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wish to transmit to my friends at home my delight- 
ful impressions of those to whom we all owe many 
happy hours. Perhaps my anxiety is superfluous : 
the King of Asliaiitee was anxious to know what 
the English people said of him ; but I never heard 
that the English people cared to know what the 
King of Ashantee said of them. 


June 2S, 1841. 



Cmf^( tlotti, PotIhmiM, 
Juat *, 1S33. 

Captain S/s cutter (oolt us off the ship this morn- 
ing u nine oVWk. Ir Has at last a sa<l parting 
from oar messniates, with "rhom we have been for 
a month separated Trom all the world, and involved 
in a common destiny : and from the ship, wliich 
seems like a bit of home, for tlie feet of the fnentU 
we Itnvr left there have trmMcn it. 

Wlieii I touched Kn);li»h grouixl I cooIH have 
&Uen on my knees and kissed it ; but a wharf is 
not quite the liftih for siicli a demonstration, and 
apectAtoni operate like strait jaekel* upon en- 
dmsiasiDi so I contented myself with a mental 
•ulntatioR of the homeof oiirfiiilicrit, t]iv niiiivu hind 
of one of our dearest friemls, and tlie birthplace of 
" the bri^it, ll»c immuriiil names" that wc liave 
venerated from our youth upward. 

vuL. r. a 




ATTVOB or "HOP! l-JBUE," ■' n»k HCH MAM," BTC. WTC 

" WflU, Jofaq, I think vp mnit own that God AlmightT faBd» bsid in 
DuUng other fioimtrf*^ boridH oars."— Tbi Buotbdu. 

VOL. I. 

.til ^i^ 



^4 3, 



Ak apolo^ for a book implies iliiit the public are 
obliged to read it; an oblifj^tion that would reverie 
the order of oacure — transfer the power from tlic 
Btrotm^ to th« weak. But, unfortunately for them, 
dure n a portion of the public who are, in a certain 
seoMs obliged to read a book — the kind friends of 
the autJior: and among these, I say it jj^ratefully, 
not boastfully, I liave the liappuic<« to number 
many of my countrymen pcntonally unknown to 
me. Of m^frintdt, then, I axk indulgence for ilie 
following pagrs. Tiiey are publtsLed rather with 
dderen» to the wiNti«ti of others thiin from any 
fitlM cMinwte of their worth. Our tour waa made 
under circun»tnnceii H'hich forbade any divergence 
from the highway of all tlic tnivelling world, and, 
ooosetpiently, we paid«d over a Reld .«o thoroughly 


reaped ibai not mi <-iir, acarcely a kernel, remains 
for rhe gk'iuvT. In luldimm to Uii», und to pain- 
ful anxieties aod re«iM>nfl]l>itities tliat accompanied 
US at every step, vrc were followed by intelligence 
of deep domestic eniainily. On this subject I need 
not enbrgc; tlic disquuiirying influence of tbesa 
cireuoMtunces will l)c eomprelieiidcd witliout my 
opening tUe sanctuary uf private griefs. 

t waa aware that our stayers-at-home bad already 
wmettung too laudi of churches, statues, and pic- 
tures, and yet lliat tliey cannot well iuiiigine liow 
much ibey moke up tlie ezbteiiee of Tourists in 
ilie Old World. I have sedulously avoi<le<l thb 
rock, and must trust for any little interest my 
book may poiaesa lo the honesty witli which 1 
liave recorded my imprcMioni, and to ihe fretb 
aspect of familiar things to the eye of a dcnixeo 
or the New World. The fmgmentaiy Mate in 
which my letters appear, is owing to my fear of 
wearying readers loss intcrMlwl iltuii my own 
family by prolonged detaiht or pr»«iiig reflections, 
or disgustiog (hem with iJie eguUsm of personal 

PUrAOt. Til 

One word to my FnglkU reader, rather of expla- 

nation tliau apology, wkicb 1 trust the case does 
not requirv. I bavc uu!icTU[mIi>U!>Iy [iienlioned tlie 
oancs of suck dUtinguiHlied EngliHb people as it 
wu my good fortune to see. I coulil have screened 
myself from reproach, by ^ving merely their 
initials; but, as tliey are too well known for this 
device to bave afforded them any slieltcr, it 
seemed to me but a paltry affectation of delicacy. 
I mi^lit pleud tlie authority of English travellers 
in the United Stales; but if wrong, no authority 
justifies it; and if right, it needs none. I l>av« 
confined my notices Htriclly to public charac- 
ters — to gallery portraits ; for so siicli persons as 
Mr. Rogers, and even ihut most refined and dcli- 
cala of gentlewomen Miss Joanna llaillie, may be 
strictly cnlk-d, after the full exhibitions in Moore'a 
Life of Byron, aint I-ockhart's Life of Scott. 

I haro violated no confident, for none was 
reposed in me. My uppurtunities of social inter- 
course were few and brief, and I should have 
omitted ibesc slight records of them, but for the 



wish to transmit to my friends at home my delight- 
ful impressions of those to whom we all owe many 
happy hours. Perhaps my anxiety is superfluous : 
the King of Ashautee was anxious to know what 
the English people said of him ; but I never heard 
that the English people cared to know what the 
King of Ashantee said of them. 


Jhm zs, 1841. 




Ctarg* Haiti, Parltm^uOi, 
Jun* 4, 1839. 

Captain S.'b cutler took us off the ship this morn- 
ing at nine o'clock. It was at last a sad pnrtitig 
from oar mMsmates, with whom we have been for 
amontli separated from all the world, and involved 
io a common de«tiny; and from the ship, which 
wnm like n bit of home, for the feet of the friends 
we liave left tbero biivc trodden it. 

Wbeti I tonchrd Pin)£li«h ground I could have 
fallen on my knees and kissed it ; bnt a wharf u 
not quite the lo»i!c for such a demonstration, and 
tpectators operate like strait jackets upon en- 
ibittiaMm, so 1 contented myself with a mental 
■alutation of the liotne of our fiithcn, ilic naiiw land 
of one of our di>ate^t frit'ntU, »nd the hirlhplace of 
** ibe briglit, the immorlnl uiimcH" tliat wc have 
Tcnrratcil from our youth upward. 

VOL. I. B 


f ferew&m you, roy Hear C, not to look for any 
statistics from me— any " valuable infonaation.' I 
shall try (o tell you truly wbat I see and hear : tu 
"chronicle," as our friend Mr. Dewey says, "whiU 
they are fresli, my sensations." Kverything loolca 
norel and foreign to iik : tlic quaint forms of the old, 
Mad-colouTCd botues; the arched, antique gateways ; 
tlic royal biHts niched in an old wall; the very dark 
colourtiig of the foliage, and the moAsy stems of the 
uee«. NVe seem to hare [Missed from tlie fr»h, 
bright youth to the old age of tlic world. The form 
and colouriag of the people are different from oun. 
They are stouter, more erect, and more sanguliw. 

Our friends I>r. M. nnil im mtv have deddnl to 
remain vn\h us while we stay here, so we make 
eight in all; and as we stand in the bow-window 
of the George, staring, wondering, exchuming, and 
laughing, we must make a group of '' HomespUDS 
just come up to town" worthy Cntikshank's pencil. 
And, by-tlte-way, the passing etiuipoget appear to 
us the originals of Cruiksbaok^ tllustraiions, and 
the parties driving in them fac-oimiles of Hckwick 
(the modern Don Quixote) and Lb club. 

Basil Hal) ts living here. We have liad some 
discussion whether we sliould recal ourselves to bis 
Bieaiorjr by sending l» him Mr. A.'s letter and our 
fludis. We hare no individual claims on him, and, 
as AiBeriMtH, there is no love lost between us. 
R. cited Scott's opinion that it is uncivil lo both 



artks not to deliver promptly a letter of introdu^ 

lion : so, gubmitttiig to hiicIi sound niitliority, Ur. 

M. hai gpot off lo leave ours at Caplain Hall's door, 

nd tben lie will leave liU <ard at ours, and tbere 

he mailer will end. 

We Itave been walking over the town, over tke 

npsrts aitd tlirougli some Ane gravelled avenues 

lied vritli dms. Don't fancy our elms with tlieir 

Idroopiiifr, embowering branekes — no, nothing so 

jbeauttfiil — but wbiit we ciilL,tlic Cngli»h elm, witli 

nta upright, fttiff »tem. As we straggled on down 

green lane, we saw a notice " To let furnished" 

the gate of a very at tractive- looking cottage ; 

[and being seiied with a happy inspiration (a natural 

[one, you may think ii, for pushing Yankees), we 

[ detennincd, as applicants for the tenement, to see 

^tlic inside of an English cottage; so, going up a 

[narrow paved walk, we rang for admittance. 1 

sked a pretty, neatly-dressed woman who appeared 

isbowme the premises, and kept my counlenanra 

Lin «ptte of ray tittering follower^ while we wer« 

shown through a dining-room, drawing-room, two 

kitchens and 6ve bedrooms, all small, and furiushed 

witli extreme neatness and comfort. All this, with 

I very pretty little garden, we might have, without 

linen or plate, for four guineas a week. There was 

s lovely little court too in froni, tilled with Nhnibit 

and Bowers; not a thimbleful of earth tliat did not 

do it8 duty. No wonder tlie woman took us at our 


4 roaTMUouTif. 

word, for I un «irc wc looked w if we would ^n 
set up our rast tliere. 

I afterwftrd rollowed R. into tlie garden, nnd 
encountered the deaf liusbaud of our neat matron- 
guide. He showed me a filbert grafted upon an 
apple-tree by a bird having deposited a seed tliere. 
I ukcd, " Hud tbe filbert borne fruil?" "Four 
guineas n week, mu'sm," \te answered, " nnd tt'c 
counted a rery 'eultliy liur i" We felt it tru 
^uite time to retreat. 

When we came home we found tbat Captain 
Hall, Mm. H., and some of their friends had left 
cuds for as. " Very prompt," we thought ; " and 
so liiis matter is done." 

We ate M'itli Dalgelty oppeliles our first English 
dinner: soup, sdmon, iniittun efaopt, and cverytiting 
the best of its kind, and un'ed as iii a private 
gentleman's house, and, aUs! wiiban elegance and 
accuracy found in few gcnllemeu's houses in our 
country. We have plenty of gentlemen, but 
gentlemen's servants are with us rare birds. 

Junr A. Wc feci green and bewildered, as you 
may imugitie; and not knowing how to arrange 
our tour around the Isle of Wight, wc were dis- 
cussing tl in some perplexity when Cnpuin Hall and 
Mrs. H. were announced. They were just going 
off on n vL»il to the sun of Wilberforee, who is 
rector a( Itrixton; but Captain Il.deddingat once 
that we nutt give tbo day to the Portsmouth tiont, 


that he would show them to us, defcnvd his 
departure till the crcning; and die half-hour before 
we HCt off was ovcupicd in receiving a visit from 
Ciptaiu H.'a children, an<l instriicUons from o friend 
of Mr*. Hall, well iieqtiuinted witli the localities, as 
to OUT progress around the island. Captain II. left 
as no tipie for dawdling. He has been a lion- 
hunter, and understandfl the art of Uon-sli owing, 
and, what I think rather the nicest part of the art, 
what not to show. Off we set towards tlie sally port. 
On tlie way we dropped into a Gothic church {a 
|)r«lty episode enough) of the twelfth centurjr. 
Csptain II. pointed out a monument to Bucking- 
ham, Charles the J-'irsi's favourite, who, as you may 
remember, was killed by Fellou at Portsmouth. 

We were to go first to the Victory, whicli is now 
kept bere, " a kind of l<>y," as oik vf our seamen of 
the St. James said, but which, in fact, is something 
moK than that — a receiving and drilling ship. Wc 
found a boat awaiting us, put (of course by Captiuii 
Halls intervention) at ourdisposul by tiiecommander 
of tbc Victory. It wan manned with a dozen young- 
sters in the Victory's uniform, a white knit woollen 
hloutio, with theword P'iflort/ m Muri.i- Louise blue 
on the brea»l. Tliey were sloul, ruddy kids. The 
Victory) you know, \» the »hip in which Nelson 
won the battle of Trafalgar, and died in winning it- 
Captain H. led ufl to the quarter-deck, and showed 
us a brdkS plate inserted iu the floor, intmribed with 


time words, '* Htrt Xelton/rHr TbU «u a 
Uirilling sight to those of os tvlio ivmeinberMi wlivn 
NHson viK licM a* tlic lype of all gallitntrVf fi^lit- 
ing for liberty a}^iri»t tlii; world. R. was obliged 
to turn awiky till lie could commnittl lit* etnoiioiis, 
and 1 tliougbt of tbe time when we were all chil- 
dren together at homo, and I saw liim running 
breatldcM up the lane, tossing bin lial into the air 
and *]M>uu»g, " Nelson I Victory ! " Troly, " tLc 
cbiM is bthcr to the man." We were received 
very courtifously by the comnuiiidor, CapOun S., 
who inYiied ut into uu apartment which, save the 
ceiling was a littic lower, had the atpect of a 
shore drawiiig-room : there were viliut, »bow-bookt, 
flowen* piano, and a prettier garniture iliait the*e, 
B joung biide, reminding ub, with bet pale, delicate 
bee aod French millinery, of our fair young couiw 
try women— <|uite uii- English. The \'ictory ts Cap' 
tain S.'s lioine, and tlie lady wns bis dnugliter. 

We then wiint into the cockpit and groped our 
way to ibe dutk, narrow state-room (a midshipman's) 
where NeUon was carried after he wus shot down. 
Captain II. pointed to the beam where bis bead by 
when be dim!. There a heroic «ptrit bad passed 
twsy, and left a Italo in tliU dark, dt«mal pbce. 
Place and circtinMtnnrc are nerrr less inpOTtant 
to a man llian when he i» dying, and yet it wat a 
striking contnist (and tlic world ia full of sueih), 
tbo miui dying in ibiswretdied, disrk, stifling hole, 





I It 



bU name vnu rMounding (hrougb all the 

'suf l:^ur(^,amlin;ikiiigouryouiigIicarti>lea]) 

in ihe New World. Sliall I tell you what remcm- 

brauce touched roe most a* I Mooi) tliere? nothii 

nt deeds, for they are wHiten in blood, aiirl 

oaf a vul^r spirit has achieved such ; but tlie 
exquisite tcndcriivKs gleuiQing forth in his last 
worilH, " Kiw nic. Hardy!" These touched the 
.ch<Mxl of uiiivi'r^ul huniuiiity. 

Our next step was from ilie poetJe'roiiiantic lo the 
actual, from tlic Victory to thcbiicuit-balcery.n place 
^wbcTC biscuits are made for naval stores by steam. 
'A (loliceman started out 11(1011 u» "like a spider," as 
Captain H. very descriptively said, and announceil 
that all ingress to tlie art and mystery of steam- 
baking n-BS forbidden to foreigners; and we werr 
turning away ucquiesi-ingly, for the mo»t curious of 

ur party had twoor three years ago seen tlieprueess 
in full blast in one of our Western SIjups, hut Caj)- 
tain Hall would not be »o ■•asity bulHed. He was 

cxcd tltat an old rule, fallen into general discrcditt 
•faouUl be applied to a biscuit-bakery and " such 
branelieB of learaiiig :" so be went to find thcadmi- 
n), but be was not at his quarters ; and no dispensa- 
tion being to be had be declared the bisciiiUi " nil 
sour." Very Hwftfl we thought them the next morn- 
ing when we received an amendr most honourable, 
in tbe shape ef a note from Admiral Fleming, 
."regretting the disappointment Miss S. met with at 


tlie bakcliouso, of winch Captain Hull hari inforiDcd 
him,'* ([ can iauigin« in whiit animate^] ternu,) "and 
wliicli lie would liATC pTCv«iitnI had \ie known her 
wUlies," anil concludin)^ with saying, lliat baring 
licanl from Cap lain llallof ourinlention of visiting 
the Isle of Wight, Uc Imd the pleasure of offering 
Itis yacht for our conveyance. Now this was surely 
the true spirit of courtesy; and when this spirit is ^^ 
infused into international manners wc may be oJled^H 
Christian nations, and not till tlion. 

Well) the )Kik<>ry being taboo, our conductor pro* 
p06*d we should next row olT to the royal yadit by 
way of parenthesis in the day's doings. This yadit 
wiabuiltfor George IV., and the Rlting up, even to 
the pattern of the chintz, designed by his majesty: 
truly a fitting occu|iation for the monarch of the 
greatest nation in the worl<l ! He had the ambition, 
I liavc known shared witii him by some c!i(|Hisite 
fine l»<lic«, who cast away their gowns anil hum tbeir ^^ 
caps if they be imitated. The manufacturer gara^H 
a Nfiuircd pledge that the chinti of the royal yacht 
should never be copied. M. suggested it was not 
pretty enough, to moke this a sacrifice on the part of 
the nuinu&cttircfs. The yncht, however, is a bijou, 
the prettiest tiling, I fancy, that has Roatod since 
Cleopatra's barge. The beds are wide and sump- 
tuous, there are luxurious clutrs and solas, gilt pan- 
ellings, lamps witli cable-cbain* and anchor-«haped 
omamenia, and a kitcbvn-nuige fit to scrre an 


THB ULE OP wistrr. 9 

Apicius. Tlierc is a pretty library too, but I 
susprct his majesty's pro^iortion of in<-ii(al iind cor- 
poreiil provi«toti was miicli uftcr l-alstairit fashion. 
R. remarked its iocompletefiess, and iioid to Captain 
{[., "Our library iu the St. James is superior to 
ihU ; it has your books." 

If I could rcfrnh you with the bottlr of Madeira 
und plalp of biscuits which Caprain Hall contrived 
to conjure into the block tnsnulactory, while a very 
clear-headed man was cxpluiiiing to us its capital 
machinery,! might venture to dra^yoii along with 
us through the rolling-mill and th« Cyclopit r4>gton« 
where the anchors arc forged; but here I let yiiuoff 
for this busily plcusunt day, at tlic moment of our 
parting with Captain Hall, and tlic interchange of 
hearty wlsLes iliat wt mi|{ht mei-t iii^iin in the Isle 
of Wij^iL Wliiit ii imdt of prcjniiices ami false 
judgments hiu) one day's frank ajid kind intercourse 
^ft<lisper«ed to the winds — for ever 1 





Iilr Iff TFighl, June G. 

OtTB transit from Portsmouth in the admiral's 
yacht was deligbtfuh At the little town of Ryde 
we engaged two vehicles called llys, small covered 
cvriages, each holding comfortably ttiree persnnit, 
wfth two "Intelligent lad.i'" (as the proprietor of ihv 
rquipages assured us) for drivers. I'riin^ois hat a 


seat on ibe bos, and w« linvo sent our luggige to 
Loiidofi, so titiit we arc a* utiencuinlwred as if we 
were out fur nn aflcriiooii'!i drive. 

And here 1 am templed to throw away ray pen. 
It is in vain to attempt to convey to you our 
impressioDs of tliis lovely Island, or to retain then 
myself by tliia poor record. Cull it Eden: call it 
Piiradise ; and, after nil, wlial eonccption* have we 
of those Terne IncogiuCa>i' The liilc of Wight, 
they tell tu, i« a miniature of Kngland. It has the 
ex(|ut>iie deliciicy ami perfcciiun of ii miniature by a 
master hand. I am n-«olvc<l to be t» virtuously 
abstemiaus as possible on the subject of scencr)': but 
you murt be patient, and bethink yoorself, my dear 
C, tliat it U not possible to be silent on what makes 
up so Inrffe & portion of a traveller's existence and 
happincM. Wlien we luul nsconded the bill from 
Rydv ntid turned off into u green lane, we might 
have been mistaken for maiiiac» escaped from 
I)«<llam, or rather, I tlilnk, for children going home 
for a liulitlay. We n'ere thrusting our lieads out of 
our little carriages, shouting from one to the oilier, 
whI dapping our hand*. And why these clamorou) 
demonBtmtion* y Wc bad ju«t escaped from ship- 
board, remcmlMrr ; wero on the solid green earth, 
driving tlirough narrow wimliiti; avenues, witli 
sloping bills and loftr trees on each side of us, often 
interiadng over our hea<li( the trees, I mean I), every 
Incb of ground cullirated and divided by dark 

mrME. -m 

One word to toy Eogluli KoAer, mlber of cxpb- 
natJuD Uian apolog)', which 1 trust tbv cau doc* 
not require. I lave unacmpuloably mentioned (he 
names of sucb dbdnguUhed Eoglwh people u it 
was my good fortune to see. I could have screened 
myself fiom reproach, by giving merely their 
initials; but, as they sre too veil known for this 
device to hare afforded tbem any aheller, il 
•eemed to me but a paliry affectation of delicacy. 
1 might plead the authority of Knglinb tnrellen 
tn tlie United States; but if nrrong, no authority 
jiutilie* it; iikI if right, it needs none. I have 
confiDed my notice* strictly to public chanc> 
ters — to gallery portraits; for so such persons as 
Mr. Rogers, and eren (hat mmt refined and deli- 
cate of gcntlcvromen Miss Joanna Baillie, may be 
Strictly called, after the full cxhtbiUons in Moore'a 
life of Byron, unil Ix>ckharfs Life of SootL 

I Itare violated no confidence, for none 
rvfMwed in mc. My opportunities of social inier* 
course were tew and brief, and I should liave 
oalncd these slight records of them, bat for the 



Wc diverged at Uiv bMutiriil rilljigcof ShankUn, 
nnd wikltted to Shiuikliii Cliiiic,* a cumouh 6ssiire, 
wiirn, I believe, io llie IiilU by a rivulet. The pi* 
is as wild m our ice-glen ; and tlie rocks, insteu^ 
of being overgrovn with palmy ferns, muiden** 
luiir, iind liclienit, like ours, an; fringed witta 
sweet pease, wallflower*, slocks, liyiicintho, and all 
growit)^ lU their own Hwect wilt ; this bvtokctw ui 
old neighbourhood of civili»iilion. 

A woman came forth from n cottage to unlocJi a 
gate tlirough which we must jioss to go up the Chine. 
K. says the beauties of Nature are as jealously 
locked tip here as tlie beauties of a harem. It 
it the old tnitli, necessity tcaehcn economy ; what- 
ever can be made a source of revenue is so made, 
Mid the old women and ehiUlren are tax-gathprert. 
At every Htep some new object or usage start* up 
before us: and it ft(rike« un the more because tlie 
peojilc ar« speaking our own language, and are 
CMenlially like our own. 

In the nurrowrtt jwrt of our pathway, where tbc 
rill hud become a mere ibrcnd, wc luid the pleasure 
of eneuunlering the IlalU. 'lliey were walking to 
Itonchurcb. We iwked leave to join them. You 
may tasicy what a delightful stroll wc had with this 
ver)' pUtiMiiit meeting, and such accidental acces- 
•ories to the lovely seonery as a ship in the dlMunce, 
a rainbow dropping Into tli« aea. and the notes of a 
• CbiM it ■ llinpktoa vwd br sdHi In Um rocks. 




ndcoo, Uie 6nt I had ever heard. Ilistor)', palnt- 
inp, poetry, are al every munieut becoming real, 

Boncbtircb, at a short diitance from tlie road, 
Mcluded from it by an inteq>oHiiig elevation, eii- 
eloaed by a itonc wall, and surrounded by line 
old trees, tbeir bark coated Willi motw, », to a 
New- World eye, a [licitire " come to life." " Six- 
teen hundred and sixteen," said I to L., decipher^ 
ing a date on a monument ; " four years before 
there were any white inhabitants in Miifsachusi'tts." 
*• Then," «Iie repltwi. '* this i* an Indian'j) grave." 
Her L'yes were bent on the j^round. She was in lier 
own Innd ; she looked up and saw the old arche<l 
and ivieii gateway, and smiled — the illusion bad 


Wk haw pa«M-d a pleasant raijii/ <fay at Vcntnor. 
Th« Ilalharc hrre too, and n-c make frc(]ucnt use of 
tlic PiaiZA by which our purloure commnnicutc; bo 
our friend>hip ripens apace. We went, in spile of 
mist and rains, to pay another visit to Donchurcb, 
to "get it by heart,'" Captain H. says; '* into our 
hearts we certainly bare got it, and taken a drench- 
ing into ihe bargain." But this wa.4 a cheap price 
to pay for the view wc had, when, just at the sum- 
mit of tbe hill, the mist rolled off like tlie furling of 



a lail, aiii) we saw tlierillage of Sliaiiklin (tLc gem !)t 
Willi its ivied walk iti roses, its cvcrytliiag ciuit 
fl«wi.T*,bro«d licl<lt orcorii,iiiKl tlie i>U-t-]> clifl* iiow«' 
to Shanklin Cliine. Sball I ever for^t tlie little' 
in-aiid-oDt cottages jutted again&t the rocks, the 
narrow laim tluit nfloM you glimpses, through green 
und flowery wiills, of ihwc picturc-dweltiiigs ? 

As we strolled down the road from Boocburdi 
I stopped at a cottjige itihnbilcd by very poor peo- 
ple. There were four dintinct homn under one 
roof, and an eiicluMcd smp of ground in front, four 
feet wiilc. Tlii-i ii|Uiec wa^ full of verbenas, stoeks, 
rotes, and geraniums; and an old crone between 
eighty and ninety was lending them. I thought 
of the KRiwn y lihio »nd woody ro»ebu»hu4 in sotne 
of our court-yank "id blu^lied, or, ratlicr, I sblll 
blosh if ever I sec an English eye upon them ; for 
(ahuDe to us!) ii is the detection, and not the sin, 
thu calls up tlie blush. 

Our first stop after leaving Vcntnor w« at St 
l^wronce's Ch»rch, the unallcsl in Kngbnd ; yoa^ 
■ball have it* dimciiMoiu from some poetry t 
bought of tlic bendic, his own manufncture. 

" lUi tburdi bw often ilniwn thr oarloM *j% 
TbMtlU Iraftlk nd b(*ail(h— u (Or bo«hi^ 
At l«n|ih (•■•Mart MwMinf laicnl, 
TbU I tn\%hx **dfj )M Ml Mtvtil. 
It« brMilb (noi ndt U tUi aboic lh« b«Dob 
b >Mt dna (nt •iid \uit m Inch. 

VK«T»OB. 16 

ni bei(bl rrem jiarDineiil ID the ceOiof motor, 
EIe*«o («i, Alt Inclic* und ■ qouler. 
Akd Itt length, f rum E**t to tlm ■rat tad. 
TWmtr-llTv (rat tuur lacliet, •gujirtfT* (luw, 
tsjaK it« neiumnuol. u jou maj ••«," 

TTie poct-beadle's brains, you may tliink, were 
^adiiatvd by tUc sumc sculu ns SL Lawrence's 
Cburcli. However, I astitre you, lie was quite the 
beau-idcnl of un ol<) betidlp, uiid licditl IjU ciceroni 
work well, thoH-iii)^ u« where Lih lordahip tat (Lord 
Varborougb, in wLose gift U ilie recto rs)ii|)), and 
wliere tat the butler, and my lady's maid, and tlie 
parifili ofBcers. All tbese privileged peo]>le, wlio 
dorcl) ill ttiG atmosphere of nobility, had, to the old 
beadle's senses, BomcUiiiig sweeter lliun the odour 
of sanctit}'. For the rest of St. Lawrence's audi- 
ence, I fear Uiey do not fare as well as the people 
in Doctor Franklin's dream, who, upon confessing 
to St. Peter ut the gate of llearcn that they were 
neitbcr Baptist* uor Metbudista, nor of any parti- 
cular sect, were bidden come iu and take the beat 
Mttts tbey could tind ! 

Among the epitaphs I read on the rooultleritig 
*ton«a in St. Lawrence's cburchyard, was one that 
pleased me for its (|iiaint old ballad style. It wati 
a husband's on his wife, beginning 

" M(«k Rnd (cnttt vu her iptril, 
■"rwilaKe Si hat lifp iidi>m ; 
Moilnt, ttst, iliK)l*itn«iI nil mtriti 
TcU luc, UD I net (brlorD r " 



I would not like to make too nice an inqubition 
as to how long be rcmainei) so !* 

We went down to tlie bcnrh for a f^od ntw of 
DIsck Gang Cliitiv, a wild, grund-looking place, 
with masses of Hnndttonc uf dtfTorcnt fltmta, wi- 
oiuty coloured, and rising to an elevation of some 
tIiro« liandtcil fn-l above the sea. Here C^aptain 
Hal), witli liis liappy young people, oguin joined 
118, to part iigain imtnediiili:!)'; tliry to walk to 
Cbale, an<l we to rejuin It. at tlie inn, wKere, for 
walking into llie liouso and out of it, we paid a 
fee to a waiter of an aged and venerable aspect, 
aecitrstely dreucd in a full suit of black, and look- 
ing mueh like one of our ancient Puritan divine* 
setting off for an " association." 

As we appTonelie*) Brixton, the girls and mysetf 
sighted to walk, tliat wo might see this encluinling 
ootintry more at leisure. 1 cannot give you an idea 
of the dclteiou>ne« of a walk here between llw 
lovely hedges all fnigraiice, the air filled with the 
melody of birds, and the booming of tb« ocean 

* n* faUovinf tf«Upb »mtupt aa i w tik« onr a«« FnritaB 
eletuc poMry i— 

" r* rUf JVnaory tJC^tlf Diaon, Surra jtND Fiaaiia. 
" tilj *IhI(« aDil hamiDer lie ndliwil. 
M]r bcfloM t«« Wt« l«*I ifadr irfad, 
Mj ilf*'i utfnet, Bj r<»rf* dMsj'd^ 
Mjr rtf all in the dnit ii laid i 
M]p roal ii ipeot, mj Iroa goQe, 
Uf k*t U)l'« driftn— my Met b Jom I ' 


wa*M for a baas. For one sweet singing-bird witli 

us, I think there urc twt-nty hcrv ; am), included io 

lUs twenty, the nigliunjralc, tlie blacittiinl, the 

Biark, aiid the cuckoo I 'I'lic nute of Uiu Engli&h 

^U)lackbird 19 electrifying, but yet I hare heard none 

^Hweeter than our waodthruNh, tliat little hermit of 

^bur solitudes. You would forgive me, dear C.* 

for obserting some coiiirusts that may perchance 

Btrtke you a> unpatriotic, if, 

" Bane, lilM Loretto'* ebspel, through the lir," 


^p could send orer to you one of tliese picturesque 
^^Cottages (any one of them), draped with ivy to the 
very top of llie chimneys, and kct it duuti boide 
Bour unsightly furmLou&es. 

^B At Brixton ire again met Captain Hall. He had 

^had tlic disappuintmcnt of finding that tiis 64end, 

HWr. Wilberforce, wiu absent ; and intent on filling 

for us every little vacant utche wiih some pleasure, 

be liad asked leave to )bow uh a picture of tlie 

father in the sou'h library. H., in the eliecliveness 

of hU kindness, reminds me of L. M., and seems 

to me what our Shaker friends would call the "mule 

manifestation " of her ever-walchful and all-accom- 

plixhing spirit. 

^b We met Iwo of tlie young Wilberforccs, and 

^oegged the pleasure of itliaking handK with ihcm 

ior their grandfalher'tt sake. The boy bearN a strung 

ntembhuice to him, and is, I hope, like Lis grand- 


fotlicr, •eitl into the wotld on an erronH of merey. 
Sudi a &CC K tlte su|>crecrij)tiou, by tlie finger of 
God, of a soul of benevolence. 

Tbe widow of Wtlberforce was siitini; in the 
library. She received UB courteou&lr. Slie has 
a dignified denieanour. and a very tweet couote- 
nance, on which 1 f^iiicied I could see the record 
of 8 happy life and many & good deed done. If 
living in a heallhy air produces tlic §igii of health, 
why should not living one's whole life in an atmo- 
sphere of benevolence bring out into Uie cxprcstion 
tJic tokens of a healthy soul? 

We walked over the grotiiids of the rectory. 
Have you a very definite idea of an Englitlilawii? 
The grass is shaven every week ; (hi*, of course, 
produces a fresh bright tint, and to your tread tt 
feels like tbe riclie«t bed of moss you ever set your 
foot upon. I fear we never oiii hnvc tbo nbuiKl- 
uc« aiid variety of Sowers they have here. I^^ 
•M continually |ilants which remain in tlic opea^^ 
ground all winter, tliat w« are obliged to house by 
tlie first of Oetobcr. 'iliere uiis a my rile reaching the 
Bccond-story windows uf Mr*. Wilberforce's house. 

In my strolls I avail myself of every oppor- 
tunity of acGostiug the people, and when 1 can find 
any pretext I go into llie cottages by the way- 
Mde. T1ii», I suppose, is very tm-Kufffith, and 
wmf Men to some persons very imjwttinenL Bur 



I have nerer foiin<l inqiiirie«, softened with b 
ceitain ton« of »ym{ia(liy, rvpuUcil. Viiur infe- 
riors in eofKlitiun arc fniicli like diilclrvn, aiiil tliejT) 
yon know, like ilogs, are (iroverbiiilly said to know 
who lores Uiem. I siopjrcd at a lilile cottage this 
OMtrning, half snioiherc<l with roses, geranium*, 
&c^ and, on Uic pretext of looking at a baby, 
nude good my entrance. Tlic little bit of an 
apanmeiit, not tnvre than >ix feet by ten, was as 
neat as posuble. Not an article of its scanty 
furniture looked as if it hud been bought by this 
generattan; everything appeared cared for, aiid 
well preserved; no unlike corres|)onding dwellings 
wiilt us. The woman had nine children; six at 
home, and all tidily dressed. I have not seen in 
Englani) a slovenly -looking person. Even the 
three or four beggars who stealthily a'tked charity 
of us at Portsmoutli were iieaHi/ dresiied. 

1 greeted, m ptatant, a woman fitting at her 
oottago window. She tvhl mc she paid for half 
of A little tenvincnl and a bit of a i^rden ten 
ponnds (fifty dnlbrs) reiiL And when I oon- 
lipatulaled hrr on tlie pli>ji«ant country, "Ah," 
Ae said, " we ciin'l live on a pleiuant country !" 
I have not addrcMcd one of tliesc people who has 
not complained of poverty, said something of the 
difficulty of getting work, of the $trutji/Unif for 
bread, which i.i the condition of pxiat«nce among 
dte lower classes here. Strange sounds these to 

OUT earsl 

I was anuBed to-day miU something that 
marked the diversity of the condition from oun, 
jn another way. I aecoatrd a little girl who stood 
at a cottnfre-f^le. She wa» m well dressed as S.'s 
girU, Of any uf our welUto-do'in-tbe-world people. 
Among other impertinent cjiiestions I asked '* Who 
livefl bore?" " Mrs. So-and-so and Mrs. So-and- 
•0." " Only two tadiri .'" I cxctuimvd, confonn- 
■ng my phrmse to the UKte of our cuttage-dames. 
*■ Tbey bcn't litdie*," <die replied. '• Indeed ! 
what are tliey ?' " Tliey he's womans," Would 
such a disclaimer have heeii put in from one cud 
of ibe United States lo ibo otlier, unless in the 
altanty of adopted e'n'aca»? 

I will sfKirc you all the particidars of my way-^J 
aide aequuiiiiance witli ii sturdy little woman whoia^^H 
I taet coining out nfa farm-yaTd, staggering under 
a load of dry furze, as mudi as coutd be piled on a 
wheelbarrow. A boy not more than five yean old 
was awaiting her at tlie gate, with a compnrt little 
paroel in his arms snugly done op. " Now lake 
lAct" be fioid, extending it to the mother, and I 
found ibc parcel was a buby not u month old; so I 
offered to cmrry it, and did for a quarter of a mile, 
whUo the mother, in return, told me tlic whole 
story of her courtship, marnagr, and mnternity, 
with tlie tasl inciilent in her douie«tic annalis the 
acquisition of a baking of meal, some barm, and 
llic loan of licr busbaod'a mother's oren, and. 

nmn-«ATni bat. 

Wtly, of the gift of the fuT/« to heat the oven. 
TUe woman seemed somettiing more than con- 
tented — happy. 1 could not but congratulate Iter. 
" It docs not iignify," I talA, "being poor, when 
.one u M> bi-iilttiy iind so merry as you appear." 
p^* Ah, liiat'« riatunil to me," the replied ; " my 
mother had red cheeks in her coffin!" Happy 
are those who have that " natural to tliem," that 
princes, and fine ladies, and half the world are 
Ughing for and ranning after. 

TilK lost part of our drive to Fresli-watcr Bay 
through a highly- cultivated district, but the 
Icountry had lost iu romantic charm; to the very 
bore on both >i(li-« of a% it was covered with 
\ey, pease, and the finest of wheat. Save a 
glimpM of tlie sea in the distance, the bold head- 
land of Black Gang Chine, and the downs before 
us, it was as tame as a cosset lamb. And, hy-thc- 
wsy, speaking of lambs and such fancy articles, 
immense flocks of shcvp are grazing on these 

CS and each is a* big as three of our Merinos, 
Ih> mutton is delicious. 
R are at an inn within a few yards of the 
, with a fihor« of chalky cliffs, and n pretty 
arch in the rocks worn by the water; and a jutting 



point hetare ut called tlie Stn^. from n faiidftil 
resemblance, as I conjeclure, to tliat animal boldly 
leaping into (be waves. Tbe Halls are here, an<t 
in B stroll witb tljeni lost evening over tbe dif£i 
w« encountered a man wbo lives, *' not by (latbor- 
ing aampbiro " (wbicb, by-tlie-^vuy, wc did gather), 
but by ^tting the efCK^ of sea-fowl tliut rcflort bere 
in immviiM fluckt<, l]attvriii|r tlK'niHcI tcs, no doubt, 
in tbeir bliu of igiioraneo, Uiat tlic clif& nre io- 
acCM«Ue*> Our egg-hunicr lia<l been cuccewful, 
and bad a sack of eggs banging before him. He 
pnys two guineas a>year (o ilie lor*) of the manor, 
for tbe privilege of getting tbem, and sells tbem, 
be says, '* to people in a decline." One lady, be 
told us, had paid bim a shilling a-piccc. "She," 
replied Captain U., with a lurking smile, ** moat 
have been far gone in a decline, I think." Tbe 
man told us (bey bad the art of emptying (he eg|^ 
shell by perforating it wilb two pinholes, and blow- 
ing out the contenu ; whereupon tbe captain, who 
leaves nothing unessuyed, amid his children's merry 
^Muts and ours, fairly rivalled tlie professor U hi* 
own art. 

* IWf H« «f ler; Afflcnlt tenm, u «• wen umrol hj •€•!■( 
tba pruau at letlins lh« nm ion sad tutilnlnf bin on tha pn- 
pvadlcuUi (liffi biU DOtbiog mcibi Imptwalblo to dcd *h> uou 
dir or ittiiitk fat lht\i breuL Tha nian wu itont uiil nry wsU- 
Uokiiv, but aitb an ikilaai lad Md npmiion. Ifoandbehsl 
S tMft bmlll U IN4, sad (manf Ihrm four lUlsiri bofi. I ukel 
Un *lat vara tbtii prwpecU " None.' bs Mid, «Uh an rtpTM- 
rim nitH to ilw wurdi, " but lUnition." 



'e hiire been to cliurfh for tlie first 
^mc tn EngUnd. It wao aii old Ciothtc edifice. 1 
thoug^lii of our forefudiets wiib tenderness and 
nritii reverence. Brave men they ivere to leave 
renerable sanctimries, to go over the ocean 
to *' die depth of the desert's gloom." 
It was a curious coincidence enough, that lltt 
firat prvaclicr we hear this sidi; tlic wuter bean 
r own iiuinc. Thi» it was, no doubt, timt set 
'OQErfnind to running upon relationsLipii and forefa- 
dwTik Mr. S. is a ]>oor curate, who, after twenty 
jrenra' service, is compelled to leave his ]>lace here 
by the new order of tiling, which obliges his 
superior to do his own work. One feels a Utile 
distrustful of those reforms that destroy itidivi- 
dual liappiiicss and »iiup asunder old tics. 





Mondatf. — \V e drove tliis morning to Carisbrooke 
Castle, an old itiin id the heart of ilie island, W« 
ere shown the window tlirough which Charlos I., 
hen imprisoned here, attempted lo escape. In 
•pite of getting my first historical impressions from 
Hume, tl)Ut lover of kings and supreme lover of tlie 
Stuart*, I never had much »ympnthy with tins king 
of bad fnitb; still it h not easy to stand at this 
window withoutafturrowftil sympathy with Charles. 
There he stood, looking on the land that seemed 
him lu» inberitnnce by a Divine charter, longing 



for the wing* of tlic birds lliat wore uiiging round 
tlii* window, to bmr liim to tliOM friends who wcr« 
awniiiciv liini, am), in«U'iid of liim, bad only the 
sigual wbicb be hung out of tliis window to give 
ibem nolico of tlie defeat of bis project. 

Nothing, I know, is more tiresome than the 
description of old castles wliicb you gel from such 
raw tourists as we are, and may find in every guide- 
book ; but I wtsb I could do up my sen«alions and 
send tbem to you. As we passed the EltzatH'tbaiii 
gale, and wound nway up into the old keep, itop- 
ping, now and then, to look tliiougli the openings 
left for ibe cxerviae of the cTOSf>bow, or a> w«| 
wanttered about the walls on*! stood to bear tbe 
pebble descend into CarUbrookc well,* I felt as if 
oI<l legends had become incorporate. 

We expect noibing plomnnter tlian tbc week ' 
hire uprnt on ibe Ule of Wight. How mncfa 
our enthusiasm it may owe to our coming to it from 
ilii|)boar«I, and to tbc fresb imprndom of t)ic OU 
World, of iix thatched cottages, ivied u-alls, old 
cburrbeaand cliurcbyards, and Knglish cultivation, 
I cnnnot ay. The Englisli speak of it as all "ui 
/iV/Zr," a cockney ufliiir, &C.; but, if small, it 
tbe ilvltcoc} and perfection of a cabinet picture, 

* TlwwcUUlOOfcetiadepik, 23«raMMsr7,udtbara«cat 
thMagh • mW radt. 


Mr DEAR C , 

TItundai/, IS/A. The luxury of an Knglish inn, 
'after a day exhausting as our last on the Isle of 
\^'igtlt, has never Wen exaggerated and cannot be 
ovcTfiTKbed. We huvc not been ten days in Eng- 
land, without havinjr ecrbuii piiinfiil coni|>nriflons 
between onrown inns and tlioseof thin country forced 
upon vs. But I intend, after I have had mare 
ipcrlenoe, to give you my observatinns on this 
'itibjecl in one plentirnl shower, instead of nnnoy- 
ing you witli sprinkling tlicm over nil my letters. 

Our intention wwi to Lave proceeded directly to 
London. Instead of tliis, we have loitered here 
two days, and why, I will tell you. 

Captain Hall's good tasi.e was shocked at our 

Bring SouUiampton without seeing Netley Abbey; 

md Mirely to leave this out, in seeing England, 

rould be much like the oiniiiMiun of the Midsuni- 

aer Night's Dream in reading Shakspeare. So 

jreslerday morDiRg, widi a sky as clear and almost 

I deep as our own summer sky, we set off, nccom- 

iled by the Mails, for these beautiful nilns. 

^Tliey arc much more entire tlian those of Caris- 

rooke. The walls are standing, and how long 

^they have been to is touchingly impressed upon 

you by tlie tall trees that have grown up in the 

Iniiroafed apartments. Slirube four or live feet higb 


fringe tlte topa of Uie walls, and flowers are rooted 
in the crevices. It &eetaed as if Nature, with ■ 
feeUog of kindred for a beautiful work of art, would 
fain liide the wounds she could not lieal — wountU 
of violence OB well OS time. 

I shall spare you any description, for I should 
WMt* your time and mine. No description can 
convey ss definite an idea as any of the hundred 
engraving!) you have seen of Netley Abbey; and t 
am torry to wiy to you, that even a Daguerreotype 
picture would give you no udcquate impression of 
its beauty. There is nothing for you but to cotne 
and see these places; their soul, tbcir history, tlieir 
aaBOClBtioas ore untnuisfuseablc. 1 liave no extra- 
ordinary sensibility to such lhin)rs, and 1 saw ■- ■ 
amiling at my tears ; and glad 1 should have bceti 
to Itavc passed a day alone tlierc, to have trodden 
the ground with undtslurbed reooUectioDS of those 
who reared the beautiful temple, who were, in 
their dme, the teachers of religion, tlie prescrvcra 
of learning, the founlaitia of charity. It would not 
be CMy to indulge tht* fancy, for, besides the 
guides lliat iiifes.te4l u*. and a succession of hunters 
after the picturesque. It. detected some fellows 
stealing jackdaws' nests; and Captain II. not only 
threatened tliem with the strong arm of the law, 
but, to secure these holy precincts from such 
maraudera, he wasat the pains to lodge information 
agiunst them with the proper authority. 




^M On our return from Nctlcy wc Mccrtoiiie<l tliat 

Hbte Eamily art- at their jilacc, a short drive from 

Southumpton. You know how much rrasou we 
have to nbh to svail ourselvei of our IvIUrs to 
ihcm; or, rather, you do not know how much, nor 
did we till we lad si-en them. So we sent oif our 
leiiert, uxl went to Winchester with the Halls 
by the railroad. It was but the fiecoD<l day since 
this section of the rood wut opened, and it was 
lined with staring people, hurntiug anil eLipplog 
hands. The chief object of the excursion to us 
was tbe Cftthcdral, which is the lar^st in England. 
A part of it b of tlie Saxon order, and dates from 
the sei'enlfa century. What think you of our New- 
^KWorld eyes seeinj^ the sarcopliagi containing the 
^Boncs of the old Saxon king»~~the Kthelrcds and 
^^Etlielwolb, and of Canute the Dane; the tombs 
Br William Kufus, and of William of Wickham: 
^tbe chair in which bloody Mary sat at her nuptial 
^seremony; besides unnumbered monumentA and 
built by kings and bishops ; to say notbin|^ 
' some of the best art of our own time, sculpture 
' Fbxoian and Cbautrey ? Their detailswerc lost 
on IH in the effect of the great whole ; the long* 
drawn anlcs.thcwindowswith their exquisite colour- 
ing, tbe lofty ruult, ibc carved stoncn, tbe pillarx and 
arches — those beautiful (iotliic arches. We had 
some conpensatioa for the uncunscioiLiness of a life- 
of the power of architecture, in our ovcr- 



«'bclmin{; emotions. They cannot be repeated. 
Wr ctuinot see u cathedral twice for tlic first time, 
that U very dear I 

1 was not (irepareti for tlie »eii8uti»i)K to be excited 
by visiting these old places of tbe Old WorU). 
There is nothing in our land to aid tlic imperfect 
lights of history. Here itseems suddenly verified. 
Its long-buried dead, or, rather, its dim spectres, 
appear with idl the frenhnes^ of ncttial life- A 
miracle \» UTOught on poerry and painting. While 
Uicy represented what wo had never seen, they 
were but sltadows to us ; a kinti of magic mirrori, 
showing false imag»; now tliey seem a Divine 
form, for the perpetual preservation of the beauti- 
ful creations of Nature and sri. 

It happened that while wc were tn Winchester 
Cathedral acrvice ^-as performed there. I cannot 
tell liow I might have l>een affected if it liad been 
a more hearty service. There were the officials, 
tbe clergyman and cleric, a choir of boys, and, for 
the audience, half-a-dozen men, three or four 
women, octogenarians, or verging on the extreme 
of human life, and ourselves. I confess that tbe 
temple, and not He who sanctifies it, filled my 
mincL My eyes were wandering over the arches, 
the carvings, the Saxon auUitt, &c., Ike* 

* Tlw prudcDOe al not ■iWuipting ■ clc>orl|illoa of Wiaebcfter 
Cillwdnil, or *n cnamcntlon o( iu tmMurrj, nlll br ^iiirnUUti 
bj Ihoae «ho fcuow thtl a vulnua uf 200 ftga in d*TOl«d (a \h\a 
Mbj«c< *1dm. 



WiiKN* we arrived at the depdt at Soutliarapton 

wp fDUiid Mrs. . witb her daughter, awaiting us 

with a welcome that tnado us forget wc were stnin- 
g«rs to tfaem aiid lUrwigen iii a stningu htud — 
UMsed foTgetfuInew t They trviisferred K. aiid 
myself to their carriage, and wc drore home with 
Ibem to B Lodge ; and, as ilie days here are 

eked out with a geiieroiut twilight til) nearly ten 
o'dock, we liad time to see tlieir beautiful place, 
and to-day the pleasure has been repeated. 

I eannol follow the rule I would fain have adopted, 
aiid compare what I see here to what is familiar 
toyoitatlionii-. There lit, for iiiiUince, in [his place 

of Mm. , u iieatDMA, compk-tencm. and perfco 

tiou, of which wc have but the beginning and Jaint 
shadowing. Oar grouoda are like our society, where 
you meet every degree of ciriliBation. Here, every 
tree, shrub, and little 6awer is iii its right place, and 
Botbing present tliut should not be bore. On one 
side of the house the garden Li laid out in tlie f»o< 
tuaUcal French style, in the form of hearts and whim- 
ttcsl figure*, but elsewhere it is completely Knglixli, 
with noble trees, that grow as Nature bids tbem ; 
boiliou^s, with grapes and pines ; and a lawn tliat 
for hundreds of years, probably, has bad its grass 
cropped every week through the growing months. 

The house is, 1 fancy, ratlier n favourable speci- 
men of the resi<ienci>s of tlie Eriglisli gentry, spu- 


ciou», and armnji^cd with comfort atid elegance ,* 
but uot surpassing;, in these respecta, tlic firnt cloaa 
of gentlemen's country-houses in Amerira. But 
Ukere we luxuries here tlmt wc Imve not, and sluill 
not have for a munyu day. Tlic walls arc puintcd 
by tbc mauler of tlie hooM willi views on the Uhinr, 
horn ftlcetcJiei of lii» own, and rery beautiful tltey 
BK. This i», to be wn, nttaitiable to us ; for a 
latte, and a certain j^cility in painting, is common 
enough among lu; but when shall we see on our 
walls an unquestionable Titian, or a Carlo Dolce, 
or when, in a gentleman's country house, an apart- 
ment filled with casts from tlic best antiques? 
Certainly not till oar people ceosu to demand 
dnipery for the elianting cherubs, and sueb like 
innooenu ! 

Mi*. ^^ was a friend of Mrs. Siddons. She 
has a full-length picttire of her by Lawrence, which 
represents a perfect woman in the maturity of her 
powers uimI elianns, wmewbat idealised, perluqM, m 
if the painter were infected by Mrs. — — ■ cnlbusi- 
iwm, ai>d to tbe fondness of a friend added the d»- 
rotion of a worshipper. It is Mrs. Siddons ; not a 
muse, queen, or goddess, though fit to be any or a3l 
of them. She is dressed in n very uu-goddessUke 
short wainL Strange, that a woman who hod 
e(«s»ic eye, and her passion for inouldiiig fanntl 
after antique models, should submit to tlie tyranny 
of a French milliner's levelling fashion ' Her 



beautiful arms are classically manifest — bare us 
Juno's. Lawrence employed thirty hours on each 
of them ! 

K We all lunched with Mrs. . An English 

^Blanch M our country dinner, scrt'ed at our country 
^Kbour, and of much the same material. Different in 
Hihe rrspcct. that whatever is to l>e eaten is placed 
^^n the table at the same lime, and very different, 
inasmuch as you arc served by three or four men in 
liver)', inilcad of a girl in a dres:* unquestionably 

of her own choMing. Mrs. V regctable-disbea 

are a precious relic of Mr«. Siddous. They are 
•ilvcr, and bear lier tnitiaU and an inicri|>tion from 
be law^-ers of Edinburgh, by whom tliey wer« pre- 
BDlcd to her. 

AftCT lunch, Mi8» toolc us in her carriage, 

iwing the girls in the rumble, tlirough Lord Ath- 
and Mr. Fleming's porks. Wc drove a mile 
through the latter, witli thick borderingii aiid plait* 
tations of shrubbery on each side of us, so matted, 
<d with soeb a profusion of rhododendron, as to re- 
ind me of passages in the wilds of western Vir- 
ginia. Tliis you know, is u plant not native to this 
country, but brought with much pains and expense 
m oiir». Wc liave not English wealth to lavish 
on parks and gardens, but with taste and industry 
wc might bring to our homes, and gratefully cherish, 
the beautiful plants that God has sown at broad- 
cast in our forests. 1 declare to you, when I remem- 



88 •omrAMPTcin. 

het liow HeUlom I have seen aur azaleas, kalinias, 
&c., in ciildvaieil grounds while I meet tliem her« 
insuch abuoilance, it seenis like finding b nogtocicd 
child liOMnl anil ^ntly eiiteruiiiefl by sir»ngi.-f«. 
Some of us returned to dine and pas* the evening 

witii Mn. and her duugliter; and we left 

B-- Lodge warmed to tlie lieart's core willi 
ibis realisition of our old poetic ideas of English 

Friday, Jitnr 13 — We left Southampton this 
morning, ^l^elillg much, when wc parted from Cap- 
tain Hall and his family, a* tf we were launching 
atone on the wide world. He told us, at the last, 
if we got into any difficulty, if we were at Johnny 
Groat's eren, to send for him. As far as tbe most 
thoughtful kindnCM and foresight can provide 
against difHciiIties, he has done so for us. Both he 
and Mn. Hall have given us letters of introduc- 
tion (unmkvd), and a score, at least, to ^eir friends 
ID London and Scotland, pirople of rank and di»- 
tinction. To ihene tlicy have added addrcMes to 
tradespeople of all descriptions, and all manner 

* I have kh«Utn*d tnm imilbrrlng from nj Joarn*! «b«ttt«r 
«W ponooal Ut our kind cnteruiiien, cvrUlaljr IW parkaoual 
«bsm of tbrir plict. W< oa(4 ih« wirinih of our rrcrpOon to 
kltart from tbdr and our dew frimd. Mn Butk*. To bcr, uo, 
«• o««<l oar kJailulan lo Mimo of ike bnt locirl; in [.Mtdaa. 
«b«n Wr (cniiu uid chuMU* ars held la the tuch ertiinaUiia 




of instnictiom as to our goings on : a kind of map- 
ping and cWting inc^iimable to raw iravellcnt like 
^BM. II? hfts oven had lod^gs provided for ti.i in 
^^DfOiidon by bis man of business so that we shall 
^^fiod abomr in tlmt great, and, to lis, unknown sea. 
^^ You will smile at all our letters running upon 
this lh«rae of Captain H.. and you may percJiance 
fancy that our preconceived opinion of this gentle- 
woman b rather bribed by personal kindncKM ihnn 
^HiKtified. But remember that we had no eluini 
upon his kindness. It is notour peraonnl benelitK 
(though, Heareo knows, we are most grateful fur 
them) that I am anxious to impress upon you, but 
tu give you the advantage of our point of sight of 
aclmneter that some of oiir people have misunder- 
stood, and some misrepresented. I have no sucb 
cnmding notions as that I could set a whole 
nation's opinion right, hut 1 should hope to affect 
vourK, and perliaps lialf-a-donen others. Captain 
II. has a mind wide awake, ever curious and active. 
These qualities have been of infinite service to him 
as a traveller, and to his charmed readerx ait well ; 
but ti t« cafty to Dee liuw, uniunjr stranger*, they 
laighl Iwtray liim into some little e\travagances. 
I'lien be is a oeninan and a Briton, and liable, on 
both scores, to un philosophic judi^ments. WitJi 
the laulta that proceed from un excels of activity. 
w«, of all people, should be most patient : and 
cvrtainly we mif;ht Itave fotxivcn some mi»la)cen 



opinions in coiifonnily to [ireconceived patteris, 
instpud of imputing Uiein to political prostitudoo. 
Wfl mighl, indeed, l>ad wo b«cn wise, have found 
many of hia criticism§ jusc nnd sulutary, and tltunkvd 
him for titein, and bare deliglited in his fnuikn^s*, 
hb ukgBciiyi and his vein of very plcosaiit huniour; 
bHt, uIm I our Suxon blond i* nlway« uppermmt, 
■nd we go on chembing our itifailibility, and, like 
1 snappish cook, bad much rather spoil our own pio 
tlian hnvi; » foreign finger in iL It is an old Irtck 
of the Kngltflb bull-dog to bark at hia neighbour's 
door : but let him do w, if he will caress yuu at 
Ills own. 

I rsKL, my d«ir C, a disposition to self-glori- 
fication from one eirvumsluicc of our journey from 
Southampton. My girU and I took our M>ats on 
the lop of tbe coach, payiiif^ for two inside seats, 
in cose of rain, of which, I take it in Knghind, 
there are always nine chances out of ten. You 
may well auk wliy I boast of this, when we gained 
tlie obvious odiantage of using our eyes in this rich 
•nd new scene ; and when they are nearly as use- 
less inside tlic coach as were Jonah's to him in bis 
"cxim exclusive." You know 1 am a coward on 
in»tini.i, and to a novice a s^at on the top of an 
Englisli ooacb tstUutling ; aiid it is somewhat peiiJ- 
oia, tlie coawh bdng topheiiry willi the number of 
poctengers and mass of baggage, atid wr were not 



yet aocustome<t lo the security of di^e smooth 
roacU. Am) beiiides, yoii ainiiot expect us to be 
exempt from the general weukneu «f iirHliing to 
tmpragi llie grooms, porters, co&e)imeii,iiinkeepet% 
&e^ trlili our putoiitiiiluy ! Many Americans give 
up tbe deliglit of travelling in England on account 
of its expenBiveneas, or come home with loud out- 
cries against it, when, if tliey would forego the 
distinction of posting, and condescend to the humi* 
lity of an outside seat, (infinitely the pleasantest,) 
tbey might travel here quite as cheaply as they 
can b^ vaatk at home *. 

Did tbe neriiices that a traveller makes to 
^pcanncei never strike yon as one of tbe ludi- 
crous fiitailic« of human conduct, when you con- 
■ider that hi« ob«ervci«do not know whether he be 
" Gilea Jolt," or any otlker menibrr of tlie hurouii 
bmily ? 

'..We bad good reason to be satisfied with our 
pwitioD. The coaclunan had driven twenty years 
on the amc road, and was familiar witli every inch 
of ground ; he exchaiiged salutations with the 
people by the way, and many professional jokes, 
ai>d pointed out to us the wayside lions,~a seat'of 
Lord Wellington's, a hunting-box of George IV., 

■ 1 ihoaU hsitc uid, ta tbtf Mold b><>« done tX home. Tha 
rata of tnTcUiaf npcnM* tre diminiiliLDi ni such > rale, IliKt 
jKn caoDot ptcdlcacs of tht* rear v1i*I iru Use of tbe luL VThM 
!• ilMl ia tht failtd SuUt? A tnidg-book, nrllUa OQe louon, 
>«aU bt io tMd put umWm the out. 



ttc We cwnc tkrotigli Winchester und UusiDg- 
stoko. piusiil iTi&iiy a. dcUl corcrwl wilh the etim- 
•oil IiIudIi of tli« cinqucfoil, «tid bouiidn) by keilges 
Uikk Mt witli flotrvriiif^Bkrulw. I trtiat your^^raod- 
cliildreit may see sueli in our BcrksLire. 1 Itad 
written to Miu Milford my intention of ptisMiig 
the evening with her, and ii« we ap[inMc1)ed licr 
mideooe, wliich h in u smull village ncur Reading;, 
1 began to feel a little trcmuUtus abuut meeting 
loy " UDknovrt) friend.' Captain Hull luut made 
at ill merry n-ith antidputing the uaual denouement 
of ft mere rpiittuliity uc(|uaintJuice. 

Our coaclinun (who, after our telling bim ve 
were AmericuH, had oomplimented us on our 
•pealuDg English, and " very g»od Kiigli^b too *") 
proJeMed an acquaintance of nome twenty years* 
standing with Misa M., and astured us that sbe 
was one of the " dererest women in England," and 
" the doctor " (lier father) a fine " old gentleman.*' 
And when he reined his horses up to her door, and 
•he appeared to receire us, he said, " Now yoa 
would nut take that hidy there for the great 
autbor, would you / '* and eerluinly we ihonld bare 
taken her for nothing but a kindly gentlcwoinaa, 
who Imd never gone beyond the narrow sphere of 
llie most refined aodal life. My foolish misgivings 

• W( bad ■ esnpltneal of Um mom <tuip Iha nni da; Inm • 
Londoatr bImi «m ia the mt wiUi w. lie twnred », wllb pnim- 
wonhj GOnduecMloD, tlial «« ifolu ED|IUb " oacumMoa oenoA." 



(H. must aiu#er fnr them) w«re fi:irgy>ttefl in li«r 
cordial weloomv. K. and I descended I'rom our 
airy seat; and when Miss M. became aware wbo 
M- va», she sjud, " What ! tbc sister of — — pass 
my door? — lliat tngst never be;" so M., nolhing 
loatli, joined us. Miss M. is truly "u pleiuing 
penon," dressed a little quaintly, and as unlike a» 
possible to the faces we Imve seen of )ivr in t)ie 
iiMf^ines, which nil linve a brond humoiir, border- 
ing oa coar^i-neus. Sbe lias a pale grty, souMit 
eye, aitd bair an white as snow ; a wintry sign tbai 
has come prematurely upon Iier, as like *igTis come 
upon us, while tlie year is yet fresh and undecayed. 
Her voice has a sweet, low tone, and her manner a 
nataralnesA, frankness, and affeclionateness, that 
we bare been so long familiar with in their other 
modes of maniteslation, tliat it would have been in- 
deed! 1 dMappointment not to have found tliem. 

Sbe led us directly through her house into her 
f^deii, a perfect, bouquet of flowers. " I must 
show you my gcrunium» while it is light," die sjiid, 
"for I lore them next to my fattier." And they 
w«re indeed treated like petted children, guarded 
by • Tcry ingenious contrivance from the rottgh 
vWlation of the elements. Tbey are all, I beliere, 
wedlings. Sb« raises two crops in a year, and 
may well pride herself on the variety and beauty 
of her collection. Ciemiiiums arc her favourites; 
but she doe* iiot love utbvrs less tJuit she lore* 


these more. The garden is filled, mnttcd with 
flowetiag fthnibs, nnd vines; the trees urc wreathed 
with hoiiey«uckkit and roses; uiid tlio girls liave 
brought away t\ie most splendid specimens of 
beart'«>ease to press in their journals. Oh, that 
I could ^ve some of my countrywomen a vision of 
tliis little paradise of flowers, tliat they might learn 
how l/ute anil imluilry, Biid un enriietl love and 
study of the tirt of garden- culture, might liiumpi 
over small spare and small means ! 

Mim M — '• hoiiite is, with tite exception of cer- 
tainly not mor« than two or three, as small and 
humble as the smallest and humblest tn our village 
of S ; and such is the difference, in sone re* 
Bpects, in the modes of expcuHc in ihl« country from 
ours; she keeps two men-wr^ants (one a gardener), 
two or tlire« mui<l-servaiit*, and two horses. In this 
very humble home, whicli she illustrates as much 
by her unsparing filial devotioti, a» by h«r genius, 
she receives on equal (eniiji llie best in the laad. 
Her literary reputation might bare ^ined for her 
this elevation, but she started on vnnlage-grotind, 
being allied by blood to tlie Duke of Bedford's 
family. We passed n driiglitful evening, porting 
with lb« hope of meeting again, and with a most 
comfortiible fm-ling tliat the ideal was converted 
into the real. So much for our misgivings. " ' * 
is « nfer principle llian some peo]>le hold it tc 
• 1 Ws Mt dsrtd to dnw slide <Im (oilala of 4oid«Mn lilh, 


UMfoox. 39 

W'e &nub«l our journey by th« Cireat Western 
Riul«r»y. It i* little short of dcBtcration to cut ap 
this garden country, wlicri- all rough ways were 
already inutle tmootli, all crook e<l onvs ktruight, villi 
railroadt. Tbey seem to have bi*<M) dcrisvti for our 
iincultirated lauds and ^gantic distance;). 

Lottdmtt \\th. — Hkre we are, with a bouse to 
l^ves, in modeflt, comfortable, clean lod^ngs 
not ail England clean ?) in Ilall'niuon-street. 
It \» tlie London season, so called from Parliament 
Wing in »c8«on,and all the fashion and business of 
the kingdom congregating here at this time. We 
are told tluil viv arc fortunate in getting any lodg- 
ings at tlie Wrtt End, while tlic town is so filled; 
and at the West be if yuu would Itope 
to live in the daylight of the knon-n, that is, the 
nAlhionablG world." 

■nd giTa the particulmi of Mita U.'a touching delation to her 
bibar. " He is >U to me, and I un >11 to Un." ahe hIiI. God 
h(l|> them tn llii* [luUii; norld '. 

* Ai eucl ikuilt of cxiieiiws >fo lueful lo lacipcrlBnced 
tr»Mlkn, 1 OMJ F«rlial» ia ■ Kiiics to aomt ono \iy gidng thi 
pntiM ooit of our London tirdpng. W« had ■ dnwing (od • 
ililllH lllillli, • bcd.rooni aad drfaring-roam oa the acaond Itoor, 
iad thice bod-roomi on Uic iLlid Ilaar (all loiall), Tor arven guinpu 
■ veck, ud une (sloe* tot (t\ug and ailcndaucc- L'odcr thr term 
feioc i* iiioludad cooklnf. W< li>pd ainiply, having regularly Ivo 
I nmt (otfUb ind ncal), a pudding or latt^indUitrruiUiii 


Would you know what struck me us wc drure 
froro tlie depot of the U'esiem Railroad lo our lodn 
in|[H? t)ic fiuniliar nutncs of tliv Rtrccts, tin? iieuti 
tiiituf tlivboit«c»,thv (^rviit *u[>cri(iMty oftliepavc 
nents to ours, and, having last seen New York, tbi 
superior cleanliiii'ss of the streets. I have all my 
life Iteitrd London spoki'U of us disinsl mid ilurk. 
It may b« mo in winter; it i« not now. The 
»nioke colour »f the liouseH is soft and benltliy tu 
(lie eyt', »o unlike our flame-coloured cities ibat 
wem surely to typify their destiny, which is, you 
know, to be burned up, sooner or later — tootter, in 
most CDAes. And, having liud notliing to do to-day 
but gaxv frum our windows wliut think you has^J 
htnick us OS quite different from a relutivc pMition ^fl 
in our own city ? — tbc groups of but lad-si ngera, 
condMing usually of a man and woman, and one or 
two eliildren, I havcM,i;n Mich in New York luilf 
» dozen liniea in my life, and tliey are always peo|>le 
from LJic Continent of Europe. Here, not half an 
hour paiaea without a proccwion of these licensed, 

(man. itr»lMnlM and ehcrrlu. (lor bn^kful «■> ooRm Mid 
lea. brMil, bgtlcr, rnlb, muOin*, tud ccp- Th* toM lu rarfc 
|vni>i> (una (mtlnnan tad £t« ladio) nu ■ Uitla murv ihan On 
paundi t«vl*« ihilliiici (IblitMa dolUrt) • «wh. Bnr^ artUleof 
(o-id iTM [xtfact of iu hind, aid w«ll trrri. The mort hiMdlaai ; 
niolil line louoil no Eraood of Mnplalnt, The hi(li ptleaa i 
r>Cla( wlivB ar Ml N«* Yo>k, anJ ■« foand Iteconnoa uxiidm 
n'frnd )■ Loodon not U|htr, In Mot caNvlowWi for InalMiai, 
(bretrrBtU OMliioacr* «■ gtm «tif»M* luaha a«d a half 



music&l| uid, lo m novice^ irrooistibic beggars. 
Th«n tlicre arc ihe Imwkont of flowcra as irre- 
BiMiblc. lovely boiiqiiclit of moa»-ro«ebu(ls, gero- 
niuoK, heliotropes, uikI whitl iiou Aa we are Id the 
netgliboiirhood of Piccadilly and tlie parlu, our 
Mr«el b <)uitc • tliorougbfare, and we are every 
monieol excluiming at tlie superb equipages that 
paa our window. Notbing, I presume, of tlic kind 
in ilie world exceeds the luxury of an English 
carriage witb all its appointments ; an<l yet, sliall I 
confess to you tbnt, after my admiration of tlicir »a- 
perb hor«es was iromcwiiat ubitted, I liave felt, in 
looking B( tlicm, iniidi ux 1 have at sei-iii|; a poor 
littli' child nuulva fool of by tbeusclessand glittering 
trs])pi»g» of his hobbyhorse. What would our 
tabouriog men, who work up ilit; time and Htrength 
God gives them into independence, domeMiic hap- 
pinoi^ and political existence — what would tliey, 
what should tliey say, at seeing three — four ser- 
vaotB — strong, tall, well-made young men (for snch 
arc Helected) — attached lo a coach, one ooaclimun 
and three footmen, two, of course, perfect super- 
tiuDicraries ? We " moralise the spectacle," too; 
obnrrrc the vsomt countenance and flippant air of 
tliesennon, chained to the circle of half adozcn ideas, 
aiwl end witli u laugh at tlicir fantastical liverie*; 
Mime in white turned witli red, ami some in red 
turned witli wliile. Fancy a man driving, witb a 
niiliiia gencral'H Itat, featherv and all, with thre« 


fooanen, one seated beside him and two behiod, oU 
witli white coats, scarlet plusli brcecbcsi whitfl silk] 
Ntockiii^, rMclIes on their sJion, un<l ^Id-hca 
liaioiiH in llivir white-gloved liuiids. There must Iwl 
something " rotten in the state," when Godli^ 
crcatur«, " possible angels," as our friend Doctor 
T. colls ill human kind, look up to a station behind 
a IokTm couch as » ]>ririleKcd pliice. *' P<»siblc 
angel* " ilicy way be ; but, nl»s, tlicir patli is hedged 
about witli huge improbiibiUUes ! 

SiKCE the first day of our arrival here, my 
dear C^ we have been going on witli the swiA- 
nen of railroad motion. I have made, ra pattcatA 
a few notes in the hope of retaininfr impressiona tfai 
were necrvsarily slight and imperfect ; and now, 
my first leisure, 1 am about to expand them for you. 
You shall have (hem honestly, without coloiirin|r < 
exaggeration. I can scarcely hope they will bav«^ 
Diiy othernterit; for.witbout any bumble disclaiiorrs 
which might be made as to tlic inoumpctcncy of the 
individual— thai individual u woman iilwiiys more or 
leas liampcred — what is one month in London! one 
monlli among two millions of people 1 

Coming lu the cities of the Old World, as wc do, 
with our natioiuil vanities thick upon us. with our 
tcaU- »f measurcmviit gradiuitcil hy Broadway, tiio 
City- Hall, the Ituttery, and the I)o«toii-Commc 
Wt are Donfunnded by the extent of London, by its 



magnificent parks, its unmcRBC structures, by its 
docks and warehouses, aiid by nil its details of con- 
venience and comfort, and its afr^regate of iticalcu-' 
lablc weaJtfa. Wc begin with comfortinif nuriflves 
witli tbe tbougtit '* Wliy, these peo{>le have beeu at 
it these two tliousand years, and Heaven knows bow 
mnch longer." By degrees envymelts into self-ooin- 
placency, and we say " tJiey are our relations ;" 
" our Others bad a band in it ," we are of tbe same 
race, "as our new-planned cities and unfinished 
tow«n~ sball borcaftcr prore. Mr. Welistcr »aid to 
IDC after we had both been two or three weeks here, 
" What is your imprcwon now of London ? my 
feeling is yet amaiemenL" 

I got my bcRt idea of tbe aaiVM of tbe wealth 
and power of tlie country from x-isiting tlic docks 
and warehouses, which we did thoroughly, under 
the conduct of our very kind countryman, Mr. P. 
Vaughiui, wliosc uricte, Mr. William Vauglmn, bad 
much to do with the suggesting and planning these 
great works. Do not fear 1 am about to give you a 
particular description of them, which yuu will get so 
much belter from any statiatics of Loudon. Our 
"woman's sphere," the boundaries ofwhich some of 
my sex arc making ratlicr inde&nite, does not ex- 
tend to »iich snbjccW. Wc yet have tlie child's 
pluuuic of wundvr, and we had it in perfection in 
pasnng llirough an itpartmcnt a hundred feet in 
letigtli, appropriated to cinnamon, the next of equal 



extent, to doves, and so on and w on to a wine- 
rnuh under an acre of ground. 

I never enter tlie London parks witliuul regretting 
tbe folly (call It not ctipidily) of our peoplei who, 
when they liad a whole conltnont at their disposul, 
have lefi iiuch imrrow spaces for wluit hits Itccn so 
wpU called the lungs of a cily ; it« breathing-p^ 
tlicy certainly are.* I do not know the number 
squares in London. I aliould think a hundred ag 
large as our IxHUted St. John's Park, /A« Park, 
Wailtington Bni) Union Squares. Thctrparkmppear 
to inc to cover us much ground ok hulf our city of 
New- York. The Itegelit's Park, the largest, con- 
tains 4dO acres; Hyde Park, SHo. Besides tlie««, 
tliere are Green and St. James's Parks, wliicb, how- 
ever, are both much smaller tluin Hyde Park. I 
wonder if some of our speculating &Mnad |)cople 
wonldnot like tobave the draining of tlicir adorning- 
witters, and the laying-out of the ground into xtreeis 
lind building-lots, a passion as worth)' a; .Scott's oM 
Cummer's for streaking a corse. It would, indeed, 
be duuiging the living into iho dcitd to drive llie 
spirit of healtli and the Lealtliicst pleasure from 

* ■■ A,lri«Dd hm MifMtel that IbU anuar« 1* unjUii (a rapri 
lODUr lutn(cltiM,Nr>-Y<)Tk*ndrhllaJr)|ibis; tWcUl^baih 
OQ ■ limlliJ ipwr inidDwd b} cnal bodira nf wtfvr, eat p*'pt' 
cooU BOt tlhrA lo 4cT0t< boilding-groDnd (o <Ahtt pn/pMM. 
Buc, teTB Uic; iloDc «bal tbcf oauld? Vhit it On juxiflealios 
far tbe McnAra ol Hobokvn ! tad hu ■n;tbla« beta done lo Kcvn 
tks iillMis«iii; of pUMura-groaiid* In out Midhr lovu uvl 




iQliful groii»d«. The utiliurtnn priiicipk, 
in iu narrowest Koie, hm too much to do in our 
country, lam j«ncy a Western wiuaciercotninginto 
Regent's I^rk and co&ting liis eye over its gladee, 
gardens, and shrubberies, exclaim, " Why, this a 
the best of parara * land ; I'll squat here ! " 

Ves, dear d that surely is a narrow utiUtunanUm 
which would make cvcrythingconvcrlibletotliemeat 
ibut |>cri)ihetb; nnd to tliat would tacrifice God'it 
rich proriHtuiis for the wantt of man's spirit. The 
only chance a London tradesman has to feel that he 
has anything nobler in his nature than a craving 
storaadi, is when he comes forth on Sunday from 
his smoky place of daily toil into these luvely gtccD 
parks, where he an<l his young ones can lay them- 
selves liomi on the greensward, under the shadowof 
majestic trees, amid the odour of Rowers and the 
singing of birds : all God's witncMcs oven to their 
dulled tenses. We bare 30i),000 soiiU now in New- 
York. We shall soon have our million ; but, alas! 
we have no such jiaradise in preparation for them ! 
The Zoological Garden is in Regent's Park. As 
a ganlen merely, it is very buiutiful ; and I do not 
doubt il« planner or planner* hud reference to llie 
ofigtnal type of all gardens. Its various iind vast 
number of animals remitid you at every lurii of 
Milton's Pitrudi.ti', though the women in blue and 
purple ftatin, and the men in the last fashion of 

* Tbc WtKcra AngUei for praitie. 

Ito nil- street, bear little resemblance to the original 
specimens or tliose wbo. with tlieir loyal subjects, 
were " to find pastime and bear rule." 

' FercoDtcmplibDn lie had nlour rormM : 
For wItOM* tbt and urcrl auracutc grut." 

All the rep resents tires of tbe bini and animal 
vTcaiiun that were housed in the ark appear to Imve 
their descendants here : and, as if to guard them 
agaiujtt dying of honie&icknesB, tliey have their Hide 
aurroundiiigs made as far as pmsiblo to resemble 
their native places. They are accommodated ac- 
cording to tlic national taste, with pTirate lodgings, 
and spftcc to roam and growl at will i TAngbisc. 
'Hicre is sparkling water for aquatic birds, uid 
)M>nds for tlie otter to dive in. There is spnc« for 
tlii; duiiity girufle, who wcmn luirdly to loiicJi tl>e 
ground from very delicatcncss, to roreover.andtreea, 
to whoM topmost branches be stretches his flexile 
nec^. 'Ilie bear has his ureit, with poles to Im^ and 
dimb, and tlic elephant his tank to swim in. and 
forvHi-ltkc glade* to lumber along ; and cameU we 
saw in the distance grazing on fields of green grass; 
and then there are " rows of gowllii-sl trees" and 
*' verdurous walls f " blossoms and fniit* ;" all the 
luxuries of paradise, save authority, M>litude, intu>- 
cencct and u few such light mutters. The garden 
hot not been o|>cn more tliaii twelve years. Tbe 
price of admivuon is only oiia shilling English. 
This we sbouhl tliink liberal enough in our demo- 




cnitic country. The plca§ure is made more e^tclu' 
sive oa Sunday by tlie requisitiofi of a roemher's 

I ticket, but tbwe arc easily obtained. SeTeraJ were 
sent o» uniukvd. If you rare for sucb shows, you 
nay ibcn, in udilition to llic birds and beasts, lee 

' Ibe Rrnlry utd nobility ! 

1 KASOf that most of onr peo[>1c, when llu'y 
I arrive in London, go to die Tower and W(«t- 
' niiutrr Abbey, as the stgbts they have roost and 
longest thirsted for. I have been told that Web- 
, ster had not been half un hour in London when be 
took • cab and drove to the Tower ; and I Hked 
the boyisli feeling still fresh and [lerooptiblo, Uke 
ihf little rivnict whoHc hue marlui it di^tinetly long 
after it bu» entered ttomc great river. I have not 
seen the Tower; not for lack of interest in it, for, 
ever since in my childhood my heart ached for the 
' kapleu state- prisoner tliat passed its portals, I have 
longed to sec it. We went there nt un unfortu- 
nate hour; the doom were closed; and I wa» like 
• crosflcxl child when I fett that I should never see 
the Black Prince's armour, nor the axe that deult 
the death-blow to Anne Boleyn, nor tJie priiton of 
Sir Walter Raleigh, nor any of the Tower'ii itoul- 
^iDoni^ treasures. We were admitted within the 
anter wall, which incloses an area where tliree 
iboBawM) people live ; • fiict that, m it is all I bare 
lu oominuuicutv, will, I hope, surjiriae you as much 
I it did me. 



We went lliree timet to VVestminsler Abbey, 
and »pent many liours ihere ; bours (hat liad more 
nenaatioD in tliem tlian montlis, t might ulmo«t say 
years, of ordinary life. Wliy, my dear C, it !• 1 
worth crossing tlie Atlantic to riil^r tlie little door 
by wbidi wr first went into the A(>t>ey. nnd have 
your eyeR light on that familiar legend, " O rare 
Ben Jonson !" And then to walk around and see 
thp monuments of 8hukN))eare, Speniter, Mtlioii, 
and of otiifr iiiitpired te»ciier«. You have »trange 
and mixed feelings. You approach nearer to tliem 
titan ever before, but it a in sympathy witli their 
mortality. You reaJite for the first time ibai they | 
are dead ; for who, of ell your friends, have been I 
so living to you a* tliey f We escaped from our 
automuton guide, and walked about as if in a 
tnnce. J 

There is much embodied history in the Abbey— 1 
lacu recorded in atone. And there are ttnrtliiig 
curiosities of antiijuily, such, for example, aa ■ 
cnro nation -chair as old as Kdward tlie Confesaar's 
time, and the helmet of Ilcnry V., and bis saddle, 
ibe very uddle he nxle at Agincoiirt. I ihouglit. 
■• 1 looked at it. and felt tlie bluod tingling in my 
vdna, that bis prophecy of being " freshly remem* 
bered,^ even "to the ending of tlie world," waa ia 
fiur progress to fulfilment. 

Tlie Gothic architecture of parts of the Abbey 
b, I Iwliere, quite unequalled; but tlie effect of 



whole is impaired by Protestant spoliations 
bihI altvrolions. Henry tlie Seventh's chapel, 

Eith its carved stone crilin|r, is a proverb and 
iracle of beauty. 
I u-Rt grierously disappointed in St. Paul's. I 
'ty got, fr<Hn some school-book I believe, an 
impression that it waa a model of architecture, 
that Sir ChriBtopher Wren was a Divine ligbt 
among artists, and sundry other false notions. It 
stands ID tlic heart of llic cily of London, and is 
so defwed, wid alnolulely blackoned by its coaU 
snu^e, thai you would searely suspect it to be of 
that beautiful material whit« Portland stone. A 
more lieavy, inexpressive mass con hardly be found 
cumberii^ llie ground. It takes uine and infinite 
pains, depend on't, to educate tlte Saxon race out 
of their natural inaptitude in matters of taste. As 
you stand within and under the dome, the effect is 
very gnind and beautiful. The statues here and 
at Westminster, stnick me as monstroui*, and even 
curious, productions for an age when Grecian art 
was extant, or, indeed, for any age ; for there is 
always tbe original model, the human form. The 
artists have not taken man for their model, but tbe 
Engiith man, of n-hum grace ciin scarcely be pre- 
dicated, and the EngliKlnnnn, too, iu hiH national, 
ad aoneiime« in hii^ hideous military costume. 
' of llic sights tliat much pleased me was the 
of Court. The entrance to it is from one 

I>L. I. D 



of the tlirongcd thorongti&ra (FteoMtreet, 1 
believe), lo which it Heenu a sort of episode, or 
ntlier. like a curious nnlique pendant to a diain 
Oif modem workinanship. The ^ound, now occu- 
pied by the htwyors, was formerly appropriated to 
the Knights I'emplant, Their chapel still rcinaiiu: 
a &iiiguhir old tiinicture it U. A part of it t» in iu 
imginnl coniiitiun, an it was when the l)u Bub 
GuUberU of the romantic days worshipped there. 
When I looked at their elli^eH in stone, 1 could 
almost hear their armour clanking and ringing on 

tllC paTCQKQt. 

Ai yoti will perceive from my barren r^ort M 
you, I have given very little time to itight-secinff, 
and leu to public amusements. I went oiiee to 
Covent Garden Theatre witli Mrs. ^^ Sbt 
has a free tieltol, which admits two persons ; one 
of tlie small fruits of \ivT literary sonnng, a spedes 
of tabour which should produce to her a wide< 
spread and golden harvest. We went unattended 
—A new espcrience to me. Necessity lin« taught 
vomcn here mure inde[M>ndence lliiin wtlli us, and 
it has its adrantagea (o both pariin ; the men are 
saved much bother, and the women gain beaky 

and freedom. Mrs. proceeded witb as much 

ewe as if she were going lo her own room at 
hone, and we met writh no difficulty or imperti- 
nence whatever, not even a stare. The play was 




Henry V., ss It is restored by Macrcady, vrlio, 
witli a ical lltai ull true lovers of Sliabspcarv must 
coente^ u pfTocirifr tfac profune alterations of tht 
Vsteil; such munf^lin^, (or iostuiicr, u» C'AT- 
ick made of tlie last scenes of Lear ; and, beside*, 
ad<ling in<lescribBbly to the draoiatie beauty of 
le repr«sentation by an elaborate eonfomiity to 
tko coatume of tbe period nhidi tlie play repre- 
MDts. Shakspeare him&olf n-ould, 1 suspect, be 
icwbat startled by tlie perfection of scenic de- 
conilion smA costume of Mucrtrady's prcseiitation 
of Henry V. Wliil« tbe clioruseH are rebear»iiig 
ly Time, there i.i a pictorial exhibition of the 
eoeH be describes; and this is managed with 
•iich art Its to ap[i<-ar ro the ^tectator, not a 
iclure, but an actiud scene. As he finishes, a 
rtain, which seems like a dissolving cloud, ia 
wilbdmwii, atul dtscioses the actors. 

Covent Garden Theatre is much larger, more 
>legant> and more commodiously arnmgetl than 
<e bc«t of oura. There is a certain indefinite 
leaiure proceeding from seeing a play of Sliak- 
played in the land where he lived; where 
has seen tltem enacted, and himself enacted 
them. It U something like going to a friend's 
house for tbe first time after a long and close 
jendsliip with him. A few days sitico we were at 
utbamplon, and psHsed through tbe arch uixler 
which Henry led lus army when he embarked for 



the " fiiir and lucky war." This, and die recur- 
rence of tUc names of localities that are now within 
our daily drives, ^vc mc tho rtaliiiiiif sensation 
of wliicli yoii may well be tired of lieuriiig by this 
time. Aod, by-tlie-way, how could 1 describe thift 
MBSation without our rx{>rcMit'e American (New 
Engliuid?) \ae of this world realise? 

We went once to the lUiliiin opera, an<l sat in 
the piL The intermixture of gaily-<lreiuc4l ladiea 
with men in the pit gives It a cifilised and lively 
■sped ; it is somethinf^ tike turning a forest into a 
flower-garden. The pit of the opera is filled with 
people of respectable condition, as you may suppose 
frooi the cost of Biiy box lai^ enough for fire or 
six people being seven or eight guineas. We paid 

two dollars fur a scat. Mrs. was with us, 

expounding to us, and enjoying, as none but thoae 
who have tlic genius to tlie fingers' ends that 
makes the arti«t, can enjoy. The people who have 
the reputation of being the first singers iit the world 
Mtng: Griti, tlie young Garcia. PertiaiiE, LablachCt 
Tamhurini, and a very interesting young mam ^^ 
■on of an Italian marrjuts, whose ttom^-yuem ta 
Ifario. The little queen was in her box behind a 
curtain, as carefully hidden from her people as an 
oriental monarch ; not from any orienul ideu of 
the laercdncw of her person, but lliat «he may cast 
off her royal dignity, and have the privilege of 
enjoying unobierved, as we humble people do. No 

arineKi of ber countcnnncc could make licr "like 
the robe pontifical, ne'er seen but wondered at." 

en a plain little body enougli, as we saw wlicn 
e protruded l>er bead to bow to the high people 

the box next to ber : the queen -dowager, tlie 

inecn Etterhiuy, and bo on. Ordinary is ilie 

■id for licr ; you would not notice licr among a 
luodred otbers in our village cliurcli. Just now 
she is ftuffcring fur llie tnigt-dy of I.sidy Flora, and 
feara arc entertained, wliviiever sbe appears, that 
ere will be voices to cry oat " H7i«-e ia Lady 
?" a sound tbat must pierce the poor young 

i^s heart. Ab ! sbe lias come to the throne 
when royalty pays quite loo dear for its whistle • 
I Wc bad the ballet La Gttsna after the singing— 
and Tuglioni. No prutse of her grace is exagge- 
rated. 'Ilicrc i* mnaic in every movement of her 
nriDs ; and if she would restrict herself within die 

it* of decency, then; could not be a more ex(]ui« 
'laie spectacle of iu kind tban ber dancing. I would 
^Tc in to the ravings of her admirers, and allow 

X ber gT*co is God*s beautiful gift, and that fit^ 
ting it b it should be so used. Utu could not this 
grace be equally dcmonMraled with a skirt a few 
iDcbes longer and rather le«» traniiparent ? To my 
crude notion* ber positions are often disgusting; 
and when she raised her leg to a right angle with 
ber botly, I could have eschiimed, as Carlyle did, 
** Merciful Heavenl where will it end?" 



Familiarity miMt ilull the seme to tlicse bad pHtf 
of llii! cxiiibitioii ; for Mr». — - quoted a Prendl- 
vroinan, who said, on seeing Tagtioni, " 11 faul tin 
■age pour danser comme ^a" (one mnst bo rirtuoof 
to dance like that). I should rather liave said **II 
ne hut pas i-trc fimme pour daoser comnitf ^" 
And 1 would divide tlic world, not as our witty- 
friend do««, into men, wonien, and Mary 

Wolstonccrufts hut into men, woineu, and ballet- 
dancers. For surely a woman must hare forgotten 
tlie instincts of her sex before she can danc« even as 
Taglioni does. I am not apt, as you know my dear 
C, to run a tilt against public amusements ; but I 
bold this to be an execrable one ; and, if my roice 
could have any influence, I would pray every 
modest woman and modest mtm, for why shoiiltl this 
rirtue b« graduated by a different scale for tlic dif- 
ferent sexes ? every modest man and woman, then, 
in our hind to discountenance its advancement lliere. 
If we have not yet tlic perfection of a matared 
dvilisation, God save as from the corruptions that 
prelude and intimate its decline ! 

Wfl spent a morning at the British MiHeinn, 
and coutd luve passed a month there profitably. 
It is on a m.-i^nifieent scale, worthy this greet 
nation. W'e liave mndc a few excureions oat of 
London. Wo took the fourth of July to drive to 
Hampton Court; and so bright and warm it was 



tli&t, as &r as Uie wealber was concerned, we miglit 
have £ui civil ourselves at home, keepiug our 
nationil fcatiraL "Hampton's royal pile" was 
hegua by Wokry, who, "tliough of bd humble 
stock," vu born with a kingly ambition, and 
"b«hioncd tu mucli honour from hi» cradle. " His 
pxpenditnrc on tills palucc wiu mo«t royol, and 
furnbhcd, •• jroti know, a cont-enicnt pretext for his 
master's displeasure. Henry put forth the Hon's 
rigbl— might — and look posiesxion of it ; and tlie 
royal arms and badges of the Tmlors are carved over 
the devices and arms of Wolscy. That part of 
tbe edifice which belong to tlio age of the Tudors 
seemed to mc alone to have any arctiilectni'nl inter- 
est or niieb beauty. It hears the marks of that era 
when feudal individual fortifications were giving 
place to the defences of a higher civilisation: when 
tke country-house was superseding the castle. 
From the time of Henry VHI. to the first two 
Georges it has bc<-n at various times enlarged, and 
lias been one of tlic regular eslahlishmentB of the 
reigning &mily. It is now, with its extensive 
and Iwautifully-ornamented grounds, given up to 
the public, who are admitted within the gates with- 
oatafee! There is no pictureflcjucness, no naturiil 
beauty in the groun<l^ or, nithcr, to speak more 
accurately, in the face of tin* ground ; for who &lndl 
presume to kiiy that trees are not natural beauties, 
ad such trees as the magnificent elms, chesnuu, 

■nd limes of Hampton, th? moat surpoMingly 
bratilifiil of all niittinit Waiitirs? 

There i» one walk of a mile to tbc Tliiiin«M, and 
tliere in slirubbery, and fouDtaina, and ftrtifirial bits 
of water, and aquatic birds, and plants, as we liave 
good reason to remember; for one of our girls, 
fancying, vhh tnity American nui'vote, they were 
growing irUd, and unchecked by the pilliy admoiu- 
Uon on sundry bit^ of boar<i, " It i« exjieded tlie 
public wilt protect what a intended for public 
enjoyment," tempted our friend P. to pluek « lulus 
for bt-r. He wu forthwitli pounced upon by a lad, 
one of the police cure, who whcd for '* the crown 
Bin) country * the poor water-lily, and compelled 
P. to appear before one of the officials. The regu- 
lar fine was ten shillings Englisli; but the man 
was lenient; and, in consideration of our l>cing 
Americaiu, (scmi-biirlwrians?) V. was let olf with 
paying a flight penalty fur hi« guixl-niitured gal- 
lantry. We left tbc gurdenti wilJi rcluctiince for 
the duty of seeing Uie interior of the pahice, and 
beginning with a princely hall one hundred feet io 
length, we circulated through more banqueting- 
rooms, drawing-rooms, " king's sleeping-apart- 
nents,' "queen's bed cliambens" "king's prescnc*- 
eluimbera,** "king's and queen's dnanng- rooms," 
"queen's galleries," lapcktry gnlleric*, and what 
not> tluui ever rose above the hoiiion of your 
plebeian imaginatioD. 



Tlie apRrtments are nearly all hun^ unlit piclures. 
There is little furaiture, strictly bo called, remainiog, 
and what tber« is. is laded and time -worn. 

I gire you ibc following opinion with nil modesty, 
Itnowiii^ iliai I am tntt ii qtiulifi^d jiidj^e ; ilie coUoo 
tiun of piclureii struck nie a.*) proving that art is not 
native to the country. Of course the pictnres arc 
chiefly by foreifjn artists, but obtained by KnjrJiH}]. 
men who had an unlimited power of patronage and 
selection. In the immense number of pictures there 
arc few to be remembered. The celebrated por- 
trait of CImrlcs (he I'irsC on liorscl>ack, by V'undyke, 
rivets you before it by its most sad and prophetic 
exproaaion. It ia such a portrait as Sliak&peare 
would hare painted of Charles had he been an ouU 

Sir PetorI<ely'sflcsh.«nd-blood beauties of Charles 
the Second's time fill one apartment. Hamilton* and 
Mn, Jutne«on liave given these fair diimrs an im- 
mortality tliey do nut meriL Thi-y lire mere morud 
beauties, and not even the best specimens of their 
kind They arc the women of the coarsest English 
comedies; not such types of womanhood as Juliet, 
DewleiDonii, and Isabella. They have not the merit 
of individuality. They have all beautiful hunds^ 
probably because Sir IVter Leiy could paint beau- 
tiful hand) — ami Uivi'ly neck« and bosoms, most 
prodigally displayed. Thereisa mixture of finery and 

• Minoim de Oraonioiu. 


negllgenee in tlietr df ess that would seem to {iidicatf 
the ham slattern transformed into the fine bdy. It 
would take a Mohammed's heaven of such beauties 
to vork up into the iipirittial loveliness of an czqa!- 
nite head of St. Catlicrine, by Correg^o, in another 
apartment of tliis gallery. Wliat u text might be 
made of these oounterfeil presentments of tlic sinner 
and the saint for an eloquent preacher in a M: 
dalen duipel ! 

Holbein's pictures were to me among the moet 
interesiing in the collection. Some one suys that 
Hulljcin'i pictures are "the prose of portmit pataU 
ing," the least poetic department of llic art. If for 
"prose" you may substitute truth (and truth, to the 
apprehension of some people, is mighty prosaic), tlie 
remark is just. The truth is so self-evident, t)ie 
individuality of his pictures so striking, that his por- 
trails impress you as delineations of fiuniliar lacee ; 
and tlicre are tlic pictures of WoUey, of Sir Hionas 
More, of Hurry llic ICightli at different epochs of hta 
life, and of Francis the Hrst. Thiiilt of »eeing con- 
temporaneous pictures of tliese men by an exact 
hand ! " Oh, ye gentlemen who live iit home at 
ease," ye may sometimes envy its; an<l this I say 
while every bone is aching with the tatigue of thia 
siglit-secing day, 

Wc wound up with the gallery of Rnpliael's 
toons, so named, as |>erluips you do not know, from 
their being done on a ihin pasteboard, called in Ita- 

ner ' 



lian earbme. They were donp by the order of Leo 

tL« Tenlh, to »crve a» iiiuitrls for llit Uipcslry of one 

of (lie liallff of iW Vatimii, and sent to Itruiwels, 

wliere the tapeatfy was to he woven, Afier viciwti- 

tudos whose history would make a volume, William 

the Tliinl hiul lht» gallery constructed for them, and 

lliey were taken from the boxeo, in which they were 

found CMnlrssly puckcd, uud in slips, and put to- 

getlier, And placex) in plain frames. These cartooas 

llie delight of the urtiiiic world. Perhaps the 

Itetdies and unfiniithed pitinlings of great artitit* 

jire the best iniiicatiunnof those revelation!! ofhuau* 

Ity tltat are made to tlieir minds, and to which diey 

Icui never give material expre^^ion. Can ideal 

[perfection be manifested by form and culour? My 

ladiniration of the cartoons was very earnest, albeit 

^unlearned. Paul preaching at Athens struck me as 

tlie grandest umoni; them. 

We returned to London through Bnshy Purl:, 
rhere the trees arc the most mnpiilicent I ever be- 
e)d,not excepting those of Western Virginia. Wc 
by TwickenliHin and Strawberry Hill, and 
FtoUii-hmiind Hill (Kidie-mont) to dine. The 
iew from tills hiil has been lauded in poetry and 
I and filled M many dull pages of dull journals, 
lluit I in nucb mercy spare you a repetition. If an 
Englishman were to select a single view in his coun- 
try to give a stranger the best idea of the cLaracIer- 
istics of English rural scenery, it would probably be 



Uiat of Richmond Hill. It is a sea of cultiraii 
nutliiii|i; ouiitlcd, impt'rfcct, or uriGiii^ied. There 
are no words to exaggerate these cliaracteristics. It 
is all strawWrrics uiid cream ; satiiigly ricli ; ^led 

' Wltb hUI> uid dalea. ■n'l *oi>dt. and lamia, ind tpitM. 
And ffjltttiag towtn, uid gilded ammt, till all 
Tbo itntdiint Iuidaca|is into aoioke dioayi." 


And yet. kIihII 1 confetis it to you, f would hav« 
giveti nil tlie pleoiuie I should get from it for a life- 
time for one glaoce from S 's bill at the valley 

villi iu wooden houses, stnigj[liii)^ brown feneeSt 
and ragged busbandry I Yes, and apart from home 
assoclationf, ts thsre not more to kindle emotion to 
that vnllcy, lyini; deep in brr vncitclinfr bilU, wttl) 
their rich wvodlunds and rocky Htcepf, ihiiii in tbb 
moDutonotu beauty ? The one b a drawing-room 
lady, tlie other a wood-nymph. 

We sent away our carriage, and came home in a 
steamer, which Mas crowdeil when we got on board. 
At first we looked around ia tlie most self-compla- 
cent manner, rxpocting, with our American notiom, 
that RCatA would be ofl^cred on every side, as thejT 
would aHNUfedly hum beta to all us womankind 
io one of our own su-umcr*. Not a foot stirred. 
Some of lis were positively unable to siaiid, and for 
ilio»c- Mr. P. made an appeal to some men, who re- 
fused witliout heiitation, appearing to tliink out 
expectations were impertinent. We were loo &r 
gOD« to be fastidious, to we adopted the backwoods' 


expfdimtt and A^MflffA/ Upon wliul unoccupied Krri- 
tory we could 6nH. If «uc)i personal sellialincs§ and 
discounety is the result of a liigli civilisation, I am 
g\ad we bare not yet attained it. Tlie general in- 
difference of our companions in the tteainer to the 
scenery of the river reminded as of the strictures of 
English ttBvellcre in America in similar situations. 
Nothing can be more ftdbcious than the broad iii- 
ferencesi drawn from Huch pi'i'rniiti-». Tlicy wore 
probably people intent on errands of business, or, 
like us, lired parties of pleasure ; and 1 am sure, at 
tliat moment, nothing 1ms tlian Niuj;aru or the Alps 
could have excited us to express an emotion. Wc 
landnl at Huiigerford stairs : It. said it reminded 
him of thu landing-pUtcc at Cliiciigo, It was rude 
enough fur the Far WeNC. You may imagine our 
wearied condition when I tell you that when we 
arrivedat home, the girk voluntarily let me off from 
a promi.'ie to chaperone them lo Mrs. B ^"s con- 
cert, where (irisi and the other Italian stars were 
"choiring — to young-eyed clienibims," no doubt. 
We liare been to Wiudsor, wUli tlic great advan- 

tMg;t of Mrs. for our companion and guide. 

'Sbe puts a soul and a voice into dumb tilings— and 
ber soul! We failed loget apermiiiuon to see the 
private apartments, tliougb Lady B. and some other 
potent friends stirred in ourbtiialf. Only u certain 
number of tickets arc issued during the week, and 
our application was tou late ; so we could not see 


die laxurians rurntsliings for royal domMtic lifo» if 
royalty may bav« domestic lifp, or ever in 

" Bed rnajMtleal 
Cui aletp MWUhdlf u (he arciebtit »U,n 
\t1io, ttldi ■ IkkIji fiU'd aiid ticanl mind, 
GtU bin U> r«tl< oriMoi'd «lih di*ir«Mful bread." 

Windwr Cnftllo, you know, is rich with the accu> 
mulated associatiunN of ages, baring been begun by 
Uenry III., and enlarged and ctiricbed from time 
to tiine down to George I., who put it in complete 
order. It stands on an eminpnec just above xhe 
little ton'u of Windsor, whirli, built of brick and 
stone, is compact and clean, as is cvcrytliing Etif^ 
li»li, iiidiridnal and con^egate. It is *uid to be the 
best »|)ecimcn of c»»tcllut^d arvliitrcttire in Rnglimd 
Certainly it is very beauiiful; and tlie inoHt beauU> 
ful thing about it is tlie view from llie terrace, whicb 
it would be little belter ilixn impertinent to describe 
iu any otlier words tban Gray's, in liis invocation to 
those who stand on the terrace : 

" And )«, thU Cram the *Ut<lr brow 
Of Vimlwr'* bit)|b(^ the wpMiM Mow 
Of gimt, «f liwD, «r DMd Miner, 
WhOKIvrf, nboH ihidf. whont Hoaen UDOog, 
Wtaitn the houy TlitmMtlonc 
■lit dttr «iDdiD( mf," 

But tueh a mead ! siieli turf '. such shade ! " Father 
Thames" mi;;lit be compared to an old king wind- 
ing his way tliroiifrh hU court; llic very sheep that 
were lying on the gnus under the majestic trees in 



tlie" Home Park," looked like prince* of the blood. 
Tbe moot tbougbt-awakening object in tbe view i« 
undoiibt«ilytlieGolhic|>ilG of Eton College, with its 
^irc« and antique towcn. When the <]iiecn i* at 
Wio<lMr she walks every Siin<by an thiit terrace, 
where ahe i* liable lo be jflHtl<:<I by the meanest of 
her aubjcco; an<I m the milwny from I^ondoii pnuea 
nitliiu a mile and a half uf Windsor, sbe roust often 
endure ilu're collisions to wbicb English blood has 
such repugnance. 

We spent some boars in golii^ through llie mug- 
nificcnt apnrimenia of the palace, looking at the 
pictures, the Gobelin tapestry, &c.,£:c. The quaint, 
curious banqueting- room of tlie knights of tbe f !ar- 
ter, with tlieir insignia, pleased me best. Vacant 
places are left for future knigbts; but how much 
longer an institution will lost that is a part of n 
worn-out machine, is a question which your chiU 
dren, dear C, may live to sec solved. 

Wc bud enoti^li of llir enjoying npirit of children 
to be delighieil, and felt much in the humour of tlie 
bonett roan who said to Prince Eslerbazy, wfaeii he 
was blazing in diamonds, " Thank you for your dia- 
monds." *' Why do you thank me?" naturally 
asked the prince. " You have tbe trouble uf them, 
I the pleasure of looking at them." Wise and 
ipyman! He solved a ])u/zl!ng problero. In 
tnttli, the monarch had not the pleasure of property 
io Windsor Castle llutt almost every American citi- 


ivn tiu in tlic roof timt slii'Icers faim. *' I cotigta- 
tulnle yoat maji-^ty on tlie ))0««c»sioii of so brnutiful 
a palace," aai<l Moine Torei^n (tniici> to whom Victoria 
was showing it. " It is not mine, but die country's," 
bIic rrplied. And so it is, aiid ail within it. She 
nisy not give nwiiy a picture, or even a footstooL 

We went into Sl Gcor|;e'ii chnpel, which i* 
included in the pile of bulhlings. W'e wiw tliere 
the beautiful efTeet produced by ilie sun nhining 
through tlie painted windows, tlirowing all tli« 
colours of the rainbow on the while marble pilLara 
aud pavement. The royal family are buried in th« 
vaults of thix chapel. There is uii cUborute monu- 
ment in wrelchcil Uutte iti one corner, to Uie 
Prinrem Charlotto. \Vc trod on n tublet iu Utc 
pavement llint told u> thai hi-ueiith it were lying 
the renuuns of Henry V'HI. and Jane ijeymourl 
It is such memoriak as tlicse that wc are continn- 
ally meeting, which, as honest uncle Stephen tays, 
" give one feelings." 

L4idy B. had said to me in a note, ** if you atteud 
service in St. George's chapel, observe tlie waviii|^ 
of thv bminers to the music. It seems like a strange 
sympalliy wltli tlie tones of ihc organ before one 
reflects on thv cause." Wc did attend the serviee, 
and realised the [>oelic idea. The banner of every 
kiii^lil of the Garter, from the beginning of 
institution, is hung in the choir. 

This was the third lime we had been present 



since we came (o England, at worship in iho tem- 
ples into wbicfa art lias breathed its soul. First in 
WinchcalcrCalbcilral, then at Westminster Abbey, 
and now at this old royal chapel. TIic daily service 
appointed by tlie church was performing vtilU the 
careless and heartless air of prescrijilion. The cler- 
gyman and clerk hurried sing-songing through the 
fonn of prayeri, tliat, perfect as they are, will only 
rUc on the soulV wings. 1 felt the Piiritun strug- 
I gling at my heart, und could have broken out with 
' old MauM't fervour, if not her eloipicnce. 1 tliought 
of oar aummer Sunday service in dear J.'s " lon^ 
parlour." Not a vacant place ilicre. The door open 
into the garden, die children strewed round the 
door-step, their young faces touched with an ex- 
pression of devotion and love — such as glows in the 
faces of the cherubs of the old pictures; and for 
vaulted roof, columns, utid storicil gliiss, we had the 
blue sky, the everlnstiiig hills, and lighuand sha- 
dows ployii'l? over them, ull suggestive of devotion, 
and in harmony with the pure and simple doctrine 
our friend Dr. FoUen taught us. To me, there was 
more true worship in those all-embrucing words, 
" Our Father!" jk he uttered them, than in all the 
task-prayere I have heard in tliene mighty calhe- 
drab. Here it i$ the temple that is greatest. Your 
mind is pre-occupied, filled with the outward world. 
The monuments of past ages and the memorials of 
individual greatneEs are before you. Your exist- 


tnoe Is ainpliGeH; your Rympftdiies nrc carried fir 
bock; tlie " inexoralite ]>iitt" tioea giv« up iu Head. 
Wherever your «ye fatU you s«« tlie work of a 
power new to you — the crealirc |>ower of art. Yon 
eee forois of beauty which never entered into your 
" forge of thought" You are filled with new and 
delightful emotions; but they spring from new tm- 
prcKsions of tho genius of man. of liis destiny and 
hiatory. No ; these cathedmk arc not like the 
arches of our forests, the temples for incritablc 
woTsliip: but tlioy UTV tljc fitting place for the wpO' 
theo*ut of genius *. 

I promised la give you honestly my imprewiom, 
and I do so. I may have come too old and inflexi- 
ble to these temples ; but, though I feel their beauty 
tbrillinfr my heiirt and brimming my eyes, they do 
not strike Die as in aecord with the »implieity, uni- 
vcnuUity, and tipirituality of the gospel of Jesus. 
Some modern unbelievers mainUiin that Christianity 
is a worn-out form of religion. 1» it not rather tntv 

■ If porcbuicc then U odc amOQs ay n»ien anaequBlBlid 
with Biyant'i Povnii. he majr Ilitak ae tor rtlaiiu^ t« Ms FsmM 

Hrnn. btgiaaiaif (hue — 

"Tbefro>M««r«tiiMl'ilSnllnnpl(*. Era tun iMin'd 
To hcvihe ibtll atiJ tay Iba archilrtrc. 
And ■prntd Iho root iiho*c ibcm ; en he fruaed 
Tfac loAj •■■ill, to cilber and roll back 
The toDod of antliMu j la lbs darlilliif wMd, 
AMid the oo«l Md tlkno*. bs ku«U d««'n, 
And (iSpr«d l« tbt MifhtinI •olemn thank* 
And iDiTplieaUDD." 


tbat llic spiril c«capc« frnm (he Torms in whidi 
, nuiD, ill ways running to thti inatcriul, would embody 


We took our lunch : and let mc, mptmiM, bless 

: the coantiy witere you can always command wliul 

ts best suited " to restore the weak and 'cayiuff 

taature," as pathetically called it in liiti before- 

r dinner grace. Forluncli ihey give you a void round 

lof beef, juiey and tender; ham, perfectly cured, 

crfeclly cooked, delicious bread and butter, or, 

|]i>deed, what you will ; and all so neutly served ! 

|Oh, my dfitr C^ mortifyitig contraKts arc forced on 

iny cver-home-tuming thoii;;hts* ! 

We walked to Eton, and, most fortunately, came 

upon its classic play -ground at tlie moment tlie boys 

were let loose upon it. Of course, it was impossi- 

i bK' not to icml Gray's doleful prophecy while look- 

[Ing at some former generation of Eton boys.— 

Mrs. repented them : 

" TbcM ihill tb« tary paiiioni ttai. 
The TDltum of the mind ; 
Dudain/ul AQgcT. |ialUd f»r» 
And kbiuir tlitl tkullii behind t 
Or |ilntii|f loir (hail wulo [belr jrODth, 
Uf julDui)'. ttilh niikliiig tuoth, 

Whatironld probaMj hrwrved far an ritcmpore lunch it in 
■ADniou inal Bmd tad bnlMr. (probiblji fnth brtadi ind 
lyMiM4> nol Tmh batter.) jjIm. ciIih. and nrHlintaU. Mijr nut 
r the rapenor ausolt and ealour of the Kn)-llili be oecribrd id pnrt 
I to («r itMerent iDoda ot feeding? Our inns improie from uunn 
[to Muan, *Bd will, in pruportion tt our mode* of llTing boaom* 
Ipnrt wife awl *al«urj. 



n«t \aij gnixt tbe wcrct bcut. 
And pn*y wan. tnil fid^ cftft» 
Grlm-iltagcd. comforllru dMjiUr, 
And (arrow '• picicioi dut." 

