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LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 



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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 





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THE 

Protection of Woodlands 

Authorized translation from the German of 
Kauschinger-Furst's '""Waldschutz." By John Nisbet, 
D'CEc, of the Indian Forest Service, author of 
"British Forest Trees, and their Sylvicultural Char- 
acteristics and Treatment." 

1 VOL., 8vo. with colored plates, - $3.50 

The various portions are dealt with tersely, and 
from a thoroughly practical standpoint. As there is 
no special work on Sylvicultural Entomology in 
English, the chapter on noxious Forest Insects has 
been somewhat amplified. 



Edmund B. Southwick, Ph.D., Entomologist of 
the Parks of New York City, and Secretary of the 
New York State Forestry Association, says:— 

"To the forester, ' The Protection of Woodlands' is 
invaluable in that it cares for his possessions in hot and 
cold, wet and dry conditions; protection against plants 
and animals, forest offences and forest fires, and, what 
is of great economic importance, protection against 
forest insects. Over one-half of this valuable treatise is 
devoted to insects alone, and no entomologist should be 
without it. The illustrations are exceedingly valuable, 
and I cannot too highly recommend it to all naturalists, 
for the subjects have been handled in a masterly 
manner" 



Lessons 



IN 



Botany 



ARRANGED BY 



Caroline E. Hilliard, 

of the Brearley School, New York. 






im 271896' j N/-/7T 



-? 



i/ 




New York : 

WILLIAM R. JENKINS, 

851-853 Sixth Avenue. 









Copyright, 1896, by William R. Jenkins. 
All Eights Reserved. 



Printed by the Press of William R. Jenkins, 
New York. 



INTRODUCTION 



THE following exercises have been arranged for use in connection 
with Gray's "How Plants Grow." So far as is possible the lessons 
are based upon careful study of specimens. Blank pages are 
inserted for drawings and records of observations. 

The work is designed for children twelve and thirteen years of age, 
but it can easily be adapted to older pupils. 

The first four lessons are spent in the study of typical forms of seeds 
and seedlings. In Lesson III space is left for further work if desired. 
If the lessons are begun in the spring, leaves and their modifications are 
reached in May and form good subjects for summer work. Lesson XIII 
suggests several topics for reading and simple experiments. 

In the autumn and winter months, material is easily obtained for the 
study of buds and branches, flowers and fruits. Simple descriptions of 
plants are begun with the early bulbous plants. Lesson XXV is intended 
for a summary of terms made by the pupil, to which may be added any 
technical terms needed for identification of our common flowers. 

Ne well's " Botany Readers" furnish valuable supplementary reading 
throughout the course. The "Outlines of Lessons in Botany," by the 
same author, are very helpful to the teacher. 

In the arrangement of topics and choice of subject matter an earnest 
attempt has been made to work out a practical course in Botany under 
the ordinary limitations of science work in a city private school whose 
sessions are held chiefly during the winter months. 

Thanks are due to Miss Howell of Barnard College for her criticisms 
and suggestions, and also to Mrs. Jane Newell Moore for the careful 
directions for experimental work contained in her books. 

The Breaeley School. 
February, 1896. 



INDEX OF LESSONS. 



I. Seeds and Seedlings.— 

Squash 6 

II. Bean 8 

III. Pea 10 

IV. Corn 12 

V. Arrangement of Food in the Seed 14 

VI. Roots 16 

VII. Leaves.— 

Simple leaves — pinnately-veined 18 

VIII. Simple leaves — palmately-veinecl 20 

IX. Pinnately — compound leaves 22 

X. Palmately — compound leaves 24 

XI. Parallel — veined leaves 26 

XII. Parallel — veined leaves 28 

XIII. Peculiar Forms and Movements of Leaves 30 

XIV. Buds and Branches. — 

Horse — Chestnut 32 

XV. Beech 34 

XVI. Lilac 36 

XVII. Norway Spruce 38 

XVIII. Structure of Stems 40 

XIX. Modifications of Stems for Storehouses of Food 42 

XX. The Flower 44 

XXI. The Fruit 46 

XXII. Classification of Fruits 48 

XXIII. Study of Fruits 50 

XXIV. Inflorescence 52 

XXV. Common Terms Used in Plant Description 54 

Twenty-five forms for Plant Description. 



LESSON I.— Study of the Seed and Seedlings of the Squash. 

