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3>TJEJ^W" EiiDiTionsr. 


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Horse Dealers and Horse Buyers. 



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The author has endeavored in the following 
pages to place on a rational basis a subject that 
has hitherto been taught dogmatically, if indeed 
it can be truly said to have ever been taught at 

The vast wealth in horse flesh, so materially 
affected by selection of breeding stock, that is in- 
vested in the civilized world, is the author's ex- 
cuse for bringing out this httle work. 

In the case of the domesticated animals man's 
protective interference entirely puts aside the 
great natural law, the survival of the fittest, 
which obtains with such salutary effects among 
non-domesticated animals. Were all the horses 
of the civilized world gathered into a field, and 
this field placed side by side with one containing 
all the antelopes of South Africa, the great law 
we have mentioned would be most strikingly 
demonstrated; one field would exhibit the per- 
fect, the halt and the blind, a medley of beauty, 


and wretched deformity; whilst the other would 
show only grace, elegance and excess of hfe. 

At present the breeding of racing stock only 
approaches the great law of survival of the fit- 
test, much care being taken to register results, 
and the representatives of best results are set 
apart to reproduce their hke. A more perfect 
combination of scientific and logical method than 
is followed in the reproduction of racing stock 
does not obtain in any physicist's laboratory. 
With no other class of horse is this method ap- 
phcable; hence the necessity of judging by other 
and less exact methods, and therefore the neces- 
sity of some such way as has been indicated. 

Lastly, it is desirable here to point out that the 
book is not written with any intention of stand- 
ing in place of the thinking out process of the 
learner, but is more as a guide to the hues along 
which thought must be directed. By using it as 
a guide, and thinking out the subject for himself, 
the author beheves that any one of intelligence 
may in a very few months, by observation and 
diligence, become a scientific judge of a horse. 

The author craves indulgence, as the work is en- 
tirely original. 

London,. March, 1879. 


Lesson. Page. 

I. Introduction 11 

II. The Nostrils and Lips 22 

" The Mouth 26 

III. The Eye 35 

IV. Face AND Head 49 

V. The Neck 56 

VI. The Fore Extremity 65 

VII. The Fore Limbs 80 

" The Trunk 85 

VIII. The Hind Extremities 90 

IX. Hind Extremities continued 103 

" The Hock 106 

X. The Wlnd, Color. Height, Coat and Hair, Age. 110 


Vertebra. — The bones forming the neck and tail are seen to 
be without upper processes or spines. The remainder have 
spines. Those of the back proper having the longest spines, 
especially at the forward part known as the withers. 

Fore Extremity.— This is explained at Fig. 8. 

HmD Extremity.— 33, 34, 35, 36 is the Ilio-ischium, 37. 
Femur. 38. Tibia, with the Fibula at the top of it and behind it. 
39. Lever bone of hock, corresponding to the human heel, and 
called the os calcis. 40. The Gliding Bone, called astragalus, 
with its two large gliding surfaces well seen in the right hind 
leg. 41. Buffer bone of hock. 45. Metatarsal bone, with small 
metatarsals (46) immediately behind it. The remaining bones 
are the same as those of the fore leg. 




1. — In the following pages it will be attempted 
to place a subject which has hitherto been largely 
conducted empirically on a scientific basis. 

2. — Horses are hving machines hke ourselves, 
and have many things in common with not-hving 
machines, which obey certain well-known phys- 
ical as well as physiological laws. 

3. — Their mode of progression is by a system of 
levers, sometimes of perfect construction and ad- 
vantageously disposed, but more often of imper- 
fect construction and placed at a disadvantage. 

4. — In order that the general student may fol- 
low us in our further remarks, it will be absolutely 
necessary for us to explam briefly the construc- 
tion of these living levers, which are composed of 
two materials in every case, namely; an active 
material and several passive materials. 

6. — The active materials are the so-called mus- 
cles of the body which we popularly call flesh or 
' lean ' meat. These muscles, which are attached 


to the levers of the body, and move them, in doing 
so always act in one and the same way — namely, 
by alternately lengthening and shortening. Of 
these two movements, one is active, the other 
passive. It is the active movement, that of short- 
ening, which does the work. After a muscle has 
shortened, or, as it is termed, contracted, it allows 
other forces to pull it out or lengthen, it and it 
passively submits to being so lengthened. 

6. — All muscles are made up of countless bun- 
dles, and these bmidles are made up in fibres. 
These fibres being about the same size of all cases, 
it follows that the more of them the stronger will 
be the muscle, hence the larger the muscle the 
stronger. A muscle fibre (See Fig. 1. CD) is made 
up of a number of squares, placed one on the other, 
as you would place a pile of dice. These squares, 
on being stimulated, change their shape, as seen 
in the diagram. The power of changing their 
shape is called muscular irritability, and resides 
somehow or other in the muscle itself, or, in other 
words, every fibre has irritability. This irrita- 
hility is called forth when a stimulant is applied. 
Various stimulants wiU caU it forth. If you see 
an animal that is newly kiUed and which has its 
skin removed, you see the flesh twitch or quiver 
in various parts. This is the contraction or twitch- 
ing here and there of the muscles, whose irrita- 
bility is affected by the cold air, the cold air act- 
ing as a stimulant. If you now pinch one of the 
muscles, or prick it wHh a pin, it will quiver or 
contract. The same would occur if you applied 
galvanism to it. 



The natural stimulants of the muscle are the 
nerves (Fig. 1. n n), the little white cords which 
you see running in various directions among the 
muscles or flesh, and which come from the brain 
and the spinal cord. If you had to apply a gal- 
vanic battery to a muscle, before long you would 

Figure 1. 

A B D 

exhaust aU its irritability, that is, in time it would 
cease to contract, showing that there is only a cer- 
tain amount of irritability in the muscle. If all 
the muscles of the body contract at the same time, 
the whole body is perfectly rigid or stiff, a thing 
we never see in health, but which we see in a 
modified state after death, and which is called 
rigor mortis. This general stiffness, or rigor mor- 
tis, comes on as the body cools: the cold acting as 


a stimulant, as we have before seen. In a few 
hours or days the general stiffness disappears and 
leaves the body quite flaccid, that is, the cold has 
exhausted all the muscular irritability. In ani- 
mals that are hunted to death, such as foxes, that 
are kiUed after being chased and able to run no 
further, or whose muscles have lost their irrita- 
bility or power of further contracting, this rigor 
mortis, or stiffness of the body after death, never 
takes place. So it is with animals who die after 
long and exhausting iUnesses, the stiffness after 
death either occurs, or occurs so slightly as hardly 
to be observed. Animals killed by lightning are 
also never stiff after death. The lightning being 
so powerful a stimulant as to exhaust the irrita- 
bility of the muscles instantly. 

7. — This irritability of muscle can be stored up 
in vast quantities when the muscle is in what is 
termed good tone. When we speak of a horse, a 
hunter for example, being in condition, we mean 
that his muscles are in good tone ; or, in other words, 
that his muscles can lay in large quantities of irri- 
tability, which takes hours of hard toil to exhaust. 
The process by which the muscles are brought to 
* tone ' is called ^ conditioning.' When large quan- 
tities of this irritability have been stored, the first 
expenditure of it is intensely pleasurable, and this 
pleasurable excitement, unrestrained, which it 
often is on first coming out of the stable, is called 
^freshness.' Shortly, when some of the irrita- 
bility or freshness has gone off, further expen- 
diture of irritability causes neither pleasure nor 
pain, but indifference, and the horse is said to 


^ quieten down. ' If the exercise or work be car- 
ried to an extreme, then, as the muscular irrita- 
hility is vanishing, pain in the muscles comes on, 
which is nature's warning to stop the machine, 
and lay in another store of irritability. 

8. — The part of the muscle which contracts is 
its red part, called its belly (Fig. 1. 1 1) and the 
hard, white glistening continuation of the belly is 
called the tendon (Fig. 1. 2 2). The belly of the 
muscle is usually attached to the fixed part, while 
the tendon is attached to the part to be moved. 
If, however, the part othervdse to be moved is 
fixed, and the muscle contracts, then the part to 
which the belly of the muscle is attached has to 
move. When the tendon is drawn towards the 
belly of the muscle and the movements again and 
again repeated, the parts would become heated 
by friction were it not that this is provided 
against. Friction is prevented by the tendon 
being surrounded by a sheath, containing a lubri- 
cating material called ^ joint oil' or technically, 
'synovia.' This 'joint oil' or 'synovia' is gen- 
erated by a membrane lining the * sheath,' and 
which gets the name of 'synovial membrane,' 
because it produces the synovia. 

Some muscles do not terminate in rope-shaped 
tendons which have to ' play ' through lubricated 
sheaths, but end in expanded sheet-hke tendons 
which need no lubricating material. We shall 
find that the muscles of the face are of the latter 
description, and have their sheet-like tendons 
closely connected to the skin over the lips. This 
is well seen in ourselves in laughing. The bellies 


of the muscles forming our cheeks contract and 
of course swell out (Fig. 1. A), while their tendons 
are attached closely to the skin of the lips, espec- 
ially the upper lip, so that in laughing the cheeks 
bulge out and the hps tighten and drag back- 

9. — The contraction of a muscle is very limited, 
so that the tendon moves a very little distance in 
its sheath. 

So much for the active part of the lever; the 
remaining parts are made up of passive agents in 
the form of bones and joints. 

10. — Bones are of three varieties, named from 
their shape ; long, flat, and irregular. 

The long bones are largely concerned in forming 
the levers ; as the fore and hind limbs, which are 
mainly composed of them. The flat bones, for 
the most part, make up the face and head ; the 
shoulder blade is also a flat bone. The irregular 
bones make up the ^back bone,' called the 'ver- 
tebral column,' which extends from the head to 
the tip of the tail. The bones making up the 
' back bone ' are very numerous, being seven in 
number for the neck, eighteen for the back, fiv 
or six for the loins, five for the croup, and fron 
ten to twenty for the tail. With the exception ot" 
those forming the croup, which are stuck together 
and immoveable one on the other, the remainder 
of the bones forming this long column are slightly 
moveable one on the other, so that were you to 
pass a piece of stout cord down their central 
canal — which canal gives passage to the spinal 
cord — and hold one end of it high in the air, and 



shake it to and fro, it would wriggle like an eel. 
Other irregular bones are found making up the 
knee and hock joints. 

11. — Long bones in forming joints have to ex- 
pand at their ends (See Fig. 2. A 1), and these 
expanded ends are covered by a substance which 

Figure 2. 




is yielding and elastic, and called ^ cartilage ' (Fig. 
2. A 4) which acts hke a buffer, and so lessens 
concussion. The two ends of the -bone are bornid 
to each other by strong unstretchable fibrous 
bands called ligaments' (Fig. 2. A 2). Oil is 
generated just as it is in the sheath of a tendon 
f by a synovial membrane (Fig. 2. A 3), and is rep- 
resented in our diagram by a dotted hue. When 
a joint is subject to more than ordinary concus- 
sion; as, for instance, the M^nee' joint, provision 


is made for additional cartilage by irregular bones 
being interposed between the two ends of the long 
bones (Fig. 2. jB), each of these bones being thickly 
covered on its upper and lower surfaces, where 
the concussion comes, by cai-tilage. So that in a 
section from above downwards through the 'knee' 
joint, instead of two buffers being interposed we 
find six. The bone above the knee, and the bone 
below it being in a straight line when the weight 
of the body is thrown upon them, much concus- 
sion would take place were it not for this arrange- 
ment. When bones which meet and form a joint 
are set at an angle, then of course there is less 
chance of concussion, and so we find less ' carti- 
lage ' needed. 

12. — As there are three forms of levers, we 
must be careful to remember this, and we shall 
close this somewhat dry and relatively uninter- 
esting lesson by a few remarks on the mechanical 
lever, and compare it with the animal lever. 

The lever is an unyielding bar (represented in 
the animal by bone), capable of free motion about 
a fixed axis, called the 'fulcrum.' To this lui- 
yielding bar, ' power ' is applied (which in the 
animal lever is represented by muscle and its ten- 
don). Lastly, we have the weight, resistance, or 
obstacle to be overcome by the power. 

If the fulcrum {F) be placed between the power 
(P) and the weight (TF), so that when the power 
sets the lever in motion the weight and the power 
describe arcs, the concavities of wliich are turned 
towards one another, the lever is said to be of the 
fii^st order (See Fig. 3, A). If the fulcrum be at 



one end, and the weight be between it and the 
l^ower, so that weight and power describe concen- 
tric arcs, the Weight moving through less space, 
the lever is of the second order (Fig. 3, B). And 
if, the fulcrum being still at one end, the Power 
be between the Weight and Fulcrum so that the 

Figure 3. 





i^ ^ — ^ — ?w 

Power and Weight describe concentric arcs, the 
Power moving through less space, the lever is of 
the third order (Fig. 3, (7). 

We shall now give examples of these; first in 
mechanical levers: — 

Lever of First order =^ the beam of the balance. 

Lever of Second order = the common wheel- 

Lever of Third order = the treadle of a lathe. 

In the living lever we find one joint will illus- 
trate all three orders according to its position with 
regard to the body. Let us take the hock-joint, 


in man called the ankle. We find, still referring 
to Fig. 3, that we have in the living lever a power 
in front and another behind the leg bone. 

Now to illustrate our three orders of levers, we 
find we have only to study the hock- joint in the 
trot. The first order is seen in the hock in the 
trot after the foot has been hf ted from the ground. 
To bring it quickly to the ground we find the ful- 
crum at the true hock- joint, the power attached 
behind to the point of the hock, and the iveight 
to be moved, and all the parts below the hock, 
including, of course, the foot. 

To illustrate our lever of the second order, take 
the hock in the trot when the foot is placed o?ithe 
ground. We now find the fulcrum and weight 
have changed places, but the power is still as in 
the first order, behind the hock. The foot being 
planted on the ground is now the seat of i\iQ ful- 
crum, or fixed point, and the iveight is the whole 
of the body which is thrown on to the true hock- 
joint, and is the obstacle to be overcome, and is 
being hfted and pushed forward. 

Lastly, our lever of the third order is seen in 
the hock during the trot, when the hind leg is 
left behind after pushing the body forward, and 
has to be lifted and pulled forward before it can 
again be brought forward under the body (this is 
the same action, and better seen, when the him 
foot is being lifted to knock of a fly that is irri- 
tating the belly), the front power is now acting, 
and the weight and fulcrum are the same as in 
the example of the third order, or, in other words, 
the power is in the middle. 


Summarizing what has been said of the three 
orders of lever as exemphfied by the hock- joint 
in trotting, we have f omid first, that the weight 
is all parts below the hock when the foot is ojf 
the ground, and all parts above the hock when 
the foot is on the ground. Second, when the foot 
is off the ground and swinging backwards the 
lever is of the first order, but when swinging for- 
wards it is of the third order, whilst it is of the 
second order when on the ground. 



13. — The nostrils are those openings over the 
muzzle through which the air has to pass on its 
way to the lungs, and as a horse cannot breathe 
through his mouth, all the air he breathes 7nust 
pass throught his nostrils, so that they must be as 
tvide as possible. 

The nostrils are made up of muscles, which are 
covered with skin and hair. 

The muscles are for the purpose of regulating 
the width of the opening. It is plain that when 
the horse is at rest he needs less air than when 
walking, trotting, galloping, or drawing a load, 
and so only breathes about ten or twelves times a 
minute. In doing so, it is quite plain that the 
opening of the nostrils need not be so wide, as 
when at work he breathes three times as quickly. 
The muscles are thrown into action the moment 
the horse has to breathe more quickly, and you 
will have noticed the large, stiff and wide nostrils 
of a horse that is undergoing severe exertion. 

14. — The opening of. the nostrils when the horse 
is resting and breathing slowly is a mere chink or 
slit, but in violent exertion the nostril opening is 
quite round, and often reminds one of the mouth 
of that ancient weapon, the blunderbuss. 


The muscles of the nostrils must be in good 
tone. All muscles, when unduly rested, lose their 
tone, but when only moderately used keep their 
tone. Perhaps of all the muscles of the body the 
muscles of the nostrils are the least likely to lose 
their tone, because the horse has only to walk 
quickly to be obliged to widen his nostrils and 
breathe quicker. Even in illness, the fever which 
so often accompanies his disease increases his rate 
of breathing, and so exercises the muscles of the 
nostrils. Sometimes, however, the muscles do 
lose some of their tone, and then, if you take 
and gallop the horse severely, the muscles vibrate 
and make a fr-r-r-r-apping noise. This peculiar 
noise disappears when the horse gets into regular 
work, and the muscle of the nostril acquires the 
requisite amount of *tone.' 

When the nostrils are a shade smaller than they 
ought to be and the horse is put to violent breath- 
ing effort, the muscles of the nostrils render the 
wall of the nostrils so stiff and rigid that the air 
in passing in makes a loud blowing noise, and 
clearly indicates want of nasal capacity. Such a 
one is called a ^high blower.' This is always a 
fault, and sometimes renders a horse worthless 
for violent effort, such as hunting, racing, and 
drawing extra heavy loads. 

The nerve which supphes the muscles of the 
nostrils with the power of movement must not 
be overlooked. It comes from the brain and 
leaves the interior of the skull through a canal 
formed of bone, and close to the roots of the ears. 
You see it in the living horse on either side as it 


passes over the cheek near the root of the ear as 
three or four stripes as of thick whip-cord running 
along under the skin towards the nostrils. This 
nerve, after leaving the bony canal at the bottom 
of the skull near the root of the ears, has to pass 
through a gland, which produces the saliva or 
spittle. It is this gland which swells at the side 
of the face when he is said to have got the * vives.' 
In the horse, should this gland swell, it presses 
uj^on the nerve we are speaking of, and stops its 
current, and (as this nerve suppUes the lips, the 
muscle which closes the eye, also the principal 
muscle of the cheek), when its current is quite 
stopped these muscles become paralyzed and can- 
not move the parts, so that the lips hang down 
and swing about like pendulums ; the eye always 
remains open with a fixed stare, and the cheek 
bags out and the nostrils cannot become expanded. 
All this can be brought about by a draught blow- 
ing on to the side of the head and giving a ^ cold ' 
to the gland and causing it to swell and press on 
the nerve. This state of things usually lasts from 
one to three weeks, or until the ' cold ' disappears. 
The lesson we thus learn is this ; see that the nos- 
trils expand when the horse comes to exert him- 
self, and also see that his hps are not swinging 
about like pendulums. Very old horses some- 
times have pendulous lips from dcbihty. If you 
are buying such a one give him a feed of hay, 
and watch him to see if he can grasp the hay 
with his lips, or if he has to push his nose into it 
and seize it with his teeth. If he has to do this 
don't buy liim, because he will spoil more food 


than he eats, from it dropping out of his mouth 
when chewing ; he will take twice the time to 
feed, and he can never keep his condition. Some- 
times he swings the lips about in trying to seize a 
morsel, showing that some power in them re- 
mains. If this be so, present a pail of water to 
him and watch him drink, and see if he can purse 
his lips naturally, or if they are so powerless that 
he has to dip his whole muzzle into the water 
nearly up to his eyes. If he cannot keep his lips 
pursed and so keep up a steady drinking effort, 
don't buy him. 

15. — Next, hold his nostrils open and look in- 
side. The pink, or it may be bluish red mem- 
brane you see, ought to be covered with spots of 
water like dew. There ought not to be any ulcers 
or abrasions to be seen, or ^ raw ' spots of any 
kind. You will always, however, find a very 
small opening like a ^ punched out ' hole, but this 
is natural, and no notice need be taken of it. 

16. — If there be any discharge from the nostrils, 
save a slight watery discharge, it may be that the 
horse is suffering from a 'cold,' or he may be 
' glandered. ' The color of the discharge must be 
noticed, also its thickness. Then, again, you must 
notice whether it comes from both nostrils or only 
one. If it be from ' cold, ' it may be variously 
colored, even green, as when the horse is feeding 
on green food in summer. It also may be of any 
thickness from wateriness to ropiness, and yet any 
be from a harmless 'cold. ' If, however, it be thick 
and gluey, and sink when put into cold water, or 
be tinged with blood, it is most likely that the 


horse is glandered, and if so, he will inoculate you 
and so kill you, if you are not careful. The sus- 
picion of glanders is strengthened if the discharge 
is coming only from one nostril. 

If you are buying a horse, see that a discharge 
from the nostril is not cleaned away when your 
back is turned. The muzzle should have no 
streaks of discharge upon it, neither should it be 
wet as if sponged. 

The bony nostrils is that part of the upper por- 
tion of the face between the muzzle and the eyes, 
and is immediately beneath the skin. 

17. — The bony nostrils may be quite straight 
when the horse may be said to have a Grecian 
nose ; or they may be indented or pugged ; or they 
may be arched like a Eoman nose. As capacity 
is so essential, it is evident that the Roman nose, 
though not the most sightly, is the best. A 
straight or Grecian nose is quite enough, if not too 
narrow. An indented or pug nose may also be 
capacious enough, but you must see that it is not 
narrow. If you suspect its capacity, you must 
remember the point when you come to examine 
the 'wind.' 


18. — As we have already said all that is neces- 
sary regarding the hps, we shall speak of the 
mouth as that cavity which contains the tongue ' 
and the teeth. The teeth are specially regarded 
in judging horses on account of their indicating 
the age. Horses, like ourselves, have two sets of 
teeth, one set for foalhood and a second for ma- 



ture age. The first are called ' milk' or ' tempo- 
rary ' teeth, and the second set are called ' perma- 
nent ' teeth. The teeth of the same mouth are 
varied in position and shape, and receive different 

Figure 4. 

names. The front teeth being called incisors or 
' nippers ; ' the back teeth being called ' grinders ; ' 
while between the two sets are the canine teeth, 


which are called ' tusks.' As the nippers and tusks 
are most exposed to our view when we open the 
mouth, we pay most regard to them, so in speak-, 
ing of the teeth we shall mean the ' nippers.' 

17. — During the remainder of the lesson I 
must often draw your attention to the diagrams 
of Fig. 4 (page 27). So to begin: if you examine 
and compare a temporary tooth A B with a per- 
manent tooth C, you will see well marked differ- 
ences in size, shape, and colo7\ If you look at 
the front vieiu you will see that Avhile the milk 
or temporary tooth is quite narrow near the gum 
(Fig 4, B) (which is represented by a straight line 
in the figure), the permanent tooth is seen to be 
nearly as wide at the gum as at the upper or cut- 
ting surface ; so that a milk tooth is said to have 
a neck, whilst a i-yeynnanent tooth has no nech. 
You will see the permanent teeth are a very little 
narrower at the part next the gum than they are 
at the cutting surface, or, in other words, they 
have no neck. Then again, the permanent teeth 
are very much larger tlmn the temporary ones, 
and are not nearly so white. Then again, the 
temporary teeth are quite smooth on their front 
surface. Not so the permanent teeth. In the 
permanent tooth you see a groove, or perhaps 
two grooves, running from their cutting suiface 
to the gum. 