This is uiuloubleilly povrerrul poetry, bulUh ifc^ 
true sentimeDt? 1 nevor liked it, and liked it leas 
tbun ever when looking at tliese young creatures, 
■mong whom are the future teachen and bencfac- 
tore of their land; it may be aCollingnood.ii Wil- 
bcrTorcp.a Iluinilly, a Halliiin. tihouM noltlie poet 
have seen within these boimdinj; young frames im- 
mraMurablc faculties, eupacities for love and virtue, 
lliat eternity cannot etliiiual? 

The children Uvte strike me as not having the 
bright, intellectual countenances of oun, which 
indicate their early development; but, as a phy- 
sical production, Ibe ICnglish boy, with his brilliant 
complexion and sturdy frame, is Ua superior lo 

We bare notliing corrcAponding, my dear C., to 
the luxury of space and adornment of this play- 
ground of Kton. Tbe eye tlocs not perceiro its 
boundaries; the Tlutnes passes through it, and the 
trees have been growing, and at a fair rate, for 
hundreds of yean. 

Mr DfAR C . 

THt London breakfast party is a spedea of 
entertainment quite nnknown to ui.and wc should 
not find it easy to acclimate iL It is not suited to 




^Benr condition of society. 8iippog« E. nttempttng 

■' mcU a tiling at New York. SLc would naturally 

invite SL S. as tlie most agreeable woman of ber 

scquaintance. Th« answer would probably be, — 

^^"Tbc children are ailing, and she cannot come." 

^■Shc, like most of our mothers, never leaves her 

^fjiouse, if tliCT« be a ohudow in the nursery. Then 

^HSfrs. B. — " No, ahe expecbi a few friends lo dinner, 

Vadibe must overlook her servanU;" and soon, 

[so on. But if the women, whose habits are 

Bost flexible, could be managed, where would you 

!nd halF^^oxen men at leisure ? D. must be at 

office of the *' Life and Tnist" at nine ; and of 

[our u^ecablc poets — our home-lions — Bryant hait 

[liiii daily paper to get out, and Halleck, like poor 

iCfatrles I.iiinl), his (only) " heavy wurks,"^ his 

er, for bis morning OnU.; anil, save some half- 

doEen idlers, all the men in town are at their 

I counting-houses or oiSces, steeped to the lips in 
busiaoH by nine o'clock in the morning. But here 
the case is quite ditTercnt : the women are not so 
^tampered with domestic life, and the men are 
" TtKlier$" ati<l maMters of iheir lime. The break- 
fast party is not, however, I believe, of long stand- 
ing here. 1 have been told that it was introduced 
by that Mr. Rogers wliose household designation 
•nmng us is ** llogers the poet." 

The hour of the breakfast party is from ten to 
|.«lcvcii. The number b, I believe, never allowed 


to exceed twelve : and otilj- comes up to tbat n-hen 
the host is constrained, like a certuin friend of 
oun, by his difTiHirc licncvolrncr, to extend lii> 
invitatioii (liis "lickrc for six") to a caramn of 
trove) Icrs. 

Hio entertainment u little varied from our dgfat 
o'clock lireakfmts. There are coffee, tea, and cb^ 
colatc, rolls, toast, grated beef and eggs, and, ia 
pbtoe of our solid beefsteaks and broiled duckeaa, 
reindeers' tongues, sweetmeats, firuit, and ices. 
The*e are not bad substitutes for heavier viandi, 
and forour t-ariety of delicuic hot uikes. You aee 
none of these, unless it be tlie poorest of tbem aD, 
—a mofiin. 

On some occasions there were guests invited to 
come after bre«kliiL«t, to enjoy tlte social hour tliat 
follows it. Now tliat ideas travel so rapidly from 
one (juarter of tlie work) to aiioliier, I trust aoinf 
steamer will bear to America that which is rcoenlly 
reccirc<i in England, and has, as long » other 
cardiiuil points of pbilotopby, governed coniJDentd 
undety, vi/. tbat eiiting and drinking is uoi a ncoes- 
sarjr element in social intercouree. 

We bad the pleasure of a breakfast at Rogers^. 
Yoar long funiliarily witii bis poetry tells yon the 
melancliolj' fiict ibai be is no longer young; a fact 
kept out of your mind a* fnr as posMbtc on a p«r- 
Monal »c(]uaintanc«, by tlic fre«bnn» wiib which he 
enjoys, and llie generosity wiib which he imparts. 



have beard bim called cynical, and perhaps a man 

of hia keen ml may l>e ftomttumvit over-temptcd to 

loiistrate it, as tlie mag;iuinimou8 .S»bdin was to 

the weapon wiib which he adroitly severed a 

I's liead from his body nt a single stroke. If so, 

CSC are the exceptions to the general current of 

is life, which, I am sure, flows in a kindly current. 

. told Die lie met him one winter in I'uris, where 

le found him enjoying art likv a young cnlhnsiiut; 

knowing erery boy's name in the street h« 

ived in, and in friendship with liiein all. Does not 

lis speak volumes ? 

He honoured our letters of introduction by 
coming immediately to see ua, and receiving us an 
cordially as if vre were old friends. He ufterward 
exprcssvd a regret to me tliat lie had not taken that 
loming, before we plunged into engagements, to 
sbov me Johnson's and Dryden's haunts, tlie house 
here oar Franklin lived, and other clit«sical locali- 
Ab! this goes to swell my puUietic reiteration 
the general lament, " I have had my losses !" 
Mis manners are those of a man of the world (in 
its hest sense}} umple, and natural, without any 
parent oooBcioiianeBS of name or fame to support 
Is house, as all the t^vilised world know*, is a 
et of art, selected and arranged witli consum- 
taste. The house itself is small — not, i should 
thtak, more than twenty-five feet front, and per- 
haps forty deep, in a most fortunate locution, over- 

n wsatnt. 

looking llic Green Park. The first sight of it from 
the windows produces a sort of coup flc th^lre; 
for you approocli the bouse and enter it by a nar- 
row street. V.veiy inch of it U appropriated to 
some ntre treasure or choice production of ut. 
Be&ides the pictures (and " Wliai," you might be 
tempted to a»k, " c:tn a man want beside such pic* 
tures?'^ are Ltruscaii vases (antiques), Egypti&B 
antiquities, casts of the Elgin marbles decorating 
the staircase wall, and endless adornments of ibis 
nature. There are curiosities of another species 
— me books, such as a most bcautifuUy-iUiunJ* 
nated missal, exqiiiitttely-delicate paintings de- 
signed for marginal decorations, executeil three 
liundreii years ago, and taken from the Vatican by 
the Freiidi — glorious robbers ! In a catalogue of 
his books, in the poel's otrn beautiful autograph, 
there were inserted some whimsicjil titles of Iwoks, 
Buch as " Nebitehadnezxar un Grasses." 

Hut the most interesting tiling in ull llic collec- 
tion wits the original documeni, with Milton's lume, 
by which he traiuferred to his publisher, for Uu 
pffimdi, the capjTigbtof Paradise Lost*. Next in 

■ Wo one 1^ Mit norubf, afier brnkhtdaf irtth Mr. 1L, 
iq the prtwnoe of C«rl})t iTiMklnt of (Lii deed of ula and «f 
TifUooL U> ■miued blmMlf *ad m with calcsUlini bow autj 
hridlM L>aiU the mliht pi* br ittik • itoiU niihl'i evniaci ; 
■od,anct Uufhinfkt (lilt|^cMrMqiMiniUpa*liion of Mtltcoand 
T*|[tionl, h* xldrd MrioiMlf, '■ But Ihtn hiir bmi beiur iUm^ 
on nrth tLu P*ndi<e Loit ihu hare rtmied woim jujmisI \ 
thst Wte Wen F«id iritti the kiITuU ud the aam t" 

LOSDO.-t. 73 

i^inlerrat to tlii* waft a portfolio, in wliicli were 
rrange<l autogra|ili letters from Pope ind Dry- 
en, Washington and FiatikHn, and several from 
■"o.T, ShcridBD, and Scott, aiidrewed to tlie (loet 
bimsclf. Among iLcm was r.liat written by Slieri* 
[dan, ju»t before hi* death, describing the extremity 
^of hilt Rufferiiig, und praying Itogers to come lo 
[Urn. Out I must check my«clf. A cainlnfrue 
usonne of wbat our eyes but glanced over would 
SU folios. I liud the pleasure at breakfast of 
litting next Mr. Bitbhage, whose name is ro 
ell kitowi) among us as the nutlior of the sclf- 
Imlcutating iDudiine. He has a rao»t remarkable 
tcye, that looks as if it might penetrate science, or 
ranything else he chose lo look into. Me described 
Itite iron steamer now building, which has » larger 
onoage than any merchant ship in the world, and 
[expressed an opinion tliat iron Bliip§ would euper- 
de all othi're; and another opinion that much 
IDcems u, and which, I trust, may soon be veri- 
l£«d — tlial in a few years the^e iron steaniert will 
[go to America in <u-ven ibys .' 

Macautay was of tlie parly. Hi« conversation 

[lesembles bis writings; it a rich and delightful, 

EUed witli aneolotes and illustrations from ibe 

Dunding stores of hix overflowing mind. Some 

ay lliiiik he iulki> too much ; but nunc, exei,'pt from 

tfaeir own impatient vanity, could wi&li it were less. 

VOL. I. I 


It was cillicT at Mr. Rogen\ or at a break&il 
a few day* ufter at Mr. R.*s sigter';) (whose bouse, 
by>lli«-wsy, is a fair pendant for bis). tUat we bail 
nach Munkborn's bumour, from n'OTlby disciples 
of tbat king of old b&cbelors, on the subject of 
matrimony. II. siutl tbere had been many a tine 
ID bis life when he sbniilii bare tnanied, if be oould 
some fine day have walked quietly into a village, 
diurcb. and met at tbo altar a Uidy buving come 
at qnictty into aiiotber door, and then, after the 
marriogtT »cn'ice, eacli liavv degiarted tlioir Heparate 
way, with no observation, no speculation upott tbe 
engagement, no cangratulalions before or after. 
Rogers, who seems resolved to win the crown of 
cetibiat martynlom (is tliere a crown for it ?), pnh 
flounced matrimony a folly at any period of life, 
and quoted a saying of some wicked Ttencdict, iKat, 
" no mailer whom yon manied, you would find 
afterward you bad married another person." 

No doubt; but, except with the idealising lover. 
I believe the expectation is as often surpassed a* 
diaappointed. Tbcre is a generous <^inion for a 
■inglv wotnan of your married forluites ! 

I BELIEVE, of ail my plcjuurc* here, dear J. will 
most envy me tliat of seeing Joatinn l)«illic, and of 
seeing her repeatedly at ber own home : llto best 
point of view for all best women. She lives on 

Hampstead Hill, s Fen- miles from town, in u modest 
faooM, witli M]«s Agnes ilaillie, licr only lister, a 

^SiKt kindly and sgrccsblc penion. Miss Bailltc — 
I write tliis for J^ for we women alvays like to 
kitow how not another look and dress — M'l^ BailHe 
lias a vetl-prcscrved appearance ; her fuce lias no- 
tiling of the vexed or sorrowing expression that is 
often BO deeply stamped by a long experience of 

I iife. It indicates a strong mind, great sen si hi lit)', 
and the benevolence tlist, I believe, altrays pr»- 

< cceds from it if iho menrul eonslitntioii be a sound 
one, as it eminently is in Miss Haillie's cusc. tjhe 
lias a plea»iiig figure — what w« call lady-like— that 
is, delicate, erect, and gracefnl ; not the large-boned, 
muscular frame of most English women. She wears 
licr own grey hair: a general fashion by-the-way 
here, which I wish we elderly ladies of America 
may have the ooiirage and the taste to imitate ; and 
•Ite wears the prettiest of brown silk gowns and 
bonneta fitting the beau ideal of an old lady ; an 
ideal she might ins])ire if it luu no pre- existence. 
You would, of course, expect her to be, as she is, 
free from pedantry and all modes of afTeetation ; bnl 
I tltink you would be »urprtiied to find yourielf for- 
getting, in a domestic and confiding feeling, that 
you were talking with the woman whose name is 
best established among the female writen of her 
COODtry; in short, forgetting everything but itiat 
B 2 

76 Loxnox. 

you wcro in the soricty of b most diannini; privair 
Identic W'omiin. Sbc iniglii (would tliat all female 
vriten could!) take for her device a flower tliat 
doMS itself ogainBt tlie uoontide sun, and unfoldi 
in the ercniug shadon's*. 

Wo luDclied witli Miss Buillie. Mr. Tytter (be 
historian ind bis sister were prcM-ut. Lord Wood- 
bousclee, llic intimate friend of Seoti, was tbetr 
fatlier. Joiiniia Baillie appears to uk, from Scott's 
letters to her, to have been bis favourite friend ; 
and tlie eonvcr«alion among so many personally 
familiar with liim naturally turned upon him, and 
many a pleasant anecdote was told, many a tlirill- 
iag word (juolocL 

It was plca«nt to bear tlicse friends of Scott 
and Muclceniie ulk of tliem as familiarly as we 
•peak of W^ B., and other household friend*. 
TLey all ^ee in <l«icril)iiig Mackenzie as a 
' jovial, Iwarty sort of person, without any indica- 
tion in Ills manners and conversatioD of tlie exqui- 

• la Ih* Uolcod SMs Mn. BartMatd wnald ptrbapt dfrU* lh> 
nffrepi *ith Mln BulUc : but b Boilnnd, ^bt at mj Umiut 
obMrrttion eiUndrd, ih< ii nol nicil to high, or H (enerallf nai 
m bcrc. Sfe« hai MpcntnocJ iho gtat dluitvut^e of b«ii| 
««M)ile(*il Ibo orgiB of a *ert. Du not ilio " AJiInu lo lb 
DtUf," u>il (be " Ercnliii'i MnllLallon," rank villi tW bo* 
Esf llib puati7 > Anil ira aai btr ouj*. that <m ** PntadlM^" 
•nd thai on lbs " laMniiilaqor of llulua EiptcuMoH," 


tcanmi. 77 

nte Mntiment lie inrn^vd into liis writings. One 
of the parly rea)ember<:<l bis cominf; hvmv oni- day 
in (^reat g\ee from a coc-kfigln, utid Ills wife saying 
(o Itin), " Oil, Harry, Harry, you put all your foci, 
jugs on paper !" 

I was glad to bear Miss Bailli«, who l» an inti- 
nwie fricixl of Lady Byran, speak of lier witb tender 
reverence, anti of bor eonjiigul infelicity as not al all 
tbe result of any <]iiality or dc-Bcieiicy on licr part, 
but inevitable*. Sirangc this Li not the iiniverwil 
impression, after Jlyron's own declaration to Moore 
ihat " llicre never was a better or even a brighter, 
a kinder, or a more amiable and a^ee&ble being 
tban Udy B." 

After luneli wc walked over to a villa occupied 

by Min nailliv's iicplicH', the only son of Dr. 

Biullie. It conimaniU u view almost as beautiful 

' &od as Engliiili a^tbatfrom KicbmomlHill; a view 

extending far — far over wide valleys and gently* 

fifran, U ImtS ii«nftn(n1 Uia [nlrciidimeota at femiiilao ddicicj 
Mill iMMTt wbicli iha hai nilh tiicb ilijcaltf miiiiuineil. but 
, Ibr the dew«, u tu •■ in mjr huttiblp i>j>hiirc I might do it, to 
I MWTMf Ibc imprarion m pniniting iiinnng ibn reidvrt •■{ Moore 'i 
|1t(i(i*ybj in thia doontrr, tl»l L*>ly It, li one of tboic moat ud- 
Elovelj of WQ9VD, wlio, (mJLikg It vsrjr C4<]r to prrtcrto a iforpen- 
I dWIar line. Iitir no nuRrniii^f tor t1i« ileiiationi of olbcn, >ia 
I apliiuJr. no rirtibililj'. Hon dilTeTTnl Ihii iniR^ from ihn tmtlgr. 
Icoui-tMioulc, lotMbli JTMlitf ! — lb« driuicd molhcr. the Uiiitrd 
|-£nad, UiG bcueftctrcM of poot cliildccn. 



swelling hills, all staniliiig thick nntli coro. Re- 
tuniini:;, wc wviiE to a point on Humptlead Hill 
overlooking tbv pretty " vale of 'ealtb," u our 
cottctiman callit it, and whicli has been to im tlic 
valf of hospitality and inost liomrltkc welcome. 
'I'his elevation, Miis R. told me, «m equal to tliat 
of the ball od the dome of St. Paul's. We could 
juit diticem the dome penetrating far into the 
canopy of smoke tliat overhangs all London. Min 
B. says Scott delighted in tliis view. It ia melan- 
choly, purlentouH. belter Guitc<l, I should think, to 
tlie genius of Byron. I have seen sublime sights 
in my life, a midnight tlnindcr.storai nt Niagara, 
and B " gallant breeze " on the sea-shore, but I 
never *aw to spiril-«tirring a spectacle as ihtt 
immentie city with iu iiidctinilc bouudariM and i(a 
dnll light. Here are nearly two millionii of human 
beings with their projects, puruiits, hopes and 
despnint, their tlrifcx, friendship*, and rirolries, 
tbcir lores and hates, their joys and angu'i-ih, some 
sIce|Hsl to the lips in poverty, otliers encumbered 
wtih lichen, some treading on tlie confines of heaven, 
otlierv in tlie abysMs of sin, and all sealed wiiJi liic 
•cal of immortality. 

The dinner-Iiouf in London, my dear C, Ig 
from MX to eight. I think we have received no 
inritatiou later tlian for half-past leren. Yos 


wwDoir. 79 

the London — tlie English worldf U divided 
into autv*, iind our lultvnt liuvc obtained access 
for us (o familien tliat never come together licre 
in social life. We baire dined tntli Uic suburban 
g^-iitry, people who, enjoying an income of as 
□lany jioundti as our country gentleman ba«dollnrs, 
give you a family-dinner of two or tliree disket 
with Kome siinptc dc^crU For such a dinner one 
of our country ladies would be apt lo make an 
ajjoluj^y ; tlte tnorUfying truth is, that lio«pititlity 
does not run so inacU into eating and drinking 
here, as willi us. Evcrytlang is of the best cjuality 
and served in tbe best manner, but tlierc ia no 
over-loading. Witliout cxiiugcrniioii, I believe 
that the vinn<b for a rich uierc)iant*s dinner* 
party in New York would fuflScc for any holf- 
doscn tables I have seen here; and I am not 
sure that llie suppcr-tnble at 8.'it luill, just be> 
fore I left New York, would not bave supplied 
tbe evening parties of a London season. Tlie 
young men there drank more Champagne than 
I liave seen in London. May we not hope 
Ihnt in three or four seasons we may adopt 
^Attc refinements of civilisucioii? No, not adopt 

precisely. Tbe mode* of one country arc 
not transferable, without modification, to another. 
A people wbo dine at three or four oVIock need 
some niorc kubstantiul refection at ten than a 


cop of blsck tea; but ibcy do not n«cd a lonl- 
roa^'or's feast, tlian whidi notbii^ con be mofr 
Fsscritiully vulgar. 

I told yuu, my dcnr C, tbnt 1 was going to Aine 
at L house. I went, and 1 honestly confcM 
to you tbat, wh^n I drove up tlie approach lo tJtil 
^rcat lord's ma)p)ificcnt mansion, I fctl ibc foolish 
lrcpi<httion 1 remember to have oulTcred when, 
jiut liuving rmci^d from our t«4|ue«tcr«d country 
home, I firm n-t-iil to a ilirinef-|i:irty in town. 
I W1L1 alone. I dreatled con veil tiotial fomu of 
which I might be ignorant, and still more the 
insolent observation to which, as a stranger and 
an Ameriean, I might be exposed. Dot these 
fooli&b fears were dissipated by the recollection of 
the agreeable half-hour I had already inssed with 
Lord L., when I had quilo forgotten that be had 
a lordship Indeed to hit nnintr, or that he was any- 
thing but n plain, highly- infonnvd gcnllcman '. 
I felt, too, tliat an unpreiending woman is ain'nys 
nfe in her aimpUcity ; aiid wlien I alighted and 

■ 1 lu*« bMrd Iku *a &n|lltkru<n, on bda( ttlkai >bu tUwdi 
Um m»tt in AnwriMW^ rrplM, "tlMu i—i frtc ta/l ni; nua- 
am." n«ri «•■ MBC Irnlli ultb miuh commeu b IkU- An 
AmariOin, brad in ik« btal MdMf in bia ova bod, do«* doc fad 
■oj •«!« (bin be KkitonlfilKH npedorltr uf n»k l« nnotbvr. 
Tkt ^liBwdon* of rank w •■ »§ uc ■nil lru]<rrer)-iiblo l« kia ■• 
Ww lw n li iMy 0»€t «« f tbe pmltJ obildku hit tot timltm am 




van received by liuir-a-dozeri flcirantsin wliile an<l 
ciinuKiii Utrerieit, arid annoiinectl Uiruii^li mafpiifi- 
eem a[)aruncDltf, 1 feltiioiDore cmbarniAMncnt tluui> 
as a passably modest woman, I sliuutd buve done 
i» eiilering alone a gi-nili'tnaii's )i»use iii New 
York. Lady L. baji an air of birili and breeding, 
and still mucb beauty, not merely " tbe remains " 
of beauty, for so we always speak of a woman past 
furry. Lady L. wait cuurli-ous not eoiiilcsei-ndinji;, 
the least acceptable grace of thusc who Htaud on ii 
liiglicr Ivvcl tban tlicir a^ocialcs ^ince it betray* 
tbe consciousness of elevation. Tlicrc were several 
poisons in the drawing-room to whom I bad before 
been inlioduced, and I »uoii forgot tliat I wa^ a 
straogcr. Tbc modes of Eiigliisb life are ideiiti- 
colljr our own, and ibcrc whs noibing to remind 
Rie I was nut at borne, save more superb apart> 
nents, a larger train of servants and in livery, a 
dinner- service all of plate, and tbose most covet- 
able luxuries, first-rutc pictures and BCtilpIiirc. I 
perceived iiolliing of tlie studied stillucM wc bave 
beard alleged of Engtibb socieiy. Cverytliing was 
nfttunJ anil rosy. Lord L. luugbcd as heartily 
mT. does, and M. talked to me across the table. 
My dinner ilie nvxt day was far more trying 

in it» clrcumHtanccit tlinn tluit at L Iioubc. 

Acddcnl bud preventi-d my Beeiiiff die Iiiily who 
ioTited me. I unwarily accepted the iiivitutiuii ; 
a 3 

for till you fa&vo passed th« threshold of ncquaint- 
uee, it is very awkward to plung* into a dtDnrr- 
fUtj. i/ly invitations had UMuilIy Iter n at Mircn. 
I Lad carelcisly forgotten tie hour named in 

Mrs. 'ft note, and we concluded it was safest 

to lake the averago hour. The distance was three 
miles from I lajf- Moon-street, longer thun that I 
snppuscd; our dawdlin}^ coachman drove slower 
than usual ; and all the while I was lofmenting 
myself with Uic fear I might be too bt«, aod 

that Mrs. was thinking what a bor« it was 

to be compelled to civility to a idundeniig stranger. 
To put the lii»t drop in my brintiuing cup of 
rexation, ibe ooachrnnn made a miatoke, and had 
twice to drive nnind a large square ; and wbrn 
I fiually arrived, I wai ushered Into an empty 
room — " Portentous ! " tlwught I. The gentleman 
of ibc house enlere<!, aixl, diseonccrted at my 
awkward position, and humanely hoping to belp 
me out of it, he said, stammering, " There is 
SODW mistake 1' ** Heavens, yes I" I groaned 
iuwnrdly. '* Our invitation," hecontinaed, "men- 
tiuned tix as our diiiner-hocr. ^Vc waited till 
teven, and it iit now pnst," {jxtttf it was neariy 
eight) — " you can do as you please about goin^ 
ia!" I looked to the window — the carriage wav 
gone; my ear caught the latt ^at sound of m 
receding wheels. 'I'here was im escape. A bra. 





timid of brrathirig Uiingi 
when tk«re is do alt«nuilive but " to do or die," 
and so was I. I be^ed ten tliouaanil pnrdonB, 
miind Mr. ^-~- that tlie dinner was a perfectly 
nnim porta nt circumstance to me; llial I vould not 
lose iJic only opportunity I tnigbc bare of seeing 

Mrs. , &C. So, with a dim Bmile, be gave me 

kt* ami, nod I entered thr dining-room. Tli«re 
were ten or twelve people present. There wm an 
awful silence, an obvious suHpetition of tlic whole 
ceremony of dinner awaiting my decision. My 
courage was expended; I felt it ebbing, wlien 
H., wlio \Kta sitting next the lady of the honse. 
came to my relief, both hands extended, as if to 
Buvc a drowning creature, lie is, as 1 have told 
you before, the very cmWIimiint of the kindly 
•ociul principle. He ttuppcd my apologies by 
assuming tbat I was tlie injured puny, and dealt 
bit blows to our host antl hostess on the right and 

lefL He declared tlial Mrs. wrote a hand 

no one could deciplier. He never, in u long 
acquaintance, Imd mode out a note of hers, and 
be was sttrc I li<id not been able to tell whether 
I was invited at six or cigbl! He would know 

**liow luul rcceivcl me.' He was certain '* be 

hnd made aome blunder, it was so like him t" 

I answered, wilh strict Initli, that Mr. " bad 

made mc fed comfortiible in a mo&t uncomfortable 



pasition." To my dtsmay, and in spiut of my 

[irotcsbitiotia, Mrs. iosistw) on rc-bciiiiminjj 

ut tli« Alplia of llic dinniT; llic f^iii'^te liiitl rmolird 
the Omega. The toup vna hrouglit back. H. 
averred tbut it was most forCuuale for bim; be 
hnd been kept talking, aiid bad not eaten bslf 
a dinner; <>o lie sUirted fresb with nie, and went 
bt»td fide tlicougb, covering me witli liis l^is as 
I run my gauntlet ibroiigh tlie courses. The 
age of diivalry is mt past. Matcb tliis deed of 
courtesy, tf you can, from tiie lives of iIk- prcnx 
cbevulivrs, taken from tbeir sunrishig to tbvir sun- 
setting. Tl>i« dinner, WVv many olber tb!iig> in 
life, w-as bitter in iu experience and swc«t in iu 

Our pleasantest dinner, 1 tbink, was at K.'s; he 
who gave us tbe "ticket for six" to bis bri-iikfiat. 
I know liim before coming bere as tbe friend of 
maoy of our friends, and tbe autJtor of r«ry 
cbarming pnblUlied poetry. At dinner I «at next 
Procter, lie i« sn uell known to you u " Barry 
Cornwall." tbut you iiave [wibaps forgotten tbiu 
is merely his nom-de-yurrrr. He was one of tlii 
iutiiaate friends of Cburles Ijunb, and spot:c 
him in ju.«t tlie way tbat we, wbo look upon bim 
wiib sometbing of tbe teiKlerneu tbat we do 
upon the departed members of our own bouse- 
bold, •Tould like to Itear liim spoken of. Procter 



made inqairin about tlie difTuflion »f Ivnglub 
titeniturc ill Anu'ricji, and Hliowcd a modcHt 
«arprUc at hvariiig liow wvU he was known 
amoug ua. 

Mr DKAB C , 

I MAr say tliat vc hare scaled tlie ladder of 
evening cnlertuinmenttt Iiere, going from a six- 
o'clock family tea up to a magnificent cunccrl at 
L-- ■ lioa«e ; and (lie tea at tliis liomc-ltkc ti«ur 
njis at Carlj'Ie'i*. Hu in living in lln^ «ulmrlM of 
London, near ilie TtianieEi ; my impression is, iti 
rattier an bumble way ; but when your eye is 
filled with a grand and beautiful lemple, you do not 
udce tJie dimen!>ion!> of surrouniling objeL-l!^; ami if 
any roun can be independent uf them, yon might 
expect Carlyle to be. His head would throw a 
phrenologist into ecatacies. It looks like the 
"forge of thought;" it is; and his eyes have a 
preternatural brilliancy. He reminded nic of wliat 
Lockhart taiil to me, Bj>eiiking of the tiiie of 
WehsiefM head, that lie "b»d brains enough to 611 
balf-a-do2«n bnLs." Carlyle has as strong a Scotch 
accent as >[r. Combe. His Rianucr is simple, 
trntural, and kindly. His conversation has the 
pictnresqneness of his writings and flows as natu- 
rally, and a-s free frrjm GermanUm, as bis own 
mountain streams are from any infusion of German 



ami. He gnro us an inti?resliiig ncvoant of bk 

firat acqitiuiilaric4^ n-iili E n. llv WM lirinj^ 

wilb bi! u-ifv ill N ino«t HrclinU-cl \iiut of Scolbmd. 
Tlicy liail no neigliliours, no communication wttb 
tlie vrorld, exccptinj; once a week or fortniglit, 
when be went some miles to a posUoffice in (he 
Lope of a letter or some other intimation lliat tlie 
world vox going on. One day a stranger came to 
them— n yuun^ Amcricnn — and "he seemed Xo 
them an angel." They spoke of him ns if they had 
never h»t their finl iinpremion of his celestial 
niiitire. Carlyle liad met Mr. \V'cb»ier. and ox- 
prntted n humorous 8uq>rbe that a man from orar 
the sea sliould talk l-'nglish, and be aa lamiliBr u 
the natives wiUi the Kngli«h cointitution and laws. 

"Wllb alt that print KJurlH Mith, 
or Dwilft of Uw, or modn «f faith." 

He said Webster's eyes were like dull fur- 
liMM, that (»»ly wauled hIo\i'in}( on to lighten 
then up. And, by the way, it is quite interestiitg 
to pereeive that our gre^il countrymnu biu mode 
a irnitntion here, where it is nil but lu dilEcuIt 
to moke one as to make » mark on tlie ocean. 
They have given him the sobriiguel of the " Great 
Weatem," am) they seem paniculnrly struck with 
bis appearance. A gentleman said to mc, " Hb 
eyes open, him) open, and open, and you tUnk 
tiiey will never itop opening;" aixl a painter WM 


beard to exclaim, on scetng liim, " AVliat a h«sd ! 
what eyes ■ wbat a moutb 1 and, my God ! what 
colouring ! " 

Wc had a v«ry amusing ereoing at Mr. Hallam's, 
whom (tliiinks to F., us tiiatiks to her for all my 
best privilf-gpB in London) I hare liad the great 
pleasure of »wiiig two or three times. But tliis 
kind of seeing U so brief aiul imperfect, titat it 
amounts to little more than seeing the pictures 
of these great people. Mr. Hullam luu u very 
pleasing couutenaitce, and a most good-humoured 
and playful manner. I quite forgot he was the 
sage of the " Middle Ages." He reminded me 

of ; but Ub simplicity is more genuine: not 

at all that of tlte great man trying to play child. 
You quite forget, in tlie freedom and ease of the 
social man, tlut be n ever tlie hero in armour. 
We met Sidney Smith at his house, the best- 
known of all Ibc wits of the civilised wurlil. The 
company was unall ; be »■:» i' the vein, which is 
like a singer being in voice, and we saw him, I 
believe, to advantage. His wit was not, as I 
expected, a succession of brilliant explosions, but a 

sparkling stream of humour, very like when 

be is at home, and i' die vein too; and, like Um 
also, he seemed to enjoy his on'n fun, and to lia?e 
fattened on it*. 

■ 1 hi«« hail the grace here, after trui«crib1ag and retnuucrlb- 

lie expressed un(|iiBlifiecl approbiiliou of Dickens, 
ud said tlial 10,000 of cncU number of Nicbolu 
Nictk-by wt-rc told. There u'ui » young man pre- 
ti'iit, who, belii^ flu»Iicd nitli >ome recent liivrary 
•ucccss, tviKiired to llirow liiinwlf into the urrnv 
againit thU old lion-king, and, to a lover of Buch 
sport, it would have been pleasant to sec liow lie 
eraekled him up, fle&h, hones, and all. 

The concert at L Louse was in a superb 

jiiallery of M-ulptiire, witli a carved and gilded 
ceiling, and other appropriate and sgilendid accoB^ 
panimenu. I oin told tbiit it i« one of the dtoictM 
collection of amiipiei in the kingdom; liut I liiul 
no op|>ortuniiy of judging or enjoying, for the 
marble divinities were hidden by the gliltering 
morbd*. Wiicn K. and 1 entered, the apartmenls 
wire fillt'd wiih some hundreds of people of the 
first Htmion and fashion in thi; land, luxuriously 
drcMed, and iparkling wilb diamondit, — a »eu of 
&OCS, OS •trangr a« their diuniouds to me. li «ras 
an overpowering kind of tolilude. Ludy L. tiatt 
])otiiely directitl lue to a favourable {Wniiiun, and I 
slunk into ihe first vocanl place I could find: when 

lit then, ta nppMH Mm* fmli bm-aoti «f SUner Smiths oa 
rMMt vstij of f yuto aurbon bring ifikta af. Gntt It b, 
kmwlag b*i> Moch mat* Moqiiabli (o rcadcn f hoD-amU ibtn 
n— iiijinun 




T was beginning to fed quite comforlabic in my 
obHCurity, when K. saiit tu mv, willt »om«:l)iing of 
Uic feeling of Columbus' men nlicn tlivy first cried 

"Lwidl"— "Th*Te m Mr.- — -and Mr 1" 

1'hcse gvDllcmen soon ufter inmlo tlicir wiiy to us, 
and dbsipiud our forlorimca^ In tiie courae of 
die evvning vre miM many agreeable peNon!) to 
whom we had been before introduced, and aeveral 
of the most noted lions of the London tnenugerie 
were pointed out to us, — Ilulwer, Taylor, and 
Tslfoard. Lady Seymour wm lliere, — a superb 
beauty certainty, and well cniilled to ilie electire 
Cfovn »I)C is to wear, ofQueen of Love and Reiinty. 
I was introduced to Mrs. Norton, hIio is lierscif 
a most queenly-looking rreature, a Scmiramis, u 
Sappho, or an Amazon (ilie Greek ideal Amazon, 
remember, uniting muscolino force with feminine 
deUcncy, or anylbinf; that ex]jre«ie» the perfection 
of intellectual and physical beauty). There u 
anotlier of tlie«e Slieriilan M.'ilers celebrated for her 
personal charms. 1 had read but a few mornings 
before, as I mentioned to you, that miserable death- 
bed letter from tlieir penniless grandfather, and I 
WM somewhat struclc with the shifting scenes of 
life when I saw these women occupying the most 
brilliant position of tlie most brilliant circle in 
London. But what arc gold and lands to the rich 
inheritance of SLcridun^s genius and Miss Liuley's 



It is indeed n roynl cntcrtoinmcnt to pve on«*a 
f^uests siicit MtigiDg us GHhTs, Gurda'it, LablacbeV, 
und Kubitii's, atii) cm, I au[>]iase, only be giren 
by UiOAC H'lio liave "royal revenues*." 

Wb p9fsied an evening at Miss C'a; she b truly 
what tbe English call a " nice person ; " as modeal 
in her drmi-anDur m OTie of our village l^rls who 
liii» a ^od or^n of ren^'rutiori (rare enough arnonj; 
our young |)CO|d(.>), und tim is saying somcibing 
for llie ricliotii lieire^s in KnglnmL I was first 
iitnick here, atid only here, with the subdued tooe 
we hear so much of in English society. When 
we first entered Klin C/g immenitc d^awi^g-rooa^ 
there were a few dowager* scattered up and down, 
appearing us few and far between as settlers on a 
prairie, and apparently finding inlercommunicaliaa 
qttile as difficult. And though the numbers soon 
Multiplied, till the gentlemen came genial from 
the dinner-table, we were as solemn and as still 
a* a New-England conference-me«ting before th« 

• I UAnk ant of oar parlin dbiI lUlIu an Eii|iUbinaa Ukc • 
Bitsnj btfl. Etcd in lliii imnfiiM iMnElilj bi t~ booM I hw 
Inr 74«K fop)*- Bout mtnmttj Tonog : but t mntl taiJtm Iht 
iMl Muniib Mnicli me u *rr; Hpcriar in ph}ii»l coudlclon taA 
bwBlf t» a dmiltt uKmblj villi ui. Our grrl, Kith htr datkaM 
KtatsTti and njinph-llkc ftturc. ii fu more lo*clj tn liar licit bwb- 
BMi than tbe Eu(lub ; bui Ibt KoilliAaoaiin, la bcr ripiMMaai 
fall d«rtlofntkt, far luipuwi oura. Slit U lupctb Uam Iwour 







mitililer comes in. Tliis I think, wan rndier the 
effect of accident tliati faiiliicin, the youDg ladjr's 
quiet and roMrved manner having the subduing 
influence of a wbisi)er. Sodety here is quieter 
lliun OUTS, certainly. This is perhaps the result of 
tlie difiiercnt iriBteriuh of which it is compounded. 
Our New- York evening parties you know, are 
itiado up of about «eventy-five parts hoys and ^Hs, 
the other twcnty-Gve being their papas and mam- 
mae, atid other ripe men and women. The spirits 
of ft mass of young people, even if they be essen- 
tially vell-hred, uill explode in sound ; ibence the 
general din of voices and shouts of laughter at our 

I bave rarely seen at «n evening party here 
anything beyond a cup of black tea and a bit of 
cake, dry as "the remainder biscuit after a voyage." 
Oenuionally we have ices (in alarmingly small 
quantity !) and lemonade, or something of that sort. 

At I>- house tlicre wan a refreshment- la hie 

spread for three or four hundred people, much like 
Min D.'s at her New-York soirees, which, you 
may rvoicmber, wan conitidered quite a sumptuary 
plieaomenon. I am thus pariiciilar to reiterate to 
you, dear C, tliat the l-'ngli^h hiive got so far in 
dvUtsatioD as not to deem eating and drinking 
■MCeaary to lite enjo)-ment of society. Wi- are a 
Imisitien people, and I liope we sliall not lag far 
behind then. 



I have mot many peraons here whom to ni««t 
was like s«viii)if tlic originals of familiar picturea. 
Jane Porlcr, Mrs. OpJc, Mrs. Austen, Lockbart, 
Milmaci, Mnnvr, Sir Francis Cliantrey, &c.* I 
owed ^t^s. 0]>ie « ^odgc for huving made me, 
in my youUi, cry my i-ycs out over Ler stortn; 
but her fair, cheerful face forced me to furgft It. 
She long ago forawore die world luid its vuititiea, 
and adopted llic Qitnkcr fiiith and cofttume : but 
I fancied tliat ber elaborate »implicity, luid Uie 
fa^liioiiable little tmiu to tier pretty ulin gown, 
indicated liow miicli easier it is to adopt a 
tlieory tlian to cliaiigc one's liabits. Mrs. Aus* 
tea «taiiitH liigh licrc for personal diaracler, as 
Well iH for (lie very inferior but iindlApuIed 
pnifMrty of liu-ntry uceampUshments. [let tiBn»- 
Utions are ho excellent tliat tliey class ber with 
good original writers. Jf Iter manncn were not 

■ 8mm otmt ratdtrt any bt rar|iriifd to mil* trom the Bit «f 
IfagM tminnil pcriona lie nams nf the t*o femtl* uniivi niwt 
iwd In the L'aili>< Slain, Ulu Manlneta aoit Mri. Jftmaoa. 
HiM MunoMU vu oii llic Cuutbienl •bra I km In tioniloD. aad 
■pvAiog uf Jin. J>n<non in Ibia fiublic wmjr would H«n> to m« 
mocb like ]>ull>ii[ (li« [lirdira of an inllmato and dear tiitad lato 
BO akiblUun-nioii). Bnadfa, hrr ran (ilta, her attaininMla. wiJ 
•W al*Ml Hatfunf d rlubncH aad charm of her toaieruiion, are 
wdl kiu»a in t\at cooalij. Ilul «illi at! Uiew a >Dmaii may ha, 
aft** aV, bol a kind of oioniln ; bo* fir Ihrj art tnninadad l)f 
lh« nrtwa aad atlractioDa t-f l>«r dMBOtle life. It "a* iivr bapft- 
■Ma to kooiT from aeelng her dalJj to her Engliab boiMi. 



strikingly conventionBl. she would conol^nlly 

remind me of ; elie has tlie same Madame 

Koliiiid order of arclittcrture and outline, but 
fche n-ants licr chtirm of iiatnrulncs* iind nttrac- 
tive swet'iness; so it may not scvm to Mrs. A-'s 
usteni and fond friviidH. A cumpuuy itttitudc is 
rarely anybody's best. 

There ia a moat pleasing franknewt and soeial 
diann in Sir Francis Ciiantrey'H niaimer. I called 
bim repeatedly jVr. Cliunlrey, mid begged liim to 
pardon me on tbe ground of not being " natit'e to 
tlie manner." He lau^lied good-naturedly, and 
said something of having been longer accustomed 
to the plebeian designation. I heard from Mr. R. 
o much stronger illustrauon than this of this cele- 
brated artist's good sense and good feeling too. 
Chimtrcy wm brcakffiHting n-icli Mr. II., when, 
pointing to some carving in wood, he o&ked R. 
if he remembered that, some twenty years before, 
be employed a young man to Ao that work for him. 
R, bad but an indistinct recollection. *' I was 
that young man,** resumed Chantrey, and "very 
glad to get the five shillings a day you paid me !" 
Mr. B. told 8 pendant to this pretty story. Mr. 11. 
was discussing with Sir Francis the propriety of 
gilding Something. I forget what. \i. ww sure 
it ooulil be done, Cliantrey as sure it could iiot^ 
and '*i ahould know,'" he said, "for 1 was once 



appri^ntice to a carver and gilder." Perhaps, aAer 
all, ii i$ not so crowning a grace in Sir Francb 
CliaiKrey to refer to the obscure moniing of his 
brilliant «lay, as it is a <li«sraco to the paltry world 
tliat It eIiouUI be so eonsidcrpd. 

I hiivc seen Owen of Lanark — a curiottity ratlicr 
from tlic sensation Ik- iit oik- time prmhirvd in our 
country, tlian from anylliing very exiraordinar)' in 
the man. He is pushing his theories with unabated 
zeal. lie n-ast^ an hour in trying to convince 
roe that he could make ))iv world over and "set 
all to rights,'* if he were permitted to substitute 
two or tlire« truthti for two or tlirec prevailing 
erront ; ntid on iho nmc murning a [ihilaiithropical 
phrei>ul<^ist endeavoured to show me how, if hta 
theory were established, the world would soon 
become healthy, wealthy, and n-isc. Both be- 
lieve tlie good work la going on — hnp[>y men ! 
So it bat always been ; tlivre must he Nomc pliilo- 
lopher's stone, some sliort-luind process, ratlun* 
timi the alow way of education and religious 
discipline which, h> us, Providence Me«m9 to liavc 

Yov will perhaps like to know, my dear C, more 
definitely than yuii cm* got them from these few 
anocdotCN of my month in London, what imprc»- 
sioiift I have received here ; and I will give them 

iiONDOK. 95 

feirly to you, premising that I am fully aware how 
imperfect they are, and bow false some of them 
may be. TiBvellen should be foi^ven their 
monstrous errors when we find there ore so feir 
on whose sound judgments we can rely, of the 
character of their own people and the institutions 
of their own country 

In the first place, I hare been struck with 
the identity of the English and the New Eng- 
land character — the strong femily likeness. The 
oak-tree may be our emblem modified, but never 
changed by drcumstances. Cultivation may give 
it a more graceful fonn and polish, and brighten 
its leaves, or it may shoot up more rapidly and 
vigorously in a new soil ; but it is always tlie oak, 
with its strength, inflexibility, and " nodosities." 

With my strong American feelings, and my love 
of home so excited that my nerves were all on the 
outside, I was a good deal shocked to 6nd bow very 
litde interest was felt about America in the circlet 
I chanced to be in. The truth is, we are so &r 
off, we have so little apparent influence on the poli- 
tical macliinery of Europe, such slight relations 
with the literary world, and none with that of art 
and fashion, that, except to the philosopher, the 
man of science, and the manufacturing and labouring 
classes, America is yet an undiscovered country, 
as distant and as dim as — Heaveu. It is not, 
perhaps, to be wondered at There are new and 


exciting cTPnls ovciy day st ibclr own iloon, and 
tlii-TT arc acnimtilnttons of inlvrasu tn Europe to 
oeeufiy a lifetiiii?, and tliore ure few anywhete wbo 
can abide JulmsouH teM wlicn lie says tliai "wliat* 
ever withdrawn iia from the power of our eenoe*, 
whatever idbIcph iIic pust, the dittant, or the future 
predominate over the present, advances u* in llie 
difTfiity of tliiiikiiig liciiiirit." Iiiqu!rie« are nftrn 
put to me about my couiitryt and I biugli at my 
own Cftvenicvt lo impart knoM-led|;e ami exult 
their id«M of uk, wlien I perceive my liearer* lijt* 
teiiitifr u-irli the foreed interest of a courteous peraon 
(o a teller of dreams. 

One evening, in a circle of eminent people, the 
qucBtiofl was started, "what country eame next in 
tlieir affections to England?" I listened, in my 
l^eennesa expecting to hvitr one am) all m] 
" America;" no, not one feeble voice uttered the 
name. Mrs. • . with lier Iml love of art, natu- 
rally answered, "Italy is_/Jr«( to uj> all." "Oh, 
no," replie«l two or tliree voieeH; '* England finit, 
and next — Oermany." " Eiiftland fin>t,''iaid Mis. 
A., *' Germany next, and 1 think my third eotiniiy 
b — Malta!" I thought of my own land, plant 
from the Eii^li»h stock, where tbc productions 
these verj' speakers arc most widely circulaledf' 
an<l, if destined to lire, miisl have their lon^m 
life ; the land ivliere the moHl thorough and hope- 
ful experiment of tlic capadly of the human race 



for knowled^, virltie, 1ia])pine«», and lelf-povcrn- 
nicnt » DOW makiug; the Ltml of promUe uiiil 
protection to the poor and disheartctiod of every 
country ; uid it seemed to me it sliould liave Bup«r- 
«ed^ in their affectiooa countries comparaiively 
forci^i lo tliem. 

I buve He«n instanccti of ignorance of us in qitor- 
ten where you would »cftrcdy expect it: for exam- 
pie. a very cultivated man, a bUliop, asked K. if 
there were a theatre in America ! and a per§on of 
equal dimity inquired "if the Society of Friends 
was not tlic prevailing religious sect in Boston T 
A litenry man of nome diHtidCtion asked me if tlie 
Edinburgh and Quarterly Reviews were read in 
America: and one of the cultivated women of 
England naid to me, in a sootliing tone, on my 
expressing admiration of Engli&h trees, " Oh, yon 
will have such in time, when your forests are cut 
dotrn. and they have room for their limbs to spread." 
I raiilad and was silent : but if I saw in vision 
oar graceful, drooping, elm-em boworing roofU of 
ground, and, as I looked at tlic s^fF, upright English 
elm. had something of tlic phuri«aical " holier than 
thou " flit over my mind, 1 may be forgiven. 

I was walking one day with some young English- 
wotnen, when a short, sallow, broad man, to whom 
Nature had been niggardly, to say tlie le.!ist of it, 
passed us. "I think," said I, "that is a countryman 
of mine; 1 have seen him in New>York." " I took 

VOL. I. r 


bin for an American/' said one of my companion!, 
with perfect nonchalance. "Pray lell me «Ay * 
" He looks ao like tlie pictures in ^f ra. TroUope''* 
book!" It is true, this was a secluded youag 
person in a provincial town, but 1 fi-lt mortilied 
tiiai in one fiiir ynnn^ mind Mr«. Trollope> vulvar 
earicaturcit tliould stand m tlte type uf my Gomn> 
try men. 

I have heard persons repeatedly ezpretsinff a 
deHire to Tisit America — for what? "To »ee a 
prairie" — "lo sec Niagara" — "to witness the 
manner of tlie help to their employers ; it must be 
10 vcf)' comical ! " but, al>ovc all, *' to cat canmss- 
b«ck ducks !" llic canvass-bdcks axe iu the Tiria 
of America what St. Peter's is in the view of 
Rome. Itiit patience, my Anr C In the first 
phce, it matters Ultle wluit such tliinken tbink of 
us ; and tlien things are meniting. The itvamen 
bare already cancellcil half (be distance betwatn 
tlie two conliuents. The two worldit are daily 
weaving more ch»ely their interests and tlmr 
fricnd«)iips. I have been delighted with the hifrh 
adminition expressed here in all quarters of Dr. 
Clianning, and, above all, to find that his pure 
religion Itaa, wiih iu aiifrel's wings, sunnountcd 
the walls of sectarianism. I have hraid him spoken 
of wiih enthusiasm by prelates as much distin- 
guishcd for their religious seal as for their station. 
Prescotfs liistory is spoken of in tenns of unqu*- 

I!fi«d pn»c. I bave kitovn but on« excq>tion. 
A reviewer, a bypercritic "dyed in the wool," rat 

iwjtt mc at Mrs. \ dinner. He mid Mr, 

Prc»coU mutt not hope to pan tlie English cnstoni- 
house tinles* b« wrote purer Enjr|i<i]i, and fae 
adduced several wordii wliicli I bave forgotten, I 
ventured to say that new words sprung out of nev 
combinations of circumstances:* tliat, for example, 
tbe French revolution bad created muny words. 
" Yes," he replied, " and American words may do 
for America; relation to England, 
a province. England must give the law to rcitilert 
and n-riters of English." After ttomc other flippant 
oritidsms, lie ended with saying, that the History 
of Ferdinand and Isabella was one of the best 
extant, and tiiat Mr. Fre^cott had exhausted the 

He ciiid, what was quite true before the hiibit8 
of colonial deference had pawed away, but is no 
longer, <* that an American book has no reputation 
in America till it is stamped with English authority, 
and then it goes off edition after edition." He 
tittered sundry other impertinences; bat, aa be 

* I wu pCriKk wilh (hr iliirirrnl linf* tii»l ale ttkrn ot the tUDt 
•Bbjcttin diSprtn[potilinni,wb<!ai(t<r«*rtli inscoiiTfrMtlun nith 
iki wlabntcd M*nMni, he uktd me if Amerioa. in amincl paling 
ktncif from pslilitsl dtpeaiaief. IibJ &Iio obtained tnlilldctual 
frtcdom; if, uncDalaTfd bjr the clouic mod^la of En^iond, we 
TCDton to aiixlilf Ihn lanftiiajii, *ii<I lo uae luch nen phrkUa and 
wordi M oatnnllr aiinlun frum new ctrcnmiMncei ! 



seemed good-natured uod uiicoriscioua th&t (bey 
were to, 1 Kct Uicm down to the account of iiitU- 
vidiial igiionincc uiid prejudice, nut to tiaUonalityi 
wbicli has too often to answer for private tina. 

Society, as 1 liave before told you, Liu tbc saioi- 
gcnoTal features here as H'itli us. Tbe women 
have llic ttame time-uasUng mode of making 
moming vittits, wliidi i« even more consuming than 
with us, iiiusjnuch as die di«uincc« are greater. 

What would Mrs. do in London, who thought 

It reason enough for removing from New- York to 
the country, that Hhe hail to spend one morning of 
every week in driving about town to leave visiting 
cords? One would think that the proposition which 
eircuUtes as undeniable truth, that time is the raoet 
valuable of possessions, would piereot this lavish 
expeuditure. But it is uot a truth. Nothing is 
less valuable to nine-tenths of mere society people, 
or less valued by diem, than time. The only tbiog 
they earnestly try to do is to got rid of it. 

1 have seen notliing here to change my opinion 
that tliere is Rometliing in the Anglo-Saxon race 
nsentiolly adverse to the spirit and gnwe of society. 
I have seen more invention, spirit, and ease in one 
wircc in a German liunily at New- York, tkmn 1 
have ever teen here, or sliould see ia a aeasoo lo 
purely American todely. An Eajrllahiiiaii has an 
uiicomfoTtable eonsciousncM of the presence and 
otMervaiion of oUiers; an immense love of appro- 





tion, with citlier a oliyncs!) or a de6ance of 

Thoroughly well-bred people are e«sentially th« 
tame ercrywhere. You will find much more con- 
▼entioiialhrccitinghere tli&n with us, and, of cotine, 
the gennal level of manners it higher and tlic 
surface more uniform. 

" Socl*(ji ii »mooth»d to that mgbm, 
Tlul mannart differ hirdl; aioris ihin Sttlt." 

'Biey are more quiet, anil 1 should say tlierc was 
indiviiliialiiy ; but from a currespoiidiiig remark 
baring been made by English travellers among us, 
I take it the impression results from the very slight 
rerelation<i of character ihat are made on a transient 
acquaintance. There is much more variety and 
richness in conversation here, resulting naturally 
from more leisure and higher cultivation. But, 
after all. there se^ms to mc to be a great defect in 
conversation. The fea«t of wit and rcawn it may 
be, but it i» not the flow and mingling of soul. 
The Frenchman, insinicted by his amour proprty 
sud truly, " Tout If moiuU aime planter ton mot."' 
Conversation seems here to be a great arena, where 
pach speaker is a gladiator who must take his turn, 
put forth his strength, and give place to his sue- 
CMSOr. Each one is on llie watch to seize hi« 
opportunity, show his power, and disappear before 
hi) vanity is wounded by an indietLion Uiat he is 

■ " Kiwf mu Ukci to put la bit *ord." 



in die way. Thus ooavenation becomes a nte- 
ceasion of illuminations and Iriamplis — or failuMC 
llterc M no sucli " horrfur^ wt a burc ; do •ucb 
boTC as a proscr. A boro miglit be d^fitivd to be » 
person tlmt uiutl be lUtennl Ux. I rvraeinbef R. 
saying tlut "kingn are always borcx, and mo are 
royal <lukes, for tliey must not be inlemipted ai 
long as tliey please lo talk." Tlie crowning; gniee 
uf conversalion, ilie listening uilli plnued i*agcr- 
nes», I liuvc nirifly Ken. Wlicn I>r. C. waa Ufid 
Uial ('ukTldgL- )>i<iiiuunct.'d liiiu tlic raoai agrccabk 
American be liod ever seen, he rej)lted, "'lliCB It 
was because lie found me a good It^lener, for I said 
absolutely notJiiog !" And yet, at far a» w majr 
judge from Coleridge's Table-Tatlc. be would liar* 
beeu die gainer by a fairer buttli; iban Uiat wlitf* 
*■ 0»g toAt onlf gi>M lod t'othic UkM Uw hUnn." 
A feature in society Iicrc lliat most be atrili- 
ing to Anieri<.'»n«, is tlie great number of siogic 
women. Witli ils you know, few wotnen live (u 
beyond their minority unmated, and lltou; few sink 
into tlie obscurity of some friendly fireside. But 
liere lliey luive an independent existence, punuIUi 
and inSuencc, and iliey arc mucli happier for Jt: 
mind, I do not say happier tban fortunate wiitm 
and good motliers, but tlinn thoM who, not hafing 
drawn a busltund in the lottery of life, resign 
tbenwrlves to n merely passive existence. I^g- 
Itttbwomen, married aiid single, bare more leisure, 





and fu more opportunity for iiilell«ctua) cultiva- 
tion, tlian witli ua. 'I'be ol>jecls of art arc on 
every side of tliem, exciting their mioda tlirougli 
tlieir Mutations, atid filling lliom with images of 
bmuty. Tlivrc \», witJi us, fur more nece^ity. 
asd of coune t^portunity, for tlic development 
of a womair.H iacultiei for domestic life, lliaii livro ; 
but this, i think, b couuterbalanced by women's 
necessary independence of the other sex liere. 
On the whole, it seems to me there is not a more 
loreable or lovely woman lliati the American 
matron, steudfuat in h<.'r cunjii^id dulies, devoted 
to the progreHS of licr children and the happiness 
of iKr bouschold, nor a more powerful crcataic 
tliwi the Bnglishwomaii in tlie full Mtrenglh and 
derelopment uf her cbanictcr. 

Now, my dear C, a word a» to dress for the 
womankind of your family. 1 do not comprehend 
wliat our £iigli>li friend*, who come among us, 
mean by iJieir comments on the extravagance of 
dress in America. I have seen more velvet and 
cosiljr Eace in one hour tn Ken«iiij;ton Giirdens than 
I ever saw in Ncw-Vork; ami it would take all 
the diamonds in tlic United States to dress a 
duchess for an evening at L - bouse. You 
may suy that lace iind diamonds are transmitted 
lusuriesi bcir-looms (a species of inheritance we 
know little about); still you must lake into the 
account the immense exccM of their wealth over 



OUTS, before you can have a notion of Uie cLuparitjr 
between us. 

Tli^ women here np ro five -and -forty (and 
iplendid women iiiuny of ibem are up to tlast 
ago) drean witli taste — Rtnesi; after that, abomi- 
nably. Womt-n to seventy, and Heathen knows 
kow much longer, leave tlieir necks and arms bare; 
not here and there one, " blinded, deluded, and 
nits^idcd,*' but whole oMemblieii of &t womea — 
and, O tempom ! O mores!— and lean. Such 
parchment nvckit lu I buve seen bedizened with 
diaroondit, an<l arms bared, tlutt seemed only 6t to 
hold the sciwtors of destiny, or to stir llie cablrmi 

of Macbetli's wiiches. dresses in azure 

satins and roH'-co loured vilks, and bares her nma 
as if they were as round and dimpled as a chetub'Sf 
though they are mere bunches of sinews, tbat •ecn 
only kept together by that nice anatomical con- 
trirance of the wristband, on which Paley expa- 
tiates. This pos^mo^Urm demonstmtioti is, per- 
haps, after all, an act of penance for {ttxt mnitiea, 
or perha|i« it h a benevolent admonition to the 
young and fair, that to this Isvour tbey roust cvoa 
M last I Wboknowal* 

■ II it lo b« bo|HN] Ibat Mn. , In her ftoalKd ■•«•; M 

lb* pbiloiopb^ at ima, will giio toat hinU to our old laAca bM 
to nolUr tbo bimouin bj •ruiag aubarD hair orrt atUihUd 
brovf, wkd M>iDc to our jounf nmncii un Uic b«4 Lattr of diu. 
Hrmitj of ootlDine. ■libonl nbrmcv (o iadiridaal « irmaUMflM 
or appunnc*. Kw ovn (inuiU7*omni do act arti tbnc Mg- 



^K The entire absence of what teema to us fimeu 
^f§OT the w&son may m part result from Uie climate. 
In June and July, you know, we have all our 
dark uiil brighi coloun, luul rich ttuBii — every- 
thing that can elicit the idea of warmth, laid 
aside ; here we see every day velvets and boas, 
and purple, orange, and cherry «llu Hn<l aatina. 
Cherry, indeed, is the prevailing colour ; cherry 
lemtber* the favourite Ecod-drcss. 1 saw the 
DuchcM of Cambridge the other evening at the 
opera with a crimson-velvet turban 1 Remember, 

tt i> July ' 
We have seen in the gardens plenty of delicate 
nu»lin» over gay-coloured silks; tliis is graceful. 
bui to tu it seems inappropriate for an out-of-door 

The absence of tasle in the middling classes 
produces results that are almost ludicrous. I am 

»biclined to think taste is an original faculty, and 
only capable of a certain direction. This might 
explain the art of dre«s as it exists among tbe 
Engliab, with llie close neighbourhood of I'aris, 
and Frencli milliners actually living among them; 
and this might solve the mybcery of tlie extjuiMte 
taaU in gardening in England, and the total ab- 
•ence of it in France. 

As you descend in tbc scale to those wbo can 
_liave only reference (o the neces»itie» of life in 
beir dress, tlic English are far superior to us. 
r 3 


Here come in tlivir ideas of neatness, comfort, ud 
durability. Tlie bbouring duses are mucli morr 
suitably drcNsed than oure. TItpy may kave le« 
finery for holidays, and their servants may oot be 
M smartly ilrra«d in the evening as are our doac!^ 
tics, bul tliey arc never shabby or uncleaitly*. 
Their dotlu-K arc of stouter xutFt, tlivir shoes 
stronger, and tlieir dress betu-r ((reserved. We 
have not, you kitow, been into th« manufaclurnig 
di»tricl8, nor into the dark lanes and hol« of 
London, where poverty hides itself; but I du not 
reuiember, in live weeks in England, with my ejro 
pretty wide open, ever lo have seen a rag^rcd at 
dirly dress. Dirt and mg« arc the only thingi 
tliat come under a rigid sumptuary law in Eog- 

Order is England's as tt is t leaven's, first Uw. 
Coming from our head-over-Iieels land, it is strik- 
ing and beautiful to sec the prcctw order that pre- 
vails tiere. In the puUic inMitutioni, In pri\'Bte 
houses, in the streets and tlioroiighfarcs, you enjoy 
the security and comfort of ihit lleaven-bom |>rin- 
cipte. It raises your ideas of the capacities o( 
human nature to see such maues of beings M 
there arc in l^iidon kept, wiiliout any violation 
of their liberty, witliin tho bounds of order. 1 ma 


• Wosid it not be b«ttn if our neb emiAojtn «a*U | 
Otlt inttM^trTMU 10 <mrtt ctj-*, *ai Imis liiwrici UcaaMriw 
lAoM taj^tuthnu Ikrr •*!(? 




told the police system of Tiondon bas nearly M- 
taiu«d ]>erf(M:Uoii. I tliould tliiiik no irom liiv 
results. It is taid tbat women may go ioto Oie 
street at any hour of the iiiglit witbout fear or 

daDger; and 1 know that Mrs. lias often left 

us after ten o'clock, refusinjt the attendance of our 
servant as supctfliioii*, to ^i alone through several 
strc«-tB to the omnibus that takes her to her own 

The syittero of ranks here, as absolute as tlie 
Oriental easle, is Ibe feature in English sonet)- 
noit striking to an American. For the progress 
of the human race it ti'as worth coming to the New 
World to get rid of it. Yes, it was worth all that 
our portion of the human family §acriliced, encoun- 
tered, and suffered. This system of rastcs is the 
HOT* galling, clogging, and unhcultliy, fnim its 
perfect unfitness to tiip present state of freedom 

I and progrcAN in Kiiglan<l. 
Travellers laugh at our pretenuona to equality, 
Bod Sir Waller Scott has said, as truly as wittily, 
tfiat there is no perfect equality except among the 
Hotteniota. But our inequalities are as changing 

* Wbra «• had b«cn !n Laodoa wms »««ki,onB ot 017 pari; 
Mkul ma If 1 h*d not mitHil Ibc New-York (iKk* of brick* and 
■OrtBT, Mill it I bud obtcncd that «« liid not oner litnril • rrT of 
"life"' In tlicKreipccU tho conlrul to our buildiQ; ■odbumiDg 
(■I7 t* UriUnc. [d llflecD monUii' abienoe 1 neret boud (b« cry 


as tlie ouTface of the ocean, and this makes alt the 
difference. Each rank is set about here with a 
thorny, impervious, and almost impamable l>«dg*. 
W« haw our wullit of separation, certunljr: bat 
they are as oasily knocked down or sonnount^d t» 
our rail-fence«. 

With us, talent", and education, and refined 
loanners command respect and observance : and so, 
I am sorry to say, docs fortune : but fortune has 
more tlian its proverbial mutability in the United 
States. 'Ilie rich man of to-day h the poor man 
of to-morrow, and so nee versa. Tins nmtable* 
nesa has its eviU, undoubtedly, and so has CTCfy 
modiftcalion of human condition; but better the 
evil dint is accidental than ihut which is autliorised. 
cherished, and inevitable. That system ia most 
geoeroun, mo^t Cliriittian, which ullovre a fair start 
to all; Rome must reach the ^al iM-fore others, am, 
for ibe roost p»rt, tlic race is urdatiicd to the swift, 
and ilie battle to the strong. 

But you would rather liave my obserrations than 
my speculations ; and as, in my brief snrrey, I 
luive only seen the outside, it is all I caa give yoa. 
my dear C. I have no details of the vices of any 
class. I Ikavc hear<l shocking anecdotes of the 
corruption prevailiiif^ among the high people; and 
men and women liave been pointed out to roe Id 
public places «*ho have been guilty of notorioin 
conjugal infidelities, and the grossest violations of 




parental duly, witboiit Icising ca<)te; and th» J 
hare beard imputed to tlieir belonging to a body 
tliat is abore public opinion. I do not see liow 

» can be, nor why the opinion of their own 
body dora not Ix'ar upon them. Siireiy there 
riimid Ke virtue enough in such propli- as the 
Marquis of I^iiMlnwiitt and the Duch«s8 of Sutlicr- 
knd to banish (mn ilioir world tlic violators of 
those luws of God and mnn, on which rest tlic 
foundation!! of Hocial virtue and h.-ippinesB. 

ThoM who from their birth or their successful 
talents are assured of their rank, have the best 
manners. 'Iliey are perfectly tninquil, safe behind 
the .entrenchments that have stood for ages. They 
• it to Ibe aspirants to be the videttes and 
<lefpnders of tlic oulworks. Those persons I have 
jnei of the highest rank have tlie siinphMtt and most 

formal manners. I have before told you that 

L' and the Bishop of reminded me 

of our friends Judge L and Judge W , 

our best- mannered country-gentlemen. Their 
lordships have rather more conventionalism, more 
practice, but there is no essential difference. De- 
wend a little lower, iind a very Utile lower than 
those gcntr)' who by birth and association arc 
Interwoven with the nobility, and you will »ee 
people with education and refinement enough, as 
ynit would think, to ensure them the tranquillity 
that comes of self-respect, manifesting a conscious- 



^^net o 



Dcss vf iufi^riority ; in kome il «L|»p4>ar8 in lemlity, 
as in Mrs. ——, wlio, liaririg scnunblod on to 
'a i^liuuldiTS uiitl f^M « pci.'|i inltfdic lord-and- 
Udy wurld, and lieiird Ui<! bux« (Lat rises from the 
pTei-iiicU of liiickirijjliaiu Palace, cntertuincd us 
tliroitgli a long morning visit wilb third or foarlb 
hfiiid stories al>i>ut "poor Lady I'lora;^ or iii ob»e*| 
quiousuess, as in the very pretty wife of > 

wiiose eyes, clii-eks and voice urc cliaiigcd if sJie 
is but spoken to by b titled person, Utouglt slie 
r«iniiins as iinpuuive us polar ice to tliv influence 
of a plebeian presence. Some nuiiiifest tJieir im|>u- 
tieiicv of lliis ra»«ahi^c of caste io a petulant but 
iin|ioteiit rasistancv, and otiicnt sliow a crushed 
feeling;, not ilie liumilily of tli« flower lliat luu 
growu in the sliadt^, but ibe abasement and inca- 
pacity ever to rise of that wbieti tuu Wen trod<)rD 
under foot. Even the limbs are siiifened and the 
gait mudilied by ibis coDseiousness tiiat baiiuts theu 
from tlic eraiilc to tlie grave. 

A cerbUD great tailor was here yesterday morn- 
ing to take K.'s liireetions. His bad gramnuir, bis 
obsL'tjuiousness, and bin more tban oiiee ^vouring 
us uritb the iiifurnuilion tiiat be luid un appoint- 
ment witb tiifi Duke of — », brouglit forcibly to 
my niinil tlie person wlio holds the corretpomling 

position in S . 1 tliouglil of bis frank and self- 

r«s)>ccling nwiiner, bJa well-infonned mind, \m 
good influence, and the probable destiny of liii 



cbtldren. 1 Ivave you to jump to my ooiiclu- 

Tlic language of tlie sliopmen bere indicate* 
a want of education, and tlteir obsequiowmess 
expresses their consciousneiis tliat tliey are tite 
" ibings tbnt lire by bvwing.^' And, by-the-way, 
I see notliing like the rapidtry of Diorrmcnt and 
adroitfletw in sening tbut you find in » Neu-Vurk 
•hoj). Yciti may buy a winter''« supply at Stewart's 
vbile batf-a-dozen articles are sbown to you liere, 
If you buy, tbcy tluuik you ; and if you refuse to 
buy, you bear tLc prescribed uutnuiiiton, " Tbank 
you r I say "prescribed," for you often perceive 
■n Dndc^cllr^cIlt of insolence. You will believe 
me tbat it is not civility to wliieb I object. 

As you go fartber down from ibe tradestmui to 
tltc scn'ant, tbe marks of caste are still more offen- 
sive. MisB took me to tlie cottage of dieir 

berdsman. He bad married a forourile servant, 
wbo bad lived, 1 believe, from cbildbood in tbe 
family. Tbe cottage was surroundt-d and filled 

witb marks of nITcction and liberality. Miss 

had told roe tbat tbe wonuiu belonged to a class 
now nearly extinct iu England. " 1 verily believe," 
she said, " sbc ibioks my motbcr and myself arc 
made of a diHvrent day from bcr;" and so ber 
manner indicated, as tdie ntood in a corner of tbe 
room, witli lier arms reverently folded, and court- 
•eyit^ witli every re]>ly she made to Miss , 



though nothing could be tnorr kiiKHy gradoiu than 
her matiner. I tliought of that Hear otd tiarwe 
who, though wearing the colour that >« a brand 
among us, antl not exceeded id devotednev by 
any feudal vassal of any age, expressed in the 
noble fr<><^ni of her manner that she not only felt 
hereclf to be of the Burnt* cUy, but of tbc aame 
epirit, with those ehr served. 

I confem I do see something more tlian " urba- 
nity" in this " homnge." I do not wi»h lo br 
reminded, by » mim lonehiiig hi* hat or pulling h{|j 
forelock crcry time I Hpeak to him, that there is Bl 
golf between us. Thi-i iit neither good for bira nor 
me. Have tbooe who pretend to fear tlie encroacb- 
roents and groning pride of the inferior clawet|i 
never any conscientious fears for llieir own ktimi-^ 
lity? Do tlieir reflections nerer suj^est to then 
that pride is ilie natural concomitant of consciou« 
superiority? But to return to these demonstrations 
of respect ; tliey are not a sign of real defercaoe. 
I have wen more real insolence here In five weekt 
in this chisx of people tlinn t erer HW at borne. At 
the inns, at tiie «lighU'«t dirautisfaction with the 
remuneration you offer, you are Mire to be told* 
*' Such as i« ItiJiet always gives more." Tbta b 
meaiineM as well a« indolence. 

Ah we drove off from .Southampton, a porter de- 
manded n larger fvn llian we paid. H. called after 
US (o be sure and give the fellow no more. Thcj 

anil I 




fellow knew hit qrarry; be mounted on the coach, 
anil kept witli iis through a long street. Hemnmliiig 
•nd entreating witli alternate insolence and abject- 
He got tbe ihilling, and then returninfr to 

iC homage of his station, " Do you sit ()uik' com- 
furtjible, ladies?" he asked, in a sycoplinntic tone. 

** Ye«r " Thank you." " Woui<l not Miss 

like better tlii« seat?" " No." " Tliank you." 
Again I repeat ii, it is not tlie civilily I object to. 
I wisli we bad more of it in all stations; but it i« 
the bnllow sound, which conveys to me no idea but 
the inevitable and confessed vassalage of a feltow- 

I am aware that the sins we are not accustomed 
to are like those we are not inclined to, in the 
respect that we condemn them heartily and m ma$n. 
Few Englishmen can tulerate tlie manners of our 
tradespeople, our innkeepers, and tlie domestics at 
oar public-hounn^. A lililc more Ainiiliarity with 
tiwm would DHike them tolerant of the de6ciencies 
that at first disgust ihem : and after a while they 

ouM learn, as we do, to prize tlie fidelity and quiet 
kindness tliat abound among our servants without 
the expectation of pecuniary reward ; and they 
would feel that it is salutary to be connected with 

:ii» large t:\ax* of our humble fellow-creatures by 
other than sordid tieit. 

If I have fell painfully that the men and women 

f what is called " good society" in America are 



grrntly iuferior in high cultivation, in the art of 
coiirmuiiioti, and in accgia)ili>vliinent», to a cat- 
retpoiidin;* chus herv, I hiirtf Mt quite a«Hir«d thai 
the " uiillioii" w-iih u* oi-eiipy a ]«tt[ they can nevw 
read) in Hnghmil, <lu v/iini ihi'y will wiUi penny 
magazines arid diffusive publications, while nA 
dUB has it« stall into wliicli it is driven by the 
tyranny of an iirtirtdiili)'-con»tiu<.'f«.il socirty. 

While tlie nuuks No. Ij, No. S, and so on, arc 
aeeo cut in, there cannot be the contciou* |>ower 
and freedom, and the self-rehpcci brij^btetiin^ thp 
eye, ^viiig free play to nl) the faculties, and urg- 
ing onward and upward, which is tlie glory of chc 
United States, and a new phase of human society. 

With your cuiilirmed babit*, ray dear C, yoa 
mi^rht nul envy the Knglish tlie luxuries aud toi^ 
nilicence of ihcir high civilisation; but I am sure 
you would the precise finish of ihvtr skilful a|^ 
culture, and the all-pvivadiug comfort uf thoir 
every-day existence. // ym Aom imntry, llivr* h 
no human contrivance' for comfort that you oanoM 
coininand here. I^l yuu tie where you will, in the 
country or in biun, on lund or on water, in your 
hone or on llic ruad, but signify your dcftires, and 
thoy may be gratified. And it is rather pleaaml, 
dear C— it would be with your ej-e for order— to 
be in a country where there are no bad— bad! no 
imperfect rtNidt, no broken or uiMOund bridges, »o 
•winging galea, no barn-doom off the hinges, do 



Irolcen gloss, no nigged fences, no iieE^ligpnt hus- 

Ibendr}-, ooUiing to Ngnify cliat truth, otnni present 
Id America, tbat tlicre U u grcut <leHl more work to 
do tluui liands to do it. And so it will be with our 
uncouiitvd ncira of uusiibclui.-d liind for ai^eft to come. 
Bm, courage! we are of KnglUli bliMHi, iind vie shall 
go forvrard and subdue our grciit furm, nnd make it, 
in some bundredi of yi.<iirt, like ibe little garden 
vbencc our fatliere came. In tbe mean time, wc 
taittt expect (be Englisli traveller* who come nmung 
ta to be annoyed willi the absence of the home-cutn- 
forts which habit litis made e^enliid to tlieir well* 
being, and to be xUrtled, nnd, it miiy be, disgusted, 
vitli llie omission of those signs and sliowa of re»pcc( 
^■•ud deference to wbicb they have been aeeuntomed ; 
but let iw not be disturbed if tliey growl, for " 'lis 
^ibeif nature to," and surely they should be forgiven 

P^l^ * It It dilBciilI far an Anienean to ijiprraliitn tlic complBte 
r VflBV tbM Ittkei fUte III H IfunipcHii'i pxtUiriii bii<I rcUclaiit on 
Mlifat to tl>l> caunltjf ; if he ijiil. h« wnuM for^irs Ilir HilaulM 
■nd BiMHtiiiMa IwlTajrrtI itvu bjr ihriac alio bur the moil pbiUn- 
flinpic theorio. He who wm born in in atiDaiiibcre of clcgvioo 
uul nfiaemenl. fir aba?; tlie maun of bUfcltoH-bclii(i ; ithii ha* 
Mea tbcm oagcr lo obey bit illgblcft >ii[ii>l, to mlnintcr (o bli tr- 
tUckl wane*, roiij to lit u liia TMt, to open ■ irajr Tor him, or to 
•Wtain blm oa thilr iliuuldtfra — who ii ■!»>;■ h fir abon IhFoi 
MtO b« ia ilaniEtt o(*ntir(lj otetlooliiiig thrm, Hnda luddenlf lliat 
•II ■Jtifiri4l propi arc linocked from under him, and Ue it brought 
dowa Id ■ lent vttb IbcK maaaci, ttch luilKlilua] (Ibowiiic bli 
mj. tai he obligci] to (lc|iri>4 on 1ii> own mrril for all (be 
be Mtuiu. M. lie Tuv<(Uc>L!la t* > itiiking illoatntioii 



JmIi) 8. — To-HORRow we leave England, hiring 
keen but a dmj) in the oc«au of tiling* wortliy to be 
examined. Wc mean, next ynir, to travel over it. 
to see tlie country, to viitit ibc tiiMilutions of beoe- 
volrnce, tbc dchooU, &c. We are now lo ploag* 
into a foreign country, wiib a fureiiru language a«t 
foreign customs. It xcems like luaving borne ft 
Beooiid time. If anytbing could make us forget 
that we are Iravclleni, it would be auch unMinted 
IdndiicM as we bave receive<l bere. You cannot tee 
the English in tbeir homes «-iihout reverencing ami 
loving tliem ; nor, I tbink, can an Anglo-American 
come to l\n%y his ancestral home, without a pride !b 
liis relationship to it, and an extended sense of ibe 
obligulions imposeil by his derivation frain the Eng* 
lish «t«ek. A war between the two countries, in di* 
pre«entitate of their relaltonsBnilintcrcour«c, would 
be fratricidal, and this icntimcnt I luive beard ex- 
prcMcd on all side>. 

aftbaoanSlct b«iC««en* dnmoonllcblUiaad IbobtUuaBdl 

Mfnitwil bj * Euroiniin tduniiuii. IVrlupt MiDe ■ 

ud raStBtion on thl* lubjrct wnald cctiTlnet p«MnU «f llw hf*- 

didauanru of rnuliig cbiMitu an Eorope >lio w« in Un b 




^f Afvrrp, Jnlf 12, 1639. 
DKAB C — ;— , 

We lefc the Tower Slain yesterday nt twelve, 
[td were rowed to tlie steamer Soho, lying out in 

Idle Thames, in a miserable little boat, the best we 
could obtain. \Ve found a natural Amrriean conso- 
lation in remarking tlie superiority of our Wbile- 
hsli boats. We nearly incurred that lirst of all 
linor miaeriM (if it be minor), losing our bog- 
gage. Francois, not speaking a word of English, 
ba> been of little u«e to us; and in our greatest 
need, at our arrivals and departures, lie lias been 
vorw ilum iiselesH, as John Bidl's nerves are dis- 
turl>ed by a foreign tongue, and the suh-oflicials are 

.sure to get in a fluxler. Mr. P.'s intervention came 

^n mnat timely to our aid, and the last boat from the 
shore brought us our baggage safely. What we 
ahall do without cliis friend, whose ministering kind- 

.neas haa been so steadfaat and so elTective, I know 
Dot ; though Francois said, as soon as he had shaken 
the London dust from bis feet, witli a ludicrously 
arlf-suSieientair, *■ A present, madam^ leoourrier 
fait tout' !" 

I 'I'Im Soho, we were told, is the best steamer that 
plies between London and Antwerp. It is one 
hundred and seventy-five feet in length, and twenty- 
eight in breadth. It has some advantages over our 

• •• Pmii thit time four eoorier doe* fTetjriblas." 


Hudson River fttcain«n, — a steadier motion, the 
renult of more perfect muchineryt a salle-i-Bungfr 
(an eating-room whore there are no berths), and 
two dinners, served two houn apart. So that, viih 
one hundred and twenty passengers, tliere is no 
Mrainbling, and the dinner is served with EttgStk 
order, and eaten at leisure. T ytas disappointed to 
find, lul niglit, our condition quite as bad u to a 
simitar position at home. 'I'here were lliirty more 
pasaengers tlian bertlis, and ibcic luckleAt ihtrtf 
were strewn over the saloon floor, after Gannf 
waited till a late hour for tbe last loitering men U 
be driven furtli from their paradise, the dinner- 
table. The servants were incompetent, and tbe 
bedding was dclidcntf and in the morning we bttl 
no place for washing, no dressing-room but ikb 
cluttered, comfortlews apartment. We all fett a 
malignant plea.tun: in having tliese annoyance* lo 
frat about in an Kngli»h dominion. Even tbeyean- 
oot beguile Dame Comfort to sc*,— like a sensible 
woman, she ii a stayer-at-home, a lover of the fire- 
ude. Tbe Knglish go in tmops and eararatis to 
Germany and Switzerland for the Rammer, and 
mo&tof our fellow-passengers seemed to be of these 
gentry, travelling for pleasure. How different from 
the miscellaneoiM crowd of an American steamer! 
There i« here more conventional breeding, not 
more civility, than witli us. 

When I weal on deck in the momiiig, m had 



^^WwkJ tli« Sc)i«Idl, an<l poor M., vritli h«r eyes 
^■lialf open, was fluiifuUy trying lo sketch the sliorcs. 
Thry ore m lowiuid uniform, Oiiil a Hiitj^lc hori- 
tonuil»irokeof lier [H'ncil would suffice toi^ive you 
at liome all llie idea we got : anil, for a faosimile 
of the aiclii lecture, you may buy a Dutch town at 

IWerkmeiswr's toysbop. 
We now, for iLe first, realize * that vre are in a 
toTtiga laiiii, ami f<'fl our (littniice from bome. In 
our mi'tnoTy dikI ftvliug biiKlauil blonds witti our 
mvn country. 
We entered into the court of the HAtel St, 
Antoine ibrou^h an arched stoiie g^aleway, and 
were, for the firiit lime in our lives, in a paved 
court, round three Hides of which the house, in tlic 
eominon Continental faiiliion, U built. The mi*- 
tren of tlie hotel, in pretty full dresit, came nut to 
receive us ; and, after heiiring; our iranb*, wc wern 
conducted through n paved ^lery to Hpaeious and 
wel]-furtii»hed apartmcnls. Before the hotel is a 
little Bquuro, Hurrounilcd with three rows of dwarf 
eLro-tre««, and in honour of these, I presume, 
called La PIncc Vorte (Green Place), for there is 
nothing elite green about it. The |^ouud is iuccs* 
•ontly trodden by people crouini^ it, or seated 

Kj BuKltih miler mint ptrdon the fnipicnt reptUtlon of ihb 

and mif judp «t Ihs irortli of i(« Amorioui uie bjr thr r*|ilj 

otatj rtirnil, lo vbom I uid, " 1 cannot diipFniBwith lliiairiiril." 

" D»|i«a«r will) U ! I could h nil diipviue mill bmiil and 




about on tlie wooden benchm in social sqnaiitt. 
All ibc womeiikind wear a high lucv cap, <lru{>ping 
. low at the vnr», short ^owns, and v«ry full petd- 
ouats ill the Dutch fa)>hiun, with which we were 
^miliar enough formerly at Albanj-. A better 
dass wear a black ehawl over the head hanging 
down to their feet — a remnant of tlic Spuninh 
Duuitillu. It it) curiouH to ticc ibia and other vea- 
tigvs of Spunish occupation here, such at lomc very 
grand old Spanish houses. 

We have been driving about the town in a com- 
fortable carriii);e, »ix of m besidett the coachman, 
afl£r a fot, Kleek Flemish honte, who seemed quite 
able to trot off double the number, if need were. 
I wish I cuuld ^ivo you a glimpse of tbeiic •■treetd 
tlironging with humun life, and seemingly happy 
human life ttjo. The ** honest Flemings " have a 
most contented look. I almost doubt my identity 
as 1 hear thU din of a foreign tongue in my car, 
and tJiv clattering of the wooden shoes on the pave- 
ment. However, that "I is I," I feel toosiuely 
at this moment, having just mounted llie tower of 
tlie Catliedrjil, G13 steps: a cathedral built in 130O, 
and eighty-three years in the building. The 
tower is beautifully wrought Charles V. said of 
it, it should be kept in a aise, and Napoleon com- 
pared it to Mvehliu laoe. It these great people 
bare not the fiiiry gift of dropping pearls from their 
lips, their wonU arc gold for the guides that haunt 



these sJiow-plucet). We paid two fniiics for tliB 
ttbovL* jcux d'l-^prit to a young ciceroni, wlio cuuM 
tftak intelligibly FrcRcli, SpaiiiNh, Engii^li, Italiiin, 
aiwl I'ltMnisli of coiirs<-, but could not wriie, «itil hiid 
never liexrd of America ! ! 

We saw from the gallery of tlie tower to a <lts- 
lance (on the word of our gui<Ie) of eighty milen. 
The atmosphere was perfectly trniisptireni, un- 
ilimtDccl by a particle of smoke from the city ; u fact 
iMcounted for by the fuel used bcin^ cxctnsively 
a apeciM of liard coal. 1 1 is wortli while to mount 
n pinnacle in a country like this, where there is no 
eminence to intercept the view. You see the 
Scheldt, wbidi is about as wide m the Hudson at 
Albsuy. winding far, lar awny through u scm of 

I green and u-aving eorn.f and towers, churches, and 

I Tillageit innumerable. The view gave us New- 
AVortd peoples new ideaof populousuess,* After 

lice dcM^ended from the lower, a bit of antiquity 
pointed out (o us that would have interested 
four yooog people more than any view in Belgium. 
is sn old trell, covered with an iron canopy 

Ivrongbt by Quentiu ^fiittyy, the " Itlacksmill) of 
lAotwerpi" who, before btnclcMniths were made 

damic by ScoU'b *' Marry of the Wiode," fell in 

* Some of OUT rnden mt; iiol be tint dial thit aonl ,■■ noi 
^ apfbcd in EurDfc. m siih <», •tooe to lodUa con. bat to ttviy 
ilnd of grain. 

t Thlii«uriomihi(IcnwpopatallaDof(b««arrauniliiigcoDDtr)r. 
AotKfrp ibdr fonliiint but *bout 77,00(1 iiihabiuniii. 
VOL. t. 



' 1" I 

lovr w-itli (lie pretty daiiglitrr of a painter, and Ith 
tii» nuvil and took to piunung to win ber, and did 
win ber, and for liiR»elf won immortality by m 
loMt one mmlerpiece in the ait, as all n*bo liare 
seen his " Misers " at Windsor will testify. 

Antwerp is rich in paintings. Many muter- 
pieces of the Flemish painter* ure herr, and, fim 
among tlie firil, " Hnbeiw* I)e«ceni from tbe C 
l)o not think, dear C, that, heftire I hare 
crofSMi (be tbresbold of tlie temple of art* 
you my opinion about such a painting »■ of iiny 
value. 1 see that the dead body u put into the 
mou difficult po«ilion to be pointed, and that the 
painter bas completely overcome the difficulty; 
tliai the figures are perfect in tlieir aiiaiotny, Utd 
that the Sesb is Qesh, living flrsb; but I confen 
the picture did not please me. It Mcmcd to mt 
rather a successful rrpfCMBtiitinn of tbe physcal 
nan than tlie embodiment of ib<> moral enbtimr 
which tbe subject demands. Another picture by 
Rubens, in the church of St. Jac(|uc«, waa far more 
iuierctting to mo. It is, considering tlie aubject. ' 
fortunately pUced, being tbe iiltnT-pIrce uf the 
altar belonging to the faroily of IluWns; aud you 
look at it with tlie feeling that you are in the pre- 
sence of tbis greatesi of Flemish artUta, aa tke 
marble slab on which you are treading tells you 
that bis body lies beneath it. The revolutionary 
French, with tbeir dntmulic entbuuastn for an, I 

'•pared tlii* tomb irben they broke npcii uid piU 

Ilaged every otlier oncintliu cliurcli. Tlie picture 
b called A Ht^y Family. The pxiiiter, by intro- 
ducing tiis own dearest kindred witb the name* and 
Bttributes of saints, has canonized thi?m without 
leave of pope or cardinal. Hi« own portrait lie 
^llcd St. George; his fatlier's, St. Jerome ; his old 
frnndfuihcr's. Time ; and his son naturally enouj^h 
&lijt into tJie category of angels. Martha and 
Mary Ma|r<lalen. two mo»t lovely women, ure 
portraits of his two wive» ; one of tlivse i.« said t» 
be the same head as the &mous ** Chapeuu de 
^—Paille" — proliiibly the Magtlalvn. 
^f For the rest— und what a rest of churches, |tio- 
tures, carvings, and tombs, that cost us hours of 
aitftome pIcMurc, I spare yuu. 


Bnuttb, Monday, IS. — We came here twenty- 
five miles by railroad. The cars we thought as 
(food as those on the "Great Western" in Eng- 
land ; and our fare was a third le«s, and so was 
^fcras our «pe«l. The country was a dead level, 
A Flemish painter only could irork up its creutiirt'- 
eomforts into picturcstiueuess ; rich itcerUuiily is, 
■nd enjoyed it appears. Afier a bustle and con- 
ftwion at (be dejiut that made ih fcvl quite at 
borne, wc Riiully got into an omnibu.t with twelve 
persons iiisi<le, nearly as many outride, and an 
enormous ijuaiitily of baggage, all drawu with 




Sl^rcnt cBfic by two of those gi^ntic Fleraisli 
lionM, looking;, like llieir miuler^, well oonlmi 
wiili tlieir lot in liTc. 

UruueU is a toysti rcudcnce, and gay with 
palaced and park. The park impresses me u 
twice as large as St. John's, in New York; it 
ban abundance of trees, a bit of water with a 
rich fringe of flowers, and statues, in bod taste 
enough. There are splendid edifices overloolcing 
it, and among tlicm the palace of tlie Prince of 
(Grange, and King Leopold'^. That of llii- Prince 
of Umiige, wliich Leopold, witli singular delicAcy 
for a king, bus refused to occupy or touch, !■ 
showu to strangers. We were unlucky in lite 
moment of making our application to Bee it. " finl 
cooie, first served," is the democratic rule adopted. 
Four parties were before us, nnd us ivc could not 
bribe the portress to favour us — to her honour I 
n.-cord it — and lia<l no timv to waste in waiting 
we came away ajid left unseen it« choice collection 
of paintings. Our coAchman, to console us for our 
disappointment, urged lu to go Into the myal 
c«)«ch<house and we a carriage preienb-d to Wil- 
liam, which, he gave us his aasurance— truly pro- 
feMional— was better worth seeing than anything 
In Brussels) A gorgeous thing it was, all gold 
bjhI criinaon outside, white satin and embroidery 
in; wkI witli a harness emblazonml with crowiii^ 
Besides lliis, were ten othtr ooacbes of xwoui 
degrees of magnificence. 




We next risilcd the Ince manufactory of Mon- 
[rivur Ducepctiaux. The Brussels lace is, aa 
[p«rli3p9 you do not know, the most esteemed of 
[this moat delicate of fabrics. "The flax from 
Iwhtcli it is made grows near Ilalle : the fineat sort 
from SOOO to 4000 francs per pountl, iind is 
li its weight in gold. Evcrytliing ilejteiid* on 
\tiie tenuity of it« fibre *." 

It wu f£(e-day, and wc found only a few old 

I women at work ; however, we were shown the 
whole process very courteously, witliout any other 
fev being expected than a small alms to ttie poor 
work-women which, after seeing ihem, it would 
be difficult to withhold. I observed women from 
■ixty to seventy at this cobweb'Work without xpec- 
taclea, and was told that the eye was so accu&tomed 
1 to it as not to be injured by it : a wonderful in- 
HOC of tlic power of adaptation in the human 
DC in its most delicate or^un. Girls begin at 
Jiis work at four years of iige, and the overseer 
told m she employed old women of eighty. 'I'hcy 
begin at six in the morning and work till «ix in 
the erening; tlie maximum of M'ages is one franc: 
Lsik), to earn this, a woman must work nkilfully 
Isitd rapidly twelve hours and find herself! J 
[tlioiight of the king's ten coaches. There are a 
many changes to be matle before this be- 
amcs " the best of all possible worlds I " 
* Uumjr't Hiiid-Huok, 

I »pur« you our visit to itic Cathctlral, &c trat 
I irisli, my dear C.^ 1 coul<l show you tlie most 
ranlaxticnl piilpjt ever made'-Uie masterpiece of 
Vcr-Brii^:^ii, with the story of Adum nnd Eve 
curved ill wood. I am sure tliv arti»t Imd Lis otrn 
private readings of hi« work. Tbcre Mcmod to 
nw mnii! prvdous nttro iti ibc symbob he Im 
perclieil about t)ie piil])il~-tlie monkey! tLe pM* 
cock ! and tlie serpent ! 

We went into the market-place tliis monuog. 
It wm filled with wcll-lookiug peasants, widi 
Ifood teeth and rich nice hair, Tliey were sellinK 
flowers, fruit, and ve^elublcft. Tlicy addressed nil 
in a very kindly manner, always as " ma Abtt." 
Wg «aw excellent butter for ten sous per pound, 
n ^[ood cabbage for two sous, two <]uarts of beans 
for four sous. 

Tilts market-square, now looking so dwcrfiil 
wiifa tlie fruits of man'* rural industry, U&s been 
stained with the blood of martyrs of liberty. It 
was here that Counts Egmont and Horn werr 
executed by the order of the nillilvM Ah-a; and 
iu lite Ili'itcl de Ville. overlooking the tquarc, we 
saw the ludl where bis master, CItartn V., west 
tlirough the ceremony of aUlintioo. 

We pay here, for a good carriage and two 
lwrst% two fmncs per hour. Some diSereooa, 
M. rcinark% between tliia and the price we paid 
in London of one pound twelve sliillings per day ; 





[lot nowhere, I believe, is sodal life so taxed as 
liti London. 

We Mt olT llii« morning for (lie Rcld of Wutcr- 

liMi, u dutancc of twelve miles from Bnisscls. I 

I Kit on tlie box bcndc our condiman, a dviiiseil 

^young man. I'nivclliii]; is a corrector of one's 

1 beani mytelf designated in the court 

^thday u " la dame rjui s'asitit it cAti! dii eodier" 

— my only diatiuction here. I liked my position. 

My frieod was intelligent and talkative, and not 

(only gave me aucb wayside information as I a&keil, 
but llie history of lii« father's courtship and a little 
love-story of his own, which is Just at tbe mmt 
critical point of dramatic progress, and of wliicb, 

I alas ! I shall never know the di'rioudment. 
, It is tlic annivenary of the Belgian revolution, 
■od, of coarse, a ffite-day. The street* wi-re 
Slironged. I should imagine the whole number 
pf inhabitants, 100,000, were out of doors: and 
as tlic streets are narrow and have do side-walks. 
we made slow progress through the crowd — but «o 
much llie better. It vox pleasant looking in tlii^ir 
good, cheerful gices, llie children in tlieir holi- 
day suits, and tlie women in their clean caps and 
fmbest ribands. Green boughs hung over tlie 
windowis and the fruit-stalls were decked with 
flowers. I looked up the lanes on the right and 
left; tbey were a dense mass of human beiiigfi, 
appearing well fed and comfortably clad. " Where 


areyourpoor people?" I Bskei) mj- friend. "Tlicy 
are put a one ndc," he replied. Atu! so are 
liiey cvcrywiicrc if in llie minvrity. There was 
wri'lcliednetu enough iii tJiose lanes iluit no« 
appeared so well ; but lie assured me I DUgbt n-aU 
tliTough thecn witliout fear, " tlie police wu uu 
strong for tliem." Tlic suburbs were tlirongcd 
too; tlic striig^ling little villages aloug tlie road 
full of liuinnii life. Tlic women and men were 
nttinp on long benches l>esi<le the bouses, drink- 
ing beer and eating cakes. The pre&ture of the 
population would have driven Moltbiia mod. 
Kverytliiiig of womankind, down to the girl of 
four years old, bad a baby in her arms, and voung 
tilings were strcH'n over (be ground, kicking up 
tlieir heels, snd making all manner of youlbful 
demonslmtions of happiness. 

If some of our worn, pidc motlier^, who rock 
tbeir cradles by tlio hour in cItxM- roomst wouU 
turn tlieir young ones into tli« sweci open air, they 
would find it phiy upon ibeir spirits like the breub 
of heaven on an j^vlian harp, f never before 
«nw the young hunuui anirnal as ha]ipy a« otber 
kniinnht. nor felt how much they were tbc creatures 
of more sciisaiioii. " Vnu sre liow well ihi-y 
look," said my friend, who observed my pleasure 
in gazing ut them : " they work hard too, all tluii 
nn work, and cat nothing but (totatoes and milk." 
Simiile. whok-somc diet, and plenty of fresh lur : 
lib tclb the whole storj- of health. 



c forest of Sotgnics, which Byron make* 
lOclicaily grieve over the " unrelUTiiing brave," 
iiuw, lit least a gout) porlion of it, as low as 
y; and in the place of it are wheat, barley, 
potatoe^i, fic, wbidi my utililuriun friciii] thouj^hc 
Sv better than utiediblc uew. The king of the 
'etberlan<ls nuule a very pn.>tty present to Wel- 
lington, along with Ills title of " Prince of Water- 
loo," of 1000 acres of this forest land, which ia 
Xtremely raluable for its timber. Waterloo itself 
a straggling, mean litlli; village, in which, as we 
w^re going to tlic liuriiil-place of ihuusamts nf brave 
men, we did not stop to weep over the grave of the 
Marquis of Anglesea's leg, which, with its nionu- 
meni, epilapb, and weeping willow, ia one of the 
tegular Waterloo lions. At Mont St. Jean, on the 
edge of the field of battle, we took our guide 
ilarun,a pensantwtth a most humane physiognoniVi 
dicuting him filler to «liow a buttlc-ficld than to 
Sglit on it 

Now do not feur that 1 am abvut to commit the 
lUy of descTthiiig " the field of Waterloo." I 
II merely tell you tliat we have seen the places 
u-liose names are magic words in the memories of 
those who remember 1816. As we left Mont St. 
cut, we came upon an unenclosed counlry, and 
the targe farmhouse culled Fmnr de Mont St. 
m, we fim *aw a mound, surmounted hy the 
iclgic Lion. This mound is two hiiiulri-d feet 

high, nnd oorcn tlie common burjring-pUcc of 
friviids and foct. Th« lion is pluced over U>e very 
spot wlicrv the I'riiicc of Onmge was wounded, moA 
is C3*t Iroiii the cannon taken in the field of bBttlr- 
'V<i lha§e cnvilleni who see no good reusoD wbjr, 
amid such a mass of valiant BufTcrcre, n wound of 
the Prince of Oran;^ shoald he illiistrntcd, or why 
the Beltfie lion should crown tlic tecno, anil who 
lament tliut the luce of tlie field bu« been changed 
hy ihe elevation of the mound, it has been answered 
pitliily, if not Nititifactorily, that it is appropriate, 
" &inee it itervM at u»ce for a memorial, a trophy, 
and a tomb."' 

Hougoumoni remains a» it was after the day of 
the battle. It it an old Flemish diitteau, with 
furm-ollieo and a walled garden. The house it 
thattervd, and the walls look as if they Imd been 
through the wars. Thero were twenty-seven Eng> 
li.shmen in Uw du^>el, a atructure not more than 
ttiittet'H feet •qunre, when it took fire. A wooden 
image of nur Saviour in xutpended over the door; 

• It «M ManMi^: Id ntd, on ibe wry (pot, Bjton^ Mil- 

moaj lu Ihl* w • fioulion for ■ btlllc.flfid, ■■ Ai ■ ttltln," be 
Mr*- * WMetlM Hcmi marked out far tbr «r«no nf (oa 
Mtlon, Ui' il{b lU* OUT be mtn Imachulion. 1 biio irm«d i 
■llenlluu iboM of PWnn, Trv]i. Manlinca, lapui-In, rhrroiuift,) 
Mtruhoa; ta4 tlwAcUarounJ Mom St. Jcia ■nd llongaoaMl 
•ppattt to vaol ntlk boi ■ hMi«r now, tnd tb^ unitrll— Mr bat 
lr*i|irtMiM bab> vine* Um lapw at •(«■ ibniv> uonnd ■ mMrMI 
•pw. U tic la intercu wlib U)' M *II of ttisn. BiMfM. ptihtfi*. Iha 



and our guide averred (ami, tlioiijrii a ^uidc, with 
a moislened eye) that when the dames reached tlie 
imagie, they stQpped. " C'est trd," he repeats]. 
**Aux pieds du bon Dieul Un miracle, o'est ce 
pMB> madame T'* I almost envied the fattli that 
believed tJ»c mirach', and had the miracle to believe. 
The Eitgli»li, in iheir paMioti for such relic*, itoil 
beiguu chipping ofT the fool, and our good Martin 
■aid. shuddering, that if the proper authority had 
not interfered, "on auniit mis U> bon Dieu tout 
en piicee !' The Catholic Hentinient b nearly 
uniransla table into Proleitanl lUiiglish. 

The inner wall is written over with the names of 
visiton. Byron's voa tliere ; but some maruuding 
tmrcUcr lias broken away the plaster, and carried it 
nlTto Paris. "Do you not think," siud our guide, 
with nn honest indignation, " that a man muHt he 
CTBXy to do this T' The ftiinple peasant-guide knew 
tlie worth of Byron's name. This it fame. 

We drove round the rich wheat-field to La 

Hoyr Sainle. There is no ground in all rich 

Belgium so rich as this battle-field. In the spring 

the tlarkest and tlilckeai corn tells where the dead 

were buried ! The German Legion slaughtered at 

La Flaye Satnte are buried on the opposite side of the 

road, where there is a simple monument over them. 

" 8ct wtme tbon wilt Ihjr (ooi. iliou acarcc euiit trend 
H«n «a ■ ipot unhallow'd bj Ihs iJcad." 

I • " It it ladMd uw. At (he ftct of the good Gad. A mlrtElt. 
I«M it ool. Biad*u .' " 



La Belle Alliance, wLere Wellington and Olucbcr 
met after ibe battle, wus pointed out to lu: and 
Nupolcun's different puuiions, tbv very spot wItcM 
lie stood wiieii lie tir>t descried Dluclier, iiiid hi* 
kcart for ilic lust time swelled with ui)tiei()iiled 
triunipli. How 1 wUbed for Dal to stand with nte 
where Wellington ^ve that ringing order, " Up, 
guards, and at lliem !' 

VV'e were sliowii llic pUces wliete Gordon, 
PictOD, aud others uf note fell ; und tlicre, wbere 
the nuuues Liy welieriiig in blood, the unknown, 
UN honoured, unrvourdcd, there wu 

" Horror brMthing from Ibi lilcol irrounJ." 

" It was a piteouH sight," iaid our guide, " to tor, 
the next day, the roen, with clasped bunds, begging 
for a gU))s of water, Some bad lost one stde of the 
lace with a sabre-cut : others bad their bowels laid 
open ! Tbey pmyed ua to put an end to their 
miseries, and snid, surely God would for^re ub.' 
All tJie pensaiitA, men, women, and children, that 
IukI not been driven clear iiwiiy, came in to serr* 
them ; hilt there were not enough ; and they dtird. 
burned with thirtt; and their wounds gangrened, 
for there were not surgeons for the half of them. 
Tliey would crawl down to those pools of water and 
was!) their wounds: ihennterwasredandclutiedwitli 
Hood. Ob, c'cst un grand malbeur, que la guerre, 
fne^dlImes!" he concluded. Martin would be un 
eloctuent agent fnr our friend Lad^l's Peace Society. 




Belciuu is * perfect garden. Uctwcen Brussels 
8n<l Lirffc, u ilUiancc ointxiy miles, we did not see, 
over all Uie vast plain, one foot of unused eartli. 
I'berc arc crops of wheat, rye, oate. beansi and 
peas, and immenw cabba>^e plantations, witb no 
enclosures, neither fences nor hedges : no apparent 
dirision of property. You migltt fancy the land 
H-u under tlic dominion of an o^urinii law, and 
tbai Mcfi child of roun mi^ht take un c<)iial sharo 
frofli raoilier earth ; but, alait I when the table is 
spread tlien* is many a one left without it cover. 

On arriving at the depot, a league from Liege, 
we had a scene of confusion unusual in these coun- 
tries, that should and do get the Iwnefit of 4>rdeT 
frotn their abounding police-men. A number of 
■rk-like, Iwo-story omnibubes were dniwu up. 
Calling out being prohibited, the signal to ailract 
attention was a hios, and the hisbing of rival cou- 
ducton was like nothing on much as a flock of 
cnnigcd geese. W'e gol invulwd in a dispute that 
menaced un with a fate ximilar to that adjudged by 
Solomon 10 the contested child. Monsieur irCourrier 
bail proiniaed us to the '* omnibus Jaunc," and 
Madrmoiteile la Couiriere to the " omnibus Kougc ;" 
the yellow finally carried it, and we were driwn 
oCTamid such hisses as Dunle might have iiniigined 
a til Inferno for a bad actor. Poor M. lo»t her 
travelling-cloak in the confuiiion. I cin tell you 



nothing of Liege, from my avn olMprratioD, bm 
tliat it ia » most picturesque old pliioc, with one 
pan of (lie town mtiig precipituiuly iibovo llie 
other in llie fiL«lii»ii of Quebec ; and tliat we wtnt 
to see tiic interior court of the I'alitit Ac Jutiv*, 
fomierly the nrchbltliop'9 palace, whose niime will 
recall to you Qncntii) Diiru-urd. It u Aurn>uiiri«d 
by a coluniuule with short pillars, cucli carred alter 
a <1ifrer«nt model. We walked round tli« space 
witliin the cotonitade, which is filled with stalls con- 
taining such smallvr mercluindioc n» you find arouiul 
our raurket-pbcci. Thv KukIIxIi aiW Licf^ ibe 
Kinaingluun of Belgium. Their staple manti- 
laolur«- i* fircarnu, nnd Mr. Murray tells uh '* thej 
pnidacc u better article, nnd ut :■ lower price, tlian 
can l>e RUide for tite Name mm in I-^igland " — a 
feather this in the Bel^an oifi? The tource of 
tlieir prosperity is the abundance of coaI in (it* 
ni'ighlxtiirliood. " The mines are worked on iW 
mo«t H-ieniific principles. IVeviously to tlte revo- 
lution, Holland was supplied with coal from 
Belgium; but the home consumption has siuev 
lncf«aa«d to such an extent, from the numerous 
manufactories which have sprung up on all side*, 
titat the IWljjian mines are now inadequate to 
Huppiy the demit nd, and a recent law has been 
pamed, prrmittitig the importation uf coals frua. 
Neu-uutle.*'* Wise Holtaiidml 

■ ySamft llMtd-Booli. 


The diligences did not suit our iiours, and 
Francois cuuld obtniD no carriugx; to lalie us to 
Aix-la-Cliapcllfi but ui onormous lumbering on- 
titbus. Imagine whutatruvcllin^-carriBge.' Thougli 
the (lislui)cv is but about twciity-live miles, vre 
were nine mortal Iwurs poussing it; liowever, il 
WM through a lorely country, vsricH with hill and 
itale, a refretliiug variety after tlie monotonous 
deail-level of our preceding Hiiyn in Belgium, 
On leaving Liege we paaaed tlie Meuie and as- 
cended a long bill, and from the summit looked 
over a world uf grace fully- formed land, all under 
the dominion of the Luit>andman. The 6elds are 
enclosed by kedgem, inferior to the Englixli, but 
resembling them in llie trees ibat intersperse tliem. 
There iw very little puiture-laud nmid this garden- 
like cultiration. t hiive teen one Hock of sheep 
to^lay of a tall, slender breed; and very beautiful 
cows, white with bron'n spots, tliat, cow-fancier a» 
ynu fire, would encbani you. Tbcy rival your 
Vktoria and her mother the duchess. 

We passed villages at short intervuU, not bnr* 
iag the unallest resemblance to a New-Eii^and 
viU^e, for there is nothing that b«ars the uEime in 
Earope bo beautiful. I may say this witbout pre- 

iption after liaving seen the English villages. 
r village here U usually one long street of small 
mean houses built contiguously. At ulmiisl every 
bouse there is sometliiiig exposed to sclL The 


tenants are all oiil of duur — tlic ** acrcn 2^n ' of 
mail — and at lemt iialf are wnoliiDg. \W lav 
girls not tnoro than &ix yeaiH old witli tlii-ir pipc»: 
uiid tlicy smoke on to old age, apparently clii'rrful 
and lipaltliy. Vet wn bold tobacco to be a puUon ; 
perhaps the out-of-door life is tbe aniidote. We 
bare paused pretty villas to-day, and substantiiil 
^inn-boiiaea n'itb capita) barns and offices, ftll indi- 
cating rural plenty. 

