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TORONTO, 7907. 



JFac fimtle Reprints. 

VOL. I. 

The Dance of Death. 





C^e ^olbcin^ociet?. 





JAMES CROSTON, Honorary Secretary. 

REV. HENRY GREEN, M.A., Editor. 




Cfre ©olbem^ocietp's fac^fimile Ecprints. 

Les Simulachres & Hifloriees 
Faces de la Mort: 





M.A. _5- 


3n kiefen flctncn S3tattd)en ij! etne SBelt von ©ebcmfen unb 
SBe^itgen mit I)i5d)j?cv SSfteifterfcfyaft jufammengefajL 

KUGLER, vol. ii. p. 287. 







N thefe few fmall leaves there is 
a world of thoughts and relations 
united together with hia-heft 
maftery :" — fuch is the judg- 
ment pronounced by Kugler 
upon the Series of dramatic 
fketches which Hans Holbein 
the younger has drawn of Death and his Progrefs 
amid the various ranks and conditions of mankind. 

After an interval of nearly 330 years the fervice 
which Lyons rendered to literature, by fending into 
light one of the choice fpecimens of artiftic flail, has 
been acknowledged by an Englifh city, where alfo 
the fhuttle and the loom have been creators of 
the power to uphold the interefts of an enlightened 
civilization. In veritable form and feature, without 
excefs or diminution of line or point, the whole work, 
which was a delight ten o-enerations a^o for the ex- 
quifite beauty of its defigns and the perfeclnefs of 
their execution, has been reproduced, we truft, for the 
approval of our contemporaries, and for the making 



more widely appreciated the quaint yet folemn medi- 
tations with which the Lyonefe Jean ale Vauzelles 
inaugurated the workmanfhip of Hans Holbein and 

France, Germany, and the Britifh Ifles thus com- 
bine to uphold the brotherhood of nations. The 
French, the German, and the Englifh, together with 
the language of old Rome, in texts from the fcripture 
of truth, fpeak to us of the univerfal doom and of 
the univerfal hope. And why fhould not the fame 
languages, everywhere, almoft the earth around, tell 
of amity; peace, and progrefs ? 

Were due regard to be paid only to the literary 
excellences of the editions of Holbein's Images of 
Death, to which the names of Francis Douce and of 
Noel Humphreys are attached, and indeed to the 
(kill and care with which the devices are reproduced, 
the neceflity for another edition might well be quef- 
tioned. But, though founded on and taken from the 
Lyons edition of 1538, their editions are not full and 
complete fac-fimiles of that beautiful volume. Such 
a fac-fimile, entire in all its parts, is now offered as 
tlic lnil publication of the Holbein-Society. Both 
1 and device are here fet forth ; and as the oriei- 
nal work is in the almoll univerfal French, an Ene- 
lift] tran llation throughout is alone attempted. 

Some explanation o( the method of reproduction 
purfued in our work ma)' be of intereft to the Sub- 
fcribers. Each page of the original edition of 1538 


has been copied by the ordinary procefs of Photo- 
graphy. Thus a negative was obtained of the exact 
fize of the original, and containing all its excellences 
as well as its defects, where they exift. Some of 
thefe faults could have been removed in the after- 
proceffes, but it was thought preferable that no refto- 
ration mould be attempted. The blemifhes alluded 
to are not, however, to be found in all copies of the 
1538 edition; for inftance, in plate VII. the hands of 
the Emperor are not perfect, but the copy is the fame 
as the pattern, though other impreffions from the fame 
block do not fhow the fame imperfection, which in 
this cafe has the appearance of the furface of the 
paper being rubbed off. But there are inftances fhow- 
ing, on a comparifon of two or three copies of the 
fame edition, that the primary wood-blocks them- 
felves had received damage. There are alfo defects 
which Trechfel Fratres, the printers, were refponhble 
for, and as a matter of courfe thefe will be found 
(landing uncorrected. 

From the negative a print is taken on paper pre- 
pared with gelatine and bichromate of potafh. The 
print is then foaked in water, and afterwards covered 
with transfer-ink ; and when the procefs is completed 
this transfer-ink is found to adhere only to thofe parts 
of the paper where the fun-light has impreffed the 
image. The finifhed print is next transferred to the 
lithographic-ftone, and finally the proofs on paper are 
printed with carbon-ink in the ordinary manner. 


There are many photo-lithographic proceffes, but the 
one employed in this reproduction by Mr. Brothers 
was kindly communicated to him by Mr. Wm. Griggs, 
of Peckham, near London, to whom Mr. Brothers and 
the Editor take this opportunity of expreffmg their 
beft thanks. It is a procefs which, as (lightly modi- 
fied and fimplified by Mr. Brothers, poffeffes many 
advantages. In proof, let the prefent work be ex- 

It cannot furely be deemed an uncalled-for under- 
taking to give in our Englifh tongue the thoughts 
which inftructed a neighbouring people when Fran- 
cis the Firft was their king. Neither can it be a 
ufelefs labour to reproduce, in exact form and linea- 
ment, the works which alfo inftructed our forefathers 
when the joy-bells were ringing out the re-awakening 
of the human mind. We may judge ourfelves to have 
outgrown the literature of that time, but in putting 
on the manly gown we mould not forget that the 
arms and fkill of the fathers gave protection and 
guidance, while the children were preparing and be- 
ing prepared for the nobler courfe. God guard and 
reftore every thing that, being old, is good, - — and 
make both old and new "better and better ftill in 
infinite progreffion." 

Heathfield, Knutsford, 
April 2yd, 1869. 



Title-page and Preface i-viii 

Introduction : 

I. Hans Holbein the Younger : A brief Sketch of 

his Life and Works ix-xvi 

II. Remarks on Holbein's Images and Afpecls of 

Death xvii-xxx 


Les Simulachres, &c, de la Mort, — a 

Fac-fi mile Reprint A-N (i)-(io4) 

Epiftre des Faces de la Mort, a Dedi- 
cation Aij-Aiiij (2)-(8) 

Diuerfes Tables de la Mort B-Biiij (9)~( I 5) 

Planches, I-XLI Biiij z'-Giiij (i6)-(56) 

Des Hvict Figvres et Faces de la Mort H-Iiiij (57)— (72) 
Les diuerfes Mors des Boris et des 
Mauluais : 

Figure de la Mort en general K-Kij (73)— (75) 

De la Mort des Mavlvais Kijz'-L (76)-(8i) 

De la Mort des Ivftes L-Lij (81H83) 

Des Sepvlchres des Ivftes Lijz'-Liij (84)-(85) 

Avthoritez des Philofophes Liij-Miij (85.)-(93) 

De la Ne'ceffite de la Mort Miij z>-Niiij (34)-(io4> 

The Images and Storied Aspects of Death ; a 

Translation 105-188 

Epiftle of the Afpecls of Death ; a Dedication 107-112 

Diuers Pictures of Death 113-119 

,, being Tranflations, &c, for the Forty- 
one Plates, I-XLI 1 20-140 



The Eight Figures and Afpects of Death 141-156 

The diverfe Deaths of the Good and of the Bad : 

Figure of Death in General 1 57-160 

Of the Death of the Bad 160-165 

Of the Death of the Juft 165-167 

Of the Sepulchres of the Juft 168-169 

Authorities of the Philofophers 1 69-1 7 7 

Of the Neceflity of Death 178-181 

Of the Neceffity of Preparation for Death 1 82-1 88 

Notes, 1-34 1 89-22 1 

Appendix 223-224 

i° Photo-lith Fac-similes : a. Of the Title, Index, 
and extra woodcut of Imagines Mortis, by 
George ^Emylius ; Lyons, John and Francis 

Frellon, fm. 8vo, 1545 (225)-(227) 

/'. Of the Title, and of Plates i., xxxvi., lij., and 
liii., of Imagines Mortis, by George yEmylius ; 

Cologne, Birckmann, fm. 8vo, 1566 (228)-(232) 

2" Photo-lith Fac-similes : Of the Title, of Plates 
vii. and xvi., and of Plates xl.-li., and of 
Colophon of Simolachri, &*c, de la Morte ; In 
Lyone appreffo Giovan Frellone, fm. 8vo, i549....(233)-(248) 
3 Epigrammata, I. -LIII., of Imagines Mortis, 
tran dated out of French into Latin by George 
/Emylius, in the Lyons edition of 1545 and 

the Cologne edition of 1566 249-258 

4° Quotations from the Holy Scriptures of the 1 2 

additional plates, xl.-li 259 

5 Various Editions of Holbein's Images of Death 260-276 
6° Stanzas, I.- LIII., from Simolachri, &>c. de la 
Morte, being the Italian vcrfion printed at 
Lyons, 1549 277-286 

General Index 287-292 



OR three generations in fucceffion, during 
almoft a whole century from 1454, when the 
Italian Finiguerra was practifing the new art 
of printing on paper from engraved plates, 
down to 1544, when that art was everywhere 
in operation, the name Hans Holbein enjoyed 
celebrity among the artifts of Germany. Members of that 
family were fpoken of with honour for the various works of 
merit to which they had given origin. 

" Old Hans Holbein," as Wornum names him, p. 50, and 
whom he confiders as a myth, — "Grandfather Hans Hol- 
bein," according to Woltmann, ii., 58-9, who regards him as 
a reality, — is fuppofed to have flourifhed during the latter 
half of the fifteenth century. To him are attributed two 
undoubted works bearing the dates 1459 and 1499. The 
one is a Madonna with the Child, fitting on a bank of turf, 
amid flowers and birds ; the other is a confiderable Series of 
fix paintings, in which are reprefented the Seven chief 
churches of Rome, with biblical and legendary occurrences, 
as prayer-ftations for the Nuns of the old foundation of S. 

* See Kugler's Handbuch der Malerei II. p. 182 
und seine Zeit I. 59 and 60. 

and Woltmann's Holbein 


This Hans Holbein the grandfather had two fons who 
were painters, the one known as Hans the elder, born at 
Augsburg, about 1460, the other Sigifmund, who was born 
about 1470, and was living at Berne in 1540. {Wornum, 
pp. 54 and 71 ; Woltmann, vol. i., pp. 72, 184, and 186.) 

Of Hans Holbein the elder the eftimate is given by 
Kugler, vol. ii., p. 183, that his works were of a Flemifh 
character. "His naturalifm, however, was always of an 
independent kind, like that of the greater part of his Upper- 
german contemporaries ; there is an inborn rejoicing in 
the many-fidednefs of Life and of Character, as for ex- 
ample in his Portrait-figures, which in defiance of their too- 
fhort proportions are generally in a high degree true and 
life-like. Lefs did the Mafter ftrive after higher beauty and 
ideal worth." From either Kugler, Wornum, or Woltmann 
a full account may be obtained of this artift's works ftill 
exifting and known. 

The other fon, Sigifmund, is of no renown as an engraver ; 
but fome of his paintings are well fpoken of by Kugler (vol. 
ii., p. 186) and others ; for inftance, one now at Nuremberg, 
the Madonna on a throne, over whom Angels are holding a 
crown and a canopy. "The heads are fine and noble, the 
drapery flowing, and the colouring of great force, warmth, 
and clearnefs." 

When, as commonly reported, Hans Holbein the elder 
fettled, or rather rcfided, at Bale in 15 16,* he was accom- 
panied by his three fons, Ambrofe, Hans the younger, and 
Bruno : fee Wornum, pp. 67 and 68. They all followed 
painting as their profeffion. Of Bruno little is known as a 
painter. To Ambrofe, with much appearance of truth, are 
afcribed a Portrait, in the Belvedere at Vienna, and the 
Figures of two boys, in the public collection at Bale. 
(Kugler, vol. ii., p. 292 ; Wortmann, vol. ii., p. 44.) 

What the two brothers left undone for fame, or even 
unattemptcd, Hans, the third brother, has moft amply 
redeemed. His numerous works, preferved at Berlin, Dres- 
den, Munich, and Vienna, at Augsburg and Bale, at Paris, 
and in London, and efpecially at Windfor caftle, arc the 
" An earliei visil was paid there in 1508. 


records of his life, and atteft both what his powers were and 
how fteadily he employed them. They began to be exer- 
cifed with his earlieft youth, and continued active until 
death arrefted his hand, while its fkill remained and its 
vigour was unabated. 

The birth-year of Hans Holbein the younger has been 
varioufly ftated ; reflecting the place of his birth there has 
alfo been doubt, but it is generally agreed to have been in 
or near Augsburg. ( Wornum, pp. 40 and 80.) The year of 
his birth has been affigned to A.D. 1498, — -but, with ftronger 
probabilities, the year 1495 mould be named. ( Woltmann, 
vol. i., pp. 112, 114, and 115.) His earlieft training was in 
his native Germany, — and good feeds muft have been 
fown ; for in 1509, when he was only fourteen years of age, 
there are drawings of his in a fketch-book, now in the Ber- 
lin Mufeum, which manifeft developing power ; and in 15 12, 
when he was feventeen, there are portraits now at Hampton 
court which are regarded as likeneffes of his father and 
mother. Up to 1526, when he removed to England, year 
by year may his progrefs be tefted by the works which 
remain, and which give evidence of his increafing fkill. 

To the fame feventeenth year of his age may be referred 
the wings of an altar-piece, with figures of the beheading of 
S. Catharine, painted by him ; alfo a miracle of S. Ulrick, 
a crucifixion of S. Peter, and a Holy Family. Thefe fhow 
how at that early time of life he already excelled his father, 
being fuperior to him in drawing and in tone of colour. 
The year 15 14 produced a portrait of Francis von Taxis, to 
be praifed for its life-likenefs ; and 1515 a martyrdom of S. 
Sebaftian, and three portraits which have been characterized 
as poffeffing " a beauty worthy of Raphael." Befides other 
works, 1 5 16 claims, as our artift's fole production, "Meyer 
the Burgomeifter of Bale and his wife ;" it is on a blue 
ground, with rich renaiffance architecture for ornament, and 
the heads poffeffing great truth of character and noblenefs 
of appearance. 

From thofe who have written fully on the fubject, as 
Kugler, Wornum, and Woltmann, it would be eafy to leng- 
then out the lift of Holbein's youthful labours. They are 


all evidences of the early developement of his power as an 
artift, and render probable almoft every effort of genius 
that has been attributed to him. 

From this time up to 1525 there were continual additions 
to his works of fame ; as the Eight portions of our Lord's 
Sufferings and Crucifixion, in the town-houfe of Bale ; and, 
in the Library of the Univerfity of that city, a Chrifb's dead 
body, almoft terrible for its truthfulnefs, yet treated with a 
maftery, a fulnefs of knowledge, and ability, which raife high 
admiration for the artift's power. 

Holbein's renown was now eftablifhed, and through an 
acquaintance which he had formed with Erafmus, who was 
refiding in Bale for the purpofe of editing various works, 
and who often relieved Holbein's very preffing wants, he 
was induced to remove to London, provided with an urgent 
recommendation to Sir Thomas More. This event took 
place in 1526 or 1527. The chancellor received him with 
the heartieft welcome, and entertained him as a gueft in 
his own houfe at Chelfea. Here for fome time the artift 
wrought for the chancellor and his friends, and at length 
was introduced to the notice of the king, Henry VIII. It 
was in this manner : At an entertainment provided for the 
king, More had arranged Holbein's paintings in the hall 
through which the king would have to pafs, — and the king 
admired them greatly. Hence the artift was appointed the 
king's painter, with apartments in the royal palace, and an 
ample falary, in addition to the ufual payments for the pic- 
tures themfclves. 

Thenceforward Holbein's life was chiefly devoted to 
portrait-painting, and confequently was almoft wafted, as 
regards the higheft branches of Art, in which power of 
thought and of execution gives reality to the creations of 
the fancy. He laboured, indeed, greatly to the king's fatis- 
faction, and to that of the favourites and the courtiers ; lor 
though it was Holbein who had painted the far too flatter- 
ing portrait of Ann of Cleves, whofe perfon was fo diftafteful 
to the king, yet the painter himfelf did not lofe the fove- 
rcign's patronage. The ftrength of the favour which he 
enjoyed was, it is faid, curioufly manifefted. For fome info- 


lence and intrufion, Holbein had perfonally chaftifed a 
nobleman, but aware of the danger incurred he went forth- 
with to the king, confeffed the wrong, and entreated pardon. 
Soon, too, came the nobleman to the king, and, with great 
warmth and fome intemperance of language, made com- 
plaint of the outrage, and demanded a fevere punifhment. 
The king is credited with the reply: " Out of feven plough- 
men I can make feven lords, but of feven lords I cannot 
make one Holbein." 

The portraits which Holbein executed in England are 
very numerous ; — the works of higher art only a few. 
Many examples of his fkill in fixing the features as they 
pafs were to be found in the Royal palaces of Windfor, 
Kenfington, and Hampton court, and in the old manfions 
of the Englifh nobility and gentry, as Arundel caftle, Penf- 
hurft, Mereworth, Knowle, Northumberland houfe, Chatf- 
worth, Stowe, &c. ; but in fome cafes the exa6l localities 
are now uncertain. Thefe portraits poffefs, indeed, great 
hiftorical intereft, — but the fa£l is to be regretted that they 
engaged fo much of the artift's time, and confequently pre- 
vented him from purfuing a nobler path to fame. The fire 
of genius muft flacken, even if it does not die, when roufed 
by nothing fave the formal fplendours of fovereigns and 
nobles. Thefe, we may allow, defire to have their features 
truthfully, if not flatteringly depicted, — but in many in- 
ftances the whole contour betokens that the infignia of 
their rank have been introduced fo as to afk from fpecta- 
tors the homage which natural form and expreffion alone 
would not themfelves command. 

We can, then, well underftand the German critic, Kugler 
(vol. ii., p. 291), when he laments at the recital of Holbein's 
death :* " Dafs er die ganze zweite Halfte feines Lebens im 
Auflande zubrachte, war einer der fchwerften Verlufte, 
welche die deutfche Kunft in jener Zeit betreffen konnten ;" 
his /pending the whole fecond half of his life abroad zvas one 
of the heaviefl lojfes which conld at that time happen to Ger- 
man Art. 

* According to the common account, in the firft year of the Catholic Mary, 
1554 ; but as is now -well known, and as we fhall fhow, this date is an error of 
eleven years. 


Indeed, there is no real expanfion of an artift's foul when, 
inftead of continuing to combine together, as in a dramatic 
feries of events, various forms and characters and perfona- 
ges, fo as to give expreffion to fome great thought, or alle- 
gory, or fancy, he concentrates his power on fingle figures 
in a ftate of repofe. They may have features of furpaffing 
lovelinefs, or of noble and manly bearing, but they tell no 
hiftory either of action or of fuffering, neither do they evoke 
fympathy from our inner nature. Thofe fingle figures in a 
ftate of repofe are fimply fo many fquare inches, it may be, 
of exquifite human flefh, with appropriate vefture and orna- 
ment upon it, but they do not mow the roufing up of form 
and feature into expreffion and action fo as to give life and 
at the fame time fixture to great and ennobling ideas. 

No wonder, then, it fhould be faid of the years in Hol- 
bein's career which followed, A.D. 1526: "Hitherto with 
each work accomplifhed he had conquered a new dominion, 
— made good a ftep onward, and found that every height in 
his art was attainable, and that not a few had been already 
gained. The many-varied fides of exiftence ftood before 
him in their fulnefs, and with a depth at command fuch as 
hardly belonged to any other painter of that grand time ; and 
though neither the ideal greatnefs of the Italians, nor the 
ftrength of Albert Durer, was an element of his nature, yet 
the wealth and power of his character offered a noble com- 
penfation for thefe, and, next to Durer, he had become the 
grcateft painter of the German nation, indeed the greateft 
of the North." 

How could he give up the fplendid dowry which nature 
affigned to him, that he might become chief figure-painter 
at the court of Henry VIII. ! He did well in that way, — 
but it was not, and could not be, the path to the higher 

Holbein had married three or four years before he left 
Bale for England, but the exact time is not afcertained. 
His wife was Elizabeth Schmid, the widow of Franz 
Schmid. Her portrait and that of Holbein himfelf are 
given as fupporters in the well known efcutcheon at the end 
of what has been popularly named The Dance of Death. 


There is another "moft ftriking picture" of her and her 
children in the Mufeum of Bale ; — the elder of the children 
being her fon Franz, by her firft husband, and the younger 
Philip Holbein, her fon by the fecond husband. She and 
the family did not accompany Holbein to England, but he 
contributed to their fupport, and occafionally vifited them, 
as in 1529, when he remained in Bale during 1530 and part 
of 1 5 3 1. See Womum, pp. 158 and 256. 

Until quite recently Holbein's biographers placed his 
death in the year 1554, but the evidence of his will and of 
the probate of it, both bearing date the fame year, fliow 
that his life ended in the 35th year of Henry VIII., A.D. 
1543. In that year the will is dated "the vij. day of 
October," and the adminiftration to Holbein's effects was 
granted on the 29th of November. He died, therefore, 
during this interval.* For the place of his burial, Wornum, 
p. 365, quotes Strype's additions to Stow's Survey of the 
Cities of London and Weftminftcr, folio, London, 1720, p. 
64 : "I have been told that Hans Holbein, the great and 
inimitable painter in King Henry VIII.'s time was buried 
in this church," the church of S. Catherine Cree ; " and 
that the Earl of Arundel, the great patron of learning and 
arts, would have fet up a monument to his memory here, 
had he but known whereabouts the corps lay." 

In his will Holbein names his " two Chylder wich lie at 
nurfe ;" fo that we infer his firft wife, though living in 1541, 
to have died foon after, and Holbein to have married again 
within a fhort time of her deceafe. 

Various biographical dictionaries contain a notice of Hol- 
bein and of his works ; as the Biographie Univerfelle ;" Ai- 
kin's General Biography, 4to, London, 1804, vol. v., p. 226 ; 
Stanley's edition of Bryan, Dictionary of Painters and 
Engravers, London, 1849, pp. 333-341 ; and the Nouvclle 
Biographie Gencralc, 8vo, Paris, 1858, vol. xxiv., cols. 928- 
930, — but this account is very meagre : Ulrich Hegner's is 
much better, Hans Holbein dcr Jiingere, Berlin, 1827, with 
a portrait. 

* See Wornum, pp. 22, 23, and 365-367. Alfo Woltmann, vol. ii., pp. 358 
and 359, and 395 -396. 


On fubjects connected with artifts much information is 
found in Nagler's Neues allgemeines Kiinftlcr-Lcxicon, 22 
vols., 8vo, Munich, 1835-185 2 ; and for a critical notice of 
Holbein's productions Kugler's Handbuch der GcfcJiicJitc dcr 
Malerei,* 184.7, mav be confulted, vol. i., pp. 272-291. 

For fulnefs and accuracy, however, thefe are all furpaffed 
by Ralph Nicholfon Wornum, keeper and fecretary of the 
National Gallery, London, — and by Dr. Alfred Woltmann, 
teacher of art-hiftory in the Univerfity of Berlin. The 
former has prefented in folio, with numerous illuftrations, 
Some account of the Life and Works of Hans Holbein, Pain- 
ter, of Augsburg, London, 1867; the latter, i)olbcin unt> fcirte 
3ctt, with woodcuts, 8vo, 2 vols., Leipzig, 1 866-1 868. -f* 

From thefe two works efpecially may be fupplied the un- 
avoidable deficiencies of a brief fketch like the prefent. We 
have purpofely omitted to give an account in the foregoing 
pages of Holbein's Images of Death and of his Bible Figures 
for the Old Tcftament. Notices of thefe will occupy their 
proper places in the HOLBEIN-SOCIETY'S publications. 

* The work was firft publifhed in 1837 ; — an Englifli tranflation, without 
notes, of the firft part, containing the Italian fchools, was made by C. L. Eaft- 
lake, London, 1842 ; and of the fecond part, relating to the German, Flemifh, 
and Dutch fchools, a tranflation, with notes, by Sir Edmund Head, Bart., 
London, 1846. 

t A tranflation of this excellent work into Englifli is faid to be in prepara- 

XVI 1 


,N immediate connexion with literature and 
art the name of Hans Holbein the younger 
is beft known by being affociated with the 
publication of various books of beauty and 
rarity, which in part, at leaft, have very 
often been reproduced.* As well from their 
excellence as from the fewnefs of the exifting copies, the 
original editions muft ever excite between amateurs a lively 
competition to be the poffeffors of them. Among books 
thus valued there are feveral of which the defigns drawn 
firft on the wood blocks, if not the woodcuts themfelves, 
are attributed to Holbein. They are the following : 

i. SMe Sffenbanmg, or Apocalypfe of S. John, 8vo, Wolff, 
Bale, 1523, illuftrated by twenty-one woodcuts, faid to be 
of Holbein's workmanfhip, but mo ft probably only defigned 
by him, and engraved by Hans Liitzelburger, the fame who 
wrought out into woodcuts Holbein's block-drawings for 
The Images of Death. His Apocalypfe is a portion of a New 
Teftament in German. "Thefe are interefting on that 

* In his Effai Hiftorique fur les Danfes des Moris, 8vo, Rouen, 1851, vol. 
ii. pp. 111-115, Langlois catalogues, 18 original editions; pp. 115-125, 53 
copies on wood; pp. 125-135, 43 on copper; pp. 135-136, 3 on ftone ; total, 
117 editions. Thefe editions are in French, Latin, German, Italian, Bohe- 
mian, Englifh, and Dutch, — at above thirty centres of publication. 



account, becaufe they fliow Holbein to us in the fame de- 
partment in which Albert Diirer had exercifed himfelf." 
Woltmann, vol. ii. pp. 43-45- 

2. MI2PIAZ ETKnMION (i.e. Praife of Folly), cum 
commentariis Ger. Lifberii et figuris Io. Holbenii, e codice 
Academiae bafilienfis, 8vo, Bafiliee, types genathianis 1676. 
The woodcuts of this edition were made from Holbein's 
fketches, eighty-three in number, with which, while Erafmus 
and he were refidcnt in Bale, he ornamented a certain copy 
of the work, which Erafmus himfelf read to the artift. Wor- 
num, pp. 154-157, and Woltmann, vol. i. p. 274-283, are 
not altogether of the fame opinion. The latter fays : " That 
it made fport for Erafmus to fee his book fo illuftrated, we 
willingly believe, fince with fo penetrating an intelligence 
it entered into his very fpirit." 

3. PASTIME OF PEOPLE, 4to, Ruffel, London, 1529; con- 
taining chronicles of divers realms, and mofh efpecially of 
the realm of England. The woodcuts have been attributed 
to Holbein. "T. F. Dibdin republished the work in 181 r, 
with woodcuts by John Nesbit." The original copies are 
very rare. Bryan's Dieliouary, by Stanley, p. 340. 

fm. 4to, Trechfel Brothers, Lyons, 1538. There are forty- 
one plates from Holbein's drawing, and almoft of a cer- 
tainty from Lutzelburger's workmanfhip. See Wornum, p. 
186; and Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 109, &c. 

VIVUM EXPRESSES, &c, 4to, Trechfel Brothers, Lyons, 1538. 
The ninety woodcuts of this edition are confidered the joint 
production of Holbein and Liitzelburger, and are without 
the French verfes. A fecond edition in 1539 contains the 
two fets of ftanzas, one in Latin, by Bourbon, and one in 
French, by Corrozet. See Wornum, p. 188 ; and Wolt- 
mann, vol. ii. pp. 55-60, &c. 

IMA GES, &c, OF DEA TH. xix 

The works numbered 4 and 5 have been in part reproduced, in 
fac-fimile, by F. Douce, in Pickering's edition, 1833, and in Bonn's, 
1858 ; the plates alfo of the former, No. 4, by Noel Humphreys, 
in Quaritch's edition, 1868. 

Many defigns for frontifpieces of books, and fimilar illuf- 
trations, have, with juftice, been attributed to Holbein ; but 
to give an account of thefe would exceed the limits of our 
plan. Two or three of Holbein's devices appeared in 1548, 
in a Catechifm "fet forth by the mofte reverende father in 
God, Thomas, Archbyfhop of Canterbury;" and eight, to 
beautify, as they did, the Lord's Prayer. For a notice of 
fuch remains of the great artift it will be eafy to confult 
Stanley and Bryan's Dictionary of Painters, &c, 1 849, pp. 
340 and 341. 

Two only of thefe works do the HOLBEIN-SOCIETY pro- 
pofe to reprint entire in fac-fimile, by the photo-lithographic 
procefs, — the one effentially a French book, dated Lyons, 
1538, Lcs fimnlacJircs & Hiflorices Faces dc la Mort ; the 
other a Latin book, with a French expofition, firft printed 
in the fame year, but of which the edition for 1547, /cones 
Hiftoriarvm Vcteris Injirumenti, is reputed to offer the belt 
impreffions of the original plates. 

Their artiftic merits have now for centuries excited admi- 
ration as well for the beauty of the defigns as for the per- 
fectnefs of the engraving. Their rich mellow foftnefs who 
can declare ; or believe that out of mere blocks of wood 
fuch grace and life can be evolved ! 

The firft-named of thefe two works, commonly, though 
inaccurately, named Holbein's Dance of Death, the Hol- 
BEIN-SOCIETY now prefents in fac-fimile reprint. The copy 
of the original edition which has been employed for the 
purpofe is in every refpect perfect, and is a fine example of 
the very choice Books of Emblems collected by the Rev. 
Thomas Corfer, Rector of Stand, near Manchefter, and, 
alas ! at this very hour, when thefe lines are under correc- 
tion, being difperfed at public fale. With great readinefs 


he fanctioned our undertaking by offering the ufe of this 
copy, and moft cordially, in the name of the HOLBEIN- 
SOCIETY, do we acknowledge the obligation.* 

The moft competent of critics on this particular work, 
Frances Douce, in Pickering's edition of the Dance of Death, 
1833, p. 82, and in Bohn's edition, 1858, p. 72, fays of the 
volume we are reproducing : " It has forty-one cuts moft ex- 
quifitely defigned and engraved on wood, in a manner which 
feveral modern artifts only of England and Germany have 
been competent to rival. As to the defigns of thefe truly 
elegant prints, no one who is at all fkilled in the knowledge 
of Holbein's ftyle and manner of grouping his figures would 
hefitate immediately to afcribe them to that artift. Some 
perfons have imagined that they had actually difcovered the 
portrait of Holbein in the fubject of the nun and the lover 
(No. xxiv.); but the painter, whoever he may have been, is 
more likely to be reprefented in the laft cut, as one of the 
fupporters of the efcutcheon of Death. In thefe defigns, 
which are wholly different from the dull and oftentimes dif- 
gufting Macaber Dance, which is confined, with little excep- 
tion, to two figures only, we have the moft interefting affem- 
blages of characters, among whom the fkelctonized Death, 
with all the animation of a living perfon, forms the moft 
important perfonage ; fometimes amufingly ludicrous, occa- 
fionally mifchievous, but always bufy, and charadleriftically 

Similar in their import are Dibdin's remarks in his Biblio- 
graphical Decameron, 18 17, vol. i. p. 39. They occur in a 
note on that Dance of Death, which had been introduced 
into the Horce, printed by Verard, of Paris, " fomewhere 
about the year 1489;" and on "the numerous,-f- perhaps, 
innumerable editions which fucceeded." 

* The Kcir Library of Sir Wm. Stirling-Maxwell, Bart., has alfo supplied 
copies of three editions of Holbein's Death Figures, 153S, 1545, and 1566. 

+ Of the Books of Prayers, named Hone, Hcurcs, or Hours, printed between 
1490 and 1701, an authentic lift of 1 14 editions, in French, German, Latin, 
Spanifh, and Englilh, is given in Effai Hijlorique fur les Danfes des Moris, par 
E. H. Langlois, Rouen, 185 1, vol. i. pp. 343-362. Brunet's Manuel, 1864, 
vol. v. cols. 1553- 1690, extends the number to 364 editions. 

IMA GES, &c, OF DBA TH. xxi 

" I have no hefitation," he fays, " in believing (however 
that belief may differ from the opinions of very competent 
judges) that Editions of the Dance of Death (that is 
to fay, fmall volumes, in which were woodcuts, accompanied 
by text exclufively devoted to the fubje<5t under defcrip- 
tion) were unknown till the time of HOLBEIN. Whether 
that great artift painted one, two, or three feries of the fame 
fubjecT:, in frefco or in oil, at Bafel or at Whitehall, is imma- 
terial to the point ; all I contend for is, that we are indebted 
to Hans Holbein for thefe beautiful and inftru6live manuals 
of morality. There is abundance of intrinfic evidence that 
the cuts forming thefe manuals originated from the genius 
of Holbein. The author of the tafteful edition before quoted 
feems doubtful whether he defigned them upon the zvood for 
the engraver ; but he is clearly of opinion that he did not 
abfolutely engrave them. From their fuperiority to a fet of 
cuts which bear that artift's name exprefsly upon them — 
introduced, however, probably, to fliow that Holbein only 
made the defigns upon the wood — I incline to the fame 
opinion, and alfo think that the fet of fmall drawings by 
Holbein, fketched with a pen and flightly fhaded with In- 
dian ink — formerly in the Crozat collection, and lately in 
that of Prince Gallitzin (the Ruffian ambaffador at the court 
of Vienna), at whofe houfe they were feen by Mr. Coxe, the 
traveller, but now in the Emperor of Ruffia's collection — 
may have been the originals, or ancient copies from the 
originals, from which the earliefb editions were publifhed.* 
That Hans Holbein invented the Dance of DeatJi is fcarcely 
worthy of refutation." 

After concluding that Ltitzelburger engraved what Hol- 
bein had defigned, Langlois, in his Effai Hiftorique, vol. ii. 
p. 94, fays : " Cette Danfe n'eft pas, comme la plupart de 
celles du moyen age, une fuite non interrompue de perfonna- 
ges enleves par la Mort, qui gambade avec des pofes plus 
ou moins comiques. C'eft une reprefentation fidele des 

* Wornum's Remarks, p. 187, are well worth reading on this fubject. Wolt- 
mann, in his Supplement, vol. ii. p. 410, while pointing out fome errors in the 
ufual accounts, intimates that the Crozat collection now forms part of the rich 
collection of M. Ambrofe Firmin Diclot, of Paris. 


fcenes de la vie humaine. Le peintre, peut-etre moins fa- 
tirique que Nicolas Manuel dans fa Danfe de Berne, mais 
plus habile et plus heureux que lui dans le choix de fes 
tableaux, a fu animer fon Squelette avec une originalite 
piquante, et placer fes perfonnages dans une fcene propre a 
leur etat, a leur pofition." 

Woltmann, in his ^olbein unb feme 3ctf, ii. vols,, 1866- 
1868, in vol. ii. pp. 40-128 and 407-410, gives an admirable 
account of the whole fubjecl. We have only room for the 
introduction, p. 109: "At the fame time, with the Figures 
of the Old Teftament came the firft edition of the Death- 
Figures, in Lyons, by the Brothers Trechfel. There were 
forty-one leaves, without titles for the fingle leaves, but 
inftead with Latin Bible-paffages and with French verfes of 
Giles Corrozet, which for later editions were tranflated into 
Latin by Luther's brother-in-law, George CEmel, or JEmy- 
lius. The fucceffion of the leaves had, in 1538, become dif- 
ferent ; the fpiritual were no more feparated from the laity, 
the men from the women. To the Pope, as in both fets of 
figures on the wall in Bale, follows the Emperor. In this 
fucceffion, which in the placing together of leaves is often, 
to a very high degree, imaginative, we fhall later obferve 
the fingle leaves. The impreffions in this edition do not 
fhow the blacknefs of the Bale proofs, but a lighter tone, yet 
are alfo reprefented with extreme carefulnefs, as the tender 
nature of the work demands." 

The moft recent judgment in England upon Holbein's 
claims has been propounded by H. Noel Humphreys, in his 
Photo-lithographic Fac-Jimiles, London, Ouaritch, 1868, a 
work of much refearch. In the introductory remarks, p. 28, 
when fpeaking of the alphabets of Holbein, in the letters of 
which were introduced the images and afpecls of Death, 
Humphreys fays : " But while there is abundant evidence 
of the authority of thefe alphabets, there is no pofitively 
dire£t proof which enables us to affign to Holbein the far 
more important and almoft matchlefs feries of defigns for 
the illuftrations of The Dance of Death, publifhed at Lyons 

IMAGES, &c, OF DEATH. xxiii 

in 1538 ; and yet fuch is the internal evidence afforded by 
the work itfelf that no careful ftudent of art can feel a mo- 
ment's doubt upon the fubject." 

Other reafons are there affigned for the fame conclufion, 
and for the concealment of the author's name. Thefe lead 
the writer to declare, p. 30 : "I fliall therefore affume that, 
with two exceptions, thefe defigns are the genuine work of 
Hans Holbein, the ftamp of whofe peculiar genius and 
manner they indubitably bear." 

And thus, appearing as it were to deliver judgment, does 
Wornum, p. 181, fum up the teftimonies : "The evidence 
that this remarkable feries of woodcuts is from the original 
defigns of Holbein is not conclufive, and this fact has ac- 
cordingly been difputed. However, fome, as for inftance 
Rumohr, have gone to the extent of afferting Holbein to 
have been not only the defigner of the work, but its engraver 
alfo. This opinion, as already ftated, I do not adopt. That 
Holbein was the author of the defigns I cannot but believe; 
they bear in their vigour and dignity an internal evidence 
of his hand ; the fpecimen engraven above (i.e. the laft of 
the feries, often called the arms of Death) is thoroughly 
Holbeinefque ; it is quite in the fhyle of the 'Ambaffadors,' 
at Longford Caftle. There is no other German artift known 
who could be reafonably fubftituted for Holbein. Further, 
we have the evidence of a contemporary, and probably Hol- 
bein's friend,* Nicholas Bourbon, a French poet, who was in 
England, and thus fpeaks of the defigns as Holbein's (as 
given by Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 112): 

'• De morte picta a Hanfo piclore nobili. 

Dum mortis Hanfus piclor imaginem exprimit, 
Tanta arte mortem rettulit, ut mors vivere 


Holbein's friend undoubtedly. See Woltmann, vol. ii. pp. 58, 112, 243, 
and 245, where are Latin ftanzas, by Bourbon, in the painter's praife ; and p. 
245, a letter to the king's fecretary in 1536, among other greetings, as, to "Lord 
Thomas Cranmer, the archbifhop of Canterbury, &c.," concludes with naming 

"£erm £>anfen, ben Fonigttd) Wlaltx, ben 2CpeUe§ unferer &it" 

and adding, "I wifh and pray for them with all my heart all joy and prof- 



Videatur ipfe : et ipfe fe immortalibuj 
Parem Diis feceret operis huius gloria.' " i.e. 

Concerning Death painted by Hans the noble painter. 

While Hans the painter does death's form portray 
With greatefl art, and death doth life appear, — 

By glory of his work he leads the way 

To rank with gods immortal, as their peer. 

Further into the controverfy refpecting the defigner and 
delineator of thefe Images & Storied A/peels of Death we 
need not enter.* Incontrovertible is the fact that they were 
printed in French at Lyons, by Trechfel Brothers, in 1538 ; 
and ftrong the probability that in another form, and with 
German ftanzas attached, they had appeared at Bale as 
early as 1527 or 1530. Verfions were foon iffued in other 
languages as Latin, German, and Italian, and to the original 
number of forty or forty-one plates additions were made, 
until there were forty-nine, fifty-three, fifty-eight, and even 
fixty. With thefe we have little to do, as our chief object 
is to remark on the firft French edition now reproduced. 

It will be noted that the firft two defigns in the feries of 
woodcuts, the Creation and Temptation, are fimply intro- 
ductory, and that the reprefentations of the entrance and 
progrefs of death commence with the expulfion from Eden. 
At the head of the devices are paffages of Scripture from 
the Latin vulgate, and below them, defcriptive of the pic- 
tured events, are French ftanzas of four lines each, very 
fimple, and unfinifhed in their ftructure. Their authorfhip 
has been affigned to Jean de Vauzelles, one of three Lyonefe 
brothers, of literary celebrity, and alfo to Giles Corrozet, of 
Paris,f the fame who wrote the French verfes at the begin- 
ning and end of Holbein's Bible Figures. The French ftan- 

* In anfwer to the qucftions, "Holbein a-t-il deffine cette Danfe des Morts? 
l'a-t-il gravee?" Langlois, vol. ii. pp. 82-92, ftates the argument clearly and 

t Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 109, ufes the phrafe, " mit 2atCtntfd)Cn S3ibc(- 

ftcllcn unb mit gnm&ofcfyen 83erfen bc$ ©ittc5 (Soi-ojet." 

IMAGES, &c, OF DEATH. xxv 

zas in the Figures of Death are indeed eafy enough to put 
together, but in 1540 Corrozet publifhed his beautifully 
illuftrated book of emblems, which is entitled Hccatomgra- 
phic ; and as in this work the hundred devices are explained 
in fimilar quatrains, Corrozet's claim to the authorfhip, in 
the abfence of other proof, may be allowed. 

But with reference to the French dedication. "A movlt 
reverende Abbeffe — Madame Jehanne de Toufzele " — 
the dedication itfelf betrays, in the words " Salut d'un vray 
Zele," a proof of authorfhip. Brunet's Manuel du Libraire, 
vol. iii. col. 255, furnifhes plain intimation of this; but the 
full fact we learn from Woltmann's recondite work, vol. ii. p. 
1 10, where the teftimonies are fhown. " The author of the 
Preface," he fays, has not indeed underfigned his name, but 
has fufficiently indicated it. It is JOHN DE VAUZELLES, 
one of the three famous brothers Vauzelles,* who at that 
time played a great part in the literary life of Lyons. 'D'un 
vray zele ' was his cuftomary device, which alfo precedes in 
other writings ; and then, as on entering upon his dedica- 
tion, he reminds the Abbefs how, even to her initial letter 
T, her chriftian and furnames are perfectly like to his own.f 
John de Vauzelles was parfon of Saint Romain, at Lyons, 
and prior of Montrottier. He is known as a poet, a fcholar, 
and as both an author and a tranflator of religious writings." 

It is therefore reafonable to conclude that to John de 
Vauzelles may alfo be afcribed the authorfhip of the other 
differtations which make up the profe text of Les finuria- 
chres & Hijloriccs Faces de la Mort, and to which Holbein 
fupplied the defigns and Liitzelburger the wood engravings. 

In the very fpirit of Holbein the painter did Liitzelburger 
the engraver work ; and yet beyond his works almoft no- 
thing about him is known. Wornum, p. 186, fays of him : 

* In 1550, Brunet gives the name " Matthieu de Vauzelles" as author of 
" Trait e des peages, en fix livres, Lyon, Jean de Tonrnes, in-4. de 207 pp." 

•J* That is Jehanne and Jean, Zele and Zelles. On this fubject, Langlois, 
vol. ii. p. 90, remarks : " II eft certain que les mots de Vauzelles et Toufzelle 
terminent de raeme, et qu'il n'y a pas d'autre moyen de comprendre cette 
phrafe qu'en les rapprochant : e'eft alors regarder Jean de Vauzelles comme 
l'auteur de la dedicace. " 



"He was living in 1522, but was poffibly dead in 1538. He 
was certainly an exquifite wood engraver, if the cuts of The 
Dance of Death are his work." 

What is to be gleaned refpefting him has been laborioufly 
collected by Woltmann, vol. ii. pp. 8-1 1, and 405-43 \,pafjhn. 
" $Z nnS gut&elburger, formfefyniber, genannt grancf , as the artift 
names himfelf on a leaf of the Death's Alphabet, is a per- 
sonality which ever remains concealed from us in darknefs, 
as is the cafe with fo many artifts of our native land, which 
poffeffes no Vafari."* At Colmar, about forty miles from 
Strasburg, the church book records, 1495, a Margaret Liitzel- 
burgerin, and after 1536 a John Lutzelburger. When our 
engraver affumed the fecond name Franck, the name Lut- 
zelburger may have been left out. In Bale there lived a 
painter, Hans Franck. In the red book of the Himmel's 
Fraternity, or guild of that city, his name occurs before the 
year 15 13; and many times between 15 16 and 15 19 it is 
found in the accounts of the town council. Further, there 
was a Hans Franck, who at Augsburg, in 15 16, worked at 
a wood engraving then in progrefs, the triumphal entry of 
Maximilian, — but his identity is not eftablifhed. 

A fhort note among the Amerbach Papers (Woltmann, 
vol. ii. p. 405) mentions the artift in thefe words: "Sktjel- 
blirger, autor biblicarum hiftorialarum excufarum Lugduni, 
1522." In that fame year a large woodcut, vol. ii. p. 9, re- 
prefenting the fight of peafants and naked men in a wood, 
after the device of an unknown mafter, with the monogram 
N.H., bears the fubfeription, Hanns LEVCZELBVRGER 
FVRMSCHNIDER 1.5.22. The next year was publifhed at 
Bale, by Thomas Wolff, the German edition of the New 
Teftament, with a fplendid title-page defigned by Holbein. 
The woodcut is marked H. L. FVR. (that is Furmfchnider, 
figure-cutter. f) Among Holbein's death-figures there is alfo 
one, the Duchefs, fhowing Liitzelburger's monogram HL ; 
and this may date as early as 1527 or 1530. 

* See his famous " Vite de piu excellenti pittori, fcultori, ed architetti," 
publifhed. at Florence, 4to, iii. vols., 1568 ; and "corrette da molti errori, ed 
illuftrate con note," by Bottari, Rome, iii. vols. 4to, 1759-1760. 

+ See alfo Langlois, vol. ii. pp. 91-94. 

IMAGES, &c, OF DEATH. xxvii 

"And ever the more," declares Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 10, 
"he worked on in Holbein's quietnefs, and held truly and 
perfectly firm to the fpirit and difcourfe of this mafter, ever 
became he freer and fuperior to technicality. So ftands he 
next to Jerome of Nuremburg and Joft Dienecker as the 
third mafter of the firft rank among the German figure-cut- 
ters of this epoch ; but he forms an entirely new ftandard in 
his art, the fine-cut, which had not been attended to by the 
two others." It appears that it was towards 1538 that Lut- 
zelburger died, as maybe inferred from the preface of John 
de Vauzelles, fign. Aiij. rev. ; " tresgrademet viet a regreter 
la mort de celluy, qui nous en a icy imagine fi elegates 

In fome of his feries of figures where death is fupreme, 
Holbein no doubt has introduced, according to his practice, 
portraits of his contemporaries and of himfelf. In device vi. 
the Pope might be named Alexander VI., born Roderic 
Borgia, and the kneeling emperor be Maximilian I., who 
afcended the imperial throne in 1493. In device vii. the 
emperor, fo Humphreys fays, "is evidently the fame Maxi- 
milian," who died in 15 19. And the king, in device viii., is 
Francis I., who reigned over France from 15 15 to 1547. 
The cardinal, in device ix., appears felling an indulgence, 
and may reprefent the Cardinal Cajetan, who died in 1534, 
and was efpecially engaged in oppofing Luther and his doc- 
trines. Who the emprefs is, in device x., it is difficult to 
decide ; Mary of Burgundy, the wife of Maximilian I., had 
died in 1482 ; Ifabella of Portugal was the emprefs of 
Charles V., and may be here reprefented. In device xi. the 
queen has been fuppofed to be the wife of Francis, — his 
firft wife Claude, and not Eleanora, the fifter of Charles V., 
whom the king married in 1529, and who furvived her huf- 
band. The Prince-elector, the Lord-abbot, the Lady-abbefs, 
&c, may all have been portraits, and in the author's day 
may have been capable of being recognifed and identified ; 
but to us they have no other individuality than that which 
belongs to the fcenes in which they bear a part. 


It has been faid that the young man playing the guitar 
to the Canonefs or nun at her devotions, device xxiv., is in- 
tended for Holbein himfelf. This may be fo; but conjecture 
rifes almoft to certainty in the laft device, No. xli., where the 
fupporters to the efcutcheon of Death are a man and wo- 
man in full vigour and adornment. Compare the man's 
head with the portrait of Holbein, as given in their works 
by Wornum and Woltmann, and though the ftately caps 
and garments differ, and the ages alfo, the features poffefs 
great fimilitude, and, as Humphreys remarks, p. 118, bear 
"certainly a ftrong refemblance to the artift's undoubted 

The fpecial literature of The Dance of Death, its origin, 
its fpread over nations ancient and modern, its variations, 
changes, and growth, and the vaft number of editions, re- 
prefentations, and verfions, not merely fince the invention of 
printing, but before, would demand a whole volume, of no 
trifling fize, in which to treat the fubje6l with fulnefs and 
juftice. Even if fuch a hiftory came within our province as 
editor of this fac-fimile reprint, we muft decline the labour, 
becaufe others have already done it fo admirably as to de- 
ferve higheft praife. We would efpecially refer to a Differ- 
t at ion on the feveral Reprefentations of the Subject, by Francis 
Douce, Efq., F.A.S. With fcholarfhip fo abundant, and with 
refearch fo fcrutinifing, he has completed his remarks, and 
has prefented them to the public in fo acceffible a form, 
that, except with regard to materials and information ga- 
thered fince his day, it is fuperfluous, as it would be imper- 
tinent, again to cover the ground which he has fo richly 
planted. He leaves, indeed, nothing for the general reader 
to defire. Without hefitation, therefore, we commend the 
editions of his work by Pickering, in 1833, and by Bohn, in 

More clearly to underftand the fubjecl:, very advantageous 
will it be carefully to go through Wornum's volume already 
quoted, and more particularly chap. x. pp. 1 76-191, treat- 
ing of The Dance of Death and Bible Cuts ; and thoroughly 
to ftudy it, the fuller and more recondite pages of Wolt- 

IMAGES, &c, OF DEATH. xxix 

mann rauft be diligently examined, not in their entirety 
indeed, unlefs Holbein's felf is to be mattered, but in thofe 
parts that treat of our fpecial fubject. And with much pro- 
fit may there be kept in mind the Explanatory Dcfcriptions, 
by Noel Humphreys, of the forty-one devices ; nor would 
any one defiring information pais lightly over his Concife 
Hiftory of the Origin and fubfequent Developement of the 
Subjccl. We muft mention, alfo, the Effai Hiftorique, 
Pkilofophique et Pittorefque fur les Danfes des Moris, par 
E. H. LANGLOIS, ii. vols., 8vo, Rouen, 185 1. 

The character of the ftanzas, French doggrel, which are 
appended to the devices, is fuch as to warn againft the 
attempt to tranflate them into Englifh rhymes. If the ori- 
ginal be followed with any degree of exactnefs, the refult 
will be fuch as Douce himfelf defcribes, in a manufcript note 
to a copy of Hawkins' Emblems of Mortality, London, 1789, 
"Sternhold and Hopkin's verfes ;"* and if a loftier ftyle be 
attempted, fuperior to that of thofe renowned authors in 
their old Pfalms, it will fcarcely be poffible to abide by the 
actual meaning and fpirit of the original. For thefe reafons 
I have not attempted to reprefent the French rhymes by 
Englifh rhymes, but fimply to give a verfion almoft literal, 
aiming at a meafured cadence rather than at the recurrence 
of the fame founds at the ends of alternate lines. 

And fo in the tranflation of the profe effays or medita- 
tions at the beginning and end of the Figures of Death, our 
purpofe has been to keep as clofe as may be to the turns of 
expreffion and peculiarities in ftyle of the original, and yet 
by adopting a little of the modern ftrufture of fentences to 
bring out a clear meaning. The curious methods of point- 
ing the claufes of a period, and of putting the thoughts to- 
gether, have fometimes occafioned difficulties ; but we have 
endeavoured to make the Englifh a true exponent of the 

* The Italian verfion, in Simolachri, &>c, de la Morte, Lyons, 1549, is much 
more succefsful. But the genius of that language, in a far higher degree than 
our own, is capable of transferring poetic thoughts into the poetic form without 
marring either the beauty or the fimplicity of the original. 


The tranflation of the profe portion of the work will be 
found to correfpond very nearly page for page with the 
French text of 1538. 

The original Death-Figures being already accompanied 
by Latin and French explanations, we have added to the 
Englifh tranflation of them a German verfion, which, with- 
out being literal, very fufficently conveys the meaning of 
the feveral fubjecls. This German verfion is taken from 
Michael Rentz's " (grinnerimgen t>e§ SSobeS unb ber (Snrigfett," 
Remembrances of Death and Eternity, folio, Linz, 1779, 
plates 52. 

According to Langlois, Effai, vol. i. p. 229, a Dance of 
Death had been executed at the end of the feventeenth cen- 
tury, by the care of the Brothers of Mercy, and at the ex- 
penfe of Count Antony von Spork, in the gallery of a hofpital 
at Kuckucksbad, in Bohemia, — "elle commencait par le 
Pape et finiffait par le Mendiant." It is added : " Elle fut 
reproduite avec foin, avec quelques fujets d'Holbein en 
cinquante-deux planches, par Michel Rentz, et ornee de 
vers allemands par Patricius, dans l'ouvrage intitule : Der 
Sogenanntc- Todentanz, I Vicn. , 1 767." 

After all, with much diffidence, we take our ftand before 
the tribunals of public criticifm. We doubtlefs have faults 
to be condoned, — we are confeious of no wilful perverfities 
to be chaftifed. 

Les fimulachres & 



gam met pourtrai6tes, que artifi* 
ciellement imaginees. 

Les fimuladhres & 



gammet potntrai&es,que artifo 
cielkment imagine'es* 


Soubz Tcfoi de C O L O I G N E* 

~m~. Jck x x x v i / 1 . 


AbbdFe du religieux conuent S.Pierre 
de Lyon, Madame lchartrte de 
Toufzele, Salut dun 
vray Zele* 

j'Ay bon efpoir,Madame&rneretreireligieufc, 
llquc de ces efpouentables fimulachres deMort, 
laurez moins d'esbahiffement que viuate. Et que 
_Jne predrez a mauluais augure,fi a vous,plus que 
a nulle auitre,font dirigez.Car de tous temps par mortifies 
tion,& aufterirr de vie,en tanc de diuers cloiftres tranirnuee, 
par authorite Royalle,eftant la l'exemplaire de religieufe relio 
gion^dereformeercformationjauezeuauec laMort telle 
habitude,qu'en fa mefme fofle 8C lepulchrale dormition ne 
vousfcauroitpluseftroidemet enclorr^qu'en lafepulturc 
du cloiftre,en laqlle n'auez feulemet enfepuely le corpstmais 
cueur &e(prit quad 8i quad,voire d'une fi hberale,&entiere 
deuotion qu'ilzn'en veullet iamais forrir,fors c oe fainc? Pol 
pour allera ibsvschr iST.Leqlbon I E S V s non 
fans diuine prouidece vous a baptifee de nom QC furnom au 
mien vnifonantemet cofonanr,excepte en la feule letre de T, 
letre par fatal fecrer capitale devoftre furnormpour autat q 
e'eft ce caradere deThau,tantcelebrc vers les Hebrieux,& 
vers les Larins pris a rrifte mort. Aufli par fain A Hierofme 
appelle letre de croix&de falut:merueiUeufernet couenat aux 
falutairescroixfupporteesde tous voz zeles en faincte relk 
gionXefqlz zelesia Mort n'a ofe approchcr,q lq$ vifuatios 


queDieuvousayt faiclespar quafi continuelles maladies. 

pour non contrcuenir a ce fourrier Ezcchiel,qui vous auoit 

rna.»queedefonThau,figne defFenfable de toute mauluaife 

Alorr. qui me faict croire que ferez de ceulx, defquelz eft 

efcript,qu'ilz ne gOufterontfamortifercamertume,Etque 

rant fen fauldra que ne reiedez ces funebres hiftoires de 

modainc mortalite comme maulfades 8C melancoIiques,que 

mefme admoneftee defainct Iaques coiidererez le vifaige de 

voftre nariuitc en ces mortelzmiroerSadefquelz les moi telz 

font dcnomez come cous fubie&z a la MonJSC a tat de mife* 

rabies miferes,en forte quedefplaifantavousmefmes,eftu* 

dierez de coplaire aDieu,iouxte la figure racoptee enExode, 

difant^quealentree du Tabernacle auoit vne ord5nancedc 

miroers,affin q les cntrans fe peuflent en iceulx cotempler:5C 

auiourd'huy font telz fpirituelz miroers mis a letree des Egli 

fksjSC Cymitieres iadis par Diogenes reuifitez,pour veoir fi 

entre ces oifcmens des mortz pourroit trouuer aulcune difFe 

rencc des richcs,& des pouures.Et fi auffi les Payens pour Cc 

refrencr de mal faire aux entrees de leurs maifons ordonoiee 

fofles,& tumbeaux en memoire de la mortalite a tous pre* 

parec,doiuent les Chreftiens auoir horreur d'y penferCLes 

images de Mort fcrot elles al eurs yeulx tat efFrayeufes^u'ilz 

ne les vculent veoir n'en ouyr parlemcnterc" C'eft le vray,& 

propre miroer auqucl on doibt corriger les defFormirez de 

peche.,& embellir l'Ame,Car,come fainct Gregoire dit,qui 

cofidere comenr il fera a la Mort,deutedra craintif en toutcs 

fes opcratios,8d quafi ne fe oferamoftrer a fes propres yciilx: 

cV fe cofidere pour ia mort,qui ne fc ignore deuoir mourir, 

Pourcela parfaidc vie eft 1'imitadon de la Mort,laqlle foli* 

citeuiemct paracheuee des iuftes,les coduict a falut.Par ainfi 

a tous fidelesfer5t ces fpe&acles de More en lieu du Serpent 
d'arain,lequel aduife gueriflbitles Ifraelites des morfures fcr 
pentines moins venimeufes, que les efguillons des concu* 
pi»cen(es,defquelles fommes continueUement affailhz  Icy 
dira vng curieux queftionaire: Quelle figure de More peult 
cftre parviuant repreientcec'OujComent en peuuent deuiier 
ceulx,qui oncques fes inexorables forces n'experimenterent? 
II eft bien vray que l'inuinble he fe peult par chofe viiible 
proprement reprefentenMaistout ainfi que par leschofes 
crees & vifibles,comme eft dit en l'epiftre auxRomains,on 
peult veoir dC contempler Pinuifible Dieu 8C incree.Pareille* 
met par les chofes,efquelles la Mort a faict irreuocables pafc 
faiges,c'eft afcauoirpar les corps es fepulchres cadauerifez 
8C defcharnez fus leurs monumetz,on peult extraire qlques 
fimulachres de MortCfimulachres les dis ie vrayement,pour 
ce que fimulachre vict de fimuler,8tfaindre ce q n'eft point.) 
Et pourtant qu'on n'a peu trouuer chofe plus approchante 
alafimilitudedeMort,q'ue la perfonne morte,on a d'jcelle 
eftigic fimulachres,5c faces de Mort,pour. en noz pefees im* 
primer la memoire de Mort plus au vif,que ne pourroient 
toutes les rhetoriques defcriptios des orateurs. A cefte caule 
l'ancienne philoibphie eftoit en fimulachres,& images efB* 
giees.Et q bie le cofiderera,toutes les hiftoires de la Bible ne. 
font q figures a nre plus tenace Iftruclio J ESVSCHrIST 
mefme ne figuroit il fa do&rine en paraboles,& fimilitu Jes, 
pour mieulx I'imprimer aceulxaufquelz il la prclchoitCEt 
noz faindz Peres,n'ont ilz par deuotes hiftoires figure la 
plus part de la Bible,encores apparoiflfantes en pluiieurs 
eglifes,come encor on les voit au Choeur de cefte tant vene 
rable Egiife de LyoVvrayemet en cela 3 &l en aultres antiques 

A iij 


ceremonies admirablement conftante obferuatrice , aucour 

duquel les images la elegaremcr en reliefz ordonn<*es,feruet 

aux illirerez de rrefunle,& coteplatiue literarure.Que vouluc 

Dieu,quoy qu'en debater ces furieux Iconomachies,q de teU 

les ou fcmblables images fuflenr rapifstes coutes noz Eglifes, 

mais q noz yeulx ne fe deletftafTenr a aultres plus pernicieux 

fpectacles.Donc rerournar a noz figurees faces de Morr,rrej& 

grademet vice a regrerer la mort de celluy,qui nous en a icy 

imagine i\ elegares figuFes,auancanres autat routes les patro* 

nces iuiques icy,come les pairuftures d€Apelles,ou de Zeufis 

furmote* les modernes.Car fes hiftoires funcbres,auec leurf 

defcriptios feucremcr rirhmees,aux aduifans d5nent telle ad* 

mirario,qu'ilz en iuger les morrz y apparoiftre trefviuemct, 

6(. les vifz trefmortement repreienrer.Qui me fai<ft penfer, 

cjue la Mort craignant que ce excellent painctre ne la paignift 

tanr vifue,qu'elle ne fur plus crainre pour Morr,& que pour 

cela luy mefme n'en deuinr immorrel,que a cefte caufc 

elle luy accclera fi forr fes iours,qu'il ne peulr paracheuer 

plulieurs aultres figures ia par luytrafsees:Mefme celledu 

charretier froifse,& efpaulri foubzfon ruyne charrior, Les 

roes-,& Cheuaulx duquel font la [i cfpouentablement rr&e 

buchez,qu'il y a v autat d'horreur a veoir leur precipitation^ 

que de grace a contempler la friandife dune Morr,qui furti* 

ucmct iucce aucc vng cbalumeau le vin du toneau effbndre. 