18. — Having determined which set of teeth you 
are examining, let us now consider the history of 
each set in its turn. 

The temporary or milk teeth, are ' cut ' in the 
following order: At birth, or a few days after. 


two central nippers appear. At six weeks old two 
other nippers appear, that is, one on each side of 
the two central ones. Between the sixth and 
ninth month two other nippers make their ap- 
pearance, one on each side of the last ones ; and, 
as no others make their appearance, these are 
called the corner nippers, so that at last we have 
six nippers. Of course, six above and six below. 
Having thus cut the six teeth (and we are only 
speaking of one jaw), the foal is as a ' yearhng ' 
said to have a full mouth. 

19. — During this first year, as might be ex- 
pected, the nippers vary in appearance ; those 
cut first coming to maturity first, so that the 
central teeth which have attained their maturity 
at two months present a strong contrast to the 
ones next them at that time, which, as we have 
seen, are only a fortnight old. When the nippers 
are first cut, their upper cutting surface is sharp 
like a knife, and, this surface meeting the surface 
of the teeth in the other jaw, wears away until 
the broader part of the -tooth is come upon, and 
then, instead of a sharp knife-hke edge we get a 
fiat surface hke a table-top. Every nipper thus 
changes, ahke in temporary and in permanent 
teeth. Therefore, at nine months old, or even at 
twelve months old, whilst the centre nippers and 
those next to them have more or less well marked 
flat table-top cutting surfaces, the corner nippers 
have still shelly knife-hke upper edges. 

The upper surfaces, worn fiat, will be seen to 
have two distinct colors, but this we may quite 
disregard in the temporary teeth, and pay atten- 


tion only to those appearances which we have 
already named. 

It will be seen that during the first year the 
nippers are nearly useless because of the uneven 
surfaces of the teeth, some only being useable. 
Then again the mouth is very tender during the 
cutting of the teeth. During the second year the 
foal is in the full enjoyment of the services of his 
nipper teeth, which vary mostly in the degree in 
which they are worn down. Of course, the in- 
nermost ones being first cut, first come into use 
and are most worn down. 

These temporary nippers begin to fall out or 
are shed at the age of two and a half years, or 
from that to three years, and are shed in the 
order in w^hich they came; first, the central ones, 
and so on, so that we may say a foal has the use 
of his temporary or milk nippers from one year 
old to two and a half, or in other words, so far as 
his nippers are concerned, he has a ' full mouth' 
from one year old to two and a half. 

20. — It is now time we began to study the anat- 
omy of the permanent teeth in a rough and 
ready way. We cannot get out of it if we wish 
to be sure in telling a horse's age. Now-a-days 
teachers discard pictures as worthless, and teach 
by the aid of diagrams, so that you are not to 
feel your vanity touched by our using diagrams 
instead of pictures; for while you would find acres 
of diagrams in our great Medical and Veterinary 
Medical schools, you would be almost able to car- 
ry on your back aU the pictures you would find. 
But the two are judiciously combined sometimes; 


the diagram to show the broad outlines and more 
evident markings; the picture to exhibit the 

Still referring to our Fig. 4, if you examine a 
permanent nipper tooth, when it is extracted and 
you can see the whole of it, you see that it is bent 
almost in the form of a crescent, (Fig. 4, E). In 
describing the tooth, we must suppose it divided 
into two parts ; the visible part and the invisible 
part. The visible part is all that standing above 
the gums and is called the crown : the invisible 
part is that imbedded in the jaw and covered by 
the gums, and is called the fang. By studying 
the anatomy of a nipper tooth in a rough way, 
we can judge of a horse's age by the so-called 
' marks' of his teeth. In Fig. 4, E, is a section 
down the middle of a nipper tooth from front to 
back. Let the line a a represent the Hne of the 
gums, then all above this is the ' crown' and aU 
below it the ' fang.' The great bulk of the tooth 
is seen to be made up of the part indicated by the 
number 3, and is called the dentine. This sub- 
stance has a coating of a substance termed 
* enamel' {E 2), for the part of the tooth above the 
gum or the ' crown, ' but where the tooth gets 
fixed into its bony socket in the jaw, the ' den- 
tine' is not covered by ' enamel' as in the ' crown,' 
but by a very thin layer of bone, JE'G, called ^ crus- 
ta petrosa.' This is a long hard name, but we 
have done with it. Now pay attention exclu- 
sively to the crown of the tooth (the part above 
the gum hne a a), and you see that the enamel 
E 2, after reaching the cutting surface of the 


tooth, dips into the tooth and forms a Uttle sack- 
like cavity filled up with black material {E 5). 
Now suppose you cut off with a saw a piece of 
the cutting surface, say through the line Ell 
then you see on the surface of such a section in 
their order either way : — 

Enamel : Dentine : Enamel : I Enamel : Dentine : Enamel. 

And you must remember the ^ enamel' is white, 
and the ' dentine' gray. Now see if you can make 
out these in Fig. 4, D, which shows four sections 
of a tooth, such as we made at ^ 1 1. Notice 
the four sections of this tooth, and you see in the 
top section the appearances we have described 
very distinctly. You see the outer rim of white 
enamel which is called encircling enamel: then a 
broad circle of grciy dentine: then a small circle 
of enamel called the central enamel, and this 
encloses the black material in the centre. So 
much for the top section, but before drawing your 
attention to the three sections below, I must first 
tell you that a nipper tooth gets gradually nar- 
roiver from the cutting surface to the end of its 
fang, and whilst at its largest, from five or six 
years old to seven or eight, its upper cutting sur- 
face is somewhat ovoid, with the long axis from 
side to side having two sharp angles in front at 
either end. From this ovoid form it gradually 
becomes triangular, and it only remains to add 
that the dei3ression in the tooth filled up by black 
material only reaches a little way down the tooth, 
and then you will be able to refer to the three 
lower sections of Fig. 4, D, to see the change in 


the aspects of the marks themselves and in the 
form of the tooth at each surface as the teeth 
wear down through age and use from a broad 
ovoid form to a narrow triangular form; and, as 
a consequence, in a very aged horse, the teeth do 
not present a compact mass when viewed from 
the front, but are more iike so many pegs with 
spaces between them. 

Lastly, on separating the lips of a horse in his 
prime, and viewing the closed teeth from the side, 
we see the large bold curve, as in Fig. 4, F ; but 
as age advances and the teeth wear away, we 
get successively, but of course gradually, the 
curve O, then in extreme old age the angular 
curve H. 

21. — We saw that with the milk teeth the cen- 
tral nippers came first, then the two next them — 
one on either side — and finally the two corner 
milk nippers, and at nine months old to a year at 
most the foal had a ^ full mouth ' of nippers. 
First come, first wear out; therefore the two cen- 
tral milk nippers are shed at two and a half years; 
the ones next these are shed at three and a half, 
the corner nippers at four and a half. So that at 
five years old — that is giving the corner teeth six 
months to grow up to having at least a cutting if 
not a grinding surface — the horse is said to have 
a full mouth. 

Note. — The permanent teeth push out the tem- 
porary ones, in order to gain the situation for 
themselves. If the work of pushing out is done 
for them they come up easier and quicker. This 


gives rise to a process of ^forwarding the mouth,' 
as it is called, that is extracting the corner milk 
nippers of a three year old in order to hasten the 
arrival of the full mouth that a four year old may 
pass for a five year old. This is a gross cruelty, 
on account of the work of a five year old being 
expected of a horse only four. Should a perma- 
nent tooth not push straight at the fang of a 
milk tooth, the latter is pushed on one side, but 
not pushed out, and so remains by the side of the 
permanent tooth and may hinder the horse feed- 
ing to some extent. Such a tooth is then called 
a *wolf ' tooth. Wolf teeth are oftenest found 
in front of the front grinders. 



22.— We now come to one of the four principal 
things which you hare to see is sound and all 
right in buying a horse — namely, the eye. First 
take a glance at both eyes in good daylight^ 
and compare their size. It is of the highest im- 
portance that they should be both one size, be- 
cause if one is less than the other it is very likely 
that the lesser one has been attacked with in- 
flammation which is called 'opthalmia.' Now 
^ opthalmia ' is a disease that returns again and 
again, and destroys the sight. One of its effects 
is very often to leave the eye it has attacked 
smaller than its fellow. It also leaves other evi- 
dences, but these require a properly qualified 
veterinarian to discover. 

The color of the two eyes may not be alike and 
yet the eyes may be quite sound. The color of 
the eye depends upon the coloring matter in the 
iris, a structure to be spoken of by and by. It 
may be absent in one iris, and brown or some 
other color in the other iris. The iris which con- 
tains no coloring matter will be white, and the 
horse is thus said to have a 'wall' eye. This 
white or ' wall ' eye is as good as its f eUow-eye, 
but it gives the horse an odd appearance which at 


best is unsightly, but still ^wall' eyes may be 
quite sound. 

23. — Whilst you are looking at the eyes in broad 
daylight, notice if the eyelids are all right. Some- 
times they get torn with projecting nails and are 
injured to such an extent that they cannot cover 
and protect the eye. Also notice if the tears run 
over the cheek. The tears are formed under the 
upper eyelid, but deep in the orbit or socket of 
the eye, and wet the surface of the eye and then 
find their way to the inner corner of the eye and 
thence through a canal into the nose. It occa- 
sionally happens that this canal gets blocked up, 
and then the tears cannot get into the nose and 
so escape. 

When this is the case, they trickle out of 
the eye corner and over the face, and scald the 
hair off. This is often a curable condition, but 
very objectionable whilst it lasts. You will say 
' how is it that we do not find the tears coming 
out of the nostrils if they escape into the nostrils 
as they do in the horse and in ourselves.' Well, 
because in health — except of course when we cry 
— the tears are only formed in sufficient quantity 
to keep the eye moist, just as the hning of the 
nose only forms sufficient watery material to 
keep it moist and no more. When there is more 
than suffices for the purpose we are said to have 
got a *cold.' 

2i. — Having examined the eyes in broad day- 
light, you will have to examine them luith a can- 
dle within a stable with the door shut. If you 
can have a choice, choose a stable that has a win- 



dow above the stable door, as it will be a further 
aid ill using the candle. 

25. — Before going further we shall have to 
study the mechanism of the eye roughly, or we 
shall not understand what to look for and expect. 

Figure 5. 

In Fig. 5 you find diagrams that will aid us in 
demonstrating the more important parts of the 
eye. When standing in front of the horse and 
viewing the eye, you can see an outer circle rep- 
resenting what is called the white of the eye, and 


is really the outer coYering of the eyeball. Per- 
haps you will understand it better if we take an 
example. Suppose you take an orange, and cut 
a round piece of the skin or peel out about the 
size of a half-crown piece, the whole of the peel, 
or skin, which remains bears the same relation to 
the orange that the outer coat, or white, bears to 
the eyeball; that is to say, the skin which remains 
of the orange, and the white tunic of the eye in 
each case invests five parts out of six perhaps of 
its respective sphere. 

We must make our orange do further service. 
"When we have taken out the piece of the skin we 
find the white rind underneath. Take a penknife 
and cut a hole in this white part, the same as in 
Fig. 6 J. 5; the hole we cut will represent the 
opening known as the ^ pupil ' through which the 
light passes into the eye. The remaining broad 
rim of white rind (Fig. 5. A 2) will represent the 
iris. Now if you have a watch-glass, the size of 
half-a-crown, and place it over the hole from 
which you at first cut the skin, the watch-glass 
v^ll represent that glass-like covering of the eye 
which we call the ' cornea. ' I fear we shall have 
to draw rather largely on our imagination to caiTy 
our illustration further. Let us see. Suppose 
you have a pair of spectacles with round glasses 
instead of oval ones, and you could remove one 
of these glasses, and (without ruptiu-ing our arti- 
ficial ' iris ') you could thrust it through the ' pu- 
pil ' and place it immediately at the back of the 
^ iris, 'this glass lens would then represent the 
* lens ' of the eye. Just a little further stretch of 


the imagination, then no more. When you took 
the lens out of the spectacles (in imagination of 
course) you found it surrounded by the iron, sil- 
ver or gold rim which held it. You have placed 
the lens in the orange as described, and now in 
place of a metal rim around it, suppose we have 
a sheet-like muscle encircling the lens, and that 
the outer edge, all round, of this sheet-like muscle, 
is fixed to the interior of the orange peel a little 
further back than the lens. 

We now look at Fig. 5, 7), and we find the dia- 
gram of a real eye in section. Now, you will see 
the parts marked in the diagram as we have de- 
scribed them. First: the greater part of the 
outer coat (five-sixths we said) is formed by the 
ivliite tunic of the eye called the white of the eye 
(Fig. 5, D 1). The remainder of the circle (our 
watch-glass) is the ^ cornea ' (Fig. 6, D c), then 
behind this we have the iris D I. Then behind 
this again the lens D. I. with its muscle, the cil- 
iary muscle {D 2). 

Let us describe the remainder of the eye by the 
aid of the lower diagram we are now looking at. 
That very large space marked V H is filled by a 
transparent jelly-like substance called the vitreous 
humor. Then you see the nerve of sight as it 
comes from the brain {D, o n) piercing the back 
of the white outer tunic like the end of a lead- 
pencil, and when it has gained the inner part of 
the tunic it spreads out like a sheet of tissue 
paper, and lines the back of the white tunic in- 
side and is known as the ^ retina ' {DR). In this 
thin filmy sheet or ^retina,' close to the optic 


nerve, is a little body called the yellow spot {D 

26.— So much for the eyeball. Now let us see 
how it is moved. The eyeball is imbedded in the 
bony skull in a socket or case, partly of bone, 
called the ^ orbit,' and being very delicate, this 
bony orbit is filled with fat (Fig. 5, D), in which 
the eyeball is imbedded. In old horses and dur- 
ing illness this fat wastes away and allows the 
eyeball to sink in its socket. There are five or 
six muscles (Fig. 5, m m) to move the eye. The 
ends of each muscle are attached, one to the bony 
socket the other to the white outer tunic. We 
have only two of these muscles depicted on the 
diagram, but in real life one muscle is attached 
to the upper part of the eye ; one to the lower; 
one to the inner or nose side; one on the outer 
side. So that when the top one contracts the eye 
looks upwards, and so forth. There are two 
other muscles obliquely i^Aeiced for rolling the eye, 
but these we will not consider. The four muscles 
named are called the four straight muscles, and 
when they all contract at once, the eyeball is 
pressed back into the socket and the ' haw ' (Fig. 
5, D), which is a thin piece of grissle also imbed- 
ded in the fat and whose edge can always be seen 
on the inner angle of the eye, is pressed or 
squeezed out of the fat and made to project over 
the eye. 

27. — We must now turn our attention to the 
front half of the eye as we see it in the living 
animal, because it is this we have to examine 
with the candle in the darkened stable. Still 


referring to the diagram, let us study the parts 
in their order, beginning at the transparent ^ cor- 
nea' (our watch-glass). 

The light has first of all to pass through the 
cornea before it can pass through the hole we 
call the 'pupil,' and if the cornea receives any 
injury, as it often does from the whip, spots may 
be left which will split the light or otherwise daze 
the animal and make him shy. If, however, 
these spots are on the outer margin and not op- 
posite the pupil, it is plain that the light will not 
be interfered with, or, in other words, the spots 
are of less consequence. 

Covering the outer tunic or white of the eye, 
there is a very dehcate membrane we have not 
mentioned, but which holds many blood vessels. 
This is called the 'conjunctiva,' and is that we 
see so red when the eyes are 'bloodshot.' If a 
hay-seed gets into the eye this membrane red- 
dens, and the eyelids sweU and are kept closed, 
and are suffused with tears. It is this membrane 
that is attacked in inflammation of the eye, so 
that you must see that it is not unduly red. In 
such horses there is a great quantity of dark col- 
oring matter in it, so that the white of the eye is 
partly hidden behind it. This dark appearance is 
quite natural. 

28. — We now come to the two most important 
structures of the eye, and without we know a 
•Igood deal about them we cannot judge a horse 
thoroughly, but may be woefully cheated in pur- 
chasing a horse where we cannot call to our aid a 
skilled expert or veterinarian. The first of these 


two structures is the ^ iris/ which acts hke a cur- 
tain to a window, and is really the curtain of the 
eye. It is a very dehcate moving muscle, flat- 
tened Hke a sheet of paper and ovoid, having an 
ovoid hole in its very centre (Fig. 5, A 5), wliich, 
as we have seen, is the ' pupil ' of the eye through 
which the light passes. Now this hole, or pupil, 
varies much in size. When the eye is exposed to 
a bright light it becomes very small, but in the 
dark it enlarges to its widest; This is well seen 
in ourselves, but better seen in the cat. Put a 
cat before a window and you find the pupil 
diminishmg almost to the size of a pin point. 
Then this muscle acts by enlarging or diminish- 
ing the 'pupil.' It does so in this way: Fig. 5, 
Ay 2, represents the iris as viewed from behind. 
It is seen to be made up of inner circular fibres 
which radiate from these. When the pupil les- 
sens, it is by the circular fibres contracting, but 
when it widens it is by the radiating fibres con- 
tracting. What we have to do in the darkened 
stable is to see that the 'pupil' diminishes and 
enlarges freely. For this purpose we cover the 
eye with our hand to darken it for half a minute 
or so when we expect the 'pupil' will dilate; 
then we place the candle close to the back of the 
hand that is covering the eye and suddenly re- 
move the hand and watch the pupil contract, 
which it ought to do from the glare of the light 
being too much for the eye. In a darkened 
stable, and a candle held away from the eye, you 
will still see the pupil widenhig and narrowing, 
which is, of course, a sign that it is in good order 


and capable of acting as a curtain and keeping 
out bright glare, which dazes the animal. It 
widens and admits all light possible when there 
is not much light to spare. When the pupil is 
very widely open it gives the eye a glassy appear- 
ance, and should this condition be permanent, as 
you will have seen it, no doubt, the disease called 
Amaurosis, gutta serena, or glass-eye is present, 
and the eye is worthless. It may be from disease 
of the brain. 

Instead of being fixedly open, the pupil may be 
fixed and quite immoveable and closed, or nearly 
so. This serious flaw arises in this way. When 
violent inflammation seizes the eye and attacks 
the ' iris, ' a gluey discharge may occur from the 
surfaces of the ^iris,' and the back surface of the 
^ iris ' may then become stuck to the fore part of 
the ' lens ' (see Fig. 5, J, I). 

If you refer to the diagram of the iris (Fig. 5, 
A), you wiU see two or three little black bodies 
hanging down (Fig. 5, A 4), swinging from the 
roof of the ^ pupil.' These are quite natural, and 
appear in the eyes of many if not most horses. 

We now come to the lens, which we repre- 
sented by taking out a glass from a pair of spec- 
tacles. This lens (Fig. 5, D, I) is really placed 
close behind the ^ iris ' or curtain, and is for the 
purpose of focusing the rays of light so that they 
form images on the thin membrane we have be- 
fore spoken of, called the 'retina.' Get a pair of 
spectacles, or a magnifying lens, and hold it in 
your right hand, and with it throw a bright light 
from a window, or a candle, or gas jet on to the 


back of your other hand. Now move the lens 
gentlj to and fro, and you will see a beautiful 
little image of the window frame, gas jet, or 
candle-light (whichever you are using) on the 
back of your hand. Now you have got this per- 
fect image by moving the lens backwards and 
forwards between your hand and the light, and 
you will have found that correct distance is 
everything; that is to say, had you held the lens 
an inch nearer or an inch further off, you would 
not have got a sharp, clear image. Now look at 
Fig. 5, Z), and you will see that behind the ^ lens ' 
there is the V H, or space filled with vitreous 
humor, and in front of it there is the 'iris,' so 
that it is quite evident that the ' lens ' of the eye 
cannot be moved backwards and forwards, an 
inch forward now, an inch backward then, as 
you have done in your experiment, because the 
whole eye is only about an inch from front to 
back, so that the focusing of the image on the 
'retina' by the 'lens' must be accomphshed in 
another way altogether, and in this way the 
shape of the ' lens ' itself is altered. 

29. — We must say a few words about the con- 
struction of the ' lens ' of the eye, or you will not 
luiderstand what is meant by a cataract, so that 
after we have seen how the ' lens ' is made we can 
see how it alters its shape in focusing. Turning 
to the diagram Fig. 5, D I, you see that the lens 
of the eye can be quite well represented by placing 
two ordinary old-fashioned watch-glasses together 
at their edges. Now, if you could fill the cavity 
you thus form with stiff but very transparent 


jelly, you would thus get a rough representation 
of the lens of the eye. Now, m the ' lens ' of the 
eye, our two watch-glasses are represented by a 
very delicately thin pliable membrane called the 
'capsule' of the lens, and so the whole 'lens' 
being firm, but pliable, can be altered in shape by 
the ' ciliary muscle, ' (Fig. 6, D 2) which is, as we 
have seen, attached around its margin, so that 
when this muscle drags the lens backwards against 
the stiff ' vitreous humour, ' the foremost half of 
the capsule of the lens (our foremost watch-glass) 
is bent like a bow that is having its string pulled 
in the act of shooting, and the lens is thus altered 
in its convexity from being shaped like B to 
being shaped like (7, Fig. 5. 

The lens of the eye is quite clear and trans- 
parent like glass, when in health; but from acci- 
dent, disease, or old age, it may become opaque 
and milky, and then the eye is said to have a 
'cataract.' 'Cataract' may occur from a horse 
falling on his head whilst hunting, or in rearing 
and falling back and knocking the head violently 
against the ground or by knocking the head vio- 
lently against the top of a doorway — any violent 
blow on the head, in fact. It does so by rupturing 
the capsule of the lens (one of our watch-glasses) 
and letting in the ' watery humor ' which occu- 
pies the front chamber of the eye, and which is 
marked x x x x in our diagram (Fig. 5, D). 
When the 'watery humor' gets into the sub- 
stance of the ' lens ' through a rent in the capsule, 
the 'lens' immediately begins to swell and be- 
come milky and opaque, and in a day or two the 


whole lens is swollen and white like milk. Dis- 
ease causes 'cataract,' notably that disease in 
which a patient passes quantities of sugar with 
his water. Old age produces 'cataract,' by the 
lens shrinking and altering its proper structure. 

