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Full text of "Less access to less information by and about the U.S. government : a 1981-1987 chronology"

^^^ 







•: "^*^';" . 







to Less Information 



aa|v by and about the 
I? U.S. Government 



_ 1981 -1987 
Chronology 



American Library Association 
. Washington Office ■ 



to Less Information 
by and about the 
U.S. Government 

A 1 98 1 - 1 987 Chronology 



Prepared by the 

American Library Association 

Washington Office 

February 1988 



The American Library Association is most grateful for the 
generous support it has received from the Benton Foundation 
and the Field Foundation. 



Printed in the United States of America 



Preface 

What was first seen as an emerging trend in April 1981 when the 
American Library Association Washington Office first started this chro- 
nology of items which came to our attention, had by December 1987 
become a continuing pattern of federal government to restrict govern- 
ment publications and information dissemination activities. A policy has 
emerged which is less than sympathetic to the principles of freedom of 
access to information as librarians advocate them. A combination of 
specific policy decisions, the Reagan Administration's interpretations and 
implementation of the 1980 Paperwork Reduction Act (PL 96-511, as 
amended by PL 99-500), implementation of the Grace Commission rec- 
ommendations, and agency budget cuts have significantly limited access 
to public documents and statistics. 

Since 1982, one of every four of the government's 16,000 publications Q 
has been eliminated. Through two 1985 directives. Circulars A-3 and A- 
130, the Office of Management and Budget has clearly consolidated its 
government information control powers. Circular A-3, Government Pub- 
lications, requires annual reviews of agency publications and detailed 
justifications for proposed periodicals. Circular A-130, Management of 
Federal Information Resources, requires cost-benefit analysis of govern- 
ment information activities, maximum reliance on the private sector for 
the dissemination of government information, and cost recovery through 
user charges. The likely result is an acceleration of the current trend to 
commercialize and privatize government information. 

Another development, with major implications for public access, is the 
growing tendency of federal agencies to utilize computer and telecom- 
munications technologies for data collection, storage, retrieval and dis- 
semination. This trend has resulted in the increased emergence of 
contractual arrangements with commercial firms to disseminate informa- 
tion collected at taxpayer expense, higher user charges for government \ 
information, and the proliferation of government information available "j 
only in electronic format. While automation clearly offers promises of - 
savings, will public access to government information be further re- 
stricted for people who cannot afford computers or pay for computer 
time? 

During 1987, a government policy of secrecy was demonstrated in the 
Iran-Contra affair and in obligatory employee secrecy agreements. The 
Federal Bureau of Investigation asked librarians to report on foreigners 
using certain libraries. Incongruously, at the same time, the federal gov- 



ernment is contracting out the operation of more and more of its libraries 
to foreign-owned private companies. 

The American Library Association reaffirmed its long-standing convic- 
tion that open government is vital to a democracy in a resolution passed 
in January 1984 which stated that ''there should be equal and ready ac- 
cess to data collected, compiled, produced, and published in any format 
by the government of the United States." In January 1985, ALA estab- 
lished an Ad Hoc Committee to Form a Coalition on Government Infor- 
mation. The Coalition's objectives are to focus national attention on all 
efforts which limit access to government information and to develop sup- 
port for improvements in access to government information. 

With access to information a major ALA priority, members should be 
concerned about this series of actions which create a climate in which 
government information activities are suspect. This publication is a com- 
pilation of previous ''Less Access ..." chronologies. 



I 



April 1981 President Reagan imposed a moratorium on the production and 

procurement of new audiovisual aids and government publications 
using the rationale that the federal government is spending too 
much money on public relations, publicity, and advertising, "Much 
of this waste consists of unnecessary and expensive films, maga- 
zines, and pamphlets." {Weekly Compilation of Presidential Docu- 
ments, April 27, 1981) 

April 1981 The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) issued Bulletin No. 

81-16 which provided procedures and guidelines for the morato- 
rium. All agencies were required to review and reduce planned or 
proposed publications and to develop a management control plan 
to curtail future spending on periodicals, pamphlets and audiovi- 
sual materials. 



June 1981 



OMB issued a model control plan to assist agencies in developing 
new or improved control systems to carry out the policies and 
guidelines in Bulletin No. 81-16, "Elimination of Wasteful Spending 
on Government Periodicals, Pamphlets, and Audiovisual Products." 



June 1981 



OMB Bulletin 81-21 required each federal agency to submit its 
plan for reviewing its information activities by September 1, 1981. 
The objective was to establish a process "... which forces agencies 
to focus on and allows us (OMB) to influence decisions on how 
they process, maintain, and disseminate information." Bulletin No. 
81-21 also required the designation of the single official in each 
federal agency in the executive branch who will be responsible for 
information resources management as required by the Paperwork 
Reduction Act of 1980. 



September 1981 



I 



October 1981 



David Stockman, Director of OMB, issued Memorandum 81-14, 
requiring heads of executive departments and agencies to pay 
special attention to the major information centers operated or 
sponsored by their agency. Among the types of information centers 
to be evaluated are clearinghouses, information analysis centers 
and resource centers. Evaluation criteria included these questions: 
Could the private sector provide the same or similar information 
services? Is the information service provided on a full-cost re- 
covery basis? 

OMB Bulletin 81-16, Supplement No. 1, required agency review of 
all existing periodicals and recurring pamphlets to reevaluate their 
necessity and cost-effectiveness using OMB-approved control sys- 
tems. Agencies must submit a new request for all series to be con- 
tinued after January 15, 1982. 



1 



October 1981 



October 1981 Public Printer Danford Sawyer, Jr. proposed to close all Govern- 

ment Printing Office bookstores outside of Washington, D.C. plus a 
few Washington locations. Approximately 24 of the 27 GPO book- 
stores would be closed, because, it is claimed, they complete with 
the private sector and are losing money. (Letter to Sen. Mathias, 
Chairman of the Joint Committee on Printing, Oct. 9, 1981) 

October 1981 The Justice Department submitted to Congress the Administration's 

proposal to severely limit the applicability of the Freedom of Infor- 
mation Act. {Washington Post, November 28, 1981) 



November 1981 



According to the Washington Post (November 9, 1981) over 900 
government publications have been or will be eliminated and the 
government claims that millions of dollars will be saved as a result. 



November 1981 



The Washington Post (November 20, 1981) also reported that the 
Commerce Department was considering replacing the National 
Technical Information Service with contracts to private firms. NTIS 
indexes and distributes at cost thousands of federally funded tech- 
nical reports and research studies. 



November 1981 



Q 



One example of a discontinued publication is the Securities and 
Exchange Commission News Digest, hardly an ephemeral public 
relations piece. The SEC will continue to print it for internal use, 
but will no longer offer subscriptions or make it available for de- 
pository library distribution. Instead, a private firm will publish it 
at a 50 percent increase in price (from $100 to $150 per year). 
(Security and Exchange Commission News Digest, November 10, 
1981) 



December 1981 



Citing budget cuts, the National Archives discontinued the inter- 
library loan of microfilm publications from the Fort Worth Federal 
Archives and Records Center. About 400,000 reels of census, 
diplomatic, pension and other records used heavily by genealo- 
gists were lent to libraries annually. (Letter sent from the National 
Archives to "All Librarians", November 30, 1981) [Note: In July 
1983, NARS began a rental program for census microfilm through 
a contractor.] 



January 1982 The free Government Printing Office pamphlet Selected U.S. 

Government PubUcations used for years to alert readers to new 
general interest and consumer oriented government documents will 
no longer be mailed to the public because GPO says it is too 
expensive to mail out every month. GPO suggests that readers 
subscribe to the comprehensive bibliography the Monthly Catalog 



April 1982 



o/ U.S. Government Publications which costs $90 a year. {Wash- 
ington Post, January 22) 

February 1982 The President's FY 1983 budget requested zero funding for the 

Library Services and Construction Act; Titles II A, B and C of the 
Higher Education Act which provide funds for college library 
resources, research and training programs and research libraries; 
and the National Commission on Libraries and Information Sci- 
ence. Less money was proposed for the state block grant which 
contains funding for school library resources and for the U.S. 
Postal Service subsidy which supports the fourth class library rate 
and other nonprofit mailing rates. (Office of Management and 
Budget, Budget of the U.S. Government FY 1983) 

March 1982 A 300 percent increase in the cost of an annual subscription to the 

Federal Register — from $75 to $300 — went into effect. (February 25 
Federal Register, p. 8151). In 1981, the price of a year's subscrip- 
tion to the Congressional Record increased from $75 to $208. Sen. 
Charles Mathias (R-MD) stated that circulation of the CR declined 
almost 20 percent in the last three years as the price increased. 
{New York Times, June 2) 



March 1982 Many publications formerly distributed free are now available only 

for a fee and government agencies are urged by OMB to start 
charging prices high enough to recover their costs. For example, 
because of budget cuts, Agriculture Department's Economic Re- 
search Service will stop free distribution of its publications and 
make these reports available only on a paid subscription basis. The 
alternative was to curtail basic research activities. (March 29 FR, 
p. 13178) 

March 1982 A reference collection standby, the Dictionary of Occupational 

Titles, is threatened because 87 of the 97 jobs remaining in the 
Labor Department's occupational analysis division are being elimi- 
nated. {Washington Post, March 2) 

April 1982 The President signed Executive Order 12356, National Security 

Information, which substantially increases the amount of informa- 
tion that can be classified. (April 6, FR, pp. 14873-14884). Critics 
see the Executive Order as a reversal of a 30-year government 
policy of automatic declassification of government documents. 
Although the National Archives still has the authority to review 
classified documents, budget cuts are likely to limit the ability of 
Archives to carry out this function effectively. {Chronicle of High 
Education, April 14) 



May 1982 



May 1982 The Administration supports Senate amendments to the Freedom of 

Information Act to restrict the type and amount of government 
material available to the public. {Washington Post, May 4). 

May 1982 The government's two biggest collectors of statistics, the Census 

Bureau and the Bureau of Labor Statistics, have cut programs 
because of budget reductions. The Census Bureau has dropped 
numerous studies and the Bureau of Labor Statistics has asked 
Congress for an emergency $5.6 million appropriation "to maintain 
the accuracy" of such key economic indicators as the Consumer 
Price Index. According to a May 4 Washington Post article, "Many 
of the programs being trimmed helped the government monitor 
how its programs were being used. Others helped policy makers 
predict economic trends." The article also guoted a business leader 
testifying at a congressional subcommittee hearing in March: "A 
million dollars saved today through short-sighted reductions in the 
budgets for statistical programs could lead to erroneous decisions 
that would cost the private and public sectors billions of dollars 
over the long run." 

May 1982 The Office of Management and Budget has agreed to make availa- 

ble a complete list of discontinued government publications as a 
way "... to assure an orderly and equitable transfer of discontinued 
government publications to the private sector." The list, which 
should be available in mid-July, can be obtained from OMB's Bill 
McQuaid (202/395-5193). (Association of American Publishers 
Capital Letter, May) 

May 1982 In April, the General Services Administration closed the Washing- 

ton, D.C. Federal Information Center, leaving the 40 information 
centers in other parts of the country still operating. However, cit- 
ing budget cuts, walk-in services have now been eliminated, leav- 
ing only the telephone numbers and people to answer them. A 
saving of $260,000 of the centers' $4 million annual budget is 
anticipated. {Washington Post, May 25) 

May 1982 The New York Times (May 10) reported that GPO destroyed $11 

million worth of government publications that were not selling 
more than 50 copies a year or earning more than $1,000 in sales a 
year. The millions of documents were sold as wastepaper for 
$760,000. Although a few copies of most titles have been kept in 
stock, generally people looking for one of the destroyed publica- 
tions will be told to find it in one of the depository libraries. 



October 1982 



June 1982 



In keeping with its policy to refuse to offer for public sale anything 
that won't yield $1,000 a year in sales, GPO has selected only 25 of 
the 69 publications which the National Bureau of Standards wanted 
to offer for public sale. As a result, the rejected publications are 
available to the public only through the National Technical Infor- 
mation Service whose prices for NBS publications are generally 
two to three times higher than GPO's for the same document. 
(Memo from NBS official, June 14) 



June 1982 



Continued cutbacks on free publications result in the Health and 
Human Services Department no longer distributing copies of In- 
fant Care without charge as it has for 58 years. {New York Times, 
June 2) 



June 1982 



September 1982 



The Office of Management and Budget permited federal agencies 
to begin putting out new publications and films, but OMB will 
keep a close eye on costs and top agency officials will monitor 
content. According to a preliminary count, the Administration has 
eliminated about 2,000 of the 13,000 to 15,000 publications distrib- 
uted before the President's April 1981 moratorium on government 
books, periodicals and audiovisuals. {Washington Post, June 11) 

In response to a September 8 Federal Register (pp. 39515-39530) 
notice by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) regarding 
proposed regulations for the information collection provisions of 
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, Washington Office Director 
Eileen Cooke sent OMB the resolution on federal government 
statistical activities passed by Council at the 1982 annual confer- 
ence. Her letter sent with the resolution expressed ALA's concern 
with the assumption throughout the proposed regulations that 
federal government data collection is a burden on the public, with 
little recognition given to the benefits to the public which are 
derived from accurate, nonbiased and timely statistics. She stressed 
that the Association would like to see more safeguards for public 
access in the regulations. 



October 1982 On October 6, 1982, OMB released a list of more than 2,000 gov- 

ernment publications — one out of every six — targeted for termina- 
tion or consolidation into other publications. This initiative, 
together with 4,500 other cost reductions proposed for an addi- 
tional 2,300 publications, is expected to produce cost savings "of 
more than one-third of all federal publications." According to OMB 
82-25, "Reform '88: Elimination, Consolidation and Cost Reduction 



January 1983 



of Government Publications," sixteen percent of all government 
publications will be discontinued. This amounts to 70 million cop- 
ies, 1/12 of the 850 million copies printed, and is part of ". . .the 
Reagan Administration's continuing drive to eliminate costly, re- 
dundant and superfluous publications ..." Each federal agency 
will be reviewing its publications for increased user fees. Similar 
savings are expected during 1983 to 1985. 

January 1983 OMB published the draft of the revision of its Circular A-76 "Per- 

formance of Commercial Activities" in the January 12 Federal 
Register, pp. 1376-1379. Library services and facility operation and 
cataloging were listed as examples of commercial activities. The 
supplement to the circular sets forth procedures for determining 
whether commercial activities should be operated under contract 
with private sources or in-house using government facilities and 
personnel. (ALA's Federal Librarians Round Table recommended 
many changes in the draft circular to OMB.) 

January 1983 OMB proposed amendments to its Circular A-122, "Cost Principles 

for Nonprofit Organization," in the January 24 Federal Register, 
pp. 3348-3351. The proposal ". . .would have had the apparent 
effect of severely restricting or inhibiting an organization from 
engaging in protected first amendment rights with its own private 
assets as a condition for receiving the benefits of any federal con- 
tract or grant, unless the organization would duplicate all its facili- 
ties, equipment and personnel." ("Legal Analysis of OMB Circular 
A-122: Lobbying by Non-Prof it Grantees of Federal Government," 
Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress, December 
15, 1983, p. CRS-2). The proposal was withdrawn in March after 
substantial congressional and public criticism. {Chronicle of 
Higher Education, March 9, 1983) 

February 1983 In a February 18 speech to the Conservative Political Action Con- 
ference, President Reagan cited "... reducing publication of more 
than 70 million copies of wasteful or unnecessary government 
publications" as one of the ways that his Administration is attempt- 
ing to make government more efficient. {Weekly Compilation ol 
Presidential Documents, February 23, 1983, p. 260) 



March 1983 Stating that additional safeguards are needed to protect classified 

information, the President issued a directive on safeguarding na- 
tional security information on March 11. The directive mandates 
greater use of polygraph examinations in investigations of leaks of 
classified information and requires all individuals with access to 



August 1983 



certain types of classified information to sign a lifelong pre- 
publication review agreement to submit for governmental review all 
writings and proposed speeches which touch upon intelligence 
matters. As directed by ALA Council in a resolution passed at the 
1983 Annual Conference, ALA Executive Director Robert Wedge- 
worth wrote to the President and requested that The Presidential 
Directive on Safeguarding National Security Information be re- 
scinded. In December, Congress added an amendment to the 
Department of State Authorizations (PL 98-164) prohibiting imple- 
mentation of the directive until April 15, 1984. 

April 1983 The Department of Energy proposed regulations in the April 1 

Federal Register, pp. 13988-13993, to ". . .describe those types of 
Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Information (UCNI) to be pro- 
tected, established minimum protection standards, set forth the 
conditions under which access to UCNI would be granted, and 
establish procedures for the imposition of penalties for violation of 
those regulations." Although libraries were not mentioned in the 
proposal, the scope of the documentation and information poten- 
tially covered raised concern about access to information on nu- 
clear research in libraries which are depositories of Department of 
Energy nuclear materials. 

August 1983 At a public hearing at the Department of Energy on August 16, 

Sandra Peterson, chair of the Government Documents Round Ta- 
ble, testifying on behalf of ALA, concluded that the proposed DOE 
regulations issued in April about Unclassified Controlled Nuclear 
Information should be withdrawn and reevaluated. At the hearing, 
a DOE official recognized the concerns of academic and research 
institutions about the effect of the proposed rule on their libraries. 
Two possible solutions were suggested: 1) expressly exempt from 
the rule nongovernmental libraries whether operated by govern- 
ment contractor or not; and 2) limit the responsibility of nongov- 
ernment libraries to the protection of documents or materials 
specifically identified by title, if possible, to the library by DOE in 
writing. In an October letter to DOE on behalf of ALA, Peterson 
rejected both approaches as impossible and impractical. DOE 
plans to issue a revised proposal in lanuary 1984 in the Federal 
Register for an additional public comment period. 



August 1983 OMB issued the revision of its Circular A-76 (see lanuary) in the 

August 16 Federal Register, pp. 37110-37116. The impact of this 
circular extends to all libraries which depend on or have a service 
relationship with federal libraries. A contract for total library oper- 



September 1983 



ations of the Department of Energy library was awarded to a pri- 
vate sector firm in August, for the Department of Housing and 
Urban Development in September. 



September 1983 



In the September 12 Federal Register, pp. 40964-40965, OMB 
solicited public comment on the development of a circular on 
federal management as part of its responsibility to implement the 
Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 (PL 96-511). The only underlying 
principle mentioned by OMB was that "information is not a free 
good but a resource of substantial economic value . . . ." The ALA 
response stressed that "To participate fully in a democratic society, 
citizens must be informed and aware, regardless of their individual 
ability to pay for information." Indications are that OMB will try to 
establish user fees in order to recover the government's full costs of 
creating as well as providing information, and will try to define 
what constitutes unfair competition with the private sector as it 
relates to information issues and library operations. OMB plans to 
issue a proposed circular for public comment in the Federal Regis- 
ter in February 1984. 



October 1983 In contrast to other policies which restrict public access to govern- 

ment information, the U.S. Government Printing Office launched a 
national campaign to increase public awareness and use of federal 
depository libraries. The campaign uses public service announce- 
ments with the theme "Contact your local library" on television, 
radio and in print to guide the audience to all libraries, the 1,375 
depositories and other non-depositories. 



November 1983 



OMB issued a watered down version of its lanuary revisions to 
Circular A- 122: "Cost Principles for Nonprofit Organizations; Lob- 
bying and Related Activities" in the November 3 Federal Register, 
pp. 50860-50874. In a December 19 letter, ALA urged OMB to 
clarify ambiguous language in the proposal and reaffirmed the 
Association's commitment to the principle that open government is 
vital to a democracy. OMB has extended their previous mid- 
December comment deadline to lanuary 18, 1984. ALA chapters 
and state library associations may want to further analyze the OMB 
proposal to see if it would affect their organization's lobbying and 
related activities. 



November 1983 



The House passed HR 2718, Paperwork Reduction Act Amend- 
ments of 1983. The bill establishes new goals for further reduction 
of the burden imposed by federal paperwork requirements. Federal 
collection of information would be reduced by 10 percent by Octo- 



January 1984 



December 1983 



ber 1, 1984, and by an additional 5 percent by October 1, 1985. 
The House bill would explicitly prohibit use of funds for functions 
or activities not specifically authorized or required by the Pa- 
perwork Reduction Act. (November 7 Congressional Record, pp. 
H9271-9273) 

In a December 12 letter to Rep. Augustus F. Hawkins (D-CA), 
Chair of the Joint Committee on Printing, OMB Director David 
Stockman, protested the stipulation in the proposed JCP Govern- 
ment Printing, Binding and Distribution Regulations that the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office would be responsible for the distribution 
of all government publications. In her letter commenting on the 
proposed regulations, ALA Washington Office Director Eileen D. 
Cooke commended the JCP for its development of regulations 
which provide for technological changes and for increased support 
for the depository library program. Cooke said: "The expanded 
definition of printing is extremely important for the continued 
effective operation of the depository library program. An increas- 
ing number of government agencies are creating information 
which is only available for distribution in an electronic format. In 
order for libraries, specifically depository libraries, to be able to 
provide information in this format to the general public, it must 
become a part of the depository library program." The proposed 
JCP regulations were printed in the November 1 1 Congressional 
Record, pp. H9709-9713. 



December 1983 



On December 28, 1983, the United States Government gave the 
required one-year notice of its intention to withdraw from the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) effective January 1, 1985. (Press release #98-158, 
"House Hearings on U.S. Participation in UNESCO," Committee on 
Science and Technology, U.S. House of Representatives, March 8, 
1984) 



January 1984 



Note: ALA Council passed a resolution in January 1984 on contin- 
ued U.S. membership in UNESCO. Thomas Galvin, Chair of 
ALA's International Relations Committee, testified in Con- 
gress on March 15, 1984 and urged the U.S. to stay in UN- 
ESCO and continue to allow U.S. scientists "full, prompt, 
and ready access to . . . research results of their counterparts 
. . .throughout the world." 

The Second Annual Report on Eliminations, Consolidations, and 
Cost Reductions of Government Publications reports the elimina- 



January 1984 



tion of 3,287 publications and the proposed consolidation of an- 
other 561. The total of eliminations and consolidations equals 3,848 
publications or one-fourth of the total inventory. These publications 
account for over 150 million copies, or 15 percent of all copies 
printed. In addition, federal agencies proposed 5,020 cost- 
reduction actions on 3,070 other publications including reducing 
the volume, frequency of issue, use of color, and other printing and 
distribution cost reductions. Meanwhile, the Office of Management 
and Budget is revising OMB Circular A-3, the permanent proce- 
dure for the government-wide review of publications. When the 
circular is revised, OMB plans to establish new publication elimi- 
nation and cost reduction goals for the remaining 9,000 publica- 
tions in the government inventory of 15,900 publications. (Office of 
Management and Budget, Second Annual Report on Eliminations, 
Consolidations, and Cost Reductions of Government Publications, 
released on January 6, 1984. 

January 1984 A photograph in the Washington Post showed Presidential coun- 

selor Edwin Meese III and OMB Deputy Director Joseph Wright 
surrounded by trash bags stuffed with government documents at a 
White House briefing. The accompanying story said: 

Since President Reagan took office three years ago, the 
administration has eliminated one of every four government 
publications then printed. Most of them were distributed free 
to the public by the Agriculture and Defense departments. 

Meese ridiculed the publications, calling a pamphlet entitled 
"How to Control Bedbugs," for example, a real "bestseller." 
But the doomed publications included several offering ad- 
vice about serious subjects, such as solar energy, radioactive 
fallout, income taxes and drug abuse. Meese said those 
publications are being eliminated because the information is 
available elsewhere. Eliminating the publications will save 
$85 million annually. . . (Pete Earley, "U.S. Tightens 
Tourniquet on Flow of Paper," Washington Post, January 7, 
1984, p. A5) 

February 1984 For the third year in a row the Administration proposed elimination 
of library grant programs. Education Department justification for 
the zeroes indicated no new rationale, but once again noted "the 
program's past success at establishing the highest practical levels 
of access across the country to library services . . . and at develop- 
ing models of interlibrary cooperative arrangements to stimulate 



10 



February 1984 



further expansion of the concept." In addition, ''any further need 
for training of professional librarians can be met through State and 
local efforts as well as student aid programs." In the past years, 
Congress has continued to fund library grant programs, in some 
cases, at the highest-ever levels. (Department of Education, The 
FiscaJ Year 1985 Budget, released February 1, 1984) 

February 1984 The Administration's FY 1985 budget request for the Consumer 

Information Center is $349,000, a million dollars less than the FY 
1984 appropriation. The budget proposes that one-half of CIC's 
staff be redirected from traditional consumer information activities 
to undertake new marketing programs financed from increased 
user fees and other charges. The CIC's function is to promote 
greater public awareness of existing federal publications through 
distribution of the quarterly "Consumer Information Catalog" and 
various media programs. 

In May, when the House Appropriations Committee recommended 
$1,149,000 in new budget authority for the CIC in FY 1985, it 
expressed concern that the recent user charge increase has sub- 
stantially reduced consumer demand for publications, with the 
result that lower volume has raised unit distribution costs. There- 
fore, the committee directed that the charge to consumers not be 
raised above its current level of $1 and that the CIC charge other 
federal agencies only the actual cost of distributing publications. 
(H. Rept. 98-803 on the Department of Housing and Urban 
Development- Independent Agencies Appropriation Bill, 1985; May 
23, 1984, p. 34) 

February 1984 The Administration requested for FY 1985 only $452 million of the 
$801 million needed to keep nonprofit and other subsidized postal 
rates at current levels. Under the President's proposal, a 2-lb. book 
package mailed at the fourth-class library rate would increase from 
the current 47<t to 66<C, a 40 percent increase. However, the House 
Treasury-Postal Service-General Government Appropriations Sub- 
committee, chaired by Rep. Edward Roybal (D-CA), recommended 
$801 million, the full amount needed. The full House Appropria- 
tions Committee approved that recommendation June 7 in HR 
5798; the Senate subcommittee has not yet acted. (House Treasury, 
Postal Service and General Government Appropriations Bill, 1985 
(H. Rept. 98-830)) 

February 1984 Following the Administration's request for substantial revisions to 
the Freedom of Information Act, the Senate passed S. 774 amend- 



11 



February 1984 



ing the FOIA. The bill would provide increased confidentiality for 
certain law enforcement, private business, and sensitive personal 
records. It promotes uniform fee schedules among agencies which 
could recover reasonable processing costs in addition to the cur- 
rent search and copying costs, and could keep half the fees to 
offset costs. The public interest fee waiver would be clarified. 
Many of the substantive and procedural changes proposed by the 
Senate to the FOIA are controversial. Rep. Glenn English (D-OK), 
Chair of the House Government Operations Subcommittee on 
Government Information, Justice, and Agriculture, has indicated 
that the Subcommittee "must proceed very carefully and thought- 
fully in considering amendments." (February 27 Congressional 
Record, pp. S1794-1822, and "Statement of Rep. Glenn English on 
the Passage by the Senate of Freedom of Information Act Amend- 
ments," News Release from the House Committee on Government 
Operations, February 28, 1984) 

February 1984 The Department of Agriculture announced that it will issue a Re- 
guest for Proposal (REP 84-00-R-6) on March 15, seeking contrac- 
tors to provide a computer-based system to support electronic 
dissemination of "perishable" data developed by USDA agencies. 
(February 28, 1984, Commerce Business Daily). Examples of the 
type of data to be disseminated in the system include: Market 
News Reports from Agricultural Marketing Service, Outlook and 
Situation Reports from Economic Research Service, Weekly Export 
Sales Reports from Foreign Agricultural Service, USDA press 
releases and crop production reports from Statistical Reporting 
Services. Users will pay for the direct cost of accessing the data 
from the computer-based system. However, USDA does not plan to 
exert control over the fees which contractors or sub-contractors 
will charge the public to access the on-line data. 

The Office of Management and Budget considers this RFP a proto- 
type for the federal government's distribution of electronic data. 

The Patent and Trademark Office has signed agreements with 
private companies for the automation of agency records at no cost 
to the government. One aspect of these agreements reguires the 
agency to deny Freedom of Information Act reguests for the rec- 
ords in automated form. In a statement in the March 14 Congres- 
sional Record {pp. H1614-1615), Rep. Glenn English (D-OK) 
asked: Is the agency obtaining services at the price of limiting 
public access to some of its records? The Securities and Exchange 
Commission has issued a reguest for proposals for a pilot test of an 



12 



June 1984 



electronic filing, processing, and dissemination system. The Fed- 
eral Maritime Commission is also considering an electronic filing, 
storage, and retrieval system for tariffs. 