Aufquelles imparfaides hiftoires comrae a linimirable arc 

celcfte appelle lris,nul n'a ofc impofer l'exrreme main,par 

lesaudacieux craidz,peripecl:iues,cVvmbraiges en'ce chef 

d'oeuure comprifes,& la ranr gracieufemenr deliniees,quc 

Ion y peut prendre vne delectable rriftciTe,& vne trifte dele* 

rrarion 3 comme en chole triftement ioycufe. CeiTent hard* 


mencles antiquailleurs,dl amateurs des anciennes images dc 
chercher plus antique antiquite,que la pourtrai&ure dc cc» 
Morcz.Car en icelle voirront l'Imperatrice fur tous yiuans 
inui<frifsime des le comencement du raonde regnante. C eft 
celle que a triumphe de rous les Cefars,Empereurs & Roys* 
C eft vrayemenc 1'HercuIee fortitude qui,non auec mafluc, 
mais d'une faulx,a fauche,& extirpe tous les monftrueux,<SC 
Tyraniques couraiges de la Terre.Les regardeesGorgones, 
ne la tefte de Medule ne feirent oncques fi eftrages Met amor 
phofes : aie fi diuerles trasformatios,que peuk faire 1'intetiue 
cocemplation de ces faces de mortalite* Or fi Seuere Empe* 
reur Rornain tenoit en fon cabinct,tefmoing Lampridius, 
les images de Virgile,de Cicero,d'Achilles,<3C du grand Ale 
*andre,p.our a icelles fe inciter a vertu,Ie ne voy point pour 
quoy nous deuons abhomirier celles,par lefquelles on eft 
refrene de pecher,S<£ ftimule a routes bones operatios.Dont 
le petit,mais nul pefemetyau'on met auiourd'huy a laMorr, 
me fai<ft defirer vng aujtre Hegefias,non pour nous inciter, 
comeil faifoit enprefchat lesbiensde laMort,a mettreen 
nous noz violetes mains^nais pour mieulx defirer deparue 
nir a celle immortalite,pour laqlle ce defpere Cleobronte, 
fe precipita en laMer:puisq fommestrop plus affeurez de 
celle beatitude a nous,8C non aux Payens,6C incredules,pro* 
mife.A laquelle,puis que n'y pouons paruenir,que pallant 
par laMort,ne deuons nous embraiTer,aymer,contemp3cr 
la figure SC reprefentatio de celle,par laquelle on va de peine 
arepoz,deMorta vie eteriielle,<3£ de ce monde fallacieux a 
Dieu veritable,^ infallible qui nous a formez a fa (embiuce, 
afFin que R ne nous dirFormons le puiifions contempler face 
a face quand ll luy plaira nous faire paiTer par celle Morr,quj 


eft aux iuftes la plus precicufe chofe qu'il eut fceu donner* 
Parquoy,Madame,predrez en bone part ce trifte,maisfalu 
bre prefcnt:&f. perfuaderez a voz deuotes religieufes le tenir 
non fculemet en leurs pctites cellules,ou dortouers,mais au 
cabinet de leur memoire,ain(i que le cofeille fainct Hierofme 
en vnc cpiftre,difant:Conmtue deuant tes yeulx celle image 
de Mort au iour de laquelle le iufte ne craindra mal,6c pour 
cela nele craindra il,car il n'entendra,Va au feu eternekmais 
viens benift de mon Pere,recoys le royaulme a toy prepare 
des la creation du mode.Parquoy qui fort fera,contemne la 
Morr,& l'imbecille la fuye.Mais nul pcult fuyr la Mort,fors 
celluy,qui fuyt la vie* Noftre vie eftiESVSCHRiST, 
SC eft la vie qui ne fcait mourinCar il a triuphe de la JYiort, 
pour nous en faire triumpher etemellement* Amen,. 

iu cries 




mais extraicles de 1 efcripture fam<fte, 

cclore'es par Do&eurs Eccle 

fiaftiques ? 8c vmbra; 

gees par Philo* 


OVR Chrefticnnancncparlcrde 
fla Mort,ie ne fcauroys vers qui m*en 
mieulx inrerroguer 5 qu'enuers ecliuy 
bon S. P O L,qui par tant de Mortz 
eft paruenu a la fin en la gloire de 
celluy,qui rant glorfcufemer trium* 
phanc de la Mort,di(bit: O Mort,ie 
leray ta More. Parquoy a ce,que cc 
increpidable Cheualier de la More 
di& en l'epifire aux Theflaloniques. le treuue que la v il ap« 
pelle le mourir vng dormir , & la More vng fornmcil. Ec 
certes mieulx ne la pouuoir il effigier,que de I'accomparer 
au dormir. Car comme le fornmcil ne eltaincft 1'homme, 
mais deriet le corps en repoz pour vng-temps,ainii la M'ort 
ne perd l'home,mais priue Ton corps de (es mouuemenrz,8C 
operari5s.Et come les membrcs endormiz de rechef excircz 
femeuuent,viuent,cxloeuurenr:ainfi noz corps par la pui£ 
fance de Dieu refuicicez viuent eternclIemet.NuljCerreSjf en 



v$dormirpourperpetuellement demeurer couchelaouil 
dort.AulTi nul n'eft entepuely pour toufioursau fepulchre 
dcmcurer.Et tout ainfique le fommeil6l'£mpire& domi- 
nation au corps,8c non en l'arne,car le corps dormant elle 
vcille , fc mcuc , SC oeuure : Ainfi efi: immortelle l'ame de 
l'homme,& le corps feulernent fubiecl: a la Morr. Et n'eft la 
Mort aultre chofe, que vne feparation,que faict l'ame du 
corps.Donccjs l'ame efi; la vie^Sc 1'efpr it immortel du corps: 
iaquelle en fe feparant laiffe le corps comme endormy,qui fe 
reueillera quad il plaira a celluy,qui a v feigneurie fus l'ame,& 
lc corps.Et ne f'en doibt on par trop douloir de cefte Chre* 
fticnne dormition,non plus,qu'on ne fe deult quad quelcun 
de noz chcrs amys Pen va dorinir,cfperantz qu'il fe reucii* 
lei aquandilauraafifesdormy.Parainii ne fe fault contrifter 
quand quelcun (e meurt:Puys que n'eft aultre cholc,come 
did faind Pol,que dormir.Parquoy a ce propoz difoit vng 
poete PayemQu'eft ce q du fommeil } fors que 1'image d'une 
froideMort,Maispourd'icelleMort raifbnner felon natu* 
relle philofophie.Toute la vie que l'homme vit en ce mode, 
dcsfa nai(fance-,iufquesafa mort,eftvng engroiflement dc 
rature.En telle forte que l'homme naiffant du ventre de fa 
mcre,il entrc au ventre de naturalitf.Eticelluymouranteft 
de rcchief enfante par naturalite,fus lefquelz propos eft con* 
tenue toute humaine philofophie .Parquoylaiflanta part 
les crreurs des Philofophes affermates 1'efprit de 1'home eftre 
mortcl : fuyurons ceulx qui par meilleure opinion , difent 
I'home auoir deux coceptios,& deux vies fans aulcune mort. 
Or pour declarer cefte non petite Philofophie,digne certes 
deftre mifc en mcmoire,fauk cntcndrc,que l'homme conccu 
nu ventre matcrncl,ycroift6cla femaintient de fa propre 


M«re,de laquelle il prendfatotallefubftance&nourrirure, 

qui e(i cauie que les Meres ayment plus tendrcmet les enfans 

que les Peres. Apres en nai(lant,naturalite le receoit en (on 

ventre,qui eft ce monde,qui puisle nourrift exile maintient 

de fes alimentz 5c fruiAr rout le temps qu'il le tient en Ton 

ventre mondain.Et come la Mere,par leipace de neuf moys 

netacheque a nourrir&^pduire ion fruicl: pour 1'enfanter, 

SC le remcttre a la charge de naturalitc en cefte vie modaine: 

Parcillement naturalite durant Je temps qu'il demeure en 

fon ventre modain netacheque a Jefubftater&bien entree 

tcnirpourleproduireamaturite,<Scle faire renaiftrequand 

ilmeurc a vie meilleure8C plus permanante.Doncquesau 

premier naiftre,l'homme fe d'efnue de celle toilIe,en laquelle 

ilnalquit enuelope.Aufecond fe defpouille du corpstaffin 

que l'ame forte de prifon,en forte q ce qu'on appelle Morr, 

n'eft que vng enfantement pour meilleure vie,car toutcs fes 

naifTances vont toufiours en meilleuratXa premiere groiiTc 

dure neuf moys. La feconde communement cent ans. Et la 

tierce eft eiernclIe,pource que du vetre de naturalite paifans 

aladiuinite,fbmmesmainrenuzde l'eternelle fruition qui 

rend noftrevie eternelle .En la Mere nous eftans humains 

noftre manger cftoit humain. Au monde viuans de monda* 

nite fommes mondains 8C tranfitoires : mais en Dieu ferons 

diuins ,pource que nofrre maintenement fera dc diuinc frufo 

tion.Ettout ainli que la creature au vetre de fa Mcrc,pan"e 

pluiieurs dangiers,perilz,& incoueniens,fi les meres nc (one 

bien contregardees SC gouuernees par les faiges femmcs,par 

la deffaulte defqlles a 1'enfanter fouuent aduicnt que la crca* 

cure naift morte, ou abortiue,ou meurtrie,ou afFollee,ou 

auec quclques aultres deffaulx naturelz qui puis durct toutc 

B ij 


la vie dcla creaturc,ain!i mal releuee,ainfi non moindres 
deffaulx SC penlz,mais trop plus pernicieux font en la fecode 
groiiTc.Car li durat le temps que nous vmons en nacuralirc, 
ne viuons bien felon Dieu dC raifon,en lieu d'enfanrer moiu 
rons,& en lieu de naiftre fommes aneantiz,pour aurant que 
alors I'Ame par ces derfaulx,ne pouuat enrrer ne venir en la 
lumicre dela diuinite ,eft engloutie d'ans l'Abifme infernal 
trefmortifere. Et tout ainfi que par le deffault des faiges per* 
fonncs qui faigemet doibuent releuer SC adrefler les enfante* 
mens plufieurs creatures meurent au fortir du ventre mas 
ternel.Ainii par faulte de bons enieigneurs 8C parrains en ce 
poind 5i article que nous appellons Mort,que i'appelle icy 
nailTance,plufieursfeperdent.Doncquesfipour le premier 
enfantement,on eft tant ibucieux de trouuer les plus dextres 
$C expertes faiges femmes que Ton (aicheiPour le fecond,qui 
eft ia Morr,ne ie doibt on trop plus trauail!er,pour le recoup 
urement des faiges SC (ainAes per(bnnes,qui bien fcaichent 
adreffer, 8i condujre a bon porc,le fruicT: de ceftc (econde 
naiffance qui va de ceftc vie en laultre,arTiin que la creature y 
peruienne fansmonftruoiite,ouIaideur difForme de peche, 
pour autant que 1'erreur de ce fecond enfantement eft a 
iamais incorrigible 8i inemendable , 8C non le premier qui 
fouuent eft corrigt & racouftrt eh ce mode,auq! les deffaulx 
. naturelz font qlquefoys pour medicines,ou aultre moyen 
aydez & fccourus.Et pourtat a chofe de fi grade importace, 
il me femble que e'eft vng grad aucuglifTcmerod'en eftre tant 
negligenscommcloncft,&iimal aduifez. Si quelcun veult 
nauiguerfus mer,ceft chofe merueilleule deveoirles grans 
appareilz de viftuailles 6c d'aultres chofes neccflaires cj Ion 
faiAXesgcfdarmesSCfoudarSjCjIleprouifion font jlz,pour 


foybicn equippcrc" Auec quelle folicitude va le marchant 
es roires & rr.archezc'Quel trauail cV cotmuellabeur obmec*k 
le Iaboureur,pour recueillir frui<?t de fon agricukurecQuelle 
peine merrent les vngz a bien feruir,8d les aulcres a imperieu 
fementcoinanderc'Eftil riens qu'on ne face pour enrrerenir 
noftre (ante corporelkcCerces tout ce que touche ou appar* 
tient au corps,nousle nous procurons auecvng foucieux 
efmoy:mais de la chetifue Ame.n'auos cure ncfoucy.Nous 
fcauons tresbien quevng iour elle doibt naiftre,& que au 
fbrtir de ce ventre du corps n'auons penfe a luy apprefter 
draps ne lange,pour l'enueloper,qui font les bones oeuures 
fans lefquelles on ne nous laifTe au geron du Ciel entrer.Les 
bonnes oeuures certes font les riches veftemens & dorez, 
defquelz Dauid veulr eftre reueftue la fpirituelle efpoufe.Ce 
font les robes dcfqlles faincl: Pol defire que foyons reueftuz, 
aflfin que cheminons honneftemet. Veillons done 8>C faiibns 
come la boneMere,que auant que venir au terme d'enfanter 
fai A les preparatiues 8C appareilz de ion enfanton. Ceft ap* 
pareil eitladocirinedebiemourir,que icy eft appellee bien 
naiftre. Appareillons nous done vne chemife blanche d'in* 
nocence,Vng lange taincl: de rouge,d'ardente charitc.Vng 
cierge de cire,en blanche chaftete.Vne coiffe d'efperance. 
Vne cotte de foy,badce de vertuz,pour nous emmailloter. 
V ng corail de faigefle 7 pour nous refiouyr le cueur.Et pour 
ce que la diuinire doibt aJorseftre noftre Mere nourri{Ie,&l 
nous doibt alaicter de fes trefdoulces mammellcs de fcience, 
8C d'amour , nettoyons nous pretmerement,des ordures 3C 
mauk prisde nature ,qui zft lepecheje vielAdamJ'incbna*: 
tion de la chair,la rebellion c6tre 1'efperit.Lauons nous auec 
I'hermeSjComme les cnfanteletz qui pleurcnc en naiflant.San 

B ii| 


(ftifions nous auec le Baptefme de pcnit?ce,qui eft le Baprefi 

me du fainct. efprit.Et ii durac route noftre vie en ce monde 

nous faifons vng tel appareil^quad ce viendra a 1'enfantemee 

de laMort,nous naiftrons,come naifquirent les Saincftzja 

Mort defquelz appellons naiffance,car alors commencerenc 

ilz a viure. Et pource que ces appareilz,& prouillos ne font 

faicftes q de bie peu degens,tant fommes en cela negligcs,3C 

n'a on foucy de pouuoir auoir pour le moins vng Iinccul ou 

fuaire,pourauiourde!aMorry pouuoir eftre enuelope,ne 

d'eftre reueftu d'aulcunes robes quandl'amefedeipouillera 

du corps,il me femble que ceftetant fbrrenochaillacedoibc 

eftre grandementaccufeedeuantDieu &deuant les homes: 

auec le linceul ou fuaire ou eft enfepuely en terre le corps, 

affinque la tout foit mange des vers. Et auec les robes dc 

l'ame,li elles font de bonnes oeuures ryflues,on entre en la 

gloirefansfinpardurable-A'decela^'erreur^on n'a foing ne 

cure.Aceftecaufepour inciter lesviuans a faire prouiiion 

de relies robes 8C veftemens.n'ay fceu trouuer moyen plus 

excitatif,que de mettre en lumiere ces faces de Mort,pour 

obuierqu'ilnefoitdit a noz ames,Comment eftes vousicy 

venues,n'ayant la robe nuptiallec'l vl aisou trouuer a on ces 

veftemensc'Certes a ceulx Nacelles qui pour ne fcauoir lire 

pourroient demeurer nudz,n'ayans la clef pour ouurirles 

thefors des fainclres efcriprures,&des bonsPcres,font prefen 

t;es ces triftcs hiftoires,lefquelIes les aduiferont d'emprunter 

habitz de ceulx,qui es coffres des liures,en ont a habodance* 

Et ccft emprunt ne feraautant louable,a celluy qui 1'emprun 

rcra,que prouffitablc au preftcur,& n'eft fi richequi n'ayt 

indigence de telz veftemcnsTeimoing ce qu'eft efcripten 

I Apocalypfc au troiliefine chapitre, Preparons nous done 

D E LA M O R T* 
(dit fain A Bernard en vng fieri fermo)& nous haftos d'aller 
au lieu plus feur,au champ plusfertile,au repas plus fauous 
reux,aifin que nous habkonsfans craince,q nous habondios 
fans deriaulre,&i lans facherie foyons repeuz. Auquel lieu la 
Mort nous coduira,quand celluy qus la vaincue la vouldra 
en nous faire mourir, Auquel foit gloire OC honneur eternek 
lemenCt Amen, 

Formsuk OOMINVS D B V S hominem de limo 
tcrrx^d imagine fuam creauit iiluin,mafculum & famis 
namcreauit cos. 

GENESIS I . a * * • 

DIEV, Ciel,Mer,Terre,procrea 
De rien demonftrant fa puiflancc 
Et pins de la terre crea 
L'hoiTHTie,&: lafemmc a fa fcmblancc* 

Quia audifti vocem vxoris tUDe^&comedifti 
dc iigno ex quo preceperam cibi ne come* 
deres 8Cc. 


A D A M fut par E V E deceu 

Etcontre D I E V mangealapomme, 

Dont tous deux ont la Mort reccu, 

Et depuis fut mortel tout homme* 


Emifft cum O O M T N V S DEVSdc Para* 
difovoiuptatis,vc operaretur terrain de qua 
£u mpc us eft. 


D T E V chafia fhomme dc plaiftr 
Pour uitirc au labeur dc fes mains: 
A lor? la More le uint faiiir, 
Et confequemment tons humains* 

Maledicta rerra in opere iaboribus com«* 
des cundis diebus vita? tuse, donee reuerta* 
ris Sec. 


Mauldicle en ton labeur la terre. 

En labeur ta uie uferas, 

Iufques que la Mort te foubterre. 

Toy pouldre en pouldre tourneras, 

C *j 

Vx vx vx habitantibus in terra* 

Cun&a in quibus fpiraculum vitse eft,mortua funt, 


Malheureux qui uiuez air monde 
Pour quelque bien qui uons abonde, 
Screz tous de More uifi'tez. 

Moriatur facerdos magnus* 
I o s V B xx 

Ec epifcopatum eius accipiat aker. 


Qui te cuydes immortel eftre 

Par Mort (eras toft: depefche, 

Et combicn que tu Toys grand prebftrc, 

Vng aultre aura ton Euefche; 

C ii) 

Difpone domui tu3e,moricris cnim tu,& non vines* 

Ibi morierisj&l ibi erit currus gloria? tux* 


Dc ta maifon difpoferas 
Commc de ton bicn tranfitoire, 
Car la ou more repoferas, 
Scront les chariots; dc ta gloire* 

Sicut 8C rex hodie eH,& eras morie* 
tur,nemoenim exregibus aliud 


Ainfi qu'auiourdhuy i\ eft Roy, 
Demain fera en tombe clofe. 
Car Roy aulcun de Ton arroy 
N'afceu emporter aultre chofe. 

Vac qui iuftificatis impium pro mu 
ncnbus,5sl iuftitiam iufti aufmis 

E S A I E V 

Mai pour uous qui iuftifiez 
L J inhumain,6<: plain de malice, 
Et par dons le fanclifiez, 
Oftant au iufte fa iuftice. 

Cradientes in fuperbia 
poteft Deus humilia? 

D A N I E. I I I I 

Qui marches en pompe fupcrbe 

La Mort vug four uous plicra* 

Come foubz; uoz piecta ployez Thcrbe, 

Ainft uous humiliera* 


Muliercs opulentof jTurgfre,& audirc vocem 
mcam.Poft dies^Sd aimum,8Cvos conturs 
bjcmi ni. 


Leucz uons dames opntentes, 
( \iycz la uoix dcs rrcfpafurz. 
-A pre* mainrz an<? & fours paffcz, 
Scrcz troublccs 8i doukntes. 

Pevcuriam pafk>rem,& difpergcntiu 


X X V i 

M A H. 

x r r i i 

Le pafteur aitffi frapperay 
Mures Sc erodes rentier fees, 
Ft lors quand k l'attrappcray, 
Seront fesbrebis diipcrfecs. 

Princeps iuductur mocrore.Ec 
quiefccre faciam fuperbia po 


Vien^princejauec moy,& delaifle 
Honneurs mondains toft finiflantz* 
Sculc fui's qui,certes,abaifle 
L'orgueil & pompe des puifTantz* 

Ipte morietur. Quia no habuie difci* 
plinam,&in mukitudine ftulutioer 
fuae decipietur. 


IImourra,Car il n'a receii 
En Toy aulcune dtfcipline, 
Et au nombre fera deceu 
De fo lie qui k dominc* 

D rij 

Lviu Jam' magis mortuos quam 



Pay toufiotirs ks mor(z plus I<_ 
Que les uifz,efquefz mal abonde, 
Toutesfoysla Mortma roue 
Au ranc dc ceulx qui font au monde* 

Qiris eft homo qui viuet,& non videbit 
mortem ? eruec aiiima fuamde manu 


Qiii eft ce1!uy,tantfoit grand horn me, 
Qui puifTe nitire fans mourVC 
Erde la Mort,qui tout aflbmmc, 
Piaffe fort Amc recourir £ 

Ecce appropinquat ho* 


Tu uas an choctir dire tes hetires 
Pn'ant Dicu pour toy,& ton proche* 
Mais i\ fault ores que tu meures* 
Voy tu pas Theure qui approcheC 

Difpcrdam iudicem dc medio 


Du mylieud eulx nous ofteray 
luges corrumpus par prefentz* 
Point tie feres dc Mort exempts* 
Car ailleurs uous tranfporteray. 

Caflidus vidit matum,& abfcodit fe 
innocens,percranfr ; t>& afflidus eft 

L'homme cault a ueu la malice 
Pour 1'innoccnt faire obligcr, 
Et puis par uoye de iufh'cc 
Eft ucnu Ie pauure affliger* 

Quiobturat aurem fuamaddamorem 
pauperis 3 8C ipfe ciamabit,<5c non exauc 


Les riches confeillez toufiours, 

Ec atix pauures clouez 1'orcillc* 

Vous crierez aux derniers iours, 

Mais Dicu uous fera la pareillc. 

E ij 

Var qui didris malum bonum,& bormm maltr, 
poncntes tenebras lucem,& lucem tenebras, 
ponentes amarum dulce,& duke in amarum* 

Mai pour uous qui ainfi ofez 
Lc mal pour le bien nous blafmer, 
Er le bien pour mal expofez, 
Mettant auec le doulx Tamer* 

Sum quidem 8C ego mortJis 

SAP. vn 

leporte le faind facrement 

Cuidant le mourant fecourir, 

Qui mortel fuis pareillement, 

Et commcluy me fault mourir. 

E iif 

Scdentes in tcnebris , 8C in vm* 
bra mortis, vin&os in mcndi* 


Toy qui nas foucy,ny remord 
Sinon de ta mendicite, 
Tu fierras a l'umbre de Mort 
Pour t'oufter de rteceflite\ 

Eftvia quarvidetur homini iufta 1 . nouifllis 
ma autem eius deducunc hominem ad 


Telle uoye aux hum ains eft bonne, 
Et a rhomme trefiufte fcmble. 
Mais la fin d'elle a Thorn me donne, 
La Mort,qui tous pechcurs affcmble, 

M elior eft mors quam 


En peine ay uefcu longuement 
Tant que nay plus de uiure enuie, 
Mais of en ie croy certainemeht, 
Meilleure la Mort que la me* 

Medice,cura te* 

L V C E mi 

Tu congnoys bien la maladie 
Pour le patient fecounr, 
Et ft ne fcais tefte eftourdie, 
Le mal dont tu deburas mourin 

Indica mihi fi nofii omnia.Sciebas qudd 
nafciturus effes , 5C numerum dicrum 
tuorum noueras? 


Tu dis par Amphibologie 
Ce qu aux aultrcs doibt aduertir* 
Dy moy done par Aftrologie 
Quand tu deburas a moy uenirC 

Stulrebac no&ercpmmtanf* 
mam tuam,& qux parafti 
cuius erunr? 


x r i 

Cede nuid la Mort te prendra, 
Et demai'n feras enchafTe* 
Mais dy moy,fo1,a qui uiendra 
Lc bicn que tu as amaile'C 

Qui congrcgat thcfauros mcndacrj vanus 
6C cxcors eft , dC impingetur ad laqucos 

p n o y e j? v . xxr 

Vain eft cil qui amafTera 

Grands biens,& trefors pour mentir, , 

La Mort Ten fera repentir. 

Car en fes lacz furpris fera* 

Quivolunt diuites fieri inciduht inlaqueum 

diaboli^&l ddideria mulra,Scnociua,qu5c 
mergunt homines in in teri rum* 


Pour acquerir des biens mondains 
Vous entrez en teiuatfon, 
Qui uous met es perilz foubdains, 
Et uous maine a perdition, 

F iff 

Subito moricntur,& in media no£e rarbas 
buntur populi , Si aufcrent viokntum 
abfqj manu* 


Peuples foubdain f efleueront 
A lencontre de Tinhumain, 
Et k uiolcnt ofteront 
D'aucc eulx fans force de main*' 

Quoniam cirni intcrierit non fumct Cot 
cum omnia,necg cum eo defcedet glo 
ria eius. 


Auec foy rien n emportera, 

Mais qu'une foys la Mort k tombe, 

Rieade fa gloire n oftera, 

Pour mcttre aucc foy en fa tombc, 

Spirirus meus attenuabirur,dies md brea 
uiabuntur,& foium mihi fupereft fepuk 

I O B 


Mes efperitz font attertdriz, 

Et ma uie ("en ua tout beau* 

Las mes longz fours font amoindriz, 

Pius ne me reite qu'un tombeau* 

Ducunt in bonis dies fuos 5 & 
in pundo ad interna de* 

I O 8 XXI 

En biens modains leurs fours defpendet 
En uoluptez,& en trifteiTe, 
Puis foubdain aux Enfers dependent, 
Ou leur ioy e pafle en triftefTe, 

Me & t;: folamorsfcpa* 

K V T H. I 

Amour qui unys nous faifl mare, 
En foy noz cueurs preparera, 
Qui long temps ne nous pourra fiiyure, 
Car la More nous {eparera. 

Dc !e&ulo fuper quem afcendl a 
fti non defcendcs , fed mone 
1 I X I HBG. f 

Du lid {lis Icquet as monte 
Ne defcendras a ton plaifir. 
Car M ore t aura tantoit dompte, 
Et en brief te uiendra faifin 

C q 

VV'tiitc ad me qui oncrad 


Vcnes ,& apres moy marches 
Voifs qut eftes par trop charge* 
C'cd: aflcs fiimy les marches: 
Vous fcrcz par moy dechargc* 

In fudore vultus tui vefcerfs pane 


A la fueur cle ton uifaige 
Tu gaigncras ta pauure trie 
Apres long trauail,& ufatge, 
Voicy la Mort qui tc Connie 

G iij 

Homo narus de mu!iere,breiu viuens tempore 

. repletur mulris rniferrjs , qui o^ati flos egre* 

cLtur.Sd conccrituis&l fugit velut vmbra, 

i O B 

X I I I I 

Tout homme de la femme yflant 
Remply de mifere,cV d'encombre, 
Ainu que fleur toil tiniffaru. 
Sore 5c puis Fuyc commc fafa l'timbre* 

Omnes ftabimus ante tribunal domini. 

k O m a. x r r i r 
Vigi!ate,& orate,quia nefciris qua hot a 
venrurus fit dominus. 


Dcuant le trofnc 6u grand iuge 
Chafcun de foy comptc rendra, 
Pourtant ueillez,qiTil ne uousiuge. 
Car nc fcauez cjuand il ufendra* 

Memorare nouiflimavSd 
in jerernumnon pec* 


V I I 






Si tu ueulx uiurc fans peche 
Voy cede imaige a tous propos, 
Et point ne feras empefche, 
Qiiand tu t'cn iras a repos* 


moralcment defcriptes,& depein<ftes 

felon rauthorite de Ffcriptu 

re,6c des faincfts Pc; 


Chapitre premier de la premiere flgurec 
face de More* 

Vi eft ce,qui a* laifie la Pierre angufaire? 
difllob.Suslefqllesparolles fault noter Iob -#» 
 que la pierre eft dicle en Larin Iapis,qui 
jfelon fon ethimologie, vient de leiion 
de pied.Car aux cheminas quelque foys 
fe rencontrent les pierres,& par I'offen* 
dicule qlles font aux piedz,fouuent font 
trebucher les gens. Qui nous figure la 

Mort,qui atnfi a I'improueu les cheminas tant plus rudemet 
frappe,& profterne^d'autat qu'elle les trouue plus afieurez, 
&nonaduifez.Oriapierre angulaire eft fai&e en forte,que 
en quelque forte qu'elle tombe>elle demeure droi&e,a caufe 
deion equalite,Aufli la More pareillemet efgallemct torn* 
bante,e(galle aufli toutes puiifances^richeires, haultainetez, 
&delicesenvngcoup les defrompant.Et n'eft qui puillea 
fon impetuofitc refifter.Comme il eft figure par Daniel la\ Daaid.* 
ou il veit la ftatue de Nabuchodonofor.Le chef de laquelle 
eftoit dor,les bras & la poicTrine dargct,le corps ou le vetre 
darain,les cuyfTcsde fer,5Cauoit lespiedzfaicTzfeullement 
de fange.Sefuyt apres .11 ya vne picne de la motaigne taillec 



fansmains,&frappeelaftatue par lespiedz fuc briiee,& re* 
duicle en cendres.Qui n'eft aultre chofe,que la figure d'ung 
grand riche homme ayant la tefte dor par la noblefTe de Ton 
fong,Stlignaige.Lesbras,3cpoicirinedargent par la grade 
richeife, quil a acquife par foucy& trauail. Lc corps,&le 
vetre,qui eft d arain,f entend te renom qu'il a, Car larain eft 
fonoreux. Par les cuyffesde fer eCt denoteelapuifTance^ 
force qu'il a\Mais le pied de terre,& de fange,nous fignifie fa 
mortalite. La pierre eft taillee de la montaigne de diuine iu« 
ftice. Eft afcauoir humaine Mort,laquelle n'eft fabriquee de 
IamaindeDieu.CarDieu n'a v fai&laMor£,8cne fedele&e 
en la perdition des viuans:mais ce font noz miferables pre* 
miers parencz,qui luy ont donne celle force. Laquelle frapa 
pant al'improueu les hommes,rend tous trebuchant. Car 
fon impetuofite eft tant incertaine en fa maniere de faire,<5C 
en quel lieu,& en quel teps elle doibt aduenir,que humaine 
. prudece eft infuffifante d'y pouuoir obuier.Parquoy faincl: 
foiife.;" Auguftin difoit.Celle opportune Mort en rrullcfortcs tous 
les iours rauit les hommes* Car elle opprime ceftuy par 
fiebure,8<C ceft aultre par douleurs. Ceftuy eft confume par' 
famine, Laultre eftaincl: par foif. La Mort fuffocque 1'un en. 
eaue.Laultre elle deftruiA en flammcs.Elle occift l'un au GU 
bet. Laultre par les dcntz des beftes fauluaiges. Laultre par 
fer,& laultre par venin. Par ainfi la Mort par tous moyens 
contrainctl'humaineviefinir miferablement.Et fur toutes 
les miferes ccft chofe miferabiliflime de ne veoir riens plus 
ccrtain,que la Mort,& riens plus incertain,que de 1'heurc 
qu'clle doibt venir. 

Chapitre de la /econde face de la Mort 
morallemenc depainde. 


Lfeftfaic't,dic"t lc liure des roys,cornes de ferJi j.Reg.s£ 
fault fcauoir,que nature a fi bien proueu aux be* 
ftespour leur defeniion 3 que au lieu desarmes, 
jde quoy clles ne feauenc vier,e!le a bailie a celles, 

qui n'ont dentz pour mordre,cornes pour ferir,& fignams 
met a done deux cornes aux beftes pour ferir de tons coftcz* 
Ainfi la Mortbefte cornue,armee de deux trefaigues cornes, 
affm qu'elle fiere a dextre& a feneftre,ceftadire,afRnque 
ieunes&vieulx,pouures& riches meurtrifle defes arfain* 
ftes,dent indifferamment vng chafcun foubz fa ptiirTance 
&force,ce queveit en figure Daniel eftant a Suzedeuant !a 
porte du palus,ou il veit le Mouton ayant haultcs comcs,& 
rune plus haulte que l'au!tre:& ventilloySr ies cornes contre 
Orient,&cotre occidet,concre Mydi,& cotre Septentrion, 
8C toutesles beftes ne Juy pouuoyent reiifter.qui n'eft aulrre 
chofe,que la figure de celle Mort,qui a v deux cornes. Et fi Ion 
en euite l'une,lon ne peult fuyr laulrre.Elle frappe en Grief , 
e'eft afcauoir en l'eage puerile,& en 1' Auftralle region,qui eft 
en la iuuentude immunde Si chaleureufe.EUe frappe aulfi en 
Septentrion froid & fec,qui eft en la vieillefle. Puis en Oca's 
dentoCar aulcuns iufques a decrepite -die attend,& ceulx li 
fiert plus moleftement daultant que plus l'ont precedee,ge< 
mifTemens SC douleurs,de la falut no efperee. Et a ce propos 
difoit Seneq Jl ya aultres genres de mortzqui font meflez 
d'efperahce. La malladie a faidfon cours quelque foys lints 
flammarion feftaincft. La mer reiede bors plufieurs quelle 
auoitenglouty.Le Cheuallier reuocquefouucntle coufteati 
du chef de celluy quil vouloit occir. Mais de celluy lequel 
decrepite coduid alo Mort,n'a chofe en quoy il efpere.Mais 
lc boa Seneque en fon liure des nacurelles qftions bailie vng 

h n 


bon remede pour n'e/tre cofterne au dur poind de la Mort, 
difant.Fais que la Mort te fbir. familiere par cogitarion 3 affin 
que lj ainfi le permed fortune 5 que tu ne la puille (eullement 
attendre s mais que auffi hardiment luy voile audeuant* 

Chapitre de la fierce face de la Mort, 

1:1 les Iarrons,& malfaicieurs fe fcauoienf transform 
i mer s & deiguifer es lieux,ou ilz ont faicr. le mal, 
IjfouuetesfoisilzeuiteroKt leGibet,ou lespeines 
_jde iuftice.Mais nousvoyons comunement adue* 
nir,qu'ilz font toufiours pris a l'improueu,& que le peche 
les maine ainii,que la plus part d'iceulx feviennentbrulera 
la chandelle, Semblablemet fi les pecheurs de ce mode,apres 
ce,qu'ilz ont offence Dieu,fe fcauoicnt transformer,& tranfe 
porter de peche par penitence a grace^'eternel luge ne les 
recongnoiftroitpour les condemner aux eternelles peines. 
Mais pource qu'ilz ie confient a leur ieune(fe } & fante corpo 
relle,ou a leurs biens temporelz^a main du iuge par fbn 
bourreau,ou ferget,c'eft a dire par la Morales furpret alors, 
qu'ilz penfoient efire les plus alfeurez. Ainfi en print il' au 
Dankf roy Balthafar. Lequel,comme recite Daniel,feit vng grand 
banquet a fes getilzhomes,abufant des vaiffeaulx du Teple, 
elquelzil donnoit aboire a fes concubines,& a celle heure 
apparut vne main efcripuate en la muraille de (on Palaix,ces 
troys motz.Mane Thethel Phares. Laquelle vifion eftonna 
fifbrileRoy,qu'fi feitappeller touslesMagiciensCaldees, 
& deuineurs de fon royaulme leur promettatgrandz dons, 
f ilz luy expofoient Ic fensdc celle efcripture.Maistousces 
enchateurs ny entedoient riens.Finablemet Daniel \i amene 


lesexpofa enceftcforte.Mane,c'eftadire,tonRoyauIme eft 
dcnombre,o Roy, pour te doner a entendre que lenombre 
des iours de ton regne eft accoply.Thethel,veult a dire,quc 
tu es mys cs bailances,& te es trouuc treskgier.Phares fjoni* 
fie diuise.Pour monftrer que ton regne (era diuise,& donne 
a ceulx de Perfe,& de Mede.Et cela fut accompiy Ja nuicV 
fuyuan?:e,ainfi que dictleMaiftre des hiftojres. Mais quelle 
figure,5d face de Mort nous bailie ce Baltha(ar,qui eft inters 
prete,Turbation,& defigne le pecheur ingrat,duque!Dieu 
a v long temps attendue la conuerlion,&C ne feft conuerty. A 
caufe dequoy4a diuine (entence irritee enuqye contre fon 
chef periurbation.Pource qu'il abule des vaifleaulx du Tern 
•ple.Car il employe lamemoireJavouIente,<5tTintelJigence 
aux voluptez, dC terrienes delectarionsjelquelles debuoient 
eftre occupies aux biens ipirituelz,& celeftes cotemplations, 
Mais quand il penfe viure plus (eurement,& plus heureule* 
menr,& floriflant en icunefTe^nuironne de delices,piaifirs, 
8£ profperitez de corps,& de biens,la Mort repenrine ruant 
(us ia faiiace 8C fugitiue efperance/us laquelle lemiferable ft 
fondoit,la bri(e,«: abolly* Et alors ce chetif Balthafar,c'eft a 
dire le Pecheur,preuenu de cefte non preueue perturbation, 
faiA venir a luy les Caldees^'eft alcauoir les mederins,leur 
promettat grand falaire,f ilz le peuuet preferuer dc la Morr. 
Mais tous les medecins,ne toutes les drogues,ne peuuent 
expofer la caufe de celle efcripte malladie au mur de fon 
corps,& ne (caiuent refifter que la Mort J& enuoyee,ne face 
fon office*Car Danie^c'eft a dire la diuine fcntence,& irreuo 
cable diffinitio,(era cxecutee.Par ainfi eft di&,que le nombrc 
du regne eft nombre,pour ce que accompiy eft le terme dc 
ccpecheur,qui ne f'eft amende,Combien queDieuTait loiix 

H irj 


«niement attendu Et fi eft mys a la balance de l'examen,ou il 
efttrouue eftre fort amoindry. Car il n'a eu cure degarder 
l'ima^e de Ton Createur,& les calenrz a luy commis,qui font 
Iamcmoire,intelligence,& lavoulent£,illes a diffipees fans 
en faire <*aing,ne proufFit fpirituel,bien qu'il fceut que le Sei 
crueur,qui les luy auoic baillees,en attedoit la fpirituelle vfus 
re.Et pource la fentece diuine eft donnee contre luy,que fon 
royaulme foit diuife,c'eft a dire fon corps,qui eft en deux re* 
oions,c'eft afcauoir,en la fpirituelle 8C corporelle que foqt 
1'AmeA ^ e Corps:dont vne part en (era donee aux vers qui 
fera le Corps pour le rouger,Et l'Ame aufeud'Enfer,pour 
y eftre perpetuellement tormentee,qui eft la face deMort 
treshorrible,de laquelleDieu nousvueille preferuer , dC la* 
quelle on doibt craindre a veoir* 

Chspitre dela quarte face de Mort* 

J Nuoyez les fauIx.Car les moiflbns font meures, 
I diet Iohel,au bon agriculteur, qui ne laiffe fon 
champ oyfif quand llvoit le temps venu qu'il 
Jj fault recueillir les grains.Car,apres ce qu'il en a 5 
leue le fromet,il y feme Raues,ou aultrcs chofes aptes a croi* 
ftre.Parquoy il eft foliciteux,de moiflonner les bledz,quand 
ilzmeuriiTcnt. Pareillementl' Agriculteur de ceftc prefente 
vie eft Dieu,<Sc vng chafcun de nous eft la moifl~on,qui doibc 
en cc champ fru Aifier. Nous voyons que les femences font 
laifsees au champ iufques au temps dc moiiTon,& alors font 
faulchees aucc la faulx,& ne les y lahTe on plus,& les meures 
font auec les non meures moiflbnnees. Or,pour parler a 
propos.Dicuenceftevienouscocede lc temps de moiffon* 


ner,affin que venans a la meuree moiflbn,foyons rcmis es 

greniers du Seigneur,c'ert. afcauoir en la vie eternelle, dC ne 

foyons cranfmis auec les parties pour brusler.Et fi nousne 

produifions fruid en cernps deuja diuine iuftice ne nous 

permettraplusdemeureren ce champ:maisauec la faucille 

de la More nous fauchera du chainp de cefte prefente vie, 

foit que nous ayons produid doulx,ou aigres faidz, Celi 

bien preueit faind Iehan en {on Apocalypfe quad en viiion 

luy fut monftre vngAnge,auquel fut comande,qu'il moik A P a, +* 

{bnnaft«Pource que les bledz eftoient meurs/Venue(did il) 

cftl'heure qu'il fault moiflfonenEt il mift fa Faucille en terre, 

SC moiffonna. Ec la f'enfuyt enapres, Ec l'aultre fortift qui 

auoit vne Faulx aigue } &C TAnge,qui auoit la puifTance fus Ic 

feu,dida celluy^qui auoit la faulx.Metz did; il,la faulx aigue, 

6C vendagc les bourgeons de la vigne.Ce qu'il feit,& ce qu'il 

vendangea,il lemift au lac del'ire de Dieu- Que nous figni- 

fie,oii figure cefte Faulx,finon la Mort humaine?& a bonne 

raifon.Car combien que les efpiczdes-bledzquandilz font 

au champ {bient 1'ung plus grand que Jaultre,& plus longs, 

ou plus grosjtoutesfois vers la racine pour le couperdcla 

faucille font trouuez tous efgaulx. Et ainfi faidlaMortaux 

humains.Cariacoit ce que au champ d'humainevicj'ung 

foit plus hault,plus excellent que laultre par la grandeur de 

nobleflfe,ou de richefle^toutesfois la Mort en les moilTonnac 

&les reduifant en Gerbes,fi quelcun les.aduiie bien,il les 

trouuera tous efgaulx* Nous en auos l'exemple en Diogene, 

quinepeulc trouuer aulcune difference entrc lesosdesno* 

bles,&l ignobles* Dont ie prens la premiere Faucille pour la 

Mort des iuftcs,qui au champ de cefte prefente vic,entrc les 

bunTons d'aduerfitez labourans font efprouuez, puis p?.r« 


uenuza parfaiAematuhce,fontmoifTonn?z,affin qu'iizne 
foyent plus fubieAz aux dangers des tempcftes,& grefles de 
ce monde : 8C afFin que la chaleur ne ieur combe deiTus.Et 
la More de telz eft predeuj(edcuantDieu.Quanta!'auitrc 
Ange tenar la faulx tanc aigue,qui moiffbnne les bourgeons 
de ia vigne 5 c'eft la More des pecheurs,de laqlle lePfalmiftc 
di<ft.La More des pecheurs eft mauluaife* Et e'eft le Diable, 
quialapuiftancefusie feu eternel,queDieu luyabaillee,5C 
que par la permiflion de Dieu commande les pecheurs eftrc 
vendengez,& eftre raui'z de la vigne de cefte prefenr e vie, 
e'eft afcauoir quand ilz ont accomply leur malice, quand 
en temps deu,&attenduau lieu de produire douix raiujas, 
ont produicT ameres Lambru{ques,perfeuerans en imquite, 
8C malice fans cotrition ne repentace,& faulchez de ia vigne, 
font gettez au lac Infernal,ou ilz feront fbullez,& leurs ope* 
£»gu.i. rations eftaine'tes.Parquoy bien difoit de telz {iu'nct Augu* 
IUBl ftJn,C'eft la peine de peche t refiufte,que vng chaicun perde 
ce^e quoy il n*a v bien voulu vfer. Car qui n'a faid fruift en 
ce monde, dequoy fert il,que pour le coupper , Si jr,ettrc 
au feu* 

Chapitre de la cinquie{me figuree fac€ 


[On fansgrande figuree fimilirude de Ia Morr eft 
il efcript en faincl Marrhieu.Comme fort 1'elclair 
du tonnerre en Orient. Et fault enredre,que e'eft 
|vne mefine caufe de I'efclair,& du ronnerre,c^ 
quafi vne mefine chole:mais die eft apperceue par deux fena 
timens.C'eft afcauoir de l'ouye,&de la veue:8t 1'elclair eft 
phis toft veu,que le tonnerre n'eft ouy^Mais toutesfoys ilz 



viennent tous deux enlemble,, Ee cefte priority ne vient qut 
de la partic du fenriment.Car rdpeceviiibie eft plus toft mul 
ripliee,que lentedible,comc on le veoic par expericcc,quand 
on frappe d'ung grand coup quelque ehofeje coup eft plus 
toft veu,que le fon du coup n'eft apperceu deceulx,qui font 
de Id loingtains. Ainii eft il du tonnoirre,& de 1'efdair SifuU 
guradon d'icelluy.Mais qlque fois le tonerre,& i'efclair frap 
pent tout en vngcoup,&atorsil eft fort dagereux.Car e'eft 
figne,qu'il eft pres de nous.Par ainftno fens caufe la faincte 
efcripiure appellelaMort fulguratiOjCar le cours de l'elclair 
eft D'oriet en Occident. Et le cours de la Mort eft de la nan* 
uite iufques a la fin. Pourtanr cefte Mort eft iemblable a ce, 
quelefcripture crie.Car quand elk did. I! eft cftably a f ous 
les homes de mourir vne foys,Nous voyons coonuellemet 
cefte fouldre frapper ceftuy,& ceftuy cy.Mais nous ne oyos 
la voix du difant.Tu mourras , & ne viuras. Et pourtant en 
aulcune facon ne croyons que debuons rnourir.Come on 1c 
voit par exemple de celluy,qui eft en vne nauire,& obuie a 
vne aultre,qui eft nauigante furmer,& luyfemble que la 
fienne ne fe bou2e,8C que laultre face feullemet chemin,com 
bien que toutes deux voilent aufll toft 1'une ql'aultre. Ainfi 
les hommes en la chair ,viuans felon la chair voyent conn's: 
nuellement le decours,& fin de la vie prefente vers chafcum 
Et toutesfois ilz pefenr eftre imortelz.Maisc'eftalorschofc 
fort penlleufe,quad la Mort eft tout enlemble ouye Sc veue. 
Car on n'y peult pourueoir. Semblablemet e'eft chofe fort 
dangereuic quand lepecheur ne oit ladiuineefcripaireen 
fa vie 5 mais attend experimenter quand la Mort foubdaine 
leviendra frapper. Car alors n'y pourra il donner remede, 
come dick Seneque.O toy incen(e 3 & oublieur de ta fragility 



G ru crams \i More quand il tonne,& non deuant.Nous en 

; ' lifonsvne bclkhgure enExodela ou ll eft e(cripr,que par 

toure 1'Egypte furenr fai Az des toncrrcs,& des elclairs mefc 

icz de feu aucc de grc(le,&de tempefre. Erksiumentz,qui 

furent trouuees horsks mai/bns, font rnortes. Or i'Egypte 

ell interpreter tenebrcs,qui nous reprefenre 1'aueugIiHemct 

des pecbeurs ayans yeulx 7 5Cno voyans.Certcs ks foubdains 

conncrres SC fouldres : font faictes quad auec la mortelk infir 

mice,3a gehaine d'Enfcr ks fttrprenr* Er pource que hors des 

maifons de penicece slz font trouuez vagans par ks champs 

de vanire de ccfte. vie pre(enrc,pouni!lans come iumctz aux 

iumiers de la cliair,defcendatfur eulx Sa tempefte de reperine 

Mort,foubdain font eftaindz. Ec desDiables mokftezfont 

P^df' rat " sa ^ 'heurcdelaMortJDoutfaind Gregoireacepropos 

jBira.' difoit* Lantique ennemy pour rauir les ames des pecheurs 

au temps de la More desbridela vjolcce de cruauke,& ceulx 

queviuansil arrompe par flatcries/encrudeiifant lesraufc 

mourans. Bicn debuons nous done ouyr.k tonnerre de la 

facree efcripcure difant.Laouie tetronucray,ie tciugeray. 

Pourrant nousenkigne ieSaige aconfiderer noz dernier* 

Gttgo. iours.arfin que ne pcchons,mais foyons toufiours prcparez* 

ji.»orj. Parquoy difoit fainct Gregoire, Qui coiiderc coment il fera 

a la Mort-,fecicndra defia pour more* 

Chapkredcla ftxkfmefigureefacc dela.Morc. 

#M.m<.3 '^^gS'Ifantcc qu'eft efrript en Neemiek ProphcteXe 

lipeupk eft congrege deuanr Iaporte deseaues, 

I'ay fus cela contempk,qu'il v n'y^ aulcune voyc 

tantlongue,qui par continuation dechemincr, 


ne foic quelquefois acheuee,mais quelle aye quelque bout, 

ou Hn.Semblablemer. cefte prefente vie,c'eft vne voye em re 

deux poinctz enclofe 8C ter minee,c'cft afcauoir encre la nati* 

uite,& la Mort.Et pourtat nous fommes tous viateursjdonc 

il nous fault venir auterme,&a la porte,c*eft afcauoir a U 

Morc,qui eft didre la fin de la prefence. vie,3c Ic comencemec 

de la fubfequenre, 11 eft bien vray^que quelque fbis la portc 

eft ardue.Er pourcequ'elle eft eftroi<fre,il fault les entras par 

icelle eftre defchargez , 8C agilles, affirt que pour le fajx dc 

quelque chofe empefchez ne puifTions encrer,& que (byons 

forclos. Plus fpiriruellemcnt parlant aux fidelles,delirans la 

vie furure,Ii kur fault entrer par la porte de la Wort de bon 

fi;re,& fe preparer en la vie tel!emet,que au iour du paflaige 

f eftre deicharge des pechez du Diable,qui eft apprefte pour 

alors ma&er.,& opprefter les pecheurs,lefquelz il trouuera 

occupez de la ptrfateur de peche.Parquoy difoit Iob.Loing 

feront faicftzfesfilzdefalut,6Cferont brifez a la porte.Ec de 

cecy nous en bailie vne figure Hieremk la,ou il reritenoftrc iC4 ^ 

Seigneur auoir di<fh Gardez vos ames,&ne veuillez porter 

charges,ou faix au iour du Sabbar,& neles mcttezded§s lei 

portcsde lerufalem. Ecpuisil adioufte.Ne met tez les char* 

|res par les portes de cefte Cite. Au iour du Sabbat enrrerot 

par icelles les Princes du royaulme fe feans fur le ikge de 

Dauid home deludee.Le iour du Sabbat nous reprefente 

le repos,& le iour,qui eft le dernier de la fepmafne,c't ft adire 

le dernier iour de llionieje iour de la Morr,Auql ne fauldra 

rrouuer I'hom me charge de pondereux fardeaulx.Car alors 

font difficiles a defcharger.Mal fe peult l'home alors cofefler 

$t allegcr fon ame de peche, A cefte caufe nous enfeigne no* 

ftrefcis;neur,Priez que voftre fuicre nefoicfaideenhyuer, 


on au sour duSabbat,il nous fault vngiour entrerpar Ie* 
ftroi&e 3C ardue porce de la More humaine,qui eft de fi gran 
de eftroifteur.,que fi au parauant nc font mys ius les faix de 
peche^nul peult paricelle liberallernent entrer,dont diibit ce 
moral Seneque.Si nous voulos eftre heureux,fi ne des Dieux 
ne des homes,ne des cholcs ne voulons auoir crainte,deipri«: 
fons fortune promettate chofes fupcrflues.Et quand leremie 
di&.Par celle porte entreront les Roys,c'eft a entcndre,que 
quiauronr bien vefcu,<St qui aurontregne fus les vices par 
confemonjedefchargcansdelapefarireur depechc entrant 
parcefte portedeMorta tous comune,habiter5t celle cele* 
fit Cite de Ierufalem,interprerie vifion de paix:& ne feront 
confunduz,come did le Pfalmiftejquand i!z parlerot a leurs 

Chapitre de la feptiefme flguree face de Morr* 

Es mondains quelque grande copajgnlc de gens 
qu'ilz ayent,ou quelque grande volupte,qui les 
puifle dc!ccT:er 3 font a toutes heuresmelancoliqs, 
];rriftes 3 8tfafchez.Et n'orriez dire entre eul* aultrc 
propos 5 quc, le vouldrois eftre morr, le me repens d'auoir 
faict cda.Le mefchat,n'cft il pas bien ingratfMauldid: foit lc 
rnonde,& qui f'y ficra. Ie ne veulx plus hanter perfonne. Ia< 
mais ie nc me fieray plus a nully.Et telz ou plus eftranges,& 
defefperez propos enrendrez vousrous les ioursde ceulx, 
qui non en Dieu,mais es homes,meftent leur cofidence,con 
folation,& amour.Parquoy de relies gens eft did: par le Pfal 
>&!.{»*, mifte <Ilz ont errc en fo!itude,& n'ont congneu la voye de la 
Cite.Et certes celle voye eft fore difficile 6c perilkuie 3 en to* 


quelle on trouue en folitude vng paflTaige dcubteux : .deuiaf , 
oC incogneu. Car qlque foys le viateur prenanr ce chemin fe 
deuie du droid chemin.St n"y fcait plus reuenir. £t cc pedat 
eft en dager,d'cfi:re occis,ou des larros,ou des beftes fauluai* 
ges.Parquoy doibt 1'home prendre en rel paflaige qlq guys 
de,& iamais ne I'habadoner.N'eft pojnj: a voftre aduis-.cefte 
pfente vie doubteufe,Car i\ au pas de la Mort.iamais elie ne 
peult par droicfte voye eflre trouuee,ce tefmoignat iob,qui lo^,, 
di<fble ne retourneray iamais par le fender ,ou it pafie.Nous 
debuos doc fuyure le codu&eur,& celluy bien faichat le che« 
min,c'eft afcauoir noftrefeignr auql ce redtant faincl: Marc, 
fut dicT:.Maiftre,nous Icauons que cu es venrable,&l la voye 
de Dieu en verite enleignes. Aukremet deuyerios de Sa voye 
dero$itude,&{erionspris de ce trefcruel larron.qui nous 
enuironne nuid&iourpour nous deuorer.Ce que nous a 
efte tresbien figure au lnire des Nombres quand les enfans N(? 4 
d'Ifraelnevoulasal'encreedela rerre de promifTion fuyure 
Moyfe,periret par diners fuppiices.Ainfi ne voulans fuyuir 
la voye de penitcce a no 9 moftree par IESVCHRIST 
au pas incogneu de l'horrible Mort,cheminas par les defers, 
& folitude de ce monde foromes en danger de tomber entre 
les cruelz larros,& beftes fauluaiges* A ce propos fain<ft Ber 
nard.O AmeCdiftiljquece fera de cellepeur quand auoir rnift. 
laiflTe toutes chofes,la prefence defquelles t'eft tanc plaifante, m,ui 
feulletu entreras,en vne a toy totallemetincogneuc region 
la\ou ru verras vne trefaflfreufe copaignie,qui te viendra au 
deuat.Qui eft ce qui au iour d'une telle neceflite re fourdra? 
Qui te defendra des rugiflans Lyons prcparez a la viandeC 
Qui te confblerac'Qui eft ce qui te guyderaCEt il fenfuit.Eftis 
toy docques ce tien amy plus que tous tes amys. Leql aprcs 

i i n 



que routes chofes teferont efte fubftrai&es/eul re gardera 
la foy au lour de ta&pukure.Et te conduira par chemin in* 
cogneu,re menat a la place de la fupernelle Syon,5c la te col 
loquera auec les Anges deuant la face de la maiefte diuine, 

Chapitre de la huic"tiefme figurec 

IN lid au Iiure des fuges cecy. II habite en la fpe* 
Iunque,ou fbfle,demonfirant que vng cheminat 
parlesncigesen temps clair,quand lefbleii luyt 
fusicelles,puisarriue a la maifon,ou au logis,il 
r.e voir plus rien. Et la rxCon e(t 7 Car cclle blacheur excelletc 
fai& ii grande difgregation auxyculx,ck?!aiffevne fantafme 
de tat de dartez,quil ne peult veoir aukre chofe.Mais quad 
ii entre en la maifon ou bien en obfcure foffc,!! luy femble 
auoir touliours deuant (es yeulx cclle clam. Dont i\ eft fort 
dagereux ft dedans la maifon,ou la fofle a quelque mauluais 
pas,qu'il ne fe dommaige en tresbuchant.Er n'y a meiileur 
remede,fors de demeurer hi vng efpace de tempsiufquesa 
ce,que la fantafme de celle clarte (ok cuadee.Appikant cecy 
au fens fpirkuel. Nous prendrons les neigcs pour les prolpe 
ritez de la vie prefente,& a bonne raifon. Car quand les nej* 
ges font coglurinees,elles apparoiflent tresblanches 8C rcluLs 
fantes. Et puis quand le vent Auftral leurvient courirfus, 
ellcs deuicnent tres fales,3c ordes. Ainfi les profperitez de ce 
monde,tandisquelles adherent a rhommc,eIles apparoiflent 
tres claires,belles.,& reluifanres. Mais la fortune contrariant 
par la volubiliri de fa Rouc,font couerries en gemiflcmes,8i 
en pkurs.Et pourc* les longuemet cheminas par icelles fonc 


fi fore aueugkz au cueur,<Sc" en l 8 affcA'on,qae quand ilz 
doibuent entrer au logis de la vie fucure,par la Mort ilz n*y 
voyent rien 5 & ne fcaiuent ou ilz vont.flz out vne fantafm* 
/i imprimee en leurs penkcs,que quafi elle ne fe peulc effacer 
par la Mort tenebreufe 3C objure. Ilz ne peuuenr aduifer la 
ibubdainete de la Mort,ne les penlz Infernaulx^ ne la crainte 
du Iuge.Ec briefucmet ne peuuenr rien pcnfer,fors la feiicite 
de cefte vie mortalk,tant riennenr ilz ks piedz en la fofie,& 
1 Ame en la peine d'Enfer.Ee pourtat falci: Gregoire fus cel.i 
que.dict Iob,Mesioursibnt pafTez p!uslegierement,quela 
toille n'eft coupp:e du ciiFerand,did::qu-il n'elt riens a quoy 
moins penfent les hSmes.Car encores que la More les rienne 
parlecollet,rizne la croyentfuseulxaduenir.Ainfi parces 
vaines&fantaftiques illusions mondaines Hiome preuenu 
tiepeulcentendrealbn falur. Et le fouuerah remedepour 
cecyefide penter encerifuemer,SC auec loguepauiekduiin 
logis,c'eft afcauoir laMort,par la folfe SC obfeure maitbn* 
De la cognoiftra Ion que vault la papedum5de,fagloire, 
(a riche(re,& (es delices.Ec qui defprifera ex me Icongnoiftra 
toutesceschofcs,cognoiftraDieu. Amfi en print llauborr },Reg,i#, 
Helie,qui demeura a la porte de lafoOTe obferiiat-.&fpecular,. 
Et premieremet paffa vng vent brifant perres,& la n'eftoir 
noftre Seigneur«Secodemet pafla vnecornotion de terre,3d 
15 n'eftoit noftre Seignn Tiercemet palTale feu,cv la n'cfioit 
noftreSeignr.Quarteinct paflavng fifler d'une douke sure, 
8C auec elk eitoit noftre Seigneur.Et Hdias veit k leigneur a 
8C ilz ont park enfembk D I E V 5C Helie. Or pour parlcr 
anoftre propospar Hc!ie,qui eft diet voyanr, eft defigne 
vng prouide Chreftien,qui (e cognoiflfant mortei roufiour-s 
ipecuk a laMort,Erpourceq (on rerme eft inccrtaitHJl le. 


difpoic toufiours pour la recepuoir,comme fi a toute heure 
clie debuoit a luy venir.Eta vng ami? difpofe la Mort ne 
pcuk amener perturbation. Pourranc difoitSeneque. Nul 
de nous ne firait combien fon terme eft pres. Ainii done for* 
mons noftrecouraige,come fi Ion cftoit venu a 1'extremite. 
Car nui ne recoit la More ioyeufement finon celluy,qui f y 
eft prepare a la recepuoir au parauat par logue (peculation* 
Ec ft ainfi nous nous preparons de bonne heure,il n'eft vent 
d'orgueil ne tremblement de terre par ire efmeue,ne feu dc 
couuoitife,qui nous puifle dommager.Mais pour le dernier 
on verra ladoulce allainede lafuauitc defain&eelcripturc 
ia ou Dieu parlera falutaires documentz,par lclquelz apper 
cement on verra ce qu'eft a fuyr,& ce qu'on doibt fuyuie, 
fansce que les plaifirs tranfitoires puiilent les yeulx de la 
penfce cftre aueuglee par auicune difgregation. Dieu nous 
doint la gracea tous de ii bien a ces faces de Mort penler,& 
fi intentifuement les mirer & adui(er,que quand la Mort par 
kvouloir de Dieu nous viendra prendre, que afieurez dc 
celluy,qui d'elle a triumphe,nous puiflions ainfi rriumpher 
d'elle^que par le merite de ce triumphat Chariot de la Croix 
puiffions paruenir en celle vie,ou la Mort n'a plus puiiTancc 
ot vertu* Amen. 


Les diuerfes 


mauluais du uiel,& nouuean 

Vltre les funebrcs figures dc Mort,tant e£s 
frayeufes aux mauluais , aiiec le pinceau de 
l'efcripture ferot icy reprefencees les Mortz 
desiuftes,&iniques,arimkaiio de Lucian, 
qui en for. dialogue des imaiges dict,Que 
|| pour depeindre vne parfaicte beauke de 
A fcmme , ne fault que reuocquer deuanr les 
yeulx de la memoire les parriculieres beaukez d'ung chafcun 
membre feminin ca,& la,par les excellentz pcinctres antique 
ment pourtrai&es.Semblablement en ce petit tableau krone 
traceestouteslcs belles,&laidesMortz de la Bible,dcfq!ics 
les lectrez en pourrot coprendre hiftoires dignes d'eftre aux 
illiterezcoiquees,Letout a la gloire de celluy,qui pennet a 
la Mort doininer fus tous viuas-ainli qu'ii luy plaift,& quad 
il veult. 

Figure dc la Mort en general. 

Ource quevraye eft la lentencc deDieu,parla G «eA 
quelle il did a l'home,En qlconque heure q vous 
mangercz d'icelluy^'eft a dire du defendu fiuicTr, 
*OTs^i^'vousmourrez.Il eft certain queincotincnt apres 
le peche I'homme meurcDonc I'homme viuant qtiafi conti* 




miellemcnt meurt 3 felon faiuA Auguftin en la Ci* 
te de Dieu% 

Com neainfifoit.,quepar tant d'ans ayent vcfcu deuant 
le deluge les hommeSjlignaumencl'cfcripture apres la defers 
prion clu temps de leur vie dieT,rit ll eft more. 