When the ' cataract ' is complete, that is to say, 
when the whole lens is affected, you see the milky 
white lens through the pupil, or in other words, 
the opening called the pupil, instead of being 
black as midnight, has a chalky or white appear- 

But the 'cataract' may not be complete; that 
is, only part of the 'lens' may be white and 
opaque. A 'cataract' may be no larger than a 
pin's head, and may be situated in any part of 
the 'lens.' 

30. — To test the lens we use our lighted candle 
in our darkened stable. The test is called the 
'catoptric test,' and is very easily applied. You 
take the candle and place it a little in front of the 
eye, a few inches from it, when you see three 
images of the candle-light; one upon the surface 
of the 'cornea,' one upon the front capsule of the 
'lens,' (our front watch-glass,) and the third still 
further back, upon the hindmost capsule of the 
lens, (our hindmost watch-glass). Now, after 
you have distinctly found these three images, 
notice that the tiuo front ones are upright like 
the candle-flame, but the hindmost image is iip- 
side doivn. After quite making out this fact, 
gently move your light from side to side, and 
you will see that while the two front upright 
images move in the same direction as the candle. 


the hindmost one, which is turned upside down, 
moves in the contrary way to the candle. It is 
therefore evident that if the ^ lens ' is opaque and 
milky you cannot see the hindmost or inverted 
image, but you will only see the two foremost 
upright images. 

The cataract, as we have seen, may not involve 
the whole lens, but may be just a little speck in 
any part of it. Of course, if this speck be 
towards the margin it may not split the light 
and so be a detriment, but we never can tell how 
long a small speck of cataract will remain small. 
With practice you can detect these small specks 
by the ^catoptric test,' but they are far more 
easily detected with a little round mirror having 
a little hole in its centre for you to look through, 
which forms the reflecting part of every opthal- 
moscope. Any one can us^ this very simple con- 
trivance by holding it to his eye and reflecting 
the rays of a candle into the eye — the candle 
being held by the side of the head by some one 

We have seen that the ^ iris ' from inflamma- 
tion may become stuck to the lens and so fixed. 
But the ' iris ' being a moving muscle, sometimes 
drags and tears itself away, and in so liberating 
itself, leaves bits of its structure upon the lens, 
which will also appear like small cataracts. In 
doing so it sometimes tears the capsule and lets 
in the watery humor, and so causes cataract. 

This ends our lesson on the eye. It only re- 
mains for me to advise close attention to what 
has been said, and to advise the learner to take 


every opportunity of verifying his knowledge 
and noticing the many infirmities he ^vill meet 
with, and studying them by the broad hght 
which we have here attempted to shed upon the 
subject. There are other methods of thoroughly 
examining the eye, but these are only of use to 
experts, surgeons, and veterinary surgeons, who 
are devoting their hves to such subjects. 

Caution. — Do not mistake the optic nerve which 
can be seen through the pupil of the horse for a 
cataract, but which is distinguished by the ^ca- 
toptric test.' 

Note, — The whole retina Fig. 5, D R, receives 
images except the end of the optic nerve itself. 
To prove this close your left eye by placing your 
left hand over it, then hold Fig. 5 at arm's length 
and look fixedly at the cross, and you see the 
black spot as well. Now, still looking at the 
cross, move it gently towards you, and as it ap- 
proaches your face the black spot for a time 
ceases to be seen. The distance is generally 
seven or eight inches from the face. 



31. — Having passed in review the nostrils, 
mouth, and eye, we must now review the face 
and head. We shall find that the face, as seen 
from the front, is of paramount importance in 
judging a horse, because the old saying, ^ strength 
goes in at the mouth,' is as true to-day as it ever 
was. The saying, of course, has reference to the 
quantity and quality of food that is consumed. 
Now, no matter how much food is swallowed, 
unless it be of proper quality and so prepared by 
mastication or otherwise that the stomach can, 
in its turn, fm?ther advantageously dispose of it, 
strength will not follow. In order that large 
quantities of well masticated food may be swal- 
lowed, the back teeth, or ^grinders,' must have 
the following properties: they must have large, 
flat, and regular masticating surfaces. 

But you will say, what has all this got to do 
with the front aspect of the face ? The reply is, a 
great deal, but you are not asked to take this 
bare assertion on trust. It is of the highest im- 
portance that you should understand the con- 
ditions requisite for the ' grinders ' to have large, 
flat, and regular masticating surfaces. But you 



will have to follow the description, as you did in 
the case of the eye, before you can understand. 

The molar teeth or grinders (Fig. 6, -4 1 1) are 
very large cubical blocks of bone which have to 
crush and grind down hard tough food, such as 

Figure 6. 

beans, oats and hay, and therefore require power- 
ful agents in the form of huge muscles to work 
them; so that, you see, where you have such 
large blocks and such large powers to move 
them, you must have room or space sufficient 
for both. But it so happens that lightness is also 


required, and greatest lightness implies least ma- 
terial, and with least material it must be dis- 
posed or shaped according to well-known geo- 
metrical laws; if you require the three conditions 
in one, namely, size, strength, and lightness, these 
geometrical laws are carried out at the expense of 
room or space if not in one direction, in another. 
If you refer to Fig. 6, A, you will see a perfect 
model of hghtness and strength. It is the dia- 
gramatic representation of a section of a horse's 
head and jaws carried from above downwards 
across the head, somewhat below the eyes. The 
four pieces marked 1 1 1 1, represent four molar 
teeth or grinders, two in the upper and two in 
the lower jaw. They have all flat table-top 
grinding surfaces, the top one meeting a cor- 
responding bottom one. Those of the lower jaw 
are set in soUd bone, which is rendered light by 
being shaped like the letter V, that is to say, 
having two branches meeting below. The front 
part in our diagram being removed, we can only 
see the section of the two parts of the lower jaw 
each holding a molar. Above the upper jaw are 
the large passages through which the air passes 
A X X, and are nearly hoUow and form the back 
part of the bony nostrils, but the cavities Y Y 
are only there to aUow of the bone being as light 
as possible, and as cavities are quite worthless. 
The upper jaw forms an arch, having substantial 
buttresses in the molar teeth and their bony 
sockets, and whose span is of gigantic strength 
and extremely light from its hollow construc- 


If you notice a horse eating, you will see that 
the lower jaw is pressed upwards against the 
ui3j)er jaw, and moves from side to side. If the 
movement of the lower jaw on the upper one 
were a simple up and down movement, then the 
muscles could be perpendicularly placed and their 
bulk only allowed for, but seeing that the lower 
jaw has to be moved from side to side, the mus- 
cles have to be obliquely placed and so neces- 
sitates the branches of the jaw being wide apart 
at their hindmost part. But the lower grinders 
are somewhat narrower than the upper and so 
allow greater range of motion in grinding, so 
that breadth of the upper jaw is essential as 
well for allowing free masticating power, as for 
power to breathe freely through wide enough 

32.-^This then necessitates width between the 
eyes, and width between the lower jaws. In the 
figure illustrating this lesson you will find three 
diagrams, B, C, D, representing front face views 
of three degrees of width. What has been said 
will explain why narrow-faced horses are often 
weakly, with narrow chests and long legs, and 
disposed to have ^ thrushes ' in the ' frogs ' of 
their fore feet, and are also prone to diarrhoea. 
It would be beyond the province of this little 
book to enter into a lengthened explanation 
of these coincidences and shorter exj^lanations 
would not suffice. 

33. — The side face should be deep for the same 
reasons that the front face between the eyes 
should be broad, that is, for roomy nostrils 


above and for the efficient setting of the mass- 
ive grinders. 

3:1:. — Length of head is not of such importance. 
It cannot well be too short so far as the chief 
requisites are concerned. When we find very- 
narrow faces, we frequently find length of face 

35.— The so-called forehead of a horse is the 
space bounded below by a straight line drawn be- 
tween the eyes, above by roots of the hair of the 
forelock, and at the sides by the large muscles 
which lift the lower against the upper one. The 
breadth of the forehead depends upon the 
breadth between the eyes and the size of these 
muscles. It is almost impossible to judge the 
size of the brain in the living horse by breadth of 
forehead. Size of brain is no index of character 
in either horse or man. In either case, we can 
only judge of a brain by the quality and quantity 
of the thought, and so forth, it produces, so that 
we need not dwell further on the physical aspects 
of the head. 

36. — The eyes should be as large as possible, 
and not be obliquely set in the face as in the Chi- 
nese. In long, narrow-faced horses we some- 
times find this obliquity of the eyes, and this 
is an additional flaw. 

37. — The white of the eye should not be too 
conspicuous. When too conspicuous it gives to 
both man and horse a wild stare, and is an almost 
unfailing sign of mental aberrations, which lead 
to acts which we characterise as vice, such as 
biting, kicking, &c. The white of the eye is 


seen, not on account of there being more of it 
than usual, but on account of the eyehds being 
wider apart. This condition is known to doctors 
as the insane eye, and is seen by the least observ- 
ant by attending Divine worship in any lunatic 
asylum chapel and sitting near the parson. This 
condition has been so connected with viciousness 
in the horse, that in Yorkshire it is a common 
expression among horsemen, ''He shows too 
much of the white of his eye for my money." I 
would, however, guard you against condemning 
all horses with this form of eye as vicious, but 
have a special warranty against vice in purchas- 
ing one, and at all times avoid such when you 
conveniently can. 

38. — The space between the lower jaws near 
the top of the neck cannot be too wide, for 
reasons we have before seen. There is also 
another reason why the branches of the lower 
jaw should be wide apart. The top of the wind- 
pipe ends in the speaking box called the 'larynx.' 
It is much larger than the remainder of the 
windpipe, and in men can be seen and felt as a 
large hard prominence which moves up and 
down when we swallow. It is also called 
pomnm Adami, or Adam's apple. When the 
nose is held in towards the neck by the bearing- 
rein being over tight, this deUcate box, which is 
made up of pieces of hard cartilage, moved by 
numerous deUcate muscles, gets pressed out of 
shape and causes roaring, or grunting, or trum- 

This box is quite between the branches of the 


jaw in most positions of the head, and is a most 
dehcately organiezd structure, and therefore soon 
thrown out of order, causing the above noises in 
moving. Now there is a disease called the Stran- 
gles affecting young horses, in which a gathering 
or abscess takes place in the space between the 
jaws, and therefore close to this delicate box, the 
'larynx.' During the time the abscess is ripen- 
ing there is necessarily great inflammation about 
this box, and if it lasts unduly long by being 
treated by so-called 'home' remedies, or worse 
still by the farrier, the inflammation is apt to 
injure the delicate httle muscles of which the 
box is partly composed, and leave the animal a 
' roarer.' 

39. — All badly treated gatherings or abscesses 
are apt to leave behind them two evidences of 
their former presence, viz: thickening of the skin 
and parts beneath, and ragged scars. Therefore, 
always look for these between the jaws of a 
horse. The skin in this situation should be fine, 
the hair silky, and you ought to be able to bury 
your stretched out hand, laid lengthwise back 
uppermost, in this space: or, in other words, see 
that the space between the jaws be not flush with 
the lower borders of the jaw. 

40. — The ears, forming part of the head, may 
here be noticed. They ought not to be too large, 
indeed they can hardly be too small. They vary 
in shape shghtly, but very httle. 



The neck of the horse may be roughly stated 
to be an oblong, having the bones of the neck or 
cervical vertebrse as a diagonal; thus, (Fig. 7, A). 
We have thus a rough idea of its fundamental 
structure, and shall be able further to discuss the 
subject intelligibly. The column of bones is rep- 
resented by the diagonal that divides the neck 
above and below into two triangles, the upper 
one being the larger and more clearly defined. 
On referring to Diagram B it will be seen that 
this upper triangle contains the great cervical 
hgament which supports the great overhanging 
mass formed by the head and neck. It will no 
doubt often have occurred to non-anatomists, as 
a matter of wonder, how such a weighty over- 
hanging mass as that of the head and neck gets 
supported, and how it is kept from dropping 
down and dangling between the fore legs. It 
will be seen on reference to Fig. 7 B that there is 
a ligament occup}ang the upper triangle of the 
neck which has tivo distinct forms, a cordiform or 
funicular portion. 111, and a lamellary portion, 
2 2 2 2. The former is continuous, with the liga- 
ment running along the upper ends of the spines 
of the vertebral column of the back and loins, 



and then stretches along the upper part of the 
triangular space of the neck and gets inserted to 

Figure 7. 

the summit of the head at the back; whilst the 
other portion spreads from above downwards like 


a fan and in reality is given off from the upper 
or cordiform portion. This fanhke portion has 
six shps, which get inserted to the spines of the 
last six of the bones of the neck. 

In the first lesson we saw that muscle was an 
active contractile tissue tvhich could become ex- 
hausted, so that if the neck and head were sup- 
ported by muscles, after a certain time, the head 
and neck would drop. This is never the case, be- 
cause they are supported by the ligament we 
have been describing, which is made up of a con- 
gregation of elastic fibres which are devoid of 
feehng, and therefore are never tired and are 
quite as passive as so much india rubber, that is, 
the ligament stretches when anything stretches 
it and recoils when the stretching force is re- 

The next thing I must direct your attention to 
is that the cordiform or upper part of the liga- 
ment is broad at the top, and that the skin of the 
neck is separated from it by a quantity of fat im- 
bedded in fibrous partitions. The amount of fat 
placed upon this ligament varies greatly. In the 
clean, light neck of the hunting gelding this fat 
is barely represented, whilst in low-bred animals, 
in stallions, and in those which have been cas- 
trated, after two years of age or after the procre- 
ative organs have assumed their functional activ- 
ity, this fat and fibrous tissue lying along the 
cordiform tendon on the upper surface of the 
neck is of considerable thickness and forms a 
'crest.' It is of course best seen in stallions, and 
gives their neck its peculiar shape. In the 


heavy, soft cart horses which are largely im- 
ported into Great Britain from Belgium it is also 
a prominent feature. Some colts are purposely 
left till two years old before castration, on pur- 
pose to develop this fat and ^give them a neck,' 
as it is called. The quantity of this fibro-fatty 
substance in the neck principally, but not en- 
tirely, makes the difference between a gross 
^fleshy' neck, and a fine clean neck, and when 
it is stated that there is no strength in this fibro- 
fatty mass, it need hardly be added that a clean, 
light muscular neck is as powerful as a gross, 
thick, heavy neck, which is largely made so by 
this stored up fat; only, of course, the possessor 
of the latter can throw more weight into a collar, 
and is so far preferable for draught purposes. 
Besides judging of the quantity of this fibro-fatty 
structure by the sight, you can grasp the top of 
the neck, feel its thickness, and shake it from 
side to side. 

41. — On each side of this ligament there are 
powerful muscles which fill up this upper trian- 
gular space and get attached to the bones of the 
neck, especially to the last five of these. We 
have seen that the bones of the spinal column 
have little movement individually, but collect- 
ively the column has considerable movement, 
which we likened to the wriggling of an eel. 
There are very small muscles which stretch from 
every bone of the column to the next bone in 
front of it, and are said to ' clothe ' the spinal 
column. These muscles of themselves cause the 
wriggling movement of the column. The col- 


umn, however, is acted upon by other muscles 
than those Httle ones stretched from bone to 
bone. These muscles are among the largest and 
most powerful muscles of the body, and bend the 
bones of the neck very much upwards, as in 
taking hay out of racks placed very high, or 
very much downwards, as in grazing. The part 
of the vertebral column forming the loins is also 
much bent in galloping and leaping, but the 
most movement is in the column forming the 

Shortly reviewing what we have said regard- 
ing the movements of the back -bone or vertebral 
column we have found that it can move itself , 
and that it can he moved. That in moving itself 
it does so by the little muscles which clothe it, 
and that the amount of this movement only 
amounts to what we have, somewhat inele- 
gantly, termed a wriggle. That in being moved 
by nmscles from without, the motion is far more 
extensive. Lastly, we found that there was 
most movement in the tail, the next in the neck, 
and then in the loins, so that we have only to 
add that there is next to no movement in the 
back, and as has been mentioned, the bones of 
the croup are glued together and quite immov- 

Having said enough for the present about the 
'back-bone' or 'vertebral column' in general, I 
wish now to fix your attention upon that portion 
of it, made up of seven bones, forming the neck. 
In the fore part of this lesson we saw that the 
bones of the neck ran diagonally, from below up- 


wards and forwards, and wo liavo sinco seen that 
whether it is straight or curved depends upon the 
action or inaction of certain muscles. When the 
horse is standing quietly at rest the elastic liga- 
ment simply suspends the head and neck, and in 
doing so the bones of the neck are nearly 
straight, having only the faintest possible curve, 
or in other words, the neck at rest is at its 
straightest. When the neck is not at rest, the 
bones of the neck will be bent according to the 
attitude of the horse, and, as we have seen, the 
muscles filling the upper triangle, being inserted 
into the hindmost bones of the neck, are most 
concerned in altering its shape. 

Eeferring to Fig. 7, B, we find that the hind- 
most side of the upper triangle depicted in Fig. 7, 
A, depends for its depth upon the length of the 
' spines ' of the bones of the vertebral column of 
the foremost part of the back. This part, horse- 
men know as the ^withers.' It therefore follows 
that the higher the withers the greater the power 
of raising and bending upwards and backwards 
the bones of the neck, or in other words, the 
higher the withers the greater the poiver of hold- 
ing up the head and neck. So that with high 
withers, that is, with a deep triangle, the large 
muscles of this region not only act with the least 
expenditure of power, but the efficiency of space 
from above downwards enables large muscles to 
occupy this region without making the neck 
thick, because great and powerful muscles can 
be stowed away in a space which though narrow 
is very deep; whereas for the same bulk, and as 


we have seen strength, to be stowed away in a 
less triangle, the space laterally has to be en- 
croached upon. So that given the same weight 
of head, and strength and length of neck, the 
higher the withers the thinner from side to side 
will be the neck, hence we find as a general thing 
that horses with low withers have more, so-caUed, 
fleshy necks than those with high withers, be- 
cause these muscles are stowed and have to act 
at a greater disadvantage. 


42. — We have next to consider the neck and 
head together as weights and as f ulcrums, also as 
power. The head as a whole may be regarded as 
a solid mass attached to the foremost part of the 
neck at a variable angle. The upper and fore- 
most part of the bones of the neck meets the 
head at its very top, (Fig. Y, B) that barely two 
inches of the head is above the bony juncture of 
the head and neck. 

By this arrangement we get a lever of the first 
order which moves the head as a rigid bar up and 
down, the neck being fixed and acting as a ful- 
crum. The upper arm of the lever, we have said, 
is about two inches in length only, and so allows 
it, whilst moving through very little space itself, 
to move through great space the lower and longer 
arm of the lever made up at the head generally. 
The head has a side to side movement also, but 
we shall not stop to consider it in any way be- 
cause we think our ends may be gained without 


this. Again reminding you of what was said 
about the superior triangle of the neck being 
occupied by muscles, which get attached to the 
last five bones of the neck, and of course when 
acting draw these bones upwards and backwards, 
there are positions, as for example, when the 
horse during the act of leaping a height is in a 
rearing attiude, and poising the body the instant 
before taking the spring, when the neck has to be 
drawn upwards and backwards, and the muzzle 
drawn well in to the neck, in order that the face 
may be conveniently situated for the animal to 
look straight down upon the object to be leaped 
over. In such a case the neck assumes the most 
marked double curve. The hindmost curve is 
first produced in the way we have mentioned, 
and the bones of it being fixed allows the part to 
become a fulcrum for the muscles acting at the 
lower side of the neck to draw the muzzle back- 
wards. We have next the neck in one long 
curve, and the head extended as when the horse 
is feeding out of a very high hay rack. Next we 
have the neck straight and the head extended, as 
in the race-horse during the hottest part of the 
race nearing the winning post, and, as we have 
seen, the neck and head may be at rest and 
almost at right angles. 

In our first lesson we saw that muscles, when 
in the full enjoyment of their highest functions, 
were said to be in tone. We have also seen in 
this lesson that muscles alter the curve of the 
vertebral column, more especially those parts of 
it forming the neck and the tail, so that it follows 


as a corollary that if the muscles of the neck 
habitually act in one jDosition more than in any 
other position, the neck will become more and 
more moulded into that position. Hence we see 
the seasoned carriage-horse with powerful highly 
developed muscles of the neck, which gives to his 
neck a more massive appearance with its double 
curve. The bearing rein, judiciously apphed, 
effects this by compeUing the horse to keep his 
head up and his nose in, which no doubt is tiring 
at first, till the muscles of the neck get into con- 
dition; just as in the case of the raw recruit who 
has to keep his head up, shoulders well back, and 
the palm of the hand open to the front. The 
muscles in six weeks or less get into tone, and 
there is an end to pain from restraint. 

The bearing rein does this good, it causes de- 
velopment of the muscles of the neck, and enables 
greater weight and strength to be thrown into 
the collar. Consequently it enables those who 
drive pairs to have both breeding and substance. 

In concluding this lesson, we have just to re- 
mind the reader thafthe neck has two sources of 
bulk, namely, the fibro-fatty mass which we have 
before discussed, and the forced development of 
the muscles. So that we may have both these 
conditions in the same neck, or one only. 

We shall have more to say about the head and 
neck in our next lesson. 



The general student may not know what is 
meant by the fore extremity, so I shall have to ex- 
plain it. Our arms and hands are called our upper 
extremities, our legs and feet our lower extremi- 
ties. The words upper and lower being used on 
account of our upright position of body. Quad- 
rupeds having horizontally placed bodies are said 
to have fore and hind extremities, corresponding 
to our upper and lower ones. 

43. — The horse's fore extremities are made up 
of all three kinds of bones, long, flat, and irregu- 
lar. The topmost bone is a flat bone, and the 
only flat bone, and is called the ^scapula' or 
'shoulder-blade.' All the other bones are of the 
long kind, except the little bones in the so-called 
'knee' joint, we have before alluded to in para- 
graph 11, and one or two little bones we shall 
afterwards speak of. 

The bones of the fore extremities are of various 
lengths, and from the top of the arm bone down 
5 to the foot they gradually lessen in thickness. 
Also please to notice that the so-caUed 'knee' 
joint is a misnomer, as it is the part correspond- 
ing to our wrist joint, and has the same number 


Figure 8. 



Fore extremity of horse. 

o. Scapula, or shoulder blado. 

b. Humerus, or arm bone. 

c. Elbow. 
e. Ulna. 

d. Radius, or bono of forearm. 
/. Carpus, or knee (wrist.) 

Upper extremity of man. 

g. Metacarpal bones. 

12 3. Phalanges. 

h 1. First phalanx or sufTracrinis. 