Describe the shape, surface and color of the seed. Open a seed that has been 
soaked in water over night and find the seed-coats. Separate the seed into halves 
and sketch, showing the tiny connecting stem and the little leaf-bud. Compare 
these parts with a squash seed which has just begun to grow and with another 
which has been growing some time. What changes do you notice in the halves of 
the seed? Mark these the seed-leaves or cotyledons. The little bud is called the 
plumule and the connecting stem the caulicle. What happens to the cotyledons as 
the plant goes on growing? Can you give a reason for this? 



LESSON II.— The Bean. 

Describe the shape, color and surface of the bean. Sketch, showing the little 
scar where the bean was attached to the pod. Open the seed which you have 
soaked and sketch the little plant. How many seed-coats has the bean? Study 
the plant in different stages of growth and make drawings, marking the cotyledons, 
plumule and caulicle. What happens to the cotyledons as the plant grows? How 
do the leaves following the cotyledons differ from them and from one another in 
form and arrangement on the stem? 



10 
LESSON III.— The Pea. 



Describe the seed. Name its parts. In what ways is it like the bean ? Sketch 
at different stages of growth and mark the parts of the plant. In what ways is it 
unlike the bean and squash in its growth ? 



12 

LESSON IV.— The Corn. 

Describe the seed. Make sketches of both sides of the kernel. Compare with 
a seed that has sprouted and mark the parts of the embryo. How many cotyledons 
has the corn ? How is the food arranged in the seed ? What is the shape of the 
leaves? What is their veining? How do they differ from those of the bean, the 
pea and the squash ? Which part grows first in all these seeds ? From which part 
do the roots grow ? 



14 

LESSON V.— Arrangement of Food in the Seed. 

Wliere is the food stored for the first growth of the seedlings you have studied ? 
Examine a seed of the four-o'clock. How many seed-coats do you find ? "Where 
is the albumen placed? Separate the embryo and sketch, marking the parts. 
Where is the albumen stored in the almond, walnut, flax, acorn, apple and castor-oil 
bean? Make a list of the seeds we use for food and try to find out whether the 
albumen is stored within or around the embryo. How does the arrangement of the 
albumen influence the growth of the cotyledons ? 



16 

LESSON VI.— Roots. 

Draw and describe the roots of the onion, turnip, carrot, radish and beet. 
"Why do plants which live only one year have fibrous roots ? Why do plants which 
live two years have fleshy roots ? "What changes take place in these roots during 
the second year? What differences have you found between the stem and the 
roots ? Examine a potato which has sprouted. Is it a root or a stem ? Give a 
reason for your answer. Can you name any plants which bear roots on their stems 
in the open air? 



18 



LESSON VII.— Leaves. 

Description of Simple Netted-veined Leaves. Pinnately- Veined. 

Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape. 

Apex. 
Blade. -< Base. 

Margin. 

Surface. 



Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Remarks : 



20 



LESSON VIII. 

Simple Netted-veined Leaves. Palmately-Yeined. 

Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape. 

Apex. 
Blade. - Base. 

Margin. 

Surface. 



Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Bemarks : 



22 

LESSON IX. 

Pinnately-Cornpound Leaves. 

Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape of leaflets. 

Apex. 
Blade. « Base. 

Margin. 

Surface. 



Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Eemarks : 



24 

LESSON X. 

Palmately-Compound Leaves. 



Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape of leaflets. 

Apex. 

Base. 

Margin. 

Surface. 
Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Eemarks : 



26 

LESSON XI. 

Parallel-veined Leaves. 



Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape. 

Base. 
Blade. Apex. 

Margin. 

Surface. 
Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Kemakks : 



Name of leaf. 
Arrangement on the stem. 

Shape. 

Apex. 
Blade. ■< Base. 

Margin. 

Surface. 
Petiole. 
Stipules. 
Kemakks : 



28 

LESSON XII. 

Parallel-veined Leaves. 



30 

LESSON XIII.— Leaves. 

Peculiar forms of leaves. 

"Without distinction of blade and petiole. 

Needle-shaped, as in the pines and spruces. 
Thread-shaped, as in the onion. 
Equitant, as in the iris. 

With shape or surface adapted to catching insects, as in the pitcher-plant 
and sundew. 

Movements of leaves in 

Climbing, as the nasturtium. 
Turning toward the light. 
Change of position at night. 



32 
LESSON XIV.— Buds and Branches. 

The Horse-Chestnut. 

Describe the color, shape and surface of the buds. Open a bud, noticing the 
form and arrangement of the scales. Are the scales alike in color and thickness ? 
Can you explain any difference ? What do you find within the scales ? Examine 
the largest buds for flower-clusters. Where are they placed? In how many ways 
are the leaves and flower-clusters protected ? How are the buds arranged on the 
stem ? Where were the terminal buds of last year ? What scars did they leave ? 
How many inches has your branch grown this summer ? Find the age of the whole 
branch and of each twig. What scars were made by the leaves? Is there any 
correspondence between the dots on the leaf-scars and the number of leaflets? 
What causes this ? What do the leaf-scars show about the leaf-arrangement ? 
Look for the round, flower-cluster scar at the forking of two branches. Why did 
blossoming affect the growth of the branch ? 