Si noz anciens Peres craignoiet la Mort,5c defiroient Ion* 
Gun *>. gue vie,il n'eftoit de merueille . Car ilz ne pouuoient encor 
sriorer au Ciei,ne iouir de la diuine vilion iufques a ce, que le 
Sauiueur eft venu,qui ouurit la porte deParadis.Parquoy le 
bon Loth,airnonnettederAnge,quu fefauluaft en la mon* 
taigne,craignic yaller,arrinq par aducturelemalnele print 
Num.*;. Qi y mouruc la. 

More des iuftes,dic"t Balaam. 

AuiTi les mauluais defirent mourir.Meure mon ame de la* 
Ocitc 4. Iacoic ce que Moyfe ne voullift obcir au comandemet de 
Dieu,qinvouloit,qu' 1 pafTaftlelourdainjtoutcsfoisonveoit 
afTez que liberallemmt ll euft plus vefcu , ii Dieu euft voulu. 
Parquoy il dict,Le leigneur eft ire cotre moy,voicyiemeurs 
en cefte terrc,ie ne pafleray le Iourdain. 
Dcut. t*. La plus grand parr du guerdon de la Loy M olaique fern* 
bloic eftre conftituee en la longueur de vie;Car il eft cfcripr, 
Mettez voz cueurs en routes les parolles que ie vous teftifie, 
affin que les faifant,perfeueriez long temps en terre a la quel 
le vous entrerez pour la poffeder. 
IuJ«- J- Myeulx aymerent Zebec,&Salmana,eftre tucz de la main 

de Gedeon vaillant home,que,de la main de lether Ton filz. 
j Re t , t$. Lors q Eiias eftoit affis foubz vng Geneurier^i demadaa 
ion ame , qu'il mouruft,difant.U mefourrit mon Seigneur, 
ofte mon ame, 
f . 3 Ezcchias roy de ludoe chemina deuant le Seigneur en ve* 


rite, & Put bon.Toutefibis quad il luy fuc annunce par Elate* 
qu'il debuoit mourir,!! pria ie feigneur par vr.g grad pkur, 
affin qu'encores il luy prolongeaft la vie. 

Thobie prouocque,auoir ouye la refponee de fa Femme 
fbufpira,&comenca aprierauec ihermes,difant;Tuesiufte Thcblj, 
Seignr,comade mo amc eftre en paix receue,car 11 m'elt plus 
expediet mourir q viure„Et puis il fenfuyt au Chapirre fill, 
quad il pefa fon oraiibn eftre exaulcee,il appella Ton filz Sic. 

SarrafilledeRaguel,auoir receud'une deschamberieres 
griefue iniure,pria Ie Seigneur, &C did: entre aitkres chofes. Thobtj. 
Ie requiers Seigneur,que du hen de ce impropere cu m'abfbl 
ues,ou cerres^que tu m'oftes de deflus la rerre. 

Deuant le roy Sedechias orTrit Hieremie fes prieres,affin 
qu'il ne le ruaft,ce qu'il comandaft le remettre en la prifon,en Hicrcjf. 
laqlleileftoicauparauanaffin qu'il ne mouruft,parlaMort 
de la Croix, laquelle le Sauiueur voulut fbuftenir, monftra 
manifeftcment,que non feullemet vouloit mourir,Mais vng 
chafcun o;enre de Mort debuoir eftre fouffert d'uno homme 
iufte pour obeir a la diuine voulente. 

Deuant l'aduenemertt du fainA Efperit trop erafgnirent #i a k.x 
la Mort les apoftres:qui,eftre pris leur Seigneur,le laiflerent 
rous:mais apres cc qu'ilzfurent par lavertu d'enhaulc ro* 
borez,& cofirmez,menez deuant les prinees,& Ty rans par- 
loient fiduciallement. 

Peu craignoit mais point ne craignoit la Mort/aiA Paul, 
qui di{bit,n'cftre feullemet apparejlle a eftre lye,mais auiTi de t0lum * 
mourir pour le nom du feigneur lefus. 

Etluymefmesen aultre lieu dicfr.Sil eft notoireauxluifz, 
ou que i'ay fai<ft quelque chofe dignedeMorr,ienerecufe ASu.«. 
mourir.Toutesfoys il fault- norer,que plulieurs fois euicat les 

K ij 


embufches des Iuifz,qu'ii fuyoit deCiti en Citation pour 
crainte de Morr,mais faifant place a la fureur des mauluais fe 
reicruoitvtile aplulieurs. 

De l'horrible Mort des mau!uai's,defcription 
depeincte felon la faincte Efcripture* 

Gc!K.4. f^^^|]Ain,qui rua Ton frere,fut occis par Lamcch, 
Gc^e -«4. ¥ £§^M^\ Noftre Seigneur enuoya pluye de foulphre,& 
^^9f! de feu fus Sodome^ fubuertit cinq Citez puan 
iSlltll] ces ^' un g deteftable peche. 
SichmriIzd'Em.or,qui oppreflaDyna fille delacob/ur. 
tue des filz de Iacob,& tout le peuple de la Cite, 

Leaue de la mer rouge fubmergea les chariotz, SC tout 
l'equippaige,gefdarmcs,<S<l l'cxercitc de Pharaon,& n'en de* 
meura pas vng.Et certes bien iulTemet. Pource qu'il faillnit, 
quele corps futnoycdecelluy,duquel le cueur nepouuoic 
e/tre amolly* 

Nadab,&Abihu filz de Aaron offrans l'eftrage feu deuat 
Dieu ont efte dcuorez du feu du feigneur,& font mortz. 
Par le commandemenc dc nouVe Seigneur les filz d'Ifrael 
" menerent horsdelcur exercise le blarphemateur,& lafTom?! 
merent de pierres. 
Num. 1$, Chore,Dathan,& Abyron, 8C leurs complices rebellans a 

Moyle delcendirent vifz en Enfer,engloudz de la terre. 
Ibidem. Les aultres murrnurans,& commettans diuers pechez, 
moururent de diuerfes mortz au defert:tellcmet que de fepc 
censmille homines bataillans,deux feullement entrerentcn 
la terre de promifllon* 
I»fuc.;. Pource q Acham emporta furtiuemcr des trefbrs offertz ; 




en Iherico,tout le peuple d,Ifrael le lapida,& par feu cofuma 
tour cc,que luy appartenoit* 

label remme d'Abercinee emportale clou du Tabernacle, i" d ^4« 
6c le ficha au cerueau de Sifare,qui accopaignanr le fbmmeil 
a la Mort,dcrTaillit,5t' mourut. r d «. 

Si Zebee 6v Salmana eufienc garde les freres dc Gcdeon, 
Gedeonleur cut pardonnc.E£pourcequ : ilzlestuercnt,ilz 
furentoccis par Gedcon. 

Les filz djfrael prindrent Adonibefech,auoir couppe les ludt ' u 
fummitez 3C bourz de fesmains(ai lfiqu'il auoir faicl: a fe* 
ptante Roys)l'arncnerenten [erufaiem,^ la il eftmort* 

Vne femme geAant fus la tefte d'Abimelech vne piece Tudu * , 
d'une meulle luyfroifia le cerueau,!cquel appella fongen* 
darme,8t"commenda qu'il le tuafr. Etnoftre Seigneur luy 
rendit le mal qu'il auoicfaicr,mectantamorcleptantefiens 

Quand Hely ouy t larche du Seigneur Dieu eure prinfe il : '^ c 2-* • 
tomba de fa Telle a lenuers,iouxte la porte,& f efcre rompu le 
cerueau mourut. . 

Dauid ieunegars tout defarme,& n'ayant l'ufaige des ar* i.Reg.17. 
mestaflaillit le fuperbe,5C blafphemateur Goliath, 3C le tua 
de Ton propre couftcau. 

Saul parieneicay quelle enuie efmeu perfecuta Dauid, A KRe 3'J r » 
la fin,print Ton couftcau,&;fe iecTrant fusicelluyfe tua. 

Le premier filz de Dauid viola fa feurThamar ,&Cpeu *>R*g.i}, 
apres hit tue par le comandement d Abfalon (on frerc ainfi 
qu'il banquetoit auec luy« 

Par lacouuoicife de dominer fort affligea Abfalofbn pere s 
Dauid.Maisdeuant qu'il paruint a fonproposil futpendu 
cntre le Ciel dC la Terre* 

K it}) 


Voyac Achitophel q Ton cofeil ne fuc accepte qu'il auoit 

i.R.c.17. c( onne centre Dauid, fen alia en fa maifon,& mourut au 


„ ? SebafilzdeBochricocitalepeuplecotreDauidenlacite 

d' Abela,La v ou il penfoit auoit refuge 8C ayde,fut decapite. 

Ladole(cet,quifevantaauoir tueSaul,parlecomademct 

de Dauid,fut tue quad il luy pefoit annucer chofe agreable. 

Le femblable aduint a deux larros,qui apporteret la tefte 
zMcg. 4 . de Iibofech g iz de SauL 

Combien qucioab futvng noble cheualkr , toutesfois 
*' ' e °**' pource qu'il occift deux+iommes en trahifon fur commande 
d'eftre tue par Salomon. 
Re^ix. Achab blefle en la guerre mourut au vefpre.>& les chiens 
lefcherent (on fang,encemefmelieu,auquelilzlefchercntle 
fang Naboch.qui fuc.lapide fe diflimulant Achab , qui le 
pouuoit,& debuoit faultier. 
< Vngaultre mauluais roy Ela regnoit en Iudee tyranni* 
' quement cotre lequel fe rebella Zambri,& tuafonfeigneur, 
lequel Zambri puis mourut mifcrablcment. 

Quand Heiifee monta en la Cite de Bethel,qlques enfans 
4,Reg.j. mal mftrui<£tzfemocquoictde luy ,alors forrirct deux Ours, 
&. deffirerent quarante deux de ces enfans* 

Lungdes deux,qui eftoit auec le roy d'Jfrael nevouluc 
4.r«g.?. cr oyre aux paroiies de Heiifee predifant la future habodace, 
au lendemain,lc fuffoca la turbe des homines courante aux 
defpoullies,& la il mourut. 

Benedab roy de Syrie,qui felt moulr de maulx aux enfans 
4**8.8. a-Jfrael/ut a la fin de fon filz Afahel occis. 

Voyanrlehu la mauluaife Ie(abel,qui auoit eftecaufcdc 
4 tcg.9« pl« ifieurs maulxjcomenda qu'elle full precipice en bas:& fut 


tellcmentconculquee,dc la fouiie des cheuaulx,que combien 
quelle fut fille de Roy,ne fut enfepuclie:5<l ncrefta que le tcft 

Athalie mere de Ochofie tua route la femenceRoyallc 
Affrn qu'elle peut regner fus le pcuple.Ec puis apres die 4rc S-"' 
fut tuee villainemenc par le commandement dc loiades 

Le roy loas snauluais,& ingrat,qui feit lapider cruellest 
menr Zacharie filz du prebftrc lojades fut en apres occis 4 * r€ S* f * 
de* fiens. 

Sennacherib roy desAfllriens trcforguilleux, 8C au Dicu 4tKfrW 
du del blafphemateur apres que de la terre de ludec confu* 
femcnr Pen fut fuy,fut rue par fes cnfans. 

Sedechias roy de [udee mauluais vers Dieu,&l vers les 
bomes,fut pris en fuyanr,deuant les yeulxduquci leRoyde + rc S tt,e « 
Babyione felt tucr fes propres enfaus. Apres on luy creua 
les yeulx,& fut mene en Babyione y S>C la mourut mifera* 

Holoferncs' deftruit plufteurs pais, Enablement , ... 
dormant enyure par les mams d une remme.tut decapice, 

Le rres fuperbe Aman,qui ie faifoit adorer des homines, Hdrer.7. 
fut pendu au Gibet,qu'il auoic prepare a Mardochee. 

Balthalar roy de Babyione ne fut corrige par l'cxemple 
de N\ t buchodonoibr fon pere,qui deuat luy auoit efte mue 
en beite^, auconuiueveitl'efcripture enlamuraille.Mane, Dani.;.^ 
Thethel,Phares. Et cclle nui<ft il fut tue,& fonRoyauLne 
tranfiate aux Mcdes,<Sc a ceulx de Perfe. 

Les accufateurs de Daniel par le comandemctdc Darius £>aaa.A 
raydePeife furent mysau lac de^ Lyons,k femblabk ads 
uint au.c. X I ill. 


Mach.i- Puis que Alexandre tomba au lict on diet qu'il congneut 
qu'il debuoit mourir,quafi commefi au parauantilnauoit 
congnoilTance de Mort,ou la memoii e d'icclle. 
i.Mach-9 Alchimus traiftre fut frappe,& impotent deParalihe,nc 
plusilnepeultparler,ne le mandera fa maifomEtmouruc 
auec vng grand torment. 
z.Nuch.4. Contrifte leroy Antiochus dece,que Androniqueauoie 
rue iniuftemet Onias fouuerainPrcbftre,comanda Andro< 
rrique eftre tue au mefme lieu,auquel il auoit commis trop 
2.madu7. Plufieurs facrileges commis au temple par Lyfimachus, 
fut alfemblee vne grande multitude de peuple centre luy,8£ 
au pies du Trefor ilz le tucrent, Antiochus,qui auoit opprefle les entraiiles de plufieurs, 
fouftrant dures douleursdes entraiiles par miferableMort, 
mourut en la montaisme. 
a.mach.^ Iafon mefchat qui auoit capriue fbn proprc frcre,& auoit 
banny plufieurs gens de Ton pais,mourut en cxil,&: demeura 
fans eftre plaincr,ne enfepucly, 

Menelaus malicieuicmcnt obtint en pcu de temps la prins 
cipaulte,mais toft fut precipite, d'une haulte tour, en vng 
monceau dc cendres. 
Lucar.u. C'eft h5me riche,le champ duquel auoit produitft habon* 
dance de rruicTr,quand il pcnfoitdeftruirelesgrenicrspour 
en fairc de plus arnples,croyoit de plus viure,ce qu'il ne feir. 
Car il luy fut did: par noftre Seigneur, Sot ceitc nuicl: tu 
■Lucx.16. Fort terrible eftl'exempledc ce fame rhauluais richc,qui 

rant banquetoit,lequcl mourur,& fut enfepucly en Enfcr, 
Aduc-.;. Ananias SC fa femme Saphira,pource qu'ilz defraudcrcnt 

du pris 


du pns de kur champ vendu,moururent terriblemenr par 
la repreheniion de fain<fr Pierre. 

Herodcsaftisau tribunal,^ veftu d'habitz royaulx,pre£ 
choit au peuple,Et le peuple eicrioit les voix de Dieu,& non AdiH ' 
des hommes.Alors tout incontinent,l'Ange du Seigneur ,ie 
frappa.Pour ce qu'ii n'auoit bailie 1 honncur aDieu, Ec con* 
fume des vcrs,expira miferablernenc* 

Aukrc depcinc'te dcfcription,de la pre* 
cieufe Mort des luftes. 

[Vand Abel&Cain eftoict au champ.Cain ie Ieua 
contre Abel 8C le tua.Et a cau{e,come on en rend Gtnt '** 

[ laraifon,que fes oeuures eftoient mauluai(es,6C 
S;celles de Ton frcre iuftes, 

Enoch chemina auecDicu,&napparut.CarDieu l'em< Gene.j. 

Abraham eft mort en bonne vieillefl~e ? 6C de grand eage, Ge;.z>. 
remply de iours,& futcongrege a {on peuple. 

Les jours de Ifaac font accomplis cent ocftante ans,& con Gm«.^. 
fume d'eage eft mort,6t mys au deuant de Ion peuple vieil, 
6C plein de iours. 

Quand lofeph eut adiure fes freres.,&qu , illeureucdic"t, 
Emporrcz aucc vous mes olTemens de ce lieu cVc.Il mourur. fc J0 * 

Moyfe,& Aaron par le commandement deDicu monte* 
rent en la montaigne Hor,deuar toute la multitude,^ quad Num ' l0 ° 
Aaron fe fut defpouille de tous fes veftemens,il en reuefnt 
Eleazare,&L la mourut Aaron. 

Moyfc le (eruiteur de Dieu eft mort en la tcrrae'dc Moab, 
le commandant le Seigneur , BC U Seigneur 1'enlepuelit. Ec DviU M* 



tiul horns n'a cogneu Con fepulchre iufques a ce prcfent iourv 

i.P*' ♦$ Dau*d,apres lmftru^ftion de ion filz Salomon,Oc 1'orailon 

qu'il kii au Seigneur pour iuy,od pour tout k Ptuple,mous 

rut en bonne vieilleire plein de jours,de richetTe,8C dcgloire, 

Qj.iand Helifte,&Heliecheminoict enfembk,voicy vng 

4 *£•*- chariot ardat s 3^ ks cheuaulx de feu,diui(erlt lung 6i laultre, 

Bt Helie monta au Ciel en fulguration. 

Lefpnt de Dteu veftit Zachane filz de Ioiadc, Si didl au 

fr.Piro4- peuple.Pourquoy traipaiTcz vous le camandementduSen 

gneurtCe que ne vous prourFitera.Lefqlz congregez encon 

tre luy getterent des pierres^iouxte le comandement du Roy 


Thobie a Pheure de la Mort appella Thobte (o filz,& fept 

Tho'44* ieuues(esnepueux 3 &kur did. Pres eft ma fin* Et vng pea 

apres eft did de Ton filz. Auoir acomply hui&ante neuf ans* 

en la crain&e du Seigneur auec loye , I'eniepuelirent auec 

coute fa lignee 8Cc* 

lob veiquit apres les flagellations centquarate ans,& veit 
tob uSa- ^ cs ^ z ^ e ^ s ® z i u % ues a k quarte generation^ il eft mort, 
vieil,5C pkin de iours* 

Dauid ne voulut plourer pour fon filz innocent mort, 
i.Reg.xs. qu'il auoit ploure quad il eftoit malade* Mais il ploura beau 
&I f* coup pour le fratricide,& patricide Abfalpn pendu. 

Apres l'inftru<fbon,& confort de fes enfans,Mathatias let 
s.Ma :*z. beneift,& trefpaira,& fut mis auec fes Peres, 

Voyanc Iudas Machabee la multitude deles ennemys,& 
i.Ma-.9« la paucite des fiens,dichSi noftre temps eft'approche,mour* 
rons en vertu pour noz frcres* 

Ekazare,apres plufieurs tonnes a luy bailkz,trefpa(Ta dc 
3.M&6, < c ftevie a .aiflant a tout lePeuple grand memoirede fa vertu 


Sc fortitude, 

Ces fept frcres auec Icur pitcufe Merc fesrent vne admira* zMma 
blerm,par iouablc moyen,Etfepeuuent Unoter plufieurs 
cxcmples de vcrtu. 

Pour la vcnte &C honneftete de mariage.S.Iehan Baprifte M»^» 
fur decolie par Herodes Tctrarche, 

De ce renomme pouure Ladre eft e(cript,que ia mediant Luc4& 
mourut,& qu'il fut porte des Anges au fang d'Abraham* 

Comment qu'aye vcicu ce iarron,auquei Iefuchrift pen* 
danc,dicTr,Au iourd'huy ferasauecmoyenParadis,ilmous 
rut heureufement. 

 Quand Ie benoift Eftienne eftoit lapide,il inuoquoit le 
Seigneur Dieu , Si difoit. Seigneur Iefus , recoy mon elprit, A & I* 9 * 
Et f'eftre mis a genoulx , efcna a hauhe voix , Seigneur, 
ne leur repute cecy a peche &c.Et quand ileut ce did. II 
dormiten noftre Seigneur,a laquelleMort faifonsla noftre 

Et noftre faulueur Iefuchrift , qui felon fainct A uguftin, 
auquartdetrini.par falmguHereMortadeftruic'tia noftre 
double Mort.Lequel, comme il did apres au. X 1 1 1 1 « de 
la cite deDieu,donna rant de grace de foy,que de la More 
(quieftcontraire alavie)fut faid inftrument,parlequclon 
pafleroitalavie.Laquelle nous concede le vray autheur de, 
(aluteternelle,Quieftvoye,verite,&:vie.Qiii a delavie,& 
de la Morr,l'empire. Qui auec lePere,&le faincr Efprit vie 
8C regne Dieu par iiecles intermi'nables. 


Dcfcription des fepulchres des 


(||||^pt|| Vec grandc diligece achepra Abrahale champ, 
Gm: " z] ' ^^^pj ^uqucl il cnfepuehr fa femmc quad elk fuc morte, 

Wi&ljk^ lacob ne voulut eftre enfepuely auec les maul 
r- ,-<, ^^M^ uais hommes cn Eoypre^mais abiura Iolcpli,que 
&.-t* quand il leroit mort,qu'on le porcalt au iepulchre de Its Pe* 

res,cc que lofeph accomplic auec grande folicitude. 

Sortant Moyfe d'Egypte,emporca les oflfemes de Iofcph 

Dautd loua fort les hoesLabes Galaad,pource q les corps 

i.Kgu.;i. ^ Saul,8£ de fes filz auoiec e/ce reueramcc enfepueiiz p eulx. 

La peine de celiuy,qui auoit mange le pain en iamaifbn 

du mauluais Prophece cotre le comademec de Dieu,fuc cefce 

ieulle,qu'il ne fuc enfepuely au iepulchre de fes Peres* 

IehuRoyd'Ifrael,qui feic tuer Icfabel, la feic eniepuelir: 
4 * ,£g ' f, pource qu'elie eftoic fllle du Roy. 

Loue eft Thobie,de ce,que auec le peril de (a vie les corps 
TfcoiMtZ ^ occis il cmporcoic,& ibliriccuiemenc leur donnoit fe* 

La premiere admonitio entre celles (alubres,que feic Tho 
Thob. 4. ki e a f on fiiz,fut de fa fepulture,& de celle de fa femme. 

Les luifz accufateurs du mefchancMenelaus furenc par 
a.Mw^4. j'{ ni [q ue [ U g e condamnez a morc.Parquoy les Tyriens indi* 
gnez de ce liberallcmenc leur preparerent fepuiture. 

Apres la guerre contre Gorgias commife,vinc Iudas Ma 
a.ottc.u. chabee pour recucillir les corps des morcz,& les enfepuelir 
auec leurs parentz. 

Les dilciples de fain&Iehan Baptise ouyansqu'il auoit 
MhrU 4 " c ^* decolle P ar Herodes,vindrenc,ck prindrenc fon corps,& 

loan xz. ^ appert que noftre Seigneur a eu cure de fa fepuiture, 


par ce qu'il rcfpondit a Iudas murmuranc de I'oignemenP 
qui felon luy,debuoit eftre vendu,LaifTe(diciil)ar1in que au 
iour de ma ftpukure,elie le garde, 

Noftre Seigneur fut enfepuely par Iofeph,& Nicodeme Matt.j-7. 
au fepulclire ncuf caille , auquel nul n'auoic encores elite mys. lJc.ij.' 

Les homes craintife eurentcurede fain<flEftienneJapide lean.**. 
des Iuifz,& feirent vng grand plaind fus luy« , A . 


rite^,8cfcntences des Philofophes,8£ 

orateurs Payes pour cofermer 

les uiuans a no craindre 

la Mort. 

Riftotc did vers le fleuue appelle Hypanin 3 qui ptie d'Europe derriue en la mer,cerraines 
beftiolesnaiftre,qui neviuentqu'ung iour tat 
feullemenr.Etcelle qui meurt fur leshuidheu* 
res de matin, eft done didemorte deboneage: 
8t celle,o,ui meurt a Midy eft morre en vieillefle. Laultre^qui 
deuant faMortveoit leSoleil coucher,eftdecrepitee.Mais 
tout cela comparaige a noftre treslongeage,auecleternite, 
nous ferons trouuez quaii en celle mefme breuite de temps, 
en laqlle viuent ces beftiolles.Et pourtat quad nous voyons 
mourir quelque ieune perfbnne,il fault pefer qu'il meurt dc 
marimPuis quand vng de quarante,ou cinquace ans meurr, 
penfons que e'eft a midy.Ec que tantoft vicdra le vefpre qu'il 

L irj 


nous fauldra a la fin aller couchcr pour dormir, comme les 
aukres:Sc que quad i'heure (era venue de cc foir que peu ou 
riens aurons d'auantaigc,d'eftrc demeurez apres celluy,qui 
fen eft all? a huicl heures,ou a Midy,puifque a la fin du lour 
il nous fault auffi ia pallor. Parpuoy difoit Cicero,St difoic 
bien.Tu as le fommeil pour imaige de laMort,& tousles 
iours til ten reuefH.Etfidoubtes/ly a nul fentiment a la 
Morc,coinbien que tu voyesqu'en Ion iimulachre iln'ya* 
nul fennmct. Et dicT: apres que Alcidamus vng Rheteur an<s 
tique efcripuit les louanges de la Mort,cn lefquelles eftoienc 
Cotcnuz Ics nornbres des maulx des humains,SC ce pour leur 
fnircdefirer la Mort. Car li le dernier lour n'amaine extin* 
crion, mais commutation de lieu, Qucft il plus a dei'ircr? Ec 
fil efraincl&l efface to.ut,Queft il rien meilleur,que de Pens 
do/mirau millieu des labours de cefte vie^ainii ferepofcr 
en vng fempirernelfornmeil.Certesnatdre ne faict riens res 
inerairemcnt: mais determine 'toures crfofes a quclque fin* 
EIlc n'a done produictlhomme, affin apres auoirlouffert 
icy plufieurs trauaulx,elle l'cnferme en la mifere de perpc^ 
tuciieMortimaisarfmqu'aprcsvne longue nauigation clle 
le conduife a vne paifible demeure,& a vng tranfquiile port. 
Parquoy ceulx qui par vieillefle ou par maladie, font plus 
pres de la mort,font d'autant plus heureux que les ieunes'Sc" 
fains comme ceulx qui auoir trauerfe plufieurs mers,SC vn< 
doyantcs flortes do mcr,arnuct auport aucc plus grad aife, 
que les encores comenceans aefprouuer les penileux dagiers 
do la longue nauigation n'^gueres accommencee.Et ne fault 
craindre qu'a cc port,& point de la Mort,air aulcfi mal. Car 
mcAiics e'efi la fin de tons maulx, qui lelburFrecx' paflcen 
vng moment d'ocil. Et pourtanc , tefincing le mefmeCia 


ccro,on hA que Cicobole,&l Biroa Furent fiiz d'unc renom- 
m-*e dame,laqticlle eftoic preftrelTe de la DcelFe iuno,&; ad 5 
uenautleiourde la grande (blcnnite de cellc Dceffejefdjetz 
enfans appareillerent vng charsor,auquel dz vouloiee mener 
au templelaPrcftrefkieur mere-Car la coufrumcdcsGrecz 
eitoit,que toutesfoys que les Prcftres debuoient offnr folen* 
ndzfacrifice^ouilz debuoient cftreponczde5gens,ou fur 
chariorz,tant prifoientilzleurs preftres,quc ii'iz eulFenr mys 
kpkda terre,de tour leiourne coiencoyent quilz euifenc 
orrert aulcun facrificc Aduint en apres,que cclie Prcfrrcfie 
cheminanrfur lechariot,queles cheuaulx,qui Ie coduifoient 
tombcrent mortz foubdaincmer.r au millieu du chemin,5£ 
loingdu temple bicn dix mille.Ce voyant fesenfans,»5tque 
leurMere nepouuoic allerapicd,& qlc chariot ncpouuoit 
eitre mene par nul aultrc bcftial(Car la n'en auoit point)ilz 
dctermmercnt de Ce mettre au lieu des cheuaulx,& de tirer le 
chariot,commc iilz fuftenc beftes-.rcilemJt que tout ainiique 
leur Mereles porta neuf moys en Ton venrre,SembIablemet 
iiz la porterent en ce chariot,par le pays iufques au temple, 
cc que voyant la grande multitude du peuple,qui venoit a 
cefte foIennite,fen efmerucilleret giandement.Et difoient ces 
ieunes enfans eftre dignes dung grand guerdon. Er en vcrire 
ilz le meritotent.Apres que cell.e fefte fut aciieuee,ne iaichant 
la Mere auec quoy tatisfaire a fes enfant d'ug f\ grad ntcrire, 
Pna la Beetle Iuno,qu'il luy pleuftdonncr axes enfans la 
meilleurechofeque lesDieuxpeuuent donncr a leurs diets 
amys.Ce que la DeeflTe luy accorda voulcnticrs pour vnc li 
Heroique oeuure.Parquoy elle feit que lefdiAz enfans fen* 
dormirent fains^ au lendcmam on les rrouua morrz.Puis 
de cecy a la complaignace Merc did Iuno.Reailegrc toy .Car 

la plus gr ande vengeance que les Dieux peuuent prendre de 
leurs ennemys,c'eft de les faire longucmcnt viure. Ut k plus 
grand bien duquel fauonfons noz amys,c'eft de les fairc toft 
mounr.Les autheurs de cefte hiftoirc font Hizcnarque en fa 
Pohriquc,& Cicero au pmicr de la Tufculane.Lc fcmblable 
en print aTriphone,&t Agamendo. Lefquclz pour auoir 
r'edifif ce ruynant temple d'Apollo,qui enliile deDclphos 
eftoit tant folcnel,auoir rcquis audid Apollo pour leur gucr 
don,Ia chofe meilleure delaquelk leshumainsont befoing, 
les feit (bubdainemenc mourir tous deux au fortir de foup* 
per a lentree dudict temple. Pay voulentiers amene ces deux 
exemples,affin que tous lesmortclz congnoilTent qu'il n'y a 
bon efcat en cefte vie,finon quand il eft paracheue.fct ii la fin 
de viure n'eft fauorcu(e,au moins elle eft moult prouflFitable. 
Pourtant ne Pen fault douloir,plaindre ne craindre la Mort. 
Toutainiiqu'ung viateur fcroit grandement imprudent^! 
cheminat en fuant par le chemin,(e mettoit a chanter,& puis 
pour auoir acheue faiournec,comenceoit a plorer.Pareille 
follie feroitvng nauigant,fil cftoit marry d'eftre arriuc au 
port:ou celluy qui done la bataille,& foufpire par la victoire 
par luy obtenue.Donc trop plus eft imprudet&folccliuy, 
qui cheminant pour aller a la Mort,luy fafche de l'auoir rens 
cotree.Car la Mort eft le veritable reffuge, la fanri parfaicfre, 
leporta(Teure,lavicioireentierc,la chair fans os,lc poiiTbn 
fans efpine,lc grain fans paille. Finablement apres la Mort 
n'auons pourquoy plourer,ne riens moins a delircr.Au reps 
de l'Empcreur Adrian mourut vne Dame fort noble,parcte 
de l'Empercur,a la Wort de laquelle vng Philofophe feit \ ne 
oraifon 5 en laqlle il did: plufieurs maulxdc la vic,& plufieurs 
biens de la Mort.fc'c ainfi que l'Empereur l'interrogua,quclle 



chofe cftoit la Mort. Refpondit. La Mort eft vug ctcrne! 
fommeil,vne diftblution du Corps,vng efpouueictnem des 
riches,vng delir despouures^vngcasmeuitable^vng peieri* 
naige incertain-vng larron des hdmes>vne Mere du dornoir, 
vne vmbrc de vie,vng feparement des viuans,vnecompate 
gnie des Mortz.Finablement la More eft vng bourreau des 
mauluais,&C vng fouuerain guerdon desbons.Aufquelles 
bonnes peroiles deburoit on continuellementpenfer. Car 15 
^vne goutiere d'eaue penetre par corinuatio vne dure pierre, 
aulfi par continuelle meditation de ia Mort il n'eft Ci dur,qui 
ne f amolifle.Seneque en vne epiftre racompte d'ung Philo* 
fophe,auquel quand on .uy demanda,quel mal auoit en ia 
Mort que les hommes craignoiet-tant. Refpbndit.Si aulcun 
dommaige,ou ma1,fe trouue en celluy,qui meurt^n'eft de la 
proprietcde la morr.mais duvice de celluy,qui fe meurt. 
Semblablemet nous pouuous dire,qu'ainfi commele fourd 
ne peult luger des parollcs,ne l'aueugle des couleurs,rat peu 
peult celluy,qui iamais ne goufta la Mort, dire mal de la 
Mort.Car de tous ceulx,qui font mortz,nul ne fe plainer de 
laMort,&deceulxqui font viuans,tous fe plaignent de la 
vie* Si aulcun desmortztournoit pardeca* parlcr auec les 
viuans,& comme qri l'a v experiment* 7 nous dilbit fily & 
aulcu ma! en la Mort,ce feroit raifon d'en auoir aulcu efpou* 
uentement.Pourtmt fivng homme,qui n'ouyr,ne v«t,ne 
fenut,rie goufta iamais laMorr,nous diet mal de la Mort, 
pour eel a,debuons nous auoir horreur d'ellccQuelque grad 
mal doibuct auoir faift en la vie"ceulx,qui craignct,& difent 
mal de la Mort.Car en celle demiere hcure,& en ce extrefme 
iugemenr,c'eft la,ou les bons fontcongneuz,& les mauluais n'y a Roys,Empereurs,Priccs,Cheualiers,ne 
riches,ne pouurcsyie fains,ne malades,ne heureux,ne inform 



funcz,ne ic nc veoynu! qui viue en Con c'tac contenr/ors 
ceulx,qui fonr rnortzrquienlcursfcpukhresfbnt en paix,& 
en repos paiiibkment,la 5 ou ilz ne font auariacux,coui'jOi« 
teux,fuperbes ne fubiectz a aulcuns vices, en fone,que Ieftat 
des mortz doibt cftre 1c plus aireure,puis qu'en Celt efrat ne 
voy5:>auIcijmefcote"rerner.ApsccuIx,qui for pouures,chcr* 
cherpour fenrichirX-estriftespour fe refiojir.Lcsmalades 
pour auoir fante.Mais ceuSx,qui ont de la Morr rat de crain* 
te,ne cherchent aukun remede pour n'en auoir peur.Par 
quoy ic cofeillerois fus cecy que Ion foccupaft abien viure, 
pour non craindre rant Ja Morr. Car la vie mnocenre faicr la 
Morr aireuree.Interrogu? lediuin Platon dc Socrates,come 
i\ fei'tojt porte auec !a vie>dC come ll fe porreroit en la Morr. 
Refpondit*Scaches Socrates* qu'en ma icuneffe rrauailiay 
pour bien viur^SC en lavicilielTe tafchay abien mourir.Ec 
ainii que la vie a efte honncfre,ieipere la Mort auec grand aU 
Icgreiie,8£ ne tiens pane a viure,ne riendray crain<fte a mou* 
rir.Telles porolles furet pour certain dignes dung tei home. 
Fort font courrouflez les gens quand llz ont bcaucoup rra* 
uaiilc ,6C on ne 3eur paye leur fueur.Qusnd ilz font fidelles, 
& on ne correfpond a jeur loyaulri ,quand a leurs grans tens 
uices les amys font ingrat z. O bicheureux ceulx qui meurer, 
aufquelz relies deforrunes ne font aduenues,& qui font en la 
fepukurc fans ces remortz.Car en ce diuin tribunal fe garde 
atoustante{gallemetlaiu(tice,que au rnekne lieu^quc nous 
merirons en la vk^en icelluy fommes colloquez apresla 
Mort.Iamais n'y a\n*y aura luge tant iuftc,quc rendic 
ie guerdon par poix,6c la peine par mefure. Car aukunefois 
font pugmsksInnocentzySCabfoulz lescoulpabks.Maisil 
i\'cft ainfi en la Morr.Car chafcu fe doibt tenir pour certain, 
quell Ion a v la* bondroictquelon obtiendra fcntence a fon 
prouffir.Piutharque en fes A porhe^matcs recire,q au tfpf 
que k grand Catoh citoic cenfeur a Rome^ourut vng res 


nommc Roinain^lequel monftra a fa mort vnegrande fords 
iudevXconftance:&amfi que iesaulcres Ie louoicnt deion 
im nuable <x intrepide cucur^ dcs conftantes parolles,qu'il 
diioic trauaillant a !a Mort.Cato Cenfonn fen nou de ceuix, 
qui cant louoienccemort-qui cant efcoit aiieure^&lquipres 
noit li bien la Mort en gre,leur difant, Vous vous efpouues 
tcz de ce,que ie ric>:& ie rir> dc ce,que vous vous efpouuctez, 
Carconiiderez les trauaulx,& perilz,auec lefquelz paflons 
ceftc miferablc vie 7 5C la feurte } & reposauec lefquelz nous 
mourons.ledyqu'ileft beibing de plus grand effort pour 
vjure,que de hardiefle 6Cgrad couraige pour mourir.Nous 
ne pouuons nyer que Caton ne parla tort faigemct,puis que 
nous voyons tous les iours,voire aux perfonnes vcrtueuies, 
endurer fain,foif,froir,fafcheric,pouurete, calfmies,rnrtefles, 
mimitiez,& infortunes. Toutes lefquelles chofes vauldroit 
mieulx ve^ir leur fin en vng iour,q deles fouflFrir achafcune 
heure-jCar moindre mal eftvne mort honefte que vne vie 
annuyeufe.O Cobiefoticofiderezceulxqui ne pefcm qu'ilz 
nont q a mourir vne foi's, puis que a la verite,q des ie iour q 
naiffons comcce noftreMorr,& au dernier iour acheuons de 
mourir. Ft fi la Mort n'eft aultre chofe,imon fmir la vigucur 
delavie.RaifonnabIeferadedire,qnoftre enfancc-mourur, 
noflre ieuneffe mourut,noftre virilite mourut,&meurt,3£ 
mourra noftrc vieillefle.De'queHes raifons-pouuonsrccoli; 
ger,que nous mouronschafcun an chafque moys,chafque 
iour,chafque heure,& chafque momet.En forte que penfans 
pafler la vie fetnc, La Mort va rouiiours en emtnifcnc aucc 
nous.Ecncpuisfcauoir,pourquoyon fefpouurte fi fort de 
mourir^puifque des le poind qu'on vknt a naiftre,cn ne 
cherche aulrre chofe que la Mort. Car on n'eut lamais bulte 
ck temps pour mourjr,ne iamais nul ne C"eurerrer,ou farllir 
Ie chcmiii de ia More. Scncque en vac lienne epiftrecopr«; 

M ij 


qu'avneRornaine plorancfoniilzquiluyeitoic mort fore 
ieuncjluy dj<ft vng Philofophe. Pourquoy pkures tuco Da« 
me,con enfahtfEIle luy reipondic. Ic pleure,pource qu'il ne 
vefquit que qmnze am^SC ie deiirois qui] euc vefcu cinquace. 
Car nou s meres aymons ranr noz enfans,que iamais ne iom* 
mesfaoulles de les veoir,ne iamais cellbns de les plourer* 
Alors luy did ce Philoiuphe«Dy moy ie re prieDame.Pour 
4juoy ne te complains tu des Dieux,pour n'auoir fai A naiflrc 
ton lilz pluficurs ans- au parauanc,ccmme tu ce complains, 
qu'iiz n-: lont lanTeviure aulrre cinquanre ans^Tu pleurcs 
qu'il mourutdeuantEage'&tu ne plores qu'il nalquir lant 
sard. I e ce dy pour vray que fi cu ne maccordes de ne te con* 
trifterpour i'ungtanr peu doibtztu pleurerpour l'aultre. 
A cccy f; coforraant Plmc difoit,en vne Epiltreique la meil* 
kureloyque lesDieux auoient donne a ihumaine narure, 
cftoit que nul n'euc la vie perpetuelle.Car auec le defordone 
deilr dc viure longuement iamais ne tafcherions de fbrtir de 
<ce(k peine.Difputans deux Philofbphes deuant i'Empercur 
Theodofien,lung deiquelz fesforcoic dire,qu'il eftoic bofi fe 
procurer la Morc.Ec l'aultre (emblablemcc difoit eftre chofe 
necefiaire abhorrirla vie.Refponditle bon Thcodofe.Nou* 
aukres mortelz (omes cat arfe&ionez a aymcr^Sc a abhor rir, 
que foubz couleur de moult aymer la vie^nous nous dSnos 
fort mauluaife vie* Car nous (ourfrons cant de chofes pour 
Iaconferucr,qu'ilvauldroit mieulx aulcune foys la perdre. 
Er fi dys dauanraige.En telle follic font venuz plufieurs hora 
mes vains,q aulli par crainde de la Mort procurer de l'acce* 
Jerer.Et penfant acecy,feroisd'aduis,que nous n'aymiffion* 
trop la vk^nc qu'auec detefpoir ne cherchiffions par crop la 
Mort.Car les homes fors SC virillesyie deburoient abhorrir 
de viu/t cant quilzpourront,n« waindre U Mort quandelk 

leur aduiendra. Tous louerenc ce,c]uc. did 1 hcodofe: come 
le recite en faviePauleDiachre.Or diienr tousles Philo* 
iophescequ'ilzvoukirouCque anion petit mgemenc ilme 
femble,qu»! celluy feul recepura la mort fans peincjeql long 
temps au parauam fc (era appareille pour U receuoir. Car 
routes mortz foubdaincs ne font ieullement ameres a ccuix, 
qui lagouftctaMais aulfi elpoucteceulx qui en ouyet parler. 
L)iioitLactance,quel'hommedoibt viurecn telle manure, 
come (d debuoit mourir dens vne heurecCar les homes,qui 
tiennent la Mort ,ou fon imaige dcuant les yeulx,eft impoui* 
hie qu'ilz donent Jieu aux mauluaifes penfees. A mon aduis, 
&a 1 aduis d'ApulIie pareillcfollie eft de vouloir fuyrce,qui 
nefepeukeuiter,comedede(irerce,quon ne peukauoir*Ec 
iedycecy pour ceulxqui rcBfuientle voyage de laMort,de 
qui le chimin eft nereftairePourtant a le fuyr eft importable. 
Ceuk qui one a faire vng grand cheminjfi leur fault quelque 
cholepArlechemin^'lz empruntenr. de leurs compaignons: 
SCf'ilz.oublient quelque chofe au logis,ilz elcripuent que 
lOn le leur enuoye. Pourtati'ay dueil de ce,que,puifque vne 
foys fommes- mortz,qu'on ne nous laiife mourner. Ne nous 
ne pourrons parler , Sc ne nous (era permys d'elcripre* Car 
telz,quelznousferos trOuuez,pour telz (erons fentetiez. Et 
que eft plus terrible que tour,c'eft que I'xecutionySC la fer?s:ecc 
fedonnera tout en vng iour.Parpuoyie coieille atousies 
mortelz que nous viuions en telle maniere,qu ! a i'heure de la 
Mort puiiftons dire,que jious viuons,non que nous auons 
vefcu.Carqui n'^ bienvefcu,ilvauldroitmieulxn'auoircu 
Vie,qui ne iera pour riens comptee vers Dieu irnmorcel,qui 
eft irnmorteI,pour aprcs cefte moitelle vie nous faire immor 
telzcommeluy,Auqucl foitgloire,&honneur auikekdes 
iiccks. Amen* 

M ij 


de la More qui ne laiflc riens 

eftre pardura# 


VIS Q.VE DE LAMortauons 
rn6ftrc,& les ymaiges , & les admirablcs 6C 
falubreseffedz, II fault aufli pour ceulx,$| 
trop affeurez nc la craignct & n en font co 
pte,bailler qlque elguillo de h fiene ineuita 
blc fatalite.D5t ie m'efbahis comet tl peult 
eftre,q la memoire de la Mort Coit ft Icing* 
caine de la penfee de pluiieurs,vcu qu'il n'ya riens,q iournel 
lemct (e reprefence tant deuat noz yeulx. Pour le premier les 
Mortclz ne foe ilz appellez de ce vocable de MortfParquoy 
il eft impoffible de nous nomer,que noz oreilles ne nous ai 
moncftet de la Mort. Quelle lethargie eft cela? Mais de quel* 
le aflfeuraceCarfin que ie ne dye infolece)peulc venir,qu on y 
pcfc (i pcuCAuons nous tat beu de ce fleuue Lethes,que Ion 
di&fleuued'obliuionjquedecequi neceffe de fei ngerereit 
noz penf;es,n'en ayos memoirc,ne fouuenacef somes nous 
fi en pierres endurciz^qu'en voyantySc" ouyar.t tat de Mortz 
en ce mode,penfon3 qu'elle nenousdoibue jamais furpren* 
drefGn voyos nous vng feul des Anriens,qui foit fur terre? 
En noftre teps mefmes,en voir on vng auql la Mort pardos 
ne. LesMaieursfen font allez. Et leurcouient bien cedicl 
dt Cicerojlz one vcfcu^Si nous fans aulcune difference alios 
apres eulx,& noftre pofterite nous fuy ura.Et a la forte du ra* 


uilTanc torrct^cn Occidet fommes precipitez* Au milteu de« 
occilions des mouras moribudes fommes aucuglez.Et coots* 
bien que ayons vne mefme condition 6c vns mefme fataiice 
des noftre naiflfance,nous ne craignons d'y paruenirjk ieune 
perfonaige dira.A quoy m'admoneftes tu dc pcfer a SaMors 
pour me faire perdre routes le ioyes de ce modcc'Mon Eagc 
eft encores enrierjtt Pen fault beaulcoup, que ie n'aye la teftc 
grife,quc le front ne me foit ride.Ceulx craignet la Mort,qui 
font chenuz,& decrepites.Mais a tel fault refpodre } Quel act 
dieux ti promis de venir chaulue,& rid?? Si Ion ne veoy t lea 
vieillardz eftre mys en (cpulture,ie dirois qu'il ne feuldroie 
iufques en vieilleflTe,penfer ala Mort.Mais puis qti'elle vient 
BC rauic en tout Eage,voire eftamcl les no encor nez,!es gar* 
dant pi as toft de venir en vie T q les en oftlcSi des m5m dies 
de leurs meres,elle les vient fouuent rauir,fi elk ne faid diflfc 
renceafexe,a l'Eage,a beaulti a laydeur.Si Ion voir plus de 
ieunesges,que de vieulx porter ala fepulture,ie ne fcay que! 
le ieune(Te,ou aultre abus mondain nous pourra aflfeurer? 
Voulez vous oultre les fimulachres,icy ia deflfus figurez dc 
ta Mort,que ie vous en monftre vng naturel,der,& manifc* 
fteCEn la Prime verc contemplez vng floriffant arbre , qui 
efttant couuert de fleurs,qu'apeine y peult on voir ne bran 
chesne fueilles , prome&ant au voir defi efpe(Tes,& belles 
fleursjfi grade habodance de frui<ftz,qu'il femble impoffiblc 
truouuer licu^aflez ample pour les recueillir, Mais d'ungis 
grSt nobre de flcurs peu en vienent a bie.Car vne parrie *# 
rogf e des Chenilles Jaultre eft des Yraignes corrfrpue. Vne 
part du vet,ou de la geleejaultre de la pluye eft abartue, Ft 
ce qu'en rcfte, 3d qui eft form? en fruift,a voftreaduis vict if 
tout a bone maturitefCcrtes no.Pluiieurs frui&z font man* 
gcz des vers Jes aultres foni abatruz des ventz 3 6t* gaftez d« 


Tempefte* Aulcunsibnrpourriz par trop grande pluyc«Et 

pluiicurs par infinitz aultres incoueniens meuret. Tellemcnc 

qu a la fin d'une iiriche efperace,on n'en recoit q biepeu d« 

p5;nes.N5 demoinires incoueniens eft perfecutee la vie hu 

maine.Il yamille nos de maladies,mille casfortuitz deMorr, 

par lefquelz la More en rauir plus deuat Eage,qu'elle ne raift 

parmarurire detcps.Ecapeine entre cent, en yailvng qui 

meurenaturellement.C'eftadire,aqui Ihumeur radicallenc 

aye efte abbrcuiee,ou gaftec par exces.Et veu q a tanc de pes 

nlz de Mortz eft expofre la vie des mortelz,quel aueughflTo 

met eft cela de viure aIli 3 come (i no 9 ne debuios iamais mou 

rirde vo? demade,Si les enemys cftoict a noftre porte pour 

nous doner l'aflTaulr^irios no^alors pparer baings,&baquetz 

pour no 9 gaudir^Et la Mort eft a no 9 plus capitale ennemye, 

qui en toute place,a toute heure,cn mille embufches eft apres 

pour no'Jfurpredre.Ce pendat no*ne nous en (bucios.Nous 

nousmirons a noftre Or,Argent& a noz biens. Nousnc 

fbucions de bie nous nourrir,couoitons honneurs, digm'rez, 

$C offices.Certes fi no' pefios bie a ce q le prophcte no*' diet 

cnlaperfonneduRoy malade,Difpofe a ta maifbii , Car til 

mourras incotinet. Toutes ces vanitez mufardes no 4> (eroiec 

anicres.Leschofes pcieules-nous fcmblcron"tviles:les nobles 

Ordes.Et la Mort figuree.,fi clle icauoir parler,diroit,A quoy 

o Auaricieux,amafies tu tat de ircfors,puifc]ue roft i'empor* 

teray rout? A quoy pour vng (i brief chemin ppares ru tant 

de baguaige. As tu oublye ce,qu'il adult a ce iot Euagelique? 

auqucl [c refiouiflant de (es greniers bie rempliz 8>C (en ,pro*» 

mctt5t grad chere,fut dicT:,Sot,cefte nuict onte oftera 1'ame.. 

Et ces chofes par toy amaflfees a qui (eront ellesc' Au iour de 

h Mort,quetcrefterailde toutes ces chofes,pour lelquelles 

aouerirjtu as confume tour ten EagcvDou prendras tu ayde 



conforr,& fecoursfAux richefles^Elles n'y peuuent rien$,3c 
deiia dies one aultres Seigneurs .Aux voluptez^Mais scelles, 
comeauec le corps dies lbntaccrues,auluauecle corps clles 
meure t.Rccourra Ion aux forces dcieuneflejas a vng chafcu 
fa vieilleile eft vnc More. Ou aura Ion elpoir,a la grace dc 
beaultc.par laqilc cnorguilliz,on attiroit chafcu a (o amour? 
Mais tour cda a ia mode des Rozcs,qui trouffees es doigrz 
incotinet font flacques,& mortes^Ainli beaultf ,cueillic par 
la iMorc icotiner fe fteftrit.Mats q dy ie fleltrircMais qui plus 
cft,deuiet en horrcur.Car nul n'ayma tant la forme duviuac, 
comcil a en horreur le corps eftamd d'ung rrelpalfc. Brief 
la gloire ne nous y pourra alors icruir.Car die clt efvanoyc 
auec forrune,& prolpcrice.Ne moms to 9 tes amys.Car alors 
n'a vng li fidcle,qui ne t'abandone.Et dequoy te leruna,iilz 
lc rompct les poicTrines a force deplourer,lifinablemetilz 
fc font copaignos de ra Mortc" Les maulx qu'ilz f ameinet,ne 
te peUuct de More deiiurer.Soyos docfaiges de bone heurc, 
&appareillonslescho(es.,parle(quellesgarniz auiour de la 
Morfjatreuremec puiflios attedrc ce dernier iour.Les nchefe 
Cesjcs vOluptez,noblcflc,qui aultre foys nous auoiet pleu,5C 
efte vtilles^crtes a no*' mouras ne font qu-en chargc,ck%n eh 
nuy.Et alors vertu nous acomcce a eftre en vGuge*Elle nous 
accopaigne fans no'* pouuoir eftre oft*e,& it nous en fomes 
bie garniz. Certes e'eft alors,tj les vertu&feruent. C'eft alors 
qu'il eft befbing q l'home moftre fa vertu,ia coftace,& fa ma 
gnanimiee,pour cobatrecotrele monde,la Mort,& Sathan, 
qui luy preienterot imaiges trop plus horribles que cdlcs cy 
deflus peindes & defcriptes. L a font reprefentez tous les pe* 
chez.La terrible iuftice de DicuXa face de defefpcratio.mais 
quoy:A l'excple de noftre Seignr Iefuchrift,qui en la Croix 
auoir heu femblables faces ck ceatanons 3 quSd on luy difoir, 



Vah qui deftruis le Tcmple.,11 Paulue les aulcrcs 8C ne fe peuk 
iau!uer,Sileft fiizdeDieuqu'il defcede,n,aduifoit 8C ne t'ar* 
reftoit a toutcs ccs chofes:Mais a Dieu Ton pere,auql fl rcco* 
manda Ion elpcrit.Semblablemet par vne forme foy, Si con* 
ftance,fauk rege&er routes ces tetar ios,n'auoir regard a noz 
maites,ou demcrites:mais feullemet drefler fa penfee,a la mi 
fericordc deDieuJaquclle feulle peuk adoulcir l'amertume 
qu'ondjct e/tre en la Morc,& vaincre plus 5 que routes noz 
torces 7 8C noz ennemys, 

Peu de gens,ofent dire aux malades 
la verite , bien qu'iiz congnoifiTent 
qu'iiz fen vont mourir, 

| 'Eft vne piteufc chok,& en doibt on auoir gran#- 

decompaction de ceu!x,qui maladians fen vont 

mourir.Non pource que nous les voyons rnoin 

_^rir:mais pource qu'il n'ydame,quileur dyece, 

qu'iiz ont a faire,ne coinenHiz doibuent difpofer pour eulx, 

oi pour leurs fucceftcurs.Eccertes,aIors les princes,&gras (a 

gneurs,font en plus grans perilz quand ilz meuret, que le pc 

tit populaire,tant par la fauke des medecins, la grande turbe 

defquelz perturbe fi bie 1'ung l'aukre,quilz nefcaiuct qu'iiz 

foni:Sd quelques foys , ou par peur de defplaire les vngs aux 

aukres,ou par crainte,que fi tout (eul opinoit,felon la vente 

de la medicine, & que Dieu vouluft prendre ce Seigneur, ilz 

laiuent aleur ordonner medecine conuenable > 5C(burrrent 

par diffimulation leur en eure baillec vne non conuenablcy 

mais du tout contraire a la fante du patient. Pareillement les 

affiftans au pres du Seigneur malade nc leur ofent dire,squ'il 

f'cnva mourir^&beaucoupmoinslirydkonx ilz, cement il 


fault qu'il meure.Come Ion recite de ce fol dun Roy qui ctv= 
tcndant dire aux medecins 7 & affiftas aupres dudicl fcigncur 
eftant au licT: de la Mort,qu'il fen alloit,le fol fen alia inconti« 
nent houzcr,Oc efperonncr,fappreftant pout fen aller auec 
Ton R oy,au quel i\ vint dire:Sire,coment va celaC t'en veulx 
tu nllcr fans moycToutes tes gens difent q tu t'en vas,& tou 
t cfTois ie n'en veois nul apparik" Cerres plus profita la follie 
de ce fol auRoy,que la faulfe,& cauteleufe faigcfle des gcs dc 
fa court. Retournant a propos, Plufieurs vont veoir les maa 
lades , lefquelz pleuft a Dieu qui ne les allaffent vifiter  Car 
voy as le malade auoir les yeulx enfoncez,la charneure deiTei 
chee,les bras fans poulx,lacollerc ertflab«c,lachalleur contis 
nuellcj'irrcpofabletourmetjalanguegrofle , 8C noire^ les 
efpritz vitaulx cofumez,& finablemct voyat'io corps ia pref 
que cadauerif, encores luy difent ilz,qu'il aye bonne efperSce 
qu'il a encores plufieurs bons fignes de vie . Et comme ainfi 
foil que les kunes gens defirent naturellcment de viure, 
8C qua tous vieillardz lew foit peine de mourir,quand llz 
fe vcoyct en celle extreme heure il n'eft medecine,ne fecours, 
ne remede,qu'lz ne cherchent , n'efperance , en qui ilz ne 
fe rcconfortcnt pour prologerle vie. Etdelafenfuitqueles 
cherifz meurent bien fouuent,fans confeffion,fan3 rece* 
puoirleursfacrementz,&fans ordonner,qu'on repareles 
maulx par eulx faictz,& les tortz qu'ilz tienent d'aulrruy . O 
fi ceulx,qui font telles chofes,fcauoicnt le mal qu'jlz fonr,ilr 
ne comcrtroient iamais vne fi grande fauIte.Car de mc ofter 
mes biens,per(ecuter ma perfbnne,denigrer marcnommee, 
ruyner mamaifon,deftruiremoparctaige,fcadalizcr ma fa* 
mille,criminer mavie,ces ouures fot dug cruel ennemy.Mais 
d'eftre occafion,q ie perde mo ame,pour no la cofciller au be 
fbing,c'eft vne oeuure ctug diable d Enfer.Car pire eft q vng 

N r| 


diablc 1 homc,qui trompe lc maladc: Auquei au lieu de luy 
aydcr k met a rabufer,a luy promcrcre qu'il ne mourra pas. 
Car pi 9 conucnable eft alors luy doner cofeil pour la coicien 
ce,que de luy dire parolles plaifates pour le corps.Nous fom 
mes en coures chofes defuergongnez aue'e noz amys durat Li 
vic,5t nous nous faifbns vcrgoigncux auec eulx a la Mort,cc 
qu'on ne deburoir. iamais faire,Car fi les trefpaiTez ne fuflfent 
mortz,& fi nous ne voyos les p(entz cous les lours mourir, 
il me fcmble q ce (eroit hote,<5c choie efpouuetable de dire au 
maladc q luy (eul doibc mourir.Mais puys q vo' } fcauez que 
iuy,& luy auifi bien que vo'^q tous cheminos par cede peril 
leufe iournec,quel!evergoigne. ) oucraincT:edoibt on auoir, 
de dire a fo amy,qu'il eft ia ala fin d'icelle iourn?e?Si au iouna 
d'huy les mortz refu(citoient,ilz (e plaindroiet merueilleufe* 
met de leurs amis,n5 pour aulcre chofe,q pour ne leur auoir 
donebocoieil al'heure delaMort.Ern'y aaulcundagcr de 
les bie cofeiller a fby pparer bie qu'ilz fen eftonnct.Pour aul 
tant q nous en voyos plufieurs qui en ont faict leur debuoir 
qui appareillezde mourir,e{chappec bie Ec mourir ceulx,g 
n'en auoiet fai & aulcune pparatio.Quel dSmaige font ceulx, 
qui vot vifitcr leurs amys malades,deleur dire,qu'ilz le cons 
felTen^qu'ilz facentleur teftamcr,qu'ilz diipoient de tout ce, 
dot llz fc fentet chargez,qu'ilz recoiuet les facremcs,qu'ilz fe 
rccocilict auec leurs ennemyscPour certain toutes ces chofes 
nefont ne plus toft mourir,ne plus loguemctviure Jamais 
ne fot aucugliffemet tant aueugle,ne ignorace tant craiTe coc 
me d'auoir crainte,ou hontc de cofeiller aux malades aufqhr 
on eft ob!igc,ce qu'ilz ont affairc,ou qlz feroyet,f ilz cftoiec 
lains.Les hoes prudetz,& faiges,auant q nature leur dcfaille, 
ou les corraigne a mourir^lz doiuct de leur bo gre,& frachc 
volute mourir >Ccitafcauoir,q deuat qu'ilz fe voyet en celle 

eftroic"tc heure,riennet ordoaecs les chofes de leur cofcience. 
Car ii nous tenons pour fol celuy.quiveult paflcr lamer Sans 
nauire,tiedrons nous pour faige celiuy , qui n'a nul apparcil 
pour paflcr de ce monde en lauitre? Que pert vug homnie 
d'auoir ordone de Ton cas,& faicl: Ton teftarner,de bone heu« 
reCEn ql adueture met ii Ton honneur de Toy recocilier auant 
qu'il meure auec ceulx aufqlz auoit haync ou querelleCQuel 
credit pert celiuy qui reftitue en la vk^ce qu'il made reftituer 
aps fa mortCEn quoy fe pcult moftrer vng home plus faige,. 
que a (e defcharger de fon bongre,dece,que apresfaiMorc 
on Ie defchargera par force de procescO cobien de gras per« 
fonages,&de riches peres de famille , cj pour na'uoir occupc 
vng feul iour aordoner de leur cas,5C faire leur teftamct,on£ 
faict aller leurs heritiers,& fucceffeurs , aprcs plaid,& proces 
toute leur viec"en forte que pefans,quilz laiflaiTent des biens 
pour nourrir leurs heritiers,ne les ont laifle qpour elerez, 
procureurs,& aduocatz.L'homme qui eft bon,& non feincfc 
Chremcn,doibt en telle maniere ordoner,fbn cas,6Ccorriger 
(a vie chafque matinee,coment fil ne debuoit paruenir iufqs 
a la nui<$,ou come fil ne debuoit veoir Paultre matinee fiiy* 
uante.Car parlant a la veritc pour fouftenir noftre vie ii y ^ 
pluijcurs trauaulxtMais pour choquerauec la Mortal n'y v 
que vng hurt,Si 15 donoit foy a mes parolks,ie coieillei ois a 
toute perfonnc,qu'il n'ofaftviure en tel eftat 3 au ql pour touc 
lor du monde il ne vouldroit mourir.Les riches., ck les pou* 
ures,les grans,& les petitz difent treftous 5 5Ciurent,qirilz ont 
peur de la Mort.Auiquelz ie dy,que de celiuy feul pduuons 
nous auec verite dire quil craincl a mourir,auquel ne voyos 
faire aulcun amedemec de fa vie.Parquoy tons fe doibucnt 
achcuer deuSc quilz f acheuet,nnir auat qu'ilz finiflent,Mou 
nr dcuat qu'ilz meurer,& f enterrer auan c qu'on les en terre , 

N in 


Car f ilz achcuent cecy aucc eulx,aucc telle facilite laifferoc la 

vie,come ilz fe mueroient d'une maifon en vne aultre.Pour 

la plusgradparrie tafchenr les homes parler de loifir,aller de 

Joiiir,boire a loifir,mager aloifirifeullemet au moiirir l'homc 

veulc eftre preffe.No fans caufe dy,qu'au mourir les homes 

font haftifz 8C preflifz:puifque les voyos faire leur defcharge 

ahafte,ordoner leurteftamet a hafte,fe cofeffer a hafte,fc co* 

muniquer a hafte,en forte quilz le prenent & demandet tant 

tard,& tant fans raifon,que plus prouffite cefte hafte a tous 

aultres-,qu'a la faluation de leurs amcs.Que prouffite !e gou* 

uernail,quand la nauire eft fubmargee? Que prouffi tent les 

armes apres que la bataille eftrompuec'Queprouffitentles 

emplaftres,ou medicincs-.quadles homes lot mortztle veulx 

dire,dequoy fert aux maladcs,apres quilz font hors du fens, 

ou quilz one perdu lesfcnrimes,appeller les pftres pour les 

cofeflcr.Trefma^certes fe pourra cofeffer celluy qui n'a iuge 

ment de fe rcpenrir.Ne fabirfent les gens difans quand nous 

ferons vieulx nous nous amenderons.Nous nous repetirons 

a la Mort. A la mort nous nous cofefferos. A la mort ferons 

reftitution.Car a mon aduis cela n'eft dung home faige,ne 

d'ung bon Chrefrien,demader qtfil aye reftc de temps pour 

pecher,& q lc teps luy faille pour foy ameder,Pleuft a Dieu 

que la tierce part du teps,que les gens occupent ieullemct en 

penfer come ilzpecheror,qu'ilzI*occupaflent apcfer,come 

ilz doibuet mourir.Er la fblicitude qu'ilz employer pour ac« 

complir leurs rnauluais defirs,fempIoya a plourer ducueur 

leurs pechez.Dont e'e/t grad malheur,q aucc l! peu de foucy 

pafTcnt la vie envices 6c modanirez:come f'il n'y auoit point 

de Dieu.qui quelque iour leur en doibue demader comptc. 