2 Second *' or corontd. 

3 Third " or pedal. 


of bones in it and of the same shape nearly, but 
larger. From our wrist joint five lengths of bone 
proceed, but in the horse, who is a solipede, only 
one length proceeds. This one length faithfully 
represents our middle finger from the wrist joint 
to the tip covered by the nail. Now, beginning 
at the shoulder-blade and going downwards, let 
us compare our extremity with its homologue, as 
anatomists call it, in the horse. You are not to 
be impatient and question the use of it, until you 
have patiently waded through what I have got to 
tell you, and then say whether it is of use. The 
two extremities are given in Fig. 8. 

4A. — The scapulae of man and horse are both 
flat bones and both triangular bones, with a very 
strong ridge of bone running down their middle 
or nearly down their middle. This ridge of bone 
serves many purposes. First it strengthens the 
bone without adding materially to its bulk, just 
as the engineer shapes his iron which has to 
bridge across a space and to bear great weight, 
and have as httle weight as possible. Second, 
you notice this 'spine,' as it is called, is less in 
proportion in the horse than it is in man, and 
that in the horse it is not continued into a long, 
strong process. The reason of this difference is 
that the horse only uses his fore extremities to 
walk with; he has no 'collar' bone or 'clavicle,' 
as it is called by anatomists. Now the collar 
bone is a long bone at the top of our chests in 
front, shaped like the old-fashioned letter s, like 
this /, and it has one end placed against the top 
and side of the breast bone, but its other end 


meets the extreme tip of this spine of the scapula 
and props the shoulders back, and so keeps our 
shoulders well back at all times. Were it not for 
this bone, when, in using our arms, we stretched 
them forward, there would be nothing to prevent 
our two shoulders almost meeting in front. It is 
the relative length of this bone that determines 
the appearance of our shoulders. If growing 
children are allowed to sit with their shoulders 
huddled up, the two ends of this bone are unduly 
pressed upon, and the double curve is increased 
and the collar bone more bent, and, as a conse- 
quence, more shortened, and the shoulder blades, 
not being duly propped back, stick out behind, 
and the child grows up ^ round shouldered. ' It is 
owing to the slightly greater length of this bone 
which gives Frenchwomen their more graceful 
shoulders and chest. Lions, tigers, cats, &c., 
use their fore extremities for seizing things and 
holding them, so that they have clavicles or collar 
bones Uke men and women. A third use of this 
' spine ' of the scapula is that it acts as a f ulciTim 
or fixed point for muscles, also as a place for in- 
sertion for tendons. 

45. — The next bone, called the 'humerus' or 
arm bone, will be seen to be exactly alike in both 
cases, only it is relatively very much longer in 
man. In both it is a powerful bone, but espe- 
cially so in the horse. Extremely large muscles 
clothe it. 

46. — The next two bones are the radius and 
ulna. In man, both these bones are continued 
from the elbow joint to the wrist as separate 


bones, but you will notice that in the horse the 
ulna, after helping the radius to form the elbow 
joint, coalesces with the radius, so that the two 
in a full grown horse look like one bone. This 
being so, the ulna is said to be rudimentary in the 

47. — The bones of the carpus are nearly alike in 
both, only, of course, larger in the horse. We 
shall call this the knee as usual, although, as you 
see, it is the wrist. 

48. — There are five metacarpal bones in our 
hands, but the horse has only one which is fairly 
represented by the metacarpal bone belonging to 
our middle finger. You see two small metacarpal 
bones in the horse, but these are dwarfed and 
only rudimentary, and in the very aged, stuck to 
the larger ' metacarpal. ' Notice, though, that the 
tops of all three articulate with the bones above 
them, i. e., with the lower bones of the ^carpus' 
or *knee.' 

49. — The remaining bones explain themselves 
almost. Taking the bone in our middle finger 
from the knuckle to the first joint, we find it cor- 
responding in everything but size to the long 
pastern bone of the horse. 

50. — The next bone to this again corresponds 
with our next bone in the middle finger, but is 
relatively very much shorter and broader. 

51. — The last bone is very highly developed in 
the horse, and is called the pedal or ' coffin ' bone. 
In ourselves it is little more than rudimentary, on 
account of its not being called upon as a lowest 
point to bear the weight of our body. We can 


very distinctly see the resemblance it has to the 
same bone in the horse in the skeletons of those 
who, during life, used their fingers in hard, heavy 

52. — The next three bones are sessamoid bones, 
and are very specially more related with the long 
tendons which stretch from the back of the knee 
to the foot. 

So much for the ' bars ' of our levers which we 
saw were in the animal, the bones. Now for the 
powers of the animal levers which we saw were 
the muscles with their tendons. 

53. — On referring to Fig. 8, E, it will be seen 
that we have the bones of the fore extremity hid- 
den or clothed by their muscles. This, however, 
is a picture or a faithful representation of the 
parts as they are in reality, and as the origins 
(fixed points) of the muscles and thek insertions 
(moveable points) are very numerous, it will be 
useless to describe the origin and insertion of 
each muscle, but by the aid of diagrams we can 
see these living levers to greater advantage. I 
Avill, however, draw your special attention to two 
things. First, you ought to get a mental picture 
of this Fig. 8, E, in order that you may be able to 
recognize it as seen in the hving horse, covered, 
however, by the skin. Secondly, please to notice 
that all the parts from just above the the ' knee ' 
are made up of the bellies or contracting parts of 
the muscles with hardly any visible tendon, but 
that from just above the knee to the foot all is 
tendon and bone together, not a single belli/ of 
muscle. Perhaps there is a third point you had 


better notice, namely, that of the bulky fleshy 
part, the greatest bulk is at the back of the 
shoulder blade and arm bone, the shoulder get- 
ting more and more bulky as it descends. Look 
steadily first at the column of bones unclothed 
until you can see them in your mind's eye 
through their fleshy clothing, because I give you 
warning that we are now going to represent all 
we have got to say further by straight, bare lines 

54. — Before going any further, we must revert 
to the dry subject of levers. Let me impress 
upon you this universal law, that power and 
speed are always related to each other, but that 
this relation is always antagonistic. Expressed 
in other words it is this, 'if you gain power you 
lose speed,' which is only saying, of course, that 
'if you gain speed you lose power.' This uni- 
versal law does a great deal for us by acting as a 
wholesome check to our enterprise. Were it not 
for this antagonism we should build ships that 
would convey cities instead of their present mod- 
est loads, and these would run at speed calcu- 
lated by seconds instead of days and weeks and 
so forth. This law has existed, and wiU exist, 
through all time. We, however, try to xmite the 
two things as closely as possible ; the ' Great 
Eastern' steamship for example. This artificial 
combination is nowhere more striven after than 
in our breed of horses, the English hunter for 

55. — We shall make this antagonism between 
power and speed do us good service here. It 


enables us to include every horse under the sun 
under three logical divisions, namely : 

1. — Horses of Speed, e.g. Racehorses. 

2. — Horses of Power, e.g. Draughthorses. 

3. — Horses of Power and Speed, e.g. Hunters. 

It is apparent that the first two, being ex- 
tremes, will be in the minority, because most of 
our wants require a combination of power and 

56. — We must just allude to one other point, 
and that is the rhythm of movement. Let us 
take a simple movement, such as walkmg, and 
see what the fore extremities do and are down to 
in this rhythm. It will be seen on reference to 
Fig. 9, A^ that an attempt has been made to 
represent this rhythm by a diagram which really 
represents two rhythms. It will be seen that 
either rhythm is included in a parallelogram 
made up of two equal triangles, a' a" a'" and 
a" h" h'". They are equal because they are on 
the same base, a'" h'", and between the same 
parallels a' h" , a'" U". 

It will be seen that a rhythm is begun when 
the foot is on the ground, as at h'", and com- 
pleted when the foot reaches the ground, as at 
a'", and the limb has gained the same relation to 
the body (represented by the arrow), as at a' a'" . 
Take the parallelogram a' a" h'" a'", then it will 
be seen that the leg is flexed and extended within 
the triangle a'" a" h"\ and that the body swings 
forward and brings the leg from position a" a'" to 
a' a'" , and this movement is accomplished within 
the triangle a' a" a" . It is needless to remind 



the reader that in the walk one fore foot is on the 
ground when tlie other is off it, therefore the fel- 
low leg is hearing the body's weight whilst the 
foot is being put from h'" to a'''. 

In passing forward the foot from h'" to a'" the 
leg is 

1.— Flexed. 

2. — Dragged forward whilst flexed. 

3. — Then extended. 

Now we saw that the spinal column had its own 
intrinsic muscles by which it moved itself, and 

Figure 9. 

we saw that this movement was a wriggle, and 
we also saw that it was moved by muscles from 
without itself, or extrinsic muscles. So it is with 
the limbs, they can flex and extend themselves, 
but they require muscles which have their fixed 
points elsewhere to move them bodily onwards. 
Now, referring to Fig. 9, B, we find the limb 
flexed as represented by the right hand figure. 


After being so flexed, were it not to be dragged 
forward by a muscle from without, but simply to 
again extend itself instead of alighting at a'" it 
would drop somewhere on the line between 
a'" and h'" . In order to be carried from the 
flexed position to the position o!' a'" ^ we find 
a long, tape-shaped muscle moves it forward 
through the distance we have named, and that j 
this muscle has the hones of the neck and top^ 
of the head for a fixed point or fidcrum. This 
is a very important point for you to remember. 
A fulcrum must be a fixed point, therefore when 
this niuscle is acting, the neck must be fixed be- 
cause this muscle has most extensive origin from 
it. Its name is ' Levator Humeri,' or in English, 
hfter of the arm. This is a misnomer, because 
the muscle does not hft the arm, but hfts the 
whole shoulder bodily upwards and forwards ac- 
cording as the neck is situated. This * levator 
humeri ' arises from the vertex of the head and 
from the foremost four bones of the neck, also 
through a strong elastic medium it arises from 
the elastic ligament of the neck. After this ex- 
tensive origin, it gets a most extensive insertion 
to the shoidder as follows; the spine of the 
scapula or shoulder blade, the point of the 
shoulder, the strong outer ridge at the top of 
the arm bone and to the arm bone at another 
point near its lower end. < 

As the free and extensive movement of the 
shoulder mainly depends upon this muscle, and 
the longer the belly of a muscle the greater the 
muscle's capabihty for contraction, and further, 


as this muscle is co-extensive with the neck, it 
follows that the longer the neck the more exten- 
sive the shoulder movement. Again, as this mus- 
cle is attached to and runs parallel with the 
bones of the neck, and its fibres are also parallel 
with the bones of the neck, it follows that the 
shoulder will he dragged bodily along the line 
of the hones of the neck. Therefore, a horse 
having his head well up will necessarily hft his 
shoulders bodily upwards and forwards, whilst 
he will only drag his shoulder forwards whilst 

Figure 9. 


galloping with his neck and head nearer to the 

Never forget that the shoulder is always 
dragged hodily in the line of the neck. For 
high action then the first requisite is that the 
head and neck be held well up or the shoulder 
will not be lifted well up, and so forth. 

57. — Flexion and extension take place by 
means of the muscles belonging to the limb 
and not from muscles having their origin else- 


where. By referring to Fig. 9, B, we see a 
fore limb in extension, and see also that all the 
powers (p) are applied in front of the limb. In 
flexion we see Fig. 9, B, that all the powers are 
applied at the hack of the hmb. Looking at 
either of these figures we see that in every case 
the power is placed very much nearer to the ful- 
crum than the weight, the weight in each case 
may be regarded as all the parts beneath its 
respective fulcrum, so that it is evident that 
speed is gained at very extensive sacrifice of 
power. In all horses' Hmbs, no matter what 
their length and strength, there is always this 
relation of power to fulcrum, so that in all 
horses' Umbs extent of movement or speed is 
provided for more than power. 

68. — The shoulder blade has two distinct move- 
ments. We have seen that it is dragged forward 
by the levator humeri muscle. Its most exten- 
sive movement is that of its lower end, which 
gives to the whole blade a pendulum movement. 
Both these movements are effected by this mus- 
cle for the most part. 

59. — The arm bone has also two movements. 
It is dragged backwards and forwards by the 
levator humeri muscle. Its greatest movement, 
however, is a pump-handle movement, having 
its fulci*um or fixed point at the shoulder point. 

60. — It will be seen on reference to Fig. 9, (7, 1, 
2, that we have two fore hmbs in flexion. The 
figures are alike, but placed at different obliqui- 
ties. On comparing the two it will be seen that 
with the same amount of flexion the 'action' 


will be high or low according to the angle formed 
by the body with the scapula or the limbos most 
fixed part. By further comparing 1 and 2 it will 
be seen that 1 looks upwards and forwards, but 
that 2 looks forwards only. There is just one 
other point we must be clear upon, and that is 
the relation of the long axis of the fore Hmb to 
the long axis of the body. Let us agree in re- 
garding the long axis of the fore limb at the nor- 
mal when the horse is standing straight on both 
fore hmbs, which must be perpendicular when on 

level ground. It will now be seen that the long 
axis of the fore limb is not necessarily at right 
angles with the long axis of the body. We have 
divided horses into three classes, and adhering to 
this division we find on referring to Fig. 10, that 
the angle formed by the long axes before referred 
to in the two fleet horses, 'Fisherman' and 
'Saunterer,' are greater than a right angle, thus 
enabling the horse to 'cover more ground,' as 
horsemen term it. But on reference to the dia- 


gram of the Clydesdale horse, it will be seen that 
the two axes are at right angles. I have chosen 
the three from that most excellent work on the 
horse by Mr. Walsh (Stonehenge). In the great- 
est speed the long axes of the body is of necessity 
tilted downwards and forwards. In the heaviest 
draught the weight has to be thrown forwards 
into the collar, and the long axis of the body also 
thrown shghtly downwards and forwards; but 
very much less so than in the former case. 
Where high 'park' action takes place, the long 
axis of the body must be upwards and forwards. 
These things being so, it foUows that for either 
speed or action, or both, the fore Hmb must be 
placed bodily well forward, and have its long axis 
well in advance at its base. The horse is then 
said *to cover plenty of ground.' This necessi- 
tates, as we have seen, plenty of obhquity of the 
shoulder blade, or in other words, the top of the 
blade must be well back and the shoulder point 
well forward. In heavy draught, the centre of 
gravity must be thrown well in front of the fore 
limbs, and kept in this relation to the rest of the 
body, and the long axis of the limb throughout 
looks downwards and forwards, and its extension 
forward at the base never gets beyond the per- 

Figure lO. 


Clydesdale Horse. 



Having come to some general conclusions re- 
garding the fore extremity, it will be easy for us 
now to go quickly over a consideration of each 
part separately. 

61. — The shoulder blade must in all classes of 
horses be of good length and breadth to afford 
space for the attachment of the many powerful 
muscles which take their origin from it. In the 
race horse it must be placed very obhquely, in 
order that the great length of arm required can 
be placed sufficiently downwards and forward, so 
as not to interfere with the saddle girth. The 
arm bone, and consequently the arm must be 
longer than in any other class of horse, and the 
angle between it and the scapula also be very 
great. The fore-arm also of the race horse must 
be long. These conditions necessitate that the 
' knee ' of the racer be very near the ground, and 
as the pasterns must be duly long, and, when 
walking, be rather upright, in order that the 
weight of the body in fast galloping may not un- 
duly bend them, it follows that all this length of 
parts is at the expense of the metacarpal bones, 
which must be proportionately shorter than in 


any other class of horse. Indeed, the metacary)al 
bone cannot be too short and stout in the race 

62. — For draught horses the shoulder blade has 
need of being extremely broad, and placed more 
upright, in order to fill the upper half of the col- 
lar well when the body is thrown forward. The 
arm bone must be also short and stout, and at a 
less angle with the scapula. These conditions 
will enable the arm to be placed further back, 
and the fore legs generally to be placed well 
under the body, if possible, a little behind the 
perpendicular. The remaining long bones of the 
limb from the elbow downwards cannot be too 
short and thick in order that the horse may be on 
short, powerful legs. The fore-arm and the shins 
thus appear of nearly equal length. 

63. — The third class, of which the hunter is a 
type, must have a lengthy scapula, of good 
breadth, and set well back. The arm must be 
in length longer than in the draught horse, but 
not so long as in the race horse. It also must 
be placed at an angle with the shoulder blade 
greater than the cart horse, but less than in the 
race horse. The fore-arm must be of medium 
length, also the shin. 

64. — The knee in all classes must be very large, 
that is, very deep and very broad from side to 
side, in order that it may be well provided with 
buffer material as described in paragraph 11. It 
must not be narrow from before backwards at its 
lower part, or the horse will be what is known as 
' tied in at the knee.' 


65. — All the bones above the knee being clothed 
with muscle, we have to see that these are large 
and in good tone. By referring to Fig. 8, E, we 
see at a glance what the form of the parts must 
take in perfect development. From the knee 
downwards, however, w^e have for the most part 
bone not so clothed, but clearly defined in out- 
line. The metacarpal must be stout in all cases; 
very broad from side to side, and of good size 
from behind forwards. The powerful tendons at 
the back of it must also have the same general 
outline as the bone in front of them, and they 
must stand out in clear relief from the bone. 
The outlines of the bone and tendon cannot be 
too distinct. The suspensary ligament, which is 
an unyielding structure attached to the back of 
the metacarpal bone and again to the back and 
sides of the phalanges and so slings the fetlock 
joint, is well seen between the metacarpal bone 
and the tendon, and can be felt in its lower third 
above the fetlock joint. 

6(j. — The pasterns must be broad and massive. 
They must have plenty of length in the race 
horse, and be rather upright when the horse is 
standing, or only walking, in order that the fet- 
lock joint may yield well in the gallop, and in 
doing so may not come too near the ground. 

In draught horses they must be less upright, 
and they must be shoii; and very stout. 

67. — The feet of all horses must have the same 
general characters. The fore feet must be some- 
what oval with their long axes from side to side; 
the hind feet too must be somewhat oval, but 


thoir long axes is from behind forward. The wall 
of the foot in front must be in a line with the 
front outhne of the pastern when the horse is 
standing. The line formed at the top of the foot 
where the hair and hoof meet must be nearly at 
a right angle with the front hne of the foot and 
pastern, so that the heels will neither be too high 
and the foot 'boxy' nor too low, and thereby 
tender. The sole of the foot must be well arched, 
and the frog large, wedge shaped and unbroken 
or ragged. The foot must also have a bright, 
shining gloss upon it, like our own nails. Shoe- 
ing-smiths ought not to be allowed to remove 
more of this bright substance than they can help 
at the time they are rasping the turned ends of 
the nails, with which they fasten on the shoe, as 
it is this glue-like substance which keeps the"" 
fibres of the hoof from splitting. They ought 
never to be allowed to pare the sole of the foot 
and so weaken the arch on which the column of 
bones rests. After duly warning the shoeing- 
sinith against the infringement of these rules, 
horse owners should instantly dispense with the 
services of one who abuses the rasp and drawing 
knife. In order to detect abuse of the rasp, 
horse owners should forbid the smith to put 
grease upon the hoof, and so gloss over the 
injury he has inflicted with the rasp. Grease 
or hoof ointment may be put on after due in- 
spection has been made of the parts. 

68. — The fore limbs should be set on, so that 
when the horse is standing the limb may neither 
be turned in nor out. The breadth of the shoul- 


ders as seen from the front will vary according 
to their muscularity, but much more according to 
their relative position with the trunk. This de- 
pends upon the chest being cone-shaped. The 
chest of the horse is somewhat cone-shaped with 
the apex of the cone pointing forwards, and the 
base pointing backwards. It is evident that the 
further the shoulders are from the point of the 
cone the further will they be apart from each 
other. The fore legs of the horse are sometimes 
said to appear ' to come out of one hole. ' They 
may, as we have seen, be quite as muscular as 
shoulders set wider apart. Width of shoulders is 
desirable for collar work, so that the fore legs 
have need of being placed wider apart. We shall 
say httle of ' action ' because that is involved in 
the more general consideration of the limbs; but 
we must remark that when the foot is lifted in 
flexion, the lower part of the limb should be also 
straight with the long axis of the body when 
viewed either to the front or rear. The foot 
turned out when lifted and flexed is said ^to 

The fore limb of the racer does not necessitate 
close action, or as it is termed, 'daisy cutting' 
action. Flexion is very limited, not on account 
of the limb being so formed as to preclude it, but 
the animal has so seldom occasion to lift his feet, 
on account of being nearly always on level, un- 
broken ground, that habit and conservation of 
energy alike tend to close stilty action. With 
horses used for speed and power, which, as we 
have seen, includes most horses having to go over 


mixed ground, higher action becomes habitual, 
and in going fast on uneven ground they must 
habitually lift their feet well, and keep them well 
in advance of the body, or they must stumble 
and fall. Draught horses too go over all kinds of 
ground, and get into the habit of lifting their feet 
well from the ground, but in their case slower 
speed gives them time to rectify a false step that 
would bring the subject of quicker movement to 
the ground. Then their limbs are placed more 
under the body, and, being shorter, the action 
takes place under the body and not in front of it. 


69. — We must now pass in review the trunk 
of the horse, by which we mean the ^ chest ' and 
^ belly.' 

70. — The chest, as has been before observed, is 
cone-shaped, having the apex of the cone point- 
ing forward and its base backwards. This cone 
shape is very effectually hidden from our view in 
the living horse by those large muscular and 
bony masses, the shoulders, being placed by the 
side of the apex of the cone and extending back- 
wards. The cone is made up of bones, having 
the backbone and upper end of the ribs for a 
roof, the ribs for sides and the breast bone for 
the floor. This bony framework contains those 
vital organs, the heart and lungs. In animals 
used for speed and power the chest must be very 
large, because speed and power expend much 
oxygen, which the lungs have to procure for the 


blood from the atmosphere. As the blood feeds 
upon oxygen and consumes more when the body 
is in active movement, it is necessary that the 
heart be large and strong to receive and send the 
blood in large quantities to its airing or feeding 
ground, the lungs; also that the lungs be large to 
receive both it, also the air from without, which 
has to meet the blood and deliver up most of its 
oxygen to the blood, and in return receive impuri- 
ties from the blood and carry them from the 
lungs. Besides being large and strong, the heart 
and lungs have to submit to quickened rhythmi- 
cal movement during the exercise of speed and 
power, therefore we have to see that the walls of 
the chest, which we saw were formed by the 
ribs, are freely moveable. 

