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LESSONS IN 
GENEALOGY 



^ 





PUBLISHED BY THE 

GENEALOGICAL BOCIETY OF UTAH 

SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 
1915 



^ 







A Daughter of the North 



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Sent prepaid by the author, 60 East South Temple 
Street, Salt Lake City, Utah; price, 75 cents. 

OTHER BOOKS BY NEPHI ANDERSON 

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each by all booksellers, or by the author. 



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LESSONS IN 
GENEALOGY 




PUBLISHED BY 

THE GENEALOGICAL SOCIETY 
OF UTAH 



THIRD EDITION 



SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH 
1915 



The Genealogical Society of Utah 

Organized November 13, 1894 

ANTHON H. LUND, President 

CHARLES W. PENROSE, Vice President 

JOSEPH F. SMITH, JR., Secretary and Treasurer 

NEPHI ANDERSON, Assistant Secretary 

JOSEPH CHRISTENSON, Librarian 
LILLIAN CAMERON, Assistant Librarian 

DIRECTORS: Anthon H. Lund, Charles W. Penrose, Joseph 

Christenson, Joseph F. Smith, Jr., Anthony W. Ivins, 

Duncan M. McAllister, Heber J. Grant. 

Life Membership, $10, with two years in which to pay 
Annual Membership, $2 the first year, $1 yearly thereafter 



The Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 

Published by the Genealogical Society of Utah 
Quarterly, $1.50 per Annum 

Anthon H. Lund, Editor Nephi Anderson, Associate Editor 

Subscription price to life and paid-up annual members of the Gen- 
ealogical Society, $1.00 a year. Address all communications to 

Genealogical Society of Utah 

60 Eact South Temple Street, Salt Lake City, Utah. 



The Place of Genealogy in the 
Plan of Salvation 

Every well-informed, consistent Latter-day Saint should believe 
in genealogy as much as he believes in faith, repentance, and bap- 
tism for the remission of sins ; and this belief should be manifested 
in works, the same as belief in baptism, tithing or any other gos- 
pel principle is shown to be genuine by its fulfilment in actual 
practice. This statement, that every Latter-day Saint should be a 
"'encalo2:ist, mav, at first thought, seem a little extreme. It will 
be necessary, therefore, to establish the proposition by briefly point- 
ing out what the Latter-day Saints lielieve regarding the salvation 
of the human race. 

The Plan of Salvation. 

Summarized, it is this : God's work and glory is to bring to 
pass the immortality and eternal life of man ; and this is ac- 
complished through the operations of eternal law. "All king- 
doms have a law given," says the Lord to the Prophet Joseph 
Smith, "and unto every law there are certain bounds also and 
conditions. All beings who abide not in these conditions are not 
justified." On the other hand, all beings are redeemed, justified, 
and perfected by obedience to the law given for their particular 
time, place, and condition. 

The law by which all human beings who tabernacle on this 
earth may be justified and j^erfected was formulated in the 
heavens before tliis world was. The Plan of Salvation for the 
human race was there proclaimed, and we know it by the term, 
the Gospel of Jesus Christ. 

The primary and fundamental principles of this plan or gospel 
may be stated as follows : 

Faith in God the Father, in His Son Jesus Christ, and in the 
Holy Ghost. 

Acceptance of the infinite atonement of Jesus Christ both for 
Adam's transgression and for personal sin on condition of re- 
pentence. 

Baptism in water foi- the remission of sins, and tlic l^aptism of 



HAROLD B. LEE LIBRARY 
BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSIT^^ 

4 PROVO, UTAH lessons in genealogy. 

the Holy Ghost by the laying on of hands, by those having au- 
thority from God. 

Wiilino-ness to serve the Lord and keep His commandments. 

These, in brief, are the foundations of the Gospel, upon which 
salvation is based. 

These principles being fundamental cannot be changed or an- 
luilled. They are co-equal and all-important. None of them can 
be omitted from the perfect plan. They are equally binding on all 
men, who are subject to the law at all times, from the days of 
Adam to the winding-up scene. 

Those Who Have Not Known. 

But it will readily be seen that many generations of men have 
not received this law of the Gospel among them. Through one 
cause or anotlier, not always known to us, ignorance of the Gnspcl 
of Jesus Christ has prevailed among many nations and people. 
The question then naturally arises. What about those who have 
not received the Gosprl in this life? Not having known the law, 
how can these be justified? This problem has vexed the 
religious w^orld for centuries. Christ and His apostles preached 
the universality of the Gospel, yet there were millions who did 
not receive it. Were they lost? Such a thought was terrible, and 
yet some religious teachers advocated it, choosing the irrevocable- 
ness of God's law rather than His mercy and justice, when, to 
them, there seemed a conflict or contradiction. They pointed out 
the fact which the Master had proclaimed that "a. man must be 
born of water and of the spirit" before he can enter the kingdom. 
Tf this is tme. they reasoned, then those not born of water are not, 
neither can be in the kigdom, for in this life only is water with 
which to be born anew, and in this life only is there time for re- 
pentance. 

These theologians stumbled, and continued to stumble, because 
they have the half truth only. They are right in taking the plain 
statement of the Savior that baptism is essential to salvation, but 
they err in not knowing that the Gospel can be preached to those 
called the dead — those of the liuman race who have laid down the 
mortal body, and who dwell in the great world of spirits. They 
had the clear teaching of the Apostle Peter that the Gospel was 
preached to those that were dead, and they also had Paul's decla- 
ration that there were those who were baptized for the dead. The 
early Christians had a knowledge of thjs truth. There is an inter- 



PLACE OF GENEALOGY. 5 

csting- leg^end handed down from those times, based on the teach- 
ing's of Peter, that Christ, ''Being i)ut to death in the flesh, but 
quickened by the spirit, by which also he went and preaclied unto 
the spirits in prison." This legend is called the ''Gospel of 
Nicodemus." Here is a synopsis of it taken from Plumptree's 
"The Spirits in Prison:" 

Legend of the Spirits in Prison. 

"Karinus and Leucius, two sons of Simeon were among those 
who had arisen from their graves at the time of the Resurrection, 
and had appeared to many. (Matt. 27:57.) They tell the tale 
of what they had seen and heard in the world of the dead. They 
were with thiir fathers in the thick darkness, when suddenly there 
shone upon them a bright light as of the sun. Adam and th? 
patriarchs and the prophets exulted at its coming. Lsaiah knew it 
to be the light that should shine upon those who sat in the region 
of the shadow of death. Simeon saw that it was the light to 
lighten the Gentiles, over which he had rejoiced. The Baptist, 
doing also there the work of a fore-runner, came to prepare the 
way, and to announce the coming of the Son of God. Seth nar- 
rated how Michael the Archangel had told him, as he prayed at 
the gates of Paradise, that one day, after five thousand five hun- 
dred years, the Son of God would come to lead his father Adam 
into Paradise, and to the tree of mercy. 

"Meantime, Hades (here personified as an actor in a drama) 
and Satan held counsel with each other, and were full of fear. 
He who had rescued so many of their victims upon earth, who 
had raised Lazarus from the grave, was now about to invade their 
kingdom, and to free all who were shut up in prison bound with 
the chain of their sins. And, as they spoke, there was a cry as of 
thunder: 'Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, 
ye everlasting doors, and the King of Glory shall come in." Hades 
sought in vain to close the gates and to set fast the bars. David 
and Isaiah uttered aloud the prophecies in which they had foretold 
this victory. Dcatli and Hades trembled, and owned themselves 
conquered. They saw that One had come to set free those who 
were fast bound with the evils of their natures, to shed light on 
those who were blinded by the thick darkness of their sins. Hades 
and Satan wearied themselves in vain murmurs and recrimina- 
tions. Adam and his children were rescued from the power of 
Hades ; Satan anrl his hosts were left to take their places. Then 



6 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

the Lord stretched forth His hand and said, 'Come unto Me all 
My Saints who have My image and similitude.' Adam and the 
Saints rose up from Hades with psalms of jubilant thanksgiving; 
prophets burst out into cries of joy. Michael the Archangel led 
them all within the gates of Paradise. There they were met by 
Enoch and Elijah, who had not tasted death, and were kept there 
until they should return to earth before the coming of Antichrist. 
There, too, was the repentant robber, bearing on his shoulders the 
cross to which he owed his entrance within the gates. The cross 
on which the redemption of mankind had been achieved was left, 
according to another version of the legend, in Hades itself, as a 
perpetual witness of the victory thus gained, that the ministers of 
Death and Hades might not have power to retain any one whom 
the Lord had pardoned.' " 

The Question of Hope for the Dead. 

The Fathers and the Reformers were divided on the question 
whether or not there is hope for the unconverted dead. Augustine, 
holding to the absolute necessity of baptism as a condition of sal- 
vation, held out no hope for those who had died unbaptized. Calvin 
carried this doctrine further, in that he applied it to infants also. 
Others were equally certain that in this life only there is salvation. 
On the other hand, the ''Larger Hope" had advocates even among 
the early Fathers. Origen, who lived in the second century, taught 
a universal restoration, saying that when each sinner shall have 
received the penalty of his sins, that God will, through Christ, 
lead the whole universe to one end. Later, this doctrine was con- 
demned by the Church of England, but later again declared not 
contrary to her teachings. Prominent among the modern English 
divines who held out hope for the dead was Frederick W. Farrar, 
Dean of Canterbury. He delivered five sermons in Westminster 
Abbey on ''Eternal Hope," which have had wide publicity. 

These good men have done well, but they have not gone far 
enough. The question still remains to be answered. What about 
the saving ordinances of the Gospel? If the Gospel is preached to 
the dead, is it all preached, or only a part? Surely, faith is taught, 
and repentance. But what about baptism? 

The Coming of the Light. 

And here is where the world lay in darkness until the Lord 
revealed through the Prophet Joseph Smith the principle of sal- 



PLACE OF GENEALOGY. 7 

vation for the dead. Then the lic^ht burst forth, and perplexing" 
questions were answered. The Gospel is preached in the spirit 
world — the Gospel in its completeness, including baptism in water 
for the remission of sins. The living on the earth may be baptized 
for the dead : and if the dead exercise faith and repentance, the 
earthly vicarious work will be credited to them as if they had done 
it themselves. Here, then, is harmony between the declaration of 
Jesus to Nicodemus ( John 3 :3-6), and Paul's reference to baptism 
for the dead. (1 Cor.'lS :29). 

It was on the 21st of September, 1823, that the angel Moroni 
announced the speedy restoration of these truths ; and on April, 
3, 1836, in the Kirtland Temple, Elijah the prophet delivered the 
keys pertaining to the salvation of the dead to Joseph Smith and 
Oliver Cowdery. The time had come. The hearts of the fathers 
should turn to the children, and the children to the fathers, lest the 
whole earth should be smitten with a curse. 

Joseph received line upon line regarding this subject until the 
Nauvoo Temple w^as ready for ordinance work. He had a clear 
understanding of this restored principle. His later years were 
taken up with it. When in exile because of enemies he wrote to 
the Church on the subject. He said: 

"And now, my dearly beloved brethren and sisters, let me as- 
sure you that these are principles, in relation to the dead and the 
living that cannot be lightly passed over, as pertaining to our sal- 
vation, for their salvation is necessary and essential to our salva- 
tion, as Paul says concerning the fathers, 'that they without us 
cannot be made perfect, neither can we without our dead be made 
perfect.' " 

Sections 127 and 128 of the Doctrine and Covenants contain 
much of the Prophet's teachings on this subject, which all should 
read. 

The Underlying Principles. 

What then are the principles underlying this doctrine of salva- 
tion for the dead ? These at least may be named : First, that every 
soul, to be saved, must come under the unchanging law of the 
Gospel. Second, that the whole race must be bound together into 
one complete chain. There must be a 'Svelding link" between 
th'^ fathers and the cliildrcn. The hearts of the fathers and the 
children must be turned to each other. The salvation of the fathers 
is necessary to our salvation. We cannot go alone, unconnected, 



8 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

into the kingdom of our Father. Note again the wording of the 
ang-el's message: The tie that shall bind together the human rac2 
is not of cold compulsion, but hearts shall form the links from 
father to son from the first man to the last. How grand is the 
thought ! Love, the eternal Father-love and Mother-love of Deity 
is the power that shall link together the human race ! 

The Place of Genealogy. 

And now, what has all this to do with genealogy? We hope the 
answer is already apparent. This welding together, link upon link, 
of the families of the earth can only be done by getting the names 
of the individuals composing these families with certain facts re- 
garding them, by which they can be identified — dates of birth, and 
of death, where they lived, and to whom they were related. ^ With 
these facts secured, proper records can be made, and the binding 
together can be accomplished, the work being done in the temples 
of the Lord, the living for themselves as well as for the dead. 

This work belongs to the Latter-day Saints. It is a part of the 
restored Gospel which we have accepted. The finding of these 
names with the proper data accompanying is the work of the 
genealogist. Has not the opening statement been proved true, that 
every Latter-day Saint ought to be a practical genealogist? 

Spirit of Elijah in America. 

As the Lord prepared this land to be a land of liberty for the 
establishing of His Church and Kingdom, so has the Lord put 
into the hearts of the children of men to do preparatory work for 
this salvation for the dead. The spirit of Elijah is operating in 
the world, and the hearts of the children have been turned to their 
fathers to a wonderful degree. Previous to the revelations of God 
to Joseph Smith, there was very little interest taken in genealogical 
matters ; but shortly afterwards there was an awakening. In the 
year 1844 (about the time when baptism for the dead was first 
being performed) the first genealogical society was organized in 
this country at Boston, Mass. It is the New England Historic 
Genealogical Society, and is yet in a flourishing condition. 
From that beginning, many genealogical societies have been or- 
ganized, both in this country and Great Britain. These societies 
have for their object the collecting, preserving, and publishing of 
the records of the past, both as pertains to towns and cities as well 
as families. The Boston society publishes a magazine which isj 



PLACE OF GENEALOGY. V 

now in its sixty-ninth year. This magazine is now so valuable 
tliat a complete set has been sold for as high as $400, and a single 
volume for $75. The librarian of this society, answering some 
cjuestions which were asked liim, savs in a letter dated August 
29, 1911. 

"No one knows how many volumes of genealogy we have in 
our library. We have never taken the trouble to ascertain either 
how many volumes of genealogy or how many titles. Our chief 
concern has been to secure everything possible in this line in order 
that we might show any American genealogy called for. We are 
striving to make this the court of last resort. We have paid prices 
ranging from $5 to $150 each for pamphlets and broadsides which 
really have but little use except to make our collections complete. 
As to this library's rank, it is unquestionably first of its kind 
anywhere, for three reasons : first, its completeness in printed 
works : second, its manuscript collections ; third, its duplicate 
copies." 

The librarian of the Newberry Library of Chicago tells us that 
they have in that library about 6,000 volumes upon genealogy 
l^roper, besides about 3,000 volumes of town history, many of which 
contain genealogical matter ; and about 600 volumes on heraldry 
and peerage. They have a- wonderfully complete index in this 
library which contains approximately 1,000,000 names. The Li- 
brary of Congress contains about 4,500 genealogical volumes, be- 
sides a large number of works bearing on genealogical matters. 

The first American Vvork on genealogy was published in 1771. 
The second in 1787. The third in 1813. In 1874 a total of 400 
genealogical works was listed. From that time to the present this 
class of publications has greatly increased. Every year sees a 
large number added to the list. The New England society has 
been instrumental in having printed 137 volumes of vital records 
of towns in the state of Massachusetts, and this good work is still 
going on. Other American societies are actively gathering, pre- 
serving, and publishing genealogical matter. Thousands of in- 
dividuals have been moved upon to spend much money and years 
of time to gather their family records and issue them in printed 
form. 

A wave of ancestry-searching has swept over the country. Peri- 
odicals have sprung up which confine themselves exclusively to 
genealogy. Newspapers are devoting departments to it. 

Librarians and the custodians of public records bear record 



10 LESSONS IX GENEALOGY. 

of this great movement. The Hbraries have become wonderfully 
nopular, thronged by multitudes who have enrolled themselves in 
'le army of amateur genealogists. 

"What is the subtle attraction which draw these multitudes — 
the fascination which lures so many into genealogical research ?" 
asks a recent writer on the subject. 