Tout Je mode a bride auallee peche'.auec efperace qu'en vicil 

kfle ilz k amederont ? 3C qua la Mort ont-a loy repecir,dotu 


fe vonldroye demadcr a cclluy qui auec telle cofiance cornet 
1c peche.Quelle certainete il a de venir en vieiUefTc.& quelle 
alfeurace il a d'auoir loifir a la Mort de Toy repentirc'Car par 
experiece nous voyons plufieurs,ne venir a vieillefie^ plu< 
fieurs qui meuret foubdainemet, II n'eil raifonnable ne iufte 
que nous cometrjons rant de pechez toute noftre vie,& que 
ne vueillons que vng iour,ou vne feulle heure pour les pio* 
rer 8C Pen repentir.Combien que fi grande foit la diuine cle* 
mece^u'il fouffife a vng perfonaige d'auoir vne teulie heure 
pour foy reperjr de fa mauluaiie vie. Toucesfois auec cela ie 
co(eillerois,que puis que le pecheur pour famedcr ne veuit 
que vne feulle heure,que cefte heure ne rut la derriere;Car le 
foufpir qui fe raid auec bone voulete,& de bon grt,penetrc 
les cieulx. Mais celluy qui fe faid par cotrainde 6C neceffite^i 
peine paifc il la couuerture de la maifo.C'eft cho(e louable q 
ceulx qui viiitet les malades,leur cofcillenc qu'ilz fe cofeffent, 
qu'ilz (c comumqu€t,rendcc leurs deuorions,foufpiret pour 
leurs pechez, Finablemet e'eft tresbie faid de faire tout cell. 
Touresfois il feroit trop meilleur I'auoir faid au parauanr ,& 
de bone heure.Car le dextre 8C curieuxmarinier quad lamer 
eft calme,alors fe appareille dC f apprefte il pour la tormente* 
Celluy qui profondement vouldroit confiderer , combien 
peu on doibt e/hmer les biens de ce monde^u'il aille veoif 
mourirvngrkheperfonnaige,comentileit en fa chambre, 
ou il verra comme au chetif malade. La femme demade ion 
douaire. Lune desfilks le tiers. Laultre le quart. Le filz la 
meilleure part de l'heritaige.Le nepueu vne maifon. Le me* 
decim (on falaire.Lappoticaire payemer de fes drogues. Les 
creanciers leurs debtes.Les feruireurs leurs gaiges Bt falaires* 
Et ce qui eft Ie pire de tout nul de ceulx,qui doibuet heriter, 
ouenvaloirrojeulx,efi: la* pour luy bailler vng verre d'eaue 


pour boire,ou pour luy refraicher fon altere e bouchc.CeuI* 
out lironr cecy,ou l'orronr,doibucnc coBfarcr que ce,qu*ilz 
Vcircnc faire enlaMortde kurs voifinsyque ce mefmclcur 
adusedra a !a leur Mort.Car tout incorinenc qu'ng riche fer* 
re !cs veulx/oubdain a grades qucrclles enrrcnt fes hentiers. 
Ercecyno pour vcoir qui mieulx (e chargera de fonAtne: 
mais qui plustoft prcdra poileilion des biens qu'it laiffe.Par 
quoy vaulc trop mieulx en ordoner de bonne iicure auec 1c 
confdl des Jaiges^u'ainfi a la hafte en ordoner contre raifon, 
&a limporcunitc des defirans,dont puis eft caufeequerellc 
&debatcncfc eulx fi grandz&domajgeux,qu'ilz en maul* 
ditTcnt lemort,5crheure que iamaisil.leur a laiffe aulcuns 
biens.On en voit I'cxperience iournellemet.Parquoy ieroit 
thofefuperflue den voiiloir occuperle papier.Me cotentant 
pour cefte heure,d'aduifer vng chafcu qu'il doibt vne Mort 
a Dieu & no deux.Parquoy q de bone heure on face ft bone 
prouifion de la luy bic payer,qu'il nous en redone en laultrc 
monde celle vie cant bien heurcufe,qui ne peulc rnourir. 


Wni melchior et- 
g as par trechsbi* 


The Images and 



pourtrayed and artiftically 

Tr (inflated from the French of the Lyons edition 
of 1 538, £j/ 


To which are added 

The German Rhymes from 

Death and Eternity. 


Printed by CHARLES S. SIMMS. 

M^ D C C C. LX IX. 


Abbefs of the religious convent of S. Peter 

at Lyons, Madame Joanna de 

Toufzele, Salutation from a 

true Zele. 

HAVE good hope, Madame, and very religious 
mother, that at thefe fearful images of Death you 
will have lefs amazement than any perfon living : 
and that you will not regard it of bad augury, if 
to you rather than to any other, they are addreffed. For 
at all times, by mortification and aufterity of life, — though 
transferred by Royal authority to fo many different cloifters, 
and being there the example of religious religion and of re- 
formed reformation, — you have had with Death fuch fami- 
liarity, that in his very pit and fepulchral dormitory he 
could not more ftraitly enclofe you, than in the fepulchre of 
the cloifter, in which you have only buried the body; but you 
have had heart and fpirit now and then to look with fo free 
and entire a devotion, that you would never wifh to come 
forth thence, except like faint Paul, in order to go to lESVS 
CHRIST. The which good lESVS, not without divine provi- 
dence, has baptized you by name and furname into my 
unifounding confonant, except in the fingle letter T, a letter 
by fatal fecret the capital of your furname ; and fo far as it 
is the character Thau, (i) it is much celebrated among the 
Hebrews, and among the Latins taken for fad death. Alio 
by faint Jerome (2) it is called the letter of the crofs and of 
falvation ; marvelloufly agreeing with the falutary croffes 
borne by all you zvlio are zealous for holy religion. The 
which zealous ones Death has not dared to approach, what- 


ever vifitations God may have made you by almofl con- 
tinual maladies, in order not to contradict that harbinger 
Ezekiel, who had marked you with his Thau, a fign prohi- 
bitory of all hurtful Death, and which makes me believe 
that you will be among thofe of whom it is written, that 
they fhall not tafte its death-producing bitternefs. And as 
it will be neceffary that you reject not thofe funereal tales 
of worldly mortality as difagreeable and melancholy, do 
you, admonifhed by faint James, look upon the face of 
your nativity in thofe mortal mirrors, — in which mortals are 
mentioned as all fubject to Death, & to fo many miferable 
miferies, — in a way that not feeking your own pleafures, 
you will ftudy to pleafe God, according to the figure related 
in Exodus, faying, that at the entrance of the Tabernacle 
there was an arrangement of mirrors, to the end that thofe 
entering might in them be able to contemplate themfelves ; 
& at the prefent day there are fuch fpiritual mirrors fet at 
the entrance to Churches, & Cemeteries of old vifited by 
Diogenes, that he might fee if among thefe bones of the 
dead he could find any difference between rich & poor. 

And if Pagans, in order to refrain from doing evil, thus 
arranged at the entrances of their houfes graves and tombs 
in memory of the mortality prepared for all, ought Chrif- 
tians to have a horror of thinking thereon ? The images of 
death, will they be fo frightful in their eyes, that they are 
not willing either to fee them or to hear fpeak of them ? It 
is the true and proper mirror in which we ought to correct 
the deformities of fin, and to beautify the Soul. For as 
faint Gregory fays, (3) Whoever confiders in what ftate he 
will be at Death, will become timorous in all his doings, & 
as if he will not dare to fhow himfelf even to his own eyes : 
& whoever is not ignorant that he muft die, confiders him- 
felf as already dead. For this caufe the perfe6l life is the 
imitation of Death, which anxioufly achieved by the just, 


conducts them to falvation. So to all faithful people thefe 
fpectacles of Death will be inftead of the brazen Serpent, 
which when looked upon cured the Ifraelites of the ferpent- 
bites, lefs venomous than the attacks of concupifcence, by 
which we are continually affailed. 

Here a curious queftioner will fay : — What figure of 
Death can be reprefented by a living perfon ? or, How can 
thofe devife it, who have never experienced its inexorable 
powers ? It is very true that the invifible cannot properly 
be reprefented by the vifible. But exactly as by created 
and vifible things, as is faid in the epifble to the Romans, 
one can fee and contemplate the invifible and uncreated 
God ; in like manner by the things into which Death has 
made irrevocable openings, that is to fay, by bodies in 
fepulchres reduced to carcafes and under their monuments 
ftript of flefh, we are able to draw fome images of Death 
— images I name then truly, becaufe image comes from 
imaging and feigning that which is not. And although 
one has fcarcely ever found any thing more approaching 
to the likenefs of Death than the dead perfon, one has 
from this very effigy images and afpe6ls of Death, in 
order to imprefs upon our thoughts the memory of Death 
more to the life, than could all the rhetorical descrip- 
tion of orators. For this eaufe the ancient philofophy 
was reprefented in images and figures. And that we may 
well confider it, all the hiffcories of the Bible are figured 
only for our more lafting inftruftion. lESVS CHRIST even, 
figured he not his doctrine in parables and fimilitudes, in 
order the better to imprefs it on thofe to whom he preached 
it ? And our holy Fathers, have they not by godly hiftories 
figured the greater part of the Bible, which hiftories are 
ftill apparent in many churches, as we fee them in the 
Choir of that very venerable Church at Lyons ? Truly of 
that and of other ancient cuftoms this church is an admirably 


conftant obferver, and around it the images, there elegantly 
arranged in relief, ferve the illiterate for very ufeful & 
contemplative literature. However thefe furious image- 
breakers would beat them down, — would to God, that with 
fuch or with like images all our churches were covered, and 
that our eyes fliould not take pleafure in other more hurtful 

Then returning to our figured afpects of Death, very 
greatly do we come to regret the death of him who has 
here imaged forth for us fuch elegant figures, that go 
beyond all thofe hitherto drawn, even as the paintings 
of Apelles or of Zeuxis excel the modern. For his fune- 
real hiftories, with their defcriptions ftriftly rhymed, to 
thofe looking on excite fuch admiration, that from them 
they judge the dead there to appear very life-like, and the 
living to be reprefented very like the dead. Which makes 
me think that Death, fearing left this excellent painter 
fliould paint him too much alive, fo that there fhould be 
no more fear of death, & therefore that the painter would 
himfelf become immortal, — for this reafon, I fay, Death fo 
accelerated the artift's days, that he was not able to finifh 
many other figures already traced by him : as, that of the 
wagoner wounded and fhoulder-fprained under his over- 
thrown wagon, (4) the Wheels and Horfes of which are fo 
frightfully upfet, that there is as much of horror in feeing 
their overthrow, as of grace in contemplating the dainti- 
nefs of a Death, which ftealthily fucks with a reed the wine 
from the fallen tun. To which imperfect hiftories, as to the 
matchlefs heavenly bow named Iris, no one has dared to 
fet the laft hand, by reafon of the bold ftrokes, perfpe6lives 
and fhadows comprifed in this mafter piece, and there fo 
gracefully delineated, that we can take in them a delightful 
forrow and a fad delight as in a thing fadly joyous. 

Boldly let the antiquaries and amateurs of ancient images 


ceafe to feek more ancient antiquity than the portraiture of 
thefe Dead perfons. For in that portraiture will they fee 
over all the living the Emprefs invincibly reigning from the 
beginning of the world. It is fhe who has triumphed over 
all the Caefars, Emperors and Kings. It is truly the Hercu- 
lean ftrength, which, not with a club but with a fcythe, has 
mown down and extirpated all the monfters and bold 
Tyrants of the Earth. Not Gorgons looked upon, nor the 
head of Medufa in old time, made fuch ftrange Metamor- 
phofes nor fuch divers transformations as the attentive 
contemplation of thefe afpects of mortality is able to make- 
Now if Severus the Roman emperor, on the teftimony of 
Lampridius, (5) kept in his cabinet the images of Virgil, of 
Cicero, of Achilles, & of the great Alexander, in order by 
them to excite himfelf to virtue, I fee not why we ought 
to abominate thofe images by which we are reftrained from 
fin, and ftimulated to all good actions. The little, — but 
nothing thoughtfully, — which we now attribute to Death, 
makes me defire another Hegefias,(6) not to excite us to 
put violent hands upon ourfelves, as he did, when preaching 
the bleffings of Death, but better to defire to arrive at that 
immortality for which the defperate Cleombrotus caft him- 
felf into the fea ; then how are we fo much more affured of 
this bleffednefs promifed to ourfelves and not to the Pagans 
and unbelieving ? At the which fince we cannot arrive 
except by paffing through Death, ought we not to embrace, 
love, contemplate the figure and reprefentation of that by 
which we go from pain to repofe, from Death to life eternal, 
& from this deceitful world to God the true and infallible, 
who has formed us in his likenefs, to the end that, if we do 
not deform it, we may be able to contemplate him face to 
face, when it fliall pleafe him to make us pafs through that 
Death which is for the juft the moft precious thing that he 
had been able to give. 


Wherefore, Madame, you will take in good part this fad 
but falutary offering ; and you will perfuade your devout 
religious women to keep it not only in their little cells or 
dormitories, but in the cabinet of their memory, as faint 
Jerome (7) advifes in an epiftle, faying : Set up before thine 
eyes that image of Death in whofe day the juft will fear no 
evil, & for that reafon the juft will not be afraid, becaufe he 
will not hear the words, Go to the fire eternal ; but, Come 
thou bleffed of my Father, receive the kingdom prepared 
for thee from the creation of the world. Wherefore, who- 
ever will be ftrong defpifes Death, and the weak man flees 
it ; but no one can flee Death except he who follows life. 
Our life is lESVS CHRIST, & it is the life which cannot die. 
For he has triumphed over Death, in order to make us 
triumph over it eternally. Amen. 

Diuers Pictures of 


but extracted from the holy fcripture, 

coloured by Doctors of the 

Church, and fhaded 

by Philofophers. 

PEAKING in a Chriftian way 
concerning Death, I fhould not 
know towards whom better to 
addrefs queftions about it, than 
towards that good S. Paul, 
who through fo many deaths 
has come at laft to the glory 
of him who, when triumphing 
fo glorioufly over Death, faid, 
O Death, I will be thy Death. 
Wherefore, was uttered that 
which this intrepid Knight of Death faid in the epiftle to the 
Theffalonians. (8) I find that there he calls dying a fleep- 
ing, and Death a fleep. And indeed better could he not 
image it, than by comparing it to fleeping. For as fleep 
does not extinguifh man, but holds the body in repofe for 
a time ; fo Death does not deftroy man, but deprives his 
body of its movements & operations. And as the members 
lulled to fleep when excited by warmth move, live and 
work ; fo our bodies, by the power of God refufcitated, live 
eternally. No one, indeed, goes away to fleep in order per- 



petually to remain on the couch where he fleeps. So no 
one is buried in order for ever to remain in the fepulchre. 
And exactly as fleep has the empire and dominion over the 
body, and not over the foul, — for while the body fleeps the 
foul watches, moves and works, — so is the foul of man 
immortal, and the body only fubject to Death. And Death 
is nothing elfe than a feparation which the foul makes from 
the body. The foul then is the life and the immortal fpirit 
of the body, which foul on feparating itfelf leaves the body 
as if afleep ; and the body will awaken when it fhall pleafe 
him who has lordfhip over foul and body. And one owes 
not to one's felf too much grief for this Chriftian fleeping, 
any more than one owes it when any one of our dear 
friends retires to fleep, expecting that he will awake when 
he fhall have flept enough. Thus there is no need to be 
forrowful when any one dies, fince, as faint Paul fays, it is 
no other thing than fleep. Wherefore to this purport faid 
a Pagan poet, Whatever fleep may be, perhaps it is only 
the image of cold Death. 

But, in order to reafon concerning this Death according 
to natural philofophy, we fay: All the life that man lives 
in this world from his birth up to his death is a growth of 
nature. In fuch a way that when man is born from the 
womb of his mother, he enters the womb of natural life ; and 
this very man dying is again born through natural power ; 
under which propofitions is contained all human philofophy. 
Wherefore laying afide the errors of the Philofophers who 
affirm the fpirit of man to be mortal, let us follow thofe 
who, through a better opinion, fay that man has two con- 
ceptions, and two lives without any death. Now in order 
to fet forth this no trifling Philofophy, worthy indeed of 
being placed in memory, it is neceffary to underftand that 
man, when conceived in the maternal womb, grows in it, 
and there is maintained by his own Mother, from whom he 

OF DEATH. 115 

takes his entire fubftance and nourishment, which is the 
reafon why Mothers more tenderly than fathers love their 
children. On man being born, the natural life receives him 
into its womb, that is into this world, which then nourifhes 
him and maintains him with its aliments and fruits all the 
while that he is held in this worldly womb. And as the 
Mother for the fpace of nine months ftrives only to nourifh 
and bring forward her fruit, in order to carry it to the birth 
and to remit it to the charge of nature in this worldly life ; 
in like manner, nature, during the time that man remains 
in this worldly womb, endeavours only to fupport him and 
well to maintain him fo as to carry him on to maturity, 
and to make him, when he dies, be born again for the 
better and more enduring life. 

Then at the firft birth man denudes himfelf of the 
covering in which he was born enveloped. At the fecond 
birth he defpoils himfelf of the body ; it is, that the foul 
may iffue from prifon, so that what we call Death is only a 
birth for better life, — for all its births are always going on 
better and better ftill. The firft growth lafts nine months ; 
the fecond commonly an hundred years ; and the third is 
eternal, becaufe that from the womb of the natural ftate 
paffing to the divine ftate, we are maintained by the eternal 
fruition which renders our life eternal. In the Mother we 
were human, — our food was human. In the world, living 
of the worldly ftate, we are worldly and tranfitory : but in 
God we fhall be divine, becaufe that our maintenance will 
be of divine fruition. And exactly as the creature in the 
womb of its Mother paffes many dangers, perils and incon- 
veniences, if the mothers are not well on their guard and 
directed by women of experience (through want of whom 
at the delivery often it happens that the creature is born 
dead, or abortive, or killed, or idiotic, or with fome other 
natural defects, which then laft all the life of the creature 


thus badly delivered), fo not lefs defe6is and perils, but too 
often more pernicious ones, attend the fecond growth : 
for if, during the time that we live in the natural ftate, we 
do not live well according to God and reafon, inftead of 
bringing forth we die, and inftead of being born we are 
annihilated ; infomuch that then the Soul, through thefe 
defects, not being able to enter into nor to come to the 
light of the divine ftate, is engulphed for years in the 
peftiferous infernal Abyfs. And exactly as by the default 
of experienced nurfes who ought wifely to relieve and 
direct at the time of birth, many creatures die on iffuing 
from the maternal womb ; — fo, through the fault of good 
teachers and fponfors at this point and article which we 
call Death, but which I here call birth, many perifh. If 
then for the firft delivery we are fo careful to find the 
moft dexterous and expert nurfes that we know ; for the 
fecond, which is Death, ought we not much more to labour 
for the recovery of wife and holy perfons, who know well 
how to prepare and condu6t to a good harbour the fruit 
of that fecond birth which is paffing from this life to 
another, fo that the creature may arrive there without 
monftrofity, or the mif-fhapen uglinefs of fin. And this 
we fhould do, becaufe the miftake at this fecond delivery 
is for ever incorrigible and unamendable ; unlike the firft, 
which often is corrected and readjufted in this world, 
where natural defects are fometimes as medicines, or, in 
fome other way, aids and fuccours. And inafmuch as it 
is a thing of fuch great importance, it feems to me that it 
is a great blindnefs to be fo negligent of it and fo badly 

If any one wifhes to fail on the fea, it is marvellous to 
behold the great preparations of provifions and of other 
neceffaries which are made. The people of arms and the 
foldiers, what care they take in order to be well equipped ! 

OF DEATH, 117 

With what anxiety does the merchant go to fairs and mar- 
kets ! What travail and continual labour does the labourer 
omit in order to gather fruit from his agriculture ? What 
pains do fome beftow to ferve well, and others to command 
imperioufly ! Is it nothing that we do to preferve our 
bodily health ? Indeed, whatever touches or pertains to 
the body, we procure it for ourfelves with anxious care ; 
but for the wretched foul we have neither care nor anxiety. 
We know very well that one day the foul muft be born, 
and that on its iffuing from the womb of the body we have 
not thought of making ready for it cloth or linen in order 
to wrap it round, — though thefe are the good works with- 
out which we are not permitted to enter the kingdom of 
Heaven. The good works, indeed, are the rich veftments 
and gifts with which David wifhed the fpiritual fpoufe to 
be clothed. (9) They are the robes with which faint Paul 
defires that we fhould be clothed, to the end that we may 
walk honeftly. 

Let us watch then and act as the good Mother does, 
who, before coming to the term of her delivery, makes 
preparations and apparel for that event. That apparel 
is the learning how to die well, which here is called to be 
born well. Let us clothe ourfelves then in the white 
garment of innocence, — a fwaddling cloth dyed red with 
ardent charity, — a waxen taper of white chaftity, — a hood 
of hope, — a coat of faith, bound with virtues in order to 
mail us round, — a coral of wifdom, in order to make 
glad our hearts. And that the divinity may be our nurf- 
ing Mother, and fuckle us from the thrice-sweet breafts of 
knowledge and of love, let us cleanfe ourfelves firft of all 
from the filth and evil derived from nature, which is fin, the 
old Adam, the inclination of the flefh, the rebellion againft 
the fpirit. Let us wafh ourfelves with tears as children that 
weep at their birth. Let us fanctify ourfelves with the 


Baptifm of repentance, which is the Baptifm of the holy 
fpirit. And if during all our life in this world we make fuch 
a preparation, whenever the time fhall come for the delivery 
of Death, we fhall be born as the faints are born, the Death 
which we call birth, — for then began they to live, 

And inafmuch as thefe preparations and provifions are 
not made except by a few people, — fo negligent are we in 
that refpeci, — and we have only care to be able to have at 
leaft a fhroud or winding fheet, in order, at the day of death 
to be enveloped in it, and not to be inverted in any robes 
when the foul fhall defpoil itfelf of the body, — I fay, it 
appears to me that careleffnefs fo foolifh ought to be greatly 
blamed before God and before men : with the fhroud or 
winding fheet the body is buried in the earth to the end 
that there every thing may be eaten of worms. And with 
the robes of the foul, if they are of good works woven, we 
enter on the glory lafting without end ; and for miftake in 
that, we have neither thought nor care. 

For this reafon to incite the living to make provifion of 
fuch robes and veftments, I have not known how to find 
means more exciting than to place in view thefe afpects of 
Death, in order to meet that which may be faid to our fouls, 
How have ye come here, not having the wedding robe ? 
But where fhall we find thefe garments ? Indeed to thofe 
men and thofe women who from not knowing how to read 
might remain naked, not having the key to open the trea- 
fures of the holy fcriptures and of the good Fathers, — to 
them are prefented thefe fad hiftories, which will advife 
them to borrow dreffes from thofe who, in coffers of books, 
have abundance of them. And this borrowing will not be 
fo laudable in him who fhall borrow, as profitable to the 
lender ; and there is not any one fo rich as not to have 
need of fuch veftments. Witnefs that which is written in 
the Apocalypfe, at the third chapter. (10) Let us prepare 

OF DEATH. 119 

then (fays faint Bernard in one of his fermons), and let us 
haften to go to the place more fure, to the field more 
fertile, to the repaffc more favoury, to the end that we may 
dwell without fear, that we may abound without want, & 
without vexatioufnefs be fed. To which place Death will 
conduct us, when He who has conquered him fhall be 
willing in us to make him die. To whom be glory & 
honour eternally. Amen. 


The Images and Storied 



German Rhymes from Rentz's 


Gcncfis I. 27. IT. 7. And the LORD God formed man of 
the duft of the ground, — created him in his own image, — 
male and female created he them. 

God firfh created Heaven, Sea, Earth, 
From nothingnefs to demonflrate his power, 
And then out of the earth he created 
The man and the woman in his own likenefs. 

Dawomein Urfprunghergenommen,Dorthin iftauch meinLaufgekoJhen. 
£)tc (grfcfyaffimg bc§ SSRcnfdjcn. 

Den Erflen Menfihen /chuff der Herr, und machte ihn aits Erden, 
Nach Seinem BiLI, und Eva muff a us deffen Rippe werden ; 
Drum inach, O Mcnfch ! dafs ficJi dein Gcift nur ffets zu Gott erhebe 
Damit derfelbe ffirbt der Leib, mit I/im dock cwig lebe. 

OF DEATH. 121 


Gencfis III. 17. Becaufe thou haft hearkened unto the 
voice of thy wife, and haft eaten of the tree, of which I 
commanded thee, faying, Thou fhalt not eat of it, &c. 

Adam was by Eve deceived, 
And againft God's command the apple ate ; 
For which the two have fuffered death, 
And mortal every man has fince become. 

Du wirjl dich nur verletzen und ins Verderben fetzen. 
<Der %all Adams urtt> Evje. 
Ach ! Adam lafie dich dock nicht zum effen ilberreden : 
Es wird dir dicfer Apffel-Bifs, fo Lab als Seek toden. 
Doch ach! du folgcft nicht, und wir find deine Wahre Kinder 
Nach dcincm Ebcn-Bild gezeugt, und meinfiens frcche Sunder. 


Gencfis III. 23. Therefore the LORD GOD fent him forth 
from the garden of Eden, to till the ground from whence 
he was taken. 

God drove out the man from pleafantnefs 

On the labour of his hands to live : 

Then did Death come to feize him, 

And as the confequence all human creatures. 

Sofehii ich mich im Elends-Stand, Nach Freijheit und dem Vaterland. 

£)ie Skrftofung t>e3 SJlcnfcfyen. 

Eifs ijl das Ungliicks-volle Paar : fo aus dem Paradiefe, 
Durch Hoffarth und durch Eigen-Lieb fich felbfi ins Elend fief. 
Und dennoch finden /eider ! fich, noch viele Adamiten : 
Diefalltfie eine Lufi-Seuch an, gar leichte find beflritten. 




Gcnefis III. 17-19. Curfed is the ground for thy fake, in 
forrow fhalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life ; .... till 
thou return, &c. 

Accurfed in thy labour be the ground, 
Thy life in labour fhalt thou fpend, 
Until that Death fhall lay thee under ground ; 
Duft art thou, and to duft thou fhalt return. 

Der Betet, Hojfet, Sich bemilht : Ifts fo aus mir fich Nutzen zieht. 
Ubcr btc Skrflucfyung bc3 Sttcnfcfyen. 

Wie Elend bist du Adam ! doc/i, durch Ungehorfam worden ? 
Das Erdreich bringt dir Jlatt der Frucht, nur Dijlrfn aller Often. 

Wiljlu fo Kanjfu nur durch Schweifs, dein Brod hinjorter effen, 
Dock der Verfprochne Weibes-Saam macht diefe La ft vergeffen. 


Revelation vni. 13. Woe, woe, woe, to the inhabiters of 
the earth. 

Gcnefis VII. 22. All in whofe noftrils was the breath of 
life .... died. 

Unhappy ye who in the world are living 
Filled always with adverfities ; 
For any good which may abound to you, 
Yet will ye all be vifited by Death. 

So liegt des Fleisfches Schein undPracht, alsBlumcn Gras undHcu veracht. 

Ubcr tic ©ebcinc atter Sflenfcfyen. 

Hier fangt der Todtcn-ReijJH fich an, Und zwar durch a lie Stdnde, 
Hoch JViedrig, Schon, fo Reich als Arm, Eilt ftcts nach feinem Ende. 
Drum Lent 1 aus diefen Beinerndich und deine Schwachheit Kennen ; 
Softirbftdu taohl, undftirbfldoch uicht, wan Leib und SeeV fich trennen. 



Jq/Jiua XX. 6 until the high prieft may die. 

Pfalm CIX. 8 and let another take his office.(i i) 

Thou who doft dream thyfelf to be immortal 
Shalt foon by Death be hurried far away ; 
And howfoever great a prieft thou be, 
Another fhall poffefs thy bifhoprick. 

Treuer-Hirten grofer Lohn, I/l die Schb'ne Himmels-Cron. 

£)et tyabft. 
Dir Der im Leben hatte Mac/it die Siinde zu vergeben, 
Dir fag 1 ieli, wird die Cron geraubt uhd audi zugleich das Leben : 
Dock jene Crone folgt dafiir, die ewig Kan ergot zen, 
Utui Dich will Du getrener Knecht ! Der Herr in Ruhe fetzen. 


IfaiaJi XXXVIII. i. Set thine houfe in order: for thou 
(halt die and not live. 

Ifaiah XXII. 18. There fhalt thou die, and there mail 
the chariots of thy glory. 

Thine houfe fhalt thou fet in order 
As thine own tranfitory good, 
For where thou in death fhalt reft 
Will be the chariots of thy glory. 

So muffen Kaijfer-Cronen audi Fall nnd ' Jlerbenfrohnen. 

£>er £djfcr. 
So wie dein Stal das Bild der Macht, wird audi dien Leben brechen, 
Zwingtfchondein Gliidi, dafs OJiundWeJlvondeinenThatenfprechen, 

la, alle Welt vor deinen Tliron mufs Jlehend Frieden bitten- 
Wird dock durch mich im Augenblick, dein Leben abgejdinitten. 



Ecclus. X. io. And he that is to-day a king, to- 
morrow fhall die, for of kings no one had other lot. 

So that he who to-day is a king, 
To-morrow in the tomb will be fliut up. 
For no king from all his fplendour, 
Has been able aught elfe to carry off. 

Auch nicht der Trabanten Schar, fetzt den Konig aus Gefa/ir. 

£)er jfcontg. 

So wie der Konig, fo der Kuecht, eins flieffet aus dem andern. 
Don Hirten pflegt in Irre auch die Heerde nach zu wandern. 
Drum weil du ah zum Vorbild bijl zu leicht enfundcn worden, 
Stojl auch der Ko/i'ge Konig dich, aus feinem Kbnigs-Orden. 


Ifaiah V. 23. Woe to them which juftify the wicked 
for reward, and take away the righteoufnefs of the righte- 
ous from him. 

Evil be yours who juftify 

The man inhuman and full of malice ; 

Through gifts ye pronounce him holy, 

And take from the righteous his riohteoufnefs. 

Er trifft die Ceder auch fo, wie den K/einJIen St ranch. 

T)cx Sarbinal. 

Du warjl ein Grofer Cardinal! der Kirchcn Stiilz-und Sdu/e, 
Der Ketzer Gifft und Pejlilentz und fchwehrer Donncr-Keile. 
Jedoch, die Loofung trifft dich nun, zu folgen meinem Rcijhcn ; 
Drum magjl du deiner Wiffcnfchafft, auf Erden dich verzeijhen. 

OF DEATH. 125 


Daniel IV. 37 and thofe that walk in pride he is 

able to abafe. 

Ye who walk on in pomp of pride, 
Death one day will make you yield. 
As under your feet ye bend the grafs, 
So will he humble you. 

Sie ijl nothwendig, Dock hier gar wibeftandig. 
£)ic ^aiiferin. 
Schaff und verordne was du wiljl and dir zum Pracht gef Lillet ; 
Jedoch es werde audi zugleich vor allem mit bcjlellet, 
Der Ban, in welchem du hinfort wirjl unaufhorlich wohnen. 
Drum miihe dich der Ewigkeit, dem eitlen nicht zu frohnen ! 


Ifaiah XXXII. 9, 10. Rife up, ye women, that are at 
eafe ; hear my voice .... Many days and years fhall ye 
be troubled. 

Arife ye dames who in wealth abound, 
Hear the voice of thofe paffed away. 
After many a year and day have paffed, 
Ye fhall be troubled and grievine- 

Auch Salo monis Pracht wirdihr nicht glcich geacht. 
£)te itontgm. 
Was ijl der Titul Konigfeyn ? die £hr' fo Cronen geben ? 
Ein Nejl, wo Sorge Kumer heckt ; Ein Marter voiles Leben. 
Entweich demnach du eitler Tand ! fo Blumen glcich verfchwi?idet 
Mein Hertze fucht was himlifch ijl und mich mit Gott verbiindet. 



Matthew XXVI. 31. I will finite the fhepherd, and the 
fheep of the flock fhall be fcattered abroad. 

Mark XIV. 27. I will fmite the fhepherd, and the fheep 
fhall be fcattered. 

The fhepherd alfo will I fmite, 

Mitres and crofiers overthrown. 

And when I fhall entrap him, 

Then will his fheep be fcattered abroad. 

Wann der Hirtfelbft Wache halt IJl die Heerde wohl bejlclt. 

£>er S3ifcr,off. 
Ein Bifclwff foil untrafflich feijn, Undfeine Schafflein weijden, 
Mit Gottes Wort u: Reiner-Lehr, Und von den Siinden leiten. 
Wohl Dir! da haft ejl fo gemacht, Drum wirft dit deiner Bilrde 
Entlaftet, u: dein Fleis verfchafji Dir gr (if re Himels-Wiirde. 


Ezekiel VII. 27, 24 and the prince fhall be clothed 

with defolation. And I will make the pomp of the ftrong 
to ceafe. 

Come, prince, with me, and lay afide 
Honours of the world fo quickly ending. 
The only one am I, who indeed abafe 
The pride and the pomp of the mighty. 

Audi im voriiber gehen Idftftefich liebreich feheu. 
£)cr ptflt. 
Ein Fit r ft iftja nicht blofs allein zur Luft und Pracht gebohren, 
Vielmchr zugleich als Haupt und Herr, zu hclffcn auferkohrcn. 
Wo armer Wais-und Wittven Recht wird freventlich gekriincket ; 
Doch kcinei/i ift vor meiner Macht ein Freijheits-Brieff 'gefchenckct. 

OF DEATH. 127 


Proverbs V. 23. He fhall die without inftruction, and in 
the greatnefs of his folly he fhall go aftray. 

He will die, for he has not obtained 
For himfelf any training of wifdom ; 
And among numbers will he be deceived 
By the folly which over him rules. 

Dcr nicht im Geivijfen rein, Nur dem Kanjl du fchrocklich feijn. 

£er %bbt. 

Mich fchrbckfl du gruffer Strecheu-Bein, gar nicht mit deinen Knochcn; 
Denn mir zu Liebc, wird doch nicht der Alte Bund gebrochen, 
Doch der fuh dafs er Jlerblich iff, mag tdglich wohl betrachten, 
Kan dich, die Welt ujid ihren Pracht, nebff aller Luff verachten. 


Ecclefiajles iv. 2. Wherefore I praifed the dead which 
are already dead, more than the living which are yet alive. 

I have always the dead more praifed 
Than the living in whom evil abounds ; 
Neverthelefs Death has united me 
To the rank of thofe who are of the world. 

Ohl muff in der Lampen brennen, Soil man wis vor Klug erkennen. 

©ie 2Cbbtifin. 

Kom Liebffe Abtiffin auf, auf ! zur Hochzeit mit dem Lamme, 
So fchon den Handfchlag mit dir Melt, dort an des Creutzes Stame. 
Verlaffe das was Jlerblich heiff, Keifs' dich aus Kedars Hiittcn, 
So wird der Hiniel dich davor, mit Woluff uberfchiilten. 



Pfalm lxxxix. 48. What man is he that liveth, and 
fhall not fee death ? Shall he deliver his foul from the 
hand of the grave ? (1 1) 

Who is that man, however great he be, 
Who is able to live on without dying ? 
And when by Death wholly borne down, 
Who again can make his foul run its courfe ? 

Wo hi ft fait, Wat 3 fie nochfo hoch geftclt. 

£)er (Sbclmcn. 
KoTn ! wehre dich lafz Courtoifie und Gallanfiren bleiben ; 
Wend' 1 deiner Anne Krajfte an, den Feind von dir zn treiben ; 
Dock Laid und Degen fait fchon weg aits den verzagten Handoi ; 
Drum muft du feigcr Cory don, fo Lieb ah Leben enden. 

Mattheiv XXVI. 45. Behold, the hour is at hand. 

To the choir thou goeft to fay thine hours, 
Praying God for thyfelf and thy neighbour. 
But need there is now that thou die, 
Seeft thou not the hour that approaches. 

Die Obficht aufs Gewickt, Halt mich im Gang und PflicJit. 

£)er £>om-.£)cir. 

Wo hi Dir ! dafs deine letzte St und, dich im Bcgriffe findet, 
Wozu dich Pflicht und Schuldigkeit in dcinem Amt vcrbindd. 
Erfchr'dckc nicht ! Du wirjl hinfort, rccht Hofianna fingen : 
Dem, Welchem aller Engel Chb'r, das Drcijmahl Heilig ! bringcn. 

OF DEATH. 129 


Amos II. 3. And I will cut off the judge from the midft 

From the midft of them will I take you, 
Ye judges corrupted by gifts. 
From Death you mall not be exempt, 
For elfe where will I carry you off. 

Kliiger und BeMagter miiffen Durche Verfwren Recht geniiffen. 

£)er 9vtd)ter. 

Entfcheid und mercke wohl die Sack uni die der Anne ieidet, 
Dufiehjl dafzjener mehr aus Hafz, als Lieb zum Rcchtejlreitet, 
Drum richtcrecht ! zvilft du dereinjl ein gniidig Urtheil horen, 
Jlfus der von dir gedriickten Stinun nickt jenen auffpruch Jloren. 


Proverbs XXII. 3. A prudent man forefeeth the evil, and 
hideth himfelf : but the fimple pafs on, and are punifhed. 

The crafty man has feen the malicioufnefs 
That would make the innocent be bound, 
And then by fome way of the law 
Has he come to afflict the poor. 

Er nimt jenen Schein nicht an, So die Prob nicht halt en kan. 

£)er 2Cb»ocat. 
Wann fonjl gewiffenmafige gelehrte Advocaten 
As Diejier der Ge7-echtigkeit geprefter Unfchuld rathen, 
So trachten Rabuliften Jlets die Warheit zu verjlecken 
Dich du foljl deine Hand nicht mehr nach den gefchencken Jlrecken. 




Proverbs XXI. 13. Whofo ftoppeth his ears at the cry of 
the poor, he alfo fhall cry himfelf, but fliall not be heard. 

The rich men do ye always counfel, 
And to the poor ye fhut the ear. 
Aloud will ye cry at the laft day, 
But to you alfo will God do the like. 

Um alien nutz zu feijn verzehret mieh der Schein. 
£)er 3tatf)e-£err. 
Schaff recht und harden Armen an, du Raths-Herr, Burger-meijler, 
Denn das ijt deitie Sehuldigkeit, und er wird dejlo trdujler, 
Dir feine Noth und Iamerjland recht hertzlich vorzutragen, 
Durch difz kanjl du das Burger-Recht im Himel dir erjagen. 


Ifaiah V. 20. Woe unto them that call evil good, and 
good evil ; that put darknefs for light, and light for dark- 
nefs ; that put bitter for fweet, and fweet for bitter. 

Evil for you who thus are bold 
To blame us as evil though it is good, 
And to hold forth as good though it is evil. 
Placing with the fweet the bitter. 

Leitung Stimm und Sehall hintertrcibt den Fall. 
£)cv 9)fard)evr. 
Auf! ende deine Predigt bald, Die Uhr ijl aufgeloffen, 
Wo hi dir, wann du nach Andes -Pflicht Jlets Gottes Sinn getroffen; 
Weh ! aberfo du deine Heerd nicht rein und treu gelehret 
Und offters gar aus Schmeigeleij, des Hochjlen Wort verkehret. 

OF DEATH. 131 


Wifdom of Solomon VII. 1 . I myfelf alfo am a mortal 

I bear the holy facrament 
Defiring to fuccour the dying, 
I, who am mortal as he is, 
And like him I needs muft die. 

Werffe mich auff alle Seiten: Nichts, wird meinen Jland beflreiten. 

£>er Qiaplan. 
Ichfoll as Seelen-Artz fo fort, kin nach dan Krancken gehcn, 
Und felbigen zur letzten Reis, mit Himmels-kofl verfehen : 
Indeffen hafcht mich fdbft der Todt, und leuchtet mir zu Grabe : 
Dock troflet mich dafs ich beij mir, der Lebens-Filrflen habe. 


Pfalm CVII. 10. Such as fit in darknefs and in the fha- 
dow of death, being bound in affliction and iron : (11) ra- 
ther, bound in beggary. 

Thou who haft neither care nor remorfe 
Save only for thy ftate of beggary, 
Thou wilt follow to the fhadow of Death 
In order to free thyfelf from neceffity. 

Durch deiner Krajfte Schatz Met ich den Wetter Trutz. 

£>er gRimci). 

Was wilfl du den O Tod an mir, meinfl du mich zu erfchrecken ? 
So will ich in den Wunden mich defs der hir ifl verflecken. 
Lafz Sand und Uhr verlauffcn feijn, wer tdglich fucht zu flerben, 
Kan doch allcine nur durch dich das Wahre Leben erben. 



Proverbs XXIV. 12. There is a way which feemeth right 
unto a man, but the ends thereof are the ways of death. (11) 

Such a way is to human creatures good, 
And to man it appears very juft. 
But the end of it gives to man 
The Death, who all Tinners affembles. 

Freij vom Irrdifchen zufeyn Wunfcht mein Herzte nur allein. 

£)te 9fonne. 

Kan fo der Engcl Saiten -Spiel auf Erden mich erg'dtzen, 
In was vor Frende wird nicht e)-Jl der Himmel tins verfetzen ? 
Drum komm nur angenehmer Tod .' die machefl mir kein grauen, 
Weilfich mein Hertze liingfil gewiinfcht Gott ewig anzufchauen / 


Ecclus. XXX. 17. Death is better than a bitter life, or 
continual ficknefs. 

Long time have I lived in pain, 
So that no more have I wifh to live ; 
But of a furety I well believe 
Better is Death than life. 

Diefes Faulen und Verwefen, macht fie tender neu Gene/en. 

£>a§ arte SSctb. 
Dein Elend jamert mich fchon felbji du abgelebte Mutter! 
Drum f chick die Seel dem HiiTiel zu ; den Lcib der Wiirmer Futter. 
Der fchon genugsam abgematt, wirff und fenck in die Erdc, 
Auf defs was du in Schwach licit siift, einjineu bekrdfftigt iverde. 

OF DEATH. 133 


Luke IV. 23. Phyfician, heal thyfelf. 

Well knoweft thou the malady 
In order to fuccour the patient, 
And yet knoweft not, blunder-head, 
The ill by which thou art about to die. 

Es weis wohlwas es foil verfprechen, Dock nicht wenn es felbfl foil zerbrechen. 

£)er 9flcbtcu§. 
Sprich nicht dafz diefem armen Weib der Todftz auf den Nacken; 
Es wird vielmehr dich angenblicks, trotz, deiner Kunfl anpacken, 
Sie lebt ! duflirbft; branch Gold-Tinctur und alle Panaceen, 
Brich ich den Stab fo ifls nm dich ja felbfl Galen gefcheen. 


Job XXXVIII. 18, 21 declare if thou knoweft it all. 

.... Knoweft thou it, becaufe thou waft then born ? or 
becaufe the number of thy days is great. (11) 

Thou didft tell by fpeech of double meaning 
That which to others ought to happen. 
Tell me then by Aftrology 
When thou ouo-hteft to come to me. 

Dem Ungewitter zu entweichen Sucht Er die Hohc zuerreichen. 

£)er ©ternfefyer. 

Du riihmfl dich, andrer Menfchen Gliick u: Ungliick vorzufagen, 
Wie kan dich dan dein eigne r Todt, infolches Schrecken Jagen ? 
! wie viel beffer ware es, du hdttefl vor gelernet ; 
Wie man durch den gewiefen Todt dem Ungliick fich cut for net. 



Luke XII. 20. Thou fool, this night thy foul fhall be 
required of thee : then whofe fhall thofe things be, which 
thou haft provided ? 

This very night Death will feize thee, 
And to-morrow wilt thou be buried. 
But tell me, fool, to whom will come 
The goods which thou haft hoarded. 

Sie famlen, dock nicht Ihnen Geitz mm fo andern dienen. 

£)er $etd)e. 
Du Reich vom Geitz befeffner Man! Was hilfft dich nun deinfchinden, 
Kdnjl du beij deinem Kajien-Gott im fterben beijfland finden ? 
Sprich deine Seele nun vergniigt. Doch Wehe du mufl fcheiden / 
Und dein mit Qua/ erworbner Schatz Kan dich Mr nicht begleiten. 


Proverbs XXI. 6. The getting of treafures by a lying 
tongue is a vanity toffed to and fro of them that feek 
death. (11) 

Vain is that man who fhall hoard up 
Great wealth and treafures for untruth, 
Death will make him repent of it, 
For in Death's fnare will he be taken. 

Ach ! Kaufft fur Gold und Edle- Stein, doch lieber diefe Perle ein. 

£)cr ^auffmann. 
Hicr komt ein Wexel den du nicht kanjl mit protejl abweifen : 
Wiljl du nicht ewig Banquerout und noch Solvende he if en. 
Drum bringe nur dein Manual, Pafiv-und Activ-Schulden 
Ins Peine; deuu kein bitten hilfft mich lauger zugedulten. 

OF DEATH. 135 


I TimotJiy VI. 9. But they that will be rich fall into temp- 
tation and a fnare, and into many foolifh and hurtful lufts, 
which drown men in deftruction and perdition. 

In order to acquire worldly goods 
Ye enter into temptation, 
Which places you in fudden perils 
And leads you to perdition. 

Olui diefen Schein, kail die Fahrt nicht gliicklich feijn. 

£)ie ©cfytffenben. 

So liijl der fckleckte Uber-Rejl, mit Sckrocken und mit grauen 
Nach fo viel angewender Miili fich jlatt Gewinnes fchanen 
Drum ge)£ in dick bereue bald, die Menge deiner Siinden, 
So kanjlu dock aus Capo Sfiej, nock Porto Cceii finden. 


Job XXXIV. 20. In a moment mail they die, and the 
people fhall be troubled at midnight, and pafs away: and 
the mighty fhall be taken away without hand 

People fuddenly will rife up 

In oppofition to the inhuman, 

And the violent will they take away 

From among them without force of hand. 


Sich den Lajlern widerfetzen, Bringet Sieg-und Preifs-ergotzen. 

£)er Slitter. 

Es ijl genug ! Entbrecke dick, mir mehr zu widerjlreben, 
Du kanft mir unterliegend, auch dock nock als Sieger leben ; 
Wo fonjl nur deine Ritterfckafft, von Lajlern nicht beflecket ? 
Dan 11, eben diefen Siegen-ob, ifls : wo der Adel Jlecket. 



Pfalm XLIX. 17. For when he dieth, he fhall take no- 
thing away: his glory fhall not defcend after him. (11) 

With himfelf he will carry nothing away, 
But let Death only once make him fall, 
Nothing" of his glory will he take 
To place with himfelf in his tomb. 

Wie grofs Sie war, Stelt uns Sturtz und Fall erjl dar. 

£)er ©raff. 

Du bijl ein Graff, ein gr offer Herr, Jag, ft 'ell auf Vogel-heerden 
Dis zeigt Dir fei/i im Bilde an 70 ie Du gefalt wirjl werden. 
Dannfchwindet Hoheit, Luff und Pracht, Drumfuch beij guten tagen, 
Dir divas fo kei/i Moder /riff, den Him el zu erjagen. 


Job XVII. 1. My breath is corrupt, my days are extinct, 
the graves are ready for me. 

My fpirits, how they are weakened, 
And my life is paffing all in vain. 
Alas ! my long days are leffened, 
More remains not for me but a tomb. 

End und Anfang ffimt zufanien, Beijdes brent in gleiehen Flamen. 

£er alte-SJtonn. 
Iffs Alter fonffen Ehren wehrt vorfichfehon vor der Jugend, 
So iff es folehes mehrers noch, fo es bckrbnt die Tugend. 
Denn diefe, nicht die Ja lire finds, fo unfer Ende zieren. 
Wiefeelig! der f ein lebens Schiff kanfo in Haafen fiihren. 

OF DEATH. 137 


Job XXL 13. They fpend their days in wealth, and in 
a moment go down to the grave. 

Midft worldly goods their days they fpend 

In pleafures and in fadnefs, 
Then fudden to the grave defcend, 

Where pafs their joys to fadnefs. 

Ihr Pracht und fchoner Schein wird bald Staub und Afchefeijn. 

£ie ©rafm. 
Was du jetzt bijl und werden wirji, gibt dir ein Blick zu kennen, 
Drum wiljl du gleichfam mit gewalt ?iicht ins Verderben rennen. 
So wirff ' hinweg die Eitelkeit, und fchmiicke deine Seek, 
Mit Chrijii Blut und Unfchuld aus,J?att Balfams, Schmiinck u. Oele. 


Ruth I. 17. If ought but death part thee and me. 

Tis love unites and makes us live, 
And will in faith our hearts prepare ; 
Long time it will not be able to follow us, 
Becaufe Death will come to part us. 

So kan wie ichs thu' handeln, Sick Zweij in Bins venvandeln. 

£)k SSerlicbten. 

Umfaffet fchertzt und Kiifst euch ?iur dock lernt an euren Blumen, 
Wie bald, fchleicht nur der Todt herzu, die Liebe mus verflumen ; 
Drum ivolt Ihr lieben ? Liebet Den, Der euch zu erjl geliebet, 
Und tdglich Jliindlich augenblicks, an euch noch Liebe iibet. 




2 Kings I. 4. Thou fhalt not come down from that bed 
on which thou art gone up, but fhalt furely die.(i 1) 

From the bed to which thou haft gone up 
Thou fhalt not come down at thy pleafure. 
For thee Death will have quickly fubdued, 
And in brief time will he come to feize thee. 

Zur Sicherheit dient Wachfamkeit. 

£>te prjhn. 

Halt Nacht Mufic unci lafs durch fie den Schlaff dir lieblich machen, 
So lieffert dick mein Bruder mir was leichter nur im Rachen, 
Undfo verfchwindct als im Schlaff, die gantze Lujl der Erde?i 
Drum ' fieelig ! der fiefs ivachtbar kan von mir betroffen werden. 


Matthew XL 28. Come unto me all ye that labour and 
are heavy laden. 

Come, and walk after me, 
Ye, who are too much laden. 
Enough have ye followed the markets : 
Ye fhall now be unloaded by me. 

So fieht der Ein-und-Aufgang aus, vom Kummer vollen Erden-Haus. 

£)cr Cramer. 

Du lauffejl Nahrungs-KuTner voll von einem Ort zum andem, 
Und mufi mit ?nancher Lafi befchwert die halbe Welt durch ivandem. 
Was aber hafi du zum Gewin ? Kaum dein erhaltnes Leben ; 
Drum kom ich will dir beffern Kauffvor Unruh Rhue geben. 

OF DEATH. 139 


Genejis III. 19. In the fweat of thy face fhalt thou eat 
bread. ( 1 1) 

In the fweat of thy brow 

Thy poor living (halt thou gain. 

After long toil and practice 

Behold the Death which conveys thee away. 

Soil der Acker fruchtbar feijn, mach ihn bald vom Uhkraut rein. 

£)er %d erfmann. 

Halt ! wende nur den Pflug nicht um die Miih ift fchon vergebens ; 
Jedoch war fonjlen wo hi bejlelt der Acker deifies lebens, 
So wirft du jetz imd freudensvoll die fchonjlen Gar ben binden, 
Und nach des Creutzes-Somer-Hitz, des Lebe?is-Ende finde. 


Job XIV. 1, 2. Man that is born of woman is of few 
days, and full of trouble. He cometh forth like a flower, 
and is cut down : he fieeth alfo as a fhadow, and conti- 
nueth not. 

Every man from woman born 

Is full of mifery and encumbrance, 

Thus as a flower foon ending. 

He comes forth and then flees as the fhadow doth. 

Er wird der Welt entnomen, Eli er zur Krafft gekomen. 

£)a3 £tnt>. 

O Mutter ! Bruder hclfft mir dock ! rett mich aus Todes-Ar?nen / 
Find dami der Jugend-B Hit he nicht, O Tod! beij dir Er bar men? 
Nein; da-rum bleibt tvas dorten Jleht : der Menfch vom JFeib gebohrcn 
Lebt roller Unruh kurtze Zeit. Geht Blumen gleich verlohren. 



Romans XIV. io. For we fhall all ftand before the judg- 
ment feat of Chrifl. 

MattJieiv xxiv. 42. Watch therefore, and pray : for ye 
know not what hour your Lord doth come. 

Before the throne of the mighty Judge 
Each one for himfelf account fhall render, 
Watch, therefore, that he may not condemn you, 
For ye know not when he will come. 

Sie lei ft zivar den Eintritt often, aber keine?i Aufgang hoften. 

©a§ letje ©ericfyt. 
Komt ihr Gerechte erbt das Reich, fo euch vorlangft bereitet ! 
Hingegen ihr Verdommte geht, von ener Schuld beckleidet. 
Zur H alien Rein. O Unterfchicd ! Hier Leben, dorteti Sterben. 
Lafz IESU aus Barmhertzigkeit 21ns doch den Himmel erben. 


Ecclns. VII. 36. Whatfoever thou takeft in hand, remem- 
ber the end, and thou fhalt never do amifs. 

If thou wifheft to live without fin, 
Look on this image in all thy purpofes, 
And in nothing- wilt thou be hindred 
When away thou fhalt goe to thy reft. 

Alles was ich kan erreichen fallt und mus durch mich erbleichen. 

SBappen t»c§ SobeS. 
So fieht der Hclmen Deckc aus, ?ind manes Wappens-Zierdc. 
Sag ! Sterblicher was Jierblich ift, dem ich nicht Triumphirtet 
Dcnn was mir nicht durch Kranckheit fich will untcriuurffig machen, 
Siiirtzt doch das Ungliick ttoch zuletzt in meine Hand und Rachcn. 



morally defcribed & depicted according 
to the authority of fcripture 
& of the holy Fa- 

Chapter firft of the firft figured 
afpecf. of Death. 

H O is he that has laid the corner ftone ? 
says Job (xxxviii. 6). Upon which words 
we muft note that the {tone is called in 
Latin lapis, which, according to its ety- 
mology, comes from lefwn,{\2) or injury 
of the foot. For by travellers ftones are 
fometimes met with, and by the hindrance 
which they caufe to the feet, often make people ftumble. 
Thus Death is figured to us, that fo unexpectedly ftrikes 
wayfarers and lays them proftrate, and fo much the more 
rudely as that Death finds them over confident and off 
their guard. 

Now the corner ftone is fo made, that in whatever way 
it falls, it remains upright, by reafon of its equalities. In 
like manner Death, falling equally, levels all powers, riches, 
haug'htineffes and pleafures, — at one blow breaking them to 
pieces. And there is no one able to refift his impetuofity. 
As it is figured by Daniel (ii. 31-35) where he faw the ftatue 
of Nebuchadnezzar. The head of it was of gold, the arms 
and breaft of filver, the body or belly of brafs, the thighs of 
iron, and it had the feet made only of clay. Afterwards 
follows : there was a ftone cut from the mountain without 


hands, and the ftatue being ftruck was broken off at the feet 
and reduced to afhes. This is nothing elfe but the figure of a 
great rich man, having the head of gold by the nobility of his 
blood and lineage ; and the arms and breaft of filver by the 
great riches which he had acquired through care and labour. 
The body or the belly, which is of brafs, fignifies the re- 
nown which he has ; for brafs is founding. By the thighs 
of iron is denoted the power and force which he poffeffes. 
But the feet of earth and of clay fignifies to us his mortality. 
The ftone is cut from the mountain by divine juftice. It is 
to make known human Death, which is wrought by the 
hand of God. For God has not made Death, and takes no 
pleafure in the perdition of the living ; but they are our 
miferable firft parents which have given to it that force. 
And the force ftriking men unexpectedly makes them all 
ftumble. For its impetuofity is fo uncertain in the manner 
of acting both as to what place and at what time it nuift 
come, that human prudence is infufficient in ability to ob- 
viate it. Wherefore faint Auguftine faid (So/i/0.3): (13) 
Opportune Death in a thoufand ways is ever fnatching men 
off. That perfon it oppreffes by fever, and this by fevere 
pains. One is confumed by famine, the other quenched by 
thirft. Death fuffocates one in water, another it deftroys in 
flames. One it flays on the gibbet, another by the teeth 
of favage beafts ; the one by iron, the other by venom. So 
by every means does death force human life wretchedly to 
end. And above all miferable things, the moft miferable 
is to behold nothing more certain than Death, and nothing 
more uncertain than the hour when it muft come. 

Chapter of the fecond afpect of Death 
morally depi<5ted. 


E has made himfelf, fays the Book of Kings (ii. 
22) horns of iron. It muft be known, that na- 
ture, with a view to their defence, has fo well 
provided for beads, that inftead of weapons, 
which they would not know how to ufe, fhe has given to 
thofe, which have not teeth to bite, horns to ftrike, and 
notably has given to beafts two horns that they may ftrike 
on all sides. So to the end that he may ftrike on the right 
and on the left, that is to fay, may kill young and old, poor 
and rich by his blows, Death, as a horned beaft, is armed 
with two very bloody horns, and holds indifferently each 
perfon under his power and force ; which Daniel (ch. viii.) 
faw in figure, being at Susa before the gate of the palace, — 
where he faw the fheep having high horns, and the one higher 
than the other, — and thrufting his horns againft the Eaft 
and againft the Weft, againft the South and againft the 
North, none of the beafts was able to refift him, which is 
no other thing than the figure of that Death which has two 
horns. And if we avoid one of them, we cannot flee the 

Death ftrikes at the Eaft, that is to fay at boyhood's 
age ; and at the Southern region, which is impure and im- 
paffioned youth. He ftrikes alfo at the cold and dry North, 
which is old age ; then at the Weft. For fome he waits 
until decrepitude ; and fmites thofe very perfons the more 
annoyingly, the more the groanings and forrows of the 
defpair of being delivered have preceded him. And to this 
effect faid Seneca. (14) There are other kinds of death which 
are mingled with hope. Sometimes the malady has made 
its courfe, a deep tinged inflammation. Many things which 
it has engulphed the fea cafts back. The Knight often 
recalls the fword from the head of him whom he was wifh- 
ing to kill. But for him whom decrepitude conducts to 
Death, there is nothing in which he can hope. But the 
good Seneca, in his book of natural queftions, (14) offers a 


good remedy for not being frightened at the hard moment 
of Death. He fays : A61 fo that Death may be familiar to 
thee in thought, and mould fortune fo permit, that you may 
not only be able to await him, but alfo may boldly look 
forward to him. 

Chapter of the third afpect of Death. 