Yl. — The belly contains the organs for the con- 
version of food into the substantial elements for 
repair of the waste of tissue which the body is 
always undergoing, but which goes on more 
quickly when the animal is in greater activity. 
These organs are for the most part, the stomach 
and intestines "wdth the largest gland of the body, 
namely, the liver. The stomach of the horse is 
comparatively small, but the intestines are very 
large, and are of necessity kept distended by resi- 
dual gas, which it is one of the functions of the 
healthy body to keep evenly balanced in regard 
both to quantity and quality. This constant dis- 
tension of the intestines by healthy gas causes 
that roundness and tension of the belly we see so 
well marked. When the horse is in hard con- 
dition, there is a minimum quantity of healthy 


gas in the bowels. This can only be when he is 
living on highly nutritious diet in a concentrated 
form, such as oats and hay. Should an animal, 
as in summer, be living on less nutritious diet, 
and this engulphed in coarse, watery, non-nutri- 
tive material, causing the digestive apparatus 
much work, then this residual gas is for the time 
greatly increased, whilst the powers are taxed to 
their utmost, and it not unfrequently happens 
that these fail in balancing the quantity of this 
gas, and so ' windy colic ' results. It is then for 
us to ask first of all what the horse we are pur- 
chasing is living upon. If it is green food, we ex- 
pect to find a larger belly than when hving upon 
harder and more concentrated food. When the 
gas in the bowels is much less than common, it 
gives to the animal an unsightly appearance, and 
he is said to be 'tucked up in his flanks;' but I 
must caution you here against being deceived in 
the import of this. If a horse is pained in mov- 
ing his hind legs, he wiU be tucked up in the 
flanks on the side on which the lame leg is, and 
tucked up on both flanks, of course, if lame on 
both hind legs. In this case, the gas in the 
bowels may not be proportionately less, unless he 
is otherwise in bad health, but it is more com- 
pressed and pushed forwards, and encroaches 
upon his breathing area. Some horses have 
habitually an appearance of less residual gas in 
their bowels even when in health. This gives 
their beUy an unsightly, tucked up appearance, 
but it is not in itself a blemish. It will occur 
from overwork, and is one of the best indica- 


tions we can have to stop off work, or moderate 
it; because, as we have reason to know, this gas 
must be present in sufficient quantity to main- 
tain the digestive apparatus, so that it is merely- 
pressed out of its legitimate area by the over- 
worked abdominal muscles, and presses upon the 
heart and Imigs, which causes these organs to 
work under undue pressure from the rear, and 
which will almost invariably end in inflamma- 
tion (pleurisy) of their serous covering, called the 
pleura, if not stopped; because the pleura invests 
the lungs, and turns again upon itself and lines 
the ribs, and during breathing the two pleuras 
have to rub over each other, and if the lungs are 
unduly pressed upon from behind this friction 
increases and leads to inflammation. 

Y2. — The trunk at the top has the back bone 
running its whole length, and we saw that each 
bone of the back had a bone sticking up called its 
spine. We further saw that it was the great 
length of these spines in the fore part of the 
back which mainly constituted the withers. The 
spines of the back are not all the same length, 
but require to be long, in order that the horse 
may have a strong back. The ribs must be long, 
so as to give depth to the chest, and they must 
be well rounded, otherwise the horse will be 
what is termed flatsided. Tliis condition limits 
the extension of the lungs from side to side, so 
they have to extend backwards and encroach 
upon the alimentary organs, more especially the 
stomach, and this renders the animal less strong 
than he otherwise would be. 


73. — The bottom of the chest at the girth place 
and between the fore legs is clothed by the very 
large ' pectoral ' muscles, which in horses used for 
great speed are very highly developed, so as to 
give this part a very deep appearance. When 
these muscles are large and the withers high, the 
fore part of the trunk is very deep. 

On referring to the horses depicted in Fig. 10, 
which represents our two extremes — speed and 
strength — it will be seen that in horses used for 
speed the chest is very large, and with the large 
powerful muscles gives the fore hand its massive 
appearance; while the belly is very small indeed. 
This gives to the trunk its downwards and for- 
wards axis, as seen by our line. The draught 
horse, on the other hand, has, if anything, the 
chest smaller than the belly, so that there the 
two cavities are more of a size, hence the almost 
horizontal axis of the trunk. 



Named from above downwards the bones of 
the hind extremities are : 

The Innominate Bones. 

Tarsal Bones. 
Metatarsal Bones. 

Two Sesaamoids. 
Suffraglnal Bono. 
Coronal Bono. 

Navicular Bone. 
Pedal or CoflQn Bone. 

74. — The 'innominate,' or nameless bone, is so 
called on account of its being hke nothing but it- 
self to which anatomists can compare it. It is 
scientifically termed the 'pelvic girdle.' The 
word pelvis means a basin, and, save in man- 
kind with his upright trunk, scarcely applicable 
to the lower animals, seeing that it is neither 
shaped like a basin nor properly acts as such in 
them. A very small portion of it, called the true 
pelvis, assumes more of the character and func- 
tions of a basin, and holds and protects the blad- 
der, unimpregnated womb, &c. 



This bone, in forming the foundation of what 
are called the ' hind quarters, ' must be thoroughly 
mastered in all its aspects here pointed out. 

The bone is made up of two symmetrical 
halves," each half being made up of three dis- 
tinct bones which become inseparably united in 
adult hfe at their lower middle portion. These 

are called 'ilium,' 'ischium,' 'pubis.' We find 
the 'ilium ' making up by far the largest part of 
the bone, and is all the part in front of the joint, 
and on which we have placed the T shaped 
figure. It also helps to form a part of the cavity 
of the joint. The 'ischium' is all the part behind 
the joint from 4 to 3. It also helps to form the 
joint. The ' pubis ' is not well seen in our figure, 

* Our description applies to either half. 


but is a small flat part which with its fellow 
unites the two halves of the bones together. It 
concerns us here so little that we shall not fur- 
ther notice it. 

75. — The ^ ilium ' is irregularly T shaped. The 
two ends of the top of the T are rough and 
prominent, the external end at 1 more especially 
so, and is that 'point' in Mark Twain's horse 
which he hired in the Sandwich Islands, situated 
behind the saddle on which he hung his hat. 
The other end of the T at 2 is also rough, but not 
nearly so prominent, yet it too is conspicuous in 
some horses. The top of the T is flat and very 
broad and concave from one end of the top of 
the T to the other. As it approaches the joint it 
becomes narrow and nearly round like a long 
bone, and like a long bone widens out to help to 
form the joint. 

76. — The ' ischium ' part of bone (between 4 and 
3) is seen to be quite hke a long bone in its cen- 
tre in being round and narrow, and widens out in 
front to help to form the joint, and also widens 
out behind, and forms a large, rough prominence, 
3, we see by the side of the root of the tail. 

77. — The ' ilium ' and ' ischium ' being practi- 
cally all one bone, we will refer to them as such, 
and call the united stnictitre the ' ilio-ischium.^ 
The ilio-ischium plays the most important part in 
the formation of the hind quarters as we shall 
see. We have seen that it has three points all 
large and rough, and which give origin to large 
muscles. Now we find these points extremely 
useful, indeed indispensable landmarks in judg- 


ing the hind quarters. If point 1 be placed high 
up on a level with point 2, it gives the hips a rug- 
ged, coarse appearance, as in Fig. 12, the large, 
rugged point being all the more conspicuous. 
Then again, if point 3 be placed very low down, 
it gives the quarters a drooping appearance, 
therefore we have to regard the relations of 
these three points to two axes, one axis is the 
long axis of the body generally, and may be 
represented by the line a 6, which we shall call 
the axis of the ant ero -posterior obliquity; the 
other axis is represented by the dotted line be- 
tween points 2 and 3, which we shall call the 
axis of the lateral obliquity. 

Seeing that point 2 is fixed always, being 
bound dow^n by unyielding ligaments to the solid 
portion of the back bone, called the sacrum, and 
the sacrum is, as we have seen, a part of, and a 
continuation of the back bone, it follows that 
when this ilio-ischium alters its relation to the 
line a b (axis of antero-posterior obliquity) it is 
the point 3 which is affected and lifted up so as 
to form straight quarters as in the Arab; droop- 
ing quarters as in the cob and trotting horse, or a 
medium as in the hunter class. 

Again, when the lateral obliquity is affected we 
may regard the points 2 and 3 as being fixed, or 
what is better, regard the dotted line 2 3 as a 
door post on which the bone ilio-ischium is 
swung, then it is evident that it is the point 1, 
and with it the joint 4, that is affected, the 
former most so, and we get the level ragged hips 
well seen in the 'bus horse, where the point 1 is 



on a level with point 2, and where the widest 
part of the quarters is at the top (Fig. 12), or we 
have point 1 much lowered as in Fig. 13, seen in 
the higher breeds, where the breadth of the quar- 
ters is much lower down. Notice, of course, that 

Figure 12. 

Figure 13. 

as it is point 1 whicli determines the breadth of 
the quarters in all cases, the quarters will be 
widest at the top or lower down according to the 
relative position of point 1, to the axis of the 
lateral obliquity (dotted hne 2, 3). 


The hip joint is largely affected by both obli- 
quities. It will bo highest in straight quarters, 
and lowest in drooping quarters. The length of 
the thigh bone is the same in all positions of the 
joint so that the stifle joint will be lowest and 
furthest advanced under the body in drooping 
quarters. This condition is most favorable for 
fast walking and trotting, but httle favorable for 
galloping, because the more the quarters droop, 
the more is the femur or thigh bone directed for- 
wards and downwards, and having a hmited mo- 
tion, and placed almost at right angles with the 
iho -ischium, its movement backwards is therefore 
less, and incapable of being stretched well back 
in the gallop. The femur is placed at right an- 
gles, or nearly so, with the ilio-ischium, so that 
its arc of motion will be the further advanced the 
more drooping the quarters. 

To judge the length of the femur in the living 
horse, you draw an imaginary line from the 
prominence at the tail to point 1, then the head 
or top of the femur is at the end of the first third 
of this distance, and the other end is quite well 
represented by the depression or notch, formed at 
the stifle joint. The femur is a very thick bone, 
and very powerful, and clothed by the large mus- 
cles of the thigh. It extends from the socket on 
the ilio-ischium, whilst the lower end is placed 
upon the two bones below (tibia and fibula) with 
the pateUa or knee-cap in front, and thus forms 
the largest joint in the body, called the stifle joint 
(our knee joint). 

78.— One bone only, the tibia, reaches from the 



stifle joint to the hock joint (See Fig. 14). It is a 
long bone with two ends. The upper end as 
aforesaid helps to form the stifle joint, and is 
rather a large end. The lower end is smally and 

Figure 14. 

1. The largo muscles of the thigh. 

2. Tho lower part of tho hock at tho usual scat of spavin. 

3. The patella, or " kuoe-cap;" immediatoly below this tho de- 
pression is over the joint. 

4. Muscles at the back of the tibia, oorres ponding to the " calf '' 
of our leg. 

5. Point of hock. 

6. Curb place. 

7. Bellies of muscles on outer aspect of leg. 

8. Space, the seat of "thoro-pin." 


with the astragalus forms the true hock joint. 
The length or shaft of the bone is not round, but 
has three flat sides; one side looking backwards 
having upon it the bellies of large muscles cor- 
responding to the calf of our own leg. Another 
surface looks inwards and forwards, and is cov- 
ered by skin only, as seen in Fig. 14, just as in 
ourselves, and in us is called the shin, and can be' 
felt as a bony •surface from our stifle or knee 
down to our hock or ankle, where it ends in a 
very sharp bony point in both cases called the in- 
ner maleolus. 

You should make an effort to remember this 
prominent bony point called the inner maleolus, 
because it forms a prominent land-mark in de- 
scribing the hock. The remaining side of this 
bone looks outwards and forwards, and is covered 
by powerful muscles. Fig. 14, 7, which if you 
grasp your right leg with your right hand in 
front, half way betv/een the knee and ankle, and 
then raise your toes without moving your foot or 
leg, you will feel to contract. This outer surface 
then is covered by the bellies of the muscles 
which lift the toes upwards, and in the horse lifts 
his foot forward. 

We have, in our remarks, spok^ of an inner 
maleolus, implying the existence of an outer 
maleolus. The outer maleolus is formed by the 
lower end of the ' fibula ' in ourselves, but in the 
horse the * fibula ' is only rudimentary, and does 
not reach down to the hock, or ankle, but is 
merely a spicula of bone having no function or 
use whatever. 


79. — The hock^ (our ankle) is a highly important 
joint on account of the frequency of its break- 
downs. It is X3laced under, and forms an angle 
with the large bone, the tibia, which transmits 
the weight of the body on its upper surface, and 
is placed over, and is in a li7ie with the long bone 
below, the metatarsal bone, which has to meet 
the weight of the body at this point, and form 
a support for it every time thejbody has to be 
propelled forward. We must never lose sight of 
the fact that the angle is at the bottom of the 
tibia, and at the top of the hock, and that the 
direction of the weight of the body is represented 
by the long axis of the tibia. This direction of 
weight is easiest combated the less the angle 
formed at the hock, just as a straight upright 
pillar will bear a greater weight than oue which 
has a bend or angle in it, and the greater this 
bend or angle, the less able is the pillar to sup- 
port weight put upon it. The weight of the horse 
is, we have said, transmitted through the tibia, 
and is not a dead weight so to speak, that is to 
say it is not like the steady downward pressure 
of a weight having no other influences save grav- 
ity on the one hand and the resisting medium on 
which it rests on the other. It may be compared 
to the pressure exerted on the end of the village 
urchin's bow when he has planted one end on 
the ground, is bending the wood with his right 
knee whilst he hokls the bow firmly pressed to 

* Tho student should procure the bones of ii sound hock. Any 
horse-slaughterer's man will procure and prepare these for a shilling 
or so. 


the ground with his left hand, and is dragging 
the string upwards to the notch or catch with his 
right hand. In such a case the end resting on the 
ground is pressed downwards with the left hand, 
and is dragged upwards through the medium of 
the string with the other. Such a weight differs 
much from a so-called dead weight. Excluding 
the long bones above and below which meet the 
hock, and regarding only the intrinsic bones of 
hock, we can divide them into three sets accord- 
ing to their functions; namely— 

1. The gHding bone. 

2. The lever bone. 

3. The buffer bones. 

The gHding bone is called the astragalus, and is 
a large cubical block which carries the two large 
ghdmg surfaces, on which glides the small end of 
the tibia. These two large gliding surfaces have 
a screw-like form which causes the parts below 
the hock, when the toe is lifted, to move out- 
wards. Then again, this gliding surface is almost 
parallel with the long axis of the hock and parts 
below. Then again, and this is very important to 
remember, when the foot is on the ground, the 
leg at its straightest, and the very small end of 
the tibia resting upon the top of this large ghding 
surface, the hock appears large, but when the leg 
is hfted, and the small end of the tibia slides 
necessarily to the bottom of this large gliding 
surface, the hock looks small, therefore it is the 
relation of this large gliding surface to the small 
surface at the lower end of the tibia which deter- 


mines the apparent size of the hock. It follows 
that a bent hock ivhicli appears smaller may he as 
large as a straight hock which appears larger. 

The lever bone, or ^ calcaneum/ is placed at the 
top of the hock at the back, and is a lever of the 
second order. The end of the long arm of this 
lever is called the point of the hock, and cor- 
responds with our heel. It has attached to it the 
tendon (called ' Tendo Achilles ') of the large mus- 
cle whose belly forms the so-called calf of our 
leg. All depends upon the length of this lever 
whether the ^ calves ' are large or small, because 
the longer this long arm, the less will be the 
strength required to work it. Negroes have small 
calves to their legs very often, because their heels 
are so long. A well-bred European with his short 
large, muscle to ivork it, and so can boast of 
'having a good leg.' The ^calf ' of the horse is 
very much concealed on account of the large 
muscles of the back of the thigh being inserted 
into the back and upper third of the tibia sur- 
rounding the 'calf to some extent. The mus- 
cles on the outer side of the tibia (Fig. 1-i, 7) 
called the gaskin muscles, well seen in Fig. 15, 
are extremely prominent, and measurable with 
the eye, and, as we have seen, extend the toe and 
foot. Little notice then need be taken of the 
long arm of the lever under consideration. Witli 
a long lever arm, and the same bulk and strength 
of ' calf ' required for a short lever arm attached 
to it, the hock would be torn asunder. This, as 
we have seen, cannot be the case. The weight 
surface of the lever is applied against the astraga- 



lus. The fulcrum concerns us most, as it is fixed 
by means of ligaments which are sometimes torn 
or otherwise injured, and which swell and in- 
flame in consequence, and the horse is then said 

Figure IS. 

to have ^sprung a curb.' The place of this occur- 
rence is marked at Fig. 14, 6. 

The 'irregular' bones or buffers are placed at 
the lower part of the hock, and are two tiers hav- 
ing joints between them. They are very much 
jarred when the hock is flexed smartly as in that 
quick fascinating hock action we sometimes wit- 


ness, and then the inner ones undergo change 
and throw out a soft plastic material which in 
time hardens into bone, and is called 'bone 
spavin' or a 'jack.' Much depends on the size 
of these buffer bones. If they are large they 
serve their purj^ose, and we may have a good 
hock. They form the whole of the lower part of 
the hock, so that we must look for this part to be 
large in every way. 

80. — The bone below the hock is called the 
metatarsal bone, and is like the metacarpal bone 
of the fore leg, only it must be thickest from be- 
fore backwards. 

81. — The remaining bones are for the most pai-t 
like those of the fore leg. 



The hind extremities are the propellers of the 
body, and the fore extremities are the weight 
bearers, roughly speaking. The same general re- 
marks which were made regarding the fore ex- 
tremities apply equally to the hind ones. The 
ilio-ischium representing the scapula, &c. Where 
we find the bellies of groups of muscles, there we 
find bulk and rotundity. Those who have an eye 
for the beauty of curves will find pleasing curved 
lines in the outlines of a horse in condition. The 
absence of these beautiful curves is well marked 
in horses not in condition. For example, stand- 
ing at the side, but a little behind a hunter in 
condition (see Fig. 15), we see prominently among 
other curved lines the most beautiful curves 
formed by the outhnes of the muscles of the 
hind-quarters and leg ; indeed to all, whether 
judges or lovers of horseflesh or not, this pro- 
fusion of elegant and varying curves set forth on 
a shining coat, grace of movement and the fire of 
excess of life, gives a thrill of pleasure which 
possibly no object in nature can surpass. These 
beauties are not surpassed by the most perfect 
female (human) figure, and seeing that in our 



social life these latter are hidden, undoubtedly a 
hunter in highest condition, prepared for the 
chase, is perhaps the most entrancing of sights. 
Look out then in judging a horse for beautiful 

Figure 16. 

1. Outer point of ilium. 

2. Point of ischium. 

3. Stifle joint. 

4. Calf of leg. 

5. Point of hock. 

6. Curb i)laee. 

7. Gaskius. 

curves. There are some — but they must be first 
rate judges — who can afford to lose sight of these 
curves in purchasing what they term a poor horse, 


i.e., a horse not in condition. When this is so, 
they must see to the relative length and hulk of 
the levers (bones) being what is desirable, also 
that the joints are large and flat, and of course 
an absence of blemishes. If the bones of the ex- 
tremities are of proper length and stoutness, then 
— except of course in disease — the muscles will 
either be in good condition, or will be capable of 
being made so, and they will be massive and pre- 
sent bold, beautiful curved outlines. 

The ilio-ischium should be broad so as to pre- 
sent abundant surface for muscular attachment. 
If the T shaped upper surface looks upwards 
from the quarters being ^ragged' from point 1 
(Fig. 11), being on a level with point 2, then the 
body of muscles occupying this space will present 
a curve with a convexity looking directly up- 
wards (see Fig. 12). But should point 1 be much 
lower, the convexity of the curve looks outwards 
and upwards (see Fig. 13), and the curve formed 
— as seen when standing behind — in the latter 
case between point 1 and the stifle joint will be 
less broken, and therefore the more elegant. The 
depth of the thigh is well seen from behind, but 
it appears deeper, if not really so, in such as have 
straight quarters, for reasons we have before 
seen. There is just one other obliquity of the in- 
nominate bone which we have as yet not men- 
tioned. It obtains between the two symmetrical 
halves of the innominate bone — in other words, 
between the two ilio-ischia bones. When these 
bones are much divergent in front and their 
after points converge, a very defective ^setting 


on ' of the hind hmbs results and the hind Hmbs 
look outwards. This being so, the hocks are 
closer together, and the horse is said to be ' cow 
hocked.' The ilio-ischia bones ought to be as 
parallal as possible, so that the hind hmbs look 
straight forwards and backwards, when the horse 
is standing. In moving, the hip joint and the 
screw-hke astragalus cause the limb naturally to 
assume the slightly outward aspect. In ourselves 
this is so, and the dancing master or driU sergeant 
is not to be thanked that our toes are a little out- 
turned, because as the hip joint is constituted 
they could not be otherwise. 

It is hoped that the above remarks will form a 
good guide to those who are desirous of thinking 
out for themselves the numberless points to be 
observed in horse judging. 

We shall now close these remarks with a few 
observations on the hock. 


82. — Of all the joints in the body this is the 
most impoi-tant. We must refer the reader to 
our description of the bones in Lesson VIII., and 
remind him that according to the size of the indi- 
vidual bones alone the ajyj^arent size of the hock 
does not depend, but more upon the angle at 
which the tibia impinges upon the astragalus. 
This is well seen in extreme flexion, when the 
hock seems to disappear, leaving nothing but its 
so-caUed point in view. The lower fourth or 
more of the hock is made up of the buffer bones 


in front and at the sides, consequently it is these 
which give the lower part of the hock size. They 
must be large but not necessarily coarse, but they 
may be large and coarse and of unequal size in 
the two hocks and yet be quite healthy and free 
from ^spavin.' The top of the metatarsal bone 
on which they mainly rest must also be large. 
When this latter is small we have a grave defect; 
but when it is not only small, but forms with the 
buffer bones of the hock an angle, we have a very 
grave defect called 'curby hocks.' 

The hock should present on its inner surface a 
big, flat, square appearance, and when a horse- 
man speaks of hking a big, flat, square hock, he 
refers to the inner aspect of the hock. The 
boundaries of this so-called square are as follows: 
the internal maleolus or lowest inner point of the 
tibia; the extreme point of the hock; the front 
part of the head of the tibia; lastly, the head of 
the small inner metatarsal bone. These points 
form the four points of the square, and the sides 
are the imaginary lines between these four points. 
It is not within the scope of this work to speak 
of morbid conditions — such as spavin, curb, ring- 
bone, splint, and so forth, but we must caution the 
reader against an appearance of ^curb.' When 
the head of the outer small metatarsal bone is 
large, it gives the side aspect of the really good 
well-made hock a 'curbed' appearance, because 
the line from the extreme point of hock to the 
fetlock at the back should be quite straight, and 
is straight in all except badly formed hocks and 
such as have ' curbs. ' Even when the head of 


the outer small bone named is large and breaks 
this hne when viewed from the side, the straight 
Une is still fomid when you approach the hock 
and run your fingers down the middle hne of the 
parts behind. 