In Other Countries. 

This awakening is not confined to the United States. In every 
nation where the blood of Israel has been found more abundantly, 
tlie hearts of the children have been turned to their fathers. Ger- 
many, Holland, Switzerland, and the Scandinavian countries have 
become interested in gathering and preserving the records of the 
past, though not very much, as yet, has been published. In Great 
Britain, however, the interest is as keen and as widespread as in 
the United States. George Alinns, the agent of the Utah Gene- 
alogical Society in Great Britain, recently wrote this : 

''There is quite a busy hum in the genealogical hive at the pres- 
ent time, which has been steadily increasing since I first started on 
my career as record searcher, and there is evidence of its continu- 
ing to increase to indefinite proportions as time goes on. I have 
observed the gradual development of genealogical enterprises with 
the deepest interest ; have seen the birth of many county and other 
societies. All these have the same object in view, namely, to bring 
to light the documents now more or less obscure, to preserve their 
valuable contents from possible loss through injury or natural 
decay ; and to print, index, and disseminate the annals of the 
past. 

"The result of all tliis labor facilitates genealogical research im- 
mensely. It is a great and a good work. Owing to the many 
hundreds of thousands of unarranged documents dispersed through 
the country, and the lack of adequate financial support, it will re- 
quire many years to accomplish the printing and indexing of them 
all. Many as the difficulties are, there are a great number of per- 
sons of both sexes spending their time, talents, energy and means 
to further the cause. A good many of the old records, now hidden 
away in the nooks and corners of the 'Old Country,' are either 
practically unknown or unsuspected of having anything of interest 
to impart." 

Organization of Genealogical Society of Utah. 

In the providences of the Lord the time came for some or- 



ri.ACE OF GKNEALOGY. 11 

ganization to be effected that would help the Latter-day Saints in 
their important work of searching after their dead ; therefore, on 
Tuesday, November 13, 1894, at a meeting held in the Historian's 
Office, Salt Lake City, the Genealogical Society of Utah was or- 
ganized. A document had been prepared and signed by the fol- 
lowing: Wilford Woodruff, George Q. Cannon, Jose])h F. Smith, 
John Nicholson, James H. Anderson, Amos Milton Alusser, Lo- 
renzo Snow, Franklin D. Richards, James B. Walkley, Abraham 
H. Cannon, George Reynolds, John Jaques, and Duncan M. McAl- 
lister. The document stated : 

"We, the undersigned, members of the Church of Jesus Christ 
of Latter-day Saints, do hereby associate ourselves together in an 
organization to be known by the name and style of 'The Gene- 
alogical Society of Utah,' the purposes of which are benevolent, 
educational and religious — pecuniary profit not being the object ; 
benevolent in collecting, compiling, establishing and maintaining a 
genealogical library for the use and benefit of its members and 
others ; educational in disseminating information regarding gen- 
ealogical matters ; religious in acquiring records of deceased per- 
sons in connection with ordinances of the religion of our Lord and 
Savior Jesus Christ, as that religion is understood in the doctrines 
and discipline of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 
and set forth in the revelations of God ; said association to be con- 
ducted in harmony with the rules and> order of said Church." 

Church Historian, Franklin D. Richards, tendered the large 
lupper room in the Historian's Building for the use of the Society, 
which it still occupies. However, within a short time, it is expected 
the Society will move into its large, new quarters in the Church 
Administration Building where it will have ample room to take 
care of its expanding business. 

Growth of the Society. 

The Society's growth was slow in the beginning, but within the 
past few years it has developed wonderfully owing to the keen 
interest and active work of its officers and committee workers. 
Tn 1895 the Society had 28 life and 20 annual members. In the 
library were deposited about 100 volumes. There are now (July, 
1915), 1,500 life members and about half that number of annual 
members in the Society. There are over 3,000 volumes of gene- 
alogical works in the library. These consist largely of American 
and English family history, vital records, parish registers, town 



12 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

and county histories, bound volumes of genealogical magazines, 
including a complete set of New England Historical and Genea- 
logical Register, charts, and other publications bearing on the sub- 
ject of genealogy and history. We have about 500 German books. 
A beginning has been made in Scandinavian, Dutch, French, and 
Italian genealogies, with prospects of substantial additions to these 
sections. The library is open each week day from 9 a. m. 
to 5 p m., excepting Saturday, when it closes at 1 o'clock. A li- 
brarian is present to help beginners in the work The member- 
ship fees of the Society are : life membership, $10, with two years 
in which to pay it ; and annual membership, which costs $2 the first 
year and $1 yearly thereafter. The Society publishes a quarterly 
magazine, devoted to the interests of this great work. Its price 
is $1.50 a year; $1.00 to members of the Society. 

Purpose of the Society. 

This, then, is the Society that presents itself before the Lat- 
ter-day Saints for their encouragement and support. The belief 
of our people on the subject of salvation for the dead makes it of 
the utmost importance that every printed record of the dead, deal- 
ing with names, dates, and relationships, ought to be accessible to 
the Latter-day Saints. Because of the limited demand for such 
books, usually no more than 150 copies are printed. This makes 
the books costly — and yet we ought to have them. Every year an 
ever-increasing number of such books are being printed. The 
British parish register societies are issuing two or three volumes 
each year. The Genealogical Society of Utah subscribes for all 
such books as soon as they are issued. Books are also being 
printed in other foreign nations, and we ought to have all of these, 
as fast as they come from the press. But this takes money, hence 
the need for the membership fees. 

The question is frequently asked, What advantage will come to 
me by my becoming a member of the Genealogical Society ? It is 
yet human to want to know what the personal gain will be by an 
investment in time or means. Some say they cannot use the 
library because they do not live in Salt Lake City. Others excuse 
themselves by the fact that there are no or few books in the library 
containing their family names. 

Although many have obtained thousands of names from our 
books, and there are thousands of names yet awaiting the searcher, 
yet no one can be assured that his family name or genealogy can be 



PLACE OF GENEALOGY. 13 

found in the records of the library. But what of that? Do the 
Saints ask to l3e assured before they will accept a call to go on a 
mission that they shall reach some of their own kin with the Gos- 
pel? In any good work of the Church, does it matter just who are 
benefitted ? All selfishness is eliminated from the work for the 
dead. One soul is as precious as another, and all should have an 
equal chance for salvation. What if those from a distance cannot, 
at present, make personal use of the library. By their membership 
support they are giving opportunity to someone else. And who 
shall say w^ho is doing more, he w^ho does the work or he w'ho 
makes it possible. "No man liveth to himself, and no man dieth to 
himself." The wdiole human race is bound together by the rela- 
tionship of blood, and kinship with God ; therefore no good deed 
can be done to or in behalf of any fellow being but that will be- 
come part of the great whole of good which is to save the race. 



Lessons in Genealogy 



LESSON I. 

INTRODUCTION. 

For some time the Genealogical Society of Utah has felt the need 
of printed instructions regarding the practice of genealogy. There 
have been practically no such instructions in existence until these 
lessons were prepared. It is hoped that this small text will prove 
of value to all who wish to know how to gather and arrange the) 
names of the dead, preparatory to doing the work for them in the 
temples of the Lord. 

Need of Genealogy. 

The Christian nations have done a tremendous work in the 
searching out and publishing the genealogies of their forefathers. 
Just how extensive this work is we do not know ; there are no sta- 
tistics, and no amalgamation of societies for the purpose of unify- 
ing the work or of publishing the results of efifort and labor along 
this line. While none of the workers in the various countries have 
aught but an antiquarian or perhaps a social reason for the prodig- 
ous work which has thus been performed, the Latter-day Saints 
realize that God has a much more important and significant reason 
for this movement than appears on the surface. If He is the 
Father of all our spirits, what is more natural and gracious than 
that He shall prepare a way by which every son and daughter of 
His shall have the privilege of hearing the sound of the everlasting 
Gospel and of exercising his or her prerogative of choice as to 
whether he shall accept of the truths of the Gospel and come into 
the company of the Saints, or whether he shall prefer darkness 
rather than light, remaining in his sinful condition indefinitely. To 
the Saints, the names of their ancestors are as vital, as a means of 
identification for vicarious salvation, as are the names and indi- 
vidualities of the living It is for this purpose, to save and redeem 
the dead, that we build temples and go therein. It is to help the 
Saints to secure and prepare their genealogies that the Genealogical 
Society was organized. 



INTRODUCTION. 15 

History of Genealogy. 

The study and practice of genealogy is as old as Adam, as old 
tlierefore as the race. We are given the exact descent of the early 
families in Genesis, while Moses wrote a book to estaljlish the 
lines of descent from the twelve sons of Jacob. With the Hebrews, 
the preparation of genealogies was one of the classic arts, and em- 
ployed the finest talent amongst the people. They were exceed- 
ingly particular about descent and tribal relations ; the Levitical 
priesthood, after the days of Moses, was held only by those of 
proved descent. A man's word could not be accepted when there 
were no genealogies recorded to substantiate that declaration.* 

The keeping of genealogies has been extant, to a greater or 
less degree, in every land, and at every period of history. Yet, 
none understood the reason for this careful preservation of lines 
of descent, save the chosen seed of Abraham, who doubtless 
learned l)y revelation and tradition the vital significance and value 
of this labor. The pagans, especially the Chinese, have been at 
great pains to prove descent from the fabled heroes and demi-gods 
of the races to which their names are attached. So prevalent was 
this practice, and so strong was the effect of this reverence for 
ancestors, that in China and Japan it gradually took the form of 
ancestor worship. 

Amongst the pagans of ancient Egypt and Asia, the necessity 
of securing proper proofs of descent in order to hold or to dispose 
of land or property was sufficient incentive to induce those peoples 
to prepare and preserve genealogies to a limited extent. 

The study of given and surnames, carried back into the begin- 
ning of the human race, gives a vivid picture of the development 
of language, as well as furnishing ample proof that this practice 
of keeping genealogies is not at all a modern one, nor is it acci- 
dental in its character. 

The double genealogy of the Savior given by Matthew and by 
Luke forms the longest and most remarkable chain of genealogy 
in the world. It establishes without question that Jesus — Son of 
Mary — was born in direct descent from David, Moses, Abraham 
and Adam. But may there not be a greater significance to this 
wonderful pedigree than the single one of proving that Jesus was 
the Son of David? We may well believe that the contentious 
Jews had come to think of genealogies only as they ministered to 
the pride of descent and to the giving of precedence amongst them ; 



♦Nehemiah Ch. 7. 



16 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

for Paul tells his converts to abstain from the pursuit of endless 
genealogies, in which there was no profit ; and there would be but 
sorrow attached to the following of lines of descent simply to 
minister to pride, worldliness, and the vanity of all vanities.* 

The Spirit of Elijah. 

The gradual development of modern civilization has led men 
to enquire into their ancestry, not only for civil purposes, but also 
to prove their descent from worthy ancestors. What has been 
done in very modern times on this subject would fill volumes; 
therefore, we shall only say that since the organization of the 
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, April 6, 1830, there 
have sprung up numerous Genealogical Societies in the United 
States, and in most of the countries of Europe. These Societies 
have for their object the establishment of great genealogical li- 
braries, the publishing of parish records, and the preparation and 
printing of books and periodicals on the fascinating subject of 
pedigrees in hand. The parent organization is the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society, with headquarters in Boston, Mass. 
Many of the states in the Union have historical and genealogical 
associations, with magazines or papers printed in their interests ; 
while Great Britain has learned antiquarian and genealogical so- 
cieties with the same object in view, and the British Government 
has established an excellent and effective system for the collection 
and preservation of genealogical records. Thus the Spirit of Elijah 
has worked in the hearts, not only of the Latter-day Saints inspir- 
ing them to build temples and do work in them, but also it has 
inspired the world to seek after its dead and gather their records 
and place them in accessible form. 

Importance of Records. 

The preparation and study of genealogy is and must be an exact 
art ; for only so is it efficient for its purposes. The necessity of 
accuracy and care is never more apparent than to the recorder in 
a temple, who realizes keenly that only men and women who are 
susceptible of personal identification on the Other Side, through 
dates, names, and relationships prepared by relatives here, will 
receive the blessings sought for them by their descendants, who 
perform temple ordinances in their behalf. The importance of 
being as exact and correct as possible in the matter of records is 

*I Timothy Ch. 1, verse 4. 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 17 

illustrated in the revelations of the Lord on this matter. Read 
Sections 127 and 128 of Doctrine and Covenants, specially verses 
8 and 14 of Sec. 128. 

To go into a genealoi^ical library, or into churches, cemeteries, 
recorders offices, or state depositories, to search deeds, wills, and 
other papers of identification and thus to weave a perfect chain of 
ancestry work for several hundred years constitutes a business of 
no small proportions ; and the ability to take that genealogical data 
and to record it first in proper note books, then to transcribe it 
into record books for temple work is another business in and of 
itself. But surely the Latter-day Saints should acquire this 
knowledge and become proficient in this business. For it is their 
business, above all the peoples of this earth. For this reason, we 
have undertaken to furnish these lessons, which we hope will 
enable a student to acquire sufficient skill to do this work. 



LESSON 11. 

MATERIAL AND SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 

We shall assume that the reader is entirely unacquainted with 
the methods employed by trained specialists in this art ; and that he 
desires full and careful directions as to how to begin and how to 
continue his labor. His first requisite is notebooks, record books, 
pencils, paper, and ink. 

Note and Record Books. 

The notebooks should be preferably about seven by ten inches, 
as this permits space for dates and names across the page. The 
Genealogical Society has had prepared properly ruled and printed 
notebooks for this purpose. They may be obtained from the 
Society at 10 cents each. The book for a family record of temple 
work may be purchased at the Genealogical Society office, which 
keeps the approved form, bound in one, two, and three quire sizes. 
The prices are: One quire, $1.25; two quires, $1.75; and three 
quires, $2.25. A soft and good pencil is advisable, as there are 
often erasures to make, especially with beginners. The pencil 
should have a rubber. Insist on securing the very best ink made 



18 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

for permanent recording". Anythini^ so important as the records 
of our dead must require permanency. Cheap ink soon fades, and 
the fading- awav of our work may prove a serious loss to our 
descendants. We recommend Carter's record ink for this pur- 
pose. 

The notebook should be inscribed with the owner's name, ad- 
dress, and the date of beginning the work. These points are of 
great importance, small as they seem. If the book be lost, the ad- 
dress will secure its return to the owner. The date will make an 
historical link in the chain he is seeking to weave around himself 
and his dead. On the fly-leaf of his book, let the beginner now 
write again his own name, the place from which he is seeking his 
information, and above all the name of the family whose lines are 
to be traced in the book. Only one line of ancestry should appear 
in any one book. It makes great confusion to put several family 
lines together, either in the notebook or the record of temple work. 
At the head of the page should be written the name of the heir in 
the family at whose instance the work is to be done. Heirship 
will be explained later. 

Sources of Information. 

What now shall be written in the notebook? Where and how 
shall the beginner secure his information, after he has prepared 
himself and his tools? 

There are several sources of information. First, there are the 
personal recollections of himself and of the members of the family 
which should be obtained and recorded carefully. Second, there 
are old Bible-records and other information found on loose sheets, 
old temple forms, etc. Third, there are the small and the great 
g-enealogical libraries. Fourth, there are the records which are 
found in county court houses, in parish churches, in state records, 
in war records, and the various national archives, both in America 
and Europe. We will consider these in their line of development. 

Personal. 

The beginner should write out first of all, in his notebook, all 
the information he alreadv has in his possession, according: to a 
plan which will be given in a later lesson. He should recall with 
exact care the names of his parents, their birth-place, their mar- 
riage and death dates, and these must be entered in proper and 
exact order. If he can recall the names and dates of his grand- 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 19 

parents or great-grandparents, on his father's line only — for one 
line is to be given in one book — he should begin with them, of 
course ; or if he can go back several generations, he should begin 
with his oldest knouni ancestor, and put down in proper order the 
full name, birth date, place of birth, death date, and then follow 
this with the wife or wives and children of said ancestor. The 
method for arranging these names will be given later. But the 
personal recollections are first to be carefully recorded. 

