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Full text of "L'espion chinois. English"

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THE 

CHINESE SPY; 

OR, 

EMISSARY from the Court of 
P E K I N, 

Commiffioned to examine into 
THE PRESENT STATE OF EUROPE. 

Tranflated from the C h i n £ s e. 

In Six Volumes. 

VOL. IV. 



L O N D O N : 

Printed for S. B l a d o n, in Paier-nofter Row.. 
MDCCLXV. 



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r " .. . .1 s , 

THE 

CHINESE S^Y. 

t E T T E R I. 

^be Mandarin Ch^m-pi-çi to the Mandarin 
CotîK)-yti*fe at Fekin. 

London. 

IEmbarkedforFalmôQth,artdaftér two 
days failîng we were off England. 
Wh6n the pllôC came aftd tdld us 
tbat we wem within fight of the coâft, I 
took a telcfcopc, yetcôuld I fcarce dif- 
cern it, the continent of Great-Britaîil 
béing favcry fmâll. Sô thîs i$, faid I in 
myfelf, that famous potent ftate, v^hîch 
clahns the dominion 6i the feâ, and at 
prdcnt gives kvr ta ieveral great na^ 
tions ! Really every thirig in Europe i^ 
mifplace^É the governmçnts, no lefs than 
Joh. IV. B the 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 



2 CHINESESPY. 

the men^ aft parts which in no wifc bc- 
long to them. 

' We landed at Dover, a fmall town 
and thinly inhabited, far from prepofeff- 
îng a Arranger with high ideas of the 
kingdom : but we were informed that, 
though in Great Britain, we ftill wanted 
agood day's journey to reach England, 
the whole kingdom being in London. 
The famé thing had been told us at 
our landing in France, concerning the 
capital of that country. 

A Chinefe coming from Pékin to this 
city direftiy, would be really aftonilhed: 
but, not at ail, if he takes Paris in his 
way. 

London îs dark and fmoaky: the 
fun beams neyer reach this cîty, being 
intercepted by a thick cloud almoft 
cpntinually hovering over it. If the 
people hère are not quite in the dark, 
they ar^ very far from being in broad 
day. 

The buftle in the ftreets is nearly the 
famé as at Paris, pufhing, joftling, and 
throwingdown, but with this différence, 
th^t hère the fhocks are hardcr, the bo- 
dies being more bylky. 

This 



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C HI N E s E s P Y. j 

This cîty has Ibmethîng fad and 
gloomy in its firft afpeét ; its very dé- 
corations are of a melancholy caft. The 
people in the ftreets feem as if walking 
at a funcral. 

At London there îs an utter confufion 
of ail ranks. The high hâve nearly the 
famé ways as the low. The externals ^ 
are alike, you fee only one people, and 
this people may be likened to one pub- 
lic body. 

Phyfiognomies are fcarce in Fngland, 
the whole nation has but one. A French- 
man may pafs for a Chinefe, a Swifs, or 
a German ; whereas an Englifliman can 
be of no nation, but that of his coun- 
tenance. 

Hère no public luxury ftrikes the eyc 
of a foreigner -, little gold or filver are 
wore, The cloaths are in the famé fimi- 
larity as the faces ; one would think the 
nation to be in uniform. 

AU places hefe, as in- France, fwarm 
with coàches, but they hâve neitherthe 
brilliancy nor richnefs of the French. 
They are kept, as in other parts, out of 
oftentation 5 yet this is^ not carricd to a 
luxury, 

B 2 An 



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4 CHINESESPY. 

An old philolbplier has defined mtn to 
be a laughing animal, and an Mngjiih- 
man is a thinking animal. The Brîtons 
walk like clock-work ; it is only thcir 
bodies whîch are in the ftreet&i theiri 
mind is at the cuftom-houfe, or in fome 
walk on the 'change; for almoft every 
body hère is fomething of a trader, ev€a 
thofe of profçffiqns vcry différent from 
any thing of traffick. 

London has more houfes than Paris,, 
but not fo many towns. 

Uniformity.here is obferved even in 
the very buildings, they are almoft ail 
caft in the famé mould, and fo exadly^ 
that a pçrfon may eafily miftake his 
neighbour's houfe for his own, and aâî 
accordingly in it,. till the right owner 
cornes and gives him to underftand hU 
miftake. Hère they go. into the hoafe$ 
through the windows,fo that if any takes 
the door way, it is only accideritally. 

London, like Paris, is the capital of 
nations, the gênerai rendezvous of fo» 
reigners. France is continually ppuring 
înto it. Not a pa^ket boat coipes oyer 
without a fpeçimen of that monarchy ; 
but thefe are faid not to be the beft of 
England*s imports. 

L E T-% 



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C HI N E s E s P V. 5 

L E T T E R II. 

Thâ Mandarin Cham-pi-pi io the Mamàa- 
fin SuperiniendanI ^f jlgricuUure at 
Pékin. 

London» 

ALL England îs caltivated^ there 
n not a fin^e inch of land kft 
waftc ; periia|)s It is the only kingdom 
kl Europe, which befides maintaining 
ks owa iiiliaibkants, ftipplies other peo- 

AmkxktyXft mskcl ^fte df this gôvefîi- 
mcnrs iie#s, or mdee4 k may be faki 
ro be tl« baife of them. The principal 
care of the gttat men is th«t the îand be 
well cukiiwed and impfwed. 

One fingle cecanomical mâxîm fome- 
thnes ^vtis a govemmewt the fiiperiority 
orer others % and by this pôlicy Engknd 
is non ônty powerftil at home, but its 
ftrength «ïottd is Kkewife augmented 
by it. 

The cuitivation bf the landis employs a 

▼aft nun^r of fubjeâs, who, 'without 

this pccupatkm, would ht a charge and 

&CI&IICC 10 the community. The en- 

B 3 couragemeîit 



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6 C H I N E S E S P Y, 

couragement of arts and trades makes 
the nation more Ikilful and inventive, 
The exportation of its corn finds bufi- 
nefs for feamen, who, thus, in the exî- 
gencies of the ftate, are ever ready ; fo 
that the marine fupports itfelf without 
any interpofition df the government. 
But the greateft advantage accruing to 
England from this gênerai cultivation 
is, that it foments the floth of other 
nations, and accuftoms them to dépen- 
dance on this country in their natural 
wants -, while foftnefs inclining them to 
fupînity, énervâtes their courage, and 
renders them eafy to be coiiquered. 
The hurt this gênerai cultivation docs to 
foreign nations» and on the other hand 
the good of which ît îs produdtive to 
England, fcarce admit of an adéquate 
defcription. 

There are things in the Europcan po-' 
licy which will ever be new to a think- 
ing man. Can it be well accounted for, 
that when England encreafed its pro- 
duits, the other ftates did not foUow its 
cxample, and givc the like encourage- 
ments ; thereby, they would fo far hâve 
baffled the prudence of England, that à 
yery confiderable part of Grcat-Britain 

woald 



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CHINESESPY. 7 

would foon hâve corne to lie fallow as be- 
fore : for a people, when it has no vent 
for its produis, will cultîvate only fo 
much as fuffices for its own confumptiori. 
As what indeed fhould it do with a far- 
plus, which would procure no reward for 
the labour and expence beftowed on ir. 
The more the gênerai policy of Europe 
is confidered, the'Iefs confiftent is it al- 
ways found. The States are contînually 
fighttng and negotiatîng to maintain 
what is called, the ballance of Europe ; 
no blood nor money is grudged to pre- 
vcnt any thing which may hurt the équi- 
libre; and ail the while they overlook 
what neceflàrily forces down the firale. 

L É T T E R in. 

Jhe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the ASandarin 
Suparintendcni of Religion ai Pékin. 

London. 

RELIGION in England îs clear and 
plain.Here the Dcity is not wrapped 
up in mjrfteries, which in other parts 
mnke a mère riddle of it. 

The belicf of a providence îs eafy ; 

and wc may be perfuaded of the exiftence 

B 4 of 



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8 CHINE SE S F Y. 

pf a S^pnçme^ng, without tof^Uy pe- 
AOUAcing our re^çp. 

Neither is rdigiçn hère 4Î5^g^^4 
ivith that owiltitudc çrf" fupcrflitipuis cé- 
rémonies, which by the very fortps ^f 
worihipping God diverts the mind from 
him, and inâ;â: k wlt;h idea? Mnworthy 
of the divine ijij^jefty. 

At firft fetting foot injto this kingdoQlr 
it is eafily feen th^ the Pope bas n^oching 
to do hère, for the churcfi fol^s hâve b\iC 
litde authority. 

In moft other catholic ftatçs of Eurçfie 
the clergy are faf^ious, proud ^od ^uo^ 
ing. Hère fcar<:e a word h feid <^ ihàt 
order. Its ti?.pde^y eypû <é(Pfy^ » df- 
cency : which is no fmall commendation 
in a fet of peopfe, who, ^i^r the moft 
part, quit the tumult and' trouble of 
worldly concerns, formaKy dedîcatînjg 
themfelves to God, Ciply lor the fgkc of 
having more leifur^ for vanity and am- 
bition. 

In EogUnd propagation il oot cramjp- 
jed by religiQP» Every mm roay ra>(e 
çhildrcn ror the compiaawe^. The 
clergy marry çquaUy with th» laijty, aad 
amidft ail thi?ir ipîritual labours are ob- 
fcrvjBd w bs no k& pjjolifcç. THet» is 

00 



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C H I N E s È s P Y. g 

no nced of other clafles e^auftlng them- 
fclves to fill up the vacancies caiifed by 
ecclefîaflîcal celibacy. 

Hère the akar is fiot thought any dîf- 
penfarion from a citizen's firft daty ; not 
that they, who, by their calKng, apply 
themfelves more particuJarly to admire 
the creator's grandeur, fhould be the firfl 
to impair his work. 

In Engïaiid a perfôn officiating m the 
worfhip of God niay love a woman. 

AU the faithful invoké heaven in tfiô 
feme garb, no reîîglous mafqaerades arô 
allowed of hère. 

The only republîc hefe îs that of thé 
nation i ait feparate Comitïanifes ofidIerS 
hâve îong (înce been diffôtved. 

It is forbid to cmbrace â ftace of floth 
and knmure one*s lelf in a côi\rcfrtr, fht 
the fâke of having nothing to do during 
Oiie*s whole îife. 

AU the commonwealth^s charges are 
diftributed ; no individual is intitled to 
bear the name 6f a citizen, unfcfs he an- 
fîvers the obligatiorfô becoming chatcfia^ 
raâter. Every one has an occupation, 
trade,. or calKng, by which he requîtes 
tlic lîate for what he reccives from it. 

B5 The 



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10 C H I N E s E S P Y. 
^ .The national opulence circulâtes freely, 
without any religious obftruftions. The 
minifters of the altar hâve a lïipend but 
without any large donations. The ec- 
clefiaftics hère afFeft na parade ; and ta 
fave the ftate from being fwallowed up by 
the church, the Pope has becn cafhiered, 
together with faints, relicks, ànd other 
appendages of his power. 

Religion hère is ho reftraint to in- 
duftry. They hâve only one day of reft 
in the week, wliich is devoted to religi- 
ous exercifes, whilft ail the others are 
laid out in the bufinefs of the nation and 
feçular afFairs •, for the Englilh do not 
think that faints hâve any authority tq 
fufpend mens callings, and to make the 
fubjeft idie two or three months out of 
the twelvc. 

Hère religion is nothing of a fight;, 
peoples minds are not diverted from their 
çufinefsbyproceffions, and other quackifh 
exhibitions of the Roman worlhip. 

The day îs taken up with work and 
bufinefs, and the night givcn to fleep, 
This city is not difturbed at mîdnight 
with the clàttcr of bells, only to let the 

world 



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CHINESE SPY- ir 
world know, that fbme monks are goîng 
to prayers. 

The ear îs not perpetually dinned with 
the pîercing ringings at funerals : hère 
the dead are buried without peftering the 
living, 

L E T T E R IV. 

^be Mandarin Cham-pî-pi to the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-te at Pékin, 

London, 

THE whole earth afFords nothing fo 
beautiful as thé form of the Englifti 
government ; it's plan is really divine : 
what a pity that it is impraticable, and 
this fo well combined fyftem only a Iplcn- s 
did fpeculation. 

This legiflation muft, neceffarily, hâve 
fallen fliort of its plan, being quitte mi- 
ftaken in human nature, towhich itwas 
prefcribed ; its laws, in eflfeét, are fit 
only for angels. 

Thou haft doubtlefs heard of an old 
Greek, called Plaro, a chimerical philo- 
Ibpher, who unable to ftrike out a fcheme 
of government for men, formedonefor 
fpirits ; the Englifh conftitution is the 
fecond volume of Plato's idcai r^puMic, 

Witk 



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U G H I N E s p s B Y. 

lation on this people, the BriCQi^ Wi^nl^r 
^t prefent, if I njay bse ftiJpwêâ tfeç ^x- 
preffioi>, be tke gcj^s of Éwpj)^ E*r 
erppt frqgri ^Jl t^q^ viçs* wHieh v* pr4h 
duâive of flavcry, they would hp pf^^T 
fefled of ail the virtues confequential 
to that polîtical lîbepty, eftablilhed by 
tf^eircputtitqtioin, 

Inftead of ibc ijixippr^l^ies prevailing 
in corrupt ftates they would be juft ; their 
conftiçuçion laying down juftice as the 
fçua^^tion of t;hcir pqiasrcr- Qj^ift a^^d, 
c^y ^ hopRe,. they woMi4 ^f^ç^ç^Kppr %o 
iD^ijot^tir^ pçacç 4f^944* 

l^ a wpx4| bei^ cçln|t4U<îpiji^|ly eqi^Vr 
table aqd mb^era;.?^ th,çir oply a^hfttifw 
would be to promote un^^r^^ h^ppî- 
Hj^fe; yet, on çaftii^g ^ifi^y^ ia^^ the 
hi^Qry'of this peoplç, ypy ifliinedîs^îcljf 
fee the fiiuitlefliicr& q^ thi^npble fchjBtnç. 
les texçurç in^eçd i§ lo delic^W;, tha^; 
it will not bear exécution ; y^t thç faH^I. 
r;jthc^ lyçs in tl^e hunaîu?» Ijie^t,, tfean in 
the la>vs then^felves^ 

I hç Çng^yh conftitution ^s, t^ffi cppjf 
of a^nç p^lkvvrç, t;hepr;gin4c^ V(hiç]^i% 
in hcayen, In^çed, eyofy w^ierç^^ atnoi^ 
the Europe^n^, ^ftç^ ^ ^ç rf4iw?: 

which 



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ÇHINESi: SPY, tj 

;. E T T E R V, 

fïi^ Mandnrin Cham-pi-pi tù tbe Mandariw 
Prime Minifier at Pekia. 

ON l^is^ngin t})k^iQ^^ ^ man muit 

i^^ W^ qnç çtf tb^ |î*li lawa of be* . 

ately inveigh againft the Kiqfc or h© wm0B: 
g^y^ Qi^. q\w4f r t<^ ^ c<¥pniT)Qfi¥rea]tk : 

higl^çft ft^ion d^YTAi ÎÇ^ the vcry Wweft 

angry wlth the gover»flfieftC* a^dt th^. 
ot^ d'^filç§fr(^ Wfe ^^ -^> are aot 

ang.ry. ^^^^ it^ 

Xa b^ rilçi>t(m tl^s hç^d tp^i^s aman 
bç^ l9(9teed oft. a^ ?i Eftç^-e 4aH, i¥H capable 

pçlkiçs^ ^ '^, \% cdSii^ b(efe. 

yrho is the political Qff^^:^ lae^g^ 
- [ .\ bouring 



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>4 cm N ES E S P Y. 
boufing alehoufe. My taylor holds fortlt 
atnîdft a room full of gazers^ who takc 
their opinions from him ; andmyflioe- 
maker, .who can neitherread nor Write, 
never fails fettling tte afFairs of Europe, 
twice a week, 

The laft îs very ftrong and véhément 
in his rhetoric; in the want of arguments, 
he makes ufe of demonftratîon 5 and, 
lately, fcverdy belaboured a joumeymen- 
of his, for faying, that England, after 
ail its glorious campaigns, would give 
back its conquefts, and make a difadvan*- • 
tageous^ peace; 

Phyficians wiU hâve ît, that hère thîs 
difcharge of political oil is neceflàry for 
giving motion to the fluids and keeping 
them in aftîon y adding, that without 
thefe agitations, which the Englifli bor- 
rowfrom their government, they would 
be mère machines. 

In b urope every nation has its pecu- 
liar paffion, which cuts it out work. 
Among the French, religion is the topic 
of difpute ; among the Englifh, politics. 
The former are continually wrangling^ 
about heavenly concerns, and the latter 
aijc inteffantly murmuriog about the 
things of th&earthé 

L E T* 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. »$ 

L E T T E R VI. 

The Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to ibe Mandarin^ 
Cham-pi-pi at LondoiK 

Avignoir. 

I Write to thee from Avignon, which 
though in the midft of France is out 
of the kingdom. 

This country, though very fertile andr 
plentiful, has neither fortified places noc 
troops. TKe firft, who pleaïes, may 
make it his own, yet no power meddles 
with it. There \s fomething unaccoun- 
table in the princes of Europe. They 
fend armies at aa immenfe charge ta 
conquer parched and barren countries in 
other parts of the world, and feem to. 
overlook thofc which, befides being at 
their own door, abound in every thing, 
and they might hâve for taking. 

It is faid,^ the Pope has purchafed. 
Avignon, but a fovereignty is not fale-- 
able, as the purchafer thereby (hews 
himfelf unable to poflefs himfelf of it^- ' 
Ever fmce open force has decided the 
rights of European princes, ail the pof-. 
fepions arc founded on conqueft ; fo that> ' 

AvignoQ 



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^ CBINESESPr.. 
Avignon can be only a mortgage, and 
kwfuUy feizable on returning the fum : 
b^t chriftian princes iavadé without anf 
fuch juftifiabte nxKtivc. It is not fronn 
any vénération to Rome that it is fpared,, 
belng otherwife extremely oppreflcd. 
As little is it from . any, principle q£ 
equity, as thc unjuft wars and continuai 
exaétions in Europe fufficiently dennon- 
ftrate, That the Pope remains in poi- 
fcffion of this ftate proceeds from thàt 
riddlcor myftery which runs through the 
whoje chain of European politics, and 
which thc mind of man caa ncver fînd 
eut 

The dtmate of Avignon is very fine^ 
and the fertiîity of its foit inviting to la- 
bour and ioduftry-, yet, on entering ther 
city, aheavincft and hffitude fteak over 
tht' whole body, la that the foui becomcs^ 
quitc incapable of a£lion. Phyficians,; 
^ho underffandtheinffuences of cHmates,, 
attributc this to the léthargie effluvia 
waftcd from Rome. Indeed a ftarego- 
verned by men of floth cannot naturally 
bc vcry aélive^ 

The Pope goes the right way to work 
to make his Avignon fubge6ls poor and 
wretcbed, feaving them in the full en- 

joyment 



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e H I N E s E $ ? y. tf 

joyment of their fubftance^ without fa 
much as onc^tax. Xhc Evir^p^n govern- 
^^nts never hit the mari:, either over- 
•ftîooting, or faMing fhort. Some may 
be faid tolkin their fubjefts of their 
wçalth^ others îeave them the whole of 
k : two extremities equally faulty, and 
tjb^r cffe^l the fanw. The people are 
PQt x^ bc werloadcd ; the coi^ueace 
^ h^i^vy taxes bcîag difpk-kedncfs : bw 
i^ total exeytnption froin impofts, natur aily 
Jeftd3 to Jbkduigcqçe and iuxury ; and 
and this is fure to terminate in indokiicp 
*nd ÛQth. 

TIms g^cat ^ poteat ftace in ythich 
l^bla §<mtM(f is bemm'd ia, is ^Gûd to eut 
tài^ÛMWê.olita iné^J&rf : but tbat can- 
not be, princes hâve no powcr on the 
ê&iwM qI* the ibuL If a conçiguous^na-t 
lûm b^ iogemouâ ar^i induâyious, the 
pQÎfit i$ Ofdy to rival it in diofe <]paatkiei : 
ma k may bc queftioacd whether herein 
tbe Httk ûut hâ$ not the advantag^»^ 
ail '\È% parts lying nearer to obfervation, 
fo thftt the feveral branches of its induftry^ 
mcf be kept in aneq^ual pace, whîchgives 
itthe iiiperiority. I fay, thii||.nftuft bc fe 
^çr« vkdeaçe and opprefllon interfère 

BOt. 



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t8 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

L E T T E R VIL 

Th Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin. 
Prime Minifier ai Pékin. 

London. 

THOU a(keft me whether England 
has a king ? now this queftion puts 
a Chinefe to a ftand ; for being^ brought 
up in an abfolute government, he thinks 
there can be no king without unlimitcd 
power. 

An emperor of China, and a king oî 
England are very widely diflferent. I 
hâve not yet been able to corne at a dear 
knowled^ of what is meant herc by tbe 
citleofking. 

It is merely this. This kingdoor has 
a great perfonage who is called^ sire^ 
YOOR MAjESTY, and has feveral bodies of 
guards and fentinels ftandingat hisdoon 
.To this SIRE tbe nation annually gîvcs 
an allowance of eight hundred theufand 
pounds fterling on the ptiblic revenues, 
which is at the rate of two hundred 
thoufand pounds worth of majefty a 
quarter, and he muft not aét majefly 
heyond that funu 

Indced 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 19 
Incjeed, when it happens to prove a 
ba4 year, and cxtraordinary charges and 
penlions hâve brought his cofFers low, 
îbme gratifications are granted to make 
him whole again. 

Thou likewilè afkeft me whethcr thîs 
crown be cleftive or hereditary ? This is 
another thing I am ignorant of. There 
are différent cafés, according to which ît 
is one or the other. AU I can inform 
you on this head is, that when the En- 
glifli don't like theîr king, they eje6t 
him, and, in this light, the crown is 
eleftive, as, after having rid themfelves 
of him, they chufc another : butunder 
anéthcr appearance it is hereditary ; for, 
on the demife of a king, the heir or 
heirefs fteps înto the fovereignty, with- 
out confulting any other body of the 
ftatc. 

A third queftîon of thine is, whether 
the kings of England hâve any power ? 
Now this is no lefs perplexing than the 
former. It is not hère as in China, 
where the emperor can take away the 
life of the greateft man in the empire; 
for a king of England has no power on. 
the life of the meaneft citizçn, nor even 
fo much as on his frccdomor fubftance. 

Ha 



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ac C HIN E SE SP Y- 

He has the prérogative of declarîng 
war, but if the war difpleafes the na- 
tion, no money is-given him to carry k 
on, and thcn Ws ^claratîon is totaBy 
fruftrated ; for hère, as m aU other ftates,, 
fieets and arnûes are not to be had wiih- 
eut money. 

In this monarcfcy thcrc is a pubKc ar- 
rangen)ent which prevents motA of tfae 
abufes Ç^ common in others ; I mean» 
that the Finances are rK>t in the kîng^s 
hands. In Europe, however, expédients 
are found for every thîng; fo tbat a king» 
tlKHjgh not abfokitc by Cooftitutirm, n^ 
beeofne fo by eombiflation. 

I ihaU,, perhaps, àave occafion m fbme 
ef cny letters to âiew you, diat this king» 
i¥ho fcarce &ems tabe fuch, is more a 
king than they who are inffcfted with an 
abfolute deipotifm. 

L E T T E R VIIL 

S'he JldCwwLerm Cham-pi-pi fo tbe Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe at Pékin, 

London» 

FOREIGNERS judgp of a nation bf 
the firft things they fec. A peopte 
of a miki and humane behaviour they 

conclude 



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C H IN E s E s P Y. 2> 
Conclude to be civilized -, whereas, on 
pcrcciving a rude quarrelfome difpofition^ 
and a dclight in bloody fpeftacles, they 
ioc^ upon fcich a lUtion as barbarians. 
Wher^ore magïftrates, or the heads of 
tbe police, fliould not overiook a certain 
ferocity naturally dwelling in the human- 
mind^ and to be reilrained only by law»; 
for that a people gain either of thofe 
charaders, is not a matter of indif- 
ference. 

I was kudy at a moft horrid fhow, 
ufually exhitûted on a flage in this city *. 
Btrbarity itfdf, as it were, aiSts theré in 
perfon. The French play tragédies j but 
the En^iifh aâ: them ; inftead o( copies, 
Bcre yoa hâve original performances of 
cruelty. 

. The brlL/or this ihow gave om, that 
on fuch a day, two men would do* their 
beft to kiil one anoth«-. Before, and 
dttring the combat, the fpedators kept 
a hidecMîs clamour about betting on this 
fportive efiufion of human blood. Thou 
wouldft fhudder, wcrt thou to fee what 
a figure the adors c£ thefe tragédies 

* This ftage has been put down fince the accef* 
fion of George Ild, to the throne. 

makc 



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na C H I N E S E S P Y. 
ipake of one another. Every part of 
their body is bruifed, fometimes it cofts 
them a limb or two, at other times they 
corne oflF with only lameing themfelves, 
breaking an arm, or the lofs of an feye. 
But there are inftances of one of the 
parties dying by the hurts he received, 
and yet the other is not hanged. Thefe 
murders are allowed and applauded; it is 
only thofe committed in the public ftreets 
or highways that the magiftrate takcs 
cognizance of: as for a man's being 
killed on this ftage, it is ail fair, and for 
the entertainment of the public, The 
combatants are left to chufe their wea- 
pons ; they may eîther knock 6he aiio- 
ther*s eyes out with their hands, or fplit 
their fkull with a cutlafs, or break each 
others bones with cudgels pv quarter 
ftaves. 

The plea for this fanguinary cuftom is, 
that fuch fights keep up the national 
courage; vçry unhappy is a people that. 
muft make themfelves cruel, in order to 
become favage. This is authorizing a 
great many vices to form only one vir- 
tue. But I affirm that military qualities 
are not acquired on thefe butcherly 
ftages 5 expérience has often (hewn that 

the 



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C H IN E s E s P Y. 23 
the courage of thefe gladiators is only 
local and limited to the théâtre of theif 
mercenary prowefs. 

England would bé at a fad pafs had it 
only an army of thefe bruifèrs to dépend 
on, fw I dare fay, on the fîrft difcharge, 
they would turn tail. If in the battles 
between fovcreigns the two armies were 
to grapple body to body, or to box it 
out, this prize fighting ftage might be 
fomething of a military fchool 5 but as 
fovcreigns think fit to make ufe of pow- 
dcr and bail,, the Ikill andaétivity of 
thrfe gymnaftic performers are quite out 
of the queftion. 

As to the qualities of the foui produc- 
tive of courage, they are neverto be de- 
rived from fuch trials of fkill. They 
who fight for. money, and boaft of theîr 
ftrength, hâve generally little real met- 
tle; true coUragé: avoids oftentation, dif- 
dains barbarity, and revolts at the fetting 
a price on human blood. Valour is found- 
ed on virtues quite abhorrent from a 
vénal ftage. 

In fuch fpeftacles a people contrats a 
familiarity with blood{hed,without becom- 
ing in the leaft more courageous. Thefe 
exhibitions are attcnded with ail the jn- 

convcniencies 



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■^"I^fs-y 



^ C H I N ESTE S F Y. 
'Canvertiencies ôf crtjcky, wttfaoot pro^- 
d\icing any one of the advantkges of 
bravery. 

Thé Ronlarts» it is addcd, inftituted 
Tuch entertmnments v yes, and to thefo 
it was owing that they grcw fô barba*-^ 
rous. The ruin of tfee republie may be 
datcd frôm thc firft appearance ôf the gla^ 
diatorsin thc Arcna. This inftîtution gave^ 
rife to a multitude of corraptions befôre 
uiiknown* It is the difeafe of the mo- 
dem» to imkate thc amients in cvcry 
thing bad, ai^d to keèp at a diftànce fronï 
thdc virtuc* wWch rendcrfed thcm the 
admiration of the univerfe. 

I could fay a grcat deal more concern- 
ing thts inhuman pradtice, but it feemtf 
to me a wafte and abufe of human rea- 
fon to cmploy it in expofing fuch u&ges. 

L E T T E R IX. 

Itbe Mandarin Cham-pî-pi to the fame^ 
at tekin, 

, London. 

H I S delight in fingle combats is 

not limited to the formality of a 

e ^ it is feen in the ftj^ets } there is 

not 




Digitized by LnOOQlC 



. jC H I N E s E s P Y. ^s 
HOt a part in aU thîs great city, which 
does not, evcry day^ àfïbrd a fcaie of 
mutilation. Moft of the pondilios df 
honour are iï^rc dccided by 'fifticufFs^ 
ail jdaoes fwarm with thcfc duels, which 
often terminate in the diflocation of a 
limb, «r broken boncs. 

In other parts of Europe, peojdef^ek 
^ bye place to fight in ; but hcre »all peN 
fonal combats are tmnfafted in public >; 
tbc mob gets together, makes a ring, 
and the battle begins. When one of the 
duclifts happens to be flung, ànd thus 
unable to défend himfelf, the ipeftators 
interpofe, and hinder the othcr from 
taking advantage of his fituation ; they 
raife him up, and fet him on hîs' legs, 
and encourage him to take the ocher 
bout, that is, they hâve the humanity 
to prolong the fcene, and make it more 
Hoody. Thefe battles are far from being 
peculiar to the populace ; for, excepting 
fome perfons of rank, who chufe) èhc 
fwofd and pîftol, ail cJarfTeis generally vin- 
dicate their henour with thdr fiils. 

Some days ago my coach happened 
to get foui of my lord E-— — ^s 5 dur 
coachmen began to abufe each other 5 

Vol. IV. C bût 



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46 C H I N E s E S P y. 

but conrinuing thcîr yocifcrations with- 

Out comkg to blows, thc young lord 
being a man of more mettle than.his 
fervant, let down one of the glafiës, and 
propoled to me to make an end of this 
aflàir by the ufual ways, I thankçd his 
lordfliip for the trouble he was willing to 

iakc to knock out one of my eyes, or 
break one of my limbs ; and begged of 
hîm that, as our coachmen had begun 
the quarrel, they themfclves might aUb 
end it. 

• And it is not oply men, but the very 
beafts in England fight duels. An 
Englifliman muft certainly be of a 
very mifchie vous temper; for he fpends 
hîs life in fomenting wars among 
créatures, which, were it not for his 
inftigations, would live together in the 
profoundeft pcace and tranquiliry. They 
hâve a way hère of putting weapons on 
cocks, and fetting them to fight, in 

:wbich thofe créatures Ihew wonderful 

.ardo^r -, but the conquerer, to bc com- 
pleatly fuch, mufl lay his antagonift dead 

. on<he fpot. Indeed few of thefe brave 
créatures turn tail, whilft they hâve aay 
life in them. Dogs likewife are taughc 
to tear one anocher to pièces, 

There 



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X HJ N E s E s P Y, 27 
There are Britons in the country who 
cmploy themfelves in fettii\g cven tlic 
aquatic créatures a fighting; and I my- 
Tclf was prelent, the other day, at à 
pitched- battle of fifhes. The armies 
confîftcd chiefly of large carps ; falmons 
•were the heavy cavalry, and eels the light 
troops, befides a referved body of pikcs ; 
the field of battle was a large reiêrvoir , 
near Richmond ; and next week I am 
to fee a gênerai aûion of mîce, whîch a 
Yorkfhire gentleman has trained up-to 
war. But a grand Icheme is talked of, 
•whiçh is, for rats to encounter cats. 
Should the latter be worfted, there 
would, in a great meafure, be an end of 
England •, for the rats thus multiplying 
and encreafing, will prey on the in- 
habitants. 

I hâve lately been informed, that a 
few leagues out of London there livcs a 
virtùofo who has learned ten or twelve 
fpiders to attack each other, and défend 
themfelves-, and another,who makes it his 
bufmefs to difeip'ine fiies. Is not thk 
being a difturber of naturels peace, and 
keeping harmlefs créatures in a continuai 
Hâte of hbftility with one aiiother ? 

. C 2 L E T- 



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^8 C H I N E S E S P Y. 



L E T T E R X. 

^bi Mandarin Ni-ou-fân to tbe Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pî, at Lx)ndon. 

Avignon* 

TH I S place was formerly the refi- 
dence of the popes : but fihce their 
removal to Rome, they fend hither, as 
their reprefentative, a Legate, with the 
title of prince. He has 'guards of feve- 
ral kinds -, and lives in ail the ftate pf a 
monarch. He îs, in faâ:, the Avignon 
pacha. 

Ail people in the world, the very fa- 
vages not cxcepted, hâve a government ; 
which is more ihan I can fay of this 
ftate : The public afFairs go on as they 
can j and the men in office do as they 
lift. 

. The vice - legate, in requirîng the 
paymeht of unjuft debts, in impri- 
foning, or infliâing the baftinado on 
a fubjeâ, does it by his o^n perfonal 
authority, without fo much as any form 
of Uw. This is, hère, called proceeding 
foverçignly j that is to fay, adminifter- 
ing juftice aftcr the TurkÛh way. AU 

the 



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Ç H I N E s E S P Y. 29. 

the tribunes arc for tbat time under 
fulpence, the laws intermitted, juitice 
fikncedi the prince*s will being ail in 
a)l. ' 

The king of France fays, / will bave 
it fo*^ an4 the vice-legate of Avignon, 
// is my order\ y?ith this différence, that. 
the formeras ,will is fometimes good, 
but the la|tpr*s orxlçr is ajnooft evcr 
wrong. 

Bcfidefl> thjs infuppor.tablç defpotifm, 
is ufually accompanied with malv^f^ïipOv 
If the Turkifli pachas harrafs provinces, 
the Avignoiî- vice -. legates flpece the 
principality. Their reign cxpiring at 
thf^e^dfof fixyearsj ail joj^c the rpoft 
of their lime v andaifor leaviiïgan ex- 
haufted country to their fucceflbr, that 
gives them little conccrn. 

Other ftfttes, bpwiçvee tjiçy may foffef 
by tnQDPpioJi^i r^trioye- thçmfelve^. by . 
the ajODopoîiftSj ôill rcmaiping in th^ 
famc CQUnt^ ; whçreas wretcbed Avîg^ 
non reaps no manfiçr of advantage frpn^ 
xhç extoïtions of its^goyicrnmçnt. 

And chat theTurkillx apd Avignon- 

conftiti^tion may be entirely of a pièce, 

evcry vice-legate has his favourite ful- 

Ç 3 tana. 



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30 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

tana, who is the channel both of his fa- • 

vours and his injuries. 

She is the perfon to whom application 
muft be made ; (he receives pétitions, 
reads memorials, hears complaints, and 
givcs orders. She rules the ftate Jike an 
abfolutc miftrefs, fo that the prince is but 
the fécond perfon in the légation. 

Conceive, ifthoucanft, the mifery of 
a people governed by a defpotic man, ' 
and he direfted by the capricçs of a 
wonîan ! 

L E T TER' XI. 

7iâ Mardarm Cham-pî-pi to ibe Mat^^ 
rin Cotao-yu-fe, at Pékin, 

Londpri» 

JUSTICE he^c almoft movcs of itfetfj 
nothing is fo eafy as the admirtiftra-^ 
tion of it. The peoplé of England can 
do wîthout tribunals, and oçcafionally 
even without magiftrates. 

One fingle booK prcferves and uphôlds ■ 
the community. The matter is thîs : 
When any perfon has brokcn the public^ 
peace -, has killed, beaten». or robbcd ^ 
another, this book is opcned^ and in it 

it 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 31 
h found the pùnilhment appointed for 
his crime ; which he fufFers accordingly. 
After exécution, the book is (hut, tiH 
fome other malefaftor or peace-breaker 
caufes it to be opened^again. 

This you fee is very eafy ; ail that the 
juries havc to do is to hear, and the exe*-, 
cutioner to hang. Hère are no fuch 
thing as proper judges •, they who bear. 
that title bdng only interpretcrs of the. 
law whîcliis written in that book. Now 
this is an excellent contrivance, and o£ 
grcat convênience ; it faves the parties 
the trouble of bribing their judges, and 
thefe the trouble of luffering themfclves 
to bc bribed, 

I havc not yet read this book*, but I 
believe it muft make a noble work : 
probably it is fomething voluminous^ 
bcing faid to contain every particular 
café of trefpafs and peace-breaking. 

Conceming this book, I hâve heard 
Ibme very cxtraordinary things^ and 
which . litde correfpond with the ufagcs 
of other European nations. 

For inftance; it fays that the adminî- 

ftratîon of juftice fliould be alike to ail 

men ; that the greateft man in the king- 

dom is no more than the leaft ^ that in 

C 4 poiût 



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32 c h:in E s E s:p Y. . 
point of law» the loweft member of thei 
commonwealth is equal to the blghcftu 
That an artificer can hâve a gentleman, 
refufing to pay a juft debt, put in prifon^ 
and that a peer of the kin^om, killing- 
the meancft of his fervants, is liable to 
be hanged, &c. with a multitude of other 
contradictions of the like nature, quite 
contrary to the ways ^nd manncrs of 
other nations. 

Probably the firft édition of this book 
was dcfeétîve 5 il having oftcn been r&^i 
Tîfed and enlarged. The laft editca^,, 
however^ hâve torn ouf a great manyr 
leaves ; but j&ibftkuted a^grcatcr numbch 
in their ftead, 

Some Ènglilhmeîi affirm, drat riae firft 
édition was better diaa the laftrj and 
riiat fe manjR correâioas har^c dniyr 
fpmïcd the work. If thisc be rcally tho 
çafe, the book of the laws of England^ 
bf thcfe repeatcd amendments, will at 
laft* corne to be no hetterthan that\\rhicht 
k& neîghbours make nfe of in the adt 
inirMftratio.ç of ji^cç. 



h^T- 



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C H I NE SE S P Y. 



L E T T E R XIL 



3^ 



XkeMandarw Chamrpi-pi /^ tbeMandarîiL 
Hîgh Trcafurcr, at Pékin. 

Xx)îidon., 

TIJ U aikeft me whether England' 
bé rich, and has great finances ; 
This queftion puzzles me as much aa 
ajiy çf the former -, it being rcally a rid- 
dle >yhich poljcy haa not yet found out. : 

The riches of a, ûate very much dé- 
pend on the manner of combining them.. 
Éngland, with one half lefs currcnt cafti 
ihan France, is twice as rich. 

Great Britain has contrived an imagi- 
nary money, équivalent to the real : this 
is a circulating paper, reprefenting a. 
wealth v;hich has no real exiftencç, yet 
doubles the public funds, and encreafes^ 
wealth, without mukiplying cafli. 
. Twopence fterling hère reprefents 
feveral millions -, fo tliou feeft that herc; 
riches are to be had at a very fmall coJl. ^ 

Now the riches of France are ail o^ 

the famé nature-, hère they are différent •,, 

for whilft money is anfwering its end in 

the gênerai circulation, paper does th^ 

C 5 like 



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34. C H IN E S E S P Y. 

like in its kind. It has long been faid, 
that ftiould àll the proprietors ôf thîs 
papcx bc, at one and the famé tîmc, for 
realizing it, the emptinefs of this two-foldf 
wcalth would foon be félt. 

But it being ncxt to impoffiblc that ib 
many mcn fhouki hâve the famé thoughta. 
at one time ; it is concluded, that this^ 
will never happen : and thus this chime- . 
rical wealth may exift without end. 

Some attempts hâve been made to 
realize thefe idéal riches ; then they 
whofç bufinefs it is to give cafti for thefe 
papers, tho* they did not abfolutely rcr 
fufe payment, difcharged their bills fo 
vcry flowly, that they woukl not hâve 
made an end while the world lafts. 

Do not, howevcr, imagine thatfenfiblc 
people are duped by this imaginary opu- 
lence; fome hâve more than once de- 
monftrated its inanity -, but it has bccn 
agreed to take no notice of it. 

After ail, no body is detrimented by 
ît ; gotd and' filver are not riches of 
themfelvcs, but only metals ttiade choice 
of as tokens or marks : now what hin- 
defs but a paper may be added, repre- 
fcnting thole very figns. It is a noatter 
of agreemcnt; and when the particulars 

ar# 



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CHINESE SPY.^ 35> 
are ail laid down, and confcnted to, 
there can bc no miftake or fraud. 

L E T T E R XIII. 

The Mandarin Cham- j>i-pi /^ tbe Mandarin: 
Kie-tou-nà, 17/ Pékin. 

Londoii. 

ON E wolUd thihk that ail the fove- 
reigns of Europe had agreêd tobe 
weak ; tbey oppofe and refift every thîng 
except their paffions : in this they.have 
not the ftrength of the meaneft of thcir 
fubjeft^. 

The kîrig of this nation is govemcd 
by a woman. George has great qualities; 
îs an able politieiany with much am- 
bition: ftill is he a man. The danger 
herein feems to ml,'-Hhat he is advan- 
ced \n years \ the declining age_ of a 
Ibvereign is the luckieft timç îbr a 
female favourite ; (he gets evfery thîng 
from him, becaufe he no longer gets any 
thing from her : it is a kind of compen- 
fation for the dîfagreeablenefs of agA 
A young prince fometimes takes the 
liberty to refufe, havîng in him where*-. 
with to make amends for his refulàl; 
C 6 but 



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36- C'H I NR 5 5 S P T. 

bat ah dd oniti ^ays granfs^ it 'beîog^ 
thc only way he ha« tt> grat^fy Np» 

The danger of a bad adminiftration by 
fcmale favourites, is^. hx)wever lefs ir\ 
England thari in any other Europeai> 
ftate ; if tbêrQ are ^py fi>ve«ég&at wt th^ 
world, wto.may iàfdy.giy-e tbenifelves 
ûp to thcîr paffions, it is the kings of 
Great Britain. The nation takes carc 
ritat the prioce*^ p^ffion flball not ncitfch 
S0eâ the pubU^ The peopk is â^periqr 
K> the king*s pleafiires. A femaJe fo- 
vourite*s dcpartmeat hcre is very incon- 
fiderabk, fearce reaching beyoBd th« 
prince's bed, or at tnoft, the niaqage- 
ment of thîiigs witjiin doors ; It may be,. 
that fhe rules the king; but the fta^^Mi^ 
quite without her verge. 

L E T T E R XIV. 

Thê Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to theMoïfdarm 
Cotao-yU'fe, at Pékin. 

London. 

TH E Londoa opéra is nôt fo weU 
peopled as that of Paris \ thrce 
women, a fuiger, and two eunuçhs 
ufually making the whole community. 

ït 



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opd areivues ;^ and iijtla^itcd» by it^U^nï 
aightingpks, m.whpm the quality take 

Befides the expence of the ftogç dooF 
for fcciïjg thfii opei»,^ th,e key to it is 
iJkkGwife t(^ be bcwight. ThU i^ ^ lit^l© 
^k» explaioipg tne- pièce in Englifhg^ 
tii^-pçrform^ce beifig'm Iptgt^ Tofcana^^ 
^ that the w^loifids^ 4nd /^ AzJ!^; don'^ 
come hither pv^rely for tfcc fakc Qf th€? 
opéra, but that they may feem to hâve a 
tafte for It$Iîgn muéc^ this being at pre* 
fent ^ naark of ekgancy y and there i$ 
no being tokrably geoteel whhout hav- 
ing haif a do2^n ariettaa by hcarc lur 
deed yqu 2M:e not pbliged ta underftan<j 
them, and mucb lefs to fing thi&t^ ^ ïç^ 
that the falkionable foU^ foon bcconiji^ 
proficients in this mufic. 

The places of the fpedtators are laid 
out otherwife than at the Paris théâtre^ 
the rev<[rfe of nmk bck^g very carefuUy 
obferved. 

The princes of the royal family^ 
ambafladors of crowned heads, noble- 
men of the higheft diftinftion fit ia' 
the pit, and the citizcns in the- firft 

boxes*. 



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3^^ C H I N ES r S P Y. 
boxes •• The great men fit under the 
feet of the commonalty ; fo that ihould 
the flooring give way, what a flaughter 
of illuftrious perfonages'would bc the 
confequence ! 

This fpeftacle muft not be very divine, 
not thè leaft trace of any God being to 
hc feen in it. Nay it has not fo much 
as a man ; for almoft ail the fcenes are be- 
tween womcn and eunuchs. At Paris 
it is the fovrani who fing ; hère the 
foprani. 

Footmen and coachmen hâve the famé 
privilège, at this fhow, as their mafters 
and miftrefTes. I mean they arc admit- 
ted 5 fo that with ftables and coach hqufes 
along the entries, ^the whole équipage 
would partake of the opéra. I may per- 
haps hâve occafion to makc further men- 
tion of this opéra. 



♦ Thefe are hcrc callcd^thc Gillcry. 



L E T- 



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C H I N ÉiSE S P Y. 3^. 



LE T TER XV. 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to tbe Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, al Pékin. 

London.' 

IPurpofc pcrfcfting myfclf in thc 
Englifli tonguc ; and this is nothing; 
hcarfo difficult an cntérprize as Icarning 
French. Thc former may vcry properly 
be called a dead language ; as it requtres 
Httle or no aâion in the organs. 

The pcople hcre fpeak only with the 
cxtremity of their lips, ftrikine thcir 
longue againft the teeth, which forms a 
continuai hiflîng. Thcy nrîght almoft do 
without a mouth. Were you to fee the 
face of an Englifh orator in the heîghth 
of an harangue, you would take him 
only for a painted image. You hear 
founds ; but nothing of motion is ktn. 
I belîeve a dumb man might be tairght 
Englifh fociner than any other language ; 
perhaps the very impédiment of his organs 
would be a mcans of forwarding him in 
it. 

I omit any difcuffion on its origîn. 
Tbe philologifts will havc it to be very 

antient'j 



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4^ C H I N Ç § Ç s P T., 
anricnt y the Gauls, the Romans^ the 
Saxons, the D^ne$, apd the Nprmans hâve 
ail introducedfomethingof their tongues^ 
^md. xhw, 'mMe a. mcdley of varioiiat 
ingrédient, 

Though fuch an îrrcgular mixture 
could nâturally give nq umbrage to the 
j§alpufy: o# tyradîfs y yet h^s it i|ot cfi:ape<Jr 
gerfcçuricwa». 

One Williaiiif aftqr cQncpaeri^. thé 
ft^e^ y^s^ lifcewife foj? exterminating ita 
vôry laiiguage -, he naade la,\ys for the 
fuppreffio.3 of it -, ful^^ftituting a foreigi]^ 
fengMag« in.its ftearf. If he did not 
qiptç g^în his ends in aboli(hing it, he 
itowçver fpoilçd it. 