The angle at the hock we saw was formed by 
the tibia impinging upon the astragalus, and we 
further saw that the less the angle the weaker 
the hock. The hind legs must therefore be as 
upright, or rather as straight as possible, in order 
to be as strong as possible. But we have already 
seen that power (strength) is universally gained 
at the expense of speed, which, in turn, can only 
be obtained by quickness and extent of motion of 
the parts most concerned in speed, so that straight 
hind hmbs are stronger, but have less of that 
quick perfect flexion or hock action which has 
such an attractive appearance. 

The front and back of the hock must also have 
plenty of breadth. The point of the hock short of 
being ' capped ' cannot be too broad. 

83. — The metatarsal bone must be short and 
stout, and the hock as near the ground as possi- 
ble. This bone is thickest from before back- 
wards, and as the back tendon must have the 
same characters as we described in the case of 
the hke structure in the fore limb, it follows that 
these parts will be altogether deeper from before 
backwards. As in the case of the fore limb, the 
tendon must stand out distinctly from the bone, 
and the suspensory hgament must also be well 

84. — The pasterns must also have much the 


same qualities as those of the fore Hmb in each 
class of horse. 

85. — The foot also must have the same general 
characters as the fore foot, but the long axis of 
its oval is always from before backwards. The 
hind foot does not call forth the fraction of the 
amount of care as is the case with the fore foot. 
It is less often unsound, and its unsoundness less 
frequently leads to the same disastrous results. 
It is well, however, to look to it much in the 
same manner as in the case of the fore foot. 



The term ^ wind ' is used by horsemen to signify 
the respiration or breathing capabihties. It is not 
necessary to describe in detail defects in ^wind.' 
Normal or healthy breathing, or ^ wind, ' will here 
be described, and from that defects may be re- 

When a healthy horse of average size is stand- 
ing quietly in his stable, he breathes from eight 
to ten or twelve times a minute. I here use the 
term breathes in its popular sense, which all, I 
beheve, understand. If the back of the hand and 
fingers be placed against the ribs, just behind the 
elbow, the heart will be felt to knock the side in 
beating about four times the breathing rate, so 
that a healthy horse having a pulse of thirty-six 
per minute will breathe about nine times per 
minute. In all cases there ought to be this ratio 
1 — 4: or thereabout. Sliould this ratio be absent 
to any marked extent, such for instance as a 
breathing rate of fifteen and a pulse rate of 
forty, disease is present. Exercise in moderation 
increases both pulse and respiration, both are 
quickened, but the ratio is more or less retained. 
Anyhow, when the horse comes to stand and 


rest, the ratio in health is soon re-estabhshed. In 
very small horses, such as Shetland ponies, the 
pulse may be forty or forty-four per minute, and 
the breathing eleven, but there is stiU the ratio 
1 — 4: in health. Many things disturb this ratio — 
disease, fright, grief, joy, &c. — by quickening the 
pulse, and affecting less the breathing. 

In order to acquire dexterity in judging the 
^ wind ' it is best to get a horse known to have 
perfect Svind' into a grass field, and have him 
slowly trotted round you in a circle about the 
size of an ordinary horse-rider's circus. Noise 
must necessarily be made in breathing, but there 
ought to be no distress exhibited, no difficulty in 
getting breath, no noises except soft blowing — no 
whisthng or grunting. After a reasonable time, 
long before the animal shows signs of distress, he 
should be stopped, and notice be taken liow long 
the breathing is in quieting down. This time is 
easily judged if the examiner will judge the 
horse by himself — if healthy — as the same length 
of time is required after the same proportion of 
exertion in the two cases. In the autumn when 
the horse has on a long coat he will feel distress 
earlier, and congestion of the lungs will be more 
easily induced. If exercise be not followed by 
quieted respiration, some defect is present. Of 
course, if undue exercise has been taken, then 
the lungs, although healthy, may have become 
congested. Again, attention should be given to 
the movements of the ribs on either side. The 
ribs should expand freely on both sides. In some 
diseases of the lungs one may become ' deaf, ' or a 


great part of one may be so, then the work is 
thrown on to the sound lung, and the breathing 
capabihties so much decreased. Tliis shows itself 
by the affected side having more hmited move- 
ment. As a general thing, fat, gross subjects 
have a diminished breathing capacity, therefore 
they are sooner distressed, and their breathing 
does not quiet down so soon after exertion. 
Pregnancy encroaches still more on the breath- 
ing capacities. Horses used to going out of a 
walking pace are more likely to have good 
breathing capacities than those used for slow 
work. With draught horses, puUing a load will 
give a better idea of breathing capabilities than 
any other exercise — care being taken that the 
collar fits well and does not bear on the wind- 

Some strike and threaten a horse up against a 
wall, or while standing in his stall, with a stick. 
Such a proceeding does not try the 'wind,' but 
will in some cases elicit the peculiar grunt or 
roar in 'roarers,' and thus save further trial. 
Further than this the test is useless and mis- 


There is an old saying that a good horse can- 
not be a bad color. This, hke most sayings, has 
a germ of truth in it. Were we to have a free 
choice, in all cases we should select our color as 
follows: the best color undoubtedly is dark brown, 
with black points; the next best color is bay, with 
black points. Light chestnuts are good; but dark 


chestnuts are objectionable, as it is notorious that 
after seven years old their fore feet are often con- 
tracted. Grays and whites are not bad colors. 
Black is a hardy color; white stockings if they 
exist largely on the same horse are objectionable, 
especially if the absence of pigment or coloring 
matter extends to the horn of the feet. Of all 
colors, yellow or Cleveland bays, piebalds, and 
dark red chestnuts are the most objectionable. 
In the choice of a horse, however, the purchaser 
should ask himself the question: Does the horse's 
color offend the eye ? If not, and if the horse be 
otherwise desirable, the color ought not to be an 


Having regard to most speed, we should have 
the largest dimensions possible, and therefore the 
greatest height compatible with perfection in 
symmetry. The greatest power also requires the 
greatest bulk. A combination of speed and 
power, as exhibited in our type the hunter, has 
its highest expression in horses about fifteen and 
a half hands high; half a hand more or less being 


The skin of the thoroughbred is extremely thin 
and dehcate, and aUows the veins to be seen 
: through it, and is covered with fine hair. That 
of the draught horse is thick. That of the 
hunter, or power and speed representative, is a 
mean between the two extremes, and shows as 


clearly as most things whether the horse in ques- 
tion inclines to being well bred and thin skinned 
or the reverse. 

Much mane and tail is a sign of low breeding. 
A slight silky mane, with or without a httle 
wave in the hair, is a desirable thing. The same 
may be said of the tail. 


Horses, as a rule, are considered at then* best 
at from five to ten years of age. Much depends 
on the age at which they are put to work. The 
author has in his mind's eye a case in which a 
gentleman used to break his horses at four, but 
did not begin to use them until eight. These 
horses, to the author's own knowledge, were at 
their prime from eight to twenty years of age. 

As horses are now treated, their ages may be 
compared with that of man as follows: — 

equals a man at 20 



^^ 65 

'' 90 

'' " 105 

This calculation supposes both subjects to be 
well treated. 


A horse at 









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Blue and the Gray, The. 
Boston Boys. 
Caldwell of Sprinpflpld. 
Capture of Stony Point, The. 
i'hargc by the Foixl. The. 

Conquered Banner, The. 
Decoration Day. 



Duty of the American Scholar 
E Piuribus Unum 
Ensign-Bearer, The. 
Foes Unite<l in Death. 
Fourth of July. 
• '.eorgia Volunteer The. 
Gun of Xew Or. onus The. 
.loiin Burns of Gettysburg. 
Kearny at Seven Piues. 
Kelly's Ferrj-. 
Kentucky Belle. 
Little Kcginient. The. 
lAiokout Mountain. 1863. 
Miles Keogh's Hors». 
Nation's Hymn. The. 
Nation's Dead. The. 
< >Id Sergeant. Tlie, 
I lid Soldier's Siory. The. 
Old Surgeon's Storv. The. 
Old Soldier Trump; The. 
Old Canteen. The. 
One in Blue and One In 

Opposition to Misgovern- 

Our Whole Country. 
Our Country. 
Our Heroes. 
Paul Kevere's Ride. 
Patriot Spy, The. 
Pride of Battery B, The. 
Revolutionary Rising The. 
Savinitof the Color.-;. The. 
Scott and the Veteran. 
Sheridan's Hide. 
Somebodv's Darling. 
Sprig of 6rcen. Tli.-. 
Stars and Strii-es, The. 
Substitute. The. 
Sword of Bunker Hill, 

Tribute to our Honored 

Dead, A. 
Union and Liberty 
I'liion of the States. The. 
L'ulou Liuked with Liberty. 

Bound in Illustrjited Paper Cover. I'rice 25 Cents. 

For sal© by all Bookseliers or -will be sent, postpaid, on 
receipt of price. 


29 and 31 Beekmau Street, New York, N. Y, 
P. O. Box 1144. 

Biirdett's Serio-Comic Recitations and Readings. 

Being a new collection of humorous, dramatic, serious, and dialect 
Recitals in prose and poetry, adapted and arranged for public or parlor 


An Irish Letter 

An Oration on Spunk 

Arkansaw Traveller 

Aux Italiens 

Ballad of Cassandra Brown, 

Battle of Limerick, The 

''Bay Billy" 


Bill Brown (from Cohoes) - . . 

Bill Mason's Bride 

Blind Mother, The 

Brother Bill 

Brother Gardner on Liars . . . 

Caoch the Piper 

Chess Board, The 

Clerical Wit 

Cut Behind 

Death of the Old Squire, Tlie 

Der Mule Shtood on der 
Steamboad Deck 

Dot Baby off Mine 

Dutchman's Family, The 

Engineers Making Love 

Fashionable School-Girl 

For Life and Death 

Hard Witness, A 

Hezekiah Bedott 

His Son Jim's Bay Mare 

Home Again 

Horse, The. (A Boy's Com- 

160 pa^es, iliiimimited cover. Price 25c. 

For sale by all booksellers, or will be sent postpaid on 
receipt of price. 

How the Old Horse Won the 

In der Shweed Long Ago 

Irish Philosopher, The 

Jew and the Jewels, The 

Jiners, The 

Knight's Toast, The 

Language of the Rail, The.. 

Mary's Little Lamb 

Me and My Dog 

Modern Education 

Mr. Molony's Account of the 

Mule, The 

New Church Organ, The 

* ' Nebuchadnezzar " 

''Ole Marster's'' Christmas, 

Pat's Bondsman 

Postilion of Nagold, The 


Religious Card Player, The . . 

Royal Bumper Degree, The. 

Sergeant's Story, The 

' ' Solomonism "... 

Spartacus with Modern Im- 

TelephT)nic Conversation, A- 

Weather Fiend, The 

Widder, The 

Widow Bedott's Poetry, The 


P. O. Bos. 1144. 

29 and 31 Bec7anan Street, 


Burden's Dutch Dialect Recita- 
tions and Readings. 

Being No. 1 of the Burdeit Series of Recitations andKeadings. This col- 
lection of amusing and laue:hable Recitations embraces all the newest and 
2io8t successful piect'S, original and selected, with which the celebrated 
Header, Jas. S. Burdett, invariably " brings down the house," besides a 
boat of other Dialect Selections in general use by other leading Public 
Keaders of the present day. 


ra FrietcWe 

Bet<=ey und I Hafe Bust CTb 

Charge of de " Dutch Brigade," The 

Deitsche Advertisement 

Dem Ole dim( s Habbiness and dem 


Der Baby 

Der Dog und der Lobster 

Der Drummer 

Der Good Lookin' Shnow 

Der Moon 

Der Mule Shtood on der Steamboad 

Deck -.... 

Dtr Nighd Pehind Grisdmas 

Der Schleighride . 

Der Wreck of der Hezberus 

Dhree Skaders 

Don'd Feel Too Big 

Dot Funny Leetle Baby 

Dot Lambs vot Mary Haf Got 

Dot Leedle Loweeza 

Dot Loaf of Bread 

Dot Shly Leedle Raskel 

Dot Surprise Party 

How Jake Schneider Went Blind . . 

How " Sockery " Set a Hen 

How the Dutchman Killed the 


Initiated as a Member of the United 

Order of Half -Shells 

Isaac Rosenthal on the Chinese 


I Vash So Glad I Vash Here 

Jew's Troubles, A 

Katrina Likes Me Poody Well...... 

Katrina'8 Visit to New York 

Life, Liberty and Lager 

Lookout Mountam, 1863— Beutelsh- 


Little Yawcob Strauss 

Maud Muller 

Marriage Ceremony, The ..... 

Mine Katrine 

Mine Shildrcn 

Mr. Schmidt's Mistake 

Mygel Snyder's Barty 

Oration on he" Labor" Question.. 
Overcoat H Got, The 

Dot Young Viddow Clara | Pretzel's Speech Before the -Uinoia 

Dutchman's Experience i Assembly 

Dutchman's Dolly Varden, A Romoo and ulie 

Dutchman 8 Telephone, A | Schlausheimer's Alarming-^lock .. 

Dutchman's Tesimiony in a Steam- 

boat Case, A. 
Dutchman and the Raven. The .... 

Dutch Recruiting Officer, A 

Dutch Sermon, A 

Dutchman's Serenade. The 

Dutchman's Snake, The... .- 

Dutchman and the Yanaee 

Dvin' V^ords of Isaac 

Efn Deutsches Lied 

Fine Old Dutch GentIeman,*The . . . 

Fritz und I 

German Speech of Hcrr Hans Yager, 


Go Vay. Becky Miller, Qo Vay 

Gosling's Wife Snores -. .. 

Hans Breitmann and the Turners.. 

Hans and Fritz 

Hans in a Fix 

Han'e Midnight Excuses 

Hans Sonrcrout on Signs and Omens 

Home Again 

How a Dutchman was Done 

How Hans Yager Enjoyed the Opera 
In a handsome illnstrnted cover 

Schlausheinier Don't Gonciliatc ... 

Schloi^ser's Ride 

Schneider's Ride 

Schnitzel's Philo8opede 

Schneider Sees Leah 

Schneider's Tomatoes ... 

Shake's Telephone 

Shoo Flies 

Shonny, Don'd You Hear Me f 

Shonny Schwartz 

Bnyder's Nose 

Sockery Kadacut's Kat 

Teaching Him the Business 

Temperance Speech 

Tiamonds on der Prain 

To a Friend Studying German 

Touching Appeal, A 


Vas Bender Henshpecked 

Yawcob's Losing Deal 

Yankee and the Dutchman's Dog, 


Yoppy Varder unt Hees Droubles. . 

Zwei Lager 

Price, 25 cents. 

For all Booksellers or will be sent post-paid on receipt of price. 


I>. O. Box 1144. 

29 & 31 BEEKMAN ST., NEW YORK, N. T, 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 

Art of Training Animals.— A complete guide for ama- 
teur orprofessional trainers, Ki^inprall the secrets and mysteries of 
the craft, and showing how all circus tricks, and all feats of all per- 
forming animals— from elephants to fleas— are accomplished. It also 
has an improved system of horse and colt breaking, breaking and 
training sporting dogs, care and tuition of song, talking, and perform 
mg birds, snake charming, bee taming, and many other things, making 
a large, handsinne volume of over aiX) pages and 60 illustrations. It 
would take a i)Hge of tins catalogue merely to mention what the book 
conkiins Every farmer and animal-owner will find this book valuable, 
and every boy who has dogs or other pets will find it a source of 
endless amu.sement. One gentleman writes us that his boys have 
organized quite a circus with their pets, who have been taught 
amusing and wonderful tricks from our book, and he proposes get- 
ling them a little tent. Remember this book at the holidays. It is a 
good present . . ...50cts. 

(An edition embracing also The Horseshoer's Manual and Youatt's 
Treatise on Diseases of the Horse's Foot, in one handsome cloth-bound 
volume, at $1 00.) 

Art of Wood Engraving.— A practical instructor by 
which an}' one can learn a good trade. Many young ladies have had 
gratifying success, and executed very creditable and profitable work 
after a few mouths practice. Profusely illustrated 25 cts. 

Artist's Manual.— A practical guide to Oil and Water- 
Color Painting, Crayon Drawing, etc. By James Beahd and other emi- 
nent artists. Now that so many are taking up art studies, this book 
meets a want which can be filled by no other single volume. It is very 
clear, full, and explicit, and teaches the best methods. Mr Beard is 
widely and favorably known as an artist and writer, and his book may 
therefore be relied upon. It gives the able and conscientious aid of an 
expert, hence is peculiarly helpful. Illustrated 5U cts. 

Bad Memory Made Good, and Good Made Better.— Shows 

how 0. wonderful power of memory may be acquired by a simple art, 
readily, and enables its i)ossessor to achieve feats incomprehensible to 
thoi^e ignorant < f the secret. It will be of great assistance to teachers, 
pupils, and professional men generally. Clergymen and speakers will 
save much time by its chapter on Speaking without Notes ; students 
preparing for examination will be greatly aided Vi cts. 

Baker's Manual.— This is a practical instructor in all 
branches of the business, including American, French, and German 
styles of work, pastry, cake, and various kinds of bread, biscuit, etc 
It gives many novelties whose recipes are sold at high prices and any 
baker will find it pay him to get this book A good idea of the real 
value of this book is given by the fact that the only similar work, 
scarcely as large, has been selling to the trade for $5 a copy. Any in- 
telligent cook can make the palatable and attractive articles with 
the aid of our plain and simple directions. Special attention is directed 
to the line of fashionable cakes and pastries. The breadmaking in- 
struction is also very reliable and covers every variety 50 cts. 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 & 31 Beekman St., New York, N.Y. 
P O. Box 1144. 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 
Barkeeper's Manual.— Only professional book of the kind 

and the recognized standard with New York barkeepers. It gives all 
plain and fancy mixed drinks, and the popular beverages of all sec- 
lions. It is designed for hotels, steamers, restaurants, club houses, 
saloons, and wherever a reliable guide of this kind is required. It also 
gives chapters on preparation of wines, cordials, liquors, bitters, 
syrups, aerated summer beverages, artificial champagne, cider, and 
numerous useful recipes and practical suggestions to the profes- 
sion . .-... .. .SOcts. 

Black-Soard in the Sunday-School.— A practical guide 

for Superintendents and Teachers. By Fr,a.nk Beard With numerous 
illustrations. Just the thing wanted, giving just the information needed 
to enable any superintendent or teacher to use the Black-board in the 
work of the Sunday-School, including instructions for plain and ct>lored 
drawings and every branch of the subject. Cloth, gold and black 
stamping , $1.50 

Book of Scrolls and Ornaments.— For Car, Carriage, 

Fresco and other Painters. This book is now used in many prominent 
car shops, and for ornauiental work generally Mr. J H. Loudolphe 
gives the besc ideas, and Ins work herein maintains the reputation his 
work in tlie shop gave him. It is ))riiicipaliy devoted to flat ornamen- 
tation. The work is a favorite with the profession, and is a storehouse 
of valuable designs for a great variety of pui-poses . $1 00 

Book of Alphabets. — For Painters, Draughtsmen, De- 
signers, etc. Including all standard styles and many new and popular 
ones. Among otheis, German. French, Old English, etc c;0 cts. 

Book of Japanese Ornamentation.— A collection of de- 
signs adapted to the use of decorators, designers, sign painters, silver 
smiths, and others. Ic meets the want created by the prevailing fash- 
ion for "Jap," and will be found highly usefulfor a variety of purposes 
The designs are all practical, and range from the simplest styles to the 
most elaborate work. "This collection will be found useful to the sign 
painter, designer, decorator, and others for whom it is intended."— 
Painter's Magazine, " Deserves study by all painters interested in dec 
oration. "--i/u6 . S-OO 

Books of Advertised Wonders.— This is a collection of 

the secrets, money-making recipes, wonders, and various things adver- 
tised by circulars and new.-^Dapers to catch curious people. Some are 
good, some bad, some inditTerent $'2M were .spent to collect them, and 
here you have them for 'A) cents, with our comments as to the humbugs 
when they are such. There are enough good things to pay almost any 
one for the outlay of fifty cents, and many persons will avoid paying 
much hign pi ices for some by getting this book 50 cts 

Candy Maker —A complete guide for making all plain 
and fancy candies, bonbons, etc. It tells exactly how to boil the sugar 
or molasses successfully for every kind of caiuly huw to color, flavor, 
and every operation This is a good trade in every city, town, and vil 
lage, and is easily learned Fresh candies of all fashionable kinds sell 
readily at immense pioiits, and will build up a trade in any community 
now using the factory kinds. Any grocer or baker could add largely 
to his prcflt in a small place by introtlucing a few of these specialties 
The book also givfs a full line of s)'rups for soda water, recipes for 
many popular styles of ice cream, and other information. Illus- 
trated 50 cts. 

EXCPLSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 k 31 Beekman St., New York, N.Y. 
P. O. Bo.\ 1144. 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 
Carpenter's Manual.— Instructs in the use of tools and 

the various operations of the trade, inchidins: drawing: for carpenters, 
forms of contracts, specifications, etc , with })lain instructions for be- 
iriiHiers, and full glossary of terms used in the trade. Also gives plans 
and specifications for building a number of frame houses Illus- 
trated 50 cts. 

Detective's Club.— A most interesting book of detective 
life and adventure Curious, amusing, and thrilling. Large illu.strated 
volume 25 cts. 

Diseases of Dogs.— Their pathology, diagnosis, and treat- 
ment ; to which is added a complete dictionary of canine materia 
niedica A practical guide for every dog owner Tells how to prevent 
as well as to cure diseases, and gives much information on care and 
management of dogs If you have a valuable sporting or watch dog, 
or a pet dog of any kind, you should get this book for its valuable sug- 
gestions on care of dogs, and for handy reference in any emergency. 
It is thoroughly reUable, and simple and explicit in its language 25 cts. 

