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Full text of "Lettering"

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LETTERING 



LETTERING 



THOMAS WOOD STEVENS 

CARNEGIE INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY, PITTSBURGH 



THE PRANG COMPANY 

NEW YORK • CHICAGO • BOSTON • ATLANTA • DALLAS • TORONTO 



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COPYRIGHT, I916 
BY THOMAS WOOD STEVENS 



PR.4NG LETTERING PENS 

Spoon-Bill Pens 

Specially suited for modern, round rapid lettering. 

In tKi<fc;siies! ' -Ni. 1", N*p. J, aid* NJ>." y'. 

Per doeon 'aS^or'edVn box.*.*..*. .**."•.*. . . . 

Old EnglisiT ViiXT PpiSsJ * * *•'* 

Ideal for BlacJ?°t*ett«i*aVd Mtutn^ish Text w-riting 

Three si«es ; . ,No. I\ No>.», an* No. }. 

Per dozenyas*oi\edMh b*o*» '•'•. • . 1 

ASSORTED CARD 

Spoon-Bill Pens, and one each of the three sizes 

Old English Text Pens. Price 

THE PRANG CO. NEW YORK . CHICAGO . 






FOREWORD 

THIS book is designed to serve artists, craftsmen and students 
who have lettering to make. It presents no " system of sign- 
writing," and brings forward no mechanical method. Its 
intention is to present good standards in styles applicable to 
many fields of work, together with brief instructions regard- 
ing the drawing of letters. 

The text matter is written primarily for the student; the experienced 
craftsman will not read it. He is only concerned with the examples 
presented. So we may set down the most elementary matters, explaining 
the uses of tools and materials, and giving an account of those historical 
conditions of work which have marked our alphabets. Our objecl:, in 
short, is to develop the idea of lettering in relation to the element of design, 
the decorative element, which it contains, and to the historical phases 
which have made it what it is. Beyond this, we shall try to point out the 
best manner of executing and using the plainer forms. 

Many of the drawings and certain parts of the text appeared in a pre- 
vious work, now long out of print. The author is still grateful to the artists 
who contributed them, and newly grateful to those who have added fresh 
work to the present issue. 

A special acknowledgment should be made to Mr. Harry Lawrence 
Gage, head of the Department of Printing, Carnegie Institute of Tech- 
nology. Mr. Gage has applied himself to the making of many new draw- 
ings, diagrams and alphabets; has contributed many vital ideas to text 
and arrangement, and has brought to the woi k nai-ience, learning and high 
craftsmanship. 

T. w. s. 



[5] 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 



Foreword 5 

CHAPTER 

I. Tools and Materials 13 

II. The Drawing of Letters 19 

III. Roman Capitals 27 

IV. Roman Small Letters 55 

V. Italics 77 

VI. The Gothic Forms 9 1 

VII. The Practical Problem 104 

VIII. Phases of Letter Design no 



[7] 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIGURE • PAGE 

1. Roman Capitals with a strong classical feeling. By Theodore Brown Hapgood 12 

2. Roman Capitals from Renaissance sources. By Harry Lawrence Gage IS 

3. Head-piece. By Charles H. Barnard 16 

4. Proportions of margins and plan of ruling for book-opening and single sheet 17 

5. Modern Roman Capitals. By Charles H. Barnard 18 

6. Title page showing a written letter in relation to pen drawing. By Waller Crane 20 

7-II. Diagram showing progressive steps in drawing and inking 22 

12. Diagram for opening 23 

13. Roman capitals written with a wide pen. By Harry Lawrence Cage 24 

14. Italic "swash" letters founded on sixteenth century Italian work 25 

15. Roman Capitals adapted from coins and medals. By T. W. S 26 

16. The formation of the serif by right and left chisel cuts in an incised Roman 28 

17. Diagram showing structural differences between letters of similar shape 29 

18. Modern Roman Capitals. By Harry E. Toumsend 31 

19. Modern Roman Capitals. By William A. Dwiggins 33 

20. Modern Roman Capitals. By F. G. Cooper 35 

21. Modern Outline Roman Capitals. By Guido Rosa 36 

22. Heavy square-serif Roman Capitals. By II. rr Lauir • 'Gage 37 

23. Capitals after Charles Robinson 38 

24. Capitals and Numerals adapted from modern German sources. By Ned HadUy 39 

25. Modern Capitals and Numerals from French sources. By Ned Hadley 40 

26. Modern German Capitals. By Helen E. Hartford 41 

27. Variations of the modern German. By Helen E. Hartford 42 

28. Accented modern German Capitals. By Helen E. Hartford 4; 

29. Outline Capitals in relation to architectural rendering. By Rudolph von Larish 44. 

30. Heavy modern Roman Capitals. By Norman P. Hall 45 

31. Capitals derived from small letter forms. By T. W. S 46 

32. Capitals and small letters influenced by the Japanese. By Harry Lawrence Gage 47 

33. Roman Capitals and small letters written with a wide pen. By George II'. Koch 48 

j |. Modern Capitals, small letters, and numerals designed for use in cut stencils. By Forrest C. Crooks. 49 

35. Roman Capitals and small letters. By h is 50 

36. Modern Roman Capitals and small letters. By Oswald Cooper 51 

37. Small book pages, showing Only written capitals. By William A. Dwiggins 52 

38. Modern Capitals, small letters, and italics. By Egbert G. Jacobson S3 

39. Roman small letters and numerals. By T. W. S 54 

40. Pen-drawn imitation of classic manuscript showing Uncial characteristics 55 

41. Modern small letters. By Charles H. Barnard 57 

42. Diagram showing the ruling of guide lines for the construction of small letters 58 

43. Diagram showing construction of part-round small letters 58 

44. Diagram showing methods of varying the small letters 59 

45. Diagram showing the direction of strokes in writing small letters 60 

46. Small letters written with a wide pen. By Harry Lawrence Gag; 61 



[P] 



47- Announcement in Roman small letters, showing close spacing between lines. By Charles H. 

Barnard 63 

48. Announcement in heavy Roman small letters. By Oswald Cooper 64 

49. Heavy Capitals, small letters, and numerals, adapted to wood block and linoleum cutting. By 

Harry Lawrence Gage 65 

50. Modern Roman small letters. By F. G. Cooper 66 

51. Modern small letters. By Harry E. Townsend 67 

52. Cover design on rough paper. By Will Ransom 68 

53. Heavy modern small letters. By Norman P. Hall 69 

54. Small letters after Charles Robinson 70 

55. Modern German written linked small letters 71 

56. Unaccented and accented alphabets and numerals, designed for rapid use. By Harry Lawrence 

Gage 72 

57. Modern Capitals and small letters influenced by Venetian type designs 73 

58. Capitals and small letters for informal inscriptions. By James Hall 74 

59- Free small letters after the modern German. By Helen E. Hartford 75 

60. Modern German linked small letters 76 

61. Incised English script. By Frank Chouteau Brown 78 

62. Italic Capitals. By T.W.S 79 

63. Italic small letters. By T. IF. S 80 

64. Italic-script Capitals and small letters. By Lawrence Rosa 81 

65. Italic Capitals, extreme slant. By T. IV. S 82 

66. Italic Capitals and small letters. By M. Elizabeth Colwell 83 

67. Italics with flourished Capitals. By Harry Lawrence Gage 84 

68. Modern German script-italics 85 

69. Italic Capitals, small letters, and numerals. By Norman P. Hall 86 

70. Modern German Italic Capitals, small letters, and numerals 87 

71. Caslon Oldstyle Italic Type, No. 471 88 

72. Cloister Italic Type 89 

73. Pabst Italic Type ." 90 

74. Black-letter Capitals and small letters. By Albert Ditrer, 1500 92 

75. Black letter written with a wide pen. By Harry Lawrence Gage 93 

76. Modern German Round Gothic capitals, small letters and numerals 94 

77. Cloister Black Type 95 

78. Uncial Capitals with narrow Gothic small letters From a nth Century Ms 96 

79. Uncial (Lombardic) Gothic Capitals. By Fred Stearns 97 

80. Italian Gothic Capitals. By Harry Lawrence Gage 98 

81. Original variations on a Gothic Alphabet. By Charles H. Barnard 99 

82. English Gothic Capitals and small letters. By Frank Chouteau Brown 100 

83. Gothic Capitals and small letters. By Harry Lawrence Gage 101 

84. Design in Gothics. By M. Elizabeth Colwell 102 

85. Cover design showing an interesting use of italics. By Will Bradley 103 

-92. Rough notes for a title page. By T. W. S 106-108 

93. Monograms. By E. A. Turbayne Ill 

94. An example of combined letters and monograms in a title 113 

95. Cover design in the Georgian style. By Will Bradley 114 

96. Lettering with border. By Frederick W. Goudy 115 

97. Humanistic Type. By William Dana Orcutt 116 

98. Caslon Oldstyle Roman Type, No. 471 117 

99. Forum Type. By Frederick W. Goudy 118 

100. Kennerley Oldstyle Type. By Frederick W . Goudy 119 

101. Pabst Oldstyle Type 120 

102. Cloister Oldstyle Type . . 121 



[>] 



LETTERING 



FIGURE 1 



THEODORE BROWN HAPGOOD 

Roman Capitals with a strong classical feeling 



LETTERING 

CHAPTER I 

Tools and Materials 

IN LETTERING, as in any other task requiring skill, the abstract 
matters of style and principle are difficult to remember unless 
they are immediately put in practice. Good tools with which 
to work, and respect for them, must be assumed at the outset. 
The necessary implements for good lettering include only a pencil, 
ruler, pen and ink. But as the accuracy of the work depends on accurate 
guide lines, a drawing board, T-square and triangle should also be included 
in the equipment; they save time, and give to the student a desirable sense 
of security. A water-color brush and some moist white are useful for 
correcting; and orange-vermilion water color for rubrication. One 
should see to it that the drawing table is firm, and so placed that the 
paper is well lighted; this is important, since the drawing of letters 
requires an exacting use of the eye sight, and should be undertaken 
only under good lighting conditions. Ruling pens, dividers, and other 
draftsman's instruments are sometimes convenient, but seldom necessary. 
The kind of pen best suited to the student's personal use can only 
be determined by experiment. It must be fine enough to make letters 
of the size desired, but not fine enough to cut into the paper, and not too 
stiff. Annealing in the flame of a match or a gas jet will usually 
make a stiff pen flexible enough. Wide pointed pens are frequently 
useful for large letters and directly written forms. The question is 
one for trial rather than prescription; some artists succeed in making 
beautiful letters with a broken tooth-pick. 