A queen, calkd Çlîzabeth, was for 
pèrfeâjing it •, but perhaps it was thea 
\qo late. Under herreign, indeed, God 
was addrefled 'm better Engliflx* •, but 
^Q gQperal language continuçd juft the 

Sonje luftres aftçrwards an hypocrîtîcal 
tyrant, reduced it to an enthufiaiiiG 
jargon; After him came a polite and 
ypluptuous court, which fophifticatcd it 

• In her reign, the ftyle of the public praycrt. 
«nderwent fome emendations 

with 



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C FH N E s E S P Y. 41 
wîth puns, quibbles, and conundrums. 
A fucceffion of two or three forcign 

kings to the throne of this nation Icft 
the language as they found it, that is, 
harlh and uncouch. 

A foreign car is ofFended with the 
great number of confonants -, it is what 
the Afiaticsefpecially cannot be reconciled 
to. On my firft coming to London, I 
frcquently miftook EngliOi compliments 
for affronts. This language, like moft 
of the European, is both very rich and. 
very poor. The Britons hâve fome ways 
of ipeaking, which fignify more thaa 
they mean ; and others which do not 
exprefs half of what they would fay. 

There arc exprefTions in their languagç 
which make them fay too much, and 
Qthers which hinder them from faying 
any thing at ail. It is faid that they 
hâve no word anfwerable to the French 
mnui -, yçt it is a word that fliould be very 
neceflary among them. 

The Englifh muft certainly apprehend 
that their language is déficient in fweet- 
i&tfs ;, for from their childhood they arc 
taught that of a neighbôuring nation,, 
with whom they arc Igfs ipclined ta 
çonvçrfe thaa to fight. V .-u 



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42 C H I N E s E s P Y. 

L E T T E R XVI. 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi io tbe Mandarin 
Kic-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London.; 

GEORGE thc fécond, after a reign 
of thirty-fivc ycars over the Eng- 
lifli, is no more, riis carecr was of an 
uncommon length; and death cklaycd 
to furprife him tiil at thc hîgheft pitch of 
his grandeur. He has becn, for fome 
months paft, the mofl powerful king in 
the world; he carried ail beforehim, 
both în Europe and Afia, Airtcd, and' 
America. 

This |)rince was thc grcateri as he 
made ail the other potentaccs of Europe 
lîttle. At fuch a degrce of élévation, 
the happieft thing that can befal a man 
is, for thc dream of life to end fii^denly. 
George cnjoyed his dignity tb the 1^ 
moment ot his life. He was living a 
minute before he dîed. He left the 
world without any of thofe difeafes whicb 
make princes remember they îare men. 
A monarch living fo long, and dying fo 
({Uickly as he» is lefs to be pitied tnati 

eavied* 



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C H IN Ê S E SP Y. 43 
crivied. When lifc is corne to its laft 
fcene, I account it an advantage to die 
without being aware of it. Not to die 
inftandy, is to die again and again. 

When an European fovereign ceafes to 
live,extraordînary reports are alwaysfèt on 
foot about his death ; thus, that of the 
late king is^faid to hâve been caufed by 
a gale of wind, which hindered the cou- 
rier's comingover from Gërmany,whcncc 
he cxpeded important advices ; but on 
opening his body the phyficians faw 
that the wind had no concern in his^ 
death, The Englifh feldom grieve much 
about their kings ; they hâve too muçh 
bufineis on their hands to ihed tears ; 
everv one nrinds the main chance, and 
th«Mc$>on|y.how to make the moft of the* 

Not a Word is faid of George the fé- 
condes virtues or vices : ^as he not then 
netther great nor little ? This indifférence 
ièems to me not quite équitable : for a 
monarch, under whofe reign fuch con* 
quefts hâve been made, and who is more 
powerful at his death than he was at his/ 
acceflion to the tbrone» at leaft deièrve$ 
fome praife. 

Fer 



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44^ Ç H I N E S 8 >SP Y- 

l^or a king of France to be grcat is 
no hard matter, >he need only hâve the 
will to bç fo ;. that is, be necd only ta 
make ufe of his; authqrity and His afcen- 
dcncy over bU peopi^^ his orders meet 
wich quick obédience ; and ail volunta- 
rily cqncur to&cond his defire. Whercas . 
a king of England niuft owe lèis diftînc- 
tion to his parliament. Now it is no . 
eafy matttr to be great, when one muft 
afk l^ve of fo nmny perfons to be fo. 

Thereis irjdceda myftery kithe reiga 
of thisiprincfii which has not yet be^i. 
cpitft dtared up -, half o£ it politicians » 
aii^CQUOtc fbr^ but ace quito ac a ftand: 
aj)0ui the othôfi Thûy admit the advan- 
ttgi^ qbtained t0:bfi gr eat ^ ûxji sâkof^ thi9r> 
rmhals cônqueAs. ta bo escetding im<^ 
portant ; but then they a(k, whetha: 
tins powc^r bas, not been acquiced too 
haftily? whethe© the means madç ufe oF 
afe not forced? and* ivhether ît is ikk to 
he apprehendcd tbat the* fccuiShirc o£ 
thU new gre^tnefs vrill ù\\ to pièces^ for 
vcant of a fuppoct, and: pruih the natio% 
wxdcirii».ruiasà 



L E T- 



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C SI NE SE SP Y. ^ 45 

L E T T E R KVir. 

^iiA^ndarmChzni'^^'pïtoJb^ Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe, at Pékin. 

London. 

THE farther I advânce into Europe, 
thc farther I feem to be frôm the 
^human heart 5 I am, in fome meafure, 
vbewildered, and find myfelf, as it were, 
alone, in the midft of thîs branch of 
vsnankînd. 

Intereft and vanity, the two great mo- 
hiks in theworid, hère purfue thcirends 
by oppolite roads. 

I well knew, that ornaménts and rich 
icloaths were among the objefts of vanity-, 
but I did not know that felf-bve could 
delight in a low and difagraceful kind of 
appearance. 1 did not know that, to be 
very great, a man muft dreis very 
inean. I never Tieard that mafters had 
made it a point of oftentation to difguife 
themfelves like footmen ; and that ladies 
of the fïrfl: rank topk a pride in appear- 
ing like fervant maids. 

The other day I went to the houfè of 
one of the firft noblemen of England, 

with 



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46 C HI N E S E SP y. 

with a letter of rçcommcndation, gîven 

me by an acquaintancc at Paris. 

As I was on the fteps, going into the 
houfe,t I met a kind or domeftic comin^ 

out, Friénd, faid I, is my lord P 

at home, and is he to bc feen thîs morn- 
ing? Yes, anfwered he, he is to bc 
feen, and you now fee him : I am my 
lord. Thefe words quite thunder-ftruck 
me. 1 afk your lordfliîp a thoufand par- 
dons, contiriued I ; but the miftake is 
no Fault of mine ; for who would hâve 
known you to hâve bcen a lord in that 
garb? 

I delivered my letter to him ; but, as 
he was going out on bufinefs of confe- 
quence, he defired me.to excufc him 
for that time •, but added, my lady is 
at home, and Ihe will receive you. 

I went into the houfe ; and going 
through a fécond anti-cha.Tiber, hère I 
met a kind of waiting maid, whom I 
ordercd to go and tell my lady that a 
foreigner, who bad juft ïeft my lord, 
would be glad to pay his refpeôs to her. 
Sir, anfwered this perfon with a fmile, I 
can difcharge your commiflion without 
any great trouble, for I am my lady. 

But 



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C H I N E s E s P Y, 47 

But fometimes other kinds of miflakês 
fall out hère. 

I hâve becn toldaftory of aforcîgncr, who 
gave a grecn livcry, and had /cnt onc 
of his footnicn abroad on bufincfs : 
vcxed at his not returning fo foon as he 
might, the mafter went ont, and coming 
.up with aman, made andcloathcd likehis 
footman, he aftually miftook him for fuch, 
fecing only his back ; and laying him on 
with his cane, faid, You creeping raf- 
cal, make hafte. But the pcrfcn turning 
about, proved to be a man of confc- 
quence; and thç foreigner, knowing 
him, faid, My lord, I aik your pardon ; 
but, dreflcd as you are, like my foot- 
man, I thoughti might make frcc with 
my own livery. 

1 take this to be no more than a ftory, 
though perhaps not intirely without 
foundation; andafuppofition oftenleads 
to ihe iUuftration of a truth. 

This appearancc, which throws a great 
man infinitcly beneath his rank, is a re- 
frncment in pride ; felf-love confidering 
only itfelf, dcfpifes cvery thing about it, 
a$ unworthy to promote its dignity. 
Thcre h more vanity in thîs debafemerît 
than is thought. I know not whether 

• thou 



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48 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

thou wîit underftand me when I tell 
thee, that thc lov/eft mark of abjeftion 
îs placed in thc higheft degrce of 
oftentatioh. They who are for juf- 
tifying ufages by politics, alledge, that 
this jumblingof ranks dérives from the 
governmcnt ; the principle of which be- 
ing liberty, tends to equality ; but men 
confiderthemfclves more than therepub- 
'lie, and their vanity always takes the lead 
of the conftitution. 

L E T T E R XVIir. 

'7'he Mandarin Nio-fan io the Mandarin 
Chani-pi;pi, û/ London. 

Avignon. 

T H ERE are two kindsof national 
corruptions -, one flowing from the 
legiflation, while the fource ot the other 
lies in the manners: the lâtter may bc 
reftified ; and very often, any new turn 
in morality will do it-, but the other îs 
fcarce corrigible, its fource lying in the 
conftitution, which when once fettled, 
knows no change. 

Formerly Avignon had a fpifît 6f in* 
duftry, but thc ftïttc fold itto France ; 

^ . and 



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C H I N É s E s P Y. 49 

ànd now this people is paid to do no- 
thing ♦. This is making a ftind of floth 
and rcalizing idlenefs itfelf 

There is no price equal to induftry ; 
and this not fo much for its being a 
plentiful fource of wealth, but as pro- 
duétivc of a fettled fpirit of labour and 
appHcation, of order, of thriftinels, and 
ceremony ; and, of courfe, is a bar 
againft the oppofite vices. 

The inhabitants of Avignon, from 
morning till night, îiave now nothing to 
do but to backbite ; and this they foUow 
with ail the aftivity of an idle people. A ' 
ftranger, on his coming to Avignon, has ' 
no fooner got his boots off, than he knows 
cvery thing that is doing, or rather 
more -, for in a town where the people 
hâve nothing to do, calumny generally 
goes along with backbiting. 

This vice was introduced by indi- 
gence. Afid there are two oppofite 
parties at Avignon, wretchednefs and pâ- 
verty. Their weapons being equal, the 
war Ifnows no intermiffion, Envy, ha- 

♦ Thç Company of royal farms gives to the peu- 
ple of Avignon, cvery year, about a hundred and 
fourfcore tnoufand livres ; not to nianufadture any 
tobacco or cotton ftuffs 

Vol. .IV. D tred^ 



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Sô, C H I N Ç S E SP Y, 
trcd* averfton, ^nitpafity, and evqiy 
other fault ^nnexed tx) p\}hixç indigence^ 
keep ill nature in exçrcife. ^ 

Hère a treat Ihall. occafioni a^battie, 
and a public ent^rt^nfnent priodvice ^. 
înteftinc: vwar> The inbabit^pts arç aU 
in a ferment at Juçh doings^, accguntr 
ing thçm an infult on their in^bility: of 
doing the like; and this fuppqfitîon.im- 
mediately fets them in^ a bUze. 

A peoplç with npthing toAo u(\xal\y 
rvins headlpng into ppUtics. 

The great office of intelligence conr 
cerning the intereft of princes, is thc 
table of a lieutenant-general of the king 
of France's armies, who never headed a 
body of troops. You will there hear 
long-winded reafonings oa the affairs of 
Europe. 

The gênerai is remarkable for a.pro- 
digious pénétration, . in fome meafure 
anticipating Providence, and in politics 
more knowing than God himfçlf, 

He will tell, you, a month or twobe- 
fore, thç ténor of axertain comnfiander's . 
conduft, and the meafures he will take 
to gain a decifive battle ; and fo punétual 
is he in this refpeft, that if you defire it, 

he 



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C If I NES E S P Y- s* 
he 'will give y ou an accôunt of the killed 
-and wounded, with a lift of the prifoners. 
And fo certain is he of what he fays, 
diat he would hâve Te Deum fung be- 
fbrehand. 

But with ail hîs infallible prefcicncé, 
hàd I bcen indined to lay wagers, I could 
hâve won his whole fortune ; for htf 
offered to. bct me a hundred- thoufand 
livres that the king of Pruflîa would not 
hold out two campaigns ; a like fum that 
h^ would be beaten everywhere-, and the 
third; that at the end of the war, he 
would give up Silefia to the houfe of 
Atiftria : Now thefe three wagers would 
hâve juft' beggered his political excel- 
lency. 

In oppofition to this junto, who are 
intirely French, there is another not lefs 
fanguine in the Pruflîan intereft ; and of 
thofe alfo r could hâve made a good 
hand ; for its oracle profered to lay me 
a wager of ten thoufand crowns, that 
the king of Pruffia would take another 
àf the queen of Hungary's provinces ; 
thirty thoufand livres that he would bc 
at the gâtes of Vienna -, and a like fum, 
that prince Ferdinand would drive^ the 
French intirely out of Germany, &c. &c. 
D' 2 AU 



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52 CH I N ES P SP Y 

AU thofe wretched conjeftures flow . 
from the vanity of the human mind af- 
feûing to dive into the fecrets of cabi- 
nets, and to know more of the war than 
the very powers cngaged in it. 

L E T T E R XIX. 

l^be Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe at Pékin.. 

London* 

TH I S people are like the Afiatics, 
in the very things wherein the 
Europeans moft difFer from them, I 
mean the confinement of women. There 
is indeed no law in Great Brîtain enjoin- 
ing it ; but the men ke^p themfelves at 
fuch a diftance from women, as very 
nearly cornes up to the Oriental feraglios. 
I cannot precifely tell thee whether the 
Engliflî obferve Mahomet's law, and 
whether in. this part of thcir manncr^ 
they conform to the Turks ; but certain 
it is, that they ufe women as if they were 
of an inferior nature to themfelves : fo lit- 
tle do they converfe with them, that their 
union fcarce deferves to be called fociety. 
So little do they value their company, 
that a feaft, or any trifling diverfîon is 
always preferred to it. However women 

Sometimes 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 53 

fometimes may engage their heart, ît*s 
very feldom that their mind concerns it- 
felf about them. 

They plead that the women are not 
cntertaining ; but the true caufe of this 
is, that they themfelves axe little io ; for 
the qualities of men are, as it were, the 
mould in which thofe of women rcceivc 
their form. 

The Britons hâve not time to be 
agreeab'e in women's company ; ambi- 
tion, politics, and debauchery deprive 
tkem of that leifurc which is neceflary to 
acquire an habit of gallantry and polite- 
nefs; whilft their neighbours, bcing 
Icfe bufy than they, are feldom déficient 
in thofe engaging qualities. 

Somc women require complaifance, 
refpeét and affiduity. A lover muft 
foïlicit, mufl: win, and deferve their 
^hcart -, now this mgkes love a clofe buli- 
*nefs; very confining and uneafy to per- 
dons fufBcîently uneafy of themfelves. 
They judge it a quicker way at once to 
break through ail thofe obftacles, and 
plunge into debauchery where every 4if- 
ficulty is fmoothed, women being fedu- 
€ed to their hand, fo that they hâve not fo 
JDUch as the trouble of alking, This 
D 3 i3 



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54 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

i%here called loving like a man of fenk;^ 
and England is now fo much over-run 
with good fenfe, that it has killcd ail thc 
amiable qualitics both of the heart ajid 
inind. 

L E T T E R I. 

Tki Mandarin Cham-pi-pî to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

WHEN I reJ9e<9: on the occurrences 
în the différent ftatcs of Europe» 
I carniot forbear believing that nations 
govern themfelves, and that when onc.e^ 
the adminiftriation is fet a going, the 
ftate moves of itfclf. 

Herc is an aflèmbly calkd the parlia- 
mentjConfiftingof upwards of five hundred 
members, reprefenting the nation, whicU 
con tains feven niillions of inhabitants ; ia 
that each of its members has a hundred 
thoufand of king George's fubjeds com- 
rmitted to his care ; he is at the head of 
ail theîr concerns political and civil ; be 
manèges them, fpeaks in tbeir behaUf, 
confults their interçft, prevents the lay- 
jng on of two grcat du tics, and oppofe^ 

t^ppreflîYe 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 55 

^ppwflive impofts>, he fixes their quota 
in their ^neral taxes, and takes care that 
they be not over-rated ; he fecures to 
diem the 'cnjoyment cf the national pri- 
vilèges, and of new advantages acquired. 
Thefe arefo many diftinft pctty republics, 
which carefuUy avoid any coUifions, fa 
chat, the great républic which compre- 
Jiends thcm ail may be in a continuai 
equilibrium. At leàft, fuch is the inftitu- 
tion of tbis patrliament, and the duty of 
each of its members, 

A great ïwoîber of thefe, holvdver, 
4iave «1S0 capaotty for fuch things, arri 
never fo mi3ch as think of thctn ; their 
views iie even qmde Qppofite*ways, They 
get their feat through the k5rtg*s favour, 
or brrbit>g the people. The generality 
of thcm purchafe it M the r^e of fa 
.Jnanyiireufatid pounds an eleétion. Thtife, 
«hou feeft, k is iTot & miuA men as mor 
vney whtch are members of this fenate. 

Sevcrai reelcing fmm a houfè of il 
famé, or after fpending tHe night in. in- 
tempérance and riot, fliall repair to this 
aflfembly, and there, whilft the afFairs of 
the nation are under délibération, fall 
faft afleep. What then becomes of the 
concerns of thofe whom they reprefent ? 

they 



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56 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
they of courfe alfo fleep. The gênerai 
affairs, however, move on, and amidft 
ail the faults of the adminiftration, and 
the oppreflion of the leffer republics, the 
grand one ftill fubfîfts. 

I do not fee the neceflîty of this hugc 
body i in my opinion fcventy members 
well chofen would govern the ftate as 
well, if not better than feven hundred ; 
at leafl:, it would fave the flownefs un- 
avoidable in délibérations of large alTeni- 
blies. 

I havc often clofely obfcrved the pro- 
cédure of ftate afFairs in this aflembly, 
and find that they are direded by about 
a fcore of perfons ; then what Cgnify ail 
theothers ? It is, fay they, to guard againft 
defpotifm ; but is there no defpotifm, 
whcn four hundred and fourfcore mem- 
bers, being fcarce half awake, conftantlf 
vote as twenty would hâve thçm. On the 
contrary, fuch acc^uiefcence immoveably 
eftabliihes this ufurjped domi^ion of the 
few. 



D 4 L E T^ 



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CHINESESPY- 57 

L E T T E R XXI. 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to tbe Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, ai Pékin. 

London. 

ONE of the literati of thîs çountiy 
M^s lately fayîng to me, that for 
thefe two thoufand ye^s paft, mankind 
had made no progrefs in the fciences, 
having loft themfelves by the way. He 
added, that the Énglilh had firft difco- 
vered the track, and^rung the bell for 
gathering together- ail thofé of their 
time, and fetting them in the right way. 

The EngliOi poflibly may hâve rung 
the bell, for nogreat abilites are requir- 
ed to make a noife, but the queftion is 
whether this Britifl> ringing has put the 
Europeans in the path leading to truth. 

I hâve perufed the writings of thefe 
bell-ringers, knowa hère by the nameof 
Bacon, Boyle, Newton, and others. 
They hâve indeed opened a new road, 
but ilill the difficulty remains, which is 
to know, whether it be the right road. 

The gênerai prepofeflion is intirely^ 

for them -, as with refpeft to any avenue- 

D 5 leading, 



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5» C M I N È S E S P Y. 

leading to knowledge, the EUropcauS zU 
Ways think the laft thc bcft. 

Thefe bell ringers were not the firft^ 
Imd wbo knows ^hetl^er Qtbers may not 
hereafter likewife t^e tbe rppçs in hand 5 
and thus by onc bell-ringing after ano- 
;(hjÇir«peoples brains may be fo difordered, 
35 tp fall into the famé grpfs ignorance 
from wWch it is boattcd the fîrft peal 
îiàd refcued them. 

To me, who view every thîng in a 
moral light, a nation appears no farther 
learned than in proportion to its wifdom. 
In this fcnfe perhaps the arts hâve not 
been much improved by the Engli(h 
peal ; at leaft, the doftors of this people 
lay, that the heart of the Englifli is 
much more depraved at prefent, than 
tvhen they hiad not kt a foot in the path 
of knowledge. 

But if the Englifli may claim the pre* 
ference in fome fciences of ufe to navi- 
gation and trade, it muft, at the fan^e 
tiitie be allowed, that they hâve in many 
others continued very backward. 

They who eftimate the feveral kinds of 
gcnîus in Europe fay, that this nation 
has pounds of juftnefs and precifion, but 
jfiot a drachm qf tafte, 

Anoihe» 



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CHINESESPY. 50 

Another Briton, who has fliaken ofF 
ail nationaè prcjudiccs, wàs faying to 
me, " we are excellent copies but 
** nvretched originals, Maft nations out- 
•* do us in invenrtion» but we exceed 
** thetn in imitation. We beat ail Eu-' 
" rope for poliïhing, but cannot do 
•* without modcls." 

This perfection in imitation i^ owing 
to the patience and pertinacity of this 
people. It îs not fo much the mind as 
the body which ads. A ftrong un- 
weildy machine fets to work, and by 
tlme and affiduity goes beyond the in- 
ventor. Thefe people may be termed, 
the aflèsof mcchanicarts, and the drudgca 
of handicrafts. 

L E T T E R XXn. 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandariti 
Kie-tou na at Pékin. 

London. 

ABook on the présent war is lately 
corne out, and by fche generality of 
the nation much approved ; for it fays, 
that Great-Britain ought not to fend 
either troops or money into Germany : 
D 6 which 



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6d CHINESESPY. 

which is certainly right ; for had Eng^ 
land avoided taking part in fhe divifions 
of the north, and hâve kept hcr moncy 
and fubjcfts at home, it would havc becn 
niuch more to her advantage. 

This capital affbrds fbme perfons fô 
profoundly verfed rn fyftcms, that, in 
thcîr fpcculations, they can do without 
the firll principles of politics, an J de- 
claim through a whole volume, turning 
only on the pivot of their own ideas. 

M s to the intereft of crowns, it re- 
quircs no conjuration to guefs, that a 
people rcmaining quiet^ whilft other na- 
tions ruin themfelves- by cxpenfive wars, 
bas the bctter end^ of the ftafF. 

7 his frugal obfervator very elegantly 
fets forth what England fhould hâve 
done to fave its troops and money, by 
leaving the country of Hanover tp its 
own ftrength and Germany to its révo- 
lutions -, but he paflès over the incon- 
veniences whîch would hâve refulted to 
Great Britain from not concerning its 
felf ia the northern war : not a^ word of 
this. 

Nothing rs fo eafy as to dcfcant on 
a politic plan, if abftrafted from gênerai 
vkws, and fuited to any partiçular way of 

thinking, 



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C H I N E SL E s P Y. 6i 
thiiiking, which a perfôn has adopted ; 
for in the theory of thc mind, every 
thîng is demonftrablc, and error itfelf 
is not without its geomctry. 

This author enters on a long wînded 
difplay of the ways for feving the nation's 
blood and cafti, and purfues his train of 
ideas without looking before or behind. 
He is fo taken up with his plan as not 
ta withdraw his eye a moment from îr, 
to pbferye that France, England, and 
the Houfe of Auftria, are fo nearly con-- 
cerned in the weight, which one of them 
might throw into the ballance of Europe, 
4hat if one fights thc other muft necefla- 
rîly be alfo fighting ; fo that as thîngs 
ftand at prefcnt, Ihould France déclare 
war againft hell, Great-Britaîn muft fide 
with the demdns againft her, to prevent 
that crown from gaining any advantages 
in thfs Tai?tarean war, &c. 

This book'of rertiarks has, however^ 
one great beauty •, that is, it does not 
fpare the government, which, in party- 
books, is always countcd a capital per- 
feftion. 

This pamphlet rc-mînds me of a tranf. 
aftion of which I myfelf was a witnefs 
a. few days ago, in a bookfcUer's ftiop, 

betwccA. 



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6% CHINESESPT. 
between faim and an EnglUh kwrdt, an 
anti-courtier. 

The latter afked, fer fome good pièce 
on the prelcnt politics. I hope this witt 
plcafe your lordfliip, laid che bookfeller : 
the noblenaan opened it, and cafting an 
cye on tbe title page, plhahy cried be» 
Ihutting it haftily» that's tralh, I htkvc 
read k y it is quite intolérable, for tht 
author would prove that we hâve a mi* 
niiler who underftands fomething of po* 
litical and civil government. 

Since your lordfliip does net like that^ 
will you be pkafed to look into thi$ ;— ^ 
my lord opened it, and withtn a minute 
or two ftiut it again, as hç bad the for- 
mer; faying, this is no bètter thaû the 
other, the fcribbler is of neither fide a 
and amidft ail our diviûons affe<5ts to ftand 
neuter ; he has nô€ Ipirit çnougb eve|> 
to be of any par ty ; fo that any produdion 
of his I am fure muft be very idjuU and 
iphlegmatic : for nothiag cân be more 
infipid than an EngHfli political pam- 
phlet, where the pen is not animated by 
paflîon or rancour ; as if, added be, we 
were void of wit aftd ^irit, unlefs ftimu- 
lated by the démon ot cabaL 

II 



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. CHINESE SPY, 6 j 

If that be the c^fe, continped the 
bookfeller, I know wlmt will fuk yôur* 
lordfhip ; there's the very thing : the 
^uthor fays point bUnk, that our govern- 
Hient is ^1 in the wrong, and in order that 
the public n^ay beaffured of the excellency 
of his work^ he adds, that the miniftry 
hâve nota gr^in of common fenfc among 
them ail. 

By what you fay it muft be a good 
pièce. If the author ha,s but taken cace 
toexaggerate faiîts^ and impofe on his 
rcaders by artful colourings, I do not 
know but it may bc a work of greac 
jmerit. Set it dowa in nvy account. 

L E T T E R XXIII. 

^t A&W/^nVÇhani-pi-pi to the Mandarin^ 
Cotaô-yu-fe ai Pékin. 

Londpn» 

TH E nrînifters of date in England 
are not fo bufied as thofe in France $ 
they hâve their in ter vais of reft, and 
fometimes the nature pf the government 
allows them fo much leifure, as to havp 
«lothing to do; thcy can haunt play- 
houles, vifit women, and evéry day kili 

thre« 



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64 C H I N E S E S ? Y. 

three or four hours in Company, the 
public adminiftration ftill going on its 
Gourfe. Were they not infeûed with 
the diftemper fo ufual in placcmen, of 
feeming to be ovcrwhelmcd with bufi- 
nefs> they would hâve litele or no bu- 
finefs. 

They hâve indeed thcir offices, fecre- 
târies, and clerks, like thofe of Ver- 
failles : but ail this is only by way of 
form and décorum ; for without ail tliis 
appendage* they wpuld not think them- 
felves minifters. 

To makc themfelves appear of im- 
portance, and neceflary to the ftate, they 
are obliged to fubftitute court forma- 
lities inftead of the more arduous and 
weîghtyfunûions of the miniftry, thefe the 
parliamcnt takes into its own hands, 
and, of courfe the othérs hâve little con- 
cern in thcm. 

The fecretarles of ftate in England 
are, properly fpeaking, no more than 
the crown's firft'clerks, or, according tp 
a phrafc ufed hère, the drudges of the 
court: inftead of ordering any thing of 
themfelves they are but fécond in cooi- 
mand. A minifter of France may b/e 

compare^ 



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r 



C H I N E s E s P Y. 6s 

compared to a Turkifli paftia, and an 
Englifli fecretary of ftate to a doge at 
Venice. 

They are appointed by the foverelgn, 
but as this appointment requires confir- 
mation, and it does not always happen 
that the minifters who pleafe the king 
are liked by the people, they are ofcen 
obliged to quit thcir poft. Accordingly, 
their chief ftudy is populmry, which 
ufually makes dangerous men ; becaufe a 
minifter who ftoops to court a blind 
populace, whom otherwife he defpifes, 
and that purely to kcep his place, drives 
at indépendance and abfolute authority v 
for, after ail, minifters hère, as elfewhcre^ 
hâve a ftrong propenfity to defpotifm. 
Scarce are they wéli feated in the faddle, 
than they are for maftering court, par- 
liament, and people. 



LET- 



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«à C H INX SE S P Y. 

L E T T E R XXIV. 

S'Jbâ Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to tbe Mandmin 
Cham-pi-pi i?/ London, 

Avignon^. 

TH E bettcr fort of pcople at Avig- 
non form two clajScs onîy, thc fword 
and tbe long robe. Yefterday a perfon, 
with whom I had cootraAed Tome ac- 
qu^intanOG at n>y arrivai feere, carried 
me infto a company of tbe firft kind. 
Thc lady wbere we aire going, foîd he, 
% the way, bearsthenatneef thàt ccîc- 
h-^tcd foumaifif* 'fo barmoftfotifly immotii- 
talized by an Italian poet, nâmed Petrardi. 
On my ^ntranoe iato the -âfiembly, I 
ftbought myfelf in tho^ iiK>ft rcïpcébàbie 
^^lace on ^arth. ObjeiSls ôf vencrtttîoh 
met my eyes on ail fides ; ,a fcore )9f wo- 
men loaded with years, ribbons and rougCy 
made one half of the company» Sir, faid 
I, to my introducer, by what I fee this 
famé Avignon is a charming place, for 
life feems hère extendcd beyond its ufual 
length ; biefs me, cominued I, thefe wo- 
men are everlafting ! cercainly they muft 
hâve bcen overlooked at the déluge! 

tbcre 
• Vauclufe^ 



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C H I N E -s E s P Y. 67 

there is no need of ^going to the capital 
of luly to fec antiquities, for hcrc aie 
'Works prior tothe Romans. 

But fo much for old womcn. I hav^ 
heardfay this houfe is very famous abroad: 
famous ! continued .he, it is talkcd of în 
ail parts of tbe world, ànd not without 
reafon, for it is the oldeft gaming houfe 
jnow in Europe. AU the others havc 
becn aboliflicd by the ordinanccs of the 
kings, or corne to nothing by that difpo- 
fition of iccond cauiês which overthrows 
the beft foundation^: but this bas weacber- 
ed .ail dangers and ^difEculties-, thougb 
with this bad confcqucnce, that its du- 
ration hasoccafioncd fuch repeatcd ftrokes 
of ill-luck,asluveutterlyTuined thc-bcft 
Êunilies în the town ; for in the fpace qf 
thirty years^ lanfquenet makes terrible 
bavock. 

And it is not Avignon alone that has 
fejlt its banefui influence, it bas reached 
the contîguous kingdom ; there, adde^ 
ihe, poînting to a large table, is fortune*s 
^Itar, where France has \^ry often fa- 
crificed, And it is very feldom that it is 
not obliged topay thcminifterifig priefts 
the charges of the tewiple. / 

Methinks 



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68 € H I NE SE S P Y. 

. Methinks, faid I, interrupting hîm^ 

the lady of thc houfc, with hcr fine namc, 

carrys on but a fcandalous trade ; paugh, 

replicd he, every onc muft mind thc main 

chance. 

Pray, fir, who is that Jady at the qua- 
drille table facing us, wkh fo many 
patches, ribbons, and wrinkles ? That, 
anfwered he, is the dutchefs de Cr-il-on ; 
flie is very old, faid I -, not îo very old, (he 
is not a hundred tîU next May, and that 
is what we hère call the ladies middleage: 
if fo, faid I, y ou ne ver fee them grow old, 
as naturally they muft ail die in their 
middle âge. 

Who is that at the famé table oppofite 
her, but not fo far down the hill. Oh ! 
Ihe îs but young-, if fixty it is the moft. 

Pray, faid I, hâve your ladies no in- 
trigues before they arc young ? yes, ye«, 
otherwife they could not grow old -, moft 
of them at that rate would die in their 
childhood. 

Whois that lady yônder with no bad 
cyes; that is thc Vifcountcfs Te-f-n, Ihc 
had givcn over ail thoughts of Jove, 
rwhen an old officer of the horfe guards, 
who is retircd to Avignon, reminded her 
of it. The old man courted, and the 

lady 



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€HI NES E S P Y. 6) 
lady refifted ; but the vétéran pufhing thc 
fîege, thc vifcountcfs furrendcred. 

Who is that little lump of fat left 

alone in the corner of the room ? — Why 

that is no other than the reigning prin- 

cefs, the fultana of the paface. She has 

but a thin court, faid I, for a fovereign. 

The reafon of that is, there is not a foui 

who does not heartily defpife her. When 

a woman, added he, has run great lengths 

in flagrant dcbauchery, whatever rank 

Ihe may afterwards rifc to, coijtempt and 

indignation continue the famé z this 

créature has proftituted herfclf to fù 

many of her fubjeéls before Ihe came to 

bequeen, that not the throne itfelf bas 

been able to proteét her from declared 

contempt. 

Who, continues I, is that tall lady, 
fomething advanced in years, fîtting next' 
to her. She is another paiace-fultana, 
but of the former feraglio -, that is, o£ 
the Uft prince's bed-chàmber. Her reign, 
like her Jewdnefs, was of a long conci- 
nuance 5 but now ftie has formally given 
herfelf up to dévotion ; for the faying at 
Avignon is, bis ex^cellency the Vice Legate 
firfij and tben God. It is only to her in- 
timâtes 



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^^ C »I N E S E^ S p^r. 
timates thàt fhe whifpers, it i» alibuCgrî- 
macc. • 

Be foklnd, fir, as to infonmne whether 
your fultanas of the former and^new fc- 
ragliôs hâve no hufoands ? yes, ycs, thcy • 
hâve hulbands, othérwife our vice legates- 
would hâve nothing to fay to them ; for' 
hère, as in other parts^ adultery feems^ 
to give a poignancy to debauchery. le 
is thé taftc of the great European mo- 
narchs, which petty princes to be fucc 
will imitâtes 

L E T T E R XXV. 

TbeMandarinCham pi^pi fotbâ Mandariu\ 
Cotao-yu-fe, at Pékin. 

London^ 

THE Englifli women arc handfomer 
than the French, but the French» 
are prettier. 

In France there is no quitting the fex ; 
in England one is foon tired of them. 
The caufe of this îsj a pretty wonfian fliews ' 
herfeif in a thçufand lights, whcreas fhe^ 
that is only handfome has but one ; and 
women ^ho hâve only one fide tô Ihcw, 

however 



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c H 1 N E s E S p y: 7*: 

hp3Keycr heautiful^ may take it for grant- 
cd they will not pleafe long. 

Thé Englifliface is generally void of. 
«xpreflîon : almoft ail the cliarms onc 
fccs hcre are half dead. The beauty of 
EnglUh women appearsas givingup the 
^oft. A cold inaâive nature fecls only 
the natural wants of the Machine. Thou 
wilt readily imagine thatdittle vivacity of 
paflîon can dwell in fuch.frigid hearts. 

The ladies in England, however, will 
contend with each other for the empire 
of beauty^ and endeavour to win the 
hearts of men, This is the fex's uni- 
verfal inftinâ-, without exception of clf- 
mate, country, or rank. 

The intrigues of gallantry are gene- 
rally founded on felf love. Hère the 
two fexes carry on an intercourfe out 
of vanity, and love each other from 
oftentation, without the fenfesor paffions 
l5;nowing any thing of the matter. 

Yct has this rule its exceptions : the 
Englifli ladies begin to perceive the dif- 
advantage of being only handfome, and 
leave no means. unpraâiifed to become 
pcetty. * 

The greater part form a temper to 

'themfelvcs, and aflfe6f vivacity ; but thisf^ 

% aflTumed 



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72 C H I N E s E SP Y. 
aflumed nature is as diftant from thc 
former, as trom fouth to norch. 

I fancy there muft bc a deal to do be- 
fore the Englifli wpmen can bc brought 
to be as fprighdy and gay as the French. 
I don't know whether it might not bc 
necefîary to abolifti thc prefent mannerfe 
and ufages ; and even whether the fyftem 
of government muft not undergo fomc 
little altération ; for in Great-Britain 
politics intermix with every thing. 

L E T T E R XXVI. 

^ie Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

THE throne of Great-Britain is now 
filled by George llld. who was 
proclaimed the very day after the death 
of his predeceflbr. He is the grandfon, 
and not the fon of George Jld. His fa- 
ther, a prince of great and amiable qua- 
lities, died fome years ago. The king 
'now reigning is in his twenty-fourth 
year, andof a very engaging prefence.- 
Though at an âge when ail thc other 
European fovereigns are on the décline. 



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CHINESESPY. 73 

he is ftill young. He has not worn him- 
felf with hunting, feafting, and women ; 
fo that he is quite frefli and haie. 

He, at firft was qualified to be a king. 
Others are praftifers at it a long time ; 
but he was fo at firft. There is no ap- 
pearance of George the Ild. beîng dead ^ 
afiFairs go on as if the crown was ftill on 
his head; the like conquefts andviâio- 
ries ; the like meafures taken for com- 
pleating the national grandeur. 

This prefent king*s marriage is al- 
reàdy talked of, and he is unqueftion- 
ably the beft match in Europe -, but it 
will be no eafy matter to find a con- 
fort for him ; religion and politicks both 
laying difficukies in the way. 

The Englifh would not like a queen of 
a family, whofe great power might en- 
large the crown's domain withinEurope-, 
for they are more jealous of the fmalînefs 
of their ftate, than of the hrgenefs of 
others. One would think that they had 
calculated the length, breadth, ând depth 
of their force, and that the ifle of Great- 
Britaîn is exaftîy the meafure of their 
powct. 

Ail the changes at court hâve bcen 

only fuch. as were of courfe. They 

E who 



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/^ 



f4 C M I N E S E S P Y. 
who hàd pàid their eourt to ihe grand-- 
ibn of George the Ild, hâve beén pro- 
moted: the king has difcharged the 
prince of Wales^s debts. 

The favourite flave, who had an af- 
fchdéncy oVèr George the lïd. ' Icft the 
court aAd retirfed to a prîvàte houfe^ 
^here ftié îs left in the quiet enjoyment 
of hei* fortune ; as indeed, hère, the law 
fècure^ it to her. In France no fooner 
is the king laid in his grave^ than his 
miftreft buries herfelf in a retreat, or is 
ekiled. In Ehgland fhe may difpofe of 
teffetf as flti^pleafes. 

L E T T E R XXVn. 

^Jbâ Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Manda- 
rin Cotao-yu-fe at Pékin. 

Londbn* 

HOWEVER nétMki'y a hâtive pilot 
may be at Pârîs, there is ftill more 
heed of onè at Londbn ; cottijpatty hère 
being more dangerouè afld fhe rocks and 
fends left m fight. I V/às goifig to advcrtife 
for fuch a one in the public papers, when 
being latély at thê Sniyrtia Goffee-houfe 

good 



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C H I N E s E s P V. 75 

good ftwtune threw one in my way, and 
I GouM not hâve wifbed for a betten 
, Hc is a baronet^ of an ancient EnglUh 
family, a very ferviceable friend to fo^ 
rcignersj and fond of evety thing whîch 
cornes from dàr. Hc no fooner knew 
that I was of China than hc met me 
abovc half way. 

Thîs gentleman is atowt fifty years of 
âge, tall, with an agreedble perfon, and 
being of a frefh complexion, it is not 
immediately» perceived that he is fome- 
thing worn. He has fpent the greater 
part of his life in reading and ftudying 
the human mind, which be câlls naturels 
riddle. Earlyin his youth he vificed moft 
<if ûïc chriftian courts. He travelled 
Dver fome part of Afia, and had likewife 
feen a great deal of America. 

There is fcarce a government in Eu»- 
Tope whofe conflitution he is not well 
acquainted with. He is alfo well verfed 
in vthe feafè and purpofti of laws. He 
has told me that for a Gbrriideràble time 
he had clofely applied h4mfelf to the fpe- 
culattive fciencès^ titl, after ôU his attain^ 
mems, iinding that tiiey rather difturbed 
rhan fati^^d the mind^ he laid them 
afide. 

E 2 But 



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76 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

But above ail . things mathematicks 
are his averfion, fo that he can fcarce beat 
to hear the word. What occafîoned this 
diflike was, that after foUowing that 
fcience thirty years, a curve, whîch he 
cannot define, had vcry near tumed his 
brain. 

His chicf ftudy has lately bcen the 
hiftory of his nation, and efpecially that 
jof London, with which hc is perfeftljr 
acquainted. 

In this branch of knowledge he îs (b 
ready as eafily to recolleft ail the anec- 
dotes of Gallantry .in both court and city, 
from the end pf George the Ift*s reign to ' 
the beginning of that of George the Illd. 
the fpace of .abov€ thirty years. He in- 
ftantly tells you the very time when any 
lady refpe6bed fof her fuppofed virtue 
committed an indifcretion which blafted 
her réputation. Likewife, when ayoung 
mifs, reckoned fomething of a fimpleton, 
evideoced to her bridegroom that flie 
was no novice in love. 
. He has a neat and precife manner of 
cxpreffing himfelf, with a good fhare of 
wit and imagination, and ftill more good 
fenfe •, but withaU there is a kind of od- 
dity and caprice in his temper. He is 

likewife 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 77 
IfkewHe fubjcél to thc naturaal indifpo- 
fîtioB of this country. Since wc became 
ncquainted, he has owned to me, thàt he 
has often been inclincd to make away 
with himfelf, but that, when near put- 
ting his defign in éxecution, he had 
found, after maturally weîghing things 
on both fides, that living or dying was 
In itfelf a thîngfo very indiffèrent, that it 
wasnot wortha man's.while to give himfelf 
the trouble o£.putting an ead to his 
life, At prefent, when the hangîng fît 
cornes on hini» hc takes his horfe and 
gallops for two or three hours in Hyde- 
park. But he has latcly found ariother 
prcfervative, and which, he fays, is ftill 
better : this is drinkîng two Bottles of 
Pontac i and on account of its excellent 
furcefs with him, he has gîven it the 
name of, The Englifh fpecific agatnji fui- 
cide. 

He is not a dbwnrîght atheift, for he 
almofl believes a Providence \ and I hâve 
heard him fay, that it is not impofTible 
but that there may be a God : though in 
this point he is not thoroughiy fettled. 

He will' prove geomctrically that reli- 
gions havè been invented purely for 
keeping up political and civil order, and 
E 3 that 



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7» C R I N E S E S P Y. 

that from them ail virtucs arife, though 
there is no virtue in them. Accordingly 
an athcift, wiih him, is an exécrable 
créature, not to be tokrated in fociety. 
He farther maintains, that every man 
fhould believe in fome religion, whatever 
it be. 

His knowledge being very extenfive, 
and as he has both feen and read a greal 
deal, his friends were often putting him 
on being a member of parJiament ^ but 
his confiant anfwer has heen, that he 
would never make one in a body , where the 
art of fpeaking goes farther than reqfon i 
and where clocution almoft evcr gets the 
better of truth. Somctimes he added, 
that a fpeaker with a coniely prcfence, 
fine tccth, a fonorous voice, can bring 
o^er the whole parliament of England ta 
his opinion, and rule th.e houfe of com" 
mons. 

Having in his yôuth been inelined to 
debauchery,- he ftill goes on in the famé 
courfe, from a principle of health. A 
too ftrift fobriety he holds to be a flow 
poilbn, undermining the conftitution ; 
and that a little excefs is an antidote 
againft growing weary of life, which 
unifcrmity rendcrs an infupportablç bur- 

dca* 



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CHINESE8PY. 7« 
lien. Accordingly once a wççk he vUîw 
Cûvent'gardm* \ s^nd regukrly gets drunk 
twice a month at the Beàforàt-artn^s. X^i^ 
hc calls wînding up the machine. 

Having no buf|nefs, and being free 
from ail domeftic care and troubles, ail 
he minds is to keep himfelf in good 
fpirits, chearful and facetious. He is not 
known to hâve either lawfuit, wife, or 
child. He never would liften to marri- 
ag^, not from any averfion to the fex» 
but becayfe an everlafting wife, ^ \^ 
cxpreffes himfelf, is haughtyand arro- 
gant, and of courfe makes marri^ge a 
moft bittcr curie. 

He has %n «ftate of four thoufand 
peunds fterling a year : te would havc 
oeen fix thoufand, but for a whim, 
which took hîm on hîs father'^s death, ta 
go and meafurc the great pyramid of 
Egypt. He often talks to me of tha^ 
pérégrination, which dçprived him of 
ene third of his fortune ; and fays, on 
this head, that had it not been for a king 
of Egypt, who lived two thoufand years 
ago, inftead of only three horfes in his 
ftable, he fliould hâve fix, and four fer- 

^ A partof London noted fpr bawdy houiès. 

E 4 vants * 



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8o C H I N E S E S P Y. 
vants more, befides two bottles of clarct 
more at his meals, than his eftatc will 
now allow him. 

L E T T E R XXVIIL 

irJbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pî to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pckin. 

Londoru 

HERE are are a let of men called 
A m — b — rs, who, though charp;ed 
with the interefi of crowns, are fuch 
loungers, that one would think their only 
bufmefs was to hâve nothîng to do. 

If you take a morning's airing in 
Hyde-park, you furely mect with them 
on their prancing horfes; and at noon 
you fee them every where on foot walk- 
ing the ftreets. From two o'clock- till 
four, they regularly figure in St. Jamts's 
park. , Ranelagh and Vauxhall feldom 
rail of their prefence. 1 hey are fond of 
fitting in the firft rank of the front boxes 
at Drurylane and Covent-garden, and 
are great benefaftors to the Italian opéras . 
in the Hay-market. They never mifs a 
public concert or aflëmbly. In a word, 
they are every where, except in their 

clofets. 



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G H I N E S E S F Y. Si 

clofets. I am not perfbnaJly acquaîntcd 
with them -, and had I not been -told, 
fhould never hâve taken them for what 
they are. 

One of them is a kind of everlaftîng 
Envoy. He came to London after the 
déluge ; ànd probably the end of the 
world will corne before he leaves Eng- 
land. He is as old as Saturn ; yet with 
bis powder and mufk, you would not 
take him to be turned of forty. He has- 
luch a gravity in his mien, and rs of 
fuch a ftarched carriage, that for thirty 
years paft he has not difcompofcd a fîngle 
hair of his wig. Then he is a vafl; ne- 
gotiator ; there being fcarce a woman of 
the town with whom he has not had a 
treaty. 