F thieves and malefactors knew how to transform 
and difguife themfelves in places where they have 
done ill, oftentimes would they avoid the gibbet, 
or the penalties of juftice. But generally we fee 
it happen that they are always taken unexpectedly, and 
that their fin fo leads them that the greater part of them 
come and burn themfelves in the candle. (15) 

In like manner if the fmners of this world, after they 
have offended God, knew how to transform and tranfport 
themfelves by penitence from fin to grace, the eternal Judge 
would not recognize them, in order to condemn them to 
eternal punifhment. But becaufe they truft to their youth 
and bodily health, or to their temporal goods, the hand of 
the judge by his hangman, or officer, that is to fay, by 
Death, furprifes them when they are thinking to be moft in 
fafety. So caught he hold of the king Belfhazzar : who, as 
Daniel recites (ch. v.), made a great feaft to his nobles, de- 
filing the veffels of the Temple, out of which he gave to his 
concubines to drink ; and at that hour appeared a hand 
writing on the wall of his palace thefe three words, Mene, 
Tekel, Peres. Which vifion fo greatly amazed the King, 
that he caufed all the Magicians, Chaldeans and diviners of 
his kingdom to be fummoned, and promised them great gifts 
if they would explain to him the meaning of that writing. 
But none of thefe enchanters underftood any thing about it 
Finally Daniel being brought there fet forth the words in 


this manner :(i6) Mene, that is to fay thy kingdom is num- 
bered, O King, to give thee to underftand that the number 
of the days of thy reign is accomplifhed. Tekel means 
that thou art fet in the balances, and that thou art found 
very light. Penes fignifies, divided : to fliew that thy 
kingdom fhall be divided and given to the Perfians and 
Medians. And that was accomplifhed the following night, 
as the Mafter of histories fays. (17) 

But what figure and afpecl of Death is offered to us by 
this name Belfhazzar, (18) which is interpreted Confufion, 
and defignates the ungrateful finner, for whofe converfion 
God has long time waited, and he is not converted ? For 
which caufe the divine judgment in anger fends againft his 
head perturbation or difquiet : becaufe that he mifufed the 
veffels of the Temple. For on pleafures and terreftrial 
delights he employs the memory, the will and the under- 
fbanding, which ought to be occupied on fpiritual bleffings 
and in heavenly contemplations. But when he thinks to 
live more fecurely and more happily, and flourifhing in 
youth, furrounded with delights, pleafures and profperities 
of the body and of goods, fudden Death, rufhing upon the 
fallacious and fugitive hope, on which the wretched one 
refted, fhatters it and annuls it. And then thus cut off, 
Belfhazzar, that is to fay the finner, warned by this unex- 
pected perturbation, fends for the Chaldeans, that is to fay 
the phyficians, and promifes them great reward, if they can 
preferve him from Death. But not all the phyficians, nor 
all the drugs can fhow the caufe of that malady written on 
the wall of his body, or know how to prevent Death, once 
fent there, from performing his office. For Daniel, that is 
to fay the divine judgment and irrevocable decree will be 
executed. So it is faid the number of the kingdom is enu- 
merated, for that the term is accomplifhed of that finner 
who hath not amended, however long God may have 
awaited him. < i 


And fo he is put in the balance of examination, where he 
is found very much wanting. For he has not taken care 
to keep the image of his Creator, & the talents entrufted 
to him, namely, memory, underftanding and will ; he has 
fcattered them without making any gain for them, or fpi- 
ritual profit, although he knew that the Lord, who had 
beftowed them on him, that is to fay on his body, expected 
from them fpiritual ufury. And therefore the divine judg- 
ment is given againft him, that his kingdom be divided ; 
that is to fay his body, which is in two regions, namely, in 
the fpiritual and in the corporeal, which are the Soul and 
the Body. Of these, one part, which is the Body, will be 
given to the worms to gnaw ; and the Soul to the fire of 
Hell, which is the thrice horrible afpe<5t of Death, there to 
be perpetually tormented : from which may God be willing 
to preferve us, and which we ought to be afraid to fee. 

Chapter of the fourth afpecl: of Death. 

END in the reaping hooks : for the harvefts are 
ripe, fays Joel (iii. 13) to the good hufbandman, 
who leaves not his field idle on feeing the time 
come when there is need to gather in the grain. 
For after he has carried the wheat he fows turnips in his 
field, or other things likely to grow. Wherefore he is anxi- 
ous to harveft the corn when it is ripe. In like manner the 
Hufbandman of this prefent life is God, & each one of us is 
the harveft, which ought to bear fruit in the field. We fee 
that the feeds are left in the field until the time of harveft, 
& then are reaped with the fickle, and we leave them there 
no longer, and the ripe are harvefted with the unripe. Now 
to fpeak to the purpofe, God in this life grants us time to 
gather in the harveft, to the intent that we, coming to the 


ripened harvefl, may be placed in the garners of the Lord, 
namely, in life eternal, & not be fent with the ftraw to be 

And if we produce not fruit in due time, divine juftice 
will not permit us longer to remain in this field : but with 
the fickle of Death will cut us from the field of this prefent 
life, whether we have produced fweet deeds or four. That 
saint John well forefaw in his Apocalypfe (ch. xiv.), when in 
vifion was mown to him an Angel, who was commanded to 
gather the harvest becaufe that the corn was ripe. The 
hour is come, fays he, when the harveft muft be gathered. 
And he put his fickle into the ground, & gathered the 
harveft. And afterwards it follows : And the other came 
forth who had a fharp fcythe, & the Angel that had power 
over the fire, faid to him who had the fcythe : Put in, faid 
he, the fharp fcythe, and gather in the buds of the vine. 
Which he did, & that which he gathered in, he put into the 
lake of the wrath of God. 

What does that fcythe fignify or figure to us, if not hu- 
man Death ? And with good reafon : for however much 
the ears of wheat, when they are in the field, may be one 
greater than the other, and longer and bigger, ever towards 
the root, in order to cut it with the fickle, all are found 
equal. And fo Death does with human beings. For of 
whatever lies in the field of human life, the one may be 
higher, more excellent than another in greatnefs of nobility 
or in riches, but at all times, when Death harvefts them and 
reduces them into fheaves, if we obferve them well, we fhall 
find them all equal. 

Of this we have an example in Diogenes, who could not 
find any difference between the bones of the noble and of 
the ignoble. Whence I take the firft fickle for the Death 
of the jufb, who in the field of this prefent life labour un- 
injured amid the thickets of adverfity, are tried, — then arrive 


at perfe<5t maturity and are harvefted, to the end that they 
may no more be fubjecl: to the perils of tempefts and hail- 
ftorms of this world ; & that the heat may not fall upon 
them. And the Death of fuch is precious before God. 

As to the other Angel holding the fcythe fo fliarp, who 
harvefted the buds of the vine, it is the Death of finners, 
of which the Pfalmift fpeaks : the Death of finners is dif- 
quieted. And it is the Devil, who over the eternal fire has 
the power which God has given him, and who by the per- 
miffion of God commands finners to be gathered as the 
vintage, and to be torn from the vine of this prefent life ; 
that is to fay, when they have accomplifhed their malice, 
and when in due time, becaufe inftead of producing fweet 
grapes they have produced bitter wild grapes, perfevering 
in iniquity & malice without contrition or repentance, & cut 
off from the vine, they are thrown into the lake Infernal, 
where they will be caft down and have their works de- 
ftroyed. Wherefore of fuch well faid faint Auguftine (i 
Confcfs): (13) It is the moft juft punifhment of fin, that 
each one fhould lofe that which he has not been willing 
well to employ. For whoever has not brought forth fruit 
in this world, of what fervice is he, but to be cut down and 
caft into the fire ? 

Chapter of the fifth figured afpe6l of Death. 

OT without a grandly figured fimilitude of Death 
is it defcribcd in faint Matthew (ch. xxiv.) : As 
goeth forth the lightning of the thunder from the 
Eaft. And neceffary is it to underftand that 
there is one and the fame caufe of the lightning & of the 
thunder, and they are as if one and the fame thing ; but that 
one thing is perceived by two fenfes ; Namely by the hear- 
ing and the fight : & the lightning is feen more quickly 
than the thunder is heard. But always they come both 


together. And this priority arifes only from the fenfation. 
For the vifible kind is much fooner multiplied than the au- 
dible : as we fee by experience when we ftrike any thing 
with a great blow ; The blow is fooner feen than the found 
of the blow is perceived by thofe who are at a diftance 
from it. 

So it is with the thunder and with the lightning and 
fulguration from it. But fometimes the thunder & the 
lightning ftrike all at one blow, & then is it very dangerous. 
For it is a fign that it is very near us. Thus, not without 
caufe, the holy fcripture calls Death fulguration, flajliing. 
For the courfe of the lightning is from Eaft to Weft. And 
the courfe of Death is from birth up to the end. Notwith- 
ftanding this, Death is like what the fcripture proclaims ; 
when it fays, — It is appointed for all men once to die. 
We fee continually this thunderbolt ftriking here and there. 
But we do not liften to the voice of one faying, Thou fhalt 
die & not live. 

And yet in no way do we believe that we muft die. As 
we fee from the example of him who is in a fhip, and meets 
another who is alfo failing on the fea ; it feems to the firft 
that his own fhip does not ftir, and that the other alone 
makes way ; although both are equally feen approaching 
each other. Thus men in the flefh living according to the 
flefh, conftantly fee the decline and end of the prefent life 
with refpect to each other. Yet they always think them- 
felves to be immortal. It is then a very perilous thing 
when Death at one and the fame time is heard and feen. 
For we cannot provide for it. 

In like manner it is a very dangerous thing when the 
firmer does not in his life-time hear the divine fcripture, 
but waits to make trial when fudden Death fhall come to 
ftrike him. For then he will not be able to apply a remedy, 
as Seneca fays : (14) O thou infenfate, thou forgetter of thy 


frailty, if thou art afraid of Death when it thunders, & not 
before ? We read a beautiful picture in Exodus (ch. ix.) 
where it is written, that through all Egypt were made thun- 
ders and lightnings, mixed with fire, with hail and tempeft. 
And the cattle which were found out of the houfes are dead. 
Now Egypt is interpreted darknefs, which reprefents to 
us the blindnefs of finners, having eyes and feeing not. 
Indeed the fudden thunders and thunderbolts are made 
when, with mortal infirmity, the gehenna of Hell overtakes 
them. And becaufe they are found outfide the houfe of 
penitence, wandering through the fields of this life's vanity, 
putrifying like cattle on the dung-heaps of the flefh, the 
tempeft of fudden Death defcending upon them, forthwith 
they are deftroyed ; and by the vexatious Devils they are 
charmed at the hour of death. Refpecting which faint 
Gregory (bk. vi. mor) faid to this purpofe : (3) The ancient 
enemy, to charm the fouls of finners at the time of Death, 
unbridles the violence of cruelty ; and thofe whom in life he 
has deceived by flatteries, waxing in cruelty, he charms, 
even when they are dying. Well ought we then to liften to 
the thunder of holy fcripture, faying : There where I fliall 
find thee will I judge thee. The Sage however teaches us 
to confider our latter days, to the end that we fin not, but 
may be always prepared. Wherefore faid faint Gregory 
(bk. xii. mora) : Whoever confiders how he will be at Death 
will hold himfelf ready for Death. (3) 

Chapter of the fixth figured afpect of Death. 

EADING that which is written in Nehemiah the 

prophet (viii. 1): The people gathered themfelves 

together before the water gate ; I have thereupon 

confidered that there is no way fo long which, 

by continuation of walking, may not fometime be finifhed, 


and have termination or end. In like manner, this prefent 
life is a way fhut in and terminated between two points ; 
namely, between birth and death. And notwithftanding we 
all are travellers, on whom neceffity is laid to come to the 
end, and to the gate, that is to fay to Death, which is called 
the end of the prefent life & the beginning of the next : It 
is very true, that fometimes the gate is arduous. And be- 
caufe that it is ftrait, it needs that thofe entering by it be 
light and nimble, left hindered by fome burden they mould 
not be able to enter, but fhould be fhut out. Speaking 
more fpiritually to the faithful who defire the future life, It 
is neceffary for them to enter by the gate of Death with 
good will, & to prepare themfelves in life fo as on the day 
of paffage to be difburdened of the fins of the Devil, who is 
ready then to facrifice and to oppofe the finners whom he 
fliall find bufied with the weight of fin. Wherefore faid 
Job (v. 4) : His children are far from fafety, and they are 
crufhed in the gate. And of this Jeremiah (xvii. 21, 25) 
gives us a reprefentation in the paffage where he relates our 
Lord to have faid : " Take heed to your fouls, and be not 
willing to bear burdens or weights on the Sabbath day, and 
bring them not within the gates of Jerufalem." (19) And 
then he adds : Bring no burdens through the gates of this 
city. On the Sabbath day fhall enter by them the princes 
of the kingdom fitting on the throne of David, the man of 

The Sabbath day reprefents to us repofe, & the day, 
which is the laft day of the week, that is to fay, the laft day 
of man, the day of Death ; at which man ought not to be 
found laden with ponderous burdens ; for then are they 
difficult to unload. Ill then is man able to confefs and to 
eafe his foul of fin. For this caufe our Lord teaches us : 
Pray that your flight be not made in the winter, nor on the 


Sabbath day. We muft one day enter by the ftrait and 
narrow gate of human Death, which is of fo great a ftrait- 
nefs that if beforehand the burdens of fin are not put off, no 
one thereby can freely enter : whence Seneca (14) de- 
duced this moral : If we wifh to be happy, if we wifh not to 
be afraid either of gods or of men, or of any thing elfe, let 
us defpife fortune when promifing fuperfiuous things. And 
when Jeremiah faid : By this gate fhall enter the kings, it 
it is to be underftood that they who have lived well and 
have prevailed over their vices, by confeffion, difburdening 
themfelves of the weight of fin, and entering by this gate 
of Death common to all, fhall inhabit the celeftial city, 
Jerufalem, interpreted, vifion of peace ; and mail not be 
confounded, as faid the Pfalmift, when they fhall fpeak 
with their enemies in the gate. 

Chapter of the feventh figured afpecl of Death. 

H E worldly minded, however great the company 
of people which they may have, or however great 
the pleafure which may delight them, are at all 
hours melancholy, fad, & peevifh. And they 
will have nothing to fay among themfelves except' this: I 
would I were dead ; I repent of having done that. The 
wicked, is he not very ungrateful ? Accurfed be the world 
and he who fhall truft therein. I am no longer willing to 
frequent any perfon's fociety. Never more will I truft in 
any man. And fuch, or even ftranger and more defperate 
avowals will you hear every day from thofe who not in 
God but in men place their confidence, confolation & love. 
Wherefore of fuch people it is faid by the Pfalmift (cvii. 4): 
They wandered in the wildernefs in a folitary way, & they 
found no city to dwell in. And indeed that way is very 
difficult and perilous in which we find in the wildernefs a 


doubtful, wandering and unknown path. For fometimes 
the traveller taking this road, wanders from the right road, 
and knows not how again to return to it. And meanwhile 
he is in danger of being flain, either by robbers or by 
favage beafts. Wherefore ought a man in fuch a path to 
take fome guide and never to abandon him. Is not in 
your opinion this prefent life doubtful? — for never to the 
threfhold of death can life by the right way be found. 
This Job teftifying (xvi. 22) fays : I fhall never return by 
the path along which I go. 

We ought then to follow the guide, even him who well 
knows the road, namely our Lord, to whom, as faint Mark 
recites (xii. 14) it was faid : " Matter, we know that thou art 
true, and teacheft the way of God in truth." Otherwife 
fhould we wander from the way of righteoufnefs, and be 
taken of that very cruel robber, who furrounds us night and 
day in order to devour us. Which has been well figured 
to us in the book of Numbers (ch. xiv.), when the children 
of Ifrael, unwilling to follow Mofes to the entrance of the 
land of promife, perifhed by divers punifhments. So not 
willing to follow the way of repentance fhewn to us by 
Jesvs Christ to the unknown threfhold of terrible Death, 
as we travel through the deferts and wildernefs of this 
world, we are in danger of falling among cruel robbers and 
favage beafts. To this effect faint Bernard {In lib. medi) 
fays : (10) O Soul, what fear there will be, when having left 
all things the prefence of which is fo pleafant to thee, alone 
thou (halt enter into a region totally unknown to thee, 
where thou wilt behold a very frightful company who will 
come to meet thee. Who is he that on the day of fuch 
neceffity will determine thee ? Who will defend thee from 
the roaring lions ready for their prey ? Who will confole 
thee ? Who is he that will guide thee ? And there follows : 
This thy friend is then more to thee than all thy friends. 




He it is who after all things fhall be taken away from thee 
will keep faithful to thee at the day of thy burial. And he 
will conduct thee by the unknown road, leading thee to the 
feat of the Sion which is above, and there will he place thee 
with the Angels before the face of the divine majefty. 

Chapter of the eighth figured 
image of Death. 

E read this in the book of Judges (xv. 8) : He 
dwells in the cavern or pit ; — demonftrating 
that a man walking through mows in clear wea- 
ther, when the fun mines upon them, on arriving 
at his houfe or lodging, no longer fees any thing. And the 
reafon is, that this furpaffmg whitenefs produces fo great a 
difperfion in the eyes, and leaves a phantafm of fo great a 
brightnefs, that he is not able to fee any thing elfe. But 
when he enters into a houfe, or better into a dark pit, 
he feems always to have this brightnefs before his eyes. 
Whence there is great danger within the houfe or the pit, 
left, by fome falfe ftep, he fhould injure himfelf by (tum- 
bling. And there is no better remedy than to remain there 
a fpace of time until the phantafm of this brightnefs may 
have paffed away. 

Applying this in a fpiritual fenfe, We fhall take the fnows 
for the profperities of the prefent life, and with good reafon. 
For when the fnows are agglutinated together, they appear 
very white and mining. And then, when the South wind 
comes, running over them, they become very dirty and 
nafty. So the profperities of this world, as long as they 
adhere to a man, feem very bright, beautiful and fhining. 
But fortune becomes contrary by the changefulnefs of her 
wheel, and they are converted into groaning and tears. 
And becaufe thofe travelling a long time through them are 


fo very blind in heart and in affection, that when they 
ought to enter into the abode of the future life, through 
Death, they fee nothing there, and do not know where they 
are going. They have a phantafm fo imprinted on their 
thoughts, that it cannot be effaced by dark and gloomy 
Death. They are unable to confider the fuddennefs of 
Death, or the pains of Hell, or the fear of the Judge. And 
for a fhort time they are unable to think of any thing, fave 
the happinefs of this mortal life, fo much do they keep their 
feet in the grave and their Soul in the pain of Hell. And 
notwithftanding in thefe words of Job (vii. 6) : My days 
have paffed more lightly than the web is cut off by the 
weaver, — faint Gregory fays, (3) that there is nothing on 
which men think lefs. For even when Death holds them 
by the collar, they do not believe him to be coming to them. 
So by thefe vain and fantaftic illufions of the world man, 
being prejudiced, cannot aim at his deliverance. And the 
fovereign remedy for this is to think attentively and with 
long confideration on the divine abode, that is on Death, 
through the grave and the dark houfe. Thence fliall we 
recognife what the pomp of the world is worth, its glory, 
its riches, and its delights. And he who fhall defpife and 
difown all thefe things fliall fee God. Thus treated He 
the good Elias (1 Kings xix. 11- 13), who remained at the 
entrance of the cave watching and obferving. And nrft, 
there paffed by a great and ftrong wind that brake in pieces 
the rocks ; but the Lord was not in the wind. Secondly, 
there paffed by an earthquake, but the LORD was not in the 
earthquake. Thirdly, there paffed by a fire, but the LORD 
was not in the fire. Fourthly, there paffed by the whiffling 
of a gentle breeze, and with it was the Lord. And Elias faw 
the Lord, and they have fpoken together, God and Elias. 

Now to fpeak to our purpofe, by means of Elias, who 
is named feeing, is defignated a provident Chriftian who, 


knowing himfelf mortal, always meditates upon Death. 
And becaufe his term is uncertain he ever makes himfelf 
ready to receive it, as if at every hour it might come to 
him. And to a man thus difpofed Death cannot bring 
perturbation. However Seneca faid:( 14) None of us knows 
how near his term may be. Thus then let us frame our cou- 
rage, as if we were come to extremity. For no man receives 
Death joyoufly, except it be he who has beforehand, by 
long meditation, prepared himfelf to receive it. And if thus 
we prepare ourfelves betimes, there is no wind of pride, nor 
earthquake moved by wrath, nor fire of luft, which is able 
to harm us. But at laft we fhall perceive the gentle breath- 
ing of the fweetnefs of holy fcripture, where God fhall fpeak 
health-giving precepts, by which we fhall evidently fee what 
to fhun, and what we ought to follow, without tranfitory 
pleafures being able to blind the eyes of thought by any 

God grant grace to us all fo well to think on all thefe 
afpecls of Death, and fo intently to admire them and medi- 
tate upon them, that when by the will of God Death fhall 
come to take us, affured by Him who has triumphed over 
it, we alfo fhall be able to triumph, that through the merit 
of that triumphant Chariot of the Crofs we may be able to 
arrive at that life where Death no more has power or force. 

Praife to God. 


The diverfe Deaths 


bad of the old & new 

THER than the funereal figures of Death, fo 
frightful to the bad, here with the pencil of 
fcripture will be reprefented the Deaths of 
the juft and unjuft, in imitation of Lucian, 
(20) who in his dialogue of images fays : 
That in order to paint a perfect beauty of a woman, it is 
neceffary only to recall before the eye of memory the 
particular beauties of each one womanly feature, here and 
there, of old portrayed by excellent painters. In like man- 
ner, on this little tablet will be traced all the beautiful and 
hideous deaths of the Bible, from which the readers will be 
able to derive hiftories of them worthy of being fliown to 
the unlearned. The whole to the glory of Him, who permits 
Death to reign over all the living, as it may pleafe him and 
when he wills. 

Figure of Death in general. 

E CAUSE the fentence of God is true, by which 
he faid to man (Gen. ii. 17): "In the hour that 
thou eateft thereof," that is to fay of the for- 
bidden fruit, " thou fhalt die ; " It is certain 
that immediately after the fin man dies. Then is the 
living man as if continually dying, (13) according to faint 


Auguftine in his xiv. chapter of the City of God. 

As it may be that men before the deluge (Gen. v.) lived 
through fo many years, notably does the fcripture after the 
account of the time of their life fay, And he died. 

If our ancient Fathers feared Death and defired long life, 
it was no marvel ; for they could not yet mount to heaven, 
nor enjoy the divine vifion, until the Saviour had come, 
who opened the gate of Paradife. Wherefore good Lot 
(Gen. xix), admonifhed by the Angel that he fhould efcape 
to the mountain, feared to go there, left perchance the evil 
might take him there, and there he might die. 

Death of the righteous, faid Balaam. (Num. xxiii. 10.) 

Alfo the bad defire to die ; hence, let my foul die. 

It is evident that Mofes (Deut. iv. 21, 22) was not willing 
to obey the commandment of God, who willed that he 
mould pafs the Jordan ; but at the fame time we fee well 
enough that freely he would have lived longer, if God had 
willed. Wherefore he faid : The Lord is angry with me ; 
behold I die in this land, I fhall not pafs over the Jordan. 

The greateft part of the reward of the Mofaic Law ap- 
peared to confift in the length of life : For it is written 
(Deut. xxxii. 42), " Set your hearts to all the words which 
I teftify among you," that doing them, ye may continue 
a long time in the land into which ye fhall enter in order 
to poffefs it. 

Zebah and Zalmunna (Judges viii. 20, 21) preferred to be 
killed by the hand of Gideon, a valiant man, rather than 
by the hand of J ether his fon. 

When Elijah was feated under a juniper tree, he de- 
manded for his foul that he might die, faying (1 Kings 
xix. 4) : " It is enough : now, O Lord, take away my foul." 

Hezekiah king of Judah walked before the Lord in truth 
and was good (Ifaiah xxxviii. 3). Every time when it was 

OF THE BAD. 159 

announced to him by Ifaiah that he muft die, He prayed 
the Lord with great weeping, to the end that ftill he would 
prolong his life. 

Tobit, provoked at having heard the anfwer of his wife, 
fighed, and began to pray with tears, faying (Tobit iii. 2) : 
" O Lord, thou art juft, command my foul to be received in 
peace, for it is more expedient for me to die than to live." 
And then there follows in chapter iv., when he thought that 
his prayer was heard, he called his fon, &c. 

Sara, the daughter of Raguel, on having received from 
one of the chamber-maids a grievous injury, prayed the 
Lord, and faid among other things (Tobit iii. 11-13) : "I 
requeft, O Lord, that thou abfolve me from the bond of 
this unfuited ftate, or indeed that thou take me from upon 
the earth." 

Before the king Zedekiah Jeremiah offered his prayer 
(Jer. xxxviii.), that he might not kill him, and that he 
fhould give command to put him again in the prifon, in 
which he was before : to the end that he might not die by 
the Death of the Crofs, which the Saviour was willing to 
bear, & this mowed manifeftly that not only was he willing 
to die, but that each kind of Death muft be fuffered by a 
juft man in order to obey the divine will. 

Before the advent of the holy Spirit the apoftles too 
much feared Death, for, on their Lord being taken, they 
all forfook him (Mat. xxvi. 56) : but after that they were, 
through the virtue from on high, ftrengthend and confirmed, 
on being led before princes and Tyrants, they fpoke with 

Little did faint Paul fear, and not at all did he fear Death. 
(Acts throughout). He faid that he was not only ready to 
be bound, but alfo to die for the name of the lord Jefus. 

And himfelf in another place faid (Acts xxv. 10) : If it is 
known to the Jews that 1 have done any thing worthy of 


Death, I refufe not to die. At all times muft it be noted, 
that after avoiding the fnares of the Jews, he fled from City 
to City, not through fear of Death, but giving place to the 
bad he kept himfelf fo as to be ufeful for many things. 

Of the horrible Death of the bad, a defcription 
painted according to the holy fcripture. 

A IN, who killed his brother (Gen. iv.), was flain 
by Lamech. Our lord fent rain of fulphur & of 
fire upon Sodom (Gen. xix. 24), and overthrew 
five cities defiled by a deteftable fin. 

Shechem the fon of Hamor, who wronged Dinah the 
daughter of Jacob, was killed by the fons of Jacob (Gen. 
xxxiv. 25, 26), and all the people of the city. 

The water of the red fea drowned the chariots and all the 
equipment, the foldiers and the army of Pharaoh, and not 
one of them remained (Exod. xiv. 28). And indeed very 
juftly ; becaufe it was neceffary that the body fliould be 
drowned of him, whofe heart could not be foftened. 

Nadab & Abihu, fons of Aaron, offering ftrange fire be- 
fore God (Lev. x. 1, 2), have been devoured by the fire of 
the lord, and are dead. 

By the commandment of our Lord the fons of Ifrael led 
forth out of the army the blafphemer, and beat him to 
death with ftones. (Lev. xxiv. 23.) 

Korah, Dathan & Abiram & their accomplices, rebelling 
againft Mofes, went clown alive into Hell (Num. xvi. 31), 
being fwallowed up by the earth. 

The others, murmuring, and committing divers fins, died 
of divers deaths in the defert : fo that of feven hundred 
thoufand men of war, two only entered into the land of 
promife. (Num. xxvi. 65.) 

Becaufe Achan furtively carried off the treafures offered 

OF THE BAD. 161 

in Jericho (Jofhua vii. 25), all the people of Ifrael ftoned 
him, & confumed by fire whatever belonged to him. 

Jael, the wife of Heber the Kenite, carried off the nail of 
the tent (Judges iv. 21), & fixed it in the brain of Sifera, 
who awaiting the fleep unto death, fainted and died. 

If Zebah & Zalmunna had kept in fafety the brothers of 
Gideon (Judges viii. 19), Gideon would have pardoned them. 
And becaufe they killed them, they were flain by Gideon. 

The fons of Ifrael took Adoni-bezek (Judges i. 6, 7), and 
having cut off the tips and ends of his hands (as he had 
done to feventy kings), they led him to Jerufalem, & there 
he died. 

A woman, calling on the head of Abimelech a piece of 
a mill-ftone, broke his fkull (Judges ix. 53) ; and he called 
his armour-bearer, & commanded that he fhould kill him. 
And our Lord rendered to him the evil which he had done, 
in putting to death his feventy brothers. 

When Eli heard that the ark of the Lord had been taken 
(1 Sam. iv. 18), he fell from his feat backward by the fide 
of the gate, and having broken his neck he died. 

David, a young ftripling and all unarmed, and having 
no practife in arms, affaulted the proud & blafphemous 
Goliath, and killed him with his own fword. (1 Sam. xvii. 

49-5 1 •) 

Saul, moved I know not by what envy, perfecuted David. 
At laft he took his own fword, and cafbing himfelf upon it, 
killed himfelf. (1 Sam. xxxi. 4.) 

The firft fon of David violated his filter Thamar, and a 
little after was killed by the order of Abfalom her brother, 
as he was feafting with him. (2 Sam. xiii. 28.) 

Through the luft of ruling, Abfalom did very much afflicT: 
his father David. (2 Sam. xviii.) But before he arrived at 
his objecl; he was hanged between Heaven and Earth. 

Ahitophel, feeing that his counfel was not accepted which 



he had given againft David (2 Sam. xvii. 23), went away to 
his houfe and died on the gibbet. 

Sheba the fon of Bichri excited the people againft David 
in the city of Abel. (2 Sam. xx. 22.) Where he thought he 
had refuge & aid, there was he beheaded. 

The young man, who boafted of having killed Saul, was 
by the commandment of David killed (2 Sam. i. 15), when 
he thought to announce a thing agreeable to him. 

The like happened to two thieves, who brought the head 
of Ifh-boiheth, fon of Saul. (2. Sam. iv. 12.) 

However noble a knight Joab was, — becaufe he flew two 
men traitoroufly (1 Kings ii. 34), he was commanded to be 
killed by Solomon. 

Ahab, wounded in war, died at evening, and the dogs 
licked up his blood (1 Kings xxii. 38) at that very place in 
which they licked up the blood of Naboth, who was (toned, 
Ahab, who could fave him and ought to have done it, pre- 
tending not to notice the deed. 

Another bad king, Elah, reigned tyrannically in Judah 
(1 Kings xvi. 10), againft whom Zimri rebelled, & killed 
his lord, the which Zimri then died wretchedly. 

When Elifha went up to the city of Bethel, fome ill 
taught children mocked him. (2 Kings ii. 24.) There came 
forth two Bears and tore in pieces forty-two of thefe chil- 

One of the two who was with the king of Ifrael would 
not believe the words of Elifha, when predicting the future 
abundance ; and on the next day the crowd of men for the 
spoils fuffocated him, and there he died. (2 Kings vii. 17.) 

Benhadad, king of Syria, who caufed many evils to the 
children of Ifrael (2 Kings viii. 15), was in the end flain by 
his fon (fcrvant) Hazael. 

Jehu, feeing the wicked Jezebel, who had been the caufe 
of many evils, commanded that fhe fliould be call down 
below (2 Kings ix. 33) : and fhe was fo trodden upon by 

OF THE BAD. 163 

the crowd of horfes that, although fhe was a King's daugh- 
ter, fhe was not buried, and there remained only the fkull 
of her head. 

Athaliah, the mother of Ahaziah, killed all the Royal 
feed, to the end that fhe might reign over the people. (2 
Kings xi. 1.) And then afterwards villainoufly was fhe 
killed by the commandment of Jehoiada the prieft. 

The bad and ungrateful king Jehoafh, who caufed Zacha- 
rias the fon of the prieft Jehoiada to be cruelly fhoned, was 
afterwards flain by his own people. (2 Kings xii. 20.) 

Sennacherib, the very haughty king of the Affyrians, & 
the blafphemer of the God of Heaven, after that he was put 
to flight in confufion from the land of Judah, was killed by 
his own children. (2 Kings xix. 37.) 

Zedekiah the king of Judah, evil towards God and to- 
wards man, was taken as he was fleeing (2 Kings xxv. 7), 
and before his eyes the king of Babylon caufed his children 
to be killed. After they had put out his eyes, he was led 
to Babylon, and died there miferably. 

Holofernes took and deftroyed many countries ; finally 
going to fleep drunk, he was beheaded by the hands of a 
woman. (Judith xiii. 8.) 

The very proud Haman, who made men worfhip him, 
was hanged on the gibbet which he had prepared for Mor- 
decai. (Either vii. 10.) 

Belfhazzar, king of Babylon, was not amended by the 
example of Nebuchadnezzar his father, who before him had 
been hairy as a beaft (Dan. iv. 33) ; and at the banquet he 
faw the writing on the wall, Mene, Tekel, Peres. (Dan. v. 25.) 
And that night he was killed, and his kingdom transferred 
to the Medes and to thofe of Perfia. 

The accufers of Daniel were, by the commandment of 
Darius king of Perfia, put into the den of Lions. (Dan. vi. 
16.) The like happens in chapter xiv. (11.) 


Then when Alexander was on the bed of ficknefs (i Mace, 
i. 5), it is faid that he perceived that he fliould die, as if 
before he had no knowledge of Death, nor the remem- 
brance of it. 

Alcimus the traitor was fmitten and impotent from para- 
lyfis, he could no more fpeak (1 Mace. ix. 55), "nor give 
order concerning his houfe." And he died in great torment. 

The king Antiochus being grieved, becaufe Andronicus 
had unjuftly killed Onias the fovereign prieft (2 Mace. iv. 
38), commanded Andronicus to be killed in the fame place 
in which he had committed fuch great impiety. 

Many a£ts of facrilege being committed in the temple by 
Lyfimachus (2 Mace. iv. 39), a great multitude of people 
was affembled againft him, & near to the Treafury they 
killed him. 

Antiochus, who had troubled the bowels of mercy, fuf- 
fered fevere pains of the bowels, and by a miferable death 
(2 Mace. ix. 28) died in the mountain. 

The wicked Jafon (2 Mace. v. 6), who had led captive 
his own brother, and had banifhed feveral people of his 
country, died in exile, and remained unpitied and unburied. 

Menelaus in a fhort time malicioufly obtained the princi- 
pality, but foon was he caft headlong from a high tower 
upon a heap of afhes. 

It is the rich man, whofe field had produced abundance 
of fruit (Luke xii. 16), who, when he thought of deftroying 
his barns in order to build larger, believed in living longer, 
but he did not. For it was faid to him by our Lord, Fool, 
this night thou wilt perifh. 

Very terrible is the example of that famous bad rich 
man, who was feafting fo much (Luke xvi.), and who died 
and was buried in hell. 

Ananias and his wife Sapphira (A6ts v. 1), becaufe they 


fraudulently kept back part of the price of their field when 
fold, died terribly at the reproof of faint Peter. 

Herod, feated on the judgment feat, & clothed in royal 
garments, was fpeaking to the people. (Acts xii. 21.) And 
the people cried out, " The words of God & not of men." 
Then immediately the Angel of the Lord fmote him : 
Becaufe he had not given the honour to God. And con- 
fumed of worms, he expired miferably. 

Another depicted defcription of the 
precious Death of the juft. 

HEN Abel and Cain were in the field, Cain 
rofe up againft Abel and killed him. (Gen. iv. 8.) 
And according to the reafon given for it, be- 
caufe his works were evil, & thofe of his brother 

Enoch walked with God, & appeared not. For God had 
taken him. (Gen. v. 24.) 

Abraham died in a good old age (Gen. xxv. 8), an old 
man and full of days, and was gathered to his people. 

The days of Ifaac are accomplifhed, a hundred and eighty 
years (Gen. xxxv. 28), and worn out by age he died, and 
was gathered to his people, an old man and full of days. 

When Jofeph had adjured his brethren (Gen. 1. 25), and 
had faid to them, Carry up with you my bones from hence, 
&c, then he died. 

Mofes and Aaron, by the commandment of God (Num. 
xx. 23), went up into mount Hor, before all the multitudes, 
and when Aaron had defpoiled himfelf of all his veftments, 
he inverted Eleazar with them, and there Aaron died. 

Mofes, the fervant of God, died in the land of Moab, the 
Lord commanding him (Deut. xxxiv. 5, 6), and the Lord 
buried him. And no man has known his fepulchre unto 
this prefent day. 


David, after the inftruction to his fon Solomon, and the 
prayer which he made to the Lord for him & for all the 
people (i Chron. xxix. 10-19), died in a good old age, full 
of days, of riches and of glory. 

When Elijah & Elifha were travelling together, behold a 
burning chariot, & the horfes of fire divided the one from 
the other. (2 Kings ii. 11.) And Elijah went up to Heaven 
in flafhing fire. 

The fpirit of God clothed Zechariah the fon of Jehoiada, 
and faid to the people (2 Chron. xxiv. 20) : Why tranfgrefs 
ye the commandment of the Lord ? That will not profit 
you. The which people being gathered together againft 
him, caft ftones, according to the commandment of the 
King, & he was killed. 

At the hour of Death Tobit called Tobit his fon (21) 
(Tobit xiv. 2), and feven young men his nephews, & faid to 
them : My end is near. And a little after it is faid of his 
fon, that when he had with joy accomplifhed eighty-nine 
years in the fear of the Lord, they buried him with all his 
line, &c. 

Job lived after his fcourgings a hundred and forty years 
(Job xlii. 16), & faw the fons of his fons unto the fourth 
generation, & he died old and full of days. 

David would not weep for his innocent fon when dead, 
although he had wept when he was fick. But he wept much 
for the fratricide and parricide Abfalom when hanged. (2 
Sam. xii. 23, & xviii. 33.) 

After the inftruction & comforting of his children, Mat- 
tathias bleffed them, & died and was gathered to his fathers. 
(1 Mace. ii. 69.) 

Judas Maccabaeus, feeing the multitude of his enemies 
and the fewnefs of his own people, faid (1 Mace. ix. 10) : 
If our time be come, let us die manfully for our brethren. 

Elcazer, after many torments offered to him (2 Mace. vi. 


31), departed from this life, leaving to all the people the 
great memory of his virtue and fortitude. 

Thefe feven brothers with their fad mother, made an 
admirable end by commendable means. (2 Mace. vii. 41.) 
And many examples of virtue are to be noted there. 

For the truth and honourablenefs of marriage S. John 
Baptift was beheaded by Herod the Tetrarch. (Mark vi. 18.) 

Of that renowned poor man Lazarus it is written (Luke 
xvi. 22), that there begging he died, and that he was carried 
by Angels to Abraham's bofom. 

However that thief may have lived to whom Jefus Chrift, 
hanging on the crofs, faid : To-day thou fhalt be with me 
in Paradife, he died happily. 

When the bleffed Stephen was ftoned, he called upon the 
Lord God, and faid : Lord Jefus, receive my fpirit. (Acts 
vii. 59.) And kneeling down he cried with a loud voice : 
Lord, lay not this fin to their charge, &c. And when he had 
faid this, he fell afleep in the Lord. To which Death let 
us make our own like. 

And our faviour Jefus Chrift, according to faint Auguf- 
tine, at the fourth chapter dc Trinit., (13) by his fingle 
Death has deftroyed our double Death. Which Jefus, as 
Auguftine faid afterwards at the xiv. chap, of the City of 
God, (13) gave fo much grace of faith, that of Death (which 
is contrary to life) was made the inftrument by which we 
fliall pafs to life : which is granted to us by the true author 
of eternal falvation ; Who is the way, the truth & the life ; 
Who has over life & Death the empire. Who with the 
Father & the holy Spirit lives and reigns God through 
endlefs ages. 


Defcription of the fepulchres 
of the juft. 


FTER great diligence Abraham bought the field 
in which he buried his wife when fhe was dead. 
(Gen. xxiii. 19.) 

Jacob would not be buried with the wicked 
men in Egypt (Gen. xlvii. 30), but adjured Jofeph that 
when he mould be dead, he mould be carried to the fepul- 
chre of his Fathers, which Jofeph accomplifhed with great 
folicitude. (Gen. xlix. 29, & 1. 1 — 1 3.) 

On going forth from Egypt Mofes carried the bones of 
Jofeph with him. (Exod. xiii. 19.) 

David highly praifed the men of Jabefh-gilead becaufe 
that the bodies of Saul and his fons had been reverently 
buried by them. (1 Sam. xxxi. 11, & 2 Sam. i. 17-27.) 

The punifhment of him who, contrary to the command- 
ment of God, had eaten bread in the houfe of the evil 
Prophet, was this only, that he fhould not be buried in the 
fepulchre of his Fathers. (1 Kings xiii. 22.) 

Jehu, king of Judah, who caufed Jezabel to be killed, 
caufed her alfo to be buried : becaufe fhe was the King's 
daughter. (2 Kings ix. 34.) 

Tobit is praifed for this, that at the peril of his life he 
carried off the bodies of the flain, & carefully gave them 
burial. (Tobit i. 17 ; ii. 3-7.) 

The firft admonition among thofe falutary ones which 
Tobit made to his fon, was for his own burial and for that 
of his wife. (Tobit iv. 3.) 

The Jews, who were accufers of the wicked Menelaus, 
were by the unjuft judge condemned to death. Wherefore 
the Tyrians, indignant at this, liberally prepared for them 
burial. (2 Mace. iv. 49.) 

After the war engaged in againft Georgias, came Judas 
Maccabaeus to gather up the bodies of the dead, & to bury 
them with their kinfmen. (2 Mace. xii. 39.) 

The difciplcs of faint John the Baptift, hearing that he 
had been beheaded by Herod, came and took his body & 
buried it. (Matt. xiv. 12 ; Mark vi. 29.) 


It appears that our Lord had manifested care of his 
burial, becaufe that he anfwered Judas, when murmuring 
about the ointment, which according to him ought to be 
fold : Suffer, faid he, that flie keep it for the day of my 
burial. (John xii. 7.) 

Our Lord was buried by Joseph and Nicodemus in a 
newly cut fepulchre, in which no one had yet been laid. 
(Matt, xxvii. 60 ; Mark xv. 46 ; Luke xxiii. 53 ; John xix. 41.) 

The timorous men had care of faint Stephen when ftoned 
by the Jews, & made a great lamentation over him. (A6ts 
viii. 2.) 


ities & fentences of the Philofophers 

& Pagan orators to confirm 

the living in not fearing 



|||<RISTOTLE faid concerning the ft ream 
called Hypanis, (22) which deflects from 
a part of Europe into the fea, that certain 
little animals are born which live only a 
fingle day. And that which dies at eight 
o'clock in the morning, is then faid to have 
died early ; & that which dies at Noon has died of old 
age. Another, which before its Death fees the Sun fet, is 
decrepid. But all that being a comparifon of our very long 
age with eternity, we fhall be found in the fame brevity of 
time as that in which thefe little animals live. And ftill 
when we fee any young perfon die, we mult think that he 
dies in the morning. Then when one of forty or fifty years 
dies, let us think that it is at mid-day. And that very 
foon the evening will come, when it will be neceffary for us 



at laft to go to bed in order to fleep as the others do ; 
and when the hour of evening fhall come, we fliall have 
little or no advantage from having remained after him, 
who has gone away at eight o'clock, or at Mid-day ; fince 
at the end of the day we alfo muft pafs hence. 

Wherefore faid Cicero, (23) & faid it well : Thou haft 
fleep for an image of Death, and every day thou clotheft 
thyfelf therewith. And if thou doubteft, whether in Death 
there is any feeling, how much more, when thou feeft that 
in his image u there is no feeling. And afterwards he fays, 
that Alcidamus, an ancient Rhetorician, (24) wrote the praifes 
of Death, in which were contained the numbers of the evils 
which affli6l human beings, and that in order to make them 
defire Death. For if the laft day bring not extinction, but 
change of place, What more is there to be defired ? And 
if Death extinguishes and effaces every thing, What is 
better than to go to fleep in the midft of the labours of 
this life, and fo to repofe in an eternal fleep ? Nature in- 
deed does nothing raflily : but determines every thing for 
fome end. She has not then produced man, that after he 
has fuffered many labours here, fhe may fhut him up in the 
mifery of perpetual Death ; but that, after a long failing, 
fhe may conduct him to a peaceable abode, and to a tran- 
quil harbour. Wherefore thofe who through old age or 
difeafe are nearer death, are by fo much the more happy 
than the young and healthy ; juft as thofe who, having 
traverfed many feas and waving tides of the fea, arrive in 
harbour with greater gladnefs than thofe who again com- 
mence experiencing the perilous dangers of the long navi- 
gation that is fcarcely begun. And there is no need to 
fear that, either at this port, or at Death, there is any evil. 
For it is the very end of all evils, and endures and paffes 
oft' in the twinkling of an eye. 

.And on the tcftimony of the fame Cicero we alfo read 


that Cleobolus & Biton (25) were the fons of a famous lady, 
who was prieftefs of the goddefs Juno, & on the day of the 
grand feftival of this goddefs arriving, the faid children 
made ready a chariot in which they wifhed to condu6l the 
prieftefs their mother to the temple. For the cuftom of the 
Greeks was, that every time when the Priefts were to offer 
folemn facrifices, they fliould be borne either of the people, 
or in chariots, — fo much did they value their priefts ; and 
that if they had put a foot to the ground, they would not 
for all that day confent that they fhould offer any facrifice. 
It happened thereupon, that this prieftefs going in the cha- 
riot, the horfes which fhould condu6l it fell dead fuddenly 
in the middle of the road, and fully ten thoufand paces from 
the temple. Her children feeing this, & that their mother 
could not go on foot, & that the chariot could not be drawn 
by any other animals (for there were none there), — they 
determined to put themfelves into the place of the horfes, 
& to draw the chariot, as if they were animals. Tuft as 
their Mother carried them nine months in her womb, in like 
manner would they carry her in this chariot, through the 
country up to the temple. When they faw this, the great 
multitude of the people that came to this feftival, wondered 
at it greatly. And they faid that thefe young children 
were worthy of a great reward. And in truth merit it 
they did. 

After the feaft was nnifhed, the mother not knowing 
wherewith for merit fo great to fatisfy her children, prayed 
the goddefs Juno that it might pleafe her to give to thefe 
children the beft thing which the gods could give to their 
dear friends. This the Goddefs willingly accorded to her 
for fo Heroic a work. Wherefore fhe caufed the faid chil- 
dren to fall afleep in health, and on the morrow that they 
fliould be found dead. Then to the mother complaining of 
this Juno faid : Cheer thyfelf up ; for the greateft vengeance 


that the Gods can take on their enemies is to make them 
live long. And the greateft good with which we favour our 
friends, it is to make them die foon. The authors of this 
tale are Hizernachus in his Politics, (25) and Cicero in the 
firft of the Tufculan Oueftions. 

The like tale belongs to Trophonius and Agamedes. (26) 
Thefe, for having rebuilt that ruinous temple of Apollo 
which in the ifle of Delos was fo facred, had requefted from 
the faid Apollo for their reward the beft thing of which 
human beings have need : he made them both on going 
out from fupper fuddenly die at the entrance of the faid 
temple. I have willingly brought fonvard thefe two exam- 
ples, to the end that all mortals may know that there is no 
good ftate in this life, except when it is finifhed. And it 
the end of living is not enjoyable, at leaft it is very profit- 
able. However there is no neceffity for grief, to complain of 
or to fear Death. A traveller indeed would be extremely 
unwife, if walking and toiling on the road he was fetting 
himfelf to fing, and then for having finiflied the journey, 
was beginning to weep. Like folly would a failor commit, 
if he was forry for being arrived at the port : or that man 
who goes to battle, and fighs over the victory obtained by 
him. Much more is that man unwife and foolifh, who 
walking on in order to go to Death, is vexed with himfelf 
for having met with it. For Death is the true refuge, the 
perfect health, the affured port, the entire victory, the flefh 
without bone, the fifh without fpine, the grain without chaff. 
Finally after Death we have no reafon for weeping, nor any 
thing left to defire. 

In the time of the emperor Hadman, (27) died a very 
noble lady, parent of the Emperor, at whofe death a Philo- 
fophcr made an oration, in which he named many evils of 
life and many blcffings of death. And fo the Emperor 


afked him, what thing Death was. He anfwered : Death is 
an eternal fleep, a diffolution of the body, a terror of the 
rich, a defire of the poor, an inevitable event, an uncertain 
pilgrimage, a thief of men, a Mother of fleep, a fhadow of 
life, a feparation of the living, a company of the dead. 
Finally, Death is a hangman for the wicked, a fovereign 
reward for the good. On which good words we ought 
continually to meditate. For if a drop of water through 
continual falling penetrates a hard rock ; alfo by continual 
meditation on death nothing is fo hard but that it may be 

Seneca in an epiftle (14) tells of a Philofopher, of whom 
it was demanded, what evil there was in death that men 
mould fear it fo much ? He anfwered : If any lofs or evil 
is found in him who dies, it is not from the property of 
death, but from the vice of him who dies. In like manner 
we can fay, that as the deaf cannot judge of words, nor the 
blind of colours, fo little can he, who has never tafted 
Death, fpeak evil of Death. For of all thofe that are dead, 
not one complains of Death ; and of thofe who are living, 
all complain of life. If any one of the dead mould return 
thence to fpeak with the living, and as one who had expe- 
rience of it, fhould tell us if there was any evil in Death, — 
that would be a reafon for having fome terror thereof. 
Some great evil mufb they have done in life, who fear and 
fpeak ill of Death. For at that laft hour, and at that final 
judgment, — it is there, where the good are known, and the 
bad are difcovered. There are neither Kings, Emperors, 
Princes, Knights, nor rich, nor poor, nor found, nor fick, 
nor happy, nor unfortunate, nor do I fee any one who lives 
contented with his condition, except thofe who are dead : 
who in their fepulchres are in peace, and peaceably there 


at reft, where they are not avaricious, covetous, proud, nor 
fubject to any vices, — in a way that the ftate of the dead 
mufb be the moft affured, fince in this ftate we fee no dif- 
content. Next, thofe who are poor feek to grow rich; — 
the forrowful to rejoice, — the lick to obtain health; but 
thofe who have fo much fear of Death, feek no remedy fo 
as not to have fear of it. Wherefore I fhould advife in this 
way, that every one fhould occupy himfelf in living well, in 
order not to fear Death fo much. For the innocent life 
makes the affured Death. 

The divine Plato, (28) being afked by Socrates, how he 
was demeaning himfelf during life, and how he fhould de- 
mean himfelf at death, anfwered : " Know, O Socrates, that 
in my youth, I ftrove to live well, and in my old age I try 
to die well. And as life has been virtuous, I expect Death 
with great cheerfulnefs, and as I hold it no punifhment to 
live, I fhall hold it no fear to die." Such words were cer- 
tainly worthy of fuch a man. Much are people irritated 
when they have laboured much, and one pays them not for 
their toil : when they are faithful, and one makes no ref- 
ponfe to their loyalty ; when for their great fervices friends 
are ungrateful. O bleffed are thofe who die ! to whom fuch 
misfortunes have not happened, and who are in the fepul- 
chre without thefe regrets. For at that divine tribunal Co 
equally is juftice obferved towards all, that at the fame 
place which we deferve in life, at that are we ftationed after 
death. There never was, nor is, nor will be a judge fo juft, 
who renders reward by weight and punifhment by meafurc. 
For at no time are the innocent punifhed and the guilty 
acquitted. But at Death it is (not) fo. For each one muft 
hold it for certain, that if he has there a good right, he will 
obtain fentence to his profit. 

Plutarch in his Apophthegms (29) recites that at the time 
when the great Cato was cenfor at Rome, a renowned 


Roman died, who at his death fhewed great fortitude and 
conftancy ; and as others praifed him for his unchanging 
and intrepid heart, and for the conftant words which he 
fpake while labouring in death : Cato the Cenfor laughed 
at thofe who praifed this dead man fo much, who was fo 
affured, and who took death fo well in accord, — faying to 
them : " You are terrified by that which I laugh at ; and I 
laugh at that by which you are terrified. For confider the 
labours and perils, in which we pafs this wretched life, and 
the fecurity and repofc with which we die. I fay that there 
is need of greater effort to live, than of hardihood and great 
courage to die." 

We cannot deny that Cato fpoke very wifely, fince we fee 
every day that virtuous perfons endure hunger, thirft, cold, 
vexation, poverty, calumnies, fadneffes, enmities, and mif- 
fortunes. All which things it would be better worth feeing 
the end of in a fingle day, than to fuffer them for any one 
hour. For an honourable death is a lefs evil than a trouble- 
fome life. O how inconfiderate are thofe who think not 
that they have only to die once, but that in truth from the 
day when we are born our death begins, and at the lafb day 
we have done with dying. And fo Death is nothing elfe, if 
not to end the vigour of life. Reafonable will it be to fay, 
that our infancy died, our youth died, our manhood died, 
and dies and will die our old age. From which reafons we 
can gather that we are dying each year, each month, each 
day, each hour, and each moment. So that thinking to 
pafs life fecure, Death is always going into ambufh for us. 
And I cannot underftand why we are fo very much afraid 
to die, fince from the very point at which we are born we 
feek nothing fave Death. For we never have want of time 
for dying, never do we miftake or mifs the road of death. 

Seneca in one of his epiftlcs narrates that to a Roman 
matron (14) bewailing her fon who had died very young, a 


Philofophcr faid : " Why, O Lady, doft thou bewail thy 
child ?" She anfwered him : " I weep becaufe he only lived 
fifteen years, and I defired that he fliould have lived fifty. 
For we mothers love our children fo much, that never are 
we furfeited with feeing them, never do we ceafe to deplore 
them." Then this Philofopher faid to her : " Lady, I pray 
thee tell me, Why thou doft not complain of the Gods for 
not having made thy fon be born many years before, as 
thou complained that they have not let him live another 
fifty years ? Thou weepeft that he died before being aged, 
and thou weepeft not that he was born fo late. I tell thee 
for true that if thou doft not agree with me, not to be for- 
rowful for the one, thou oughteft not to weep for the other." 

To this conforming himfelf Pliny faid, (30) in one of his 
Epiftles, that the beft law which the Gods had given to 
human nature was, that nothing had perpetual life. For 
with the inordinate defire of living long, never fhould we 
attempt to go forth from this ftate of trouble. 

Two Philofophers arguing before the Emperor Theodo- 
fius, (31) one of them forced himfelf to fay, that it was good 
to procure Death : and the other in like manner faid, that 
it was a neceffary thing to abhor life. The good Theodo- 
fius anfwered : We mortals delight fo much in loving and 
abhorring that under colour of loving life much, we give 
ourfelves a very troublefome life. For we fuffer fo many 
things in order to preferve it, that it would at any time be 
worth while to lofe it. And fo fay I moreover. To fuch 
folly have many vain men come, that alfo through fear of 
death they beftow care to accelerate it. And thinking of 
this, I fliould be of opinion, that we fliould not love life too 
much, nor through dcfpair fhould we feck death too much. 
For men hardy and courageous ought not to abhor living 
as much as they may be able, nor to fear death when it 
fhall come to them. 


All praised what Theodofius faid, as Paul the Deacon (32) 
recites in his life. Now the Philofophers may fay what they 
will, but in my fmall judgment it appears to me, that he 
only will meet death without reluctance who for a long 
time before fhall have made himfelf ready to meet it. For 
all fudden death is not only bitter to thofe who tafte it ; 
but alfo terrifies thofe who hear fpeak of it. 

Lactantius faid (33) that man ought to live in fuch a man- 
ner as if he muft die in an hour. For men, who hold Death 
or its image before the eyes, it is impoffible that they give 
place to evil thoughts. In my opinion and in the opinion 
of Apuleius, like folly it is to wifh to fhun that which cannot 
be avoided, as to defire that which cannot be had. And 
this I fay for thofe who refufe the journey of Death, the 
road to which is a neceffity. However to flee it is impof- 
fible. Thofe who have to make a great journey, if they 
need any thing by the road, they borrow from their com- 
panions ; and if they forget any thing at their lodging, they 
write that it may be fent to them. However I forrow for 
this, that when once we are dead, we are not fuffered to 
return. We fhall not be able to fpeak, and we fhall not be 
permitted to write. Such as we fhall be found, for fuch 
fhall we be fentenced. 

And what is more terrible than all this is, that the 
execution and the fentence will take place all in one day. 
Wherefore I advife all mortals, that we fliould live in fuch 
a manner, that at the hour of death we may be able to 
declare that we are living, not that we have lived. For he 
who has not lived well, it will be better for him not to have 
had life, which before the immortal God, who is immortal, 
will be counted as nothing for making us after this mortal 
life immortal like himfelf. To whom be glory and honour 
in the age of ages. Amen. 

i 7 8 


of the Death which lets nothing- 
be durable. 

^INCE of Death we have fliown both 
the image and the admirable and fa- 
lutary effects, it is neceffary to offer 
fome proof of its inevitable fatality 
to thofe who, being too much affured, 
do not fear it, and make no account 
of it. At which I am amazed how 
it can be, that the remembrance of 
death mould be fo diftant from the thought of many, feeing 
that there is nothing which every day prefents itfelf fo 
much before our eyes. 

Firft, Mortals, are they not fo called from this little word 
Mort, death ? Wherefore it is impoffible to name ourfelves, 
except our ears admonifh us of Death. What lethargy is 
that ? But from what affurance (I do not fay infolence) can 
it happen, that we think fo little of it ? Have we drunk 
fo much of this river of Lethe, which is called the river of 
oblivion, that of what ceafes not to thruft itfelf into our 
thoughts, we have neither memory nor remembrance ? Are 
we fo hardened into ftone that on feeing and hearing fo 
much of death in the world, we think it ought never to 
overtake ourfelves ? Do we fee a fingle one of the Ancients 
that is ftill upon the earth ? In our time, ever do we fee 
one of them whom Death has paffed over ? 

The Elders have departed. And to them well fuits the 
faying of Cicero : (23) They have lived, and we without any 
diftinclion are going after them, and our pofterity will fol- 
low us. And in the manner of the rufhing torrent we are 
precipitated to the Weft. In the midft of the (laughter of 


the dying, we, about to die, are blind. And however much 
we have one & the fame condition and one & the fame 
fatality from our birth, we fear not to arrive at it. A young 
perfon will fay : " Why doft thou admonish me to think of 
death, in order to make me lofe all the joys of this world ? 
My age is ftill entire. Very much is needed ere I may have 
the head grey, and the brow wrinkled. Let thofe fear death 
who are old and decrepid." But to fuch a one it muft be 
anfwered : Which of the gods has promifed wind, heat, 
and wrinkle ? If we faw only the old men placed in the 
fepulchre, I fliould fay, that until old age it would not be 
neceffary to think of Death. But Death comes and carries 
off at every age ; it fees thofe extinguifhed that are not yet 
born, keeping them from coming into life, oftener than 
taking them away from it. If from the breafts of their 
mothers it often comes to match them off, — if it makes no 
difference between fex, age, beauty, uglinefs ; if we fee more 
of the young people than of the old borne to the fepulchre, 
I know not what youth, or any other worldly delufion will 
be able to affure us. 

In addition to the images of death, here already figured 
above, do you wifh that I fhould fhow you one of them 
natural, clear and manifeft ? In the firft fpring contemplate 
a fiourifhing tree, which is fo covered with flowers, that 
fcarcely is it poffible to fee upon it either branches or 
leaves ; it puts forward into fight flowers fo thick and beau- 
tiful, of fruits fo great an abundance, that it appears impof- 
fible to find a place large enough for gathering them. But 
of fo great a number of flowers, how few of them come to 
any good ! For one part is gnawn by caterpillars, — 
another is fpoiled by fpiders ; one part by the wind, or by 
the froft ; another is beaten down by the rain. And that 
which is left, and which is formed into fruit, does it in your 
opinion all arrive at full maturity ? Certainly not. Many 
fruits are eaten by worms, others are beaten down by the 


winds and fpoiled by the tempeft. Some are rotted by too 
much rain. And many die through countlefs other calami- 
ties. So that at the end of fo rich a hope, we obtain only 
a very few apples. (23) 

Nor is human life purfued by lefs calamities. There 
are a thoufand names of maladies, a thoufand fortuitous 
cafes of Death, by which Death tears away more before 
full age than it does by maturity of time. And fcarcely 
among a hundred is there one that dies naturally ; that is 
to fay, for whom the humour at the root of life may not 
have been leffened or fpoiled through excefs. And feeing 
that the life of mortals is expofed to fo many perils of 
death, what blindnefs is that of living fo as if we were never 
obliged to die. I afk you, If enemies were at our gates to 
give us the affault, mould we then go to prepare baths and 
banquets in order to make merry ? And death is for us a 
more capital enemy ; in every place, at every hour, in a 
thoufand ambufcades he is near in order to furprife us. 
Meanwhile about it we take no care. We admire our gold, 
filver, and our goods. We care not to be nourifhed up in 
goodnefs ; we covet honours, dignities and offices. 

Certainly if we thought well of what the prophet tells us 
in the perfon of the fick King, — " Set thine houfe in order, 
for at once mud thou die," — all thefe dawdling vanities 
would be bitter to us. Precious things feem vile to us, — 
the noble, nafty. And the figured Death, if he could fpeak, 
would fay : For what, O avaricious man ! doft thou amafs 
fo many treafures, fince fo foon I fhall carry all away ? 
Why for fo brief a road doft thou prepare fo much luggage ? 
Haft thou forgotten what in the Gofpel happened to him, 
to whom, when rejoicing in his well filled barns, and pro- 
mifing himfclf great cheer, it was faid : " Fool, this night thy 
foul fliall be taken away, and thofe things amaffed by thee, 
to whom fliall they belong ?" At the day of death what will 
there remain to thee of all thefe things, for the acquiring of 
which thou haft fpent all thine age ? Whence wilt thou 
obtain aid, comfort and fuccour ? From thy riches ? They 

OF DEATH. 181 

can do nothing, and already have they other lords. From 
pleafures ? But thefe, as with the body they have grown, 
fo with the body they die. Shall we have recourfe to the 
powers of youth ? Wearied of each one, its old age is a 
death. Or fhall we have hope in the comelinefs of beauty, 
by which puffed up we would draw every one to our love ? 
But all that has the fafhion of the Rofes, which bound up 
in the fingers immediately are drooping and dead. So 
beauty, gathered by death, immediately fades. But why 
do I fay it fades ? — nay more, that it becomes an abhor- 
rence ? For no one has loved the form of the living fo much 
as he has had in abhorrence the extinct body of one dead. 

Briefly, glory will not be able then to ferve us. For fhe 
is evanefcent with fortune and profperity. Nor lefs fleeting 
are all thy friends. For then there is not one fo faithful as 
not to abandon thee. And what will it ferve thee, though 
they break their hearts through weeping, if at laft they 
make themfelves companions of death ? The evils which 
they bring on themfelves cannot deliver thee from death. 
Let us then be wife in good time, and make ready the 
things, with which furnifhed at the day of death, we fhall 
affuredly be able to await that laft day. Riches, pleafures, 
nobility, and whatever at other times had pleafed us and 
been ufeful, certainly are only a burden and a vexation to 
us when dying. And then virtue* has begun to be of fervice 
to us. It accompanies us without the poffibility of being 
taken away from us ; and if we are well furnifhed with 
them it is then doubtlefs that the virtues help us. It is 
then that there is need a man fhould mow his virtue, his 
conftancy and his magnanimity, in order to combat againft 
the world, Death and Satan, which will prefent to him 
images far more horrible than thofe here above painted 
and defcribed. 

There all fins are reprefented ; — the terrible juftice of 
God ; the very afpe6l of defperation. But why ? According 
to the example of our Lord Jefus Chrift, who on the Crofs 
having had like afpe6ts of temptations, when it was said to 


him : "Ah ! thou who deftroyeft the temple ; He faved 
others ; himfelf he cannot fave ; if he is the foil of God let 
him come down ;" he did not confider any of thefe things, 
nor did he hefitate at them ; but to God his father he com- 
mended his fpirit. In like manner by firm faith and con- 
ftancy we muft reje6l all thefe temptations ; nor have regard 
to our merits or demerits ; but only direct our thoughts to 
the mercy of God, which alone can fweeten the bitternefs 
that is faid to be in Death, and can conquer more than all 
our powers and our enemies. 