Witli the tlircats of beggan in our guide-book, 
we Iiave been surprised nt our general exemption : 
but to-day wo Iiave seen enough of tbein, and ■ 
sigbl it ts quite w» novel to our New-World eyr« 
ns a rotbedrul or a policeman. They bare followed 
(IS in troops, and staru-d out from tlu-ir little burs 
pUiiletl along the road, blind old men and oM 
crones on cnilcbee. As we begin the aiicentiun of 
tl>t bills, we bear slender young vtuces, almost 
urerpowereil by tlie rattling of tbe wbeeU on tbe 
pared toud; by degrees they multiply and grow 
louder, ami before we reach tliv summit ibey orer- 
power every otlier sound, crying out to the 
mademoiselle!* in ibe coupe, and to the monsieur 
and madunie in the inUtirmrr, in a mongrel [latots of 
French and Fletnbb : " Ah, donnez-moi un petit 
mor^'euu de hrmt—vout n'en serex pitt plus pao* 
-^du'div— diaiilv pour un [lauvre uveugle, madaiD#^ 

* •• OlTS M ■ MorMl vf ttnul— rfanfa— run alll sM b* IW 
pooivr lor lt-di«-4*J— cbaritj Tof ■ pMtUU «•• I* 



A few leagues before reacliing Lwge vre espe- 
rieiicerl a»ollier equally clisiigreeablc cliarae I eristic 
of die social syHtein of tlie Old World. \Vc passed 
tlie Pnuaian frontier, and were adtnoni^lied by tbe 
black eagle — a proper ioHiffnia for a cmtom-houiie, 
B bird of prey — that our baggage must be iiispecitid. 
"We dreaded tie disturbance of our trunks, and 
'looked vith suitable detestulion on the iniist«v)iioed 
offidala tliAt approached u». Wliile iliey were 
chaffering with l-'ran^oU to settle the (jueiitioii 
whetlier they should go up to the baggage or the 
come dowu to tliem, and deciding tliat 
noUDtain should come to Mabooieti an officer 

a& harmless aspect as Deacon I., with spectacles 
on nose and a baby in his arms, came to our relief, 
saying tliat if Monsieur le Courrier would give his 
parnU ti'konncitr (a courier's parole d'hunnenr !) 
tluit there was nothing to declare — tiiat is, custom- 
able—the examination might be omitted. Francois 
pledged bis word, and ihi^re was no further trouble. 
Tlib contrasts with the lormuni we had iu Eng- 
land, of having all our baggage overhauled and 
disarranged, and sent home to us, some light ani' 
cIm lost, and delicate ones ruined. That this 
aliould hap])en in civilised bngUnd at this time 
of (by U diHgraceful. [ felt it a mortification, m 
if the tMrbariam had been committed by my own 

While our luocb was preparing, we strolled off 


to 8 littlo mcaduw, wlicrc ibcrc were Komc yoaug 
people loading ii ciirt willi liny. We sal down sn 
the gnus. Tlie *cenc u-iu pretty ati<) rural) aod 
MO home-like tlial it brought tears to our e)^*; 
boroe-like, except that there was a girl not w> big 
as your Grace— no, not five yeat« oM, raking liay 
and smoking a pipe> 

Returning to tlio inn, we ptiMcd the open window 
of our friend the master i>f tlic custom*. I thanked 
htm for his forbeamnce. He appeared gratified. 
and when wi^ came nway he came out of bn rioor 
with a frii.-ml, and they bowed tow and repeatedly. 
Better this wayside courtesy than the bickering* 
that Uiually occur on similar occasions. 

Aii-ta-VltnptUe. — This nanio will at onee recoil 
to you Charlemagne, whose capital and buryin|{- 
place it was. We have just Tcturnod frum l.u Cbn- 
pelle, which so conveniently dhitinguiiihes this frotB 
the otlier Aix in Europe. Otho built the present 
churdt on the site of Charlemagne's chapel, pri- 
Mrving iu original octagonal form, which Chailr- 
mapie, intending it (or hi; own tomb, adopted 
iron tbe holy sepulchre at Jerusalem. Wc stood 
under tlio centre of tlic dome on a hirge marble slab, 
inscribed " Carolo Magno;" and over our heads hung 
anuusive diandelier, tbe gift of Frrdrrie Jiarharoua. 
How lbe«c material tilings conjured back from the 
dead those mighty chieftains! 



Tbe vault must have t>eeD a Htartliiii; «tf;bl whrn 
Otlio opened it aiid founil die erapL-ror, not in the 
ittval uipine posture, but wat^d on Iiis ifarone in 
his impcrinl robes, with the crown on his fleshlf 
brow, his sceptre in hit hand, the good swoidjoyaiM 
at his side, tlic Gospels ati his knee, the pilgrim's 
pooch, trhieb, living, be slwnyB wore, still at his 
girdle* and predous jewels sparkliug amid decay 
ind nbes. Tiie sacristan showed uti bis skull — 
tUe palace of the soul ! — enclosed in a diver case. 
His lofty soul has, I trust, now a fitter palace. 
There are shown also several relics found in bb 
tomb which touch a chord of general sympathy : 
his buDting-born, a relic of the troe cross, and a 
locket containing the \'u^n's hair, which he wore 
in deatli, ox he liad always worn in life. 

This church is said to be the oldest in Gcrnuuiy. 
The choir, built in 1356, is more modern. Ita 
painted windows are so cxquiniu: in tlicir form, that 
they affect you like a living beauty. 

Tlicrc is n ft'te to-day. The "graitdfa rdi^ua," 
which are shown once in seven years, are exhibit- 
ing, utA the town is thronged with the pesMintry. 
TlwT were literally packed on the little p/aee beforv 
the CathedraL A priest was in a very high gal- 
lefy with atiendanta, displaying the relics. This 
church is licli in these apoctyplial Ireasurvs. The 
priMt held up one thing afu-r aiiotlier, tlie Vir^n's 
cbemtse, die »waddling-clothes, kc, against a black 


surface, oitr) &l cacli holy tiling down tuiik the i 
upon tLcir knee*. 'I'lierv were exceptious tu tltis 
devout action ; traveller wbo, like tia, were staring, 
and talking, and making discord wiili ibe deep 
respouHes ; and there were a few persons pushing 
their way through the crowd, hawking IJltle boofca 
in German and French describing the relics; and 
Hrlling beads that hud been blessed by iJie priest. 
If not lioly, the relics have nil historical intereM 
that mnkua tliem well wortli Heeing. They wcr« 
presented to Cluirleinugne by a patriarcli of J«nf 
salcm, and by a Peruan king.* 

The balhs of Aix were enjoyed by the Ronuuis. 
W'f went to one in the centre of the town, where a 
brazen lion spouu out the mineral water, and where 
there \» a very handsome building with n coloanadc 
and refreshment-rooms. We would have gbdiy 
lingered here for ii few ilayn instead of thete very 
few hours; but, like all our country )>eopie, we 
seem always urged by some demon on — on— on. 

Co/f»7n^.— Still, my dear C, tlie same story ta 
tellyouaf yesterday's journey. The{>eu<jintsliata 
just begun their mowing and luirtresting, and tlie 
hay and corn are all an iliick a» tlic rhoicetit bit* in 
our choice meadows. There were immense plant- 
ations of potatoes, oats, peas, and beans; no 

• * ronamtt IW.OOO pilptai* twm j Iw ikm ttu, mi toltf 
1 1833 thtn wm 43,<I00.- 




fence*, hedges, Ar barrier of any sort — one vast sea 
of agricultaral wcaltli. 

We are now, sm Mr. Murray tflls tw, '*»n the 
largest and wealttiieat ciiy on the Rhine," * aitd 
have more titan enough to do if we see ihe half set 
forth on the eight well-filled pages of his best of 
all guide- biiolm. We leave here at fouri'.M,; so 
you see how slight a view we can have even of the 
outside of things. Our liahit of breukfiuting at 
nine abridges our active lime, but it givex nic a 
()uiet morning hour for my journal. Do you 
know — I did not — that Cologne received its name 
from Agrippiiui, Nero'8 mother ; — snrely the moat 
wretched of women ? She wtts born here, and sent 
hither a Roman colony, ctilling the place Colonin 
^ffrippina. A ha[»]>y accident I should think it, if 
I were a Colognese, that blotted out her infamous 
name from my birthplucc. 

We passed the day most diligently ; and as it is 
not in human nature not to value that which costs 
us labour, you must feel very grateful to me if T 
spare you the description of church after church, 
relics, and pictures. Such rc1io>, too, ut the rL*a] 
bone* of Sl Ursula and her thirteen tliousimd 
virgins; the bone*, mti too, of the Miigi, — the 
three kings of Cologne (who»>e vile effigies are 
blazoned on half the sign-boardii on the Continent), 

* ColognE liu A!i,OU<) iiiliablUnU. 



and &udi pictures as Hubens' Crucifixion of St 
Peter, which be deemed his l>est, b«cau«e hia 
last, probubly. The rtal thing that would plc«M 
you bcticT than all the relics in Ilcl^um. i» thr 
OTtablislimcnt of Eau dc Cologne, of the ncutil 
Jean Manu Farina, wUoite name and fanv bave 
penetrated tt» far a% NnpoU-onV No wonder ihat 
this dirtieM of all towns fihotild have elicited the 
perfumer's faculties. When some one said *' The 
Rhine waslies Cologne," it ivas pithily sskedt^ 
" What u-ashes the iihbe?" 

Anollicr sight here, my dear C., would in camnt 
Itavc pleased you ; the only one of tlic kind 1 \Mvr 
wen on the Continent : troops of little boys and 
fprh with their books and slates. A woman of 
distinction, wlio was born here, tells lis that the 
feudal feeling of cliutship is in high prcAcmiiun. 
" I never come to (^dojrtH*," hIic say*, " wilboot 
being assailed by some one of the batie doiw, who 
ubitges me to listen to all tite details of a family 
griovancOf ta if it were the affair of my own houae- 
hnld." Thiii M-ntiment of fendal dependence will 
probably melt away before the afoicuiid booki and 
iklcs. So the good goes with the bad. It U a 
pity wc have iiol a moral flail ; but, as of old. the 
tares and the wheat are too intricately inlcnninff led 
fftf human art to sefwratr them. I promised to spar* 
you the churches of Cologne, but I cannot pan by 
the cathedral. It would be as bad us t)ie proverbial 




tearing out Hamlet from die enacting of liU own 
tragedy. The Cologne ditlicdral is not, and pro- 
hably Dever will he finitilied. It iiDprcmed me iincw 
witji a conviction of the iinmortulity of tlie human 
mind. What an infinite diaUinc*.' hetween its cwn- 
ceptioDs, and the matter on which it workM! A 
w«>rk nf art rises in vision to tlic divinely- in tip ired 
lAUt ; what yean, what age.t are consumed in 
exprcMing in the slow stone tliis conception ! and 
the Monc in iruniiformable, peri&hable. Can tlie 
mind he so? 

The name of the architect of the Cathedra) of 
Cologne is unknown. No matter; here are bis 
tlioughte written in stone. 

You cannot »ev the Gotliic architecture of Europe 
withoDt being ofVon reminded of Victor Hugo's 
idea that ardiitectiire wit», till supcracded t>y print- 
ing, " the great book " wherein man wrote bit 
thoughts in " marble lettera and granite pages ;" 
and, being once [losscBsed with this notion, yon 
eanaot look at ih^ iieauciful arches and columns, at 
such stupendous flying buttresses as these of the 
Cologne Catliedral, and its •* forest of purfled pin- 
nacle*," without feeling as if yon were reading 
a Milton or a Dante. There are Innumerablv 
expressions that you cannot comprehend, but, a& 
your eye ranees over them, you rend the rapturous 
pioiscs of a David, and prophecy and lamentniion, 
and, even in tbe«e sacred edifice*, the keen satires 


and imbrMlcil humour of tlie profane poets. \'i^ 
tor Hugo nys that, at one pcricxl, wbocrer ww 
born a potrt became an DrchittH't: tliiit nil ollitt 
arW were Hulwcrvk'nl to urchilefturo, «ll otlier 
artiits tlie ierrants of tbe arcliilect, " tlie great 
master workman."* 

I do not know that llie ideiis tvliicli he luu to 
well elaborated originated in his own mind, nor can 
I tell vhetlier this wondrous art would have tag- 
guted the idea to my mind wiiliout his pttriom 
■id. We see by the bright illiimin»(ion of anotlMT** 
mind what the frchle light nf our own would never 
rereal : but remember we do as certainly see. 

Tlip .\))aftt!ei>' Church here is exquisitely boin- 
liful, Mr. Hope »aid it reminded bim uf tome of 
tbe oldest Greek churcbe^ in Asia Minor; aul 
that, when looking at tbe east end, he almost 
thought himself at ConstanliRopIc ; and, though 
you may think me bitlcn by Victor Hugo's theory, 
1 will tell you that its romantic and oriental beauty 
brought to my mind " Tbe Talisman," in Scott's 
Tales of tlte Crusaders. 

• "L'«tclilU« pof4e,l> Bitltrs toisliMlIwiMiwavaosak 
■ralplarr i|uiliii oiMUil •nh^idtf.hptintnreqiu llii «nlBBb*ll 
MS tUraiu. 1* aiiU)i|n* qoi mrtuil m oloclie m branlf et tamllUn 

dmi M* atgan."— Fitlar tltiy*. 





Mv DFAIt C, 

Am*. — Wtt cmbiirkc<i, for ttic firet tiin«, yesterday 
ontbe Rliinr, Uitf " fiitlicr iinrl kinp of river*," ax ilie 
Gennan poeu with fond rovcretico call it. " The 
majefllic Rhine" it has not yet appeared to iis, 
having but just come opposite to the Sidicn^bir^, 
aclii«ter of mountain* where the scenery fir«t taken 
iu rnmantic character. Wc were four liours, in a 
good steamer, getting to Uonn, a distance of about 
twenty inileii. 'lliiiH slow iiisccnt of the river is 
owing to tlie force of the current We were much 
stnick with the social, simple, and kindly manners 
of our German companions in the Htcaner. Several 
welUbrcd persons addressed us, and asked as 
many questions us a Yankee would have asked 
ill lh« game time. Some of them mode us Hmile, 
■uch as whetlier the bngimge in America wiw not 
very like tliat spoken in Knghmd I und if New- 
York liad more dian thirty thousand iiilinbitauts! 
Before we »e^)anit«d, the girls were on familiar 
terms with some pretty young ladies going t» 
boarding-school, and hulf-a-do3:en people, at least, 
liail avrcrtaincd whence we csmc and whither wc 
were going. M. wiu quite dinrmed with this 
unrewrve. " Like lo like," you know I 

There was a lady on board who riveted our 
sttention. Without being handsome, she hiul (he 
*'air Nuife," that is, perhaps, the best substitute for 

VOL. I. R 

beauty. Iter face urns intcllrctu&l, and tier eytc 
BQch n* I Imvc tK'vcr Kta except iti Uie liead of a 
certain liarpy engle in tlie zooluj^cal gardens. Lest 
you tlioulcl get a false imprcision from thia con- 
pari»on, I must tell you that these harpy eyes 
haunted me for days after I nw them r«vinog, 
with their human exprauion nnd wonderful pomTt 
my childish tupentition about the tranmtlgntioB 
of souls. 

"That woman U very ill-bred," nid M^ **to 
peer at us so steadily thtoufrh her eyeglass." ** W« 
lookathcrjustasaU'adily, only wiilinut eyeglanca,' 
said I..; and m none think themjielves ill-ltre<d. 
we Gsme to the silent ooncluiiion thitt the stranger 
might not be so. There wu something in ber air, 
and in a peculiarity, as well as elegance of drcv. 
that indicated she felt well assured of her poution. 

Itomt. — We brought letters to the celebrated 
Sdilegel, who reudes here, and to a certain Ma- 
dane M. Scfalegel sent us a note, sa)-ing he was 
kept in by indisposition, iHit woiikl be most Iwppy 
10 receive us. Soon after breaktbst Madame M. 
was announced, and proved to be the hnr}>y-i-yc<l 
lady of the steamer. Her manner struck mt aa 
cold, and 1 felt all the horror of thruMing mytclf 
on iovolunlary Itospitoliiy. " She is doing a Jh- 
testable duty," thought I, "in honouring Mrs. 
^"s letter of credit in behalf of strangers fnm a 



' country, and of n laiif^ogr rliat slie does not 
S]Kak." By dogrves lier inaniuT cliaiigcd from 
forced courtesy to vvluntury kiiiiliieu. Sbc marked 
out occuiMition for all our tim« at Honii, Invislicd 
invitniions on all our party, and insuled on my 
guinij home uJtb Iter to tee what was to be teen at 
licr bouKC, wliidi die said, in b way to excite no 
^bncpreialion, " was better tlian sUyinj; at tlic inn." 
^U went, and found tiat sbe liad s superb etttubliah- 
^^aient in tbe best (jiinTter uf llic town. We met a 
^^^retty young woman on the stairs, whom she in- 
troduced to me 88 her daughter. She had bcr long 
.ftlcevcs tucked up over ber elbow, and a cotton 
lapron on, and reminded me of a tlirifty New- 
LDgland laJ^ preparing to moke ber " Thanks- 
l^viogpies." Mademoiselle M. Boon after brought 
a snuill waiter, nitli rich hot dioculate and cuke». 
asked Mwlumc M. if tlie uccounls we had re- 
tceived of tbe domcNtic education of women in 
^Germany of tbe condition of her daughter were 
frue. She said yes ; they wore taught everything 
tliat appertained to house affairs. We know they 
do not find this domestic education incompatible 
with high refinement and cultivation. Knowledge 
[of bouse-affiiira is a necessity for our young country- 
I vomea : perhaps some of them would think it le«t 
■n enl if they eould see Madcmoiiellc M. in her 
laxurious home expressing, as did Eve, Penelope, 
and other classic dames by the dainty work of. her 
II 2 



otrn baods, lliat she was " on botpilibic thougbl* 

Wtien I entered Bonntbrougb uii Jiicfliibly dirty 
ilnet, I liltlu <li\-»mi-<l it could coiiUiin a Iiouk 
witli the lovely view tlicrv is from MutUune M.'f 
window, of ^rdetiM aiid cornHeUU ; and much IcM 
did I nnticiput« fitting witli tbat fearful lady of tbe 
tteaniLT over caioi gf uiuique gvmn — some as oM ai 
Mmotv •;p«cli« of (arecian art — while she expounded 
tbem to me ; so at tbe mercy of accident are the 
judgmentt of tourints. Madame M.\ bouse if 
Allnl with productionii of tliearts, picture^ bints. 
&c., wiiicb I was obliged to leave all too soon to go 
witli my party to pay our nitpect« to Scblegcl ; and 
I went, half wisliin^.iui L. didoDasimilaTaccasioti, 
that there were oo celebrated people tbat one tnu»t 

Scliiegel is past seventy, with an eye atitl 
brilliant, and a fresb colour in his cheek. He at- 
tracted our attention to hi» very beautiful buit ot 
Carrara marble, and repeatedly adverted u> tbv 
decay of the original nncv the bust wa* made, with 
a sensibility which proved that tlie pleiuures and 
rebecs tliat iiccoinpany tliv pomeiojun of beauty 
are Dot limited to women. He makes lite mo«t of 
his relics by wearing a particularly becoming black 
velvet cap, round which bis wavy white locks lay 
as soft as rays of light. He was courteous and 
agreeable for the half-hour we pasaed with him; 



bnt I broaght away no new impression but tliat I 
bare given you, tliat lie is a handsome man for 
thr«€»coro and t«n. 

At thrp«, Madame M. camef according to 
appointIncl)^ to kIiow as tltc Bonn lions and 
surroumliii^. We drove first to the University, 
■which t« the old elcctomi palace. Bonn was oom- 
ftreliended within the Rlf>ctor«t<! of Cologne. The 
fe^ade of this palace of the lor<l elector, which has 
now become a flourishing seat uf learning, i% nearly 
a quarter of a mile in extent. The palaces and 
cottages of Europe indicate iu history. 

The Uiiiver»ily, which has now between eight 
Bod nine hundred students, was established by the 
King of Pniisio, and Is said to owe its reputation to 
its di«Linguifthcd professors; Niobuhr was here, and 
Schlegcl is. \\'e were shonni a library of one 
lundred thotiiami volume*, d mu«cnm of natural 
listory, nnd a very interesting museum of Roman 
inains found on tlie hankN of tlie Rhine, altars, 
weapoius &c. We were conducted through 
« botanical garden by Monsieur I'lnspecteur, a 
celebrated botanixt, and one of a lar^re family of 
brotbcm devoted to the science. "Unc aristoerntie 
lanistc,'' said Afadamv M. He showed m a rich 
llection of American plants, and I stood amid 
the mosses aii<l ferns, my old frieTids of the icc- 
glcn, fcvling very much as if 1 ought to speak to 
thcnii as tli«y did to me ! 



We drove, bj a road that reminded tne of the 
drives through tbc Connectivut Ktver meodoirs, to 
Godesberg. There was one pretty object, tJie like 
of irhich we tdiall never see in our Puritan land — 
a liigh and beaut! Fully-carved stone cro«a. It 
marked tbo spot whore two cn*«]icrs— brotlicr*^ 
fouglit for tlielr Wly-love, and tliv uiibappy aunrivw 
erected this crotu, )i<»])ing tl)e passer»-by would 
stop to «ay a prayer for ilit.- aoul of bis brotlier. 
• ' TUcrc is a duitcr of hoteh at Gode«berg, aod 
•one villas belong:ing to the Cologne noblene; ii 
ia a favourite summer retreaL We u'ent to we tlie 
ruins of the Castle of Godesbei^. 'I'hey crown an 
iwiated mount, wlitdi a]ipearB, in the midst of tbr 
surrounding level, as if it were artificial ; but it is 
one of tboRc natural olevalioni> nhicli, being cas- 
teltuted and atrongly fortified, make up so mndi of 
tlic romantic story of the middle ages, and, widi 
llietr minis *o much of the romantic cmbrlliahraeM 
of tlir prcsvui day. 'Hiis Castle of (iodetbofj^ hm 
its love story, and a true and tm^c one. It wm 
here that tlic Elector of Cologne who nuirried 
Agnea of Klamfelt held out against bis Ctttbolic 
enemin. His marriage made big eonrersion to 
Protestant tsnt »»inrwhut questiooable : and the 
M|i*nition and misery in which tlie unhappy pair 
died were probably interpreted into a judj^entoo 
Uicse two apostate servants of tbe Church, II hm 
been one of the purest of summer afternoona, And 



we had a delkious stroll up to the ruins ; a world 
of beauty tltere is within th« small compuM of tlut 
mount. Fancy a hill ri»ing from ibc hoMm of 
i our Luurcl Hill doc*, but twice as high 
^ustc«p, n-ith a path winding round it, 
every foot of cultivable eurth covvred with grape 
riiiM, haviitg shrinea diiselled in the rockn, and 
cmcilucfi and Madonnas for the devout. Half- 
H-ay up is a little Gothic church and a cemetery, 
where tlic loonumcnls and graves— yes, oifl graves 
— were decked with fresh garlands, tJie UHes and 
n*ea that have Mown out in thi» <Uy's sun. Is not 
this a touching expreMion of failh and love— fnitii 
la God, ami enduring love for tlic departed? 

What a picture was the country beueatli us; and 
what a pretty framework for the picture, tlie stone 
arches of the old castle I The earth was washed 
dean by the morning showers. Beneatli us was an 
illimitable reach of level land covered with crops. 
The karrcsdng and hay-making just begun, but 
not a blade yet taken oS the piled bp of mother 
eartli. At oar feet were the peusunt«' <lwcUings, 
little brown cottages, almost hi<ldi-n in fruit-trees; 
beyond, tlic guy villas of the noblcMe; and still 
farther, tbo lively-looking town of Bonn, witli its 
five-towered Calbedml. Still farther, on one tide 
Cologne, on tJiC other the seven mountains, with 
the ruins of Drodieiifcls; line wide roatU — those 
unqtK«tionabIe marks of an old civilisation — tra- 



versing the country in every direction, and us hr 
aa your eye could reacli, that king of roOrds, the 

Mndame M. so fully enjoyed the delight she ww 
bestowing, lliat she proixwcd to prolong it by an 
C!ccur>ii<Mi to-morrow, wliich shull be sltll ridier in 
romunce. She mil come at ten with two ciLrri.ige6. 
We slinll Hike our d^jrSnrr a hfiurchrtte here, uid 
then drive to KoluiulS CiMtIc, Uicn (nuu to the 
nionMteryofNunnenwertb,whvr«, hereon oSicistiug 
u cbuplnin, whe propooes to make a nun of MIm K.. 
all to end in » dinner, for (I must tell you the <li»- 
encliaiiliiig fiict) tlie monastery is converted into 
an inn. 'i'bia is too pleasant a project to be re- 
jected, Biid if — and if— and if— why we are to go. 

While enjoying to-day and talking of to-morrow, 
we had returned to the inn. Tea was preparing at 
the order of our cliarming ho«tcs«. IM»peracil 
about the hou«c and ptazica were coierieii of German 
ladies, who had cKune out fur die afternoon, and 
were knitting ainl gnbiping moat serenely. 

Uur Te|MNt was very like a liume lea for a hungry 
[»rty of pleasure, with tlic agreeable addition to 
our cold roa»t fowl and Westphalian hum and straw- 
Wrrin, of wiue, melons, and Swiss cbeotc. 

Mv nKAR C 

To-day has played n common trick with ye»- 
terday's project — dbperted it in empty air. Com- 





|h-11m (o procew! on our jotimey, we did not loae 
thr htglicsl pleasure we had counted on — Madame 
M.'« ftocicty. Sbe stayed willi us to the lost 
moment, am) tlien when saying fiirowell, n kind 
impuUe M-iz-cd her ; &ho sent ber Tootman Inick for 
bet cloak, ,ind came witb us as far as Andernacli, 
where klie tia« one of her many villas. This wa« 
jiwt whiil L- M. would hiive done on a similar 
occfif^ion ; but how many of these incidental oppor. 
tunitie* of giving pleasure, these chaneo-lKion« in 
the not-too-happy way of life, are foregone and — 
irretrievable ! 

At Bonn the romantic beauty of the Khine 
begins. 1 have often heard our Hudtioii compared 
to tbe Rhine ; tbey are both rivers, and both have 
beautiful scenery; but I see no other resemblance 
except so fur as the Highlands extend, and there 
only in some of the natural features. Both rivers 
IiBTe ■ very winding course, and precipitous and 
rocky shore*. But remember, these are shore* 
that bear the vine, and %o winding fur Jiirly miles 
you might fancy yourself passing through a 
•net of Hnall lakes. I have seen no spot on The 
Rhine mure beautiful by nature than the Hudson 
(rom West Point: but here is 

" A blcnillnt of «U lK4uliet, »tmim>, anil Jell*. 
FroiU, loli*(c, era|;,wooiP, curn-Adil, niaual*ta,*lTW, 
A»d «bidlm <uUm limlbioK •(<rn rarcwviln, 
Frompej bol kafj •■lb. xliert nun fteviij dwilb." 

u 3 



R«tti) Byron's whole dt-srription, in his tbird 
canto of Chilrle Harold, of this *' almuniling and 
exalting riv«r," and you will get more of the 
aeiisation it h Rtled to produN than mmt peraoM 
do from actually seciui; it Its arcbiieclure ti one 
of it« characteristic beauties ; not only its mined 
caHles — and you hare saiDetimes at one view tbree 
or four of tlii-«e stern monuments on their craggy 
eminences — but its pretty brown villages, its 
remains of Roman lowers, itH walls am) bridge*. 
Had its military fortifications and monuments: 

" A thouiuid bKtllM btrv aiuiril ju Iwnki," 

and have sown them richly with tlieir history. 
And every costlc Iius its domestic legend of faitkfnJ 
or unfaithful love, of broken bo}H>s or baffled 
treadiery. .Story, balbd, and intHition bars 
breathed a soul into every tiiaibling lower and 
crumbling wall. 

Wp. piusvd the night at Coblenlz. The Romans 
called it Conflucntes, "modemiied into Cobleolx. 
from its &ittiaiionat tlie confluence of the Moselle 
and the Rhine. It is the capital of tlie Rhentsh 
pTOvinc<:« of PntMiB, and ila popuUtion, together 
with tliat of Ehrenbreltstein, including tbe garrison, 
U about 23,000." Thank our guide Klurray for 
the above welUcondensed jwrngrapb, containing 
more information than hulf-«-doiccn pages of my 



Tlie younger meinb«n of otir pntr, 
myittfi were enter pitting enoogh ts ifait a«r 
luxurioiu and most oomfonable miKilaiili at tht 
Elellevne at five o'clock, to go to the iortraa tt 
£hrenbTeitstein (" Honour's broad 3tixie,~ n U not 
■ noble name?). 

We passed tiie Rhine oa « bfid^ of 
followciJ a veteran Aiutmn solilier, wba ' 
ralct-de-pluce, to the fortified aummit. It I 
from the time of the Romans a celebrauJ Buliwy 
po6t. Byron saw nml described it after it bad beca 
battftred and dismantled by the Frencb, and am m 
it now i«, capable of revtkting, en tbe wacd «( 
Wellington, "all but golden bnUete." It «^ 
yielded to faminv when the Frtncb baicgMl k. 
The Prusstwn luive made it stroager iLan ever* 
at an expense of fire millions of dolkn ! So tW 
men of toil pay for the engines that keep then 
mere men of loii. 

The works struck me w appolUogly Mra^, bot, 
a» I could not coiDprtheiu) their datails, ttter oar 
guide bad tuld me tliere were magaiinca capable of 
containing a ten years* supply of food for 8000 
men, tliat there were ei«tems that would bold a 
three years' supply of water, and, when that w« 
exhautiied, tbe Rhine itself could bo drawn oo by a 
«fcll wliicb U pierced through the toitd rock ; when 
I hiui got nil this acailahte informaiiun, i turned lo 
what much better suited me, the lovely view. Oh, 




for ny maKic mirror, to show yov bow lovely 
appeared, in dii» mornitig lifcbt, the scene below 
u» ; tlie blue Moselle coming dowu througli its vine- 
covered hills, iouhn, ruiiiji, villas, cottages, and ibe 
niiinc il«eif, "the charm of iJiisencliuited ground !** 
I (liiiik 1 like it tlie better that it is froaen three 
tnoiithv in the year. This seems to moke it a 
blood relation of our rivers. Vou cannot ima^iie 
bow much the pea»unl girls in ibeir pretty costumes 
embelliidi these nurruundings. They do not wear 
bonnet*, but, in their Hteitd, un fnilli.-!<i> variety of 
headgear. Some wear a little roualiii cap or one of 
gay-eoloured embroidery, and othcraa sort ofsilrcr 
Gwic that just encloses the long hair, wlucb b 
always braided and neatly orrunged. 

Dio you know that tbe prinee of diplomatbla 
and arch-enemy of liberty, Mellernich, wa» born at 
Cobleniz ? We have just been lo we a fountain, 
on which i* an inhcription commemorative of tlie 
rrencli invasion of iluuhi. It ivas put there by 
the French prcfi-ct of tlie department, and a few 
months ufler, when tlie HuMiani pasied through 
here in pursuit of tlie scattered army of Nspuleon, 
their commander anueied tlie following happy 
MUGum : " Vu et a(>pTQuvi! par nous, commandant 
Rusae," &c. (Seen and approved by u&, the Rus- 
iian commander.) 


Wir^aden, PotU nttaalt, Jufy 3S. 
K. and I came liere ttii» murning (o purrcy for 
ibc party, and get loil^Dgs for a monlli or tw». 
The best liotcU ncrc full. We were stiou'n di»< 
Igraeable rooms al the Poste, and tbougli tlie man 
assured us lio could not keep ttioni for us ten 
minutes, as all tbi* world wm ni'^binf;; to Wtcsbadeo, 
Wtf took our cliaiiL-c, atxl bii/cd nbout tlic streets, 
fioding iiolhiiig that we liked. At last I imule 
inquiry in a book-shop, and a good-natured little 
woman entering into our wants, rati acriiMS tlie 
atreel witii u», and in five minutes we bad made a 
bargain witb a man wbose honest Germun face is 
M good wcurity as bond and mortgage. We hare 
a very nice parlour and three comfortuble rooms 
for tbirty-five fiorins a week — about fourteen dol- 
lars. Wo pay a fnuic each for breakfafit, for tea 
tb« aane, and wc have delicious bread, good but- 
ter, and fresb eggs ; for our diiniers, we go, accord- 
ing to the custom here, to the Uible d'hute of an 
hotel. We could not get as good nccommodations 
as these in a country town at borne for the same 
money, nor fur double the sum ut a watering-place. 

Ht dear C 
Smulnif rtfrniiuf.—Ws. lave been here now more 
than a week, and, witli true travellers' conceit, I 
am sitting down to gire you an account of the place>itr. 

uid ilH doings. Wiesbaden {Meadow-balhs) w the 
cnpiUtl gf the duchy of Nassau, iibout two miles 
from tlie Rhine. It is a very old Gcrnuin to^m, 
and was resorted to by the Romans. It may b* 
called the ducal ro»idenci\ a» the duke, in naluni 
deference to hi* fiiir young wife's prcrer«nc«, now 
rrsidcK here a good portion of the time, and ia 
Itiiilding n liirge palace for tlio duchen. 

Wi»biuli'n lias more irisitore tlian any of tbe 
numerous Gertnan batli in ^-places. Tlie Dumber, 
amounts to from twelve to fifteen tliousand annit- 
ally; this concourse is occiiHioned by ihc unri* 
railed repntation of its minerul water. Atsiz tbb 
morning wc went (o the Kochbrunncn {boUiag 
spring). Tliere is a small building erected orer 
it, and a sqnare curb around i(, within which yon 
MC it bmling rehemendy. fts temperature u 
1^° Faltrenheil. lis (a.ste i* often comfiarrd lo 
chick en- broth. Ifebicken-hroib, itmusi have been 
made after the fikshion of Dr. T.'a preMripiion u 
bis hypochondriac patieoi, who fancied water-gniel 
too Mroiig for her digestion, — *' Eight gallons of 
water, madam, and the shadow of a siurvedcrow '." 

From six to eight the wnt«r<drinkcn did their 
duty, drinking faithfully. Some read or loanj 
in a sunny conidor where a band of mniiotan* 
werCHiaiionrd playing gay tunes; but the approved 
fashion i« to »aiinler while you sip. We 
mere lookcrsMtn, and it was ludicrous to sec th< 




liappr- looking Gcnnans, whom it iroald seem 
Hcaren lind exempted from every eril fl«sh is 
bdr us nve obefity, come dowu to tbe ipring 
willi their pretty Bnliemivi gtames of all colotm 
■nd dia|>e«, wslk IkicIc agiain up ibr long acacu 
wiilkN, )>ippiitK in good faiili, and giving tLc watvr 
credit, no doubt, for doing wlial, prrbap«, roigbt be 
4one witliout it by titeir plentiful draughts of the 
fm«L early moniing air. 

After breakfast I went to the window, and here 
•re my notes of wlul I saw. " [low fresfaty the 
window's nre set out with flowers ! Oar appaiu 
neighbour has nrw-gnrrtttlicd ber little iOwp-wiodov 
with fresh patterns of calico, and s<Brfs, fichos, and 
ribands. Two girls are standing at the next door- 
«t«p, knitting «ikI gOMipini; : and «t the next m»- 
dow dts the Mlf-iame pretty young wofaao that I 
law ktiitting alone there all last Sunday. It ia a 
happy art tliat distils contentment out of a paanre 
condition and dull emploj-ment The street b 
throngiog witli tair hlnuming peasant-girb cone 
into town to paM tlicir Sunday holiday. How 
very neat they look with their white linen <apt 
and gay nbaodo, and full, dark-bloe peuieoau, 
so full that they hang from top to bottotn like a 
fluted ruffle ! The bodice is of the same material. 
and sets off in pretty contrast the plaited, snow- 
while shift^leere. There are the duke's st^dien 
intngliiig among them ; their gallants, I mppoaa. 
Their deportment is cheerful and decoroof. 


** Here is a ^oup of bealtliy< looking liltic gJrU 
in liolidny «tiit, (bi.'ir lung, tliick bair well combH* 
bnidcil, and prettily cniird, and a little vorked 
wotstcil sick Imnging over one shoulder. Th« 
visitcre of Wiesbaden— (icrnutn, Rumian, EngUab 
— arc puwting to anil fro ; some iJikiTig their Stin- 
ilay dritrc, tome on foot. Deneatli my window, in 
a small, triangulur garden, is a touching chapter 
in liuman life; tlie whole book, Indeed, from the 
beginning almost to the end. There ia a lible 
under tlie trees in t)ic universal German fashiAn* 
and wine and Scltzcr-wuter on it ; and tliere, in hia 
armchair, sitit an old blind man, with his children, 
and grandchildren, and the blnssomn of yet anotlicr 
gt^nemtion iirouiid bim. While I write it, Uie 
young people are touching UieirglusKcs to liis, and 
a little thing lias clumbeml up bcbind him and ia 
holding a rose to his nose." ^^M 

\r you recollect that we are now in Protestant 
Germany, you will l>e a»toni*>hed at the laxity of 
the SablKitb. The Oerman reformers nei-cr, 1 
believe, underlook lo reform the Continental Sab- 
bath. Tliey probnbly understood too well tbftj 
inflexible luiture of national ctntoma, and liov 
much more difficult it is to remodel them than to 
reciLit faith. We are accustomed to talk of " dte 
borrort of a Continental Sabbath," and arc natu- 
rally shocked with an aspect of things so different 




from our own. But, wli«ii I remiMnbcr ibc itmag 
congrc^liom I liave seen, the domcntics slietcbed 
half the lienvy day in b«d, the young p«o|>le tilting 
by the half-cio&ctl blind, <lonling langiiij; looks out 
of the window, wbili; the lliblt; wu lying idle oii 
their laps; nnd the mi'rry sliouu of the children at 
the going down of llie kun, at If an enemy had <ti»> 
aj>pe»r«d, — itdoeii not seem to me that we can say 
to the poor, ignorant, toil-worn peasant of Europe, 
" I an holier than thou !" 

1 left my journal to go to cfaurdt. At all thcae 
ConttDenial resorts there u service in English, and 
here the duke permits it to be held in his own 
church. The service tvas performed by a c4etgy- 
mau of tlie Church of Englaiid. 

At four o'clock we set off for our aftemooa walk. 
The gay shopt in the colonnade were all open, 
but tiicrc were few buyers, where buyers most do 
congregate, ut the KtaiU of ihc all-coloured, beau- 
tiful Bohemian ghua*, and of the ■lag-ham jim^rodb 
to euiimaly carred by the peaiantt ; even Moo»iear 
Jiigel's bookahc^ wta deserted. The English arc* 
for the mtrtl part, the buyers, and thry do not buy 
on Sunduy. We went into tlie Kur-:>3al Gurden, 
which at this hour is alive with |>eo|>k, hundreds 
sitting at their little ubies on the gnvciled area 
between the liall and a pretty artificial lake, 
smoking, dipping coffee, wiitc, and Sdizer water, 
and eating ices. A band of capital musictans wera 

16S wiriiiiAnK». 

playing. We had some discnsdon n^edwr we 
•tiouUI go into the KurSaal, and finally, dctcr> 
tniiiinff to s^c ua much as we womankind con uf 
wliat characterises tUe place, we entered. The 
Kitr-Saai (cure-hull) bclonga to the dukp, and lu 
Bpacioiu apurtDieals are devoted to baiiquetiog, 
dancing, and ganiblin)(. Tlie ^rand talowi is a 
spacions apartment with ri>ws of mar)>le pillars, 
and behind them niches with statues, alternatinf; 
with mirrors. It wn* an odd scene for tis of Puritan 
blood and tiroeding to witnr^K. A circular gun- 
bling-tablv in the miilRt of ilie apartment mi 
surronn<Ied with people fire or six deep, norae 
players but more spectators. The game ww, I 
believe, roulette. It was most eurioutt to see witb 
what a oool, imperturbable manner tliese Germain 
laid down their gold, and woo or lost, as the case 
might be, on the instant. There were not only old 
and practised gamblers, but young men, and peo[de 
apparently of all conditions, and among thetn 
womoD, ladies. These are a small ininority, setdon, 
as 1 am told, more tlinti half-a-doxen anonj • 
hundred men. I watched tht-ir faratt; they lot^ad 
intent and eager ; but I did not, witli their cbangc 
of for t<me, detect aiiy clmnge of colour or expreuion. 
We walked through the smaller rooms, and found 
in all gambling- tables and players in plenty, and 
that where there were fewest spectators tlie passions 
of die players were more unveiled. 



IbitbDjingr and wUioj;. aod vicious amiwgncoi, 
Ik^MM a profaning of \be <iay on wbicfa God ha« 
ordaioed liis earth to b« ft i«tBf>]e of «KTcd 
from labour, and sordid car«, aod 
When and where will It be so nwd w to 4ft Am 
work it might achieve — regcnersle th« world? 
B^ We soon emerged iato the garden ftgaio* 
' were glad to see agrot naay more people < 
than in. This garden, or rather 
Hpotind, for the ^reuter psrt of it is oierely tn 
and trees extends up the larTOwing rdlejr tor n« 
inilca to the ruins of die old castle of Sonacaberg. 
We pawed the little hike with its fringe of bnght 
^pBoovrs, its social tquoib of ducks and its lordly 
twanSt and many a patch of bright 8o»en aad 
sbmbhcrirs, and rustic benches vitb l«te>a-tct« 
pairs or family groups and kept along a path by • 
little brook tint seems good-naturedly to ran jmt 
where it looks [irettic«t iwd ts mcM wanted, tiO *• 
moanted the eminence where the feudal eaatle 
guarded the pass between two br-reaching Tallcy^ 
aud where the old keep, chapel, and miiMri and 
;menuuf n-all still standing, extend over aapaee 
tlialf as large as our village coven. FragakOOM of 
the wall form one side of a range of cottage^ 
serving a better purpose than when they were the 
^bulwark of a lialf-sav^^e wnmor. 

Sonnenber^ is kept in beautiful order by the 
I duke's command and money. There are plan- 


UtJon* of furze about tbe old walls, nanov laby- 
rinthine walks enclosed with shrubbery and em- 
bowered with clemaiis, and seats wherever rests 
ore u-aated. 1 unluckily disturbed a tt-te-^i^tc 
Kvduy, vbicli, if there be truth in " love's speeck- 
Icss meiisii^cs,'' will make a deep mark tn tbe 
tnemory of two happy- looking young people. 

There is a compact village nestled cloM under 
llie ruins of the caslle. Here it was tbiit llie feudal 
dependants of the lord lived, and here the rural 
population is aiill penned. These villages are 
picturesque objects in the landscape, but on a 
close inspection, they are squalid, dirty, roost com- 
fortless places, where the labouring poor are 
huddled together without that jfooil gift — sweet air, 
and plenty of it, which wema m much ibeir right 
Bs tlie birds'. 

When I see tbe young ones here playing round 
a heap of manure that is slacked up before their 
door, 1 think liow favoured are the children of (be 
poorest poor of our New-England villages ; but 
tofUy — the hard-pressed Cieriiinn pensatit, to kis 
pent-up vitliige, has a look of contentment tmA 
cheerfulness that our people have not. If his 
neceiMities arc greater, his desires are fewer, God 
is the biber of all : and tliese are his eompensa lions. 

We got home lo Uurg-sirassc just as the last 
hues of twilight were fading from the clouds ; and 
just as K. was taking off ber hat, shv remembered 



At afker coming down from the <-a»iI«', she turned 
•»!de lu gmtbertoinb tlowors •"■d mi'iiiiwhilc bung 
lier bag, cooUiining ftuii<iry articles belonging to 
Iterseir, and my puree, on tbe railing of a bridge. 
What was to be done ? We hoped that in tJie 
(liisky twilight it mi^ht have escaped observation. 
^kX. proposed Mending for a donkey anil going herself 
Bin search of it. I coiMviticd, being most virtuously 
HUnclined [an those to whom it cosM nothing ure apt 
flo be) to impress on Mis» K. a salntury lesson. 
The donkey came, and off she set, attended by 
Francois, and followed by a deformed don key .driver 
with the poking-stick, and everlasting \-It-R-H, 
^niieb to the ^liversioii of the denizens of Burg- 
BtrBsse, who were all on their door-steps looking on. 
She wail hardly out of my »ight before I repented 
sending her off with tlie.'ie foreign people into the 
^now obscure and dei>erted walk. I thought there 
Hwas (in cnl omen in ttie donkey-boy's bump-back : 
*»nd, in short, I lost all fi-t-ling for " my ducats" in 
apprehension for " my ddugliter ;'" and when she re- 
turned in safety without the bag, I cared notforHerr 
L«iiring's assurance " that it would yet be found— 
4bat it was rare anything was lost at Wiesbaden." 


This morning " my ducats" rose again to their 
full value in my esteem ; and just us I wnit pon- 
dering on all I might have done with ibcm, Leiii- 
Hng't broad, charming face uppcnrcd at tlie door 


with tti« announcement, "On I'a txour^e, made- 
moiselle,' (It is foun<l !) and he reiterated, with » 
juft bui^lier pride, " Rarely ia anything lost at 
Wiesbaden." Tlie bag, be says, was found by a 
" writer," and left with the police; and Letsring,tbe 
writer, and the police all decline oumpeiHBlion or 
reward. If tltis abstemiousness had occurrRd in our 
oouulry, we might, perhaps, Lave thought it pe> 
culior to iu 

1 WENT last erening with the girls to a ball 
given every week to such as choose to attend it ; 

I went ciotwitlistanding Mr. ^'s nssurenve (with 

a horror not quite fitting an Ameriaui) thai wo 
should meet " Turn, Dick, and Harry ibvre." 
One of iLe girls replied that " Tom, Dich, and 
Harry were such very well-behaved people here, 
that there vras no objection to meeting them;" 
and BO, fortified by the approbation of our KngUdi 

frionda Miss and Miss , who are soffi- 

dsntly tastidious, we went. The company assem- 
bled in iJie ^rand saloon of ibc Kur-Saal at the 
indefinite hour ul which our evening lectures an 
appointed, "early candle-lighting," and it wm 
rather miscellaneous, some io full, Mme in halt 
draw. 'Hie f^tU had been told it was customary 
to dance, when asked, without waiting for the 
romwlily of an iotroduclion, and they were only 
too happy to ohtatu their favourite exercise by ft 





DIM conformity to tlie ciutoms of the coun- 
try. They had parliiers, and very nice ones, in 
plenty. I was struck with the solemn justice of 
^koe youth, who, dispensing bix favour with an 
^^equa) band, enguged thv three at the sumc time, 
one for a quadrille, one for a g»Uupaile, and one 
^kfbr a waltz. We had no acquaintance in the room, 
no onerous dignity to maintain; the g'ltU had 
rc«{)«ctful partners, plenty of dancing, Aiid no fag- 
ging, as we wtreut home and in bed by eleven. 

ilr seems to me that Sir F. Head, in his humor- 
ous account of the Cierman dinner, hm done «ome 
injustice to the C'vrman aiitine. After you hare 
learned to tlircod its mazes to the last act of it« 
Intricate plot, you may, passing by its vnnoiu 
grcwy messes, find tlie substantiul solace of roast 
fowls, bare, and delicious venison, that have been 
pushed back in the course of precedence by the 
puddings and sweet sauces. These puddings and 
sauces are lighter and more wliolcsome than I 
hare seen elsewhere. Indeed, the drama, after 
the prologue of tJic soup, opens wttli a tempting 
boiled beef, at which 1 am sure a " GroKvenor- 
street cat," if not as pampered as my lord's butler, 
would not, in spite of Sir Francb' assertion, turn 

■ up his whiAker. 
W'e dine at the Quatrc Saisons, the hotel 
nearest to us, and, as we are told, tlic best table- 



cl'ii6te in tlic |>lnco. Tlicro i« a one-o'clock, wxi. 
in <lofpre:ice to the Ktigliuli, a fivp-o'cWk ditinn. 
The universal German diniier-liour it one. The 
price at one is a florin — about forty-tvro centa : at 
five, B Prussian dollar — about serenty-five cents. 
Tlii« is witliout wine. We dine usually at one; 
but we have been ut tlie fivo-o'cloeli ljd>le, ai»H ve 
see no other di^rrcnce than tbe more snttocratie 
pnet of that ariAtocnitic hour. Betides llif fnfiiag 
ndviiDtage of dininjr at one in reriTcncr to bealtlii 
ii leaves the best hours of the liay free for out-«f* 
door pleasures. The order and accompaniments 
c^ our dinner arc agreeable ; the tables are set on 
three sides of a spuciuus salie-d-manptr, with a 
smaller table in ihc centre of the room, where tlie 
landlord (who carves artistirally) carves die dinner. 
His eyes arc everywhere. Not a ^uost esoipn 
Ma observation, not n waiter omits his duty. 

When tlie cluck i^ elo«e upon tbe stroke of one, 
people may he seen from every tlirection bending 
their steps towanis the hotel. You leave your 
hats and bonnets in an ante-room. The OfierkeBiter 
(head waiter) receives yon at the door, and con- 
ducts you to your scats. The table it alway* 
covered with clean (not very fine) German table- 
linen, and, of course, supplied witli napkins. Pota 
with choice odorous plants in flower are set at short 
inter%-aU the whole len^li of tlie UiMe: a good 
band of music i« playing in the orchestra. Itie 

inner-iprricc » & coarse while por«I(iiii. As 
soon ax you are HeAtei), littlt* girU ctimc rouitd 
with boskcU of l>oiiquet», wliicli you are offered 
without Nolidlation. You mny have onet if you 
will, for a halfpenny, an<l a awvct rtmile from the 
little flower-girl thrown into tlie bargain. Then 
come young women with a printed sheet contoininff 
a register of the arrivals wiiliiu the IhbI three daym, 
for which you pay a penny. I observe the new- 
comers always buy one, liking perhaps, for once 
in their live«, to see their names in print. The 
tarte a rtit is then prc4ente(l. and, if yoii please, 
you may select an excellent R/iine wine for twenty- 
fivr ccnl8 a bottle, or you may pay the prices wc 
pay at home for Burgundy and Ctmmpagne*. 
These preliminaries over, the dinner begins, and 
^^ occupies between one and two houre, never less 
^Bbftn an hour and a half. The meal« are placed 
^■an the table, then taken off, carved, and offered to 
^^each guejit. You see none of those eager looks 
<H- hasty movements tliat In-tray the anxieties of 
^Hoor people lest a liivourice di»li should escape. 
^BA German eats as long and i» leisurely as he 
^■please* at one thiup, sure Ihat nil will be offered 
lo him in turn ; and they are the most indefatig- 
able of eaters; not a meat, not a vegetable conies 
an table which they do not partake. A Miigle 
;ilatc of the cabbage saturated with grease that I 

' K«( the hotel prlcM, bat «tMUt ono dollar lod fiftf Mat*. 
VOL. I. I 



hare seen a Gormnn lady eat would, os our Uult 
S. said wlicii slir squc-c/eil tlie chicken to dfvth, 
Inve *' <tcaded ■" one of our dyspeptics '* inrjr 
dead;" and tlii-t plate uf cabbage h one of thirty 
varieties. The quiet uikI order of the table are 
adminible. The servants are ncrer in a hurry, and 
nerer blunder. You know what angry, patfaede, 
and bewilderinft calls of " Waiter !" » Waiter !" 
we bear at our tables, 1 liut'C nerer hcuni ihr 
call of " Kclliter !" from a German. 

I leave the table eaclt day expecting Inlf tbt 
people will die of ajioplexy before to-morrow, bat 
to*D>nrrow tliey all come fortli with pladd faces 
and fre«h appetites! In this the result of tlieir 
lelswrcly eating ? or tlieir serene, social, and enjoy* 
ing tempers? or their lives, exempt from the keen 
compeiilious and eager pursuils of ours ? or th«ir 
living out of doors? or all of iliese together? I 
leave you to solve a problem ilial puzzles me. 

A (iermaii, of whatever coniliiion, bows to hit 
neighbours when he siu down and when h« riMS 
from table, and addresses some passing civility 
to tliem. We are »>motimes smuted at tht 
qae«tio>» tliut arc askvd us, such as, " Whether 
English is spoken in America ?" A gentleman 
asked me " Wbetlter we came from New- York 
or Ncw-OrlcttDs?" ai if they were our only 
cidai; and another said, in good faith, "Of coant 
there is no society except in New-York!" Ob. 



gpnii locorum of our little inland village, forgive 

We are too often reminiled how (ai our couiitry 
is from iliis. VcUerday a Russimi gentlemnit sitid 
to K., " (^i est Ic soiivcrain de votri* paj-*, inade- 
tiioUellc?" " Motiflieur Van Bureii e*l Ic Pt6- 
udent des Ktau Utiis." " Ali, oui. Mais j'ai 
entendu le nomdv Jackson. 11 c^l du bas-pcuple, 
n'est-«^ pas?" 

'* Comment s'appellent les chels des petit« nrron- 
dissomcna * ?" It might be salutary to such of 
our people as are over aiisious about what figure 
they mako in fonrij;]! eyes, to know tlicy make 


iJiTE been attracted to the window every morn- 
if nee I have hcen here by the troops of children 
passing to the public school, their hands full of 
books and slates ; the girk dressed in cheaper miw 
teriab, but much like those of our vi1]agc-f>chools, 
except that their rich Cicrman hair is uncovered, 
and tlivy all, the poorest among tliem, wear good 
•tockinga — so much for the universality of Ger- 
man knitting. Eductilion is compulsory here aR 
in Prussia ; lh<t parent who cannot prtKliice a good 

• "Who la the«o»Brdgn nf Tont eoonlrjr. aiM?" "Mr. Vm 
BwM It the Pmldent of Uit UnlUd SUUt." ■' Ah. ^cb. Bull 
h>*ebeMd the nunc otjuluon. He i|iniii{ Troiu Uic toner clui, 
did hi not ;" " Prsf wbil It Uib tlll« of tlio chlcfa of the leiur 



reason for tbo sbsence of the ebild pays a 6De. t 
went into tlic girU* hcIiouI nearest to us tliU morn- 
ing. Tbey looked m» intelligent, as cnrty Af 
velope<1, and as bright as our own cbildren. 

They went suoceivfuUy tlirotigli tbeir exercises 
in reading, geography, and aritlimetic At an 
interval tn these lessons, the master, who wss a 
grave personage some sixty years old, took from i 
case a Tioltn and gave them a mu»ic lesson, whicb| 
if one might judge from the apparent refreshment 
of their young spirits, wus an nltment well suited 
to tJiem. Whut is to be the result of litis edu- 
cation system in Germuny? Will people, tbtis 
taught, be eoiit^iited to work for potatoes and 
bhick bri-Jid ? 

We luive been in soardi of an irilwit-school* 
whieb we were told we should find ne»r ilte Poitt. 
To tbe Potte I could go blindfold ; for how many 
times have I been tlti-re witli iifliiitcrinir heart and 
come away witli it too heavy, us it seemed to me, 
ever to flutter again ! 

We pMsed the PoiU and lost our clew, so I 
resorted to my usual resource, a lM>uk»eller, who 
directed me up a steep, iijirTow street, und told dm 
to ask for the " A'/crn A'lW/r Se/iuleJ" I went on, 
confident in my " open tcsame ; " but nothing 
could be nwre ludicrons tluin my Mupefaction 
when the good people to whom I uttered my given 
words, not doubling tliat one who could B[>eak 




glibly cniild &l«o aiwi«ntaiMlt ponrcd oot » 
volume of G^muui upon me ; up— op we wenl, 
kalf ibe people ia tlie streel, iritli humane interest, 
looking after as, dll we came to lite nisniow of ao 
apartment that opened un fo a court where tl»c 
little urdiLDs were seated. The appearance of 
visitors WM a tigml for the reinatioD of tbeir 
ttudtcs. Tlierv was a general rining and rttth to 
tlicir play«; Imt fir«t the little thing*, from iwo 
years old to six, «imc unbidden, witli smiling faces, 
to shake our bnnd*^ It puciles me as much to 
knotr how this qmility of »>cial freedom gets into 
the Cierman nature, as liow the African's sldo 
became Made * If a struiiger a'ere to go, tn 
like manner, among our school children, and tbey 
were forced fonrard by a rule, tliey would advance 
witli downcast eyes and murky looks, as if the 
very demon of bashfulness stiffened ibeir limbs. 
The infanl-scliool b supported by charitable con- 
tribuaons, and eonducted much like our infiint- 
BchM>ls. Tlie children sluy all day, and the jiarent 
pays a kreutzer for the dinner of each— less tliana 
penny. M'e followed them to ilieir playa, and as 
I looked at them trundling (heir little barrows and 
building pyramids of gravel, and the while devour- 
ing black bread, I loiigetl to transport them to 
tltOM unopened slorehousea of abundance which 
tlic Father of all has reaervcd in our untrodden 
*' West" for the starved labourers of Europe. 




Dut tbey were a merry little company, aod, U 
no oUier, they bavo here u harvest of cuntcntmem 
and smiles. 

Our letters come to-day ! 'Ilie delay was oiriiig 
to the change in our plan*. While we were every 
day goiiif; to llie Pmle for tliem, tbey were lying 
quietly at Wlblbiul. Tbis interruption of comn«- 
ni cation with those who are bound up in the 
bundle of life with us lit one of tlic scvercBt trinb 
of a traveller. It was past eleven whcti wc bod 
finiibcd reodinfT ilicm, and ttieii I went to bed 
witli mine under my pillow. I could ta cosily 
luive gone t» sleep if ibc hwts of tlioso who 
wrote tliem lutd been throbbing there ! " Ulesvingf 
on kim who invcnleil «lci;p 1 " »ay« Sancho. ^' !)!««»• 
iags on him," suy I, " who invented that art UuU 
makes sleep sweet and »wakiiig happy I " 

OvK good laudloril, Lei&ring, u, in all eu- 
genoes, our " point d'appui." He bas tlic browlt 
tnith-telling German face, and a bonbomte quite 
his own. He b, in an humbler poailion, a Sir 
Roger de Coverly ; and his family and mime: 
dependants seem to buvc as kind a master as 
the good knight. Ho is a master-carpenter, 
II juit now employed in tiniNhiiig off the new 
palace wbicb the Uuke of Nas.iuu is building far 
his duclwss, and has twelve subordinates in hU 



' Knrice — nine joarneymcn uid tbrec apprentices. 
To the nino journeymen, Lo teils me. be lias paid, 
io the last four montbs, one tliousand florins, 
about eleven dnllurs a niondi each, bcudes fireding 
tbem. The iipprL-utices be »up|>ort«, »»(! gives 
tbem a triSe in money. Tbey eat in a back 
buUding attaclied to ours. I atilced leave to-day, 
while tbey were at dinner, to look in upon tbem. 
Tbey had clean linen on their table, and erer^'- 
tiling appeared comforUibie. Tbcy are atioved 
tbrec rolls uf brown bread for brejik&«t, and coffee, 
beer, or «cbiHi]>p« (n mixture uiili Home sort of 
^irtl), wbiekercr tlicy prefer. They Iwvc toup, 
tuat, and vegetable* for dinner ; and soup, bread, 
butter, and cheese for supjicr. A florin and a half 
(sixty cents) pays for the meat for their dinner *. 
The best butter ts iwenlv-foiir kreulxers (tigfateen 
eenta) m pound ; the rolls, a kreuuer each. Veg^ 
tabtca arv exee<Aively cheap. 

There is a liiw in C>ermany compelling an ap- 
prentice, when tlie term of bis apprenticeship ts 
completed, lo travel a year, to work in diRerenl 
towns, and enrich hiinielfwith the improvemenft 
in his art. In each town there is an inn for titese 
tnvelling mechanics. After reporting himself to 

* Tbe gitee b all tsbtn in tbc didw'* f i uu f ta , uJ », ot 
Mnuvc. bii pro|<ti1]r. OU Tcnlxin (j fcrat krmlion t ponnili 
yvmaf from tmlie to tliw<ii ; * bmn •ritbool Ibg *Uii, tiraitj- 
iam kr<«um iti|htnn nnt>.) 



the police, lie goeii tliere and tbeti fiods eroploy- 
mciil. You meet these yoang men on the nail 
»iiK tleir knapsacks, biiiI tlicy ofttn lake off tLeix 
caps and present Uiem at your carriage- window, 
modestly tiskinj; a halfpeocc. At tiret vre were 
quite indicant at seeing ttich dcceut-luukiofr 
people begging. Hut out hik^ly mi^jud^tDenu 
bive been corrected by die iuformation iliai ihv^Q 
poor youtlis go forlJi penniless; tbat it is not con- 
sidered a dejf Illation for tliem to Bolieit in tliti 
way i and lliat ihey are, in fact, fiustaincd by ibe 
wayude aid of tbeir countrymen. 

We liave miule nnotlicr experiment of GenM^H 
sodety. Tbc girls went witb E. to n amrieW^^ 
tlic Kur-Siml. Tlii& vaa a mir^ mitiicaji-, tliat it, 
a ball beginning wiili a concert; a Itigher euler- 
tainmenii and more choice in itfi eom)iany tbau tbe 
one 1 liave described to you. Tbc only condition 
for admission was Uic payment of a little less titan 
ji dollar for the ticket of each penoii. They dl 
came Lome eluirmed with ibe young diicheu, with 
her very Hwcei, blond beauty, simple dress, and 
unassuming and affable manners. They were the 
more pleased as tliey contrasted her with another 
eprig. or, rather, sturdy branch of a royal ho'jse : a 
certain Russian princess, who, though assuredly of 
a very coarse materiul, fancies hereelf of a choicef 
clay than the people about her. This woman. 





vc mret erm-whirrc, in tl>e gsrden, at tlie 
tabic (Thdtc, iin<) nt tlie Kocbbninnrn, is qatt» tiie 
uoisiett aiid most vul^r prrson wc ^acoanttr, 
Stidi a pcrMHi would naturally be (nadiioat in 
ber associates; and iirr prtioe (aroaritr, if we 
may judge From llioir coD«taot juxiapoutioo, it a 
coloured man witb woolly bair. Mine tay from 
Cew Orteaits, otbers tbat be is a WeM Indiaa. 
1 do not Hj>eak of tbti io any (lur«sp«ct to biia, 
but as a proof iliat colour is no disfinalificatioo in 
uropcan society. 

Last tugbt, wbile thp fdr young ducbm was 
dancing at a brilliant soirt-e at her palace at Bie- 
bcricb, a courier arrived witb tbe aevs of tlie 
duke's death of apoplexy while drinking the watan 
of his bnbbint of Kiniugviu Rather a ataitfiog 
change from that »oun<) of rerelry to the knell of 
widowhood — from being the "' cynosure of all 
Hayes" to be ibc dowagiT stepdame of tbe reigning 

^H Our bo«t tvlls us tlie duke was " un bon enfiut " 
^■[a good fellow), an<l much beloved, and will be 
nach regretted. No one can doubt that 8 sober, 
well-intentioned man of forty-five, who is to be 
tucceeded by a boy of twenty, is a great loai to 
bis people. \Vherc power has. as here, no constt- 
itional restrictions, the people arc at the mctcy of 
lie personal character of the sovereign. 
I 3 

176 wmsADix. 

Tub good people of \\'iesbad«i ge«ni to xakt 
Uic dealli of Uicir politicul fatlier very coolly. I 
sec no tlemon St rations of moiirning except that 
die hcU« lire ttm^ tin hour diiily, atid thai tlie 
muftic lins ceased at our dinners and in titr garden, 
and that llic public amiureinenta are stopped: a 
proceeding not likely to endear the duke's tneioory 
(o tlie tnnlceepeni and their host of drpcnduits 
who are all in deii|)ajr lest their guests should take 
tlieir departure. The influx of the R>on€y-«p€ndiii{ 
English is a gr^ut source of profit to tlic dndiy 
of Namau, so tliat nothing ran be more irapoUtie 
than tliis prohibition, which extends to Scbwalbadu 
Sclilaiigenlwd, &c. 

We have now been here more tlian a nMOtb, 
and I may venture to ft))CidE to you of what has 
been a constant subject of iuluiiration to us all, tbe 
manners of tlie Germans. The Knglbb race, root 
and branch, are, what with their natural shyoni, 
their conventional reserves and their radical ud- 
courtcousness, cold end re|K-lling, Tlie politenew 
of the French i» oonvcniioiiul. Il »eenM in part 
tlic result of tlieir sense of personal gnice, and ia 
part of a selii^h ealciihiliuii of milking tlie moat «f 
what coals nothing ; and partly, no doubt, it ia tfae 
■poaiaiieoufl effect of a vivacious luilure. There is 
a dcep>»euted humanity in tlic courtesy of tba 


Germam. Tlwy alwsjr* wca ts be 
geude {>re<MiR fna the evd tlai n 
with tbeir •p«de9. Tbe; da 
MfStlill joa •'freelytBnte'ls'*] 
you a hBnd,' bat tb« haad 
out and the kiod deed ready Id faUov it. 

Tliis suavity is oot limited ta asy naJ 
dBuMi. It cxtnda all tbe way 4mwm 
prince to the pooreat pwl. Smmc of ' 
drtTing ont in • hackoer-eoaek ycatcrday. Met 
■ODe German ladiea in a coach with bur bofieii 
poatilipna, fnotmcn in livery, and ocher narks af 
rank aod wealth. What weoU Aawtkaaa have 
doDt in a Nmilar positJoo ? Prohahly looked snf 
anil sceotnl unoHiNKMM. And Eagbfc hSm 
would liare ilone the tame, or, aa I kaee taea 
thera ID Hyde Park, have leased back ta their 
carriages, and stared with so air of DUDglcd in- 
differenoe and iuiMtlence dirou^ their eye gia M M t 
u if their iiiferion in condition cooid bear to be 
•tared at Tlie German ladies bowed raoet C04ir< 
leotuly lo tfje Iminblc strangera ta the hackoey- 

Ye*torday, at the table d'haVe, I obaerved a per- 
pcudiciihir old ^enilemaii, who looked ai if he had 
been born before any profane dreanu of levelling 
down the sieepi of artfitocracy h;i<l entered the 
mind of man, and whose servant, in ricli livery, 

btilTu himself, was in n^ailing behind him, bow 




lo the persona opposite lo Iiim as he took his seat, 
and to tliose on bts right hand and liis left. Sooa 
after our landlord came to spcuk to biin, and fiuni- 
linrly and qiiiir iiCL-cptubly, as it appeared, laid kli 
liaiid on tJiu nobleman '» sliouUler wliile addi 

Soon after we came here, a gentleman wid 
whom we |hls»c(1 a few hours in a Ithine steati>er 
met us ut tliv titble-d'htlle. *' Had I noc," lie said, 
" tlie pleasure of coming from Bonn to Coiogaw 
with you ? 1 He one of your party ts absenl. 
She is, I hope, well," &lc. To appreciate as tliey 
deserve these wayside courtesies, you sliould see 
the relentless English wc come in contact witi^ 
who, like gboaU, (iciwr " speak till tlicy are 
spoken to." 

A few days Kinco, as wc were issuing from our 
lodgings a very gvullcinanly Gvnnun slopped us, 
begging our pardons, and saying " Knglish, I 
believe?" and then added, that an we appeared to 
be strangers in quest of lodgings, as be bad just 
been, be would lake tJie liberty to give us tlie 
addresses of two or iliree that bud been recom- 
mended to him. TIii« was truly a Samaritan— a 
German kiudness. Tlic bote I -keepers, that ImporU 
am class to travellers often blend witK tho accu- 
rate perfurmuiicc of the duties of "mine host* tfae 
kindness of a friend. Thotr civility, freedom, aad 
gcoilananlJuca remind me of my frieod Coixaoa 


and adiers, the bat i pe oM — tt 
III borne. Tke haAMd aAea ato a 
his guests, aod, vilii kis 
ooovecM* on tetiM «i i 

Tlw auke Bctfmpcct Uraii 
ibe sbopkerpcr. lie n mj hfpf l> 
^hnit yoa, bat, if he cannot, be » n»ij to > 
you cltiowlif rr. Sbopraro bwre rcpcMcdlj, I 
sent a pvr>i>n to f^niile ■• tbtvogli Ac 
ContiD«nuJ stn-«tk to anotber «bafk 

Tbe domnUcs are prompt, EutUal, aiid cbeo&l 
in tlieii services. Tlt«re b frecdaM, bat ■• pte- 
sumption in ibeir manners, aad aaibng «f iftM 
uiibnppy uDcertaint)' as to tbeir etaet 
nacomfortablc in oar people. In all tbew 
diiiale dasaes you see notbiag of tbe aiapag \ 
vility that marks them in EogUiMl, aod to 
tbey are exposed hj their direct depeodeace on 

eir emplnyen. 

Our English friend, Mim , who bu been 

peaiedly in Gtrasay, and ia a good obaevTcr, 
acquiesces in the truth of tny obserradao*, and 
says this general freedom of deportaieiU eooca 
from people of all ranks freely miagtiiig together. 
If BO, lliii 6urely is a healthy influence, « nauind 

id beneficent effect from an obedience to that 




* Tbk D|l«loa may »pftt to bat* b«*a 
B<yriutmM >llb the toumirj. it 
Snntd Id Gctmuf uhI Snturbnd. iriwv the 
Utllj the tutc 



Dirine precept, ** Honour all meD." Woe to tlioM 
who set die brethren uf one ramily- ofi* into aula, 
and build up walls betweiMi ilicm to t)ial tbej' 
cannot irecly grasp bands and cxdiwij^c smilea ! 

I HAVE just bcflii to tbc Pottc to sec oar KnglUk 
fiicmlH ofT, Tlii-ir departure is a tad tr]ioeb to ua. 
for (Ley bare bet-ii nur solace niid dt-ligliU A curi- 
ous scene 19 the "I'oste" inn Coiiliiiental town. 
Here (and ordiiiDrily, I Iwlicre) It has a quadmo- 
gular court, incli*M><l on three sides by an hold awl 
its offices, inehiding tiuit for letters, imd having oo 
tltc fourlh side ii jiiuwigc throuffh a stone arch tu 
the street, ilere the |iiiblic coaches arrive, and 
hence laihe their dei>urlurc ; and here tlie traveller* 
and their luggage are taken up and discharged. 
I will describe the scene to you precisely as I just 
saw it. Besides the diligence for ScliumllKich, IB 
wliich our friends were going, and towards which 
tite luggage of various passengers was converging, 
while that which exceeded tbe uiitliorised weight 
was pMMiig tlirou);li the post-ofEce window out of 
Uw liaDds of the w<-i|{hrniisier,* there were private 
carriages arriving and Hc|>arting. Sunte of these 
were elegant, and llie horws cur^'eting and pran* 
cing right royally, so that I fancied tliey m\ut be 

* Tha 4llo*e4 vB^ht at ht^mgt In UFinua; M >bU aa ■■ 
Anot is nusll, tUnj pouniU. I iliiak. And for ihc tin— of lU* 
fM paf St w hlfh ■ nia. that Uic IrMipoftsliaB •! oni'i 
oftBQ Mtta (Dorv Uias MM of <wc'* mV. 




ing German princn, or Engltdtmait who are 
priDcesall over Europe. 

My friend's |M)«tilii>n, with bia yellow and black 
Nassau livery, his olSdal band round his arm, his 
leather boots cut to u peak in front and extending 
some inches above his knee, his immcii»v yellovr 
'tassel bobbing over his shoulder, was blowing hti 
note of preparation from the trumpet tie eiirrieit 
at bis side, tat Gcrmuns stood at tlie windows 
of tlic different slorios of the hotel, smoking and 
talking to women m fut a» lliey. There were 
Other Uerrnans, inuRtachiued iind imperturbiddc, 
coolly awaiting the moment of dejiarture, mean- 
dering about among the carriages and barrowv, 
tritli ilieir pipes dangling from one «idc of their 
moutlis, and their incessimt "Ja," "Jawohl" (Yes 
—yes, indeed), dropping from the other. Our 
friend's female fellow-pu.tKengvr«, in caps without 
bonnets, bad eiueonceil tliemNclveK in a little nook, 
where they were knitting us if they were neiilter 
part uor parcel of this stirring world. 

But what a contrast to this quietude, the Kngltsh 
traveller! You may know him by the «]iiantily 
and variety of hii: luggage, by every ingenious con- 
trirance for comfort {nius! comfort implies ii-tture), 
UDpregnablc English trunks, travelling-bags, dress- 
ing-cases, cased provisions for ull the possible wants 
that civilisation generates, and ull in travelling 
armour. There is no flexibility about uu English- 



tDiiti, no ii(la|>t»tioii to circumiianccx uad exi^nccs. 
lie must htanA lorUi, wlicrcvcr lie goes, lliv impcr- 
eonatioii of Iiis Ulaiid-liomc. 1 siiid lits lugga^fc 
betrayed Kim ; I am »iirc liU face acid deiutfniiour do. 
His luiigclcti are in a slate of tenuoo, his uerr«* 
seem to be oci thv oiil»ide of lits cvat, U'n eyebrows 
are in motion; lie look*, as my friend says slie felt 
wlien alic Rrtit camv to hucIi a |>lace as lliis, '* lu if 
all the peojilu about bcr were raff;" lits roice u 
f|uick and liarhb, and biii wortU none of the sweetc 
ao that you do nut wunder llie Continental peofib 
have fastened on liim the descriptive sobriquet of 
« Monsieur God-d— n." 

An interesting little episode to mc in tliis biu>^ 
tling scene ivas Miss W., the very ensencc 
refinement and Unglith grnlUttKnnanliiteu, runoti 
bitlier and yon, settling with porters, gallons, aud 
mattres de poste, while her Vorksbtre maid wu 
Hatching with dismay tlie rongb baitdling of hof 
lady 'a precious parcels, and Miss St. L. looking i 
if she did not care if they were all \mt, if sla- could 
but save her friend from lhe«e rough duties, to 
wliicb she is eompelled by being the only one of 
the party wbo speaks Ctennan. 



Mt dear Ct 

We liave bet-n wuiling for fine weiUliffr, ilial 
being ao iii<li»|iensable cictncnl in « purty uf ple«- 
■ufe. for an «xcur>iofi down ihe RItine, and Uib 
moToiiiji wc set off, the girls and mys«lf, nithout 
wijr attendant of mankind: an elegant superflaity, 
ax we are beginning to think. 

While FriMi^ois was getting our biUett, wr, 
eager to secure die best places in the diligence, 
JMlled put tliv Germans, who stood quietly a»-aiting 
the coiidut'ior'it siiinmons: and when, ten minutes 
after, our fellou'-pajuiengen wvtc gelling in, offering 
to uiie uiiolher pri-cedenc«, the conductor came to 
u» and Hiid, "Ah, Iwlie*, yuu are placed; I hud 
lotted better s«at» for you." Was not tliis an 
appropriate punishment for our sellish and truly 
national hurrying ? I could give you many in- 
atances of similar offences cammitted by ourselves 
«nd oilier travellers among these "live-and- let-live" 
people. There is a steam navigation company on 
tlie Rhine, who have three boats ascending and 
descending diuly; this enables you to pity your 
fmngfi to a certain place, and avail yourself of 
cndi boat or all, lu Nuiu> your convenience. You 
are at liberty, at any point you please, to quit the 
steamer, ramhie for two or tlirce hours on the 
sliore, and then proceed on your expedition. We 
are descending the river rapidly ; tlie current rana 
attlie rate of sU miles an hour. 



Tlic l>ig KuMtiuii princess, wlio U a iiort of "man 
of tltc 3«a" u> IIS is floumbicifT up and down Um 
deck iriili two of her suite, one od mch side, as if 
to guard lier from contact with the pli-bctan vntU. 
Every look and motion say« " 1 <lu not lore tke 
pc<T)Ie." The poyal brood may wince, but thty 
must submit to the democruttc lendi'ticii-s o( the 
u){c. These KleamcTB and ruil-carsarf undi*rmintiig 
their elevations. I luivc uot, as you know, tay 
(tear C, any rulgar hostility to those who ar« tlie 
heirs of thff nsur;miion!i of ehler time« — "the 
accident of ah nccidt!nl''^l>ut when I see a penuin 
radically vulgiir like ihia woman, queenijig it anon); 
those who are her Kupenors iu everytliin^ but thii 
accidental grentnci«, my Puritan blood and repub- 
lican breeding get t)ie belter of my humanity. 

We are pauing the diJlteau of Johanntsbcr^ — a 
castle of Prince Metternich, an immense while 
edi6ce, which, as we m-c it, looks much like a 
Saratoga hotel. It is on a gently-»loping hill, 
on-ered with rines which confessedly produce the 
twst Khino wino. " 'llie extent of the vinej'ard 
is," Murray siiys, " fifty-five acres. Its produce in 
good years amouHU to about forty butts, and bat 
been valued at 80,000 florins." This vineyard was 
formerly attached to tlie abbey of St. John ; and a 
genial lime, no doubt, the merry monks hml of II 
Would tlicy not hiive rej^nrded the modern ubooing 
of wine as the ne i>lus ultra of hereby ? But, |>oor 


•llovn ! their abbey md tbeir wise were iemg ag» 
Hecularised, and fatve Ulea iaio dw h«Hb «f 
militar)* and political spoilers. Ntpolcm wmit am 
iroperiitl gift of tlicM r u w yai dt to ^tiriUI Kti- 
lennan. aad in 1816 tbey *g^ e h— g»J ki*JB> 
being presented to Metternicli by tfce Emfntr ft 
Austria. I liive drunk iriti« btannfr tW ohm flf 
Johanni»bcrg in New- York, bnt I bare bcca laU 
by a pcrwn who lad tastrd it at \f etmnidb** ttUt^ 
that it is only to b« fonnd anadnlteni«d the**. 
MtiTtsy infomn on tlmt they permit tbe gnpe l» 
pSH the point of •eemin^ pnieciiaa befarg llwy 
gather it, believing that tbe wine gaaa in body by 
tliis, and that to preeioui are lb« gr aptj tkat thne 
whidi liave hllen are picked up by a foffc aa^ far 
Wc in«t a countryman to-dx}' wbo haa be«a 
tr&rclling through France and Italy vith Ui mUt, 
** without any langiagr,' be says, "but thai tfoktm 
on the rocL of Phinonthr which, tmc id kb 
Engliib blood, be pronounces, with in6niie taiia- 
faction, to be the best and all-sulScienL He ia a 
fair qjednen of tlmt daw of Angto-Ame riean 
tfareller* wbo find quite enongh partiarfara, in 
vhicfa ei'ery country is inferior to tbeir own, to fiU 
up the field of titdr ^M-rvation. He has just 
croawd tlie deck to iay to me. •' I hare let them 
knov what a tail place Aim-rira i* ; I have told 
tbem tbat an American Meamei- will carry SOOO 



people an<i lOOi) Inin uf cottnn, and go dovm 
river tiNii up twice as fattt o* a Kliine sloamer* He 
Ims Mf told tliem thiit a Ktiiiie «l<^tnfr u &r 
superior iii its arningement and refinement to ows. 
These little patriotic rai)itips are pleasant soIucm 
irheo one is ibree tbouMnd miles from home — bnl 
truth is better. 

Itranbaefi, — Wk arrived herent Iinlf-)Kwl tlirce, 
liaviiigpasitedubotil £0 miles of tlic miMl eneliantiiig 
scenery on the Kliine. Imairine, mydearC.atiltle 
strip of level land, not very many yurds wide, be- 
tween the riverand precipitous rocks; avilliifrcwitli 
its w^nthcr-staiiiet) houses in this pent-up «p«er; 
an old chateau U'illi iu w,-alls and lowers, and at iht 
summit of the rocks and hanging over ibem, for 
the rocks actuiilty project from the perpendicubrt 
the stern old castle of Marksburg ; and yon liare 
our present position. Murray my* thin cnstle b 
the only one of the strongliohU of the middle agta 
that luts been prcsfrved unaltered, (lie beau ideal 
of an old ciistlc ; and this in why we have come to 
see it. 1 am sittinjjf at the window of the chfiteao, 
now tlic (iatlham :ur PhiUiptbHrg. Under mjr 
window is a garden with grapes, interspersed with 
fruit-trees and flon-ers, and inclosed by a white 
paling, and linii<hiiif; at each end with the old 
towers of the castle-waU. Along the narrow road 
between the garden and the river there arc peasant- 

inA[>o«cn, 189 

^nCi going Itoroeirani u iili baskets of frnh-nowa 
grass on their lieadri, followed by praunU in dirir 
dark blouses, with their sic)(h?s SHrung over their 
shoulder*. Little boats are gliding to and ho, 
guided, Diid, as their ringing voices tell you, enjoyed 
by ebildren. Hut ht-rv l> mine iia>t to tell u* tb« 
eaeh are ready — the four asses we have ordered to 
tidte us to MarL&burg. 


Of all " riding privileges," that on a donkey is 

theleavL V'ou are set on tosotnethlng half cushion, 

laddle, that oeilhei hss itself nor imparts rest. 

lOUgh there is a semicireular nunpart erected, to 
fpiard you from tlie accident of *' high-vaulting 
wnbiliofl," it seems inevitable thai you most fait on 
one side or the other. There U » nhinirle strapped 
to die saddle fur tbe right foot, and a stimip for 
the left; fortunate are yon if you can exlriat* 
your feet from boOi. A merry proccMtuon vc had 
of it, liowever, up the wiwiing rt»d to Marksbnr^. 
The Briiubach donkeys have not had much custooi 
of late, 1 fancy, for we ran a race, fairly distancing 
our donkey-drivers, n-bo seemed much amuaed with 
our way of proceeding. The fellow who WM 
apokesman demanded, as ) thought, an exorbitant 

ice, and I appealed to one of bis comrades, who 
decided that half be asked was quite enough, t 
jDeution this witlt pleasure, because it is tbe only 
itbitig of (be sort we have bad to compIaiD of unco 



we came into Gprroany. Ttio fv How wii« n i 

and an alien froni this worthy liouHeliold, I an 

sure ; hr luui » most im-Grrnmn cx|>rcw>ioii. 

The custlc bas beon, till rciirntly, n ituic-priitoD, 
and is now occupicM] by iiiralid soldim. We werr 
led ibrou^li dark ]imsHge« and up a winding atoBe 
Hiaircwe to tlie aportnicnt wbere |tri«>Den) wen 
put to the ruck; and wc were sbown anotlier 
gloomy dei), wbere there were two uprights aud a 
tTansrcr*« beam, and beneath tlicm a traft-door; H 
■lot satisfied with so mucli of the story as tbew 
objects intimate, you may descend and searcb for 
the bones wbicli you will certainly find there ! In 
anotlMir apartment are some mediocre paintingi on 
tlic wall, done witli only a gleam of light by a poor 
fellow who had ttiiut luippily beguiled weary yean 
of imprisonmenl. On tlie whole, t)ie castle ws 
not so interesting, not nearly to striking, as t 
expected. Nothing is lefi to indicate the rude 
luxury of its lordly masters ; its aspect is merely 
that of an ill-contrived prison. 

Wmbk we got l)sck to the inn, an old man, 
w1m> seemed an haliilui, asked its, in very good 
I-'rench (wliicb Germans of the inferior orders new 
■peak), to walk into the garden. Sudi a pretty 
garden, witli iti towen, it» fragment of Ute old 
castle- wall, its bowers and wreaths of grape*, and 
sacb grapes ! oh, you would go mad if yon could 


then), reinenil)«ring your Reasons of liope and 
despair over your few frfMibiiten rinee. Tlte old 
tnao picked sorae pluiii§, and hewed them to us with 
•ylvan grace on o grapc-lcuf. Wc fell into con- 
renation. He told me tlie story of his life ; it wu« 
common enougb, lint l)icrc vfwt a gciitlGncs8 and 
M^nBibility in liis voice and e:(prcsMiQn very nn- 
cornmoi). He nunc from AImico, and was travelling 
in thiit vicinity with liis wife and only surviving 
child, n girt, " trying to forget borne C for lie had 
Uxtt M ^hort intervals liis three sons, when his 
^-daughter was a^ked in marrisgc by a young man 
^wf Braobacli. The parents gave their consent, and, 
wisely resolving to have but one home among iJienit 
lie Iwught this old chuteau, and converted it into 
the H6lel ZHT i'liillipHbunj ; and here lie and his 
«rife have reposed under the spreading shadow of 
their posterity. " I am not rich," he said, " but I 
have enough. I tliuiiglii. myself htippy ; my life 
was glidiiiif in ihemidttl of my fiinnly and my vines; 
^■but man, willi whom nothing lasts, should not call 
himself liappy. Seven tnoDtbs ago my wife died*' 
— tlte old man's eyes filled — "it was a sudden and 
a hard blow ; we must bow before the stroke of the 
^ood Ood \ My daughter hits four children. I am 
their instructor. In my yaulh I wm at college, 
and, afterwanl being engaged in commerce, I tra- 
iled : ao I am teach them French, Dutch, and 
Ccrluioly 1 am not a severe master; bat 




Uiey love me, and lore can ilo more than ft*t. 
The youngest U HomctimcH too mudi (or ine. He 
is a super!) boy, mndnmo ! When I say, 'Juliiu, 
come to your li-iwons !' lie answers, ' Oh, it is too 
fine weather to study; see bow tbe sun shines, 
grandlatber, and the boys arc all at play ;* and 
away he goes." You may think me as gBrralMH 
as tlie old man to repeat all this to you, since I 
cannot send with it tltls lovely scene io twilight, 
harmonising so well with the twilight of his elusinK 

I !n<)uireil into tlic condition of tlie poor in thii 
neighhourhooH. He uyit tlicir poverty is extreme. 
They live on potatoes aii<l utinr black bread ; on 
Sunday they have, for a family, half a pound of 
meat. A woman with tiiree or four children to 
support has a Horin a month allowed her. Begging 
is prohibited, but they must subsist on charity. 
Every hotel has a poor's bos, of which the magis- 
trate keeps the key, and comes each month to take 
out and distribute the Lravcller«' alms*. He sap 
that, whenever a potir woman of tite vilhige lies in, 
she is supplied for fifteen days from their plentiful 
table. God bless their basket and their store t 

Wc left Braubach tins morning. The old grand* 
fiitherandtbnt^iTiLnyM/ grandchild, *' a superb boy/ 

* 1 have ropMUdlj obwntd tboM Imum iftud lo lh« vsll, 
■Dd bxc bMo (did that ■ Gennan nrrl^ pM*M Onm wilko«t K 



^ , came to tlic hIiotv with us, and we exchanged 
cordial good winhcfl nt parting. 

As vrc pii»lic<l ofT in otir little boat and looked 
up to the precipituuH aliote, il seemed, even while 
we gaxed oa tliem, incredible that llie vine* should 
be nmchcd for cultivation there, where tliey hung 
like a rich drapery. The peasants, women as welt 
u men, scale the predpicea to dress their vines, 
and erery particle of manure is curried up on their 

In the titeept^t places tlie vines are put in bas- 
kets as tbe only way of retaining the soil about 
tbem. For the roost part tlie vineyaids are a series 
of terraces or steps (we have counted from twenty 
to thirty) coToring tbe lace of the hill. Each ter- 
rmcc IS supported by a wiiU from five to ten feet 
high. Murray tells us the Rhineluiid vinedresser 
is not rich, but generally the possc¥«or of the vine- 
y«rd be cultivates. What a beautiful gift of Pro- 
vidence i» llio vino to the piiticnt, contented tiller 
of ground tliat would produce notliing but this [ 
and this "loake* gliul the heart of man." 

The steamer carried us past village after village 
tuost beautiful as seen in passing; but again, my 
dear C, I warn you not to let this, the greenest 
word in memory, call before yi>u wide streets, 
^shaded courtyards, ample space, und ull rural luxu- 
^Hm> a village here it u tati»s of wretched dwell- 
ings stuck ag^iist mouldering walls, where human 

VOL. I. K 




nistoncot in point of comfart, ts nearly on a Icrcl 
witli Ui« brutes : ia fact, the same roof often skel- 
ters all tb« liM-Hnekf from the mutU-r to hta tK. 
Tbe streets arc scarcely wide ctioiiglifor acarriBg* 
to put, luii] tlic Uiiius ar« but a flea's l«a[> across — 
a ineasuremcut that naturally occurs here. But 
mark llie conipensaling bicuing ! tbe denizens of 
dicse dreary places, steeped to the very lip* ii 
poverty, are a smiling, kin<lly people. 

Wk landed at St Gear's, in tliv tnidiit of tbe 
u)0«t ciicliuitiiig ticeiicry of tlic Kliiiir, and in 
tiliowery weatlicr giving us tlie mnt favourable 
powble ligbl. Nature, like "ladies and fine Hoi- 
laud," owes inucli uf its effect to the rigbt diHf>ou> 
ttoa of liglit and »Jiadow. The mountains enclose 
dils littlo village. The Mouse and the Cat, tbe 
beautiful ruins of two casries, are at cither extre- 
mity of tiie vietv. The *' Cat" is well »lutiuiied to 
teutcli its prey, but, contrary to all preoedeott iW 
"Muutte" is said alwayH to have been tbe strongest 
when tbey were b«hJ by their lunht, rivalsi and 
epemies. 'I'hc immense Castle of Itheinfels, batF- 
way up the steep bebin<l St. Goar, looks* as L. 
says, like a great bull dog that might liave kejit all 
its subordinates civil. Kbeinfcis, as early as tbe 
fourteenth century, was the strongest bold on tbe 
Rhitw. It was built by a Count Deither, who, 
secure in his power, levied tribute (tbe exclusive 

m. GOAit. 

ivilege of governments nt present, and tltey> aa 
Murny liappily my*, call It biyiny dtitift) with 
such unsparing cupidity, tliat the free cities of 
Gcrtnnny confederated ngainst liim, nnd not only 
diuDaiided lii.« cnstle, but the oili«r "robben' ne^t*" 
on the Khine. 

The girls carried my cai]>et-hag lip to tlie inn, 
which being rather weighty with my journal, one 
of them expressed the pious wish it "might not be 
90 heavy in the reading as the carrying." On our 
wuy we went into a most grotesque little Catholic 
church, where an image of the good hermit who 
gave his name to tlie village is preserved. He 
looks like an honest German, and, though his bead 
ind b«en crowneil wit>i a fresh gartinid of roses last 
Stmilay, and plenty of clienilfs were hovering round 
him, I &nded he would have liked better a pipe in 
his tnonth and a table before him, aijd the cherubs 
converted into gar^oiis, to serve him with Rliine 
wine and Schzcr-wster. 

We took a boy from tlic *tcps of " The Lily " 
to CTOM the liver with us, and guide us up the 
Sehwciuer Thai (the Swisi Valley}. We followed 
the pathway of a little brook resembling some of 
our mountain haunts. DU Kat: bung over our 
heads l>alf-way up a steep, winch Joliaime (our 
guide) told us was higher tlian the Lurlieburg. It 
may be, but tliere is nothing on tlie Rhine so grand 
aa thia pile of rocks, which look with sconi on tlie 

196 «r. MAB. 

perUlinble castles built by man's hinil*. It is in 
the whirlpool in tlieir dvcp tliiuluw that UncUne, 
the lovelic«it of watcr-nympli*, liotd* her court. 
No woiidiT it rc/iiiirc*, as says the i^th of ll>e 
ponstuiu of St. Goar, the miracnlnus power of th«tr 
canonised hermit to deliver the eiisnnrL-d from k«r 

Wc walked a mile up th« vullry, and loitered u 
little nooks, so walled in l>y the liilU ihiit we looked 
up to the «ky h from the butlnm of a well. To m 
it appeared clear and blue as a sapphire ; hut ve 
were aprinkled with rain »i> sparkling tliat L. said 
the sun was melting, and coming down tn drofMl 
I amused myself witli finding out as mucli of my 
little guide's history as could be unlocked with tlie 
talismaiiic words " fatlier," " mother,' " brotJjer," 
helped out with dumb show; and I found out that 
be had one Mster tlmt was shorter than ho. anil 
one brother mucli taller, who was a soldier, and so 
would Johaniie tic. Against this resolution I expoa- 
toUted vehemently (as a friend of William I.add, 
and a member of die Peace Society, should do), but 
Jolunne laughed at me ; and I doubt not, as soon 
M he bits inches and years enough, b« will buckle 
on hi* snord. 

When we got back to St. Gonr the shower aune 
on ia earnest, and we took refuge at a jolly miller'* 
— a fit impersonation of that clasvic cbaraclor. In 
an interral of his work lie was sitting over his bottle 

n. COAB. 


cracking bU jolcri. We invited bun to go to 
^AnerMft " No," he wid, Lotdii^ up \aa Riumk 
TBoA cbackling over ii. ■' I should not g«t tbi* llierc ; 
BndtberidM.all ibe mill«ra i^ial gotberc die!" He 
I b riglit to ckeri^ a life so joyous, 

l*be ueamer came op at a soaiTa pace. We 

I bad ibe pleasure of finding on board one of our 

[ fellow- psfisengera in die Suint James. He bad 

been purifying in tbe bobbin of SchUngenbod, 

wbidi produce sucb miraculous effects on ibc skin 

Uiat Sir I'runcis Hciid uverv lie beard « Frencfamut 

ny, " Monsieur, duns ce4 bainH on devient absolu- 

nCDt iimoureux dc voi-mi'me !" (Cue fiUls in lore 

witli one's self in tliesv buUis.") Our friend ' 

Lviuiest to its recreative virtue. 


Mr deab C , 

1 WILL not even name to you tbe beautiful pic- 
tures past wbidi we floated, Everytbing ts Itcre 
ready for tlie painter's band. Obcrwesel, witb iu 
Roman tower, its turrrted walls and Golbicedifiee*; 
the old Cwtle of Sciioiiberg, Anglic^ Botvtiful 
unit wbcre tliere are seven petrified maidens, wbo 
were converted iuto tbese rocks for iLeir stony- 
beartedness — fit retribution. Villages vineyards, 
Bod mins appeared and disuppeared as tbe mifit, 
phtying it« fantailie tricks, veiled and unveiled 
tliMB. As we drew near tu Ilingen, tbe sun abuti« 
dirowing bis most beautifying borizoutal beams 



OD Rbeifistein und oilier famed points of die lanil- 
HSpPi wliilc inassn of black clouds, driven on by 
tho f^ty wind, tlirow tbcir Awp shadows now 
here, now tliorc, iw if (vc flics on \he wbe«l 
fiincicd) to viidiaiil tlic Menses of ttavvllcrs for iIif 

After much discussionwillia friendly Engliftltman 
(an old-siag^in these parts) as to the compantiTe 
adranta^ of landing at Dingen or Kudesbcim, we 
followed bin advice and went on shore at tlie fonner 
place, where we found a cheerful welcome in the 
fice of mine host of the Wciho Ko>M:,l>ut no room 
in his house. Tins man is qui(e my beau ideal «f 
■ Germui innkeeper, and, but that it would takt 
too mudi space, I should like to tell you tlie paini 
he took lo f^et us rooms in another inn, aiid bow. 
af^er lie did frei llieiii, we recoii»idef«l ourdeciaioa 
and determined to pasii tlie night at Rudeakein : 
nnd how, when we came to him with our tonpncs 
fidtering with some mere pretext for being off, be 
juHt goocUbunioureiUy brushed aside the flimsy rnl, 
saying, *' Nerer mind, you eboose to go, and that 
is enough;' and procee<Ied to select boatmen for 
us, and to make tlivm promise to take m itown 
to Rheinstein and back a^in to Kiidef^liffiiii ai tbe 
lowest and a very moderate rate. Would not the 
world go on swimmingly if nil stni^n emnt 
were dealt by as mine host of the WeJaM RmM 
dealt by us ? 

vr. ooAii. 


How woiiM yoM liltc, Hear C, to we us, your 
! nearest and dearest relations, boating on die Rhine 
with men whose German even K. found it hard 
to eoniprebend ? There would be no reason for 
anxietj' : thi^y took us in good faitli in half an 
hour to Riicinstciii — or rsthcr the current took us- 
iThe Custl« of Khcinst^in has bcten rCMtored by 
Prince Frnlcric of Pnimia, and rcfurninhod, and i.t 
n<>w supposed to represent the ensiles as tliey were 
when there was wassail in tlie ttail and tore in tlie 
bower. The castle itself is the most beautiful on 
the Rhine. It is planted on u projecting rock, 
half-way to th« summit of a steep, and set olT by 
a dark, ridi woodland. It is built of stone taken 

(from die bed of rock that forms its foundation, anil 
you cat! scarce tell where nature finishes and art 
begins. Id truth, the art is so perfect that you 
forget it. Nuturo seems to have put forth her 

I creative power, and to have spoken the word Uiat 
Allied from tis mother rock this its indsscribably 
beautiful Hiid jrraccful olTsprin^. 
We wound up a pntli of oa»y ascent, paused over 
a drawbridge nu<l under u portcuUi'*, when the 
warder appeared lie was a sober-suited youtli, 
with a rueful countenance ; love-lorn, ibe girls 
aaid, pointing to his humit-back and a braid of hair 
Lround ht« neck, lie bowed without relaxing a 
Eaiuselc, and led us through a walled court whore 
ttbere were green gnus and potted plants, and, 
perche<l over our heads, in niches of tlic rock. 



IT. ooah. 

cngln, wlio, it woi(I<l nppt-iu- but for tbe \mn of 
iron before tbem, Imd »cl<rcied tliVM vyrios of tbvir 
own fri^e will. Our warder proceeded tbrougb » 
pasMge villi a pretiy motuiic paveiDenl to tlK 
knigbts' kalli wbicl is bung witb weapons of tbc 
middle »gc*, disposed in regular figures. Tbe ceil- 
ing ia painted vt'iih ktiiglita' d«vicc« ; and complete 
Kuits of armour, helmet*, fiiid rtciily-cmboned 
sliield.i, hang against the wall. 

We were repeatedly assured tbat tbe furniture 
was, in truth, of tbe middle ageti, and had been 
collected by the prince at infinite pains; snj 
looking at it in good faith m wc proceeded, rrerj- 
tbing pleased u&. I'liere is a centre-table with 
an efbify in Htoiic of Cliarlemagne, a most fantw- 
tical old clock, carvcil Gotliic chairs oak t^U*; 
in the dining-room an inlitiile variety of eiirer 
drinking-cupH, utensils of silrer and of irory 
ridily carved, am) very small diamond-shaped 
mirrors, aU ciacked; — by-tbe-way, an incidental 
proof of their antiquity. The princess' rooms, 
en suite, are very prettily got up ; her sleeping- 
room has an oaken bedstead of tltc fuurteenlli 
century, with a liigli, carved foot-board liko i 
rampiiri, and curtnins of mixed »ilk and waoUen. 
In the writing- room are beaniiful eahinela of 
ivory inlaid, and wood in marquetrie — tJtat ia. 
flowers represented by inlaying different coloured 

In tl»e working-room was a tittle wheel, which 

n. OOAK. 



made m* rcflwt witli enry on tiie handiwork of 
Oui graiuljiinos M> mucli more vivariouH ttian our 
ilchiii|r. Vou will probably, without a more 
prolonged <lcscri{ittoii, my d<-nr C, come to my 
eoDdnsioii, ibat Rli«inslciu bcim much tlic sumc 
mcniblsiice to a casite of the middle ages tliat a 
cottage omv docs to a veritable rustic home. I 
imigiavd the rough ohi knigliCs vomiii|; from tb«ir 
ballt of Mirage (lovrer and rude luxury to lati^^h at 
all tii'a jimeracSttry. 

lite prince and princc«s make a holiday viui 
lere every summer, and keep up tbiu fanciful 
retrocession by wearing tlie costume of past ages. 
The wvder maintained his unrelenting gravity to 
the last. " Man pleased him not, nor woman 
either," or 1 am sure my laughing companions 
would hare won a smile. 

We found going up tlie river quite a different 
■flair from coming d»wii. Our oammeii rai^d a 
nggvd sail. The wind was Aawy, and we were 
•cued ; so they, at our cowardly enlrealiot, took 
it down, and then, rowing tlic boat to the shore, 
one of ihc men got out, and fastening one end of 
s rope to our ma»l and (he other round hit body, 
be began loiUomely u>wing ti» up the stream. 
Our hearts were too soft for t]ii«, so we disem> 
barked too, ami tvalked two miles to " The Angel " 
at Rudesbeim;aD angel indeed to us after this 
long day of — pleasure. 



Friday. Rudethrim.—THIS moTning W« KtcB 
on an cxcuraion to Uie Niederw-ald, ihc " Echo," 
" Tbo Tpmplc," "Tlie Enchanted Cuvc." Mid ihe 
Ro«i«). NoW) let your fancy surround you witb 
ilie atmo«phero of our cool, briglit September dsyx, 
and present the imoges of your rrien<I«, niount«il 
on afWFs, wiiidiiifT up steep jiattis among tb»e rich 
Rudesheim vineyards, whidi produce wme of ifae 
finest wines on tlie Rhine. See onr four ttd' 
meittm slowly gouiplng on after us, and our path 
crosKtl, ever and anon, with peaiant women emerg- 
ing from the vineyards with baskets on their beadi, 
piled with grape- cuttings, and weeds to fe«d tbe 
asses, pigs, or— children .' See us passing tbrough 
ibe beech and oaken wood of the Niedcrwald, and 
coming out upon the ** Temple " to look domi oa 
the ruins of the Caftllc of Briimser, amid a world 
of bcAuty, and tliinkupon its old Jephtlia lord wbo, 
wben a captive among tlie Suracetis vown}, if he 
returned, to devote his only daugliler Gi«cU to 
tbe churcb — of poor Gisela, who bad devoted 
hers«lf to a human divinity, and, finding her cm- 
Mding fiilber inexorable, tlircw bcraelf from tin 
tower of the castle into llic river. Witli tbe clear 
eye of peasant faith, you may sec now, of n dari 
and gusty night, the {>ale form of tliii mo<leni 
Sappbo, and you may bear licr wtulings somewbere 
about Hatto'a Tower. 




Nent iCPiyBBieiyiig from our woodland path, 
and uking po«se«Moii of by a nry stout woodland 
nympb, trbo has the ibowiiig of the fiezauberte 
Hole (Knchanted Cave) ; buc, no; you shnll not 
Me tJkat with our eyes, but read Sir FruiicU HvimTs 
rfeacription of it, which proves that, if he ha« any 
ri^lit to <)i'»if^atc hiin.«cif as " the old man," lirae 
ha» not done its »ad work in nbnting tbe fen-oun. 
'«( his imafrination. Ho ha« made a prodigious 
bubble of this cave. His " subternuieaiii |>a:tNa)^(! " 
was, u our disenchanted vision, but a walli'd way 
on upper earth ; uiid wliere be looked through 

Ifiuitre* of tlie rock, we biid but tli«: prosu of 
window*, whose tliuttvrs were «hunmvd open by 
our Dulctnean wood-nymph. Itut never mind! 
long may he live to verify the ranta.'>ti<:ul fif;ure in 
the vignette to the Frankfort edition of bis charm- 
ing work, to walk over tlie world blowing bubbles 
so fillet) with the brealb of genius and benevolence 
^ that they diffuse sweet odours wherever they float. 
^H See us now mtanding at the Rofwel, looking with 
^■tlie feeling of {Kitting loven at the queenly Khein- 
^B stein silting ou her tiinMie of Nature's masonry — 
at a long reach of tlie river up and donn — at the 
^B lovely Nalie; not merely at its graceful entrance 
^buto lliv Itliine, but far, far away as it comes 
^Btoreoely gliding along its dcep-suiikoti cliiinnel 
fram its mountain-home — at Dn»u»' britige, with 
kits misty light of another age and people — at lite 



many nun of Klirenfels under our feel — at the 
Mouse Tower of old Bishop Ilatto on its pretty 
nluid — lit riiiryiirds witlioiit niiinbrr — at billi 
«lo|)itig (0 Itilljt, at tliv green nirinrs betveen tliciB, 
nnd tbe roiuU that Irnwrsc ibetn— at villagn, 
lowers, and churcbes; and, Anally, at our little 
liamlet of Rudftilieim, whicb, witli its 3£00 people, 
is so compact that it afipeared aa if I might span 
it with my armit. And remember tiiat into all this 
rich landscape, liistoryt story, ballad, and tradition 
have breathed tlie brealli of life. Do yoo wonftet 
tliut «'c turned away with tlie feeling tliat we 
aboiild never again we anytliing so beautiful? 
Tbaiik Heaven, to a scene like this "there can be 
no faren-ell •" 

We were deliglited on gelling down to "the 
Angel" to see tlic "Victoria" puffing up tbe 
Rhine ; for, to cunfe** tlie Imtli, now tliat tbe (eata. 
of our eyes aixl imaginations wm over, wc begao 
to feel tlie cravings of our grooser natures. Then 
is no surer sliarponer of tlic appetite tban ■ long 
moiinlAin-ridc in a cool moniing. Tlie Nicdcr- 
wald, the lloiilc, the KoA^I, all were forgotteo 
in the vision of tlie pleii<«iiiiest of all repasts— ■ 
dinner on tlie deck of a Kliine steamer. It wM 
just on tbe stroke of one when we readied the 
Victoria. Tbe table u-as laid, and the company 
ms gutbcring with a certain look of pleased expec- 
tation, and a low murmur of sound much r«sen- 

Till ailUIK. 

Ming tliat T luiTC heatd fron joar i 
fiteu you were tkdltng oat ton ta Aom. Tke 
animal nutate U HUon^nt «t Icart «xe ta iht 
twenty-four lioim! Tbr Rmbib pna» «as tW 
first penon «e eDcouDiefcd. ** Mnniicr Ttmmm 
come again." " Well not kave a t 
I wliigpvrcd to tbe prict U, vhL 
wc <luul>lnl the end of tkc (aUr wkkk W« w 
mpiu royal penwn occuiwcd. ^ So ; bitbcai ftoa 
her is belt," uud K. ; «o we protteded to ifce ockec 
cxlreiaity of ilie table, wbere wc ver* ael bf ikc 
bead waiter. " Places for foor, if y«a pleaw.* «i4 
1. lie bowed civilly, u-^^ " very Mtrjr, bat tboe 
was DO room." " Surely yov cm nake raaa !* 
H^ Inposrible, madamc !" A momtmt* rdkcoaa 
^bnmiiccd me that a Gttmaa woald aac riifc tfe 
^Rom&rt of otic gueftl by crawdiag m amaittr, ■» 1 
sud, "Well, give (H • tiUe to owscba.'* -"i 
cannot; it i» impoMiUc!' "^^'bat!~ 1 1 1 liiarf 
the girls " <loc« be ny vc csbimK bare ptaaa? 
Do ot<l*.T a luucli, Uien ; I am ttarred :" " Aa4 to 
Kim li'^ADdL" My next dentaod tiwved bw 
^Burrowed were our prospecu. ~ TWn,' «aid I« 
^B" I'll a«k for ootliin; mote if job wil] pre mt 
•one bread and butter, and a bottle of wise 1* 
** Afiernard, uftenrard, madaMe," ba itf$t4,im 
Genoan pauence abowing torn* syB|ito«i ol dni- 
iilion; "afterward luncb, diaocr, «r wbat yoa 
but now it u iMpoMJIIar Lit* iW 


TUB fuiixi:. 

starviag Ugolino when he h«ard the kef of tlie 
Tower of Famine turned on him, 

Kdriu ■' mit' flfliuoU ■eon f*r molto." 

Rtit soon touched liy thrir mitrry nnd urged by 
my own. I once more iHterc<>pted tlie inexorable 
youth, nnd miLsrerlng all my eloquence, I told 
Iiim he bad no courtesy for ladies, no "seniitaeiit:" 
that he would hare to answer for tlie deaths of tlio«e 
three blooming young vromea, &e.&e. Hesmited, 
and I thought relented; hut the smile niis followed 
with a definite shnk« uf the hcudi and vmy be 
went to perform well <lulie« dit'ided belween half-«- 
doien half-bied waiters in our country. Nothing 
remained for us but to submit. In a Hudson Kirer 
Uewner (we remembered regretfully our natiDnftl 
despatch) the "afterward" would have been time 
enough ; nt most, an eifair of half on hour's wait- 
ing, but the perspective of a German's meuuJeriiig 
tlirough his *' meridian " was endless. Besidca. wc 
were to land M Biebcricb in two or three boors, 
to, ** li£c* mo«t deject," wc *at ourselves down In 
die only vamnt place wc could liud, close to the 
head of the Uihle. I'be jieople, for the most 
part, bad taken tlieir wats ; here and there a cliair 
awaited some loiterer, but one dropped in after 
another, and my hut faint hope tluit, after nil. 
the waiter would distrihule us among ibcm, &drd 
away. There wwi some delay, and creu ibow 






nested witli the sweet security of dinner be^n 
to loB* somfiihing of their characiemtic serenity. 
Tlicre was a low grow] from two English genlle- 
men near tis, and the Germans beside iia began 
tnuinbling their rolls. " Ah," tliought I, " if ye 
who hare been, as is your wont, feeding erery 
hnlf-hoiir since you were out of bed, uidng lazily 
at your little tuhlos here, could fci-l ' the thorny 
point of our dtsiTotf,' you stin-ly would givp us 
tlMt bread !" 

The fioup caiDe, and an eacli took his plate, from 
the top to the bottom of the table, tl)e shadows 
vanished from tlieir faces as 1 have seen tliem pass 
from a Reld of com as a cloud was passing off the 
son. " I should have been quite content,'' said 
M., meekly, " with a plale of soup on our laps." 
** Y'cs," said L. in a faltering voice, " I should be 
quite sBtislied n-ith soup and a bit of bread." But 
away went the soup, oo one heeding us but a fat 
German whose bock n-as towar^I^ uh, and who, 
comprehending our dilemma, felt nothing but tliv 
ludtcrou«neK« of it. He turned when he Itad »wal- 
lowed his soup, and smiled significantly. 

Next oune liie fol, tender bouilti, with its three 
satellites, potatoes d la maiire <fk6ttl, cucumben^ 
and a fhX compound called " gravy." " I always 
relish the bouilli," said K., fsintly. Bouilli, poto- 
toe«, luid cucumbers wcrv eaten in turn; a Ocr- 
nan lios no ntns of omission to answer for at 



Tbcii uppexrcd Uip ciitreiiifl», the croqtKrB, i 
tagcM, toii|pc, thr qiitrcnly cuuliflon-cr floating in 
butter, rouleaux of uiblKii^e, miiuiroiii, ]ire[(untioiu 
of beans and sorrel, and otiier messes tbat hare 
baffled all our investigation and gues&ing. 