A water-color brush that comes to a fine point when dampened is 
good for inking large letters, but requires much practice for small 
work; it may be used with advantage on heavy-faced letters more 
than an inch high. The edge of a brush stroke is smoother than a pen 
line, so that brush letters, when much reduced by engraving, are likely 



[/3] 



to show a mechanical character. Where the work is large and heavy, 
however, the brush covers the ground much faster than the pen. 

Any paper with surface hard enough to take ink without blotting 
may be used. The rougher the paper, the rougher the line; also, as 
a rule, the stronger in character. For accurate, formal lettering, and 
for practice work, where close study of the drawing is desirable, hard- 
surfaced bristol board is best. The heavy, sized hand-made papers, such 
as Whatman, serve many purposes. The paper should take pencilling 
well, stand many erasures, and carry ink without spreading. 

Drawing pencils should be free from grit, and the degree of hard- 
ness should be adapted in measure to the size of the work in hand, 
hard pencils being used for small forms, and softer ones for large. 
Very soft pencils tend to produce quick effects, but inaccurate draw- 
ing; too hard leads give a thin and stringy appearance that sometimes 
persists, in the shape of angular and unsympathetic edges, after the 
inking is done. 

Any of the carbon drawing inks, or hand-ground India ink, will 
serve. The fluid must stay black on the thinnest line, and must flow 
with freedom. Where work must be lingered over, and may suffer 
from moist hands, water-proof India ink has obvious advantages. 

Orange-vermilion water color may be substituted for ink where 
letters in red are needed. It may be applied with a brush, or used 
as ink, the pen being filled from the brush as it becomes dry. Red 
characters made in this way have a good body of opaque color, and 
serve as well as black for engraving. 

Good hand-drawn letters may be put to a great variety of uses. 
The most common of these as well as one of the most exacting, is 
drawing for reproduction by the ordinary zinc process. If a student 
learns to execute a good piece of work for this purpose, he will prob- 
ably have mastered all the practical difficulties. Hence, in the following 
pages, attention will be given to methods adapted to ultimate use on 
the printing press, in the belief that other necessary points will be covered 
in this way. If you know a given letter thoroughly, and can draw 
it acceptably a half-inch high, you need only a little practice to put 
it on a sign or a black-board with equal facility. 

In using the tools named for the purposes suggested, it is well 
that the student understand one fact: all lettering may be divided, 
according to the method of its making, into two classes — built-up 



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FIGURE 2 



©ABC® 
DEFGH 
IIRLMN 
OPQRS 
TUVUW 
XYZ 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 



Roman Capitals from Renaissance sources. Small letters to correspond are shown in 

Figure 39 



lettering and written lettering. Most of the work which finds its way to 
the printed page is of the built-up variety. This means that the individual 
forms have been drawn with the pencil, and then carefully filled in with 
ink. The written variety is that done either diredly with the ink, or 
carried out in single strokes over pencil indications ; it is obviously the more 
rapid, informal and difficult sort. The written style comes down to us 
from the calligrapher; the built-up from the engraver. For purposes of 
study it is obviously best to begin with the built-up letter, since in this the 
attention is concentrated on patient drawing, learning the precise form, 
rather than upon freedom of stroke and energy of style. 



7^6 PRAIRIE PRESS 
CP&MTVE PRINTING 



DECORATIONS 

& HAND LETTERING 

FIGURE 3 

CHARLES H. BARNARD 



[7(5] 



FIGURE 4 



Verso paffc 
jke recto pace illustrates a method ej~ 
commenann a book in capitals wnform? 
wqtothe wndna linesUhe lines may 
he uxrknrxd witk a stilus or rukL 
with a hard lead yenciL. jc&&&&£&b 
POETRY mau amwuriatehi be (riven 
slwhtui wider mora ins than proscr 
TIN E writing.thc lines of 
which are usuallxi widely 
spaced, demands widetwtgms 

tiian'masscd'ujriting, 
mhich is hcavij & has 
the lines doselij pack$ 



CHANCED! 

UPONTHE PRETTIEST. 
ODDEST.FANTAST1CAL _ 
THING OF A DREAM_ _ 
the other night, that i|ou _ 
li shall hear of. I had been _ 
reading the" Loves of the. 
Angels';& went to bed with _ 
itu) head full of specula; _ 
turns suggested bii thatr _ 
extTaordlTLan^ legend.It_ 
had given birth to tnrui- _ 
merable conjectures;and_ 



Recto 



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2 
+ 



PERCY J. SMITH 

Proportions of margins and plan of ruling for book-opening and single sheet. 



FIGURE 5 



ABCDE 
FGHJKI 

LMNOP 
<2RSTU 
VWXY 

&jqrz 



CHARLES H. BARNARD 

Modem Roman Capitals. For small letters see Figure 41 



CHAPTER II 

The Drawing of Letters 

THE beginner should bear in mind that he is not called upon to 
design letters. That part of it is done — has been done for 
centuries. 
The alphabet is a series of shapes which have meaning and 
use because we all recognize them. Meaning and use are 
taken away when these shapes are changed and tortured out of our imme- 
diate recognition. While it may of course be possible to improve these 
forms the student does well to consider how many great designers have 
accepted them as they are. But to use letters they must be drawn, 
and to do this their forms must first be learned. Thus the problem is 
simplified. You have only to learn them and draw them. 

It is an excellent practice to draw the letters in the formations of words, 
rather than as alphabets. The simplest task of all, then, is to draw one 
word. We will assume for the sake of illustration that the word is 
"POEMS"; that it is to fit into a title page, and that it may be, in the 
drawing, about an inch high. Further we will assume that it is to be done 
in capitals of Renaissance Roman style. 

We have here the copy, or letters to be executed ; the size, and the style 
of letter. Turning to Figure 2, we find an alphabet from which, for the 
present, we may be content to accept the letter forms, limiting ourselves 
to the questions of drawing, spacing and inking. 

With the T-square, pencil accurate horizontal guide lines one inch 
apart and at least five inches long. Into this space the work is to be fitted. 

Now draw a few verticals, free-hand, between the guides. If these 
are not accurate, when tested by the triangle, it means that some practice 
of this sort will be necessary. Meanwhile, draw at random a few true 
verticals with the triangle, and referring to Figure z for the forms, sketch 
in the letters of the word. 

The mechanical verticals will be of no assistance in spacing, but they 
will afford, at intervals, a convenient guide, and will prevent the sketched 
letters from acquiring a slant in either direction. Draw very loosely at 



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WALTER CRANE 

Title page showing a written letter in relation to pen drawing 



first, and feel for the position of the letters, rather than for their precise 
form. This having been done carefully, the work will resemble Figure 6. 

Examine the word at this stage for possible errors in drawing. See that 
you have allowed each letter a proper width, according to the alphabet 
chosen — not each letter the same width. See that the heavy strokes 
are all of the same thickness, the light strokes similarly uniform. Examine 
the word as a whole, but remember that the drawing must be done one 
letter at a time. 

Clear away the superfluous lines, draw out the curves and serifs (the 
serifs are the little cross lines that define the ends of the strokes) with care, 
and you have something like Figure 6. This pencilling should at first 
be done with great care. Upon it will depend the accuracy of the final 
work, and any errors will only be increased in the inking. 

Assuming that you have drawn the letters carefully, and spaced them 
reasonably, the word is ready to be inked. Here you must pause and con- 
sider carefully: have you drawn the letters so that the inside of the en- 
closed space represents the form, or the outside? Test one of your letters 
by carefully blackening it over with the pencil; it is very likely to appear 
too heavy. This gives one a clue to the reason for not inking the outlines 
first and filling in the spaces afterward. The fact is that the eye can with 
difficulty make an accurate judgment while it must add together the width 
of the outlines and the white space enclosed, and compare the sum with 
the sum in the next letter. 

In inking built-up letters, begin with a full rough stroke between the 
outlines; this, since it does not reach the bounds on either side, cannot be 
far wrong. From this stroke, work out to one of the edges, drawing the 
loose ends of your lines inside, and working the wet ink against the one 
edge you are striving to correct. When you have reached this edge, you 
should have it fairly true, since all the work of filling the black space has 
been in the direction of correcting the first rough line. Now work toward 
the other edge, correcting in the same way, and being vigilant lest the 
stroke as a whole become too wide. 

If you have difficulty in drawing the right hand edges true, and are 
working on a small board, turn the board around. Bear in mind all the 
time that you are drawing to fill and correct the first stroke, and that you 
have the pencil line for a guide the while. The only error you can logi- 
cally make, barring accidents, is to get the stroke too wide, and against 
this you are doubly warned. 



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>, 

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FIGURE 7 




FIGURE 



P 





4 




FIGURE 9 



POEMS 



FIGURE 10 



POEMS 



FIGURE 11 



. 



Diagram showing progressive steps in drawing and inking. Lettering should be inked 
by masses and edges — not by outlines. Lower line shows the effecl of lettering on 
rough paper 



When the stroke is done, go on to the next, finishing up each letter as 
you go. After much practice you may find it more rapid to leave all the 
serifs to be finished at once, with the board in a convenient position. 
When beginning, with only one word to do, finish as you go, but refer con- 
tinually to the first letter, making no stroke thicker than the vertical ele- 
ments in that. 

When the ink is dry, and the pencil lines cleared away, you have some- 
thing resembling Figure 10. The same pencilling, inked loosely on rough 
paper, will give something like Figure 1 1 . 

Thus far we have considered only the problem of drawing the letters, 
and have said nothing about their principles and characteristics. The 
drawing should be, for the present, only a method of study, the matter of 
which begins with the next chapter. 