I hâve been fliewn a fécond, who is 
al ways as if his mînd was in a fcuffle ; 
he is ever in a brown ftudy, full or 
tliought, as if the whole weight of Eu- 
rope lay on him. You fee the minifter 
in him even at the play. They howevcr 
who are beft acquainted with him, give 
him out to be a man of confiderable 
parts and knov/ledge : but what fignify 
his abilities at a court, where his wholè 
bufinefs is to fettle fubfidies, that is, to- 
E 5 rcceivta 



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8a Clf I N ES E S P Y. 
rcceivc and rçmît money. Hands alone 
will do that, wiihoiit any capacity. 

' I hâve becn affurcd that lome of thia 
clafs are very fenfiblc, intelligent per- 
fons ; may be fo •, but this I am certain 
<rf, that there are fome who appear. to bc 
vcry fiUy fellows. E^eci^Uy I meet m 
ail public places one of a moft unpro- 
miffing look -, I don't know a face more 
vicious, and which hàs kfs of the gentle- 
man in it. 

I could not forbcar taking notice of 
another, who, I was told, came from 
Guadalupe, the fugar country, and ia 
uglinefs excceds ail the others ; being a 
kind of man-monkçy : Such figures in- 
âtcd could corne only from the America» 
favages. 

Chriftian princes feem to want a pro- 
' per delicacy in the choicc of their rcprc- 
fentatjves at foreign courts. 

It is a kind of difgrace to crowns 
'to commit their intereft to men who 
hâve no manner of rcfemblance to thofe 
who wear them. If an ambafîador bc 
but a copy ; ftill a copy (hould bear fom« 
likenefs to the original. 



L E T- 



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CHr.N£S E S P Y. 83 



L E T T E R XXIX. 

The Mandarin Ni-ou-fan /<? ^he Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, at London. 

Avignon* 

IN my laft, I gave thee an account of 
my firft introduftion among thç 
Avignon nobleflè. The next day we 
went to the famé aflèmbly, whcre we 
found nearly the famé company. 

Pray, Sir, faid I to my conduâ:or, 
who is that old fçUaw fo powdered and 
fcented, and afting the fop to that young 
lady before us ? That*s one of our mar- 
quiflês, bearing the title and name of aa 
eftate which no longpr belongs to hîm, 
He is as ojd as time, and battered ac- 
cordingly. There goçs a jeft on him at 
Avignon, that he was born in pope John 
the twenty-fecond*s time, and was pre- 
ient ^t the building of the papal palace 5 
yet is he always fluttering about the wo- 
men, Every morning his toilet takes 
him up: two hours, in repairing the in- 
jiiries of âge ; and he tricks himfelf out 
like an old woman. But ail his artifices' 
are threadbare; his wrinkles baffle his 
E S drefiekv 



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84 cm N E s E S P Y. 

drefler, and fhew him to be an arrant 
cheat- 

And that tall perfonage a îittle round 
fhouldered, with a bag-wig, though 
Iittle fuitablc to his âge. 

That, anfwered he, is a conful ; his 
hobby- hori'e is the kard > and no fooncr 
has he quitted that employment, than hc 
would fain bc in it again : prpbably it 
turned to good account. Had this maa 
Hved in the time of the Romans, who 
will might hâve been Csefar for him ; 
he would hâve ftood only for the conful- 
fuip. He is rcckoned hère very (kilful 
in calculations, and even to hâve fome. 
acquaintance with geometry and othcr 
fciences. I hâve tried him two or three 
times on thefe matters, but he appears 
of too fuperficial a turn. He is how- 
ever of a family as ancient as Mofes *. 

That gentleman, continued I, of a 
very ordinary appearance» yet with a 
mark of diftinftion at his button-hole ^ 
That is a knight of Malta, who lives. 
fomewhere in the neighbourhood of the 
. city. He has /omething very imperti- 
nent in his looks, faid I, and mofe im- 
pertinent in his ways, replied he. He is 
* A Jewifli family, 

the- 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 85 

the moft infipid, and at the famé time 
the moft afluming animal on the face of 
the earth. His pride and emptinefs 
make hîm a perfeft nuifance. A defign 
is laid to beggar him in one night's play v 
as the only way for ridding Avignon 
of fuch a traublefome gueft. 

Pray do you know thofe two gentle- 
men facing us, fo full of their jells with 
cverybody ? They are two brothers ; of 

the name of their charafter, in a 

word, is this : One is a fot, the other a 
coxcomb. And that bulky old geatle- 
man, who afTefts to conceal his âge, toy- 
ing and playing with them like a young 
fellow ? By his looks, I Ihould take hîm 
for the eldcft brother. Very right,. 
anfwered my guide, he is indeed eldeft \ 
for he is their father. 

Who is that young man at yonder 
quadrille-table, with fomething wild in 
bis looks, andparalytic hands -, one would 
think he was juft corne from fome dépré- 
dation in the neighbouring foreft. It is 
the marquis de JFor — ta of i^rovence : a 
bad man ; he is charged with a murder 
in his town ; and on that account has 
withdrawn hither. The matter is bc.- 
fcrc the parliamcnt of Aix i but how- 

€iver 



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fÔ> C FTI N E s E s P Y^ 
evcr k goes with him, it wiU be the famé 
thing to his charaéter-, for cvçry one 
does him the juftice to bclieve, thatif he 
did notriïiurder the man, he is capable 
©f doîng fo, Hc I« a gameftcr by prch 
fcffion, and very adroit at cheating. 

Who, contifîued I, is that littlc man 
juft by us, of fuch a ftiflF appcarance ? 
He is ealled the viicount, and may be 
faid to be a fop of an old édition nevcr 
eorrefted ; being full of errors and 
^ defefts. He was formerly vcry pétulant, 
but has becn humbled by a woman's 
giving him a fevere drubbing. 

Who is that tall young man fpcaking 
to him, who feems fo very much pleafed 
with himfelf ? That is our archhifliop's" 
grand nephew ; he affeûs both wit and 
fenfibility, fets up for a fine fpeakcr, 
talks purcly to be heard, culls his words 
and expreffions -, and aceompanies the 
whole with fomcthing fo very odd in his 
perfon and carriage, as to render him 
iuperlatively ridiculous. 

Who is that knight of St. Lewis 
ftanding by him ? his uncle, a fowcr, 
morofe man, from morning to night 
continually fpitting flander •, he alone is 
©nough to ruin the réputation of a whole 

Éown, 



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C H I N E 8 E S p y. 8y 
town, and fet a fociety together by the* 
t^s i yet would he bc accounted a ma» 
of probity j though, at pJay, he is a little 
apt to put in praékicc^>me noc very war- 
rantable dexteritkSr 

Oh!' pray, who is that ftort fattifli- 
man thrufting himfelf into ail the com-^ 
panifs, and fpeaking to cvery body ? 
Why hc is'the marquis de Mont-p-f-t, a 
fort of knight errant, lately corne hithcr 
to make the moft of his'accute talents, 
for bufmefs. Moft perfons of qgajity 
run in debt, follow gaming, or kcep* 
miftrefles; but this wortby perfons deals' 
in law faits, whicb he brings to an iflue* 
by his import;unity with the judges. He 
k indefatigaWe in bufinefs ; making no- 
more of gallopîng, away to Rome or 
Paris, than another would to take a* 
walk. The generality of men are quite 
mifplaced; this marquis was eut ou t for . 
a poftillîon. 

Only one queftion more, faid I to my 
guide ; for I would not be too trouble- 
lome. Who is that diminitive grey- 
hâired knight, peering evcry where, and 
his face fomething of the bat ? TThat^ 
anfwered he, is a little Maltefe fhrimp, 
whom the order feenu tobave forgotten-, 

becaufe 



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88 C H I N E S E S ? Y. 
bccaufe, in reality, he has not.whcrc- 
with to do honour to the ordcr. He is^ 
conccited and proud to the laft degree, 
withall very poor and ignorant •, in (horc,. 
he is a true Avignon gentleman, 

L E T T E R XXX. 

Tie Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin- 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

THIS vafl city may be faîd to con- 
tain two nations, the inhabitants of 
what is called the city, and thofe who 
live at the court end of the town ; their 
manners are fo diametrically oppofite, 
that the divifion which feparatcs thefe 
two people may be. confidered as a va(t 
Qcean, making an. immenlë différence 
between them. 

The Englilhman, born about Lom- 
bard-ftreet, feems to be of quite another 
fpecies from him who lives ncar St. 
James*s fqiiare. When the latter has a 
mind to divert himfelf with the reprefen-^ 
taciori^of a filly fellow, he gets the citizen'*' 
to be afted. 

f A play of that name, 

Indeed 



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CHINESESPY. 99 
Indeed every thing in hîm is totally 
difftrent; his way of fpeaking, expref- 
fions, drefs, the very gratifications of 
his taftes, defires, and appetites. The 
citizen is a coarfe, duU, heavy créature, 
without vivacity or fancy, aukward in 
comnion converfation, and continu- 
ally abfofbed in calculations of fums. 
Whcreas the Briton, living near the park, 
has a pretty manner or fpeaking, ex- 
preflcs himfelf with eafe, and even has 
his repartees.- His contempt of riches 
he carries to profufenefs, and this makcs 
him,defpife the citizen, whofe lifc and 
Ibulis lucre. But the latter takes care 
to be even with him, when he cornes to 
him on 'change, to help him to a fupply 
for hîsextfavagancies. The citizen inflated 
with his billsof exchange andfhares in the 
ftocks, looks coldly on him, anfwers himi 
only in monofyllables, or tells him he has 
no time to fpeak to him.. But the cour- 
tier, as he cannot do' without him, dif- 
guifes himfelf on this occafion, and af- 
fefts ail his ways. Money, which at 
the Smyrna cofFee-houfe puts an end to 
the lerel, redores it at Toms. Ail withiri 
this precinft, during change time, and 
whilè bufmefs can be done, are alike, 

birds: 



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90 C H I N E s E a P Y. 
birds of a fi^t^^r. |t i^ açt tiU two 
koufs after th^ai çv^jry one puts on hi^ 
real charaâer again. The inhabitant of 
St. James's, as foon a^ he h got beyond 
Temçle-b;ir, }p hjs return, re-aflumeç 
his coAH-t air, which he h^ ^f% çfe^re ^ 
a pledge at hia fetnng fbot iwo the city ; 
and the merchaiiç h^ving 4one with ac- 
counts and brokers, ^gain ^^çQmes wW- 
ward, dull, and flovenly» 

L E T T E R XXXL 

fk^ Mandarin Çham-pi-pl (o th^ M'^^ovif 
Kiç-t;Q\i-i>A> 4/ ?ekiii, 

London». 

Y OU can fçarç^ w^lk ip t-ondon 
ftreçt$ wiihei^tt b^i^i^g bf^ei^, and^ 
if you go ia a coaçh it is p^ttjpg yoyrfclf 
on the rack -, if on foot yQ« gpç .Hufl:k4 
to and fro ; if in a c^rriage y<Hi ^^ 4^'- 
fupportably jojt^. As I ha4 raiher l>? 
be huftled than joked, I naingle ia t;ht 
crowd and ftand the (hock. 

I never go to my banker, who Uve^ 
fuU three miles from ray lodging, but 
with an aehing heart. le is but t*other 
day that I wcnt tQ him for fifty guinew». 

and 



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C H* I N E s E s P Y. 9f 
fflid, I am fure, before I had got thither, 
as many blows were given mç. Did the^ 
pcople knQW that I was a Chinefe 1 
Ihould perhaps meet with better ufage ; 
but the misfortunc is, that though my 
cyes are fufficienriy fmall, I am thought 
to be a Frenchman, and as fuch I get 
many a fevere thump. h is hard that 
an Afiatic (hauld fufteF for the hatred of 
two European nations. 

In other countries, fighting is only 
the foldier*s part; but hère, every 
one will be fighting. No longer. aga 
than yefterday, as I was goingalonga 
ftreet, called, the Strând, a bulky Eng- 
lifhman, paATing by me, gave me 
fuch a blow with his fift as made me 
réel, at the famé time calling me, Franck 
dog. I would ver'y willingîy hâve give» 
him my receipt for it to hâve been clear 
from a répétition ; but being too much 
ftunncd to walk ofF, he laid on a fécond 
blow, adding, gei oui ofmy way yeu dirfy- 
fellow. 

AU Europe is in fome meafûre afuf- 
ferer by the animofity between thefe 
two nations. I daily fee Germans, Ita- 
lians, Portuguefe, and Spaniards, wha 
being taken for Frenchmen, undergothe-' 

like: 



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ÇJ2 ÇHINESÈSPY. 

like rugged treatmeat as I who am * 

Chindc. 

Indeed, on my Gompkining of any în- 
fult, tbe tiation's duel, which is the fight- 
ing handtohand, is very readily ofïeredj 
but for my part, I choofe paticntly to 
bear a blow or two, rather than hav« 
my face beat to mummy, if not an eyV 
knocked out, or a limb brokcn or diflo^ 
catcd. 

L E T T E R XXXIL 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pî to tbe Manda^ 
rin Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

Londofl.. 

IHad feen Englifhmen m France, and 
Ifee them at Londbn, but adualljr 
they are not the famé mcn ; or rathcr» 
the différence is fuch that they feem quitc 
another fpecies. At Paris they are open 
ajîd poli te, and with fuch chearfulnefs; 
and good nature that therè cannot be 
hetter company ; but àt Londbn they 
are filent, glooniy, and fullen» fcarce con- 
verfable ; as if, on their landing ail their 
amiable qualities forfake them, and they 
ôgain become Englilhmen ail over. 

Thoushi 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 93 

Though four hours bring you from 
one nation to the other, yet naturalifts 
holdjthat rheCalais fprightlinefs is fix thou * 
land leagues diftant from that of Dover. 
The inhabitants of the two oppofite 
pôles are not more difFerentin temper. 

I cannot think this proceeds from the 
climate : fogreat a contrariety cannot 
be owing to fuch a narrow feparation. 
It is only at a corifidei-able diftance of 
-degrees that the climate has any fuch in- 
fluences ; and aftronomers make little or 
oo différence between the fun in France 
:and that in England. The Englilh in- 
<leed hang themfelves, and the French 
do not ; but it is not the efFed of the 
-air that the Britons hang or drown them. 
ielves, The caufe of thefe unnatural 
Éreaks I think lies in thepolitical fyftem. 
Sociability and politenefs are a confe- 
quence of abfolute govçrnment. In 
France defpotifm runs through ail claf- 
fes. Every fubjeâ: who is above ano^ 
ther in rank and riches is a kind of king 
to his înferior, who naturally makes him- 
felf his flave. Hence in gênerai arife 
confiderations, formalities, refpefts, di- 
ftindlion, complaifance, and fubmiffion. 

France 



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94 CHINESESPY. 

France may be lookcd on as cottimu- 
nity of courtiers, in fôme refpeâs mo- 
narchs, and in others fubjeôs. This 
concaténation of defpotifm, reachifig from 
the.mcaneft fubjeâof the monarchy to 
the greateft, is the fource of that politc- 
nefs which is fo natural to ihe French ; 
courtiers being every where fupple abd 
infinuating, 

When the Roman conftitution was ih 
îts vigour;, the people werc openandfin- 
cerc, ftrar^gers to any ftudied marks of 
refpeâ:; b$t on their being brought into 
fubjedion py the emperors, they becamc 
police, fmôothi courteous, anîd deceit^ 
fui. 

The Britons being frcie and indépen- 
dant hâve no need of Frciich gayety 5 
their political fyftem difperlfes them from 
it, as having provided for the càfe of ail 
orders. Every fingliflimàn may be of 
what t€mper he pleafcs^ withàut mindmg 
that of others. 



L E T- 



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G H I N E s E s P Y. fj 

L E T T E R XXXIIL 

5nh? Mardar in Chàm- pi-pi to the Mandé* 
tin Cotao-yu-fe, at Pékin. 

London* 

SlNCE thè late king's death the court 
has taken a pacifie tum ; already 
a congrefs, indemnifioation, and a fuf- 
penfion of arms begin tô be talked of ; 
àll tht fyftetîis of war fecm to bave been 
buried with him. This is the café of 
thè ËUTOpeatis, their fatfc generally dé- 
pends oh the life of one man. Did 
George the Ild. reign, the war would 
go on ; but becaufe George the Illd, 
fitts the throne, thcre will be a peace. 
Attd it is hot one of the kaft reafons fof 
â foVéreign to put an end to battles^ that 
his pfredecigffot begah them. A monarch 
v^uld fcâfcé think hîmfelf a king^ Ihould 
hé foUôw the former plans : he wôuld 
feha^nfe that the World would believe his " 
prcdeceflbr to be ftill living, and himfelf 
ônly a iftock-king. To fupprefs any 
fuch opinion of hihi^ the former fyftems^ 
which hâve coft fo much blood muft be 
abolifhed, and others fet on foot différent 

from 



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96 C H IN E S É S P Y. 

frpm the former, but not lefs detrimen- 

tal to the nation. 

I am far from meaning that a ftate of 
war is préférable to that of peàce ; but 
only, that there are particular cafés when 
a government having made large ac- 
quifions of wealth and fubjefts, îs under 
a neceffity of compleating the work of 
fieges and battles ; otherwife, a tr^aty. of 
peace would coft it ail the fruit of its 
viftories* 

What I am now faying is not levelled at 
England: there is nodeterminingwhether 
the peace will be of greater lofs or gain 
to it, without being thoroughly ac- 
quainted with its refources, examining its 
finances, comparing the ftate of its forces 
by fea and land ; efpecially without 
knowing afluredly, whether the taxes, 
which it would be obliged to lay on its 
fubjeéts for the extraordinary expences 
of the war, wou!d not hurt it more than 
ten viftories would do it good : and 
herein the people's word is not to be 
taken, as in thefe things they always 
judge wrong •, every one forniing his no- 
tions ace ording to his privatc conjçerns. 



LE T- 



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' "^ C H,i NîE S E S P Y. 9; 






L E T T E R XXXIV. 

^be Mandarin Ni-o-fan to tbe Mandarin, 
Cham-pi-pi, at London. 

Avignon, 

THE famé pcrfon who had introduced 
me into an aflèmbly of the nobility, 
two days ago, carried me to that of the 
gentlemen of the long robe. He had 
no fooner fent in word, . than the mafter 
came to rcceive us at the door of the 
apartment, prefented me to the Com- 
pany, and, after fhewing me many ci- 
vilitles, placcd us in a very convenient 
part of the room. This gentleman is 
perfeftly polite^ faid I, to my guide ; 
and hé is ftill more * amiable, added 
he-- Wére you to make any ftay at 
Avignon you would be quite charmed 
with him ; he has very much of the 
gentleman in ail his ways, a free air, and 
engaging manner of fpcaking ; but this, 
if I may ufe the expreflîon, is only the 
meçhanic part of his merit : he has a 
laige fliare of genius and érudition ) 
and, befides his being a very great law- 
yer, he, on ail occafions, talks with much 
Vol. IV. F propriety, 



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9« C H I N E S E- S P Y. 

propriety, wit, and pénétration : he îs 
equally the good man, and the agree- 
able companion. He performs the ho- 
. nours of the city ineomparably -, for bcr 
fides holding an aflèmbly twice a week at 
his houfe, when any prince or great per- 
fonage makes makes fome ftay at Avig- 
' non, he never fails entcrtaining them 
with much fplendor and delicacy of tafte. 

Suc h was the pifture my guide gave 
me of this gentleman, and indeed I diC- 
cerned the truth of it in his features and 
linéaments ; for thcre are ipeaking phy- 
fiognomies. 

We were aflced to play, but I chofe 
rather to converfe with my guide. 

The parties being made, and ail ièated 
about the tables, fir, faid I, you fee I am 
a perfeâ: ftranger hère : will you be fo 
good as to give me fome knowledge of 
this new world. Very readily, anfwered 
he, and that I can ^he better do, as, ex- 
cuie the expreffion, I am a free-mafon 
hère, and hâve the fecrct x>f the Joc^ ; 
. fo that you need only fpeak and let me 
knowwith whom you are for begmnii^. 

Pray then, who is that young lady 
at the table fecing us, with regular fea- 
tures, fomething v^ry.pretty in hercoun- 

^tenance 



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CHINESESPY. 99 
tenance, and her eyes not the, worfl: part 
of her ? She is a ftrangef , anfwcrcd he, 
born in Provence, and has married that 
iittle man you fee behind her. 

So agreeablc a perfon, replled I, 
muft hâve mahy adorers: to be fure, 
faid he, flie might, but ihe déclines it i 
flie has taken it into Jier head to love 
her huiband, which is no,t common àt 
Avignon, as they do not marry for any 
luch thing -, and perhaps ic is froni its 
not being common, that ftie loves hîm ; 
for women are evcr for doing what is out 
of thc way, 

Who is that other youne woman near 
iier, witha longvifage, blaçk eyes, and 
affcâing childilhnefs, and yet feems to 
hâve fomething languifliing about her? 
why that is another, whois likewifeno- 
thing common : flie too loves her huf- 
l^nd; at leaft in appearanc^ ; indeed no 
body offers to hinder her, moft of the 
«fien looking on her as a ridiculous af- 
feâed créature. 

Who is that thîrd on our right hand, 
with a round face, a délicate complexion, 
but an ill made mouth ; is flie likewife 
for rarities ? no, no, anlwered he ha- 
fiily, lier hulband is not fo much a rarity 
Fa in 



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loo C H I N E s E s P -Y. ^ 
in hçr houfe as flie could wifli ; were he 
oftener abroad, fhe might thc more frcely 
enjoy her gallant. , 

Biefs me ! faid I, who is that very ol<J 
l^'oman, looking fo wifhfuUy at that fu- 
peranuated fignior at yonder table, with 
a bag wig, and tricked up like a young 
fpark; they ogle one another with fuch 
grimaces, that, I woûder they who are 
wîth them can kcep their countenance ? 
why, faid he, that's a widow and an old 
batchelor, who make themfelves the town 
talk : they are faid to be married to- 
gether, however that be, they live as if 
iheywere. 

And pray, who îs that virago, who 
both looks and talk3 like fome vulgar- 
man. She fecms to infult a pretty per- 
fonable young man, who is playing with 
her, and whom fhe is ever thwarting ? 
right, anfwered he, (hedoes feem; but, 
in amours, when ail the world fées a wo- 
man pretending to difidain a man, it is a 
certain proof that fhe loves him, ' 

Bé fo kind as to tell me who is that 
tall, flinh, long waiftedwoman,whofehead 
îs like a dot over an i ? fhe is, to be plain, 
faid he, an abai\doned créature. Hère, 
indeed, fhe is reckoned to hâve fome de- 
licacyi having had but five or fix gal- 

lants 



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C H I N E s E s P Y- iM 
lants in her life; ^nd, at laft, has taken 
up with a fhallow fmock-faced young 
fribble, with whom (he lives, badly 
enough ; but as gallantry muft hâve 
fome amufement, they work tapeftry to- 
together, and are now at the twelfth 
chair. . 

Pleafe to tell me, who îs that brown, 
Jong vîfaged woman, with black eyes, fine 
teeth, and a pretty mouth, and concinu- 
ally looking at us ? (he, anfwered he, is 
•no better than the former ; when a girl, 
flie wasfor the firft corner ; now ftie is 
«a woman, firft or laft is the famé thïng to 
her ; court or country, gentle or fimple, 
are welcome j thbugh Ihe feems to Jean 
-moft towards the Finances. If, like the 
princefs oiF Egypt we are told of, fhe had 
demanded a ftone from every one of her 
gallânts, fhe might by this time hâve 
built a pyramid reaching to the feventh 
•hcaven. 

Who is that young perfon fitting be- 
hind her, and tolerably pretty ? fhe Is 
her fifter, fêtting up for marriage ; fond 
^f the gentlemen of the long robe, but, 
in the mean time, keeping company with 
thofe of the army : whoever marries 
that girl, marries a woman. 

F 3 But 



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102 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

But how cofne ftich créatures to he^ 
admitted hère; faid 1? What can be done, 
replied he ; werc ail women to undergo 
an examination, and the virtuous only 
to be admitted, the mafter of the houfe 
might fopn fhut up Ihop, 

Sir, faid I to him, who are ail thcfe 
mtn^ fome ftanding and fome fitting, 
moft of them in black ? they, anfwered 
he, are lawyers : a large pack of then>p • 
feplied I, fure you muft be very fond of 
going to law hère, to cmploy fo many. 
We hâve, perhaps, fewer fuits than 
other places like this ; for wc are, really^ 
too poor to bribe judges and counfellors. 
Hereit is no more than a title affumed 
to make one fclf a gentleman at once* 
Moft of thofe counfellors could not fet 
you right in a point of law, if yoir would 
give them the whole world ; and many oê 
them, I believe, do not fo mueh as know 
that there is a code, or that fuch a man as 
Juftinian ever exifted. When a plebciaft 
is for rifing above his origin, he takes 
degrees^ and makes himfelf an honorary 
çounfellor, which lifts him to a prccc- 
dence, next to the nobility. For this 
there is a fet rate ; a hundred crowns is 
the fum : that is not fo dear, faid I, 

therc's 



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'. C H I N E s E S P Y. Ï03 
there's no being a coxcomb much 
cheaper. ' I am only coîicemed for theif 
incapacity, a& they who lay out their 
money to buy the kjiowlédge of their 
vocation, muft be very great ignora- 
nius*s : they ignoramus's, replkd he, 
why they know every thing ! talk to 
them of politicks, finances, govemmem, 
adminiftration, and th^n you*ll fee their 
abîlkies. Politicks efpecially is their 
mafter-piecc ; hère th'ey (hine moft, and 
difplay their igoorafice mth the gnsateiil: 
fluency. 

L E T T E R XXXV, 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-le ^z Pékin. 

Londôii 

AT Paris there are more théâtres 
and plays tbaa at London,. bm 
J-ondon has tbe moflfcenesand aâors. 

In otfacr European couiitries tbe vices 
arc rcprefentcd at large, hcre iiv détail : 
the human hcart is as it were taken tq 
pièces. 

The play wrights reprefent nature in 
ail its ibapcsy cven the nnofl; .dcformed 
and fhocking. 

F 4 The 



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104 C H I N E S E S P Y 

The praftices of prifons, the horrors 
of goals, the brutifli talk of 'beerhoufe5, 
the ribaldry of brothels, make a part of 
the Englifh exhibitions, 

The charafters of any of theîr plays 
are highwaymen, beggars, vagrants, 
publîcans, and the like, 

The reafon hère given for this îs, tha£ 
the liage is the mirror of human life ; 
but is it therefore to be foiled ? à fick 
perfon on his clofe-ftool, a leper opea- 
,ing his ulcers, a fpewing fot, a proftitute 
Ihewing indécent poftures, are likewifc 
piétures of human life : but are they 
therefore to be made a fight of ? 

Civil fociety has its finks, or, îf I noay 
be allowed the expreflîon, its excréments, 
which, when ftirred, émit very noifomc 
effluvia, 

Befides, thefe charaétcrs are of no 
manner of ufe to the moral wôrld ; they, 
who are reprefented in them, beîng fel- 
dom or never at thefe repefentations ; 
and if they were, thefe piftures would 
makeno manner of impreflîon on them^ 
The populace are hardened in profligacy 
beyond amendment ; their life is a round 
.of laBour, fottilhnefs, and brutality. 

i But 



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C H I N E 5 E s P Y. 105 

But it hav-ing been thought that there 
would be too grcat a famenefs, or per- 
haps that fbe ftage would be too trivial, 
if only cheats and footmen wère exhi- 
bited, heroes and kings hâve been inter- 
mixed ; fo that the fpeftator, aftcr thc 
pleafingview of a fplendid palace, on a 
fudden finds himfèlf in a cobler's ftall*. 
The king fets on his throne, and the flioe- . 
maker on his ftool. The former en- 
tertains the fpeftator with ftate afîairs, 
the latter with the circumftances of hts 
fliop. The hero is in love, the cobler 
is a fot: one refpedfully courts the 
queen, the other beats his wife. No- 
thing can be more contradiftory than 
the tranfaftions on this ftage : the cha- 
rafters hâve no manner of correfpon- 
den'ce, or fîmilaricy. 

. It is an obfervation of phyficians, that 
the fervànts in mad houfes,. by hearing 
unconneûed talk, rants, and nonfenfe, 
at the long ruri, contra6t a diforder of 
mind. I cannot tell thee whether thofe 
who haunt Covent-Garden and Drury- 
kne turn mad j but, take my word for 

* Moft of the ferious pièces in England ase ia- 
tecmixed with farces. 

^.. * F 5 it 



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loé CHINESESPY. 

it, thefe two théâtres arc littk adapte 

to make them wife. 

L E T T E R XXXVI. 

The Mandarin Gham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe, at Pékin. 

London. 

ÏHE Englîfh ftage, befîdes being 
lo\J| and trivial is cven filthy and 
ne. Some days ago 1 vras atthe 
comcdy, calléd, the Old BaHbelor ; but 
I foon wifhed myfelf out of à théâ- 
tre, fo void of ail decency and modefty ; 
and I aâually made fbme endeavours to 
get out, but the crowd was too great ; 
for this pièce always draws a fîill Ixoufe. 

At firft I was ftrangely embaraflcd for 
the young ladies, buti foon perceivcd that 
I might fave myfelf that uneafinefs. Surely 
modefty muft hâve veiy much dcgcnc?- 
rated among the fex in Britain v for fome 
, fragments, which may ferveas a hiftory 
of the Englifti ftage, inform us, thac 
women, whcnevcr they went tô the phy 
ufed to be mafked ; and thus it was in- 
cognito that they heaixi the ribaklry ut- 
teced thcrej but noWthcy hâve laid 

a&de 



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CHINESE SPY. 107 ^ 
àfîde the mafk, and can hear bawdy 
bare-faced and without a blufh, Icannoc 
lay, without a fmilc. 

This is certain, that in no bawdjr- 
houfe, or 'guafd-room, can more filthjr 
obfcenity be talked, or more fcandalous 
words fpoken, than were that nîght 
openly pronounced on this ftage. Farther^ 
the indccency of that comedy is not con- 
fined to words 5 it is even carried to the 
reprelentation, to the adt of debauchery v 
the crime is almoft confummated on the 
ftage before the fpeélator, who thus is 
ijiade to ftand pimp. 

There is no thinking well of a nation 
which allows of fuch fhocking inde- 
cencies on its ftage. 

No maturity of âge is required to 
judge of this depravityof tafte. Rea- 
foft in its early dav/n perceives its enor- 
mity. 

Aftcr the play, I went to a lady's houfe, 
who had invited me» and I found feveral 
perfons of both fexes likewife corne from 
the théâtre, and who were tofup there. 
Among the company was a lady with 
her daughter, aged about feven, and 
whom ftie had carried that night to the 
play for the firft time, After the ufual 
F 6 compli- 



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io8 CHINESESPY. 
complimejus, ail feated themfelves tîll 
fiipper'lhould be fcrved up ; and natu- 
rally the play or the aftors would hâve 
been thè topic of difcourfe, but the little 
girl thus befpoke her mother. 

Matnma, why are there playhoufes 
and plays ât London ? My dear, an- 
f^vered the mother, it îs that peoplc may 
be good, by thus feeing the uglinefs and 
mifchief of vice: fo, faid the child, that 
is a charming contrivance ; then, mam- 
ma, fuch little girls as I, by often going 
to the play muft be very good ; fb, ray 
dear mamma, carry me there very often^ 
for I would alfo be very good -, yet, con- 
tinued Ihe, I hâve heard fome words 
which muft be very bad; for little Dailjt 
Smith, who goes to fchool with me, was 
lately punilhed for having fpoken theni^ 
as^y^w of a bitcb^ foH of awhore^fon of--^ 
oh ! fye, my dear, faid the mother, put- 
ting on a ferious countenance^ let me 
hear no fuch bad words : but, faid the 
child, haftily interrupting her, fincc thefe 
words are bad, mamma, why are they 
fpoken on the ftace, if it is defigned ta 
makepeoplegoodr 

Thia 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. îof 
Thîs aQfwer of a child, only în her 
feventh year, isa gênerai cenfure of thc 
Englifhftage. 

LETTER XXXVII. 

J'be Mandarin Cham-pî-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, aÈ Pékin. 

Londoju 

ENGLAND, befides being rich and 
fertile, bas a very extcnfive corn- 
merce ; its fhips are ièen on ail parts of 
the océan ; its navy makes it refpeâ:ed by 
ail the univerfe^ Nothing can be better 
modelled than its conftitution. Hère 
the citizen is . free, and no man a Ilave. 
The nation is governed by laws of itst 
own making,and its affairs are condudcd 
by its reprefçntâtives. Every private 
pcrfon hère îs a. kiad of king, and ac- 
Qountable for his actions only to himfelf : 
yet is there npt on earth a more un-: 
happy people, for it is the moft melan- 
çholly. An incurable uneafinèfs has 
feizedthe nation jfo that in England, in- 
ftead of living, they only languiBi. Amidfr 
wealth and plenty they hâve no enjoy- 
ment. AU the amufements, both. pub- 
lie and |prLvate haye a heayy caft- 
: there 



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n^ CHINESESPY. 
thcre is no fprightUncfs in thc diverlîorts, 
cvery thing, evcn mirth itfelf is ferions : 
ail things wear a gloomy appcarancc r 
à kind of fadnefs prevails even among 
their pleafures and entértainments. Gra- 
viiy h^ got the afcendancy, and înfitt- 
enccs aD the fevcral clafïes of the nation. - 
There are fome Englifh famîlies who 
liave not been knôwn to laugh for tea 
generationes. 

The greater part of tîic Britom, un^ 
able to get the bctter of their vexations^ 
hang or drown chemfelves. A fo»^ }iap* 
pincfs indecd, whereby me» are kd to^ 
&ich a deipexûte aéb as foicide!: ï faneur 
k majr be accounced for. Liberty is: 
produûive of a certain uneafiisefs to the 
mind, from \rfvich fcivcry exempts it^ 
A nation undsr flavery has fomething u> 
tiûnk of, which is to break its chakîSé 
A frce nation has nothing, Now, whcn 
the imaginatioi^k is^kft to idfelf, uneafinefr 
will be working it. 

But ic will fcdlo^ from thcnce, thac 
libcrty is an cvil -, and fuch l account it, 
2S mcn makea wrongiifc of evety thÎAg^ 
The greater cJ^ idivlmliages aceming to^ 
them from the poîiticâ^t conftitution, the 
more wamonl^ do they âfelife thek hap*^ 

pinefs. 



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C« I N E s E S P Y. irt 

pînefs. Such frecdom is, indeed, the 
ftate of perfedion ; but truly to enjoy 
it man himfelf muftbeperfèâ:. There's: 
not on the earth a more flavUh go- 
vernment than the Turkifh^ yct none 
where its misfortune is lefs fclt. Of ail 
nations^ the French is the leaft free,- yet 
the moft chearfuL ^ 

Another caufe of the atrabilarious hu* 
mour particolary prevailing among this 
people, 1 take to be the kind of drinks 
ufed in Engknd The Englifli, in gène»- 
rai, are exceffively addiéled to ftrong and 
Ijpirituous liquors -, and the fumes of thefç 
afcending to the brain excite an artificial 
gaîety, whîch ftraining the ïibres> bring 
on them a relaxation, occafioning a low- 
nels q£ Ipirits. The climate, and othcr 
fecondary caufes, may likewife hâve a 
fliare in this direful effed; for, as a 
little matter will make a people merry^ 
fo almoft any thing^ will make thensk 
duU. 



L E T- 



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«2 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

L E T T E R XXXVIir. ^ 

Itbâ Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to tbe Mandarin \ 

Cham-pi-pi at London, 

Avignon. 

THERE is an inquîfîtion at Avig- 
non, and, for that vcry réafon thcre 
are àlfo Jews ; forthefe arc two thîngs 
which always go togcthcr : fo that I was 
•not at àll furprîzed to mcet with Jews ^ 
•but, to find dukes hercj is what l littlc 
cxpeàed. 

This tltlc is a kind of honorary fa- 
veur conferred by the Pope, and the 
dukes are creatcd by a bull, even as a 
bifliop •, nioney îs the great mobile in 
both cafés, a du^al patent may be pur- 
ehafed without any>regard to birth ; for 
as a man may be a bilhop, though not 
noble, fo he may be made a duke, 
without being fo much as a gentlc- 
pian. 

The court of Rome has been, timc 
outof mind, accuftomed to create; and 
having no longer the pawer of making 
liings, it créâtes dukes. 

A* 



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CHINESE SPY. nj 
As to knights, the Pope alone makes 
more than ail the fovereigns of Europe 
put together. Indeed he is pleafed ta 
rate this title at fo very moderate a price, 
that every footman may buy himfelf into 
that order. The holy facher*s fadors 
fell knight- patents at Rome by whole- 
fale, at a hundred ducats the hundred, k 
îs the ftated price : yet are there fove- 
reigns Ib Europe from whom they may 
be had ftill cheaper, being given gratis. 
Every thing in thefe wretched coun- 
tricsis corrupced ; not only virtue, but 
cven the diftinguifhing marks of * it. 

L E T T E R XXXIX^ 

^be Mandarin Ch^Lm-pi' pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

HERE, as în France, the minifters of 
ftate often rife from nothing. One 
would thing that, in this particular, the 
government were totally defpotic, and 
like thofe of Afia. 

At Conftantinople the fultan may make 
a cuftom-houfe officer grand vizir -, at 

Londoa 



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IJ4 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
London the king may make a fubaltern 
offieer fecretary of ftate ; with this dif- 
férence, however, that it is not always in 
his power to remove him, his parliameat 
will often déclare againftit: now in this 
c^k^ the prince has a créative but not a 
confervatory power •, he may make, but . 
not deftroy. 

In France, a woman maVes a minifter 
of ftate, hère fomething lefs than a wo- 
man will fùfBce ; he who has a Ikillful 
way of opening his mouth, is the man. 
A member of pafliament who is accural3& 
in fpellinghiavoweb,. can diftinûly artv- 
culate his words, give a cadenee to his 
fentences,. prettily varying his founds, 
fo as to pleafe the ear,. is in a fair way 
for the miniftry. The afafolute ma- 
narchs in Europe hare -fcmalc favourites, 
to whom they refufe nothing : and the 
ipiftrefs of this republiç, to which it 
grants éVcry thing^is oratory. 

1 lately afked an Englilhman con- 
cerning the charadteriftical virtues oi 
the prefent pM-ime minifter, who is faid 
to prefidè. over the afïairs of this mo- 
narchy^ with fo much honour to himfelf, 
his fovereign, and nation, He anfwcred 
me, tb^t he was a good relator, and ex- 

prefïcd 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 115 
prcflcd himfelf handfomely. " Heis, 
*' faid he, the fineft fpeakcr in Europe; 
** he fays whatever he will, and per- 
*' fuades the audience to whatever he 
** intends. Would you, in a political 
** fenfe, that it fhould be broad day at 
** midnight, or that it fliould be mid- 
*' nîght at noon, only fpeak the word ^^ 
*' it is indiffèrent to hîm, he will equally- 
** convince you of both v conviétion is 
" his mafter-piece ; he has ready in his 
•* imagination, a eoniplcte fct of oppo^ 
" fite proofs;'* 

The next day X went to the houfe of 
commons, to hear this powerful orator^ 
and found indeed that, aecording to the 
Europcan iâyingv he has a very glilbt 
tongue. He was that morning engagcd 
in clearing up a point of political mora?- 
lity, relating to the war in Germany, and 
a vcry nice point h was. Oq his Corn- 
ing into theminiftry, he had promifed 
the people, thajt no troops at aU Ihould* 
be fent thither, and or money but a, 
very little: now that day the bufinefs 
of the houfe. tumed on fending thither a 
great number of troops, and large fup- 
plies of money. It is amazing to think 
with what dexterity he braught the houfe 

ta 



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ir6 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
to forget his former promife, and per- 
fuadcd it not to recolleâ: the many 
fine fpeeches he had made on that 
head. ' At the very preamble of his ha- 
rangue I could perceive, by the behavi- 
our of the audience, that he would bring 
them to his lure, and conviftion fpread 
with every period of his fpeech. 

It muft however be obferved, con- 
Gerning this houfe, .that a great many of 
its members had been previoufly corr- 
'Verted,before they came to hear this mi- 
nifter's edifying fermons. 

His fpeeches are entirely geometrîcal; 
for talking he is the moft (kilful archi^ 
te6t of the âge. Soreerers build palaces 
ia the air, but this mioifter can carry the 
ftruélure of an argument up to the very 
clouds, and with ail the parliament in 
it. 

Thou mayeft weiï think that this ner- 
vous fpeaker has his opponents. Ail the 
ftammerers in the houfe are ufually on 
the other fide of the queftion. 

The ancients had a great miftruft of 
oratory as delufivc, they would not fo 
much as fee the orators ; thefe were to 
deliver their fpeeches in the dark. There 
there isa certain infatuating power ia 

the 



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C H I NES E S P Y. tîj 

the attît^ade, countenance, voice, and 
expreffion of public fpeakers, which im- 
pofing on the imaginarion eafilycapti- 
vates the mind. 

When once the wifcft repùblic în the 
world allowed its oràtors to fpeak in pub- 
lic from a raifed place, made for that 
purpofe, every thing went wrong with 
it. To make ufe of the very famé ways 
whîch fallacy pradifcs to feduce, is dif- 
gracmg truth. 

L E T T E R XL. 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Fekin. 

London. 

OF ail the trades which pridc and 
oftentation lias fet up în this capi* 
tal, the molt ridiculous, in my way of 
thinking is that whofe bufmefs is to 
difplay vanity, and furnifh décorations 
for the moft itiortifying circumftanee in 
the whole human life. The mafquerade 
of burials in England^ though différent 
in ioxm from tluc of France^^ has the 
lâmc principle. 



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ri8 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

In my walks about Loiidon, I read 
the foUowing infcription on a fign ^ 
futur als performed hère in the beji man^ 
ver. 

England has undcrtakers for burials 
as for marriages-, the throwing a carcafe 
into a hole is hère niade a fpeétacle ; and 
the pomp is greater or lefs according; 
to the money given. 

That this oftentatîon may be the 
greater, it is generally exhibited hj 
torch light. Infteadof priefts and monks, 
a train of domeftics, in black, with bla- 
zing torches in thdr hand, march beforc 
the corps, which is placed in a fringed 
vehicle, followed by a number of coachcs 
ail covered with black cloth. In this lu- 
gubrious parade is the deceafed convey- 
cd to the place appoïnted for his rotting. 

If any tears arelhed on thefe occafions, 
it is only for not having wherewith to bé 
morefhowcy. Europe has nota nation 
more expcnfive in burials than theEng- 
lilh. 

I was, theother day, at anEngliftigen- 
tleman's feat, who, after (hewing me the 
élégant manfton whichhe dwells induring 
his life, likewife gave me a fight of that 
which is to hold bim when dcad \ I mean 

the 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. tî.^ 

the coffin in which his bodjt is to reft aÇ 
the departure of his fouL 1 hb coffin 
hère beforeyou, faid he, is looked upon 
as a naafter pièce of workmanfhip. The 
artift, as he is a ^ery clever fellow, has 
contrivcd to ufe three thoufand gilc 
nails on it;^ and difpofed them with ad- 
mirable fy m metry. Mind thofe twogiit 
handles, which are made for letting down 
my body into the grave. Nicer -work 
cannot be -, but that is not ail, added he^ 
you muft fee how exaftly it fits me. 
Hère calling his fervants, they undreflèd 
him, and he put himfelf in his (hroud : 
fee feys he, as he was lying along in it, 
;whether any thing xan fit better. Mjr 
body will lie quite fnug and çlofe in it, 
yet wiihout being inthe Icaft cramped. 

I readily agreed that the proportions 
of his fepulchral abode had beçn very 
cxaélly obferyed, and thât the whole 
was a mafter-piece : but, after he had 
drefled himfelF again, I took the K- 
-bertyto tell him, that it was carrying ho- 
^itality very fer indeed,to provide fuch 
a grand réceptacle for the worms. 

The coffin of every common citizen 
nf X^ondon cofts ^ much as would be a 

portion 



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tio C H I N E s E S P Y. 
pprtion for a poor country girl: how 
many marriages are thus abforbed in 
burials, and what a numerous pofte- 
rity are feduded from life by the vain 
cérémonies of mortality. 

" This oftentation, I am inclinedto think» 
would be carricd much farther, and cof- 
fins corne to be of filver or gold, or at 
leaft plated over with thefe metals ; but 
rx)bbers^ not fparing theliving, would 
certaiîily make free with the dead. Many 
a body would lie without a coffin, on 
account of the richncfs of that into which 
it was firft put. There is fcarcc making 
any exaft calculation of the workman- 
Ihip buried in the London church- yards, 
and which, at the very firft, is loft to the 
ftatei but it muft amount to an îmmenic 
fum : and had it been employed in ufe- 
fuU productions, England would hâve 
now been one of the moft powcrfulftates 
in the univcrfe. 

. Thefe pompous funerals, in which the 
low claffes ape the higher, afFeft the well 
being of familles, Some want the nc- 
ceffaries of life, becaufe feveral of their 
forefathers are no longer living. Their 
fubftancc has been buried in the famé 

grave 



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C H I N E s E SP Y. m 
graxre with them. In England thc dead 
may be faid to deftroy the living, 

L E T T E R XLI. 

Ti^ Mandarin Cham- pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

YÉfterday I wént to Ranelagh: this is 
a public' garden, in which is a vaft 
circular faloôn, términating in a dôme, 
where, amid a variety of mufick, men 
and women walk round a large columrl 
which fupports the ftruéture. 

The Company on entering into thîs 
IpaCious faioon immediately tut-n, after- 
wardsr ileturn another way ; then turn 
^ain, till quite tiréd they throw them- 
felveS on feats, coritrived in little boxeô 
round the centrialcolumn, 

This^ tiréfome diverfion is not without 
it^alluremehts, and I believe oneof the 
moft attraftive is, that the men and wo* 
men continually meet face to face. 

Hère are admirable foundations, ail 
manifefting a wdl-cofnbined plan for thc 
clofe conneftion of the two fexes : it is 
pity the founders overlooked morality. 

Vol. IV. G London 



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YL% C H I N E s E S P Y. 

. London is fo vaft a place, that before 
Ranelagh, there was no fuch thing as 
coming together ; now meetings are 
cafy and certain : this garden however is 
not accommodated foropen proftitution -, 
hère the men and women only fettle thc 
preliniinaries of feducement. 

The progi'effes of vice, hère, are thc 
more fpreading -, this garden being fup- 
polèd a place of perfeét decency. Ali 
the rendezvous are looked on as cafuâl 
meetings ; and languid and voluptuous 
airs are introduced under the fancîion of 
decency. Now this is a more ready 
way for côrrupting a people than bare- 
faced incontinency. 