March 1984 On March 15, Sen. John Danforth (R-MO) introduced S. 2433, the 

Senate version of the Paperwork Reduction Act Amendments of 
1984. The Senate bill v/ould require reducing the paperwork bur- 
den by 5 percent in each of the next five fiscal years, beginning in 
FY 1984. (March 15 CongressionaJ Record, pp. S2789-2793) 

April 1984 OMB published the third and final version of its controversial 

"Lobbying" revision of Circular A-122, "Cost Principles for Non- 
profit Organizations" in the April 27 Federal Register, pp. 18260- 
77. The revision which is scheduled to go into effect on May 29, 
1984, makes unallowable the use of federal funds for the costs 
associated with most kinds of lobbying and political activities, but 
does not restrict lobbying or political activities paid for with non- 
federal funds. The new version is still drawing fire from some 
groups and from Members of Congress who contend that the book- 
keeping requirement would require contractors and grantees to tell 
the government how much they spend on lobbying and identify 
those costs separately from other expenses. {Washington Post, 
April 30, 1984) 

April 1984 The Justice Department concluded in an April 11, 1984 memoran- 

dum for the Counsel to the Director of the Office of Management 
and Budget that the proposed regulations published by the Joint 
Committee on Printing in November 1983 ". . .are statutorily un- 
supported and constitutionally impermissible." (Memorandum for 
Michael J. Horowitz, Counsel to the Director, Office of Manage- 
ment and Budget. Re: Constitutionality of Proposed Regulations of 
Joint Committee on Printing under Buckley v. Valeo and INS v. 
Chadha, April 11, 1984) 

May 1984 When the National Farmers Union recently asked for a listing of 

payment-in-kind (PIK) participants and amounts of the PIK com- 
modities they received, the U.S. Department of Agriculture re- 
sponded that a printout would cost $2,284.87, with half of the 
money required up front. {Washington Post, May 25, 1984, p. A21) 

June 1984 Thousands of government employees are currently being required 

to sign prepublication censorship agreements and to submit to lie 
detector examinations despite President Reagan's suspension of 
these controversial programs proposed in his March 1983 National 



13 



July 1984 



Security Decision Directive 84. According to a General Account- 
ing Office report (GA/NSIAD-84-134) released on June 11, 1984, 
every employee with access to sensitive compartmented informa- 
tion (SCI) is being required to sign a lifelong prepublication cen- 
sorship agreement, Form 4193. In March 1984, the President had 
promised Congress he would suspend the censorship and poly- 
graph provisions of his directive for the duration of this session of 
Congress. The President's censorship contract and Form 4193 are 
virtually identical. Since the issuance of Form 4193 in 1981, ap- 
proximately 156,000 military and civilian employees have been 
required to sign such agreements at the Department of Defense 
alone. The GAG reports that employees in 22 other federal agen- 
cies have also signed these agreements. (U.S. House of Representa- 
tives, news release, "GAO Update on Administration Lie 
( Detector/Censorship Status Reveals Reagan Promise of Suspension 

Has Little Effect: Brooks Calls for End to Programs, Prohibition by 
Law," released June 13, 1984) 

July 1984 For the first time in 45 years, the Federal Statistical Directory has 

been published by a private publisher — at nearly three times the 
price. Previously, the directory was created by the Commerce 
Department's Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards and 
sold through the Government Printing Office. After the statistical 
office was transferred to the Office of Management and Budget, 
OMB killed the book as part of its drive to scrap unnecessary 
publications. When GPO sold the 1979 edition, the most recent 
available from the government, it charged $5. The private pub- 
lisher has updated the 1979 version, added an index and appendix 
and set his price at $14.95. ("U.S. Statistics Go Up in Private Print- 
ing," Washington Post, July 24, 1984) 

July 1984 Three years after the Reagan Administration began slashing the 

budgets of federal statistical agencies, the General Accounting 
Office has concluded that most major studies were not jeopard- 
ized, in part because the cuts generally have been restored by 
Congress. According to the report, "Status of the Statistical Com- 
munity After Sustaining Budget Reductions" (GAO/IMTEC-84-17), 
the National Center for Education Statistics, similar to other statis- 
tical agencies, protected its core survey programs when budget 
cuts were required. The Center also considered whether programs 
were necessary because of congressional mandates or because of 
Departmental requirements. As a result of applying these two 
criteria, the Center made most of its reductions in the areas of 
technical assistance to states and library services. Program initia- 

14 



August 1984 



tives that were put on hold included obtaining data on interna- 
tional education and measuring adult functional literacy. 

(WrK^hinrtinn Pn<:ii Anmist 9 1 9R4) 



{Washington Post, August 2, 1984) 



August 1984 The Department of Energy published revised proposed regulations 

on identification and protection of unclassified controlled nuclear 
information (UCNI) in the August 3 Federal Register, pp. 31236- 
46. DOE said that the proposed regulations have been changed to 
clarify their intended scope, with several of the changes specifi- 
cally directed at the concerns of librarians. "Other than the fact 
that certain documents that, in the past, would have been released 
to libraries no longer will be released in the future, these regula- 
tions have no direct impact on the operation of public or university 
libraries." The broad scope of DOE's April 1983 proposal raised 
concern about access to information on nuclear research in li- 
braries which are depositories of DOE nuclear materials. 

On September 13, Sandra Peterson, Documents Librarian at Yale 
University, testified for ALA at a DOE public hearing on the pro- 
posed revision. While guestioning the philosophy which allows an 
agency to restrict access to unclassified information, Peterson 
acknowledged DOE's congressional mandate to issue regulations 
under section 148 of the Atomic Energy Act, and commended DOE 
for responding to criticism and adopting a realistic approach. 

August 1984 On August 8 the Joint Committee on Printing held an all-day infor- 

mational session at which JCP staff answered guestions on the 
revised draft of the "Government Printing, Binding, and Distribu- 
tion Policies and Guidelines" published in the June 26 Congressio- 
nal Record (pp. H7075-78). The original draft revision published in 
November 1983, intended to embrace new technologies and re- 
place JCP micromanagement procedures with oversight and policy- 
making functions, generated hundreds of comments. ALA 
commented favorably on both drafts, particularly the provisions for 
technological change and support of the depository library pro- 
gram. 

The JCP staff explained that the current JCP regulations were now 
being termed "policies and guidelines" in light of the Supreme 
Court's decision {INS v. Chadha, 102 S. Ct. 2764 (1983), which 
held legislative vetoes unconstitutional unless passed by both 
Houses of Congress and signed by the President. The Justice De- 
partment has advised the Defense Department that it need not seek 
JCP approval as reguired under 44 U.S.C., Section 501, before 



15 



September 1984 



conducting printing activities outside the Government Printing 
Office. JCP staff director Tom Kleis said he would ask the Commit- 
tee to hold hearings on Title 44 with an eye to revision, but felt the 
guidelines were needed as an interim step. JCP's interest as an 
oversight committee was in making sure that government informa- 
tion was available to the public at a fair price, and that copies were 
provided to depository libraries as reguired by law. 



September 1984 



The Postal Rate Commission recommended on Septem.ber 7 postal 
rate increases of 10 percent for 1st class (a 22C stamp), 11 percent 
for 3rd class nonprofit, 8 percent for the 4th class special or book 
rate, and a whopping 21 percent average increase for the 4th class 
library rate. While in most cases the U.S. Postal Service had re- 
guested larger increases, the reverse is true for the library rate. 
USPS reguested 12 percent; the Postal Rate Commission said 21 
percent was necessary to cover recent increased transportation 
costs for the library rate. 



The initial impact early in 1985 would be about a 15 percent in- 
crease in the library rate (from the current 47C for a 2-lb. package 
to 54C), with the average 21 percent increase (67C for 2 lbs., up 42 
percent over the current 47<C) over current rate at the end of the 
phased rate schedule for the library rate (in approximately 1986). 
The library rate is now in Step 14 of a 16- step phased rate sched- 
ule leading up to a rate which reflects the full attributable costs 
(but none of the institutional or overhead costs) of the library rate 
mail. (Note: At its December 12 meeting, the U.S. Postal Service 
Board of Governors accepted the Postal Rate Commission's recom- 
mended rates. The new rates will take effect on February 17, 1985.) 
(U.S. Postal Service, News, General Release No. 47, December 12, 
1984) 



September 1984 



In a September 14 letter to Donald Sowle, Administrator of OMB's 
Office of Federal Procurement Policy, 12 members of Congress 
stated that "While we believe that proper implementation of the A- 
76 Circular can help achieve more cost-effective performance of 
government activities, we oppose its application to library opera- 
tions, which are inherently connected to the government's ability to 
make sound policy judgements." Signatories were Reps. William 
Ford (D-MI), Albosta (D-MI), Hawkins (D-CA), Simon (D-IL), Dy- 
mally (D-CA), Owens (D-NY), Barnes (D-MD), Schroeder (D-CO), 
Oakar (D-OH), Williams (D-MT), Brown (D-CA), and Walgren 
(D-PA). 



16 



October 1984 



September 1984 



The National Aeronautics and Space Administration announced on 
September 18 that a New York firm would publish and distribute 
"NASA TechBriefs Journal," saving NASA $600,000 a year, en- 
abling the publisher to make a profit selling ads, and perhaps 
making more free copies available to the public. But the chairman 
of the Congress' Joint Committee on Printing declared NASA's 
agreement illegal, a violation of Title 44. A NASA lawyer has 
issued an opinion that JCP's jurisdiction applies only to publica- 
tions intended for a government audience, not to all publications 
containing government-gathered information. In response, a JCP 
attorney said: "Their interpretation. . .is totally specious. That 
would leave out the larger part of the universe of government 
publications." ("Print Deals Seen Making GPO a Paperless Tiger," 
Washington Post, October 2, 1984) 



September 1984 



The House Post Office and Civil Service Subcommittee on Human 
Resources, chaired by Rep. Don Albosta (D-MI), held oversight 
hearings September 20 and 25 on the implementation of OMB 
Circular A-76 and its effects on the federal workforce. OMB Circu- 
lar A-76 sets forth executive branch policy on the performance of 
"commercial" activities by the federal government. At the Septem- 
ber 25 hearing. Rep. Albosta questioned Office of Management 
and Budget Deputy Director Joseph R. Wright, Jr. about the appro- 
priateness of contracting out federal libraries and said that OMB 
was "walking a thin line" in including the entirety of library opera- 
tions in their emphasis on turning government activities over to the 
private sector. In his testimony, Wright listed 14 categories of activ- 
ities for productivity improvement study which federal agencies 
will be asked to concentrate on in the near future. "Libraries" fall 
between "mail and file" and "laundry and dry cleaning." 



Rep. Major Owens (D-NY) testified that libraries are one of the few 
professional functions on OMB's list and linked contracting out 
efforts to the Office of Personnel Management's efforts to reclassify 
and downgrade federal librarians. He thinks that both these efforts 
have ominous implications for the future and for the age of infor- 
mation. 

October 1984 In the October 1 Federal Register, p. 38694, the Department of 

Commerce announced that it intends to conduct a cost comparison 
of its library and issue an invitation for bids under OMB Circular 
A-76. 



17 



October 1984 



October 1984 Over the past two years, parents in a housing subdivision in Morri- 

son, CO, have watched 12 neighborhood children die of cancer, 
heart disease or meningitis. Another five children are battling 
cancer now, residents say, and there are dozens of unexplained 
cases of heart, brain and lung disease. The neighborhood's 5,000 
residents are blaming the problem on toxic wastes and demanding 
government help. The Environmental Protection Agency, after 
rebuffing the citizens for more than a year, recently undertook a 
series of surveys to search for toxic polutants. However, EPA has 
warned that it may lack the funds to do much if it turns out that the 
health problems stem from toxic discharges in the neighborhood. 
A local activist recalls bitterly that EPA officials initially told resi- 
dents that they knew of no sites in the area that could pose a haz- 
ard. With one call to the U.S. Geological Survey, the citizens 
secured a map showing that at least five uranium mines once oper- 
ated in the immediate vicinity. "You just go to the library and look 
it up," the local activist is quoted as saying. ("12 Children Dead in 
'Cancer Cluster' Community," Washington Post, October 4, 1984) 

October 1984 The Counterfeit Access Device and Computer Fraud and Abuse 

Act of 1984, now part of PL 98-473, was aimed at computer hack- 
ers but could have unintended dampening effects on the public's 
right to know. The legislation makes it a federal offense to know- 
ingly use or disclose information in a government computer if the 
computer is accessed without authorization or if the scope of au- 
thorized access is exceeded. Sens. Mathias (R-MD) and Leahy (D- 
VT) pointed out that the focus of the new provision is on whether 
access is authorized, not on whether the use or disclosure of infor- 
mation is authorized. Thus even information whose release is man- 
dated by the Freedom of Information Act might not be able to be 
released if the authority of a particular government employee to 
obtain it from a computer file were in any doubt. 



October 1984 



Federal agencies are publishing notices in the Federal Register 
announcing increased fees to the public for record retrieval includ- 
ing Freedom of Information Act requests. The increased fees im- 
plement existing policy to recover the direct costs of document 
search and duplication, but can be high when an individual re- 
quests information which must be retrieved by computer. For ex- 
ample, in the October 29 Federal Register, p. 43468, the U.S. Postal 
Service published standard charges for system utilization services 
which range from $189 to $1,827 per hour. Dedicated use of a 370/ 
135 costs $15,704 per accounting period. Peripheral charges vary 
from $.01 per frame for offline microfilm processing to $2,960 per 
accounting period for inspection service processing. 



18 



December 1984 



November 1984 The Office of Management and Budget issued Bulletin No. 84-17, 
Supplement No. 1, which provides the pro-rata reduction targets 
necessary for federal agencies to achieve the savings targets speci- 
fied in the Deficit Reduction Act of 1984. Each of the executive 
agencies covered by the supplement has a pro-rata reduction tar- 
get of 25.6 percent for publishing, printing, reproduction, and 
audiovisual activities. This percentage amounts to a $347 million 
cut in printing and publications in 1985. ("OMB Gets Serious on 
Spending Cuts," Washington Post, November 7, 1984 p. A 13) 



'd 



November 1984 The Defense Department issued one directive and prepared to 
issue a second that will restrict the release of unclassified and 
previously available information about weapons and other military 
systems. The new rules apply to technical information generated by 
the Defense Department, military contractors, research organiza- 
tions, universities and anyone under contract to the Pentagon. 
Pentagon officials said that the directives are intended to reduce 
the flow of militarily useful technology to the Soviet Union. Critics 
said the directives are worded so broadly that they could also be 
used to restrict the flow of embarrassing information about weap- 
ons performance. DOD officials sought to assuage fears that the 
new directive would be used to cut off technical information to 
Congress or to hide mistakes by pointing to specific provisions 
forbidding such actions, {Washington Post, November 8, 1984; 
New York Times, November 5 and 8, 1984) 

November 1984 The Chemical Information System (CIS), 20 chemical data bases 

with physical and regulatory data, which the Environmental Protec- 
tion Agency (EPA) has operated since 1973, has been turned over 
to private contractors without providing any interim federal fund- 
ing. Each of the two contractors who have taken over the data base 
has a different plan for the system's future. Users claim that this 
will "put the system in chaos." When there are two different data 
bases, users will be forced to subscribe to both to get what they 
could previously get from one — "twice the overhead and twice the 
work." Still another concern is that unprofitable but scientifically 
valuable components of the system are likely to be dropped. A 
proposal to move the system to the National Library of Medicine 
gained some Congressional support but was not considered before 
Congress adjourned. ("EPA Dumps Chemical Data System," Sci- 
ence (November 16, 1984)) 

December 1984 A 32-page report prepared by Harvard University asserts that 
federal agencies have greatly expanded their demands to see 
academic research before it is published. Officials on other cam- 

19 



December 1984 



puses describe the report as the most comprehensive catalog yet 
published of restrictions on university research that the government 
funds, and that it marks the beginning of a concerted effort by 
research universities to roll back such restrictions in the Reagan 
Administration's second term. ("Campuses Fear Federal Control 
Over Research," New York Times, December 18, 1984) 



December 1984 



The United States cast the lone vote in the United Nations General 
Assembly against the continued publication and expansion of a 
directory listing 500 potentially dangerous products that are 
banned, restricted or have failed to win approval in any one of 60 
countries. The Assembly vote was 147 to 1. A United States dele- 
gate said the American vote reflected the Reagan Administration's 
belief that the $89,000 expenditure on the publication was "waste- 
ful" because the information was generally available elsewhere, 
although not all in one place. Some nations contended after the 
vote that the United States was not sensitive to their need for 
guick, easy information. A member of the Bangladesh delegation 
said: "It is very difficult for developing countries to collect this 
information on their own." 



The United States voted against the initial publication of the direc- 
tory in 1982 and has since declined to provide data for it. The 
publication's information about substances banned or restricted in 
the United States was compiled with the help of the Natural Re- 
sources Defense Council which filed a Freedom of Information 
reguest with federal agencies to obtain it. ("U.S. Lone Dissenter in 
147-1 Vote at U.N. on Toxic-Products Book," New York Times, De- 
cember 19, 1984) 



December 1984 



lanuary 1985 



The State Department announced on December 19 that it will go 
ahead with the announced withdrawal of the United States from the 
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization 
(UNESCO) on December 31, ending 38 years of membership. 
United States membership could be renewed if UNESCO makes 
certain changes in its operation, according to a State Department 
spokesman. {Washington Post, December 20, 1984) 

President Reagan issued Executive Order 12498 which could ex- 
pand greatly the authority of the Office of Management and 
Budget to control government poHcy making. The order will allow 
it to screen other agencies' regulatory proposals before the rules 
are drafted formally or announced publicly. The Executive Order 
does not apply to independent agencies and also exempts regula- 



20 



February 1985 



tions that must face tight judicial or statutory deadlines. {Washing- 
ton Post, January 5) [Ed. note: See January 4 Federal Register, pp. 
1036-1037 for the text of the Executive Order.] 

January 1985 A 32-page report "Federal Restrictions on the Free Flow of Aca- 

demic Information and Ideas," prepared by John Shattuck, a vice- 
president at Harvard University, was reprinted in the January 9 
Chronicle ol Higher Education. This report has additional exam- 
ples of restrictions of access to government information. 



February 1985 



The 1985 edition of the Car Book rates cars based on crash test 
performance, fuel economy, preventative maintenance, repair, and 
insurance costs. Originally published in 1980 by the Department of 
Transportation, it guickly became the government's most popular 
publication with two million copies reguested; but the Reagan 
Administration discountinued the book. It is now available from its 
private publisher for $8.95. (Washington Post, February 4) 



February 1985 For the fourth year in a row, the Administration's budget proposed 
to eliminate funding for the Library Services and Construction Act 
and the Higher Education Act title II library grant programs. The 
National Commission on Libraries and Information Science was 
once again at zero. The proposed budget would also eliminate all 
postal revenue forgone appropriations. If enacted, this would mean 
that as of October 1, 1985, those eligible for free mail for the blind 
would have to pay the full cost of this mail; and major increases 
would take effect in all subsidized rate categories including non- 
profit bulk mail, classroom publications, and the fourth class book 
and library rates. A two-pound book package sent library rate 
would be $.94, a 74 percent increase from the current $.54. This 
would be on top of a 15 percent increase February 17, when the 
two-pound package went from $.47 to $.54 as part of a general rate 
hike. 

Budget documents indicated that at a later date the Administration 
would propose legislation to permit the United States Postal Ser- 
vice to increase the rates of full ratepayers so that some subsidy 
could continue for a few but not all current preferred- rate mailers. 
No details of this proposal were provided. (OMB, Budget of the 
United States Government, Fiscal Year 1986, Appendix) 

February 1985 The Reagan Administration's efforts to stem the flow of unclassified 
information to the Soviet Union may soon turn to a new area: the 
government literature made available to the public through the 



21 



March 1985 



Commerce Department's National Technical Information Service. A 
February memorandum by Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige 
suggests that "new legislation, new Executive Orders, and coordi- 
nated government-wide regulations" may be required to stem what 
he calls the "hemorrhage" of information through NTIS. Private 
corporations make extensive use of NTIS materials as do scholarly 
researchers. Baldrige wants much tighter screening of what goes 
into NTIS, in essence requiring that documents containing poten- 
tially sensitive information be withheld from NTIS even though they 
are declassified or unclassified. {Science, March 8) 

March 1985 The Merit Systems Protection Board announced that it will no 

longer publish the full text of its decisions in bound volumes, but 
referred users to private sector sources for MSPB decisions. The 
March 4 Federal Register notice (pp. 8684-8685) listed several 
private publishers which offer the MSPB decisions in various for- 
mats, not all of which include the complete decisions, at prices 
ranging from $250 to $498 per year. The bound volumes in the past 
have been provided at no charge to 472 depository libraries, in- 
cluding 37 federal libraries. In addition, 500 to 1000 copies of the 
volumes have been sold by the Government Printing Office at a 
cost of approximately $55 per year. Discontinuation of government 
publication removes the item from the Depository Library Program, 
the GPO sales program, and inhibits public access to the deci- 
sions. The cost to the government itself for one copy of the MSPB 
decisions for each of the federal libraries which are currently 
depository recipients could be over $18,000. (Statement of Francis 
J. Buckley Jr. before the House Government Operations Subcom- 
mittee on Government Information, Justice and Agriculture, 
April 29) 

March 1985 At a speech at the National Press Club, Attorney General Edwin 

Meese III rejected the suggestion that the Administration had 
restricted access to information and said it had instead reduced the 
amount of information that was classified. "We have far too much 
classified information in the Federal Government," He pledged an 
"open administration" in his tenure as Attorney General. "Some- 
times there is a temptation in Government to close up sources of 
information," adding that he would seek "to avoid this temptation" 
and try instead "to work cooperatively." {New York Times, March 
21) [Ed. note: However, the Information Security Oversight Office 
says classification has increased. See May item.] 



22 



March 1985 



March 1985 OMB proposed "a sharp reduction in the Government's efforts to 

gather and distribute statistics about all aspects of American life." 
Under the proposal, a draft circular on the management of federal 
information resources, OMB would have authority over all 
information-gathering efforts by federal agencies. "The agencies 
would have to show that the data were essential to their mission, 
that their benefits outweighed the collection costs." {New York 
Times, March 31) [For the text of the proposed circular, see the 
March 15 Federal Register, pp. 10734-47, with corrections on 
March 21, p. 11471.] 

March 1985 Some omissions from the OMB proposed circular on management 

of federal information resources are sure to spark controversy. "For 
instance, while the proposal warns bureaucrats to be wary of the 
possibility of price-gouging as the result of a contractor's monop- 
oly over a government data base, it doesn't offer specific safe- 
guards. . .Agencies are not reguired to grant sole-source contracts 
to provide data bases to the public, but the SEC and others have 
an incentive to do so if in return they get an internal system from 
the contractor at no cost." (Business Week, March 25) 

March 1985 Using its authority under the Paperwork Reduction Act, OMB 

rejected all or parts of several forms proposed by the Department 
of Housing and Urban Development and the Veterans Administra- 
tion to collect racial and ethnic data on beneficiaries of federal 
programs. The information is collected in a attempt to detect and 
prevent discrimination. (New York Times, March 25) [Ed. note: In 
June, OMB reversed its decision to bar HUD and VA from collect- 
ing information about the race, sex and ethnic background of 
applicants for home mortgage insurance. In a May letter, five Re- 
publican and seven Democratic senators urged President Reagan 
to overrule OMB, Washington Post, June 26.] 

March 1985 The Consumer Information Center, part of the General Services 

Administration, has raised fees for some of its publications, and is 
now charging for other publications it formerly distributed free of 
charge. A March 30 Washington Post story about these changes 
stated: "about 70 percent of the publications listed in the 1981 
catalog were free, compared to 50 percent today," and "in 1981, the 
most expensive publication in the catalog cost $2; today, the top 
price is $7." As a result, the CIC's distribution of publications over 
the last four years has plummented by about 77 percent. 



I 



23 



April 1985 



April 1985 The Department of Defense told the Society of Photo-Optical In- 

strumentation Engineers, sponsors of an April technical symposium 
in Washington, that it must cancel the presentation of about a 
dozen unclassified research papers because the information might 
help the enemies of the U.S. In addition, DOD ordered the Society 
to restrict the audience that attends the presentation of two dozen 
other technical papers that also are unclassified. The Pentagon 
contended it has the authority to limit distribution of information 
under the Export Control Act, which bars export of sensitive tech- 
nology without a license. When speeches and papers are involved, 
DOD maintains that the presence of foreign scientists in the audi- 
ence could lead to unauthorized export of information. Leading 
universities and professional associations have objected to the 
restrictions, and have been working with the Pentagon to try to 
resolve the conflict. {New York Times, April 8) 

April 1985 According to an April 18 Washington Post article, the Reagan 

Administration is drafting guidelines to classify all national 
security-related information throughout the federal government — 
including civilian agencies — as part of an effort to increase com- 
puter and telecommunications security. Much of the information 
now in government computers is unprotected and is widely availa- 
ble. A special national security committee will decide how much of 
that information needs protection and how to protect it. As the 
federal government relies on computer networks and ordinary 
telephone conversations to conduct even the most sensitive busi- 
ness, traditional methods of classification for paper files and docu- 
ments are seen as no longer adequate. The fact that computer and 
telecommunications technologies can be breached by electronic 
intercept and entry has prompted the decision to launch a set of 
security countermeasures in both classification and technology. 
One result could be that sensitive information now stored in civil- 
ian agency computers would fall under a new national security 
classification. 

April 1985 The Department of Energy issued final regulations in the April 22 

Federal Register, pp. 15818-29, to prohibit the unauthorized dis- 
semination of certain information identified as Unclassified Con- 
trolled Nuclear Information. These regulations describe how 
government information is determined to be UCNI, establish mini- 
mum protection standards, specify who may have access to UCNI, 
and establish procedures for the imposition of penalties for viola- 
tion of these regulations. 



24 



April 1985 



April 1985 "According to a UPI report of April 8, Senator William Proxmire 

has threatened to try to cut funds for a newly-created White House 
News Service if it shows signs of expansion into the nation's 'first 
government operated and controlled news service' or of being 
replicated in other government agencies." {Library Hotline, 
April 29) 

April 1985 OMB is imposing administrative budget cuts on agencies which 

are forcing reductions in publication programs without adeguate 
consideration of the utility of the information in meeting the agen- 
cy's mission and in serving the public interest. For example, the 
Bureau of Labor Statistics is being forced, among other cuts, to 
reduce the Monthly Labor Review to a guarterly publication and to 
eliminate the following items: How the Government Measures 
Unemployment, Questions and Answers on Male and Female 
Earnings, A Profile on Black Workers, Historical Supplement to 
Employment and Earnings, Family Employment Characteristics 
Data Book, Handbook of Labor Statistics, and Productivity and 
Manufacturing. (Statement of Francis J. Buckley Jr. before the 
House Government Operations Subcommittee on Government 
Information, Justice and Agriculture, April 29.) [Ed. note: The 
Monthly Labor Review continued as a monthly. ] 

April 1985 The former U.S. Court of Claims published its Cases Decided 

through the GPO. As a result, copies were distributed to 557 de- 
pository libraries and about 300 copies were sold by the Superin- 
tendent of Documents for about $82 in 1982, the last year they 
were published. The reports of the U.S. Claims Court are being 
published commercially for $219 for six volumes to bring the set 
up to date, plus an estimated $102 per year for future issuances. 
The new Court Judges and Clerk are provided free copies by the 
commercial publisher, but the Court purchases copies for its own 
library as must all other government agencies, libraries, and the 
public. (Statement of Francis J. Buckley Jr. before the House Gov- 
ernment Operations Subcommittee on Government Information, 
Justice and Agriculture, April 29.) 

April 1985 "A decision by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to reduce 

public access to meetings and reduce the availability of transcripts 
from closed meetings is causing a stir in Congress. In late April 
the NRC voted 3-2 to immediately implement these rule changes 
proposed by chairman Nunzio Palladino, without first holding 
public hearings on the matter." (Science, May 10) 



25 



May 1985 



May 1985 OMB issued, May 2, Circular No. A-3 (Revised), "Government 

Publications," which prescribes the policies and procedures for 
approving funding for government periodicals, and for reporting 
periodicals and non-recurring publications. This revision institutes 
an annual review of federal periodicals and establishes guidelines 
and procedures for a coordinated and uniform method of agency 
reporting and OMB approval. A new policy section states: "Expen- 
diture of funds shall be approved only for periodicals that provide 
information, the dissemination of which is necessary in the transac- 
tion of the public business reguired by law of the agencies. The 
OMB-approved control system shall continue to be implemented 
and used to monitor periodicals and non-recurring publications. 
Periodicals and non-recurring publications will be prepared and 
disseminated in the most cost-effective manner possible." The con- 
trol system referred to was set up in 1981 through OMB Bulletin 81- 
16 and supplement No. 1, which "initiated a program to cut waste 
in Government spending on periodicals, pamphlets, and audiovi- 
sual products." 