Now, fully to comprebetid tbc prolongatioa of 
our oiiwry, you must rpmrmbrr tht Germao 
custom of i-iitiiig mcb article of food pr«*eiitvd, 
«acli twiiarately, and luungiiifr tlirougb a cbitngc 
of twenty plules a* if eating dinner com prv bended 
Uie wbole duly and pleasure of life. " If tliey 
would only give us a bit of tongue!" said K., 
*' or a croquet," said AI., " or just one sau- 
sage," aid L. But tongue, croquet, and MUMge 
raaisbcd wtlliin tbo all-devouring jaws, and ugata 
iJie emptied dishes were swept off, and on nunc 
aulmon, teiicb, pike, and trxHit (M-rv«d cold, and 
wilb biut of ice), and tlie ddii-ioiis puddings. Ntw 
came my trial. Tbc puddings, so light, so wbolr- 
•ome, H-itb tlieir sweet innocent fruit-sauces ar* 
always my poiit rtttanU at a German dinner. But 
'* what was I to Hecuba, or liectiba to me 7 " tlie 
pudding, in ita tura, was all eaten, and Our fat 
friend, wiping his mouth after tlie last raonvl, 
turned round and laughed, — yew, actually laugbvd; 
and we, being at that point of uervouutess when 
you must either cr)' or laugh, laughed too^nuber 

Are yon tired? I have described (ml the pro 


■DsncBuvriDg of tie Ii)(ht troops. Now came 
Ithc pracratioti of joiots, mutton, veal, and vcnjflot), 
iiiitiMpersed wUli tulads, slewed fruil, calvcs'-foot 
j*Uy, atifi bliinAmnngc«. " Surely llicy might 
't\t»te us one form of jolly," mitl SI,; "Or a 
blaneinangc," «iti<l K,: but no; meat, jelly, and 
all were eaien, mid ag:iiii our Htout frienti looked 
round, with leu animation tjjis time, for he was 
beginning to resemble a piiinpercd old liousc-dog 

ho is too full to burk. The di-sSert appeared : 
Bpricott), cherries, mulberries, pours, and ii variety 
of confectionary. The coiiiliictor a|>peared, loo, 

itb tlic billOt. " Surely," 1 said, " llat is not 

iebericli I" '* Panlun, niadame, we are within a 
quarter of an hour of Bichmcb." '* It n a gone 
case !^ I »i){hi.-il out to the girN; and, in truth, we 
ived before the Duke of Nunwiu's heairy palace 
ju»i UA the company, with tbe most provoking flush 
of entile sniiafaction. were turning uwiiy from tlie 
table. We had learned to appreciate the virtne of 
those Lazaruses who, witnessing the fciisting of the 
Dives, go hungry rttery day. 

1 have given you an exact inventory of the 
dinner, "setting down naught in malice" or in 

■sery ; and when you arc told that it conts but 
one florin (furly-two cenU], that it is served with 
nice table-tinen, large napkins, and silver forks, 

u must conclude that provisions are cheap, and 



diat ibe traveller — if be can " cstcfa Uie tufbot" — 
ii a bapjiy man in Germany*. 

When we got into the diligence at BtrberiA 
there wcrv tn-o neat pfnsiuit> women bcvide tu. 
Wc «iiw the Hitmiaii princess, whose carruge had 
disa{)pointeil her, waddling about, attended by btr 
suit, in quest of a passage to WiesbaiUin. One of 
tlie gcnUcmen said to her, '' 'Hie tun ia hot: it 
will be tirrtomo waiting," and counsellnl her high- 
ntm to take a seat in the diligence. " It is (|uilc 
shudcing,''' Hhu uiid, " to go in this way." *' Bat 
there is no other, madame." Ho she yivldcd to 
Deceaaity, and put her royal foot on the ttep, 
when, looking up, she shrunk back, cxcUimiitg, 
" Comment? il y a des paysanncs " (" How i* 
ihisi* there are peasants hero!") 1 am sure we 
sliould not have been more dismuyed if we had 
been shoved in with the asaes tbitt airried lu in tbe 
moniing. We drove off; and when I compared 
thi» womiin, with ber vacant, gross face, her super* 
cilious demeanour, and her UrusMht-laee mantilla, 
to our peasant com|iiini«ns, with tlieir clean, anb- 
fttantiaJ, we II -preserved dresses, dwir bcaliliful, 
contented, and serene &ce«, and their kindly man- 
Dcrs, all telling a story of industry, eeonomy, and 

■ The EiigtI'hniBn (dH (rom here to Lc-ndoa la !«» dMJ*, ^Ml 
then miui pajr >t *d bold, tor Uic ilnilc \ttm in hit Aamar «( • 
lobitsr (Mcr 10 hb Mlnon, isfCDtf -an mkB '. No < 
" p«t* up" *ilh Gcrmsngr. 



' eontonUnent, I loolced proudlj-, thankfully bock to 
my country of no princeoses! Arro^ncc ami 
superdlioitsncH exist tli«re, no doubt, but ihvy 
have DO binlirifrlit for dioir cxcrd^c. 



' 1 THINK it is Madame dp Sbuil w\io, iti RjivBlciiifr 
of travelling Ks a " triste plnuir," dwelU miicli 
upon that saA part of it, " hurrying to arrive wbcre 
none expect you." Tlits u-as not now our case. 
I'o were going "home to Wiesbaden," and there 
ing cyvj), welcoming voice*, nn<) loving hoartH 
jtcil »«. And, don't be sliocked at the un«rn- 
timentality of my mentioning the circumitcance, we 
arrived in time for the five-o'clock dinner at the 
Qiui/rr SaijwH*, after having {izsse<l three days that 
will be for ever bright in memory's calendar, and 
having paid for all our viin'ed picinurcs but about 
•even dollant each. Had we not them "nt » 


Mv nuAn C, 
Aiiffuft SO.— TiiK spell n broken and we have 
left Wieflbaden. We arrived here Inst evening, 
after a drive of four hotin tlirough a tame country, 
varied here and ilicr*' by a bro\ni village, a church 
or tittle diapel, and tlie old uiitdi- towers near the 
town, nmrking tlie limits of its territory, which does 




not exceed ten English M]iiare mWe*. I Imd sa]h 
po«ed tliis wiu u tree dry. And I wus flurpris«(l to 
meet at thvgalrwr entered, snidioratii theAustrao 
uniform. Wc ttliould tbiiik il aii odd sort of 
freedom that wan j>rntecteil by Uie forces of a furdga 
prinoe.* The annual fiiir k just beginniDg, and 
the town is crowded, tliaii)rh these feir« are no 
longer wbnt they were before tlie general diffn&ioD 
of commerc>e and man u fact u res : the introduction of 
nuIrowU will soon pitt an end to tliem. 

We drove to xix IioteU before we couM find • 
place to lay our bvuds in : thio i* ccilaiiily a vtry 
" tmie plaiKir" that we Iruvcllen liave now aod 

Having secured a roof to shelter m, we wllM 
forth for a walk. We went up the principal itreet, 
tbc Zeil, witorc Uic buildings are ouignilieeat, 
looked in at the shop-wtndon-s, examined tlw 
broniG inuige» at tbc fountain, and (hen. as if by 
instinct, turning at tliv right places and proceeding 
just IIS far M was neceuary, we readied ibe Mune, 
which in not niueb wider than die Housatonic in 
our meadows. Itelurning, we went into die public 
|;udens, wbicb occupy tbe place of the old ramparts. 
TUs ptea *i*i Sovrery belt girdling tlie town b 

■ I K4I tfltrixitli informed lint there wu la iluiiiia| tlv- 
ytttmux uuong (lie •iiulcnt* iu IDM, nUch iiulaw4 Um Frasfc- 
brlen to C4ll la Uie *iil cif Auttrb and Prajjia, «ho htm Ua^ 
•liKB wucUd otcr Uic " tnni|UiIllt} " si ihe dij— « Uarl of 
*j(i1(nM in vlijob thsjtinl. 



pretty illusinition of turning the sword into tlie 
pruning-hoolc. The redeemed fp-ound is laid out 
witli economy of space and mucli taste. We passed 
through copses, grores, and parterres, and came 
out upon a growth of firs encircling a bronze bnst 
a benefactor w)io had contriliiitod to tliU udorn- 
ment. A« I looked iit tlic cliildrcn and various 
otlier liappy j^ups we painted. I wished there were 
wme ariUiQielic that could calculate the amount of 
happiness protlnced by a tnnn who ori^nuted a 
public ^rdcn, and %ct h i>IT aguinst the results of 
the lives of tliow gti-ul ciKKjuenirs whose effigies 

id trophies cumber the earth ! 
Our first impression of Frankfort is rery agree* 
able. Ii lias not llie picturesque aspect of the other 
Continealal towns, hut tt is clean, with broad 

reets and modern Louses, and appears lively and 
prosperous, as if one might ttve and breathe and 
gvt a living in it. M., true to hvr general pre* 
f«rence of cIcfiuHness and comfort to tlie picturesque, 
[declares it is the only place she has seen, since she 
left England, she could he templed to live in : while 
L., as true to her peculiar tastes, prefers the oldest, 
vrretchcdest German village, provided there is a 

lined castle brooding over it, and plonty of frag- 

lenls of towers, pessonbi in costume, &c. 

" Nrcsssity is tlic mother of Invention." I 
etiece she is tlic motlicr of hiilf our faculties ; and 

«io will you, tllanC., whcti 1 tvll yoii^ ^-otFwba 
would not tm>l aiitjo'imy a^o-odrt, iliat 1 hare 
elected and .bought to-day our trarellii^ carnages 
Mr. K. telU ' me I bave good rea§DD (o br wtbficd 
wilh my bargaiq, thou)(li I did not tnke F>v>fON' 
advice, wlto s^d to mo, as nfu were nuenng (lie 
eoack-vraT<^liuuse, " No mutu-r if<yoli arc very wM 
pleased, altrays »liaki.^ your Iivfu) aitd »ay 'llJN 
vaut rien'" (" It is goorl for nolliing") : tbiftii 
fair specimen of courier diplomacy. * 

We took tea tfaia evening uith Madame — 
She Inu a gem of a country-bouse hulf-a-mile &an 
town, resembling the cottage of a Do«ton gen- 
ilemait. The grounds are laid out and cultivated 
vritli tlie elaborateness of an Kngiisli suburban vilb. 

Madame received iia at tlie gate, and roo- 

dttrtcd us to seats beside a green piiiiilrd tabte 
Htirrounded nitb Sower-beds aitd under tlie shadow 
of line old chestnuts. Slic told u* Iter fausbuu) was 
induced by these chentnuts to buy the lot for s 
playground for lii» grandchildren. Then, in cm* 
of a shower, ili<>y mutt Itavc a shelter, and be built 
a tea-room, and tlie shelter expanded to its prceeoi 
comfort and elegance ; a pleasant illustration of 
the growtli of n project. Madame — gnve us 
oar clioicc of l&kiiig oor tea in the garden, tlw 
balcony, or the drBn-ing-room. The Germansieem 
lo roe to go into their houses as the pigeora do. 




for shelur aiiij sirvp. Their gardens are^ io 
fiuM, their drawiiig-roopu. 

After tea, Madame ■ took us a drive. We 
croeaed tlie Maine on a stone bridge to }>acli5en> 
bausen, a suburb of the town, und drove to an 
•minenoc, whrrv wc had a good view of tiie tovra, 
the river, and very CKtciwivc vegetable gardens. 
'We tlien drove quite round tJie town, outride the 
ubiic gardens. The eoviroos are gay with vum- 
mer-houses and gardens, now brilliant u'ith dabltat 
and asters. Very cheerful and uniform they looked, 
ns if eiicb one had a fair portion ; not one a feast 
and anotlier a fast, tlic too general condition of life 
'hi lite Old World. On our ntura wc passed the 
Bcv library, with the inscription, "Sludiis, liber- 
lati> reddJtu dviuu" (" Tliv city retwrned to studies 
and freedom'"); and we were beginning to feel os 

vre were surrounded by a home alniosphcre, 
wlicn we plunged into the Jews' quarter, so <Uuk. 
narrow, and intricate that it reminded me of 
Fagan's haunts. The old town is very curious. 
The old houses liave grated windows and ntassire 
doors, and are many stories high, cadi story pro- 
jecting over that below it. The fronte of those 

bidi are of stone are curiously carved or painted 

compartments. All this, indeed, looked " the 

icient, imperial, free city !" 

We finished the day in Madamv 't box at 

e theatre, literally the day, for it was yet twilight 



when wc got home. I'lie tliMtrc i» 1>y law cIom«I 
at nine o'clock precisely. This very rational boor 
obviates a M-riou* oltjoction to tlie amiwomcnt*. 

Wc were foriuiinle in «eeiii^ on« of tiie gnat 
dramatic performera of (icrmatiy, Kmiie DcvrimL 
The play was one of the I'rinceiis Antelia's; a tab 
uf iloine».lic sorrow, as I ascertained by my inter- 
preters, 'riiere was no scenic effect, no dramade 
contrit-Dnce to aid it. The Kene was not onee 
thified during tlie play. Devrieol sc>FfDvd to ne^ 
as fur us I could jud^ merely from his action, 
exprcwion, mid voice, to deserve the apptsusa* 
showered oti him. llie playing was all natural, 
and tlie voices of (he women marvellously awcct. 
Have I never yet remarded to you llio tvrctu low 
tone of tlie German woman's voice? From the 
eultivBled actress to your chambermaid, it b a 
miisicul plca^iiro to hear lliem epeuk. Is it so 
atmospheric ctTect, or the bremh of a placid tetD> 
par? The latter, I tliougbt, when, a tnoment 
sincCf my ink»tand was overset, and the girl sum- 
moned to repair (he mischief held up her liantb, 
»miled,and uttered, in a late-like tone, aproloi^vd 
E — u — 1[ (good!) 

* The Itmtre U Frankbrt vu »Mr oar boul, and h i 
tmam ms lo mb llie jvapU piint lo It witb n»atk Ik* tb of 
qiUiniM* uid lubriitjr that ]iia <nll k* in UMablf cotlfctin( fM 
■ Ijcmm iKluro ia ■ NiV'EngUnd <iUii[f, LiAn §<■ rtfcoil 
an; male attrndanl. and in Ihclr ordlaarr dreu. Tlie prtea of • ha 
ticket ■■ hfif cenu. TbBonbeMfaUtiidlabaanc ofthabaatls 
Ccrmauf. Don iwt all tUa iwlicalo a U^ d«|r«s e( dTlUiaUaa f 




We dined to-day at Mr. KSck's. He U an omi- 
nenl banker bere, and, from his extensive EMglivl) 
connexion!, is in some sort compelled to be a gene- 
ral roceivcr of ConUTienial tourists. We do not 
bank with him, nod ihorerore have not this claim, 
suoti as it is, upon his hospitality ; but, for all th»t, 
it has been mo«l libenilly eittended to us. A family 
vlHwe hoApibitity in not exhausted in meh a tho- 
ronghfare as l-'rankforl, must have an inexliaustible 
fountain of humanity. Hospitality in an isolated 
eountr)' reudence is the mere gratification of the 
appetite of a fiociul being; here it is virtue. Our 
dinner-l^blc was arranged in a manner quite novel 

me. In the centre of the table there vras a cliinu 
vase with u magnificent pyramid of flowers, and tlie 
vbole table wa» covered with fruits, flowers, wine, 
aad confectionary. 

" Fruit of all kind*, id eott 
It«ii^ or imoath rind, or bearJcd hoik or abell." 

f you think the confectionary was not quite a \» 
I^nidise. remember Milton makes Eve to "temper 
dulcet creams'' "fromsweetkernelspresscd."' Con- 
sidering her unfortunate love of delicacies, her skill, 
and (lie diniate, nothing is more probable than that 
in the ** 6t vestcU" which Milton mentions Mho con- 
verted her "dulcet creams" into ice. However 
nay be, Maitiime K.''h talile looked like a syl- 
;a3U ^^'e had tLe ino^t delicious atmosphere 


of fiuiu and flowers, irutcod of Winj; ttupified widi 
the fumes of m<-iit. T1i«re ma iiv buttle of di«Dg> 
ing dishes, no ttirusting in of sentnts' arnu. Tbr 
meat was cnrved an<) brought from an Mljoining 
room. We had one of tlie very largest pineapples 
1 ever mw, raised in Yorksbiie * ! 

Knmthal. — OuK decision n made, and. instead id 
being on out way to Italy, here wr aret cIom uihIh 
the 'I'aunus IlilU, trying the virtue of a giia litlfci 
recently discovered. E. says you cannot turn iq> 
a stone with your foot tn Gcnnany without finding 
mineral water under it. The bathing-places arc 
innumerable. The water bere is rery like in tis 
taste to tJiv Elainilton spring at Saratoga. The gM 
is conveyed in India-rubber pipes into a batbiag- 
uib, in which you sit down drcssod, and aro abu 
in. except your head. The perceptible effect is a 
genial warmtli and a slight motsiiire. We hear 
marvellous storiet of its cures. It makes tlie daf 
bear and llie dumb speak ; and, in short, does wbai 
all other baths do, if you bcliere their believing 
championft. One r^re advantugc tliat we have bere 
U a physician of excellent sense, and of a omM 
kind and winning disposition; anotJier is, that wc 
tee the manners of the (wople of the country, 

• Tbli ffioile o\ MnlnB ■ (llaDcr •««, m I bn« Mid. ^oiM noxri 
U iPB ; but I un taU UiO vithin Ike UM In wnthi b hm 
bwomc comnoD in Ne«-York. So «m11t ^ ** adoft lb«i%B 




tviUioul till* slightest approaeli to forei^ fiuhioiM 
DT intorminture of foroign sodcty. It is a two- 
liotm' drive to Frankfort, over a perfectly level 
fiaia. The Frankfort gentry conae out every day 
with their diildrcn and Krrantx, and seem to find 
quite pleasure enough iu sitting down iit a table 
before tlie door, and working worsted, knitting, 
amokingi drinking wine nnd Sdtzcr water, sipping 
coffeC) and csting Madcmoiwllc Zimmermann's 
cakes, wkieh are none uf tlie most ddiduus. iter 
vrry frugal table must be rather a contrast lu those 
of their luxurious homes; but I novcr see a wry 
bee, or heat a disconlcntcd word from them. Of 
a line day the area before the door is covered witli 
oot«ri«a of people, wbo hare no amusement in 
oommoii, none but itidi ns I liave mentioned ; 
these suffice, I'livy tutvrdiiuige smite* imd bowo 
as often as they cro« one another's patli, and thus 
flow down the stream of life witliout ever ruffling 
a feather. 

The GenniuiB never stray beyond llie gravelled 
walks around the house. Sueh quietude would kill 
ua, M we uppeusc our love and habit of movement 
with a daily donkey-ride among the Tauou* Hills, 
or a walk through the lovely woodland paths. 
The famous castles of Kronberg (CrowD-hill), 
Koo^stein (King's^stonc), and Falkeustein are 
within a reasonable n-alk. Kontgstcin lias been an 
immense fortress, and its Mory is interwoven with 



tlie annals of the country. We viiutcd tlut ruins 
yesterduy. The girls wiuidcri^l au'ay. und Icfi mc 
n'iUi au Englislin-omaii, who, while I wa-i aduiir- 
iitg thcsv irrcgiilur, romaiiuc liilU, and tlie )teu-lik« 
plain thut v.xteiidH eastward from their base, vrilli- 
out any vititble bound, was telling me a marvelloui 
tale, and an " o'er-true ooe," as she believed. 
Some other time I M-ili ^vc you the particulan; 
I liave now only space for the cntiutrophe. Two 
Amerieaa lovers, whether married or uot nu odd 
knetv, came lo KonigBtein, mounted the lofticiit part 
of tJie ruin, und, clunped in one another')! atims ** 
the peiLtiiiit-boy wlio Kaw litem avi,!rre4l, threw 
themselves dowu. *' It wus from that old tower," 
said my oomiiaiiioii ; "you sin: tiuw tottering it 
looks: they 6ay the view ii belter there; but itb 
considered so unsafe that it is forbidden bo mount 
it." I started up, not doubting that my girls, with 
the iustinet thut young people seem to have lo gel 
into places uf peril, hnd guno there. 1 fancied 
tliera tumbling down after tlieir sensible eom|>a- 
triots. I screamed to tltem, and was answered 
distinctly — by a well-mannered echo ! However. 
I Mon found, by a little ragged boy, that tlicy were 
loitering unharmed about the old tower, and 1 got 
them down before they had time to add to the 
American illustrations of Kiinigstein. 

To-day we have been to Falkenstcin. It U one 
of the highest summits of the Taunus, near tliosc 




loftieHt pinnacles, tlic Fellbci^ and Alt K»ni^. 
Tliere is a firstly story of « kiiijrht huving won u 
daughter of Falken*lein by making a carriugv-road 
in a Mtig)e ntght up to tbe castle-wall : tlie moAt 
scnnblf miracJc I ever heard b«ing re<imred of a 
lOTTr. Tbe elf wUo lent him spades and pickaxes, 
id worked with him, demanded in payment tbe 
fee simple of some wild woodland hereabout. ! 
like tlua iitory better tlian that in Schiller's ballad 
of tbfl " Lord of Falkenstein." One iota not like 
to mar socb a scene aa this witli tbe spectre of a 
tTvaoherotiH and cruel lover, or to remember, amid 
this rural peace and beauty, thai tbere are sweet 
deceived yoong mothers wlioae spirits brood over 
the graves of tlic children they in madness mur- 
dered. And who (hat lias seen Rt-tzseh's estjuisite 
sketch of ihc |>ca»ant-girl of FalkensU'in van forget 
it ? We were tbere just before sunseL Tbe little 
stuiie-built villajje lay in llie deep shadow of tlie 
woodland steep which in erowncil by tbe castle. 
It was a ft^te^ay, and the vilta^rs in their pretty 
costumes looked so happy and yet so poor, that 
tbey almost made me believe in the old adage, " No 
coin, no care." While the girls sat down to sketch, 
I escaped from a volunteer companion whose voice 
WW as tiresome as a March wind, and, getting 
into an embowered path, passed the prettiest little 
Gothic diureh I have seen vincc we were in the 
Isle of Wight. Here in tlie green earlb, a* tlie 


leffend rtidply scrawleJ nbore tbem tell* you, 
" rtilien in Gott" (" rc«l in Go*!"') die gener»tioM 
that have passed (rom tlie village. Faitli, hope, 
and memory linger about these graves. Tbere ai* 
rosea and beart's-ease rooted in tbe ground, and 
wooden crosses, ims^es of saints, and frc§hly> 
platted giirlands of Sowers oTor tbr graves. Vi'bMl 
more could tiie richest mausoleum express? I 
mounted throagli a fmgrant copiewood to tbe 
castle — part rock and part raownry. Tbe tower 
Is staiuiiog, aud waving from its top is some rid 
shrubbery, like a plume in a warrior's cap. PaL 
kenstein village, close under tlie castle, looked likv 
a brood of cliickens huddled under Its molhcr't 
wing. Kronberg and its tovrers were in shadow; 
but the rasl pUun beyond was bathed iu light, aad 
the Maine and tbe Rliine were s)>arkling to tba 
distance. All around me was s scene of saragt 
Natarc in ber stern strength, all beyond of her 
iDotlierly plentiful production. I counted eigblecn 
vilbigM; a bmiliar eye would probably have aeea 
twice as many more. They are not easily dbtin- 
guiB}ic<l from the earlhi with wlucb tbelr ootour 
blends harmoniously. 

" Life is too short,*' we said, as we tontt Ojpl^ 
selves away just as tbe hut ray of the stin was )Su- 
ing Uie aforesaid green plume of tbe castle. We 
did not get home till il was ijuite dark, bat we 
were as safe and unmolested as if we had been on 
our own bill-sides. 

You will, I know, dear C, lliinlc there is "some- 
tkiiig too much" of tliirtir old caNlles and Taunus 
•MMiy; but con«i<l«r Low they fill up our present 
exutencc But I will bo forbearing, and abridge 
a loDg, pleasant day's work we have bad in goin^ 
to Eppestein, a village in a crack of the Taunus, 
one of tlie narrowest, inosC secluded, wildest uliodeH 
that ever mtin sought refuge in ; for surely it must 
Inve been lu a hidii)g>plac« it wus first itdiabited. 

Some knight must liuve flod with a few fuilliful 
followers, and wedged them in here among the 
rocks and mountains. Th« lords have passed 
away, aiid the vassals are now peasants. We were 
iorit<Kl into the habitation of one of them by a 
cheerful dame, who«e "jungtti" (a blooming lassie) 
•he introduced to my ymmffttt. I am not willing 
to lose an opportunity of seeing the inside of a cot- 
tage ; hers was all that is habiEutile of tlie old cuitle, 
and IS the neatesit and most comfortable peasant's 
dwelling I have seen. The lord's kitchen was 
converted into the peasant's salon, where there was 
■ good stove, antique chairs, a bureau, pictures, 
and a cruafix. In the kitchen I saw a very well 
filled dre*Mr. The good woman was eager to hear 
of America; some of her neighbours had gone 
tliere. "They had hut money enough to carry 
tbcm to the ship, and had since scut help to their 
icnds." Strange, it seemed, tliat there should be 


a relation between tl>t« sequestered ralley anil our 
New World, aii<l thai our abtindance sbould be 
Deuitig back upon these poor people. ** Oun is a 
fioe coutilTy for tlic young," «aid !■ " YcSf" aud 
ao old womun front tbc corner, " but an old tree 
don't bear trjiiiipliinting !" 

I nliitiild like yuu to hare seen us takiuir out 
repuHt «l the mill gatOiaiu, seated on tlie |tet>b>j 
phi in tetlla made of birchen Micks, served by a 
cheerful hostess wlio sat knitting io the inicrnli 
of supplying our watits, and sup])lyin^ them vxA 
tie>plii»- ultra bread aiid butter, tender boiled bctf, 
hoitey, Selizer water, and wine: four hungry wobwji 
for sixty cciit«. The luill-wheel kept its pleoatul 
dill the while, acid anotlivr din tlicrv wa* Umi 
nmuted us from a handsome youth, who occu|u(d 
a table near us, and wlio was idling the hoAtnei 
witli frequent glances at us of a tisii be had paid 
to London. As he spoke in French, I presume it 
WB9 more for our edification thaii tJiai of oar hostew. 
After a very picturesque account of the allocking 
diB()arity between the amount of food and the 
amount of llie bill at an Eiiglisli inn, he condndcd, 
"Afa, Ic trisle wjour, que Londres ! On prie Ic 
boD Dieu lout le Dimajichc— (a o'amiue pas!'* 

I can believe that Kiigland would be to a Gei^ 
mau traveller with 8linied means one aintiuucd 
btt and paoiucc. 

■ "Ob, «bM «dlUD»lpUM Loailonlit 7^r»r*U4iTlM( 
oa Siuulaf— DM itr; umiting ibat!" 



VVc Mw to-day fifty pmunta gatbcred under u 
^chestnut- tree, aiid nn auction g<»ng on i but «a wc 
Bw no wares, we were at a tofut what to make of it« 
till we vrcre told the duke's clicsttitits were selling. 
Chestnuts are an article of food here. This neigh- 
bourhood ahounda in tliriving nurseries which arv 
a main source of rerenue to the peasants. Tlicrv 
in one nn the liill-sidci oppoKitr my window. U 
covers thirty acres, and iit divided into small pro- 
pri«iie«, and owned by the peaAant& of Kronborg, 
to whom it bfingH an iiimiial revenue of 10,000 
floriiM {-lOOU dollars) : a shower of gold on these 
children of toil and hardship. 

A labourer m huyin}; and liarvosting, the busiest 
MSMnoftlieyearjis paid one florin twelve krcutzent 
■ day (fifty centi), and finds himself, and works 
earlier and later than our people. If he works 
for uveral days consecutively for one employer, 
be is allowed a trifle more as Irinkgtld, A female 
domestic, in a family u-here only one servant is 
kept, is fed and paid twenty florins a year (four 
dollars f !) ; and for tliis pitiful sum she ^ves 
efTtfctire, patient, and rlirerfui labour. An accom- 
plished cook cxii earn twelve dollars ! 

The perfect blending of self-rcsppct with de- 
ference, of freedom witli courtesy, in the manners 
of the subordinate clanes in Germany, pnules me. 
They are, as you perceive by the rate of wages, 
quite a» dependent on tlieir employers as in Eng- 



tand, but I have never seen &□ instance of crinpii| 
Krvility or insolence. Tlic servants arc ind«&(t 
gtiAe in Ibeir attcii<luncv, grateful for a huU 
^tuity, aii<l always meet your social orertara 
friinkly niid cbeL-rfttlly. A se*nisir«8S scvred for u 
for two or Uiree wucIcm, ii quiet, modest, and 
respectful girl; wben she parteil from as, ikt 
ki&sied us all, including It., — not our liands, bat 
fairly on the cbe«lc ; a (leinonstTatioii to whidi, ■ 
she was young and very prett)-, neither be nor you 
would object. 

I bought some trunks at Fntnlifort of a 
wbo, u'ben we liad closed our traffic, asked me 
go up fttairs and look at bis rooms, and t]»e pictnrt 
of bis wife ; and when he saw my pleasure in bis 
very dean, wcll-funitshed home, be said it was ail 
their own earning; that they bad not much, but 
they had contented minds, and " that made n Littb 
go a great way." When he brought home the 
trunks, he brought bis two little boys to see us. I 
oould tell you fifty simibiT anecdotes, which uU go 
to prove that itie bond of brotherhood is sound and 
strong umoug tbem. 

The fiunily ties seem to be very strictly mUH 
tained. Children are kcf>t much longer in sobor- 
dination to tlidr parents, and dependence on them, 
than we hare any notion of. The |>eriod of 
minority may be almuAt said to extend tbro*^ 
the parents' life. A very clever German woman 


le to 1 
:tan I 

lamented to me the effect of au EngUsIi educatioB 
upon the liabits of ber son. Ani), by-thc-mi)-, she 
coiitiiilcred bis reluctance to submit to the restraints 
of liu father's liouse, and his notion of complete 
indepewlence and escape fnnn tlic tliraJdom of big 
miiionty, to hare be«n perfected by a year's travel 
io America. After telling me that he liad refused 
to occupy a suite of apartments in bis father's 
botuc, because be could not submit to be asked, 
" Where were you yesterday?" " Where do you 
go to-morrow?" she oanctuded witli, '* But I l«ve 
noiliiog to complain of — he is a very good young 
roan, but be b no longer a Oerman. We shouM 
have foreseen this when we »ent biio to England, 
We cannot expect if we plant cabbages lh«y will 
come up potatoes." 

Tbe strict union of families seems to me to be 
promoted by tbe general cultivation of music. I 
■•y teems to me, my dear C. ; for, conscious of my 
very limited opportunities of observation. I ^vc 
yoa my impreaalons with unaffected diffidence. 
AlnMt every nemlwr of a family i* in some aort a 
Monotl performer, antl thus is domesticated tlic 
■HH Mcial and exciting of tbe arts. You voiild 
be actonished at the musical cultivation in families 
where there ts no other nccomplisbnent. 

There is one of the rights of women secured to 
Aem berc which 1 hare been assured liaa an 
inporiani effect on general prosperity and indjvi- 



dual Imppiness. The Gernran wife bas an ui«xtti» 
guishutili.- ri);l]t to iialf tlie joint property of livrwU 
and livT hiifttiaod. llo cannot drpnve licr of it by 
will, nor ciin it be applied to debu of lib contnri- 
ing;. ** TLis it is," said a gentleman to me, " tbat 
makes our wives so inlelligenl in tlte mana^metii 
of tlieir concerns, so induUnous and cconocniaL" 
I don't knoM' how tbis may he ; but il Hcrni^ lo nr 
to be but common jusUce tliat a wife idiould ba ■■ 
equal partner in u conccni of whicb the bear* h 
licavy a part of tJiu burden. Would not the intr^ 
duction of eucli n luw Itnve a beneficent effect on 
ihe labouring classes in the United States ? How 
man)' women u-ould be stimulated to ingenuity and 
productive lalraur, if tlie rcstilts of llicir induacry 
irore secured to tbem ! How many women an 
lirH wronged and then diihcartenvd by Itairtng aa 
inheritBDoe conitumed by a husband's vices, oc 
dispersed by big wild speculations ! How many, 
well qualified for respectable brnncbes of bttuncM, 
are deterred from attempting tliem by the iptponi- 
bilily of Hecuring to tli cm selves and tlwir cbildrea 
the proceeds ! How mariy poor women among tfae 
lowetit claw of bbourcra have you and I both 
known, whose doily earning!) Itave been tawfiiQjf 
taken from them by t]ieir brulal husbands ! 'nit 
ia a pretty serious eril, as in that class al IcMt 
(you will allow me to say) the desiructive nceaarc 
pretty much monopolised by your sex. 


b one of our dUlinctioiifi, thuitlt God, in the 
New World, that we do not quietly rest in any 
error ; so 1 have faith tliat in good timt^ tliU matter 

rll l>c set riglit. 
It M impiMsiblc to wilncM theiyHtcm of general 
instruction in Germany, witliout usiiing if tlie rulers 
are not making un exjH-rimpnt dangerous to the 
maintenance of their alMolutixm. Dehurrcd aa the 
lower orders are from all political uciion, it mity be 
some tiote before they use tlie " sharp-edged tools" 
put into tlietr hands : but when they once begin 
to road, to reflect, and to compure, they h ill hardly 
go on quietly wearing a Ria«ter'it uniform, doing 
bis work, and eating bbck bread and potatoes, as 
if this were their full and fair share. 

When you look at the liighly-educutcd classes, 
at lite dilTuvion of knowledge among them, and 
oo(t*ider tJie activity, boidncKs, and freedom of tlie 
German mind, you are confounded at the apparent 
serenity and quietude. But U it not the serenity 
of tlie mighty ocean, thai wants but tlie moving of 
the wind to ri^'e in re«i«(less waves ? — the quietude 
of the powder-magtucioe, inert only till the spark 
touches it ? 

k We arc not in ft way to hear polidcal topict 
Iffiiaied. I'hcy make no part of general conver- 
Btion. But I have met with M>me touching 
espres&ions of feelinj^s dmt I imagine are muck 
diffused under this placid euriace of nodeiy. One 
of our Ocrmun friends spoke to me with dee)i 

emotion of her aunt, wIm> U jiut embarkini; Tot 
llw United StBW*. ** Slie is leaving as all," »bc 
said; '* lier cbiklren and gnmdcbildrcn, brotlier*, 
ncpliews, nieces, all the friends of ■ lifetime — aiti 
such a happy home ! — to go and live with one fton io 
the backwoods of America." 

" Ih tliat »on so mnch n favourite?" I asked. 

*' Ob, iw, but lie and his brntber have eulTertd 
for ihcir political opinions. They were imprisontd 
ci^ht ycarv : one of them died. He was u fiivoiiriu 
— and so good, so beloved by everybody ! My aiit 
aays slie cannot breathe the air of Gcnnany. She 
must have the free air of America !" 

There is a captain in the Austrian army at 
Krotitlial for his health, a man about fifty, with a 
most melancholy expression of countouuiM. Ever 
linee be knew we were Americans be has otant- 
fcfted an interest iu us. He has asked maay 
()ue»tiuns about the country, and let fall on rariauf 
CMMsnons, in an under tone, his respect for our free 
institutions. His extreme despondency affected 
me, and 1 took an opportunity to endeavour u> 
inspire him will) hope in the efEcacy of the mteiii 
I rcpvati'd to him every instance 1 hud lieard of 
lienelit in eax-s Kimilur to bis. At each he afaook 
hu bead mournfully, aiiit liien explained why tht 
*' amen stuck in the throat." "It U not my disMat^** 
be Mid, '* that may be cured, IkK it is my incurable 
position. What am I but a mere tool in the hand* 
of tile m«H of power employed to watch wety 

generous moTcmenl, and )tu|)port the wtong agaiust 
the right?" It \i-aDts but itiai tliU feeling should 
be a little more general, and the oppressor's rod 
will be broken. 

I leave tliiacouDtryu'itb an inlerest, respect, and 
attaebment Unt I did not expect to feel for any 
country aAer leaving England. I ratlicr think ilie 
beart groH-s by irawUing ! I fed riclwr fur the 
deliglitful recollce(ion<t I carry witli me of Uie 
urbanity of the (lerniiuiN. Never cam I forget tlie 
"Guteii Tag," "Guten Abend," and "Gute Nacbt," 
("good-day," "good-evening," iuid "good-nigbt,") 
mumurw) by llic toft voices of tlie peuuintu from 
under tbcir drooping loads 0) we passed tbcoi iuour 
wmlla. Addison says tliat tlie general saluUitions 
of lu* type of all benignity, Sir Koger de Coverly, 
came fifom tbe "uverflowing* of bnmanity," — so 
surely did tbese. On ilie whole, the Germans ^eem 
to me Uie most rational people I have seen. We 
never "are," but always "to be blessed." Tbey 
eojoy the present, and, with the truest economy of 
btusan life, make the most of the materials of con- 
tentment lluit God has given tliem. Is not ibis 
better ibnti vogue, illimitable deurcH, aiid ever- 
diat^png pursuits?* 

* 1 unaot be uinlcritood to wjr. or »upi!cte4 of InUaiillag, 
tkal GciiDUijr tiU|iN**c;<] mn ■■ hapjiicir tiiui ciur cauntrr of gcneril 
MtlTii;, ptogmit, mill crjuHliwl {initpwlif. No, vbij Amcriean 
^Mt (eel. ttbcnicr he (uvt fram hom*. (hal bl* !• tlu bs|i|>»M 
r for tha|«qGraliat«niiUor huminltj — ihtfaveural land i 


Itntlt, StiUuriamd, Stpl. »■ 
We bavc be«n seven duys on die way frtn 
Fnnkforc to tliift place, a diAlaiicc <>f SS5 miles. 
We have posteil — u most cum fur tub le luode ol 
tnvellitig in Germiuiy. Tlie p«ntiiions arc ctril, 
the borsra strong and wt-ll broken, and cbangtd 
every nix mile*. Theru U> t\o fatt driving — that 
would bi' iivrfoclly K«-Gennan— but far more ta 
my liking; it i» cautious, aafe, and unifonn. Driv- 
ing rajiidly tlirougb a new and beautilul countrj' 
seenii to me in the same good taste as walking 
witli a quick step through a gallery of pictom. 
Our posting expenses liave been at tJic rate of 
twelve dollant fur tliirty-six miles ; tbi!>. For sevea 
persons, in lower ilian our ordinary ■tuge-<.-ouch tan 
at home. And how nuperinr ibe sccommodatioo ! 
You can txuvcl jii«t wt fia, and sio]) when, and « 
long aa you please. We have often wi.-Jied vre 
could luiii W.\ corner and drive up to yuur duor, 
and bear tlie shouts of tfae children at what would 
seem lo them a very gruics(|ue appearance. The 
leadei*, attached villi rope traces, are no far from 
tli« wbcvl-hontcs, tiiiit our equipage inust be about 
tliiriy feet in length. The postilioii Kits on tbr 
oear-wbeel hor^e, and guidea the leaders with rope 

hwld ntraMober there in lomc ooiiip«iMliawt»a(h(r ooan- 
triw laJ l^iii God (or k(— uid imbit*. If irc caa, iMr *^«m «il 

MBtCSIUHIIt aud ■uioiUIBIIt. 



reins. lie and his liors^ tae all stout, heavy 
Oioulili'i), luid rvliublv. He wears a short blue euaC 
tunie<l u[> iwliind widt red tips, (lis triunpet is 
sUApendecl by a cord, from which two huge tixsscls 
of brigbi-colour«d worstedn haiig bobbiiij^ down 
bis back. His breeches are of a yellow bucUitkiii, 
Olid his boots are cut up to a point iu front some 
inches above the kiicc, and the whole pleasure of 
his profession seems to be to keep up an eternal 
cntcking of bis wliip. which 1 found, to my surprise. 
aftvr two or three duy»' unnoyance, wc minded no 
more than hi> hoTKes did*. 

The roads are eJicellcnt ; quite as ^od, it seems 
to me, as the English roads ; that is to »ay, jinfect. 
^^'e travelled one hundred and eighty miles with- 
out passiii)!^ an clcvution of more than fifteen or 
twenty feet at the utmost, tt is like a road through 
a meadow, raised some ten or twelve feet above 
the iuipceiu ground. This is pr«l>:d>ly from the 
accumulation of stones and dirt brought on from 
yew to year to repair it This level road is called 
{for some distsoce) Jiertf-stratsc (mouDtain-toad), 
because it runs parallel to a ran^ of hills which 

* PtMltng here, anil (CDinlljr OD ibe Contineiit, 1* inona)iutl>r<l 
bj lb* fsnrnsiaiil. With oar (imanRnved rintiont '<( indiriilual 
rlghU, »■ wttt turtlul, on ■rrl'iiig al a iKinI-tlalian when Uicr* 
vWadaBdonoy «f tiOrM*, (u hnir (lii! poMuiulcr order nn iui- 
jllimilKllt nT pfxanM' boru*. Whal would nar fricodi. C'llonti 
V. or Jtfofsr O.. (he genUcmea-jcomeii at S., ty M incli * fto- 
cwiuit! Wr fbouU have a rcioluiioii. 



boun<l your vivw on Uic out of llic Kbinr. It 
insisted tliey bad been svun^ back like b gnte fat 
tbe uavelli-T to ]m.vti and so it nppeara. Tbey 
start forth nt onc« from ilie low ground, without 
any preparatory slope or an intervening bill, toi 
there they stand «s if they had just stepped out e( 
jrow way. Tliey are covered to their lunnilb 
with corn and vines> and caalle-crovned, of oouiM. 
It would be OS strange to see a man in Berkshif* 
stumlin)^ out of door without bb hat, as a UU 
hero wiiliout its oVrtopping cnstlo. On our rtgkt 
Htrvtchct) u vast sandy pluin, witli the Khino glid- 
ing through it, and bounded, at sone sixty miles' 
distance, by tbe Vosges — French mountaiii& Ym 
might fancy a jtaiiiter had laid out the road, u 
pretty are the views of the irtllages, so fortunatfty 
does tbe tipire of a catliedral come In here and s 
village church there. Tlie road is often on tl>« 
outskirts of orchards, and bordered by an aveuat 
of fruit-trees that extend from town to lawn. At 
almost every ])ast wc obserred a new costume. 
It Memed tike tbe shifting tcenes of the Ibeam. 
Here we pass peasaniA and peasant-boys diiring 
their carts, with threc-ooniered hats such as our old 
ministers wore. Six miles farther, there were fifty 
[tvicwit-girU seated on the ground, picking bo(a 
from the vine, with immense tortoise-shell oombt 
ID their liair. A few miles farther on w« ttv 
them scattered over a bayfieM, with hats wale 

ioURxrr TO ra^le. 


moiigb for umbrellas ; and tlie next change was a 
little tiigb-crouiietl hatwitli n narrow brim. Here 
were girb driving a cart drawn by cowk, with 
eoonnous black Iwwh uii the tup of tlieir headS) 
and, a few miles fariher, old women thuretUtu/ otd 
matture, with red velvet c^ bordered with black 
lace. The prettiest costnmc« wc taw, an<l (hey 
would have done honour to h FaTiHtnn improoiiatort 
<ta mode* (there are such people, I Wlieve), were 
on a fjte-day at Freyberg. Beside all the varietiea 
I Euvc mentioned, we had, in their holiday fresh- 
niiw, Mcullcaps of bluck and coloured velvet, prettily 
cmbroiilered with silver and gold, and long braids 
of hair hanging behind and tied witli ribaiida that 
touched the ground — bodices were of velvet with 
•laalied sleeves. Some wore simply a bowm-piece 
worked with beads, and others had bright-coloured 
handkerchiefs tied round their throats, and their 
ikirtit bound witli bright-coloured ribands. Con- 
trast tliis in your inuiginstioa with tbe worktng- 
drcMe«of our working-people. Why, it is the dif- 
ference between tropical birds uiid a flock of tame 
•Atvpigeons ! 

As we m.-ule auuthing, we noticed some pro- 
ductions that we had not aeea before. To- 
baocKHBelds abounded. In approaching Freyberg 
we saw pretty ^r patches of Indian corn ; and 
to-day, trailing down the terraces, our own honest, 
broad-faced pumpkin has greeted us- Tbe grapes 



are obviously ncurer tlic vintage. I bonglit « 
mn^iilicont buticli yesterday, and, liolding it uf 
a» I came in so as to dUplny its broad sltoulden, 
said, " I gave but seven Itreuu' for this ! " " Ah, 
^ coffimence '. " exclaimed Francois, bis ejM 
gleaming with his Italian rpminiscenccs. 

There arc vineyards of wide-sprcnit fame on (hfi 
rout«. We drank a delicious red wine at " Tbf 
Fortune" at OfTcnburg, kept by Prdbler*, calM 
Aflfenthalcr. Our Inndlordtold as be nude JSO/)00 
bottles a year, and had had orders from New- York. 
I wiiili be may bsve more, and everything elve thai 
may minister to liis prosperity ; and »q am I sure 
all miisl wish who have enjoyed, m we did| t)« 
comfortH :md luxnricti of " The Fortune." 

The first ha<l brcii<i we bave oiiteii in Murope— 
a villanous composition with caraway seeds — wit 
al Brucksal. One would tliink ymtd bread wouM 
be one of the fimt products of any society uae 
advance beyond the savage state ; but we know tbat 
our country is not yet old enough to have perfected 
the art of making it. Perhaps the reason of tbe 
difference is, ibut with tts, except in the large towns, 
it depends on individual ftkill, knowledge, virtm, 
and is exposed to various fiunily tnisdiancet, 
whereas in Europe it is uniformly made in bi 
Ilcuvei) speed the time when we shall li 
more sour bread, hot bread, heavy bread, breed 
made witli '* milk risiiifrs," and with no ri^gi it 
all ! ''distressful bread" Uuly ! 



We liave pntud tbroiigb nome very interesting 
towns on tlii* rouUr, and donv triivi'lkre' duty in 
•eetng tlieir lions : DarnisUidl, not at all interest- 
ing, by-llie-way, though tlie residence of ihe Duke 
o( liessc Darmatadl. It is filled with giiraiitic 
bouses, from which the giant proprieiors seem to 
have nin awny; a more empty-looking town you 
never beheld. Heidelberg, willi il» magnificent 
old (Kitle, its picturesque sites, and the scenery on 
the Xecbar around it, is worth coming all this way 
to see. 

At Carbrulie there is the palace of the Grand- 
duke of Baden, and old, extensive, Bnd beauti- 
fully-adorned pleasure-ground!*, to which the public 
have free access, 

Buidcn-Badcn is, as you know, the most famous 
watering-place in (tcrmany. As its M-at«rs have 
no longer much reputation, it must owe it* chief 
attraction to tlie beauty of the scenery. In its 
aatuml features it resembles the northern towns in 
our own Berkshire ; but, with all my home pre- 
poaNMioiis, I must confess that it is more bejiniiful 
ereo than Williamstown ; more beautiful, 1 meun, 
in its natural aspect. As to what roan hm built, 
from the cottage to the cathedral, the difference 
between the Old and the New World is— unmea- 
sorablc. In the materia]) form, and colour of oui 
buihling*, we have done, for llie most part, all we 

aid do to deform the fair face of our nature. All 


tbst we can say far llivm is, that Uicy ant tiliut of 
M pvrisbnblf a matcriKl, or §o slightly put tog«Uwr, 
ttiikt tliey cannot last loitg ; wid when Uiey an u 
be ri-placed, we may hope that the inventive geimi 
of our people, guided by the nilcs of art, will deriie 
ao Rrdiitecturc for us suited to our condition, u4 
embodying the element of beauty. I say " soiled 
to our condition;" for it is very plain that wbwt 
property i« so dilTusi'ii lu to make individual pofr 
Mssion »nd comfort all but univcrtiil, and wbrrt 
society in broken into small multitudinous secli. wr 
have no occasion for the stately palaces, llie diMil 
residences, the cathedrals and splendid churches uf 
Europe; nor shall we have the beautifiil, amijartlim 
cgttage niched in an old tower, or made of iW 
fiagnents of a caetle-n-all, so endianting to the rye 
in tlie picture^cencs here. Aft^ir all, dear C, 
when I get faoinc, and hare nothing to sec but oai 
scrawny fiinn*houM*«, excrcstecnccs, wens as tlw; 
arc on tbo fuir i-arth, it will bv rather a comfort to 
think they arc occupied by llio«« that own tiica: 
that under those umlgbtly, unlhalehfd, sbingM 
rood are independent, clean, and abundant li<Ma«< 
and a prw^rruivt people. Still, with patrielimt 
mkhrioii sen#o, and, I may add, btit a comnmi 
gratitude to ProwideuCT- for our 
on iht whi'tf, I cannot but High ai 1 look bade 
tlie delight we biul ye«rcrday in weitij; sursty tb 
most exfjuitilely beautiful of all catht-dmla, tlic 


bedrnl of Frcybur|r, nn<l in joining in the vesper 
•nrice there in Uie twili^^ht of tho preceding 
erening : yes, joining, fur surely dull must be tlie 
spirii tliat does not allow free cotir«e to iti dero 
tionil instincU in sucti a place aocl at such an liuiir, 
wbilc people of ull conditions are kneeling togetber. 
You do not tak or think by what name their re- 
ligion is cnllcd. You feel tlmt the u-ants of their 
natures are tlic viiuit^ of your own, niid your 
worship is spontaneouH, n-Iucb it is not altctitf* in 
our Pharisaical peu-s, amid a finely-dressed con- 
pegation, and while listening to a sermon written 
for tbc <?litp of llic ^lile. Dear C, let us see things 
M tliey urc ; depend un it. tlie old faitli, nith all 
its corruptioru and absurdities, is, in a few of its 
luaffet, nearer to tlic Christian source tliao the 

We went to tlie Calhe<lral again and again, 
walkd round it, and to different points of view, 
snd mounted up a rine-eovered hill, and Kit down 
under a cruciiix, whence for an hour we gaicd on 
il, and finally looked our last after leaving I'reyburg, 
when the Inst rays of the sun were upon it, »nd it 
was set off by a buck)(round of the Black Forest. 
OurMnsations wcrr like thme you get from reading 
an exquisite old {Mx-in. 

To come to tlie proae of tbe matter, the Catliedral 
begun some eight hundred years ago, and is 
otdy large Gothic cburcb in Germany wliich is 



completed. The tower is finUbed vttb a tfm; 
and Uiough of &a ponderous a material aa stonr. m 
light in its efTect as to give you tlie idea (it (fit) 
give it to L.) of an arrow shooting from a bow. I 
can go on and give you dimeiHlons, colour, snil 
form ; but after all, there is notlitng for you but I* 
come and see*. 



My last letter was from Basle, a town coo- 
taining twenty-one tboosand inLabitanU, and mr 
fint rvsling'placc in Switxrrluml. It u at tlie bead 
of the tuvigation of the Uhinc, and tlic current ii 
here so rapid and the ascent so difficult, tluil, as we 
looked out from the windows of our hotel, Dni 

* Hj nailprt will tbank me, 1 (oi loir. Tor coDdcoaiaf lot* • 
few rage* njr journil of our niote Iniin VnitVfon in Ba*t(. It 
WW roll of nricif tod beantr in ihi eiUmU world, bat (hen mi 
lillle lacldent uid no chancUr; and If nqnlni ■ ikll/ul orUM la 
mtk* hi* Isndicaiic illnictirt wlthonl AgarMi. Vi't bMUM Mt- 
•el>«s tlnd of Ibe repetition of deicripliDn* of tIHi|M u 
uid, flnitl*. ■<! «aiiueil oanelTa with mikinc ihf foUoirtnf i 
miry of rplthtt*. far cutlra :— " btuiUfol, hroodhig, fciiii«M. 
nrowninK, rtcatedfloflj, lil(li,(rand. micmnoeiil.nifnrt^MUha^ 
lordl):, mounltd. RioulilFnox. murkjr, ptrch^, tfOOtlM *p> **^ 
pmdwi. orerlonkinc. valdiirtg, ptolertlnf. (piardiaa, MriMlgi 
frovniflg.lhrtalFning, lovBrinc, hoopriiig. hoof , toirarinf . J— )<A 
dlUpldalHl. crumbUng, tuinoui. |ilctQ[eujae, lonly. ligbt. mj, 
atttiy, boiTj." VUI>g« — " Pilchcd. perched, planted, oa- 
boMined, lapped, cradled, neited, ibttteml, bidden. Mntalol, 
«ibM, maoonned. pctplnt. tcmaad." Wa bad tha modntf t* 
call ibem ijFnoBynwu. 



Koniff^, whose walU it n-uslies, we should liure 
ihougbt it ioipouible but for wiiiiemii)r the fHct. 
W« walked out on the terraces over tlie ramparu, 
orrrlooking on one side tlic Khiiie, and no ilie otlter 
beautiful aurroundin^s, bounded by the Jura, the 
VoAges, and tlic BIftck Fwc»t. 

We went to lie Minsier; not to admire it, for 
it is a huge clumsy edifice of tiio 4^!evcnib century; 
ilfi antiquity desecrated with that Proleatant iuno- 
ration — pews. But we were attracted by a bust 
of Enismtis, and a motiumciit to liim. He and other 
diatinf^iiilit'd rcfonnen) wtrro buriml licre. It did 
not atrike me quite agreeably to tee the meinorialii 
of lliew men in a church whose feitli they had 
diwolved, and wliose worship they bad subjugated. 
This u too much like converting a conquere<l 
enemy's holiest possessions into trophies. 

fiule is Holbein's birthplace ; and we saw there 
& collection of hts pictures and &ketcbn — a few of 
the originals of hi* most ctlebrated pictures. It is 
alwaya iuteresting to go to the birthplace of a man 
of genius. However far his fame lias extended, 
there his heart has rested ; that has been tliv acenc 
of hia affectiona, and, of course, of the happiest 
houn of Ilia life. 

At Basle potting ended, and we took a roitn- 
rier '. Shortly after leaving Biutle we passed a 

■ Ad iBditUBtl ncdfltUkf* «ith ont Mt of borxi to condacl 
jan lot one or t«D itjt, or *11 o*cr Ear«p«, if you |ik«M. TIiit 
VOL. I. M 



s]>ot DUMnorable in Swis« liistory, where a baiUe 
ma foiiglit in 1444 becwc«ii the Swiss and French. 
Tbe Swids foiiglit n-iUi invindMe courage, mi 
killed tenfold tlicir nuinb«r. It was the unblencb- 
ing valour fUsjilayed on this occasion, tliat led 
a French monarch to wiect the Swisa for lui 
body -guard, and, of course, Irom this epoch, 
from Ihitt buttle -ground, dates the employmeiit 
of Swiss aa mercenaries. This is a foul blot oo 
their escutcheon, but tlicy have done what could be 
done to diminixh it, by serving with a fidelity llai 
has piissed into a proverb. 

On leaving Itienne we mounted a hill, whence 
we saw the Lake of Bieime and the lovely ialiRd 
where Rousseau lived ; and it was while wa wan 

tnvfl from tvcnl7-fl>B 10 tarlj milri ■ dijt, itutlnc utd 

at ui hanr tftrti on, and iwling tvo hoan ia Ote nydl* tt IW 

dij. Your potliliaD ii MldoD 111 r owotr of tJic horKa.bDt timfi 

> rnliiblt pocion, and «a feqad turn DnifomI; tiril: liii dfUkjrii 

itidccd Kcaml bf hU wigci in lome meature ilependlBg Cn At 

tatitlKtion he gWca. You p«jr Dfteeti fnaa * itj for taeib icne 

(lliii includnrrtornftrf) ; At* fnnci a day, if ba afnct yon wiQ. 

U yonr poitilion ; and Sre fnna a dij for each hoiic icliaietti 

foa iriati (0 Uc bjr. In Itit;r. pnbipi cUrwhrni. il it irrj 

nan (or the lolturifr to praiido for fou Bt (he ioat. In Iblt 

jroo make a cnnlracl iiilh him ai to Ihe hind and moilo 

tuppUn. and the price tn be paid. On the itrt at two 

when KC tried thla ve were \ittlF.cO<i well termi ; but <m a leMad. 

beiojt not to well urrtd. we preferred tratctliiis Im* tramaalUd, 

and not (lulleao much In the (atbiun of a bslo of gooda. 0« Ikl 

>hol«, wbrn the roida arr Kond. and the daji not at the abortati 

to il'lrrlji pfoplf toitorier tranllinf; U a fpr; agraeaUa 

We would not rpfoniinend it to the Impatient or Uie JDoaCi 

like to put a girdle " ronad tlic earth Id fort; mlntUaa.'* 

n tbltqi^ 



lill that a cry wont from mouth (o moiitli 
of. **Tbp AIjm! the Alps! the AIpii!" Our 
hrftru Biiil — ycH, I will IcU you the wbolc trutti 
— our <*ye* were full; for liow, but hy knowing 
bow wc felt, can you estimate the Ken»alions ibey 
ttrt fitted to produce? HV liave heard of the Alps 
all our lire*. We Iwve read deieriptionfi <>f tbem 
in nuiuscript and print, in prone and poetry : we 
lu)«w tlieir measurement; we bare seen skelcbes, 
and paintings, and modela of them; and yet, 1 
think, if we had looked into the planet Jupiter, 
wo could icarccly have felt a stronger emotion of 
•orprise. In truth, up, tip, where they bung untl 
■hone, they teemed to belong to heaven rather 
than earth ; and yet, such ia tlie myntery of the 
•pint's kindred with the effulgent beauty of God'ti 
woika, that they teemed 


Of me and at mj *oaI. u 1 of Ibem." 

Francois ordered the postilion to stop, arxi for a 
minute not a sound broke the delicious Hpell. 'Die 
day, fortunately, wat favourable. The whole range 
of the Bernese Alps was before us, unclouded, un- 
diramed by a breath of vapour. There they were, 
like glittering wedges cleaving the blue atmosphere. 
I bad no anticipation of tlie exquisite ctfect of the 
light on these ik'riul paUccs, of a wbiienvM as glit- 
tering and daxxling us the giirments of the nngel^ 
tlie conlrtut of the hlacA shadows, and here 



■nd tliere golden aod roae-coloured hiicv. I 
no notion of aitempting to dcwribe tlien ; but you 
sliall not re|irancb tnp, m wv, ho soon m we re- 
covered out vokh.-*, rcproiicbvd all our trareUefl 
friciidswilh, " Why did not lliey lellus?" " Uwr 
cruel, bow Mupid 10 let aiiy one live and die wil^ 
nut coming to iee the Alps !" This moiutng ti-a 
an epoch in our live». 

I LZVT them lunching at AarbcTg, and wilki 
on alone. 1 hoard with a miiter'M feeling everf 
minuu! in this beautiful country. All my life I 
have been longing to come to Swilicrlaixl, ud 
now 80 rajiid munt be our piUMgc througli it, it 
seenu as if, like the rainbow, it would fade away 
while I am looking at it. The vofter, die com- 
paratively ct-ry tame parts of it, remind me of oor 
OWD home suiroundingB. which wc have alwayt 
deenffd and which are m> romantically lorely. 
Thtl mcmbluuce, and the little domcatic soenM 
I paaacd while straying on alone, gave me a borne 
feeting. Unce 1 ital down on a bridge to look at 
some peasant women who were dreiuiing flax oa a 
^r«s»y bunk sloping to the water's edge, whili- ibeit 
children were dabbling in the brook. A little girL 
of her own kind will, k-fi her playmatcH, aune ttny- 
ing on to tlie bridge, and sat down by me, lookup 
up in my face willi a sweet, trustful expression, at if 
•he had grown at my side. I jierceived one of tli« 




'flnx-dresBen nitpeiKl li«r liet«heU]ii|f to wateb onf 
by-plujr, and, toil-worn, wealher^beaten as ihe was, 
it was rosy to se«, in ber plea§ed aCteiitioii, that 
the Witt ihc mother of the fair, dimpled, brigbi- 
ey«l lillli.' creature beside me. Sbe was a picture 
in hvr pretty Bcrncsc costume. I a<tkrd ber qup»- 
don u{ion (|ucstJon about her black lace Sy-cnp, 
ber braidit, aiid chain*, and bodice; and ahe replie<l, 
and, though our wordu were in an unknown tongue, 
we had no need of an interpreter. She had got 
bor arm around my neck; and a§ I took her dimpled 
luuid in mine, I was tempted to crow it with tiilver, 
but I checked the impulse in time, not to suhiiti' 
tute for the kindly feeling that for Uic moment hod 
knit the little stranger to me, a sordid emotion. 
It would have been a disturbance of Nature's 
sympathies and alBuities. There should be other 
intercourse than mere giving and taking betwcea 
the rich and the poor ; it would be well for both 
par tie*. 

tBenu. — 1 Blood in the balcony of Profesaor V.*« 
wise this morning, while bis win pointed out the 
different summits of the licrnese Alps and gave me 
their Dames. It seemed something like being in- 
troduced to »o many illustrious heroes ; and so tiivy 
are; for there they have stood buttling it with the 
dementi since their fouodatioiu were htid, inspiring 
in tnch generation, as it came and passed, awe and 



(leligbt. Yoii call liardly imagine ■ pogilion widaa 
tbe bound* of a town so lovely aa that of ProfrMor 
V.'s botue. It lia« a tarraeecl gartleti in lb* nw 
extending to tlie Aar more tUan a liundred feel 
below it, a stream with a Skiu voice. Tiieo lliink 
of having these Alps for your duly cooipaoions— 
of (he dawn and tlir sunset upon them '. Profeator 
V.'s wifo is the sister of our friend Doctor FoUl^^J 
They assembled their family (very chariDiiig yoO^H 
people) and some of tlicir friends to •<>« us. I 
Itardly enjoyed this scene, for, whether I looked 
out of the uHndow or in, I could only (liiuk of ovr 
belored friend, and of whai it had eost hin lo 
break the ties that bound bim to kb glarioM 
country and to such kindred. Tlio«e who aduevt 
liberiy in their homes can liardly estimate the love 
of freedom, the devotion to human rights, that 
drive* *uch a man as Charles Follen into voluotiry 
und peqietual exile ! 

We pride ourselves on tbe asylum our country 
offers to the champions of liberty wbo have become 
the victims of the Old World's oppressors. This 
they owe to our fathers. Is not our welcome too 
often a cold and stinted one? I>o we not ofint 
regard them with distrust, rather tluin supply to 
them, as far as may be, the lost chariliea of 
home • ? 

■ I k>*a dniiCed our joonwir Inn Benw to 0«aan. m «t 
ntraoed tbU tDDtc In lUO, mi iIwd puwd •one bum* iUl%iiihJ 



G«Mixi, Stfl. i.%. 

Mt dkas C 1 

Tuis place, so long a city of refuge to tbo viclinu 
of a persccudng creed, Iios a peculiar JiiEcrutit to all 
lovon of religious liberty. As religious freedom is 
a natural spur to intellect, Geneva has long been, 
and n yel, u foctu of grciil iiamcn, whicb have 
extended indefinitely lliv inlclleduul domtuionii of 
tills little canton; so little, that Voltaire said, — 
" When 1 shake out my wig, I powder the whole 
republic ! " 

There is nothing very attractive in the aspect of 
the town. There is the usual opposition found 
in the Conllnentid towns, of the romantic to the 
useful, in the contrsut between tlic picturesque, 
inconvenient old structurcM, and the tnodern, light, 
conimodiaus buildings. I^ike Lenmn you and all 
the civilised world have by heart through Byron's 
poetry and Rouiweau's eloquent descriptions ; and 
what a world of tiresome journal-reading, "skimble- 
akamble stuff," you are saved thereby I We are 
at an hotel on the Khone, just where it issues from 
the lake; "the arrowy Klione" it truly is here. 
The water u of an indigo bine colour, a peculi- 
arity which Sir Humphry Davy imputes to the 
presence of iodine. 

vegkt IB Hiritnrianil, wbteb cune iaw a luhM^aeat jiortioii of toj 



We wont to tlic Cntbednil Uiu mDming. 
attracted by ita uMOcintion with Cnlnn'a mac. 
It wait liera this great roaa preach«l wbca be w» 
exercising almost unlimiteil sway ov«r the con- 
science* and liven of the Urnerne, and here br 
promulgcd dime doctrines that are still llie ntl« at 
foith lo tlie strictest sects o( the religious world. 
Tlierc are various opinions us to the soundrteas of 
Im doctrtnei ; but no one can question tbe IBW>- 
till energy of a man, a private individual, am) • 
stranger, who, by the mere force of his fulmiiiB- 
dons, governed, and witli tlie MvereU rein, thf 
dress, the dinners, and tlic amnsemeDts of lUi 

Wc found a large congregation listening intently 
to a preacber, who set before them the duties 
resulting from the superior light their frtbers had 
enjoyed He made use of one very discreet tactie. 
During tlie sennoii lie nuide three pauses of about 
two minutes each, which not only gave bim time 
to drsw his breath and arrange his thoughts, bet 
provided a safety-valve, by which die coughs and 
odier imperUiient rounds so annoying wer« let off* 
and on we glided in silent attention. The beoe> 
diction that closed the service was a pleasing vaita- 
don from die common formula. " Allei en pail* 
tvuvriKz-vout det paucret, et que la pnlx de V)'»a 
reste avec vous * !' You can hardly imagine, asy 

twtH *i(h roa " 



dear C, wliat a rcfrnfamcnt a gtiod sprmon is to 
tlioM! wbo are deprived, Sunday iiftt^r .Sunday, of 
their accustomed religious services. Tlie sermon 
wss apparently extempore, and delivefe<l wiili an 
nnction that delighted us. On coming out, we 
Ivflined wc had heard M. Cockerel, of Paris, a 
celebrated evangelical preacher, 
B Towards eveninj^, K. and I drove out to M. 
etainondi's. He resides at Oliesiie. We drovv 
away from the lake on a level road, past pleaaaiit 
villas, and in fece of Mont Blanc; thickly veiled 
his face wss though, and, as we are told, he does 
not show it, on an average, more tlian sixty times 
a^year. After a pleasant drive of a mile and a half, 
we reached M. Si«mondi'H lionse, a low, cottage- 
like building, with a pretty hedge bi-fore it, and 
ground enough about it to give it an air of sectu- 
sion and refinement. On the oppotiite »ide of the 
road, and withdrawn from it, is a Gothic church, 
shaded by line old trees ; and before it is the Saleve, 
and Mont Blanc for a back-ground. 1 envied tlio«e 
wbo could Mt down on tlic «toiie bencheR in tlie 
broad vestibule of the church, with tliese glorious 
high altars before llicm. It pleased me to find 
Sismondi's home in a po»ition so harmonising with 
tlie elevation and tranquillity of his philosophic 
miod. As we drove up the serpentine npprooch 
to bis door, I felt a little trepidation, [eai I might 
firiil a friend in my long and intimate corre- 

■poiident — « natural dretMl of tbe presence if i 
celebrated man; but I bad no sooner feea h» 
benij^nant face, and beard Uie earnest (ones at )m 
kind welcome, than I felt how foolisli, how pMfd 
wait such a dread ; and tliat I might as well bm 
fcurod going into the sunshine, or into the pncom 
of any other agent, however powerful, that b tfaf 
source of general health and happinea. Toffv 
surprise, wc found we were expected. Confalooini 
w in Geneva, and, expecting to intercept XM, im 
delayed for some days bis return to Paris. 

After an hour we came au-ay perfectly satiifieJ. 
Not a look, a word, or tone of voice luid reminded 
us that we were meeting for tlic first time. We 
seemed naturally, and with tbe glow of pervooal 
intercourse, to be carrying on tlic tJirntd of u 
acquaintance tLat wo had been all our lives wear- 
ing. I can say nothing truer, nor lo you men 
expressive, than Uiat tlic atmosphere of ho«B 
seemed to enfold us. You would like to koev 
how M. Sismondi looks. I can tell you that be if 
short, stout, and ratlier thick ; that he has a darh 
oomple.tion, plenty of bhick hair, and briUiul 
hazel eyes; and then you will have justaboot as 
adequate a notion of his soul-lit fiice as you would 
have of the beauty of Monument Mountun, ibf 
Housatonic, and our meadows, if you had nervr 
aoen tlic sun sluue upon tbem or tlie shadows play- 
ing over tliem. I sometimes think it natters mM 

OKMIVA. 251 


■UAt tbe orlgbul strncturc i». when the character 
^^b written (Ml it, and tlie gulden light of the soul 
shines over it. It is a very common opinion, but 
is it not an erroneous one, that you cannot form 
a correct opinion of an autlior from his works ? 
Nine-tenthti (niiicly-iiinc hundredths?) of authors. 
M called, are mere collectors— rf/ontort — ingenious 
makers of pnlchwork. An original writer writes 
with earnestnetA and Hincerity. As 'i'itian is said 
to have ground up flesli to produce his true colour- 
ing, so tlteir works are a portion of tbcir spirits; 
tbc book is, in fact, the man. 


We dined at Chesne to-day. Madame S. insisted 
wc should all come, saying, in her kindest manner, 
'* it is but dtting a little closer;" and, turning to 
ConUonieri, "Wc do not give entertainments; 
but it is better than Spielberg, my dear count." 
We found evcrj'tliing as you would wish to lind it 
in tike bouse of a libcntl friend. Married people 
without chiUtrcii have always »eemcd to me much 
like mutes, but here I do not m\i» tlicm — affections 
that flow full and free will make tlieir own chan- 
nels. Sismondi rarely dines out, and " has not," 
Ibladame S. says, "in his life drunk a half-glass of 
wine beyond what was good for him ;" and surely 
lie luw his reward in u clear head, and uii«huke» 
Land. He is sixty-seven. Madame S. expressed 
ber regret that he was so near the allotted term of 



Life, while "he liacl yetwmuch todo." "1 wnfa.' 
sh« added, |ilayfully, "that I u-ere DiuetMu, ud 
my huibund twenly-uue." SUmondi replied, that 
be should not care to live bis life over again ; ** U 
liatl been so happy, he should not dure to trust the 
ehauccs." \Vl> in our roali love would barr ck- 
cldmed, "O king, live for ever!" forf^tii^ ihM 
h« will live for ever without *' tJie diaiice«." 

I inquired after a pair of lovers who had auScrcd 
from u forliidden attachment, and whose marriage 
bod been effected by Siiunondi's interveotion. A 
letter had jusl been received from the wife exprea*- 
ing in ibc slrongcHt terms her huppincas. ModMM 
& taid "it was indeed a Mli«facli(>u to have nade 
one human being huppy.*' " One, and it nujr ba 
more," added Siimondi ; " for there is already ear 
child, and tliere may be mniiy more.' la it DOta 
sign of a healthy moral condition when a man uT 
sixty-seven lakes it for gtanled that existence it 
happiness ? 

You should have heard the clatter of our yonng 
pe^^le as we drove Bwny. *' ^'\m would think 
M. SUmowli was a celebrated nvant!' *'"^Til*Bt^ 
L. ; "I should never iliitik of bis being a gmt 
author, or anything but the be»t and kindest of m«»." 
"Did you observe," said M., whose Amerioui 
feeling is ulM-ays at welding heat, '*bow perfectly 
well informed he is about America, even to iJie 
uiudtitt details?" K. dechircd ikat, though Uu 


hail Ti<liculetl ibe 'idea of ftiUiiig in love at fint 
•ighi, »lic liu<l already plunged «o deep into iiii 
affection for SMmondi tbut «lie tK^ati to tbiiik aucIi 
a calastroplie pouible. And tli«ii cumc »ilier clix- 
ractoristic remarks; L. maintaiiua); itiat "Madame 
S. could not be nil Eiigliabwomaii, site was ao gen- 
tle utd lovely!" and M. tayiag she was like tlkC 
b««t spccimcnii of Americun women — like E. F> 
and S.; and we fiiiully laid a&ide all our national 
biases pour et cmitrt, aud fiaiabcd by agjetnig that 
3c is 

"Hut Uad of emtoK «e ooold noit dadte 
To henoar, Mrtr, >nd lote." 


^P K. AND I walked out tliis moTDing to breakout 
wid) tlie SvtmoDdis. It was scarcely nine wlicii we 
■at down to tbe lAble. lie breitkrosled on cuuU 
and cream, and un these delicate urticici Madame 
S. aay« he expends all his gmtrvumdise. Nine is 
not laie now (October 6), and be had already 
written three letters and several graceful utaimi* 
for some lady's album. It is by thcmt well-ordered 
^pfcabits of diligence timt he accomplisbes such an 
^ ImtneaHity of work. And with all this labour his 
mind is as free, us much at ease as if he bad 
ooibiug in the world to do bat make his social 
home the cheerful place it is. He spoke in terms 
ef biKh coniineiiibtion of PrescoU's Ferdinand and 
IiabeUa, but lie thought Mr. P. had puiuicd his 
beroinc-quecn «t btau^ and he went on to express 



hb deteiitaUoii of her bigotry, and bis horror of its 
trenien<lous effects. We woinen contended for her 
conjugal and maternal cbaracter. "And what," h* 
asked, "had she done for her children but cdncaf 
a madwoman?" Madamp S. reminded him of Ca- 
tharine of Aragon. " Hut she,'" be said, "mu not 
Isabella's daughter." Wc all smiled, and I said 
that I was glad to find him at &uU in a point of 
liistory. " Ah T he replied, " history for me b 
divided into two parts : that which I have wriUes 
and forgotten, and tlint which I hare not writlcn 
and iiavc not yet learned." 

M. SisRiondi was to bring us t« town in hla <a^ 
riage, and, before setting off, there was a good- 
humoured conjugal discussion who, of a swarm of 
strangers, all, of course, with letters to tlie S»- 
mondis, were to be inrited there in the evening. 
Madame S. objected to Lady Sa-«nd-so; "die 

would talk 'littery lattery;'" and to Madame . 

who " would come expecting a gnutd soir^.' 
Sismondi pleaded for all, and finally came away ta 
nalcc his visits to these people witli much the 
feeling that a fiounliful man has in going unoDg 
t)i« poor with a purse full of money, which he 
feels coerced to withhold by the reigning theories 
of political economy. And aprv/iot of political eco- 
nomy, Sismondi remarked this morning tliat the 
English politicul economists had cjullc overlooked 
the most striking circumstance in tlie condition of 


tbe ConliDental p^aaanlry, titat h, that they are 
either the absolute propricion of the tutd theycul- 
tiratc, or tbey are mctayen, tliat h, they cutlivite 
it on •hareg. The lease U soinutiincs for tliree huo* 
dred years. You see at once this gives a stability 
and dignity to their condition whicli the Eoglish 
tenant iuM not; and the pride and pleasure of family 
^■trunsmiuion, and thus an extension of their being. 
^P I naked if the working cIomcs here were nudcing 
HprogreM. He said ^ No ; on the contrary, there 
waa less development of mind tlian fifty ye«r« ago, 
for tlien there esbled a law, now annullMl, for- 
bidding a nuwtcr-worknian to emjiloy more than 
two journc>'men. Now the tendency of things is 
t« ninke great CBpitolists, and to reduce the mass 
of men to mere * mechanicals.' As to jin^ress 
with the peasantry, that wii« quite out of the ques- 
tion." What a strange and death-like condition 
this M-ems to us ! When I tliinh of tho new, the 
aingularly ha])py conditioti of our people among 
the working classes of llie world, I am vexed at 
their solemn, anxious £ices. If they hare ^1 
outward prosperity, they have not that cheerful- 
ocas of the countenance which the wise man says 
betokeneth the prosperity of the heart. There is 
something wrong in this — some cotitrarcntion of 

1 «iiT M. Dc Candoilc hut evening at a soinfe 



at Sismondi's. Besides having tbe grettesi 
in Europe as a boianUt, lie is a most agrenUe 
person. He und Sismondi talked across me me«t 
courteously of our country, and with a minuteuest 
of iiifornmlion tint sliowcd wliat an iutcrcsiiag 
field it is to iLe pliilodoplier uud the man ofscieDCr. 
De CandoUe spoke respectfully of our bounbtit 
Grey, Nutlall, and Elliott, and dwelt on the tope* 
rior ricliness of our country, for llic botanial, to 
Europe. "America ia for me and not for Sit- 
iaoi>di," be said ; " for you have no hbtory." He 
does not imafrine how much we make of our lirtlr' 

There were some dozen people present, and we 
tonk our tea round the tca-lahic, which was sprent 
with bi*cuil«, cuke, sweetmeats, and fruit, quit* 
in the rural fashion of New- England. The EngUih, 
we are told, laugh at tlib mode of hospitality, and 
desecrate Lake Leman with the homely title of 
" Ttti-tcater Lake." When will the English leam 
to look with a philosophic eye on customs tint 
differ from iJicir own ? 

Tberc was a frentlcouut present who enaetcd 
the part of the fly on the wliecl, making a prodtgi^ 
ous buzzing. lie sei-mvd particularly distnrfwl 
with (he idea of women intermeddliofir iu polities 
hut graciously concluded by conceding " they 
might know what they would on the subject pro- 
vidvd tiiey did nol talk about it." " On the con- 
Usry," said Dc CandoUe, " tliey may talk as much 

as they please provided they know notliing." So. 
pardon tliv vulgar proverb, Uie fool put us into 
ike frying-piui| and the vnse nrnii pushed us into 

De Candotle adverted to the curious subject of 
relative happiness. He said you might know tlie 
inoneiit of piissiiig from a Protestant to a Catholic 
canton by the vxuenic wrrtcltmlncss of the people ; 
aiid yet they were far more guy thuii their Pro* 
teslaot ueighhours.* 'Iliis he imputed iu part to 
Uieir throwing off the burden of tbeir sins every 
Sunday, and iu part to their having no anxious 
dresuns of improving tlieir condition ; to tlicir being, 
io short, iu that respect, in the condition of the 
brutes that are grazing in the fields. M. de Can- 
dolle is right; it is tlioao "who /laty a pro»pect " 
tluit strain every nerve to press forward. It is 

e foreseeing, tlic providing, the ealailatiruf, that 
iw» over the countenances of an cvcr-onwnird 
^teople withanxiety. With so much good we must 
take the evil patiently.'f 

tluit ) 
■pbe f( 


■ Al lh« tUfarnuikan, thn nliflan of each mdIoo fu decided 
bf fol« ; )a Mnv cm«* hj • mijontf of ual; one at two toLcn. 
TIm diMfsUn ■cquincw) or nmovcd. " Dlca buiimt U plu 
gnodf iDtz," >■■ their motlo ) tholr iteriioo of " Vua /lopuA, rat 

t Tbe voriUDg nu) of Ibe Old U'aild luu nolhiiif to iIo> Ma 
d* noUikii^ but iirutlda for Utt cmtn|[*ot niturt. What due* ov 
wdtUdi uta ? Smln vtorj nam Ui tducal* • mhi and gits to 
aD Ui cbildran " icImmI pritilcgM." IntUad of lilliiut >iH>ther*i 
laail, b* improiM A'l mm fino, or iliiiea (o be iblc Co boj ■ 



Smuby evening. — We bare just retimed tna 
tsktn^ tMi witli the SismondU. Madame S. spok« 
of tlic GviievpM women as the most exemiiUry ih* 
kas ever known ; this, mind yc, U tlie f>pmioa of 
811 Englialiwoman. Tbcy irc rcpruucbed, abt 
says, with being raide and pedantic in Uieir w- 
tues, but she maintains tbat " it is exactuew, not 
pedimtry." Sbe attributes ranch of tbe merit «f 
their strict performance of tlieir moral duties ta 
the paslon of Geneva. Every young pcraoi^ on 
attuning the age of fifteen, cntcre on a coune ef 
religiouH instruction from the pastor, wliich cxclndn 
other studies aijd till amutements. All ranks we 
eomprised in this sacred study and noviciate. Tbt 
neophyte is exiunincd at tlic end of tbe year, and, 
iffound wanting, the instruction is extended ibrougi 
another year. When admitted to the communion, 
sbe appears dressed in white, veiled, and atteniM 
by her Weiids, and a discourse is preaclied touch- 
ing tbe duties and dangers of ber future life. AU 
this must make a deep impression on tbe mind at 

tNCMr. IsstMd of * blind inbiniuiait to • traiinnin«d biib u4 
■n [inpcMBl prieil, lie aainiDC* the poandi of bit (vIlfliM uJ 
mIccu kit mtottUr ; anil in placo of an I»*tiub1« ob<JlMtat ■■ 
abMlnu f«l«n and opiirrulm Una. h* cbuonaU* gntruon, Ml 
Ihe Itfialaton that %» to make and modi^ lbs lava ba la lio«baT. 
It it ohiiolu what diffrrent pla(>e« in tb« trali! of bamaaat^M* 
oegapiBd bjr Ihrat lira ctUBn of irarlin;i mm. aad «faf tbe bsf)d 
Maa at the cilinn al Ike Cnllnl Suta tbootd DM be the bappt 
ncM of tbe prvMiif , but ibaiUd be man elevated, pMn i 
■sd mora teriout. 




its nuMt sufioeptible |>eri(i(l. Mndftme S. uyi sbe 
has often bL>«ii asionislied at tlie nice diurimbiar 
lion of Lcr domealics on moral subjects ; and wlien 
she aiike<l, " Whrrc did you iearn tliis?" they 
replied, " Ali, madun, w« learned a great deal 
during our year of instruction f " 
[ There is another old inHiitution in Genera to 
wliidi she imputes much virtue. This is the Socitti 
de* DimaurJua {the "Sunday Society"). When a 
girl attains tLc ugc of five years she is made a 
member of a Sociilf. det Dim^uhrs, consisting of 
the diildrcn of her muther's friends. Tliey meet 
every Sunday afternoon, attended only by a nurse 
or gorcnicss, who does not prescribe ttieir amuse- 

enta, and only interfere* in ease of neoessity. 
Tlie fir«t girl of the community who marries gives 
lier name to the society, and as soon a!> there is a 
married woman among them, young men are ad- 
mitted, on application, by tlie vote of the sisterhood. 
Tbeir meetings continue through life. Madame S. 

,ys lliis association supplies to llie lonely the 
imeots and aids of a family circle ; that if a 
girl falls into misfortune, she i« succoured hy her 
companions ; if her father's furtunes are ruined, 
there is no apparent change in her condition. This 
tnstitutien is confined to the native Genevese; of 
eouree Madame S. is excluded, and her favourable 
optnioo U the result of lier observation of its 
efleetlt and not of an esprit de corps. Sismondi is 



a BMOlber of tbree Mcicties, Dp CnndoUe oftmty 
one in the pluice. It wu dclight/ul to aee tlie 
pleased interest witb which Si«monHi listened ti> 
bis wife's eulogium of liixcoubiry women. Hedtew 
bis cliuir nciircr and nearer, and when she ended be 
he put his arm around her, and said wiUi that 
nimplicity which in bim is such a grace, "Je I^A 
rcmerciv, mon coour." ^^ 

Sismnndi siiid tlic chief |;lory of Genera reauUvd 
from its having been tlic mylum of the opproatd ! 
from all pnrUi of Europe. " I can never thiak 
without emotion," be continued, "of the band of 
French Protestants who carae here for refoga." 
His voice wa« choked ; after a moment he addtd, 
" When they readied the summit of the Juta and 
Buw the lake and city before them, they all, with 
one aceoni, fell on llivir knees and King a pMlm '.' 
His tears again interrupie<l him, iind he upologiMd 
for them, saying, '* Ce sont les chose* qui n^^ 
roeuvent le plus; je ne peux jamais en parler*^| 
You have on infallible test of the heart when yoa 
know what does most more it. In this nnooo* 
troUable emotion Sismondi betrayed the unbounded 
lore of freedom and the dei'p love of liEa felltiw- 
ereaturea that breathe in all his works. 

■ " TbMC ue the tait of ibiiigi IhM m<»[ mot* om . 1 asMt 
tpcsk at Uieui." Thuugb SltoioiiJi •pnki Engbih pvrftnllj ' 
Frmcb U bl) Ungiue*. *nd, nbm uS bii (uwd, b« talli Inu I 


S18MOKDI wBsto(ak(r K. aniline lip to-<lay on liit 
to Miibgiiy, whor* we were engi^tl 10 dine 
at Mrs. Marcet's. He came rather late, and some- 
wliat flurTiMl ; ono of hts hones, a faithful servant 
stricken in ycsn, hnd fallon on the way. He 
lamented him as your WilHr would have lamented 
old I-arry. " I must make up my minil lo it now," 
be said : " he must be sliol, I would shoot my wife 
if she were in such a condition !' 

We got another carriage, and were at Mra. 

'Itfnrect's quite in time. This lady, m I am sure 

your grown-up and growing-up girl-t will be glad 

I to know (if there w any gratitude in them), is 

|i living ill affluence, and witb great elegance, at one 

I of ibe roo«t beautiful villits on tlie lake. Don't let 

[ tbera imagine she bas found the philoaopber'a stone 

^ki bcr scientific researches. She inherited her 

fortune, and has set them the example of stuitying 

for the love of it, and has reaped, distributed, and 

enjoyed a rich har^'est. 



We went last eveiung to our friends at Chesne 
to meet a srtcimf tociety for the poor— just such ai 
e bare in our own villages. V\'e found the 
historian of the Italian Republics, and ibe writer 
of other and more books than many people ever 
read, arranging the chiilrs and tables witb mudnmc, 
and Henri and Fran^'oise, tbeir servants, whom 



they treat more like friends tlian fterrnnts. Ptr- 
Gently, Madame Martin, llie wife of tlie paitot, 
entered with » pile of garment)) cut out and reid; 
for tier ccuuljutors. Tlicir goings-on vere niMfa 
like ours on tlmilar occaAioos, except tbat dw 
kn&bands were allowed admittance, and a qairt 
game of whist in the corner, provided tltey ptay Ut 
a few SDUH, and give tlie winnings to the society. 
M. Martin is a man of Ktiperior intellect and moil 
delightful countenance; I thought w, at Itwt. 
while he was asking me iiuestiona with gnat 
intcrett aliout my country. The girls Iiad proniMd 
to join tlie sewem, but, instead, they were reapeti. 
I turned, and saw them all gathered round M. 
!>iBinondi in the corner, L. at his feet, and be 
reciting Italian verses to them! 

We drank tea last evening witli Mattanv R, a 
prett)- little Genevei!c, who Iive» during the auniMT 
at a most lovely place on the lake. We walked 
down to tlic fhore by the twiliglit, aiid saw al • 
short distance a beautiful chaloupe (a yacht) witk 
as it appeared, a single sailor on board. Madasc 
B. shouted to him, and directly he camo in u ro«- 
boat to the shore, anil proved to he her brother. 
a youth who, while getting a mcrcautilc eduaiion 
at IJverpool, conceived such a panion for water- 
pl«RSurea,that his fatiierha* given him tliia chaloapei 
and every day, after coming from the counting- 



!ioua« In tawn, lie puts on his red flannel shiit and 
taqMulin, and cnacU tlic sailor on tlic liikc. He 
rowed U9 to the dinloupe. It was u wunn and 
lovely eTcning, and there we floated in u state of 
quiet enjoynirnt, not a siiil pswtin^ us, or a sound 
disturbing our trnn<juillity. What a roiitraNt thi» 
lake to wliat it would be with ua ! 1 1 is the largest 
lake in Switzerland, between forty and flfty miles 
long and stx broad, with Geneva, a free town of 
S0,000 inhabitants, at one end of it, and many 
populous towns on it« shores, and on the great 
tlinroughfare to Italy. Some of the land about it 
is extremely valuable, selling at one thousand 
pouada sterling an acre, and producing HOOO bottles 
of wine; and, finally, Geneva is so mercantile a 
place in its character, and so tbriving, that, as some 
wag has said, " If you see a man jumping out of a 
third story window, you may Nifcly jump after him; 
you will be Nure of making ten per cent, by it." 

Willi all these incitements to iictiviiy, there is 
hardly a ki!I moving on the lake, aiid only one 
little steamer, tliat plies daily between Geneva 
and Vevay, No wonder De Tocqueville says he 
was prepared for everything in America but its 
general stir. 
^ Wc had a family party at tea, the father and 
nude of our hostess. They liave all summer 
residences within one inclosure : on one *■ cam- 
P^ae," as they call a country place here. Oar 



new acquainljuicos have the sterling currency of 
our bc«t people at home : intrlligvncv, good wtist, 
and natumliH-KA. The bmily tic« arc drawn dowr 
here iliaii witli n«, where llic youii^ birds nrf dnm 
forth from tlic paT«iit-ne)it as soon as fledged. 

You would not tliank me, perhaps, for tayil^ 
nothing of Pemey, tlioiigh I can bare notliiif 
n«v to tay of a place that every traveller vMn. 
We made an hour's drive of ii to the villa^if 
Ferncy, a place which grew up under V'oItaifeV 
foAtcring band during lib twenty years* rendence 
bere. Tb« churdi is standing which he erected 
for athert to worship in. The pious revoluttoniitt 
have removed the stone on which he inacribrd 
** Deo ertsil Follairf." The di£t«au and groandi 
ore in good preservation. The sliow-rooms, Vol- 
taire's bed-room, and an adjoining uton are. wilfc 
good taste, kept by the pro]>riclor as Voltaire leA 
them,— that is, us far as the virtuoso-spoilers wll 
permit tiiem to be. Tlie bi^l-cuTtaiiu tiavi* be«B 
turn off i>hre<l by shred, till only fragmeuta remain. 
The apartment struck me as one of the saiUcM 
monumcRts of liuman vanity. There were every- 
where traits of tliat littleness of mind wbicb, in 
^itc of Voltaire's infinite genius and his love of 
frcedatn — bis utter hatrnl of bigotry and tyranny 
ecclesinsticid and political — degraded him, justly 
diminislied his influence witJi most people and 


snnrA. 265 

dntrofed it with the boat. None but maral 
power lias an imlestructibte agency. 

Tbere is a picture in the salon — a wrctclied 
daub — utd to liave been painted by bis direction, 
at any nte it was hung up under bis eye. He is 
represented as being led to the throne of Apullo 
by Henry the Fourth, with the Elenriade in his 
hand, while Fame blows her trumpet, and a host 
of allegorical triiigcd figures sUuid ready with 
Cinokiug censen in thvir lumdi to usher liim into 
the temple of Memory. Beneath his feet lie his 
dctnwtors underg^oing every species tif torment. 

In his bedroom is another apollieosi-t, a " fon- 
tasie," calle<l » Le Tomheau de Voltaire." The 
four quailen of tbe gtobe, represented by emble- 
matical fitpires, are approaching to do homaire, 
while Ignorance, wilti bat's wiuge and b:inda)ri-d 
eyes, is advancing to (Irive them away. America 
b represented by Fninklin in a fur cap, moccasinst 
and a blanket \ — The dear old sage, the very anta> 
gotust principle of savage life I Opposite the fire* 
place is a huge erection, that looks more like a 
German stove than anything else, with an urn on 
tlir lop of it, in which Voltaire's heart was to huve 
been placed. It i» tb»s inscribed : " Ales manes 
■ont con^ol^-s jiuiNque mon coeur est nu milieu de 
Tous;" and underneath, " .Son esprit est partout, 
et SOD cceiir est ici." The empire of Ids mind 
has contracted to a small space ; and as to liia 



beart — but God forgive us for our luirrow jadg- 

By tlic side of a portniit of Catlicrin« il. of 
KuMUi. work«-il in womtcil by l»?fs<>lf for Volturei 
tliera U a ]>:cturi.> of a very sweet-looking young 
woman, liU liiuii<)re«t«, and anolber of a Saroyarl 
)>ea.sanl-boy whom be adopted; Ibit) looked well. 
On one side of the fire-place is a portrait rf 
Mattaine de Cbatelot, Iremendously rouged; aud 
on the other, of Mademoiselle St. Denis. AnMWj; 
some indifTercntly-en^ivod hcuds hanging op, I 
noticed Racine, Corneille, Milton, Newton, Waili- 
in^un, iiiid Frunklin, If, a» I have fancied, tlie 
pictures a man Kp|eet« for hiit bed-room afford sonie 
indication of his cbanicler, these are g:ood wil- 
neses for Voltaire. The furniture vf»» ordimuy, 
and notliing superfluous. 

We walked over the grounds, tmd were &lio«m 
the " petite forf't " (a lon^ avenue through a wood), 
down which he <laJly drove in great slate with at 
korMS nitd gilded liarness. We pas»e<l tlirouf;^ 
bis " Jiirreaitf" a walk between elm-trees cloaeljr 
planted and trained to meet overhead, where, itil 
said, lie composed as be walked. 

On one side the boundary of his estate ut marked 
by a \agk emhaiikment, which, we were told, lie 
luid made to sliut out the view of the eliiiteau froM 
a man with whom he had had a controversy at 
law. Was it in his own heart that he found tli« 



gall to write liU satires on litiman uattire? He 
wasi they say, the terror of all tltc little iioys in 
the neigbbourbood ; and yet there ttre local tales 
of his generosity aiid benevolence ; an ocean of 
them could scarcely wash out this sUin. 

We went to see an old man living in a lodge 
uit tlie e&tale, who was the son of \'oUaire*H gitr- 
iioner, and who had the honour of carrying hit 
notv-bouk for him during his walks the bat four 
yeara of hit life. He drives a good trade, showing 
" antiquities," as he calls some old rubbish, relics 
of his saint — caaes, wig, &c. The only tiling 
worthy of note was a book of seals which Voltaire 
was in tlie habit of taking from the letters of bis 
Corr<H>[iflndent^, iind [irt-serving in this way for 
reference, .10 tliat he niigiii know who were tlic 
writers of 5.ubse<)uent tetters, and take them or not* 
aa suited liim, from the post-office. To many of 
them be had affixed after the name a word of com- 
ncnt, aa "J. J. Uousseau — un Bouillon !" Tlie 
prevailing one is " Fou 1" The old miui gave ua 
an ab«urtl narrative of llie boginniiig of Voltaire's 
and Gibhon'it ac<]uaiutance. 1 do not know what 
foundation in trutli it has, but tliere is some wit in 
it Voltaire had been offended by a sarcasm of 
Gibbon's on his person ; and when he first vikited 
Fcnicy, its muster shut himself up in his room, 
desiring his niece to be polite to his visiter. But 
his visiter persevering in staying, he wrote liim 



tb« {o\\ow\ng note: '* Don Quichotte prenut let 
auberges ])oiir Ae* cbAtcaux, nuiia toiis prcnes taon 
c)i&t«au pour une auliern^*." 

*' Ell bien, niailame," said Francois, as we 
returned to the carriage, " vouh avez vu le chitean 
da plus grand po^te du monde." Oh, shadn «t 
Siiukspcare, Milton, Danlo, tliat even a couritr 
should tbuB style Voliairc! — ^but tiiis is fame. 

We bave been to Coppet, about seven toiUt 
from Geneva, and ull tl)C way a mu«t eticluin^ng 
drive on the borders of the lake. The vlnitcau M 
occupied by tlie llaroness de Staci, (lie widow of 
filadume dc Stoi-l's only son— a childless widov. 
Madame SUmoiidi told me she saw tlic poci 
woman's only child die in lier urnis. So tliere if 
no preicnt, no future to this abode of genius uii 
filial lore. The chateau bas a park altachcfl to il, 
and is a large edifice, wicii an air of wealth and 
comfort. The family burying-place is surrounded 
with so tliick a plantation of trees that you can tee 
nothing from without, and all ingress Is forbidden 
to strangers. I like thU. 'Ilie places of our dead 
should be kept for those who eomc wiib soft 
tread and tearful eyes. I felt a tiervoim sbuddcriag 
ia looking at this t)urial-place. Tlierc wvt it 
JMadame de Stael something so opposed to death— 

• " Don QuIxotM look Inn* for ouUm ; jou hm takn nf 
Mid« Tor ID ion." 


a life Uiat " worked up to spirit" wliat in others is 
inert, tliut it seemed us if sbe lierself were Etrug> 
gVtng to escripe from tills silence and iiiiictivity. 

i liave lieurd Mudiiine de Stat'I spoken of bere 
among her old neighbours and friends iis one of Uie 
most amiable of women, full of all Horts of gentle 
humanities ; and yet . tells me that spending a 
day at Coppet was in Madame de Stai'ls lifetime 
one ofthehpuviest things imaginable. 'I'lie Duchetis 
dc Broglie and ber brother were silvnt and indif- 
ferent. The son was overshadowed by his mother t 

genius, and thinks the Duchess de Droglie 

might have been saddened by the violence her 
mother's life did to her very strict religious ideas. 
It was not till very near the close of her life that 
the daughter awoke to a sense of happiness, and 
then she was a completely altered woman. 

Madame de Stael's experience is against the 
theory of the transmission of genius by tlic mother. 
Ilcr son, by De lloccii, now living in Paris, is 
said to be an excessively ridiculous penion, silly 
and affected ; and, what U worse, rich and avari- 
cious. The world have been much amused with a 
storj' of his having jumped out of a window from 
mere fright. Is it not strange that a son of Madame 
de Stai'l and Dc Roecu, a man of known valoufi 
should hiivc neither intellect nor bravery? 

M'b bare one iusociulion with tlie waters of 


" cVnr An J placid Leman," not very poetic. ikM^ 
poelic it aliouki hv, xinci- to true u pod tn Diduni 
has taken to weaving tlio uitrp finii uroof of irarldi| 
life in " fancy's loom." Directly tiniler llie wtiKb* 
of our saloon, at a few feet from the shorct nd 
commnnicating nilh it by a bridge, there ii ■ 
wash-house, niicre at ]«a»t fifty wwhtrrn-omeii imb 
ereiy day, and all day from da^ni till dark. Yw 
know we look upon Monday an the day Job cunrci 
because it is devoted to this liard«it of houaelwld 
Jtbour. Rut here these poor women are at h 
WtA in and week out, rubbing the clothes oo an 
indined board, beating them, and then stretdHBg 
out of the window to rinse them in the rahiif 
water. What a holiday Is our women's " wasbtog- 
day" compared to this. It was well fur tbcn tbry 
had excited our sympathy, for my InunHrcoa hM 
just brought home my clothes witli a di-licit of ■ 
iiiglil-drcsR ; and, on my askinf; for It, she repliMli 
"Ah, madame, c'eil noy£ !" (it is drowned;) aa 
accident which, &lic lells me, often occurv. 

Aftbh waitin^r as long for fair weather* a* «« 

• TbeduaJ».or. ■•llinir wj, Uis"l«r:h4peta4cMMtIllaK,* 
trrie uetcr fmrly elT lilt hod irhik «« vrfe •! Genet*, ttt (b« 
wnk: Wulud. buixitrr, litilo nin. ui J t^ ■«*!&« »m MMt* 
•Dd or • ditlirlona t«nip«nitar(, iW nerarjr tevntr Wft)^ ttj 
or nighi treat (rl°. M. Sianondi Mid ine tiMt in wiam U h«*> 
Ume* bill u low u 30> bcl«« Mn, hkroktU ; and Iw M 
toown It In oiic dajr hll forCr dejran. ThI* apynMbM mi 
climcU of mufntlioFnl titrtoin. 



^^iacreedy could, wr left Geneva yc«tenliiy on an 
^^xeunion to ClmoiQuny : aixl tlioii^li the sun slionc 
out on our 9[.irliiij^, we arrivfil after niglitfull at 
Si. MartJa's in a pouring lain. This morning, 
when I row at six, it vas still cloudy, but not 
raining, and I could sec (if I half broke my oeck 
Co look straight up rocky ramparta) here and there 
a pinnacle of the Alps. 'Hic pcnsunts were passing 
ill curls und on foot to tlieir labour, VL-ry, crrypoor, 
but decently clail in Nubstaiitiiil iiluRit, and, almont 
without exception, with umbrcllaH — a, rare, and 
but a holiday luxury with our working people at 
iiome ! 
^h I went down to a ftCone-bridge a few yards from 
our inu, where we are lold that in clear weather 
tltere is one of the most beautiful I'iews in Switzer- 
land. Eren as I saw it, witli Mont Olanc hidden 
and half the sublime mountains tliat inclose tlie 
Tallcy vdleil in mist, there n'iiB as much beauty a« 

I J could take in. I will not iittempt to de»cribe it, 
kbr 1 could only use terms I liave used before, and 
l^ou would get no new idea; trhile to us il seemed 
as if we stood on the vestibule of anotlier world. 
Wliile I remaiiiMl on the bridge in a nort of rupiu- 
roos trance, I »top]>cd a peasant with the queittion 
with which I importune every passer-by, " Shall 
we see Mont Blanc to-day?" "Aht I do not 
kuow— it is possible— dependant Ic terns est un 
eu facbeus," He saw I was torrirr than tite 



weather, and lingered to point out to nw 
pfDcntKiiig signs und wc fell into a liilJc i«Ik,iB 
ihc counte of wlitcli tie found out that I came (nm 
New. York, nl wliicb he made a vetiemciit exela- 
malion, und uddoil tJiat ho )iad a brother la oj 
country. " In w)ial purt or it ?" I onkcd, " for it ti 
somewhat bifn^cr Uuui Switzerlaitd." 

" In Ruciios Ayivti ! and if Ma<laine woald biTc 
the goodness to take a letter to him ! " 

•' Will all my heart," I said, " but tliat New- 
York u'a^ mucli farther from Buenos Ayres than 
Sl Martin's from Paris." " Ah I but it was on the 
Rame vide of the great scu ; *" and be M«ined so titrc 
Heaven had Kcnt "mailamc" iin exprcn to tnkt 
t)ie letter, tlial I gave hiin my n-ord I would do 
my bent to g«t it to hi* brother; upon which lu 
was posting off to Sallendies, three or four mtla^ 
to obtain a sheet of paper on which to write it. I 
offered him one, so he came with me to the iitn, 
and 1 heard him telling our postilion what a afitd 
opportunity he hud fomu) lo send a lelier to Ul 
brother ! })i« letter will put in requisition tbf 
best writer of the parisli, to get it ready before mr 
return from Cliamouny. Poor peaunt of Sl 
Mardn's ! l)ut there ure hometlek lime*, my < 
C, when I could eni-y him hb ignotaikc* 

We loft Sl. Martin's at nine in two ebart dlmov 
a little low carriage which, with squeexitig, will 


intain tliree people, ftitting sitti'wnys totlie horses, 
who trot at a pretty good pace over tlie »teep and 
Blotiy hills. The drive to Cbamouny is perfectly 
Swias in its character; stern and wild, lonely, and 
yet most beautiful. Thp poor peosaiiis. toiling in 

Mtltcsc sullen solitudes, strike you at one moment as 
t]ie mo»t Iii-I])Ie»s and nr^; I ccted children of earth, 

,. and at tlie next you look at llicm with u sort of 

Pl^vercnee ajid admiration. You see young crea- 
lurcs just on the tlireshold of life, an<l old women 
jiut dropping; out of it, who all day lon^ are fol- 
lowing their cows, their few sheept and sometimes 

Hfe single gout, around these rocky precipices, on 
die verge of eternal snow, menaced by avalanches, 
slides, and torrents, with their kniciing in (heir 
Imntls, dauntless anil us fearless as if they were in 

^ppur quiet postures beside our still waters. "The 
heavens shall be rent as a scroll, the mountains 
(hall tremble, the earth shall puss away" — the spirit 
of man remainetli ! 

Ip You ore constantly reminded of man's perils and 
wants. Here you pass a mute little stream that a 
few hours' rain swells to a frightful tonent; and 
there tlie bed of a lake that last year «-a» a mirror 
of beauty, and now is a mass of naked stones and 
dirt ; everywhere ore crudtixcs to remind you that 
where dungcr is present religion is felt to be a 
necessity. The sunshine and shadows that flit 
irer the gleaming needles and n*al]s of rock fill 
M 3 



ev«ty minuten-itli thci«nsfitioit«ofcircnts. Nunc 
spenks here to the soul, m liiMory, ptxMry. tn^^ 
do rlscwlirrc. 

Asyoua|ii)ruficbCtiamoiiny,lbe ititrrvnl between 
the mountain!! becomes narrower and oarrovrer: 
and when you enter wlml is properly tbe *'»allejr,* 
and see a little cluster of liouses anil a sprinkling 
wonder wliero arc hrtitowcd thi> 3000 pcopl« vbo, 
ourg;uide-book U-IU us, dwell here. 

It is not quite a hundred yean tiince Chantoiniy 
lins ))c«n vkited exoq)t by those who came to 
supply the pbyBirol and religiom wanta ot iht 
poor people. Campus Munitus, Cbamp-muni. «r 
fortified field, perhaps from its mountain boundaries, 
was the origin of its present name. Now man 
than three lliousiind vjtutors como bcro In OM 
season ; three ihousind happy creatores tliey nM 
be, at least once in tlieir lires. We could tmtf 
believe that tlio snowy peaks wc *ec bcloog to 
Mont Blunc; but the good people are too Uyal 
to their sovereign to let us enjoy this delouos. 
" Oh, non, non, ce n*est pss Mont Blanc— c'eM 
bien dumma^, matt Mont Blanc est voil4^".' 

We Were poitling off to the source of llic Ar«m*. 
but tome Kugli.*)] exploren have just returned, ami, 
in conjunction with our weary bones ndiing from 

* ■* No, Ibat ii not Mont BUna ; il u iodnd > fiaj, bol 
Blutc k hidden." 




llie jolting ciRi, linvc [icnttuidccl us tlic sight is not 
vrortli tlie pains it cants. Sti here we are, Hilling 
ill tlie balrony, looking tip at llie clouilit tliiit inv^>M 
Mont Blaiic^and at tlie brig;tit pinnacles tliat shoot 
out from the mUt n'hic-!i float* uit-r ilirm and tlicn 
settles down likeadai^ belt, cutting iLeni US' from 
eonlt. Truly, ibey do appear It-ss of earth than of 
beaven, and I do not think we ahuuld be surprised 
to see cherubim and seraphim floating over them. 

Tiie evening ha^ been cLilly, find drove u« in 
ettrly to sharr, in common uith uU the guettui of 
Uib Hdtel dr Loniirf$, a nnall mercy of a fire in 
tli« nlon a munger. Tbcre arc here, besides us, 
a few other strn<;i:;IiT( on the skirts of the soaitan : 
two noisy Knfjliili bd-s u-illing to enjoy an<I impart 
such fare as tliey find; a good-humoured French- 
man, ready to throw die little information he pos- 
MGses into currency: some Gcrmunit, civil and 
iatisfied ; and a stately English pair Mtting in the 
oorner, the lady with her feet stretched out to tlie 
fire, in an attitude to express her right to take her 
ease, and tiiat »lie is part of n» diance company, nor 
tliey of her. \Vc crosM^d tlic Channel with tliese 
peo|))e,*»d hare encountered tbeni lepeatedlysince. 
and, for our own convenience, we have bestowed 
on them tlic sobriquet of Lord and Lady Soho — 
the name of our steamer. My Judy roiitl belong 
the family of the nun who could not save a 

876 cHAUoD^nr. 

droni)tag follow-crenlurc till he vnu introduiJ; 
tliougU I hunlly Uiink tliut even in sudi cxuvisity 
the wouM <mA for mi iiUToduction. Hrr liusbcod ti 
less a caricuture of llie i[i(ira)ity of liis natioo. H* 
has twice bowod to us, aad once lie recommeiulfd 
to R., ill die exigency of sour bread and bad bolter 
(which, by-the-way, wcbuve here), roost potatMt. 
This, 1 think, wask in return for a slight &voiir I 
once did him; for tlie English are aa scrupulous 
ill paying tlic^e xmall, social debts, as they are 
ubsu-Riioiis in courtesy. 

We were at the window repeatedly during tke 
nigbt ; but, though many pinnacles appeared, like 
guardsmen bold and good, clouds and darknea wnt 
about Mont Blanc. We u'ere early astir to make 
our arrangements for the ascension of the Moai- 
anvert. Tlic uholc business of furnishing guides, 
mules, iic, is placed by llii- government in the 
hands of a "guidt eu chrf^ whose corps consUu af 
forty men *. Wc had each a mule and a guide, 
and paid «ix francs each ; a very moderate price £iir 
tile »ervice. 

E^ iM>t being strong enough lo ride, was carried 
in a porte-chui-ie, by six bearers. Our long |in^ 
cession, as we left the court of the inn. appearvd, 
as my guide, Jucigun Simon, wiid, " like pilgrina 
going to the *hrini> of Our l.itily." The«c guldci 

* Tbi price it npUitrdbr > hitil tuiK 

'arc n peculiar people. Tlipy are bandei] together, 
aiid JuLfiu^.t uMiires ine llicy have n« ijunnels; m 
a proof that they feel thvir inutuul depeiideiice, 
they maintain a common fund to aid the widows 
snd orphans of (heir companions. They keep 
much good company, as men of science, and other 
edacated men and women, come from the ends of 
tlie cartli to he led hy them through these magni- 
ficent works of imture. These wi*e people have, 
for the moment at leiutt, something like a feeling 
of good fellowship with their peasant-guides; they 
are, if I may jud^c hy our own sensations, a 
little nearer heaven, in the spirit as well as in 
the body, than they ever were before ; and thus 
that happens which thonld ulwuys happen, tlie 
electric fire of hiinianity is transmitted from the 
bighest to the lowest in the scale. 

