 
hand-pairing technique, by Dr. REMINGTON; the collecting of Sphingidae, by MARGARET 
M. CARY; the collecting of Heliothid moths, by ROWLAND R. McELVARE; collecting 
Megathymus skippers in Florida, by H. L. KING; the use of ultra-violet lamps and light 
traps, by H. V. WEEMS. Jr., and Mr. KlMBALL; and preserving larvae and pupae 1 for a 
study collection, by Dr. REMINGTON. 

After lunch, Mr. King was in the Chair There was a general discussion on migra- 
tion, with comments by almost everyone present, and two specific papers : one on the habits 
of Brephidium pseudofea larvae and adults in the salt marshes at Vero Beach, Florida, 
given by James S. Haeger. and a paper to appear in the Neivs, prepared by GEORGE 
and Edward Austin, entitled "What's in Your Backyard?", read by Dr. REMINGTON. 

At the end of this paper-reading session, the annual Business Meeting of the Society 
was held, with Mr. McELVARE presiding. An informal Treasurer's Report was read for 
Mr. HESSEL and discussed at length with other Society matters. Florida lepidopterists 
who were present established an informal organization with the aim of frequent gatherings, 
especially for field explorations and perhaps one or more meetings each year. 

Upon motion duly made, seconded, and unanimously voted, it was RESOLVED 
that The Lepidopterists' Society convey its great appreciation to Mr. RICHARD ARCHBOLD 
for the superb arrangements and generously extended facilities for the 1955 meetings 
and to Mrs. HAZEL EwiNG, hostess of the Archbold Biological Station, for the unsurpas- 
sed meals. 

Thursday evening was devoted to an Illustrations Session.. Mr. HAEGER showed a 
colored motion picture of the migration of Ascia monuste. The film had been made by 
Dr. ERIK T. NIELSEN and Mr. HAEGER on the east coast of Florida and had been sent 
from Dr. NlELSEN's laboratory in Iraq specifically for this meeting. The Pierid butter- 
flies had been sprayed with dye and were observed at distances up to 90 miles from the 
marking site. Dr. REMINGTON then gave a talk on the principles of Lepidoptera mimicry, 
illustrated with kodachrome slides. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



75 



The final meeting was held Friday morning with W. M. Davidson presiding 
Ihree papers were given: "Biogeography of the Sphingid* of the Antilles", by Mrs' 
CARY; Problems of Speciation in Megathymids and of Foodplant Specificity in Lepidop- 

SV S, w' f MI , NGT ° N; and " Species Cnteria and the Problem of Extreme Rarity in 
Hehothid Moths , by Mr. McElvare. 

The following members and guests attended part or all of the Florida meetin- D^\N 
Amadon, Richard Archbold, Margaret M. Cary, W. M. Davidson Wallace 
DE A L f H ^ A - DENMARK ' Stanley V. Fuller, James S. Haeger and Jimmy Mr 
and Mrs. B. C. Hastings, L. A. Hettrick, Mr. and Mrs. George w. Kamp Mr and 
Mrs Charles P. Kimball, Mr. and Mrs. H. L. King. Mr. and Mrs. Rowland R 

™ E ' Dr - and Mrs - Charles l - Remington and Eric, Mr. and Mrs. A. H Scott 
H. V. Weems, Jr. 

Respectfully submitted, 
Jeanne E. Remington 
Secretary pro tempore 




MEMBERS AND GUESTS ATTENDING THE MEETING, 29 DECEMBER 
Left to right, standing: KIMBALL, K.AMP, WEEMS, McELVARE, DEKLE, DAVIDSON 

Remington, King, Scott, Haeger, Fuller. 
Seated. Mrs. Kimball, Mrs. Kamp, Mrs. McElvare, Mrs. Cary, Mrs. Remington 
Mrs. King, Mrs. Scott, Jimmy Haeger. 

(Photograph by RICHARD ARCHBOLD) 



76 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

PRESIDENTIAL LETTER TO 1954 MEETING OF PACIFIC SLOPE 
SECTION OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY* 

Ladies and Gentlemen, my dear colleague Lepidopterists! 

Although I am separated from you by thousands of miles of land and ocean, 
I now have the great privilege and pleasure to convey to you my personal greet- 
ings and to wish you all an agreeable and successful meeting. For, to use my 
favourite citation of an American lepidopterist, Brackenridge Clemens: 
". . . Science is not limited by the boundaries of countries . . . nor restricted in 
its range of sympathies by distance". 

Although I have not been able so far to attend meetings of our Society 
personally, it was with warm interest that I closely followed them, since rather 
soon after its foundation, its quick growth and prolific development, and I now 
wish to congratulate its founders with their idea of an international society of 
lepidopterists that proved to be so welcome and so fertile. 

On the border of two Continents, Asia and Australia, lies a region that since 
Wallace's time is the El Dorado of the naturalist. Here meet two extremely 
different faunas, in conditions that are optimal for vegetable and animal life. 
The highly complicated geological history of this region, and its present state of 
an archipelago, all contribute to the forming of one of the richest faunas of the 
Tropics. The largest island of this region, New Guinea, is the most promising 
for exploration, and it is no wonder that for a long time it had a strong attraction 
for naturalists. Recently special attention is being paid to this country. The knowl- 
edge of its fauna in general and of its lepidopterous fauna in particular is being 
quickly enriched. Several Dutch expeditions and American expeditions led by 
Richard Archbold brought home extremely rich material, that presents fasci- 
nating problems of taxonomy, zoogeography, and ecology. I wish to discuss 
with you briefly one of these problems, viz., the mysterious tendency to white 
and black colouring. 

This tendency is manifest by a frequent occurrence in New Guinea of Mac- 
roheterocera and Microlepidoptera with a white ground colour and black mark- 
ings of a similar pattern. This feature has already been noticed by Meyrick. In 
a paper on Papuan Microlepidoptera ( 1938) he observes: 

"As an interesting special characteristic of this Papuan mountain fauna, I 
remark the strong and unusual tendency to white and black colouring distinctly 
contrasted, and evidently in this case serving a protective purpose, being, as I 
think, imitative of bird excrement, and indicating the influence of a large insect- 
eating element in the fauna, such for instance as the Birds of Paradise. I have not 
overlooked the possible effect of such insects being easily noticeable to a human 
collector, but this would be equally the case in any fauna, and this particular 
fauna is in my opinion more remarkable for the prevalence of this colouring than 
any other in the world." (p. 503). 



* Editor's note: Dr. Diakonoff's letter was temporarily misplaced and was not found 
in time to be published with the minutes of this meeting. — C. L. R. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 11 

In the material that I was able to study, the phenomenon of white and black 
colouring is also present but occurs not as frequently as one would expect from 
the above citation; it is highly peculiar nevertheless. 

A silvery or snow-white ground colour of the fore wing with a series of 
black blotches or a black streak along the posterior part of the costa, mostly com- 
bined with a series of narrow interconnected dentations along the endings of 
the terminal veins, preceded by a pale yellow suffusion, is the characteristic pat- 
tern of the extensive Tortricid genus Chionothremma. Some 20 species are in 
possession of this pattern which may vary to some extent: the black terminal 
markings are often reduced, or there is a continuous marginal line, or only the 
apex of the fore wing bears a black dot. The closely allied monotypic Diphthero- 
pyga is similarly coloured. This colouring in itself is very peculiar in the rather 
uniform ochreous, fuscous, or brownish leaf rollers. Perhaps it may have devel- 
oped in correlation with the diurnal life habits of Chionothremma. 

Still more striking is the occurrence of very similar colouring and markings 
in certain species of other Tortricidse and also in quite distant families of 
Microlepidoptera. 

The closest likeness with the Chionothremma pattern can be found in certain 
species of the Tortricid genus Chresmarcha. This genus belongs to another tribe 
of the Tortricidse (Cacceciini) and is, in fact, remote from Chionothremma 
(tribe Zacoriscini). Two species are known which very closely imitate the pri- 
mary white and black pattern: the same costal markings, terminal streaks and 
even the pale yellow suffusion are present; moreover Chresmarcha sybillina 
possesses an additional transverse series of black blotches, absent in C. clelphica. 
The colouring of these species of Chresmarcha is so deceiving that for a long time 
they have been erroneously classified. 

The extraordinary imitating ability of Chrasmarcha is still more clearly 
demonstrated by the third species (C. encemargyrea) which is a close mimic of 
a quite different pattern of colouring, characteristic of certain genera of the 
Callidulidae {e.g., of many species of Damias), viz., the white basal and the deep 
wine-red apical half of wing, the halves divided by a black streak. The fact that 
Chresmarcha imitates two such different patterns strengthens me in my surmise 
that we have to do with a phenomenon of mimicry, the pattern of Chresmarcha 
sybillina and C. delphica being a secondary imitation of the primary "example" 
pattern of Chionothremma and Damias, respectively. Another, not less striking, 
example of white and black colouring of a similar pattern represents Meridarchis 
pseudomantis, a single species out of 22 species of this genus known to occur in 
the Papuan region, resembling the above mentioned Tortricidse — except for the 
narrower wings, characteristic for the entire family Carposinidae, to which this 
species belongs — and entirely different from all other Meridarchis species 
known. 

Unfortunately the large recently made collections of Macroheterocera of 
New Guinea are not studied yet, and I am not able to provide the names of several 
other examples of white and black colouring, occurring in that group; I shall 
mention two of them. 



78 Diakonoff: Presidential letter Vol.10: nos.1-2 

A small Arctiid of a quite deceiving Tortricoid facies is another mysterious 
double of Chionothremma. When arranging the genera and species preliminary 
to study I promptly put the unique specimen of this species in the Chiono- 
thremma lot, until closer observation revealed its true nature. 

A Lithosiid of quite similar white and black markings was somewhat less 
puzzling, on account of its typical facies characteristic of that family. 

Undoubtedly many other examples could be found among small Heterocera 
from New Guinea or will be discovered in future. 

The intriguing problem which I am unable to solve is: what character must 
be ascribed to this phenomenon? Three possibilities may be indicated. 

1. The phenomenon is a case of mimicry, viz., imitation of colour and 
markings of common forms {e.g., different species of Chionothremma) by single 
representatives of distant families and genera which in this way become entirely 
dissimilar to their congeners, which might have some connection with their 
biology. 

2. The phenomenon may be due to a common influence or "creative agent" 
typical of New Guinea, through which white and black markings originate 
polyphyletically in different families and genera, independent of the biology 
of the insects in question. Apparently this is what Meyrick thought. 

3. The white and black pattern might be some consequence of the change 
of former nocturnal life habits of small New Guinean Heterocera to diurnal 
habits, with which we intend to say that also in this case a common cause may be 
at play but that this cause would be of an entirely different nature than the 
"agent" alluded to in paragraph 2. 

Our generation might be less disposed to teieological statements than was 
that of Meyrick. His elegant explanation of the phenomenon in question^ cited 
above, will probably appear too simplified for present tastes. Extensive study of 
ecology might help us some time to solve this fascinating problem, one of so 
many in the Nature of this wonderful island, New Guinea. 

A. Diakonoff 

Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, THE NETHERLANDS 




1956 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 79 

NOTICE S 

Lepidopterists' Society members may use this page free of charge to advertise their 
offerings and needs in Lepidoptera. The Editors reserve the right to rewrite notices 
for clarity or to reject unsuitable notices. We cannot guarantee any notices but expect 
all to be bona fide. 

I am open to collect all species of Georgia Rhopalocera; will exchange for Formosan 
Rhopalocera. Also have many papered Papilios. James C. Brooks, 194 Riley Ave., Macon, 
Georgia, U. S. A. 

Would like to exchange. I can offer Japanese and Formosan butterflies and some Japanese 
moths. Wish to have Lepidoptera (esp. butterflies) of all parts of the world. Hiraku 
Horii, No. 175, 50-Banchi, Oguracho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto, JAPAN. 

Wanted: Ova/pupae Everes comyntas, E. amyntula, Colias eurytheme, Eurema lisa, 
Limenitis archippus, Precis lavinia, P. polyxenes asterius. and P. glaucus (preferably from 
black female). Will exchange for British Rhopalocera live ova/pupae or papered speci- 
mens. G. H. Phillips, Post Office, Far Sawrey Ambleside, ENGLAND. 

Would like to exchange Japanese butterflies for those from anywhere in the world. 
Correspondence invited. Yoshiharu Jingo, 1478 Nippori-3, Arakawaku, Tokyo, JAPAN. 

Boloria distincta Gibson, Erebia youngi herscheli, etc., from Yukon, N.W.T. border, for 
sale. Colin Wyatt, Cobbetts, Farnham, Surrey, ENGLAND. 

Wanted: Papered Rhopalocera, esp. Nymphalidae and Pieridae (Colias) from all parts 
of North America, esp. mountains. Material from foreign countries also desired. Will 
exchange for the above species from the Formosan Central Mts., Europe, and Wisconsin. 
Exchange list on request. Donald L. Baber, 1511 Drake Ave., Burlingame, Calif., U.S.A. 

I need urgently the following for study: adult specimens, pinned or papered, with full 
data, of all species, subspecies, and forms of North American Limenitis. Also need living 
pupae of the above. Will purchase or exchange extremely limited stock of District of 
Columbia and adjacent Maryland butterflies; will have many more specimens for ex- 
change this summer. Ward Watt, 1206 Parker Ave., Hyattsville, Md., U.S.A. 

For sale: (Eneis, Erebia, Colias, and Boloria from far Northern Canada at reasonable 
prices. R. J. Fitch, 2235 Pandora St., Vancouver, B.C., CANADA. 

For sale: Barnes, McDunnough, and others: Contributions to the Natural History of 
the Lepidoptera of North America: Vols. 1-4, half leather; Vol.5, paper covers. Ex- 
cellent condition. Inquiries to Prof. B. Hocking, Dept. of Entomology, University of 
Alberta, Edmonton, Atla., CANADA. 

For sale: 1955-56 ex larva, carefully papered adults of Triodes (= Ornithoptera) urvilliana, 
victoria; Papilio woodfordi, rhadamantus; Attacus atlas lorquini. Max Richter, Butterfly 
Farm, East Durham, N.Y., U.S.A. 

Have several thousand European butterflies and moths, papered, named, with full data, 
about 300 different species, for exchange against butterflies from the Americas, Asia, 
Australia or Africa. Will help build up representative coll. of European Lepidoptera. 
T. W. Langer, Royal Library, Copenhagen, DENMARK. 

Alaskan butterflies for sale: Parnassius eversmanni $ A $5.00, $ B $4.00; Papilio mach- 
aon aliaska $ A $4.00, $ B $2.75; (Eneis jutta alaskensis 8 A $3.00, $ B $2.00, 2 A 
$4.00, $ B $3.00. "B" specimens have small nicks or tails missing. All specimens have 
complete data including altitude. Will consider exchange for desired Nearctic Erebia 
(Arctic material only). P. R. Ehrlich, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kansas, 
Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 



80 Vol.10: nos.1-2 

EDITORIAL CHANGES 

Mrs. Jeanne E. Remington has resigned as Associate Editor of the 
News, due to the pressure of new activities at Yale University. Her successor 
has not been determined. I wish to record my deep gratitude for her very large 
part in producing the News during these first nine years. 

Prof. James R. Merritt, who is responsible for the new "Collectors" 
section of the News, is now Associate Editor in a new position replacing the 
supervisor of the Season Summary. For lack of an editor, the Summary has been 
discontinued, at least temporarily. Summary material is on hand for the 1953 
and 1954 seasons, and it is hoped that this can be edited and published before 
much longer. 

Charles L. Remington 



All nominees for 1956 officers of The Lepidopterists' Society received over 
99% of the ballots cast and were duly recorded by the Secretary as elected. 
Prof. Dr. Hering was elected an Honorary Fellow. 



ADDITIONS TO THE MEMBERSHIP LIST 

Beal, Jno L., 309 South York St., Gastonia, N. C, U. S. A. 

Brooks, James C, 194 Riley Ave., Macon, Ga., U. S. A. 

Carlton, Towomi, James-Barry-Robinson Home for Boys, Kempville Rd., Norfolk 2, Va., 

U. S. A. 
Ford, D. G., c/o Rock Island Freight Office, Joliet, 111., U. S. A. 
Gingell, L. V. H., South Farnborough Preparatory School, Reading Rd., Farnborough, 

Hants., ENGLAND. 
Graybill, Richard, 1225 Rosemont Lane, Abington, Pa., U. S. A. 

Horii, Hiraku, No. 175, 50-Banch, Oguracho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto, JAPAN. 
Kight, Paul, Norman Rd., Clarkston, Ga., U. S. A. 
Klein, Martin, 4746 Kraft Ave., North Hollywood, Calif., U. S. A. 
Mark, Victor (Dr.), 250 Vi N. Mills St., Claremont, Calif., U. S. A. 
Phillips, Geoffrey H., 67 Alexandra Rd., Blackpool, ENGLAND. 
Ragsdale, Edith L. (Mrs.), 429 N. Marion St., Centralia, 111., U. S. A. 
Ross, Douglas, 26 Tichester Rd., Apt. 107, Toronto, Ont., CANADA. 
Serrano, M. E., Esq., 188a, Fulham Rd., London S. W. 10, ENGLAND. 
Symmes, John, 3198 Mathieson Drive N. E., Atlanta, Ga., U. S. A. 
Thoveron, Clothilde, 186 Almond St., Georgetown, BRITISH GUIANA. 
Vanek, Jaroslav, 19, Pfistavni, Praha 7, CZECHOSLOVAKIA. 
Vokoun, William, Jr., Fourth Ave. and Rose St., Downers Grove, 111., U. S. A. 
Weems, Howard V., Jr. (Dr.), State Plant Board of Florida, Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, 

Fla., U. S. A. 

THIRD ANNUAL PACIFIC SLOPE MEETING ANNOUNCED 

Western members of The Lepidopterists' Society will hold their 1956 meeting in 
Santa Barbara, California on August 4 and 5. NELSON W. Baker, entomologist at 
the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, will handle local arrangements. W. 
LEVI PHILLIPS of Salt Lake City is the third member of the Program Committee. One 
feature of the program will be a symposium for discussing the usefulness of genetics, 
statistics, ecology and morphology in the taxonomy of Lepidoptera. 

Fred Thorne, Program Chairman 



The Lepidopterists' News 



Volume 10 1956 Numbers 3-4 

A NEW CONCEPT FOR THE CCENONYMPHA OF THE FRONT 
RANGE OF COLORADO (SATYRID^E) 

by William N. Burdick 

In the preparation of a revision of the genus Coenonympha of North 
America it became apparent that the Coenonympha of the Front Range of 
Colorado should be elevated to racial distinction. This race has formerly 
been referred to as Coenonympha ochracea Edwards, but a comparison with 
the known printed figures and scores of specimens of C. ochracea that con- 
form to Edwards' description of this butterfly prove that the deviation is 
sufficient to permit a recognizable separation from C. ochracea. The large 
majority of the specimens found in this region are quite constant in the 
characters that distinguish them. 

Skinner (1900) published a colored illustration of this butterfly in 
his revision of the genus (figure 13, from Bear Creek, Colorado, near Mor- 
rison). This illustration excellently exemplifies a typical figure of this popu- 
lation but it is erroneously designated as C. ochracea to which it is quite 
atypical. The correct figure that conforms to Edwards' description of C. 
ochracea is the accompanying figure 14, from Park City, Utah. A comparison 
of these figures leaves no doubt that they are quite distinguishably different 
in appearance. 

Davenport (1941) illustrates in black and white (plate 10, figure 38) 
the underside of this Front Range race, which he designates as C. ochracea. 
In adjacent figures, one from Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, and another from 
some unspecified locality in Utah, he illustrates specimens of typical C. ochracea. 
It is clear that he also missed the dissimilarity, as have many others, that is 
so apparent between these two populations. 

For the sake of consistency it seems appropriate to establish a com- 
plete separation between C. ochracea and its relative in the Front Range. 
This should help to clarify the status of C. ochracea which has been the 
subject of much speculation. As other populations have been separated by 
means of the absence or obsolescence of ocelli and ground color a parallel 
treatment in this case must certainly be in order. 

The description of the race from the Front Range of Colorado follows. 

Coenonympha inornata phantasma new subspecies 

MALE. Upperside evenly colored light orange-yellow, except along the inner mar- 
gin of the secondaries to about the sub-median vein, where the color becomes light 

81 



82 BURDICK: New Colorado Ccenonympha Vol.10: nos.3-4 

gray. The grayish-white fringes are in striking contrast to the ground color of the 
wings, and they are well developed. 

On the underside the primaries have one apical ocellus on each wing and it 
is prominent as in C. ochracea and C. benjamini. The general appearance of the 
primaries is very similar to that of C. ochracea except that the gray apical area is usu- 
ally darker and somewhat more extensive. The obsolescent sub-marginal ocelli on the 
under side of the secondaries are a standard feature of phantasma. They are impressive- 
ly in contrast to the robust sub-marginal ocelli featured by C. ochracea. McDuNNOUGH 
says, "that only occasionally does C. benjamini show traces of weak sub-marginal ocelli 
on the secondaries." The pale, irregular shaped basal spots on the secondaries, def- 
initely not a character of C. benjamini, are normally present in phantasma but are 
usually of slightly less magnitude than those seen in C. ochracea. Sometimes they 
are slightly obscure, but this is not the rule. The pale straight ray on the primaries 
and the tortuous ray on the secondaries are quite variable in extent, just as they are 
in other races of Ccenonympha. It should be emphasized that the description of C. 
ochracea states that the ground color of the undersides of the secondaries is "light 
reddish-brown." In phantasma it is definitely greenish-gray. 

FEMALE. There seems to be no sexual dimorphism with the exception that the 
female is often slightly larger. 

HOLOTYPE male (expanse 28 mm.): Eldora, Boulder Co., Colo., 21 
June 1941, leg. Donald Eff. 

ALLOTYPE female (expanse 30 mm.): same locality and collector as 
HOLOTYPE, 9 July 1937. 

HOLOTYPE and ALLOTYPE deposited in the collection of the Los 
Angeles County Museum at Los Angeles, California. 

PARATYPES (twenty-six in all): Twenty paratypes in the collection 
of the author with the following data will be distributed among the follow- 
ing collections: 

The Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn.: one male, 23 June 1941, and one female, 9 July 1937, both Eldora, 
Boulder Co., Colo., leg. P. S. & C. L. Remington. 

The Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh, Pa.: one male, 21 June 1941, and 
one female, 9 July 1937, both Eldora, Boulder Co., Colo., leg. P. S. & C. L. 
Remington. 

The United States National Museum, Washington, D.C.: one male, 
Tolland, Gilpin Co., Colo., 15 June 1951, leg. DONALD Eff; one female, 
Eldora, Boulder Co., Colo., 9 July 1937, same collector. 

The American Museum of Natural History, New York, N.Y.: one male, 
Eldora, Colo., 9 July 1937, leg. Donald Eff; one female, Tolland, Colo., 
6 July 1953, same collector. 

The Canadian National Museum, Ottawa, Canada: one male, Tolland, 
Colo., 6 July 1953, leg. Donald Eff; one female, Eldora, Colo., 21 July 1941, 
same collector. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 83 

Fourteen paratypes are in the collection of the author: four males, El- 
dora, Colo., 21 June 1941, and one male, Sugar Loaf Mountain, Boulder 
Co., Colo., 19 May 1948, all collected by Donald Eff; four males, Eldora, 
Colo. (27 June 1937, 18 June and 2, 8 July 1941) and one female, Eldora, 
Colo. (7 July 1937), all collected by P. S. & C. L. Remington. 

Six specimens in the collection of the Los Angeles County Museum are 
also designated as paratypes: three males from Tolland, Colo., 4 July 1951; 
one male from Tolland, Colo., 26 June 1953; one female, Caribou, Boulder 
Co., Colo., 15 July 1951, all collected by Donald Eff; one male from 
Tolland, Colo., 9 July 1935, leg. F. M. Brown. 

The average measurement of thirteen male paratypes from the base to 
the wing tip is 16-17 mm. That of four female paratypes is 17-18 mm. 

The elevations of the area from which the type series came are Eldora 
8800 ft., Tolland and Caribou 9500 ft., and Sugar Loaf Mt. 8000 ft. 

A number of other specimens that appear to belong to the new race 
have been collected at Fraser, Grand Co., Colo., and Chautauqua Mesa, Gregory 
Canyon, Plainview, and a number of nearby localities in Boulder Co., Colo., 
during May, June, and July. 

The specific name inornata has been selected, as the author's treatment 
of the genus, now in preparation, divides American Coenonympha into three 
species: C. California Westwood & Hewitson (white), C. inornata Edwards 
(yellow), and C. haydenii Edwards (brown) having similar differences in color 
and other features as are noted in the study of anthropology. The subspecies 
inornata represents a race of probably later establishment than C. ochracea, 
considering the movement of the continental glaciers. However, the name 
inornata has line priority over the name ochracea and therefore must be 
considered as the name for the yellow races of American Coenonympha. The 
Asiatic name tullia seems unacceptable for American species inasmuch as it 
is based upon a very questionable theory, in fact one that presents many 
negative elements. This opinion will be elaborated at length in a subsequent 
paper in which the application of the name tullia will be discussed. 

Apparently phantasma, which inhabits localities of considerable altitude, 
is single brooded as are the other races of Coenonympha that are found in 
regions where boreal influences prevail. 

Treatment of the genitalia is here omitted, because with the possible 
exception of C. haydenii, the genitalia of all American Coenonympha are so 
similar that useful taxonomic characters have not yet been found. 

Because of the fact that phantasma has in the past been confused with 
ochracea it seems pertinent to discuss here some of the opinions previously 
recorded on this subject. In the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh the single 
type specimen of C. ochracea may be seen. It is labeled "Lake Winnipeg." 
This single specimen conforms to Edwards' description of that race. It 
seems evident that sometime later specimens from another locality were 
acquired. Edwards apparently believed that these, which were labeled as 



84 BuRDICK: New Colorado Ccenonympha Vol.10: nos.3-4 

from "Col." and "Colo.," bore similarity to his lone female type. A number 
of these were deposited with the type. This served to confuse the status of 
C. ochracea because these Colorado specimens do not conform to the descrip- 
tion, and they differ quite noticeably from the type specimen. Typical C. 
ochracea occurs in western Colorado, Utah, and Nevada, but its appearance 
is quite different from that which Davenport designates as the "Rocky 
Mountain race." Colorado is a state of large extent in which there are rather 
extreme and varied climatic conditions. The ambiguous locality "Colo." is 
insufficient grounds for racial establishment, and it is far removed from the 
original type locality. Davenport wrote, "A careful examination of Edwards' 
description of ochracea will show one that it is an accurate description of the 
Rocky Mountain race; he stresses the strong row of ocelli and the similarity 
of males and females." Davenport's figures of this Rocky Mountain race 
certainly do not show a strong row of ocelli. On the contrary it is quite 
obvious that the "Rocky Mountain race" is very definitely lacking in this 
respect. This error, which Davenport did not make alone, plus the lack 
of a substantial series from the type locality (Lake Winnipeg), have con- 
tributed much toward the bewilderment surrounding the status of C. ochracea. 
It seems that an examination of the original description and of the number 
of familiar published figures should make it clear that to regard the Front 
Range population as C. ochracea is quite unacceptable. Davenport theorizes 
that Edwards must have got his labels mixed and that the lone type of C. 
ochracea was actually from some other locality than Lake Winnipeg. A 
letter from Dr. J. H. McDunnough expresses the belief that the type speci- 
men of C. ochracea actually came from Lake Winnipeg and so was correctly 
labeled, but that it was atypical of the population of that area. In other 
words it was a freak in a colony of C. inornata. In view of all the speculation 
complicating this problem, Dr. McDunnough's opinion seems the most 
acceptable. 

It has also been said that C. ochracea has occurred in California, but 
there is no authentic record of this and it is most doubtful. Any occurrence 
in Kansas is also very doubtful, so that statement should be discounted. 

It may be revealing to review here Edwards' description of C. ochracea 
and to point out its major deviation from C. phantasma. 

CCENONYMPHA OCHRACEA — EDW. 

Male. Upper side of a bright glossy ochre yellow without any spot or mark, ex- 
cept what is caused by the transparency of the wings; base of both wings dark grey; 
abdominal margin of the secondaries pale grey; fringes pale grey crossed by a dark line. 

Under side of primaries same color as above, costal margin, apex and base greyish, 
near the apex a round, sometimes rounded oblong, black spot with white pupil and 
pale yellow iris; this is preceded by an abbreviated, pale yellow ray. 

Secondaries LIGHT REDDISH-BROWN, grayish along the hind margin; abdomi- 
nal margin and base dark grey; near the hind margin and parallel to it A SERIES 
OF SIX BLACK DOTS, SOMETIMES OBSOLETE, USUALLY WITH WHITE PU- 
PIL AND BROAD YELLOW IRIS; near the base two irregular pale brown spots, 
and midway between the base and the hind margin a sinuous, interrupted ray of the 
same color, extending nearly across the wing. 

Female like male. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 85 

The salient features that are to be emphasized in comparing C. ochracea 
with C. phantasma are here capitalized. A study of scores of specimens of 
C. ochracea makes it evident that Edwards must have meant that the black dots 
were sometimes obsolete but that the white pupil and the yellow iris persisted. 

It here seems pertinent to examine some other phases of the C. ochracea 
complex, for instance, the name Cosnonympha brenda Edwards which has 
often been confused with C. ochracea. Without doubt, Holland's figures 
of C. brenda that appear in his revised edition of The Butterfly Book are 
C. ochracea. Judging from this conception Barnes and McDunnough rightly 
have said, "brenda described from some of Reakirt's material ostensibly 
from Los Angeles, California, is a typical ochracea." Dr. McDunnough 
synonymizes C. brenda under C. ochracea in his 1938 Check List. In fact, no 
insect resembling Holland's figures of C. brenda has ever been recorded in 
or adjacent to the Los Angeles region. Unfortunately no type specimen of 
C. brenda can be found in the Edwards Collection which is at the Carnegie 
Museum. There are in the Strecker Collection in the Chicago Natural History 
Museum the supposed types of C. brenda. These specimens do not agree with 
the original description of that insect. They are remarkably similar to C. 
ochracea. On account of this error the identity of C. brenda has been ob- 
scured. It is unlikely that EDWARDS, being quite familiar with both of these 
races, should have confused them. C. brenda probably was from Los Angeles 
and so was rightly recorded. All evidence points to the fact that it is a form 
of Coenonympha California Westwood & Hewitson which conforms to the de- 
scription of C. brenda. This form of C. California is not uncommon in southern 
California. It is comparatively well spotted and has a rusty-white ground 
color. Edwards' description of C. brenda in substance embraces these char- 
acters and goes on to qualify further by stating that the under-side of primaries 
have "a faint, transverse, reddish line beyond the cell, commencing at sub- 
costal, thence straight to upper median, after which it is tortuous and dis- 
appears near lower median. Secondaries have a similar line angular to end 
of cell thence tortuous to abdominal margin." These features do not agree 
with any specimens that have a likeness to C. ochracea or any other Utah 
material, but they do agree with a form of C. California that is found near 
Los Angeles and San Diego. C. California is a species that embraces many 
forms in a continuous cline of gradually changing character that extends the 
length of the state of California. Thus it seems that C. brenda is a form of 
C. California with the possibility that it may fall as a synonym. 

Another member of the genus rather closely related to C. phantasma is 
Coenonympha benjamini McDunnough. It will be noted in the description 
of C. benjamini that there is no mention made of basal spots on the under 
side of the secondaries, nor do any such spots normally occur. All available 
illustrations of C. benjamini show that these basal spots, which are a definite 
part of the pattern of C. phantasma, are entirely lacking in C. benjamini. 
In writing about C. benjamini, McDunnough states, "Sometimes two or 
three light colored blotches appear sub-marginally on the under sides of the 
secondaries but this is atypical." 



86 BURDICK: New Colorado Coenonympha Vol.10: nos.3-4 

COMPARATIVE TABLE OF DISTINCTIVE CHARACTERS 

Under sides of secondaries 

Color: — ochracea light reddish -brown; benjamini greenish-gray; phantasma 
similar to benjamini. 

Sub-marginal Ocelli: — ochracea well defined; benjamini none; phantasma re- 
duced. 

Basal Spots: — ochracea well defined; benjamini none; phantasma present. 




Left: Coenonympha inornata ochracea Edw. <$ , Park City, Utah, 4 July 1937, 

leg. W. N. BURDICK. 
Center: Coenonympha inornata phantasma Burdick, HOLOTYPE $, Eldora, 

Colorado, 21 June 1941, leg. D. EFF. 
Right: Coenonympha inornata benjamini McD. £ , Calgary, Alberta, 4 July 

1900, leg. F. WOLLEY DOD. 

[All undersides. Photo by PAUL HOLLOWAY.] 

The writer wishes to express appreciation for editorial comment by 
Dr. C. L. Remington and for the loan of specimens by Lloyd M. Martin, 
Associate Curator of Entomology, Los Angeles County Museum. 

References 
Barnes, W., & J. H. McDunnough, 1916. Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lepid. North America, 

vol.3: pp. 70-72. 
Davenport, Demorest, 1941. Butterflies of the satyrid genus Coenonympha. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool, vol. 87: p. 268, plate 10, fig. 38. 
Edwards, W. H., 1861. Proc. Acad. Sci. Philadelphia, p. 163. 
McDunnough, J. H., 1928. Notes on Canadian diurnal Lepidoptera. Canad. Ent., vol. 

60: p. 272. 
, 1938. Check list Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States 

of America, part 1, Macrolepidoptera. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci.. vol. 1: p. 12. 
Skinner, H., 1900. Revision of the American species of the genus Gosnonympha. Trans. 

Amer. Ent. Soc. Philadelphia, vol. 26: plate 1, figs. 13-14. 

1108 So. Harvard Blvd., Los Angeles 6, Calif., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 87 

A PSEUDOSCORPION ON MOTHS 
by Asher E. Treat 

The collector who uses his hand lens or entomological microscope before 
spreading and boxing his specimens may encounter many an interesting and 
unexpected biological association. The example reported here shows that even 
insects collected years previously may yield surprises. 

Because of their smallness and their retiring habits, the tiny arachnids 
of the order Pseudoscorpionida are seldom seen, though common and widely 
distributed. More than 1,000 species are known, the largest only about 8 
millimeters long, and most very much smaller. All are predatory, feeding 
on mites and other small arthropods under stones, in mosses and leaf litter, 
in bark or rotting wood, or in heaps of organic debris. One species is found 
in old books and in clothes closets, where it preys upon psocids. Another 
lives on the salt beaches of the Mediterranean Sea. Several inhabit caves. 
The name pseudoscorpion reflects the resemblance of the body and appendages 
to those of true scorpions. The abdomen, like that of true scorpions, is clearly 
segmented, but it is not narrow or elongated in the posterior portion, and does 
not bear a sting. 

Several species of pseudoscorpion are commonly found on the bodies 
of other animals, most often on Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera, but 
occasionally on insects of other orders, and even on birds and small mammals. 
The association exemplifies phoresy or phagophily rather than parasitism. 
The arachnid does not attack or injure its bearer, but appears to be benefitted 
solely by being transported (phoresy) or, in some instances, by preying upon 
mites which are sharing the same "vehicle." The latter behavior is referred 
to as phagophily (Beier, 1948). Though male pseudoscorpions are occasion- 
ally found in such situations, Vauchon ( 1947, 1949) conjectures that it is 
the females which are most often phoretic. These, he believes, after the 
curious process of injecting their nutritive body fluids into their larval off- 
spring, are in urgent need of food, and are ready to attach themselves to 
any animal that presents itself. 

Records of pseudoscorpions on moths are exceedingly rare. Beier ( 1930) 
refers to 4 adults of Atemnus piger (Simon, 1878) taken in October, 1929, 
from moths attracted to light at Guelt-es-Stel, south central Algeria. These 
were the first of this species collected since the original description. In 1932 
Beier described a new species, ugandanus, of the African genus Stenowithius 
from a male and 8 females found on an arctiid moth, Spilosoma rattrayi 
Hampson, taken in Kampala, Uganda, on 2 February 1930. Berland (1932), 
without giving details or references, credits one J. DE Joannis with the ob- 
servation of a pseudoscorpion transported by a microlepidopteran. 



88 TREAT: Pseudoscorpion on moths Vol.10: nos.3-4 

A search for mites on pinned Lepidoptera in the collection of The 
American Museum of Natural History has brought to light two more in- 
stances of the association of pseudoscorpions with moths. One moth was a 
female Acronycta g. grisea Walker. The specimen bears three printed labels: 
an incorrect sex determination, "'' $ " a locality reading "Me." (Maine), and 
a third reading "Collection J. B. Smith." The second moth was a female 
Acronycta ovata Grote, labelled merely "Collection J. B. Smith." It does not 
seem possible to obtain precise locality data on either of these insects, and 
their collection dates can be fixed only as within the period of Smith's pro- 
fessional activity, roughly between 1880 and 1910. Forbes (1954) states 
that A. grisea flies in June and July, and gives its range as "from Hamilton 
Sound, Labrador, and northern localities in Ontario to Alberta . . . and south 
to central Maine and mountains of New Hampshire and New York." A. 
ovata is said to fly from May to July, ranging from "Massachusetts to Tenn- 
essee, Minnesota, Colorado and Texas," with "runty" specimens appearing 
from Manitoba and Nova Scotia. 

On each of these moths a single male pseudoscorpion was found. In 
each instance the anterior parts of the arachnid were deeply buried among 
(but apparently not attached to) the scales covering the antero-ventral sur- 
face of the cervical and prothoracic regions. The only part of the arachnid 
that was visible in its undisturbed position on the moth was the abdomen. 
This was much flattened dorso-ventrally, presumably by dessication. The pin- 
cers were open, and extended forward so that a tip of each lay close to the 
base of the labial palpus on the corresponding side. The venter of the pseudo- 
scorpion was in contact with the ventral side of the moth. No mites, psocids, 
dermestids, or other animals were found on these insects. 

The pseudoscorpions were sent to Dr. C. Clayton Hoff of the Uni- 
versity of New Mexico, who has tentatively identified them as an undescribed 
species of the genus Apocheiridium J. C. Chamberlin, 1924, a group not 
previously recorded from eastern United States. 

Since the history of the host specimens is poorly known, the possibility 
must be considered that the arachnids became associated with them in the 
cabinet rather than in the field. Mites and psocids are found occasionally 
as scavengers in insect collections. It is conceivable that the pseudoscorpions 
might have boarded the pinned specimens in search of such prey, and were 
killed by fumigation or desiccation. No living mites or psocids have been 
seen in the collection of The American Museum of Natural History, but evi- 
dence of their former presence in tributary collections is often noted. How- 
ever, the lack of such evidence in these specimens, together with the identical 
positions of the two arachnids on the insects, suggests true phoresy rather 
than predation upon scavengers. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 89 

References 

Beier, M., 1930. Die Pseudoscorpione des Wiener Naturhistorischen Museums. III. 

Ann. Wien. Mus. 44: 199-222. 
, 1932. Zur Kenntnis der Cheliferidae (Pseudoscorpionoidea). Zool. Anz. 

100: 53-67. 
, 1948. Phoresie und Phagophilie bei Pseudoscorpionen. Osterreichische zool. 

Zeitschr. 1: 441-497. 
Berland, L., 1932. Les Arachnides. Biologie, systematique. In: Encycl. ent., A., vol. 16 

(esp. p. 52). Paris, Lechevalier. 
Forbes, W. T. M., 1954. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states. Part III. 

Noctuidae. Cornell Univ. Agric. Exper. Station, Memoir 329- 
Vauchon, M., 1947. Nouvelles remarques a propos de la phoresie des Pseudoscorpions. 

Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. nat. Paris, 2nd ser. 19: 84-87. 
, 1949- Ordre des Pseudoscorpions. In: Traite de Zoologie, vol. 6. Paris, 

Masson. 

Dept. of Biology, The City College of New York, New York 31, N. Y., U. S. A. 




THE STATUS OF KALMIA AS A HOST PLANT OF 
IN CIS ALIA AUGUST IN US (LYOENID.E) 

by J. B. Ziegler 

A discussion of this topic formed part of the substance of a paper by the 
present author (1953) which appeared recently in this journal. At that time it 
was pointed out that the inclusion of Kalmia in the host plant list of Incisalia 
augustinus Westwood appeared to be based upon papers by John H. Cook, 
and the pertinent work of that author was summarized. To recapitulate briefly 
the evidence of COOK on this point, he had made the following observations: 
(1) the butterfly had been seen to oviposit on Kalmia (presumably in the 
laboratory); however, (2) larvse were never discovered on this plant in nature; 
( 3) it was impossible to rear the insect on Kalmia in the laboratory ( larvas which 
had been feeding normally on Vaccinium refused to eat Kalmia); and (4) the 
green lame would be quite conspicuous (and therefore liable to attack by 
predators) while feeding on the rosy Kalmia flowers, the most likely site of 
attack. On the other hand, Cook had no difficulty in demonstrating that Vac- 
cinium spp. were authentic host plants of this butterfly according to the criteria 
mentioned in points 1, 2, and 3 above. 



90 ZlEGLER: Kalmia for Incisalia augustinus Vol.10: nos.3-4 

In an interesting recent paper, Knudsen ( 1955 ) added Azalea calendulacea 
Michx. to the host plant list of the lycasnid butterfly, Strymon liparops Bdv. & 
Lee, already known to be widely polyphagous. He found larvae feeding on the 
flame-colored azalea flowers, and carried them successfully through to pupation 
and emergence. In view of the apparent irrelevance to the survival of this butter- 
fly of its exposed position while feeding on this host plant, he reasoned by 
analogy that /. augustinus might show a similar feeding habit on Kalmia. Since 
this would tend to invalidate point 4 mentioned above in the argument against 
Kalmia as a host plant for /. augustinus , he suggested that this plant should be 
retained on the list for this butterfly. 

While we are in agreement with Knudsen with regard to the possible 
significance of his findings as they bear on the validity of point 4 in the argument 
outlined above, yet it should be emphasized that this point is a minor one in that 
argument. Considered in sum, Cook's evidence speaks very strongly against 
Kalmia as a host plant for /. augustinus. It may be assumed that his observation 
of oviposition on this plant was an artifact due to the unnatural conditions of 
laboratory host plant screening experiments. One other point not mentioned 
in our earlier paper may be stressed at this time. /. augustinus is the earliest 
Hairstreak in the vicinity of Lakehurst, New Jersey. It ordinarily appears on 
the wing about the middle of April and the flight is about over by the middle 
of May or perhaps somewhat earlier. Therefore the peak density of hatching 
eggs must occur in late April or early May. At this time V accinium spp. and 
Arctostaphylos uva-ursi Spreng., authenticated host plants of /. augustinus, are 
in full bloom (early instar larvae attack the flowers), while Kalmia angusti folia L. 
does not blossom in this locality until much later. 

In conclusion, there seems to be little evidence for, and much against, 
Kalmia as a host plant of /. augustinus. As matters now stand, it does not deserve 
a place on the list. 

References 

Knudsen, J. P., 1955. A new host plant record for Strymon liparops. Lepid. News 9: 11-12. 
Ziegler, J. B., 1953- Notes on the life history of Incisalia augustinus and a new host plant 
record. Lepid. News 7: 33-35. 

64 Canoe Brook Parkway, Summit, New Jersey, U. S. A. 



NEW NORTH CAROLINA ENTOMOLOGICAL SOCIETY 

At a meeting held at Raleigh, N. C, on 17 November 1956, the North Carolina 
Entomological Society was organized, with membership open to all interested in ento- 
mology. Dr. C. F. Smith (Head, Dept. of Entomology, N. C. State College, Raleigh) 
was elected President, and Mr. James F. Green (N. C. State Dept. of Agriculture, 
Raleigh) Secretary-Treasurer. 

R. R. McElvare, P. O. Box 386, Southern Pines, N. C, U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 91 

AN ANNOTATED LIST OF SOUTHEASTERN 
WYOMING RHOPALOCERA 

by Gene R. DeFoliart 

Wyoming is among the least known areas entomologically in the United 
States. The older distribution lists of Lepidoptera all too frequently included 
"Colorado and Montana" in the range of a given species with Wyoming con- 
spicuous by its absence. Although an increasing amount of collecting by 
lepidopterists has been done in the State in recent years, the dearth of published 
information remains. 

A complete list of the butterflies of the State has never been attempted. 
Klots ( 1930) recorded 78 species from Wyoming on the basis of collecting at 
Moose, Teton County, in the northwest and in the Medicine Bow Range of 
Albany County in the southeast. While not intended as a state list by its author, 
his paper remains the longest published list to date of Wyoming butterfly 
records. 

KLOTS recorded 43 species from Albany County with some additional ones 
from nearby northern Colorado localities. Additional published records, mostly 
by Klots (1937, 1940) and Nabokov (1953), bring the total to nearly 
60 species previously reported as occurring in southeastern Wyoming. The pur- 
pose of the present paper is to report for the first time a great number of addi- 
tional species occurring in the southeastern area, bringing the total to 127 
species, many of which are recorded also for the first time from anywhere in 
Wyoming. 

There are many species yet to be recorded from the southeastern area that 
should turn up with additional collecting. The fauna of the north and west 
differs markedly from that of the southeast. When Wyoming has been as 
thoroughly collected as some other states, it should boast a rich and varied 
butterfly fauna, possibly exceeded only by one or two other states. 

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE 

The writer has had opportunity to collect intensively in Albany and Platte 
Counties during the past 5 years and to a lesser extent in Carbon County. The 
location of the three counties is shown in Figure 1. 

The area consists mainly of elevated plains broken by mountain ranges and 
river valleys. The Medicine Bow Range in southwestern Albany County and 
southeastern Carbon County has many square miles above timberline topped 
by Medicine Bow Peak at an elevation of 12,005 ft. The northern, most elevated 
part of the Medicine Bows is known as the Snowy Range and is frequently 
capped with snow even in midsummer. Snowy Range Pass (elev. 10.800 ft.; is 



92 



DEFOLIART: Wyoming Rhopalocera 



Vol.10: nos.3-4 



traversed by a good hard-surfaced highway (State 130). In eastern Albany 
County, the Laramie Mountains occur as a foothill spur of the Medicine Bows, 
separated from the latter by the Laramie Plain. The Sierra Madre Mountains in 
Carbon County are separated from the Medicine Bows by the upper North Platte 
valley. The backbone of this range forms the Continental Divide with the highest 
point being Bridger Peak (elev. 11,007 ft.). Eastward from the Laramie Moun- 
tains, the plains are less elevated, the lowest point in the area being Guernsey 
located on the North Platte at an elevation of 4400 ft. 




CARBON 



SARATO 



V 



:% 



I"; 

i- 

IB 

ir 

I : 

I" 

!■: 




N3EY 



PLATTE ! 



ALBA 



SJERRA---^ 
f MADRE 




\J*i 





HEATL^AND 



'"'4 



JT Z0} 

230 

0D8 

LANDING 




POLE MT. « 

FOXPARK 

LIB BY PARK 

UNIV. CAMP 

SNOWY RANGE 
PASS* 

MEDICINE BOW 

PEAK 
BATTLE LAKE 
BRIOBER PEAK 



COLORADO 

Fig. 1. Map of southeastern Wyoming. Inset shows the location of Albany, 
Carbon, and Platte Counties in relation to the rest of Wyoming. 

Rainfall on the plains averages 11 to 15 inches. The mountains receive a 
great deal more moisture both as winter snows and heavy rains during the 
summer. The annual average temperature at representative points is 4l.4°F. at 
Laramie, 33.2°F. at Foxpark, and 48.8 °F. at Wheatland. Average annual pre- 
cipitation for the three locations is 11.32, 17.84, and 13.70 inches respectively. 



LIFE ZONES AND COLLECTING LOCALITIES 

Features of the various collecting localities probably can best be ascertained 
by delimiting life zones as they occur in the three-county area. For detailed 
information on life zones in Wyoming, Cary (1917) should be consulted. 

The Upper Sonoran Zone occurs along the eastern border of the State 
as an extension of the Great Plains to the east. Its upper limits are generally 
between 5,000 and 6,000 ft. and it includes a large part of central and eastern 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 93 

Platte County. It is mainly open plain covered with a luxuriant growth of grasses 
and large groves of broad-leaved cottonwoods along the rivers and streams. 
Willows, Box Elder, Flowering Currant, and Wolfberry also occur along the 
streams, and shrubs common on dry flats and rocky slopes include Saltbush, 
Rabbit Brush, Sagebrush, Yucca, and others. Localities collected include: 

Guernsey, Platte Co., elev. 4400 ft. Collecting mainly along east shore of 
Guernsey Reservoir. Upper Sonoran species predominate, but rocky buttes and 
hills support a scrubby growth of Rocky Mountain Juniper, Yellow Pine, and 
other Transition vegetation. 

Wheatland, Platte Co., elev. 4700 ft. Collecting within a 10 to 15 mile 
radius on both irrigated and grass land. 

The Transition Zone occurs approximately between 6,000 and 8,000 ft. 
elevation and is well marked only along its upper border where sage slopes give 
way to the aspen and coniferous forest belt. It occupies the remainder of Platte 
County and the sagebrush plains and high grassy plains of nearly all of Albany 
and Carbon Counties except the mountainous areas. Sagebrush, grasses, and 
Yellow Pine are characteristic types of vegetation along with Rocky Mountain 
and Creeping Junipers, Mountain Mahogany, Rocky Mountain Birch, Goose- 
berry, and many others. Collecting localities include: 

Centennial, Albany Co., elev. 8100 ft. Collecting in sagebrush flats west of 
town. 

Woods Landing, Albany Co., elev. 7500 ft. Collecting in canyons just below 
the forest. 

Sybille Canyon, Albany Co. Collecting from Morton's Pass east along State 
Highway 34 at elevations of about 7500 ft. down to about 5500 ft. 

Glendo, Platte Co., elev. 4700 ft. Collecting between Highway 87 and the 
North Platte River 5 to 15 miles south of town. 

The Canadian Zone occurs extensively on the Medicine Bow Range and 
the Sierra Madre and Laramie Mountains approximately between 8,000 and 
10,000 ft. It is characterized by forests of Aspen, Lodgepole Pine, Engelmann 
Spruce and Fir. Collecting localities include: 

Albany and Foxpark, Albany Co., elev. approximately 8500 ft. 

Illinois-Douglas Creek jet., elev. approximately 8,000 ft. 

Lower Libby Park, Albany Co., elev. 8500 ft. Collecting along Highway 130 
up to about 9,000 ft. 

University of Wyoming Science Camp, Albany Co., elev. 9600 ft. Collecting 
in large meadows at upper edge of coniferous forest up to about 10,300 ft. 

Pole Mountain, Albany Co., elev. 8500 ft. Most collecting at lower fringe 
of the forest. 

Ryan Park, Carbon Co. Collecting along Highway 130 on western slope of 
Snowy Range at elevations of 8,000 to 9500 ft. 



94 DEFOLIART: Wyoming Rhopalocera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Sierra Madre Mountains, Carbon Co. Collecting mostly in Canadian Zone 
along gravel road from Encampment to beyond Battle Lake at elevations of 
8,000 to 9,900 ft. 

Collecting in Hudsonian Zone territory was confined to the area around 
Snowy Range Pass, Albany Co., elev. 10,800 ft., and at elevations up to about 
11,500 ft. Lewis Lake, Towner Lake, and Lake Marie are nearby. The area is 
characterized by patches of stunted spruce and many small lakes. Arctic-Alpine 
Zone is restricted to the barren top of Snowy Range. 

LIST OF SPECIES 

Arrangement of families (and genera as nearly as possible) follows that 
of Klots (1951). With exceptions, arrangement and use of species names 
within genera primarily follows McDuNNOUGH ( 1938). The writer has taken 
all species previously reported for the area, with the exceptions of two migratory 
pierids, so previously published records are not repeated. Mr. F. M. BROWN 
kindly volunteered the data from his collecting trips in the area, and his captures 
are designated (FMB). Flower preferences and other data are given for some 
of the species by Klots ( 1930), and additional recent information on nearly all 
of the species can be found in Colorado Butterflies, by Brown, Eff, and ROTGER 
(1954). 

SATYRID^E 

1. Caenonympha tullia ochracea Edwards. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Garrett 7-1-51 (FMB); Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Libby Park 6-24-52; 
Pole Mt. 7-20-52, 6-19-54; Sybille Canyon 6-14-52, 6-12-54; U.W. Sci. Camp 7-5-54: 
Woods Landing 5-30-54, 6-11-54, 6-12-55. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-1-55; Sierra Madre 
Mts. 6-26-54. Widespread and common throughout the region with greatest abundance 
in Transition and Canadian Zones. 

2. Neominois ridingsii Edwards. Platte Co.: Glendo 6-18-53; Wheatland 6-13-52. 
Quite local. 

3. Cercyonis pegala olympus Edwards. Platte Co.: Glendo 7-2-52; Wheatland 
7-20-51, 7-10-52, 7-14-53, 7-16-53. Frequents grassy hillsides and meadows, especially 
near streams. 

4. Cercyonis meadii Edwards. Platte Co.: Glendo 8-14-52, 8-20-52, 9-3-52, 9-9-53. 
Very local and not common even when found. 

5. Cercyonis oetus cbaron Edwards. Albany Co.: Centennial 6-30-52; Pole Mt. 
7-30-51, 7-13-52, 7-27-52, 7-28-54, 8-8-54, 7-30-55, 8-15-55; Woods Landing 7-28-54. 
Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-29-55. Placte Co.: Glendo 7-2-52. This is undoubtedly the most 
abundant satyrid in the region and, next to C. ochracea, the most widely distributed. 

6. CEneis chryxus Doubleday. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; Libby Park 6-24-52. 
6-26-54; Pole Mt. 6-19-54; U.W. Sci. Camp 6-30-52, 7-5-54; Snowy Range Pass 6-30-52. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54. O. chryxus seems to occur in the area only in 
even-numbered years. 

7. CEneis uhleri Reakirt. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Woods 
Landing 6-14-53, 6-20-53, 5-30-54, 6-11-54, 6-12-55, 6-18-55. Atypical, but not suf- 
ficiently different to warrant subspecific recognition according to BROWN (1953) who 
figures a male and female from the Laramie Mountains. 

8. Erebia epipsodea Butler. Albany Co.: Centennial 6-30-52; nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 
4-51 (FMB); Foxpark 7-4-55; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Lake Marie 7-25-53 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 95 

(FMB); Pole Mt. 6-28-53, 7-11-53, 6-19-54; Snowy Range Pass 7-15-52, 7 -20-55; Sybille 
Canyon 6-12-54; Towner Lake -25-53; Upper Nash Fork 7-24-53 (FMB); U.W. Sci. 
Camp 6-30-52, 7-13-53, 7-5-54. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54, 7-1-55. 

DANAID^E 

9. Danaus gilippus strigosus Bates. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; a single worn 
specimen. Another, in better condition, was seen on Pole Mt. in August, 1953. 

10. Danaus plexippus Linne. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-14-53- Only 2 to 3 dozen 
specimens seen in most years. 

NYMPHALID^E 

11. Euptoieta claudia Cramer. Albany Co.: Foxpark 7-4-55; Pole Mt. 8-1-53. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-12-53, 8-18-53. Fre- 
quently becomes common on the plains late in the summer. 

12. Speyeria cybele charlottii Barnes. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. 
8-28-55. These dates are late; only females were taken. 

13. Speyeria aphrodite ethne Hemming. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 7-30-51, 7-13-52, 
8-1-53, 8-6-53, 8-7-53, 7-30-55. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-2-53; Glendo 8-12-53. 

14. Speyeria idalia Drury. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-7-55. The specimen was netted 
by Dr. W. D. FRONK while collecting with the author. 

15. Speyeria edwardsii Reakirt. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Lewis Lake 7-23-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-13-52, 8-23-53, 6-19-54; Sybille Canyon 6-11-52, 
6-14-52. Platte Co.: Wheatland 6-13-52, 6-24-53, 6-30-55. 

16. Speyeria coronis halcyone Edwards. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 7-13-52, 7-20-52, 
8-1-53, 8-6-53, 8-23-53, 7-30-55; Sybille Canyon 6-14-52, 7-9-53. Carbon Co.: Ryan 
Park 7-29-55; Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54. Platte Co.: Guernsey 7-20-51, 6-18-52, 7-16-52; 
Wheatland 6-24-53, 7-2-53, 7-7-55. These show much green and according to PAUL 
GREY (personal communication) are transitional toward snyderi Skinner, the Utah and 
western Wyoming subspecies. It is a common species in this area. 

17. Speyeria zerene platina Skinner. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 7-30-51, 7-20-52, 
7-27-52, 8-17-52, 8-20-52, 8-1-53, 8-7-53, 8-23-53. Grey provisionally referred these to 
zerene, but stated that they are not quite typical of any named subspecies, running to 
sinope dos Passos & Grey, platina, and garretti Gunder. They are somewhat difficult to 
separate from the local Speyeria coronis. 

18. Speyeria callippe meadii Edwards. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; Pole Mt. 
8-11-51, 7-13-52, 7-11-53; Sybille Canyon 6-13-52, 6-14-52, 6-27-53, 6-12-54. Carbon 
Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54; Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54. This insect, lighter than true 
7neadii, abounds in some years in Sybille Canyon. 

19. Speyeria egleis seer eta dos Passos & Grey. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 
8-17-54, 8-2-55. Abundant on the latter date. 

20. Speyeria atlantis besperis Edwards. Albany Co.: Libby Park 6-30-52; Pole Mt. 
7-30-51, 8-11-51, 7-13-52, 7-20-52, 8-1-53, 8-6-53, 8-7-53, 8-23-53, 8-8-54, 7-30-55, 
8-15-55; Woods Landing 7-21-52. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-29-55; Sierra Madre Mts. 
6-26-54, 8-2-55. Apparently never descends much below 8,000 ft. 

21. Speyeria hydaspe sakuntala Skinner. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54, 
8-2-55. 

22. Speyeria mormonia eurynome Edwards. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; Lewis 
Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-22-51, 7-30-51, 8-6-53, 8-7-53, 8-8-54, 7-30-55; 
Snowy Range Pass 7-5-54, 7-31-54; Towner Lake 7-25-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-15-53. 
Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54; Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54, 8-17-54, 8-2-55. S. eurynome 
ranges higher than any of the other local Speyeria. and, with Plebeius glandon rustica and 
Colias eurytheme, is one of the last species to disappear from the high mountains in 
September. Like S. hesperis. it is never found at lower elevations. 

23. Boloria selene tollandensis Barnes & Benjamin. Albany Co.: Foxpark 6-29-52 
7-15-52, 6-20-54, 7-2-54, 7-4-55; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55. Carbon Co.: Ryan 
Park 6-26-54. Habits and habitats of this and the following species are locally more or less 
as reported by Brown (1954) for Colorado Boloria. 



96 DEFOLIART: Wyoming Rhopalocera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

24. Boloria eunomia laddi Klots. Albany Co.: Lewis Lake 7-25-53; Snowy Range 
Pass 7-31-54, 7-17-55, 7-20-55, 7-29-55; Upper Nash Fork 7-24-53 (FMB). Lewis Lake 
is the type locality of the subspecies. It was described by KLOTS (1940). 

25. Boloria titama helena Edwards. Albany Co.: Foxpark 7-2-54, 8-1-54; Lake 
Marie 7-25-53 (FMB), 8-8-53; Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); Snowy Range Pass 7-15-52, 
6-26-54, 7-20-55; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-15-53. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. 

26. Boloria freija browni Higgins. Albany Co.: Foxpark 6-12-55, 6-19-55; Illinois- 
Douglas Creek jet. 5-15-54, 5-15-55; Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); Snowy Range Pass 
7-15-52, 6-26-54; Upper Nash Fork 7-24-53 (FMB); U.W. Sci. Camp 7-3-53. A very 
early appearing species. 

27. Boloria toddi Holland. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); Foxpark 
6-20-54, 7-2-54; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Pole Mt. 7-11-53. Carbon Co.: Ryan 
Park 6-26-54, 7-1-55. This insect occurs abundantly at Ryan Park. 

28. Boloria frigga sagata Barnes & Benjamin Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54, 6-19-55, 
7-4-55; Foxpark 6-29-52, 6-20-54. Occurs in several bogs in the Albany-Foxpark area 
but is always scarce. 

29. Euphydryas anicia eurytion Mead. Albany Co.: Centennial 6-30-52, 7-3-53, 
7-5-54; Libby Park 6-24-52; Pole Mt. 6-13-53, 7-11-53, 6-13-54, 6-19-54; Snowy Range 
Pass 6-30-52, 7-15-52, 6-26-54, 7-5-54; Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-12-54, 5-29-55; 
U.W. Sci. Camp 6-30-52, 7-13-53, 7-5-54; Woods Landing 6-14-53, 6-11-54. Long 
series from the same spot are extremely variable, and individual specimens resemble not 
only eurytion, but also capella and occassionally bernadetta. Material from the following 
localities is best referred to race bernadetta Leussler: Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB). Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54, 8-2-55. 

30. Euphydryas editha Boisduval. KLOTS (1930) reported a subspecies of this 
from the University Science Camp. He determined the species by genitaiic examination, 
but was unable to distinguish females from those of E. anicia eurytion with which they 
were flying. He did not take E. editha at lower elevations. Probably, some of the records 
from higher elevations given above under E. anicia eurytion actually are of this species. 

31. Melitcea pola arachne Edwards. Albany Co.: Woods Landing 7-28-54. Platte 
Co.: Glendo 8-14-52, 8-20-52, 6-23-53. 

32. Melitcea palla calydon Mead. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB). 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. 

33. Melitcea gorgone carlota Reakirt. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-12-54. Platte 
Co.: Glendo 7-16-52. 

34. Melitcea nycteis drusius Edwards. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-12-54, 
6-19-55. 

35. Phyciodes campestris camillus Edwards. Albany Co.: Foxpark 8-1-54; Illinois- 
Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Pole Mt. 9-9-52, 6-28-53, 7-11-53, 8-7-53, 8-23-53, 9-5-53; 
Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-27-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-15-53. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 
7-9-55. 

36. Phyciodes tharos Drury. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 7-11-53; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53; 
Woods Landing 7-21-52. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-5-53. 

37. Phyciodes mylitta Edwards. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-12-54. Platte Co.: 
Guernsey 6-18-52. Race barnesi Skinner; Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. The 
reader is referred to BROWN'S (1955) discussion of the status and spotted distribution 
of typical P. mylitta and P. mylitta barnesi. Typical P. mylitta is Californian and ranges 
eastward; P. mylitta barnesi was described from Glenwood Springs, Colorado. I have taken 
barnesi in the Sierra Madre and at Lander which is about 150 miles northwest. NABOKOV 
(1953) reported it as flying on sandy ground on the parched plain at less than 7,000 ft. 
altitude between Saratoga and Encampment just east of the Sierra Madres. Sybille Canyon 
and Guernsey, where mylitta-like specimens have been taken, are 75 and 125 miles, 
respectively, northeast of Saratoga. The latter three localities are similar, except that 
Guernsey is lower. 

38. Polygonia satyrus Edwards. Albany Co.: Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); Pole Mt. 
7-27-52, 8-17-52, 9-5-53. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. Form marsy.is 
Edwards. Pole Mt. 7-27-52. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 97 

39. Polygonia hylas Edwards. Albany Co.: Libby Park 8-30-53; Pole Mt. 9-5-53. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mrs. 8-17-54, 5-20-55. 

40. Polygonia zephyrus Edwards. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Libby Park 8-30-53; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-27-52, 9-5-53, 9-7-53; 
U.W. Sci. Camp 8-15-53. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54. 

41. Nymphalis calif ornica Boisduval. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 8-17-52. There was 
a great influx of this species in 1952. It has not been seen since then. 

42. Nymphalis milberti subpallida Cockerell. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); Libby Park 6-30-52; Pole Mt. 8-1-53; Snowy Range 
Pass 7-15-52; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53; Towner Lake 7-25-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-8-53. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54. 

43. Nymphalis antiopa Linne. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-27-52, 9-7-53. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of 
Encampment 5-8-54. 

44. Vanessa atalanta Linne. Albany Co.: Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 
8-25-51, 3-17-52. Platte Co.: Wheatland 6-25-52. 

45. Vanessa virginiensis Drury. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 9-5-53. Rare. 

46. Vanessa cardui Linne. Albany Co.: Centennial 5-25-52; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 
(FMB); Pole Mt. 8-15-55; Woods Landing 7-21-52. Platte Co.: Wheatland 9-15-53- 
Abundant everywhere in 1952. 

47. Vanessa carye Hiibner. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54. One specimen 
only. 

48. Precis lavinia Cramer. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-7-55. One specimen. 

49. Limenitis weidemeyerii Edwards. Albany Co.: Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB); 
Pole Mt. 7-13-52, 7-11-53, 7-30-55. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. Platte Co.: 
Guernsey 6-18-52. 

50. Limenitis archippus Cramer. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-11-53. Not common. I 
have found it only in the N. Platte valley. 

LYC^NID^ 

51. Strymon melinus humuli Harris. Platte Co.: Glendo 8-14-52; Guernsey 5-18-54. 
The specimens are between humuli and atrofasciata, but closer to the former, according 
to BROWN who examined them. It is very scarce. The same can be said more or less of 
all the hairstreaks. 

52. Strymon titus Fabricius. Albany Co.: Woods Landing 7-28-54, 8-1-54. Carbon 
Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-15-54, 8-17-54, 8-2-55. 

53. Strymon californica Edwards. Albany Co.: Woods Landing 7-21-52, 7-28-54. 

54. Strymon scepium Boisduval. Albany Co.: Woods Landing 7-28-54, 8-1-54. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-15-54, 8-17-54. 

55. Callipsyche behrii crossi Field. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 7-9-53; Woods 
Landing 7-21-52, 7-28-54, 8-1-54. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54, 8-2-55. 

56. Satyrium fuliginosa Edwards Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. Carbon Co.: 
Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. 

57. Mitoura spinetorum Hewitson. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54, 7-4-55; Pole Mt. 
6-28-53, 7-11-53, 6-19-54. Widespread and abundant in Canadian Zone. 

58. Mitoura siva Edwards. Platte Co.: Guernsey 6-18-52, 7-9-53, 5-18-54, 5-11-55, 
6-21-55. Extremely local. 

59. Callophrys apama homoperplexa Barnes & Benjamin. Albany Co.: Centennial 
7-3-53; Pole Mt. 6-28-53. Most specimens have the white discal line on the underside 
of the wings reduced to a faint white spot in the Cui-Cu 2 interspace. 

60. Callophrys sheridani Edwards. Albany Co.: Centennial 5-25-52. Carbon Co.: 
20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. This is one of the earliest appearing butterflies of 
the area. 

61. Incisalia augustinus Westwood. Albany Co.: Centennial 5-25-52; Woods Land- 
ing 6-4-52, 6-14-53, 5-14-54, 5-30-54. 

62. Incisalia mossii schryveri Cross. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. 
Underside of hindwing more dull than in typical schryveri. 



98 Df.Foliart: Wyoming Rhopalocera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

63. Incisalia polios Cook & Watson. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. 

64. Incisalia eryphon Boisduval. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Foxpark 6-19-55; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 6-28-53; Woods Landing 
6-1-52, 6-14-53, 6-11-54. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-1-55. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-18-54. 

65. Lyccena heteronea Boisduval. Albany Co.: Libby Park 8-30-53; Pole Mt. 
7-13-52, 7-27-52, 8-7-53, 8-15-55; Woods Landing 7-21-52, 7-28-54. Carbon Co.: 
Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54, 8-2-55. 

66. Lyccena thoe Guerin. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-28-53. Only one colony found 
so far. 

67. Lyccena xanthoides dione Scudder. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-14-53. One colony 
only. 

68. Lyccena ruhidus sirius Edwards. Albany Co.: Centennial 8-15-53; Pole Mt. 
8-11-51, 8-1-53, 8-7-53, 8-23-53, 8-15-55. Platte Co.: Glendo 7-2-52, 7-2-53, 7-9-53; 
Wheatland 6-25-52. Widespread. 

69. Lyccena nivalis browni Field. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-3-53; nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 
to 4-51 (FMB); Lake Marie 7-25-53 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-11-53; Woods Landing 6-29-52. 
Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-2-55. Not common. 

70. Lyccena helloides Boisduval. Albany Co.: Foxpark 8-1-54; Pole Mt. 9-9-52, 
7-11-53, 9-5-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-15-53; Woods Landing 6-29-52, 7-28-54. Carbon Co.: 
Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54, 8-2-55. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-29-53. A large percentage of 
specimens are referable to form "florus". 

71. Hemiargus isolus Reakirt. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-29-53, 7-28-55. One speci- 
men taken in an irrigated area, the other on sage flats. 

72. Everes amyntula Boisduval. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. 

73. Lycasides melissa Edwards. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 
Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 9-9-52, 9-5-53; Sybille Canyon 6-12-54; Woods 
Landing 9-2-52, 6-11-54. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-28-52; Wheatland 5-30-52. 

74. Plebeius glandon rustica Edwards. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; Foxpark 
7-4-55; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Lake Marie 7-25-53 (FMB); Lewis Lake 
7-23-53 (FMB), 7-25-53; Pole Mt. 6-19-54; Snowy Range Pass 7-5-54, 7-17-55; Towner 
Lake 7-25-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 7-13-53, 8-8-53, 8-15-53, 8-29-53, 7-5-54; Upper Nash 
Fork 7-24-53 (FMB). Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54. 

75. Plebeius scepiolus Boisduval. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); 

Lewis Lake 7-2-53 (FMB), 7-25-53; Pole Mt. 7-11-53, 6-19-54, 6-26-55; Snowy Range 
Pass 6-30-52, 7-5-54, 7-3-55; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53, 6-12-54; Towner Lake 7-25-53; 
U.W. Sci. Camp 7-3-53, 7-13-53, 8-8-53, 8-15-53, 7-5-54; Upper Nash Fork 7-24-53 

(FMB). Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 6-26-54. Common and widespread. 

76. Plebeius icarioides lycea Edwards. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB) ; 
Pole Mt. 6-14-52, 6-19-54; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53, 6-12-54; U.W. Sci. Camp 6-30-52, 
7-13-53, 7-5-54. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-9-55. 

77. Plebeius shasta Edwards. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. This little 
Blue was not known from Wyoming until recently. Now it has been found at Saratoga 
in the upper North Platte valley and at Dubois in the northwest by NABOKOV (1953) and 
in the Bighorn Mountains by F. M. BROWN (personal communication, 1953) as well as 
at the above location in the Laramie Mountains. 

78. Plebeius acmon lutzi dos Passos. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-3-53; nr. Eagle Mt. 
7-2 to 4-51 (FMB). 

79. Philotes enoptes ancilla Barnes & McDunnough. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-3-53, 
7-5-54; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 6-28-53; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53, 
6-12-54. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-18-55. 

80. Phcedrotes piasus daunia Edwards. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-12-54. Except 
for one specimen, I have not taken the species in Wyoming east of Lander which is 175 
miles west of the above locality. 

81. Glaucopsyche lygdamus oro Scudder. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Foxpark 7-4-55; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Sybille Canyon 5-29-55; 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 99 

Woods Landing 6-1-52, 6-8-52, 6-14-53, 5-14-54, 6-18-55. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 
6-26-54, 7-1-55, 7-9-55; Sierra Madre Mts. 5-20-55, 6-16-55. Platte Co.: Guernsey 
5-18-54. 

82. Lyccenopsis argiolus pseudargiolus Boisduval & Leconte. Albany Co.: Sybille 
Canyon 6-14-52, 6-19-55; Woods Landing 6-14-53. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 
6-16-55. 

PAPILIONID^ 

83. Papilio polyxenes Fabricius. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-14-52. Adults 
are scarce in June, more common in August. 

84. Papilio brucei Edwards. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-13-54; Pole Mt. 6 19-54; 
Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. Scarce. 

85. Papilio indra Reakirt. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-23-53, 6-25-53, 
6-27-53. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-18-54. A Transition Zone species. 

86. Papilio rutulus Lucas. Albany Co.: Albany 7-4-55; nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 
6-28-53, 7-11-53, 6-19-54; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53; Woods Landing 6-14-53, 6-26-53, 
6-18-55. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54. 

87. Papilio multicaudatus Kirby. Albany Co.: Albany 7-4-55; Laramie 7-2-53; 
Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-27-53- Transition Zone species. 

88. Papilio eurymedon Lucas. Albany Co.: Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55 
Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54. 

89. Parnassius smiutheus sayii Edwards. Albany Co.: nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 
(FMB); Garrett 7-1-51 (FMB); Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Lewis Lake 7-23-53 
(FMB); Pole Mt. 7-15-51, 7-22-51, 7-30-51, 8-25-51, 7-30-55, 8-15-55; Snowy Range 
Pass 7-3-55, 7-17-55; Tie Siding 8-12-51. Carbon Co.: Sierra Madre Mts. 8-17-54, 8-2-55. 

PIERID^ 

90. Anthocaris sara julia Edwards. Albany Co.: Foxpark 6-19-55; Libby Park 
6-24-52; Pole Mt. 6-13-53, 6-19-54; Woods Landing 6-29-52, 6-14-53. Carbon Co.: 
Sierra Madre Mts. 6-16-55. 

91. Euchloe ausonides coloradensis Hy. Edwards. Albany Co.: Albany 7-4-55; nr. 
Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); Foxpark 7-4-55; Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Libby 
Park 6-24-52; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 6-28-53; Sybille Canyon 5-18-54; 
Woods Landing 5-26-52, 6-4-52, 6-29-52, 6-18-55. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-1-55, 
7-9-55; 20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. 

92. Colias meadii Edwards. Albany Co.: Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB), 7-25-53; 
Pole Mt. 7-30-55; Snowy Range Pass 6-30-52, 7-13-53, 7-5-54, 7-17-55, 7-20-55, 
7-29-55; Towner Lake 7-25-53. Restricted to Hudsonian Zone. It was surprising to turn up 
the specimen on Pole Mt. at 8,000 ft. elevation and 50 miles across the plains from its 
normal habitat. 

93. Colias eurytheme Boisduval. F. "amphidusa". Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; 
Pole Mt. 9-9-52, 8-1-53, 8-6-53, 9-5-53; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. Platte Co.: Wheatland 
8-4-53. Female f. "alba" Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-29-53, 8-5-53. F. "ariadne" Albany Co.: 
Pole Mt. 8-7-53. Platte Co.: Wheatland 8-4-53, 8-5-53. F. "eriphyle" Albany Co.: 
Centennial 6-20-53, 8-29-53; nr. Eagle Mt. 7-2 to 4-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 9-9-52, 6-13-53, 
8-5-53, 8-23-53, 9-5-53, 8-15-55; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 8-30-53; 
Woods Landing 7-21-52. Platte Co.: Chugwater 5-28-52; Glendo 7-2-52; Guernsey 
5-28-52, 7-9-53- "Eriphyle" is the most common form in the area. 

94. Colias alexandra Edwards. Albany Co.: Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; 
Libby Park 6-24-52; Palmer Canyon 7-1-51 (FMB); Pole Mt. 7-30-51, 7-8-52, 7-13-52, 
7-30-55; Woods Landing 7-28-54. F. "hatui" Pole Mt. 7-13-52. 

95. Colias scudderii Reakirt. Albany Co.: Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Pole 
Mt. 7-30-55; Snowy Range Pass 8-15-53, 7-31-54; U.W. Sci. Camp 7-13-53, 8-15-53. 
Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 7-9-55. 

96. Colias ccesonia Stoll. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-10-52. Several specimens were 
seen on the above date in an alfalfa field, one of which was captured. That is the only 
time I have encountered it. 



100 DEFOLIART: Wyoming Rhopalocera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

97. Phoebis sennce eubule Linne. No specimens taken, but one was seen in Sybille 
Canyon, and NABOKOV (1953) saw one near Battle Lake in Carbon County. 

98. Eurema mexicana Boisduval. Reportedly seen by Nabokov (1953) between 
Cheyenne and Laramie. 

99. Nathalis iole Boisduval. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-13-54. Platte Co.: Guernsey 
7-16-52; Wheatland 7-7-55, 8-9-55, 8-18-55. Usually not common and only occasional 
individual specimens usually seen, but on August 2, 1955, more than 40 were observed 
along a 10 mile stretch of road west of Wheatland. 

100. Pieris sisymbrii Boisduval. Albany Co.: Centennial 5-25-52; Sybille Canyon 
5-18-54; Woods Landing 6-1-52, 6-4-52. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of Encampment 
5-8-54. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-18-54. An early-appearing species frequently found flying 
with E. ausonides coloradensis from which it is difficult to distinguish on the wing. 

101. Pieris occidentalis Reakirt. Albany Co.: Lewis Lake 7-23-53 (FMB), 7-25-53; 
Snowy Range Pass 8-8-53, 7-5-54. Carbon Co.: 20 mi. SE of Encampment 5-8-54. 

102. Pieris rupee Linne. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 7-9-53. Common. 

103. Pieris protodice Bdv. & Lee. Platte Co.: Glendo 7-2-52, 7-16-52; Wheatland 
8-5-53. 

104. Pieris napi macdunnoughii Remington. Albany Co.: Lake Marie 7-25-53 
(FMB); Lewis Lake 7-25-53; Libby Park 5-25-52, 6-24-52; Upper Nash Fork 7-24-53 
(FMB); Woods Landing 6-14-53. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54; Sierra Madre Mts. 
8-2-55. 

HESPERIIDiE 

105. Epargyreus clarus Cramer. Platte Co.: Guernsey 6-23-53. 

106. Pyrgus centaurece loki Evans. Albany Co.: Snowy Range Pass 7-5-54. 

107. Pyrgus ruralis Boisduval. Albany Co.: Woods Landing 6-14-53. 

108. Pyrgus communis Grote. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 9-5-53; Platte Co.: Glendo 
8-12-53; Wheatland 8-18-55. 

109. Pholisora catullus Fabricius. Platte Co.: Wheatland 7-28-53. 

110. Erynnis icelus Scudder & Burgess. Albany Co.: Albany 7-4-55; Pole Mt. 
6-13-54; Woods Landing 6-18-55. 

111. Erynnis persius frederickii H. A. Freeman. Albany Co.: Albany 6-20-54; 
Centennial 7-5-54; Pole Mt. 6-19-54. Carbon Co.: Ryan Park 6-26-54. 

112. Butleria pirus Edwards. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 8-15-55. 

113. Oarisma garita Reakirt. Albany Co.: Centennial 7-5-54; Pole Mt. 7-30-55; 
Sybille Canyon 6-21-53, 6-27-53. 

114. Yvretta rhesus Edwards. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-18-54. 

115. Yvretta simius Edwards. Platte Co.: Wheatland 6-17-53, 6-30-55. 

116. Hesperia uncus Edwards. Albany Co.: Laramie 6-P-54. Platte Co.: Wheatland 
6-17-53, 6-24-53, 8-5-53, 6-30-55. 

117. Hesperia nevada Scudder. Albany Co.: Centennial 6-20-54; Pole Mt. 6-19-54; 
Sybille Canyon 6-21-53. 

118. Hesperia comma Colorado Scudder. Albany Co.: Libby Park 8-30-53; Pole Mt. 
8-15-55. 

119. Hesperia harpalus idaho Edwards. Albany Co.: Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 
7-4-55; Pole Mt. 8-23-53, 9-5-53, 8-15-55; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. 

120. Hesperia pahaska Leussler. Platte Co.: Guernsey 7-9-53. 

121. Ochlodes sylvanoides napa Edwards. Albany Co.: Centennial 8-15-53; Pole Mt. 
8-15-55; Woods Landing 7-28-54. 

122. Polites themistocles Latreille. Albany Co.: Sybille Canyon 6-27-53. 

123. Polites draco Edwards. Albany Co.: Illinois-Douglas Creek jet. 7-4-55; Pole 
Mt. 6-19-54; Sybille Canyon 6-27-53; U.W. Sci. Camp 7-3-53; 7-5-54. Carbon Co.: Ryan 
Park 7-1-55. 

124. Polites sonora utahensis Skinner. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 8-7-53, 8-8-54, 7-30-55. 

125. Poanes taxiles Edwards. Platte Co.: Guernsey 6-23-53. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 101 

126. Atrytone ruricola Boisduval. Albany Co.: Pole Mt. 8-15-55. Platte Co.: Guern- 
sey 7-16-52, 6-10-53. 

127. Atrytonopsis hianna Scudder. Platte Co.: Guernsey 5-18-54. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The writer is indebted to the following individuals for making or confirm- 
ing determinations: Mr. F. M. Brown and Mr. Don Eff, various families and 
for loans of comparison material; Mr. L. P. GREY, Speyeria; and Dr. J. W. 
Tilden, Hesperiidae. 

References 

Brown, F. M., 1953. Taxonomic notes on (Eneis uhleri Reakirt (Lepidoptera, Satyridae). 

Amer. Mus. Novitates 1625: 1-26. 

, 1954. Some notes on Boloria in Colorado. Lepid. News 8: 4-66. 

Brown, F. M., D. Eff, & B. Rotger, 1954, 1955. Colorado butterflies. Pt. I. Satyridae. Pt. II. 

Danaidae, Heliconidae, Nymphalidae. Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist. 3: 1-32; 4: 33-112. 
Cary, M. 1917. Life zone investigations in Wyoming. North Amer. Fauna (U.S.D.A. 

Bur. Biol. Surv.) 42: 1-95. 
Klots, A. B., 1930. Diurnal Lepidoptera from Wyoming and Colorado. Bull. Brooklyn Ent. 

Soc. 25: 147-170. 
, 1937. Some notes on Colias and Brenthis (Lepidoptera, Pieridae and 

Nymphalidae). Journ. New York Ent. Soc. 45: 311-333. 
, 1940. New butterfly subspecies from Wyoming (Nymphalidae, Pieridae). 

Amer. Mus. Novitates 1054: 1-6. 
, 1951. A field guide to the butterflies: xvi + 349 pp. Houghton Mifflin Co., 

Boston. 
McDunnough, J., 1938. Check list of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States 

of America. Pt. I. Macrolepidoptera. Mem. So. Calif. Acad. Sci. 1: 1-275. 
Nabokov, V., 1953. Butterfly collecting in Wyoming, 1952. Lepid. News 7: 49-52. 

This paper is published with the approval of the Director, Wyoming Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station as Journal Paper No. 74. 

Dept. of Entomology & Parasitology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyo., U. S. A. 



With very great regret, we have just received word of the death of Brigadier 
W. H. EVANS, an Honorary Life Member of the Society. The distinguished authority 
on the Hesperiidae of the world passed peacefully away in his sleep, apparently on 
13 November. A biographical obituary, accompanied by a complete list of published 
work on Lepidoptera, will be published in a later issue of the NeifS. 

C. L. Remington 



102 Eff : Speyeria egleis secreta Vol.10: nos.3-4 

NOTES ON SPEYERIA EGLEIS SECRETA ( NYMPH ALID^E) 

by Donald Eff 

An article entitled "A Collecting Trip in Search of Speyeria egleis secreta" 
(Remington & Eff, 1948) recounted a very pleasant collecting trip which 
was noteworthy because it marked the first time that Speyeria egleis secreta 
dos Passos & Grey was taken in quantity. Prior to that time, the only other 
articles on S. secreta were the original description and a discussion of the type 
locality (Remington, 1947). 

After our success in 1948, our catch of Speyeria secreta and S. atlantis Edw. 
was identified by L. P. Grey of Lincoln, Maine, and then shipped intact to 
each of us in turn. This permitted us to make full comparisons and to note 
the differences readily discernible in large series; we then found that we had 
been guilty of overconfidence in assuming that we could recognize secreta in 
the field. In following years subsequent captures and attempts at determination 
proved that many of our correctly applied names were lucky guesses, for while 
the differences may be readily recognizable when seen in series, identification 
of individual specimens is quite another matter. I have collected secreta 4 of 
the 7 years which have passed since that time, but until 1955 my principal 
success was only in becoming increasingly confused! Part of this inability 
to identify correctly was due to insufficient study, and the balance of it be- 
cause this is one of the closest resemblances found in Speyeria, and certainly 
the closest in any atlantis-egleis relationship. Also the type locality of secreta 
on Rabbit Ears Pass is a Speyeria collector's paradise where in a descent of 
the western side of the Pass, a distance of about 20 miles, it is possible to take 
Speyeria edivardsii Reakirt, S. hydaspe sakuntula Skinner, 5". zerene sinope dos 
P. & Grey, S. zerene intermediates close to garretti Gunder and platina Skinner, 
S. egleis secreta, atlantis (ranging from near dorothea Moeck to near hes- 
peris Edw., electa Edw., nikias Ehr. and even near Appalachian S. atlantis 
atlantis!), a western race of S. aphrodite Fab. (rare), S. callippe nevadensis 
Edw., S. eurynome Edw., S. coronis Behr, (near halcyone Edw. and snyderi 
Skinner), and S. cybele charlottii Barnes! Small wonder then that a collector 
becomes confused in this maze of variation, for with one swoop of the net 
it is possible to capture 3 or 4 different Speyeria, and hundreds of specimens 
in a day if willing to forego other genera. 

Before entering on the observations noted this year, it may be advisable 
to point out the differences whereby secreta is separable from atlantis. To 
begin, one must remember that gradients of apparently valid species of Speyeria 
approach to common facies in certain localities, however widely they may 
differ when found sympatrically a few hundred miles away; by tracing the 
intergrades closely one can demonstrate that it is quite possible for subspecies 
of a single species to be predominantly brown in one area, green in another, 
and so on, thus showing a scope of variation unthought of until the day of 
the modern specialists and their accumulated series from many localities. 
As mentioned before, material from Rabbit Ears Pass demonstrates the near- 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 103 

est approach of the two gradients egleis and atlantis yet known. The most 
common color phase of secreta is almost identical with atlantis tetonia dos P. 
& Grey of N.W. Wyoming. Fortunately, this color phase does not occur 
in the atlantis taken on Rabbit Ears Pass, (or if so, then only rarely) for 
if it did, then it would be impossible to separate the two species. The band 
suffusion is common in secreta and approaches totality in many specimens, 
as it does in tetonia, but atlantis band suffusion does not appear at this 
point in its range. Speyeria secreta, with a not-too-wide spread of variation, 
yields occasional brown forms much like macdunnoughi Gunder as found in 
Wyoming, and understandably so, since macdunnoughi also displays occa- 
sional red secreta-like individuals. In size, secreta is smaller than atlantis, 
although individual specimens overlap in this characteristic. Average size 
of atlantis in expanse of primary is 63-64 mm., while that of secreta is 59 mm. 
Probably the most distinct and useful feature is the ruddiness seen in the 
mesial area on the underside of the atlantis primary, as contrasted to the 
dead light tan found there in secreta. One other feature is that the hindwing 
band of atlantis is likely to stand forth clearer, lighter, wider, and less liable 
to suffusion; in secreta this band is often suffused, or nearly so. Above, 
secreta is a lighter neutral brown by contrast with atlantis, which averages 
to ruddy phases like those found along the Plateau south to New Mexico, 
darker in pattern contrast. For the first time, enough females have been taken 
to prove that they follow the differences discernible in the males to a large 
extent. Unsilvered forms occur in both, although sparingly. Once one is 
able to separate secreta from atlantis, another obstacle is presented by aphro- 
dite, which occurs sparingly here in a color phase near secreta and atlantis, 
but is separable by the thin wing venation of the male primary. 

With the exception of Professor Nabokov's captures near Encampment, 
Wyoming, and his recognition of secreta at a point where the two species 
atlantis and egleis do not so closely approximate each other, there have been 
no satisfactory observations made with regard to secreta because of faulty 
identifications in the field. This year, additional precautions were taken. All 
Speyeria from one locality were given a number, notes made with regard to 
habitat and habits, and the specimens from each area were kept separate. 
Immediately upon return home all were relaxed and restudied in comfort and 
leisure. The results were even better than I had hoped for. 

My field companion this year was Ronald Leuschner. We crossed 
the Continental Divide at Muddy Pass, where the elevation is only 8772 feet, 
and continued climbing from there to Rabbit Ears Pass, crossing at an eleva- 
tion of 9680 feet. Traveling westward from here you are in the subalpine 
zone on a gradually sloping plateau. The evergreen forest is spotty, and most 
of the land is quite open. There are marshy areas, usually the source of a 
small stream, around which grow scrub willow, western "skunk cabbage" and 
many other plants. The vegetation is lush, but the collecting here is poor. 
The Walton Creek Campground is a convenient headquarters and marks the 
edge of the real descent. From here, the road winds rapidly down through 
the montane and foothills zone to the Yampa Valley which has an altitude 
of 6300 feet. Although descending through only two plant zones, there are 



104 EFF: Speyeria egleis secreta Vol.10: nos.3-4 

three distinctly different ecological belts at the various elevations. Upper- 
most are the conifers, most of them now dead from the ravages of the bark 
beetle. Next below groups of aspen begin to appear among the pines, and 
soon the area is composed almost entirely of aspen with an undergrowth of 
waist-high bracken. Continuing downward, there appear among the aspen the 
first sentinels of the oaks, and eventually, near the bottom of the descent, the 
aspect changes to an area covered entirely with oak and sagebrush. All this 
is within a distance of approximately 20 miles! 

The next day, July 13th, being a favorable one, LEUSCHNER and I 
started in the morning with a plan to "spot" collect. As the road winds down 
through the pine belt, there are wide turnouts on various curves. Near the 
sign marking the beginning of the "Ski Trail," and in another nearby spot, 
we stopped and collected in the open glades and under the trees. The open- 
ings were alive with wild flowers, especially wild geraniums. Descent of any 
hillside always ends in some ravine where it is wet underfoot with a tangle 
of growth extremely difficult to push through. Here, a little later in the year, 
on a tall yellow flower much like the Golden Ragwort you will find S. zerene 
sinope females. These two spots that we collected in the conifer belt are re- 
ferred to hereafter as Area No. 1. Along the sides and tops of the ridges 
under the pines, the ground cover is huckleberry. Here and there are small open 
areas among the trees, as well as along the roadway where the trees have 
been cut back for a short distance. The bulk of our collecting here was done 
around the flowers in the little open areas, but S. hydaspe was to be found 
frequenting almost any spot where the sunlight could sift through the trees. 
I took 23 male hydaspe sakuntula here in two days, Leuschner about the 
same number, and we missed many, many more, for they are not easy to 
capture. However, we saw enough to know that this butterfly is not as un- 
common in Colorado as generally believed, but it is definitely restricted in 
habitat. Speyeria sinope was also fairly common here, secreta, nevadensis, and 
eurynome were scarce, and only one atlantis was taken. 

Continuing down the west side for something like 7 miles, the ecology 
changes from pine and huckleberry ground cover, with an occasional clump 
of aspen, to practically solid aspen with only a scattered pine here and there, 
and a ground cover composed mostly of a solid mass of bracken. Other plants 
found in favorable spots include chokecherries, mint, and asters. The Yampa 
View Campground was our stopping place for collecting forays in this, Area 
No. 2, the aspen belt. Just north of this campground there is an old road, 
along which we collected for this is the area usually collected in the past, 
and the one where the most confusion with regard to separating secreta from 
atlantis had arisen, although secreta here is in the minority. This is the real 
habitat of atlantis on Rabbit Ears Pass. Speyeria sinope and eurynome also 
occur here in good numbers. In the minority are navadensis and hydaspe, the 
latter becoming more plentiful higher up. And, incidentally, this is the place 
for 5". cybele charlottii during the last week of July. 

The following day (July 14th) we again collected at Area No. 1 but did 
not spend nearly as much time there as we had the preceding day, then 
hurried on down the west side, bypassing Area No. 2, and collected in what 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



105 



I shall call Area No. 3. Specifically, this is about 3 miles down the road 
from the Yampa View Campground, or about a half-mile below the Valley- 
view Lodge. From Yampa View Campground to Valleyview Lodge the aspen 
become thinner and thinner as the oak becomes increasingly plentiful. Be- 
low the lodge about the only tree to be found is the oak. The ground cover 
is of sagebrush. Most of the flowers found here are hidden under the edge 
of the oaks and in and under the sagebrush. This is hot, dusty, miserable 
collecting, for the Speyeria fly in and under and through the sagebrush and 
the oak, all of which makes it extremely difficult to net them . . . and amaz- 
ingly easy to ruin a net! However, we were surprised to learn that here, 
apparently, was the real home of secreta! The other Speyeria to consider in 
this area was nevadensis. Only one atlantis was taken here. The males of 
secreta were busy searching the underbrush for females and all were in fresh 
condition. We were here only a short time, but I took 18 6 • S and 1 $ of 
secreta, 2 $ $ of zerene sinope, and the aforementioned atlantis. Leuschner's 
catch was approximately the same. A number of nevadensis were seen, and 
several taken and then released since all seemed to be battered from flying 
through the brush. Normally, nevadensis Edw. is uncommon in Colorado. 

In conclusion then, the type locality of Speyeria egleis secreta, i.e. the 
west side of Rabbit Ears Pass, Routt County, Colorado, is divided into three 
distinctly different ecological zones. These zones can be distinguished easily 
by the predominance of one of three trees: Area No. 1, the uppermost zone, 
by the presence of conifers; Area No. 2 by the growth of aspen; Area No. 3 
by the growth of oak. My records of captures of Speyeria in each zone are 
as follows for 1955: 



Area No. 


1 




Area No. 


2 




Area No. 3 




$ 


9 




$ 


9 


6 2 


hydaspe 


23 





charlottii 


12 


1 


zerene 2 


zerene 


13 


6 


hydaspe 


6 


1 


egleis 18 1 


egleis 


6 


4 


zerene 


13 


1 


atlantis 1 


nevadensis 


2 





egleis 


20 


6 


nevadensis 


eurynome 


2 


2 


nevadensis 


1 





(a number taken but 


atlantis 


1 





eurynome 
atlantis 


7 
39 


1 
6 


released ) 



Area No. 1 was collected twice, July 13 & 14; Area No. 2 was collected 
twice, July 13 & 23; and Area No. 3 only briefly, on July 14th. It should 
be pointed out that the number of egleis taken in Area No. 2 is not indica- 
tive of the ratio of appearance, for since they were the main objective, more 
effort was expended in capturing any specimens thought to be egleis secreta 
than was directed toward the others. Using the above record of captures as 
a yardstick, and correlating the written and mental notes made for each area, 
we arrive at these conclusions: That each aforementioned ecological zone 
is the true home of one or two species of Speyeria. The hydaspe is an in- 
habitant of the conifers, but does stray into the edge of the aspen belt although 
apparently it never crosses into the oak and sagebrush region. Speyeria charlottii 



106 EFF: Speyeria egleis secreta Vol.10: nos.3-4 

and atlantis have as their habitat Area No. 2, the home of the aspen. These 
two are the greatest "stay at homes." It would seem that the oak-sagebrush 
area (No. 3) is typical for secreta and nevadensis although secreta strays 
enough to make it fairly common in Area No. 2. The appearance of secreta 
in Area No. 2 might be because of an inclination on the part of the females 
to seek higher ground. This is common in some species, such as Speyeria 
aphrodite ethne Hem., to name an example; the males usually are found on 
the edge of the plains, in grassy and weedy fields, whereas the females are 
found much higher up in the foothills, frequenting flowers such as Monarda, 
on the hillsides and in the ravines, and apparently never visiting the fields 
which the males are so industriously searching. Speyeria nevadensis is a fast 
and powerful flier, and although not straying in very large numbers, will 
stray longer distances. Speyeria zerene sinope, although this is not indicated 
by the number captured in Area No. 3, is common everywhere. To the west, 
near Axial, Colorado, it is found as commonly in the valley bottoms as in 
the surrounding oak-sagebrush belt, but on Rabbit Ears Pass its main strong- 
hold seems to be the upper two areas, as is the case with eurynome. Area 
No. 2 was collected on July 13th, and yielded 11 $ $ and 1 9 of atlantis 
and 16 S S and 1 9 of secreta, and by way of comparison when I collected 
on July 23rd 1 took 28 $ $ and 5 9 9 of atlantis and 4 S $ and 5 9 9 
of secreta. Considering that all atlantis taken the first time were extremely 
fresh specimens, and then examining the ratio of secreta males and females 
taken the second time, it becomes apparent that the peak of the flight period 
for secreta is earlier than that of atlantis, although there is considerable over- 
lapping. This is a fact of considerable interest in view of the need for 
further definitions whereby to judge the separateness of these two amazingly 
similar gradients. The above summary of observations is not intended as 
a scientific discourse, but has been written at the request of L. P. Grey be- 
cause these were the first communications he has received giving the eco- 
logical correlations of secreta and information as to the females, which here- 
tofore have been great rarities. It is the first time that on-the-spot field 
identifications were correctly made, without which no ecological observation 
could be presumed trustworthy. Perhaps this will help to guide further field 
studies permitting the uncovering of other secreta secrets. 

References 

Remington, P. S., Jr., 1947. Notes on the type locality of Speyeria egleis secreta dos Passos 

and Grey. Ent. News 58: 99-100. 
Remington, P. S., Jr., & J. D. Eff, 1948. A collecting trip in search of Speyeria egleis 

secreta. Lepid. News 2: 91-92. 