Dog Training. — Chapters on dog training from the "Art 
of Training Animals." The following briefly gives an idea of its con- 
tents • Watch dogs, their selection and value, shepherd's dogs, differ- 
ent kinds and their respective merits and defects, their rearing and 
training Varieties and merits of sporting dogs ; preliminary train- 
ing, lessons in the field , water dogs. Performing Dogs — Simple tricks 
and training, to teach him his naine. to leap, to walk erect, to dance, 
to jump rope, to sit and lie down at command, to beg, to give his paw, 
to sneeze, to speak for it to fetch and carry, to bring you his tail in his 
mouth, to stand on a ball and roll it up and down a plank, to walk on 
stilts, to go up and down a ladder, to stand on his head, and walk on 
fore-legs, to "sing," lump of sugar trick, to feign death 25 cts. 

Dyer and Scourer.— A complete practical guide, designed 

especially for the use of job dyers. It includes dyeing silk, stuff, or 
mixed goods, cotton, raw wool scouring, scouring for job dyers, and 
job dyeing in all its branches 50 cts. 

Employment Seeker's Guide.— Gives advantages and 

objections of different trades and professions ; how to succeed in bus- 
iness , how lo get good situations, new openings, and much valuable 
practical information. Boys and young men will get useful hints from 
its pages that may assist them throughout their business career. Par- 
ents would And it a good book, interesting, as well as helpful, to place 
in the hands of sons or daughters, as the employments of women are 
also treated 25 cts. 

Fun Everlasting-— A large collection of choice humorous 
stories, jests, puns, witticisms, etc., which will afford hearty laughter, 
the whole illustrated by numerous comic engravings. You can invest 
a dime with certainty of being well pleased, to say nothing of giving 
your whole family something to amuse them into the bargain It is 
one of the best selling funny books, and it pleases every tiiTie . . 10 cts 

Furniture and Cabinet Finisher.— A guide to polishing, 

staining, dyeing, and other preparations of hard and soft woods, includ- 
ing the various imitations of costly woods, and a multitude of trade 
recipes, and secrets of the trade 50 cts. 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 k 31 Beekman St., New York, N.Vi 
P. O. Box 1144. 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 
Gilder's Manual. — A practical guide to gilding in all its 

branches as used in the several trades, such as interior decoration, pict- 
ure and looking-glass frames, oil and water gilding, regilding, gilding 
signs. glass, china, pottery, etc.. gilding on muslin, silk, etc., gilding on 
metals, imitation gilding, gilding for printers, silvering, silver electro- 
plating, silvering looking-glasses, etc., etc .,..,. 50 cts. 

Guide to Authorship. — A practical instructor in all kinds 
of literary work, and all business connected therewith Useful to pro 
fessionals and invaluable to inexperienced writers desiring to get into 
print Also includes editing, proof-reading, copyrights, value and dis- 
posal of MSS., etc. It is just the book needed by ail who write 
for the press, and, as the New York Evening Mail says, '' will 
save them asking a great many questions or making a great 
many blunders.' Godey's Lady's Book says that it "will be of great 
service to those who contemplate a trial of the pleasures and pains of 
a literary hfe '' The Philadelphia City Item says : "Those who read it 
will never regret : those who do not will be compelled some day to ac- 
knowledge they have neglected an interesting and valuable work." 
Many teachers and others are doing well by writing during leisure 
hours. Though not a "school^ book, it will be useful to pupils pre- 
paring *" compositions,'' essays, valedictories, etc. . — ■. 50 cts. 

Gunsmith's Manual.— A complete handbook for the Amer- 
ican gunsmith, being a practical guide to all branches of the trade. 
This book is designed to furnish such information as shall be of most 
use in the actual every-day work of the shop, and for such demands or 
emergencies as are liable to challenge the knowledge or skill of the 
workman The work covers descriptions of guns and pistols, fitting 
up a shop, general gunsmitliing. taking apart, cleaning, and putting 
together ; tools required ; how to make tools ; the work-bench ; work- 
ing in iron, steel, copper, brass, silver, and wood ; gun-stocks, gun- 
barrels, tools for breeching guns, tools for chambering breech- 
loading barrels, gun ribs, thimbles, rifling guns, gun-locks, fitting 
gun hammers, nipples, or coups; springs, rods, bullet molds, screw- 
making tools , nomenclature; browning and recipes for browning, val- 
uable miscellaneous recipes too numerous to mention ; powder and 
shot ; judging the quality of guns ; using the rifie, using the shot-gun, 
using the pistol ; vocabulary of mechanical terms used by gun-mak- 
ers; vocabulary of chemicals and substances used in varuislies, etc.; 
calibers of guns ; rifling, twist of rifles, etc. , directions for taking 
apart and assembling guns, rifles, and pistols. A handsome volume of 
nearly 400 large pages with numerous engravings, diagrams, and 
plates. Cloth $2.00 

Hand-book of Dominoes.— Giving all popular and new 

games to be played with dominoes 15 cts. 

Hand-book of Ventriloquism, -A practical self-instructor, 

with examples for practice and t-xhibition. This book is the best for 
learning the art Many boys have done so from its instruction, and 
have exhibited to us specimens of their accomplishments. Any buy 
can learn by intelligent practice with its aid. No one can become a 
ventriloquist by merely reading. It tells also how to make the " magic 
whistle,^ for imitating birds, animals, insects, etc 15 cts. 

Haney's Readings and Recitations,— For professional 

and amateur readers and reciters, and for school practice and exhibi- 
tion. Fourteen books now ready, all different , any one will suit you. 
[contents of each book mailed on apphcation ] Price of each . . 25 cts. 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 & 31 Beekman St., New York, N.Y. 
P O Box 1144. 

hiewand Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 
Haney's Fancy Alphabets.— For sign painters. This 

work meets a want It ^ives the fashionable styles of the day and oriff 
iual designs of great beauty and utility Sign painters who want the 
novelties of New York experts should get this work. It will help you 
to keep customera and get uew cues 50 cts. 

Home Recreations ; or, How to Amuse the Young Folks — 
Designed to afford fresh and agreeable enteriannnent for juvenile par- 
ties, holidays, and the home circle. It will give many pleasant hours 
and keep young folks out of mischief, and make them find employment, 
in their home circle contentedly Parents, get a copy by all means 
Illustrated ... 25 cts. 

Horse-Shoer's Manual.— Includes preparation of foot, 
choice of shoes and their preparation, fitting, filing, nails and nailing, 
shoeing with leather, cuttmg, removing, etc. Also, Youatts Treatise 
on Diseases of Horses' Feet. Bonner's famous horse, Dexter, owed 
much of his value to good shoeing, and with all horses it is of grave 
importance. This book should be in the hands of every professional 
horse-shoer, and every horse-owner , . , , . . 25 cts. 

Houdin the Conjurer.— This life of the famous French 

Conjurer is full of interesting adventures, "more fascinating than fic- 
tion." Illustrated witli numerous engravings 50cts. 

How I Became a Ventriloquist.— Describing the methods 

by which the author acquired the amusing art, and also his diverting 
experience therewith 10 cts. 

How to Make Up for the Stage. — A practical illustrated 

guide for amateur theatricals, charades, tableaux, etc. This is invalu 
able to any one getting up, or participating in, any of these entertain- 
ments - 15 cts. 

Humors of Ventriloquism. — Full of the most entertain- 
ing and laughable scenes, etc 10 cts. 

Hunters and Trappers' Practical Guide— This little 

book has sale, and gives satisfaction every time. It is a prac- 
tical guide to gunning and rifle shooting, tells how to choose arms and 
ammunition, about different kinds of game, making and using traps, 
snares, and nets, baits and baiting traihng game, preserving, dressing, 
tanning, and dyeing skins and furs ; season for trapping, hints to trap 
pers, fire hunting, pigeon catching, camping out; sporting vocabulary, 
recipes for sportsmen, secret of successful fishing. It has more in- 
formation than books costing $1 to $2, and must not be confounded 
with any catchpenny. It has fifty engravings 20 cts. 

Impromptu Speaker. — This is not a collection of set 

speeches, but guides the speaker in making his own. To point out the 
requirements of all ordinary occasions of impromptu speech-making, 
and to afford such aid as may be useful, are the aims of this little trea- 
tise. While avoiding formal rules and elaborate disquisitions, care 
will be taken to show clearly the things to avoid, as well as the things 
to strive for in both the matter and the manner of the speech, and the 
particular points of etiquette to be observed . "25 cts. 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 & 31 Beekman St., New York, NY 
P O Box 1144. 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 
Comicalities by Orpheus C. Kerr.— A capital work "by 

this very popular American humorist. Containing 150 comic engrav- 
ings 25cts- 

Common Sense Cook Book. — A large and excellent col 

lection of approved cooking and domestic recipes 25 cts. 

Infant Star Speaker. — A collection of choicest pieces for 

little speakers, adapted to diff.-^rent stj^les and abilities, A valuable 
feature of this book is the instruction on training and managing tlie 
little speakers, and how to make the most effective appearance at 
school receptions and exhibitions 25 cts. 

Joe Green's Trip to New York.— A highly diverting 

account of a stranger's amusing haps and mishaps in the metropohs. 
Illustrated 10 cts. 

Lessons in Horse Judging. — A practical guide for dealers 

and buyers, by which any intelligent person may become a good judge 
of horses 50 cts. 

Manual of Hair Ornaments.— For jewelry or souvenirs. 
A guide for a tasteful recreation for leisure hours, and a source of 
profitable employment for jewelers and others. This book gives full 
directions whereby any one can acquire the art. The book is illustrated 
with over eighty explanatory engravings and beautiful designs for 
work... 50 els. 

Marine and Landscape Painting in Oil.— A practical 

guide, fully illustrated 50 cts. 

Marine and Landscape Painting in Water-Colors.— 

A practical guide, fully illustrated 50 cts. 

Marvels and Mysteries of Detective Adventure.— A 

collection of thrilling and interesting stories of the detectives. Illus- 
trated 25 cts. 

Mind Reading. — A practical explanation of the curious 
phenomena exhibited by " Brown, the Mind Reader," enabling any one 
to perform the experiiMcnts. Illustrated 15 cts. 

Nightside of New York.— This book is a vivid and truth- 
ful portrayal of the great city after the gas is lighted. It presents hitrh 
and low life as they actually are; the fashionable life and life in the 
slums. It does not seek sensationalism, nor to draw on fancy f.)r its 
matter. "Truth is stranger than fiction." Illustrated 25 cts. 

Practical Mesmerist,The.— A plain and practical illustrat- 
ed solf-instruotor in Curative and Scientific Mesmerism, teaching how the 
reader m«y acquire and practice the art; how to detect disease, to 
retard or accelerate the circulation of blood, to cure headache, rheu- 
matism, tic doloreau, mental disorders, paralysis, spinal disease c orn- 
plaints of lung, liver, heart, and stomach, etc.; introvision, or power 
of looking into the body, clairvoyance, mesmerized water, i o make a 
person subject to your will or command, and manv curious e.xperi- 
ments. Third edition, with much important additional matter, with 
numerous illustrations 25 cts. 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 & 31 Beekman St., New York, N. Y. 
P. O. Lox IIU. 

New and Popular Books sent Free of Postage at Prices Annexed. 

Painter's Manual. -A complete practical guide to house 
ami sign painting, graining, varnishing, polisliing, kalsoinining. paper- 
ing, lettering, staining, giltling. glazing, silvering, analysis of colors, 
harmony, contrast, philosopiij', tlieory, and practice of color, princi- 

Files of glass staining, etc. Including a new and valuable treatise on 
low to Mix Paints. This book is the best general treatise on the paint- 
er's trade yet written, and gives the information really wanted. Ex- 
pcri.Miced painters have repeatedly borne witness to its value, and have 
found hints and helps which they had not happened to learn with years 
of practice. To the learuer the book is simply indispensable 50 cts. 

Phonographic Hand-Book.— For self-instruction in the 
modern improved system, used by practical reporters in the courts of 
law and on the newspapers. It unites simplicity with thoroughness, 
and is the best work for beginuers XJ5 cts. 

Rapid Reckoning,— System of the famous "Lightning 

Calculator," whose exhibitions seemed almost miraculous; any one can 
learn and apply; valuable to clerks, bookkeepers, teachers, and busi 
ness men. 'This is not a gift, but a scientific process. * ♦ * It will 
be of immense advantage in trade, commerce, and science, and revolu 
tioiiize the tedious mode of addition throughout the world."— X 1' 
Tribune. It is not a '" table book," but the art of performing arithmet 
ical calculations with almost instantaneous speed by processes fully 
taught and easily learned by this book 25 cts 

Rogues and Rogueries of New York.— Exposes all 

frauds and swindles of the great cities, from confidence operators to 
quack doctors, and swindlfs and humbugs by mail. Nearly 100, UOO cop 
ies hav^ been sold, and it has broken up many swindles. It is highly in 
teresting, as well as valuable. If you haveu't read it, don't fail to do 
so. Illustrated 25 cts. 

Royal Society Dra"wing Book.— This book took the prize 

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It is adapted to self instruction or use in classes. It has the quickest 
and best methods, clearly presented. Its instructions are exact and 
always to the point, and so clear that the learner cannot go astray. It 
is profusely illustrated, covering the whole ground of Freehand Out- 
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Scene Painting and Painting in Distemper.— This 

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Secrets Worth Knowing.— A guide to the manufactm-e 
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Snares of New York. — The most complete exposure of 

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Standard Scroll Book. The.— This is a collection of upward 

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Standard Irish Readings.— Gives choicest selections in 

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Taxidermist's Manual.— This is the only complete and 
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Tricks on Travelers.— A little work exposing frauds 

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TiDCle Si's Black Jokes.— This is one of the funniest 
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Use of Colors.— A valuable treatise on the properties of 
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Watchmakers and Jewelers' Manual.— Gives latest 

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Rural Church Architecture.— -0 Designs for Churches, 

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Eveleth's School-house Architecture.— Designs for 

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Woodward's Cottages and Farm Houses.— 188 Designs 

and Plans of low-priced Cottages, Farm Houses, and Out-Buildings. 
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Harney's Barns, Out-Buildings, and Fences.— Designs 

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Monckton's National Stair-Builder.— A Complete Work 

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Monckton's National Carpenter and Joiner.— A Com- 
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Wheeler's Homes for the People.— lOO Original Designs, 

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Wheeler's Rural Home.— Original Plans and Designs, 

and full directions for Designing, Building, Heating, Furnishing, and 
Form of Contract and Specification. Price §1.50 

Jacques's Manual of the House.— How to Build Dwell- 
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Woodward's Country Homes.— 150 Designs and Plans, 

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Woodward's Graperies and Horticultural Buildings. 

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Hussey's National Cottage Architecture.— New and 

Original Designs, Working Scale Drawings, and details for all styles of 
low-priced Houses, with Specifications and Costs. Royal quarto. 
Price S 1.00 

Husmann's Grapes and Wine. — The Cultivation of the 

Native Grape and Manufacture of American Wine. Bi' Geo. Husmann, 
of Missouri. Price Sl.OJ 

Phin's Open Air Grape Culture; or, Garden and Vine- 
yard Culture of Grapes and Wine.— A Complete Practical Treatise on 
the management of the Vine and the Fruit. New edition, revised. 
Price $1 .00 

The Thomery System of Grape Culture.— Describing 

the Cultivation of the Grape on Trellises in Northern and Central 
France. Flexible cloth. Price 30 cts. 


Randall's Practical Shepherd.— New edition. Extra Fine 

Binding. A Complete Treatise on the Breeding, Management, and 
Diseases of Sheep. By Henrv S. Randall, LL.D., author of "Sheep 
Husbandry in the South," "Fine Wool Sheep Husbandry," etc., etc. 
Very fully illustrated . Extra cloth binding. 8vo . Price S^ • 00 

Lewis's Practical Poultry Book.-A work on the Breeds, 

Breeding, Rearing, and General Management of Poultry, with full in- 
structions for Caponizing. Over 100 engravings. 8vo. Extra cloth 
binding. Price Si. 50 

Miner's Domestic Poultry Book.— On the History, 

Breeding, and Management of Foreign and Domestic Fowls. New edi- 
tion. Very fully illustrated. 12mo. Price SI 00 

Jacques's Manual of the Garden, Farm, and Barn-yard. 

—Embracing the Cultivation of Vegetables, Fruit. Flowers, all Field 
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Todd's Young Farmer's Manual. Vol. I.— The Farm 

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Price . 


Todd's Young Farmer's Manual. Vol. II.— How to 

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Todd's Young Farmer's Manual. Vol. III.— Being the 

Practical Results of Forty Years' Experience in Wheat Culture, with 
full information on Soils, Varieties, Methods of Cultivation, Machinery, 

Diseases, etc. 43.> pages. Illustrated. Price Si. 50 

The above three volumes form a Complete Library for the Young 
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Elliott's Lawn and Shade Trees.— For Planting Parks, 

Gardens, Cemeteries, Private Grounds, and Avenues. Fully illus- 
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Fuller's Forest Tree Culturist.— The Cultivation of For- 
est Trees for Shade, for Shelter, for Fuel, for Timber, and for Profit. 
Illustrated. Extra cloth binding. Price §1.00 

Willard's Practical Dairy Husbandry —New edition. 

Over 200 illustrations. A Complete Treatise on Dairy Farms and Farm- 
ing ; Dairy Stock and Stock Feedmg ; Milk ; Its Management and 
Manufacture into Butter and Cheese ; History and Mode of Organ- 
ization of Butter and Cheese Factories; Dairy JJtensils, etc. Price, $-i.00 

Willard's Practical Butter Book.— A Complete Treatise 

on Butter Making at Factories and Farm Dairies, including the Selec- 
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for Dairy-rooms and Creameries, Dairy Fixtures,Utensils, etc. 50 illus- 
trations. Price Si LH) 

Ten Acres Enough. — A Practical Treatise, showing how 
a very small farm may be made to support a very large family, with 
full and minute instructions as to the best mode of Cultivating the 
Smaller Fruits, such as Strawberries, Raspberries, Blackberries, etc. 
Also, what capital is needed ; where the man of small means should 
locate to secure the most profit : how he should go to work, and what 
he can do when beginning in a small way. Price §1 00 

How to Get a Farm and Where to Find One.— Showing 

that Homesteads may be had by those desirous of securing them, with 
the public Law on the subject of Free Homes, and suggestions f 
Practical Farmers. Fully illustrated, cloth, extra. Price $1.00 

Our Farm of Four Acres, and the Money We Made by 

It. 1 vol. 12mo. Cloth 60cts. 

" A Practical and Interesting Volume." 

Flax Culture. — A Manual of Flax Culture and Manufact- 
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A New Edition of Frank Forester's Horse of America 

—By Henry W, Herbert. In two superb royal octavo volumes of VMi 
pages, with steelcngraved original portraits of thirty celebrated rep- 
resentative Horses. This Standard Historical work has been thor- 
oughly revised, newly written, compiled, and perfected by S. D. and B. 
G. Bruce. Price $15.00 

Wallace's American Trotting Register- Containing all 

that is known of the Pe'ligrees of Trotting Horses, their Ancestors and 
Dt'scendants, with a Record uf all pul)lished performances in which a 
mile was trotted or paced in i2.40 or less, from the eailiest dates till the 
close of Ist'S, and a full Record of the performances of IHOUand 1870. 
Giving complete summaries of over six thousand contests. With an 
Introductory Essaj' on the true origin of the American Trotter, and a 
set of Rules for the Government of all Trials of Speed. By J. H. Wal- 
lace. Royal octavo. Price $10 00 

Horse Portraiture.— Breeding, Rearing, and Training 
Trotters. Preparations for Races ; Management in the Stable ; On the 
Track ; Horse Life, etc. By Joseph Cairn Simpson. Price $2.00 

Wallace's American Stud Book. —Being a Compilation of 

the Pedigrees of American and Imported Blood Horses, from the earli- 
est records, with an Appendix of all named animals without extended 
Pedigrees prior to the year 1840, and a supplement containing a history 
of all Horses and Mares that have trotted in public, from the earliest 
trotting races till the close of 1S6(J. By J. H. Wallace. Royal 8vo, 
lOOOpages. Price $15.00 


Frank Forester's Field Sports.— Embracing the Game of 

North America. Upland Shooting, Bay Shooting, Wild Sporting of the 
Wilderness, Forest, Prairie, and Mountain Sports, Bear Hunting, Tur- 
key Shooting, etc. Fourteenth edition, revised and illustrated. ~ vols., 
8vo. Price $4.00 

Frank Forester's Fish and Fishing.— 100 engravings. 

Embracing a full illustrated description of the Game Fish of North 
Amei ica. Trout and Salmon Fishing ; Shoal Water and Deep Sea 
Fishing; Lake and River Fishing. Trolhng, Fly Fishing, etc. 12th 
edition. 1 vol., 8vo. Full cloth. Price $^.50 

Frank Forester's Complete Manual for Young Sports- 
men, of Fowling, Fishing, and Field Sports— With directions for 
handling the Gun, tiie Rifle, and the Rod : Art of Shooting on the 
Wing ; the Breaking, Management, and the Hunting of the Dog ; the 
varieties of Game ; River, Lake, and Sea Fishing. 1 vol., 8vo. 
Price S2.00 

Frank Forester's American Game in' its Seasons.— 

Ful'.v illustrated and described. In one elegant 12mo volume, beau- 
tifully printed on laid tinted paper, handsome extra cloth binding $1.50 

Fishing in American Waters,— By Genio C. Scott. New 

and revised edition, with additional chapters on Southern and 
Miscellaneous Fishes, etc. lUu.strated with more than 200 wood en- 
gravings. This book is the recognized Standard Authority for Ameri- 
can Anglers and Fishermen, embracing Coast and Estuary Fishing 
with Rod and Line, Fresh Water Fishing with Fly and Bait, Natural 
History of American Fishes, Lake and Coast Fish and Fisheries, 
Southern Fishes and How Angled for. Cookery Adapted to the Re- 
sources of Sportsmen in the Wilderness or on the Wave, etc. One vol- 
ume, 539 pages, 2vS engravings. Handsomely bound in extra cloth. 
Price ^2 50 

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New and Popular Books sent Pree of Postage at Prices Annexed. 