S PAC IN G 



FIGURE 12 



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FIGURE 13 



ABCDE 
FGHIJK 
LMNOP 
QRR5TJ 

TUVWQ 

XY C YZS' 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Roman Capitals written with a wide pen. For small letters see Figure 46 



FIGURE 14 



MZDtJGHTJ 

KLMNOVOIS 

ravwxYZS 



Air, 



emotive farms 




a^vwy 

EXAMPLES OF DECORATIVE WRITING. 

lines of writina mau oe widcai Upright writing mau be 
spaced to allow tor lona as- treated slnailiruj , bur 
cendina & descendina stwLes. trie letters s nould, b e 
Trie serifs slioida oe stronmu shaped more precrselu 
marked ex those in the too & Serifs mau be formed 
toot marqiiis mau be flourished as In this exampler-^ 

11 SL_ T] 



Italic "swash" letters founded on sixteenth century Italian work 



FIGURE 15 



ABCD 
EFGHI 
ICLMN 
OPQRS 
TVWX 
YZIUU 



T. W. S. 

Roman Capitals adapted from coins and medals 



CHAPTER III 

Roman Capitals 

MOST modern work in lettering requires the use of Roman 
capitals, and since all the other forms the student is called 
upon to draw are descended from these capitals, the study of 
letter forms should begin with them. A few facts about the 
history of the Roman letter should be understood, since 
these facts bear directly on the drawing of the letters, and explain some 
characteristics that might otherwise seem arbitrary or puzzling. 

The Roman capital form was taken over, with some radical changes, 
from the Greek, and was used by the Latin scribes in copying great libraries 
during and after the Augustan age. It varied, under this use, as widely 
as hand-writing varies in any period ; but it served for the ready production 
of clear copy in the ancient manner, without punctuation or separation of 
words. 

The scribes wrote with soft reeds, dipped in ink and held vertically. 
The reed was sharpened to a fiat or chisel point. This determined the 
direction of the heavy strokes in each letter, making the first (upward) 
stroke of the A light, the second (downward) heavy, the cross-bar (hori- 
zontal) light, and so on through the alphabet. This distribution of heavy 
and light strokes, of which we shall have occasion to speak further, was 
finally determined by the practice of the reed, and the student has only 
to learn it, since he cannot abrogate it. 

As written with the reed, the style of the letters varied widely. But 
when the Roman builders, with their strong sense of the monumental and 
significant, took the letter and spread it in stately inscriptions on trium- 
phal arches, it took a character from the stone, crystallizing into a marble 
perfection. And because you cannot draw a V-shaped incision in stone 
to a square end that will define itself by its shadow, as a monument letter 
must do, the classic craftsman added the serif. This was at first a simple 
chisel cut across, following the scratched guide-lines, and defining the end 
of the stroke. But the serif soon came to be made of two minor incisions 



U7] 






» • -'«mi ■- ■■• ■■-■ - ■ ■■ 

FIGURE 16. The formation of the serif by right and left chisel cuts 
in an incised Roman 

(see Figure 16) and to have a certain proportion to the letter itself. 
Thus another lasting characteristic was added to the Roman form. 

To make their letters carry by shadows, the Roman stonecutters some- 
times cut their outlines very wide. The craftsmen of the Renaissance, 
using the letter more intimately, in metal and on works of smaller scale, 
remedied this. So the record runs: the Roman letter was evolved from 
the Greek; the Roman scribes gave it its typical design, and settled the 
direction of its accents; the Roman builders gave it its serifs, and a more 
severe architectural form; the Renaissance craftsmen gave it delicacy of 
drawing and freedom of application; and from them it came into the craft 
of printing, almost as soon as the new craft had birth. 

By making a few letters with a broad stub pen, one can easily trace 
the effect of the flat-pointed reed on the direction of the accented strokes. 
It is clear that the reed made rules for the writer; when the letter took 
its place in inscriptions, no alteration from these rules was possible. The 
accent had become part of the style. 

The principles of accent are these: 

All horizontal strokes are light. 

All strokes sloping upward from left to right are light, except the middle 
stroke of the letter Z. (In this case the reed had to be turned, and the 
stroke was really made downward from right to left.) 

All strokes drawn downward with the reed are heavy. These include 
all strokes which slope downward from left to right, and all vertical strokes 
except the verticals of the N and the first vertical of the M (which were 
originally drawn upward). 



[><n 



The swell or accent on a curved stroke follows the general principle, 
the 0, for example, being heavy on the sides and light across the top and 
bottom. 

The old alphabets contain no special form for the J and U. In supply- 
ing them we follow the principle, making the first stroke of the U down- 
ward (heavy) and the second upward (light). 

Thus the ancient manner of drawing them gives us an exact principle 
for accenting the letters. Similarly, if one bears in mind the origin of the 
serif, one is likely to draw it with some grace, giving it the sharp distinction 
of the chiselled cut, and rounding it into the vertical without awkward 
angles or undue mass. 




FIGURE 17. Diagram showing structural differences between letters 
of similar shape 



O] 



The serif gives to the letters in each line a common base — insisting 
upon the uniformity of the foundation. The fact that each letter has at 
least one heavy stroke, and that these strokes are placed in a definite and 
recurring relation to the light strokes, tends to give a formal harmony to 
the inscription as a whole. Beyond this, the width of each letter is deter- 
mined by its shape — by considerations of design. Certain mechanical 
contrivances, the typewriter, for example, may require that each letter 
approach as nearly as possible to the same width; the result is always to 
the disadvantage of the style. 

If we cease to look at the letters as symbols, but as twenty-six repeating 
elements in a curious band of design, we see at once that each should be 
given space according to its degree of complication, the interest of its 
shape, and its value as a rhythmic part of the whole. 

There is no criterion above the practice of the great designers to deter- 
mine the space due to each shape, so that each letter shall have a reasonable 
width for its characteristic form. For the Roman letter, Durer, Delia 
Robbia, Serlio, and a thousand nameless craftsmen of the past five cen- 
turies, have worked out and judged the proper proportion. 

From the best work we note a general classification of letter widths. 

Thus letters which divide horizontally the space they occupy, enclosing 
or partially enclosing areas about half their height, are narrow; this 
includes B, E, F, K, P, R, and S. Looking at them as design elements, 
this is easily explained, since these small enclosed areas should obviously 
not be allowed to take shapes at variance with the general shape of the 
band. The lobes of the B, if the letter were drawn wide, would cease to 
bear any harmonious relation to the similar but larger shape of the D. 
The K and R, by the extension of the swash tails, may be made to fill a 
wide space where needed, however. The I, L, and J are also classed as 
narrow, though the I and J always require, in use, a little extra white 
space at each side. 

W and M are extra wide. All others are of full width, though not 
mechanically equal. The round letters, C, D, G, O and Q, should always 
be given full width to avoid cramping their generous curves; the varia- 
tions of the others from the O are indicated in Figure 17. Each develops, 
in the best lettering, its own curve, adapted to its own shape but con- 
sonant with the other curves in the alphabet. These round letters have 
the advantage of spacing closely, to make up in part for the ample width 
they require within themselves. 



[>] 



FIGURE 18 



AN 
ALPHABET 

<# $> 88 

ABCDEFGH 
IJ<KJKL/M 
NOPORJQ 
RJTUV¥ 
XWXYZ 

RQMAMEaSQVE 



HARRY E. TOWNSEND 

Modem Roman Capitals. For small letters see Figure 5/ 



In height also a slight variation is necessary. A sharp point, such as 
the base of the V, will not seem to reach the base line unless it is actually 
drawn slightly beyond it. On account of this appearance — a mere 
optical illusion — the A (except where a serif is provided at the top), 
M, N, V and W all cross the guide lines at their points. The same is true 
in a less degree of the round letters. But the effect must be executed with 
care ; only a slight extension is required to correct the appearance when the 
guide lines are erased. 

Good Roman lettering has a strong sense of stability; this is sometimes 
subtly increased by certain details in the drawing, such as rounding the 
horizontal into the vertical at the base of the D, and leaving the upper 
junction square inside; a similar step being taken with the E, L, and B. 

An examination of any of the formal alphabets will show that the dis- 
tribution of heavy and light strokes provided for by tradition will never 
allow two heavy strokes to be joined without the intervention of a light 
one (as in the K, where the swash tail takes off from the light upward 
stroke, not from the vertical). This effectively prevents any spot of black 
being heavier than the downward stroke, and maintains an even "color" 
throughout an inscription. 

For the exact proportions and forms of the letters, one must study, 
drawing and re-drawing, the best models. In these it may be noted that 
the width of the heavy stroke is about one-tenth the height of the letter, 
the light element being two-fifths to one-half as wide as the heavy one. 
Mechanical measurements are of little value. The student should be 
able to judge for himself the best proportions, and should practice until 
this judgment comes easily to him. 

The correct spacing of formal Roman capitals requires the utmost care, 
since here again there is no mechanical method. The space between the 
letters of a word should be judged by the area of white, not by the distance 
along the guide lines. This area varies in shape, and the eye takes account 
of the irregular intervals by averaging them roughly. Imagine the 
letters raised and a viscous fluid poured between them; the shapes it 
might cover, never running into the corners nor invading far the narrow 
openings, would be the effective areas of white. Figure 12 illustrates the 
point. The single stroke letters, I and J, require extra space; the round 
ones can be closely fitted ; the normal space falling where two vertical- 
sided letters come together. 

The space between words should be about the width of the narrow 



[>] 



FIGURE 19 



A B C D E 


F G H I 


J k L M N 


O P QJl 


S T U V W 


X Y Z & 

\vu> 



WILLIAM A. DWIGGINS 

Modem Roman Capitals — a very personal alphabet 



letters; but if the letters within the words are loosely spaced, this must 
be considerably increased. The wider the spacing, both of letters and 
words, the more white must be left between lines. If the spacing is close, 
one may bring the lines as close together as one-fourth their height. 