I fliould firft hâve mentioned anothcr 
public place of a much longer ftanding 
than Ranelagh, called Vauxhall. Hère 
the founder's defign feems to hâve becn 
more comprehenfive ; the very crime 
may be confumated àmong the gloomy 
Walks without fear of deteftion. And, 
what is ftill more, a company may fpcnd 
the whole night in every kind of debau- 

cherv« 

I queftion whether the opening of 

^ty public bawdy-houfes would hâve 

- donc 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 123 
done more hurt to the morals of the 
Englifl) nation, than the two gardens of 
Vauxhall and Ranelagh. 

L E T T E R XLir. 

iTbe Mandarin Ni-ou*fan to the Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, at London. 

Nîmes. 

IT was our agrcement to take notice 
only of men, and not mind monu- 
ments ; otherwife I (hould enlarge on. 
the fuperb amphithéâtre, the fquarc 
houfe, and the exquifite baths^ Roman 
Works,' and of two thoufand years ftand- 
ing. . 

The Romans in their buildings fcem- 
ed tô hâve had an eye to pofterity^ 
whereas the modems work only for their 
owntime : the ftruélures of the lutter 
corne to an end almoft as foon as them- 
felves ; but the labours of the former bid 
fair to laft as long as the world itfelf. 

I am loft in admiration when I fee 
men leaving traces of their aftion» 
ipany âges after they exifted. To bc 
eternal in one's works, is, in fome mea- 
ùiXG^ to refemble the Deity. 

G 2 Yet 



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^24 C H I N E s E S P Y. 

Yet howcver Nimes may boaft of fc^ 
veral works of thofe immortal men ^ 
hot the leaft part of their genius is ta 
be feen hère, the people being ail for 
trades and manufaftures. That divine 
fpirit of the Romans, after having conquer- 
ed the earth by its arms, and reached 
heaven by ifs works, has, after ail, takcn 
up with the bodies of mechanics : fordid 
tools, ending with the pride which gave 
rife to them. Who would imagine that 
a people fo great Ihould ever bccome fo. 
mean ? 

L E T T E R XLin. 

T'he Mandarin Cham-pi-pi io theMandarim^ 
Kîe-tou-na, at Pékin, 

London. 

WHether the foUowing be an irony^ 
ridiculing the epidemical fbndnefs^ 
for news-papers, fo prévalent in England, 
or whethcr the Britons will really extend 
their curiofity to China, is more than I 
can fay. Howev^r it was lately brought 
to me under cover,. by a foot-meffenger, 
called the penny-poft. 

« Mr. 



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Ç H I N E s E S P Y. 125 

" Mr. Chinefe, • 
*' TT is by knowledge only that nations 
*' can enlarge their terricories and aug- 
*' ment their power -, now, no people in 
** the whde world cornes up 10 us Eng- 
** lifhmen for knowledge ; the meaneft 
^' artificer in London knows the daily 
*' occurrences of that immenfe city. 

*' Every morning cornes ou t an hifto 
** rical journal pf our community -, not 
** a cat is born, nor a dog dies, but the 
*' publick is informed of it. We know 
♦* every particular of what daily paflbs at 
^* Paris, at Toulon, at Amfterdam, aç 
•* Hamburgh, at Dantzie and Peterf- 
^ burgh, and indeed in aJl other cities 
*> in the world worth knowing. 

" Turkey and Perfia pay tribute to 
*' our curiofity % the tranladions in.Af- 
** rica arc communicated to us. Wc 
" hâve a daily gazette of America, and 
•* the events of the Indies are recularly 
" publiflied in our papers. But hitherto 
" China has efcaped our curiofity : not 
** that we hâve loft fight of that empire \ 
*' there are many perfons in this ciiy 
" who are kept awake, by not having 
" any news from Pékin. 

, G 3 "In 



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126 G H I N E S E S P Y. 

" In order to remove thîs no<5lurnal 
*' reftleflhefs, a fociety of gentlemen 
" having at heart the public welfare, 
** hâve agreed to fet up a Chinefe paper, 
" iinder the title of The Pékin Daily 
*' Advertifer. For this end we havc 
•' determined to fettle a Chinefe corref- 
*' pondence : withaviewof obtaininga 
" daily account of what paflTes in that 
" city. And in this our fcheme there are 
" only two fmall difficulties occur: we 
'* know not a fingle foui at Pékin, nor 
** underftand a fingle word of Chinefe.' 

" To facilitate the exécution of our 
" plan, we applied to the profeflbrs of 
" the Chinefe languagë at Oxford ; but 
** thofe gentlemen are as much to feek in 
*' it as we ourfelves. Ail they know is to 
** Write a reccipt in very good Englifli, 
" every three months, and receive theîr 
" quarter*s falary, paid them for culti- 
** vating a language which they do not 
•' underftand. We thcrefore intreat you 
" willbe pleafed tocountenance and aflîft 
** us in this plan. It will be eafy for you, 
*'. being a native, to fmooth ail thofe dif- 
" ficulties, which to us are infurmount- 
** able. This paper, as one of the moft 
'^ intcreftrng, will hav€ a confiderable 

" fale. 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. x^^ 
*^ fale, and cônfequently bring in a greac 
" deal, and y ou (hall corne in for a rca- 
** fônable fhare: The ftate afFairs, whi^h 
*' are to be the objeét of this Chinefe 
** correfpondence, muft be chiefly fuch 
" as thele : how often the emperor of 
*• China fneezed the laft month, how 
** niany pinches of fnufF he takes, and 
" how many pipes of tobacco he fmokes 
" every day ; likeivife, a circumftantial 
** account of his pipe, with notes and 
*' hiftorical remarks -, and, if poflible, , 
•' fend us a draft of it, for engravîng ; 
" be fure to be very exaét on that ar- 
*' ticle, as the différence of the dimen*. 
*' fions of the emperor*s pipe may qpea 
" a vafl field of rcfleétiona to our pro- 
** found pohticians. 

** Our correfpondents muft be no Icfs 
** particular in the diameter of the em- 
** peror's parafol, when he goes to the 
" pàgod \ likewife, its colour, and the 
** ftuff ic is made of -, in the baftinadocs 
*' infîifted by mandarins during their: 
" adminiftration ; in the marriages, . 
" births, burials, and other important 
" occurrences at Pékin. 

" As to the advices being ftale, no 

" mattcr 5 on our receiving the materi- 

G 4 " als 



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128 C H I N :E s ,E S P Y. . 

* als for "The Pékin Daily Mvertifçr^ we' 
' fhall be at no lofs about bringing them 
' in -, for, in our own papers, we fre- 
' quently hâve articles ayearold, which' 
* . ^re read wlch great fatisfaftion $s quite 

• Êefh/* 

L E T T E R XLIV. 

Thêfam0 to tbe Mandarin Kie-tou^na, at 
Pc^in. 

Lol;ldp^^ 

HERE are great numbcrs ef forcign- 
ers, who voluntarily fled ttom 
their own country, leaving their familiest 
t^ieir fubftance, their relations, friends, 
cvcn dignities, and cvcry thing moft 
dear and defirable, and came Jiither for 
the faké of the free excrcile of a re^ 
Hgion which they fcarcely bclieved -, fot 
religious conviftion confifts in mak- 
ing a man bejtter, whercas thefc peopJe 
feem to be grown worfe. In gênerai, 
.they give themfelves up to their paf- 
fîonsmore fkgrantly thaneven they wHq 
deny a deity. They are notorious for 
fenfuaiity, /agernefs ai^èr lucre, and ail 



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C K r N E s E s P Y. 12^ 
thc vices conneéted with voluptuoufnefs 
and avarice. 

The greater part openly fhew a total 
îndifFerence to that religion, for which 
thcy hâve facrificed every thing. Once 
a week they attend the worfhip of their 
church, but with a manifeft carclefnefs -, 
and, at ail other times, think no more 
of this church than if there was no fuch 
thing. This I call being martyr to a 
church upon truft. 

I am fure it is not worth while re«- 
moving out of one's country for the 
liberty of having fcarce any religion. 

L E T T E R XLV. 

^he Mandarin Cham- pi-pi to the famé 
at Pékin. 

London. 

THIS is the very native country of 
humour and caprice : a fondnefs 
for fingularity is the univerfal paffion 
hère. Some Englifhmen never go to 
plays, never appear în the public walks, 
becaufe it is the common quftom to fré- 
quent thofe places. Others again wilj 
G 5 hâve 



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130 C H I N E S E S P r. 

hâve noîhing to fay to women, purely ta 

deviatc frpm nature. 

I havè becn ftiown a Britilb gentle- 
man, who, about a year ago, married thc 
fineft young lady in England, and has 
not yet bedded with her : thc reafon he 
gives for fuch a behaviour is, that every 
married man lies with his wife. 

Another has ac a vaft expence pro- 
cured a horfe from Arabia, which hc 
never rides : and could you guefs where- 
fore ? It is becaufe in England ail who 
hâve fine horfès make a fhow of them. 

Hçre are people who keep home in 
fair wéather, and never go out but whea 
it rains. Some wear linen in winter, and 
velvet in fummer. Several fpend theif 
whoîe life in travelling abroad, whilft 
others, as it were, make their feat their 
prilbn ; fome diveft themfelves of their 
fortunes, whilft living, for the odd plea- 
fure of being voluntarily poor; odiers 
go into foreign eountries on purpofe to 
die there, for the fatisfaftion of their 
corpfe being brought home again : nay, 
fome obferve a moft rigîd fobriety, and 
never fo much as indulge themfelves in 
a chearfulnefs, purely in oppofirion to the 
national propenfityto drunkennefs: but 

11 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 131 

ît is conjedlured, that this fmgularity, 
together with that of the women, will 
not laft long. In a word fome go fo 
far as to hang themfeives merely out of 
humour. 

AH this is owing to the nature of thc 
government, which allows every one ta 
be mafter of his adions ^ that is, to 
pleafe his fancy. Frce nations hâve more 
pride than a fervile people ; and caprice 
h the offspring of excefiîve fclf-love» 

L E T T E R XLVL 

^hefame to the Mandarin Kie-tou na ai 
Pekiiu 

London^ 

DE ATH, hère, feems to be only the 
fécond caufe of life. They alk 
advice whether they ftiould kili them- 
ièlves : juft as, at Pékin, we confuk our 
friends in common affairs. The coun- 
fcllor applied to in this café, (liould hâve 
ibme efteem for the party, that he may 
counfel him fairly : an advice for fuicidc 
generally procceds froni a particular fa- 
veur^ 

G $ Jhave 



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rj? C H I N E S E S ? Y. 

I hâve aften heard a ftoryonthisJicad^ 
which, though probabiy fiftitious, give» 
a true idea of this nation ; /or if not 
founded on truth, it i5, howevcr, take» 
from thc Englifti tennpen 

A Briton, of plain good fenfe, and 
accounted one or tbe beft counfcl iit 
London, was applied to by a citizen, ta 
know whether he fliould make away with 
himfelf, laying bcfore him the many 
ftrong reafons he had for fo doing. / 
hâve lojl my whole fubftance in trade^ faid 
he, / hâve .no relation who çan do any thing 
for me \ nor do I expeâl any wind-fall t 
my wifey Jince my misfçrtunéSj has elopedy 
and her fcandalous life is fublickly known ^ 
my children^ bejides their profligacy^ as they 
expcSl nothingfrom me^ Jightme: I am of 
no prcfeffion^ nor do Iknow any thing thai 
I can turn my hand to ; fo that to put am 
endtomy misfortuneT^ I hâve f orne thoughts^ 
of dying : what de y ou advife me to? *' Oh ^ 
*' by ail means live," anfwered the fen- 
fible man, '' life afford remédies for 
*' every thing ; fome unforefeen event» 
•* may ftart up. There are fo many 
*' door$ by which fortune may corne into 
** the houfe of an unhappy perfon,- that 
*' he is fçt agaia on his legs when he 

^^kaft 



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C HIN E s E s P V. i5f 

leaft expeûs it. Take my advice, fir, 
*^ and don*c kUl yourfelf." 

The citizen went away, and laid afide 
aU thougbts of dying. Thê ncxt day 
he impartcd his confukation to a friend 
of his, who, nat approving of it, expo-, 
ftulated on it with the counfellor, with 
whom he was acquainted. The latter» 
inftead of difowning the charge, gàvc 
him this anfwcr. ** Your friend is no- 
'* thing to me 5 I keep my good coun^^ 
^ fels fcr thofe who are recommended 
*' to me, or for whom I hâve a perfonal 
*' afièftion* Had he been one whom^ 
•* I cfteemed, I (hould to be fure havc 
*> advifed him to hâve hanged himfelfv 
•' befides, to deal frankly with you, I 
*> hâve for this long time owed him a 
^^ grudge ; and very glad was I of thia- 
*' opportunity of being revenged^ by 
^ advifing him to live." 

The French> amidft ail the pangs of 
defpair, cannot think of making away^ 
ivith themfelves ; whereas in the Knglirfi 
it kindles an additional rage, impelling: 
them to ruih on death. A French au- 
thor fays, that this hanging difeafe is ow- 
ing to ^ want of fiUration in tht nervoup 
juic^^ jw4 he believeSy. that it is no xnore 

m 



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134 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
in the powcr of the Britans not to kill 
themfelves, thaa of dogs nbt to run 
mad. If fo, philofophy, morality, aftd 
religion, cannot bc of the leall effeél m 
arrefting this cocoethes, the fource of it 
lying deep in the habit of the body. 

If this be the real café, the total ex- 
tinétion of the nation might beprediéted^ 
and a calculation made in how many 
centuries ail the Englifli hâve hanged or 
drowned themfelves, nearly as a total» 
eclipfe» is foretold a thoufand years be- 
fore. It is certain that in fome months 
of the year the hanging is more fréquent 
than in others ; and fo well known are 
thefè months, as to be the commonr 
cpochas of romance writers. 

This frenfy is not any delirium of the 
mlnd, it is a deliberate rage. The fui- 
eides are oftcn known to make regubr 
wills ; the hanged and drowned lay bc- 
fore the public the reafon of their pro- 
cédure ; for hère they plead reafon and 
good fenfe in the wildeft extravagancies^ 
and the moft flagrant abfurdities. 

One is a fon killing himfelf out of vex- 
ation that hi« rich father lives too long ; 
another is a gamefter, who has loft a fum 
which hc is ROt able to make good ^ 

thi^ 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. T3S 
this îs a lover, who under his miftrefTes; 
înfupportable difdain, puts an end ta 
his life ; that is a libertine, beggared by 
hisexceflès: in a word, atl hâve fome 
plea or other for blowing their brains 
out. 

The Romans devôted themfelves to 
fave the republic ; whereas the Englilh 
kill themfelves only on their own ac- 
count, without any regard to the public 
. good, or the happinefs of their country. 
The Roman frenzy might do fome good, 
if the diminution of the members of a 
ftate can be good •, but that of the 
Britons is always a lofs to the ftate, de-^ 
priving it of members without any in* 
demnification whateven 

When the laws morality and religion^ 
hâve failed in reclaimîng a reignihg, vice 
or folly, there is ftill one way left, that of 
dertfion ; for men make light of every 
thing but what expofes them to ridicule, 
Had I any influence with the great mcn 
at the helm, I would propofe a gibbet 
fliould be erefted in the Hay-market, or 
Çovent-gardcn, with this infcription. 



Fof 



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13$ C H I N E s E S P r. 

For the Public Convjniency. 

AU fuhje5ls of his majejiy king George are 
aJlowedtû hang tbemfeives hère till tbey are 
dead^ dead^ dead : wUh exception however of 
tbofe in whomjiill remainffome fentiment of 
prohity^ honour^ and religion ; our conceru 
for tbem noi allowing us to confound tbem 
witb lunaticks, tnadmen^ and wretcbes void 
of any good principle. 

L E T T E R XLVn. 

l'bi Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to tbe Mandarin 
Chatn-pi-pi, at London. 

Montpellier» 

MONTPELLIER, where I at pre- 
fent am, fwarms with phyficiaiw, 
and of courfe the burying vaults are not 
cmpty. The air however is healthy and 
pure, aijd this is the only advantage for 
the patients, who corne hither to bc 
buried, as foon after their arrivai they 
give up the ghoft. Thiss &y the doc- 
ters of this celcbrated faculty, is becaufe 
they hâve one foot in the grave beforc 
they are fcnt» 

I bclicvc 



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C « I N l; s E s P Y. 137 

I believe ail the difeafcs in the world 
are to be found in this city ; and Mont- 
pellier may be accounted the univerfii 
warehoufe of human infirmities. 

In the firft apartmcnt I took hère, ï 
found myfelf lodgcd with the gravel$ 
accounting diftempers catching, I left ic 
the very next day, and hired another ; 
but hère I found myfelf with ^c goût. I 
Kemoved to a third apartment, where ï 
met with the ilone, i changed a fourth 
^me, but without much mending my- 
felf, the fiftula being in my new dweil- 
ing 5 this frightened me away to ano- 
ther, where I found myfelf with a Gonor- 
diea, which I foon lefc, but met with thie 
Pox, 

The diftempers growing worfe and 
worfe as I fhifted lodgings, I e*en re- 
tAirned to iny Rx& i of ail diforders to 
which poor mankind is fubjeft, prefcrring 
the gravel. 

The faculty of Montpellier is in greitt 
réputation ; there*s not 1^ valctudinarian 
in Europe who does not conr^ to confùlt 
it; nor a patient who dares go out of 
the world without alking its leave. 

I bad conceived that to be admitted 
iato this Icarned body was a very difficult 

matteï ; 



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13* c n I N E S E S p r. 

matter ; whercas nothing is fo eafy, ît i% 
only pronouncing a few Latin words in 
public ; fo that,it is purely a regard to mj 
health which has kept me from making 
myfelf a phyfician. 

Every foreigner of any médical curi^ 
ofity, on coming hère, makes it his firlt 
bufinefs to pay a vifit to a celebrated 
Efculapius, who is accounted the greateft 
prâdlitioner of his âge. ' In conformity 
to this complaifant cuftom I waited on 
him. His houfc is a mère infirmary 5 
the fteps were crowded with dropfical 
pcople ; the hall with the confumptive 
and afthmaric ; in his anti-chamber werc 
.nephritîc patients, and in his clofet hf: 
was bufy with lunatics. 

Probably genîus is not abfolutely ne^ 
ccflàry to make a great phyfician, ancl 
one may be fuch without being a con- 
juren However it be, never did I fec 
fo much duUnefs, or an appearance lefk 
anfwerable to the idea entertained of a 
man of learning. This famous Hip- 
pocrates, inftead of expreffing himfelf 
in any known idiom, fpeaks only the 
language of the dead ; he faid fome 
words to me in his country jargon, which 
I did not underftand. And thefc un* 

intelligible 



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C H I N E s î: s P T. T39 

intelligible words he accompanied with 
fuch grimaces and contortions as per- 
feftly frightened me ; fo that, left I 
might contraft fome chronical diilem- 
per, which I fhould hâve carried to my 
grave, I made my vifit as Ihort as poC 
Xible. 

L E T T E R XLIII. 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to ihe Manda* 
rin Kie-tou-na, at Pckrn. 

London. 

HAVING mentîoned a gibbet, it 
fhall be the fubjeét of this lettcn 
I was latcly prefent at an exécution of 
fifteen malefaftors. 

This tragical fcene was cxhîbited at 
a place calied Tyburn, where condemned 
criminals are conftantly difmiflèd into thc 
other world every fix weeks. Near thc 
gallows are two fpacious amphithéâtres, 
tor the réception of the nobility and 
gentry who may be inclined to be prefent 
at this entcrtainment ; it cofts no more 
than a common play ; for half a crown 
a perfon may give himfelf the pleafure of 
fceingf thirty of his countrymen executed^ 

whiclv 



Digitized 



by Google 



À 



140 C H I N E S E SP y. 
which is but a penny a head. Thk 
ipcftacle bas nothing difmal in ît. I had 
hiuch ratlxer fee ten men hanged at 
Tyburn, than a tragedy at Drury-lane. 

Thcfe fifteen criminals, ail in white 
caps and glov£s, being corne to the place 
of exécution, a mandarin, who had waited 
for them, coldly read to them a fcw 
words out of a book which he brought 
in Kis pocket : but the poor créatures 
little heedcd whathe faid, and immedi- 
ately after the executioner, driving away 
the carts on which they ftood, left theni 
hanging, not onc (hewing the leaft con- 
cern at their end. Is this courage? is it 
fortitude or weakncis ? for tny part, were 
ï to givc my opinion, I ihoirid cdl it 
fiupidity. 

Some of thcfe malefaftors had de- 
voured themfelves before they died, lei- 
Kng their bodies to furgeoiis, and feaft- 
îng for a day or two on the purchafc* 
moncy : others, at their dcath, leave 
.their bodies to the worms, but thefe cat 
themfelves : this is carrying the contcmpt 
of cxiftencc even beyond its period. 

It is not ônly the hardened rude po- 
pulace who are thus unmoved at the 
tofs of lifi? i but even thôfe whom rank 

and 



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C M I N E SE S P Y. i4r 

and edacadon raife above die vulgar, are 
in the famé way of diinking with regard 
to death. I may perhaps fend you th^ 
funeral proceflion of a lord of this king- 
dom hanged not long fince. There iy 
no great mattcr in it -, but It niay fervr 
to give a knowledge of the fcveral clafles' 
of the Britons. This punifhmcnt wac 
infliâed on him for killing one of his 
domeftics. 

L E T T E R XLIX. 

Jbe famé to the Mandarin Kie-tou-na, at 
Pékin. 

London. 

ON the exrinétion of the Roman re- 
public, corruption having per- 
vaded ail clafTes of it, the arts of luxury 
grew but ef ail price. There is not a 
jnoVe certain proof of the fprings of go- 
vcmment being out of order, than the 
giving large encouragements to talents 
vhich fcarce deferve any reward at ail. 

The moft contempdbie profeflîons are 
in England the beft paid. A lînger fhall 
hâve no lefs than fix thoufand ounces of 
filver for finging a few Italian ariettas. 

A player 



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a+a CHINESE SPY. 
A player three thoufand ouncès a year, 
for performing fome bufFoonries.- I hâve 
been told it is nothing uncommon for a 
certain fidler to hâve forty ounces of fil- 
ver, only for playing the ipace of fiftcen 
minutes. Now a gênerai, with the ardu- 
ous care of an army, and who is in con- 
tinuai danger for the fafety of the ftatc, 
is nothing near fo well rewarded as a 
rafcal of an eunuch, only for quivermg 
fome tunes twicc a week on a ftage. 

A minifter of God, who gets half 
a guinea for a fermon, thinks himfelf 
well paid, whilft ten guineas is aot 
grudgcd for a fonata* What difcourages 
ufeful callings is, that thofe, which arc 
only the confequence of idlenefs, run 
away with extravagant rewards, whilft 
the neceflary can fcarce earn a fubfiftcnce. 
Should a father of two ions, make one a 
farmer and the other a mufician, the for- 
mer Ihall be ftarving whilft the latter 
{hall be rioting in affluence ; yet the dif- 
férence of their utility is palpable •, the 
farmer*s labour produces corn, whereas 
the exercife of the other produces only 
founds. 



L E T. 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. I4J 

L E T T E R L. 

fbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to tbe fam$ 
at Pékin. 

London. 

THERE was yefterday a publick 
faft in this kingdom : the Englifti 
nation ftarves itfeJf once a year, for hav- 
ing put to death one of its kings. This 
king's name was Charles Ift. he Is ac- 
counted a martyr, yet, every body allows 
that he was nothing of a faint in politics, 
having moft bunglingly fufFered his head 
to be eut ofF by one of his fubjefts. 

An odd circumftance in the anniver- 
fary of this déclaration is the way of giv- 
ing notice of it to the reigning prince, 
There muft be no IhufBing hère : thefe 
veiy words muft be fpoken to him the 
cvening before : ^r, the nation willfaft 
tch-morrow^ for having put one of your fre- 
deceffors to deathy by tbe bands of tbe exe- 
cutioner. For my part, who fee.no great 
policy in this commémoration, think that 
people fhould remove from their fighr, 
objeéts which tend to raife horror and 
indignation. I hâve taken the libcrty of 

faying 



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144 C H I N £ S £ S f> Y. 

faying to feveral Englifli, with whom l 
hâve been in company : methinks, gen- 
tlemen, this faft fhould be flrickcin ou: oi 
your caléndar. Slrike dut this faji! an- 
l'wered they, no^ no y thafs what wejball 
nevsr do. We muji ever keep up tbe re- 
membramce of this woeful day. It is thi 
cnly faft in tbe year wt obferve wiib awf 
ftriSfnefs*. 

Some Englifh, howevér, thcré are, 
who fmcerely lament the cataftrophè of 
that unhappy prince ; but they muft keep 
their lamentations tô themfelves -, fbi* 
they would be as feverely handled as for 
drinking his grandlbn's health, 

L E T T E R LI. 

Tbe Mandarin Cham-pi-pi /i? tbe Manda- 
rin Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London, 

THE wealth and café of the Êuropc- 
àns dépende nôt a littlc on the place 
of their birth. A Swifs, with ten thou-» 
fand pounds fterling in his couiirry, is 
really worth that fum; whèreas an En- 
glifhman, with a like capital, only en^ 
joys five thoufahd, paying half of hia 

fubftance 



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C H 1 N E s E s P V. 145 

ïîibftance for beifig bofn under a frce 
govetritùètït. This p^rhâps it is which 
induces fo many people in Europe to 
continue flaves. 

There would bè no end, Were I to 
lay before you ail the taxes and impofts^ 
now in force hère; they are jn number as 
the fands of the fea. Thé Britifti nation 
is taxed from head to foot ; not a part of 
their bodies but what pays a duty to the 
ftatç. . , 

As for luxury, be ît taxed -, but thé 
vcry climate itfelf is an article in the 
book of rates. The more air a hôufc 
inhales, the more money the owner pays. 
Èngliïh freedom cramps the very fun 
t)eams. The fubjeft, hpwever free in 
his houfe, is not at liberty to admit into 
ît whàt quantitv of light he would ; he 
fées in it, only according to the light hc 
purchafes. 

* The duty on words, ludicroufly pro- 
pofed in France, is îectled hefe litterally. 
The public fpeakers or gazetteers arc 
tàxed j they pay three halfpence to the 
government for every difcourfe with 
which they daily amufe the public. Apo- 
cryphal news, vapid and duU reflétions 
on politics, ^ven falfuies and lies arc 
taxed : this is extrading the very qviin- 
VoL. IV. H tefîèncc 



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146 C H I N E S E SP Y . 

teffencc of impofts, andleaving the pco-' 
pie only eyes to déplore the felicity of 



being free. 



LETTER LU. 

Tbe Mandarin Nio-fan to the Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, at London. 

Montpellier. 

HERE are two refigions, that of the 
Catholics who believc in the pope, 
and that of the Chriftians who utterly 
deny his authority: the former afErm, 
that God every day cornes down on 
carth; and thç latter fay that he never ftirs 
eut of heaven. Thofe main tain that he 
becomes flefti and Bones; thefe that he 
cver remains a Ipirit. One aflert his 
body tb be in a wafer ; the others fay 
that his prefence filis the univerfe. 
Which is to be believed ? knowîn^ your 
rational way of thinkitig în divinç mat- 
ters, I dare fay you would not long he- 
fitate on the choice of thefe two reli- 
gions. 

^ I preferably keep company wîth thofe 
who hold the Suprême Being to be every 
where, and that he has nofappointed 
any place on eiirth for his particular re- 

fidexiceA 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 147 
Cdence. I conform prctty well to their 
genius -, and their reafonings, even on 
the fmalleft matters, appears to me more 
confiftent than thofe of their adverfaries, 
who hold with image worfhip. The 
caufe of this may be, that, not having 
fo many cérémonies in their religion, 
they are lefs fuperftitious ; and being 
thus exempt from that mental weaknefs 
which debafes the foui, they muft natu- 
rally hâve more virtues, and confequently 
fewer vices. 

Whether the belief of Proteftants has 
any influence on their fuccefs in life, I 
ihall not détermine -, but certain it is, 
that at Montpellier they are much the 
- wealthier party of the twô : indeed this 
îs little more than natural, 

They againft whom every gâte of 
preferment is ftiut, are thereby excrted 
to more_ care and aftivity in putting 
themfelves in the way of fortune. In- 
duftry, when without any other help, 
cver fhews itfelf alert and inventive. 

Riches laft in Proteftant familles, as 

having no outlets ; whereas among the 

Roman Catholics there are a thoufand 

ways open to them. In that feft the 

H 1 fword 



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i^i C H I N E s È S P Y 

fword and the law cramp aU trades^ 
whereas the Proteftants being generally 
brought up in their father's profcffion, 
fo far from qukting it, they make it 
f heir chief ftudy to iniprovc it. On the 
prefent footing of things, I dare fore- 
tell, that in two centuries, induftry and 
.riches will be ail on one fide, and thé 
mafs and images op the other. 

This is a fituation detriniental both to 
prince and people. It clogs the gênerai 
induftry, and deprives the ftate of citi- 
zens, whofe abilities inight be employed 
to much more advantage- 

I may perhaps hâve an opportunity of 
fending thee a copy of a mémorial oâ 
this head, infcribed to the kin^, Thç 
author is a Proteftant of tftis city, a man 
ôf very gobd fenfe, and in it he ^eaks in 
the name of thofe of his ieft^ but it Is 
a chance whether ever it wiU corne t6 
the kïng's handâ 5 religious blindneis iÀ 
France being fuch, that the court debars 
from itfelf aU the nicans of better infor- 
mation. 



L E T- 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. H9 



L E T T E R LUI. 

Tie Mandarin Ch^Lm-^i-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-^tou-na, at Pékin. 

ILondon. 

THE two théâtres oS Govent-garden 
and Drury-lane are caçh condufted 
by its manager, who levîes the contri- 
butions on the public y and' the furplu^ 
of the tax he puts in hîs own pocket. 

The adlors hcre,. Kke manufafturer?, 
are paid accordingtt) their work. The 
parts of ennrperors, kings, queens, ty- 
ran ts, heroes, fops, footmen, are rateq : 
one has fo- much a week to make the 
public laugh, and another to dràw tears 
from it.- No player is admitted into the ' 
theatrical council ; like drudges, ail they 
hâve to do îs to perform their parts, and 
receive their wages. 

In France, if the government be 
monarchical, the théâtre is perfeftly re- 
publican ; whereas in England it is jufl: 
the reverfe. Two petty tyrants having 

SDfïèflèd themfelves of the dramatical 
ate, are become fuch defpotic monarchs, 
that no prince in Europe rules more-ab* 
H. 3, fdute. 



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750 CHINESE SPY. 
fplute. Each of them has above fottr- 
fcore natural lubjeds, and above two or 
three thoufand denizons -, fo that I hâve 
heard fay, there are feveral fiâtes in Italy 
not fo well peopled. They underftand 
their bufinefs too well, not to imitate 
fovereignb -, who, from a muiual jealoufjr 
of each other's authority and power, are 
continually at war ; and with this difFe^ 
rence, that however political fiâtes in. a 
few years terminate their wars by con^^ 
greffes, the two théâtres of Drury-lane 
and Covcnt garden are never at peace. 
It is only for the want of troops, that 
thefe two diredors do not take the field 
againfl each other. Could they employ 
their theatrical foldiers otherwife than oa 
the flage, we fhould often hear ôf reaï 
tragédies -, but if they want troops and, 
cannon, they are continually pîqàieeHng 
and doing each other ail the iil twm 
which envy, jealoufy, and party fphi% 
can fuggefl. 

The capital point betwecn thefe two 
mock powers, is to hinder the fuccefe 
of any new pièce in the other houfe. Oh 
Drury-lane's giving out a comedy or 
tragçdy which has not yet appeared OQ 
the ftage, immediately the Covent-gar- 

àSKk 



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C tf I N E s É S P V. tst 

âcn jnnto fet their wits to work, and 
prépare their engines to make it mff- 
carry ; cenfures are paft on it before the 
bills are put up ; and on its firft afting, 
a band of mercenaries is detached thi- 
ther to hifs it from the beginning tô the 
end. 

Ail governrîients hâve ever had their 
ipies ; and tholc two poten rates accord- 
ingly retain fome of this clafs -, fo that if 
one of the théâtres has a new ballad, a 
îiew fcene, or an iinknown pantomime 
în agitation, the other is immediately 
advifed of it by its emiflaries, who far- 
ther gives them a (ketch of the projedted 
novelties. Anothcr artifice of theirs is, 
tô buy away from each other the cele- 
brated aftors, or any bufFoon, who is a 
particular favourite of the public. 

There are fome things, which ho\y- 
cver minute, muft be known, to let one* 
. înto the temper of a nation. My kind 
baronet has given me an abridgement of 
the chronological hiftory of thefe drama- 
tical kings, during the prefent century. 



H 4 Chro- 



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152 C H I N E s E s P Y. 

Chronological branch of the laft jace of 
the nionarchs of the Englifh théâtre. 

" An acîlor, of the name of Booth, 
*' fucceeded the firft race of the ancient 
** theatrical kings. This regality hc 
" purchafed -, and by his money ralfed 
'Vhimfclf to that digniry ; for then, as 
** at preferit, there was no being fove- 
** reign on the ftage but by patent. 
" This rqyal player did not wear the 

. " theatric^ crown ^lone •, there werc 
** then four other kings in his gang : fa 
'' that in thofe times the dramatic mà- 
" narchy of Rngland was a kind of con- 
" fecjeracy of fov.ereigns. Booth had 
" three affociates, who had attained to 
" the crown thé famé way as he, and 
" flhared xhe profits with him ; but this 

' *' monarch, either by the goût or ano- 
*' ther infamous diftemper» not unknown 
" to kings, efpecially theatrical kings^ 
" being rendered unequal tp the weight 
'' of bufinefs, he turned his thoughts to 
*' al^dicate the crown, or rather fell ït,. 
/' Accordingly he entered intoatreaty 
*' with one Highmore, who had turned 

^^ player 



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CrriNE s E SP Y. 153 
,^^ player on account of a wager-, and' 
** this adventurer paid feven thoufand 
^ guineas for two-tHirds of the theatrical 
" fovereîgnty. He imagined, that by 
*' thus getting into his hands the greateft 
** part of the fcepter, his revenue would 
•* not only be larder, but that the fupe- 
** rîority of his prérogative would put 
** an end to the cabals and altercations 
** unavoidable among a multiplicîty of ' 
** equal fovereigns. 

" Highmore's reignwasfar fram beîng. 
/* happy, his fubjeéts revolting againft 
^^ hîm, as incapable of the crown. The 
*' firft charge was, that he had been an 
** honorary player ; and the fécond, that 
*' he was born a gentleman l nothing: 
*' beîng a greater obftacle to the attain- 
** ment of this crown than creditable 
** parentage. 

*' The infurgents were headed by noe 
** Cibber, alfo a player, who Indeed had- 
. ** firfî blown the flame of difcord. This 
*^ încendiary was of a reftiefs, turbulent 
" temper, conftitutionally wicked ; da- 
** ing mifchief only for mifchiePs fake. 
** The fedition became gênerai ; and 
** the players, in juftifica'tion of their 
"revolt, laid, that they were born* in 
H 5 ^* a fre©.: 



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154 C H I N E S E S P Y. . 
•^ a free country^ and not to be macfe- 
*' flaves of by any pièce of parchment 
•* in the world. Thcy deferted their 
" king -, faying, they had a right to aât 
•* what they would, and wherever they 
*' pleafed. They betook thenifelves to 
" the litde théâtre in the Hay-market, 
*' where they aftedon- their own accountv 
5* fliaring the profits among themfelves : 
•* Thus was the conftitution of the Eng- 
" liÛi théâtre changed'to a commoh- 
** wealth. The monarch of the théâtre be- 
^ ingdeftitute of fubjefts, his power for. 
" fome time lay under an eclipfe. 

" On confidering the origin of this 
" crown, it appears furprifmg that ic 
" fliould ever nieet with a purchafer. 
** The hiftrionic tribe were under no en- 
" gagements, or obligatory allegiance 
" to their fovereign -, they might go- 
" froni one company to anothcr, or aft 
"on their own bottpms, as they did. 
" now, fo that the fovereignty at that 
** time lay in the patent. 

'^ Hîghmore, however, had one fa- 
** vourable circumftance on his fide ; he 
" had been invefted with his domini- 
^ ons by virtue of an exprefs commif- 



Gon 



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d H I N E s E S P Y. 155 
^* fion from St. James'5 -, the cônfequencc 
** of which was, that if the dramatic 
^* nation could revolt with impunity^ 
**' king George wàs no longer lord Pa- 
*' ramount. In fupport of the privî« 
** ledges of the crown and his own, he 
** arreftèd one of his fubjeds, a Hay- 
**^ market-aftor, and the affair was even 
^ brought to Weftminfter-hall, where 
** his dramatic majefly was caft to ail 
** intents and purpofes. 

" Highmore, irritated' at thîs indigr 
** nîty, refigned the crown. After this 
*^* unfortunate prince, Charles Fleet- 
^* wood, the firft of the name, took in 
" hand the reins of the theatrical govern- 
''^ ment. From the viciflîtudes he had 
** undergone in his youth, it was expeft- 
^ ed that he would reign happily : for 
" it feerris neceiïkry to printes to hâve 
^' known adverfity. On his acceflîort 
" to the throne, inftead of trufting tq 
" a people who tôok no formai oath of 
" alkgiance to their fovereign, and thus 
** imagined to hâve a right of ofFering 
*' their fervices elfewhere, when the 
** affairs of the crown happened to be 
" in a little diforder -, he appointed a- ' 
f lord high chancellor 'to draw up anî 
H d inftrument: 



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ijô C H I N E s -E S P y; 

" his geçple to ,ohpclicncc, Thiis^was 
" the fîrft con^paft evcr kno^n bet\^cea^ 
*' players and their managers. 

*' This prince n>ade the aboye-ifapied 
*• Theophiiuus Cibbcr his prime inîni- 
" fter 5 but this man's geniu5 and ia- 
" trigijes foon loft him his pl^ce, Charles 
** having fome where read that it wai 
" dapgerpus for, a prince ,to hâve a nû- 
** nifteV wîfer thanhinifelf, difmiffeci him; 
" and çonferred his oflke on one Mack- 
" lin, a Ihallow man, quite ,unfit for 
" great affairs, exccpt in the happy ta- 
" lent of managing the finances well, 
*' which, at prefent, is the principal part 
" of minifters of date. However, the 
*' revenues of the theatricalcrown, which 
** at firft feem to incrcafe, fell fo Ipw, 
" that Charles was oblîged to quit his 
" dominions, and fly to France, like 
•• James the Ild. but with this differ- 
*' ence, that the king of the théâtre had 
*^ a penfion to live on^ whereas the king. 
** of England fubfifted întirely on alms. 

" Charles, when on the throne, had^ 
" fovereign-iike, mortgaged his domi- 
" nions, and ahenated. the crown re* 

" venues 



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c m NE SE spr. ^4^ 

tf« Yienue^i yçt, eyçn }n this, condition,. 
^* feyeral Qôiiipetitors put în for ît. 

" After 3II, tjie kingdôms rf the twa^ 
" théâtres areat prefçnt corne in par- 
** cels, uoder the eonduâ: of three dî- 
** reétors, who mana^ them on theîr 
** QWA acçount : their annual revenues - 
** are çftimated at ei^ty thoufand poun4s ^ 
" fteriing, put of wWçh the expendî- 
*' tpres are deftayed. Gçrmany has a^ 
^* great many fovereigp fiâtes whicht 
f ' y;cld nothing like that fum-** 

L E T T E R LUI. 

iTbe famé to the Mandarin Kie-tôu-na, at^ 
Kekin. 

London. 

MOST arts and trades are carried* 
on în England on a man's bare 
word r it is only faying. that one îs of 
fuch a profeflion, and at London he may 
openly praftife it. Hère are particu- 
larly a great number of moft ingenious 
foreigners, teaching what they don^c 
know, which of ail the fciences in the 
.wprld niuft be the mpft difficult. 

Some 



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i^' C H I N' E S E S f Y. 

Sorne make themfelve^ profeflbrs o^ 
mathematics, algebrà, and riatural phi- 
lofophy -, others ftile themfelves phyfi- 
cians; others fut-geons-, as to quacks,. 
and the dealers in fpecifics, them I omit^ 
as warranted bj effrontery to' fet up for 
Ikill and érudition: others agaih give 
themfelves out to be dancing, fencing, 
ànd riding-mafters j tHofe who hâve not 
any fliare of thefc talents, and are like- 
wife déficient in genius, make themfelves 
French mafters ; a very numerous ckfs; 
for to be fuch it is only taking the 
name. 

1 lately dined with an Engjîfli lady,' 
whom I fome times vifit : fhehas been 
ten years under fuch teachers, and is* 
reckohed to be acquainted with ail the 
refinemcntsof that language, Thefoup 
being brought to table, I afked her to 
give me leave to help her j ftie anfwered, 
s^il vout plaitr monfieur, Soon after I» 
propofed to her to eat fome fallad, flie 
laid, de tcut mon cceur. THe converfatioa 
afterwards turning on an acquaîntance 
of hers, I afked whether fhe vifited her 
often, and her anfwer was, ily avoit un 
quart (T an qu* elle ne P avoit vue y 6f qiC 
elle ne la verroit peut être pas d' un demi an. 

Having:, 



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C HI N E s E S P Y.. r^ 
Having iamy laft vifit recommended to 
her a book, tranflated from the Ghinefc» 
I begged to know whether ffie had read 
ît, flie told me that elle ravoitfait cher- 
cher chez tous les libraires de la ville y mais 
qu*il ny avoii pas telle chofe, After din- 
ner, (he afked me to drink fome cofFee ; 
I made her anfwer,- that fome tïmes I- . 
drank a dilh or two ; and on taking my 
leave, I begged that I might be allowed 
to continue my vifits ; fhe told me qu* on 
pouvait la voir à toute heure ^ mais que le 
plus fur pour la trouver etoit de venir le' 
matin a douze heures^ G?f . fc?r. With othér 
expreflîons foreign from the genius of 
the French language, as is eafily per- 
ceived by thofe who are but toUer^bly 
acquaînted with that idom. 

In moft Eriglilh houfes. one fees a kînd 
of domeftic dilîbnance. The hair-dreffer 
is gencrally a native of Paris, the cook 
muft be a Frenchman, and the governor 
is a Swifs, taking upon him to teach the 
young lord fciences of which he himfelf 
is ignorant. 

In France Swiflers ftand at the gâte, 
and at London they are in the par- 
lour. There are fome heavy nations, 
who through the coarfenefs and rigidity 

of 



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jeb- c H'iN£^£ sp y: ' 

of their organs, are fit only for thofè oc- 
cupations which require rather labour 
than genius ; to fuch tKe éducation pf 
young peopje fliould by no means be 
committed. Thé ' Swiflèrs are déficient 
in that volatilîty, of which the French 
hâve a fuperabundànce ; the nature of tlie 
former has too mucH of matter in it ; 
among them good fenfe extinguifhes 
tafte and delicacy ; accordingly théy who 
hâve ciofely examîned England, fay, that 
fince Swifs governors haye been in vogue 
there, the youth are become duU and 
heavy like their inftruflors. 

I do not charge that nation witha^ 
want of genius -, only it is not fit for tl^e 
ujfe made of it in England. 

L E T T E R LIV.. 

^èe Mandarin Ni-ou-fan /^ ibe Mandants 
Cham-pi-pi aP London. 

Montpdlier; 

THE ecelefiàftics, the gentlemen of 
the fwôrd iand the long robe, with 
others, hold an annual meeting in this 
city, under the title of the ftates. 

The 



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C H I NE SES P Y. i6i 

Thefe ftatejs» which tp be fure were 
originally inftituted to regul^te the afFairs 
of'the province» continue fitting three 
months ; and theQrd.er of their procced- 
ings is as folio ws. 

The firft monî;h is fpent in vifits and 
fblendid entertainments, in the fccond 
tney enter on bulinefs, and in the third 
leave it unfinilbçd. Hereupon the ftates 
break up, and the year enfuing they rç- 
turn to difpajtch the afFairs of the pro- 
vince as before. 

The prefidents in this aflfembly arc 
mandarin bifhops, ftiled highnefles, thp*^^ 
.fbme of them are under four fèet : on 
their breaft they wear a golden crqfs, as 
the fign or figure of the ignominous 
death to which çheir Meflîah fubje£led 
hinafelf ; it is likewife a fynibôl of chà- 
rity and contempt of riches. And this 
accordingly is what^ in this religion, di- 
ftinguiflies the ecclefiaftics with an hum* 
ble revenue of a handred thoufand livres 
a year, from ttiofè who hâve not yet at* 
taijjèd to fucK chriftiafi. mortification. 

Thou mayeft well think that an al- 
ferpbly direfted by priefts is jnot without 
jprôccflions. T.lxefeilafes op^n with oqe 

ver^ 



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^ 



1 



i62 C H I N E s E s: P Y. 

very folemn, to which I had the plealurc 

of being a fpeftator. 

It was my good fortune to ftand nexrt 
to a Languedocian, a fmart and poli te 
gentleman, but withall a little fatyricaf^ 
and he was fô kînd as to explain to me 
the différent figures of this moving pic- 
ture. 

Sir, faîd I to him, may ï beg the fa- 
vour of you to tell me who is that large 
inan, diftinguiftied by a blue ribbon? 
That, anfwered he, is the marihal de 
Thomond, our goyernor : he has a 
mîghty grave deportment, replied I v 
very true, feturned he, but his parfimony 
excecds his gravity ; one would think 
the court had fent hïm hither on purpo/e 
to makc us the more lament hrs tw.t> 
predeceflbrs, who made money circulate 
among us, loving play, women, and 
feafting ; whereas this man neither feafts^ 
games, nor loves. 

It is almoftever the café wîth the great 
men fent to govem us ; they run into 
extrêmes ; eîther putting us to great 
inconvenîencîes by their profufenefs, or 
ruining us by their œconomy. The 
former contrat debts, and the lattcr lay 
tis under a ncceffity of doing the like. 

Wh<r 



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G H I N E s E s P Y. 163 

Who is that other, rcplied I, walking 
by his fide, with the famé order, without 
wearing the habit of it ? That, fays he, 

is his grâce the archbifhop of N -^ 

primate of the Gauls ; and as fuch, pre- 
fident of the affembly of the fiâtes. 