After all personal information is recorded, then you should 
set down in writing all data in the possession of relatives or 
friends that can be reached personally. Old people especially 
should be visited and questioned, for these, generally, have a valu- 
able fund of information, which if not secured will disappear when 
they die. Before it is too late, all information in the possession 
of grandfathers, uncles, etc., should be obtained. 

Bibles, Etc. 

The information found in family Bibles is usually very reliable, 
and often gives valuable side-lights from which to go searching 
in other places. It was a general custom in former days to have 
a large family Bible, with a set of blank leaves in the center of 
which to transcribe the birth, death, and marriage dates of the 
family. This record would thus present quite accurate informa- 
tion : when there is a question betw^een this record and the parish 
record, the Bible is usually correct. It is imperative for every 
head of a family to purchase an individual Family Record, and 
record therein all marriages, births, and deaths of the family, as 
these arc needed to identify the individuals. 

Correspondence. 

Sources of information which can be reached by cor- 
respondence should not be neglected. Thousands of names 
and many fine pedigrees have been obtained wholly by let- 
ter writing; but this class of letter writing is an art, and needs to 
be conducted with judgment. As a rule, it is a task for people to 
answer letters, especially if the answer requires the putting forth 
of some effort in the obtaining of names and dates. It is therefore 
wise to make the answer as easy as possible, and to do this a 
printed answer form is serviceable. Such a form, with the required 
data plainly indicated, and perhaps partly filled out. makes for 
definiteness and case in the work of furnishing information. If 



20 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

the letter of inquiry goes to this country, a return envelope with 
stamp on might be used. If abroad, send Post Office order. If 
replies are not received as soon as desired, or if any do not reply 
at all, the searcher should not become discouraged. Every clue 
should be followed up. Persistency will usually bring results. 
Printed forms for this gathering of family record may be had at 
the office of the Genealogical Society of Utah at ten cents a dozen. 

Libraries. 

The genealogical libraries in various parts of the world 
are storehouses of information, and this information is made 
easy of access because it is usually in the printed form, and the 
books are catalogued and indexed. There are some splendid col- 
lections of genealogical matter in a number of the big libraries 
of the world, such as the British Museum, the Congressional Li- 
brary in Washington, the New England Historic and Genea- 
logical Society's library in Boston, the Newberry Library in Chi- 
cago ; but the library that concerns us most is the library of the 
Genealogical Society of Utah, for the reason that it is the most 
accessible to us. There are at present (1915) 3,000 volumes in 
this library and it is urged that this source of information be not 
overlooked nor neglected. A future lesson will deal more fully 
with this library and the work to be done in it. 

Foreign Research. 

After all other sources of information have been exhausted, 
there are still the vast accumulations of original records 
in the churches and archives of the older states and coun- 
tries of Europe. This western part of America is still young. 
Either we or our immediate forefathers came here from 
the East or from Europe, and to these old hom.e-lands must we 
eventually go for a continuation of our pedigree hunting. The 
European records consist largely of parish registers, containing 
entries of births or christenings, marriages, and deaths or burials ; 
then there are records of wills, deeds, visitations, etc. All this is 
found in the original ancient scrip which, as a rule, is not easy 
to read, as. much of the matter is in the old style of writing and 
some in Latin. An expert is therefore required to get satisfactory 
results. A novice usually makes little headwav. Also these records 
are frequently in the keeping of ministers and parish clerks whom 
it is hard to approach, and who charge the full extent of the f^es 



SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 21 

which the law usually allows them to charge every searcher at will. 

The Genealogical Society of Utah has helped many people to 
get information from foreign countries, and hopes to be able to do 
more in this way in the future. Competent persons have been 
doing this work in Great Britain, Germany, and the Scandinavian 
countries. However, at the present, because of the war and other 
causes, this work is quite unsatisfactory, and it is advised that 
persons wdio desire research work done in Europe, first communi- 
cate with the Genealogical Society of Utah. 

A genealogical and biographical blank record book for the use 
of Latter-day Saint families and individuals has recently been 
published and approved by the Church Authorities, which will be 
found invaluable as a means of recording and preserving all items 
and dates of importance in the histories of families or lives of 
individuals. The price is $1.25. It may be purchased from the 
Genealogical Society of Utah. 

Use of Tradition. 

There are, generally speaking, traditions in all families in re- 
gard to their ancestors, and these should be carefully noted, and 
faithfully recorded, but with certain restrictions. For instance, if 
it w^ere said that a man was Scotch-Irish, and there were no proofs 
such as place of birth or certificates or records in parishes to 
substantiate the fact, this idea of the family being Scotch-Irish 
should be recorded as "tradition," only. Family traditions furnish 
occasional valuable clues ; but tradition has its danger. It some- 
times happens that a tradition is picked up without any foundation 
in fact, and is merely the remains of some supposititious relation- 
ship to celebrities. 

What shall be done with this traditional information? 

First, write at the top of your notebook page, ''Traditions of 

the family of ." Then w^rite out in paragraph form all the 

items you can glean from your various relatives, such as re- 
lationship to other branches of the family ; removals from one 
township to another ; inter-marriages with other families ; sailors 
lost at sea ; emigrants to other lands ; the purchase of a home ; 
the building of a new home, or burning of an old one ; the story of 
the son who ran away, or that one w^ho was supposed to have been 
killed by the Indians. All such family incidents should first be 
written out in your notebook, so that any corrections and altera- 
tions can be made there, and then they should be copied into a 
3 



22 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

family record bouk. The family record 1)Ook is different from 
the family record of temple work, in that it has a set of blank 
leaves in which to record such facts as well as a number of leaves 
printed to hold the ordinations and other matters of family history. 

If your traditional information appears to lie fairly accurate and 
contains any names and dates of your kindred dead, then you 
should put such names in proper order, first in your notebook, and 
next in the family record of temple work. Always at the top of 
each page in vour notebook write the sources of the information 
which you are recording. x\s, "The names which are here given 
were furnished me by my father," or uncle, or any member of the 
family who may have given them to you. Thus you sh.ow exactl_\- 
where you got your information, and if your first information is 
furnished from memory only, you would be justified in correcting 
any of these which you may later find in dates from parish records, 
as memorv is often treacherous. Let it be repeated: always write 
at the top of your page in both notebook and record of temple 
work, the source of your information, whether it be from family 
tradition, from individuals, from old Bibles, from books in a cer- 
tain library, from county wills or deeds, from cemeteries, or from 
parish records searched by yourself or another at your instigation. 
Write out on each page just where the names you record can be 
found. Be careful, be accurate, and give all facts. 

The method of accunndating and caring for genealogical in- 
formation here suggested does not preclude methods others may 
use. Many professional genealog'ists use a card system, and where 
there are large and complicated pedigrees, this has many good 
points. The student is referred to an article by B. F. Cummings 
in the April and July 1^15 numliers of the Utah Genealogical and 
Historical Magazine for an excellent article on Compiling and As- 
sembling Genealogical Information. 



Care of Genealogical Information. 

Be careful to arrange all correspondence on genealogy 
systematically. Use a large box or drawer or other receptacle, 
and in this keep all your papers and sheets. It will soon be 
necessary to have several separate drawers, one for correspon- 
dence, one for records and one for sheets and circulars. The cor- 
respondence should be filed carefully in separate manila envelopes 
or letter files, with the date of receiving and of answering the 
letter written plainly across the top of the folded letter or page. 



METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT. 23 

Tn writing to relatives or to clerks or others for information con- 
cerning your kindred, be sure to give all the information and data 
in your possession in regard to the individual or family which you 
are searching. Give full details in your own letter if you expect 
complete information in return. 



LESSON III. 

METHOD OF ARRANGING THE NAMES. 

Whatever method is used in gathering the names and getting 
them in orderly arrangement, they must finally be placed in some 
permanent form for the use of the family in doing temple work 
for them. This form should be as simple and as convenient as 
possible. Genealogists have many and varied forms, all of which 
contain more or less merit ; but it will be evident that for the 
purpose of the Latter-day Saints and their vicarious work, a uni- 
form system should be adopted. L^niformity in this matter of 
.'genealogy and the recording of temple work is greatly to be de- 
sired, to the end that the records which are handed from parents 
to children or from one keeper to another may easily be under- 
stood and the work be intelligently continued. 

The Standard System. 

The system adopted by the Genealogical Society of Utah and 
recommended by the Temple authorities is what is generally 
known as the Standard System of arranging genealogy. It is the 
method used by the leading genealogical societies and publishing 
firms in this country. In this lesson we shall explain this method 
of arranging a pedigree, and use a simple illustration to make 
it plain. For our inirpose, we shall advise that the beginner use 
the pencil note book first in which to arrange his pedigree. In 
this way anv errors which might be made can easily be corrected 
before the record is transferred to the permanent Record of Temple 
W^ork book. 

The main principles underlying this Standard System are these : 
Begin with the oldest known male ancestor and write his full name 
on the line ruled and provided for the names in the beginning of 
your book. Write the maiden name <-»( his wife )r wiv?' immedi 



24 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

ately under his. Then if there are children, write the word Chil- 
dren on the next line, and then write the names of the children in 
the order of their birth. To help the eye, it is advisable to have 
the margin on the page where the children are written a little 
wider than w-here the parents are. This now forms a group, con- 
sisting of father, mother, and children. Now take the eldest of 
these children who marry, write his name again, if a son, as the 
head of the next group, and place his wife's maiden name under 
liis ; then follow^ with their children, as in the first group. In 
case this eldest child is a daughter, proceed the same way, only 
write her husband's name first, then hers, for in this grouping, 
the husband's name should always be first. Now go back to the 
next name, in the first group, who marries, and repeat his or her 
name the same as the first one. Continue this until all of the 
first group who marry have been repeated. The reason for this 
repeating is that the names should be arranged in family groups ; 
the head of one family appears naturally twice ; as the child of his 
parents and as the father of his children ; also it is evident that all 
the data required regarding a name cannot be placed opposite a 
name when it occurs as a child in a family, for when that child 
marries he has a wife or she has a husband, which the records 
must show. When the first group has been exhausted, continue 
on down with the second group, which in this case will be the 
children of the eldest child of the first group, and treat these 
names as you did the first. In other words record your pedigree 
in generations, taking all of the names in one generation before 
passing bn to the .next. Thus the repeating process is con- 
tinued in order until the last generation is reached and recorded. 

For the purpose of illustrating this concretely and bringing in 
other points, we shall take a small supposed pedigree and arrange 
it properly. We will suppose that one Stephen Young of Salt 
Lake City writes to Miss Annie Smith a cousin in England ask- 
ing for information regarding the Young family. He receives the 
followng data : 

Sample Pedigree for Illustration. 

''Grandfather John Young lived in Leeds, the exact 
place and date of his birth being unknown. His wife's 
maiden name is also not known. They had four children 
in this order — your father William, then John, next Jane, 
and then Alice, my mother. John died in 1814, when he 



METHOD OF ARRANGEMENT. 25 

was nine years old. As you may know, your mother's 
maiden name was Sarah Stevens. My mother was mar- 
ried in 1831 and died in 1859; Grandmother Young- died 
before my mother's marriage. Your older sister Ann 
married Thomas Brown. After her death he married 
a widow, Mrs. Mary Thomas, whose maiden name was 
Jones. By Ann he had Mary, Frank, Susan, and Wil- 
liam. By Mary, the second wife, he had Henry and 
Rachel." 

In this little pedigree Grandfather John Young is the eldest 
known ancestor. His name is therefore written first, followed by 
that of his wife ; but her maiden name is not given, so we must 
write her as Mrs. John Young. H we had part of her maiden 
name, we would use that — for instance, if we knew her surname 
to be Jones, we would write it as Miss Jones, but not knowing her 
maiden name we write it as first indicated. The children of these 
two, in the order of birth are William, John, Jane and Alice. This 
completes the first group. As the first child in the family, William, 
marries, he is repeated, and his wife's maiden name, Sarah Stevens, 
placed next. The children of these two are Ann and Stephen, 
which completes another group. John of the first group, dying 
young, and nothing being known of Jane, these names are not re- 
peated. Alice marries a Mr. Smith, and their only child is Annie 
(the writer of the information). These make up the third group 
or family, and we have now all the children of the first group dis- 
posed of. 

Passing down to the names as they have so far been written, 
we take up the next in order which is Ann, the first child in the 
second group. Her husband, Thomas Brown is placed first, 
then she, Ann Young follows. After Ann's death, he marries a 
widow, Mrs. Mary Thomas. She is placed immediately after 
Ann. A widow's maiden name should also be stated, if known. 
Then the children of Ann should be given, followed by the children 
of Mary.* 



*A woman who has been married twice, or more, should appear in the 
record with each husband, separately, and the record should also name her 
children by each husband. A notation should be made in the respective 
entries indicating the fact of her several marital relationships: the sealing 
entries attached to her name, and to her children, will clearly show to 
whom she and the children are sealed. 



26 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

The arrangement of this little pedigree would appear as fol- 
lows : 

John Young 
Mrs. John Young 
Children : 

William Young 

John Young 

Jane Young 

Alice Young 

William Young- 
Sarah Stevens 
Children : 

Ann Young 

Stephen Young 

Mr. Smith 
Alice Young 
Children : 
Annie Smith 

Thomas Brown 
Ann Young 

Mary Jones (Mrs. Mary Thomas) 
Children of First Wife : 

Mary 

Frank 

Susan 

William 

Children of Second Wife : 

Henry 

Rachel 



Limitation in Female Line. 

Now let us look at these names carefully. We must bear in 
mind that this is a Young family pedigree or record. We must 
hive all the known males in it for by them the family line is per- 
petuated ; we must also have all the females bearing the name 
Young, for they belong to the familv equally with the males. When 
a female Young marries, she is also repeated, and her husband 
and children are added, as in the case of Alice Younor and Ann 



IDENTIFICATION. 27 

Young" in our sample ])e(iierec ; hut this Young record stops there. 
AHce. by marriage, hecomes a Smith, and Ann becomes a Brown ; 
and their children are Smiths and Browns. Tf there is a Smith 
record, Mr. Smith, his wife Alice Young, and their child Annie 
Smith, should also appear in their proper place in that record. 
The same is true of the Browns — they should also appear in the 
Brown record. These names wdiich form the connecting link 
between families will of necessity appear in two records. This 
cannot be helped, for we must observe the principle that whenever 
jMissible husl)ands, wives, and children should be grouped to- 
gether. When it comes to the performing of temple \vork 
for these names, there should be an agreement between the 
Young heir and the Smith and Brown heirs as to who should do 
the w^ork for them. Tf no such understanding can be had, it mio-ht 
happen that the temole work for these names be done twice. The 
greatest care should be exercised to avoid this ; but. in anv case, 
it is better that it be repeated for them than that it be not done at 
all. 



LESSON IV. 
IDENTIFICATION. 

It will be noticed that so far we have not placed in our sample 
record any of the data called for regarding date and place of 
birth, etc. We omitted this purposely that we might call special 
attention to the method of arrangement. Of course, a practiced 
gfcnealogist will enter opposite each name as he writes it the 
data he has about that name. 

Importance of Identification. 

This data is very imi)ortant, for it forms the basis of our identi- 
fication of each name in the record. When temple work is done 
for John Young, for example, the records must show, as ac- 
curately as possible, which of the many John Youngs is intended. 
There must be some way of separating this particular John Young 
from the great mass of men who have lived and have been known 
by that name : and it must be our work to end?avor to do this. 
Tf we have the complete data regarding a man, this is not dif- 
ficult to do. For instance, if we know when John Young was 
born, where he ^^'as born, when he died, and his relationship to the 
heir in temple work, we hnve t^'-i^ p'U'ticular i)erson definitely scp- 



28 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

arated from all other men ; for it is not probable that two men by 
the same name, and bearing the same relationship to the heir, 
should be born on the same day, in the same place, and die on the 
same date. It frequently happens, however, that we have very 
little of this information. Under such condidtions, we must estab- 
lish the identity of each individual as nearly accurate as we can. 

Use of "of." 