The conditions of the problem usually determine the length of the 
line; the number of words in each line is determined by the copy, or word- 
ing to be lettered. It remains for the designer to determine the size, or 
height, of the letter to be used. In Roman capitals, the height may be 
roughly estimated by dividing the length by the number of letters — that 
is, allowing a square for each letter and space. This does not work out 
exactly, however. If not many narrow letters occur in the copy, it may 
prove necessary to reduce the height of the line. In fad:, the student 
should bear in mind that the height of the line determines the practica- 
bility of any given arrangement, and that it is better to change it at once 
than to spend hours in a vain effort to make thirty letters go where there 
is room for only twenty. 

In drawing a long inscription, you have of course the advantage of a 
naturally flexible medium; each individual character may be impercep- 
tibly narrowed or widened, and its form may, within certain limits, be 
changed to fit the space. In an informal inscription it is quite permissible, 
for instance, to save space where an A follows an L, by taking up the foot 
of the A and moving it bodily to the left until the raised foot overlaps the 
base of the L. Other combinations are shown in Figure 94. 

In taking liberties with the forms of the letters, for the sake of a more 
compact spacing, one is only following the tradition of the Roman, and 
nothing new is likely to result. One of the charms of old lettering is its 
freedom. Many of the results of this spontaneous craftsmanship are no 
longer useful, since the eye of the reader has become so accustomed to the 
regularity of type that the freer and more unusual forms are no longer 
legible. 

When formal Roman capitals are called for, the inscription is usually 
important enough to make necessary a high standard of execution. Hence 
practice work in solid capitals has a special value. The form of the letters, 
making a rectangular shape of each word, shows that no looseness of 
arrangement will be appropriate. The difficulty of rendering the letters 
free-hand should always be frankly met; and in practice it is best to work 
out a specific inscription, to fit a particular space, and to attack it as though 
for actual use. 



[54] 



FIGURE 22 



ABACD 

EFGHIJ 

KLMN 

OPQR 

SJRTU 

VWXYZ 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Heavy square-serif Roman Capitals 



FIGURE 23 



A5CDE>F 
GH IJ Kh 
^NORQ 

R3TUVW 
WXYZ& 

The Deign ofc 

KING COI# 



Capitals after Charles Robinson. For small letters see Figure 54. 



FIGURE 24 



3BCP6F 
GHIJftL 
DOPQfS 
SCGUCj) 
(OXYZ6 
G€RC90D 
15432789 



NED HADLEY 

Capitals and Numerals adapted from modern German sources 



FIGURE 25 



?5\BCD® 
EFGHI 
JKXM 
NOPQ 
RSTUV 
WXYZ 

* 12386754 ( 



NED HADLEY 

Modern Capitals and Numerals from French sources 



FIGURE 28 



(MODERN* FREE 
HfflSD- LETTER 

DEFOHJKLnNO 
PQR3KJVXW7Z 
INTRODUCING 

VflRIET7-^ND 
CHARACTER - 

1 IS - CMPIIHLS 



J 



HELEN E. HARTFORD 

Accented modern German Capitals 



FIGURE 29 




mn mtuYmm w§ mm 
mis mLra&a mm 
%%m i iotit susss 

UFIKSEfKI SOGgfifttSfitiVSlKI 

raRSfEsa m§ is? lie 

BlSSERGRfiSSBH-BfllUI 
if MUCH &Q9SRSI4 BEUCI 
JUL USM® m J3LLSM L 

saosfiCGfl ramiM sisisssfian 



□ 

o 1 



RUDOLPH VON LARISH 

Outline Capitals in relation to architectural rendering 



FIGURE 30 



ABCDE 
FGHIJ 
RLMN 
OPQR 
STUV 
WXYZ 



NORMAN P. HALL 

Heavy modern Roman Capitals. For small letters see Figure 53 



FIGURE 31 



ABCDef 
GfrlJKLO 

MDPQRS 
TUVWGf 

XYZCJO 

ALPhABer 
fORiBRUSh pen 

OR QUILL 



Capitals derived from small letter forms 



FIGURE 34 



ABCDCF 

GHIJKLM 
DOPQ^S 

Tuvuxyz 

abcdefg'h 

ijklmnopq 
rstuvwxyz 

(234567tS9 



FORREST C. CROOKS 

Modern Capitals, small letters and numerals designed for use in cut stencils 



FIGURE 35 



A B C D E F G 
HI J K L MN 
O P Q^KS TU 
VWX Y Z er~^ 

(sT&illflDmqqins draws letters for %&> 
litle-paqes , nook~covers, etc: xoe & 
^Box Eleven , Center Ottingham, Mass. 

abcdefgfhijklm 
nopqrstuvwxyz 



WILLIAM A. DWIGGINS 

Roman Capitals and small letters. A personal variation on Georgian models 



FIGURE 36 



ABCDEFGHI 

JKIMNOPQ 
RSTUVWX 

yZ&MXTRX 

c \Dabcdefahij 
klmnopqrstu'Ov 

Oswald Cooper / 




q ascenders of the 
IcAOer case letters. ( The^ qive 



lines, permittinq an ocaisn 
descender. 



OSWALD COOPER 

Modern Roman Capitals and small letters. A fine example of the tendency toward 
the written style 



FIGURE 37 




AFOOT AND 

LICtfFHEAKTED I 



THEQTOSALM 

REPRINTED FROM 

TElONGlAMES 

VERSIONS 

J- 



MCMVI 



TAKETOTTEOPEN 
ROAD/HEAHH^FRK 

THE WOULD BEFORE 
AE/TTEIONGBRoWN 
PATH BEFORE ME o 
LEADINGWHEREVER 
I CHOOSE. HENCE' 
FORTr{IASKN6TC oD* 
FOKTUNE-IAA/ICGDD 
FORTUNE/lENdfbRTH 
I WHIMPER NOMORE 
POSTPONENOMORE 
NEED NOTHINGS 
STRONG AND CON' 
TENTITRAVELTHE 
OPENTK)AD Wtow 



ETHAT 
DWEL^ 
LETHIN 
THESE' 
CRET 
place of the most Hicjh shall 
abide under the shadow of the 
Almighty. 

I Will say of the Lord 
J He is my refuge 6V my 
fortress: my Goo; in him will I 
trust. 

Urely he shall deliver 
thee from the snare of the 
fowler , ano from the noisome 
pestilence- 




WILLIAM A. DWIGGINS 

Small book pages, showing freely written capitals 



FIGURE 38 



ABCDEFG 

HIJ KLMN 

OPQRSTU 

VWXYZ 

JBCVETQTilJ 

KLMKOPQ11S' 

TV VWXYZ 

abed efghij ktmn op a 
rstuvwxyz 

abcdefgliijklm 
nopqrstuvwxyz 



EGBERT G. JACOBSON 

Modern Capitals, small letters, and italics 



FIGURE 39 




T. W. 

Roman small letters and numerals. For capitals see Figure 2 



CHAPTER IV 

Roman Small Letters 

AN inscription in Roman capitals has a dignified, monumental 
effect. It belongs with stately architecture. Its style has the 
quality of carving in stone, rather than of the reed-writing 
which had originally influenced it. When the inscription is 
extended to a full page, it becomes difficult to read, as well as 
difficult to execute. The letters must always be "built-up"; they cannot 
be written. So for work-a-day purposes the small letter, or minuscule, 
was evolved. 

The classic Roman, written in a round and loose form, became the 
Uncial. Drifting still further from the architectural style, the "Rustic" 
appears as a manuscript letter in the fifth century; and along with this 
came an informal combination of Uncials, with certain strokes carried 




XEc6efGtnJ,cttNo 

pqRSTOXy^-MV 

FIGURE 40. Pen-drawn imitation of classic manuscript showing 
L~)ic ial cba ract eristics 



LS5l 



well above the line as "ascenders," to which the term Half Uncial is 
applied. All these variants resulted from the effort to make legible 
Roman letters that could be produced rapidly — in short, to arrive at a 
running hand. By the eighth century the capitals were recognized as 
such, and used, in many manuscripts, only as headings and initials, while 
the body of the work was done in minuscule — small letters. 

The variants through these formative centuries are most interesting, 
and many of them, especially those of the Uncial order, are in high favor, 
as examples, among present-day designers. 

Toward the final form of the Roman small letters many countries 
contributed. The Northern variants are often black and spiky, and from 
them we get our Gothic and black-letter forms; the beautiful lettering 
of the Irish manuscripts comes of a fine and original treatment of the 
Half Uncial motive. On the Continent the Emperor Charlemagne took a 
hand in the matter, officially prescribing the use of the "Caroline" letter. 

The invention of printing found a fairly established usage among the 
calligraphers, distinguishing between capitals of the old form and small 
letters. Until they were cast in type, however, the small letters had never 
found a positive or definitive form. The models of the early typefounders, 
who were merely trying to reproduce, in a new and less expensive process, 
the work of the calligraphers, were naturally obtained from the best pen- 
men of the day. Within thirty years from the time the first book issued 
from the press, there were types in both Roman and black-letter, which, 
in proportion and design, have never been surpassed. 

By their history we see that the small letters, or "lower case," as the 
printers named them, are the newer and commoner form. They still 
have about them the feeling of the pen and the graver, not that of the 
chisel. Their broken and irregular word-shape, the wide variation in de- 
sign from letter to letter, and the inevitable accent of the capitals with 
which they must always be used, all mark out the field of their usefulness 
as the common reading medium. 

From the nature of their work it appears that the minuscules do not 
usually require the exactness of execution, either in form or spacing, of the 
capitals. The individual letters may differ considerably from the typical 
form, and, so long as they do not fall out of harmony, the result will gain 
in richness by their variety. 

Most students find it possible, with a moderate amount of practice, 
to draw lower case letters easily enough. The chief difficulty is not in the 



[56] 



FIGURE 41 



aa bb ccc dd 
ee {{ gg hiK 
jj kk 11 mm 
nn oo p qq 
rr sss tt uvu 
ww xx zyy 



CHARLES H. BARNARD 

Modern small letters. For capitals see Figure 5 




FIGURE 42. Diagram showing the ruling of guide lines for the 
construction of small letters 

individual character, but in holding a block of words to an even "color" 
or general tone, without irregular "rivers" of white creeping down the 
page, and without unsightly variations in the sizes of the letters themselves. 