Sir, interrupted I, is your primate of 
any religion ? I afk this queftion, having 
heard that ail the bifhops of Languedoc 
were damned ; if fo, you muft allow it 
is not worth while believing in God to go 
to the devil. Oh ! take my word for it, 
anfwered the Languedocian abruptly^ 
he is no heretic in ambition. In that 
refpefl he works out his falvation with 
indcfatîgable zeal : he is of the religion 
of the great ones 5 clofcly attends the 
kîng and dauphin : befides, he is zea- 
loufly affefted to the third perfon of the 
Verfailles trinity, of whom he wears the 
collar : you fee, added he, that he is a 
good catliolic ; for he believes in thcr 
Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghoft, 
and the Lord has bleflèd him accord- 
îngly. He ftands fair for the ecclefia- 
ftical paradife of France ; and, I believe, 
that is his only aîm j for, under the rofe, 
our primate is like Caefar, who, when in 
Gaulj minded nothing but Gaui 

Whq 



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1^4 .C H J N E S E S P Y. 

Who are thefe others walking two. hy 
two, drefled lijke the primate, who, how- 
cver thcy may believe in the Father'and 
the Son, ît feems are not yct raifed to the 
worfhippf the Hbly Ghoft. They are 
bifliops -, for inftance, poînting toward3 
them, there's my lord of Beziers; here^s 
my lord of Ufés ; that is my lord of 
Alais -, this is tny lord of Mircpoîx : a: 
great many çities indeed, fir, to walkin: 
this proceffion : it is a fort of map. 

Do you kno>y, addedi, whoarethofe 
in a différent garb from tJic others ? They 
are barons — an^ what hâve thefe barons 
to do in the aflembly of the fbtes ? Why- 
faith nothing at ail, faid he, açcordingly 
,nothing do they do there ; they fit iu- 
that aflembly only to encrcafe its qum- 
bers : barons there will always be among 
the fiâtes of Languedoc, though their 
abfence would be lathcr better than their 
company* 

And pray, what arc thefe fet of men 
who walk with ail the ftatelinefs of the 
others ?Thçfe are the fyndics of the pro- 
vince : fyndics, replied J, whatis that? 
They are fœ caUed froni the varie ty oS 
bufmefs which cornes under their cog- 
^izancè i the welfiire of Languedoc de- 

pendr 



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C HI NE S E S P Y. i6$ 
•pends on theîr abilitiés : to be fure then, 
^d I, they rautt be men of wonderfui 
parts : their parts are indeed wonderfui, 
for fome of them are not able to govern 
their own houfe, and yet are thought 
<jualified to inanage thie province. 

Oïl ! by aH means, tell me who is this 
ïîttle fat chub, paffing by us ? Chub do 
you call him, anfwered my interpréter, 
frniling -, he is rio lefs a perfori than the 
deputy rnayor of the city : he fééms very 
conceited, faîd I ; fo much the worfe, 
faid he j nobody has lefs reafon to be fo, 
for his genius would not weigh down a' 
fthii^ i yet, thoù^ univerfally knowh to 
wâiït c^acity, he hà's made his way in 
the world -, it is not lon^ lînce he wâà* 
^lerk to à con^miffary for apprehendîng 
thieves, and now he figures with the 
nobilîty. From being iiititled to bepre- 
ient at the gibbet, he has now a leat in 
the conférences. 

But do I not fee, fàid I, ambng the 
great men of this province, fômc whd 
look as if juft, corne frôm the plôùgh, 
downright farmers ; what do thofe folks 
do There ? they are villagers, anfwered 
he, who hâve warrants to come every 
year, and walk about ourftreets in Com- 
pany 



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xU C H I N E S E S P Y. 

pany with bifhops ; this great honour 
they bought of the king by an advancc 
of money. They are invefted with 
what is hère termçd municipal employ-, 
ments, but are looked on only as the 
lackies of the liâtes ; though this is 
wronging them, for lackies are of fome 
ufe in an aflTembly, whereas thefe are 
mère cyphers. 

One Word more, fir, and I hâve done, 
whither is this motley proceffion going ? 
they are going toone of our churches, 
called Notre Dame, to beg the illumina- 
tion and aflîftance of the Holy Ghoft 
for the due conduit of the buGnefs of 
the provinces : how fo, replied 1, I hâve 
heard that they never do any bufinefs : 
that's nothing, replied he, ftill they 
pray -, befides, they had already been at 
the charge of coming to Montpellier, 
and tJie members of the ftates being 
hère, and the Holy Ghoft in that church, 
the invoking it k a matter of neither 
trouble nor expence. Hère my Lan - 
guedocian gave me a nod and went 
aw^y. 



LET- 



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C H î N E S E S P Y. i6f 

L E T T E R LV. 

^be MandarinChzm'pi-pi tatbe Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, ai Pékin. 

Londofl. 

IThînk I hâve mentioned to you the 
fondnefs of this people for politics^ 
It cannot îndeed be otherwife in a coun- 
try with fo many public profcflbrs of this 
fcience. 

Thefe profeflbrs are, tbt Daily Adver* 
tifer^ Publick Advertifevy hondon GazetUer^ 
Tublic Ledger^ St. James" s Cbronicle^ Lon^ 
don Cbronicle, London Gazette, Baldwin*s 
Journal, OwerCs Weekly Cbronicle^ Crafif- 
tnan, Britijh Spy, TFeJiminJier .Journal, Old 
Britijh Spy, Royal Wefiminjter Journal, or 
Old Britijh Sjy)^ London Spy, Weekly Jour- 
nal ; without reckoning thofe of a lower 
clafs, who, in the evenîng, retail the 
political news which happened in the 
mornirig ; for there's not an hour in the 
day, in which London affords not fome 
event worthy of being tranfmitted to r.>- 
ïlerity, were it only the dcath of ado^* 
^r the birth of a child. 



In 



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i6« C H I N E S E S P Y. 

In other European ftates politîcs islî- 
jTjited, but hère hâë ift freé range, and 
<:omprehends cvery thing ; every aftion- 
focial lîfe cornes within its verge» 

The profeflbrs of this fcience indeed 
do not invent ail that they infert ia 
thcir daily paper; they hâve thcir af- 
fiftants, who eafe them of the labour of 
rhinking. Their bufinéfs is to dil^ofe 
and cônneft the materials whîch are fént 
them ready for publifhmg.; fo that pro- 
pcriy fpeaking they are no more than 
the editors of others refleftions. * 

They hâve alib writers of fiftitioùsf let- 
ters, which ferve to fill ùp the pàper în a 
fcarcity pf ftews : their poîitifcal diîcourfes 
generally confift of four folio pages; 
whether they hâve any thing to fay or 
no, ftill the four pages mufl: bè fiUed up 
from the beginning to the end ; their lec- 
tures are by no means to be fhortehed. 
Any dearth of pôlitics they fupply with 
difcourfes on othêr fubjefts ; and, to cx- 
tend thefe to their pro'pêr length, in thé 
room of fenfe they only multiply words. 

Births, marriages, and biirials are, in- 
deed, an inexhauflible fùnd to them. 

They 



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C H I N E s È s P Y. 169 

They kill the living with news relating 
only to the dead. 

Thou wilt. readily imagine that famé 
i^ not the motive for which thefe commen- 
tators take up the pen •, it is their own 
intereft which makes them bufy them- 
félves about the interefts of princes. 
Indecd they don*t exaft ; or rathcr^ they 
fell their leftures at a very reafonablc 
rate. The reader may tire himfelf from 
year to year, for fa fmall a fum as two 
pence halfpenny a day j ic is a ftatcd 
Price. . . . ^ 

Bcfides thefe retailers in politîcs, there 
are magazine writers, a clafs above the 
former. Thefe mingle civil concerns, 
morality and buffoonery, with the. in- 
terefts of princes -, they put together a 
colleétion of old ftale things printed long 
ago, and commonly known j and of 
thefe, every month, they favour the 
public with a new édition. 



Vol. IV. - I L E T- 



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170 G H I N E S E S P Y. 

^ L E T T E R LVI. 

ihefame tothe Mandarin Cotao-yu-fe at 
Pékin. 

London. 

GEORGE the third*s marriage is juft 
made public -, his bride is to be 
Charlotte of Mecklengburg Strelitz, a 
prîncefs of many excellent qualities, be-. 
fides her wit and genkis : fhe is a branch 
of a German houfe, iflued from thofe 
kings who fubdued the world ; fhe is 
but fèventeen years of âge, and the king 
twenty-four. 

Though this couple be three or four 
hundred leagues from each other, they 
hâve already, by the means of painters, 
feen and converfed with eaeh other, and 
made their déclarations of love: for this 
famé painting is of great ufc to Ghriftian 
princes, as thus they know their fpoufes 
long before^they fee them. 

Great préparations are makîng for the 
marriage, the whole kingdom is in mo- 
tion, Manufadurers, artizans and tradef- 
men hâve ail their hands fuU : the men 

hâve 



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C H I N E s E S P V. tyx 
>have befpoke rich fuits of cloaths, and 
the women very coftly ornaments. ^One 
would think that every body was prepar* 
ing their own wedding, and that thc 
kingdom itfelf was on the point of mar- 
rlage. 

Whither the king will hâve any chil* 
drcn I know not, but, certain it is, that 
the circulation arifing from his marriage 
will be the caufe of many births ; for, 
;ifter ail, génération dépends not a lit- 
tle on the ftirring of money. This 
progeny may be tcrmed the children by 
the crown's fécond venter. It is a pity 
the kings of Europe don't marry of- 
tener, their countries would be much 
better peopled. 

L E T T E R LVII. 

The famé to the Mandarin Cotao-yu-fe at 
Pékin. 

London» 

TO fet off a woman's face, and fit it 
to appear in company, is a long 
wmded bufmefs in France, whereas in 
England it is donc in a trice. This care, 
which, in other places, is thc greateft of 
âll, is none at ail hère. 

I 2 An 



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ifi CHINESE àPÎ?. 

An Englifh lady at her rifing leave^ 
her face as it is, and wears it ail day as 
fhe found it in the morning. She neg- 
lefts not to feat herfelf before her glafe, 
and adjuft the other parts of her drefs ; 
but as to her face (he might do withoiK 
a toilet -, if Ihe puts a fiïiger to it, it is 
only to rumple its appurtenanccs,and givè 
it that fomething of an air of négligence 
which heightens the diforder of her fea- 
tures, and, hère, is the utmoft refine*- 
ment of beauty. 

They who are acquainted wîth thé 
différent ways women take to pleafe 
men, fay, that a face thus left to itfelf, 
without any foreign adjuftments, is moft 
apt to make lively impreffions. This î 
fliall not venture to décide ; for to know 
whether a ftudied palenefs, an affedted 
diforder, a premeditated négligence, con- 
ftitute beauty, requires a profound Ikill 
in the controverfy of grâces. 

Young and chitty faces are not cur- 
rent hère. The beauty of women muft 
hâve fomething of a ftaid appearance : 
the Britifti lafles, to pleafe, muft makè 
themfelves like their grandmothers. 

The French young women are too fof- 
ward with their charms, hurrying to 

mcet 



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C H I N E & E S P Y. 173. 
meet every faihion -, whereas Englifh 
beauty recurs^to the modes of former 
times. The women who drefs their 
heads now as in queen Années time are 
admired. 

A nd even this beauty is ftill toc mo-- 
dern. They whofe head dreffes are ail 
over rumples, as in Charles Ild. time, are 
pretty ; but thofe Britifh ladies who imi- 
tate the modeunder Henry VlIIth. are 
l?eautiful, and thus in a gradation of 
beauty up to the âge of William the con- 
queror. 

l E T T E R LVIIL 

Tie Mandarin Ni-ou-fan /^ fèe Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, ai London. 

Montpellier 

ITold you în my laft, that the aflèmbly ' 
of the ftates of Languedoc never 
put the finifhing hand to any bufinefs ; 
but, one thing is always concluded, the 
levy of the free gift. This is an extra- 
ordinary fum paid to the prince as f reely 
qs poffible, for a gift made againft one*s 
will ; amidft a gçneral diftrefs every one 
diûrains himfelfi and the fum is raifed. 

I 3 Among 



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174 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

Among thefe ftates there is indced an 
attorney gênerai ; or to ufe the eurrent 
exprefTion, a tool of the court, who leaves 
no ftone iinturned to procure it money ^ 
and ail this he does without any ambition 
or pren^editated defign of increafîng his 
own fortune. No other fées or rewards 
does he require, than to be great almoner 
of France^ perhaps fliould thewar laft^and 
the want of money increafe, he will Kave 
more exalted inclinations, and may aim 
at a cardinales hat. 

But he is not the only tool, or rather 
the affembly of the ftates fwarms with 
tools, fothatonéwould thinkmoft of them 
are paid to ruin the province ; no other 
effeét can be expefted from fuch a caufè. 
AU the members of this affembly are the 
king's men -, the raaks and pofts of every 
one in it dépend on the monarch. 

A bifhop is fure to oppofe the repre- 
fentations of a deputy of the commons^ 
who proves the people to be under a 
moral impoffibility of furnifhing the fum 
required -, this would effeétually hinder 
him from ever being made an archbi- 
Ihop, and every one muft look to him- 
felf, . 

The 



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C Ff I NUS E S P Y. 175 
The fyndics, efpecially, would hc iin- 
done for ever, fhould they oppofe the 
levy of the fums which the people are 
not in a condition to pay ; as thereby 
proving the province to be under an in- 
ability ; and the purpofe of their being 
fyndics^ is only to fee that it fliall always 
be able. How great the diftrefs of this 
province, once, as I hâve been aflured, the 
moft flourifliing in ail France! Imagine a 
couiitry ravaged by a favage enemy, or 
fcarce freedfrom the havock of peftilence 
and famine : as it is continually drained 
of its cafh ; ail the branches both of 
government and private welfare droop ; 
and if under fuch a load of taxes and 
impofts it does in any meafure hold up 
its head a little ; for this, it is beholden 
to the natural fertility of its foil» and 
the bounty of its climate» 



1 + 



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176 C H I N E s E S P Y. 

L E T T E R LIX. 

^he Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe at Pékin. 

LondoQ* 

IContlnuatly meet wilh riddles hère. 
The Englifh republîc is governcd 
by rcprelêntatives who are entruiled with 
the nation's concerns ; confequendy tOQ 
great a regard cannot be had to the 
knowledge, virtue, and abihties of per- 
fons chofen to fo important a trùft : 
it requires fouis of a fine and elevated 
turn j men above the common weak- 
nefTes of nature 5 this fhouid be fo, and 
it is quite otherwife. 

Thè eleftions for members of parlia- 
menc, or the reprefentatives, are a fort 
of public markets, where the interefls of 
the commonwealth are fold to the befl: 
bidder. 

Virtue and merit are of no account in 
thefe élections. The reprefentative is 
not chofen, he purchafes his feat ; the 
people begin with corrupting him, whom 
they chufe to be incorruptible. 

Thcfc 



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C.H I N E S E S P Y. 177 

Thefe eleftions open with drunken- 
nefs, and are carried on by avarice and 
venality. He who furnifhes to tHe peo- 
^e the greatcft variety of fenfual grati- 
fications, is chofen into the legiflature. 
A hundred butts of ftrong béer quali- 
fy a perfon better for a fenator and 
guardian of liberty and property than 
fifty-, and a thoufand guineas than a 
hundred, 

The eleftion of a n^ember may be 
tranfafted without any great trouble to 
himfelf, it is his butler's bufinefs -, and 
if he takes care to ply the majority of 
voters with good llquor, his mafter need 
lîQt fear a feat in parliament. 

Hôw can it be imagined that men, 
who make ufc of fùch mean praftices in 
their élections, are poflTefled of the en- 
dowments neceflàry for fuch a ftation,^ 
or are aduated by patriotic.views. 



IS ï^ET. 



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lyS C H I N E S E S P Y. 



L E T T E R LX. 

7he famé to the Mandarin Kiè-toii-na, at 
Pçkin. 

London» 

THE fleet appoînted to go and 
bring over ihe princefs Charlotte 
of Mecklenburg, is to fet fail in a few 
days, with an admirai, feveral général 
officers, nobkmen, and four of the fineft 
women in the kingdom to keep the prin- 
cefs Company ; together with a hufband» 
"who is to marry her, and make her a 
queen, even before fhe has ktn the 
king. It is. a kind of political huila ufed 
in Europe, in which, confummation ex- 
cepted, ail the matrimonial funftions are 
performed. 

This vicarious hufband is ever a man- 
darin of the firft rank, and by this odd 
cufl:om a princefs has too hulbands with- 
out being fo much as liiarried. The 
conftquènce of this is, that a chriftian 
king marries only widows -, and ail the 
princefles, at their efpoufals, mafry a fé- 
cond time. 

Thefe 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 179 

Thefe cuftoms the Afiatic fovereigns 
would never be reconciled to ; they are 
too jealous -, they would not marry a wo- 
man already married, though ic had been 
only tô an image, 

L E T T E R LXL 

Tbefanu to the Mandarin C6tao-yu-fe, at 
Pékin- 

London. 

TH E Englilh théâtre has a greater 
variety than the French ; the lat- 
ter reprefent only men, whereas the for-^ 
mer bring hell upon the ftage. I lately 
faw a very grand fcene of a meeting of 
witchcs ; the whole pandemonium was 
fet forth with a great deal of wit and 
fancy. Moft of the Britifli poets are i^ 
particularly acquainted. with the ways 
and manners of wizardà and magicians, 
that onc would think they muft hâve 
been veiy convcrfant with the infernal 
tribe, 

BeGdies the magical aftors, ghofts are 

likcwife a favourite exhibition, and ge- 

nerally give great fatisfaftion. In- 

decd. therc is no great difRculty in their 

I 6 parts 



Digitizedby Google ^^^ 



i8o C H I N E S E S P Y. 
parts ; a bloody (hirt and a ma(k are thc 
chief ingrédients. , Sometimesthefe gho 
Ipeak, but this is not themoftdiverting 
part on the Englifhftage. 

Another kind of adlors, utterly un- 
known in the French drama, are eicecu- 
tioners : but in England, that théâtre 
niuft be very déficient, which bas not 
two or three, exclufive of their under- 
ftrappers. 

Next to the executioners are the hi- 
ftrionic murderers, who, like others, 
hâve wages to fhed' blood. For fifteen 
Ihillings a week, the managers of a théâ- 
tre kill as many kings and emperors as 
they pléafe. And thefe murders are fo 
very fréquent, that the pay is faid not to 
be above two-pcnce for every crowned 
head. In China a bird could not be 
kiUed at that rate. 

I omit the arch-devils, and other per- 
fonages cf Lucifer's court, who are re- 
gularly paid to makethe audience laugh. 
Their wages are not worth mentioning ; 
for both at CoVent-garden and Drury- 
lane, heli a<Sls for little or nothing. 



L E T- 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. lU 

L E T T E R LXII. 

^be Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to tbe Mandarin^. 
Çham-pi-pi, at London. 

Montpellier; 

THE peopk hère are aftive, labori- 
ous, vigilant, induftrious, fond of 
trade, and confequcntly tbirfting after 
-wealth ; but the queftion is, whether they 
do not crofs their own views, and by their 
cagernefs to havc, lofe the means of 
acquiring. 

They negleâ: the œconomical com- 
merce for that of luxury : at firft fight, 
indeed, this conntry does not appear fp 
well fîtuated. for it a? ptherç in, Europe, 
which make a figure in trade ; but on a 
clofer examination of things, the inhabi- 
tants appear. to be in fault, and not na- 
ture, which lèems rather to haye invited 
them to commerce.. 

This city ftands almoft at the fea fide, 
yjçt do not the people avail themfelves of 
fg/ayourable a proximity. Maguelone, 
formerly a harboùr, is now choked up, 
and nothing has been done for remedy- 
ing fo dctrimcntal a change, The Me- 

diterranean 



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1*2 C H I N E s E s P Y. 

diterranean might, by a canal, be 
brought up tô the gâtes of Montpellier,, 
and this canal is not fo much as yet ta- 
ken in hand. 

If the parchîng heat of its climate 
makes ît lefs fertile than fome more 
Borthem parts of France, this ftcrility, fo' 
farfrom being an objeftion to the cecono- 
mical commerce, is ratheran incitement 
for the Gultivation of it -, and what firft 
put Marfeilles on this commerce was its 
wants. 

Holland, by what I hâve heard, is a 
living inftance that affluence may bè in- 
troduced into a country naturâlly barren 
and deftitute : though, of itfelf, it could 
not fupport its inhabitânts, yet, is it 
the univerfal ftorehoufe of Europe for 
Gorn. 

The commerce of luxury has this dîf^- 
vantage, that it enriches neitherthepçopîe 
northe eity where it is carriedon : the 
very caufe of the public wealth's not eii- 
crealing, is the incfcafe of cafti ; for the 
priée of ail neceflaries of life always de- 
ï>ends oii the relative proportion of mo- 
aey. 

The 



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CHINESE SPY. 183: 

The natural and luxuribus wants are 
now four times dearer at Montpellier 
than fifty years ago. This is owing ta 
the money trade havîngintroduced three 
tîmes more fpecie there than was in thofe 
times : confequently, with a vaft deal of 
circulating cafli, they are not richer than» 
thcy were formerly. 

Money is a fiftitious wealth, and does' 
not increafe real riches ; whereas by im- 
proving the œconomical commerce,, 
they had really been richer. A people^ 
furnifhing others with nçceflaries, may 
Iceep what portion it pleafes. for home 
confumption. 

I could fay a great deal more on this 
head, but the proper limits of a letter 
will not allôw me to difcufs it in its fuit 
extent. 



t E T- 



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rf'4 C HI N ES.E S P Y.. 



L E T T E R LXIir. 

^be Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to tbe Mandarim 
Kie-tQU-na, at Pékin,. 

London* 

kHE Psrris cofFec-houfës are not lo 
_ full of politics as thofe of Lon- 
don. In the former, the company onljr 
play at chefs, or talk of love intrigues ;. 
whereas in the latter, the afFairs of the, 
kingdom, and of ail Europe, are regu-^ 
lated, and nnieafares diftated to the mi- 
DÎftry : there are fo many lowçr houfes, 
of which the meaneft perfon may be a^ 
çxçfnber, paying four-pence for a di(h,of 
cofFee -, this is the dofe requîred for ad- 
rnittance. There ^re aifo fome upper 
çofFee- houfes ; of thefe, the chief is 
White*s chocolaté houfe> where politi- 
cians, out of humour at lofing their 
money, relieve themfelves by exçlaim^ 
iiig agaînft the government. 

The ordinary conférences of the lower 
houfes, open êvery morning with the^ 
nçws of the day: accordingly, the fovc-^ 
reigri of the Ihop takes in half a, dozçn or; 

morc:^ 



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C H r N E s E s P Y. i8i 
more news-papers, which proper officers, 
called waitersj diftribute on the tables : 
every Englilhman frequenting thefe 
houfes, will run on for four hours tor 
gether, in regard ta what he does not in. 
the leaft underftand 

Formerljr it was cuftomary in the 
London cofFee-houfes to lay wagers on 
ftate affairs -, but the interefts of princes 
having ruined niofl: of the politicians, 
that method has been fuperfeded by dit 
cuflîon, though to the total change of 
the theory of debate : formerly he who 
had the moft money was the moft able 
politician; whercas now, itis hewhocan 
taJk bngeft and loudeft. ^ 

This laft manner of argumentation on 
ftate affairs, is taken from the houfe of 
commons at Weftminfter ; every thing 
hère îs a copy from the government. 

As in this houfe, there is always fome^ 
éloquent orator, who brings. over to 
him great numbers of the affemhly, and 
may be faid to détermine the opinions of 
the members ; fo in every one of thefe 
places of refort there ia fome glib 
talker, who never fails bringing the 
Company into his fentiments, and, thus 
détermines the cofFee-houfe. 

Not 



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386 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

Not a day paffes throughout the wholc 
ycar in which thefe polidcians do not 
cither eftablilh a better fyftem of go- 
vei-nment, increafe the navy, improvc 
trade, or lay down means for paying 
OiT the national debr, and ànfwering »all 
the exigencies of the ftate vyithout bur- 
thening the fubjeft. 

Didft chou hear thofe ftate œconomifts^ 
thou wouldft conçlude them to be pat- 
terns of domeftic thriftinefs and conduéb» 
whereas they are the very reverfe. 

No extravagant gentleman is more 
négligent than moft of thôfe fchemers 5 
and generally their private concerns are 
in a terrible fituation. Their genius for 
public œconomy theyleave in the cofFee 
houfe, where they fettlc the affairs of 
Europe 5 for within their own walls ail 
their domeftic œconomy put together 
is not worth two-pence. 

The baronet has aflured me that moft of 
thofe who formed projeéls, in his time, 
for increafmg the public revenue, and 
faving the national expences, hâve died 
in confinement for debt ; and he does 
not know where he himfelf fliould hâve 
been, had he not left ofF cofFee- houfe 
politics* 

L E T^ 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 187 

L E T T E R LXIV, 

Tht famé to the Mandarin Kie-tou-na, at 
Pékin. 

London. 

HE who travels în England, befides 
a niap of the country, fhould like- 
wife hâve one of the inns on the road, 
otherwife he is likely to fare but indiffer- 
entlyj and yet fpend a gfeat deal of mo- 
nèy. 

This wâs my café în a journey I \2Xt\f 
tôoktoYorklhirc. 

At the houfe where I lay the firft night 
afterkaving LxLndon, my landk)fd, oir 
what grounds 1 know not, taking me ta 
be of the court party, lopked fomething 
cold at me. 

By a certain motion of his eyes to one 
of his boys, I perceived that he ordered 
him to fhew me a common rôom, with 
a bed anfwerable to it. 

It being late I defired fome fupper ; 
and a quarter of an hour afcer, a fmall 
table was fet before me, with a pièce of 
coId roaft beef> tough as whit-leather ; 

yet 



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i^ CHINESE SPYn 

yet one who came half an hour after me> 

had a nice fat fowl. 

I aflced the boy who brought me my 
liquor the reafon of fuch différent treac^ 
ment. Sir, anfwered he, that gentle- 
man was in the oppojiticn. Why, my 
good lad, faid I to him, I am alfo in the 
. oppofitîon 5 and, as a proof of it, I witlt 
both hands oppofe your giving mç at my 
rçturn fuch a forry fupper as now. 

The boy earried my words tahis ma- 
ûer, who imrpediately came with many 
excufes for hîs not having at firft taken. 
vçit to be of his party, affuring me, that 
had he known me, I fhould hâve been^ 
ufed like the other gentleman, qnd hâve 
bad a fet fo wL 

I made no more words, but at my fé-. 
cond lodging, I took care on my coming; 
into the inn, to let the mafter of the houfc; 
know that I was in the opptifîtion\ but 
for this déclaration, which, as 1 conceived,, 
ought to haye fccured me a good fup- 
per, I had a very bad one, only two mut-, 
ton chops -, wrhilft a duck and turnips 
were brought to a ftranger, who camc- 
ijî the famé carriage with me. 

Hère I again çomplained to thp waîtei;,. 
but he told me he was in the corruption. 



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6 li IN t 's E s P Y. i à^ 
"Well, friend, anfwereJ I haftily, fo am 
I now, let me hâve fomething to eàt \ 
for if I make no better fupper, niy fto- 
mach, for want of corruption^ will ftrange- 
ly beout of orderto-morrow morning. 

Ont of regard to tHe party (rf* which 
I declared mylelf, a fineplump'duck with 
turnips was fet betore me within an hour 
after. 

Tiiis was a Ivarnîng to me, and oh 
my return, at the inns which had fat 
fowls, I was in the oppofition^ and in 
thofe that had ducks and turnips, I de- 
clared for the corruption, Yet^ even 
with t'hefe précautions, a traveller is noc 
furè of his énds^ by reafon of the fud- 
den Variations in politics-, for an inn- 
keeper, who is one month in the corrup- 
tion^ ihall very often be of the oppofition 
in the next. But a focial clergyman of 
this côuntry, who prefers a good fupper 
to ail the court and parliament cabaîs, 
put me on a way which he himfelf ob- 
ferves on ajourney : he fends a fervant 
before hànd to reconnoitre the country ; 
that is^ to get intelligence of what party 
the làndlord is, with whoni he intends to 
lodgë. 



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iço C H I N E s E S P Y. 

He told me, on this head, that he had 
fome times been obliged, in the famé 
journey, to play the apoftate twenty 
times fucceffîvely, and to be in the op- 
pojîtion or corruption^ accord ing to the 
goodnefs of his landlord's wine, and as 
his roaft beef looked. 

L E T T E R LXV. 

^bé famé to the Mandarin Cotao-yu-fe, 
at Pékin. 

London. 

WHEN I was in France, I gave 
you fome account of the clubs 
there. England likewife has clubs, but 
of a différent kind, no woman being ad- 
mitted hère, which makes the utenfîls of 
the alfemblies of thefe two countries to 
be very différent. In the former, fans, 
ribbons, and patch-boxes, are the prin- 
cipal ornaments ; hère, pipes and botttes. 
The Paris clubs are grafted on gal- 
lantry, whilft thofe of London are found- 
ed on eating and drinking : hence it is 
that the latter are fo very numerpus; 
every Britofi being able and willing to 
difcharge thofe two important poîiîts of 

Englifh 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 191 
Hnglifh fociability. Among the great 
number of clubs, which at prefent dig- 
nify this huge capital j thofe which do 
it moft honour are : 

The Political club^ the Malecontent club^ 
the Drunken club^ the Talkative club^ and 
the Cuckolds club. Every one of thofe 
clubs has its régulations and iqftitutes ; 
and candidates, to be admitted, muft 
prove their qualifications. 

The Political Club is very numçr- 
ous, as foundedfor ail the fubjeéts in ge- 
neral, and not confined to any particular 
clafs. Every one, from the cobler to 
the higheft peer, may be admitted ; pro- 
vided he can pay three-pence half- penny 
for a pot of ftrong béer, at the ordinary 
feffions ; and on a public day, two Ihil- 
lings for a bottle of port wine. 

No perfon is to talk.politics durîng 
the firft five bumpers. The Englifh af^ 
fairs are not to corne under délibération 
till the fixth ; and after the twentieth, 
ît is allowed to fettle the interefts of ail 
the powers of Europe. 

Qualifications required in the 
CANDIDATES. No pcrfon can be ad- 
mitted a member of the Political Club, 
till he has given proofs of his iiaving fo 

far 



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ïgi C H 1 N E S E S IP Y. 
far biified himfclf in public negotiations^ 
as to hâve neglefted his own private 
concerns, and muft farther be able to 
make oath, that he has read at leaft ten 
thoufand tiews papers. 

Thé Malecontent Club is very 
much increafed fince the reign of George 
llld. find more efpecially fince the court 
has liftened to the French propofals of 
peace. 

The prefident of this club muft be 
a Jacôbite» his capital article is to en^ 
veigh aga'mft the adminiftration, and 
openly lo oppofe the court, right or 
wrong. 

QyALIFIt:ATÎONS REQUIRED IN THE 

CANDIDATES. No perfon to be admitted 
into this club, unlefs he can fluently rail 
at, and curfe the king and his minifters; 
Accordingly, this fociety has a fworn 
curfer, who décides the nature of the 
curfes: ftammering, or a difficulty of 
fpeech incapacitates : every candidate 
muft, before his admiflion, diftinéllypro- 
nounce, damn the kingy datnn tbe mini^ 
Jiers. 

The Drunken Club, one of the moft 
antient in England, is at prefent at its 
higheft élévation and dignity. It re» 

ccivcs 



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C tt I N E s E s P Y» igj 

ccîves ail good and loyal fubjeds to his 
majefty king George, without diftinc* 
tîon. 

Its prefident muft be a native of Ire*- 
land, and born at Dublin ; according to 
its priniitive laws, ail the members 
flîould bc drunk and aflcep by mid- 
night. 

QUAIITÏES INDISPENSABI-y REQUIRED 

IN THE CANDIDATES. The Frcnch, Spa^ 
niards and Italians are, by a particular 
régulation, excluded from a feat in this 
club, on account of their natural fo- 
bricty. Indced the only foreigners ad- 
mitted into it are the Germans. 

Every candidate is to prove that hîs 
belly holds two bottles of port wine, 
three of claret, one of Madeira, a bowl 
of punch, and fix large glaflcs of drams ; 
he muft hâve his certificate figned by 
fix vintners of the cities of London and 
Weftminfter, of his having, in his lifc 
time, drunk a hùndred tons of wine. 
He muft likewife lofe his reafon in 
drinking; for a candidate fwallowîng 
down ten glaflcs of wine without bcing 
drunk, would be excepted againft. 

The dull club, which now makes 
fo grcat a figure in this capital, though 

Vol. IV. K not 



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I9* CHINE8E SPY. 

not fo numefoiiis »s thcPolitical 2LïïdMaJi* 

<ontent^ has a grpat many meimbew. 

Its prefident muft be a Londooer % 
and the metabers, in tfeeîr compocations, 
muft look ac «ach pther wlth ftupified 
eyes : farthcr, tiiey are to ipciaH but twe 
«or three words in fome hoturs^ and 
whcn fpoken to, muft always ^nfwer 
X}uitc wide from the queftion aiked 
diem. 

Qualifications ; the candidates for 
admiflîon into the dull club, muft be 
downright automata, let down in the 
evening, and winded up again the next 
morning : thus both in body and foui 
they are, as it wete, mechanical pièces 
bf clock-work. Ivarther, no perfon is 
admitted into this club, tillafter bejpng- 
ing twenty years to the druken cli*b. 

The talkative club is not pf fo 
long flanding as the otbers j the epochà 
•of its eftablilhment bein^ the timc of 
the foreign Proteftants flying info Eng- 
land, on the révocation of the ediéb of 
Nantz. 

Its firft ftatute requircs that the prefi- 
dent be a Frenchenan^ and, tf fead&bfe, 
of Clerac, Montauban, x^r fioiurdeaux : 

but 



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CHINESE s:py. r^5 

4)Ut Nitnes or MoatpcUier niake no ob- 
jection. As to thc counfeUers and othct 
principal dignities of this talkative af- 
JcEnbly, the want of Gafcons may be 
fupplicd by Iriflimen. 

QuALIfKTATIONS » THE TALKATIVE 

CANpiDATBS. Thcy mufl: Jiave a vcry 
fluent tongue, fo as to be able to fpeak 
three hours riinning, without faying any 
thing. ,StammçrèES are not excluded, 
provided that by the efforts of articula- 

rtioiiy aûd lengthening the words, they 
make the famé ûoife as thofe who havc 
no fuch impediment. 

The cuckold's club, whîch began 

. In England in the reign of ChaHes II. 

• of amorous memory, ftili fubfîfts, vvith 
great honour and repuutlon, and daily 
increafîng its members, fo that it bids face 
(thanks to the manners of the âge) to 
be one of the mpil flouriftiing in the 
whole Jcingdom. Every one of the 
kîng's ftabje6bs is oapable of being ad- 
mitted into this fociety : though it counts 
among^ its âiensiber» fotne of the chief 



Qualifications required in can- 
didates TO BE ADMfTTED INTO TH>E 

cuckold'» ChVB. They mvA havc fpent 
K 2 three 



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rç6 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
<hree years at Paris, to be thoroughly 
accuftomed to the French ufages and 
morals. A claimant muft prove that 
his i^ife is givcn to gallantry, and fpends 
high, though he allows her nothing-, 
but the grcat requifite is, that hê muft 
ccrtify that fhe has read a great many 
romances. 

L E T T E R LXVI. 

H'he Mandarin Ni- ou- fan to the Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, ^z London. 

Montpellier. 

IN this city are three kinds of govern- 
ments; thatof his lordfliip the biftiop, 
of his excellency the governor, and of 
his honour the intendant. The firft is 
at the head of ecclefiaftical afFairs, the 
fécond fuperîntends the polity, and the 
third manages the finances. Money, in 
Europe, taking the lead of God ' and 
the king, and the Languedocians being 
thorough Europeans, his honour the in- 
tendantes houfe is the moft frequented. 

I was there a few days ago at an 
enrertainment^ her ladyfhip, his fpoufe, 
though aged fifty-five, having bcen at 

the 



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CH I N E s E SP Y. 197 
the pains of prcfenting hh honour a 
chopping boy, which is quite againft ail 
the rules of French génération : accord- 
ingly grcat rejoicings were made in 
the family-, fôr hère they proportion 
their tokens of joy to the fingularity of 
the evçnt. 

There was a nu mérous company ob 
perfons of both fexes. Being a ftrànger 
to every one, I defired a gentleman, wha 
"was next to me, to give me fome ac- 
count of the feveral members -, and he 
very politely complied with my €uri- 
ofity. 

Sir, faid I to him, who are thofe ladîes 
iil the fîrft row, and fitting at fuch a 
diftance from the others, as by way of 
diftinftioB ? They,^ anfwered he, are 
our women of quality. There's but 
few, replied I. True, faid he j for 
there's nô great number of them : at 
Montpelier this elafs is fomething fcarce, 
and withal not a little degenerated. It is 
very well that we hâve no gencalogifts ; 
otherwife there would be an end of our 
perfons of quality. Their children 
would want exadbly fixteen quarterîngs ta 
be be qualified tor a knight of Maita. 
Who are thofe fitting diredly behind 
K 3 them? 



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f9« C ffl N E SE S FV. 

them? TJiey arc the ladtcs belongmg'td 
iht court of ards. One wouM thmk, faid> 
I, that thcy wei« ficting in the courcy 
and bearing trials in cheir hufbandB ftead.* 
Is ît the privilège of this court to alloW 
wornen being ridicailqaç^ ? I am indecd 
a foreigner ; but your aid ladies feem toi 
wam brecdîng, T4ïar,feenrriîig, replied 
the gentleman, is very re^ 5 moft dt OQf 
female prefidents 'and coùnfeUors haid? 
thcir éducation in a Ihop ; and yet tbefs 
are fome of our prime nobâity ; for we? 
muft drftinguifti theni from pthers of thcf 
famé body j who are ftill more low livcdv 

Who are thc*fe other fedîesv fald I, 
bebind the prefidents and coonfdlotsf? 
Oh! thcy are foUieitors and attomeytf 
ivives—- why they lifcewife,. itiethiûks^ 
are not free from vamty. — Vanityi re^ 
plied he, haftily, thcy are readyto burfli 
with pride; efoecially thoft atcomic^ 
yrivesy whofe huflbîmds go evepy morning 
to court m a gown, on pur pofe to iifi- 
pofe on the judges, aw infupportably 
haughty. 

And pray who are thofe that com- 
pofe the fourch row ? They are thcf 
wives of our •to(^>ing merchants. Ha l 
feid I,;by theif modefty and referve, 

thcy 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 199 
tfeey fcarce appear ta be women. That's 
ail grimace; replied he ; they are full 
of pride within -, on their > hufband's 
getting any fnug place in the revenue, 
it foon Ihews itfelf outwardly, and they 
bccome like the rcft. 

But, Sir, ï fee about your intendant 
a fet of nien who diflinguifh thcmfclves 
from the reft of rhe company, by wear- 
ing a fword— They are our gentlehien, 
•'^they hâve Uttle the appearance of be* 
ing fuch -, yet, faid he, they arc exccf- 
fively vain and conceited. 

But what a cloud, as it were^ of men 
în black, with forfowful phizes ! who 
can they be ? — They are phyficians. — 
Fhyficians ! and what bufinefs hâve they 
hère ? Ohrfaidhe,atMontpelier they hâve 
free accefs at ail times ; they promote 
burials, and are prefent at births, ai pre* 
ludes to the former. 

And they, whofe apparel is of the 
famc colour, and their countenances pretty 
much of the famé caftP-They are (beg- 
ging your pardon) fnrgeons and apothe- 
caries. How came ihey to be admitted 
hère ? I thought the chambers of the 
fick were the places for them. You are 
a ftrangcr indced. Why. faid he, the 
K 4 furgeons 



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200 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
forgeons are the mafters of the cérémo- 
nies at Montpelier. A pupil of St. Cof- 
mo^ after cutting ofF two or thrce do- 
zen of legs and arms, or anoînting two 
or three hundrcd patients with mercury, 
thinks himfelf a man of great impor- 
tance to the monarchy, and on a level 
with the capital geniufes. 

As to apothecaries, though thcy arc 
not admitted to talk immediately with 
patients ofany rank, they are fomctimca 
allowed to fee their faces* 

L E T T E R LXVIl/ 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tçu-na, at Pékin. 

Londom 

IN France the women are vain, giddy 
and fanciful. In England they havc 
ftill a further fault, fetting up for poli- 
ticîans. 

It muft however be bwned, that they 
never would, of themfelves, hâve taken 
it into their heads to be fo ridiculous ; 
but this fault, like moft others, is de- 
rived from the men, who even in the 

arms 



X 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 201 

arms of pleafure will be harping on ftate 
afFairs. 

AU over the univerfe women hâve 
natiirally but one concern, which is Ju- 
peribrity in beauty ; but hère they make 
themfelves two^ adding to that rivalry 
t^e conduék of the ftate. It is not to 
be thought that they take ail this pains 
from their great afFeftion to the ftate: 
ali countries are alike to that féx. ^ The 
motive o£ their zeal in politics proceeds 
from felf •, for hère, like beauty. or mo- 
ncy in other countries,- a Ipirit of party 
procures a woman a huftîand. 
. At London I was fhewn a* lady, who, 
meeting with no lover in the Country par- 
ty, went over to that of the court. This 
anfwered her purpofe effeétuâlly; for 
ibon after Ihe was married to one of thr 
richeft noblemen in the kingdom^ and a 
lord of the bedchamber. 

In thefe politîcal marriages, the par- 
ties, inftead ôf proteftations of everlaft- 
îng love, fwcar to be true to the caufé, 
and to. continue in an inviolable attach- 
ment to the party, undcr viciffitudes andi 
unprofpcrous turns. 



Rc LET^ 



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M2 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

L E T T E R LXVIII. 
Tbe fam^j to tbe fame^ at Pékin. 

Londom 

SOME days ago, I went by way of 
diverfîon to one of the ËngU(b 
théâtres ; but inftead of a comedy, I 
met with a burial*. The playeiis, that 
night, entertaîned the pubhc with a fu-î 
neral proceflîon, and aU its appurtenanH 
ces, in a very grand tafte. Evéfy thing 
which faddens the fçnfrsj or gives 
rîfe to gloomy ideas, or, ia a word,' 
deepens the melancholy dF a fpelékacle» 
was hère exhibited to make the au-: 
diencé laugh. As I was not greatly 
diverted with the pbfequîes, I went the 
next day to the famé théâtre, in hopes 
of being made amends; but this fécond 
tlme behoïd they were; â6ting reHgious 
rites. After a long farce, a train of 
pilgrims came to ofiîr up their prayérs at 
an altar, in the moft humble proftrations, 
and moft of them carryrng croflfes, which * 
atnong Chriftians are the fymbôls of the 
death of Chrift. The Company were 
hîghly delighted with the altar and the 

^ Rome» and Juliet. 
; croffes; 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 203 
crofles ; but not a mufcle of mine moved, 
for I cannot laugh at ferious things. 

Two days after I v^mured on a thîrd 
play -, but at the beginning of it appeared 
a ghoft*, and it fpoke fo familarly to the 
Ipeftators, as fhewed it to be notbiûg 
more than common on the Englidi ftage. 
In the courfe of the drama, a grave was 
dug for burying a young lady, who had 
fàlleri a vi6tim to love and grief. The 
player who performed this religious aâ:, 
for fuch it ought to be among ail nations, 
highly diverted the pit^ finging lèverai 
mefry fôngs whilft he vvas digging : but 
thé cream of the jeft was when he mec 
with fome Ikulls among the earth ; 
the aftor's jôkes and punns werp, as the 
%ing is hère, enough to make one fplic 
one's fides with laughing. — I cannot 
bring myfelf to hâve any good opinion 
of a nation's tafte, where one of the 
mort folemn aft5 of religion, and the 
lilofl: affliétive to nature, is brought 
on the ftage as bùffbonery and matterof 
kughter. The levity of comedy Ihoukl 
end whére the tragedy of human life 
begiiis* 

• Hamlet, 

K 6 L E T^ 



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204 C H I N E s E S P Y. 

L E T T E R LXIX. 
'Tbe famCi to tbe fumet ot Pékin. 

London.^ 

PRINCESS Charlottc's marriage, bc- 
fides an émulation in drefs and or- 
naments, bas excited an univerfal ambi- 
tion ; every one was for having^ fome 
poft abôut her. 

I bave been affured, abovc a thoufand 
pages, three hundred comptrollers, and 
as many ftewards, two bundred grooms, 
thirty coachmen, and two or three thou- 
fand footmen, with a whole collège' of 
phyficians, and apothecaries without 
number, hâve prefented themfelves ta 
be received into her fervice. The lill 
of her ladies of the bedchamber exceedr 
ed five hundred, and that of her wor 
men fomething more i but of her maids 
of honour, the number ît feems was 
very fmall. Some people are fo ill nar 
tured as to fay, that this clals of ladies 
, is quite out of date in England. It bas 
been calculatéd, that had the court ac- 
cepted of ail the candidates, this prin- 
cefs*s hpufhold would hâve confifted of 

bctwecû 



^... 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 2oi 
between eight and ten thoufand per- 
lons. 

This fliews a defeft in thc ftate. The 
number of idle and unemployed people 
muft be vcEy great ^ for it is feldom 
ièen, that a perlbn habitgated to a.pro^ 
fêflÎQn», or of tolerable fkill in it, leaves it 
to go and dance attendance about a- 
queen, who feldom knows her donjeftics 
well enough to prompte them according' 
to their merit : It is always a want of 
hufihefs whicb caufcs thofe places to be. 
follicited for. 

Did the European fôverergns truly. 
underftand their interefts, they ' would. 
curtail their re.tinue, and not employ 
fuch numbprs of people lu their do- 
meftic fcrvice. It is raaking fô niany. 
fubjeds. ufelefs to the ftate j it is depriv- 
ing thémfelves of them. The greater. 
the magnificence of thçir houfliold, the 
worfe for the ftate. The Englifti mo-. 
riarchs however cannot be reproached 
with this oftentation ; none of the king? 
of Europe live fo much like privAte^ 
gentlemen, 



L ET. 



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2q6 C h I N E s E s F y* 

L E T TE R LXX. 
Tbc fame^ to the fami^ at Pekim 

Londbnw 

EVERY government in Europe is 
bufied in the purfui't of opulence. 
It is at prefent their philofopher's ftone •, 
yec it may be queftioncd whether, in' 
this, ambition finds its account, and 
whether çven toc great an aflGtuence does 
not Icad to indigence. It is manifeft, 
ffom known expérience, that as the 
v>ay9 of living incrèafe in a fociéty, the 
barder it is to get a living -, this is, be- 
caufe gold and filver, the figns of riches, 
reprefent lefs^ as thefe naetals become 
common. 