Few people dare to fay to the lick 
the truth, although they perceive 
that they are about to die. 

T is a pitiable thing, and therefore we ought to 
have great compaffion for thofe, who being fick 
are themfelves about to die. Not becaufe we fee 
them die ; but becaufe there is not a foul to tell 
them what they have to do, nor how they are to arrange for 
themfelves and for their fucceffors. And doubtlefs princes 
and great lords when they die are then in much greater 
perils than are the little people ; and that is through the 
fault of the phyficians, the great crowd of whom fo much 
difturb one another that they know not what they are do- 
ing. And fometimes, either through dread of difpleafing one 
or the other, or through fear that if a man mould form an 
opinion entirely according to the verity of medicine, and 
that God fhould wifli to take this Lord, they would let alone 
the fuitable medicine to be ordered him, and through dif- 
fimulation allow an unfuitable medicine to be given, and 
one altogether contrary to the health of the patient. 

In like manner the attendants near the fick Lord dare 
not fay to him, that he is about to die ; and much lefs will 
they fay to him how needful it is that he fhould die. Thus 


it is told of that King's fool, who hearing the phyficians 
fay, and alfo the attendants of the faid lord around the 
bed of death, that he was about to depart, — the fool began 
immediately to drefs, and put on his fpurs, making himfelf 
ready for going away with the king ; to whom he went on to 
fay : " Sire, how comes it that you wifh to go away without 
me? Everybody fays that you are going away, and no 
where do I fee any preparation for it." Doubtlefs the folly 
of this fool was of more profit to the king, than the falfe 
and cautious wifdom of the people of the court. 

Returning to our fubje£t : Many go to fee the fick ; and 
I would to God that they did not go to vifit them. For 
feeing the fick man having his eyes funk, the flefh dry, the 
arms without pulfe, the colour inflamed, the heat continual, 
the reftlefs pain, the tongue fwollen and black, and the vital 
fpirits confumed ; and finally, feeing his body already almoft 
a corpfe, they neverthelefs fay to him, that he may have 
good hope, and that ftill there are many good figns of life. 
And fo it may be that young people naturally defire to live, 
and that for all old men it may be a trouble to them to die, 
when at this laft hour themfelves fee, it is not medicine, nor 
fuccour, nor remedy that they feek, nor is it hope in which 
they may take comfort in order to prolong life. And 
thence it follows that very often the wretched die without 
confeffion, without receiving their facraments, and without 
giving orders, that the evils done by them mould be re- 
paired, and the wrongs which they held from others. 

O ! if thofe who do fuch things knew the evil which they 
do, they would never commit fo great a fault. For to take 
away from me my goods, to perfecute my perfon, to blacken 
my good name, to ruin my houfe, to deftroy my parentage, 
to fcandalize my family, to criminate my life ; — thefe are 
deeds of a cruel enemy. But to be the occafion that I 
fhould lofe my foul, from not advifing it in neceffity, that is 
a deed of a devil of hell. For worfe than a devil is the man 


who deceives the Tick. To whom inftead of giving aid, he 
fets himfelf to do injury, by promifing him that he fhall not 
die. More fuitable then is it to give him counfel for the 
confcience than to fpeak to him words pleafant for the body. 
We are in all things fhamelefs with our friends during life, 
and we make ourfelves fhameful to them at death ; and this 
is what we ought never to do. For if the departed were not 
dead, and if we do not fee thofe prefent every day dying, it 
appears to me that it would be a fliame, and a fearful thing 
to fay to the fick, that he alone muft die. But fince you 
know that he, and he as well as you, that we are all walking 
along this perilous journey, what fliame or fear ought one 
to have in faying to his friend that he is at the termination 
of this journey ? If to-day the dead fhould arife, they would 
marvellously complain of their friends, not for any thing 
elfe, but for not having given them good counfel at the 
hour of death. 

And there is no danger in counfelling them well to pre- 
pare themfelves, although they may be furprifed at it. For 
inafmuch as we fee many of thofe who have done their duty 
and who prepared for dying, efcape well ; and thofe die who 
had made no preparation for it ; what injury do thofe per- 
fons caufe who go to vifit their fick friends to tell them, 
that they fhould make confeffion, that they fhould execute 
their will, that they fhould difpofe of whatever they feel 
themfelves to be burdened with, that they fhould receive 
the facraments, that they fhould be reconciled with their 
enemies ? For certainly none of all thefe things make us die 
fooner or live longer. Never was blindnefs fo blind, nor 
ignorance fo grofs as to be afraid or afhamed to counfel the 
fick to whom we are under obligation, as to what bufinefs 
they have, or what they would do if they were well. Pru- 
dent and wife men, before nature fails them, or forces them 
to die, ought of their own good accord and free will to die ; 
— that is to fay, before they fee themfelves at this ftrait 


hour, they fhould keep in due order the things of their con- 
ferences. For if we hold him foolifh who wifhes to pafs the 
fea without fhip, mail we hold him wife who has no pre- 
paration in order to pafs from this world to the other? 
What does a man lose through having made due order of 
his condition and executed his will betimes ? At what 
venture does he place his honour by reconciling himfelf 
before he dies with thofe with whom he had hatred or quar- 
rel ? What credit does that man lofe who in life makes 
restitution of what he direfts to be reftored after death ? 
In what can a man fhew himfelf wifer than in difcharging 
himfelf, by his own good will, of what after his death he 
will have to difcharge by force of law ? O how many grand 
perfonages and rich fathers of families, from not having 
occupied a fingle day in ordering their eftate and in making 
their will, have caufed their heirs and fucceffors to go after 
plaint and procefs all their life ? So that, thinking they had 
left goods to nourifh their heirs, they have only left them 
to clerks, attorneys, and advocates. 

The man who is a good and not a pretended Chriftian 
ought in fuch a manner to order his condition, and to cor- 
rect his life every morning, as if he might not arrive at the 
night, or as if he might not fee the following morning. For 
to fpeak the truth, in order to fuftain our life there are many 
labours, but to clafh with death there is but one blow. If 
faith is given to my words, I would counfel every perfon, 
that he fhould not dare to live in fuch a ftate, in which for 
all the gold of the world he would not be willing to die. 
The rich and the poor, the great and the little, all fay and 
fwear that they are afraid of death. To which I anfwer, 
that of him alone are we able to fay with truth, that he 
fears to die, in whom we do not fee made any amendment 
of his life. Wherefore all ought to finifh before they make 
a finifh, to end before they make an end, to die before they 
are dying, and to be buried before any one buries them. 



For if they finifh this very thing with themfelves, with fuch 
facility will they leave this life, as they would remove from 
one houfe to another. 

For the moft part men ftrive to fpeak at leifure, to go at 
leifure, to drink at leifure, to eat at leifure ; only man is not 
willing to be urged on to die. Not without caufe, I fay, 
that to die men are haftened and urged on ; fince we fee 
them make their difcharge in hafte, order their will in hafte, 
confefs themfelves in hafte, join in the communion in hafte, 
fo that they take it and demand it fo much later and fo much 
without reafon, that more does this hafte profit all others 
than the falvation of their own fouls. What does the helm 
profit when the fhip is funk ? What do weapons profit 
after that the battle is broken ? What do plafters and me- 
dicines profit when the men are dead ? 

I mean to fay, what does it ferve the fick after they are 
out of their fenfes, or have loft their thoughts, to call the 
priefts to confefs them ? Very badly indeed can that man 
make confeffion who has not judgment to repent. Are not 
people miftaken in faying, when we are old we will amend ? 
we will repent at death ? at death we will confefs ? at death 
we will make reftitution ? In my opinion that is not the 
part of a wife man or of a good Chriftian, to demand that he 
fhould have the remainder of his time for finning, but that 
time fails for amending his life. Would to God that the 
third part of the time which people occupy only in thinking 
how they fhall fin, were occupied by them in thinking how 
they ought to die. And would that the anxioufnefs which 
they employ in order to accomplifh their evil defires were 
employed with the heart in deploring their fins. Whence 
it is a great misfortune that with fo little care they pafs life 
in vices and worldly purfuits, as if there were no God, who 
fome day muft demand from them an account of their deeds. 

With bridle hanging down every body fins ; with the 
hope that in old age they will amend, and that at death 


they have to repent. Wherefore I would wifh to demand of 
him, who with fuch confidence commits fin, what certainty- 
there is of coming to old age ? and what affurance there is 
of having at death leifure to repent ? For by experience we 
fee many not coming to old age, and many who fuddenly 
die. It is neither reafonable nor juft that we fhould com- 
mit fo many fins all our life, and that we wifh only a fingle 
day or a fingle hour in order to deplore them and to repent 
of them. However great may be the divine clemency, can 
it fuffice a perfon to have only a fingle hour in order to 
repent of his evil life ? Therefore at all times would I 
advife, that fince the firmer in order to amend wifhes only 
a fingle hour, that this hour fhould not be the laft. For 
the figh which is made with good will and with good accord 
penetrates the heavens : but that which is made through 
conftraint and neceffity, fcarcely does it pafs beyond the 
covering of the houfe. 

It is a laudable thing that they who vifit the fick, fhould 
counfel them that they fhould confefs, that they fhould join 
in the communion, pay their vows, and figh for their fins. 
Finally it is efpecially well done to do all that. Ever 
would it be better to have it done beforehand and betimes. 
For the dexterous and painftaking mariner, when the fea is 
calm, then arrays himfelf and makes ready for the tempeft. 
He who would wifh deeply to confider how little one ought 
to efteem the goods of this world, when he goes to fee a 
rich man die, will, on entering his chamber, behold him as a 
pitiable fick man. The wife demands her dowry ; one of 
the daughters her thirds, — the other her fourths ; the fon 
the better part of the heritage ; the nephew, a houfe ; the 
phyfician, his falary ; the apothecary, payment for his drugs ; 
the creditors, their debts ; the fervants, their wages and 
falaries. And that which is worfe than all, of thofe who 
muft inherit or be the better for it, there is none to give him 


a glafs of water to drink, or to refrefh for him his thirfty 

Thofe who fhall read this or hear it, ought to confider 
that what they fee done at the death of their neighbours — 
this fame on their own death will happen to them. For 
immediately that a rich man clofes his eyes, fuddenly do his 
heirs enter on great difputes. And this not to fee who fhall 
beft take charge of his foul ; but who the quickeft fhall take 
poffeffion of the goods which he leaves. 

Wherefore it is much better, with the advice of the wife, 
to order fuch things betimes, than thus in hafte to order 
them contrary to reafon and at the importunity of thofe 
who defire them. Otherwise quarrel and contention are 
caufed among the furvivors fo great and injurious that they 
curfe the dead, and the hour at which he ever left them 
any goods. Daily we fee experience of this. Wherefore it 
would be a fuperfluous thing to with to occupy this paper 

At this hour, contenting myfelf with warning each perfon 
that he owes one death to God and not two, I fay ; where- 
fore let every one betimes make fuch good provifion for well 
paying that debt to his Creator, that for it he may give us 
back in the other world that life fo greatly happy, which 
cannot die. 






OBSERVATIONS on fome of the ftatements made in 
the text, or on the authors therein referred to, feem 
required by a work like the prefent, were it only to fave 
the reader trouble or uncertainty. Notes therefore are 
given, which, without aiming at being exhauftive of their refpeclive 
fubjects, will render it eafier, mould the inclination arife, to trace 
up to their fources various quotations and allufions, and alfo to 
judge with what degree of accuracy references have been intro- 
duced. My own perfuafion is that the writer of the Epiftle and of 
the Divers Pictures, Figures and Afpecls of Death, &c, does not 
pretend to exaclnefs, but rather to exhibit the fenfe, not the very 
words, of the authors of whofe fentiments he makes ufe in order to 
illuftrate and confirm his own. 

Plainly, therefore, it is not neceffary to hunt out every quota- 
tion or to multiply explanations. The work, whether in its text 
or in the artiftic fkill lavifhed upon it, fpeaks for itfelf; and the 
intelligent reader and fpectator will gain more by the exercife of 
his own thought and eye-fight than by a fuperfluity of editorial 

Indeed the guidance fupplied for examining the authors men- 
tioned is very flight, and excepting when the Scriptures are quoted, 
never extends to chapter and feclion, much lefs to edition, volume 
or page ; and fome of the works, to which a brief reference is 
made, are fpread over four or five, or even over ten or twelve folio 
tomes. Had a complete body of notes been attempted, the labour 
muft have been greater than the refults could juftify. 

1 92 NOTES. 


Page 107. The dedication to " Madame Jehanne Toufzele," 
from " un vray Zele," contains a play upon the words which has 
rendered it neceffary to treat " Toufzele " and " Zele " as proper 
names, and to leave them untranflated. It is the letter T, from 
the Hebrew character Thau, on which the author grounds his re- 
marks, and curious if not interefting are the enquiries to which he 

Firft of all, however, we muft briefly remark that in the phrafe 
" Salut dun vray Zele " is given a clear intimation of the authorfhip 
of this dedication, and probably of the entire French text of this 
1538 edition of the Images of Death. As mentioned elfewhere, 
" dun vray Zele" was the motto of a celebrated clergyman of Lyons, 
who flourifhed as a poet and an author when this work appeared, — 
his name Jean de Vauzelle, — and to him we are inclined to attri- 
bute, at any rate, the little Effays and Differtations of the original 

As is well known the lall letter of the Hebrew alphabet i~l thau 
or Tau, was reprefented on ancient Samaritan coins in the form 
X, and in the Coptic alphabet by the form T, the fame as the 
Greek tau and the Roman T. Both forms have been ufed as 
fymbols or figns. 

In his Ancient Egypt, vol. ii. p. 32, Kenrick informs us, ''the 
tau, the emblem of life and key of myfteries, is placed on the lips 
of the king." The Hebrew text of Ezekiel ix. 4, correfponding to 
the words " fet a mark upon the foreheads of the men," is tranflated 
in the Vulgate, " et figna tau," mark thou the tau, or crofs. 

A friend of mine, who is learned in this lore, informs me, that 
here in Ezekiel the tau is the mark of life, or of life that does not 
die ; that Cain, the type of the natural man, or the Jew, killed 
Abel, the type of the fpiritual man, or Chrift ; and that the mark 
or token given to Cain was the tau, on him the emblem of life 
upon earth. He adds that the fubjecl is treated of in Godfrey 
Higgin's Celtic Druids, vol. iv. p. 7, who refers the tau to the " crux 
aurata " f, golden crofs, of the Egyptian monuments, where O is 

NOTES. 193 

the emblem of divinity, and T the mark of life : that Sharpe's 
Egyptian Mythology frequently illuflrates it, and, at p. 3, calls it 
the character of life ; that the T, the mark of life on earth, was the 
form of the crofs in the wildernefs on which the brazen ferpent was 
elevated : and that when our Lord was crucified, the T was ren- 
dered complete in him, becoming -j- : and now to Chriftians it is 
I. H. S. i~> "in hoc -f figno vinces," by this fign 1" thou wilt con- 

Very much more, many pages might be added, but thefe remarks 
will fupply materials for thinking on the text, " ce caractere de 
Thau, tant celebre vers les Hebrieux." For the ufe of the crofs in 
Chriftendom a brief expofition is fet forth in Walcott's Sacred Ar- 
chceology, p. 19 1-7, 8vo, Reeve, London, 1868. The fubjecl: is alfo 
juft alluded to in the next note, Jerome. 


Eufebius Hieronymus Sophronicus, a native of Stridon, a town 
on the confines of Dalmatia, was born probably about a.d. 345, 
and died a.d. 420. He was a man of great eloquence and learn- 
ing, and efpecially of piety and virtue. An edition of his works 
by Erafmus was iffued at Bale, in nine volumes folio, in 15 16, and 
reprinted there in 1526. It was during this time that Erafmus and 
Holbein became acquainted. See Wornum's Life and Works of 
Holbein, p. 131-40. The portrait at Hampton court, " Erafmus 
writing" the undoubted work of Holbein, has on it, among other 
books, one marked " Hieronymvs :" 

All the works of S. Jerome were alfo publifhed in Paris by 
Claude Chevallon, in 1533. In volume V. of this edition, leaf 
107 M, the letter jl thau is thus treated of: 

"Et vt ad noftra veniamus, antiquis Hebrseoru Uteris, quibus vfq; hodie 
vtuntur Samaritani, extrema thau litera, crucis habet fimilitvdinem : quae in 
Chriftianorum frontibus pingitur, & frequenti manus infcriptione fignatur." 

And when we come to our times, in the ancient letters of the Hebrews, 
which the Samaritans ufe at this very day [about A.D. 410], the laft letter Thau 
has the image of the crofs, which is painted on the foreheads of Chriftians, and 
by frequent infcription marked on their hands. 


194 NOTES. 

It may be here mentioned that the words of the fac-fimile text 
are not a clofe quotation ; — the fame want of exactnefs belongs to 
ftveral other of our author's references. 


The title " Great " is ufually affixed to this name. He was of 
an illuftrious Roman family, born in a.d. 544, prefect of Rome in 
573, and, quitting fecular employment, elected pontiff in 590, an 
office which he filled with great honour, until his death in 604. 

An edition of his Moralia in Job, is dated at Bale about 1470 • 
and of his Epifllcs at Bruffels about 1475. The Benedictine edi- 
tion of all his works, in four volumes folio, appeared at Paris, 1 705, 
and from a copy in the Chetham Library, Manchefter, the quotation 
is taken here : 

Page 108. " Whoever conftders in what/later (Vol. i. col. 428, E.) 

" Dies mei breinabnntur &• folum mihi fuperefl fepulchrum." (Job xvii. 1.) 
" § 33. Quienim confiderat qualis erit in morte, femper fit timidus in operatione : 
atque unde in oculis fuis jamquafi non vivit, hide veraciter in oculis fui conditoris 
vivit. Nil quod tranfeat appetit, unclis prcefentis vitae defideriis contradicet : 
& pene mortuum fe confiderat, quia moriturum minime ignorat. Perfecla enim 
vita eft mortis imitatio, quam dum jufli follicite peragunt, culparum laqueos 
evadunt. Unde fcriptum eft : In omnibus operibus (ais memorare noviffima 
tna, 6° in sternum non peeeabis." (Ecclefiaft. vii. 40), i.e. 

My days will befliortened, and the grave alone remains for vie. For whoever 
confiders what he will be at death, always becomes timid in action : and fince 
in his own eyes he is as if not living, therefore truly in the eyes of his maker does 
he live. He feeks after nothing which may be paffmg ; all the defires of the 
prefent life he oppofes ; and he confiders himfelf almoft dead, becaufe leaft of 
all is he ignorant that he is about to die. For perfect life is the imitation of 
death, which, while the juft anxioufly pafs through, they efcape the fnares 
of fin. Whence it is written : In all thy works remember the end, and net'er 
will thoic do amifs. (Ecclus. vi. 36.) 

Page \^o. " Refpccling which faint Gregory /aid .•" See Works, 
1705, vol. i. col. 203, cap. 31, § 49. 

" Et befliam terra: non formidabis. Callidus quippe aduerfarius beftia terrse 
dicitur : quia ad rapiendas mortis tempore peccatorum animas violentia crudeli- 
tatis efferatur. Quos enim viuentes blandiens decipit, morientes farviens." i.e. 

And thoufhalt not dread the bcajl of the earth. Forfooth the crafty adverfary 

NOTES. 195 

is called the bead of the earth : becaufe in order to (leal away the fouls of fin- 
ners at the time of death he grows fierce in the violence of his cruelty. For 
thofe whom while living he deceives with blandifhments, when they are dying 
he vifits with rage. 

See alfo vol. i. col. 408, bk. xii. Mor. 

Page 155. " There is nothing on which men think tefs." The 
text refers to the paffage in Job vii. 6, on which S. Gregory com- 
ments, vol. i. col. 253, § 25, but the quotation is really from another 
part of his works. At the reference indicated (Job vii. 6), the holy 
father fays : 

" Amore praefentium non tenetur, qui vitae hujus brevitatem recogitat;" and 
"§ 26. Congrua valde fimilitudine tempus carnis, telse comparatur; quia ficut 
tela filis, fie vita mortalis diebus fmgulis proficit ; fed quo ad argumentum pro- 
ficit, eo ad incifionem tendit : quia ficut et fuperius diximus, cum tempora per- 
cepta piaetereunt, ventura breviantur : & de univerfo vitas fpatio eo hunt pauciora 
quae veniunt, qui multa funt qiue tranfierunt," &c. i.e. 

By the love of prefent things he is not held, who often meditates on the 
brevity of this life ; and By a very fuitable comparifon the time of the flefli is 
likened to a web of cloth ; becaufe as the web advances by threads, fo does life 
by fingle days, but juft as it advances in the argument, fo does it tend to a cut- 
ting off; becaufe, as we have faid above, when the times in poffeffion pafs by, 
times future are fhortened ; and univerfally, in proportion as there are many days 
which have paffed away, by that very fpace of life the days which are coming 
are made fewer. 


Page no. " Under his overthrown wagon." The wagoner here 
mentioned is reprefented on plate xlvi. in Douce's edition of 
Holbein's Dance of Death, 8vo, London, 1S33. The plates of that 
edition were chiefly taken from the "Imagines Mortis," Images of 
Death, a duodecimo printed at Lyons in 1547 ; they include all 
the plates of our fac-fimile reprint of the Lyons edition of 1538, and 
eight others, — in all forty-nine. 

The wagoner deferves all the praife that our text beftovvs upon 
it. When the French edition of 1538, the frf? that was publifhed, 
was in progrefs, the wood-cut of the wagoner was not fufhciently 
advanced to be admitted into the feries, and the death of the 

196 NOTES. 

engraver is affigned as the reafon why it was not then finifhed. 
Some other hand gave it the lad touches, — and with feven others, 
the defigns of which have alfo been attributed to Holbein, the 
wagoner was printed in 1547 among the Images of Death. 


Aelius Lampridius Spartianus, a Latin writer of the fourth cen- 
tury, was one of the fix authors Hijloria Aiigujlce, which extends 
from Hadrian a.d. 117, to the death of Carinus a.d. 284. Editions 
of thefe writers were iffued at Milan in 1475, an d at Venice in 
1489 , alfo in 15 16 and 15 19, juft before Holbein's fame was efta- 

To Lampridius are afcribed the Biographies of Commodus, a.d. 
161-92; Antoninus Diadumenus, 208-18; Elagabulus, 205-22; 
and Alexander Severus, 205-35. 

Page in. " Severus . . . kepi in his cabinet the images of Virgil" 
&c. The paffage referred to is the following : 

' ' Virgilium autem, Hatonem poetarum vocabat, eiufque imaginem cum 
Ciceronis fimulacro, in fecundo larario, vbi & Achilles & magnorum virorum. 
Alexandrum vero magnum inter diuos & optimos in larario maiore confecrauit. " 

See Historicc Auguflcc Scriptores VI. Folio. Paris m.dc.xx., 
p. 114 D. Alfo, 

"In larario fuo (in quo & diuos principes, fed optimos electos & animas 
fanctiores, in queis & Apollonium, & quantum fcriptor fuorum temporum dicit 
Christvm, Abraham & Orphevm, & huiuscemodi deos habebat, ac maiorum 
effigies rem diuinam faciebat." i.e. 

He called Virgil the Plato of poets, and his image with the likeness of 
Cicero he placed in his fecond houfehold flirine, where alfo -were the figicres of 
Achilles and of great men. But Alexander the Great he confecrated in his 
greater houfehold flirine among the Gods and the moft excellent of men. 

In his own flirine he performed divine rites, and there he placed deified 
princes, and chofen men of excellence, and the more facred minds, among 
whom he accounted as gods Apollonius, and as a writer of his own times fays, 
Chrift, Abraham and Orpheus, and the effigies of his anceftors. 

Among the Roman emperors few are of fairer fame than Alexander 

NOTES. 197 

Severus ; and after recording that " he feems to have affected a kind 
of univerfalifm," Milman, in his Hijlory of Chriflianity vol. ii. p. 230, 
gives the fubftance of the above extracts from Lampridius : " In 
his own palace, with refpectful indifference he enfhrined, as it were, 
as his houfehold deities the reprefentatives of the different religions 
or philofophic fyflems which were prevalent in the Roman empire, 
— Orpheus, Abraham, Chrift, and Apollonius of Thyana." 

(6) — HEGESIAS. 

A difciple and teacher of the Cyrenaic feci;, who maintained that 
the prefent hour is to be enjoyed and that life and death are indif- 
ferent. About 300 B.C., "he wrote a book to prove that death, 
as the cure of all evil, is the greateft good. Hence he obtained 
the appellation of irei<JiQavaro<^, the advocate of death" See En- 
field's Hift. of Philofophy, vol. i. p. 198; and Smith's Greek and 
Roman Blog., vol. ii. p. 368. 

Page in. " Makes me defire another Hegefias." From Cicero's 
Tufculan QuefUons, bk. i. p. 34, we learn that the work of Hegefias 
was fo perfuafive as to impel feveral perfons to feek death as pre- 
ferable to life. Having faid that death leads from evils, not from 
bleffmgs, Cicero continues with the ftatement : 

" Hoc quidem a cyrenaico Hegefia, fie copiofe difputatur, ut is a rege 
Ptolemaeo prohibitus effe dicitur ilia in fcholis dicere, quod multi, his auditis, 
mortem fibi ipfi confcifcerent. Callimachi quidem epigramma in Ambracia tain 
Cleombrotum eft ; quern ait, quum nihil ei accidiffet adverfi, e muro fe in mare 
abjeciffe, lecto Platonis libro. Ejus autem, quem dixi ; Hegefiae liber eft, 
AiroxapTepa>v, quod a vita quidem per inediam difcedens, revocatur ab amicis : 
quibus refpondens, vitss humanae enumerat incommoda," &c. i.e. 

This fubject is fo copioufly argued by Hegefias, a cyrenaic philofopher, that 
he is faid to have been prohibited by king Ptolemy from fpeaking thofe things 
in the fchools, becaufe many on hearing them became guilty of their own death. 
There is an epigram by Callimachus on Cleombrotus of Ambracia, who, though 
nothing adverfe had happened to him, after reading Plato's book, threw him- 
felf from a wall into the fea. Of the Hygefias, whom I have named, there is a 
book named Giving up Life, or Refolving to die, becaufe a certain man departing 
from life by means of hunger is called back by his friends ; to whom on anfwer- 
ing he enumerates the difadvantages of life. 

198 NOTES. 


Page 112. " Advifes in an epiJHe? "S. Hieronymi EpiSTOLiE" 
had been printed at Rome as early as 1468 and 1470; and a 
French tranflation was ifmed at Paris in 1520. Of Jerome's 
Works, the Benedictine edition, 1 693-1 706, in five folio volumes, 
contains 1 26 epiftles from or to the holy father ; and that of Villarfi, 
Verona, 1734-42, in eleven volumes folio, publifhes no lefs than 
150 of thefe epiftles. The quotation given in the text we have 
not verified ; but in Epiftle 47, Benedictine edit, vol. iv. fecond 
part, col. 562, Jerome writes to Furia : 

" Cogita quotidie te effe morituram, et nunquam de fecundis nuptiis cogita- 
bis ;" i.e. Think daily that thou art about to die, and never wilt thou think of 
fecond nuptials. 

The Epitaphium of Marcella, vol. i. 1. 43 B, Paris 1534, fets up 
the precept : 

"Memento femper diem mortis, & nunquam peccabis." Remember always 
the day of death, and never wilt thou fin. 


Page 113. " In the epijlle to the Theffa Ionia ns. u This, as in other 
cafes, is a very loofe reference, there being two epiftles. The paf- 
fage which our author had in view is in the Firft Epiftle, iv. 13, 14, 
according to the received Englifli verfion : 

" But I would not have you to be ignorant, brethren, concerning them which 
are afleep, that ye farrow not, even as others which have no hope. For if we 
believe that Jefus died and rofe again, even fo them alfo which lleep in Jefus 
will God bring with them." 

The fame thought is expreffed by one of earlier time, in the book 
of Daniel, xii. 2, 3 : 

" And many of them that deep in the duft of the earth fliall awake, fame to 
everlafting life, and fame to fhame and everlafting contempt. And they that be 
wife fliall fliine as the brightnefs of the firmament ; and they that turn many to 
righteoufnefs as the ftars for ever and ever." 

A line or two before the reference to the first Epiftle to the 

NOTES. 199 

Theffalonians occurs the exclamation, " O Mort, ie feray ta Mort." 
To this there is a fimilar expreffion in the prophet Hofea xiii. 14, 
which the writer had probably in mind : " O death, I will be thy 
plagues ; O grave, I will be thy clion." 

S. Jerome, vol. i. f. 70 A, Paris 1534, refers to the paffage in 
Hofea, and ufes the words : 

" Ero mors tua O mors, ero morfus tuus inferne :" 

and juft after, f. 70 B, remarks that S. Paul calls death a deep : 
"Neq; enim mors, fed dormitio & fomnus appellat." 


Page 117. " The fpiritual fpoufe" — " They are the robes." In 
what is often regarded as the Marriage Song of Chrifl and his 
Church (Pfalm xlv.), David thus fpeaks of the fpiritual fpoufe, 
(verfes 13, 14): 

' ' The king's daughter is all glorious within : her clothing is of wrought gold. 
She fhall be brought unto the king in raiment of needle- work. " 

Saint Paul not unfrequently fpeaks of Chriftian graces as the 
vefture in which we fhould be clothed. Thus, in Coloffians iii. 
12-14, he fays : 

" Put on therefore, as the elect of God, holy and beloved, bowels of mercies, 
kindnefs, humbJ enefs of mind, meeknefs, longfuffering ; forbearing one another, 
and forgiving one another, if any man have a quarrel againft any : even as Chrift 
forgave you, fo alfo do ye. And above all thefe things put on charity, which is 
the bond of perfeclnefs." 

But the words, " affin que cheminons honneftemet," point to 

1 Theffalonians iv. 10-12 : 

' ' We befeech you, brethren, that ye increafe more and more, and that ye 
ftudy to be quiet, and to do your own bufinefs, and to work with your own 
hands, as we commanded you : that ye may walk honeftly toward them that 
are without." 


S. Bernard, the juftly celebrated abbot of Clairvaux, in Cham- 
pagne, was born at Fontaine, in Burgundy, a.d. 1091, and died in 

200 NOTES. 

his convent a.d. 1153. He was canonized in the year 11 74, and 
is one of the moft diftinguilhed names in the Roman calendar. 
For his life confult Neander's St. Bernard and his Times ; Berlin 
1813 ; or the various Biographical Dictionaries. 

Of his writings various portions were printed previous to the time 
of Holbein ; as his Sermons in 14753 his Epijllcs in 1481 ; his 
Muftc in 1 5 1 7 ; and his treatife On the way of living well in the 
ChriJHan religion in 1520. Of his collected Works the beft edition 
is that of Mabillon, 2 vols, folio, Paris 1690; and again 1719. 
Our references however are to Sancli Bernardi Opera omnia, folio, 
Antwerp 1620. 

Page 118. " Written in the Apocalypfe" (iii. 18.) "I counfel 
thee to buy of me gold tried in the fire that thou mayfl be rich, and 
white raiment that thou mayft be clothed." 

As a comment on thefe words we may take a paffage in Ber- 
nard's Works, col. 1 25 1, where he fpeaks of the plain and humble 
veflments in which the Church of Chrift delights : 

"Talia debent effe veftimenta feruorum & ancillarum Dei, in quibus nihil 
poffit notari nouitatis, nihil fuperfluitatis, nihil vanitatis, nihil quod pertineat ad 
fuperbiam & ad vanam gloriam." i.e. 

Such ought to be the veftments of the fervants and hand-maidens of God, in 
which there can be noted nothing of novelty, nothing of fuperfiuity, nothing of 
vanity, nothing which pertains to pride and vain glory. 

Page 119. " Let us hajicn to go to the place more fure." To illus- 
trate this exhortation we may take the declaration, col. 74 M : 

"In petra exaltatus, in petra fecurus, in petra firmiter fto. Securus ab 
hofte, fortis a cafu, & hoc quoniam exaltatus a. terra. Anceps eft enim & cadu- 
cum terrenum omne. Conuerfatio noftra in cadis fit, & nee cadere nee deiici 
formidamus. In ccelis petra, in ilia firmitas & fecuritas eft." 

On the rock exalted, on the rock fecure, on the rock I firmly ftand. Secure 
from my enemy, brave againft falling, and this becaufe I am exalted from the 
earth. For doubtful and failing is every earthly thing. Let our converfation 
be in heaven, and we fhall dread neither to fall nor to be caft down. In heaven 
there is rock, and on that rock firmnefs and fecurity. 

So S. Bernard declares, col. 127 I, death to be "ianua vita;, 
porta glorias," the door of life, the gate of glory. 

NOTES. 20 1 

Page 153. " To this effeB faint Bernard ( In lib. medi.) fays." 
A reference that remains unverified. 


Pages 123, 131, 132, 133, 134. 136, 139. The numbering of the 
Pfalms in the Latin Vulgate, which was ufed in Holbein's Simula- 
chres & Hifioriees Faces de la Mort, differs from the numbering in 
our authorifed Englifh verfion ; hence the apparent difcrepancy 
between the fac-fimile reprint of The Images of Death and the 
translation. This remark applies to all the quotations from the 
book of Pfalms. And in the other books of the Scriptures the 
numbering of the chapters as given in The Images of Death is 
fometimes inaccurate ; in fuch cafes we of courfe adopt the corre<5t 

Page 138. In the Latin Vulgate there are reckoned /tf//r books 
of Kings, the firft and fecond of Samuel being accounted the firfl 
and fecond of Kings. 

Page 163. " The like happens in chapter xiv." The book of 
Daniel of the Old Teflament counts only twelve chapters ; but in 
the Apocrypha there are certain fragments, which are affigned to 
the fame book. One of thefe is the Hiflory of the Deflruclion of 
Bel and the Dragon, which is faid to have been cut off from the end 
of the book of Daniel; it narrates at the 31st verfe, that Daniel 
was a fecond time caft into the den of lions, "where he was fix 
days." This portion, originally written in Greek, conftitutes chapter 
xiv. in the Septuagint. See Schuman's Introduclion to the books of 
the Old and New Teflament, London 1849, PP- I 9 2 ~4> on tne 
Additions to Daniel. 

S. Jerome, in his Proem, ad Comm. on Daniel, plainly declares 
thefe additions to be fables, or as he terms them, "a falfe ftory 
written in the Greek language." 


202 NOTES. 

(12) — LESION. 

Page 141. " Lapis ... comes from lefion." Laefio, from laedo /<> 
hurt, undoubtedly means injury, but derivations as our author 
makes them are fo extremely fanciful as not to deferve either refu- 
tation or amendment. 


Of Aurelius Augustinus, " the moft illuftrious of the Latin 
Fathers," a very able and interefting memoir is fupplied in Dr. 
Smith's Dictionary of Greek a?id Roman Biography, vol. i. p. 420- 
423. He was born at Tagafte in Numidia, a.d. 354, and after a 
life of fmgular variety he died bifliop of Hippo, a.d. 430. His 
writings are very voluminous. The earlieft edition, in nine volumes 
folio, was printed at Bale in 1506 ; and from that city in 1529 pro- 
ceeded, in ten folio tomes, the edition which Erafmus, the friend of 
Holbein fuperintended, and which probably was the edition ufed 
by the author of Images and Afpecls of Death. It is however to 
the Paris Benedicline edition, in eleven tomes or eight volumes 
folio, 1 67 9-1 7 00, that our references are made. 

Page 142. " Opportune Death in a tlioufand ways." The refer- 
ence is to Auguftin's Soli to. 3. 

Page 148. " // is the mojl jujl punijhment of fin." — the reference 
being to the Confeffions 1. A fimilar fentiment occurs in vol i. 
col. 631, being bk. iii. ch. 18, § 53 : 

" Ilia eft enim peccati poena juftiffima, ut amittat quifque quo bene uti noluit, 
ciim fine ulla poffet difticultate, fi vellet. Id eft autem, ut qui fciens recte non 
facit, amittat fcire quid rectum fit : & qui recle facere cum poffet noluit, amittat 
poffe cum velit. " i.e. 

That is a moft juft punifliment of fin, to caufe any one to lofe whatever he 
hath been unwilling to employ well, fince without any difficulty he could do it, 
if he would. That is, — whoever knowing the right does not practife it, fhould 
lofe the power of knowing what may be right : and whoever has been unwilling 
to act rightly when he could, fhould lofe the power when he wills. 

NOTES. 203 

Page 157. " Then is tJie living man as if continually dying''' 
The lafl part of the preceding fentence, probably by error of the 
prefs, omits the negative, and mould be read, u It is certain that 
man does not die immediately after the fin.'" The reference given is 
to the work De Civitate Dei; and at bk. xiv. col. 349, cap. 1, we 
read : 

' ' Per inobedientiam primi hominis in fecundaa mortis perpetuitatem ruituros 
omnes fuiffe, nifi multos Dei Gratia liberaret." i.e. 

Through the difobedience of the firil man all were about to rufh into the per- 
petuity of the fecond death, unlefs God's Grace mould fet many free. 

And again : 

"Mortis autem regnum in homines ufque adeo dominatum eft, ut omnes in 
fecundam quoque mortem, cujus nullus eft finis, poena debita prascipites ageret, 
nifi inde quofdam indebita Dei gratia liberaret." i.e. 

The kingdom of death ruled over all men fo far that the punifhment due 
would have driven all headlong into the fecond death of which there is no end, 
unlefs the undeferved grace of God fhould therefrom fet certain men free. 

s 1 

Page 167. "Jefus Chrifl . . . by his fingle death has deflroyed our 
double death T See De Trinitate, bk. iv. ch. 3, § 5 and 6, in vol. 
viii. cols. 812-15 ; Paris fob 1694. The fubject treated of is that 
the one death and refurreclion of Chrift's body led to falvation 
from our double death and to the refurrection of body and foul ; 
and alfo that the fingle death of Chrifl compenfates for our double 
death ; the conclufion being : 

"Una ergo mors noftri Salvatoris duabus mortibus noftris faluti fuit." i.e. 
Therefore the one death of our Saviour hath been falvation from our two 

S. Jerome to Theodora, vol. i. fol. 70 B, Paris 1534, ufes the 
expreflion : 

" Vt mors illius morte moreretur," — that death by his death might die. 

(14) — SENECA. 

Again we refer to Dr. Smith's Dictionary, vol. iii. pp. 778-83, 
for information. L. Ann^eus Seneca was a native of Cordova in 
Spain, born a few years before Chrifl. He was fuffocated in a 

204 NOTES. 

vapour bath, a.d. 65, in the reign of the infamous .Nero, whofe 
tutor he had been. His numerous writings, chiefly on moral and 
philofophical fubjecls, have gained for him a lafting renown ; they 
were firft printed at Naples in 1475, folio. Various portions, both 
in the original Latin, and in tranflations, French, Spanifh and 
Italian, had been iffued before and during Holbein's days. Our 
references however are to the beautiful Elzevir edition, 3 vols. 
i2mo. Leyden 1640. 

Page 143. " There are other kinds of death mingled with hope." 
See Seneca's Epiftle xxx., vol. ii. p. 83 : 

" Alia genera mortis, fpei mixta funt. Defmit morbus, incendium extingui- 
tur, ruina quos videbatur oppreffura depofuit : mare quos hauferat, eadem vi 
qua forbebat, ejecit incolumes ; gladium miles ab ipfa perituri cei-vice revocavit : 
nihil habet quod fperet, quern feneclus ducit ad mortem : huic uni intercedi 
non poteft." i.e. 

Other kinds of death are mingled with hope. Sicknefs ceafes, fire is extin- 
guifhed, deftruclion has refigned thofe whom it appeared about to overwhelm : 
the fea thofe whom it had drawn in, it has caft forth unharmed, by the fame 
force with which it fwallowed them up ; and the foldier has called back the 
fword from the very neck of him who was about to perifli ; but nothing which 
he can hope in hath the man whom old age is leading to death : for him alone 
it is not poffible to make interceffion. 

It will be feen that the quotation by our author is not exact, — 
but as in many other inftances it is an adoption of the fentiment 
without an exact verbal agreement. 

Page 143. " The good Seneca . . . offers a good remedy." In his 
6th book of Natural Quejlions, vol. ii. p. 675, Seneca is declaring : 
" Death is the law of nature, death the tribute and duty of mortals, 
and is the remedy of all evils. Whoever fears it will defire it." 
He then adds : 

"Omnibus omiffis, hoc unum, Lucili, meditate, ne mortis nomen reformides : 
effice illam libi cogitatione multa familiarem : ut fi ita tulerit, poms illi vel ob- 
viam exire. " i.e. 

All other things being omitted, this one thing, O Lucilius, meditate, that 
thou mayft not dread the name of death : by much thought make death familiar 
to thee : that if fo it be required, thou mayft be able even to go forth and meet 

A fine fentiment feebly expreffed in the French text. 

NOTES. 205 

Page 149. " O thou infenfate, thou forgetter of thy frailty? The 

quotation is from the 2nd book of Natural Queflions, ch. lix. vol. ii. 
p. 569: 

" O te dement em & oblitum fragilitatis tuse, fi tunc mortem times, cum 
tonat !" i.e. 

O infenfate and forgetful of thy frailty, if then thou feareft death, when it 
thunders ! 

Page 156. "None of us knows how Jiear his term may be." See 
Epiftle ci. vol. ii. p. 396 : 

"Stat quid em terminus nobis, ubi ilium inexorabilis fatorum neceffitas fixit: 
fed nemo fcit noftrum, quam prope verfetur. Sic itaque formemus animum, tan- 
quam ad extrema ventum fit : nihil differamus, quotidie cum vita paria faci- 
amus." i.e. 

There Hands indeed a boundary for us, where an inexorable neceffity of the 
fates has fixed it : but no one of us knows how near it may be. Let us there- 
fore fo form our mind as if the laft day were come ; let us defer nothing ; daily 
let us fettle our accounts with life. 

Page 173. " Seneca in an epiflle tells of a Philofopher." Among 
Seneca's writings there is a treatise Concerning Confolation, vol. i. 
pp. 152-87. It is addreffed to Marcia, a rich and cultivated lady, 
on occafion of the death of her fon ; but this does not appear to be 
the Roman matron intended by our French author. Similar fenti- 
ments to thofe quoted occur indeed in the treatife, but not the fame. 
Befides the reference is to one of Seneca's Epiflles. Of thefe epif- 
tles the lxiii., vol. ii. p. 161, offers confolation refpecling the death 
of a friend ; and the xcix., vol. ii. p. 385, concerning the death of a 
fon ; but neither of the two contains exactly the fame exprefiions 
with thofe in The Images and Afpecls of Death. As in other in- 
ftances, it is likely that the reference is of a general nature, to 
Seneca's thoughts, rather than to his very words. 

Page 175. " Bewailing her fon who had died very young." This 
quotation from Seneca has the appearance of fo much exactnefs, 
that I have been very reluctant to fay I do not find it in his epiflles, 
to one of which reference is made. Confult ed. 1640, vol. i. p. 165 ; 
vol. ii. pp. 164, 385, 717. 

206 NOTES. 

(15) — CORROZET. 

Page 144. " They come and burn themf elves in the candle." This 
is a proverbial expreffion which may be illustrated from a contem- 
porary work, — Corrozet's Ilecatomgraphie, Paris 1540. We there 
find the Device of The Butterflies and the Candle, set to the motto, 
" La guerre doulce aux inexperimentez," and explained by a 
flanza, very fimilar in conflruclion to thofe which explain the 
Images of Death. 

"Les Papillons fe ont brufler 
A la chandelle qui relucyt. 
Tel veult a la batlaille aller 
Qui ne fcaicl combien guerre nuyct." 

To the fame effect is the motto in Giovio and Symeoni's Sen- 
tentiofe Imfrefe, Lyons 1562: " Cofi troppo piacer conduce a 
morte, — too much pleafure leads to death, the device being the fame 
.as in Corrozet. 

' ' // moderato amorfc loda & prezza, 

Ala il troppo apporta danno &■ di/Jionore, 
Et fpejfo manca net fauerchio ardore, at lume auuezza." i.e. 
In moderation Love is praifed and prized, — 
Lofs and difhonour in excefs it brings : 
In burning warmth how fail its boafted wings, 
As fimple butterflies in light chaftifed. 

It may be noted that Gilles Corrozet wrote the French com- 
mendatory verfes for Holbein's /cones Hijloriarum Veteris Teflla- 
menti, Lyons 1547 ; and it has been conjectured that the French 
ftanzas to Holbein's Simulachres &■- Hifloriees Faces de la Mort, 
Lyons 1538, were alfo of his compofition.* The flanza and the 
ftyle are very fimilar to thofe of the ITecatomgraphie, 1540, — which 
is undoubtedly a work by Corrozet. 

(16) — MENE . . . TEKEL . . . PERES. 

Page 145. "Daniel . . . fet forth the words in this manner." 
On the paffage in Daniel v. 25-28, Dr. Adam Clarke observes: 

* Some however affign the ftanzas to Jean de Vauzelles. 

NOTES. 207 

" Each word flands for a fhort fentence, £212 mene, fignifies nu- 
meration ; 7DJI tekel, weighing; and D"12 pheres, division. 
And fo the Arabic tranflates them ; makeefon, meafured ; meuzonon, 
weighed ; mokefoomon, divided. 

(17) — HERODOTUS. 

Page 145. " As the Mafier of Hiftories fays /' i.e. Herodotus, 
one of the earlieft of Greek hiftorians. He was born at Halicar- 
naffus, a renowned city of Caria in Afia Minor, b.c. 484, and fur- 
vived the beginning of the Peloponnefian War, B.C. 431. In his 
celebrated Hiftories, Clio I. c. 191, he defcribes the capture of 
Babylon, by Cyrus and the Perfians, on a feftival day, when the 
river-gates were unguarded. 

A Latin verlion of Herodotus was printed at Venice in 1473, 
and the Greek text also at Venice in 1502 ; it may be to this edi- 
tion that our author refers. 


Page 145. " BelfJiazzar, which is interpreted Confufion." Avery 
different and more probable fignification has been affigned to the 
name Belfhazzar, — Mafier of treafures ; but in the firft fyllable, 
the idea of mixture or confufion fometimes prevails. 

(19) — JERUSALEM. 

Page 151. "Within the gates of Jerafalem." Here, as elfewhere, 
our author's quotations from the Holy Scriptures are not made 
with entire exaclnefs ; the fenfe is accurately maintained, but the 
very words are not adhered to. See Jeremiah xvii. 21 : 

"Thus faith the Lord : Take heed to yourfelves and bear no burden on the 
fabbath day, nor bring it in by the gates of Jerufalem." And verfes 24, 25 : "If 
ye diligently hearken unto me, faith the Lord, to bring in no burden through 
the gates of this city on the fabbath day, but hallow the fabbath day, to do no 
work therein ; then fhall there enter into the gates of this city kings and princes 
fitting upon the throne of David," &c. 

2o8 NOTES. 


He was a Greek writer of Syrian parentage and birth, a.d. 120- 
200. His fame refts not fo much on his numerous works as on his 
unfcrupulous wit and humour. To recapitulate them would occupy 
too much fpace ; and we refer to the account given of them in the 
Greek and Roman Biog., vol. i. p. 812-22. His Dialogues were 
firft printed at Florence in 1496, and his Works at Venice in 1503. 
Ufeful editions of his Works were iffued at Amflerdam, in 2 vols. 
8vo, in 1687 ; and in 3 vols. 4to in 1743. 

Page 157. " Lucian .... in his Dialogue of Images? Our au- 
thor's direct reference is to Lucian's El/cove? Images, a work in 
which, according to Wieland, the writer fought to flatter the wife 
of Marcus Antoninus ; but many illuftrations of The Images and 
Afpecls of Death might be derived from 01 Nefcpi/cdl AcaXoyoc, 
Dialogues of the Dead, a feries of fatires on the vanity of human 
purfuits. There are imitations of thefe Dialogues in French, by 
Fontenelle, in his Nouvcaux Dialogues des Moris, 1 21110, Paris 1693 ; 
and in Englifh by Lord Lyttleton's Dialogues of the Dead, of which 
the fourth edition, corrected and completed, was published in 8vo, 
in 1765. 

The whole of the Dialogue known as El/coves, or Images, is 
devoted to the defcription of the abfolutely perfect woman, perfect 
in beauty of outward form, and perfect in the graces of inward 
lovelinefs and virtue. And the image, " exprefs and admirable ; 
in action like an angel ; in apprehenflon like a god ; the beauty of 
the world, the paragon of animals," Hamlet, act ii. fc. 2, — is really 
built up by Lucian out of the collected excellencies, bodily and 
mental, of the moft eminent of womankind. He has defcribed to 
his friend Polyftrates, how the hair was from the great painter 
Euphranor, the eyebrows from Polygnotus, the rofinefs of the 
cheeks, the clothing, the lips from Aetion, and the reft of the body 
from Apelles ; when the objection is raifed, vol. ii. p. 8: " ra>v 
Se ttjs ^Jrv^i]^ ayaOow, adearos el, ovSe oca 0a baov to rcdWos 
e/celro ear iv avTr)?, fiafcpro ran afiecvov, /cal 0eo€cSearepov rov 
acofiaros" i.e. 

NOTES. 209 

Thou art incapable of feeing the beauties of the foul ; neither knoweft thou 
how great that beauty is, and how it is far better and more divine than any 
beauty of the body. 

The qualities of the foul are then defcribed, and the acknow- 
ledgment freely made: " AXrjdrj </>?}?, to AvKive ware el 80/cel, 
dvayui^avre^ ifir) ra? eii<,6va<;, i)v re aii eirXaaa^, rrjv tov adopaTO^, 
Ka\ a? eyco t?}? ^X^ eypanfrdfiijv, p'tav e'£ diracrow avvdevres 
fii[3\iov tcaradepevoi, irapeywpW airacri davpa^etv, rot? ye vvv 
ovai, Kal T0Z9 ev varepco eaopevois" Vol. ii. p. 15. 

You fpeak the truth, Lucian, fo that if you think well, having already mixed 
the images, — the one which thou haft fafhioned being of the body, and that 
which I have defcribed of the foul, — out of all we make one, — we fet them 
together in a book, and exhibit them for all men to admire, both for the prefent 
generation and for the future. 

(21) — TOBIT. 

Page 166. " Tobit called Tobit hisfon," &*c. The book of Tobit, 
probably a fiction and not a hiftory, is a very pleafing pi6lure of 
domeftic life, and fhows how by divine aid fevere trials may be 
overcome. The original, compofed in Hebrew, has been loft, but 
the narrative exifts in feveral verfions. See Schumann On the Old 
and New Tejlament, pp. 174-75. Jerome is the firft to mention 
the book ; Auguftin recommended it, and Luther agrees with him. 
The paflage referred to is chapter xiv. 2 : 

"And when he was very aged, he called his fon and the fix fons of his fon, 
and faid to him : Take thy children : for behold I am aged, and am ready to 
depart out of this life." 

The nth verfe of this chapter adds : 

"When he had faid thefe things, he gave up the ghoft in his bed, being an 
hundred and eight and fifty years old, and he buried him honourably." 


A name too famous to need any other notice here than the dates 
of his birth and death; b.c. 384-322. For a full account of his 
life and works confult Smith's Gk. and Rom. Biog., vol. i. pp. 317— 


2ro NOTES. 

344. The first edition of his works in Greek is the Aldine, 
Venice 1495-98, in five folio volumes; and in 1531 this edition 
was followed by another at Bale, two tomes in one volume folio. 
It was edited by the care of Erafmus. Again therefore can we 
bring into juxta-pofition Holbein's name and that of the famous 
fcholar whofe friendfhip he enjoyed. The edition however which 
we make ufe of is Scaliger's Arijiotelis Hijioria de Animalibus, folio, 
Tolofse 16 19. 

Page 169. " Arijiotle /aid concerning the Jlreain called Hypanis" 
" Tlepl Se tov 'Tiravrjv TroTa/xbu tov irepl Bocnropov tov Ktp.- 
fxeptKov, V7r6 rpo7ra<; Oepivas, fcaracf)epovrac eVt rod 7TOTCtp,ov 
olov OukaKot /zei£by<? payywv • e£ &v p^yvufievcov, k^epyerai £toov 
TrrepcoTov, Tepdrrovv • t,f) he kcu wereTaL fie^pi ShiXt]? • Kcna- 
(^epofievov Se tov i)\iov, uTropLapaivrjTai, kcu ci/xe 6vop,evov airo- 
OvrjGKei, Blovv rjfxepav fiiav, hib /cal KaXelrai Efyi'ipbepov? 
Bk. v. § 231. p. 605. See alfo Bekker's Arijiotle, 4to, Berlin 1S31, 
vol. i., p. 552, bk. v. cap. 19. 

On the river Hypanis, which flows into the Cimmerian Bofphorus, about the 
fummer folftice there are brought down upon the river alone bags larger than 
berries, from which, when broken, there iffues forth a winged four-footed 
animal. And it lives and flies about until evening. But as the fun goes down 
it grows weak, and at fun-fet it dies, living a fingle day ; wherefore it is called, 
Ephemeron, i.e. day-lafting. 


For this name of renown we alfo refer to the Gk. and Rom. 
Biography, vol. i. pp. 708-45. He was born near Arpinum in Italy 
E.c. 106, and was affaffinated b.c. 43. The collected works of 
Cicero were firft printed at Milan, in four vols, folio, in 1498. 
Other editions followed, and in 1528 there was one publifhed at 
Bale, in two vols, folio. The fame year Erafmus revifed for Froben, 
the celebrated printer, "a new edition of Cicero's Tufculan Difpu- 
tations," and he prefixed to it an elegant preface, in which the 
merits of Cicero were very zealoufly upheld. Thefe Tufculan 
Difputations or Queftions are feveral times quoted in Holbein's 

NOTES. 211 

Images and A f peels of Death. Portraits both of Erafmus and of 
Froben were painted by Holbein, and they have furvived to the 
prefent day. See Woltmann's Holbein and feine Zeit ; Leipzig 
1868. Erfter Theil, pp. 260 and 272. 

Page 170. " Cicero . . . /aid it well : Thou haft fleep for an image 
of Death? The quotation is from the Tufculan Difputations : fee 
Kiilmer's edition, Jena? 1846, vol. i. 38, § 92, p. 145. Cicero is 
affirming that death is without feeling, and adds : 

" Habes fomnum imaginem mortis eamque quotidie induis. Et dubitas, 
quin fenfus in morte nullus fit, quum in ejus fimulacro videas effe nullum 
fenfum ?" i.e. 

Thou haft fleep as an image of death and daily doft thou put it on. And 
doft thou doubt there may be no feeling in death, when thou feeft that in its 
image there is no feeling. 

The whole paffage comparing Sleep and Death is admirable, and 
as Shakefpeare, according to Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 121, has in one 
inftance at leaft taken his " £)avjMlltngen," reprefentations from 
Holbein's Images of Death, ed. 1547, we may without rafhnefs fup- 
pofe that the letterprefs was known to the dramatift as well as the 
wood-cuts. Thus in Meafurefor Meafure, act iii. fc. 1, 1. 17-19 : 

"Thy beft of reft is fleep, 
And that thou oft provok'ft ; yet groffly fear'ft 
Thy death, which is no more." 

Or in the Winter's Tale, act v. fc. 3, 1. 18-20, before Hermione 
as a ftatue : 

' ' Prepare 
To fee the life as lively mock'd, as ever 
Still fleep mock'd death." 

Or when Macduff raifes the alarm, Macbeth, act ii. fc. 3, 1. 71-73 : 

"Malcolm ! awake ! 
Shake off this downy fleep, death's counterfeit, 
And look on death itfelf ! " 

And in that noble foliloquy of Hamlet, act iii. fc. 1, 1. 60 & 64 : 

To die, — to fleep, — 

No more ; 

To die, — to fleep ; — 

To flee-. e's the j 

And D . v a g 

. : . . . . ". . ig; h« - I 

.:: -• res that every part it - ts - . ept 

the foul ".:.- §c ...:• owt€ —apovc.. awn aw iovcra oparai. 

:' &rrw (now »; Se tow ai^pawnou ^jrvyi) rare - iroi feco- 
Tari| Kora^aiverat, «ai rar€ ri twv peXXorroN Trpoop.'. rare 

- ;< :.\ ;•> ^ \.-r.: Ar.rc;;:"-.:.. X, - - 

- . 5 r o, : l 

i.e foal alone, whether prefent or d k 

foul of man then a] ears gofth* 

-V: : - - - - - - ;-'C 

. t y 8 . 

A tation fought for but not four 

At t&e em; 
\lrnoft the fan. g lent is 

^ ----- v - ■.-- 


. . . - - 

- - 

■.■.-..■.:-.-.:■;■ :.:■:. :.. . : .. • :'.'.. ' : .V lOTOS lakes ■"•  •• fife from th« '■ I Bag . maturity . •.. 

\Am the old. 

DAM - 

He as a native < - Minor, — 

a pupil Giorgias 

 He v 

NOTES. 213 

on the evils of human life, and a Eulogy on Death. What remain 
of his orations were published in the Oratores Grceci by the Aldi, 
Venice 1513 ; but it is from Cicero, Tufcul. Quufl., vol. i. p. 48, 
that our author has obtained his information : 

" Alcidamas quidem rhetor antiquns, in primis nobilis, fcripfit ctiam lauda- 
tionem mortis, quae conftat ex enumeratione humanorum malorum : cui rationes 
ex, quoe exquifitius a philofophis colliguntur, defuerunt; ubertas orationes non 
defuit. " i.e. 

A certain Alcidamas, an ancient rhetorician, efpecially well known, wrote 
the praife of death, which confifls of an enumeration of human evils : to which 
treatifeare wanting thofe reafons which are the more accurately gathered up by 
philofophers; but fulnefs of fpeech is not wanting. 

The Evils of Human Life, and the Eulogy on Death, by Alcida- 
damas, may indeed have fuggefted to Shakefpeare the argument 
which he puts into Hamlet's mind, act iii. fc. 1, 1. 68 : 

" There's the refpect 
That makes calamity of fo long life ; 
For who would bear the whips and fcorns of time, 
The oppreffor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, 
The pangs of difpriz'd love, the law's delay, 
The infolence of office, and the fpurns 
That patient merit of the unworthy takes, 
When he himfelf might his quietus make 
With a bare bodkin ?_," 


Page 171. Though the teflimony of Cicero is adduced for the 
beautiful tale refpecling Cleobolus and Biton, we will go to the 
original in the Clio, c. 31, of Herodotus, who recites it as part of 
the converfation between Solon and Crcefus. The king demanded 
of the fage, Whom he judged to be the happiefl of all mankind? 
The firft place was affigned to a poor man of Athens, becaufe he 
lived to fee a ftrong and healthy family of children grown up around 
him, and himfelf died in defence of his country. The fecond place 
was given to Cleobis and Biton, who manifefted fuch ftrong filial 
love to their mother, the prieflefs of Juno. And, fays the hiftory : 

" Before the image flie flood and prayed for Cleobis and Biton her children 

214 NOTES. 

who greatly honoured the goddefs, that the goddefs would give them what is 
accounted the beft for man. After this very prayer, as they offered facrifice and 
were partaking of the feftival, the young men, having fallen alleep in the tem- 
ple, no more arofe, but met with this end. The Argives had images of them 
made which were fet up at Delphos, and they were accounted the beft of men." 

Page 172. " The authors of this tale are Hizenarchus . . , and 
Cicero." Who the former of thefe authors is I have not afcertained. 
In the Tufcul. Quce/l., vol. i. p. 47, taking, as above, Herodotus 
for his informant, Cicero thus narrates : 

" Primum Argia; facerdotis, Cleobis et Biton filii, prsedicantur. Nota fabula 
eft : quum enim illam ad folemne et ftatum facrificium curru vein jus effet, fatis 
longe ab oppido ad fanum, morarenturque jumenta; tunc juvenes ii, quos modo 
nominavi, vefte pofita corpora oleo perunxerunt : ad jugum accefferunt. Ita 
facerdos advecta in fanum, quum currus effet ductus a filiis, precata a dea dici- 
tur, ut illis praemium daret pro pietate, quod maximum homini dari poffet a deo : 
poft epulatos cum matre adolefcentes, fomno fe dediffe ; mane inventos effe 
mortuos." i.e. 

Firft are publicly proclaimed Cleobis and Biton, fons of the prieftefs Argia. 
The tale is known ; for when the law was that at a folemn and appointed facri- 
fice flie fhould be carried in her chariot, fufficiently far from the town to the 
temple, and the beafts of burden were delayed, then thofe youths whom juft now 
I have named, laying afide their vefture, anointed their bodies with oil ; and 
they fet themfelves to the yoke. So the prieftefs was carried to the fane; and 
fince the chariot had been drawn by her own fons, fire prayed, it is faid, from 
the goddefs, that (he would beftow upon them as a reward for their filial affec- 
tion, the greateft which could be given to man from god. After celebrating 
the feftival with their mother, the young men refigned themfelves to deep ; and 
in the morning they were found dead. 


Page 172. " The like tale belongs to Trophonius and Agamcdes." 
The myth generally related of them is, that they were the fons of 
Erginus, king of Orchomenus in Greece, and celebrated for their 
fkill in architecture ; and that on one occafion they diihoneftly 
turned their fkill to their own profit by the manner in which they 
built a treafury for king Hyrieus in Boeotia. Cicero however, in 
the Tufcul. Quafl., vol. i. § 47, in continuation of his narrative 
reflecting Cleobolus and Biton. fays : 

NOTES. 215 

" Simili precatione Trophonius et Agamedes ufi dicuntur; qui quum Apollini 
Delphis templum exredificaviffent : venerantes deum, petierunt mercedem non 
parvum quid em operis et laboris fui, nihil ante, fed quod effet optimum homini. 
Quibus Apollo fe id daturum oftendit poft ejus diei diem tertium ; qui ut illuxit, 
mortui funt reperti. Judicaviffe deum dicunt, et eum quidem deum, cui reliqui 
dii conceffiffent, ut prseter ceteros divinaret." i.e. 