In drawing, begin by carefully building up an exercise in letters about 
a half inch high, with capitals about one inch. Use Figure 39 as a guide, 
with capitals from Figure 2. The written forms are best undertaken 
after a careful study of the drawing of the individual characters. The use 
of vertical guide lines is not likely to be so necessary as when beginning 
with the capitals, but the horizontal rulings are even more important. 

Each line of small letters must be built on at least three guide lines: 
the base line, on which the body letters rest; the waist line (about half 
the height of the capitals), marking the tops of the low letters; the capital 
line, giving the height of the capitals and ascenders. See Figure 42. 
The drop line, indicating the reach of the descenders, g, p, q, and y, and 




FIGURE 43. Diagram showing construclion of -part-round small letters. 
The curves would, if continued, -pass the vertical strokes 



Lsn 



FIGURE 44 



Bright Ply 

Brigkt Ply z 

Bright Ply 

Bright Ply 
Bright Ply 
Bright Ply 
Bright Ply- 
Bright Ply: 



Normal weight 
Normal ascenders 
Normal serifs 



High ascenders 

Normal weight 

and serifs 



Low ascenders 

Normal weight 

and serifs 



Light weight 
Normal ascenders 
and serifs 



Heavy weight 
Normal ascenders 
and serifs 



Long serifs 
Normal height 
and weight 



Heavy round 
serifs. Normal 
height and weight 



Square serifs and 
nearly equal 
strokes. Normal 
heights 



Diagram showing methods of varying the small letters 



FIGURE 45. Diagram showing the direction of strokes in 
writing small letters 

the T line, giving the height of the t, are frequently omitted in practice, 
the designer simply estimating the distances. 

The simplest method of ruling is that by which the page is lined in 
equidistant horizontals; the first serves as a capital line, the second as a 
waist, the third as a base, and the fourth as the ensuing capital line. 

The rule for the direction of accented strokes is the same for the lower 
case as for the capitals. Vertical strokes, and strokes downward from 
left to right, are heavy; horizontals, and slopes upward from left to right, 
(excepting the middle line of the z,) are light. 

While the small letters show clearly enough their descent from written 
and engraved metal models, they have constantly to be used with capitals, 
which developed as stone-carved forms. A test of any piece of lower case 
work is found in its harmony with the capitals employed. The lower case 
letters which follow the capital shape the closest (c, o, s, v, w, x, and z) 
differ chiefly in proportion: the angles are somewhat wider, in order that 
the white contents may be more readily distinguishable, and the strokes 
are thicker. The small letters are about half the height of the capitals, 
yet they must stand in the same line, and be read with equal facility. 
If the strokes were equal in weight to corresponding elements of the capi- 
tals, the lower case line would blacken, and the capitals, with their wide 
white enclosures, would lose force; if the widths of stroke were reduced 
equally with the height, all relation would be lost. Hence the small 
letter is drawn lighter than the capitals, but not enough lighter to make 
perceptible any difference of tone. 

In spacing small letters, one should bear in mind that the eye takes in 
common words by their shapes, their silhouettes, as it were, rather than 
by examining the individual letters which compose them. Hence it is 
desirable to pack the letters fairly close together. Theoretically, type 



[>] 



FIGURE 46 



WIDE- PEN LETTERS 
OR work to be 
quickly drawn-; 
less formal than 



m 



the Roman, but qute 
legible and distinctive. 



atcde&ki 
jklmnopqr 
stuvwxyze: 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Small letters written with a wide pen. For capitals see Figure 12 



designers hold that the space between the verticals of the lower case m 
is the unit of space between adjoining letters. But the single stroke letters 
(i, j, and 1) always require more space at each side, and the round letters 
require less. Where a round or half-round letter stands next to a vertical, 
a compromise is necessary. The unit only comes into play, literally, 
when two full letters with vertical sides fall next to each other. A glance 
at a line of print will show how infrequently this happens. Still the unit 
may be useful to the letterer in that it provides a guide to reasonable and 
readable standards of spacing. 

Under certain conditions, where it is desirable to produce as large a 
letter as possible to carry the copy in a given space, it will be found expe- 
dient to reduce the space between lines. This may be done, as in Figure 
47, even to the point where the ascenders of one line pass the descenders 
of the line above. In such a case it is necessary now and then to decrease 
the height of an ascender, or to shift the spacing of a line, in order to avoid 
conflicts. 

In laying out practice exercises it is advisable to undertake panels or 
pages of a definite measure, to be filled by certain copy, rather than verses, 
or similar copy in which it is only necessary to keep the left edge straight. 
The problem of adjusting the copy to the panel, choosing the right height 
of letter for the work, is part of the task of spacing, and practice in prompt 
estimating of sizes, and in shifting letters and words, or even whole lines, 
without undue loss of time and effort, is of great value to the beginner. 

Different styles of lower case letters are obtained by varying the 
relative height and depth of the ascenders and descenders, the height of 
the letter body, the shape and weight of the serifs, the relative weight of 
the heavy and light strokes, the width of the letter body, the general weight 
of color, the shapes of the prevailing curves, and by certain minor effects 
in setting or constant spacing. A number of such variations are shown in 
Figure 44. 

In all these directions numerous experiments have been made, so that 
it is readily possible to find any given idea of style repeated in many com- 
binations, from the sanest to the most extreme. 

A wide departure from the typical form in any one direction will usually 
produce an immediate sense of the uncommon. It may be a departure in 
a reasonable direction, as, for instance, the frequently "discovered" 
idea of very high ascenders and short descenders, which is based on the 
observation that we read type chiefly by the upper half of the body. 



|>] 




[OUare invited 
, to visit ^The 
^arvie Shop 
ion the First Days 
of its residence in The 
Fine Arts Building 
Room Six Hundred 
Thirty- eight, Friday 
and Saturday the nine- 
teenth and twentieth 
o( Tvlay. The J arvie 
Candlesticks and other 
Craft Work will be 
shown. 



FIGURE 47. Announcement in Roman 
small letters, showing close spacing 
between lines 

CHARLES H. BARNARD 



[6j] 



Here a difficulty develops with the capitals. When the idea is carried 
to the extreme, these become so high as to overpower the small letters 
following. 

Similarly a change of style by changing the proportions of the thick 
and thin strokes has its limitation. When the weights become too nearly 
equal, the color of the low letters becomes too heavy, and the design suffers 

FtedS-Bertsch 
"OswaldCooper 

tenyears at Room7i8 

Athenaeum Buildiir 

»9 EVanBurenStree 



1 



we moved across 
enallto 110001703 
and theyhaveanew 
telephone number 

HarrisonS889 

May 
vm 

FIGURE 48. Announcement in heavy Roman small letters 

OSWALD COOPER 

an immediate loss of elegance; when the light strokes become too thin, the 
page wearies the eyes. In all the other vital characteristics the same need 
of holding to the golden mean will be found to prevail. 

In spite of these conditions, the lower case is a rich field for individual 
and original effort. A designer of strong personality seldom uses one style 
for any considerable length of time without developing in it a new set of 
minor variations, making the letter at last as personal as his own hand- 
writing — which, indeed, it is. This is the condition under which the 
most interesting styles are produced, — the unconscious influence of a 
personal taste on a reasonable form. 



[&*] 



FIGURE 49 



ABCDEF 

GHIJKM 
LMNOPO 
RSTUW 




abcd&efghi 

jklmynopq 

rsiuvwxz 

123456789 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Heavy Capitals, small letters, and numerals, adapted to wood block and linoleum cutting 



FIGURE 50 



abcdefghijk^ 
lmnoporctu 

123^567890 

THEN interpret it 
as your own< — ? 
Handlettering should 
be as individual as 
handwritim 




F. G. COOPER 

Modern Roman small letters. For capital letters see Figure 20. . 



FIGURE 51 



Lower Case. 

® 88 e& 
aabkcoddee^ 

ffg- g*hh i j jj 

kl 1 mmnn o pp 

cjr 6 f ft t u vw 

w x ~yy z oe/ tu 

<s <§> # 
Par different these 
from every former 
scene ; the cooling' 
brook, the green, 



HARRY E. TOWNSEND 

Modern small letters. For capitals see Figure 18 



FIGURE 52 



Brothers of the Book 
MISCELLANEA 

The Links of Ancient Rome 

By Payson Sibley Wild 
and Bert Leston Taylor 




Privately printed for the Brothers 

oftkeBoo(i~¥ineArts BuildingxCfaicago 

1912 



WILL RANSOM 

Cover design on rough paper 



FIGURE 53 



NORMAN P. HA.LL 

Heavy modem small letters. For capitals see Figure 30 



FIGURE 54 



abcdeffg 
bijklmr)o 
pqottuv 
wxyiyW 
Jle called 
for bis Fid- 
cilery iii. 

Small letters after Charles Robinson. For capitals see Figure 25 



FIGURE 55 



|jl uitl Sdireiben.kiinftle- 
^iJrUchjer Schrift; bemi^t: 
marL airL7iued<md^igferL 
ScribtuUdjie leicht: cms-' 
6errL Schreibijuerk^eug^* 
jBe(^enbe-pJQfligk&,oier' 
votl bar bekciruiierLprma 
GONTheK OJAgNeR, 
Hannover unb Mienjiep 
gefteUr miro.~^~«> — **~-sg 

abcd5c(gflTLjklmri0pqr; 
sftuvuu^eij zyT, ? :, f^rinis* 



Modern German written linked small letters 



FIGURE 56 



ABCDEFGHIJICL 

MNOPQRSTUV 

WXYZ 

abcde'fg'hijklmn 
opqrstuvwx yz 

1234567890 

ABCDEFGHIJ1CL 

MNOPORSTUV 

WXYZ 

abccleTgnijKlmn 
opqrstuvwx y z 

1234567890 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Unaccented and accented alphabets and numerals, designed for rapid use 



FIGURE 57 



IquDdadhucquaat 

ormenles'liinr^ec: 

meffis? venit ? Ecre dkovo- 
biV: Levate ocuWv(rfb*o^ 
ecvidctbrcgiones^quia at 
baelimtjam admeflem.* 
ETqui metitmercedenL^ 

ABCDEFGHIKLMNOP 
QRSTUVWXYZJ&Si 

abcdefgiiiklmnopqrist: 
u v wxyz^ ft: ; •♦• >: — :*^£>g 



Modem Capitals and small letters influenced by Venetian type designs. May be 
written with the wide pen 



FIGURE 58 



SINGLE'STRQKE'CAPITALS 
ABCDEFGHI 
JKLMNOP 

rstuvwxy; . 