Lond'on teems in opulence; but ait 
thefe riches don't anfWer the warits, I 
don*t hère mean public diverfions, plays 
a;nd fupérfluities, which, though out of- 
ail price, yet are not bcnceath a govern- 
ment's care, fo that the lov^er cîafle»^ 
of fociety may corne in for fome fliare 
pf them -, for as the people chiefly 
bcar the charges of the ftate, they 

Ihould' 



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C HI N E S E S P V. 207 
{hotild not bcfecludcd from public dîver- 
fions. This is a ccKHpenfation which the 
legiriature. Ihould procure to thera, for 
the labours and troubles naturally an-^ 
riexcd to thcir condition. 

The bondon notariés rate the itiarriage 
contraét fo high, that norte but the great 
can affordto enter that ftate. You rcalljr' 
^ay âwây a portion, to receive one. It re- 
quire^ a large incotne to have \<rhere- 
wîthal to get children. Màttefs are not 
to be had under an exorbitant pricé; 
they fell their inftruftïons as dear as 
gôW î the gehteel éducation of two ûr 
three children will eat up the fruits of 
the fucceflive ihdtrftry of teii généra- 
tions. 

Jufticc alfo bears fuch a price, that it 
h better to rfelinquifh a good caufe, thaft 
td gant it. The difficulty is not fo liiuch 
to obtain a verdiét for recovering ôrie** 
property, or obtaining fatisfadion for 
an infult, outfage, or injûry : the main 
point îs tô gain one's pro(3efe againft'the 
very lawyer cmployed in it j he being 
generally fure to obtain a deeree, the. 
very cofts of which riiins you. 

He who can afford to be fîck în Eng- 
land, miift hàVé his jnirfe well lined. 

Ta 



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2o8 C B I N E s E S' P Y- 
To die bythe prcfcriptlons of phyfîcians, 
ïs an article of great expence. The 
middling and lower ranks indeed are 
difpatched by fubaltern. officers of thc 
médical corps, at a. moderate rate. 
There is fcarce an Efculapius without 
lîîs vehicle, which, with its appurtenanr 
ces, is chiefly kept by the fever.. 

Dying, is not at ail cheaper-, there 
muft be fomething of wealth for a man 
to be laid in his grave. As a greatdeal 
of money is requifite to be a man, there 
is no becoming a corpfe for nothing ^ or 
rather death is as chargeable as life, &c^ 
&c. 

Such is the confequence of that fa 
much boafted wifdom, fuch the effefl:. 
of that fyftem.of government faid to be 
the beft in Europe-, which (o.accumulatc 
a fortune tothe ftate, keeps thç.fubjed&; 
£Oor.. ii-^. 

L E T T FR LXXL 
^he/ame^ to tbefame^, at Eckin.v 

Londôn; 

THE ihcontihency of tbe women of 
pJeafure in England is heavy, 
aod melancholyj it is dcformity in the.- 

abftfaa,, 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. ao9 
abftraû, the moft difgraceful proftitutîoa 
in ail Europe. Every thing, even to 
fruition, is infipid in it. The caufc of 
this is, that ihe Englifh women, though 
naturally modeft, fuddcnly from one ex- 
trême give into another. They make 
little or no interval between virtue and 
proflîgacy ; but in an inftant traverfe 
thofc wide fpaces which feparate virtue 
from vice. Incontinency, if I may be 
allowed the expreflîon, has no prologue 
hcre ; the pilay of voluptuoufnels opens 
with guilt. 

Perhaps this dull and taftelefs de- • 
bauchery, which not enjoyment itfclf 
can animate, may be no more than a 
natural effeft of Britifh caprice. 

The Englifh are not at leifure to be 
polite with women, and ftill lefs to be 
gailant ; they hâve only time to gratify 
the brutal impulfe of the conftitution ; 
and for fuch debauchery the proftitutes 
ftand in no need of grâces and allure- 
ments. The mind is not at ail concerned 
in this turpitude -, it is the coarfe aét of 
the body only. 

There is no mentioning the Englifh 
incontinency without difguft and abomi* 
nation. 

LEX- 



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aia C H I N È S E S F Y. 

L E T TE R LXXn. 
The famé to fbe Jamcj ai Pékin. 

Londoru 

TH E R E is not a word in ail rfie 
European langiiagcs, to which à 
greatcr variety of meanings has beca 
annexed, than to that of Liberty. Some 
nations, for a long ti me, made it confift 
in wcàring a long beard ; othcrs in a 
particular kind of apparel -, and not a 
few in fpeaking with a clear, diftînâ:^ 
ahd fonoix5us voice. Hcfrcupon ait nat-^ 
tions, on a gênerai comparifon, hâve 
accounted thofc who had not this ùt* 
vourrte privilège, to be downrigfat flaves. 
For inftânce; the notion of Frenefi 
flavery is, I belleve, unalterabfy fiîCed 
in this monarchy. Indeed the Britilb 
nation lives in great freedom ; for an 
' Englifhman may rife or lie a-bed as he 
pleafes, without incurring any penalty-, 
at leafl: I know of no ad of parliament 
to the contrary, He may alfo cloath 
himfelf as he pleafes, appcar in public 
in full drefs or in a frock. He may 
aftervvards difpofe of the morning ac- 

cording 



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C5^rfIN E SE SP Y. ut 
cordîng to his fancy ; take a ridc^ to 
Kenfingfon, or a Walk in the park. 

After thefe iwo firft aéts of his frec- 
dom, the gbvernment aUows him to go 
and breakfaft where hà \dll ; he may go 
and drink his tea at George's, or at the 
Smyrna Coffçe-houfe ; and in vîrtue of 
his politicaî indcpcndency, read the news 
papers, which are dehberate Hes againft 
the govemment, or felfe conftrudioni 
of pubiic meafures. 

Breakfaft does nôt put an end to his 
Hberty ; he can go and dîne incognito 
at a public ordinary, and in full freedonl 
cat and drink with a company who are 
ftrangers to him, and he to thttù. 

His independency carries him eithel^ 
to Drury-lane or Convent-garden play- 
houfe; and an Eriglifhman bcing frcé 
tfeth nighrand day, may go and iup at 
the Bedferd-arms, or the Shakefpear i 
from whcnce he repairs home, and rifes 
the next morning as free as before; 



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212 C H I N ES E SP Y. 

L E T T E R LXXIII. 

The Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to tbe Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi at London. 

Montpellier. 

IHave fomewherc mentîaned to thee> 
the contraft between the two religions 
of this country, .but without fayîng any 
thing of the tyranny with which one 
t eats the other. That of the prince, 
which is the Roman Catholic» keeps the 
Proteftant in abfolute fervitude. 

Some people, hère, are obliged to hide 
themfelves at doing good avions, as ia 
other parts, at committing a bad one. 
Prayer, who would think it! is high. 
treaibn : this aâ: of dévotion adniits of 
no foftening, no exténuation; it îs pro- 
hibited by pofitive laws.. 

Should thirty perfons meet în a houfe, 
and chufe a mandarin of their faith ta 
direâ: them in fo facred a concern, and 
this devout meeting corne to the ears of 
the men in power, the mandarin is hang- 
cd, and his hearers lent to the gallies. 

He who approaches travellers to rob 
tfeem^ aod he who approaches God to 

call 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. 213 
call on his holy Name, are put on a 
footing ; the law makes the latterequally 
guilty with the former, and inflifts the 
famé punifhment on both. Were bar- 
barity itfelf to embrace Chriftianity, it 
çould not exceed fuch tyranny. 

For believers of this &&. to be dutiful 
fubjefts, they muft do nothing which has 
a tendehcy to make them fuch ; ail the, 
cxternal obfervances of religion being 
forbidden them. Woe be to them if 
they do not pray fo low that God alone 
can hear them. Though not allowed to 
be Chriftians, they are at fui! liberty to 
be Atheifts ; as, between an Atheift and 
a fubjeft, debarrcd from ail the offices 
of his religion, the différence muft be . 
very flender. 

In ail civil contrafts among Protef- 
tants, the law enjoins them to apofta- 
tize: thus their firft ftep towards be- 
ing Chriftians h a formai breach of 
thofe virtues, which alone can make 
them fo. The religionifts are obliged 
to be prefent at the jrites of a worlhip 
which they hold to be falfe, and to per- 
form cérémonies which they, in their 
heart, defpife and abominate, as rejefted 
by their religion. 

Auricular 



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;ii^ C H 1 N E S E S P Y. 

Auricular confeflion this feâ: aceôuntt 
a ridiculous and unwarrantable praélicc i 
y et confefs they muft, it they intend to 
marry. And to whom muft thisconfef- 
iion be made ? to mandarins, who being 
of a différent communion, are, of cpurfc:, 
judged to be very unqualified for thls 
office ; fo that hère the facranaent of m^r* 
xiage is always preceded by a facrikgç. 
Thefe obfervations, to which the Protêt 
tants are compelled, hâve, by long cxr 
|)erience, been known to make np pro- 
,felytesi and yet the compulfion -ftill 
.continues. 

Certainly they who thus continuai^ 
proftitute their religipn, muft, at the, 
bottom, hâve little regard t;o it. 

1 may perhaps hâve occafion hereaft^r 
toXend thee a mémorial, drawn up by a 
jrivate fubjedt of this province, and in- 
fcribed to the fovereign, who, in ail lap- 
pearance, will never rcad it j for, in this 
point, fo, prejudiced are the kings of 
fFrancç, thgt they will jiot Iwve tljeif cyes 



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C H I Nf: s E s P Y. ^ 215 

L E T T E tl LIXXV. 

Tî^e Mandarin Cham-pi-pî fo the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London* 

IT was a good thoileht of thîs nation 
for enriching itfeli, to intermeddle 
with the continent ; as otherwife it would 
be the pooreft in Europe. It cannoc 
Xubfift of itfelf : at leaft, moftpart of its 
Batural wants are fupplied from abroad. 
The figure it makes among the other 
powers in Europe, is eatirely pwing tp 
jnoney : in war it purchafes alliances by 
large fubfidies, and in peaçe it fiUs np 
the void of its wants by fkill and in- 
dullry. 

It' nuift ^y for tafte, and buy ge- 
^nius. 

TJic great men cannot do without Ita- 

.lians.to build their dwellings -, ail the 

varîety of furniture is of foreign inven- 

.tioij ), ^heir faÇiJQDS, they inijport y not 

,one,of thçm is ofiginally Engliftt. 

Ev€ry coiffure puton a woraan*s head 
owes its form and arrangement -to the 
Renias of fôme other nation. 

It 



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ai6 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

It is no otherwife in regard to men*s 
apparel. I was, not long fince, with a 
nobleman, whofe drefs was a kind of uni- 
verfal map-, ail the four parts of the globe 
had clubbcd to it. His (hirt was from Hol- 
lande the lace on his frock French, his 
waiftcoat India dimity, his buckles from 
Brazi!, his ruffles from Bruflels, his 
watch from Geneva,- his fnufF-box from 
Paris,' his gloves from Grenoble, Sec. 
every thing about him was foreign, even 
to his tooth-pick café : fo that had every 
nation claimed back its produce or ma- 
nufafture, ail rcmaining to his lordftiip 
would - hâve hâve been only his frock. 

As little arc their entertainments 
of Englifli growth ; tliey arc beholden 
to Italy for their opéra ; the com- 
pofers come from Naples, and the per- 
iormers from Rome or Venice. In ail 
the moft applauded concerts, the prin- 
cipal hands and voices are foreîgners ; 
thefe levy gentecl incomes by a tax, on 
tickling the ear. 

It feems fcarce worth whilc to crofs 
the fea, and takc a world of pains to 
acquirc a wealth, whîch is diflipated in 
a multitude of things merely fliowy, and 

which. 



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C ïï I N E s E 8 1^ Y. 217 

"whîch, confequently, opç may very weM* 
'<io without. 

L ET TER LXXV. 

Tbe famé to tb€ famCj tf/ Pékin. 

LondoU»* 

TH E quecn of England is not yct 
arrived; the fhip which brings her^ 
bas, for Ibme dàys paft, been at fea 
amidft boifterous waves. The pilots 
hère, who confult the book of weathei% 
^ our literati' read books of mcM-ality, 
affirm, that this very moment ftie is in a 
great ftorm : thus, my dear Kie-toU-nà, 
how high foever fortune may raîfe us^, 
it docs not fet us above crolïès and dif- 
^pointments. 

I bave juft now wîthdrâwn from the 
pomps and fplcndors, with which this 
young queen is fo near being encircled, 
to reficâ: on ber prefent fituation ; lying 
perhaps in a littlc bed, within a wooden 
bedfteàd, the Ihip continually roHing, fo^ 
that flie cannot lye in any fettled pofture; 
fea-fîck, and frighted by the clamours of 
the failors ; without comfort or afllftance % 
moft of ber women balf dead with ter* 
JL ror; 



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2x8 C H I N E s E s P V, 

rpr ; forfaken by the ofîîcers of the Ihîp, 
who now mind nothing but the danger ; 
for in fuch a fituation, ail rarik ceafes ; 
a quecn then is no more than another 
woman. What an afflidlion would it be 
to Great Britain, fhould the fhip, with 
this valuablc charge, be overwhelmed 
and bufied in the tumultuous océan ! 

By this delay, however, and the dif- 
treffes accompanying it, her réception 
will only be the more brilliant. Were 
it not for this ftorm, half the drefles of 
the men and womèn would not hâve been 
ready -, had the ftiip arrived as expefted, 
a great part of England could not hâve 
made that fhow, in which it will now ap- 
pear, This hurricanc may hâve brought 
into being two or threc thoufand fuits of 
cloaths, and twice the number of facks 
and gowns. 

Chriftians are rîght in faying there is 
a Providence in every thing ; their hold- 
ing a concaténation of fécond caufes, 
makes them draw fome advantage even 
from misfortunes. 



LE T. 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 219 

L E T T E R LXXVL 

^he famé ta the fame^ at Pékin. 

London, 

THERE is a fort of difeafe prevail- 
ing very much among the Englifh 
gentry, which may not improperly be 
called expatriation. A young gentle- 
man, on his leaving the collège, Icaps 
înto a poft-chaife, and haftens out of 
England, to ramble over Europe. 

The reafon given for this is, that tra- 
velling enlarges the underftanding, and 
îs a great ornament to the mind. The 
great varie ty of knowledge gâined by 
it is, indeed, fomething very aftonifhing; 
for an Englifhman, by travelling abroad, 
{t^% cities, knows inns, figures in fhe 
walks, goes to ' balls, plays, and other 
entertainments, aflbciates with aftrefles, 
&c. &c. This is hère called travelling; 
and every Englifhman of any thing of a 
genteel éducation, has made the tour of 
Europe in this manner. 

I believe I could pretty well conform 

to the ways of a Briton, who had never 

bcen out of the vortex of London ; but 

L 2 ii could 



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%20 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

I could fcarce bear thofe of an Englîfh- 
man with his travçUed improvements:: 
the airs, manner of ^eech, andeyery 
part of the behaviour, he then aflFb<a&, 
utterly clafli with the genuine Englifli 
temper. 

Every nation în Europe has a fuffici- 
cncy of faults and imperfe6Hons, with- 
ont the addition of others, which not 
being cxotic, are more unbecoming and 
ridiculous. Befides, the Englifh in fix 
months will make a greater progrefs in 
matters of aOfeftation, than other nations 
in ten years. 

The other day I was fhcwn a lord, 
who, afcer fpending only three months 
at Paris, is returned a greater coxcomb 
than a young French marquis, who has 
lived there thirty years. ïhe court at 
Se. James's is beholden to thatof France 
for a fet of Englifh courtiers, who, by 
having fpent fix months at VerfaiUes, arc 
fui gêneris, not to be parai leHed; 

That of Vienna fends back Brttons 
quite of another ftamp. The ftiffods 
of deportraent contrafted there, would 
make them be taken for Germans. 

Thofe EngliQi, who vifit Italy, like- 
wife fhew that they havc aot loft thcir 

:ime. 



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C H I N E s E S P Y. a2r 
rime, peftering ail companies wîth the 
Ariettes they hâve heard there, but 
ftrangely murdering both the words and 
tune. A Briton, after fpending fix 
months' at Naples, îs perpetually, hum- 
ming fongs. 

The travelling ladies of qualîty are 
not backward în afFe<5tation, or rather 
make more rapld improvements in ic 
than the very men. I was lately in 
Company with a lady,^ wHo, becaufe 
fhe had fpent fix months at Blois, and 
three months at Piia^ will fpcak only 
French or Italian ; it feems, fince her 
travels,,the Ehglifh language is fo harfh, 
that it perfe<Stiy hurts her mouth. I 
know another». whom her paffion for 
travelling carrîed as far as Conftantîno^ 
pie and fuch a lifcing has fhe taken to thé 
fcraglio drefs, that flie conftantly wcars 
it. The brecches, fhe fays, give an air 
o£ decency and majefly, whereas a petti- 
coat has fomething libidinous and effe- 
zninate, and not at ail fuitable to the na-» 
tural gravity of the fex^ Having ac- 
quired a great deal of knowledge, with 
other mental accomplifliments, (he pro- 
pofès to publifli a karned work, Ihewîng^ 
the convenieiKy and dignity of Turkifb 
L#"3^ l>reeches> 



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aiî C H I N E S E S P Y. 

breeches ; and for the better édification 
of the London ladies, it is to be printed 
in the Turkifh language. 

L E T T E R LXXVII. 

Thefami to the Mandarin Cotao-yu-fe at 
Pckin. 

London. 

HOW ftrangely induftriousEuropean 
women are, in fpoilingthofe grâces 
which render them lovely and aniiable ! 
That beauty, which gives' them the 
fuperlority over men, generally, through 
their own fault, renders them contempti- 
ble and odious. 

When I am in amixed company, with 
the baronet, he never fées a fine woman 
but he whifpers to me, that he could lay 
any thing fhe is filly, haughty; and af- 
fuming ; and, unhappily for the fair fex 
of England, I hâve obferved that, were 
I to take him up, the winnings would 
almoft ever be on his fide. 

Being, not long fince, in an aflembly 
of perfons of rank of both kxts : mind, 
faid he, there is lady — to be fure, fhe 
is a fine woman, but withalJ fo vain and 

proud 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 22 j 
proud of her beauty, that flie is a perfeâ: 
torture to ail aboiu her. For my part, I 
had rather tug at an oar iri a Maltefe 
galley, than be condemried to lîve with 
fuch an imperious créature •, not, con- 
tinued he, but a little pride fus wcll 
on, a pretry woman ; men, aîmofi: irni- 
verfally, being apt to think cheaply cf 
thofe who do not awe them by fomething 
of an air of fuperiority. It is only the 
quantity which hurts, and unfortunately 
that of our Britifh women is generally 
fo large as to be quite ofFenfive. 

In France,- women are too inuch ta- 
ken up with their entertainments and 
diverfions, to think of their beauty : 
they hâve fcarce time enough to be gay, 
fprightiy, and merry. 

The Ènglifh women, naturally lifeîefs 
and indolent, are perpetually, from mcrn- 
îng till night, thinking on their beauty ; 
and this Icaves them full leiiure to be 
proud. Wretchcd, inexpreffibly wretched 
is he, who happens to be caugh t hère by the 
charms of a fine face: a captive in Alglers 
is a prince to him -, he muft truckle to his 
beauty's humours and difdains, muft 
bear with her defires and averfions, run 
the gantlet of her arrogance and gicl- 
L 4 dincfs 



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«4 CHINESE is p r; 
dincfs, through an infinité train of tor- 
ments. However, thé Englifli are be- 
ginning to recovcr from their infatua- 
tion for beauty ; and their awn pride 
fets them above the pride of a fine face ; 
otherwife indeed, Grcat-Britiûn, in a lit- 
ÛQ tîme, would be the ifland of flaves.. 

L E T T E R LXXVIII. 
The famé to the fam^ at Pékin. 

Londonw 

INSTEAI> of wifc peoplê, whom I 
expefted to find in Europe, I every 
where meet with nothing but national 
préjudices. What is wifdom in one 
country, is lookcd upon as fillinefs in, 
ànothen 

The Englifti hôld the French In con* 
tempt for their loquacity, and the French. 
dcfpife the Englifh for their taciturnity ;. 
the latter ruin themfelves by horfes, 
and the former by équipages ; thefe arc 
fprightly, thofe morofe,. and delighting 
irt gloominefs, whilft the others are ail 
for gaiety. The French conform to. 
fafhions, the Englifh know no rule but 
their own hqmpgr. The French fpend 

agréai. 



^- ' Digitized by LnOOQ IC 



ewrn^Est s p y. ti^ 

great part af their liv€s at làdies toilcts 
and aflemblies -, the Britons in feafting 
at home, or at taverns, or béer houfes. 
The former are fober, the htttr drunk- 
ards ; thefe ftiorten their days by hunt- 
ing, thofe by fitting up late, &c. &c. 

Between the vices o£^ both nations, 
therc is certainly a path leadîng to wif- 
dom ; folly is at the two extrêmes, and 
vlrtue in the centre : Thus it is hère in 
morality, as in phyfics, bodies are ever^ 
carried from their centre. 



LE T T E R LXXIX; 

Thé- famé to îbe Mandarin Kie-tou-na, af 
Pékin. 

Londonr 

THtOU defireft tô knôw the fprings 
of this goveriimcht, and in what 
nïanner its politics are conduûed ; both 
which lihall now lay before thce.. 

When a délibération of importance 
is on foot, the talk of the public is 
liftned to ; the votes in cofFee-houfeSy > 
and other meetings of politicians, are 
colkéled j and when the prcvailing party 
1^5. hafi>^> 



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126 C H I N E S E S P T. 

has reported that every thing is ready^ 
the parliament meets and confents to thc 
délibération. At this the weaker party 
raife a. mighty outcry -, they very welt 
know, that no regard will be paid to ail 
their noife; and on this vety accounc 
they make the more. ' 

Before that feffion of parliament in- 
which thegreat affairof the peacewas tobc 
decided,whifpers and murmursportended' 
great combuftions in the kingdom r 
whilft either indignation or difmay were- 
to be feen in inoft: countenances. 

I myfelf was afraid it would end in: 
nothing Icfs than a révolution ; but a 
a mf*mber of the houfe of commons re- 
vived my fpirits, whifpering to me, that 
the court pàrty would carry the day, and 
gct the better of that of the country by 
fixty odd votes. It fejl ou.t exaftly as 
he had foretold; fo that, for my part, I 
thought this gentleman could bc no.hing' 
Icfs than a forcerer -, but my baronet 
tells me that England- is full of furh for- 
cerers ; and he himfelf afîured me that 
be was of the number. 

Sir, faid I, be fo kind then as ta 
teach me this art, fo convenient in 
politics.^ for to know before-hand what 

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C HI N J;5E S P Y. ^ 2^7 
Ss to corne to pafs, faves a great deal 
of lâborious rcQection ; and this you 
raôy the more readily do, as it is of 
no injury to the public ; for your for-^ 
cery feems to be very far from a ftate 
fccret. 

Far indeed, anfvveredhe; itïs a thing 
of public knowledge, and that is what 
makes England fo full of forcerers : well 
then, the whole miflery of this magie is. 
this : 

Evety Engliftiman has a lift of alî the- 
members of parliament, divided into 
four clafles, the court members, the 
Gountry members, the fluûuating mem'- 
bers, and the undetermined membersr.^. 
The two former are compared, without 
minding the two latter ; that is, a corn- 
putation is made^hlch has the majority 
of votes, the court or the coumry, and 
by how many -, and-hereupon it is judg- 
ed how. the délibérations of the parlia- 
ment will go. 

That is very plaîn and eafy, faid I ; 
and fuch a caîculation, I fuppofe, ferves 
for ever. No, no, replied he haftily 5. 
there muft be a new- one, at leaft, every 
fcflîons, for the fludtuating fix the unde- 
termined j they who held with the coun^ 

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aat CHINE SE ^? Y, 

try go over to the king ; but it is vcrf- 

feldocn fcen tbat any of the latter party 

ûn£t fides -, as if the king had fomething 

of an attraftive virtue, wbich having 

once taken elfëâ:, thç adhcfîon is infc- 

parable. 

The London acadèmy of fciences is 
foon to examine whether gold lias not 
a gravitating virtue whiçh biaflès bodies ^, 
and whether^ for inftance, a penfion of 
two thoufand pounds fterling per ^nnum 
is not this very gravitating virtue, 

The making of this experiment, it i« 
faid, will lay open the M^hole magie ctf; 
Englifli policy. 

LE TT E R LXXX. 

Tk^ J^ndarin Nî-ou-fan io the Mandarin^ 
Cham-pi-pi, at London^ 

Montpellier. . 

NO fineukr char.after> whatever k 
. is, elcapes me ; and Paris is not 
the only pUce in the kingdom abounding 
with fuch; they are likewife to be met 
with in the country. 

I was lately told of a perfon în this , 
^ty, whp froin a mieanfituation had raifedi 

himtr 



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CH I N E S E S P'Y. 2194 
hîmfeif to the highefl: pitch of .fortune v. 
fo that he counts his wçalth by millions. 
I- was dcfiriog of feeing him, having. 
always îawgipcd that a great élévation 
implicd great talents : but the vifit I C 
paid to this upftart ha» convinced me, , 
jtfeat if it bea rule, it has its exceptions; . 
^d I am now thoroughly perfuaded that 
$m infatiable thirft . of gold, and an ar- 
dent eagcrnefs afier riehes, may fupplyr 
the wanc of genius and capacity. 

This créature is night and day haunt» 
cd by the evil ipirit of avarice •, inftead t 
of fleeping, hi&head is running on ac- 
compts -, neither can he properly be faid î 
to be awake in the day-time, being quirç - 
abforbed ia gain." His grafping hands . 
are nevcr at reft ; he has-, at prefenti 
on his hands feventy différent enter- 
prizes,, but aU very far fliort of his am* 
bition.^ He is about engroffing ail the - 
gtfairs of the province ; then he intends ^ 
to deal for the whole kingdom ; and^ 
that done>.he has.thoughts of under-- 
farming Europe ; and fhould he live 
xnuch longer^ wc.may expeél to hear of r 
bim in Afe^ 

Of . the four and twenty hours, fo in- 
dcf atigabk is his paffion, he gives . 

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2J0 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

f wenty ta bufinefs, with only four for thc 

table and bed. 

The morning I went to him, being 
poft day, he had fat up writing the whole 
night; as my Intention was to found his 
genius, I put into his hands a new mo" 
ney plan, as an invention of my own; 
and which was to bring in half a million 
of crowns. I explained it to him ; when 
at the word crowns, he lefc ofF writing; 
Jooked at me with a ftupid face, and 
ftammened out his anfwer to my plan ; 
fo that I perceived he had utteriy miA 
takcn it. 

Inftead of beîngdifcouraged, lentered 
on other fubjefts, and infenfibly drew 
him in to talk of money affairs, as pub* 
lie finances-, and varions branches of 
commerce -, but his anfwer Ihewed him 
to hâve but a very fhallow and narrow 
capaicty. I could perceive in him no? 
marks of a fuperior genius, whom no- 
thing efcapes, who inftantly compre- 
hends whatever is propofed to his con^ 
fideration; nothing of that luminous 
pénétration which immediately under- 
ftands a plan in ail the feveral parts, {6 
tiiat I abruptlyleft him, not aUttle nettled 

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C h: I N E s E s P r. 231 

at fortune for bcftowing her favours fo- 
Tery much amifs. 

\. This wretch. however is not wîthout 
his parcs -, but they confift in roUs of 
parchment, writings and minutes, where 
application is more required than genius» 
He is alfo pollêfled of other mechanical 
qtialities, ever defpifed by great men, 
as wearing out genius, rather than im- 
proving it. Then he is a dull, heavy 
fellow, fluggiflily laborious, owingallhis 
gains to dint of care and toii -, and who, 
wcre he not ftimulated by gain, would' 
be a mère cumber-ground. I don't 
know whether I could not eall him 
fôrtune's afs, or the fumpter horfe of 
wealth. 

He who is at fuch pains to get, thou 
wilt readily conceive, does not intend ta- 
enjoy his gains-; the mpney he fcrapes 
up rather belongs to his ftrong box than- 
hfimfelf ; inftead of being the lord para- 
mount of his wealth, covetoufnefs makes 
him only its vaflal and flave. 



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«5^1 cm NE s E- s P Y.. 

L E T T E R LXXXL- 

^e Mandarin Chzm''pi''pi to tbe Mandarht^ 
Kie-tou-na, ^/ Pékin* 

Lôndon.^ 

TH E baronet, who is a vétéran ^ 
adept in the wiles of the fair fex, , 
was lately faying to me, that he had 
dropped ail apquaintance with womenj,> 
who fet up for prudery and fen- 
timent : I mean, faid he,. thofe with-^ 
their (ham qualms, who ficken at thc^ 
vcry name of a proftitute, but in their' 
charity readily forgive fuch of their fex, « 
whom an invincible inclination, as their 
word is, draws and fixes to one fingîc:^ 
objeft. . 

I hâve aJmoft ever found thefe wordl^- 
of fentiment and virtue to be, witt- 
them, only niere founds : for as to vir- 
tue, I know but. two ways-, either a 
woman is virtuous,,and then fhe will 
immediately, with difdain, turn tlie deaf 
ear to any offers which may injure her 
honour ; or flie is nor, . and then ail her 
fentiment and delicacy amount to no 
more than a.Tefinemcnt of vkc y and fo^ 



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C lî I N E s E S P Y. 235 
în the laft café I defpife her as much as 
a common drab. l^'or I rnaintain, that a 
'woman who carries on a criminal com- 
merce with. one man, is no lefs guilty 
than fhe who admits many. I argue 
thus : 

If the virtuous part of the fex be not 
allowed to travel in. the country of St. 
Cythere, I fay, indulge me the expref- 
fion, that fhe who travels a hundred: 
miles there on die famé horfe, is as 
much an objcâ: of contempt as fhe^. 
who, în the famé fpace of ground, fhifts 
horfes ten times ; for the guilt lying ia 
the journey, the relais are of no manner 
of confequence. 

It were to be wiQied, that the poh'ce 
would make one laft effort, for exclud-- 
ïfig from fôciety thofe heroic ftick- 
1ers for virtue, who lead to guilt 
through windingB and mazes, to which 
the very hacknicd. proftitutes are ftran* 
gers. - . 

There is nothing I am fo much afraîd 
of, added he, as thofe women, whofe 
fqueamifh delicacy bluihes up to the 
ears at a double entendra; but (hall 
give themfelves up to what they arc- 
j)ieafçd to call ai? invincible love. 

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23+ C H I N E s E s P Y. 

Open debauchery a man of any tafte 
inftantly rejefts, as boldly fhewing itfelf 
in its proper colours -, whereas the moft 
dii'crcec mea may be drawn in by a vo- 
luptuoufnefs, which wraps itfelf up in 
fuch virtuous cxternals. 

The cafuifts in love may make diftlnc- 
lions to the end of .the world ; but I do 
aver, that in whatever mode or way a 
woman gives herfelf up to guilt, Ihe is 
neithcr better nor worfe than a common 
whore : the only différence is^ that thcr 
latter is induced by hire. 

L E T T E R LXXXfL 
fbe famé to the famCy at Pékin, 

London^ 

TH E day before yefterday the 
queen arrived in Enghnd. Shc 
was to hâve landed at a feat of the king's 
on the Thames, but the winds ordered 
it otherwife, and it is they on which moft 
everits dépend hère. Within a fcw 
hours afcer flie was married at the palace 
of St. Jamcs's. 

Every European court has it's cere- 
monialé On the king of France's mar- 

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C H I N E s E 8 P Y* 135 
riage, he goes feveral leagues to meet the 
lady -, whereas in England the intended 
bride cornes to the very palace of the 
king her fpoufe, and prefents herfelf 10 
him on her knees. 1 he former of thefe 
cuftoms is the more gallant; but the 
latter, in my opinion, is more agreeable 
to the hofpitalîty of hymen, which for- 
bids any breach of a tie, after coming 
ones ièlf to form it. To this perhaps it 
may be owlng, that the kings of France,, 
in gênerai, do not obferve the matrimo- 
nial laws fo ftriélly as the Englifh mo- 
narchs. 

The arrivai of this young princefs at 
London brought together an incon- 
ceivable concourfe of people -, ail eagerly 
ftriving to fee her ; happy he that could 
get the beft fight of her. AU the king» 
and qucens of the univerfe might go 
and corne for me ; yet the firft: ftep of 
the marriage fl-ruck me ; fo that I 
mingled with the crowd, and found 
ftieans to get a place at the little gâte of 
the park garden, where was to be the 
firft interview. What a variety of émo- 
tions muft a young princefs feel, wha 
within the fliort fpace of four hours paf- 
fes through fo many différent conditions 5 

fron\ 



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23« C H I N E s E s P Y. 

from a princefs, becomes a queen ; froiw 
a maiden, a wife ; marrying a king^ 
andlying with a man ! 

The émotions which firft fhewed 
themfelves irr her countenance I could 
net fee, none but the royal family -being: 
prefent at her firft interview with the 
king ; but going to court three hours 
after, I fâw her on the throne witb 
George III. Couldft thou think it ? ma* 
jefty fat as eafy on her as if (he had beerv 
ufed to it. Ail the pomp and ftate o£ 
her going to chapel, when fhe was pre- 
ceded and foUowed by the whok kingr 
dom, made not the leaft altération iip 
her; (he feemed only as rehearfing i^ 
gart £he thoroughly knewbcforei. 



L E T T E R LXXXIIL 

fTfâ famé to tbe fame^ ai Pekiiu 

London. 
HOU wottWft know the caufc 



T 



of Englifti fullenneû, and calleft 

on me to make good my promife, of 
ij^forming you, to what it is owing that 
thU people is not mernr. 

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C H I N E s E s P Y. 237 

"Moft of thofe who hithcrto hâve pre- 
^nded to ftuciy the origin of this hu- 
-mour, attributç it to the climate -, for 
to. charge thc winds with the temper of 
a people, whom otherwife we cannot de- 
fine at ail, brings the matter to an iflue 
^t once ; and thus faves a multitude of 
invefligatlons. 

I allow the climate to hâve fome fharc 
in the gloomy difpofition of thefe people; 
but that is not ail ; the political conftitu- 
tion has likewife no fmall influence on 
thcir humours. Men who govern them- 
felves, or who conceive they govern 
themfelves, muft, of courfë, be full of 
bufmefs ; and this continuai fucceflion 
of political occupations brings with it a 
kind of uneafinefs, which is within a 
Ilep or two of melancholy. A nation 
which is ever tampering with itfelf, and 
thus every moment feeîs its fore places, 
cannot but be thoughtful. 

The French are not fo much taken up 
with the concerns of their monarchy, as 
to affeét their natural hilarity -, they live , 
in the uninterrupted benignity of their 
climate ; the government exempts them 
from ail political uneafinefs, fo far taking 
ttiat care of itfelf, as eyenforbidding them 

to 



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> 



«3» C H 1 N E S E S P Y. 

to intermeddle with date afFairs. Thît 
muft very much heighten their fprightli- 
nels -, for a people with nothing to do 
but to think 6n diverfions and take its 
pleafure, is naturally merry. 

I hâve feen Englifhmen change coun- 
tenance, and been vapoured for twenty- 
four hours fucceffively, oa a pièce of 
news, which would net. hâve given a 
quarter of an hour's uneafinefs to any 
French politician. 

But befîdes politîcs and the climate, 
there is ftill a moral caufeof this national 
fcrioufncfs. 

Some of their dodors^ on what 
grounds is beft known to themfelves, 
hâve promulgated, that gaiety was one 
of the greatell obftacles to wifdom ; as 
if virtue was the daughter of mourning 
and fadnefs. This is cafting a fhadc on 
heaven -, it is darkening light itÇ?lf. 

A philofopher of theirs * has faid, that 
laughing proceeds only from our pride : 
very true ; there being no altération in 
the features of our faces which is not 
derived from that principle : but he for- 
got, in that remark, to obferve, that 

♦ Hobbci. 

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C H I N E s E S P Y. 239 
fcrioufnefs and gravity are ftill ftronger 
proofs of that ridiculoqs and unfociable 
paflîon. Morality» in reforming a fault, 
flîould be very careful not to lubftitute 
in its ftead another ftill more blâme* 
able. 

The French are gay and merry out 
of vanity, the Englifli are grave and feri- 
ous from pride j fo that ail the real diffé- 
rence is only in the altération of the fea- 
tures : both manifeft their vanity ;- one 
în opening their mouth, the others in 
keeping it fliut. 

Merriment and laughter, in confe- 

• quence of the above principle, hâve 

been fuppofed indécent -, but fuch con- 

fequences proceed from moralifts over- 

doing morality. 

A man, without being any thing of a 
philofopher, fées that exceffive merriment 
and inunoderate laughter are ofFences 
agaînft decency. This the bare rules of 
civil fociety teach. The diftate of wif- 
dom is to obferve a juft: médium. Are 
we to ceafe being virtuous, becaufe virtue 
itfelf, carried to an extrême, becomes a 
vice ? Though the effufions of the heart 
and the extacies of the foui may fome- 
timcs havc fome exccfîîve burfts, and 

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^a C H I N E S E S ? Y. 

thus becoxne indécent, are we therèfbfô 
to fadden nature, and be men only ili 
fuch refpedts as mortify mankind ? 

In a word, fuch an odd way of reafon- 
iîng dérives from this fource : in Europe 
philofoph^ itfclf is full of pride, and 
€vcry thing is corruptec^ «ven tQ tht 
very laws of wifdom. 

X E T T E R LXXXIV. 

"^hâ Mandarin Cham-pi-pi /<? tbeMandariH^ 
Kie-tou-n% at Pékin. 

Londoib 

IN France men arc at an îmnienfe dis- 
tance from one anotber ; there arc, 
2^ it were, barriers, feparating the feve- 
ral claffes, and making them fo many 
diftinft worlda: the noblentian's palace 
inay be faid to be a thoufand leaguet 
firom the dwelling of his inferior. 

In England ail claffes are jumblcd to* 
gethcr ; the nation makes but one bodj; 
the loweft of the commuûity miji^e 
with the higheft : they are fcen together - 
in publick and private companies. 
Whén I am in a poUtical humour, I bç- 

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<; H I N E s E S P V. 4t 

tkke mylelf to a cofFee-houfe, wherefe- 
vcral peers of the realm talk over ftate- 
affairs. 

When tîred wîth ftate-affairs, I fhîft 
my ftation, and repair to another place 
of refbrt, where prelates and other 
dignitaries difcourle of ecdefiaflicai 
points. 

When I am for hearing a commercial 
Icfture, I walk awaikto the 'Change, 
4nd in ail the neighbouring cofFee-houfcs. 
I am furc of finding merchants confabu- 
lating together about traffic. 

Tlie feafaring clafs hold their confé- 
rences in beer-houfes, and their topic Is^ 
trade and navigation ; for hère ail thé 
concerns of the ftate are of public no- 
toriety^ 

Strangers may enquire, and the na- 
tives are as free to inform them. Hère 
is no inquifition in church or ftate-, the 
field of political refledions is open to 
every one. This is a country where in- 
telligence may be had with little diffi- 
culty, and no danger. 

When the great place-men départ 

cver fo little from the courfe laid down * 

by the law, the people has a right of 

cenfuring themi and this principle being 

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y^ , CH IN i; S E S PI5. 
inhérent in the conftitution, np bodyîs, 
^fraid of its beiçg fuppr^ed by aay parr- 
ticular order. 

Whether fuch gener^ freedcv» tends 
to the preferv^tion of public prdcf, I, 
fljfall not take on me to %L Spmejgovcrnr^ 
xnents it may fait. 



L E T T E R LXXJCV. 

The Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to the Mandarin^ 
Gham-pi-pi, at Londpn. 

MontpelKer. 

ILately faw the ruîns of a.teniplç'de- 
dicated to fortune -, and:^te£bci(î^ 
jaifed by opulence, overthrown by bdi- 
gencc. Never did thçfe twço elk;tr.émities 
meet fo clofely : the édifice was denjp-. 
lifhed before it was quitp buijt;. 

It was an enchantcd pala^çe, in thç 
centre of a wal^e^ whiçh ^t aad, wjç^lt^ 
had converted iuto a p^^^Ufe- Ti^^ 
builder of it was a citizen hçr^, whp by 
hi?.enîplpymeflç had ^çquixed jmme/ifc 
fums. 

Tiiefe prod|gio!4?, fortupes, tog^hç;? 
with thcoftçni^tfpn ^ççop?|pyijj^7^ 

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e H I N Ï/S E s P Y. a43 
9rt Zr fure fign of fome fauk in the con- 
ftitution ; at leaft, they betray a want oi 
attention. în the government. Such 
opulence cannot be acquired without 
malverfation and breach of public pro- 
bity j confequently they whofe bufinefs 
ic is to take care of the common inte- 
reft, muft be remifs in their office j for 
were they vigilant and uncorrupt, never 
would they fuffer fuch exorbitant mono- 
ppUes. 

ïhe progrefles of an ambitious per-. 
ïbn in his way to élévation, depending 
on the more or lefs refiftance of thofe 
who can check his career, it may, in 
thîs café, be faid that he who is of him- 
fclf corfupt, is lêfs to blâme than thofe, 
wlio fuffer thetfifclves to be corrupted? 
by^ him. 

A certain man's fon, in the twinkling 
of an eye^ diffipated the prodigious for- 
tune which his father had ieft hinir Thcre 
iiMqrbe fon^thlngK>P provideiice in thefe 
i^uaaderingSj as makingreftitution to the 
public of what'avidity had- taken from it, 
aad bringing in to the gênerai circula- 
tion of Ipecie, vaft fums which had been 
whhdrawn from; it : thofe prodigalîties 
are reallyneceflity. 

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i4+ dttlNESÊ SPV. 

What hûrt would ît hâve been to thtf 
public, had this Wealthy fon, with fuch 
an immenfe fortune already acquîred, 
been of the famé fapacioUs and iVwgy 
dilpofition as his father, and praélifed 
the famé means of increafing fuch opu- 
lence, by which it had been acquired. 
He muft hâve ingrofled the whole pro- 
vince, and thus the fortune <rf evcry 
private perfon in ît* 

In a ftate where the loveof gain h 
cxorbitantly prévalent, where ambition 
knows no bounds, whefe avidity is con- 
tinually ejttending itfelf, where every 
means for acquiring Wealth îs held juft 
and cxcufeable, a régulation fhould be 
made againft â fcw fubje6ts laying their 
hands on ail property ; that îs, the for- 
tunes of individuals fhould be limited 
by exprefs lawà. Such a régulation 
might be called the pragmatic* JanSion of 
ambition. 

They who fet no bounds to their avi- 
dity will be fure to exclaim againft fuch 
a law, as downright tyranny : but a co- 
crcion on individuals for the public 

* Name of fome régulations in France for re^ 
.ftndning the ex6rbitanccf of papal powefi 

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CHINESE 5PY. ^45 
café, is real liberty. I fay, that this law • 
would intrinfically be entirely confident 
. with freedom, as will appear to any one 
who confiders the nature of the human 
heart. 

Ambition, at Its birth, is always mo- 
derate; the defires of acquiring are, as 
it were, a fcafFold work ; one platform of 
wealth ferves to getup to the other : the 
ciimber is in the way to fortune, he gets 
higher and higher, and having reached 
the top, is himfeif quite amazed at the 
way he has made -, fo that he always goes 
much farther than he had dreamed of 
at firft fetting out. 

I will fuppofe every îndividual ot this 
ktngdom, at his entrance on the purfuît 
of wealth, to be fummoned before a 
court, and hère fixed, after long labour 
and application, to a fortune of onè 
hundred thoufand crowns, after whîch 
he is to fet down in a rational enjoy- 
ment of ît. I dare fay there is not one 
who would not readily agrée to fuch a 
limitation : where then would be the 
tyranny of a law, for hindering any one ' 
to pafs thofe bounds which he had pre- 
fcribcd to himfeif? 

M 3 L E T^ 



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514* C H ï N E S E S P Y. 

L E T T E R XXXXVI. 

^be MafjJarin Cham-pupi io the Mandarin 
Cotao-yu-fe, i// Pékin. 

London* 

AFrench woman^s tongnc is in per- 
pétuai motion^ zvA that of the 
Englifli feldom ftirs ; the former are 

rarrots, and the latter dumb créatures* 
fhould readily give the préférence to 
the latter, did not their taciturnity throw 
fuch adeadnefs on Jife. The Parus wo' 
men deafen you -/with thofe of Londop 
you cannot help yawnirig. 1 am Ho 
■ fooner got out of one extrême than I 
ialj into another^ Not that I approve of 
thofe * eternal talkers, ^ whofc tongue is 
,ever ringing fome peal or other-, but I 
diflike that obftinate filence which turns 
reafonable créatures inpo ft^tues. 

When in company with Englîfti wo- 
jmen, I feem to bc in an ^partme.nt fuîl 
bf piftures of beauties, to eaclj of which 
the painter haj) giv^fn a diffèrent attitude, 
and nothing but fpeech is wanting. 
* I could almoft fay, that in Europp 
nature does bue liali finifli her work, 

fomething 



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C ft I N E s E S P V^. ^4f 
^mething ftlll is wantîng; either thè 
diméit has too great, or not a fufficient 
influence. 

For a Womln to be în a juft friedîum 
'With regard to vivacity and the ufe df 
hèr rongufe, I am indined to think (he 
flioiild bè born in England, and brought 
up in France ; as then her frigid conlK- 
tirtîoh Wduid corred the exceflîve firfe 
of the French climate ; and a French- 
edacation would énliven the heàvinefs 
arid hahgdôr of an Englifli conftituridn. 

îh fayiîig that the Englifh womch 
fee^ Yitût, ï âo not hiean that théir èridt 
mehce prodeeds frotn refledion ; thîs 
Mirouîd m^ce it a virtue, as the'n they 
XVould fpeak and bè filent onfy in dbfe 
feafon ; a maxim whîch, in thac fex, 
corhprehend^ àll the daties of civil lîfè. 
ïtiftèad ctf" floWîngfrom fo praïfe-Worthy 
a cauie, it *i3 rather oWirîg to a natùrâl 
bâfttftilnefs, or a barrennefs of genius ; 
they catfinôc fpeak, becaufe they hâve nô- 
thing to fay. 

Do not however imagine that the 
Èngïîfli Women are abfolute mutes ; no,, 
ho, they are true Women, and in certain 
tefpeds more fo than thofe of other na-^ 
tions. With ail their demurenefs in tome 
M 4, cafés 



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24» e H I N E s E s P Y. 
cafés, they are very noify inothers ; that 
îs, when trifles, pimftilios, falhions, &c. 
are on the carpet. 