Going- back to our sample record, we see that there is very little 
data regarding- the names we have. There are no dates regarding 
John Young. The only fact we have is that he lived in Leeds, 
Yorkshire, England, and this we may record in the space under 
"Where born." We do not know he was born in that place, so it 
will not do to leave the record without some qualifying statement. 
We therefore use the word "of" before the name of the town, 
Leeds. This shows us that John Young was a resident "of" Leeds, 
the only fact we have to identify him as regards place. This holds 
good of all the other names of the record until we get to Stephen 
Young, when it is presumed some more definite information may 
be had. 

Approximating Dates. 

Coming now to the dates in this record, we find we have very 
few. We must, nevertheless, fix our people as exactly as pos- 
sible in time as well as place. To do this we must use what known, 
fixed dates we have as a basis for approximating other dates. 
Genealogists have by a series of long experiments established a 
rule that works out very well. They have discovered that on the 
average, children were born in a family about two years apart ; 
and that the husband was approximately twenty-two and the 
wife twenty years old at the birth of the first child. Let us now 
use this rule in formulating some dates in our sample record. 

The first definite date we have is that John, the second son in 
the first group, died in 1814 when he was nine years old. He, 
tlierefore, was born in 1805. Now applying the rule, we could say 
that William, his older brother was born "about" 1803. The word 
"about" or abbreviation "abt." must invariably be placed before 
such an approximated date to distinguish it from a real, fixed date. 
Going down the list, we may say that Jane was born "abt." 1807. 
and Alice md. 1831. If William, the first son, was born about 
1803, his mother was born "abt." 1783 and the father, John Young 



NUMBERING. 29 

"abt." 1781. William Young's wife, Sarah Stevens would be born 
"abt." 1805, and their oldest child. Ann, *'abt." 1825. It is pre- 
sumed that Stephen Young is still living and his birth date is 
known. Suppose now that he was born in 1830. That is five 
years between his and his sister's approximated date. This 
should not disturb us, for we must always bear in mind 
that the term "about" is very elastic. The approximated 
dates should be made to harmonize as nearly as possible with 
one or more known dates, even if the space of time between should 
be more or less than the time used, in the usual approximation. 

Other Means of Identification. 

Birth or christening (baptism) dates come first in importance, 
then death dates. Christening dates are recorded in the birth 
columns proceed by ''bp." When these dates are not obtainable, 
other dates are acceptable, such as marriage dates, dates of wills 
made or executed, dates of deeds made, etc. When a marriage date 
is known, it should be recorded in the column for births with the 
notation "Md." before it to distinguish it from the birth date. A 
date of w^ill or deed made is evidence that the person w^as ''living 
about" that time. In the sample pedidgree we are using. Grand- 
mother Young died before Alice Young's marriage, so the record 
would show after Mrs. John Young's name, besides the approxi- 
mated date of birth, the notation, "died before 1831." All this 
data helps to identify the individual. The question of relationship, 
vvhich is also a link in the chain of identification, will be con- 
sidered later. 



LESSON V. 

NUMBERING. 

The proper and orderly arranging of one's pedigree in a book 
is not the end of the matter with the Latter-day Saints. All these 
names, and they may reach into the thousands, must yet be 
manipulated in the process of doing temple work for them. They 
must be taken from the Family Record of Temple Work, placed 
on temple sheets, and then, when the work is done for them, 
the proper entries must be made. Frequently, there are many 
persons in the record by the same name, and care must be taken 
that these names be not confused. In order to assist us in keeping 
track of each name in the record, a system of numbering is used. 



30 LESSONS IX riEXKALOGY. 

The Standard System of Numbering. 

It must be rcmcml)erc(l that an}- system of numbering is merely 
a device to assist the maker and keeper of a record. The templj 
recorders pay no attention to our numbering, as far as making 
and numbering their own records are concerned. 

Genealogists have various methods of numbering; but some of 
these are so complicated that they become confusing. The simplest 
method is the one which naturally follows the Standard system of 
arrangement, and may be stated as follows : 

Begin with the first name in the record and call it number 1. 
In our sample pedigree this is John Young. Mrs. John Young 
comes next, so she would be number 2 ; then William, 3 ; John, 4 ; 
Jane, 5 ; Alice, 6. Knowing that William and Alice will be re- 
peated later, we place the sign or mark of plus or cross (X) to indi- 
cate that fact. Further along in the record, it is necessary to also 
write neatly, preferably in red ink, on every line that has a re- 
peated mark, the page where the repeated name and number is to 
l:e found. William Young, being the first name in our sample- 
record to be repeated, we place his original number 3 opposite his 
name, but this time it should be written in red ink to indicate 
that it is a repeated miml)er, and that it occurs before, where 
the name stands as a child in his family. If desirable, a small 
page mark may here also be used to show where this name and 
number occurs the first time. Sarah Stevens, William Young's 
wife should have number 7, Ann 8, and Stephen, 9 — and so on 
down the list as shown in the completed record on page 36. 
This system will take care of any number of names, even though 
they should run into the thousands. 

Numbering Additional Information. 

It may happen that after our book has been completed, and the 
names and numbers are all in order, that additional information is 
found. Where shall this information be placed in the record? 
Let us suppose, for the purpose of illustrating this, that we dis- 
cover the first John Young had another son named George, and 
he was the youngest, coming after Alice. It is important that he 
be placed in his own family or generation, so we will write his name 
in his proper place. The same would be done should it be found 
that he was the second or third child. It may crowd the lines a 
little, but that cannot be helped. But what number should he have? 
As he comes after Alice who is 6, we will call him 6A. This 



THE JIEIR AND RELATlOXSll IP. 31 

places him in his order and at the same time gives him a distinct 
mark. If now we learn that George married and has a family of 
children, we must carry his record to another part of the hook 
where there is room for it. A note, therefore (in red ink) on 
the Hne opposite his name will tell on what page this record is con- 
tinued. We will suppose that it be on page 31, and that 650 num- 
bers have already been used. Turning to page 31, we make this 
entry with the proper data, not here given : 

6A George Young (See page 1) 

651 Mary Thomas 
Children : 

652 Henry Young 

653 Rachel Young 

654 Margaret Young 

In this manner all additional information may be properly re- 
corded. 

Where there is a limited knowledge of ones ancestry, that is, 
the line extends only a short distance back, it might be advisable 
to leave some pages in the first part of our record to enter names 
when found. Some numbers could also be reserved, and the 
pedigree as recorded be numbered beginning with 101 or 201. 
This would leave 100 or 200 numbers to be used when a future oc- 
casion required. 



LESSON VI. 

THE HEIR AND RELATIONSHIP. 

The Heir. 

For the purpose of more clearly identifying each individual 
for whom temple work is done, it is required that there be placed 
in some prominent place in the record, usually on a line at the top 
of each page, a name from which relationship is established to 
each name in the record. This name is an individual who is called 
"the heir.'' As a rule this heir is the eldest male representative of 
the family in the Church who began the work for his dead. This 
name once placed in the record as the heir, should not be changed. 
It should remain, even after the individual dies, for it should be 
remembered that this name is used in our temple book largely for 
the purpose of having a certain definite individual, or a fixed point. 



32 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

in the record, from which to establish a relationship to all other 
names in the record. It will readily be seen that if this indi- 
vidual called the heir be changed, the central ''point" is disturbed, 
and the relationships are thrown out of order. It is therefore 
strongly advised that when once the heir in a record is established, 
that he be retained for all future time. This retaining of one 
name as the heir, "at whose instance the temple work is done" is 
also of value to the recorders in the temples, for then all the work 
of a certain family may be indexed under the one head, that of *'the 
heir." 

To illustrate these points from our sample pedigree. In this 
record Stephen Young is the heir because he is the eldest male 
representative of the family who took an interest in temple work 
and began that work. Relationships are established from him to 
every name in the record. Now, if when Stephen dies, and the 
heir should be changed to his son, and relationships be estab- 
lished from him the relationships established from the father will 
not agree with those established from the son ; there would be 
therefore two points from which relationships would be estab- 
lished, which would lead to confusion and lack of unity in the 
record. If now, in course of time, the heir should again be 
changed, more confusion and disunity would arise. Also the 
records in the temple would have to be indexed under the two or 
three names instead of under the one, Stephen Young. 

Female Heirship. 

In the event that there is no male representative of a family in 
the Church, it becomes the duty of the eldest female representa- 
tive to have temple work done for her kindred dead ; and her name 
should be entered in the record as the heir, or the individual at 
whose instance such work is done and her name should continue 
even after her death. If this female representative of a family 
has a son (he should be old enough — 14 or 16 — ^and should be 
worthy) this son may be the heir to his mother's work, and his 
name may be so placed in the record of her family. 

The Living Representatives. 

Some confusion and misunderstanding occasionally arises over 
the "heir" of the records and the person who has the right and 
whose duty it is to continue the work for the dead begun by this 
first representative. As a rule, the eldest living male representa- 



THE HEIR AND RELATIONSHIP. 33 

tivc of the family, if he is a member of the Church, is the recoj?- 
nized person to supervise and carry on the temple work, although 
such a one's name may not appear as the heir in the temple 
records. It is important that there be order in this so that there be 
no duplication of work, of which there would be danger if any or 
all members of a family undertook to do work for names, inde- 
pendently of, or without conferring with, the proper head. As there 
are a number of persons in a family who desire to take part in 
this work, it is strongly urged that a family organization be ef- 
fected to carry it on systematically. If there is doubt regarding 
who should lead out in the matter, or if the male representative is 
not worthy or is too indifferent to do anything, then the family 
members may meet and organize and apportion the work to be 
done among themselves. More detailed suggestions will be given 
regarding family organizations in another place in these lesson'^. 
A word regarding the ''credit" for temple work. Let it be 
plainly understood that the principle purpose of the heir, "at 
whose instance" temple work is done, is for the purpose of order, 
unity, and identification of the dead. The heir does not receive 
all or perhaps any of the credit for the work. If there are any 
credits given in this w^holly unselfish work, each individual will get 
all that is coming to him, whether his name appears in the recorrl 
or not. There are other records, which we, in this life, know 
not of. 

Relationship. 

Those who do temple work, or get it done, should be careful 
to designate the relationship of the heir to each one of the dead. 
Near relationships are, of course, easily determined. It is when 
the pedigree extends back to a number of generations, and when 
there are a number of uncles, aunts, and cousins — branches from 
the main line — that the task becomes more difficult. Remember 
that you, who are doing the work and keeping the record, may 
not be the heir ; the heir may be your father, grandfather, uncle, 
or others. A clear distinction should be made between blood 
kindred and those to whom they are married ; the latter are known 
as relatives in law, thus a man is nephew-in-law to his uncle's 
wife, cousin-in-law to his cousin's wife, etc. If the dead are known 
to be blood relations, but the degree of relationship cannot be 
stated, the word Relative is to be given. When there is no family 
connection, the word Friend should be used. The relatives, or 



34 LESSONS IX GENEALOGY. 

friends of a wife should be listed separately from those of her 
husband, and the work for her kindred should be at the instance 
of her eldest brother, if he is a member of the Church, or of her 
eldest son. The following table is given to aid in determining 
relationships, which, it must not be forgotten, must be established 
from the heir to each individual in the record : 

Relationship Table. 

The parents of the heir's father or mother are his grandfather 
or his grandmother ; therefore, he is grandson to them. 

The parents of the heirs grandfather or grandmother are his 
great grand father and great grand mother : therefore he is great 
grandson to them. 

The parents of the heir's great grand father or great grand 
mother are his 2nd great grand father or 2nd great grand mother : 
therefore, he is 2nd great grand son to them. etc. 

The children of the heirs brothers or sisters are his nephews or 
nieces: therefore, he is uncle to them. 

The children of the hci/s nephews or nieces are his grand 
nephews or nieces : therefore, he is grand uncle to them. 

The children of the hei/s grand nephews or grand nieces are 
his great grand nephews or great grand nieces : therefore he is 
great grand uncle to them. 

The children of the helix's great grand nephews or great grand 
nieces are his 2nd great grand nephews or 2nd great grand nieces : 
therefore, he is 2nd great grand uncle to them. etc. 

The heir's father's brother or sister is his uncle or aunt : there- 
fore, he is nephew to them. 

The heir's grandfather's brother or sister is his grand uncle 
or grand aunt : therefore, he is grand nephew to them. 

The heir's great grandfather's brother or sister is his great 
grand uncle or great grand aunt : therefore, he is great grand 
neohew to them. 

The hei/s 2nd great grand father's brother or sister is his 2nd 
great grand uncle or aunt ; therefore, he is 2nd great grand 
neohew to them. Etc. 

The children of the heirs uncle or aunt are his cousins : he is 
also cousin to them. 

The children of the heirs Hst) cousins are his 2nd cousins : and 
he is 2nd cousin to them. 

The children of the heir's 2nd cousin are his 3rd cousins: and 
he is 3rd cousin to them, etc. 



THE HEIR AND REr.ATIONSHIP. 35 

The children of the heir's grand uncle or grand aunt are his 
2nd cousins : and he is 2nd cousin to them. 

The children of the Jicirs great grand uncle or great grand aunt 
are his 3rd cousins : and he is the same to them. 

1die children of the heirs 2nd great grand uncle or 2nd great 
grand aunt are his 4th cousins, etc. 

In case the heir is a female, the equivalent female terms should 
be used, such as grand daughter, niece, aunt, etc. 

Completed Sample Pedigree. 

Let us now complete the sample pedigree we have been con- 
structing with the data we have on hand, showing dates both real 
and approximated, place of residence, relationship, and number- 
ing: 

(see next page.) 



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THP HEIR AND RELATIONSHIP. 37 

Limitations in Temple Work. 

Those who engage in the performance of temple ordinances in 
behalf of the dead, should, as a general rule, limit such work 
to individuals of their own blood kindred, or to personal friends 
whom they know were worthy of that blessing, if those friends 
have no known relatives who are members of the Church. If, 
for any good reason, it is desired to do temple work for other 
than those thus designated, application should be made to the pres- 
ident of the temple for special permission in such cases, submit- 
ting the reasons why it is desired. 

Limiting the performance of temple ordinances, in behalf of 
those only who are the kindred of the individuals engaging in 
that sacred work, is intended to prevent the endless confusion 
and repetition, that would result if there were jio such limitation ; 
also, that the rights of others, in this regard, may be duly re- 
spected. 

There is seldom any need to go beyond immediate family lines 
to find all the work of this character, that any one can spare the 
time or means to perform. If it should happen that you are so 
blessed as to be able to complete the temple ordinances in behalf 
of all your dead kindred, there is ample opportunity for you to 
aid others who are not so fortunate in regard to the performance 
of this important work. 

To assist in making it clearly understood just what family lines 
should be included within the limits of kinship, as contemplated 
in this connection, it is considered advisable to specify the follow- 
ing: Those bearing the same surname as yourself, which is the 
same, of course, as the surname of your father and his father; 
also, those bearing the family surname of your paternal grand- 
mother ; and those bearing the family surnames of your mother's 
father and mother. This limitation can be readily comprehended 
— it embraces just four direct lines of family surnames. For ex- 
ample, a man whose name is Brown may have a paternal grand- 
mother surnamed Jones, his maternal grandfather Smith, and 
matrrnal grandmother Robinson. Thus it is apparent that he 
will have the right to perform temple work in behalf of all his 
dead kindred bearing the surnames of Brown, Jones, Smith, and 
Robinson ; and such is the nature of the limitations referred to. 

Relatives by Marriage. 

In addition to having temple ordinances performed for those 



""^'"^ LESSONS IX GENEALOGY. 

who arc known hlood kindred, in the fonr hnes of names ind- 
cated. It Ls permissible to have snch work done also, to a limite 
extent, in behalf of individuals wli.^ are vour relatives by mai 
riage. For instance, a man who is married to vour aunt is' then 
fore, your uncle-in-law, and you mav perform' temple ordinance 
in Ins behalf, it lie is worthy, and in behalf of their children Im 
you should not extend such priviles^^es to others in his famil 
line, as that mig-ht result in vour intrudins^ upon the rioht of hi 
relatives in the Church. Similarly, if a woman marries a cousi 
of yours she tlierel^y becomes vour cousin-in-law\ and it would b 
proper for you to do temi^le work in her behalf, associated wit*' 
your cousin and their children, but it would not be ri.c^ht to incnr 
porate her ancestral line in your record. 