1 ne.srrolL letters should, be packed, 
closely together in VDrrciuxr words 
^bcaefchijklmnopQ^r^tXLv wxyz, 

SHADED • CAPS. 
ABODE FGHIJKLMN OP 
Q_RSTUVWXV2 12343 6 7 8 9 



I ne^e. letters acQuire- ?\ 
OfO character from tke nature @@ 



^^ of the tool used ~2xSted. ^Q 
Jf pen of menLum Size ■ t[ 

FREE * PEN -ALPHABETS 
E>A5ED-ON<LAS5ICFORMS 



JAMES HALL 

Capitals and small letters for informal inscriptions 



FIGURE 59 



AH-ALphAbGTOF 

cnobGon-GGQcmn 

FOGRApl6ciSGOP 
eG6l5 • p&Q- pOIHT 
5ICnpLGGFTGCTIVG 

Abc6GFqhijkLnan 

OpQB5TQVCJLJX.VZ 



HELEN E. HARTFORD 

Free small letters after the modern German 



FIGURE 60 



Sic bine 
Afeichtundobne 




<jb2^> 






i-tcuideeer'S 1 







Modern German linked small letters 



CHAPTER V 

Italics 

THE italic form came of the need for a rapid, cursive letter — 
the need which produced all the various families of small 
letters. While the calligrapher dealt in chronicles and Books 
of Hours, a slow and patiently-made, letter served. But the 
literary men of the Renaissance burned with a desire for expres- 
sion, and made for themselves a style of writing that could be used before 
the inspiration cooled. The patrons were also to be considered: a poem 
gained much from being clearly and gracefully written out. The times 
required that the work of scholars be done in a beautiful manner. The 
printers, when they came upon the scene, followed the fashion, and certain 
Aldine books, printed wholly in Italic (a style traditionally founded on 
the hand-writing of Petrarch, but engraved for type by Francesco of 
Bologna), attained and still hold a very high reputation. 

The Spanish writing books of the sixteenth century furnish many beau- 
tiful italic forms, some of them verging upon linked script, and provide 
explicit directions for the writing of the letters stroke by stroke. 

To the student who wishes to attain skill in direct writing, rather than 
in the more laborious and exact method of building up letters, a careful 
study of the italic is to be specially recommended. The forms, being 
immediately derived from written work, and never deeply influenced by 
any carved style, adapt themselves readily to the pen; and a mastery of 
them is excellent preparation for the more difficult Roman forms. The 
student should prepare himself, however, in both fields, by carefully build- 
ing up a few exercises, on a scale larger than is possible to single-stroke 
writing, in order that he may investigate the actual drawing of the letters 
before attempting to write them directly. 

In ruling for italics, one should draw a series of slant lines over the 
page, to avoid variations in the angle. These lines should be perfectly 
parallel, but may be at any interval. The most convenient method is to 



[/?] 



FIGURE 61 




FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN 

Incised English script, from "Letters and Lettering" 




mjKLMN 
OPQRSTU 
VWXYZ& 

FIGURE 62. Italic Capitals. For small letters see Figure 58 

T. w. s. 

set the paper obliquely on the drawing board, so that the T-square will 
fit the angle; when the slant lines have been ruled, the paper is reset in a 
vertical position. 

There is no exact or authoritative angle of slope. In extreme styles the 
angle becomes as great as twenty-five or even thirty degrees from the verti- 
cal. From twelve to twenty degrees may be considered the normal range. 

In estimating the space required by a given copy, it is safe to assume 
that the italic will take less than the Roman. In character it is affected 
by all the means employed to vary the Roman, and in addition to these, 
by a number of hand-writing features, turned-up serifs and the like. In 
its most formal style it is simply the Roman letter slanted. Where indi- 
viduality is desired it leans toward script. 



[79] 



Italic is usually well suited to work which suggests a casual or spon- 
taneous motive. While not so legible at long range as Roman, it has an 
effedl of emphasis combined with elegance not easily obtained in any 
other way. In the form of a nearly vertical script-italic, drawn up in 
panels, a quaint dignity appears in it. A greater slant and some judicious 
flourishing ol the capitals gives one a rather elaborate medium which was 
beautifully used by the Louis XV engravers. It may also be effeclively 
used in connection with Roman, following the Georgian or Colonial fashion ; 
in this the italic is somewhat flourished, and is reserved for connectives 
and unimportant words, the Roman capitals serving for emphasis. Where 
used with many italics, the Roman should be varied somewhat — the 
round letters being accented in the direction of the italic slant. 

The invention of the typewriter has, to a large extent, done away with 
the practice of beautiful court hands and engrossing scripts. While 
penmanship is doubtless more rich in individual character than ever, 
beauty has passed from its fashion. The student will find more suggestive 
material, of assistance in developing fine script letters, and thence italics, 
in old and official chirograph). 

aabcaefgRy 

klmnopqrrst 

uvwwxyyzg 

FIGURE 63. Italic small letters. For capitals see Figure 62. 

t. w. s. 



O] 



FIGURE 64 








etcetera 





aDcotfanijft/m 

noparstuvwxyTL 



LAWRENCE ROSA 

Italic-script Capitals and small letters. A fine variant of the French engraver s manner 



FIGURE 65 



Italic Capitals, extreme slant 



FIGURE 66 



ABCDSFQ 
HIJKLJMN 




VWXVZ&. 

Taste & space, 
Orator TYTan 
Simplicity in 
J^rranyement 
hover, Unigtie 
fwk.Jx:y3 db 



M. ELIZABETH COLWELL 

Italic Capitals and small letters 



FIGURE 67 



mcD&f&KU 




tfjie mars at the sprincf 
*c?lna( days ai the morn; 
cMominas at seven; 
me hillsides dew-pearled; 
Ifte larks on the wincf; 
Me snails on the thorn: 
cfoas in his heaven — 
Jtus riant with the world! 

abcdefqtiij^lmnopqrstuv 
wxyz &^ 123456/890 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Italics with flourished Capitals, written with a wide pen 



FIGURE 68 



abcdefgfuklrnnopr 
sftuvwJcyz-0/234567 




33eacBtenSiebiff£ii2 
meinemzwelf&2+~^y 
ScBaiifeD&r / diej^iiSi 
'Mlungelegantsr^uk- 



Modern German script-italics, written with a wide pen 



FIGURE 69 



ABCDEFG 
HIJKLW 

OPCmT 
UVWIYZ 

abcae, 




lmnopqrtuv 



NORMAN P. HALL 

Italic Capitals, small letters, and numerals 



FIGURE 70 



abcdefghiklmnopqrsfi'uvwx 
iQdtf c — ^7/b > 673910 

AftCDETGHIKLMNOP 




O eitinJenle^tmJahrm Jieho- 
heKunfldes OwtmcaTtozuih- 
rem voUen IZechteogkommeri ilh, 
habenjwh auchdieSammlerJer 

Anfanom ^J&J&nlftihmgzu 



Modern German Italic Capitals, small letters, and numerals 



FIGURE 71 



Caslon Oldstyle Italic No. 471 

( From the original matrices, except the Swash Characters, which 3 
recently adapted from an ancient source) 



ABCDEFGHIJK 
LMNOP^RSTU 
VIVXTZ& MCE 

£1234567890$ 

abcdefgb ijk Im n op q r 

stuvwxy%(£w3ffifffl 

ky * ^.ffiffl 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



FIGURE 72 



Cloister Italic 



ABCDEFGHIJ 
KLMNOPQRSTUV 

JVXYZ& 

abcdefghijklmnopqrs 
tu vwxyz'vwkSSfifffl 

qA c B c D£QJ£M' : NJ> 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



FIGURE 73 



Patst Itali 



ABCDEFGHI 
JKLMNOPQ 
RSTUVWXY 

Z&Qu£$S£ 

'B c DgM c N<P c R. c r 

1234567890 . 

aocaefgnjjk/mnoft 
qrstuvivxyzpjjflfp 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



CHAPTER VI 

The Gothic Forms 

IN the course of its decline the classic Roman letter went through many 
changes, taking on characteristic styles in many lands. Some of 
these were of great beauty and interest, but so far from the letters 
with which we are familiar as to be virtually illegible to us. One, 

however, attained a fairly definite form, and was used with consid- 
erable regularity for centuries; this was the Uncial, which was also known 
as the Lombardic letter. 

As this style spread northward it came to be written in a more con- 
densed form, very heavy, with spiky terminals; — the usual result in vari- 
ations of a Germanic origin. This variant called Black-letter was strong 
and rich, but not legible except to the experienced eye. In using it for 
missals and Books of Hours it became convenient, because the contents 
of a page gould not be taken in at a glance, to mark the initials strongly; 
also the letters beginning the separate verses. Thus the capitals became 
extremely heavy and complicated in design. 

At the time of the invention of printing, Black-letter and the more open 
variants were in common use. Many of the earlier types were founded on 
these letters. Caxton took six different fonts of them to England. Jenson 
gave up the use of his beautiful Roman letter for them, because they saved 
space. In Germany they survive in common use, scarcely altered from 
the types cut by Peter Schoeffer of Mainz, except in some loss of virility. 

In the nomenclature used by printers and type-founders these letters 
are called Old English, or Text. Historically they are called Gothics. 
As the historical name relates the style correctly to the use of the word 
Gothic in the arts, it will be used here, since we are considering letters and 
not types. (In printing, a square sanserif Roman, with strokes of equal 
weight, is called Gothic.) To distinguish further, the heavy forms of 
letters in which the black stroke overpowers the enclosed white, will be 
referred to as Black-letter; the more open forms as Round Gothic. 