Siqion htis lieen a guide since he wua sixteen ; 
he is now fifly-two, and, of coiirne, as fiimitiar with 
Uicae nounluin- pittlis a:* yuti are with that to your 
L doorstep. He was talkaiive and eluquent, for he 
^■baa learned to interpret tlie voice of Nature, and 
^^ to discern her spirit in ihese Ler most sublime 
manifestations*. lie described, with a touching 
I gnm, the Alpine life of vicissitude, excitement, 
and hardship. ** Our people work hard for a few 

■ Aflemid, in imng man of Smluiliinil, 1 bfuiine Ihoriinghl; 

Iwrnutcnl Ihat Nalurt i> ool her own |[iter|irclcr to min. I hiTO 

■ Mtn pHi[ile iliai icciiml U oic nioccr •nlmilt tliwi Uie Sirl» 




poUtton," ]i« raid : "siid ■ mnfortunc conm." (• 
"■ nalheur," mcaniiif^ an avahiwlie or a Mr,) 
"Uare up their Koil, nni overwlielmit tbrir cot- 
tage*." A Hon of itie cclehriilei) l);ilmar, tbc fim 
man who ever vreat to the sumioit of Moiii Blanc. 
baa gone to New York to »eek liia fonune. Shbm 
has bad tbougbta of following him. Tbi* w»tmti 
to me u banl case of (be " utile coiitre le bcwi;* 
and forgive me, dear C, tf I fell, while wtaJitf 
up (he Montanvert, Ihat I would not hare tx- 
cbuiijifrd a birthrivbt muler ili >liiu)ow fur tlie ff- 
oiinplc of iW Afttor Hotite. I wa.4 in L.'s rfji^ 
wlu>, oti itonie one anking yesterdnyi "What b i1k 
lue of ascending Mont Blaiie?" she replied) **! 
Iiate list." 

And, hy tlie way, Stmon has made tliii foniu- 
riiible ascension three times, but never will again; 
at eiK'b rime, be say», has added ten years |o tm 
life. This will gire you some notion of iJte oiMlei* 
taking; and yet, last year, a spirited rteockwonu 
achieved it, a Mademoiselle D'Angeville, nitentM 
only by these mountnin-hrcd people, 'llicy were 
full of anecdotes of ber cheerful counige and pr^ 
sersrancc, and nwunle^l bcr ibe palm over all tW 
pilgrinu they had condnctcd to this gloriiMts lemplci. 
A feather tliiji in the cap of our womankind! 

After crossing the milky Arve, and p^fttiig 
through the wood of fire that skirts the Tstlcy, wr 
began winding up the wuU-like side of the Monl* 


anverl bjr a zigzag path, wliich at every few yiirtls 
made Bueti sharp iurii» thai I woiidrred buw the 
lumberiDg body of my mule got round them. I 
shuddered when I saw my companions hangiug 
above and below mc, and thought that a single 
inis»tep of our bemts might send uh sheer down 
ouraniU of feel. But I was reassared by bearing 
thi nuny roicen of the girU ringing out like 
fndve bells; mn), besidei, there is little danger ; 
your mule a, as v^imoii said, " expressly made for 
raountain-patlis;" your guide is always «t your 
bridle : and if your head is getting giddy, you 
bave oidy to " look alofi," an old recipe for steady- 
ing the nerves. There may be more peril tn tbe 
(leeconi. Oner 1 proposed dismounting, butSimoD, 
though ho admitled there was danger to women of 
weak ncrrcN, aMurcd me there wiu no risk to a 
hdy of "Mcli good courage;" ho, you see, it is 
never too late to get • good name, if you cast 
yourself on the nagacity of — ttrahgera ! 
\ We were two hours and a half reaching tbe 
faouMC of refreshment on the brink of the Mer de 
^Wc. This n u mass of ice which filU up a chasm 
the mountains. The guides assured us 
I WM a nile and a half in breadth, and Uiat its 
extent, as far as your eye could see it, was six miles. 
This seems Cjuite iticrc>dible ; hut the objects arc 
•11 on so much larger a scale than you nro accuft- 
toned to, that their actual mcasuniiDent amazes 



you. Tlie nearest pionacle, tbc Aiguille da Dm, 
is five thousand fpct hijj^brr tbitn tlic Montsnmt; 
it did not appear ti> me mort- than Ii.itf ib wtUti 
height. Irnaginearivcr, witli iiioiiiitaiii!i foTiiuntt 
ruoning up into pinuacleSi dc§cnptively named 
aiguilles (necdlos)i oid that rit'cr arrested and 
frown utu moment when it vm lashed into st»- 
like waves, und yon have un idea, my dear C, of 
the features of llibt pliice, but none of tJie iiii^ 
tioRS ita wonderful expression produces. 

I caanot tell why, but, till we were actually on 
the Mer de Glace, I liad no adequate idea of ibe 
inequalities of iu surface. Thv surloce, discolourtd 
by tLe falling <if the dirt from tlic adjacent heights, 
appesn like a .uiow-ilrift that bas outlasted tk 
winter. The erevaua (crevices) in the ice ■■• 
three or four feet wide at tlic surface, and nan«* 
as they descend; and, a« you look into then, the 
ice appears of a greeniiih hue, transparent, and 
very beautiful. These crevices have been mr** 
eurcd to a depUi of three hundred nnd 6fty feet. 
Our guide gave us an Alpine staff, shod with ■■ 
iron point, as a nccexsaty safeguard on the Mcr 
de Glace, and attended us most assidnously, takinf 
good care not to underrnte his services by ditni- 
nisbing ibe risks and difficulties. To me there 
appeared none of any magnitude; and I believe 
that with Hal, or any other expert boy, I might 
have croawd tL 



We reuirnrd lo the pavilion to refresh otinelves 
and our gui<lc)i. Jacf)iieii tSiman Lad dropped a 
hint,iDWiccndiiig, oftlie "bonverrede vin," wliicb 
expre*ied to the guide his employer'? Batisractioa ; 
and when I heard their merry voices as I passed 
the room where they were regaling tliemselves, 
I involuntarily looked in to tell them how pleased 
I was to »ee tlicm »o cheerful. Their faces changed 
— tliey probably thought I had come lo express 
some distrust of tlieir discretion : but the smiles re- 
appeared, and they bowed, and bowed, aii<l were 

- " bicn oblig^, bien oblige." 

I TbcTc arc pretty specimens of agate ami curnc- 
liaii found in tliis vicinity, fur tale at the pavilion. 
1 linve a souvenir of the Monlunvrrt of twofold 
ralue : some m.'vAs of tjic Alpine rottc, which Simon 
begged me to accept as a " petit cadeau." 

We returned to St. Martin's in a drizzling rain. 
1 was surprised lo si-c a liitle patch of ripe pump- 
kins on this high land. 1 aitked a peasant- woman 
what use they made of tlicm. " 'I'hey were very 
good food," she said, " for pig$ and poor people ; 
uot for great folk." A vision of our " ilianksgiving 
pumpkin pies " pa-wed before me, and I felt komo- 
thing between u tear and a smile as I thought what 
gofxl food we made them for our " great folk." 
Just before arriving at our inn in the twilight, a 
>r woman wax crossing the roa<l leading u goat 



with one liand and balding n pail on Iwr liesd 
wiUi the other. Our paelllton trotted against W) 
knocked lipr down, jerked her pail on aoe side tli* 
rood, and uway scampered the gout on tbe otbct. 
Wv ail cidk-d (o liim, in ono breutli, to stop; l>«t 
1h! ili<i nut Itced u». Presently we encountered ■ 
prieiU. The postilion took ufT his caji, ^luckracd 
Im horses, aiid proceeded with reverent hIowdcs 
till we it'ere quite post the sacred person. lUthct 
a striking illustration of " lctt«r-aiid-8pirit" reli- 
gion, VBsit not? 

We were lutnlly housed before our hoHcn 
appeared with a large diina bowl hvaprd with 
pcuchcM and grapex, and, jiul peeping out at ibt 
summit of ibe ]>ile, my peasant friendS letter. 
She prL'sviited it to me, saying, *' Bapliste liaa Mt 
these for you. He is a good and honest Ud, and 
I hope you will not forget his letter" Mc« 
assuredly I will not; but, alaa for its cbancesi 
You can hardly imagine, my dear C, how pleuant 
such an accidental interchange of kindness ta to 
tnivellers, cut off from their hubituul social dutitt 
an^l rcliitions. A traveller's progress need not be 
so barren of humaiiiiies aii it is, if the art of "itn- 
proving opport unities" (htesM the good old Puritan 
phnne !) were belter understood, or, rather, more 
faitlifully studied. It is easy giving your halfpence 
to llio beggar— <7rci'm7 it can scarcely be called; il 
ii neither blessed to tlie giver nor to tlie reeeirer 

oKNEVA. 283 

— ^it is a debt Eurlily paid to a clamorous creditor, 
and received without gratitude. But a kind look, 
a tone of sympathy, eveu if the words be not 
understood, finds a direct way to the human heart. 
If a certain friend of ours were to turn traveller, 
bis track would be marked by light in the eyes and 
Bmiles on the lips, as the sun's progress is by the 
reflection of its beams. 

My dear C, 
Geneva, October 17. — We have had a severe dis- 
appointment in being compelled to give up crossing 
the Simplon. That route was completely broken 
Qp by a severe storm some weeks since, and all the 
other most striking routes are more nr less impaired, 
so that it is not deemed advisable for us, with our 
invalid, to attempt any other than Mont Cenis, 
which is always practicable and safe. We leave 
Geneva to-day, and we are looking and feeling 
very dismal. We have enjoyed here the benefits of 
a free government and a well-ordered and health- 
ful society, and we have received much hospitality. 
Tbis we may find elsewhere ; but never will the 
happiness of a welcome to such a home aa that of 
our friends at Cliesne be repeated to us. Well, 
we have had it, and we take with us their assured 
aSection ; and our young people, though they will 
no more hear those dear voices calling them their 


'* American children," bave tbeir &ith in man eoa- 
firmed — tliis is a certain and indestmctible good. 
Tliey have seen a man who has passed throngli ■ 
period of European history which has tried men't 
prindples as with fire, without dimming his fine 
gold. They have seen that it is possible to lire i 
lifetime with the " world's people," to enjoy sac- 
cess and receive homage, and yet retain the nuK 
desty, freshness, tenderness, and enthusiasm of 
youth; and, better than all, a benevolence God- 
like, for it falletb on the just and the unjust 


bun«i'mir AND itANf, fuiTutft, vrurrvriuABt. 








tKrtm OP ■■ Kium isujs." ■• mm ucu lua.* Oc m. 

" W«D, iehp^ I tbtak *r* mvat inm iTiaE lifxl AlmlghLj hwl * banil In 




people look tnily like tbe offspring of lliii taii, 
niggard swl. Thry are of low stuture and Bhruaikat, 
ani llieir nkio like a shrivelled parchroenL Tbtj 
reminded t» of the Esquimnux, and the poiMBi 
tap and shaggy g:innent aie not dissimilar toll* 
dreu of the ^avBge. Half of tbctn have goitn^ 
some §0 large as to be truly litdeoiM ** walleti •( 
flv«li." Itul far more revolting even tliut fhnt 
poor wretches with tbeir huge excrvscvnce*, tft 
tht Cmitu ; an abounding Hi>ecics of idio< win 
infest iM, elamorouHty begging witli a sort of bnitU 
chntwring, conpaied to which, the begging clul- 
dren'& monotone rhsDt, " Monsieur, doiines— iMi 
— iin pen— la chnriliS-4l! vous plait,** b mwak. 
Tlie !^avc>yard h far down in the scale below tb* 
German peasant; be will rise as soon u the pro- 
sure is removed; these p«oplo arc crushed im- 
covertly. Various caus«s are assigned for tbek 
prevailing phyMcil and mental dtsetisc«: iinwfaoi^ 
Home water, malaria, iind imideijiuilr and bad foaJ 
suHicietitly explwi tliein. I'he children, to mj 
astonislunent, looked fat and heiililiy. It lakes 
time to aver|>ower the vigour of nature, and roM- 
tcract the bk-seed effect of life in tin* open or. 
Tbe people in the towns appcur more healthy and 
in more comfortable condition tlian in the OfN* 
country. 1 remarked among them some yvmaf 
women stout and comely enough, w-itli a becoming 
kind of cap, with broad, slifHy-starcfaed baodii 


liicli are so brought together and set off beliind 
iliey resemble while wings. Tliey wear a 
ribaiid around thcr throat (prububly adopted 
to hide th« goitre) fu&tcned by a Uu^ broach, at 
which liun^ » cross. 'I'lie txtttomN of their skirts 
arv oTUaniuutcd wtUi a narrow- coloured stripe, some 
uritb one, some with half-a-dozen. Fran^'ois tells 
MS that a red stripe indicatcti a dowry of a hundred 
francti: but, as this is but courier information, I do 
not give it to you fur verity. 

You know il U my habit to walk whenever I 
can, Biid to talk with the i>e»ple by tiiu way-side ; 
luid as tlio roads liave boeii heavy ever since we 
left Geneva, and oiir voiturier i» a ■' meruful man " 
to his beast, I lu>ve had thijt indulgence for many a 
mile. The Suvoyardit speitk French well, though 
they use a putoitt among them^t'lvcs. 1 stopped 
yc^terilay to talk to some women who were wash- 
ing around a fountain on their knees. One of 
litem said, id reply to my inquiry, " It was hard 
enough!" "Gut," said 1, "you sliould have 
cushions to knee) on." " Ah, oui, madume, muis 
Ic8 pauvret ne «oat pas les riches*:'" tlicrc was a 
world of meaning in this truism. 

I joined a peasant-girl in the twilight, last even- 
ing, whn, aAer spending her whole day in tending 
ber cow at an hour's walk from her house, was 
{ home ber five bottles of milk, the product 

■ Ab, ye», di'ud ; bat the poor uc not Uie ricb." 



of tbe cow. What would oar /Mofant-girls Uiink 
of Hucfa u life ? Their leisurely, Isdy-I'ikc nftcN 
nooiu nn<i tmrociuurccl ubtiiiiUiice ]>iiss in viuon 
before roe as I ask the questiin. 

My dear C, how ofieo do I mentally thailt 
Oo(t for the condition of our working people ! Uf 
poor way-sido friend lold mc the livvd on btrtef, 
milk, and potatoes ; tliat she never Ale ment; "ha* 
could she when she had no money to huy iir* Bat 
our host at Modane, who vt a round, full-fod, jol^ 
widower, ^ves a diflerent version uf llic poot'i 
condition, which, from \ua sunny posiuoit, be loob 
down upon qtiiie cheerily. "They have sailed 
neat for winter," lie e&y», *' occasionally a bottle of 
wine, and plenty of brandy. They can work al 
night by oil made from nuts and flaxseed : they 
have a portion of wood from tiie commune, aod 
tliey economise by living; in the winter in tin 
stable !" This is tlic common discrepancy between 
the rich man's account of the poor and the poon 
man's own story. 

Francois say», " What think you tlw ^*^irfnW* 
send tliem for medicine when they are ill ? wtiy, 
bread; and they g;et well and live to a hundred V 
even a hundred nitd twenty yeara !" Perhaps soBfl 
of our feasting Dives, victims of turtle-soup, pitfl 
de foie graa, and — ralomel, mif^ht ciivy tliese poor 
wretches, who find in a wheaten loaf *'Nat«je'V 
sweet resioralive." "Life is a tcsselated pavement 


Iwre A bit of blade stone and ther« a bit of white;" 
it is not all black vv«ii to the Savoyard mountaineer. 

Etren in Savoy tlic '* flcboolraa«ler is Bbroad." 
Wliile some of our party were luncliing at St. 
Michel, K. and I walked on. Our first pottr-rvf 
toMte was on tbe pedestal of a crudlix. While we 
ait there, a pretly young mother came out of a 
faoute opposite with lier child. I called liie little 
tottier to me, and the mother followed. What a 
nice letter of introduction n a cliild '. We entered 
into convenration. She told me all the children in 
St. Michel went to school; thiit tbcy had two 
adtoob for the jionr ; one supported by the com- 
mune, and another where each child paid tlirre 
francs per montli. Tlie liltle ten-motilliA'-old thing 
gave me her liand at jiartiog, and die mother smA, 
" Au reroir, mad&me." ^'AureroirT where may 
tiwt be? 

There was an inscription on the croM under 
which we were silting, puTportiitg tliiit a certain 
bifdiop i^nted an indulgence of forty days to w1h>- 
ever itliouUi nay a pateniosrer, nn ave, and perfom 
an act of contrition before lliat crudlix. I asked 
a gotHl-humoured pea«ant-^rl whom we joined ( the 
is tlironging wiib peasants of all ages), " what 
WIS meant by tbe act of oontrilion.'* She said it 
was a prayer of confewion and bumiliatlon, bv^n* 
(ling, "Oh, moil Dteu, jo me rcpens," See, tind 
that the "indulgence" was forty days' deduction 




from tlie time for wtucli the soul prayed for n 
sentenced la purgulory. " Tliis,'" tliou^it I, **b 
an easy act, und the binhop bartcra tlie todulgcnee 
at a bargain I" But tins PlHin«uic fecliog- ww bat 
momentary, my dear C, and I was ailtamed wbm 
I tfiouglit bow many weary creatures bad pawed 
tliere and laid down tbeir burdens, wbile, witb a 
simple feitb, ibey performed their act of wonUp 
and humiliation, and of lore for tbe departed. 
Wben shall we learn to rovrrcncr the spirit aad 
disregard the form ? 

\Vc bnvc had m»ls and tain ever since we left 
Cbambery, but the picturesqucnen of our jooraey 
bos been rather heightened by this state of ilw 
atmosphere. Mist, you know, sometimes giv'esa 
ehuractcrof ttublimity to the moli-bilU which weotl 
moiintuins at borne; you may then imagine wbal 
it« <'ffi-ct must be here, where you look op is» folding over mountains, from ?«Uep 
that you ean almost span, and see the rocliy rtiH' 
parts lost in the clouds ; or, perhaps, as llw niK 
drops down and their snowy pinnacles eauli a 
passing sunbeam, glittering in mid heaven. IV 
cascades which pour over tbe precipices feed with 
adioiltand rivulets the Are, the beautiful stream 
that rushes along the valley. 


Sma, Pitdmiml, Oefbtr 21. 
We hare crossed the Alps, my dear C, and are 
in Italy, but not quite ho easily as I write iL The 
wealbur is us much a matter of speculation to (hose 
who arc about to make u pass of the Alps us if they 
were going to tea. I'hig niorninj; at three I was 
looking out from my witKiow, and found it perfectly 
clear. My old familiar friends were shining down 
on the ndley of Lauslebourg, Orion on his tbron«, 
and Jupiter glittering over one of the mountain- 
pinnacles. " Now," tlioiight I, " we are sure of n 
fine duy." But when Franf i>is came round to our 
doors with his customary reveille, " Gate oope," 
(Fran^-ois always Npeak* £ii<7/uA in the hearing of 
the natives!) the sky was overcast. We were 
early vsiit, which* though "both healthful and 
good husbandry," is only tlic virtue of neeesuty 

widt US. 

We took from Lanslcboiirg five mules to dm^ 
up our carriage. I'^iich mule, of course, liod his 
muleteer. The voiturier followed with his horses; 
and Francois, whose devious motiunfl often remind 
me of \\'amba's, was at the side of the carriage, 
before, or behind, wherever he found the best 
listeners. The *> point culminant " of tliis pass is 
six thoiuand seven hundred and eighty feet above 
Oic level of tlic scu, but only two thousand feet 
^>ovc the volley of LanisU'buurg. This was the 



least difficult paas into Italy before Napoleon cunt 
to nake a broad and cosy way over thv«e frighdnl 
barrier*. Cbarlemagni: led an array ovtt Hoai 
Cetiis in the nintli century"; and \M% wu, I 
believe, alivtiyii ibe route by wliicb the Fredera 
aiid tlicir succeMont brought tlteir Ocmtin bn- 
barinn« down upon (lie plaina of Italy. Tbc 
Chevalier Fabroni was die en^oeer of iki* niA 
■nd we» wven years in bringing it to it* prcMU 
perfection I'hc roiid i« carried up tbe hut of tb* 
mountain by ctt»y zigzags. Again and again »t 
turned an<l dragged on our ireary way, aiid ycl wt 
seemed no farther from Lanslelmurg, whieh wv 
always directly under u«i but w« saw by vo 
joyous "compagnon de voyage," tbe Arc, dioi- 
nishing to a thread, that we were making progrMs. 
There are twcnty-thrc« houses of refuge (ricovcrfl 
at intervals along this patt. Near some of tlMD 
the traveller is, at particubir seasons, in dangs 
from avalanche*, aii<) at all are men at») mesH if 
succour, kept by the government. Tbe ^rl« aaJ 
I walked up the greater part of the way, not fbU 
lowing tlie road, but taking the sharp crow gall 
I had some talk with out chief muleteer, a dew 
mn. Our conversation nainially turned uo Na- 
poleon, " small in stature and ^"at in mind," it 
said ; *' but a bloody man, that carrd not how many 

■ Tbc llmptft on Mont Ceoi*, dU leej itea/Hf • iiiiiilM| 
wu Indltaml bjr Chutcmngvc. 




P f ii a ^crifioed to his iimbicion. II« ntadt ft beautiful 
r 'Mad, not fat our good, but to gei hU cannon into 
Italy. Cepsndant," be concluded, "ceux qui 
raiment et ceux qui ne I'lumentpus confcsseot qu'il 
n'y a plus dc t£tcs comme celle-lA V ('* Aft» all, 
tbow who likv bim and tlioso n-ho like him not, must 
own ihnt tJivrc a no brnd Irfl vqual to his.") 

As we aicen<led we got a sprinkling, and, at the 
turns, th« mist was driving at a rate to be no faint 
remembrancer of the gust from behind the sheet 
of water atNia^am. I went into a rtcovcro to dry 
my feet. Tlic good dame (old me they are often 
M buried in »aow in winter, that she docs not step 
ber foot out of doors from fall to spring. There 
was a baby in the cradle. Here they are bom and 
live, and may dte, for her husband has been can- 
lOHNier bore for fourteen ycam. lie receives the 
higlie^t pay — thirty «ous a day, and bis houftc and 
Hfirtrwood ; not nearly «o much t» you pay a man* 
BhtWant who ban brit food from your tabic and food 
I "W'gDod as yours, and whose life, compared witli 
theae poor people's, is a perfect holiday. Our 
prudent voiturierdiamiKsed the mules before passing 
ilie Savoy barrier, to avoid the tariff of five francs 
on each animal attached to a carriage ; a tax which 
goes towanis maintaining the rood. Wc then gave 
the btmae inain to the muleteers ; a liberal one, I 
btncy, from the abniidance of tfaeir bows, and their 
cordial " bons voyages !** 



Oar gaide-book had promised as **« uJ ct i to 
inn," and a regale of trout from the lake ; bat, nn* 
luckily, we wcot into tiic kitchvn whilo a 6r«WM 
kindling in the luilun, aad tlic floor, •trewn vitb 
egg-slicll«, bones, and vegetable refuse, cured ouf 
appelites, albeit wc arc not orer-nice trarellen. 
These mounUiin trout hare been from time imra^ 
inoria] a source of revenue, and their only otir, ID 
tlie monks of the Hotipice. The Bishop of Siai 
has lately put fortli the lion's elaim, and tlie pM( 
fatlicrs have been driven away. Af^er piaanng tk> 
plain of Mont Cenis, in which this lake lies, «* 
began descenHiog a broad, smootii road, in many 
parts cut through tlic solid rock. Wherever it is 
necessary to have an artificial support, it is made 
by B niBHKy wall of masonry. The cascades whiek 
would dash athwart the road, are convoyed oaitf' 
neatli by aqueducts, and are let out on the lower 
side tlirough two openings, door*, windows, mouths, 
or whatever you please to call them. These w» 
terfalU are the children of the scene, full of life 
and beauty : wc needed their cheerful voices, (or 
tiie mist became clouds, aud we actually seemed 
rolluig along on them. Wc saw nothing, and, 
after a little while, tltcse small sweet voices, with 
every other Houn<l, were overpun-ered by the rushing 
of a cataract below us. Wo were awed and ailenL 
At tliis moment, two strong, wild-looking wretdia 
burst out upon us. Whether they came from abova 



or below we oould cot tell. They thrust tlieir 
hands into die oarri&ge, vebemently demanding 
churily, und looking rrry mudi as if they h&d u 
good vill to take whut we had iio will to give. 
Bacici« cnieknl hi« whip at tliem; ihi« hiid no 
effect: lie iui<lre«scd it lo his liorseR, and ihia had; 
I for they brought us within a very few minutes ii> 
•ight of a ricorerv, and out puntueni withdrew. 
Francois and the voiturier ioBiHt they meant mis- 
ebicf^ and, since we have escaped tlie danger, wc 
arcqiiite willing to believe in it. After going down) 
ji down, down, Uie mist becume less dense, the tree* 
^^bq[aii to ap{>ear, then the outlines of the hills, and, 
^pwben we reuched MuWet, a group of little dwell- 
ings on tlie liill*side,we were in a clear atmosphere, 
sod the beautiful plains of Italy lay ouLiproad 
^beneath us, in a golden, flowing light. What a 
iitrast to the stern, wild scene from which we 
emerged, was their abundance, habiconcy, 
ath, and smiling loveliness ! Francois sprang 
over tbe carriage-wheel, clapping his hands and 
•bouting, " Voili mon pays 1" There were tears 
in all our eyes as well as in Lis, for strong emotion, 
of whatever kind, brings ihcm ; and who coald for 
the first time look Italy in the face wiUiuut emotion 
-beautiful, beautiful Iialy ! 

Susa appeared quite near enough for us to have 
^^umpeil down into its cheerful streets ; but we 
^Uad still t«n milci of tliis most geuily-desccnding 



ruad down a mountain of most on^ntle tterp- 
Think of goiiiff flovro for tweiiiy-fivr cdn- 
wcutivc miles ! but w« are down, aod are kxtkiai 
up Ut the mounlain- wbIU which God lias Ml 
around this fatre«t of lands. Susa is a cbectU 
liuk town in Uie midst of rini'-ciirvrcd and bnkea 
liills, which Bp{)«iir like the advanced ^uitrd of tW 
Alps. \'ilb^es and nolititr}' dwelliiigH luv tvrrand 
(K. says burrowed) on the steep acclirilK*, aad 
are so nearly of the colour of tlte rocka and wil 
tliUt tbeyure scarecly disiin^ishuhle from thea: 
and positions seem to have bpcn selected for tlH 
diurehe« and inoiinsteries of such difficult access, 
as to gire the climbing to tfacm the rirtue of • 
penance. And, finally, there is a back-grotud 
of what we are befpnning to tliink an indisp«a> 
sable component part of r -finished landscapvi 
summiui white with ttrrnal tnows. Ou on* aid* 
of our inn n a piiutwi*, an tbe otJier a rircr. 
We have already been out to nee au old Roraaa 
arch ! our path ha* bi-eii eros«ed by » pro wi im 
of prietts ; we have been beset by bcggan ; and 
we have come in to give our orders to a came- 
riero-f i in short, we are in It aly. 

■ Piuu M uif open public ipaiv la ■ town mirvnsJel aUk 
buildlii|). I knuv no En|lUli nord tbU uiiwtn lo It. '* SqMf** 
■1 b not. for It ■• of onry oancWnUs form nnd " wKbonl latm~ 

t In tunr luliut imi* tbe Mrrkn o( lb« cbainlMmwit «« 
porfomnl bj mrn ; bal the (awnl deTmae* U Englub ■ 
la doing ■■•}, 00 Ibe traTcIM louiei. «»b thia lanvjane*. 



'Dtrin, 2S. — We arriveil Iicre last evening, and 
entered the town by a magnificent avenue. Turin 
it a very cbeerful towii, with some t40,O0U iiiha- 
biufiCa; a gay capital rather, for it is tlie capital 
I of Piedmont, and was anciently of LiguHa. Vou 
^kce liow, ou the very threshold of Italy, wc iii- 
^ndnctivcly turn from wliut is to wliiii kos. Turin 
^vEs said to liave grown one-fiftli in the last ten 
years. This singular ctrcumsiance in Italian liis- 
lory i«, 1 believe, owing to the fostering car« and 
presence of Charles Albert, the reigning inoiiarcb, 
■tyled overywLere in Piedmont *' the muniliceiit," 
bat better known to us aa the treacherous Prince 
of Carignani. W'c arc at tJie Hotel dc TEurope, 
Ptazia Cafttfllo; and as it is the best inn and best 
position in ilio town, you inuy like U> know pre- 
cisely our condition in it. We occupy a suite of 
ii|ui[tRients on the second story. Our drawing- 
room has so&i-beda leads, and is converted into a 
bed-room at night; and for these rooms, with a 
large ante-room, we pay twenty-four francs a-day. 
They Iiave silk hangings, partition walls at U-ast 
p four feet thick, double doors, floors inlaid of diifer- 
ent/-«otour(>d woods, and painted ceilings hung 
iritb paintings and exquisite drawings of broken 
columns and old friezes, and are so ricbly fur- 
uialied tliat they almost put my eyes out, after 
If wretclied Savoy inti.'^ I am sitting by a 



winduw open on to a balcony that overtooki At 
piazza, and I will describe it to you as it it M 
this moment. The piazza is aa luf^e aa St. John\ 
Park ; opposite to us is the kiii};*s paJaOTt '■'■'^ *B 
JDclosore; on our right, the Palazxo Madama,Vt 
quecn'a palace ; on our left, the opening inu tht 
fine street by which we entered tlie town, anil I 
raw of lofty bouses, u-ttb an arcade to the lo«v 
■tory. Our hotel fonns one of ■ umilar raoga 
on tliis ude. 

Carria^^ and cuts are eromttig and nenmbig, 
end a few busy people sccm to he driving forvird 
with some object before tbera ; but tbese afc 
exceptionii. Here u a little company of Sarvf- 
ard muHicianti — I know iJicm by their cfMtume*. 
—a woman, with a guitar, unging naliunal nin. 
accompanied by a man tritb a harp, and a boy 
U'ith a violin. A ring of soldiers gathers round 
them ; loungers drop in on all udea ; priesU and 
peasants, plenty of priests. There may be three 
Or four hundred persona in the ring. There 
eome«t tlie royal carriage through tbe palace-gale; 
tiie ring breaks ; a line is formed, and all hals an 
off. A juggler enters upon the scene, and agaia 
the circle forms. 'I'bere goc« a procession of noiaw 
with their superior at their bead, holding aloft a 

■ Thar* i* • *triking rarift; in tbv appMnnM and <«(>■• «f 
dw ptopta of Torio. Sardinia. SiTojr. and Gtnna aK )iwlsd*d la 
the King of Plodmoot** dominion)- 



1>Iacl( cross. Near the Palazzo Madanm stand a 
knot of Piedmontese peasants ; old women, witli 
^vrinklefl plougUed in deep furron-s, and white caps 
wired up into a sort of tower, and loaded with an 
tinmeuureble quantity of gay-coloured ribands and 
anilicial flowers ; there are two very pretty youn^ 
prasant-g;irls beside them, with u sort of xipity luit, 
with low crowns niid immense brims, and a bundi 
^of flowers one side. 

^^ Here are mendiciint friars, with long beards, 

^Ppn heads, grey cloaks tied with hempen cords, 

tiid sandals on their otherwise hare feet The 

king appears on horseback, n-ith officers attendant. 

And servants in scarlet livery, and again the ring 

break* and all hats are dofled. 

^^ Now, my dear C, this may be very tiresome to 

^Kyov, since I cunnot make it virid to your mental, 

aa it is to my bodily eye ; but to me it seems us if 

tlie world bad indeed turned into a stage, and the 

men and women into players, and actors of some 

I poetic dream of my youth. And tu I have set 

^Hovn just whiit I have seen, and notlnng that I 

hare not seen, since I sat at tliis window, as it is 

Dot a fesla-day, and not more than ten o'clock A.M.. 

it may be curious to you to compare life here witli 

Uf« in our workiog-day world. 

' Wk have just returned from a drive. Turin 
pleases us. The streets arc as rcgukr as those 



of Philadelphia i but here the rMembUnee en^ 
OS these streets sometimes terminate in ■ long 
and 8uperb avenue, and «ofnetimi->t the per«pf^ 
live finixheN with » church or a pahioc. The hovMi 
are rc|ru[ar, too, but twice as hi^ as oura [imit 
OOHiit feet and inches against me), and built of I 
light stone. First we went to a new brid^ o««r 
the Doria, a single arch, and reckoned the nMrt 
beautiful bridgu of its kind in the world. WUk 
the bridge n-as constructing, ita stability n 
doubted, and there wore clamorous predicliaBI 
tiiai fvlicn the scufibldinK was removed it woall 
lall. When it wiu finislie«l, tfae arebil«ci placiA 
binueir under the centre of the arch and oritati 
tlie siipporu to be tiikcn away — crou or crown- 
crown it proved ! We then went to tlie Cborcfc 
of the Consolata to see a ftmous silver statue of 
the Virgin, made to commemonte hi-r savinff Ta- 
rill from the cholera ! Mo«t wretehed be^fiin 
followed us to the cbureb-door; and when I cos- 
Irasted its silver shriuc and gorgeoua nniiiMiali 
with tbeir itquulid powrly, I remembered iW 
apoatolk charity, " Silver and ^old fiaiy: I mm, 
but audi OS I iiave give t^futS" 

We drove through the new quarter of tfae town. 
where there are fine fresh rows of houtes, and a 
mo6t natural bome-odour of brick and mortar. la 
short, we Itave been to we bridges, statues, cburcAM. 
a botanic garden, a museum of moat rare Egyptjaa 




antiqii!tjc«, u Pliaraoli (biii^e cnouj^li to Lbvp eaten 
up the KruolitetJ, im v(^ffy whicli CImmpolIioii 
pronounced u> l>c contemporary with Abrntn! — 
And we liave been to Uiu Palazzo MuHamu, where 
atiBtitriTM ure admitted, without fi-e, (u u gallery of 
verj' line pitiiitinfr* ; as it is the fii'st we have seen, 
please give me due credit for not talking very 
tearnedly of Carlo DoIcih, Giiidas Murillos, kc 

But ue have seen eoinething here thiit will pro> 
bably interetit you more than all the |i>ciiireg in 
Italy, Silvio Pellioo. He lives near Turin, u 
librariitn to a ccrliuii marchesa. We wrote him 
• note, and asked the privilege of paying our 
respects to him, on the ground of being able to 
give him news of his friends, and our dear frientUi 
Uie exiles who were his companions at Spielberg. 
He came immeiliutely to us. He is of low sUitiirc, 

d slightly made: a Hort of etching of a man, 
with delicate and liyrameiricul feiitureB,ju»t enough 
body to gravitate and keep the spirit from its nata- 
ral upniird flight — a more shadowy Ur. Chaoning! 
Hia manners have a sweetness, gentleness, and 
low tone, that correspond well with his spiritual 
appcamnce. He ivaa gratified with our good tid- 
logB of bis friends, and much interested with our 
unt of his godchild, Maroncvlli''s little Silvia. 
His parents have died within u year or two. — 
** Oieu m'a fait U grace," he said, " dc les rcvoir 
en sortant de la prison, Dieu fait tout pour notre 




tnieux ; c'esi ccttc coaviccion qui m'a soutenu cl 
qui tnc »»uii«nc enoore '.' In rrply to kb »yiag 
tbat he lived a Uf« of retirement, and bkd ftw 
acquaintances in Turin, we toll) liim ilmt fae bd 
friends all over tlic worlii •' That proves," he said, 
**Uial there are everywhvre * belles amei*." Bit 
luokn, kin manner, bis voice, and every word bt 
ftpohe, were in harmony witli liiit book, cvrtunJf 
one of the moat remiirkulile productJotit of ourdiy- 
I have been very sorry to bear some of his cou^ 
trymen speak distrustfully of Pellico, and exprcM 
an o|iinion — a reluctant one— that he had lunkn 
into willing subjection to political despotiim and 
primtly craft. It is even said that ko has joined 
the order of Jesuits. 1 do not believe this nor 
have I heard any evidence adduced in support of 
it tliat tends to invalidate the proof of the iucot- 
ruptibility of IMIico's soul contained in Lt Mk 
Priglmii. He i« u saint that cannot f»\\ from gnce. 
Tbcre seems to mc nothing in his prevent iiDqialr- 
ficd suhmiMion incomjiatible with his former bistoqr 
and prolessions. Hin phase of the ChriittaD du^ 
racter baa always been tl>at of sufferance. H« 1* 
the gentle Meiancthon, not the bold and ralianl 
Lutbcr: the loving John, not the fe&ricn l^aul. 

• " God ETvit«l mc Ibe merer "' SMIOC mj pareoto «%«■ I 
caaw pul of prlwD. Go<l orden all (or oot beu (ood. It !• itM 
CMfimon wbleb bw tkiUicrto npporud, snd wUl »aiUlM b»' 



PfiANfOis is a Piedmonteflc, and has now 
returned to his cuiiDtry for the first time after 
pursuing succnitfuUy his courier career for six 
yeare. He went last cvcniitg to see his famil)', 
uiid oirrivd lliem a liundfid of Geneva trinkets; 

land this morning, after a whulc night's vigil and 
revel with them, he brought hi.i father iind inalher 
to see UB ; she a buxom stepdame, wearing a cap 
covered with red ribands and artiScial flowers, 
and earrings, and a string of gold beads as big as 
Lima beans. Good gold, Fram^ois assures us 
they arc, aitd that rheiie ornaments are the most 
esteemed signs of the peasant's wealth, and are 

rtnuismitted from generation to generation. Happy 
sbould be the coiiilition of the pensaiit in the rich, 
•paciouH plaiuH around us ! 

Turin is at the foot of the Alps, watered by the 
■*o, and the Doria, and enriched with corn, the 

^vine, and the mulberry. The Muscat grape grows 
here in the greatest perfection and abundance. It 
is most delicious, and no is the Asti wine made 
from it, which, we are told, is too delieute for 
traits portatioti. We find always to a rich ugricul- 

kiural country, as we liave found here, excellent 
bread and butter. They make bread in a fofm 
■vhich they call grl-iane, — a sort of bread-cnnes or 
bgots. Bundles of iliem are placed at the bead 
and foot of the table. The dwellers in the poor 




cold valley of Laoslcbourg brings nil Utelr wbeaten 
bread from Clismbery, noc lesa (Iian eighty nBcs, 
and we paid for our fare accordingly. 

Wb paw^d our lirsl lugbt, after leaving Turin, 
at Cigliano, a conudenible place on a great route. 
To give you an idea of wltat an Italian inn isy— 
wliieh Ktigliiih travel liaA not yet remodelled— I 
will set down our breakfait-servioe : tumblers for 
tea-cup6, a tureen and ladle for boiled tnilk, tutd a 
pudding-ili§b for a siop-bowl ! 

\Vc lunched at V'erceil (lie second day— a plan 
that I rcnu>mbcr figure* on tlie sceue in Sismondi^ 
Italian Republics, and whicli occupies half a jiage 
in our guide-book, M-lttng fortJi cburcbes, cliaptis, 
aod pictures to be seen, and how Jtlariiis gained 
a victory under its walls and how Nero built a 
temple here. To us it appeared a most disagree- 
able place: and. if I built anything, it vould be 
an altiiT wilb an ex voto, representing our carriuge 
driving out of it. We went to tlte Riniket-pbc«, 
which Wiis filled with ugly old women, sitting b»* 
hind slacks — Alps of apricots, pears, grapes, pome- 
granates, and mo«t splendid peaches, but neither 
«oft nor flavorouR. I have eaten but one peach 
since 1 came to Europe that would be thought 
above par in New York or Philadelphia! The 
naarfcct-place in Verceil was Rtled with idle men, who 
collected about us, and stared so unmercifully at 



tlie girls t)iat they clun^ to mo. Mid I felt, for tbe 
lint time in my life, nitlior <luciitia-i^i, und glnd 
enuugli to get bnck to tli« hotel. AcaiMoDinl aa 
we bare been t» the (juiet wnyti «f going on in 
GeKoany and Swiizerland, irliere we felt us muck 
freedom as io oar own country, it is very aiinoy- 
iog to be cut off at once from the free use and 
riijoymrnt of our putties. Vomif; women cannot 
walk out here without a mnle uttcndunt, or a 
woman pretty wi-ll stricken in ye»r». 

Bftcicia, who ordinarily is no dawdler, dawdled 
tke Verccil inn till we were out of patience. 
His delay was ex|>IaJiicd when we found the bridge 
which croeses the Sekia, a mile from tlic town, WM 
impBsAable for the carriage ; there was n ferry-1>oat, 
but our way was obstructed by great nnm)>era of 
carts and ciirriagcs, which had precedence of us. 
Badcia knew it was tnarket-dayi and had foreseen 
this exigency, and cutculatvd (bat we should be 
driven back to N'crccil by tlic latcnciM of tlic hour* 
and thu> he should gain twenty francs, and a day*! 
rest for his iiarses. I-'ran^-ois' imajji nation conjured 
up robbers pouring in with the fust-coming night 
from Turin, Milni), and Genoa ; but our Yankee 
wit WM not to be outwitted by our tricky voituricr, 
oor our resolution vuni|uished by a courier's st»plo 
ms, so we seated ourselves on tlic bridge, luid 
lied the progress of tho miscrnblG little boat* 
which occupied twcnty-6ve minutes in U>a<luig, 



croffting, unloailin)^, reloading and rccniadng. 
bail five piiSMiifi.** to make before our turn 
We tried lo vuiii lo buy a precedence, wliicti lk 
|)ooT market-people would gladly liare sold us, bat 
tlie superintending geiidatiDes forbade thU tnfifr 
In tlicmean time, up drove scoacli n-itli past-boraei, 
und went before us all. " Ab," said Fran^U, wbo 
was walking up and down in ii brigand fever, " lea 
gouvenimcn)! lont totia des voleursl" llic «ua 
was just sinking ns wc got into our carriage, aad 
we liud yet fifteen miles to tmvel; but tlie now 
rose upon uh, und, though I'fnD^'oii ouoe persuaded 
U9 to stop and look at some bedrooms in a filtky 
inn, we oime »n to Navarro, our appointed iUrf- 
ing-place, clicerfuUy and safely. The trutli ii, 
there is very little danger of meeting " gentlena 
of the road" at the present time oo the great routes 
of Italy. The governments are vigilant, and tbot 
licensed robberw are too strong for volunteer ooo* 
patties. Poor Ftan^oiB' fears were genuine ant 
tnberitpd. His motlier uctiuilly died of the coow- 
qucnn-s of fright, from an attJivk of highwiyBkcB 
a few days before bis birtli. 


Wb crossed tlie Ticino, ten milc^ from Nat 
on a massive granite-bridge, ami there cot 
lite Lom bard o- Venetian kingdom, and at tlie IJu)' 
town of Uuffiilero our carriage was Uiken pcMea- 
siun of by Austrian soldier», ready to 

b ....... ,,. 

^^vn(it><Mii» honours of nvlcomc wliicli their impo 
^Bria) miLttcr npfioints to vlrniigon. As wc mtfc 
^■sot Quixotic eimugti to iilU-mpt to reform tlic 
' code of national maralt*, we directed Fr<tTiv<)U to 
pay the customary fee to save our iinperiiiU from 
a ransacking, ami to get tli« nfw»«iry ccrtilicute 
that they were filled with honest gowna, skirt*, 
&C. What a disgrace to civilised Kutope are 
these annoying delays and petty robberies * ! 

r Thank Hfawn, wc huve pushed our livi<» exempt 
from them, as we are often remiiidvd !»y t'ran^-ois' 
•xclamiition, "Qui- voire pays est lit-iireux ; »h, 
c'ctt Ic pays de la jolie lihert^"' (" Youn in u happy 
country; the country of liberty!") 
The country bctu'ocn Turin and Milan is fertile 
beyond dt-scripiion, Y«ii liiivc often Iicnrd, my 
dear C, of the- rich pl;iins of Lumliaidy, watered 
by rivers and intersected with canaU ; but you 
can hardly imagine the peifectinn of it« Lii«bandr)'. 
The corn is now six — eig]it inches high, and the 
ffround as greeti as ours in June, and wc have 
reached, remember, the twonty-sixlh of October! 
The road is bordered with mulberry-trees. The 

* Tb< luUiDi fuffcr Dinre frDin pcliiM reguUtioai (ban 
•tnngcn. A Miluicac Mj, vhom hatbind bw • luge pild- 
■Doaid cittlc In PWilaoal, tatJ lue llic) bad gltcD ap tolnt id It 
oo occauut uf diB uiJlsnitiu ilia km ubti|[mltu (uflcrat Buffaliro, 
iIM ftOBlivr. whom * F'wm »nd reoiilc ufSoat* an appoinUd lo 
vadrMi ■nil Kuch Itiliut Indiot. The mtti in our couutrr noald 
bf ■ofntwbal dLiniuUbod it ffc liftd fuch rc^ulAtioni on Lhc trontien 
ill PenDijltuiu uad ticm York, or MuHcbutelU. 

VOL. U. O 



country is too level for picturesijue beautj^, al it 
has not the Iiig1i«st chann of agricultunl iCr. 
There arc no »,ign» of rural clieerfulness ; bo \mk 
of linbitancy. Tlie cultivBtors live in conpKi. 
ilirty little Tillages. Tlie very few country-faMWi 
are flurroundcd witb lii};!) wnlU, with that Ivnt 
vrinilou'^ grated ; even the burn-windows have lUi 
jail-iiki; pTOviHion, Wliat a stale of morali ami 
government Aoea llibt suggest 1 what a coamttU 
rural life in England! what compamont ta iW 
condition of things in our little village of S., vlwit 
B certain friend of oure fastens her outer Aaor vid 
n carviiig-kiiive, leaving all Iter plate aniuckedii 
a pantry liurd by, and only puts in • MoMid kidfr 
when she hears tbut a tlilef lius been maratidiaf 
some fifty miles off. " Oh, pay* heureux !" Fiaa- 
(ois may well exclaim, and vra repeat. 

Mihiit S7. — Thanks to all our &ieoda^ dear C, 
for the balf-buthel of letters we have received hflt 
after a month's lasting, and five liays less tliaa • 
month old [ Fran^ob brought ua from the Pm- 
olEce forty franca' worth— forty ] forty thonaud. 
Wc may shrink from other expenses, but leltM* 
are an iiidispeiittblc luxury — at lliis diataiic* frtm 
you all, a ncc(«ary of life. What a pli— nl 
evening'* reading we luul, here a tear droppof^ 
and there a laugh bursting forlh. Home-vMea 
rung in our can, home-faces smiled ; we were at 





. and L.; and I tbink 1 shall never forget tLc 

lock and coufusion in our ideas wlien llic duor 
Oponed for an inquiry about the " tampa di noHf.'" 
AVo were disenchanted ; the hills anil viilleyt of 

erkthirc vani^flied, and hvre we were itt the 
Hoiel de Ville, in a. lofty apartment, with painted 

ilings, pictures of \'eBuviua, and a plostcr-atove 
aurmounted with a statue! 

Yes, dear C, we are in Milan, once the illus- 
trioua capita] of Cisalpine Gaul, and fitill more 
Ulmtrioos aa tlic metropoliii of Lomlmrily an<l 
queen of th« northern Imiiiiu republics in tlic 
glorious ihiya of iheir nuccc^.sful MruggleH a^nst 
tbe Frederics and tlie Henrys of Oeriniuiy; and. 
•a we think witli our democratic principlen, yet 
more glorious for the rejtiKtunce of the people to 
UiB nobles*. Images of eccli-giiislicul pomp and 
power, of mililary occupancy, uiul proce»»ions; of 
ihc ejtil and return of tlie Caroccio — the Lombard 
Ark of the Covenant — of art, industry, and ricliea, 
throng upon us. But, as you know, dear C. it 
ia notliing to far gone and impersonal as its his- 
tory, that makes Milan tlie sacred shrine it is 


Tharttluf of tlie pedpU uf MiUn in Ihr cleTcDlli cciilury 
■Im Dnbla, ind iJig dmilf nu Ibejr nxilo u^o th<iD lu (livii 
lutUM «mUm «itbin (ho irt!l!i of iho oiljr, till tbej droiB Ihtm 
fMth, in onlic to nrtnga the inaalt done to ODO of their bodf . 
wb<« ■ noble itnok with Lii omc in iniil^fUy in Ibe open (U««t, 
baanUMMeorUic (pirit ot equal li^bu budlj nir[iuuJ la our 
iwnBiilli! age 





in our pilgTimage. Here is the memory nS nr 
friends. This was die scene of their kigti nf^ 
rttioiiB and thoir keen disippotnlmentt, pedap* 
of tlu'ir koctiL^it stifTrring. Here they bow'dl to 
(earn uliac I tru«t iIkmc wito come after th*n will 
reap in joy* . 

Wg have been disappointed to find that inaM 
of ihe persons to whom our letters are addraotd 
are still at their villas. We bare 6«nt ihein, h««- 
ever, notwithstanding we hear that an Anerieaa 
gcntloinan wlio brought n letter from one of eu 
cxile-tVionds was ordered hy tlie police to l«aTf 
Milan within twelve hours. A caravan conmlia; 
of one invulid genlletnan and live obccure vona^ 
kind can scarcely awaken the jealottsy even of m 
Auitralian police. 

* Tbo ponon* bcrc ■lluded lo are Uw Itdian gtmtitmmttt- 
Cfrnvdinlhoafliilror ID21,al thflbMlof wbom itooJ (W A^ 
cuifliril MiUntw. Cnnnl CDnhlloiwri, Mjlcd bj Sir Jam** Ibc* 
kintoib. -' luti'i noblrat •nn." HtM |utlcaiea. ttUtM 
y«ar(' ini|>rtiaaiiicDl ind the horrunof .Sfddbcri (•lUcbkat*) 
parlltllr upoinl by rdliea, Mtrunrelli. una AnirraMt). • 
eiktwl lo Amrrie*. mbtn circatD)tftlio<> thm ih*a into i 
InCcrRourw with mjriiiijly. 1 soulil viib thM thoM itho isawwiflr 
tlilek %lillj inil i|icak il»|Mrt(infl]r of " Italians" ogialJ kM« 
(liFtti miin. whii hii* mUwil and inraMiac M*ealm jtut 4 
trial) and trmplatlont, •wA a* baoaa natiirc hai nnljr b««» ad^ 
JMted (o. Wb honour our lallwr* for llie bw jrar* o( dMn>T 
throDgh obicb tbey ilroggM i and <aa «« rctoM avr bMMfltli 
Ihrie lurti, wtin larriActd eicrfthinit, aiiil/«r«*«r, that aaa UMl 
oloM dear, to tbr **criid uiue of [mdom and Irntfa ? A«4 W 
BB alk, wlial ahould He la rawoa iubr ol tbc naliuD vbaMta ttf 
oune f Snrelt thai tbvn k« mKiif ready " l« go aiul da lifcoM * 


The fri«ii(ls of our fr!eiid& lisve como in from 
heir coantry tesid«nc«s to lionour the lettcn 
idtesseA to them, and have received an with 
im«u«iiri-4l curi^iuliiy. It U cold, Noveiaberiili, 
sd nidittg, ua it hut be«n for llie last ten days ; 
but, in s|>ite of it, we liave liad a very agreeable 
rive about the city with the brothers C — a. The 
recti are Labj'rinthian, and are just now looking 
lull awl dingy enough. The gay people Iiavc not 
et returned from their summer rclreabt ; atic] of 
le 140,000 inUubiUints of Milan we .see only 
lurgeots, soldient, priests, and women in Tciln 
stead of l)onnet«) puttering to mass. The 
fltfeets are pared wiUi mniiU round Hlones. with 
« double wheel-track of granite brought from the 
•bores of Maggiore and Como, the blocks so nicely 
Joined titat llie wheels roll as smoothly and almost 
m rapidly as over raiU, and ihcy arc »o grajiu- 
Uted that there a aa danger of tlie liunie alippiiig. 
The houses are large ; you might turn hatf-s- 
(hnen of ours into one of tliem : and the palaces 
magnificent, aa you may imugine from our mis- 
taking La Cusa Saporctti for La Scuta, which we 
bad been forewarned wit« the lurgnt opera-house 
in Europe. 

\^'e drore to the Atch of Fence, the fit termi* 
nation for hi* Siinpioii ruud, and adorninent of hia 
ine republic, projected by Napoleon, but not 



finislied till vitliin tlie last few niontlt*. TbewvA 
was befTiiti in 1807t and the first artut* wcrt cs- 
ployed oil statues and biu-reliefs inteuded to iSm 
trate the most brilliant cA-cnts of Napoleon't fi&. 
When tlie vork was fuiislird his power and Ht 
bad rnded; and art, too often tlie paauve aim 
of tyraiits> was compelled to sacrifice tratk wi 
beauty, to dnecrate its own work, by cutting ti 
Napol«on'« licad (that noble head made M b 
rtcrnucd in marble), and Mibatituting in hs phn 
tlie imbeeilc head and mean features of the E» 
peror Frunds. And ptwr Josephine, who lad no 
tendencies to such nn apotlicosis, ia tnaatarmti 
into the eold Goddess of Wisdom, nnd 
Hinerva's casque. IllustrationB of NupoU>on'« 
lories, and tlie greul political eras of Ua 
are made xometimea, by the mere substitutioa tf 
i)amc«, tn stand for epoclis in Austrian hhtory, 
with nluit verisimilitude you may imagine. When 
diis ^ecies of travesty was impowble, new blacb 
of miirble have been substituted, whicli may bt 
detected by the differenee of tliade. Tbe Mnifr 
turc i» scvent)->fire feet in height and serenly- 
three feet in breadth. The columns, whicli ai* 
extremely beautiful, are tltirty-ei^lit luid • htM 
feet high. The arch is surmounted by a figon 
of Victory with fuiir horses attached to k car is 
full career. The det^ls are cliiboratc and higUjr 
finished, and the whole gave me sone idea of wloi 




Italy ini»t liavc been in tlic days of the Romans, 

■ben Uteir moaumenta were frctili and unim))aired, 

of ihe dazzling whiteness of tbis. 

In entering Uie city from tlie Simplon road 

gh this arch, you come upon a very noble 

{Piatxa itArmi), wliere the soldiers are exer- 

cited. We crossed liiis to an amptiithealre built 

ly Napoleoii, ukI first opened for a fC-ic after tlie 

of Tilsit It was designed for feats of arms 

equestrian exercises. It is of an elliptic^! 

, and surrounded by tiers of seats, n-liere 

,000 people may be seated — tliey are nov grasa- 

Wc next vi»ilcd the Brers, formerly a college 
tbc Jesuits, but now secularised and liberalised 
y a oonseeration to tbc arts and sciences. W'e 
did not take luiy portion of our brief time lo walk 
tlirougli tbc libruT)- mid look at Uie oiUtidrs of the 
100,000 volumes ibefc. Once up the staircase 
wbere, on tlie landing-places, are the statues of 
Pariai, Monti, and Deccaria, we spent all our 
dme in the gallery enjoying its priceless pictures. 
I first sought out Guercino's " Sondiog an'ay 
Hagir," and, once found, it is difficult to leave it. 
The Colouring and com position are, as they should 
alwayt be, made sulMeniont to tlie moral effeet — 
tbe outer reveals tlie inner man. In Alnahain, tlie 
Jewult ]iatriarch, the bend of tlie cliofen people, 
lU see the jialriot triumphing over the btber and 



lover; Hugar, willi Iier face steeped in lean, isUt 
loving girl urging tlie claim of irue and leoia 
pussiou against what aeeuts to ber an iiicredUik 
seutciice: Sara is llie very pcrsonificatJuii uf'-lrpl 
righto;" and (lie poor littk* tray, biiryin); bit Uet 
id lilt motberV gouii, U ibe ruined fitvount*. 

We M'ere sbowa iit an obscure apartncot ■ 
•uperb bronze statue of Napoleon hy Canont 
a gruiid work, but sttangply failing in remm 
blaiiCf. Till within two ypars, the Austriant Lsrt 
kept it liidtli-n iiiarcllar — bariett aiicr. Onecanml 
but smile at their terror at Napoleon's mere eSgy. 

^Vs U'c were passing tbfoiigb one of tbo room, 
C C — a ]>ointe(I to the bust of the Enpenr 
Frunci* with an inscription, in wbicb he u oUM 
•'our &tlicr." " Oar fiAert" be repeated; 
" Gai-lano s and miMc!" His empbaais recalled 
tlieir reasons for a filial sentiment, C. having ben 
imprisoned by the " good Franci*" three jrevh 
and his brother tcvenlecn ! While we wero driTtnc. 
the gentlemen [Minted out to us the cniinon, Le]il 
always loaded, guarded, aiid pointed aguiiiM iht 
town — agniiist tlic homes of its ciliteDS ! 

We «aw in the refectory of the old nonasirry 
ofS. Marie dellc Grazie one of the world's wondcn 
Leonardo da Vinci's " I.uftl S;ip|H'r," painted oa 
the wall, and now in parte so laded as to be nearif 
oblitcralcil, I'imc and tlieelerocnia have not brea 
its wortt enemies. The wall was wbitewusbed; 



a door cut llirongh it by a ilecree of the 
ipler, tliat the monks might Iiav<> their (tinner 
frved hoi from the ailjointtig kitchen. To com- 
ets the desecration, tlie door wss cut llirough 
Le figure of our Saviour. Wotilil it not bo a 
:iIeM)ue punishment fur tlieno brutish epicures 
be condemned to a purgalorio where they 
bouM for everenact " Wall and Moonshine," and 
II only cold dinners ? 
Leonardo, like other people who have too many 
III the fire (for he wns piiinter, sculptor, urchi- 
cl, and iiuthor), let »omc of them grow cold ; !ie 
no long ubout this picture that the Prior of the 
anveni reproached him bitterly, and he took hia 
evenge by making Jiidiu' hmd a fac-«imi[c of tlie 
Prior's. \'asari has recorded Leonardo'-s reply to 
the Prior's cnmpljint, uhicli strikes us as rather 
bold, considering die relative position of the ]iitr- 
tica. '* O sc forse no) trovero, io vi porro quello 
dt que«to pn<ln; Priore chc ora me si moletta, ch6 
inaravigliosamente gli se c«nfar4" ("Or if, per- 
chance, I do not find it (the face of Judos), I will 
put in that of Ibe Fadier Prior who is tormenting 
me: it will suit wonderfully well !"" *) llic en- 
gravings of this picture give you a better idea of 

' lliepuRl*r n»i<r inllicl ■ imm panUbnimt hj |<Dttia|ons 
boad. tfaui Ihii cwcBlioiHrr h; laking one iilT. Wbo Lin vnT fbrjM 
the " luaii or ua," (I'apB L'rbin VIII. > abooi tiuido'* Arohinfcl 
Michael Ik lT4Bal>ilnf iniUi bit iprar ' 



mmt of tbe heads tlian the origTnal now don, aj 
of Uie movement of the disciples irlien iluti <lecfa» 
don struck on their bearta: " Behold, the haai^i 
bim that betrayeth me !s nnth me oo lite able!* 
but no copy that I hare seen liaa approached tiii 
face of Jniu, so holy, catra, and beautiAil; itii 
4* God manifest in the flesli ; " yon are mdj k 
exclaim vrith l*etcr, " Though t die with tbee, t« 
will 1 never bclruy thee ! " And yet it is add tW 
painter left it unfinished, alleging; that he eoaU 
never expron his oonc4.i)Uoiis of iho diaraeMr d 
Jesus t 


Itr way of a divrrtimmlo nammale, we hart 
hnd two men in our clrawing*room cxbil 
crucifix which their grandbther cut out 
fifty years ago ; he must lave been, I fency, fiAj 
yeani cutting it. There are SOOO tifrtires tm it 
and nn infinity of omnmeDial details illoatmiaf 
tlie hi«tory of Christ. '* You don't beltore a ««d 
of that story of tbe crucifixion 1 " said Pnttfoii 
BBtdc to me. This is an unbelieving CaihoBr'i 
notion of a Protestant's faith. When the ncBt Is 
exalt our ideas of the privilrgc wc were eaji 
Mid we were the first to whom the thing had 
shown, Francois whitperrd, "They liare bm 
showing it tlicse five years; the Iluliani ar* all 
liur» ! " Belief or unbelief iu God and aaan ft 


Ma&auk S. lias i>e«n to sec uh. She is a fra- 

il(>-looking little creature, an<l, ttiou^li now d 

ndmotlicr, as sliy as a titniti girl of thirteen. 

There is n tender solemnity in her voice and 

Banner tliat coitHtunlly reminded me of Spielberg 

nd of C — a, tliougli she ttpokc little of him, and 

Iwlien she did, turned away her fece to hide an 

IwQotion perceptible enoii^li in the pressure of her 

Selicate lilde Uand, which is not very much bigger 

stronger than a canary's claw. I wish those 

twho confound all Italian women in one oondemna- 

[tion could know as we know the character of tliis 

. wife, devoted mother, and martyr'i«Uter. 

^f. went Inst evenin];, cMOrMd by J. C— a, to 
^La Scala. It ui buiU, as are the oilier nine 
theatres of Milan, on the ruins of a church. 

Geudarmes, tail, muscuUr young men, were 
ftttoned at the entmuce of the house, at the foot 
Fof the stairs, on the landing-jilaces, and in the 
lobbies, looking, with their swords atut high-furred 
caps, rather frightful to us, who have a sort of 
hjrdrophobic dread of an AuMrlaii police. A. C— a 
took us up four flights of stairs, to " I'ordre 
ein(|uiimc," that we might hare a coup-il'ccil of tbo 
whole iht-atre. Tliis fifth row bears no resem- 
blance to our galleries or to lltose of the English 
duklres. The box we enlcretl was one of sevciiil 



Culled " loges de soci^t^.** Tliey are finrd op m 
sulooiis for clubs of (^nilemen, wiUi carprta, ubin. 
Bud sofua, und arc well Ji^bted. Tlie effect of iW 
tlicutrc from tlii« lici^lit i*, or voultl be* migril^- 
cviit wlioii tiiey have uii " illuraiiiaziorie a i^iam' 
(a duyligUt illumitiadoii). Ordinarily iW bhtcW 
ligUl i» reserved for tlic siage ; tbe audicncv U n 
cofflpurative obaourity : aiid,conse()uenily, iliangh 
La Scala m perliu|iB twice as Ui^ as the opciv 
house in London, its effect is by do meaot m 
biillianl n« thai wlivrr ihc light is diffused ud 
rL'flectcd by riclily-«lr«.'»'>wl ]>co|>le. Here wecooU 
niily imporfecily di»cerii. now ii nialroti's cap. and 
then a youii^ lady's coiffu/r, as they peeped fnM 
bi'hinil [he >ilk ciirtitiii» of their boxes. The wl 
rows of boxe&are curtained «ith light»ilk bordered 
with crim»on. I'he front box u iJie cmperw*!. 
It occupies botb the second and tliird ruvm, tt« 
litrge u» a siuall dniuiiij^-niom, i» loyiiUy liiuil 
up with (lutDiivk lijuigings, and has a gilded eron'u 
■uspended over IL Tbe ibtMttrc U iJir gre«t tra- 
dexvoiis of niilniiese society. Tltc ladioa reonre 
in tlieir boxes instead nf at homv, and bdng bob- 
s:ructed with rereri.'nce to thin custom, ibey arc 
deep and narrou'. Not more tlian two penoM 
can occupy u front ti-ul. Between tlie seats in tbe 
pitaiHJ the fioiit boxe* tlierv is a wide space kfl 
fur tlie genlleinvn lo promenade. 

llic Diusic is a secondary object, holding 



iptace it doesiniiilruwiog-room. A tavourite 
^ora favourite performer arresU aUedtion for a 
few momenla ; but, as far as I have observed, even 
the muEtcal Italian U not exempt from tlie common 
infirmity of preferring the sound of his own voice 
to uiotlier's, tliough Mg be not attuned to beavenly 
J luirmony. 

^V Tbere was tlic abashing cffrootGry in staring 

^■wiiicli, wlien occurring in llie street, I linvc im- 

^muted to it being nitlicr a plienotna-iiun to see youiy 

^Badiefi walking about as our giiU do. But the gaze 

^nf men lounging before our box. end sometimes 

^planting tbeir cyegksse§ and reconnoitring for 

tlie space of two or iliree miautes, compared with 

Uie respect with which our women at lionie are 

iTMtcd, iudicates rather strongly their relative 

rution in the two countries. 
After having heard Grieii Pomiani, llubini, 
Lablache, &v., ibe tinging here was no great 
a&ir. The Italians can no longer alTord to pay 
their be»I itingcrK. The presence of art Mtid the 
result of ktudy are striking in the HtAge-manage- 

Pnt Tbr o]ier«, with all it» ance^Hories, is the 
dy of this nation, as » financial tiyftlems " are ibe 
Ay of England and the United Stalea. 
During the ballet, which, by-the-way, is inter- 
jected between ilie acts of the opera, much to the 
divlnrbanoe of it« effect, tliere was a curp« of 
between forty and fifty dancing-girls on tbe stage 
It the uine moment, not perceptibly varying in 



height. These cliildrcn an trainetl for Uie hslWi 
at a sdiool supported \>y the f^overnraent — for tW 
hoUet, and for KiuUhttidetf TltissIiouldbearcW' 
Ailquection to tliosc whomustunswcrit. Itwodl 
I should liopr, cure our people's mad entliuiaM 
for opera -dancers (o v'itnesH lliv cxliibition of tkcM 
poor young things. 1 felt sorry for our daif ^rb, 
and mortiJied for myMlf, tliat wc were prckcniat 
■uch obscenity. 1 cannot csdl it by » oiore mok 
promising name. 

There were ^OO persona on the stag;e at oae 
Uine, among tliem '200 soldiers belonging to tht 
AuHtrtHn imny. The emperxir pays s large milD 
annunlly to support the opera at La SoUa, odd- 
kiderin^ It an etiicient iostrumeni for irvKjuiUisiiif 
the political pulse of Italy. No wonder that siicoi 
must be employed to sing luUabtes to tLoee who 
have a master's cannon pointed at their homri. 
Among other proofs whicli die emperor luw tW 
the love of freedom {that Divine and iiiextinguiah* 
al>le essence) is at work in tlie bearta of ibe 
Milane*e. iit the fact that no Italian lady rvceins 
an Austrian officer in her box with impuaiiy, Ii 
raattera not what rank he holds ; if she receif«s 
him, she is put into Coventry by her countrytseo. 
Is llierc not hope of a people wlio, while their 
eluuru are clanking, dare thus openly to disdain 
their masters?* 

* It l» tni« m Mv no ratlaiial prwpMI «f fruJ— fW 
Xttlj; pTuilMilowtd u il h b]r Aoitrion dofiMlim, m4 ••«• 



Tut two wunU, the liroih*r» C— i, liavc just 
been to »ee us, uad expressed Uieir eagerneiw to 
honour CflnWoiiieri's letter. Tlie elder C 'is 
Podesta of the city, rii officw that haa fallen from 
its ori^nal potentiality to u mere mayoralty ; bui 
Btill, as its )pft is a proof of Austrian favour, its 
incumbent will probably be diNcreelly sby of tb« 
friemU of llic exiles. But. apart from tliiH policy, 
we have little rvatton to cxpcet hospitality. The 
Italians have no frllon-ship witlt the English, and 
into that category we fall. The babits and modes 
of society in the two countries are so different that 
there can tie hut little pleasure in their social 
intercourse. I'he Eoglish gentleman in England 
invites his Italian acquaintance to bi.s home; lie 
comes here, and in offered the enlri-e of tlie Italian's 

powvml Itj the prctrSM of hvr iiiiniuiM nullCiiTy btnx, uid, *bil 
U (UU «one. brakgn into mimII •ad hoiliU MaU* iritlioat ono 
Mcfatlie finnclptc or fortiiif. Bal ir« ttinnof ile(p*it of a p«ople 
>tM, lilcc Um MiUnetr, *hciw tliit their hire inbfriled tha ipiriC of 
Omi falhtn • • iptrit w> hpfoinllgr apreneJ ia the tirelfth ccntntr, 
«bM PredMU bad wpontol their illiH from (been, ranc*^ their 
icfntorr, eihaiutcd tlicir trcuure, uid killed oO thdr bnrMi 
•oUltn. " Wc arc forble. tunaken, and cruili«d." ih«]r*dd: 
** b* It w : It d«n not bolooi to m to Moqnlth fortnae, but to our 
iwBtrj wB JtTOMow ■wmining pilliminiu,tfae tlrgig<h ttill kR 
io oar ann*, inil (ha Mood jct boiUag in our inni. Tbcj were 
(trm to ti* 1« rciM defpotlnn, lad, befoni lubmlitlug. >e will 
••It, not tin the Wpi of eonqacriiig k loot — ihnt It bu long beta 
— bdl Oil no mMD* of mlataaw tcmoln '" — Huinit 4ta Rffnti- 
Afao /(oiirniw*. latbarcaosbUrdacltnlloDafaloreo/ treodom 
oa nwrd (ban tbk } 

iogt. He is offeuded and void, and tlirrc tin 
intercourse citdm. After tlic gentlcmeo left lu, R. 
asked K.| wlio had been talking with C^i, "liov 
she liked him." " Vvry much : lie \a not aolf 
aurarc tliat rice doc* not grow in New- Cogland. 
and that tliu Ohio does not empty into tJie Atlunik, 
but he seems m.% familiar with the topography «f 
our country a* if he had lived (here," TIio count 
is u roan uf the world, and undersUind» t]>e 
dolieattf mwle of flatlery. 


HoK. 4. — This U the greatest of all Milan's 
days — the f<-te of San Carlo Borromeo. IV 
ceremonies were in tite Duomo, and the PodcsH 
ohiained us places in a " correto," one of the little 
galleries sometimes used, 1 believe, for the display 
of relics : and, to cronu all, we had tlte adnui 
of Count C.*s escort 

The Duomo, which, you know, \* tk« gnat 
thcdrul of Milan, and esteemed the second cbi 
in Italy, ittrikes a Prolealant stranger al this lime 
a»u (vmple consecrate*) to St. Charles as its divioity. 
lllug(rat!ori« of his life, for the most [wirt iiidif- 
fLTvnOy painted, are hanging hetwccn \\» hund/rd 
and nJtty marble columns. Directly under tht 
dome, in the crypt, tiicre \& a chnpel, ivhcre the 
saint's mortal remains, decorated with rich jewrb^ 
are preserved in a crystal sarcoplugua overlaid n-ith 
silver, witlwut (as 1 am told) having undergooa 






y very frij^litful clianj^e. I did not look within, 
u nut like to see tlie image of Gml miimmivcl. 
"Till: altur uf tilts Hltle chapel, in wliicb silver lamps 
are nlways burning, is of solid silver. The uulls 
arc liunir with t;ipi.-»lry of crimson and ^)l<l, woven 
ill Mil.'in, which co^i thirteen pouiiiU sterling the 
bnccio {less than three-quarters of a yard). Eight 
bM-retiefsiii pure silver, depicting t)ic most striking 
evecit* in the siiintV life, cover punuls of the wall; 
and at each angle Li a Ntaiue of pure silver. One 
of the bas-reliefs represents the saint distributing 
to die poor twenty thousand pounds, the avails of 
an ntale uhicli lie sold to relieve them iti a time of 
extraordinary distress. Query, how would be 
approve the wealth in moriniain in his chapel ? I 
bave been thus particular, my dear C, to show you 
bow the generous graiiiiidi; of the piuuii has been 
wasted and perverted by priestly ignorance and 
superstition. This cbitpel is no just roemoriul of 
St. Charles. His records are scattered over the 
MihiDcse territory in wise and merciful institutions; 
to you may turn your denunciation of Catholic 
abioe* into tlic wholesome cliiuinel of veneration 
for Christian virtues in Catholic form, ijt, Charles 
deserves everything short of the Divine honours 
rendered to him. lie was made archbishop and 
cardinal in bis twenty-third year. lie lived with 
tlie simplicity of Fenelon, subsisting or vegetables, 
tteeping on a straw bed, and dispensing in private 

witli the Kttrndjincc of «en-wits. He vMhA ' 
obaeurest villages uf his diooc!«c, knil peavinui 
even into tlie receHses of Ibe AI(k. He i tfnmti 
the nionastic eatablisbinentsand iuaUtuWd pftiadol 
acfaools. He was the oriffmator of Sundaytchtcb- 
We saw a large collection o{ boys and girb in ti* 
Duomo, tauglit by priests and laymen, and levriM^ 
tliis fichool niu instituted by St. CbarK-9. We w 
the pea»tiiit« flockinj{ to tbctr parisJi chureb m 
Suixlay, and were tuld tlicy were going to tW 
instruction provided by St. Cliarles ! He fbundfd 
schools, colleges, hospilals, and a laiuuvtla la 
every town in which he resided be left a toemocitl 
of his enlightened generosity, a college, an bospilal. 
or a fountain. Tiiere arc ten bospitaJs and fin 
colleges of liis founding, and fountaiu withoai 
noDiber. He poured out gifts of gold like watcf, 
an<l, better than this, he submitted hts expeoditm 
to n rigid scrutiny. After hearing all tliis, yoa 
would not stint the homage rendered to him, tluHi^ 
yon might winb to modify its form. 

I mu»t confoNK tliiit, to a Protestant I'nritati. 
disdaining forma and nymbols, and disabused of tbe 
mystencs of tlie Church, ibe ceremonies Rppcsr 
like a theatrical pageant. On the high altar then 
were statues in massive silver of Su Charlea and of 
St Ambrose, tJic piitron>Mint of Milan, and, filBifg 
the tnler«-a] between tliein, bust* with mitred beads, 
also of ulver. The traasure of tb« ditirdi WN 

arranged against a crimson hanging, much as dishes 
are arranged on a dresser. On one side sat the 
archbishop on a throne with a golden mitre, aiid in 
mngnificcnt robes. 

^Vitliin the choir oppoitite to uii lat the civic 
represencativcB of the city, the Podoita at tlieir 
head, Itefore a (able covered with a rich chtth, on 
which were emblazoned the armorial bearings of 
Milan in her happier — her free days ! The clioir 
was filled with bishops, priests, and caiionti. Di- 
rectly beneath us stood, with fixed bayonets, and 
helmet-like caps, a line of gardes-feii. The nave 
was nearly filled nlth people of all conditions ; and 
vbat a multitude tJicrv might be without a crowd, 
jroa may imu^nc from the Cathedral being 440 
J'krts fert in length and 275 in breadth. 
\ If it were possible for me to Hcitcribe tlic cere- 
monies, it wouhl be most tirettome to you. There 
was chanting and niu>ic, good and bad. as lively as 
a merry dance and as solemn as a dirge. There 
a consecration of the host and burning of in- 
ocnsc, und a kneeling of tlie vi»t mulutnde. There 
was much mummery of tlic priests, llic arch- 
biabop was disrobed; mid aa he laid aside each 
iisecrated article of hi^ apparel, he ki««ed it. A 
kneeling priest presented bim a golden ewer, and 

washed his liands. There was a procwuion of 
icsts, and homage rendered by the civic repre- 
tentatires, and a bestowal of peace by llic arclt- 
bishop, transmitted by the priests in a manner 




wbich die girla likened to the elegant dit-eniuD tl 
our cliildbood, " Hold fast what I give yon." TW 
ik'liole coiidudeil with it di»coiir«c on t!)c mpritt of 
Si. Charles, in ihc midst of wliieh wc casav nwijr, 
with the feeling that wc hud hecii vritrie»!»ing a mH 
of melo-dratna. But I ruthcr think this feeling 
wbH quite SB fur froin ChrUtiun u tlic cercmoniei 
v/e contemned. Time und ii»c hiive conitccnted 
them to tJic piuu« Catholic. To him, eadi obiM- 
VBtioii of thin to us empty aiid incspreuire sbow 
embo(Ui'» xome pious thought or holy inemory. 
And, encumbered aa the Cutbolic faith is, and per^ 
verted as it assuredly is from tlio ongtita) umplieitjr 
of till! Gospel, it lias, ice knew, its living BaiDli, 
nnd inuny u worshipper, I trust, who, in spite of 
all these clouds und darkness, worabips in 6ptril 
and ill truth. 

tfU J 

Count C — i cunie agiun to-day to lionise us, 
Bud we went forth in spite of tlic nun, for we fagv* 
not time till tlie waters "nbutc from the tactol 
ike eiirlh." Will you not like, my dear C, to bftv 
something of tlie charitable institutions of Milan. 
Olid to know titat this work of Christian love is well 
done here? 

We drove first to the insuiuUoii for femal* 
orpluiiis. This was founded in the fifteentJt ceo- 
tury by one of the Borromeo family, a cousin of 
St. CharleH. The building l« spadoui, built, ■* I 
believe all tlie larg« habitations are here. 



jyrt, anij with broad porticoes on tlie four «i(lM, 
^wbcri^ the girls can have plenty of free exerci»e 
phen ihe bad weather keeps them from their 
rIvR. Their garden is even now, on the heels 
of w-intor, beautiful; the grapes still in leaf, ro«OH 
in bloom, luid the folingc not more faded than ours 
b towards the Itut of Scptfmbor. The establisli- 
meot 13 well endowed. The girh are receirei) 
from the age of seven to ten. and retained iJII they 
arc eighteen. They are instructed in n-iiding, 
writing, ciphering, composition, and in female 
handicraft. They excel in emhroidery. We saw 
most delicate work in progress fur royal trous- 
•eiox. When the girls leave the inslitiition, if 
they arc not so fartunato m to get husbands at 
once— not a rare occurrence, ihc matron tol<l n* — 
tbey are placed as domestics or in Nhop«. We saw 
them in their long work-room, with the picture of 
the Virgin Mary at one end of it (that holiest 
image of love to a Catholic pyr)> ranged on each 
aide of the table, with their work-basketn, cushionn, 
and the imptemeniK of their art in the 'neatest 
unler; nomc were making garments, the mont 
accompliiOied embroidering, and the youngest at 
plain Hewing or knitting. There is a little pulpit 
half*way up ilie room, from wliich one of the girls 
reads prayers daily, and occasioiiiiUy a Imok of de- 
.Totion. Secular hooka arc not permiited. 

The doroiituriv* are spacious apartments, lofty 



and teetl Vfniilaled, and as tidily arranged at tm 
ficiglibours tli« Sbaking Quakers, and with nAd 
mori* to (cc(\ tJic intagitiation. Hrsidos each sfa^ 
bed, N[>Tfiid with a pure u-tiitv Manspillra earn, 
there hatigfi the picture of u »aiiit, sometiran • 
cntdfix, and always a ronary; and a1>out the wall 
are pictures of tliose good old men and pita 
women tliat constitute the world of the {mom 
Catbolic ; and for each compagnia (or dan) that 
is an altar, with all proper appurtenances t^ttt- 
unto belonging, where prayers are said ni^taad 

Wc went into the chapel, tlie kitchen, and At 
distilling -room, where several girls were bodj 
employed; and linally into the dining-room, jaM 
as the bell was ringing for dinner. The gitk 
came trooping in in orderly 6I08 — beautiful girb 
they were — and each, km slie pasiKii, saJuled w 
with a graceful bow and a sweet unile. 1 wlib 
teaching could give such manners, and our stiff 
jointed girls could be taught thcni! The taUc 
was neatly spread, with a napkin at each plata- 
The soup n-as excellent, as I proved by taldiy a 
spoon from one of the little thii^ and iaiiiii|f h,tf 
which she looked up so pleased that you would 
certainly hare kissed the blooming round dicek 
she willingly turned to me— and so did 1. BcdJv 
the soup there wm a small portion of meat, pota* 
loes, excellent bread, and white and red 



li«!r supper consUts of breiul, aalail, anH Trint. 
)n Uie wliole, I came to tbe cuiiclusioii that tlie 
>rpbnn's Providence in Milan is better tliaii father 
and mother. 

Our concliictrrM, who looked very like a respecU 
Kbie New-Kni^lurid countrywoman, pivc mc a bou- 
quet at parting; and as we got into llie carriitf^S our 
most elegant of cavalier§ look ofT bin Iiat un<I l>on-ed 
J to her wilb as deferential a courtesy as if &he liad 
^ been a royal princess. 

^B Our next visit wan to an infant-ficliool of oni* 
^lundrcd and fifty cbildreii, under iix year* of age, 
I of wliidi Count C— i is director. This is one of 
I tevta infMit-schools iu Milan, all supported by 
private charities. Tbe children, boys and girU, 
were dressed alike in blouses of a itout cotton 
plaid. They were eating a good soup when we 
I entered, all except one little traiisgrcwor, who 
Mood in a corner of tbe room, condemned to ex- 
piate some sill in tliis purgatory- lie ultractcd 
, C.^ eompassion, and his superb figure bending 
^hover him was a picture. The little penitent was. 
^^ of course, soon transferred to a hungry boy's para- 
I disc — the dinner-table. After chanting an after- 
! dinner grace, they tramped into an adjoining room, 
I where they went through a drill for our edification, 
I ibownig thentsclves as well instructed as the young 
' Hvans of aimUiir institutions in our New-Kogland 
L Atlicns. 



Tliey fini-ilieil wiib a caterliism sometrbti 
in^ from ours. " Where is PanulUr?'' »M 
tbctr teacher. " In llie invisible heaven." " Wlijr 
inviiiitilr ?" To w-hich, while I was expecting i> 
rei*pOH«v Koinc metaphysical enigma, the bo^ n- 
pliect, " Pcrdu^ »e vwle nA" (" Because it is iM 
spen"). " What did you become by baptiiB?' 
asked the teacher. " A Christian." " An jm 
all Climiiiins ?" lliey replied, in cbom% "-Nri 
fibmo tutti Cnstiani, per In gnaia di Dio !" (" Wt 
are all Christians by the ^cc of God.") Potr 
little fi.-:llun'H ! Muy they learn by pxperieoet 
what tlie gl<irioi]!> poHsemiaii is, aigttified by tit 
name which alone the rite of baptism an give. 

We awoke thiit morning to a bright day, tl>r 
the fir»t unclouded one we have had for iprrtt— 
and this is ** bella Italia!" The girl* were n>- 
chanted, i» girls may be, witli sallying fortk ia 
their new bonneu and fair-weatlicr dresses. CTl 
carriage waa at one hotel at an early hour ((or tint 
was to be a bii<y dny\ and off we drove in ihe ho** 
pital, an inntitntion fotindcd in 1456 by Fntieneti 
Sfonta, fourth Duke of Milai). He gav^ hU pclace, 
a curious antique it is, now, however, forming bai 
a omall portion of the pile of buildings. SucccMiTC 
dntiationfl hare enriched tlie insiitnlioii, till its in- 
come amounts to two hundred and fifty thouauid 
dollan. There is provision for two tliotuud !«■ 




I .1 

idrcrf (u>d forty persons, and during the past 
«r tlie licK}iiud lias been full. 

Supported by this fntindatioii, but witliout tlie 

wii. tliere U lui iiiHauc liiispiLil, » lyin)r.iii Uos- 
lital, and a foundlinf^ bo^pital, wlterc ilien> arv 

w nioe tliouftand cbitdrea ! And, besides lliis, 
ilies are (tistribuled to individual§ Uirouglout 

,e Milanese territory, in cases where it is con- 

lered inexpedient to remove them to the hospital. 

There U a fine bniliing e»tiil>li»liinent' .Some 

,th» arv uppropriutcd vxcluMVoly to patieni« 

ieted wiili a fever peculiar iv Lombardy, resem- 

ling leprosy, for wliicli the warm batli is tlie 

\y known remedy. 'I'here are plenty of dis- 
eSMS, I Euncy, prevnilin^ araunfr the poor in Italy, 
for which tbe wami batli and plenty of soap would 
be * cure. 

After going tliruu^rh the repositories for clotbes. 
tbe galleries and courtEi for exerciiie, the laboratory, 
ibe kitchen (where immense (juuiiti ties uf wholesome 
food were in preparation), I said to C — i>**The 
I>eaaaiit« must be vpry glad to have a good reason 
for coming here." " On tlie contrary," he said, 
** tliey are unwilling to leave their homeSt and 
never come till forced by misery." Truly He who 
"set the solitary in families" knew the ^'lemenLt 
of tlic affections He had gircn and for which He 
was providing. 

Wc passed through *u«i« of die apartments where 

VOt. II. u 



were great congrc^tJona of the Mck, ctck uf- 

roun<ie<l with siiReriii|^, and )'«t in what wu uhii 
complcU- suliludf. No wonder man ei efy rtai 
clings to tlic wrelcliedest liome where he cu (n 
a modier*!) haad, meet the eye of a wife or an 
hear tlie voices of liis chiUIrcn, and see M)fDe Bik 
olijects tliut touch the spring!} of memory and kopt' 

1 Mipposc this i* inticli like otiicr hospilak I 
nercr was in one before, and tlie scone banaliBl 
— tho«(! haggard faces of vacancy, or of irnhiM 
and misery. A few were reading religtMU bath: 
one nian was confessing (o bb priest , and a ct» 
ratcscent was receiving iiustrudion from a layoML 
our of a society of men and women who de««k 
tlivmselves to the ignorant poor. A »creea wm 
drawn uroun<l one bed, to hide the nnmniflnM 
tenant from wlioiti ilic world yvw for ever hiddea. 

In the '*Archim'' we were vJtown istom'\ 
original deed of gift, with h'a autoffruph, aB4 
what pleased me much more, a deed of gift tnm 
my fat'ourite St. Charles, with hi» •ato^nph. 
This slight record of our superficial obsenvdM 
of the charitable instituiions of Milan will cooriaer 
ynu that Italy is not merely the maag of Tkc 
beggary, and impotence it is so often repreaeattd, 
but that there are yet left mora than the 
leotu to save the cities. 

Oh leaving the hospital a cluuige came *' o'er I 







rit of our drrittn." C— i siud tlic day woa modo 
iKc lli« view from the spire ot tliL- Dtinmo: so 
went tliere, and wound up tlic ulinoxt iiilcr- 
a1)W but conrenient staircase to the lower roof. 
1ii» CHtltedral ia of wliite marble, tliat in, ori- 
inally white ; but as it was begun io the fourteenth 
tntury, n ^rvat part is discoloured, iiearlj' bWk- 
neil. It, however, conirasla well with tlie glit- 
ring whiteiiCM of that portion finished in the time 
Napoleon. It a a history in stone, ^oing fnr 
ck into the dim agefl. I tun alwikyx on die verge 
'a description of tliesc bewitdiing cathedralH, in 
lite of my resolution against it. But I ran give 
e, and therefore merely tell you that the edifice 
supported by fifty-two marble columns; that 
hri-t of its «idcs are covered with bas-reliefs, witli 
•ingle figures and groups of figures ; that there are 
more tluui SOOO statues on it ; tltat there are 100 
■pire* ruuniug up into point* callivl needlc», eacli 
Bumounled with u sintue ; and in the centre, and 
rising above all, a marble gilt stalue of the Virgin 
crowned Queen of Heaven. You have no con- 
ception of the prodigality of its adornments till yon 
are on the roof, and pa&s from marble terrace to 
terrace, up one flight of marble stairs and oiiotJier, 
and another, and tlirough labyrinths of galleries, 
and groups of statues, of old monks, pilgnma, 
sainla, cherubs, and ciiildren; every angle, erery 
little ntclie filled with ihrm; and tee, far above 



you tfaoee hnndrml figures on [Leir airy piaoadu 
appriuiiig Its if ihcy wcrv nmire to the deaett 
tlivy ari; in, und might raove apoa il- Vm^^. 
pcrhupH, have goinr idcn »r the pxtent of tfafablD- 
catr mmc of nrt And bcnuty when I tell yuu dot 
per»oit« liuv(! wandered about here for Iiaun, lift 
aud unable to find a clev to die place wfaert i 

If Gibbon, who was not addicted to piotu rcAc^ 
tioDB, excluimed after his elntmrate descriptin rf 
St. Sojiliia, " Huw dull is die artifice, bow tmM 
tlic labour, compared with the formation of 6r 
vile§t irmect lliat creeps upon the surface of ibi 
temple.'" whnt, think you, miMt Iiavc been 00 
sensationM wlmn, lutving puwed cTcry obstraelki 
to our Bight, we raised our eyes from this gB* g rw 
edifice to a temple not built with luaii's handt— M 
God's mast beautiful work on earth, to the Atft, 
bounding one tiiird of a horicon of iniij^tfietR) 
extent, every point defined, every outline eaarknl 
on i)ie clenr aimiMphere — to Monte Rosa, sitting a 
Queen of lleimty on her high throne, sbiniiig lilc* 
the luigel in the Apocalypse, whom the npt a|Ml* 
tic saw standing in the sun. We were in ilaB^ 
of forgetting imr hiinuinity. hut otir »ight was irrer- 
powered, our field of vision contracivd t4< the nek 
plains of Lombanly, tlien to the city um(«r u*, t« 
tJie piazza ilelduamo, and to tliOM detestable loaded 
and primed Austrian cannon, lutd we became < 




ions tiiat tliis wa« nat the best of all ]io«sil>lc 

After windiiig up tlie sbiircasc witlim the ccntnil 
loftiest tpire, wc rvaclicd a ptniit from wliick 
Grat reftting-plBcc teemed liarilly removed from 
ic ground. Wc came down to the marble witder- 
agaiii, and wandered fur uu Lour over it. 
lOe C- — i paiued, aiid, placing hta Iiand on a 
luMrade, said, "Do you like tragedies?" Young 
>)e always do, luid ours looking like the imager 
iMnetS tJicy were, he procccdird :— " Two years 
tlierc was a Milunesc passionately attaclied to 
young married woman of our city, whosie husband 
e jealous and feurftil to tlie lot'crs. In thnr 
ptMOu and despair, tiicy agreed to meet here 
and throw themselves off. Both were true to the 
appointment: but when tlie wnmao &aw before ber 
tbe terrible deatli to which she )iad consented, lier 
Dcrvet were not strong enough, and she tried to 
eacape from ber lover. His resolve, however, was 
unshaken ; for an bour be pursued, she flying 
Uirougli these gallerie), over the terraces, running 
p these long staircases and gliding down, now 
iding, now darting out again; but Gnally iic caught 
(jr, dragged her here, and, while she was sbrick- 
ing, clasped ber in bis arms, and leaped from thij> 
balustnule — look down, and you may imagine the 
rrrorA of tbe deatli." We looked down at the 



juuiiq; poinw llint iniernipled ihtt HeMXut lo de 
paremeat, tuid all (unied awuy aileiii aud iliyl- 

Wk found Mndaine T. at our hotel, full of tar 
diality, niiiiniition, and kindness. Site hiid com 
in lirom her villa at \ieMo to t[e«p ber appouitiBMt 
with UA. Slie first look iii to Iilt to«i)-h«ax. 
wliick has recently undergone a rcraodelliDg u' 
refurnishing, and a most luxurious catHbliskiaenl il 
ia. The pcrfpclion of Partsuin tsstc, tlie luwliit]! 
tforkmanship of Eti^lund, and iho beautiful art tf 
hor own country, have all bveii made subservioal 
lo wvaltli almost utdimitcd. It seemed to me lb 
the rcttliatiuii of an Arabian tali*. 1 bare arta 
luxurious furniture cbewhere, but Dolhiiiff,— ool 
even at WindHor Castte, — so beautiful aa MadaoM 
T.'s painted ceilings, ber mosaic floors, and a win- 
dow [tainted by Palaggio, in the eiqiiiitite coloan 
which modem art bus revived, illuBtruting Inubatk 
How Scolt has chained the aru to bia triumpliil 
earl There was a screen, too, exquisitely pcbtiJ 
by the Minic Wo went through the whtlr 
suite of aparunont-t : dining-room, niffti! iimn. 
drawing-room, muuc-room, billiard-rooin, Ac 
Madame T. pointing out the deUuls to m mili 
the undisguised naive pleiixure of a child. ** J* 
voua assure^" she said, " que lorMjue !«« rTdcan <■ 



cloun el satin blanc, &vec lea deni^^-rideaux ^ii 
ille Ifrodi?, »oiii immtr^, v'a fa" u" bel effetV" An 
iiigligli or American woman would liave affected 
une little reserve; the fnuikiiess of the Italian 
ly wan belter. When we expressed our admira- 
tion, Mitilamc T. said, "Tlik '» all very well, but 
you lUuM ite« tlie Countess S/h Iioub^ It h lar 
Hi|H'rinr to mine -f." 
Mitdame T. accompanied ua to the studii cf 
ayez and Pala^io, the two moat celebrat»l 
Bten of Nortbero Italy. An Italian studio is 
IwBys intcrrslin^, enriched as it is with the modelst 
^drawini^ &c.&c., that arc the studies of the artist 
'ali^eio n an arcliitect and antiquary, as well as 

* " I SMura yod thui •h«i tlit carUini nf Tolfct snil white 
'stiln, with til* undir-curtalni ot embroidered tnll«, ■» op. Ilir 
effcAI li buBuruL" 

t V« wen iTti^rairdii ihown the CounUu S.'i ■pattmenti. 
■Tb* furniture ■■■ moit ]iiiuriou9) t»il tlicrfl mere bciutiful icalp- 
llsn and paiadng. bul the home *iu oot In u good ■ UMe w 
' Madime T.'i, noi mora luaitniiiaenl. 1 ni iltraclcd by ■ iliiking, 
ficree-looklag portrait, luJ »ibcd u lUIUu gtnlleniiii with oi if 
(hat w« tb« COanUM'* hnthnnd, " Oh. na." be replied, " tbo 
bai not nifd wtlh her hunbnml r<ic aome yctn. Thin U (be 
picture of an Dpen-<ing«r, ■ fimurile of tb« cciuntCT*— ^r ha* na 
obildrm, 1 bclietr," hetdded. *p[>»llii|fo nnr drcrooe. " I bcf 
jvat pardon," replied the miin toolly. " *h« hu one, not c|uiu • 
jau old." I artCTWird ItarneJ thii womin bid • noiorietf that 
rivalled Cathgnae'* of Riuila; and iretlbat,irbeDe*ortbeaeinparb 
HMNM wtn Ibroirn open, Ibry wrrv filled *ilh the nublal tocleif 
in Milan. " M*i*'|u« loulri *uiu!" Hid a MiUiiete gentleman 
to a joDDg Eogliih lidjr vho had depllned the ciiunleu't India- 
tluD. " Etle ett OBC fcmme chnrmante — parTailttDcnt bien f Icoc* '- ' 
BMkveoda harbailamt arc beUcf than thia ' 



painter, antl spends wbalerer be acquiraa (vlUb 
DO trifle) upon some treasure or curiosity of ut, « 
that his moms looked more like a museum tlna t 
studio. 1 mi^lit bore you with a descripdoa d 
some thiiigH thut wi- «nvr bore, but that tnrnmJ 
was too iireoceiipicd to oliwrve PaIaggio''s paiat 
ingH, or croi) to beed bis frietiH Mndame T*i 
enlhu«ifwtic praises of them. In coming btrt, *lir 
bad pointed nut to U3 Confalonieri's hoiue, ibe tuitr 
of aparlments oecupied by his angelic oountM. 
and tlie cupola tlirougli which be aitoinpiMl to 
escape wlien he was seized by tlie Austrian polie^ 
All this produced too vivid on imprcHinn of nr 
friend*)! HulTcringv to allow any plea»aint scnsatiMi 
immcdintcly ta succeed il. Yon will be glw) M 
bear that Count ( '— — i baa becu tltr fiuthfil 
steward of Cuiifiilonicri, at Madame X. eJCprCMi 
it, " I.a vraie Providence." R. and the gUl 
passed the evening in the Podesia's loge ai tW 

Tliis morning we set off on an excursion plaoacd 
for us by our kind friends, and csmc first, attended 
by G — a, to Moiizu, smae eight or nine miles frwi 
Milan. Tins dty, you know, is often named la tlw 
history of tlie Italian Republics. It has now m 
imperial palace, where the viceroy oooaiaaaHj 
lives, where he bas n noble ixnrk vliieh, bovevir. 
docs not suffice for his royal huiiu,aDd so ibereBrr 
additions to it ; parings cut off frotD the gruuiuh 



(lie neiglibouring i^fntl^mcn called *' caeia ritir- 

I," which they tnu&t by no in«ans intrude on. 

V'hat thorns musi these encroadinients be to the 

op&tJcnt spirit of the Italians ! 

Wt; went over tlw grounfts; they arc riehly 

ried witli artificial wator, watfrfallit, a grotto, 6:c. 
Jut tlie diief nbject of iittrartioii at Monza is the 

ned iron crown of Lonibanly. I felt, I conrcMi, 
> keen desire to see it ; for whatever doubtR tlir 

tptic may throw over the transmission of -the 

riiable naih of the cross from St. Helena \o 
Jtieen Thenlindii, which form the circlet of the 
roil crovrii, it wuh, beyond a doubt, once placed on 
he brow of Charlemagne and of Napoleon*. It U 
epi iu tlic Cathedral of Monza, a rare old edifice 
ritli much harburic ornament, and conlaining 
ong its Irejuure some curious relics of Thcoliiida, 
Elbe favourite Queen of Lombardy. We scarcely 
' improved tiie privilege '"" of seeing these tilings 
looked only at a ponderous Ian with which her 

qesty mu»t rather liavc heated tlian cooled hcr- 

* Vtij Morgaa Mndode* a mcMt miouiD 4atenp6an of ilit 
pomp Ibat atUiuleil Uw coaieTlng ibe in>a cro*u (rom Munu id 
Milan, (or S*pa1eoo'* oartiiuliuii, ibui : — " LoU caine actmifc 
with tbe ciuut of esrvnoDlu. bcarlnj[ the crowD on ■ tcIih 
emtuoo. TKrntj.fiTc of ituuiupirta'i old guard •urroBnilvJ (li* 
hODiMrvil vrbicl'.'. Tbo crown *» tecciicd in Milan Kith ■ talin 
of ■rtillcrr isd ih* rispni of b<IU, and at Ills potial of tl>c 
oatbadnl b; (be Cardinal- A ichbiihop of Milan, vba bore ii 
lhra«sb the cbnreb, and dqnallM it on tbc altar. Tba gunU 
■mlAed rosiid tc dnriiiB the ulibt" 
D 8 



self: nt a very indifferent dteftsiiig-comb vitk i 
rk-hly-jc welled handle, and at the sapphm eof, 
wrought from a single slone, in which her Hiji^ 
pledged her second hu«t»ind! 

It wiu evident that onr friends had made pM 
efforts to obtain for lis a sight of tfac real ctvea. 
and that very solemn oWrv»iice8 were ni u i— ; 
to showing it, which «-« were quite inca|)abb d 
a]>preeiuting. Several [imHlt entered and pnlM 
their saered robe». One knell, while other* ptacd 
a ladder iigiiintt the wiill to ascend tii the tbfte 
nhere, above tlie high altar, this crown a kifl 
inclosed. Three locks were turned with goUn 
keyB. The kneeling priest flourished bb lilnf 
MBter; sendin)r up a doud of incen<e, and hJC 
T^led by it, a huge cross, resplendent with jrvtlK 
was brought down, and the sacred crowm foraiif 
its centre wm revealed to our profane eyes. TW 
nuilit are uiiule into a ring of iron, inclosed hj t 
cirelei of pnre gold, studded witli priceleaa jemb- 
In ttie arms of the cros.s which is of wood eanni 
with gold, arc set, at short spaces apart, small ffm 
case4 containing precious relics, tlie sponge tM 
reed of the crucifixion, bits of the true croas, kc 
The cross was restored to its position witli a repeti- 
tion of tlie ceremonies, the prayers, and the inetHtl 
and, finally, the principal official took off hbreba 
one by one, and kissed each as he reverently fbUii 
it. I was glad when it was all over; for thew 


religious MTcmonii-*, where 1 am for <!V*r vikraling 

bctwci*!) tlic liumility of conMcioiifi i^riiorance and 

ttie pride of a miperior liberty, are always painful 

to me. 

That grand old barbaric monarch, Frederic Bar- 

baroasB, by turnB the scourge and victim of the 

diurcJii lies here. We were <Aliged to puss with* 

out exuminnlion his Hiroophii^us and monument. 

»i)d Uie ciiriou* frrticoc* of tlii* Cniliedral, for we 

^nranled lime on our way to Detio to stop at the 

^Bnonum<>nt to ilie Couuieits Coiifalonieri. Slic is 

^■buried in tiie grouiiilH of her brother, our Mcnit 

HCount C. C — i. The spot is inclosed, and u marble 

^HDOHument is over it, with the following beautiful 

inscription written by Maozoni : 

" Tenaa. D*la da Gupcn Couti, e da Maria OriEOol il XTlll. 
bn. MDCCIAWVII.. maritau a Predorica Confalanini 
n \IV. Oltobir, MIK'CCVI. Omo muOnUmeiite U proipera 
WKW di lui, I'afflilU (craone ran I'opFn, e partoclji" uan I'lnimo, 
qwaalo ai opfia o ad aaima umano v roncwluto. CoaiuaM, ma 
■Mn *iiiU dal tordoglio, footi, ■perando n«l aiKnor* dei draoUtl, il 

" Gabrio, Adfclo, CainlUo Caaati alia lorella »nnitiniiDi rd 
■matliaitiia, erc«(ro td a M pte\iUtao iiuealo loonnniFatr. pet 
HpoMfe tulli un (lorDO wcanto allc oua or c vnicrale. Vale 
IntaaW, ■qIou fortii n aoa>r '. Nai, porfuido lucutU pnei, ed 
ofcMndo Mgriiifni, par tr, conridUnHi ehe, aotolta noil' etcrna Iom, 
dlKBnl or* i miatari di miMtricordU Daacmti <|uifgul nd rigort dl 

^n XIV 


* " T*Nn. bora of Gisptri CuMl and «f Maria Orf onl on Uw 

imk c< .SrphiinbcT. 1707. *ta mairiitdto Prcdcrii] Coofalonicri on 

th* Mill of OctolMir, inOri. Sbt ■darned hii pro*p<riCj. and, in 

lar aa (Tmpalbj asd beurfadiion are permittnl (a a boman 

Tli« wlwle raadiim; world is now fntniliar wi6 
lli« charucter of Tliereiut Confalonieri ; with tbc 
particiilun of tlio licniic conjugBl derotion of dw 
victim (o Aii->triun (lespmism, and martyr to o^ 
jiijral affRCUon. Let your cliildren, for Uie nkeaf 
tlieir rliaritieii, my dear C, remember that this d»- 
ractcr was formed in the booom of tiie Catlielk 
churcli, and sutttuiried in a country wlieiv tli«yml 
be often told the women are all of a piixt widi tk 
Countpss S. 1'liat Uie orgaiitution of ftodrty b«ft, 
aH fiir ojt women are concerned, is ba<l eooogh, I 
doubt not; but let us not believe that to beunivena! 
wliivb i« only general. 

Ma<Iame l'.^ villa is near thf llltlc (own it 
DeMo. After arrivinj; at Drsin wc bad an boor ti 
ricli twiligbt before dinner to Hire li«r frrootHki 
wbicb liave given us new ideas of an Italian rilla, 
and would lead tin to lliink it is not so much a mnl 
of taste fur rural life as a want of means to cut; 
out tbeir ideas of art and beauty, tliat drires ibr 
Italian gentry from tlicir countiy-placi^ft. Matlan* 

Muf, twr mbI itiarcil hli irticiiilj. a*!! bet denU toftNNl lb 
Contamad, but noi oRrcomc hj (orrow, ikc died ea the 301k rf 
firplvmbfr, ItSO, (tuilinf In (be Ga4 or ibe dtiaUt*. 

" G>bna,Aag(lo, and CamlUo Ca«ti kaiacrwwJ ifcu ■>«■»■ 
oienl to Uicir moit IoiLdk *sd balorfd •iattv, tnd pnpmd il Im 
tlioinwlvo, IhaE titrj mi) one d(]r npoM b*uda ktr imtwd 
*«n<>r<l(4 remain* ?arai[tll, mtanwhilr, time ud fckilc aptrti I 
We, conliaiullr olFcring u[> pnj«n aDd ueril<ca fiv ihw. Umt 
Ibat thoa, rcottTod Into tUmil Ufe, canH M* 
nptftu* oT norc} atuob bmbtbuarc biddmintbti 

r. lacko DOtUng le 

[Her nmKmtoria^ 

on each *iie brr 

LTlkPy are filled viai 
'witb pines ta gnat 

d«n e i ro o w fire or i 

of Uic Camellia japaaica 

baIc of Uiingt hen. 
' On one ride oT Ike < 

whidi wrres Ute purpoM ef t 

and vrliidi, last ytmr, owot ksre I 

ous and Aa^ioKuA ; Uti* ia 

emAy raaiked onder tke 

I'ala^j^io, and now appesn to W 

aqueduct and an old abbey < 

from wliicU you bave a 

plains of I.ombardy, at an : 
Bof Como in the distance, 

with natnr^ tluit would 

kadb*enhrrt. Witliin tkecAfieei 

and aalle d'arni«. which is ta be 

and is already well begun 


There are n«ble avenue* of oU 

make an Knglishntau look op ood 

Through one of tliese we went to » I^M-ltf loj •* 

a labyrinth, where one okay g*t **« B«^ *■*- 

We were soon exlrioiiwi by oar lady, wbo beU ibe 
clew, and who led us around the winding, bosky 

08 MILAN. 

margin of a lake so extensive that I did ootdnu 
nature liati aot set it tliere and filled its gener«w 
basin, till MadiuncT. toMineit wmsfed byi 
of water broiiglit from LakeCumo; and thht 
Hows throiigli tlic t^oumb ; now Imping overa ft*- 
cipice, and now dancing over a rocky cbnnnfl, *ai 
aiiifring on its way at if it chose ita own pleanM 
path. There arc many artificial elevsiion*; va 
pasaed over one half as high as our Laurel ISBl 
with full-grown trees upon it; and between tUi 
aod another is a wild doU with a caacMle, ma aiawt 
bridge, itnd (angled »ltriibWry : a O^ioet pietsn 
of some piuiMi^s in Switzerland ; and on my sayiag 
this, Madame T. replied, slie callcs) it ber "SaMe.* 
At one end of the lake, near a fisherman's bat. it 
a monument to TaHo, half hidden with Layi. 
There was a fishing-boat near the but, and is I 
took it for a Irue ttory; but, on Madame T. thnv- 
ing open the door, we entered an apartment Soi^ 
up witli musical instnimeiitA, which she modestlf 
called her sewing-room. How fit it is for tiai 
sedative employment you may judge: tliere is s 
lovely statue in the middle of the room ; the «^ 
and ceiling are covered witli iltustratioa* of Trnm 
in fresco, and from each n-indow U a diflerent aJ 
roost enchanting view. 

"What a happy woman you must be!" aud 1 1* 
our charming hostess, *' to be the mbtnM of tkii 
BkMl lovely place t (a foolish remark enough, bj- 




thc-by): hpr fiice ebangcil, ber oycf Riled with 

tcan, itn<l urtcriilludin^ tu repeiiit-d iiHlictions from 

tho scvcfntice of domesiic tivs by iluttli, niid to the 

■uSeringH of l»er friends ftir their |it)liiical opinions, 

ali« concluded, " You know sometbinp of the hnmsn 

I beart— judge for me, can I be hiijipy?" AlasI 

^P alas! wb»t conlrastsarc there between the exterior 

' and interior of life ! 

^m llie deepening twilight dmvc iis in, luul Madame 
^P T., «bo, to ibe refincment'i of ber elegniit hoapiu- 
Uty, adds tbe higher grace of frank, unceremonious 
kindne«s, conducied us herself lo our apartments, 
where we truly were lost in six immense rooms, 
each as Inrgc as half an Amcriciin house, and a 
pretty fair-sized one too. We drew as nearly toge- 
ther as we could, and made a settlement in these 
rast solitudes, which, I cunfefts, look ratlier dreary, 
^P witJi our prejudices in favour of carpets, snugness, 

comfort, and such nn-ItoUan, unartistio ideas I 

^m There was a &mily party at dinner. Madame 

^r T.'fl nieces and grand-nieces arc slaying with ber. 