820 Grant Place, Boulder, Colo., U. S. A. 



1956 The Leptdopterists' News 107 

A COLLECTION OF RHOPALOCERA FROM 
THE WHITESHELL FOREST RESERVE, MANITOBA 

by Charles D. Bird 

During 1954 and 1955 the writer collected both Rhopalocera and Heterocera 
at Red Rock Lake in the Whiteshell Forest Reserve, near Rennie in the southeast 
corner of Manitoba. 

All specimens were taken within a ten mile radius of Red Rock Lake. 
This area is situated in the Canadian Shield and is dominated by numerous rock 
outcrops, rock ridges, frequent acid bogs, and many small lakes. The dominant 
trees are Black Spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP), Larch (Larix laricina 
(DuRoi) K.Koch), Aspen-poplar {Populus tremuloides Michx.) Jack Pine 
(Pinus banksiana Lamb.), and Paper Birch (Betula papyrtfera Marsh.). 

This portion of Manitoba is of great interest as it has been poorly collected 
and because it is a meeting-ground for eastern and western as well as nothern 
and southern forms. The latter feature is especially well shown by this list. 

During these two summers, the following were collected: 

PAPILIONID^E. — Papilio glaucus canadensis R. & J. 

PIERID^. — Euchloe ausonides Bdv., Colias eury theme Bdv., C. philodice 
Latr., C. interior Scud., Pieris rapce L., P. napi L. 

SATYRID^E. — Lethe portlandia Fabr., L. eurydice Joh., Euptychia cymela 
Cramer, (Eneis macounii Edw. 

NYMPHALID^. — Euptoieta claudia Cramer, Speyeria atlantis Edw., S. 
cybele Fabr., 5". aphrodite Fabr., Boloria selene atrocostalis Huard, B. toddi Hol- 
land, Melitcea nycteis reversa Cherm. & Cherm., Phyciodes tharos Drury. Poly- 
gonia satyrus Edw., P. j annus Edw., P. progne Cramer, Nymphalis j-album Bdv. 
& Lee, N. milberti Latr., N. antiopa L., Vanessa virginiensis Drury, Limenitis 
arthemis rubrofasciata B. & Mc D., L. archippus Cramer. 

LYC^NID^E. — Strymon titus Fabr., S. acadica Edw., S. liparops Bdv. & 
Lee, Incisalia augustinus Westwood, /. niphon clarki T.N. Freeman, Feniseca 
tarquinius Fabr., Lyccena epixanthe Bdv. & Lee, L. dorcas Kirby, Everes comytas 
Godart (or E.amyntula Bdv.), Lycceides ar gyro gnomon scudderii Edw., Glau- 
copsyche lygdamus Doubleday, Lyccenopsis argiolus L. 

HESPERIID^. — Thorybes pylades Scud., Pyrgus centaurece freija Warren 
(or loki Evans), Erynnis icelus Scud. & Burg., Hesperia leonardus Harris, H. 
laurentina Lyman, Poanes hobomok Harris, Amblyscirtes hegon Scud. 

RHOPALOCERA OF SPECIAL INTEREST 

Feniseca tarqmnius was represented by only one specimen, a newly emerged 
male taken on 15 June 1954. This is believed to be the third record of this butter- 
fly from Manitoba. The first was collected by Mr. Wallis in the Sandilands 



108 BIRD: Whiteshell Reserve Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Forest Reserve and is recorded in BROOKS' (1942) check list. The second speci- 
men was captured by Mr. C. S. Quelch on 5 June 1954 in the Sandilands Forest 
Reserve. 

Lyctena epixanthe is a completely unrecorded butterfly for Manitoba and 
is not mentioned in any of the early lists of Manitoban butterflies {i.e. Wallis 
1921, Brodie 1929, Brooks 1942). It was first discovered while collecting in a 
rather open Larch bog where the presumed food plant, V actinium oxycoccos L. 
was found in some quantity. The writer and Dr. A. B. Klots, collecting together, 
also found Lyccena dorcas flying with it. 

Three males of CEneis macounii were collected on 20 June 1954 and one 
female on 26 June 1954. This is a definite range extension as BROOKS ( 1942) 
records it only from Victoria Beach some sixty-five miles to the northwest. 

The capture of a specimen of Pyrgus centaur ece jreija (or loki) on 13 June 
1954 is quite notable. According to Brooks' (1942) list, it has been recorded 
only from Churchill and Gillam, both far to the north. Correspondence with 
Mr. Walter Krivda of The Pas indicates that he has taken it there also, though 
he remarks that it is quite a rarity. As this was such a range extension the speci- 
men was sent to Dr. A. B. KLOTS for identification. 

Few subspecies names have been given, owing to the uncertain status of 
many subspecies in this more or less borderline zone between various faunas. 
The Speyeria and Boloria, for example, could not be clearly allocated to any 
named subspecies or stage in a clinical population. 

Specimens representing these records have been deposited in The American 
Museum of Natural History and the Entomological Laboratory at Brandon, 
Manitoba, where they can be studied by future workers on distribution and 
geographic variation. 

Thanks are due to Dr. A. B. Klots, Dr. R. D. Bird, Dr. J. C. Ritchie, 
and Mr. J. B. Wallis for carefully reading this manuscript and for offering 
many helpful suggestions. 

References 

Brodie, H. J., 1929. A preliminary list of the Lepidoptera of Manitoba. Trans. Royal 

Canad. Inst. 17: 81-101. 
Brooks, G. S., 1942. A check list of the butterflies of Manitoba. Canad. Ent. 1A: pp. 31-36. 
Wallis, J. B., 1921. A colour key to the Manitoban butterflies. Nat. Hist. Soc. Manitoba 

Publ.: pp. 10-40. 

1930 Rosser Ave., Brandon, Man., CANADA 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 109 

NOTES ON MEGATHYMUS POLINGI ( MEGATHYMID^E ) 
by Don B. Stallings and J. R. Turner 

Megathymus polingi Skinner is another of the species of Megathymus that 
does not appear to have been collected in recent years. For many years the only 
specimen in our collection was a single male that was collected about the time 
that the species was named. 

Due to misidentification of this species ( we have seen specimens of at least 
three other species labelled M. polingi) there has been a question in some 
peoples' mind as to whether M. polingi was a good species. Since 1946 we had 
felt sure that we knew the food plant, but it was not until September of 1955 
that Dr. and Mrs. R. C. Turner succeeded in collecting larvae of this species. 
Of the twelve larvae they collected between Redington and Tucson, Arizona, 
nine pupated and emerged from Sept. 27th to October 16th. 

This species, which is the smallest of the known species in the U. S. A., is 
easily identified by the well defined yellow-white discal band across the under- 
surface of the secondaries. The genitalia are also distinctive. The food plant is 
Agave schottii Engelmann. This species of Agave belongs to the group of species 
with the inflorescence spicate and is the smallest of true Agave in the U. S. A. 
The plant is so small that the larvae are unable to use the leaves alone for the 
larval cavity but must bore over half of the cavity in the base of the plant. They 
do not make an outlet until shortly before they pupate. The outlet, which comes 
through several leaves, has the usual "trap-door". We doubt that M. polingi uses 
any food plant other than A. schottii. 

Megathymus polingi, M. marine Barnes & Benjamin, and M. stephensi 
appear to be the only Agave feeders in the U. S. A. which, during the larval 
stage, deposit their excrement outside the burrow, similar to the Yucca feeders. 
The other Agave feeders in the U. S. A. have little or no excrement to dispose 
of; at least there is no external sign of it. 

Caldwell, Kansas, U. S. A. 




The check list of the Lepidoptera of Florida, by C. P. KIMBALL, is nearly ready 
for the printer. It has been held so that the new HEINRICH Phycitinse revision could 
be used for the treatment of that subfamily in the check list. Some colored plates will 
be printed in the list, which is to be published by the Florida State Plant Board. 

C. L. Remington 



110 Vol.10: nos.3-4 

NOMENCLATURE NOTICE 

Notice is hereby given that the possible use by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature of its Plenary Powers is involved in applications relating 
to the under-mentioned names included in Part 10 of Volume 12 of the Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature, which will be published on 31st October 1956: 

1. Cupido Schrank, 1801, designation of a type species for, in harmony with 

accustomed usage (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) (Z.N. [S.] 1138); 

2. jurtina Linnaeus, 1758 (Pap/1 io), grant of precedence to, over janira Linnaeus, 

1758 (Papilio); EPINEPHELDI Tutt, 1896, suppression of (Class Insecta, 
Order Lepidoptera) (Z.N. [S.] 1142). 

Attention is also drawn to the proposed adoption of a Declaration regarding the 
method to be followed in determining the relative precedence to be accorded to two 
or more names for family-group taxa published in the same book and on the same 
date (Z.N. [S.] 1141). 

The present Notice is given in pursuance of the decisions taken on the recom- 
mendation of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, by the Thir- 
teenth International Congress of Zoology, Paris, July 1948 (see Bull. zool. Nomencl. 
4:51-56, 57-59; ibid. 5:5-13, 131). 

Any specialist who may desire to comment on any of the foregoing applications 
is invited to do so in writing to the Secretary to the International Commission (Address: 
28 Park Village East, Regent's Park, London, N.W.I, England) as soon as possible. 
Every comment should be clearly marked with the Commission's File Number as 
given in the present Notice, and sent in duplicate. 

If received in sufficient time before the commencement by the International Com- 
mission of voting on the application in question, comments received in response to 
the present Notice will be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature; com- 
ments received too late will be brought to the attention of the International Commission 
at the time of the commencement of voting on the application in question. 

Under the decision by the International Congress of Zoology specified above, the 
period within which comments on the applications covered by the present Notice are 
receivable is a period of six calendar months calculated from the date of publication 
of the relevant Part of the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. The Part now in 
question will be published on 31st October 1956. In consequence any comments on 
the applications published in this Part should reach the Secretariat of the International 
Commission at the latest by 30th April 1957. 

Francis Hemming 

Secretary to the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature 



Brigadier W. H. Evans, author of the recent Catalogue of American Hesperiidce, 
has notified the Neivs that "Addenda and Corrigenda" have been printed and a copy 
sent to every known recipient or purchaser. If not received, application for a copy 
should be sent to: "The Publications Officer," British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell Road, London S.W. 7, England. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Netvs 111 

FIELD NOTES 

THE STATUS OF CISTHENE SUBJECT A (ARCTIID^) ON LONG ISLAND, N. Y. 

The little Arctiid moth, Cisthene subjecta Walker, has been recorded breeding on 
Long Island. However, no preserved material can be located or living collectors who have 
seen the moth on the island, except the series from Orient. For a long period, 1915 to 
1949, none was noted in Orient. A single moth appeared in 1949 and two to five each 
season thereafter until 1955, when, with only a part of those observed taken, a series of 
86 specimens was collected at light in Orient. They include both sexes, mostly in fresh 
condition. The rapid increase in the past six years indicates a local breeding colony. 
This presumption is substantiated by the old Long Island breeding record at Bellport, 
recorded by Dr. H. G. Dyar (Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 23: 266-268; 1901) who described 
the eggs and larvae of C. subjecta. the eggs August 9th and the larvae hibernating in 
October. If the individuals here are southern migrants, why the long span of 34 years 
with no record and why the local concentration in Orient? 

All the material observed at light in Orient has been in August, from the 9th to 
the 30th. A tabulation of the 1955 data shows a maximum of 34 moths on August 15th, 
20 on the 16th, 17 on the 17th, 14 on the 20th, and one on the 30th. The food plant 
is listed as lichens. 

This is a brightly colored moth when the wings are expanded. With wings closed, 
as they frequently are at light, the moth is small and unobtrusive with a coleopterous 
appearance. 

The species apparently breeds regularly, north to Delaware. There is a single old 
record, 1868, from Nantucket Island in the Boston Society of Natural History, listed by 
Kimball in The Lepidoptera of Nantucket and Marthas Vineyard (1943). I have not 
investigated other northern records outside Long Island. 

Roy Latham, Orient, L. I., N. Y., U. S. A. 



MELANIC DANAUS AND CO LI AS NEAR CHICAGO 

Two unusual captures in the Chicago area may be of interest to readers of The 
Lepidopterists' News. 

On August 15, 1954, at Hammond, Indiana, Mr. EUGENE DLUHY caught a specimen 
of Danaus plexippus, a male, that was decidedly out of the ordinary in appearance. On 
the upper side, all white spots and the yellow spots between the cell and apex of primaries 
are replaced by black. The three brown areas near the apex are faintly indicated, but 
the checkered white margin on all wings appears as usual. These changes leave the 
normal central brown area bordered by deep black with a large black apical area. Veins 
are black as customary. The under side shows the yellow apical spots about as in the 
normal form; in place of the white submarginal spots are three small pale bluish spots 
in a single row; two costo-apical white spots are replaced by two much smaller bluish 
white spots and two white spots midway between cell and apex are indicated in a similar 
manner. On the secondaries only one white spot is indicated, that being in the subcostal 
interspace. Basal white spots and those on the body are present as normally. Expanse, 4 
inches. 

On August 5, 1955, Mr. Donald OEMICK caught a melanic specimen of Colias 
philodice, a male, in which the normal black border of all wings was of a dark olive green 
and the normal yellow area entirely black. The specimen was perfect. High temperature 
that day was 90 °F. The place of capture was near the West shore of Lake Calumet just 
south of the Sherwin Williams paint manufacturing plant in a heavily industrial district. 
A busy highway lies between the lake and the place of capture, adding to the factory 
fumes. That the smoky and gaseous atmosphere, such as exists here, may be the cause of 
such melanism, has often been contended. 

ALEX K. Wyatt, 5842 N. Kirby Ave., Chicago 30, 111., U. S. A. 



112 FIELD NOTES Vol.10: nos.3-4 

TWO NEW MELANIC SPEYERIA (NYMPHALID^E) 

I recently obtained from Mr. M. K. Steffen of Freeport, Illinois, two aberrant Speyeria 
which he captured while collecting in Vilas Co., Wisconsin. The first of these (ab. a.) 
was taken on August 7, 1952, and the second (ab. b.) on August 13, 1953. These butter- 
flies were sent to Mr. L. P. GREY of Lincoln, Maine, for identification and found to be 
S. aphrodite Fab. Descriptions of the aberrations follow: 

ab. a. 9 — The black markings on both the upper and under surfaces are greatly 
enlarged and fused, and the ground color of the upper surface is obscured. The 
ground color of the secondaries beneath is dark cinnamon brown, and the light sub- 
marginal band is lacking. The silver spots on the primaries are elongated. The silver 
spots on the secondaries are reduced in number, the median row entirely wanting, 
the basal spots fused into four elongate markings radiating from the base. Arbogast 
Coll. 
ab b. $ — The black markings on the upper and under surfaces of the primaries are 
enlarged and fused. The silver spots on the primaries are elongated. The right primary 
is deformed. The black markings on the upper and under surfaces of the secondaries 
are enlarged and greatly reduced in number. The submarginal light band on the 
secondaries beneath is lacking. The silver spots on the secondaries are reduced in 
number, the submarginal row fused with the median row, the basal spots fused into 
four elongate markings radiating from the base. Arbogast Coll. 

R. T. ARBOGAST, 1216 South High Ave., Freeport, 111., U. S. A. 



LEPTOTES MARINA AND ECHIN ARGUS ISOLA (LYC^NID^E) 

TAKEN IN ILLINOIS 

On 5 September 1953, 1 collected a female of Leptotes marina (Reakirt) near Hamlet, 
Mercer County, Illinois. The specimen, with the exception of a small nick in the margin 
of the forewing, was in very fresh condition. It was taken while feeding on Goldenrod. 

The following year, on 22 June 1954, a female of Echinargus isola (Reakirt) was 
taken at the same locality as the L. marina. This specimen was in perfect condition, looking 
as if it had recently emerged. It was taken while flying in association with Everes comyntas, 
Lyc&na thoe, and L. xanthoides dione in a marshy area. 

It is interesting to note how far these two specimens were from their given ranges. 
BROWN, Eff, and ROTGER in Part III of Colorado Butterflies (page 168) list the range 
of L. marina as: Mexico northward into the Mississippi valley as far as southern Kansas 
and southern Colifornia. On page 160 they give the range for E. isola as follows: southern 
Mexico northward west of the Mississippi to Nebraska and British Columbia. Due to the 
lack of foodplants and the difficulties of overwintering, it appears that these must be strays. 

Patrick J. Conway, R.R. 3, Box 131, Aledo, 111., U. S. A. 



SOUTHERN LEPIDOPTERA ON CAPE COD AFTER HURRICANES 

Immediately after the first two hurricanes of 1954, both of which passed either 
directly over Barnstable or within a very few miles, Lepidoptera were not much in 
evidence, partly on account of a continuance of poor weather. However, on the night 
after the third hurricane, which passed at least 200 miles west of Barnstable, six essentially 
southern species turned up in the light-trap: Anticarsia gemmatilis Hbn. (2), Mods latipes 
Guen. (3), Hormoschista latipalpis Wlk., Callopistria floridensis Guen., Amyna octo 
Guen. (3), and Anepischetos minualis Wlk. (2) (all Noctuidse); and Hellula rogatalis 
Hulst (Pyralididae). With the possible exception of Herse cingulata Fabr., which, as I 
have stated before, I believe established locally, no other southern strays have been seen 
at any time this season. 

Charles P. Kimball, West Barnstable, Mass., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 113 



ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

(Under the supervision of JAMES R. MERRITT) 

EDITORIAL NOTE: — In the following, two articles continue the series on noteworthy 
collecting localities, and with them is the latest in the discussion of the number of species 
to be found in one locality at one time. 

The editor for this "Collectors' " section has been forced to resign, effective at the 
end of this year, due to new professional pressures. The editorial duties will be taken 
over by Mr. FRED THORNE, veteran southern California lepidopterist. The advisory com- 
mittee for this section of the News will continue to be: GEORGE EHLE of Pennsylvania, 
RICHARD Guppy of British Columbia, and WILLIAM E. SlEKER of Wisconsin. New 
correspondence for this section should be addressed to Mr. THORNE (1360 Merritt Dr., 
El Cajon, Calif., U. S. A.). 



SAN FRANCISCO'S VANISHING BUTTERFLIES 

by J. W. Tilden 

During the Second World War, or shortly thereafter, there occurred in 
San Francisco, California, an event which affected the average inhabitant of 
the area but little. It was, however, of considerable interest to entomologists. 
If the mythical average man had known, he might have cared^still less. But 
to lepidopterists, it meant the end of a losing battle for one more of our 
native creatures. This event was the passing into extinction (so far as known) 
of the peculiarly local and endemic butterfly of the sand dunes, the Xerces 
(Glaucopsyche xerces) Blue. Only a few years before, it had been the most 
characteristic butterfly of the coastal sand dune area known as the Sunset 
District, but complete settlement of the area left it no habitat to inhabit. 

Xerces is not alone among the peculiar butterflies of San Francisco. 
Why this region should have been inhabited by a number of endemics is 
not clear. The coastal region of California is rich in relict forms, but the 
immediate environs of San Francisco seem to have been more than usually 
endowed in this respect. 

The first species to disappear was Minois sthenele. This species was 
lost so early and so rapidly that few specimens remain. The largest series 
was destroyed in the fire of 1906. The early stages were never recorded. 
Since it became extinct too early in the history of the area, almost anything 
that may be written concerning it is in the nature of conjecture. It is in- 
teresting to speculate on why it became extinct so rapidly, since it was at one 
time considered common. It disappeared, oddly enough, while there was 
still a good deal of unsettled land in the city. 

Another satyr, Minois behrii, was the next to be lost. The locale is 
different, but the story is much the same. M. behrii was recorded as flying 
in the Mt. Tamalpais area in Marin County, just north of the Golden Gate. 



114 TlLDEN: San Francisco butterflies Vol.10: nos.3-4 

It is not in a strict sense a butterfly of San Francisco, but is included here 
for regional completeness. The types of this species were also destroyed in 
the San Francisco fire, and no further material has ever been taken on the 
type locality. Minois masoni Cross is similar to the description of M. behrii 
and has been considered as subspecies of the latter by F. M. Brown (Butter- 
flies of Colorado: p. 18; 1954). Holland (revised Butterfly Book, 1930) 
figures on Plate LXXI, figs. 9 & 10, insects which he refers to M. behrii. 
However this may be, the insect is apparently extinct at the type locality. 

The endemic lycaenids of the region were more persistent. In the 1930's 
Glaucopsyche xerces still could be found in the vacant lots of the Sunset 
District and in the Lake Merced area. Some survived for years in Fort 
Funston, but these apparently disappeared when the area was bulldozed bare. 
At present the former habitat of xerces is almost one hundred percent set- 
tled. Most collectors who are familiar with the conditions concede that 
xerces is apparently extinct, although the exact time is not easy to fix. I 
am not sure that any have been taken since the Second World War. It is 
conceivable that the species may reappear, but such a possibility seems remote. 

Why did it disappear? Here and there in the region remain waste strips 
and roadside vegetation that harbor certain insects. These do not seem to 
have been sufficient for xerces. The most probable answer lies in the food 
plant. In the larval stages, xerces fed on a species of Lotus (Hosackia). This 
species was a low-growing matting type of sand dune plant which could not 
tolerate disturbance of the soil. In some places the plant seemed to disappear 
before the butterfly did. Hovanitz (personal conversation) noted having 
seen xerces oviposit on Lupine, but observations showed that this plant was 
not suitable for the larval development of xerces. 

Xerces is of interest for another reason than its local distribution. It 
exhibits, in as great a degree as any other North American butterfly, the 
peculiar effect of certain mutations on small populations. In this one species, 
there are no fewer than five named variants. Typical xerces has large white 
spots on the secondaries below. The form "polyphemus," which was the 
"normal" or common form, has small black pupils in the white spots. The 
forms "mertila," "antiacis" and "huguenini" represent increasing size of the 
spots, especially of the black pupils. "Polyphemus" and the other black-pupilled 
forms are easy to associate, but true xerces looks very different. Dyar (List 
of North American Lepidoptera, 1902) did not associate polyphemus and 
xerces at all, but placed xerces, antiacis and of course lydgamus, as separate 
species, with what we now know as G. lygdamus behrii as a subspecies of 
antiacis. This association is easily seen to be faulty when specimens of all 
are at hand, since the soft lavender blue of all forms of xerces is quite dif- 
ferent from the cold blue of lygdamus subspecies. Moreover, all of the xerces 
complex have the short rounded forewing of that species. These named 
segregates of xerces are merely genetic variants. All were found flying to- 
gether in the same locality and are in no true sense subspecies. They show 
to a marked degree the effect that genetic mutations may have on a small 
population. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 115 

Almost as remarkable as G. xerces is another lycaenid, Plebeius icarioides 
pheres. So much paler below is this subspecies that it was for years considered 
a distinct species. Its fate is less definitely known than is that of xerces. A 
small colony existed in the Presidio until quite recently. Military activities 
in that area seem to have destroyed its habitat. Whether or not it is really 
extinct, I cannot ascertain. However, if it persists today, it has been over- 
looked in recent years by the many collectors who have searched for it. 
Numerous specimens of a somewhat similar subspecies from Marin County 
have been found in recent years, but these seem not to represent true pheres. 
I am inclined to think that the name pheres should be restricted to specimens 
actually taken in San Francisco, at least until the situation has been much 
more thoroughly studied. 

On the topmost portion of the famous Twin Peaks of San Francisco 
is found a subspecies of icarioides that was described by Hovanitz. This iso- 
lated area seems to be the only locality for P. i. missionensis, the Mission 
Blue. This is a rather heavily marked subspecies, in contrast to the very 
pale pheres which occupies an area only a few miles away. The food plant 
of missionensis is a low perennial Lupine of the chamissonis groups. Human 
settlement is beginning to encroach on its already restricted habitat, and the 
disappearance of missionensis is only a matter of time. 

There remains to be considered one other butterfly on the list. On all 
of the hills in San Francisco where Eriogonum grows, is to be found Cal- 
lophrys viridis. For many years this was considered by most students as a 
synonym of C. dumetorum. By some it was regarded as C. affinis. Holland 
(revised Butterfly Book, 1930) stated that he had affinis from California. 
Clench (Revision of Callophrys, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: pp. 226-228) 
pointed out the differences between dumetorum and viridis and considered 
viridis a valid species. Its exact status is not for me to decide here. It is at 
least easily separable from dumetorum on appearance alone. It flies alone, 
not in company with dumetorum, which may indicate that it is a subspecies 
of dumetorum. Like the other San Francisco butterflies, viridis is engaged 
in a losing struggle with man's encroachment. 

It is interesting to note that these local butterflies have been unable to 
extend their ranges down into San Mateo County to the south. The more 
southern portions of the San Francisco Peninsula seem to be unsuitable for 
them. To the observer of the area, there is no ready explanation for this 
peculiar fact. Even the flora seems alike enough to have allowed for this 
extension. The whole story seems to show what has been shown before, 
that specialization is a one way street with no return. 

This history of San Francisco's butterflies is obviously incomplete. It 
is hoped that other observers will be stimulated to add their information to 
the knowledge of this interesting matter. 

San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif., U. S. A. 



116 Vol.10: nos.3-4 

MY HIGHEST BUTTERFLY CATCH OF A SINGLE DAY 

IN THE MIDDLE EAST 

by E. P. Wiltshire 

Stimulated by the interesting notes of Dr. C. L. Remington and Mr. F. 
Hemming in Vol.9, I venture to send in the following notes culled from my 
entomological diaries; although my day's total is less than theirs, it is typical, I 
think, of a region of considerable lepidopterological interest. 

I have been collecting Lepidoptera, with special attention to moths, in my 
spare time in the Middle East ( S.W. Asia ) for over twenty years. My excursions 
have always been in arid subtropical places. These, it is well known, are com- 
paratively poor in butterflies, though the conditions seem to favor Phalsenidae, 
Pyralidae and Gelechiidas more. The greatest number of species is to be found 
in the mountains, where precipitation is greater than in the plains. I have climbed 
over twenty different peaks in the Middle East, and it is clear that the date of 
flight of the maximum number of butterflies varies with the latitude. At 29° 
N., mid-May is best for butterflies (though mid-June is best there for moths). 
At 34° N., June-July produce maximum numbers. 

Between 20 and 30 different species of butterfly in a day have frequently 
been taken on these climbs in Lebanon, Iraq and Iran (Persia). My record catch 
was 31 on May 12th 1940 on Kuh Barfi, at heights of 6000-9000 ft., near Shiraz, 
Fars, S.W. Persia. Perhaps in N. Persia or the Lebanon more could be taken. 

The Kuh Barfi is one of four mountains surrounding Shiraz, a city which 
lies in a plain at over 5000 ft. above the level of the Persian Gulf, from which 
it is about 80 miles distant as the crow flies. These mountains were formerly 
wooded with oak, wild almond, and Pistacia in a scrubby sparse formation 
chiefly on northward slopes, but Kuh Barfi, owing to its proximity to Shiraz, is 
deforested except for a few localized bushes. The vegetation on which the butter- 
flies depend are herbs, grasses, or at the best small Rhamnus and Prunus bushes; 
some of the herbs, however, might qualify as "dwarf shrubs", particularly certain 
Astragalus species. On the top of the mountain there is an old-established snow- 
storing industry, and in April-May it is frequented by muleteers who cut the 
dwarf shrubs and use them to cover over the snow which they have collected 
and packed into pits. During the summer they carry the snow on mule-back 
to Shiraz, a 6-hour trek, and the path taken by these caravans down the southern 
slopes of the mountain provides the easiest way to the summit. One drives to 
the nearest point on the Shiraz — Bushire road in ten minutes from the city 
centre, and reaches the summit after about three or four hours' walk depending 
on how many times one stops to catch butterflies or refresh oneself. The more 
time one spends catching on the way, the less time one has to catch at the top, 
and one finds quite different species at the top from those at the bottom. 

The same path was taken by the explorer Kotschy in about 1840 and 
it is interesting to note that the path now no longer has the stream and waterfall 
which he described. There is, however, a waterhole still in use just above the 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



117 



place where there clearly was formerly a considerable waterfall. One concludes 
that in the intervening century the water has sunk deeper into the limestone 
mountain and has been virtually lost to man. 

The butterflies taken by Kotschy were listed by Kollar (1850) in 
Denkschrift Akad. Wiss. Wien, I, and included the descriptions of two new 
Melitcea species, casta and persea. For about a hundred years their identity re- 
mained a mystery to European lepidopterists who applied the two names wrongly 
to various Middle East Melitcea forms. 

I climbed Kuh Barfi on May 3 & 12, 1940, and May 9, 1941; the butterfly 
totals on these three excursions were respectively 25, 31, and 27. The total butter- 
fly species taken during these three visits, all made during the first half of May 
along the same route to the summit, were 46. 

The object of my visits, of course, was not to catch as many butterfly species 
as possible; it was rather to investigate what, between the explorations of 
Kotschy and Brandt (1937), had been terra incognita to lepidopterists. The 
most important result was my recapture of topo-typical M. casta and persea and 
discovery of the new species M. consulis mea. Fred Brandt did not actually 
climb this mountain. 

Here is the list of 46 species taken on these three visits; the 15 not taken 
on May 12th are in brackets. I give the height at which each was taken, in feet. 

PAPILIONIDiE 

Papilio machaon centralis Stgr. (5000-9000) 
[Papilio alexanor Esp.] (8000) 

PIERID^E 

Pieris rupee iranica LeCerf (8000) 

[P. krueperi Stgr.] (8000) 

Pontia daplidice L. (7500) 

[Pontia glauconome iranica Bien.] (5000-6000) 

[Glycestha aurota F.J (5000-6000) 

[Anthocaris gruneri armeniaca Christ.] (8000-9000) 

[Colotis fausta Oliv.] (5000-6000) 

Colias croceus Fourc. (5000-6000) 

Colias aurorina libanotica Led. (8000-9000) 

Gonepteryx farinosa Zell. (7500) 

LYC^NID^ 

Nordmannia abdominalis gerhardti Riley (6000-8000) 

[Callopbrys suaveola Stgr.] (8000-9000) 

Tomares romanovi Christ. (6000-7000) 

[T. callimachus Ev. = hafts Koll.] (6000-7000) 

Apharitis maxima Stgr. (7000) 

Lycana phlceas f. eleus F. (6000-7000) 

[L. thersamon kurdistana Riley] (6000-7000) 

[Glaucopsyche cyllarus aeruginosa Stgr.] (7000-9000) 

Turanana panagcea H.-S. (8000-9000) 

Plebejus pylaon iranica Forst. (7000-8000) 

P. eurypilus Freyer (7000-8000) 

Polyommatus icarus persica Bien. (7000-8000) 

P. loewii Z. (5000-6000) 

P. hyrcana Led. (7000-8000) 



1. 


(1) 


1. 


(2) 


2. 


(3) 


2. 


(4) 


3. 


(5) 


3. 


(6) 


3. 


(7) 


3. 


(8) 


3. 


(9) 


4. 


(10) 


5. 


(11) 


6. 


(12) 


7. 


(13) 


7. 


(14) 


8. 


(15) 


8. 


(16) 


9. 


(17) 


10. 


(18) 


10. 


(19) 


10. 


(20) 


11. 


(21) 


12. 


(22) 


13. 


(23) 


14. 


(24) 


15. 


(25) 


16. 


(26) 



118 



WILTSHIRE: One day in Middle East 



Vol.10: nos.3-4 



17. 
18. 
19. 
20. 
21. 
21. 
22. 
23. 
24. 



(27 
(28 
(29 
(30 
(31 
(32 
(33 
(34 
(35 



25. (36 

26. (37 

27. (38 
27. (39 

27. (40 

28. (41 



28. (42 

29. (43 

30. (44 

30. (45 

31. (46 



NYMPHALID^E 

Vanessa cardui L. (6000-9000) 

Melitcea cinxia amardcea Gr.-Gshm. (8000) 

M. consults Wiltshire (8000) 

M. phcebe dorce Graves (6000-9000) 

M. casta Koll. (9000) 

[M. trivia robertsi Butl.] (6000-9000) (larvae seen on 12.V.40) 

M. persea Koll. (7000-8000) 

Damora pandora Schiff. (6000-9000) 

Fabriciana niobe taura Roeb. (6000-9000) 

SATYRID^ 

Melanargia larissa Stgr. (6000-7500; 

Chazara thelephassa Hiibn. (5000-6000) 

C. persephone Hiibn. ditto 

[Pararge megera iranica Riley] (8000) 

[Epinephele lupinus centralis Riley] (6000-8000) 

Coenonympha saadi Koll. (6000-7000) 

HESPERIIDiE 

[Erynnis marloyi Boisd.] (7000) 
Carcharodus floccifera orientalis Rev. (7000-8000) 
Muschampia tessellum tersa Evans (7000-8000) 
[Muschampia poggei Led.] (7000-8000) 
Thymelicus hamza nova Rev. (7000-8000) 



I might add that on May 12, 1940, I also took nine day-flying moth species 
and 5 lepidopterous species as larvae. 

The total number of butterflies for the province of Fars, given by BRANDT 
(1938), was 85. There are in fact at least four more than this in the province 
and the total is probably 90 or more. Of these, however, about 20 occur very 
much higher and about 80 miles north of Shiraz or very much lower and about 
50 miles west of Shiraz and must be ruled out as not inhabiting the Shiraz district. 
The proportion therefore of species taken in one day to the total butterfly fauna 
of the same district is 31/70 or about 2/5, almost exactly the same as that reported 
by Mr. Hemming from Digne (56/135). 

I have said that if one goes outside the Shiraz district I think there are 
about 90 butterfly species in Fars. This is less than the 134 species recorded 
from the Lebanon by Ellison and myself (1939); and the Elburz range in N. 
Persia must have a total even exceeding that of the Lebanon, considering that it 
contains two quite different climatic areas, therein differing from other parts of 
the Middle East which I know. I find however that in my excursions in the 
Lebanon and Elburz I failed, for various reasons, to exceed the total achieved on 
Kuh Barfi. A great deal depends on one's object on any given excursion, and 
for this reason the fraction 2/5ths may not have much significance. 

References 

Brandt, W., 1938. Beitrag zur Lepidopteren-fauna von Iran. Ent. Rundschau 55. 
Ellison, R., & Wiltshire, E. P., 1939. The Lepidoptera of the Lebanon. Trans. Roy. Ent. 
Soc. London 88: pt.l. 



E. P. WILTSHIRE, (personal), British Embassy, Bagdad, IRAQ 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 119 

BOG COLLECTING IN CENTRAL MAINE 
by Lionel Paul Grey 

The sphagnum-heath bogs in central Maine provide richer collecting 
than do the scattered pockets found elsewhere in New England, for here 
such bogs often are large in size and remain as undisturbed wilderness areas. 
It is incredible how rapidly they are vanishing; during boyhood I roved many 
an open bog which now is choked densely with young growth. Also there 
are many hundreds of acres here, now heavily forested but with the tell- 
tale plant vestiges and traces of a sphagnum rim attesting that only yesterday 
these, too, were bogs. Our forty-odd inches of annual rainfall seem insuf- 
ficient either to explain or to maintain our extensive lakes, and since a bog 
requires a surfacing of the underground water table, these retreating bogs 
also bear mute witness of how largely we in New England have been living 
on a gift of glacially outpoured waters now dwindling away. In my youth 
the bogs were wet all summer, but now even in abnormally wet years one 
can pass through most of them dry-shod, after the spring run-off. 

A nostalgic marker of rapidly changing times and one I now miss in 
the remaining open bogs are the gaunt skeletons of the old larch, now mostly 
fallen; these spoke of an earlier page in history when these trees were of 
much economic value, the boles and dug-out main roots furnishing the "juni- 
per knees" to frame the tall clipper ships built along our coast. Also, there is 
the curious reflection that the tiny insects, the casebearers and sawflies which 
abruptly destroyed the primeval larch rims around these bogs, were rather 
directly the cause of the retreat of the caribou, and, with them, the wolves, 
for the caribou depended on larch for winter browse. Despise not the lowly 
bug ! 

Having been asked for notes regarding the well-known Passadumkeag 
Bog region near my home, I have a melancholy duty to report that collecting 
there has deteriorated greatly during the past quarter-century although re- 
maining worthwhile from the point that here are accessible roadside areas 
where even the oldsters may enjoy thrills of bog collecting without undue 
exertion or discomfort. In general, the best places now require strenuous 
trips, or, even if near the roads, as in the instance of the famous "Dead 
Stream Bog," would be unsafe to venture into. Bogs and burned lands are, 
of all places, to be shunned by the uninitiated; even a compass is useless to 
an inexperienced or bewildered man; woodsmen rely more on land contours. 

In the past I have guided visiting entomologists into the nearby bogs, 
and as long as I remain here I shall continue to be delighted with any prospect 
of having companions on weekend jaunts, given due notice. But if I were 
not available, the geodetic topographic maps are very detailed and the ordin- 
ary road maps sufficient to locate the places hereinafter described, with a 
bit of inquiry. 

The town of Lincoln, fifty miles north of Bangor on U.S. Route Two, 
is a logical headquarters. From there, the best roadside spots are about 



120 GREY: Maine bogs Vol.10: nos.3-4 

fifteen miles south, proceeding first to Enfield and thence southwest toward 
Passadumkeag on a backwoods road which forks about two miles below 
Enfield. The left-hand fork swings steeply up on to a horseback ridge; this 
is known as the Gould's Ridge Road, from which may be had a tremendous 
panorama of meadowland on the left, which is rather barren as a collecting 
ground. There is some chance of fair roadside collecting and the drive is 
especially recommended both for the striking wilderness views and because 
this horseback is a particularly famous one, often mentioned in geology texts 
as a classic example of an esker, a formerly ice-walled glacial stream bed. 
But it is just where the road forks that the visitor had best leave his car 
and explore the bog on the west side of the highway. Early in June, a trip 
around the rim tangle is almost certain to result in flushing a few CEneis jutta 
Hiibner, this being the most productive known colony, one which perhaps 
has yielded more material than all other northeastern localities combined. 
In mid-July this same bog is the best place I know for Lyccena epixanthe 
transitional to phcedrus Hall, best collected late in the afternoon. This is 
an exceptionally fine bog, complete with a small pond "eye." Collecting may 
be done here safely, if not in comfort; those whose interests include the 
small biting insects can have a real field day. 

The right fork runs direct to Passadumkeag, first through low forest 
growth and then through partly grown-in bogs; this is the "Old Caribou 
Road" which in earlier days often was impassable except with a high-axle 
car but now has been much "improved" so that the roadside collecting has 
nearly perished, as it always seems to do before the crunching bulldozer 
and the rumbling asphalt truck. This, added to narrowing in of the bogs, plus 
the extensive pulpwood operations which have mangled the forest, now leaves 
only forlorn traces of what once was a veritable woodland paradise. The 
endemic species still remain, but now put on a feeble show compared to the 
earlier grandeurs; it might even be termed fair collecting yet, the difference 
being that one must hope only for short series whereas formerly there was 
such an abundance of many choice things that the net seldom was idle. 

The rarer moths, particularly the day-flying noctuids have been scarce 
in late years, but this whole area still remains extremely productive for gen- 
eral moth collecting. The State of Maine forest insect program maintains 
numerous trap stations, widely scattered, and the one at Enfield usually yields 
the most extensive and varied material. On suitable nights the ordinary fun- 
nel-type light traps work unattended to bring in moths quite literally by 
the quart, and in surprisingly excellent condition. 

Collectors familiar with northeastern collecting will appreciate that it 
is futile here to attempt to say just what will be taken and just where to 
go; we never know that, ourselves, but put in our days tramping and ex- 
ploring. The numerous places we visit for special things often are areas the 
size of a kitchen floor, so to speak, and quite useless to detail, for who 
else could find them? But the law of averages will work for the collector 
patient and assiduous enough to keep slogging. 

R.F.D., Lincoln, Me., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 121 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

(Under the supervision of Peter F. Bellinger) 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to lepidop- 
terists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended that every 
work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here; omissions of papers 
more than 3 or 4 years old should be called to Dr. Bellinger's attention. New genera 
and higher categories are shown in CAPITALS, with types in parentheses; new species 
and subspecies are noted, with type localities if given in print. Larval foodplants are 
usually listed. Critical comments by abstractors may be made. Papers of only local 
interest and papers from The Lepidopterists' News are listed without abstract. Readers, 
particularly outside of North America, interested in assisting with this very large task, 
are invited to write Dr. BELLINGER (Osborn Zoological Lab., Yale University, New Haven 
11, Conn., U. S. A.) Abstractors' initials are as follows: [P.B.] — P. F. BELLIN- 
GER; [I.C.] — I. F. B. Common; [W.C.'J — W. C. Cook; [A.D.] — A. Diakonoff; 
[W.H.] — W. HACKMAN; [J.M.] — J. MOUCHA; [E.M.] — E. G. MUNROE; [N.O.] — 
N. S. Obraztsov; [C.R.] — C. L. Remington; [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden; [P.V.] — 

P. E. L. VlETTE. 

B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Bauer, David L., "A new race of Papilio indra from the Grand Canyon region." Lepid. 
News, vol.9: pp.49-54, 1 pi. 10 Aug. 1955. Describes as new P. i. kaibabensis (Bright 
Angel Point, Ariz.) 

Bell, Ernest Layton, & Cyril Franklin dos Passos, "The lectotype of Megathymus aryxna 
Dyar (Lepidoptera, Megathymidse)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no.1700: 5 pp. 20 Dec. 1954. 
Identified as specimen figured in Biologia Centrali- Americana, vol.3, pi. 69, fig.4. [P.B.] 

Berger, L. A., "Note sur Papilio jacksoni Sharpe" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 
pp.92-93. 25 Dec. 1954. Describes as new P. p hecqi (Kibali-Inturi, Belgian Congo); 
note on this species of eastern and central Africa. [P.V.] 

Bernardi, G., "Revision de Belenois gidica God. d'Ethiopie (Lep. Pieridae)" [in FrenchJ. 
Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.15: pp.13-20, 1 pi. July 1955. Study of the subspecies B. g. 
hypoxantha and B. g. abyssinica. Designates a lectotype for the latter; this subspecies has 
distinct dry- and wet-season forms. [P.V.] 

van den Bosch, R., & Ray F. Smith, "A taxonomic and distributional study of the species 
of Prodenia occurring in California." Pan-Pac. Ent., vol.31: pp.2 1-28. 1955. P. prcefica 
and P. ornithogalli both occur in California, the latter only south of the Tehachapi Mts. 
P. prcefica has a diapause in the pupal state. P. ornithogalli has no diapause and is unable 
to endure cold winters. [J.T.] 

Boursin, Ch., "Description de deux genres nouveaux (Lep. Phal.) (Contributions a l'etude 
des "Agrotidse" — Trifinar, LXII)" [in French]. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol.24: 
pp.219-220. Nov. 1955. Describes as new two genera of Phalaenidae (=Agrotidae, 
=Noctuidse) : AMMOPOLIA (type witzenmanni Stdf.) and BRYONYCTA (type pineti 
Stgr.). [P. V.] 

Box, Harold E., & Hahn W. Capps, "New crambine genera allied to Diatrcea Guilding 
(Lepidoptera: Pyralidas). I (supplementary note) and II." Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 
(B), vol.24: pp.174-178, 1 pi., 1 fig. 31 Oct. 1955. Revises description of Eodiatrcea 
and E. centralis. Describes as new CRAMBIDIATRAIA (type D. cayenella) , including 
also D. strigipenella, D. castrensis, D. entreriana. Figures type specimens of 4 spp. of 
Diatrcea (s.l.). [P.B.] 

Brown, F. Martin, "Studies of Nearctic Coenonympha tullia ( Rhopalocera, Satyridae). 
Ccenonympha tullia inornata Edwards." Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol.105: pp. 359- 
410, 2 pis., 19 figs. 14 March 1955. Divides Nearctic C. tullia into 5 groups centered 
around the names inornata, ochracea, California, ampelos, mixturata. Study of variation 
in the races C. i. mcisaaci, C. i. nipisiquit, C. i. inornata (including quebecensis) and 
C. i. benjamini (for the purpose of this work tullia is treated as a superspecies and 
inornata as a species). Also gives available information on habits and ecology; repeats 
original descriptions and locates types; figures these 4 races and representatives of other 
American groups. [P.B.] 

Cary, Margaret M., "Name changes for the Sphingidse of Jamaica." Lepid. News, vol.9: 
pp.135-136. 22 Dec. 1955. 



122 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Clarke, J. F. Gates, "The correct name for a pest of cacao." Pruc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 
vol.56: pp. 266-267. Oct. 1954. Zetesima baliandra correct name for A. theobromu; 
(Stenomidae). |W.C] 

Clarke, J. F. Gates, "The correct name for a pest of legumes." Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington, 
vol.56: pp. 309-3 10. 1954. Epinotia aporema the correct name for E. opposita (Ole- 
threutidae). [W.C.] 

Ford, E. B., "Polymorphism and taxonomy." Heredity, vol.9: pp. 255-264. Aug. 1955. 
Reprinted from Rpt. 7th N. Z. Sci. Congr., 1951. 

Freeman, H. A., "Four new species of Megathymus (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera, Mega- 
thymidae)." Amer. Mus. Novit., no. 1711: 20 pp., 34 figs. 11 March 1955 Describes as 
new M. harrisi (Stone Mt., Ga.; on Yucca filamentosa); M. belli (La Bequilla, Durango, 
Mex.); M. mcalpinei (5 mi. N. of Marathon, Tex.; on undescribed Agave); M. maculosus 
(Kingsville, Tex., on Manfreda maculosa). Other foodplant records are: M. cofaqui 
{Yucca aloifolia); M. chisosensis {Agave scabra; previous record incorrect). [P.B.] 

Grotenfelt, P., & W. Hackman, "Hydroecia nordstroemi Horke found in Finland." Notul. 
Ent., vol.33: pp. 82-84, 4 figs. 1953. The S and 9 genitalia of H. nordstroemi and 
H. micacea are figured. [W.H.I 

Hessel, Sidney A., "A natural Cynthia-Cecropia mating." Lepid. Neics, vol.9: p. 142. 
22 Dec. 1955. 

Hovanitz, W., "Colias nastes and Colias hecla from Meade River, Alaska." Wasmann 
Journ. Biol., vol.13: pp. 1-8. 1955. Describes as new C. nastes thula (near Meade R., 
Alaska). [J.T.] 

Issekutz, Laszlo, "Monima schmidtii Diosz (Lepid., Noctuidae)" [in English, Hungarian 
summary]. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hung., n.s., vol.6: pp.32 1-325, 6 figs. 1955. 
Redescribes species and describes genitalia. [P.B.] 

Kaisila, J., & O. Peltonen, "Philotes vicrama Moore (Lep., Lycaenldse) in Finnland" [in 
German]. Ann. Ent. Fennici, vol.21: pp. 9-12, 3 figs. 1955. All the Finnish records of 
P. baton are erroneous; the specimens all belond to P. vicrama schiffermuelleri. Parts 
of the 6 genitalia of both species are figured. All known Finnish finds of P. vicrama 
are listed. [W.H.] 

Keen, F. P., "Correct identity of the Douglas-fir cone moth." Journ. Econ. Ent., vol.46: 
p. 1107. "Dec. 1953" [10 March 1954]. This serious pest of western Douglas Fir, 
which has been called Cydia pseudotsugana in the economic literature for many years, 
is not this species, which is shown to defoliate larch ~nd firs but is not a cone borer. 
The cone borer is actually Barbara colfaxiana. [W.C.] 

Krogerus, H., "Investigations on the Lepidoptera of Newfoundland. I. Macrolepidoptera." 
Acta Zool. Eennica, vol.82: pp. 1-80, 34 figs., 1 map. 1954. Describes as new: Pro- 
torthodes lindrothi; Hydrelia terrce-novce. Contains a check list of all Macrolepidoptera 
known from Newfoundland. Compares closely allied species of Newfoundland and 
Europe. The $ genitalia of 34 spp. and sspp. are figured. Gives a detailed survey of 
the localities for each species based on extensive material collected by the author and 
other members of the Finnish-Swedish Expedition to Newfoundland, 1949. [W.H.j 

Mickel, Clarence E., "Some milestones in the history of insect classification." Canad. Ent., 
vol.87: pp.57-66. 15 March 1955. Discusses Aristotle, Gesner, Aldrovandus, Swammer- 
dam, Ray, Linnaeus, Fabricius, Latreille, and Darwin. [E.M.] 

Munroe, Eugene, "The genus Epipagis Hiibner, nee Hampson, in North America (Lepi- 
doptera: Pyralidae)." Canad. Ent., vol.87: pp. -249-252, 6 figs. 5 Aug. 1955. Describes 
as new E. for sy thee (Florida). Records E. disparilis from the U. S. (Ariz.). Sinks 
Stenophyes to Epipagis, and synonymizes E. fenestralis with huronalis, but retains the 
latter name under the principle of conservation. Photographs of moths, descriptions of 
genitalia. [E.M.] 

Povolny, Dalibor, & Jiff Smelhaus, "Novy pfispevek k poznani rodu Procris Fabr. [Con- 
tribution to the knowledge of the genus Procris Fabr.]" [in English. Czech introduc- 
tion] Acta Soc. Zool. Bohemoslovacice, vol.15: pp. 147-200, 29 figs., 3 maps, 169 figs, 
of genitalia. 1951. Very important study of morphology, phylogeny, and systematics of 
Procris. Describes as new subgenus GREGORITA, for P. soror ( =hispanica). [J.M.] 

do Rego Barros, Alfredo Rei, "Fauna do Distrito Federal. XIV. Sobre uma especie do 
genero Cresera Schaus, 1894 (Lepidoptera-Heterocera)" [in Portuguese]. Bol. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, ser.2, no.124: 17pp., 2 pis., 6 figs. 29 Oct. 1954. Detailed 
redescription of C. perflua (Arctiidae); figures adults, genitalia and other structures. 
[P.B.I 

Roubal, Jan, "K clanku, 'Nomenclator sive enumeratio critica Lepidopterorum Slovaciae 
(Satyridae-Sphingidae). Auctore J. Pack' v tomto casopise XII, 1949, pp.140-155" [in 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 123 

Czech]. Folia Ent., vol.13: p.48. 30 April 1950. Gives some Slovak names of Lycaenidae. 
[J. M.] 

Todd, E. L., "The distribution and nomenclature of the Corn Earworm." Journ. Econ. Ent., 
vol.48: pp. 600-603, 2 figs. Oct. 1955. The Corn Earworm is not Heliothis armigera. 
which does not occur in North America, and cannot be called obsoleta, which is pre- 
occupied. Correct name is H. zea. Genitalia of zea and of gelotopoeon, a closely related 
species from South America, are figured. [W.C.I 

Todd, E. L., "The recognition of species of Dichordophora Prout." Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash- 
ington, vol.57; pp.1 18-120, 6 figs. June 1955. Discusses the separation of D. phoenix 
and D. aplagaria. Figures $ and $ genitalia of these and of iridaria. Also gives char- 
acters to separate Dichordophora from Dichorda (Geometridae). [W.C.] 

Todd, E. L., "The separation of the adults of Acontia dacia Druce from related species." 
Journ. Econ. Ent., vol.48: pp. 599-600, 8 figs. Oct. 1955. Distinguishing characters are 
given to separate dacia from terminimacula, and both of these from other related 
Acontia. Photos of maculation and drawings of $ and 9 genitalia. [W.C.] 

de Toulgoet, H., "Description d'Arctiidae nouveaux de Madagascar et des Comores (3 e 
note)" [in French]. Rev. franc. Ent., vol. 22: pp.186-202, 13 figs. 1 pi. Oct. 1955. 
Describes as new: Eilema phantasma, E. croceibasis, E. quadrangula, E. simulatricula, 
E. pauliani (S. Madagascar); E. decaryi, Philenora tortricodes (Madagascar); P. pseudo- 
tortnx, P. rotunda (central Madagascar); P. proxima, P. andriai (S.W. Madagascar); 
P. arida, Roeselia decaryi (far south Madagascar); Eilema comorensis (Moheli, Comoro 
Is.); BRYONOLA (type parmelia Tlgt.). [P.V.] 

Viette, P. E. L., "Notodontidse de Madagascar nouveaux ou peu connus" [in French]. 
Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol.24: pp.221-228. Nov. 1955. New or little known spp. 
from the E. Madagascar rain forest. Describes as new: Desmeocrcera antongilensis, D. 
miata, Chadisra malgassa, Tricholoba magnifica, Onophalera simplex, Turnacoides 
ioptila, Dinotodonta nigripunctella, Eurystaura euryala, Eutrotonotus psilodoxa, Anaphe 
mirabilis. [P.V.] 

C. MORPHOLOGY AND CYTOLOGY 

Eastham, L. E. S., & Y. E. E. Eassa, "The feeding mechanism of the butterfly Pieris 
brassicce L." Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. London B. vol. 659: pp.1-43, 44 figs. 1 March 1955. 
A very detailed description of the morphology and method of functioning of the 
proboscis and the other head structures involved in feeding. [P.B.] 

Finlayson, L. H., & Otto Lowenstein, "A proprioceptor in the body musculature of 
Lepidoptera." Nature, vol.176: p. 1031. 26 March 1955. Modified muscle cells in dorsal 
longitudinal musculature of saturniid larvae. [P.B.] 

D. VARIATION AND GENETICS 

Averkiev, I. S., "Deriving a new variety of Tussah Silkworm (Anthercea pernyi) by 

changing feeding conditions" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina. 

vol.17, no.8: PP-37-39. 1952. [Not seen.] 
Biezanko, C. M., "Sobre algumas novas aberracoes de Colias lesbia pyrrhothea Hubn.. 

1823" [in Portuguese]. Agros, vol.2, no. 2: 4 pp., 1 pi. 1949. Describes, figures, and 

names 8 aberrations of C. I. pyrrhothea. [C.R.] 
Bruckova, Bozena, "Sur la variabilite de Amphidasis betularia L. en Boheme" [in Czech, 

French summary]. Acta. Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.26, no. 356: 4 pp. 8 Oct. 1951. 

Lists all forms of this sp. recorded from Bohemia and describes a form from this 

area, without location or figures. [J.M.] 
Bruckova, Bozena, "Sur les especes du genre Poecilopsis Harrison de Boheme" [in Czech. 

French summary]. Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.26, no. 365: 5 pp. 9 Oct. 1951. 

The distribution of P. Isabellas and P. pomonaria in central Europe is discussed and 

two forms of P. Isabellas are described and named, from Bohemia and Poland. [J.M.] 
Bruckova, Bozena, "Study of the Bohemian species of the genus Erannis Hubner (Geom.)." 

Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.27: pp.213-221. 1952. Records 5 spp. of this genus 

from Bohemia and gives their distribution and variability. [J.M.] 
Clarke, C. A., & P. M. Sheppard, "The breeding in captivity of the hybrid Papilio rutulus 

female X Papilio glaucus male." Lepid. Neivs. vol.9: pp.46-48, 1 fig. 10 Aug. 1955. 
Dufay, C, "Une forme nouvelle de Lithosia quadra L." [in French]. Rev. franc. Lipid.. 

vol.14: pp.259-260, 3 figs. March 1955. A new form of L. quadra in the Alps. [P.V.] 
Hruby, Karel, "Colour variation in Dendrolimus pini L. (Lasiocamp.)" [in Czech, 

English summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 127-131. 30 Nov. 1951. 

The color of caterpillars is independent of the color of the imago. [J.M.] 
Kettlewell, H. B. D., "Recognition of appropriate backgrounds by the pale and black 

phases of Lepidoptera." Nature, vol.175: pp.943-944. 28 May 1955. Reports experi- 



124 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

ment demonstrating tendency of color forms of Biston betularia to rest on backgrounds 

on which they are inconspicious. This supports the theory that industrial melanism is 

an adaptive phenomenon related to the general darkening of available backgrounds 

by soot. [P.B.] 
Komarek, Oldfich, "Contribution a la connaissance de Zygcena carniolica Scop, en 

Boheme" [in Czech; Russian and French summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, 

vol.49: pp.146-153, 1 map. 15 Dec. 1952. 
Komarek, Oldfich, "La variabilite de l'espece Zygcena carniolica Scop, en Boheme (Lep. 

Zygaenidae)" [in Czech; Russian and French summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, 

vol.49: pp. 200-2 12, 10 figs. 15 Dec. 1952. In both papers discusses the variability of 

Z. carniolica from N. E. Bohemia. [J.M.] 
Milyaev, A. P., "Methods of changing the nature of the Oak Silkworm" [in Russian]. 

Priroda, vol.39, no.2: pp. 7-15. Feb. 1950. [Not seen.] 
Miiller, H. J., "Die Saisonformbildung von Araschnia levana, ein photoperiodisch ges- 

teuerter Diapause-Effekt" [in German]. Naturwissenschaften, vol.42: pp. 134-135, 

1 fig. March 1955. Larvae raised at day length of 16-20 hours produced adults of 
summer form "prorsa"; larva? raised at day length of 8 hours produced, after prolonged 
diapause, adults of spring form "levana"; temperature was ruled out as a factor in 
producing these seasonal forms. [P.B.] 

Ostriakova-Varshaver, V. N., & B. L. Astaurov, "Hereditary variability in liability of the 
silkworm (Bombyx mori) to androgenesis under the influence of temperature" [in 
Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.58: pp.21 3 1-2 134, 1 fig. 1947. [Not seen]. 

Povolny, Dal., "The causes of melanism in Lepidoptera" [in Czech; English summary]. 
Folia Ent., vol.11: pp.141-143. 31 Oct. 1948. 

Slaby, Otto, "Le probleme du dimorphisme sexuelle de l'espece Xylomania conspicillaris 
L. et l'apparition de sa forme typique dans la Boheme de l'ouest (Noctuidae)" [in 
Czech; French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp.187-190, 2 figs. 
15 Dec. 1951. The f. "intermedia" Tutt probably only nominate form of $. [J.M.J 

Strunnikov, V. A., "Increasing the viability of the silkworm by crossing individuals of 
different weight" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.18, 
no.6: pp.32-34. 1953. [Not seen.] 

Tanaka, Yoshimaro, "Is there any cytoplasmic effect on unstable genes in the Silkworm?" 
Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann. Kept., no.3: pp.17-19, 1 fig. 1953. Variability of 
larval spotting greater in Fi or F a when mother was normal than in reciprocal; more 
data being gathered. [C.R.] 

Tanaka, Yoshimaro, "Spontaneous recurrent mutations of a modifier of the Multistar 
marker." Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann. Kept., no.3: pp. 19-20. 1953. Larval 
color form appeared in long inbred line of Bombyx mori and then recurred in later 
generations bred from normal parents. May be tendency for recurrent mutations or 
assembled polygenes. [C.R.] 

Tsujita, Mitsuo, "Studies on the semi-allelic E-series in the Silkworm, (a) On the 
relation between E H and E K,) . (b) [with Bungo Sakagunchi] On the relation between 
E Ms and E Mc " Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann .Rept., no.3: pp.20-22, 1 fig., 22-24, 

2 figs. 1953. Larval genes E H (extra spots on abd. seg. 4) and E Kp (extra abd. legs) 
shown not to be allelic, although very close together; these cross over in female (!) as 
well as male. E Ms and E Mc (extra-leg genes) are also found not to be allelic. [C.R. | 

Tsujita, Mitsuo, "Maternal inheritance of 'Lethal Yellow'." Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), 
Ann. Rept., no.3: pp. 24-27, 1 fig. 1953. In Bombyx mori, finds that mother controls 
color of egg and young larva, regardless of father's genotype. [C.R.] 

Tsujita, Mitsuo, & Bungo Sakaguchi, "Genetical and biochemical studies of Yellow 
Lethal larvae." Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann. Rept., no.3: pp.27-28. 1953. Find 
that Yellow Lethals (of Bombyx mori) have more xanthopterin-B and methionine 
and less isoxanthopterin than normals. [C.R.] 

Tsujita, Mitsuo, "Trisomic Silkworm produced by treatment with BHC powder." 
Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann. Rept., no.3: pp. 28-32, 11 tables. 1953. Discusses 
unexpected recombinations in crosses between trisomies and normals. [C.R.] 

Yosida, Tosihide H., "Cytological study on the racial hybrids of Pbilosamia cynthia 
(Lepidoptera, Saturniidae)." Nat. Inst. Genetics (Japan), Ann. Rept., no.3: pp.34-35. 
1953. Chromosome number of P. c. walkeri (Manchuria and Korea) is n = 13, of 
P. c. pryeri (Kyushu) and P. c. ricini (Formosa?) is n = 14. All walkeri X pryeri 
and walkeri X ricini hybrids show 12 bivalents and one trivalent, except Manchurian 
tvalkeri X pryeri which shows 10 bivalent, 1 trivalent, 1 quadrivalent. "Racial" differ- 
entiation probably due to duplication of one chromosome pair; Manchurian and Korean 
races of walkeri differ in a reciprocal translocation, with pryeri having the Manchurian 
type and ricini having the Korean type. No pryeri X ricini crosses reported. [C.R.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 125 

E. DISTRIBUTION AND PHENOLOGY 

Kudla, Mil., "Vyskyt mury Chariclea delphinii L. u Olomouce" [in Czech]. Acta Soc. Ent. 

Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 88-89. 1 Oct. 1952. Gives information about C. delphinii 

captured near Olomouc (central Moravia). [J.M.] 
de Laever, E., "Notes sur le genre Cosymbia Hiibner" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 

pp. 35-39. 25 Aug. 1954. Notes on the geographical repartition, genitalia and biology 

of the Belgian and French species of Cosymbia (Geometridas). [P.V.] 
de Laever, E., "Tomares ballus Fabr. dans les Basses-Alpes" [in French]. Rev. franc. 

Lipid., vol.14: p. 165. Nov. 1954. Capture of T. ballus (Lycaenidae) in the South Alps. 

[P.V.] 
de Lajonquiere, Y., "Cerura verbasci F. et quelques autres captures en Ardeche" [in 

French]. Rev. frang. Lepid., vol.14: pp.193-194. Nov. 1954. New localities for C 

verbasci ( Notodontidae) and list of interesting species collected in Ardeche area. 

[P.V.] 
Leleux, "Quelques noctuelles interessantes du Jura" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol.14: 

pp. 195- 196. Nov. 1954. List of some interesting species of Noctuidae from the Jura 

Mts. [P.V.] 
Martin, P., "Lepidopteres nouveaux pour la region de Geneve 1948-1954" [in French]. 

Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges., vol.28: pp.149-152. April 1955. List of new captures of 

Lepidoptera in the Geneva area in these years. [P.V.] 
Menu, J. -J., "Papilio podalirius dans le Nord" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lepid., vol. 14: 

p. 166. Nov. 1954. Capture of P. podalirius in the North of France. [P.V.] 
Moucha, Josef, "Argynnis laodice Pall, en Tchecoslovaquie" [in Czech; French summary]. 

Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 135-137. 30 Nov. 1951. Czechoslovakian 

records and description of the locality in Vihorlat Mts. (eastern Slovakia). [J.M.] 
Moucha, Josef, "Contribution a la connaissance de la distribution geographique du papillon 

Leptidea morsei Fent. ssp. major Lork." [in Czech; French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. 

Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 181-186, 4 figs. 15 Dec. 1951. Lists all localities from 

central Europe. [J.M.] 
Moucha, Josef, "Fragmenta lepidopterologica" [in Czech, English summary]. Acta Soc. 

Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 238-240. 31 Dec. 1951. Records Epizeuxis calvaria from 

central Bohemia and the mass occurrence of Lymantria dispar and Hyphantria cunea 

in South Slovakia. [J.M.] 
Moucha, Josef, "The distribution of Pandoriana maja Cr. in Central Europe (Lep. 

Nymphalidae)." Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.27: pp.69-88, 2 figs., 1 map. 1952. 

Gives distribution in Central and Southeastern Europe with bibliography. Both sexes 

of the nominate form from Turkey (Therapia, near Istanbul) are figured. [J.M.] 
Moucha, Josef, "lnsecta Houskeana" [in English, Czech & Russian summaries]. Acta Ent. 

Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.28: pp. 185-207. 1953. Systematic and faunistic study of Lepi- 
doptera collected by J. Houska in Palestine (1940-1946). Recorded are 62 spp. [J.M.] 
Moucha, Josef, "La distribution geographique de la Leptidea morsei Fent. en Europe 

(Lep. Pieridse)" [in French]. Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse 1953: pp.1-4, 11 figs. Jan. 1953- 

Lists all known localities for L. morsei major, the European race; compares it to L. 

sinapis, figuring both. [P.B.] 
Nemcek, Stanislav, "Prispevok k doterajsim poznatkom motylov Chocskeho pohoria 

(Slovensko)" [in Slovak; Russian summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.50: 

pp.5 3-5 5. 20 Jan. 1954. Lists 43 spp. of Rhopalocera & Hesperiidae from Chocske 

pohorie Mts. (N.W. Slovakia). [J.M.] 
Newman, L. Hugh, "Reported British butterflies." Country Life, vol.110: pp.658-659, 

6 figs. 31 Aug. 1951. Account of some species dubiously recorded in Britain, and 

some occasional immigrants; good figures of adults. [P.B.] 
Newman, L. Hugh, "Butterflies yesterday and today — I. Species on the decline. II. Five 

species on the increase." Country Life, vol.115: pp. 1708-1709, 2013-2014, 12 figs. 

27 May, 7 June 1954. British species; good figures. 
Overlaet, F. G., "Les races geographiques de Cymothoe sangaris Godart et ses formes 

voisines" [in French]. Bull. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol.90: pp. 150-156, 1 map, addendum 

pp.156-157. 30 June 1954. Study of the geographical races of C. sangaris and related 

species in West and Central Africa: C. s. sangaris. Guinea; C. s. uselda. N. Belgian 

Congo; C. s. magnus, Stanleyville & Kivu; C. s. rubrior. French Congo & center of 

Belgian Congo; C. s. luluana, S. W. Katanga; C. h. hobarti Uganda, Nandi; C. h. 

mtvamikazi, Kivu, Kibali-Ituri; C. h. candidata. Uele; C. e. euthaliodes. Cameroons; 

C. e. albomarginata, Sierra Leone. [P.V.] 



126 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Pack, Jiff, "Fragmenta lepidopterologica. 3 P note. Contribution a la distribution geo- 
graphique d'un Geometridae" [in Czech; French summary]. Folia Ent., vol.12: pp. 61-65, 

1 map. 1949. Records localities of Eupithecia sinuosaria in Czechoslovakia. [J.M.] 
Patocka, Jan, "Notes ecologiques sur les noctuids du genre Tceniocampa. La devastation 

produite par le complexe des chenilles" [in Czech; French summary]. Folia Ent., vol.13: 

pp.4l-45. 30 April 1950. Mass occurrence of Tceniocampa spp. in South Slovakia and 

control by DDT. [J.M.] 
Pausar, Filip, "Vyskyt Carpocapsa pomonella L. v Jihlave v letech 1947 a 1948" [in Czech; 

English summary]. Folia Ent., vol.12: pp. 130-138, 5 figs. 1949. Gives data on the mass 

occurrence of C. pomonella in Jihlava (Moravia). [J.M.] 
Povolny, D., "O invasi Phytometra zosimi Hbn. (Plusiinas) na uzemi CSR" [in Czech]. 

Folia Zool. Ent.. vol.3: p. 190. Sept. 1954. Records the sp. from southern Slovakia. [J.M.] 
Povolny, D., & F. Gregor, "Contributions to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera of Jeseniky 

Mountains I" [in Czech; English summary]. Folia. Ent., vol.10: pp.87-93- 30 Sept. 1947. 

Lepidoptera of the peatbogs in the environs of Rejviz in Silesia. 5 spp. listed as new 

for the area. [J.M.] 
Povolny, D., & F. Gregor, "Some interesting notes on Moravian Lepidoptera" [in Czech; 

English summary]. Folia Ent., vol.11: pp. 15-17. 30 April 1948. 9 spp. are recorded; 

Erastria obliterata new for Czechoslovakia. [J.M.] 
Povolny, D., & F. Gregor, "Paty pfispevek k faune motylu CSR" [in Czech; Russian sum- 
mary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 237-239, 4 figs. 15 Dec. 1952. Record 

of 17 spp. (4 new to Czechoslovakia). [J.M.] 
Pujman, Dusan, "Nejsevernejsi naleziste vfetenusky Zygcena Iceta Hbn. v Cechach (Lep. 

Zygaenidae)" [in Czech]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp.212-213- 15 Dec. 

1952. Northernmost locality of Z. Iceta in Bohemia. [J.M.] 
Rahm, U., "La Cote d'l voire. Centre de recherches tropicales" [in French]. Acta Tropica, 

vol.11: pp. 222-295, 30 figs. 1954. Describes the types of forest and savanna in the 

Ivory Coast; gives a general account of botany, zoology, and anthropology, listing 

other animals some representative Lepidoptera (chiefly butterflies). [P-B.] 
Shakhbazov, V. G., "The Usshuri oak silkworn in the Maritime Territory" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'skokh. Nauk, vol.15, no.l: pp.36-40. 1949. [Not seen.] 
Slaby, Otto, "Concerning the dependence of the Lepidoptera fauna of Bohemia on climatic 

cycles" [in Czech, English summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 242-253, 

2 graphs. 31 Dec. 1951. 

Slaby, Otto, "Sur la repartition verticale de 1'espece Parnassius apollo (L.) dans les 
Carpathes de la Slovaquie" [in Czech; Russian & French summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. 
Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 189-200. 15 Dec. 1952. In Slovakia P. apollo lives at about 
3 5 0-1 600 m. above sea level. Gives some remarks about its bionomy. [J.M.] 

Slaby, Otto, "Ueber neue Fundorte der Zygcena brizce Esp. im slowakischen Karpathenge- 
biete und iiber ihr Verbreiten in neue Areale (Zygaenidae)" [in Czech; Russian & Ger- 
man summaries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.50: pp. 67-77. 20 Jan. 1954. Gives 
distribution of Z. brizce in Slovak Carpathians; describes and names aberration. [J.M.] 

Smelhaus, Jiff, "Cupido decoloratus (Stdgr.) et C. alcetas (Hffgg.) dans la Tchecoslo- 
vaquie" [in Czech]. Folia Ent., vol.12: pp.4l-43. 1949- Gives localities in Czechoslo- 
vakia and characteristics of these spp. [J-M.] 

Treat, Asher E., "Acentropus niveus in Massachusetts, remote from water." Lepid. News, 
vol.8: pp.23-24. 25 June 1954. 

Tronicek, Edvard, "Quelques especes de papillons nouvelles pour la Boheme du Bassin 
Central de l'Elbe" [in Czech; French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: 
pp. 191- 197. 15 Dec. 1951. Describes the field biotope in central Bohemia and lists 
4 spp. new for the country (Thaumatopoea pinivora, Porphyrinia purpurina, Roeselia 
albula, Lepioptilus inulce). [J.M.] 

Tronicek, Edvard, "Bacotia sepium Spr. in Bohemia" [in Czech; Russian & English sum- 
maries]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 90-92. 1 Oct. 1952. The habitat is 
described. [J.M.] 

Tronicek, Edvard, "Contribution to the knowledge of the lepidopterological fauna of Crete" 
[in English; Czech summary]. Acta Ent. Mus. Nat. Pragce, vol.26, no. 358: 15 pp. 1952. 
Gives results of expedition in 1936. Records 27 spp. of Rhopalocera and 4 spp. of 
Hesperiidae; names 2 "forms" (of Coenonympha thyrsis & Vanessa atalanta). [J.M.] 

Tronicek, Edvard, "Poznamky k vyskytu motylu vychodnich Cech" [in Czech]. Acta Soc, 
Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: p. 183. 15 Nov. 1952. Some spp. from East Bohemia. [J.M.] 

Varin, G., "A la recherche du type de Aielanargia lachesis Hiibner" [in French]. Rev. 
franc. Lepid., vol.14: pp. 218-219. Jan. 1955. Research on the type locality of M. 
lachesis; probably Languedoc, S. France. [P.V.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 127 

Vlach, Vilem, "Quelques microlepidopteres rares des environs de Prague" [in Czech; 

French summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 137-139. 30 Nov. 1951. 

Records of 5 spp. [J.M.] 
Vlach, Vil., "Dalsi zastupci microlepidopter nove zjisteni pro Cechy" [in Czech; Russian 

summary]. Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.49: pp. 18 1-1 83, 4 figs. 15 Nov. 1952. 

Notes on 5 spp. and forms new for Bohemia. [J.M.] 
Vorzheva, L. V., "Occurrence of the Lesser Apple-worm (Laspeyresia pomonella L.) in 

eastern Siberia" [in Russian]. Biull. Otd. Biol. Moskov. Obshch. Isp. Prirody, vol.59, 

no.3: pp.49-52. May/June 1954. [Not seen] 
Warham, John, "Autumn moths." Country Life, vol.110: pp.1540-1541, 5 figs. 9 Nov. 

1951. Excellent photographs of living Plusia gamma, P. chrysitis, Catocala nupta, 
Apamea monoglypha, Triphcena pronuba, Euphyia bilineata, and notes on some other 
fall species in Britain. [P.B.] 

Zeman, J., "Quelques noctuides de la Tchecoslovaquie" [in Czech; French summary]. 
Acta Soc. Ent., Cechoslovenice, vol.48: pp. 139-140. 30 Nov. 1951. Notes on Oria 
musculosa, Euxoa crassa, Dasypolia templi. [J.M.] 

F. BIOLOGY AND IMMATURE STAGES 

Anonymous, "The climbing cutworm in South Australia." Joum. Dept. Agric. So. 

Australia, vol.54: pp. 184-189, 4 figs. Nov. 1950. Biology, phenology and control of 

Heliothis armigera. 
Anonymous, "Cabbage white butterfly parasites." Joum. Dept. Agric. So. Australia, vol.55: 

p.68, 1 fig. Sept. 1951. Successful release of Apanteles rubecula for control of Pieris 

rapce. [P.B.] 
Anonymous, "Tomato stem borer." Agric. Gaz. New So. Wales, vol.65: pp. 105-106, 

2 figs. Feb. 1954. Biology and control of Gnorimoschema plcesiosema. 
Armitage, John, "A rare British butterfly." Country Life, vol.112: p.475, 2 figs. 15 Aug. 

1952. Maculinea arion. 

Beaufoy, S. & E. M., "The Painted Lady invasion." Country Life, vol.111: p. 1012, 5 

figs. 4 April 1952. Vanessa cardui; good figures of all stages. [P.B.] 
Beaufoy, S. & E. M., "A butterfly on the edge of its range." Country Life, vol.110: p. Ill, 

9 figs. 6 July 1951. Melitcea cinxia; good figures of all stages. [P.B.] 
Bellinger, Peter F., "Attraction of Zebra males by female pupae." Lepid. News, vol.8: 

p.102. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Blanchard, M., "Procede de chasse original et observations sur Hyalina = Deuterohyalina 

[sic!] albida Esp." [in French]. Bull. Soc. Ent. Mulhouse, 1954: pp.30-31. April 1954. 

Observations on the psychid H. albida. An object which has been in contact with a 

virgin female is attractive to the males. [P.B.J 
Bohart, Richard M., "Sod webworms and other lawn pests of California." Hilgardia. 

vol.17: pp. 267-308. 1947. Life history and habits of Crambus bonifatellus and C. 

sperryellus, with lesser references to several other lawn pests. [J.T.] 
Bucher, Gordon E., "Biotic factors of control of the European fir budworm, Choristoneura 

murinana (Hbn.) (n.comb.), in Europe." Canad. Joum. Agric. Sci.. vol.33: pp. 448-469, 

1 pi., 2 figs. Sept./Oct. 1953- Distribution, phenology, and natural enemies; records 

numerous parasites and a new virus disease. [P.B.] 
Conway, Patrick J., "On butterflies and crab spiders." Lepid. News, vol.8: p. 28. 25 

June 1954. 
Coombe, B. G, "Insect pests and diseases of grape vines in South Australia." Joum. 

Dept. Agric. So. Australia, vol.53: pp. 279-293, 17 figs. Feb. 1950. Biology and 

control of Tortrix postvittana, cutworms, Phalcenoides glycine, Hippotion celerio; 

some stages figured. [P.B.] 
Doutt, Richard L., "The suitability of insect-conditioned plant tissues as habitats for 

successive insect species." Pan-Pacific Ent., vol.24: pp.121-222. 1948. Gnorimoschema 

baccharisella (Gelechiidse) forms galls which are later invaded by Black Scale. [J.T.] 
Duerden, J. C. "Stem borers of cereal crops at Kongua, Tanganyika, 1950-52." E. Afr. Agric. 

Joum., vol.19: pp. 105-119. Oct. 1953. Biology and control of Busseola fusca and 

Chilo zonellus (the latter new to Africa). [P.B.] 
Edel'man, N. M., "Influence of feeding conditions on the development of the gypsy 

moth (Lymantria dispar L.) and the poplar leaf beetles (Aielasoma populi L. tremulae 

L.)" [in Russian]. Ent. Obozr., vol.33: pp.36-46. 1953. [Not seen.] 
Edwards, G R., "Insect pests of vegetable crops. I. II. Insect pests of potatoes. III. 

Insect pests of beans. IV. Insect pests of tomatoes." Joum. Dept. Agric. So. Australia. 

vol.53: pp.544-554, 17 figs.; vol.54: pp.19-24, 68-73, 343-348, 382-390, 50 figs. 

July, Aug., Sept. 1950, Feb., March 1951. Biology and control of destructive insects, 



128 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

including Pieris rapce, Plusia spp., Plutella maculipennis, Gnorimoschema operculella, 

Zizeeria labradus, Heliothis armigera. [P.B.] 
Finney, Glen L., Stanley E. Flanders, & Harry S. Smith, "Mass culture of Macrocentrus 

ancylivorus and its host, the potato tuber moth." Hilgardia, vol.17: pp.437 483. 1947. 

Interesting account of methods for raising Potato Tuber Moths in any amount needed. 

[J.T.] 
Geispits, R. F., "Reaction of monovoltine Lepidoptera to the length of day" [in Russian]. 

Ent. Obozr., vol.33: pp. 17-31. [Not seen.] 
Gray, P. H. H., "Effects of humidity during growth of Pieris rapce larvae." Lepid. News, 

vol.8: pp.88-90. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Guppy, Richard, "Some host plant records derived from rearing experiments." Lepid. 

News, vol.8; p.101. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Hackray, J., "Elevage de Chloroclysta miata L." [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: pp.23- 

24. 1954. Breeding of C. miata ( Geometridae, Larentiinae). 
Harrison-Gray, M., "Tropical moths in a London flat." Country Life, vol.109: pp. 468-469, 

6 figs. 16 Feb. 1951. Figures larvae & adults of Actias selene & Attacus edwardsi. 
Hessel, Sidney A., "A guide to collecting the plant-boring larvae of the genus Papaipema 

(Noctuidae)." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.57-63. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Hopf, Alice L., "Sex differences observed in larvae of Danaus berenice." Lepid. News, 

vol.8: pp.123-124. 20 Oct. 1954. 
Hutchinson, J. B., "New evidence on the origin of the old world cottons." Heredity, 

vol.8: pp. 225-241, 4 figs. Aug. 1954. Bases conclusion that Gossypium herbaceum 

var. africanum is native to Africa on assumption that it is the only host plant on which 

Diparopsis castaneum can have become distinct from other species of the genus. 

[See Pearson's comments, below.] [P.B.] 
Hyde, George E., "Some winter moths." Country Life, vol.109: pp.332-333, 8 figs. 

2 Feb. 1951. Figures larvae and adults of some winter geometers in Britain. [P.B.] 
Hyde, George E., "A rare woodland butterfly." Country Life, vol.109: p. 1889, 5 figs. 

15 June 1951. Figures all stages of Strymonidia pruni. 
Hyde, George E., "A striking woodland butterfly." Country Life, vol.110: p. 507, 6 figs. 

17 Aug. 1951. Figures all stages of Argynnis paphia. 
Hyde, George E., "Lovers of the sun." Country Life, vol.110: p. 994, 3 figs. 28 Sept. 

1951. Habits of Colias croceus, with notes on C. hyale & C. australis in Britain. [P.B.] 
Hyde, George E., "Hibernating butterflies." Country Life, vol.111: p. 85, 4 figs. 1952. 

Nymphalis io, Aglais urticce, Gonepteryx rhamni, Polygonia c-album. 
Hyde, George E., "A northern butterfly." Country Life, vol.111: p.1649, 4 figs. 30 May 

1952. Biology of Coenonympha tullia. 

Hyde, George E., "A newly established moth." Country Life, vol.115: p.1416, 4 figs. 

6 May 1954. Figures larva (on oak) and adults of Lunar Double-stripe Moth. 
Iwase, Taro, "Synopsis of the known life histories of Japanese butterflies." Lepid. News, 

vol.8: pp.95-100. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Judd, W. W., "A study of the population of insects emerging as adults from the 

Dundas Marsh, Hamilton, Ontario, during 1948." Amer. Midi. Nat., vol.49: pp.801- 

824. 1953. Among the adult insects obtained during the course of this study were five 

species of nymphuline moths. [J.T.] 
Latham, Roy, "The foodplant of Legna perditalis." Lepid. News, vol.8: p.27. 25 June 

1954. 
Lozovoi, D. I., & M. B. Imedadze, "Principal oak pests of the order Lepidoptera in 

eastern Georgia" [in Russian]. Soobshch. Akad. Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, vol.14: pp. 289- 

294. 1953. [Not seen.] 
Martyn, E. J., "An outbreak of Oxycanus fuscomaculatus Walker on King Island." Journ. 

Austral. Inst. Agric. Sri., vol.16: pp.105-107, 1 fig. 1950. Records economic damage 

to native and introduced pasture grasses on King Island, Tasmania. [I.C.] 
Massee, A. M., "Notes on some interesting insects observed in 1953." Ann. Kept. £. 

Mailing Res. Sta., 1953: pp.162-167. June 1954. Notes on the occurrence and biology 

of JEgeria myopceformis, Enarmonia formosana, Cossus cossus, Aietrocampa margaritaria, 

Orthosia incerta, Blastodacna atra, Argyresthia curvella. Argyrotoza comariana. [P.B.] 
Merino Silva Santisteban, Edgardo, Guillermo Alvarez, & Octavio Velarde Nunez, 

"Pseudoplusia rogationis. nueva amenaza para la agricultura costena" [in Spanish]. 

Agronomia. Lima, vol.19: pp. 105-123, 2 figs. [1954?]. Detailed descriptions of all 

stages and biology. Records a number of parasites. [P.B.] 
Milum, V. G., "Vitula edmandsii as a pest of honeybee combs." Journ. Econ. Ent., 

vol.46: pp.710-711. Aug. 1953. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 129 

Muller, Joseph, "The reaction of Lepidoptera and their larvae to hot weather." Lepid. News, 

vol.8: p.29. 25 June 1954. 
Narayanan, E. S., "Insect pests of stored grain and their control." Indian Farming, 

n.s., vol.3, no.7: pp. 8-13, 26-27, 7 figs. Oct. 1953. Biology and control of Corcyra 

cephalonica & Sitotroga cerealella; figures all stages. [P.B.] 
Narayanan, E. S., "Seasonal pests of crops: the Red-hairy Caterpillar, Amsecta moore: 

Butler and its control." Indian Farming, n.s., vol.3, no. 6: pp.8, 9, 1 fig. Sept. 1953. 

Arctiid, polyphagous; figures all stages. [P.B.] 
Narayanan, E. S., "The root, stem and top borers of sugar cane and the methods of their 

control." Indian Farming, n.s., vol.3: no.l: pp. 8-11, 21, 29-30, 4 figs. April 1953. 

Biology and control of Scirpophaga nivella, Argyria sticticraspis, Emmalocera depressella, 

figures larvae and adults. [P.B.] 
Narayanan, E. S., "Insect pests of the coconut palm and their control." Indian Farming, 

n.s., vol.4, no.2: pp. 8-13, 3 figs. May 1954. Biology and control of Nephantis serinopa: 

figures all stages. Notes on 8 other Lepidoptera attacking coconut. [P.B.] 
Narayanan, E. S., "Seasonal pests of crops: the Anar-butterfly, Virachola isocrates, Fabr." 

Indian Farming, n.s., vol.4, no.l: p. 8, 1 pi. April 1954. Lycaenid, on pomegranate; 

figures all stages. 
Pearson, E. O., "Problems of insect pests of cotton in tropical Africa." Empire Cotton 

Growing Rev., vol.26: pp. 85-99, 3 maps. April 1949. Distribution and biology of 

Diparopsis, Platyedra, & Heliothis spp. on cotton. 
Pearson, E. O., "The host plants of Diparopsis and Sacadodes." Empire Cotton Growing 

Rev., vol.31: pp. 283-284. Oct. 1954. Criticism of Hutchinson's conclusion [see above) 

that Diparopsis castanea evolved on Gossypium herbaceum var. africanum; thinks both 

genera originally fed on Cienfugosia spp. [P.B.] 
Priddy, Ralph B., "Insects reared from Lepidoptera (Hym., Dipt.)." Ent. News, vol.65: 

pp.227-229. 1954. Lists an apparently undescribed species of Apanteles as a parasite of 

Hemaris d. diffinis; also Pseudogaurax anchora (Dipt., Chloropidae) from Thyridopteryx 

ephemercef ormis , probably a scavenger rather than a parasite. [J.T.] 
Puttarudriah, M., "The natural control of the Alfalfa Looper in central California." 

Journ. Econ. Ent., vol.46: p. 723. Aug. 1953. Autographa californica; records 6 

parasites. 
Rawson, George W., "Birds and butterflies or vice versa." Auk, vol.71: pp. 209-211. 

April 1954. Notes on congregations of butterflies at damp spots, and sparrows feeding 

on congregating Papilio rutulus in Alaska. [P.B.J 
Robinson, D. W., "Description, life history and habits of the Western Grape Leaf Skele- 

tonizer, Harrisina brillians B. & McD." Bull. Calif. Dept. Agric, vol.39: pp. 149-151. 

1950. Among other information, it is noted that the pupae overwinter, that the adults 

are short-lived, and that there are two full generations per year. [J.T.] 
Roff, C, & A. R. Brimblecombe, "Pests of the hive and honeybee." Queensland Agric. 

Journ., vol.77: pp.1-8, 10 figs. July 1953. Including biology and control of Larger 

and Lesser Wax Moths; figures adults and early stages. [P.B.] 
Samuelson, G. Allan, "Observations on Recurvaria milleri, the Lodgepole Needle Miner." 

Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.91-93. 17 Sept. 1954. 
Sarlet, L., "Sur le jaune du genre Colias" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.53: pp. 86-93. 

"1953" [1954]. Considerations on the yellow color of the genus Colias, about Pack's 

paper (Cas. Csk. Spol. Ent. 41: 122-123, 1944). The distribution of the genus, the 

habitat, and the evolution (subspecies and "forms") are studied. [P.V.] 
Sarlet, L., "Iconographie des oeufs de Lepidopteres (Faune de Belgique) (suite)" [in 

French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: pp. 17-23. Sept. 1954. Bibliography and description of 

the eggs of Pierris brassicce and P. napi. [P.V.] 
Seidel, Don R., "Two new dipteran parasites of Autographa californica." Pan-Pacific Ent., 

vol.30: p.186. 1954. Madremyia saundersii & Archcetoneura (sic!) archippivora reared 

for the first time from this host. [J.T.] 
Shilling, W. E., "The California Orange Dog." Calif. Citrograph, vol.39: p.229, 2 figs. 

May 1954. Note on biology of Papilio zelicaon; figures larva. 
Smith, Leslie M., & Francis M. Summers, "Propagation of the Oriental Fruit Moth under 

central California conditions." Hilgardia, vol.18: pp.369-387. 1948. A detailed history 

of this important pest species, as recorded from laboratory reared material. [J.T.] 
Smith, Stuart, "New light on the food of birds." Country Life, vol.111: pp. 1662-1663, 

5 figs. 30 May 1952. Reports some spp. of Lepidoptera fed by birds to nestlings; figures 

of Red-backed Shrike with Aglais urticce, Marsh Warbler with Notarcha ruralis. [P.B.I 
Stearns, L. A., "The biology and control of the Nantucket Pine Moth and the European 

Pine Shoot Moth." Journ. Econ. Ent., vol.46: pp. 690-692, 1 fig. Aug. 1953. Rhyacionia 

frustrana, R. buoliana. 



130 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Taylor, Edgar A., "Parasitization of the Salt-marsh Caterpillar in Arizona." Journ. Econ. 
Ent., vol.47: pp. 525-530. June 1954. Estigmene acrcea; records 5 parasites. 

Tilden, J. W., "Microlepidoptera associated with Baccharis pilularis. III. ^geriidae, 
Coleophoridae." Was man n Journ. Biol., vol.12: pp.43-52. 1954. An unidentified 
aegeriid larva proved to be parasitized by the larvaevorid fly, Paramuscopteryx genalis. 
Coleophora viscidiflorella & C. lynosyridella were reared. Portions of the life histories 
are given. Five hymenopterous parasites are listed from Coleophora, with partial life 
history of Microbracon melanaspis (Braconidae) given. [J.T.] 

Tinbergen, N., "The field is our laboratory." Country Life, vol.110: pp.970-972, 7 figs. 
28 Sept. 1951. Good figures of sphingid larvae on foodplants, showing concealing 
patterns. [P.B.| 

Tinbergen, N., "Masters of camouflage." Country Life, vol.110: pp. 1244-1245, 4 figs. 
19 Oct. 1951. Describes experiments with jays as predators of larvae of Ennomos 
quercinaria, E. alniaria, & Biston betularia, which closely resemble twigs. The camou- 
flage was very effective; larvae on foodplant in a cage were only eaten if they moved, 
or if the jay was encouraged by finding several and systematically tried out all 
the "twigs". [P.B.] 

Tripkovic, D., "From the life of the oak caterpillar (Tortrix viridana)" [in Serbian]. 
Nauka i Priroda, vol.6: pp. 436-439. 1949. [Not seen.] 

Webb, D. v. V., "An ecological study of the Wattle Looper." Varming So. Africa, vol.28: 
pp. 385-390, 4 figs. Nov. 1953. Distribution, biology, and control of Achcea lienardi; 
figures early stages and series of adults. Larvae polyphagous; adults pierce various fruits. 

Zaguliaev, A. K., "Tineid moth (Lepidoptera, Tineidae) is a new pest of commercial 
raw wool" [in Russian]. Zool. Zhurn., vol.33: pp.452-460. 1954 [Not seen.] 

G. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR 

Rehm, Marianne, "Sekretionsperioden neurosekretorischer Zellen im Gehirn vom Efihes- 
tia kuhniella" [in German]. Zeitschr. Naturforscb., vol. 5b: pp. 167-169. 2 figs. 1950. 
Demonstrates relationship between activity cycle of neurosecretory cells in brain and 
molting and metamorphosis. [P.B.] 

Richards, A. Glenn, "Studies on arthropod cuticle. VII. Patent and masked carbohydrate 
in the epicuticle of insects." Science, vol.115: pp. 206-208, 7 figs. 22 Feb. 1952. 
Carbohydrates, of unknown nature, in epicuticle of Galleria, etc. [P.B.] 

Risler, H., "Kernvclumenanderungen in der Raupenepidermis von Ptychopoda seriata" 
[in German]. Zeits. Naturf., vol. 3b: pp. 129-131, 5 figs. 1948. Reports changes in 
nuclear size in larval and pupal epidermal cells. [P.B.] 

Roeder, Kenneth D., "Movements of the thorax and potential changes in the thoracic 
muscles of insects during flight." Biol. Bull., vol.101: pp.96- 106, 4 figs. Apr. 1951. 
Simultaneous recording of changes in shape of thorax and potential changes in muscles 
showed correspondence in spikes between the two in Agrotis sp.; no such corres- 
pondence in fly and wasp which have much more rapid wing beat. [P.B.] 

Roeder, Kenneth D., ed., Insect Physiology, xiv + 1100 pp., 257 figs. New York: John 
Wiley & Sons Inc. 1953. 

Sakaguchi, Bungo, "On the nature of the pigments in the epidermal tissues of the Eri- 
silkworm." Nat. Inst. Genetics {Japan), Ann. Kept., no. 3: pp.32-34. 1953 Carotinoid 
pigments (probably xanthophyll and carotin) pass from gut through blood into integu- 
ment in Eri-silkworm but never in true Silkworm. However integumentary pterin 
pigments are similar in both species. [C.R.] 

Salt, R. W., "Time as a factor in the freezing of undercooled insects. "Canad. Journ. Res., 
Sect. D, vol.28: pp. 285-291. Oct. 1950. Study of factors determining cold resistance in 
wintering insects, including Loxostege sticticalis, Agrotis orthogonia. [P.B.] 

Sanborn, Richard C, "Pyridine nucleotides and flavin compounds in the adult develop- 
ment of Cecropia Silk-moths." Anat. Rec, vol. 113: pp. 562-563. Aug. 1952. Abstract 
only. 

Sankar, D. V. Siva, & P. S. Sarma, "Studies on biotin: Part I. Replacement of biotin in 
the nutrition of the Rice Moth larva (Corcyra cephalonica St.)." Journ. Sci. Indust. 
Res., vol.lOB: pp. 294-298. Dec. 1951. Dietary effects of biotin deficiency and effec- 
tiveness of some substitute foods. [P.B.] 

Sarkisian, S. M., "Effect of parental environmental conditions on the productivity of the 
Bombyx mori progeny" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.79: pp.5 13-5 15. 
1951. 

Sarkisian, S. M., "On the biological effect of heterospermic insemination in animals" 
[in Russian]. Zhurn. Obshch. Biol., vol.13: pp. 311-318. July/ Aug. 1952. Bombyx 
mori. [Not seen. J 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 131 

Schmidt, Edmond L., "An analysis of the metamorphosis hormone of Lepidoptera by the 

method of tissue culture." Anat. Rec. vol.111: pp.5 17-5 18. Nov. 1951. Abstract only. 

Schneidermann, Howard A., & Carroll M. Williams, "The physiology of insect diapause. 

VIII. Qualitative changes in the metabolism of the Cecropia Silkworm during diapause 
and development." Biol. Bull., vol.106: pp. 210-227, 6 figs. April 1954. Measure- 
ment of respiration of cyanide-treated animals shows that pupal respiration, except for 
abdominal muscles, is mediated by some enzyme other than cytochrome oxidase; the 
latter is the terminal oxidase of adults, and becomes active at the termination of 
diapause [P.B.] 

Schneidermann, Howard A., & Carroll M. Williams, "The physiology of insect diapause. 

IX. The cytochrome oxidase system in relation to the diapause and development of the 
Cecropia Silkworm." Biol. Bull., vol.106: pp. 238-252, 1 fig. April 1954. Growth 
and metamorphosis are dependent upon cytochrome oxidase-mediated metabolism, only 
the pupal maintenance metabolism being independent of this enzyme. [P.B.] 

Shobnikova, E. A., & A. B. Gintsburg, "Histochemistry of nucleic acids during the pro- 
cess of development and functioning of the silk-producing gland in Anthercea pernyi G." 

[in Russian]. Arkhiv. Anat. Gist. Embriol., vol.31: pp. 56-64. Jan. /March 1954. 

[Not seen.] 
Shoumatoff, Nicholas, "The excelsior complex." Lepid. News, vol.7: pp. 38-40. 27 July 

1953. 
Sirotina, M. I., "Origin of normal blood components in healthy larvae and adults of the 

Oak Silkworm and in those affected with yellow disease" [in Russian]. Dolk. Vses. 

Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.14 . no. 4: pp. 22-28. 1949. [Not seen.] 
Sisakian, N. M., "On the synthesis of protein substances in the vital process" [in Russian]. 

Priroda, vol.42, no. 10: pp. 49-53. Oct. 1953. Bombyx mori. [Not seen.] 
Sisakian, N. M., & E. B. Kuvaeva, "Metabolism of hemolymph of the silkworm in the 

process of metamorphosis" [in Russian]. Biokhimiia. vol.18: pp. 354-362. May/June 

1953- [Not seen.] 
Skoptsov, A. G., "Intraspecific behaviour of insects living in group societies" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.93: pp. 205-208. Nov. 1953. Including Galleria, Lymantria. 

[Not seen.] 
Smolin, A. N., "Phosphorus compounds in the organism of the Oak Silkworm Anthercea 

pernyi G. at the various stages of its development" [in Russian]. Biokhimiia, vol.17: 

pp.6 1-68. Feb. 1952. [Not seen]. 
Steinhaus, Edward A., "Taxonomy of insect viruses." Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol.56: 

pp.517-537, 4 pis. 31 Mar. 1953. Figures many species. 
Sundaram, T. K., R. Radhakrishnamurty, E. R. B. Shanmugasundaram, & P. S. Sarma, 

"Tryptophan metabolism in Rice Moth larva {Corcyra cephalonica St.)." Proc. Soc. 

Exper. Biol. Med., vol.85: pp.544-546, 1 fig. Dec. 1953. 
Sundaram, T. K., & P. S. Sarma, "Tryptophane metabolism in Rice Moth larva {Corcyra 

cephalonica St.)." Nature, vol.172: pp. 627-628. 3 Oct. 1953. 
Sussman, Alfred S., "Tyrosinase and the respiration of pupae of Platysamia cecropia L." 