34 

LESSON XV.— The Beech. 

How do the leaf-buds differ from those of the horse-chestnut in shape, color 
and surface ? How are the leaves arranged in the buds ? "What protection have 
they? "What scars are made by the leaves ? How were the leaves arranged on the 
stem ? How old is your branch ? Which were the best years for growth ? How 
does the spray of the beech differ from that of the horse chestnnt? What causes 
this difference ? Try to find out where the flower-clusters grew. What kind of a 
flower has the beech ? What fruit ? 



36 

LESSON XVI.— The Lilac. 

Describe the leaf-buds as to shape, color and position. Draw and describe a 
leaf. What scars are left by the leaves? How does the branching of the lilac 
differ from that of the beech and horse-chestnut ? What causes this difference ? 
How old is your branch ? 



38 

LESSON XVII.— The. Norway Spruce. 

What causes the roughness of the stem? How are the leaves arranged? 
What is their shape ? Why are there so many leaves ? How old is your branch ? 
What fruit has the Norway Spruce ? 



40 

LESSON XVIII.— The Structure of Stems. 

• 

Sketch a cross-section of a horse chestnut branch showing the pith, the sur- 
rounding rings of wood, the sap-wood and the layers of bark. How do the rings 
show the age of the branch ? Examine a cross-section of a large branch and count 
the rings. Are they of the same width in all parts ? Can you account for any 
difference ? Why is the outer bark of an old tree full of ridges and cracks ? Why 
does the birch bark peel off? Name two plants of which we use the woody fibres 
of the inner bark. How is cork obtained ? 

Sketch a cross-section of a cornstalk, marking the hard rind, the pith and the 
bundles of woody fibres. How does the arrangement of the pith and wood differ 
from that of the horse chestnut? How do these plants differ in the veining of the 
leaves and in their manner of branching? 



42 

LESSON XIX.- Modifications of Stems for Storehouses of Food. 

Examine a hyacinth bulb and sketch. Cut the bulb in halves vertically, and 
make a drawing of the inside, naming the parts. In what ways is the bulb like the 
horse chestnut leaf-buds ? 

Sketch the root-stock of Solomon's-Seal. What evidences are there that it is a 
thickened stem ? 

Make a drawing of the potato, marking the leaf-buds. In what ways are the 
hyacinth bulb, the Solomon's-Seal and the potato alike ? What important differ- 
ences do you see ? 



44 

LESSON XX.- -The Flower. 

Name the parts of the flower. Name the parts of each part. Define the recep- 
tacle. What is the purpose of the flower ? Which parts are necessary ? What is 
meant by Fertilization? By Cross-Fertilization? Name some ways by which this 
is accomplished. Why is Cross-Fertilization best for the plant? What is the 
important part of the seed? Name some dangers which threaten the embryo. 
How is the embryo protected in the bean, chestnut, apple, squash, cherry and 
cocoanut. 



46 

LESSON XXI.— The Fruit. 

What parts of the flower usually disappear as the fruit is formed ? What part 
remains on the apple? On the pear? In the raspberry? In the strawberry? 
Name some fruits which are colored to attract animals and thus scatter the seeds- 
Name some fruits which are protected from animals by their hard cohering, by their 
color, prickles or by their disagreeable taste. Can you explain by differences in the 
seeds why some fruits are planned to attract animals and others are guarded 
against the attacks of animals ? 



48 



LESSON" XXII.— Classification of Fruits. 



I. 

Dry 

Fruits. 



II. 

Fleshy 
Fruits. 



Dehiscent Fruits, 
called pods. 



Indehiscent Fruits 
remain closed. 



1. Simple Fruits 
formed by the ripen- 
ing of one pistil. 



These open to discharge their seeds, and are 

1. Akene — a small fruit with a single seed, 
which is formed by the ripening of the pistil. 
Examples — dandelion, maple. 

2. Nut — a fruit usually with a single seed 
protected by a hard shell. 



1. Berry — the wall of the ovary is fleshy 
throughout. Orange, grape, tomato. 

2. Stone-fruit — the outer wall of the ovary is 
i fleshy, the inner wall hardened. Peach, plum. 

2. Aggregate Fruits are clusters of simple fruits all of the same 
flower. Easpberry, blackberry. 

3. Accessory Fruits — the fleshy portion belongs to some added or 
altered part, outside of the ovary. In the pome, or apple-fruit, the 
fleshy part is the thickened calyx with the receptacle developed 
around the core in some cases. 