May 1985 On May 2, OMB issued OMB Bulletin No. 85-14 providing instruc- 

tions and materials to the heads of executive departments for the 
submission of the Annual Report on Government Publications. "In 
the Annual Report on Publications, due June 30, 1985, agencies 
shall reguest approval for all periodicals, both those proposed and 
those already being published, form the Director of OMB." This 
bulletin implements Title 44 of the U.S. Code, section 1108, and 
OMB's revised Circular A-3. 

May 1985 The Reagan Administration, under a 1982 executive order (E.O. 

12356) that spelled out new rules for defining government secrets, 
has been classifying more documents and declassifying far fewer. 
According to the annual report of the Information Security Over- 
sight Office, the total number of "classification decisions" in fiscal 
1984 was 19,607,736, an increase of nine percent over the year 
before. The systematic declassification of old records has flagged 
under the Reagan order, but proceeded faster in 1984 than in 
1983. {Washington Post, May 8) 

May 1985 Responses were overwhelmingly negative to the OMB proposed 

circular on Management of Federal Information Resources pub- 
lished in the March 15 Federal Register. While there were a few 
defenders among the 309 comments filed for public review in the 
OMB library, most were highly critical of the proposal. Of the 
comments received as of May 31, 1985, 169 were from the library 

26 



May 1985 



and university community, 88 from other members of the pubhc, 
and 52 from federal agencies. Many of the comments contended 
that the proposed policy would make government information less 
accessible and more costly. 

In a May 14 letter to OMB, ALA stated that the proposed circular, 
if implemented as written, will systematically deprive the American 
people of information by and about their government. ALA said 
the proposal still requires major amplification and revision, and 
another draft should be issued for public comment. In addition, it 
should be submitted to Congress for policy review because its 
provisions reach far beyond mere management considerations. 
ALA's ten-page response is available by sending a self-addressed 
mailing label to the ALA Washington Office, 110 Maryland Ave., 
N. E., Washington, D. C, 20002. {ALA Washington Newsletter, 
May 29, and June 17) 

May 1985 In a May 24 editorial, "Statistical Error," the Washington Post 

called the OMB proposed circular on the management of federal 
information resources "an innocuous- sounding proposal that would 
destroy important and useful government services." The editorial 
concluded: 

The government and the public need more and better, not 
less and more expensive, statistical information. The amounts 
that can be saved by OMB's proposals are nickels and 
dimes. The things that could be destroyed are gold. We put 
to the side a thought that has crossed some people'e minds: 
that the administration is trying to suppress statistics and 
information that could be politically inconvenient. Let's just 
say that what they're doing is wrongheaded, and should be 
stopped. 

May 1985 Bechtel North American Power Corporation has been awarded a 

contract to record Securities Exchange Commission filings onto 
microfilm and disseminate them. Starting Oct. 1, Bechtel is to 
provide an estimated 250,000 microfiche a year to the SEC's public 
reference rooms. Bechtel is expected to earn between $4 million 
and $6 million a year from sales of the information, depending on 
the number of filings. {Washington Post, May 29) 

May 1985 The U.S. Department of Agriculture announced that time-sensitive 

information currently available both electronically and in print 
form from several USDA agencies will be available July 1 from a 



27 



June 1985 



single electronic source: Martin Marietta Data Systems. Users of 
the service, which are expected to be organizations that further 
distribute USDA information, will pay a minimum fee of $150 a 
month, plus costs of special hardware and software, to access the 
system. USDA and land-grant universities will pay the usual com- 
puter time-share fees, but not a monthly minimum. With the proper 
equipment, such as high-speed modems, farmers and other indi- 
viduals could also access the new service for a fee. The new ser- 
vice will disseminate daily and weekly market reports from the 
Agricultural Marketing Service; crop and livestock reports from 
the Statistical Reporting Service; outlook and situation reports from 
the Economic Research Service, foreign agricultural situation 
reports, export sales reports, and foreign trade leads from the 
Foreign Agricultural Service; news releases from the Office of 
Information and other perishable information. {Agricultural Li- 
braries Information Notes, May 1985) 

USDA elicited a commitment from Martin Marietta to charge no 
more than the standard time- sharing charges to information ven- 
dors purchasing the bulk data on the Martin Marietta system. 
However, USDA does not plan to exercise control over the fees 
information vendors charge the public to access the data on the 
vendor's systems. In addition, USDA hopes that disseminating the 
data on the Martin Marietta system will eliminate the need to dis- 
seminate the data in paper copy. 

OMB regards the USDA program as a prototype for electronic 
dissemination of information, and Environmental Protection 
Agency and several other agencies have expressed an interest in 
participating in the USDA system. (Government Documents Round 
Table, ALA, Documents to the People, June 1985, p. 59) 



June 1985 



The June 12 edition of the Bureau of National Affairs Daily Report 
for Executives has a seven-page article which gives a good sum- 
mary of the issues relating to the proposed OMB circular on Man- 
agement of Federal Information Resources (March 15 Federal 
Register). The article has numerous quotes from the more than 300 
comments OMB received about their proposal (BNA Daily Report 
for Executives, Regulatory and Legal Analysis, pp. C-1 to C-7) 



June 1985 



28 



The Department of Educations's Pubhcation and Audiovisual Advi- 
sory council barred 17 federally supported education laboratories 
from issuing 98 of 438 publications related to research contracted 
for by the department. The move marks the first time that the de- 
partment has a applied 1981 order intended to curb wasteful fed- 



July 1985 



eral publishing to projects it has sponsored at the regional 
laboratories through the National Institute of Education. (Education 
Week, June 19) 

June 1985 In the wake of alleged spying by former and current military per- 

sonnel, the House of Representatives approved, 333 to 71, an 
amendment to the Defense Department authorization bill, which 
would give the Pentagon broad power to subject to lie detector 
tests more than four million military-civilian employees with access 
to classified information and would require polygraphs before 
granting the highest level clearances. The Senate has already 
passed a defense authorization bill that provides for a much more 
limited polygraph program. The two bills will have to be recon- 
ciled in a conference committee. (Washington Post, June 17) 

July 1985 At a July 17 hearing of the House Government Operations Sub- 

committee on Employment and Housing chaired by Rep. Barney 
Frank (D-MA), Rep. Major R. Owens (D-NY) said: "It appears that 
OMB has zeroed in on the cost of information while remaining 
cynically unaware of, or ignoring, its value." Carol Turner of Stan- 
ford University testified for ALA and reaffirmed the Association's 
view that if OMB implemented its draft circular as proposed in the 
March 15 Federal Register, there would be a drastic reduction in 
the flow of government information to the public. (Washington 
Post, July 18) [Ed. note: The transcript of the hearing, OMB's 
Proposed Restrictions on Information Gathering and Dissemination 
by Agencies, is available from the Subcommittee (202/225-6751).] 

July 1985 Reps. William H. Gray (D-PA) and David R. Obey (D-WI) criti- 

cized the Administration's plan to stop issuing the government's 
annual report on after-tax income. The latest report, June 27, 
showed the wealthy are getting wealthier and the poor, poorer; 
households in all but the top 20 percent received a smaller share 
of after-tax income in 1983 than in 1980. The Congressmen noted 
that the report indicated the share of after-tax income going to 
those with incomes of more than $60,000 a year rose to 42 percent, 
from 40.6 percent in the 1980-1983 period, a shift of nearly $25 
billion. In a letter to Commerce Secretary Malcolm Baldrige, they 
protested the decision to stop issuing the report in order to cut 
costs. (New York Times, July 9) 

In August, Baldrige wrote Gray that he had ''reevaluated the Cen- 
sus Bureau's recommendation and have concluded that we should 
continue doing the report." (Washington Post, August 30) 



29 



August 1985 



August 1985 Attorney General Edwin Meese III and Assistant Attorney General 

for Civil Rights William Bradford Reynolds are leading an effort to 
revise Executive Order 11246, the 20-year-old directive mandating 
egual employment efforts on the part of federal contractors. Busi- 
ness organizations joined civil rights activists and members of 
Congress in challenging a draft executive order which would 
abolish rules requiring some government contractors to meet nu- 
merical goals in hiring minorities and women. Sen. Howard M. 
Metzenbaum (D-OH) said: "When you make an effort to determine 
whether there's been discrimination, you have to use whatever 
evidence is available. Doing away with the ability to use statistical 
data is tantamount to making it almost impossible to make a case." 
(Washington Post, August 15 and 16) 

August 1985 The Public Health Service's National Center for Health Statistics 

has been keeping track of the births, illnesses, disabilities and 
deaths of Americans — and a host of other health facts — for 25 
years. Critics have voiced concern that Reagan Administration 
budget cuts may have undermined some of the center's record- 
keeping ability, particularly the frequency of surveys. The Center's 
Director, Dr. Manning Feinleib, acknowledged that "government- 
wide constraints on budget and positions have resulted in changes 
in the original periodicity" of some surveys. (Washington Post, 
August 23) 

August 1985 To save storage and mailing expenses. Department of Agriculture 

officials are junking thousands of copies of county soil profiles that 
cost the government large amounts of money to produce and pub- 
lish. One clerk estimated that 40,000 surveys, some as thick as 
telephone books, will be dumped. County soil surveys and maps 
are vital tools to farmers, developers, land appraisers, home build- 
ers, engineers and recreation planners in determining what can be 
done on which soils. Over the years, the Department has compiled 
surveys for 1,908 counties. The survey trashing was ordered by the 
Soil Conservation Service, which oversees the compilation and 
distribution of the documents. The division decided that it would 
be the most cost-effective way of solving a budget problem, and 
would save $67,000 a year by giving up storage for which it is 
charged "rent" by the General Services Administration. It was 
estimated that it would cost $57,000 to send the surveys to the 
respective states. However, some copies will be available to the 
public in state capitals. (Washington Post, August 28) 



30 



September 1985 



September 1985 



The September AGNET Newsletter (University of Nebraska- 
Lincoln) informed readers that AGNET, an electronic system, 
would carry a reduced number of U.S. Department of Agriculture 
reports in the future. 'The reason for this is USDA's new EDI (Elec- 
tronic Dissemination of Information) system developed and run by 
Martin Marietta Data Systems. Even if current technical problems 
can be worked out, the cost structure will not allow us to recover 
our expenses of retrieving most reports. MMDS is charging five 
cents/line to view the menu of available reports, and two cents/line 
for transmitting the reports — including blank lines. The line 
charges are in addition to long distance and connect charges .... 
Since Central AGNET is a self-funded operation (not tax sup- 
ported), we cannot subsidize projects or absorb costs we are un- 
able to recover." The newsletter pointed out to their clients that the 
option exists to contract directly with MMDS, but advised that 
there is a $150/month minimum fee. (See February 1984 "Less 
Access ..." entry. ) 



September 1985 



In a September 17 letter to Defense Secretary Caspar W. Wein- 
berger, the presidents of 17 American scientific and engineering 
societies accused the Defense Department of creating a new system 
of classification on research and declared that their organizations 
will no longer sponsor restricted sessions at their meetings. The 
effect of the presidents' actions would be to shut out from their 
society meetings the papers of any defense-funded scientists work- 
ing in "sensitive" but nevertheless unclassified areas. The letter 
said, in effect, that if the Pentagon wants certain subjects re- 
stricted, it should take them out of open meetings or set up classi- 
fied meetings. {Washington Post, September 21) 



September 1985 



The Department of Education reversed controversial decisions 
made last spring by its Publications and Audiovisual Advisory 
Council to bar publication of some education- research materials. 
The action by Under-Secretary of Education Gary L. Bauer will 
allow researchers at several federally sponsored education- research 
laboratories to publish materials that they had agreed to produce 
as part of their contracts with the agency. The researchers had 
been asked to halt the publication of some materials by PAVAC to 
cut the agency's printing costs. Some education researchers 
charged that the panel had over-reached its mandate to trim 
spending and had tried to censor the publication of certain types 
of research. Bauer said, however, that he had found no evidence of 
censorship. {Chronicle of Higher Education, September 25) 



31 



November 1985 



November 1985 



In an essay in the November Harper's "Liberty Under Siege," Wal- 
ter Karp uses a chronological format to document what he con- 
siders " . . .an unflagging campaign to exalt the power of the 
presidency and to undermine the power of the law, the courts, the 
Congress, and the people." His chronicle is not a secret history, but 
a record of events which have been reported in daily newspapers. 
Karp warns: "When a concerted assault on the habits of freedom 
ceases to shock us, there will be no further need to assault them, 
for they will have been uprooted once and for all." 



November 1985 



"A dozen annual reports recently were placed on the hit list of the 
White House budget office— and five of them come out of ED. The 
reasons cited by the budget office for refusing to fund publication 
of the reports: The annual report of the Centers on Education 
Media and Materials for the Handicapped contained no useful 
information not reported elsewhere; the annual report of the Na- 
tional Advisory Council on Continuing Education duplicates other 
reports, the biennial report of the Office of Education Professional 
Development was moot because the office was abolished in 1981; 
and two reports on the allocation of ED employee time by work- 
years contained information already provided in annual budget 
reguests." {American School Board Journal, November 1985) 



November 1985 



Then Assistant Education Secretary Anne Graham was criticized at 
a November 13 hearing of the House Government Operations 
Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations and Human Re- 
sources for her role as chairman of an in-house advisory group 
that reviewed federal education research projects and blocked 
many from being published. In her testimony Graham said that the 
advisory group was established in response to OMB's Bulletin No. 
81-16 which provided procedures and guidelines to implement the 
President's April 1981 moratorium on the publication and creation 
of periodicals, pamphlets and audiovisual products until systems 
were established and approved by OMB. (See April 1981 entries in 
"Less Access to Less Information By and About the U.S. Govern- 
ment.") In a November 15 article in the Washington Post, Rep. Ted 
Weiss (D-NY), who chaired the hearing, said: "The hearings con- 
firmed that there is no legal role for PAVAC in educational re- 
search or program development." He added that "PAVAC's real 
impact is restricting the free flow of information necessary to im- 
prove education in our country." [Ed. note: PAVAC, the Publication 
and Audiovisual Advisory Council, has been restructured and is 
now called the Publications Review Board.] 



32 



December 1985 



November 1985 



A U.S. District Court judge ruled that federal agencies must tell 
the public the topics of regulations that are under consideration 
and how long the agencies have been considering them. The rul- 
ing said that disclosure of such "limited information" under the 
Freedom of Information Act would "at most" allow the public "to 
ascribe responsibility for delay to a particular agency." Though the 
ruling — that "regulatory logs" are public information — seems on 
the surface to be a technicality, the Public Citizen Health Research 
Group which brought the suit against the Department of Health 
and Human Services contends it could have important conse- 
guences if widely applied in practice. President Reagan gave OMB 
authority early in his presidency to review all significant govern- 
ment regulations, and critics have long charged that the Adminis- 
tration uses the OMB to stall and eventually kill regulations without 
public scrutiny. Robert Bedell, an OMB deputy administrator, said 
that OMB tells the heads of virtually all agencies whether their 
proposed regulations are consistent with the Administration's prin- 
ciples. The Public Citizen Health Research Group has been lobby- 
ing the Food and Drug Administration since 1982 to require a label 
warning parents not to give aspirin to children with flu or chicken 
pox. {Washington Post, November 28) 



December 1985 



ALA joined the American Council of the Blind, the Blinded Vet- 
erans Association, and Playboy Enterprises, Inc., in filing a com- 
plaint against the Librarian of Congress who followed the intent of 
Congress to deny FY 1986 funds for the braille edition of Playjboy 
under LC's books for the blind and physically handicapped pro- 
gram. The suit was filed December 4 in U.S. District Court for the 
District of Columbia, and announced at a Dec. 4 press conference 
at which Reps. Vic Fazio (D-CA) and Jerry Lewis (R-CA) said they 
would submit an Amicus Curiae brief in support of the suit. 



ALA President Beverly Lynch, speaking at the press conference, 
said the Congressional amendment which caused the LC action 
restricts and suppresses access of the blind to viewpoints, ideas 
and information expressed in a single, lawful magazine, otherwise 
available to sighted readers, solely because the government deems 
those ideas to be dangerous, bad, immoral or otherwise undesir- 
able. The suit requests a judgment either declaring that the Wylie 
amendment does not prohibit LC from producing Playboy in 
braille or ruling the intent of the amendment to be unconstitu- 
tional. 



33 



December 1985 



The issue arose on July 18 when the House accepted an amend- 
ment to HR 2942, the FY '86 Legislative Branch Appropriations 
Bill, offered by Rep. Chalmers Wylie (R-OH) to reduce the Library 
of Congress budget by $103,000. The test of the amendment did 
not indicate the purpose of the amendment, but Rep. Wy lie's re- 
marks made clear its intent was to prohibit LC from reproducing 
and distributing Playboy in braille. The vote and remarks appear 
on pp. H5932-35 of the July 18 Congressional Record (daily edi- 
tion). The Senate did not restore the funds. HR 2942 was later 
given final Congressional approval and signed into law (PL 99-151) 
November 13. (News Release: American Library Association, No- 
vember 1985) 



December 1985 



A group of 15 independent documentary film makers and produc- 
tion companies filed suit on December 5 in the Los Angeles Fed- 
eral District Court, charging that the federal government had 
severely limited the distribution of their films abroad because of 
differences in political ideology. The film makers charged that 
regulations issued by the United States Information Agency were 
being used "as a political censorship tool to hinder distribution" of 
their films. The film makers asked a federal judge to order that six 
films be given the certification they say is necessary to make for- 
eign distribution reahstically possible. The subjects of the films 
include childhood in America, uranium mining, nuclear war and 
Nicaragua. The film makers say that unless USIA issues a certifi- 
cate stating that a film is educational, scientific or cultural in nat- 
ure, the films are subject to high import taxes from the foreign 
countries and voluminous paper work that makes distribution to 
schools and libraries abroad virtually impossible. {New York Times, 
December 6) 



December 1985 



The Office of Personnel Management, in a move prompted by the 
prosecution of former Navy intelligence analyst Samuel Loring 
Morison, asked the military services for nominations to "Security 
Hearing Boards" that could lead to the summary removal of civil- 
ian employees "in the interests of national security." OPM said that 
the plan had been shelved, at least for the moment, in light of 
Morison's post-conviction resignation from the government. But at 
the Defense Department, officials said they were still mulling the 
OPM request. An OPM spokesman, said that the "presidential 
instructions" cited in a December 2 letter from OPM Director 
Constance Horner to the secretaries of the Navy, Army and Air 
Force were issued by President Dwight D. Eisenhower in a 1953 
executive order that laid the basis for the Federal Loyalty-Security 
Program of the 1950s. {Washington Post, December 14) 



34 



December 1985 



December 1 985 After it was revealed in the news media on December 1 1 , the 

White House announced that President Reagan signed a secret 
directive reguiring thousands of Administration officials and per- 
haps some Cabinet members, to submit to polygraph tests as part 
of a counterespionage crackdown throughout the government. The 
President signed National Security Decision Directive 196 on No- 
vember 1. It applies to officials with access to "sensitive compart- 
mental information" (SCI); more than 182,000 federal employees 
and contractor personnel would be subject to the tests. {Washing- 
ton Post, articles on December 12, 20, 21 and 25) 

NSDD 196 is classified, thus it is not known if it contains a prepub- 
lication review system for speechs and writings of current and 
former government employees. However, such a system is already 
in effect. According to a lune 1984 General Accounting Office 
report, every employee with access to SCI is being required to 
sign a lifelong prepublication censorship agreement. Form 4193. 
(See "Less Access. . ." item, June 1984) 

December 1985 Despite Congressional and public pressure for an opportunity for 
further review of the final draft, OMB issued its policy directive, 
OMB Circular A-130, Management of Federal Information Re- 
sources, on December 12. The text was published in the December 
24 Federal Register, pp. 52730-51, with corrections in the January 
6 FR, p. 461. A provision that agencies must arrange to make 
government publication available to federal depository libraries 
was added to the final version in response to public criticism of the 
controversial first draft published in the March 15 FR. 

The basic considerations and assumptions have been amended and 
broadened to reflect criticism that these statements in the March 
draft were too narrowly conceived. However, the final circular 
requires cost-benefit analysis of government information activities, 
"maximum feasible reliance on the private sector" for the dissemi- 
nation of government information products and services, and cost 
recovery through user charges where appropriate. 

December 1985 While trying to help a friend find a government job, a Washington- 
area man found that locating the phone numbers to find the jobs is 
difficult. He found that most government agency employment hot 
lines are unlisted, but uncovered about 70 of those unlisted num- 
bers. To make the task easier for the public — and money on the 
side — Ed Streeky has published his own phone listings The Book: 
A Directory of Federal Job Information Phone Numbers Plus Un- 
listed Numbers for Dial-a-Vacancy 24-hour-hothnes. It retails for 

35 



December 1985 



December 1985 



$6.95 in Washington bookstores. ("Finding Federal Job Hot Lines 
Can Be Harder Than Finding Jobs," Washington Post, 
December 28) 

In an article in the December 20 Publisher's Weekly, "New Dan- 
gers to Press Freedom," Martin Garbus said that the conviction of 
Samuel Morison in a Baltimore Federal Court on October 17, 1985, 
creates a serious danger to publishers. "The case has received 
little attention from the publishing community, but it should; for 
the prosecution is part of a larger Reagan administrative strategy 
to cut down on leaks and their appearance in books, newspaper 
articles and television reports." 



December 1985 



In a December 23 editorial, the Washington Post said that damage 
may be done by the OMB circular issued with the "sleep-inducing 
title 'Management of Federal Information Resources."' It observed 
that "the proposal would likely reduce the number of printed gov- 
ernment publications available in libraries or at low cost and in- 
crease the already widespread practice of private outfits 
interfacing with government computers and providing printouts for 
users at hefty fees." The editorial concluded: "It is saving pennies 
and squandering dollars for the government, in the name of cost- 
cutting, paperwork-reduction, and privatization, to starve the 
statistical agencies and choke off the flow of federal statistics from 
the government agencies to the people. Rep. Glenn English (D- 
OK) spoke out last spring against the earlier draft version of this 
circular, and OMB made some improvements. But there's still 
plenty for Mr. English and others in Congress to complain — and do 
something — about." ("Privatizing the Numbers," Washington Post, 
December 23) 



December 1985 



December 1985 



Herbert I. Schiller urged "a national debate about the character, 
objectives and direction of the information society" in a December 
28 article in the Nation titled, "Information — A Shrinking Re- 
source." He believes that the national information supply is an 
endangered resource, particularly threatened by the privatization 
and commercialization of government information. 

The Treasury Department has been releasing its daily cash balance 
to a California computer service a day before it is released to the 
general public. The 150 subscribers to the $1200-a-year service 
include a handful of the 36 primary bond dealers. After Dow Jones 
and Co. news wires carried a report about the 18 1/2-hour gap, the 
Treasury announced it will formally release the cash balance data 



36 



January 1986 



at 4 p.m. to anyone who wants it starting December 30. One money 
market economist, who had not been aware of the commercial 
computer service, said of the two-tiered release: "No one is sup- 
posed to get a proprietary advantage where sensitive government 
information is concerned." A government bond dealer added: 
"Why does Treasury have to go through a private vendor to release 
public information?" Treasury officials indicated the early release 
was established without full consideration of its effect on financial 
markets. {Wall Street Journal, December 30) 

January 1986 In a January 7 letter to the editor, Wendy L. Gramm, Administrator 

for Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and 
Budget, challenged the Washington Post's assertion that statistical 
programs have been "hacked away at" by the Administration. Re- 
plying to a December 23 editorial, "Privatizing the Numbers," 
Gramm said: "No one is proposing to stop furnishing necessary 
information. No one is proposing to dismantle our federal statistical 
structure." She went on to say: "OMB's new policy does not provide 
. . . that the public be cut off from government information." Gary 
D. Bass, Executive Director of OMB Watch, in a January 21 letter 
to the Post charged that Gramm's letter "greatly misled the public." 

January 1986 Due to budget cutbacks, the U.S. Department of Agriculture can 

no longer report to the nation the total poundage of food con- 
sumed per capita in the United States. The information has been 
lost primarily due to the discontinuance of crop reports from 
USDA. The Food Institute says that the information as now pub- 
lished prevents food industry researchers from making any mean- 
ingful comparisons in the fruit and vegetable areas, such as 
comparing changes in the national diet (like the changeover from 
animal to crop products), and a host of other analyses. (Dear 
Friend letter from Frank J. Panyko, Vice President of The Food 
Institute, January 13) 

January 1986 The Administration is considering a change in federal reporting 

requirements that would eliminate a major source of data about 
how much federal grant and contract money goes to minority firms. 
Administration officials said that the OMB and the Commerce 
Department may adopt a reporting form similar to one now used by 
Commerce to track how federal grants are spent. Although the 
Commerce guestionnaire asks about funds spent with minority 
contractors, it requires no data on how money is spent with sub- 
contractors. Subcontracting is a major source of federal funds for 
minority businesses which often are too small to bid for the overall 



37 



January 1986 



contract. Rejection of data-collection plans and the move toward a 
standardized, abbreviated information-gathering form have led 
critics to charge that the Administration wants to do away with most 
racial data gathering. {Washington Post, January 14) 

January 1986 The Federal Election Commission announced that "drastically 

curtailed public disclosure of federal campaign finance informa- 
tion will result from a series of budget cuts forced upon the FEC." 
Effective March 1, the computerization of itemized information 
filed by political committees on the '86 election will be reduced 
severely, although candidate and political committee reports will 
continue to be available on microfilm for public review and copy- 
ing. Among the effects of the reduction in computerization will be 
a reduction in timeliness, since data entry time probably will dou- 
ble; accuracy of detailed information may be reduced because less 
expensive methods of data entry will be used; and availability of 
detailed information will be reduced. (FEC, news release, 
January 30) 

Stepping into the breach is Washington Online's Campaign Contri- 
bution Tracking System which includes all FEC reports filed since 
1983 and costs $3,500 in annual subscriptions for unlimited usage. 
("Databases," no date) 

January 1986 At its Midwinter Meeting, ALA Council passed a resolution urging 

ALA members to monitor the effects on government information 
and publications of the implementation of OMB Circular A- 130, 
Management of Federal Information Resources, and to report 
problems to the ALA Washington Office, Members of Congress, 
and OMB. 

February 1986 As was proposed last year, the President's budget would again 

eliminate all postal revenue forgone appropriations. If enacted, this 
would mean that as of October 1, 1986, those eligible for free mail 
for the blind would have to pay the full cost of this mail; and major 
increases would take effect in all subsidized rate categories includ- 
ing nonprofit bulk mail, classroom publications, and the fourth- 
class book and library rates. Since rates as of January 1, 1986, are 
at full attributable cost levels, enactment of the budget would 
eliminate all indirect subsidy and result in regular commercial 
rates. A two-pound library rate book package would be $.94. 
(OMB, Budget of the United States Fiscal Year 1987, Appendix) 



38 



March 1986 



February 1986 For the fifth year in a row, the President's budget submitted to 
Congress proposed to eliminate the Library Services and Con- 
struction Act and Higher Education Act Title II library grant pro- 
grams. In addition, the budget included proposals for FY '86 to 
rescind or "unappropriate" all library grant program funding ex- 
cept LSCA I and III where about half the states had already re- 
ceived funds. (OMB, Budget of the United States Fiscal Year 1987, 
Appendix) [Ed. note: These funds were released in mid-April after 
Congress did not agree to the rescissions. ] 

February 1986 In the FY 1987 budget documents, one of the "accomplishments in 
1985" announced that departments and agencies eliminated or 
consolidated 3,848 publications, approximately 25 percent of the 
federal inventory, to achieve cost avoidances of $35 million, a 20 
percent reduction since 1981. (OMB, Management of the United 
States Government, Fiscal Year 1987) 



February 1986 



The Federal Communications Commission will publish summaries 
rather than the full texts of Notices of Proposed Rulemaking, rule- 
making decisions and policy statements in the Federal Register. 
The FCC decided that "publication of detailed summaries would 
be a reasonable and cost-efficient way of apprising the general 
public of its actions." Federal Register publication of the actual 
texts of final rules will be continued. Budgetary constraints and the 
rising cost of Federal Register publication were given as the ra- 
tionale for the cuts. To cut publication costs further, the FCC also 
amended its rules to enable it to reduce the amount of material 
published in FCC Reports. Hereafter, only those rulemaking deci- 
sions and policy statements summarized in the Federal Register 
and not published in Pike and Fischer (a private sector service 
which costs $1,875 to initiate and $1,375 for an annual subscrip- 
tion) will be published in FCC Reports. (FCC News, Report No. 
GN-9, February 24, 1986) 



March 1986 Birth expectation data is missing from the current (lune 1984) 

Fertility of American Women report from the Bureau of the Census. 
The supplemental guestion reguired to obtain the information was 
dropped from the Current Population Survey in 1984 because of 
cost considerations. Martin O'Connell, Chief of the Fertility Statis- 
tics Branch at the Bureau, said that the birth expectation data will 
be provided through external funding sources in the 1985 and 1986 
surveys. Collection of the birth expectation data will continue to 



> 



39 



March 1986 



depend on external funding sources unless the importance and use 
of these data are made known to the Bureau. (National State Data 
Center Steering Committee Newsletter, March) 

March 1986 The House Appropriations Committee has directed the Department 

of Transportation's Research and Special Programs Administration 
to study charging user fees or contracting with private firms for its 
aviation information management activities, according to the 
March 3, 1986, issue of Aviation Daily. RSPA is turning data col- 
lection functions over to the Transportation Systems Center, which 
the Department wants to "privatize" in April 1986, according to 
RSPA Administrator Cynthia Douglass. On April 1, RSPA an- 
nounced that it will resume production and distribution of Air 
Carrier Traffic Statistics, Air Carrier Financial Statistics, and Air 
Carrier Industry Scheduled Service Traffic Statistics. Subscriptions 
to these publications will be sold by TSC for $150, $50, and $50, 
respectively. When sold by the Government Printing Office, Air 
Traffic Statistics cost $74 and Air Carrier Financial Statistics 
cost $16. 