The children were at tabic. "Our Italian custom," 

Madame T. says, and a wholesome one it is. The 

■ dinner was served in the fashion of Madame K.'t 
at Frankfort; fruit, flowers, and sweetmeats only 
placed on tbe (able, and being but tittle more than 
a family dinner, would, I think, rather have startled 
tho>w> people wiio fancy Italians aU live on inacca- 
roni and cau sucre. The cookery was in the best 



French style. Tlie Frendx, I believe, (fire tW 
law to tlic kitcliciiK as well as Uie toilets of (W 
dviliticd world. We had a delicac}' much tMetuei 
liere — tlie I'iedraonlebe truffle. It was served m 
a salad, in white, very good, and very costly. Th» 
gentleman who sat on my rifrht (the cantc of lkd| 
▼ill&ge, a person ccrUiinly nut r»llin^ wttliin iht 
condemnation of tlic guurnuind who «ays a tn&n a 
a fool who doe« not lore traffics) told me, in tli« 
intervalH of swallowing at least half a |tauiid «f 
tliem. that tliey cost between seven aiid fourteen 
fraiics tlie ounce ! Besides all tlie Iruita in seafOBi 
and delicious hotne-i/rvmi pines, ve had a fridi 
called Hr»pti!i, much liked here, wliidi, to my taite, 
reiierobled llie froKcn and iliawed apple 1 Ewve 
picked up under our apple-trees in a sunny March 
day : and, will you believe it, villnnous as it was, 
it bad a ^muck of home and cbildiili and rtislir 
tilings, that in thi» fur land, in tlie midu of ill 
tlics« luxuries, brought mm to my eye«. Tberr 
was another Ktrange foreign fruit very pretty and 
passably good, ie<4>inl>ling the seed-ressel of aonw 
flower, and called clnr/iingtr. The evening m 
filled up with Chinese billiards for tlie ^rla and 
common billiitrds for the gentlemen, and n divert- 
ing IcMou in Milanese from tlie count to the giih, 
wbo are highly amused with tlie cracking sound if 
this spurious luilian. My evening vm ipMit 
talking n*iih Madame T. and with the curate 
the Catholic religion in America. He vita m 


urpriseil at the idea of its fining ground there, 
id mucli delighted too ; ain) lie proposed to an 
Btogciinrinn brother of MonRicur T. a pilgriniagc 
t the valley of llie Mi^isiiippi, about which, I Mtis- 
tct, I gave him his mostdeliiiite notioa by telliofr 
hini tiiai 110 truffles grew (liere I 
Madame T.| who uses her privilege of sex io 
king freely (and eloquently, too) on forbiilden 
ibjects, roused all our 8ym|>athies by her par- 
iticulars of ibe petty and irritating annoyances to 
which ihc Austrian surveillance subjects them. 

My dear C. it ts worth the trouble of a pil- 
grimage to the Old World to learn to feel — to 
realise our political blessings and our political 
exemptions. And what do those renegadoes de- 
•erre — I cannot call ihcm by agentler name — who, 
enjoying the ifriirr of <lc«potiHni in travelling 
ibrougb Europe, come home and extol tlic Auntrian 
government, and sigh for those countries where 
there ia no danger that freedom may run into 
the toadneH of " Lynch-law?" Wliat is every 
tyrannical decree of absolutism but a Lyndi-law? 
I have met an Englishman who was not ashamed 
Io prefer the quiet of Austrian dominion to » 
government that involved the tumult of an English 
election I Would these people be cured, think ye, 
by a yev't aolitury reflection in the dungeons of 
Spielberg? Ilut "good night;" I am too tired 
for political or any other speculation — remember, 
we began tbe day at ^lonza. 




We have returDtd from our tlirce dajrj" «■ 
cursion, and as i hear (lie rain pattering on tbr 
pavement, and look up through our dingy wiadov, 
its«ems but a brilliant dream. Wewakei) at Dcfia 
to sucli a morning aa might have inspired Guid»* 
conception of his Aurom, and, nfivr n breakfafi 
vrhich our bountiful hostcM enriched witli cttij 
iNirbarisn), Knglish nnd Amcriran, iihc had rta 
heard of, including lia, whow oduroia brentii foe 
the first lime, I fancy, incensed that old luIiaB 
nanuon, we set off in two curiiges for Conio. I 
WBi much amused and somewhat instructed \tj 
questions which Madame T. and Ihc count pallo 
mc relative to American CDurt»hipK nnd marrnitm 
The count had just come from the narriiigv of ■ 
niece who liad *ceii her hiitband but unce or twicr, 
and never hut in the presence of lier family. ItaJiaa 
marriages In bi|rh life were all, he ooofeawd. nwrc 
marriages of canvmanix, arnuiged by the pareoV: 
w that. Its Uyrim has said, "nuurying for tk> 
parents, they love for themselves," 

I asked if their young women von niwaT* 
pumive under these contracts made by their fCiW' 
dians-^no; the reluctance was sometime* tooiimg 
to be masU'ied, and it was nut uncommoti for tb*M 
to draw back, even «l the altar. " lint was il 
pomibte," ho ft>kcd, " tliat our young people wvrt 
allowcil perfectly unsdiackleJ inlereonrve ■Act thr 



■•Dgngemtnt, witboat ihc eye of tbc motlier or any 

Fpiardiuii wbuK-vfifi^' And then, nt my plain story 

of our roodce of proceed in (;, tlierv were sucb " Mon 

MDteuo!'" ami " Dio Miov I" Dut, finally, llioy 

Bended wttli an lKHic»t anil beany admiradun of tbat 

Hiystem wliere fireeilum and confidence ensured 

^kafety, aiid afforded the best cbance and security 

for aflTeetion. Young unmarried women in Milan, 

C— t said, were as mucb secluded as in Turkey. 

H*'Tliey go from tlieir houses to tbc tbeatret nn<l in 

tbe snmmer to their villas. Tbcy are as incapabk 

■s cbildren of talcing cnre of ihcinselveit; you might 

ks well send ibe Duumo flying tbruugb tbe air, 

as five Italian ladies to travel T" " Do you know," 

he asked me, '* bow you would iuiiantly bi: known 

tin tliv ttrcets of any Imlian city lo be Kiiglinb?*" 
•' No." " Because you prftnlr. your young ladies ; 
an Italian laily aUvaya keeps ber protegeea under 
her eye." Is not this a key to our celaiivc podition? 
We came all too soon to Como, now a poor little 
town on the lake side, wilb some ventiget of its 
former magnificence in lowers and walb, a rich old 
cutbcdnd, anliijtic columns, he. Tbe approadi 
to it U piclure-M)>ic. Tbe ruins of a fine old 
feudal caitle, standing on an almost inaccessible 
pinnacle, orerbang it; but tlicrc is liille lefl to 
remind you tbat it wu once the rival of MilaO' 


■ Aaeiioiiu uc Tor tlic iiioK (larT merged lo ihr Engllih on tbf 
CtmllBMit. On«af our pailjr mM to •n lullnn. " Kul uc Ur ntA 
■•(Atk." " All- no ; but En«li>h Amcriau*— ftll U» Mue." 



Madame T. htid arninged oar excumoo, mi 
here, to our f^at regret, alio was obliged to U»n 
vs. But we nre becoming pbilosopliic : we lumed 
frain our vaniibing plea&urea to tlic lake haskiiiK in 
siinsbiue, to the picturesque little boats 6oatin( 
kbouC on it, and to a eert^n most Htlnicrive oer 
with a protty cr-ntro-tuble and Kiirlct cusliioak 
wUicli our cavalicre were deftly amin^ng ; wul m 
a few tninutos more vrc were in it, and rowed kf 
four Btout oiintmcn, piuted the ^itr-like eninMe 
to tlie lake, ^inrded by Uatues, and fairly cnienil 
im our roiiiiitluTe voyage. The air (Novembn 
9lh !) was as Roft as in one of our metloWMt June 
evenings, and tlie foliage hail a Buminer freahitctt 
We have iteen itinl felt nothing before like tiff 
Oriental beauty, luxury, and warmth. The vina 
are fresh, myrtles, olive, and fig-trees are inM*- 
mingied with them: the narrow margin of tbf 
lake is studded frith rillas ; the high hilU that ri*r 
|>recipitouH3y over it are terraced ; and sumiiMr> 
houses, statues, and temples, all give it the appew- 
anee of festive ground, whi-rc Summer, Queen of 
I.ove and Jtcauty, holds perpetual rvvvls. Tbe 
Alps bound llic korixon on the north. Then 
"winter and rough weather" have llirir r«iga; 
and as I looked at tlieir stern outline and oni*- 
leniing "eternuP snowa, they appeared to roe ih* 
fitting emblem of Austrian de*])otisni broodiDg orel 
tbis land of beauty I 


W« pttsacd Queen Caroline's Villa. These siir- 
roundinga, you may remember, were the scene of 
•omc of tlie scundal that came out on her most 
•candaluut trial ; a»<I wc ]>avjer] a lovely residenco 
of PasUi's, where tlt'is woinuii, who Lclil the music- 
loving world in thraliloin, is living in ha]>py seclu- 
sion on "country contviitnient«,'' un example of 
filial and matcnml dcrotiun. A ht-iuitiful villa 
belonging to Count Forro wah piiinted otit to us; 
and as I looked on its lovely jiouiiun and rich adorn- 
ments, I felt what thcie noble Italian exiles risked 
mnd lost in ihetr holy cause — but not lost! Every 
Mlf-«ucrtticing effort iii this cause is written in the 
book of life ! 

M'e saw the PUniana, where the little riviilct Pliny 
described ne;itly VOOO years agi> ettbit and flows as 
it did then*. It gives one slrang« jenitauoRs to 
ae« one unchanged thing where the world lias 
undergone such mutations. 

For a while, my dear C„ we felt as if we could 
■p«Dd our live« in floating over tliis lovely lake — 
□ot be sliocked — you at home can afford for 
to be forgotten. But, by dcgreoii, our mor- 
ity got uppermosf, tlic " meid above tlie malt," 
itir voices one by one died away ; our superb 

* Plinir itanda in the light of ■ patron-nint of ConUt. Us 
fcotidnl • tiuid foi- the lapport of ftvcd childm here. H« Idm1> 
ntlcd • pnhlio •chool oith aa able leaclier, oooUibutcd loUDin- 
MoUy (D lu tnpport, and letignsd a legacr Uk Imtoar of (b* 
lohabltkoU. Hia ttatuc, wllh ao iDtcriptlon. Ii aUU hern. 



cavslior lookcii a little qualmMh ; G/a ^oUtr 
currant cbbori ; L. IxhI her bead on tlie table and 
full ulcvp, Mxl by tlip time we arnvmlot Uellagk^ 
twenty mi\ea from Coino, tlie t)luiT«!i u^re wrapprf 
in u <lu«ky veil, mid u-i- were vm' glad to exchange 
our buatiiig-ploature for a most comfortable inn. 

We went to bed at Dellagio, feelings that il 
would be little sliort of presumption to expect a 
third lin« ctay, and hermcally resolving to W 
"equal to either fortune," cloiiiio or sunihinr. 
I confess I crept to the window in tJie fnoroiai^ 
witli drcfui ; hut there 1 saw Venus at her mornini; 
watch over the lake, the aky a spotless blur, aid 
the Ifike as still and lovely as a steeping child. 1 
wm muUciuus enough to reply to K.'s drowsy 
interrogatory, "raining agninF" Hut tJie morn- 
ing was too tine to be belied. We vnrrv all soon 
auvmbk'd in a little rosarif surrounding the inn: 
for so you might call a court Hllcil to the rerj' 
water's edge with ro«e-huHh«s in full bud anil 
flower. We met our cavaliers profaning the 
perfumed air witli cigarit, which, however, they 
gallantly discarded, and attended us to the Villa 
Scrbelloni which corers a bill overhanging Bel- 
le^o. It is the property of a gentleman in tlie 
Austrian service who serving (according to the 
nnivenial Austrian policy) for from his own oouo- 
try, leaver tbe delight of embellishing and eujoyinff 



it to n relsdve. This f^entleman is now niskin^ a 
carriage-niad aroiind titc plucc, and up a stc«p 
aceliviiy, wliere, at no trilliiig expense of course, 
it U supported on arcbes of solid moAon-work. 
TIic whole liill is converted into a bigbly-embeU 
lUhed garden fillvd with r09e», laurestines, magno- 
lias, bays, laureU, myrtles, and every species of 
flowering slirub growing luxuriantly in the open 
air. The aloe, wliicli will not bear our Se])terober 
frottK, grows unscathed here; and, as a proof of the 
inviLrinble softness of the climate, C — i pointed out 
sn olive-tree to me three or four hundred years old. 
ThLt inildneM a tlie result of ibo formation of tlie 
•bores of the lake, for within a few mile* the winters 
are severe. 

We wandered up and down and around the 
cbAteau, coming out here and there on the most 
exqniaile views. Once our pleasures were divor- 
aified, not interrupted, by shrieks from L. I 
hastened forward and found her dying from a 
potM of cock-turkeys that her crimson shawl bad 
enraged. C. was leaning on hi.s cane and shouting 
with laughter at tier girli»li terror at these " betes 
ferooes," and ratlier, as I thought* confederate with 

Serbelloni is on a promontory tlmt divides the 
lake into two branches, and thence you liavc a 
of both; of Tremezzina on one side and 

aveiina on the other. And, dear C, it was in 



tlie morning liglit, with the rose-coloured hiua m 
tlie Alps, and villag>?s, rillas, mnd gardens, looking 
bright ill the early d*y; morn^N " russet tnaaiW* 
close drawn livrt-, and tJicru th« Utkc lauj^bing is 
the suiiiUiiue, atid no sound but a waterfall on de 
opposite shore, or the chiming belk of a dWlaat 
church. It was a scene of pure enclutiitment fsr 
us children of tlie cold, sterile North ! and yoo mi 
comprehend its effect, an<l forgive H. into fbi 
burgnin, if I ivll you that, when I fir«t met hia 
on coming back into the "rosary," he vxchuiac4 
his feeble frame thrilling with a sense of rcoow- 
tion and delicious beauty, "I will never go h$A 
to America—/ cannol I " Nature is, indeed, bert 
a lender restoring nurse ! 

After breakfast we left Belbgio (for ever, alMf) 
and walked through an avenue of syctunore* to dH 
Villa Melzi. Melzi was president of tlie Cis- 
nlpiuc republic; but when Napoleon made tir 
republic a kingdom, and ass«tmed its crown, hr 
ranile Mclni Duke of Lodi. The pUce baa tm 
tailen into the hands of the duke's son, u bdof 
eighteen. 'Flic house fronts the lake. Tbere ■> 
a look of nature about tlie grounds and soft bmI 
quiet beauty ; but, n» they lie nearly on ibe Icfd 
of the lake, diey are inferior in picturesque chaia 
to Scrbelloni. Art always comes in Italy to hci|p 
Nature, to perfect her, or to make you forget Imt. 
We met B«amoe, and Duntc, and other 




pcA and «ingle, and uii ihc coiiKcrvacory u-crc 
busts of Josepbiiic and Mudame Leiitta among 
many other», expreasiiig Melzi's homage to liU 
master. There i« » cliapol at n idiort dUtance frem 
the house, with n lieaiitifiil allftr-piceo «cidpturrd, 
I think, by Marchesi; and monunienu to different 
members of tho Melz! family, that either express 
some dome«tic fttory or »rc nllcfroricul — I could 
not tuakc out which. Of all lhitig«, I thonhl like 
an aDceitral chapel, wiili the good deeds of tny 
pn^enitors told in pitiiuing and stone! 

I will not make yoii follow me through the suite 
of apartments, beautiful M they are; but, just to 
get a notion of the refinement of Italian tMte, 
pBUM in the diiiing-Toom, where two little enchant- 
ing mnrble boy» are standing on a side-table, the 
<nc with a md, injured countenance, holding an 
empty btrdVnc»I, from which the other, n Utile 
imp of mischief and fun. hat rifled the eggs*. 
i There are six groups of children, painted on dif- 
ferent oompartments of the wbll, uU having «omv 
alliuton to dinner vianil«. In one, a little rascal 
_il holding wiile open the mouth of a fish as if to 
allow a younger boy, who, to the infinite diver- 
»on of hi< merry comrades, is running away, seared 
out of hifl wii^ In the next, one boy is sustaining 
another on bis slioulders, that he may steal the fruit 

* I kflenrinli uo ibU trnlt of Nkture u an antique bM-r«l>ef i 
1 itiDik at llie Dutia VUU at ttame. 
VOL. 11. 8 




from a basket on tb? LliuI of Uic tliini ; mnd w iW 
next, n miirderouR little tribe are sboottng llm 
nrroivs nt a dove tied to a tree— and so on 1« tbt 

Tliere U a capital (licdire of Na|>oleon, wiib u 
expression of keen hopes, unaccomplitilied projeett, 
and unrealised ambttioiis. 

l-'rom Mclzi vrc cromed tbe lake to TrvmniiaBi 
called, from tlic extreme softness of tlie air tfariN^ 
tlie winter, Bake. Tlie count assured as, aa &r ■ 
climate was concerned, we migbt as well nrnut 
licrc as go to Naples. We landed ai tbe >1lli 
Sommarira, tlic erack slM>H--place of all the *• petili 
panuirs" of Lake Como. We ascended ta tk 
manuon by •cveral fiigbts of marlile stepa, witk 
odorous lines and shrubs in flower clustering ronad 
the baluslrades, and a fountain at erery iai>diii^ 
place, nnd entered u magniticent vestibule, in tW 
centre of wbicli stands a Mara and Venus, in form. 
toKtume, and expression, such as you would expert 
to find tlic alorij/iius of tins land — types of valour 
and love. 

Tbv clicf-d'cnirrc of tlte villa is in thit a(«rt- 
ment, one of Tborwaldsen's most celebrated worb: 
a fricxc in bas-roliels representing tbe iriiirapli sf 
Alexander, but designed with consumtnale ait to 
bear an obvious allusioti to tlie most striking eraab 
of Niipoleorrs life. The work was began bf 
Napoleon's order ; but, before it wa« finiihsd^ k 



oould nritlitrr be flattere<l by its refined nduhtton, 
nor rewani it. Count Sommnrivn jmrchnscd it, 
and it subsequently |iai«Hed, with llie villa, into die 
hniKls of n man, by tlio name of Kiclmd, who bud 
been quietly giiinin^ money wliili- Napoleon was 
winning and losing empires. Ulcbad ]» dead, and 
Iiifl only eon has lately died intestate, leaving this 
superb place, where art lias, at usual, been chained 
la fortune, to some far-off cousins, poor and pic* 
bdan, wbo liardly know a bust from n block of 

Here, in another apartment, is ** tlic Palamedes," 
considered one of Canova'* ma*lcrpiece». 'lliey 
told 111 an anecdote of ibis that will please yuu. 
When Canova had nearly completed tliis statue it 
fell, and ttic artist just escaped being cntabed bytl. 
Tbe atatne was liudly mutilated, and Canovn nt 
once wrote to Somntariva tbiil be tlmuld make bim 
another in its stead. Sommarira replied, that he 
would Itave Uits titatue and no other, and that lie 
should value it all the more for being connected 
witli NO tntcmting a eirrtimitanec ai tbe provi- 
dential preservation of the great artist ; so, good 
mrgery being done upon it, bere it stands, a 
monument of tlie integrity of the great arttst, and 
the delicnc)' and generosity of liis employer. — 
Keroember, tliese arc iraita of Italian character, 
and that Buch incidental inttanocs of virta« are 
proofs they are not quite the degraded people prc- 


judice anil i(>iioruiicc repretieiit them. There m 
otliLT beiiutiful works of Canova here: bis Ci^id 
aii<l PsyoUe, oa exquwilc pc no iiifi cation of giwr 
and love, as innocctit ta if it had been moilellfd b 
pariidisB before bitd tlioughU were put into Ere'i 
hrud. I noticed a pretty clock, designed by Tbor- 
waldsen : two loveiH sleeping; with clasped huu)^ 
while time b passing unheeded. There ii •■ 
Aiidrotneda, un untique, charmiog — but I am nut 
giving you an inventory— tlie house is filled witJi 
workfl of art. Among the paiiitings, and tlie |cm 
of them all, is the portrait of a beautiful wwmaa, 
hy Leonardo da Vinci — some human b*.iiuty, like 
Laura and Beatrice, that the poetry of lore 

I have been more particular than usual, my dear 
C, in my account of the Italian villan ; for I think 
it will ratlier &urpri«e yoti, «» it did ine, siftrr die 
chilling accounls we have read of the neglected 
gixtunds and mined palaces of the povcrly-striclm 
Itnliatis, to find that some of them arc enjoying all 
tJic luxuries of life in the midst of gardens to whick 
nature, climate, art, and wealth have given the Iwt 
touch of perfection. 

Wo were hardly in our boat again when the 
clouds spread Hke an unfurling sail over us, «ihI > 
wind called Itrwa came down from Coma, curling 
the lake into yovty waves. We were all ibirt^ 
ing, and the boatmen tagaciuusly p r opowd tM 


•boalil wnrm ourselves witli a wrIW; so we got out 
fnto tW footpnrli that skirts all tlie tnar^n of titr 
lake, tt is paved, and about two feet wiJr, and 
kept in admirable ordeT by tUt communes of tlic 
diflercnt villagfSt between wlitcb it is tlie only land 
eommunicitlion, and tbe only land outlet to tlie 
world beyond Lake Como. The formation of the 
grotinf) does not permit a carriage-road ; but bow 
pictaresque is tbis footpatli, skirting along villas 
and gardens, under arches and over stone bridges, 
and with vineyards hanging over your heads ■ 
Some of us, unnrilling to lc»ve it, walked all the 
way to Como, eight miles; a pedestrian feat in 
the eye* of onr Italian friends. 

TboM of us in the boat crowed the lake again 
to pan once more cloM under Pasta's villa; hut 
the cloody tw-ilighi was so dreary, and so rapidly 
deepening, that we liad little liope of getting even 
a gtiro[Me of the ffmiiu loeL Bat, just as we were 
gliding under her terrace, her daughter appeared 
an H, followed by anollier lady. "E Patla.' r 
PoMtaf exclaimed our bat^liers, in suppressed 
Toices, thrilling with enthusiasm, that none but 
Italians in tbeir condition would have felt in such 
a preaenoe. Tbey suspended their oart, and we 
stood on tiptoe, and heard a few acce&to of that 
Toica tkat baa thrilled BuiUaoa. It was in tbt hank, 
cradtling Milaneae, however, lo that oar cveiia- 
nent wae a pore homage to geniua. 



We jiosaed die niglit M Como, and to<^ our hn 
look of its lovely lake this morning. Lut looLi 
arc alw-ikysHw) ones. In travclliug you have ram; 
a love at first sight — with Nature. You grow bb 
sudden Bcqnaiiituncc witli nuUcriiil tilings. TV; 
arc your friend*— 'for lack of olliersr dear C. 

The road from Como to Milan is such as y« 
would expect princes to roukc for tlioir own chan«t> 
wheels. The Au8tri:ui govemmetil, sfuirlng aittil 
in all otiicr improvement for tlic public good, b ■ 
tmmciiite expense to roaintain tiio rosds in this abs» 
lute perfection. After four or five weeks of eea- 
tiiiued anil drenching rain, there is not as muck maj 
as an ordinary summer shower would make on OM 
ofourbesi "turnpikes!" In many places thercaJ 
is raised ten and twelve feci above tic love) of tbt 
surrounding ground. There is u fool|>ath on ewfa 
side, protected by granite blocks like our mUr- 
stonfiS) which occur at inierrala of twelve or fifteca 
feet Each block costs seven franco. The laa^ 
here ore possessed I>y great proprietors, and thes* 
which are suited to tlie culture of tJie mulbeny 
produce largo profits. Some mulberry lands alt 
valued »t A th«u«and livres (he [icrobc. A potfe 
is one thousand eight hundreil square bracdit Hid 
a braccia b twenty-two and a lialf ICngtUh inchtt 
An Aiistrinn tivre, or zwanzigcr, is nearly eqain- 
lent to u Vaukce shilling (•evcDteen and ■ 

V eent-v I 



oeata). Tlie wrdinitry price of a pcrdie is four 

hundred zwanzigera. Tlic pctttanii arc paid l>y 

Kabaretof (bcprodocu. We a»ked C— i, from vrliom 

WC were receiving diia iaformaUon, bow the IbimI- 

■ lord conld be sure of the tenant* fjiir dealing. tl« 
•aid the landlord's right to aend Utn adrift wa 
eDoa^ lo Mcnrc that A threat to do thb b 
a]««]rs effectual. All hia liliic vofid of anndatiai 
mad itaditioos bind bim to the soil oa wtitk ha it 
bom. Knowledge opeaa no vtaoa tor bim iate 
•iktfaiidikherlndH. B« Micf ham ih* CmUm 
<chorfthe"»wihrfhywMW«r* Bcbnatari 
to iW Mit aaJ w &r fraa i liil li imI|:hii. ■» 

•TdMCk TW riMijiii aw I I f i to AA 

EK^i^kyhviacade. A»i giiliiii 





Eucli commuue is ubliged to mainlam n ph] 
a inrgeon, and a midn-ife. 

St. Charles made great efforts to elerate Ik 
cliaructcr of the people, nod C — i impales tW 
superior morality of the Milanese to otber ItiSu* 
to tbi!) pbilantbropic taint. In bis zealous rrFonu 
ot tbe priestliood be n'cnt to the source of Calbotir 
mnnility. It lias become a law of tbc oomiDiinr la 
maintain the scbooU be instituted : but die peopb 
are too poor and too ignorant to profit as tbe; 
should by tbvm. Without a tbeorcticul notioo ^ 
the effects of freedom und property, tbey feel tioi 
there is no advantage in learaiug the use of usili 
while they arc bound hand und foot. 

I told you tbey were maintained by shares of tbc 
products. The extremely low rate of wa^n, via 
tbey receive ibem, will show you how small tWf 
share is. A labouring man b paid sixteen Milannt 
sous (seventeen lo a fruue) |>«r day, a womaii ten, 
and a child seven. With this they find tboU' 
aelves. Think of our labourers with tbeir dollars 
day — their meat three times )>«r diem— their Ic^ 
and sugar, and butter, and what not? wbile tb* 
Milanese peasant lives on coarse bread and thin 
broth, and only eats meat on bis patron-saint's day, 
at a wedding, or at Chritttmas; and this is ihe gift 
of his landlor<l. One who eals nee every day ■• 
opulent, and be who eats inr<i/ every day b tbe 
aristocrat of tlie village. Tbe improvement b 



r manufactures is putting it into llif power of a few 
[anittn^ tliem to wear woollens in winter. But, 
[tliank ilcaven, tlivir soft airs wrap tlictn about us 
witb a blanket; and tJie cWcrfuIncM which their 
(leliciotM climate, and perhapH the simplicity of ilx-ir 
food, impire, is like llie fre«h ami fruitful yuun); 
boughs of tbeir olives ftprin^iig from a decayed and 
uplew Htem. 

It is [NNMibIt: tlie peasant may di-rivc a certain 
kind of pleaiure from knowing that, politicallyt he 
U on a level witli bis lord, 'llie gorernnieut l«, in 
one Mlwe, to them a perfect democracy — a dv»A 
level of noihingnCM. Our proud and nolilc frienfl 
bad Uie same liability to Aiutrian coiucriplton m 
llic meanest peasant ou hit estate, asd hia rote 
(they <lo rote in municipal affairs) counts no norr 
than liis wito eats broth and black bread. '11>e spirit 
of the Milanese gL-nilenien it not broken <lown by 
ages of oppTeasion. Very few among thea Mtut 
tlie favour of t^ Anstrian gorerament, or wBI 
accept ■ shart in JL Like tbe hkmC intcIligeM and 
co mdenl iom of oar sIitc boUm (and wiib br 
better mMQ), ibey MbHiie the eril only I 
iliiij liiillii mill iiiiMi.lhliti BMi»»r 
evil irreBedable to tiMM* «ko will adopt tWi 
of the noble oUblU mm of Aamn. " NMUag 
M iumawibli. to tboae wbo fear not dtatk" 

C— i beficm tbe goTcraaeat of ike Loahvdo- 
Veodiaa linim w be iW b«c ia Italy. He 



was cautious in liis expressions, and went no hnLtt 
than to say* in reliition to the ncu'spapcrs allowed 
(" prieiltyiati") in Milan, " We only know »o 
much as the govenimeiit chooses we shall kuow. 
Uur opinions are our own wUJlc we keep tltem u> 
ountclvc* ; but he who should express liberal oiks 
wouUl incut llie mk of » ' chaiubre obscure' " 

Willi our defective opportunities of pefsonl 
observation, you may imagine the coiireiMtioa of 
a man so ititvtli^cnt and highly infunaed u C— i, 
and w\w, from \Kxag the lord of a long-transmitted 
iiilieritiince, has mticlt practical acquaintance with 
tlte organisation and peculiarities of Italian life. 
WW a ples«urc to us, and our drive teemed to ban 
been a very short one when we entered the gate 
of Milan, and C — i ordered hb coachroao to drive 
on to the Corso. The day was dingy; und, though 
thrrc were a few brilliant coaches, and handsome 
ladies in them, C — i warned us not to imagine we 
liod any adequate impression of this drive, which 
is second in display only to that of Hyde l*krk. 
We noticed the viceroy's gilded coach with ui 
horses drawn up, while he and his family were 
enjoying the luxury of a walk. 

ANOTtiEit day in Milan lias been busily fMMed 
in visiting the Ambrosian library, where we saw, 
among many celebrated pictures, an exquisite one 
designed by Leonardo da Vinci, and tinltJiett by 



his pupit Lmni. It U called a mwlomin, but U, in 
Act, ■ proplielic portrait of M. W.; Uie same full, 
ricb cyv vritli all a mother's rupture in it ; the same 
capacity of Hym[)atby willi joy or sorrow cxpnttscd 
in the flenibte lips; as unlike as possible tu the 
gentle, not to say tame madonnas tliat throng 
tiie guUvriM in (lieu ting merely placid maternal 

\Vc saw papyrus with writing 2000 yeant ol<l, 
and note* to a book in Petrarch's autograph, and 
various otlier tiling* ihut it is well to see, bnt 
very tiresome to hear about. The Casrina ile AV 
goziantr wa» sliovrn us by way of giving us a 
glimpse of Italian modes of soriety*. It b a large 
house witit n ftcrictt of apartments: a ball, dmwing- 
room, &c. &c., where gentlemen and ladies meet 
togetlicr on sUttei) evenings to amuse tlicms«lveg. 
All classes have these cassinot. They save th« 
botlier of invitations and intrusion on the order of 
families, and much of tiie expi-ii«<; of private ttnter^ 

We went in the evening, by his appointment, 
to Manzoni*a. The Italian seems to indemnify 
himself for not roving over tlic world by u-alling in 
a little world of Un own, which he oil I* a house. 
We were shown tlirougb a suite of empty apart- 
meuUt to tlie druwiug-room, where we found Man- 
zoni, his mother, wife, and children, and all the 
shows and appliances of comfortable domestic life. 


Manzoni is d little put fifty, vith an iotellectuii 
and ralli^r haixlsome face, and a striking expn>- 
»ioii of goodness. IIih muniier h f^cntlnDanly lad 
modest, not eliy, m Wf lia<l hcca told. IndetJ, 
bis repiitntioii for itliyneu aud fonduew for s«cliMai 
induced us to decline a rery kind invitation to («■ 
a day at lib country place. Wc tliought it but 
common liumunily not lo lake advantage of Ul 
Tcudinoss to honour Confalonieri'a draft In mtr 
belialf OD bis ho^pttality — now 1 regret an irtc- 
trievable opportunity lost. 

He was cordial in Lis manners, and fmnk mdA 
fluent in his conversation. He and his mother (tW 
daughter of Bccenrin), n superb-looking old bKly, 
expressed an intelligent interest in our coDiitry, 
and poured out their expressions of gratitude tea 
what they were pleased to term our kindnan ta 
llieir exiles, ns if we had cbcrtshed their own knt 
children. I put in a dUclaimer, mying, you knov 
bow truly, that we considered it a roo»t hajifj 
chance that had made us intimately acquoinlcd 
witli men who were un honour to their species 
Manzoni said this wa« all very well in relatioa to 
Confalonieri; lie came to tu with bu renown g bm, 
a* to the rest, we roust have been ij^norant of ever)- 
thing about them but tlii-ir stuHcring*, <* G.," be 
siud, *' has found a country with you ; and he dc- 
»erves it, for lie It an angel upon earth*." Wben 

• t trim 1 tli»ll iioi «p|iwr Ul law ben WtraredUto frtb*>n 


T reipoiided earnestly, he replied wiih a sigiiificant 
laugh, " Now thul yoii know what our niaunah 
mjtlt are, you can iniugiiie what our huiKiit nieu 
must be !" 

Manzoni Imd not heard of (he American traniu 
liition of die Prome«si Sposi, and he seemed grati- 
fied that his &me woa extending over the New 
World. Would tliat it could go fairly forth with- 
out the sliacklctt of a translution. He told us Bomc 
inleresiing ajiecdutes of Iteccnria. He Mild he 
was so indolent that he never n*Tote without being 
ill some sort forced upon it ; ihnt his celohratcd 
eMay «n criminal law was procured by the ener- 
getic management of a friend who invited him to 
his hoiiHe, and locked him up, declaring he should 
tiut come out till he had written down his inesti- 
mahle tlioughts on that subject. Ueccarla good- 
naturedly anjuteftved, and the work was actually 
finished in this friendly prison. 

" And much reason," Madame Manitoni (the 
elder) sudd, "my father hnd to rejoice in it, for 
he often received letters of most grateful acknow- 
ledgment from individuals who had profited by tbe 
hunwnc doctrines of his book." 


ihe aboTc bj B ftixf iiaily. The little kindniii m h4Te bad Uie 
opportunity or eitcnding to ihg «ilf<l lulito* «a count (oml 
fomnw, not mprii. Tl bai b««ii r«|uii«d ■ linnilrad fold by ih* 
prlitlcye of their iatknal* •ofuiDltacc. Bat I would, u fir u in 
»j fcambla mj I ean, ronoT* tbo nura* bclitf ibat tlicrc b no 
IwapitaUtj, BO crBlit«dB, •mons th«lr bllo«>i«an(rjmni. 



Ova frie»ds have continued lfa«ir kindneu to 
tb« last moment — tli« whole bam\y, C, Count 
C — i, «ik1 (Irar Madame T. She ur^d tu Id 
renounc« our journey to Venice, and spend a week 
at her villa, lliis wxu almost irrc«i»tit)le ^ bat 
IraviDg out VeDice in seeing Italy in like losing 
bisliop or custle in a game of chess. So our hills 
arc paid, our po>t-hor«C4 ordered, and we are 
going, feeling m if we had lived a little life beret 
for we liave ntade acquaintance, and ripeaed ihen 
itito friendshipH : vie have goiK out and returned : 
WG have e«te», an<l drunk, and made merry, and 
must now go forth again, unknowing and unknown. 
There is no such lengtbener of human life as ti»* 

lirtscia. — A bright attractive-looking town, 
with thirty thousand inhabitants, clean street*, anil 
line old edifice*, hiiilt from the ruins of ancient 
temples, and a rich surrounding country, covered 
witli villus, vines, and mulberries, and watered by 
three rivt-rs, uhidi arc juitt now fearfully illuHimting 
the old proverb, " Good servants, but bad masters." 
Italy has been anything but a land of the sun to 
us. This morning tlie cloud* (lisj>crs«d, for the 
first time since we were on I^ke Como, ant) Fran- 
fois msures us tliut the priests, wbo "know all 
about thc»eiDat(cn," pronounce the rain "unechow 



Bnie." '* La Sainle V'ierge'^ Iia-t been f^nicioiis, 
mmi to-DiorTow she U to be unveiled au<l exliibiied 
to her wonliippere. In tlio mean time, half the 
coiiniry U suhmergwl ; (be fearful Po has burst 
through its embankmeats and overwhelmed several 
village*. It is a pity "La Sable Vierge" baa 
been so »low in ber oompatsioiM. 

We have jusi been to &ee die " gcavi,"or Ronsn 
rem;iiit«, which, n-iihtn ibe Inst twenty yean, have 
been ditioovered aiKl diMnterrcd here. In 1820, the 
top of a pillar was tieeti. Thi* led to excavations, 
which ended in bringing to upper earth a temple 
of HerculeSi a curia, very beuutiful mosaic pave- 
menta, richly-sculptured altars, a multttude of 
busts, shattered friezes, and broken pillant, and a 
^bronze statue of Victwrj- of the best period of 
^■Grecian art. Victory! J doubt it; tint has an 
i ezpreaaion of such Dirinc sweetness, as if she 
I might weep at the fantastic tricks and cruel games 
I men buve pluycd and ralk-d tliem eictorie^. This is 
the fir»t time vre have >k-eu any striking remains of 
Koman magnificence and art. on the very spot 
where they stood in the eye of those whose souls 
were breathed Into their forms ; and the ^nt time 
i» an epoch to one's life ! 

Vavna. — We left Brescia ibts morning at seven ; 
a morning commc il y en a peu now-a-days. When 
I opened my blind at «ix, Venus hung over our 




josatnine-embowcrcd balcoojr, u brillUnt m vfan 
she k«pt li«-T wulcli at Dellagin. We \tmrt b«ca 
driving oa the Via Emilia — n pretty old rouA, mi 
ke{)t in ^xc^Hcnt ropnir. Our fir»t halt «w ■ 
Dcsonxario, on tlie shores of tlie I.iigo ili G»i4», 
tlic ancient Benacus. The lake ts nearly indenJ 
by Alps, and the climntc is so softened by ih 
RiflunUiin-wall, tliat tlie most dcltmte toutkca 
fruits are ripened on its shores. The flab «f lUi 
lake was sung by epicure-|)acU of old, and are qsitr 
as much relished by the mudoms. Cniullus, wi» 
was born at Verona, had his farourite villa bcn^ 
on tlic peninsula of Sermione. Its beaattfol 
position was pointed out to as. The lake preteiTfl 
rlie stormy character Virgil gave it iu fais tin*. 
Not a breath stirred tlie leares as we walked «l«a( 
tlie shore, niid yet tLe blue wavee cttOM witli tbrir 
white crests dancing towarda us, aod gave K. 
rather too spirited a sidutaUon. Always exocpdof 
Como, this Lago di Gania, wtlli its surroomltap^ 
is the most beautiful sheet of water I liavc eftr 
For ati hour wc drove in view of ili« Uu^ 


and during tlie whole drive wc have had beautiful 
objects under our eyes: a cbAteau with its leif 
laum Biid avenues, a shrine, a crucifix, nu old «•!■ 
a bridge, aiid the Alps bouttding our horizon, fit 

■ I bad DO! Ibvu hrtn ta Ben^ •nd MoiilniDi. our Mm Ut 
Af Lnnrni -. hul t<icl> hu iu pccuilu ublrs, Ui*( u not 
b]r coBpirinc It to ipioUitr. 


rrilc Alps, our guide-book c»ll.t tbem, but what is 
e on earth so ricli in beauty, so sugge&livc (o 
imagination ? This is tlie richest part of Lom- 
ifdy, covered wtlli mulberries and vines, and 
ironging vrilti, as it appenni to us, a healthy 
ipulation, full fed from the cradle to the grave. 
!ic cbiMren are stout and rosy, with masses of 
bright curling hitir. Thewonirn arc tail Jiiid well- 
developed, ami the old people so old that one would 
think tliey roust Uiemsclves have forgotten they 
were ever young— tlie last thing they do forget. 
^bBuI they are never "roeked in the cradle of re- 
^■potiug age" — never cease from tlieir labours. We 
^Kee even the very old women, with tlieir grey 
^^lieads bare or covered with a fanciful straw hat, 
driring asses and leading cows on the highway. 
L Whenever our carriage stops there are plenty of 
Kbe^ars around us, but they are for (he most part 
^Hpck or maimed. Comparing the peasantry of 
^iBkToy with tliut here, this climate would seem to 
r be bed and board to them. 

The first object that struck our eyes on entering 
Verona was a very curious old bridge over the 
Adige, and from that moment till we reached our 
inn, we kept up a choral excloinntion at the piazzas, 
the famous old palaces, the immense houses, half 
08 high as (he Alps, and at the heavy stone baU 

^B Verona, a powerful city in tlie time of the Ro- 



mans, und bo difltitiguisli«d in the middle sgcavtia 
the bold lords of tlio Seala Gunily ruled itt dcn> 
■lies, lius now dwindled down to b population d 
6O1OOO, To me il bears a charmed aume, m 
recalling the time wheDt a child of seven ytmit, I 
tat down on the carpet by the " old booltcue" li 
read " The Two Gvntlcmcii of Verona," ibe onlj 
one of Sbak^peare's [>liiys now to me unreiJiMl 
But Juliet is, to every Englinli-blooded tnv«Ua^ 
tine ff^iius loci of VcTonu; Juliet, that 
impersonation of ibe universal jiasrioii nrbow 
tality Shakspeare bus converted into iina)ortalil]r» 
and fixed her sliriric here. We set off in a lialt 
hour afbtr our arrival, witit a diriy, Miuffiofc oU 
valet de place (I have an antipathy to tlie bettoflW 
genus), to see ibe locaUa of the "sweet ninL* 
The palace of the Capulets, ao eaUtd, ia • gloaaj, 
dark old rack-rent edifice, now a boMelrie 1 W« 
were conducted througb an arched way ini« a 
court lumbered with carts lo«<led with winc-CMka. 
Tbe "balcony" was half n-ay to beuveu, wltcrc pout 
Juliet needed, in truth, a " blooner's voice" to b* 
heard by her lover. The garden, we were laUl 
was beyond tlie court, but wc mw no "ordis^ 
wall, high and liard to climb," that "Lovo'a%ta' 
wings aloue might pass, and we were eager 14 gel 
away before imagination sJwuld hue for ever db« 
power of recalling tbe oranf^ groves and myrtle 
bowers, tlie pusaioiiate girl in the balcony, thr 

like i 


in tlic garden, and tie inoon " ttpping wiiU 
all those fruit-tree tops." 
We drovo half a mile beyond the gutu to tli<! old 
icttcan moniwtcry nhcrc trudilion has placed 
tomb of the Capuleut; mid here, in a dreary 
garden, we were sliown the spot where tJie tomb 
tnu. And aloH foi* tlie discnchantmcnts that yet 
awaited us ! A scrviloru unlocked something very 
like a bam-door, and admitted us into something 
like a barn, where she showed us an npeu 
iMne sarcophagus of N'erona marble, which, she 
ured us, coiiUincd Juliet'* body when it was 
removed from the garden to tliis place for ta/i 
Aeepintf, There was a stone pillow for her head, 
and a socket for n candle, which it is, to this day, 
the custom of the Veronese to place lighted in the 
eoffin. There were two holes drilled for ventila- 
tion, probably to admit air enough to support the 

^M In the heart of tlie city, inclosed by an iron tail- 
^^Uig of most delicate workmanship, are the tombs 
of the Scala Eunily. When alt records are lost 
but Sbakspeare's, which will undoubtedly outlive 
all others, these may be shown for the tombs of tlie 
Capulets. There are monuments curiously sculp- 
tured, with marble sarcophagi and effigiea. Three 
elaborate, and these run up into pinnacles mid 
re surmounted with statues, an equntrian one 



overehadoR-ing the rest "This," our cicerone 
said, "was of the greatest lord of Verona." ll 
should then be nf Cane dclla Sola*. 

There in nii amphitheatre here built of 
stone without cement, snd as early aa 
time, whi<^ ia in ndmtnible prcs«rvulion. Na{io- 
Icon r<'[>aircd ii in excellent ta.tle, so tliat ii nov 
appears quite perfect. It can accommodate 2Ji,0OU 
perHong. I Ituvc not half linitihed the sigbt-seeii 
of this cTow<IH afternoon, hut I Hpare you. 

K, and I returned from a truant fitroll in 
Rioniing in time to awallow our breakfa-tt*. und to 
rvmonstrntr af^iust nn orer-chargo in our biO : a 
liateful tank that (a\h to my share, and often make* 
me regret the days wlien I went on like a la^ 
quietly paying prices, and scarcely knowing iliem. 
But wc have, in truth, little to complain of. Tkc 
inti-chargcs are HoMom ctlravagant ; and a« to im- 
positions Rlrictly, I think we rarely meet whli 
tliem. (lood policy has arranged these matteraon 
these great high-roads. We poorer Ameriout 
must pay the rates which luxurious English travel- 
tent, who "lard this lean eurtli," have introduced. 

* "Hu fint or tbo Lombard priaoM,b«prMwM<d Uis ottM^ 
•eiODOMi hii conri, tlie ujlam or*ll th> eiiled Ohibcllim. 4ra« 
tag«Cber lb( line pocU. p&liitfn. ind xmlpton of llalj. IWn 
*te iCllI ■< Vcroni glorlaiu maiiDiorDU cf tlie pratoctlim he (>• 
Uuded to aidiltectuR. But mr «■• bU btonrlte pautoo." Ac— 
Hiiloin iSti HlpubUifVti ttaiitnnti. 

tovaxsr to padca. 


Padua. — We have now Iravcllvd nearly acrcxis 
the Lombardo- Venetian kingdom. The pmtia^, 
wliicli nil over till- Conliticnc is a government mo- 
nopoly, is well arraiigod, but miicli dearer tlian in 
Germany. Tlie Geriiiau postilion i* the k-att dvi- 
lised of GeTmans, but tbe Italian h still lower in 
thcsadc oriiumanily. Mis liorscs, too, are inferior 
ill itize an<! inuttL-le, but ttiey »eem to liave a portion 
of tlie iipirit of their masters, and travel more fleetly 
titan the heavy German hors«. 

I'hough we arc on the verge of winter, tlic cbth 
ractcrUlics of tlie country arc manifest. Hose* wrc 
yet blooming. At the |)a)tt-Htation» women throng 
lo our couch-windows witlt waiters tilled with 
gjapes, pc4irs, apples, and ncispoli. The people 
are all out of doors, women spinning by tlie road- 
side, combing tlieir hair, and performing other 
offices that wc at all neasonK TL^crvu for i)j-diJor». 
We stopped at Viceoza, wliivli is now a town of 
some 30,000 inhubitants, long enough to see some 
of the l>est pruduGiioits of Palladia, one of tlie cele- 
brated architects <if Italy, who lived in Ibe sbtteenth 
century, and was born hero. All Northern Italy 
is emheUiahcd by his design:* and works. I am r>o 
critic in tliese matters, but a too luvUh prufiiMuii 
of ornament seems lo me to characterise tbem. 
The work esteemed bis masterpiece la at Vicenza. 
It is called the Olympic Theatre, and was hnilt 
precisely on tlic model of the andent Greek tliea- 



tr«, that the Vicenzam mig^ht get a prectiie idea of 
(he mode of Grecian dramatic exhibitions. Tbt 
8i:«ncr)' is a fixture, rcprnwiiling llie oiitmnec ofi 
Greek ton-ii sixl tlie opening into Kovcti diflcrMl 
BirceM, where you see Itotiaes, templt.-*, and Hi- 
umplial ardies. Tlic stage u not mncb larga 
than a genoTottsdiniiig-tablc. Then tliera ore Co- 
rinthian columns and rou-s of utatueN extending all 
around tlic theatre. There arc fourteen ningcttf 
Heats for llie spectators ; and witb all tliia laviA' 
ment of genius iirt, and money, tliere Imvc l>*«ii 
but two exhibitions here, one for the vmpcror, aai 
one for hh viceroy. You will agree with me that 
Palladio miglit have spent his time, and the Vices- 
uuit their money, better titan on this, after all, 
mere toy. Tlie priviile hotives here are mint 
riclily ornamented with architectural embellisli- 
■nenta. Palladio was one of the few propheu 
honoured in bis own eotinlr)*. 

The inhabitants of Padiui hare dwindled down 
to 55,000 : about three time« the number of tb 
students it once gathered within the walla of that 
venentble university where Galileo lectured. Tb« 
exterior wall of the nnivcrsitj' is covered witi 
hosts in Ims-relii'fii, cseutcht-oris, and various sculp- 
ture, illttttratjng tlic men who have bet'n <Ustiti* 
guislie<l here. 

Petiarcb, you know, was bom at Arqua, in 



ncighbourliood, and was a canon in tbe churcli here, 
wliiire. if one raay judge by tlic xciil vritfa whicJi 
every memorial of him b chert9ke<l, liiH tove-sonncts 
were not coiisidcreil tincanonical. There ia a pic- 
ture of tlic Madoiitia at (lie Caihcdral presented by 
Itim. There was a curtain orer it; our servitom 
said, " If tliv ladies ramnuindcd, it should 1>e un- 
covered." We were so di?^u»ted wilb this con- 
trivance to exact a fee, tliis covering up a picture 
from its worshippers to uncover it to the gaze of 
bcrettcs for a paltry Iiirc. that we di'clincd the 
offer*. We raw in the sacristy a bust of Petrarch 
and u portrait pointed by his contemporary Ciam- 

We have a strange feeling in this old world, 
dear C, as if the dead of all past ages were rising 
to life on every side of u». We saw in the ball of 
ju.-«uce Iiere.a noble iiall 300 feet long, and adorned 
with frescoes hy Giotto, a bust of Titus Uvius, 
which wta diMinterred in tlie environs of tld* his 
native dty. The Komao remains and memorials 
ill Lumhardy are comparatively few ; and it ia not 
to the days of lionuui dominion tliat tlw tniitd 

• V!t <nn bM 1M( Ib Icsntog to noiU *t our <mo pbtTbuIral 
QaiioUtin, ud U ^ictfil lt> Tlw htl piftuns iii llin lUlLui 

nrelin ■» **iliMl, thti they msj ha " nn'rr kmh but woailertil 
' bj th« dsTout, >ni! nc'«r Men but paid Tor by Ihfl itnniicr, bt 
he heretlo or otIIkhIci. And ccrMlalT it I* iutl >lic jiaiKuar 
•boold drrirg bq iocnint rrom tnch ■ <«plt4l, and Ihe tight of the 
plotoie U worth ten lini«i tb( trifllnt *ata ll co*ti. 



recurs, but to tlic (Kritxl of Italian indefwndtML 
You ]>er<.'eive in the»e rich [iluins uf Larahf^f 
die source in nature of thi- individual life, figM^ 
anil power of tlie free Italiun cities, in tlies« ms 
pluint completely irrigated, and producing widMtf 
meaiiure corn, wine, aud tlie mulberry- tree, dmt 
surest natural sources of wealth. And you yo* 
ceivc stillt in tlie noble pby^iognomy of tbe pMpk 
ilie tiitelleetual cbaracler that made Italy ibe Ml 
of art, literature, commerce, and manufitftvB. 
wliile civilisation Imd scurcely lUiHiied on tiie Kit 
of Europe. With what feelings muKt idle, aliackM, 
impotent Italy look back on tboHc days wImfd bcr 
looms were sending their gorgeous fabrics wltctvnr 
Uiorc was money to pay fortliem; wht;n liercDrojn 
could truly declare in Euatcrn rourts tliut tliey a« 
nothing there more luxurious ihan they had Mt* 
in the palaces of tlieir native princes ; tbe dayi 
when (heir historians, tlieir poets, and their paium 
w«recrctilin|{ works for all posterity ! These wete 
llie days when Milan and Bresda, Verona, Vicm^ 
and Padua, and nil the rcat of tlieir gtorioua coo- 
pany, wore republics; when freedom was so dtaHy 
pnx»l tliiit it was an axiom that " blessed wwrc 
those that die<l for liberty and their country:" 
when an insolent inijieriiil letter was torn from a 
herald's hands aud trampled underfoot; when « 
beautirul miilron, in a famishing town, wttli 
infuut in her arm*, who hud subsisted for daya^ 

jocKxer TO vesick. 


oiled le&tlier, affered the nourishment in her breast 

' & faundng soldier, that he might up and " do or 

lie;" whi^n Milan, with her houses razed to lh« 

rouitd, and her inhabiuints driven forlb, agiun nwe 

nd successfully resisted imperial a<rgTossion. And 

■ow Austrian soldiers keep the gates of these ci tie*, 

say who shall enter and who depart. No 

ronder that the Italian's heart burns witliin him 

that the noblest Kjnrils are torpid with despair, 

languish iu priMHi, or arc driven into exile. 

fc/''«*l«, NoBembrr 18. — are three posts 
about seven miles each) from Tadua to Venice. 
'Che usual boundaries of land and water are so 
cbanged by the overflowings of the rivers, that I 
^_-£ear we are getting no very accurate notions of the 
^|wce of the country in its ordinary condition. Yon 
are conscious you are approaching a city that 
^ gBlliered to itself the riches of tbe world, and 

k whose market converted marshy lands into gardens, 
vineyards, and golden fields. There are, what we 
have not seen elsewhere, pleasant-looking, isolated 
eotlages with thatched and conical roofs, and an 
infinity of villages, churches, chnpela, and magni- 
ficent viWtti, whose grounds appear like drawing* 
rooms pretty well Riled with poetic gentlemen and 
ladies, dressed and uniIre««edartiHtically. Insober 
tnitli, there are many more Htatuc» out of doors 
bere than you tee people with lis in (be finest 
VOL. u. r 


jomnr TO TBNta. 

weather. The bouses are magnificeDt, nuuiybafll 
after the designs of Pslbdio, «nd, iikc crnythiBf 
of his, prodtgnlly AnuLmented ; they sre uirroimiid 
witli high wall«, with arched &tone cttUwica wai 
iron gatcH, witli Ntatues at the gates, and hbonoag 
liie walb with short intervals. 

The roses are still in bloom, though thr ma 
are nearly stripped of their Icutm. Last nij^bt, tm 
the first tine, we had a slight frosL At FiiniifcS 
miserable little town, infested with bpjrgan, pMi 
lions, douaniers, and loungers, screaming, aid 
racketing, aD<l racking us, ve left our ^ i ^mi y 
and embarked in a gondola. V'es, dear C, a gas- 
dolii which, all our heroi^poetic asaociatiooa la iti 
contrary notwitlisLinding, is the most fnnrifl Iwlr 
ing uflair you ever saw afloat. They ar« wjlhwl 
exception covered by a black awning, f\m imp«MJ 
byastimptuary lawof dicrepublicandmunCuncA 
probulfly, by the sumptuary laws of poverty. 

\''enice i% five mile* from FuBiiio, and seen CrM 
thence, appears like a city that bat floated frocn ib 
moorings, and, while distance lends its " endioDV 
Rtciit to (he view,*^ still like a queen " throned « 
her bunilred isles," or, rather— as its proud reprr- 
senlalive, who rvfuscd his oath of adliesion u (Inuy 
Vll., said— «)i if it were "afiftheasoiice, beloqgia| 
nmther to tlie Church nor tlic emperor, tlie Ma 
nor tlie land!" Nature, too, lent its her enebaat- 
meats ; the sun setting, as vrc croucd tlie I^igoon, 

rtnux. Vt 

9loiin>d the Rlintian Alps with rose and purple 

Iocs, wliicli the waves that played aniuiid our 

ondola Tpflected, while the pule moon hung over 

be Adriiilic I cniinut describe to you the sensa- 

of approaching such fiiUen ^rentncss as ttiat of 

renioc. It is as if a " huriod inaj««(y " appeared 

you from tlic dead. W'c pnxHed in silence tho 

^ntficent Fiazxa St. Marco, and were lan<W at 

be Heps of llic H<jtel Ueale, formerly the Palazzo 

We went in the twilight Inst evcmnjf, my dear 
C, to the Piazza, passed the ducal palace and the 
Bridge of Siglis, to get the feeling that we are 
wttmlly in Venice; and in ibis piazia, surrounded 
aa you are by magnificent and unimpaired objcets, 
it is not difHcult to reulise Venice's piust wealth 
and splendour ; it is only dif&cult to believe thai 
it is patU There is the Church of St. Mark, 
uniting Oriental magniflcence with Moorish iirchi- 
lecture an<l Christian emblems ; its facade ombel* 
li»bed witli vcclt^iasticid history written in mo«aie* i 

■ Al [ra>t thnt tilile cpisodi in Ilic hiiloij of l)ie cligrch >• 
4epMtr4 bcrp shich nUla to Uic tttattfei of St. Mifk'a bnJ; 
tiota Alcundrii Id Vcnloe. Tlig fini aonr trprarnlri) in Iho 
|iiaui fniul cnacUd hy (bt Chriitlaiia, nhcn tlinjr hid Ibr biKl]r of 
tlidr Mint Id ■ buket utidrr piln of porlt, rrom iahi«h tli« 
MouoliUAi tn fsprcMnlnl m nmiUng. Tbc Mirj ciuU wiih ilw 
l«M Jadpnvnt. St. Mark'i Gujiel, mid to be nriltra hj hi* own 
hssd, u MDOnc Ib« tnuurva of tbc cburcb. "TlicVeactiini choae 
St. Mark," lajaM. Siimgodl, "paUDn of their aialci hit Uoa 


and over its principal arched entrance the foar 
horecs of Lysippus, the seeming inaig^nia of vic- 
tory, HO often have they tramped over tlie worid 
attached to the vietor's car. These mute imagetJ 
put the grealnetfs and the littleness of the world 
and its players into striking aiititliciiis. They were 
the embtems of Corinth's glory, of Rome's, of 
CoDstantinople'ii, of Venice's, and of Napoleon's. 
Their kingdoms, their glory, and their geuunitioits 
have passed away, and here these four brazen liones 
stand unscathed ! Three sides of the piazza are 
surrounded with very handsome edifices ; with 
arciules guy with shops and caft.^ *. On tlic fourth 
is a space open to tlic fita, called the piazzetta 
(small piaKzu). On one nide of this is the very 
beautiful fa^'adr of the duail palace; u mixture, 
I believe, of Gotliie and Moorish architecture, but 
no unlike anything Ktiropean that we have seen, 
and so like architectural pictures of [lie £«at, that 
we teemed at once to have [latsed into the Anatic 
worid. Near tlic water staint two granite eolumtu, 
one surmounted by the lion of St. Mark, the otber 
by tile statue of a saint. Both these columns were 
brought from the East, and arc trophies of the 
conquests of the Bepublic in die eleventh oenturjr. 

tfDrad Id ttieii »nat, and bl* n*mt In their luiguigc whenvrcr 
<h*T dedcnUed with pMolbr decilao tkdr caaaUj m gatmn- 

■ Onr IheM rtlit aod thopi th« nnbln nnca had hinriMi 
•mIbm^ rihcrc xktj indulged ia trtrj ipeciei ol |<lca*ur«. 



Opposite the ducal palace is »not)i«r palace of 
beiutifiil arcliitpctiire, and beside ic the catnpunile, 
the Mtme on which Galileo stood to make his 
ol>servsdoti9. " This ij Venice ! " we said, as, 
after gazing for » hulf-bour on thia unimpaired 
magDificence, we turned to go to our hotel ; but 
our illuBion vanished when we Wked olT upon the 
water, and saw but here and there a little boat, 
where there were once 

** Arfoalea baand 
Prom Tripoli*, from Mraira, and Eo|land, — 
From LUbon, Bwbii;, and India t '' 

I WENT before breakfast lhi« morning to SU 
Mark'*, an<l a* I pati)»ed for u tnomeut at the door 
to look up at the figure of the saint, ou a ground 
of blue and gold, two persons, sinnere I ani sure, 
drew my eyes and thoughts from him. They 
were young men, who appeared as if they bad that 
moment landed from some piratical expedition. 
The one was looking about him with a carclcM 
curiosity ; there was a wild, nvage deiolntion 
about \hv ulhiT I never can forget : hi;) face wait 
bronzed, and hi» tangled tockit stood out as if they 
were of iron. I met his quick, glancing eye, but 
I am sure he did not see me, nor anything in the 
world around him; the gorgeous ceiling, the Ori- 
ental marbles, the costly altars, pictures, hronices, 
were to him as if they were not, and on he strode 



ns if be were on a flcu-bcach, str^ght tbnni^ii a* 
Icnreling cotifpY^gatioti, not paiuini; till he naiU 
the stc|M before ike Itigli altar, wlirn k« tlim 
himself prostrate on them, and s«fme<l u if b 
woaM bavc buried bis face tn tli« morbt*. "Ri 
people were passing up and <lo\vn, jo«tliii(r )■» 
treading on liim ; be mored uo more tbaa if W 
bad been siruck dead there. It seemed to me iki 
I could hoar tlic cry from his muI» ** God be ■«• 
dful to ine u tiiiner*" and not till the maMm 
over, when he ro«e wiib an exprcs»ion ftoneiriK 
softened and calmed, and taking bis oonpain, 
who had been liHiIessly staring about, by the am, 
and hastened nway> eould I see anything but bis; 
and when I flld look around u|>oii this mo«t gor- 
geous of Cbristtsn temples, eniidied as it is wA 
the spoils of Candia, Cyprus, and the &f ona, it 
seemed poor indeed compared with the wortli li 
this sinning, suffering, Bod penitent spirit; forai 
I am certain it was. 

Few cliurchrv are so enriched with habotitil 
associations as St. Mark'n. It was here tlwi tie 
subjection of imperial to papal power was consa*- 
mated by the dramatic exbibitioti of the haadlB- 
lion of I''re<leric BaTbaroMa to Popo Alexaodtii 
when tbo i-mpcror prostrated himself before kts 
holEne**, and suffered him to plant hi^t foot u|iaaUi 
ueok *. The hbtory of tbu church from the 6ma 
* Tli« nod •bjcd areamiluca 1> fMdwic^ ka^luaM % I 



was a clispcl — a mere appenilftGre to tli» <tuca] 
CO— would be a history of Venice '. 

'Ws have been over the ducal palace, up the 
'GtanA StaiTW," und ihc golden-roofed staircase, 
and tliroiigli tlin immense lialU whose ceilings and 
' walU are etnbellUIied by Tiiiton-tto, Paul Veronetiei 
Kan<i Titijiti, with, to me — 1 am profile, or, perhaps, 
^Btost ignorttnt to say so ~ uninteresting pictures. 
^HThe ]>i>riraits of the dogm. which hang below the 
^HDrnice, encircling one apartment, are not M. 

I ta*|lfC'^ tn inUrpolation of the papal IcgfodirlH. M. SUmoniU, 
llio moil reliable of hiiloriani, mrrelT mjt, " lie (Uic cm|>cror) 
tbic* uidc lii* cloak, pniatratri! Iiiiii»rir b«rorr Alfiaodrr, Bad 
klMcd bli fn*." Tlia tvol upin the nculi ww, homiTcr. too 
pictomquo a oiirumitaim to be loit. and *a a Vcnettao painter 
hu (iim il perpetuiEr in a ipUndid picture which haag* la the 
dnotl palaoc. 

■ It *ai here that one of the Aneil acene* la ibe (Teat drama of 
tkeenuude* «ai caaclcd, itbea tbe heroic ItsiirT Uendolo, blind, 
and oiiiclj'four j«an old, addrcucd the crowd* of Vcnttlant and 
cnaadcn, rojil, nobi*, uul pltbtfto. aho Btro aurnibird In St. 
Mad'*. ■' lArda.'* b* eild, "tOB are of the fir>l («iitiy m tb* 
««rld, and bcndril lofrlher for the iioblnt tsatf men eier under- 
took. I am • fetbU old man who nrei npuie ; but 111 fitted ai la 
w; bodf for llie tcniec, t pcrcaiie tborv ii none who can M «dl 
bad mtd ftmnt you u I who am jonr lord- If jou will lulfcr that 
I ukt Ibe I'roM to •aleh oter end leaeb jou, and Ibal mr torn 
naiain to fuard the tand, I *iU fo forth to li>V and die with fon. 
■ad •rith Ihr pilgrim*." And when tbia was heard, " ¥**." fhej 
cried all with one loio*, ** and «« praf God, aba, to permit that 
f4« roaie forth with ■• and do It." Thia, with many mote paiti- 
«akn, Di*T be (bund in the lanehlng tanguago of the old chroaieltf 
lBM.BIfmondl'a ItatUo Kepnbllc*. 



Tb«y are alt tliere excepting one, and on the tiUel 
where that should be is painted a black veil, «iA 
an inscription to signify that this was uniiMlli 
Marino Faliero * Poor old man ! Bj-ron h»s ptbtrf 
his picture therv; and tboM'who src it beneath At 
black veil «carcL-Iy look at the ISO othen. TW 
dfl^es have ]iaitsed awavt and you meet Imttc (oil^r 
tourists, to whom the ciceroni are explaiuing, lai 
semi-barbarous dialect, the painted faislorin «( 
their reigns and triumphs. 

We went out of the palace on to the ** Bridge rf 
^^ighft"{uld to the prisons of iJte Iixjuisilt 
aa you know, 

" Tber* it a palicc ■od ■ prinea on cacb haai.' 

Wc went into the dungeons on a level with iht 
sea I tliosv below its level were destroye«l for ever 
by the Frencli rcvoIutioiiliU, who, in their day* af 
ninHncss, did tltis among many otlier righieooi 

The curiosities of prison* are borron, and I 
not detail to you those tliat were sbown us* 


' — ■*•> ^t 




■ Tbnp hidcoiu priiani tn not mora than liz or 
■quiK, with iDuil floon. md ■ graling. ■ few inobea >■ lenpfc (pri 
braidth, which opetii into ■ gallErjt. iota which the tmiy nj rf 
light that cTFT Mme wu from the UjTcb of the larnhaj, whan. «tm 
a day, be brou|[bl ihE jirUoner hU titod- TIm Pk«BC^ wbM liif 
(lamr u> Veiiier. (onnd ■ man la one of tbt»« aaOa who hai baa 
ihrrr fi>c fnurlnin jtmn. Tbrj HI bim fm. and oarriaj hiM ta 
prorcolon tbiough the pand piana. Tbc poor wntch waa MnA 
bllad. and died In two or three da;*. 


hvt them nil for tlie cell where wc saw tlic in- 

riptioD which Lord Ityron copied, nni) which you 

ay recollect in the iinte<i to Im Childc U«rold. 

)ur dcerotic, who was of a calibre very superior 

most of liifl craft, rend the licicii with luliun 

ste and grace, and told ua tliat Lord Oyroii 

takcD the paiDS to retrace and deepen them, 

' Yes, utitA hit own hand*.'' 

SWA, — Wk have been all the morning in our 
Igtmdola. We lint rowed through the gran<l canal, 
rhicb is bordered for two miles by churches and 
nfiakces; afTecling memorials of the rise, dominion, 
perfection, decay, desertion, and death of " Venice;" 
a death lo recent that the frenthncss and beanty of 
life have not quite pa«sed away*. A few of ihese 
palaces are still in tlie possession and occupancy 
of their noble families but wherever you ace 
one Ln it« original splendour (and mo«t splrndid 
tltey are) you sec ihv roUar~in<irk upon it, " Pn>- 
vituie di I'enezie" indicaling thiit it is appropriated 
the officers and purposes of the Austrian goverti- 

* 1 >M MTTf >n«nrtrd to hnr tbto nin *!'*<>'« ^^ ■ Vtti- 
oand wnubianlliiv Silfiu Pcllico ■ " mcDUur," and mklii< 
[tint ha bid lumr been in " lAr littih," whioli, bjtbr mf, 
be; ipakt or ■■ " bea^tt pruoni." 

■f " Tbo foDnditioa of Vsnice preceded bj wtcd wnturiH (ha 
tm«ndpulao of Ibe L«inb(rd cillu.uid ludll aulbiec oFslnriM 
after Ibe aiibJKlioa of narBnce." Trulj lE b*d ■ lone ^ ^' po««r 
and gtotj. 

r S 

meat. For Uic most [nut they ore d!U4>idald*, 
witli brok«ii filiu», imrvliiDrnt |>uiic«, and tndicuMa 
tliBt tbcy arc dr^ndeii to bwe uses. 

M we iwAsed tlie Fosnri piUaoe wv mw t 
Venetian wiubing, putctied calico govrtu aai iB 
milliner or trumpery drying ofer tkc tnanlTeM' 
sculptured stone bolcoiiie!! of Uiat princely haat, 
to heboid which once mure an exiled Bon al dr 
huii&c risked and his life. Nearly oppontr tUi 
paliice is tbnt which Byron occupied : its looMMi 
may have suggested tlie tmgedy of "Tbe Tm 
Foscari." And what jiainfiilimd pleasant 
braoces did \m midenccsuggeM to lu as we | 
under its balcony, and tliougbt of Moore's gni))ug 
his vray through the dark luill after Byroti, wiS» 
hecalle<lout, " Keep clear of the dog ! takeesir.K 
timt monkey will fly at you ! " and his droll ezri^ 
mation as tliey stood together od the rm^wiH' 
balcony, " Don't be poctieul, Tom ! " and, alas I of 
tbe mock-tragic drums enacted here by hU Pona* 
rinn, snd of otiier epi«o<Us in hi.t life that be notl 
have wi«hed to blot out, and of wbidi tbosa mim 
admire and pity him muiit vh\i his biographer U 
spared the record. Byron's is ilie greatest and 
kuown of English names in Italy. 

Some of the Venetian palaces still coBtsio 

• We»tRWMUi(|r nould be Uksu dai*B,«iidMnalll 
lioiueiballt from their unteriali, bat rorsserdar «f tW , 
fo?Bram«Bt bibUdlni It— abi, I knan sot, aulcM ihfj wHk I 
pr«t>rt« tbaoi ■* • trapbf . 



iiret of art In the Pulaiza Barbar!^ wli«rr 
riitiin l(>n|; livnl, and wlicn: he died, tliere i* x 
[gmllvry calletl " Scttola di T^ano.'"' Here we Kiw ii 
IMogtblen, the Iwt be ever jMiiimd, aiul tbeyfnf, I 
ilc,erer painted, ft belong to tlie highest cla-is 
that iiitellfctuBl painting which reveals the 
BIS of the Noul. You tee a womiui who hua bocii 
^rrn much brcuuse she loved much ; n volup- 
by nature and a saint by gnicc ; and you feel 
ed, from the deptli and ealmnat of her feelings, 
wba will sin no more. The old woman who 
iliowei] us the gallery, and who, in her piot{n'»«, 
pouted out the luuul quantity of a cieerone's 
rbas ! and magnificas ! said, *' Other pictures 
have tlieir prices; this Is priceletu ! " We have 
leen other pictures by Titian in Venice which sueui 
t4> me to come into the tame category, truly to lie 
'priceiem," the Assumption (called bis uiaAleq>iece) 
rlierc tliv luv«lteNt cherubs, alias winged IlaliuH 
en, are floating in a wreath of clouds around 
or the Sacrifice of I$aac> on the ceiling of the 
Mcristy in Santa Maria della Salute. The beauti- 
ful boy is bending over the pile, awaiting the 
stroke, with an expression of most dutiful obedi- 
«nc«, and something more: there is a trustfulness, 
M if lie felt his ^tfaor could not do him wrong. 
The niigrl appeaun with ii blended cxprcMion of 
Divine autlioricy nnd hnmiin sympathy, and you 
Ji<l the command which he eagerly utter*, «iu) 



whieli tlie aM-e-alruck patriarch han turned tA r^ 
ceive, " Lay not thine bund upon the lad * !' Tb 
picture is n lyric poctn ; hut for the epics of ibt 
"Venetian sctiool," witli their architecture mi 
landsCiipe, tlivir coniplicHtiuii of action and nuicty 
of eluirader — thi-ir grou|)« of men, women, mi 
c)iil(lrt;ii, >li;WN infidelit nnd hrutej^ it rv()uire» ■on 
unistic education, iind Uu more time thun we ban. 
10 comprehend and eujoy them. 

The Rialtof b a &tone bridge over the giu' 
eanal, and in its material of stone and mortar prt- 
L-iM^-ly M-bai il was wben meiohanls there "boM 
did congreg^ate." Uut the princely merchanti^ wW 
unlocked and locked at pleasure the golden galM 
of tbe East, have disappeared, and iu their pbM* 
are people walking up and down between the ro«t 
of mean sbops, huwkiiig, in tbe loudest and tnoti 
disunant tunes, torlone (u famous species of caod) }, 
cakes. jUh, and like fancy articles. An old Jew 
ittecping in the shadow of tbe bridge, over «fb«iiB 
wc stumbled an we got out of our gondola, far a 
moment recalled my poedc aMOCJMJona with tW 

* After ■celofTltlui'a mulerploeei, one fojaj* llig oU Mff «l 
Ltutlet the Pirib'i tD|>n>o( of hu noblca* Korn «t lui 
hfDu>iC<. " I cui creilc *ith ■ bnalL a boadttd dak**,* 
■ml bnrunt, hu[, ilu ! t mniinl nuk« ticie Tllltn!" 

t I do nol UDilcntaDd whjr the name RkltO (* Ml 
dHigiule Ibc bridge. '- It m in 809," Mfl M. SlMMndl. "tW 
th> VtncUuu miulo cbolce ot titt lUtit iltmti ^ l^* JIMMvaMf 
wUch ibcj uMubltd Uidt fleet, with Ibclr «ollcelc4 HdA m 
bawd, and bnilt Ou dty of V«nic(^ Ibc ctfiUl et tMr r«p«Ut»* 



Italto; but to retain thvm uudtMtiirbed one sliould 
nee it. 'I1ie bridge is u liigti arcb, and the 
eet on each tide of it i& of course continued over 
between the ineaD one-story sbops wliich are 
built on it. The bridge hus two otbcr broud pas- 
tft» between the sliubby rciir of tbc sliops and 
bulustra<lc8, and tli us encumbered and defaced 
h tbe aspect it prcoenU lu you approacli it on tlie 

^K Wk visited tbc Arsenal aa a. memorial rather 

^fttliiin an actual existence. Ita silent forges and 

^Bcmpty mugik/ines only serve to imprcNs you with 

^pthe vast commerce and power of the fallen republic. 

It occupies an island three miles in circumference, 

and haN tlie a'tpcct of an independent fortress. Tbe 

winged lion, brouffht from the I'lneus of Atlicni, 

still guards it« entrance, but you know Um surely 

Uuit his (eetli and claws are gone by his watchdogs 

ill An»lrian uniform*. We pawed along a portico 

lined with every species of workshop relating to klii[>- 

buibting— all silent now— and, cr<i8«ing through a 

•fiadvus dockyard where tlicre were a score or two 

of galley-slaves in long, clanking eliaim, working 

umler the surveillance of other slaves in a different 

uniform and without chains, called ^tdarme$t 

' TbtMienlrr nfnteil «nmnc<i to our muripr ; idnicr beiog i 
dltqatlMer luf tueb priiilcge hm, u colour U In our ett!igMena4 
Dogtitrj, We imil Onve itudoiri wUI. ere Iod(. ytm quiu ofl Uit 
BilliMd ootid. 


we entered the model-room. Tbere, among a vast 
variety i>f curious ttiuij^ we sav an exact niiott- 
turv of lite i^alley in which the do^vs were aecui- 
tomed to perform ibe ceremony of tlieir cspoosib 
with Iht' Adriatic. It is of a most graceful forai, 
its exterior gilded and cm)>oc8vd with devices iUu*- 
trative of the history of Venice. Th« canopy b of 
crimson velvet: Venice, "n prowi ladye," sita in 
the prow, with Peace ui her fecc and the scale af 
Justice in her right hand. In the stern is ibe 
throne of tlie doge, and at its back an opening 
tlin>ugl) which he threw the wedding-ring to kia 
seu-bride. Opposite the throne sits Time, witli 
his udmonitory scytlie and hour-glass. When ihit 
was rigged, with four stalwart Venetians at eacb 
erimsoned and gilded oar, it mnst hare been ■ 
pretty show I 

We were sbown an immense hall filled with tro- 
phies, banners, and weapons of all their coni|uemJ 
enemies, Christians and Turks, and halls filled with 
Venetian armour ; and, among other curiohilies, a 
iitrtf aitrrtaininy collection of the In(|uisitiou's to* 
atruinents of torture; some among them ingentoiM 
and perfect enough to hare been forged in tlw 
lower regions. Ah, cruelty lias ever gone band In 
hancl with powert my dear C. 

Tiie perfect repog«, t]ic indolent luxury of a | 
dola bus not been exaggerated. I cannot convey to 




a notion of the delight of it« soft eustiian!) and 
gliding motion after u tvro lioura of siicli ledioLw 
siglit-seeing ii« wv luul at tliv anrna) ; it puta you 
ito lliat d«liciowt slate between waking and sleep- 
og, between tbc consooiunes* of fatigue and cares, 
and tJie unraiitctousneis of oblivion. 
^B We were rowed out to an island in the sea, San 
LaiEaro, to see tlic Armenian convent and college, 
^^vImiu foundatiouj were laid long ago by an Araie- 
^■Uan wbo bought the iBland, luid instituted a ecliool 
^pKre for his countrymen. The pupiU rewive a 
^neanted e<lnca(ion for various profvMcioRS. The 
^-college Iian a pri[iting-{>rew«, and printji books in 
^Plorty or lifly different languages*. A large reve* 
nue is realised from their sale. We were con- 
ducted about the institution by a very intelligent 
and courteous Armenian jmcst, and we encoun- 
^Rered some fine old Eiulern people with long, sil- 
vered brardi. The young men were extremely 



■ L*df Huri;iii (milled 1( tbere Here ■ (rie |>rcti in the "orld 
it M«M b* " Uic oentt-yfit of Saii Lunaro ;" ■nil *he reluct, in 
b«r bMI ouuiMri ber Guii>emtiuu sith [he librmrian, wbn «wrrl«l 
U VM a fret prta. She a*knl if be would print a buok for he) 
RquircJ B " lerj free [ifen," " CetUioly." ht replied ; 
anr b<Kik ilitt licr ludjiililp michi write." " Wbat, if abe (bouJd 
■pt*kUI uftbeKmptror ofAutUii V " Cartualj Dot." "Might 
■!» biK a bit il hie bolineai !" Thi) wu worto itiU. UnwilltDg, 
•b* »»yt, (0 lOM her game. >he Utrte'l the grind Hignior. "Tbc 
Btmod •eignior wu ■ powerfoJ luigbbaar." " lu ■ wont, tt ■•• 
ctideni," ilic coududet, " (tut the pccu of Sua I.«turu wu jutt 
w ttte 4* tUc Cuiitinmtal pnaK* of £iirap«, when one a)l|hl 
|itlnt tree)} nadcr (ba inpeeiionot l«oorUffMMDHr«!" 



handsome. As you go c-ast and sooth tbc 
of the human race improvn ; there is m nebft e*- 
loiiring and more spirit, more of the tuns light ii 
the eyes. 

Our conductor showed us the room tn mioA 
Byron received hia lessons " when bis lordAip 
took the iiiliim.'" be said, '■ to study Armeniiui, ul 
to Hwim acTOiis to us from thr Lido !" 

As we were rowin); humi-ward, a Venetian ft^ 
tlcmsn who accoinpiinicii us pointed out titc Cauk 
dcgli Orfatii, where bodies are thrown which wy 
one wishcM quietly lodiipo^e of. *' I'ishing here,' 
he said, " iK forbidden, lest it should lead to uih 
pleasant discoveries !" 


Our hotel was so full on the first day of car 
arrive] in Venice that we could only ^t dinil 
sp&rtincnt« in tlie n>iir, where we felt m» if OMrff 
thin the duciil pnhice hml a prison attached to it 
But the following morning we were transfeiTed tt 
a superb suite of apartmenU in front, lookii^ oat 
upon the sea. which hare to us a charm (nm 
having been occupied by the Countess Conblooicri 
when she was suing for her liasbaad's pardon, wilfc 
Iong-<leferred and finally lnulBt-il hope, to the Am- 
trian court. I am alone, the family being all al 
tlie opera, and I have just been standing in iW 
balcony looking at the moon, which is pouring s 
flood of light through this clear ataiosphere d< 




ipnn tbe He». In her eflfulgence Orion is but 

imly visible. I can look up to tlie faniiliur ol>jects 

the lieavens, and almoHt forget mydUUtnev from 

'ou; but tliG painful sense returns as I bring my 

lyes to vitrth, for ob ! hon- different b this earth 

oura ! There w tlic splendid Church of San 

eorgio with her lall campaniti, and Santa Maria 

11a Salute with hercu|Kilas ; and here are gondolas 

;ltding out of the little canal into the Ciudecca* 

others gliding in and out among the resseb 

t lie at aiidior in tlio harbour. On my right U 

die ducal palace and pri:tnn ; I cannot *k the 

Oridge of Sighs, but it is almost n-ichin my touch, 

BO near that I feel the atmosphere that surrounds 

it, and am glad to be cheered by the lively voices 

of a merry troop that are passing on to tlie pia^ 

letta, and, as that sound dies uway, to hear the 

delicious voice of a cav;ilicr in n goiidohi, who b 

flinging fur Lis own pleasure — and certainly for 



W> hear so much of the gondola in Venice that 
we almost forget there is " solid rJirtb for trt-wl of 
fuel," though for the most part artificial. After 
punng the greater part of five delicious <lays in a 
ndola, 1 went this morning, the beginning of, 
shu '- our Wt day in Venice, to the Riallo ou foot, 
might sec something of the lerrn-firmit of 
ngular town. There n nothing, I believe^ 


in ibe world like tbc strccU of Venice ; iChci 
tli«y can scurcL-ly be cullod, nor lane*, nor altp, 
for tbcy hnvc iiol ihc pcculiariU«« of eitfaer. Hvf 
are lined by sucb lofty Iwiucs, that, exoeptia^tt 
noonday, a niy of the mo never reaches llicin; a> 
wheel uiFRH in tlieni. no hone's lioof treadt ow 
ttiein. Tliey are ioterMclcd by the oanah, mi 
611ed with petty shops that in novhe mall tW 
lirae wlien Venice vni» the tnnrt and channel of ik 
productions of the EbM. 

The munnen of the tradespeople arc dnl, tat 
not obsequious or obtritsire. They han> tW 
genoial Italian habit of asking one price, and eA» 
in^ to taUc Uie lialf of it, *' for the plcuan «f 
servinii nmiUme," or "to make a t>e^tininf,~« 
for some other ready and most reasonable 
Wc boujrht on the Kiolto some trifling 
of the exquisitely fine fj;old-cltuti work done ben. 
a pendant for tlie ItrusscU lace manufaclint. 
I'liese gold chains, some labrics of beada, nd 
some rather curious but inferior );Um tniinujae- 
tures (all tliat remain of the unrirnlK-d Veoctiaa 
gliuw-wurks), are now the only produeta paedfat 
to Venice. 

We hare merely seen the oatstdeof thinga 

■ It ki 10 Iw wnmllj aledfei tliit onr tniiifWiea abMU i 
riolil la tho tcmpUlMn or tfal* babli, irliich B«t tatmiatj bail » 
• ibpnt>U«a i)t BWfouiile monli>r. 




)ur only aequsintance, a Venetian exquisite, who 
eems not to Hu^pect there is any but an autsiiJc to 
e, could give no very enlightening answers to 
Four many (jUKStionH. In re[>ty to an inquiry ahout 
the eilucatiun of women, be shrugged his shoulders, 
and said, " ^a commence !" So I suppose they 
are about as well instructed as they were in Byron 'a 
time here, when, as you may remember, a convcr- 
ntioii turning upon ^V'usliingtot), a lonnud lady 
aiked "if he were not the man killed in a duel by 

I a&tced our acquaintance, when we were passinf;; 
the mad-house, vi-hicb looked very like a prison, 
** if the patienU were well taken care of." " Amoz 
bieu " (" Well enough "), lie replied, stroking hi« 
mouAlache. " Luck m a lord." We hod our for- 
tune at Mtlaii ; we mu«t take lliv turn of the wheel 


Ftrrara, .Vdv, S*. 

My dear C, 

Wi; are seldom annoyed in Italy with any ap- 
pareiil dissatisfaction in the poojile we employ. 

■ I pcriup* o«B ta ipulogjr Toi publiihing Ihn alMin mtmgn 
BOticn o( Vcalce. Where [here u moil la be Hid it u rtrj Ail- 
Acult to M]> ■ Utile wett. We ipenl Ate bfiulifal <)■)>• in gmng In 
oar gancloU (lom itghl to light, io Tiiiting chnrchri end paIuM> 
Oar ■U'nu «pd itnllgbu vcre putcd at St. Marli'*. within two 
nliiuwa' wtlk of our hotel. Of conrw, ne MKimalaled inmenM 
Um* of thiap which in nier« llita. and baie been well dpuidad 
bf ■ biuidrtd luuriiit* vba hais t>reCEded i». 


JODHxrr n vkkkaux. 

The BPrvmiU at the inns, coaclimen, ralett dt 

place, &c., &c^ arc uU paid by fees. Tbey htni 

pride or sclf-rcepect wliidi prercDts tltcir alunnu^ 

ing when they arc not content'. Tbcre u « nwi*- 

BtrouH diiproportioi) between tlie wages of pe«T«t 

and llic fees ; for iiistuuce, a labourer working inn 

of doors till day gets ten sous, and your waiter, wb* 

gives you, perhaps, two or llirce hours of rtrj 

light work, expects two francs from mcfa pcn«^ 

which, from a party of six, unouots lo two doUin 

and thirty cents per day. We made a (JcdiMti« 

from this at the Hutel Reale, and our |;ar^ 

who sported liis Venetian gold chain, was **hA 


So wa.4 not our gondolier friend, Andrea Doom 

He has attended us all day, the best of gondoliaii 

the most sagacious and prompt of ciccrooes. Ai 

we camo away, he stood at tliv foot of the McM 

staircase, hat in iiiuid, in lii* clo«e-fiiU'd, sctilc^ 

corded dress, liLi fine bbck hair waving off hit 

bron/.cd temples; his sound white teeih «howD of 

by a kindly smile. I told himliowglad wethouUbe 

to see him some bright day in New-York, and hb 

" Gnuie, signdrc," and " Buon viaggio, eoceUen- 

xa!" were the last words we hcanl as we got into 

our gon<lola to pass for the lost time before the 

• This raotrk dou not applf la Sonthtni Itdf. MM Mifc 
dcUeicf hu tiniibnl lonf bclofc fon mch NiplM, ■tier* " patr 
Olirsr atkt fat man," ull It ooaU becuue (odlcraMt it it 

JOL'SNiy TO rXttKABA. 117 

|>ri»on8, tlie Bridge of Siglis, the ducal palace, the 
piazza, oiid all iu m^nificeol sccoDipaDiments, 
sto the Giudecca. 

Andreas wislics were vain. We hare had a 
listnal journey Intlicr. Ah wc left Venice, the 
sin came on again, and has continued ; the riren 
•re itill rising, and menacing tlie country with 
dotniction. You can liaidly imagine anytliing 
^SBOre ftigliiful than the aitpecl of the Valley of the 
Po, at this moment. The courie of the rirer ii 
vugh a flat country. Deposits of cliine and 
'^gmvel from year to year have so raiied its bed 
that, lo prevent it from submer^ng the adjacent 
I land, dykes have been erected ; and as the level of 
the river has risen, the dykes have been taised 
higher and higher, till now tl>e river, at its ofiii- 
nary Icvc), is in some places thirty feet litglier than 
the land on the otlier side of the embankment 
Whenever tlie river rtse« three feet above ita uinal 
^— level, great alarm is felt, and guard* are placed with 
^■proper infttriiment« ready to repair the ilighteat 
^Bbreuch in the tlykc. As we pasted along the toad 
^^on thi> top (if the cmWnkmcnt, Uic brinning^ 
^^ muddy river was rushing furiously on one tide of 
Hf^lts; and on tlie otlier, many feel below na, lay 
villagofl and farm-liouacs, tlio«e on the lovest 
ground half under HiitiT, and all appearing a> if 
they might at any moment be swalliiwed up. At 
intervals of a few yards along the road there were 



tenu of matting, saturated with a lorty dftp*ni^ 
and unrl«T «acli two watcbmen, peasant*, sirtltM 
on tlic wet ^ound, tlieir en^my on theonra^ 
and tlicir menaced homes on ilie oilier, with m 
aiixict)- iind despair in tlteir faces that expnari 
how liopelesHly they opposed thcmselvea U> it 
unbridled elements. 

Poor fellows, tlieir cose is a hard one ! 1W 
winter-^rain is so soaked tluit it is certain U MM 
all be rotted. In our tlii id y- peopled land, wIm 
the failure of one year's crops ts but a disappt^ 
mont, you can liiirdly imagine tlie effect of »u<l i 
disMtcr where the ftilk^t su|>pltM are tn ftaiU 
diiipro)i»rtii>n to tlie coiikumplion. TbestrevttW 
Fcrrani to-day arc crowded witli people wfcsv 
homes were under water: 1^0 are provided fk 
—being drowned I It is said that ilio King sf 
Piedmont and the Duke of Tuscany, fearing tk 
conftequenees of the despair of their people, ba*v 
already miwle liberal appropriations fur tlicir rr&tC 
I hope tliey may Iiave been iosiigated by a briut 
motive than fear. The virtue called forth by ph^ 
sicul evil is its only mtisfactnry solution *. 

* The followlDg anBcdoie, *blah 1 aRvwifii* bewd tt^m Mr 
W. al Plorcnec niy ajiivir to olbon, m It 4ti M B>c.«a Um(»' 
Hon of tlia abnve rrmitli. Whilf ne ticre tooMof u tlw MfMb 
Sltoni pliirc Mr. W. (Hill, "Tilt lire) otlUtbiM«;tlwi 
wu on bii roiinlrjr eitatra dunnic ll-r ilitlrrw on lb* fk I 
•stnmn. Sivinii lome pprion* on Ihn roof of • hnou In 
danger ft bring Oepl o!T. he offered a lar|;i! nm Is (oine tMMlBa 
U Uioj Koald |a to ibq rtacuc. Tbe |iorll «u too (fat. and fLrj 



' Wc were 10 cross the Po at the barrier of the 
pope's doroinioiis, nu<\ here^ at tlivir Vi'ry porUtI, 
wc bid a dmrmitig illustration of tlie imbedlity of 
the papal frovoriiment, tlie mo«t imbecile in Italy. 
The ferry appertains lo his holiness. Tbere was 
no boat on our side of tlie river ; and though the 
postiltoDB, gcndarmea, and loungeri shouted at the 
very top of their vwiccs. no an§wer wa» retnmed ; 
St hut we dntpatched a row-boat, nnd after an lioiir 
we nw a sluggiNli rouchinr dcMincd for our trans- 
port, and movinv us though it moved not' It was 
drawn by a rope ntladicd to horsea on the shore 
a mile and a half up the river, and then dropped 
dovm the curreot to us. After infinite difficulty. 
with pu«hing, pulling, and hoisting, and the din of 
(treaty Italians who were all helping and all help- 
less, our heavy carriage was gat on board ttie boat, 
and wc were landed safely on the other Hide, and 
wcr« citurge<i by bis holint-^it's servants for these 
admirable facilities six dollars. 

Mhid. He doobled hi* alTor— Ibof itill nh»d— thejr bid trtvM 
•Bd faniiUc*, llic; uid. ' Woald the} go If be wuuM go with 
tbm ! ' ' Y«, ihcj would da inyihlug the Padnii\i nuuld do.* 
Tbe miriiui* irrotii ■ lew Udm lo ■ frinid and cmlwrkrd wilb 
thoB. At tremondoai bu>rd tbej lacfetded in iLrir entrrpnaai 
Bjr Mme mutike the cole, obiiib wu voij lo bait been ojMned 
Id cue tbo fDuijuIa did not relorn, wu leod, »nd ww roond to 
eoBitalD liutniotloiu thai, lu cue bit earajiaiiloBa Uiould be lc)(, 
their (tsilie* *bOBld he pto*tded for Itoni hii nUlc." M'ben I 
«w at Floniioe thit une mkrquit ■» ipmdln^ bit time dtl<lt>| 
fcoflD'band. and pbilandMing fine Udiu. Tinljr, olamltlM b»l 
ibdr umi. 



Ferrani is a clean, fine old city, with imaenr. 
unoccupied liouscs, and wide, groMa-grown *lnM^ 
lookiag little like Uie seal of tlie independonl anj 
proud house of Ente. Its cliief interest u oi 
results from its being the home of our frinl 
ForcHii, whose charnclcr does it more lionouf tlm 
all lliiH priuci'ly bouse froai b<-(riiininj( to ni. 
Byron, you remember, says of Italy, '• their Or 
is not our life— their laorul is not ottr DtaL* 
This is but in part true. Tliere ia a tnoral ifalil 
unifersal; and wherever roan exists, in tmvtgem 
in civilised life, he renders on instinctive honug* 
(o such an uncompromising pursuit of justice ui 
love of freedom as Fori-sti hu» manifc^ttctl in p«f- 
Bccution, in prison, in bonds, and under sciilcnci 
of death. 1 believe tliat If, at this momenl, Ul 
youth, country, and high position cowld be r*«tsr*d 
to him, ti-il/i his experience of sixt(N>n year* of 
chaiuK and nio^t dreary imprUonmenl, be miBld 
again sacriRcc all, and suffer all over again in tli* 
lame cause— •such is the uacrushable material at Us 
noble ciiarBcler. 

Well, here we are, in tlie midst of bis £uulj 
and frientis. One of tlicm, a man of Utinit 
Signor B., called immediately after brcakbst, asd 
attended us, Rrst, to the cu«ino, where SOO p«noR!W 
thegenlry of Fcrnmi, who are its proprietors, ibmI 
every evening ; and, unless tliere is a ball, or tliff 
are oihenrise particularly well amused, adjoara ti 



adjoining tbealrc ; truly, " tlicir life in not our 
te." We next went to St. Aitne's Hox[iital, 
ice a monastery, and tiow converted to the reall]^ 
^lirisiian purpose of Bliettering tlie sick and insiine. 
The insane are under tLe car? of a distinguisbed 
aan of scienct-, and, what is more ta the porposei 
genuine piiibiitliropint. Wc liuve bt'cn told lo- 
ay many anecdotes uf hini, from which we infer 
bat hifi or)|:aii of benevolence, like our honoured 
riend Woodward's, has a particular development for 
the management of mad people*. The " minister 
to the mind dtsciiscd." in onr Puritan land, takes 
bis patients to church; tlie Italian professor con- 
ducts tbrm to the thcatri' — the universal panacea 
in Idly; K, saj's, " the canjhrto and ristoro of olil 
an<l youn^, rich and poor." 'I'hc diSerent modcK 
of proceeding are nationally characteristic; botli 
prove that excitement, properly adminiKtcred, !« 
healthful and not hurtful to the insane patient. 

Wc were shown the cell of the hospital in which 
Tano was imprisoned. Our old custode had a 
h>yal feeling for the house of Este, and would faiu 
hive us believe that, dismal as the place appeared 
to us, it was quite a pleasant residence in Tiisso's 
lime, with one look-out upon a street and another 

H* UM (he umit tiiligbl<D«l mt«nt. (utntirnting trulli, 
I*atl«iM*, and prnuulim, for muueoirring, ■Tsrnnec*, inil 
(llnritjr. Wc M« (ocnr of llie IncDnbln qnlelljr bMktlif la tlis 
nibiD* of a plmapt gardEfi. 




apon a garden ! Tlicrc wasas much comiDon 
us g^ciiius in Byron oliiiUinfr hiioHclf ap in thttcril 
tn wrire liU " Ijtment of Tiuso." Ho wn mt 
to find tlie actunl ha^ of mfferin^ ianocctmui 
kindred genius a lieated furnace for bit imagiiif 

Ilie old man told u» some pArticularB of Lmi 
Byroira visit, and showed ii& his name vrritiro bf 
liimself in deep-cut characters. Under Lon) Bj- 
ron's name," he said, " was tliat of hift SeffrHioi*, 
Samuel Rogers.'* We all smiled, recurrinff at ontv 
to Mr. Hogere. as we had recently seen hito. «itk 
his own poedc reputation, surrounded by th«Mi|MCl 
thui w»it« on age, hctghlcncd into honiagr bf hi* 
persural character ; and K. expoAtuLited, and trM 
to enlighten the old man's ignorance — hm in nta. 
Byron's is tlie only Engli&h name that has rbm, « 
ever will rise, above bis horizon, luid " the Siyrt* 
tario" must remain a fUm refleete<l light. 

B. escorted us to his house, wlierc we were 
received by the sif;nora, and admilted to tbe M 
of her win, who bits ju«t received a priz« M 
rence for miniaiuri- pninting. They BbowvJ^ 
acme exquisite pieturea of hrs execution, a|Ma 
which I mid, " Vou are a foTtunale mother to bin 
a wn of »uch genitis." ** Ah !" slie replied, "but 
he b»o good— «» good!" This docs indeed aaXt 
tlie fortunate mother. lu ihia country of art, my 
dear (.'^ tlie painter's studio is a sort of miaevBi- 



Young B.'s occupied several apartments contain- 
ing prclt)* cu»i», nti<l tlie walls w«rc covered nidi 
sketcbcM, 8Ciidie» of uaatomy, engravings, and 

D., the fatlicr, gave ug variou* w»rlui of liis own 
writing : a work on bolaiiy, trageilips, and ttnnsla* 
dons from Dyron*. He is an enliglitened inan, 
and a lirsi-rate Later of priests and kings. in<k- 
filtignble as all are wba have the hard fortune to 
take our caraviin in train, be accompanied us to the 
green (iijtiare, where tbere has been recently pbced 
• Colu»»jil Blatuc of Ariosto on a boititJfiilly-«culp> 
UikA white marblr pillar, with thix comprehensive 
inscripiion: "A Ludovicv Ariosto la Patrio." Mul- 
tuminjiorro.' in there iioti' The Jenuibt nuulc a 
furioii!! oppotiitioii to tl)C erection of the fttatue, 
being no lovers of ArioMo, or favourers of any bo- 
BBi^ to secular eminence. 'I'liey wished to pul 
the atatue of hii> holiness on the pillar, and wrote 
Rome fur a decree to (hat effect; but before 
' answer came, the wits of Fcrrara had outwitted 
By djnt of working tii<;ht and day tlie sta- 

■ SJcMC B. Mid. " II meB wiitB id llalf , it ii Co f«t a name, or 
Ffor Ibe lAtc of U — there ii no pecaniarj coDpmialian. Dhidcd 
' are Into thirtfen lUIca. there ii no protcetioa (or MUntj 
f." ir moil antliort aie to be Iwllncd, tlii> iliould nol 
itth aombir or bookt- ThDj wril* nti*!; to tinlli;h<ra or 
hnproiF Itrtr public ' S«iit it imr of Ihe bw «othiift who hn 
bad the hooeit; lu avow tint ptliog muaej "u ■ ditllnci iaalit« 
(or wnODg. 

O 2 



toe iaA been placed on iu lofc)* pedmial: tai 
buried under it is a libtnr)- of the controvcnjr, imi, 
as B — i said, "miUe belles choia" of tLo JtnaUt 
which, wben time &1iaU liave knockml down Uw 
column, will sorvo to fliiliglitCD posterity as la thr 
bi«tory nnd truv dtaracter of tlie bigota. In tW 
mean time, tlie poet stands, as be did in life, Ingh 
above hia fellows. 

As 8 natural sequence we vi«ited a bouse wUcfc 
Arioato built, add where he lived uttd tlird. TW 
room in which he wrote has a fine bait of htm oa 
one side, and on the otlier ibe followinfj- ioseri^ 
tion : " Ludovico Ariosto in questa camera Kriae 
e questa caaa da lui abiiata e(lilic<i; laquaW 880 
anui dopo lu morte del divino pocia fit da Girokaa 
Cicognaro podesta co* dcnari del commune c(Mii|Mi 
e rislaumttt perclic alia veoeraiione delle gcoti H 
mantenesBc'. Next to tlie possession af greetBOl 
is the sentiment that Tcven-nces it, luid tliii jM 
find everywhere in luly. '11m door of Taa*^ 
prison and that to Ariosto'a room have been ««l 
chipped for relics. 

D. conducted us to the cemetryt an old nomuic 
establishment, wrested from tlie priests aft», a* Im 
•aidf S "gunrt A mort^ and converted to llie good 

* " Luddiioo Arioito aroCc in Ihuioom ; uid iMahoQM, 
and intutritcd by him. vu 2)tU jt»n anetvifd iMsffal mnA 
bf Ofrafano Citxi^ira >iib tbs eonimuac'i oumcf , ikal it 
te p ffWBwedfat tlie *cMnil(iD«f Buakind." 


^■^urpoM of biiryin|( the 6eaA tnsU-«d wf the living. 
^^Tbe lotifj perspective of the cloJ^lers i» bi'aiitiful. 
I Many of tlic monSift' cells are converted inui fumily 
^BTSults, aiid dc'cornCctI with moniiinents, frexcoeSf 
^Bmd baa-re lie fit. One targe apartment is appro- 
^"priatwl to " ibe illustrious men of Ferrara," 



We had a teriK in the twilight, wliicli I can bc*t 

describe to you, my dear C. by copying K.'s 

account of it from lier Juunial. She itays, " What 

was my astotii-ihmentt when I came into the 

diawin(r.Toom, to find Uncle R. in a corner of the 

room, his face covered with his hand*. Aunt L. 

leaning on the mantel piece uUo in tears; Aunt K, 

boldinfr tlic hand of u ludy in black who, with 

Tehemenl gestttrcH, wti>t pouring out ii ntpid tuo* 

cession of broken Hentencca, and L. and M. look- 

, ing an in most solemn silence. Aunt K. seized 

^B tne, and said, ' This is Forcsli's sister, 'i'ell her 

^Vhow miieh he is beloved and respected in New- 

^K York — tell her we try to make him feel he has a 

^P^ome among ua.' As well as I could, 1 pluyed my 

pan of interpreter, and Teresa, in a voice inier- 

rapted by many sighs and teurs, tried to express 

lier gratitude, but exclaimed every few minutes in 

a paroxysm of anguith, slrelcliing out her arms, 

^B * lo Mon so pill pariure; non so ])iv) far altro cbe 

^^ ptangere e pregur lamia Miidoiiiia!' Taking np 

ber black gown, »lie Haid, ■ Questo e uu abito ili 



voto; I'ho memo quantto era in prtgione il m» 
Felice, per farlo liWrare; «Ial inoinenui drU^-tw 
dilg^azie sono I'uiluta amniaUta. Stave per morbr 
t medici cri^dettero clie non poteasi goarire. SaM 
solameiite tre aiini chc vtu un \>o' megUo; ho pent 
tutti i cuppvlli, uc itvev« Dwiti. Non ho voloM 
mandare il niio ritntto al fratello perditi »onu Xaato 
combiata tanlo liruCta die non mi riconoMCcrebfaA 
Nod posso dormire. t'rego, prpgo aemprv \»Wt 
Matioanit cbe mi giiurisca di quMl* orribile vfglil 
e die mi faocia abbrareiare una volta il mio I-VIki 
primii (li morirc. Non u che la «[H-ranza di reticfk 
chc mi tii*no in vitu* !* 'Hiis is u gutbcrini; ap «t 
the fragtnvncs of bcr d)Hcaun«; but I cannot gin 
ail idea of her «i)rrovr-worn coiiiiU>nBnce. ber i» 
puMioncd tcare, iiiid oxproMirc gestures, wbid 
gave tlie most powerful effect to evvry vord Ai 
utiered, and left :i dev]> and oad impression on out 
minds. Jii*t Heaven ! wlmt must be the import u 

* " I no longer kno* how lo talk. I ran onljr vccp and fH|M 
oor Ltdf I " Tilling up hot bliek (own. the Mid, ■■ ] |>iit a* tth 
fDonrning when my brother mot to prtMa. vilk ■ *o« M SMt I 
till lie wu Acrd. Prom Ibe oumenl of hu mlatottnat I ftd liA 
I hiTC been Dtar to ileuh. TIu pbjriicuuu txilocd II ■■■ t^ 
po'dble 10 cute mo. Pur ihfl lut IhrM |«*n onlf liat« I hoa* 
little bttier, I bam loit ill mj bu'r. I aaa hW ■ (km iml. I 
ironlil not wnd mjr portrait (o tnjr bretWr i t am ao ehnngid tt 
iraold not kno* me. I cannot ilrcp ; I prajt a*4 prtj in ou Llit 
to owe me of tbia bocrible nakerulneia. and iImI atig «{II 
Bit U>«fnW*M my brolbce oaec bcfare I dla. TW kOpe«f I 
Um i* all tbM ktrp) m* aUt« ■ " 

reniuRA. 127 

rancU, ' the father of hit pcfiple.' of Uiut «ei)tenc«, 

with wbut measun* ye mete it »lmll be tnevsured to 

you again !' " Yes. truly. tlioHe wIid liave tumeit 

I tile sweet Htreiitns of (lomcstic lovt- into surb bitter, 

bitter Miilcnt — tlie Kniiiciwn ami Melteniiclis— 

I will liuvi* II fviirful account to render. 

^h My dear C, we have so many exiles among us, 

^Bk so glorify ourselves nitli ttie idea tlmt our free 

^Baouiitry is their a>iyluiD, tlmt I fear we arc somiv 

^HtiRie« deficient in that keen sympathy which we 

•hould feel in tlieir pergonal miKfortune*, if wr 

realised Uie sundered ties and langui&hiog afiec- 

liom of tlie broken bearte in their violated bomen. 

ProfeoBor B. and some other friends of I-'orei^ti 
passed the evening with us, portly ut the theatre 
and partly «t home. In spite of the wear and tear 
of twenty years' separulion, ibcir ntUu;I)mcnt to him 
is unim|mirc<l. Among tliem watt an old cumtc, 
who Kiid that, "but for hi* a^, he would gu lu 
America to tee Fote«ti.~ I'mfeHsnr D. in a highly- 
cultivated man, with that great advantage to a new 
acquaintance, a beautiful counicnance aiu) obarnw 
ing mannera, and, withal, he is a hearty liberal. 
He luld us H>me tiutls which may give you an idea 
of the shackles and iliiicomfarts tl»c goreramenl 
imposes here, and of the inextinguishable vpint of 
these noble Iialians. There i« au mwociation of 
tli« lilcfary and scientific men of the different 
■We* of Italy recently formed, which is l» have 



an annual meeting. It is favoured by the KiD| 
of Piedmont and the Grand-duke of Tuscany; bai 
the pope, who stops every crevice at whicfa li|ta 
may cuter, has issued a bull, dcclariag iJat if • 
Kubjcct of hi« sliidl be prewnt at one of tliMf 
meetings, he shall be held a traitor, and «i4<r 

A pliysician Is not permitted to make • p»- 
fetuional vjeit beyond the walls of the city «itb«l 
going lifst to the police to declnre where be il 
goiiiff, and the nunic and disease of his f«tmi! 
PruffHkor II, said, '■ [ii 1831, when we all brlitvid 
the favourable momcDt had arrived fur «MMliti| 
our liberty, 1, who had belonged to oo lecrtt 
society, Dor had had anything to do «ritii |)l» 
■noting the excitement, declared my aynpaihy 
with the liheruk, and iras delegated by then to 
warn the uposCulic legale tliat lie wan about tA b( 
deprived of all puwet, moral and physical, but tka 
his person would be untouched. He courteomlj 
expressed his obligations to me; but wlien, aldt 
end of our twenty-six <Iays of kappmrmg^ be m 
re-established, I found that my name was pbnJ 
at the bead of the black-list. 1 was deprired d 
all the public lioAit 1 held, and I have been cm 
since so closely walched that 1 am but a prtaofwr. 
I cannot cross the frontier within ten miles df 
Ferrara, nor even go to Rome without a ^wdtl 
permission from the secretary of state, wfateh <B 



tnly be procured by NUtlng that I am going on 
ofcsnioiial busitiesH, and shall be in sucb and such 
[houses, see such and such people, and be absent 
iich a number of days." This in the condition of 
Itiic beat subjects of a government of which the 
cad is also ibc head of tlie greatest body of 
i^hristimis in ll^e world. Oh ! my counlrymen, 
ik God for your religious and dvil freedom, 
fid cherish it ! 

Bi/loffna. — We had nothing notable during our 
iry, cloudy drive to Dolugiiii, but a rencounter 
lith tlte beggars at our lust post>!«tation. A^ usual, 
^tggsm of all ages, from tirst lo second cliildhood, 
locked around our carriage. We hod given away 
11 our sous, and we had recourse lo our luncli* 
kct. I turangcd the bread and cliicken, and L. 
BUed. " Oh ! give mc a bit," she sdd, " for 
this boy with heavenly eyed!" "Here it i»; now 
give (hix to thai blind old woman." " Oh ! I must 
give this (o llial liille Tot who is stretching up her 
arm to me; what a perfect cherub sbe would be if 
ber face wss washed ! keep off, you snatcherl" to 
a Iran, tall half-idiot wlio was intercepting the 
cherub's slice. " Now, h., tJiis must go to tliat 
rick, abivering old man !** " Oh ! wait, sec this 
poor, pale girl." " Now for tbe old wonmn !" but 
the bit went to a trembling boy who louked like u 
leper, with a withered arm; and when my old 
• 3 



woman was at Iitit mipptifd, tbere waa sn cvi]-«ft4 

hn)^ and four hoys wko jnsdeil Uie fint-oonen 

away, atid two of [Item, after devouriug. Like liaii||;(j 

dogs, wliat we gave tbem, follmi'ed tu lialf ■ mile, 

calling *' ca-ri-ta!" Beside tlie dmnuills )N^no«> 

I have described, and wbo were actually i^ trht, 

wo mw, as we drove ofT, albert, laine a»d bliiU, 

cuminjr frum their more distant stution^ towards us. 

You must attribute some portion of the barmi- 

nes» of my truvfUtng journal, my dvsr C, to l^r 

hud wratlior tluit, almost without exception, ti«i 

atlemtcd uh in our pti»a^ from place lo phce 

since we entcrvd Italy. The advanced seaiMD, too, 

is against us. All ntral occupation U suspended i 

the vintage is past, tlie corn b husbanded, and the 

country has now (November 26) as Uire an aspect 

as it ercrbas in Italy. Bolo^a, us you first see 

it, lying under the shsdow of tbc Apennines, willi 

its antique S]>)r«>s inid loaning tower«, is a most pi^ 

turestjuc town; hut nil » picturesque in Italy, 

down to the laden n*s an<l the beggar. From tlic 

rillnsHnd \-illageft tlial surround tlie town, you fli^F 

imagine how rich and smiling the Eubarbs tniisi Im> 

in any but tbts desolate season. As we drove 

through tlio strcctn, we wore sirud: nnth tlie long 

llaes of arcades and columns tliat front all the «di- 

fioes, and which afford a perfect proteetiun to the 

fi>ot-passei»ger. They were designed, I think, bjr 

the luxurious citixens, when the sumptuary lawiof 




Sc (brbadc tlic luc of covered carriages. 
I It an arcade of 6-10 ardies cxUiiidtDg from 
tovTD to a diuTcli of Uie Mndontia, ou u liill 
bree miles from the cit^. Truly llie chuTx;li has 
kept itself free of sumptuary lan-s. 