The Uncial letter, shifting through the Half Uncial, bridged a gap 
between the classic Roman capitals and the small letter. This Uncial, 



[>] 



FIGURE 74 



a& r D r f 1| 

Kf # futimr 
ii9 



ALBERT DURER, I5OO 

Black-letter Capitals and small letters 



while essentially a capital, has no small letter of its own, since the Gothic 
small letter is a later development. But the Uncial as the ancestor of the 
Gothic or Text capital, may properly be used with Gothic small letters. 



S&lfllNigte 




yRadt 
IglMjft 

wipwflit 

Moijanjittg 
ytfmtot 



6 i 



i 



FIGURE 75. Black letter written with a wide pen 

HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

The Gothic capital in fact, grew out of this association of Uncials with 
Black-letter; its chief object was to mark a place, to emphasize a begin- 
ning. It grew heavy and complicated, isolating itself from the general 
tone of the page. Its history and design alike forbid that it be used alone. 



CPJ] 



fl6fdpfs(jififmnagqrferuDm/g 
3:i2^7s>>o:tiwm:und:fefn : 

asfDEfBirffiunniF 



FIGURE 76. Modern German Round Gothic capitals, small letters and numerals 

To state the matter again. Uncials (Lombard Gothic Capitals) 
may be used solid, without small letters. Uncials may be used as capi- 
tals with Round Gothic or Black-letter small letters. Round Gothic 
and Black-letter capitals (Old English) must be used with small letters, 
never as solid capitals. To the last statement an experienced designer 
may find an occasional exception. It does not apply to the simpler forms, 
in which the Roman influence is strongly felt, such as the Troy and Chaucer 
types of William Morris. 

Gothic letters afford a greater variety than other styles, chiefly be- 
cause they were never fully developed. The plainer forms of Round 
Gothic and Black-letter may be executed easily — written, in fact — with 
a wide stub or quill pen. This accomplishment requires some practice, 
however, and careful ruling-up, both with horizontal and vertical guides. 
See Figure 83. 

Black-letter is an open field for the letterer because it is not practicable 
to produce its best effects with type. At its height it is a rich, virile style, 
bound closely together, letter to letter, and legible only to the accustomed 
eye. Hence one should be careful to employ it only in brief inscriptions, 
or in combinations easily recognized by the average reader. 

It is not necessary to cumber the memory with the intricate drawing of 
the Text capitals. The Uncial form, on the other hand, is easily drawn and 
can be frequently used, as can also the plainer styles of Round Gothic 
and Black-letter. The drawing of these should be thoroughly mastered 
and practiced by the student of lettering. 



[$*] 



FIGURE 77 



Cloister Black 



JWmi£n©o$p<&q 
IrTbWtoXxfpH? 

ait 

$1234567890 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



FIGURE 78 













From a 14th Century MS. 
Uncial Capitals with narrow Gothic small letters 



FIGURE 79 



FRED STEARNS 

Uncial (Lombardic) Gothic Capitals 



FIGURE 



ftBOOtf 



KI/flMlO 
PQRSJH 
WWW: 



Italian Gothic Capitals 



HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Adapted from an inscription in silver repousse 



FIGURE 81 




\)t BracMfetter, 

tit, of iti$$(vavc% 
tefe?formal'aii& ai- 
mite of wore' freedom 
intrefttm&tttiatitiie 
Roman. Jlx\ iDcdie 
tral &wp$, QjaqlmS! 
&'&•£*%'■%■? 

♦2* 



CHARLES H. BARNARD 



Original variations on a Gothic Alphabet 



FIGURE 82 




FRANK CHOUTEAU BROWN 

English Gothic Capitals and small letters from "Letters and Lettering" 



FIGURE 83 



mm 
tyma 

(DM! 




a5Wtot) 

jatWt jiff A 
Sfourmassfs: 







HARRY LAWRENCE GAGE 

Gothic Capitals and small letters written with a wide pen 



FIGURE 84 




M. ELIZABETH COLWELL 

Design in Gothics. The original was printed with the outline in red 



FIGURE 85 




An Illustrated Monthly Magazine of 
FINE tf APPLIED ART Edited 
by Charges Holmje Tublisbed by 
John Lane The Bodley Head at 
140 Fifth 'ylve New York Price 35 centj 
Yearly Subscription $350 post paid 



WILL BRADLEY 



Cover design showing an interesting use of Italics 



CHAPTER VII 

The Practical Problem 

WHEN you have chosen the proper style for a given piece of 
work, you have taken the most important step toward 
the perfect end. What remains to be done is matter for 
skill, and skill alone; the choice of the style, the original 
plan, involves taste and invention as well as skill. Since 
taste and invention cannot be had from a book we shall make no futile 
efforts to explain their application. But, eliminating as far as possible 
the element of personality, a plan of attack may be given. 

Let us suppose a problem. A title-page for a privately printed edition 
is ordered; the copy is as follows: 

ANDREA DEL SARTO 

Called the Faultless Painter 

A Poem by Robert Browning 

The copy may be used in full, or only the essential words; information 
about the printer and publisher should be reserved for the colophon. 
The title and matter of the book may suggest an old Italian Gothic, 
as shown in Figure 80. If the title-page is to be hand lettered, type 
effects are evidently not wanted, and this letter has not been successfully 
reduced to type. In fad its best use from the beginning, has been mural 
and decorative. In spacing it is not extremely flexible; so we assume a 
simple arrangement of the copy, and fill the short lines with florets in 
keeping with the letter, and pencil the copy in a close block. The result 
has a certain "fifteenth-century feeling," but is decidedly black. Some 
effort may be made to relieve this quality by the use of a rule, leaving 
considerable white space around the letters, and reducing their size in 
proportion. Still they are black. We might improve the proportions 
of the page, but this characteristic would remain. It may be taken to 
indicate that these letters are best adapted for use in places where strong 
color contrasts are not to appear, or where great blackness is desired. 
On a colored cover paper, printed in medium tones, they might serve 



[/04] 



better, but to the modern eye they remain somewhat difficult. For ref- 
erence, let the note be inked in, roughly, as in Figure 86. 

Leaving the more formal manner for a moment, we may attempt a 
simple arrangement using a free Roman capital form derived from the 
lower-case, Figure 88. This presents the title in a simple, unassuming 
fashion, and leaves abundant space for decoration of almost any sort. 
But we cannot fail to see that this is too casual. The right thing is not 
to be done so easily. However beautifully we may decorate the page, the 
inscription itself, the central motive, will lack the dignity that is its prime 
reason for being. 

Laying aside, for the present at least, the possibilities of the solid 
block of capitals, an experiment with a modern form may be made, using 
the ribbon inscription which is so popular with some English publishers. 
By this means we succeed in calling proper attention to the words "Andrea 
del Sarto" and "Robert Browning," setting the subsidiary words back 
against the field. In this line of work it will usually be found necessary 
to add something in the nature of floral or conventional pattern, in order 
to hold the ribbons together; or this end may be accomplished in a still 
simpler fashion by ruling of an architectural character. Some attraction 
could easily be added in a little clever handling of the ribbons, giving them 
an effect of relief; but this, being factitious and apart from any real accom- 
plishment with the inscription, would only carry us still further from our 
object, which is to arrive by continued experiment at a just and work- 
manlike solution of the problem. 

Looking back at the complete copy, we can scarcely fail to see in the 
phrase "Called the Faultless Painter," a suggestion leading to the Georgian 
or Colonial style. A few minutes' work in this direction will produce a 
sketch similar to Figure 89, possessing a slight resemblance to old work 
and having about it a quaint sense of variety. While we feel sure this 
might be improved considerably in detail, it serves to show that the manner 
and matter do not suit one another, even if we apply no other test than an 
elementary historical one. 

When we experiment with this title in Black-letter, we shall find it 
profitable to divest the copy of all superficial matter. The average reader 
has no such aversion to Black-letter as is usually credited to him, but he 
demands it in small doses, that he may feel its rich, decorative effect 
without encountering difficulty in reading. Using the copy in its shortest 
form, and selecting an old English Gothic (following the excellent ren- 



I105I 



FIGURE 86 



FIGURE 87 



*0«H£HKK> 

HTOtffflBY 
R0B6Rfr? 
BROIIflffl^ 




Called The 
Faultlefs Painter 




ByRobert [T 
Browning j, 



AT)DRea-DeL 
saRtoapoem 

B^-ROBeRT 

BRownins 



ANDREA 
&/SARJTO 

Called ©Tzee^ 

PO EM 

<g/~ROBERT 

Browning 



figure 



FIGURE 89 



Rough notes for a title page 



dering by Mr. Frank Chouteau Brown, Figure 82), we obtain a page similar 
to that suggested by Figure 90. This is more promising, and a little 
experimenting in shifting the relative positions of the title words might 
reveal something still more pleasing. 

But there still remains the opportunity to use, in perfect, harmony 
with the text, the Renaissance Roman letter. It will bring up some special 




□ 



ltoMBtGwiit& 



FIGURE 90 



FIGURE 91 



difficulties, among them a demand for more careful execution than all the 
others. It will be plain and not far removed in character from the capitals 
of some of our best types; in fact, the chief advantage over type in the page 
we propose will be the superiority of free spacing and an absolute choice 
of proportions. 

Beginning with a mere suggestion of the spaces filled by the words 
we arrive at a note like that shown in Figure 91. This is, of course, one 
of a large number of possibilities in arrangement, as the optional copy 
leaves us a wide latitude in that direction. Following this sketch, how- 
ever, one obtains a page like Figure 92. 

The foregoing section, which may seem very elementary to the expe- 
rienced reader, does not present the only way of arriving at the given con- 



[>7] 



FIGURE 92 



ANDREA 
DEL SARTO 

A POEM 



ROBERT 
BROWNING 



elusion, nor is any single step mentioned either necessary or inevitable. 
But for the craftsman whose work in this field is beginning, some special- 
ized, concrete exemplification of principles must be made. 