March 1986 Budget cuts mandated by the Gramm-Rudman-Hollings balanced 

budget measure brought on a fiscal emergency at the Library of 
Congress requiring the elimination of 300 positions, the reading 
rooms closed on Sundays and most evenings, and significantly 
fewer items purchased, cataloged, preserved, and made available 
to the blind. (March 4, Congressional Record, pp. E588-9) 

March 1986 The federal government's spending on the collection of data about 

higher education declined by 63 percent between fiscal 1974 and 
1984, and spending on education research dropped by 64 percent, 
according to a study by the General Accounting Office. In the 
same period, spending on the entire Department of Education rose 
by 22 percent. At the request of the House Subcommittee on Select 
Education, GAO is conducting a comprehensive study, expected to 
be completed by December, of the condition of federally sponsored 
education research and data collection. Early findings show that 
reductions in spending on the gathering of education statistics 
have been disproportionately higher than cutbacks in other statisti- 
cal agencies. Between fiscal 1980 and 1984, the budgets of most 
federal agencies devoted to the collection of statistics suffered an 
eight percent reduction. The budget of the National Center for 
Education Statistics, however, shrank by 28 percent during that 
period. The GAO also found that in some instances NCES has 
decreased the sizes of its samples and the frequency of some types 



40 



March 1986 



of data collection activities. That, it said, raised some concerns 
about the validity and quality of the work done by the agency. 
{Chronicle of Higher Education, March 5) 

March 1986 A federal health official phoned the Department of Health and 

Human Service's main library to ask for the March 13 issue of the 
New England Journal of Medicine. He reported, "They said that 
because of Gramm-Rudman we no longer have that journal. "Can 
you imagine? The top federal health agency!" The HHS librarian, 
John Boyle, said: "I don't know whether it can be ascribed to 
Gramm-Rudman, but the department is holding orders. The sub- 
scription has expired and is awaiting renewal. We are waiting for 
money to be approved." {Washington Post, March 28) 

March 1986 The Joint Committee on Printing in a March 14 letter to every 

Representative and Senator, outlined the effects of the Gramm- 
Rudman-Hollings 4.3 percent cut as of March 1 on the printing 
and distribution of Congressional publications. They announced 
that the public will be referred to GPO bookstores to purchase 
Congressional documents such as bills, public laws, reports, com- 
mittee prints, hearing records, etc. [Ed. note: See May entry on 
this issue.] (Dear Colleague letter from Sen. Charles McC. Mathias 
Jr. and Rep. Frank Annunzio) 

March 1986 At a March 17 hearing, the Joint Economic Committee heard from 

private economists who said that the quality of the nation's eco- 
nomic statistics is in danger of being destroyed through a combina- 
tion of budget cuts and bureaucratic neglect. One of the witnesses, 
Courtenay Slater, was the author of a study commissioned by the 
committee on problems with government statistics. For information 
about the the report, "Opportunities for Improving Economic Sta- 
tistics" contact the JEC, G-01 Dirksen Senate Office Building, 
Washington, D. C, 20510, 202/224-5771. {Washington Post, 
March 16) 

March 1986 The Defense Department and the Central Intelligence Agency, 

have initiated a disinformation program which covers 15-20 pro- 
grams, six or seven of which are Defense Department projects. 
Deliberately false, incomplete and misleading information, includ- 
ing altered technical information, will be released in order to 
impede the transfer of accurate technological information to the 
Soviet Union. A six-inch-thick document outlining the program to 
the armed services asks for comments "on the use of false requests 
for proposals, false or misleading information to be given at press 



41 



March 1986 



interviews, inaccurate performance figures for aircraft and weapon 
systems, and other altered technical information." A Defense De- 
partment official said: "If some of the results of the disinformation 
activity on a particular program get passed on to Congress 
through hearings or other means, there are channels on the Hill 
that can be used to get the correct information to the people who 
need to know." {Aviation Week & Space Technology, March 17) 

March 1986 In a March 26 letter to Sen. Mathias and Rep. Annunzio, ALA 

Washington Office Director Eileen Cooke protested that the TCP 
plans to sell all Congressional documents "... means that partici- 
pation in an active, meaningful and timely way in the federal legis- 
lative process will not depend on the ability to pay." She asked the 
JCP to reconsider the recently announced restrictions on public 
access to basic Congressional documents. Cooke sent a letter May 
6 to every Senator and Representative urging them to ask ICP to 
reconsider. Other groups have also protested, and there has been 
increasing publicity about the proposal in the Washington, D. C, 
area newspapers. (See "Endless Reams of Legislative Paper May Be 
Yours. . .for a Price," Washington Post, May 13.) [Ed. note: See 
May entry on this issue.] 

March 1986 In a March 29 column in the Washington Post, Jack Anderson and 

Joseph Spear described the National Wartime Information Security 
Program (WISP), "the blueprint for press censorship." The broad 
sweep envisioned for WISP was described in an internal Pentagon 
memo prepared for a meeting of government planners on Septem- 
ber 21, 1983: "The National WISP provides for the control and 
examination of communications entering, leaving, transiting or 
touching the borders of the United States, and voluntary withhold- 
ing from publication, by the domestic public media industries, of 
military and other information which should not be released in the 
interest of the safety and defense of the United States and its al- 
lies." The memo included a bow to the First Amendment: WISP 
was not to be used indiscriminately — for example, "as a guardian 
of public morals." Anderson and Spear concluded: "The alarming 
thing about the Pentagon directive is that it allows the defense 
secretary to set up a censorship program 'if the United States is 
believed about to be attacked.' Attacked by whom? The Soviet 
Union? Libyan hit sguads? Killer bees? The directive does not 
specify. All the defense secretary needs is the president's permis- 
sion and the news-media is silenced — at gunpoint if necessary." 



April 1986 
42 



At the request of Rep. Major Owens (D-NY), the House Postsecon- 
dary Education Subcommittee chaired by Rep. William Ford (D- 



April 1986 



MI) held a library oversight hearing, on April 8 on OMB Circular 
A- 130 and its implications for access to government information; 
H.J. Res. 244, calling for a White House Conference on Library 
and Information Services in 1989; and the impact of Administration 
budget proposals for federal library programs (including LSCA, 
HEA, the ECIA Chapter 2 school block grant, and postal revenue 
forgone). 

April 1986 The Council on Environmental Quality decided to abolish a rule 

that requires federal agencies to consider the worst environmental 
consequences of their actions, contending that the regulation is 
"unproductive and ineffective." The decision caps a three-year 
Reagan Administration effort to limit the reach of the National 
Environmental Policy Act. Since 1970, NEPA has required federal 
agencies to prepare detailed analyses of the environmental effects 
of dams, nuclear waste disposal sites, pesticide- spraying programs 
and other federally financed projects. Final regulations were pub- 
lished in the April 25, Federal Register, p. 15618, with corrections 
on May 7, p. 16846. National Wildlife Federation official Norman 
Dean said the change significantly weakens existing rules, which 
require agencies to disclose the absence of information in all in- 
stances. "The fact that information is missing in the first place 
makes it almost impossible to determine if a significant impact is 
reasonably foreseeable," he said. "Under the new rule, an agency 
wouldn't even have to identify the fact that information is missing," 
Dean observed. {Washington Post, May 25) 

April 1986 The Commerce Department announced a study of alternatives for 

privatizing the National Technical Information Service in the April 
28 Federal Register, pp. 15868-70. The notice asked for public 
comment on privatization alternatives (discontinuing NTIS com- 
pletely, selling or contracting out all or portions, establishing a 
public or private special-purpose organization) and on ten key 
issues including whether government reports placed in NTIS 
should be copyrighted. In a June 6 letter to the Department of 
Commerce, ALA Washington Office Director Eileen Cooke urged 
that NTIS continue to operate either as, or within, a not-for-profit 
public service agency with continued Congressional oversight. 

April 1986 Rep. Glenn English (D-OK) chaired an April 29 hearing of the 

House Government Operations Subcommittee on Government 
Information, Justice and Agriculture, to review a controversy about 
public access to the papers and recordings of the Nixon White 
House. The National Archives and Records Administration pub- 
lished regulations implementing the Presidential Recordings and 

43 



May 1986 



Materials Preservation Act of 1974 in the February 28 Federal 
Register, p. 7228. Officials from NARA, OMB, and the Department 
of Justice were questioned about a February 18 Justice memoran- 
dum (requested by OMB) which basically allows former President 
Nixon to control public access to documents of his administration. 
(OMB Watch, May 9) 

May 1986 The Reagan Administration is considering the criminal prosecution 

of five news organizations for publishing information about Ameri- 
can intelligence-gathering operations, particularly intercepted 
communication reflecting U.S. code-breaking capabilities. "The 
president himself first revealed the nature of these intercepted 
messages," said Leonard Downie Jr. managing editor of the Wash- 
ington Post. "What we reported subsequent to that — details of the 
intercepts — did not do anything more to reveal our intelligence 
capabilities than the president himself did." (Washington Post, 
May 7) 

May 1986 Speaking to a group of students on May 21, President Reagan said 

that the problem of hunger in the United States is caused by "a 
lack of knowledge" about where to obtain help. Critics responded 
by blaming administration policies. J. Larry Brown of the Harvard 
School of Public Health, chairman of the Physicians Task Force on 
Hunger in America, said the Administration had eliminated a 
program to inform people about food stamps benefits. (Washington 
Post, May 22) 

May 1986 A public notice in the May 22 Congressional Record, p. H3161, 

announced that effective June 2 new procedures for public distri- 
bution of Congressional documents would be instituted at the 
House and Senate Document Rooms. Public distribution of both 
House and Senate materials will be handled only through the 
Senate Document Room located in Room B-04, Hart Senate Office 
Building. The public will be entitled to receive one free copy of 
any bill, report, resolution, public law or other document typically 
distributed in the Document Room. Additional copies may be 
purchased. The public still may obtain copies of committee prints 
and hearings from individual committees. Once the committee 
supply of each document has been exhausted, the public may 
purchase additional copies from GPO's Congressional Sales Office, 
North Capitol and G Streets, N. W., Washington, D. C, 20401. 

May 1986 "The Pentagon, concerned with the flow of high technology to the 

Soviet bloc, is trying to limit foreign access to government and 

44 



June 1986 



commercial computer data bases that contain sensitive technical 
information. A range of legal and technological options are now 
under exploration, from licensing access to high-tech data bases to 
planting special computer programs within the data bases to moni- 
tor who is seeking what information. Government officials con- 
cede, however, that they face formidable obstacles in devising a 
workable system, including such questions as whether data bases 
enjoy the same constitutional protections as other media and how 
to implement restrictions in ways that won't deny data-base benefits 
to American users." {Washington Post, May 27) 



June 1986 



OMB has agreed to fuller disclosure of its role in reviewing pro- 
posed federal regulations. All original versions of draft and final 
rules sent to OMB will now be made public upon request, along 
with OMB's written suggested changes and reasons for them. At 
present, only the published version of a rule — in which OMB's 
revisions cannot be tracked — is available. Sen. Carl Levin (D-MI) 
said: "No longer will OMB operate within the shade-drawn, doors- 
closed, no-fingerprints environments in which it has operated for 
the past five years." Sen. David F. Durenberger (R-MN), and Reps. 
John D. Dingell (D-MI) and Jack Brooks (D-TX) are other leaders 
of a bipartisan group of congressmen who are threatening to cut 
OMB funding by the $5.4 million required to run the Office of 
Information and Regulatory Affairs, currently headed by Wendy 
Lee Gramm. {Washington Post, June 17) 



June 1986 



At a joint hearing on June 18 of the House Post Office and Civil 
Service Committee and the Senate Committee on Governmental 
Affairs, members of the Postal Rate Commission presented results 
of a Congressionally mandated preferred rate mail study. Among 
their recommendations are: 1) recalculating the revenue forgone in 
a way which would reduce the appropriation by some $265 million 
a year; 2) eliminating the revenue forgone appropriation entirely 
(except for the small amount needed for free mail for the blind and 
free voting-rights mail) by amending the rate-making statute to 
provide separate subclasses for the eligible nonprofit mailers; and 
3) restricting eligibility for advertising or commercialized uses of 
the nonprofit rates. The report recommends ending eligibility for 
publishers and distributors for books and other qualifying material 
they mail to libraries and other eligible institutions. 



June 1986 



A House Government Operations Committee report concluded that 
legal ambiguities, practice limitations, and economic constraints 
may allow federal agencies to restrict unduly the public availability 



45 



June 1986 



of government data maintained electronically. The result could be 
diminished public access to federally operated public data bases; 
increased agency power over data users and information system 
contractors; and unnecessary government interference in the mar- 
ketplace for information products and services. 

The report recommends that: agencies use the new information 
technology to broaden and improve public use of government 
information; more administrative guidance on the development and 
use of electronic information systems be provided; agencies con- 
sult regularly with those affected by electronic information systems; 
competitive procurements be used for the acquisition of automated 
information products and services; and laws that have been inter- 
preted to allow agencies to maintain exclusive control over elec- 
tronic data bases be modified. (House Committee on Government 
Operations, "Electronic Collection and Dissemination of Informa- 
tion by Federal Agencies: A Policy Overview," House Report 99- 
560, April 29) 

June 1986 Due to budgetary constraints, the Federal Communications Com- 

mission has been unable to make available current editions of the 
loose-leaf version of its rules and regulations. The latest edition of 
all volumes, excluding Volume 1, available from the Government 
Printing Office is the October 1982 edition. Volume 1 has been 
updated through September 1985. The 1982 edition of the rules 
will be discontinued immediately. However, the current status of 
any of the Commission's rules may be determined by obtaining a 
copy of the appropriate book in Title 47 of the October 1985 edi- 
tion of the Code of Federal Regulations also available from GPO. 
The use of this annual publication in conjunction with the current 
edition of the monthly rules index entitled "LSA-List of Sections 
Affected" should provide users with the most current rules 
changes. It is the Commission's intention to continue with the 
loose-leaf version of its rules when possible. (FCC, "PubUc Notice," 
June 19) 

June 1986 Authors and publishers of two forthcoming books on U.S. intelli- 

gence said yesterday that Central Intelligence Agency Director 
William J. Casey had warned them that he believes they could be 
violating the law if their books include any secret "communications 
intelligence." Casey issued the warnings in telephone calls to Bob 
Woodward of the Washington Post, who is writing a book about 
Casey and the CIA, and to Seymour M. Hersh, who writes for the 
New York Times and whose book involves the downing of a Korean 

46 



July 1986 



Air Lines jet by the Soviets in 1983. Casey called their publishers 
to deliver the same message. Woodward said that he took the call 
as a "friendly warning" from Casey. "There was nothing blustery 
about it," he said. "My response was that I'm aware of his position 
and I take it into consideration but will feel my first allegiance is to 
write and publish what people need to know." ("Casey Warns Writ- 
ers, Publishers About Putting Secrets in Books," Washington Post, 
June 26) 

July 1986 Many economists and workplace experts are dissatisfied with the 

way the federal government measures workplace trends. The unem- 
ployment rate, determined in a monthly survey of households by 
the Bureau of Labor Statistics, once was the pivotal measurement 
of job needs and social distress. Now, some experts say, the Bu- 
reau's other major monthly survey, a survey of businesses based on 
payroll records, provides a more useful measurement of employ- 
ment trends. The surveys are designed to complement each other, 
so that one would illuminate areas of the economy that the other 
misses. The unemployment rate is important because it is used as a 
key indicator of national economic health and because funds under 
a number of federal programs designed to assist workers and com- 
munities in economic distress are apportioned according to unem- 
ployment figures. Critics of the statistics say that the rate does not 
adequately measure unemployment among blacks and many other 
urban residents and does not measure economic distress in rural 
areas. ("U.S. Measure of Unemployment Raises Doubts Over Its 
Accuracy," New York Times, July 22) 

July 1986 Federal policy changes in the 1980s have loosened, and in many 

cases eliminated contractors' reporting requirements for new tech- 
nology. "In so doing, we have exchanged the future health of our 
nation's industry for an easier workday for federal contractors. The 
government made this error when it reversed a longstanding policy 
of claiming the first rights to all patents resulting from federally 
funded R&D work." The government decided to give contractors 
the first rights to all patents in hopes that they will do a better job 
of commercializing their inventions than federal agencies. These 
changes have merit in cases where contractors are interested in 
commercializing their advances. But unfortunately, the government 
also canceled the requirement that contractors file reports about 
improvements that are not unique enough to be patented. In 1980, 
Admiral Hyman G. Rickover warned that the bill incorporating 
these changes "would achieve exactly the opposite of what it pur- 
ports. It would impede, not enhance, the development and dissemi- 



47 



July 1986 



nation of technology. It would hurt small business. It would inhibit 
competition (and) would be costly to taxpayers." The less stringent 
reporting requirements allow contractors to use the technology 
they develop as trade secrets. While these trade secrets give indi- 
vidual contractors an edge in competition, they hurt American 
industry in general. And, a new process benefits no one if the 
contractor that develops it does not bother to use it. (N.J. Gold- 
stone, "How Not to Promote Technology Transfer," Technology 
Review, July 1986) 

July 1986 About 100 persons, including several ALA and Government Docu- 

ments Round Table representatives, participated in the workshop 
held July 30 by the National Technical Information Service to dis- 
cuss privatization alternatives. The great preponderance of com- 
ments were from the library community on the usefulness of NTIS 
which, as a part of the Commerce Department, provides for the 
centralized collection, announcement, and dissemination of U.S. 
government-sponsored research and development reports and 
translations of foreign technical literature. 

Librarians questioned the motives of the OMB in requesting the 
privatization study, since NTIS already leases its data base to com- 
mercial firms, and covers its direct costs through such leasing and 
selling of reports. Other questions raised were whether agencies 
and foreign governments would continue to provide reports to a 
privatized operation, and whether NTIS, if privatized, would con- 
tinue to archive and make available specialized reports which sell 
only a few copies. Higher prices from a private source was a prin- 
cipal concern. ("NTIS Privatization Study," ALA Washington News- 
letter, August 28) 

August 1986 Fred Jerome, Director of the Media Resource Service which puts 

journalists in touch with scientists who have agreed to answer 
media questions in their areas of expertise, charges that the U.S. 
government — specifically the Department of Energy and the Nu- 
clear Regulatory Commission — issued gag orders instructing their 
employees not to talk to journalists during the Chernobyl crisis. C. 
Anson Franklin, DOE Director of Communications, denies there 
ever was any gag order. He says DOE employees around the coun- 
try were simply "encouraged to avoid speculation but, of course, 
could respond to questions of fact." That's not the way Sue 
Stephenson, senior public affairs officer at the Livermore Lab 
remembers it: "I was told in no uncertain terms to stop talking to 
reporters and to stop my people from talking to reporters." 

48 



September 1986 



In his article Jerome asks: "Was the gag order simply bureaucratic 
bungling? Or was it something more ominous — part of an emerg- 
ing administration policy to restrict the release of information 
during times of crisis?. . .Wherever it originated, the Chernobyl 
gag order does seem to reflect a pattern; more and more, U.S. 
government officials are restricting information. . . .In a democracy, 
government gag orders don't curtail media coverage. Instead, they 
cause the press and the public to wonder what those who gave the 
orders are trying to hide." ("Gagging Government Scientists: A 
New Administration Policy?" Technology Review, August/ 
September 1986) 



September 1986 



In a September 9 letter to Senator Charles McC. Mathias Jr. (R- 
MD), then chair of the Joint Committee on Printing, Public Printer 
Ralph E. Kennickell Jr. announced that as of October 1, the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office planned to discontinue hard copy for all 
dual format (microfiche and paper) documents sent to depository 
libraries. Kennickell's letter cited reduced appropriations as the 
impetus for the sudden decision. The publications included were a 
large and significant portion of the material being sent to deposi- 
tory libraries and included highly visible and freguently consulted 
titles like the Federal Register, the Code of Federal Regulations, 
the Congressional Record, and all Congressional hearings and 
reports. ALA, its Government Documents Round Table, and many 
depository librarians wrote and called their legislators and GPO 
opposing the elimination of hard copy. Congressional offices re- 
ceived over 300 telephone calls and letters asking for intervention 
in the GPO plan. There was objection to the material involved, to 
the short notice given, and to the lack of consultation with deposi- 
tory librarians. Senator Mathias instructed GPO to put the plan on 
hold in an October 3 letter. JCP and GPO officials are still trying 
to determine how GPO will make needed budget savings without 
undermining the intent of the depository library program. 



September 1986 



In an article in the Detroit Free Press, Larry Olmstead discussed 
problems journalists have covering the news in Southern Africa. 
He said: "The value of information, and suspicions about those 
gathering it, both are heightened in a nation where it's hard to 
come by. When a government dislikes fully informing its citizens, 
anyone seeking information becomes a threat, whether the person 
is a spy or not." ("Information is touchy in nations that limit it," 
Detroit Free Press, September 2 1 ) 



49 



September 1986 



September 1986 



After a storm of criticism, the Administration announced that it was 
suspending a Presidential directive requiring hundreds of thou- 
sands of officials to submit to lifelong censorship. However, since 
1981 all government employees with access to certain widely used 
intelligence data have been required to sign Form 4193, which 
covers the same ground as the directive. According to a September 
1986 General Accounting Office report, "Information and Person- 
nel Security: Data on Employees Affected by Federal Security 
Programs" (GAO/NSIAD-86-189FS), more than 290,000 present 
and former federal employees have now promised to submit mate- 
rial to prepublication review, and thousands of them did it in the 
last year. Not included in the figures are the Central Intelligence 
Agency and the National Security Agency, which set similar re- 
quirements for their employees. The number of books, articles or 
speeches submitted for review is rising: 12,934 in 1984 and 14,144 
in 1985. According to GAO, in 1985 the number of known unau- 
thorized disclosures of classified information made through pub- 
lished writings or speeches by then-current employees was five and 
by former employees was two. In 1985, approximately 136 employ- 
ees used about 12,810 working days for prepublication reviews. 



When the issue arose two years ago, civil liberties groups decried 
the reviews as a impermissible restraint on free speech and debate 
of officials involved in national security. They noted that a full 
account of historical events often emerged years later, when partic- 
ipants wrote memoirs, articles or speeches. ("Security Rule Died 
but Lived On," New York Times, October 23) 



September 1986 



d 



"The Federal Election Commission, which as a result of budget 
constraints has significantly cut back on the information it provides 
about individual campaign contributors, is seeking to prevent a 
private company from selling data about large donors. Public Data 
Access, Inc., a New York firm, working from FEC records of con- 
tributors of $500 or more, sells detailed breakdowns of contribution 
patterns among officials of specific companies, of donations to 
different Members of Congress and other computer analyses. 



In an advisory opinion, the FEC declared that the company's sales 
violated prohibitions against commercial use of FEC contributor 
data. The firm's Michael Tanzer countered: 'We believe that what 
we are doing is perfectly legal' and that the FEC's attempt to close 
the company is 'unconstitutional.' Tanzei said Public Data Access 
will continue to sell the information in defiance of the FEC. A 
spokesman for the FEC said the agency may take legal action, but 



50 



October 1986 



that such a move would require either a complaint from an outside 
party, or a decision by the commissioners themselves." ("Record 
Sales," Washington Post, September 23) 

October 1986 Hefty price increases have been applied to several of the most 

popular and essential government documents. As of October 1, the 
subscription price of the Federal Register, in which federal regula- 
tory documents are first published, will be $340, a 13 percent 
increase over the current price of $300 (July 29 FR, p. 27017). The 
United States Government Manual, 1986-87, the official federal 
government handbook and directory, is $19, a 27 percent increase 
over the 1985-86 edition, which was $15. This follows price hikes 
for the two previous years of 25 percent ($12) and 33 percent ($9) 
for a paperback which has remained at a little over 900 pages. The 
Manual has risen 111 percent in price over the last four years. 

October 1986 An article by Bob Woodward revealed that the Reagan administra- 

tion launched a secret and unusual campaign of deception de- 
signed to convince Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi that he was 
about to be attacked again by the United States and perhaps be 
ousted in a coup. The secret plan, adopted at a White House meet- 
ing on August 14, was outlined in a three-page memo that John M. 
Poindexter, then National Security Adviser, sent to President 
Reagan. "One of the key elements" of the new strategy, the Poin- 
dexter memo said, "is that it combines real and illusionary 
events — through a disinformation program — with the basic goal of 
making Gadhafi think [word underlined in the original] that there 
is a high degree of internal opposition to him within Libya, that his 
key trusted aides are disloyal, that the U.S. is about to move 
against him militarily." ("Gadhafi Target of Secret U.S. Deception 
Plan," Washington Post, October 2) 

An October 5 Post editorial condemned the disinformation plan 
and concluded: "The government is not meant to be in the busi- 
ness of organized lying to the public." 

October 1986 A two-page article in the San Francisco Examiner described what 

the author, J.E. Ferrell, calls a "sticky public policy problem: 
Should taxpayers, having paid the federal government to collect 
data, receive that data free? Or should the government, recogniz- 
ing that such information is a product of increasing monetary 
value, sell it to Americans to provide desperately needed reve- 
nues?" ALA policies on this question are quoted and she points 
out that computers installed in libraries could guarantee everyone 



51 



October 1986 



free access to government information. Examples of approaches to 
disseminating information are provided from the Federal Election 
Commission, the Department of Agriculture and the Patent and 
Trademark Office. 

The article concludes: 

What has happened in the last five years is a disorganized, 
piecemeal approach to developing a government policy on 
information dissemination that leads to situations like this: 
On May 21, President Reagan said the problem of hunger in 
the United States is caused by 'a lack of knowledge' about 
where to obtain help. 

But the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation act prohibited 
the use of food stamp money to tell people about the food 
stamp program. That meant no pamphlets about the program 
could be published and no funds could be provided for an 
official to tell people — for example, senior citizens and poor 
families who are not on welfare but do not make enough 
money to feed their children — that they may gualify for the 
program. 

("Should we pay twice for federal data? Information now a valuable 
product," San Francisco Examiner, October 2.) 

October 1986 The House Committee on Government Operations found that the 

Office of Management and Budget abused its authority under 
Executive Order 12291 in reviewing the rule proposed by the Na- 
tional Archives and Records Administration governing access to 
the Presidential historical materials and tape recordings of the 
Nixon Administration. The Committee also found that the Depart- 
ment of Justice Office of Legal Counsel Opinion of February 18, 
1986, cannot, as a matter of law, dictate the Archivist's exercise of 
his authority and responsibilities under the final rule. In addition, 
the Committee concluded that NARA has failed to respond to the 
challenge to its statutory and regulatory authority posed by OMB 
and the Office of Legal Counsel of DOJ. (House Committee on 
Government Operations, "Access to the Nixon Presidential Materi- 
als Should Be Governed by NARA Regulations, Not OMB or DOJ 
Actions," House Report 99-961, October 3) 

October 1986 House Report 99-978, "The Department of Education's Limits on 

Publications: Saving Money or Censorship?" issued by the House 
Committee on Government Operations on October 8, charged that 



52 



October 1986 



the Department of Education has censored the pubhcation of many 
research and classroom materials. The report contended that the 
department had tried to cover up the alleged censorship by main- 
taining that it was merely trying to trim federal spending when it 
refused to finance the printing of certain documents. The Commit- 
tee concluded a year- long investigation by saying that ED had 
wrongly refused to publish some materials that contained messages 
contrary to the Administration's policies and had wasted federal 
dollars by using a publications-review process that in some in- 
stances cost more to review documents and decide whether the 
government would pay for publishing them than it would have cost 
to print them. The Department's review system was set up soon 
after President Reagan took office and ordered all federal agencies 
to cut down on the publication of brochures and audio- visual mate- 
rials that were not essential. The Committee said that the Depart- 
ment's system was far more restrictive than the President had 
required. Education Department officials dismissed the charges in 
the report. ("House Panel Report Accuses Education Department of 
Censoring Publications," Chronicle of Higher Education, 
October 29) 

October 1986 The Office of Management and Budget told the Department of 

Education's Adult Literacy Initiative that its survey of adult literacy 
activities lacks "practical utility" and cannot be conducted. The 
ALI had argued that the survey would be an "essential component" 
of its activities. In July 1986, ALI requested OMB approval of a 
proposed study of approximately 100 representatives of state gover- 
nor's offices, state Adult Basic Education directors, local govern- 
ment, and the private sector. With the data from these interviews, 
ALI would determine the scope and nature of state literacy initia- 
tives and identify exemplary programs. Reportedly, ALI gave up on 
the proposal following OMB's objections. ALI believes that infor- 
mation collected through various informal sources will be ade- 
quate. (OMB Watch, Monthly Review, November 26) 

October 1986 The Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 provided the Office of Man- 

agement and Budget its authority to develop and supervise federal 
government information policies and activities, and established 
OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs. OIRA had 
generated Congressional criticism with its development of Circular 
A- 130, Management of Federal Information Resources, and the Act 
had been allowed to expire. However, in a surprise move and with- 
out hearings, the Act was reauthorized for three years in title VII of 
the FY 1987 omnibus funding bill (H.J. Res. 738, PL 99-500). (In 



53 



OctoDer 1986 



daily editions of the Congressional Record, see October 15, pp. 
H 10699-702, for reauthorization text; October 16, pp. S16739-45, 
for a statement by Sen. Chiles (D-FL); and October 17, pp. 
S16876-77, for a statement by Sen. Roth (R-DE).) 