Tiie PiuKzo del Gij^Btite, to which I have juM 
tealAnl in a pourin;; niin, is one of the most cbarnc- 
temtic and greatest tnouumeiits of the Italian 
repuhlica that we have yet seen in (laly. Wiih tJie 
fountain of Neptune, the mafiterpiece of John of 
Bologna, in the centre, it IB iurrounded by churches, 
superb old palaces, tawers, and otlicr buildings with 
the most curious Gothic fronts. 

TiiK " Academy of the Fine Arts" here contains 
-one of the best galleries of pictures in the world. 
Tliey wo tlio masterpieces of the lirst masters, and 
what masters they were I 1 feel now more tliaii 
ever what nonscUM' it is lu write about itu-iie pic* 
tures, since, witli all I have read about them, I iitid 
I had no conception of their power — none worth 
liaving of their divine beauty. 

I nuikc it a rule, in ihcsc gnlleries, not to go 
bewildering myself about frmn room to room, but 
to confine my attention lo (he best pictures : and i 
luive adhered lo my rule to-day, hardly glancing 
even .it tlie pictures of die three Caracci, all natives 
of Bologna. 



There is a pninUd tragcxly liere by GuMo ttet 
would brciik your keart: " Tlie murder of iW 
ImioccnU." The trustfulness of the lovely cUt- 
dren, who feel ihetn&elves §afe in the clo&e eabncr 
of tho mother, contrasted with Iter terror ui 
anguish, h mutic touching. But the most aflectiii| 
figure is a mother with her Itands cWpcd and W 
two dead children at her feet. It n all over «ilk 
her; nhe has nothing farther (o hope or fc«r, lat 
tlie rrsi^iatiun of tlic saint is struggling witli lk 
despair of the parenL Vou want to throw youncl 
at her feel and weep with her. 

The martyrdom of St, Agneit by Domeoicliim 
with ilj» gloriouK golden light, i« a picture that em 
dear J., with iill her horror of representatioas W 
physical suflVring, could not turn away from ; tho* 
is audi sweet ]>eiicc on the face of the young (maM. 
An couhl nut belter illustrate that true ami liaiMi- 
ful declnration of the prophei, " Tlio work W 
righteousness shall be )>eace, and the efTccI ^4 
righteousness, quietness, am) aasutsnce fur cfrr* 
The executioner grasps her brt^it> wavy hair, vitk 
one hand, while with hot pincetv In the other lie b 
burning out the Hesh of her tliroat and biMoEii. Tlw 
judge looks gloatingly on, and cherubs an floufaf 
over the naUsant suiut, one holding tlie crom 
of martyrdom, and anotlier a pen to record het 
triumphs. I pu» over Onido't " Madomia tUL 
PUta," the " Henarw' and even that ruibodimem tl 

perfect |^ce and be»uly, llaphael'ii " St Cecilia" 
(their names (lirill tliose who have seen them !) 
for Guido'it " Crucifix ion," wliicli, like the very 
•ccne, fills you wiili solemnity and awe. There 
are but four figure's and iliey are as htrge as life ; 
that of Jesus expresses " It is finished !" Mury is 
not, as ill muMt of her pictures, to the gross violation 
of truth, represented youn^;, hut in die uiiimpaired 
ripeness of womanhood. She has the same face, 
dress, aiid attitude as in the I'ietu, but there she 
irtdes your attention with the admirublc portniiu 
of the four adoring »uints; there Scripture truth 
and simplicity are sacrifieed to a fahlc «r an ima^> 
iiatiuii of the cltuTch : here yon sec tiic real Mary— 

le bereft mother — and the unfathomable <ieplhs of 
her sorrow show the prophecy accomplLtlied : " the 
sword Aim pierced lier soul." John, standing on 

iC other «idc of the cruss, is the personification of 
llenew uud ienderueN« worthy tliul hi};hcst trust 
of his mailer, " Woman, behold iby son !" The 
only imperfeciion that struck me in the picture is 
a want of a right expression in Mary Magdalene. 
She is a beautiful, sorrowing young girl, kneeling 
at the foot of the cross, and pressing her brow 
■gwnst i(. but she \s not the forgit-en peoitenL 

orely the reformers forgot that nine tenths of 
nuuikind receive I heir strongest impressions through 
their senses, when tliey excluded such glorious 
f retentments of Divine truth from their churches. 



I dMdd b*vc bat u. pom vpuiem of kin wbdH 
ililiiwi ■!■ bM wiiitJ bjr GdUo'i CradfixMB. 

A ■Mtn-ly head d/ an old man armted af 
■ttentiDo. I examnwd my catslopw, and kmi 
it WH paialml by Giwrcioo in m wi^lc nigbt, aai 
wwoIkdoUicbvadortiicEtnnilFaaicrr Tbc 
•ttcnpt it m futile aa pratec to trprescat Hia 
wban " no nan out vm^ «ad UTe." 

Wliile enjojinp tb«ie sublime works i>f art ai a 
nev reretation, we rere hamrd away to aee aooie- 
ihin^ else tbat must be wen nou- or never. Tht 
Cmupo San/n, bring tbe moM bcaulij'al tiun{; of it* 
IuimI in Italy, we could noc overlook ; accordingly 
we drove Uiere. Tbi> wu formerly a cbartreu&e^ 
an immense monastic esublisbment ; once tbe 
dreary liabiUition of tbe living, wlio suffered in iCi 
magnificent solitude, now (he beauliful abode of 
tbe <lcad, wbo cannot enjoy It. Such are tb* 
[M^rver^ions of liuman tilings ! Tbe cemotory at 
Fenata dwindled to iii&ignificancc compared witb 
dtit. I can give you no i<li'a of tbe immeose 
perspective of its cloisters, all lined witb tableLS 
and inunumtviitit, and fresco paintings, or of tbe 
alinoAt iiiliiiite scriL-s of cell*, convened into lamily 
tombs by tbe exelusives of Bologna. Tbesc open 
from tbe cloistcn, nnd arc so arranged as to pm> 
duce a inoHt piclnretiiiue arcbitecttiral effect. " Tbe 
million" are luid in four large, open courta in 
elasses, oiiG for men, one for women, one for boy*, 



and anoUMT for gtrl*. Tliore seemed to me in tliis 
a ool<t ne{^1«et of tbe law of family lore, lliut governs 
all roaiikiiicL Tberc are i«oiiH! splcitilid public monu- 
ments, and a pantheon is building for the iLlu»itriou» 
of BolognSi and in ibn mean (ime tliere ti a, targe 
apwtment filled witli liieir bust^ I notict^d a very 
fine one of a woman wlio was professor of Greek 

lin ilic UniverBUy of Bulo^a within die present 

Immense as the establisliment is, large wlditiont 

I ve making. " You meaii to iiare room fur all 
fiolognit," I said to our conductor. " Oui, madame, 
tout lo monde entre et persoune en sort. C'est 

'pourquoi qu'il but totijours bfltir" (" All come in 
and none go out. So we have to keep on building.'^ 

It has been our great pleasure to meet Mis* 

there. You can bardly imagine tbe deliglit, after 
being exclusively among foreign people, of meeting 
a higli-bred Eiiglisli woman wlio is not foreign to tis. 

• ll in MiJ UiiC lUlr hu iiruilucrd moc* Icnrniid iromcn thia 
' wj part of Rurojiv, ind thiil Bulogo hu lungest continiied t» 
rtapMt and nwstil lb* liCoraiy ■cquiaitioat at ynanen. It *n* • 
Udf of Bologna "ho. in tbn fifteenth century, iru m iMalou* » 
AatBfioo oi bn ttx u to tmploj ber nil and l«tfnia< tn proro 
tb* world hu been all ibU while In error, and llut SC wm AJam 
who MupUd Kn. It U cntioua (hat Ibe nit»l tilnitrloua uaaiplM 
of Uamtd woinBa ihoald aprlnc up in a counirr where thajr uv 
MadtmDed, tn matt*, tv ipioranoe ; «h«re a tooiFnliul education 
pr«wrlbe> [di|ioa a* tboir ouljr dtity, and Ikelr loitlncti dieiiib 
loio u tlieir onl7 hspplawi. 



She sang for us, and truly, as Mra. mii rf 

her, she does not nut^ like an angel, but " like ■ 
cboir of angels." Music \» tbc key that onloeb 
licr »out, tiiid bring* iu rich rirrcUtioafl U ber&tt 
Slic looki*, wliilt! tinging) like an inspired sftjrL 
We went to tlie opem uiili Iier, where we sdw, fv 
tlie fintl time, a tt/^ni ballet. The huu»c i* nn 
pretty. There are bulconiec )>r(i)ectiiig fratn iW 
loffts, which tliow oflf tlic aiidi<-iit;c, and give tbt 
house a lively usprct umraual in the Italian tiwolrck 
iVvir. 28. — A wretched morning, and tke na 
pouring, my dear C. ; but our leitera are A 
Florence, and ilicrc rouiit we be — so bo ! fi»r ik 

Filla^rt. — Ah we drove out of Ilulu^ia I bi 
a ineluncholy sense of lite ludicrous jnouffirieacf 
of two rainy ihiyti in a place where we might l«rr 
been employed fur sis montlis in studying tht 
olmoat uniinjmired records of its days of pmw 
and magnificence. In spiteof ibe pouring min, «r 
enjoyed the environs of Dologiio. Tliey m* 
richly embelli»bed. 

At our itecond jioiit vrc took • third p«ir sf 
b«r«e*, and at tlie first ascent a yoke of oxen !■ 
addition, and then began a .tluw diag up the ApM- 
nines, which we continued lill ux tliis cve nti^ 
with ilie exception of a race down the bilU as ftw 
lets and eurelets as die driving in ourowu country. 




This is a new ^spericnce ; for, till now, th^ caution 

'our poetilious faiu gone even n Hide beyond ray 

pwnrdly nolions of prudence. 
The Apeniitm-K »rtf a congregation of hills; 
we have paMed to-day are mucli liiglier, but 

it UDtike, in their formation, the htlU between 
erkshire and Hajnpshire, though, judging from 
cir productions, very unlike in their climate. 

Icre urc line fields of wcl l-st]l^tl^d winter-grain, 
and occasional planlationit «f grapes flung from tree 
to tree. Once tlie mi«iy aiinonphere cleared, and 
we got a peep at the Adriatic and llie Mediier- 
laDcui. We linve been all day diinking of yon. 
Il is ** Thanksgiving Day ; " and our position in 
a huge, lonely inn in the midst of the Apennines, 
witli n Milon over a stable, ts a sorry cantrast to 
your sweet savours and social pleasures round tho 
hwBlb of our cliUilliuud I Wc have entered Tu»- 
cany, and [ fancy I can sec the npirit of ihi-s most 
fortunate land of Itiily in our buxom, frank, good- 
humoured houless and her beautiful progeny, with 
their black eyes and golden skins. We have beeu 
talking with the eldest, Candida and Clementina, 
ajid pelting the ynungcsl, Otulio and Angiolino! 
" a pretty Italtanixiiig of Tom un<l Sum," K. say^ 
I like, of all tilings, to stop at these inns which are 
not the regular Htopping-plaeeH, The people are 
social and frank, and you get some insighi into the 
national modes of getting on. You will find no 


tCMups and no tcu (but tlint firat of ncoe— liei j« 
Always biivc- witli you), and you liave m. dnll 
for yoiir UiUe-service ; uaA, instead of i 
waiter wi til bi§ inetigTC Frencli, aud ba**!Mlih 
■ipiora,~ and kb action uetier suited to Uw wmi 
you have all tlie family to serve yoa, witk 
uraufting tiidivi<liuirni<i4, and all eager and 

V^'R left our alieiter at Fillagare at aine A* 
iiiuriiinfT. We are often wondering ai tlw ch^ 
|)laint» we itave heard of the iaiptMitious in lofy 
We had excellent broad and delicious butter inm 
the nittcinu (the duke's dairy) wttb fresh egp • 
the morning, generous un-Italianlirca in iworocwb 
and « pair of diickens for to-day's lundt. all t* 
one dollar each; and being an inn where irarriUtt 
seldom stop, ihey had the lemptntioo to plnck nl 
tliC goose thai is rarely cao^hl. 

I walked on in ad\'BnGe of ilie carriage tliisDMni> 
ing, and a hnvy, ifflpeneiniblc iniit ousa wiiddbf 
over the hills in one direction, and fiir. Car asij 
in another the light Mrcainnl dowo in a tiintj 
shourer, in whieli the uhole faidi of tlie htnd 9«M 
have enveloped a ilvMcndini; Divinity. I nt 
amid scenery m> wild and solitary tliat it rrcalM 
my earliest ideas of Italy got from Sin. KatcUbi 
romatioea, when I was suddenly awnkeDrd froa • 
reverie to an uncomfortable conscioumsss of ay 

tovaser to rLnnExcx. 

llion aod liflplessnesa by tb«> apparilioD of a 
inf^'looking vrrttcli clotlied in ilieep-ikins. He, 
awever, h<>took litouclf lo die rvlmble occupalion 
' I«ndinir Iiii &licop. Soon aftrr ui a»-riili'r ovvr- 
tae, atxl 1 tried to keep pace wiili bi« beast, 
iking dial lie mw a survgiiard wb<t powicised 
M> mueb property as an imk, but tlie brute 
iiblcd away from me ; and while I jmused, lieai- 
wbellicr to proceed or turn toumrds llic cur- 
t, I perecireil u ragged, wilfUlooking man in 
1 adjoiDinfr field, wliu eyed lae for un inslnnt, and 
en came rapidly towanlit me. I hesitated no 
Dnger, but turnvtl and walked <]iiickly down tbe 
ill, fleeing, as I looked lukaiicc at my pursuer, 
tliat be gained on me. " Oli," tliought I, " wliat a 
fool I was, when Kraiifo» told roe yesterday ibia 
was DO country for a lady to walk alone in, to try 
it B second time '." Like die Iriabroan, 1 tiiougbt 
all the world might hear the §inging in my ears, 
wbcn, to my unspeakable bclii-f, our grcnt machine, 
widi its attclagc of six bor«v«, appeared in sight. 
How brave 1 felt as I ugnin turned and eyed ray 
enemy, wbo imnKilialely retreated, gi^ng me 
thuN tomo colour of reason to beliere that I had 
been on tbe verge of an incident very rare of late 
yeare. It u surprising to me, with tbe temptadons 
of booty which the rich Englisli travellers offer, die 
urgency of the people's wants, and the favourable 
pi»itions occurring on the great tboroughfam, 
that rolibcriea arc not frequent in Italy. 



Tlie wind blew furiou&ly to-tlay on Uk Mnu 
of the ApcDiiiiic*. Tliesc gusts of wind, » H 
rcail to 110 from out gui<lv-book (ul Uir aame^'t 
Bcvincii to be Kwclliiig to a burricaoc), fom^ 
carried away carriages, travelltirs, aud aJl ; bul dm 
all danger gf aucba CBtastropbe is obviated bj'UMt 
walU erected for protection by the " pataoil 

At our foiirtli post (lie wildni*«8iind sterilitr £»■ 
appeared, and we came down upon dcvliritin Ml 
large tracts of ricli i>asturage, where licrdt ofaBk 
and flocks of sliccp were gnuting, and a little Imo 
down appeared plantalionfi of vines and olivMi Ai 
we iipproacbcd llii« moat Imutiful cil^- of FlotfOBt, 
tbe liills, even at tbis sear seuson, appear likein* 
raced garden ; und as we ciiine down llie last laif 
de«cent, wiib ilir valley of tbe Amo at our feet, aai 
fair Florence wttli iu spires and domes before 
we M'Cined to lutve jtassed into anuiber world. Tbr 
olive>treefl resemble our ordinary-siied willovM 
its shape and in tlie liuc of its foliage. Sen* 
person bas bappily snid that " it looks as if it 
in tnooiiliglil :" an idea exquioiiely truitfuted 
poetry by Kcnyoit iii lib address to his **afiymi 

res tail " 

" Or iddlag yet • p4lor pefui<rumi 
To llw pale ollre-ircfc " 

The olive lives to sucli an age tbat tbe pra^ant 
lieves tbe oldest were planted in llie time of 



kvioiir. Thobearinjf-liiTibsarecoiilinuHlly renewed 

trimmiiif;, but die mnto stemti are appurciitly 

jleRA, and so <lecny«d and hollow tliitt you wonder 

0W Ute juices cait be kept in circulation. And 

^et they are in full bearing in the moat sterile 

places, where, as our friend K — n said loo poeti- 

Jy in prose, " they pump oil from the rocks." 

We are settled for a week at llie >Scheidcrfr hotel 

tiie Arno, formerly one of the palaces of tlic 

[edicL This, I &ncy, i» the season when most 

jlish are to he foun<l in Florence. It seems 

ke an English colony. Tlie coaches in the streets 

tlnglUh, with Eii|;l!»h ludii-« (ind Rtifilifth live- 

'Ilio »]iop» are thronged with English, and 

lie galleries filled with them*. 

Sitnna, Dtrtmitr 8. 

We arrived here la^t evening juHt at the moment 
the only Italian sunset we have seen to be com- 
pared with our brilliant sunsets. The golden and 
criuson rays reminded mc of home, hut how dif- 
ferent from anything ni home tbe Gothic nructures 
and towers that reflected them I Our drive yester- 
(hiy wan tlirougb t» lovdy a country as am be 
imagined; broken into steep, high hill», whose dc> 

* I )uTC onlucJ taj Ant ilill(tilful imprmianl of Ronoo*. 
We ntuRtcd l« U M ■ pltKuittr msiodi wbcD Df nrorJ* ntn 
nora partlcalir >gd may prOf* more int*restiii{. At u; ralfv 1 
■hall Moid Iha Cadioiunew of repetition. 



clmties of «vi>r)- form nre cnridifld by the highest 
cultivation, wliidi shows, even now, what a garden 
Tuscany is ; lliut hoN! " Nature mnlces bcr bappj- 
homi' wirh mnii." There soi'im to be a fiiitvss and 
hHrinoiiy between the ground and its tiller*. Wc 
have seen nowhere so handsome and attractive a 
pi-«wiitry. They have bright cheeks and briglit 
cyi*, and the most graceful cheerfulness. The 
animal^ too, seem the fit oBspring of tliis lh«ir 
bountiful mother-earth. The oxen arc mouae- 
eoloured. large, fat, and bcnulifitlly formed. 

When wc arrived iit the inn, we found that all 
the upurtmcnt« au pmnier were held in reserve for 
an «3Cp«eted "milord Anglais" (all the English on 
tlie Continent are ** my lords") ; so wc are obliged 
to put up with a little saloon witliout a fire, and to 
hover round a »moky chimney in R.'s beilroom*. 

* I COM uknl *a Engliih (rttuil, ipbo, I thau|h. «ai ■«■- 
ciMtlj ■ phSo«opb*r ID mriurv aiicl |i«irti«|it to Mln the qumtlon. 
*■ bav It bappcof that the En^h m lo mack dulik«d go tfc« 
t'niiUaenl." " llow can it be othcnriw," b« i*|tB*d, " wImm 
the]! oeru|i]r tbc beat *pula)FDt*, ride In lb« beil cMtbf ei. nae 
th« btit bonr*. ncl.l>ihurt.r«rtaMl lb* nattTn la irtrjrtbtiif H* 
Anil whanlolhupotmithbtf inadilad tho KocHthaui's ibj^Mi 

»nd pride, hit UUud inaptitude U adaptuian, hia iirlail nt. 

frMB principle, taile, and hibll. and tlie conadonantM of in 
praUbiB Mpcrioriljr thnt hr manifmti in all putt of lb« i 
lliu* (Trrywb«rc runninc afuul of olber paopla'a »clMor», i 
pridt. iiu). 1 majr adil, jntt trlf-HlimaCiMb it it irtj npUeabta 
«lif be 11 the >ubjn:l of pnuil diilikc. It ii ■ pitj ba ihnilil 
Iha* Inie (he bentbt <A hia widr.ipFeul bcnefutlooa. It i> the 
ICnfUibmu obo kecpi alin and ailir ih« naadf popitlatioti *rf 



As we liave been looking forwnnl to a picnsaiit 
Sunday here, you must forgive my grumbling. 
We fully realise tlie tia{>pinet» of trarellini; in a 
large party wben we assemble, a tiliie Climuun 
OCmgr«gatioD, Jbr our mass. Tlial boirig ovi>r tlit* 
oiorniitg, vrc sallied forth to the Cathedral, old and 
grand, rich witltout and within. It has a rare 
mosuic {mveni«nt of black and white marble, repre- 
senting; Scripture history, am) events and charac- 
ttn of the Catholic Cliurch, in a masterly stylL-, 
by a HHTC oiilliiiin;^. It bears a very curious 
resembtuiiCK! lo Kct7.cli\ cu-hlngs. There are fres- 
coes in tlie »acrb»ty, designed by Raphael, in which 
there are three portraits of himself; if not en pei»- 
trt idealised, be must have had an outer fitting; his 
inner man. In this same sacristy tac twenty-tive 
volumes of churdi music, illiistnited by DctiL-dic- 

tha*e utcl i3iic*. Il li he wha bglliU tlii boUU, who mU tho 
wbetlt ia motion on tW roiiclt, obu tnakt* ■ bv*l«n path to Ibe 
Unpin of old art. howrtrr Hr lulled, uiil (o I hr iiKf luting UmptM 
■tf tMure, howerer difflijolt of »e«>. BaCihuoUgoeafor nothbt 
M loDC •* bctouiiUliu bl> uttloDol deiDMnalit, and (u an luUin 
KraiUBun ulJ to a frimd of wlao) " coma dotrn Inia ttaljp u U 
he Mm It th« brsd of > Tivtorioiu army!" Tho Anciidan 
Iraicllen bclog u f«t bnt a bmidl'ul in compaiiion with Ibe 
Knfllah. and tpeaklog the lune Uagnogc, ire merged la them. 1( 
not BngUah, wbjr then, tbej M^, " Tou an Enifllih Anicriani." 
Il«t lb* monmi Khrj henimr fullj awire that jau brlODK to a 
MpMate and iadeprndcDl nation, thrj i)p«n tbdr b<arli,aad pour 
Mil a dood of gncfi apinit llie togliih, Ai bf anr a Tuoog 
naban. "c ahould Ik flciiblc and aioid the foible* of the paKot 


tine tnonkit in the fift«»itJi century, inc«l«m 
vivid as ihc rninlMW, and with \he moM ekbenfc 
fioish. For tliv rMt (I ftdopt a fcrcat auiluniir) 
"vide Guide-book," wbicli guide-book tfiUut«f 
in scurch of the Fonte-Blauda, to which Dutto, iff 
m simple loenlioD, has givea an ** imranriu] yimtli* 

50 up we mounted and down we sinxle throaf^i 
street that no carriage could pass ; ai>d at the (M 
of it, and at th« gate of tho city, we fouiid ik 
fountain. Sienna is celebrated for the puriijr wi 
abuiKliiriee of its water. Here it floirs ihraa|k 
several pipes and by proteiique mouths into m 
imnieDse basin, which t* eovered iritli a tlm^ 
vaulted roof of tlirec arches; and, hun^of i>m 
this, on the vcrfrc of a perpendicular hill, it 
large church dedicated to St. Cutberine. It w 
roost picturesque place-: but wliat is no/ pictun^nr 
in Italy? The nid biig« I *aw ekinninf^ lainb*.a> 
we again mounted (he steep bill, were subject* for 
Michael Angelo. If (be»e old women Lad hm 
born in New-Kngland, they would as •ooD han 
flayed iheroselves as flayed lambs in the ttroM of a 
Sunday. So much for conveniional virtue.' Il 
was fesla-day in Sienna, and lliesc secular mpUiy- 
mcnts were a curious epiwdc enough in the g et - 
rul "idlcstie" and guivly of tlie Mrcets. It was 

51 Catherine's festa, too, being Iter natal day, asd 
wc were pacing by a little chapel, built on tha 
site of the very house in which she was boni: 


< we punbed a»iAe the curuiii to the door, and 

ned into il, expecting to 6iid it crowded : but 

wliom ibe jiaiiiters more effectually than the 

lurch liave canonised, has met with the common 

Bte, and has little honour in her own country — 

her own clmpel. There were some twenty 

Jdren kneeling about tlie door, who Buspended 

r prayers to stare at us ; and the young priest* 

were going in and out, I inferred from the 

etton of tlieir eyes, thought le»s of tlie saint 

of the blooming young heretics who were 


Sadiaifaiie. — We were up beuroes thiti morning, 
id before seven drove from the little piazza, with 
antique column surmounled with the nursing 
Other of RomiiluH and Remus, and her human 
Wo were but a few mileii from Sienna 
n f (Jiscovercd that I had left my ithaw) anil 
lilla at the head of my bed, where I bad placed 
them to raise my scant pillow. I sent back a line 
from the next post, but, I take it, there is liltle 
hapK in Italy of letrieving such u lots. If the 
auuter of tlie hotel chancer to bv bouest, the eamt' 
will be lAO tjuick for him*. 


■ 1 h>t« traDifened the (bat* fron mj juurml, lod an «i1lin( 
IObtulb*tb>m«aril,lt. bjMcorditif llicinor, 1 maj urc othen 
from loclt iwteping *nd unfuir jud^mciiti. Mj prapeii} •*■ ual 
aftw ni« to VUttBK bj tellurino, *ilh ■ ler; anl uotc from »ur 
hod of tbeAqniU Hm. Tbe mu bIm brought H mtttXj lequtml 
vou II. n 

w FWcna!- AaotW 

It "Hb Mlhcr md^ 
Ml Am *» w VM ■■ r*; far Ub. nd giw Ua 
head My kasx': andt' W caBctNded, **UirNit 
B» work — ak, ngnonao, <|ii*Mn pMW i maito 
p ai reiu muh o mbenbtle. 




Poor and miserable inrleed I It <-ontii«ts of a 
agff of volcanic hills without soil, ex»|>MM^ here 
sd tlu'rc vnougb to sustain pasturage for a few 
•p. W> urc on one of ihr lii^^hpst, ftrearieat 
nits, and are now, just as the evening iHcloAinpr, 
in^ in the litige balcony of our bBrrack-lik« tnii. 
will sketch tbe scene before us for you. No: 
' are not quito at the summit, for tliat is crowned 
ith a ruined fortr(.>xs, and cowering under its weUr 
lawreivtied villitge, briween wbieli and our inn 
road puwes. Defore our door is mi old stone 
intaio with the armorial l>Garin)^ of Home for- 
Dtlen (lunily. From the fountain there U a Ktnught 
?p path to the village above. Atcendin^ tba 
nth are asies with immense Itundltv of fire-wood 
each side (a family's winter supply prntiably), 
insisting of mere twigs and vitlin. There are 
rtests, too (the only people here, Francois says, 
'who do not work and do eat), with their goons and 
thrce-eornerpd hats, dawdling np ihe puih. And 
tliere, driving their wiinty flock to (be fold, goes a 
shepherd and shepherdewi, and their little girl, 
looking lenii and wearied, their windowed ragged- 
iiesH half hidden willi dark red mantles (here the 
abeplierd's cu«tuinc), which hang to the grouiul 
bcbiml. Kound the fountain are gathered ass- 
drivers drinking with tlieir asses, and beside tbem 
is an otfl hag, who having just espied us, hu 
pre»»ed her 6nger» on tbe sightluw eyebulk of a 

•ftefao. Tit 




the sooMi if 

kr pMB, fc«£t^ tb«B villi 

W «cl M I OB WC : cfac |ri*C» 

: chnv— JO, ihe is tiwl 
ba get id, sod tliejr 
I d» Ml kuow wfau B]r 
lUok, bat tLis tonniig 
to pwttpCT brum 
Mcai tB Bw oo* of thoM "&aUwtic trirk» it 

Mjr (bar C, yon nuf oiy "Kmething too rond) 
of tbis ; " bttt b eggi r\- here, remember, makes ap 
a good portioa of tlw history of t]>c couutry, or, 
tatfcer, a mnning oommeiitary on tbe neglect and 
abuaea of its gorennDenta *. 

• No «M bor> ind hnd la Eorvp* can ««U Inai^JBC lio« Mdt- 
i>e(W vast aadbeKuT of tk* Old WMld ii 10 m Am«ruiatrE- 
I n«M b* t w giwn for a todioM raGontBo* to it— 1 ««raU ad 
MhnwiM fairljp pt>« nj utpttHiona. 

VITEBflO. 140 

I ViteriM>. — Wc left that mid place up in tbe clouds 

I thin moriiiiig willi only just light enough to see oar 
winding way, Wc again filtered the papal tcrri> 
tory at tbe enA of our fintt {>o»t, aud wc find 
iticreasiiiK wretcliediiess, and our own wrvtched 
condition in bad roads, puny Loraes, raj^i>;cd lmr> 
uvm, und incompetent postilions, all betokening 
Win- holiness' dominion. We passed to-day through 
HuUc-nn, no«- a miserable little town, but ouce an 
ancient Ktrutcnn capiuil, whence tlie Romans are 
said to Imve removed 20tlO stalueit ! " The world 
u a stage," and the sci-iies, witli but a little longer 
interval of lime, as ftiiftiitg as the scenes of a 

I WISH you could have seen us, dear C* tin hour 
ago, escorted about hy two little fellown, ra^ed 
and beautiful, who would fain have persuaded u.s to 
go to the Church of Santa Hosa to see the saint's 
body, which is exhibited in her own church. But 
though our conductors reiterated in most persuasive 
tones " i una bella Santa — Saiit;* Rowi," wc per- 
sisted in leaving the vilely dirty streets of Viterbo 
for llie Huburhi>, where we bad a delightful stroll lo 
a chapel of St. Francas, which we entered just as 
a procession of Franciscans went in to their vvHper- 
service. Our IJlile guides dropped on tia-ir knees 
and Joined in the service ; and so did we iji our 

150 MKnuisr td bohc 

bevu. How skilfully the CallioUcs hav« nade 
inaajr of tW offices of tbctr religion to bumoBue 
wilb ikt vnoiB and ifMotanroue fcvlin^ of nm ! 
A veapcr »criHc« w tli« very poctrj- of womUp. 

Ok «uf Tvuirn, our ciceroDc;, uiiiiuut u-arning m, 
kuecktsd at ihe door of a kouae, into wliidi wc wen 
admiited by an olij crooe, wlio, on the \tay» saying 
w>aiethiii)f to licr in a low-toned p&toiii, oouducUJ 
ns tlinMigh a suite of aparUneats, and paamd ■ 
orer to tbe *^ I'adnme." lie led in out Joto I 
garden, and told as thia had been Mndame Lelitia't, 
a»d was still in the pmatwJan of die Bonapatte 
Enmily. I fimcied thi« ww a mere inrontioo b> 
(ilcli u« of a few panls; so T wa« t;riid/ini()y 
offering Uie fee., when llie gentleman, witli a very 
dignified bow aad a *' graziej" declinod it, and 
tamed away to pluck us bouquets of roMS awl 
^raniiinis. It was now my turn to say 
and to feel M if I bad been guilty of a 
quite equal to that wUiclt. with a true traveUer't 
prejudice, I Itad gnUuitously imputed Co iJie Italiu 

It is difficult for us to imagine tliat this littJ* 
town, wliich now coatains about 1S«000 inl*- 
biCtuitH (not »o many as some of our wi^tem towu 
uceiimulate in tlirec or four years' growtb). ba 
been standing ever »incv tbe time of tie Etrusmuw 
was a celebnu-d place in their day, and bu daoc 


ofun be«n a papal residence ; but dime Old World 
towns burr, at aii Irishman mi^ht say, a growth 
two ways. 

We left Viterbo at seven tliit morning, lillJe 
tkinkiiig of what dread rooment (o one buotan 
being was Uie instant of our departure. We starlpd 
with six horees, and, according to the Lau-s of 
poetinK in the {wpc'H duiaintons, with a postilion 
to eacli ti]>aii of borsns. They were all young men, 
one a boy of thirteen, and all impetuous and noisy, 
beyond what you cap well conceive, never liaving 
beard the elainour of Italian po«tbays. 'latere 
were two carriages ready to start at tlie inn-door. 
Fra□fail^ anxious to have the advantage of pre- 
cedence on die road, urged our postilions, who 
needed no urging, and ire set off at a gallop down 
the eteep street of \'iterbo, and into the n)«rkct- 
place crowded with people. I shuddered as I saw 
them jumping on one side and the other to avot<i 
ns. I called to Fran^-ois to check our speed ; he 
did not bear me ; and on we dashed, turned a corner, 
and a moment after uo felt a slight jolt of the car- 
riage as if it were passing over something, and 
ft Diomcniary check of the horses, and beard cries 
UkI excUmatioiui, and again the postilions' clamour 
bunt forth, and the hor&os were put to tiieir aixh-*). 
I thrnst my head out of the window, and saw the 
giris in the rumble as pale as death ; K. bent for- 



wurd and said, " We bavc run orcr a womuL I 
culled to I'ran^oU aiit) tbc postiltoits to stop : iW; 
r^id nat bear me; say notliiii^ in tlie carra|^: il 
will do no good to stop now," The potdlM 
were still ut^ing tbeir horses, we were actuaD; 
racing iip-biil, the scene of the tragedy wu almi^ 
far behind, end feoriiig, hs K. did, to ahock W 
uncle by com mn mealing the dissster, I suboinid 
to the apparent barbarity of gallopiug mvty, 0^ 
heeding tbe oiuory wc bad inflictcil. A balf-lav 
aflerwani a courier who passed u» on honetiKi 
called out, " i moria ! ** (" she is dead ! ~) It b» 
been a gloomy day to us. 

Nothing could e.Tce«d the dismay and dread n 
the faces of the young postilions M-hen we a t apfti 
at the post-house, except tlic boy, who, being tW 
son of the postmaster, was mutc of aequiiul, and 
bore with perfect unconcern all the blame wbid 
bis comrades heaped upon him, imputing the div 
aster to his unskilfulucKt in not tunung asidt bil 
horses. Kriniijois contirnied their BtutecMnt, and 
K., at tlieir earnest supplicsiion, wrote as niti- 
gatory a slatement for them us ihc case admiiu4t 
to be presented lo the police of Vilerbo. FraiifOM 
tails u8 now (hut mIic will he rvcalleil to V'iterlioai 
a witnes», and coiigrutuhiles liin)«clf un bis superiM 
wariness in nut putting his name to tli« tcstimoniaL 
" Miss K.," 1m! says coolly, " dJd not Urint" 
" Nis Fnui{4HSi but if )>he had, she could not 



kve refused to do justice to those men becuute 
exposed herself to inconreoience," " Ah, 
dame, one must lake care for one's self fint * !" 

Our lut po«ts were tlirough Uw dreary wattes 

It eDOon)]iuM Rome. Tlic caoipagna is not, at 

bad i);iioranily believed, a level, but presents an 

liidiilalmg surface, witliout morasses or stagnant 

vaivT, or anything that indicati-s iinwholi-8om«ne!i!i 

Kcept its utter desertion. Tho ^rsKS looks ricti 

id mnk, u« if it sprung from a virgin soil, and ita 

Its are glowing, even at this season. Tliere are 

ittered here and there large flocks of sheep, with 

hoggani, and half-clotlied shepherds, ainl 

hepberd's dogs; and there are herds of oxen of a 

pcry brgc and fine species, and with horns as 

iiutjful tut antlers. But, with these exceptions, 

bere U no life. From the summits of the bills, 

and there »re considerable hilU, the eye ttrelches 

over a wide reach of country, extending for milea 

■ Wc vcDl throu^li (tie nta*] trannlllonn, brtnt Am IncmMd *l 
<be poitilioni, And (hrii, trbrn wr Ull thr mitvry »f cichan^injf 
iht free g>llai> om hill and ilal« for ■ (iriion in ViMrba, itwV ■ 
prinn. with Ibc cutKi of >U llie loWD, antt ths barror of haiiog 
«ml • frilow-crraturF " iuiuidotcd,BnaiiBMltd,'* tu |>uixiliiry, 
<re pitied Ihem. Frini^ola atlerwanl neofBliti onp ut tliipi tl 
Rome, nbo tolil blm lie hud |[iit ufl with a foir week*' ImpritOtt* 
BcnL " Wm Lhv Human joaoit ' ~ uk«d Fntifoii. "So-fn." 
*■ Htdibsahuibaiidl" "Tci." " Did jog DOCfeir be>ould>ttb 
joq'" "AI Ant. y« ; but ho vu ■ Matibtt rd[(i«~be thinhc4 
me, iimI (•Scrtd to Irckt ids ti> a Ulnncr '" 

H 3 

1S4 RQME. 

in overy direction, and here and there aa vtf' 
barrack-like dwelling, a crumbling tower, a ahnat, 
or a crucilix ; but iiu eketirfuL habitations, m 
curling Emukc, no domestic tmuiida, nothing ibl 
indicHli.-* Iiuiaun life And '* country conteiiUDeab." 
It is une vMt devolation ( u fit turrouoding fcit the 
tomb of nations. As we cangtit die view itf S(. 
Peter's, and tlie domes and Hpires of the tKiee 
hundred and ntxty cliurches of Rome, it seemed u 
if life were Mil) beating at the heart of the bod; 
doomed ta die first at tlie extremities. 

You may expect to know my sensations on fini 
seeing Home. I cannot tell tbem, my dear C. 
I do not myself know what tlivy were. I forgot 

Two miles from Rome we passed the 'Hber, mi 
tlie Ponte Molte, ibe place where Conslantine mut 
the vision of the cross ! and, after passing this, tlie 
aspect of the country dianges, and immediately 
■round tJie vi'nile of Home there is a belt of villw 
and gardens, a little dtscordunt witl) vrliat has pre- 
ceded, like giiily-drcs^ed people in n funeral mi*. 
lliccity.uiu'eeubCTcd itattho I^iuzxadcl i>i>poks* 
has tlie giy iis[>ect of a modem capital, with ib 
founlajii, statues, churclies, and uiiiforiD OMxIeni 
edifices; but there are certain antiques, Uke the 

• Thu plice U Mid to drriiF iu nmc n«( (him iha 
Ihajr do nol (Igort In iIum p*ii* — but Amd an inetft pui* «f 


^^Effyplian obplisk, covered with liieroglyphic 
^Bvliich mcmble licirlooiDs in the bouse o( young 
H|^opltf who hnvo just set up Imusckccping. We 
had pLiity of time for obit«rvation, while Fran^-oia 
was tryiiij; to softm the officials. Hut their hritrts 
I wcro too bard for his rhetoric, and so wc drove to 
I the Dopina through the Corso, the princip»l street 
I in Rome, long ati<l narrow, looking, I Taney, a» we 
I proceeded at a foot-pace, with a soldier on ench 
side, like captured contrabandi«u. The Corso was 
full of gay equipages, filled with English people, 
and lined, for the most part, with mean shops, with 
mean, every -day cuniniu<ii[ic8 ; such shops and such 
" goods " as yuu would see in tlie " Main-strMt * 
of Hudson, or in any other second-rate town. We 
had DO feeling of Jiome till we arrired at the custom- 
house, and saw there some witnesses for tlic old 
P^ty, in a portico with superb antique Corinthian 
plUirs. After a little fussy ceremony, « mere 
make-believe peep into our hftggage, and the p«y- 
nent of a few pauts for thiit gentle treatment, we 
*ere released, and ar« at this moment id com- 
'fortable upnrtintnts in the Hutel de Kusaie. "> 
,-are in Ri}mi! I We were beginning to think the 
eep-bluc «ky of Italy n traveller's story, but here 
b. The evening is delicious: there u 

" A.O •mplcr etbir, • iliTlnw *lr." 

Our apartments open on a terraced garden, and 




we hsve been walking in it amid orange i 
lree» bent witb fruit, and roses and flowering tbula 
iu bloum. Some of tliese. planted in vases, MnJ 
on fragments of antique sculptured pillan. I o^ 
served one on n coIomiU foot, chiselled, pcrtiip«,^ 
a Greek artiil. At erery turn there arc ttuen, 
untiqiies tow, [>aiehed as our grandmotJien pouM 
clii nil— Greeks with modem Roman thnMi, tss 
iind fingers ])ieced on ad libUtan, and rren a tnak 
with le^s, arms, and lioad supplied. Hour the otpa 
of veneration must ilirivc in Rome ! 

W. CAME to us immi-iliately on our aninl. 
Could ajiything be more fortunate Uian our meetinj 
Lim here where llie girU roost nee*) tlie brothers- 
friend be will be to them, and we all need ihr 
refreshment of bis society and the comfort of ka« 
co-operation. K — u is here too for the winter: to 
we have suddcidy come into possession of an iaif- 
pendent fortune I W. bus cngi^cd our todgiagt 
near Monte Cavallo, looking out oo k grcea hS^ 
tbe Viniiiiul, witli a garden adjoining in EagU 
occupancy, and, of course, in high cultiratioo. aad, 
what is better than all the rest, with the sun shistag 
on us from its rising to its setting. We pay twcB- 
ty-three louiit, one hundred and one doliara, a 
month for our rooms ; all other expenses are a 
separate affair. This low price, as we ara Miiiirit 
it », is in consequence of our being &r froia tbe 



(&Bliionable) quarter. But, as we have 
^^Bcqaaintances, that does not signify: and the 
juaintonces we unsh to make, and daily visit, the 
Colosseum, the Forum, &c., ar« very near to ns. 
The tiibutc which pil^ms from all parts of the 
' world pay to these ruins U now tlie clnof support 
I of Rome. There are here every yeiir from ten to 
twenty thousand strangers many iCAidents for the 
I winters, and English people noted for tlie liberality 
1 of iheir cxpctiditure. 

^^ We hare been to the Colosseum, not farther 
^■froot us than your neighbour S — y is from you— 
^Bpot a quarter of a mile. Where it aiand», apart 
^Bitiin mo<Ierii Komc, tlic ground iit grass-grown and 
^■broken into footpaths. You liave seen a hundred 
^^ pictures of it. read at least a hundred descriptions, 
mnd you know its dimensions*, and yet, my di-ur 
C, you ainiiot iiouginc it:t imprcHsion. I do not 
^■meaii tbe impresHion of it« unbroken circle ; of its 
^■gradation of Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian ordcnt; 
^Vof the soft colour of its stone with its ages of 
weather-staining; of the shrubs waving like ban- 
ners from itA lofty heights; of the slender vines 
tiat penetrate its crevices, and hang out their 
flexile curtains; of its beds of glowing flowers, or 
of tbe moftay mattiog of its ruined siaintf. Now 

• lueircuiiiriireiiceli Ki'll fMt; luboight, IS7. Tbclcaglb or 
^Uie ««» I* 2U rod. and i[, bmdtb IB3. 

t A bunk Im* ImD written on <■■« boUn^ of iIm CoIdmcod, io 
vliuli MO ipeclat or plula us oihmI. 


all tilis is form and colouring, n-hicb hen, m <1w- 

wber«, bolils discount with tlie Keiuea. Bu k ii 

wbito sbuiiling uaAt^T Uifl slinilow of this mighty rwa 

that you fir»t fully rndiie Uiat you are in Han»<- 

■ncicDt Home; tliat you arc Ir«-a()ing the pv ni 

Caur, Cioero, aiid Brutus trod, ond aeetit); wim 

they saw ; that this t< the hn'»« of th* iiiaftnilifiM 

crimes and great deeds iliat fill the bhdCMl mi 

brighteAl pages in the Old World's story. Vtia 

your foot is a remnant of tlie massive pareiDeDi m 

which the triumphal procetnon ircMl : before tm n 

tbc I'ia Sacra, the Itoman Forum, the brobM 

temple* of tlie gods, tbc Palatine Hill, lh« rabt 

of the CiBur*' paloceR, lh« arches of CotMtaoliH 

and Titu«, and the Flarian ampbitbeatre, tlw Ni» 

gara of mint f 

■■ The tiart IMS o'er 
Vith iDnii oortblp «( tb« fniil o( oU i 
The dud but icrpirvd lortnAgoi, nho kHI role 
Our (pitiu fram their nrai'' 

TIlis is no poetic exaggeration. I am indincrfl 
think Byron is tlio only pcr»on who tma dscnbv 
sensations which people of far more common bkwU 
than his feel here. 

Tiic ColoMcum was biiilt rbiefly by the Jewish 
captives after the destruction of Jerimltat, h4 
was dedicatc^l by Titus with tbe slaughter ofSOOO 
wild beuAts. It was derated to gbdiatoHal 
tests, to tbe Ggbt of captive men with t-aptire I 
and with one another : subsequently it wm ifce 




It arena where Chrifltians funu&bed forth the 
IdnuiiBtic show uf being torn limb from limb I'ur the 
^entertainment of their fcllow-roen and women*. 
^TIle gladiatorial gamee were celebrated here for 
[.the lost time id the 6fth century. Telcmachus, a 
kChritltan who in vntn hod re montit rated aguimt 
rtltem, threw himgc-lf between the combatants, ami 
kiru imniedialely killed by the cnragiNl tkpectatont. 
tin consequence of thb, tlie Emperor IIonoriiiH 
[l^lislied the games, and the martyr became a 

The fltriicture remained entire until the eleventli 
I ventury, when by u Kotnan noble it was convened 
into a fortrc§s esteemed nearly impregnable. In 
1 1882 it wu the seciio uf m bullfight. At the end 
of the fourteenth century it was convened into uii 
I hospital. In llie lifteenih a portion of its maible 
^fe wax burned into lime. In the Kixteeutli century it 
^■btcame the ((uarry from which the nobles of Home 
^BMUlructeil their palaee^t, and partiuinti of all par- 
^BDm their fort! Beat iuu«. In the seventeenth, Six- 
^Btus V. aitenpted to establixh a woollen manu^ic* 
' tnry here ! After all these viciisitwlcs, the papal 
authority wa« at last interposed to save tJii* mag- 

■ ThoH nbo lake diihcwi«nlaB nrrt tt the pntfrm of a>u 
■bMid \%\tt tkcKKlMi wlifc tooklnc back Id tbe norM't iiMatj. 
Wbal >oald oo> b« (hoof hi or ilu •atocnt* ot Aiutii* tA 
Raaia (asl acn aolad tor bcarti o?ar-Min) if tbej w«n la RubU 
tor ibcir Mkjntt Oc Aon IhM tmmv i tlu p^ltbd Kodmu i 
Bm aM OriMlaait; dooe •aaMUsf b( m '■ 



nific«nt relic of mttiquily by Climtian coiuccnUH. 
Ileneilict XIV. in the middle of the lul eealai; 
sanclilicd it, »iid erected a cross lu tbc ctntn J 
tbc ur villi. 

Coniiiderable repaTationa liare been made bmm 
dme to time, and are still makinff. The oripari 
elevation is preserved enlirv but in oue small «;{- 
merit uf tliL' circle, unil iiiet«ilnp|>can stapcaJiMfc 
Its five rows of sruU arc in put still rntrnfr^. 
I'lie seiits of llie fint and second rowa were eoA^ 
ioned, and tlie senatore and tboee of coit«uIar nak 
occupied [Item. TWy ascended in posiiion m Okj 
descended in rank, till tlioy come to the poor wo- 
men who were above and below all ! 

W'lien I thought of llic purfmse to <rbidi tliii 
tlieatre was devoted, I felt my Impression of ib 
sublimity abated by my consdo»»nets uf tlie di^tv 
daiion of human tty. My inui|^iialion culled back 
from tlic dead the buiidrml tliouHind people 
filled this vast circuiL I »uw tbc Ronut 
looking down on tlie poor captives of tbo forest. 
and (lie iiuman sncrifice; and I wondered If, wbes 
tliey met in tlieir passage tlirougli tbe vomitoriot 
they talked of t)ie Last new fo^lnuu, and tetidcrly 
inquired of the young motber "tf her baby ImhI jrel 
cut a tooth !" That monster, " auUrm," don M 
harden tlic licurl t 



We have been to St. PeWr's, and arc not disup- 
nted. Tbe g^eat works of iialiiro mid atl iilways 
arpass my expectations. We walked iti sileoce 
I and down the nave, made the circuit of the wall, 
under tlic glorious douiP, and contented our- 
1 wiUi the effect of its atmosplicre without 
Lidyiiig the detiiils. The most bruutifiil object 
approaching St. Peter's is ccrtjiinly not iwelf; 
' dome is lost in ibis view, and the fumade lias 
ith«r grandeur nor harmony. Nor the colon- 
Its witli their ruw of statues, but the beunliful 
llains, the very types of life, grace, aiid youtb* 
everything else is fixed and heavy. 

Sun^atf. — Wp. have been out of the Porta del 
Popolo to-day to attend service in tbe Knglish cha- 
pel It is greatly to tlie honour of the pope that 
be permits the public worship of heretics here in 
tiie very heart of bis dominion. This it belter thuii 
tbe burning of (he convent in our land of liberty of 
conscience and universnl toleration! There wma 
oongicgation of from six to seven bun<lr«-d people, 
witliout any notable actruction in tlie officiating 
clergyman. It is cheering to see the English, 

borever tliey moat congregate, maintaining tlic 
obwrranoes of their religion. We found at Wie*- 
baden, Frankfort, Geneva, and here at Kome. a 
r^uhr English service on Sunday; not a nominal 

162 noiiK. 

tbiog, for the Engli»li, with vtry few ezceptiMk 
scrupulously utt«iid it *. 

I HAD biNMi H-all(tiif;»boat St. Petor'm lo^jlfl 

I felt llic ejutluttiun which lite praiuJeur, tbt nrt 
riches, and eodless wondera of that |r|orioi» dn)^ 
produces, n-lien I was suddenly atuncied \iy A> 
changing group arouud Uie brtHize statue of St 
Peter. This, formerly n statue of Japiter, ha 
been made by pupal consecratioD the pmidiBf 
divinity of die Christian temple. Il b a 
figure, elevated a few feet from tlic floor, 
ctrdet round the head (now n glory), the left iaai 
raised, and tlic right presitiiig a key la the 
The rigid face has a cold, inflexible ex| 
most un«uitcd to the impnl^ve di»dple. It laoli 
like tlie idol it h \ and nthrr singularly in keeping 
witli tliis expmiiiion t^ tlie right foot promd 
from the drapery, coiide»ceadingly presented ' 
the kiss of the faithful. 

I have often heard of the kuong of Sl Peur^ 

■ Wc ranrljr ■•> Engliih p«ople trat«Uif4 sa Svadajr i m4 ■ 

II JnTolvea no discredit, lad to atwt^n from it oft«a lBiyM« A- 
■ppdntment ami diunrnfort. thli iudkalm the •taadbMMM rf 
tbclr nligloui prlnrl|iIoi. C*pulD DhU llall'* '■ PucAworit," 
jHl piibliiliiMl, I'oiiUini in iiilsmlint hlMorj of til* tttadj iAM 
of tW Euglitb >l Romp, wbicb mDli4d ia ih« [iniliHifcMiil (f 
"■ PiDlMtut coDelciy, > Cbaroh of Eii|Und MniM, mI • 
cbarltibk fbnd dlipsued at * BcfonDcd alCM tn ifaa tiitjrli rf 
tbc >»vrrol(ii puntlff." God *4*c ibc oatioa that kimU tt !■ 
■lUn ita doiOMtle tict and tt* oliariiin I 



but, till I saw grown-up men and women ac- 

'tually press tlieir lips to lliis worn bronze toe, ihen 

[ ?ub their forelieadH against it (a phretmlo^nl ma- 

Itiireslation!)* &d<1 finally kneel before the image, I 

riiad never fairly ronceivcd of this idolatr>'; and 

I y«t, «bmild wc ail) it so? Who sliall analyse th« 

eeling in which love and reverence blend? a nicer 

'Ut than to sepurate the ray of light: who shall 

judge and condemn the impulses of devotimi in mi 

I ig^ioraiit mind? I will not, but rather describe 

^ktlie scene I saw before thin image to-day. Among 

^Bllie throng who came and went were two peasant* 

^'women, both in costume. Each had a child in her 

amn, one a boy about two years old, the other a 

girl somewliat younger. They were ragged, but 

I am accustomed to seeing these little, lost cherubs 

i^in mgs; and happily, in preparation for a risit to 

^phe grand Basilica, they had utidergone tlie r«rc 

r cemnony of a washing; and their brilliant eye* 

krtbonc out from the unsullied golden ground of the 

^rRoman complexion — but golden or yellow hanlly 

deacribcH their peculiar tint of skin — Victor Hugo 

rdone it well in poetry: 
" II Hmble qii'il ai iati do njran ilu wMI." 

About this glowing complexion hung the richest 
curling liair of a glo^iiy golden brown. The mother 
of the boy, after kissing the toe henvlf, put his lips 
to it. He submitted to Oie ceremony somewhat 



reluctanlljr, faintly touching it with his Tip^ mi 
giving Ills iiOHc u l>ruM)i Acro«s it. 

As lie raued Lis lie»tl, lie saw the litllv prirlwbav 
mother w»s waiting for her turn, and half »(niii|^ 
from his motlter's anns. he kissed tiie child'* rooal 
obeek of warmllesh and blood, and uttered a jojva 
chuckle at its coittTBst w-ith tlio bronze toe Unl n- 
sounded through arch and lusle. It was s pnVf 
triumph of nature ; a living j>icturc io this laad^ 
pictures* I 

December 30. — A uosT bcaiiliful morning, ■; 
dear C 'Die sun has juu r'ntn above the Vlaittal 
Hill. I perceive a uli^rht huurfroM on tlic garte 
opposite to us. The Icuwo on tlic Uill orange-tro 
by our window look «lightly vhillvt) ; and the pMT 
women who are passing with llieir shawls ck« 
drawn over their heads shrink from the envfBjr V 
ours ivould if tlic mercury were ten degrees belov 
tuTO. This is tlie first fro«t wc liavc felt in Rwoe. 

\Vc devoted yeslenlay morning to CrawfonT* 
and Tborwaldsen's studii. They i>rc8ent a ftriking 
contnkst of the toils, privations, and difficultiM •( 
the young and struggling genius, with the confcrt 
riches, and glory that wait on bim who has woo iW 

■ I iibMneil the deeent-looUas peo|)lr >monc lli« tuibloJ t»- 
cKctl^ iripwl tbc im btfore klxliig it : iiid Mr. G. loU ■■ itirf 
*!■» bia lioUnn* don it Iliia (nrtrncr, hli illeuitHiU flrft 
fonruil kail gin It in cHecUie rub attb theli c«nb*ic 



Crawford is at this moment laid up, danger- 

ilyill from overwork, and Tli or waldscn is making 

\ visit in his native country which is little short of a 

iphat progress. Sculptors, from the weight 

thdr notorial, are compelled lo work on the 

aund floor. Cniwford's titudio occupies three 

sbscure, small, iiml sunleiM aparimontK, so cold and 

amp thai ihey srrike a chill throuf^h you. Here 

llie has :i feu- things tinished, and several spirit«<I 

nd beautiful models (hat are to be done into 

nurble if he has orders for them. The sculptor 

abours under a disadvantage from the costliness 

[erf bis material ; if he be poor he cannot put his 

iesigii into marble till it is in part paid for. Our 

aunlrymen, not being practised in ihesc matters, 

'liavc not sutficicntly considered this, itnd ordt^rs 

thare been Komeiimes given with generoua inten- 
tion*, but with the mercantile idea of payment 
on delivery of tlie goods, which could not be 
eiecuted for want of money to buy tlie block of 
marble. It Is the English custom to pay half tlie 
price of the work on ^viiig the order. Among 
I Crawford's designs is a very noble stutue of 

k Franklin. It is meant to illuMratv his ditcoverin 
In electricity; lie i» looking u|> to the clouds with 
tlic culm assurance of conscious power. What 
an emliellishmeut would this bo for one of tbr 
Philadelphia squares * Another design, which 
eemed to mc to belong to the romantic school, 



is die rain of tnakcs deKcribed iii the Apocalypte. 
Tbc cane itt falling on a fiunily. The f;n>af 
inevitnlily rcmimlM you of tite Laocooii. unil ni 
one ri^pect it scvmcd tu me superior ; die pureMil 
instinct here tritunpbs over pbysical augtuab. 
Cmn-ford'a last and moct finished work u n 
Oqilicus, wliicli. as far as discovery lias yet gOBHH 
bm no prolutypc amon^ die iLnciciit scuIptnr^^H 
He lins prv»enu:d the rare husband at the momeni 
of entering lioll. Cerberus h lulled, and his hemb 
an> liilleii in »\cvp ; ibe lyr« is cloiwly pressed 
under Orplicus's left arm, and hi»i itj^bt linnd shnd« 
hb eyes, m if to concentrate die liglit »n vnterinf; 
die dark region. Tlie ftjrure will, I belicvi-. bear 
anatoraical critidam i it has the effect, at oity ratr, 
to an iinscientiSc eye, of anatomical succcm. Il 
is light, grBcefnl. and spirited ; a mMt exprewnre 
ombodyinj^of poptic diouglit. 'I'liere is the beauty 
of perfect symmetry in die face, vritli a «bail> at 
earnestness wtiicb. though uiiusual in dasMori 
models, docs not at all impair its clastioit flerooity. 
Tliv younj; man is said to [Kx-te^M die counigw ami 
pcnteventncr Uiat arc bone and muocle to geniut; 
if this be tnie, he is sure «f MucceKs, and this ooJd, 
cbccHees studio will, at some future dmn, b« odd 
of die Meccas of our cotinlrymea'. 

• Ou uiit [ciurn to Uoute from N»|iln m hMl itw plaMi««f 
penoiul SCI) lui'ntsnofl with Mr. CnirfonI,uid «f eoahrmja^vu 
prtpontiiidDt in bt« Uiirat hj lotud obRmiioo. Tbe ti4t hid 



We had some dUcunion last erening with oar 
English iVi«nd K — n on the character of American 
iotellect, which ended in his confessing hia surprise 
at what we are achieving. " I find,'" he said, 
"established here and at Florence thrc« AincricsR 
artists (Greenough, Powers, and Crawford). H> 
have but three — Gibson, Wyutt, and M'Donald: 
and yo»i have Mr. Wilde at Florence, who has act 
bimeeli' down tiiere to write the Ufo of Datite, and 
is investigating his subject witli ttie acutenesti of 
a thorougli-bred lawyer ; and here Is Green, your 
consul, who. with frail health, has determined to 
devote twenty years to a history of Italy ! I told 
u frif n<( tlic other day that we must put to whip 
and spur, or wc sliould be distanced." It la some- 
tliing new to hear our country admired for anything 
but cutting down furesti and building up towns 
in a day, or making railroads and cinaU; but, 
surely, the same power that in one stage of our 
pragTMB overoumos physical difficuldes, will in 
another achieve intellectual conqucstk 

The extcutivc stableN of the Barberini pdaee 
have been converted intoaNtudiofur Thorwaldscni 

e<rca Ibco turat^ In hii b<rour. He haJ reeorertd hit hoitth and 
b«coip« kiinwn to itiaaj u( hia oaaatrrniM. Whiis (bU book ■■ 
Kmnf Uiniui;h llie prt» we hfv (tut • luiD of 2300 iloUan lu* 
been made up in Boilon for hi* Orphcai. We bogn Ihit Ne>> 
York *IU Doi lig bcblad. bui mtl ntmd ber hud i<> ber ovo loa 
«UI« tb«>« it jm ••)■>< Utb Hul gcncroaliy kn dolag to. Whi* 
he bvcQBita beXtrr kncioli, Iberc 'ill b« iio mcnc M wndlog bio 



and tliey are filled wi[li titp most cxquttiitc forfll 
wliicb inv^Dtion, memory, ini»j;pii»tion, and l<m 
can take. The collection of sculptures that bi-Bn 
bi« name ^vcs you some idea of the variety usd 
beiiiity of liis works. Tlial niiicli impressed mr 
mmi, and t>r»uglit tcun to my «y«s, which I iguo- 
randy supposed marhle could not, \a » coIomI 
statue of Christ. His arms are extended, and bt 
seems on the point of saying, "Come unto me, 
all ye that are weary and heavy laden, and I will 
frive you rest." There is a mtjtt affecting blendiig 
of benignity and power in hit expression; you EmI 
tint **God has anointed him .ibore his felloira,' 
and tliat " he will save to tlie uttermost those tloi 
come unto him." The bead of our Saviour b 
Leonardo da \ inn's Last Supper i» tlm only on> 
tliat upproaclics this in force of expresaiou. ChnM 
is attended by his disciples, six on eiiher side. Tbf 
statues were done for a church in Copcnbagea, 

There is another admirable (»et of figures, do- 
(ligned, I believe, for the pediment of the nne 
church. Tliesc are nec(-««irily ko arranged as to 
make on Citcli midc u desci-nding line from the 
centre figure. This t« done nitli consummate art: 
each figure seems, without design or choieei to 
have fallen into (lie attitude exprfssive of ibe 
feeling of the moment. Jolin the llaplist preacJiin^ 
is tlic middle figure; nest stands a scoffer, bi* 
bead tlirown buck. An old man bends over lui 



[•tnfT in devout alteniioti : a young shepherd n 
Lrivcttotl U) the ftpot, while two boys are playlii}; 

(itJi bis dog; a child ia leaning on his mother's 
tsboulder; and anotlier mother is fitting on tbe 
[giound, with her infant in her arms. nehideM 
Iwnding these great productions to his native 
[country, Tborwaldsen has founded a museum iti 
^Copenhagen, and enriched it with copies of hi^ 
lirorks ; and thus he will send pilgrims trooping 

rom all parts of the world to his far, cold land. No 
[Wonder the Danes love him, and follow Ins foot- 
[•tcps, loading him with gifts and honours. 

Mlf BKAB C, 

Tills is the festa of St. Peter; of course a great 
[oay in Rome. As we have been so long negligent 
jof tla> pnvile);e wc may any day enjoy, of seeing 
lie pope, we went this morning to high mass at Sl 
Peter's, where he was to be ]>resent. He lias tlie 
nerit of liaving risen from the lowest grade of 
society, and is said, besides having considerable 
learning, to be an amiable, inoffensive old man. 
You know the great democratic principle of the 
admiasion of all to all employments has ever been 
fundamental in the Catholic Cburcb. 

A Cutholic ceremony is, to the eye of a Pro- 

[lestant, more or less a dramatic show, with a rich 

tlieotrical wardrobe and dull actors. What, I 

wonder, would an bumble student of tbe Gospeld, 



wU tW 

mJ St, Peter*» ^ 

• ife triptr c»«^ 8M8»«)r 
br k» ■■iJllll i> criMM 
■.■ me aitiby hbSwiayrf 
iatfcetrfaniMDr ■«<»>«, anJ by fcajwrJi wMt; 
vImi if tbrrv were ivrkan nmnibmrd penoa m I 
MM iB^guted MMMg new BMWMllWm ipMttIM 
fiM aU qmnm of ikF MtU, wkM wottld be *U 
«■ hniiig toU ihu iKm was ■ ClmtiaJa lempl«, and 
Umm Ibe dUdpla and nioUten of the meek aad 
lowly Jcaw, who lau^bl Uiat God only accepted 
audi B* wonlappeil Ilim Id spirit anil in tratii ? 

The ceremoDies we Gaw UmIhj- (and whicb eer> 
(aioly wauU not contribute to this suppoard personl 
furtlirr enliglitenment) I ^li not describe to ywL 
Tbe i>ope. who is an ugly old man with a b% noM 
and a stupid expretsioBt bad an elevated seal 
bdiind the tribune, where hi« priestly attendatiB 
M«tne«l chii-Sy occupied in the lare of hia e» 
broidcrrd vc^dnciit which Rowed nutuy a yard «■ 
the ground when be stood, wax borne by them wfac* 



e iDOTed, and oicely folded and rpf)la»d in his lap 
wlien hea)|!Biii sat down. Tlic cardinuU, luu clss* 
of men, arc very noble in ilii-ir uppcumnco. With 
tl»e cxcep^on of luro or Uiroc niiddlcmgfd men, 
Ibey are old, and liavc llio liiutf^o oftige, th«ir tliia 
and wliite lock* frtnp;ing llivir crimson icullcapR. 
Tb«y loo bad cniiii'hearer« from an inferior order 
of pricfiUk One part of tlie ceremony was eoleoin 
and UiriUinff, as a devotiona] sentiment expressed 
niDultaJieously by a mass of men must alvrays b«. 
At tlie elevation of the Host til tbo Calliolia 
present bared tbeir heads and fell on their kncci, 
tike swords of ihe soldiers ruijpDg on the pavoiDcnt. 
Tbe music was ^lellcious. After the cliantlnga 
were finished, and Ids Iiolincss bad blessed the 
iUy» h» WM placed OR a ctiair covered w!lk 
velvet, die triple and jewelled crown wm put 
en bin heiul, tbe cbuir was placed on pole* aHaa 
covered nitb red velvet, and borne un ibe sliouldent 
of twelve priiMl:). On eucb sid« was carried a liu^e 
£bii of |>eacock»' fi-albers ; and tlius milcd ami 
attended, he made a projrreMi down the nave and 
into a side-cluipel. He tbut liis eyea, drooped Lis 
brad, and appeared to me Hlte a sanctimonious old 
woman ; but, to mIiow ho«r just »Mcb jxusing jud^- 
menu arc, t wax afterward told tlie poor old man 
said be habidtally closed bi« cyen lo e«cape tbe 
giildincHR occtttionctl by bis position. 

A* we stood in ibe vestibule awaiting our car^ 



riage, cardinal after cardinal drove oW; aaJ m I 
HW each heavy coadi vitli fat black bonet, giUal 
and tasselled harness, aitd its complraient nf tkio 
foouneii in embroidered livenn, dasb tlirou|c() M 
ignorant, wretclied multitude, nnirly runninj^ ow 
tlic blind and lame, those words of doom occuml 
to me: " Woe be to tlie ftliepberdii of Israel th( 
feed themselves ! should not the slieplierdi Itti 
the flocks ?" " The diseased have ye not ut«iigtk 
ened, neither hare ye healed that which was lidc, 
neither have ye bound up that which wu brakca, 
neither have ye brought a^in that whicb «i* 
driven away, neitlier have yc sought that wbM 
was Iosl" But let us not forget, niy dear C, tbK 
from the herd of priests iind monks issued mA 
men as Wickliffe iiiid l.ulher, and tlml in AA 
body, and having died or to die ia ilieir Cuili, an 
such men as San Carlo, Fenelon, and our ova C* 
Tired of waiting, K. and I left the rrtt Md 
walked home. l^i»»tng a lialf-open door, we lietnl 
a murmiiring of tiny roicea, and, looking to, «c 
saw in a dark, damp, cold den, lighted only thrvvq^i 
this half-open door, a dame's iolanti^chool-f-. "Urn 
* And h«rc. loo, for the uko of our ebuWca, I ^aat* H. 

Siimandi. who ii un lofcr of (iriuu, uiil •UDRdly Mt I 
the Houud Cattiolir rEllcian. Ho •■}•, " The [rmnliftiirf | 
nwntBOBaU imonic ili winnl* mnrs iniai ^ttingnitbcd far! 
*Dd Itwa (or iht'ir lia* or want of problij. ihui aoj | 
ef Europe I" Qogr;' — Ooo he oot omii of Conlinantal i 
t Tbc powerful writer of the addraM to the ««iUb( • 
Ilaljr, In Ibe ■- AvoiCoUlo POpoUn." aafi. la >p«aUoc af tW i 



ebcr, a Inrd-fratured subject, was knitting awajr 
life, and teaching tiiose little things, two, l)ir«e, 
ad Tour years old, tlieir prayera in Lalin, which 
\tey repealed u-itli the appointed crossings and 
enuBcxions ! Most of them were ragged and 
but bentittful enough for Giiido's angels. 
. thought of tlie wctl-lightcd, warmed, and itpaciouM 
Itchool-rooms in my own country, and of the light 
oured into the young mind there*! 

Wk hare been looking at frescoes to-day ; and 
if I should run into rant, my dear C, about tliom, 
do not tliink it is to impose on you Now World 
people who never have seen tliem, but timt it is 
tlte cfTvct of novelty and surprise added to tlinr 
intrituic hcauly. Vou arc probably awnre, as the 
name implies, tliiit they are put on the witU while 
the plaster is fresh ; of eourse they must be exe- 
cuted with great rapidity. The ceiling and the 
walls of tlie private houses in Italy are embi-llished 

fclAire uctiing lo the tew of tb*l clui in tlilj who in taught :^ 
" Eiea tdlgioiu bookn tnsgiien lo ibcm In adcad Itogaige wbich 
tbcT do Dol uuilenUnd. 'llie boolu ahlcli Uie mien ciiue to be 
dUtrlbalcd In lb« eiemcntirt tchool* iMch ibem to' be wrrllc, 
poor-fpiriiol, *Dd Hllitb ; anil afUr the Auttrim olvcbimn — th* 
eomatm modal — ' Tbal aabjecta iliould ilrpoii tbomulvet lowarda 
dltdr aavDrrigDa u tlanri tonardi Ibmr mailm,' and) (bit the 
fowti of the aairreign ' cilcDili lo thdr property aa wall aa to 
ttdr pcrton.' '' 

■ What a curimltT to an Italian teacher kodIJ a liit cf nnr 
■okMl-booki be '. What an innlitnablc Irmaarc lu Italian papilt 
■ riD(le one — Uih Robbina'a Po|MiUr Leaaoua, (or cumple ! 



in this way; and tbou)^h often done wiiiiout much 
expenditure of nrt or moneyt they are fio very 
pretty that I rather dread seeing a^in otir bUnk 
GoiHrigs. Fresco-painting ii* to lu n new revelation 
of the power of the art ; and such u fresco a* 
Raphael's SihyU, hiK School of Atliens, or Dorm- 
ni<;bino> Life and De»th of St. Cecilia, in a certain 
little chapel here, seem to me as superior to an 
ease) paiuling a» an epic is to a lyric poem. 
Unfortunately, there arc but few of these ina«t«r- 
pjcccii in good prcservution. Tliey suffer more 
tlinn oil paintingD from <lainp and neglect. The 
Romans bad this art in great perfection. I have 
seen in a gallery of Titu%'8 baths, in an apartment 
of AugiiEtus's pnlftce,and in tlic tomb of AugoMuA 
frcedmvn, all now far under ground, frescoea, nw. 
dallions, fiowcrs, birds, divinities, ite.. traeed with 
accunicy and grace, and the colours still vivid. 
The Nflzie Aldobrandini, now hanging in the 
libiary of the Vaticai>> is one of tlie most beautiful 
of tlie old frescoes. It is a representatioa of a 
Greek wediliiig, in sujiposed to be a Greek paint- 
ing, and was found in die baths of Titus. Guldo's 
Aurora, one of the most ex<]ui^lc poetic conoep* 
tiona ever manifested to the eye of man, is still as 
fresh as if it were just dyed in the rainbow, on the 
ceiling of an apartment in the Ruspigliosi palace. 

Raphaers Sibyls is aNo a masterpiece, ami it 
baa an advuntiige over tlic .\urora in bearing the 




t[»re>9 of tl»e true religion. Il tormii to me the 
, fortunate sutiject a pniiiler eror cbosc. Tt is 

kinted in an obscure little cburcli {Santa Maria 

'tUa i'atr) ; so unciilculaling ta genius ! 'I'lie 
ce to be covered was an arcU in l)ie nave, the 

BQSl awkward possible, it would seem, for tlie 
positian of tlic figures. But difficulties were 
only spurs tu (Ik; f^eniu^ of lluphaci ; and bo 
perfect uo ibe grace and nature uf tliiit picture, 
tku it would never occur to you he luid not 
place and space at will As tliU, after seeing tlie 
galleries of Florence and Rome, is my favourite 
picture, suffer me to describe it to you, my denr C. 
Tke four sibyls, the lay propbetesses wlio are 
siippMcd to have intimated to the Old World llie 
revclutions tlioy bad received uf tbe coming of our 
Saviour, are the subjects of tbe picture. The time 
eboMB is the moment of the angels' communicit- 
tion to llie innpin'd women. The first i» a beau- 
tiful young crcuturo in ttic frr«lmt ripeneu of 
womanhood. Her record-bnok is in her lap, and 
ber glowing face, turned towards tbe angel, con- 
vey* the annunciation. " Glory to God in iIk 
liighesi, and on earth peuce and goo<l-will to 
nan ! " The face of the chenib, who is looking 
at ber intently, with his chin resting on his closed 
hand, indicates the joy there is in lieaven at these 
tidings to man. 

Tbe next tubyl is writing down the revcbiiion as 

ber heavenly messenger rereats it. Her five fa it 
jtroGle. It lias somvtbirifr marc than ni«rejo]r; • 
comprehension of tlie obstui^ea to be met aad ^ 
moral revolulioiM to be tmule. lliere ia vnfrentm 
in the anil's face, and an alrooAl Divine eacfgyb 
the youitg womairs. The art that could give mA 
furce to sitch delicate lines h amazing'. Tlir laeeii 
the most spiritual, and I think the most beautiftil. I 
ever saw. Her whole soul is so intent on the m«>4 
she is making, tliat it seems as if her pen wouUcat 
through tlie tablet. 

The next tiguTe reminds yoa of classical moiM. 
of something prc-cxistent in art, which nothing ebt 
in the picture does. It is very lovely, and cxprtaM 
perfect awe and reverence, aw if her inward eye 
beheld the " King of all living thiags." 

The fourth is a dark old woman, who eonpr*- 
hends the coming struggles with the powers of 
darkness, the marlyr<loms, the seed to b« towa 
in tears, and, seeing llie end, is onflindiing and 
un fearing. 

What must Raphael have thought and felt 
he painted this picture ! He is the Sliakspean 
painters, and with almost as full a measure of iBapi* 
ration. The picture is a poem, such as I hupe nqr 
be found in die libraries of beaven. if the soul 
there without the iotervention of letters 

Domenidiino's Evangelists are in the four i 



of tlie dome of St. Andre* tlelU Vulle. Tbey are 




reckoned his best frescoeH, and lie is r»:koneil 
Second only to Raphael. Tlie freedom and vigour 
of tlie figures, and the freshness and harmony of 
tbe colouring, are striking. St. Mark's muscular 
actually sUin<l« out from the picture. There in 
R lion (his symbol) nt his foct, with lovely chihlri^n 
playing on his back, at whom he looks round so 
gently that he reminded me of the humane lion of 
Bottom'* Pyramus and Thisbe. 

St. John, an angel who holds his inkstand, and 
t«'o little boys at hi* (ftt twined in one another's 
annsi are all penion ideations of love; commen- 
taries on that Divine admonition, *' Little children, 
love one another ! " 

These frescoes are the transfer and perpetuation 
of actual existence. They hare but the one fault 
of Oonatello's statue — " they da not breathe." 

AfiiT looking at these pictures till our necks 
were Miff, we went to Han Carlo to see the Car- 
dinal Virtue*, alno by Domenicbino. Hut wv bod 
liardly got in when a young priest ordered us out, 
because there was to be an exposition of the sacra- 
ment, and the presence of Protestant ladies must 
not profane the ceremony. We hod just come ftom 
witnessing, tmmolosted, tlic same service in the 
Suline Chapel, in the auguitt presence of tlie pope, 
M we told him. But tbe young priest was 
Inexorable ; rx<irci-«e us he would ; and so, casting 
t pitiful look at the Ludy Charity, wbo *at impotent 



amoas; Uie Cardiital Virtues, we vtre swrrpt ont 
Tiiis B llie finit (ti§cotirtesy of Uie sort we bare 
met with here. Xardacd, our landlord, wm w 
•CUi(Ul»»l when wc told him of it, that, aft«r maaj 
ezdamattoTig of '* U it poswble? thbi — a Roma < ~ 
he weot to the pricitt and brought au apulug)-, and 
a very ci^il invitation to come again to the churdi. 
It is the Htudied p<^icy of the Roman people, trom 
the pope dovn, to conciliate the Kiigluh ; and ftucfa 
is the precedence giren them at the religious oere- 
monies, and »o preat their number in oompariwn 
with that of tlic Italians, that you might i]ii^;tii« 
they vcic apcctaclca got up for their edification *. 


JaiMory 1. — Yott must know by thix time tliat 
our ftiend K — o is mo/ one of tho«e viiiiten nt Rome 
whom M. Sismondi justly reproache* with regaid- 
iog It merely as " a museum where pictures, 
statues, monumenta of antiquity, and all the 
rarioua productions of the fine arts, are exhibited 
to their curiosity, to witom the 1(>O,0O0 or 180,000 
iohnVitants who live within the walls of Rome 
appear merely an accessory." K— n sent us a note 
thii Dwrning, informing us that there would be an 

* Hwm b mother t«w«e, m I hate boa told hf * plova 
Cfttbolic, nil)' 10 ft* ofhii hith st« wen *t the otramoBiM at St. 
Ptter**. Hit; ir* ooiMfdcml bf Ihrm u ntber tptctactn iliaB 
for rilipaiu tdificatioa. 



immpRseconcnunieoftlie Roman penplo in coslumc 
■t till.- Piazza Navons, and our carriage being soon 
uiDouiierd bjr our coachman sending its up two 
BpUmltd bouqtipta — n«w-ycar*s favours*— we net 
off to i(r« Uitt sliow. 'Ilic Piazza Navona is ilie 
largext market-place in Romfi. It was «o com- 
pletely filled will) (lie people, and tJicir prridiicto 
and wares, that it was witb some difliculiy we mudc 
our way among thpm. At last we got a itaiion io 
Ui« centre of tbe piazza near a fountain where four 
river-gods, leated on rocIcK from whicli the water 
{«UM, are sustaining an o)>eli»k. 'Hiere wrh a lair 
gmng on. Verj- few of tlie people were in cotitume, 
unlen, alas! tlie general badge of Southern Italy, 
raga, may be bo termed. The graceful white beiKl- 
dresa which you see in the pictures of the Roman 
[vciwantry is uncommon now. Tlie women wear in 
its place a cotton handkerchief tied under tJw 
chin, which, being of a bright colour, bas ratlier a 
pretty elTect. Some of them wear cheap English 
ontluns, btit tbe general dre«« at this wason is 
a stout woollen plaid, almost perdurable \. Tlie 

* nitrainot *o nncornaion kindont in our cnichnisu : ofUa. 
m ralumlnf to our carriaKc from tomo gljclit-wvini, «c foiuid a 
lUMlt at Joa^ull*, or iloleU. or ■ puftr of (Sdlsiu^ii tmnklug 
cbalouu. " Tiio hiip)>lni,wi iif llh U mailn u|> uf mlmiiK fruooiik, 
of llttir ("Of) tinn forgotten rlitrilip*." Tht faumlilal. like oar 
l(oml Miritno. maf ihrow in <hrir milr. 

t Tbue •lulla arc, for Uie none jwtl, manufutnrvJ at <a f<ta> 
bLEihuiont bftlongini to thu gofrnimrot, Tbcy coat tcrtiity-ft** 
nenU per Tird, a jard anil a quarter in vidtli. TIm]! ate Mme- 
timn homn-nuile. 

men wear liabi with higli siigar-lvaf crowait 
sliapG of the bums il would be difScull to teU, tm 
1 tliink I have never se«n a whole one. IVir 
brcecbc* are unstrapped at the knee, and theif 1^ 
■oinetiineB bare, but mually covcrtHl with wImI im;, 
by a stretch of courtesy, be called a atiiduiif. 
Every man who can coinin«ii<l mcli a luxury «Mt 
in lii» life (it is kepi on as long a» it rctnm a 
semblance of tlie original garmeot) wear* m dodL. 
and a-<* gracefully aa if he were a troubadour. IVf 
really look like princes in disguiw, so lofty, todo 
pendent,aDd muje^ical is tbeir bearing. Mr.OtbMA 
the Kiiglifth artist, in speaking tome of tlie strftinf 
grace of (lie Roman people, imputed it. in put, lA 
the alTuhility with vhich they are Ireaied by tbdt 
mpcriore, which hivcs ibem from the tbyncH m^ 
constraint whose " natiiral language " (to bomv 
tlic phrenological term) is awkwardne«L Wt 
iiUghtod to see better what was going on. Mario* 
cautioned us to leave in the carriage vthatnw 
might be purloined, as the place wu foil tl 
" Lombordi," Riid explaining his meaning by iW 
lyiionymc Ladri (thieves). A curious metoofkl 
lhi« of the old wars with tite Lombwda. Wo amk 
our way amid grain, vegetables, poultry, beMy« 
egga, coarse ware^, wretched toys, atid a oHMt 
clamorous crow<l, and were followed by nggpt 
boys screaming "Vuole un fiicchino?" ("Da 
you wish a porter ? "} and were glad to gel httk 



to the carriage witli some paltry toys, the best wc 
could find, for Muriano'tt chililron. I have ncvor 
seen the children l<i»k ko huppy as to-day ; not one 
but hod flome Iriding toy. 

Lady D. linda the Roman people much dete- 
riorated during her twenty years' acquaintance with 
them, inciviiiiy and surliness in tlic place of their 
former graciou«ne§8 and " captivating sweetness of 
manners." This may possibly be, in part, owing 
to the influx of{'i''li) whose national manner* 
, are not calculated tu cull forth " captivating sweet- 
rnen" in return. It is certain the peofile here do 
not manifest the light'beartedness and careless 
buoyancy wc have seen elsewhere in Italy; but 
may there not be the faint dawn of a belter day in 
their thoughtfulness, even tliougb it be sullen and 

It is said that the ItomiiJi religion is nowhere 
less re^pecleil than at Uome ; that the women are 
still under its dominion ; but that among tlie men 
there iit a pervading inlidrlily, and, of course, a 
discontent uith tliv ^vcniment, thut will urge 
them to join in any hopeful morement ag»in»t it. 
How can it lie otherwise when the government, 
inslead of affording them aid and protection, only 
put* forth its power and ingenuity to tax and harass 
them ? " Rome," say* M. Sismondi, " pretending 
to have eternity at its disposal, take* little care of 
the future of this wotid." 



Tlie fltiveti an tLrongnl with idle men. 
portion of tlicm arc tlie lubourora on the mnpa8;nt. 
who, to ovrnd tho tnal>aria, come into the dt? 
wbeiicvor nnfmployeil; mhI as festas, includinf 
Sunday*, occur twice or tlitice a week, ihU s 
nearly half the time. On my remarking: tliia coa- 
courfio of idlers to Mr, C, he ioid. ** Fcrltapa yt* 
arc not aware that miiny who appear mere Ukn 
ttefacrhini (porters) who arc waiting for rapby- 
tnenl." I can only say [ always see them "■osCMf;'' 
never employed ; and in Home, where tbvr* is m 
commerce and no manufacturcf, wliat etnpio) 
can llicrc be for tins herd of faechini ? Not i 
luiely no manufactures, for llierc are many 
sculptorft, workers in n>0!(aic.ni4ikcre of oonchiligliis, 
and other likc^'irrirmcArrH* for milords AnglaJt; 
but remember, these are all articles of superfluitjr 
for which there ia no reji^ular and cmain demMid. 
The interchange of productions between theJiJ^ 
ferent states of Italy is discouraged and sbachled ia 
every way by their rulers >o that the beautifid 
Human mosaic has no ntarket at Florence, Bor tU 
pielra-duru, ihc manufacture par excellence «f 
Florence, at Rome. 

There is u« comfort in buying any thinf{ bert: 
no article lias a fixed \iiltic or price. Tbc 3«llif 
asks the highest price he has any hop« of i 
from ignorance and credulity, and the buyer ** 1 
down" mi his time or his patience a exliaustnl. 1 


bare been lalten in more th»n once by tuppoBinp 
that "^fiml firieei~ ni great lutlen annoiinrecl, m it 
would with us, the inflexible rule of the dealer. On 
an« ocauion I was looking at an article, wben K. 
whispered to me Ibat the price was extriiragaiit— 
1 ftliould offer Icsa. I pointed to tbe " fixed prices," 
and >Iiook my bead, and after pnyinf; the price 
dnmaiidcd, I liatl die mortilicatiflii, before leaving 
die ihop, to ^ee niiorber purchater come in, and, 
after a little traSickini^i buy tbe article at Imlf the 
price I bud given. Frequently, after solemn asse- 
Terationa that tbe thing has been offered to us at 
its ultimate price, we have been followed out of tJie 
shop and on to the pavement witli proiTeri of reduc- 
tion, and finally it has been sent home to un at our 
oa*n price. And to this degree of debasement is a 
people brought who are born in one of the richest 
climates of the world, and hwdod with doil's ^od 
ig^ifis ! 

Rut do not imagine, my dear C, that tliia de- 
tascment U universal. It obtrudes itself upon the 
notice of Htriingcr« because those who traf&c with 
tkem are most exposed to temptation. 

An American gentleman who has resided in 
Italy for many years, told W. that, leaving out of 
tha account conju^d fidelit>, be bad never found 
in any part of tbe world better faith or more virtue 
tban in Italy. This teitimoiiy does not prove all 
it aaaeris, but cfirtaiuly it ialiioates that there i* 



Home good laitli und tnucli rirttie. Our oodsdI k 
married to mi lUilian liiily, za exceedingly pMtf 
wid ntiractive person} wlio, ia our exacting New 
Knglaitil, might I>e held up ai a pattern -wife. 

Sign or N., from nliuin we liirc our room 
occupies an apartment next to us, mnd we u* a* 
the friondliost terms. We have found liim ]lDnalI^ 
able and libcrul in his dealings, and most kind a 
his ktlcnlions. Hi« wife ii a highly -accotopli^cd 
artist, one of a large family, all qualiBet) by Um 
education wliicb a widowed mollier, by dint of 
energy and struggling, obtained for them, to lecve 
an independent csistvnco. They now chertsfalkat 
motber with filial devotion. And, to come dowi 
to the humblest life, our coachman, who upewiial 
the daylight of every day in our service, it imv 
riably faithful and patient, and modemie in bt* 
demandit. Now, my dear C. if the only Rmbbm 
we chance to know would be >-aluable mcmbenaf 
society aiij-wbcre, is it not a hint to us to take iW 
denunciations of Iravcllcni with tome allowaiK*, 
and, at any rate, tlial we may safely enlarge oar 
charities? A little more on tliis head, and I hare 
done. I will repeat to you, williout the itlighteM 
devitilion, a story I have just heard fron aa 
English gentleman. A friend of bis on ailii^ 
who wax residing in Rome with his wife, lost OM 
or two children. In their first anguish they wvtf 
advised by their Italian nunc to change the tcenei 

and with tliat instinct of natura wliich always turns 
to the birtliplaoc as tlie universal panacea, sbe 
begged tliem to go to Lrr native village, fifty miles 
fr»>cn Rome. Tlicy bad scarcely readied there 
when ibe cbolera broke out, and tliey were put in 
quarantine. Tbey bad expected to remiuii but a 
few days, and liad little money with them, and 
tberc was no pa§sibility of communicating with 
their frietidn. llatber a dilemma Co be tliroivn in 
among tlie prie<)t« and Levites of this world [ 
There was no borrowing ; for, save some few 
dollars iaid up in the village for the payment of 
taxes, it was as moneyless as one of our Western 
setllemenls. They lived by barter. The Englisli 
straiigcTS were obliged to remain four months. All 
iheir wants were supplied. The people trusted 
diein iadefinilely. Quantities of grain were 
brought to tbem, which they exchanged for smaller 
fioamotliltes. They made acquaintance witli a gcn- 
Uenan in the neighbourhood who lived a secluded 
but luxuriout life upon two hundred dollars a 
year ! He bad a good library, was highly cul- 
tivated, particularly well Informed in regard to 
everything in England, and furtbermDreoneof tlie 
excellent of the earth. All this, dear C, aroon^ 
the dinhnnesl, lying, murderiiig, ireiic herons Ita- 
lians! There is >ome superfluous reviling in this 
world 1 
Is it B &ncy of mine, tliinlc you, dear C, M* 




b it remarkable tliat nuMt of tlio best p fn at ri 
montimeiib bcrc nre iu«aciatcd with f^ooil n«Mi 
that shiiir out ■moii^ tlio j^rcal on«s of old R«at? 
TIw Colovt«iim bean l)ie family name of Vcifi> 
MO, and is the record of the roa^iftcvtior nA 
triumphs of hi« son. The Ardi of Tittis, tlie 
(jueror of the Jen-B— the rou) who, wben bmH 
the world, sighed over every day unmArkod witkB 
good deed &s lost — itJll spans, almost entire. At 
Saenz Via ; Drums, C^nstantine, and Srptiaiw 
SeveriiK, whose nrrhes are remaining, are, if aM 
at llie oxtrcnte riglir, Momowhere n)>oiii tbe/i^ 
milini of nneiont niimn; and the lofty eolaokaif 
Trajan, " best of tl»e goo*!," »lill bmrs tbe reeorf 
of hJH deed*. The unimpaired column of AntaaiaM 
PiuB is the inemorial nf a man whose name i)edg> 
nated his eminent gooHneH. Almost every itj 
we drive under the *iill perfect arch of tbe gcad* 
Nerva's Forum, while the palaces of the CaMn, 
extended and embellished by such beastly WT«Cc4a 
a« Noro, Caltgala, and Domittan, arc a rtapriiM 
mass of ruinit I 

Ip 1 had your powers of description iii thit vajt 
dear C, or Cruik«h»nk'« of illustration, I vmU 
give you a letter worth having on tbe Iw^gan (f 
Rome. The Italian bn^ sentiment in bis nalai*. 
and the bc^ar expresses it in the form of \m 
peiitroR. His "Non m' ahbandonate," and " Ca- 

ita, siji^oni, per I'anior i)i quests ima^ne*!" 
kindltf your iniii<{i tint ion if not your IimrC How 
I should like to oliow you (lie fellow whu *its, like 
a roonoTcb od Iiia tlirone, on tlie Rtairs nf ihe 
Piazza ili Spagna, and whose smile, disclosing 
t«eth strong enough to grind all the grist in Rome, 
aiid lu4 liVHrty salutation, ** Buon ^iorno, ttgnor," 
an well word) Ihe baioc' lie luks much more as a 
right than a favour. He is an old receiver of cus- 
toms, and is well known to have a full treasury. 
** How dare you beg of me," asked Mr. G., " when 
yoa arc already bo rich?" "Ah, ^gnor, I have 
my donkey to feed." " You are well able to fe«d 
your doukpy." *' But I have iny nine cKUdreo, 
rignor." There is no answer to be made to a 
Ceilow who confcstes to such luxury ! Then there 
is the poor moiety of a man whoeo tnink (tono !), 
tmsted on to a circular bit of wood slightly eon- 
cave, comes diuly down our street of St. Vitale at 
a jocund pace ; and the two old crones at Santa 
Maria Moffffiore who hobble towards you wiUl • 
■ort of pas-de-deux, and sccin as well content tliat 
one should get your baioc' as tlie otlicr, " cfjual to 
either fortune." They arc ])robabIy {>art»er> in 
the trade. And there is the liandsome youtli by 

FT • " Do Dol alMailon >d« 1 " *eil " Chsrilf , Udy, for tbi lo<« «f 
tliis innge ', " Thii lut lappliciEian li miJe netr ■ ■hrJD* ot Ihe 
|lttiAil-1cH>kln| Virgin, «faere thcbcgguhii >hBt in nnrtnlStUnf 
eomiUj ttaaU b« <alWd " ■ (oail ((bdJ fur buiiacM.*' 



the French Acatlcmy, who luis been dying witb t 
" aagne di bocca " (§pitting of blood) f»r the !■( 
fifteen years williout niiy apimrent diminubon U 
Uie vital current ! And the little troop of mooh 
tain -peasants, M-hme hunting'ground is sonevbat 
nhout the Amcricun conxul's, ivtili tiieir bewitcbiof 
smiles, sweet voices, and mo*t uintiinfr vi*a}i; i 
gemiinc lover of h!i{ipy young facett ought topif 
them for a sight of tJieire. Even beggnry U pict*- 
rcsquG here. 

We went this loorning to the Church of Sl 
Agostino to see Kaphaers Isabh, one of his ant 
famous fr«>8coes; the cliureh was so dark we cooU 
not perceive its excellence. Bui wc did see witt 
to yoii, a student of human nattire, would be fir 
more interesting. This church has a statue of the 
Madonna and child, which hns peculiar virtw. 
8ome poor girl liaving, in in ecsiacy of devotiM, 
seen tlie Holy Mother open and shut her eyn npoD 
her, miracles liave ever since been wrought for the 
faithful who kneel before this image. I am not 
sure whether it be of wood or stone ; but which- 
erer it be, the foot is so worn away with kiMin^ 
diU it has been slio<ldcn with silver. The aliar 
on which it is placed was (at midday) brilliaiitly 
lighted with candles, and a semidrcle of laiBps 
hung before it. Tlie motlier is silting ; the duU 
stands on her knee on one foot in a pert aititad*. 



Bolb images wear glitt«riii^ crowns. The mot1i«r*8 
throat U covered with strings of pear)§. Slie lias 
n complete Itreuetpluie of jewels ; her arms are 
laden with bracelet*, and lier fingers witit rings ; 
and, to mulce her look completely Itko the queen of 
strolling playprs, her hand in filled witli nrtificid 
flowers. Kneeling before this image in ftirntH 
devotion (I saw many lenrs. but nol a n'anrfering 
eye) were a multitude of men and women, for 
the most purt rugged and filthy beyond descrip- 
tion, all of whom, us they ciime in or went out, 
kissed tiie »iIver-sliod toe — some agiiin iind again 
fondly, as a motlier kissfji her child ! 

But the most extraordinary thing of all i§ the 
ganiilure of a pillar on the Virgin's right. It 
is Literally covered with every species of small 
weapon : daggers, pistols, and knives, &c. These 
bave been dedicated to the Holy Motlicr by two 
classes of persons : by llio*c who hnre been rescued 
from tlie murderer, and by the munlerer who has 
escaped tlie penally of his crime. The sanctuary 
privilege is (till in force at Rome. A geiwiiinne 
dare not follow an offeiider into a church; he may 
remain there till he is driven by starvation to sur- 
render, but no one is permitted to supply hEs 
nccesattieH. The police of Rome is wretched. 
The laws are ill admini-Hiered. Atrocious offences 
esenpe justice ; and small ones, if they be against 
the Church, arc rigidly punished. I believe reports 


of crime here are mucb exaggeraied. W« hare 
been repeatedly told that our street, wliich it 
retired, and has few habitations, b dangerous after 
nigiitiail; but our friends come und go every even* 
iiig tviilioiit inoli'>iatii>ii, and W. KcUlom leaves tu 
before elereu. The truth is, ilie couriers, wlie 
daily meet and goiMp on (lie Piazza Ji Spa^fiu, 
clioose tu give a bad name to all lodgings reiDOlt 
from that neigbbourbood ; and they amuM their 
idle hours with weaving little tragic roramncaa, 
taking care to make them " deep " — like a ceruin 
young fiiciid of ours, who, in her maiden tragedy, 
burned ail her dramatis persons alive on the 

Mr. O. und W. Imd an aninuited discussion here 
this everiiiifjf, W. in»t»ling ihut it is the common 
testimony of niunkiiid iliat the Romans are addicted 
to assassination, mid Mr. G. mainUuning tluit thry 
do not Ntrtke ofien, and nevrr but with ffood cauw; 
that there bein^ no public justice to ri^lit then, 
tliey arc compelled, like savagea. to take the 
mutter into llieir own hands. He miid that, not- 
wiUiKtandiiig iili tJie rcpuru about robberies, during 
a twelve yeam' aeiiuain lance with Uome ho bad 
known but one 1 aiHl tlial, wlten the Ronianv rob, 
tliey do not stab; they have no cold-blooded 

Love, which runs into disease only aoaoi^ tb« 
higher clsstes in other countries, plays its daily 





I image* wear glittering crowns. The motlicr'i 

It is covered with strings of pearls. She liat 

implete breaatplaie of jeuels ; her arms are 

lea with bracelets, and her Bngcn with rings ; 

n<I, In make her look complelely like the queen of 

ling pliiycre, her hand U filled will) irtificinl 

Kneeling before thiH image in rarnest 

erotion (I saw many tears, but not a wandering 

ft) were a multitude of men and women) for 

moat part ragged and filthy beyond descrip- 

1, all of whom, as ihcy came in or went oiil, 

tli« »ilvtT-»ljoil toe — tome again and again 

odly, as a mother k'aten her child ! 

the rooDt extraordiitary thing of all is ihe 
liture of a pillar on the Virgin's right. It 
literally covered witb every species of smatl 
spon : daggers, pistols, and knives, &c. 'I1»c*e 
been dediculcd to the Holy Mother by two 
I of perMiu : by tho*e who hare been reacued 
tbe murderer, and by the murderer who has 
the [leitaliy of hb crime. The sanctuary 
pririlege is still in force at Rome. A gendanoe 
out follow an offender into a church; he may 
there till be is driven by ttari'attoD ta tur- 
wdrr, but no one is penoittcd to supply his 
nconaitics. The police of Rome is wn-tcLed. 
The laws ar« ill adminixered. .Atrocious ulfi'nc-et 
caope JMtioe ; and small ones, if tbey be agaimt 
the Choreh* arc rigidly punished. I believe reports 



cliief entered into a treaty willi the pope for per- 
mission to come and go unmolested, and tbe holy 
lather, lonth to repress so pious u wish, granted U. 
Tlu-ir rondf/vous in Rornc wit* known, and tbe 
pope Kent hU eini.titarieH to persuade ibem to rclin- 
quisJi tlieir unlioly trade. Tbe conferenca wn 
proceeding amicably when the pope's lambs turned 
into wolves, alias gendarmes, and ibc betrayed 
brigands were seized and bound. " Ah, for sliame!" 
I exclaimed, at the conclusion of the story; "Uiis 
is as bad as our treatment of the Indiana." " And 
ours of the East Indians ! " responded B — n ; " all 
great nations hav« their peetadilloes!" Whfin 
will nations hold themselves bound by the strict 
rule that )rovcrns iin upright individual ^ When 
they an.- in <leed m w<:ll at in name Christii^^ 
nations — and not till then. fl^| 

Tbe tombs are among the mo»t interesting mona- 
ment-s about Kome. Thi-y annihilate time, aiid 
level all national and individual ilinVTences by 
speaking to you of ties that arc universal, and of 
experience common to all. Here, where parents 
and children have wept, you feel the strain of a 
common htunanily: and the only difference between 
you and those who have lived and suffered ages 
before you'is, that wherein you are mott blena«d 

indulpncB pitntvrc' for auvh u, harlng conftued, ttiODid tiilt hi 
6HrrB mnMCBlitc ■!■;■ the clinrcliei uf Si- PfcUr ud St, t^d. 
VilUni rtport* tbat duriiif ibe jfx ihtr* •iri* !00/)0O MrtHtn 
■I Hume." — yumnnifk'. Hii holincM, Boniftcfc luutcntood ■!« 
ail of iodirtct Uxalioo, 



liey were most nTetclicd. Tiio nngcl or life ilid 
ketfj) i»» wiiteli over tiie l)iitiEil-|)l»ci'» of their 
If, perchance, a rny of lii>pe penetrated the 
jouda ani) darknean dmt wnippcd the tnmh, it 
from their own natures, and was wavering 
uncertain, most unlike thai steadfast and ioex- 
n^iiiishublc liglit which shines in upon the Chria- 
>*8 soul. Ami this, 1 take i(, won in part the 
m why tlio ancients built their upleiidid maiiso- 
Duch tus the tomb nf Adrian nnd that of 
ecilia Mctella, and those on the Appiaii Way, 
whichf even in ruin, appear like llie vpiti^eif of 
furl/esses and pahieen. Tin- juist u-ac all to them. 
Pride an<l love Konght to perpetuate the memorial 
of am coded existence. Memory fondly lingered 
where hope had not yet come. We have been to 
the tomb of the Scipios. It is not more than fifty 
years since the tomb of the Scipios was opened, and 
now an exact copy of its most beautiful surcopba* 
gus embvllixhes a cemetery in our New World*. 
Above the entrance to a vineyard is the inscription, 
*Sep<4tTo iler/li Sripitmi," The barred door was 
^opene<l to ua by a woman, who, provided witli wax 
tapers, conducted us down a flight of steps and into 
the interior of the vault by a narrow winding way, 
through the burial-place of one of the most illus- 
trious families of Home, and where we were tread- 
it^ tliey i-anie in sa<l prnccv^ion to lay their dnuL 


* TbM to Spiutliciro si Moant Jlubiua. 
. It. K 



We eaw on the walU of tliese norridom tbe itames 
and exact copies of the original inscriptions, whick 
have been carried off to the Vatican. The Dicker 
where the §arcophugi, busts, and other funereal 
orn<unciit« were pluccd are empty. Some of tbeic 
wc liave teen in the Vatican. 

Wc have been to the Columlamiim, which coii- 
taiiu tlie reniiiiiis of the frc^-dmen of Aiigu»ti»- 
They are called Culumburium from the rescn>* 
bbnot of the small comptirtmentjt where lh« unis 
w«re placed to pij^i-on-bulni. We knocked, a« all 
aHtiquiti/Aiunieni iHu*t do »l Home, whether they 
are in quest of a palace or a tomb, a bath or a 
temple, at a huge, strong, wooden gate resemblii^ 
an immense barn-door, and were admitted lato i 
vineyard, vbcre we were at once in the midbt of 
•acred relics. Broken, antitjue, sepulchral iiiscrip- 
tion» are inserted in the wall, some made in \-aiuty 
nodoubt,andsome in love; 1 noticed one of» father, 
JUia itukimma. Fragments of columiut, bits of 
hB»-relie(s, and terra-cotta urns were strewn orcr 
the ground. We descended h dozen steps iote 
the Columbarium, a unnll u par tment with a vaulted 
eeiling delicately painted in fresco. The bonca, 
resolved by fire to small fragments and aahes, aie 
ID tem-cotla vefi^ls with oovera, more like our 
girdeii-pol£ tlian like urns. Theve are placed in 
Uie pigeon-botes. Thus reduced, men and women 
may be packed away in a very small compan; 




are said to have been bestowed here. There 
some unail marble sarcofihagi embellished witli 
reliefik Octavia's tomb is unknown ; and here 
an inscription on her dressing- maid, and anoUicr 
n her worktT in silver. 
But one of the nio»t intere»ling sepulchral 
lODuments that I have seen is that of M>m« 
nest bakcr§, close to the walls of Rome. A 
ery noble arch with Ionic pillars has lutely been 
covered there. When Totila, with his harba- 
ians, had possession of the city, they pulled dovrn 
wall». TtulinnriuK, who wus lyio^ »t Ostia, 
acd as soon as Totila retired, and, hastily 
instructing the wall, made use of whatever 
d hclji to shorten his labour. In this way 
>e toaih of Cuius Cestus cjinie to make a purt 
lite wall, and thus tins superb arch, and the 
er** u>mi> jitst in its shadow, were covered up ; 
tomb is of marble, and in the sides of the walla 
■re openings to represent ovens. The frieze is 
sculptured wiih bas-reliefs representing tlie baker's 
art, kneading, moulding, weighing tlie loaves, and 
piling them in bankets; bread and baskets are of 
the identical form used hy the Roman bakers of 
tbe present day. In a house hard by, whitlier 
ey have been removed from the tomb, are the 
statue* of ihe baker and his wife, worthy elderly 
people, lying side by side on a stone tablet. 
After going about, day after day, to see the rutru 



of temples (o inuiginary diviniur*. 
arch«a. palaces, circuws, and kinpliiilirati'^ or- 
morinls of tltc priHr imd luxury of indinilak 
and tbc mi.'>cry of " ilie milliuii,'" it wa> rehnUtf, 
dear C, to find in tl>i§ baker*!! pretty tuntb i fitt 
that the humbler virtues and domestic arts 
someliioes hooourad. 

Mr Dkah C, 
Sunday.— \Vf. went to tlie Church of St CmOi 
to>diiy to Nee the |irofcssiaii of a nun. Signon K< 
accompanied us, and expressed as sound opunw 
on conventual life as if. instead of a good Catbolic 
living under tbe dropping of monasteries, ili< U 
been brnl in Boston. A carpet vns spread in iW 
nave, witli n double row of chair* set araand ih 
and the enclosure was guarded by a amoll dtttik> 
ment from tlie pope'* Swiss guard*. By Sif^Ht 
N.'s inu-rpxt, we obloinrd a place on time trtla- 
exclusive aeats. We waited two mortal liaati. 
The cardinal who was to come here to bury tkr 
living, was engaged in bur}*ing the dead. TW 
mother, with tlie nurse and young bride of bravta. 

sal near us, and , who, if alie liad bclbt* 

appeared to me os a mere fashionable iaaakjr 
floating over tlie surface of life, tiov mad* w 
feel tliut lliere was a certain dif^ily in an exMl> 
ence tbal coinprcliendvd tlie affection* of a 
and mother. 




The circle of cliiiir» wiu filled, and a large 
iliciice, chiefly Knglish, ^tLered round ; finally 
CHine ll)« cardinal and the officiating priests, 
ho robed him in embroidered satin and poiut 
u'hicli they took horn a trunk previously 
ugbL When he wait completely equipped, 
iUi hii jewelled mitre on bis head, a cbaat 
lounced the bride's approach ; and she entered 
c church with a friend at her bide, and a train 
Alendaiit. She uppeared about nineteen, iind 
itli iliat peculiar expression of repreBsed cxul- 
.tion that you may have »een on a silly young 
irl wliwe head was rjall^t with Uie i^lat of a 
eddtng. She was dressed in a Wd of finery, 
make more striking her renunciation of tbe 
imps and vanities of the world. Her head was 
icked off with all-coloured fulse jewels, feathers, 
i)d chains, and urliliciul flowers. Her profuse 
block hiur, her only personal wealth, hung in 
ringlets over her Jiicc, neck, and shouhlcrs, and 
fmlling over the back of her bead »he had a gauxc 
cil embroidered witli kilver. The folds of lier 
«inbroi<lered satin guwn were sustained by au ultra 
fa&hionable bump (towmirt, par euurtoi»ic), and 
her train wai held up by two children tliree or 
<ur years old, bedixened in blue and pink satin, 
silver fringe, and tawdry artificial flowers, 
10^ M I inferred from feather wings sewed to 
tlieir backs, penwtiutcd angels I 


The poor thin^ knelt before titc cardinal and 
made licr vow of reiiiiiiciitlion. She tbcn sat as 
in<>xpressive as a wax figure, wliile lie uddmsed 
to her a sing-song' exhortation, in which he beld 
np before her a loii^; line of female aaints who had 
citduroil unfTitivrabh Inflictioiig and inortific«tioa>- 
When this piycioat homilj'. recited and received 
without a sign of emotion, lii-as over, she was led 
out by the cardinal, and wc again vaw her, but 
very imperfcctlyr through a grated door in a side 
cliapeli th^rc sbc wax disrohei), her hair cut off, 
and, in the niin'x habit and veil, Hbe lay under a 
pall whilt; the oervice for tlie dead was cliantcd 
over her. It is not long since this whole cere- 
mony was performed in the nare of the church ; 
and the prr>«ent decent innovation of withdrawing 
behind the scenes is a laint sign that there is life 
and progress even here. It was, after all, thongk 
I have spoken of it flippantly, a touching sight to 
see a young creature xelf- immolated ttirough the 
force of most unnatnral circumstances ; but 1 do 
not wonder that in a country where ilie albrnative 
is, for the most part, between viee and racuity, a 
woman should choose to give a religious colour ta 
the latter. 

Female schoot-cducntion here is in the Itands of 
tlie nuns. You may imagine how well fitted to 
prepare girls to be wives and mothers, and eifec- 
tive members of tociety, tlicsc poor wretches must 


HOHE. 199 

e, who know die world only tlirougli tlii'ir si^hi 
unavailing regreU. 



Th e bclU are ringing, and ho they arc in llome 
aX every liour of ihe twenty-four. Tiiere are cer- 
tain convent-bells that ring every fifteen minutes, 
and others that ring through the liour. When 1 
am suddenly atvnkcd in tlic night by the ringing 
of tlie bclli^ with the dcop-sunkcn imprcMiont of 
yean, I fancy myKcIf in my room in W. itreel, 
and an Albany i>tvanier announcing its arrival* 
What a deadly home-sickness comes over me as 
] avidie lo the reality, and contract tlie indication* 
tlie bells of the two countrieB, pretty fairly illus- 
trative of their different condition ! The steamer's 
bell announces the arrival of the politician, busy 

itb the project of making a new governor and 
dislodging an old one, or fruming new luiis and 
■bolinhing the old ; of the phiUnthropUt, who ha* 
ooine to examine prisons, establish a peace society, 
disseminate Bibles, or help on the exterminauun 
m£ slavery : of an author, about to publish some 
new theory in religion, or politics, or sociid life, 
which is to reform the morals and mend the man- 
ners of mankind ; of the inrentor of a new machine 
whidi U to improve the fortunes of Uie human 
race and make hu own ; of a host of merclianta to 
buy and to sell. While the bells are ringing they 
on shore ; no passports, no Dogana ! And 


wluit say llie midiiigbt b«lls of Rome ? Why, thit 
the poor monks ami num mitst out of their bc<b 
and troop to prayers ! In tbe severer orders the 
sitmmon.i k repeated three and four times dariii); 
the ni^lit — tliU, dear C, ia tbe productive labour 
of Komo ! 