District Limitation. 

_ It is a common experience that family lines can not be tracec 
tar back, in very many cases no further than the irrandparent- 
\\ hen it IS found impossible to trace the ancestral lines as fa 
back as desirable, and the list of names for temple work is con 
sequcntly mea.c^re, it is recommended that j^cnealocries of all wh 
bear the surnames of your four direct lines be obtained from th. 
records that may be found in the parishes, or counties where you^ 
immediate relatives were located. It is considered reasonable t- 
assume that all bearin.": those surnames, residino- in those local 
ities. were your relatives : and, even thou.c^h vou mav be unabl, 
to asc-rtain the exact relationship, it is permissible to perforn 
temple ordinances in their behalf. Manv thousands of names an 
frequentlv obtained in this wav, and a verv ^reat amount of tem 
pie w^ork IS. therefore, accomplished that could not be done other 
wise. 



LESSON Ml. 

WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 

The chief cities of Furone and America possess crreat crovern- 
mental libraries. Certain departments in these libraries are filled 
with irenealojrical books, pamphlets, and manuscripts Tn most 
of the lar-er of these cities there are also antiquarian, historical 
and crenealoo-ical societies. Such societies in Europe exist onlv to 
publish rare volumes of .c^enealoorical int rest, havincr no head- 



WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 39 

quarters and no libraries. The Society of London Genealogists, a 
recent organization, is the exception to this rnle. In the United 
States there are a number of Genealogical societies and special 
genealogical libraries, the parent society being the New England 
Historic Genealogical Society, incorporated in 1845 in Boston, 
Mass. 

Standard Books. 

^ In genealo.ofical libraries, and genealogical departments in pub- 
lic libraries, there are certain standard books always to be found, 
containing general as well as detailed information on the subject 
of o-nealogy. Genealosrists begin their researches by an investi- 
gation of these books. The library of the Genealogical Society of 
Utah has quite a complete list of such standard books, and new 
books are added as fast as our financial resources permit. The 
Packard Public Library of Salt Lake City also contains some of 
these books. 

S .me of the most important of these British books are as fol- 
lows: "Marshall's Genealogists' Guide;" "Gatfield's Guide to 
Heraldry and Genealogy;" ''Guppy's Homes of Family Names;" 
"Bardsley's English Surnames ;" "Family Names and Their 
Story," W S. Baring Gould; Yonge's "History of Christian 
Names," and other surname books : Anderson's "Royal Lines," 
"Burke's Peerage, Baronetage and Knightage ;" "Burke's Extinct 
Peerage:" "Burke's Landed Gentry;'"' "Burke's Commoners;" 
Harleian Society publications ; A^isitations, County and Shire 
Histories ; printed family histories and genealogies : "The Scot- 
tish Nation ;" "Munsell's Index to American Families ;" "Mun- 
sell's American Genealogist ;" "Savage's Genealogical Dictionary ;" 
"New Fnpiand Historical and Genealogical Register," 67 vol- 
umes ; "New York Historical and Biographical Record," 44 vol- 
umes ; "American Ancestry," 12 volumes; vital statistics; county 
histories ; family genealogies, etc. 

Indexes. 

American libraries have a more or less complete cross card 
index svstem giving book title in one index cabinet and the author's 
name in another. The Ne^vberrv library of Chicago has the most 
complete and unique genealogical ind^x svstem in the world ; while 
the Briti«;h Museum index system is the most archaic and unsatis- 
factory. Books in the museum are indexed only by the author's 



40 LESSONS IX GENEALOGY. 

name, so that genealogical information is accessible only through 
Marshall's Guide, and that is not kept up to date with the many 
new publications which are being issued. 

It will be understood that the name of the author of any gene- 
alogical work is of little value to the searcher after genealogy ; 
nor does the searcher care what the title of the book is. The 
important point with him is, are there any references or informa- 
ti m in the book concerning the surname he is in search of? That 
is the one great question. Of course, there are other items of 
history, of locality, or of associate names which have more or less 
'''"e:iring on the subject of his search; but the vital question with 
the genealogist is how to find information about the surname he 
is searching for. An ordinary card index of book titles and 
authors or even one of the subjects would not be very helpful. 
Most books, at least of modern manufacture, have indexes to the 
contents ; but one life-time would hardly be enough for one person 
to search through the individual book indexes of some of the 
world's great libraries. There is, therefore, need of a general 
genealogical index of surnames. 

Marshall's Guide. 

Let us take up these books in the order of their importance, 
explaining their contents and giving illustrations as to their use 
and value to the genealogist. 

The first book mentioned in the British list is "Marshall's 
Genealogists' Guide," which is an index to families of Great 
Britain. 

For the British field, Mr. George Marshall, of Herald's Col- 
lege, London, knowing the extreme difficulty of a genealogical 
research in the British museum, prepared and published such an 
index I It is called ''The Genealogists' Guide," and has had a num- 
"ber of editions to bring it up to date. But as genealogical books 
are multiplying in the Lmited Kingdom at the rate of hundreds 
each year, it will be seen how inadequate even this Guide must be. 
However, the Guide is a valuable help, for many of the standard 
Enolish books were already in print before the Guide was issued. 

We wish to emphasize the -importance of beginning all genea- 
logical research work by reading the prefaces and introductions 
of all books to be used, as much important information regarding 
the matter in the book is there given. 

Mr. Marshall in his preface sets forth his reason for publishing 



WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 41 

his l30()k. and adds detailed information as to the scope of his 
work. He says : 

"It will be asked what kind of genealogy I have considered a 
pedigree of sufficient importance to be catalogued here. Mv 
answer is that as a general rule, I have included any descent of 
three generations in male line. * * * Exceptions to this rule 
are, however, frequent in reference to works such as Peerages 
and Baronetages, my object being not so much to index every 
existing genealogy as to place the intelligent student in a posi- 
tion to find out the sources from which he may obtain a clue to 
the particular pedigree he is searching for. 

*'As a general rule, the surname of a family is the heading 
under which its genealogy should be sought ; but to this, one ex- 
ception is frequently made, viz., where there is a peerage title. 
In searching, therefore, for titled families, it is necessary to look 
both under the surname and also under the title, reference being 
unavoidably made now to the one, and again to the other. When 
a family has a double surname the reference to both names should 
be consulted. It must also be borne in mind that manv names 
are spelled in different ways, so that it is necessary to look under 
all the various ways in which any name can be spelt. Cross ref- 
ferences have been added to assist the reader, especially to those 
who are unaccustomed to genealogical research." 

The Guide is alphabetically arranged. If we were going into 
a library to search for an English name, we would be handed 
first of all the Guide ; and we would be expected to select from 
the books listed in the Guide those which we wished to examine. 

Gatfield's Guide. 

An equally important book is the "Guide to Heraldry and 
Genealogy," by Gatfield. This work gives a brief but very val- 
uable list of books in all languages published on genealogy which 
are to be found in the libraries of the principal nations of the 
world. All books are alphabetically indexed. Gatfield's Guide 
book will help any one to see at a glance what his own country 
has done in pubishing works on genealogy. It is not a guide to 
surnames, it must be remembered, although when a book on a 
certain surname has been published, the title mav be found in it. 
This volume is rather a guide to books on the subject of genealogy 
and heraldry. 



42 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

Name Books, 

The three books which next claim our attention, — "Homes of 
Family Names," "English Surnames," and "Family Names and 
Their Story," were w^ritten to inform all those descending from 
English speaking peoples as to where and how their family names 
originated. Other books on the origin of surnames have been 
written; Bardsley's is a small, compact, volume, giving information 
concerning the development of the surname habit. The author 
has taken up the history and origin of the great mass of names 
and surnames found in Great Britain. The work is crow^ded 
with information and is difficult to beginners ; but nevertheless, it 
should be the first book consulted after the various indexes. After 
William the Conqueror's time men began to adopt the Norman 
custom of adding a second name to the baptismal name given them 
by their parents. These added names or surnames were adopted 
or chosen from many whims and notions of their owners. They 
came from pet names, from the woods, from the fields, from the 
occupation of the owner, from his complexion or any physical 
peculiarity, and other varied causes. This is all treated in the 
pages of this book. 

Guppy in his ''Homes of Family Names," gives much interest- 
ing information in regard to the origin of our surnames, but his 
chief object was to ascertain the homes of familiar surnames and 
to find the characteristic names of each county. He has classified 
English Family names under six heads : 

L General names occurring in from 30 to 40 counties. 

H. Common names occurring in from 20 to 29 counties. 

III. Reginal names occurring in from 10 to 19 counties. 

IV. District names occurring in from 4 to 9 counties. 

V. County names which are established in from two to three 
counties and usually have their principal home in one of them. 

VL Peculiar names which are mostly confined to one county, 
and generally to a particular parish. 

The author has alphabetically listed English and Welsh names, 
showing the comparative number of the surnames to each 10,000 
inhabitants. When we consider the English yeomen w-ere a stay- 
at-liome people, and occupied the ancestral home for centuries, the 
value of this work to the genealogist will be appreciated. 

S. I>aring Gould's "Family Nam.es and Their Story" is a most 
excellent and interesting treatise on surnames. It is well arranged 
and clearlv written so that it can be understood bv anv reader. 



WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 43 

The book would l)c a valiial)lc addition ttj any public or private 
library. 

Burke's Books. 

The next important books to be considered are those splendid 
volumes of Eni^lish pedigrees prepared by Burke. These books 
are a pedigreed Who's Who in the United Kingdom, from the 
Conqueror's time to the present day. They are Burke's "Com- 
moners," "Extinct Baronetage," ''Landed Gentry," and "Peerage." 
The noble families recorded in Baronetage, Knightage, Peerage, 
the Burke's Extinct and Dormant Peerage, are so associated witli 
the national annals of Great Britain that these histories must of 
necessity abound in interest. 

Burke, in his introduction to the Landed Gentry, says : 
"This work comprises the genealogical history of that class in 
society which ranks in imi)ortance next to the privileged order — 
ilie untitled country gentleman — a class, be it remembered, not 
one degree below the other in antiquity of descent, personal ac- 
complishment, and national usefulness ; nay, the chiefs of the 
houses from which the nobility sprung are generally to be found in 
this division of the aristocracy. Invested with no hereditary titles, 
but inheriting landed estates transmitted from generation to gen- 
eration in some instances from the period of the Conquest and 
the Plantagenets, this class has held, and continues to hold the 
foremost place in each county. The tenure of land was, in the 
olden time, the test of rank and position ; and even now, in the 
nineteenth century, it remains the same." 

Visitations. 

The next English books in order of importance are The Har- 
leian Society's publication of the Herald's Visitations. These are 
the pedigrees prepared by all landholders for the Heralds, wdio 
were officials sent out by the kings of the 16th and 17th centuries. 

Sims, in his Manual for the Genealogist, gives the following 
account of the Heralds' Msitations : 

"These records are of the highest importance to genealogists. 
Th-^ Heralds were first incorporated in the reign of Richard III, 
and their province appears to have at that time extended no 
further than the preventing more than one family from using the 
same escutcheon. Tt was evident, however, that the advantages 
to be derived from their institution, were such as resulted from 



44 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

the confidence with which the public resorted to their archives, 
and were determined by their reports. That their investigations, 
therefore, might be as general as possible, a Visitation of each 
county was decreed by the Earl Marshall, and cunflrmed by war- 
rant under the Privy Seal. The most ancient visitation on record 
is asserted to have been made in the reign of Henry IV., from 
the existence of the following memorandum in Harleian MS. 1196 
• — .'Visitacio facta per Marischallum de Norry ult. ann. R. Henrici 
4ti. 1412' — a priod of seventy years before the incorporation of 
that body. The MS. in question is a folio, consisting of loose 
pedigrees and miscellaneous heraldic scraps, some written as late 
as 1620 and 1627, pasted on the leaves of a printed book. The 
memorandum quoted occurs amongst others on folio 76b, and 
aflFords the sole authority for the above assertion. 

''The first commission proceeding from royal authority was 
issued to Thomas Benolte, Clarenceux King of Arms, in the 20th 
of Henry VHI. (1528-9) empowering him to visit the counties of 
Gloucester, Worcester, Oxford, Wilts, Berks, and Stafford. From 
this time until the close of the seventeenth century, visits were 
regularly made every twenty-five or thirty years. The last, which 
was that of the county of Southhampton, was made by Sir Henry 
St. George. Clar. in the year 1686. 

"The register books kept by the Heralds and their assistants 
during these visitations contain the pedigrees and the arms of the 
nobility and gentry, signed by the heads of their respective fam- 
ilies, and are of the highest value to genealogists." 

Many of these valuable MSS. have been published from time 
to time bv the Enp^lish genealogical and antiquarian society known 
as the Harleian Society, and they are a mine of wealth to the 
searcher after British genealogies. 

Parish Records. 

A'ter examining the books referred to we should then take up 
the Parochial Records. 

"The evidence afforded by Parochial Registers is of the first 
class, and there is scarcely a claim of peerage or case of heirship 
on record which has not been proved in part by them. 

"At the dissolution of the monasteries in the year 1535, the dis- 
persion of the monks, who were, up to that period, the principal 
register keepers, gave rise probably to a mandate, issued in 1538, 
bv Thomas Crumwell, afterwards Earl of Essex, the Vicar- 



WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 45 

General, for the keeping of registers of baptisms, marriages, and 
^ur^,1ls in cich parish. Afterwards, in the reign of Ehzabeth, 
it was ordered that every minister, at his institution, should sub- 
scrii)e tf^ this protestation, 'I shall Keepe the register books accord- 
ing to the Oucene's Majesties Injunction.' 

"But as the ordinances contain no particular directions for the 
preservation of the registers, and as they were retained in private 
hands, and the registrars, were continually changed, most of the 
records have been lost ; in some parishes the entries are found in 
the old parish book of registers. However, with the Restoration, 
this irregular system of registei^s ceased, and Vrom 1660 the 
parochial registers have been in most cases well kept. 

**Many parishes have no early registers. 

"The registers of London parishes will most generally be found 
to commence in the year 1558 (1 Elizabeth) and to have been 
thence regularly continued (the Usurpation excepted) to the 
present day. The registers of the twenty years intervening be- 
tween their introduction in 1538 and the year 1558, are not fre- 
quently met with. 

"It should be remembered that many parishes exist no longer, 
or have become united to others. No less than thirty-five of the 
churches destroyed by the fire of London in 1666, have ever been 
rebuilt. The ancient registers of these parishes, or some of them, 
may often with diligence be discovered : at times they are to be 
found in the chest of the nearest, or of a neighboring parish 
church." — Sim's Manual. 

In taking records from parish registers one should keep in mind 
that it was common in the age of Elizabeth to give the same 
Christian name to two children successively; and that every un- 
irpr-iVrl l^dv was called Mistress till the time of George T. 

From these standard books the student will turn to family his- 
tories, magazines, departments in papers, in short, to every avail- 
able source of information open to his search. 

American Books. 

Let us turn now to the Standard American books. 

In beginning a search for an American family, one should first 
consult Munsell's Index, also Munsell's American Families. The 
list of books referred to in Munsell's Index incudes such standard 
books as Savage's New Engand Dictionary ; American Ancestry ; 
publications of the various genealogical societies ; state, countv. 
and town histories; and family genealogies. The surnames are 



46 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

arranged alphabetically, and the references are to books having 
pedigrees or connected information and not to scattered names. 

Munsell's American Genealogist is a catalog of all American 
family histories published between 1771-1900, and gives the title 
page, number of pages, and other valuable information concerning 
these genealogies. It is also arranged alphabetically, and where 
more than one book on a family is published, they are arranged 
chronologically. 

Savage's New England Dictionary, consisting of four volumes, 
gives the genealogy and valuable clues of the emigrants who 
came to New England prior to 1692. The surnames and Chris- 
tian names are alphabetically arranged, but families are not com- 
piled in generations. 