October 1986 In a move which should make it less expensive for many users of 

the Freedom of Information Act, amendments to FOIA included a 
new fee schedule effective April 25, 1987, which limits the agency 
cost to a reasonable standard charge for document duplication 
when records are not sought for commercial use and the reguest is 
made by an educational or noncommercial scientific institution 
whose purpose is scholarly or scientific research, or by a represen- 
tative of the news media. The Freedom of Information Act Reform 
Act of 1986 was included as Subtitle N of the antidrug abuse bill 
(HR 5484, P, 99-570). (See October 15 Congressional Record, pp. 
HI 1233-34, for final text of the FOIA changes.) 

October 1986 On October 29, 1986, John M. Poindexter, then National Security 

Adviser, signed NTISSP No. 2, National Policy on Protection of 
Sensitive, But Unclassified Information in Federal Government 
Telecommunications and Automated Information Systems. The new 
guidelines, to be implemented immediately by federal agencies, 
restrict the release of a broad range of government information that 
is unclassified, but considered "sensitive." Included are "the wide 
range of government-derived economic, human, financial, indus- 
trial, agricultural, technological, and law enforcement informa- 
tion." 

A November 13 Washington Post article, "U.S. Limits Access to 
Information Related to National Security," reported statements by 
Diane Fountain, Director of the Pentagon's Information Systems 
Directorate, about the national security community's concern that 
individuals with personal computers here or overseas could easily 
access sensitive material on computer data bases such as Mead's 
Nexis and Dialog. The government is also exploring steps to curtail 
access to the defense related information in the government's Na- 
tional Technical Information Service and the Defense Technical 
Information Center. She said: "I don't believe the issue is whether 
or not we're going to protect — the issue is what we're going to 
protect and how." A December 8 Business Week editorial observed: 
"Once under way, censorship like this typically expands relent- 
lessly. Already, one Pentagon official wants to license foreign users 
of Commercial U.S. data bases and to develop software that would 
reveal who is using a data base and what data they are calling up." 



54 



November 1986 



November 1986 



The Pentagon is quietly pressuring commercial satellite operators 
to take costly precautions against terrorists and pranksters, even 
though many industry officials are convinced the safeguards are 
unnecessary and a waste of money. The controversial satellite- 
security policy is based on a Presidential directive. The directive 
gives a military-led government task force the authority to protect 
all types of government information and communications. Critics 
contend that it could also put the vast amounts of computerized 
information on individuals under the control of the military. 



"Assistant Defense Secretary Donald Latham disagrees and argues 
that the precautions are essential to protect sensitive government 
information. Because not all government information falls into 
existing categories of classification, the directive created a new 
category — not yet defined — ^of material that can be kept from the 
public. The Pentagon has denied that the category is for embar- 
rassing information. That may be so, but the ominous direction the 
policy could take is suggested by the fact that the National Secu- 
rity Agency refused to let our associate Donald Goldberg see 
documents that described the debate — even though the documents 
are not classified." ("Dubious Protection Sought for Satellites," 
Washington Post, November 3) 



November 1986 



A growing number of federal agencies and Members of Congress 
are discovering that with little more than a personal computer they 
can bypass the Postal Service and send news releases directly to 
reporters in Washington and across the country. The technique, an 
outgrowth of the electronic mail services offered by some computer 
data banks, is expanding rapidly because it is quicker and 
cheaper than the mail. "Some day, we'll stop mailing. That's going 
to save a lot of money. Millions of dollars," said an information 
officer who oversees two electronic news services offered by the 
Department of Agriculture. ("The Release Often Isn't In the Mail," 
Washington Post, November 13) 



November 1986 



Lamenting the printing drought which has made Congress's 
printed documents increasingly hard to come by, David C. Morri- 
son in a National Journal article says that less well-heeled public- 
interest groups worry that the new cash-and-carry system will edge 
them out of the policy discussion. Congressional committees now 
get only 300 hearing volumes, and those are available primarily to 
Members of Congress and the news media. Others must now pay 
about three cents a page for hearings at GPO bookstores. At those 
prices, organizations already operating on a fiscal shoe-string can 
confront deficit crises of their own. 



55 



November 1986 



"Last year, the House and Senate Armed Services and Appropria- 
tions Subcommittees on Defense alone published almost 22,000 
pages of testimony. The sheer bulk of this record dictates that users 
. . .must scrutinize the hearings at length, making annotations for 
future reference. This cannot be done in a library or in an office of 
multiple users with access to only one copy. Tt would be as if ev- 
eryone in the Vatican had only one Bible,' complained William M. 
Arkin of the Institute for Policy Studies, employing a metaphor that 
suggests the immense value researchers place on the hearings." 

Some hearing volumes cannot be obtained at any price simply 
because fewer copies are being printed. The hardship is being felt 
by big and small players. "In Washington, information is power. 
Because there aren't many copies of these things around, the peo- 
ple who have them are better able to understand what's going on." 
("Capitol Hill's Costly Paper Lode," National Journal, November 8) 



November 1986 



A memorandum from the Department of Justice to the heads of all 
federal agencies says that under current law an agency is not 
reguired to grant Freedom of Information Act fee waiver to a li- 
brary or other record repository when the request for a waiver is 
based solely upon its status as an institution at which records are 
generally available. A specific user must be identified. ("Additional 
Fee Waiver Guidance," Memorandum from Stephen J. Markman, 
Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy, November 12) 



November 1986 



Speaking at the first Interagency Data Center Managers Confer- 
ence in Raleigh, N.C., Franklin Reeder, deputy chief of the OMB's 
information policy branch, discussed some of the many complex 
questions surrounding OMB Circular A- 130, Management of Fed- 
eral Information Resources. He said, "Learn the word benefit-cost 
analysis. Notice I didn't use 'cost-benefit,' because you can't divide 
by zero." It is a concept which OMB will be using to evaluate infor- 
mation technology proposals. "We will support investments that 
show a positive return on investment. We will not support non- 
mandatory, discretionary investments that do not. That is a fact of 
life, and if you think we've been hard-nosed in the past, just wait." 

Reeder predicted long-term expansion of electronic exchange of 
data between the government and the public. He said that such 
efforts raise complicated questions, "We need to be concerned 
from a policy perspective with who owns that information, with 
assuring its integrity and with assuring appropriate public access 
to electronic data bases, something that you will be seeing a good 



56 



December 1986 



deal about in the year ahead." (''Officials Detail Beefed-Up Reviews 
for OMB's A- 130," Government Computer News, November 21) 



November 1986 



The federal government has lost access to key data that experts say 
are vital to running an effective national drug abuse treatment 
effort. Under old government programs, states getting federal drug 
treatment money were required to supply the National Institute on 
Drug Abuse with information about the availability of treatment 
facilities, the number of clients and details about the drugs they 
used. Since the shift to block grants, reporting has been voluntary, 
and only about a dozen states provide information. NIDA has plans 
to update its data base, but for the moment, the agency is flying 
somewhat blind. 



"We lack the data for determining what current capacity is, what is 
our demand among drug abusers, how many that use drugs have a 
severe enough problem to warrant intervention and how many 
would be willing to come in if treatment were available," according 
to Dr. Roy Pickens, Director of Clinical Research at NIDA. "At the 
present time, we can only estimate how many have problems." Lack 
of benchmark data, Pickens said, not only hurts planning, but 
means the agency "can't tell if we're being effective." ("Waging War 
on Drugs," National Journal, November 22) 



November 1986 



Defense Secretary Caspar W. Weinberger has ordered the Penta- 
gon's periodicals budget slashed by 55 percent to $10 million for 
fiscal 1987. "Only two years ago, the services had more than $22 
million to spend on the scores of journals and magazines they 
publish. Particularly hard hit has been the Army, which has seen 
its planned fiscal 1987 budget for periodicals plummet from $9.6 
million to $4.3 million, according to the privately published Army 
Times newspaper. The sole Army survivors of a ruthless culling 
process are Soldiers, Army Reserve and Eur-Army, the latter tar- 
geted at U.S. Army personnel serving in Europe. Down the tubes 
are 41 periodicals published by service schools and other Army 
organizations, including Air Defense Artillery Magazine, Military 
Police Journal, Military Chaplains Review and Military Media 
Review." {National Journal, November 22) 



December 1986 



Earth Observation Satellite Co. (EOSAT), the company trying to 
commercialize the U.S. government's Landsat satellite system, is 
running out of money and will have to start shutting down some 
operations because the Reagan Administration is withholding 
money for the system. EOSAT manages the Landsat program and 



57 



December 1986 



markets the data it collects under a 1985 agreement in which Con- 
gress pledged up to $250 million during a ten-year transition to 
private ownership. EOSAT said its operation generates about $20 
million a year in revenue but has never been profitable. EOSAT 
argues that the private sector is unwilling to invest the hundreds of 
millions of dollars reguired to build and launch satellites. Landsat 
was launched in 1972 as a government data-gathering operation 
that made data available to the public at low cost, as a public 
service. ("Landsat Management Firm Says U.S. Withholds Funds," 
Washington Post, December 5) 

December 1986 "In 1980, the Office of Management and Budget, under the Pa- 
perwork Reduction Act, got the authority to review all data collec- 
tion efforts of executive branch agencies. A pattern of 
obstructionism, barring certain types of data collection, has been 
charged by many agencies, and now the House Committee on 
Science and Technology has asked the General Accounting Office 
to investigate. 

Allegations of improper use of its powers include OMB's hostility to 
any data collection dealing with minorities and discrimination, 
questions concerning the environment and public health, and 
social science research generally. In matters calling for medical or 
other special scientific expertise, unqualified OMB officers are 
charged with overruling qualified agency scientists. 

The specific agency accused is OMB Office of Information and 
Regulatory Affairs (OIRA)." {Library Hotline, December 15) 

December 1986 A Business Week article detailed how giving the private sector the 
job of computerizing government data has led to higher fees for 
the information. Examples of increased costs to users included the 
Department of Agriculture, the National Library of Medicine and 
the Federal Election Commission. "At the Agriculture Dept., for 
instance, costs have soared in the two years since Martin Marietta 
Corp. got exclusive rights to the mounds of farm data the depart- 
ment gathers. . . .Administration officials defend the higher prices, 
contending that new sellers usually enhance government informa- 
tion or put it in a form that's easier to use. But critics argue that a 
system of data haves and have-nots is being created: Big-business 
customers can afford to buy while libraries, students, and others 
cannot. While that dispute rages on, both Congress and the Office 
of Management & Budget concede that more work needs to be 
done on finding the best way to computerize government services 
while guaranteeing public access." 

58 



January 1987 



"Even companies that might benefit from a monopoly contract are 
concerned about the lack of checks on profiteering because they 
freguently use data provided by other companies. *The contractor 
often thinks that this is the golden goose, and he can pull all kinds 
of profit out of it,' says a source at a major publishing company." 
("Computerizing Uncle Sam's Data: Oh, How the Public Is Paying," 
Business Week, December 15) 



December 1986 



Scientists at the National Institute for Occupational Safety and 
Health are scheduled to start a major study to find out whether 
video display terminals cause miscarriages in female workers, but 
critics charge that changes ordered in the study by OMB will 
seriously hamper its ability to answer that guestion. First an- 
nounced in 1983, the study has been delayed more than two years 
by OMB, which challenged the study on scientific grounds. OMB 
first rejected the NIOSH proposal, then in June approved a revised 
version but ordered NIOSH to delete certain guestions on stress 
and infertility. The deletion of the guestions by OMB was prompted 
by the comments of two outside consultants hired by Bell South — 
the company whose workers were to be studied — to critigue the 
NIOSH proposal. Other experts have charged that without the 
guestions, the study will not be able to distinguish VDT use from 
overall job stress as a possible factor in causing miscarriages. 
("Modified VDT Study to Proceed: OMB's Changes Draw Criti- 
cism," Washington Post, December 26) 



January 1987 For the sixth year in a row, the President's budget submitted to 

Congress proposed to eliminate the Library Services and Con- 
struction Act and Higher Education Act title II library grant pro- 
grams. The President also proposed to rescind (or "unappropriate") 
all FY 1987 funds already appropriated for LSCA II construction, 
LSCA VI literacy, HEA II-B training and research, and HEA II-C 
research library grants. (OMB, Budget of the United States FiscaJ 
Year 2988, Appendix) [Ed. note: These funds were released in 
mid-March after Congress did not agree to the rescissions.] 

January 1987 President Reagan's FY 1988 budget reguested no funding for pre- 

ferred and nonprofit postal rates, only enough funds to cover free 
mail for the blind and transition funding. Elimination of the postal 
revenue forgone appropriations would raise the cost of a two- 
pound, fourth-class library package from the current $.73 to $.94, 
a 29 percent increase, and the full commercial rate. (OMB, 
Budget, of the United States FiscaJ Year 1988, Appendix) 



59 



January 1987 



January 1987 The Office of Management and Budget published proposed guide- 

lines and fee schedule to implement certain provisions of- the Free- 
dom of Information Reform Act of 1986 (PL 99-570) in the January 
16 Federal Register, pp. 1992-94. ALA, in comments to OMB, 
recommended that the proposed guidelines be revised and a new 
draft published for public comment, because the proposal exceeds 
OMB's statutory responsibility and is not in keeping with the legis- 
lative history of the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) amend- 
ments. The February 13 ALA letter said the proposed fee waiver 
policy was highly restrictive, and the proposed guidelines could 
have a detrimental affect on the ability of librarians, libraries, and 
their users to secure fee waivers as public interest users of the 
FOIA. 

January 1987 "In 1980, the Office of Management and Budget, under the Pa- 

perwork Reduction Act, got the authority to review all data collec- 
tion efforts of executive branch agencies. A pattern of 
obstructionism, barring certain types of data collection, has been 
charged by many agencies, and now the House Committee on 
Science and Technology has asked the General Accounting Office 
to investigate. 

"Allegations of improper use of its powers include OMB's hostility 
to any data collection dealing with minorities and discrimination, 
questions concerning the environment and public health, and 
social science research generally. In matters calling for medical or 
other special scientific expertise, unqualified OMB officers are 
charged with overruling qualified agency scientists. The specific 
agency accused is OMB Office of Information and Regulatory 
Affairs." ("GAO investigating OMB meddling with data collection," 
Library Journal, January 1987) 

January 1987 "The Office of Management and Budget, ruling on the proposed 

budget for the National Technical Information Service, is reported 
to have ordered full privatization by the Department of Commerce. 
Depending on whether opposition in Congress is capable of block- 
ing the move, action on setting up bidding procedures could be 
imminent. Presumably all that would be left of NTIS as an agency 
would be a small contract management office in Commerce. OMB 
plans to accelerate the process of privatization, as well as what has 
developed into a parallel program of rigorous auditing under A-76 
of federal agencies to cut back on staff and budget." ("OMB: 'full 
privatization' of NTIS by October 1, 1987," Library Journal, Janu- 
ary 1987) 



60 



January 1987 



January 1987 While OMB is pursuing efforts to catalog public information prod- 

ucts and transfer them to the private sector, it has also been taking 
steps to limit dissemination of information by government agencies. 
For example, in January the General Accounting Office sent Rep. 
Ted Weiss (D-NY), chair of the House Government Operations 
Subcommittee on Intergovernmental Relations and Human Re- 
sources, a report on federal program evaluation efforts. The GAO 
report, Federal Evaluation: Fewer Units, Reduced Resources, Dif- 
ferent Studies from 1980 (GAO/PEMD-87-9, January 1987), stated 
that "Between 1980 and 1984, the total amount of program evalua- 
tion resources declined considerably." This was particularly true for 
departments affected by block grants, but was generally true 
across the board. The GAO study also found "that evaluations have 
become less readily available to the Congress and the public . . . ." 
Responding to GAO, OMB maintained that program evaluation is 
primarily to inform agency decision-makers, not the public and 
Congress. GAO suggested that Congress might want to insure the 
dissemination and availability of program evaluations to the public. 

OMB's Assistant Director for Budget Review, Carey Modlin took 
exception. "[T]he primary responsibility of agency program evalu- 
ators is to support internal decision-making, not to produce pro- 
gram evaluation information for the public and the Congress." 
Such dissemination practices are "in direct conflict with this Ad- 
ministration's and the Congress's policy of reducing paperwork and 
enhancing the economy and efficiency of the Government by 
improving Federal information policy-making pursuant to the Pa- 
perwork Reduction Act of 1980 (P.L. 96-511)." 

Thus, it is OMB's mistaken interpretation that the Paperwork Re- 
duction Act is intended (and gives OMB the power) to limit the 
flow of government information to the public and the Congress. 
(OMB Watch, OMB Watcher, March 27) 

January 1987 The intangible cost of the Iran-Contra arms deal continues to grow. 

Apparently, White House insistence on keeping the arms deal 
secret resulted in denying intelligence experts crucial information 
on Iran for more than a year. Congressional sources said that 
"thousands of documents" relating to Iran were probably withheld 
from State and Defense department analysts to protect the secret 
National Security Council arms-for-hostages operation. Congres- 
sional sources pointed out that lack of information from the Na- 
tional Security Agency's intercepts meant that foreign-policy 
recommendations were being made on the basis of inadeguate 



61 



February 1987 



intelligence. Among the intercepts presumably withheld were 
routine cables telling of other arms shipments to Iran. State De- 
partment sources say that intelligence analysts in Foggy Bottom are 
furious at the realization that vital information was kept from them 
for more than a year. The realization dawned on them slowly over 
the months as they detected significant gaps in the cable-intercept 
material they were getting from the NSA. ("Iran Intelligence With- 
held from Agencies," The Washington Post, January 29) 

February 1987 "The State Department awarded a secret contract for $276,186 last 
year to a public relations company that reportedly worked with 
Lieut. Col. Oliver L. North to rally support for military aid to the 
Nicaraguan rebels. 

'*The company, International Business Communications Inc., held 
meetings to plan a $1 million contra advertising campaign and 
acted as 'a reference library' for those making the ads, said Adam 
Goodman, spokesman for the Robert Goodman advertising 
agency, which produced the television spots. 

"The contract has raised guestions about whether payments breach 
a 1948 law prohibiting spending Federal money 'directly or indi- 
rectly' to influence votes by Congress, except when Administration 
officials provide information 'through proper official channels.' . . . 

"Besides participation in the ad campaign, sources close to the 
contra aid network said the public relations company paid for visits 
by contra leaders and field commanders to Washington in 1985 in 
order to lobby Congress and seek public support." ("U.S. Said to 
Pay for Contra Public Relations Drive." The New York Times, Feb- 
ruary 7) 

February 1987 The Pentagon sought to classify information on nuclear testing 

issues that senior Administration officials originally provided in a 
public Congressional hearing. It also sought to classify some of the 
questions that were asked by Members of Congress at that public 
hearing, Congressional aids say. The Senate Armed Services Com- 
mittee, which held the hearing, went along with the request. As a 
result, the committee's published hearing record has gaping dele- 
tions. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which has also 
held hearings on nuclear testing issues, has not deleted any mate- 
rial from its public hearing records. But that committee has al- 
lowed the Pentagon to retroactively modify the remarks of a senior 
military official in a way that alters the meaning of the comments. 



62 



February 198": 



The information that the Pentagon successfully sought to keep out 
of the public Congressional records concerns the hotly debated 
question of whether the Soviet Union is adhering to two 1970s 
treaties that limit the size of underground explosions. ("How Public 
Remarks Became Classified Data," The New York Times, 
February 20) 

February 1987 "A brief conversation that never took place on the Senate floor last 
August 15, but which found its way into at least one version of the 
official record of Senate proceedings for that day, is at the center 
of a dispute over enforcement of the South Africa sanctions legisla- 
tion enacted last year over President Reagan's veto. Because of the 
dispute, which could be called the Case of the Missing Colloquy, a 
ban on importing South African uranium ore and oxide may be 
relaxed for months while the two sides battle over the issue again. 
The case illustrates the importance of establishing an accurate 
record of 'legislative intent' during congressional debates, which 
federal agencies can use in drafting regulations to enforce the law. 
It also shows how seemingly decisive votes in Congress are not 
always the last word in policy disputes." ("'Case of the Missing 
Colloquy' May Affect S. Africa Sanctions." The Washington Post, 
February 17) 

February 1987 A dispute between the Reagan Administration and Congress over 
funding cutbacks is threatening the U.S. space-photography indus- 
try and improving the prospects of its foreign competition, accord- 
ing to industry executives, customers and legislators. EOSAT, a 
joint venture between Hughes Aircraft Co. and RCA Corp., was 
designated by the federal government in 1985 to take over the 
operation of its Landsat program, which the government had estab- 
lished 15 years earlier to launch and operate earth-observation 
satellites. Critics charge that the Reagan Administration has 
rushed the process of privatizing Landsat, proposing for the cur- 
rent fiscal year to cancel funds that are needed to ease the system 
into the commercial world. Because of funding problems, observ- 
ers say, the satellite program is on the verge of extinction. Industry 
executives, legislators and customers say that new European com- 
petitors are threatening to snare the lion's share of future business, 
which is expected to produce $2 billion in revenue by the turn of 
the century. The Landsat program has been used by farmers to 
monitor the condition of their crops, by federal agencies to track 
disasters and pollution, and by companies searching for oil. Intelli- 
gence agencies have called on Landsat to assess foreign military 
strength, and news agencies used the service to show critical 



63 



February 1987 



glimpses of reactor damage at Chernobyl. "Much of the informa- 
tion. . .we can obtain through other sources," said Joseph Wright, 
OMB deputy director. ("Fund Battle Imperils U.S. Space Photos," 
The Washington Post, February 23) 

February 1987 The Commerce Department is drafting regulations that would allow 
the U.S. government to restrict the use of earth observation satel- 
lites by private companies, such as broadcasters, on national secu- 
rity grounds. Already, the news media has used satellite 
photographs of the Chernobyl nuclear reactor disaster, the Iran- 
Irag border, a Libyan military airfield after the U.S. raid on that 
country, and Soviet naval bases. A draft of the new Commerce 
rules gives officials considerable discretion to determine whether a 
national security problem exists. Media officials had wanted a very 
limited definition of national security issues. If final Commerce 
Department rules remain the same, broadcasters could be kept out 
of evolving technology altogether by the U.S. government, say 
some officials. The licensing rules will regulate an industry that is 
still in its infancy and will not apply to companies launching and 
operating systems outside the United States, say government offi- 
cials. So far, only two companies, the U.S. Landsat and Spot Im- 
age, a French company, provide photographs of the earth's surface 
to government and private users to assist in crop assessment, city 
planning, disaster control, and many other uses. ("U.S. May Re- 
strict Satellite Photos," The Washington Post, February 25) 

March 1987 When Ellen Detlefsen of the University of Pittsburgh testified for 

ALA and the Medical Library Association at a March 4 hearing of 
the House Science, Space and Technology Subcommittee on Sci- 
ence, Research, and Technology on the proposed privatization of 
NTIS, she submitted for the record an October 1986 report of the 
Department of Commerce Privatization Task Force, Privatization 
Proposal for the National Technical Information Service. She 
pointed out that a reading of the document makes it clear that 
OMB ignored the results of the review process for the privatization 
of NTIS which encouraged participation by government agencies, 
NTIS customers, and companies in the information industry. The 
executive summary points out the costs and risks of turning NTIS 
over to the private sector: 

Given a program so complex and so privatized, any decision 
to make further privatization moves must be supported by 
evidence of extensive benefit and minimal cost. Such evi- 
dence does not exist. In fact, as this report clearly demon- 



64 



March 1987 



strates, the evidence is that extensive privatization presents 
substantial costs and risks for the government, for NTIS 
customers and for the information industry as a whole. 

March 1987 "A proposed reorganization of the NOAA (National Oceanic and 

Atmospheric Administration) Assessment and Information Services 
Center at the University of Missouri Cooperative Institute for Ap- 
plied Meteorology will sharply reduce the climate-related informa- 
tion developed at the Center. Among the many activities which will 
suffer will be assessments of climatic impacts on energy use and 
prices, housing starts, remote sensing for agricultural planning, 
early warning of developing food shortages in developing coun- 
tries, and related programs. Also to be terminated, says a report in 
the Network Newsletter of the National Center for Atmospheric 
Research, will be the Agency for International Development's 
Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance." {Library Hotline, March 9) 

March 1987 A presidential panel's report on outdoor recreation is out in paper- 

back, although the official version is still under wraps at the Inte- 
rior Department. Island Press, a nonprofit publisher, said it 
decided to print the report of the President's Commission on Amer- 
icans Outdoors as a public service. The commission completed its 
work early this year, but the lustice Department counseled Interior 
officials not to publish the 300-page report pending settlement of a 
lawsuit charging that the panel violated administrative procedures. 
Interior is supplying photocopies of the report under the Freedom 
of Information Act. A spokesman for Interior said that they were 
getting the report ready for printing. ("Nonprofit Publisher Beats 
U.S. to Press," The Washington Post, March 16) 

March 1987 "In the March 1987 issue of the Department of Education's Security 

Awareness Bulletin, DOE staff are taken to task for excessive and 
unauthorized use of 'confidential' as a document classification to 
restrict access. In some cases, the memo indicates, a more appro- 
priate classification would be OUO or Official Use Only. But in 
both cases, only individuals expressly authorized to so label a 
document may do so. If this directive has any relevance in the area 
of access to government information, it would appear to be an 
encouraging sign that the tide is turning on the mud flats of bu- 
reaucracy and attention is at last being paid to the critics of gov- 
ernment restrictions on access." {Library Hotline, May 1 1 ) 

March 1987 Buried in a final rule amending the Federal Acquisition Regulation 

is a provision which could eliminate the role of the loint Commit- 



65 



March 1987 



tee on Printing in the regulation of government printing and sub- 
stantially diminish the role and authority of the Government 
Printing Office in the process. The rule, scheduled to take effect 
on July 1, 1987, was published in the March 20 Federal Register, 
pp. 9036-39 without a request for public comment. The section at 
issue is numbered 8.802 Policy: 

(a) The Department of Justice has advised that the require- 
ment in 44 U.S.C. 501(2) for the advance approval of the 
Congressional Joint Committee on Printing (JCP) prior to 
conducting field printing operations (or the acquisition of 
such printing) is unconstitutional under the Supreme Court's 
decision in Immigration and Naturalization Service v. 
Chadha, 103 S. Ct. 2764 (1983); therefore, that approval 
requirement neither binds the executive branch nor serves 
as the basis for any coverage in this subpart. 

A May 21 study on the FAR revision by the Library of Congress 
Congressional Research Service concluded that ". . .the operative 
provisions of the proposed regulation appear to have no foundation 
in law." If JCP loses authority over government printing, and GPO 
prints less, it is highly likely that fewer government publications 
will be included in the GPO Depository Program. 

March 1987 OMB published uniform FOIA fee schedule guidelines in the 

March 27 Federal Register, pp. 10012-20, which are likely to make 
it more costly for libraries and nonprofit associations to use the 
FOIA. The issue is important for many libraries and associations 
since they are likely to be required to pay search costs in addition 
to fees for the reproduction of records. Two other categories of 
requesters will be charged for the cost of reproduction alone: 
education and noncommercial scientific institutions and represen- 
tations of the news media. 