4 Multiple Fruits are formed by the ripening of two or more flowers 
into a single fruit. The Partridge-Berry is formed by the ovaries of 
two flowers growing together into one berry. Pineapples and Mul- 
berries are formed from clusters of flowers. Figs are hollow receptacles 
grown pulpy and lined with many small flowers. 



50 

LESSON XXIII.— Study of Fruits. 

Sketch the pods of the pea, the lily and the pansy, showing the differences in 
their manner of opening. 

Sketch a cranberry in cross-section. How many carpels has it? Are there 
any traces of parts of the flower ? 

Make drawings of the apple and quince in vertical and cross-sections, showing 
why these are Accessory Fruits. 

Make careful drawings of the outside of the Eose-hip and of a vertical section. 
Mark the parts of the fruit. 

Classify the following fruits : 1. Pea. 2. Cucumber. 3. Orange. 4. Grape, 
5. Tomato. 6. Currant. 7. Cranberry. 8. Banana. 9. Apple. 10. Pear. 11. 
Plum. 12. Cherry. 13. Wheat. 14. Walnut. 15. Lily. 16. Pansy. 17. Straw- 
berry, 18. Easpberry. 19. Blackberry. 20. Cone. 21. Squash. 22. Lemon. 
23. Melon. 24. Date. 25. Quince. 



52 

LESSON XXIV.— Inflorescence. 

The simplest form of inflorescence, or manner of blossoming, is that in which 
the flowers occur singly in the axils of the leaves or at the ends of the stem. These 
are called solitary flowers. 

If the blossoms are more numerous and are brought more closely together a 
flower-cluster is formed. In this arrangement each flower grows from the axil of a 
leaf, but the leaves are usually very small and inconspicuous. The leaves of a 
flower-cluster are called Bracts. The stalk of the cluster is called the Peduncle, 
and the stems of the individual flowers are Pedicels. 

The most common forms of flower-clusters are the Raceme, the Spike, the Head, 
the Umbel and the Corymb. The Raceme is a cluster with the flowers arranged 
on the sides of the stem, as in the Lily-of-the-Valley. If the flowers grow on the 
stem without pedicels the cluster is called a Spike, which we see in the Mullein. 

The Head is a rounded flower-cluster with a very short body, as the Red Clover 
and Dandelion. An Umbel is a flat-topped cluster in which all the pedicels start 
from the same point, like the sticks of an umbrella. The Meadow-Parsnip and the 
Carrot blossom in Umbels. 

The Corymb is a flat-topped cluster which is like the Raceme with the lower, 
pedicels lengthened so that all the flowers are brought on a level, as in the 
Hawthorn. In what ways do flower-clusters assist cross-fertilization ? 



54 
LESSON XXV.— Common Terms used in Plant Description. 

Plant— 
Eoot — 
Stem — 
Leaves — 
Blade- 
Petiole — 
Stipules — 
Inflorescence— 
Perianth — 
Corolla — 
Calyx — 
Stamens — 
Pistil- 
Ovary — 
Fruit- 
Seeds — 

Remakes : — Any interesting peculiarities of the plant or adaptations to cross- 
fertilization. 

Drawings — The plant as a whole, if possible. Vertical and cross- sections of 
the flower showing the connection of the parts. Enlarged stamen and pistil. 
Cross-section of the ovary. 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family ol- Order. 

( Common. 
Name. -J 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Root. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Infl )resceuce. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Remarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 
Name. •< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Root. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Remarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family or Order. 

i Common. 
Name. ■< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Root. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Be marks : 



FORM FOR PLAHT DESCRIPTION. 

Numher of Plant Bate 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 
Name. •< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Boot. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Remarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 
Name. -< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Root. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Remarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Bate 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 

Name. < 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Boot. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Eemarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 
Name. ■< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Boot. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit. 

Seeds. 

Kemarks : 



FORM FOR PLANT DESCRIPTION. 

Number of Plant Date 

Family or Order. 

( Common. 
Name. -< 

( Scientific. 

Locality. 

Plant. 

Root. 

Stem. 

Leaves. 

Blade. 

Petiole. 

Stipules. 

Inflorescence. 

Perianth. 

Flower. 

Corolla. 

Calyx. 

Stamens. 

Pistil. 

Ovary. 

Fruit 

Seeds. 

Remarks : 



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