The leading genealogical societies that pubish books and period- 
icals on genealogical subjects are: The New England Historic 
Genealo!?ical Society, Bo'^ton, Mass. ; New York Genealogical and 
Biographical Society, New York Citv : the New Hampshire Gene- 
alogical Society, Dover, N. H. ; the "Old Northwest" Genealogical 
Society, Columbus, O. ; Massachusetts Society of ]\fayflower De- 
scendant^, Boston, Mass. : the Virginia Historical Society, Rich- 
mond. Va. ; the Genealogical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

The New England Historical and Genealogical Reo:ister is now 
in it'; '^ivtv-ninth volume and year. Each volume has a complete 
name index, and in Vol. 50 there is an index of the family histories 
given in volumes 1 to 50. The New York Genealogical and 
Pioeri'^hiral Record is in its fortv-sixth year. Both of these 
magazin^'i are mines of valuable information concerning Amer- 
ican family history and genealogy. 

Amon^ the books not referred to in ^Munsell's Guide are the 
A'it '1 Tf^ecords — consisting of births, marriages and deaths — of 
New England towns, many of which are already published, the 
states, in some instances having appropriated the money for thi^ 
purpos'". These books are of great value to those whose ancestors 
may be traced to that part of our country. 

The student who will carefully follow the instructions given 
in the=e lessons pertaining to the recording of genealogy from the 
English records, will find very little trouble in using the American 
books. 

Old and New Time. 

A few words in regard to old and new time is important here. 
The quotation is from Sir Harris Nicolas' Chronology: 



WORK IN THE IJP.RARY. 47 

"In England, in the seventh, and so late as the thirteenth cen- 
tury, the year was reckoned from Christmas Day ; hut in the 
twelfth century, the Anglican Church hegan the year on the 25th 
of March ; which practice was also adopted hy civilians in th? 
fourteenth century. This stvle continued until the reformation 
of the Calendar by stat. 24 George II. c. 23, by which the leg-al 
year was ordered to commence on the 1st of January, in 1753. It 
aDpeirs, therefore, tliat two calculations have generally existed in 
Enirland for the commencement of the year, viz. : 

"1. The Historical year, which has for a very long period, 
begun on the 1st of January. 

''2. The Civil. Ecclesiastical, and Leg'al year, which was used 
hv the Church and in all public instruments, until the end of the 
thirteenth century, began at Christmas. In and after the four- 
teenth centurv. it commenced on the 25th of March, and so con- 
tinued until the 1st of lanuary, 1753. 

''The confusion which arose from there being two modes of 
computing- dates in one kingdom must be sufficiently apparent ; for 
the legislature, the Church, and Civilians referred everv event 
which happened between the 1st of January and the 25th of March 
to a different year from historians. 

"To nvoid as far as possible, the mistakes which this custom 
produced, it was usual to add the date of the Historical to that of 
tl^e Legal y^ar. when sneaking- of any day between the 1st of 
January and the 25th of March, thus, — 

rS i. e. the Civil and Legal year. 

January 30, 164^ 

[9 i. e. the Historical year, 
or thus, — 

Januarv 30, 1648-9. 

"This practice, common as it has long been, is nevertheless, fre- 
quentlv misunderstood ; and even learned and intdlicrent persons 
are sometimes perplexed by dates being so written. The explana- 
tion is. however, perfectly simple for the lower or last figure 
alwavs indicates the year according to our present computation. 

'Tn Scotland the vear was ordered to commence on January 1st 
inst ad of March 25, 1600. bv a proclamation dated the 17th of 
December, 1509 ; but the old stvle continued to be used until altered 
in 1752, pursuant to the Stat. 24 George IT." 

German Books. 

Son^e of the most im])ortant German works on Genealogy are : 



48 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

"Heydenreich's Familiengesch Qiiellenkiinde" and his "Handbuch 
der Praktischen Genealogie ;" *^Dahlmann-Waitz Quellenkunde." 
These books are guides to works of a genealogical and historical 
nature. Gundlach's "Repertarium gedruckter Familiengeschic- 
ten" is a catalogue of genealogical books found in Germany, 
Switzerland, Austria, Belgium, Netherlands, Scandinavia. France, 
Italy, and other countries. Two interesting books which treats 
with the origin of names are : ''Wiarda's Deutche vor u. Gesch- 
lechtsnamen" and ''Abel's Deutche Personen Namen." "Gene- 
alogisches Handl. burgl. Familien" contains pedigrees of the com- 
moners ; "Perthe's Gothaische genealogische Taschenbuchers" 
contains pedigrees of distinguished people. Lohmeier's ''History 
and Genealogy of "Royal Families Hopf Atlas" includes a period 
from the birth of Christ to 1858. "Famil. geschiehl. Blatter" and 
"Frankfurter Blatter." 

All these books are in the library of the Genealogical Society of 
Utah. Most of the Society's German books deal with Saxonv and 
surrounding provinces. Among the most important are: Link's 
"Niedersachsische Familienkunde ;" Rudolphie's "Hist. Beschrei- 
bung of Gotha ;" Dyrhaupt's "Beschreibung of Madgeburg :" 
"Kulturgeschichte Schlesiens ;" "Meissnisch. Adel ;" "Adel's buch 
des Wurtemberg ;" "Adels b. fur Baden." From Austria' we have : 
"Genealogische Heraldik Oestereich Ungarns ;" "Biographisches 
Lexicon." From Switzerland : "Genealogisches Handbuch ;" 
"Schweitzer Geschichte ;" "Schweitzer Geschlechterbuch ;" "Ba- 
seliches Lexicon." 

Scandinavian Books. 

The Scandinavian countries have not an extended list of gene- 
alogical publications. The library is in possession of "Trap's 
Danmark," five volumes ; Bricka's "Dansk Biografisk Lexicon," 
nineteen volumes; "Dansk-Norsk og Islandske Jubel-Laerere," 
printed in 1779. In Swedish we have a series of "Svenska Attar- 
tal" and "Svensk Slagtkalender Matrikel ofwer Swea Rikes Rid- 
derskap och Adel," printed in 1781 is a rare work of three vol- 
umes ; "Svensk Personhistorisk Tidskrift" is a magazine bound 
into volumes. 

French Books. 

In the French language we have a number of books, among 
the most important being, "Galiffe-Familles de Geneve, nine vol- 



WORK IN THE LIBRARY. 49 

limes ; "Recueil Gcncalogique Suisse," two volumes ; ''Indicateur 
Genealogique Hcraldique and Biographicale (Belgium), two vol- 
ues; ''Rex," nobles of France, seven volumes. "Dictionnaire 
Genealogique des Families Canadiennes" (Canadian), seven vol- 
umes. 

Dutch (Holland) Books. 

The Dutch department of the library comprises more than 50 
volumes, mostly very valuable works. About 20 of these are 
genealogies of prominent Dutch famiHes with their marriage con- 
nections. In this division are also to be found several bulky 
Flemish volumes, giving tombstone inscriptions of the provinces 
of Antwerp and East Flanders. Here, too, one finds a number of 
volumes pertaining to the Dutch colonists of South Africa, the 
sturdy Boers. The "Genealogical Register of the Old Capetown 
Families," giving genealogical information about the first Dutch 
and German settlers of the Colony, of Capetown, and their de- 
scendants, is a splendid work. An exchange periodical from The 
Hague enriches the collection annually with an elaborate volume. 

Suggestions to Beginners. 

To the beginner who is taking up work in the library, the fol- 
lowing suggestions will prove helpful : 

1. Join the Genealogical Society of Utah, if not already a 
member. The use of the library's books is restricted to members 
of the Society. 

2. Register. A book is provided for this purpose. This is 
merely to obtain an account of the names and number of persons 
who visit the library. 

3. Notify the librarian what lines are to be searched for. The 
librarian keeps this information on cards which are filed in a cab- 
inet. This is done that account may be kept of all who are search- 
ing, so that no duplicate work is done. 

4. Consult index to Temple work done. The Society is gath- 
ering as fast as possible information regarding all who have done 
Temple work. This information is placed on cards for reference, 
and it is advised that all who begin work for themselves, first to 
consult these cards. As this information is yet incomplete, an an- 
nouncement should be made in the Genealogical Department of the 
Deseret News, asking that any who are interested in the lines they 
wish to take up to communicate with them. 

These are preliminary items. The actual work with the books 



50 LESSONS IX GEXEALOGY. 

will vary with individuals and needs. One who is not in too great 
a hurry would do well to devote some time to the general books 
on the history and origin of names. One of the first things to do 
is to consult the index to family histories. If perchance there 
should be a book on the particular family one is interested in, that 
is fortunate indeed. However, the vast majority of families must 
be searched for and picked out of the big and varied field of 
genealogical information. If the search is to begin in Great 
Britain, the first book to consult is Marshal's Guide ; if in America, 
Alunsell's Index. These books in turn will refer you to other 
books, some of which will be found in our library. AH our books 
that can be listed are indexed according to locality. For instance, 
the English books are arranged in shires, and within the shires by 
parishes, alphabetically. Frequently, the only way to begin a 
search is by going direct to the parish or shire where your people 
came from, and search the parish registers and histories for the 
names desired. Successful work in the library can not be done in 
a hurry : it requires patience and perseverence to obtain results. 



LESSON VIIL 

DIAGRAMED PEDIGREES REDUCED TO FAMILY 

GROUPS. 

To the person who is acquainted with modern methods of tab- 
ulating and diagraming subjects and various forms of informa- 
tion and study, the diagraming of pedigrees is a very easy mat- 
ter. Indeed, the trained mind quickly assimilates any form of tab- 
ulated information, the trifling dififerences of method in arranging 
being seen at a glance ; but those who are not acquainted with this 
kind of work, need a careful unfolding of the subject. The pur- 
pose of this lesson is to aid even the least trained to understand 
diagrams used by others and to prepare them for their own use 
when necessary and desirable. 

The Diagram. 

To diagram a subject or a pedigree is to separate it into sections, 
subdividing its parts in such a way as will clarify all essential 
information, names, relationships, or other facts. If it is a subject 
which vou wish to diagram, you make an outline of its various 
parts. In genealogy, you divide and subdivide the family, putting 
your first forefather at the top of the diagram. His children are 
then arrang^ed under the line drawm under his name, and their 



'to' 



DIAC.RAMKI) I'KDIGREES REDUCED TO FAMILY GROUPS. 51 

children in turn arc placed under lines in a similar manner. 

There are two forms of making this genealogical diagram. One 
is made with perpendicular lines, and the other with horizontal 
lines. There is no essential difference between these methods, so 
we shall confine ourselves to the one used in English Visitations. 

Let us begin at the very beginning of this diagraming of pedi- 
grees by using a simple illustration. We will suppose that the first 
ancestor we know of (the first generation) was named Stephen, 
and his wife was Judith. We shall use the sign = for married, 
and arrange them thus : 

^TEpHEN = Judith 

We will suppose they had two children, Richard and Joseph. 
We would draw a short line leading from the married sign down 
to another line under which the names of the children with their 
wives would be placed, thus : 

^TEfHEN = Judith 



RlCHARD=fRANCE5 Jo3EfH = H£LEN 

Here we have the first and second generations represented. The 
third generation would consist of the children of Richard and 
Joseph. We will suppose that each of these had two children. 
The diagram would then stand as follows : 

^TEpnEn= Judith 



RlCHAFD= faANCES J05E|»H= JIELEN 

t ^ I I I * I 

HemrysMercy AifRCDsMARY *5aram=James Roberts lycY 

If we wish to continue this on to the fourth generation, suppos- 
ing that Henry had three children, Alfred two, Sarah one, and 
Robert none, the diagram would look like this : 

^TEpHEM = Judith 



Richards fPAncEs Joseph sHelem 

I ' — — « I • — ' I 

HtnRYsMERCY Aifred=Mary Jsarahs James RohiKV*\ucy 

', . ^-J . ! 

^UiI^HA TH0MA5 [P.SD RUTH [RAN« ELIZABETH 

This, you will remember, is an imaginery family only, and is 
purposely made very simple. ^Much matter is usually added — the 
surnames of the persons whom the sons and daughters married, 
the date and place of birth, etc., as shown in the complete chart or 



50 LESSONS IX GEXEALOGY. 

will vary with individuals and needs. One who is not in too great 
a hurry would do well to devote some time to the general books 
on the history and origin of names. One of the first things to do 
is to consult the index to family histories. If perchance there 
should be a book on the particular family one is interested in, that 
is fortunate indeed. However, the vast majority of families must 
be searched for and picked out of the big and varied field of 
genealogical information. If the search is to begin in Great 
Britain, the first book to consult is Marshal's Guide ; if in America. 
Munsell's Index. These books in turn will refer you to other 
books, some of which will be found in our library. All our books 
that can be listed are indexed according to locality. For instance, 
the English books are arranged in shires, and within the shires by 
parishes, alphabetically. Frequently, the only way to begin a 
search is by going direct to the parish or shire where your people 
came from, and search the parish registers and histories for the 
names desired. Successful work in the library can not be done in 
a hurry : it requires patience and perseverence to obtain results. 



LESSON VIII. 

DIAGRAMED PEDIGREES REDUCED TO FAMILY 

GROUPS. 

To the person who is acr[uainted with modern methods of tab- 
ulating and diagraming subjects and various forms of informa- 
tion and study, the diagraming of pedigrees is a very easy mat- 
ter. Indeed, the trained mind quickly assimilates any form of tab- 
ulated information, the trifling differences of method in arranging 
being seen at a glance ; but those who are not acquainted with this 
kind of work, need a careful unfolding of the subject. The pur- 
pose of this lesson is to aid even the least trained to understand 
diagrams used by others and to prepare them for their own use 
when necessary and desirable. 

The Diagram. 

To diagram a subject or a pedigree is to separate it into sections, 
subdividing its parts in such a way as will clarify all essential 
information, names, relationships, or other facts. If it is a subject 
which vou wish to diagram, you make an outline of its various 
parts. In genealogy, you divide and subdivide the family, putting 
your first forefather at the top of the diagram. His children are 
then arransred under the line drawn under his name, and their 



I)[.\(,R.\Mi:i) i'KDIGRKES RKDUCEn TO FAMILY GROUPS. 51 

children in turn arc placet! under lines in a similar maimer. 

There are two forms of making this genealogical diagram. One 
is made with perpendicular lines, and the other with horizontal 
lines. There is no essential difiference between these methods, so 
we shall confine ourselves to the one used in English Visitations. 

Let us begin at the very beginning of this diagraming of pedi- 
grees by using a simjjle illustration. We will suppose that the first 
ancestor we know of (the first generation) was named Stephen, 
and his wife was Judith. We shall use the sign = for married, 
and arrange them thus : 

^TEpHEN = Judith 

We will suppose they had two children, Richard and Joseph. 
We would draw a short line leading from the married sign down 
to another line under which the names of the children with their 
wives would be placed, thus : 

^tfHEN = JUDJTH 



RlCHARD=fRANCE5 Jo3Ef»H = hELEM 

Here we have the first and second generations represented. The 
third generation would consist of the children of Richard and 
Joseph. We will suppose that each of these had two children. 
The diagram would then stand as follows : 

^T£piiEn= Judith 



Richards fRANCEs Jo5Ef*H= Helen 

HenrysMercy A[fred=Mary *5arah= James Roberts [ucy 

If we wish to continue this on to the fourth generation, suppos- 
ing that Henry had three children, Alfred two, Sarah one, and 
Robert none, the diagram would look like this : 

*3TEPHEri = Judith 

I ' ' 1 

Richards fPAncEs Joseph sHelem 
I ' 1 I ■ — ' 1 

HEnRY=MERCY Aifred=Mary oarahsJames ROBIRT^IyCV 
I ' I 1 I i I j 

MAIIThA TH0MA5 ff.ED RUTH [RAN« ELIZABETH 

This, you will remember, is an imaginery family only, and is 
])urposely made very simple. Much matter is usually added — the 
surnames of the persons whom the sons and daughters married, 
the date and place of birth, etc., as shown in the complete chart or 



52 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

diagram taken from the V^isitation of Dorset which is reproduced 
on page 53 exactly as it is given in the pubUshed Visitation. 
This diagram is more compHcated than the simple one we have 
drawn, but the same principles of construction hold in each. Let 
us now see how this family of Yonge (modern Young) works out. 

Example from Visitation. 

(see NEXT PAGE.) 



DIAGRAMED PEDIGREES REDUCED TO FAMILY GROUPS. 



53 



[Plarl. 11G6, fo. 23.] 