Trophonius and Agamedes, men fay, made ufe of a like prayer. When at 
Delphi they had built a temple for Apollo, while worfhipping the god, they 
afked no fmall reward for their work and labour, nothing lefs but what might 
be the beft for man. Apollo mowed them that he would grant their requeft the 
third day after, and when that day fhone forth, they were found dead. People 
fay the god judged fo, — indeed, that very god to whom the other gods con- 
cede that beyond others he can divine. 


Page 172. "Died a very noble lady, parent of the Emperor.''' If 
the noble lady was Hadrian's mother, fhe was the aunt of the em- 
peror Trajan, his predeceffor in the empire. Hadrian was born at 
Rome a.d. 76, became emperor in 117, and died in 138. His Life 
is told by Spartianus, one of the fix " Scriptores Hiflorice Augujtce." 
Of thefe writers three or four editions preceded Holbein's Images 
and Afpctls of Death ; as that of Milan, folio, 1475 5 °f Venice, 
1489 ; of the Aldi in 1516 ; and of Florence in 1519. The tale of 
the emperor and the philofopher however is not narrated by Spar- 
tianus, but the emperor's fpirit may be judged of from the verfes 
faid to be fpoken by him at the point of death ; fee the Paris folio 
of Spartianus, 1620, p. 12. 

" Animula vagula, blandula, i.e. Wandering little foul, fo winning, 
Hofpes, comefque corporis, Companion mine and body's gueft, 

Qua; nunc abibis in loca In what places wilt thou reft 

Pallidula, rigida, nudula, Pale and ftiffening, cold and naked, 

Nee ut foles, dabis iocos." Nor ready for the accuftom'd jeft. 

(28) — PLATO. 

Plato the philofopher was born at Athens b.c. 430, and died B.C. 
347. Of his fame and of his writings it would be pretentious here 
to fpeak ; — the reader may refer to any of the numerous biogra- 

216 NOTES. 

phies of him which have been written. The firjl edition of his 
entire Works was printed by the Aldi in Venice in 15 13; and then 
in 1534 an edition, folio, appeared in Holbein's city, Bale ; it was 
edited by Simon Gryngeus, a Greek profeffor of great erudition, 
who, like Holbein himfelf, vifited England with letters of com- 
mendation from Erafmus to Sir Thomas More and others. The 
other editor, John Oporinus, alfo a Greek fcholar, was a native of 
Bale, born in 1507 : at one time he was employed by John Froben, 
whofe epitaph Erafmus wrote ; and afterwards he eftablifhed an 
extenfive printing office, and was praifed by Erafmus as " bonus et 
doctus vir," a good and learned man. He too was probably well 
known to Holbein. 

Page 174. " The divine Plato, being qfked by Socrates:' At the 
death of Socrates, B.C. 399, Plato was only about 31 years of age, 
fo that the converfation here alluded to, and intimating that he and 
Socrates were old men together, may be claffed among the many 
fictions which paffed current reflecting the Great Mailer and his 
difciples. Befides Plato does not any where appear as one of the 
fpeakers in his dialogues, and the alleged converfation is out of 
character with his writings. 

Sentiments however very fimilar to thofe of our text are to be 
found in Plato's works, and the quotation almoft points to a paf- 
fage in the beginning of the Republic, bk. i. See Frankfort edition, 
folio, 1602, pp. 572 C-573 B. Here Socrates is reprefented as 
converfing with Cephalus, who died full of years, B.C. 443. Their 
fubject is (p. 572 D): "o Srj eVt 7>;pao? ou8a> cpaaiv eivai 01 
TTOLrjrai" what the poets declare to be the threfhold of old age. The 
old man avers : "™ 8e /z^Sev iavra, ahacov ^vveihon i)8eia ekiri^ 
del irdpeari koX dya6>j <ytipoTpo<$>o<; : 

To him who is confeious to himfelf of no wrongdoing, afweet hope is ever pre- 
fent, and a good proi'ifion for old age. 

Again he goes on to fay : 

" Whoever pajfes through life jufily and kolily, afweet hope in the heart ac- 
companies him, making glad his age." 

NOTES. 21 7 

(29) — PLUTARCH. 

Plutarch, immortalifed by his Parallel Lives of forty-fix eminent 
Greeks and Romans, was born at Chaeroneia in Boeotia about a.d. 
50. The time of his death is not known, but he was living after 
Trajan's reign, a.d. 117. Of his works a Latin verfion was printed 
at Rome in 1470, — followed by Italian and Spanifh verfions ; and 
the Greek text itfelf was firft printed at Florence in 15 17. Plu- 
tarch's Parallel Lives were alfo published at Bale in folio, in 1533, 
John Bebelius being the printer, for whom Holbein defigned the 
device, — a Palm-tree, on the branches of which refts a heavy 
cover, beneath is a man lying on his back, and with hands and 
feet guarding himfelf againft the burden. See Woltmann's Holbein, 
vol. ii. p. 430, Leipzig, 1868. 

Page 174. " Plutarch in his Apophthegms." The Apophthegmata 
were iffued at Louvain in 152 1, and at Paris in 1530. For the 
quotation in our text the Paris edition, 2 vols, folio, 1624, has been 
confulted, but among the Apophthegmata, vol. i. pp. 172-236, with- 
out fuccefs. At pages 198, 199, the fayings of Cato Major are 
recorded, — but there is nothing like the text, — nor indeed in the 
Life of Cato, vol. ii. pp. 336-56. 


This Pliny was the nephew of C. Plinius, the celebrated author 
of the Natural Hiflory, and is known chiefly from his Epiflles. He 
was born in a.d. 61 or 62 ; in a.d. 103 he was appointed pro-praetor 
of the province Pontica in Afia Minor, but of the time of his death 
nothing has been afcertained. His Epiflles were firft publifhed at 
Venice in 147 1, and again in 1485 ; and afterwards were frequently 
repeated, as at Paris in 1515, and by Robert Stephens in 1529. 

Page 176. " Pliny fa id in one of his Epiflles^ It is doubtful if 
the exact words of our text are to be found in Pliny. For an illuf- 
tration of it we may appeal to that fine letter, Epiflles, bk. iii. 16, 


218 NOTES. 

in which he defcribes the character of Arria, " quae marito & fola- 
tium & exemplum fuit," who was to her husband both a folace and 
an example. Her noble felf-command on the death of her fon, 
and her heroic refolutenefs when her husband Pcetus was ordered 
by the emperor Caligula, a.d. 42, to put an end to his life, mufl 
ever excite admiration, if not approval. She took up the dagger 
to ihow him how to ufe it; fhe pierced her own breaft, and held 
forth the weapon to him, and as Pliny recites the deed, added the 
word immortal and almofl divine, "Pectus, it does not pain." 

And the fupporting faith, what was it? We muft read Pliny 
himfelf : 

" Sed tamen ifta facienti dicentique gloria & feternitas ante oculos erant: 
quo maius eft fine prasmio reternitatis, fine prasmio glorise abdere lachrymas, 
operire luctum, amiffoque filio matrem adhuc agere." i.e. 

Yet to her doing and faying thefe things glory and eternity were before her 
eyes ; than which it is even greater, without the reward of eternity, without the 
reward of glory, to hide her tears, to cover over her grief, and yet to do the 
part of a mother for her loft fon. 

In this connexion we may alfo allude to the Epiftle, bk. vi. 16, 
to Cornelius Tacitus, in which the terrible eruption of Vefuvius is 
fo graphically defcribed, when Pliny the Naturalifl loft his life, and 
the cities of Herculaneum and Pompeii were overwhelmed. The 
Epiftle fays, that amid the terrors, " erant qui metu mortis mortem 
precarentur," there tuere thofe 70/10 through fear of death prayed for 

"Many raifed their hands to the gods; more now thought there were no 
gods, and that upon the world had come the final and eternal night." 

Need we a more finking comment on the words, that "the beft 
law given to man is, that nothing in this prefent world fhould be 
eternal " ? 


The emperor Theodofius I. was born in Spain about a.d. 346, 
and was declared Auguftus in a.d. 379; — his death occurred in 
A - D - 395- The glowing pages of Gibbon contain many notices of 
this emperor, but a better and more collected account is in the 
Gk. and Rom. Biography, vol. iii. pp. 1062-68. 

NOTES. 219 

Theodofius II., fon of Arcadius and grandfon of the firft Theo- 
dofius, was born in a.d. 401, and fucceeded his father in 408 ; — 
his reign continued down to his death a.d. 450, — when the Huns, 
under Attila, had already invaded and taken poffeflion of large 
provinces of the empire, and were in the receipt of a yearly tribute. 

Page 176. " Two Philofophers arguing before the Emperor Theo- 
dofius.'''' The exact authority for this ftatement has not been 
afcertained, and confequently we leave it doubtful which of two 
emperors is intended. In note 32 however an hiftorian is named, 
but it will be feen that there is flill fome inaccuracy in the reference. 


Page 177. " All praifed tvhat Theodofius faid '; as Paul the 
Deacon recites in his life? Paul, deacon it is faid of Forijulium in 
Aquileia, was fecretary to Didier the lafl king of Lombardy, and 
afterwards in the fervice of Charlemagne, died a.d. 801. He wrote 
Concerning the origin and deeds of the Longobards, down to the 
death of Luitprand in 774; and to his work there were additions 
completing the hiftory to the time of Leo. III. a.d. 806. Thefe 
histories were printed with Eutropius, at Rome, in 147 1, and a 
French verfion was iffued at Paris, in folio, in 1521. There have 
been feveral editions fince, one at Bale in 1569. 

The fplendid work by Muratori, twenty-five tomes folio, " Rerum 
italicarum Scriptores, Milan 1723-51, contains in vol. i. pp. 405- 
511, " Pauli Warnefridi Diaconi Forijulienenfis de Geflis Latigo- 
bardorum." This work however does not contain the narrative 
refpecting Theodofius and the Philofophers. 

There are alfo two other authors named Paul the Deacon ; fee 
Gloffarium Aledioz et infinite Tatiuitatis, vol. vii. pp. 413-14, 4to, 
Paris 1850, — but neither of them is the author whom the text 

Firmianus LaCtantius, a very eloquent and Chriflian writer of the 

220 NOTES. 

fourth century, was engaged when advanced in life to be tutor to 
Crifpus, the fon of Conftantine, a.d. 312-18, and died about a.d. 
328. His writings are remarkable for their purity, grace and power. 
The chief among them are feven books on the D'mine Inflitntions, 
i.e. of Chriftianity. As early as 1465 the works of Laclantius were 
printed in folio at the monaftery of Subiaco on the Anio, in Italy, 
being the firft book with a date printed in that country. Before 
1538 there had been ten or twelve editions, of which two were at 
Bale in 15 21 and 1523, and one iffued by the Aldi at Venice in 
1535. The treatife of Lactantius, On the formation of Man, was 
edited by Erafmus in 1529 from an ancient manufcript. 

A folio edition was printed at Bale by Henry Peter, his device 
being a rock. To the Leyden edition, 8vo, 1660, Gallseus added 
many learned notes. 

Page 177. " Laclantius fa id, that a man ought to live in f itch a 
manner as if he mufl die in an hour? Almoft as a converfe to the 
quotation in the text we may adduce the fine fentiment, bk. vi. De 
Vero Cultu, concerning true worfhip, § 8, p. 569, ed. 1660 : 

" Quisquis autem rectum iter vitse tenere nititur, non terrain debet afpicere 
fed caelum, & (ut apertius loquar) non hominem fequi debet, fed Deum : non bis 
terreftribus fimulacbris, fed Deo fervire ccelefti; non ad corpus referre omnia, 
fed ad mentem ; non huic vitas dare operam, fed reternae. Itaque fi oculos in 
coelum femper intendas, & folem, quam oritur, obferves, eumque habeas vitse, 
quafi navigii ducem; fua fponte in viam pedes dirigentur; & illud coelefte 
lumen, quod fanis mentibus multo clarius fole eft ; quam hie, quern carne mor- 
tali videmus ; fie gubernabit, ut ad fummam fapientioe, virtutifque portum fine 
ullo errore perducat." i.e. 

But whoever drives to keep the right road of life ought not to regard earth 
but heaven, and (that I may fpeak more openly) ought not to follow man but 
God ; not to ferve thefe earthly images, but the heavenly God ; not to labour for 
this life, but for eternity. Therefore if you always fix the eyes on heaven, and 
obferve the fun where he rifes, and have him leader of life, as of a voyage; then 
of their own will thy feet will be directed into the way ; and that heavenly light, 
which to found minds is far brighter than the fun, — than this which we fee in 
mortal flefli, — will fo govern, that without any miftake it may guide to the height 
of wifdom, and to the port of virtue. 

NOTES. 221 

(34) — APULEIUS. 

Page 177. "In the opinion of Apuleius." Apuleius was a native 
of Madura in Africa, and flourifhecl in the early part of the fecond 
century. The moil celebrated of his works is named, Of the 
Metamorphofes of the Golden Afs, in eleven books. It is highly 
allegorical, and has fome great defects ; yet it contains many excel- 
lent moral reflections, and may be regarded as having for its object 
to trace, according to Plato's philofophy, the progrefs of the foul 
to a higher ftate. Various editions appeared before 1500. It was 
tranflated into German as early as 1480; into Spanifh in 15 13 ; 
and into Italian and French in 15 18. The German verfion of 
1538, printed at Augsburg, in folio, contains feventy-nine wood 
engravings by Hans Schauffelein, a fcholar and imitator of Albert 
Durer. Kugler, vol. ii. p. 240, fpeaks of " an excellent rich com- 
pofition," by Schauffelein, " der Aribetung des Zammes," of the 
Adoration of the Lamb, of the year 1538. 

For reference or fearch the Delphin edition, 4to, Paris 16S8, 
excels others, having an index of 252 pages. The edition of 1650, 
"Z. Apvlei Metamorphofeos, Libri xi., cum annotationibvs Uberiori- 
bus Joannes Priccei, is valuable for its notes. 



R O M the Epiftle Dedicatory to the French edition 
of The Images of Death* Lyons 1538, it is evident that 
there was at that time one defign at leall, the Wagoner, 
already drawn and nearly engraved, but which the 
death of the wood-engraver prevented being then finifhed. And 
from the Proofs, in the Print-room of the Britifh Mufeum, of 
Holbein's celebrated defigns, including drawings of Boys, to which 
a date as early as 1530 may very reafonably be afcribed, it is alfo 
evident that this clafs of fubjedts poffeffed an eftablifhed authority 
for being included in the feries. Douce indeed has left the Boys 
out, but admits eight additional woodcuts which he found in the 
Imagines Mortis, Lyons 1547 ; and of which one, "extremely fine, 
particularly the beggar's head," fays Douce, occurs in the edition 
of 1545 by George yEmylius, and which is inferted in our Ap- 
pendix i°. Of additional wood-cuts ttvelve were firft given in the 
Lyons edition 1547, — and the fame twelve, though by a different 
engraver, appear in the Cologne edition of 1566, and are included 
in our Appendix 2° They are prefented with the view of adding 
to the fulnefs, if not to the completenefs, of our work, and of fur- 
nifhing the means within the fame volume of contrafting the later 
feries of wood-cuts with the earlier. 

How many of thefe ttvelve fubjecls additional to the. forty-one of 
the year 1538 are to be attributed to Holbein's pencil cannot now 
be determined. Of fo fecund an artift there would be, in his own 
day, many fketches that passed from hand to hand or were trea- 
fured by friends and admirers, but which the tooth of time has now 

* The Englifh is printed at p. no of this edition, 1S69, with a note at p. 195. 


utterly corroded, and they have perifhed ; yet the internal evidence 
of fimilarity of defign and of treatment of fubjecl pleads for thofe 
twelve, and for fome others not here included, the diftinction of 
being affigned to the fame fkill that drew the forty-one, though not 
to the fame hands that give them fixure upon the wood. There 
was one defigning mind, — there have been two or more workmen 
to engrave the thoughts. 

The thoughts indeed have fructified in various ways, — whether 
in the indifferently executed plates of Emblems of Mortality \ edited 
by J. Sidney Hawkins, in 17S9, or in the brilliant and elaborate 
engravings by Rentz, at Augsburg, in 1750. There is no neceflity 
to follow out all the ramifications of the original designs, and we 
are perfuaded the chief among them are fufficient for our obi eel:. 





epigram m ATA, e Gattico idiomate A ceor. 
gio aemyliowi ~L*tmum tiransktu. 

AD H AE C , 

medicina animae, ton ijs qui ftrma,c{ukm 
qui aduerfa carpark ualetudine pr<£diti fu>nt, ma 
xirnt ncceffaricL 

ratio cenfoUndi ob morbi grauitotem pcricu* 

lofc dectmbentes. 

0__y ae hisaddita funt,lequttispagi«a 



indkx corum qu.e bis mortis imagU 
mbiis dccefjhrunt. 

D. C AE C r L 1 1 CYPRIAN! epifcOpi CdYtbdr 

ginenfis, Strmo de mortalitate. 
oRATiodt?DEVM, dpud tgrotum dum muU 

fitur dtcenda. 
oratio (hicHRisTvM in graui morbo di* 


©. chrysostomi Pdtridrcbx ConftdiUinos 
poliwusdc Vdtientid , C7 ConfummutionehuM 
feculiydckcundo AduentuDominudecj; teterws 
luilorwm gaudiiSyQT Mdlorum pccms,de Siletu 
tioycralijskommi Cbri&ww utile mceffarijs, 

2 27 

Zyrecjuies teternd, 






EpigrammaTa, e Gallico idiomatea 
Georgio Aemylio in Latinum translata. 


Medicina ANiMAEjtamijsjquiiirma, 
quam qui ad uerfa corporis valetudinc 

QV AE bis addita Junt, feqitms pagint* 


Apud hmdes Arnoldi Birckmanni. 
zANNQ is 6 4. 


pormauit c Dommus. T> E VS hommem de !t~ 
mot errand ima^wem fuam crea.nn ilium, 
mufcKlum crforminam ere ah u cos. 

GEN. I. & II 

*Principio Czlwm, Terr am, Fontum^Jonantem 
Ex mhilo fecit voce potent e Deus. 

Indelem terra. dimn<tmentu imatro 

GignitHr^httmAnHin Fcemrna- FvrLj 3 gemn~ 


T)c lettulo,fkperquem afievdiHi, non defctn» 
dssjedmorte morieris. 

1 1 II. REG. 1. 

Quern premis,o Virgo, iuuenih cor pore letlum, 
Non hinc dura tib't far gere fata dabunt. 

Nam priiis exanimete mors 'violent a domabit t 
TatticU^ m tumulum corporafalce irahet. 


Omnes flabmus ante tribunal Ro.XIIII 

Vigilate cr curate, qitta nefiitis cjpui hora ventn- 

rusjit Domims. JWAT. XXI I IL 

Omlibct vtpojsitrationem reddere, cuncli 
Indicts (Zterniffiabimu r ante ihrpnttm, 

Proptereatoto vigdcmuspectore, m Ch'm 
Veneris irato wdicet '>■> e Deus, 

Et cfuta nemo tenet vent ttri iftdicis horam > 
EJJe decct vigiles in ftationepm* 


filemorare nouifsima & in aternum nonpeo- 



Si cup.'s immunemvitijs traducere vitam, 
Ijhijit ante oculos jemper trrwgoruos. 

Nam te -Centura crebro de A forte monebtt 
Quam repetens omni tempore cautta rris. 

Da precor vt verotcpettore Chrtjie cola^tmi 
Omnibus adcoelupijic patefiet iter. 




G V R E D E 

L A 

La medicina de L'arrima. 
]I modo,c la viadi coniblargh'nfernu. 
Vnfermonedi SanCipriano,dcJa mortalita. 
Dueorarioni,i'vnaa Dic,el'a!traa christo. 
Vn fermonedi S. Giouan chriibfrorriOjCheci e(Tor«> 

-Amntouidi nuouo moke figure 



M. D. X L I X. 


Difpotie domui tuce, morieris cnim 
tu,& non vines. 


Ibi morieris, &ibi eric currus gloria: tux. 


Prouedi a fatti tuoi, che morir dei: 
E non ti creder di reftarpiu in vita: 

Anchor tu, comeglialtri, mortal fei, 
Elatua gloria teco fia fmarrita. 


Quis eft homo , qui viuet * & non videbit 
mortem , eruetque animam fuam de ma- 
nu infer! > 


Chi fera mai cos! gagiiardo,e forte, 
Che'n quefto modo fempre viuer polia: 

E ie man fuggir tanto de la morte, 
Ch'a'l fin non caggia ne la icura folia. 


Cum fords armatus cuftodit atriu fuu,&c. 
Siautemfortior eo fuperueniens vice- 
ric eum , vniuerfa eius arma aufert , in 
quibus confidebat 

IVC xi. 

Mentre ha vita^ vigor } armato,e forte 
II buon foldato,il luogo fuo difende, 

Soprauenendo poi l'amara morte, 

Li toglie larme,c lorapifce,& prcnde. 


Quid prodeft homini, fi vniuer/um Mun- 
dum lucretur, animal autem fuaj detri- 
mentum patiatur? 


Chegiotia al' huom,che tuttoi mondo ac- 

Se 1'almafuapoi ne ricette danno? 
Onde ne i luoghi tenebrofi, & trifU 

Pianga dannata a fempiterno affanno. 


Ne inebriemini vino , in quo eft luxuria. 

e p h e s. v. 

Fuggi I'ebricta.da cui prociede 
Lufluria,ond' a mal far t'auezzi,&v{i, 
Che morte contra te, mouendo i piede 
Non.ti croui nel fin con gli occhi chitifi. 


Quafi agnus !afchuen.<; > & ignorant, nefcit 
quod advincula ftulcus trahatur. 

rnovERB. v r i 

Viuefi Ueto il pazzo,& ignorante, 
Ec mentre fta dchTuo gioir ficuro 
Come femplice agnel, la morte auante 
Lo conduce al fuo varco acerbo, & duro. 


Domine , vim patior. 

isaiae xxxvii r. 

Surge '1 ladron di mezza notte, e inuola 
La foftanza che'l pouero nouifce, 

Q^uel piange,& ecco morte ch'alla gola 
Del ladro auolgevn laccio,& qui finifcc. 


Carcus c&cum ducic : 8c am bo in fbueam 

M A T T H. XV, 

II cicco guida'l cieco,onde egualmente 
Caggiono Infieme entro vna fofla ofcura, 
Cosi chi viuer penfa lungamentc, 
Morte incauto il conduce in fepoltura. 


Corruit in currufuo. 

i. ch r o n. xx r I. 


Sopra d'un carro,per fuggir la morte, 
Corre l'auriga,ella con freta mofla 
Tanto lo fegue,che per fatal forte 
Si rompe '1 carro,c di lui frange l'ofla. 


Mifer ego homo! Quis me tiberabit 
de corpore mortis huius? 

i\ o M. VI i. 

Cluviuerbrama in ciclo,cterna vita, 
Brama vfcir di qua giu,ne morte teme. 
Trammideilaprcgionpoco gradita, 
Grlda i i ouero , mentre in Chrifto ha 



Confodietur iaculis. 

e x o D I IX. 

II femplice fanchil contra la morte 
ArcUto,in mano ha la faetta,e'l fcudo, 
Ella di lui via piu poffente,& force 
Trafrigecon fuoi ftrali il corpo ignudo. 


Pueri in Hgno corruerunt. 


Per diiio di giocar femplicemente 
Caualcano vnacanna arditi & prefU 
I tanciulli ma<;ao;2;ion pveftamente, 
i-alciando i corpi efangu^atri , & funefti. 

24 G 

Quorum deus venter eft. 


A guifadi fancinl fenza penfiero 
Viae colui,che aile lafciuie e intento, 
Ma queljli corno pefo afiai ieggiero 
Morce ne toglie ; quando e piu contenco. 

Fortium diuidet fpolia. 

i s A I AE LIU. 

D' hauer lepiuhouorate 3 aicere,cdegtic 
Anime fciolie dalle membra morce, 
Horadiuide 1'acquiftace infegne 
D'o^n' fin la vencitrice forte. 



Come per vn huo- 
mo il Peccato entrb 
nelMondo , eper il 
Peccato laMorte:e 
cosi la Morte e pari 
mete peruenuta (o- 
pra tutti gli huomi- 
ni, inauanto che tut 
ti han peccato. 



I. The Creation. £)te (grfcfyaffimg. 
Principio Cesium, Terrain, Pontumq; fonantem 

Ex nihilo fecit iioce potent e Devs. 
Inde leui terra diuincz mentis imago 

Gignitur, humanum Foemina Virq; genus. 

II. The Temptation. Qcx ©i'tnbenfatt. 

Fa Hit it r infelix a flulta coniuge coniunx, 

Inuito comedens trifiia poma Deo. 
Commeruere granem fcelerato crimine Mortem, 

Legibus Jiinc fati fubdita turba fumus. 

III. The Driving forth from Eden. £)te SSerjlofung. 

Expidit Omnipotens hominem de fede beata, 
Nutriat ut proprio membra labor e, Devs. 

Pallida tunc priniii uacuum Mors uenit in orbem : 
Humanum rapiunt hinc mala fata genus. 

IV. The Curse upon Earth and on Man. £)ie S3erflud)img. 

Sit malcdicla tuo flerilis pro crimine Tellus. 

Vita tibi multi plena labor is erit : 
Donee in exigua te Mors tellure reponet, 

Quod fueras primum, turn quoq; puluisjris. 




V. The Charnel House, ©ebetne atler 5^cnfd)en. 

Vce nimium nobis mifero qui uiuitis orbe, 
Tempora uos mnlto plena dolor e mancnt. 

Quautumcunq; boni nobis fort una miniftret, 
Pallida Mors ueniens omnibus hofpes erit. 

VI. The Pope. £)er SPabft. 
Qui non mortalis uitce tibi muncra fingis 

Rebus ab humanis eripiere breui. 
Maximus es quanuis Pom ana in fede Sacerdos, 

Quod geris officiuni qui gcrat alter erit. 

VII. The Emperor. £)cr jtaijfer. 

Sic tibi difponas commijji muncra regni, 

Vt tranfire alio pojfe repent e putes. 
Cm ? quia cum uifam fufcepta morte reponcs, 

Tunc tua diuulfus gloria cur r us erit. 

VIII. The King. £)er iftjnig. 

Splendida fert hodie regni qui fceplra fuperbus, 

Craflina lux illi trijiiafataferet. 
Quisquis enim regni fummas moderatur habenas 

Munera difccdens non mcliora feret. 

IX. The Cardinal. <Dcr (^arbitral. 

Vce nimium nobis qui iuflificatis iuiquum, 

Erigitifq; malos, deprimitifq; bonos. 
Donaq; feclantcs fallacis inania mundi, 
IufUtia uerum t oiler e unit is iter. 

X. The Empress. £)ie Jtatifcrm. 

Vos quoq; quos uitce deleclat pompa fipcrbce, 

hnplicitas fat is auferet una dies. 
Herba it i reus pedibus ecu conculcatur euntis, 
Vlti ma fie trifli uos pede fata tereut. 


XI. The Queen. £)ie JTomgin. 

Hue etiam domince, matronaq; dives adefte, 

Sic etenim nobis mortua turba refert. 
Poft hilar es annos, 6° inanis gaudia mundi 

Turbabit Mortis corpora uejlra dolor. 

XII. The Bishop. £)er S3ifd)off. 

Mors ego pcrcutiam paftorem, dicil, ii/ermem, 

II I ins in terrain mitra pednmq; cadent. 
Turn pajlore fno per unlncra Mortis adempto, 

Inc/iftoditce difijcicufnr ones. 

XIII. The Prince-Elector. £)er §UrfL 

Princeps magne ue/ii, perituraq; gandia linquas. 

Qnicquid c^ incerti innndns honoris habet. 
Sola queo Regnm fnblimes uincere fajlns, 

Lnperio cedit fplendida pompa vieo. 

XIV. The Lord Abbot. £)er %bbt. 

Iain moriere mifer, quia difciplina piornm 

Nunquam tier a tibi, fed ftmulata fuit. 
Stultiticvq; tutz magno deceptus aceruo 

Es flolida falfum n/ente fecutus iter. 

XV. The Lady Abbess. £)te 2tbbttfjm. 

Plus ego laudaui Mortem, quain uiucre, fe/uper 

Vita quod hac uarijs eft onerata mails. 
Nunc ingrata tamen me Mors detrufit ad illos 

Fatorum rigida qui cccidere man//. 

XVI. The Noble Knight. £)er (Sbelman. 

Qi/is tarn grandis homo, fan/ fort i peclore uii/it 

Qui maneat fen/per nefcia uita necis ? 
Qi/is uitare poteft, quod deijeit omnia, lethum ? 

Eripiens anin/am Mortis ab enfe fuam. 


XVII. The Canon. T)ZX £)om-.£)err. 

Tn petis ecce cJiorum pompa comitante frequently 

Mox age die horas uoce precante tuas. 
Nam tefata uocant, ilia morieris in hora 

Quce tlbl fert trifle in non reuoeanda diem. 

XVIII. The Corrupt Judge. £)er SRicfyter. 

Vos ego qui donls corrupt I falfa probatls 

E medio pop nil iudicioq; traham. 
Non erltls iufla fatorum lege folutl 

Quam modo qui ulult nemo cauere potefl. 

XIX. The Advocate. £er 2Cfc>D0Cflt. 

Vldit homo cautus delicla, malumq; probauit : 

Pauperis d° iufll caufa rcpulfa full, 
luflltlce tltulo uexatur egenus 6° info/ is, 

Leglbus &= mains munera pondus habent. 

XX. The Senator, or Magistrate. 25er fftaty$-$tXX. 

Confulitls dltes omul locuplciibus hora, 
Pauperis &= claufa fpemltls aure preces. 

Sed uos extrema quando clamabltis hora, 
Sic eilam claufa negliget aure Devs. 

XXI. The Preacher. £)er $)farrt;err. 

Vce qui taxatls pro falfo crlmlne rcclum, 
Quodq; malum uere eft, dlcltls effe bonum. 

Ex tenebrls lucem facltls, de luce tencbras, 
Mcllaq; cum trifli dulcia file datls. 

XXII. The Priest. £)er (Sapfon. 

Ecce Sacramcntum ccelcflia munera porto 
Vnde feral certain lam morlturiis opem. 

Sum quoq; mortalis, fimili quia forte crcatus, 
Tempora cum uenient cogar ut illc moii. 


XXIII. The Mendicant Friar, or Monk. £)er -jJJJond). 

Hcec uia fallendi mortales pulchra itidetur 

Qua tegitur fida rettigione malum. 
JVanq; foris fimulant magnum pietatis amor em, 

Omne uoluptatum fed genus intus habent. 
At cum finis adefil, ueniunt trijtiffima dona : 

Accumidat cunclos Mors inimica malos. 

XXIV. The Canoness, or Nun. £)ie 9Zonne. 

ApoJlropJie ad Mortem. 
Quid facram terres Mors inuidiofa puellam ? 

Gloria de uicta uirgine parua uenit. 
I procul, e?- 3 fenio confeclis retia ponas : 

Hancfine delicijs incubuiffe fuis. 
Conueniunt hilari lufufq; iociq; iuuentce, 

Sumptaq; furtiuo gaudia Iceta thoro. 

XXV. The Aged Woman. £)a§ atte 2Bdb. 

Vita diu mi hi pama fin it, me nulla uoluntas 

Licit at, ut cupiam longius effe fuper. 
Mors melior uita, certa mihi mente uidetur, 
Qua. redimit cunclis peclora feffa malis. 

XXVI. The Physician. £)er 9flcbtcu§ or 2Crf§. 

Tu bene cognofcis niorbos, artemq; medendi 

Qua fimul cegrotis fubueniatur, hades. 
Sed caput 6 Jlupidum, cum fata alicna retardes 

Ignoras morbi quo moriere genus. 

XXVII. The Astrologer. £)er ©terrtfefyer. 

Afpiciens curuum ficta fub imagine ccelum 

Euentura alijs dicer e fata foles. 
Die mihi, fi bonus es uenturce fort is arufpex, 

Ad me quando tibi fata uenire dabunt ? 
Lifpice prafentem quam fert inea dexter a fpharam, 

Te melius fati prczmonet ilia tui. 


XXVIII. The Miser. £)er Sfotcfye. 

Hac te node manu rapid Mors trijlis, auare, 
Inq; breui tutriba eras tumulatus en's: 

Ergo cum procul June uita priuatus abibis 
Quo bona peruenient accumulata tibi ? 

XXIX The Merchant. £er jtauffmamt. 

Thefauros cumulat qui per mendacia magnos, 
Et bona corradit plurima, Jlulta facit. 

Mors etenini quando trahet in fua retia captum, 
Hunc faciet facli peenituiffe fui. 

XXX. The Seamen in a Storm. £te <3d)iffcnt>en. 

Vt bona mortales //obis mundana parefis, 

Obijeifis uarijs peclora ucjlra malis. 
Sic fortuna potens in multa pericula lapfos 

Ad fummum ducit pcrditionis iter. 

XXXI. The Armed Knight. £er fitter. 

In/urgent populi contra /era bell a gerentem 
Qui nihil humanee commoda pads an/at. 

Magnanimo freti uiolentum robore tollent, 
Ipfe cadet nulla percuticnte manu. 

Nam genus humanum ualidis qui laferit armis, 
Aufcret hunc fato Mors uiolentagraui. 

XXXII. The Count. £er ©raff. 

Nob His hand ullos fecum porta bit ho //ores 

Deijciet fummo Mors ubi dura loco. 
Non celebres titulos, clarceq; infignia gentis 

Aufcret, in tumba nil niji puli/is crit. 

XXXIII. The Old Man. £cr atre-9flann. 

Attenuate/, mcis fugerunt robora meinbris, 
Vitaq; curreutis flu/ninis injlar abit. 


Quam cito prceterijt nunquam reuocabile tempits, 

Et reli quit 111 tumbam nil mihi prater erit. 
Triftia iam longce pert a fits munera iiitce 

Me precor id iubeant numina fumma mori. 

XXXIV. The Countess, or Bride. ®ie ©riifttt. 

Confumunt uitam per gaudia multa puellce, 

Omne uoluptatum percipiuntq; genus. 
Triftitia eurifq; vacant, animoq; foluto 

Otia delicijs condita femper amant. 
Sed miferce tandem fato mittuntur ad Ore inn, 

Vertit ubi fummus gaudia tanta dolor. 

XXXV. The Bride and Bridegroom. 2>te SSevltebten. 
Hie eft uerus amor qui nos coniungit in uuum, 

Et ligat czlerna mutita cor da fide. 
Sed nimis lieu par uo durabit tempore, nanque 

Mors cito coniunclos diuidet una duos. 

XXXVI. The Princess, or Duchess. 2)ie Surjltn, or ^erjogm. 

Quern premis, uirgo, iuueuili corpore leclum, 

Non hinc dura tibi furgere fata dabunt. 
Nam prius exanimem te Mors uiolenta domabit, 

Pallidaq; in t u mulum corpora falce trahet. 

XXXVII. The Pedlar. £er Cramer. 

Hue ades, <S° promptus ucfligia noftra fequaris 

Pondera qui fejfo tergore tanta geris. 
Iam fat is eft nummos pro merce forumq; fecutus. 

Omnibus his curis exoneratus eris. 

XXXVIII. The Ploughman, or Farmer. £er 2Ccferfmann. 

Ipfe tibi multo panem fudore parabis, 

Prcebebit uiclum nee nifi cultus ager. 
Poft uarios ufus rerum uitceq; labores 

Finiet arumnas Mors uiolenta tuas. 


XXXIX. The Mother and young Child. $>Ǥ JUnb. 

Omnis homo ueniens grauida mulieris ab a/no, 
Nafcitur ad uarijs tempora plena malis. 

Flos citb marcefcens ueluti decedit, & Me 
Sic perit, &* tanqnam corporis umbra fugit. 

XL. The Soldier. S)er itriegfmann. 

Fortis &= armatus, dum vis, 6° vita fuperfd, 

Tut a fui feruant atria prarfuiij : 
Ecce fuperuenit iunclis Mors fortior armis, 

Hunq; male tida de ftatione rapit. 

XLI. The Gamester. £er (Spieler. 

Quid prodejl Ji07Jiini totum ft fortibus orbem, 

Acaleai innumeras arte lucrctur opes : 
Detrimentum auimoz fato patiatur acerbo, 

Nulla quod ars, f rails, fors, pbjl reparare queat. 

XLII. The Drunkard. £er ©iiufer. 

Parcite mortales nimio vos mergere Baccho, 
Qui Venus expumans, lux us &= omnis ineft: 

Ne veniens cogat fomno, vinoq; fepultos, 
Mors animam vomit u reddcre purpurea. 

XLIII. The Idiot Fool. 2)er 9larr. 

Infanirc, &* ftcire nihil, ftuauiftima vita eft: 
Optima non itidem. Quid furiofus agit ? 

Securus fati, fanplcx lafciuii vt aguus, 
Nefcius ad mortis vinculo, quod trahitur. 

XLIV. The Robber. £er 9vauber. 

Vt uigilent homines furgunt de nocle latrones : 
Tollunt quce plaiis fert anus in ca la this. 

Vim patio r, da mat, mortem mitt it Deus vltor, 
Qua per carniftcem Jlrangulat hos laqueo. 


XLV. The Blind Man. Tct 33linbe. 

Pro duce cceais habet ccecum. Dum incertus vtcrque 

Ambulat : in foueam lapfus vterque ruit : 
Vlterius namfperat homo dum pcrgere, twnbce 

In tcnebras ilium Mors mala prcccipitat. 

XLVI. The Wagoner. iTcr farmer. 

Fertur equis auriga, nee audit currus liabeuas, 

Dum Mortis pugnat cum ratione timor. 
Corporis exilie/ite rota, deuoluitur axis : 

Vina fiuunt ruptis fanguinoleuta cadis. 

XLVII. The Beggar. £er @tcd)C. 

Qui cupit exolui, & cum Chrifto viuere, morte 

Non mctuit. Tali voce fed aftra ferit, 
Infelix ego homo. Quis ab liuius corpore mortis 

Liber ct (licit ) mifcrum ? me mifcrum eripiat. 

XLVIII. The Boy with Shield and Dart. S)cr .Knabe. 

Hie pucr oztate impr tides, eft f anguine f emeus, 
Cum par ma iaculum (ccetera nudttsj habet. 

Infelix puer, at que impar congreffus atroci 
Morti, qua iaculis confodit hunc proprijs. 

XLIX. Boys riding on Spear and Bow. ^tnbcr-gritppen. 
Luder e par impar, equitarc in a r undine louga, 

Socratico &* pueros currcre more iuuat. 
Ecce repente ruunt equites in cattdice ligui, 
Ligneus vt Troice Pergama vcrtit equiis. 

L. The Boy-Bacchanals. Jtinber-gruppen. 

Non f ecus ac pueri fine folicitudinc viuunt, 
Quorum maximus, eft venter c^ efca, Pens. 

Quern pinguem e>- nit id it m, bene curata cute tolluut, 
Fronde coronation, Mors leue toilet onus. 



LI. The Boy-Triumph, jtinber-gruppen. 

Clara triumphatis hominum uiftoria fummis, 
Vt fummos doceat quosque dediffe mantis; 

Diuidit ereftis fpolia exarmata trophceis 
Vittrix vittorum Mors vioienta vinim. 

LI I. (40). The Last Judgment. SungjteS ©crtd)t. 

Quilibet ut pqffit, rationem redder e, cuncli 

Iudicis (zterni Jiabimus ante thronum. 
Propterea toto uigilcmus peclore, ne cum 

Venerit, irato iadicet ore Devs. 
Et quia nemo tenet uenturi iudicis horam, 

Effe decet uigiles in Jlatione pios. 

LIII. (41). The Escutcheon of Death. SBa^cn t>c3 S£ot>e§. 

Si cupis immunem uitijs traducere uitam, 

IJiafit ante oculos femper imago tuos. 
Nam te uentura erebro dc Morte monebit, 

Quam repetens omui tempore cautus eris. 
Daprecor ut uero te peclore Christe colamus : 

Omnibus ad avium pic patejiet iter. 

2 59 


XL. The Soldier. Luke xi. 21, 22 : When a ftrong man armed 
keepeth his palace, his goods are in peace : But when a 
ftronger than he mail come upon him, and overcome him, 
he taketh from him all his armour in which he trufted. 

XLI. The Gamesters. Matt. xvi. 26 : For what is a man pro- 
fited, if he mall gain the whole world, and lofe his own foul ? 

XLII. The Drunkards. Eph. v. 18 : And be not drunk with 
wine, wherein is excefs. 

XLI 1 1. The Idiot-Fool. Prov. vii. 22 : As an ox goeth to the 
flaughter, or as a fool to the correction of the flocks. 

XLIV. The Robber. Ifaiah xxxviii. 14: O Lord, I am oppreffed. 

XLV. The Blind Man. Matt. xv. 14 : And if the blind lead the 
blind, both fliall fall into the ditch, 

XLVI. The Wagoner. 2 Kings ix. 24 : And he funk down in 
his chariot. 

XL VII. The Beggar. Rom. vii. 24 : O wretched man that I 
am ! who fliall deliver me from the body of this death ? 

XLVI II. The Boy with Shield and Dart. Exod. xix. 13 : He 
mail furely be ftoned or fliot through. Hcb. xii. 20 : It 
fliall be ftoned or thruft through with a dart. 

XLIX. Boys riding on Spear and Bow. Lam. v. 13 : And the 
children fell under the wood. 

L. The Boy- Bacchanals. Phil. iii. 19 : Whole God is bodily 

LI. The Boy-Triumph. Lfaiah liii. 12 : And he fliall divide the 
fpoil with the ftrong. 



HEN Holbein's Devices, reprefenting a dramatic feries 
of Figures of Death and his Victims, were firft defigned 
and drawn by the great artift, and then engraved on 
wood and publifhed, is not exactly determined. Nei- 
ther is it known with certainty, whether as portions of them were 
executed, the artift's proofs of them may not have been collected 
and given to his friends, and exift to this day in national mufeums, 
as fragmentary editions. 

As in the later iffues after 1538, new fubjects were inferted, 
on the woodcuts of them being completed, — fo in the earlier, 
preceding the year 1530. there may have been fent forth, firft, 
a fet of thofe devices that had firft been engraved, and then other 
fets, with the addition of new plates in the order of their work- 

We know that a procefs of this kind was adopted by Andrew 
Alciat, a writer of emblems, contemporary with Holbein. What- 
ever the number of emblems in the very firft traditionary edition, 
that of Milan 1522, it is certain that his Augsburg edition of 153 1 
had 104 emblems and 98 devices; that of Paris in 1534 gave 113 
emblems with as many devices; the Venice edition of 1546 con- 
fined itfelf to 86 emblems and 84 devices entirely new ; and the 
Lyons edition of 155 1 collected and raifed the total number of 
emblems to 213, — a number to which more than 120 editions 
afterwards pretty clofely adhered. 

Of Holbein's Figures of Death, Woltmann, vol. ii. pp. 109 and 
408, intimates that the early feries of 40 or 41 plates had been 


printed at Bale before a.d. 1527,* about the time, according to 
Wornum, p. 192, when Holbein took up his refidence in England. 
But previous to this early feries, may it not have been the fact that 
the " UrtttoUftartbige (Srcmptarc" imperf eft copies, or fragmentary fets 
of Holbein's Figures of Death, which exift in Vienna, Drefden, 
Berlin and Oxford, owe their origin to fucceffive "^llfgabcn" out- 
givings or iffues of the original plates as they were made up into 
fets? The fragmentary copy in Berlin numbers only 28 plates; 
that of Drefden 30 • the Bodleian copy reaches to 33 ; and the 
Vienna copy to 39. May not this order in amount reprefent the 
order of time in which, from the firft iffue of the plates, until the 
number 40 or 41 was complete, the fets had been collected and 
printed, if not publifhed ? This fuppofition obtains fupport from 
the remark of Brunet, vol. iii. col. 255 : " Avant que les 41 planches 
des Simulachres paffent ainfi reunies en corps d'ouvrage, il en avait 
ete tire des epreuves feparees, qui n'ont d'autre texte que le nom 
du fujet exprime' en allemand au haut de chaque planche : telles 
font les deux fuites de grande beaute, exiftant au cabinet des 
eftampes de la Bibliotheque impe'riale." 

Affuming a.d. 1527 as the date at which the feries of 40 or 41 
plates from Holbein's Figures cf Death had been completed, we 
may note, according to Woltmann, vol. ii. pp. 407-10, that the 
editions from thofe original wood-blocks fall under two principal 
diviftons ; the one having under it 2, and the other 3 daffes.f 

* Wornum, p. 182, under the year 1526, fpeahing of Holbein's claim to be 
regarded as the inventor of the Figures of Death, fays : "There may be added 
the fignificant fact that two copies of this ' Dance of Death' were preferved in 
the Amerbach cabinet at Bafel, among the works after Holbein ; and one of 
them may pofhbly have been placed there even by Holbein himfelf, a gift to his 
intimate friend Boniface Amerbach." 

t The authorities, chiefly ufed in preparing the lift of editions, have been 
Douce's Holbein's Dance of Death, 1833 and 1858; Brunei's Manuel du Li- 
braire, 1860-1S65 ; Wornum's Holbein's Life and Works, 1868; Woltmann's 
.ftolbCtn Uttb fettle 3^, J 866, 186S ; and Langlois' Ejffai fur les Danfes des 
Morts, Rouen, 2 vols. 8vo, 1851. In feveral inftances I have examined and 
collated copies of the editions. 



I. — Containing the Original Series, imprinted at Bale, on one 
fide only of the paper, with German titles, and without date. 

Meafurement of the plates: height, about 6.5 centimetres, or 2.559 inches : 
width, about 4.5 c, or 1.77 in. 

Class i. According to Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 407 ;* 40 Plates. 

1. Die fchopffung aller ding, 

2. Adam Eua im Paradifs, 

3. Vfstribung Ade Eve, 

4. Adam bawgt die Erden, 

5. Der Bapft, The Pope. 

6. Der Cardinal, The Cardinal. 

7. Der Bifchoff, The Bilhop. 

8. Der Thumherr, The Canon. 

9. Der Apt, The Abbot. 

10. Der Pfarrherr, The Parfon. 

1 1. Der Predicant, 
Der Munch, 

The creation of all things. 
Adam and Eve in Paradife. 
Expulfion of Adam and Eve. 
Adam tills the Earth. 





Der Artzet, 
Der Keyfer, 
Der Ktinig, 
Der Hertzog, 
Der Richter, 

The Preacher. 
The Monk. 
The Phyfician. 
The Emperor. 
The King. 
The Duke. 
The Judge. 

21. Der Edelman, 

22. Der Ratftherr, 

23. Der Rychman, 

24. Der Kauffman, 

25. Der Kramer, 

26. Der Schiffman, 

27. Der Ackerman, 
Der Altman, 
Die Keyferinn, 
Die Kuniginn, 

Der Fiirfprach, The Advocate. 
Der Groff, The Count. 

Der Ritter, The Knight. 

37. Dafs jung kint, 

38. Gebeyn aller Menfchen, 

39. Dafs Jiingft Gericht, 

40. Die Wapen defs Thotfs. 


The Nobleman. 
The Councillor. 
The Richman. 
The Merchant. 
The Pedlar. 
The Shipman. 
The Ploughman. 
The Old Man. 
The Emprefs. 
The Queen. 

Die Hertzoginn,+ The Duchefs. 
Die Grefnnn, The Countefs. 

Die Edelfraw, 

Die Aptiffinn, 
Die Nunne, 
Dafs Altweyb, 

The young child. 

Bones of all Men. 

The Laft Judgment. 

The Arms of Death 

The Lady. 
The Abbefs. 
The Nun. 
The Old wife. 

Class 2 is the fame with Clafs 1, except that No. 23 is Der Stcrncn- 
fecher, the Aflronomer ; and by this infertion, all the reft re- 
maining in the fame order, the number is raifed to 41 Figures. 

II. — Alfo containing the Original Series, printed at Lyons, 

on both fides of the paper, with Differtations, texts of Scripture, and 

verfes of rhymes. 

Meafurement of the plates, the fame as in Divifion I. 

* Wornum, p. 182, gives a very different order. 

t This plate of the Duchefs bears the monagram r-L for Hans Liitzelburger, 
who is generally allowed to have been the engraver of the woodcuts for the 
Figures of Death. 



Class 3. The Editions iffued, 1 538-1 545, containing 41 Plates. 

1. Erfchaffung Evas, 

Creation of Eve. 

2. Siindenfall, 

The Fall, or Temptation. 

3. Vertreibung aus dem Pai 


Expulfion from P: 


4. Adam baut die Erde, 

Adam tills the earth. 

5. Gebein aller Menfchen, 

Bones of all Men. 











Alt Weib, 

Old woman. 



King . 








Stern enfeher, 





































Old man. 


















Du chefs. 























Jiingftes Gericht, 

Laft Judgment. 





Wappen des Todes, 

Arms of Death. 

Class 4. The Editions iffued 1545-1562, containing 53 Plates. 
1-39 are the fame as 1-39 in Class 3. 

40. Kriegfmann, 

41. Spielei", 

42. Saufer, 

43. Nan-, 

44. Rauber, 

45. Der Blinde, 

46. Der Karrner, 


Gam eft er. 




The Blind Man. 

The Wasjoner. 

47. Der Sieche, The Beggar. 

48. Kinder gruppen, Group of children. 
49- >> '> " " 

5^- " '» " " 

5' - )! >> >» " 

52. Jiingftes Gericht, Laft Judgment. 

53. Wappen des Todes, Arms of Death. 

Class 5. Editions iffued in 1562, with 58 Plates. 1-44 are the 
fame as 1-44 in Class 4. 

45. Kinder gruppe, Group of children. 

46. Junge Gatten, Young wife. 

47. J unger Gatte, Young husband. 

48. Kinder gruppe, Group of children. 


49-57. The fame as 45-43, Class 4. 

58. Muficirende Kinder, Children practifing mufic* 


Class i. Containing 40 Plates, with fuper-fcriptions in the Ger- 
man language, and in afiantiug Italian type. 

1. In the order of the plates under Clafs 1, p. 262 : 

A very brilliant copy in the Cabinet of Prints of the Imperial 
Library of France. See Brunet's Manuel, vol. iii. col. 255. 

2. Varying llightly from the order of this Paris copy : 

A copy in the Cabinet of Prints at Berlin. See Woltmann, vol. 
ii. p. 408, (Stnfctttge 2(bbrUcfe, — one fide impreffions : Bale. 

3. Also perfect, a copy in the Mufeum at Bale. 

4. And, in the Print Room of the Britifh Mufeum, from the 
Ottley Collection, purchafed at Sotheby's fale in 1837, is a volume 
bearing on its back the title : " Holbein's Dance of Death j" a 
folio of 20 leaves, unnumbered. 

In this volume, mounted on the right hand fide of eleven of the 
leaves, are 95 Proofs, printed before the letter-prefs below them, of 
Holbein's celebrated woodcuts of the Death-Figures. The 
leaves 12, 13, 17, 18, 19 and 20 are blank. The other leaves 
contain : 

No. 1. A manufcript Memorandum of the different editions of the 

Death-Figures publifhed at Lyons. 
2-7. Each/.* plates, and No. 8, five plates ; all with German fuper- 
fcriptions, but without verfes, forty-one plates. 
9, 10. Each two plates, and No. 11, one ; all with French fuper-fcrip- 
tions and verfes ; in all five plates. 

14. Twenty-four Initial Death-figured Letters of the fame fet, and 

one other ; in all twenty-five. 

15, 16. Each twelve plates ; in all twenty-four; a fet which Douce does 

not mention. 

* This 58th plate in Clafs 5 is, fome pages later, inferted between preface 
and text of the additional differtation, La Medecine d V Ame. 


Meafuremenis : The bound volume meafures 27.3 centimes by 37.6; or 
10.74 inches by 14.3; the fuperficial contents, 9.26 centi-ares, or 158.95 fquare 
inches. The 46 German and French plates, each about 6.5 c. by 4.5 ; or 2.559 
inches by 1. 77. The firjl fet of 25 Initial Letters, each about 2.5 c. fquare, 
or .984 in. And the fecond fet of Initial Letters, each about 4.5 c. by 3.5 ; or 
l.77in. by I.37. 

Contents : Plates 41, with German titles,* the feries of Death-Figures. 

Plates 5, of which two are figures of boys, with French titles and verfes. 

Plates 25. A fet, purchafed in April 1858 of Monfieur Durand de Lancon, 
of proofs of the Capital Letters of the alphabet, one of which bears the imprint 
of "Hans Lutzenburger." 

Plates 24. A fet altogether different from the others and larger ; they are 
unknown to Douce and other writers. 

5. Imperfect copies. See Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 409. 

Class 2. A feries of 41 plates, ber ©temenfeher, the AJlronomer, 
being inferted the 23rd in order. The fuperfcrlptions differ 
in part from thofe of Clafs 1, and are in bold, upright, gothic 

Of this Clafs only imperfect copies are known, as the one mentioned both by 
Brunet, vol. iii. col. 255, and Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 409, as exifting in the Ca- 
binet of Prints in the Imperial Library at Paris. 


Class 3. The Editions, iffued at Lyons, between 1538 and 1545 

1. " Les Simulachres & hiftoriees faces de la Mort, avtant ele- 
gammet pourtraicles, que artificiellement imagine'es," (the Trechfel 
device, with the mottoes TNflQI HEATTON and Vfus me 
Genuit). A Lyon, Soubz Vefcu de Coloigne m.d.xxxviii. Plates 

* The order of the plates appears in Wornum, pp. 182-3. His 36th plate, 
£>te ^ei'tjogtnit/ the Duchefs, prefents on a fmall fhield the monogram H_, 
affumed to be the initials of the engraver, and to denote, fays Douce, ed. 1833, 
p. 98, and ed. 1858, p. 86, "in all probability, Hans Leuczellberger orLutzen- 
berger, fometimes called Franck." 



Colophon : " Excudebant Lvgdvni Melchior et Gafpar Trechfel 
fratres. 1538."* 

Small 4to. Signatures A-N, in fours = 104 pages, unnumbered; only p. 2 
is blank. 

Volume 18 c. by 13. 2; or 7.08 in. by 5.196; i.e. 237.6 centi-ares, or 36.78 
fquare inches; full pages 12.8 c. by 9. 7; or 5.03 in. by 3. 81 ; plates about 6.5 
c. by 4.5 ; or 2.56 in. by 1. 77. 

Contents: (pp. 3-8); " Epiftre des Faces de la Mort." (9-15); "Diuerfes 
Tables de la Mort." (16-56); Les 41 Planches. (57-72) ; Figvres de la Mort 
moralement defcriptes, &c. (73-85) ; Les diuerfes Mors des bons et des maul- 
uais. (84-93); "Memorables Authoritez," &c. (94- 104) ; " De la Neceffite 
de la Mort," and " De la Neceffite de la preparation pour la Mort." 

2. Les Simula ch res et hiftoriees faces de la mort, contenant La 
medicine de l'ame, utile et neceffaire non feulement aux malades, 
mais a tous ceux qui fout en bonne difpofition corporelle. Da- 
vantage, la forme et maniere de confoler les malades. Sermon de 
Sainct Cecile Cyprian, intitule de Mortalite. Sermon de S. Jan 
Chryfoflome pour exhorter a patience : traiclant auffi de la confom- 
mation de ce fiecle, et du fecond aduenement de Jefus-Chrift; de 
la joie eternelle des, de la peine et damnation des mauvais, 
et autres chofes neceffaires a. un chafcun chreftien, pour bien vivre 
et bien mourir. A Lyon a Pefcu de Coloigne chez Jan. ct Francois 
Frellon freres." 1542. Sm. 8vo. Plates 41. * 

To the plates are added, as in No. 1, the Latin quotations from Scripture 
and the French quatrains. 

3. Imagines de Morte, et epigrammata, e gallico idiomate a 
Georgio ^Emylio in Latinum tranflata. Lugduni fub fcuto Colo- 
nienfi, apud Joannem et Francifcum Frellonios fratres. 1542. Sm. 
8vo. Plates 41. 

* The copy ufeel for this title, and indeed for this Fac-femile Reprint, was lent 
by its owner, the Rev. Thomas Corfer, M. A., of Stand, near Manchefter, and has 
within it the book-mark of "Edward Vernon Utterfon," his arms and motto, 
" Spe otii laboro." There is written in pencil, " Premiere edition, tres rare;" 
and, "The Gift of my efteemed friend, F. Douce, Esq. ;" figned " E. V. U," 
alfo "F. Douce." At Mr. Utterfon's fale in 1856 this copy fold for 17/. fjs. 
according to Brunei's Manuel, vol. iii. col. 255. This day, 20th March 1S69, 
it has been fold at Sotheby's for 18/. i8j. 


In this edition the French verfes of 1538 and 1542 are tranflated into Latin, 
and by a German writer, ©COVQ ^Dcmmel, a clergyman of repute, and the 
brother-in-law of Luther. Had there been a German original of the verfes, the 
translation into Latin would have been made from the German and not from the 
French. See Douce's Holbein, ed. 1858, p. 93, and Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 109. 

4. " Imagines Mortis ; his acceffervnt, Epigrammata, I Gal- 
lico idiomate a Georgio tEmylio in Latinum tranflata. Ad hsec, 
Medicina Anim^e, tarn ijs qui firma, quam qui aduerfa corporis 
ualetudine prcediti funt, maxime neceffaria. Ratio confolandi ob 
morbi grauitatem periculofe decumbentes. Qu^e his addita funt, 
fequens pagina commonftrabit." (Device, Crab and Butterfly, 
Matvra.) Lvgdvni, svb scvto Coloniensi. 1545." Sm. 8vo. 
Plates 42. 

Colophon : " Lugduni Excudebant Ioannes & Francifcus Frel- 
lonii fratres. I545-" 

Sm. 8vo. Reg. Sign. A-K in eights, L in four = 84 leaves or 168 pages, 
unnumbered; 2 pages blank. Perfect.* Copy ufed, — from the Keir library, 
Sir Wm. Stirling Maxwell's. 

Volume: 14.4 c. by 9.4; or 5.66 in. by 3.7; i.e. fuperficial meafure, 135. 
centi-ares; or 20.9 fq.' inches. Full pages, 12. c. by 7.7, including margin ; 
or 4.72 in. by 3.03. Devices, 6.5 c. by 4.8; or 2.55 in. by 1.88. 

Contents: On A v, Index; A 2, "Ad Leclorem chriftianum, Epigramma," 
24 lines of Latin verfe; A 2 v, " Fraxinevs, /Emylio fvo," in 2 lines, and a 
quotation from Ambrofivs ; A 3-C 7, the 41 plates, &c. of Images of Death ; 
C 8-G 3, "Medicina Animce;" G 4-H 4, "Ratio & Methodus confolandi;" 
H 5-I 7, " Cypriani Sermo de Mortalitate ;" I 7 v, an extra plate, the Beggar, 
in count the 42nd ; I 8, K, " Oratio ad Devm ;" K 2, " Oratio ad Chriftvm ;" 
K 3-L 4, " Chryfoftomi Sermo de Patientia;" L 4 v, Colophon. 

Of the 42 devices, 41 are the fame with thofe of Les Simulachres 6fc. de la 
Mart, Lyons 1538, but there is a Latin ftanza inftead of a French quatrain; the 
42nd device, Lazarus at the rich man's gate, is inferted at signature I 7 v. 

The owner of the copy collated records on a fly leaf. " Douce believes the 
defigns to have been made by one Reperdius, and the woodcuts to have been 
executed by Hans Lutzenberger, whofe monogram or initial appears h-L on 
plate 36." He adds: "The prefent edition, the 4th, was tranflated from the 
edition in French in 1542. The blocks were frequently ufed in later editions,in 
1547, 1549, 1554 and 1562." 

* In this copy no trace on the firft plate of the crack from top to bottom, of 
which Woltmann fpeaks, vol. ii. p. 409. Did the accident happen while the 
edition was in the prefs, and fo a portion efcape uninjured ? 


Class 4. The Editions, iffued at Lyons, between 1545 and 

5. Imagines Mortis ; duodecim imaginibus praster priores, &c. 
cumulate. Litgdieni, Joan, et Franc. Frellonii, 1545. Sm. 8vo. 
Plates 53. 

6. Imagines Mortis ; duodecim imaginibus praeter priores, toti- 
demque infcriptionibus prseter epigrammata e gallicis a Georgio 
^mylio in Latinum, cumulatae. Quae his addita funt, fequens 
pagina commonftrabit. Lugduni fub fcuto Colonienfi. 1547. Sm. 
8vo. Plates 53. 

Colophon: " Excudebat Johannes Frellonius. 1547." 

As early as the year 1538 only the name of one of the brothers Frellon fome- 
times appears. See Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 58. Under the date 1547 there is 
an edition bearing the names of the two brothers "Joan. & Franc. Frelloniii." 
Some copies of the edition No. 6 have on the titlepage, " Icones Mortis," 
inftead of "Imagines Mortis," but fuch copies are in every other refpect the 
fame with the edition of 1547, No. 6, above defcribed. 

7. Les Images de la mort, aux quelles font adiouftees douze 
figures. Davantage, la medecine de l'ame ; la confolation des ma- 
lades ; un fermon de mortalite, par Sain<5t Cyprian ; un fermon de 
patience, par Samel Johan. Chryfoftome. (Device, Crab and But- 
terfly.) A Lyon A Vefcu de Cologne chez Jehan Frellon. 1547. 
Sm.8vo. Plates 53. 

Colophon : " Imprime a Lyon, a l'efcu de Coloigne, par Jehan 
Frellon. 1547." 