Biol. Bull., vol.102: pp. 39-47. Feb. 1952. Enzyme not involved in pupal respiration. 

[P.B.] 
Sussman, Alfred S., "Studies of an insect mycosis. V. Color changes accompanying 

parasitism in Platysamia cecropia." Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.45: pp. 638-644, 3 figs. 

Dec. 1952. Darkening of blood in animals attacked by Aspergillus. [P.B.] 
Tarasevich, L. M., "Forms of phosphorus and nitrogen in healthy caterpillars of Mul- 
berry Silkworm {Bombyx mori) and those affected with yellow disease" [in Russian]. 

Biokhimiia, vol.17: pp. 282-287. May/June 1952. [Not seen.] 
Tarasevich, L. M., "Yellow jaundice and metabolism in Mulberry Silkworm" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.18, no.4: pp.35-4l. 1953. [Not seen]. 
Tassoni, Joseph, "The nitrogen to protein conversion factors for the pupae of the moth 

Telea polyphemus Cramer." Anat. Rec, vol.111: p.446. Nov. 1951. Abstract only. 
Tassoni, Joseph P., "The nitrogen to protein conversion factor for pupae of the moth, 

Telea polyphemus Cramer." Physiol. Zool, vol.25: pp. 259-262. July 1952. Nitrogen 

content of proteins averaged 16.16%. [P.B.] 
Telfer, William H., "Antigenic analysis of insect blood {Platysamia cecropia)." Fed. Proc. 

Fed. Amer. Soc. Exper. Biol., vol.12: pp.734-738, 3 figs. Sept. 1953. 
Telfer, William H., "Immunological studies of insect metamorphosis. II. The role of a 

sex-limited blood protein in egg formation by the Cecropia Silkworm." Joum. Gen. 

Physiol., vol.137: pp.539-558, 6 figs. 20 March 1954. Reports a protein in the blood 

of adult females which is concentrated in yolk of eggs. [P.B.] 



132 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

Tiensuu, L., "On the tarsal chemical sense, and its significance and distribution in the class 
Insecta." Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: p. 253. March 1953. Summary only. Men- 
tions new experiments (among Lepidoptera, with Noctuidae). [A.D.] 

Tinbergen, N., "Pijlstaarten" [in Dutch |. Levende Natuur, vol.51: pp.1 13-1 15, 2 figs. 
Sept. 1948. Behavior studies of Smerinthus ocellata (Sphingidae) . [A.D.] 

Tinbergen, N., "Zebrarupsen" [in Dutch]. Levende Natuur, vol.52: pp.4l-43. March 
1949. Behavior studies in larvae of Euchelia jacobcece (Zygcenidce). [A.D.] 

Tsesche, Rudolf, & Friedhelm Korte, "Die Synthese des Erythropterins" [in German]. 
Chem. Berichten, vol.84: pp. 77-83, 1 fig. 1951. Synthesis of red pigment of pierid 
wings. [P.B.] 

Tsesche, Rudolf, & Friedhelm Korte, "Uber Pteridine. IV Mitteil. : Zur Konstitution des 
Chrysopterins und Mesopterins" [in German]. Chem. Berichten, vol.84: pp. 641-648, 
3 figs. 1951. Wing pigments of Gonepteryx rhamni. [P.B.] 

Ushatinskaia, R. S., "Course of certain processes in the insect body at low temperatures" 
[in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.68: pp.1 101-1 104, 1 fig. 1949. 

Warham, John, "How do insects fly?" Country Life, vol.117: pp.1 165-1 166, 8 figs. 5 
May 1955. Popular article; photographs of several moths in flight. [P.B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "The hydrogen ion concentration in the alimentary canal of larval 
and adult Lepidoptera." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. B, vol.12: pp.428-437. Nov. 1949. 
Tests on two carnivorous larvae (Stathmopoda melanochra, Titanoceros thermoptera) 
and 40 spp. of adults (16 families); pH always alkaline. [P.B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "The occurrence of barium and strontium in insects." Australian Journ. 
Sci. Res. B, vol.4: pp.144-162, 2 pis. May 1951. Studies on Ephestia, Tineola, Titano- 
ceros, Pieris, Heteronympha, Precis, among other insects. [P.B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. IV. Absorption and 
elimination of metals by lepidopterous larvae, with special reference to the clothes moth, 
Tineola bisselliella (Humm.)." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. B, vol.5: pp. 143-168, 2 pis., 
8 figs. Feb. 1952. Reports detoxification of metals by formation of insoluble sulphates; 
latter not formed in Plutella or Heteronympha, which may store metals in goblet cells 
in midgut. [P.B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. V. The goblet cells in 
the midgut of larvae of the clothes moth {Tineola bisselliella [Humm.]) and other 
Lepidoptera." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. B., vol.5: pp. 169-177, 3 pis., 1 fig. Feb. 
1952. Histology studied in 18 spp. (17 families). No evidence for goblet cells in other 
orders of insects. [P-B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. VI. The pH and oxidation- 
reduction potential of the alimentary canal of the clothes moth larva {Tineola bisselliella 
(Humm.))." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. B, vol.5: pp.178-188. Feb. 1952. 

Waterhouse, D. F., "Detoxifying mechanisms in clothes moth larvae." Nature, vol.169: 
p. 5 50. 29 Mar. 1952. Larvae of Tineola bisselliella avoid heavy metal poisoning by 
formation of insoluble salts in gut. [P.B.] 

Waterhouse, D. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. VII. Some features of 
digestion in three species of dermestid larvae and a comparison with Tineola larvae." 
Australian Journ. Sci. Res. B, vol.5: pp.444-459, 1 pi. Nov. 1952. 

Wellington, W. G., "Solar heat and polarized light versus the light compass reaction in 
the orientation of insects on the ground." Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.48: pp.67-76, 6 
figs. 18 May 1955. Suggests, as a result of experiments with larvae of Ar chips, Erannis, 
and a sawfly, that solar heat determines the preferred orientation to the sun of these 
insects in the open, and that this orientation is maintained by the perception of plane 
polarized light from the sky. [P.B.] 

Wigglesworth, V. B., "Insect biochemistry." Ann. Rev. Biochem., vol.18: pp. 595-614. 
1949. Review article, covering pigment metabolism and chemistry of the cuticle. [P.B.j 
Wigglesworth, V. B., "Metamorphosis in insects." Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (C), 
vol. 1950-51: pp.78-82. Brief review. 

Yagi, N., "The taxonomic position of the Hesperiidae as derived from the morphology 
of the compound eye." Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: pp. 76-78, figs. March 
1953- The ommatidia in the compound eye of the Hesperiidae show a structure 
remarkably intermediate between that in the butterflies and the moths. Agrees with 
Handlirsch that Hesperiidae form an independent group near to Heterocera and distant 
from Rhopalocera. [A.D.] 
Yokoyama, Tadao, & Margaret L. Keister, "Effects of small environmental changes on 
developing silkworm eggs" Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.46: pp. 218-200. June 1953. 
Effects of reduced atmospheric pressure: increased (X> uptake and earlier hatching. [P.B.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 133 

Zalmanzon, E. S., "Effect of proteases on the nuclear appendages in yellow disease of 

Mulberry Silkworm" [in Russian]. Mikrobiologiia, vol.18: pp. 361-365. July Aug. 

1949. [Not seen.] 
Zebe, Ernst, "Uber den respiratorischen Quotienten der Lepidopteren" [in German]. 

Naturwiss., vol.40: p. 298. May 1953. Demonstrates that species tested use fat as 

energy source, whether stored by larva (Galleria, Anthercea, Mimas) or synthesized 

from sugar by feeding adult (Vanessa, Gonepteryx). [P.B.] 
Zolotarev, E. K., & IU. A. Popel, "Nature and duration of embryonic diapause in 

Bombyx mori L." [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.12, 

no."?: pp.33-36. 1947. [Not seen.] 
Zolotarev, E. K., "Diapause and development of Anthercea pernyi pupae" [in Russian] 

Zool. Zhurn., vol.26: pp. 539-544. Nov./Dec. 1947. [Not seen.] 
Zolotarev, E. K., "Several peculiarities in the development of the Tussah Silkworm 

(Anthercea pernyi G.-M.) in connection with the presence of the diapause in its ontogeny. 

(Material on research on characteristics acquired by the organism during the life 

process)" [in Russian]. Vestnik Moscow Univ., vol.5, no.6: pp. 93-100. June 1950. 

[Not seen.] 

H. MIGRATION 

[Baker, Nelson W.], "The Monarch Butterfly." Museum Talk, Santa Barbara Mus. Nat. 

Hist., vol.28: pp.45-49, 1 fig. 1954. Popular account referring especially to migration 

and winter clustering in California. [P.B.] 
Biezanko, Ceslau M., "Algumas observacoes de Colias lesbia pyrrhothea (Hiibn., 1823) 

Lepidoptera fam. Pieridas nos arredores de Montevideu (Uruguai) e de Pelotas (R.G. 

do Sul — Brazil) em Janeiro de 1947" [in Portuguese]. Agros, vol.2: pp. 51-57, 1 fig 

1949. Reports migrations of C. I. pyrrhothea. [C.R.] 
Common, I. F. B., "A study of the ecology of the adult Bogong Moth, Agrotis infusa 

(Boisd.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), with special reference to its behaviour during 

migration and aestivation." Austral. Journ. Zool., vol.2: pp. 223-263, 4 pis., 14 figs. 

1954. Spring and autumn migrations in opposite directions and gregarious aestivation 

at high altitudes in S.E. Australia enable most of adult population of A. infusa to 

avoid winter breeding areas when suitable larval foodplants are unavailable. [I.C.] 
Knowlton, George F., "Migrations of Vanessa cardui, the Painted Lady Butterfly, through 

Utah." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.17-22. 25 June 1954. 
Kudla, M., "Nalez Deilephila lineata F. var. livornica Esp. v Pferove" [in Czech]. 

Acta Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, vol.48: p. 140. 30 Nov. 1951. One specimen in central 

Moravia. [J.M.] 
Muspratt, V., "Comportement des Vanessa cardui L. a Saint-Jean-de-Luz et leurs migrations 

en 1952" [in French]. Entomologiste, vol.10: pp.45-53. July 1954. Migrations of V. 

cardui in South France, North Italy, & Sahara in 1952 and its behavior in Saint-Jean- 
de-Luz (Pyrenees). [P.V.] 
Stoner, Emerson A., "Further notes on the migration and breeding of Nymphalis cah- 

fornica." Lepid. News, vol.8: p.103. 17 Sept. 1954. 

I. TECHNIQUE 

Beckman, Herman F., Sara M. Bruckart, & Raymond Reiser, "Laboratory culture of the 
Pink Bollworm on chemically defined media." Journ. Econ. Ent., vol.46: pp. 627-630. 
Aug. 1953. Describes technique for rearing Pectinophora gossypiella. 

Bheemeswar, Bharati, & M. Sreenivasaya, "Enzyme systems of the silkworm, Bombyx mori 
Linn.: Part II — A papyrographic method for the detection and characterization of 
peptidases." Journ. Sci. Indust. Res., vol.l3B: pp. 191-194, 2 figs. March 1954. 

Egorov, N. N., N. N. Rubtsova, & T. N. Solozhenikina, "Computing numbers of oak 
leaf rollers from egg deposits" [in Russian]. Lesnoe Khoziaistvo. vol.6, no. 10: pp.47-48. 
Oct. 1953. [Not seen.] 

Flanders, Stanley E., "Simplified method for the study of interacting host-parasite popu- 
lations." Ecology, vol.35: pp. 292-293. April 1954. Directions for experimental cultures 
using Sitotroga cerealella. on grain, and its parasite Tricho gramma. [P.B.] 

Gillham, N. W., "A permanent method of labelling slides." Lepid. News, vol.8: p. 146. 
20 Oct. 1954. 

Grace, T. D. G., "Culture of insect tissues." Nature, vol.174: pp.187-188. 24 July 1954. 
Reports on unsuccessful attempt to grow tissues of Bombyx mori. etc. in vitro. [P.B ] 

Haldane, J. B. S., "An exact test for randomness of mating." Journ. Genet., vol.52: 
pp.63 1-635. Sept. 1954. Mathematical procedure illustrated by application to Sheppard's 
data on Panaxia dominula. [P.B.] 



134 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: nos.3-4 

James, J. Russell, "A sanctuary for caterpillars." Country Life, vol.109: p.633. 2 March 

1951. Recommends water barrier to keep predators out and larvae in; figures adult and 
larva of Attacus atlas. [P.B.] 

Kalmus, H., Simple experiments with insects. 132 pp., 39 figs. London & Toronto: William 

Heinemann Ltd. 1948. Describes techniques for demonstrating reactions of insects, 

including various Lepidoptera. [P.B.] 
Langston, Robert L., "Technique for mass rearing of Harrisina brillians (Zygaenidae)." 

Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.1 1-12. 25 June 1954. 
Le Charles, L., "Note sur les envois d'insectes par la poste" [in French]. Rev. frang. Lepid., 

vol.14: pp. 219-220. Jan. 1955. Note on mailing packages of insects. [P.V.] 
Lorkovic, Z., "L'accouplement artificiel chez les Lepidopteres et son application dans les 

recherches sur la fonction de l'appareil genital des insectes" [in French]. Rev. frang. 

Lepid., vol.14: pp. 138-139. 1954. Same paper already published in the Trans. 9th Int. 

Congr. Ent; see Lepid. Neivs, vol.7, p. 179. [P.V.] 
Newman, L. Hugh, "Why moths fly into the light." Country Life, vol.112: p. 1729, 1 fig- 

28 Nov. 1952. Describes a mercury vapor light trap. Discusses forced reactions of 

moths to bright light source. [P-B.] 
Newman, L., Hugh, Butterfly farmer. 208 pp. 68 pis. London: Phoenix House Ltd. 1953- 

[See review in Lepid. Neivs, vol.8: p. 49]. 
Pronin, George F., "The turgorator, a new device for rearing insects." Lepid. News, 

vol.8: pp.121-123, 1 pi. 20 Oct. 1954. 
Sevastopulo, D. G., "Trap nets for Rhopalocera." Lepid. News, vol.8: p. 26. 25 June 1954. 
Zalesskii, IU. M., "High-speed cinematography of the flight of butterflies" [in Russian]. 

Priroda, Moscow, vol.43, no.10: pp. 98-100. Oct. 1954. [Not seen.] 

I MISCELLANY 

Anonymous, "Gift of Lepidoptera to the American Museum." Ent. News, vol.65: pp. 202- 
203. 1954. The J. B. Smith and G. D. Hulst collections of Lepidoptera, 32,000 speci- 
mens, almost 6,000 species and 1,171 holotypes, given to the American Museum of 
Natural History by Rutgers University. [J.T.] 

Cross, Gwen, Friends and enemies in the garden. Book 4. Caterpillars, moths and butter- 
flies. 20 pp., illus. London & N. Y. : Longmans, Green & Co. (Tropical Library). 1953. 
Outline for elementary schools of the biology of Lepidoptera. [P.B.] 

Larsen, Esther Louise, "Pehr Kalm's description of the Forest Tent Caterpiller, Malacosoma 
disstria Hubn., which during certain years does great damage to both fruit trees and 
forests in North America." Amer. Midi. Nat., vol.46: pp. 760-766. 1951. Interesting in- 
formation on Pehr Kalm's travels in the United States, with a translation of the article 
he wrote on the Tent Caterpillar. [J.T.] 

Learned, Elmer T., "William Prescott Rogers." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.44-45, 1 fig. 
25 June 1954. 

Mankiewicz, Edith, "The action of lipidolytic enzymes of larvae of Galleria mellonella 
on virulent Mycobacterium tuberculosis." Canad. Journ. Med. Sci., vol.30: pp. 106-1 12. 

1952. Enzymes cause reduced growth and morphological changes in tubercle bacillus. 
[P.B.] 

Pfeffer, Ant., "Bibliographic entomologique de la Boheme, de la Moravie et de la Silesie 
pour les annees 1800-1940" [in Czech; French summary]. Act. Soc. Ent. Cechoslovenice, 
vol.47: pp. 231-356. 31 Dec. 1950. Bibliography of applied forest entomology; Lepi- 
doptera see pp.3 10-345. [J.M.] 

Remington, Charles L., "Geoffrey Douglas Hale Carpenter." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp.3 1-43, 
2 figs. 25 June 1954. 

Rungs, Ch., Notice necrologique sur H. Powell" [in French]. C. R. Soc. Nat. Maroc, 
1954: pp. 92-93. Obituary of H. Powell, a collaborator of Ch. Oberthiir in Morocco. 
[P.V.] 

Smith, Marion E., "Philatelic Lepidoptera." Lepid. Neivs, vol.8: pp. 13-16. 25 June 1954. 

Smith, Marion E., "More philatelic Lepidoptera." Lepid. Neivs, vol.9: p. 12. 8 April 1955. 

V'alette, Guillaume, & Hector Huidobro, "Pouvoir histaminoliberateur du venin de la 
chenille processionaire du pin {Thaumatopcea pityocampa Schiff.)" [in French]. C. R. 
Soc. Biol., vol.148: pp. 1605-1607. 1954. Evidence that the urticating hairs of this 
caterpillar contain a histamine-releasing substance. [P.B.] 

Vigneau, P., "Une invasion de chenilles d'Eilema caniola Hb. Observations sur leurs 
proprietes urticantes" [in French]. Rev. frang. Lepid., vol. 14: pp. 249-250. March 1955. 
Invasion of the larvae of E. caniola in the southwest of France in July 1953. These 
larvae are very urticating. [P.V.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 135 

NOTICES 

Lepidopterists' Society members may use this page free of charge to advertise their 

offerings and needs in Lepidoptera. The Editors reserve the right to rewrite notices 

for clarity or to reject unsuitable notices. We cannot guarantee any notices but expect 
all to be bona fide. 

WANTED: living cocoons of the Cecropia silkworm. Will gladly pay $15.00 per 
hundred, plus postage. C. M. Williams, Harvard Biological Laboratories, Cambridge 
38, Mass., U. S. A. 

I would like to hear from foreign collectors that could furnish me various species of 
the "Bird-wing Butterfly," the "Ghost-Moth," and other tropical butterflies. In the 
U. S. A., I wish to have a dozen butterflies from each state, to make a complete col- 
lection. Large species preferred. I have a large number of Illinois specimens for sale 
or exchange. I also have some Polyphemus cocoons, also Cecropia cocoons, for sale 
or trade; these are not large, but are healthy. Mrs. Edith L. Ragsdale, 429 N. Marion 
St., Centralia, 111., U. S. A. 

MORPHO PERSEUS, HECUBA, MENELAUS, and many other Brazilian butterflies 
for sale. Carefully papered with full data, good quality. Assortments on request. 
Jorge Kesselring, Caixa postal 6, Joao Pessoa (Paraiba), BRASIL. 

LEPIDOPTERA — Must dispose of my duplicates, almost all spread. Have over 700 
species to offer, list available. Liberal exchange for desired species. May consider 
sale in bulk. Alex K. Wyatt, 5842 N. Kirby Ave., Chicago 30, Illinois, U. S. A. 

I am open to collect all species of Georgia Rhopalocera; will exchange for Formosan 
Rhopalocera. Also have many papered Papilios. James C. Brooks, 194 Riley Ave., Macon, 
Georgia, U. S. A. 

Would like to exchange. I can offer Japanese and Formosan butterflies and some Japanese 
moths. Wish to have Lepidoptera (esp. butterflies) of all parts of the world. Hiraku 
Horii, No.175, 50-Banchi, Oguracho, Kitashirakawa, Sakyo, Kyoto, JAPAN. 

Wanted: Ova/pupae Everes corny ntas, E. amyntula, Colias eurytheme, Eur e ma lisa, 
Limenitis archippus, Precis lavinia, P. polyxenes asterius, and P. glaucus (preferably from 
black female). Will exchange for British Rhopalocera live ova, pupae or papered speci- 
mens. G. H. Phillips, Post Office, Far Sawrey Ambleside, ENGLAND. 

AN UNNOTICED PAPER BY WILLIAM HENRY EDWARDS 

Andrew Grey Weeks, Jr., published a list of the scientific writings of William 
HENRY Edwards on ten unnumbered pages that precede the title page of volume 2 of his 
Illustrations of Diurnal Lepidoptera with Descriptions (The University Press, Cambridge, 
Mass.; 1911). DOS PASSOS added to this list seven titles that had been overlooked by 
WEEKS, at the end of "The Entomological Reminiscences of William Henry Edwards" 
(Journ. N.Y. Ent. Soc. 59: 129-186; 1951). I have just realized that another paper should 
be added: 

1875 — List of species of Lepidoptera collected in 1871, 1872, 1873 and 1874 in 
California, Nevada, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, and Arizona, identified by 
William H. Edwards. Report Survey ivest of the 100th Meridian, Vol. 5 : pp.7 9 1-794. 
Washington, D. C. 1875. 

Although this paper appears to be an integral part of Mead's report, my copy of Kirby's 
Catalogue which had belonged to MEAD has a note in it in MEAD'S writing that clearly 
credits the list to W. H. EDWARDS. 

F. M. BROWN, Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo., U. S. A. 



136 Vol.10: nos.3-4 

THE 1956 ANNUAL MEETING 

This year's meeting will be held at the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York City on Thursday, 27 December, in conjunction with the meetings of the 
Entomological Society of America and other affiliates of the American Association for 
the Advancement of Science. Preliminary plans call for a single day of sessions, in order 
that members will be able to attend as many sessions as possible of other societies meeting 
that week in New York. The program is expected to include a symposium on a timely 
subject, round table discussions of ultra-violet light as a moth attractant and the hand- 
pairing technique, an open paper session, the business meeting, films on Lepidoptera, 
a dinner, and an evening social session. It is hoped that most members in the New York 
area will attend all or some of the day's program and that as many others as possible will 
come. The Program Chairman is Sidney A. HESSEL, and the Local Arrangements Chairman 
is Mrs. Alice L. Hopf. 



NOMINATIONS FOR 1957 OFFICERS 



The Secretary has transmitted the following list of nominees for 1957 for vacancies 
among the officers and councillors, as submitted by the Nominating Committee (R. R. 
McElvare, Chairman, J. A. COMSTOCK, A. DlAKONOFF) : 

President: ALEXANDER B. Klots, New York, U. S. A. 

1st Vice President: Hahn W. CAPPS, Washington, D.C., U. S. A. 

Vice President: Dalibor Povolny, Brno, Czechoslovakia 

Vice President: I. F. B. COMMON, Canberra, Australia 

Executive Council (1957-59): H. INOUE, Yokosuka, Japan 

Executive Council (1957-59) : J. W. TlLDEN, San Jose, Calif., U. S. A. 

Ballots are being mailed with the dues notice to all members of the Society. 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF MEMBERS 

Alspaugh, Ronald D., 521 - 17th Street, N.W., Canton, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Anderson, William A., (Dr.), 509 Spring Ave., Lutherville, Maryland, U. S. A. 

Beatty, George H., Ill, Dept. of Entomology and Zoology, Pennsylvania State University, 

University Park, Penna., U. S. A. 
Bourliere, F. ( Dr. ) , Faculte de Medicine de Paris, Lab. de Physiologic 45 Rue des 

Saint-Peres, Paris 6, FRANCE. 
Caldwell, E. (Mrs.), 628 So. Yewdell St., Philadelphia 43, Penna., U. S. A. 
Crow, Peter N., 11 Roundwood Park, Harpenden, Herts., ENGLAND. 
Denmark, H. A., State Plant Board of Florida, 507 Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Florida, 

U. S. A. 
Dusek, R. Val, 16 Lenox Ave., Lynbrook, L.I., NY., U. S. A. 

Gardiner, Frances P. (Mrs.), 3901 Kennison Ave., Louisville 7, Kentucky, U. S. A. 
Miller, Lee D., 3331 Franklin Ave., Des Moines, Iowa, U. S. A. 
Monk, Harry C, 406 Ovaca St., Nashville 5, Tenn., U. S. A. 
Philip, Kenelm W., 29 Huntington St., New Haven 11, Conn., U. S. A. 
Rethschulte, Earnest F., 3057 Oak Forest Drive, Baltimore 14, Md., U. S. A. 
Seiler, Denis (Dr.), 18 Promenade de la Seille, Metz - Queleu (Moselle), FRANCE. 
Slater, Charles P., 7430 Village Drive, Prairie Village, Kansas, U. S. A. 
Suzuki, 239 Bokke, Ichikawa-shi, Chiba-ken, JAPAN. 



The Lepidopterists' News 



Volume 10 1956 Number 5 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS TO THE THIRD PACIFIC SLOPE MEETING 

OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Mr. Chairman, members, and guests of the Lepidopterists' Society — 
I am very grateful for the honour you have given me by electing me presi- 
dent of our Society for 1956. As your president this year, I send rather than 
bring my greetings. It is a very real disappointment to me that I am not able 
to attend the Third Pacific Slope meeting and participate in the symposium 
that is to be the main feature of your program, and in the discussions on 
the contributed papers. Unfortunately, this year my field work and many 
duties in connection with the forthcoming Tenth International Congress of 
Entomology, that will be held later this month in Montreal, Quebec, have 
made it impossible for me to attend your meeting. However, I offer some 
comments for thought and discussion in the few pages that follow. 

The theme of your symposium "the various methods of approach to 
taxonomic solutions" is a complex one, and one that continually confronts 
all workers in systematics. The approaches to the solution of problems on 
species recognition are many, and often complex in closely allied species. 
The usual and basic method for distinguishing species is by external or in- 
ternal anatomy (or morphology, if you wish). Comparative anatomy may be 
regarded as the basic or primary tool for research in taxonomy. As such it 
might appropriately be considered as the plough to turn the fundamental 
furrow of taxonomic investigation. However, this approach often has its limita- 
tions, especially in the investigation of closely allied or sibling species. For 
example, the elucidation of the biological status of such "well known" species 
as the papilios or nymphalids of the Cordilleran or Rocky Mountain System, 
requires much more refined implements. I firmly believe that even though 
the "plough" is the foundation for basic taxonomic investigation, several 
keen, small, scalpels are required to distinguish the numerous cryptic taxon- 
omic entities that confront us in almost all insect groups. The most important 
of these fine implements is, I believe, the investigation and observation of 
the behaviour, or life history in detail, of populations in their natural en- 
vironment, particularly those populations in different ecological niches. It is, 
of course, easier to investigate obviously different macro environments than 
it is to study the obscure differences prevailing in micro environments. How- 
ever, I believe, that any difference in behaviour is significant at the specific 
or sub-specific level, and that ecological correlation, if definable, is helpful 
but subordinate. It is impossible to visualize two ecologically different insect 
populations that do not also exhibit differences in behaviour. Therefore, de- 

137 



138 Freeman: Presidential address Vol.10: no.5 

railed field observations often provide the best approach to practical or 
theoretical insect taxonomy. 

An explanation of the multitude of behaviouristic and morphological 
complexities that we observe is sometimes sought through studies of inheri- 
tance, chromosome morphology, gene flow, gene constellations, and gene 
frequency within populations. These important and fundamental branches of 
biology, genetics, and cytology, help to explain some of the differences we see, 
as well as some we don't see, but there is doubt in my mind that even these 
fine scalpels can reveal all differences in the behaviour of organisms. 

Another method of analyzing our observations is by utilizing statistics 
This method, like all the others, appears to have its limitations, not through the 
fault of the science of mathematics, but through the frequent lack of data, 
and through the biological phenomenon of the persistence . of rradierts in 
biological entities, which, by the process of organic and inorganic evolution, 
are never static. 

Still other aids to taxonomy may be found in the sciences of chemistry, 
physiology, geology, and meteorology. All of these together would no doubt 
afford the best method for scientific analysis of many taxonomic problems. 
However, such a concentrated approach using all known disciplines and tech- 
niques is impractical as a rule. Let us go back to behaviour. This is some- 
thing that every individual worker can observe. Differences in the life his- 
tories and behaviour of insect populations in different regions may be found, 
regardless of the proximity of those regions. 

During the last few years, I have been studying the minute Lepidoptera 
that mine the leaves of plants. Here is a field of endeavour that illustrates the 
importance and ease of recognition of behaviour differences. Here also is a 
field where each of us can make an important scientific contribution in our 
own back yard or nearby woodlot. The vast field of taxonomy of the leaf 
miners is almost untouched in the Cordilleran Region. New species are every- 
where awaiting discovery. The moths are usually beautiful little jewels of 
biological splendor. They require little space to house as a collection and 
afford an opportunity for taxonomic investigation at a high level in the 
light of modern systematics. They also challenge one's ingenuity and ability as 
a technician in lepidopterology. Special problems are encountered in pinning 
and spreading some of them whose wing expanse is just over 2 mm. 

This hastily prepared address was written during a rainy day on the 
north shore of Lake Erie, in the Carolinian Zone, where I am at present col- 
lecting lepidopterous leaf-miners and other moths, making observations on 
their behaviour and the kinds of mines they construct. A substantial pro- 
portion of the species reared appear to be new to science. 

Before closing I should like to extend an invitation to all of you to 
attend the forthcoming International Congress of Entomology. There, I 
hope you may learn, among other things, something of the taxonomy and 
distribution of the various species of butterflies that inhabit the land of the 
midnight sun. 

T. N. Freeman 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 139 

A NEW SPECIES OF PAPAIPEMA (NOCTUID^E) FROM NEW JERSEY 

by Otto Buchholz 

The new species described below is a member of the Papaipema necopina 
Grote group, whose species are very difficult to tell apart by characters of 
the color and pattern; the foodplant and genitalia seem to be the best means 
of separating them. 

Papaipema mulleri Buchholz, new species 

Head, thorax, and the upper side of the primaries dark gray with brown reflections; 
the subterminal space with a violet tint and a faint t.p. line. Anterior tuft adze-shaped. 
Abdomen and upperside of the secondaries very light gray. Underside of the wings 
the same tone as the upperside, darkening gradually toward the outer margin. No 
external characters were found by which the adults could with certainty be separated 
from P. necopina. 

Male genitalia (Holotype): Uncus flat, broad, widest medially, tapering apically 
to an elongate truncate point, with lateral pieces at base of uncus separated from uncus 
by their own width; anal tube lightly sclerotized, with a well-defined, roughly U- 
shaped subscaphium; penicular region of tegumen rounded laterally; vinculum elongate, 
tapering; juxta a subtriangular plate, continued dorsally as a wide, broad, transtilla-like 
structure, scobinate medially, and with lateral sclerotized arms that extend antero-laterally 
into the valves, then swing posteriorly to form the claspers. Valves with large, heavily 
spined, bifurcate cucullus, the lateral arm of which is of even width, then sharply 
constricted apically, terminating in a curved spine; clasper bifurcate, the arms long 
and pointed, the posterior arm with numerous teeth on outer margin; sacculus very 
broad, with distal margin of sclerotized area truncate, with prominent clavus. ^Edeagus 
elongate, very slightly tapered distally; vesica armed with a single stout spine medially, 
and with two terminal bands of well-defined teeth, terminating in a rounded scler- 
otized protuberance on the left side. 

The genitalia of this species are similar to those found in P. necopina Grote, but 
a number of differences are present. In necopina the uncus tapers more or less evenly 
to a blunt point, while in the present species the apex is elongate and truncate; the 
lateral pieces of the uncus are just barely separated from the base of the uncus in 
necopina, while they are much farther out in this species. The subscaphium and the 
dorsal transtilla-like structure are more strongly developed in the new species, and 
the ventral plate of the juxta is better defined and distinctly triangular. The lateral 
arm of the cucullus in necopina tapers in width, terminating in a blunt point, while 
in this species this arm is broader, and is sharply constricted apically, terminating in 
a curved spine. The terminal bands of spines in the vesica are more strongly toothed in 
this species than in necopina, and the ventral band in the latter species is smaller and 
more weakly represented. 

Described from 10 specimens (7 males and 3 females), all ex-larvae 
reared from Helianthus strumosus L., and all taken by Joseph Muller along 
highway 206 about six miles north of Stanhope, Sussex County, New Jersey. 

HOLOTYPE, male, ex-pupa 9 August 1951; ALLOTYPE, female, ex-pupa 
4-5 September 1951; PARATYPES, 6 males and 2 females ex-pupae 30 and 
31 August and 4, 5, 8, 9, and 16 September 1951. The Holotype is being 
deposited in the American Museum of Natural History in New York. For 
the present the Allotype and 2 male and 1 female paratypes are retained in 



140 BUCHHOLZ: New Papaipema Vol.10: no.5 

the collection of the author; the other 4 male and 1 female paratypes are 
in the collection of Joseph Muller. 

The larva is in general usual for Papaipema in color and markings. The 
dorsal line is unbroken. A black line on the side of the head extends along 
the thoracic shield. The foodplant is entered three inches above ground level, 
and the burrow extends to one inch below ground level. The larva causes no 
swelling of the plant. It leaves the plant for pupation in the ground. The 
adults emerge two weeks earlier than its nearest ally, P. necopina. The food- 
plants of P. necopina are Helianthus divaricatus L. and Cacalia tuberosa Nutt. 

I am pleased to dedicate this species to my friend Joseph Muller, of 
Lebanon, New Jersey, who did all the field work. My thanks go to Dr. 
Frederick H. Rindge, Associate Curator of Insects, of the American Museum 
of Natural History, who studied the genitalia and prepared the entire de- 
scription of the genitalia. 

493 Markthaler Place, Roselle Park, N. J., U. S. A. 




INFRA-SUBSPECIFIC NAMES AMONG PARNASS1US 

by F. Martin Brown 

For nomenclatorial purists "form" names of lesser stature than subspecies 
are annoying synonymic parasites. Form names serve a purpose for the serious 
student of variation fully as great as species and subspecies names. Both types 
of names are useful only because they stand for an otherwise cumbersome 
description. When a type of variation from the normal pattern occurs throughout 
a group of species or even a group of genera — such as albinic females among 
Pieridse — it is very much worth while calling attention to this phenomenon. 
Such albinism has been investigated and found to be genetic. Similar less con- 
spicuous variation crosses specific lines among butterflies. In time we may learn 
if they, too, are genetic or physiologic reactions to environment that can occur 
within the strictures imposed by the genes. The darkening of some butterflies 
when exposed to cold during immature stages falls within physiologic reactions. 
Infra-subspecific names are useful in such genetic and physiologic studies. 

Perhaps the greatest nomenclatorial furor among American taxonomists has 
been stirred up by the application of infra-subspecific names by European stu- 
dents of the genus Parnassius. Until recently I looked down my nose at such 
naming. My change of mind came about when I started to make a detailed 
study of variation among Parnassius phcebus Fabricius (the species best known 



1956 The Leptdopterists' News 141 

in North America as P. smintbeus) as it occurs in the Rocky Mountains. Anyone 
who has collected several dozen specimens of this species at a single locality will 
realize the bewildering variation that occurs. The task I set myself is to bring 
some order to our understanding of this and to determine if any of it is geo- 
graphically constant enough to be used as the basis for a better understanding 
of subspeciation in the Rocky Mountain fragment of the species. 

OTTO Bang-Haas (1915) first applied infra-subspecific names to 
Pamassius in such a way that these names crossed subspecific and specific lines. 
Bryk and Eisner expanded the system enormously in their various articles in 
Pamassiana and elsewhere. Recently Eisner (1955) has published a summary 
of these names. Since this article is not easily accessible to most American col- 
lectors, I here present the nomina collectiva used with a translation from German 
of the definitions: 

1 ) Affecting all wings 

f. "magna" — markedly large. 

f. "minuscula" — markedly small. 

f. "nigricans" — wing basically darkened. 

f. "umbratilis" — hyaline, darkened overall. 

f. "albicans" — wing basically pale. 

f. "flavicans" — wing basically yellowish. 

f. "diaphana" — extraordinarily thinly scaled. 

f. "inversa" — female with male pattern. 

f. "perversa" — male with female pattern. 

2) Forewing 

f. "marginata" — marginal band unusually wide. 

f. "immarginata" — without hyaline marginal band. 

f. "niphetodis" — hyaline marginal band invaded by white scales. 

f. "seminiphetodis" — the white scaling along the margin extending inward as wedges. 

f. "pura" — without the inner-margin spot on the forewing. 

f. "primopicta" — the first costal spot red-centered. 

f. "secundopicta" — the second costal spot red-centered. 

f. "tripicta" — three red-centered costal spots. 

f. "quadropicta" — four red-centered costal spots. 

f. "inpicta" — costal spots without red centers. 

f. "albopicta" — the red of the costal spots white-centered. 

f "quincunx" — the spot at end of cell extends only to upper vein of cell (R s ). 

f. "antiquincunx" — the spot at end of cell extends beyond the upper vein of cell. 

f. "binaria" — the spot in the middle of the cell divided. 

f. "ernestinae" — the spot in the middle of the cell reduced to a point. 

f. "kitti" — the spots in the middle and at the end of the cell reduced to points. 

f. "halteres" — the cell spots joined by a black band. 

f. "orbifer" — the cell spots with a ring-shaped connection. 

f. "cellopura" — the cell spots absent. 

f. "fasciata" — costal spots and inner-margin spot joined by costal band of black. 

f. "ornata" — inner-margin spot red-centered. 

f. "inornata" — inner-margin spot without red center. 

f. "lunulata" — white spots in the dark ground of the margin. 

f. "elunulata" — lacking white spots in the dark ground of the margin. 

f. "grundi" — an additional spot between the cell spots. 

f. "fermata" — an additional spot between inner-margin spot and base of the wing. 

f. "basipunctata" — a black spot at the base of the wing. 



142 Brown: Pamassius names Vol.10: no.5 

3) Hind wing 

f. "rubroocellata" — ocelli filled with red. 

f. "flavoocellata" — ocelli yellow-colored. 

f. "ochreoocellata" — ocelli orange-colored. 

f. "bruneoocellata" — ocelli brown-colored. 

f. "alboocellata" — ocelli white, without other color. 

f. "albopupillata" — white center within the colored part of the ocelli. 

f. "ocelloconjuncta" — ocelli joined by a black band. 

f. "ocellorubroconjuncta" — ocelli joined by a red-scaled band. 

f. "nigroocellata" — ocelli entirely black. 

f. "nigrodivisoocellata" — middle ocellus divided by a black line along the vein. 

f. "rubrodivisoocellata" — the white center of the middle ocellus divided by red 

scaling along the vein 
f. "ocelloextincta" — ocelli absent, 
f. "melanconica" — basal spot without red center, 
f. "excelsior" — first basal spot red. 
f. "biexcelsior" — first and second basal spots red. 

f. "lacrimans" — costal ocellus connected with the base of the wing by a black band, 
f. "rubrolacrimans" — costal ocellus connected with base of wing by a red band, 
f. "discocircumcincta" — abdominal margin blackened to the cell and with an 

extension toward the middle of the costal margin, 
f. "rubroanalis" — anal spot red-centered, 
f. "ampliusanalis" — three anal spots. 

f. "analisconjuncta" — anal band joined with the middle ocellus, 
f. "exanalis" — anal spot absent, 
f. "dentata" — submarginal area well-depicted, 
f. "latecincta'' — ocelli unusually boldly margined with black, 
f. "tenuicincta" — ocelli with very narrow black margins. 

f. "intertexta" — a yellow ring between black ocellus-margin and colored center, 
f. "excincta" — ocelli without black margin, 
f. "atroguttata" — black spot in the center of the cell. 

f. "siegeli" — an additional black spot between costal ocellus and base of wing, 
f. "theiodes" — hyaline marginal band preserved. 

The above names are purely descriptive and when used do not take an 
author's name. They have no nomenclatorial status. Their use should be limited 
to studies of variation until we understand much more about the characteristics 
they present. Many specimens will present several of the variants. For instance, 
I have before me a specimen of P. p hoe bus catullius Fruhstorfer from the Great 
Sand Dunes area in Colorado that combines these variations on the forewing: 
marginata, primopicta, antiquincunx, inornata, and lunata. On the hind wing 
of the same specimen these variations are combined: rubroocellata, albopupillata, 
dentata, and theiodes. To include all of these in the citation of the specimen is 
nonsense. However, for tabulation of the variation found in a series, the names 
are very useful. They may prove to be the tools by which the geographic variation 
— subspecification — of the species is finally unraveled and put on a firm basis. 

References 

Bang-Haas, O., 1915. Deutsche entomologische Zeitschrift "Iris" 29:181-185. 
Eisner, Curt, 1955. Zoologiscbe Mededelingen, Rijks museum van Natuurlijke Historie te 
Leiden HAU-V9. 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo., U. S. A. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' Neus 



143 



CORRECTIONS AND ADDITIONS CONCERNING THE GENETICS 
OF COLIAS ERATE POLIOGRAPHUS (PIERID/E) 

by Shigeru Albert Ae 

Komai and Ae (1953) published a paper on "Genetic studies of the 
Pierid Butterfly, Colias by ale polio graphus." Remington (1954) has sug- 
gested that certain items in the paper of Komai and Ae be clarified. In 
the present paper, the junior author of the 1953 paper, with the approval 
of the senior author, will undertake the clarification of those items, together 
with the presentation of some additional data which were collected in 1952- 
1953 at the Catholic University of Nagoya, Honshu, the main island of Japan. 

At the outset, the subspecies poliographus Motschulsky has been trans- 
ferred from the species C. hyale Linne to the species C. erate Esper, and so 
will be referred to below as C. erate polio graphus. 

THE SEX-LIMITED "ALBA" GENE 

Proof that the sex-limited "alba" gene, which controls female dimorphism 
in Colias, is autosomal, not sex-linked with female heterogamety, requires 
that both female forms appear among the daughters of a cross between an 
"alba" female and a male known to be homozygous for the recessive allele. 



wild ? H-44 
"alba" 
(AA or Aa) 



X wild $ 



35 ?? "alba" 
(AA & Aa) 



51 $S 



? H-44-61 X 
"alba"(Aa) 



r 



wild ? H-47 X wild S 



yellow (aa) 



I 

36 ?? 

vellow(aa) 



Z H-47-55 
(aa) 



1 



(aa) 




8 ?? 21 ??■ 29 S3 

"alba"(Aa) yellow(aa) (Aa & aa) 

Fig. 1. Genealogy of an "alba" female brood. 

This had been proved for Colias eurytheme Bdv. and C. philodice Latr. ( Rem- 
ington 1954). Dr. Remington also pointed out that "Brood 44-61 of Komai 
and Ae (1953) for Colias erate poliographus Motsch. is probably another 



144 Ae: Genetics of Colias Vol.10: no.5 

example of this cross, but the published data are inadequate for certainty." 
The writer presents here more detailed data which actually prove it for C. 
erate poliographns. The mother of Brood H-44-61 (referred to as Brood 44-61 
by Remington) was from Brood H-44 from a wild "alba" female. Brood 
H-44 consisted of 35 "alba" females and 51 males. The father of Brood H-44-61 
was from Brood H-47 from a wild yellow female. Brood H-47 consisted of 
36 yellow females and 30 males. Therefore it is clear that the father of Brood 
H-44-61 had an "aa" genotype. W-w alternative symbols for the white ("alba") 
and yellow alleles in the 1953 paper are replaced here by A- a as suggested 
by Remington (1954). Brood H-44-61 consisted of 8 "alba" females, 21 
yellow females, and 29 males (Fig. 1). 

Twenty-five "alba" females were sent from the University of Hokkaido, 
Sapporo, Hokkaido, the most northern island of Japan, to the Biological 
Laboratory of the Catholic University of Nagoya by Mr. Shozo Ehara in fall 
1952. Eleven of them laid eggs, and the larvae from these eggs were raised 
at the laboratory. Table I shows the results. Broods 0-2, 0-4, 0-5, 0-6, 0-9, 
and 0-10 may be presumed to be all "alba" broods without much doubt. Brood 
0-3, consisting of 39 "alba" females and 8 yellow females, may be the result 
of Aa X Aa mating and probably shows the low viability of "aa" individuals, 
just as in the Kyoto district of Honshu. From the matings of the butterflies 
of the above broods (one wild male from the Nagoya district was also used), 
it was proved that Broods 0-4, 0-5, 0-9, and 0-10 had carried the "a" gene 
also. Sex ratios in a few cases in Table I are far from expected 1:1; however, 
facilities did not give an opportunity to examine this phenomenon. 

WHITE AND PALE MALES 

Dr. Remington pointed out that no further rearings, of the broods in 
which white males appeared, were mentioned by Komai and Ae (1953). 
The relatives of No. 1 and No. 2 white males of the 1953 paper are as follows: 

No. 1: — Brood K-2 from a wild faded female (yellowish, but much 
paler than ordinary yellow females) consisted of 44 "alba" females and 62 
yellow males ( aa X A A ) . Two sib matings were obtained from this brood. 
Brood K-2 -6 and Brood K-2-16 were obtained from these sib matings. Brood 
K-2-6 consisted of 1 white male, No. 1, and 1 yellow male and no females. 
Brood K-2-16 consisted of 16 "alba" females and 17 yellow males. No fur- 
ther mating was obtained because of the winter season. Therefore, the geno- 
type of this No. 1 white male for "alba" gene could be AA, Aa, or aa. Con- 
sequently the sentence "All his sisters were white." at the fourth line from 
the bottom of page 68 in Komai and Ae (1953) is wrong and must be 
corrected. 

No. 2: — Brood B-2 from a wild "alba" female consisted of 55 "alba" 
females and 63 males, and Brood B-4 from a wild "alba" female consisted 
of 28 "alba" females and 19 males. From the mating between an "alba" female 
of Brood B-4 and a male of Brood B-2, Brood B-4-8a was obtained which 
consisted of 7 "alba" females and 1 white male, No. 2, and 1 yellow male. 
Therefore, the genotype of No. 2 white male for "alba" gene may possibly 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



145 



TABLE I. 


Offspring of 13 


Japanese wild 


"alba" 9 9 


of Colias 


erate poliographus 








Offspring 






Brood 


Parents 




"alba" 


yellow 




Total 


Number 1 


9 9 


S $ 


9 9 


9 9 


6 6 2 




0-1 


wild 


wild 


7 





6 


13 


0-2 


wild 


wild 


16 





29 


45 


0-3 


wild 


wild 


39 


8 


58 


105 


0-4 


wild 


wild 


42 





43 


85 


0-5 


wild 


wild 


30 





30 


60 


0-6 


wild 


wild 


23 





12 


35 


0-7 


wild 


wild 


8 


5 


10 


23 


0-8 


wild 


wild 


7 





8 


15 


0-9 


wild 


wild 


26 





54(1) 


80 


0-10 


wild 


wild 


47 





53 


100 


0-11 


wild 


wild 


7 





25 


32 


0-3-14 3 


"alba" 


0-3-10 


7 





4 


11 


0-3-15 


"alba" 


0-3-11 


5 





12 


17 


0-4-3 


"alba" 


0-4-1 


17 





33 


50 


0-4-8 


"alba" 


0-4-6 


17 





25 


42 


0-4-32 


"alba" 


0-4-29 


2 


1 


5 


8 


0-4-37 


"alba" 


0-4-31 


6 





11 


17 


0-5-17 


"alba" 


wild 


7 


3 


19 


29 


0-6-8 


"alba" 


0-6-2 


4 





23 


27 


0-6-10 


"alba" 


N-4-34-7 


15 





24(1) 


39 


0-6-26 


"alba" 


0-9-52 


48 





63(36) 


111 


0-7-6 


yellow 


0-9-46 


27 


21 


58 


106 


0-10-9 


"alba" 


0-10-2 


8 





6(1) 


14 


0-10-10 


"alba" 


0-10-5 


18 





24 


42 


0-10-19 


"alba" 


0-10-15 


5 


2 


1 


8 


0-10-57 


alba 


0-10-53 


23 





15 


38 


0-10-34 


"alba" 


0-9-12 


20 





26 


46 


0-10-49 


"alba" 


0-7-1 


51 





34 


85 


0-6-26-49 


"alba" 


0-6-26-29 


23 





17(7) 


40 


N-3 


wild 


wild 


9 





12 


21 


N-4 


wild 


wild 


7 


9 


25 


41 


N-3-21 


"alba" 


N-3-20 


11 





10(3) 


21 


N-4-34 


yellow 


N-3-20 


5 





7 


12 



J The prefix of the brood number is used for stocks from wild 9 $ from Sapporo, 
Hokkaido; N for stocks from Mt. Myoko, Niigata Pref., Honshu. 0-4-3 means 3rd 
butterfly emerging in Brood 0-4; if this individual was a 9 from which a brood 
was then raised, this whole brood received the same designation, i.e. 0-4-3. All wild 
females were "alba". 

2 ( ) Number of males with pale yellow cell spots on the upper side of the 

hind wing. 

3 For this and the next seventeen 0- broods, and for broods N-3-21 and N-4-34, the 
designation of the female parent is the same as the brood number. 



146 



AE: Genetics of Colias 



Vol.10: no.5 



be AA or Aa. No. 2 failed to harden his veins, and no further mating was 
possible. His relatives produced a total of 26 "alba" females, but no yellow 
females, and 33 yellow males, but no white males. 

Several pale males, of which the yellow ground color was reduced to- 
ward white, were obtained among the laboratory males. They emerged at the 
Catholic University of Nagoya in the winter of 1952-1953. The cages were 
placed at the window side of the laboratory which the sunshine reached well. 
The room temperature was usually between 5°C and 15°C in January and 
February, 1953. Six color grades were set up by an arbitrary standard. Grade 
6 is the grade of a typical yellow male, and grade 1 is pure white. Four 
intermediate grades, which were equally divided according to paleness, were 
applied for pale males. Consequently grade 5 (slightly paler) in this standard 
is rather common among early or late season males in the wild as well as 
laboratory. The No. 1 white male above mentioned has grade 1, and No. 2 
has grade 2. Table II shows these arbitrary color grades of male butterflies 
which emerged between October and March in Broods 0-5 and 0-11, both 
of which included pale males. 



TABLE II. Arbitrary color grades of 6 6 of two broods containing pale $ $ 



Brood 
Number 


Month of 
Emergence 


Color Grades* 
6 5 4 3 2 1 


0-5 


October 

November 

December 

January 

February 

March 


2 
!_____ 

1 4 — 3 — — 


0-11 


October 

November 

December 

January 

February 


11 _____ 



"Grade 6 indicates typical yellow male; grade 1 would be pure white. 

All of the white and pale males above mentioned had no distinguishable 
differences in the melanin coloration (usual dark markings) from other 
yellow males. It is clear that the environment has some effects on this pale 
color, and at the same time it is possible to presume hereditary effects, because 
the majority of males of Broods 0-5 and 0-11, and many other broods, emerged 
under the same conditions as the pale males, yet these others kept their 
yellow color. The cell-spot on the upper side of the hind wing of these pale 
males was usually orange, although its color was somewhat lighter. No yellow 
female emerged in the midwinter. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 147 

CELL-SPOT ON THE HIND WING 

The difference in color of the cell-spot on the upper side of the hind 
wing seems to be determined on a monogenic basis, orange dominant over 
pale-yellow (Komai and Ae, 1953). 

A further study was done in 1952-1953. Only one pale-yellow spotted 
male, 0-9-52, appeared among the 54 males of Brood 0-9 (Table I). This 
male was mated with an "alba" female, 0-6-26. The sib mating of Brood 
0-9 was completely unsuccessful. The Brood 0-6-26, from the above men- 
tioned mating, consisted of 27 orange spotted males, 36 pale-yellow spotted 
males, and 48 females. One male, 0-6-26-29, among the above 36 pale-yellov 
spotted males, was mated to one of his "alba" sisters, 0-6-26-49, and the 
resulting brood consisted of 10 orange spotted males, 7 pale-yellow spotted 
males, and 23 "alba" females. This brood was raised in an incubator which 
was controlled between 27°-29°C. In this case the cell spots of 23 "alba" 
females were also divided into 11 orange and 12 pale-yellow, although a few 
of them are close to the intermediate between orange and pale-yellow ( Table I 
and Fig. 2). 

One "alba" female, N-3, collected at Mt. Myoko, Niigata prefecture, 
Honshu, by the writer, left a progeny of 9 "alba" females and 12 orange 
spotted males. A sib mating (N-3-21 X N-3-20) from this brood produced 
11 "alba" females, 7 orange spotted males, and 3 pale-yellow spotted males. 
The father of this sib-mating was again mated with a yellow female, N-4-34, 
from another brood from Mt. Myoko and produced 5 "alba" females and 
7 orange spotted males. One of these orange spotted males, N-4-34-7, was 
mated with an "alba" female, 0-6-10 of Brood 0-6, and left a progeny of 15 
"alba" females, 23 orange spotted males, and 1 pale-yellow spotted male 
(Table I and Fig. 2). Brood 0-10-9 derived from a sib mating of Brood 0-10 
consisted of 8 "alba" females, 5 orange spotted males, and 1 pale-yellow 
spotted male (Table I). 

Differences between orange and pale-yellow cell spots in males are very 
clear in summer broods and in Brood 0-6-26-49, which was raised in the 
incubator at 27°-29°C. However, it is not perfectly clear in fall broods, as in 
0-6-26. Many of the pale-yellow cell spots in Brood 0-6-26 had slightly orange 
coloration, which may correspond with "pale semi-orange" of Remington 
in C. philodice (1955). Seven of them may be listed as "semi-orange," and 
two with orange cell spots may also be close to "semi-orange." Some of the 
others with orange cell spots may correspond with "deep semi-orange." The 
males of Broods 0-9-52 and 0-6-26-29 may be classified as "pale semi-orange." 
However, Brood 0-6-26-49, whose father was 0-6-26-29, produced a clear-cut, 
10 orange : 7 pale-yellow (yellow of Remington, 1955). Therefore the 
writer presumes it is reasonable to divide the males of Brood 0-6-26 into two 
genetic classes, orange and pale-yellow, assuming that several individuals are 
somewhat intermediate in color due to environmental or minor hereditary 
variation. 

Cell spots of "alba" females of Brood 0-6-26, raised in the laboratory 
in uncontrolled conditions, show a continuous variation. However, if they 



148 



AE: Genetics of Colias 



Vol.10: no.5 



are roughly divided into 4 groups, the results are 1 1 orange ( although not so 
deep as males), 19 light orange, 12 lighter orange, and 2 pale egg-yolk 
color, (4 were lost out of 48 females). The mother of Brood 0-6-26-49 was 
from the orange group. This brood, raised in the incubator at 27°-29°C, 
included 23 "alba" females which fell into two distinct groups (referred to, 
above, as "orange" and "pale-yellow"): 11 light orange and 12 pale egg- 
yolk color. 



wild ? 0-9 X wild 3 
(Oo?) (Oo?) 



wild % 0-6 X wild S 



26 ?? 



53 as 

orange 
(00, Oo) 



1 

l s 

pale 

yellow 

(oo) 



I 

23 ?? 
(00,0o) 



"1 

12 S3 
orange 
(00,0o) 




wild ? N-3 X wild $ wild °- N-4 X wild 3 3 0-9-52 ■ X % 0-6-26 

pale (Oo) 

yellow 
(oo) 



I 

9 ?? 
(00,0o) 



"I 
12 S3 
orange 
(OO.Oo) 



1 

16 %% 



25 33 
orange 



T 



1 



% N-3-21 X G N-3-20 X ? N-4- 34- 



(Oo) 



orange 
(Oo) 



i r 

11 %% 7 6$ 3 $$ 
orange pale 
(00, Oo) yellow 
(oo) 




48 ?? 27 So" 36 SS 

(0o,oo) orange pale 

(Oo) yellow 

~" (oo) 



? 0-6-26-49 X $ 0-6-26-29 



(Oo) 



5 ?? 7 ^S 

orange 
(OO.Oo) 



pale 

yellovf 

(oo) 



23 ?? 10 38 7 35 
(110o. orange pale 
12oo ) (Oo) yellow 

(oo) 



3 N-4-34-7 X ? 0-^5-] 



orange (Oo) 



(Oo) 



I \ 1 

15 ?? 23 S3 Id 

orange pale yellow 
(00, Oo) (oo) 

Fig. 2. Genealogy ot one pale yellow cell-spotted line. 



Correlation in hereditary factors in cell spots between male and female 
may be suggested by the above data. However, more studies are necessary 
to clarify this point. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 149 

It is difficult to interpret 53 orange : 1 pale-yellow and 23 orange : 1 
pale-yellow ratios. A reduced penetrance of genes for pale-yellow cell spot in 
homozygous individuals can be considered, as well as a low viability of them. 
However, in general, it is most probable that a recessive gene which is fairly 
common in nature is controlling the heredity of pale-yellow cell spot. In 
Fig. 2, - o alternative was used as O for orange and o for pale-yellow. 

CORRECTIONS OF FIGURES IN TABLES 

The following corrections are necessary for the tables of Komai and 
Ae (1953). 

Table 1, group 1: x~ = 0.46 instead of "2.22"; 0.3 <P <0.5 instead of 
"0.1 <P <0.2." 

Table 3: %w in female at Tokiwa is 77.3 instead of "77.2" and at 
Arakawa is 73.5 instead of "72.2." 

Table 4: %w in June-August in 1949 is 68.6 instead of "69.9." 

SUMMARY 

1. It was proved that the sex-limited "alba" gene, which controls female 
dimorphism in Co lias erate p olio grap bus, is autosomal, not sex-linked with 
female heterogamety. 

2. Laboratory breeding of the progeny from 11 "alba" females of C. 
erate polio grap bus from Hokkaido, Japan, was carried on. 

3. The relatives of 2 laboratory white males in the 1953 paper were 
described to show the relation between these two white males and "alba" 
genes. 

4. A number of pale males of C. erate poliograpbus were produced among 
the butterflies raised in the laboratory in winter. 

5. A further study of the hereditary basis of the orange and pale-yellow 
cell spots on the upper side of the hind wing of C. erate polio grap bus was 
made, and its monogenic basis was confirmed. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The writer wishes to express his sincere gratitude to Dr. TAKU KOMAI, National 
Institute of Genetics, Misima, Japan, and Dr. KENJI NAKAMURA, Zoological Institute, 
Kyoto University, Japan, for direction of the research; to Dr. EDWARD O. DODSON, 
Department of Biology, University of Notre Dame, for help in writing this paper; 
and to Dr. CHARLES L. REMINGTON, Department of Zoology, Yale University, for 
his advice that we clarify the few items in the 1953 paper. The writer also wishes 
to thank Mr. S. Ehara for sending materials from Hokkaido. 

Literature Cited 

Komai, T., & A. S. Ae, 1953. Genetic studies of the Pierid butterfly, Colias hya/e 

poliographus. Genetics 38: 65-72. 
Remington, C. L., 1954. The Genetics of Colias (Lepidopteraj. Advances in Genetics 

6: 403-450. 
, 1955. The inheritance of hindwing discal spot color in Colias philodice. 

Lepid. News 8: 163-166. 

Dept. of Biology, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind., U. S. A. 
(Present address: Dept. of Zoology, Yale University, New Haven, Conn., U. S. A.) 



150 



Vol.10: no.5 



ETHYL ACETATE AS A KILLING AGENT FOR INSECTS 

by H. A. Denmark 

With the increasing use of light traps as a survey instrument and for 
taking insects by collectors, killing agents are important. Insects to be de- 
termined should be in good condition when collected. All collectors desire 
to have perfect specimens for their collections. Since electric insect traps 
are being used as part of the Insect Pest Survey, the State Plant Board of 
Florida has been interested in a killing agent that would permit the taking 
of insects in a condition for correct determination and specimens good enough 
for the Plant Board collection. 




"•*>. 



Killing Jar Attached to Blacklight Trap 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 151 

Cyano-Gas was first used as a killing agent. The powdered form of 
Cyano-Gas was placed in a small container with a perforated top that would 
hold 2 tablespoonsful and placed in the bottom of a half gallon glass jar. 
As soon as the jar was approximately half full of insects the killing agent was 
no longer effective, as the insects almost completely blocked the gas. 

Ethyl acetate is the killing agent now used. The method employed is 
as follows: a half gallon glass jar is coated with approximately l A inch of 
plaster-of-Paris on the inside by rotating the semi-liquid plaster-of-Paris un- 
til it hardens. The plaster-of-Paris creates enough heat that the jar often 
is broken by heat and expansion. To prevent this the plaster-of-Paris is al- 
lowed to harden for 36 hours before being used, by placing the jar in 5 to 
6 inches of water. The lower half of the jar is wrapped with friction tape 
to prevent the cutting of the operator's hand in case the jar breaks. 

Each night before operating the electric insect trap, 20 to 25 cc. of 
ethyl acetate is poured down the inside of the jar and the jar quickly ro- 
tated. The plaster-of-Paris absorbs the liquid, providing a killing agent from 
bottom to top of the jar. Insects continue to be killed until the jar is filled. 
During the cooler months the same amount of ethyl acetate will continue to 
kill insects 2 or 3 nights. The jar is attached to the electric insect trap as 
illustrated in the figure. The insects can be collected and pinned directly 
from the jar. Unless a large number of beetles are collected, destroying the 
moths, the moths are relaxed and ready for spreading upon removal from the jar. 

State Plant Board of Florida, 503 Seagle Bldg., Gainesville, Fla., U. S. A. 



NOTES ON THE OCCURRENCE OF THYMELICUS LINEOLA 
(HESPERIID^E) IN NORTH AMERICA: A SUMMARY 

by Harry K. Clench 

A number of new locality records recently have been published for this 
comparative newcomer to the North American butterfly fauna, and with a 
few more to add here it seems an appropriate time to gather into one place 
all these records. 

The following list includes all the records, hitherto published or other- 
wise, known to me of the occurrence of Thymelicus lineola Ochs. in North 
America. In each case the source is given, and occasionally a few remarks. 

ONTARIO: London; first North American record, 1910; later seen in 
1912, 1913, but not since (T. N. Freeman, in lift.). Amherstburg (Univ. 
Michigan, Mus. Zool). Toronto; first found in 1945; often common, as in 
1953, but fluctuates widely in numbers from one year to another (S. L. 
Thompson, in litt.; specimens in Cam. Mus.). St. Catherines; extremely 
abundant (Bailey, 1953). 

MICHIGAN: Wayne Co.: Detroit (Rawson, 1931; many collections). 
Oakland Co.: Oak Park (Univ. Michigan Mus. Zool J. Macomb Co.: Warren 



152 Clench: Tbymelicus lineola Vol.10: no.5 

(Univ. Michigan Mus. ZooL). Washtenaw Co. (all coll. or obs. by Clench, 
1949): nr. Saline; 6 ! /2 mi. W. of Clinton, Lenawee Co.; Geddes Rd. at Huron 
R., E. of Ann Arbor; Willow Run, 3 mi. E of Ypsilanti; 1 mi. W. of Ann 
Arbor; Vi mi. W. of Lima Center; Dexter. Lenawee Co.: V4 mi. E. of Clinton, 
just S. of Washtenaw Co. line (Clench). 

NEW YORK: Niagara Co.: Niagara Falls (W. MERGOTT, personal com- 
munication). Erie Co: Kenmore, N. of Buffalo, 1948 and again in 1951 (W. 
MERGOTT, personal communication). 

OHIO: Hancock Co.: Findlay (Rawson, 1931; Thomas, 1953). Frank- 
lin Co.: Columbus (Thomas, 1953) — a remarkable record. 

It is worth adding that on the same trips that yielded many of the 
Michigan records (made in the company of Dr. and Mrs. J. V. Slater and 
their family, and of Mrs. Clench), eastern Jackson County was examined 
at several likely places, but no trace of lineola was found. From this 1 con- 
cluded (Clench, 1950) that western Washtenaw County marks the approxi- 
mate western boundary of the present lineola range. 

As noted above, Mr. Stuart Thompson, of Bessboro, Toronto, Ontario, 
in a letter commented on the remarkable fluctuations in numbers of the species 
near Toronto. The fluctuations there, varying from abundant to completely 
missing according to Mr. Thompson, would seem larger than I had experi- 
enced around Willow Run, which at the time were remarkable enough. In 
the latter locality during my stay there it was never absent entirely in its 
proper season, and ranged from one year to another from frequent to very 
abundant. The peaks of abundance as noted by Mr. Thompson near Toronto 
and myself at Willow Run seem fully comparable, for he states that at peak 
frequency he could easily capture half a dozen in one sweep of the net any 
place, which well describes the peak numbers seen near Willow Run. 

There is still very much to be learned of the distribution of this little 
skipper in North America. We know nothing as yet of its northward limits. 
Mr. Thomas' surprising record (based on a series, not on a single capture) 
near Columbus may well indicate that the species is spreading southward. 
Of this, too, we need more information and more records. Mr. MERGOTT's 
captures near Buffalo and Niagara Falls may indicate an eastward extension 
of range actively in progress, or they may indicate merely a long-held territory. 
I rather incline to the former notion. 

Should any one obtain additional records of this species, I should be 
most interested to learn of the details. 

References 

[Bailey, E. G.], 1953- Erratum. Lepid. News 7: 56. 

Clench, Harry K., 1949. Notes on some Michigan butterflies. Lepid. News 2: 105. 

, 1950. Notes on Michigan Rhopalocera. Lepid. Neirs 4: 14. 

Rawson, George W., 1931. The addition of a new skipper, Adopcea lineola (Ochs.), 

to the list of U. S. Lepidoptera. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 39: 503-506. 
Remington, P. Sheldon, 1950. Season Summary; Zone 5, Central. Lepid. News 3: 94-95. 
Thomas, Edward S., 1953. A European skipper, Adopcea lineola, at Columbus, Ohio. 

Lepid. News 6: 92-93. 

Section of Insects and Spiders, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 153 



SOME CONSIDERATIONS ABOUT AN ABDOMINAL ORGAN 
IN CERTAIN TORTRICID/E MOTHS 

By Nicholas S. Obraztsov* 

In 1952, Dr. A. Diakonoff described a peculiar abdominal organ which 
he observed in a new genus of the Tortricidae from New Guinea, and which 
he believed had not previously been discovered. In 1953, the above author 
named this new genus Tremophora, and considered it as allied to Tceniarchis 
Meyr. As one of the distinguishing features of Tremophora, the author men- 
tioned: "Abdomen in both sexes with a pair of dorso-lateral moderate reniform 
openings on first segment, being terminations of a paired abdominal sense 
organ." 

In a supplementary note, Diakonoff (1955) described the above or- 
gan in detail, and figured it. He wrote: "The genus Tremophora differs from 
all its allies, and, as far as I know, also from all other Lepidoptera, in possessing 
the above mentioned peculiar organ in the tergite of the second abdominal 
segment. It consists of a paired, rather deep excavation of the segment, 
externally having the appearance of two rather large, somewhat kidney-shaped 
holes with slightly elevated edges, situated towards the anterior edge of that 
segment, with their long axis directed longitudinally. The excavations pene- 
trate downwards and slightly forwards, each forming a short blind tunnel 
with a thick, sclerotized, and apparently smooth wall. These organs, which I 
called the "dorsal organs," are present and are equally developed in both 
sexes; their superficial appearance is similar in the six known species of 
Tremophora." 

At first, Diakonoff supposed those organs as possibly "being a kind 
of tympanal organ of peculiar construction," but no indication of the presence 
of a membranous portion was found. An histological study of the organs was 
rather disappointing: "No traces of neural elements could be found in the 
sections; neither did the structure of the sclerotized walls of the cavities pro- 
vide any indication as to the function of the dorsal organs." It was less 
probable to explain those organs as scent organs with a mysterious function, 
because prior to this the true scent organs in the Lepidoptera were usually 
found built differently in the male and the female. 

"It was suggested to me," Diakonoff wrote further, "that the dorsal 
organs might be the equivalents of the so-called mite chambers of certain 
Hymenoptera (e.g. Xylocopa, Mesotrichia) , cavities of the body of special 
structure, inhabited by peculiarly specialized Acari. However, I have never 
observed any trace of mites in these organs; moreover, mite chambers have 
never yet been recorded in Lepidoptera." 



*Done at the American Museum of Natural History, in connection with a research 
on the North American Tortricidae genera, supported by a grant of the National 
Science Foundation. 



154 OBRAZTSOV: Abdominal organ in Tortricidae Vol.10: no.5 

In a conclusion to his note, DlAKONOFF expressed his regret that there 
was very little hope for Tremophora ( or allied genera ) that material suitably 
preserved for anatomical and histological purposes would become available 
soon. Without such material, the author did not see any possibility of solving 
the problem of the organs he discovered. 

Unfortunately I have had no opportunity to see the Tremophora species 
described by DlAKONOFF, and they are known to me only from descriptions 
and figures. I believe nevertheless that the structures presented in some Hol- 
arctic Tortricidae species are of the same nature as those in Tremophora. I 
observed similar cavities on the abdomen in many North American Archips 
Hb., e.g. in argyrospila Wkr., georgiana Wkr., rosana L., negundana Dyar, 
striana Fern., and dissitana Grote. In all these species the above cavities are 
present on the second abdominal tergite. There are among Archips jervidana 
(Clem.) and A. semiferana (Wkr.) specimens either with cavities or with- 
out. Most European A. podana (Sc.) have paired cavities not only on the 
second abdominal tergite but also on the third. In A. cerasivorana (Fitch), 
A. infumatana (Z.), and A. purpurana (Clem.) I could not discover any 
marks of such cavities at all. They are constantly absent also in Pandemis Hb., 
Choristoneura Ld., Aphelia Hb., Clepsis Gn., and many other Archipsini genera. 

Very interesting is the presence of cavities on the third to eighth ab- 
dominal tergites in Amorbia emigratella Busck; in A. cuneana (Wlsm.) they 
are less developed. In A. humerosana Clem, the cavities have been observed 
usually on the third abdominal tergite, and in some specimens also on the 
fourth and fifth; in the latter case they are usually not so distinct. In other 
Sparganothinae genera the cavities are found in Coelostathma Clem, and 
Platynota Clem., but never in Synnoma Wlsm. or Cenopis Z. 

Usually the cavities are reniform or round, situated at both sides of the 
middle line of the tergite. Occasionally they join together in some Amorbia 
specimens and form a common, much larger cavity. In most Archipsini and 
Sparganothinae the entire cavity is smooth-chitinous, only rarely being com- 
pletely covered with scales. The cavities are variously deep in some specimens 
of the same species, and give the impression of being caused by a pressure. 
A similar location of cavities in all the moths I studied suggested to me that 
these cavities might be explained as indentations caused by the texture of 
the inner surface of the pupal shell. 

An examination of those exuviae showed that in all species which pos- 
sessed abdominal cavities in the moth stage, similar cavities were present also 
in the pupae. The well-developed cavities of the pupae corresponded exactly 
to those of the moths. On the other hand, the less developed cavities of the 
pupae were never observed on the corresponding abdominal tergites of the 
imagines. The pupae of certain Tortricidae have the most well developed cavities 
usually on the second and the third abdominal tergites; likewise the moths. 
In Archips jervidana (Clem.) the cavities were not observed in all pupae; 
they were also not found in all moths of this species. It is a very important 
observation that in A. purpurana (Clem.) the cavities are well developed 
in the pupa and absent in the imago. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



155 



The presence of those cavities in some Tortricidae pupae was already 
mentioned by Mosher ( 1916) in a paper on the classification of the Lep- 
idoptera, based on the pupae. This author wrote about "prominent cavities" 
on the dorsum of the second and the third abdominal segments in the Archips 
pupa. There is no doubt that they were the cavities described below. 




Dorsal view of basal part of pupal abdomen of Archips argyrospila 
I, II, and /// - first, second and third tergites; a - flanged plate of the first tergite; 
b - the same of the second tergite; c - the same of the third tergite; ca - cavities; 
s - screen between them. 

The structure of the area bearing the cavities is, in the Tortricidae pupa 
(see figure), more or less consistent in various species and genera which 
have such cavities. The postsegmental margin of the first tergite has a 
chitinous flanged plate (a) directed caudad. Near the presegmental margin 
of the second tergite there is another flanged plate (b), directed cephalad 
and usually less developed. Both plates are directed towards each other but 
do not touch each other. The area surrounded by those plates is deepened 
and raised gradually toward the sides of the tergite. In the middle of the 
whole excavation there is an elevated chitinous screen (s). It is situated 
lower than the flanged plates and is sometimes partly covered by them. At 
both sides of this screen there are two round cavities (ca) which correspond 
to those discussed above in some Tortricidae moths. In case the screen is 
not developed, the cavities join together and form a common large cavity. 

On the third tergite, the anterior flanged plate (c) is formed by a chit- 
inous fold situated caudad from the presegmental margin of the tergite. In 



156 OBRAZTSOV: Abdominal organ in Tortricidae Vol.10: no. 5 

other respects the whole area with cavities resembles that on the second ter- 
gite, but the flanged plates are less developed. If the flanged plates and 
cavities are present on the following tergites, they are usually like those on 
the third tergite. A degradation of the flanged plates or their complete absence 
on the fourth and subsequent tergites is of usual occurrence. 

It is difficult as yet to say anything definite about the significance to 
the pupa of the above chitinous structures around the cavities, or about the 
meaning of the cavities as such. If the flanged plates between the first and 
second abdominal segments in the pupa might prevent its excessive reclining 
dorsalward, they are useless for this purpose on the remaining tergites, because 
both plates are located there on one and the same tergite. Very probably, the 
flanged plates and the chitinous screen between and under them may serve 
for the purpose of strengthening the dorsal side of the pupa and its defence 
against any external pressure or impact. In both cases, the cavities might be 
explained either as former reservoirs of chitin used for strengthening the 
adjacent parts of the tergites, or as attachment places of some chitinous pro- 
cesses which were possibly present in ancestors and are absent in the recent 
pupae. Finally, the whole chitinous area around the cavities might facilitate 
the moving of the pupa, as do the transverse rows of spines on tergites. Only 
a comparative morphological study of the various Lepidoptera pupae and 
observations on living Tortricidae pupae might answer the above questions. 

POSTSCRIPT 

After the present note was sent to the publisher, a paper by G. C. VARLEY {Ent. 
Mo. Mag. 92: 107-108; 1956) on the same subject became available to me. The author 
describes and illustrates the structure of the same "abdominal organ" in the pupa of 
Archips podana (Sc.) which he calls ''Cacoecia oporana L.", and mentions the presence 
of this "organ" in the pupae of some other Archips species. The description given by 
VARLEY does not differ from mine except in terminology. Prof. VARLEY is inclined 
to see in the discussed "abdominal organ" a structure useful in pupal identification. 
The facts of individual variation of this "organ" in some Tortricidae species, as I have 
mentioned in the present paper, diminish however the taxonomic value of this character. 

References 

Diakonoff, A., 1952. Een merkwaardig dorsaal orgaan bij zekere Tortriciden. Verslag 
106e Xomerverg. Ned. Ent. Ver.: pp. LX-LXII. 

... ,1953. Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the Third Arch- 

bold Expedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part II. 
Verb. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., set. 2, vol. 49, no. 3: pp. 65-72. 

, 1955. A note on a peculiar abdominal organ in certain Tortricidae 
(Lepidoptera). Trans. Royal Ent. Soc. London, vol. 107: pp. 199-202, pi. I. 

Mosher, E., 1916. A classification of the Lepidoptera based on characters of the pupa. 
Bull. Illinois State Lab. Nat. Hist., vol. 12: pp. 17-159, pis. 19-27. 

68 Glenlawn Avenue, Sea Cliff, N. Y., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 157 

NOTES ON TEN NEW BUTTERFLY RECORDS FOR THE 

STATE OF MARYLAND 

by Robert S. Simmons 

For several years the author has been engaged in a concentrated study 
on the butterflies of Maryland. Many field trips have been planned in detail 
and made with the specific aim of collecting species heretofore unrecorded 
or unknown from the Maryland area. Occasionally, such a field trip is suc- 
cessful. The following notes represent ten species that have been captured 
on such trips and which have not been previously recorded from Maryland. 

While on a field trip to western Maryland with Dr. Charles J. Stine 
on June 17, 1950. the author captured six Hesperia sassacus Harris and two 
Polites mystic Scudder. Both species were captured at the same two localities 
in Garrett County, elevation 2000 feet. These locations were Swallow Falls 
State Forest and an area near Friendsville. All the butterflies were captured 
along open paths through deciduous woods which were undergoing almost 
complete stripping by lumbering activities. Although many flowers were 
present, not one butterfly was seen near them. Of the H. sassacus, three were 
females and three were males. P. mystic presented two males. The forewing 
lengths of H. sassacus were as follows: 9 14 mm., 9 15 mm., 9 16 mm., 
3 14 mm., S 15 mm., $ 15 mm. The forewing lengths of both P. mystic 
were 14 mm. 

On May 4, 1952, a field trip was planned to Gambrill State Park, near 
the city of Frederick, Frederick County, Maryland. The area represents the 
eastern boundary of the Blue Ridge Mountains in Maryland. The result of 
a day of collecting yielded one new butterfly, Amblyscirtes hegon Scudder. 
One specimen, a female with a wing expansion of 12 mm., was captured along 
a path in a semi-open mixed woods, on the crest of a ridge reaching 1600 feet. 

On May 7, 1952, a field trip was made to the highest point in Frederick 
County, an area near Thurmont, along the Catoctin Ridge, which reaches 
1917 feet. Arriving at this locality, the author found multitudes of flowering 
Spring Beauties (Claytonia virginica Linnseus.). Careful investigations revealed 
two Pieris virginiensis Edwards feeding on their blossoms. An intensified 
search was rewarded with the capture of six more specimens. Four were 
males and four were females. Forewing lengths were 6 21 mm., & 22 mm., 
6 22 mm., 6 22 mm., 9 18 mm., 9 19 mm., 9 21 mm., 9 22 mm. 

The specimens were flying in a heavily wooded area which was semi- 
open at this time of year since the vegetation had not yet fully emerged. 
They would not hesitate to cross open fields, however. Feeding was done 
primarily on Spring Beauty (C. virginica) and Wild Mustard {Brassica) 
blossoms. Several females were observed ovipositing on the under-side tips 
of Wild Mustard (Brassica) leaves. Therefore, this is at least one of the 
food plants of P. virginiensis in Maryland. 

On July 9, 1952, Mr. Franklin H. Chermock and the writer made an 
extensive field trip on the Del-Mar- Va Peninsula. Along U. S. Route 13, 



158 SIMMONS: New Maryland records Vol.10: no.5 

just north of the Maryland-Virginia line, we found an extensive open area 
teeming with flowering Indian Hemp (Apocynum cannabinuvi Linnaeus.) A 
Papilio palamedes Drury was spotted and captured. The specimen proved to 
be a large fresh female with a forewing length of 65 mm. There have been 
several collectors who have reported sight records of this species in the Mary- 
land area. Such records should be substantiated by a capture. 

A field trip was made with Dr. William A. Andersen to Flintstone, 
western Maryland, on May 12, 1955. In a few hours of collecting we bagged 
four Euchloe olympia Edwards and four Glaucopsyche lygdamus nittanyensis 
F. H. Chermock between us. The author captured a lone female of A. hegon 
with a forewing length of 13 mm. Every specimen was captured along the 
crest of a high ridge, elevation 1200 feet, which was composed of mixed 
woods varying in density. The E. olympia and A. hegon were all captured 
in flight, while the G. I. nittanyensis were all netted on Wild Pea (Lathryus 
maritima) blossoms. The forewing lengths for E. olympia were 6 17 mm., 
i 18 mm., 6 20 mm., 9 19 mm. Forewing measurements for the G. I. 
nittanyensis were 9 13 mm., 9 14 mm., 9 15 mm., d> 14 mm. 

A field trip was made on June 16, 1955, in company with Mr. J. E. 
Simmons to the Del-Mar- Va Peninsula. A low lying area at the edge of a 
dense deciduous woods was found near Linkwood in Dorchester County. 
Flowering Indian Hemp (A. cannabinum) was everywhere. A fresh female 
Atlides halesus Cramer was observed on a blossom and, after some effort, 
captured. Further collecting yielded no more. This specimen had a forewing 
length of 20 mm. 

July is usually a good month for hairstreaks in Maryland. It was sus- 
pected that if a more virgin territory would be investigated a species which 
has continually eluded my capture might be found. This butterfly is none 
other than Strymon edwardsii Grote & Robinson. Although some authorities 
comment on its relative abundance, I have found it exceedingly rare in the 
Maryland area. Time after time of diligent searching in scrub oak areas has 
only resulted in the capture of its cohort Strymon falacer Godart. 

On July 5, 1955, in Frederick County, I decided to try an extensive area 
of scrub oak which grew on a rocky mountain where the vegetation has 
been unmolested for years — perhaps centuries. The soil is so poor and 
rocky that the trees remain dwarfed, thereby never growing large enough to 
lumber. A day's collecting here yielded ten fresh female S. edivardsii. The 
area was visited again three days later and fifteen more were captured. Ten 
of these were released after examination. An odd fact about this find was 
the apparent absence of males. Most of the specimens were netted directly 
off of the scrub oak trees. They usually rested in the middle of a leaf, six 
to 8 feet off the ground, rolling their hind wings in typical hairstreak fashion. 
There were no flowers of any kind in the area. The forewing lengths were 
as follows: 1 — 13 mm., 2 — 14 mm., 5 — 15 mm., 2 — 16 mm., 2 — 17 mm., 
3—18 mm. 

Since S. falacer is a relatively common form, other Maryland collectors 
might have S. edwardsii mixed in with them unknowingly. However, it has 
been my experience that it is anything but common in Maryland. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



159 



On July 26, 1955, a field trip was made by Dr. Andersen and the 
author to western Maryland. While investigating a small bog beside a haw- 
thorn thicket, we noticed a butterfly which resembled a Crescent while in 
flight. Upon capturing the specimen, we found it to be a Metalmark, Lephelisca 
borealis Grote & Robinson. A further intensified search yielded a total of 
six specimens between us. The area was definitely a low-lying bog at the 
base of a steep hill and quite damp. Continued collecting on the hill itself 
and on its very crest proved even more fruitful. A few hours time netted a 
total of fourteen more specimens between us. Most of the individuals captured 
were in more open areas. However, some were taken in extremely dense 
undergrowth and many would not hesitate to fly into such places when dis- 
turbed. These butterflies were observed feeding on two kinds of wild flowers 
— the large yellow flower of a composite and the white blossoms of Indian 
Hemp {A. cannabium). 

The altitude of the ridge was 1200 feet. The flight of this butterfly 
was not very swift, and when once sighted, it could usually be captured. The 
forewing measurements were: 2 9 9 — 12 mm., 2 9 9 — 13 mm., 9 9 9 — 
14 mm., 1 9 — 15 mm., 1 6 — 13 mm., 2 i 6 — 14 mm., 2 i 6 — 15 mm., 
1 6 — 16 mm. 



Briefly summarized, the records are as follows: 



SPECIES 

Hesperia sassacus 

Polites mystic 
Amblyscirtes hegon 



Pieris vivginiensis 
Papilio palamedes 
Euchloe olympia 
Glaucopsyche I. nittanyensis 
At/ides halesus 
Strymon eduardsii 

Lephelisca borealis 



DATE 

VI-17-50 

VI-17-50 

V-4-52 
V-12-55 

V-7-52 

VII-9-52 

V-12-55 

V-12-55 

VI-16-55 

VII-5-55 

VII-26-55 



LOCATION 



Swallow Falls State Forest, near Friendsville, 

Garrett County, Maryland 

Swallow Falls State Forest, near Friendsville, 

Garrett County, Maryland 

Gambrill State Park, Frederick County, 

Maryland 

Near Flintstone, Allegany County, Mary- 
land 

Frederick County, Maryland 
Worcester County, Maryland 
Allegany County, Maryland 
Allegany County, Maryland 
Dorchester County, Maryland 



Thurmont, 

Beaverdam, 

Flintstone, 

Flintstone, 

Linkwood, 



Gambrill State Park, Frederick County, 

Maryland 

Flintstone, Allegany County, Maryland 



1305 Light St., Baltimore 30, Md., U. S. A. 



160 Vol.10: no.5 

ADDITIONAL BOLORIA TODDI RECORDS FROM MARYLAND 

E. G. MacLeod (Lepid. News 9:54; 1955), reporting Maryland records 
of Boloria toddi (Holland) obtained in the past few years, suggests that they 
may indicate a southward extension of the range subsequent to 1932. It 
therefore seems desirable to record some earlier observations. The files of 
the Department of Entomology of the Natural History Society of Maryland 
include records of this species from Riderwood, Baltimore County, taken by 
F. S. Haydon in May 1930 and on 2 and 11 August 1932. A record from 
Herring Run Park, Baltimore, is attributed to E. Gretsky. On 17 June 1932 
I took one specimen on clover in marsh grass near the shore of an inlet on 
the north side of the Loch Raven Reservoir, Gunpowder River, Baltimore 
County. This specimen and the three taken by Haydon are in the collection 
of the N.H.S.Md. in Baltimore where I examined them on 14 January 1956. 

The addition of these records to those given by MacLeod provides oc- 
currences of record in each county of Maryland along the "Fall Line" from 
the Susquehanna to the Potomac River. Until records are reported from other 
sections of Maryland, the possibility is suggested that the occurrence of B. 
toddi is limited to the lower edge of the Piedmont Plateau in Maryland. 

Bryant Mather, P.O. Drawer 2131, Jackson, Miss., U. S. A. 



THE USE OF THE LEITZ "ULTROPAK" MICROSCOPE FOR STUDYING THE 

SCALES OF LEPIDOPTERA IN SITU 

As noted by B. C. S. Warren (Entomologist 84:73; 1951) a major difficulty in 
using the form of the androconia or any other type of scales as a taxonomic character 
is the possibility of the contamination of mounts by material from other specimens. 
This difficulty is readily avoided by examining the scales in situ by reflected light 
through the use of high magnification (72X) in an ordinary dissecting microscope, or, 
preferably, of the Leitz "Universal Ultropak" microscope. The latter instrument, by 
means of a built-in source of illumination, permits observation by reflected light under 
relatively high magnification. In the study of certain species of Erebia it was found that 
androconia are plainly visible in situ through the "Ultropak" at 110X- If the wing 
of the specimen is at certain angles, the androconia may be difficult to see; therefore 
several different observations should be made (i.e., equivalent areas on opposite wings) 
before conclusions are drawn. After some experience is gained with the "Ultropak" 
the scales may be seen fairly readily under the dissecting microscope. Examination of 
scales in situ is fast, sure, and does not damage the specimen. It permits accurate de- 
termination of the distribution of the various types of scales, but has the disadvantage 
of not permitting detailed examination of the scales themselves. Other entomological 
uses for the "Ultropak" are numerous; it should be considered whenever a situation 
calls for high magnification of opaque surfaces. 

PAUL R. EHRLICH, Dept. of Entomology, University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 161 

TWO NEW RECORDS OF PENNSYLVANIA LEPIDOPTERA 1 

by Harry K. Clench 

1. Mnemonica auricyanea (Walsingham), Eriocraniidae. 

On 26 May 1956 Dr. G. E. Wallace, Curator of Insects at the Carnegie 
Museum, captured a single fresh specimen of this species at the porch light 
of his home in Gibsonia, about 16 miles north of Pittsburgh (Allegheny Co.). 
The area about the house is a moderately settled suburban community, largely 
in lawns, truck gardens, orchards and the like, though with scattered trees 
of many kinds. Despite the rarity and strong localization of colonies of this 
species it is odd that it has heretofore eluded capture in an area as well 
collected as the Pittsburgh district, one of the rather few localities in the 
country in which "micro" collecting has been practiced both intensively and 
over a long period. The specimen agrees well with a small series in the mu- 
seum collection from Rhode Island. 

2. Erora Iceta (Edwards), Lycsenidse. 

This often sought but seldom captured little butterfly has been taken 
both north and south of Pennsylvania, so its occurrence here was never seri- 
ously in doubt. On 3 May 1956, however, it was no longer a matter of 
conjecture. In the company of four colleagues from the museum ( L. K. Henry, 
botany; K. C. Parkes, ornithology; N. D. Richmond, herpetology; G. E. 
Wallace, entomology) I took a single very fresh male while on a pre- 
liminary reconnaissance of the museum's newly acquired biological research 
area, the Powdermill Nature Reserve, located about 4 miles south of Rector, 
in eastern Westmoreland County. 

The capture was made shortly after noon at the bottom of the Powdermill 
Run valley, very close to the stream itself, in the woods only a few yards from 
the edge of a large grassy clearing. In the immediate vicinity the forest was 
composed chiefly of beech, both old trees and young saplings. Underbrush 
was sparse, composed chiefly of the beech saplings and scattered clumps of 
rhododendron. Further upstream hemlock and birch (black and yellow) ap- 
pear in quantity, along with various maples. On one slope of the adjacent 
valley area maples and beech occur; on the facing slope, largely a variety 
of oaks. No hazelnut was seen in the vicinity at all. 

The specimen was taken on the ground, perched on one of the dead 
beech leaves that thickly carpet the area It was very heavy bodied and ap- 
peared to have just emerged; it was so sluggish that it absolutely refused to 
fly up into the net. 

The calendar date of capture does not indicate the time as well as is 
desirable and it is therefore pertinent to give here a few associated seasonal 
events, to fix the biological — or climatological — date more precisely. In view 
of the freshness and sluggishness of the specimen, and of its male sex, this 
would probably represent about the beginning of its spring flight period. 



Contribution no. 1, Powdermill Nature Reserve of Carnegie Museum. 



162 Vol.10: no.5 

Among the butterflies only Lyccenopsis pseudargiolus was seen — throughout 
the area in moderate numbers (10-15 individuals seen, mostly males), and had 
been on the wing, apparently, for several days. Among the plants Trillium 
(both grandiflorum and erectum) were beginning to flower — perhaps 30% 
of the buds being open; dogwood buds were still tightly closed; Hepatica 
had nearly finished flowering, though I saw one clump of three flowers in 
their prime; beech leaf buds were large but still tightly closed. 

Section of Insects and Spiders, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U. S. A. 



NOMENCLATURE NOTICE 

Notice is hereby given that the possible use by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature of its Plenary Powers is involved in an application relating 
to the under-mentioned name included in Part 11 of Volume 12 of the Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature, which was published on 30th November 1956: 

PIERID^ Duponchel, 1832, validation of family-group name (Class Insecta, 
Order Lepidoptera) (Z.N.[S.]289). 

Notice is also given that the possible use by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature of its Plenary Powers is involved in an application relating 
to the under-mentioned names included in Part 1 of Volume 13 of the Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature, which was published on 25th January 1957: 

Bithys and Chrysophanus Hiibner, 1818 (generic names of neotropical Theclids), 
suppression of (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) (Z.N. [S.] 802). 

Any specialist who may desire to comment on the foregoing applications is invited 
to do so in writing to the Secretary to the International Commission (Address: 28 Park 
Village East, Regent's Park, London, N.W.I, England) as soon as possible. Every such 
comment should be clearly marked with the Commission's File Number as given in 
the present Notice, and sent in duplicate. 

If received in sufficient time before the commencement by the International Com- 
mission of voting on the application in question, comments received in response to 
the present Notice will be published in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature; com- 
ments received too late to be so published will be brought to the attention of the 
International Commission at the time of the commencement of voting on the appli- 
cation in question. 

The period within which comments on the applications covered by the present 
Notice are receivable is a period of six calendar months calculated from the date of 
publication of the relevant Part of the Bulletin of Zoological Nomenclature. In con- 
sequence any comments should reach the Secretariat of the International Commission 
at the latest by 30th May and 25th July 1957, respectively. 

Francis Hemming 

Secretary to the International Commission 
on Zoological Nomenclature 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 163 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

( Under the supervision of JAMES R. MERRITT) 

LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTING AT RANKEN, MISSOURI 

by Edwin P. Meiners 

The favorite collecting grounds of our entomologists of an earlier day 
were limited largely by their accessibility by street car or train or, on occasion, 
by long hikes. So we come to find certain areas to have been more or less 
common meeting grounds for persons of like tastes. A few of these early 
collecting grounds in the St. Louis area have become well known, as their 
names have not infrequently appeared in the literature. Creve Coeur Lake 
(Akerlind, 1907), about 15 miles northwest of St. Louis, is a natural lake 
formed by the backwater of the Missouri River, bordered on the south by 
hills and bluffs. Cliff Cave, along the Mississippi River, about four miles 
south of Jefferson Barracks, is a locality where certain migrant butterflies, 
such as Eurema rnexicana and Agraulis vanillce, coming up the Mississippi 
fly way were to be found at times. Meramec Highlands ( Heink, 1913; Dean, 
1918) is an area of hills and ravines bordering the Meramec River, about 
20 miles southwest of St. Louis, where Papilio marcellus, Incisalia henrici, 
Strymon m-album, Anthocaris genutia, and Euchloe olympia, as well as nu- 
merous species of the genus Catocala, have been taken. 

With the advent of the automobile more remote regions have been 
explored, and so we find that, for many years, the favorite collecting ground 
of the entomologists of the St. Louis area has been a locality known to the 
local naturalists as "Ranken" or "The Ranken Estate." Ranken is an area 
approximately five miles square, located in the extreme southwestern portion 
of St. Louis County about 25 miles from the heart of the city of St. Louis. 
It lies at the northern fringe of the Ozark country and is bounded partly on 
the north and the west by the Meramec River. The terrain is made up of a broad 
ridge which divides the area into two wide and fertile valleys. This main 
ridge divides and subdivides into a series of lesser ridges which spread out, 
finger-like, to form smaller valleys, ravines and hollows, all of which have 
been a paradise, not only for the entomologist, but also for those interested 
in the other branches of natural history. 

Every hollow and valley has its own creek, most of them intermittent in 
flow, which are eventually drained through underground passages, as is evi- 
denced by the numerous springs in all of the valleys. During the dry season 
the creeks become dry or almost dry, the largest, Antire Creek, becoming a 
series of pools within the broad expanse of the dry gravel creek bed. The hills 
average between 250 and 350 feet in elevation above the Meramec River and 
consist of a limestone base, a ledge of which forms an outcropping on many 
of the ridges. The upper portion of the ridges is almost entirely chert-covered. 



164 



ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS 



Vol.10: no.5 



The area is nearly all forested with the exception of the fertile valleys 
that are under cultivation. The forest is principally an oak — hickory association 
with a considerable admixture of Sugar Maple, Walnut, Ash, Elm, Honey- 
locust and Hackberry along the lower slopes and ravines, while Sycamore, 
Willows, and Cotton-woods grow in the valleys and along the creeks. There 
is a considerable invasion of Red Cedar along the lower slopes, and here in 
spring we find numbers of Mitoura gryneus gyrating among the topmost 
branches but occasionally coming down within reach of the net. A second 
brood, representing the dark form "smilacis," appears early in July. 




The outcropping ledge of limestone. 

The ledges and lowermost slopes of the ridges are covered with Red-bud 
(Cercis canadensis) , a common denizen of the entire Ozark region, which 
sets the hills ablaze with rosy color early in spring. There we find Incisalia 
henrici frequenting the flowers or ovipositing upon the leaf buds. Another 
early spring butterfly that we find in the open woods along the lower slopes 
and which is looked upon as a prize by the collector is Anthocaris genutia, 
which may on rare occasions be found in considerable numbers. 

Pawpaw grows along the edge of the woods at the foot of the hills, usu- 
ally at the opening of the ravines or hollows, while everywhere we find 
Sassafras in abundance adding color to the autumn woods. Wild Cherry is 
fairly common, and occasionally we find Wafer-ash (Ptelea trifoliata). Wild 
Ginger grows in abundance in the ravines. Along with these plants we find 
the following butterflies: Papilio marcellus. troilus, glaucus, cresphontes and 
philenor. P. troilus is by far the most abundant of our Swallow-tails, fre- 
quently sipping moisture at the edge of the creek or pools, and in one year 
of drought we found them in swarms of hundreds at the few moist places 



1956 



, The Lepidopterists' News 



165 



available, together with numerous specimens of glaucus and marcellus. P. 
cresphontes is one of our scarcest papilios, though not exactly rare. 







A creek bed at Ranken, nearly dry in mid-summer. 



The tops of the highest ridges are covered with chert and vegetation 
is rather sparse. Rock Cress ( Arabis viridis) is found growing here in this 
cherty soil in small groups. This is the habitat of Euchloe olympia, which flies 
from the end of March through April, the caterpillars feeding upon the 
Rock Cress (Meiners, 1939; Arnhold, 1952). It was found that Arabis viridis 
grows only where the soil is extremely rocky, while only a few feet from the 
top, where there is less exposure of the chert, none of the plants are to be 
found. The eggs are laid principally upon the buds, only a few being found 
upon the leaves, and from one to a dozen eggs are laid upon each plant. 
E. olympia is typically a hilltop denizen, being found plentifully where Arabis 
is growing. A few individuals will sometimes migrate to the lower slopes, and 
when found, have led to its being considered a rare species by most local 
entomologists; few collectors make the strenuous climb to the ridge tops. 