Arms. — Per /esse sable and arycnt, three lions rampant-guardant counterchaiujcd. 
Crest. — A demi-sca-unirom rampant ari/ent, horned and finned gules. 

Hen: Yonc^c of Buckhorne \veston=rAlice da. of Rob: Dauidge 
in Com. iJurset. of the same. 



iiichard Yoime of nuck-^KuLhcriLi da. of Tlio: 3 sonnc^pElizb: da. of 



liorne westoii 2 souiie 
rector cccl'iic de Buck- 
horn we.ston. 



fTran: maried to .... 
Kitson of ... . Batcheler 
of Deuinitie. 



i^itt of Abbois of Biickhomc 
I!e in Com. weston. 

Som's. 



Chamb'lcync of 
>\Ioncktoii Deu'ell 
in Corn. Wiltcs. 



Rog: Yongc sonc & hey: Mareric [-s/c]. Amye. 
mar. Mary da. of ... . 
]\Iayo\ve in Com. Sora'set. 



Christo'r 1. Edmound 3. Reg: 2 sone of=. ... da. of AV'" Lucie a da. 

Buckhorne Mullins of the 

weston. same. 



Joh : Yonge of=pLucie da. of Katherin Agnes ux. ]\Iarg* mar. Joane mar. 



the same place 
sone & hey 



Nicho : Joyce of ob. sine Tho. to Joh : 

Marnehull in p'le. Robins. Baker, 

com. Dors: 



to Joh : 
Royall. 



Marg'' mar. to Joh: Joane mar. to Rob: Mary ob. sine Agnes mar. to Tho: 
Hillson. Crases. prole. Presleye. 



lien: & Nicho :=pSuzan da. of Christ: Hen: 3=rJoaneda: of James Rayer of 



John Yonge 
ob, sine of Buck- 
p'le. home 

weston 
Liuinge 
1623. 



ITarwell of the Towne sonne. Temple Combe in com. Som's. 
& Countie of Poole. 



I 11 II II I 

James 1. John 2. Nicho: 4. fTran: G. Jane 1. Suzan 2. 

Hen: 3. Rob't 5. 



John Yonge sone & Christop. 2. Elino'' Elizb. 1. Kathcr. 2. Suzan 3. 
heyre cetatis 21 annor. — ob. s. p'le. 

1623. Thorn. 3. 

(Signed) NiCHUs Yonge. 



54 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

Explanation of Diagram. 

By reference to the complete charted pedigree, you will observe 
that the author has skilfully arranged his lines so that the first 
forefather's large family of children is given in two places, the 
line under Henry Yonge and his wife being extended down on the 
left-hand margin to a place further down on the page, as shown 
in the diagram above. Frequently the names are numbered to 
indicate their place in the family, as, for instance, **Tho : 3" indi- 
cates that this Thomas is the third son of Henry. You will note 
that you are expected to follow a line until it breaks in order to 
get all the family of the parents just above the line. The first 
Henry's line, as we have seen, extends down quite a distance to the 
middle of the page, while his son John's line lower down doubles 
across the page close together. 

If the student will follow this pedigree down the page, he will 
find that Henry 3 (Son of Joh : and Lucie) was the third son, 
while Nicholas was evidently the fourth son. "Hen, & John" died 
without issue. Henry 3 was placed at the end of the line because 
the family of Nicholas came in better at the first part of the sec- 
ond line. 

It will be observed that when there are too many children to 
set in a horizontal line directly under the parents, one may be set 
directly under the other as is shown in the family of "Hen :3 and 
Joane." Two short vertical lines, quite close together, indicate 
this. The family fHen:3) furnishes a good illustration of the 
numbering of the children. As will be seen, James was the first, 
John was the second ; Henry, who appears below John, was third, 
and so on. The daughters follow. These early pedigree makers 
had a way of placing all the sons first, leaving the daughters to 
follow after. 

This chart is signed NICHUS YONGE or Nicholas Young, 
who prepared it for the King's Herald. This Nicholas is the 
father of the last-named John Yonge in the chart, who was 24 
years old in 1623. He was therefore born in 1599. Having 
established this date, we can now count back to the birth of his 
great grandfather, Henry, and thus give approximate dates for all 
the names in the family. With this in view, let us now properly 
arrange and number the names on the chart so that they may be 
ready to transfer to a Family Record of Temple Work and to 
sheets for temple work. 

You will notice in the following arrangement that we do not 
use lines of any kind, but simply make certain spaces between 



DIAGRAMED PEDIGREES REDUCED TO FAMILY GROUPS. 55 

names to indicate when families are broken into generations. The 
names of the children may be indented a little further from the 
edge of the page to attract the eye. In a permanent record, the 
repeated numbers are written in red ink, but for our purpose these 
numbers are printed in dark figures, thus: 16. This indicates 
that the number has been used before. In referring back to this 
number a cross is found before it to show that it is to be repeated 
later on, thus: xi6. As previous lessons have explained, each 
person has a distinct number by which he can be located in the 
records. 

As will be seen, there is only one date given in the pedigree 
chart which we have used as an example. In former lessons, the 
manner of approximating dates has been fully explained, so it is 
unnecessary to repeat that here. 

Abbreviations. 

It will be seen that there are a number of abbreviations and 
foreign words used in this diagram. These were extensively em- 
ployed in the days when this was made. An explanation of these 
will here be useful : 

Ux. — wife. 
. .Hew: — Henry. 
Roh. — Robert. 
Com. — County or shire. 
Som's. — Somerset. 
Tho. — Thomas. 
//. — Capital F. 
soue or sonne. — son. 
hey or heyre. — heir. 
Dors. — Dorset. 
sic. — Doubtful name or date. 
oh. sine p'le, or prole. — died without issue. 
mar. — married. 
Liiiino;e 162^. — living in 1623. 
Christ: — Christopher. 

heyre aefafis 24 armor 162^. — aged 2-4- years, in the year 1623. 
aetatis. — aged. 
annor. — years. 



58 LESSOXS IX GEXEALOGY. 

preliminary work to be done. After gathering data concerning 
our ancestors, and properly arranging it into family groups, the 
next step is to record it in our permanent Family Record of Tem- 
ple Work. This being done, we are ready to take the naines from 
our Record on to the sheets or forms furnished by the Temples. 

Three forms are provided for this purpose, and as baptism 
is the first ordinance performed, the baptism blank should neces- 
sarily be the one used first. Read carefully the printed instruc- 
tions given at the top of each of the forms and a clear understand- 
ing of the information needed will be had. 

Write the name of the heir or individual at whose instance the 
work is to be done on each of the blanks in the space where it is 
called for, and proceed to copy the names below, beginning with 
the first name in the book and continuing consecutively to the end ; 
always remember that for baptism the males must be placed on 
one sheet and the females on another. This is for the convenience 
of the workers in the Temples, as males always act for males and 
females for females. 

In order to quickly and systematically enter in our Family 
Record of Temple Work the date of the ordinance, place the num- 
ber given to each individual in the Family Record of Temple 
Work on the sheet before the name, and fill in the other data 
called for, which is a duplicate of that in our Family Record of 
Temple Work. After the ordinance has been performed in the 
Temple, the sheets that may have been left with the recorder will, 
on application to the doorkeeper, be returned to the owner, who 
should immediately copy the date of the ordinance into his Family 
Record of Temple Work, as there is great danger of loose sheets 
being lost or torn, which is a source of much worry and regret. 

At this stage of the work, the numbers prove to be invaluable, as 
bv their use the names in the book can be readily located, and the 
date recorded without any hesitancy. Tt is often convenient to 
have someone call the numbers while another does the recording. 

The blanks used for baptism may also be used for the endow- 
ment, the only difiference being where there is any doubt as to the 
person having attained sufficient age to be endowed, his name 
should not be placed on the blank for that purpose, although all 
names may be baptized for whether or not there is enough data to 
prove that the person had attained the age of eight years. There 
is no excuse for any member of the Church neglecting his duty in 
this regard. People who live away from a Temple City, often 
oflfer the excuse that they cannot aflford to go to the Temple as 



MAKING OUT TEMPF.E SHEETS. 59 

there is the expense of travehn^. hotel expenses, etc. Now all 
of the Temples have a number of people who act as regular 
proxies and who are willingly baptized for all names sent in. 
The endowment can be done in the same way, with the exception 
that it takes longer and the proxies whose services are required 
for this purpose are paid the small sum of 50 cents for each 
woman and 75 cents for each man ; thus $10.00 will endow a 
sheet of 20 women and $15.00 a sheet of 20 men. After the 
ordinances have been attended to, the sheets will be mailed to the 
owner who can then enter the dates in his Record. 

The second sheet to be used is that prepared for the purpose 
of sealing wives to husbands. The third sheet is that of sealing or 
adoption of children. Remember to number the names in each 
instance. Sealings may be attended to by those who do the en- 
dowment, if the sheets are properly made out. 

Herewith is given a small, greatly reduced duplicate of two 
of the blank forms used in sending names to the temples. The first 
is the one used for baptisms and endowments. The second blank, 
used for the sealing of wives to husbands, is not here reproduced, 
as it is practically the same as the first form, the only difference 
being that there is a column for "sealed" instead of ''baptized." 
The printed instructions, however, on this blank are given below.* 
The third form, used for the sealing or adoption of children, is 
also shown. These forms should be carefully studied. 



*A11 the information this blank calls for is required in each instance. 
Leave one line between each couple, the man's name to be recorded 
first. In case a man has had more than one wife, his name is to be 
written once only, followed by the names of each of his wives in their 
order. If any of the persons are alive, the word "living" should be 
inserted opposite such name, in the "Died" column. Women should 
be designated by their maiden names only. If the maiden name can- 
not be ascertained, the wife should be designated by her given name, if 
that is known, thus: "Mary, his wife;" otherwise the marriage name 
must be prefixed by the word "Mrs." If the person who acts as proxy 
is a blood relation of the deceased (not relative in law) a mark (X) 
should be inserted after the names of the dead individuals, who should 
be represented by their own kindred when practicable. When sheets 
of sealings are left with the Recorder they will be returnd, on applica- 
tion, after the recording is completed. 

Sealings of persons who were not married in life cannot be per- 
formed, except by permission of the President of the Temple. 



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E USED OA^LY IN GIVING RECORD FOR SEALIJ 
FOR ADOPTIONS — /?£'fl^ these Instructions. 


should have dead children. The son whose name is the wives, a 
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names of the be sealed to their parents at the same time, if keeper, 
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62 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

LESSON IX. 

FAMILY ORGANIZATIONS. 

As to the formation of a family organization, if you are inter- 
ested in making your temple work effective, no matter whether 
you are a man or a woman, rich or poor, humble or mighty, first 
or last child, you are the very one to begin this work. God has 
called many but few are chosen, in this field as in all others of His 
vineyard ; so that, it makes no difference whether there be many 
or few of your family, or whether you are an insignificant or a 
powerful member thereof, it is in your power to take up this work 
as an individual and to prosecute it to a successful conclusion. If 
you have no personal ambitions to serve, few will dispute your 
right to work for the general good. 

How to Begin. 

Now as to the details of a family organization. 

First, go to the oldest male representative of the family, or 
write to him and ask him to give you his sanction and support. 
This is absolutely necessary, even if he refuses you a hearing, or 
will not step forward in his place. You must do your duty, and 
that is to give the male heir in the family the right to act as its 
head. With love and patience, usually, all can be won over to 
form a family organization, even if some are quite indifferent 
to temple work. Next, visit or correspond with all members of 
the family that you can learn of, and set a day and time to have 
a family gathering. Let this be held in a central place. If you 
live near a Temple City, it is wise to appoint it there. It might 
be advisable to call your first gathering in Salt Lake City, at con- 
ference time, as then many members of your family could take up 
the work under the advice and with the assistance of the Gene- 
alogical Society. 

Officers. 

The officers usually elected for a family society are, President, 
two Vice-Presidents, Secretary and Treasurer, (this may be one 
or two persons) Corresponding Secretary, Committee on Temple 
Work, and Committee on Socials. Three persons are chosen as 
a rule for the temple work committee, one to act as chairman, 
one to collect the funds or donations, and the other to act as sec- 



FAMII.Y ORGANIZATIONS. 63 

retary and treasurer of temple funds, which should be kept apart 
from other funds bclon.e^incr to the society. The Committee on 
socials has in charge the program of the yearly meetings, the 
preparation for that gathering, and other duties common to such 
officers. 

All these officers should be chosen with care. It is not neces- 
sary that the offices of president and vice-president be continu- 
ously held by the same persons ; but the temple committee should 
not be changed except for good reasons. If there is a very ener- 
getic, up-to-date member of your family, choose that one as chair- 
man of your temple committee ; for it is only such a one who can 
and will do the best and most difficult work. It requires a trained 
mind to grasp the intricate details of this important work. The 
temple committee should take the whole responsibility of finding 
out just how the family records stand, what can be done to put 
them in proper condition, and then to study the science of geneal- 
ogy itself. Each family should have one or more trained scribes 
in its circle. 

The family organization could meet once a year to hear reports 
from the various committees, and to renew old ties and affections ; 
but the temple committee should meet at least once a month. 

Duties of the Temple Committee. 

As to the duties and labors of the temple committee : the com- 
mittee would naturally adjust itself into making one of its mem- 
bers the recorder of the family genealogy, whose duty it would be 
to acquaint himself with the business of gathering and recording 
genealogy. This requires time, accuracy, and care, as has been 
pointed out in former lessons. Where it is possible, attendance at 
one of the genealogical classes would prove of great assistance. 
Another member of the committee could handle the funds pro- 
vided for the committee's special work — that of doing the actual 
temple work, for it is not advisable to have the recorder do this. 
An accurate account of the funds should be kept, as every person 
will want to know just what has become of his contribution, no 
matter how small it may have been. It costs only ten dollars a 
month to keep one man constantly employed in endowment work 
in one of the temples, and there are but few families in the Church 
that cannot afiford to raise that amount. A like sum spent for 
genealogical research will keep one person fairly well employed in 
his spare hours, the money being used in buying books and sta- 
tionery and in having expert research work done. 



64 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

Agents of the Genealogical Society of Utah charge forty and 
fifty cents an hour for expert work in the office. This means 
that such an agent will take any surname, make a systematic 
and careful research of all books in the Society's library, and 
record all information found. This information can be taken by 
the family genealogist and transcribed into the family record of 
temple work and thus keep the work going steadily on. If the 
family has one or more old records, these can be put in order, and 
the work placed on a satisfactory basis. 

It may happen that the surname is a common one, and that 
there are other branches of the same name in the Church. In 
that case, we advise the various families to come together and 
form a surname family organization, as the Stewart, and Curtis, 
and other families have done. Then the English branch, the 
Southern branch, the New England branch, and all other branches 
can segregate their work, while uniting on one grand principle 
and assisting with orderly steps to put all this work on a proper 
and logical foundation. 

Sample Constitution and By-laws. 

Herewith is given a suggestive Constitution and By-laws of a 
family organization : 

CONSTITUTION AND BY-LAWS 
of the 

FAMILY ASSOCIATION 

Organized , 19 

Article I. 

NAME. 

The name of this Association shall be the 

Family Association. 

Article II. 

OBJECTS. 

The object of this Association shall be to perpetuate the mem- 
ory and genealogy of our forefathers ; to cement the ties of fel- 
lowship and kinship between living members by frequent associa- 
tion and friendly intercourse. 

Article III. 

MEMBERSHIP. 

Any descendant of , or any one who has 

entered the family by marriage is eligible to mem- 



FAMILY ORGANIZATIONS. 65 

bership in this Association through comphance with the articles 
herein noted : 

The entrance membership fee shall be 

The annual due shall be , and shall be paid on or be- 
fore the day of the annual reunion. 

Article IV. 

ORGANIZATION. 

This Association shall be organized on the 

Failure to hold elections or meetings shall not disorganize this 
Association. 

Article V. 

OFFICERS. 

Section I — The term of officers of this Association shall be 
years. 

Section II — The election, or re-election of officers shall be held 
at the annual meetings. 

Section III. The officers shall be a president, vice-presidents, 
secretary, treasurer, historian, chairman of temple committee, 
chairman of social committee. 