During April, May and June, numerous federal agencies have 
published regulations based on the OMB guidelines to implement 
amendments to the FOIA which Congress passed in October 1986 
as part of the Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 (PL 99-570). When it 
passed the amendments last October, Congress intended to im- 
prove the fee waiver provisions of the Act for the news media and 
public interest users of FOIA. However, the definition of educa- 
tional institution OMB adopted in the final guidelines, although 
broader than the draft version, still excludes a library unless it is 
incidentally connected to an institution which OMB considers 

66 



April 1987 



educational. Thus, a preschool with a program of scholarly re- 
search might qualify as an educational institution, but the New 
York Public Library would not. ("Freedom of Information Act Fees," 
ALA Washington Office, April 1987) 

March 1987 The Office of Management and Budget document, Management of 

the United States Government, Fiscal Year 1988, brags about 
eliminating one-fourth of the government's publications in recent 
years and attempts to trivialize the government's publications pro- 
gram in the following paragraph on p. 76: 

Unnecessary spending on the printing and distribution of 
Government publications can and has been eliminated. The 
Federal inventory, once numbering more than 16,000 publi- 
cations and costing more than $165 million annually, has 
been reduced by more than 25 percent by terminating such 
titles as "How to Buy a Christmas Tree" and "A Day in the 
Life of a Lizard." Procedures have been established to tightly 
control agency plans to create new publications or expand 
distribution of existing ones. In 1987 OMB will again care- 
fully review these agency plans and eliminate those publica- 
tions considered unnecessary, as recent analysis shows that 
the number and cost of publications is again creeping slowly 
upward. For example, the Agency for International Develop- 
ment eliminated support for "Development International," 
and the Veterans Administration did not publish "The Year in 
Brief: the VA in 1985." Five hundred publications amounting 
to 2 million copies will be eliminated next year. 

April 1987 On April 1, FBI agents to six cities attempted to question a dozen 

people who have visited Nicaragua on behalf of Tecnica, a 
California-based group that regularly sends volunteers there on 
humanitarian projects. Under public guidelines, the FBI cannot 
investigate domestic groups unless it has evidence of a possible 
crime. But under classified foreign counterintelligence guidelines, 
the bureau can investigate if there is reason to believe the target is 
receiving direction or financing from a foreign power. FBI spokes- 
woman Sue Schnitzer declined to explain the purpose of the April 
interviews. She said they are related to "foreign counterintelli- 
gence investigations" and "fall under guidelines that are classified, 
which puts us in a bind because we can't tell you about the guide- 
lines." But, Schnitzer said, "There's a well-founded basis for these 
interviews. We don't conduct interviews for political reasons." ("FBI 
Probing Nicaragua Visitors," The Washington Post, May 12) 



67 



April 1987 



April 1987 In the continuing effort to place barriers in the way of qualification 

for FOIA fee waivers, the Department of Justice Office of Legal 
Policy issued new fee waiver policy guidance to all federal agen- 
cies on April 2, 1987. In a discussion of what evidence is sufficient 
to establish that a contribution to understanding by the general 
public will ultimately result from a disclosure, the DOJ guidelines 
observed about libraries that: 

This consideration is not satisfied simply because a fee 
waiver request is made by a library or other record reposi- 
tory, or a requester who intends merely to disseminate infor- 
mation to such an institution. Such requests, like those of 
other requesters, should be analyzed to identify a particular 
person who will actually use the requested information in 
scholarly or other analytic work and then disseminate it to 
the general public; absent that, it cannot be determined that 
disclosure to the requester will contribute to the public's 
understanding of government operations or activities .... 
Thus, such requesters should make the same fee waiver 
showing that a person would have to make to obtain a fee 
waiver directly, including a representation by that person of 
intent to perform the work involved. (Memorandum for the 
Heads of All Federal Agencies from Stephen J. Markman, 
Assistant Attorney General, Office of Legal Policy, U.S. 
Department of Justice. Subject: New Fee Waiver Policy 
Guidelines, April 2) 

In remarks to the House of Representatives on April 22 {Congres- 
sional Record, pp. H2104-5), Rep. Glenn English (D-OK) stated: 

The one word that best describes this guidance is dishonest 
. . . .Why did the Department mistake the record? I think the 
answer is obvious. The Department doesn't like the FOIA, 
and it especially doesn't like the fact that Congress has 
intentionally made the FOIA easier to use by liberalizing the 
fee waiver rules. Since there is nothing in the legislative 
history to support the Department's objectives, the Depart- 
ment has decided to ignore the legislative history for the fee 
waiver standard. 

April 1987 "The Federal Trade Commission said today that it would stop test- 

ing cigarettes for tar and nicotine and would rely instead on data 
from the tobacco industry. 



68 



April 1987 



"Daniel Oliver, chairman of the commission, said the program 
duplicated information available from the industry. Ending the 
program will save tax-payers about $200,000 a year, he said. 

"The action was promptly criticized by the American Lung Associ- 
ation. 

"Karen Monaco, a spokeswoman for the association, said the action 
put the measurement of tar and nicotine into the hands of the 
tobacco companies, adding, 'We certainly don't trust them.' 

"She said that in general the measurements had been misused 
because the tobacco industry had tried to make smokers think that 
cigarettes with low tar and nicotine are safe to smoke. 

"Scott Stapf of the Tobacco Institute responded that the industry 
used exactly the same method as the commission in its tar and 
nicotine testing. 

"The cigarette companies anticipate cooperating with the F.T.C. 
and appreciate the confidence expressed by the agency in their tar 
and nicotine measurement reports,' Mr. Stapf added. 

"The commission set up its testing laboratory in 1966 to establish 
uniform standards for measuring the tar and nicotine content in 
cigarettes. That information has been reported in cigarette adver- 
tising since 1971." ("U.S. Stops Cigarette Testing," The New York 
Times, April 16) 

April 1987 A recent decision by OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory 

Affairs to withhold approval of the government's major source of 
information about the petroleum industry may put Americans back 
where they were during the 1973 oil crisis — without the data 
needed to plan for the future or to avert a crisis. Part of the prob- 
lem in the 1970s was that when the government tried to allocate 
petroleum products for critical needs (e.g., heating oil), it soon 
discovered that it had no idea how much of what was available, 
who had it, where it was, or where it was going. The international 
American oil companies knew, but they weren't telling. Congress 
vowed that the nation would never again be caught napping. In 
1973-74, Congress created the Energy Information Administration 
(EIA), and charged it with compiling and publishing up-to-date 
information on petroleum availability and marketing from data 



69 



April 1987 



submitted by the oil companies. Recently, EIA has scaled back its 
information collection activities. In April, OIRA withheld approval 
of EI As January information collection request, asking for "appro- 
priate changes." In particular, OIRA sided with the Sun Oil Com- 
pany's objection to correcting data previously submitted to EIA 
unless actual purchase amounts and wellhead prices were off by 
five percent or more (Sun Oil wanted a leeway of ten percent or $1 
per barrel). Small changes in oil barrel prices have massive eco- 
nomic consequences, because hundreds of millions of barrels are 
involved. For example, in the President's FY 1988 budget, OIRA 
predicted a one percent fall in oil prices for 1987, a figure it used 
in calculating a rosy economic projection of lower government 
deficits. If OIRA succeeds in setting a ten percent error rate for 
EIA crude oil price data, neither OIRA nor anyone else may know 
which way oil prices are going, and the government may lose the 
data it needs to step in during a crisis. (OMB Watch, Monthly 
Review, May 30) 

April 1987 Lt. Col. Oliver North and his secretary. Fawn Hall, stuffed so many 

documents into a White House shredder last November that they 
jammed the machine, according to informed sources. The destruc- 
tion of the documents — including printouts of internal National 
Security Council computer messages — took place on the evening 
of November 21, the day before Attorney General Edwin Meese III 
and his aides were expected to begin reviewing the NSC files. 
Independent counsel Lawrence E. Walsh, who is in charge of the 
criminal investigation into the Iran-Contra Affair, is known to be- 
lieve that there was a conspiracy to defraud the government, and is 
hunting for apparent cover-ups that obstructed justice. ("North's 
Shredder Broke Disposing of Documents," The Washington Post, 
April 17) 

April 1987 The State Department swiftly withdrew from circulation a publica- 

tion that aroused conservative fury by describing the Nicaraguan 
contras as right-wingers based in Honduras and Costa Rica. The 
definition appeared in the 1987 edition of "Dictionary of Interna- 
tional Relations Terms," published by the department's reference 
library. As the volume was ordered withdrawn from circulation, 
librarians said it will be corrected and reissued. The dictionary 
said "contras" is a contraction of the Spanish word for "counter- 
revolutionaries" and that the rebel group "comprises former mem- 
bers of the Somozist National Guard, dissident right-wing former 
Sandinistas and the Miskito Indian minority." Larry Byrnes, execu- 
tive director of the Council on Hemispheric Affairs, said, "Maybe 

70 



April 1987 



Alexis de Tocqueville was right when he said that Russia and 
America are similar. In the Soviet Union, names of former officials 
are excised from reference works. The State Department has now 
muzzled one of the first nonideological documents issued during 
the Reagan administration which vaguely conforms to reality." 
("State Dept. to Redefine 'Contras'," The Washington Post, 
April 18) 

April 1987 Despite a recent setback, the Reagan Administration is proceeding 

with an effort to impose unprecedented restrictions on the vast flow 
of computerized information that fuels American's increasingly 
information-based economy. A September 1984 directive, NSDD- 
145, directed a task force led by military and intelligence agencies 
to come up with plans for restricting access to public information 
held by federal agencies as well as private companies. In October 
1986, John M. Poindexter, then National Security Adviser, signed 
NTISSP No. 2, National Policy on Protection of Sensitive, But Un- 
classified Information in Federal Government Telecommunications 
and Automated Information Systems, which restricted a broad 
range of government information that is unclassified, but consid- 
ered "sensitive." NTISSP No. 2 was rescinded in March 1987 by 
Poindexter's successor, Frank Carlucci. "According to sources in 
Congress and the administration, however, Carlucci has made it 
clear that the pullback is only temporary, intended to disassociate 
the plan from Poindexter's name in the wake of the Iran-Contra 
arms scandal." Sen. Patrick Leahy (D-VT) said. "The administra- 
tion is so enthralled by the idea of secrecy they won't give up their 
attempts to control the flow of information." Despite the pull-back 
of Poindexter's order last fall, he said. "There's no change of think- 
ing on the issue." NSDD-145 which set up the category of "sensi- 
tive, but unclassified information," remains in effect, although the 
Administration is reviewing the directive. ("Reagan Seeks Controls 
on Data-Base Access," The Boston Globe, April 20) 

April 1987 Officials of the Department of Education acknowledged that they 

had paid a private company to find examples of college adminis- 
trators who misused funds and then tried to prevent higher- 
education representatives from getting the information. Marion C. 
Blakey, of the Education Department said the department paid 
Applied Systems Institute, a research company, $257 to do the 
work after an editor of U.S. News & World Report last fall asked 
for examples of how colleges had misspent money. Blakey said, 
"We provide information as a service to the public. It's what this 
agency is charged with doing." Higher-education representatives 



71 



April 1987 



were outraged by the incident. The American Council on Educa- 
tion learned of the inquiry last year and requested further informa- 
tion under the Freedom of Information Act. The department 
initially denied the request, saying that the information gathered 
by Applied Systems Institute was prepared "to assist the depart- 
ment in preparing policy options" — which meant the department 
did not have to release it. The A.C.E. appealed the decision and 
received copies of the memoranda prepared by the company. Bla- 
key later said the study had nothing to do with policy setting, 
although the study was requested at the time Education Secretary 
William Bennett was beginning to intensify his criticism of the 
increase in college costs. ("Education Dept. Admits It Paid Private 
Company to Find Examples of Misuse of Funds on Campuses," The 
Chronicle of Higher Education, April 22) 

April 1987 Former president Richard M. Nixon has temporarily blocked the 

scheduled May 4 public release of about five percent of the 1.5 
million pages of his private presidential papers, the National Ar- 
chives announced. ("Nixon Blocks May 4 Release of Some Papers," 
The Washington Post, April 23) 

April 1987 The House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on International Opera- 

tions voted on April 28 to subpoena State Department documents 
and cables concerning security problems at the U.S. embassy in 
Moscow after learning that some materials the committee had 
requested were deliberately withheld. Subcommittee chair Rep. 
Daniel Mica (D-FL) charged that the department had withdrawn 
documents from two thick binders of information on embassy secu- 
rity provided to the panel. He said the panel discovered that docu- 
ments were missing because indexes and tabs in each binder 
referred to sections that were empty. ("Panel Votes to Subpoena 
Embassy Security Data," The Washington Post, April 29) 

May 1987 In 1985, when the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) 

learned of the deaths of nine children in recliner chair accidents, 
it alerted furniture manufacturers and the group quickly agreed to 
urge modifications in the way chairs were made and to issue warn- 
ings to customers. But at the CPSC, the federal agency with au- 
thority to order unsafe products off the market, agency economists 
also examined the chair issue, using a controversial "cost-benefit" 
formula that the Reagan Administration has pressed all regulatory 
agencies to employ before undertaking action. The results shocked 
some agency officials, as well as furniture manufacturers. The 
economists concluded the agency should not support the changes 

72 



June 1987 



in recliners. "It is our recommendation that nothing be done be- 
yond mentioning (the problem) in safety alerts. . ." wrote Warren J. 
Prunella, an assistant to the director of the agency's economic 
analysis staff, in an internal memo. Even warnings should be tem- 
pered. Prunella urged. "The psychic costs associated with the 
anxiety that accompanies the release of information on household 
hazards is to be considered against any accompanying benefits." 
Noting that the CPSC economics analysis staff has sometimes used 
cost-benefit analysis to argue against issues news releases on some 
hazards, CPSC compliance director David Schmeltzer said his 
"most serious objection" to the formula is a fear that the commis- 
sion's devotion to it could "result in consumers being deprived of 
their right to be informed." ("Formula for Product Safety Raises 
Questions About Human Factor," The Washington Post, May 26) 

May 1987 "A report in the May 21 New York Times says that a Japanese em- 

ployee of a technical library on a United States Air Base is among 
four men arrested for stealing documents on military aircraft and 
passing them to an official at the Soviet Trade Representative Of- 
fice in Tokyo. The four are also suspected of selling military docu- 
ments to the Chinese." {Library Hothne, June 1 ) 

June 1987 The Department of Commerce published a notice in the June 10 

Commerce Business Daily seeking comments and expressions of 
interest from those who might contract to operate the National 
Technical Information Service. In addition to the regular contract- 
ing process, the notice states that Commerce is considering a 
second option, the federal employee direct corporate stock owner- 
ship plan (Fed-Co-Op). This alternative is viewed as a viable 
means of sharing contract benefits with affected employees. The 
fed co-op was designed as an alternative to A-76 and is based on 
the concept of an employee ownership plan (ESOP). Under this 
concept, federal employees would exchange their government jobs 
for salaried jobs with the contractor as well as stock in the new 
contracting firm. Commerce plans to hold a meeting on June 16 of 
potential bidders on the fed co-op option. 

June 1987 In a concluding statement to the first phase of the hearings of the 

House and Senate panels investigating the Iran-Contra initiatives. 
House Committee Chairman Lee H. Hamilton (D-IN) said that the 
18 witnesses and more than 100 hours of hearings so far have 
produced "some of the most extraordinary testimony ever pre- 
sented to Congress." That testimony, Hamilton said, told "a story of 
remarkable chaos in the processes of government." Several of the 



73 



June 1987 



findings he mentioned involved information: private citizens re- 
ceived top-secret U.S. codes and coded communications devices; a 
national security adviser and an assistant secretary of state with- 
held information and misled Congress on the Nicaraguan contra 
resupply operation; and documents were altered and destroyed. 

In her testimony on June 8, Fawn Hall, former secretary to Lt. Col. 
Oliver North, former National Security Council official, told how, 
at North's direction, she had altered and shredded documents and, 
on her own initiative, smuggled highly classified papers out of the 
Old Executive Office Building. She told of concealing the papers 
in her boots and dress in order to elude an NSC official who was 
there to prevent such removal in the face of a Federal Bureau of 
Investigation probe. ("Hall Testifies of Necessity To Go Above 
Written Law'." The Washington Post, June 10) 

June 1987 On June 8, OMB published OMB Bulletin No. 87-14, Report and 

Inventory of Government Information Dissemination Products and 
Services, its control plan for a comprehensive inventory of each 
periodical, machine-readable data file, software file, online data- 
base service, and electronic bulletin board in the inventory of all 
federal executive agencies, which are issued or disseminated by 
agencies to the genera] pubhc. Agencies are required to provide 
an electronic copy of its total agency-wide inventory of all informa- 
tion dissemination products and services by September 11, 1987. 

An official of OMB's Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs 
had previously announced in public meetings that OMB wants to 
combine OMB Circulars A-3, Government Publications, and Cir- 
cular A- 130, Management of Federal Information Resources, 
within a year. Both these circulars are cited as authority for OMB 
Bulletin No. 87-14. The electronic listing of all government infor- 
mation dissemination products and services will provide a conven- 
ient shopping list for the private sector in search of public 
information products with profit potential. One of the policies in 
Bulletin 87-14 states: 

Agencies shall make such inventories available to the pub- 
lic, either directly or through intermediaries such as other 
Federal agencies or private sector entities, as an aid in lo- 
cating government information products and services. Agen- 
cies shall, however, avoid offering information services that 
essentially duplicate services already available from other 
agencies or the private sector. 

74 



lune 1987 



June 1987 Two scientists hired by the Public Health Service to prepare a 

report for Congress on lead poisoning in children resigned in 
protest, contending that PHS plans to delete and dilute critical 
portions of their work. The scientists said that their draft report, 
which details the adverse health effects of lead at blood levels 
common to 17 percent of urban preschool children, suggested the 
need for more far-reaching and costly remedies than the Adminis- 
tration is willing to consider. They said a condensed version of a 
draft sent out for review fails to present the national scope of an 
environmental problem once thought to be confined to poor, inner- 
city dwellers and to detail the health consequences. 

"No way in hell you can comprehend the complexity of this prob- 
lem in a boiled down, very misleading, essentially neutral docu- 
ment," said author Paul Mushak, adjunct professor of 
environmental pathology at the University of North Carolina 
School of Medicine. "It's one of the most subtle, nastiest rewrites 
I've ever seen," said coauthor Annemarie Crocetti, retired associate 
professor of community medicine at New York Medical College. 
Frank Mitchell, chief medical officer of the PHS' Agency for Toxic 
Substances and Disease Registry, said the 330-page draft has been 
cut to 46 pages to create a "readable, usable" document for Con- 
gress complete with all vital findings. "We're not suppressing any- 
thing," Mitchell said. The excised charts, appendices and 
judgments of the two authors will be made available to Congress as 
"backup data," he said. Another omission in the condensed version 
was the 16-page bibliography and extensive references in the draft. 
("Authors Protest Report on Lead Poisoning," The Washington Post, 
June 13) 

June 1987 Nearly a quarter of the regulations proposed by agencies and 

departments across the government were changed at the behest of 
the Office of Management and Budget before they were issued, 
according to OMB statistics. As a result, OMB influence over 
government regulation appears to be increasing. In 1981, 87.3 
percent of all regulations went through the OMB review process 
without change. Last year, the figure was 68.3 percent. OMB offi- 
cials said that a third of the changes are insignificant, a few are 
last-minute alterations offered by the departments and agencies, 
and others are statistical aberrations. Some lawmakers argue that 
OMB's economists, statisticians and lawyers have acquired near- 
veto power over the scientists, engineers, and technical experts 
who write regulations in agencies. They said that public health and 
safety are eroded when rules are watered down and standards are 
eased to save money or meet theoretical economic considerations. 

75 



June 1987 



The Administration said it has cut back on the rate of new regula- 
tions substantially. The number of pages in the Federal Register, 
the official vehicle for new rules, has been reduced from 87,012 in 
1980 to 47,418 last year. The number of proposed rules has been 
cut by 2,000, and the number of final rules by 3,000, according to 
OMB statistics. ("OMB Cracks Whip on Rule-Making." The Wash- 
ington Post, June 17) 

June 1987 Congressional investigators are trying to determine why five top 

secret National Security Council documents were released from a 
special protective file November 21, 1988, routed to then-White 
House aide Oliver North, substantially rewritten at his direction 
and returned four days later without guestions being raised about 
the alternations. Fawn Hall, North's former secretary, testified that 
she made alterations, destroyed the originals and made copies of 
the new documents on a letterhead that had not been use in 1985. 
("Release of 5 Documents From NSC Probed." Washington Post, 
June 19) 

June 1987 Under rules set to take effect July 1, three major agencies — 

Defense, General Services Administration and National Aeronau- 
tics and Space Administration— propose to divorce themselves from 
long-standing printing regulations that have buttressed both the 
Joint Committee on Printing's and the Government Printing Of- 
fice's controls on government printing. The proposed rules which 
were published in the March 20 Federal Register, pp. 9036-39, 
would let the individual agencies make many of the decisions the 
committee and GPO now make. According to congressional 
sources, if the three agencies are allowed to bypass the committee 
and GPO, other agencies are likely to follow. 

Members of the joint committee demanded that the three agencies 
drop their plans for new printing rules. But the agencies notified 
the panel in mid- June that they were proceeding and guestioned 
both the committee's and GPO's ability to stop them. Administra- 
tion officials contend that OMB, which has trimmed the govern- 
ment's overall printing bills sharply, would continue to exercise 
control over what the government prints. OMB Watch, a citizen's 
group that monitors OMB actions, said: "Without some kind of 
congressional oversight mechanism, OMB's supervision of execu- 
tive branch information activities will lead to less information for 
Congress as well as the public." In a memo this spring, the Con- 
gressional Research Service noted that Congress insisted on direct 
control over printing in 1846 because it believed that was the way 
to end scandals over printing contracts. Committee powers were 

76 



July 1987 



broadened in 1895 and have gone without a major challenge until 
a 1983 Supreme Court ruling striking down legislative vetoes. 
("Hill Pressed to Ease Grip Over Printing." The Washington Post, 
June 19) 

June 1987 The Federal Statistical Directory, which is in its second edition as 

a private- sector publication, now costs 550 percent more than it . ^ 

did when it was last a government document and is no longer 
available through the Depository Library Program. When the Gov- 
ernment Printing Office sold the 1979 edition, the most recent 
available from the government, it charged $5. The current privat- 
ized edition costs $32.50. Although for 45 years the directory 
helped researchers identify and locate the people and agencies 
who can provide essential statistical information, OMB scrapped 
the government book as an unnecessary publication. (Publisher's 
advertisement provided current price.) 

July 1987 OMB reguested public comment on a draft revision of OMB Circu- 

lar A-25, User Charges, in the July 1 Federal Register, pp. 24890- 
92. In a letter to OMB, ALA Washington Office Director Eileen D. 
Cooke stated that ALA would strongly object to the policies of full 
cost recovery and market pricing spelled out in the draft if those 
policies were applied to government information products and 
services since full recovery of costs attendant to the creation, col- 
lection, processing and transmission of government information 
will restrict access by the public to that information. She noted that 
the draft of A-25 appears to indicate that OMB Circular A- 130, 
Management of Federal Information Resources, ". . .shall be 
deemed to meet the requirements of this Circular." OMB Circular 
A- 130 requires user charges for costs of dissemination of govern- 
ment information, but refers to Circular A-25 — in effect, a circular 
circular. 

Cooke also stated that ALA is disturbed that the ultimate benefi- 
ciary will no longer be considered in determining when no charge 
should be made for services. The current A-25, which dates from 
1959, provides that no charge should be made for services when 
the identification of the ultimate beneficiary is obscure and the 
service can be primarily considered as broadly benefiting the 
general public. The draft A-25 turns that policy on its head by 
stipulating that no charge should be made for services when the 
identification of the specific beneficiary is obscure. (Letter from 
Eileen D. Cooke to Ellen Balis, OMB Budget Review Division, 
July 31) 

77 



July 1987 



July 1987 According to military and congressional sources, senior Pentagon 

officials, seeking internal approval for a tentative plan to deploy 
ballistic missile defenses in the mid-1990s, pressured an advisory 
panel to omit sharp criticism of the plan in a recent key scientific 
report. A secret report by a Defense Science Board panel con- 
cluded that the Pentagon's Strategic Defense Initiative deployment 
plan was so "sketchy" that neither its price nor its effectiveness 
could be determined. This criticism and a recommendation that 
the board withhold deployment-plan approval for a year or two 
were omitted from a version of the report given to the Defense 
Acquisition Board, the Pentagon's senior decision makers on new 
weapons systems. ("Science Panel's SDI Criticisms Omitted From 
Report," Washington Post, July 9 and "Defense Science Board 
Report on SDI," The Washington Post, July 10) 

July 1987 Testifying on behalf of the American Library Association, Dr. 