A common plant found growing along the roadsides and in waste places 
throughout the entire Ozark region is the Goatweed (Croton capitatum) . This 
is the food of Ancea andria, one of our commonest butterflies. A. andria is 
double-brooded in this region, being most plentiful late in summer and early 
in autumn, frequently being found in numbers around the decaying fruit of 
the Persimmon trees. It hibernates in the imaginal state and is often found 
flying on warm, sunshiny days in mid-winter (Rowley, 1891). 

In late summer the fields are covered with Iron-weed, Joe-pye-weed, 
Blue Vervain, Eupatorium, Field Aster, and others, which attract many kinds 



166 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.10: no.5 

of butterflies. Colias eurytheme is especially abundant at this time of the 
year, its orange color being particularly conspicuous in the fields of white 
flowers. At one time, and within my memory, Colias philodice was our com- 
monest butterfly, congregating by the hundreds at roadside puddles following 
a summer shower, while C. eurytheme was considered a collector's prize. This 
has been completely reversed within my 50 years of collecting, philodice being 
now all but exterminated by the more aggressive eurytheme (Clark, 1931). 

I have records of about 86 species of butterflies, with their many varia- 
tions, seasonal forms, etc., taken at Ranken. Among some of the rarities I 
might mention Eurema mexicana, Agraulis vanillce, Phyciodes phaon, Poly- 
gonia progne, Strymon Ontario, Strymon liparops, and Hemiargus isola. Al- 
though Cercyonis alope, Euphydryas phaeton, and Calephelis muticum are 
not especially rare, they are usually found only in a few isolated areas and 
are considered prizes when taken. 

I will mention only a few of the more conspicuous moths that we have 
taken at Ranken. From early spring into midsummer we find Hemaris thysbe 
and H. diffinis flying abundantly during the day time. These moths are 
double-brooded, the larvae commonly found on Buck-bush (Symphoricarpos 
orbiculatwn), a low shrub growing profusely throughout the entire Ozark 
area. Amphion nessus, another day flying sphinx, is taken rarely and is a 
prize. Beds of Bouncing Bet (Saponaria officinalis), escapes from nearby gar- 
dens, attract a number of sphinges, commonly Phlegethontius sextus and P. 
quinquemaculatus , Dolba hylceus (larva on Pawpaw), Ceratomia undulosa, At- 
reides plebeja, Cressonia juglandis, Ampeloeca myron, Darapsa pholus, Xylo- 
phanes tersa, and Celerio lineata, the latter our most common sphinx. 

Of the Saturniidae Platysamia cecropia, Actias luna, and Telea polyphemus 
are common. Automeris io is not found as frequently with us as it is further 
south. Hemileuca maia, occasionally met late in fall, is a swift flyer and 
difficult to capture. Callosamia promethea was at one time extremely common, 
and bushels of the cocoons could be gathered from the low Sassafras shrubs 
where they formed conspicuous objects after all of the leaves had fallen. It 
has now been many years since I have seen promethea in St. Louis County, 
and I had about come to the conclusion that the species had been exterminated, 
probably by parasites to which it is exceptionally prone, had I not found two 
empty cocoons on Sassafras during the fall of 1955 not far from Ranken. 

The most interesting moths taken at Ranken, however, belong to the 
genus Catocala, of which I have records of 37 species with their many varia- 
tions, and there may be others that I have failed to find. Every ravine and 
hollow is a happy hunting grounds for these gorgeous insects during their 
season of flight, which begins about the middle of June and extends to 
nearly the end of August. Daytime collecting (Rowley, 1906) has always 
been our method of choice, and with a sharp eye and a stealthy step it is 
possible to approach and capture them with the cyanide jar and without the 
use of the net. One must, however, choose the proper kind of a day for suc- 
cessful collecting. A stuffy, humid, hot day in July or early August with a 
storm not far in the offing gives the best results. I have notes of such a day 
early in August of 1931 that was a record for me. It was an unusually hot 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



167 



and humid day, dark clouds were beginning to form in the west, and the 
rumble of distant thunder could be plainly heard. It was about 3 o'clock in 
the afternoon when I, together with several members of my family, entered 
one of the hollows, each armed with cyanide jars. Imagine our surprise when 
we found Catocala flying like bees around a hive. Every tree trunk had one 
to a dozen specimens on it, but all were alert and extremely wary. If we 
bottled one specimen the others immediately took off. But there were others 




'*""> ^* r ^fc vr" Y -* 







'^ 









A Catocala hollow at Ranken, home of many species. 

on the next tree and the next, and we bottled them as fast as the cyanide 
would stun them. About 5 o'clock the storm was upon us and we had to 
scurry for shelter. Later, when we added up our captures, we had a hundred 
specimens representing 18 species. Following the storm we had a week's 
respite from the summer's heat. Returning the following Sunday there was 
not a single Catocala to be seen. The day was comparatively cool and clear! 
Some of the commonest species found at Ranken were: Catocala innubens. 
lacrymosa, neogama, ilia, epione, and arnica. Among the relative rarities we 



168 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.10: no.5 

found C. censors, angusi lucetta, mcestosa, nebulosa, sordida, Judith, coccinata, 
and serena. 

Some years ago lumbermen entered this region and many of the fine 
old oaks fell to their ax. Later a national highway traversed the area and 
with it came automobiles and picnickers. More recently the Boy Scouts have 
taken over a considerable portion of it and added many modern "improve- 
ments." Ranken as we knew it is no more, but there are still many wooded 
hills and deep ravines where one can find rare butterflies and Catocala. 

References 

Akerlind, G. A., 1907. Insect hunting as a pastime. Ent. News 18: 83-88. 

Arnhold, F. R., 1952. Notes on collecting Anthocaris midea and Euchloe olympia. 

Lepid. News 6: 99-100. 
Clark, A. H., 1931. The extirpation of one butterfly by another. Sci. Monthly 33:173-174. 
Dean, F. R., 1918. A few surprises of early 1918. Lepidoptera 2: 59-60. 
Heink, C. L., 1903. 141 Lepidoptera captured in four hours at Meremec Highlands, 

St. Louis Co., Mo., April 12th, 1903. Ent. News 14: 334-335. 
Meiners, E. P., 1939. The life history of Euchloe olympia Edwards, with some notes on 

its habits. Proc. Missouri Acad. Sci. 4: 154-156. 
Rowley, R. R., 1891. Observations on the butterfly, Paphia tragi odita. Ent. News 2: 43-46. 
, 1906. Hunting Catocala? by daylight. Ent. News 17: 231-234. [See also 

the various articles on collecting these moths in Missouri by Rowley and Rowley 

& Berry in Ent. News volumes 19-25.] 

6651 Enright Ave., St. Louis 5, Mo., U. S. A. 



FOOD PLANTS OF PERO MACDUNNOUGHI 

In his recent revision of some western species of the genus Pero, RlNDGE (1955, 
Amer. Mus. Nov. 1750: 33 pp.) makes the following statement: "The food plants 
are but little known, and it is possible that some of these species feed on more plants 
than are now known." This is quite true with Pero macdunnoughi Cassino & Swett, 
which feeds on at least two other plant species besides Privet mentioned by COMSTOCK 
(Bull. So. California Acad. Sci. 29: p-29; 1930) in his life history description. 

In November 1941 I obtained some eggs from a confined female of this species. 
The newly-hatched larvae refused to eat several species of plants offered them, but 
fed readily on foliage of Artemisia calif or nica Less, and were reared to maturity on it. 

In July 1955 eight ova were found laid in a row along the edge of a leaf of 
Eriogonum fasciculatum Benth. Four of the larvae from this batch of eggs were reared 
to maturity. The adults which emerged in November were typical P. macdunnoughi. 

Since the only published food plant record lists an introduced plant, this report 
of two native host plants should be of some interest. 

William H. Evans, 8711 La Tuna Canyon Rd., Sun Valley, Calif., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists News 169 

DISTRIBUTION OF BUTTERFLIES ON VANCOUVER ISLAND 

by Richard Guppy 

The distribution of Rhopalocera on Vancouver Island is definitely un- 
usual, and provides therefore some food for thought. The greater part of 
the population of butterflies is concentrated in the southeastern part of the 
island. Here the number of species and individuals is probably about aver- 
age for a temperate climate, while in much of the western and northerly 
sections butterflies are very scarce and represented by few species. 

At first glance an obvious explanation for this phenomenon seems 
right at hand. On maps showing the life zones of the Pacific Coast of North 
America, the area of V.I. where most Rhopalocera are found is set aside, 
not only from the remainder of the island but from all of the Pacific north- 
west, as a distinct zone. But unfortunately for this theory there is not the 
same sharp delineation between butterfly-occupied and butterfly-less areas, 
as there is between the gulf island zone and the coastal rain forest which 
covers the remainder of the island. 

It is most fortunate that there exists a collection of Rhopalocera of 
the west coast of V.I. The owner of this collection makes no pretence at 
a serious study of Lepidoptera. He has collected these specimens at odd 
times over a number of years. No doubt he would himself be the first to 
admit that it was not much of a task, owing to the fewness of the species 
available. Yet I consider the effort most definitely worth while; without 
it we would not have any knowledge of the butterflies of the V.I. west coast. 

Following is the complete list of species included in the above collection; 
I have listed all the Polygonia species found on V.I., and I expect they all 
occur on the west coast, though I cannot identify specimens myself with cer- 
tainty: Papilio zelicaon, P. eurymedon, Neophasia menapia. Pieris rapce, Danaus 
plexippus, Polygonia satyrus, P. jaunus, P. oreas, P. zephyrus, Nymphalis cali- 
jomica, N. milberti, N. antiopa, Vanessa cardui, Vanessa carye, Limenitis 
lor quint, Incisalia iroides, Lyccenopsis pseudargiolus. 

Now I think we can explain the presence of every one of the above 
species on the basis of food plant availability. Briefly then, the scarcity of 
butterflies in the rain forest area seems to be due to the small selection 
available, before the coming of civilization, of those plants commonly used 
by butterflies as food, coupled with the reluctance of many species to move 
abroad in search of fresh pastures. 

Papilio zelicaon feeds on Heracleum lanatum, which grows abundantly 
on the rocky headlands along the open coast. The host of Neophasia menapia 
is Pinus contorta, a common tree in the low sandy areas. Papilio eurymedon 
and Limenitis lorquini feed on deciduous trees which find a foothold beside 
lakes and rivers. Where clearing has allowed the spread of such trees, the 
butterflies have followed. Lycamopsis pseudargiolus probably uses as a host 
Spircea douglasii, which grows abundantly in the shallows of lakes. Being 
like all Lycsenidae a stay-at-home, it has not followed the clearings and on 
the west coast is still confined to a few favored spots beside bodies of fresh 



170 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.10: no.5 

water, bicisalta iroides feeds on Gaultheria shallon, the usual ground cover 
in all of the rain forest. The remaining species on the west coast list are 
wanderers and strong fliers, which are sure to locate their host plants where- 
ever these may spring up, or, as in the case of Nymphalis califomica and 
Danaus plexippus, they migrate far beyond their breeding range. 

It may seem that I am painting the west coast as something of a desert, 
since only a dozen or so of nearly sixty species of butterflies can find suit- 
able hosts there. But it must be remembered that the Rhopalocera constitute 
relatively few groups, and the species in each group tend to have a similar 
taste in food plants. Nearly all the Satyridas like grasses. On V.I. at least, 
the Plebeiinae are almost confined to lupins, while Speyeria and Boloria care 
only for violets. Space will not allow me to go further into the matter from 
this direction; we must consider a few species which certainly find hosts 
on the west coast, but which do not seem to occur there. Papilio rutulus 
usually flies with P. eurymedon. Being difficult to net and looking on the 
wing much like others of the genus, it could easily get overlooked. Incisalia 
eryphon feeds on Pinus. It is another insect which could easily escape notice. 
On the east coast one has little chance of obtaining specimens without previous 
knowledge of the exact spots where colonies may be found. The presence 
of stands of Pinus is no guarantee that /. eryphon will be be found there 
also. One circumstance frankly puzzles me. The masses of magnificent Lathy- 
rus which cover the ocean beaches between forest and tide should certainly 
harbour Everes amyntula. I found this species common at Kelsey Bay, on 
the east coast, but far north of the benevolent gulf islands zone. 

We can now turn for a while to the butterflies of the east coast, where 
some sixty species are found. Here also, much of the country was originally 
too heavily wooded to allow of much butterfly life. Ignoring for the moment 
the man-made clearings, there are found three types of terrain which pro- 
vided a favourable environment: (1) the dry southern tip of the island, 
which appears never to have supported a continuous growth of timber; (2) 
rocky areas where the soil is too thin to support large trees; (3) mountains 
above the timber line. 

The park-like country around Victoria is evidently the headquarters of 
the island butterfly population. There are several species which still are 
found there, though not elsewhere on the island. Caenonympha inornata is 
one of these. Here it is represented by a subspecies, C. i. insulana, whose en- 
tire range is confined to this tiny bit of territory. Euphydryas editha taylori, 
extremely abundant some seasons in the park land around Oak Bay, is said 
to occur also at Comox. Another species which seems to have established 
itself around Victoria without wandering further north is Phyciodes cam- 
pestris. A form of Hesperia comma also has become numerous in the Oak 
Bay park of recent years, but I have taken a solitary specimen of H. comma 
at Cameron Lake, and another on Mt. Benson near Wellington. It seems likely 
in view of the sudden "eruption" of H. comma around Victoria, that it may 
spread rather rapidly, but by 1956 it had not spread at all. 

Another subspecies of some interest is Plebeius s&piolus hisulanus. Most 
probably a lupin feeder, the V.I. population as far as is known is confined 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 171 

to Mt. Malahat. This is the more strange since three other lupin-eating 
species are found nearly everywhere that their host plant grows, though there 
are some notable exceptions. On Mt. Benson for instance, there appear 
to be only Glaucopsyche lygdamus and Plebeins icarioides. 

The above few species complete the list of those which have been 
satisfied to occupy the southern tip of the island only. A number of butter- 
flies have moved northward, taking advantage of stony hillsides which can 
support only scattered trees, and most of these have established themselves 
on the high peaks above timber line. 

To the specialist in Rhopalocera, alpine collecting on V.I. is not par- 
ticularly rewarding. Several species supposed to be adapted to high altitudes 
I have not found above 3000 ft. Parnassius clodius is one of these. (Eneis 
nevadensis occurs high up, but not so commonly as at moderate elevations. 
Probably the best spot on the island for this species is near my home, a 
rocky area close to the sea and only a few hundred feet above it. We have 
only two species which can be described as strictly confined to high alti- 
tudes. Plebeius aquilo I have only found on Mt. Arrowsmith above the 5000 
ft. level. It has been collected on Mt. Becher at about 4500 ft. These are 
still the only known localities on V.I., but in fact they are the only alpine 
areas which have been visited by lepidopterists. Mt. Becher is a part of the 
Forbidden Plateau, where most high altitude collecting is done, because of 
the tourist accommodation provided by the lodge near by. I have myself 
tried Mt. De Cosmos near Nanaimo. On two occasions I climbed nearly to 
the summit of the 4000 ft. mountain, without collecting anything worthy of 
note. Our other high level species is of particular interest, because its presence 
remained unsuspected until 1950. Mr. Llewellyn Jones collected the first 
V.I. specimens of Parnassius smintheus that summer. It is a matter for 
speculation how it escaped the notice of earlier collectors. Its general re- 
semblance to P. clodius could have caused it to be overlooked by some, not 
given to chasing every butterfly that showed up. However, as I have inti- 
mated, most of the high mountains of V.I. are still quite unexplored, let 
alone by butterfly enthusiasts, so the colony could easily have built up some- 
where else and only recently been transferred to Mt. Arrowsmith. Lycama 
mariposa is found on Mt. Arrowsmith and over much of the Forbidden 
Plateau. The glamour was somewhat taken out of this butterfly by Mr. 
Jones, who found a colony by the highway near Port Alberni. I do not 
know the exact elevation of this spot; it cannot be more than 1500 ft. 

In conclusion I must remark on several species known to collectors all 
over the world, but which on V.I. are always rather scarce. Why this should 
be I do not know. Vanessa atalanta seems to occur only as a straggler. V. 
cardui sometimes comes in numbers on migration, but as the winter kills 
them, the species is absent most seasons. Nympbalis antiopa is said to be 
common at times, but I have never found it so. I have come across only 
one specimen of Pieris napi. Danaus plexippus is recorded for V.I. on the 
basis of a single specimen taken by my brother at Tofino. 

Wellington, V. I., B. C, CANADA 



172 Vol.10: no.5 



MINUTES OF THE THIRD PACIFIC SLOPE MEETING OF THE 
LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY, AUGUST 4 and 5, 1956 

Through the kindness of Dr. COGGESHALL and his associates every facility was 
provided for the western meeting at the Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History. 
Members convened at 9:30 A.M. on Saturday, August 4, and were favored with ex- 
ceptionally attractive headquarters and unusually fine weather. 

The first hour was devoted to registration, to the renewal of old friendships, and 
to becoming acquainted with those who were attending the western meeting for the 
first time. After refreshments which the museum kindly furnished, the formal meeting 
began when Dr. COGGESHALL welcomed the group to Santa Barbara and extended the 
hospitality of the museum. He spoke of his long association with Dr. W. J. HOLLAND 
at the Carnegie Museum and called attention to collections of Lepidoptera on display 
or placed at the disposal of the members. Dr. John Adams Comstock in accepting 
his welcome expressed appreciation for the fine facilities provided and commended 
the museum for the excellent job it is doing in its field. 

Dr. T. N. Freeman's presidential address was read by Dr. COMSTOCK and is 
published in this issue. After completing program arrangements, members examined 
the collections on display among which were many strikingly beautiful exotics. The 
group adjourned to a very enjoyable luncheon as guests of the Board of Trustees of 
the museum. Following this pleasant interlude the group picture was taken by Mr. 
FlNLEY, museum photographer. 

The afternoon was devoted to a symposium on the taxonomy of Lepidoptera. Dr. 
WILLIAM HOVANITZ was moderator, and the participants were Dr. R. H. T. MATTONI, 
Prof. Kodo Maeki, Mr. F. Martin Brown, Dr. J. A. Comstock, and Dr. Hovanitz. 
The substance of each paper will be published in an early issue of the News, and 
comments are therefore omitted from these minutes. 

A large crowd enjoyed the evening banquet in the Red Room of the quaint and 
colorful Restaurante El Paseo. From there the group convened in the home of Mr. 
and Mrs. DEAN BLANCHARD, who were most gracious hosts to a large group of 
members and guests. Highlights of the evening were LLOYD MARTIN'S fascinating 
talk on Arizona collecting which was illustrated by many beautiful colored slides, and 
an inspection of Mr. ; BLANCHARD'S remarkable hummingbird collection. 

Under Dr. COMSTOCKS able chairmanship the Sunday meeting began with a 
report by Dr. Mattoni covering novel field studies on Philotes sonorensis under- 
taken in cooperation with Mr. MARVIN SlEGER. The numbers and distribution of 
individuals was determined by establishing six stations in San Gabriel Wash twelve 
miles east of Pasadena. Over 1100 specimens were marked and released in a manner 
explained and illustrated by colored slides. Recaptures numbered 258 specimens from 
which a number of conclusions about densities, sex ratios, and movements were drawn. 

FRANK SALA then showed how the camera may be used as a taxonomic tool in 
recording life history stages. He showed numerous beautiful slides of California Pieridae 
and other species. Dr. LELAND BROWN, author of the article on insect photography in 
the Lepidopterists' News (Vol. 7: p. 148), assisted in taking these fine pictures. Group 
discussion centered around diapause in Lepidoptera. 

Members then inspected the Hall of Insects which is under construction at the 
museum. Mr. NELSON BAKER explained the techniques he is using, and some of the 
problems he is having in displaying to the general public the remarkable adaptations 
of insects. Several attractive habitat groups are being prepared. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



173 



Mr. DAVID BAUER then gave a comprehensive and interesting report on his studies 
of the new world Melitasinse. Careful genitalic studies of the American and European 
members of this subfamily show that the nearctic species are in need of generic re- 
arrangement. There was considerable discussion by members on various species in this 
popular group. 




The Mexican restaurant in El Paseo was once again the site where a large group 
of members and guests enjoyed lunch together. Following lunch the business meeting 
was advanced to first place on the afternoon program in consideration of those mem- 
bers who were travelling. 

The first subject discussed was how to make better use of available automobiles 
in attending future western meetings. Those in Southern California who are driving 
and have extra room, and those who wish a ride are to leave word with Lloyd Martin 
in Los Angeles, while those in the San Francisco area will leave word with DON 
PATTERSON in Atherton. A motion requesting that consideration be given to the al- 
location of a portion of the dues of members in an area for support of regional meet- 
ings was passed and has been referred to Society officers. 

Lengthy discussion ensued when the subject was broached as to whether the 
western group should organize further by drawing up a statement of aims and pur- 
poses. No action was taken. A motion was unanimously passed requesting the Society 
to notify the members at least six months in advance of the time and place of the 
national meeting. Fees of $28.00 collected at the meeting were sent to W. LEVI PHILLIPS 
to defray some of the costs of printed programs on a motion from the floor, and a 
resolution was passed thanking him for his excellent job. 

A resolution was passed asking that the Society give consideration to the estab- 
lishment of an Editorial Board to be chosen to represent the members of the Society, 



174 Third Pacific Slope Meetings Vol.10: no. 5 

and to pass upon the merits of all material printed in the Lepidopterists' News. The 
secretary was instructed to express the appreciation of the group in letters 1) to the 
Museum Board of Trustees, and to Mr. and Mrs. DEAN BLANCHARD for their fine 
hospitality, and 2) to those who submitted papers in absentia. 

The American Museum of Natural History field station in the Chiricahua Moun- 
tains of southeastern Arizona was selected after much discussion as the place for the 
1957 western meeting over the Labor Day weekend, but since several members would 
be unable to attend, a second meeting in Santa Barbara sometime during October 
1957 was also scheduled. NELSON BAKER was unanimously elected as program 
chairman for both meetings. Following a coffee break the hour was so late that it 
was decided to dispense with the balance of the scheduled program. 

Members who registered were: Ray Albright, Nelson Baker, David Bauer, 
J. A. Comstock, Charles Hill, William Hovanitz, Robert Kaiser, Carl 
Kirkwood, Robert Langston, Ron Leuschner, Lloyd Martin, R. H. T. Mat- 
toni, Noel McFarland, Joe McKenney, Paddy McHenry, S. S. Nicolay, Paul 
Opler, Bill Patterson, Donald Patterson, Robert Reid, William Rees, 
Frank Sala, Dora Schmela, Marvin Seiger, Elton Sette, John Spencer, 
J. W. Tilden, Fred Thorne, and Patrick Wilson. Guests included Mrs. Baker, 
Mrs. Kirkwood, Mrs. Sala, Mrs. Thorne, Mrs. Tilden, Dr. Coggeshall, and 
several others. 

Respectfully submitted, 

Fred Thorne 
Secretary Treasurer, Pro tern. 



The cover drawing of the stylized cossid moth on the current volume of the News 
is by HARRY K. CLENCH, curator of the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 175 

REVIEWS 



INVESTIGATIONS ON THE LEPIDOPTERA OF NEWFOUNDLAND, I. MACRO- 
LEPIDOPTERA. By Harry Krogerus. Acta Zoologica Fennica 82: 80 pp. 1954. Pub- 
lisher: Societas pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, Helsingfors, Finland. 

During three summer months of 1949, intensive studies were carried out by a 
four-man Finnish-Swedish biological expedition to Newfoundland (pronounced New' 
found land')- The Macrolepidoptera portion of the investigations has been published 
in a well written, 80-page paper ( in English) by the lepidopterist of the group, Dr. 
KROGERUS. 280 species are listed and discussed, comprising 247 encountered by the 
expedition plus 33 others reported in the literature but not observed in 1949. The 
ecological and zoogeographical aspects of the Newfoundland fauna are emphasized 
by the author, whose familiarity with similar climatic conditions in northern Europe 
provide an appropriate basis for comparison. This greatly enhances the value of his 
paper. It is divided into four sections: (I) Introduction, (2) Check List of the New- 
foundland Species, (3) Taxonomical Remarks and Descriptions of New Species (with 
34 text figures of genitalia), (4) A Survey of the Newfoundland Species. Section 4 
is the actual list, with copious annotations, the arrangement essentially that of 
McDUNNOUGH'S 1938 Check List of the Lepidoptera of Canada and the United States 
of America. Part I. Macrolepidoptera. Section 3 is largely occupied with discussion of 
relationships between Newfoundland and European populations of holoarctic species. 
A useful list of references appears at the end. 

Dr. Krogerus departs from the 1938 Check List in considering the following 
European and American forms conspecific ( American name first) : Plebeius scudderi 
{Lyc&ides argyrognomon) aster Edw. and Plebeius idas L., Diarsia dislocata Sm. and 
Diarsia mendica Fabr., Leucania [oxygala] luteopallens Sm. and Leucania pallens L., 
Cucullia intermedia Spey. and Cucullia lucifuga Schiff., Septis finitima Gn. and Septis 
basilinea Fabr., Eupithecia luteata Pack, and Eupithecia lariciata Frr., Euphyia intermedia 
[to] Gn. and Euphyia unangulata Haw. He does consider, however, that racial differ- 
ences exist in most cases. He regards Graphiphora smithi Snell. and the European 
baja Fabr. as distinct (thus at variance with FORBES, 1954); similarly with Anagoga 
occiduaria Wlk. and pulveraria Linn, (this time agreeing with FORBES, 1948). 

Schrankia {Hypenodes) iurfosalis Wocke is listed as a new occurrence for North 
America, but I should caution against adding the name to our lists until Newfoundland 
material is more thoroughly investigated. At least three different Hypenodes occur 
there, including two of my new ones described too late for inclusion in his paper. 

Two new species are described by Dr. KROGERUS — Protorthodes lindrothi and 
Hydrelia terraz-novce, and the types, which I have not seen, are in the Canadian Na- 
tional Collection. 

Although trivial, the following few irregularities of usage and spelling should 
be noted: 

Page 22: Papilio brevicauda is listed as a ssp. of polyxenes (spelled polixenes) as 
treated by ROTHSCHILD & Jordan, and by JORDAN in Seitz, whereas in recent years 
it has most commonly been regarded as distinct. 

Page 26: The generic name Clossiana Reuss is used for the bog fritillaries rather than 
Boloria Moore, but this is just a matter of opinion in choosing whether to use Boloria 
in its restricted or unrestricted sense. 

Pages 8, 19, 69-70: Xantorhoe should read Xanthorhoe. as originally spelled (Hubner, 
Verz. bek. Schmett., 327, 1816), and congretata Wlk. should read congregata Wlk. 
Pages 9, 20, 71: intermedia Gn. should read intermediata Gn. 

Two of Dr. KROGERUS' determinations have puzzled me. The first is Alypia 
octomaculata, known to feed only on Vitaceae and therefore a seemingly doubtful 
inhabitant of Newfoundland. The other is Abagrotis placida. a rare species whose 
presence is possible but not otherwise recognized in the Atlantic Provinces. 

All things considered, this paper deserves attention for its thoroughness, its 



176 REVIEWS Vol.10: no.5 

awareness of holarctic zoogeography, and its value as the only comprehensive com- 
pilation of data on Newfoundland Macrolepidoptera. 

To append a comment of my own, however, it would appear that we still have 
little more than a superficial knowledge of the Newfoundland fauna. In spite of ex- 
tremely adverse weather, my 2-week sojourn to the Avalon Peninsula in mid-summer, 
1954, yielded 40 species not encountered by Krogerus, and this number included 27 
not previously reported from Newfoundland in the literature. One might guess that 
further collecting would more than double the present list. 

Douglas C. Ferguson, Nova Scotia Museum of Science, Halifax, N. S., CANADA. 



MICROLEPIDOPTERA OF NEW GUINEA. Results of the Third Archbold Expedition 
(American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part III. By A. Diakonoff. 
V erhandelingen der Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen. Afd. Na- 
tuurkunde, 2nd ser., vol. 49, No. 4: pp. ( 1)-164, figs. 373-551; 1954. — Part IV. Ibidem, 
vol. 50, No. 1: pp. (D-191, figs. 552-719; 1954. — Part V. Ibidem, vol. 50, No. 3: 
pp. (D-211, figs. "720-861, 1 title page; 1955. Amsterdam. 

The publication of these three parts concludes a monumental work with altogether 
900 pages and 861 figures in text, one separate plate, and one map (see reviews of 
Parts I and II in Lepid. News. vol. 7: p. 128, 1953, and vol. 8: p. 50, 1954). An 
enclosed title page and the index to the whole work enable it to be bound as a 
separate volume. Never before have the Microlepidoptera fauna of New Guinea been 
studied so accurately and on the level of recent scientific research. Although only the 
records of the Third Archbold Expedition are reported, the work includes review of 
582 species and subspecies; of them, 514 species and 10 subspecies are described as 
new, and 67 new genera are established. Since keys to many Papuan genera and species, 
both those collected by the Expedition and others, are given, the work is a very im- 
portant handbook for every student of the Papuan Microlepidoptera fauna. It is of 
great value for systematists and morphologists dealing with the Lepidoptera. 

Part III brings descriptions and records of the families Schcenotenidse, Childanotidae, 
Carposinidse, and Copromorphidae, with new 13 genera and 105 species. To the family 
Schcenotenidse a complete key to all known genera, also of other faunas, and a brief 
review of those genera, are given. This review, with many figures, gives a complete 
idea of the "newly born" family. 

Part IV reports on the families Gelechiidae, Cosmopterygidae, Scaeosophidae, Xylor- 
ictidae, Stenomidae, CEcophoridse, Orneodidas and ^Egeriidse. 15 genera, 119 species and 
seven subspecies are described as new. 

Part V (the last of the work) reports on Heliodinidae, Glyphipterygidae, Elachistidae, 
Scythrididae, Yponomeutida?, Amphitheridas, Lithocolletidae, Epermeniidae, Plutellidae, 
Lyonetiidae, Tineidae, Incurvariidae, and Adelidae, with 19 genera, 90 species and three 
subspecies described as new. It includes also a list of the entire Microlepidoptera 
records of the Expedition, general remarks on and the characteristics of the Microlep- 
idoptera fauna of Central New Guinea, references, index to the whole work, addenda 
and corrigenda, and a title page with publishing data of separate parts of the work. 

Henceforth, any study of the New Guinean Microlepidoptera fauna is indissolubly 
connected to the name of Dr. A. Diakonoff. His other papers have shown that he 
has further rich materials on this fauna. Owing to the author, the New Guinean 
Microlepidoptera are already studied immeasurably better than those of any other 
tropical fauna. Let us wish the author much success in the continuation of his interesting 
and important research of tropical Microlepidoptera. 

NICHOLAS S. OBRAZTSOV, 68 Glenlawn Avenue, Sea Cliff, N. Y., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 177 

FAUNA SSSR. NASEKOMYE CHESHUEKRYLYE. VOLUME III, PART 2. CHEKH- 
LONOSY-MESHECHNITSY (SEAL PSYCHIDAE). [Fauna of the USSR. Insecta Lep- 
idoptera. "Bag-worms."] By I. V. Kozhantshikov. Zoologicheskiy Institut Akademii 
Nauk SSSR. New series, no. 62: 516 (+ 1) pp., 334 figs. Publisher: Akademia Nauk 
SSSR. Moscow-Leningrad. 1956. [Price: Roubles 32.50, paper bound. | [In Russian.] 

The reviewed book of the Fauna SSSR series is the fourth issue dealing with the 
Lepidoptera. Its contents: Title page, with editorial notes on the reverse (2 pp.); Pre- 
face (2 pp.); Systematical Species List (5 pp.); Introduction (101 pp., 54 figs.), with 
six chapters (Imaginal Morphology, Morphology of Immature Instars, Biology and 
Ecological Relations, Classification and Phylogeny, Geographical Range, Economic 
Importance); Bibliography, compiled corresponding to the chapters of the Introduction 
(8 pp.; the bibliography to the chapter on the classification is the same as that of 
Special Part); Special Part (391 pp., 280 figs.); Alphabetical Index (7 pp.); Table 
of Contents (1 p.). All chapters of Introduction are very circumstantial and include 
many new data. 

In the Special Part the family Psychidae is additionally characterized, and two keys 
to subfamilies, one based on adults, the other on larvae, are given. The family is 
divided into two subfamilies, Psycheoidinae and Psychinae. The keys to the genera 
are given separately for male moths and for larvae. 25 genera of Psycheoidinae (four 
of them are new) and 17 of Psychinae (one of them new) are described and illustrated. 
Detailed redescriptions of 139 species and descriptions of 32 new species. All descrip- 
tions are accompanied by data on the range and ecology of the species. Not only the 
species known to be found in the USSR are reviewed, but in many cases also those 
which may have been expected to be found there, since they are known from neigh- 
boring countries. The keys to the species, based on male moths, are very instructive. 
The good enlarged figures drawn by E. Blagovestshenskaya represent males of 21 
species; the females are figured more schematically, sometimes only as halves, in gen- 
eral of 17 species. Figures of male genitalia of 122 species; six figures of female 
genitalia; larval cases of 14 species. 130 figures of various morphological structures 
(wing venation, legs larval chaetotaxy, etc.); three phylogenetic schemata; 32 maps of 
geographic distribution of the family, some genera and species. 

As the author writes himself, his work is based chiefly on the materials in the 
collection of the Zoological Institute in Leningrad, and on published ecological data. 
The author himself studied in nature only some of the northern Russian Psychidae species. 
This is the reason why the paper gives the impression of being a purely "academic" 
research based on materials not especially collected for it. This also explains the very 
limited data on females and larval cases contained in the book. The bibliography is 
given quite completely; only the Psychidae monograph by Bruand (1853) was in- 
accessible to the author. Also the most recent papers by SlEDER ( 1954, 1955) on 
Taleporiinae were not revised. 

It is regrettable that neither the exact data on the specimens studied nor the 
number of genitalia slides are listed in the book. Some nomenclature inaccuracies 
should be mentioned. The subfamily name Psycheoidinae contradicts the Copenhagen 
Decisions on Zoological Nomenclature of 1953, since this name is not based on a 
really existing genus. It should probably be replaced by the name Taleporiinae pro- 
posed by Tutt (1900) as a family name among some others for the group in 
question, and subsequently preferred and used by REBEL, originally (1901) for a 
family, and later (1906) for a subfamily. Very doubtful is the replacement of the 
generic name Canephora Hb. by Lepidopsyche Newman, 1850. The author supposed 
the HUBNER name was published only in the Tentamen (1806) and overlooked its 
validation by HUBNER in his Systematisch-alphabetisches Verzeichniss (1822). The 
author neglected also the importance of a type designation for the new species he 
described; perhaps the type specimens are marked as such in the collection but this 
is not seen from the book. All geographical and other infraspecific forms are syn- 
onymized with nominate specific forms; this stands in complete accordance with the 
author's views on geographic variation. 



178 REVIEWS Vol.10: no.5 

The few above inaccuracies cannot diminish the scientific value of the Psychidae 
book by KOZHANTSHIKOV, and his work must be recognized as promoting the study 
of the family and therefore very important for specialists working upon this group. 

NICHOLAS S. Obraztsov, 68 Glenlawn Avenue, Sea Cliff, N. Y., U. S. A. 



A SILKMOTH REARER'S HANDBOOK. By W. J. B. Crotch. 165 pp., 26 pis. (2 
colored), 27 figs. 1956. Publisher — The Amateur Entomologists' Society, 1 West 
Ham Lane, London E.15, England. (Price, paper cover, 18 shillings, postpaid.) 

Mr. CROTCH has completely revised the earlier edition of the Handbook by BEO- 
WULF A. COOPER. This is a wonderful compendium of tricks of the breeders' trade, 
certain to have many new and useful suggestions for any lepidopterist who rears the 
Giant Silkworms — Saturniidas — of any part of the world. There are notes on food- 
plants, descriptions of larvae, cocoons, even eggs, notes on clock-times of pairing of 
many species, the formula for SMITH'S ELIXIR (a nutrient solution to be sprayed 
on leaves in a poor state to nourish caterpillars ) , the method of distinguishing the 
sex of pupae, and much more. Most of the species in the world are at least mentioned 
in the text, with the genera in alphabetical order. North American species are par- 
ticularly fully discussed. The plates are full of excellent photographs, and the figures 
are clear. There are points which really should have been included or improved : 
the nomenclature is unnecessarily antiquated, the hand-pairing method is not men- 
tioned, Michener's excellent revision of the major groups of Saturniidae (see Lepid. 
News 6: 109-111; 1952) is old enough to have been included. But this is not a 
pretentious treatise; it is a handbook for all of us, whatever the focus of our interest 
in Silkmoth rearing. 

C. L. Remington 



The long awaited monograph of the genus Ancea by the late William P. COMSTOCK 
has been announced as nearing publication by the American Museum of Natural History. 
This large and complicated genus of magnificent butterflies of the American tropics 
was the principal focus of COMSTOCK'S exceptionally fine taxonomic talents during his 
later years. His part was completed some time ago, but funds were not available to 
publish the monograph in the elegant style needed for suitable treatment of a group 
in which color characters are so important. The Museum has now announced that, if 
there is sufficient pre-publication response, it is now ready to proceed with publication. 
The book will contain 30 exquisite color plates, 19 pages of black-and-white drawings, 
and 292 pages; the page size will be 9?4 by 13 inches. In addition to the high scien- 
tific quality which COMSTOCK'S authorship brings, the very beautiful color plates and 
the rich format will make this a volume the equal of which appears only once in 
decades. The announced price is surprisingly low: before publication it will be 120.00; 
after publication it will be §25.00. The book will be published in only a limited 
quantity and may go out of print soon. Lepidopterists who have not yet received the 
prospectus, with specimen plate in color, should write to: The American Museum of 
Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York 24, N. Y., U. S. A. 
Payment may be made directly to the museum or to: W. S. Coxvell Ltd., Butter Market, 
Ipswich, Suffolk, England. 

C. L. Remington 



1956 The Leptdopterists' News 179 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

(Under the supervision of PETER F. BELLINGER) 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to lepidop- 
terists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended that every 
work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here; omissions of papers 
more than 3 or 4 years old should be called to Dr. BELLINGERS attention. New genera 
and higher categories are shown in CAPITALS, with types in parentheses; new species 
and subspecies are noted, with type localities if given in print. Larval foodplants are 
usually listed. Critical comments by abstractors may be made. Papers of only local 
interest and papers from The Lepidopterists' News are listed without abstract. Readers, 
particularly outside of North America, interested in assisting with this very large task, 
are invited to write Dr. BELLINGER ( Osborn Zoological Lab., Yale University, New Haven 
11, Conn., U. S. A.) Abstractors' initials are as follows: [P.B. | — P. F. BELLIN- 
GER; [I.C.] — I. F. B. Common; [W.C.|— W. C. Cook; [A.D.] — A. Diakonoff; 
[W.H.] — W. Hackman; [J.M.] — J. Moucha; [E.M.] — E. G. MUNROE; [N.O.] — 
N. S. Obraztsov; [C.R.] — C. L. Remington; [J.T.] — J. W. Tilden; [P.V.] — 
P. E. L. Viette. 

B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Adamczewski, Stanislaw, "On the systematics and origin of the generic group Oxyptilus 
Zeller." Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.)—Ent., vol.1: pp.301-387, 12 pis. 30 Nov. 1950. 
Describes as new PROCAPPERIA (type Oxyptilus maculatus) , P. croatica (Zengg, 
S. Croatia); Capperia washboumi (Shar Deresy, Syria), C. tamsi (Alma Dagh, Asia 
Minor), C. hellenica (Tembi, Thessaly, Greece), C. zelleri (Catania, Sicily), C. 
polonica (Aritzo, Sardinia), C. maratonica (Kato Suli, Greece), C. fletcheri (Kirjat- 
Anavim, Jerusalem, Palestine); also one "form" ( foodplant race) of C. fusca. Sys- 
tematic revision of the genera Sphenarches, Geina. Procapperia, and Capperia; generic 
definitions and lists of spp. of Oxyptilus and Crombrugghia; notes on the Trichoptilus 
group (Megalorrhipida, Trichoptilus, Buckleria, Stangeia, and probably other un- 
described genera). Additional sections deal with the previous treatment of the group, 
morphology, ecology, distribution, and phylogeny (which is interpreted in terms of 
the continental drift theory). [P.B.] 

d'Almeida, Romualdo Ferreira, "Uma nova especie de Actinote do sul do Brasil (Lepid- 
optera Heliconiidae, Acraeinae)" [in Portuguese]. Arq. Mus. Nac. Rio de Janeiro, 
vol.42: pp. 3-5, 2 figs. 1955. Describes as new A. zikani ( Salesopolis, S. Paulo); 
redescribes $ of A. morio. [P.B.] 

Aubert, J. F., "Revision preliminaire du genre Entephria Hb. [in French]. Rev. franc. 
Lepid., vol.15: pp. 62-69- Dec. 1955. Preliminary revision of the geometrid genus 
Entephria and description of a new genus CALOSTIGIODES (type uncinata Piin- 
geler). [P.V.] 

Berger, Lucien A., "Catalogues raisonnes de la faune entomologique du Congo Beige. 
Lepidopteres — Rhopaloceres. I. — Fam. Papilionidae" [in French]. Ann. Mus. Congo 
Beige C. Zool. Serie III (II), vol.8: pp.1-104, 96 figs. 1950. Describes as new 
Papilio nobilis leroyi (Rutshuru, Kivu), P. sosia pulchra (Stanleyville); Graphium 
ucalegon schoutedeni (Bambesa, Uele), G. ucalegonides rileyi (Begoro, Gold 
Coast), G. odin eyeni (Lemfu, Bas Congo), G. olbrechtsi (Mwene-Ditu, Sankuru), 
G. adamastor zongo ( Zongo-Mokoanghay, Congo-Ubangi ) , G. a. diwbroko (Sierra 
Leone); also a number of "forms" and aberrations. The arrangement is based on study 
of the genitalia, but these are not described. All spp. are figured and all entities 
briefly redescribed. Distribution, collection records, and references to studies of 
biology or genetics are given for each form. 49 spp. (of 69 in continental Africa) 
are included. [P.B.] 

Berger, L. A., "Un cas d'homonymie" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.55: pp. 86-87. 
25 Dec. 1955. The genus Phalanta Ghesquiere (1942) (Pyralidae) is preoccupied by 
Phalanta Horsfield (1829) ( Nymphalidae ) and is also a synonym of Phostria. A 
new genus GHESQUIERELLA (type dioramica Ghesquiere) (Pyraustidas) is pro- 
posed. [P.V.] 

Berio, E., "Georyx muscosa Gey. e le specie affini (Lepid. Noct.)" [in Italian]. Rev. 
Zool. Bot. Afr., vol.51: pp.212-222, 10 figs. 16 July 1955. Describes as new G. 



180 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 5 

leroyi, G. percurvata (Belgian Congo); G. fletcheri (Natal;; G. basileuskyi. G. 

bergeri ( Kivu ) . G. albifrons distinct from G. muscosa. [P.V.] 
Beuret, Henri, "Support for the proposed use of the Plenary Powers for validating the 

trivial name adippe. as published in the combination Papilio adippe in the Vienna 

Catalogue of 1775 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: 

p. 135. 30 Dec. 1952. 
Blair, K. G., "Sedina buettneri Hering at Freshwater, I. O. W." Ent. Gaz.. vol.2: 

pp. 249-252, 1 pi. Oct. 1951. Describes biology and discusses systematic position 

of a local British species; colored figures of adult. [P. B.] 
Bourgogne, Jean, "Revision des especes africaines du genre Eumeta Walker {Clania 

auct.) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)" [in French |. Trails. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: 

pp. 125-138, 1 pi., 11 figs. 6 Dec. 1955. Describes as new E. hardenbergi (Delagoa 

Bay, Mozambique); E. rougeoti (Port Gentil, Gabon); E. strand/ (Ogooe, Lam- 

barene). Redescribes E. cervina (syn. moddermanni); removes other spp. from 

genus. [P.B.j 
Boursin, Ch., "Description de nouvelles especes et formes du bassin mediterranean 

( Lep. Phal.) (diagnoses preliminaires)" [in French]. Bull. Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon. 

vol.24: pp. 252-255. Dec. 1955. Describes as new Lithophane mouterdi (Beyrouth, 

Syria); Derthisa didymogramma (S. Turkey); also new "forms" of Derthisa spp. 

Sinks Antitype annibalella to Eumichtis lichenea; A. amilcarella to Euxoa canariensis 

mauretanica; Metachrostis incomposita to CEderemia precisa. [P.V.] 
Boursin, Ch., "Qu'est-ce-que Y'Agrotis' nictymera B.? (Lep. Phal.)" [in French]. Bull. 

Mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol.25: pp. 3-6. Jan. 1956. Boisduval's species is identified 

as Standfussiana osmana Wagner. 1929. The nominal ssp. is from the Alps; os?nana 

is the name of the ssp. from the Middle East mountains. Describes as new S. 

dalmata occidentalis (Alps [holotype] and Pyrenees). [P.V.] 
Box, Harold E., "New crambine genera allied to Diatrcea Guilding (Lepidoptera: 

Pyralidae).— Ill" Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B), vol.24: pp.197-200, 1 fig. 30 

Dec. 1955. Describes as new ZEADIATR/EA (type lineolata); notes on the 4 spp. 

included. [P.B.] 
Bradley, J. D., "A comparative study of four European species, including one new 

species from Britain, belonging to the genus Mompha Huebner (Lepidoptera: La- 

vernidae)." Ent. Gaz., vol.2: pp. 173-182, 1 pi., 12 figs. July 1951. Describes as new 

M. subdivisella (Merton, Norfolk). Redescribes M. subbistrigella, M. nodicolella. 

and M. divisella, all feeding on Epilobium spp. [P.B.] 
Bradley, J. D., "Microlepidoptera collected in the Burren, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1951, 

including two species new to the British list." Ent. Gaz., vol.3: pp. 185-191, 1 pi., 

5 figs. Oct. 1952. Sinks Coleophora gotlandica to C. teidensis; redescribes latter and 

Elachista exiguella. Annotated list of 80 spp. [P.B.J 
Bradley, J. D., "A new family assignment for Pancallia ivoodiella Curtis, 1830, and 

some notes on this species (Lepidoptera)." Ent. Gaz., vol.4: pp. 172-174, 2 figs. 

July 1953- Transfers species, known from 3 specimens, to Euclemensia (Heliodinidae); 

suggests that it feeds on scale insects, like other Euclemensia, and was imported into 

Britain from North America. [P.B.J 
Bradley, J. D., "Microlepidoptera collected in the Burren, Co. Clare, Ireland, in 1952, 

including a plume moth new to the British list." Ent. Gaz., vol.4: pp. 135-140, 1 pi. 

April 1953. Redescribes Alucita icterodactyla. Annotated list of some 125 spp. [P.B.J 
Bradley, J. D., "A note on the identity of Coleophora tripoliella Hodgkinson, 1875, 

and C. virgaurece Stainton. 1857 (Lep. Coleophoridae)." Ent. Gaz., vol.6: pp. 150-151, 

1 pi., 3 figs. 13 July 1955. Selects types; sinks tripoliella to asteris; figures wings, 

genitalia, and larval cases of both species. [P.B ] 
Brown, F. Martin, "Comment on the action proposed in relation to the trivial names 

involved in the niobe cydippe adippe complex (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." 

Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: p. 134. 30 Dec. 1952. Opposed to conservation of 

adippe; would prefer to have phryxa or syrinx used for the High Brown Fritillary. [P.B.J 
Bryk, Felix, "Neue achiue-¥ormen (Lep.: Satyridae)" [in GermanJ. Ent. Tidskr.. vol.72: 

pp. 181-183- 1951- Describes as new Pararge achine olleri (Myrskyla, Finland); P. 

a. amata (Amata, Lettland ) . Notes on other subspecies. [P.B.J 
Bryk, Felix, "Specimina typorum insectorum a Carolo Linnaeo descriptorum in Museo 

Degeeriano asservata" [in German j. Ent. Tidskr.. vol.73: pp.43-52. 10 May 1952. 

Identifies types of Amorpha populi, Eudia pavonia, Trigonophora meticulosa in 

DeGeer's collection; notes on these and some other specimens mentioned by Linnaeus. 

Points out that still other specimens must be "iconotypes," since DeGeer's figures, 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 181 

on which some Linnaean spp. are based, were presumably made from specimens 
in his collection [P.B.] 

Bryk, Felix, "Support for the proposed use of the Plenary Powers to validate the trivial 
name adippe as published in the combination Papllio adippe by Denis and Schiffer- 
miiller in 1775 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)" [in German]. Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. 
vol.9: p.132. 30 Dec. 1952. 

Bryk, Felix, "Rectificationes nomenclatoricae (Lep., Col.)" [in German|. Ent. Tidskr., 
vol.74: pp. 201-202. 25 Jan. 1954. Sinks Euploea treitschkei dampierensis to E. t. 
gustari-felleri [P.B.] 

Clark, Austin H., "On the proposed use of the Plenary Powers to suppress the trivial 
name ajax Linnaeus, 1758 (as published in the combination Papilio ajax) (Class 
Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: p. 167. 22 May 1952. 
Favors suppression. 

Clarke, C. A., & J. P. Knudsen, "A hybrid swallowtail. An account of the 'cross' 
Papilio asterias $ (North American Black Swallowtail) X Papilio machaon 6 (the 
Swallowtail, of European-Malta stock) and a note on the 'machaon complex' of the 
North American continent." Ent. Rec. vol.65: pp. 76-80, 7 pis., 1 fig. 15 March 
1953. Hybrid adults resemble asterias; larvae, machaon. Species appear to be distinct, 
since hybrids are infertile. [P.B.] 

Clarke, C.A., & P.M. Sheppard, "Further observations on hybrid swallowtails." Ent. Rec. 
vol.65, suppl.: 12 pp., 7 pis., 1 map. Sept. 1953. Reports on various crosses involving 
P. machaon. P. polyxenes, P. brevicauda, P. zelicaon. Some backcrosses, but no 
sibling matings, were successful. P. zelicaon is the most isolated; all are good species 
or at least extreme subspecies (of machaon). [P.B.] 

Clarke, C. A., & P. M. Sheppard, "The breeding in captivity of the hybrid swallowtail 
Papilio machaon gorganus Fruhstorfer 9 X Papilio hospiton Gene 6 ■" Entomologist. 
vol.88: pp. 266-270, 4 pis. Dec. 1955. Describes hybrids. P. hospiton is considered 
to approach P. m. Sahara; its genetic isolation from European P. machaon is in- 
complete. [P.B.] 

Clarke, J. F. Gates, "Neotropical moths of the genus Orthocomotis Dognin (Lepid- 
optera: Tortricidae) ." Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: pp. 139-156, 6 pis. 
6 Dec. 1955. Describes as new O. maroda (Nova Teutonia, Brazil); O. jordani 
(New Bremen, Brazil); O. nitida (Cayuga, Guatemala); O. ochracea (Juan Vinas, 
Costa Rica); O. prochaldera (Loja, Ecuador); O. euchaldera (San Antonio, Colombia); 
O. pseudolivata (New Bremen, Brazil), O, exolivata (Nova Teutonia, Brazil); O. 
subolivata (Tuis, Costa Rica); O, aglaia (Itatiaya, Est. do Rio, Brazil); O. leuco- 
thorax (New Bremen, Brazil); O. herhacea (San Pedro de Montes de Oca, Costa 
Rica); O. twila (New Bremen, Brazil); O, ochrosaphes (Santa Catharina, Brazil); 
O. melania (St. Ann Parish, Jamaica); O, argodonta (Santa Catharina, Brazil); O. 
Qristata (Cachi, Costa Rica). Transfers melanochlora, chloantha, chaldera, smaragditis, 
magicana, muscosana, smaragdoph&a, scardiana from Eulia; herbaria from Sociphora; 
boscantina from Tortrix; citroleuca from Cnephasia; notes on these spp. and on 
O. olivata, Key to spp. [P.B.] 

C[lassey], E. W., F. T. Vallins, A, J. Dewick & A. H. H. Harbottle, "Colias australis 
Verity." Ent. Gaz,, vol.1: pp. 113-125, 2 pis. July 1950. A symposium on this species: 
distinction from C. hyale, description of early stages, rearing notes. [P.B.] 

Clench, Harry K., "Notes on Parabasis pratti, a 'mislaid' notodontid from New 
Guinea." Lepid. News, vol.10: pp.15-17, 4 figs. 10 Aug. 1956. 

Cockayne, E. A., "Aspilates gilvaria Fabricius ssp. burrenensis ssp. nov." Ent. Gaz., 
vol.2: pp.100-101, 12 figs. April 1951. From The Burren, Co. Clare, Ireland. Also 
names an aberration of Eupithecia goossensiata. [P.B.] 

Cockayne, E. A., "Notes on the five rare species of British Lepidoptera illustrated in 
colour in plate A." Ent. Gaz., vol.5: pp.189-192, 1 pi. 3 Dec. 1954. Luperina gueneei. 
JEgeria flaviventris, Sarrothripus degenerana. Eupithecia millefoliata, Cosymbia pupil - 
laria: distinctive characters, history as British species, food plants. [P.B.] 

Cockayne, E. A., "The Irish subspecies of Calamia virens L., (Lep.: Caradrinidae)." 
Ent. Gaz., vol.5: pp.155-156. 23 Aug. 1954. Describes as new C. v. occidentalis 
( Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare); comparative notes on some European aberrations. [P.B. | 

Collenette, C. L., "A key to the African genera of Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera)." Trans. 
Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: pp.187-197. 6 Dec. 1955. Describes as new 
USIMBARA (type Aroa lata). Sinks Aclonophlebia to Rhypopteryx, Bicelluphora to 
Dasychira, Liparodonta to Euproctidion, Lymantica to Lymantria; Pseudarctia to Spil- 
osoma (Arctiidas); transfers Pachycispia to Notodontidae. Key to 91 genera, based on 
external characters. [P.B.] 



182 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 5 

Cowan, C. F., "The status of the genus Saletara Distant (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) and 
its species." Bull. Raffles Mus., no.25: pp.17 1-184, 1 map. "Dec. 1954" [1955]. 
Genus distinct from Appias; differences noted. Includes the single species S. liberia. 
with numerous races in the Indomalayan region. Chronological list of names applied, 
with critical comments. Describes as new S. I. natunensis (Great Natuna Is.); S. I. 
dohertyi (Sambawa). List of recognized races and their distributions, and of "forms." 
[P.B.I " 

Comstock, John A., & Lloyd M. Martin, "A new Papilio from California." Bull. So. 
Calif. Acad. Sci., vol.54: pp. 142-150, 5 figs. 1955. Describes as new P. indra ford/ 
(Granite Mts., San Bernardino Co., Calif.); describes larva and pupa; foodplants 
Cymopterus panamintensis (preferred), Vehea argula. [P.B.] 

Diakonoff, A., "A revision of the family Ceracidae (Lepidoptera Tortricoidea)." Bull. 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) — Ent., vol.1: pp.217-219, 34 figs. 17 June 1950. Describes 
as new Pentacitrotus quercivorus (Deobar, NE Himalayas; on Quercus semicarpifolia); 
Eurydoxa rhodopa (Tse-kou, China), E. tamsi (Phedong, Sikkim, India); Cerace 
tetraonis archimedes (3 localities in India & Burma), C. anthera (Siao-Lou, China), 
C. xanthocosma (Japan, various localities), C. guttana obscura (Bengal), C. cyanopyga 
( Maymo, Burma), C. xanthothrix (Golaghat, Naga Hills, Assam), C. stipitana bir- 
mensis (Ruby Mines District, Burma), C. s. clara (India), C. s. formosana (Formosa), 
C. s. exsul (Chusan Is., China), C. s. sinensis (Chang Yang, Ichang, China); BATHY- 
PLUTA (type Cerace triphcenella), B. t. sparna (Mt. Tengger, E. Java), B. metceca 
(Pura Is., Lesser Sunda Islands); also two "varieties." Reinstates family. Keys to 
families of Tortricoidea and to genera and species of Ceracidae. All species described. 
[P.B.| 

Diakonoff, A., "Case bearing Lepidoptera III." Idea, vol.8: pp. 83-91, 15 figs. 31 Jan. 
1951. Gives keys to adults and larval cases of Javanese spp. of Pseudodoxia (CEco- 
phoridae); describes as new P. pulla and P. modica and describes the genitalia of 
P. siriopa and P. xanthocephala. Figures genitalia and larval cases. [A.D.J 

Diakonoff, A., "Proposed addition to the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology 
of the generic name Enarmonia Hiibner, [1825] in order to prevent unnecessary con- 
fusion with Ernarmonia, being the misspelled equivalent of this generic name (Class 
Insecta, Order Lepidoptera, Suborder Heterocera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: 
pp.155-156. 15 April 1952. 

Diakonoff, A., "Support for Dr. John G. Franclemont's proposal relating to the gen- 
eric name Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758, and matters connected therewith (Class Insecta, 
Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: p. 151. 30 Dec. 1952. Refers es- 
pecially to Tortrix and Tinea. [P.B.] 

Diakonoff, A., "Microlepidoptera of New Guinea. Results of the third Archbold Ex- 
pedition (American-Netherlands Indian Expedition 1938-1939). Part II." Verhandel. 
Kon. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., Natuurk., Sect.2, vol.49, no.3: pp.lT66, 163 figs. 
1953. Describes following as new. ( Tortricidae, Tortricinae) : Choanograptis diagrapha 
(Moss Forest Camp), C. paragrapha (Sigi Camp), C. argyrocyma (Moss Forest 
Camp), C. tetraulax (Sigi Camp), C. hamuligera (Lake Habbema), C. diapbora 
(Mist Camp); Epagogne conspersa (Mist Camp); Paradichelia clarinota (Moss Forest 
Camp), P. fulvitacta (Top Camp), P. ocellata (Moss Forest Camp); Neocalyptis 
monotonia (Mist Camp); Harmologa arenicolor (foot of Wilhelmina Top); Diadelo- 
morpha clavigera (Moss Forest Camp); Syndemis plumosa (Moss Forest Camp); Col- 
ostoma melanostoecha (Scree Valley Camp), AS. oropbila (Letter Box Camp); 
HICETERIA, and type H. heptatoma (L. Habbema), H. keterogona (Moss Forest 
Camp), H. stannosa (Mist Camp); CARPHOMIGMA, and type C. leontodes (Top 
Camp); ARIZELANA, and type A. margaritobola (Rattan Camp), A. pyroplegma 
(Iebele Camp), A. bibatrix (Iebele Camp); APHTHONOCOSMA. and type A. 
plutarcha (Araucaria Camp); Nikolaia melanopsygma (Moss Forest Camp); ARCTE- 
PHORA. and type A. iubata (Sigi Camp); Capnoptycha thelea (Mist Camp); Rhom- 
boceros barbata (Mist Camp), R. pulverulenta (Mist Camp), R. iridescens (Mist 
Camp), R. ethica (Moss Forest Camp); APLASTOCEROS. and type A. peneploca 
(Moss Forest Camp), A. dentifera (Moss Forest Camp), A. plumbata (Moss Forest 
Camp), A. carphalea (Moss Forest Camp), A euetrias (Iebele Camp); CLEPTA- 
CACA, and type C. tryphera (Sigi Camp); TREMOPHORA. and type T. carycina 
(Moss Forest Camp), T. scintiilans (Moss Forest Camp), T. alopex (Mist Camp), 
T. guttulosa (Moss Forest Camp), T. coniortus (Moss Forest Camp); MESOCALYPTIS. 
and type M. morosa (Moss Forest Camp), Af. zonata (Sigi Camp); T&niarchis 
acrotoma (Araucaria Camp), T. poliostoma (Moss Forest Camp); Dicellitis acro- 
grapha (Araucaria Camp); D. chrysonetba (Rattan Camp); Pternozyga melanoterma 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neus 183 

(Iebele Camp); Pandurista encarsiotoma (Rattan Camp); Spatalistis perusta (Moss 
Forest Camp), S. argyrosperma (Moss Forest Camp), 5". riolacea (Moss Forest 
Camp); Eremas polystalagma (Top Camp); Polyortha ornithopora (Top Camp). 
( Eucosminae) : Bactra stramenticia (Letter Box Camp); Lobesia paradisea (Moss 
Forest Camp), L. tritoma (Rattan Camp); Endotbenia simplissima (Iebele Camp); 
METASCHISTIS. M. sappiroflua (Sigi Camp), M. hemicyclica (Top Camp), M. 
bemicapnodes (Scree Valley Camp), M. hcematina (Moss Forest Camp), M. purpur- 
escens (Moss Forest Camp), M. gypsopa (Moss Forest Camp), M. cretata (Sigi Camp); 
Anathamna chionopyra (Iebele Camp); Argyroploce hemeronyx (Iebele Camp), A. 
margaritopa (Iebele Camp), A. rirulosa ( Araucaria Camp), A. leucocteis (Moss 
Forest Camp); Peridcedala crastidochroa (Iebele Camp), P. prasina (Lake Habbema), 
P. archcea (Letter Box Camp); Hermenias niphobola (Sigi Camp), H. terminata 
(Letter Box Camp), H. sax/color, H. scoliomelas (Lake Habbema), H. merodelta (Top 
Camp), H. angulata (Moss Forest Camp), H. psimytbographa (Moss Forest Camp), 
H. dirupta (Lake Habbema), H. conglomerata (Moss Forest Camp), H. platyspbena 
(Lake Habbema), H. dendrosema (Lake Habbema), H. serrula (Lake Habbema), 
H. pollostes (Sigi Camp), H. gracilis (Lake Habbema), H. eugena (Top Camp), H. 
textrix (Lake Habbema), H. corticina (Lake Habbema), H. tristis (Lake Habbema), 
H. xylogena (Lake Habbema); Batbrotoma angelica (Mist Camp); ALLOHERMENIAS . 
and type A. tenuitexta (Moss Forest Camp), A. subpetrcea (Scree Valley Camp); 
Spilonota selene (Moss Forest Camp), S. pyrocblora (Scree Valley Camp), S. lobata 
(Rattan Camp); Acroclita allodapa (Moss Forest Camp); Eucosma inconspicua (Rattan 
Camp); Pseudogalleria toxotis (Araucaria Camp), P. ametbystina (Araucaria Camp); 
CROCOSTOLA, and type C. hyperphyes (Mist Camp); Enarmonia alternans (Sigi 
Camp); Sereda my odes (Sigi Camp). Redescribes the genera Diadelomorpha, Nikolaia, 
Rbomboceros. Tceniarchis. Beryllopbantis, Peridcedala, Hermenias, Pseudogalleria. Gives 
keys to genera and species of the Papuan region [A.D.] 

Dufrane, A., "Corrections" [in French]. Bull. & Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol.88: p. 24. 
29 Feb. 1952. Proposes Metarctia taymansi diffusa n.n. for Af. /. kamitugensis Dufrane, 
1945, p.133, nee p. 130; other minor corrections. [P.B.] 

Dujardin, F., "La genese quaternaire et monographie raisonnee des races de Lysandra 
bispana H.S." [in French]. Lambillionea. vol.49: pp.1 11-1 16. 25 Oct. 1949. 

Eisner, C, "Parnassiana nova. I. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 
1)" [in German]. Zool. Meded., Leiden, vol.33: pp.4l-48. 13 Dec. 1954. The 
"Parnassiana" series, edited before the war together with F. Bryk, is now being 
continued by the author alone. Gives a list of new acquisitions of his well-known 
collection, now in the Rijsmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie of Leiden. [A.D.] 

Eisner, C, "Parnassiana nova. VI. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fort- 
setzung 3)" [in German]. Zool. Meded.. Leiden, vol.33: pp. 181-207, 1 pi. 11 July 

1955. Describes several new "forms" and subspecies: P. epapbus boniana (Altyn-Tag, 
Tibet); P. e. eutstidamensis (Wildyak zone, Tibet); P. e. shansiensis (Mien-shan, 
Shansi). [A.D.] 

Eisner, C, "Parnassiana nova. VII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fort- 
setzung 4)" [in German]. Zool. Meded., Leiden, vol.34: pp. 1-16. 21 Sept. 1955. 
Gives a list of subspecies of P. apollo [A.D.] 

Eisner, C, "Parnassiana nova. VIII. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fort- 
setzung 5)" [in German]. Zool. Meded.. Leiden, vol.34: pp.155-172, 1 pi. 11 Jan. 

1956. Gives a list of subspecies and "forms" of P. apollo from France and Spain. [A.D.] 
Evans, W. H., "Support for the Dos Passos Bell proposal relating to the name Mega- 

thymus aryxna Dyar, 1905." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.91: p. 294. 30 Dec. 1955. 

Field, William D., "On the proposed suppression of the trivial name ajax Linnaeus, 
1758 (as published in the combination Papilio ajax) (Class Insecta, Order Lepid- 
optera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp.105-106. 28 Sept. 1951. 

Fletcher, D. S., "Notes on some subspecies of Geometridas." Ent. Gaz... vol.4: pp. 225- 
235, 1 pi., 15 figs. July 1953. Color plate of 7 spp. recognized only since 1900: 
Ortbolitha mucronata, Lampropieryx otregiata. Dysstroma concinnata. Tbera variata, 
Anaitis efformata, Eulype subhastata, Oporinia cbristyi. Gives synonymy and points 
of difference from relatives; figures genitalia of 4 species pairs. [P.B.] 

Forbes, Wm. T. M., "Support for the action proposed in regard to the names involved 
in the niobe adippe complex (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. 
vol.9: p.133. 30 Dec. 1952. 

Forbes, William T. M., "On the limiting of subspecies." Lepid. Neus. vol.10: pp. 35-36. 
10 Aug. 1956. 



184 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no.5 

Ford, Leonard T., "A new stigmellid." Ent. Gaz.. vol.1: pp. 39-40, 1 fig. Jan. 1950. 
Describes as new Stigmella marionella ( Stanmore, Middlesex, England). [P.B.] 

Fox, Richard M., "CEneis semidea Say (Lepidoptera: Satyridae) of Pike's Peak, Colorado 
and Mt. Washington, New Hampshire." Joum. Colorado-W yoming Acad. Sci., vol.4, 
no.6: pp.60-6l; Dec. 1954. O. semidea of Mt. Washington found to be genitalically 
and in color distinct from O. lucilla of Colorado; both considered races of O. melissa. 
Abstract only. [C.R.] 

Franclemont, John G., "Comment on Dr. Jin Pack's proposal relating to the generic 
name Bombyx Fabricius, 1 77 5 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. 
Nomencl.. vol.9: p. 154. 30 Dec. 1952. Sericaria dates from Latreille, 1829, with 
type dispar Fabr. [P.B.] 

Franclemont, John G., "Comment on Dr. Jifi Pack's proposal relating to the generic 
name Diloba Boisduval, 1840 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. 
vol.9: p.145. 30 Dec. 1952. Diloba an objective synonym of Heteromorpha Hbn. 
Episema and Derthisa have also been used for cceruleocephala, which Palct would 
make the type of Diloba: this species is actually a noctuid. [P.B.] 

Franclemont, John G., "Comment on Dr. Jifi Pack's proposal relating to the generic 
name Pyralis Fabricius, 1775 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. 
vol.9: p. 155. 30 Dec. 1952. Pyralis Fabr. does not include farinalis. which Palct 
would make the type species. [P.B.] 

Franclemont, John G., "Comment on Dr. Jifi Pack's proposal relating to the generic 
name Sphinx Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. 
vol.9: p. 144. 30 Dec. 1952. Selection of type as ligustri made first by Curtis, 1828. 
[P.B.| 

Franclemont, John G., "On the proposed use of the Plenary Powers to suppress the 
generic name Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) and to 
validate, as of subgeneric status, certain generic terms then used by Linnaeus for 
subdivisions of the genus: reply to certain criticisms made by Dr. Jifi Pack." Bull. 
Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: pp. 149-150. 30 Dec. 1952. Disagrees with Pack (same date), 
especially with regard to Alucita, which would have a different type if dated from 
1775, and the types of Phalcena and Noctua, which he believes to be the same. [P.B.] 

Franclemont, John G., "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to validate as subgeneric 
names as from Linnaeus, 1758, certain terms published for groups of species within 
the genus Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) (application 
submitted in response to the invitation given in Opinion 124)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 
vol.6: pp.304-312. 29 Aug. 1952. Request for suppression of Phalcena and valida- 
tion of the following names (types in parentheses): Bombyx (mori), Noctua (pronuba), 
Geometra (papilionaria) , Tortrix (viridana), Pyralis (farinalis), Tinea (pellionella) , 
Alucita (hexadactyla). [P.B.] 

Freeman, H. A., "A new species of Hesperia from California ( Hesperiidae ) ." Lepid. 
News, vol.9: pp. 196-198, 5 figs. 16 April 1956. H. tildeni (Cherry Flat Res., Santa 
Clara Co., Calif.). 

Gozmany, L. A., "New middle-European Lepidoptera" [in English, Russian summary]. 
Acta Biol. Acad. Sclent. Hungaricce, vol.3: pp.379-386, 13 figs. 1952. Describes as 
new SYNACROLOXIS ( Scythrididae) and type S. dis (Szenta, Hungary); Elachista 
edithce (Grado, Dalmatia); Epermenia notodoxa (Fiume, Tersato); Parorm'x szoczi 
(Budapest) (with key to related species); Solenobia wagneri (Mt. Czibles, Rumania). 
[P.B.] 

Gozmany, L. A., "Studies on Microlepidoptera" [in English, Hungarian summary]. Ann. 
Hist.-Nat. Alus. Nat. Hungarici, n.s., vol.5: pp.273-285, 34 figs. 1954. Describes as 
new OPOROPSAMMA (Tortricidae; type Cnephasia werthelmstelnl); Oxypteron (PSAAl- 
AlOZESTA), and type O. (P.) neogena (Montarco, Madrid Prov., Spain); Aiega- 
craspedus jablonkayi ( Farkasvolgy, Budapest); Aletzneria ehikeella (Agasegyhaza, S. 
Hungary); Glyphipteryx ndttani (Kaposvar); Gnorimoschema census (Harsbokorhegy, 
Budapest); Bubulcellodes amseli (Murcia, Spain); Holoscolia homaima (Mt. Korab, 
Albania); Eupista etelka (Usza, Bakony Mts., W. Hungary), E. eupepla (P. Peszer, 
Hungary); Apatetris agenjoi (Murcia, Spain); PANTACORDIS (Gelechiidae), and 
type P. pales (Harsbokorhegy, Budapest). [P.B.] 

Gozmany, L. A., "Notes on Microlepidoptera" [in English, Russian summary]. Acta 
Zool. Acad. Sclent. Hungaricce. vol.1: pp.23 1-233, 2 figs. 1955. Describes as new 
Eupista hungarice (L. Velence, near Pakodz, Hungary); E. interrupta (Zengg, Dal- 
matia). Sinks his E. etelka to E. sylraticella, and his Pantacordis to Eremica. [P.B.] 



1956 The Leptdopterists' News 185 

Gozmany, L. A., "Notes on some Hungarian Gelechioidea and Coleophoridae" [in 
English, Hungarian summaryj. Ann. Hist.-Nat. Mus. Nat. Hungarici, n.s., vol.6: 
pp. 308-320, 24 figs. 1955. Assigns Hungarian spp. of "Gelechia" to 12 genera, in- 
cluding ORNATIVALVA (type G. plutelliformis) , NEOFACULTA (type G. infema/is), 
and MIRIFICARMA (type G. maculatella Hbn.); redefines 11 genera; gives keys to the 
12, based on genitalia. Records of 3 other spp. of Gelechiidas. Annotated list of Hun- 
garian spp. belonging to group M of Coleophora. [P.B.] 

Gregor, F., & D. Povolny, "Neue und interessante Lepidopteren aus der Tsechoslowakei" 
[in Czech, Russian & German summaries]. Acta Mus. Moravia, vol.40: pp. 114-129, 
11 pis., 82 figs. 1955. Describes as new Gelechia dzieduszyckii tatrica (High Tatra, 
N. Slovakia). Discusses the systematic position of Mesophleps trinotellus. Records 
from Czechoslovakia 19 spp. of Frenatae; figures adults and genitalia. [J.M.] 

Grey, L. P., Alexander B. Klots, & Cyril F. dos Passos, "The niube cydippe adippe 
problem (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera, Family Nymphalidae) with suggestions 
for its solution." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp. 323-325. 29 Aug. 1952. Proposes 
selection of adippe D. & S., 1775, as the correct name for the High Brown Fritillary, 
and suppression of cydippe and berecynthia for this species and of adippe as used in 
other senses. [P.B.] 

Hansson, B. H., "liber eine neue, schwedische Unterart von Aporophyla lutulenta (Bkh.) 
und ihre Beziehungen zu den ubrigen Formen" [in German]. Ent Tidskr.. vol.73: 
pp. 77-88, 2 figs. 10 May 1952. Describes as new A. I. insularis (Oland Is., Sweden); 
also names 2 "forms." Compares new race with others, figuring adults and $ geni- 
talia. [P.B.] 

Heinrich, Carl, "American moths of the subfamily Phycitinse." U.S. Natl. Mus. Bull. 
no.207: viii + 581 pp., 1138 figs. 1956. Describes as new ANABASIS (type Myelois 
achrodesma); Sematoneura abitus (Alpayacu, Rio Pastaza, E. Ecuador); CUNIBERTA 
(type Nephopteryx subtinctella); HERAS, and type H. disjunctus (Don Amo, 
Colombia); ADANARSA, (type Rhodophcea intransitella); BIRINUS, and type B. 
russeolus (Tumatumari, Potaro R., Br. Guiana); CHARARICA (type Myelois 
annuliferella); MYELOPSIS (type Myelois coniella); APO MYELOIS (type Dioryctria 
bistriatella); ECTO MYELOIS (type Myelois decolor), E. zeteki (near Capira, Panama; 
on Cassia moschata); PARAMYELOIS (type Myelois solitella = Nephopteryx trans- 
ited); PROTOMOERBES, and type P. aberrans (Colombia), P. separabilis (San 
Antonio, Colombia); Diatomocera majuscula (Ponta Nova, Rio Xingu, Amazonas, 
Brazil), D. albosigno ("S. E. Brazil"), D. extracta (Tuis, Costa Rica); PSEUDO- 
CABIMA (type Myelois euzopherella), P. castronalis (Castro, Parana, Brazil), P. 
guianalis (Sr. Jean Maroni, Fr. Guiana), P. arizonensis (Redington, Ariz.); Hyalospila 
insequens (Incachaca, Cochabamba, Bolivia), H. majorina (Misantla, Mexico), H. 
fulgidula (Santiago Prov., Cuba); Difundella distractor (Palmas Abojas, Puerto Rico), 
D. tolerata (E. Bolivia); Anadelosemia condigna (Prescott, Ariz.); Rampylla lophotalis 
(Jalapa, Mex.); FULRADA (type Dasypyga querna); SCORYLUS, and type S. 
cubensis (Santiago Prov., Cuba); Davara (?) interjecta (El Yunque, Luquillo Mts., 
Puerto Rico); Piesmopoda parva (La Chorrera, Panama): ATHELOCA (type Nephop- 
teryx subrufella) , A. bondari (Baia, Brazil); PRAEDONULA (type Phycita almonella) : 
PEADUS (type Piesmopoda burdetella), P. dissitus ("S. E. Brazil"); GABINIUS 
(type Promylea paulsoni); Megarthria squamifera (Mt. Poas, Costa Rica), M. frus- 
trator (Juan Vinas, Costa Rica), M. schausi (Juan Vinas, Costa Rica), M. alpha 
(Volcan Santa Maria, Guatemala), AT. beta (Orizaba, Mex.); Zamagiria fratema 
(Santiago de las Vegas, Cuba); MAGIRIOPSIS (type Sematoneura denticosella); 
CARISTANIUS (type Oligochroa pallucidella); Pima albiplagiatella occidentalis (Pull- 
man, Wash.); INTER] ECTIO (type Ambesa colubiella); SALEBRIACUS (type 
Nephopteryx odiosella); SALEBRARIA (type Salebria ademptandella); QUASISALE- 
BRIA, and type Q. ad mixta (Provo, Utah); Meroptera abditiva (Knowlton, Que.); 
Nephopteryx delassalis fraudifera (Oliver, B. C), N. dammersi (Cajon Valley, San 
Bernardino Valley, Calif.), N. d. floridensis (Williamsburg, Fla.); TULSA (type 
Nephopteryx finitella); TELETHUSIA (type Pempelia oralis); PHOBUS (type 
Dioryctria brucei), P. incertus (Strawberry Valley, San Jacinto Mts., Calif.); ACTRIX 
(type Tacoma nysscecolella), A. dissimulatrix (Cape Henry, Va.; on Nyssa sylvatica); 
Stylopalpia argentinensis ("Villa Anna, F. S. C. Fe., Argentina"); Pyla impostor (Slate 
Peak, Whatcom Co., Wash.), P. cequivoca (Banff, Alta., Canada), P. insinuatrix 
(Aweme, Manitoba, Canada), P. anigmatica (Wellington, B. C), P. nigricula (Verdi, 
Nev.); Dioryctria baumhoferi (Prescott, Ariz.), D. subtracta (Ft. Wingate, N. Mex.); 
Sarata punctella septentrionaria (Palmerlee, Ariz.), S. alpha (Oxbow, Sask., Canada), 
S. beta (Colorado), S. gamma (California), S. iota (California), S. epsilon (Yosemite, 



186 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 5 

Calif.), S. phi (White Mts., Ariz.), S. kappa (Arizona), S. delta (N. America); 
PHI LO DEM A (type Sarata rhoiella); ADELPHIA (type Pempelia petrella); TOT A 
(type Elasmopalpus galdinella); Ufa senta (Big Bend, Tex.); ADELPERGA (type 
Heterographis cordubensiella); Eumysia semicana (Yakima, Wash.); Divitiaca parvul- 
ella consociata (Valle de Medellin, Colombia); PROTASIA (type Valdivia mira- 
bilicornella); HONORINUS, and type H. fuliginosus (Angasmarca, Peru); PATRl- 
CIOLA. and type P. semicana (Provo, Utah); PACONIUS, and type P. comiculatus 
San German, Puerto Rico); APTUNGA (type Vitula macroposa); ANDERIDA (type 
Euzophera sonorella); CASSIAS A (type Vitula malacella); Mescinia moorei (Mon 
Repos, Br. Guiana); Homceosoma oslarellum breviplicitum (San Diego, Calif.), H. 
illuviellum emendator (Chimney Gulch, Golden, Colo.), H. imitator (Palm Springs, 
Riverside Co., Calif.), H. deceptorum (New Brighton, Pa.), H. discrebile ("S. E. 
Brazil"), H. peregrinum (Carmel, Calif.), H. repallidum ("Villa Ana, F. C. S. F.," 
Argentina), H. assitum (Canete, Peru); ROTRUDA (type Homoeosoma mucidellum); 
Unadilla floridensis (Key West, Fla.); BAPHALA (type Euzophera homceosomella) , 
B. goyensis oliracea (Posadas, Argentina), B. haywardi (Concordia, Entre Rios, 
Argentina); RHAGEA (type Zophodia packardella); LASCELINA, and type L. canens 
(Brownsville, Tex.); SELGA (type Heterographis arizonella) ; Entmemacomis pulla 
(Sta. Catarina, Brazil); RIO] A. and type R. nexa (La Rioja, Argentina); Mcerbes 
emendata (Cabima, Panama); Moodnopsis parallela (Sta. Catarina, Brazil), M. portori- 
cetisis (Lares, Puerto Rico); EXUPERIUS, and type E. negator (La Chorerra, Pata- 
mayo District, Peru); EULOGIA (type Ephestia ochrifrontella); PROSOEUZOPHERA 
(type Euzophera impletella)\ FARNOBIA (type Euzophera quadripuncta); GEN- 
NADIUS. and type G. junctor (St. Jean Maroni, F. Guiana); Ephestiodes erasa (Lake 
Alfred, Fla.); Vitula pinei (Eureka, Utah); Manhatta broueri (Bar Harbor, Maine); 
VERINA (type Moodna supplicella); VAGOBANTA (type Cryptoblables divergens)\ 
MOODNELLA, and type M. paula (Guatemala City, Guatemala); VOLATICA (type 
Zophodia pachytceniella), V. trinitatis (Fyzabad, Trinidad); VEZ1NA, and type V. 
parasitaria (Jose C. Paz, Prov. Buenos Aires, Argentina); Caudellia clara (El Yunque, 
Luquillo Mts., Puerto Rico); SOSIPATRA (type Ephestia rileyella); Ribua contigua 
(Dorado, Puerto Rico); AN AG AST A (type Ephestia kuhniella); Vameria dubia (El 
Yunque, Loquillo Mts., Puerto Rico); ERELIEVA (type Pempelia quant ul ell a); 
RAB1RIA (type Microphycita conops). Revision of American species of the subfamily. 
Some new synonymy and many generic transfers. Keys to genera; descriptions of all 
spp., with figures of venation and genitalia. Known foodplants listed. List of unplaced 
or unrecognized spp., and of spp. transferred to Epipaschiidae or Anerastiinae. Check- 
list of American Phycitinae, with species ranges. [P.B]. 

Hemming, Francis, "On the question whether eight generic names in the order Lepid- 
optera (Class Insecta) commonly accepted as having been first published by Fabricius 
in 1807 were published by Illiger earlier in the same year." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 
vol.1: pp. 261-269. 31 March 1947. Application for a ruling that the names Apatura. 
Castnia, Emesis, Helicopsis, Neptis. Nymphidium, Pontia, and Urania are to be con- 
sidered as having been published first by Fabricius, to avoid the possibility of a 
change of type species in several genera. [P.B.] 

Hemming, Francis, "On the lepidopterological implications of Dr. L. B. Holthius' ap- 
plication relating to the name Sicyonia Milne Edwards, 1830 (Class Crustacea, Order 
Decapoda), with a supplementary proposal." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp. 341-342. 

29 Aug. 1952. Agrees that validation of this name and suppression of Sicyonia Hbn., 
1816 (a subjective synonym of Heliconius) would involve no inconvenience to 
students of Lepidoptera; suggests that Heliconius be placed on the Official List and 
that four objective synonyms be placed on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid 
Generic Names. [P.B.] 

Hemming, Francis, On the authorship to be attributed to the anonymous work pub- 
lished in Vienna in 1775 under the title Ankundung eines systematischen Werkes 
von den Schmetterlingen der Wiener Gegend." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: p. 135. 

30 Dec. 1952. Authors cited as "Denis & Schiffermuller." [P.B.] 

Hemming, Francis, "On the consequential action in regard to the generic name Tincea 
Geoffroy, 1762 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) which would be needed in the 
event of approval being given to Dr. John G. Franclemont's proposal that the name 
Tinea should be validated under the Plenary Powers as from Linnaeus, 1758." Bull. 
Zool. Nomencl.. vol.9: p. 152. 30 Dec. 1952. Plenary Powers would have to be used 
to validate Tincua (since the work in which it was published has been rejected); if 
Franclemont's proposal is accepted, Tincea need only be placed on the Official Index. 
[P.B.J 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 187 

Heming, Francis, "Preliminary report on twenty-eight individual nomenclatorial problems 
remitted by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature for special 
investigation: request to specialists for advice." Bull. Zool. Nomencl.. vol.7: pp. 191- 
229. 15 April 1952. Including the disposition of type species of the genera published 
in Hiibner's Tentamen, and the relative priority of the publications of Cramer, Denis 
& Schiffermuller, Fabricius, and von Rottemburg, dated 1775. [P.B.] 

Hemming, Francis, "On the need for an amendment of the decision taken in 1948 
regarding the method to be followed in identifying the taxonomic species represented 
by the nominal species Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lep- 
idoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp.284-285. 23 July 1952. 

Hemming, Francis, N. D. Riley, & Roger Verity, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers 
to determine the trivial name to be applied to the species of the genus Fabriciana, 
Reuss, 1920 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) known in England as the High 
Brown Fritillary' and formerly known by the scientific name Argynnis adippe 
(Linnaeus, 1767)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp.325-336. 29 Aug. 1952. Pro- 
poses retention of adippe D. & S. for this species. [P.B.J 

Herbulot, CI., "Nouveaux Sterrhinae de Madagascar (Lepid. Geometridae)" [in French]. 
Nat. Malgache, vol.7: pp.181-189, 1 pi., 11 figs. Feb. 1956. Describes as new 
Sterrha brevissimipes, S. prosartema: Scopula prisia, S. dimoeroides, S. clandestina, 
S. abolita, S. normalis, S. sanguinifissa, S. protecta (all from central Madagascar), 
S. antankarana (N. Madagascar), S. hceratica ( S. Madagascar). [P.V.] 

Hering, Erich Martin, "Support for the proposal submitted by the late Dr. Steven 
Corbet for the suppression of the trivial name ajax Linnaeus, 1758 (as published 
in the binominal combination Papilio ajax) (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." 
Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.2: p.350. 28 Sept. 1951. 

Hering, Erich Martin, "Synopsis der Afrikanischen Gattungen der Cochliidae (Lepid- 
optera)" [in German]. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: pp. 209-225. 6 Dec. 
1955. Describes as new (type spp. in parentheses): AFRALTHA {Altha chionostola); 
AFROBIRTHAMA (Narosa flaccidia); AFRONAROSA (N. africana); JORDAN- 
IAN A (Nipbadolepsis lactea); LATOIOLA (Latoia albipuncta); LEMURIA (Miresa 
gracilis); SUSIC1NA (Susica pyrocausta); THOSEIDEA (Thosea lineapunctata); 
XANTHOPTERYX (Susica confusa). Redefines family and distinguishes Epipyropidae 
and Metarbelidae. Sinks Asteria and Parasa to Latoia. Scirrhoma in part to Hadraphe 
and in part to Andrallochroma; refers Adrallia to Lymantriidae. Key to Crothaeminae 
and Cochlidiinae, and to Ethiopian genera and those extralimital genera to which 
African species have been referred; generotypes listed. Palaearctic (North African) 
genera, and 6 genera which are insufficiently described, are omitted. [P.B.J 

Heslop, I. R. P., "First supplement to the Indexed checklist of the British Lepidoptera 
with the English name of each of the 2,313 species' (1947)." Ent. Gaz., vol.4: pp. 29- 
33. 16 Jan. 1953- Includes 38 additional species, 3 changes of name or status, and 
minor corrections. [P.B.J 

Heslop, I. R. P., "Second supplement to the Indexed checklist of the British Lepid- 
optera, with the English name of each of the 2,313 species' (1947)." Ent. Gaz., 
vol.4: p.265. Oct. 1953- Lists 9 additions made in 1952. [P.B.J 

Heslop, I. R. P., "Third supplement to the Indexed checklist of the British Lepidoptera, 
with the English name of each of the 2,313 species' (194 7 )." Ent. Gaz., vol.6: 
pp.23 1-232. Oct. 1955. List of 9 spp. added in 1953 and 1954. [P.B.] 

Hinton, H. E., "On the taxonomic position of the Acrolophinae, with a description of 
the larva of Acrolophus rupestris Walshingham (Lepidoptera: Tineidae)." Trans Roy. 
Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: pp.227-231, 12 figs. 6 Dec. 1955. Key to the 4 sub- 
families of Tineidae (Acrolophinae, Scardinae, Nemapogoninae, TineinaeJ based on 
larval characters. [P.B.j 

Hinton, H. E., & A. Steven Corbet, Common insect pests of stored food products. A 
guide to their identification. 3rd ed. 61 pp., 126 figs. London: British Museum (Natural 
History) (Econ. ser. no.15). 1955. Keys to 20 spp. (Pyralidina, Tineina), larvae 
and adults; figures of wing patterns and of some genitalia and larval setal patterns. 
[P.B.J 

Huggins, H. C, "The Irish sub-species of Alucita icterodactyla Mann (Lep: Ptero- 
phoridae)." Ent. Gaz., vol.6: pp. 124-126. 13 July 1955. Describes as new A. i. 
phillipsi (Burren, [Co. ClareJ). [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Direction 2. Addition to the 
Official Lists and Official Indexes of certain scientific names dealt with in Opinions 
161 to 181." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm., vol.2: pp.613-628. 21 May 1954. Placed 



188 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no.5 

on the Official Lists: Argyreus Scopoli, 1 77 7 (not available for use in preference to 
Argynnis Fabr., 1807); Symphcedrd Hbn., 1818 (not available for use in preference 
to Euthalia Hbn., 1818); Princeps Hbn., [1807]; paphia Linn., 1758; byperbius Linn., 
1763; lubentina Cramer, 1819; nais Forster, 1771; demodocus Esper, [1798]. Placed 
on Official Index (rejected): Limnas Hbn., [1806]. [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Direction 4. Addition to the 
Official Lists and Official Indexes of certain scientific names and of the titles of 
certain books dealt with in Opinions 134-160, exclusive of Opinion 149." Opin. 
Dec!. Intern. Comm., vol.2: pp.629-651. 1 Oct. 1954. Placed on appropriate Official 
Lists: Cynthia Fabr., 180 7 (not to be used in preference to Vanessa Fabr., 1807); 
acbilles Linn., 1 7 58 (type of Morpho); cardui Linn., 1758 (type of Cynthia); actcea 
Esper., [1780] (type of Satyrus); hyale Linn., 1758 (type of Colias); atalanta Linn., 
1758 (type of Vanessa); Freyer, Neue Beit rage zur Schmetterlingskunde; Latreille, 
Considerations generates sur I'ordre naturel des animaux etc.; Fabricius, "Die neuerste 
Gattungs-Eintheilung der Schmetterlinge" etc. ( 1807); Hiibner, Sammlung exotischer 
Schmetterlinge and Verzeichniss bekannter Schmettlinge. Placed on Official Index 
(rejected): Potamis & Rusticus Hbn., [1807]. [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Direction 7. Determination 
of the gender to be attributed to certain generic names placed on the Official List 
of Generic Names in Zoology" by the rulings given in Opinions 134 to 181." Opin. 
Dec/. Intern. Comm., vol.2: pp.685-696. 6 Dec. 1954. Includes Satyrus (masculine); 
Argynnis, Colias, Euploea, Euthalia, Helicopis. Pontia, Vanessa (feminine); Nym- 
phidium (neuter). [P.B.j 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Direction 9. Determination of 
the gender to be attributed to six generic names placed on the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology by rulings given in Opinions 137, 149 and 154." Opin. Decl. 
Intern. Comm., vol.2: pp. 705-718. 6 Dec. 1954. Including Morpho (feminine). [P.B.j 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Direction 54. Addition to the 
Official List of Family-Group Names in Zoology, or, as the case may be, to the 
Official Index of Rejected and Inialid Family-Group Names in Zoology of the family- 
group names involved in the cases dealt with in Volume 12 of the Opinions and 
Declarations rendered by the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 
other than family-group names already dealt with in these Opinions." Opin. Decl. 
Intern. Comm., vol.12: pp.457-470. 17 Sept. 1956. Added to Official List: Heliconiida? 
Swainson, 1827; Melanargiinae Verity, 1920. Added to Official Index: Heliconidae 
Swainson, 1827 (invalid spelling); Agapetinse Verity, 1953- [P-B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 181. On the type 
of the genus Carcharodus Hiibner, [1819], and its synonym Spilothyrus Duponchel, 
1835 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera), genera based upon an erroneously determined 
species." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm., vol.2: pp. 589-612. 28 Feb. 1947. The type of 
both genera is declared, under suspension of the Rules, to be Papilio alcece Esper 
{malvce of Hiibner and others, not of Linnaeus). [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 263. Designation, 
under the Plenary Powers, of a description to represent the lectotype of the nominal 
species Papilio podatirius Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. 
Decl. Intern. Comm., vol.5: pp. 329-342. 10 Aug. 1954. Designation is Ray, Hist. 
Ins.: Ill, n.3; type locality Livorno, Tuscany. Placed on Official List: podalirius; 
feistamelii Duponchel, 1832. [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 264. Designation, 
under the Plenary Powers, of a figure to represent the lectotype of the nominal species 
Papilio iris Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. Decl. Intern. 
Comm., vol.5: pp.343-354. 10 Aug. 1954. Designation is fig. 1, pi. 29 in South, 
The Butterflies of the British Isles; type locality is "England." Placed on the Official 
List: ilia [Schiffermuller & DenisJ, 1775. [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 265. Validation, un- 
der the Plenary Powers, of the specific names aristolochice Fabricius, 1775, as published 
in the combination Papilio aristolochice and ascanius Cramer, [177 5 J, as published 
in the combination Papilio ascanius (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. 
Decl. Intern. Comm.. vol.5: pp. 355-366. 10 Aug. 1954. Names placed on Official 
List; ascanius Linn., 1768, and aristolochice Pallas are placed on Official Index (re- 
jected). [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 26 1 . Rejection of a 
proposal for the validation, under the Plenary Powers, of the generic name Porina 
Walker, 1856 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) by the suppression thereunder of 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 189 

the generic name Purina d'Orbigny, 1852 (Class Bryozoa)." Opin. Decl. Intern. 
Cumm.. vol.5: pp. 387-396. 10 Aug. 1954. Oxycanus, the earliest available name for 
this genus of Lepidoptera, and its type species australis are placed on the appropriate 
Official Lists. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 269. Validation, under 
the Plenary Powers, of the specific name idas Linnaeus, 1761, as published in the 
combination Papilio idas. and determination of the species represented by the nominal 
species Papiliu idas Linnaeus, 1761, Papiliu argyrognomon Bergstrasser, [1779], and 
Papiliu argus Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. Decl. Intern. 
Cumm., vol.6: pp. 1-24, 1 pi. 10 Sept. 1954. Suppresses idas Linnaeus, 1758; places 
idas Linnaeus, 1761, argyrugnumun, and argus on the Official List; selects figures 
of 6 genitalia to be used as standards in determining the spp. (these published 
figures are reproduced in this Opinion). [P.B.J 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 270. Addition to 
the Official List of Generic Names in Zoology of the names of five nominal genera 
of butterflies (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera), originally established with mis- 
identified type species, for which type species in harmony with accustomed usage 
were designated under the Plenary Powers in 1935." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm.. 
vol.6: pp. 25-40. 10 Sept. 1954. Placed on Official Lists: Agriades. Carcharodes. Euchloe, 
Lycceides, Polyommatus; alcece Esper, creusa Doubleday, esperi Kirby, orientalis 
Bremer. Placed on Official Index: Latiorina Tutt, Orpheides Hbn., Spilothyrus Du- 
ponchel. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 275. Determination 
of the type species of the nominal genus Amblypterus Hubner [1819] (Class Insecta, 
Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm.. vol.6: pp. 83-94. 10 Sept. 1954. 
Type is Sphinx panopus Cramer. Amblypterus and panopus placed on the Official 
Lists. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 276. Rejection, as 
not being of subgeneric status, of the intermediate terms used by Hubner (J.) be- 
tween the generic and specific names of species in the first volume of the work en- 
titled Sammlung exotischer Schmetterlinge, published in the period 1806-1823, and 
also in the work entitled Systematischalphabetisches Verzeichniss aller bis her bei den 
Furbildungen zur Sammlung europdischer Schmetterlinge angegebenen Gattungsben- 
ennungen published in 1822." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm., vol.6: pp.95-118. 1 Oct. 
1954. These works also placed on Official List of Works Approved as Available for 
Zoological Nomenclature. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 278. Addition to the 
Official List of Generic Names in Zoology of the names of ten genera of the Sub- 
Order Rhopalocera of the Order Lepidoptera (Class Insecta), species of which were 
cited in the undated leaflet commonly known as the Tentamen, prepared by Jacob 
Hubner, which is believed to have been distributed to correspondents in 1806, a 
leaflet rejected in Opinion 97." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.6: pp. 135-178. 1 Oct. 
1954. Hiibner's generic names of butterflies are placed on the Official Index. The 
genera to which their type species are now referred, and the types of these genera, 
are placed on the Official Lists (if not already done): Aulocera, Consul. Danaus. 
Euphydryas, Limenitis, Nymphalis, Papilio. Pieris, Plebejus, Pyrgus; brahminus. fabius. 
phaeton, populi, polychloros, machaon, brassicce. malvce. The Tentamen is placed 
on the Official Index. [P.B.] 

F. BIOLOGY AND IMMATURE STAGES 

Anonymous, "The Beet Web-Worm (Hymenia recurvalis) ." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 

vol.61: p. 256, 1 fig. 1 May 1950. Life history & control. 
Anonymous, "Insect pests of tobacco." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, vol. 61: pp. 415-418, 

6 figs. 1 Aug. 1950. Gnorimoschema operculella. G. plcesiosema. Plusia sp., Heliothis 

armigera, cutworms; biology and control. [P. B.] 
Anonymous, "The Fruit-Tree Moth Borer (Maroga uni punctata)." Agric. Gaz. N. S. 

Wales, vol. 61: pp. 583-584, 3 figs. 1 Nov. 1950. Biology and control ( Xyloryc- 

tidae). 
Anonymous, "The Tomato Caterpillar {Heliothis armigera) ." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales. 

vol. 61: pp. 641-642, 4 figs. 1 Dec. 1950. Biology and control. 
Anonymous, "The Indian Meal Moth (Plodia interpunctella)." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 

vol. 62: pp. 41-42, 2 figs. 1 Jan. 1951. Biology and control. 