From this we may deduce a more general expression. In any piece of 
lettering the object to be achieved is the presentation of a given inscrip- 
tion in the most suitable and beautiful manner. That the inscription 
may be suitable and beautiful, we should first determine its relative impor- 
tance. If it be the vital part of the design in which it stands, everything 
else should be subordinated to it. If it be merely explanatory, nothing 
can excuse the arrogance which permits the lettering to draw attention 
from the main issue. When the value of the inscription is determined, its 
placement must be effected in exact accord with this, regardless of the 
temptation to "give the lettering a show." 

For beauty, harmony between the lettering and ornament is of course 
essential. But since each problem presents this question anew, the general 
principles could scarcely be presented except in connection with a study 
of ornament. The discerning student will of course recognize that a deci- 
sion on the basis of historical association cannot fail to be helpful; he 
will also see that the Romans represent the plain form, that Gothics 
bring into the inscription a sense of elaboration, and Italics a feeling of 
script-like informality. 



[/op] 



CHAPTER VIII 

Phases of Letter Design 

JUST as the forms of letters are strongly influenced by the manner of 
their making — building-up or writing — so their values as orna- 
ment have been similarly affected. The styles which attained 
their height in carved stone, as the classic Roman, carry with them 
the mark of the architect, and incidentally are still preserved in 
their purity by architects. 

The carved letter, when rendered on paper, naturally becomes a built- 
up letter. It suggests dignity and permanence. The Italic forms, more 
swiftly written, suggest grace and informality. One has only to use the 
different forms as head lines for a body of small letters, in order to see 
how strongly each manifests its character. With the Roman capitals, the 
whole inscription takes on an air of sober regularity, as of Roman building; 
with the Gothic, a richer and more decorative look, suited, by long typo- 
graphical association, to churchly uses; and with the Italic, the whole 
inscription becomes more casual, perhaps even, if the Italic be flourished, 
fantastic and gallant. 

These characteristics of the various letters should of course be used to 
the advantage of the work to be designed. But the letters themselves 
may offer decorative possibilities beyond those of mere association. 

In type, each letter has its own field, and its own work to do. Begin 
drawing it, and you find that it may also fit itself into a piece of ornament. 
Carry this a little further, and you begin making ornamental designs, 
usually monograms and ciphers, out of the letter forms themselves. 

In designing pages one often needs a decorative spot to occupy a cer- 
tain space or "field." One may draw a conventionalized flower form or 
a bit of abstract ornament, taking care that it harmonize in tone and 
measure with the letters. Or one may take a certain combination of 
letters themselves, and weave them into a monogram, equally decorative, 



[7/0] 



FIGURE 93 




E. A. TURBAYNE 



Monograms from "Monograms and Ciphers" 



and at the same time significant in connection with the rest of the design. 
In doing this the chief consideration is of course that an interesting spot, 
a pleasant and effective shape, shall result. But if it is also necessary 
that the meaning of the constituent letters shall be clear, then their order 
and legibility have also to be considered. 

Facility in arranging monograms and ciphers is so valuable to the 
craftsman that some time may well be devoted to such practice. Some 
combinations of letters give happy results with little study; others prove 
difficult and intractable. For trade purposes, the metal-chaser's method 
of interlacing flourished Italics is perhaps the easiest and surest, but this 
arrives at a conventional result, lacking in interest and variety. A 
legitimate monogram of Roman letters is one in which some stroke of 
each letter serves also as a stroke in one of the others; and the whole is 
excellent as it possesses a characteristic shape and a piquant or ingenious 
division of spaces. In ciphers the idea of interest as ornament is carried 
still further, legibility without the key to the design being abandoned. 

In practical work, one should begin by setting down the letters of the 
problem in capitals, in small letters, and perhaps in Uncials. Thus all 
the shapes with which one may play are evident. Take the capitals and 
try them superimposed, feeling for strokes which may be common to two 
of the letters; then try them partially superimposed, in a triangle. Some 
of the most successful monograms are built at the top of a long vertical 
stem, and are apparently almost symmetrical. If an interesting result 
does not appear among the capitals, try the small letters; then the Uncials. 
The monogram should not, as a rule, mix the forms, though occasional 
fortunate combinations of capitals and small letters, harmonized in a 
measure by giving the whole an informal treatment, may be found. One 
should examine the problem to find out how many of the letters involved 
are symmetrical, or readily reversible. The result, barring the accident 
of the very easy combinations, will serve as a test of the student's inven- 
tion, power of design, and knowledge of the letter forms. 1 

Exercises of this sort, which tend to develop in the student a feeling for 
beauty and design in lettering, are to be highly recommended. In fact, 
a quickened and critical alertness in regard to all the uses of letters should 
be cultivated. Fine letter forms are occasionally to be discovered upon 

1 Note. The subject of monograms is well illustrated in Turbayne's "Monograms 
and Ciphers" (Published by The Prang Company), and in French & Meiklejohn's "The 
Essentials of Lettering." 



['£?] 



TEI5LAN3IN 
.5VM5ETBA 

FIGURE 94. An example of combined letters and monograms in a title 

sign boards and tombstones, and dull and commonplace ones upon pre- 
tentious buildings,. The most fertile field of observation, especially in 
recent years, is that of typography. Some of the most skillful living 
craftsmen adorn with letters the advertising pages of the magazines, 
and even, in some cases, the advertising cards in the street cars. 

Many modern types are of great interest to the letterer. Some of these 
are not readily obtainable for study, being held as the private property 
of great presses or of the designers themselves. In this class one might 
mention the two designs made by William Morris for the Kelmscott 
Press; the beautiful Doves Press type of Emery Walker; the free and 
unusual "Humanistic" fount designed by Mr. William Dana Orcutt; 
Mr. Bruce Rogers' grave and dignified "Montaigne," cut for the River- 
side Press; Mr. Ralph Fletcher Seymour's personal type; and a number 
of the faces designed by Mr. Frederick W. Goudy. Mr. Goudy has gone 
further, however, and has worked out many faces, all strongly impressed 
with his personality and craftsmanship, for the regular channels of the 
trade. These types, and the lifelong experience of authentic artists in 
the designing of letters which lies behind them, have exercised a deep 
influence upon current typography. The student will find much to 
admire in the common work of the day, as well as in the writing of classic 
and Renaissance masters. 

It is, in fact, the strength of present work that requires of the student 
resourcefulness and a high standard of execution. To be slipshod is out 
of the question; to be merely correct and impersonal is likewise to fall 
short. The craftsman who would succeed must contribute achievements 
at once learned and individual. 



Oj] 



FIGURE 05 



me INTERNATIONAL 

STVDIO 

An Illustrated Monthly Maga 
zine of FINE 63u APPLIED 
ART 'Edited by Charles 
Holme Published byloim 
LANBTheBodlevMead at 
i4<o Fifth eAve NewYorks 
Trice J)f? cents '♦V&arJySub- 
scription^.^? post paid* 




WILL BRADLEY 

Cover design in the Georgian style 



FIGURE 96 



AT THE DIRECTION 



we have entered your name up' 
on our list for a subscription to 
The Ladies' Home Journal 
for the coming year.\Ve hope 
that the copies we shall have the 
leasure of mailing may prove to 
e twelve pleasant reminders or 
the friend who sends this token. 
<r Hie Curtis 'Publishing 
Comfiany, Philadelphia 



i 




FREDERICK W. GOUDY 



Lettering with border 



FIGURE 97 



ABCDFE 
GHiJKLM 

NOPQRST 
UVWXYZ 

a&bcdeefgbb 
ijklmmDnopq 
rs ttxivw jzyz 



WILLIAM DANA ORCUTT 

Humanistic Type 



FIGURE 98 



Caslon Oldstyle Roman No. 471 

( From the original matrices ( 


ABCDEFGH 


IJKLMNOPO 


RSTUVWXY 


Z£CE& 


abcdefgh ij kl m n 


opqrstuvwxyzd 


jeffiffflffiffloe 


$ i 2 3 45 6 7 8 9 o£ 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



FIGURE 99 



THE IMPORTANCE OF THE UN- 
EQUAL SPACING OF CAPITALS 
OF IRREGULAR SHAPE IS OFT- 
EN UNDERRATED » FAULT IS 
SOMETIMES FOUND WITH CAP- 
ITALS AS AWKWARDLY FITTED 
WHEN THE COMPOSITOR IS AT 
FAULT- HE DOES NOT SEE THAT 
IT IS HIS DUTY TO RECTIFY BY 
SPACING THE GAPS PRODUCED 
BY COMBINATIONS OF TYPES 
OF IRREGULAR SHAPE- 
THE EXPERT TYPE FOUNDER 
DOES ALL HE CAN IN THE DE- 
SIGN AND FITTING OF THE 
FACE ON ITS PROPER BODY TO 
PREVENT NEEDLESS GAPS- BUT 
HE CANNOT MATERIALLY AL- 
TER THE SHAPE OF AN IR- 
REGULAR CHARACTER- 



FREDERICK W. GOUDY 

Forum Type 



FIGURE 100 



KENNERLEY OLD STYLE 

Mr. Bernard Newdigate writing on 
"British Types for Printing Books" 
in The Art of the Book, has to say of 
Mr.Goudy and the Kennerley type: 
Intelligent study of Italian models 
also gives us the Kennerley type de- 
signed by the American,Mr . Goudy . 
This type is not in any sense a copy 
of early letter, it is original. Besides 
being beautiful in detail his type is 
beautiful in the mass; and the letters 
when set into words seem to lock in- 
to one another with a closeness com- 
mon in the letter of early printers, 
but rare in modern type. Since the 
first Caslon began casting type about 
the year 1723, no such excellent let- 
ter has been put within reach of 
English printers. (This is 24 pt. size. 



FREDERICK W. GOUDY 

Kennerley Old Style Type 



FIGURE 101 



Pabst OldstyU 



ABCDEFGHI 
JKLMNOPQ 
RSTUVWXY 

ZJECE&£ 

aDcaeTgnijklinnop 

qrstuvwxyzseoefi 

$1234567890 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



FIGURE 102 



Cloister Oldstyle 



ABCDEFGHIJ 
KLMNOPQRR 

STTUVWXY 

Z&Qu$ 

abcdefghijklmno 
pqrstuvwxyz&fifl 

1234567890 
1234567890 



Courtesy of the American Type Founders Company 



tW