For inftance, they are of an inexhauftî- 
ble fliiency on drefs. They cannot opcn 
their mouths without pompoons and 
gewgaws to fet their fpirits afloat. Their 
longues will run for days together on 
the advantages and difadvantages of a 
new mode. 

I was latçly with fi3^ EngliQi ladi^, 
. who, the night before had been'at the 
opéra, where they had feen two ftrangers 
drefîed in their way \ th^ey woûld fcarce 
hâve patience tq flt' down before they 
took them to pièces, froni the coîflFure 
down to the fhoes inchifivc. This was a 
fublime and copious fubjed : accordingly, 
the queftions and anfwers foilowed each 
other with incredible volubility ; fo that 
though I havc been pretty much ufed to 
the Company of the Par'is women, nevcr 
in my whole life was I fo dinned. 

Farther, the Englifh women are of a 
very ready loquacity in bringing the be- 
haviour of others of their own fex into 
fufpicion. How ihrewd their rcflcétions ! 

whac 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 249 
what toDgwinded amplifications of evcry 
circumftance ! thcre is no end of it ! 

But the great day for garrulity is Sun- 
day, aftcr, what is hère calléd, evening 
fervice. This fervice muft hâve fome 
great virtue in it, as working a total 
change in them. They are no Iboner at 
home than they overflow with words, 
and launch into verbofe diflcrtations on 
ail thofe of their fex whom they hâve 
fcen at church ; their carriage, theîr drcfs, 
cven to the leaft ribbon, undergoes a pro- 
lix criticifm. On thefe occafions an Eng- 
lifh woman will out talk three French. 

In France there is a clafs of bonzes 
called Carthufians, who partîcùlarly de- 
vote themfelves to filence ; but left they 
they fhould totally lofe their fpeech, their 
fuperiors allow them, once or twice a 
week, to fpeak at certain times, which 
are called ucrtati&ns. Sortie, who are 
are not Carthufians, and hâve been with 
them durirîg thefe récréations, fay, that 
no clatter in the world can equal the 
chattering of thôfè devout reclufès. 

Checking nature is to no purpofe, it 

will break out fome Ivay orother. Rivers 

confined by dykes are only the more: 

M 5 impetuoua^ 



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250 CHINESESPY. 
impecuous on any breach m thofe bm- 
riers. . 

When the Englifh wemen, if I may 
be allowed the cxpreffion, opcn the 
fluices of words, thcy déluge a coitt- 
pany-, but the misfortune is, thjMf irir 
ftead of irrigating the kitelleétual fo- 
culties it is ail mère noife. Novr whcre- 
fore break filence to fay nothing? of 
the two, filence is certai^ily better thaa 
vapid or impertinent difeourfe. 

L E T T E R LXXXVIL 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pî to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na^^/ felpn. 

Bath. 

TH[ERE ^re two feafons în the ycar 
at London when the qutditj^ £^ 
fîck ; it is an eftabliihed fa(bion to be 
indîfpofed at thpfe times, on purpofe to» 
go and drink minerai waters at a littla 
town calied Bath. A lord, who fhould 
be fo ftubborn as to be in good healtb 
during thofe two feafons, would be looked 
on as one who knew nothing of genteel 
life. Sometimcs the nunmber of thefe 
j^iÛxionable Valctudinâriiin3 at Bath has 

been 



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d tt 1 N E SE S P V. 251 
iJëeri fcnown to amôunt to âbtîut thrèe or 
&t3r thoufand. 

In order to â complète kfiowledge of 
"At nation, k muft be followed even to its 
mfirmitics ; and this beîng the feafon of 
indHpofitions, I was for imîtating the 
felhîort, and wcnt to Bath : I indeed 
made this journey the more willingly, 
âiy barontt having himfelf propofed thé 
iparty. 

The pfete c«F daîîy rendèzvou^ at 
Btath ià t large faloon. The day after 
ôiir arrivai my lord N— , Who was tô 
îét ùut the day folbwing for couft, en • 
tfertain^d the company With teâ. This 'û 
thewayhcre of taking leave, and iii 
France would he dallecl tht Jiirrup cup. 
Thé ialôon Was like a monaftefy's re- 
feftery, \<rkh threc rows of tables, reach* 
wig from one tnà to the other : niy lôfd 
ftbod at the door to receive the corn* 
|5any, and, as they came in, gave direc- 
fî6ns for their being placed. I heard 
Hittï often, as he pafled by me, complaiii 
that he fhould not have much company; 
thd indeed,! believe, four hundred men, 
ànd three îrtrnrfrerf women were tlië moft> . 
the grèatei^ part of the latter were borri 
Ht qaeeti: Annc's dkys. I. don*t knoW 

that 



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fi2 C H I N E S E S P Y. 

chat cver in my life I was with fo mznf 
générations in one and thc famé place*. 
My baronet affured me that we were in 
a Company of two hundred and fifty 
centuries; NeVer did the world fee an 
aflèmbly more vénérable, in relpeftofan- 
tîquity,fo that the entertainment feemcd 
lo be given by the eternal fathcr. A 
chronologift perplexed about fettling 
the cpocha of the univerfc, needed but 
hâve added ail thoic âges together and 
his work h^d been donc -, the total woulJ 
bave givcn the création of the world, 

The Englifli go to Bath for pleafure. It 
muft be owned, that it is a place of high 
entertainment: in the morning they 
fwill hot water out of a pump -, after- 
wards take their walks to digeft it ; dinc 
at two with people one knows nothing 
pf ; in the afternoon drefs, and in the 
cvenîng repair to a largehall^^crowdcd 
like a markec place, and there play ac 
cards till midnight ; the next day they 
go on the famé round, and this to keep 
themfelves ingood fpirits^ 

There is indeed twice a week a bail, 
and that is highly diverting indeed i 
thirty or forty women, with a like num- 
î)er of mçn, dance, or ratber romp about 



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CHINE SE S P Y. Asi 
for four hours without refpite. I hâve 
becn told that thefe wraters formeriy had 
a coadlive virtue, I mean, that they 
were of admirable cfficacy for promoc- 
ing marrîages -, but, at prcfent, they are 
quite degcnerated, ail their efîc£t tcrmi» 
nating in fome gallant adventures : theîr 
virtue is alfo faid to be uo longer the 
lame ; once they were fpecifics for the gôut 
and gravel ; now, they are în great vo^uc 
for impotency. Many a woman, aftcr 
a vexatious fterility at London, become 
pregnant at Bath ; but to this It iâ re» 
quifite that they drink the waters wirh 
brawny Irifhmen, who corne from Dub-^ 
lin to Bath purely to pra£tife this branch 



LE T- 



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^54 C H I N E S E S P Y, 

L E T T E R LXXXVIII. 

fh Mandarin Nî-ou-fan to tbe Mandarm- 
Cham-pi^-pi^/ Bath. 

îV bis moft facred Majejly Lewis X ViK; 
King of FrancCj ihe humble Pétition of 
bis moft faithful SubjeÛs of tbe Province 
0f Languedoc, 

SI R, 

*• TT is dnly ufider eq^itafcfe prince ^ 
•* 1^ that are fcen the fruits of that m>J- 
^ b\t juftice by whîch kingdoms floih* 
«* riflî. 

*' It is only under happy govemmenti 
** that tyranny is fbrced to hide itfelf,. 
*' andevery individual is reftored to his 
** natural and municipal rights. Laftly, 
" it is only in enlightened times that 
** found policy, breaking the chains of 
** blind préjudice, rifcs abôve the views» 
*' of a miftaken zeal. 

" Thefc happy days, fir, being now 
** corne in France, your faithful fub- 
** jeds, the proteftants of Languedoc, 
•* and through their voice thofe of all< 
^ the towns in the kingdom, humbly 

intrcat 



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C H I I^ E s K s P T- 155 
** iîitreat yoiir majcfty to grant them 
*'^the frce exercife of their religion. * 

*' We think we may with the greater 
*' confidence aflc this favour, our ene- 
** mies, who preûded in the council 6f 
^* confcicnce or king Lewis the XI Vth, 
" your great grandfather of glorious 
** memory, being now no more; thfe 
*^ breath crf God has difperfed them'; 
*' the reign of thofe vain and baught^ 
** raen, who make chriftian humility a 
«f cloak for their mordinate ambition, h 
" at end, 

** Their wickcdnefs being now openljr 
** manifirfl, we humbly befeech your 
•*^ m^efty that we may no longer be 
** the viftims of a council^ which, un- 
^' der the.prctence of*the-caufe of God, 
*' aimed only at worldly advanrages. 

*' Did we, fir, retain any refentrïTent 
f* of the fatal blow given us by the re- 
^^ peal of the cdiét of Nantz, we wouM 
*^ kave tbings as they are, without a 
^ thought of any altération ; for, of ail 
" the misfortunes which hâve fallen on 
** France for feveral centuries, the per- 
^ iêcution of us is that by which it hai 
^ mofk fuffered. But what we feek irt 
^ car ce-eftablifluncnt is the glory of 

" God, 



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asè C H I N E S E S P Y. 

*• God, thc Mtional prolperity, and youT 

** majefty's greatncfs^ 

•^* Moft of the fovereigns of Europe,. 
*' at prefent, hâve fcen into the miftakcn 
** notion that a phirality of religions 
*' weakens a ftate. Of this they who 
*' havc governed France (înce our per- 
" feeution muft hâve known the falfity^ 
** but from private views they left things 
** as tliey aie. 

•' The malevolcnce infeparable from 
^ party fpirit has tried ail ways to caft a 
*' îufpicion on us ; but, fir, our attach- 
" ment to the çrown is unqueftionable.. 
'* Our intire refignaition: to the laws^ out 
** readyconformity toourduty, ourun- 
** referved fubmiflion to your majesty's 
*' orders^ are palpable proofs of our 
*« fidelity. 

" Ourcnemics hâve ofteii fuggefted 
** to the govem«ienty that we would 
*' take adv^antî^ of any troubles in Eu- 
^ rope to difturb France. The late cimes 
*• hâve feen feveral wars, andnot a word 
«* was heard about us. 

*' So far from laying hold of thofe 
^* turbulent jundures to raife commo*» 
^ dons in the kingdom -, fo far fix>m 

î'icaguing. 



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CHI N E SE SP Y. 257 
leaguing wich your maiefty's enemics, 
we hâve cxerted ourfelves to the \Jt- 
moft in oppofing their defigns. 
" Though excluded from miKtary 
employments, â great number o£ your 
proteftantfubjeds, aniinated by a loyal 
indignation at the injuftice of your 
encmies, in declaring war againft you, 
hâve taken arms and expofed their 
lives for your fervice. To make their 
zeal more eflfeftua!, they hâve con- 
cealed their religion. Moft of your 
fubaltern ofBcers, who hâve ûgnalized 
themfelves in the latc wars, are pro- 
teftants of différent provinces of the 
kingdom. Though they cannot con- 
form to the mafs, they believe In you ; 
and never will you find them heretics 
when called on to ufe their arrrft, and 
rifque their lives for the gloryof tlic 
throne, the happinefs of the ftate, 
and the welfare of your peopka 
" This, fir, will not appear in the 
leaft ftrange to you, when you are in- 
formed of the maxims in which wc 
bring up our children. We publicly - 
teach them tbai the kingis the image of 
the Godof heaven^ and his vice-gerent 
on eartb \ tbat of wbatever religipn the 

''\^rince^ 



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^^ C H I N E s Ê S F Y. 

• ^ f rince be^ he is io he oheyéày ^iiboul re- 
'" ftrt)e oY Imitation -, thdt fto diffetence 
" in the fùveteign^s religion dffpenfes tlse 
'* fubjèfls frûm any of 'Pbèir dutiesj t^c, 
*' &?r. Thofe prt*otfeftants 'among us, îf 
•' any fudi tteir be, who hojd the con- 
•* trafy, we look on as profdTing a dîf- 
•* ferenc religion from ours. 

** The miniftry are contiriually de- 
"''liberating on means for peopling the 
** kihgdom, whîch fucetflive wars hâve 
•* drained of inhabitants. The mfeàns,. 
*' fir, fe kiyotir hanîh^ k i^ ôiily re- 
•* ftorrng the frce e'xercife 6ï tlie prp-- 
'^' teftârlt religion, and youf 'majefty will 
^* rmTnediately f^ your provinces ;ig.aîiv 
'^ fWarnriing with induffrioùs peopfc. 

** Multitudes will flock from Hot- 
" 'lamd, England, Prufffîa, and moft parcs 
** of Germany, whefe thfey rertiam, ônly 
*' waitrng for happier tîmes to return 
'' into France, to which they 'belong 
*' eîther by birth or defccnt. 

" Th^ fons and grandTôns ôf thofe 
*' proteftants will, with joy return into 
** the kihgdom, as foon as the ob- 
" ftacle which keeps therfi out fhall be 
*^ removed. They daily long after thejr 
^ native coimtry j atid ^vtn thoiè who 

*' arc: 



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C HI NE s E S P Y. I59 
** are bôrn abroad, ftill account thcm- 
'' felves foreigners there. They are uil- 
" der no other tye to the nations, ^;^here 
^* tbey live^ than the free exercife ôf 
** their religion. Reftore to them the 
•* iike free exercife, and foon will they 
' ** mingle with your other fubjefts. 

*' One fingle arrêt can overthrow tHe 
** manufaéturesofforeignftates, andthis 
** is an overthraw which would grcatly 
^' weaken their power. One fingle ordér 
'** from you would bringback into France 
-*' that induftry, which the repeal of the 
••* edia of Nantz drov^ away. Thougli 
-•* il 45e lîow above tweive hiftres fince 
•* that unhappy revotetioni our trader 
•' and arts are ftill far from being tliô- 
** roughly naturalized in thofe foreign 
** climates ; ^nd (hould the defcendants 
-•* of the French proreftaiîts return tfa 
:•* their original home, the vcry fiï-ft 
-*' éléments and traces of thofe arts woiiM 
**foonbeloft. 

- ^ It is ftrange, I take on me, fir, to 
-^ fay, it is aflronifhing that the gbverri- 
** ment fliould hâve in its hands the 
•* certain means of diminiihing the 
'•* W45alth of other nations, and of cori- 

•* Ûderably 



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26o C H I N E s E s P Y. 

" fîdcrably increafîng its own, and yct 
*' not make ufe of thofe means. 

** Your fubjefts are daily pouring 
*' forth their thaHkfgivings to heaven 
** for being born under a patriot king, 
'* a gracious and magnanimous mo- 
" narch. They biefs God for having 
** given them a fovercign no lefs con- 
" fpicuous for the moft fublime vîrtues 
" of the foui, than the moft amiable 
" qualitiçs of the heart. They rejoice 
*' in having a mild, humane, affable, and 
^^ compaffionate prince, who makes rt 
** his chief bufinefs to promote the wel- 
** fare of thofe whom God has com- 
** mitted to his care. 

** Muft it ftill be our misfortune^ fif, 
** under your auguft reîgn, to be eîc- 
•* cepted from the clafs of your happy 
** people ? are we to be the only lub- 
*• jeéls in the kingdom, to whom your 
** patemal bounty is not to be extended ? 
** and fhall pofterity fay, that the beft of 
•* the kings of France did notbing for 
•' the moft affcébionate and moft faith« 
/' fulof hisfubjeds? 

" I hère folemnly déclare to you, fir, 
•* in the name of ail our proteftant brc- 

•* thrcQ 



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CHINE S E SP Y. 26i' 
** thren, that we are inviolably attached 
** to youj chat, next to God, there is 
*Vnpthing on earth fo dear to us as 
^^ yourfelf : I déclare to you, that therc 
" is nothing which we are not ready to 
** undertake in teftimony of our refpeét 
*' fof your facred perfoii ; and, in the 
** name of ail the aforefaid proteftanté, 
•M hère proteft, that our arms, lives, 
** and fortunes are at your fervice. 

.<« We therefore again intreat your 
** royal permiflîon to worfhip God in our 
" churches, without incurrîng the pe- 
** nalties of hîgh treafon. We requeft 
" that we may be allowed to join in our 
•* hymns your name wich that of ûe 
*' Lord our God, and at once fing the 
** praifes of our king in heaven, and our 
** king on earth, &c. &c/' 

Whetherthispiece, my dearKie-tou-na, 
will avail any thing, even though the 
prince (hould read it, is what I cannot 
tell; but thus much is certain, that, ât 
the court of France, fo good a caufe 
ièldom fucceeds. 



LET- 



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iH C HIN E S E S P Y^ 

L E T T E R LXXXIX. 

Tl^e Mandarin Chsim'pi'pi to tb^ Mandarin^ 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin, 

'Bath« 

AT (ix o'clock in the evening eveiy 
body repairs to the faloon I men- 
tioned in my laft. After feveral turns 
they break into parties, and go and' fit 
down at gaming tables. There is a fore 
of mafter of the cérémonies hère, who, 
among other things, fhews every one 
the place where he is to lofe his mo- 
noy, 

Two evenings ago, my baronet atid I 
went to this place of univerfal refort; 
we feated ourfelv£S near a large chimney, 
în the middle of the hall, as giving 
us a view of thewhole aflfembly, which 
to me was a hew world indeed* 

*' Sir^ faid I to my companion, I am 
"^here in aforeign country, and fo muft 
" beg your information. To beiiire, 
" anfwered he, and to fave y ou the trou- 
*' ble of alking a multitude of queftion$, 
** I fhall premife a few refledions. 



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C H^I N E S E S P Y. a6i 

"'^ AU whom you fee hère, very few ex- 

'*' cepted, are^valetudinarians^ labouring. 

** under an incurable diftemper, called,, 

" the fpleen, not knovving what to do, 

'* with themfelves : they, of ail things,, 

**^ dread being alone, and thus are con-. 

'^ tinually Ihunning themfelves, rambU 

" ing ail the year round from London' 

'* tQ Scarbarough, from Scarborough 

'' to TunbridgCj from Tunbridge to 

'^ Bath, and fo on. But they might as 

'' well ftay at home ; theu* diftemper, 

*' fticks clofe to them in ail their jour- 

*' nies ; for people who are not able to 

*' fill upa void, go wherethey will, muft. 

** ever find it about them. They are as, 

" uneafy hère as they are in the capital, 

*^ where they make others uneafy. I 

** look upon this to be, in no fmall mea- 

'* fure, owing to the great number of 

*' landed men and ftockholders j I mean 

*' people who hâve no.other bufinefs 

" thaa to fpend their income -, for mer- 

*' chants, lawyers, and perfons who de- 

•' pend on a profeffion ftand in no need 

" of fuch a refource : how fhould time 

" hang: on their hands, when they hâve 

*' Icarce time, to live ? 

That 



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264 CHINESESPY. 

" That is, interrupted I, ail hère be^' 
** fore us hâve incomes from the ftate ; 
•* no, no, anfwered he, fome hâve no in- 
" cornes, and their bufinefs hère is to 
•* raife one ; this room is a kind of eftâte 
*'* to them. Not a few corne to conceal 
^' their uncafmefles, and forget their do- 
** meftic vexations, which, at London, 
" are always prefent to them ; a great 
*' number refort hither mechanîcally ; 
** many through cuftom ; feveral from 
** tradition, having read in their family 
** records, that their great grandfathers 
*^* never mifled being every year at Bath : 
** fome are drawn by company, others 
^ without any forethought or defîgn ; 
•* and, as ît were, only becaufe there is a 
^ rôad from London to Bath. 

" As to the women, it is feldom they 
" corne hither, but from fome pre^ous 
** reflcftion. That prudent fex never 
*' undertakes fuch journies at.random: 
*' they hâve always fome motive or 
** other 5 a love intrigue, freedom, gam- 
•' ing, dancing, or the gaiety of the 
** place. 

** Sir, faid I, who is that old man 
** walking from row to row behind the 
** tables, and with fomcthing of a court 

« aftcr 



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C H INE s E S P V. 265 
^V after him : it is my lord C — , one of 
*' our Englilh wits. 1 Ibould know 
** that name, replied I I hâve heard it 
** among the Paris literati j he is faid to 
** be a fine genius. Yes, (o it isfaid -, 
*' at leaft, he is a very prudent genius, 
" for hitherto he has publiflied nothing 
^' to deftroy that opinion.: though far 
•* down thc hill, he is ftill a virgin with 
** refpeft to intelleftual productions. 
. " I thought, faid I, that to get a name 
** in Europe, a pcrfon muft hâve given 
** notable proofs of his genius in fome 
*' excellent work, which would ftand ' 
** as a lafting monument of his abi- 
** lities. — It was fo formerly, but now a 
** man may be any thin^ upon his bare. 
*' Word ; , and the way for this is only to 
** canvafs that honour ; for in Erî^land, 
" a man is made a wit juft as he is n*ade 
*' a member of parliament. Indecd» 
" the diftemper which kills fuch a wit, 
*' hkewife puts an end to his réputation ; 
" his famé immediately rots away with 
** his corpfe. 
, " Who is that other bulky lord walk-. 
" ing almoft next to him, not quite fo 
*' old, with fuch a çonccitcd counte- , 
Vol. IV. N " nance. 



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266 ^ C H I N E S E S P Y. 
" nance, and who fecms fo well plealcd 
*' with him(31f ? His carriagefliews ,thac 
** for a confiderable time he muft hâve 
** afted in fonie eminent ftation. Very 
*• true, replied thc baronet, he has for 
.*• àbove twenty years aded Sir John 
** FalftafF; he is a player who has lately 
** left the ftâge. After ail his méafuring 
** his words and expreffing himfelf de-^ 
** clamatory, lie is but an infipid mortal. 
** It is the foUy of moft men to corne 
*' down from the pedeftal in a manner 
" which ïhewed thcm in the only favour- 
^^ able light. So he, after diverting the 
*' public on the ftage, muft nèeds corne 
*« down from it to tire private companies. 
" Wherevcr he is, he affefts thc great 
«* fnan ; he is fuUof theatricalphrafes, and 
«*his profeflîon betrays itfetf in evety 
*« thing hê does. He fpeâks, fleeps, and 
** walks dramaticâlly : never had he fo 
** much of the ftage in him as fince hehas ^ 
*' left it. He is reckoned a tip top' 
^'.^ftor ; ihdéed he did fhine in one re- 
" markable charaéler : but excellence 
*^ in a prôféflîon furely implies more 
*^ thân dîftînftiôn in onc particular part. 
« What does he do nôw, fkid I ? he eats 

«* ahd 



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CHINESE SPY. 267 
^ aild drinks ; his capital part now îs to 
** guttle, and thc next to guzzle. 

** Who is that young man, faid I, 
" (aftcr he had finîfhed his account or 
•* the player) ftanding three tables frbm 
•* us, with fuch a lîielancholy look ? fome- 
*' thiftg feems to lie very heavy on his 
** heârt.-— *-You think very right, hc 
** hâS a great weight.indeed ; namely, 
" to hare fquandered away in lefs than fix 
•* years a fortune, which his fore fathers 
" had been (îx centuries in getting. 

** And who is that other almoft at his 
** fide, and who feems in no better Au- 
** mour ? why, indeed, I don't fee how he 
" can be very cheerful in the (îtuation to 
" whicii ht has brought himfelf -, for he 
** has not only made away with a very 
*^ confiderable fortune as faft as the other, 
** but is over head and ears in debt ; the 
" bailifFs are continually at his heels ; 
/* fo that he îs hère and there,, and every 
** where, going and coming, like a mère. 
** wandering Jew. 

*' That third on our left at the fourth 
** tabjlp, and Who likewife feems to hâve 
" foniething of a clôud in his counte- 
" nance ? why, that is a nobleman who 
** has uttcrïyruined himfelf by marriag'e. 
Ni "Thc 



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.268 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
'* The young perfon hcre before us rs 
** his \wfe; and after ruining her hulband, 
** fhe is now ruining that young lord be- 
** hind.her : but, faid I, why does not 
'* he turn off fuch a wife ? it is now too 
** late, anfwered he, there is no living 
" without a fubfiftance, and, at prefent, 
** my lord is fupported by my lady -, but 
** on condition that he fhall be a Ipe.éta- 
" tor of her infamy, folbw her every 
** where, and on a vacancy lie with her, 
" A moft fcurvy bargain, faid I ; I had 
*^ rather not live at ail than be fupported 
" in fuch a manner. 
* " I (hould be glad to know that gen- 
** tleman ftanding before the chimney 
♦' over-againft ours, and whofeems afraid 
** of looking at any one. He is a young 
*' Irifh nobleman, immerfed in thc 
** deepeft chagrin. He has married a 
" young wonian of ai>ad charafter, whom 
** he is for introducing every where, and 
*^ no body will admit her: he curfesthe 
" Englifti. for their memory, and would 
*' hâve every body forget that his wife 
" has proftituted herfclf to balf the town. 
" A blockhead ! we uke care not to 
** efteem womenmuch, even before they 
** départ from virtue } and he forfooch, 

** would 



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C H I N E S F SP Y. 269 
•^woiild havé us forget to defpife them 
** whenthey are notorioufly vicious, 

" More gk'omy countenances, cried 
** I, perceivinganother Briton in à brown 
** ftudy ; why, fure ail the fad phizes in 
** the kingdom hâve agreed' to meec 
''^here! For God*s fake, who is this 
*' young man on our left with fuch a 
*^ Saturnine look* He is an unfortunate 
" young nobleman, who has loft ail his 
"fortune at play. I could fhew you 
** fiveorfiJTjOf nofmailappearance hcrc^ 
^ who fleéced Bim; 

■** Oh I continued I, the fcene of me- 
^ lancholly faces begins to clear up a 
^ iittle ! What is that groupe undèrthat 
*^ large piéture, who feem in fuch hîgh 
*' fpirits ? They afe fharpers, anfwered 
** he : that can't be, they are in uni- 
^* form : but with ail their uniforms, 
" rcplied he, fo it is. Thofe fellows, 
^ for I can call them no other, hâve 
*Vvery year their confiant cuftomers 
** hère -, that is, their gulh, whom they 
•* regularly bleed to the laft drop; this 
" brings them in more than their com- 
** miflions; elfe how could they keep their 
^ girls, and revd away at the King's- 
*^ Arms or the Bedford-head ? for their 
N 3 " pay 



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i^ 



270 C H I N E s E S P Y. 
** pay every body knows. Many a feoun- 
** drcl wears thc king's livcry in England 
** as well as in France. Hereby, ^ddcd 
** he, I am very far from meaning any 
'* reflcflion, therç being grcat numbcrs 
*' of worthy gentlemen of the army, fùv 
** whom I entcrcam the greatcft eftccm 
•* and regard. 

•' That lufty young fellow in em- 
" broidery, and richer dreffed than any 
•* perfon in the company, who can he 
** be ? — What you little think ; he is a 
" highwayman. A highwayman ! faid I, 
*^ quite amazed ; it can*t be ? you fce how 
•' freely he fpeaks to the ladies. That's 
" nothing ; no body in England keeps 
** better company than highwaymen. 
'* Some ycars ago, one of them was 
" hanged with the pidure of a lady of 
•' quaiity about his neck. But what 
** groLinds for concluding him to bc 
*' fuch ? why, replied he, there is no 
** fuch thing as miftaking his calling; 
** for he has neither ftock nor known 
•* eftate, nor poft at court or city, he is of 
** no profeffion, and without any talent to 
V live on, yet fpcnds like the firft pccr 
" of the kingdom. Thexe's his pro- 

"fcffioa 



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C tt I N E s E S P Y. tji 
'^ feflion geometrically dcmonftrated to 
** you. 

** This being fo clear, why is he not 
** taken up ? oh ! my fervice to yoO, our 
^ lawâ in England allow of iro fuch ty- 
** rannical takings up ; every fubjeâ: is- 
** indépendant : were this man to fpend: 
•* a ipillion fterling a month, that*s no^ 
♦* thing-to the government, neither is 
*' U any magiftVate's concern ; every 
** highwayman is free till the inftant of 
** the halter's ftopping his breath. This^ 
** fine fçUow will not be hanged till he is 
" convidted of a robbery. 

** Ybnder is another ftrapping welt- 
** made young fellow, in black velvet,. 
** of a goodpretty appearance: he is 
*^ now cyeiqg us through a; glafs? 
"This well-made young fellow is alfo 
" another highwayman. He had for 
*' fome time withdrawn hlnnfelf out of 
" the kiagdom, and it was thought that 
** England had got rid of him-, but I 
" fee he.again makes his appearance. 
" One would think our gibbcts aded 
" magnetically on: thofe embroidered 
" gentlenaen, attrafting them fo, that 
" they are nevereafy till they makc their 
**exitthôrc. 

N 4 *• One 



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272 C H 1 N E S E S P Y. 

'* One queftlon more and I hâve donc, 
*' for I think I hâve fufficiently exercifëd 
" your complifance; I would kriowfôme- 
** thing of that walking (hadow, with hîs 
** cadaverous phiz. I obferve, he is af- 
** ways in itiotîon, takes women by the 
** hand, and makes them join handswith 
" men -, methinks that is no very cre- 
*^ ditablè bufinefs -, at leaft, in France, 
*' they give it an ugly name. Hc is,. 
" indeed, an objeét of curiofity, faid thc 
"baronet: a traveller like you, who are 
" for feeing into ail the weakneflès of 
*^ which the humian heart is fufceptible, 
" ffiould be acqqainted with fuch origi- 
** nais j fuch difcoveries are more ufeful 
^ than that of antiques ; it befng better 
" to underftand men than buildings. 

*' Th:^ walking ih-adow is by birth a 
^ Frenchman, and a native ofBourdeaux^ 
*^ born in the year 1680, fo that now he 
** is a young fellow of fourfcore -, he is 
" faid to hâve danced even on the day of 
*' his birth, and at coming out of his mo- 
'* ther's womb to hâve eut two or three 
*' capers -, a fure prefàge of dillinftion îh 
'* dancing. In his youth he was fent to 
**'London to be brought up amerchanr, 

"but 



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C H 1 N E S E S P Y. 273 

*^:but liking dancing better than com- 
** merce, he foon left the compting houfe; 
" He has diftinguiflied himfelf in ail the. 
*' aflemblies in England ; Lpndon, Scar- 
" borough, and Tunbridge hâve been 
*' witneflësof the agility of his motions ; 
** having, befides his talents, a great deal' 
** of ambition, he follicited a very ho- 
** nourabk pofl in the. lakatory way, and" 
** obtained. the furvivorfliip of mafter* 
" <rf the cérémonies in this celebrated fà- 
*' loon. Accordingly, after ofEciating fome* 
*' tiroe as afliûant, he,*. on the demife of ' 
** the mafter, was unanimoufly promoted' 
*^ to the fucceflîon. He direfts minûets, 
** and manages coiincry dances; but 
*Vthe moft important part of hisbufi-^ 
^ nefâ is, in matching men and women: 
" That is very eafy, faid I -, rrot fo eafy 
*' a,s you may imagine, anfwered he ; I 
** affure you it requires fome compafs of 
*' knowledge; for inftancè, tojoin fuch* 
** alordwith fuch a lady, with whom hc 
*• is in love ;* or to give a miffes hond to 
** a gentleman on whom (he has a de- 
*• fign, he muft be thoroughly acquainted 
** with t;he intrigues of the place ; as dif- 
•"^greeable conjunftions would naturally/ 
^^-difturb* the harmony of the. da;urev, 
N 5 And: 



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«74 C H I N E S E S P Y. 
•' And pray does this faltatory poft bring 
** him in any great matter ? not a £hil- 
♦• ling, k only gives him a great deal of 
•' what others would think trouble. Pro- 
" bably, faid I, then he is in eafy cîr- 
** cutnftances : ycs, rcplied the baronet^ 
" he is fo when in an eafy chair : he has 
** a hundred pounds a year, which f4:arce 
** will find him în glaves and clean linen. 
•^ He is beloved and hated by the wo- • 
" men -, they whom he joins to theîr 
** mind love him ; and they. to whom he 
** gives a.difagreeable partn^ as heartiJjr 
** hâte him. 

L E T T E R XC. 

^htManàarin Cham-pî-pi /^ tbeMandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

HAVING only h^nted the malc 
game of the aflèmbly on our firft 
night, we went again there to recon- 
noitre the females. Accordingly, feat- 
ing ourfelves in the famé place, I re- 
né wed my queftions. 

That fiefhy middle aged woman, with 
pretty fine eycs» at play near the door, 

wha 



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C H IN E aE SP Y. 275 

who îs Ihe ? flie has fomething ftately in 
. ber looks ; her very face fhews her to 
hâve aéted a capital part. '* Capital in- 
^' deed, anfwered he, it îs not long fince 
** fhe reprefented the fîrft perfon in the 
♦' kingdom ; ftie was the channel through 
*' which ail favours were conveyed; fhe 
*' difpofed. of the chief employméntsj 
^* wealthand honours were in her hands ; 
•' flie had the kcys of the temple of 
*' fortune ; her intereft was a fure ftep to 
** preferment; but her reign is over^ 
•* herfway lately came to a fudden end. 
" Afcer a fplendid dream (be is now 
*' awake/* 

Who is that young lady fitting bCf- 
Hînd her ; I fcould fwear by her looks 
that fomething is amifs within. ^\ You i 
** would not take a falfe oath, fai4 
^* the knight, for her heart is almoû: 
*' broke : ihe had always been looked 
*rupon as a virtuous anddifcreet perfon, 
" but lately a giddy young fellow haa 
•' altered the world's opinion,, blabbing 
*' of an adyenture with her ; but it i» 
*' not her virtue for which fhe is fo much 
** concerned, the lofs of her réputation '^ 
** istherub/* 

Do you know, continued I, that young 
perfon at the oppofite table, and who ^ 
N 6- Ukewife 



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%'j6 C HI N E S E S P'y; 
likewife feems fomething out of forts t' 
\vhat is it makes her fj meiancholy ? " a 
" change of paffions ; fhe detefted her 
** hufband before fhe was married to 
" him, and now fhe adores him ; whereas 
'* the hufband adored her before hé 
•* married her, and now he detefts hen 
** The.lâtterçafe, addèdhe, is verycom- 
'^ mon among us ; but the former ii 
** very feldom heard of.*^ ' 

I obferve, near her, a pretty young 
kdy, but who feems hkewife not to bé 
exempt from troublé : *' there again you 
** are right : fhe is paffiônately in love 
** with that ybung lord, whom you feé 
^* next to her : he is a very pretty geri- 
" tleman, and has an equal love for her: 
^ She has fome fortune, and the noble- 
•* man a large eftate." And whydon^f 
thcy marry, that thcy may be hap- 
py ? " They wifli- for nothing more; 
*' but there îs a* little difficuity- in th'e 
*^ way — another young lady has beeii 
" before hand^with her; the young lord 
** is married;' 

" Formerly the Pope, în cônfideratîon 
** of a fum oï money, ufcd to annul 
** thefe engagements ; but, fînce the 
^* reforrèÀtion of our church, our mar- 

*• riageji 



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C »I N E s E S B y: 2n 
**' mgcs are indiffoluble. 1 hère is only» 
**'one fliift left, which is to carry her 
*' ofF, leave wife and children, and dif- 
'* grâce himfelf and his dear creature*s 
•* whole family : and this will very pro-» 
*' bably be the iffue ; for my couatry* 
** men never play the fool by halves." 

Do you know, faid I, that fair beauty 
tbere, facing us, who looks with Ib 
rauch indifférence on the fineft beaus, and 
feems to mind nothing? " fhe may be 
" called an automaton, faid he, neither 
" hating nor loving. any one, incapable 
^'•of a paffion, and yawning at the bare 
*' mention of love. But this virtue of 
^ hers flie ôwes to her eonftitution : moft 
'^ of our virtuous women in England arc 
'* of thîs ftamp -, their hcart knows no- 
" thing of a. figh : many a hufband 
'*^among us, who hug3 himfelf for his 
'* .wife's virtue, (hould only biefs her 
** eonftitution, and rejoice that he has 
** married a machine not organized for 
*'love. The chaftity of thofe women 
** cofts them no confliét ; thcy may fafely 
*' leave their honour- to .the carc of their 
** frigid complcxion." 

But, faid \% if that woman next her 

)îe. not a. maphine of. a very différent 

, ' make. 



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tjS C H I NE SE S P y: 
make, I am much miftaken:. *'*true, 
*' Ihe is thc vcry rêverie of the other ; 
** for wotnen hère, as dlcwhere, are 
*' cver in extrêmes. Their conftitution, 
** if it does not hurry them beyond vir- 
** tue, makes them fall fhort of it. Every 
*' fide glance of the gentlemen fets her in a 
•* flame, and agitâtes herwith a crowd of 
" paÎTions. Tender looks melt her, lively 
** looks ftimulate her, fo that her heart 
** proftitutes itfelf twenty times a day 
** through her eyesv and from this prp- 
** ftitution to that of the body, the onîy 
** différence is opportunity. Accord- 
" ingly ftie is not efteemed a veftal. 

Who is (he in black, but with fuch à* 
giddy look as little agrées with her drefs ? 
** She is a young widow, who has long 
** coveted that appellation. Her hufband 
*' has not been dead above a week, and 
** (he has taken fuchgood meafures for 
•' a fécond marriage, that there are at 
** ready four competitors for her. Some 
** will even fay fhe mwried a fécond; 
^* hufband while the firft was lîving, and 
•* that ftie waited the day of his burialforâ 
" déclaration. You fee thât in England 
** we hâve womenof great forecaft, tON 
^* guard againfl: the calamities (^ widow- 

. ^'hood: 



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C HIN E s E $ ? Y. 27^ 
*> hood : on the death of their knowa 
** hufband they are found married to 
'« anothcr." 

'Pray who is that wofnan 00 our lefr, 
gatherkig àbout feer ali the gentlemen 
who pafs by her, courtefying to onè, 
fpcaking to another, whifpering to this» 
fmilihg to that, and looking amoroufly 
on ail ? ** Why it is her bufinefs to 
** bring a crowd about- her ; fhe is only 
*' doing at Bath, what Ihe does ar Lon- 
** don : the women you fee will hâve 
•• nothing to fay to her-, yet fhe is very 
** eafy about that, if fhe can but bring 
*' men to her iure." 

But why then, faid I, îs fhe allowed to . 
be in fuch a place with' fo many other 
ladics hère, who.are accounted womtn 
of virtué and charafter ? "And how' 
'' can it be helped, anfwered he ; if the 
** conduâ of women were once to be 
** nicely fcrutinized before admittance, 
** farewel to this afTembly-room." 

Who is that young lady with a long 
face, walking near the other chimney, as 
Itately as a rough-footed pidgeon ? " She 
" comcs from Ireiand •, her mother 
*^ brought her hither for a hufband ; but 
V both fhe and her mother are meiré 

^' novices > 



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>fo c H'i K E SE S p y: 

** novices ; and I believe, inftcad of thc' 
"* matrimonial path, they.will ftrike into 
" the highway which lies only on one' 
"fideof it." 

• One queftion more,', and the^ laft.. 
Obfefvc this^ middle-fized Jady coming 
towards us, with large eyes and prt;tty 
mouth, and a fine complexion, though 
femewhat brown : who can ftie be ?^ 
" That is only Mils B — , who, like 
*^ many others, cornes hère to fet her al- 
*^ lurcments^to fale, and try whether flie 
" cannoc get a rich match by them. I' 
*' k^ow (he is reckoned a beauty -, but T 
" Who love a fine cheft, and hold a ma-- 
*' jçftic carriàge an eflèntial part of beau- 
'^ t;^, cannot clafs ber under that predica^- 
" m^nt -, for, with me, it is not a fine.* 
*^ face onlyivhich makes.a beauty," 

X E T T E R XCI. 

7bâ Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to the Mandariity 
Cham-pi pi, at Bath. 

Montpellier.: 

AN author is juft come hère, and^ 
of fome réputation, being newly» 
jçeleafed from the- Baftile,^. afier a twelve- 

month's^ 



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C H IN E S E S P Y. 2tT 
month's confinement, for the licentiouf- 
nefs of his pen againft the royal houfe. 
In France nothing brings a man into 
better vogue than the government's layu 
ing hands or) him. , 

This howcver is a little conceited vain 
créature, who has got himfelf a namein 
the world for bringing a woman to think 
attentivdy through the fpace of fifteen 
volumes, who perhaps had not thought 
before through twenty pages in hcr 
whole life. 

This lady, who formerly aâ:ed a con- 
fiderable part in France, had written 
fome letters : thefe he has taken for his 
text, with the addition of a-very long 
work lîkewife^ under the title of Letters. 
Thiis, it may bc faid, is making the pub- 
lic turn on the pivot of a name for feveral 
volumes . fucceflîvely. 

Hc is hère liftened to as a kind of- 
tfracle ; and wherever he makes his ap* 
pearance, a crowd' jmmediately gathers 
about him. I hâve feen this. famé auf 
thor ; and his réputation Icd me to enter 
into converfation with him -, but I can 
affure thee, therc is not a more, tire- 
fome niortal under the cope of heaven.. 
Though his works are fufficiently infi;- 

pid^r. 



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^t C H I N E s E S P Y. 

pid, yet hadi much rathcr read himthaq» 
hear him. 

- I qucftîon whether hc wouW yet hâve 
cmerged above the mob of trivial writers ; 
but what farther heightened his réputa- 
tion^ is, a difpute which 1^ had with an 
author, very juftly celebratçd, who con- 
dçfcended ta honour him with his pub- 
Uc contempt, and tpok the trouble tQ 
crulh him» In France fuch a glorious 
death caufes the corpfe of a bookmaker 
to be held irv great vénération. 

Numbers in this kingdom would not 
know that fuçh a perfon had cver exifted,, 
h^d not that karned perfon literarily 
killed hini, Thou feeft, thaf to gct ^ 
name hère is not a matter of any great 
difficulty, fince a duel of inveétivcsr 
Kiifes a charaûçr^ which were better un»- 
known. 

I am Qut of patience with the Euro* 
peans, to think how very little genius 
wiU procure the réputation pf havinga: 
great deal. 



LET- 



V I 

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C H I N E s E s P Y. i8j 

L E T T E R XCII. 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to the Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

Bath. 

THE Europcans will ever be re- 
touching nature, as if they mif- 
trufted God*s wprks, and queftioned 
^hether they were perfedt. 

Had the Creator of the univcrfe beea 
dHpofed to give another form to the 
world, itwas intircly in hrspower; he 
could hâve endued plants with fpeech^ 
and hâve animated trees. 

Some pcople in England pafsaway 
theîr life in changing the difpofition of 
matter, and ftriking out a new creation*^^ 
Let art be employed in enriching na- 
ture, and not in giving it décorations, 
which, inflead of encreaûng its treafures, 
ftint and bury them. . 
. A few days ago I paid a vifit to a 
gentleman, at hîs feat thirty miles frora 
Bath ; where he fpends his time in turn« 
ing plants into houfes, and cutting trees 
into beafts and meh. ^ 

On my alighting he took me into 
his garden, where he fhewed me a fum- 

mer- 



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a84 CMPIN E S E S F Y. 
mer-houfe, the walls of which were of 
box. the roof of cyprefs, and the Win- 
dows of vine leaves. From thence hc 
led me to his new-laid foundations of a* 
branchy palace, in which are to be- 
twelve apartmeîits, bcfidcs offices and. 
fervants rooms^ 

From thcvegetable buildings, We went*. 
to the ménagerie of plants, which con-- 
tained lions, crocodiles, éléphants, dogs- 
and foxes, ail imermingled. 

The next curiofity^ was the gallefy oê 
the emperor»^. ail în trees. Hère hc 
Ihewed me ajulius Csefar, and afked me 
whether I did not think his gardenerV 
fheers had hit the features perfeftiy well? 
As to Nero, faid he, pointimg tô thaï? 
emperor, he is of my own cutting; I» 
did itirom a print,^- which is a perfeft 
likenefs of that prince. After fhewing\ 
ipe ail thefe illuftrious peifonages, whom^ 
every >^rinter kills, and every fpring» 
ttrings to life, he acquainted me with a 
grand military fcheme, in the. like tafte;. 
This is nothing lefs thanr cutting out a. 
complète army ranged in battle out of» 
a l^rge wood, whichhe is detcrmined ta# 
iacrifice to this whim»^ 

'The 



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.CHIT^ ES E S P Y. 28s 

The light troops are to confift of 

^young willows, fet on purpofe -, young 

cyprejQfes are to form the régiments of 

foot, and aged oaks the heavy cavalry. 

Being ftill without a gênerai for his 
army, and determined to hâve one of 
eminent réputation, he has defired me, 
on my return to London, to fend him a 
print of my lord Granby -, for hc has 
Z laurel, the cro^n of whiçh is bare of 
ieaves, or, to ufe his expreffion, is bald, 
and this willmàke a perfeft likenefs. 

What troubles me about this gentle- 
man and his army is, the want of provi- 
fions ; there is not a bufhel ôf corn in hîs 
Jaoufe ; moft of his grounds lie fallow ; 
and in the midft of his Roman emperora, 
his ménageries and fummer-houfes he 
Js in danger of ftarving. 

L E T T E R XCIII. 

TJbe Mandarin Gham -pi-pi to the Manda-^ 
m Kie-tou-na, ^/ Pékin. 

Bath. 

NE VER in my life hâve I fo much 
yawned as fince I am among the 
pleafures of Bath. In the whole world 

there 



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3S6 C H I N E S E S P Y^ 

therc is not a more tirefome manntr of 
diverting one*s felf than hère. If you arc 
more at liberty than at Lôndon, you are 
moreconfined in entertainmen^. They 
are ail of a piecc^ what was donc ycftcr- 
day, is aéted again to-day and to-mor- 
row ; what is donc to-day will bc re- 
peated : now this makes an infupporta- 
ble uniformity. I could almoft com- 
pare tne Company at Bath ^ to itionks, 
during a country récréation. 

The fprightlinefs of this divertîng 
place was almoft at its laft gafp, when 
luckily it was recovered from its Icthargy 
by the arrivai of thc duke of York, 
brother to the reigning monarch. At his 
cntering the town, ail the bells were fct 
a ringing, and three hours after, thc 
vîolins ftruck up, thcre being that night 
an extraordinary bail, where the fair fcx 
paraded in ail the art aUd magnificence 
of drefs. 

Women, bythc înftîtutesof the place, 
are allowed to affed fîcknefs in their at- 
tire. Any appearing in fuU drefs would 
bc thought to be on the catch for lôvers ; 
and a young mift trlcked Up would bé 
charged with looking out for a hulband, 
which miflcs are always to do, but their 

defign 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. i87 
àtûgn is not to be perceîvcd. This is 
another Bath xnaxim. But herein the 
£rir fex are fo far from being loofers, 
that coquettes are furniftied with new 
arms. European beauty is always to be 
under fome flight indifpofition ; ftrong 
and haie features are looked on with 
little émotion, whilft a pale languid coun- 
tenance enflâmes. The face of a pretty 
womanin a fick drefs, has an inconceive- 
able efieft on the appetité of a man in 
fiill health. 