190 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 5 

Anonymous, "The Cabbage Moth (Plutella maculipennis). The Cabbage White 
Butterfly (Pieris rupee). Case Moths (Psychidae)." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, vol. 62: 
pp. 149-152, 156, 7 figs. 1 Mar. 1951. Biology and control. 

Anonymous, "The White Cedar Moth (Lymantria reducta)." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 
vol. 62: p. 190, 1 fig. 1951. Biology and control; on Melia azedarach. [P. B.] 

Anonymous, "The Currant Stem-borer (Algeria tipuliformis) ." Agric. Gaz. N. S. Wales, 
vol. 62: p. 304, 1 fig. 1 June 1951. Biology and control. 

Dikasova, E. T., "Serodiagnosis of jaundice virus in Bombyx mori" [in Russian]. 
Mikrobiologiia, vol. 17:pp. 189-191. 1948. [Not seen.] 

Dikasova, E. T., "Effect or virus of yenow jaundice on the viability of Mulberry 
Silkworm" [in Russian). Mikrobiologiia. vol. 19: pp. 444-448. 1950. [Not seen.] 

Eberle, Georg, "Kleine Lebensgeschichte des Heide-Ringelspinners (Malacosoma cast- 
rensisl" [in German]. Natur und Volk, vol. 77: pp. 02-71, 7 figs. May 1947. 
Life history, ecology, and behavior. 

Eberle, Georg, "Rittersporn-Eule" [in German]. Natur und Volk. vol. 79: pp. «'5-89, 
4 figs. 15 Apr. 1949. Life history of Plusia moneta; foodplants Delphinimn and 
Aconitum. [P. B.] 

Eberle, Georg, "Vom Windenschwarmer" [in German]. Natur und Volk, vol. 81: pp. 
121-126, 5 figs. 1 June 1951. Life history and habits of Herse convolvuli. [P. B.] 

Eff, Donald, "The foodplant of Erynnis pacuvius." Lepid. News, vol. 9: p. 15. 8 April 
1955. 

Efimov, A. L., & G. M. Miftakov, "Pink bollworm and other pests of cotton in China" 
[in Russian]. Zool. Zkurn.. vol. 33: pp. 1065-1080. Sept./Oct. 1954. [Not seen]. 

Egle, Karl, "Pilze als Insektentoter" [in German]. Natur und Volk, vol. 79: pp. 286- 
290, 3 figs. 15 Dec. 1949. Entomophagous fungi on Lepidoptera and other insects. 
[P. B.] 

Ene, M., & D. Parascan, "Apterona crenulella Brd., an enemy of the forests" [in Ru- 
manian]. Revista Padurilor, vol. 68, no. 2: pp. 19-21. Feb. 1953. [Not seen.] 

Evans, J. W., The injurious insects of the British Commonwealth (except the British Isles, 
India and Pakistan). With a section on the control of weeds by insects, vii + 242 
pp., 1 pi. London: Commonwealth Institute of Entomology. 1952. Lists insects in 
systematic order (in case of Lepidoptera), with area where destructive, notes on habits 
and control, and reference to abstracts in the Revieiv of Applied Entomology. Some 
350 Lepidoptera in 41 families are mentioned. Pests are also listed by plant attacked. 
[P. B.] 

Fennah, R. G., The insect pests of food crops in the Lesser Antilles. 209 pp., 139 figs. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Grenada. 1947. Life history, distribution, alternative food- 
plants, and parasites of pest insects, arranged by plant species. Some adults figured. 
[P.B.] 

Ferreira Lima, A. D., "Insetos fitofagos de Santa Catarina" [in Portuguese]. Bol. 
Fitossanit.. vol. 2: pp. 233-251. "1945" [1947]. Annotated lists of plant-feeding 
species (and a few parasites) including 85 Lepidoptera in 32 families. Food plant in- 
t dex. [P. B.] 

Ferriere, Ch., "Les parasites de Lyonetia clerckella" [in French]. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. 
Ent., vol. 1: pp. 593-595. March 1953. Records 11 chalcidid parasites and a few 
others, from Switzerland. [A. D.] 

Figueroa Potes, Adalberto, "La ruptura de un equilibrio. Consideraciones biologicas al- 
rededor del uso de los nuevos insecticidos" [in Spanish]. Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cien., 
vol. 9, nos. 33/34: 92-102. May 1953. Discusses parasites and predators of des- 
tructive insects in Colombia, including Opsiphanes invince, Tysiphone maculata, and 
some better-known Lepidoptera, and the adverse effects of insecticides on biological 
control. [P. B.'J 

Filatova, Z. A., 'On the taxonomic position of the microsporidian organism causing 
pebrine in Antherasa pernyi G." [in Russian]. Bull. Moskov. Obshch. Isp. Prirody. 
Otd. Biol., vol. 52: pp. 3-10. 1947. [Not seen.] 

Finn, Pearl Staples, "Caterpillars have wings." Everglades Nat. Hist., vol. 3: pp. 120- 
122, 1 fig. June 1955. Popular account of metamorphosis. [P. B.] 

Fischer, Franz, "Zur Zucht der Raupen von Heliothis scutosa Schiff." [in German]. 
Ent. Nachrbl., vol. 3: pp. 183-184. Oct./Nov. 1951. Anthemis arvensis, as well as 
Artemisia spp., normal foodplants. [P. B.] 

Fogg, G. E., "Biological flora of the British Isles. Sinapis arvensis L." Journ. Ecol., 
vol.38: pp. 415-429, 3 figs. Nov. 1950. Larval food plant of Euchloe cardamines. 
Pieris rapce, P. brassicas, Mamestra brassica?. Evergestis straminalis, E. extimalis, 
Mesographe forficalis, Plutella maculipennis. Lists spp. visiting flowers also. [P. B.J 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 191 

NOTICES 

Lepidopterists' Society members may use this page free of charge to advertise their 
offerings and needs in Lepidoptera. The Editors reserve the right to rewrite notices 
for clarity or to reject unsuitable notices. We cannot guarantee any notices but expect 
all to be bona fide. 

I am interested in exchanging, determining, and buying series of Parnassius with precise 
dates of capture. C. Eisner, Kwekerijweg 5, Den Haag, NETHERLANDS. 

Attention field collectors: Mrs. Phillips and I are planning a Lepidoptera collecting 
trip by car to southern Texas, around Brownsville, and possibly into Mexico during 
the first half of July 1957. Would like others to accompany us to share expenses and 
the enjoyment of collecting. L. S. Phillips, Biochemistry Dept., 111. Instit. of Technology, 
35 W. 33rd St., Chicago 16, 111., U.S.A. 

Wish to purchase Hesperiidae, Catocala. and Sphingidae, from U.S. and Canada only. 
Ray Seibert, 1302 Fairview St., Reading, Pa., U.S.A. 

Wanted: Sphinx francki Neumoegen (both sexes; in good condition). I offer in exchange 
Kloneus babayaga Skinner (Sphingidae) (both sexes, in perfect condition, of which 
only very few specimens are known). Would also buy if desired. Rene Lichy, Edificio 
ENKA, Apt°15, Avenida Fermin Toro, San Bernardino, Caracas, VENEZUELA. 

BRILLIANT TROPICAL BUTTERFLIES: 50 different, $2.00; same with 3 choice speci- 
mens, $3.00; with 6 choice specimens, $4.00; 20 different and gorgeous Swallowtails, 
including 3 choice, S2.50; Atlas moth, $1.00, postpaid. List free. Substantial discount 
for wholesale. Formosan Insect Society, No. 7, Lane 1358, Chung Cheng Road, Taipei, 
Formosa, FREE CHINA. 



LIVING MATERIAL 

Wanted: Living pupae of Polyphemus and Cecropia silkworms. I will gladly pay $15.00 
per 100, plus postage. Prof. H. A. Schneiderman, Dept. of Zoology, Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N. Y., U. S. A. 

Wanted: Living pupae and papered imagoes of world Saturniidae. Reservation list of 
Georgia Rhopalocera and Saturniidae on request. Will buy or exchange any spp. of 
Rhopalocera or Saturniidae of world, in small numbers or in quantity. James C. Brooks, 
194 Riley Ave., Macon, Georgia, U. S. A. 

Wanted: Living ova and pupae of U.S. Sphingidae, Notodontidae, Lasiocampidae, Cerato- 
campidae, Saturniidae, Arctiidae, Catocala, etc.; almost any spp. desired. Please write 
stating offers and prices. Leonard V. H. Gingell, South Farnborough School, Reading 
Road, Farnborough, Hants., ENGLAND. 

Wanted: Fertile ova or pupae of Saturniidae, common or rare spp., for scientific work 
in laboratories, research stations, and zoology departments of leading universities in 
Great Britain. Exchange for British and European Lepidoptera, or exotic material. 
10-page price list free. L. Hugh Newman, The Butterfly Farm Ltd., Bexley, Kent, 
ENGLAND. 



A supplier of biological materials, primarily for educational purposes, wishes to 
establish connections with one or more collectors and preparators who will be able 
to provide preserved specimens according to directions which the firm will supply. 
Interested persons should write: United Scientific Company, Inc., 200 North Jefferson 
Street, Chicago 6, Illinois. 



192 Vol.10: no.5 

LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTION IN BUDAPEST SAVED 

Word has been received from Dr. L. A. Gozmany, curator of Lepid- 
optera of the Hungarian National Museum in Budapest, that he and his 
family came through the recent fighting in Hungary uninjured. The great 
and distinguished Museum, founded in 1802, did not fare so well. Dr. Goz- 
many, a Vice-President of the Lepidopterists' Society, wrote as follows: 
"Owing to six mines exploding in the Herpetological Collection, and setting 
fire to 200,000 litres of alcohol and petroleum, the ensuing conflagration 
totally burned out the following collections: the Ornithological, Ichthyologi- 
cal, Herpetological, Mollusca, Diptera, Hemiptera, Odonata, Trichoptera, Sal- 
tatoria, Lower Invertebrata, etc. Thousands and thousands of types are lost, 
beside hundreds of thousands of specimens. And now the miracle: amid 
all this raging Inferno, the Lepidoptera and Coleoptera Collections remained 
intact! The fire ate away the doors, the window frames and sills, and then 
it stopped . . . The other building where our Mineralogical, Geological and 
Paleontological Departments were housed and stored also got some shells, 
and they got totally destroyed together with tens of thousands of books, their 
whole library, and every single specimen. Just the charred and blackened walls 
are standing. The Museum is an irreparable loss, in its 60%. We were given 
a new building . . . The old building now houses only the Mammalogical 
and Hymenoptera collections, which were in another wing, and so escaped 
the fire." Even for the lepidopterists, whose collection remains, the loss of 
the library is a crushing blow, and specialists in the groups whose collections 
were destroyed must rebuild them from the beginning as rapidly as possible. 
There is urgent need for naturalists everywhere to give as much help as possible. 
Most urgently needed are substantial funds, particularly to allow curators 
such as Dr. Gozmany to travel to North America and Europe to arrange 
with foreign colleagues for exchanges and gifts of specimens and for the 
purchase of literature. Individuals who can participate in any way are urged 
to write the News Editor or directly to Dr. GOZMANY. 



C. L. Remington 



ADDITIONS TO THE LIST OF MEMBERS 



Blumenthal, Frank H., 1665 34th St., N.W., Washington 7, D. C, U. S. A. 

Fender, Kenneth M., Route 3, McMinnville, Oregon, U. S. A. 

Jones, Donald R., 21216 Morewood Pkwy., Cleveland 16, Ohio, U. S. A. 

King, Katherine (Mrs.), 5517 McKinley St., Bethesda 14, Md., U. S. A. 

Lensner, Victor E., 20280 Parkview Ave., Rocky River 16, Ohio, U. S. A. 

Lorenzi, D. E., 2516 N. Holton St., Milwaukee 12, Wis., U. S. A. 

Miller, W. E. (Dr.), Lower Peninsula Forest Research Center, Michigan State University, 

East Lansing, Mich., U. S. A. 
Pirone, D. J., 108 N. Columbus Ave., Mt. Vernon, N. Y., U. S. A. 
Powolny, Frank, Jr., 15459 Dickens St., Sherman Oaks, Calif., U. S. A. 
Schneiderman, H. A. (Prof.), Dept. of Zool., Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N. Y., U. S. A. 
Scott, Ross B., R. R. 4, LaGrange, Indiana, U. S. A. 
Schenk, Peter J., 1617 Las Canoas Rd., Santa Barbara, Calif., U. S. A. 
Spencer, O. D., 935 Ferndale Rd., Lincoln, Neb., U. S. A. 
Steude, Robert H. (Mrs.), 1406 Columbus St., Houston 19, Texas, U. S. A. 
Teale, Edwin Way, 93 Park Ave., Baldwin, L. I., N. Y., U. S. A. 



The Lepidopterists' News 



Volume 10 



1956 



Number 6 




WILLIAM HARRY EVANS 

Brigadier William Harry Evans, C. S. I., C. I. E., D. S. O., was born 
on 22nd July, 1876, at Shillong, Assam, third son of Sir HORACE Moule 
Evans and Elizabeth Anne, daughter of Surgeon General J. T. Tressider. 
His talented mother undoubtedly did much to kindle in him and share with 
him her own enlightened interest in nature, so that by the time he was 
sent to King's School, Canterbury, he already had a strong school-boy interest 
in butterflies and moths. At the age of eighteen he joined the Royal Engineers. 
He was posted East in 1898, and in that year he was already collecting butter- 
flies in Chitral. His Indian service was interrupted by duty with the Somaliland 
Expedition (1902-04) where he sustained an injury to his knee when landing, 
which handicapped him increasingly over the years. He also served in France 
from 1914 to 1918. In the latter war he not only distinguished himscli by 
being awarded the D.S.O. and a brevet, but as a result of exposure to gas in- 
curred permanent chest trouble. With characteristic doggedness he made light 
of these handicaps, which did not grow lighter as time passed. Returning to 
India in 1919, he was stationed at various Command headquarters. His final 
post was with Western Command at Quetta as Chief Engineer. 



193 



194 Biography of W. H. Evans Vol.10: no.6 

Retiring in 1931 he travelled home via Australia, settling in London in 
1932, within easy walking distance of the Natural History Museum; yet in a 
sense his military service did not even then come to an end, for he was attached 
to the Non-intervention Committee during the Spanish Civil War, and when 
in the last war troubles came to London, he unobtrusively assumed the job 
of Air Raid Warden in his own immediate neighborhood. Stoically, as was so 
very characteristic of him, he put in a full day's work daily at the Museum 
throughout the war, at a window facing south on to Cromwell Road, where one 
morning he was caught in the explosion of a German VI rocket bomb which 
burst on the roadway about 100 yards away. Cut, bruised, badly shaken and 
with his hearing seriously affected (permanently, as it later transpired), his only 
complaint was of the loss of the specimens he had been examining, and of which 
nothing remained but the pins and labels. However, within hours he was at 
work again, though it was little short of a miracle that he was not killed. 
The incident — not uncommon in London at the time — is related because 
Evans's reaction was so typical of him. He had sent his wife to Bournemouth 
(where she died in 1945) to escape the raids; and he could justifiably have fol- 
lowed her. As for himself, his task was to complete the Revision of the 
Hesperiidae of the World, as he so often said "before he died". Often, during 
his last few years, we wondered, as he did, whether death would win, but the 
victory was his. 

Throughout his service in India, Evans collected assiduously, so that few 
men can have had a fuller or more intimate comparative knowledge of the 
distribution patterns of the Rhopalocera of that vast sub-continent. Ceylon, 
Kodai Kanal (S. India), Jabalpur, Simla, Murree, Darjeeling, Chitral, Baluchis- 
tan were his principal collecting grounds. He also spent at least one highly 
profitable leave period in Burma, visited Malaya and the Andaman Islands, 
and twice travelled to Australia, where the Trapetizinae, a subfamily of peculiar 
endemic Hesperiid genera, particularly attracted his attention. Owing to the 
exigencies of army life, Evans preserved the great bulk of his very extensive 
material in papers, only setting barely enough for a handy reference collection 
— and setting was not an art he ever acquired to perfection; red sealing wax, 
often used to secure wings, does not improve the appearance of specimens! 

Evans's approach to entomology was essentially practical, methodical, 
almost matter-of-fact. He was not content solely with the delights of the chase, 
or the beauty of the quarry; he wanted always to know precisely what it was 
he caught, how it differed from its related species and where it fitted into the 
scheme of things. During the twenty-five years that he spent as a close colleague 
in the Museum he never spoke of the life histories of Indian butterflies as if 
from personal experience; indeed, in all his writings little will be found on this 
aspect of the subject. In other words, taxonomy made the strongest appeal to him. 
In a way this was fortunate for students of the Indian butterflies, the available 
literature on which was scattered, expensive, voluminous and not always as 
informative as appearances suggested, for it led Evans to prepare his Keys 
for the Identification of Indian Butterflies. The Keys, published originally in 
parts in the Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society, from 1923, 



1956 the Lepidopterists' News 195 

proved at once deservedly popular, were issued in book form in 1927, and 
again as a revised edition in 1932. For the first time they provided the collector 
and student in a single volume of some 300 pages with reliable keys to the whole 
of the families, genera, species and subspecies known to occur in India, Burma 
and Ceylon. Preceding the actual Keys there is a masterly, concise, practical 
summary of all the aspects of butterfly collecting in India likely to interest the 
collector. It is worth careful reading and it throws more light on the author him- 
self than any other of his writings. The clipped, abbreviated text matter of the 
Keys and the rather unattractive half-tone plates do not make an aesthetically 
pleasing volume; but the success of the Keys was immediate, for they worked. 
In this work Evans introduced both the standard set of abbreviations and the 
rather unorthodox type of Key which he used throughout his later work. 
For the latter he claimed that it was natural in that it did not rely on 'spot' 
characters but on true morphologically comparable similarities and differences, 
and showed simultaneously and continuously the identity of a species and its 
position in his classification; certain it is that his keys were suited to his 
mathematical mind and his quite extraordinary faculty for keeping a whole 
range of related and indeed seemingly unrelated characters in his head simul- 
taneously. He found it quite unnecessary to employ any system of tabulation 
such as most of us find unavoidable; having 'worked through' a genus, he 
would write the key virtually without further reference to the specimens on 
which it was based. 

One may perhaps be permitted to wonder why it was that on retirement 
Evans selected the Hesperiidae for his attention. The Lycaenidae were (and 
still are) almost equally in need of serious overhaul. On a superficial compari- 
son, however, they look 'easier', for clearly they present a great variety of 
usable 'characters'. The Skippers on this ground alone, however, present a 
greater challenge, and, besides, there was the vast unorganized assemblage of 
tropical American species into which nobody had as yet made any serious at- 
tempt to introduce order. Here was indeed a challenge worthy of Evans's metal; 
and it is an odd coincidence that the only worthwhile attack ever previously 
to have been made on the major classification of the Hesperiidae was also the 
work of a Sapper, Captain E. Y. WATSON (1893, Proc. Zool. Soc. London) 
who was killed in action before the turn of the century. From the fact that 
these two workers are in almost complete accordance in their major conclusions 
much comfort can be drawn by the rest of us. 

In the course of preparing his Catalogues of the Hesperiidae in the British 
Museum, details of which will be found in the bibliography, Evans examined 
critically well over half a million specimens, not counting the very large amount 
of material which he excluded from the main collection and treated as supple- 
mentary. As his classification at specific level, and to a considerable extent at 
generic level as well, is based on the male genitalia, an astonishingly high pro- 
portion of this material was actually dissected and examined by him single- 
handed. This he achieved by the dry method, often without any visual aid, 
or at most with the help of a low-powered binocular — for his near sight 
was quite remarkable, a fact which also accounts, no doubt, for the minuteness 



196 Biography of W. H. EVANS Vol.10: no.6 

of his handwriting. To see this operation in practice made one shudder, but 
it paid dividends; and such a mass of material could never have been examined 
in the time by conventional methods. It is inevitable, however, that only the 
grosser characters can be appreciated so, and just as inevitable is it that when 
more refined methods are employed much correction of detail will be necessary. 
Comparisons of the treatment of the palearctic and nearctic Hesperiidse by 
Evans with the work of Reverdin, Warren, Skinner and Williams, 
Bell, Lindsey, and others clearly illustrates the point. This is not to decry 
Evans's work. It has the enormous merit of being a completely comprehensive 
revision in which the same criteria have been applied throughout, thus provid- 
ing us with strictly comparable taxa. Whether one regards his Groups as Families 
or his subspecies as species is immaterial; within each category the values are 
pretty constant. One regret, however, may be expressed, and that is that Evans 
gave us so little in the way of general conclusions that could, surely, have been 
drawn from his profound knowledge of the Skippers of the World. It may 
be because, though he was much influenced in later years by the writings of 
Rensch, Mayr, Huxley and others on evolution and the species concept, he 
always regarded phylogeny with the greatest suspicion. 

Having finished his self-appointed task and completed his work on the 
Hesperiidae, Evans decided to spend his last years helping others interested 
in the Skippers, tidying up, etc., etc., till with a sudden renewed enthusiasm 
for the Lycsenidae he revised the difficult genus Tarucus and, in a few months, 
reduced to order the species of the Oriental genus Arhopala which had been 
a stumbling block to others for generations. The manuscript of the latter re- 
vision went to press in September 1956. He died, after a short illness, on 
November 13th, 1956. His only son, Dr. J. W. Evans, ably maintains the 
family interest in entomology and is now Director of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney. 

A quarter of a century seems a long time to spend revising a single family 
of the Lepidoptera. However, but for the fact that Evans was entirely his own 
master, free of all official ties and duties ( and in consequence not a little envied 
by the 'permanent' staff, maybe), it would not have sufficed. Evans at work 
was quick, accurate, methodical, and true to his Army training, required an 
answer to be yes or no — he had no use for compromise. Decision was what 
he sought, not tangential possibilities; and having reached his decision he was 
adamant, whether it concerned the status of a species or the position of a 
comma — which was a pity, for it sometimes led him, and not only him, 
to unnecessary heart-burnings. Nevertheless he was an endearing character, like- 
able, deservedly popular, suffering children (whom he enchanted) gladly, 
but not fools, and utterly dependable. 

The Department, of which he was an 'institution' for so long, more regular 
than the regulars, will for many years cherish the warmest memories of 'the 
Brigadier'. 

N. D. RILEY, Department of Entomology, 
British Museum of Natural History, Cromwell Road, London, SW 7, ENGLAND 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 197 

[Editor's note: Brigadier Evans was one of the five original Honorary 
Life Members of the Lepidopterists' Society. Prior to completion of the final 
part of his catalogue of the American Hesperiidae, he had agreed to prepare 
for publication in the Lepidopterists' News a summary paper setting forth 
his views of the over-all classification of the Skippers of the world, with a dis- 
cussion of the basis for his system. He wrote that he must first concentrate 
all of his efforts on completing the Catalogue. We were expecting the manu- 
script of the Neivs paper when word of Evans's passing was received in the 
form of a letter written by Evans and mailed at the time of his death, on 
instructions to his niece. It stated, in part: "In 1952 the Lepidopterists' Society 
paid me the great honor of appointing me an Honorary Life Member of the 
Society. In 1953 I observed that on the death of Professor G. D. Hale Car- 
penter, who had received the same distinction, a very complete obituary 
was published in the Lepidopterists' News. In case the Society decides to follow 
the same course on my death, I enclose a photograph and a list of my publica- 
tions." This considerate and orderly act allows us to present the following 
bibliography, with post- 195 5 additions by Dr. P. F. Bellinger. The portrait 
was taken by Kent H. Wilson in 1952. — C. L. Remington] 



LEPIDOPTERA PUBLICATIONS BY BRIGADIER W. H. EVANS 

1904. [With G. A. Leslie] The butterflies of Chitral. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

14: 666-678. 
1910. A list of the butterflies of the Palni Hills with the descriptions of two new species. 

Ibid. 20: 380-391. 
1910, Additions and corrections to certain local butterfly lists, with the description of 

a new species. Ibid. 20: 423-427. 
1912. A list of Indian butterflies. Ibid. 21: 553-584, 969-1008. 

1912. Lepidoptera [collected during the Abor Expedition], Records Indian Museum 
8: 61-65. 

1913. Notes on Indian butterflies, nos.1-7, 8-10. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 22: 
279-282, 761-770. 

1914. Notes on Indian butterflies, nos.11-17. Ibid. 23: 302-310. 

1914. A list of butterflies caught by Capt. F. M. Bailey in S. E. Thibet during 1913. 

Ibid. 23: 532-546, 1 pi., 1 map. 
1920. Notes on Indian butterflies, nos.18, 19-28. Ibid. 26: 1021-1023; 27: 86-93. 

1920. A note on the species of the genus Mycalesis (Lepidoptera), occurring within 
Indian limits. Ibid. 27: 354-362, 4 pis. 

1921. Notes on Indian butterflies, nos.29-39. Ibid. 28: 30-40. 

1922. Butterfly collecting in India. Ibid. 28: 500-517, 9 figs. 

1922. The identification of Indian butterflies. Introduction. Ibid. 28: 739-747, 2 figs. 

1923. The identification of Indian butterflies. Parts I, II, III. Ibid. 29: 230-260, 9 pis., 
519-537, 3 pis., 780-797, 4 pis. 

1923. A list of butterflies caught by Major H. T. Morshead during the Mount Everest 
Expedition 1921. Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1922: 477-478. 

29: 890-907, 5 pis.; 30: 72-96, 4 pis. 

1924. The identification of Indian butterflies. Parts IV, V. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 
29: 890-907; 30: 72-96. 

1924. Notes on Indian butterflies, nos.40-42. Ibid. 2: 971-9^3- 

1925. The identification of Indian butterflies. Parts VI, VII, VIII. Ibid. 30: 322-351, 
2 pis., 610-639, 1 pi., 756-776, 1 pi. 



198 Biography of W. H. EVANS Vol.10: no.6 

1926. The identification of Indian butterflies. Parts IX, X, XI. Ibid. 31: 49-83, 1 pi., 

428-446, 1 pi., 616-637, 1 pi. 
1926. [Comment on| The occurrence of the butterfly Appias indra var. aristoxenus in 

the Nilgiris. Ibid. 31: 529. 

1926. Notes on Indian butterflies, no.43. Ibid. 31: 712-719. 

1927. The identification of Indian butterflies. 454 pp., 32 uncol. pis. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 

1927. Lepidoptera — Rhopalocera obtained by Madame J. Visser-Hooft of The Hague 
during an exploration of previously unknown country in the Western Karakorum, 
N.W. India. Tijd. voor Ent. 70: 158-162. 

1928. Descriptions of some new Hesperiidae from the Australian region in the Tring 
Museum. Novitates TLoologicae 34: 71-74. 

1929. Fauna Buruana. Lepidoptera, Fam. Grypocera (Hesperiidae). [List of Grypocera 
obtained by L. J. Toxopeus in Buru.] Treubia 7: 371-375. 

1929. On a new form of Hesperiid butterfly (Baoris canarica yatesi ) from Coorg. 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 33: 1000-1001. 
1932. The identification of Indian butterflies. Second edition revised. 454 pp., 32 

uncol. pis., 9 figs. Madras: Bombay Nat. Hist Soc. 

1932. The butterflies of Baluchistan. Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36: 196-209. 

1933. Some little known or apparently unrecorded Lycaenidae and Hesperiidae from the 
Malay Peninsula. Journ. Fed. Malay States Mus. 17: 406-417. 

1934. Indo-Australian Hesperiidae: descriptions of new genera, species and subspecies. 
Entomologist 67: 33-36, 61-65, 148-151, 181-184, 206-209, 231-234. 

1935. Indo-Australian Hesperiidae: description of new genera, species and subspecies. 
Entomologist 68: 65-67, 87-90. 

1935. The small orange Colias (Lepidoptera, Pieridae) from the Sikkim-Thibet Hima- 
layas. Ibid. 68: 106-109, 1 pi. 
1935. The genus Potanthus, Scudder (Lep., Hesperiidae). Stylops 4: 100T01. 

1935. [New names for genera of Hesperiidae] in "The Rhopalocera of Abyssinia" by 
G. D. Hale Carpenter. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London 83: 313-440. 

1936. Description of a new genus of American Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Proc. Roy. 
Ent. Soc. London (B) 5: 55. 

1936. [Description of a new Hesperiid] in "Description de six especes ou sous-especes 
de rhopaloceres" by Dr. G. E. Audeoud. Bull. Soc. Lep. Geneve 7: 184. 

1937. Indo-Australian Hesperiidae: descriptions of new genera, species and subspecies. 
Entomologist 70: 16-19, 38-40, 64-66, 81-83. 

1937. A new genus and a new species of South American Hesperiidae (Lep.). Revista de 
Ent. 7: 88-89. 

1937. A catalogue of the African Hesperiidce. 212 pp., 30 pis. (7 col.) London: British 
Museum (Natural History) . 

1938. New African Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera). Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, 1: 312- 
315, 4 figs. 

1939. New species and subspecies of Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) obtained by Herr H. 
H6ne in China in 1930-1936. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B) 8: 163-166. 

1939. Some interesting Malayan Hesperiidae, and an analysis of the genus Sepa. Journ. 
Fed. Malay States Mus. 18: 395-405, 1 pi. 

1939. In Hay ward, K. J., Las especies argentinas de genero Butleria Kirby con description 
de dos nuevas por el General W. H. Evans (Lep. Hesp.). Pbysis 17: 303-310, 7 figs. 

1940. Scientific names: a plea. Entomologist 73: 5-7. 

1940. Descriptions of three new Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) from China. Ibid. 73: 230. 

1940. The type of the genus Pyrrhopyge (Lepidoptera — Hesperiidae). Journ. N.Y. 
Ent. Soc. 48: 405-411. 

1941. An interesting case of development in certain South American Hesperiidae (Lep. 
Rhopalocera) Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (A) 16: 21-23, 1 pi. 

1941. The resting positions of butterflies (Lepid. Rhopalocera). Ibid. (A) 16: 33. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 199 

1941. The callineura group of the genus Plastingia (Lep. Hesp.). Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 

ser. 11, 8: 66-71. 
1941. A revision of the genus Erionota Mabille (Lep.: Hesp.). Entomologist lA: 158-160. 

1941. Changes in nomenclature affecting Malayan Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) . Ibid. 
74: 244-246. 

1942. Spolia Mentawiensis : Rhopalocera Hesperiidae. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 
11, 9: 641-644. 

1942. A key to the American species of the genus Pyrgus (Lep. Hesperiidae). Revista 
de Ent. 13: 359-366. 

1943. A revision of the genus Suastus Moore (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Proc. Roy. 
Ent. Soc. London (B) 12: 95-96. 

1943. A revision of the genus Mromachus De N. (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae). Ibid. 12: 
97-101. 

1944. An analysis of the genus Heliopetes Billberg (Lepidoptera — Hesperiidae) with 
genitalia drawings. Entomologist 11: 179-184. 1 pi. 

1947. Hesperiana. Proc. Ent. Soc. Washington 49: 162-163. 

1947. The correct name for Spialia sertorius Hoffmansegg (Lep. Hesperiidae). Ento- 
mologist 80: 167. 

1947. Revisional notes on African Hesperiidae. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 11, 13: 
641-648. 

1949. Some new Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) from Africa. Ibid., ser. 12, 2: 54-56, 1 pi. 

1949. A catalogue of the Hesperiidae from Europe, Asia and Australia in the British 
Museum {Natural History), xix + 502 pp., 53 pis. (11 col.), 7 figs. London: 
British Museum (Natural History). 

1951. Revisional notes on African Hesperiidae. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 12, 4: 
1268-1272, 4 figs. 

1951. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidce indicating the classification and nomen- 
clature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part I. Introduction and 
Group A — Pyrrhopygince. 92 pp., 9 pis. London: British Museum (Natural 
History) . 

1952. Ibid. Part II (Groups B, C, D) Pyrgince. Section 1. 178 pp., 16 pis. London: British 
Museum (Natural History). 

1952. Notes on Hesperiidae (Lepidoptera) from Madagascar. Naturaliste Malgache 4: 
87-88, 1 fig. 

1953. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidce indicating the classification and nomen- 
clature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part III (Groups E, F, G) 
Pyrgince. Section 2. 246 pp., 28 pis. London: British Museum (Natural History). 

1953. A note on the Indian species of the genus Lyccenopsis Felder (Lep. Lycaenidae). 
Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 51: 755. 

1954. A revision of the genus Curetis (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae). Entomologist 87: 
190-194, 212-216, 241-244, 1 pi. 

1954. Lepidopteres hesperiides in La reserve naturelle integrale du Mont Nimba. 
Mem. Inst, frang. Afr. Noire 40: 343-346. 

1955. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidce indicating the classification and nomen- 
clature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). Part IV (Groups H 
to P) Hesperiince and Megathymince. 499 pp., 35 pis. London: British Museum 
(Natural History.) 

1955. A revision of the genus Tarucus (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) of Europe, North 
Africa and Asia. Entomologist 88: 179-187. 

1955. The butterfly Thecla triloka Hannyngton (Lepidoptera-Lycaenidae). Journ. Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc. 53: 144-145. 

1956. Addenda and corrigenda to the ''Catalogue of the American Hesperiidce" published 
by the Trustees of the British Museum (Natural History). 4 pp. London: British 
Museum (Natural History). 

1957. Revisional notes on the Hesperiidae of Europe, Asia and Australia. Ann. & Mag. 
Nat. Hist., ser. 12, 9: 749-7 52. 



200 Vol.10: no.6 

FIELD NOTE 

EUREMA NICIPPE (PIERID^) BREEDING IN CONNECTICUT 

Prior to 1955 the sole report of capture or observation of Eurema nicippe Cramer 
in Connecticut that has come to my attention was my own single male taken 24 September 
1941 in Sharon Township, along the Housatonic River bank. Near noon, 3 September 
1955, while visiting the magnificent wildflower gardens of a friend in Woodbury. 
Connecticut, I approached a small patch of Senna hardly a minute or two after the sun 
had very suddenly appeared, bright and warm. It was its first emergence of the day 
and its heat was immediately noticeable. Two days of heavy storm clouds were breaking 
up rapidly. I became aware of sudden activity before me, an awakening quite unexpected. 
Upon collecting my wits this resolved itself into five fluttering E. nicippe which, after 
demonstrating momentary interest in each other, promptly dispersed. A net was hastily 
procured and a single male ultimately captured a short distance away. 

Two days later the locality was revisited. There was no activity on the Senna patch, 
but one butterfly was observed apparently ovipositing below the tops of the sparse but 
tall meadow grasses nearby. Examination showed that the field had been mowed some 
time earlier. Senna plants growing there had not regained stature as had the grasses. 
For reasons shortly to become apparent, I hesitate to speculate on the sex of this individual. 
Nevertheless, several eggs were recovered from the very points where the observation had 
indicated they would be found. The butterfly was lost from direct view from time to 
time on such occasions. Capture was then made for the purpose of inducing further 
cviposition in confinement. A short time later a male was taken. No eggs were sub- 
sequently obtained from the confined specimen. 

A week later the locality was again visited. Another male was taken and several eggs 
and small larvae procured from the plants. Between 27 September and 8 October six 
emergences took place from this material (a seventh died in pupa). These were all males. 
The specimen I had confined has subsequently been determined by C. L. REMINGTON 
as a male. Had 1 been more alert I would have realized this by its border markings. 
Some time during this interval I had taken Dr. REMINGTON to the spot, where he took 
two nearly full-grown larvae. One of these yielded a parasite and the other — you've 
guessed it — a male. 

Several somewhat more extensive patches of Senna had been located with much 
difficulty along the Housatonic River in northwestern Connecticut where the plant is 
reputed to be "not uncommon". In fact, the entire of one warm sunny day was spent 
searching this area. No evidence of E, nicippe could be found. No other patches of 
Senna were located in Woodbury. 

In summary, a total of four flying males were taken, not including the one in 
1941; eight more males were bred to maturity (including C. L. R.'s). Waiving considera- 
tion for the moment of those taken on the wing in the belief that the habits of the 
respective sexes or dates of emergence could be a consideration, there yet remains a 
significant mathematical ratio to be explained. Granted 8 equal opportunities for either 
sex, the chances of obtaining all males is 1 in 256, or all of one sex, 1 in 128. Besides, 
it is not entirely reasonable to neglect consideration of the flying individuals because 
they were taken at the larval food plant, not hilltops or mud puddles, and except perhaps 
for the first, after eggs were to be found on the plants. The genitalia of all specimens 
have been examined to be certain that an unusual female with broad, complete dark 
margins was not included. 

There was no sign of the species in 1956, here or at the other stations for Senna 
that had been found. Apparently, the species did not survive the winter here. 

I trust that I will not seriously be suspected of believing in a unisexual "race" of 
butterflies in Connecticut (12 males are involved, 8 collected in pre-imago stages) but 
nevertheless would like very much to hear from other members of the Society who 
might have observed noteworthy disproportion of the sexes in bred Lepidoptera. 

Sidney A. Hessel, Nettleton Hollow, Washington, Conn., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 201 

NOTES ON THE DIAPAUSE OF LEPIDOPTERA 
IN HOT ARID SUBTROPICAL CLIMATES 

by E. P. Wiltshire 

All univoltine (single-brooded), most bivoltine (double-brooded), and 
many multivoltine (more than two broods per year) Lepidoptera species in 
hot arid subtropical climates such as the Middle East perform a summer 
diapause (aestivation), as well as a winter diapause (hibernation) in localities 
with a cold winter. Most of these species do so as pupae. 

Two early articles of mine (Wiltshire, 1938, 1941a) gave details of the 
phenology of this diapause in univoltine species. In some bivoltine species, 
the two broods are vernal and autumnal, aestivation separating them; in others, 
the two generations are consecutive and the diapause combines aestivation and 
hibernation and appears in alternate generations. In some multivoltine species 
the first two broods are consecutive and are separated by aestivation from 
later, autumnal generations, of which there is sometimes only one. 

These however are generalisations based on the noted season of flight of 
the wild adults. The example, well-known in Europe, of the univoltine genera 
Xylena and Lithophane, with adults appearing twice a year (in autumn and 
again in spring after hibernation and sexual maturation), is a warning against 
judging entirely from the noted season of flight. For twenty years therefore, 
in the Middle East, I have kept notes of the dates of breeding various species, 
in case these might correct wrong judgments about phenologies. The fol- 
lowing results in two congeneric bivoltine species, bred ex ovo, though not 
revealing anything so deceptive as the appearance of Xylena, etc., are never- 
theless of interest. 

Caradrina zobeidah Boursin appears to be bivoltine, as the adult only 
comes to light in March-April and October in Bagdad. Caradrina bodenheimeri 
Draudt seems also to be bivoltine, as the adult is only taken wild in spring and 
again in autumn; it is widespread in hilly places in S.W. Asia, but the breeding 
was from a Shiraz (S.W. Iran) female. 

Breeding these two species from ova laid by gen. I females produced a 
split emergence of gen.II, part in June and part in October. Both were bred 
indoors, at a lower temperature than that prevailing out of doors, and this 
may account for the earlier appearance of part of the second generation. In 
captivity therefore these bivoltine species appeared three times annually, but 
since no matings were obtained from the June adults it was impossible to 
say whether they were in fact partially trivoltine, i.e. with three annual gen- 
erations. In both species the first generation consisted of larger specimens than 
the succeeding broods. 

Similar behaviour has been noted in the Hadenid genera Discestra and 
Cardepia in the arid Middle East: Andres (1924, p.35) stated he had bred 
Discestra trifolii Rott. from April pupae from larvae found in the Fayoum, 
Egypt, imagines hatching in May and October; and breeding Cardepia albi- 
picta Christ, at Ahwaz (S.W. Iran), where it is bivoltine in a wild state, flying 



202 WILTSHIRE: Diapause in arid climates Vol.10: no.6 

in April and October, I found that in captivity the second generation emerged 
partially in May. Only in Caradrina. Cardepia. and Discestra do I know of 
this sort of occurrence, though I have bred many families for many years. 
There are, however, probably other groups in which it occurs. This phenology 
may be generic, just as contrasting phenologies characterise related groups. 

The above results, excluding those of Andres, were ex ovo and the 
behaviour is that of offspring of single mothers. In the following cases, how- 
ever, a similar phenology was observed in pupae from larvae that were col- 
lected wild; they were contemporary but not necessarily of a single parent. 

Notodonta ziczac L. does not reach such hot arid localities as the fore- 
going but in N. Iran at 6000 ft. it inhabits a biotope with a long dry summer 
and performs both aestivation and hibernation. Breeding from it I observed 
a split similar to those mentioned above, occurring in gen.I pupae though later 
in the year. At Derband near Tehran four young larvae were found that had 
evidently hatched about 5 June; they pupated 27-30 June. Three adult moths 
hatched in late August, and one in April next year. The longer diapause of 
the later individual combined aestivation with hibernation, while even the 
shorter pupal period of the other three comprised a distinct aestivation of 
nearly two months. Breeders in temperate climes will be able to give many 
parallel instances of this "partial second brood." 

Papilio machaon L. is a multivoltine species that appears five times an- 
nually and probably has three or four annual generations at Bagdad and 
Shiraz. The third generation adults here may appear, promptly without dia- 
pause, in June and July, or after a pupal diapause in September and October. 
This butterfly's phenology is however very complicated, and fuller details of 
its biology at Bagdad will be published separately. The phenological split 
in the third generation seems to be a parallel to that in the second generation 
of the bivoltine cases described above. 

To conclude: in hot arid subtropical climates, in most species it is not 
possible to break the diapause by breeding experiments; still less is it broken 
in the wild state. But in a few species, not univoltine, a premature partial 
hatch of adults occurs in bred pupae in midsummer of which there is usually 
no sign in the wild state. If we exclude multivoltine species such as machaon, 
the word "usually" can be omitted in the foregoing sentence. It is nevertheless 
possible that even in a wild state a few individuals may hatch prematurely 
in midsummer, though this has not been observed. 

This phenological plasticity may well enable the species to adapt itself 
to climatic change: it would enable a species to spread to a region with a 
slightly different climate, or to survive on the spot if geological time brought 
climatic change. 

In another article (Wiltshire, 1941b) I mentioned the peculiar two- 
broodedness of bodenheimeri and arenaria Hamps. (recte albipicta) and sug- 
gested it might have evolved comparatively recently from a multivoltine 
phenology, as an adaptation to aridity and heat. I still think this is probably 
the truth, and that a univoltine phenology is a further sep of irrevocable 
specialisation, in the same direction, due to similar environment. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 203 

One frequently reads suggestions that winter cold has caused the evolu- 
tion of the diapause; writers in temperate climes are apt to forget the equally 
important role of arid heat. 

References 

Andres, A., & A. Seitz, 1923-25. Die Lepidopteren-fauna Agyptens. Senkenbergiana, 

vol.5: pp.1-54, 229-238, 1 pi. (1923); vol.6: pp. 13-83 (1924); vol.7: pp.54-6l 

(1925). 
Wiltshire, E. P., 1938. Notes on the winter flight in mild climates of vernal and 

autumnal moths. Ent. Rec, vol.50: pp. 144- 146. 
, 1941a. The summer flight in cold climates of vernal and autumnal 

Lepidoptera. Ent. Rec, vol.53: pp.4-7. 
, 1941b. The phenological classification of Palearctic Lepidoptera. Ent. 

Rec, vol.53: pp.101-106. 

Airmail address: E. P. Wiltshire (Personal), British Embassy, Bagdad, IRAQ 



THE LARVA OF HYPER/ESCHRA GEORGICA ( NOTODONTID^E ) 

by Alexander B. Klots 

Thrice during the last two years I have found at Putnam, Connecticut, 
on Quercus larvae of a Notodontid which corresponded to nothing recorded 
in the literature. A larva found in August, 1955 pupated but died during the 
winter; another found in July, 1956 was parasitized; but the third, also found 
in July, 1956, transformed the same year to the adult. This proved to be Hyper- 
ceschra georgica ( Herrich-Schaef f er ) . These larvae were nothing like the de- 
scription of the larva of georgica given by Forbes ( 1948, p.220). Forbes, how- 
ever, took his information from Packard (1895, p. 153), the only available 
source; and Packard merely quoted a MS of Riley's based on southern larvae. 
The following description therefore corrects a mixup of long standing. It is 
doubly important to do so since it will bear importantly on the question whether 
georgica really belongs in Hyperceschra. 

Length of mature larva 45 mm. Color very light gray green, almost whitish dorsally, 
deepening and darkening to olive green just above the immediately subspiracular lateral 
line, below that olive green. Lateral line yellow, slightly brighter on head; on body fading 
dorsally to whitish, finely edged both ventrally and dorsally with dark, the ventral edging 
reddish and the dorsal edging blackish; continuous from outer edge of mandible and 
antenna, below stemmata, almost to posterior (median) end of anal plate where it 
fades out. 

Head light gray-blue-green, reticulated with darker and lighter shades of the same 
hue; edges of epicranial suture lighter; stemmata black. Thoracic segments lighter than 
those of abdomen. Body with a pair of narrow, indistinct, whitish subdorsal lines very 
close together. Laterad of these, on each segment, 3 small whitish warts, longitudinally 
arranged; laterad of these an irregular, longitudinal line of 8-11 small whitish dots; 
laterad of these a similar, irregular longitudinal line of 7-9 small whitish dots; laterad 
of these the line of the spiracles and the longitudinal line. Spiracles oval, whitish, narrowly 



204 Vol. 10: no.6 

rimmed with black. Ventrad of lateral line a number of small whitish tubercles and dots. 
On each of abdominal segments 1-8 a short, dark, somewhat indistinct longitudinal line 
in a narrow groove. 

Head held more at a right angle to body axis than parallel to it (as in Gluphisia) , 
but not as pronouncedly at a right angle as in Nadata gibbosa (J. E. Smith). Skin very 
smooth and waxy looking, but definitely not shiny as in larva of Pheosia rimosa Packard. 
Setse and hairs very fine and short, whitish. No enlarged warts except a pair of small 
ones on dorsum of abdominal segment 8 which nearly touch mid-dorsally; these are 
bright orange and surrounded by a narrow, slightly irregular, bright yellow area. Anal 
prolegs definitely smaller than the others, but fully used and not carried up in the air. 

Described from a larva found at Putnam on Quercus rubra L. when fully 
grown. This larva entered the soil to pupate on 18 July 1956; the adult emerged 
on 1 or 2 August 1956. The larval and pupal exuvia? and the adult are in the 
collection of the American Museum of Natural History. This and the other 
two larvae, which were also on Q. rubra, fed chiefly along the midribs of mature 
leaves, progressively eating away one side of the leaf outward from the base. 
They fed and rested along the midrib with their dorsal surfaces down. In this 
position they were not easily discerned even when in plain sight, largely due 
to their reversed countershading. 

In Forbes' key (loc. cit., p. 209) this larva would probably run to couplet 

9, since its markings other than the lateral stripe are inconspicuous. In couplet 

10, however, it would agree with neither of the alternatives. In any event it 
would not run to the Riley-Packard Hyperceschra. 

References 

Forbes, W. T. M., 1948. Lepidoptera of New York and neighboring states, part III. 

Cornell University Agricultural Experiment Station, Memoir 274. 
Packard, A. S., 1895. Monograph of the Bombycine moths of America north of Mexico, 

part 1, Notodontidae. National Academy of Science, Memoirs, volume 7. 

Dept. of Insects & Spiders, American Museum of Natural History, 

New York 24, N. Y., U. S. A. 



EUREMA DAIRA DAIRA IN MISSISSIPPI 
by Bryant Mather 

The name, Eurema daira daira Latreille, is used here, as it was by Klots 
(1951), to include the material previously referred to as two species: E. 
jucunda Boisduval & Leconte and E. delta Cramer ( = E. daira), following 
his view that "there is little doubt that "jucunda" is the summer form and 
"daira" the winter one of a single species." 

Both published lists of Mississippi butterflies included E. jucunda. Weed 
(1894) commented that it is rarer than lisa or nicippe: Hutchins (1933) 
listed it as common in late summer. Neither list mentioned E. daira or E. delta. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 205 

Holland (1931) stated that both E. jucunda and E. delta are found in the 
"Gulf States." Klots (1951) gave the range of E. daira daira as "Florida n. 
to North Carolina w. to Mississippi, Arkansas, Louisiana, and Texas." In his 
1948 paper he said that northern records were needed both in the eastern 
coastal plain and the interior. Klots (1951) reported that in Winter Park, 
Florida, he found "jucunda" regularly throughout the summer; then, in Sep- 
tember, it became very scarce, and in October "daira" appeared and flew 
nearly throughout the winter. Occasional intermediate forms occurred, mostly 
in the fall and spring broods. GROSSBECK (1917) gave Florida records 
for "daira" ("delia") in September, October, and January; and for "jucunda" 
in May, September, and October. Harris (1950) gave Georgia records for 
"daira" {''delta") in late summer and fall, especially September and October, 
and also April; for "jucunda" all summer, most abundant from mid-July to 
mid-September. Lambremont (1954) reported 26 specimens (15 6 6 , 
11 2 9 ) from Louisiana; all but three taken between 6 and 8 September 
1950, the others on 5 June 1950 and 25 September 1936. He noted that the 
species had not previously been recorded from Louisiana but did not indicate 
which forms were represented. 

From these accounts it might be expected that, under favorable condi- 
tions, forms of E. daira daira could be taken in Mississippi in every month of 
the year, form "jucunda" appearing in the late spring and continuing until 
fall, form "daira" appearing in the late summer and cintinuing into the 
spring, with intermediate forms appearing principally in spring and fall. 
Except for Klot's report of his observations at Winter Park, Florida, the 
reports from any one state include only scattered records through the year. 

I have taken specimens at 27 localities throughout the state of Mississippi, 
from the Gulf Coast to the Tennessee border, thus representing a north-south 
cross section of most of the range of the species in this region. These speci- 
mens were taken in every month except December and January. The summer 
form "jucunda" has been taken from 7 April to 13 October; intermediate 
forms "delioides" from 28 September to 25 October; and the winter form 
"daira" from 16 September to 21 March. Two or all three forms have been 
taken flying together on nine different occasions from mid-September to 
mid-October, in five different years, at widely separated localities in the state 
including Biloxi (23 Sep. 51) and Ocean Springs (3 Oct. 53) on the Gulf 
Coast, Waynesboro (19 Sep. 53) in the southeast, Hattiesburg (16 Sep. 55) 
in the south central, Clinton (1 Oct. 50 and 5 Oct. 52) central, and Plymouth 
Bluff (13 Oct. 50) in the north. These data tend to confirm the expectation 
that further collecting should yield "daira" in January (as was found by 
GROSSBECK in Florida) and evidence of a "daira"-"jucunda" overlap in March - 
April (as is suggested by Harris's report of April "daira" in Georgia.) The 
transition from "daira" to "jucunda" and vice versa in Mississippi seems to 
occur during the period in which the average temperature is changing from 
greater than to less than the mean annual (65°F.) or vice versa. This tends 
to agree with Klots's (1948) comment on the work of Haskin: "strongly 
suggests the likelihood of "jucunda" being a hot-season form and "daira" a 
cold-season form of the same species." 



206 



MATHER: Eurema daira 



Vol.10: no.6 



The underside of the hindwing of the summer form "jucunda" is white; 
that of the winter form "daira" is tan to reddish. Males of all forms have 
clearly defined broad black bars along the inner margin of the forewing 
above. Females of "daira" entirely lack this black bar and those of "jucunda" 
either lack it entirely or have it poorly defined. Both sexes of "daira" have 
a short dark border along the hindwing above; in "jucunda" this border is 
longer. Intermediate forms "delioides" have intermediate characteristics, the 
most apparent of which is that the underside of the hindwings is typically 
whitish flecked with tan. 

The forewing lengths of 91 Mississippi specimens were measured and 
the distribution of results is given below: 



forewing 


"dai 


ra" 


"delioides" 


"jucunda" 




length, mm. 


$ S 


9 9 


6 S 


? 9 


6 $ 


$ 9 


total 


14 










2 




2 


15 




, 


2 


. . 


11 


2 


15 


16 


4 


1 


1 


1 


8 


5 


20 


17 


10 


9 


. . 


1 


6 


8 


34 


18 


2 


11 


, , 


. . 


2 


2 


17 


19 


1 


2 


• • 


• • 


■ • 


• • 


3 


total no.: 


17 


23 


-> 
o 


2 


29 


17 


91 


average, mm. 


17.0 


17.6 


15.3 


16.5 


15.9 


16.6 


16.6 


range, mm. 


16-19 


15- 


■17 


14- 


18 


14-19 



Holland (1931) indicated that "jucunda" is appreciably larger than 
"daira" and that there is no overlap in size. The data given above indicate 
the reverse. Since these data are derived from specimens representing suc- 
cessive seasonal manifestations of a single population, the relationships sug- 
gested by them are regarded as probably more accurate. 

References 

Grossbeck, John A., 1917. Insects of Florida, IV Lepidoptera. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

Hist. 37: 1—147. 
Harris, Lucien, Jr., 1950. The butterflies of Georgia. Bull. Georgia Soc. Naturalists 

5: 29 pp. 
Holland, W. J., 1931. The butterfly book. Rev. ed. Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday. 424 pp. 
Hutchins, Ross E., 1933. Annotated list of Mississippi Rhopalocera. Canad. Ent. 65: 

210—213. 
Klots, Alexander B., 1948. Notes on the genus Eurema (Pieridse) in the United States. 

Lepid. News 2: 51 — 53. 
.... , 1951. A field guide to the butterflies. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. 

349 pp. 
Lambermont, Edward N., 1954. The butterflies and skippers of Louisiana. Tulane 

Studies in TLoology 1: 125 — 164. 
Weed, Howard Evarts, 1894. A preliminary list of the butterflies of north-eastern 

Mississippi. Psyche 7: 129 — 131. 



P.O. Drawer 2131, Jackson, Miss., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 207 

ON THE SUBSPECIES CONCEPT IN TAXONOMY 
by Sergius G. Kiriakoff 

Referring to the discussion by VAN Son (1955) and FORBES (1956), 
I should like to add a few words on certain aspects of the subspecies problem. 

First of all, it cannot be enough emphasized that there are several kinds 
of subspecies, not to speak of the taxon called semispecies that occupies, in a 
two-dimensional hierarchical scheme, an intermediate position between the 
subspecies and the species. Readers of the News may remember that I gave 
several years ago (Kiriakoff, 1948 a-c) a short review of the taxonomical 
aspect of the specific complex, with a scheme based for a great part on sugges- 
tions by J. S. Huxley. Circumstances prevented me from presenting my scheme 
to the Copenhagen entomological congress which I intended to do although 
fully aware of the very few chances of its being accepted. Too many people 
still are typologically minded, and the new phylogenetical spirit is only begin- 
ning to show itself, even in West Europe. All the same, I should like to em- 
phasize once more that there is not much sense in applying the same taxonomical 
treatment to geographical, ecological, and cytological races and to semispecies. 
That applies, on a higher level, to full species and to ultraspecies sensu Kiria- 
koff (1948c) and Schindler (1952), not Mayr, et at. ( superspecies, 1953 

Professor Forbes is basically right when speaking of the difficulties in 
connection with the size of the various taxa. The difficulty lies not alone 
with the prevailing typological thought: even those who believe in the phylo- 
genetical postulate of the objective reality of the taxa, are aware that in 
practice most of the groups we are using are "purely arbitrary" as FORBES 
says, at least in respect to their size. That, however, in no way affects the prin- 
ciple referred to. 

Regarding FORBES's suggestion 1 {I.e. 36), it would seem very satis- 
factory should there exist the geographical subspecies alone. If we consider 
e.g. the races of endoparasitic organisms, we find it rather awkward to describe 
"blocks of material"; shifts of "type localities" suggested by FORBES would 
face the same difficulty. To have done with Forbes's suggestions, I should 
like to add that I quite agree in principle with his last one, because in my 
paper referred to above, and in several other publications, I had suggested 
various symbols interpolated between the allotaxonic names of a form. 

Before treating the last and most important point of the whole matter, 
I should like to turn again for a moment to the various kinds of "subspecies". 
Most people still consider the geographical moment as the "true dia?nostical 
character" of a subspecies, I believe under the influence of Dr. Mayr, although 
I find the opinion of that leading authority to be somewhat less rigid in his 
1953 book than in his previous works. I believe one of the reasons of this 
general attitude is a confusion between the "geographical" and "chorological" 
concepts; the latter is much broader as it includes every aspect of the spatial 



208 Kiriakoff: Subspecies concept Vol.10: no.6 

factor. Perhaps, a better understanding could be reached by using the term 
"chorological" instead of "geographical" race. That would include e.g. the 
whole host of endo- and exoparasites in the concept, and would permit avoiding 
the nonsense of treating e.g. the races of intestinal parasites as "geographical 
subspecies". 

The important point referred to above concerns the International Com- 
mission's definition of the subspecies. It is quite irrelevant that the definition 
itself may be a good or a bad one. The "real issue", to use Huxley's phrase 
(in quite another case), is the fact that a commission entrusted with work 
on nomenclature has seen fit to give the definition of a taxon. I must admit that, 
as far as I am aware, most people seem to find such proceedings quite natural 
and eventually only discuss the wordings of the definition. I find it amazing 
that nobody has ever realized the danger of such proceedings, as a precedent. 
In my recent handbook on Systematic Zoology (1956: 120) I have pointed 
out the arbitrariness of the Commission's doings. Here is the translation of what 
I wrote: "In this case the Commission has conspicuously transgressed the boun- 
daries of its rights and of its competence: its task consists in finding purely 
formal reglementations for nomenclatorial questions; definitions of taxa should 
be left to taxonomists whose dealings are under their own responsibility; the 
International Commission has no right whatsoever to cover with its authority 
purely scientific definitions". I believe the last point is the most important 
because literature shows very distinctly most people take the Commission's 
definition as something "formal" or even "binding". That it cannot be, and 
moreover the doings of the Commission have a dictatorial air that no taxono- 
mist should tolerate. Nomenclatorial decisions should be accepted by everybody, 
even against one's better judgement; but a line must be drawn somewhere, and 
in the present case the doings of the Commission are definitely beyond that line. 
The authors of the definition probably are better zoologists than I am, but 
on that occasion they were very conspicuously trespassing, and one feels justified 
to call out: "Sutor nee supra crepidam!" 

References 

Forbes, W. T. M., 1956. On the limiting of subspecies. Lepid. News 10: 35-36. 
Kiriakoff, S. G., 1948a. Taxonomie et speciation: la semi-espece et la super-espece. 

Bull. & Ann. Soc. Ent. Belgique 84: 64-70. 

, 1948b. On the so-called "lower" taxonomie categories. Lepid. Neivs 2: 3-4. 

, 1948c. The nomenclature of the specific complex. Lepid. News 2 : 3-4. 

... , 1956. Beginnselen der Dierkundige Systematiek. Antwerp. 
Mayr, E., E. G. Linsley, R. L. Usinger, 1953. Methods and principles of systematic 

zoology. McGraw Hill Book Co., Inc., New York. 328 pp. 
Schilder, F. A., 1952. Einfuhrung in die Biotaxonomie (Eormenkreislehre). Jena, 
van Son, G., 1955. A proposal for the restriction of the use of the term subspecies. 

Lepid. News 9: 1-3. 

Zoological Laboratories, Ghent University, 14 Universiteitsstraat, Ghent, BELGIUM 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 209 

J. A. ALLEN'S TRIP TO COLLECT IN COLORADO, ETC, IN 1871 

by F. Martin Brown 

While preparing the manuscript for Part III of Colorado Butterflies 
(Brown, 1955). I found it necessary to do a little research into Allen's 
trip to Colorado. Edwards (1873) had stated in his description of Thecla 
cry solus that Allen collected types at Lake Pass in Colorado. Since there is 
no Lake Pass in Colorado where crysalus might be found, the problem was 
to determine what pass Allen had so named. The solution to the problem 
was found in Allen's (1872) report upon his trip. Since Scudder, and 
probably others, have described material brought back to the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology by this expedition, it may be of assistance to have 
available the details of travel, especially in Colorado where the terrain is so 
variable. The following is pieced together from Allen's sketchy review of 
the trip and the data in a systematic account of the birds he collected. 

"The expedition commenced its work at the Missouri River in the vicinity 
of Fort Leavenworth, (May 2-11, 1871, Allen, I.e., p. 122*] and collected at 
intervals thence westward to the Great Salt Lake Valley. Mr. Richard Bliss, 
Jr., of the Museum, accompanied the expedition as ichthyologist; and Mr. 
C. W. Bennett of Springfield, Massachusetts, as taxidermist." (p. 113) 

From Fort Leavenworth the party moved by rail to Topeka, Kansas, where 
they spent the time between May 11 and 24 (p. 122) collecting in the area. 
On the 25th they moved to Fort Hayes in central Kansas and collected there 
for about a week (May 26 — July 3, p. 131.). The next move, again by rail, 
was to Denver, Colorado Territory, where they arrived on July 4th and 
stayed until the 8th. At Denver, the head of rail in 1871, the party organized 
for its work in the mountains. They travelled by wagon in a circular route 
to South Park and Colorado City and back to Denver. 

Like Mead in 1871 (Brown, 1956: p.186) they entered the mountains 
via Turkey Creek and probably spent their first night, that of the 9th- 10th, 
at Junction House on the stage road to Fairplay. For the next few days they 
proceeded through the rolling pine-clad hills to the South Platte River at 
Bailey's Ranch, thence along the north bank of the river to Kenosha Pass. 
From Kenosha Pass they dropped down into the sweeping grasslands of South 
Park. On the 14th of July they were in camp on Jefferson Creek (p.156) at 
the west foot of the pass. The exact dates of arrival and departure of the 
party from Jefferson Creek is not known. They may have arrived as early 
as the 12th and could have stayed until the morning of the 18th. The next 
dated locality is Fairplay where the party arrived July 18th (p. 15 8). 

The next eight days were spent in the glacial meadows and spruce-forested 
slopes of the Platte valley between Fairplay and Hoosier Pass. Apparently 
the members of the party moved about extensively in this area. On p. 158 
there is a note "July 18 to 23, at Fairplay" and on the following page "a 



Hereafter where solely a page reference is given it refers to this article by Allen. 



210 IiRowN: J. A. Allen's trip Vol.lO: no.6 

week spent in the vicinity of Montgomery." Since the party was at Mont- 
gomery on the 24th (p. 164) and at Hamilton, a full day's journey away on 
the 28th (p. 159), they must have left Montgomery at the latest on the 
27th. This does not allow a week from the last date at Fairplay. The quandry 
can be resolved if we consider that the party divided at Fairplay to better 
make use of their limited time in the region. Thus one of the party probably 
stayed at Fairplay from the 18th to the 23rd while the others moved on to 
Montgomery on the 19th or 20th. Montgomery is a small mining town, still 
in existence, in the mouth of Platte Gulch. It lies in a deep glacial valley be- 
tween the sheer north wall of Mount Lincoln and the great rounded ridge 
that extends westward from Hoosier Pass. The valley floor before it is grassy 
with a multitude of beaver dams and swamps along the Platte river. Above 
the grassland is a narrow fringe of alpine forest that soon gives way to the 
wind-swept barrens above the timber line. Back of Montgomery, up Platte 
Gulch there is little more than a gallery of willows along the stream and a 
few hardy alpine conifers scattered on the flanks of the valley. The South 
Branch of the South Platte has its source in the snow banks at the head of 
this valley. While here "one excursion was made to the top of Mount Lincoln" 
(p.160), where there are "snow fields above timber line" (p.l6l). Other trips 
were taken up Platte Gulch and into meadows in the other direction. 

Next the party turned its back to the "Snowy Range." This must not 
be confused with the Snowy Range of today that lies west of Laramie, Wyo- 
ming. It is a name applied during the 70's to what we now call the Park 
Range, which extends from Mount Evans in the Front Range to Mount 
Lincoln. The trail led back to Jefferson in the northeast corner of South Park 
and to Hamilton, long since gone. On "July 28th [they were] on the Platte, 
near the eastern edge of the Park" and visited the brackish lakes near 
Hamilton (p. 159). By the first of August they had travelled along the 
Tarryall River, reached Florissant, crossed Hayden's Divide (now simply called 
Divide) and descended from the mountains via Ute Pass to camp outside of 
Colorado City near the Garden of the Gods (p. 147). Colorado City now 
is part of the western section of Colorado Springs that lies across Monument 
Creek from the center of the city. There they stayed for four days (p. 147). 
While at this camp the party visited Soda Springs, now within the city of 
Manitou Springs at the mouth of Ute Pass, and collected along the banks of 
Fontaine-qui-bouit {sic), today called Fountain Creek. 

When the camp at the Garden of the Gods was broken the group slowly 
moved northward to Denver. The first night out was spent on Kettle Creek 
where it joins Monument Creek. The next day, July 5, they worked their 
way up Monument Creek with oak chapparal to the west and grasslands to 
the east to "Summitt Lake (Lake Pass)" (p.152). This placed their camp 
at what is now called Palmer Lake. Here the east-west ridge of arkose that 
divides the Arkansas and Platte watersheds joins with the north-south trending 
Rampart Range. On the ridge the slopes are clothed with a stiff thicket of 
scrub oak and a few scattered pines; a few hundred feet to the west on the 
slopes of the Rampart Range the cover is pine and spruce. Two full days 
were spent at the lake (p. 147). They arrived on the evening of the 5th (p. 152) 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 21 i 

and probably left early in the morning on the 8th. On the 7th (Edwards, 
I.e.: p.345) the types of crysalus* were taken. Then they went northward 
along Plum Creek to its junction with the South Platte (p. 147). 

The problem is which Plum Creek, East or West? I have a strong feeling, 
but that is all, that Allen travelled down West Plum Creek. This is es- 
sentially the same route, but in the reverse direction, that was followed by 
Thomas Say on the Long Expedition. The proponents of the East Plum 
Creek route base their contention on the fact that the town of Castle Rock 
lies on East Plum Creek and both parties mention Castle Rock. James (1823), 
in his account of Long's Expedition, of which he was botanist, clearly de- 
scribed as "Castle Rocks" what today is known as Dawson Butte. Allen 
(p.151) refers to "Castle Rocks." The present day Castle Rock is singularly 
single whereas Dawson Butte is rimmed with several castellated formations 
in the arkose. Allen's route took him past "Blake's Mill on Plum Creek" 
(p.151) and once it is fixed where Blake's Mill once stood the puzzle of 
West or East Plum Creek will be settled for Allen's itinerary. From Castle 
Rocks (Dawson Butte ?) the trail of the expedition led to "Bear Creek, about 
15 miles southwest of Denver, behind the first foot hills" (p.147), Dry 
Creek, 10 miles south of Denver, and finally the small town of Denver. 

The expedition reached Denver for the second time on August 13th 
(p.147) and left for the north by rail on the 16th (?), arriving at Cheyenne, 
Wyoming, the same day. There they spent several days, August 16th to 28th 
(p. 144) and collected in a radius of about 20 miles having visited Crow 
Creek, about that distance from Cheyenne. During the last days of the month 
they collected on the "Laramie plains" (p. 182). Early in September the party 
reached Great Salt Lake in Utah. From then until the 8th of October they 
were in the Salt Lake - Ogden, Utah, area, (p.164) While there they visited 
and collected specimens around the lake, along Weber River and in Ogden 
Canyon, climbing "half way up the mountain" near Ogden on the 7th of 
October (p.169). From the 1st of September onward it is difficult or im- 
possible to assign specific dates and localities to the wandering scientists. 
Someone with time on his hands and access to the bird skins at the Museum 
of Comparative Zoology could build a time table from the data tags on the 
skins. I am 2000 miles from that museum or I would have done so. 

Allen and his party headed home on the 8th of October. This they did 
in a leisurely fashion. During October collections were made at Green River, 
Wyoming, (pp. 174-5) and Fort Steele, Wyoming (p. 179), about 5 miles 
west of the present town of Wolcott in Carbon County. The old Fort was 
on the west bank of the North Platte River. Apparently they spent several 
weeks in this region for on p. 177 there is a record of Leucosticte tephrocotis 
Swainson, one of the Rosy Finches, taken in Carbon County in December. 
Probably it was at this time the party visited the Medicine Bow Mountains 
(p. 178) that lie some miles south and easterly from Wolcott. By December 
25th the expedition was back in Kansas where for "a period of nearly three 
weeks, [they] made ... a wagon journey of over two hundred and fifty miles. 

*Some may consider the date too late for crysalus. I have collected the species at 
even higher altitude as late as August 30th (Brown, 1955: p.125). 



212 Brown: J. A. Allen's trip Vol. 10: no.6 

The area traversed was nearly fifty miles square, extending westward from 
Park's Fort Station on the Kansas Pacific Railway, to Grinnell, and from 
the Smoky River on the south to the headwaters of the Solomon on the 
north." (December 25, 1871, to January 12, 1872, p.142) The area covered 
by this reconnaissance today lies in the four central-western counties, Graham, 
Sheriden, Grove and Trego. This trip closed the field season and the party 
returned to Boston. 

The map I drew to accompany my account of Mead's travels (Brown, 
1956: p. 187) will serve for Allen's route from Denver to Fairplay. The jog 
in the track just southwest of the symbol for Kenosha Pass is where the 
road crosses Jefferson Creek, Allen's camp site. The route of the party from 
Fairplay to Colorado City is today these auto roads: Fairplay to Jefferson, 
US 285; Jefferson to Lake George, Colo. 77; Lake George to Colorado Springs, 
US 24. The present auto route from Colorado Springs to Denver lies east 
of Allen's route. State and County tertiary roads follow it more closely. 

A condensed time table from the data I have at hand which can be 
greatly enhanced with data on the bird skins at the M. C. Z. follows: 

May 2-11 Fort Leavenworth, Kans. 

May 1 1 - 24 Topeka, Kans. 

May 26 - July 3 Fort Hayes, Kans. 

July 4-8 Denver, Colo. 

July [9] Turkey Creek, Jefferson Co., Colo. 

July 14 Jefferson Creek, Park Co.; Colo. 

July 18-23 Fairplay, Colo. 

July 19 - 24 - [27] Montgomery, Colo. 

July 28 nr. Hamilton, Colo. 

August 1-4 Colorado City, Colo. 

August 4 Kettle Creek, El Paso Co., Colo. 

August 5-7 Lake Pass (Palmer Lake), Colo. 

August 13-16 Denver, Colo. 

August 16 - 28 vicinity of Cheyenne, Wyo. 

August [30] Laramie plains, Wyo. 

September [1] - October 8 vie. of Ogden, Utah. 

October ? - ? Green River, Wyo. 

October ? - December ? Fort Fred Steele, Carbon Co., Wyo. 

December 25 -January 12 central west Kansas. 

References 

Allen, J. A., 1872. Notes of an ornithological reconnoisance (sic) of portions of Kansas, 
Colorado, Wyoming and Utah. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo/. 3: 113-184. 

Brown, F. M., 1955. Colorado Butterflies, Part III, Libytheidae, Riodinidae and Lycaenidae. 
Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist. 5: 113-176. 

... , 1956. Itineraries of the Wheeler Survey Naturalists, 1871 — Theodore 

L. Mead. Lepid. News 9: 185-190. 

Edwards, W. H., 1873. Descriptions of DIURNAL LEPIDOPTERA found within the 
United States. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 4: 343-348 (T. crysalus on pp.344-5). 

James, Edwin, 1823. Account of an Expedition from Pittsburg to the Rocky Moun- 
tains . . . from notes of Major Long, Mr. Say, and other gentlemen . . . H. C. 
Carey & I. Lea, Philadelphia, Penna., in two volumes. 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo., U. S. A. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 213 

ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS TO 

"A BIBLIOGRAPHY OF GENERAL CATALOGUES 

AND CHECK LISTS OF NEARCTIC RHOPALOCERA" 

by Cyril F. dos Passos 

Because of the complexity of the original manuscript of this bibliography 
(Lepid. News 10: 29-34; 1956) and the many errors in the first galley proof 
resulting from the difficulty involved in setting the type, the author requested 
and expected to see a second galley proof, so as to check all corrections and 
introduce some new matters that were daily expected in answer to several 
outstanding inquiries. Unfortunately a second galley proof is not usual prac- 
tice, and in this instance it was impossible because of a time limitation. The 
following additional references should be added to the bibliography: 

White, Adam, 1851. List of insects taken by Sir John Richardson and John Rae, Esq., 
in Arctic North America, drawn up by Adam White, Esq. In Richardson, John, Arctic 
searching expedition, vol. 2: pp. 357-363. New York, Harper & Brothers. 

Lederer, Julius, 1853. Lepidopterologisches aus Sibirien. Verh. zool.-bot. Ges. Wien, 
vol. 3: pp. 351-386. 

Alpheraky, Serge, 1897. Lepidopteren aus Kamtschatka, gesammelt von O. Herz. In 
Romanoff, Nikolai Mikhailovich, Memoires sur les Lepidopteres, vol. 9: pp. 301-347, 
pi. 14 (colored). 

Herz, Otto, 1898. Reise nach Nordost-Sibirien in das Lenagebiet in den Jahren 1S88 
und 1889 nebst einem Verzeichnisse der dort erbeuteten Macrolepidopteren. Deutsche 
Ent. Zeitschr. "Iris" Dresden, vol. 11: pp. 209-265. 

Elwes, Henry John, 1899. On the Lepidoptera of the Altai Mountains. Trans. Ent. Soc. 
London: pp. 295-367, pis. 11-14. 

, 1903. On a collection of Lepidoptera from Arctic America. Ibid.: pp. 239-243 
+ [3], pi. 9. 

Matsumura, S., 1925. An enumeration of the butterflies and moths from Saghalien, with 
descriptions of new species and subspecies. Jour. College Agric. Sapporo, vol. 15, pt. 3: 
pp. 83-196, pis. 8-11. 

, 1927. A list of the butterflies of Corea, with description of new species, sub- 
species and aberrations. Insecta Matsum. Sapporo, vol. 1: pp. 159-170. 

Nordstrom, Frithiof, 1928. Entomologische Ergebnisse der schwedischen Kamtschatka-Ex- 
pedition, 1920-22. Lepidoptera. I. Diurna. Arkir. Tool. Stockholm, vol. 19, pt. 21: 
pp. 5-10. 

Seok, D. M., 1939. A synonymic list of butterflies of Korea (Tyosen). Seoul, Korea, pub- 
lished by the Korea Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, printed by Y.M.C.A. Press, 
Seoul, xxxii -f- 392 [-f- 2] pp., 2 pis. (colored). 

, 1947. [List giving (new?) records of butterflies in Korea] [in Japanese]. 

Zephyrus, vol. 9: pp. 281-282, 1 map. 

Esaki, Teiso, & Takashi Shirozu, 1951. [A tentative list of the butterflies of Japan, with 
notes and a synoptic table of life histories of each species] [in Japanese]. Shin Konchu. 
Special No. (vol. 4, no. 9): 117 pp., num. figs. 

Evans, William Harry, 1951-1955. A catalogue of the American Hesperiidcc indicating 
the classification and nomenclature adopted in the British Museum (Natural History). 
London, British Museum. Part I (1951): x -f 92 pp., pis. 1-9; Part II (1952): vi 
+ 178 pp., pis. 10-25; Part III (1953) : vi + 246 pp., pis. 26-53; Part IV (1955): 
vi + 500 pp., pis. 54-88 -f- [3] pp. (Delete similar entry in bibliography [1956].) 

Yokoyama, Mitsuo (revised by Teiso Esaki), 1955. Coloured illustrations of the butter- 
flies of Japan [in Japanese]. Osaka, Japan. [10] -f- 136 + [2] pp., frontispiece (colored), 



214 Vol.10: no.6 

63 pis. (colored). (Professor ESAKI has kindly advised the author that there were two 
prior printings of this work, i.e., on 5 June 1954 and on 20 July 1954, each without 
the English title. Delete Esaki, 1955 entry in bibliography [1956].) 

The following corrections should be made to the bibliography: 

p. 30, line 22: "American" should be "America". 

p. 31, line 27: "1871" should be "1861". 

p. 31, line 30: "Lepidoptterorum" should be "Lepidopterorum". 

p. 31, line 33: insert a comma after "I". 

p. 31, line 46: "1866" should be "1868". 

p. 33, line 25: "Forster" should be "Foster". 

p. 33, line 27: "th" should be "the". 

p. 33, line 35: insert a comma after "46". 

p. 33, line 49: insert a period after "Acad". 

p. 34, line 5: after "2:" insert "pp.". 

p. 34, line 8: "Charaxiidinae" should be "Charaxidinae". 

Washington Corners, Mendham, N. J., U. S. A. 



ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS 

(Under the supervision of JAMES R. MERRITT) 

LEPIDOPTERA COLLECTING IN THE ATLAS MOUNTAINS 

OF MOROCCO 

by Colin Wyatt 

The Atlas Mountains of Morocco consist of three parallel ranges run- 
ning WSW-ENE — the Middle Atlas in the north, some 200 miles long, 
which is mostly forested and has a predominantly Mediterranean fauna and 
flora except on part of its southeastern slopes, the High Atlas which runs 
eastwards from the Atlantic Ocean for some 500 miles in three main sections 
separated by two 8,000 ft. passes, which is alpine in character with its own 
rather special fauna and flora, and the Anti-Atlas to the southwest, which is 
predominantly desertic in character and is very poor in fauna and flora. 

The Middle Atlas has an average height of about 5,500 feet, rising to peaks 
of 7,500 ft. or so, while the High Atlas averages around 10-12,000 ft. with 
peaks of over 14,000 ft. having a heavy snowfall in winter. The highest area 
is the Toubkal massif which has several peaks of over 14,000 ft., then follows 
the m'Goun massif in the centre, also rising over 14,000 ft., and finally the 
Ayachi massif to the east which only rises to about 12,500 ft. The Anti-Atlas 
rarely has snow on it, and then only on its highest peak, the 10,500 ft. Siroua. 

The High Atlas forms an almost impenetrable barrier between the Med- 
iterranean climate, fauna, and flora to the north, and the desert to the south 
whose flora and fauna show certain affinities to the purely African type. 
Entomologically the Middle and High Atlas ranges are the most interesting, 
and these I covered thoroughly from March to late May in 1949, and from 
April to August in 1950. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 215 

The first butterflies to appear are lycasnids and pierids, the earliest being 
Thestor mauretanicus in late February in the foothills up to 5,000 ft. In the 
plains Pararge cegeria appears early in March, and shortly after it the distinctively 
N. African yellow pierid Euchloe charlonia, which is abundant everywhere. 
I once even found a female dead in the snow in March at 12,500 ft. in the 
m'Goun range. With it appears Anthocaris belemia, which otherwise only 
flies in southern Spain. Most of the northern Moroccan butterflies show close 
affinities with those of Spain, such as 'Lerynthia rumina, A. belemia, Zegris 
eupheme, Euphydryas desfontanei, Melitasa cetherie, Satyrus prieuri, but there 
is also a small minority which have their nearest relatives in the Middle East, 
such as Euchloe charlonia, Satyrus atlantis (once regarded as a race of S. 
mniszechii) , Philotes bavins fatma, and the species of Cigaritis and Apharitis. 
Z. eupheme is really a Middle East species that presumably found its way 
into Spain via North Africa in some dim distant age when a land bridge 
existed. These many extraordinary relationships between Spain on the one 
hand and the Middle East on the other make one wonder which way the 
traffic was going — perhaps both ways. 

Finally there are the purely African species such as Teracolus nouna, Pow- 
ellia adenensis doris, Parnara zelleri, and the specialties of the Atlas, Antho- 
caris falloui, Satyrus abdelkader, S. atlantis, S. colombati, S. hansii, Coenonympha 
vaucheri, C. fettigii, Epinephele maroccana, Argynnis lyauteyi, Chrysophanus 
phoebus (really a plains species but occurring close to the foothills), Philotes 
vogelii, Polyommatus allardi, P. martini, Lysandra atlanticus, Sloperia moham m 
med, Adopaza hamza. 

But one is constantly reminded of the Mediterranean, especially in the 
Middle Atlas. Here, in the Ifrane district, the predominant butterflies in 
spring are Z. rumina, E. eupheno, Callophrys rubi, and C. avis, and hiber- 
nated Polygonia c-album and Eugonia polychloros. Many well-known central 
and northern European species fly everywhere later on, even into the High 
Atlas valleys, such as Papilio machaon, P. podalirius, Satyrus statilinus, S. 
alcyone, S. briseis, Euphydryas aurinia, Melitcea phoebe, M. didyma, Z,ephyrus 
quercus, Polyommatus icarus, P, bellargus, and many others. Five of these 
cross right over the High Atlas and come down into the barren Anti-Atlas 
and far into the desert oases: P. machaon, Pontia daplidice, M. didyma, P. icarus, 
C. phlceas. 

I will now try to take each group of mountains separately. The richest 
by far is the Middle Atlas. This is an ancient volcanic range, and the cones 
of old craters, mostly crowned with groves of cedars, dot its 6,000 ft. plateau. 
On the northern slopes lie great forests of Cedars and Ilex, together with areas 
of Pines and Oaks, forming a wonderful parkland whose flower-spangled glades 
are alive with insects. In the spring Paeonies and Saxifrages flower everywhere, 
the lush valleys by the creeks are fringed with Poplars and Ash and Hawthorn, 
and only the occasional Macacus monkey and the howling of the jackals at 
night remind one that he is in Africa after all. The native population are 
Berbers, peaceful farmers and small herdsmen. There are several excellent 
north-south French paved roads, and a selection of rough dirt tracks run off 



216 



ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS 



Vol.10: no.6 



them into the wilder areas, but most are quite practicable for an automobile 
with a good ground clearance. I took a small car and a tent, camping out for 
the entire collecting season. I would buy my bread, butter, and eggs from 
the Berbers, and stock up with canned goods whenever I was near a village or 
township boasting a general store. Very often I had to carry my own water 
in two 2 -gallon cans. Never once was I molested in any way, and I would 
leave my camp for hours on end, car and all. 




Fig. 1. The village of El Kelaa m'Gouna, on the edge of the Sahara, with 
the 13,000 ft. m'Goun Range to the north. Typical of the southern (desert) 
slope of the range. 

Along the southern edge of the main plateau, which is some 20-30 miles 
wide, lies a narrow transition belt between the Mediterranean and desert faunas, 
and its southern slopes, which fall into the wide and arid Moulouya valley, 
just north of the Ayachi massif of the High Atlas, are strongly desertic in 
character. Here in many places transitional forms of the butterflies appear, 
individuals in the same populations being now close to the Mediterannean 
form, now to the desert one. A case in point is Melitcea didyma. which at 
Ifrane is the large, bright, and strongly marked mauretanica. In the Moulouya 
Valley and south of the Ayachi flies the very small, pale, lightly spotted 
deserticola. But on the Taghzeft Pass, leading from the main plateau into the 
Moulouya Valley, flies an intermediate population of which about 60% are 
oc casus, but 40% closer to mauretanica. At Ifrane and elsewhere on the 
plateau flies the uniformly dark Satyrus abdelkader lambessanus, while in the 
Moulouya Valley flies a race very close to the Algerian nelvai, with wide white 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 217 

borders to the wings; on the pass flies a distinct race, taghzefti Wyatt, which 
shows mostly narrowish yellow-white borders to the wings, but of which some 
females and an occasional male are very close to nelvai, say 10%, while about 
4% are all dark as in lambessanus. In the High Atlas the great chain of peaks 
forms an impassable barrier to all but the strongest fliers or the notoriously 
migratory species, so no intermediate forms exist — there the S. abdelkader 
are all lambessanus, while the M. didyma are a separate race but closer to 
mauretanica. 

The most interesting butterfly of the Middle Atlas is undoubtedly Philotes 
vogelii Obth. First discovered by Harold Powell, who for many years 
collected very extensively in North Africa for Oberthur. It is only known 
from three localities all within ten to twenty miles of each other. Even in 
these it is restricted to an area of some five acres in extent, where its equally 
rare foodplant, Erodium cheilanthifolium, grows. It flies in mid-August, very 
low over the stony ground. While very different in appearance, its habits, as 
also its foodplant and habitat are very similar to those of the almost equally 
localised Plebeius ramburi (idas) of Spain. The larvae are attended by a 
very small black ant and hide by day down near the roots. I was lucky enough 
to find four in July from which I finally bred one fine female on August 11. 
It is a very distinctive insect, unlike any other lycaenid I know, and is almost 
unknown in collections. Next in interest comes the very lovely Philotes bavins 
fatma, of which the nymotypical form comes from the Near East, with another 
form in Hungary in Europe. This is much more plentiful but also very local, 
only flying in grassy areas near the edge of the cedar forests where its food- 
plant, a giant, wooly-leaved Salvia, grows. The larvae feed by day in the flower- 
heads and are easy to rear; the pupae will often overwinter twice. Another fine 
"blue" is Polyommatus martini, which also flies in Algeria, in the Aures Mts. 
Then comes a fine hesperiid, Sloperia mohammed, which is very local and 
few in numbers, flying in forest clearings where its foodplant grows. I never 
saw it on the wing but bred a fine series from larvae taken in mid-June. These 
spin a sort of light cocoon in a fold of a leaf in which they aestivate through 
the hot month of July, taking no food until early August when they feed up 
rapidly and pupate, emerging in late August and September. Its spring gen- 
eration "caid" flies in May. The finest of all Middle Atlas butterflies is Ar- 
gynnis ( Mesoacidalia) lyauteyi Obth., a magnificent species which some authors 
regard as a subspecies of M. charlotta (aglaia). However, lyauteyi only flies 
in the Ifrane area of the Middle Atlas, and as there are no other subspecies of 
either it or charlotta anywhere in N. Africa, I am not entirely convinced of 
this. Its congener (for I am not a generic hair-splitter) Argynnis auresiana, 
which flies elsewhere in Morocco and Algeria, is probably more rightly re- 
garded as a subspecies of the European A. niobe. Another fine species is the 
giant, bat-like satyr S. abdelkader, which frequents steep, dry hillsides where 
the Esparto grass grows, the males sailing up and down over the tall tussocks 
in search of the females. It is a very hard species to catch, for while it ap- 
pears to be gliding slowly it is extremely wary, and the "blast" of wind at 
the stroke of the net seems to catch its wide wings and waft it suddenly 
away at the last moment. 



218 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.10: no.6 

The almost world-wide species Papilio machaon first appears in the 
northern plains in the huge form maxima, flying up into the cedar forests 
by Ifrane. In the plains it feeds on Fennel, but at Ifrane and in the desert 
on Rue. In the desert foothills and the Sahara oases flies the small, pale form 
saharce , but again, on the Taghzeft Pass and probably other similar areas flies 
a more intermediate form with pale wings and narrow tails which is similar 
to Sahara? but larger and brighter. 'Lerynthia rumina ajricana flies at Ifrane 
in plenty in early May, and about 10% of the females are the strikingly 
handsome deep orange dimorphic form "canteneri." Papilio podalirius feeding 
on Prunus and peach-trees, flies in the spring form "maura," and appears in 
summer in the superb long-tailed form "latteri." 

The Moroccan specialty Coenonympha vaucheri, the handsomest species 
of the genus, flies generally throughout the Middle Atlas, though often locally, 
in the pale form "annoceuri" Wyatt. It is plentiful at Annoceur and on the 
Taghzeft Pass, coming to feed on Sage and Thyme. C. arcanioides flies with 
it at Annoceur, and C. fettigii, a good species which some authors have tried 
to unite with the Spanish and S. French C. dorus, just overlaps with the last 
of vaucheri on the Taghzeft Pass. 

Four other very local species of interest are Anthocaris tagis mauretanica, 
very scarce and local, Pieris manni haroldi Wyatt of which only 10 specimens 
are known apart from my series, also extremely local, Lysandra atlanticus Elwes, 
a very lovely "blue" closely allied to both L. dorylas and L. albicans, and the 
race berber of the latter species. All are closely related to Spanish forms. 

Satyrus atlantis occurs locally but abundantly in the area in the pale 
race colini Wyatt; its nearest congener is S. mniszechii from the Middle East. 
The Spanish S. prieuri occurs very locally and only in isolated individuals in 
the large form kebira Wyatt; it is very hard to catch among the stones. The 
yellow form of the female, "uhagonis," is so far unknown from N. Africa. 

The High Atlas also has several peculiar and distinctive species. It is 
a hard and barren landscape of high peaks and deep valleys. This is the home 
of nymotypical C. vaucheri, S. atlantis, Melanargia ines jahandiezi, and E. 
maroccana. The four most distinctive insects are Pieris napi segonzaci, Satyrus 
arethusa aksouali Wyatt of which only three specimens were known until 
1950 and the only locality in N. Africa where it occurs, the fine large race 
herakleana of Chrysophanus alciphron, and Polyommatus allardi, of which the 
race ungemachi flies in the m'Goun massif in late April concurrently with 
Glaucopsyche melanops alluaudi. In the High Atlas the flora is more desertic 
in character, especially prominent being the round spiny cushions of the 
Leguminosse. It is altogether a rougher and more severe landscape than the 
Middle Atlas, the only trees being a few scattered stands of Ilex and Thuri- 
ferous Juniper deep down in the valleys, and of course the walnuts planted 
around the villages. The only abundant vegetation is alongside the creeks 
and deep river valleys, and on the edges of the network of aqueducts which 
terrace along the hillsides near all the villages, by which the peasants irrigate 
their terraced crops of corn and rye. These mountains are the home of the 
Mouflon, a type of Bighorn Sheep. 



1956 



The Lepidopterists' News 



219 





Fig. 2. Asphodel and Lavender at 4,000 ft. at Asni, with the 12,000 ft. 
Aksoual Range behind. Typical of mediterranean flora on the northern slopes 
of the foothills of the High Atlas. 



Finally the desert foothills of the High Atlas must be mentioned. These 
are purely desertic in character, but several large rivers flow out through 
them to lose themselves in the sands of the desert, and along these the 
Berbers have organised an extensive system of irrigation, even out into the 
flat desert which here lies about 3,000 feet above sea level. Here they grow 
rich crops of alfalfa, corn, rye, date palms, peaches, apricots, figs, and the 
roses from which they distill the perfume of attar of roses. Otherwise the 
main desert plants are the spiny bushes of Camel-thorn, beloved of the little 



220 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.10: no.6 

Tarucus theophrastus "blues," Capparis the Caper bush, foodplant of Teracolus, 
Mallows, Rue, and the inevitable spiny Leguminosae. Here fly the pierids A. 
fallout, E. charlonia, and Teracolus nouna in its three broods, also P. machaon, 
P. icarus, C. phl&as, M. didyma occasus, Hesperia armoricanus, and the 
greatest rarity of Morocco after P. vogelii, the little Skipper Powellia adenensis 
doris. This extraordinary butterfly is only known from the area between Ksar- 
es-Souk and Tinerhir; its next nearest population flies near Cairo in Egypt, 
while it was originally described from Aden on the Red Sea. Presumably it 
represents a pocket left behind from the ancient days before the Sahara 
became the desert it is today. Nearer the Atlantic coast, in the Souss Valley 
hard under the crags of the Toubkal massif, is more extensive agriculture, 
and here grows a species of Milkweed, bringing with it the African and 
Asiatic species Danaus chrysippus, of which some 30 % are the white-suffused 
form "alcippus." In the groves of Acacia (Mimosa) flies the African "blue" 
Azanus jezous, while P. machaon and the small "blue" TJzera lysimon are fairly 
common in the fields. 

In the Anti-Atlas I only took P. machaon saharce, Epinephele ida, 
Melitcea phoebe punica, Tarucus theophrastus, P. icarus, and Powellia ali. 

The following is a list of the species from the Atlas Mountains and the 
areas immediately adjoining them, including Marrakech, but omitting some 
species peculiar to the northern plains. 

M.A. — Middle Atlas. H.A. = High Atlas. A.A. = Anti-Atlas. 

N.P. == northern plains. D. = desert & desert foothills. Months of emer- 

gence are noted by numerals, c. = common, 1. = local, r. = rare. 

Papilio machaon maxima Vrty. N.P., M.A., 5-7. I.e. 

Papilio m. saharce Obth. A.A., D. 5. 1. 

P. podalirius f. "maura"' Vrty. N.P., M.A., 5-6. I.e. 

P. podalirius f. "latteri" Aust. N.P., M.A., 7-8. I.e. 

T^erynthia rumina africana St. M.A. 5. c. 

Xerynthia r. ornatior Blach. H.A. 4-5. c. 

Aporia cratcegi mauretanica Rober. M.A. 5-6. c. 

Pieris brassicce venata Vrty. N.P., M.A., H.A., 4-7. c. 

P. rapce mauretanica Vrty. N.P., M.A., 4-7. c. 

P. manni haroldi Wyatt. M.A., 6-7. l.r. 

P. napi blidana Holl. M.A., H.A., 5-6. l.r. 

P. napi segonzaci LeCerf. H.A. 6. I.e. 

Pontia daplidice nitida Vrty. H.A., D., 4-5. c. 

Euchloe eupheno L. M.A., H.A., N.P., 3-5. c. 

E. charlonia Donz. H.A., N.P., D., 5. c. 

E. charlonia levaillanti LeCerf. H.A., N.P., D., 3-4. c. 

Anthocaris tagis mauretanica Rober. M.A., 5-6. l.r. 

A. belemia roberi Roths. N.P., 3-4. c. 

A. belemia distincta Rober. N.P., 4-5. c. 

A. belia butleri Roths. N.P., M.A., H.A., 3-5. c. 

A. belia turatii Roths. N.P., D., M.A., H.A., 4-6. c. 

A. falloui Allard. D. 3-5. l.r. 

TLegris eupheme ssp. nr. meridional is Led. M.A., 5. I.e. 

Gonepteryx cleopatra mauretanica Rober. H.A., M.A., 4-7. c. 

G. rhamni meridional is Rober. M.A., 5-6. c. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 221 

Teracolus daira nouna Lucas. D., 6-8. c. 

Teraco/us d. biskrensis Blach. D., M.A., 5-6. c. 

Colias croceus Four. N.P., M.A., 3-5. c. 

Danaus chrysippus L. D., 4-5. I.e. 

Eugonia polychloros algirica Obth. M.A., 5-7. c. 

Polygonia c-album imperfecta Blach. M.A., H.A., 5-7. l.r. 

Euphydryas aurinia ellisoni Rungs. M.A., 5-6. I.e. 

E. desfontainei gibrati Obth. M.A., 5. c. 

Melittea phoebe punica Obth. A.A., M.A., H.A., D., 4-6. c. 

M. cetherie algirica Riihl M.A., 5-6. I.e. 

M. cinxia atlantis LeCerf. M.A., 5. l.r. 

M. didyma occasus Vrty. D., 5. c. 

M. didyma mauretanica M.A., 5-7. c. 

M. didyma interpvsita Roths. H.A., 4-7. c. 

M. deserticola Obth. H.A., 4. l.r. 

Issoria lathonia L. M.A., 5. c. 

Argynnis lyauteyi Obth. M.A., 5-7. I.e. 

A. auresiana Frhst. M.A., 5-7. I.e. 

Dryas pandora seitzi Frhst. M.A., H.A., 5-7. c. 

Pararge megcera vividissima Vrty. N.P., M.A., D., 5-6. c. 

P. mcera alluaudi Obth. H.A., 7. l.r. 

P. mcera meade-waldoi Roths. M.A., 8. l.r. 

P. cegeria L. N.P., M.A., H.A., D., 4-5. c. 

Melanargia galathea meade-waldoi Obth. M.A., 5. c. 

M. ines Hffmg. N.P., 5. I.e. 

M. i. colossea Obth. N.P., 4-5. I.e. 

M. i. jahandiezi Obth. M.A., H.A., 5-7. I.e. 

M. syllius pelagia Obth. M.A., 5-6. c. 

Epinephele maroccana Blach. H.A., 7. I.e. 

Epinephele m. nivellei Obth. M.A., 6-7. I.e. 

E. lycaon mauretanica Obth. M.A., D., 5-6. c. 

E. pasiphce philippina Aust. N.P., M.A., 4-6. c. 

E. ida neapolitana Obth. N.P., M.A., H.A.. 4-7. c . 

E. jurtina fortunata Alph. N.P., M.A., 5-6 .c . 

Coenonympha pamphilus arenosa Vrty. M.A., 5. c. 

C. p. latevittata Vrty. M.A., 6-7. c. 

C. vaucheri Blach. H.A., 7. I.e. 

C. vaucheri annoceuri Wyatt. M.A., 5-7. I.e. 

C. fettigii Obth. M.A., 6-7. I.e. 

C. arcanioides Pier. M.A., 5-7. l.r. 

Satyrus arethusa aksouali Wyatt. H.A., 7. l.r. 

S. prieuri kebira Wyatt. M.A., 7-8. r. 

S. alcyone maroccana Obth. M.A., 6-8. c. 

S. briseis major Obth. M.A., 6-7. c. 

S. semele algirica Obth. M.A., 6-8. c. 

S. atlantis Aust. H.A., 7. c. 

5". atlantis colini Wyatt. M.A., 6-7. c. 