Harold B. Shill of Western Virginia University, documented that 
user costs in accessing government databases through private 
information vendors are often substantially higher than those in- 
curred in using databases stored in government computers. Gov- 
ernment information repackaged by the private sector is also 
usually expensive for end users. An appendix attached to his testi- 
mony showed that the average cost of government information 
databases provided through DIALOG by the private sector is 
$93.26, while databases provided directly to DIALOG by the col- 
lecting agencies costs $45.70 per connect hour. Privatization more 
than doubles the cost to end users. (Hearings on Scientific and 
Technical Information: Policy and Organization in Federal Govern- 
ment (HR 2159 and HR 1615), House Committee on Science, 
Space, and Technology, Subcommittee on Science, Research and 
Technology, 100th Congress, 1st Session, July 14 and 15, 1987) 

July 1987 In an opinion piece in The Chronicle of Higher Education, 

Gerhard L. Weinberg argued that the only realistic solution to the 
practical problems of declassifying the enormous volume of re- 
cords generated by the modern state is to set up a system of auto- 
matic declassification which in this country would be done by 
amending the Federal Records Act. Under such a system, every 
document that is classified would have a declassification schedule, 
including dates. No further review of the document would be 
needed unless the declassification were to be either speeded up or 
postponed. Weinberg said that the United States at one time led 
the way among nations in making its records openly and promptly 
accessible to its citizens on the assumption that in a democracy the 

78 



July 1987 



vjovernment's records are the public's records. "Republican and 
Democratic Administrations alike worked toward reasserting the 
principle that the people should have access to the records of their 
government, and instituted practical administrative and budgetary- 
procedures to accomplish that end. The declassification process 
was dramatically and emphatically reversed on August 1, 1982, 
when a new executive order on security classification took effect." 
("With Secret Records Growing Some 7 Million Pages a Year, We 
Desperately Need an Automatic Declassification System," The 
Chronicle of Higher Education, July 15) 

Former national security adviser John M. Poindexter told Congress 
during the Iran- Contra hearings that on December 5, 1985, Presi- 
dent Reagan signed a "finding" that, after the fact, authorized a 
secret arms-for-hostage deal with Iran. The White House has said 
that Reagan cannot remember signing the document, and it has 
never been found because, as Poindexter testified on November 21, 
1986, as the scandal was coming to light, he personally tore it up 
and put it in a basket of materials to be burned. Poindexter said he 
destroyed the document "because I thought it was a significant 
political embarrassment and I wanted to protect him." ("Poindexter 
Says President Not Told of Diversion," Washington Post, July 16) 

Entreated by the White House, columnists Jack Anderson and Dale 
Van Atta held a story that President Reagan had confidentially 
confirmed the existence of the secret Iran initiative to them in a 
February 24, 1986, interview. "Convinced that a dangerous disin- 
formation campaign was in progress, we began revealing pieces of 
the secret Iranian initiative — and finally stated it flat-out in a 
column on June 29, 1986. 'We can now reveal the secret negotia- 
tions over arms supply and release of American hostages have 
involved members of the National Security Council and a former 
official of the CIA the column reported. It remained for an ob- 
scure Lebanese magazine and a top Iranian official to confirm our 
story last November." ("Reagan Interview Worried Poindexter." The 
Washington Post, July 29) 

A Social Security Administration worker in Baltimore responsible 
for assessing the performance of caseworkers told a House Govern- 
ment Operations subcommittee that she was pressured repeatedly 
by higher-ups to "stop finding deficiencies" and to falsify the accu- 
racy of her ratings. Ann Mogenhan, a 13-year employee of the 
Office of Disability Operations, told Congress that her managers 
discouraged her from conducting tough assessments of casework- 



79 



July 1987 



ers, beginning in 1983, for fear of lessening output and jeopardiz- 
ing their own merit raises. "I was told by several different 
managers on numerous occasions to provide false accuracy statis- 
tics on individuals whose production was high, since charging 
errors caused them to drastically reduce their production," Mo- 
genhan said. She was among ten current and former Social Secu- 
rity Administration workers and advocates of beneficiaries who 
testified about the adverse impact of major staffing reductions and 
administrative changes in the 1300 SSA offices throughout the 
country. Critics contend that the cutbacks have resulted in shoddy 
work, unanswered telephone calls, large backlogs of applications 
and administrative appeal rulings, and far less personal assistance 
for mentally and physically handicapped people in filling out 
forms. Those allegations were disputed by Social Security Commis- 
sioner Dorcas R. Hardy and her top aides. ("Social Security Ser- 
vice Scored on Hill," The Washington Post, July 29) 

July 1987 OMB asked the Census Bureau to eliminate about half the pro- 

posed questions on the 1988 Decennial Census Dress Rehearsal for 
the 1990 Census, roughly 30 questions, including all questions 
about housing value and rents, population mobility, energy, unem- 
ployment and fertility. "OMB is coming in and taking the guts out 
of a lot of [the Censusl," said Randy Arndt of the National League 
of Cities. "This would have a devastating effect on the ability of 
local governments to measure and evaluate trends." But OMB cites 
the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980, which gives it authority over 
all forms people have to answer for the government. ("Census 
Questions in Question," USA TODAY, July 30) 

August 1987 The Joint Economic Committee, chaired by Sen. Paul Sarbanes (D- 

MD), held a hearing on August 7 to examine the potential effects 
of the OMB proposal to eliminate or shift questions in the Census 
dress rehearsal. Two panels representing users were unanimous in 
criticizing the OMB. Rachel Van Wingen, government documents 
librarian at Georgetown University, representing ALA concluded: 
"Wise policy decisions are difficult to make in the face of uncer- 
tainty; they're impossible to make in the dark. There's no reason to 
be in the dark. The Bureau of the Census exists with a mandate to 
collect statistics in the national interest." ("OMB 'Unable to Ap- 
prove' Dress Rehearsal, Proposes Alterations." News from COPAFS, 
August-September 1987) 

August 1987 The Reagan Administration published a definition of "classifiable" 

in the August 11 Federal Register, p. 29793, to clarify a controver- 

80 



August 1987 



sial secrecy pledge required of civilian and military personnel with 
access to classified information. The secrecy agreement, which 
already has been signed by an estimated two million persons in 67 
agencies since the Administration began using it in January, has 
been criticized by members of Congress and some government 
employees who believe it is intended to stifle the flow of informa- 
tion from the executive branch. The form requires the employee to 
pledge not to disclose either "classified" or "classifiable" informa- 
tion. Sen. Charles E. Grassley (R-IA) said that the term "classifi- 
able" could "mean anything. It will have a chilling effect on those 
working for government who will not disclose anything for fear that 
at a later date it might turn out to have been classified." At the 
center of the row is form SF 189, which springs from a controver- 
sial National Security Decision Directive issued by the Reagan 
Administration in 1983 that authorized polygraph testing and re- 
quired prepublication reviews. ("Secrecy -Vow Change to Be Aired," 
The Washington Post, August 1 1 and "Taking the Pledge," The 
Washington Post, August 28) 

August 1987 The Air Force, bucking Administration policy, for more than a 

year has required all its employees — including thousands with no 
access to secrets — to sign a controversial new security pledge. The 
Air Force obtained 750,000 signatures between July 1986 and June 
1987 of which at least 150,000 apparently came from employees 
without security clearances. A Reagan Administration regulation 
forbids federal agencies to solicit signatures from employees who 
do not have security clearances, and therefore have no access to 
classified data. The Administration recently announced it would 
halt the withdrawal of security clearances from employees refusing 
to sign the form pending the outcome of a lawsuit challenging the 
pledge. However, agencies are to continue requesting employees to 
sign the form. ("Air Force Oversteps Security Policy," The Wash- 
ington Post, August 24) 

Secrecy pledges signed by an estimated 150,000 Air Force person- 
nel without any access to secrets will be destroyed. ("Air Force 
Cuts Back on Secrecy Pledges," Times-Herald [Newport News, 
Va.], August 31) 

August 1987 Pentagon budget cutters have decided to stop publishing the De- 

fense Management Journal, the scholarly award-winning magazine 
that covered subjects from computers to managing sick leave. 
Defense considers the publication too costly. ("Thrift Savings Plan 
Grows," The Washington Post, August 13) 



81 



August 1987 



August 1987 In the last few years, as computers have become ever more sophis- 

ticated and numerous, federal officials have become increasingly 
concerned about unclassified data. They fear that foreign citizens 
might harm national security by extracting valuable scientific and 
technical information from the huge volume of unclassified mate- 
rial accessible in computers. In a 1984 directive. President Reagan 
likened information to a mosaic, saying that bits of unclassified 
data, innocuous in isolation, "can reveal highly classified and 
other sensitive information when taken in aggregate." The govern- 
ment, the directive said, shall encourage, advise and, where ap- 
propriate, assist the private sector to protect "sensitive 
non-Government information, the loss of which could adversely 
affect the national security." 

Described in the article are author Tom Clancy's methods in using 
unclassified materials to research his best-selling novels. He be- 
lieves that it is unwise for the government to try to restrict access to 
unclassified information in the public domain. "One of the reasons 
we are so successful is that we have a free society with open access 
to information. If you change that, if you try to close off the chan- 
nels of information, we'll end up just like the Russians, and their 
society does not work. The best way to turn America into another 
Russia is to emulate their methods of handling information." 
("Washington Feeling Insecure About Non-Secret Information," The 
New York Times, August 30) 



September 1987 



The American Federation of Government Employees filed suit 
against the government on September 1 charging that mandatory 
secrecy pledges violate employees' constitutional rights. The law- 
suit asks the court to declare the pledges illegal and to rescind the 
secrecy agreements signed by more than two million federal em- 
ployees. The union argues that the restrictions interfere with em- 
ployees' freedom of speech and that they will inhibit employees 
who want to blow the whistle on fraud, waste and abuse in govern- 
ment. Two types of secrecy pledges are at issue. 



The more common pledge, which applies to 3V2 to 4 million gov- 
ernment employees and contractors with access to classified infor- 
mation, requires those workers to promise not to disclose classified 
or "classifiable" information. That pledge, known as Standard Form 
189, is overseen by the Information Security Oversight Office, a 
part of the General Services Administration. The second pledge, 
which applies only to employees with the highest-level 
clearances — those covering Sensitive Compartmented 



82 



September 1987 



Information — requires such workers to sign a lifetime pledge stat- 
ing that they will obtain approval from government censors for any 
book, speech or publication, including fictionalized accounts, 
dealing with classified material. That pledge, known as Form 4193, 
applies to about 150,000 current workers with SCI clearances and 
is overseen by the Central Intelligence Agency. ("Secrecy Pledges 
Challenged Openly," The Washington Post, September 2) 



September 1987 



Army Lt. General William E. Odom, director of the National Secu- 
rity Agency, the nation's most secret spy agency, said the federal 
government should prosecute news organizations that publish 
sensitive information. He said news leaks in the last several years 
have crippled U.S. intelligence-gathering capabilities in some 
parts of the world. Odom also criticized the Reagan Administration 
for its torrent of leaks and some U.S. officials for failing to have the 
"appropriate level of paranoia" about Soviet espionage efforts. He 
singled out James Bamford's 1982 book on the National Security 
Agency, The Puzzle Palace, for having "done more damage to us 
than almost anything I can think of." Odom believes Bamford and 
others publishing such material should be prosecuted under a 
1950 law barring disclosure of U.S. "communication intelligence 
activities," but acknowledged that government officials who tell 
reporters about sensitive intelligence findings are just as guilty as 
those who publish them. ("Chief of Spy Agency Criticizes News 
Leaks," Chicago Tribune, September 3) 



September 1987 



OMB ended weeks of dispute with the Census Bureau by ordering 
it to drop three of about 70 questions the bureau had proposed for 
the next census, and to use seven others only on a "long form" that 
goes to a limited sample of houses. The three deleted questions 
involved fuels and household utilities. The seven permitted only on 
the long form involve housing. The OMB approved all proposed 
questions on fertility, transportation and labor market participation. 
OMB had received hundreds of letters which said that detailed 
information about local neighborhoods is vital in planning local 
transportation, housing and labor services, and is available only 
from the full decennial census. ("OMB Orders Several Questions 
Cut from Census," The Washington Post, September 17) 



September 1987 



Agents of the Federal Bureau of Investigation have asked librarians 
in New York City to watch for and report on library users who 
might be diplomats of hostile powers recruiting intelligence agents 
or gathering information potentially harmful to United States secu- 
rity. The initiative upset library officials, who fear intrusions into 



83 



September 1987 



the privacy and academic freedom of library users and who object 
to what they called an effort to turn librarians into government 
informers. FBI officials acknowledged that staff at fewer than 20 
libraries, most of them academic rather than public, had been 
asked to cooperate with agents in a Library Awareness Program 
that is part of a national counterintelligence effort. ("Libraries Are 
Asked by F.B.I, to Report On Foreign Agents," The New York 
Times, September 18) [Note: ALAs Intellectual Freedom Commit- 
tee protested "this attempted infringement of the right to receive 
information protected by the First Amendment to the U.S. Consti- 
tution and the further attempted violation of the privacy rights of 
all library patrons" in an Extraordinary Memorandum from ALAs 
Office for Intellectual Freedom, October 1987.] 



September 1987 



Vietnam veteran Mike Rego has been trying for five years to learn 
more about an experimental drug he was treated with at a Veterans 
Administration hospital. He wonders whether it may have been a 
factor in his contraction of a fatal and incurable disease. But infor- 
mation about the drug, 6-aminonicotinamide, or 6-AN is scarce. No 
one, including the doctor who treated Rego with 6-AN, the Cana- 
dian manufacturer, the distributor and the Food and Drug Admin- 
istration, which approved the drug for experimental use, will share 
their knowledge of 6-AN and its possible side effects. Hoping to 
learn whether other patients treated with 6-AN later contracted Lou 
Gehrig's disease, Rego asked the FDA for informtion. It was then, 
he claims, that he learned 6-AN was approved only for experimen- 
tal use — and that, to protect the manufacturer's trade secrets, the 
FDA cannot release information on the drug. "I cannot respond to 
your reguest for information on the investigational uses" of 6-AN, 
associate FDA commissioner Jack Martin wrote to Rego, "since any 
acknowledgement . . . would constitute disclosure of confidential 
commercial information." ("Drug Data Is Denied to Incurably 111 
Man," 7726 Washington Post, September 24) 



September 1987 



The number of publications issued each year by the new Commis- 
sion on Civil Rights has declined significantly compared to the 
number issued by the old commission. The largest decline was in 
state advisory committee reports. The committees also produce 
documents called briefing memoranda — informal, unpublished, 
internal documents that describe for the commissioners the result 
of local community forums. These forums enable the advisory 
committees to identify and share with the commission how commu- 
nity leaders perceive local civil rights problems. The chairman of 
the commission believes that a count of pubhcations was an inade- 



84 



October 1987 



quate measure of assessing effectiveness of the old and new com- 
missions. The commission is an advisory body and the issuance of 
publications is the primary means by which it presents the results 
of its work to the public. ("U.S. Commission on Civil Rights: Com- 
mission Publications During Fiscal Years 1978-1986," GAO/GGD- 
87-117BR, September 25) 

October 1987 The Reagan Administration engaged in illegal "covert propaganda 

activities" designed to influence the news media and the public to 
support its Central American policies, according to a report by the 
General Accounting Office released on October 4. The report said 
the State Department's Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin Amer- 
ica and the Caribbean had violated a congressional ban on the use 
of taxpayers' money for unauthorized publicity and propaganda 
purposes in 1985. Rep. Dante Fascell (D-FL), chairman of the 
House Foreign Affairs Committee, said, "It makes me wonder what 
else is still being hidden from Congress and the American people." 
("GAO Accuses Administration of Illegal Latin Propaganda," The 
Washington Post, October 5) 

October 1987 Testifying before a House subcommittee. Sen. Charles Grassley (R- 

lA), said: "We in Congress must ask ourselves this question: Is SF- 
189 a legitimate attempt to prevent disclosures of classified 
information, or is the Administration over-reaching its authority, 
seeking to gag public servants, in order to prevent embarrassing 
disclosures of waste and abuse?" His answer: "My personal in- 
volvement and dealings with executive branch officials on this 
matter indicate to me an attempt on their part to go way beyond 
the legitimate protection of classified information. Their intent, in 
my view, is to place a blanket of silence over all information gener- 
ated by the government. It is a broad grab for power by any stan- 
dard, and it begs to be addressed immediately by Congress." 
(Hearings on Standard Form 189, House Committee on Post Office 
and Civil Service, Subcommittee on Human Resources, 100th 
Congress, 1st Session, October 15, 1987) 

October 1987 The contents of the still-classified National Security Decision Direc- 

tive 192, signed by President Reagan in August 1985, concerning 
the "Star Wars" Strategic Defense Initiative were revealed in a 
book scheduled for release in November 1987. The book, The 
Arms Control Delusion by Sen. Malcolm Wallop (R-WY) and 
Angelo Codevilla, was given official advance clearance by the 
CIA. Columnist lack Anderson commented: "Either the agency's 
reviewers overlooked the sensitive quotes, didn't realize how sensi- 



85 



October 1987 



October 1987 



November 1987 



November 1987 



tive they were or knowingly approved the book's ad hoc declassifi- 
cation of a presidential document." ("Conservatives' Book Escapes 
Censor," The Washington Post, October 26) 

The Secretary of Defense issued policy and procedural guidance in 
the October 30 Federal Register, pp. 41707-10, for considering 
national security in the dissemination of Department of Defense- 
sponsored scientific and technical information at meetings, 
whether such meetings are conducted by the U.S. government or 
private organizations. 

In a special report aired on November 4, The Secret Government — 
The Constitution in Crisis, Bill Meyers characterized Oliver North's 
admission during the Iran-Contra hearings that he had misled 
Congress: "Oliver North had been the secret government's chronic 
liar, long on zeal for his president and the cause. But he was not 
the only zealot, not the only one to deceive. The hearings revealed 
a wholesale policy of secrecy shrouded in lies, of passion cloaked 
in fiction and deception." (Transcript available from Journal 
Graphics, Inc., 267 Broadway, New York, N.Y. 10007) 

The Supreme Court rescued the Internal Revenue Service from a 
sea of paperwork by making it easier for the IRS to withhold infor- 
mation sought under the Freedom of Information Act. The court 
ruled, 6 to 0, that the IRS may refuse to disclose certain records 
even if it were possible to delete everything linking those records 
to individual taxpayers. "This ruling means the [IRS] can turn 
down just about any FOIA request," said Paul B. Stephan III, a 
University of Virginia law professor who studied the case which 
involved the Church of Scientology in a dispute with the IRS. 
("Court Eases Way for IRS to Withhold Information," The Washing- 
ton Post, November 1 1 ) 



November 1987 



In an extraordinary secret order. President Reagan declared that if 
Congress failed to provide satisfactory funding and support for his 
Strategic Defense Initiative, he would abandon the traditional 
interpretation of the U.S. -Soviet Antiballistic Missile Treaty, which 
has been accepted by every president since the treaty was signed 
in 1972. The secret document — which Members of Congress were 
never meant to see — was National Security Decision Directive 192 
signed in August 1985. The directive laid the theoretical ground- 
work for reinterpreting the ABM Treaty. From there, it was but a 
step to Reagan's order in December 1986 to proceed with the Ze- 
nith Star laser program. ("And Then There Was Zenith Star," The 
Washington Post, November 15) 



86 



November 1987 



November 1987 During Senate debate (November 12, Congressional Record, p. 
SI 62 19), Sen. Alphonse D'Amato (R-NY) said that "a good name 
for OMB would be 'the Office of Disinformation.'" He accused 
OMB of "twisting the figures when they see fit, cutting the pro- 
grams they may disagree with, shirking their responsibilities by 
failing to communicate forthrightly with the committees and the 
Members attempting to work something out, but really looking to 
see how they can sabotage those programs they are opposed to — 
the ideologs, OMB. They are not elected to run the country." Sen. 
D'Amato made his remarks during debate on a major housing bill. 
("Senate Nears Vote on a Housing Bill; Reagan Vows Veto," The 
New York Times, November 16) 

November 1987 The findings and conclusions in the executive summary of the 

report of the congressional committee investigating the Iran-Contra 
affair contain the following excerpts: 

The common ingredients of the Iran and Contra policies 
were secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law. A small 
group of senior officials believed that they alone knew what 
was right. They reviewed knowledge of their actions by 
others in the Government as a threat to their objectives. 
They told neither the Secretary of State, the Congress nor 
the American people of their actions. V\/^hen exposure was 
threatened, they destroyed official documents and lied to 
Cabinet officials, to the public, and to elected representa- 
tives in Congress. They testified that they even withheld key 
facts from the President. 

The United States Constitution specifies the process by 
which laws and policy are to be made and executed. Consti- 
tutional process is the essence of our democracy and our 
democratic form of Government is the basis of our strength. 
Time and again we have learned that a flawed process leads 
to bad results, and that a lawless process leads to worse. . . . 
The confusion, deception, and privatization which marked 
the Iran-Contra Affair were the inevitable products of an 
attempt to avoid accountability. Congress, the Cabinet, and 
the Joint Chiefs of Staff were denied information and ex- 
cluded from the decision-making process. Democratic proce- 
dures were disregarded. 

Officials who make public policy must be accountable to the 
public. But the public cannot hold officials accountable for 
policies of which the public is unaware. Policies that are 
known can be subjected to the test of reason, and mistakes 
can be corrected after consultation with the Congress and 



87 



December 1987 



deliberation within the Executive branch itself. Policies that 
are secret become the private preserve of the few, mistakes 
are inevitably perpetuated, and the public loses control over 
Government .... 

The very premise of democracy is that "we the people" are 
entitled to make our own choices on fundamental policies. 
But freedom of choice is illusory if policies are kept, not 
only from the public, but from its elected representatives. 

(Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran- 
Contra Affair With Supplemental, Minority, and Additional Views, 
100th Congress, 1st Session, H. Kept. No. 100-433 and S. Kept. 
No. 100-216, November 1987) 



December 1987 



Jane E. Kirtley, executive director of the Reporters Committee for 
Freedom of the Press, and Paul K. McMasters, chairman of the 
freedom of information committee of the Society of Professional 
Journalists, Sigma Delta Chi, testifying before the House Commit- 
tee on Government Operations, Subcommittee on Information, 
Justice and Agriculture, accused the Justice Department of refusing 
to enforce the Freedom of Information Act. Kirtley and McMasters 
urged Congress to create an independent agency to resolve dis- 
putes over access to government files. Kirtley said the obstacles 
faced by reporters in obtaining government information had in- 
creased because of the Reagan Administration's "general proclivity 
toward secrecy" and the lack of an effective enforcement agency. 
Rep. Glenn English (D-OK), subcommittee chair, agreed: "Justice 
seems to be doing all they can to undermine the intent of the Free- 
dom of Information Act." ("2 Say Officials Withhold Data," 772e 
New York Times, December 2) 



December 1987 



Although more than a guarter of all government publications have 
bitten the dust since the Reagan Administration took office, the 
surviving 12,000 are fodder for continuing controversy over 
whether the campaign has gone far enough or too far, whether it 
has gone after the fattest targets or whether it has mowed down 
some useful consumer publications while leaving the more ideolog- 
ically oriented publications intact. An article by Judith Havemann 
presented a case study of one of the most controversial remaining 
publications. Management, a slick, glossy publication of the Office 
of Personnel Management. Alan K. Campbell, the founder of 
Management, describes the publication conceived as an academic 
journal for government executives as today "a little heavy on the 
ideology." But Herb Berkowitz, public relations director of the 



88 



December 1987 



Heritage Foundation, said that Management is "probably the best 
publication put out by the government." Asked whether it should 
exist, he said he would be "happy to see them do away with every 
taxpayer-supported publication." 

Management sells 25,003 copies at a bulk rate, has 2,600 sub- 
scribers at $13 a year, goes to 819 libraries, and is given away to 
4,000 reporters and others by OPM. When Reagan cracked down 
on government printing, OPM Director Constance J. Horner was 
reguired to justify Management's existence every year to OMB. 
She had to "certify in writing that it is necessary in the transaction 
of public business reguired by law of the department, office or 
establishment." The critics of Management said its very existence 
shows how political the process is. ("Management Magazine: 
House Organ With a 'Spin,"' The Washington Post, December 2) 

December 1987 A secret appendix to the arms treaty signed by President Reagan 

and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev reveals that the United States 
has deployed dozens more medium-range nuclear missiles in Eu- 
rope than it has previously acknowledged, U.S. officials said. The 
114-page treaty appendix, which the Reagan Administration de- 
cided to withhold from the public without offering an explanation, 
also reveals that the Soviets currently have 15 percent fewer 
medium-range missiles than the Administration has publicly stated 
in recent weeks. The government's decision not to release the 
document was made at the reguest of Pentagon officials who ar- 
gued that the disclosure could invite terrorist attacks on the U.S. 
military bases it identifies, according to senior U.S. officials. But 
other U.S. officials, including Secretary of State George P. Shultz 
and the chief U.S. negotiator of the INF pact, Maynard W. Glit- 
man, have argued that the terrorist threat is minimal because U.S. 
nuclear warheads are not typically stored with the weapons deploy- 
ment sites listed. Shultz and Glitman have protested the Adminis- 
tration's decision, which was also opposed by the Soviets. Gennadi 
Gerassimov, chief spokesman of the Soviet foreign ministry, said he 
plans to publish the document in a Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
bulletin that he edits. ("U.S. Deployed More Missiles Than Dis- 
closed," The Washington Post, December 10) 



December 1987 



Public Printer Ralph Kennickell, in a December 10 letter to Joint 
Committee on Printing Chairman Rep. Frank Annunzio (D-IL), 
says he will "seek proposals from interested vendors in the informa- 
tion services industry . . . for dissemination of government publica- 
tions to depository libraries ... at little or no cost to the government 



89 



December 1987 



possibly because of the development or enhancement of the ven- 
dor's commercial interests." GPO would "supply the successful 
information service provider with government publication data 
tapes, at no charge, for loading onto its own computers. The infor- 
mation would be retrievable on-line from terminals in a test group 
of depository libraries, where information searches would be con- 
ducted for citizens without charge." The number of online access 
hours available to test libraries would be limited. An RFP would be 
announced by February 1, 1988. Kennickell's letter indicates that 
because "it appears that Congress will be denying our request for 
an additional $800,000" for pilot projects, he is seeking to use 
existing resources to comply with the JCP's desire to test electronic 
formats in depository libraries. The letter did not address potential 
changes in the nature of the Depository Library Program and pos- 
sible proprietary control of government information by the private- 
sector vendor. 



December 1987 



The Senate Iran-Contra Committee released a newly discovered 
White House computer note from early 1986 in which then-national 
security adviser John M. Poindexter said that Vice President 
George Bush was "solid" in support of a "risky operation" to sell 
arms to Iran to gain release of U.S. hostages. The notes were 
turned up by a new search of the NSC computer sought by the 
Iran-Contra Congressional Committees last summer. Originally 
blocked by White House officials, the panels, with the House tak- 
ing the lead, were finally permitted to test a program designed to 
recover messages which senders thought they had destroyed. The 
Senate panel said that 96 new notes had been turned up of which 
the three released contained the only new information. ("Bush was 
'Solid' Backer of Iran Deal, Note Says," The Washington Post, 
December 8) 



December 1987 



People for the American Way assailed the Reagan Administration 
for an "obsession with secrecy" and said an opinion poll shows that 
a majority of Americans believe "the government is not open 
enough." In a 142-page report. Government Secrecy; Decision 
Without Democracy, the Administration is criticized for issuing 
more than 280 "secret laws,"increasing the Pentagon's "black 
budget" for secret projects to at least $22 billion, binding millions 
of federal employees to secrecy contracts and reversing a 30-year 
trend toward fewer classified documents. The group denounced the 
"extraordinary power" of OMB and decried its authority to decide 
which government publications are released, to set up information- 
collection policies for all federal agencies and to rewrite federal 



90 



December 1987 



regulations. ("Administration Accused of Secrecy Obsession," The 
Washington Post, December 18) 



December 1987 



According to a GAO report to be published on December 21, the 
veil of secrecy surrounding trading in the Treasury and agency 
securities market should be lifted. Although the Treasury securities 
market is the most active in the world, with more than $100 billion 
of trades a day, there is no central exchange where prices and 
trades are listed as in the stock market. Instead, trading is handled 
through brokers acting as middlemen between major banks and 
securities firms. Individual investors, pension funds and insurance 
companies that are customers of the banks and securities dealers 
have only partial knowledge about the wholesale prices of govern- 
ment securities. While the Treasury and Federal Reserve endorsed 
the GAO report, the Securities and Exchange Commission said the 
conclusions were too cautious. 



Richard G. Ketchum, director of the division of market regulation 
at the SEC, said a specific deadline should be established for 
broadening access to price information. He noted that established 
customers of the brokers already have full access to price and 
trading information and may not find it in their best interests to 
make that information available to their trading competitors and 
customers. He recalled that in the stock market, the SEC had to 
invoke its authority to force securities dealers to publish the price 
quotes and trade information on over-the-counter stocks. If brokers 
do not move to broaden trading access within two years, the SEC 
said the issue ought to be taken up by regulators of Congress. 
("Data Urged on Trading Securities," The New York Times, Decem- 
ber 21) 



December 1987 



Rep. Lee Hamilton (D-IN) disclosed that in a newly discovered 
White House computer note, former national security adviser Ro- 
bert McFarlane discussed the purging of National Security Council 
files around the time the Iran-Contra affair erupted in late 1986. 
Hamilton, chairman of the House Iran-Contra panel, said the note 
confirms previous evidence that "McFarlane was engaged in efforts 
to keep the story from coming out." Reps. Peter Rodino (D-NJ) and 
Dante Fascell (D-FL) said the recent discovery of the computer 
messages demonstrates that there is still relevant information that 
has not yet been made public about the Iran-Contra affair. 
("McFar lane's Iran Role Amplified," The Washington Post, De- 
cember 22) 



91 



December 1987 



December 1987 



Congress, making good on earlier warnings, ordered the Adminis- 
tration to stop asking government workers to sign controversial 
secrecy pledges governing classified information. Congress at- 
tached a rider to the continuing resolution providing funding for 
fiscal year 1988 which bars any department from spending money 
to implement or enforce what are known as Standard Form 189 and 
Standard Form 4193. The prohibition is good throughout fiscal 
1988, which ends next September 30, "and should force the ad- 
ministration to come up here and work something out with us if 
they want to continue using such pledges," a House staff official 
said. House officials said the congressional directive probably 
would not affect enforcement actions involving the SF 4193 pre- 
publication pledge. ("Congress Restricts Use of Secrecy Pledges," 
The Washington Post, December 24) 



December 1987 



The Information Security Oversight Office which oversees the 
implementation of SF 189, "Classified Information Nondisclosure 
Agreement," further clarified the term "classifiable information" in 
the December 21 Federal Register, p. 48367. The revised definition 
states: "Classifiable information" does not refer to currently unclas- 
sified information that may be subject to possible classification at 
some future date, but is not currently in the process of a classifica- 
tion determination." 