This prince, who is both extremely . 
good natufed and complaifantto the fair 
fex, danced with feveral women, and 
tâlked with ail, ^ithout exception of 
faces. Thiâ fpread an uniform gaiety 
ô^^cr ail countenances. Princes in Europe 
may be compared to Ikilful geometrici- 
afts în phyfiognomy. They are capable 
of adjufting the rate o( charms by a 
level : it was eafy however to diftinguilh 
fpight in the faces of the moft beautiful, 
upon feeing themfclves put on the famé 
footing with thofe who Were not fo j for 
fuch is the jealoufy of beauty,. that what 
is given to others, it looks' on as taken 
from itfelf. 

I was 



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208 C HIN E S E S P Y. 

I was highly entertàihed with the lit- 
tle artifices of thefe female watcr drink- 
crs to attraâ: the prince's eye, when, 
after the bail he was walking in theaflètn- 
bly rootn. One difpofed her movements, 
and tneafured her fteps fo exadtly, as to 
be face to face before him on his turning. 
Another took her dintienfions fo as to be 
driven involumarily in front of him. One 
freely alked him, how dm your Royal 
Higbnefs like our ajfembly ? Another was 
for drawing him infenfibly irom the 
crowd into a corner. 

The prince for his part feemed no 
novice at this game, fpeaking to onc, 
fmiling to another, càfting a look at a 
third, whifpering to a fourth,talking.with 
a fifth -, and I obferved that he took 
particular care not to ovcrlook the mo- 
thers: for, by the grâce of God, this 
place is pretty well ftocked with theni. 
This fcene lafted till midnight, when the 
prince withdrawing» ail the women who 
were come there only on his account, 
took themfeives away to their feveral 
homes. 



L E T- 



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« H I N E s E S P Y, 289 

L E T T E R XCIV. 

The Mandarin Ni-ou-{àn to tbe Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, aS London. 

Montpellier. 

WHAX I fearcd is corne to pafs ; 
my being conftantly among fo 
niany phyfîcians bas brought an illnefs 
on me : it is more particularly owing ta 
pne prating member of that faculty, 
who,'by hairpîng continually onfplenetic 
diforders, bas talked me into an ob^ 
ftruftion in tbe liver. I am afraid I 
fhall not foott get ôver it; a diftemper 
dçrived froni pnyfic itfelfV is not very 
cafily removed. 

I bave confulted the cekbrated Efcu- 
lapius of this city, and he prefcribed me 
ïron-fiïings as an infallible fpecifîc ^n 
?ucb cafes. V As a proof tbat bc went 
«m flirc grounds, be ihcwed me a littie 
book, in wbiçb were the names of fe- 
vcral pcrfi>ns whom he bad cured by 
that remedy ; for the phyfîcians ac 
Montpellier keep a regifter of the namei 
of ail die patients whom they cure \ a$ 

Vol. IV. O to 



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^^ C H I N E s E S P Y. 

to thofe whom thèy kill, they think them 
not worth rememberirig. 

I dare fay, no lefs than two or three 
îron bars hâve gonè down my throat 
without my being eVer thè better ; on 
which, that refpeftable body, at a fécond 
tonfultation, hâve prefcribed to me 
Vall*s waters, d(ank on the fpot: ar- 
cordingly I fet out to-mbrrow for this 
remedy, which lies twenty-five leagues 
fkx)m this place. 

This journey will carry me fomcthîng 
out of my way to Spain ; but what îs a 
travcller without hcalth ? . 

L E T T E R XCV. 

^he Mandarin Cham-pî-pî /^ the Manda^ 
' m Kie-tou-ha, a/ Pékin. 

London. 

TH E Engîiih highwaymen are ex- 
cecding polite, doifig bufinefi wkh 
great civility : at prefeni:, indeed^ it is 
only perfons of good breeding whà en- 
gage in that profeffion. 

On my return from Bath, the coacfa, 
in which were the baronet, another tra- 
vellcr, and myfelli was ftoppcd^ within 

fifty 



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C tt I N E â E S P Y. ^9t 
fifty mites of London, by two of thofe 
gentlemen. After the ufual ceremony 
of the piftol, OM of them putting his 
hàt into the côach^ very civilly demandée! 
our purfes. On this, oUr hands weté 
foon iïî our pockets j but having been 
fôré>^arrted how fréquent robberies wcrc> 
1 had fcarce any more money about 
ine than what wouW beat my charges. 
I put two guineas into the hat, the ba- 
ïonet, perhaps for tîle fanrie teafon, pût 
the like: fum ; ^ but our fellow ^:raveDer, 
'^ô was a hierthant in the city, tofled 
into ît a put-fe with above a hundred 
guineas. 

*^ At thisv, the robber, who held the 
*' hat, faid to me, fir, take baçk your 
^^'^mtmfji^'éiàj^ Rkewtfe SiP T— ;— , 
•^^ ftattiing thé baronet ^by Ws namc, ît 
•* is not to injure any one that we deal 
^ on the highway, and run the rifquç of 
** being hanged î this money you wifl 
}^ waft^oii the road, and weré wé tp takè 
^* it from y^ôiiy you^ wôuld beilfi|/peà 
3*< by <hè lafndlbrds bf iiïnéy à kirid of 
'*• pûbik fobbefs, -ftràngers to ail man- 
r^^nersaridh^itàRty. -^ 

" As to you, fir, continued he, ad- 

*i drefling himfelf to the merchant, you 

n^;û\7 O 2 " don't 



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292 C H I NJÇ SE. S? Y. 
don*t want a liundred guîaeas to carry 
you to Loncjon -, but fince it is not fair 
that you (bould be a fufFerer by the 
way, there's two gyineas likewifç for 
ypur trayelling çhàifges. Sir, feid thc 
baron tq the; highwaymon, is therc 
any farther danger on the road ? to 
be fure there is, anfwe^ed he, for fiiice 
this war, in whichs Èngland gained 
immprtal glory, the roads fwarm with 
rôbbçrs \ but we (hall give yoti a 
paffpqrt, which jwill lêcure you ; for 
it is troublefome to gentlemen to bc 
every moment putt^ng. their hands in 
their pockets: and accordihgly fee gave 
the baron a cardi phe Contents pf which 
were as follow. i <- i ; , ' ■' 

*VWe L^— and N-r-t J^hw^yjtîjen, 
fignify to ajl whom it ttiay conçern, 
that this carriage has been ftopped 
and robbed, and that the paffengers 
in it hâve no more nioneyc çhan what 
is ncceflary tç Carry thei^ ço:London, 
whither they, are going^^ AU pf our 
profeffion aj-e , hpréJDy 4çfk^ to let 
them p^fs^freely, as we wpuld do thc 
like honour to any paffport of theirs, 

^ O Whcn 



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C H î NE SE S P Y. 29^ 

When our carnage began to move on, 
** this, faid I, is an admirable police in 
}^ highway robberies ; even in China, 
^' where every thing is done philofophi- 
*' cally, robberies hâve nothing of this 
*' morality." 

The baronet and I, allowed that there 
was fomething ^f equity in this way of 
plundering paffengers, but the city mer- 
chant warmly diiTented from us. 

" Methinks, faid I to him, without 
*' fome principles of éducation a man 
** would not think of tempering an a6t 
** of violence wrth an equity of this 
•* kind. Why, anfwered he, nioft of 
** our highwaymen hâve beea^ weil 
*' brought up. • "^ '^ 

' *' This young fellow who robbed us, 
*** and who called me by my name, is of 
** a creditable family -, wc were fix yeàrs 
** together at the «niverfity of Oxford, 
•* and at that rime cronies. At London 
'*^, we alfo kept Company together, till his 
*' debaucheries quite ruined hini both in 
" fortune and characSer, fo that he had 
*' only this alternative left, to hang him- 
" felf, or go on the highway, and he has 
>• made choice of the latter. This pro- 
** feffion has a little fet him up again, 
O ^ . . "and 



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a64^ C HIl^ E;;SE; $ P Y. 
*' and he now keeps tolkral^ good 
** Company, ^r \ïis^ çoUedtipns er^i^lc 
•* him . fon>ctin3es , tp. fpen4 \hig|i, : ^nd 
♦* that gains admittançe every whcre* 
•* I hâve fccn him at t;he play handing 
" ladies of the firft quality.*' 

A highwayman in £r^)aad,j isQn a 
footing with ^ rçceiver of çhe rçyem^of 
.the financçs 4;> France, and, ^jcer ..alk 
the différence is on^ j^n thçf, mariner of 
robbing \ for whef her you t^jce fro/n thc 
king*s coffers, or from priv^f^ pcriba«k 
ftillit i& robbing tbç public,.^:, -._ -^ 

LE T T E R XCyi. ' \\ 

H%e famé ïo thé famé ^ tfjr P-çHîitf; '* 

GEORGE the thirdLJa.iàîwnedî 
this is a cerenjoiny ufed iiuœoft 
JEuropean ftates. The people,i£Oncc in 
their life,.feethat thjeihcàdof theiriungs 
îs mode to wear the crown. 

It was Bot every body who Qoxiài 2i^ 
fbrd tô fee the Biitilh monarch oa that 
dayv tte %ht canî<iidear5;at>tcaft, I 
know thàt Ipaid Jevçnty ovinces:of filvcr 
for my placer ^it catifedran iawediate 
T ' / circulation 



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C H I NE SE S P Y. à6s 

circulation of fpcde. L dare fiy above 
îthundred thovûand points of view werc 
vended on that occaGon. A fingle win-r 
dow, for fix houfs, fetched the purchafe ' 
of a large houfe -, and this circulation 
had been .prccedcd by othcrs, which I 
îiave fpoken o£ Itis a pity that for thè 
public good, kmgs are not noarried 
and crowned oftener. Yet, this ce* 
rcniony !may, in a grcat meafure, be faid 
to hâve bcen performjed incog ; nobody 
faw it, confidering the vaft multitudes 
who >vcre éagerly defirou s of feeing i t. 
: , The 'cif-cuit crf* the procelîîon, made by 
^ tiiigs of Great Brîtain at their coro^ 
nation, is not one haif of the court of 
the impérial palace at Pékin j from this^ 
I fuppofe» London was iwmerly but 
finali, and chc kii^gsi of Engl^nd noé 
great : perhap?, iikewife, the nafion has 
not wberewith to lengtben^ the procef^ 
fion* There are fomc dates where every 
dimenfion is taken. - .Now, for the king 
to walk through five or fix Ureetsmorq^ 
iyould require twenty ' thoiufatïd . Ipldiers 
inore;- . ^ '.^ /i . ■ :'..'[ 

. Whcther Georjge the Hld- flept tfoà 
night beforehiscoronation I know not^ 
but this I know, that thoulands and teri 
- ' O 4 thoufands 



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296 C HIN ES E S P V. 
thoufands of his fubjeûs did not fo much 
as go to bed, lying uponfcaffoldings, or 
fitting up in rooms. 

' The faîr fex, whkh hère cannot com- 
pJain of any rcftraint, had clbow room 
that night, as thé Englifli fay. ' It was a 
fine tinîe for intrigue F what numbers of 
blcflëd lovers ! how many coronations on 
that night ! 

At this proceffion aflSftcd ail theor- 
ders of the ffate -, the monarchy irfelf 
walked perfonally, and the kingdom in 
a body foUowed the crown. The gran^ 
dées lûokedlike monarchs, and the kîng 
and queçn like deities. The cahopy 
over George was fiï|)erb ; and that un-^ 
dcr which Charlotte walked, fplendîd. 
I clofely obfervcd this young princefs : 
knowing her to hâve beën brought up 
in a court of little or no pomp, I fearcd 
left timidity n>ight injure her «déport- 
ment', but in the mîdft of the moft 
briUiant magnificence, fiie ^ppeared a 
queen. .: „! 

A grfcat nuinber of fuperannuated 
ladies walked in their rank : fome had 
becn prefènt at queen Anne*s coronation. 
le might be fàid that the annals of the 
kingdom followcd the crown, The luftrç 

of 



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CHI>T E s È S P Y. 297 
car thfe f^ftade was heightened by the 
«mifôd^fouilds of the^ hautbois, drùm, 
trdmpçc; âîid kc«?Ie-drunl. 
- Thô Eùropcâfns are no lefe inconfiftent 
îft theif cnftotns and cérémonies than in 
theîr 'Ways and manners. The corôna- 
tîon of deJfpotic princes, whofe croWn is 
thnîft fo'fâr ddwn their heads as to cover 
thbitaèjg^s, is but a llendel- affaire whiHl 
every circumftance ôf magnificence is 
exhibitèd on the coronation of Princes, 
whofe diadem fcarce reaches their fore- 
liéad.: 

Y îjDhc royal pair wcre crowned :by the 
pmdpal iKrdefuftical'nâan'dârrn ; ^for thé 
church of Ëfiglaïidi, ' ^^^ ^^ of ' Rômei 
wiU hive a Iwnd in every thing/ Thé 
refbrmadon <lid notclip its wiAgs : fomè 
qf its priviledges are conneài-ed with 
thofe cf the^ t^ATone kfelfl Shouîd a 
Bridfh: Ikihg piiefume to put the 
cro wm on Jiîs owfeiiéai, 4t ^i«>uld fàll oflf^ 
and the people, with ail their powet 
htrCj 'could noc take ît iip again.^ Thiis 
is an Eùropean prepofièffion which they 
!wiltwe«erlkàké©^ ^ 

The coronation was perfornfied in the 

grcat Paj^d; orcharèh^^at Wçftminfter, 

wherc the 'kiDjgs arerhkèwife ifnterrcd i 

. O 5 ttiefc 



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a98 CHIN jPS ESP Y> 
thefeceremomes iftdeed ^reftï twotidîfo 
fcrcpt days, pne o€ mmK thftPtbçr^of 
forrow ; but fp near, tlwji ^kmn^ afidç 
Ibme fpaces whîch pafs aw^y, with imper- 
ceptible rapidity, one is the eY« and thé 
other the day. The eoronatioa ended^ 
this auguft iaffenably-removed taWcftf 
minfter-haH, >yher0 à banquet was^pre^f 
pared for ail ifee grcatj perfoaag» who 
paii attended theîr majeftier. . : : vi j 
In the height of the feftmty, an 
arnlcd ntan, on horfeback, came into 
the hall, and, with a loud voice^ dcl- 
clared, tbat if, any opé dafced^ -ta . <ièny 
thatkingGebrgçrtbe IHdtiw^ not lawt 
fui king pf GfÇfttrBritaki^ih^. chalfcngca 
him tp a combat.; ^ Sonad laughcdr at 
this bravadp, and others did not think ît 
worth minding. Ytf, lam aptitx) think% 
thac had this JDon QpixQt Qf!the)Bnciih 
crpwn been takeo atiits word,. he.irould 
Iiave bçctkpM %o X ftand. ^ Xhefc arc old 
cuftomsi, keptup.forthegreater dccùia*- 
tioiî ; for were '£ùro|)Qan courts ta ixjr 
afide antîent. cudoms» .^erc^ould be^ an 
ènd of three fourths;of theîr liçpofed 
grandeur. :: -^ ?• ,v <. *:....<^- -.i"/ 

After aM the foregoing fplclidor, I 

qiieftion whethcr the nation Jiaui anyvcrjr 

/^ ' high 



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C HI NES E Bï Y/ 0^99 

high idea of this fpeftacle ; for T can 
afllirc y ou, thar, within a few days af- 
ter, it was. made a public farce of. No- 
tice was given in the play-bills, that 
the corohation of king George Illd. 
would be exhibited as an entertainment, 
and this burlefque turned to very good 
account. 

l was there the firft night. The great 
officers of ftate were reprefented by 
footmen-, the nobility were half a hun- 
dred black gunrds picked up in the 
ilreets ; fome grotefque figures ridiculed 
the higheft dignicles : a candle-fnufFcr 
walked as iord-chancellor, and a fliop- 
man perfonated the lord-mayor rthirty 
ftrumpets were the duchcflfes and coun- 
tefles : the king's reprefentative indeed 
(Was an aftor, but a profligate ^etckîj 
and the rnock-queen has had.threèot 
four baftards. , " : .1 

I fubjoin that détail to fhew y ou the 
temper of this pcople, who carry theit* 
liberty fo far as to turn the moft refpefta- 
blc cerenîonies into drollery. 



1 6 LET- 



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^300 CHINE SE SI» Y. 

L ET TER CXVII. 

Tbe MAitdarin Cham-pi-pi to tbe Mandarin 
Kie-tou-na, at Pékin. 

London. 

IAM fecn hère by fits t fometimes 
cvcry body crowds about me ; at 
others I am as carefuUy fhunned ; and 
thîs cfteem and flight I obfervc to de- 
rive from the air. The north wind be- 
friends-me^ fo that I am fomebody whilft 
the wind is in that quarter : but a fouth 
wind reducçs me to nobody ; I am thcn 
no tnore-minded than if I did not exift. 
. Before I had decyphercd this diflike 
of my peribn, it gave me forne vexa>- 
%^n to fce myfetf ffiunncd by thofe who 
had been moft fond of my company ; but 
now, knowing the caufe of fuch a change 
of behaviour, I am quite eafy about it ; 
for I may as wcll prétend to ftop the 
wind as to fix an Ëngliihman^s fenti- 
mènes. The iliUènnefs of a Briton, who» 
a few days before was ail familiarity and 
courtefy, at prefent does not in the leaft 
4ffeâ iùç. 



It 



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CHINÉS É S P Y. 301 

^ ït is only looking at thç' weather- 
cock 'facihg xny Ipdging, and I 
know of a certainty whether I Ihall bt 

-complimcntçd or faken no notice of. 
When the weathcr favours me, my va- 
kt, who is an arch yonng fcllow, and 
underftands hié countrymcns humoqr, 
brings me my beft fute, telling me the 

'vfirid fets feir for vifits, cmbraccs, and 

-compliments/ 

But wînd and weather being very va- 
riable in thts country, I haye providç^ 

^ihyfelf with a pocket compafs, to know 
to a minute how I ftand in the public 
cfltîmation ; and I affure thee it faved me 
the oèher day from committing a moft 
horrid trefpafs^againft Englifli civilityT 

I had left my room in the niorning, 
with the wind at north, that is, adapted 
for a turn in the Park, where, according 
to my rules, I was not to be long with- 
out^ Company, Whilft I was digcftipg 
the kïtrc3duftory compliments at m'eeD- 
ihg, I faw a nobleman who ufed to be 
veiy \^arni in hjs oiFcrs of fervîce, and 
pftéiéftaiiibhs of à hearty regard for me ; 
«IM^^kffeôd of the open arid ehearful 
cduntcrfâncé, ufual to him in fuch wea- 
thcr, I iii^rtdved him thoughtful and 
^ lowering. 



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302 .<? H i N Ç 8 E « P Y. 

lowering.. vl-lookçd, on my compafi, 
;ând found tïie wind iluited v fo I pa||ed 
on, whhçut taking à^y notice of hina, 
and he as Ijttle of me.. This is tfae rule 
in fuch cafés, and ^ foreigner afting 
Qtherwife, would bf . loqlked pn as littte 
acquainted with f^nglifb.qivi^ty. 

Britilh bodies, 1 fâjujy, imbibe nfy)rp 
air tban thofe pjf ^ay othcr -Éijrppcan 
nation ; fo that it gets up cven into tli^ 
régions of thc brain. The air,, in fomc 
TOeafure^ i§ z c^eck pn . tl>c nation, j^ift^ 
^inders it from goingagaioft the curreflt 
pf its humOjUr. How wouidft t^o^ l^ke 
;^ peoplç whofe temper varies tljus wjitii 
the winds, and where, toJknow whethef 
y ou fliall be admitted at u houfc or tkp 
dpor ÂMit againft yoû, yau mpft alvfays 
«Cârry a cotnpafe abo^t you £ . 

L E.T T E R icvilL 

^be Mandarin Wiron-C^ tç the Maftdar4tf 
, , . Cham-pi-pi> ai London. 

. ' : , . A\|ibejpas mi Vîvaraîs. 

^^TT^HIS copies to thce.from the çfn- 
^J[ /pi^c of tè^ipoonv formyprefent 
^bQdç u on the tç^ of f h^h nioun^ 

' ' tain 



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tain in a province of France, cailed the 
Vivarais i a narpe as little known in 
China, as that of Aubenas. Hère, every 
morning, I gorge myfelf witli minerai 
waters -, Vais, where the fprings are, be^ 
ing but a league from hence. 

In Europe the fcenes of great buf- 
de and aftion are the capital cities, 
as filled with thofe trades which gratify 
luxury and opulence y whilft in the 
fmaller towns you every where fee inac- 
tivity and fupinenefs, the ufual attendants 
pn neceffity and indigence. 
: The people of Aubenas hâve daily 
flauch builhefs on their hands, which is 
having nothing to do -, this is fuch a 
yexatious occupation, that it jiarrafiè^ 
them from morning to night. ni n\v*h 
- In fome parts of the world men are 
of fuch a turn as fcarce to be defined : 
hère this is done out of hand -, for they 
feem neithër to havfe turn, humour, nor 
' difpofition, The life of this people may 
'be divided into four, periods, ihey are 
iorn^ they live^ they drink^ and die, 

The third is that of the greateft con* 
-fideration, and which. moft illuftrates 
human nature. I hâve feen the tombs 
of two cekbrated bottlemcn, whofe fig- 



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304: C H I NE SE S P Y. 

nal itchicvcm^ts' will livê for ever In 
Che temple of memory* Ofte, in û glo- 
nous life offouffcbre yèarâ, had dfunk 
down a hundrcd tuns of wir^V and the 
other is ftill more coafpiciious in the re- 
cords 6f famé, having, tbpugh he iiyed 
twehty years lefs, cmptied tbirty tuns 
more. ^ 

In môft coan tries ^ thè deceàfe^ are 
buried within tvo or t^ee days afer 
their death, but hère tbey ceafe to Jiv« 
long before they àrc put under ground, 
1 fce great nutnbers in tfcis. prace, who) 
thoûgb bru talîzed by their ^ excefe, and 
civiUy dead^ ftill havt :a>niedian}cal eflt^. 
iftence. '' -, '^ • - ^i • ''-'^': ' ;:_ 
t Theft corpfcs never faîl daily goîng 
down inta thçir vault, where they fwiU 
this reddiïh liquor, whidi^ thougti ît 
hâs kiiied themj now reftom* tlKoii to an 
»rtificial life. f - . ; .: 

• Sudh exceffcs, thori mufti imagine^ 
ftrain the features ; and did. the plâGC 
afford a painter, ï wôuld fend thcë half 
a dozen of thçfe hlotched vifagfes, that 
our countryi^ien inay fee to.whàt a:hide* 
eus degree nature is di5%ured by in- 
tempérante, : . î 

: :: Do 



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.C H I NE SE S P Y. 305 
13ô net, however, imagine, that thefe 
peuple, being fuch as I hâve reprefented 
tiiem, muft be void of knowledge. Pof- 
fibly there arc not greater politiciàns in 
Europe. In the morning, indecd, whea 
fafting, the interefts of princes is as fo 
mùch Hcbrew to thenî ; but ahout four 
in the aftcrnoon their genius begins to 
openj and by nnidnight there is no criti* 
cal afFair in Çurope which they are not 
able to fettle. 

As to the wômen, I omit them ; in- 
decd, I canftot well fay there arc 
any ; hère is ai fort of a female beîpg^ 
whkh; talks coarfely, i>lays perpctuàHyi 
quatrelsîxfeily, and fddom pays,. Sych 
are the ladies which adorn the place 
whcre I now am. ; 

.•' ^ .i\ ii^-::j . ..-_ ' . . ■... \ - .; 

^ L E TTE 8/ XCIX. 

The Mandarin Cham-pi-pi to tbs Mandarin 
Kie-tOu-na, tf/ Pekini. 

rr London» 

IAc(|uatnt you wFlh.the fall of ithis 
moiiarchy^s capital minifter. îhf Eu^ 
rope f(»ne orators: mifparry by a fmgte 
conimâj this ftatcfinan owcs hiS ovcis 

throw 



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3o# C S 1 N E S E S P Y. 
Ihrow to the ^yant of a perîod.^ After 
being the main inftrument of .raHing 
England to apitch of élévation . beyond 
any thing it had ever known fince the 
foundation of the ftate, his buGnefs, it 
is faid, was only to hâve ftopped the 
ivhcel, and put a pcriod to the Britiih 
power-, which he cither did not know, 
or would not do* The grcat men in 
Europe are like^ docks j when once 
wound up, they muft go. 

His fall was tke refuit of a projeft 
formed by the court of Verfailles, which 
had idng fotticiœd tbat of Madrid" to en*, 
ter into'^n pffm^we and defeofivc alli^ 
ûnce wktt jt a^àîhâ: Eogland. Tte 
Fk^rKh feadbns for indudng this power 
to embark in the war, \^iefê not inierior 
to thofe of Spain for continuing neuter. 
Twenty /tniti^ling njohim^s-w^uld not 
fuffice to give thee a détail of the whole 

Thefe lèverai points -hstd-been under 
debate for fix years paft, when the ca- 
binet of Verfailles artfuHy intimated to 
that ^4>f Madrid, Uiat thegènieiral pcaq^ 
rf ! Europe - :wàsw qaîte iihpraâicable 4 
fihpe- 'Ëngland, lintcadttig^: td de^ 
ftroy^ thé navy of c^ry^-^ower ijat^Eu^ 
\ ■ rope^ 



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CfTlN E s E S^P Y. 3^7 
ropCiTWould nbt fign k even on diemoft 
advantageôas ccMiditions. The Spanifh 
filenipotemiârf . at London had indeed v 
made feveral motions towatds it, but 
tbe decifive point had always been 
ehided. 

._ This intimation alaVmed the king of 
S pain, and hé feegantd fend an éar té 
the^FréncK overtureiâ -/but as he reqirired 
a Cehain convikJtion, id was agrecd that 
Lewis Ihoald fend an cnvoy to George i 
and-» facilîtatfe-^tbe •H^gôtâatidns for à 
geneiôl «mftqoiltit^^ibotrid recède fronii 
fomeof his claims, This was juft what 
France wanted. 

A man was fent over hère thb fitteft 
in the worlâ tcKÎuècSed} t^at is, not to 
i^e ^^j)f^G^.* È<^ 'çoMHÎ 

not be requireqrf)?; Jiin^ociator to mif- 
carry. • The king did not afFeft him, 
fie Wîisrdifliked by the grandees, and the 
fitopdel epE^atîodvfciipnc^qAyjHe '^pcfljc 
«enèlyrnottoi bcUffiened toi 'he ^m^afr not 
*lÛlin«d..(n4 cand hi&iinfcenioirs^i being 
4ç?wtt> tip'inbt tSbf 3be*«adv werci ^^^ 
fccadvii -yd 'Jsûî /'( 'in : : ri K'v/ t;M .'>::/* ; 
. : ThdEa^iiihfmiin^rfdi^lài) foi^âfd 
jmrtofcrihofx^ntiâwuicè^îdDiut dïdr^ 
iodo ithe w|u)lq:âievmd hiuiifelf^ v6iy cc44 
î:fj about 



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3o8 C H I N E S E S P Y,/ 
about the m^tter, ^d tfee corrfxsremrçf 
broke ^p. fin this rypturc it was that 
a yery curions mémorial, which had coft 
a deal of paînss and invention, v/as prc? 
fentcd to the couçt of Madrid, and to ail 
the neutral powers in Europe -, then 
Spain declàyed" for: France, and j the Eng- 
iifti jpinifter w^$)d(iûnii^d^,l ... . 

The jtwo principal fat>lts oif ;^hidi he 
IB acçu/ed, . are, his^îb^i0g,^XQrtçd hb . 
génies in ftimu^ating the minds of the 
people for a conûn4aÀnce^of the war, and 
his having-givea b^d adviçe j^ia tbe laft 

<)ÇÇJ^rK)n. :..v. . ; i^ m: .r, ud \j '-.* ^ . 
'A' ■ cili '^"::/I Tcvo r^f' -^//v n-rr: i . 

-'\: oi ;: ^'^ àP-PekitiP-^^r':;^ ' - '^ 

AN European pnèvfcrh-feys;^ Hfe larhf 
! heai^s }5Ù t iMc fidcv hcars rngthingL 
jSincc my laft I hâve bcmi iiifbrined of 
the Idte myrijfter'srreafonsdfor qppofing ji 
pcace. Hc will not allow that hc ftebred 

H«:^rrfts- ttotiieJwd^nwKlc.ihétocanT 
Wo m(mMliMA ^ym s^çSàxf:^ aiid that 

:»...••." the 



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th€ grêaftêftffaùk- tfîe poHticàl pilots cari 
commît; irt tht prefénc jiirffture, is td 
corne to an anchor. Hère follows the 
fubftance of his l'eafoning : it is one of 
thofe ambitions etForts whîch airiis di- 
reéfcly at a^figAal blow, withbut ftbpping 
by the Wây. >^ ' ' ' 

^ ** England, fâys this itiinifter, has at 
** prefcnt the keys of the océan in its 
** hands ; its power is fuperior to ail thé 
** other ftàtes of Europe; and two or 
** thfeé catnp^igns more wilî complété 
*• the whole wôi*k/ ^To whât purpofé 
*' then thefe palifes ?î Why, to give the 
>* powers a breathing time by an vmfea- 
** fonable peace ? Why do wc not vigo- 
•* roùfly put the fihiftiÎAè hand to our 
*? gréattiefs? '^ - 

. ** It i$ alledgcd^ that Europe begins 
*' to entcrtairi fuJpîciohs of us ; and our 
*' declining the peace ofiènds thofe 
-** powers who hâve not yèt declared, ïb 
'** that thëy thrcaten to join in à iérf^uè. 
•^ What are Eampé'sf fiffpicions- ïo Us ? 
>' Diffimulatlon irt pôïitics mày be ne- 
:*« ceflkrytill à fuî>erîbrity^ is àcquiVed'; 
"but that bèirig in ouf hands, thîP né- 
" celTity ofdiflimuràtion céafcs.' Wh^t 
** . havc we^tt> fe^ froni the alliances 6f 
' t/r ; • ^ «the 



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3IO C H'I N E S E S P Y. 
*^ the neutral ftates ? Are not we alone 
'' ftronger than ail the maritime powers 
'' put together ? Spain déclares againft 
" us juft in the right time, at leaft in the 
" beft time for us. Had fhe broke thç 
*' neutrality at the beginning of the war, 
" it might hâve put us to fome trouble ; 
*^' but her delaying to déclare for France 
*' till it is ruined, is to get herfelf ru- 
" ined likewife. Our enemies do more 
" for us than we could for ourfelves ; 
" were we to prefcribc to them to fuit 
*' their meafures to our interefts, they 
*' could not do better, The continu- 
" ance of the war is the only way left 
*' us for fecuring anequilibrium, and pre- 
" ferving Europe frpm being fubdued 
'* by an over-grown power. If France 
" is ruined by fea» it is not on the con- 
" tinent ; and in three years of peace ft 
" will recover ail its ftrength. Allow it 
" this refpite^ and we fhall be perpe- 
" tually beginning. What fignifies A- 
*' merica to us, uniefs we for ever dife- 
" ble the French from molefting us? 
" We hâve made peace with that crown 
" many rimes ; and what hâve we got 
" by fo doing? We hâve foon found 
<« ourfelves obUged to begin the war 
•ï, - t' afitfir. 



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CHINE S E S P Y. 311 
** afrelh. We hâve already advanced 
*' itnmenfe fums» for tKe expenccs of 
" tbis war; unlefs the conditions oa, 
** which we mak^ peace be very advan- 
•* tageous, we ftiall, after ail our vifto- 
*' riesy .be rather lofers than gainers. 
"' Wheré is the mighty benefit of Ca- 
•* nada, wîthout a free and quiet poflfef- 
^* flon of the Ncwfoundland fifhery ? 
** What îs oflfefed us, is not worth the 
** twcntieth part of our expences. 

" But it is urged that the peopte call 
^'^ oUt for peàce; and this famé people 
<* ctees it ev^r know what it would 
** hâve ? It îs a diftempered body, al- 
♦* moft ever deiirious : others muft thitik 
** for it, for it knows not how. to think 
^' for îtfèlf. But fay Jorne^ k is not able 
** to pay the taxes ; fo it faid in the very 
•** fécond year of the war, and wouïd be 
^ ever faying fo Ihould it laft ten years 
** longer. Some add, the ftate i^ ex* 
** haufted •, but are thofe with whom we 
^^ ai-e at war inany better coridîtibn ? 
** ^nd it is only relatîvely thàt govern- 
*' ments are rkh ôr {>6or." 

What a tnultitfudè^crf reafonà forgoing 
on with ficges and batties, and contiou- 
ing the defolatioQ of couAtri^*' 

LET* 



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pt C M I N E s E s P Y. 

L E T T E R CL - 

Tbe Mandarin Ni-ou-fan to the Mandarin 
Cham-pi-pi, at London. 

Aubehas. 

AMONG the Automata, with whom 
I now live, I hâve met with a man 
who makes them * : he is a famous ar- 
tift, fent hither by the court, it' feems, 
fo build a filk-millof a new conftruftion. 
He is faid, as if he were a new creator, 
tQ animate matter, and make brafs fpeak. 

In uninhabitable countries there can- 
not be a greater pleafuKe than to find 
fomebody to live with. I fometimes vi- , 
fit this prodigious man; but, I own, I 
am not a little concerned that ail his ge- 
nius lies at his fingers ends. In Europe- 
diftinguilhcd talents feem limited to one 
particular objeft -, you meet with few or 
np gênerai men. This man's capacity îs 
(hut up in a café; t^ake him out of 
praâical mechanifm, and he is more a 
machine than any he makes. 

The Company hère meet evcry cvcn- 
ing in a houie called the Manufaéture, 

* He means M. dé Vocanibn. 

whcrc 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. zii 
Where every one atnufes hîmfelf accord- 
îng to his fancy. Somc play at cardsj 
others are talking, fomc cven diverc 
therofelvc^ with the poUte arts : for this 
houfe is not without three ôr four mufi- 
çal inftruments,ifuch as they are •, which 
îs much in a couotry, where no other 
harmony i3 expe£bed thah chatcaulèd by 
the amtation of the mr. 

Tne maft«r of thU bw& îs brother 

Poo G '9 wbom we faw at Paris. He 

h.as fome gênerai Aotiom of trade^ arts^ 
aod faandicralts : lie Ukewîfe is hpt defi- 
cîenjt m that ca|)adty congenîa^ as it 
wcrci to peuple of feûfe j but which^ 
for w^pt, ûf culture, rçinaâns always 
idéal, t hp firft yifit ï paid km, hé 
took ine iato a corner of the haUi, and 
tbff ré talked lo me of njwwitcr, tniniftry, 
ppUtical œconomy, finances^ dJica^crkSf 
exrenûoQof t^iade^i icbproiremf nt c^ arts^ 
&c, 

i hcard bUn through^ tUl he fto^^^^ 
of his own accord. Sir, faid I^ may I 
take the liberty to alk y ou what you do 
hère ? methmks you are quite piiijplaced ; 
e^ery maa fkancCs in need of beuig fec 
opapedeftali ofkçvmtè his talents are 

Vpï-.IV. P bivicd; 



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214 C H I N E s E S P Y. 
buried ; and fupcrlative mcrit turns to 
ho aecount, either public or perfonaJ, 
in a place whlch lies above a hundred 
leagues from the temple of honour and 
riches. 

ft/càn't be help*d, faid he. About 
thirty years ago a gale of fortune drovc 
me on this rock : I came at firft to work 
on one thing, and applied myfelf to an- 
other, which is often the café. 

Since the immortal Colbert's time 
France had greatly encouraged European 
arts, but without takîng one ftep to- 
wards a difcovery of the Oriental, thp* 
making a perpétuai ufe of them. I ap- 
plied myfelf to a dyc of great ufe/ and 
utterly unknown to us. My very firft 
opérations affbrded me hopcs IlhouTd fuc- 
cced, and of thefe hopes I informed the 
minifter of arts and trade : he gave me 
a great deal of verbal encouragement, as 
ail thofe gentlemen do; and, that his 
words might niake the greater împreffion 
on me, he added a promîfe of a' cohfi- 
derable reward. 

By dint of labour I fucceeded, or ra- 
t^er by dint pf genius ; for in arts, of 
which we bcgin the difcovery only in 

' ' our 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 215 
our riper years, we are to ftrike out a 
procefs, and this can be donc and con- 
duflied only by genius. 

I was on the point of writing to this pa- 
tron of arts, whenhe gave himfelf the trou- 
ble of dying -, and thus with him was bu- 
ried the hope with which he had flattered 
me. For in France, on the deceafe of 
a minifter, his fucceflbr never fails af- 
feûing a différent way of thinking : to 
trcad in the fteps of their predeceflbrs, 
thofe gentlemen would think a déroga- 
tion to their grandeur. 

However, I was fent for to court to 
make a report of my labours -, but they 
did not reward me in any thing like my 
application and expences. 

I hâve fince applied myfelf to other 
difcoveries equally new and ufeful, and 
with the famé fuccefs ; but as yet my re- 
ward is to corne. 

But I would f^n know, faid I to bîm, 
how you hâve beën able to fuit yourlclf 
to this country, and bcar with the tem- 
per of the people. Moft eafily, anfwcr- 
cd he -, for I don't know that there is fo 
much as a people and a temper in thé 
town. When the mind is filled with a 
projciSt, and bcnt on its fuccefs, ail coun- 
P 2 tries 



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lié C H I N È S ï S P Y. 
tries arc good -, nay, perbaps, the worft 
are then the beft, the mind being Içis 
diftr^ed by général amufements ; and 
dhîîpatîop is incompatîbïç wiih fuccefs, 
You fee the people hère in an univerfal 
idienefs, and I hâve not a moment to 
myfelf ; my occupations crowding on 
me, give wings to time j ic paflês away 
with infenfible rapidify. This perfon 
faid feveral otfaer very fenfiblc things 
to me. 

But, fîr, hâve you no fucceflbr ? Is a 
colour ail the monument you wili Icave 
on the earth ? No, no, anfwered he^ 
pointing to a very pretty young gcntfc- 
woman in the eompany, there is a dye 
pf min« ; that is my daughter. And a 
very fightly colour indecd, anfwered I > 
ait the Orientais put together couW not 
inake a finen 

LESTER C!î. 

The Mandarm Cham-pirpi te Phe. Mandarin 
Kic-tou-m, at Pékin. 

LonckHi. 

FRANCE and England wHl foon 
clap up a peace -, the pfcnipoten- 
çi^riçs ôf iht two. crôwns $re aircady 

n%med j 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 217 

named ; an Englifli duke is fetting out 
for Paris, and a French duke is coming 
to London. 

. Their înftruftions direft, that they 
are to meet on the road, to fee and 
falute cach other, but go on without 
Ipeaking. 

They arc to obferve a ftri6t filence till 
they fhall fet their feet in the clofets of 
the refpeftive minifters, where their 
tongue is allowed to loofen itfelf, as in- 
deed there will be enough to talk of. 
. This event happened when little 
expeéled, becaufe in Europe no body 
has the key of politicks : the people 
may be always talking of ftate-affairs ; 
but they condefcend to let princes aft 
a3 they think fit. . . 

Politicians, after running the rounds 
of theîr fpeculations, cannot avoid a- 
dapting them to the mealures of fove- 
reigns ; (6 that thefe, in effeft, are as 
ihe foui of their difquifitions. 

Many who hâve beert ten years ftîck- 
Jers for a particular fyftem, are obliged 
to quit it, and go over to the oppofite 
party. But this is nothîng to Europeans, 
who, if they are but arguing, don*t 
much conccrn themfelves about the 
P 3 argu- 



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aiS CH I N E SE S P Y, 
argument. Politicks herc is a contage- 
ous difcafe, and without any manner of 
relation to its caufes. 

The preliminaries of peace are already 
known. The fubftance of them is, thac 
after twenty battles, fome millions of 
livcs loft, the dcvaftation of the conti- 
nent, wich the ruin of trade, arts, and 
ingenuity, each nation is to be pretty 
nearly on its former footing. 

On conûdering the wars of Chriftian 
ftates, one cannot but pity the European 
nations^ fo fre^uently involved in ail 
kinds of calamities, only for the humour 
or miftakc of their fpvercigns. The 
vety nion^rchs are in fome meafure ta 
be pitîcd that thcy fhould weaken them- 
felves by fchemes of aggrandizement, 
and, to încreafe their power, diminifli 
thcir ftrength. The damage fuftalned 
by the two monarchies in the war now 
concludcd, cânnoc be preçiicly cafcu- 
lated ; but thcy hâve fo eflfeftually torn 
each other to picce$, that ten luftres of 
profound uranquiility wiU not rçcover 
them ; and the people are reduced to 
fuch a low cbb, that the beft adminiftra- 
tion poflible cannot makç gppd their 
k)flc«. As to the d^opulation, two âges 

wiU 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 219^ 

wiH hardly fill up thc vaft breach made 
in it. I omit the relaxano» of the Uws, 
thc vigour of which can aev^r be kcpt 
up in fuch turbulent trmcs : thc côa- 
foquence of this is tumuh, confufîon, 
and cvtry thing that is bad. It wcrc 
to be wifhed, that the kings ot Europe 
would be ambitîous of not making wac 
Oft each other for thc feke of power. 

L E T T E R ÇIIL 

S'be Mandarin Cbam- pî-pt iç the Mandarin 
Kk-toi^oa, a^ Pékin. 

London. 

THE emprefs of thc v^ Eu^opean 
contineiit, whc^e domii^as bor^jr 
on our empire, is juft dead» and her fuc- 
cefiforS firft ftep has been 10 recail the 
thc Ru0ian troops fent iiuo Çt^xmmf 
;^garnft the king of Pru03ia : it is ^^ 
thought that be wiU joia then) to th<^ 
ef tkuit nK>nar€h, whofe pow^r the |ate 
emprefs made a point of curtaili^g. 

Nothing more mankfcfts the mi$for- 
tui^& of the Chriftian n«tion$ thta the 
fudden changes of Cfovaed hegib, whkh 
caufe as it were a circulation of bavock 

and 



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220 CHINESESPY. 
and carnage. This demonftrates evcrjr 
thing in the whole cîrcle of Cîitiftendom 
to bc arbitrary, and political and civil 
government to be dcrived from chance. 

A nation at one time butchers thofe, 
with whom lately they were aflbciated 
in flaughtering others. Treaties, alli- 
ances, fieges, battles, every circumftancc 
of polîticks, generally dépend on the 
life or death of a finglc prince. The 
dcath of Lewis, XIV. is faid. to bave 
changed the plans of ail the courts in 
Europe. A niarriage confblidates a (yf- 
tem, a burial overthrows it ; a corona- 
tion more or lefs gives a turn to the 
whole Chriftian world. 

What a misfortune to be born în a 
climate where alliances are continua^y 
fhifting at the humoxir oi a fovereigi^ ! 
to be friends with a people in fummer, 
ànd their enemies in autumn ; kilUng 
to-day a nation, whofe Uves yefterday we 
Would hâve rilked our own to fave f 

For my part, I déclare that I had ra- 
ther be born in the woods of America 
among the favages who know notbing 
of fyftem, than among the civilizcd gor 
vcrnments of Chriftendom. 

LET- 



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CHINESE SPY. 221 

L E T T E R av. 

^be Mandarin Ni-ou-iàn to the Mandarm 
Cham-pi-pi, ai London. 

Aubcnas. 

BESIDES the aflêmbly whiçh I gave 
thee an account of rn my former, 
there is another publick rendezvous 
called the Caftlc, which is propcrly the 
pri^cc's palace, or lordt of t|iç maoor's 
houfe. 

Yeftcrday I went tô thw caftle -, for in 
little country towns you arc lookcd on 
as an o|d fcllow, if you aft npt as others, 

The marqaifs cfN , who is this 

lord, reeeived me poHtely, but coldly ; 
fach a fcrious cauntenance ! nevcr faw : 
however, he ha^ a great deal of good 
fenfè, and a vcry elear judgement. In 
his youtK hc chofe a mîHt^y life, and 
has fpem the greateft part of his days 
in fighting for the ftate : for in France 
honoùr will not allow gentlemen to mind 
the improvement of tfaeîr eftatcs -, to be 
a good fubjeft, they maft intruft thcir 
lands wkh farmers, who ruin them ; 
whilft, on the ofher l^nà^ they fquander 

away 



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222 C H I N E S E S P Y- 

away the remainder of their fortune în 
the camp. Thus the demefnes.^ both of 
the crown and the gentry, fall to ^ccay, 
and the whole monarchy lies faUow. 

This gentleman has fuch a gênerai 
ftock of knowledge, that whatevcr fub- 
jeft be ftarted, he is ne ver at a lofs. 1 hc 
difcourfe in the affembly began with po- 
liticks, and he talked politicks ; then 
morality became the topic, and He held 
forth on morality. Soon after the çon- 
vcrfation (hifted to finances, and hère he 
gave us fome ftriftures on that fubject ; 
ail with the moft profound gravity, and 
with no lefs indifférence. 

This phlcgmatic turn, being far from 
that of the Fretich gentry, furprifed me. 
Sir, whifpcred I to one ojf the compâny 
who was ncxt to me, does your lord al- 
ways look fo ftaid. Yes, anfwered he, 
I havc known him thcfe thirty years, and 
nevcr faw him other than he is now; but 
that is nothing ftrange, addcd he-, for 
our country gentlemen in France laugh 
only by turns. The count d'N — , this 
gcntleman*s father, was chearful, jocu- 
lar, and merry, during the term of forty 
years, in which, it îs fuppofed, hc ex- 
haufted ail the family's mirth. Perhaps 

it 



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C H I N E s E s P Y. 223 
it may be the fourth génération before 
the marcjuis's defcendants will laugh, as 
that will be about the time when the 
patrimonywill be retrieved; thenafrefh 
laugher may corne into the world and 
ruin it a fécond time, and thus alternately 
from mirth to fadnefs, till the family be 
utterly undone. 

I am eut of patience with this place ; 
I cannot bear it any Ipnger ; and though 
my health be not recovered, and I am 
confequently very unfit for travelling, I 
détermine to fèt out to morrow for 
Spàin. — What fignifies it ? I can but die 
npon the road, and I am fure any longer 
ftay hcre would finilh me. 



End of Volume the Fourth, 



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