S. actcea simillima Roths. M.A., H.A., 6-7. c. 

S. abdelkader lambessanus Obth. M.A., H.A., 6-7. I.e. 

S. abdelkader taghzefti Wyatt. M.A., 6-7. I.e. 

S. fidia albovenosa Obth. M.A., (H.A.) 7. I.e. 

S. fidia guildi Varin. M.A., 7. l.r. 

S. statilinus rungsi Varin. M.A., 7-8. c. 

S. colombati & f. "belouini" Obth. M.A., 9. l.r. 

5". hansii Aust. M.A., 9. l.r. 

Zephyrus quercus iberica Stgr. M.A., 7-8. c. 



222 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Voi.lO: no.6 

Strymon esculi mauretanica Stgr. M.A., 6-7. c. 

Callophrys rubi ferrida Stgr. M.A., 5. c. 

C. avis Chapman. M.A., H.A., 4-5. I.e. 

Thestor mauretanicus Lucas. M.A., H.A., 2-4. c. 

T. ballus F. N.P., M.A., 3-5. c. 

Chrysophanus phoebus Blach. N.P., 5-7. l.r. 

C. phlceas pseudophheas Frhst. A. A., N.P., M.A., D., 3-5. c. 

C. alciphron herakleana Blach. H.A., 7. l.r. 

Lampides boeticus L. M.A., D., 3-4. c. 

Tarucus pirithous Stmpf. N.P., M.A., 5-6. c. 

T. theophrastus F. A. A., N.P., D., 5. c. 

Cigaritis zohra monticola Blach. M.A., 5. I.e. 

Azanus jesous Guerin. D., N.P., 4-5. I.e. 

TLizera lysimon Hbn. N.P., D., 3-5. c. 

Z. lorquinii H-Sch. M.A., 5. I.e. 

Philutes barius fatma Obth. M.A., 5. I.e. 

P. vogelii Obth. M.A., 8. l.r. 

P. abencerragus Pier. H.A., M.A., D., 4-5. c. 

Plebeius montensis Vrty. M.A., 6-7. c. 

P. cramera ornata Stgr. N.P., M.A., 3-5. c. 

P. c. calida Bell. M.A., 6-7. c. 

Polyommatus allardi Obth. M.A., 5. r. 

P. a. ungemachi Obth. H.A., M.A., 6. r. 

P. martini Allard. M.A., 5-6. l.c . 

P. icarus rosina Holl. N.P., M.A., D., A.A., 5-6. c. 

P. ther sites Hb. ssp. M.A., 5-6. l.c. 

P. escberi ahmar Le Cerf. M.A., 6. l.r. 

P. bellargus punctifera Obth. H.A., M.A., 4-6. c. 

P. amandus abdelaziz Blach. M.A., 5-6. l.c. 

Lysandra atlanticus Elwes. M.A., 6. r. 

L. albicans berber Le Cerf. M.A., 7. l.r. 

Glaucopsyche semiargus maroccana Obth. M.A., 5. c. 

G. melanops alluaudi Obth. H.A., M.A., 4-5, 7. c. 

Lyccenopsis argiolus mauretanica Roths. M.A., 5-7. --c. 

Carcharodus alccece australis Zeller. M.A., D., 5. c. 

C. lavaterat rufescens Obth. M.A., 5-6. r. 

C. stauderi Rev. M.A., H.A., 6. c. 

Hesperia sifanica numida Obth. M.A., 6. r. 

H. onopordi julvotincta Vrty. M.A., H.A., D., 4-7. c. 

H. armoricanus maroccanus Pic. M.A., D., 5. c. 

Sloperia proto gigas Vrty. N.P., M.A., 4-5. c. 

S. mohammed Obth. M.A., 7-8. r. 

S. m. f. "caid" Le Cerf. M.A., H.A., 4-5. r. 

Powell ia ali Obth. M.A., A. A., H.A., 4-5. c. 

P. adenensis doris Riley. D., 5. l.r. 

Adopcva linea iberica Tutt. M.A., 5-6. c. 

A. actceon Rott. ssp. N.P., 5. r. 

A. lineola O. ssp. M.A., 5-6. r. 

A. hamza Obth. M.A., 6-7. c. 

Erynnis pallida benuncas Obth. H.A., M.A., 7-8 '/2. c. 

Gegenes nostrodamus F. N.P., D., 4-5. l.r. 

Cobbetts, Farnham, Surrey, ENGLAND 



1956 the Lepidoptensts' News 225 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

(Under the supervision of PETER F. BELLINGER) 
For explanatory note, see preceding issues of the News. 



A. GENERAL 

Schuler, J. E., Friedrich Schnack, & Josef Bijok, Fliegende Kleinodien. Ein farbiges 
Falter buch. [in German]. 194 pp., 42 col. pis. Stuttgart: Seewald & Schuler. 1955. 
Magnificent color plates of spectacular Lepidoptera; with a brief account of the 
biology of Lepidoptera. [P.B.] 

B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 282. Determination of 
the speaes to which the specific name plexippus Linnaeus, 1758, as published in the 
combination Papilio plexippus (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) shall be held to 
apply." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm.. vol.6: pp.225-268, 1 pi. 1 Oct. 1954. The neotype 
of plexippus is selected as the specimen figured by Clark in Proc. U. S. Natl. Mus.. 
vol.90, pi. 71, fig.l (1941) (figure reproduced here); type locality is Kendall, N. Y.; 
plexippus is placed on the Official List. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 286. Suppression, under 
the Plenary Powers, of the specific name ajax Linnaeus, 1 7 58, as published in the 
combination Papilio ajax (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. Decl. Intern. 
Comm., vol.8: pp. 29-48. 12 Oct. 1954. Placed on Official Index: ajax. xanthus Linn, 
(invalid original spelling for xutbus); xuthus is placed on the Official List. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 382. Validation under 
the Plenary Powers of the generic name Sicyonia Milne Edwards (H. ), 1830 (Class 
Crustacea, Order Decapoda) and action consequential thereto." Opin. Decl. Intern. 
Comm., vol.12: pp.43-58. 24 Jan. 1956. Suppresses Sicyonia Hbn.; places on Official 
List Heliconius Kluk and its type charithonia Linn. {Sicyonia is a synonym of Heli- 
conius); places on Official Index: Sicyonia Hbn., Heliconius Linn., Heliconius Latreille, 
Heliconia Godart, Apostraphia Hbn. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "Opinion 400. Validation under 
the Plenary Powers of the generic name Melanargia Meigen, 1828 (Class Insecta, 
Order Lepidoptera)." Opin. Decl. Intern. Comm.. vol.12: pp.419-432. 16 July 1956. 
Agapetes Billberg is suppressed for purposes of priority but not of homonymy; 
Melanargia, galathea Linn, (its type species) and lachesis Hbn. are placed on the 
Official Lists; Arge Hbn. is placed on the Official Index. [P.B.] 

International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, "The official record of proceedings 
of the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature at their session held in 
Paris in July, 1948." Bull. Zoo/. Nomencl.. vol.4: T 60 pp. 1950. Record of meetings 
and preliminary notice of decisions, including some of particular interest to lepidop- 
terists. All decisions have been, or will be, published in the Opinions. [P.B.] 

Janse, A. J. T., "The methods and aims of taxonomic study in entomology, with special 
reference to Lepidoptera." So. African Journ. Sci.. vol.25: pp. 10^-112. March 1949- 

Kauffman, G., ''Rererdinus flociffer habiba n.ssp. (Lepidopt. Hesperiidae)" [in German]. 
Mitt. Schweiz. Ent. Ges.. vol.28: pp. 288-290, 8 figs. Oct. 1955. Description of the new 
subspecies from Spanish Morocco. [P.V.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "Recherches sur les organes tympaniques des lepidopteres en rapport 
avec la classification. IX. Arctiidae" [in French]. Bull. & Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg.. vol.88: 
pp.26-50, 7 figs. 29 Feb. 1952. Proposes the new higher categories ENDROSID/E; 
NYCTEMERINES, ARCTIINES (supertribes of Arctiinae); ARCTIINI, RHODO- 
GASTRINI (tribes of Arctiines); CTENUCHINES, AMATINES (supertribes of Ctenu- 
chinae). Describes tympanic organs of 26 spp.; removes Atolmis to lithosiids; regards 
Diacrisia and Pericallia as composite genera, and describes as new SEYDELIA (type 
P. ellioti). Remarks on the arctiid complex, justifying the new classification. [P.B.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G, "Contribution a l'etude des lepidopteres heteroceres (3 e note). Zygaenidae 
nouveaux du Congo Beige" [in French]. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belg.. vol.30, no.42: 
8 pp., 8 figs. Dec. 1954. Describes as new (Belgian Congo): Arniocera rectifascia. 
A. vanstraeleni, A. elliptica, A. inornata: B)blisia micans: Pedoptila psalidoprocne: 
Semioptila hedydipna, S. macrodipteryx. List of some other Zygaenidae from the same 
country. [P.V.] 



224 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 6 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "Onderzoekingen over de Gehoororganen bij Vlinders met Betrekking 
tot de Classificatie. XI. Agaristida?" [in Flemish, French summary]. Verb. Kon. Vlaam- 
sche Akad. Wet. Lett. Belgie. no.47: 70 pp., 38 figs. 1954. It is a pity that this important 
paper on the study of the tympanal organ in the Agaristidae was published in Flemish, 
a very little-known language. Many species are studied, with general considerations on 
the family following. Fortunately the French summary is extensive. [P.V.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "Contribution a l'etude des lepidopteres heteroceres (4'' note). Sur les 
Agaristidae du Congo Beige" [in FrenchJ. Bull. Inst. Roy. Sci. Nat. Belg., vol.31, no. 69: 
7 pp., 3 figs. Nov. 1955. Describes as new CHARITOSEMIA (type geraldi Kirby); 
ABgocera jordani (Belgian Congo); Heraclia hornimani meridionalis (Belgian Congo). 
[P.V.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "Le systeme phylogenetique : Principes et methodes [in FrenchJ. Bull. 
& Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg.. vol.91: pp. 147-158. 30 June 1955. Account of phylogenetical 
principles and methods, with reference to the different publications of Henning. Oppo- 
sition, according to the author, between the typological system and the phylogenetic 
system. Paleontology, geology, chorology, morphology, genetics, serology, and bio- 
chemistry are the basis of the phylogenetic system. The author defends his classification, 
published in 1948 and adopted, in large part, by Hennig. Many technical terms are 
employed or created. The divisions into suborders, infraorders, superlegions, sublegions 
and supercohorts might seem too numerous to many specialists. The important discovery 
of a tympanal organ in the Cossidas is reported. [P.V.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "New genera and species of African Notodontidse (Lepid.)." Rev. Zool. 
Bot. Afric, vol.52: pp.36-348, 2 pis., 18 figs. 30 Dec. 1955. Describes as new Brachy- 
chira argentina (Sankuru), B. subargentea (Sankuru), B. ligata (Sankuru), B. numenius 
(Sankuru); Cerasana rothschildi (Sierra Leone), C. eos (Sankuru); Overlaetia glaphyra 
(N.W. Rhodesia); DERIDDERA, and type D. margarethce (Sankuru); Atrasana oli- 
vacea (Angola); IRIDOPLITIS, and type I. iridescens (N.W. Rhodesia); SIMESIA 
(type dasychiroides Btl.), S. orestes (Angola), S. pylades ("German S.W. Africa"); 
PROSPHOLITIS, and type P. aglaurus (Nyasaland); Catochria postflava (Natal); 
Rigema amphiaraus (Gold Cost). [P.V.] 

Kiriakoff, S. G., "Sur le status taxonomique d'Erebia tyndarus Esper" [in French]. Lam- 
billionea, vol.55: pp. 90-93- 25 Dec. 1955. Application of the taxa proposed by the 
author to the E. tyndarus complex. [P.V.] 

Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Insecta Lepidoptera. Bagworms (fam. Psychidae)" [in Russian]. 
Fauna SSSR, n.s., no.62 : 517 pp., 334 figs. Moscow: Akad. Nauk SSSR. 1956. De- 
scribes following as new (Psycheoidinas) : EUMELASINA. and type E. ardua (Guberlia 
R., SE Ural region), E. pliginskii (Sevastopol, Crimea), E. arguta (Ordubad, E. Trans- 
caucasia); MELAPSCHE, and type M. multivenosa (Great Never, Amur R. region); 
Fumea elongatella (N. Caucasus ) , F. ussuriensis ( S. Sikhote-Alin' ) ; PSEUDODIP- 
LODOMA (type Diplodoma ragonoti); Taleporia caucasica (Borzhom, Transcaucasia); 
Solenobia albiflavella (Huzar, SW foothills of Hissar Range, Central Asia); Epichnop- 
terix crimceana (Sevastopol); Bijugis songarica ( R. Almatinka, Trans-Iliisk Ala-Tau, 
Central Asia), B. subgrisea (Iakovlevka, south shore, S. Sikhote-Alin'); PSYCHl- 
DOPSIS (type Bijugis alpherakii). (Psychinse): Oiketicoides leoi (near Stalinabad, 
Tadzhikistan), O. demarcata (Margelan, Bukhara, Central Asia), O. squamopilosa (Fer- 
gana & Zalaisk Mts., Central Asia), O. nigripilosa (Anzob Pass, Hissar Mts., Central 
Asia), O. heptapotamica (Chu R. valley, Kirgizia, Central Asia), O. theodori (Hi R. 
valley, SE Kazakhstan), O. simulans ( Ianvartsevo, SE Ural region), O. unicolorata 
(Erevan, Armenia); Acanthopsyche incana (S. Ural region), A. subatrata (Vinogra- 
dovka, Dalnii Vostok), A. desertella ( Aram-Kungei, Zalaisk Mts., Central Asia); 
Amictoides borealis (Dagestan, Caucasus), A. minuta (Araksa R. valley, Transcaucasia), 
A. plotnikovi (barren steppe, Samarkand), A. eldarica (Eldar Mts., Kuri R. valley), 
A. acuta (Kirovabad, Kuri R. valley), A. acutipennis (Darasham, Transcaucasia), 
A. subgrisea (Araksa R. valley, Transcaucasia); Psyche brachycornis (Kerch, E. Crimea); 
Apterona orientalis (Araksa R. valley); PTILAMICTA, and type P. erythropyga (Ordu- 
bad, Transcaucasia). General account of morphology, biology, and distribution of family, 
and systematic revision of Russian species. See review in Lepid. News, vol.10: pp. 177- 
178. [P.B.] 

de Lesse, H., "Une nouvelle formule chromosomique dans le groupe d'Erebia tyndarus Esp. 
(Lepidopteres Satyrinae)" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.241: pp. 1505-1507. 
Nov. 1955. A new chromosome number in the E. tyndarus group: E. iranica (n=51). 
Lectotypes are designated for E. dromulus and E. cassioides. [P.V.] 

Lorkovic, Z., & H. de Lesse, "Note supplementaire sur le groupe d'Erebia tyndarus Esp." 
[in French]. Lambillionea, vol.55: pp. 55-58. Nov. 1955. The authors consider E. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 225 

nivalis (n=ll) and E. calcarius (n=8) as good species. On the contrary, E. tyndarus 
(2n=20 in two massifs of the Alps) and E. cassioides (2n=20 in nine massifs of the 
Alps) have still the status of semispecies, their existence together being still unproved. 
[P.V.] 

Marion, H., "Pyrales nouvelles de Madagascar (Lep.)" [in French]. Bull. Soc. Ent. France, 
vol.60: pp.114-119, 6 figs. 15 Dec. 1955 Describes as new (all from Madagascar): 
PERINETOIDES (Galleriidae), and type P. margaritalis; Doddiana cyanifusalis; BET- 
SIMISARAKA (Epipaschiinas) and type B. viettealis; Peucela ignealis; ANTISINDRIS 
(Pyralinae) and type A. hipunctalis; Prosaris hepaticalis, P. percuprealis. [P.V.] 

Marion, H., "Les Coptobasoides de Madagascar avec description de deux especes nouvelles 
(Lep. Pyraustidae ) " [in French]. Nat. Malgache, vol.7: pp. 191-194, 3 figs. Feb. 1956. 
Study of this pyralid genus in Madagascar; describes as new C. pauliani, C. latericalis 
(both from E. Madagascar). [P.V.] 

Mere, R. M., "What next?" Ent. Gaz., vol.6: pp.224-227, 2 figs. Oct. 1956. Speculation 
on future discoveries in the British fauna. Figures 6 genitalia of Cosymbia quercimon- 
taria and C. punctaria. [P.B.] 

Munoz, Fernando de Zayas, & Pastor Alayo Dalmau, "La familia Sphingidae en Cuba 
(Lepidoptera : Heterocera). Publ. Univ. de Oriente, no.40: 85 pp., 16 pis., 1 col. fig. 
1956. Lists the 59 recorded species, with synonymy, brief descriptions, known food- 
plants, and distribution; 58 spp. figured. [P.B.] 

Murray, Desmond, "The genitalia of some South African lycaenids (Lepidoptera: Lycaeni- 
dae)." Journ. Ent. Soc. So. Afr., vol.10: pp.182-192, 2 pis., 2 figs. 31 March 1948. 
Briefly describes and figures S genitalia of 45 spp. of lolaus, Lachnocnema, Lycatna, 
Teriomima, Durbania, Alcena, Pentila, Chlorosela, Spindasis, Dendorix (sic!), Axio- 
cerces, Capys, Aiyrina, Hippolyccena, Leptomyrina, Aphaneus ( sic! ) , Stugeta. Thestor. 
Localities of specimens given. Notes on a few other spp., not available or doubtfully 
distinct. [P.B.] 

Obraztsov, N., "Laspeyresia interruptana (HS.) als selbstandige Art (Lep. Tortr.)" [in 
German]. Ent. Tidskr., vol.73: pp. 33-37, 5 figs. 10 May 1952. Redescribes species and 
distinguishes it from L. duplicana and L. illutana. [P.B.] 

Orfila, Ricardo N., "Lepidopteros de Venezuela, nuevos o poco conocidos. — 1" nota" 
[in Spanish]. Bol. Ent. Venezol., vol.9: pp.45-49, 6 figs., 1 map. 1950. Describes as 
new Evonyme norica lichyi (Caracas); gives distribution of the 3 sspp. of this butterfly. 
[P.B.] 

Orfila, Ricardo N., "Notas sobre Lithosiidae (Lepid.) I. El genero Eudesmia Hb. y un 
genero y especie nuevos" in Spanish. Physis, vol:20: pp.474-486, 2 figs. 1953. De- 
scribes as new VIANANIA (type Cisthene argentinensis) ; V. aymara (Cochabamba, 
Bolivia). Redescribes Eudesmia and spp. assigned to it and to Vianania. [P.B.] 

Orfila, Ricardo N-, "Una nueva especie de Apatelodes (Lep. Eupteropt. [sic!])" [in 
Spanish]. Natura, Buenos Aires, vol.1: pp. 131-134, 3 figs. 1955. Describes as new 
A. gaitotini (Leandro N. Alem, Misiones, Argentina). [P.B.] 

Osthelder, Ludwig, Die Schmetterlinge Sudbayerns und der angrenzenden nordlichen 
Kalkalpen. II. Teil. Die Kleinschmetterlinge. 2. Heft. Glyphipterygidce bis Microp- 
terygidce. pp. 115-250, 3 figs. Miinchen, 1951. Describes as new: (Gelechiidce) Gelechia 
danieli (Ammergauer Alps); (Tineidae) Tinea submontana (Kochel); figures $ geni- 
talia. Annotated list. [See review in Lepid. Neivs, vol.10: p. 56]. [P.B.] 

Pack, Jiff, "A propos de la nomenclature de deux genres de Microlepidopteres nuisibles 
aux essences forestieres" [in French]. Rev. franc, tepid., vol.13: p.127. "Sept./-Oct." 
[28 Dec] 1951. Proproses KENNELIOLA n.n. for Crobylophora Kennel (Tortricidae); 
EUCEDESTIS n.g. (type Cedestis gysselinella) ( Yponomeutidae ) . [P.B.] 

Pack, Jifi, "A comment on the proposed solution of the niobe i cydippe / adippe problem 
(Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: p.131. 30 Dec. 1952. 
Opposed to conservation of adippe; regards phryxa as the correct name for the High 
Brown Fritillary. [P.B.] 

Pack, Jin, "Dr. John G. Franclemont's proposal for the use of the Plenary Powers to 
suppress the generic name Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758, and to validate, as from 1758, 
the terms employed by Linnaeus for groups of that genus (Class Insecta, Order Lepi- 
doptera) : proposed addition of Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758, to the Official List of Generic 
Names in Zoology." Bull. Zool. Nomencl., vol.9: pp.147-148. 30 Dec. 1952. Regards 
Franclemont's proposal as unnecessary for most of the names involved, as these are 
generally accepted as valid from 1775, with the same types; requests have already been 
made to validate the doubtful cases (Bombyx and Pyralis) from the latter date. Regards 
type of Phalcena as different from type of Noctua. [P.B.j 



226 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol. 10: no. 6 

Paclt, Jiff, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to designate a type species for Sphinx 
Linnaeus, 1758 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) in harmony with accustomed usage." 
Bull. Zoo!. NomencL. vol.6: p. 291. 29 Aug. 1952. Suggests designation of ligustri as 
type and rejection of Latreille's designation of euphorbia. [P.B.J 

Pack, Jifi, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to designate for Bombyx Fabricius, 1775 
( Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) a type species in harmony with current nomencla- 
torial usage." Bull. Zoo!. NomencL, vol.6: pp.3 13-3 14. 29 Aug. 1952. Suggests desig- 
nation of mori as type. [P.B.] 

Paclt, Jifi, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to designate for Pyralis Fabricius, 1775 
(Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) a type species in harmony with current nomencla- 
torial usage." Bull. Zoo!. NomencL, vol.6: pp.314-315. 29 Aug. 1952. Suggests desig- 
nation of farina/is as type. [P.B.] 

Paclt, Jifi, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to vary the type species of Episema 
Ochsenheimer, 1816, therapy maintain Diloba Boisduval, 1840, for use in its accustomed 
sense (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zoo!. NomencL, vol.6: pp. 315-317. 
29 Aug. 1952. Proposed designation of glaucina as type for Episema and cceruleocephala 
as type for Diloba. [P.B.] 

Paclt, Jifi, "Proposed use of the Plenary Powers to validate the generic name Melanargia 
Meigen, 1828 (Class Insecta, Order Lepidoptera), by suppressing the name Agapetes 
Billberg, 1820." Bull. Zool. NomencL, vol.9: pp.211-222. 11 May 1954. 

Paclt, Jiff, & Jifi Smelhaus, "Revision of the Hesperiidae occurring in Czechoslovakia" 
[in Slovak, English summaryj. Prir. Sbornik, vol.3: pp. 201-221, 8 figs. 1948. All 
species known from Czechoslovakia are given. The paper has an appendix in English 
(pp.2 18-220): Arguments against the acceptance of the Systematisches Verzeichnis 
names. The names published by Denis & Schiffermiiller 1775 are discussed. [J.M.] 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "On the proposal that the trivial name a) ax Linnaeus, 1758 (as pub- 
lished in the binominal combination Papilio ajax) should be suppressed by the Inter- 
national Commission on Zoological Nomenclature under its Plenary Powers." Bull. 
Zool. NomencL, vol.2: pp.349-350. 28 Sept. 1951. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "Application to the International Commission on Zoological Nomen- 
clature to reconsider and rephrase in part their decision suspending the Regies con- 
cerning Papilio plexippus Linnaeus, 1758, insofar as that decision refers to a figure 
in Holland's Butterfly Book." Bull. Zool. NomencL, vol.6: pp.278-283. 23 July 1952. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., "In support of the application to suspend the Rules to (a) validate 
seven generic names of Linnaeus as of 1758, and designate their type species (b) suppress 
the generic name Phalcena Linnaeus, 1758, give preference to its typical subgenus 
Noctua, declare Noctidae the correct name for the family, and (c) validate one generic 
name of Linnaeus as of 1767 and designate its type species (Class Insecta, Order Lepi- 
doptera)." Bull. Zool. NomencL, vol.9: pp. 15 3-1 54. 30 Dec. 1952. 

dos Passos, Cyril F., & Ernest L. Bell, "Request for a ruling as to the specimen to be 
accepted as the lectotype of Megathymus aryxna Dyar, 1905 (Class Insecta, Order 
Lepidoptera)." Bull. Zool. NomencL, vol.11: pp.289-294. 30 Dec. 1955. Authors 
believe lectotype should be a specimen figured as M. neumoegeni in Biol. Centrali- 
Americana; this would cause aryxna to fall to neumoegeni. [P.B.] 

Pennington, K. M., "Two new species of Lycaenidae (Lepidoptera, Rhopalocera) from 
South Africa." Joum. Ent. Soc. So. Afr.. vol.10: pp.164-169, 1 pi. 31 March 1948. 
Describes as new Cupido (Lepidochrysops) sivanepoeli (Sheba Mine, Barberton Distr., 
Transvaal); Deudorix vansoni (Hluhluwe, Zululand). [P.B.J 

Povolny, D., & J. Moucha, "Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Gattung Psodos Tr. in den Karpaten 
(Lepidoptera — Geometridae)" [in German]. Ent. NachrbL, vol.7: pp. 1-4, 2 figs. 
March 1955. Notes on Carpathian distribution of 6 spp. (4 with endemic sspp.). Figures 
$ genitalia of P. noricana carpathica & P. bentelii. [P.B.J 

Povolny, Dalibor, & Josef Nosek, "On the phylogenetic relations in the Bistoninae (Geo- 
metridae), with special regard to Poecilopsis." Lepid. News, vol.9: pp. 199-202, 9 figs. 
16 April 1956. 

Rabello, Ernesto Xavier, "Contribucao para o conhecimento dos Ctenuchidae. VI. Genero 
Tipulodes Boisduval, 1830 (Lepidoptera)" [in Portuguese, English abstract]. Arq. Mus. 
Nac. Rio de Janeiro, vol.42: pp. 469-476, 3 pis. 1955. Redescribes generotype, T. ima, 
and repeats description of T. rubriceps. [P.B.] 

Roepke, W., "Delias in Nieuw-Guinea (Lep.)" [in Dutch]. Ent. Berichten, vol.15: p.495. 
1 Oct. 1955. 

Roepke, W., "Notes and descriptions of Cossidae from New Guinea (Lepidoptera: Hetero- 
cera)." Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: pp.281-288, 2 pis. 6 Dec. 1955. De- 
scribes as new: Xyleutes mineus pallescens (Hollandia), X. cinerosa (Humboldt Bay), 



1956 The Lepidopterists' Neics 227 

X. jordani (Cyclops Mts.), X. papuana (Ampas), X. elegans (Mook Camp;, X. albicans 
(Biak) X. perdrix (Ampas); Dudgeonea nummata (Hollandia); also one 'form'. Pro- 
poses turneri n.n. for Xyleutes leucolopba Turner nee Guerin. Revisional notes and 
redescriptions of other Xyleutes and of 2.euzera spp. [P.B.] 

Slaby, Otto, "Ueber die Herkunft des Apollofalters (Parnassius apollo L. ) in den Slo- 
wakischen Karpatengebirgen" [in Czech, Russian & German summaries]. Biologia. 
Bratislava, vol.9: pp. 398-411. 1954. Discusses the phylogeny of P. apollo from Western 
Carpathians with remarks on the study by Issekutz, 1951. [J.M.] 

Slaby, Otto, "Parnassius apollo L. im Pieninengebiet" [in Czech, Russian & German sum- 
maries]. Biologia, Bratislava, vol.10: pp. 179-188. 1955. Describes as new P. a. franken- 
bergeri (Pieniny Mts., Slovakia). Without figures. [J.M.] 

Stallings, Don B., & J. R. Turner, "On the question of the lectotype of Megathymus 
aryxna Dyar, 1905." Bull. Xool. Nomencl., vol.11: pp. 295-296. 30 Dec. 1955. Authors 
believe holotype should be a specimen in the U. S. National Museum labelled by 
Dyar as a cotype; this would retain aryxna for a species distinct from Al. neumoegeni. 
[P.B.] 

Stallings, Don B., & J. R. Turner, "Notes on Megathymus ursus, with description of a 
related new species ( Megathymidae ) ." Lepid. News, vol.10: pp. 1-8, 2 pis. 10 Aug. 
1956. Describes as new M. riohe (Carlsbad Caverns National Park, N. Mex.). 

Swensson, Ingvar, ''Swammerdamia lapponica Petersen i Sverige (Lep.)" [in Swedish, 
German summary]. Ent. Tidskr.. voU5: pp. 204-207, 1 fig. 30 Dec. 1954. Describes 
previously unknown 9 of this species, new to Sweden; compares moth with 5". consper- 
sella & S. compunctella. [P.B.| 

Swanepoel, D. A., "A new species of Cupido (Lycaenidae) from the Eastern Transvaal." 
Journ. Ent. Soc. So. Africa, vol.10: pp. 193-195, 4 figs. 31 March 1948. Describes 
as new C. (Lepidochrysops) irvingi (Nelshoogte, Barberton, Transvaal). [P.B.] 

Travassos, Lauro, "Contiibucao ao cenhecimento dos Arctiidae XXXI. Sobre as especies do 
genero Phegoptera ( Lepidoptera, Heterocera)" [in Portuguese]. Arq. Alus. Nac. Rio de 
Janeiro, vol.42: pp.621-643, 12 pis. 1955. Describes as new P. pseudocatenata (Salesopo- 
lis, S. Paulo, Brazil); P. fusca ( Terezopolis, Est. do Rio, Brazil); P. albescens (Campos 
do Jordao, S. Paulo, Brazil); P. pulchra ( Salesopolis ) ; . alipioi (Salesopolis). Proposes 
P. drucei n.n. for superba Druce 1911. Redescribes genus and available spp. [P.B.] 

Travassos F"., Lauro, "M1RANDISCA. novo genero para Cosmosoma harpalyce Schaus, 
1892, com descricao do allotypus" [in Portuguese; English summary]. Arq. Alus. Nac. 
Rio de Janeiro, vol.42: pp. 669-674, 3 pis. 1955. Proposes new genus and describes 
allotype of M. harpalyce. [P.B.] 

Viette, Pierre E. L., "Contribution a l'etude des Hepialidae (31eme note). Sur quelques 
specimens du Tring Museum" [in French]. Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, vol.107: 
pp. 373-379, 6 figs. 6 Dec. 1955. Describes as new Eudalaca jordani (Mt. Moco, Luim-- 
bale, Angola); Gorgopis libania angolensis (Mt. Moco); Paragorgopis nigrovenosalis 
(Aqua Suja, Minas Geraes, Brazil), P. spitzi (Ypiranga, Sao Paulo, Brazil), P. jordani 
(Theophilo Ottoni, San Jacintho Valley, Minas Geraes); Xytrops pluriargenteus (Alto 
da Serra, Sao Paulo); Schaefferiana simplex (Theophilo Ottoni). Figures $ genitalia 
of new spp. [P.B.] 

Viette, P., "Note de nomenclature: sur deux genres de Ch. Oberthiir" [in French]. Lambil- 
lionea, vol.55: p.97. 25 Dec. 1955. A new name, BOISDUVALODES. is proposed for 
Perrotia Oberthiir, 1922 (Zygaenidae), preoccupied by Perrotia Oberthiir, 1916 (Hes- 
periidas). [P.V.] 

Viette, P., "Un nouveau cosside de Madagascar" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.55: pp. 98-99, 
1 fig. 25 Dec. 1955. Describes as new Pseudocossus boisduvalii (central Madagascar) 
(Cossidae). [P.V.] 

Viette, P., "Position systematique et appareil stridulant de Pemphigostola synemonistis 
Strand, de Madagascar (Lep. Noctuidae)" [in French). Bull. Soc. Ent. Prance, vol.60: 
pp.176-179, 5 figs. 10 Feb. 1956. P. synemonistis. described as a castniid, is, in fact, 
a noctuid (Agaristinae). The stridulating organ, on the mesothoracic legs and anterior 
wing, is described. [P.V.] 

Vine Hall, J. H., "The British races of Aricia agestis Schiff. (Lep: Lycaenidae)." Ent. 
Gaz., vol.5: pp. 3-8. 18 March 1954. Suggests that the supposed hybrid population 
between A. a. agestis and A. a. artaxerxes is a southern race of the latter, which is 
believed to be a relict, unlike the recent southern immigrant agestis. [P.B.J 

Warren, B. C. S., "A review of the classification of the subfamily Argynninae (Lepidoptera: 
Nymphalidae). Part 2. Definition of the Asiatic genera." Trans. Roy. Ent. Soc. London, 
vol.107: pp. 381-392, 4 pis. 6 Dec. 1955. Lists 13 genera in subfamily, defines Childrena, 
Damora. and Argyreus. and emends definition of Argyronome and Argynnis. Lists 



228 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 6 

included spp. (except in Speyeria) and discusses genitalic variation. 39 photos of £ 
genitalia. [P.B.] 

Wightman, A. J., "Nonagria neurica Hb. fig. 381 ( nee fig. 659-661) (edelsteinii TuttV 
Ent.. Gaz., vol.2: pp. 243-246, 1 pi. Oct. 1951. Discusses nomenclatorial history, de- 
scribes early stages; adult figured in color. [P.B.] 

Wightman A. J., "Aporophyla lutulenta Schiffermueller, 1775 and A. lunebergensis Freyer, 
1848 (Lepidoptera: Agrotidae)." Ent. Gaz., vol.6: pp.2 17-223. Oct. 1954. Taxonomic 
history, distinction between supposed spp., and summary of named forms. [P.B. ] 

Wolff, Niels L., "Notes on the synonymy of some Tortricina (Lepj." Ent. Tidskr., vol.73: 
pp. 5364, 2 figs. 10 May 1952. Sinks Tortrix ulmana to Olindia schumacherana; T. 
lithargyrana and Peronea fissurana to Acleris tripunctulana; Grapholitha &mulana to 
Eucosma latiorana: Poecilochroma pomedoxana to Argyroploce porpbyrana. Maintains 
that pascuana is the correct spelling for Cnephasia pasivana auctt. Selects lectotype of 
Acleris ferrugana. Paper based on study of types in the British Museum, Copenhagen 
Museum, and Hungarian Museum collections. [P.B.| 

F. BIOLOGY AND IMMATURE STAGES 

Foltin, Hans, "Etwas iiber das Aufsuchen der Psychiden-Sacke" [in German]. Zeits. 
Wiener Ent. Ges., vol. 38: pp. 7-12. 1 March 1953. Directions for finding larval 
cases of Psychidae; describes appearance of cases of 13 spp., with biological notes. 
[P. B.] 

Foucart, G., "Le sphinx du quinquina Celerio nerii L." [in French]. Bull. Agric. Congo 
Beige, vol. 45: {Bull. Inform. INEAC. vol.3): pp.1 11-122, 1 fig. April 1954. 
Biology and control; describes all stages. [P. B.] 

Franz, Elli, "Das zierliche Puppengespinst der Motte Trichostibas" [in German]. Natur 
und Volk, vol. 85: pp. 115-118, 2 pis. 1 April 1955. Describes and figures net- 
work cocoon of this hyponomeutid from South America. [P. B.] 

Franz, Jost M., "Observations on collecting parasites of Cacoecia histrionana (Froel.) 
(Lep., Tortricidae)." Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 43: pp. 1-19, 3 pis., 2 figs. March 1952. 
Biology of host; list of hymenopterous parasites, and discussion of parasitism in dif- 
ferent stages; biology of dominant parasite, with its alternate hosts. [P. B.] 

Franz, J., "Schlupfwespen als Heifer bei der Schadlingsbekampfung" [in German]. 
Natur und Volk, vol. 80: pp. 271-275, 1 pi., 4 figs. 15 Oct. 1952. Parasitization of 
caterpillars by chalcids and braconids. [P. B.] 

Freeman, John A., "Insect menace to stored products." New Biology, no. 4: pp. 48-73, 
9 pis. 1948. Popular account, referring to Ephestia. Plodia, Sitotroga. etc. [P. B.] 

Freeman, J. A., "The inter-relation of insect attack on stored food and wood." Trans. 
^ 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol. 1: pp. 710-722, 1 fig. March 1953. 

Froeschner, Richard C, "Observations of predators of European Corn Borer eggs." Proc. 

^ loiva Acad. Sci., vol. 5 7 : pp. 445-448. 1950. 

Frost, S. W., "The numerical relationships between phytophagous insects and their hosts." 
Set. Monthly, vol. 79: pp. 10-12, 3 figs. July 1954. Points out that Lepidoptera 
include over 40% of phytophagous insect species; lists nos. of spp. and of phytophagous 
spp. for principal insect orders. [P. B.] 

Gillogly, G. M. & L. R., "Trichogramma minutum in Monarch Butterfly eggs." Pan- 
Pacific Ent., vol. 29; pp. 111-120. 1953. Interesting observations on the parasitism 
of eggs of the Monarch by this tiny hymenopteron. [J. T.] 

Gomes, Jalmirez G, "Resposta olfativa nas relacoes entre hospedeiros e parasitos" [in 
Portuguese]. Bol. Fitossanit., vol. 3: pp. 1-6. "1946" [1947]. Summary of in- 
formation on olfactory recognition of hosts by parasites, mainly of Lepidoptera. [P. 
,B.] 

Goncalves, Cincinato R., "Males da carnauba no Ceara e no Piaui" [in Portuguese]. 
Bol. Fitossanit., vol. 3: pp. 145-170, 33 figs. "1946" [1947]. Insects attacking the 
palm Copernicia cerifera: records Brassolis sophone. Opsiphanes invirce. Sibine sp., 
Castnia sp., and undetermined larvae of Eucleidae and Arctiidse; describes and figures 
early stages of Castnia sp. [P. B.] 

Hering, E. M., "Probleme der Xenophobie und Xenophilie bei der Wirtswahl poly- 
phagen Insekten" [in German]. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent.. vol. 1: pp. 507-513, 
1 fig. March 1953. Suggests new terms with regard to biology of phytophagous 
insects: "xenophoby" and "xenophily", illustrated with leaf-mining Microlepidop- 
tera and Diptera. [A.D.] 

Langridge, D. F., "Wax moths in beehives." Journ. Dept. Agric. Victoria, vol. 50: 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 229 

pp. 545-548, 554, 5 figs. Dec. 1952. Biology and control of Galleria and Achroia. 
[P.B.J 

Petrova, N. A., "The oak measuring worm, a pest in forests of the Azerbaijan SSR" 
[in RussianJ. Lesnoe Khoziaistvo, vol. 6, no. 4: p. 52. Apr. 1953. [Not seen.] 

Rose, A. H., & J. R. Blais, A relation between April and May temperatures and spruce 
budworm larval emergence." Canad. Ent., vol.86: pp. 174-1 77, 1 fig. 28 May 1954. 
Warm temperatures cause Choristoneura fumijerana larvae to emerge earlier. [E.M.] 

Ross, D. A., "Key to the puparia of the dipterous parasites of Choristoneura fumijerana 
Clem." Canad. Ent., vol.84: pp. 108-1 12, 15 fig. 9 May 1955. Keys and figures 
15 spp. [E.M.] 

Schatz, Willi, "Beitrag zur Kenntnis iiber Epichn. pulla Esp. ( Lep. Psych.)" [in German]. 
Nachrbl. Bayer. Ent., vol.3: pp. 77-79, 86-89. 15 Aug., 15 Sept. 1954. Discusses 
the biology and redescribes moth and immature stages. [N.O.] 

Schultz, V. G. M., "Neue Beitrage zur Schmetterlingskunde. 21. Wie finden sich die 
Mannchen und Weibchen unserer Schmetterlinge? 22. Protogynie bei einer Acalla 
hastiana L.-Zucht. 23. Aus der Lebensgeschichte des Holunderziinslers Pyrausta 
sambucalis Schiff. 24. Beobachtungen, die mit den Angaben in der Literatur nicht 
ubereinstimmen" [in German]. Ber. naturwiss. Ver. Bielefeld, vol.12: pp. 30-52, 53- 
56, 57-60, 1 pi., 3 figs. 1952. [Not seen]. 

Snyder, Karl ., "The effect of temperature and food on the development of the variegated 
cutworm Peridroma margaritosa Haw. (order Lepidoptera, family Noctuidae)." Ann. 
Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.47 : pp.603-613, 3 figs. "Dec. 1954" [18 Feb. 1955]. 

Somov, I., "Dynamics of seasonal increase of bollworm" [in Russian]. Khlopkovodstvo, 
vol.4, no.7 : pp.60-64. July 1954. Heliothis armigera. [Not seen]. 

Stark, R. W., "Distribution and life history of the Lodgepole needle miner (Recurvaria 
sp.) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) in Canadian Rocky Mountain parks." Canad. Ent., 
vol.86: pp.1- 12, 15 figs. 29 Jan. 1954. Discusses history and extent of recent out- 
breaks, describes moth and its behavior, morphology and seasonal cycle of early stages, 
and effects of environmental factors on development. States 15 spp. of parasites 
are known from Canadian populations, lists 5. [E.M.] 

Stultz, H. T., "Note on occurience of Agathis laticinctus (Cress.) ( Hymenoptera : 
Braconidae) as a parasite of the Eye-Spotted Bud Moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) 
in Nova Scotia." Canad. Ent., vol.86: pp. 96-98. 10 March 1954. This parasite 
has recently increased greatly in incidence in Spilonota ocellana, probably as a result 
of change in spray practices. [E.M.] 

Swezey, Otto H., "Forest entomology in Hawaii." Spec. Puhl. Bishop Alus., no.44: 266 
pp., 32 figs. 2 Aug. 1954. List of insects attacking some 105 kinds of forest trees, 
with their distribution in the islands and some biological notes. The insects are 
listed only under host plants. [P.B.] 

Tanada, Yoshinori, "A polyhedrosis virus of the imported cabbageworm and its relation 
to a polyhedrosis virus of the alfalfa caterpillar." Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.47: pp. 
553-574, 2 figs. "Dec. 1954" [18 Feb. 1955.] Virus disease of Pieris rapa, apparently 
identical with one of Co/ias eurytheme. [P.B.] 

Thompson, W. R., "Note on Dichcetoneura leucoptera Johns. (Diptera, Tachinidae)." 
Canad. Ent., vol.85: pp.391-392, 1 fig. 21 Oct. 1953. Notes occurrence of 1st 
stage larvae in hind gut of Depressaria heracliana and Archips cerasirorana. [E.M.] 

Thompson, W. R., "The tachinid parasites of Archips cerasirorana Fitch. (1) Dichai- 
toneura leucoptera Johns. (Diptera)." Canad. Ent., vol.85: pp. 19-30, 20 figs. 30 
Jan. 1953. Describes and figures early stages and adults of this parasite, and discusses 
its habits and relationships. [E.M.] 

Thompson, W. R., "The tachinid parasites of Archips cerasirorana Fitch. (2) Eusisyropa 
blanda O. S. (Diptera)." Canad. Ent., vol.85: pp.393-404, 19 figs. 4 Dec. 1953. 
Discusses early stages, reproductive system, biology, and systematic relationships of 
E. blanda. [EJVL] 

Thorsteinson, A. J., "The role of host selection in the ecology of phytophagous insects." 
Canad. Ent., vol.85: pp. 276-282. 16 Sept. 1953. Notes discrepancies between results 
of laboratory and field studies. Distinguishes host selection through oviposition 
response from that depending on feeding response. Notes steps in acceptance or re- 
jection. Classifies host plants into unsuitable, attractive, and acceptable groups; notes 
6 subgroups of acceptable plants, all with characteristics that inhibit successful feeding! 
Classifies phytophagous insects into polyphagous, oligophagous, and monophagous. 
Rejects Dethier's concept of chemical monophagy. Briefly discusses roles of food 
and temperature in modifying host selection. A mainly classificatory paper with 
few concrete examples. [E.M.] 



230 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no.6 

Treat, Asher E., "A new gamasid (Acarina: Mesostigmata) inhabiting the tympanic 
organs of phalaenid moths." Journ. Paras/to/., vol.40: pp.619-631, 4 pis., 2 figs. 
Dec. 1954. Myrmonyssus phalcenodectes n.sp. described and recorded from Leucama. 
Pseudaletia, and 16 other genera of noctuids, in Massachusetts; the mite destroys the 
organs of hearing. [P.B.] 

Tripp, Howard A., "Description and habits of the spruce seedworm, (Laspeyresia 
youngana (Kft.) (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae)." Canad. Ent., vol.86: pp. 385-402, 17 
figs. 22 Oct. 1954. Records hosts and distribution; describes and figures adult, 
last-instar larva, and pupa; outlines life cycle; describes larval habits and behavior 
of pupae. [E.M.j 

Turnock, W. J., "Some aspects of the life history and ecology of the pitch nodule 
maker, Petrova albicapitana (Busck) ( Lepidoptera-Olethreutidae)." Canad. Ent.. vol. 
85: pp.233-243, 6 figs. 23 July 1953- Discusses history and distribution in North 
America of this introduced insect; describes life cycle and injury to host, roles of 
species susceptibility, and of age, size, and isolation of trees in determining incidence 
and damage; and analyzes factors in natural control, of which maturation of trees is 
considered to be the most important. 1 1 hymenopterous and 1 dipterous parasites 
are reported. [E.M.] 

Walley, G. Stuart, "Hymenopterous parasites of Choristoneura pinus Free. (Lepidoptera: 
Tortricidae) in Canada." Canad. Ent., vol.85: p. 152. 15 April 1953. Records 13 
spp., 9 of which are previously recorded parasites of C. fumiferana. [E.M.] 

Walley, G. Stuart, "Notes on Acrobasis lubifasciella Pack. (Lepidoptera: Phycitidae), 
with a list of its parasites." Canad. Ent.. vol.86: pp. 255-260. 10 June 1954. Des- 
cribes life cycle in Ottawa region, and lists 18 spp. of hymenopterous parasites, of 
the families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Perilampidae, and Pteromalidae. [E.M.] 

Weidner, Herbert, Bestimmungstabellen der V orratsschadlinge und des Hausungeziefers 
Mitteleuropas. 2nd ed. 234 pp., 272 figs. Jena: Gustav-Fischer-Verlag. 1953. 
[Not seen]. 

Wellington, W. G., "Atmospheric circulation processes and insect ecology." Canad. Ent., 
vol.86: pp.312-333, 9 figs. 20 Aug. 1954. A fundamental paper; reviews principal 
air-mass types in North America; notes association of frontal movements with insect 
migrations and transport; discusses the value of air-mass climatology in interpreting 
insect mortality; describes systematic trends in cyclonic and anticyclonic centre tracks, 
and their possible uses in population studies. The possibility of using meteorological 
information to predict insect populacion trends is noted; the complexities inherent 
in such forecasts are emphasized. [E.M.J 

Wood, G. W., et al., "Life-history studies of Spcelotis clandestina (Harr.) and Polia 
purpurissata (Grt.) (Lepidoptera: Phalaenidae) in low-bush blueberry areas in New 
Brunswick." Canad. Ent., vol.86: pp. 169-173. 28 May 1954. Seasonal cycles of 
these single-brooded moths are outlined. [E.M.] 

Wyatt, G. R., "The nucleic acids of some insect viruses." Journ. Gen. Physiol., vol.36: 
pp. 201-205. 20 Nov. 1952. Study of viruses from 9 spp. of Lepidoptera. [P. B.] 

Zopp, Johannes, "Die ersten Stande von Aut omens (Hyperchiria) naranja Schaus {—aur- 
antica Weym., nee umbrosa Weym. et ater Conte)" [in German]. Zeits. Weiner Ent. 
Ges., vol.38: pp.245-247, 1 pi. 15 Sept. 1953. Immature stages and biology. [N.O.j 

G. PHYSIOLOGY AND BEHAVIOR 

Ackermann, D., "liber biogene Amine der Seidenraupe" [in German]. Hoppe-Zeyl. Zeits., 
vol.291: pp. 169-1 76. 24 Nov. 1952. Amino-acids in larva of Bombyx mori. [P.B.] 

Allegret, Paul, "Variations individuelles des facteurs d'excretion protidique avant la mue 
nymphale chez Galleria mellonella (L.) [in French |. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.238: 
pp.5 18-520, 1 fig. 1954. Pre-pupal nitrogenous excretion may take place entirely as 
silk, or with assistance of Malpighian tubules; in the latter case a prepupal disapause 
is necessary. [P.B.] 

Allegret, Paul, "Influence de la retention experimentale de la soie sur la metamorphose de 
Galleria mellonella (L.)" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.238: pp. 623-625. 1954. 
If nitrogenous secretion by silk production is prevented by blocking gland duct, Mal- 
pighian tubules take over this function. [P.B.] 

Arsen'ev, A. F., & N. V. Bromlei, "Chemical composition and buffer capacity of the 
intestinal juice of the larvae of the Oak and Mulberry Silkworms" [in Russian]. 
Dokl. Vses. Akad. Nauk im. Lemna, vol.16: pp. 25-31- 1951. [Not seen.] 

Aruga, H., S. Kawase, & M. Akino, "Occurrence of an enzyme acting on xanthopterin-B 
in Bombyx mori" [in English, French summary]. Expenentia, vol.10: pp. 336-338, 1 fig. 
15 Aug. 1954. 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 231 

Arvy, L., "Donnees histologiques sur la leucopoiese chez quelques Lepidopteres" [in 
French]. Bull. Soc. Zool. France, vol.78: pp. 45-59, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1953. The study of the 
different stages of five spp. (Malacosoma neustria, Ephestia kiihniella, Hyponomeuta 
padella, Thaumatopoea processioned, Bombyx mori) shows the presence of leucopoietical, 
even, and symmetrical organs situated at the level of the mesothorax, metathorax, and 
the first 4 abdominal segments. These leucopoietical organs are found only in the 
larvae, they disappear at the beginning of the pupal stage and are not found in the imago. 
In these spp. the blood is almost without leucocytes. [P.V.] 

Babaian, A. S., & Mkrtumian, K. L., "The influence of host plants upon the development 
of Agrotis ypsilon Rott. and Laphygma exigua Hb." [in Russian]. Izv. Biol. Sel'sk. Nauk 
Akad. Nauk Armianskii SSR, vol.3: pp.491-494. 1950. [Not seen.] 

Barsa, Mary C, "The behaviour of isolated hearts of the grasshopper, Chortophaga riridi- 
fasciata, and the moth, Samia walkeri, in solutions with different concentrations of 
sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium." Journ. Gen. Physiol., vol.38: pp. 79-92. 
20 Sept. 1954. 

Beall, Geoffrey, "Congregation of butterflies at hilltops." Lepid. News, vol.7: pp.43-44. 
27 July 1953. 

Beck, Stanley D., "Nutrition of the European Corn Borer, Pyrausta nubilalis (Hbn.). 
III. An unidentified dietary factor required for larval growth." Journ. Gen. Physiol., 
vol.36: pp.317-325, 1 fig. 20 Jan. 1953. 

Bergmuller, H., "Zur Zucht von Macrothylacia rubi" [in German]. Nachrbl. Bayer. Ent., 
vol.2: p. 87. 15 Nov. 1953. Observations in a breeding cage. [N.O.] 

Bergold, G. H., "Demonstration of the polyhedral virus in blood cells of silkworms." 
Biochem. Biophys. Acta, vol.8: pp.397-400, 4 figs. Apr. 1952. 

Bernheimer, Alan W., "Hemagglutinins in caterpillar bloods." Science, vol.118: pp. 150- 
151. 8 Feb. 1952. Tests for hemagglutinins acting on human blood, in 46 spp. of 
caterpillars ol 17 families; positive results in 10 spp. (all moths). [P.B.] 

Bernheimer, Alan W„ Ernst Caspari, & Armin Dale Kaiser, "Studies on antibody forma- 
tion in caterpillars." Journ. Exper. Zool., vol.119: pp. 23-35, 1 fig. Feb. 1952. Experi- 
ments on Platysamia cecropia and Citheronia regalis indicate that insects do not form 
antibodies of the vertebrate type in response to the antigens used; this accounts for the 
free development of transplants in hosts of other species. [P.B.] 

Bheemeswar, B., & M. Sreenivasaya, "Enzyme systems of the silk-worm, Bombyx mori 
Linn.: Part I — a preliminary study." Journ. Sci. Indust. Res., vol.l3B: pp. 108-110. 
Feb. 1954. 

Biliotti, Emile, "Importance et signification des arrets de developpement au stade nymphal 
chez Thaumatopoea processionea L." [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci., vol.236: pp. 1703- 
1705. 1953. Delayed eclosion in variable percentage of pupae. [P.B.] 

Bodenheimer, F. S., "Arrested development and arrested activity in insect life." Trans. 9th 
Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: pp. 21-40. March 1953. An essay on various aspects of diapause 
in insects. [A.D.] 

Boistel, J., & E. Caraboeuf, "L'activite electrique dans l'antenne isolee de lepidoptere au 
cours de l'etude de 1'olfaction" [in French]. C. R. Soc. Biol., vol.147: pp.1 172-1 175. 
1 fig. July 1953. Reports spontaneous electrical impulses in the isolated antenna of 
Bombyx mori & ; these are modified by a jet of air on the antennae, but not by its 
exposure to the female scent. [P.B.] 

Bounhiol, Jean-Jacques, "L'achevement de la metamorphose et la mue imaginale seraient 
commandes par le cerveau a la fin de la vie larvaire chez Bombyx mori L." [in French]. 
C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.235: pp.67 1-672. 1952. Formation of pupal and imaginai 
stages initiated by stimuli from brain at end of larval stage. [P.B.] 

Bounhiol, Jean-Jacques, "Nature probablement secretaire du facteur cerebral condi- 
tionnant la mue imaginale de Bombyx mori L." [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, 
vol.235: pp.747-748. 1952. Demonstrates that action of brain in controlling imaginai 
molt is secretory rather than nervous. [P.B.] 

Bouniol, J. -J., M. Gabe, & L. Arvy, "Donnees histophysiologiques sur la neuro-secretion 
chez Bombyx mori L., et sur ses rapports avec les glandes endocrines" [in French]. Bull. 
Biol. France Belgique. vol.8" 7 : pp. 323-333, 1 pi., 4 figs. 1953. Modifications of the 
nervous secretion elements that arrive during the last stage of the larva, the nymph, 
and the imago in Bombyx mori. [P.V.] 

Buck, John, Margaret Keister, & H. Specht, "Discontinuous respiration in diapausing 
Agapema pupae." Anat. Rec. vol.177: p. 541. Nov. 1953. Abstract only. 

Busnel, R.-G., "La fluorescyanine et l'acide folique, pterines de Bombyx mori L." [in 
French]. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: pp.354-358. March 1953. The pterin 
isolated from eggs and scales of the silkworm is identified as fluorescyanine; folic acid 



232 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 6 

is formed in eggs and Malpighian tubules. These pigments participate in enzymatic 

processes. [A.D.J 
Butenandt, A., & Wolfgang Albrecht, "Bestimmungen des Tryptophangehaltes ver- 

schiedener Rassen der Mehlmotte Ephestia kuhniella als Beitrag zur Analyse der Gen- 

wirkungen" [in German). Zeitschr. Naturforsch., vol. 7b: pp.287-290. May 1952. 

Tryptophane content of white-eyed mutant higher than that of wild type, roughly by- 
amount not used in production of eye and other pigments. [P.B.] 
Caspari, E., & H. C. Dalton, "Gene action. Investigations on an enzyme system ozidizing 

tryptophane to kynurenin." Yearb. Carnegie Inst., vol.48: pp.197-199- 1949. Work 

with Ephestia eye-color mutants. [P.B.] 
Chaudhry, Ghulam-Ullah, "The development and fecundity of the Oriental Fruit Moth, 

Grapholitha (Cydia) molesta (Busck) under controlled temperatures and humidities." 

Diss. Abs., vol.12: p. 118. 1952. Abstract only. 
Chikalo, I. I., "Thermostability of catalase as an index of the resistance of the silkworm 

to high temperature" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Se/'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.16: 

PP.30-34. 1951. [Not seen.] 
Ching-Hsi Tao & A. Glenn Richards, "Studies on arthropod cuticle. IX. Quantitative 

effects of diet, age, temperature and humidity on the cuticle of five representative 

species of insects." Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer., vol.45: pp. 585-599, 3 figs. Dec. 1952. 

Including Galleria. 
Crewther, W. G., & A. B. McQuade, "The intestinal microflora of the clothes moth 

larva Tineola bisselliella in relation to wool digestion." Journ. Gen. Microbiol., vol.12: 

pp.3 H-3 13. April 1955. Concludes that bacteria do not assist wool digestion. [P.B.j 
Danilevskii, A. S., "Conditions of perennial diapause in Lepidoptera" in Russian]. Ent. 

Obozr., vol.31: pp.386-392. 1951 [Not seen.] 
Danilevskii, A. S., & E. I. Glinianaia, "Concerning the influence of alternation of dark 

and light daily periods on the development of insects" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk 

SSSR, vol.68: pp.785-788. 1949. 
Danilevskii, A. S., & E. I. Glinianaia, "On the influence of light and temperature rhythms 

on the breaking of diapause in insects" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.71' 

pp.963-966. [1950. 
Day, M. F., "The distribution of alkaline phosphatase in insects." Australian Journ. Sci. 

Res. B., vol.2: pp.3 1-41, 3 pis. Feb. 1949. Including Tineola and Pieris. 
Day, M. F., "The occurrence of mucoid substances in insects." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. 

B., vol.2: pp. 421-427. Nov. 1949. Including Ephestia, Tineola, Gnorimoschema, Pieris. 
Day, M. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. I. Microscopy of digestion of 

wool by clothes moth larvae (Tineola bisselliella Humm.)." Australian Journ. Sci. Res. 

B., vol.5: pp.42-48, 2 pis. Feb. 1951. 
Day, M. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. III. A comparison between the 

tracheation of the midgut of Tineola larvae and that of other insect tissues." Australian 

Journ. Sci. Res. B., vol.4: pp.64-74, 2 pis. Feb. 1951. 
Demianovskii, S. IA., & A. Burova, "Pyruvic acid and its amination in the organism of the 

Oak Silkworm Anthercea pernyi G." [in RussianJ. Biokhimia, vol. 16: pp. 29-35. 1951. 

[Not seen.] 
Demianovskii, S. IA., & IU. B. Filipovich, "Relationship of proteins and amino acids of 

the hemolymph with the synthesis of silk proteins in the organism of the Oak Silkworm, 

Anthercea pernyi G." [in Russian]. Biokhimiia, vol.15: pp.437-443. Sept./Oct. 1950. 

[Not seen.] 
Demianovskii, S. IA., & A. V. Sokol'skaia, "Formation and decomposition of amino acids 

in the tissues of the Oak Silkworm, Anthercea pernyi G." [in Russian]. Biokhimiia. 

vol.13: pp.273-278. May/June 1948. [Not seen.] 
Demianovskii, S. IA., & E. K. Stakhovskaia, "Effect of glycocoll on larval development 

and silk formation in the Oak Silkworm, Anthercea pernyi G." [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. 

Nauk SSSR, vol.78: pp.733-736. 1 June 1951. 
Denuce, J. M., "Etude quantitative de l'acide ribonucleique dans les glandes sericigenes 

chez Bombyx mori L." [in French]. Biochem. Biophys. Acta, vol.8: p.lll. Jan. 1952. 

Location and function in silk glands. [P.B.] 
Denuce, J. M., "Recherches sur le systeme phosphatique des glandes sericigenes chez le 

ver a soie (Bombyx mori L..)" [in French, English abstract]. Experientia, vol.8: pp. 64- 

65. 15 Feb. 1952. Reports 2 phosphatases in silk glands. [P.B.] 
Dreux, Ph., & J. Fiszer, "Action de baryum sur 1'automatisme cardiaque de la chenille de 

Galleria mellonella L. et de Gryllus domesticus L." [in French]. C. R. Soc. Biol.. 

vol.144: pp.8 18-8 19. June 1950. Ba solution stops heart in diastole; effect counteracted 

by Ca but not by K. [P.B.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 233 

Drilhon, Andree, "£tude du milieu interieur de Macrothylacia rubi L. au cours de la dia- 
pause" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.234: pp. 1913-1915. 1952. Increase in 
number of amino-acids in hemolymph during pre-pupal diapause. [P.B.J 

Drilhon, Andree, Constantin Vago, & Rene-Guy Busnel, "Essai de diagnostic precoce de 
la grasserie et de la flacherie par l'analyse chromatographique du sang de Bombyx mori" 
[in French]. C. R. Soc. Biol., vol.146: pp.1 1-12. 20 May 1952. Infections cannot be 
identified chromatographically before onset of visible symptoms. [P.B.] 

Drilhon, A., & C. Vago, "Modification dans la figure chromatographique des acides 
amines libres et des substances fluorescentes de l'hemolymphe du Bombyx mori L., 
consecutives a une paralysie d'origine microbienne" [in French, German summary). 
Experientia, vol.9: pp.143-145. 15 April 1953. 

Duckworth, F. W., "Butterflies' tastes." Country Life, vol.112: pp. 2107-2108. 26 Dec. 

1952. Attraction of Indian butterflies by various substances. 

Duspiva, Franz, "Die enzymatische Vorgange beim Durchbruch des ausschliipfenden 

Seidenspinners {Bombyx mori L.) durch die Kokonwand" [in German]. Zeitscht. 

Naturforsch., vol. 5b: pp.2" 7 3-281. 1950. Study of chemistry of silk decomposition which 

permits emergence of adult from cocoon; fibers are locally digested by oral secretion of 

moth. [P.B.I 
Dzhaparidze, L. I., "Respiration of the Mulberry Silkworm in connection with its sex" 

[in Russian]. Soobshch. Akad. Nauk Gruzin. SSR. vol.11: pp.445-450. 1950. [Not seen.] 
Edel'man, N. M., "Some principles of the daily rhythm of the respiration of insects" 

[in Russian]. Zool. Zhurn., vol.29: pp.427-434. 1950. [Not seen.] 
Edel'man, N. M., "Effect of feeding conditions on the physiological condition of the 

Gypsy Moth and poplar leaf-eaters" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR. vol.84: 

pp.849-852. 1 June 1952. Porthetria dispar, Melasoma populi, M. tremula. 
Emme, A. M., "Combined action of high and low positive temperatures on the eggs of 

the Mulberry Silkworm" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.67: pp. 747-750. 

1949. 
Emme, A. M., "Role of temperature in the duration of embryonic diapause in the Mulberry 

Silkworm" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.6: pp.589-592, 1 fig. 1949. 
Emme, A. M., "Stimulating effect of oxygen on the cocoon of the silkworm" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.80: pp.141-144, 1 fig. 1951. 
Emme, A. M., "Detailed study of growth variability of the thermo-reactivity of the 

developing pre-diapause gut" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.82: pp. 825-828, 

1 fig. 11 Feb. 1952. Bombyx mori. 
Emme, A. M., "Sensitivity variation by age in the diapausing embryo of the mulberry 

silkworm to various combined processes of activation" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk 

SSSR, vol,93: pp.209-212. Nov. 1953. [Not seen.] 
Evans, William H., "Flight habits of Antkocaris." tepid. News, vol.8: p,10. 25 June 1954. 
Filippovich, IU. B., "Free amino acids in the hemolymph of the Oak Silkworm" [in 

Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'skokhoz. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.18, no.9: pp.36-44. 

1953. Antkercea pernyi. [Not seen.] 

Fiascnentrager, Alexandrien, "Ober Anlockungsstoffe von Baumvollschadlingen" [in Ger- 
man]. Angeiv. Chem,, vol.61 : p. 252. 1949. Abstract; sex attractants in female noctuids. 

Fraenkel, G., "The nutritional requirements of insects for known and unknown vitamins." 
Trans. 9th Int. Congr, Ent., vol.1: pp. 277-280. March 1953. Describes ten years dietary 
experiments with dry food and stored products pests, i. a. the following Lepidoptera: 
3 spp. of Ephestia, Plodia, and Tineola bisselliella. Insect require most if not all vitamins 
of the B-complex (possibly except Bis). They do not require A, C, D, K, and P. [A.D.| 

Fraisse, Rene, "La croissance de la tete chez la larve du Bombyx mori L. en fonction du 
regime alimentaire" [in French]. C. JR. Acad. Sci., vol.236: pp. 1613-1614. 1953- Final 
size of head capsule unaffected by diet. [P.B.] 

Frost, S. W., "Response of insects to black and white light." Journ. Econ. Ent.. vol.46: 
pp.376-377. April 1953. Comparison of attractiveness of normal and UV light source 
to Lepidoptera (various groups) and other insects; no very striking differences found. 
[P.B.1 

Gabe, M., "Quelques acquisitions recentes sur les glandes endocrines des arthropodes" 
[in French, English summary]. Experientia, vol.9: pp. 352-356, 4 figs. 15 Sept. 1953. 
Review article, including recent work on endocrine glands of Ephestia and Bombyx. 
[P.B-] 

Gates, Marshall, "The chemistry of the pteridines." Chem. Rev., vol.41: pp.63-95. Aug. 
1947. Review of a croup of compounds including the characteristic wing pigments of 
Pierida?. [P.B.] 

Geispits, K. I., "Light as a factor in regulating the development cycle of the Pine Silk 



234 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no.6 

Moth Dendrolimus pint L." fin Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nuuk SSSR, vol.68: pp.781-784, 
1 fig. 1949. 

Gotz, Bruno, "Die Sexualduftstoffe der Lepidopteren" [in German, English summary]. 
Experientiu, vol.7: pp.406-418, 8 figs. 15 Nov. 1951. Discusses scents produced by 
many female Lepidoptera to attract males, covering morphology of scent organs and 
nature, mode of action, specificity, etc., of odoriferous substances. [P.B.] 

Grandori, L., "Effets lethaux selectifs dune substance acetylcholinique sur quelques 
especes d'insectes" [in French]. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: pp. 269-272. March 
1953. Describes experiments on effects of nerve drugs used for Mammalia upon, /'. a., 
larvae and adults of Bombyx mori and the adults Cydiu molesta affected by parasympa- 
tholytic, parasympathomimetic, and anticholinesterasic drugs. [A.D.] 

Gray, P. H. H., "A note on the colors of pupae of Pier is rupee developed under artificial 
conditions." Lepid. News, vol.7: pp. 5-6. 20 Apr. 1953. 

Guppy, Richard, ''Pupilio zelicaon and hilltops." Lepid. News, vol.7: pp.43-44. 27 July 
1953. 

Haaf, Erwin, "Die modifikabilitat der Zeichnungselemente von Zygcena curniolicu Scop. 
(Lep.)" [in German |. Zeitschr. Nuturforsch., vol. 7b: pp. 563-570, 11 figs. 1952. Re- 
ports effects of heat applied to pupa in modifying and eventually obliterating forewing 
pattern. [P.B.] 

Hackman, R. H., "Green pigments of the hemolymph of insects." Arch. Biochem., vol.4 1: 
pp.166-174, 1 fig. Nov. 1952. Green color in Pieris rupee, Cucceciu uustrulunu, and 
Amphipyru sunguinipunctu caused by presence of yellow and blue chromoproteins; 
prosthetic group of former probably derived from carotenoids in plant tissues, of latter 
a porphyrin derivative perhaps formed in chlorophyll breakdown. [P.B.] 

Hamilton, James B., & Mildred Johansson, "Influence of sex chromosomes and castration 
upon lifespan. Studies of meal moths, a species in which sex chromosomes are homo- 
geneous in males and heterogeneous in females." Anut. Rec, vol.121: pp.565-577, 1 fig. 
March 1953. Castration of Ephestiu kuhniellu as larvae did not affect longevity. [P.B.] 

Hirata, Yoshimasa, & Saburo Nawa, "Sur la fluorescyanine (ichtyopterine) obtenue des 
oeufs de Bombyx mori et des ecailles de carpe" [in French]. C. R. Soc. Biol., vol.145: 
pp.66 1-663. 25 July 1951. Pigment from silkworm eggs and carp scales identical. [P.B.] 

Hirata, Y., S. Nawa, S. Matsuura, & H. Kakizawa, "Syntheses des pterines et une remarque 
sur la constitution d'une pterine de Bombyx mori" [in French, English summary]. Ex- 
perientiu, vol.8: pp.339-34l. 15 Sept. 1952. Chemistry of larval pigment of silkworm. 

t p : B -l 
Jeuniaux, Ch., & M. Amanieu, "Proprietes chitinolytiques du liquid exuvial du ver a 

soie {Bombyx mori L.)" [in French; English summary]. Experientiu, vol.11: pp. 195-196, 

1 fig. 15 May 1955. Presence of a chitinase demonstrated in molting fluid of silkworm. 

.. [RB ' 1 

' T. W. K.", "The occurrence of phases in insects other than locusts." Trop. Agric, vol.26: 

pp. 133- 135. July/Dec. 1949. Larvae of Luphygmu exiguu, L. exemptu, and Spodopteru 

ubyssiniu develop dark, active, "gregarious" phase when reared in crowded conditions. 

[P.B.] 

Karlash, E. V., "The growth and viability of the larvae of the Oak Silkworm under dif- 
ferent conditions of insolation" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akud. Sel'sk. Nuuk. im. 
Leninu, vol.14, no.5: pp.39-44, 2 figs. 1949. [Not seen.] 

Kato, Masaru, & Yasuji Hamamura, "Niacin and niacinamide biosyntheses in insects." 
Science, vol.115: pp.703-704. 27 June 1952. In pupae of Bombyx mori. 

Knudsen, John P., "Butterflies and hilltops." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp. 141-142. 20 Oct. 
1954. 

Komarova, O. S., "Factors initiating diapause in the Grape Leaf Roller" [in Russian]. 
Dokl. Akud. Nuuk SSSR, vol.68: pp.789-792, 1 fig. 1949. (Polychrosis botrunu.) 

Koshtoiants, Kh. S., A. L. Byzov, & R. L. Mitropolitanskaia, "Oscillographic investigation 
of the central nervous system of the mulberry silkworm in various stages of develop- 
ment" [in Russian]. Zool. Zhurn., vol.33: pp.807-814. July-Aug. 1954. [Not seen.] 

Kozhanchikov, I. V., "The significance of the age changes in the leaves of oak in the 
nutrition of the larva of Antherceu pernyi Guer. (Insecta, Attacidae)" [in Russian]. 
Dokl. Akud. Nuuk SSSR, vol.57: pp.85-89, 2 figs. 1947. [Not seen.] 

Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Possibility of hibernation of the eggs of the Oak Silk Worm 
(Antherceu pernyi Guer.)" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akud. Sel'sk. Nuuk im. Lenina, 
vol.13, no.6: pp.25-31. 1948. [Not seen.] 

Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Influence of seasonal variation in oak leaves on the nutrition and 
growth of the Oak Silk Worm (Antherceu pernyi Guer.)" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. 
Akud. Sel'sk. Nuuk im. Lenina, vol.13, no.ll: pp. 31-36. 1948. [Not seen.] 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 235 

Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Influence of seasonal variation of the leaves of the food plant on 

the development of the Gypsy Moth (Ocneria dispar L.)" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. 

Nauk. SSSR, vol.66: pp. 1203- 1206, 2 figs. 1949. 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Features of rhe effect of negative temperatures on the embryonic 

development of insects" [in Russian]. Zhurn. Obshch. Biol., vol.10: pp. 50-67. Jan. /Feb. 

1949- Including Operophtera brumata and Anther cea pernyi. [Not seen.] 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Amplitude of diurnal temperature changes as a factor in the 

development of the larvae of the Oak Silkworm (Anthercea pernyi Guer.)" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.67: pp.381-384, 2 figs. 1949. 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Influence of diurnal temperature amplitude on the growth and 

development of larvae of the Oak Silkworm" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. 

Nauk. im. Lenina, vol.14, no.7: pp. 16-2 5. 1949. [Not seen.] 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Features of the hibernation and diapause of the Gypsy Moth 

(Ocneria dispar L.)" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, vol.73: pp.605-607, 2 figs. 

1950. 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "On the conditions for the conversion of the cabbage moth 

{Barathra brassicce L.) to nutrition by new plants" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk 

SSSR, yol.73: pp.385-387, 2 figs. 1950. 
Kozhanchikov, I. V., "Importance of seasonal changes in the chemistry of plants in the 

feeding of oak moths and of some other dendrophile Lepidoptera" [in Russian]. 

Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.9: pp.667-709. 1951 [Not seen], 
Krijgsman, B. J., "Contractile and pacemaker mechanisms of the heart of arthropods." 

Biol. Revs., vol.27: pp.320-346, 1 fig. Aug. 1952. Review article, referring to work on 

many insects including Bombyx and Prodenia. [P.B.] 
Kiihn, Alfred, "Wundheilung und Riezenzellenbildung bei Ptychopoda seriata" [in Ger- 
man]. Zeitschr. Naturforsch., vol.40.: pp.104-108, 7 figs. 1949. Histology of healing 

of burn damage to epidermis. [P..] 
Kuzin, A. M., & P. V. Krzhevova, "On the enzymatic activity of the virus of yellow 

disease in Bombyx mori" [in Russian]. Biokhimiia, vol.13: pp. 523-529. Nov./Dec. 

1948. [Not seen.] 
Legay, Jean Marie, "Experiences de jeune absolu au cours du dernier age de la vie larvaire 

chez Bombyx mori L." [in French] C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.234: pp.885-888. 1952. 

Effect of starvation on metamorphosis and imaginal weight. [P.B.] 
Lobashev, M. E., & A. Nikitina, "Temporary conditioned reflexes in silkworms" [in 

Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nouk SSSR, vol.79: pp.1057-1059. 1951. 
Long, D. B., "Factors affecting the larval spot colours of the Emperor Moth, Saturnia 

pavonia L." Nature, vol.174: p.562. 18 Sept. 1954. Color change in response to in- 

sponse to intensity of light. [P.B.] 
Loritz, J., "Sur les femelles micropteres de Thaumatopoea pityocampa Schiffm. (Lepid- 
optera) obtenues en elevage" [in French]. Trans. 9th Int. Congr. Ent., vol.1: pp.241- 

245. March 1953. Discusses the remarkable fact that so few (and not allied) moths of 

this large family possess micropterous or apterous females. Discards explanation by 

mutation, by natural selection, or by non-usage of wings; some physiological factor 

seems more proboble, e. g., deficient food. Breeding experiments of T. pityocampa fed 

through the entire larval life with dessicated food produced micropterous females! 

Postulates existence of a physiological substratum different sexually (sensitive in $ $ 

only!) and specifically. [A.D.] 
Lozina-Lozinskii, L. K., "Butterfly wings as receptors of infrared radiation" [in Russian]. 

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.93: pp.369-372. Nov. 1953. [Not seen.] 
Makino, Katashi, Kiyoo Satoh, Masahiko Koike, & Naomichi Ueno, "Sex in Pieris rapes L. 

and the pteridin content of their wings." Nature, vol.170: pp.933-934, 1 fig. 29 Nov. 

1952. Reports much higher pterin content of male wings, causing them to appear black 

under ultraviolet light. [P.B.] 
Mamedniiazov, O. N., Effect of carbohydrates on the development of the Oak-tree Silk- 
worm [in Russian]. 34 pp. Ashkhabad, Turkmen FAN, 1951. [Not seen.] 
Mankiewicz, Edith, "The lipidolytic enzymes of larvae of Galleria mellonella." Canad. 

Journ. Res., Sect. E, vol.27: pp.185-201. June 1949. Notes differences from lipase of 

beef pancreas. [P.B.] 
Mercer, E. H., "Formation of silk fiber by the silkworm." Nature, vol.168: pp.792-793, 

1 fig. 3 Nov. 1951. 

Missionnier, Jacques, "Influence de la lumiere sur le developpement de la Teigne de la 
Farine (Ephestia kuhniella L.)" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci. Paris, vol.233: pp.986-987, 

2 figs. 22 Oct. 1951. Pupal size is reduced when larvae are reared under greater artificial 
day length, or in monochromatic light of certain colors. [P.B.] 



236 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no.6 

Murthy, M., R. Venkatachala, & M. Sreenivasaya, "Keto bodies in the haemolymph of 
the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L." Journ. Sci. Indust. Res., vol.12: pp. 314-316, 1 fig. 
July 1953. 

Murthy, M., R. Venkatachala, & M. Sreenivasaya, "Effect of antibiotics on the growth 
of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori L." Nature, vol.172: pp. 684-685. 10 Oct. 1953. Antibi- 
otics in food stimulate growth and silk production. [P.B.] 

Murthy, M., R. Venkatachala, D. Shankaranarayana, & M. Sreenivasaya, "Role of Chloro- 
mycetin in the nutrition of the silk-worm Bombyx mori Linn." Journ. Sci. Indust. Res., 
vol.1 3B: pp.33 1-335, 2 figs. May 1954. Reports increased growth, silk production, 
and disease resistance in larvae fed mulberry leaves smeared with this antibiotic. [P.B. j 

Muspratt, Vera Molesworth, "Butterflies on hilltops." Lepid. News, vol.8: pp. 143-145. 

20 Oct. 1954. 

Nikitina, I. A., "Neural regulation of silk filament extrusion in the Tussah Moth and 
Silkworm" [in Russian]. Trudy Fiziol. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, vol.2: pp.562-578. 1953. 
[Not seen.] 

Ostlund, Eric, "The distribution of catechol amines in lower animals and their effect on the 
heart." Acta Physiol. Scand., suppl.112: 67pp., 29 figs. 1954. Presence of adrenaline 
and related substances demonstrated in larvae of Nympbalis urticte. [P.B.] 

Ostriakova-Varshaver, V. P., "Cytology of fertilization in the Mulberry Silkworm in 
connection with variations in sensitivity of the consecutive phases of the process to 
high temperature" [in Russian]. Dokl. Akad. Nauk. SSSR, vol.83: pp. 921-924, 1 fig. 

21 Apr. 1952. 

Ovanesyan, T. T., "The form of the cells of the hemolymph of larvae of the Mulberry 
Silkworm at different physiological stages of the organism" [in Russian]. Zool. Zhurn., 
vol.30: pp.86-88. 1951. [Not seen.] 

Overlaet, F. G., "La 'curiosite' chez les papillons" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.52: 
pp.55-56. 25 Oct. 1952. Reports Erebia cethiops 6 6 sucking moisture from the 
collector's hands. Thinks attraction to water or perspiration is characteristic of <$ 3 only. 
[P.B.] 

Pavel'eva, M. S., "The alteration of the bivoltine form of Oak Silkworm to the monovol- 
tine" [in Russian]. Dokl. Vses. Akad. Sel'sk. Nauk im. Lenina, vol.16: pp.23-28. 
1951. [Not seen.] 

Peacock, A. D., "Some problems of parthenogenesis." Adv. Sci., vol.9: pp. 134-148. 1952. 
Review of animal parthenogenesis, including summary of work on Lymantria and Sol- 
enohia. [P.B.] 

Polonovski, Michel, Carlos Alcantara, & Rene-Guy Busnel, "Sur la pluralite des pterines 
des ecailles des cyprinides et des oeufs de Bombyx mori" [in French]. C. R. Acad. Sci., 
vol.236: pp.1703-1704. 1952. Pigment chemistry. 

Portier, Paul, & Rene-Guy Busnel, "Reaction des insectes decapites aux substances odor- 
antes" [in French]. C. R. Acad, Sci, Paris, vol.234: pp.379-380. 21 Jan. 1952. Decapi- 
tated Lepidoptera of numerous genera react to strong odors in same manner as normal 
individuals. [P.B.] 

Powning, R. F., "Studies on the digestion of wool by insects. VIII. The significance of 
certain excetory products of the clothes moth, Tineo/a bisselliella, and the carpet beetle, 
Attagenus piceus." Australian Journ. Biol. Set., vol.6: pp. 109-1 17. Feb. 1953. Form of 
excretion of nitrogen and sulphur in these insects and Gnorimoschema. [P.B.] 

I. TECHNIQUE 

Hocking, B., "Plastic embedding of insects — a simplified technique." Canad. Ent., 
vol.85: pp. 14-18, 2 figs. 30 Jan. 1954. Describes a technique for embedding in- 
sect materials in proprietary plastics, omitting refinements needed only for soft 
tissues. [E.M.] 

Lindquist, O. H., "A device for capturing adult insects in rearing containers and cages." 
Canad. Ent., vol.84: pp. 380-381, 2 figs. 31 Dec. 1952. A celluloid chamber with 
handle and sliding lid, said to be well adapted to transfer of small Lepidoptera. [E.M.] 

Morris, R. F., & W. A. Reeks, "A larval population technique for the winter moth 
{Operophtera brumata Linn.) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) ." Canad. Ent., vol.86: 
pp.433-438. 5 Nov. 1954. Describes physical and statistical aspects of sampling 
technique based on 4th instar larvae. [E.M.] 

Oakland, G. B., "Determining sample size." Canad. Ent., vol.85: pp. 108-1 11. 15 
April 1953. Discusses methods of determining size of useful samples in various types 
of investigation. Inadvertently validates the manuscript name Choristoneura pinus 
Freeman! [E.M.] 

Ross, D. A., & J. K. Harvey, "Notes on an infra-red lamp for drying inflated larvae." 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 237 

Canad. Ent., vol.86: p. 158. 28 May 1954. The infra-red lamp dries specimens 
more quickly than an oven, without scorching, and with less effect on colors. [E.M.| 

Ross, H. H., "Facets of insect surveys." Canad. Ent., vol.84: pp. 55-59. 27 Feb. 1952. 
Discusses scope, functions, and planning of insect surveys. [E.M.] 

Stark, R. W., "Analysis of a population sampling method for the lodgepole needle miner 
in Canadian Rocky Mountain Parks." Canad. Ent., vol.84: pp.3 16-321. 7 Nov. 1952. 
Statistical discussion of sampling method used to assess variations in abundance of 
larvae in populations identified as Recurraria miller} Busck (Gelechiidae). [E.M.] 

Stehr, G., "A laboratory method for rearing the spruce budworm, Choristoneura fumi- 
ferana (Clem.), ( Lepidoptera : Tortricidae)." Canad. Ent., vol.86: pp.423-428, 7 figs. 
22 Oct. 1954. An interesting and suggestive account of a method of rearing this re- 
fractory species under laboratory conditions. [E.M.] 

Strickland, E. H., "Polythene-stoppered vials for storing insects in alcohol." Canad. Ent., 
vol.85: pp.470-471, 1 fig. 31 Dec. 1953. Describes adaptations of stoppers. [E.M.] 

J. MISCELLANY 

Crane, Jocelyn, 'Spectral reflectance characteristics of butterflies (Lepidoptera) from 
Trinidad, B. W. I." Zoologica. N. Y., vol.39: pp.85-113, 9 figs. 15 Oct. 1954 
Analysis of the spectral composition of the wing colors of 40 spp., with special at- 
tention to reflectance in the ultraviolet; in only a few species (Morpho, Biblis, 
Callicore, some Papilio) is ultra-violet reflectance likely to be a factor in social behavior 
such as sex recognition. [P.B.j 

Darteville, E., "Lepidopteres et timbres-postes" [in French]. Lambillionea, vol.54: 
pp.39-41. 25 Aug. 1954. Lepidoptera and stamps, chiefly of the Portuguese African 
overseas territories. [P.V.I 

Hoffmann, Emil, "Steuerdirektor Hugo Skala" [in German]. Xeits. Wiener Ent. Ges., 
vol.38: pp.147-149, 1 portrait. 15 June 1953. Obituary; bibliography. [N.O.I 

Skell, F., "Ludwig Osthelder, Regierungsprasident von Oberbeyern a.D., Ehrenvorsitzender 
der Miinchener Entomologischen Gesellschaft" [in German]. Nachrbl. Bayer. Ent., 
vol.3: pp.25-27, 1 portrait. 15 March 1954. Obituary of distinguished German 
lepidopterist. [N.O.] 

NOMENCLATURE NOTICE 

The Secretary to the International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature has 
announced an application for validation by the Commission under the Plenary Powers 
of the name Dictyoploca Jordan, 1911 ( Saturniidse). The file number of this case is 
Z.N.(S.) 1072 .The full application is to be found in the Bulletin of Zoological Nomen- 
clature, vol. 13: part 2/3, published 29 March 1957. Any specialist who may desire to 
comment on this application is invited to do so in writing to the Secretary to the 
International Commission (Address: 28 Park Village East, Regent's Park, London 
N.W. 1, England) as soon as possible. Every such comment should be clearly marked 
with the Commission's File Number as given in the present Notice and sent in duplicate. 
Comments should reach the Secretary at the latest by 29 September 1957.— C. L. R. 



NOTICES BY MEMBERS 

Will purchase: cocoons of U.S. Saturniidae, especially Cecropia and Polyphemus, pupae of 
Sphingidas, and Papilio. Must be free of parasites. Also want fertile eggs of Sphingidae. 
Eugene Dluhy, 3912 N. Hamilton Ave., Chicago 18, 111., U. S. A. 

Will have ova of P. cecropia. P. rubra. T . polyphemus, a few A. io. and others for sale, 
30 to 60 cents per doz. Also large quantity U.S. Lepid. for sale and exchange. Mrs. Edith 
Lyle Ragsdale, 429 N. Marion St., Centralia, 111., U. S. A. 

For sale: Seitz' African Rhopalocera, complete with 80 col. plates, unbound, German 
edit. $35.50; Boisduval & Sganzin, Eaune Entomologique Madagascar, Bourbon et 
Maurice, unbound, SI 5.00; Aurivillius' Rhopalocera Aethiopica (cover spotted) $7.50; 
Bull, of the Hill Museum, unbound, lacking Vol.2, no.4, Vol.3, no.4, and Vol.4, no.2, 
§35.00. Also have about 7 5 duplicate reprints to exchange with anyone interested. 
G. R. DeFoliart, 2108 Rainbow, Laramie, Wyo., U. S. A. 



238 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.10: no. 6 

INDEX TO AUTHORS IN VOLUME 10 

Ae, Shigeru Albert 9-14, 143-149 

Arbogast, R. T. 112 

Austin, Edward J. and George T 55 

Bird, Charles D 107-108 

Brown, F. Martin 135, 140-142, 209-212 

Buchholz, Otto 139-140 

Burdick, William N. 81-86 

Clark, Gowan C, (with C. G. C. Dickson) 37-40 

Clarke, C. A. (with P. M. Sheppard) 47-53 

Clench, Harry K 15-17, 151-152, 161-162 

Conway, Patrick J 112 

DeFoliart, Gene R 91-101 

Denmark, Harold A. 150-151 

Dickson, C. G. C. (with Gowan C. Clark) 37-40 

Diakonoff, A. 76-78 

dos Passos, Cyril F 29-34, 213-214 

Eff, Donald 102-106 

Ehrlich, Paul R 160 

Evans, William H 168 

Ferguson, Douglas C 175-176 

Forbes, William T. M 35-36 

Freeman, T. N. 137-138 

Goliger, Melvin 45-46 

Grey, Lionel Paul 17, 119-120 

Guppy, Richard 169-171 

Heming, Francis 110, 162 

Hessel, S. A 200 

Hoffmeyer, Skat 36 

Kimball, Charles P 112 

Kiriakoff, S. G 207-208 

Klots, Alexander B 203-204 

Latham, Roy Ill 

Lennox, Donald J v^^ 53-54 

Mather, Bryant 160, 204-206 

McElvare, R. R 90 

Meiners, Edwin P . . . 163-168 

Obraztsov, Nicholas S 153-156, 176, 177-178 

Phillips, Leonard S ... 44 

Reinthal, Walfried J 25-28 

Remington, C. L 36, 56, 57, 80, 101, 109, 178, 192, 197, 240 

Remington, Jeanne E 74-75 

Riley, N. D. 193196 

Sheppard, P. M. (with C A. Clarke) 47-53 

Simmons, Robert S 157-159 

Stafford, C. W 44 

Stallings, Don B. (with J. R. Turner) 1-8, 109 

Thomas, Edward S . 46 

Thorne, Fred 80, 172-174 

Tilden, J. W 113T15 

Treat, Asher E 87-89 

Turner, J. R. (with Don B. Stallings) 1-8, 109 

Voss, Edward G. (with W. H. Wagner, Jr. ) 18-24 

Wagner, W. H., Jr. (with Edward G. Voss) 18-24 

Wiltshire, E. P 116-118, 201-203 

Wyatt, Alex K Ill 



1956 The Lepidopterists' News 239 

Wyatt, Colin 2 14-222 

Young, Frank N 46 

Ziegler, J. B 89-90 

CORRIGENDA FOR VOLUME 10 

pp. 30-34: see pp. 213-214 for corrections. 

p. 60, line 15 from bottom: "A anaphus" should be "A. anaphus annetta". 

p. 64, line 30: "C. crista" should be "P. crista." 

p. 67, line 43: "Dal. Povonly" should be "Dal. Povolny." 

p. 69, line 6: "El barrenarod" should be "El barrenador." 

[Correction for vol. 7: p. 60, line 4 from bottom: "vol. 13: pp. 30-31. 1 Dec. 1951" 

should be "vol. 14: pp. 30-31. 1 Feb. 1952"] 



INDEX TO SUBJECTS IN VOLUME 10 

ALLEN, J. A., Colorado itinerary in 1871 209-212 

Ancea monograph announced 178 

Anthercea polyphemus variant 45-46 

Bog collecting in Maine . 119-120 

Boloria toddi in Maryland 160 

Cape Cod, exotic Lepidoptera after hurricanes 112 

Catalogues and checklists of Nearctic Rhopalocera 29-34, 213-214 

Cisthene subjecta on Long Island . . . . Ill 

Coenonympha inornata phantasma, n. ssp., from Colorado 81-86 

Colias erate poliographus genetics 143*149 

Colias eurytheme X interior hybrids 9-14 

Connecticut butterfly collecting 55, 200 

Corrigenda for Volume 10 . . 239 

Cover artist . . . 174 

Danaus plexippus in Iowa and Virginia 44 

Diapause of Lepidoptera in hot, arid climates 201-203 

Echinargus isola in Illinois 112 

Edwards, William Henry, unnoticed paper 135 

Erora lata in Michigan and Pennsylvania 18-24, 161-162 

Euphydryas phaeton in Indiana 46 

Eurema daira daira in Mississippi 204-206 

Eurema nicippe in Connecticut 200 

EVANS (Brigadier W. H.) obituary and bibliography 101, 193-199 

Florida check list near completion . 109 

Genitalic structure 17 

Hand pairing techniques 475 3 

Hemileuca maia in Ohio 46 

Hesperiidse catalogue, announcement of corrections 110 

Hungarian National Lepidoptera Collection saved 192 

Hybrids between Colias eurytheme X interior 9-14 

Hyperceschra georgica larva described 203-204 

Incisalia augustinus foodplants 89-90 

Killing agent, ethyl acetate 150-151 

Lepidopterists' Society 

Announcement of 1956 meetings 80, 136 

Editorial and printing changes 80, 113, 240 



240 Index to subjects in Volume 10 Vol.10: no. 6 

Membership list and additions 80, 136, 192, 240 

Minutes of annual meetings 74-75, 172-174 

Nominations for 195 7 officers . . ■ 136 

Presidential addresses at annual meetings 76-78, 137-138 

Voting results 80 

Leptotes marina in Illinois .... 112 

Lycasnidse of South Africa, larval structures 37-43 

Maine bog collecting 119-120 

Manitoba, Rhopalocera of White Shell Reserve 107-108 

Maryland, new butterfly records 157-159, 160 

Megathymus poling/ notes 109 

Megathymus ursus notes 1-8 

Megathymus violce, new species 1-8 

Melanic Danaus, Colias, Speyeria Ill, 112 

Microscope for studying scales 160 

Migration of butterflies in Virginia 44 

Missouri Lepidoptera collecting 163-168 

Mnemonica auricyanea in Pennsylvania = 161-162 

Moroccan Lepidoptera collecting 214-222 

Nomenclature notices 110, 162, 237 

North Carolina Entomological Society formed 90 

Notices by members 79, 135, 191, 237 

Number of butterflies in Middle East in one day 116-118 

Papaipema mulleri, new species from New Jersey 139-140 

Parabasis pratti notes 15-17 

Parnassius infra-subspecific names 140-142 

Pennsylvania Lepidoptera records 161-162 

Pero macdunnoughi foodplants 168 

Pieris virginiensis in Michigan and Massachusetts 18-24, 25-28 

Pseudoscorpion on moths 87-89 

Psychidae larvae hatched from birds' excrement .... . . . . . 36 

Recent Literature on Lepidoptera 58-73, 121-134, 179-190, 223-237 

Reviews of publications 56-57, 175-178 

San Francisco's vanishing butterflies 113-115 

Speyeria egleis secreta notes 102-106 

Subspecies concept 35-36, 207-208 

Tortricid abdominal organ 153-156 

Thyme/icus lineola in North America . 151-152 

Vancouver Island Rhopalocera 169171 

White Mountains (New Hampshire) collecting 53-54 

Wyoming, Rhopalocera of southeastern part 91-101 



EDITORIAL ANNOUNCEMENTS 

The List of Members for 1956 is issued in mimeographed form and is being 
mailed with this issue. It includes new members. 

Volume 11 will have a new printer. The change in printers was necessitated by 
delays and rising costs. It is expected that the News will be up-to-date and on a bi- 
monthly schedule within a few months. 

C. L. Remington 



Volume 11 1957 Numbers 1-3 



The 



Lepidopterists' News 



Published by THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY 

Publie par LA SOCl£T£ DES L£PIDOPT£RISTES 

Herausgegeben von DER GESELLSCHAFT DER LEPIDOPTEROLOGEN 




In This Issue 

SYMPOSIUM ON TAXONOMY OF LEPIDOPTERA 

ANTENNA OF LYC^ENIME 

COLLECTING IN THE AMERICAN ARCTIC 

EARLY STAGES OF SPHINX FRANCKII 

MOTHS PUMPING WATER 

(Complete contents on back cover) 

28 March 1958 



EDITORIAL BOARD FOR THE SOCIETY 

Editor-in-Chief: Charles L. Remington 

Associate Editor 

(Literature Abstracting) : Peter F. Bellinger 

Associate Editor 

("The Neartic Butterflies") F. Martin Brown 

Associate Editor 

("Especially for Collectors") : Fred T. Thorne 



Harry K. Clench — Eugene G. Munroe 



NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS TO THE "NEWS" 

Contributions to The Lefidofterists* News may be on any aspect of the study 
and collection of Lepidoptera in any part of the world. Particularly solicited are: 1) 
review papers on subjects of general interest to lepidopterists (e.g., genitalia, mimicry, 
moth traps) ; 2) papers on such subjects as pre-adult stages, genetics, behavior, and 
comparative taxonomy (descriptions of new genera, species, and sub-species will be 
accepted); 3) field notes of more than a very local nature; 4) notes on well-tested 
techniques. Papers of more than ten pages will not normally be accepted; but if they 
are, authors may pay for overage. 

Manuscripts should be typed if possible, but clear hand-written manuscripts are 
acceptable. ALL MANUSCRIPTS SHOULD BE DOUBLE SPACED (blank lines 
alternating with written lines), and wide right and left margins are needed. Use 
only one side of the paper. The author should keep a carbon copy of the manuscript. 

Legends of figures and tables should be written on separate sheets. Half-tones and 
tables must be kept within economical limits, and authors are normally charged for 
the cost of engraving and tables. Photographs should be glossy prints. 

Titles must be kept as short as possible; Latin names of genera and species will 
be italicized, and authors of such Latin names WILL NOT APPEAR IN THE TITLE 
of any paper but must appear once in the text. The title should indicate the family of 
the subject. The style should conform to that used in recent issues of the News. 
PLEASE NOTE EXACT STYLE FOR REFERENCES. Footnotes should be kept at 
a minimum. The editors reserve the right to adjust style to fit standards of uniformity. 

At least 50 gratis separates of papers of more than one page (25 of short notes) 
will be provided to authors if requested at the time gaily proof is received for correc- 
tion. Additional reprints and covers may be ordered at cost, at the same time. 

Address correspondence relating to the News to: Dr. C. L. Remington, Gibbs Research 
Lab., Yale University, New Haven, Conn., U. S. A. 

Address Society correspondence to: Dr. Paul R. Ehrlich, Chicago Academy of Sci- 
ences, 2001 N. Clark St., Chicago 14, 111., U. S. A. 

Address remittances to: Mr. S. A. Hessel, Nettleton Hollow, Washington, Conn., U.SJL 

Printed in U. S. A. 
Dentan Printing: Company 
Colorado Springs, Colorado 



The Lepidopterists 1 News 



Volume 11 1957 Numbers 1-3 

A SYMPOSIUM ON: TAXONOMY OF LEPIDOPTERA, PRE- 
SENTED AT THE THIRD ANNUAL MEETING OF THE PA- 
CIFIC SLOPE DIVISION OF THE LEPIDOPTERISTS' SOCIETY, 
SANTA BARBARA, CALIFORNIA, 4 AUGUST 1956. 