8. Simolachri, hiftorie, e figvre de la morte. La medicina de 
l'anima. II modo, e la via di confolar gl'infermi. Vn fermone di 
San Cipriano de la mortalita. Due orationi, l'vna a Dio e l'altra 
a Chrifto. Vn fermone di S. Giouan chrifoftomo, che ci efforta a 
patienza. Aiuntoui di nuouo molte figure mai piu ftampate. (De- 
vice, Crab and Butterfly.) In Lyone appreffo Giovan Frellone. 
m.d.xlix. Sm. 8vo. Plates 53. 

Though the plates of this edition are of the Original Series, the Italian tranf- 
lation has been adopted from a Venice edition, "Appreffo Vincenzo Valgris al 
fegno d' Era/mo, 1545." Sm. 8vo. Plates, 41. Thefe 41 Venice plates were 


from new blocks, and were ufed again in 1 546 for an edition with a Latin title. 
Twenty-four of them alfo ferved, fays Brunet, vol iii. col. 257, for 

"Discorsi morali del fig. Fabio Glissenti contra il difpiacer del morire, 
detto Athanatophilia." Venetia 1609. 4to. 

A beautifully perfect copy belonging to H. Yates Thompfon, Efq., fupplies 
the means of completing our notice of this edition of the Simolachri, 1549 : 

l2mo. Reg. Sign. A-O in eights = 112 leaves, all unnumbered. 

Volume: 14.9 c. by 9. 1 ; or 5-86 in. by 3. 5S ; i.e. fiiperjicial meafnre, 136. 
centi-ares ; or 21 fquare inches ; full pages, 12. 1 c. by 6.6 ; or 4.76 in. by 2. 59 ; 
devices about 6.4 c. by 4.6; or 2. 5 1 in. by 1.81. 

Contents: At A 2, "Alii Saggi et Givdiciofi Lettori;" A 3-D 5, the 53 Latin 
mottoes, Figures of Death and Italian ftanzas; D 5 v, Rom. v. 12; D 6-8, 
" Prefatione de la Medicina de Tanima ; D 8 w-K 2, "La Medicina de l'anima;" 
K 2 57-L 5, " La Maniera del confolar gl'infermi ; L 5 v—M 8, " Sermone di San 
Cipriano;" N 3, " Oratione a Dio ;" N 3V-4, " Oratione a Chrifto ;" N 5-O 8, 
"Sermone di San Giovan Crifoftomo;" 8z', Colophon; device, Crab and 
Butterfly, "Matvra." 

The emblems are 53, each with a Latin text, a device, and an Italian ftanza of 
four lines. There are 12 emblems additional to thofe in the French edition of 
1538, and they are given in photo-lith fac-fimile in our reprint, Appendix 2°, 
pp. (233)- (248). It may be of interefl to compare them with thofe which 
Douce gives from the Lyons edition of 1547. 

The devices, drawn by Holbein, and for the moft part, that is in forty-one 
inftances, cut by Lutzenberger, are admirable. Some of the impreffions are 
even better than thofe which were printed at Lyons in 1538 with a French text. 

9. Icones mortis ; duodecim imaginibus prseter priores, todi- 
demque infcriptionibus praeter epigrammata e gallicis a Georgio 
tEmylio in Latinum verfa, cumulatae. Quae his addita funt, fequens 
pagina commonilrabit. Bafilice 1554. 8vo. Plates 53. 

Class 5. The Edition of 1562, with 58 plates. 

10. Les Images de la mort, aux quelles font adioufle'es dix-fept 
figures. Davantage, la me'dicine de Fame. La confolation des 
malades. Un fermon de mortalite, par Saint Cyprian. Un fer- 
mon de patience, par Saint Jehan Chryfoflome. (Device, Crab 
and Butterfly, Matvra.) A Lyon par Jehan Frellon. 1562. 8vo. 
Plates 58. 

Colophon: '■'■A Lyon, par Symphorien Bar bier." 

According to Woltmann, vol. ii. p. 410, Weigel accounts this edition as 

almoft the rarefl of all, and names moreover another edition of 1562, that is 

without the increafed number of figures. 


Though the editions above named do not abfolutely complete 
the lift of imprints after the model and woodcuts of the Lyons 
edition of 1538, they are amply fufficient for fetting forth a very 
full view of the feries of which that edition is the reprefentative 
head. For the different feries of editions which are not imme- 
diately related to the work here prefented to our readers in 
Photo-lith fac-fimile, we refer to Douce's full and lucid pages, or to 
Brunet, Langlois, Wornum and Woltmann. We will, however, 
catalogue a few of the 


1. Tcr Sobtentanj, The Dance of the Dead. 1542. Folio. 
Plates 42. 

A copy in the Britifh Mufeum, marked " C. 43. d." The plates and the 
text are mounted on tinted paper. 

Folio. Reg. Sign. %-% in fixes =42 leaves, unnumbered. Initial page 
blank. 41 printed pages. 

Volume: 29.2 c. by 20.3; or 11.49 in. by 7.99; i.e. 592.7 centi-ares; or 91.8 
fq. inches. Plates, about 19.4 c. by 14.4; or 7.63 in. by 5.66. Full pages, 17.5 
c. by 10.4; or 6.S8 in. by 4.09. 

Contents : Forty-two devices, rudely but expreffively fculptured, and all co- 
loured. Of thefe forty-one are each followed by a Latin motto and fome ftanzas 
of Gentian verfe; — the 42nd on leaf® \)i verfo has neither motto nor ftanza, 
but is ufually named Death's Efcutcheon. By whom the plates were engraved 
is not known. 

As a fpecimen we add the letterprefs of plate 1 : 

" Principio omnipotens coelum terramq^ creauit." 

©ott Ijat erfd)affen menfd)lid)3 gcfd)cd)t 

3u crfl inn tonfdjulb frumb vnb grecbt 
gormteret nad) bev bUtmufj fcen 

SSnb geben \m bte erben een 
•Darjii mit bcrrfd)afft fyod) erfjebt 

SBaft uber nebe§ tf)ter fo liebt 
3£m frepen wttten gtaffen aud) 

£>a§ c§ gut obcr bofcm nad) 
£)od)t berpen £>a§ bod) nit tang groert 

£)cnn feen natur real fo wrtbert 


£>a3 fie ml mer jit argern gnaigt 

SBte fid) ann erften tfyat er^aigt 
©cm fcfyafyen war nod) atle nad) 

SSnb fallen jreet§ inn toft tjait aud) 
SBcpl vmfer flatfd) iji fo tierberbf 

£>a§ c§ bte ftjnb t»on 2Cfc>am crbt 

This «7r/>' German may be compared with the later given from Rentz's 
Remembrance of Death and Eternity, in our reprint at pp. 1 20-2 1. 

2. Imagines Mortis. His accesservnt Epigrammata e 
Gallico idiomate a Georgio yEmylio in Latinum tranflata. Ad h^ec 
Medicina AnimjE, tarn ijs, qui firma, quam qui aduerfa corporis 
valetudine praediti funt, maxime necefiaria. Qvae his addita fitnt, 
feqttens pagina demonjirabit. (Device, Tree and Hen, Arnold 
Birckman.) Coloniae, Apud hceredes Artwldi Birckmanni. Anno 
1566. Sm. 8vo. Plates 53. 

Sm. 8vo. Reg. Sign, of a copy from the Keir library, A-L in eights; M 
in fevens = 95 leaves, or 190 pages, unnumbered. Perfect; a good copy. 

Volume: 14. c. by 9; or 5.51 in. by 3.54; i.e. fuperficial meafure, 126 centi- 
ares, or 19.5 fq. inches. Full pages, 11.8 c. by 7.5 with margin; or 4.64 in. 
by 2.95. Devices, about 6.7 c. by 5.4; or 2.63 in. by 2.12. 

Contents: Very fimilar, except in fome of the devices, to thofe of the edition 
of 1545 by George ^-Emylius. 

The 53 devices are not from the fame blocks as thofe of editions 1538 and 
1545 ; though of 41 of them the defigns are the fame, they have been frefh drawn 
and frefh cut, and prefent the subjects reverfed. There are 39 the fame in 
fubject as thofe of editions 1538 and 1545. 

7 others, with death-figures introduced. 

I is Lazarus at the rich man's gate, in edition 1545. 

4 are boys: i°. with fpear and fhield; 2 . riding on long reeds; 3 . baccha- 
nals; 4 . marching in triumph. 

hXfign. B 2, the Abbefs, and dXfign. B 3, the Canon, the monogram A may 
be obferved ; alfo on C 6v, Death and the Soldier, the figure of death is armed 
with "the common-place dart"; and generally the plates of this edition are 
reverfed, as may be feen in the plates of the Creation, the Duchefs, the Laft 
Judgment and the Efcutcheon of Death, in their fac-fimiles under the Appen- 
dix, i° b, pp. (228H232). 

This edition of 1566 is regarded by Douce, 1833, pp. 1 13-14, as oneofaferies 
of " furreptitious editions," of which the firft appeared at Cologne in 1555, and 
was repeated in 1566, 1567 and 1573. " Though not devoid of merit, they are 
very inferior to the fine originals." 


N.B. A volume in the Douce collecton of the Bodleian library, marked 
"M. M. 661," has written in it: "Copies of the fpurious cuts by A." The 
obfervation may be applied to the whole feries of cuts in Birckmann's and in 
fimilar editions; they have not the ring of genuine gold. 

3. Le Triomphe de la Mort grave d'apres les Deffeins de Hol- 
bein, par W. Hollar. 8vo. 

This copy, in the Bodleian library, Douce collection, "M. M. 662," has a 
curious portrait of Holbein, in purple and gold, lettered " H. H, /£. 45." 
The collation and examination of it give the following remits : 

8vo. No fignatures except A ; no pagination. In count there are 46 leaves, 
of which 30 have plates on one fide only of the leaf, one leaf is blank, and 15 
leaves are printed on both fides. 

Volume: 17-1 c. by 11.9; or 6. 73 in. by 4.68; i.e. fuperficies 203.5 centi-ares, 
or 3 1. 59 fq. inches. The plates meafure about 7. 5 c. by 5.5; or 2.95 in. by 2. 16; 
the text is rather larger than the plates. 

Contents: Plates and " explications des fujets du triomphe de la Mort," in- 
terpofed. The plates have each a Latin text at the foot from Holy Scripture ; 
they are, Douce declares, "original impreflions before rebiting." 

4- Gmnnerungen be§ £obe§ unb ber (Srrnqfctt bet) jtret) unb 
funfjig von ben bcrufymten 9R. 9vent§, in .ftupfer gefihxfyenen SSorfiel- 
lungen vodtyt jur (Srwecf ung getfHicfyer ©ebanfen, unb jur ttebung 

ber Sugenb bienen. (Device, Cupid forrowing at a tomb.) £3^3/ 
in ber 1 1 afabemifcfyen 33ud$anWung. 1779. Folio. Plates 52. 

The copy ufed, from the collection of Henry Yates Thompfon, Esq., fur- 
nifhes the following defcriptive remarks : 

Folio. Reg. Sign. Frontifpiece and title, 2 leaves ; % ~3j in twos = 94 
leaves; then 51 plates on 51 leaves; total, 145 leaves or 290 pages. Initial, 4 
unnumbered, 1-182 numbered, and final 2 unnumbered = 188 pages; add the 
plate leaves 51, or 102 pages. Total, 290 pages. Perfect, and in fine con- 

Volume: 33.3 c. by 20.5 ; or 13. 11 in. by 8.07; i.e. fuperficies 682.6 centi- 
ares; or 105.89 fq. inches; full pages, about 27.2 c. by 15.7; or 10.7 in. by 
6.18. Devices, copperplate, about 24.5 c. by 14.5 ; or 9.64 in. by 5.7. 

Contents: Frontifpiece, " Die erwogene Eytelkeit aller Menfchlichen Binge." 
Title. Pages 1-3, difcourfe, "The proved vanity of all human things." Pages 
3-182, fifty-one difcourfes on the emblems and their devices. Page 183, 
regifter of the 52 fubjects. Finally, on 51 leaves 51 copperplates. 

Thefe devices are founded on and derived from Holbein's Figures of Death, 
but are far more ornate and embellifhed. To each at the top is a rhyming Ger- 
man motto, and below a German title, followed by a German ftanza of four 
lines. Of the ftanzas 41 are given at pages 120-40 of this our work. 


The order of arrangement of fubjecls in this edition gives the precedence in 
all offices to the church above the ftate. At the head, of courfe, ftand the 
Creation, the Fall, the Expulfion, the Curfe, and Death's founding forth of 
Triumph, — but then from Pope to Nun, the ecclefiaftical rank, with a pre- 
tence even to a fhred of the linen veftment of Aaron, lead the way in this Grand 
Drama of Art, and Kaifer, Kaiferinn, down to the Idiot-fool, the Blind and the 
Beggar, follow on in due fucceffion, — till the final Judgment clofes the array. 
As Satire or as Truth the Drama is equally impreffive : 
' ' The glories of our blood and ftate 
Are fhadows, not fubftantial things ; 
There is no armour againft fate ; 
Death lays his icy hand on kings : 
Sceptre and Crown 
Muft tumble down, 
And in the duft be equal made 
With the poor crooked fey the and fpade." 

F. Shirley. 

5. Deuchar's Holbein. French and English. 4to. Edinburgh 
1786-88. Plates 51. 

Engraved title. " Le Triomphe de la Mort, Grave* d'apres les 
Deffins origineaux de Jean Holbein, par David Deuchar. 1786." 

Plain title. "The Dances of Death through the various 
ftages of Human Life, wherein the Capricioufnefs of that Tyrant 
is exhibited in forty-fix Copper-plates, done from the Original 
Defigns which were cut in Wood, and afterwards painted by John 
Holbein, in the town-houfe at Bafil. To which is prefixed Defcrip- 
tions of each Plate in French and Englifh, with the Scripture Text 
from which the defigns were taken. Edinburgh m.dcclxxxviii." 

A title with miftakes almoft as numerous as the lines. 

4to. Reg. Sign. A-L in twos ; M i = 23 leaves or 46 pages of letter-prefs. 
Including the engraved title and the portraits there are 51 plates inferted. 

Volin?ie: 18.9 c. by 15. 2; or 7.44 in. by 5.98; i.e. fuperficies 287.2 centi- 
ares; or 44.49 fq. inches; engraved title, 11. c. by 9.8; or 4.33 in. by 3.85; 
full pages, 15. c. by 8.8; or 5.9 in. by 3.46; devices, II. c. by 9.3; or 4.33 in. 
by 3.66. 

Contents: Preface in 2 pages; then pp. 1-46, explanations of the plates, in 
French and Englifh ; befides the inferted plates. 

All the engravings have borders of rich workmanfhip. "David Deuchar," 
obferves Douce, 1858, p. 120, "is fometimes called the Scottifh Worlidge," 
but his imitations of Holbein are very inferior to thofe by Hollar. Full parti- 



culars refpecting his Dances of Death are fupplied at the pages of Douce to 
which we have juft referred. 

The number of Mifcellaneous Editions it would be eafy to in- 
creafe, but what we have named and defcribed fully fliow the 
variety of artifls who have bellowed their fkill in variations upon 
the hitherto unmatched workmanfhip of Lutzelburger's transfer- 
ences of Holbein's Defigns. The Effai by Langlois contains 
abundant information, as well as Douce's Holbein. 


Thefe, in a confiderable degree, have been reflricted to the re- 
production of the original woodcuts which exifted in 1538, or of 
which the defigns foon after that date were accepted as Holbein's 
work. Artifls, indeed, did not always take the bell examples for 
their models, and fometimes introduced their own fanciful orna- 
mentation ; but their aim was to prefent to the public again and 
again the forms which, as Death-figures, had obtained fo great 

The firft reproduction, containing 41 plates, was iffued at Venice 
in 1545 by Vincenzo Valgris, and the editor, fays Brunet (vol. hi. 
col. 256), "flattered himfelf that his plates were fuperior to the 
French engravings." At any rate they poffeffed confiderable merit. 

Wenceflaus Hollar, befides engraving feveral of Holbein's por- 
traits, executed, about the year 1651, thirty etchings of his Death- 
figures ; thefe are furrounded by borders, and certainly evince the 
artill's power. Only in part, however, has he followed the models 
of fimple beauty prefented by the woodcuts of the Lyons edition 
of 1538 ; in the greater number of inftances he has copied from 
"the fpurious engravings" that appeared at Cologne about the 
middle of the fixteenth century. 

Refpecting this and feveral other imitations of Holbein's Death- 
figures, the very beft account in Englifh may be found in chapter 
viii. at pages 111-120 and 121-137 of the following work ; which 
Woltmann characterifes as "the mod mark-worthy of modern 
copies :" 


" The Dance of Death exhibited in elegant engravings on 
wood, with a Dissertation on the feveral reprefentations of that 
fubject, but more particularly on thofe afcribed to Macaber and 
Hans Holbein. By Francis Douce, Esq., F.A.S. &c. 8vo. 
London, Pickering. 1833." 

The wood-engravings of this work are by Meffrs. Bonner and Byfield, and are 
as near an approach to the perfect fac-fimile reprint as the unaffifted ikill of the 
human hand can attain. The fame work forms part of Bonn's edition, 1858, 
which, for the information to which reference is made above, may be confulted 
at pages 98-107 and 107-21. 

As a worthy " con-frere " to Douce's Holbeifi, we name alfo the 
work by Langlois : 

" Essai Hiftorique, Philofophique et Pittorefque fur les Danses 
des Morts, par E. H. Langlois du Pont-de-1'arche, accompagne' 
de cinquante-quatre planches et de nombreufes vignettes; Defmees 
et Gravees par E. H. Langlois, M 1Ie Efperance Langlois, MM. 
Breviere et Tudot : fuivi D'une lettre de M. C. Leber et d'une note 
de M. Depping fur le meme fujet. Ouvrage complete et publie par 
M. Andre Pottier, confervateur de la Bibliotheque de Rouen, et 
M. Alfred Baudry." 2 vols. 8vo. Rouen, a Lebrument, Libraire, 
Quai Napoleon, 45. 

A work of great beauty and excellence, as well on " Les Danfes Macabres" 
as on "Les Danfes des Morts." They are treated of both as ecclefiaftical cere- 
monies, and with a view to their moral effect. The fecond volume, pp. 1-207, 
is devoted to the explanation of the plates, and the firft volume, pp. 325-366, 
prefents a bibliography of the publications, whether in French or in other lan- 
guages, having a direct reference to the fubject. 

It is however to Photography and its kindred arts we mufl look 
for having the trueft fac-fimile reprints. Among them, in con- 
nexion with our own reprint, we may name 

1. Hans Holbein's Todtentanz, in 53 getreu nach den Holz- 
fchnitten lithographirten Blattern, heraufgegeben von J. Schlott- 
hauer, k. Profeffor mit erklarendem Texte. Miinchen 1832. Sm. 

This is accounted a very exact production of the ancient woodcuts. German 
verfes accompany the plates, but they are of modern date. 


2. 'La Danse des morts, deffinee par Hans Holbein, gravee 
fur pierre par Jos. Schlotthauer, expliquee par Hyppolyte Fortoul." 
Paris, Labitte. Sm. 8vo. Plates 53. 

3. In reference to Holbein's £ot>tcntanj by A. Woltmann ; 
" ^I)oto3rapI)ten berfelben SMatter, nacfy SScrliner sprobcbrucfen, %. 
SBoltmamt." Berlin. 

4. " Hans Holbein's celebrated Dance of Death, illuftrated by 
a feries of Photo-lithographic Fac-fimiles from the copy of the firft 
edition now in the Britifh Mufeum, accompanied by Explanatory 
Defcriptions and A Concife Hiftory of the Origin and Subfequent 
Development of the Subjecl, by H. Noel Humphreys." Sm. 4to. 
London, Qjiaritch, 1868. Plates 41, and 3 Illuftrations. 

Contents: Pages 1-32, "Hans Holbein and the Dance of Death." Pages 
33-115, the feries of fac-fimiles from Holbein's "Dance of Death," 1-41. 
Pages 116-20, three illuftrative plates. Pages 121-25, the treatment of the 
devices of the "Dance of Death," after the time of Holbein. 

The laft page of this work, p. 125, refers to the fources whence further in- 
formation is to be obtained, and after naming them, concludes: " M. Keftner, 
in the ' Danfes des Morts,' (Paris 1852), gives a ftill more extenfive lift, 
claffified in a well-conftrucfted tabular form; and this elaborated work may be 
confulted by all who are interefted in the origin and fucceffive phafes of artiftic 
treatment of the great pictorial epic of the middle ages." 

What room or demand is there, then, for another Fac-fimile Re- 
print of Holbein's Figures of Death! Simply this. Hitherto, in 
modern times there has been no reprint, much lefs a Photo-litho- 
graphic Fac-fimile of the entire work, in the execution of which 
Holbein, Lutzelburger, and Jean Vauzelles were combined, and 
which firft iffued from the prefs of Lyons in 1538. That is now 
attempted as a prelude to fimilar enterprifes. 

In conclufion, we ftate that this our reprint of the whole work 
was commenced before the publication, or any knowledge of the 
publication, of Noel Humphreys' very interefting volume. 



In Lyone appreffo Giovan Frdlone, m. d. xlix. 

N.B. The Texts of Holy Scripture in Latin which precede the Devices are 
the fame in the Italian verfion, as in the French original, and in the Latin 
verfion by /Emylius. 

I. Creation del Mondo. 

Di loto formb l'huomo a fua fembianza 
I Facitor de'l cielo, e de la terra, 
E lo rifpofe in quella amena ftanza. 
Senza pefier, trauaglio, affanno, 6 guerra. 

II. Il Peccato. 

Perch' hai attefo a'l dir de la tua moglie, 
Et hai mangiato de'l vietato pomo, 

Viurai feco molt' anni in molte doglie, 
Et poi morrette, e cost fia d'ogn' huomo. 

III. La Scacciata. 

Scacciollo il Signor Dio de'l Paradifo, 
A lauorar la terra, ond' era nato. 

Allhor fi volfe in pianto ogni fuo rifo, 
Et hebbe fempre poi la morte al lato, 


IV. Maleditione. 

Maledetto il terren ne li tuoi ftenti : 
Tu viuerai de le fatiche tue : 

Fin che li giorni tuoi fian da me fpenti, 
E'l corpo torni in polue, v'prima fue. 

V. La festanza de la Morte. 

Guai, guai a gli habitanti de la terra : 
Tutt' in cui fu fpiracolo di vita 

Sentit' han de la Morte l'afpra guerra : 
Ne fu giamai, ch' in cib trouaffe aita. 

VI. Il Papa. 

Efca di vita il Sacerdote grande, 

Che par che cura di morir non haggia : 

Spengafi infieme il nome, ch' egli fpande, 
E'l vefcouato fuo in altrui caggia. 

VII. L'Imperatore. 

Prouedi a fatte tuoi, che morir dei : 
E non ti creder di reftar piti in vita : 

Anchor tu, come gli altri, mortal fei, 
E la tua gloria teco fia fmarrita. 

VIII. Il Re. 

Hoggi egli e Re, domane inutil pondo : 
Ne fi troua, ch' alcun, per effe Sire, 

Ne poffeffor de l'vniuerfo mondo, 
Habbia potuto mai Morte fuggire. 

IX. Il Cardinale. 

Guai, guai a voi, che per ingordi doni, 
Ingiuftamente fate giufli gli empi : 

Leuando la giuftitia da li buoni, 

E dando a'l mondo fcelerati efempi. 


X. L'Imperatrice. 

Iddio abbaffa il gir fuperbo, e altero, 

E con la morte pauentofa, e dura, 
Mentre gir penfi per miglor fentiero, 

Ti conduce a, la negra fepoltura. 

XI. La Regina. 

Morbide donne, ricche, & ociofe 

Leuateui, et vdite la mia voce, 
Dopo alcun giorno, & anno difpettofe 

Verrete a foftener mia forte atroce. 

XII. Il Vescovo. 

Percottero'l Paflor d'afpra percoffa, 

E le fue pecorelle fian difperfe : 
Ne fera Morte da'l fuo officio moffa 

Per mitre : b manti, 6 cofe altre diuerfe. 

XIII. Il Principe. 

II Prencipe infelice, & l'alto flato 

Si veftira di dolorofi guai : 
Abbafferb i Potenti, e non e flato 

Che potuto fuggir m' habbia giamai. 

XIV. L'Abbate. 

Gli conuerra pur gir dietro a la morte : 

E perche difciplina mai non hebbe, 
Ne la fua gran ftoltitia fu per forte 

Trouato e fece, quel ch' ogn'vn far debbe. 

XV. La Badessa. 

Maggior' inuidia, fenza dubbio, porto 

A quelli, che gia fon di vita priui, 
E del breue lor viuer giunti a'l porto : 

Non ch' a quelli, che fono a'l modo viui. 


XVI. Il Cavaliere. 

Chi fera mai cosi gagliardo, e forte, 

Che'n quefto modo fempre viuer poffa : 

E le man fuggir tanto de la morte, 
Ch' a'l fin non caggia ne la fcura foffa. 

XVII. Il Canone. 

Ecco, che l'hora extrema f'auicina 
Di quefta, che ti par fi dolce, vita : 

Girann' i tuo penfier tutti a ruina, 
Ne fia chi contra me ti porga aita. 

XVIII. Il Giudice. 

Difperderb del mezzo de le genti, 
II giudice co'l cor pien d'auaritia : 

Che facendo i pill pouero dolenti, 
A chi piu porge, vende la giuftia. 

XIX. L'Avvocato. 

L'aftuto di lontan vede l'inganno, 
Et fi retrae, perche'l tutto fcorge : 

E l'innocente ne patifce danno, 
Perche de la malitia non f'accorge. 

XX. Il Senatore. 

Colui, ch' al gran gridar de'l bifognofo 
Chiude gli orecchi, e gli altri fentimeti, 

Egli ancor gridera tutto dogliofo : 
E'igridi fuoi ne porteranno i venti. 

XXL II Predicatore. 

Guai a voi, che gracchiado tutto'l giorno, 
Dite'l mal effer bene, e'l bene male : 

E'l giorno effer la notte, e notte'l giorno, 
E amaro'l dolce, e'l dolce a'l fiele eguale. 


XXII. Il Sacerdote. 

Mentr' i vb a vifitar, ch' infermo giace, 

Penfandomi foccorrer' a'l fuo male : 
La morte prefta in tanto mi disface : 

Perche fon, come lui, anch'io mortale. 

XXIII. Il Monaco. 

Ne le tenebre flan de l'ignoranza, 

E ne l'ombra profonda de la morte : 
Dal forfantar tenuti per vfanza, 

Senza penfar a la futura forte. 

XXIV. La Monaca. 

La via, ch' a'l giudicio human par dritta, 

Tutta e bella di fuor, tutta riluce, 
E par, che guidi a la beata vita : 

Ma'l fin di quella a morte ti conduce. 

XXV. La Vecchia. 

Io gia certa fon, per lunga proua, 

Prima ch' i' habbia la mia eta fornita : 

Che, poi che'l viuer cosi poco gioua, 
Meglio e'l morir, che la prefente vita. 

XXVI. Il Medico. 

Cura te fteffo medico, fe fai, 

Che penfi altrui cauar de le mie mani : 

E piu infelici, che contenti fai : 

Ma'i fon per fare i tuoi difegni vani. 

XXVII. L'Astrologo. 

Dimmi, fe fai le cofe da venire, 

Sapeui tu, che nafcer gia doueui ? 
Conofci tu, quando tu dei morire ? 

Oh quante fono i tuoi difegni lieui ! 

A A 


XXVIII. L'Avaro. 

II tuo difcorfo e ben folle, e leggiero, 
Quefta notte la vita ti fia tolta, 

E non haura fucceffo il tuo penfiero. 
Di cui fia poi quefta tua gran ricolta ? 

XXIX. Il Mercante. 

Chi congrega theforo con bugie, 

Ha l'alma in tutto d'intelletto priua : 

E caminando pur per quefte vie, 
N'e lacci afcofi de la morte arriua. 

XXX. I Marinaji. 
Ch' in amaffar richezze e troppo intento 

Cade'n trauaglio longo, & in fupplicio. 
Ne viuendo fi troua mai contento, 

Et e commerfo a'l fin' in precipitio. 

XXXI. Il Guerriero. 

Ei fi morra, die i popoli turbati 
A furor contra lui fi moueranno : 

Ne fian gli animi lor giamai chetati, 
Fin che di vita fpento non l'hauranno. 

XXXII. Il Conte. 

Quand'ei fi partira di quefta vita, 
Non portera gia. feco tutto'l mondo : 

E la gloria, che gli e tanto gradita, 
Non difcendera feco ne'l profondo. 

XXXIII. Il Vecchio. 

Lo fpirto mio fe ne va mancando, 

E'i giorni miei fon gia venuti a'l meno 

Serb pur hor di quefla vita in bando, 
E de'l fepolcro ne'l profondo feno. 


XXXIV. La Contessa. 

Spendono i giorni lor'in cofe vane, 

Come fuffer per ftar di qua in eterno : 
Ma fubito in vn punto quefte infane, 

Si trouan giu ne'l centro de l'inferno. 

XXXV. La Sposa e lo Sposo. 

Tanto ci ha amor con gli animi cogiunti, 

Poi ch' a me fatta fei dolce conforte : 
Che non farem l'vn da l'altro difgiunti, 

Se non per violenza de la morte. 

XXXVI. La Duchessa. 

Piu non ti leuerai de'l caro letto, 

Doue fenza penfier corcata fei, 
Che l'improuifa morte, a. tuo difpetto, 

Ti condurra've deflinata fei. 

XXXVII. Il Mercantuzzo. 

Vientene a me mefchin, che carco fei : 
Ch' io fon colei, che tutto'l modo doma : 

Vienten'e afcolta li configli miei, 
Ch' io ti vb allegirir di quefta foma. 

XXXVIII. L'Aratore. 

Mifero ne'l fudor de la tua faccia, 

Couien, ch'acquifti'l pan, che magiar dei 

Pero di venir mecco non ti fpiaccia, 
Se di ripofo defiofo fei. 

XXXIX. La Madre ed il Fanciullo. 

L'huom ch'e nato di donna, in quefta vita 

Poco tempo dimora, e fi diflrugge 
Tra la miferia, ch'e quafi' infinita, 

E come fior', & ombra viene, e fugge. 


XL. Il Soldato. 

Mentre ha vita, e vigor, armato, e forte 
II buon foldato, il luogo fuo difende, 

Soprauenendo poi l'amara morte, 

Li toglie l'arme, e lo rapifce, & prende, 

XLI. Il Giuocatore. 

Che giouaaP huom, che tutto'l mondo acquifli, 
Se l'alma fua poi ne riceue danno ? 

Onde ne i luoghi tenebrofi, & trifti 
Pianga dannata a fempitemo affanno. 

XLII. Il Briacone. 

Fuggi l'ebrieta, da cui prociede 
Luffuria, ond' a mal far t'auezzi, & vfi, 
Che morte contra te, mouendo '1 piede 
Non ti troui nel fin con gli occhi chiufi. 

XLIII. L'Idiota. 

Viuefi lieto il pazzo, & ignorante, 
Et mentre fta del fuo gioir ficuro 
Come femplice agnel, la morte auante 
Lo conduce al fuo varco acerbo, & duro. 

XLIV. Il Ladrone. 

Surge'l ladron di mezza notte, e inuola 
La foftanza che'l pouero notrifce, 

Quel piange, & ecco morte ch' alia gola 
De'l ladro auolgevn laccio, & qui finifce. 

XLV. Il Cieco. 

11 cieco guida'l cieco, onde egualmente 
Caggiono infieme entro vna foffa ofcura, 
Cosi chi viuer penfa lungamente, 
Morte incauto il conduce in fepoltura. 


XLVI. Il Carrettajo. 

Sopra d'un carro, per fuggir la morte, 
Corre l'auriga, ella con freta moffa 
Tanto lo fegue, che per fatal forte, 
Si rompe'l carro, e di lui frange l'offa. 

XLVII. Il Mendicante. 

Chi viuer brama in cielo, eterna vita, 
Brama vfcir di qua giu, ne morte teme. 
Trammi della pregion poco gradita, 
Grida'l pouero, mentre in Chrifto ha. fpeme. 

XLVIII. Il semplice fanciul. 

II femplice fanciul contra la morte, 
Ardito, in raano ha la faetta, e'l fcudo, 
Ella di lui via piu poffente, & forte, 
Traffige con fuoi ftrali il corpo ignudo, 

XLIX. I Fanciulli cavalcandi. 

Per difio di giocar femplicemente 
Caualcano vna canna ardite & prefti 
I fanciulli, ma caggion preftamente, 
Lafciando i corpi efangui, atri, & funefti. 

L. I Fanciulli baccanali. 

A guifa di fanciul fenza penfiero 
Viue colui, che alle lafciuie e intento, 
Ma quel, fi como pefo affai leggiero 
Morte ne toglie, quando e piu contento. 

LI. I Fanciulli trionfali. 

D'hauer le piu honorate, altere, e degne 
Anime fciolie dalle membra morte, 
Hora diuide l'acquiftate infegne 
D'ogni' huomo, al fin la vencitrice forte. 


LII. (40). Il Tribunal di D10. 

Toflo fia tempo di pagare il fio : 

Perb vegghiando afpettiam'il Signore. 

Starem dinanzi a'l tribunal di Dio, 
A render conto d'ogni noftro errore. 


Habbi ne la memoria femper fitto 

L'ultimo paffo, oue ciafcuno arriua, 
E non regnera in te giamai delitto, 

E l'alma tua fera, morendo, viua. 

To the original feries of 41 plates from the French edition of 1538, there have 
been added in the Appendix, pp. 236-47, twelve other plates, xl-li, from the 
Simolachri &c. de la Morte, 1549, with the Italian ftanzas, pp. 277-86. 
Among thefe we point out the Idiot-fool, pi. xliij, p. 239; and if we join to 
it pi. xxiv (fign. Eiiij, p. 132), the Nun, we obtain two inftances more, in 
which to eftablifh parallelifms or co-incidences between Shakefpeare and Hol- 
bein's Death-Figures. 

Take the Nun at the altar, where a gallant is ferenading her, and Death 
fteps forward to extinguifh the candle. Noel Humphreys asks, p. 81 : "May 
not Shakefpeare have had this device in his mind when penning the paffage in 
which Othello (act v. fc. 2, 1. 7), determining to kill Defdetnona, exclaims, 
' Put out the light — and then — put out the light ? ' " 

More remarkable for fimilarity are the lines from Meafure for Meafure, act 
hi. fc. 1, 1. 6-13 : 

" Reafon thus with life : 

If I do lofe thee, I do lofe a thing 

That none but fools would keep : a breath thou art 

Servile to all the skyey influences, 

That dolt this habitation, where thou keep'ft, 

Hourly afflict : merely, thou art death's-fool ; 

For him thou labour'ft by thy flight to fliun, 

And yet runn'ft toward him ftill." 

The exact action which the poet defcribes is that of the two highly dramatic 
figures of Holbein. In fubftance Woltmann remarks (vol. ii. p. 122), the fool 
is foolifh enough to think that he can flip away from death; this adverfary in 
fport feems to give in; — skips near, playing on the bagpipe, but, unobferved, 
holds him faft by the garment. So (hall to all of us, 
" Cfjc bnSelcj^c fa&rtc&c nf Hn'£ btet'ou . . . Irabr not a rarfcr brljiuo." 



Note. — A Roman capital, with numerals i-iiij, denotes the fignatures at the foot of 

the pages, v being the reverfe of the leaves. 
Roman numerals, preceded by/, indicate the pages of the Preface and Introduction; 

other Roman numerals refer to the Plates or the Stanzas. 
Arabic numerals, after the titles of books, exprefs the year ; within a parenthefis ( ) 

the notes ; — in other cafes, the pages of this Fac-fimile Reprint. 

ABBATE, xiv, 279; fee Abbot. 
Abbefs, Diij v; Abbtiffin, xv, 127, 
251, 262-3, 279. 

Abbot, Diij; Abbt, xiv, 127, 251, 262-3, 

Achilles, Aiiij, and III. 

Ackerfman, xxxviij, 139;^ Ploughman. 

Adam bawght die Erden, 262-3 \f ee Curfe. 

Adam & Eua im Paradifs, 262 ; fee Fall. 

Additional Plates, 223, 225-48; quota- 
tions to, 259. 

Advocate, Lj v; Advocat, xix, 129, 252, 
262-3, 2 &°- 

^Emyllius, Geo., Luther's brother-in-law, 
223, 267; Imagines Mortis, 1545 and 
1566; Plates, 225-32; Epigrammata, 
249-58; editions, 266-68. 

Agamades ; fee Trophonius. 

Aitkin's Gen. Biography, 1804, p. xv. 

Alciat's Emblemata , gradual growth, 260. 

Alcidamus (24), Liij v, 170; notes, 212. 

Alte Mann, or Altman, xxxiij, 136; fee 
Man, old. 

Alte Weib, or Altweib, xxv, 132 ; fee 
Woman, aged. 

Amerbach, p. xxvi, 261. 

Apelles, Aiij v, no, 208. 

Apocalypfe, p. xvii, Biij, 118. 

Appendix, 223-86. 

Apples, few (23), Miiij z; 180; notes, 212. 

Apt, or Abbt, xiv, 127; fee Abbot. 

Ap tiffin, or Abbtiffin, xv, 127 ; fee Abbefs. 

Apuleius (34), Miij, 177; notes, 221. 

Aratore, xxxviij, 283 ; fee Ploughman. 

Ariftotle (22), Liij, 169; notes, 209-10. 

Arria and Pcetus, notes, 218. 

Artz, Ej, xxvj, 133 ; fee Phyfician. 

Arundel, Earl of, p. xv. 

Aftrologer, Fj v, xxvij, 133, 253, 263, 281. 

Aftrologo, xxvij, 281 ; fee Aftrologer. 

Auguftin, S. (13), Hi', 142; Ffiiij v, 148; 

K v, 157-8; Lij, 167; Works, 202; 

notes, 202-3. 
Avaro, xxviij, 282 ; fee Mifer. 
Awocato, xix, 280 ; fee Advocate. 

BADESSA, xv, 279 ; fee Abbefs. 
Bale, pp. x, xii, xvii, xviii, xxvi, 

and frequently : 262, ike. 
Bapft ; fee Papft. 
Bebelius, 217. 

Beggar, 223, xlvij, 227, 243, 257, 285. 
Belfhazzar (18), Hiij, 145; notes, 207. 
Berlin copy of Death- Figures, 261, 264. 
Bernard, S. (10), Biij v, 118; Biiij, 119; 

Liij, 153; Works, 199; notes, 199-201. 
Biographie Ghierale, 1858, p. xv. 
Biographie Univ., p. xv. 
Birkmann's edition — Imagines Mortis, 

1566, p. 271. 



Bifchoff, xij, 1 26 ; fee Bifhop. 

Bifhop, Dij, xij, 126, 251, 262-3, 2 79- 

Biton ; fee Cleobulus. 

BHnde, xlv, 2 5 J ; fee Blind Man. 

Blind Man, xlv, 241, 257, 263, 284. 

Bodleian Library copy of Death- Figures, 

261, 272. 
Bohn's edition — Dane e of Death, 1858, 

pp. xx, xxviii, 267, 273, 275. 
Bonner and Byfield, engravers, 275. 
Bourbon, poet, p. xxiii. 
Boy and fliield, xlviij, 244, 257, 285. 
Boys riding, xlix, 245, 257 285. 
Boy-Bacchanals, 1, 246, 257, 285. 
Boys in triumph, lj, 247, 285. 
Briacone, xlij, 284; fee Drunkard. 
Bride ; fee Countefs. 
Bride and Bridegroom, G v, xxxv, 137, 

255, 2S3. 
Britifh Mufeum, Print-room, Holbein s 

defigns there, 223, 264, 270. 
Brunet's Manuel duLibraire, 1865, pp. xx, 

xxv, 261, 264, &c. 
Bryan's Did. of Painters, 1849, p. xv, &c. 

CANDLE and Flies (15), Hij v, 144; 
note, 206. 
Canon, Diiij v, xvij, 128, 252, 280. 
Canone, xvij, 2S0 ; fee Canon. 
Canonefs ; fee Nun. 
Caplan, xxij, 131, 252 ; fee Prieft. 
Cardinal, Ciiij v, ix, 124, 250, 278. 
Cardinale, ix, 278 ; fee Cardinal. 
Carrettajo, xlvj, 285 ; fee Wagoner. 
Cato the Cenfor, Mij, 175, 217. 
Cavaliere, xvj, 235 ; fee Knight, noble. 
Charnel-houfe, Cij v; V, 122, 250, 277. 
Child ; fee Mother. 
Cicero's Qaaftiones (23), Liij v, 170; Miij 

v, 178; Miiij v, 180; notes, 210-14. 
Cieco, xlv, 241, 284; fee Blind Man. 
Cleobulus & Biton (25), Liiij, 171 ; Liiij 7; 

172; notes, 213. 
Cleombrotus, Aiiij, III; note, 197. 
Clafs 1, of the Plates, 262, 264-5. 
2, ditto 262, 265. 

3, ditto 263, 265-7. 

4, ditto 263, 268-9. 

5, ditto 263, 269-70. 

Cleves, Ann of, p. xii. 

Collection, Bodleian, by Douce, 272. 

Conte, xxxij, 282 ; fee Count. 
Contents, Table of, pp. vii, viii. 
Conteffa, xxxiv, 283 ; fee Countefs. 
Corrozet's Heeatomgraphie, 1540, p. xxv ; 

(15); note, 206; Commendatory Verfes, 

1547, p. xxiv. 
Corfer, Rev. Thomas, p. xix, 266. 
Count, Fiiij, xxxij, 136, 254, 282. 
Countefs, G, xxxiv, 137, 255, 283. 
Creation, Biiij v; I, 120, 229, 249, 277. 
Creation del Mondo, I, 277; yfe Creation. 
Crozet Collection, p. xxi. 
Curfe upon Earth, Cij, IV, 122, 249, 277. 
Cyrus, 212. 

DANCE, or Figures of Death, edi- 
tions, p. xvii, 260-76. 
Dances of Death, p. xxviii, 275. 
Daniel, Book of (11), Kiiij, i6y,note, 201. 
David (9), Biij, 117; note, 199. 
Deuchar's Holbein, 1786-88, 273. 
Dibdin's Bibl. Decani., 181 7, pp. xx, xxi. 
Didot, Ambrofe Firmin, Collection, p. xxi. 
Diogenes, Aij v, 108; Hiiij, 147. 
Diforf Morali, 1609, 209. 
Divifion I. — Original Series, 262, 264-5. 

II. — Original Series, 262, 265-70. 

Douce's Holbein, 1833, pp. iv, xLx, xx, 

xxviii, 223, 261, 266, 267, 269, 271, 

272, 273; Dance of Death , 275. 
Driving from Eden, C v, III, 121, 249, 

Drunkards, xlij, 238, 256, 284. 
Duchefs, Gij, xxxvj, 138, 230, 255, 262, 

265, 283. 
Ducheffa, xxxvj, 283 ; fee Duchefs. 
Durer, Albert, p. xiv. 

EASTLAKE'S Kugler, p. xvi. 
Edelfrau, 262, 263 ; fee Bride. 
Fdelman, xvj, 128, 235, 251 ; fee Knight, 

Editions of Holbein's Death- Figures : 
Lyons 1538- 1544, 263, 265-67. 

 I545-I5 62 > z6 3, 268-69. 

1562- , 263, 269. 

Mifcellaneous, 270-73. 

Fac-fnnile, 274-76. 
Eight Figures of Death, H-Iiiij, 141-56. 
Elector, Dij 7', xiij, 126, 251, 279. 
Emperor, Ciij, w,VII, 123, 234, 250, 278. 



Emprefs, D, x, 125, 250, 279. 

Epigrammata, 249-58. 

Epiftle, or Dedication, Aij-iiij, 107-12. 

Erafmus, pp. xii, xviii, 193, 202, 210, 
211, 216, 220. 

Erinnerungen, p. xxx ; German ftanzas 
from, 120-40; edition 1779, 272.- 

Erfchaffung, I, 120, 229, 249; y?^ Crea- 

Efcutcheon of Death, Giiij v, XLI, 140, 
LIII, 232, 258, 286. 

Expulfion, 262-3; fee Driving. 

F AC-SIMILE editions, 274-76. 
Fall, Adams und Evas, C, II, 121 ; 

fee Temptation. 
Fanciul, il femplice, XLVIII, 244, 285 ; 

fee Boy and fhield. 
Fanciulli cavalcandi, XLIX, 245, 285 ; 

fee Boys riding. 
Fanciulli baccanali, L, 246, 285 ; fee 

Boy- Bacchanals. 
Fanciulli trionfali, LI, 247, 285 ; fee 

Boys in triumph. 
Farmer ; fee Ploughman. 
Feftanza dela Morte, V, 278 ; fee Charnel- 

Fine, il, Rom. 5, 248. 
Finiguerra, and engraved plates, p. ix. 
FortouPs Danfe des Marts, 276. 
Frank, Hans, p. xxvi. 
France, Imperial Library of, 261, 264. 
Frellon freres, &c, 1542-49, 266-9. 
Friar ; fee Monk. 
Fiirfprach, 262-3 > f ce Advocate. 
Fiirft, Dij v, XIII, 126, 251 ; fee Elector. 
Furftin, Gij, xxxvj, 138, 230, 255; fee 


GALLITZIN, Prince, p. xxi. 
Gamefters, xlj, 237, 256, 284. 

Gatten und Gatte; fee Bride and Bride- 

Gebeine aller menfchen, Cij v, 122; V, 
250; fee Charnel-houfe. 

German ftanzas, i-xli, 120-40. 

Gericht, das jungfl, xl, 140, lij, 231, 258; 
fee Judgment, the Laft. 

Giudice, xviij, 280 ; fee Judge. 

Giuocatore, xli, 237, 284 ; fee Gamefter. 

Gloffarium Med. et inf. Latinitatis, 219. 

Graff, xxxij, 136, 254 ; fee Count. 
Graffmn, xxxiv, 137, 255 ; fee Countefs. 
Gregory, S. (3), Aij v, 108; I v, 1 50; 
liiij, 155; Works, 194; notes, 194, 195. 
Griggs, Mr. W., obligation to, p. vi. 
Guerriero, xxxj, 282 ; fee Knight, armed. 

HADRIAN (27), Liiij v, 172, not 
Hadman; notes, 215. 

Hawkin's Emblems of Mortality, p. xxix, 

Head's Kugler, p. xvi. 

Hecatomgraphie ; fee Corrozet. 

Hegefias (6), Aiiij, III; Works and note, 

Hegner's Holbein derfungere, 1827, p. xv. 

Henry VIII. and Holbein, pp. xii-xiv. 

Herodotus (17), Hiij, 145 ; notes, 207, 

Herzog, xvj, 262; fee Knight, noble. 

Herzoginn, xxxj, 262-3 > f ee Duchess. 

H. H. /E., 45, curious portrait, 272. 

Higgins, — Celtic Dniids, 192. 

Ilijl. Vet. 7 eft. /cones, 1538, pp. xvi, xviii. 

Hizenarchus (25), Liiij v, 172; note, 214. 

HL for Hans Liitzelburger, p. xxvi, 262, 
265, 267. 

Holbein, the family, pp. ix, x ; Old Hans, 
p. x; the Elder Hans, p. x; Sigifmund, 
p. x ; the Younger Hans, p. x ; Bruno, 
p. x ; Ambrofe, p. x. 

Holbein, Hans, the Younger, fketch of 
life and works, pp. ix-xvi ; birth, p. xi ; 
early labours, p. xi ; removal to Eng- 
land, p. xii; Henry VIII., p. xiii ; nu- 
merous portraits, pp. xi, xiii ; effect on 
his progrefs and fame, p. xiv ; marriage, 
p. xiv; death in 1543, p. xv; various 
biographies of him, p. xv ; portraits, p. 
xiv, 272. 

Holbein's Images of Death, p. xvi, &c. ; 
Bible Figures, p. xvi. 

Holbein's Dance of Death, inaccurate 
name, p. xix ; works fo named, p. xx. 

Bible Figures, pp. xvi, xxiv. 

/cones, 1554, 269. 

/mages, 1547, 268; 1562, 269. 

/magines, 1542, 266; 1545, 167, 

268; 1547, 268; 1554, 269; 1566, 271. 

Offenbarung, 1523, p. xvii. 

Pafiime, 1529, p. xviii. 




Holbein's Catechifmus, 1548, p. xix. 

Morias Encomion, p. xviii. 

Holbein-Society, p. xix. 

Hollar's Holbein, 272; 165 1, 274. 

Horce or Heures, p. xx. 

Humphreys', Noel, Holbein, 1868, pp. iv, 

xix, xxii, xxix, 276. 
Hypanis (22), Liij, 169; note, 210. 

T CONES MORTIS, 1554, 269. 
J_ Idiot-fool, xliij, 239, 256, 284, 286. 
Idiota, xliij, 239, 284 ; fee Idiot-fool. 
Images de la Mori, 1547, 268; 1562, 269. 
Images &>c. of Death, p. xxiv. 
Imagines de Morte, 1 542, 266. 
Imagines Mortis, 1545, 267-68; 1 547, 

195, 268; 1566, 271. 
Imperatore, vij, 278 ; fee Emperor. 
Imperatrice, x, 279 ; fee Emprefs. 
Imperfect copies of the original feries, 265, 
Introductions, I., pp. ix-xvi ; II., pp. 


J EROME, S. (3) (7), Aij, 107 ; Aiiij v, 
J 107, 112; Works, 193; notes, 193, 

198, 203. 
Jerufalem (19), Iij, 151 ; note, 207. 
Judge, corrupt, Ei, xviij, 129, 252, 280. 
Judgment, the Laft, Giiij, xl, 140, lij, 231, 
258, 286. 

KAIJSER, vij, 123, 250;^ Emperor. 
Kaijferin, x, 125, 250 ;_/?,? Emprefs. 
Kanner, xlvj, 257 ; fee Wagoner. 
Kauffman, xxix, 134, 254; _/?<? Merchant. 
Keir Library, p. xx, 267, 271. 
Kenrick's Egypt, 1850, note, 192. 
Kind, xxxix, 139, 256; fee Mother. 
Kinder gruppen, xlviij, xlix, 1, lj, 244-47, 

and 257-58. 
Kinder Muiicirende, 264. 
King, Ciiij, viij, 124, 250, 278. 
Kings, Books of (n), Gij, 138; note, 201. 
Knabe, xlviij, 244, 257;/vBoy. 
Knight, armed, Fiij v, xxxj/135, 254, 

Kmght, noble, Diiij, xvj, 12S, 235, 251, 

Konig, viij, 124, 250 ; fee King. 
Koniginn, xlj, 125, 251 ; fee Queen. 
Kramer, xxxvii, 138, 255 ; fee Pedlar. 

Kriegfman, xl, 256; fee Soldier. 
Kugler's Handbuch der Malerie, 1S47, pp. 
ix, x, xiii, xvi. 

LACTANTIUS (33), Miij, 177 ; notes, 
Ladrone, xliv, 240 ; fee Robber. 
Lampridius (5), Aiiij, III; Works and 

note, 196. 
Langlois — Effai ftr les Danfes des Marts, 

1852, pp. xvii, xx, xxi, xxv, xxx, 261, 

270, 275. 
Lefion (12), H, 141; note, 202. 
Lucian (20), K, 157; Works and note, 208. 
Lutzelburger, pp. iv, xvii, xxv-xxvii, 262, 

265, 267, 269. 
Lyons editions of Holbein's Death Figures, 


MADRE, La, ed il Fanciullo, xxxix, 
283 ; fee Mother. 
Magilirate; fee Senator. 
Maleditione, iv, 278; fee Curfe. 
Man, old, Fiiij v, xxxiij, 136, 254, 2S2. 
Mann, der alte, xxxiij, 136; feeMan, old. 
Marinaji, xxx, 282 ; fee Seaman. 
Medico, xxvj, 281 ; fee Phyfician. 
Medicus, xxvj, 133, 253 ; fee Phyfician. 
Mendicante, xlvij, 285 ; fee Beggar. 
Mene, tekel, peres (16), Hiij, 145; note, 

Mercante, xxix, 282 ; fee Merchant. 
Mercantuzzo, xxxvii, 283; fee Pedlar. 
Merchant, Eij 7; xxix, 134, 254, 282. 
Mifcellaneons editions, 270-74. 
Mifer, Fij, xxviij, 134, 254, 282. 
Monaca, la, xxiv, 281 ; fee Nun. 
Monaco, il, xxiij, 281 ; fee Monk. 
Monch, xxiij, 13 1, 253 ; fee Monk. 
Monk, Eiij v, xxiij, 131, 253, 281. 
Monogram A, edition 1566, 271-72. 
Monogram r- L; fee p. xxvi, 262, 265, 267. 
More, Sir Thomas, reception of Holbein, 

p. xii. 
Marias Encomion, 1676, p. xviii. 
Mother and Child, Giij 7', xxxix, 139, 256, 

Muratori's Rcium Italic. Scriptores, 219. 
Muiicirende Kinder, Children pracliling 

mufic, 264. 



N" AGLER'S ICiuiJller- Lexicon, p. xvi. 
Narr, xlij, 239, 256 : fee Idiot-fool. 
Nebuchadnezzar, H, 141. 
Notes, 189-221. 

Nouvelle Biog. Gen., 185S, p. xv. 
Nun, Eiiij, xxiv, 132, 253, 281, 2S6. 
Nunne or Nonne, xxiv, 132, 253 ;fee Nun. 

OEMMEL, George; fee /Emylius. 
Offenbarung Holbein's, or Apoca- 
lypfe, p. xvii. 
Original feries of Death-Figures, — at Bale, 
262, 264-65 ; at Lyons, 262-63, 265- 

PAPA,vj, 278 ;fee Pope. 
Papft, vj, 123, 250 ; fee Pope. 

Paftime of the People, Holbein's, p. xviii. 

Paul, S. (9), Biij, 117; note, 199. 

Paul the Deacon (32), Miij, 177; Works 

and notes, 219. 
Peccato, il, II, 277 ; fee Temptation. 
Pedlar, Gij, xxxvij, 138, 255, 283. 
Pfarrher, xxj, 130, 252; fee Preacher. 
Photographic Fac-fimiles of Holbein's 

Death-Figures : A. Brothers, 1869, 276; 

Fortoul, 276; Humphreys, 1868, 27; 

Schlotthauer, 1832, 275; and Woltmann, 

Phyfician, F, xxvj, 133, 253, 281. 
Pictures of Death, 113-19, 120-40. 
Plato (28), M v, 174; notes, 215-16. 
Plinius Ccec. Sec. (30), Mij v, 176; notes, 

Pliny the Naturalift, 218. 
Ploughman, Giij, xxxviij, 139, 255, 283. 
Plutarch's Apophthegms (29), M v, 174; 

notes. 217. 
Pope, Ciij, vj, 123, 250, 278. 
Portraits in Holbein's Death- Figures, pp. 

xxvii, xxviii. 
Portraits by Holbein, pp. xi-xiii ; of Hol- 
bein, p. xiv, 272. 
Pottier; fee Langlois' Effai, 1852. 
Preacher, Eij v, xxj, 130, 252, 280. 
Predicant, 262, 263 ; fee Preacher. 
Predicatore, xxj, 280 ; fee Preacher. 
Preface, pp. iii-vi. 
Prieft, Eiij, xxij, 131, 252, 281. 
Prince-Elector ; fee Elector. 
Princefs ; fee Duchefs. 

Principe, xiij, 279; fee Elector. 

Procefs of this Photo-lith. reprint, pp. iv- 

Pfalms, &c-, numbering of (11), 123, 131, 

I3 2 > !33> !34, 136, 13S, 139. 163. 
" Put out the light," 286. 

QUEEN, Dv, xj, 125, 251, 279. 
Quaritch's Dance of Death, 1868, p. 
xxii ; fee Humphreys. 

RATHSHERR, xx, 130, 252; fee 
Rauber, xliv, 240, 256 ; fee Robber. 
Re, il, viij, 278; fee King. 
Regina, la, xj, 279 ; fee Queen. 
Reiche, xxviij, 134, 254; fee Mifer. 
Remarks on Holbein's Images ond Afpecls 

of Death, pp. xvii-xxx. 
Rentz's Remembrances, &c, p. xxx ; the 

German ftanzas, 120-40; Erinnerungen, 

&c, 224, 272. 
Reperdius, an engraver, 1545, 267. 
Richter, xviij, 129, 252 ; fee Judge, corrupt. 
Ritter, xxxj, 135, 254; fee Knight, armed. 
Robber, xliv, 240, 256, 284. 
Rychman, 262-63 ; fee Reiche. 

SACERDOTE, xxij, 281 ; fee Prieft. 
Saufer, xlij, 238, 256 ;fee Drunkard. 
Scacciati, III, 277 ; fee Driving forth. 
Schiffenden, xxx, 135, 254; fee Seaman. 
Schiffer, or Schiffman, xxx, 135, 262; fee 

Schlotthauer's Todtentanz, 1832, 275. 
Schopffung, 262 ; fee Creation. 
Scudo de la Morte, liij, 286; fee Efcut- 

Seaman, Fiij, xxx, 135, 254, 282. 
Senator, Eij, xx, 130, 252, 280. 
Senatore, xx, 280; fee Senator. 
Seneca (14), Hij, 143 bis; I, 149; Iiiij v, 

156; M, 173; Mij, 145; Works, 203; 

notes, 203-5. 
Severus, in. 
Shakefpeare's Death and Sleep, 2II-I2; 

Evils of human life, 213 ; " Put out the 

light," 226 ; and Death's-fool, 286. 
Sharpe's Egypt. Antiq., 193. 
Shirley's lines on death, 273. 
Sieche, xlvij, 227, 243, 257 ; fee Beggar. 



Simolachri, &c, 1549, p. xxix, 233-48, 

268 ; Jlatizas, 277-86. 
Simidachres, &c. , 1538, pp. xviii-xxv; 

A-Xiiij, 104-88, 265-66; 1542, 266. 
Smith's Gk. and Rom. Biog., 197, 202, 

203, 208, 209, 210, 212. 
Socrates (28), M v, 174; notes, 216. 
Soldato, xl, 236, 284; fee Soldier. 
Soldier, xl, 236, 256, 284. 
Specimen of Todtentanz, 1542, 270-1. 
Spieler, xli, 237, 256 ; fee Gamefter. 
Spofa,la, e lo Spofo, xxxv, 233 ;fee Bride. 
Stanze LI II., Dei Simolachri, 277-86. 
Sternenfeher, xxvij, 133, 255; fee Aftro- 

Stirling-Maxwell, Bart. , Sir W., p. xx, 267. 
Strype's Stcnve's Survey, p. xv. 
Siindenfall, II, 249; fee Temptation. 
Surreptitious editions, 271-2. 
Symeoni and Giovio, note, 206. 

TEMPTATION, C, II, 121, 249, 277. 
Thau, jH, tau (1), Aij, 107; notes, 

Theodofms (31), Mij v, 176, 218-19. 
Theffalonians (8), B, 113; note, 198. 
Thompfon, H. Yates, — copy of Simolachri, 

Thumherr, 262 ; fee Canon. 
Tobit (21), L 7; 166; note, 209. 
Todtentanz, p. xxx ; Dance of the Dead, 

1542, 270; 1832, 275, 276 ;fee Dance of 

Death and Figures of Death. 
Toufzele, p. xxv ; Aij, 107: note, 192. 
Tranflations of the French ftanzas and 

profe, on the, p. xxx. 
Trechfel fratres, pp. v, xxiv, 266. 
Tribunal di Dio, lij, 286; ^Judgment, 

the Laft. 
Triomphe de la Mort, by Hollar, 272. 
Trophonius & Agamedes (26), Liiij v, 172; 

notes, 214. 

UTTERSOX, E. Vernon, — arms and 
motto, 266. 

VALGRIS' Simolachri, 1545, 268. 
Various editions of Holbein's /mages 
and Afpecls of Death, 260-70; fee Mif- 

Vafari's Pittori, &c, 1568, p. xxvi. 

Yauzelles, Jean de, pp. iv, xxiv, xxv; au- 
thor of the French text of Holbein's 
Death-Figures, p. xxv, 192, 206, 276. 

Vecchia, la, xxv, 2S1 ; fee Woman, aged. 

Vecchio, il, xxxiij, 282 ; fee Man, old. 

Yerard's Heures, or Horn, about 1489, p. 

Verfluchung, iv, 124, 249 ; fee Curfe. 

Yerliebten, xxxv, 137, 255 ; fee Bride, &c. 

Verftofung ; fee Yertreibung. 

Vertreibung, III, 121, 249; fee Driving 

Yefcovo, il, XII, 279 ; fee Bifhop. 

Virgil, Aiiij, in. 

Vfstribung Ade, Eve, p. 262 ; fee Driving 

WAGOXER (4), Aiij v, no; note, 
195, 223, xlvj, 242, 257, 285. 

Walcott's Sacred Archceol., 1S68, 193. 

Wappen des Todes, xlj, 140, liij, 232, 258, 

Weib, alte, xxv, 1 32 ; fee Woman, aged. 

Woltmann's Holbein iind feine Zeit, 1868, 
pp. ix, x, xi, xv, xvi, xviii, xxiii, xxiv, 
xxvi, xxvii, 211, 260,261; account of 
editions of Holbein's Figures of Death, 
261-4, 2d 5j 267, 26S, 269, 286. 

Woltmann's Photograph ien, 276. 

Woman, aged, Eiiij <•', xxv, 132,253, 28[. 

Wornum's Holbein's Life and Works, 1867, 
pp. ix, x, xi, xv, xviii, xxi, xxiii, xxv, 
xxviii, 193, 261, 270. 

yEXOPHOX's Cyropsedia, 212. 

ZELE, p. xxv; Aij, 107, 192. 
Zeuxis, Aiij v, 1 10. 

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