Members of Committees, permanent and temporary, shall either 
be chosen by vote or named by the President. 

The Chairman and members of the Temple Committee shall 
remain in office indefinitely. 

BY-LAWS. 

DUTIES OF OFFICERS. 

The President shall preside at all meetings ; shall be empowered 
to call special meetings when necessary ; and shall exercise a gen- 
eral supervision of the whole Association. 

The Vice-Presidents, in order of precedence, shall preside at 
meetings if the president be absent, and shall assist and counsel in 
all matters pertaining to the activities of this Association. 

The Secretary shall conduct all correspondence, take and record 
all minutes, unless this office be divided into recording and cor- 
responding secretary. The secretary shall perform all work usual 
to this office. 

The Treasurer shall collect and keep all funds of the Associa- 
tion, and shall keep an accurate account of the financial transac- 
tions of the Association. Funds for general purposes shall not be 
kept with the funds used for genealogical and temple work and 



6^ LESSONS IX GENEALOGY. 

shall pay out monies only on a written order from the president 
countersigned by the secretary. ^ ' ' 

The Historian shall prepare and keep all historical and bio- 
graphical matter belonging to the Association. 

The Chairman and members of the Temple Committee shall 
gather all genealogical data, preserve the same in fireproof re- 
ceptacles, arrange the data for temple work, institute temple ex- 
cursions and otherwise stimulate, encourage and promote the o-en- 
ealogical and temple interests of all members of this Association 

Ihe Chairman and Conunittce of Social Affairs shall arrange 
programs, and superintend the details of all entertainments -iven 
by this Association. ^ 

Article VI. 

AMENDMENT. 

These laws and by-laws may be amended at the annual meetino- 
by a majority vote, provided thirty davs' notice shall have beeli 
given publicly. 

The order of business shall be : 

1. Music. 

2. Prayer. 

3. Roll Call. 

4. Minutes. 

5. Reports of officers. 

6. Reports of Committees. 

7. Communications. 

8. New or unfinished business. 

9. Election of officers. 
10. Benediction. 

What the Country Genealogist Can Do. 

If any member of the Church living a distance from Salt Lake 
City where the Genealogical Library is located, asks this question, 
VVhat can the country genealogist do?" let it be answered thus • 

First He can join the Genealogical Society of Utah, and sub- 
scribe for The Utah Genealogical and Historical Magazine 
and persuade his friends to do likewise. He is thus layino- the 
foundation for his own individual temple work, and helpincr"' oth- 
ers to do the same. *^ 

Second. He can call his family together and persuade them to 
form a family organization. This family society should have as 



Ix\STRUCTlOiNS CUNCERNIiNG TEMPLE WORK. 67 

its central feature a temple committee, which should hold in trust 
all genealogical and historical data and records pertaining to the 
family. 

Third. He can himself gather together all his loose genealogical 
information and turn it over to the temple committee of his fam- 
ily organization. If he has properly prepared records, he can also 
turn them over. 

Fourth. He can write to all his family connections far and 
near, and gather from them all notes and items, both of tradition 
and record, concerning his lineage, that is possible to be thus col- 
lected. 

Fifth. He can purchase an individual Family Record and be- 
gin his ow^n family record, persuading all his relatives to join 
him in this excellent and most essential genealogical foundation. 

Sixth. He can open up a correspondence with the Genealog- 
ical Society of Utah, concerning his temple and genealogical 
work, asking for further information. 

Seventh. He can write to the town or parish clerk from where 
his people emigrated and learn all that he can in this way about 
his various relatives ; or the services of the Society may be secured 
for that purpose. 

Eighth. Lastly and most important of all, he can set aside 
a regular sum of money from his income, be it ever so little, with 
which to do his temple work. 

The necessity of joining the Genealogical Society of Utah is 
plain to all who are acquainted with the scope of the work it is 
doing. Literature and information regarding the purpose of the 
Society are gladly furnished to all enquirers. 



LESSON X. 



INSTRUCTION CONCERNING TEMPLE ORDINANCE 

WORK. 

The Saints, before coming to the Temple, should consider w^ell 
the work they purpose doing, and have the necessary dates, etc., in 
each individual case submitted to writing on the blanks provided 
for the respective ordinances. The information has to be repeated 
as a rule, for each class of work. For instance, the record given 
in for baptism will not suffice for other ordinances ; it must be 
given again for each of the ordinances that follow. 



ms 



^^ LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

Special blanks are provided for use in giving record for seali 
wives to husbands, or children to parents. 

At least one year should be allowed to elapse after death of in- 
dividuals before Temple ordinances are performed in their behalf 
unless It is known the deceased were faithful members of the 
Uiurch, or that they were prepared to obey the Gospel before their 
death. 

Individuals who were members of the Church, at time of death 
do not need to have the ordinance of baptism performed in their 
behalf, unless they had become unworthy of membership 

In making out lists for Baptisms, the names of males and fe- 
males should be listed separately. Initials only of names should 
not be used, unless the full names cannot be given. Writino- 
should be plain and legible. Original names of individuals the 
names by which they were known in lifetime, and the mode of 
spelling the name at that time, should be recorded, no chano-e 
should be made. If the name of an ancestor is unknown, it is no^ 
right to assume that the surname of such ancestor is the same 
as that of the descendants', because a child's surname is not al- 
ways the same as the father's. 

Women should be designated by their maiden names only, until 
they are sealed as wives, in which case the marriage name is 
added. When the maiden name cannot be ascertained, the mar- 
riage name must be prefixed by the word Mrs. 

If exact dates are unknown, write the word About m that part 
of the blank headed Day and Month, and enter the year supposed 
to be nearest to that in which the individual was born or died 
based upon calculations reasonably derived from other data If 
you have date of marriage and no birth (or chistening) date place 
marriage date in birth column, prefixed by the word married Or 
similarly, if you have date of marriage and no death date place 
marriage date in death column, prefixed by the word married 
Death dates should not be formulated without clues. 

If place of birth is unknown, state w^here the individual lived, if 
that can be ascertained. The name of place thus given should be 
prefixed by the word of. 

Baptisms, or other ordinances, must not be performed in behalf 
of any individual whose death is not positively known, except one 
hundred years, at least, have elapsed from date of birth. When 
there is no evidence of the dead having attained a sufficient age 
in life, cndoivments should not be performed in behalf of such 
persons until after the evidence is obtained. 



TEMPLE ORDINANCE WORK. 69 

The ordinance of endowment must not be repeated in behalf of 
any individual who has once been endowed, living or dead. 

When endowments are wanted for the dead, the date of Baptism 
must be given ; and when sealings of husbands and wives are to be 
performed for the dead, the dates of Endowments should be stated 
in addition to the other information usually required. 

The dead who have been endowed can only be represented in 
any vicarious work by those who have themselves been endowed. 
A living person cannot be represented by proxy. 

When baptisms have been attended to, the other ordinances to 
which the individuals are eligible should be performed without de- 
lay. Husband and wife, dead, should be sealed on same day they 
are endowed, if possible. 

Before children are sealed to parents or adopted, all the other 
ordinances to which they are eligible should first be attended to. 
All the members of a family should be sealed to their parents at 
the same time, if possible. Tf the sealing is to another person 
than the father or mother, that fact must be stated. 

Children under eight years of age do not need to have any 
Temple ordinances performed in their behalf, other than being 
sealed to parents if they were not born in the Covenant. Those 
eight years of age must be baptized, and dead children, who at- 
tained over fourteen years of age in life, should be endowed be- 
fore being sealed to parents. No person should have the ordin- 
ance of Sealing of Children performed for those zvho are not of 
their ozvn lineage. 

Those who do Temple work, or get it done, should be careful 
to designate their proper relationship to each one of the dead. A 
clear distinction should be made between blood kindred and those 
to whom they are married ; the latter are known as relatives in 
law, thus a man is nephew-in-law to his uncle's wife, cousin-in-law 
to his cousin's wife, etc. If the dead are known to be blood re- 
lations, but the degree of relationship cannot be stated, the word 
Relative is to be given. Where there is no family connection, the 
word Friend should be used. The relatives, or friends of a wife 
should be listed separatelv from those of her husband, and the 
work for her kindred should be at the instance of her eldest 
brother, if he is a member of the Church, or of her eldest son. 

In the performance of work for the dead, the right of heirship 
(blood relationship) should be sacredly regarded. When prac- 
ticable, relatives should represent the dead. When an heir em- 
powers another person to do the work in his or her stead, he or 



^0 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

she should give the acting proxy a written authorization to that 
effect. The name of the individual at whose instance the work 
is done, and his or her relationship to each of the dead is required 
for record, if the relationship is known. As a rule, the eldest 
living male representative of the family, who is a member of the 
Church, is the recognized heir. 

It is advised that individuals having Temple ordinances per- 
formed should limit that work to individuals bearing the sur- 
names of their parents and grandparents, and who resided in lo- 
calities where those ancestors lived ; that provides four family 
lines. To include other lines than those involves the probability 
of repeating Temple ordinances that individuals representing 
other families may have a better right to have performed. Every 
possible precaution should be taken to prevent such undesirable 
repetition. Temple work may be done for dead individuals who 
were married to your blood relations, but the family lines of such 
rclatives-in-law must not be included. 

Lists of Baptisms or Sealings that are left with the recorder can 
be obtained from the doorkeeper after they are recorded. These 
lists, in connection with memoranda of other work done in the 
Temple, which all are advised to keep, will furnish information 
M-hich should be promptly entered in individual or family records. 
The instructions concerning this matter should be carefully ob- 
served, as the recorder has not the time at command to make 
lengthy transcripts of work from the Temple records. 

When it is necessary to apply for information concerning ordin- 
ance work that has been done in the Salt Lake Temple, or Endow- 
ment House, the applicant should furnish the recorder the name 
of the heir, or individual at whose instance, or by whose author- 
ization the ordinances were attended to, and, as near as can be 
ascertained, the date, or the year, in which such work was, prob- 
ably, done, designating the ordinances — baptisms, endowments, 
sealings, sealings of husbands and wives, or sealings of children 
and if the work was done in behalf of the dead or of the living. 
Address: The Recorder, L. D. S. Temple, Salt Lake City, Utah. 

The Saints who enter the sacred building should be properly 
prepared. Their bodies should be scrupulously clean. Those who 
are to be baptized, or officiate in endowments, should each bring 
a towel for personal use. Shoes worn out of doors should be re- 
moved from the feet, in the Temple, and slippers substituted there- 
for. Males should be ordained Elders before they come to the 
Temple to receive endowments. 



TEMPLE ORDINANCE WORK. 71 

The Saints who attend to baptisms for the dead should be amply 
dressed m white before entering the font. All participants in the 
ordmance of sealing children should also be dressed in white 
Males over 21 or females over 18 years of age, are not permitted 
to witness or take part in any Temple ordinances, except baptism 
for the dead, until they have received their own endowments. 

Each individual should be provided with the endowment cloth- 
ing they need. The garments must be white, and of the approved 
pattern; they must not be altered or mutilated, and are to be 
worn as intended, down to the wrist and ankles, and around the 
neck. These requirements are imperative ; admission to the Tem- 
ple will be refused to those who do not comply therewith. 

The living who receive their own endowments are required to 
state their names in full, date and place of birth, date of baptism, 
and names of parents. Couples who come to the Temple to be mar- 
ried (sealed), must bring Licenses issued by County Clerks of this 
State. When this is not complied with the ceremony will not be 
performed. Those who have been legally married before do not 
require such licenses. Husbands and wives must be sealed be- 
fore their children can be sealed to them. 

Individuals, or families, who cannot conveniently attend person- 
ally to the performance of Temple work in behalf of their dead 
kindred, or friends, can make arrangements to have such work 
dune at their instance. The necessary instructions regarding this 
matter will be imparted on application to the Recorder. 

Each person or family should keep an accurate individual or 
family record of work done. This is of great importance and 
must not be neglected. Unless it is attended to the children of 
those who are now working for the dead will not know where 
to take up the labor where their parents leave it. A simple form 
of blank book has been prepared for that purpose, which can 
be obtained at moderate cost at the Genealogical Society. It 
is advisable that individuals doing Temple work for same family 
names should correspond with each other, to prevent duplication 
of such work, if possible. Those who wish skilled assistance to 
arrange their records can get it from the Genealogical Society, 
Historian's Office. All who engage in Temple work are invited 
to become members of that Society ; valuable assistance may 
thereby be secured in procuring, and compiling, essential gene- 
alogical information. 

Those who do ordinance work have not the right to make 
matches between people who are deceased, except in cases of per- 



72 LESSONS IN GENEALOGY. 

sons who were married in life. In all other instances the President 
of the Temple must be consulted. Persons who commit murder 
or suicide, or who apostatized or were excommunicated from the 
Church, cannot be officiated for except by special permission of 
the President of the Temple. He should be appealed to in all mat- 
ters involving doubt or complications. 

The Temple is open on all working days at 7 :30 a. m., and all 
ought to be in the building not later than 8 :30. Monday is devoted 
to taking the record of Baptisms for the Dead, which are per- 
formed on Tuesdays. Baptismal records are not taken after eleven 
o'clock Mondays. The higher ordinances are attended to on 
Wednesdays, Thursdays, and Fridays. The record of this work 
is taken between the hours of 7 :30 and 9 :00 a. m. of the day it is 
performed. The earlier the Saints come to give in record the bet- 
ter. Children who are to be sealed should not be brought to the 
Temple before 12 m. 

A second company, taking endowments for the dead only, is 
received in the Temple at 12 :30 p. m. on Wednesdays, Thursdays, 
and Fridays. The morning company includes all who are to re- 
ceive their own endowments, or who have sealings to perform, 
and those who reside outside of Salt Lake City; the afternoon 
company consists, principally, of residents of the city. 

All who enter the Temple must patiently observe good order 
and proper decorum ; loud and irrelevant conversation should be 
avoided. 

All li'ho come to the Temple to perform ordinance work are ex- 
pected to make donations according to their circumstances, to aid 
in meeting necessary expenses, but the poor zvho have nothing to 
give are equally zvelcome. 

Recommends for the privilege to work in the House of the 
Lord must be renewed every six months. Each individual needs a 
recommend, including children over eight years of age. 

Joseph F. Smith, 
President of the Salt Lake Temple. 



Genealogical and Temple 
Records^ Note Books and Sheets 

For Sale by the 

GENEALOGICAL 
SOCIETY OF UTAH 

TEMPLE RECORDS, for the recording of temple work 
only — 

1 quire $1.25 

2 quires 1.75 

3 quires 2.25 

INDIVIDUAL RECORD, a book in compact, handy 

size, for recording the important events in the his- 
tory of families and individuals $1.25 

FAMILY AND TEMPLE RECORD COMBINED— 
The first part is devoted to family or individual his- 
tory, the second part to temple work. 

1 quire $1.25 

2 quires 1.75 

3 quires 2.25 

GENEALOGICAL PENCIL NOTE BOOK. Ruled 
especially for use in classes in genealogy. Useful in 
preparing family records preparatory for the perma- 
nent Family Record of Temple work 10c 

GENEALOGICAL FORMS— 

1. Family Record Sheets, for gathering genealogy. 

2. Sample Pages of Note Book for class work. 

3. Sample Pages of Individual Record. 

Be sure to order these sheets by number and name to 
avoid confusion. Price 10c a doz. 

Address all communications to 

Genealogical Society of Utah 

60 East South Temple St., 
Salt Lake City, Utah 



When you buy 

Books for Your Home 
Library 

You want those books 
that are worth while 

The Story Books for Your Children should be clean 
and. wholesome. Our specialty is to select Good Books 
for the Home. No matter for whom you want a book, or 
what subject you want to study, we can furnish just v/hat 
you need. 

Some books by Joseph F. Smith, Jr., that will help 
you in your understanding of the Gospel: 
Origin of the Reorganized Church and Question of 

Succession Paper, 30c ; Cloth, 50c ; Postpaid 

Blood Atonement and the Origin of Plural Marriage 

Paper, 20c, Postpaid 

The Reorganized Church vs. Salvation for the Dead 

Paper, 2 for 5c, Postpaid 



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SALT LAKE CITY, UTAH