STATISTICS AND TAXONOMY 

by F. Martin Brown 

I am sorry that I am not here in person to speak to you about the use- 
fulness of statistics to the taxonomist. It would be so much easier for me to 
speak directly to you than to write. Statistics can be a wonderful tool in any 
research, but it can be a dangerous master if sight is lost of the true goal. The 
goal of all of us who work with living things, or in any other field of science, 
is orderly understanding of the laws that control all material things. Tax- 
onomy is a tiny facet of biology but a very important one. Without names to 
apply to each recognizable taxon the geneticist, the physiologist, the compara- 
tive anatomist, and a host of others must use cumbersome descriptions. The 
taxonomist must make use of every tool to give his decisions lasting quality. 
Statistics is a tool that taxonomists have, but use all too infrequently. 

Before I go further let me define statistics as I see the subject. It is a 
study of error, error in its true sense: — wandering. Statistics allow us to 
state with precision the degree to which a measurement wanders from its mean 
or average condition. If it were possible to study an entire population we could 
measure the wandering, or variation, directly. Unfortunately we cannot study 
whole populations. We usually have to be content with minute fractions of 
populations, rarely as much as a millionth part. We all know that when we 
describe a new taxon from a short series we write a better description than is 
possible from a single specimen, the type. But if our short series represents only 
a millionth part of the population, how sure are we that any statement about 
the taxon is valid ? In such a case, statistics becomes a tool for the taxonomist. 
There are statistical methods devised to tell just how much chance you are 
taking. Once you have learned that, it is up to you to decide whether or not 
you are willing to take that chance. 

There are two kinds of variation with which we deal as taxonomists — 
continuous and discrete. Size is a good example of continuous variation. How 
many times do you see in an original description something like this: "The new 
subspecies is somewhat larger that subspecies A and smaller than B"? All too 
often. And what does it mean? It means only that of the tiny fractions of the 



2 SYMPOSIUM — Brown: Statistics Vol.11: nos.1-3 

population before the investigator, one appears to be intermediate to the others 
in size. The difference may be a real one but until that difference is tested 
statistically its import is vague. A simple statistical procedure will tell you 
the chance you take if you assume that a pair of measurements are different 
enough to hold true for a very large series drawn from the same populations. 
As an example of the use of statistics with a continuous variant, such as 
size, let us take DOS Passos' subspecies Plebius sccpiolus gertschi. Here is 
DOS Passos' statement: "The new race differs from nymotypical specimens in 
being much smaller — the type series averages about 22 mm." The type series 
consists of 10 males and 8 females from Willis Gertsch's collection and 20 
males and 10 females from my own. Let us see how this type series varies from 
a similar series of Californian sccpiolus. First, DOS Passos' measure of expanse 
is a poor one. It depends upon how the pinned specimens were set. A better 
measure is the maximum radius of the fore wing. That does not depend upon 
the mechanics of pinning and spreading. Using that measure for the gertschi 
series, I found that the radius of the left forewing averaged 12.37 mm. — the 
average is carried to the 0.01 mm. for statistical reasons, not for any real 
meaning beyond that the radius is a little over 12 mm. A series of the same 
number of males from McCloud, California, had an average radius for the 
same wing of 14.32 mm., and another such series from Big Meadows, Cali- 
fornia, 13.90 mm. By simple statistical procedure I demonstrated to myself 
that there was less than 1 chance in 10,000 that a series of 30 males caught 
at random at either McCloud or Big Meadows would average the same size 
as the males in the type series of gertschi. On this basis I am willing to accept 
size as one of the criteria for gertschi. So much for continuous variants. 

Here is another kind of statement that often leaves you up in the air: 
'The new subspecies has more fully developed ocelli than the nymotypical in- 
sect". Now this is a different kind of variation. The measures run in whole 
numbers. You do not find individuals with 1.3 ocelli. There are good statisti- 
cal methods for determining whether or not there is a real difference between 
the degree to which one series is marked from another. As an example, while 
studying the variation that occurs in North American Coenonympha I was 
puzzled by a small series of specimens from the Black Hills in South Dakota. 
It seemed to combine characteristics of both C. inornata benjamini from the 
prairies of Alberta and Saskatchewan and ochracea from the Rocky Mountains. 
My problem was this: Should I treat the Black Hills material as a strain of 
inornata or as a strain of ochracea ? The decision rested on the degree to wh:ch 
the sub-marginal ocelli on the under side of the hind wings were developed. 
Good-sized series of males, 40 to 50, from various Canadian prairie localities 
showed that from 36.6 to 50.9 percent of the specimens of benjamini had 
ocelli on the under side of the hind wings. Of the 10 males I had from Custer, 
South Dakota, half of them were ocellate. I have several long series of ochracea 
from stations at the edge of the prairie in Colorado and Wyoming that con- 
tain individuals without ocelli. It is wholly possible to collect 10 males at any 
of these Rocky Mountain stations and have one of the specimens without an 
ocellus on the under side of the hind wings. I doubt that you would ever get 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 3 

two such unmarked specimens among 10 caught at random. In fact the smallest 
series I have in which two do appear has over 100 males collected at one time. 

Here is the problem: What is the chance of collecting at random 10 male 
ochracea at a Rocky Mountain station 50% of which bear ocelli on the under 
side of the hind wings?; and, what is the chance of collecting at random 10 
male Ccenonympha in the Black Hills, 100% of which bear ocelli on the 
under side of the hind wings? Let us look at the last situation first. My series 
of 10 males from Custer has a frequency of 50% for the ocelli in question. 
Statistics show me that THE NEXT SERIES OF TEN MALES collected 
at Custer will contain from 3 to 7 ocellated specimens, if I get a "normally" 
random series. They also tell me that if I continue to pick up groups of 10 
random males at Custer I have 1 chance in about 600 for getting a group 
that is wholly ocellated. This is quite different from the conditions that 
prevail in the Rocky Mountains but quite like those in the homeland of ben- 
jamini. Now turn to the first question. According to the statistics about the 
colonies of ochracea in the eastern foothills of the Rockies I have about 1 
chance in more than a billion billion (10 24 ) of collecting 10 random males, 
5 of which lack ocelli on the under side of the hind wings. For practical 
purposes my chance of duplicating the Custer situation in the Rocky Moun- 
tains is nil. You may agree with me that it is best to refer the Black Hills 
material to benjamini and not to the geographically nearer ochracea. 

There is a third kind of variation that I would like to bring to your 
attention. It is a variety — or "subspecies" — of discrete variation, a Poisson 
population. This is a case where a characteristic is present or absent. It is the 
sort of diagnostic item that often is found in keys and that Skipper men seem 
to love. You know, "the microscopic spot that lies between Cu x and Cu 2 
usually is present and forms the basis for separating species A and B, other- 
wise the patterns are alike." I'm not bitter, really, only I've been trying to 
write intelligently about Colorado Hesperia this past week. Well, what do 
you do about the spot? There are two ways of approaching this problem, one 

statistical, the other intelligent. The use of V ' npq, explained in "Simple Sta- 
tistics for the Taxonomist" (Lepid. News, vol. 5: pp. 4-6, 43-45, 64-66, 112- 
120) will tell you what chance you assume if you consider it perfectly possible 
to gather a random series, the same size as the series upon which the statement 
was based, without spots. The intelligent approach is to turn a binocular 
microscope upon the location of the spot on those specimens that "lack" it. If 
the difference is valid, the chances are very good that you will find a few scales 
of white color that were not visible to the unaided eye. 

There is nonsense in statistics just as there is in taxonomy. There are 
many statistically valid differences that are meaningless when looked at from 
either the biological or taxonomic angle. There is no mechanical way for you 
to reach a decision in taxonomy. You just have to use your head and all of the 
tools available to you. Statistics is one of those tools, and no more important 
and no more certain than any other. Statistics is a science, but Taxonomy is 

much more an Art. 

Fountain Valley School, Colorado Springs, Colo., U. S. A. 



4 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

ON THE EARLY STAGES OF THE LEPIDOPTERA 

(ABSTRACT) 

by John A. Comstock 

Students and writers on the subject of embryology have stressed the fact 
that, in mammals, the process of development of the embryo and fcetus give a 
slurred-over picture of the entire phylogenetic race history. 

Beginning with the single cell, and running through the stages of morula, 
gastrula, primary dermal layers, notochord, segmentation, gill slits, limb buds 
and cauda, to the final infantile body form, one sees glimpses of a progressive 
succession of evolutionary ancestral forms emerging over a vast stretch of 
time. 

After birth comes a contact with a great variety of environments and 
stresses which brings into play many external adaptations and modifications to 
meet specific environments, which vary greatly in time and place, and which 
affect particularly the external structures, and make for speciation and sub- 
speciation. 

With Lepidoptera the picture is somewhat altered, in that metamorphosis 
gives us at least three stages in which external environment, with its external 
stresses, must greatly modify the form of the larva, pupa, and imago, in order 
to adapt each to a specific environment. 

Since the egg is formed and extruded by internal organs that have 
probably not been greatly modified by external stresses, it seems reasonable to 
suppose that it is a somewhat primitive entity, and it should therefore give us a 
better indication of family and generic relationships than do the later phases. 

Likewise, the first instar larva is probably of much more primitive form 
than the later instars, and should be helpful in determining generic relation- 
ships. 

If these surmises are correct, and I believe they are, then the study of 
life histories in the Lepidoptera should be of great importance to the taxono- 
mist. These are the considerations that have caused me to devote most of my 
spare time to life history work, and to stress the importance of the egg and 
first larval instar. 

In view of the fact that the eggs of most butterflies and moths are very 
small, and many of them are hard to visualize with only a word picture, it 
seems important to have enlarged photographs, or drawings of each species. 

This is a contribution that could very easily be made to our science by the 
younger members of our fraternity, since it requires very little in the way of 
expensive equipment. 

There are those among us who say they "can not draw". It has been 
my experience, however, that almost anyone can draw, if he exercises patience, 
and does a reasonable amount of practice. One can never do what he does 
not try. 

P. O. Box 158, Del Mar, Calif., U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News S 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GENITALIA TO 
TAXONOMIC STUDIES OF THE LEPIDOPTERA 

by R. H. T. Mattoni 

Morphological characters, of which the reproductive organs are but one 
feature in most organisms, are the basis of any taxonomic system. Early man 
recognized different kinds of plants and animals by their external appearance. 
With the development of modern biology through the late 19th century kinds 
or species were still defined by their gross anatomical features. Relationships 
were inferred by similarities and relative dissimilarities of appearance. Today, 
practical taxonomy, and all considerations of phylogeny, still rests on the 
weighting of morphological characters. 

Contemporaneous with the basic work of Karl Jordan in the develop- 
ment of the Rassenkreis principle around the turn on this century, and the 
beginning of the "species problem", entomologists started seriously using 
characteristics of the male genitalia to distinguish closely related species. In 
some groups, such as many Coleoptera, studies could be simply made on pinned 
specimens. The Lepidoptera proved more difficult, but the problem was by no 
means insurmountable. Lepidopterists widely accepted this practice to separate 
species which were complicated by a high degree of geographic variation and 
overlap. The logic behind the sudden emphasis on this organ was that of the 
"lock and key" principle, whereby the highly complex male and female geni- 
talia were believed a major barrier to interspecific mating. Direct functional 
significance was read into these variations, a view which has persisted to some 
extent to the present time. It was presumed that the structures were so specific 
that only the same type of male and female parts would fit. In the case of the 
male valvae this was believed particularly true, since these appear to be 
structures that clasp the two sexes together during mating ; and which also 
showed the highest correlated variance between well defined species. In the 
following I will discuss some research on this subject, and summarize the 
general significance of studies of the genitalia to taxonomic problems of the 
Lepidoptera. 

A classic attempt to evaluate the importance of the insect genitalia as 
an interspecific reproductive barrier was made by Kerkis (1931) in the 
hemipteran, Eurygaster integriceps. He found that in this species the geni- 
talia were as variable as any other external character. Workers in other groups 
provided equivocal evidence, although crosses between widely different entities 
(genera) were sometimes mechanically impossible. We shall presently review 
a most important paper by Lorkovic (1953), who investigated the role of 
the various genitalic structures of some butterflies during copulation. First, 
however, let us enumerate the major functional components of the genitalia. 
In the male the 8th and 9th abdominal segments are for the support of the 
armatures only. The 10th segment is modified into the uncus, subuncus, 
and/or gnathos. The valva attach to the base of the 9th segment and appear 



6 SYMPOSIUM — Mattoni: Genitalia Vol.11: nos.1-3 

to be the major clasping organ. The adeagus and its supports are the direc- 
tors of the actual intromittant organ. In the female, the ostium bursa is the 
major component of its external genitalia, functioning to direct the male intro- 
mittant organ properly. The papilla anales are concerned strictly with ovi- 
position. 

As mentioned above, the valvcc have long intrigued lepidopterists as 
they are usually characterized by many spines, bulbs, and hairs, which may be 
quite specific. Lorkovic was concerned primarily with these in his work. The 
technique which he employed was recently discussed by Clarke and Sheppard 
(1955) in this journal, and reference shows that its advantage lies in the ease 
of observation of the genital structures during the entire period of copulation. 
The remarkable conclusions of these observations were that the valva of the 
species he tested appeared to have a minor importance in either orienting the 
male to the female or in actually hold'ng the two together. In Ereb'ia the 
valvce didn't even touch the female. If this is true in groups beyond the repre- 
sentative sample of Lorkovic, the role of the valva are negligible indeed. 

Lorkovic found that the uncus and subuncus are very important func- 
tional organs in the forms which possess them. During copulation in such 
forms the male uncus was observed to be reflexed into a pouch above the 
female ovipore, holding the two closely together. In cases where the uncus 
was artifically removed, the males were unable to closely grasp the females 
and insemination was usually unsuccessful. He points out, however, that in 
some genera the uncus of large numbers of species remains relatively unmodi- 
fied while the valvae undergo enormous interspecific variation. 

The specific role of the adeagus appears minor, since it does not pene- 
trate the female ostium during copulation. By extrapolation this female 
organ may likewise not be specific in reference to mating barriers. 

An interesting hypothesis may be advanced concerning the selective sig- 
nificance of the valva. This was partially suggested by Lorkovic in his 
paper, and stems almost entirely from his find'ngs. It appears that since the 
valves have little functional significance in assuring either the survival of the 
individual, or its offspring, they are not subject to direct selection. However, 
they do apparently reflect some adapted quality as the result of pleiotropic 
gene effects for other characteristics. This would also account for their varia- 
tion. It may be further argued that their presence, in lieu of direct importance 
in some forms, is the result of genetic linkage to essential characters, or to their 
necessity as part of an integrated genie system. The essential components such 
as the ccdeagus, 8th, 9th, and 10th segments may display the variance they 
show for similar reasons, although they are obviously necessary to persistance. 
Further experimental attacks and observations on this subject would be high- 
ly interesting, as is needless to say. 

On the basis of these data it seems reasonable to conclude that except for 
possible specialized cases, or differences of very large magnitude, the highly 
complex genital apparatus of the Lepidoptera has limited significance as a 
specific reproductive barrier. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 7 

Nonetheless, the basis of taxonomy must rest practically on morphologi- 
cal differences between entities, quite apart from the adaptive qualities they 
imply. Morphological differentiation unquestionably reflects genetic gaps. Re- 
garded simply in this manner, the study of genitalia is a most important tool 
for the taxonomist. The ultimate decision of specific gaps should not rest on 
these parts themselves, however, as we know that they may vary considerably 
within a species. They should not be assigned higher weight than other charac- 
ters due to heretofore mystical properties. The complex independent variance 
of the many male and female genitalic traits may nevertheless be most excel- 
lent criteria of phylogenetic relationship, particularly in clarifying cases where 
mosaics of superficial external variation exists. This is particularly true at the 
generic level. 

Another usefulness of the genitalia is in the perception of cryptic or sibling 
species. Where sympatric populations of two vaguely different forms are 
found, consistent genitalic differences may provide the simplest clue to the 
situation. Thus early in my own work with Philotes, I mistook several series 
as either P. battoides or P. enoptes being entirely one species or the other by 
determination of a single male. Later more detailed examination showed that 
all was not right, and two more or less different types were present in these 
series. After separating these approximately and running slides on the lot, I 
found that in fact both species were present together. It is now necessarily 
routine for me to do this with material from several areas, for when the two 
species fly together, they cannot be easily told apart superficially. The critical 
characters in this case are the valva of the male, and the ostium bursae of the 
female. Similar instances must be widespread in the Lepidoptera. Suspect cases 
may be first and most easily tested by genitalic study. I understand there exists 
a somewhat parallel example between Mitoura gryneus and M. hesseli (Raw- 
son and Ziegler, 1950). 

In concluding, I would like to say that one must be well oriented to the 
particular group being worked upon finally to evaluate genitalic characters. 
Small differences in some groups may be relatively more important than large 
ones in others, and under any circumstances an attempt to study variance 
should be made, which has been rare to date. 

References Cited 

Clarke, C. A., & P. M. Sheppard, 1956. Lepid. News 10: 47-53. 

Kerkis, J., 1931. Zool. Anz. 93: 129-143. 

Lorkovic, Z., 1953. Physiol. Comp. et Ecol. 3: 313-320. 

Rawson, George W., & J. Benjamin Ziegler, 1950. Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 58: 69-82. 



Dept. of Botany, University of California, Los Angeles 24, Calif., U. S. A. 



8 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

A USE OF CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN THE STUDY OF 

TAXONOMY OF THE LEPIDOPTERA AND NOTES ON 

THE INTERNAL REPRODUCTIVE ANATOMY 

by Kodo Maeki 

The following report deals with the chromosome numbers observed in 
the germ cells of 16 species of Papilionidae which are found in Japan. Further 
data are presented concerning the testicular form and color, and the stages of 
the life cycle at which meiotic divisions have been seen to have taken place. 
These data are correlated with the known morphological relationships of 
these species, and this relationship is more clearly defined. 

Testicular form is classified into three major types: separate, gourd- 
shaped, and conjugated. In the larvae of all species the testes are clearly separ- 
ated, each testis being made up of four follicles. In certain groups this condi- 
tion changes during development to a point where they become slightly ad- 
herent, having the appearance of a gourd or dumb-bell, or becoming com- 
pletely conjugated and spherical. In these types the single testis has eight 
follicles. Table I presents the data concerning the distribution of these types 
during the various stages of development for the groups under discussion. 
These suggest a phylogenetic sequence wherein the separate condition appears 
most primitive, and the conjugated condition that of the derived forms. The 
latter form is found in most of the butterflies. 



Table 1. Testis form during development in the Japanese Papilionidae. 



GENUS 


LARVA 


PRE-PUPA 


PUPA 


IMAGO 


Parnassius 


separate 


separate 


separate 


separate 


Luedorfia 










japonica 


separate 


separate 


separate 


reparate or 
slightly adherent 


puziloi 


separate 


conjugated 


conjugated 


conjugated 


Graphium 


separate 


separate 


gourd 


gourd 


Byasa 


separate 


conjugated 


conjugated 


conjugated 


Papilio 


separate 


conjugated 


conjugated 


conjugated 



In addition to the different shapes of testes that were found, coloration 
of their epithelial sheath was found to vary. Three distinct classes were found : 
yellow, pale blue, and red. The primitive genera {Parnassius, Luehdorfia, 
Graphium) have yellow or pale blue testes, while the derived ones (Byasa, 
Papilio) have them red-colored. These data, with the following on meiosis, 
are presented in Table 2. 



1957 



The Lepidopterists' News 



Table 2. Chromosome N 


amber an 


d Imaginal 


Testicular Form and 


Color for Sixteen 




Species 


of Japanese 


Papilionidse. 






CHROMOSOME 






SPECIES 


NUMBER 


TESTES FORM 


TESTES COLOR 


Parnassius eversmanni 


62 


(I) 


separate 


yellow 


P. glacialis 






separate 


yellow 


P. stubbendorfii 






separate 


yellow 


Luedorfia japonica 


31 


(I, II) 


separate or 
adherent 


pale blue 


L. puziloi 


30 


(I, II) 


conjugated 


pale blue 


Graphium doson 


30 


(I, II) 


gourd 


yellow 


G. sarpedon 


20 


(I, II) 


gourd 


yellow T 


Byasa alcinous 


30 


(I, II) 


conjugated 


red 


Papilio macilentus 






conjugated 


red 


P. machaon 


31 


(I) 


conjugated 


red 


P. xuthus 


30 


(I) 


conjugated 


red 


P. protenor 


30 


(I) 


conjugated 


red 


P. memnon 


30 


(I, ID 


conjugated 


red 


P. helenus 


30 


(I) 


conjugated 


red 


P. bianor 


30 


(I, II) 


conjugated 


red 


P. maackii 


30 


(I, II) 


conjugated 


red 



Meiosis is observed in a few butterflies only in the pre-pupal and early 
pupal stages. This was found to hold true for all the species of Parnassius, 
Luehdorfia, Graphium, Byasa, and Papilio macilentus. In all the other mem- 
bers of the family considered here, spermatogenesis was not only found in these 
stages, but also in the imagos. However, in the imaginal testes, most meiosis 
was aberrant and led to the formation of apyrene spermatozoa. 

The chromosomes of all of the species are dot-like, and the following 
haploid numbers were found: 20, 30, 31, and 62. The roman numerals given 
after the numbers for each species in Table I refer to the stage of spermato- 
genesis in which the determinations were made. 

A correlation is found between morphology and chromosome numbers, 
with the most primitive species exhibiting the highest number of 62. The 
numbers 31, 30, and 20 occur in the progressively more specialized, or derived, 
forms. 

Graphium sarpedon with 20 and G. doson with 30 chromosomes are 
closely related, and it can be observed that differences in chromosome num- 
bers here appear to be associated with chromosomal fusion. In G. doson, with 
the 30 chromosomes, 20 are small and 10 large dots; whereas in G. sarpedon 
there are 20 dots, all of which are large. The most probable explanation is 
that the lower numbers have been derived by fusion of the 20 small chromo- 
somes into 10 larger ones. 



Biological Institute, Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya, JAPAN 



10 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

THE ROLE OF GENETICS IN THE TAXONOMY 

OF THE LEPIDOPTERA 

by William Hovanitz 

Genetics is the study of inheritance. Its role in the organization of all 
the different kinds of moths and butterflies is solely that of an aid in the under- 
standing of the characteristics used for classification especially with regard to 
their inherited variability. Of the two kinds of variability that may exist in 
wild organisms, part is heritable and part is imposed upon the organism by 
the direct influence of the environment. Only the heritable is of immediate 
interest to the phylogeny of the Lepidoptera. It is necessary for the taxonomist 
therefore to distinguish clearly between these two ; this is done by breeding 
experiments and by testing the survival of the characters concerned under 
the action of differing ecological conditions. 

Lepidoptera and especially the butterflies provide excellent examples of 
the role of the single genetic factor, or gene, in the evolution of a group. 
Dimorphism or polymorphism is commonly known in many of the butterflies. 
Among the Colias butterflies, for example, nearly every species in the world 
is dimorphic for color pattern differences between the sexes and in addition the 
females are dimorphic for a color pattern character, some being white and 
others being orange or yellow. Papilios of the bairdii group are dimorphic in 
much the same way, some being yellow and others being black ; here both males 
and females are involved, and there is little sexual dimorphism. A classical 
case of dimorphism of this sort is in Argynnis paph'a of Eurasia. A melanic 
form (genetically dominant) is present in differing frequencies in various 
populations. Chang'ng frequencies of polymorphic forms in the same areas 
are known. Industrial melanism in Europe is in reality a rapid dimorphic 
change in which a recessive gene for light coloration has been replaced in a 
period of a few years by a dominant gene for black coloration. Presumably 
this change has been caused by selection for some phenomena associated with 
the industrial conditions in western Europe. 

Another kind of dimorphism that should not be confused with the genetic 
form is that which is created by the organism's developmental response to 
changed climatic conditions during its life. This is the well known seasonal 
dimorphism such as we have in the Anthocaris, for example, in which a dark 
form occurs in the spring and a lighter-colored one in the summer. Similar 
changes occur in the Pieris, Colias, Melitcea, etc. These are non-genetic and 
have no influence on phylogeny directly. They do indicate the response of the 
organism to changes in the environmental conditions. In many cases they are 
parallel to, and duplications of, possible genetic differences which occur in the 
formation of geographic races. There is no way of distinguishing genetic from 
the non-genetic forms except by breeding, and in phylogenetic work therefore 
one must be very cautious in making judgments based solely upon study of the 
dead insect. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 11 

In those cases where variation is caused by many genes working together 
it may not be possible to distinguish the genetic classes involved in the varia- 
tion. In such a case, there are no definite forms that can be considered poly- 
morphic and the variation blends together in one continuum. This is known 
as polygenic or multiple factor variation. Variation, such as in the species of 
butterflies that vary from the northwest to the southwest in a continuous gradi- 
ent from black or dark in the north to very light in the south, is of this type. 
Melitcea chalcedona of the coast of southern California is dark, while the races 
of the desert are red or orange-brown varying continuously through the 
mountain passes in one continuum of variation. The variation is genetic be- 
cause the desert and other races have all been bred together and still show their 
specific differences. 

Geographic races may be composed of the combination of several gene 
differences, each of which controls a specific character of the insect's wing. For 
example, in Argynnis (Speyeria) callippe of California, coastal races differ 
from the inland ones by a white band across the middle portions of the wings. 
The western Sierran races possess unsilvered spots on the underside of the 
wings; all the others are silvered except in the southern end of the distribu- 
tional range of the Sierran race where the populations are dimorphic for the 
spot coloration. The high desert races possess green coloration on the under- 
side of the wings not carried by the coastal races. The genes controlling these 
characters and many others are present in varying combinations in each race 
but since they are recognizable as units, the variation is not considered continu- 
ous. The key often may be found in intermediate zones where polymorphism 
may truly exist as it does in the southern Sierra. 

Most genie color variations in the butterflies are adaptive in the sense that 
the gene producting a certain color variation is also responsible for some greater 
ability of the butterfly to survive in a given area. Tests were made of this for 
the white color gene in Colias. The white form in a given species is always 
found more commonly in colder or cloudier areas of the world as compared 
with the orange or yellow forms. This would indicate their greater survival 
value in such areas. If the survival value were dependent upon the adult's 
activity in the different weather conditions in these geographical areas then a 
simple test should show whether or not this was true, namely, observation of 
the relative frequency of the two forms in the same population at different 
times of a single day, when the conditions of the atmosphere pass through all 
the great changes comparable to the more general geographic ones. For this 
test, it was essential that the butterflies be present in tremendous numbers so 
as to get reliably large numbers to differentiate morning from noon and after- 
noon if the differences were slight. Such conditions were found in the valleys 
of California where Colias eurytheme is present in huge quantities during the 
summer and where the night temperatures are low and the day temperatures 
high. These tests did indeed show that the white form had different habits 
from the orange form at the same time of the day. It was comparatively more 
active in the cool part of the day than the orange form. This activity differ- 
ence is sufficient to account for all the geographical differences of these di- 
morphic forms. 



12 SYMPOSIUM — Hovanitz: Genetics Vol.11: nos.1-3 

The last example of a method by which genetics is of aid in the taxonomy 
of the Lepidoptera that I shall bring up is that of the analyzing of the results 
of hybridization. Here our studies have indicated, both by analyzing wild pop- 
ulations as well as in breeding of the insects, that the former "form" eriphyle 
of C. eurytheme is in reality a western race of C. philodice. Likewise such 
tests have shown that hybridization is not an uncommon phenomenon in many 
butterflies. Ten percent of the wild individuals in the areas where C. eury- 
theme and C. philodice overlap are hybrid products. The formerly known 
Colias boothi of the arctic is now known to be in reality a hybrid product of 
the meeting and blending of the species C. nastes and C. hecla. Colias hyale 
and Colias croceus of Europe blend together in southern Russian territory and 
separate on the other side as two different species Colias erate and Colias fieldi. 

Selected Bibliography 

Dean, M. B., 1956. Analysis of physiological and genetical differences of polymorphic 

forms of Colias eurytheme. Wasmann Journ. Biol. 14: 1-57. 
Ford, E. B., 1950. Genetic research in the Lepidoptera. Ann. Eugenics 10: 227-252. 

, 1946. Butterflies. Collins, London. 

— - , 1953. The genetics of polymorphism in the Lepidoptera. Adv. in Genetics 

5: 43-87. 

, 1955. Moths. Collins, London. 

Hovanitz, W., 1943. Geographical variation and racial structure of Argynnis callippe 

in California. Amer. Nat. 77: 400-425. 
, 1944. The distribution of gene frequencies in wild populations of Colias. 

Genetics 29: 31-60. 
, 1946. Parallel ecogenotypical color variation in butterflies. Ecology 22: 259- 

284. 
- , 1947. Differences in the field activity of two female color phases of Colias 

butterflies at various times of the day. Contr. Lab. Vert. Biol. Univ. Mich. 41. 
— , 1948. Increased variability in populations following natural hybridization. 

Genetics, Paleontology and Evolution. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton. 
, 1950. Parallel variation of dimorphic color phases in North American species. 

Wasmann Journ. Biol. 8: 197-219 

— .., 1953. Textbook of Genetics. Elsevier and Van Nostrand, New York. 

, 1953. Polymorphism and Evolution. Symposia for Experimental Biology 7: 

238-253. 
Remington, C. L., 1954. The genetics of Colias. Adv. in Genetics 6: 403-450. 

Dept. of Biology, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif., U. S. A. 



NOTICE 

All dealers and reliable parties wanting to sell Lepidoptera (larvae, pupae, and adults), 
please send notices to the undersigned. A mimeographed list of dealers' names and 
addresses is planned for distribution in response to frequent requests to the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum for the names of dealers. 

William D. Field, Associate Curator, Div. of Insects, 
U. S. National Museum, Washington 25, D. C, U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' Neivs 13 

THE LYGENID ANTENNA 
by William T. M. Forbes 

The studies on which this note is based were made some ten years ago. 
A recent argument on the position of the genus Feniseca suggests that it would 
be well to put them formally on record. So after recheck and addition of some 
more genera, here they are. 

In the Lycsenidae as a whole the club of the antenna has a sensory area 
{nudum) on the under side, without the longitudinal ridges of the Nym- 
phalidae (s.L) or any other special features as a rule. The distinguishing 
features, as in the skippers, are the extent of this area and, unlike the skippers, 
its extension basally along the shaft. While there are a few intermediate cases, 
the nudum may be divided into three types. In the first it is limited to the 
club, often not quite reaching the base of the club, and ends abruptly or with 
a sharp taper, as in the skippers. The second has a tapering base, extending 
back along the shaft and gradually narrowing, often continued by a series of 
patches on each segment anteriorly, exposed by gaps in the scaling, more like 
some tineoids than other butterflies. Finally the whole anterior-ventral side 
of the shaft is sensory without interruptions, more than three-quarters the 
way to the base, and in one or two cases to the very first segment of the 
shaft (Megalopalpus). Somewhat unexpectedly there is a definite tendency 
to sexual dimorphism, the female having a more extensive sensory area. This 
is notable in Deudorix, where only the female has the series of segmental spots 
on many segments, and reaches the extreme in Feniseca itself, where the male 
is an average type 2, and the female a fully developed type 3, with only 3 or 
4 basal segments fully scaled. 

The Erycinidse also deserve a similar study, which will not be done at 
this time. The most striking feature here is that some genera have thin and 
some thick antennae, the latter being scattered through the family, but in 
general present in the forms with the rubbery texture which marks a pro- 
tected species. I suspect that some rearrangement of the group will be needed ; 
but evidently this feature arose several times in the family. Some also show the 
type with sensory windows on the shaft as in female Deudorix and other 
lycaenids {The ope, for instance). 

Most of the Lycaenidae fall into the three types, with a few transitionals, 
but Hypochrysops has a striking modification. Here there is a transverse bar 
of raised scales across the outer end of each segment of the shaft and even the 
basal portion of the club, dividing the whole sensory area except the apical 
part of the club into segmental blocks. Several species show the character, 
which appears in no other genus examined. No attempt is made to make this 
report exhaustive, but in the larger genera several species were examined, 
with only one case of inconsistency. In Candalides the blue species are normal 
type 2, while the two white New Guinea species examined are perfectly 
normal type 1. Evidently the genus needs revision, and I rather think the 
white species may go over to Philiris. 



14 



Forbes: Lvcaenid antenna 



Vol.11 :nos.l-3 



As every one knows, the grouping of the lycsenid genera is in extreme 
confusion, so I have used the names of Seitz' Macrolepidoptera in the follow- 
ing list. But even this leaves some possible confusions, for each of the four 
geographic sections is differently arranged, and there are some shifts of names. 
Note thatThecla is the traditional Thecla, broadly defined, not the nomencla- 
torial Thecla (Zephyrus) . In the case of the Blues and Coppers {Lyccena or 
Plebeius and Chrysophanus or Lyccena) the confusion of both names and 
groupings — genera or subgenera — is extreme, but need not bother us, for 
the entire series have similar type 1 antennae. For type 1 I have listed only 
representative genera, for types 2 and 3 all the genera examined; genera just 
on the line between 2 and 3 are assigned somewhat arbitrarily, but roughly 
a sensory area solid back to the middle of the shaft or interruptedly to the basal 
quarter is called type 3. 

TYPE 1 (examples) 

All Lipteninae Pithecops Rathinda 

All "Blues" Callictita Zeltus 

All "Coppers" Una Thaumaina 

Thecla (normal types) Lampides Oxylides 

Theclopsis Talicada Hemiolaus 

Itylos Lyccena, including L. arion Spindasis 

Pseudonotis (slightly run down) Lucia Axiocerses 

Epimastidia (very short) Her da Leptomyrina 

Candalides meeki, etc. Sithon (slightly run down) Hypomyrina 

Philiris Chliaria Hypocopelatus 

Megisba Hypolyccena 

TYPE 2 (varying degrees) 
Thecla (many blue types, including halesus, martialisj etc.) 



Eu?nceus 

Hypaurotis 

Habrodais 

Satyrium 

Feniseca (male) 

Hypochrysops (aberrant) 

Amblypodia (Arhopala) 

Niphanda (female) 

Zephyrus 



Lceosopis Poritia 

Chcetoprocta (slight) Deudorix ( 9 has spots) 

Euaspe Stugeta 

Decalana Dapidodigma 

Cainena Iolaus 

Tajuria Aphnccus 

Uoraga Capys 

Catapcecilma Phasis 

Marmessus Crudaria 



TYPE 3 

Feniseca (female) Curetis 

Liphyra Ogyris 

Allotinus (female thicker) Suasa 

Gerydus Drina 

Paragerydus Biduanda 

Taraka Eooxylides 

Spalgis Cheritra (almost) 



Tichcrra (almost) 

Yasoda 

Loxura 

Megalo palpus ( extreme ) 

Lachnocnema 

Myrina 

Arrugia 



16 Garden Street, Cambridge 38, Mass., U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 15 

THE LARVAL STAGES OF SPHINX FRANKII (SPHINGID^E) 

by Joseph Muller 

Luckily, I find a few of the extremely rare Sphinx frankii (Neum.) every 
year on the light in my own backyard and also on restaurant lights in the 
neighborhood. Three years ago, I found two females, which were put in paper 
bags to lay eggs. Having no results after one day, I took them out and tried 
everything under the sun to make them lay eggs. One laid no eggs at all. 
From the other female I got six eggs. But all six larvae died after the second 
molt. Last year I found two more females, but still not knowing of any better 
way to obtain eggs I again put them in bags. As before, no eggs were laid 
the first day. Before changing to any other methods, I left them in the bag 
for a second day. To my surprise, I found eggs the second, third, and 
fourth day. 

Larvae started to emerge from the eggs from one female on the fifth day, 
from the other on the seventh day. Eggs are laid singly. The color of the 
eggs is not as green as that of other sphingids ; instead, it is a yellowish green. 
On the second day they turn dark yellow and on the fourth and fifth day light 
yellow. Larvae were put on elm. For a whole day they did not eat but crawled 
restlessly over the food plant without stopping. They spun silken threads on 
which they let themselves down, in the same manner as some geometrid larvae 
do. After ash was added, all larvae immediately settled on it and quieted down 
and fed. As healthy elm leaves are hard to find, I was glad of this outcome. 
Detailed descriptions were made of living larvae in each instar, and these 
follow. 

1st INSTAR (2-3 July) : the emerging larva eats either one-half, three- 
quarters, or the whole eggshell ; the color of the larva is chrome lemon yellow, 
except the caudal horn which is brown with a black tip. 

2nd INSTAR (4-6 July) : on the first day the larva looks the same, ex- 
cept that the chrome yellow has turned greenish; the next day the larva has 
grown rapidly and shows yellow lines on the four last abdominal segments ; 
the third day all eight abdominal segments are now yellow lined, the black 
tip on the caudal horn is split forming a V, and there are two longitudinal 
yellowish addorsal lines which start at the mesothorax, where they are close 
together, and run parallel to the base of the caudal horn. 

3rd INSTAR (7-9 July) : the larva has an all-over bluish appearance 
now, with the head apple green with two yellowish green bands on each side 
of the face and covered with minute yellow tubercles; the horn, yellowish 
laterally, and brown ventrally and dorsally, is covered with minute black 
tubercles; the two addorsal lines are more open now at the mesothorax and 
are whitish, and the segment lining is whitish instead of yellow; for the first 
time a subdorsal line is showing, also whitish; the addorsal lines are covered 
with minute white tubercles, sixteen between each segment, eight on each side, 
and the whole body of the larva is covered with numerous white granules giv- 



16 Muller: Sphinx franckii larva Vol.11: nos.1-3 

ing it a granulated appearance ; the anal plate has yellow edging ; a yellow line 
goes from the horn to the tarsus, and yellowish obliques are faintly visible ; the 
true legs are light yellow. By the end of this instar seven whitish obliques are 
visible, the last oblique much wider than the rest and going all the way to 
the black tip of the horn ; the bands on the face are yellowish ; the segment 
lining has disappeared. 

4th INSTAR (10-14 July) : the yellowish face bands are now promi- 
nent ; all of the caudal horn is green, and the V on the tip is missing ; the true 
legs are green ; the last oblique goes halfway to the horn ; the addorsal lines 
reach to the head instead of the mesothorax ; the anal plate is lined with white ; 
a whitish subventral line shows through on the meso- and metathorax ; the 
whole body of the larva is granulated ; for the first time, the larva is raising 
the anterior portion of the body when at rest ; all markings become more 
prominent later in the instar. 

5th INSTAR (15-20 July): all of the larva looks whitish blue; the 
addorsal lines narrow from the prothorax to the head but do not join, and 
the tubercles on the addorsal lines have the same bluish ground color as the 
larva, except on the thoracic segments, where they are yellow and twice as h'gh 
as on the abdomen ; the horn is bluish dorsally and greenish ventrally ; the 
head between the yellow bands is apple green and bluish behind the bands ; 
the yellowish obliques, still faintly visible, are lined with green cephalad ; the 
edg ; ng on the anal plate is yellow ; the spiracles, hardly visible, are pinkish, as 
are the true legs ; the ventral tubercles are yellow. 

6th INSTAR (21-27 July) : at first the face bands of the larva and the 
edging on the anal plate have changed to greenish ; the spiracles are plainly 
visible now and are pinkish yellow ; from each oblique, minute golden yellow 
granules form a line down to the feet ; the subventral line through the meta- 
and mesothorax is formed by the same colored granules : golden yellow granules 
cover the body of the larva laterally and ventrally. By the fourth day a blue 
line has appeared dorsad along the addorsal lines ; the cephalad green line on 
the upper half of the obliques has also turned to blue ; plainly visible now is 
a whitish subdorsal line, thinning out at the thoracic segments ; the obliques 
just about cross this line, except that the last one runs to the base of the horn 
now and is the most prominent, being twice as wide as the others ; the minute 
granules on the thoracic segments and venter have turned white. When full 
grown, the larva has a smooth appearance ; the color of the larva dorsally 
and laterally is bluish white ; the face of the larva is apple green and the face 
bands dark green as is the edging of the anal plate ; the anal plate and prolegs 
are apple green and granulated ; the caudal horn is greenish and granulated ; 
the dorsad lines along-side the addorsal lines and the cephalad line on the 
oblique have turned to prominent blue green ; the size of the tubercles on the 
addorsal lmes differs somewhat among larvae, on some being shorter and on 
others higher ; there are only six tubercles on the prothorax now instead of 
eight, and they are yellow and only half as high as on the two other thoracic 
segments ; on the meta- and mesothorax there are now twelve yellowish-white 
tubercles ; there are sixteen white tubercles on the abdominal segments, and 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 17 

these tubercles are much shorter and thinner than before ; the spiracles are 
brown ochre ; the true legs are pink ; the thoracic segments are dotted ventrally 
with minute yellow granules ; three to four granules of the same size form a 
zigzagging white subventral line on the base of each oblique from the sixth 
to eleventh segment inclusive. 

Just before burrowing, the larva has lost the bluish white color and has a 
watery greenish color now; the dorsad addorsal lines are much wider and 
dark green. The larvse burrowed after twenty-five days of feeding. 

On 25 August about forty percent of the pupae hatched, indicating a 
partial second brood. Sorry to say, wings of adults were not expanded, as I 
did not expect a second brood and therefore was not prepared for them. 

The full grown larva of Sphinx frank ii was described in 1912 by Elli- 
son A. Smyth, Jr. (Ent. News 23: p. 9). Professor Smyth described the 
larva as pea green dorsally and laterally. This description differs from mine, 
as I found the larva bluish white dorsally, greenish white laterally, and green- 
ish ventrally. Only the head, anal plate, and prolegs are apple green. 

The full grown larva was also described recently by W. T. M. Forbes 
(Lepidoptera of N. Y., Part II: p. 190). Professor Forbes' description differs 
from mine also in color. Besides, the foodplant was given as elm. My larvae 
refused to touch elm but fed readily on ash. Furthermore, he describes the 
larva as having rough subdorsal lines, which I can't find. 

R. D., Lebanon, N. J., U. S. A. 



A REQUEST FOR SPECIMENS OF A PUZZLING PAPILIO POPULATION 

While studying specimens of Papilio rutulus and Papilio multicaudatus , I came 
across a series of specimens that seemed to have some characteristics of both species; 
i.e., the rutulus have some characteristics of multicaudatus and the multicaudatus have 
some characteristics of rutulus. 

The series available to me for study is too small to solve the problem. With this 
in mind, I would like to request specimens of these two species from Central California 
(San Luis Obispo-Bakersfield-Fresno-Yosemite National Park-Sacramento-Marysville- 
Fort Bragg) . Of primary interest are specimens from the Coastal Range. The center 
of the problem seems to be Mount Diablo, east of Berkeley. 

In the event a new subspecies is described, the specimens loaned will be in- 
corporated in the type series and then returned to their original owner. A small portion 
may, with the owner's approval, be retained for further study or for distribution to 
museums. 

Kent H. Wilson, Department of Entomology, 
University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas, U. S. A. 



18 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

THE "PUMPING" OF CERTAIN MOTHS AT WATER 1 

by Harry K. Clench 

The chief "road" through Carnegie Museum's new Powdermill Nature 
Reserve (located about 4 miles south of Rector, in eastern Westmoreland 
County, Pennsylvania) consists of a pair of deep and often rocky ruts through 
the forest in the bottom of the Powdermill Run valley. Drainage is not good 
and these ruts usually have standing water in them and even a running trickle. 

On August 3, 1956, Dr. Neil D. Richmond (Curator of Reptiles and 
Amphibians at the museum) and I paid a visit to the Reserve with the double 
object of collecting moths and salamanders. As it happened, the evening was 
not an outstanding success, mediocre for moths and almost a total failure for 
salamanders ; at about midnight we decided to leave. 

While we walked along the road back to the car our lantern picked up 
numbers of the little green geometer, Dyspteris abortivar'ia H.-S., sitting along 
the edges of the water in the ruts. A few minutes later, as we drove down 
the lower part of the road, the car lights showed many more in a similar situa- 
tion. In both cases we stopped to examine them more closely. 

Every specimen that we could see was engaged in the same activity : with 
wings erect over its body, the rather short proboscis was extended into the 
water, while from its anus dripped, at between one and two second intervals, 
a steady procession of glistening clear drops, each drop growing rapidly and 
then falling, to be replaced by the next. At the same time the antennse were 
nervously waving, sometimes alternating, sometimes together. So far as we 
could see the activity went on without interruption. 

We estimated that over about fifty yards of suitable situation about fifty 
Dyspteris were seen, all thus engaged, all seemingly fresh and apparently all 
males, though on this last point we are not at all sure. Although numerous, 
the individuals were not clustered but on the contrary were well and more or 
less evenly dispersed. How long this activity lasted we do not know. They 
were first noticed at about 11 :30 P.M. (E.D.S.T.) ; they were still "pump- 
ing" when we finally left at about 1 A.M. 

The day had been only moderately warm, temperatures probably in the 
low 80's (°F) ; the sky more or less clear all day, clouding up a little at night- 
fall. The evening was rather humid at first, later becoming much drier and 
by the time we left the temperature had dropped considerably, probably to 
the low 60's. Shortly before leaving we noticed a slight breeze. 

A week later, on August 10th, we again visited the Reserve, this time 
with a definite intent to gather further data on this curious behavior in addi- 
tion to routine collecting. The data obtained have been grouped for conven- 
ience under several headings below. 

1. SPECIES INVOLVED. Although more frequently observed than 
any other, Dyspteris abortivar'ia was not the only species so engaged. Drepana 



Contribution no. 2, Powdermill Nature Reserve of Carnegie Museum. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 19 

arcuata Wlk. was also seen in some numbers (see below). On the previous 
trip a few had been seen at the water but their position, with wings flattened 
and covering the abdomen, was such that we could not observe any dripping 
from the anus, though on the second trip it was looked for — and seen. Two 
other species, one a geometer and one of unknown family, were seen pumping, 
but both eluded capture. The latter one is especially regrettable, for its pump- 
ing activity differed from the others : instead of dripping from the anus the 
liquid was forcibly ejected in a fine jet, perhaps l 1 /? or 2 inches long, at about 
the same intervals as in Dyspteris. 

2. TIME OF ACTIVITY. At about 8:30 P.M., at dusk, only a 
single worn Dyspteris was seen at the road and it was not pumping. At 9 :30 
it was dark and both Dyspteris and Drepana were present and pumping, the 
former numerous, the latter scarce. Fifteen minutes later the numbers of 
Drepana had increased a little and continued to increase until midnight or 
thereabouts. At midnight a count was made along a continuous 17 yards of 
the most favorable part of the road: 14 Dyspteris and 13 Drepana were 
present. At 1 :45 A.M., when we left, both species were still present in num- 
bers though no count was made. 

3. OCCURRENCE. It was noted that the moths showed a definite 
preference for stretches of the road where the trickle of water was compara- 
tively rapid — narrows between stones and the like — and for places where 
stones or other solid perches were available for them to rest upon. Acting on 
this information, we tried to find a natural setting for this activity. One was 
located almost immediately: about 10 yards from the road in a stretch of tiny 
brook flowing among muddy flats, stones, rocks, and many dead branches, some 
overhanging and others partly submerged. Here both Dyspteris and Drepana 
were found, a few individuals of each in the 15-20 yards of the stream that 
we could observe. They perched mostly on wet sticks and branches, less often 
on rocks, at the water's edge. All were pumping. 

Concurrent with the observations on the "pumping" moths, we were 
running a sheet with Coleman lantern in an open part of the woods, about 30 
yards from the road (and in sight of it), alongside an old trail which leaves 
the road at right angles. At the same time we established a bait line along 
the trail, running from about 5 or 6 yards of the road, past the sheet, for a 
considerable distance into the woods. The bait used was a mixture of fer- 
mented fruit juice, crushed rotten apples, and brown sugar. No Dyspter's at 
all came either to the sheet or to the bait. At one time, at about 11 P.M., five 
Drepana came in to the sheet, almost at once, but no others either before or 
after and none at all came to the bait. 

At one place on the road (but in the other rut) a patch of about two 
yards length was liberally poured with bait mixture ; about ten yards farther 
on a fresh urine sample was provided: both at about 8:30 P.M. Nothing, 
however, came to the bait mixture all evening, not even species which we ob- 
tained in abundance on the bait painted on the tree trunks. At the urine we 
found only a single worn Calocalpe undulata L. and one Desrnia funeralis 
Hbn. in the course of the night. This, parenthetically, was in itself rather in- 



20 Clench: Moths "pumping" at water Vol.11 : nos.1-3 

teresting. Both of these we had seen a week or so earlier, Calocalpe by the 
hundreds, at night on a restricted patch of sand and gravel along the edge of 
Powdermill Run. Our guess at that time, which this second observation tends 
to confirm, was that the attractant was some sort of animal urine, possibly deer. 

Both Calocalpe and Desmia came sparingly to the sheet. The former was 
clearly close to the end of its flight period, the few individuals seen in striking 
contrast to the swarms present earlier in the season. In contrast, Desmia did 
not seem less numerous than before, though its numbers were always much 
less than those of Calocalpe. Neither of these species came to the water in the 
road all evening. 

4. PUMPING ACTIVITY. Unfortunately no accurate timing device 
was available. Both species, Dyspteris and Drepana, had roughly the same rate 
of dripping, the average interval between drops being slightly more than one 
second. The position adopted by the two species when pumping is, however, 
very different, as already intimated. Dyspteris holds its wings erect, ap- 
pressed or nearly so, the antennae usually waving, the abdomen entirely visible. 
Drepana, on the other hand, had its wings flattened and horizontal, the fore 
wings retracted so far to the rear that the costse were in line ; the abdomen 
completely covered by the hind wings and hidden from dorsal view. Dyspteris, 
at least, had no objection to actually standing in the water, several having been 
so observed. One individual deserves special mention. The trickle of water 
in the road flows out onto a small plank bridge and through a hole in this 
bridge to the stream below, the water forming a flowing film over the vertical 
sides of the hole. Early in the evening a Dyspteris was seen perched, head up, 
on the vertical side of this hole, the film of water actually flowing over and 
around its "feet." It, too, was pumping, the ejected drops falling freely to the 
water about two feet below. At intervals all evening we observed an individual 
in this same place and position : presumably the same one. 

The pumping moths, incidentally, showed no apparent reaction to light 
Shining car lights or lantern full upon them did not seem to alter their be- 
havior in the slightest: yet they were not drugged or sluggish at all and would 
rapidly fly ofT if touched. 

The question that comes immediately to mind is : what is the purpose of 
this pumping acivity? If but a single individual were seen engaged in a peculiar 
or unusual pursuit we could dismiss it (rightly or wrongly) as an idiosyncrasy 
of the particular specimen or a response to an infrequent combination of cir- 
cumstances. At all events it would not press too much for an explanation. 
Here, however, we have what must be at least a major part of the local popu- 
lation of a species (referring specifically to Dyspteris) , all engaged in an ac- 
tivity which clearly occupies them for a large share (if not all) of their active 
hours. 

A behavior so time-consuming may well have something to do with nu- 
trition. Though it is only a guess it is possible that there is some needed sub- 
stance in the water, occurring at such a low concentration that a large volume 
of the water must be passed in order to extract the amount required. This 
presupposes an efficient, rapid, and probably rather unusual extracting mech- 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 21 

anism. It is possible, too, that the unusually cool and humid summer has in 
some way influenced the appearance of this behavior. 

It seems unlikely that such an activity would be confined to a single area. 
Yet I know of only one other published account of it: that of Guppy (Lepid. 
News 6: 43; 1952), who observed (presumably near Wellington, B. C.) an 
individual of the small holarctic geometer, Venusia cambrica Curt., engaged in 
what his clear description shows to be the same activity as that here under dis- 
cussion. The specimen was perched head down inside a pail partly filled with 
water. On the occasion of the recent Congress of Entomology at Montreal I 
discussed the activity with a number of veteran moth collectors, of both Europe 
and North America, who surprisingly declared it to be quite new to them. A 
few observations on butterflies so engaged have been made (but so far as I 
know not published). Professor W. T. M. Forbes recalled having seen a 
small butterfly in South America behaving similarly; and my colleague, Dr. 
Arthur Twomey, Curator of Birds at the museum, has several times seen 
various Papilio performing the same activity, in at least one instance the liquid 
being ejected forcibly. In each case, however, only single individuals or at 
most a very few were involved, rather than the mass assembly seen in Dyspteris 
and Drepana. 

Clearly we need to know much more about this unusual phenomenon. Is 
it world-wide, or confined to certain regions only? Is it limited to certain 
groups, and if so, to which ones (and what species) ? Is it usual, or is it only 
manifested during unusual climatic conditions? 

Section of Insects and Spiders, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U.S.A. 



ON DESCRIBING DISTRIBUTIONS 

In obtaining data in connection with the list of Florida Lepidoptera. I frequently 
encountered in the literature the ambiguous definition of the range of certain species. 
An example of this is "Maine to Florida.'' When there are other, definite Florida 
records, everything is serene, but where it has not been possible to dig out any actual 
record for the species in Florida, the question arises, just what did the author mean? 
Did he know of a Florida record, or did he mean that the species was taken in Georgia, 
and so could be recorded as taken as far south as the Florida boundary? In several 
instances this has proved to be the case. From living authors it has been possible to 
find out the meaning, but with those who are no longer with us, we have to use our 
own judgment. It is my suggestion, therefor, that in future, authors be specific when 
giving the range of a species and always state "Maine to Florida, inclusive," or "New 
York to Illinois, inclusive." Naturally there may be gaps in between whence there are 
no records, just as the statement "General throughout the state" does not meant that 
there is a record from every county, but it does mean that there are records from enough 
counties in all parts of the state to make the assumption. Lucien Harris tells me he 
encountered the same problem in working on his "Butterflies of Georgia." 

Charles P. Kimball, 7340 Point of Rocks Rd., Sarasota, Fla., U. S. A. 



22 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

A NEW RACE OF CENEIS CHRYXUS FROM THE 
OLYMPIC MOUNTAINS OF WASHINGTON (SATYRID^) 

by William N. Burdick 

A number of years ago this writer collected a series of specimens of CEneis 
upon the high, misty ridges of the Olympic Range above Port Angeles, Wash- 
ington that seemed analogous to CEneis chryxus Doubleday & Hewitson. This 
locality is at an elevation of about 7,000 feet above sea level, which in this 
region is above timberline. The recent study of these specimens reveals the 
fact that they are substantially different from GE. chryxus. Similar material 
has recently been observed that was obtained upon Vancouver Island, B. C, 
Canada, where the climatic conditions resemble those of the Olympic Penin- 
sula. It is likely that these two populations represent the same race. The Van- 
couver Island material has been confused with other material collected adjacent 
to Whitehorse, Alaska, and the Yukon Territory which has in turn been mis- 






Fig. 1. Upperside (right) and underside of the type of CEneis caryi Dyar. 
Smith Landing Athabasca, Canada, 13 June 1903. No. 8046, U. S. National 
Museum. 

identified as CEneis caryi Dyar. The Alaskan population, which should be 
identified, at best, as a form close to CE. chryxus, is quite atypical of CE. 
caryi. Figures in this paper will show the difference between it and CE. chry- 
xus. CEneis caryi was described from a single male taken at Smith Landing, 
Athabaska, Canada, a location many miles distant from either Whitehorse or 
the Vancouver Island area. The picture of it is here reproduced, and it shows 
that it does not resemble either the Olympic Mountain race, described below, 
or CE. chryxus. The description of CE. caryi states that it features large black 
ocelli with white pupils and that the mesial band on the underside of the sec- 
ondaries is externally strongly white-edged. These characters, as will be ob- 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 23 

served below, are as foreign to CE. chryxus chryxus as they are to the new 
race. 

The description of this previously unnamed race is as follows : 

CEneis chryxus valerata Burdick, new subspecies 

MALE. Upperside of primary: discal area, costal margin, and apex dull dark 
brown; outer margin from apex to near third interspace shaded with brown; limbal 
area yellowish-tan crossed by brown veins, somewhat shaded with brown; one small 
weak ocellus at the apex, consisting of a thin dark brown ovoid ring with white pupil ; 
occasionally a black pin-point speck in the first interspace of the wing; dark hair-like 
marginal lines internal to the alternately brown and white fringes; slight brown and 
white sprinkling on the costa. 

Upperside of secondary: discal area tan, veiled with brownish scales, more intense 
near the inner margin; limbal area of a slightly lighter shade of tan, not as bright as 
that in the submarginal area; sometimes pin-point black dots in the first interspace; 
often some brownish shading along outer margin. 

Underside of primary: discal cell light grayish-tan overlaid with brownish-red 
striation; two parallel, short, irregular brownish lines at each end of cell, the outer one 
more reddish ; discal area below the cell light tan devoid of striation ; limbal area light 
tan washed with light gray, decreasingly grayish on the lower half of the wing; apex 
and costa whitish, speckled with brown atoms which extend along the margins, decreas- 
ing in intensity and terminating at about the middle of the wing; apical ocellus repro- 
duced as small white dot with slight brown shadowing. 

Underside of secondary: basal area heavily maculated with dark brown striae on 
white background ; somewhat tortuous broad, dark brown mesial band, slightly mottled 
with white; borders of mesial band rather truncate, not crenulate as characteristic of 
CE. chryxus chryxus; narrow, slight light area external to the mesial band; limbal 
portion external to mesial band whitish, densely impregnated with dark brown striation 
over the entire surface, slightly more intense along the outer margin ; veins white and 
conspicuous. 

FEMALE Primary a little more rounded than that of male. Upperside of primary: 
uniform yellowish-tan over the entire surface ; apex washed with brown atoms which 
extend down the wing submarginally and taper gradually to termination at about the 
middle of the wing; costa speckled with brown and white; base dark; two short, rather 
obscure, parallel lines at the end of the cell ; almost imperceptible brownish shadows 
across the middle of the wing vertically; three weak ocelli, apical one an ovoid 
brownish-black ring with white pupil, smaller round one, often obsolete, in the second 
interspace, black dot in the first interspace; dark hair-line marginal border; fringes like 
the male. 

Underside of primary: similar to that of male but usually distinguished by more 
dense red striation throughout the limbal area; apical occelus reproduced as white dot; 
other ocelli absent. 

Underside of secondary: similar to that of male. 

Characters common to both sexes: body dark brown, sometimes slightly grayish on 
the underside of abdomen ; legs light brown ; palpi medium brown with some black 
hairs; antennae fuscous, minutely annulated with brown and gray; club gradually en- 
larged, elongated, brown, grayish below. 

HOLOTYPE male: (expanse 45 mm.) Hurricane Ridge, Clallam Co., 
Washington, 11 August 1936. 

ALLOTYPE female: (expanse 49 mm.) same location and date. 

The HOLOTYPE and ALLOTYPE will be deposited in the collection 
of the Los Angeles County Museum at Los Angeles, California. 



24- Burdick: New race of CEneis Vol.11: nos.1-3 

PAPATYPES : Disposition of the twenty PARATYPES with same date 
and locality as the HOLOTYPE and ALLOTYPE will be made as follows: 
one pair, each, in the United States National Museum, Washington, D. C, 
the American Museum of Natural History, New York, N. Y., and the 
Canadian National Museum, Ottawa, Canada. The remaining PARA- 
TYPES consisting of thirteen male and one female specimens will remain in 
the collection of the author. The average measurement of the sixteen male 
PARATYPES from base to wing tip is 26+ mm. The average like measure- 
ment of the four female PARATYPES is 28 mm. 




Fig. 2. Male genitalia of CEneis chryxus valerata. 

Inasmuch as CE. chryxus chryxus is the closest relative of CE. chryxus 
valerata, an analytical comparison is here offered. In a long series of CE. c. 
chryxus from Wyoming and Colorado the outstanding differences have been 
noted as follows: 

A. MALE 
1. Upperside of primary: chryxus features a clearly defined dark brown 
submarginal border about 2 mm. in width, extending from the apex to near 
the submedian interspace, diminishing in width to the latter point ; valerata has 
a lesser border, consisting of dark shading of indistinct definition. 



Fig. 3. Left row, CEneis chryxus 'valerata Burdick. Top, holotype male, upper- 
side; 2nd, holotype male, underside; 3rd, allotype female, upperside; bottom, 
allotype female, underside. 

Right row, CEneis chryxus chryxus Dbldy. & Hew. Top, male, upperside 
(Teton Pass, Wyo., 16 July 1937) ; 2nd, same, underside; 3rd, female, upper- 
side (Mt. Wheeler, Nev., 19 July 1935) ; bottom, female, underside, Estes Park, 
Colo., 16 July 1950). 

(Figures natural size; photos by Paul Holloway) 



1957 



The Lepidoptertsts' News 



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26 Burdick: New race of CEneis Vol.11: nos.1-3 

2. chryxus has distinct dark veins intersecting the limbal area of the 
primary ; valcrata shows less conspicuous veins here, and the shadings along the 
veins are obvious. 

3. The tan color in the limbal area of chryxus on the upperside of the 
primary is more intense than in valerata. 

4. The underside of the primary of chryxus shows heavy, dark brown 
margins ; valerata has only obscure shading along the margins. 

5. The underside of the primary of chryxus features a prominent ir- 
regular, dark brown line crossing the center of the wing perpendicularly from 
the inner margin to the costal margin, and this line breaks outward in a sharp 
V-shaped figure at the end of the cell ; this character is absent in valerata. 

6. The two or three robust ocelli or dots on both surfaces of the primary 
of chryxus are represented by one weak apical ocellus in valerata. 

B. FEMALE 

1. The upperside of the primary of chryxus shows heavy dark brown 
margins, with the internal margin of these borders accentuated by a series of 
small subcrescentic dark brown spots ; the margins of valerata consist of a dark 
hair-like line adjacent to the fringe and a thin sprinkling of brown atoms at 
the apex and along the margin to about the center of the wing. 

2. The distinct brown transverse line embracing the acute V, that 
crosses the center of the primaries on both sides of chryxus, is not distinguish- 
able in valerata. 

3. The heavily crenated borders of the mesial band that are typical of 
chryxus are absent in valerata. 

4. The distinct white dots along the margin of underside of the sec- 
ondary, that are nearly always evident in chryxus, are absent in valerata. 

Carl W. Kirkwood, who is a specialist in the study of the genitalia of 
Lepidoptera, has assisted the author by making a number of slides of the male 
genitalia of both CE. c. chryxus and CE. c. valerata. His flat line drawing 
of the genitalia of valerata is figure 3. They differ from those of chryxus in 
the following respects : the uncus is heavier, the claspers are wider, there are 
deeper excavations between the tooth and base of costa, and due to a mem- 
branous flap the claspers appear to be notched. These characters were con- 
stant in all specimens of valerata. Otherwise the genitalia of these two insects 
appear to be alike. 

1108 South Harvard Blvd., Los Angeles 6, Calif., U. S. A. 




1957 The Lepidopterists' News 27 

A NEW SPECIES OF THE GENUS APHANIA 
(OLETHREUTID^E) 1 

by T. N. Freeman 2 

Some officers of the Forest Biology Division, Science Service, occasionally 
submitted specimens of an undescribed species of the genus Aphania Hbn. for 
identification. Examination of the miscellaneous material of this genus in the 
Canadian National Collection resulted in finding two conspecific specimens 
that had been sent to Mr. Carl Heinrich by Dr. J. H. McDunnough in 
1924, just after the publication of Heinrich's revision of the North American 
species of the Olethreutidae. Dr. McDunnough suspected that the specimens 
might be of the newly described species A. infida Heinr. The specimens were 
returned with a note by Mr. Heinrich : "not infida, possibly a variety of 
deceptana Kft." An examination of additional material has established that the 
specimens represent an undescribed species closely allied to infida. 

Aphania salicaceana n. sp. 

Palpus whitish, the apex with fuscous, white-tipped scales outwardly. Front white, 
overhung by long, fuscous scales. Vertex fuscous. Cervix and thorax light fuscous, with 
white-tipped scales, the thorax with a median, arcuate, transverse band of black or 
fuscous scales. Forewing grey with white-tipped scales. Basal patch fuscous, extending 
one-third the length of the wing, mainly occupying the area anterior to the radial stem, 
the apex extending halfway to the dorsal margin in an irregular, narrow, black-edged 
band. A black dash running through the basal patch along the anterior margin of the 
radial stem. Median band greyish-fuscous, distinctly outlined inwardly with a narrow 
black margin, gradually diffusing outwardly into the ground color of the wing; band 
extending from the costa to the middle of the wing, where it constricts to a fine, black 
line that forks into two black lines extending indistinctly to the posterior margin. Be- 
yond the median band, the wing grey with a small, darker-coloured spot near the middle 
of the outer margin, and a similar one just before the tornus. Hind wing dirty white 
basally, gradually becoming fuscous toward the apical margin. Fringes white with a 
dark, fine, basal line. Expanse: 18-20 mm. Moth in late July and early August. 

Male Genitalia. — Similar to those of infida, but with outer angle of the 
sacculus arcuate, and the clasper with a longer-spined projection and a broader 
apex ( Fig. 1 ) . Fig. 2 shows the clasper of infida for comparison. 

HOLOTYPE: Male, Red Deer, Alta., July 24, 1923. No. 6262 in 
the Canadian National Collection, Ottawa. 

PARATYPES: One male, Pibroch, Alta., July 17, 1951 (trembling 
aspen) ; one male, Maloneck, Sask., June 23, 1952 (willow) ; one male, Hud- 
son Bay Junction, Sask., July 3, 1951 (willow) ; one female, Ottawa, Ont., 
August 5, 1905 (C. H. Young). All paratypes No. 6262 in the Canadian 



Contribution No. 3445, Entomology Division, Science Service, Department of Agri- 
culture, Ottawa, Canada. 
2 Senior Entomologist. 



28 



Freeman: New species of Aphania 



Vol.11: nos.1-3 





Fig. 1. Male genitalia of A. salicaceana n. sp. Fig. 2. Male genitalia of A. 
infida Heinr. Fig 3. Paratype of A. salicaceana n. sp. Fig. 4. Paratype of A. 
infida Heinr. 



National Collection. The male paratypes were reared by officers of the Forest 
Insect Survey, Forest Biology Division. 

Distribution. — Ottawa, Ont. ; Maloneck and Hudson Bay Junction, 
Sask. ; Red Deer and Pibroch, Alta. 

Food Plants. — Willow and aspen. 



Insect Systematics and Biological Control Unit, Entomology Division, 

Ottawa, Ont., CANADA 



1957 The Lepidopterisis' News 29 

ON THE QUESTIOxN OF A LECTOTYPE FOR 
MEGATHYMUS ARYXNA DYAR* 

by Curtis W. Sabrosky 

In 1955 dos Passos and Bell published an application to the Interna- 
tional Commision on Zoological Nomenclature to fix the lectotype of Mega- 
thymus aryxna Dyar (1905). Far from being of limited scope, this problem 
is one of general interest. Every taxonomist meets with problems of the 
composition of original type series, restriction, and lectotype selection. In the 
absence of predominant and important usage which it is desired to preserve, a 
ruling on this application can and should be made on the basis of general princi- 
ples that will guide all taxonomists faced with similar problems. 

For details and review of the literature, the interested reader should con- 
sult the papers by Bell and dos Passos (1954), dos Passos and Bell 
(1955), and Stallings and Turner (1954, 1955). The argument revolves 
about the original description, which is repeated here: 

M. aryxna, new species. 

'This is the form figured in the Biologia Cent.-Am. Lep. Het., Ill, pi. 
69, figs. 3 and 4. It differs from neumoegeni in having the fulvous markings 
considerably reduced, the outer band being broken into spots. I have ten 
specimens from Arizona from Dr. Barnes and Mr. Poling " 

ORIGINAL TYPE SERIES OF MEGATHYMUS ARYXNA DYAR 

From the original description I consider that there are two reasonable 
alternatives as to what constitutes the original type series : 

(a) The ten specimens from Arizona which Dyar had before him, but 
not the Biologia specimens which he (as far as anyone can tell from his words) 
knew only from the figures ; and 

(b) The ten Arizona specimens plus the two Biolog ; a figures which 
Dyar identified as being of the same species as his Arizona material. 

I cannot conceive of the original type series of aryxna being limited to 
the two figured specimens of the Biologia reference, as concluded by DOS 
Passos and Bell. Decision 142 of the 1953 Copenhagen Congress, to 
which they refer, applies only to those instances in which "a specific name, 
when first published, is expressly stated to be a substitute (e. g. by the use 






* This paper is only slightly modified from that printed in Opinion 483 of the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature and was in press when that 
Opinion appeared. That Opinion directed that only the two Biologia figures in ques- 
tion are to be accepted as syn types of Megathymus aryxna Dyar, and that the speci- 
men from Mexico upon which figure 4 is based is to be accepted as the lectotype of 
aryxna. The Opinion was based on, although not (in my opinion) inevitable under 
Declaration 35 (issued at the same time) in which the Commission dealt with the 
meaning of the expression "syntype" as used in the Rules. 



30 Sabrosky: Megathymus aryxna Vol.11: nos.1-3 

of such expressions as 'nom.nov.' or 'nom.mut.') for a previously published 
name . . " (Italics mine except for the abbreviations). Dyar's aryxna, 
however, was not expressly stated to be a substitute for neumoegeni; on the 
contrary, it was clearly proposed as distinct from neumoegeni, both in des- 
cription ("It differs from neumoegeni in . . .") and in the key immediately 
preceding it. 

From a commonsense viewpoint, it would have been contrary to human 
nature for Dyar to base his new species entirely on two pictures, leaving the 
ten specimens actually before him without any standing! It would have been 
far more logical, and indeed in accord with common practice, for him to de- 
scribe aryxna from the ten specimens only, with the comment that it was 
the species figured in the Biologia, but with no intention of including the 
figured specimens in his type series. As a matter of fact, the ten specimens 
from Arizona, in the collection of the U. S. National Museum, are all marked 
with the distinctive red label "Type No. 13033 USNM" (in this case 
"type" — syntype), and were so entered in the Museum's Type Catalogue 
on February 28, 1910, by Dyar himself. Granted that labeling per se is not 
an effective nomenclatural action, it does show clearly what Dyar himself 
considered to be the type series upon which his species was based. Barnes 
and McDunnough (1912) took the same view. 

In conclusion, the first alternative probably more accurately reflects the 
facts of the case, it seems to me to be the more logical choice, and it may even 
be the inevitable one because of the publication by Barnes and 
McDunnough (1912). The second is possible if one considers that Dyar 
also had the two figures before him, even if not the actual specimens. 



RESTRICTION OF ARYXNA UNDER THE FIRST 

ALTERNATIVE 

(Type series — the ten Arizona specimens) 

Skinner's (1906, 1911) synonymy of aryxna with neumoegeni was a 
subjective zoological action which still did not pin down the actual type series 
of aryxna, although he did eliminate the Biologia figure 3 as belonging to a 
distinct species (named M. drucei in 1911). 

The first valid restriction is that of Barnes and McDunnough 
(1912), who unquestionably and clearly recognized that aryxna was based 
on a mixed series, and restricted the name to one of the component parts. At 
their request, Dyar "restricted the name aryxna" (by labeling) to that part 
of the series which was not neumoegeni. Although Dyar himself did not 
publish the restriction, Barnes and McDunnough suggested the re- 
strictive action and did publish it, and published a figure of aryxna sensu 
stricto, based on a "co-type" (=syntype) (plate 1, figs. 1,2). They also 
clearly indicated the restriction by the following citations under the various 
species : 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 31 

p. 21, Druce's Bioiogia fig. 4 cited under neumoegeni; 
p. 22, aryxna Dyar, partim, cited under neumoegeni; 

p. 26, aryxna Dyar recognized as a valid species (aryxna Dyar, partim) ; 

and 
p. 42, drucei Skinner (Bioiogia fig. 3) is said to be possibly the female 

of smithi, or else a distinct species. 

We can scarcely hope for clearer restriction of a mixed series. (See discus- 
sion below on the nomenclature of restriction.) 

I do not agree with DOS Passos and Bell in finding any significance 
in Barnes and McDunnough's use of the expression "unnamed form" 
(1912, p. 23: "Dr. Dyar restricted the name aryxna to the unnamed form"). 
Barnes and McDunnough found "two forms, both included in the type 
series of aryxna" One was the true neumoegeni, but for the second there was 
no earlier name available (hence, "the unnamed form"), and they suggested 
that Dyar restrict the name aryxna to this part of the series. That conserva- 
tive taxonomic pratice utilized the already published name "aryxna" and 
admirably avoided the necessity of proposing a new name for the "unnamed 
form". 

The lectotype selection by Skinner and Williams (1924) would be 
invalid under the first alternative, because the specimen from Mexico 
(basis of Bioiogia fig. 4) was not one of the ten specimens from Arizona, 
and hence was not part of the original type series. 

Stallings and Turner (1954, plate 3) showed two figures of "M. 
aryxna Type $ as restricted by Dyar." This might be considered the first 
valid lectotype designation for aryxna under the first alternative. On the 
other hand, because they referred to the "Holotype" of two other species, 
and were careful to designate a "Lectotype" for neumoegeni, it might be 
argued that their "Type" for aryxna was used only in the sense of "a 
type" — i. e., a syntype — and merely quoted information on the specimen's 
label. Under the latter view, a lectotype is still not fixed for aryxna; under 
the former, a lectotype was established. Incidentally, Stallings and Turner 
stated (p. 78) that aryxna in Barnes and McDunnough's restricted sense 
includes only four of the original ten specimens. 



RESTRICTION OF ARYXNA UNDER THE SECOND 

ALTERNATIVE 

Under the second alternative the first reviser of aryxna is apparently 
Skinner (1906, p. 112): "M. aryxna Dyar is a synonym of neumoegeni, 
Edw. The fig. 3, pi. 69, Biol. Centr. Amer. Het. is not neumoegeni, 
as stated by Dyar." This action eliminated fig. 3 and restricted aryxna to 
fig. 4 and the ten specimens. Skinner (1911) continued his 1906 treatment 
by proposing for fig. 3 the new specific name drucei and treating aryxna as a 
variety of neumoegeni. 



32 Sabrosky: Megalhymus aryxna Vol.11: nos.1-3 

The next revision of the species was made by Barnes and McDunnough 
(1912) (see under first alternative). They clearly restricted aryxna to a 
species represented by certain specimens in the Arizona series, of which they 
figured a "cotype" (=syntype) as an example. 

The lectotype selection by Skinner and Williams (1924) would not 
be valid under the second alternative, because the specimen from Mexico is 
not in the type series as restricted by Barnes and McDunnough (1912). 

Again we come to Stallings and Turner (1954), and the remarks 
made under the first alternative apply here also. 

LECTOTYPE OF M. ARYXNA 

For both alternatives the conclusion is the same : The final restricted 
type series of aryxna consists of four specimens from the Arizona series 
orig'nally studied by Dyar. Depending on interpretation, either a lecto- 
type has been fixed by Stallings and Turner (1954) or no lectotype has 
yet been fixed definitely. If Stallings and Turner did not actually select 
a lectotype, rigidly construed, certainly the specimen labeled by Dyar as 
"Co-type (Sensu Restr)" and subsequently figured by Barnes and 
McDunnough (1912) and again by Stallings and Turner (1954) is 
the logical choice. 

THE NOMENCLATURE OF RESTRICTION 

Recognition that Barnes and McDunnough (1912) did, by their 
published acceptance of Dyar's action, formally restrict aryxna is analogous 
to the principle accepted by the 1948 International Congress at Paris for the 
designation of type-species of genera (1950, Bull. Zool. Nomencl. 4:181-2, 
Conclusion 72). That decision stated in effect that if an author accepted (in 
publication, of course) a certain species as the type-species on the authority 
of a previous author or as a result of the supposed operation of some rule, 
his published acceptance was equivalent to the effective selection of a type- 
species, even if he was in error as to what the previous author did or what 
the rule accomplished. In other words, what he accepted and published was 
effective as of that date, even if not before. By the same reasoning Barnes 
andMcDuNNOUGH's acceptance and publication of the restriction credited 
to Dyar should effectively date the restriction from Barnes and 
McDunnough (1912.) 

It seems to me to be essential to stability and universality that we must 
respect a clear restriction of a mixed species and that subsequent lectotype 
selection must be in accord with that restriction, and with legitimate suc- 
cessive restrictions, if such were necessary. This principle was recognized by 
the 1953 Copenhagen Congress in the decision that dealt with neotypes (cf. 
Copenhagen Decisions, Decision 35 (5) (b). Although the principle is not 
stated in the decision relating to lectotypes, it is fully as necessary and desir- 
able as for neotype selection, and indeed has been, I believe, the prevailing 
practice among taxonomists. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 33 

TAXONOMIC PRACTICE 

It would be interesting to know how zoologists in general would treat 
a problem like that of aryxna. I sampled the reactions of a number of col- 
leagues with considerable taxonomic experience and interest in nomenclatural 
problems. To avoid prejudiced or preconceived opinion, I approached zoolo- 
gists working in groups other than Lepidoptera, and presented the following 
hypothetical case which parallels the aryxna description but uses meaningless 
names : 

Smith, 1896, Fauna Beensis: A. flava L. recorded. 
Jones, 1905: "A. notata, new species 

'This is the form figured in the Fauna Beensis, pi. 2, figs. 3 and 4. It 
differs from flava in having the black areas more extensive, the yellow of the 
pleura being reduced to rows of spots. I have ten specimens from Quebec 
from Dr. Jacques and M. Pierre." 

Question: What constitutes the original type series? In other words, 
what specimens are eligible for lectotype selection? 

(a) Only the two specimens on which figs. 3 and 4 are based? 

(b) Only the ten specimens from Quebec? 

(c) All twelve specimens? 

Most of those approached asked at once if author Jones actually had 
before him the specimens on which figs. 3 and 4 were based. In the end, 
however, on the basis of the original description of " not at a" , they answered 
as follows on the composition of the original type series: 

All twelve specimens: H. S. Deignan (Aves), D. H. Johnson (Mam- 
malia), C. F. W. Muesebeck (Hymenoptera), R. I. Sailer (Heteroptera), 
Alan Stone (Diptera), W. W. Wirth (Diptera), and D. A. Young 
(Homoptera). 

The ten specimens from Quebec: W. H. Anderson (Coleoptera), F. 
M. Bayer (Marine Invertebrata) , R. E. Blackwelder (Coleoptera), F. 
A. Chace, Jr. (Marine Invertebrata), Remington Kellogg (Mammalia), 
K. V. Krombein (Hymenoptera), P. W. Oman (Homoptera), H. A. 
Rehder (Mollusca), and L. P. Schultz (Pisces). [Some indicated that 
they would also include the two figured specimens if it could be shown that 
author Jones actually saw the specimens]. 

Conditional, two or ten: H. W. Setzer (Mammalia). (If Jones had 
the two figured specimens before him, they are the original type series ; if he 
did not, or it it cannot be determined definitely whether he did, then the ten 
specimens are the original type series). 

Two specimens (basis of figures) : None. 



34 Sabrosky: Megathymus aryxna Vol.11: nos.1-3 

The zoologists sampled clearly placed emphasis on the specimens actually 
before the author describing the new species. All but one would always in- 
clude the "ten specimens from Quebec." The group was about equally 
divided on whether or not to include the two figured specimens in addition 
to the ten, although several who voted for all twelve indicated reluctance to 
go beyond the ten that were unquestionably before the author. Most of those 
voting for all twelve believed that the lectotype should ordinarily be selected 
from the ten clearly before the author. 

CONCLUSION 

In consideration of the foregoing discussion, I believe the logical solution 
in the case of Megathymus aryxna Dyar would recognize as lectotype the 
male syntype from Arizona that (a) is consistent with the valid restriction 
by Barnes and McDunnough (1912), (b) bears Dyar/s label "Megathy- 
mus aryxna Dyar, Cotype (Sensu Restr)," and (c) was figured as aryxna by 
Barnes and McDunnough (1912) and by Stallings and Turner 
(1954). The lectotype may be either by designation of the Commission or, if 
the Commission so interprets, by designation of Stallings and Turner 
(1954). The specimen referred to is in the collection of the U. S. National 
Museum. 



Literature Cited 

Barnes, W., & J. H. McDunnough, 1912. Contrib. Nat. Hist. Lepidop. N. Amer., vol. 1, 

no. 3: 56 pp. 
Bell, E. L., & C. F. dos Passos, 1954. Amer. Mils. Novitates 1700: 1-5. 
Dyar, H. G., 1905. Jour. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 13: 111-141. 

dos Passos, C. F., & E. L. Bell, 1955. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 11(9) : 289-294. 
Skinner, H., 1906. Ent. News 17: 110-112. 

.., 1911. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 37: 169-209. 

Skinner, H., & R. C. Williams, Jr., 1924. Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 50: 177-208. 
Stallings, D. B., & J. R. Turner, 1954. Lepid. News 8: 77-87. 
, 1955. Bull. Zool. Nomenclature 11(9) : 295-296. 

Entomology Research Div., Agricultural Research Service, 
U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Washington 25, D. C, U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 3 5 

UNUSUAL ABUNDANCE OF 

CELERIO GALII INTERMEDIA (SPHINGID^) 

IN NORTHWESTERN ONTARIO IN 1954 

by J. C. E. Riotte, P.P. 

The Entomologische Zeitschrift had in the 1951 volume, pp. 50-55, 63-64, 
and in the 1955 volume, pp. 161-166, reports about unusual abundant appear- 
ance of Celerio galii Rott. in Thuringia in 1949 and around Nuremberg in 
1950 and its slow disappearance in the following years. We read there that 
in 1949 the gain caterpillars appeared in hundreds of thousands and more or 
less unparasitized, that in the following years the parasites took over again, 
and that in 1952 in Thuringia and in 1953 around Nuremberg the circum- 
stances were normal again. It is perhaps interesting to point to the fact that 
here in northwestern Ontario we had an unusual abundance of galii intermedia 
Kby. caterpillars also around 1950, namely in 1954. 

Normally it is possible every year to take some caterpillars of the said 
species, the more so as Fireweed, Epilobium angustifolium, grows everywhere 
in the woods up here. Also at the "black light" it is possible to take every 
year some adults of this species. But when in 1954 we found the caterpillars 
wherever Epilobium grew, it was certainly an unusual event. Although there 
were not hundreds of thousands, I would have been able to take, say, a good 
hundred on a spot of about 100 square yards in the woods near Nakina, On- 
tario. As I often have to be out of town, I took only 15 of them and observed 
their further development. This number was increased by 7 caterpillars from 
Geraldton, Ont., where there were also lots of them ; one even brought them 
in nolens volens with the daily food plants. 

Now, what was the result of that ? As it was reported in the Ent. Zeits- 
chrift 1955 for the second and the following year, so we discovered it here in 
Ontario the very first year. Most of the caterpillars did not become imagoes. 
Part of them were sick and died before pupating, and in the field we also found 
very often the dried skins of dead galii intermedia caterpillars hanging from 
the Epilobium twigs as if they had died from flacherie. In this way 8 out of 
my 22 caterpillars died. The rest showed 6 fly infested pupae and 2 dried out 
pupae, so that there were by the end only 6 moths out of 22 caterpillars: 
27.3%. 

The same result seems to have taken place in the field, where galii inter- 
media in 1955 showed thoroughly normal conditions. In the place at Nakina, 
Ont., where the caterpillars were so abundant in 1954 there were none in 
1955, and at Geraldton, Ont., I had 7 caterpillars from Epilobium growing 
in the sewer-ditch near my house and only one was found in the woods despite 
many efforts. (Among the "sewer-ditch" caterpillars were three covered with 
tachinid parasite eggs which I operated away holding the caterpillar under the 
tap so that the green juice the caterpillars are spitting when disturbed could 
flow away. All three pupated, but two pupae died, one is still alive. The dead 
pupae showed no signs of fly infestation.) 



36 



Riotte : Celerio gain 



Vol.11: nos.1-3 



So perhaps we have here a parallel to the abundance of galii in central 
and southern Germany in the early fifties, and that from the eastern Canada 
and in the early fifties, too. 

278 Bathurst St., Toronto, Ont., CANADA 



AN UNUSUAL ABERRATION OF 
PA PI LI O MACHAON A LI A SKA 

by Colin Wyatt 

On June 22nd, 1955, I found Papilio machaon aliaska Scudder flying in 
glades among the poplars behind the front edge of a long, flat-topped hill 
about two miles north of Port Good Hope, Mackenzie River, on the Arctic 
Circle. They were flying high over the tree-tops, then swooping down into the 
glades and circling around about ten feet from the ground. Among the series 




of males captured was one extraordinary aberration, which appeared almost 
black upon the wing. This is the first time I have met with any aberration 
of P. machaon over many years experience of the species in many parts of the 
world. I figure it here together with a normal P. m. aliaska for comparison. 

Cobbetts, Farnham, Surrey, ENGLAND 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 37 

BOLORIA FRIGGA (NYMPHALID/E) IN MICHIGAN 

by Stephen P. Hubbell 

Prior to 1956 only two species of Boloria, toddi Holland and selene 
SchifL, were known from Michigan, where both are common. In the summer 
of that year a third species, B. frigga Thunberg, was discovered in the North- 
ern Peninsula near Manistique in Schoolcraft County. This butterfly had 
neither been recorded from Michigan nor from the United States east of the 
Rocky Mountains. The closest localities known for B. frigga saga Staud. are 
Churchill, Manitoba, several hundred miles to the north, and others along the 
southwestern shore of Hudson Bay. According to Dr. A. B. Klots another 
form occurs in Quebec and northern Ontario, three hundred miles north of 
northern Michigan. 

About 10 AM on June 25, 1956, a clear and sunny day, I entered a 
small bog 4.8 miles north of the city limits of Manistique on route M94. The 
usual small moths were flying in numbers about the leatherleaf ( Gham<z- 
daphne), but I noticed no butterflies. After about ten minutes I saw a Boloria, 
which appeared unusually dark, approaching with a slow, gliding flight two or 
three feet above the tops of the low bushes. Seeing that it did not intend to 
land, I swung my net and missed. The butterfly was much disturbed, and 
with a fast and erratic flight retreated across the bog too fast for me to follow. 
Soon afterward, seeing nothing else, I started back toward the road. At that 
moment the Boloria (apparently the same one, for it was flying as though it 
had been disturbed) flew past, headed for the center of the bog. I gave chase 
and this time bagged it. After a quick comparison with the figures and descrip- 
tions in Klots' Field Guide I concluded that I had a specimen of B. frigga 
saga. 

Upon my return to Ann Arbor the fresh specimen, a male in perfect con- 
dition, was mounted, and its identification confirmed so far as was possible 
with available information. The collection of the University of Michigan 
Museum of Zoology contained no specimens of B. frigga saga, but comparisons 
by Dr. Warren H. Wagner, Jr., and myself with very dark specimens of B. 
toddi eliminated the possibility that it could be that species. 

A telegram was sent to Dr. Edward G. Voss :'n Mackinac City describ- 
ing the discovery, and he volunteered to go at once to Manistique to try to 
get more specimens. On the morning of July 10 he made a thorough recon- 
naissance of the bog where the specimen had been collected ; but although the 
weather was good and he worked for an hour, from 10:30 to 11 :30 AM, he 
found no additional specimens. Perhaps any remaining individuals had been 
killed by the hard rain that had occurred on the two preceding days. 

Dr. Voss, a botanist as well as an entomologist, described the situation 
where the specimen was collected as follows : "The bog, which has no open 
water, has as its most abundant plants Sphagnum, Chama daphne, and Vaccini- 
um oxycoccus. There are scattered black spruces (Picea mariana) and tama- 
racks (Larix laricina) . Jack pine (Pinus banksiana) is locally common, and 



38 Hubbell: Boloria frigga Vol.11: nos.1-3 

there are scattered white pines (Pinus strobus) . Bog rosemary {Andromeda 
glaucophylla) and swamp laurel (Kalmia polifolia) are common, and there is 
some Labrador tea {Ledum groenlandicum) and purple chokecherry {Aronia 
prunifolia) . The sedge Car ex pauciflora is common, especially in water sites. 
Cotton grass {Kriophorum spissum) is frequent and conspicuous, as are the oc- 
casional pitcher plants {Sarracenia purpurea) . No sundews {Drosera) or 
orchids were seen." This bog lies in the NEVi of Sec. 14, T42N, R16W, 
Schoolcraft County. It is on the west side of Highway M94 about 1.25 miles 
south of a large bend in the road, and is bounded on the north by a low pine- 
covered ridge which makes a good landmark. It is the only area of peaty soil 
in the vicinity. 

At the Montreal meetings in August I told Dr. Klots about the discovery 
of B. frigga in Michigan, and he thought it would prove to be the same as the 
form occurring in Quebec and northern Ontario. Later the specimen was sent 
to him for inclusion in his forthcoming revision of the genus, and he reported 
that it is neither that form nor typical frigga saga. More material will be 
needed to decide whether or not it is a new subspecies, and attempts will be 
made this season to capture additional specimens at the original locality and 
elsewhere in the vicinity. 

490 Rock Creek Dr., Ann Arbor, Mich., U. S. A. 



UNUSUAL OCCURRENCE OF MELITMA NYCTEIS 
(NYMPHALID^E) IN LANCASTER COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA 

by George Ehle 

This southeastern Pennsylvania county is predominately a low-lying, 
gently rolling agricultural region. Mountainous counties border it on the 
north and west, the southernmost ridges of the Alleghenies penetrating the 
county on its northern border. While the hilly portion reaches 1100 feet above 
sea level in a few spots, most of the county ranges between 300 and 600 feet. 
Although Melitcea nycteis Doubleday has been reported from various southern 
Pennsylvania localities, and even to the south, it is usually described as a 
northern species and an upland butterfly in this latitude (40°). It therefore 
would be expected only casually and locally in this county, and then propably 
only at the higher elevations. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 39 

Consequently, I was not unduly concerned at not finding it during my 
first few years of collecting in Lancaster County in the late 1930's. Prior to 
moving to the county, I had collected M . nycteis, along with M. harrisii Scud- 
der and Phyciodes batesii Reakirt, in northern Pennsylvania and lower New 
York, and was naturally curious to observe these and other familiar species in 
the new situation. I remained on the lookout for them over the years as I 
studied new and not-too-familiar species, but after thirteen years of collecting 
over the greater part of the county I practically despaired of rinding any of 
these species nearby. 

During the summer of 1953, however, I chanced upon a rather isolated 
area which I had previously overlooked, — a weedy, brushy, overgrown flat 
along the Susquehanna River. The area is swampy in spots and is occasionally 
flooded, as it was during the spring of 1956. Elevation here is about 250 feet 
above sea level. In this low-lying area of fairly limited extent, I was pleasantly 
surprised to find a large colony of M . nycteis. Although the river itself and a 
high, parallel railroad embankment both tend to offer physical barriers, the 
butterfly seems to be naturally confined to the area, especially in the immediate 
vicinity of the foodplant which grows in profusion along the swamp edges. 

The colony is so large that one may observe with ease all stages of the 
insect during a single season. Two well-defined broods are produced each 
year. The immature larvae emerge from hibernation toward the end of April 
and commence feeding on the new shoots of the foodplant. The first adults 
appear on the wing late in May. By July 1, these have practically disappeared. 
The first individuals of the second brood are on the wing toward the end of 
July, and fly until early September. Finally, immature larvae are seen con- 
gregating on the underside of the dying leaves until frost. There is such an 
abundance of material in this colony that one may easily duplicate this seasonal 
cycle through any and all stages by means of simple rearing practices, as I 
have done. 

While there is noticeable variation within both broods, some individuals 
being lighter, some quite darker than average, both broods are remarkably 
consistent in population, emergence dates, flight duration, and the like. Further- 
more, the broods are practically indistinguishable from one another as regards 
wing spread, wing pattern, and other adult characteristics. Many reared speci- 
mens have been parasitized by both a dipterous fly and a wasp. 

In this locality, the foodplant appears to be principally, if not exclusively, 
Actinomeris alternifolia. (I am indebted to local botanists for this identifica- 
tion.) It is a fairly common weed in moist locations throughout the county. 
Having observed M. nycteis in considerable detail in the aforementioned 
swampy situation, I now searched for the butterfly in other likely locations 
where the same foodplant was found. 

These efforts were unsuccessful until August 1955, when I very unex- 
pectedly encountered the butterfly in a second location about fifteen miles from 
the first. Although this location is a much drier environment than the swamp, 
it is not essentially different, being overgrown with brush and weeds, including 
the aforementioned foodplant. 



40 Ehle: Melitcea nycteis Vol.11: nos.1-3 

My reaction to the discovery was more one of perturbation than of 
pleasant surprise, as will be readily understood from consideration of the fol- 
lowing facts. The site of the second discovery is a small suburban -waste area, 
which is largely circumscribed by farm land in high cultivation. It was partly 
cleared prior to 1940 but is now densely overgrown, with very limited open 
area. Being only a few minutes' drive from my home, it became a favorite 
collecting spot during the gasoline rationing years of the early 1940's. I estab- 
lished my basic Lancaster County collection with material taken here, at the 
same time studying and rearing many of the common local species. For the 
past fifteen years I have visited the site at least monthly, and long ago des- 
paired of ever finding anything new here except that of casual or stray occur- 
rence. This intimate knowledge of the area rules out the possibility of the 
butterfly's occurring here during these years. 

When first encountered, the population numbered about twenty. The 
butterflies were all past their prime, and no mating, ovipositing, or any evi- 
dence thereof, could be detected. They disappeared a week or so later. Under- 
standably, plans were made to keep a close watch on the site during the 
next season. 

During the spring of 1956, I visited the spot weekly as the emergence 
time for the spring brood approached. During June, when the spring brood 
was in full flight in the swamp, not one adult was uncovered in the suburban 
site. I continued to check the site weekly during the summer. In the swamp, 
the second brood began to emerge in early August as usual. On August 25, 
two fresh specimens of nycteis, male and female, were observed at the suburb- 
an site. Subsequently closely spaced visits disclosed a few more individuals, 
totalling about twenty males and females, as in 1955. 

Reasoning that these few individuals might have strayed from a nearby 
major colony, I immediately searched the surrounding countryside. As noted 
before, this is heavily cultivated farmland and thus rather unlikely environ- 
ment for the species. Nevertheless, I eventually uncovered an extensive stand 
of the foodplant bordering a creek less than one-half mile from the site. Ex- 
tensive search here, however, disclosed no sign of nycteis. Here, apparently, 
were all the earmarks of a favorable environment, yet the only nycteis in the 
vicinity were a dozen or so individuals confined to the drier, weedy hillside 
not far away ! 

My observations of the swamp colony over the past four years strongly 
affirm a constancy of habit in this species, as characterized by its very close 
association with the foodplant, little or no tendency toward straying, and free- 
dom from sporadic or erratic occurrence. When applied to the population at 
the suburban site, these observations lead to the simple conclusion that it is a 
localized, self-contained population, new to the immediate area as of 1955. 

The suburban area adjoins a cemetery and for years has served as a dump- 
ing ground for plant trash such as flowers, shrubbery, tree cuttings, and the 
like. Leaf tobacco is a major crop in the county, and tobacco stems and refuse 
are a popular fertilizer and mulch. In recent years, tons of such tobacco refuse 
have been dumped at the site for use in the cemetery. One possible explanation, 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 41 

then, of the sudden appearance here of nycteis in 1955 is its introduction in 
immature form on this plant refuse. The relatively few individuals in a quite 
restricted environment, its absence in nearby favorable situations, and the ab- 
sence of the 1956 spring brood, all strongly suggest a transitory situation. 

Novel situations such as the one just described are invariably interesting 
and challenging, and at the same time perturbing and generally inexplicable. 
The major significance of this discovery, however, probably resides in its 
potential bearing on the general subject of insect distribution, motility, and 
related population nuctations, especially as a result of man's interference. 

The "introduced" population, if it is that, will certainly bear further 
watching during future seasons. It should have little difficulty in becoming 
established at the suburban site or in the vicinity, for the foodplant is plentiful 
and fairly widespread. If it fails to reappear in succeeding seasons, the only 
logical conclusion will be that this small colony was artificially introduced, 
perhaps, by rare coincidence, on plant material transported from the vicinity 
of the larger swamp colony. 



ADDENDUM 

Since the above was written, both localities described were visited regularly during 
1957. In the swamp area, both broods were observed as usual, the flights occurring in 
early June and early August respectively. For the third consecutive year, no evidence 
of a spring brood was found at the "new" site or in the vicinity thereof. 

Visits to the latter area in July, August, and September 1957 also failed to disclose 
a second brood. No change in the foodplant situation or in any other aspects of the 
locality could be detected. Whether this small colony has now disappeared, thus end- 
ing its two-year existence, remains to be determined by future observation. 



314 Atkins Ave., Lancaster, Penna., U. S. A. 



42 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

NOTES ON J TRY TONE DUKESII, A RARE SPECIES 
NEW TO SOUTHERN MICHIGAN (HESPERIID.E) 

by Thomas E. Pliske 

Atrytone dukesii Lindsey is an intensely local skipper which inhabits 
shaded swamps. Before the discovery of the Michigan locality, dukesii was 
known from only three other colonies which are North Landing Swamp, Va., 
Payne, Ohio, and Mobile, Ala. The nearest of these other locations, that in 
Ohio, is approximately 100 miles S.S.E. of the Michigan colony. 