December 1987 



Reportedly neither the Untied States Information Agency nor the 
educational film industry is happy with the interim regulations 
published by USIA in the November 16 Federal Register, pp. 
43753-57 (correction 12/11 FR, p. 47029) which are titled: "Propa- 
ganda as Educational and Cultural Material; World-Wide Free Flow 
(Export-Import) of Audio-Visual Materials." USIA will accept com- 
ments on the notice until January 15, 1988. With the interim rules 
in place, USIA has begun to review 3,590 films, maps, charts and 
other audio-visual materials it accumulated during more than a 
year of inaction since a Los Angeles federal judge ruled that USIA 
exceeded its authority and acted like a censor in deciding what 
materials to recommend for duty-free status under the Beirut 
Agreement of 1948. In November the filmmakers returned to court, 
charging that USIA again was attempting to play censor. (Review- 
ing USiA's Role as Reviewer," The Washington Post, December 30) 



92 



Index 



Prepared by Carol Nielsen 



Academic freedom 19, 21, 83 
Access to information 4, 7, 21, 65, 
78-79, 81 

Americans outdoors 65 

campaign finances 38 

classified information 19, 22 

congressional publications 41, 42, 44 

databases 58, 71 

depository library program 9 

documents on Iran 62 

Federal Information Centers 4 

fees 16, 18, 31, 56-61, 78 

financial markets 36-37 

food industry 37 

food stamps 44 

government information 2, 27, 45, 
51-52 

government telephone numbers 35 

GPO bookstores 2 

IRS 86 

journalists 88 

Merit Systems Protection Board 22 

Moscow embassy security 
problems 72 

National Bureau of Standards 5 

National Farmers Union 13 

nuclear information 7, 15, 24 

open meetings 25 

presidential papers 43-44, 52 

rulemaking decisions 39 

safety issues 72 

satellites 63, 64 

security clearances 29 

sensitive but unclassified 54 

Soviet Union 21-22, 44-45 
Accidental death 72 
Advertising 62 
Agency for International 
Development 67 

Office of Foreign Disaster 
Assistance 65 



AGNET Newsletter 3 1 
Agricultural Marketing Service 28 

Market News Reports 12 
Agriculture, Department of 12, 13, 
27-28, 30, 37 

Economic Research Service 3 

electronic publishing 31 
Air Carrier Statistics 40 
Air Force 81 
Albosta, Don 17 

American Council for the Blind 33 
American Council on Education 72 
American Federation of Government 

Employees 82 
American Library Association 7, 8, 15, 
16, 27, 29, 33, 78 

access to information 51-52 

and Census 80 

Council 38 

Freedom of Information Reform 
Act 60 

Government Documents Round 
Table 48, 49 

Intellectual Freedom Committee 83 

International Relations Committee 9 

Washington Office 5, 9, 42, 43, 77 
American Lung Association 69 
Anderson, Jack 42, 79, 85 
Annunzio, Frank 41, 42, 89 
Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1986 66 
Applied Systems Institute 71 
Arkin, William M. 56 
The Arms Control Delusion 85 
Arms treaty 89 
Army periodicals 57 
Army Reserve 57 
Arndt, Randy 80 
Atomic Energy Act 15 
Automobiles 21 
Aviation Daily 40 
Aviation management 40 



93 



Index 



Baldrige, Malcolm 22, 29 
Bamford, James 83 
Bauer, Gary L. 31 
Bechtel North American Power 

Corp. 27 
Bedell, Robert 33 
Beirut Agreement of 1948 91 
Bell South 59 
Bennett, William 72 
Berkowitz, Herb 88 
Birth expectation data 39 
Blakey, Marion C. 71 
Blinded Veterans Association 33 
Block grants 61 

drug treatment centers 57 
The Book: A Directory of Federal Job 

Information Phone Numbers ... 35 
Brooks, Jack 45 
Brown, J. Larry 44 
Bureau of National Affairs 28 
Bush, George 90 
Byrnes, Larry 70 

Campbell, Alan K. 88 
Car Book 21 
Carlucci, Frank 71 
Casey, William J. 46-47 
Censorship 

educational films 91 

lifelong security pledge 50 

National Wartime Information Security 
Program 42 

prepublication agreements 13-14 

research publications 31, 32, 52 

sensitive but unclassified 
information 54 
Census, Bureau of 4, 29, 39, 80, 83 

Fertility Statistics Branch 39 

interlibrary loan 2 

1990 census 80 
Centers on Education Media and Mate- 
rials for the Handicapped 32 
Central Intelligence Agency 41, 46, 
50, 79, 82-83, 85 



Chemical Information System 19 
Chernobyl 49, 64 

Chronicle of Higher Education 21, 78 
Church of Scientology 86 
Cigarettes testing program 69 
Clancy, Tom 82 

Classified information 3, 6-7, 22, 26, 
50, 62, 80-81, 82, 85, 91 

access for government employees 29 

on computers 82 

scientific and technical reports 24 

security classification 78 
Climate-related information 65 
Code of Federal Regulations 49 
Codevilla, Angelo 85 
Commerce Business Daily 73 
Commerce, Department of 22, 37, 43, 
60, 64, 70, 73 

contracts for library services 17 

Privatization Task Force 64 

Office of Federal Statistical Policy and 
Standards 14 

see also National Technical Informa- 
tion Service 
Commission on Civil Rights 84 
Computer hackers 18 
Computer services 

protecting sensitive information 24 

Treasury Department financial state- 
ments 36-37 
Congressional publications 42 

budget cuts 41 

distribution to the public 44 

reports 75 
Congressional Record 3, 44, 49 
Congressional Research Service 76 
Conservative Political Action Confer- 
ence 6 
Consumer Information Catalog 1 1 
Consumer Information Center 1 1 , 23 
Consumer Price Index 4 
Consumer Product Safety 
Commission 72-73 
Contracts 62 



94 



Index 



equal employment 30 

government personnel 6 

library services 7-8 

non-profit organizations 6 

privatization 23 

rights to patents on federally funded 
projects 47 
Contras 62, 70, 74 

definition 70 
Cooke, Eileen D. 5, 9, 42, 43, 77 
Copyright of NTIS publications 43 
Cost-benefit analysis of government 

publications 35, 56 
Cost-recovery 3, 11 
Council on Environmental Quality 43 
Council on Hemispheric Affairs 70 
Counterfeit Access Device and Com- 
puter Fraud and Abuse Act of 
1984 18 
Crocetti, Annemarie 75 
Crop reports 37 
Current Population Survey 39 

Daily Report lor Executives 28 
D'Amato, Alphonse 87 
Danforth, John 13 
Data collection 60 

birth expectation data 39 

Census 80, 83 

health statistics 30 

higher education 40 

literacy programs 53 

petroleum availability 69 

public good 5 

racial and ethnic data 23 

review by OMB 58 

sample size 40 

unemployment 47 
Databases 56, 74 

access 46, 71 

campaign finances 38 

chemical information 19 

cost of access 78 

drug abuse 57 



fees 12 

privatization 58, 89 

satellite protection 55 

sensitive information 45, 54 

sole-source contracts 23 
Dean, Norman 43 
Declassified information 78-79 

older materials 26 
Defense Acquisitions Board 78 
Defense, Department of 15, 19, 24, 31, 
41-42, 44-45, 61, 62, 76, 78, 81, 89 

authorization bill 29 

National Wartime Information Security 
Program 42 

Pentagon's Information Systems Direc- 
torate 54 

periodicals budget 57 

secret projects budget 90 

security hearings for civilian employ- 
ees 34 
Defense Management Journal 81 
Defense Science Board 78 
Defense Technical Information 

Center 54 
Deficit Reduction Act of 1984 19 
Depository libraries 2, 4, 9, 15-16, 22, 
25, 35, 49, 66, 79, 89-90 

nuclear information 15 

public awareness 8 
Detlefsen, Ellen 64 
Detroit Free Press 49 
DIALOG 78 
Dictionary of fnternational Relations 

Terms 70 
Dictionary of Occupational Titles 3 
Dingell, John D. 45 
Discrimination 23 
Disinformation 41-42, 51, 87 
Document alteration 76, 79-80 
Document classification 65 
Document destruction 70, 76, 79 

paper shredding 74 
Document theft 73 
Dow Jones and Co. 36 



95 



Index 



Drug abuse treatment 57 
Durenberger, David F. 45 

Earth Observation Satellite Co. 

(EOSAT) 57-58, 63 
Economic indicators 4 
Economic issues 47, 75 
Economic Research Service 28 

Outlook and Siuation Reports 12 
Economic statistics 41 
Education, Department of 10, 53, 65, 
71-72 
Adult Literacy Initiative 53 
Publications and Audiovisual Advi- 
sory Council 28, 31, 32 
Publications Review Board 32 
Education for librarianship 1 1 
Educational film industry 91 
Educational institutions 66 

use of federal funds 71-72 
Educational research 32, 40 
Electronic Collection and Dissemination 
of Information by Federal Agen- 
cies: A Policy Overview 46 
Electronic databases see Databases 
Electronic Dissemination of Information 

(Dept. of Agriculture) 31 
Electronic information products 27-28, 

55, 74; see also Databases 
Electronic publishing 

agricultural information 12 
government information 9 
Employee stock ownership of NTIS 73 
Energy, Department of 7, 8, 15, 24, 48 
Energy Information Administration 69 
English, Glenn 12, 36, 43, 68, 88 
Environmental impact 43 
Environmental Protection Agency 18, 

19, 28 
Equal employment 30 
Eur-Army 57 
Executive branch 

information activities 76 
News Service 25 
proposed budget 59 

96 



review of data collection efforts 60 
Executive Order 11246 30 
Executive Order 12291 52 
Executive Order 12356, National Secu- 
rity Information 3, 26 
Executive Order 12498 20 
Export Control Act 24 

Fascell, Dante 85, 91 

Fazio, Vic 33 

FCC Reports 39 

Fed Co-op plan 73 

Federal Acquisition Regulation 65 

Federal Bureau of Investigation 67, 74, 

83-84 
Federal campaign finance 

information 38 
Federal Communications Commission 
(FCC) 39, 46 

updating federal rules 46 
Federal Election Commission 38, 50 
"Federal Evaluation: Fewer Units, Re- 
duced Resources, Different Studies 
from 1980" 61 
Federal funds 

lobbying 13 

tracking expenditures 37 
Federal Information Center 4 
Federal Information Resources 23, 36 
Federal Job Hotlines 35 
Federal Loyalty- Security Program 34 
Federal Maritime Commission 13 
Federal Records Act 78 
Federal regulations 33, 45, 46 

government printing 66 

OMB 90 

text revisions 75 
Federal Reserve Bank 91 
"Federal Restrictions on the Free Flow of 
Academic Information and 
Ideas" 21 
Federal Statistical Directory \A, 11 
Federal Trade Commission 68-69 
Fees 77 

access to government information 54 



Index 



access to information 66 

agricultural information 28 

aviation management information 40 

congressional publications 42 

consumer publications 23 

electronic publishing 31 

FOIA 12, 18, 56, 66, 68 

government information 8 

government publications 3, 5 

information requested under 
FOIA 60 

payment- in- kind information 13 

privatization 12, 58 

public relations 11 
Feinleib, Manning 30 
Ferrell, J. E. 51 

Fertility of American Women 39 
Film industry 34 
Foggy Bottom 62 
Food and Drug Administration 33 

experimental drugs 84 
Food industry 37 
Food Institute 37 
Food stamp benefits 44 
Ford, William 42-43 
Foreign Agricultural Service 28 

Weekly Export Sales Reports 12 
Frank, Barney 29 
Franklin, C. Anson 48 
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 2, 
4, 11, 18, 56, 65, 66, 68, 71-72, 88 

applied to IRS 86 

automated records 12 

draft federal regulations 33 

fees 18 

toxic products 20 
Freedom of Information Act Reform Act 

of 1986 54 
Freedom of speech 50 
Freedom of the press 36 
Full-cost recovery 1, 77; see also Cost 
benefit analysis 

Gadhafi, Moammar 51 
Galvin, Thomas 9 



Garbus, Martin 36 

General Accounting Office 14, 35, 40, 

50, 61, 85, 91 
General Services Administration 4, 30, 
76 

Consumer Information Service 23 

Information Security Oversight 
Office 82 
Gerasimov, Gennadi 89 
Glitman, Maynard W. 89 
Gorbachev, Mikhail 89 
Government information 

access for academics 21 

computer hackers 18 

ownership 56 

see also Access to information 
Government Printing Office (GPO) 2, 
8, 9, 22, 25, 46, 49, 66, 76, 77, 89- 
90 

bookstores 2 

Depository Program 66 

document destruction 4 

new rules 76 

reduction in publications 5 
"Government Printing, Binding and 
Distribution Policies and Guide- 
lines" 15 
Government publications 10 

access to information 10 

availability 55-56 

ceased publishing 81 

civil rights 84 

consumer information 11 

costs 3, 23, 51, 77 

discontinued 4, 21 

document destruction 4 

format 49 

implementation of OMB Bulletin 
81-16 1 

inventory 67 

periodicals 26 

prepublication review 53 

reduction in number published 1,2, 
5, 6, 9-10, 32, 39, 67 

review of proposed publications 1 



97 



Index 



spending cuts 19 
Government Publications Office Deposi- 
tory Program 66 
Government Secrecy: Decisions With- 
out Democracy 90 
Government secrets 

definition 26 

see also Secrecy pledges 
Government securities market 91 
Graham, Anne 32 
Gramm, Wendy Lee 37, 45 
Gramm-Rudman-HoUings Law 40, 41 
Grassley, Charles E. 81, 85 
Gray, William H. 29 



Hall, Fawn 70, 74, 76 
Hamilton, Lee H. 73-74, 91 
Handicapped 

access to materials 40 
Books by Mail 21,38,59 
braille materials 33-34 
Hardy, Dorcas R. 79 
Harper's 32 

Harvard University 19, 21 
Hawkins, Augustus R. 9 
Health and Human Services, Depart- 
ment of 5, 41 
Heritage Foundation 88-89 
Hersh, Seymour M. 46-47 
Higher Education 
access to government 
publications 27 
data collection 40 
Higher Education Act 21, 39 
Home mortgages 23 
Horner, Constance J. 34, 88-89 
House Appropriations Committee 40 
House Committee on Government Oper- 
ations 45-46, 52, 79 
Subcommittee on Employment and 

Housing 29 
Subcommittee on Government Infor- 
mation, lustice, and Agriculture 
12, 22, 43 

98 



Subcommittee on Information 88 
Subcommittee on Intergovernmental 
Relations 32, 61 
House Committee on Science, Space, 
and Technology 58 
Subcommittee on Science, Research, 
and Technology 64, 78 
House Foreign Affairs Committee 85 
Subcommittee on International Opera- 
tions 72 
House of Representatives 29 
House Post Office and Civil Service 
Committee 45 
Subcommittee on Human 
Resources 17 
House Postsecondary Education Sub- 
committee 42-43 
House Report 99-978 "The Department 
of Education's Limits on Publica- 
tions: Saving Money or Censor- 
ship?" 52 
House Subcommittee on Select Educa- 
tion 40 
Housing and Urban Development, De- 
partment of 8, 23 

Infant Care 5 
"Information — A Shrinking 

Resource" 36 
Information 
costs 29, 78 
declassified 78 

see also Classified information; De- 
classified information 
"Information and Personnel Security: 
Data on Employees Affected by 
Federal Security Programs" 50 
Information dissemination 61 
Information industry 64 
Information policy 53 
Information Security Oversight 

Office 22, 26, 82, 92 
INS V. Chadha, 102 S. Ct. 2764 (1983) 

15, 66 
Institute for Policy Studies 56 



Index 



Intelligence gathering 44, 61, 83 
interviews 67 
see also National Security 
Interagency Data Center Managers 

Conference 56 
Interior, Department of 65 
Interlibrary cooperation 10 
Intermediate Nuclear Forces Pact 89 
Internal Revenue Service (IRS) 86 
International Business Communications, 

Inc. 62 
International education 15 
Iran-Contra Affair 61, 70, 71, 74, 79, 
86, 87, 91 
Congressional Committee 

Summary 87 
see also Contras 
Island Press 65 

Jerome, Fred 48-49 
Joint Committee on Printing 9, 13, 
15-16, 17, 41, 42, 49, 64-65, 76, 
89-90 
Joint Economic Committee 41, 80 
Journalists 

access to information 48-49 
FOIA 66 

freedom of the press 88 
publishing sensitive information 83 
South Africa 49 
Justice, Department of 2, 13, 15, 56, 
65, 66, 88 
Office of Legal Counsel Opinion 52 

Karp, Walter 32 

Kennickell, Ralph E., Jr. 49, 88-89 

Ketchum, Richard G. 91 

Kirtley, Jane E. 88 

Kleis, Tom 16 



Leahy, Patrick 18, 71 
"Legal Analysis of OMB Circular A-122: 
Lobbying by Non-Profit Grantees of 
the Federal Government" 6 
Legislative intent 63 
Levin, Carl 45 
Lewis, Jerry 33 
"Liberty Under Seige" 32 
Librarian of Congress 33 
Libraries 

censorship 70 

FOIA 60, 66-67, 68 

Gramm-Rudman-Hollings 41 

grant programs 10-11 

impact of federal regulations 43 

interlibrary loan 2 

materials on nuclear research 7 

nuclear information 15 

OMB Circular A-76 16 

OMB Circular A- 130 38 

postal rates 11, 16, 38, 45, 59 

postal regulations 21 

privatization of technical services 6, 
17 

statistics 14 

status of federal librarians 17 

see also Depository libraries; School 
library resources 
Library Awareness Program 83-84 
Library of Congress 40 

Congressional Research Service 66 

Playboy in braille 33-34 
Library Services and Construction 

Act 3, 21, 39, 59 
Lie detector tests see Polygraph testing 
Literacy programs 15, 53 
Livermore Laboratory 48 
Lynch, Beverly 33 



Labor and employment information 25 
Labor Statistics, Bureau of 4, 25, 47 
Landsat satellite system 57-58, 63 
Latham, Donald 55 
Lead poisoning 75 



Management 88-89 
Management of the United States Gov- 
ernment, FiscaJ Year 1988 67 
Market pricing 77 
Markman, Stephen J. 68 



99 



Index 



Martin Marietta Data Systems 28, 31, 

58 
Mathias, Charles McC, Jr. 3, 18, 41, 

42, 49 
McFarlane, Robert 91 
McMasters, Paul K. 88 
Media Resource Service 48 
Medical Library Association 64 
Meese, Edwin, III 10, 22, 30, 70 
Merit Systems Protection Board 22 
Metzenbaum, Howard M. 30 
Mica, Daniel 72 
Military documents, theft of 73 
Minority contracts 37 
Mitchell, Frank 75 
Modlin, Carey 61 
Mogenhana, Ann 78-79 
Monaco, Karen 69 
Monthly Catalog of U.S. Government 

Publications 2-3 
Monthly Labor Review 25 
Morison, Samuel Loring 34, 36 
Morrison, David C. 55 
Moyers, Bill 86 
Mushak, Paul 75 

NASA TechBrieh Journal 17 

Nation 36 

National Advisory Council on Continu- 
ing Education 32 

National Aeronautics and Space Admin- 
istration (NASA) 17, 76 

National Archives and Records Adminis- 
tration 2, 43, 52 
document classification 3 

National Bureau of Standards 5 

National Center for Atmospheric Re- 
search 65 

National Center for Education 
Statistics 14, 40 

National Center for Health Statistics 30 

National Commission on Libraries and 
Information Science 3, 21 

National Environmental Policy Act 43 



National Farmers Union 13 
National Institute for Occupational 

Safety and Health 59 
National Institute of Education 30 
National Institute on Drug Abuse 57 
National Journal 55 
National League of Cities 80 
National Library of Medicine 19 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric 

Administration 65 
National Policy on Protection of Sensi- 
tive, But Unclassified 
Information 54, 71 
National Press Club 22 
National Security 54, 64, 74 
classification of information 24 
document classification 3 
government employees 34 
scientific proceedings 86 
National Security Agency 50, 55, 83 
National Security Council 61, 70, 74, 
76, 79, 90 
computer files 91 
National Security Decision Directive 

84 13-14, 81 
National Security Decision Directive 

192 85, 86 
National Security Decision Directive 

196 35 
National security information 6-7 
National Technical Information Service 
(NTIS) 5, 43, 48, 54, 60, 65, 73 
privatization 2 
sensitive information 22 
National Wartime Information Security 

Program 42 
National Wildlife Federation 43 
Natural Resources Defense Council 20 
Network Newsletter 65 
New England Journal of Medicine 41 
New York Times 4, 73 
News Digest 2 
Nicaragua 67 
Nixon, Richard M. 43-44, 52, 72 



100 



Index 



North, Oliver 62, 70, 74, 76, 86 
Not-for-profit organizations lobbying 6, 

8, 13 
Nuclear information 7, 15, 24 
Nuclear missiles 89 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 25, 48 
Nuclear Testing 62 



Obey, David R. 29 

O'Connell, Martin 39 

Odom, William E. 83 

Office of Education Professional Devel- 
opment 32 

Office of Management and Budget 

(OMB) 4, 5, 8, 12, 13, 20, 23, 25, 
27, 29, 37, 45, 52, 53, 59, 60, 61, 
63, 64, 66, 67, 74, 75, 76, 77, 80, 
83, 87, 88, 90 
Budget of the United States 59 
privatization of NTIS 48 
review of federal regulations 33 
screening regulations 20 
statistics 75-76 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Bulletin 81-16 1, 32 

Office of Management and Budget, 

Bulletin 81-16, Supplement No. 1 1 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Bulletin No. 81-21 1 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Bulletin 82-25, "Reform 88" 5-6 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Bulletin 84-17, Supplement No. 
1 19 

Office of Management and Budget 
Bulletin 85-14 26 

Office of Management and Budget 
Bulletin 87-14 74 

Office of Management and Budget 

Circular A-3, Government Publica- 
tions 10, 26, 74 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Circular A-25, User Charges 77 



Office of Management and Budget, 
Circular A- 76, "Performance of 
Commercial Activities" 6, 7, 17 

Office of Management and Budget, 

Circular A-122, "Cost Principles for 
Nonprofit Organizations" 6, 8, 13 

Office of Management and Budget 
Circular A- 130, Management of 
Federal Information resources 23, 
26-27, 28, 35, 38, 53, 56, 74, 77 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Information and Regulatory 
Affairs 37 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Memorandum 81-14 1 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Office of Federal Procurement 
Policy 16 

Office of Management and Budget, 
Office of Information and Regula- 
tory Affairs 45, 53, 58, 60, 69-70 

Office of Personnel Management 34, 
88-89 

Oil prices 69 

Oliver, Daniel 69 

Olmstead, Larry 49 

OMB Watch 76 

OMB's Proposed Restrictions on Infor- 
mation Gatliering and Dissemina- 
tion by Agencies 29 

"Opportunities for Improving Economic 
Statistics" 41 

Owens, Major R. 17, 29, 42-43 

Palladino, Nunzio 25 

Paperwork Reduction Act of 1980 1,5, 

8, 23, 39, 53, 58, 60, 61, 80 
Paperwork Reduction Act Amendments 

of 1983 8-9 
Paperwork Reduction Act Amendments 

of 1984 13 
Patent and Trademark Office 12 
Patents 47 
Payment- in- kind program 13 



101 



Index 



Pentagon see Defense, Department of 
People for the American Way 90 
Periodical publications 26 

OMB approval 26 
Peterson, Sandra 7, 15 
Petroleum industry 69 
Physicians Task Force on Hunger in 

America 44 
Playboy 33-34 
Playboy Enterprise, Inc. 33 
Poindexter, John M. 51, 54, 71, 79, 90 
Policy statements 39 
Polygraph testing 6, 13, 29, 35, 81 
Postal Rate Commission 16, 45 
Postal rates 3, 11, 16, 21, 38, 45, 59 
President's Commission on Americans 

Outdoors 65 
The Presidential Directive on Safe- 
guarding National Security Infor- 
mation 7 
Presidential papers 72 
Presidential Recordings and Materials 

Preservation Act of 1974 43-44 
Printing regulations 76 
Privacy rights 83-84 
Private sector 63, 64, 65 

confidential commercial 
information 84 
Privatization 2, 6, 17, 36, 60, 64, 78 

agricultural information 28 

aviation management information 40 

campaign contribution data 50 

costs y?""} 

Court of Claims cases 25 

databases 19 

Federal data 74 

Freedom of speech 24 

government information 8 

government periodicals 2 ' 

government publications 35, 89-90 

information resource centers 1 

library services 7-8, 17 

Merit Systems Protection Board Deci- 
sions 22 



NASA journal 17 . 

NTIS 48, 73 

rulemaking decisions and policy 
statements 39 

satellites 57-58, 63 

SEC filings 27 

sensitive information 31 

statistics 14, 36, 37 
Privatization Proposal for the National 
Technical Information Service 64 
Program evaluation 61 
Propaganda activities 85 
"Propaganda as Educational and Cul- 
tural Materials" 92 
Proxmire, William 25 
Prunella, Warren J. 73 
Public Citizen Health Research 

Group 33 
Public Data Access, Inc. 50 
Public Health Service 75 

Agency for Toxic Substances and 
Disease Registry 75 

National Center for Health 
Statistics 30 
Public Printer 2 
Publications Review Board 32 
Publishing 65 

prepublication reviews 50 

research results 29-30 

sensitive information 44, 46-47 
The Puzzle Palace 83 

Reagan Administration 14, 20, 21-22, 
24, 26, 30, 43, 44, 51, 57, 63, 70, 
71, 72, 80-81, 85, 88-89, 90, 92 

Reagan, Ronald 1, 3, 6, 10, 13-14, 20, 
23, 33, 35, 44, 53, 59, 63, 79, 82, 
85, 86 

Recliner chairs 72 

Reeder, Franklin 56 

Rego, Mike 84 

Regulations 

reduction in publication 75-76 
screening 20 



102 



Index 



Reporters Committee for Freedom of the 

Press 88 
Reynolds, William Bradford 30 
Rickover, Hyman G. 47-48 
Rodino, Peter 91 
Roybal, Edward 11 
Rulemaking decisions 39 

San Francisco Examiner 51 
Sarbanes, Paul 80 
Satellites 54, 55, 63, 64 

security policy 55 
Sawyer, Danford, Jr. 2 
Schiller, Herbert I. 36 
Schmeltzer, David 73 
Schnitzer, Sue 67 
School library resources 3 
Scientific information 60, 65, 69, 75 

access to information 24, 31 

on computers 82 

editing 75, 78 

Export Control Act 24 

nuclear disasters 48-49 

privatization 2 

review by OMB 58 

security clearance 86 

Soviet Union 41, 45 

UNESCO 9 
Second Annual Report on Eliminations, 
Consolidations, and Cost Reduc- 
tions of Government 
Publications 9-10 
Secrecy 86, 90 

Secrecy pledges 50, 77, 81, 82-83, 90, 
92 

prepublication agreements 7, 35 
The Secret Government — The Constitu- 
tion in Crisis 86 
Secretary of Defense 86 
Securities and Exchange Commission 
(SEC) 23, 91 

electronic publishing 12-13 

News Digest 2 

publication of filings 27 



Securities market 91 

Security Awareness Bulletin 65 

Security clearance 81 

Security pledge see Secrecy pledges 

Security problems, Moscow 

embassy 72 
Selected U.S. Government 

Publications 2 
Senate Armed Services Committee 62 
Senate Committee on Governmental 

Affairs 45 
Senate Document Room 44 
Senate Foreign Relations Committee 62 
Senate official record 63 
Sensitive information 45, 54, 71, 82, 85 

compartmented information 14, 35, 
82 

scientific information 31 
Shattuck, John 21 
Shill, Harold B. 78 
Shultz, George P 89 
Sigma Delta Chi 88 
Slater, Courtenay 41 
Social Security Administration 79-80 

Office of Disability 78-79 

reductions in staffing 79 
Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation 

Engineers 24 
Society of Professional Journalists 88 
Soil Conservation Service 30 
Soil surveys 30 
Soldiers 57 
South Africa 49 
Soviet Foreign Ministry 89 
Soviet Union 19, 62 
Sowle, Donald 16 
Spear, Joseph 42 
Spot Image (earth observation) 64 
Standard Form 189, Classified Informa- 
tion Nondisclosure Agreement 91 
Standard Form 4193 92 
Star Wars Strategic Defense 

Initiative 85 
State block grants 3 



103 



Index 



State, Department of 20, 61, 62, 70-71, 
72 

Office of Public Diplomacy for Latin 
America 85 
Statistical information 27 
Statistical Reporting Service 28 
Statistics 

birth expectation data 39 

data gathering 14, 37 

economics 41 

equal employment 30 

government publications 14, 23 

health 30 

racial and ethnic data 37-38 

reductions in data gathering 4, 5 

unemployment 47 
"Status of the Statistical Community 
After Sustaining Budget Reduc- 
tions" 14 
Stephan, Paul B., Ill 86 
Stockman, David 1, 9 
Strategic Defense Initiative 78, 86 
Streeky, Ed 35 
Sun Oil Co. 69 
Supreme Court 77, 86 



Decided 25 

U. S. Geological Survey 18 

U. S. -Soviet Antiballistic Missile 
Treaty 86 

Unclassified Controlled Nuclear Infor- 
mation 7, 15, 24 

Unclassified information 19, 21 

Unemployment rate 47 

United Nations Educational, Scientific, 
and Cultural Organization, 
(UNESCO) 9, 20 

United Nations General Assembly 20 

United States Government Manual 51 

United States Information Agency 34, 
91 

United States Postal Service 21 

University research, government restric- 
tions on 19-20 

Uranium mines 18 

User charges see Fees 

Van Atta, Dale 79 

Van Wingen, Rachel 80 

Veterans Administration 23, 84 

Video display terminals and fertility 59 



Taxes 29 

for advertising 29 

film distribution abroad 34 

Tecnica 67 

Telecommunications security 24 

Telephone numbers 35 

Terrorists 55, 89 

Tobacco Institute 69 

Toxic-products information 20 

Toxic wastes 18 

Transportation, Department of 21 
Research and Special Programs Ad- 
ministration 40 

Treasury, Department of 36-37 

Turner, Carol 29 

U. S. Court of Claims, Cases 



Wallop, Malcolm 85 

Walsh, Lawrence E. 70 

Washington Online Campaign Contribu- 
tion Tracking System 38 

Weapons performance 19 

Wedgeworth, Robert 7 

Weinberg, Gerhard L. 78 

Weinberger, Caspar W. 31, 57 

Weiss, Ted 32, 61 

White House Conference on Library 
and Information Services, 1989 43 

White House News Service 25 

Woodward, Bob 46-47, 51 

Wright, Joseph P 10, 17, 64 

Wylie amendment 33-34 

Wylie, Chalmers 34 



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