The Breech-Loader.— By Glean. Description, Selection, 
Manufacture, Separation, Loading, Cleaning. Shooting, etc. Price, gl.25 

The Dog. — By Dinks, Mahew, and Hutchinson. Compiled 
and edited by Frank Forester. Containing full instructions in all that 
relates to the Breeding, Rearing, Breaking, Kenneling:, and Condition- 
ing of Dogs, with valuable Recipes for the ti-eatment of all Diseases. 
Illustrated. 1 vol., 8vo. Price ^3.00 

Practical Trout Culture.— By J. H. Slack, M.D., Com- 
missioner of Fisheries, New Jersey. Fullj' illustrated, and describing 
all that is necessary to successful Trout Cultui-e. Price $1.00 

The Dead Shot: The Gun; or, Sportsman's Complete 

Guide. — A Treatise on the Use of the Gun, with Rudimentary and Fin- 
ishing Lessons in the Art of Shooting Game. By "Marksman." 
Price gl.25 

The Crack Shot: The Rifle; or, Young Rifleman's 

Complete Guide— Being a Treatise on the Use of the Rifle, with Lessons, 
including a full description of the latent ImprovL-d Breech-Loading 
Weapons ; Rules and Regulations for Target Practice and for Hunting 
Game. By Edward C Barber. Price Sl.:;J5 

Gun, Rod, and Saddle.— Nearly fifty practical articles on 
subjects connected with Fishing, Shooting, Racing, Sporting, etc. 
Price $1. 00 


Woodward's Ornamental and Fancy Alphabets, Mon- 
ograms, and Titles.— The finest work on Letters and Lettering ever 
published. For the use of Draughtsmen. Engravei-s, Engineers, De- 
signers, Sign Painters, Embii>iderers, and Schools. Eighty quarto 
plates ; handsomely buuud. Price $6.00 

Woodward's Artistic Drawing Studies.— A drawing- 
book of Heads, Figures, Animals, and Landscapes. Superior Studies 
for the Lead Pencil and Crayon, for Artists, Art Students, and Schools. 
The finest work of th' kind ever published in this country. Adapted to 
all ages and all conditions of progress. Eighty quarto plates. Price, $6.00 

Woodward's New and Selected Designs for the Fret- 
saw.— For Ornamental Work of easy execution. Containing twenty- 
four phites, with seventy-five different designs. Brackets, Panels, 
Table Mats, Photograph "Frames, Watch Stands, Paper Folders. Ther- 
mometer Frame. Corner Consoles. Glove Box, Table Easels. Pen Racks, 
Etageres, Knife Rests, Cigar Stands, Sandpaper Tablettes. Price, 50 cts. 

Copley's Plain and Ornamental Alphabets.— With Ex- 
amples in Every Style Also the Mechanical and Analytical Construc- 
tion of Letters, Figures, and Titles. With Designs for Titles, Ciphei-s, 
Monograms, Borders, Compasses, Flourishes, etc., designed as a Text- 
Book for the use of Draughtsmen. Civil Engineers, Surveyors, Archi- 
tects. Engravers, De.sierners, Sign Painters, Schools, etc. Drawn and 
arranged by Frederick S. Copley. Large quarto, extra cloth. 
Price $3.00 

EXCELSIOR PUBLISHING HOUSE, 29 & 31 Beekman St,, New York, N.Y. 
P. O. Box 1144. 

Excelsior Recitations and Readings. 

ISTo. 1. 
Designed and Arrauged L/ Public aud Parlor Kecitation and Readiog. 

Barhclor's Dream, Tlie. 
Before and Alter Taking. 
Roy's Essay on Girls, A. 
Bonier Funeral, A. 
Brother Bill, 


Froward Duster, The. 
Grannie's Picture. 
iHe Understood It. 
iHorse or Husband ? 
iHjw We Fou'Mit the Fire, 

Brother Gardner ou Liars. In Der Shweed Long Ago. 
Cane-Bottoraed Chair. Intensely Utter. 

Countryman at trie Show, Inventor's Wile, The. 

The. I Irrepressible Yankee, Th 

Clown's Baby, The. |Jim s Kid.^. 

Cow, The. A Boy's Com- Little Men and I. 
position. Lost Grave, The. 

De Cake Walk. Marriage Tour, A. 

Death-Bed of Benedict Marry's Lamb. 

Arnold. Miner's Protege, The. 

Drummer's Bride, The. Modern Sermon, A. 
iMusiG Grinders, The. 
No. oCoilect St 

Engineers Making Love. 
Erin's Flag. 

Essay on the Elephant. 
Father Front's Sermon. 
Fireman's Story. The. 
Fisher's Wife, The. 
Free Seat, A. 
Freckled- Face Girl, The 

Not Opposed to Matri- 
Old Actor's Story, The. 
Old Sergeant, The. 
On the Other Train. 

Frenchman's Version of Oratory and the Press. 
Youug Norval. Original Love Story, An. 

Bound in illuminated paper cover. - - - 

Our First Cigars. 
Paddy's Lament. 
Parson Snow's Broad Hint 
Philip Barton, Engineer. 
Photograph Album, The. 
Railway Matin* e, A. 
Religious Card Player. 
Robert Emmet. 
Romance of a Hammock. 
Shoemaker's Daughter, 

Smiting the Rock. 

Stage Driver's Story, The. 
Supper of St. Gregory, The 
Tale of the Tenth Hussars 
Test, A. 
That Queen. 
Trying to Lick the 

Unknown Dead. 
Widder, The. 
Widow's Son. The. 
Woman at Poker. 

Price, 25 cents. 

ISTo- 2. 


Katrina's Visit to New Providence Pulled him 
York. Through. 

Legend of Inuisfa'len, The Rag-picker, The. 

Lost and Found. Shipwrecked. 

Maniac. The. Soft Guitar. The. 

Mr. Fisher's Bereavement. Song of the Sh'rc. 

My Neighbor's Baby. Spring House-cleaning. 

Nora Murphy and the Story of the Faithful Soul. 
Spirits. Street Cries. 

Occupant of Lower No. 3, That Woman Played De- 
The. spair. 

Drama of Three, The. Old Man Goes to Town, Tirzah Ann's Summer 
Duel between Mr. Shott The. Trip. 

Anx Italiens, 

Bells of Shandon. 

Bishop of Ross, The. 

I'.uilding and Being. 

Charity Dinner, The. 


Crazy Kate. 

Cuddle Doon. 

Death of the Old Squire, 

DotBaby off Mine, 

aud Mr. Nott. 
Emigrants, The. 
Fashionable Schoolgirl 

Hie Last Court. 
How "Ruby" Played. 
How Sockery Set a Hen. 
Jiners, The. 
Justice in Leadville. 
Knight's Toast, The. 

Oration on the Labor To Draw or Not to Draw. 

Question. Treadwater Jim. 

Over the Hill from the Two Glasses, The. 

Poor House. Uncle Ike's Roosters. 

Over the Hill to the Poor What Intemperance Does 

House. What Made Him Glad. 

Paddy's Reflections on Widow Cummiskey, The. 

Cleopaihera's Needle. iWickedest Man in Mem- 
Piece of Red Calico, phis. 
Pledge with Wine. [Winnie's Welcome. 
Bound in illuminated paper cover. - . . - Price, 25 cents* 
For sale by all Booksellers, or will be sent, poet-paid, on receipt of price. 


P. O. Box 1144. 

a9 and 31 Beekiuan Street, IVe-w York, 


Asleep at the Switch. 

Battle of Waterloo, The. 


Biddy Maginness at the Photogra- 

Billy's Rose. 

Black Horse and his Rider, The. 

Book Canvasser, The. 

Brier Rose. 

Californian and a New York 
Segar, A. 

Caoch the Piper. 

Cataract of Lodore, The. 

Catawba Wine. 

Children We Keep. The. 

Chinese Excelsior. The. 

Clothing Business, The. 

Coals of Fire. 


Curfew Must Not Ring To-Night. 

Death of Robespierre, The. 

Difficulty in Rhyming. 

Farmer John. 

Fearless De Courcy. The. 

Flash. (The Fireman Story.) 

Fly Cogitation. A. 

Going to School. 

Granerer and the Gambler, The. 

Her Rival. 

How Girls Study. 

How Jane Conquest Rang the Bell. 


Kitchen Clock, The. 


176 Pages, Paper Cover. 


Life Boat, The. 

Life's Magnet. 

Mary's Lamb on a New Principle. 

Maud Rosihue's Choice. 

Miss Maloney on the Chinese Ques 

Moll Jarvis O'Marley. 
Mrs. Smart Learus How to Skate. 
My Garden. 
My Lover. 

Now and Then. 

Old Man in the Palace Car, The. 
Our Travelled Parson . 
Phryne's Husband. 
Poor-House Man. 
Bevenge is Sweet. 
Room Enough fur All. 
Scandal, A. 
Seedy One, A. (A Tale of Fraud 

and Deception.; 
Sign-Board, Tlie. 
Sister of Charity, The. 
Smoker's Soiih quy, A. 
Ta e of a Dog, The. 
To a Skeleton. 

Trouble in the Amen Corner. 
Uncle Ned's Defence. 
^'alentine, The. 
What is a Gentleman ? 

Witness, The. 
Wrong Train, The. 

Price 25 cents- 

3SrO. 4. COlsTTE^JSTTS. 


Bolls (The). 

liill .loiies. 

Hill Snyder s Boy 

liill the Kii^ineer 

B<>b 9 Petticoat!!. 

Boy Wnnieil " 

Bridget McGarrigan. 

C'nxsius Apainst C'.-vsar. 

Charcoal M:iii (The). 

C irect Caixl (The). 

C'upiU'R Arrow 

Dead DolUTIiei 

Drunkard s Child (The) 

Klrventh Hour (The' 

Emancipation of Man (The) 

First Client iThel 

l-irst Piauo in Mining Camp (The) 


1-ritz'B Courtship 

Cunrdiun Anp-l of Gloomy Gulch (The) 

Gemini and Viigo 


Goat (The) 

Guilty or Not Guilty 

Her letter 

He Was Rather IVnf 

Hou9ekee|>er ■ Soliloquy (The) 

How.lolin I'roposed. 

Joe Tonl ' the Fireman. ' 

John ( hinaman'a Protest. 

I.eadville Jim. 


Little Uii^'i from Ireland ( A ) 

Little Girl's Coniposili'Mi on ' IJo 

little Maid s (The) 

Maclaine ? Child 

Marry Me Darlint To Nieht. 

Modern Shakespeare (The) 

Movenienl Cun; for Ubcumati'^m 

Moving lale (A) 

Mr. Peppergrnss's Peroration 


Old Kmln.-y and ihr Bull 

One Touch of .Niitme. 

Orange and Green. 

Othello 3 A)>ology 

Paradise Kcganied. 

Pauper l.nw 

Phaidrig Crohoore. 


Sale of Old n.irhrlr.r8(A) 

Sal I'arker s (ihost 

Selfish l)nimui.r(The) 

S|>o<-|>eiidvkc Wrisile.'. with a Bic 

Station Master i St .rv (The) 

Story of Some Bell* (The) 

Tale of a Possum 

Telmachus vs Mentor 

That Porterhouse Steak. 

Tim <) Brian s Wedding. 


Washington. fPoetry ] 

Washingl'^n [Prose J 

Water-Mill' The). 

You Put No Flowers on Papa s ( 

Young Trump i The) 


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Irish Dialect Recitations and Readings. 


The " Aprer." iKatii''fl Answer. 

The Battle of Limerick. [Lariio O'Dee. 
Biddy McGinnis ou the Larry's on the Force. 

Biddy McGinnis at the 

Biddy's Trials Among the 

Biddy's Trouble-. 
The Birth of St. Patrick. 
The Donkey. 
Don't be Tazing Me. 
The Emigrants. 
How Pat Saved Ills Bacon 
Irish Coquetry. 
An Irish Letter. 
The Irish Philosopher. 
The Irish Schoolmnster. 
The Irish Traveller. 
An Irishm^in's Letter. 

Love in the Kitchen. 

Make it Four Yer Honor. 

The Man He Was Waiting 
to See. 

Mike's Confession. 

Miss Maloney on the Chi- 
nese Question. 

Miss Maloney Goes to the 

Modern Astronomy and 

iMr. Moloney's Account of 

! the Ball. 

Noah Murphy and the 

The O'Nayle who had 
Lost the Big "O." 


Paddy Blake's Echo. 
Paddy's Courting. 
Paddy's Dream. 
Paddy the Piper. 
Paddy O'Rafthor. 
Paddy's Rellectiona or. 

Cleopathra's Needle. 
Pat's Criticism. 
Pat's Letter. 
Pat and His Musket. 
Pat and thn Oysters. 
Patrick O'Rouke and the 
1 Frogs. 

Pairdeen O'Reflferty's Say 
' Voyage. 

Peter Mulrooney and the 
I Black Filly. 
Tim Murphy's Irish Stew. 
The Wake of Tim O'Hara. 
The Widow Cummiskey. 

- Price, 25 cents. 

The Irishman's Panorama, O'Reilly's Nightmare. 
Jimmy McBride's Letter. | | 

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New Comic Eecitations& Humorous Readings 


Add. Ryman's Fourth of How She Managed It. Pyrotechnic Polyglot. 
July Oration. Hoav They Play the Piano A Receipt for Actors. 

The A^ed Stranger. 
A Baby's Soliloquy. 
Be-Yu-Ti-Ful Snow. 
The Blue Bottle Fly. 

in New Orleans. She Meant Bue 

How to Manage Carpets. She Was Too Fastidious. 
How Tom Sawyer Got His A Similar Case. 

Fence White-washed. The Simple Story of G. 

The Book Agent Beats the How we Hunted a Mouse, j Washington. 

A Speech which every 
I Congressman Could Un- 
I derstand. 

Spoopendyke's Suspend- 
I ers. 
!a struggle with a Stove 

Bandit. An Idyl of the Period. 

The Brakeman at Church. The Irre-prc«sible Boy. 
Britrg's Rash Bet. Jim Wolfe and the Cats. 

Buck Fanshawe's Funeral John Spiner's Shirt. 
Butterwick's Little Gas Love in Oyster Bay. 

Bill. Maidens, Beware ! 

The Captain's Speech to Mr. Kphraim Muggins on Pipe. 

the Montgomery Guards Oilymargarine. That Bad Boy Again. 

The Car Conductor's Mr. T'otts' Story. That Emerson Boy. 

Mistake. A New Primer. That Hired Girl. 

The Case of Young Bangs. Nobody's Mule. '" Toujour? Jamais." 

Confessing their Faults. One of Those Awful Chil- Travelling in a Mixed 
Faithless Sally Brown. dren. Train. 

Fast Freight. Only a Pin. The Two Boot Blacks. 

The Frenchman and the The Parent with the Hoof The Villain Still Pursued 

Flea Powder. A Plea for the Opera. ! Her 

Darius Green and His Fly- The Presentation of the The Wrone Ashes. 

in^ Machine. Trumpet. The Yarn of the "Nancy 

He Had Been to Candahar The Puzzled Census, Bell." 
How " Ruby " Played. i Taker. I 

niustrated paper cover. ------ Price, 25 cents. 

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p. O. Box 1144. 39 and 31 Beekman Street, New York, N. Y, 


Skll-f\ooii\ G^tiide; 



The latest and most complete of any publication of its kind 
out, embracing not only the vrhole theory and practice of 
Terpsichorean Art, but full and requisite information for the 
giving of Receptions, Parties, Balls, etc., from the com- 
mencement to the ending, -with clear directions for calling 


matters, all expressed in plain language, added to which are 
clear and practical insti-uction diagrams of marches, forms of 
invitations, programmes, etc., together with thirty-eight pages 
of the latest and most fashionable copyright music, never 
before issued in book form, making this book the most 
thorough and complete publication on dancing ever issued. 

The Grand March 

Plain and Fauci/ Qiiadn'llrs 

Waltz and Glide (^hladrilles 

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Glide Lancers and Caledonians 

Saratoga Lancers 

The Parisian Varieties 

The Prince Imperial Quadrille 

Social and Basket Qnadrillra 
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Debates, Outlines of Debates, and Questions 

FOR Discussion, to which is added an 

Original and complete Debate on 

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In addition to these are a large collection of debatable 

The authorities to be referred to for information being 
given at the close of every debate throughout the work, mak- 
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Containing the following complete Debates : 

1. Is the Protection afforded to American industry by 
duties on imports beneficial to the American people ? 

2. Which is of the greatest Benefit to his Country, the 
Warrior, the Statesman, or the Poet f 

3. Are the Mental Capacities of the Sexes equa^ ? 

4. Is Capital Punishment justifiable ? 

5. Does Morality increase with Civilization ? 

6. Has the Stage a Moral Tendency ? 

7. Which was tha greater Poet, Shakespeare or Milton ? 
S. "VMiich has done the greater Service to Mankind, the 

Printing Press or the Steam Engine ? 

9. Which does the most to make the Orator — Knowledge, 
Natm-e, or Art ? 

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Book of Commercial Forms, Etc. 

Containing specimen Letters on all possible business top" 
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transaction 'that can happen to an ordinary person in the 
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a paper of pins to a house and lot, boiTow or lend money, or 
anything at all, you will find the plainest and most business- 
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clear, and indisputable language. 

Added to this are a great number of Foi-ms for Business 
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And a Host of Other Forms, 

which require to be correctly worded to be binding and of 
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themselves plainly in ^\Titing, and it proves of valuable assist- 
ance to those who are well informed, as a liandy book of ref- 
erence on doubtful matters of Expression or Form, to which 
is added a comprehensive dictionary of synonyms and abbre- 
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29 aiul SI Dceknian Street, Nciv York, N, Y, 

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HOW TO DRAW APTD PAINT A completfl hand-book on the whole art 

of Drawing and Painting, containing concise InHtructlons in Out- 
line, Light and Shad*'. Terppective, Sk«'tching from Nature. Figure 
Drawing, Artistic Anatomy. Landscape. Marine, and Portrait Paint- 
ing, the principles of colors applied to paintings, etc., etc., with 
over 100 illustrations. 
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demand for new and Buituble Uea<llngs and Recitations has led to 
the compilation of ihfse books. Our experience of the past war- 
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Each number will contain about 17(j pages, bound In a beautiful 
illustrated cover ]irinted in colors. 
Noe. 1, 2, 8, and 4 now ready Price 25 cts. each. 

THE COMPLETE DEBATER '"ontaining Debates. Outlines of Debates. 

and Questions for Discussion, to which is added an origined and 

complete debate on Free Trade. 

Bound in boards, with cloth buclc, containing over 200 

pages Price 90 cts. 

latest and mu^t complete of any publication of its kind out, embrac- 
ing not only tl'e whole theory and practice of Terpsichorean Art, 
but full and lequisi-e information for the giving of Recbptions, 
Parties, Balls, etc., with clear directions for calling out thk 
FIGURES OF EVEnY DANCiS. together with thirty-eight pages of the 
latest and most fasliiouable copYRionT nmsic, and containing 
nearly one hundred flgun-s for the '• German." 

Bound in illuminated i>oHrd cover, wiih cloth back Price 75 cts. 

Bound in illuminated paper cover Price 50 cts. 

Containing s -me of the best Hits of the Leading Negro Delineators 
of the present day, comprising the most Amusing ana Side-Splitting 
Contributions of Oratorical Kffusioiia which has ever been produced 
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Bound in illustrated paper cover Price 25 cts. 

FORMS.— Containing speciiiien letters on all possible business top- 
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sents, in a clear and intelligible manner, the whole art and philoso- 
phy of Etiquette. Among the contents are: Bodiljr Deportment, 
Speak Grammatically, Self-Respect, Pedantry, Social Characters, 
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and originuL collection of the author s best efforts in the field of wit, 
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klidure, ijiultiire, Fi Sports, and tlie Horse. 

Alphabets, Ornamental and Fancy. Geo. E. Woodward. 4to $6 00 

Artistic Drawing Studies. Geo. E. Woodward. Quarto 6 00 

Breechloader, The. By "Gloan." Illustrated 125 

Copley's Alphabets. Plain and Ornamental 3 00 

Crack Shot (The Rifle). By E. C. Barber. Illustrated 1 25 

Dead Shot (The Gun). By " Marksman." lUustrated 1 25 

Dog. The, By Dinks. Mayhew, and Hutchinson 3 00 

Elliott's Lawn and Shade Trees. Illustrated 1 00 

Eveleth's School-House Architecture. Quarto 4 00 

Fishing in American Waters. By Genio C. Scott. 200 Illustrations. . . 2 50 

Flax Culture. Paper 10 

Frank Forester's American Game. Illustrated 1 50 

Frank Forester's Field Sports. 2 vols. lUustrated 4 00 

Frank Forester's Fish and Fishing. 100 Illustrations 2 50 

Frank Forester's Horse of America. 2vols,,8vo 5 00 

Frr.nk Forester's Young Sportsman's Manual. Illustrated . 2 00 

Fuller's Forest Tree Culturist. Fully Illustrated 1 00 

Gun, Rod, and Saddle. Illustrated 100 

Harney's Barns, Outbuildings, and Fences 4 00 

Horse Portraiture— Breeding and Training Trotters, etc 2 00 

How to Get a Farm and Where to Find One 1 00 

Ilusmann's Grapes and Wine. Illustrated 1 00 

Hus-ey's National Cottage Architecture. Quarto 4 00 

Jacques' Garden, Farm, and Barn-yard 1 50 

Jacques' Manual of the House. i26 Designs 1 00 

Lewis' Practical Poult ry Book. 100 Illustrations 1 50 

Miner's Domestic Poultry Book. Illustrated 1 00 

Monckton's National Carpenter and Joiner. Quarto 5 00 

Monckton's National Stair-Builder. Quarto 5 00 

Our Farm of Four Acres. 12mo. 60 

Phin's Open-Air Grape Culture. New edition 1 00 

Randall's Practical Shepherd. New edition. Illustrated 2 00 

Rural Church An hitectnre. 20 Designs 4 00 

Ten Acres Enough. New edition. Illustrat.^d 1 00 

Thomery System of Grape C.ilture. Fhxible cloth oO 

Todd's Yoiing Farmer's IManual. 3 vols IVr s;.t, 4 50 

Vol. 1. The Farm and Workshoo 1 50 

Vol. 2. How to :\Inke Farming Pay 1 50 

Vol. 3. Wheat Culture 1 50 

Trout Culture. By J. H. Slack, M.D 1 00 

Wallace's American Stud Book. 1.000 pages, 8vo 10 00 

Wallace's American Trotting Register. 8vo 10 00 

Wheeler's Homes for t!ie People. Fully Illustrated 2 00 

Wheeler's Rural Ilomos. Fully Illustrated 1 50 

Willard's I'ractical Butter Book. Illustrated 100 

Willard's Pi'aetical Dairy Husbandry. Illustrated 3 00 

Woodward's Cottages n nd Farm-Houses. 188 Designs and Pious 1 00 

Woodward's Country Homes. 150 Designs and Plans 1 00 

Woodward's Designs for the Fret Saw 50 

Woodward's Graperies and Horticultural Buildings 1 00 

Woodward's National Architect. Vol. 1. 100 Designs 7 50 

Woodward's National Architect. Vol. 2. 100 Quarto Plates 7 .'iO 

Woodward's Suburban and Country Houses^ 70 Designs and Plans . . 100 

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