Atrytone dukesii was discovered in Michigan for the first time on July 
21, 1956, in Washtenaw Co. by Arthur Slater and T. E. Pliske. Slater 
and Pliske took two males in a small fresh water marsh on the north side of 
the Huron River, about 1 miles east of Ann Arbor. On the following day, 
July 22, an expedition consisting of T. H. Hubbell, W. H. Wagner, S. P. 
Hubbell, Slater, and Pliske was made to the locality. The weather was 
cloudy and a storm was threatening; however, one male was taken and later 
placed in the University of Michigan collection. Five days later, on July 27, 
a second locality was discovered half a mile east of the first. There a female 
was taken and a male was observed, and on the next day, two more females 
were seen at the second locality. 

The following year, 1957, on July 13, a female was taken at the first 
locality, and on July 15, a male was taken at the second locality. 

Both marshes in which Atrytone dukesii was taken were dominated by 
the sedge, Car ex lacustris Willdenow, or "Lake-margin sedge." The C. lacus- 
tris association seems to be quite common as was seen from field trips made in 
Washtenaw, Lenawee, and Jackson Counties on July 29. Carex lacustris is 
easily recognizable because of its broad blades (usually a centimeter or more), 
and the criss-cross manner in which they spread. 

We, therefore, have definite reason to believe that C. lacustris is the 
food plant of A. dukesii due to the fact that all dukesii specimens were taken 
in marshes where C. lacustris was predominant. Further evidence which lends 
credence to our suspicions was discovered on July 28, when Wagner, S. 
Hubbell, and David Ackley observed a female ovispositing on the suspected 
sedge. The eggs were laid on the underside of the leaves, about one and one- 
half feet off the ground. When the collectors left the field, Wagner took 
several of the eggs and some sedge with him. The female was not taken but 
was unquestionably A. dukesii. 

The eggs were drawn under camera lucida. When first secured, the eggs 
had a pale pea-green color, but after 24 hours the egg which developed the 
furthest formed two reddish rings, one on the anal portion, the other medial. 
None of the eggs actually hatched, but one developed to a stage where one 
could see the tiny caterpillar through the transparent eggshell. 

960 Forest Road, Barton Hills, Ann Harbor, Mich., U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 43 

FIELD NOTES 

A SOUTHERN VISITOR COMES NORTH (SPHINGID.T 

It is a constant surprise to me, the variety and quantity of Lepidoptera to be found 
on that narrow strip of sand known as Fire Island, New York. I set up a light trap 
on the side of my cottage the summer of 1956 with most fruitful and interesting results, 
— particularly on the night of July 28th. It was a very warm still night — with moon- 
light if I recall correctly. For this reason I did not expect much to show up. I set my 
alarm for 3 A.M. and went out shortly after. The first thing I saw was a vivid yellow 
blob down on the marsh grass below the light — a perfect Eacles imperialis Drury, 
which I promptly captured. Turning my attention to the sheet, I found it literally 
covered — and the air alive with quantities of Pholus achemon Drury, Pholus pandoras 
Hubner, and of course the large noisy Phlegethontius sextus Johannsen. A ring of toads 
below were inhaling them as fast as they fell to the sand. Fortunately for me — and 
this article — one particular sphingid was safely ( ?) perched on the sheet. At first 
glance I thought it was Celerio lineata Fabricius, but on closer inspection I saw it was 
a perfect male Pholus fasciatus Sulz, looking as if freshly hatched. I lost no time in 
maneuvering him into the cyanide jar and thereby adding a most interesting "stray" 
to my collection. 

E. Lincoln Thaxter, 681 Lexington Ave., New York 22, N. Y., U. S. A. 



CARTEROCEPHALUS PALMMON IN CALIFORNIA (HESPERIID.T) 

This species has been regarded previously as rare or casual in California. J. A. 
Comstock {Butterflies of California: p. 216) refers to occasional captures within the 
state, mostly in the northern counties and the Sierra Nevada. The only authentic speci- 
men seen by the author was one taken at Guerneville Sonoma County, May 30, 1910, 
by E. C. Vax Dyke. 

On May 22, 1954, the author and Don Burdick took a number of specimens near 
Plantation, Sonoma County. In 1955, Mr. Burdick and Mr. Dox MacNeill took addi- 
tional specimens somewhat earlier in May, in the same locality. These records establish 
Carterocephalus palcemon Pallas as a breeding resident in California. 

The material from Sonoma County is composed of specimens of unusual size. The 
possibility was discussed with Mr. MacNeill, also a student of the Hesperiidae, that 
the Sonoma County population might represent a hitherto unrecognized subspecies. At 
hand for comparison are specimens from Maine and Michigan, supposedly representing 
the subspecies mesapano Scudder, and material from British Columbia, Oregon, Y\ yo- 
ming and Alaska, supposedly representing the subspecies mandan Edwards. 

The individual size of the California material is larger (forewing 13-14.5 mm. as 
against forewing 11.5-12 mm. for material from British Columbia.) However, one 
specimen from Green River Lake, Sublette County, Wyoming, collected by G. De- 
Foliart, is as large as the Sonoma County specimens. Since there are no apparent dif- 
ferences except size, it is advisable to refer the California specimens to mandan Ed- 
wards, at least for the present. 

The specimens were collected mostly in deep shade or around the edges of clearings 
in the forest. Some were found on roadsides. In the open grassy clearings, Polites sonora 
siris Edwards was taken, but very few palcemon were found in these exposed places. 
One peculiar habit was noted. These skippers were attracted to the flowers of Iris, and 
habitually perched on the corolla tubes of these flowers, sitting with the head down. 
In this position, they presented a very un-butterfly-like appearance. It would be in- 
teresting to know if other collectors have noted this habit. 

J. W. Tildex, San Jose State College, San Jose, Calif., U. S.A. 



44 FIELD NOTES Vol.11: nos.1-3 

MEETING ADELPHA BREDOJFII (NYMPHALID^) IN OREGON 

One of the symptoms of the collector's ''disease", at least as regards entomologists, 
is to poke one's nose into odd corners of the world where one has hitherto not scrambled. 
Sometimes the enthusiast is searching for some specific insect, but just as often the under- 
lying motive is not as direct, but mainly an indefinable or "come what may" urge. One 
of these ''let's just see" jaunts on July 23, 1956, took us up into the Applegate Valley 
along the north slope of the Siskiyou Range, in Josephine County, Oregon. Primarily 
on the lookout for Speyeria, at a spot where O'Brien Creek junctions with the Applegate, 
at about 3000 feet elevation, we ran into a colony of Adelpha bredoivii calijornica But- 
ler. I was sure I recognized the insect, but finding it up here, I had to haul out my 
"Holland" and "Comstock" to verify my hunch. 

Our initial meeting with calijornica was in the afternoon, where we found them 
basking in the sunlight. Off hand, I do not recollect a single specimen taken on any 
flower, their main occupation being sipping moisture from the moist spots next to the 
stream. My wife and I returned to the same location the next morniing; it seems we 
had to wait into the latter part of the forenoon, probably until the sun again warmed 
the area. During the two days we captured 60 specimens, most of them in fine condition 
That we were not dealing with a transitory group is perhaps shown by the fact that one 
specimen seen the first day, with a big corner of a fore wing missing, was there again 
on the second day. Over two-thirds of our catch were males. Although we saw one or 
two "going shopping" along the roadside within a very short distance of the stream 
site, the "nest" was concentrated in an area no larger than a city block, if that large. 

When I returned home, I found no reference to calijornica having been taken in 
Oregon, and my specimens appeared a shade smaller and darker than my limited series 
from California. I was aware that this can be a normal clinal trend, however. I con- 
tacted Dr. J. A. Comstock and Lloyd M. Martin about my catch. Martin pointed out 
that the slightly darker shade might well be due to comparing fresh specimens with 
others taken some time ago. He mentioned having records that Jean Gunder had taken 
a series in Oregon years back, and that Kenneth Fender had been reported as having 
run into a series in the same state. 

A. calijornica being a rather attractive insect, and our finding it where we had 
hardly expected to encounter it, has made our O'Brien Creek visit just one more of the 
many pleasant recollections in the life of a couple of "bug hunters." 

Arthur H. Moeck, 301 East Armour Ave., Milwaukee 7, Wise, U. S. A. 



THE SPECIES OF ETHMIA (ETHMIID^) KNOWN FROM 

WESTERN PENNSYLVANIA 

The recent capture of three specimens of a species of Ethmia has prompted an ex- 
amination of the few Pennsylvania specimens of this genus in the Carnegie Museum 
collection. Since the results of this search include the rectification of an old misde- 
termination as well as two new records for the state, it was thought worthwhile to 
publish them. 

1. Ethmia macelhosiella Busck. Not previously known from the state. A single 
specimen is in the museum collection, ex coll. Engel, from Finleyville, Washington 
County, dated "Oct. 15-21." It agrees very well with the illustrations of Barnes & 
Busck (Contr. Nat. Hist. Lep. N. Amer. 4: 252, pi. 27, figs. 1, 2; 1920). 

2. Ethmia longimaculella Cham. There are two specimens in the collection, both 
from Pittsburgh, dated 25.iii.1911 and 20. vi. 1908 (I am inclined to doubt the March 
date). Both of these are ex coll. Engel and bear the misdetermination u zelleriella" (see 
Engel, Ann. Carnegie Mus. 5: 127; 1908). They compare very well with the figure 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 45 

given by Barnes & Busck (op. cit., fig. 11) of longimaculella, as well as with other 
specimens in the collection, from Quebec (Montreal). 

3. Ethmia zelleriella Cham. On 26. iv. 1957 I took three specimens of this species, 
3 miles west of Brownsville, Fayette County. They agree closely with the figure of 
Barnes & Busck {op. cit., fig. 14) and constitute the first valid record of the species for 
the state. All three were taken on the trunks of fairly large trees (1 foot in diameter 
and over) in a very open, sunny, grass-carpeted woods, well pastured; all were taken 
in the early afternoon. The three taken were about the only ones seen, so the species 
was apparently not very common. According to Forbes' key (Lepidoptera of New York, 
part 1: 245; 1923) the abdomen of this species should be grey. This seems to be an error, 
for all three of the present specimens have the abdomen orange with a middorsal central 
fuscous patch. I am grateful to Dr. J. F. Gates Clarke, of the United States National 
Museum, for confirming the presence of this trait in the series of zelleriella in that in- 
stitution (personal communication). Dr. Clarke adds further that the National Museum 
series of the species is from the following states: Illinois, Texas, Wisconsin, Maryland, 
District of Columbia, and Quebec. 

Harry K. Clench, Section of Insects and Spiders, Carnegie Museum, 

Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U. S. A. 



AN EXPOSITION OF "THE BUTTERFLIES OF ALL THE WORLD" 

IN CZECHOSLOVAKIA 

From 14 November 1955 to 16 January 1956 an exposition of "The Butterflies of 
All the World" was held in the National Museum in Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

More than 800 visitors attended the opening events on 11 November. The majority 
of these are organized in the "Ceskoslovenska spolecnost entomoligicka" (Czechoslovak 
Entomological Society) . The invitation speech was made by Dr. F. Prantl and Prof. 
Dr. J. Obenberger. The meeting was saluted also by Prof. G. Ja Bej-Bienko from the 
Academy of Sciences of UdSSR in Leningrad. The commentaries to the exhibited 
material were given by Dr. J. Maran and the author. 

The exposition was open on the w T hole of 54 days and shown to 42,288 visitors. 
This number is a document of the great interest in entomology in Czechoslovakia. 
During these days a number of foreign visitors were welcomed. The exposition was 
favored also by the visit of the wife of the U.S. ambassador to Czechoslovakia. 

The public became acquainted w T ith the importance of the study of Lepidoptera, 
with the possibilities of silk-worm breeding in Central Europe, etc. The geographical 
distribution of some harmful species was showm on maps. The modern Czechoslovak 
and foreign lepidopterological literature was exposed with the showings of the studies 
of the members of the Entomological Department of the National Museum in Prague, 
published in the last 10 years. 

In the exposition were demonstrated some thousands of Lepidoptera with special 
regard to interesting forms, such as geographical, seasonal, and individual variability. 
All zoogeographical regions were represented by many species. Methods of collecting, 
preparation, and conservation of butterflies wer also demonstrated. 

The exposition was enriched with the original colored pictures by the famous 
Czech artists Max Svabinsky and L. Ehrlich. 

At the present time the collection of Lepidoptera in the National Museum in 
Prague contains more than one million specimens and is the greatest collection of these 
insects in Czechoslovakia. 

Josef Moucha, Entomological Department of the 
National Museum, Praha, CZECHOSLOVAKIA 



46 Vol.11: nos.1-3 

ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

Notice is hereby given that the possible use by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature of its Plenary Powers is involved in an application relating 
to the under-mentioned name included in Part 9 of Volume 13 of the Bulletin of 
Zoological Nomenclature which was published on 30 September 1957. 

Pentila Westwood, [1851], validation of, and designation for, and for Liptena 
Westwood, [1851], of type species, in harmony with accustomed usage (Class 
Insecta, Order Lepidoptera) (file no. Z.N. (S) 476). 

Any specialist who may desire to comment on the foregoing application is invited 
to do so in writing to the Secretary to the International Commission (Address: 28 
Park Village East, Regents Park, London N.W. 1, England) as soon as possible. Every 
such comment should be clearly marked with the Commission's File Number as given 
in the present Notice, and sent in duplicate. 

The International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature has pleasure in announcing 
that arrangements have been made for the immediate publication in book form of the 
first installment of each of the "Official Lists" of valid zoological names and of the 
corresponding "Official Indexes" of rejected and invalid names, together with the first 
instalments of the "Official Lists" of works approved as available for zoological nomen- 
clature and of the "Official Index" of rejected and invalid works. The categories of 
names covered by these "Lists" and "Indexes" range from specific names to ordinal 
names. The total number of entries contained in the instalments now to be published 
amounts to about five thousand. These "Official Lists" and "Official Indexes" constitute 
the principal instrument devised to promote stability in zoological nomenclature and 
will be indispensible to all specialists engaged on taxonomic work in zoology and 
paleontology. All enquiries in regard to the above publications should be addressed to 
the International Trust for Zoological Nomenclature at its Publications Office (41 
Queen's Gate, London S. W. 7). 

COLLOQUIUM ON ZOOLOGICAL NOMENCLATURE 

It is hoped that at the Fifteenth International Congress of Zoology to be held in 
London in July, 1958, it will be possible for that Congress finally to approve and adopt 
the new text of the International Code for Zoological Nomenclature as revised by the 
preceding Congresses held in Paris in 1948 and Copenhagen in 1953. As arranged at 
the Copenhagen Congress, a draft of the revised text will be submitted for this pur- 
pose to the London Congress. 

In order to assist the Congress in the examination of the draft of the revised Code 
and to provide ample opportunity for the discussion of the questions involved, arrange- 
ments have been made between the Secretariat-General of the Congress and the In- 
ternational Trust for Zoological Nomenclature under which a Colloquium on Zoological 
Nomenclature is being organized by the International Trust on the lines of the Col- 
loquium organized by that body in connection with the Copenhagen Congress. 

The Colloquium will open on Wednesday, the 9th of July, i.e., one week prior to 
the opening of the London Congress. It is hoped that this body will be able to relieve 
the Congress of the bulk of the work involved in the scrutiny of the draft of the re- 
vised Code and will be able to submit to the Congress agreed recommendations as to 
the text to be adopted. Invitations to the Colloquium have already been issued by the 
Trust to a large number of zoologists known to be interested in zoological nomenclature. 
In addition, arrangements have been made between the Trust and the Secretariat- 
General of the Congress under which an invitation to the Colloquium will be issued by 
the Trust to any member of the Congress who expresses a desire to take part in its 
discussions but who has not as yet received a separate invitation. 

Francis Hemming, Secretary to the 
International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 47 

ESPECIALLY FOR FIELD COLLECTORS 

(This issue under the supervision of James R. Merritt; address all new correspondence 
to Fred T. Thorne, 1360 Merritt Drive, El Cajon, Calif., U. S. A.) 



COLLECTING ON THE MACKENZIE AND IN 
THE WESTERN ARCTIC 

by Colin Wyatt 

On May 11th 1955 I arrived at Fort Smith, N.W.T. The ice had not 
yet gone out on the Slave River and there was no sign of leaf on the trees. 
All that was flying were a few hibernated Polygonia faunus, P. )-album } and 
Nymphalis antiopa. On May 18th Lyccenopsis pseudargiolus appeared, in 
the forms "lucia" and "marginata," followed two days later by Incisalia polios 
and /. augustinus, which soon swarmed everywhere Bearberry was growing. 
Then the season began with a rush. Soon Boloria freija appeared, with some 
very dark undersides, Erebia discoidalis, Pieris sisymbrii, P. bryonies in a form 
close to oleracea but rather more strongly veined beneath, Papilio glaucus 
canadensis in an occasional male. P. sisymbrii was very plentiful along the 
forest margins and in clearings. Next Ruchloe ausonides came out, not very 
common, and lastly on May 27th the first Incisalia eryphon was caught. Later 
on this species was locally not uncommon where pines grew, coming down off 
the tree-tops to feed at Bearberry blossom, and I took a good series. The 
females were mostly completely flushed with orange, and there were some 
good orange females among the other two Incisalia. Glaucopsyche lygdamus, 
presumably oro, came out here and there, never common, as did Erynnis icelus. 
On June 6th the first Erebia disa was caught, and soon the species was common 
in the dry, fairly open forest, in a form that was very much darker than 
mancinus from Banff, even the females barely showing any red suffusion. All 
specimens bore a red discal spot. The wing-shape was less rounded than in 
mancinus. The same day and place, to my surprise, I took a fine deep brown 
female of CEneis chryxus caryi, the first indication that I was a long way 
north of the normal west Canadian fauna, and on June 11th the first male of 
CE. macounii was taken almost in the same spot. 

By now spring had fully arrived. I then went by tugboat down the Mack- 
enzie River from Fort Smith to Aklavik, calling at various places along the 
river. The first call was Fort Providence on June 14th. Tlus was still a 
typical lush northern Canadian landscape of spruce and poplar forest; P. 
glaucus canadensis was plentiful, about the same size as Banff specimens, and 
I took 5 males and a female of (E. macounii along the wide bridle paths in the 
forest, together with a few G. lygdamus and one fresh Carterocephalus palce- 
mon, apparently much the same as Banff mandan. 

Next call was Norman Wells, where we stayed from June 18th to 21st. 
This had for me been long a name to conjure with, and it was a great thrill 
to go ashore with net and set out towards the still snow-dotted Franklin 



48 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

Mountains east of the river. Sure enough, in the first large, open, heathy clear- 
ing I took several (E. chryxus caryi, and a little further on, where Labrador 
Tea was in full flower, the first Colias appeared, a fine male of hecla glacialis. 
This was a great excitement, followed almost immediately by a fine fresh male 
Papilio machaon aliaska, the only one I saw at the Wells. Colias palcz?io chip- 
pcwa was fully out, and I soon had a good series of both Sulphurs. C. hecla 
males were scurrying everywhere, but the females mostly kept to the scattered 
forest clearings, where catching was not so easy. Of the 23 females I took in 
the four days, only one was orange, three were a pale primrose, two white 
flushed with orange on forewing disc, and all the remainder white. C. chip- 
pewa females were all white. One male E. ausonides was taken, apparently 
may'i with very pale grey apex. A few (Eneis jutta, presumably leussleri, 
skipped about among the trees in the damper areas, together with a few E. dis- 
coidalis and E. d'isa. These latter were s'milar to the Fort Smith race, but 
smaller and a little darker, and quite obviously had nothing whatever to do 
with manc'inns. A few small and dark B. freija were about, going over, while 
B. titania (if indeed it is titania) was fresh out, a small form beneath showing 
certain affinities with rainier! and very different to the deep purply race from 
Banff. I took on this trip some 200 specimens of the titan 'a-chariclea complex, 
and exact denomination must wait until Dr. Klots has had a chance to 
work them over. B. eunomia, in a small form that is probably dawsoni, though 
a bit on the pale side, was just emerging. B. frigga was fairly common, ap- 
parently identical with Banff saga. One Plebejus sapiolus turned up, and a 
few small and dull G. lygdamus, obviously a more "arctic" form than that at 
Fort Smith. Of the "blues" only Everes amyntula was common, swarming in 
all grassy, open places. C. palcemon was about, a smaller form than mandan 
and not so bright, yet brighter beneath than the eastern mesapano though sim - 
lar to it above. I took a few of what is presumably Erynnis persius avinoffi, 
and another Erynnis sp. close to icelus, which I have so far not been able to 
identify. P. glaucus was about in a very small race, one male being even 
smaller than my machaon aliaska; further up towards the mountains the species 
was fairly common in both sexes, and is probably referable to arcticus. 

This about covers the species flying on the flat ground within a mile of 
the river. Only the Colias, E. disa, B. titania, and E. amyntula were at all 
plentiful, all other species being rather scattered, CE. caryi only occurring in 
one very small area near the airstrip. On my last day I tried to walk up to 
the hills, following any apparent track through the forest, often forcing my 
way through scrub. After four hours tough going I was only about 2,000 ft. 
above the river, and still a long w^ay from the first upper slopes of the moun- 
tains, so I had to give up all hope of reaching them. However, after working 
a very promising-looking Cloudberry bog by a lake on a small plateau, without 
finding anything but a few C. hecla, I made a detour through the forest to go 
up a small rise for a view, and at its foot, in open clearings among the pines, 
where clumps of Dryas integrifolia was growing, I suddenly saw a large and 
dark Boloria. At first sight it reminded me of a female B. alberta, so I pounced 
on it. However, it was a very big and dark polaris, and after a lot of very 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 49 

hard and exhausting work I had a series of 18. The species was exclusively 
associated with the Dryas. It was a large form, brightly marked beneath with 
large white markings, generally similar to the nymotypical form from Lapland 
and very different from the little darkly marked tundra race from around 
Hudson's Bay. Thank goodness I had made a good contact at the Imperial 
Oil Company the first night at Wells, so when I got back, hot, wet and tired, 
I was able to quench my well-earned thirst with beer, the last I was to have 
for a very long time. 

Our next call was Fort Good Hope. As we docked I spotted a hilltop 
about two miles away, to which I made my way as soon as I could. In the 
dense forest I saw nothing, but the Cloudberry bogs were full of B. polaris, 
wh : le a few fresh B. titania, the unknown species of Erynnis, B. freija, B. eu- 
nomia and E. disa were about. I took a pair of (E. chryxus caryl, and four 
males of (E. brucel, presumably yukonensis. But on the hilltop I had my re- 
ward. Here were P. machaon aliaska and P. glaucus arcticus sailing around 
in the forest clearings about 8 to 12 feet up, settling on the tops of poplar sap- 
lings. It was hard work, but I got a nice series, including a most magnificent 
melanic aberration of aliaska, which, when I first saw it on the wing, I hoped 
might be nitra. Contented I made my way down the steep slopes of the hills, 
blue with flax, to the hot and steamy Cloudberry bogs, picking up some more 
polaris as I went. Suddenly I saw a huge brown thing the s i- ze of a big Satur- 
niid moth, fluttering round a spruce tree in amorous dalliance with a male 
B. polaris ; out of curiosity I caught it, and to my amazement it proved to be 
a female, fresh emerged, of P. glaucus, the whole ground colour being a rich 
tawny color instead of cream, and with all black markings heavily enlarged 
and suffused across the wings. 

After a day and a half placidly steaming down the river we came to an- 
other of those "names", Arctic Red River. This was undulating country, half 
bog, half dry ridges clothed in conifers, and thickets of alders and black 
birches. On landing I was met by an E. discoidalis and a P. bryonies pseudo- 
bryonicz, reminding me strongly of adalwinda from Lapland. A round trip 
over the territory within two miles produced some nice P. machaon aliaska of 
both sexes, the females ovipositing on a small low-growing carroty plant, 
B. polaris, a few C. hecla, still apparently glacialis, with white females, a few 
B. titania, GL. taygete, one jutta and one E. pers'us avinoffi. There was no sign 
of Erebia youngi herscheli, which I had hoped to see here. 

So on we went, now up the Peel channel right in the Mackenzie delta, 
to Fort MacPherson. Here machaon and bryonies were flying over the grass 
between the houses and river bank, but I found my Mecca in a large Cloud- 
berry Bog just half a mile beyond the western edge of the settlement. Hardly 
had I reached it than I took a fine Pyrgus freija, and a moment later, with a 
subconscious side-swipe, I netted a small passing Erebia. On taking it out of 
the net I began to shake with excitement — a perfect male youngi herscheli! 
But for a long time I saw no more, contenting myself with P. machaon, which 
was plentiful if hard to catch, B. polaris, (E. taygete, and occasional (E. brucei, 
and the odd E. disa and freija. The disa were still small and dark, close to 



50 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

the Norman Wells form, the bands beneath not very clearly defined. Then a 
■&• i rl &Z a appeared, the first of the large pale form gibsoni {alaskensis) . One 
hibernated female of Polygonia gracilis turned up, a species I had not expected 
to see nearly a hundred miles north of the Arctic Circle. But by the time five 
o'clock came I had taken six more E. youngi, here and there in the damper 
areas near to the forest edge. They were not so easy to take as disa. All were 
as fresh as paint, and I was struck with the resemblance, especially beneath, 
to the asiatic E. dabanensis , of which it may prove to be a race. Next morning 
I had time for a quick three hours in the same place, and got two more E. 
youngi, some more B. frigga gibsoni, a series of titania which now began to 
look very like chariclea though still probably the former. A few C. hecla and 
paheno were about. 

On June 28th I landed at Aklavik. Aklavik has little to recommend it. 
Situated on a sharp point inside a hairpin bend of the river, it is cut off in- 
land by impassable swamps, lakes and forest, and there is hardly anywhere to 
collect. However, I took a series of P. pseudobryonite, some P. gracilis, C. 
paleemon, and E. amyntula, and some B. titania which, for all that they were 
flying in what I call a typical titania habitat, like the Norman Wells specimens, 
I now feel are probably chariclea upon comparing the two spread series. So I 
obviously had to get out of Aklavik for good collecting. I had nearly a month 
before I had to catch my ship at Tuktoyaktuk for Coronation Gulf, so after 
a lot of checking up on transport possibilities, I at last got away with my tent 
into the mountains by the N.W.T. Yukon border. Here I was dumped with 
food for five days in solitude apart from several quadrillion mosquitoes. 

I soon found a good camp-site on open, heathy tundra about a mile from 
the foot of the mountains. Both Colias were flying, as were P. machaon, 
P. glacilis, and CE. taygete. It was a bit cloudy, so things were sluggish. 
B. "titania" was again there, now I feel probably chariclea, frigga g'bsoni, 
eunomia in a very pale form new to me, not dawsoni; I circled around near 
the forest edge and finally picked up three youngi, while in the open cotton- 
grass areas I took three male E. fasciata, also not as fresh as I would have 
liked. But this was a good start ; my camp-fire smoke drove off the mosquitoes, 
and not even a thunder storm could disturb my slumbers behind the large 
handkerchief I had tied over my eyes to keep out the Midnight Sun. 

Next day dawned fine, so I rubbed myself well with "612" and made 
a bee-line for the mountains. The usual things flew on the flatter ground, but 
as soon as I began to climb I took a male E. rossi, probably gabrieli, small and 
dark with barely an apical ocellus. After some 1,100 ft. I met with C. nastes 
subarctica and B. improba, probably E. youngi, flying low over the ground on 
grassy subalpine slopes thickly covered with the dwarf Salix uva-ursi. Arnica 
alpina was the chief flower, to which the nastes gladly came, about the only 
chance one had of taking them. Here also flew undoubted chariclea butleri, 
some of the females being almost black; at the time I thought they might be 
different to the bolorians I had taken at Aklavik in the forest, but upon com- 
paring them now I doubt it. This will be a nice problem for Dr. Klots. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 51 

On and on I climbed. At 1,300 ft. I went through a belt of dwarf alders, 
and above this came to damp slopes from whence the snow had not long gone, 
the moisture coming from the large drifts higher up which were rapidly melt- 
ing. Here were a few E. rossi and E. disa, the latter now true subarctica with 
distinct bands. The former were fresh, the latter going over. Higher up, at 
about 2,200 ft. I came to an enormous shelf that was a shimmering, silvery 
mass of cotton-grass. Its countless tussocks were a pugatory to walk over, but 
I had the satisfaction of taking five E. fasciata with one fine fresh female. Also 
more rossi, while at the upper edge of the plateau, on the mountainside, I took 
several of a small, dark, and very heavily-spotted form of B. freija which I am 
sure is referable to natazhati. With it, on the same slope, I took B. frigga 
gibsoni and improba. 

At last I came to the summit, a long, stony ridge. As was to be expected, 
the first things sighted were several P. machaon aliaska males chasing about, 
and later I took two pairs in cop. But suddenly a Boloria skimmed past, sat 
for a second on a flat stone with outspread wings, and dashed off again. What 
the devil was this? It reminded me of astarte, but I had never heard of 
astarte up here. Back it came. I stalked it carefully and got nt : a big Boloria 
of a pale ochre-yellow. I turned it over. Then I nearly fell over. Distincta! 
There was no doubt about it — I was holding a bug of which only three 
specimens were known, taken nearly forty years ago ! So I began to concentrate 
on the rocky mountain top and finally, after much exertion, took a good series 
of males. At last the time came to go down. I followed the northern ridge 
off the top, coming round a shoulder onto a steep grass and rock slope, covered 
with pink mats of Phlox sibirica and white clumps of Saxifrages. A yellow 
CEneis got up; I caught it. Now what was this? It seemed nearest to Lap- 
land noma but yet very much more strongly marked. I still do not know what 
it is — probably a new species. Tom Freeman and I later found two more 
mixed up with CE. cairnesi in the Canadian National Collection, and two more 
in the Carnegie Museum at Pittsburgh. New York had none. A little later 
I took a female CE. melissa, race uncertain, the only specimen I saw all sum- 
mer, at 3,000 ft. Finally at 1,200 ft., almost down, I found where the females 
of E. youngi herscheli flew, taking three, with eleven males taken mostly singly 
elsewhere during the day. So it had been a good day. 

Next day looked stormy. I set off up the mountain again, but the top 
was obviously going to be in shadow all day. I concentrated on E. youngi, but 
only got five, with one female on the same ground. However, E. fasciata, 
E. disa, B. improba, C. nastes and B. natazhati were about, and over the edge 
of a spur, on a steep gravelly slope, I took two males of a small, light, immacu- 
late CEneis, cairnesi, another of the things not turned up since Gibson's ex- 
pedition. Here I also found the females of B. distincta, together with a few 
males. This was indeed a locality! I spent three more days on the mountain, 
and ended up with a fine series of most of the species so far taken, all but 
E. disa subarctica, which was not at all common and going over. Some more 
(E. brucei yukonensis turned up, some other CEneis that are some form of 
polixenes, and, on my last day, two males of Plebejus optilete yukona, fresh 



52 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

out. I saw what looked like Colias gigantea in a willow swamp, but did not 
get any. At 6 p.m. my transport came and back I went to Aklavik. 

Two collecting days at Aklavik produced a short series of P. optilete 
yukona, the first two Ccenonympha tullia yukonensis, a series of the local 

B. "titania" and of the pale arctic race of B. eunomia. To my surprise a fe- 
male of Phyciodes campcstr'is turned up, togther with one P. faunus and more 
P. gracilis. P. pseudobryonia was common. Then I went off down the delta 
on a small schooner towards the Arctic Ocean. We called in at one Eskimo 
camp on the tundra north of the tree-line, where in ten minutes I took a small 
unknown (Ends, possibly cairnesi but not for sure, another P. campestris fe- 
male, and a heavily marked female of Plebejus aquilo bryanti. Then we sailed 
on to Whiteflsh whaling beach, on the ocean near Tuktoyaktuk. I spent nearly 
ten days collecting on the tundra at Whitefish and at Tuktoyaktuk. The mos- 
quitoes were appalling, but the collecting good. I ended up with nice series of 
E. fasciata, some of which had the pale submarginal band of the hindwing be- 
neath very narrow, approaching avinoffi, E. rossi gabrieli, and enough E. disci 
subarctica to make a fair showing, the species being always very local, flying 
singly near alder scrub ; CE. taygete, a few CE. polixenes, and some more 
E. youngi herscheli with two females, and one more female of the new un- 
known (Eneis near noma. B. chariclea butleri swarmed, while polaris was 
common and improba occurred sporadically. These were typical improba im- 
proba, the hindwing beneath almost unicolorous purple with the silver costal 
streak, while those I had taken in the mountains had all been a paler form 
with lighter, distinctly marked and banded undersides, presumably youngi. 

C. hecla hecla flew everywhere but not in any great numbers, and with it a 
few specimens which may prove to be a form of boothi. The hecla females 
were all deep orange with very heavy black borders, and of large size. P. op- 
tilete yukona was widespread over the area wherever Vaccinium grew. The 
final surprise was a fine female, darkly marked, of Boloria pales, presumably 
alaskensis, and close search in both localities produced a reasonable series. Just 
before sailing from "Tuk" I took a fine series of P. aquilo bryanti just behind 
the settlement, and one female of Hesperia comma. 

After three days through the ice pack we at last dropped anchor in Cop- 
permine. Here I decided to leave the ship, and trust to luck to get transport 
on further east somehow or other in God's good time. Anyway collecting was 
good, even though a bit late, July 26th. There was no sign of CEneis peartite, 
which should fly here, nor of C. boothi or E. fasciata. C. nastes was very 
worn, as was chariclea. C. palamo chippewa was also going over, but some 
fine yellow females turned up. The best find here was Eycama phlteas feildeni, 
a far paler and more washed-out form than the Lapland polaris, and I got a 
good series after much hard and concentrated work. P. aquilo bryanti and 
P. optilete yukona were not uncommon, and I took five males and two females 
of a very dully marked but fair-sized form of Plebejus argyrognomon, which 
may or may not be synonymous with kodiak. B. pales was fairly plentiful and 
I took quite a nice series. By the time I left, on an unexpected survey aircraft 
that dropped in on August 3rd, autumn was definitely in the air. I was dropped 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 53 

oft at Bathhurst Inlet, where all that I saw were a few battered C. palceno, 
five P. aquilo and one L. phhcas feildeTii, even less marked than the Copper- 
mine ones, but with only one specimen I cannot make any comments. 

After two weeks at Bathurst I finally went on to Victoria Island, and 
later to the Boothia Peninsula, but by that time the season was over and not 
a bug to be seen. The flowers were all in seed and the migratory birds already 
beginning to collect for their long flight south. At last an aircraft turned up 
and flew me out, but not until the first blizzard had come and the lakes begun 
to form ice. I had seen the short arctic summer come and go — it had been 
all too short for me. However, I had got pretty well everything I wanted, 
and a few things I had never expected to see in my life outside of a museum, 
so I was happy. Apart from that, there is a calmness and peace about the 
Arctic which is most soul-satisfying. I hung on in the North until the sea 
freeze-up started, and when I finally returned to the "outside" at Halifax by 
way of Baffin Island and Labrador, I swore I would return to the Arctic at 
the first opportunity. 

"Cobbetts," Farnham, Surrey, ENGLAND 



NOTES ON TECHNIQUES 



Every collector has pet techniques or ideas. Some of mine may be of interest to 
other amateurs. 

Unlike most entomologists, I use ethyl acetate as the killing agent in my jars. 
Among the advantages are: 1) It is non-poisonous to humans. Thus it can be safely 
used around children. 2) Even though the insect stops fluttering within a few seconds, 
it can be revived even some minutes after capture for release or egg-laying without ill 
effects. This is especially useful for a collector who rears. 3) Jars may be easily made 
by pouring plaster into wide-mouthed screw-cap jars as with other killing jars. When 
the plaster dries the ethyl acetate can be poured in as needed. 4) Specimens stiffen only 
upon very long contact with the reagent. One must be careful not to soak the plaster 
too much, or the insect may become wet and harden. The ethyl acetate evaporates from 
the specimen rapidly, leaving the scales unaffected. The stiffness remains, however, but 
can be eliminated by a short stay in a relaxing box. 

Some disadvantages are as follows: 1) Many collectors want a killing agent that 
acts quickly. 2) Since the ethyl acetate is volatile, jars must be recharged frequently. 
3) Rubber ringed caps can not be used, for the reagent softens and dissolves rubber. 
This can be avoided by inserting a tight cardboard disc into the cap. The cardboard 
can be covered with aluminum foil or wax to make a tight seal. Needless to say, to me 
the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. 

For several years, I have covered my spreading boards with graph paper attached 
by means of soft glue. The squares speed mounting and enable more accurate position- 
ing of the wings. The soft glue allows pins to go through very readily. When the 
boards get too worn, the paper can be sanded down and a new layer pasted on. 

In rearing larger larvae, I use wide-mouthed glass jars or large waxed cottage 
cheese cartons. These can be easily cleaned and washed. Netting can be fastened over 
the mouth of the container with a rubber band. On very humid days when moisture 
collects in the containers, they can be held up to a fan for a few minutes whenever 
needed. 

Robert Rozmax, 726 N. Buchanan St., Arlington, Va., U.S.A. 



54 ESPECIALLY FOR COLLECTORS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

MOLD-FREE RELAXING BOTTLES FOR LEPIDOPTERA 

Some lepidopterists store many or all of their captures in paper until winter, when 
they have more time to spread them. One drawback to that is that the papers become 
moldy after a few days in a tin or jar of wet sand, blotting paper or cellular sponge, 
in spite of carbolic acid in the water. Others prefer to put their specimens straight 
into relaxing containers; this may mean that if one night's or day's captures are not 
all spread quickly there will be captures of several dates together. As it is not at all 
times possible to set all of a "bag" without some delay, the following method for relaxing 
may be found to be useful, separate catches being put into separate containers. A mix- 
ture of about a tablespoon of plaster and a small amount of crystalline potassium 
cyanide is prepared as a paste and placed on the inside wall of an 8 or 10 ounce jar, 
which is left lying on its side until the plaster has set. A wad of dampened cotton is 
placed in the bottom of the jar, but not so wet as to soak the cotton. The insects do not 
come in contact with the cyanide-plaster, and the cyanide prevents the growth of molds. 
A strip of paper can be used as an index of the moisture in the atmosphere in the jar. 
This kind of jar is suitable also for papered Lepidoptera. 

P. H. H. Gray, R. R. 2, Digby, N. S., CANADA 



AN UNUSUAL METHOD OF COLLECTING A RARE YUCCA SKIPPER 

(MEGATHYMID,<E) 

On returning from a collecting trip to southern Florida, Mr. Allen Gray, Mr. R. 
C. Ray, and I stopped at Stone Mountain, Georgia, to look for Megathytnus harrisi H. 
Freeman. We got in touch with Mr. Lucien Harris, Jr., for whom this Giant Skipper 
is named. Mr. Harris very kindly took time off from his business to guide us to some 
excellent collecting. 

We expected to have to flush the giant skippers out of the Yucca and only saw a 
couple on the wing. We were unable to capture any until Mr. Gray walked near the 
base of a large pine and flushed a very fresh female off the bare trunk and captured it. 
We moved on and about a hundred feet away we flushed a worn male off another bare 
tree trunk. It flew to another tree trunk and alighted there, and I popped my net over 
it. From then on we walked around every tree in that area, flushing no less than 
fifteen other giant skippers in this way, from an area of about three acres. 

We noticed that almost all were on the shady side of the tree, and all were on very 
bare areas of the trees from two to six feet above the ground. Some we managed to 
spot before they flew. They were resting with their heads pointing upwards, wings 
closed tightly, and hardly noticeable against the bark of the trees. 

The day was hot and sunny, and it was after two o'clock when we discovered where 
the Giant Skippers were resting. They seemed very nervous and usually flew a long 
distance before settling again. Because of this, it was almost impossible to find them 
again if one missed capturing them on the first try — which we did in most cases. 

Mr. Harris had to leave us before we discovered where the skippers were resting. 
At the end of the day we returned to his home to compare notes and to view his excel- 
lent collection and fine series of Megathytnus specimens. We mentioned the way we 
found the Giant Skippers. He was surprised and suggested we write a note on this 
experience. 

We would like to hear from other other collectors and their experiences in collecting 
various species of Megathymus. 

Karl E. Karalus, Jr., 10411 Diversey Ave., Melrose Park, 111., U. S. A. 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 55 

OBITUARIES 

FELIX BRYK (1882-1957) 

Felix Bryk died a few days before his 75th birthday and was buried just on this 
day, 13 January 1957. I lost in him a faithful friend whom it was always a pleasure 
to meet, due to his great intelligence and general culture. I won't however, describe this 
personal relationship, nor his importance as a Linne investigator, as publicist in the 
domain of other scientific subjects, nor about his activities of a general entomological 
nature. As his pupil and co-operator, I feel especially prompted to underline Bryk's 
importance as a parnassiologist. It is the parnassiology — the total domain of the Parnas- 
siidae — in which he was enthusiastically interested. In this field Bryk did fundamental 
work by which he has been given an eternal monument. It would take too much space 
to enumerate all his publications. I therefore restrict myself to mentioning the principal 
ones: 

Lepidopterum Catalogus: Baroniidce, Teinopalpidce, Parnassiidce, Papilionidce. 

Parnassius apollo L. und se'in Forrnenkreis. 

Das Tierreich: Baroniidce, Teinopalpidce, Parnassiidce pars I; Parnassiidce pars II 
(sub f am. Parnassiince) . 

Parnassiana, the periodical under his own management. 

Though the views expressed by Bryk in these works may change on the strength of 
results of new studies, the investigator in this field will always have to base himself on 
these documents. The decease of Felix Bryk means a great loss to entomological science. 

C. Eisner, The Hague, Kwekerijweg 5, NETHERLANDS 



ALEKSANDR MIKHAILOVICH DJAKONOV (1888-1956) 

On the 1st of April, 1956, died in Leningrad Aleksandr Mikhailovich Djakonov 
(D'akonov), an eminent Russian naturalist. He was born on the 4th of January, 
1886, the oldest son of Mikhail Aleksandrovich Djakonov, Professor of the History of 
the Russian Law, and of Nadezhda Aleksandrovna Poretskaja, a scholar of Russian 
literature. The deceased had many talents. He was an excellent drafstman ; in his youth 
he drew so well that he was advised to become a professional engraver. He developed 
more than one speciality: he was interested in Odonata, but more so in Lepidoptera, 
chiefly Geometridae and Microlepidoptera. Besides he was an eminent specialist of 
the Echinodermata of the U.S.S.R. Furthermore he worked on general biology, zoo- 
geography, and geography. 

The earliest record of his enthusiasm for entomology I learned from his mother. 
She recalled an excursion of the very young entomologist, and his first encounter of a 
Papilio machaon. So great was his childish enthusiasm that he did not trust his own 
hands that shook, but asked his mother to catch the butterfly. 

Official records of his scientfic activity begin with the year 1906 — an expedition 
to the White Sea, together with K. Saint-Isere. In 1910 followed a stay at the Mur- 
mansk Biological Station, and in 1913 a European trip: to Copenhagen, where he at- 
tended classes of Monterson, to Strassburg (Doderlein), to Stockholm (Till), to Ber- 
lin and Stuttgart. 

The following is an impressive list of collecting trips and expeditions of the later 
years, which are evidence of his never-ceasing activity: 1907 Switzerland, 1908 Saxony, 
1909 Ural, 1911 Crimea, 1913 France, 1915 Barents Sea, 1920-1921, 1923 Olonetsk Ex- 
pedition, 1926-1927 Ussuri Region, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1930, 1931, 1935, 1937-1939 Crimea 



56 Djakonoff obituary Vol.11: nos.1-3 

and Caucasus, 1927 Armenia, 1931 Akhalkalak Plateau, 193 5 Northern Caucasus, 1941- 
1945 are the years of the evacuation of the Zoological Institute of the Academy of Sci- 
ences to Alma-Ata, 1934 Japan Sea, 1947, 1949 Kurilo-Sakhalin Expedition. 

From the alternation of marine and land excursions we may deduce how regularly 
he divided his attention and interest between the Echinodermata and Insects. However 
great his interest was for the Lepidoptera, eye trouble, which seems to have been reme- 
died by surgery only partially, forced him to concentrate on larger objects — the Echino- 
dermata. His publications on this phylum amount to some 80 titles, wmile some 3 5 
papers concern taxonomy, biology, and distribution of Lepidoptera. The number of his 
papers on other subjects is not known to me. 

The deceased was a member of the Russian Entomological Society since 1912, and 
its Honorary Secretary from 1922 till 1932. He was on the staff of the Zoological In- 
stitute of the Academy of Sciences of the U. S. S. R., of Lenigrad. His collections will 
probably go to that Institute. 

He was married, but had no children. 

However short my personal contact with my uncle was, hardly half a year in the 
winter of 1922-1923, he influenced the choice of my specialisation, and herewith affected 
my whole subsequent life. Never shall I forget my first visit to his Leningrad home, 
where in neat cabinets small size glass-top boxes stood in many rows in book-fashion — 
and my gasp of admiration at the sight of the contents of such a box! Hundreds of 
minute Microlepidoptera, masterfully set — for my uncle was a virtuoso at mounting 
and setting — all arranged in meticulous order. This was an important moment of my 
life; the choice of my entomological specialisation was then made. I was 15 then. 
Never did I regret the choice. 

I recall a very tall, fair man in his middle thirties, always extremely kind, atten- 
tive, and nice to me. Unforgettable evenings of entomological chats, instruction, and 
planning of joint excursions followed upon my first visit, but, alas, ended too soon by 
my departure from Russia. In subsequent years we had very little contact. In 1946 I 
heard that Aleksandr Mikhailovich was awarded an order, at his 60th birthday, for 
his merits for the science of the U. S. S. R. 

His death made an end to a rich life, such a life as any naturalist might wish for 
himself. The indefatigable traveler and collector may rest now. Our sympathy goes 
to his wife. 

A. N. Diakonoff, Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie, Leiden, NETHERLANDS 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 57 

REVIEWS 

COLORADO BUTTERFLIES. PART III. LIBYTHEIDJE, RIODINID/E AND 
LYCAZNIDJE. By F. Martin Brown, assisted by Donald Eff and Bernard Rotger. 
Proc. Denver Mus. Nat. Hist., No. 5: pp. 113-176, 148 figs. 29 Oct. 1955 [Price $0.50; 
available from Curator of Publications, Denver Museum of Natural History, City 
Park, Denver, Colorado, U.S.A.] 

The first part of the projected five that will make up this work was reviewed 
earlier by Remington (Lepid. News 9: 21, 1955), and his general commentary need 
not be repeated here. The present part enumerates the species of the three families 
given in the title above, but since there are included only one libytheid and two known 
(plus two "possible") riodinids, this leaves the remaning 56 pages devoted to the 
lycaenids. The treatment of these throughout is informative and authoritative. Descrip- 
tions are kept brief and usually comparative; habitat information is given — a rare 
luxury in North American butterfly literature apart from Klots' classic Field Guide; 
a brief description of the general species range is added; and finally the authors give 
a county by county list of all known localities (save for the most ubiquitous species, for 
which only counties are recorded). Locality records are remarkably and pleasingly 
numerous and betray the extensive activity of Brown and the new small army of 
Colorado collectors. 

Life history information is slender and, apart from some observations on possible 
or probable foodplants, most appears to have been garnered from the literature — and 
this has not been combed thoroughly. In fact the most serious criticism of the work can 
be directed at the apparent incompleteness of the authors' knowledge of pertinent litera- 
ture. Even this, however, is not overly detrimental for the oversights are spotty rather 
than systemic and involve usually only minor points. 

The taxonomic treatment is generally excellent and up to date. The discussion of 
higher groups — families and subfamilies — is poor and mostly borrowed from the 
literature. It reflects ill, not on the authors (for this is not the place to get involved in 
research on higher classification), but on the current status of our knowledge of the 
higher classification of butterflies. At lower levels, questions on which I take issue with 
the authors below are nearly all of a nature so complex and geographically so extensive 
in scope as to exceed by far the obligations of a regional list to unravel. Here again, 
they serve to emphasize the large amount of taxonomic work still needed on our North 
American butterflies, especially those of the West. 

Below are a few comments on particular species, arranged in order of their 
appearance in the book. 

Atlides halesus (p. 124). Presumably Colorado specimens belong to the western 
subspecies estesi Clench, but this is not stated. 

Strymon melinus (p. 126). The subspecies of melinns are very poorly understood. 
Plains material is probably franki as stated. It is however, doubtful that atrofasciata 
occurs anywhere near the state. It is a heavily marked race apparently confined to Van- 
couver and the adjacent humid areas of British Columbia and Washington, Whether 
or not mountain material from Colorado can be referred to setonia McD. (described 
from the interior of southern British Columbia) I do not know. It is conceivable but 
doubtful. 

Strymon acadica (p. 129) — not "acadia". 

Strymon californica (p. 130) and sylvinus (p. 131). These are far more similar 
than the authors indicate, in the Rockies at least, and are there far more readily separ- 
ated by habits (oak association for californica; willow for sylvinus) than anything else. 
The male genitalia of the two are effectively identical. The subspecies of sylvinus is 
incorrectly spelled "putmani" (should be putnami) . Regarding dryope, I suspect that 
the erroneous type locality given by Edwards, ''Plain County, Colorado", was the result 
of misreading a hastily penned label intended to be "Placer Co., Cala." The "c" would 



58 REVIEWS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

be taken for an undotted "i" and the "er" for an "n." Nor would it have been the 
only time that the once prevalent (written) abbreviation "Cala." had been mistaken 
for "Colo." 

Strymon liparops (p. 132). The statement that eastern liparops feeds on oak is 
only partly true. Klots (Field Guide) lists a number of other very different host species, 
and the Forest Insect Survey of Canada has reared liparops in Ontario on hickory, ash, 
and cherry. This does not materially reduce the significance of the suspicion that 
western aliparops feeds on hawthorne in contrast to eastern liparops, which apparently 
does not. The authors may well be right in suspecting that aliparops (to which should 
be added fietcheri Mich. & dos P.) may be a species distinct from eastern liparops. 
In facies at least, the western populations form a group very different from the 
eastern. 

Strymon edwardsi (not listed). From remarks under falacer and elsewhere I 
wonder if this species has not been inadvertently omitted. The only record I know of 
for the state is the vague and possibly dubious "So. Colo." listed by Michener and 
dos Passos in 1942. The species, however, could very well occur in Colorado, and 
definite records would be interesting. 

Mitoura spinetorum (p. 137). So far as I know there is no evidence that this 
species occurs in more than one subspecies, despite its wide range, which extends from 
southern British Columbia south to Jalisco, Mexico. 

Mitoura siva (p. 138). The Moffat Co. specimen cited without further data is 
one of a long series taken by Mr. J. Bauer in June 1942 at the base of Douglas Mr., 
6,500 ft. It is very doubtful that M. xarni occurs in Colorado. It is essentially a Mexican 
species, rarely taken north of the border (southern Texas, southern Arizona). 

Incisalia augustinus (p. 139). The few specimens I have seen from Colorado (and 
Utah) suggest that what occurs in this region is best described as a hybrid population, 
a mixture of western iroides stock and eastern augustinus stock. Specimens can be found 
that agree with either of these and others are clearly intermediate. The same is true, 
apparently, over much of central Canada. Possibly along the eastern part of the Front 
Range true augustinus occurs, though I have seen no material. 

Incisalia schryveri (p. 141). Colorado specimens are usually a little smaller and 
darker than mossii from Vancouver but do not seem to differ much otherwise. They 
certainly do not warrant being placed as a separate species. As a matter of fact it ap- 
pears that both mossii Hy. Edw. and schryveri Cross are nothing but subspecies of 
fotis Stkr. along with doudoroffi dos P. and ivindi Clench. The ranges of none of these 
forms overlap, and putative transition areas (e.g., southwestern Colorado) have either 
not been collected in or the material from there has not been critically studied. Incis- 
alia fotis schryveri has nothing whatever to do with the eastern henrici: the latter has 
the strongly recurved costa, elongated scent pad locus (despite absence of the pad itself) 
and produced tails of the irus-henrici group which stands well apart from the augus- 
tinus group, to which schryveri belongs. The nearest thing to an intermediate between 
these groups is polios. 

Incisalia eryphon (p. 142). The authors' report of eggs of this species being laid 
on Pinus ponderosa is the first definite published host plant of that species, though 
pines have long been suspected. The Canadian National Collection, it may be added, 
has specimens from Alberta and British Columbia bred to maturity on the Lodgepole 
Pine (P. contorta latifolia) . 

Genus Callophrys (p. 144). Some years ago I revised the North American species 
of this genus (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 94: 217-229, 1944) in a paper which seems to 
have become very little known to students. A few statements made therein deserve 
repetition here, to which a few other notes are added. Callophrys sheridanii (p. 145) 
is known from as far west as Brewster, Washington (and possibly extends south to 
California in the Coast Range or the Sierras) and as far north (Can. Nat. Coll.) as 
Alberta and British Columbia. The nominate race Callophrys apama (p. 146) appears 
to be confined to Arizona. Eastward, in New Mexico and southern Colorado, specimens 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 59 

occur with the "apama line" only partly developed, clearly intermediate to the almost 
immaculate homoperplexa B. & B. which reaches its most typical area through Colo- 
rado. Farther to the north, in the northwestern part of the state and southwestern 
Wyoming, it is possible that intermediates to affinis will be found, though this has so 
far been considered a distinct species. 

Lyccena dorcas (p. 156). The authors consider dorcas and helloides to belong to a 
single species and refer Colorado material to "dorcas florus." The correctness of this 
view is a large and complex question which would consume far too much space to 
enter upon in detail here. My own opinion is that the two are good species and the 
following can be cited in support of it: first, dorcas is a Potentilla feeder, single brooded, 
and usually a bog species (but see below), while helloides feeds on Polygonum (and 
possibly others — but not Potentilla) , is multiple brooded, and prefers open fields. 
Secondly, the two are sympatric and readily distinguishable on facies over a broad 
area from roughly southern Michigan to southern Manitoba. Third, there is no "per- 
fect intergradation" across the continent as the authors state, though if large series are 
not seen it might appear so. The really difficult matter concerns the populations that 
are found in the Rockies from Colorado northward to Alberta and British Columbia. 
These lie in the area that should be inhabited by helloides and, at lower altitudes, 
actually is; but specimens from higher elevations, apparently the true florus of 
Edwards, seem to be little more than large dorcas. It would be most valuable in any 
future unravelling of this difficult problem if collectors, especially in the Rockies, would 
attempt to do the following things: (1) keep captures of different colonies — no matter 
how small — separate and indicated as such; (2) make a careful description of the 
habitat of the colony — grassy, wooded, wet, dry, boggy, or whatever, and in some 
detail; (3) ascertain the foodplant being used, which is not particularly difficult if 
females are watched carefully (also, the leaves of Potentilla and Polygonum plants can 
be checked for eggs or larvae) ; (4) learn by revisiting if there is more than one brood; 
(5) collect good series — ten or twenty of each sex. Incidentally, a fair amount is 
known about the life history of dorcas, contrary to the authors' statement: Newcomb 
(Can. Ent. 43: 160-168, 1911) described its life history from Michigan material; it is 
also published that dorcas dospassosi McD. is a Potentilla feeder near a costal salt 
marsh ; and that dorcas claytoni Brower feeds on a large bushy Potentilla growing on 
dry upland fields. 

Lycxna mariposa (p. 158). There is a specimen in the Carnegie Museum collection 
from White River Nat. Forest, 8970 ft., 28 vi (Mrs. P. Wible) apparently the first 
authentic record for the state. 

Echinargus isola (p. 160). The range as given is much too conservative. E. isola 
occurs southward at least as far as Costa Rica and ranges northward to Minnesota 
(cf. Macy & Sheppard, 1941, Butterflies: 170) and eastward well across the Mississippi 
to Ohio and Michigan (cf. Remington, 1942, Bull. Brooklyn Ent. Soc. 37: 6-8, for its 
eastern distribution). The bulk of the northern range of the species may be made up 
of migrants from the south or their immediate offspring, it being unlikely that the 
species can overwinter in the north (cf. Nabokov, 1952, Lepid. News 7: 52). 

Icaricia icarioides (p. 164). Newcomer (1911, Can. Ent. 43: 85-88) has rather 
carefully described the life history of this species, probably the typical (Sierra Nevada) 
subspecies, under the name of Lyccena fulla Edw. 

Icaricia shasta (p. 166). The species ranges farther north than the authors give, 
since Bowman (1917, Check List Macrolep. Alberta: 6) records it from Calgary and 
Dorothy in that province. 

Brephidium exilis (p. 169). This is apparently another species which cannot over- 
winter in the north. Captures have been made at least as far north as Durkee, Oregon. 

Everes amyntula (p. 175). The authors follow tradition in maintaining the specific 
distinctness of amyntula and comyntas. I suspect, however, that future studies will con- 
siderably alter the picture. For one thing, I know of no overlap in the ranges of the 
two supposed species and at least one area over which intermediates (apparently secon- 
dary intergradation) occur. For another, the boreal ''white" form which passes for 



60 REVIEWS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

amyntula bears little resemblance to the figure of Boisduval's type given years ago by 
Oberthur, which apparently represents the large, dark, lowland California population. 

The range of the boreal "amyntula" is much more extensive than given, reaching 
northward to Alaska and the Mackenzie Delta region and eastward to the Gaspe 
Peninsula. 

Celastrina argiolus (p. 176). Several recent authors, whom Brown and his co- 
authors have apparently followed, have referred North American pseudargiolus to the 
Paleartic argiolus as a subspecies. In the absence of careful and extensive genitalic 
studies (which have not, to my knowledge, been published or even made), this seems 
unwarranted. North American representatives of the genus were undoubtedly derived 
from Asia via Alaska and the Bering Straits route, in the more or less remote past 
(possibly as late as mid-Pleistocene but not later). In Asia there are several very 
closely allied species among which argiolus is nc more likely a candidate for ''nearest 
relative" than others. These were reviewed by Forster {Mitt. Munch. Ent. Ges. 31: 
593-627, 9 text figs., pis. 19-22, 1941), whose paper I have drawn on for much of the 
information given here. Further, the easternmost Palearctic representatives of argiolus 
form a group of subspecies (the ladonides group, in Japan, China, and the Himalaya) 
almost specifically distinct from the European and other western argiolus races (argio- 
lus group), though annectant subspecies are known. In view of the uncertainty that 
exists regarding which of the Asiatic species of Celastrina is nearest to pseudargiolus, 
as well as the confused and poorly understood taxonomy of pseudargiolus itself (e.g., 
the distinct possibility, still uninvestigated, that more than one species occurs in North 
America), it is much wiser to keep the North American forms as a species distinct from 
argiolus. Some years ago (Journ. N. Y. Ent. Soc. 52: 273, 1944) I described the Colo- 
rado subspecies of pseudargiolus as new (ssp. sidara), so there is an available name for 
them, of which the authors seem unaware. This step of mine was premature and ill- 
advised, in view of both the very insufficient material at my disposal then and a failure 
to consider the whole pseudargiolus complex together. Though I believe the name to be 
valid, "if I had it to do over again" I should have left it for a more thorough survey 
of the species as a whole. 

This review cannot better be concluded than by stating that the purposes of its 
authors are more than fulfilled. The work will have a wide appeal — to amateur and 
professional, tyro and seasoned collector, dilletante and enthusiast; there is something 
of value for each. The impression is strong that one could visit Colorado for the first 
time and, accompanied by the Colorado Butterflies, efficiently look for and (barring the 
whims of Nature) find almost any species mentioned, able as well to give it its correct 
name. 

Harry K. Clench, Section of Insects and Spiders, 
Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U.S.A. 



THE BUTTERFLIES OF THE MALAY PENINSULA. By A. Steven Corbet and 
H. M. Pendlebury (2nd Edition, revised by A. Steven Corbet, edited by N. D. Riley). 
568 pp., 55 plates (8 color, 26 half-tone, 21 line), 159 text figures. Publisher: Oliver & 
Boyd, 39a Welbeck St., London, W. 1, England [Price, bound, £5. 5. net ($14.70)]. 

It seems hardly fair, either to the late authors or to the book itself, to label this as 
merely a revised edition of the first Butterflies of the Malay Peninsula. In every respect 
it is a new book, so different and so much improved that, useful though the earlier 
effort was, the present one far outstrips it and has every right to stand on its own. 
It is a final, fitting monument to its two capable and energetic authors, neither of whom 
survived to see it published. 

The book is divided into three parts: part I of about 86 pages in ten chapters 
discusses generalities ; part II is the dominant portion of the work, the discussion of 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 61 

the species; and part III includes a variety of lists — a synonymic list of all the Malay 
Peninsula butterflies, a list of annotations on some of these, a tabular census of numbers 
of species and races known, a list of food plants, a large and valuable bibliography, 
three indices (general, scientific names, common names). 

This volume will be indispensible to anyone having to do with the Malayan 
butterflies; and collectors in few regions of the earth, not excepting Europe and North 
America, can claim a better or more useful one. Keys to families, subfamilies, genera 
and species provide a thorough basis for identification, supplemented in most cases by 
description, figures and genitalic drawings. These last, over 300 in number, fill 21 
plates and are an especially valuable feature of the work. 

The beginner will find in the introductory part useful discussions of butterfly 
anatomy, classification, collecting and preserving techniques (with special reference to 
tropical conditions). The account of genetics (which, oddly, is termed "Mendelism") is 
poor — confusing and in places inaccurate — but if it serves to stimulate resident 
collectors to try breeding experiments it will have fulfilled its major purpose. It is re- 
markable, however, that this very competent taxonomic work should have a substandard 
account of genetics, quite as remarkable as the inaccurate and unsympathetic treat- 
ment of taxonomy in E. B. Ford's genetically highly competent book, Moths. One cannot 
help suspecting that in England there is a rift between taxonomists and geneticists of 
sizeable proportions. 

Throughout the work there is a strong emphasis on zoogeography. This begins in 
the introductory portion with an excellent exposition of the geography, climate and 
major ecologic features of Malaya, illustrated by several maps, as well as an account 
of the major zoogeographical regions of the earth and, in more detail, of Malaysia 
(again, with maps). It should be said, however, that if the Oriental and Australian 
regions are accepted, as indeed they should be, then the Neotropical and Nearctic should 
never be lumped as subregions of a single "American" region as they surprisingly have 
it. 

To one familiar with New World butterflies there is a striking resemblance be- 
tween butterfly distribution in Malaysia and that in Florida and the West Indies. Java, 
with its somewhat less rich but proportionately more strongly endemic fauna, is com- 
parable to Jamaica; Sumatra and Borneo resemble, both in their physical relationships 
and in their endemism and comparative richness, Cuba and Hispaniola respectively; 
while the Malay Peninsula is, of course, the analogue of Florida, not only as a conti- 
nental peninsula jutting out towards the islands, but also in the greater resemblance of 
the butterflies in its lower part to those of the islands rather than to the continental 
fauna to the north. Such an analogy may not, obviously, be pursued too far. Malaysia, 
for example, has strong evidence indicating that at least once and probably several times 
during the Pleistocene it was united into a single large island (Sundaland), of which 
Malaya was a part, and which itself w r as probably separated by water from the Asian 
mainland. There is no evidence of this in the West Indies. 

Throughout the systematic portion of the text one finds additional zoogeographic 
emphasis, in the form of maps and discussions of more unusual distributions, often of 
far wider significance than Malayan. For example: the African-Asiatic vicariants, 
Papilio demodocus-demoleus ; the holotropical Precis orithya-ccenia-lavinia (though prob- 
ably vicariants, I very much doubt that the New World forms are conspecific with 
orithya) ; the holotropical Hypolimnas misippus with its presumed introduction into the 
New World by man indicated ; the African-Oriental vicariant pairs Z'izina otis and 
Zizeeria knysna with the very different positions of the geographic division between 
genitalia types indicated in each; the holotropical range of Zizula hylax (gaika auctt.) . 
The latter, however, is in error in several points: (a) the New World tulliola or cyna 
is specifically distinct, with definite pattern and genitalic differences; (b) the Oriental 
range is much more extensive than shown, the species occurring on Formosa, the Philip- 
pines and on many of the islands of Micronesia in addition to the area shown; (c) the 
American range extends well into Texas and Arizona. 



62 REVIEWS Vol.11: nos.1-3 

There has been no inquiry into questions of higher classification and the book 
follows Seitz in these matters: a reflection on the poor state of our knowledge of butter- 
fly classification. In several places the results are unfortunate, though of comparatively 
small significance; in the Lycaenidae however, there are numerous serious errors of 
grouping. The Liphyridce (whatever rank one may wish to accord it) is a natural 
group, but its members are here widely scattered: Miletus, Allotinus, and Logania in 
the "Miletinae" (erroneously stated to be peculiar to the Oriental region, for the African 
Megalopalpus is a close relative) ; Spalgis and Taraka (near relatives of the American 
Feniseca) in the "Lycaeninae" ; and Liphyra in the Liphyrinae. Further, the blues and 
coppers are united into a single subfamily, since the copper genus, Heliophorus (the only 
regional representative of the group) is placed in with the blues. Hypochrysops, a true 
thecline, is likewise grouped with the blues. 

I should have preferred to see the synonymic list and the list of annotations which 
follows it incorporated into the text, though there may have been technical reasons 
against this. The three separate indices, however, should certainly have been combined 
into one. 

Barring the few difficulties discussed here, and one or two other small points, the 
book is a magnificent and obviously very painstaking piece of work. And not only the 
reviewer but also his readers should bear in mind that it is far easier to criticize a 
work such as this than it is to prepare one! 

The book is clearly intended for, and will be most used by, those directly interested 
in the butterflies of Malaysia. It is, nonetheless, of such competence and so full of a 
variety of facts hard to find elsewhere that it is heartily recommended to anyone 
interested in the broader aspects of butterfly study, no matter where he may live or 
what the scope of his collection might be. 

Harry K. Clench, Carnegie Museum, Pittsburgh 13, Penna., U.S.A. 



FALTER BE I TAG UND NACHT. A US DEM LEBEN UNSERER SCHMETTER- 
LINGE. Text by Manfred Koch, pictures by Kurt Herschel. 288 pp., 132 foto-repro- 
ductions. 1953. Publisher — Neumann Verlag, Radebeul und Berlin, Germany. 
[Price, 12 DM.] 

The excellent and beautiful reproductions show various European Lepidoptera and 
caterpillars, all taken free in nature. The captivating text narrates in literary but, 
however, scientific language the rich experiences the author has to tell from his numerous 
collecting trips. Every entomologist will enjoy running through these pictures from 
time to time and can find a stimulus for his own foto essays. 

J. C. E. Riotte, P. P., 278 Bathurst St., Toronto, CANADA 



WIR BESTIMMEN SCHMETTERLINGE. PART I, TAGFALTER DEUTSCH- 
LANDS (unter Ausschluss der Alpengebiete) . By Manfred Koch. 119 pp., 16 col. pis. 
1954. Publisher — Neumann Verlag, Radebeul und Berlin, Germany. [Price, 7.80 D.M.] 

This small book has important hints for all kinds of lepidopterological activities 
on the first 66 pages. Then it gives a table of the species, arranged so that it is easy 
to find for each species the name, locality, when to find the caterpillar, then the imago, 
what the caterpillar feeds on, abundance, remarks (sometimes very interesting). Then 
follow indices and 13 colored plates of 1+0 species, all from color-slides, very lively and 
natural, where necessary above and beneath, arranged like a collection, and this is 
new and surprising, in horizontal lines, species after species according to the system used 
by Seitz and giving thus an excellent arrangement for studying relationships and mak- 
ing comparisons. I think it is the first time the subject has been presented in that man- 
ner. Then follow 3 colored plates with the caterpillars of the 140 species and most of 
the pupae, in the same exceptionally good reproduction. Only 119 pages, but all the im- 
portant things are said. There will be second and third parts dealing with the 
Heterocera. 

J. C. E. Riotte, P. P., 278 Bathurst St., Toronto, Ont., CANADA 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 63 

RECENT LITERATURE ON LEPIDOPTERA 

(Under the supervision of Peter F. Bellinger) 

Under this heading are included abstracts of papers and books of interest to lepi- 
dopterists. The world's literature is searched systematically, and it is intended that 
every work on Lepidoptera published after 1946 will be noticed here; omissions of 
papers more than 3 or 4 years old should be called to Dr. Bellinger's attention. New 
genera and higher categories are shown in CAPITALS, with types in parentheses; 
new species and subspecies are noted, with type localities if given in print. Larval 
foodplants are usually listed. Critical comments by abstractors may be made. Papers 
of only local interest and papers from The Lepidopterists' News are listed without 
abstract. Readers, particularly outside of North America, interested in assisting with 
this very large task, are invited to write Dr. Bellinger (Osborn Zoological Lab., Yale 
University, New Haven 11, Conn., U.S.A.) Abstractors' initials are as follows: [P.B.] 
— P. F. Bellinger; [I. C] I. F. B. Common; [W. C] — W. C. Cook; [A. D.] — 
A. Diakonoff; [W. H.] — W. Hackman; [J. M.] — J. Moucha; [E. M.] — E. G. 
Munroe; [N.O.] — N. S. Obraztsov; [C. R.] — C. L. Remington; [J. T.] — J. W. 

TlLDEN ; [P. V.] — P. E. L. VlETTE. 



B. SYSTEMATICS AND NOMENCLATURE 

Adamczewski, Stanislaw, "Notes on the plume-moths, II. Capperia trichodactyla (Dennis 
et Schiffermuller) 1775, in Poland (Lep., Alucitidae)" [in Polish; English summary]. 
Bull. Ent. Pologne, vol. 18: pp. 142-155. 1948. Gives the synonymy of C. trichodac- 
tyla (=Oxyptilus leonuri, ;=0. affinis) . In Central Europe two generations are re- 
corded. The host-plant is Leonurus cardiaca L. [J.M.] 

Adamczewski, Stanislaw. "Supplements and rectifications to the lepidopterological fauna 
of Poland, II" [in Polish; English summary]. Bull. Ent. Pologne, vol. 20: pp. 75-93. 
1950. Discusses a number of faunistic papers; 3 spp. are new for Poland. New syn- 
onymy: Sedina biittneri (^Rhizedra lutosa ab. rufovenosa) ; 2 forms of Phragma- 
tobia fuliginosa also synonymized. [J. M.] 

Agenjo, Ramon, Fdunula lepidopterologica almeriense. 370 pp., 24 pis., 3 5 maps. Ma- 
drid: Consejo Sup. Invest. Cient. 16 June 1952. Lepidoptera of the province of Al- 
meria, in southeastern Spain. Describes as new: (Tineidae) RE1SSERITA (type 
Tinea haasi) ; SUBPENTAGONA (type Tinea liguriella) ; CRASSICORNELLA 
(type Tineola crassicornella) ; (Eupistidae) Eupista horatioella (Almeria) ; (Scythri- 
didae) Bryophaga aben-humeya (Laujar de Andarax, Almeria; (Gelechiidae) UN- 
CUSTRIDONTA (type Aristotelia trinotellus) ; (Tortricidae) Bactra mediterranea 
(Canada de San Urbano, Almeria) ; (Crambidae) Crambus mendizabali (Adra, Al- 
meria) ; (Pyraustidae) Cybalomia cruzce (Almeria) ; Anonia (ZEAPHAGUS) (type 
Pyrausta nubilalis) ; Boreophila (subg. HARPADISPAR) (type Botys diffusalis) ; 
(Geometridae) COSTACONVEXA (type Xanthorhoe polygrammata) ; ALMERIA 
(type Cidaria kalischata) ; RHODOMETRINM ; CASILDA (type Rhodometra an- 
thophilaria cons ecr aria) \ Sterrha urcitana (Almeria), S. herbuloti (Almeria); also 
several "forms". [See review in Lepid. News, vol. 9: p. 160] [P. B.] 

Alberti, Burchard, "Zur Stammesgeschichte und Systematik der Zygasnini (Lep. Zygaeni- 
dae)" [in German]. Deutsche Ent. Zeits., N. F., vol. 2: pp. 301-321, 5 pis. 15 Nov. 
1955. Summarizes in part the conclusions of his monographic paper on the Zygaenidae 
(1955). Lists genera of Zygaenini, with revised definitions and (except for Zygcena) 
lists of supp. Redefines Epizygcena, basing its distinction from Zygcena on the $ 
genitalia. Discusses at length the 2 genitalia in Zygcena; also surveys the variation 
in number of hind tibial spurs in this genus. Subgeneric divisions in Zygcena cannot 
yet be exactly defined. [P. B.] 

Alberti, Burchard, "Zur Aufrecht-Frage von Zygcena transalpina Esp., angelicce O. und 
elegans Bgff. (Lep. Zygaenidae)" [in German]. Deutsche Ent. Zeits., N.F., vol. 3: pp. 
91-96, 2 figs. 15 April 1956. On the basis of genital morphology regards first two as 
distinct, at least as 'semispecies' ; doubts that elegans is specifically separable from 
angelicce. [P. B.] 



64 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.11: nos.1-3 

Amsel, H. G., "Eine neue maltesische Homceosoma-hxX. (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)" [In 
German]. Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges., vol. 41: pp. 248-250, 2 figs. 1 Aug. 1951. Des- 
cribes as new H. Valletta (Malta). [P. B.] 

Amsel, H. G., "Two new Micro-Lepidoptera from Malta." Entomologist, vol. 85: pp. 
172-174, 5 figs. [20] Aug. 1952. Describes as new CEgoconia deluccai (Salina) ; 
Apatema fascinata melitensis (Malta). Raises A. fascinata var. 'impunctella' to 
specific rank. [P. B.] 

Amsel, H. G., "Ueber einige von Hampson beschriebene palaarktische Pyraliden (Lepi- 
doptera: Pyralidae)" [in German]. Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges., vol. 42: pp. 40-70, 46 
figs. 15 Nov. 1952. Describes as new MA RD INI A (type S tenia ferrealis) ; TRI- 
GONUNCUS (type Cybalomia inglorialis) ; NAMANGANIA (type Diasemia Ice- 
talis) ; DUZULLA (type Phlyctcenodes subhyalinalis) . Study of type material of 35 
spp. describes by Hampson (1900). Selects neotype for Talis pallidalis (type des- 
troyed). Transfers Aglossa pulverealis to Agriope; Constantia leucographalis to Mac- 
roclonia, C. persinualis & C. canifusalis to Dattinia; Pionea albescentalis to Cholius; 
Stenia nervosalis to Arnia; Phlyctcenodes rhabdalis to Loxostege ; Pyrausta russulata- 
lis to Evergestis; Noctuelia arcuatalis to Evergestis; Pyrausta catilualis to Pionea; 
Pionea vestalis to Emprepes ; Tegostoma paralis to JEschremon. More or less exten- 
sive redescriptions ; $ genitalia of many spp. figured. [P. B.] 

Amsel, H. G., & J. Klimesch, "Eine neue deutsche, Hummelnester bewohnende Moodna- 
Art (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)" [in German]. Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges., vol. 44/45: 
pp. 486-491, 1 pi., 7 figs. 1 Aug. 1955. Describes as new M. bombylicolella (Ham- 
burg; reared from nest of Bombus hypnorum) ; describes setal pattern and other char- 
acters of larva. [P. B.] 

Aubert, J. F., "Revision preliminaire des geometrides Calostigia Hb. (Cidaria auct.) du 
groupe de C. austriacaria H.S." [in French]. Rev. franc Lepid., vol. 15: pp. 107-133, 
118 figs., 3 pis. 25 May 1956. This paper is largely a translation of the same article 
published, with the collaboration of R. Loberbauer, in Zeits. Wiener Ent. Ges., vol. 40 
(1955). [P. V.] 

Benander, P., li Phalonia trafvenfelti n. sp. (Lep. Tortr.)" [in German]. Opusc. Ent., 
vol. 14: p. 48, 2 figs. 25 May 1949. Type locality Listerlandet Peninsula, Blekinge, 
Sweden. [P. B.] 

Bennett, N. H., "Two new species of Lycaenidae from South East Africa." Entomologist, 
vol. 87: pp. 170-173, 2 figs. "Aug." [29 Sept.] 1954. Describes as new EUTHECTA, 
and type E. cooksoni (Dondo Forest, Portuguese E. Africa) ; Cnodontes penningtoni 
(Lobatzi, Cape Prov.). [P. B.] 

Bennett, N. H., "A new Delias from the central highlands of New Guinea (Lepidop- 
tera, Pieridae)." Entomologist, vol. 89: pp. 81-83, 1 pi. April 1956. Describes as new 
D. anamesa (above Daulo Pass, Asaro-Chimbu Dividing Range). [P. B.] 

Berger, L. A., "New forms of Colias (Lep. Pieridse) collected in Arabia by Major H. 
St. J. B. Philby, C. I. E." Entomologist, vol. 86: pp. 171-172. "July" [4 Aug.] 1953. 
Describes as new C. electo philbyi (Taif, S. Hejaz). Names 2 'forms'. [P. B.] 

Berger, L. A., "Un Celcenorrhinus nouveau du Congo Beige (Lepidoptera-Hesperiidae)" 
[in French]. Mem. Soc. Ent. Belg., vol. 27: pp. 92-95, 10 figs. 1956. Describes as 
new C. selysi (Belgian Congo) ; species confused with C. boadicea. [P. V.] 

Betrem, J. G., & L. L. J. Ossowski, "The nomenclature of Acanthopsyche junodi Hey- 
laerts (Lepidoptera: Psychidae)." Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc. London (B), vol. 25: pp. 205- 
209, 1 fig. 31 Dec. 1956. Describes as new CHALIOPSIS (as subgenus of Kotochal- 
ia) ; type A junodi. Summarizes taxonomic history and points out differences be- 
tween K. junodi and type of Acanthopsyche. Sinks Chaliella to Kotochalia. [P. B.] 

Betz, J.-T., li Melitcea aurinia Rott. en Algerie" [in French]. Rev. franc. Lipid., vol. 15: 
pp. 143-144, 1 double pi. Nov. 1956. Note on M. aurinia in North Africa; describes 
as new M. a. barraguei. On the beautiful plate the generic name and one author's 
name do not agree with those in the text, and one author's name is omitted. Series of 
Euphydryas a. barraguei, E. desfontainii, and E. d. gibrati are figured. [P. V.] 

Blackie, J. E. H., "The generic name Mesoacidalia Reuss (Lep., Geometridae)." Ento- 
mologist, vol. 86: p. 190. "Aug." [14 Sept.] 1953. Objects, unfortunately without 
"legal" grounds, to use of this unhappy name for a fritillary. [P. B.] 

Bleszynski, Stanislaw, "Studies of the genus Crambus F. (Lepidoptera-Crambidae) " [in 
Polish; Russian and English summaries]. Bull. Ent. Pologne, vol. 21: pp. 61-101, 19 
pis. 1951. Important study about the systematics of Crambidae. The $ and $ geni- 
talia of many spp. are studied. [J. M.] 



1957 1 he Lepidopterists' News 65 

Bleszynski, Stanislaw, "Studies on the Crambidae. Part VII. Studies on the European 
species of the "Pediasia fascellinella" Hbn. -group" [in English ; Russian and Polish 
summaries]. Bull. Ent. Pologne, vol. 22: pp. 140-169, 65 figs. 1952. Describes as new: 
P. adamczeivskii (Guberli, Ural Mts.) ; P. sareptella (Sarepta, S. Russia) ; P. hiibn- 
eri (Sarepta); P. soffneri (Gorlowka, S. Russia). All new spp. and genitalia are 
figured. [J. M.] 

Boursin, Charles, "A new Maltese subspecies of Leucania putrescens Hiibner. (Contri- 
bution to the study of the 'Agrotidae-Trifinae', LIII)." Entomologist, vol. 85: pp. 132- 
135, 2 figs. [11] June 1952. Describes as new L. p. vallettai (Malta). Compares $ 
genitalia of L. putrescens and L. punctosa. [P. B.] 

Boursin, Ch., ''Description d'un nouveau genre palearctique (Lep. Phal. Zenobiinae) 
(note preliminaire) " [in French]. Bull. mens. Soc. Linn. Lyon, vol. 25: pp. 124-125. 
May 1956. Describes as new PSEUDENARGIA (type species regina Stgr.) New 
genus contains also basilissa Brdt. and ulicis Stgr.; it is allied to Phlogophora and 
Habrynthis. [P. V.] 

Bowden, J. ''New species of African stem-boring Agrotidae (Lepidoptera) " Bull. Ent. 
Res., vol. 41: pp. 415-428, 23 figs. Oct. 1956. Describes as new CARELIS, and type 
C. albula (Kwadaso, near Kumasi, Gold Coast; from Scleria verrucosa) ; PCECOPA , 
and type P. mediopuncta (Kwadaso; from Rottbcellia compressa, etc.); MANGA, 
and type M. basilinea (Nyankpala, near Tamale, Gold Coast; from Pennisetum sp.) ; 
Busseola quadrata (Akinson, near Kumasi, Gold Coast; from Setaria chevalieri, etc.), 
B. phaia (Henderson, S. Rhodesia; from Pennisetum perpureum) , B. segeta (Serere 
Exp. Sta., Uganda; from Sorghum vertriliflorum, etc). Transfers Calamistis nubifera 
to Manga. Keys to these and related genera, and to 5 spp. similar to Busseola fusca. 
[P. B.] 

Bowden, S. R , "Timing of imaginal development in male and female hybrid Pieridae 
(Lep.)." Entomologist, vol. 86: pp. 255-264, 2 figs. "Nov. 1953" [19 Jan. 1954]. In 
hybrids between Pieris napi and P. bryonies the normal sequence of emergence ( $ 
slightly before $ ) is upset; this would serve as a barrier to gene exchange and sup- 
ports the separation of the spp. [P. B„] 

Bradley, J. D., "Two new species of Meharia (Lep., Cossidae)." Entomologist, vol. 85: 
pp. 241-244, 4 figs. [10] Nov. 1952. Describes as new M. philbyi (Kashabiya, Arabia), 
M. tanganyikde (Ngaruka, Tanganyika). Transfers Alarona semilactea to Meharia 
(from Psychidae). Catalogue of the 5 spp. of the genus. [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "On Harmoclona Busck, 1914 (Lep., Arrhenophanidae), with descriptions 
of a new species, of a supplementary wing-coupling device present, and some new 
synonymy." Entomologist, vol. 86: pp. 61-66, 2 pis. [20] March 1953. Describes as 
new H. hilethera (Bibianaha, Gold Coast). Sinks Ptychoxena to Harmoclona. De- 
scribes & figures genitalia of 3 known spp. [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "A new Olethreutes (Lepidoptera: Olethreutidae) from Malaya." Ento- 
mologist, vol. 87: pp. 195-196, 3 figs. "Sept." [28 Oct.] 1954. Describes as new 0. 
leveri (Port Dixon, Malaya; on Sonneratia griffithii). [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "A new clearwing moth from West Africa predaceous on scale-insects 
(Lep: .ZEgeriidae) . Entomologist, vol. 89: pp. 203-205, 5 figs. Aug. 1956. Describes as 
new CERITRYPETES, and type C. idiotropha (Ibadan, Nigeria) ; larvae feed on 
Ceroplastis sp. [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "A new genus for Tortrix post<vittana (Walker) and certain other Aus- 
tralian and New Zealand species (Lepidoptera: Torticidae) ." Bull. Ent. Res., vol. 47: 
pp. 101-105, 2 pis. March 1956. Describes as new AUSTROTORTRIX (type T. post- 
vittana) ; transfers 10 other spp. here from Tortrix & Caccecia, and sinks 2 spp. of 
Tortrix to A. postvittana. [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "A new species of Opogona (Lepidoptera: Lyonetiidae) from Malaya." 
Entomologist, vol. 89: pp. 155-156, 2 figs. June 1956. Describes as new O. theobroma 
(Selangor; on dead cocoa stem). [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "Microlepidoptera from Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island." Bull. 
Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) — Ent., vol 4: pp. 143-164, 26 figs. April 1956. Describes as 
new, from Lord Howe Island: (Olethreutidae) Lobesia eustales; (Carposinidae) Car- 
posina euphanes ; (CEcophoridae) Elceonema aneusema; (Cosmopterygidae) Pyroderces 
anoista; Batrachedra eurema; (Gracillariidae) Acrocercops tomia; (Lyonetiidae) Opo- 
gona euchcetes ; Decadarchis leucocyma. From Norfolk Island: (Gelechiidae) Aniso- 
placa cosmia; (Lyonetiidae) Comodica semiades ; Opogona psola; (Tineidae) NOR- 
FOLKIA, and type N. hilderi; EMPsESTA (type Tinea capnitis) . Sinks Elachista 



66 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.11: nos.1-3 

synethes to E. archceonoma. Records of 7 known spp. (Tortricidae, CEcophoridae, Gly- 
phipterygidae, Elachistidae, Schoenotenidae) with descriptive notes on some. [P. B.] 

Bradley, J. D., "Presence de la famille des Arrhenophanidae a Madagascar, avec de- 
scriptions de deux nouvelles especes" [introduction in French, descriptions in English]. 
Rev. franc. Ent , vol. 23: pp. 132-135, 4 figs. 1 July 1956. Records presence of Arrhen- 
ophanidae in Madagascar. Describes as new Harmaclona malgassica and H. berberea. 
[P. V.] 

Braun, Annette F., "A new species of gall-forming Bucadatrix from Florida " Ent. 
News, vol. 67: pp. 67-90. 1956. Describes as new B. needhami (Englewood, Florida; 
on Helianthus agrestis). [J. T.] 

Brooks, C. Joslin, ''A new subspecies of Ragadia (Lep. Satyridae)." Entomologist, vol. 
85: p. 167. [7] Julv 1952. Describes as new R. makuta dempoensis (Mt. Deaipo, W. 
Sumatra). [P. B.] 

Brown, F. Martin, "The Papilios of Ecuador (Rhopalocera, Lepidoptera)." Rev. Ecua- 
torian Ent. Parasitol., vol. 1, no. 3: pp. 41-60; no. 4: pp. 95-112; vol. 2: pp. 65-81; 17 
pis. July, Oct. 1953; Jan./April 1954. Keys to genera (Battus, Papilio, Graphhim) , 
sections, spp., & sspp. Notes on recognition and distribution of each form. 60 spp. are 
included ; most are figured. [P. B ] 

Bryk, Felix, "De Geers Insektensammlung eine Fundgrube von unbekannten Linneschen 
Typen!" [in German]. Opusc. Ent., vol. 14: pp. 77-80. 25 May 1949. Believes that 
many specimens in De Geer's collection in Uppsala are types or iconotypes of Linne's 
spp. Comments on the significance of names of persons associated with the diagnoses 
in Linne's works. [P. B.] 

Bryk, Felix, "Eine neue schwedische Unterart von Melitcea cinxia (L.) (Lep.)" [in 
German]. Opusc. Ent., vol. 15: pp. 209-210. 1 Dec. 1950. Describes as new M. c. 
winbladi (Gotland). [P. B.] 

Bryk, Felix, "Pararge achine (Scop.) in Ostasien. Eine Revision" [in German]. Ent. 
Tidskr., vol. 74: pp. 38-45, 8 figs. 18 June 1953. Describes as new P. a. kenteiana 
(Kentei), P. a. uralensis (Ural Mts.) ; also one 'form'. Survey of Asiatic sspp.; re- 
gards P. a. eximia as distinct from P. a. achinoides. Notes on generic assignment of 
achine. [P. B.] 

Bryk, Felix, "Zur Frage der Stellung der Dismorphiinae im Systeme (Lepidoptera: olim 
Pieridae pro parte)" [in German]. Ent. Tidskr., vol. 76: pp. 16-19, 2 figs. 22 June 
1955. Proposes DISMORPHIID^] and LEPTIDIIN^E n.n. (to replace Grote's in- 
valid spellings) ; maintains that family is distinct from Pieridae, but rejects Heiker- 
tinger's suggestion that it belongs in Nymphalidae. [P. B.] 

Burdick, William N., "A new concept for the Ccenonympha of the Front Range of Colo- 
rado (Satyridae)." Lepid. News, vol. 10: pp. 81-86, 1 fig. 12 Dec. 1956. Describes as 
new C. inornata phantasma (Eldora, Boulder Co., Colo.). [P. B.] 
Burmann, Karl, "Crambus luctiferellus Hb. und luctuellus H. S. — zwei gu:e Arten 
(Microlepidoptera, Pyralidae). (Zusammenfassung meiner bisherigen Beobachlung- 
sergebnisse)" [in German]. Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges., vol. 41: pp. 137-157, 1 pi., 
2 figs. 1 Aug. 1951. Distinguishes spp. on pattern and genitalic characters; sum- 
marizes taxonomic history; describes variation & names several 'forms.' [P. B.J 
Clarke, J. F. Gates, "A new genus and species of North American Olethreutidae (Lepi- 
doptera: Laspeyresiinae." Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 41: pp. 46-47, 6 figs. 18 Jan. 
1951. Describes as new CORTICIVORA, C. clarki (North Guilford, Connecticut; 
on Red Pine). [P. B.] 
Clarke, J. F. Gates, "New species of Gelechiidae from Argentina (Lepidoptera)." Journ. 
Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 41: pp. 144-146, correction p. 199, 10 figs. 25 April 1951. 
Describes as new Parastega hemisigna (Tigre, Argentina) ; Aristotelia perplexa 
(Tigre), A. parephoria (Tucuman). [P. B.] 
Clarke, J. F. Gates, "New species of Olethreutidae from Argentina (Lepidoptera)." 
Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 41: pp. 296-299, 12 figs. 24 Sept. 1951. Describes as 
new Anchylopera plumbata (Tigre) ; Episimus unguiculus (Tigre) ; Cryptophlebia 
carpophagoides (Tucuman). [P .B.] 
Clarke, J. F. Gates, "A new carpenterworm from Florida (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) ." 
Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 42: pp. 156-158, 6 figs. 28 May 1952. Describes as new 
Prionoxystus baccharidis (Coral Gables, Fla. ; on Baccharis sp.). [P. B.] 
Cockayne, E. A., "Colias calida Verity: the correct name for the butterfly lately added 
to the British list." Ent. Rec. & Journ. Var., vol. 64: pp. 166-168. 15 June 1952. 
Claims that name australis has not been proved to apply to sp. feeding on Hippo- 
crepis comosa. [P. B.] 



1957 The Lepidopterists' News 67 

Cockayne, E. A., "Oressigena — a nomen nudum," Ent. Rec. & Journ. Far., vol 64: 
pp. 291-292. 15 Oct. 1952. Race of Dysstroma concinnata. [P. B.] 

Cockayne, E. A., "A subspecies of Plusia gamma Linnaeus." Ent. Rec. & Journ. Far., 
vol. 65: pp. 193-195. 15 Aug. 1953. Suggests that small, pale British immigrants, pro- 
ducing dark larvae, belong to an eastern Medicerranean ssp. [P. B.] 

Cockayne, E. A., "Dysstroma truncata Hufnagel ssp. concinnata Stephens." Ent. Rec. 
& Journ. Var., vol. 65: pp. 273-275. 15 Oct. 1953. Reduces concinnata to ssp. and 
sinks oressigena to concinnata ; discusses variation in truncata in western Britsh Isles. 
[P. B.] 

Cockayne, E. A., "Lectotypes of one subspecies and two aberrations of British Geo- 
metridae." Ent. Rec. & Journ. Var., vol. 65: p. 193. 15 Aug. 1953. Including type of 
Sterrha ochrata cantiata. [P. B.] 

Collenette, C. L., "The family Lymantriidae (Lep.)." Entomologist, vol. 86: pp. 32-33. 
[23] Feb. 1953. Lists numbers of spp. and sspp. in each of the 3 major zoogeographi- 
cal regions, and British Museum representation of spp. and types. 199 genera, 2445 
spp. recognized. [P. B.] 

Collenette, C. L., "New Lymantriidae (Lepidoptera, Heterocera) from French Guinea, 
West Africa." Bull. Inst, franc. A jr. Noire, vol. 17: pp. 915-917, 2 figs. July 1955. 
Describes as new Euproctis pasteopa (Ziela) ; E. perpusilla nimba (Ziela). Names 
aberration of Dasychira bacchans. [P. B.] 

Collenette, C. L., "A catalogue of the Lymantriidae of Madagascar (Lepidoptera)." Na- 
urahste malgache, vol. 7: pp. 167-179. 1956. Describes as new Marblepsis micca, M. 
ephala, M. mona; Euproctis pallilimba, E. moramanga, E. semae; HUMAROA (type 
brontonepha Collenette), H. epiclithra; PELOROSES (type prcestans Saalmuller) ; 
Lymantria oinoa. [P. V.] 

Crotch, W. J. B., "A new hybrid race of the genus Philosamia." Ent. Rec. & Journ. 
Var., vol. 65: pp. 281-282, 1 fig. 15 Oct. 1953. Describes and names hybrid between 
P. canningi and P. obscura; regards these as sspp. of P. cynthia. Hybrid has usual 
dark and light areas of ground color reversed, and is said to breed true. [P. B.] 

Daniel, Franz, "Eine alpine Unterart von Selenephora lunigera Esp. (Lep. Lasio- 
campidae)" [in German]. Mitt. Miichner Ent. Ges., vol. 42: pp. 125-129, 1 pi. 15 
Nov. 1952. Describes as new S. I. burmanni (Umhausen, Tirol). [P. B.] 

Daniel, Franz, ''Zwei neue siidamerikanische Arctiiden-Arten (Lep.-Het.)" [in German]. 
Mitt. Miincher Ent. Ges., vol. 42: pp. 130-133, 1 pi. 15 Nov. 1952. Describes as new 
Amastus zischkai (Liriuni, Dep. Cochabamba, Bolivia, 3100 m.) ; Prumala hcenkei 
(Yungas del Palmar, Bolivia, 2000 m.). [P. B.] 

Daniel, Franz, "Monographic der Cossidae. I. (Lep.-Het.). Kritische Beurteilung der 
bisher dem Genus Stygia Latr. zugeteilten Arten" [in German]. Mitt Miinchner Ent. 
Ges., vol. 44/45: pp. 159-181, 1 pi. 1 Aug. 1955. Describes as new PSYCHIDOSTY- 
GIA (type Stygia colchica) . Transfers S. ledereri & S. psyche to Dieida (Zeuzerinae) ; 
S. tricolor, S. deratis, & S. cethiops to Psychidostygia. Repeats and discusses earlier 
descriptions and gives additional information on above spp. and on S. australis & S. 
hades. [P. B.] 

Das, G. M., "New psychids (Lep. Psychidae) from Assam." Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., 
12th ser., vol. 9: pp. 526-528, 3 figs. July 1956. Describes as new CATHOPSYCHE 
(type Acanthopsyche reidi) ; PSOMOCOLAX, and type P. katani (Tocklai, Assam) ; 
Clania mahanti (Tocklai). Figures venation. [P. B.] 

Diakonoff, A., "Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Sumba-Expedition des Museums fur 
Volkerkunde und des Naturhistorischen Museums in Basel, 1949. Microlepidoptera. 
Part I" [in English]. Verhandl. Naturforsch. Ges. Basel, vol. 63: pp. 137-152, 15 
figs. 30 July 1952. Describes as new (Phaloniidae) : Clysiana sumbana (Mau Marru, 
E. Sumba) ; (Tortricinae) Homona umbrigera (Baing, E. Sumba) ; ISODEMIS 
(type Batodes serpentinana) ; Mimeoclysia dentata (Lokojengo, central Sumba). Fig- 
ures genitalia of new entities and of relatives of C. sumbana. Records, with synonymy, 
distribution, and notes, 1 phaloniid, 10 tortricines, 1 schoenotenid. [P. B.] 

Diakonoff, A., "Opmerkingen over Bactra Stephens (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae" [in 
Dutch]. Ent. Berichten, vol. 16: pp. 147-149. 1 Aug. 1956. 

Diakonoff, A., & H. E. Hinton, "Observations on species of Lepidoptera infesting stored 
products. XV: On a new genus of Nemapogoninae (Tineidae)." Entomologist, vol. 89: 
pp. 31-36, 18 figs. Feb. 1956. Describes as new HAPLOTINEA (type Tinea insect- 
ella) ; also describes mature larva of H. ditella. [P. B.] 



68 Recent Literature on Lepidoptera Vol.11: nos.1-3 

Draudt, M., "Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Agrotiden-Fauna Chinas. Aus den Ausbeuten 
Dr. H. Hone's (Beitrag zur Fauna Sinica)" [in German]. Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges., 
vol, 40: pp. 1-174, 18 pis. 1 Oct. 1950. Describes as new: (Mominae) Diphthera 
honei (Li-kiang) ; (Apatelinae) Cranio phora taipaishana (Tai-pei-shan) , C. simil- 
lima (A-tun-tse), C. inquieta (W. Tien-mu-shan) ; Acronycta geminata (Batang), 
A. yangtseana (Batang; A-tun-tse), A. metaxantha funesta (Hoeng-shan) ; Trisul- 
oides nigerrima (Li-kiang) ; (Bryophilinae) Bryophila prasina (Mien-shan) , B. canis- 
parsa (Li-kiang), B. tripuncta (Mien-shan), B. brunneola (Li-kiang), B. minutissima 
(W. Tien-mu-shan), B. m. hunana (Hoeng-sh