I ASKen an Italian gentleman who wtm mendiDK 
the fire at Mifa M.'«, in tlte hopeless endvuroor to 
genii tbe smoke up the chimney, if the cbimiK-ys in 
Rome were not apt to smoke. " Tbey oU smoke,'' 
he replied : " and bow can it be otherwise ? Uic 
houses have been built hundreds of years, and the 
diimnrys recently put in." Tbey are an Kngliitli 
lozary. and seem contrived, ax an b^nglish writer 
«ay«, rather " to vcntilnic than to warm." The 
Italians con-ider Rres injurious to bealtb*. There 
is ice in tbe street now, and a blazing fire of half- 
a-dozen good.A)zed sticks is essential to our com* 
fort, while our delicate little landlady is wanned 
with a few coals in an earthen pot (callod a tnarito) 
with an upright handle, a most inconvenient affair. 
The immense marble. floored apartments of tbe 
palace* arc w»rmod only by a brasier with a few 
coals. Once I huvc seen, at some villa, a blaxiog 
fire ; at tbe llorKhegc, probably, for Prince 
Borgbese is married to an Engli»bwnmqii, The 

• Our meillciil (riillfmaa tt Naplp( «ai »> feufBl of lb* 
(nrriib intlatoM of Ibe Are, tbil whra he p«noi throng th» 
drmiriag-fDain (a bi« palient't ipiriDivnt b* crept rmad by Ac 



Khrivcllcd, shivvring old women sitting out of doora 
witli » marito at th«ir feet are forlorn objects. 

You would tic surprised at (lie articles of food 
exposed for sale liere, siieh iw cock's combs, the 
claws of poultry, blood, and the entrails of uninuiU. 
I smile when I recall the lime when our village 
butcher refused to make a charge for a "calf's 
head and feet," and that even now it is considered 
a bold iiiiiovHtion to *fU liver. Meat is sold here 
in bitn as »mnll as we dislribnte al>out the table ; 
indeed, the poorer classes scareo taste meat at all. 
PoletiUi (hiisty-pudding) i.t here, as in other parts 
of Italy, a prime ariicle uf food.* The bread they 
eat is of a good quality, and often made quite 
luxurious by a spreading of lard. They have 
delicate |in.-pu rations of milic, resembling our eurds, 
but much nicer, called rieotta and giuncala. The»e 
are thought to be inimitably prepared by the pea- 
sants of the nei|;hboiiring mountains: we thought 
them so the other day when they came to us from 
a kind friend in pretty baskets covered with fresh 

Vegelablea are very dirap, and the very poor 
almost live on the coarser kinds. I have seen old 
women in the streets devouring the slumps of cab- 
bages. Soup is iheir luxury; wu/» by courtesy, 
but really the thinnest of broths. Wine holds the 

* Vb OTilert^ it now and tlien for ■ rtmiaitcvnoe oT home, but 
it <FU nwie diHgrecable to oar laii« by lliB ■dmiilui* ot oil. 




place to th^m that tea does to our n'orktng' people. 
Our servant wm lookinj; wry Mirlj-, and on inquiiy 
wc Icjinicd it was liecuusc we liad not proi-id«d 
wine for licr brcnkftut. I Cbeanuts are brcnd Iictc ; 
tliey are clicap, abundant, and rery delicious, much 
larger than oura, nweet and marronr}', and approach* 
inj tlie lusciousness of fruit. Their sweet odoun 
M they are roasting perfume tlic streets, whieli 
•adiy iiucd perfuming. 

You will hardly be able lo ejitimate the poverty 
of t]w Itninaii people by llii^ indications of the food 
on which they live, uilhnut knowing the extreme 
clicupnesa of ^od provij^iono. W. telU rac ttiat be 
can |e;ct a dinner at a restaurant for tweiity-fire 
c«nt», consistinfif of Koup, three or four kinds of 
mcRt, a variety of vegetables, a puddings, and a 
tlesurt of fruits and nuta. 

I WISH our grumbling lionsewivcs, who 6tacy 
there i« no plague witii servants but "it lighte on 
their shoulders," could bear the stEttements of 
grievances 1 hear here, and such as I often beard 
in Kngland. The men-servants here are more 
capable than the women, but tliey are utterly un- 
reliable; not having the "fear of God beforo their 
eyes," there is no dependance to be placed either 
on their word or their honesty. The women are 
uniustructed, and miserable gossips and dawdicn ; 
but being still under the dominion of their religion, 

yoQ bare a liold on UieJr coiMciencen. Fran^oii 
arers tlivre is not a woman in Italy wbo knows 
bow to cook ; but Francis holds to tli« oUUscbool 
opinion of women's capacities. My hearsay in- 
formatioi) is ot' little wonb, hut 1 have none other 
to ^Te. We have employed but two womcn- 
serranta ; the one faitbleN and cflietcnt, th« other 
inefficient and true — passably so. 'llierv is no* 
tkinj^ peculiar to any country in (his cxpcricncc- 

Tbe whole tendency of service here is to comip- 
lion. Service, for tlie most [tart, ia paid by feeK 
which arc irregular anti uncertain. Many servants 
of cardinals and princes are not pai<l by tiieir em- 
ployers, but sub«ut on fees ; tbey are, in fact, birds 
of prey. For example, a gentleman residing here 
in an official station told me that twice every year, 
on tlie first of January and on tlie 6rBt of July, tJie 
servants of the princes and cardinals wliom he 
visit* come to demand u fee from him, and he must 
pay iu The day after his fir«t otiirial iiiU-rvicw 
witli tlie pope, ascrvant''« hill, amounting to sixteen 
dollars, was sent to him. W'lien tlie noted Danker 
Torlofiia gives a ball, his servanto levy their tribute 
— black mail — the next day on tlie gtivHts. To 
show you ill what estimation tliis itame geiilleman 
ToHooia is held in Rome, it i:) a common report 
that bis servanu give his balk ! 

Mt dear C, you may almost doubt my being in 

£04 lom. 

Rome, lance. I have not yet said one word of tkf 
Vatican, wli^re tlie history and religion of the OM 
World are recorded by the iiaiid of art. Tlie tmtb 
is, that from llie moment of my visit U) Wincliesler 
Cathedral, I hare felt, iw I fancy thow do who go 
to another worhl, that the wmtatioiw roAulting from 
a new state and new manifestations arv incommuni- 
cable. I cannot convey to you what I have en- 
joyed, and nm enjuyitig, from painting, sculptare. 
and arehiteclurc ; and when I involuntarily sbudder 
at the idea of leaving all tlic>>e majriiilicent and 
lovely forms, I doubt the wisdoiD of oar Hew- 
World people coming here to acquire hankerings 
W'hid) cannot he ap])ea.<ted ttt home. I would ad- 
vise no .\merican to come to Italy who has not 
strong domestic affections and close domestic tics, 
or some absorbing and worthy pursuit at home. 
Widiout these strong bontU to his country, he may 
feel, when he returns there, as one does who at- 
tempts to read a treatise on political economy after 
being lost in the interest of a cnplivating romaac 

You would fully comprehend this diinger if 
had passed but tins day with me. First «'o weut to 
the Oni Farncsiana (the FarneM Gardens), where 
we wure fin«t .-^lown tlie rvinnins of AtigustMki 
bath*, for so a lur^re ri-Mrvoir of Tihurtino at 
is called, into which flows a stream of the "< 

* Thiae atlraolin n*m» art pTta ind chanced 
bjr Um ■ntiqiarit* uid (uiiIn of Roue. 






Jeliee," copiuiu enough to dronm linlf-SHJoiMrn cm- 
p^ron. Tli«ii vrc wvrr 1«d tlown brokon steps into 
llie batlis of Livia, where, now biiriv<l in ih« bow- 
els of the earth, are apartments suited lo imperial 
luxury. The ceiling (^hoo'it by wax lafier^) is 
vaulted, and painted with a border of tJie richest 
colour, encircling medallionK of miniature animals, 
loves, and fauns. The §tacues have been removed 
from the niches. These are unquestionable remains 
of imperial liuury, and our pleasure wns not dis- 
turbed with doubts <^ '' somctimivt iit, wlivn vrv 
are tohl, before a broken stack of hrieks half hidden 
with tliornx and ivy, " Thiit is tlic palace of the 
Ctenars!" When we emerged into daylight our 
guide le<t us u]> a Hight of stejis, and, )>»i»ti'ng to 
a shapetesA mass iif bricks, said, " These arc the 
remains of Komnlus' house ! '' Our friend, who 
oaed to admire the "moral effect" of General 
's swearing, would call this bold lying the 
"monil couru^o" of n Komaii guide. But the 
vieu' from tb« little platform where we stood was 
no (ictioii. Before us was an amphitheatre of 
mountainit melting itico the atmo»]>bere, tlieir 
snowy fdgvs like glittering clouds; llie dome of 
St. Peter's enfolded in ether ; domes, towers, 
churches, ruins on every side; beyond tliem the 
campagna, a land-iea^ with its soft, green, wavy 
surface, and the Mediterranean in the distance, 
gleaming like steel in the sun. No scenery tliat 


I have ever sc«n is more bcautifnl, none aux be 
more cxprcs»ivc^ ttiun iliat in and about Itom«. 
From llic fjanJcn we tirovc quiw lo Uic other ex- 
tremity of Rome, and mounted a kill to vi&it tli« 
Cliurch of St. Ono&io, wliere Ta»io was baried. 
It was in the convent adjoining this church that he 
lodged when ho camo to Rome to receire the poet's 
eroWD' There ts u tablet willi an inscription on 
the wall over the sacred spot where lus remains 
were laid. Itut a more touching memorial of him 
is nn nak-Uce in the ailjoinin<i; ^rden. It i« the 
largest oak in Rome, and is called Ta.<iso'«, from 
the circtim stance of his having been carried at his 
own desire to sit under itt ithudow tlie day before 
he died. What a scene for n dying poet, the en- 
tire dty of Rome with its thrilling memories under 
hia eye, and the mountains endasing the campugna. 
that, if they appeared as they appeared to-day, so 
shadowy and ethereal, must have spoken to his 
soul of that world on wliose tltresht^d he stood. 

Come away witli us now, <!ear C~, to llie VatJcaD, 
whose galleries the pope graciously opens to the 
public at twi-lve o'clock on tlie Monday and Thurs- 
day of every week, and jvermits tiiem to remain 
open till three, when his guards appear, and drive 
the lingering spectators, like a Aoek of sheep, fma 
roora to room, till they are fairly out of tlie pdaoe. 
The Vatican, as you well know, is tlie pontifical 
palace. It ia an irregnkr mats of buildings, "a 



rnipany of pbUocs," appcntled to St. Pvtcr^ btiilt 
m time to Ume, accoriiing to tli« ability or wliim 
successive pontiffs, n-itliout reference, in its extcr- 
lal, lo »rcliiu'ctur»l liiirmony or brniity of any kind. 
tin. Stark gives 70,0U0 feet n» (lie drcumference 
of tfaese edifices. At twelve o'clock tlie Piazza of 
8l Peter's is tlirongcd with f'Jiglisli equipages, and 
ViMters from alt purts of tlie civilised world. They 
enter the colonnade that leads to St. Petcr'tt, luni 
Mad ascend a side staircase, mount to n spacious 
lOpen court (lo whicli privileged carriages may drive 
by making the circuit of St. Peter's), and then enter 
I'tbe palace, where, sciitlered through (he immense 
llerics and nnmberless apartment* of the Mu> 
•eum, the multitudinous congregation that pressed 
through the portals ajipear but as a few wan- 

My dear C, I shall not attempt to enumerate or 
describe to you the treasures of those marble halls. 
You know that the creative genius of nations which 
bad passed away when Rome wiis founded, has 
contributed to fill (hem; that here are monuments 
of Ef^-ptinn and Ktrusam art ; tliat here is embo- 
died the "gmgcful mytliology" of Greece; that 
I'bere, in enduriTig marble, are her philosophers, 
poets, priestesses, and nymphs ; and that here is 
our real world of old Rome in her rulers and heroes : 
and, chiselled while tlic eye of the artist was on 
tlinr living heads, are the busts of Julius Cmar, 



Gcero, Augustus, Titus, Trajan, and — but a list 
of tbem would fill a book instead of a let- 

RcHidfii llie ini-n of pa-tl age-s you have thvir lii»- 
lary, llieir occti pa lions, ttieir religious offices, tlivii 
garoeH wrilten in marble. These are gntdatioiis of 
adornment, to. if to accustom your eye to increaM 
of light. Tlie walls at the enlmwce of the firet hall 
are covered with scpuiciiral inscriptions ; as you 
proceed, ihcw are iiitt-wpersed witJi fragments of 
friezes and cornices. Alung the sides of the walls 
wv plitcfd sarcophagi, baths, altars, foiiiitaiiia, urnK, 
Taaes, and capitals. You proceed od through 
lengthening galleries with side-halls, and apart- 
menls with pictured ceiling*, and mosaic pave- 
mcnts, and murltio columns, to a small octagonal 
court, in the midst of which in a foimtaJD sparkling 
in the bright, unohMtructed »un1ieam>(. Around 
tliis court is ii piirtico containing the most precious 
remains of art, batlis in which emperors have bached, 
■nd sarcophagi sculptured for their mouldering bo- 

• The buit o( JtiUiii Ckhf li lud bj tbg iDliqiuriM to be i 
(illbful porlrait. The ttee it to dceplj furronrd that jtm oui 
htrdly belieiG ll lo b« ihntofimui not [nare,Iliui fiflr-iti(liiaa|i 
■t the ttinc of hl> dculi). Tlic fauc In * ncotd of indcxlbla iwils 
tioa. mTiDciblt purpunt, loil uninlrnnittiug uubUM. TbetaoMk 
hmhcr tiki Wiihin^ou'i. Thrrciiabottof Au|Mt<uCKMr,MU 
to b(\i! bfcn mailii whrn hi «u a bof of eight «t aine, and nidto 
bi tbe iDOtt bf^mtlful bail in ibr world. Il I* (aultlM* ia id 
•finmcti; ; and if ha nre l)i« cnltj and lelllih BunMrck klMotr 
rr|ir(aenti him. ha miiat laUIj ban iHrrarinl Ua Mlimu 




lea". Inclmed in the four angles of thin portico 
masterpieces: the Apollo, the Luocoon, the 
iitinuLipt, luii), lut, Cnnova'a great works, Peneus 
ul the PiiKili^tat. 

From tliH portico you po»s (o th« Lnii of nnimnls, 
Where, I cunfeu, I ciin never linger, though it u 
led witJi works admirable For their art ; but 
rpeniB, fish, reptiles, even staga and dogi, have 
iule chance when pitied against gods and men, 
here i« one most enchanting Hltlc n))urtment that 
we can never pnss by, culled the Stanza tleUe 
are [Chamber of the Mu«ks), from llie maska 
nlcd in its mo.tuic pavement. Among seve- 
nl ma»terpiece«, it biui an exqnisite feiin in ratso 
imtico, found in Hudrian's villa, with the faun's 
iuignia, the h:isket, the goal, and tlie grapes 
hanging niundhifljoyou* face. There is another wc 
always enter loo, if we can tear ourselves from tlic 

■ Some of Ihe nroophigi are among (ha ibo*I bcanclful workl 
afifl, meh u llitt r^iDoui aae in (he cnpiltt op nlilcli the butle 
af duAmiUaDi ii fculplureil. Tliil aith Ihc itotjvf Cljtrmnpttra, 
•ad (uaj otbir* Bhleh 1 ctiiiuiinJ. *o<M Kcm to ub tubjcoU 
It WMUtted to wpulchml eiiibcllUbiupnI. 
t No oiirku n( uiuilpm lutiilt. cioriillni Canots'i inJ Ttior- 
wridtaa't, b>ig been ■Jmillfd iotu Ibe Valicuni tnil I luifc mj 
pKramption loajr be forptvn if I siptMi ■ iloubt nhothrc (.'■inoia'i 
wfll rtttin Ibeir ciiTiiblF poiition, after tbe parlialllj of Ma cuo- 
UfBpatuiei hai pBaa«d atiaj. The anihor ol " Rome in Ihc Nina- 
•wMh Cenlurr " •*)«, ihut Canota'a " Pertern looki more Ilka an 
acttr rvpreaennni fertoui ihan like Pcnrut hlmieir." A rimiUr 
'gmitUitm mlnhi be ulcnJ»d lu bla other iioika ; tbef hare nol the 
nnlooohtd natuit of tht ooUqun. 



Apollo in time, in which stands, on an exquisiu* 
mosaic pavomvtit*, a porphyry tazza, or raae, forty- 
two feci in circumference. 

But, my ilriir C, I must hurry on through 
•paitmente ttllcd willi busU, candelabra, and every 
form of majriiificcnt vase of marble, alabastert and 
jasper; through "the. hall of geographical maps" 
a quarter of a mile in length) on whoie wulls are 
painted in fresco maps of all the pope's dominion* 
and ground-plans of his cities, to the tialU of 
tapestry, worked after Raphael's cartoons. But 
not even here cun a lover of liapbael linger, for 
on and above are lii» Madonna di Fuligno, liia 
I'ranflfigiiralion, and hi* Camrre. These camere 
or chambers are four large unfurnisked (unfur- 
nished !) roomH paiiiled in fresco, walls and ceiling, 
by Itaphael, or by his best pupils from his de«gna-f-. 
Each picture occupies one side of a room. Afler 
glancing at the rest I alunys find myself standing 
before " the School of Athens." This was a sub- 
JMtof Raphael's own selection. He was utiabaclUed 

■ Tbii ii Ibf moit beialitul pivemcnl (uwpltbe IHpirdliW 
[rifiiiciit ol roDipcu) KB »« to Iiily. It ou t«ma4 tAf mIIm 
from Rome, *nd. Rii<:in:lm( ■ culnnanl hwl of McdBta, rvpraacvU 
the cambit of llm (.'snUun and Li]iilhir. 

f Tli« oriliiig it ont apartincDt ii an vicrplioB. The rooai 
wens fifen inCo Haphivl'i htndi wiih order* to effv* (be yiliWnp 
ilnadf there, lie refiucd [o loucb odc csllinf, "luck liad fa«M 
duni b; lit) muter, Peru^^ino ; and llili rciualni ■ OMiDarlal «( kii 
kSeotiani, mure prw'iuui rvcii iliiiii tlie nicinociali af UagMH* 
tlwt MintiDiid it. 




dictum o( pope or cardinal, and freely followed 
lot ilie Mi^estioni of liU in^ipirfd genius; and yoa 
the result in the most dramatic oombtaation 
^efaaractcr, circumstance, and expressioD *. 
It would seem like profanity to leave the Vatican 
ilttout mentioning the Trati^figurution and the 
imuniunofSt. Jerome, by Domenichino. They 
■■re called the two great miuterpieces of the world. 
J's wait the hut picture on whidi lie worked, 

• t (lull do niT [cailBrt • bioar Iij IllHlillilinllii <ls«eriptfoa 
f Ihlt pictntr titita " Komo in Ibt NbMMMdl Ontiirj i "— " On 
the iWp* of a Grrnui ponlco Btind Arltlolle tud PIklo laigifti 
In argnmflnt, ■nd each holding A tdIqedc in bu liukd. Tbeir 
di>ci[>lei ire rangeil around, mtFiiUnlf IliUuilag to (bf in. BMiMtl) 
to l)JOf«nrt, an InimiuLilr r>giirc, litlleuljr ci(«nd«il oo lfa< fie)!*. 
Oa IliB ]etl. It Ibf (op, ia Sonntlea «rneit)]i talking to JttBf 
Aloihiado, nlm lukni in ■ laimglng imt o( Mcltude, aa If half 
fobdunl b]r the •rbdcm, lulf wiIIIiik to turn aiMj from it, ;cl *UI1 
cMoltsd 10 |it* tho rvina to {ilnuurr, and run the ramr of gij 
•ujofnimt. t know not, boweTCTi oby the yonng (ireoian aw 
■M maiia nor* baodiomc ThE old nau buiilc him, wltb ■ cap 
oa, Uatcnlng to Suoratc), It inlmiuhls. Anotbct, looking otei the 
■booUcr of Pjthagoru. who 14 writlni bit sorlu, U, It poatlbl*. 
Mill Iner. Tbv figure in dtrf, aUalrarrltd Iboniht, IvuilDg On Iill 
elbow, irltli a pen ia liii band, ii Zoroaater holding a globe | 
Arcbtnitdei i> ataapmi to trace a geometrical Sgure niita <oiD{M*«aB 
on a alal* on tbn gfuund 1 and tbe n hole group llul iBmuiKUIiin 
■r«b*j«nd all piaite. la the comer, on Ibc rigbt, iba fiture irltll 
■ bbck cap l> the (lortnil of ittpliarl bimtr^f, ami that heaide bin 
of Pietre Pcmitiao." tl ia iltange that the miler of lliia dncrip- 
ti»B, a *Dman, ihoold ba<« otDllIedlO notice the dgorv of Aapana, 
wboaolaintlaetaalbeaalr laaoabadedaith aadna**. Sbe raosindad 
m cf HsBlat, in hi* aollloqnj of '* To hr, ot not to be." Stm 
te«ma rcrolrinf la ber mind a ufiierj— the <«p«ltlet ot ber 
nature wd iha dqndatioa ot bte ati. 



was nnl quite fiimhed wbcn h« died, and waa 
borne before his body in his funereal proceuion. 
Domcnichino received but twclvo guineas for his 
ttoiD i^ionitit monk*, who Kiitfi'rcd it nflerward to 
be thrown into a garret. But here it now stands, 
for tiie admiration of the world, and to dispute the 
palm witli Raphael's lavoarite work. Between 
these pictures we always finish our day at tbe 
Vatican, and ate only driven from them by the 
uiiwi'Icomc irry of the guard*, "Si chiiidc!" the 
signal for clnHiiig the galcR of Paradise upon us. 

Wc make out fx'n through (lti> arcade% or Ijof- 
ffie Hi RaffafOf: Thew arcarfes are atbicbcd to 
three storie* of the palace, running along one side, 
and are more like wliat we call a piazsa tliaii any- 
thing else. They are all painteil by Raphael. In 
one series lie begins, as some preachers do iu their 
maiden-sermon, at the creation of the world, and 
comes down to the crucifixion. They repay the 
study of days, but we have not yet contrived lo 
save s hidf-hour fur ihcm ; and you will not wonder 
at this, my dear C, if you remcmbtT how mudi 
the \'iitiean contains to be examincsl bcKidcs the 
galleries, through which you may well think I bare 
taken but a bats di^ht; iu immense library, and 
the Paolini and ^ialine Chapels, both painted by 
Michael Angelo— the Slatine with his masterpiece, 
the Last Judgment'. 

■ Tfaeiatliorof " Wnmr in Ihn Ninrtrrnth fmrnij"«i«Mt>. m 



My dear C, we began this morning with looking 

tlic antiquities of old Home; then followed ■ 

Demoriul of tlie middle agn at Tbsho's tomb, snd 

I tbe mutteum of llic Vuticaii we have been looking 

Ic, tlimu^li ngn and ugcs, fur into the sliadotvy 

Rt. Do you wondrr «l tlio common tvBtimony 

travellcre tlial you liri> a month in every duy at 

ame ! and what a montli it a ! 

I VALKKD an hour this morning vntli K. np nod 
down (he colonniulc of St. IVlcrV There had 
been a ccrpmony in tlir Sivtjnc Chapel, and tlie 
ffvarilii uijfiilf, in their rieh uniforms, as they eame 
■lowly winding down tlie miignilicent marble Klair- 
cue in di'ep slindow, and tlie Swi-is guards in tbeir 
motley, at the end of ihe colonnade, tlicir arma 
gleaming in the firiiil BiinbcaniK, and the light 
glandng over Charlemagne and hlii voluminous 
draper}-, made a pieture for us as we puraued our 
damp and otherwise gloomy tvulk 

We finished the moniing in the Vatican Library, 
where we hud u pleiuure quite peculiar lo it, I 
Iwliore, of walking through the hirgcst library in 
the world without seeing a book ! not the l»rge«t 
in tlie number of bootcK, for. though it is enriched 
by the accumulation of ages and the bequests of 
mouarchi, tlie number, including MSS., doea not 

IIm •alhoritj afa " *et]r iMunile" luUsn, " ibU jou USuOt uc 
Ibe Vatiou Mntenm mtbuut willing ■ inlle uid Out* i|iu>rt«r) '." 


exceed 100,000 voIuo»«— bm largest in tfaeet 
The principal ball is 1200 fwjl loii(i, and iiilo tlm 
yoti cnlcr by one of 200 feet wlik-li, in my Igaa- 
nnce, 1 took for tlie mIioIc, and dawdled rhroa^ 
It, looking at iu rich vases luid frescoed irnlU 
wbicli an: adorned with portraiu of all the gnat 
promotcnt of learning from Adam down. The 
books and MS8. are locked in wooden cases, <f 
whldi I presume liis holJnewi keeps the key more 
teriaciuusty than be does that be bolda in Sl lVtct% 
right, a« he had far ralhcr open Oie gates of I'll*- 
dive (o dte dead tliau the Faradise of koowledg* to 
the living. Tlie picture* on tlie library walk 
representing ibe munificent popes graciously re- 
ceiving from ibeir autliors lilerary productions oiui 
diMTOveries in science, seemed ralhcr a scrcrc cont- 
mcnt on the present pontiff^s cxcliution of Iclter* 
and veto of literary assocUiions ! 

The ciistode unlocked many of the cases U 
exhibit ibeir irea&ures. Among tlicm arc a quait' 
tity of quaint old pictures of tlic earliest period «f 
the revival of the aru. It is curious to see how 
the patronage of tlic Church lias prex-cnu-d tht 
exercise of llie painter's invention. Here are 
tbc same crucifixions, inartyrdums and Holy i'ami- 
lies that you see now fi«ith]y<puitited in Camudnr* 

We saw relics of tli« early Christians, crucifixes 
and lamps that were found in th« catacombs. A 



mgc passage the min<! inakv*, dear C, from 

Ills ponlifical piilucc to St. Pvtcr uikI IiU friends 

liting tlicsc lumps in tlic cavcriif <if tlic dvad for 

tieir proscrilied wor«liip. 

A curious relic of anotlter kind was shown us; 

Ithe kair of a woman found in a lomti an the Ap- 

pian Way. There tliey are — a little mouldy — the 

rery tresses that some 2000 years ago adorned ibe 

Itoad of a Itomaii lady, probably tlic only unchanged 

aortal remains of all the masses of men and women 

liat lived in ancient Rome ! 


My »r.AR C^ 

Tbk museum of the Capitol, iu sculpture, paiiit- 
igs, and relics of antiquity, would be quite enough 

draw the Uavelling world lo Kome, if everything 
eUe here were swallowed up. Volumes have been 

itten upon it, but 1 shall wiitety abstain from 

ittng even one letter, and only tell you wliul 
exquiviie pleasure I have had from viAiting ag^ii 
and a^in the Dying Gladiator which is in tliis 
,'ColieGtion. The artists appear to me often to have 
sacrificed expression to serenity — to a sort of super- 
buman, divine tranquillity ; but iJic brow and lip 
of the dyiii^ gladiator cxpresM the deepest, sudde»t 
motion, ferhaps it owes something of its effect 
to Ilyron'* iidmiritblc interpretation. Btit it seems 
to mc chat if he hud never written, and this stuttie 
Itad never received its suggestive appellalion, oia* 



could Dot look at it vithout seeing a mati of refined 
nature dvaUi-slricketi williout liope, and wIiom 
in<Mt dejpctcd thoui^liU an- on *ome dUiaiil ohjrei 
of tciidcri:»t love. It was for llyrwn '» gifn-d viftion 
to see in llies« objects " kiit young harbariwit 
at play." 

Tlierc are masterpiece!) in the ball of paintii^ 
in tlic Capitol. Tlie picture tliat kept me standing 
before it half an hour wlten I was sick with weari- 
nets, ia Guido a St. Sebastian. 'Ilie tnartyrdon of 
tbb poor saint is a Javounlc subject with dw 
painters, and you see bim tn all the galleries 
stuck full of arrows. Mere ]ihyMcaI suflV-rin^ is a 
vulgar means of prodiicinj; effect (iuido e^tbibits 
the pliy«icul sensation to show the triumph of tlte 
aoul ; it is dte deep shadow tlutt brings out the 
light. The young martyr is a beautiful boy of 
fourteen, innocent as a baby and frerdi an a Hebe. 
His hands iirc tied together above hit bt^d to 
a tree; they have not only an iinretii;»tinj( cxprcs- 
cion, but one of voluntary ^ubmitision; one arrow 
is sticking in bis side, another in hb armpiL 11m 
calm, sweet ri-»igiiutioii of his face exprctaea, 
<* Though he slay tne, yet will I trust in hiro." 

Among the curiosities of the Capitol (we always 
look Ib faith, dear C. ; it ts a great help at Jtome) 
is tlie bronze wolf, u ttli her foster-ttons, mentioned 
by Cicero, and said to have been struck in the pro- 
phetic storm on the night before Cwsar's death— 




the first rnttrnl roltttfin, M nppcars by its inst-rip- 

ivil — and lln; Faxti Cojuularnt, at iUw of tlie con- 

jU (nearly entire), wUli the <]me of tlieJr election 

nd the term of tbeir service engraved upon stone 


The generoBily of the proprietors of the Roman 
klices, in throwing them open to the occupatinn 
if visiters, is worthy of ail praise. Occupation 
may be culled, as from morning to night they 
re traversed by these new liortfes of Northern 
ivjiderx. The ground story of a Roman palace 
given ti|) to menial officer and ftho{)t> ; the picture- 
illery occupies the second, or the grccttcr part of 
A range of spacious rooms and hallo i* Rtled 
"from floor toceilinir with pictiirei*. There is little 
furniture; curtains, perliaps of faded damn&k, and 
churs and tables cifnturies old. I have never seen. 
excepting in the S Paluee, any look of babit- 

ancy. There we found warm rooms and a table 
spread witli books, drawings, am) the delicate 
needlework of a lady who hod been driven from 
tbe room by our entrance. Within the lust few 
day* rumour «ays tlut the obstinacy of this hidy in 
iniittiug on biirini; tbe choice of her own rooms 
baa led to a conjugal quurre), and ended in ber 
leaving her bii«biind'H bed and board, and taking 

I could fill a letter 



with a mere liKt of the )>icture« of one of tJte«« 




galleries. They are vast EtoTchouses of art, more 
or less valuable ; but not one of tbem but contun* 
aome works of the first paintcra wbo have ever 
lived. Almost every day wv i»vc u ncvr one to 
tUiI. Estimate our industry, if you can, and thank 
me for imitating Byron's RvnHiblo example, and, 
instead of drugging you round witli an, writing 
" Vide Guide-book ; " and if tliat guide-btvok kIiouUI 
chance to be Madame 8Urk\ you will admire her 
laconic opinioiiH of picttireti thus expressed after the 
insertion of tlie name, ! — ! ! — ! I ! ! 

Of all countries, the southern part of Italy wouU 
appear the most delicious for rural enjoymonts. The 
villus about Itomc arc abandoned from droad of the 
makuiii. Tlicir posseitKors go to lliem in wint«r 
only, anil tlic-ii fur short periods. The RomaiM, 
with their resources of soil and climate, might 
make paradises of their villas, if they studied and 
obeyed nature, instead of torturing her with trira- 
ming their trees into every fantastical form, im- 
prisoning tlieir avenues with hedges that look u 
much as possible like solid green walls, and laying 
out their garden-grounds, like those of Albani, with 
coloured stones or flowers in arabesque psltems ! 
But why, you may ask me, with tha everlasting 
iiico(i«istency of human expectations, look for< 
Ihitiy here ? 1 am not sure I should not steals* 
^m the foultlen beauty and perfection of adorn- 
mcot of an English nobleman's park, garden, nnil 

conscrvatflrira, to wnndcr over the oM Mntt^i Villii 
on die Cflelian ilill, ruined aii<t aban<tuned as it it, 
wilb its r&^^d bercenuH, iu un trimmed rasp' 
linlgee, its broken-nosed statues, and its vineynnl, 
as it now is, brown and sear ; for from its high* 
swelling grounds you have an unbroken view of 
the mountains that half ^rdle Rome. You tnrii 
your eyes from SoracU to Tivoli, to tlic Sabine 
Mount, to Albano ; itiey bear names to rotijure 
with : and it nceras us if Nature dclighlcd in shov- 
ing them in a liglit Khe has for notliing else. They 
are iiiTested with b silvery mist ; you would call it 
•tlicrcal, for there is nothing dimining or shadowy 
about it ; but I fear elliereat mist ]s nonsense. It 
is a slieatlied light, a brighter moonlight. The ouu 
lines blend with the atmosphere. Before you is 
the wide, desolate campagna, n-ith its sepulcliral 
and the long lines of broken aqueducts, 
ecilia Meti'lht's tomb, the huge niins of Cara- 
k'l baths, Sl John Lateran'a statues standing 
Idly up against the sky, tlie walls of Rome, with 
beir gules, towers, turrets, and voices of history : 
tnd the whole city of Rome beneath yoo, with its 
Urii^ crowds, and its dead congrega^ons, its St. 
I't, and its tlcsolute places where the " tent- 
D(«d pine'" an<l tli« slender cypress stand as 
>umer* for the dead. 

At tlie Villa AIIkuiI, whose treasures of art any 
ch iu Euro{>c might eory, we found some- 



tbin^ much rarer in the dwelling of a Komhir 
prince than chefs-d'oeuvre of painting orqciilpbirr: 
carpeted rooms with a comfortsble enjoyett aaprct, 
lire in the chimney, nnd English books and Avsh 
journals on tlie tnlilrn. Ir%'iii|r'8 Allminlira was 
among them. Our cicerone toM \» tii« padrone 
read Bnglisli : a sign of intellectual life. You will 
uot think me quite a savage, dear C, though tbc 
loven of art might, if I tell you witat mont in- 
terested me at the Villa Albani. I had been 
looking nt the admirable group of Diedalus itnd 
Icarus ; ^lui us I turned from it my eye fell on 
Mome toys thrown by a tired child into a mag- 
nificent old vase. 1 forgot the gods, iiymphti, and 
heroes about me ; my thotightH f1>-u' hnmi: to yo«, 
my dear C. ; to your " young liarbarian.s at ploy," 
and I hung brooding over the little tin coach atxl 
buttered doll tilt I was summoned away. 

'I'hf Horghe^e Villa h on the Pincian Hill, just 
under the wulU of Home, and is, indeed, princely 
in ita extent and decorations. Princcr Dorghewe ib 
noted for his libenility, and as. slus! few Ronuui 
princes now are, for his immense wcaltli. 

The author of " Tlomc in the Nincleenlli Cen- 
lurjr" happily nays that "Julius Cnwr only 
tff/UM/hetl his gardens to the Roman [H^ople, the 
Horghese princes ffire iheire." Their g»tPS and 
doora are always open, and the viaitor enterx ihem 
wlieo and how he pleases. R. and E. often rary 



beir drives by ^i'lg tlirougli tlioso beautiful 

DunHs, wliere tlie fomituins are ^shing, itie 

is always green; wiiere tliL- livdges and long 

kvenu«H of trees are aU'ays verdatit, and tlie birds 

Iways singing; and wliere yuu iniiy lose yuunvlf 

the sweet fancy of a per])elual Nummtr if you 

rill not foolishly look about for bird-cngcn, and 

ibaeTVe that the trees are cypress and ilex (a Npecips 

oak that never changcsj, and the hedges of 

innU. Certainly there wns no illusion in the 

wc saw blooming tlicrc in profusion on the 

9Ui of DecpmbtT. How far brlow rero stood 

Fyour mercury on diat day, <Jear C. ? 

1 passed four hours on Friday in walking tlirnngb 
the glades and avenues of the Dortati Villa with 
Lady D.. and came to the conclusion iliat four 
hours could scarcely be more delighlfullv paiued 
than wiih an agreeable companion there. It is on 
tlie western side of the Tiber. Its present mistress 
is a beautiful young Engli&liwoman of the Talbot 
fiunily; but there is no Engltsli mark upon her 
Titlb; and porhapit it is good taste to keep up what 
W natioDiil and churacti-rLtlic. Nothing can be 
better iliaii (he noble pinen tliat emhell!«h tlicsc 
grounds, and which, wherever you see them, 
appear in striking harmony with the spirit of the 
sovnrry of Home. The ptn« of Italy is unlike any 
tliKt we have, and that of Itome serm« to me richer 
bruader tlian 1 have 9e«n cliiewhere. It has 



a straight and lofty trunk, and a broad ksriMaHl 
bop of foliage thiit seem* to hare been groniiig 
deeper «ii<l <ie«|ier ever since it or thr world stood. 
'I^e affluetite of fountains at tbia viliii >», too, a 
diaraderiftiic beauty. The same stream tltat sup- 
plies tlie Paulina, ibe Niagara of Roman fuuntaim, 
is conducted across the Doria Villa. 

It is peculiar to Rome that, stay here as long as 
you willt if you have a month, a day, an hour, tea 
minutes to spare, you may fill it with some object 
of deep interest. We hnxl a balf-bour ou our 
bands after Iraving the Dorian 'V'illa, and I^y D., 
who selects her objects with the skill that can only 
be acquired by a long familiarity wiih everything in 
and about Home, drove to the Paulina Fountain, 
to the beautiful view on the Janiculum, and to Sl 
Pieiro in Montario, where, in a court adjoining 
the church, is a small circular temple designed by 
Michael Angelo, witli columns of Oriental finite, 
erected on tlie very spot where St. Pctor was 
crucified. So says tradition, and so beUera tka 

My dear C, you can hardly ima^ne anj 
more sombre than a drive in the evening tbronj 
the wrctchedty-Iighted streets of Rome. Teeminf 1 
as they are with human life in the daytime, by 
eight o'clock you see only here and ibere a dim 
fonn shrinking away from your ooacb-wbeels, or 




faldbtJnct igan stealing along in tlio dccpMt 
le where ull is shadow. There is the gloom of 
light ainoRg tlie tombs, n'ithout tlie comciousness 
t '* the weary are at test, and tike wicked have 
>Bscd from troubling." If you go to visit a friend 
in a. pulucG, you will knve the happinen to 
ind the stiiircase lightoil, and » porter rea<iy to 
t you; but a Konum fioujc is like a dosed 
We went last evening to see our country* 
man, Mrs. L. After Francois luid rajiped 
tcdly, we lieurd a ciiild's voice uttering tlie 
r-liiiling inquiry, "Chi c" ( " Who is it ?"), 
which Francois responded '* Amici" ("Friends"), 
fter a long pause and impatient shouts from 
ran^ou, seconded by Mariano, of "Aprite!" 
"Aprile!" ("Open tlie door!'), "Ecco!" said 
the little voice, and " Bravo !" cried Francois ; and 
the parley was ended by the child opening the 
door and conducting us up a long staircusv by the 
light of a hraxcn unlique lump in her band, mtber 
taller, it secmml to me, tlian she wus. 

The lower chiwtes of the people are rn iKenf in 
the streets ; and the stranger, who has no oppor- 
tunity of seeing the better condition of Italian life, 
baa here his best opportunities for observation ; 
and 1 assure you, my dear C, these streets are a 
curious and nlfectttig spectacle to one accustomed 
tlie bustling achieving indt»uy of New York, or 
to tlio quiet diligence and innocent leUurc of our 

224 RouB. 

village life. The fint thing that meets my eye 
as I come into the druwiii>{-ri>om in the mom- 
ing is the drilling of HoMivni Wfora our window. 
Tlii« is the great instruction and business of 

As we drove over to the Vatican to-duy I wm 
fancying how our little B., with her quick Aympa- 
thiea, would endnre the aspect of this throng of 
people, who, in the affecting liu)^U4rc of F. B.'« 
sliive, "liave no prospect:" how *l»e would by 
turns laugh and cry ; but I fear tlw tears would 
carry the day — try il, dear B. Take this seal 
beside tne. The streeU, u-ilh an unclouded sun 
for weeks, are muddy and iilimy; they are so rtar- 
ruw and the houses are so high, that at this season 
they liave tto chance to dry. That heap of inde- 
scribable 61tli is permitted, as you perccit'e by the 
word " immojtdfzza " on tlic wall — thiSi like many 
coriioni of tlie streets, is a ]>Iace of oonunon depo- 
tiU We have turned into the /'in Scrfirnii, and 
here you may see the average condiiion of life in 
Rome. In the English quarter it is better, in 
other quarters much worse. The windows of lb« 
lower stories are grated, not glazed. Most <>f the 
WorkKhajM hiivn no wintiotcH; the light ts admitted 
through till- open door, and most cluH-rless aud 
CODfortIe«> tliey are in these damp, »unl<-«s streets, 
when U»ewe«lher is as oolda^ouronJinary Marcfa. 
But, alas ! there are few people in tlie«c workabops. 



ai liitle to be done in tliem*! You are shiid- 
fring, B, You fear we slinll tmmple down some 
the people in tbui crowd ; tlicre is no danger ; 
be coachmen are accu§iomed to ilrivliig tliroogh 
11 streets, and tlic people know so well how to 
Ite care of tlicuisclvcs tliat they never move 
aside till the hurMCii' hoofo arc close upon theio. 
Do you observe the sullen, brooding:; aspect of 
those men who are saiiiiteriufr up iind down in the 
sun. neither talking, observing, nor observed, or 
die DUin leaning agairiat that ruined arch wrapped 
in his tattered cloak with a retntiunt of a hat? 
What ii iniijestic, free, and graceful air ho baa ! he 
looks like u ruined rebcl-chiefuiin broodiug over 
freali mischief. But I seo ihe men on the piazxa, 
playing at bitll, ()uoit», and mora, have caught your 
eye^or are you looking at the women in tluit 
door-stej> who are chimourliig and gesticulating at 
tucli a rale ? Do you think tliey have detected a 
thief or diricovered a murderer ? no, it is but tlicir 
ordinary manner. They are more cheerful than 
the men, bccatisc tliey are even mure ignorant; 
they tliink less, and tJiey have some em ploy men t; 

■ Whet ifarre it in impoieruhBil populutioa liku thai of Roma, 
tbue b, of eounti, lillle rm|>ln]iiiienl for domciiic uliuna. Ih« 
twttcr, Iht tburniakcr, iie. Tttr vinun *l Kome proiUe for Lhelr 
p«rK>ail nnit iirfiirc ihpjr go then. Vint b« nolo jron 1/ fou 
<kanoe to nrad ■ oew hsi, • piir of ihuvi, nr kIdim in ibi cily at 
^tfae CsHn 1 You an (tt Ihen, but of a ■trctohod i|uiUtf anil at 
I dear rue. 




tewing am) knitting are unfiiiliag to wom«ii. 
You are wasting your pity on those babies; for 
though th^y are left to th« toiidiiig of these fait, 
lean little children not inorctiMJi four or 6ve yean 
old, and though (as I am tohl) tliose su-addlii^ 
cittthes in which tli^y are wrapped like muminta 
are not opened more than once a nwrA, y«t tbey arc 
^uiet anil contented. 

In lire weekn that we have now been berr, and 
every day, and all day, in (he street amid tbis baby 
population I have never heard but one crying; is 
not tltia a fact in favour of the rirtue of tbt' open 
air? This seems to roe tbeir only adt-anta^. 
Thc^M,' b<-ginniiigs of human life, so liailed and 
cherished with us as the blossoms of future-suslaiiH 
ing fruit, arc here but a burden. 1 have never 
once wen a child caresaed in Rome, even by its 
mother! Do you axk why there are so many 
soldiers, idle as tlie idlest, mingling with the 
crowd?— dogn u'atchiiig tlie Aock, my dear, but til- 
ttainctl, ill-fed, and inD|i«rutive; the pope's govern- 
nept bos not cm-rgy enougli lo maintain a viger- 
oal police. Those arc Capuchins ; you will meet 
them in every street in Komc, witli tlieir biitlernnl- 
cotoured, hooded gown*, fastened with cords around 
their waists, their long beards, and dieir feet shod- 
dcn only with an incriMlation of dirt ; aiKl Uiis is a 
procc«u<in of Dominicans— noble-looking men, arc 
they not ? these vehicles have stopped to let ihcm 





pass, and we must slop too. Wtiat Imge animiil) 
are Lhe oxen nltadird to those vehicles! uiil observe 
the half-eircular peiit'lioiise of nkiiis t»y wbicb the 
driver shelters himself from tbe wind — not a bad 

mtrivance. Ab, the beggars are taking ndvan- 

;e of our pnuse to come out upon us from tbe 
;ny steps of that mugnlRcvitt churrh, where 

i«y »lways congregate. Liaten to ibero ; mark 
tbe words of llieir petition, for ever repeated and 
«ften true, and tliank God, dear B., tliat you 
□ever beard it In your own country. " Ho fame !" 
" Muoio della fame I" " Non m'ubbtitidonatc ! * 
.(" I am hungry 1 ** " I un dying with hunger 1 " 
•* Do not abandon me ! ") 

See. ns we pass the bridge of St. Aiigelo, and 
the liltliy street that debauches into tlie Piazza di 
,' San Pietra, able-bodied men lolling on those wooden 
benches, and women in nigs, witli faces an<i forms 
that might ])ersoiiatc Sabine matrons. See ibc 
blind aud old stretching their hand.t for charity, 
and tbe cardinal's gilded coach dashing on before 
us. But we are at tlie Vaticati— shall we go in, 
and in tbat beautiful marble world forget this world 
of desh and blood— of sensation and suffering * ? 

* Acre b cnonfb Ineipllcable tatierj to th« world : Iho mM 
uid auiTcriiiE of thu Koiiimi prupiv uts nut ■•>, T]i«r« i< in M. 
Sumuniti'i " Klud« nur TKiononiir I^iUliquii," atcry ioilniGtiris 
aamf on Ihe (-'■m)iaKna of Romv, in which fac thoai. */ler IbIm>- 
lioql inmlicUlon ■nil uviintc penoiul obKrnbon. Udt llw 
eandltioD of IW land, *aJ Ibi mittwj rctaldac tttm II, us oalsf 


I &AVK never yei met a auanger in Italy who 
fid not pFoTeM to loot Rome. Here he lingcn, 

■d k TiolMiM «( Aaw ten «r Pre»» tea c» BfaMh. if mnettf 
tbwfTiJ. vooU Mcon CMd Mrf nanrai to «t«t7 ■gMbti of tkt 
Imoiu hmiJf. He doM not look *t tfaa CtapofM Aroaf k the 
vrilBMlMfc poeB Md lioonisw WwMto iafcM k : ba ho MM 
wmi M|BMi Iko abwM vWA hne ndnocd It to it* prtitnt ^e- 
iMff, iBl NTied it <rith uluu. tt b inpaaittle to cbw|«^ 
H. StemonJl'i hou iMo tvor nvTo> llMti ; bM k la anj to mi 
Ikat RWluu, ud tntj utbet ■t»Al rf . iwmi wait frna tW pM> 
Mat Mod* «f eslliialioa- An eiUBl of tarritorf , njing !■ Maa 
AnMioattaca^.ia attam fifty mMtttnim n 'hi lunli 
ofoboatdthlypwfiittow.whto«oalyaiietttototettha a i— t t* 
podiUa aMODBt of rtTtat foe thMBtdn*. with tb« laad poonU* 
catt of kboar. At, la (u prttfal vidou sode of «a1ti«aika, 
(mtoK itrodacn [mUr nldnu to tbe propriftor thui iUUk*! MO 
portion of the lud u ftomgkiti MOtc HuN owe la tea jwmc*. 
TWra iaoae nu eier all, nlled Mirowtte diCtrnpagna i h* hm 
(nperiowodiati uniler him. nbo, iile tbr otmnn of ihc elam of 
■be South, tri<eiM itit fiddi ob honehoek. ii i in, that othefi 
work. The acliul Uboutvn are bronfht, noT frtm Rama, kal 
fruni the miiuntaiiii — loait ncn frum the kin^doM of Naplca 
Tbry <:omf vjth Ihcrr familipt, loniedfliet ia CooopaaiM of 610 
bunilr»l. Thcf encamp on the CtaipaitBa. and J wp on Ikf 
(ranoit. ur ciec|i at uiftat tuto Uic eatacoDiba, the old to«vn, Di 
tlw tonilii. Thrjr ar« ted in lli« cbiapeot pOMibl* Buamot. li ll 
■tranfe that, at the moat mndfrntF romputatiun. at least a leMbaf 
Iheir n«aab«r poiiih eirry aewon, tbaugh Ihc Kaion h< akort — 
tbo eonen bMug from oue diilrltl, thr rtapen fraia aiiothti. lai 
10 on .* The pnacipla Ijj wlitcU human life 14 mulliplaed, and taa* 
teaanoe, eomtort, and proireee Kcnretl lo it, ia lotallr noglected. 
tIi., the [>*inj| to the Ubiiurrr a fair ihare of Ibe (iradael of hM 
laboaT, and o<iaiiec(iD|f htm by rcAidenfe on and intereot la the anil 
he cultivatea. Compare Hit eaiidliloii of the foreign and otiiiwd 
lalhiunr on theC(mpa|iii, "lili !h>t of ilie hopeful |OBn( |w o^ w^ 
etor on our itm»C miHlinlrHoinr nvw Unda : no wiinder that la 1W 
one ctae tlie malaiia u eonr|Oer«d, aod tbal in the other It go«> on 
conqocrin; and lo conquer, till Rome mvat become It* on 
met liable Comb. 




aii<l here be rvtunii; livrc, though he be of the 
dullest mould, be will be waked to « ni-w <:xi»tvncc; 
and after a little while will find himself gvttiiij; tbe 
feeling of a lover for the desolate places uf ihv uld 
city. 1 buve bceti diiuippoiiited in the ruins: not 
in their eflecl, but in tbeir coiuUtloD. Excepting 
the CuhMHVum, the Paiiilii-un, tlic Tomple of 
Veata, and a few utliers, they are such uicrv rulnit, 
»o changed in fonn, and stripped of iJieir original 
enibetli»lin>euta, that they only sterve to kindle tbe 
entbuuast or puzzle tbe aiiiit|uary *. 

• Our Mmat «u quice un-/fa/ji>i> in liu uitei, ■nil often 
•mnwd hinuNlf wkb our sell. " Vou like broli«ii •lone*," tie Midi 
" 1 like M«J " (meaniag u* things)- " I «ould nul gne Aelor 
boiuefbralltbe ruiiu m Rome;" Tbl* bewld wbco we had kept 
bl) dinner niitlof , heiioc (peal the da; in mnJering tbroDgh Uie 
broken urche* of Ilie |<tlace o( [bgCann,«id riiiunK StUuiI'i gar- 
dan. Tbe maitite fouiidatiuni unljrof Lbe lioiueuf thit doubtialand 
LuurioDi Kotnaa are (TTocaUle. Tlieforni of the eircui adjoining 
hii ganlen ii diiceniiblB. lud at ill eiliciDiljr it Ilio fragncot o( 
tliB ■all ot a tciu|i]e, sud n Tea of [lie iiitlici la nbiob benuliful 
■tatuei wer« fuunJ. Ut^iT uf ihn tilieUtkt dial adorn (hr modfm 
ci(]r *aa Couni! hifre. Dul lboi>Gh thrst tdommeni* Itoiv Innt afu 
dlaappoued. <fe felt. a> ne walked Itiroiigh tbe ruelliag canca. mlb 
broken bult'ciaei niaUol *itb ilaunling inj iiaagiiig oiet our 
bfadi, Ihr pretenre uf Ilie groal uieii wha bad oalkid and talked 
faere. and, perbapi, aometlnio) nut more wltelr iban we ', When 
;oa m«aaiire tbe extent of prinle poiaeMioD in old Itdme, tbe 
gaideni. circuaet, lod all tbe >p{ili*Duc( of indliidual tiuurj witlliu 
tbe walla of the clljr, yuu nuiider where tbe niillioa ncre lodged — 
Inij, thsy wer* herded (oKrlher a* 

"Wuolleu *iual>,tfainga cnaled 
To bu; and telt aiib gronia, to aboo bare hiwd* 
1 n eongregatiot't " 

It wuroetTcdfur • later period orthenorld.aaila thsn iin4ii- 


Hat there are objircts in Rome lliat irnlpscribab 
•urpstt your pxpr«lation«, wliich inH«<-(I, I bonmir 
confeo^ scarc«iy vnl«T<-d into mine; aiiiwng time 
«r« the setTtery of Btrnt six) itB surroandings, 
tlie obcli»k8, and piilun, and the fauntains wh 
■IbmmI realiw your rancieti of Oriental adornment.' 
A* to art in Rome, antique and modem, as yon 
may imagine even from my rery inadequate ex- 
pnadon of our pleasure, it crmtps for as of the 
New Wofid a new life, 

I have as yet »aid noihinjr to yoa of (he ehurcJMS 
of Rome, »im]>ly becauu so much Itas alrt^y been 
taiil, and for another, not quite as satltfactofj 
reason, that so much remains to say which I hare 
no power to communicate. There is little beauty 
in their exterior, and that little is impnired by theb 
being hedged in hy other buildings. The effect of 
the exterior of on old Gothic villi^e church io 
England, witli its harmonious accompaniments, i> 
better than that of any diurch in Home; bat, 
compared with the interior of these ch arches, 
any Protestant church that I have seen, even 
Winchester Cathedral, in like a <li>furni»lied faou»e. 
The Romisli diurchcs have fallen heirs to the 
accumulated art and wealth of the Old WorM. 
The columns that emhelli»lic4l the temples of the 

eowni coanlry, to fot withia ih« ponr at Ihna *■ nmk.trtMi" 
tuatli « name, ■ iwlitiral eiultntc, uiil a booM with ill it* mw * 




gods now support the rools of iLe Cim§tiaii temple. 
Tlic jasper ami porphyry tliat adorned Uieir palaces, 
Kiid tlie »irci>phagi in wliicli Uieir tMiipcrore and 
liCTOcs were en)l>uinied, arc now conRccruted (o 
tlic itlum of tliv snints. Tliv ruses for thrir lustnl 
water arc now the benititn from whicli the pioas 
CatlioUc QXtxac* liim^elf. 

These cliurchi-K liave 1>ccn enriched, too> whb 
die ipoiU of the t'^stern n'orld, with the gifta of 
emperors and <]ueens from Si. Helena's days to 
oars, and with llie oflferings of rich jtenitcnts who 
hoped at the lust to drive a good bargain by pur^ 
ebasing the treasures of the otlicr world with those 
they Gonld do h>Dger enjoy id this. Infinite ia- 
dustry bos been employed on tlicm, and art baa 
given them its divineit works— sucb works as Ra- 
phael's Sibyls, Guido's Arcliangel Michael, and 
JDoiDcnicbiiio's Frescoes*. 

How I have soniL'timcs wi&lted for some of you 
at home who have worshipped all your lives in a 
Puritan " mteting-house," to walk up the nave of 
Santa Maria Maggiore with me (a church very 
□car us), between its double row of most magni- 
ficent Iodic pillani, which once adorned a temple 
of Juno, and paseitig by ebapels and altars laden 

■ TbcM u« bnt a fc<* eiaaifila* of (h« maaj ButorplMM 
ia tlw EburdiM for vlikh thejr inrc imgattHj dcnpiW ; 
ten bwa noMrad — ib<7 rithcr bang vkm the; cooU b* 

bat to pt rfkt lj tin. or Uisjr nn ofoatA u yn ■■!■>« 4M«r 
from die tUnrtia* of tbeit pgiition. 



with vflsseU of liilvfir cikI gold, where caitdies : 
for ever burning Wfore Uic pictures of saints 
martynloins, »it ciowii with me on tlie titcps of lb*' 
Bnrgli«>!ie Cliapel, the richest in t)ie world ! It 
has cost millions, and it is but a aide apartment of 
the church, a rich pendant to a chain. There is a 
bcuulifiil piivcmenl, thr walU arr incruslcd with 
Oriental marbles, the ceiling i» |iaiiited with fres- 
coes i thvre are columns of porphyry and kq>b 
litziili, rich carvtiur>< picture<i in mosauc, and 
splendid monun]cnt§ ; not a square inch is left 
line m be Hi shed. And yet, dear C, I think your 
eye would turn from all this gorgcousness to the 
ttqualid, Icun beggar, kneeling on the step be- 
side you. 

'llie Colosseum is now n church, uiid the Pan- 
theon, once tt temple for all tlie g«d«, is now 
secrated to the one true God*. The statues 
die divinities have disappeared ftom the Puntliconi 
and the niches tbey occupied are now filled 

■ If (irhiTrrtort ii • >|irriP> of imlinR. ohal miMl «e thtakl 
uf Ibe diipirilf bptntnn tbc grniiu thai praJiufd Hit hMh« 
■nd Ibit "Itich ilcilgncd the tt^ule of St. Pcco'i t Tlw ' 
«( the god) lijM toiiK ign )>UMit, anil villi hide of at Ibe >i>nli)p>< 
uf the Miota i but Ihprr it on« ntlir in thi Fanliwan at vhldi «e 
all ofliir out bumD^ ; il u a limple tabUc oTer th« MbM «(j 
tiapbatJ, wb(»« lil'c fou frcl in Rome mon than that ol thvnai 
JDU tte, and \et, u thli tabJrt trl!> jou, h« <iled at lbs ^e i 
lhirl]r->4*m : *ba( a |[lariuu> imitiurtaliljr hn achictcd in 
brirf pecioil : T)>k iriirniiiiiii of (hi' itiin ithu never keard i 

T of Rtpbifl wiihout laucbiiig hit hal, doca Dot imm tx* 

gerated to one abo ba* bMn to Roma 



rith tawdrily -dresaed altars and the pictures of 

There is a little cbapel of ihc Capucliiiis iivar 
tb<> ['iuz/u Burberini witb pictures that you would 
liki; to SVC every day in iLe year. But of all tbe 
eliurdics ill Home, aiid I usurc you I have viititcd 
the most reuowued of the tlirctr buiidrcd iitid itixty- 
five, Dot one among tliem— I lieiiitaiti as 1 except 
St, l*eter'»— has given me mora delightful sensa- 
tions than Santa Maria degli Angeli. It Is biult 
after a destj^n of Micliael Angelo on tbe ruins of 
Diocletian's baths. The roof is supported by buga 
granite columns which stood in Diocletian's balL 
It is in the form of a Greek cro»s, and when you 
enter llie harmony of it« perfect proportions affects 
you as if a strain of niuiiic burst from tlie walls *. 

If you do Hot cure for art, or if you are tired of 
pictures and statuary, you may visit the cburchea 
for their curiooitics. 'I'brotigb one you go <luw'n 
into tlte Municrtinc prisons, one of the f^w remain- 
ing works of the republic, where Catiline's con«pi- 
ntore were imprisoned, Jugurtba was starved to 
death, and Sl Peter miraculously t^et free ; or you 
may dive into the subterranean church where 
Constantine held bis councils, or see in old St. 
Clement's the model of all churches, or at Saa 

* There I* no euggenUDn In llilii. I i>ii|>]h>h tint tbe lugeoloua 
arl(t Bhi) roMlttil moilc intu nalhemilict coutd ilto ■ *kCi** 
bctorji uplkliitiou or utjr limi'lc (ocl. 


lOCRNET TO Tuixru. 

Pictro in Vincoli tlic very cbain u-ttb wtiicb St. 
Peter wa8 bouitd. In sliort, my (tear C, a tboroogii 
exnmination of tli« Roman cLurcIi«s would b? quite 
work enough for one lifetime ; do not ima^nc that 
I flatter myself I tiave given you any tiotioa of 
tbem in tliU brief and flippant notice *. 

We bave left Rome, my dear C, aiid Icf^ il^ 
after a sojourn of but tiro months, iritlt tlir fond 
feeling of lovers. Nowhere do you get sucb an 
attachment to malcriiil ubjccte; true, the lirinfr an 
dead here, but the dead arc Uring. I looked 
mounifully round for the List lime on our aunny 
rooinx, and out upon our picu^ant i^rdcn, with iu 
ripening oranges, «ver-bloomi>ig roses, and nnging 
birds. Wc have the pleasant sadness, too, of 
leaving friends at Uomet. N., our landlord, wm 

■ I Mn iwe it iti]nifB an vt which 1 io not poaMM M mikt 
thii lubjrrl iiitemtinf, mn J Ihnicfun I have coiideaari pafC* mtt 
■ few |>«r»(r*ph*. 1 tealirJ thn* >iilmiliil cclincM duly witb the 
GDtliiuiuiii. if not diodcTotioo ofmpll^m. The limtUof bi| bo*t 
•re dnviiiE to • doH, and t am obliged to omit oar nuvraiM W 
TlvoU uid Frucitl, sliuboccupkd Ihc Uti day* of our Ant titltEs 
Romt. The incmory of hit ilcllulitful iliil la Pnttcati, lad tk 
rcmiinn of Clc*m'* Tuwalum Villi, liiR " tjeii of Italjr," MhA 
with tlifl 1)-llcr niFmory of the Engliih fruad to whoM Malta 
klndiK^u 1 owtd this pltiiurc^ 

t I ihould be uRgitlefuI not to tyeatj nnKmg Ibnc frismlt Om 
cuniiul, Mr. Gir«ne, itbo to bociouiablf tcpmcnta hit ooinrtij il 
Ktime. T1iou|h withhrlil lij' uttiiluoui <!cvotinn (o KttntJ fK- 
(Uiti from |*Qcril and UHltn allcntiont to Iii> ririTitTjilf . 1m 
iLiudnoMi, when needed, w ptonpi, iiniiicBtur«d, and eBc«i*«. 



sf«i^nedly sorry to part with ua; mailame vept; 
id ili-ur liltlv Enrico could not »pcak " becann 
be iignore were going away!" I would find a 
etter reiuioii for my leiin*, as we drove on to die 
kppian Vt'ny, tliaii tbe fear tlmt wc were looking 
tlie last time upon the toriuouK old walls of 
ame — on the towers, domes, columns, and all l]i« 
rcy city, surrounded with an atmosphere that tli« 
liod's eye fills witli " millions of spirits." 
You cannot imagine, dpar C, for we have 
Billing bearing (he most distant resemblance to ■(■ 
He Kiilcnin solitude of tlie drtvi' across the Com- 
;na from Itome to tlic Albun bills, a distance of 
reive miles. Tbero arc remains of tombs and 
brolten lines of a4]ui-<luctfi (most beautiful ruins they 
make) on each »nU-; but scarcely an indication of 
tlie presence of man, scarcely the note of a bird or 
be sound of an animal to break tlie eloquent 
silence. Could this have been a solitary drive in 
Cicero's lime ? lie alludes to the danger of robbery 
in going from Rome to Albano in broad daylight 
■ As we begun the ascent of the Alban Mount the 
aspect of the country changed. The declivities of 
the hills arc covered with ilexes and olivea I nstead 
of going into the hotel, K., L., aitd myself took a 
guide, and went off a mile and a half through a 
gaileria, or imbowered walk, to the Alltan Lake— 
a crater lake, deeji «unk within high surrounding 
billa, which K — n, with his usual aptness, compared 


JOtlHNET rO ^'ELLCni. 

tA a teaspoonful of tea left in (Ii« bottom of a tea- 
cup. At tlie end of the galtfria we came upon a 
village, terminated by an ugly summer-palace of 
tbc pope. The pcamiitit, wliosc dwcIMniBia ate 
nested in the nooks and angles of an uld fortrcn, 
were all in the street ; the old women, with their 
distaSs and spindles, walking and Kpinninj;, and 
looking as (it to spin an evil destiny as Midiael 
Angelo's Fates, though, like the young girls, rhej- 
were dressed in short gowns of a hrillinnt red, and 
liead-pear of the siiine culuur, Mi-ti wiid children 
wero ikirtiiig in iJie <loorwuy»< ])uniuing the pleasures 
of llie dia»e — hm^s their huntin^grouud ! Young 
cliildreii were teaching younger ones in leadiog- 
t1ring:s to walk ', and there was the usual quota of 
blind, tame, and sick beggars. You will scaredy 
believe me, but it \a true that, in a progreaa of a 
hundred miles through New-England village*, ) 
have not seen so much beauty a« I nw this morn- 
ing. The peasants of Tivoli, of Frascati, and of 
Albano are heauiiful : and t conld scnrcvly Inrn my 
eye from tliese last to look to tlic Alban Mount 
towering up into the clouds, where our ^iMiAe 
pointed out a moniL«tcry standing on the site of ibe 
tem]>te of tlie Liitian Jove. Tlial luw passod away: 
but the Via Triumphalis, by which the Koman 
generals approached it for their ovations, and tbe 

• TUf Dode af letnunf to tnlhi • norvtrj ula >ilb «), b ant- 
leml in Ittlf . 



toman omperors for their Racrific4>s, still exists. 

i'licrc arc momenbi in thitt OM WorM, and lliis 

thf oecluded Albon I^ke wiu ono of thenit 

hen tbe 

" StroiiK bimcn n>and Ibj d«k dumilD, 
Thuu onrrliDliiig fol 1 " 

[tp(i<-ur, and rlic long-gone generations rise before 
i>u in all their puin]) uiii) iiacri'd offices. 

Bui we were noon recnilcil to aciual life by our 
cicerone, who, like all Lin countrymen in sunshine, 
with plenty of antkhiti to &)iow, ani) a good fee in 
view, was in a higb stale of excilemcni. Fancy 
one of our common labourers striking Ills breast, 
cuiing up his eyes, and escUiming, " Dio mio — 
bella gioniain— bellissima giornata, eccellenzn ! ah ! 
da piacere anche la vita!"* And then he poured 
oat such compliments on the girls calling ihero 
** Belle I belle! belle aasui!" for wliich pleasing 
iroprovinnlion K. insi<ls he chitrgrd twopaiils extra, 
and that the next lady be conducts will find kcnwlf 
perfectly angelic. 

In our way we passed the ruins of Domldtn's 
villa and Uie place where was the limturvio, an 
outlet for the lake eut through tlie mouniaius in 
obedience to an oracle t- 

• "Mt God— ^ogreieclleDDj! ahBtabuaUrBlI moit bnadhl 
itj ! Life xloue b ■ plcHurp I " 

t "Tbi* (TUC ■otk." Kuatac* Mjr>. " «■* dans in Iha ]r(ar of 
H«MI 3i9. 10 prnvnl th* ludden »ai Biiitchlriaiu airtiri uf lb* 
lika, irhiali bid ibtn raonllT oocmancd reniidcrablo ilirou" 

S38 TEUxmt. 

Wo fonnd R. bimI K. kiuin^; out on a terrace tlul 
overlooked n lovely f^rdfii. Here tkoy Iiad takpn 
tbeir lunch uml reniained for two boiirs. Is Doi 
this ■ bletiBeJ country for invalids? 

Three miles from Albaoo we orertook out 
inamorato, wlio had jogged ah«id on a donkey, u 
have the privilege of escorting us to tlie Lake of 
Nemi, called by the ancients Speculum JJuaue. 

" Mirrar of I>i>n ! 'IiI't ■■"ned \jj I 
Who d«rlt near Nnmi'ii adodfil «af«,'* 

We saw nothing but it solitary bcj^gar, and sodbp 
cows gnizin^; n'li^rc Diana had * temple and Esreria 
Iter favourite hutinl, and whero goddeasos am) 
nymplis might, indeed, love to dwell ! I am now 
titting at Velletri, looking fmai a very plcaaaat 
window at the sun, as he drops hb urn into tbe 
Mediterranean, which liai appeared in the distance, 
for the la»t hour, like a sheet of molten gold. 

ArrcB winding down tlie Allnn Hills thi* 
morning, we soon came on to tl>e Pontine marsbe*. 
formerly so fatal, and now pestilentia], during the 
hat months. Tln-y are twenty-four mites in length, 
and from six to twelve in breadth. The draining 
of tliem wa< carried on by the Cnsars, by tbr 
popes, and by the Medici, and to ibt present atate 
by Piui VI., who rebuilt th« f(<Tmi>r Appian way. 




nd m&dc it wbaE it now is, ono of Uic be«t~roads 

Thtt is ■uppooed to be ilie place Npokeii of by 

Sl Paul SA Forum Appin, iind tliix, i^ay t)i« auiho- 

ities, was Horace's second resting-place on bia 

roey to Brundusium. I trust tbey found tbe 

Blcments as kind an w« do. Our carriage is drawn 

■p on the turf wliilc our horses arc biking their 

Ineridian; and u» the inn is a «ecuUri§cd olil 

leoDvent, mmt uninviting, we prefer rrmaifiing out 

|«f doonu K. is taking lits Hiestii in tlie curriogc, 

a at ber wor&ied-work, K. reading aloud ihe 

M* MoraU of a Soldier" (rom a book given her liy n 

[ci-devant Italian militaire, and I. in hazing ab<nit 

kwitb an ivy wreatii an ber bonnet, and tbe frcnb 

Iflowerg lucked on one side whieli our luttidftome 

fmamrriero put on our breakfast table an a signal of 

I tbe primaeera. Tlie wide, green level laud on 

[eochsideof us is broken only by ranals and siagnant 

[water, and covered H-idi bcrds of buffaloes and 

[beeves, Bocks of »lieep niid droves of horsce ; a 

llong, level borixon bound* the view on die Mcdi- 

' ternuieuii ittilc, and on tlie eii^t. l>eyon<) tlie rnorass, 

lare sleep and rugged niuunluin.i. Two or three 

[■liierable village:* are visible on tlicir accliviiiei^ 

I At iiezza llierc stood once a temple to Suium oo« 

Llmndred and ibirty feet high, llefore and behind, 

for as we can nee. stretches tlie rood, coinplvlely 

jlmbowered and looking like a bcuuliful avenue. 

•rapdbeeof IVMtarie 
^ Hcmlni. n'« ekabm^ up ■ 
to M* tbe CuMiri 
</ ■ tonpfe or Apollo, but «e 
bj tb* ag^ed rafimly-loakiofr 
is iW pMm ; ■»< vitkaitt Koag tlir 



icon§ecr3ted piUiLr«, u-e camo down uguiii, an 

My Dkar C, 

Mola i!i Gatla. — Would tliat I could xurround 

you with the odorous, balmy aCmospbere of tliis 

>^inos( dclicioiis plucc, and transport yon to its 

' orange-bowera I but sincu tliut cuiinut lie, pruy, 

tli« next time you pass my boukcase, take down 

I oerlain yellow-covered book, " Kenyon's Poeiiw," 

\»nA read the few last lines of ** Moi>nHglit,"ai)d 

■ Wc mrn btpjillf ID caotUlaUcI IbM tbc mlaor mlMria at life 
forjultin u toun u pn(, >ni], tlinvforTi noor but at th* 
Fnocuvnt. iiid bit llie luicepliblii trtTclIrr, «d Ihi vifetjr inflicted 
I \j (lie Unit in lulj be (slimtlcil. Our* *u *l ll* ftccnn at Tcr- 
tldlM. wlicK. (luring a wrttchvil nl|tl>I. 1 ntytt flciacd kit vyN. 
Va k«pt Tar tnrnc <]i)i ■ liiC of Ibv killciJ ; of fugiliiu. of courte. 
BOKCOUDl coulil be mailc. On one dij thef ■ mounted to Iwcaty- 
fira-. on the iiEil. to Ihirtf ; and, fliiil];, tbt ■loounl ran up to • 
hia4t(d, obeu oe dciUlcd ! If It be ipmODilicnl llini oo oh 
o( Uuuc mod lubtlt lilll* l>VMt* of Iho field nn mikr bii tictin 
pvriccli; wrttfbfd, it Mnool be wondrcrd *l if tonKlimr*, snid 
tbo nftnl air* of lial)', lome of our piny lonted tar lh> cold 
vindt and killing ImtU of Iheir oirn caiintrr. Lnt a delintn 
ftader abould bt thncked at U» istrodncUoa of Ibli topic iato a 
ladjr'a jonmi). I mu«t be ■llowid t« mj lh*l it U • tvtf ooniinoii 
•«p ■nwng the moit rrhned of ifae mffsriag iravrllpr* in Itiljr i 
that I biie bfird it diicuited for balf aa eitning in a todetj of 
lorda and Udicn. nben.on one ttile. latendtr aa* rtconiiuenikd 
M a aotvrrif n anlldote, aod on tbe oth«r it *b> mainuiixd Uiil 
Uw CMcnlial mil dnt|t oocaiiontd tbe liltle «T«tchBataftiiil.or/rvfii 
Mnling! " Pleai~ make a dii Unci w lido la IIie(ttldr-bonl(, and 
flcM arc llie lubject of Uic fine atla. In one nf tbe (■I1«ie> of 
Romp Ihate !■ a plclure of a prettji fonng nanian ailh a buln of 
watar, mutt intcnlljr cngapd in hadin| tiotlma far hn itayaiir. 



you will find the poet doing for you what I cannot. 
This morning, six miles on tlits side Terracina, at 
s liage gate between two Monc lowers, w« 
Trom the Konuin ^VAie» into tiie Neapolitan 
rilory. Yoti liav« iiail someilting too much of tlut, 
nr I would describe to you the mob of be^an tktt 
Burrounded us at Fondi. We needed (o have 
" Principease," as they called us, to Imve afior 
relief (o such numbers. Just in proportion as we 
advance south the porcrty incTcaiieii- Sl)o«s art 
becoming a mrv luxury, und, ox Fmnf oia says. 
" lie i» iicci>uiit('d u rich man who Wftun tlidB." 
In their place they wear leather soles fastened m 
with cords tlini are wound around their Ifgs. Tht 
working peoplo wear a cotton sliirt and drawcn 
extending a little below tlie knee— the Khin li a 
tcinler garment. We have seen children to-day 
with nothing on but thin, short, ra^ed cotton 
drawers ! 

A mile and a half before w« reached Mola wc 
passed the very spot where, as it is belirvml, Cicero 
was killed, and within a vineyard a few yards from 
the road is a ceDOta|)li erected to his memory*. It 
is three stories higli and circular, and inclose* a 
column uf the height of the edifice. The stones 

* It )■ bcltpr to look at Ihue pltcn, xnd, 1 lUnk, «t«ii M bMi 
or tlirm, witbout ncurrbf to tbe doubla in ahieb the ita 
of trediliun necounlr lim*la than. Let the anliqUBrlei 
■Dd tb( l«ni«d doobt, m, tiie WDlurnoi, wUl t^oj ihm \ 
of bdiering. 



[knd bricks are bar? and mnulden'ng. TIic marbles 
Ltliat incnistcd tlicm liave given place to a man- 
Ltling of ivy, roses, iid(1 laurvslinus, wliosc rich 
breatli incenses llie dearnt iiiune of all Komnii 

Our inn bas tbe lovclieiit position 1 have Heen in 

llaly. It n in tlie tnidHt of a large garden, or, 

hraiJier, of orange luiil lemon grovcu. For die first 

I tiiDe in our lives we liaive «ocn lo-day these trojiical 

I fruit-treed in perteetion, as sipreading (not ba liigli) 

as an apple-tree, and bending under tbe weiglit of 

tbeir fruit. T)ie gardens are in tlie recess of a 

crescent buy, and fill wiili tbeir terraces die intcrrul 

between tlir lust slopes of bare, rugged mouiitains 

\and tlie sea. These slopes are covered with vines 

and olives, mid through some openings in our 

orange- bou-cre we get glimpses of a narrow, grey 

|-nllage pent in between us and tbe bill-side. Our 

inn and garden, formerly the villa of an Italian 

prince, are supposed to cover tlie site of Cicero's 

Formiaa Villa, and upon the strength of tluit 

supposition bears the attractive name of Xa Villa 

di Cicervne. We have been down to tlio shore. 

and seen the foundutions of cdilices, and subtcr* 

nocwi arches and columns, tltut indimto Roman 

magniUccnce. We wandered about till the twilight 

deepened upon um, witii notliing to remind us that 

we were not in ParaiJiHe, till, on retracing our way 

to the inn, we heard a i/ell after us of " Siguofe 1 


sig^ore! gualcUc cohi |>cr i1 giardinjprp !*" C^Ladies! 
ladios ! fpve Komrthiiii; to llic f^Hmpr!") and. 
turnint;, wr pcrcolvcd n bill, swarthy fallow, io 
Nmipolitiiii imilr^-N^, purxiiing ii« for liitt tax on tlM* 
sweet air wc lind breatlieil. 

I have never enjoyed anytliin^ so perfect of it« 
hind a<f the quiet Sunday we have been patting at 
Molu di Giir(». We left it just nt evening, and 
drove from our oraiige-howert into lUc^ very narroir 
street of the village, so cIi»Tiniiig seen llirough oar 
giirdon vi«liK. It tieiiig Sunday, the people were, 
of course, in tlieir fesla-dresses — such as bad then 
— and they were like a swarm of heea in that 
narrow street; standing, leaning, lying, silting, 
it seemed next to impossible ihiit our carriage 
should find a passage through tlicm : and sucb a 
mingled sliout of begging and Miliiiution awaited 
as, some hands «tretc)ied out for '* Cariia, per 
I'amor di ])io !" iind olliers to givp its the grscefal 
Italian greeting. At the end of the Htrci-t a troop 
of mas(|iieruder» gaiheretl about lis, playing their 
antic*, lo the infinite diversion— of the boys and 
girls. I would have said ; but «ll were merry ai 
merriest childhood. 

My dear C^ let us be thankful for the syMem of 
compensation (hat makes their delicious sunshine 
not only meat, drink, and clothing to tliese children 
of the Sontii, but a fountain of ever-spriitgiii 
elteerfulness t 



Tlir ficcnc lias changed. Wc arc at St. A}^ata, 
I at u ttirty inn. Our philosoplicr, Frun^uis, laii^litt 
Kt our fnllcn rnvrcury, and Miy«. " Ho it always is 
ifi life. You liui) llii; f^ood uL Molii, you muttt 
fxpvct the bad ai Su Agaui ! " I'liworthy 
wretciieD that we are ! The Padrone liait just 
raent us up a letter I'rom \V., announcing iliat be 
and K — -u have engaged dcliglitt'ul ludginf^ for 
lu at Naples, where we hopu lu be lo-monuw. 

Koflu. Ftbruary I J. 

Aftku u (ileiMuil drive tUroujrh u long stretch 

of vineyards and alive- orchards , vre arrived at the 

^ gate of Naples ut four o'clock i>.m. \V. (our good 

I angel) tnel uti at the Uogiuiai where vre hod the 

torment of a long detention. 

We drove down the long street of the Toleda; 

such swarming of human life I never saw, hot 

beard such ctumour ; it was as if all the Bedlamites 

on earth hud been let Ioom upon it. Uroadwny 

It a quiet solitude in coinparivoii* ! However, we 

• I eitnot from Ihe joutuil of one of m; mmpiiuaui * dc- 
•chplldD of ihe Hcnc at llic Oogana, loo cli*>(clcn>lic uf >iplM 
to lie omitted 1 — ** Wc sere iio|>|><iii it ibc c.-uiluui-huuii'. and W. 
cune tuouiDt uut (o meet ui. IIoh diliglilful lu be vtlnmirJ In 
tlii* ■Ueii|[" |>Uca ! Our carrii|a V4* iDiUatlj ■unDUudrd b> 
b«(g*r>, alia liaie Inrreued in nuniben lod impurluiulf *( mrj 
itep of out Mij tmcf, ut caterad Uie NtapoUun donuniun. Tha 
■entineli, pointing Uieii bijonete u tti«io. gruflf wicd. ' IndlotroV 
(■ Back tj UdcIb R. ud W. poked Ibem mlli ibclr cuie>,»uJ « 

forgot iu turmoil anil every other vexation whcit 
wc eiilered our spacious drawing-room at iS, St. 
Luria, 3ik1 Rat down by the window to gaze upon 
tlie iiiiy ofNapkt, directly tindvr u», witiiout any 
apparent iii(rrpo«iag oUji^ct, for vte ovorlook the 
street between uk und ilic water. Tbe crvKcent-liko 
curve from ux to Uic base of VeftUfiut brinipt tJir 
inounliiiii in front of us, Tbe Ugbt smoke curling 
up from the crater caught the beams of ibe juM- 
r»en full moon, while the mountain itself aiid 
Monte Somma were a dark nuis« of shadow. We 
sat watching the little white houM's at Portici 
becoming distinct as one after anotlier caught the 
moonbt-nms, ami tlie tiny boats which, with their 
spread tuiilii, shot across the path of quivering 
beams, and then again ranihbed in shadow, ^'e^, 
we sat as if spell-bound till we were rou&ed by a 
familiar voice asking, "Is there anything better 
than this?" "Nothing," we replied witli one 
voice; but "deeib speak louder than words.* 
AVc turned away from the mo»t beautiful bar* 

youDg qOcm, o^ jut Aeo ouw np, floaruhcd hia twmA •?«? 
Ikelr h«d4, and niMte tbcm rtcelc for & tuomniC ; b«i (titj AateA 
TOonil (giklu tniUntlf . liko iralrr Ihsl hail been lUilurbad hj • 
)it)i1il<. Suirli taltrta 1 Di>><r uw. It wia difficult In iltriiw *)mI 
krpl tlii^ni lu£<lhrr. Thrre irrrc miimFil, Imlt. blind. tnA otulea I 
lomc real, 101110 itieaei, and all u tfiid; u mMchclonlii • tnlh 
in the wtiudi la lummcr." It ma; mrW he imagiriptl wh«a 1 hant- 
enlnt |jr<icc*i me had |oiic Ibraugll la oar {<r<>(rcii amithnrd, 
wlwn ■ jrnuni pcnion nnithcr Mifiih nor iIonf-barMd omU Iku 
dMCnIw aocli ■ apettaeU. 



iionifs of nntiiK to exchaoge greediigs witb our 
tlrar friend K — n, to wliose actual prewDce tbey 
wtre, after all, but " mere moonshine." 

Wc ure rich at Naples : W, makes one of our 
family; K — n is at the Crocclla, almost withiti 
ihakiug-luui(U' distance; an Eiiglisli lady, our 
acquaintance, wlto iitnot on« of iltose wbo "isoleiil 
leur c<eur en cultivant leur e^jmt," has lodging 
over us ; our cbarg^, Mr. Throopt is showering 
kiiMJncu on us; and, finally, our consul, Mr. 
Hammel, a man of sterling qualities, with twenty 
yrars' ctjicrictio- lierc, ts bcHtowing u[>on us ctaen- 
tiid favuure, the advantage of lus society being that 
we esteem above all the rest 

We met here letters of introduction obtained 
by C — i from cxile» at Pari» to distiiiguislied Sva- 
politanit. Tliey are sliy of us, and, as we are tulil, 
compelleil to be so by the dastardly system of 
espionage and persecution maintained by tho king. 
General I'epe, the commander of tlic Italian delacb- 
ment of Napoleon's Russian army, hiw been several 
times to »cc us. His fine countenance kas a most 
metancliuty exprctioim : no wonder; he told ms 
that of the two regiments he led into RuMia, tltc 
finest fellows in tlie Neapolitan service, all, tavc 
thirty-four, perished in one night. He live* in 
perfect retirement, but it is said tJiat in any emer- 
gency the king will he ghid to employ him *. 

■ ThU •pinion wm larified. Baton «« Ult NtpUa Ite sUm 



Onp. of our daily pleasure is a walk in the I'iBa 
Jttale, a public protnenade-giirdrn between tiie 
Ciiisia — the jireat street of Nnplrs — and the bay. 
The garden is about a milv in lengtli, well platiicd 
witli trre« and Aowering sbruba, and abounding in 
fonntaiiis — the wry spirit and voice of tliis laiid of 
the Soiitli. Tlic brigiilesl flowers are the Kngliik 
diildren wbo take their <laily recreation in die 
garden; beautiful scioRB ibey are of a noble atodi. 
They show themselves exotics bcre, with their bir 
skins, rn<Idy cheeks, blitc eyn, and long flaxen 
curls. No cuTTiiiges or beggars are permitted 
within the garden. W« now and then see a 
pretty costume diversifying (he uniform £uikioa 
of the upper classes of all countries ; for instance, 
we saw to-day a Neapolitan nurse in a rich, dark 
blue skirt with a broad gold border round the 
bottom, a bright scarlet jacket with gold banih 
round the wrist, and a gold eumh in her ear, a 
sort of human paroquet. 'Hie garden is erabeU 
lidietl with statues, casts of our friontb in RonK. 
the Apollo, Aniinotis, and certain not strikingly 
modest groups, wlioHe exposure in these public 
grounds shows a remiirknble twnittmey in the king, 
wbo, in n fit of sudden, or, as K — n terms it, 
Turkish prudery, liiw put all the Venuses in his 

of • ntplnrp with Knjrland Dccnrrcd, mad Omettl Pet* " 
u [b< hMd of tlic kriDf. 



nauscum under lock iinA key. Tho anrivnllcd 
charm oF the Villu Heale in tiie view of lli« bay. 
The very name of the " Ra^ of Sophs'" sets all 
yuur iilcsts of bcuuty in a ferment, and so let it; 
lliey will creale no iinngt; appruitcliin); in lovelinew 
to the all-HurpiL'^infr reiility. Yet, iti the very face 
of its lilue waters and delieious atmo«|>tiere — of 
Capri, lying like a crouching lion at its moutli — 
[of its other amethyst isUndB— of Vesuvius, with its 
' fresh friiitpng of yesterday's snow — our cuiintry- 

inaii, Mr , niuiniuincd to me that it was not to 

be compnred tci the Kay of New- York. " 1 huv^ 
at OHe time," lie said, "counted fifty mercliuiit-«hi|w 
tliere, and what iH there here but fisLiiig-smaclc!! ? " 
Tnily, what is there? 

The Studii, or Royal Museum of Naples, has, 
aft«r the Vatican, the richest colleeiifln of statuary 
in the world. Unfortunately, the rooms are dark 

' Bod noisy ; one of the thoroughfares of noisy Naples 
passing by iu It may be a mere fane)', hut these 
ftcr«ne statues, wilh iheirsolemn assonatious, seem 
to me lo require an atmosphere of lomb-likc 
dience. Noise is discord, and a Neapolitan stmel 

I Uft congregation of discords. Hcrculancum, Pom- 
peii, Cajiuu, and all tlicsc surrounding*, have 
yielded up their trea.turcs to fill this muieutn. 

1 Among them is an Aristides, the (inesi statue in 
the world — in Cauova's judgment. The figure k 



enveloped in a nutntle. Tbrro U a coracunt 
tncntal forcr, utid a beautiful ^implicit)-, ui hs 
cjuitrt, t-n-vt Kiutiide, und an cX|ifCA&ii)ii of Kmiquil. 
intclU'Cdiai digiiily iu Uie head and (ace, fitting iLi- 
gmtlike cbaracter of ** Tbo JiisU" StninK« w '^ 
may wvm, Uiittc is a Vi'iiu^ in Uic coUcction 
(ba|i|>il]r nut tucked up, povr/ativ penitmct), wlio 
appears to me u> expreai aa mucb moral atrci^tfa 
as the Aristides. Tbis U tlie " I'ttutg yictrix." blie 
•lands wiiU her liead inclining towards Cupid, witli 
a gentle reproof in ber uir, and n purity in hat 
l■zp^08^ion, lu if «lic were, indeed, oVr nil Uie frail* 
tiw of tier ttwc viclorious. One of ibo iircttirM 
graupH i« " Cnpid Hjwrting with n Dolpbta." 
Cupid, u-illi a roo» lovely laugUing fiic« and 
curly hair, has bia round arnt» wreathed abwit tbe 
neck of a dolpliin, wliosu tail ctHJiu); arounil his 
body, luu llini«t liis k'gtt into tlic air. There ii ia 
tJiia group an expTeBoiun of life and frolic incoo* 
ceivable tu one wlio has not M^en in the antitjtin 
bow art subdut'i matter, converting marble into the 
image of God's creations. If \\\n ex<]uiBite whim 
of art, inMtead of being housed in a sunless mom, 
•tood, m it irai de«ijrned to fttoiid, in the midst <A 
a fountain, in tlie oduruua utmwplierc of an otwii^e 
giove, witli li^fhls and ahadows playing over it, its 
effect would be magical. 

Not one of tlie masterpieces here, but a <-uriiMity, 
certainly, is an Epbesiau Diaiw, a moet elaborate 



piec« of workinatisiiip. 1'lie brtul tmd hatiiU am 
of bisck marble, Iitj^lily 6iiishe<l; tlie body is in- 
cIomm), muiDmy-like, in an alaluisler caa«, upon 
wliicli ure carrc<l bends of animals and otlipr orna- 
ments. This iinaRri m W. sugi^ntn], pxpliiiiis 
Uie op|)o»ilion of llie artificer* of KpUesus to ibc 
&itb wbicb was to put an end to tli«ir profital>l« 
labour. We found otirHelven, day after day, Ivnv* 
iag halls filled with busts, slatues, and grwips, to 
■(snd before a mutilated thing — th« mere fragment 
of a statue. The arms are gone, and the lower 
purl of tlie body, ibe back and top of tbe head are 
•havwl off: nothing remain* perfect but tltc fiicc 
•nd neck. It b called a Fsycbe, and is truly thr 
type of Ibe nouI. It !« tlic peffcciion of Mpintual 
beautyand grace. There Lt sometliing in the Itang 
of the UoaA, and a touch of sadness in the expres- 
tion, tluit reiniiidfd K. of the angel in Itetzsch's 
gftme of cheu: but tbe face appeared to me far 
more powerful and comprehensive. 

If I hud to answer all tlie libeU of the MofTen at 
my 8e\, or to ilcfcnd the "* rights of women," 1 
would appeal to this Psyche, to Kaphaers. SibyU, 
to Dante's Beatrice, and to Sliakapeare's Portia, 
laabella, and Desdemona, to show what the inspired 
teachers of tlie world bave beliered of our faeuttic* 
and virtues. 

The broiiM-s ui one apartment of tlie museum 
are said to be tlie finest in tlie world. Tbey were 



anterior to sculplurv in nmrlile. Amon^ tlicm b i 
life-like bust of Seiivcii, with sltarp fralurv*. sunlita 
cheeks, strai^hl, mitiitil locks n'x) bis iircIc «i)r«riy 
stretched forward a» if on the point of ■fveaking; 
And tliert! are exquisite Mercuries, Pautis, and 
Amazons. One Bmang; b Iod^ 6uite of rooiM is 
devoted to {>sinliiigs, oiid one alone contains some 
of the best lreiuure« of nri ; n Ma^lttlfi) by Goer- 
cino, which is oi>t)- lem powerful tliati Titian't, 
iind \v*n tvHiier than Giiido'a. There la a nuuMr- 
|)!cce of DonienictiiiiD's: a boy four or five yraji 
old in a blue kirtle is sUindirtg with his luiitds fvlded 
in prayer. The "munofMii"^ is croucbiitg at kit 
feet ; and (hough ihc rliild doe» not nee bifflf he 
betray* a uun»>cioii«ii«Hs of the ]>metictf of evil aad 
• feeling of weaknvM iind danger, fichind hjoi 
atands a beautiful young angel in all the repoK oi 
MCUriiy, pointing to » glory iihovc, nml interpoainj; 
bu shielding wing between the devil and tbe boy. 

The Carnival of Najden n inferior in gaiety anil 
exce^ to that of Ilotne ; but it is said to he only 
second lo that. It is generally remarked iliat IB 
interest is dying away from year to year. TlieW 
who think it<i amusements were only suited lo ui 
age when men could neitlier read iinr write, 
impute tills to tlie " march of mind " which dnw 
march, tliough much in annU fashion, even bere. 
Othera maintain tl»at all thinking people feel w 



[iJ«ply the oppresiiion and misery of their coniJitioii 

that tlicy liave IhiIl* beart for amusements of any 

kind. Hucli lut it i'*, ami so miicli {ur ratber so 

f little) as ludics conlil see of it, we have seen, aiid 

lcliildi»li xpurt cnoiiirli you will think it. 

During the Citriitviil the corto, which is a course 
< of carriages through the Toledo, the main street 
' trf Naples, occurs twice every we<?k. We joined 
in ittn-day; Mr. T. look a portion of our party in 
bia carriage, and the rem followed in our own. 
r. T.'s carriage wa5 fiiniiKhetl with boskets of 
-plums mid bouquets of flowent, -.i* hi* atution 
here coiiipck him to be, in some Hort, a |iuriit-ipatur 
ill the frolic. We noon entered the 'loli'do, and 
'■look a place in the line of euache». The »reet 
wu a denite maiut of human beingit, with ju«t space 
enough for the a.Hcending and dencendiiig lines of 
carriageH ; and the uinduwH and balconies of the 
bouses to the tifth and six stories were crowded. 
Guards on horiieback, looking like equestrian 
stutucs, were sl/itioned ul short intervals, and inude 
cofHpicuous by the red dag which tliey held. The 
kiii^ and royal family were oat. His majesty, 
with Rome twenty gentlemeti, was in an orna- 
inenCcd car drawn by six horses. The king wore 
no badge of diitinclion ; they were all dressed in 
gay dominos and velvet capK with white plumes 
and ill wore masks. The Indies of the court were 
ia a liiiuiiiir or, and dtvsvcd in a like ta^ion. 

Dotb cars were furnished with sacks containing 
busliels of «tif^r>[>lums nuitU' uf lime willi a thin 
coaling of Kugur. Tlirvc urt' scooped up and 
ftltowerMi itrouiid. Tlie groat cotitcJit U, who shall 
rhrAw moNt, and maa dcxtvromly. Bouquets of 
Bowers are llirowu about ; our girU Ii»il their laps 
filled with them. Of course aii acquaintance, a 
quaint masker, or a prett)' woman is the lavourite 
aim. When the royal ciire meet, they stop, the 
carriages nf both lines hnit bdhiiid tlitrin, nnd n 
general gvfrre a mart cnsuoiL Vou arc not abso- 
lutely killed, but'^kilt' grieTouoly. The tnisioW 
are as large as very large goooeberries. 'I'lio face 
is protected by a mask of wire. Our detencelesa 
hands were sadly brtiised ; mine are yet black and 
blue. Some carriages were protected by cloth 
curtains, hut in general they merrily took as well ai 
gave. Sbowers fell from tlic balennies, and the 
poor wretches in tlte streets scrambled for them. 
In bygone times the royal cars dispensed veriiahle 
sugar-plums ; hut even tills grace has ceased. The 
oovelty ainuM?d us for two or three hours, but I 
tJiink wc should all rather play hunt-lhe-«lippei 
at Imnw tiuin go again to the Corm *. 

• *« "err. bomrer, m fo" diijri Bfler iuTDlnplarj puUktn, *c, 
niher, flctimi of the i|»rt. We bid forgoitea Ihe enminl, »tA 
liiiini iptnt ihe mnrnlBg Bt Ihe Siadli, *CTe ■■Ikinthaon tlmafk 
Vbt TtArio, wlifn all at onct *c p«reri<«il tlin (oinb taUaf UmIt 
Maiioru prprfuu«ljr ta ih« oono brfiniiinc. 11* Mooalo* war 
liUiTig. We were lb* ouljr Wio in the •tract, and, nifii ijbmiiIj. 



TiiK Carairal conclude* with a iniuk«d ball at 
tu Carlo, tlie largest iheatrc in Itiily. It begios 
12 o'clock on Sunday night. I was over-pcr- 
to go by our kind friend Mr. T., and 
d's •ugfrc»tioii that " it is bnt to sec ibings, 
. you may subalitutc an i<lca for u vrord." But 
yout dear C, can have only tliv wonis, I shall 
take thi'in lu few lu possible. The thnitrc wu 
briiliiintly li);bted, nnd vioM-ed from tli<! depth of 
ihe stage wa& a splendid spectacle. The tallest 
grenadiers in the king's service were planted like 
beacons about the house. The royal liiniily were 
in their box, and the kiii^ came down and mingled 
with tlic crowd. He i* at all, stont, burly, yc(^ 
man-like looking man. 1 observed, as he stopped 
for a few moments near onr box, diat he excited 
little attention, and was as much josiled and pushed 
as his subjects. The dancing was con6ned to ibe 
liarlequins, and was a mere romp. There were few 
raukers, and tbetjc few supported no characters, and 
tnervlywalkcd upend down, uttering common-places 
in feigned roices. There was an excessircly pretty 
young woman in ibe box next to us, who aUracted 
genenil attention, and it was to join the starers at 
her that ibe king liad stopped near us. She was 
the sister of a lady whose beauty had captivated 

rathar <ai>*plcaau*. «iid nvMcllcMlf hwb «« ptliei n vs no oar 
aslWt hon«<rard. 



■ brolber of tlic king. TIk lady's liusband wu 
■SSBSsiiiatttd a few (Uys h«fore the carnival, and 
tlie royal lover went off ibe iiexl day lo l-'Igrcnce— 
fir his heaith f 

Save tht! lilUe exdlement occasiooed by our 
pretty neighbour's pre§ence, and the imperiiiiencca 
addressed to her by the maskcre, the ball was 
a heavy affair. The carnival has had its day. Men 
can remain children a great while, but not for ever. 

Mk. Tiiroui* procured iia invitations to the 
court-ball*, and last evening we went. The mere 
foruu of society are much alike all over the civilixed 
world. The hall (with rather more ^wice to move 
ini for there were firtcrn or twenty rooms of the 
palace open) was conducted much like one of wir 
balls. Nothing struck me about the Neap(Jitan 
women but the vacuity of tlieir fjices, and the 
abundance and brilliancy of their diamonds. Tbe 
Italian princes retain their diamomU, us they do 
their pictures, when every olber sign of wealth 'n 
gone. Tlie queen, who looks like a tguiet body, 
designed by nature to nurse babies and keep the 
house tidy, snl with the court-ladies at one end of 
the duncing-room, and rose once to make a prt^ 
gress tliriiugh the apartments. The royal family 

• nil ni nat oo* of lh« ImII* of the ji t admim Jdab, i 
■re ftrai wteliljr bjr > oosipany. of wtioai the kbg li o««, u»l te 
whlcli forcigncn arc llbsnllj wloiltled u|>oa ibe ■[niHielliiii at 
their repreaculaliit*. 


siipjtetl I>y tlicinselveft. Several tables were spread 
far llie guoxu. Bff'idcs the kiiick-kiiack*) of oiir 
evening cnt«rtai[iiiitfii[)f, there were fish, oysters, 
atiil game, and on t-iwh tuble an entire wild-boar, 
•tuck willi silver arrows". The Indies )^atliored 
hungrily about ilic tublcs, and ate like good trencber- 

VVr retired after supper to iin iidjoininfr room, 
and wit down in a most liberly-eciualitv ftlyk' u«ar 
a coterti; of ladies, wlio put up ibeir eye-glasses 
and fliured ut tt«, but witliout any other uncivil 

We -(ooii perceived tbey were the ladies of tlie 
court, and Uiey no doubt forgave iw on tlic lliittcrin|r 
ground of our bein^ Nonb Aniericun ituvugea. 


NoTBiNO can exceed the fertility of the soil 
t Naples. The crops on the best ground are 
each season as follows : pilars and apples, grapes, 
two harvests of Indian corn and one of wheat, 
and at (he end of tlic season a crop of turnips or 
•ome other rcgeubte. Due what uvuiU it to die 
inultiitidinous swiinnii who go hungry every day? 
A mini who can get work earns only, by the 
hardest labour in summer, sixteen cents a-day. 

■ Of OTona tl «■■ menlj ■ MolTad boar** ikln. A bou-haat 
Ib 111* raf*l ffmtnet, near N4pla, b ■ faranitte rof «) RmuMv 
MMt. and il alUndcd hj Udl**. On one bnihl maniliij. aLile 
wa Wf*< ihet*, iIm queen klUcl, wlUi het o«d tut liand, wichIbcii 
hot* — • timiofa* qlitn (pori 1 


aud lie pays a tax of three (lollan For evcr^' butihrl 
of Halt he consumes*. He is forbMtleti to usr the 
salt witter ilmt wasbefi tiie shore. All articles of 
ncouxKary consuRiption ar« inordiDately Iaxc<l. 
There bt a tax of ^5 per cent, on the income of 
real estate^. 

We hear much of the indolence of the lazzarenl 
of Naples; they are idle; but Mr. Hammett. who 
is a sagacious obserrer, says they are uot indolent: 
be has never known one of them to refuse vmk 
when ofTered to him, and ilicy will work for the 
smallest sum. We ooinjihiiu of their extreiiN! 
abjectncSK, of llicir invariably bcvcttin^ uk, after 
bciiiij paid tlie price agrwd on, " for » little 
more," " Ah," he ««y», " they are so verj- poor." 
If the man had Iiatf a soul, llie " Kin;T oflbe Lax- 
laroni "^ would be most wretclie^I; but his people 
are only his to prot-ide for his pleasures and 
feed his arartoe. Avarice is his ruling paftsion^- 
Duriniif the cholera an impost of half a milliuii of 
diicais wai Itii) to alleviate the extreme distrew 

* The pnct or Mil 1* 1R7 low, tome kw onu a halhit. 

+ A> if *m)i potentate inn nut lulSciralif If^twoaa fa la;la| 
tu«*. onp plafi into lh« hinil of kDothar. MnI m of fxiuna pro- 
■crlbed during Lent, but hit hotiucM gnnU • <lif tftlan on tht 
|i*i|niirnt onbn* tarlUri to lint iti*inr. 

; Thit ukrcD of > wtt with Knglaid OMontd vhlk wa wen u 
Ntplsi. Tba Kniliih dntrtnd ih« ion [mauMliiittljr, tmA lb* 
peoplo luiroad much loai, aad the umuI csMfaaioa anJ aaiift; 
Incident u tuch > rrpari. It wm afl«r«iril laid Ike kla| gtx «p 
tbe tiAtm llut lie mitht apecaUle in the itodu t TI1U nighl be 
Irutli at Htirv, it don Qi>> Diiilaf mucb aUA. 


the poor. Fifty tlioiisand only went to relieve 
heir necefiuties, and Uic rcmaiatUr to the ktag's 

Wlieitcrer tlie provinces rwjtiirc expentliturei 

rviiitin or improvemeute. Uiey raise money by 

tying a tax ; but tlie money so raised oiinot be 

out till a certain officer of tbe government 

ices a report ax to tin- appropriation. If tlirc« 

pass witJiout a report being made, t]ic money 

heats to tbe king. Itepeatcdly the tax ban been 

id, the money collected, and tlic report never made. 

ie avarice of a private individual is a folly, in a 

Itini; it K a crime*. 

We had he:ird a very pretty Mory of the king 

braving the cholera, iiml rrmitiiiing with his family 

at Naples that lie mi^Lc «hare the common danger 

and calm (be panic. Tlie trutli is, that hu remained 

at Cascrta, a royal residence at a distance from the 

danger, and that once, when lie drove into the city, 

and was passing throuj|(h the Mercatu, the despuir- 

iog people gathered about him and tlitew Ihnr 

black bread into hit carriage. He tlircvr it out 

i^in, and bade them flock to tbe cliurchefl and 

* Thn (jilem or «]i>anag(< i* lo moish more tciett i» the pr»- 
*lac« Uiui itNtpIea, (bat Ibc oooDlr? gEnlluneu Ouek to llis cltji 
Ibr pfouction. Wt kni * intlmald)' one of ihcM — ■ mn>t wnbUa 
■ml aiNixinipllihvd jounf man — whnM nhole finni))' hail (Dflcral 
polilieU ptrwruliixt. Sota* h4il ImI lluir liiea, •ama wer* ouimed, 
■ad aonii hid diiid of brokin h»rti. Wbile irc look "lib dctcsU- 
tion OQ ihii licet of ■ loteramept lb«t lliiu allltcU l(a (abject*, 
IK D<ul not forgtl du niloe Uiat Ikm ml*u. 



pray God to pardon (liein for llie crimes for wbich 
kc had sent this scourge upon tliem ! Dock it meta 
to you. dear C, tbat oiir world of free people and 
responsible ^veniurs can he llie same in which 
this seltish wri'icii lives, u king, and permitted to 
transmit his power to his like ? 

He has been educated by priestat, and is now in 
the handx of the Jesuits. His tutor bas published 
the counte of instruction by which he trained htf 
royal and docile pupil. The king is there set fottli 
as tlie Mheplivrd, and tlic |)eople lut bis sheep, oret 
whom be has absolute power to lead tlicm wlutitet 
be will, to ^ve life or inSict deatli. 

As tieitbcT iho peu|)le nor die soldiers liuvc any 
attachment to the government^ there might be 
UHue hojie of a better future if it were not backed 
by the power of Austria. The disaffection of the 
soldiery is so notonous that even the king bimsetf 
is aware of it. He had at one time u tiiiicy to give 
the troops a new uniform. " I)re» tlieai as you 
will," said bis 6itber, "at their fir«t opponiini^ 
they will run away from you !" 

There is a deep and general depravation here, 
doublk-ss, but the spirit of manhood is not cxtiDCt. 
A few days Mnce a Calabrian soldier was struck by 
liis HU]>erior officer. He complained to bis colonel, 
who tr«'«ted the grievance as a hagiiielle. The 
next day, on the parade, (lie sohlier shot the officer, 
and llicn walked (luietly away. He was, of course, 




ixett, and tlie next morning executed. To 
the laKt lie wa« uiifulleritiE;i and said coolly that 
lie bud only dojio uhat uliould liave been done for 
liim ! 

Neither ia liumanity extinct liere ; and, aa yoa 
rejoice in tlie knowledge of a good deed as n gem- 
fa iicier does in (he discovery of an Bntiijne, or a 
pictuie-buycr in tlie acquisition of a Rapliael. J 
will tell yon a story Mr. T. told us of a gcnllcmnn 
vrlime benevolent coiniienimee lie gioinled out at 
UiG cotirt-lndl. The person in question is the 
king'M miuter of ceremonies., nobly born, for a 
lineal ancestor of his received a sword from Fran- 
cu (lie First ul the battle of Puvia. The descend- 
snt has done something better thnn {giving or 
receiving swords. During the cholera he look 
under bis protection eighty recent orphans. He 
built an asylum ft>r litem which cost thirty ihou- 
aand dollars. He has ever since defrayed ito 

pcnses and superintended it daily. His io- 
como does not .exceed nine tliousand ducuta per 

* I h»K idrarled lo the amlrorrtij with EiifUnd *lild> <iecur< 
rvd duriD^ our lOJoorD ml Kaplc*. Hie king fincird ha oOoU 
eitrini* Linnolf Iram Ibc dlRlf ull;r ^ requiring hia mlnkUr Is 
ttktitj Ibe word be bad )rltil(ell U in Kaglitb tumfiiDjr, Ho 
nhxil to do ihu. The lilni IhroiCcDCd, lis ptrtiatcnl, wid WM 
eooMquentlr drjirlfrit nf hit oflin, *nd onferfd la retira to ■ 
•Iroiil bouM in our nf tlie proiinoci. inheleil Bith imlaria. Il« 
WM poor 1 hi* dangliters (hi* on]; children), in tbe itrpaH 
■Bictlon, uld tlicj noald Ibraw tbemtdfoi *C the king'* fetC, knd 



Mttrdi 10. — We went ye^tcniity, my dew C, 
toPompciL AVe drove past fielcU iii wbicli llxfc 
were tnmies of allies and lava of lii»t yew'* 
■nplioa. It a|i[>ears now stratigc thmt Pan- 
p0ii •kould so long liave remaiped burii.*d. Tbc 
•UT&ce of tlie ground yet iiao|>ene4l iiidicatM trlitt 
is beneaili : it resembles a biiryiog-grouiid, rxcvpl 
lliat ilie tumuli arc liiglier and more irregular. 
Yau ignorantly vrandor lUut iW people of tlw vil- 
lage at tbc base of Vesuvius do not live in oott* 
stant terror : experience kos lauglit tltcm better. 
The HtTciun of lavn rolls »lovrly, like lioiicy un aa 
inclined ptane> and you niay be ne»r enougb U) 
touch it wilb a eane »nd retreat before it reaebt* 
you*. After a drive of twelve miles we readied 
Pompeiit attd, alighting, entered tlte Strata dm 

nnwt Us f> *M. 'tlMB j«a an to )I at tW paril tl wf 
•icriHtiiv ^pJcwwa." nil th* hthm. " 1 hn« onlj tarn mt 
d«t; I •ImII t wk pardoN for tbM ! No. mj chfliUcn. Lew* 
■• ny iBlrgrilj j It b all tkil Tcsals* <o me." A fotaiwe 
pfMnI told him b* ■•! iaAMimt to *■; lh«** thtnn* in hit pn- 
MBoc He nfiJicd, " Yo« will do ne • farow if yoa R|>c>t cWs 
to U* miittf" I uktd ■ N««poIltM tnni U tht* «&lr «m 
ipakta o(. ■■ Yet." be 4ud. " bat cacfc tnaa looka bdMa bi 
qicaki to ««c wbo to «llbl& litarttv !** 

* Wbea IbcTv it *b mip[i«D iha pnpk i« on with their ami 
(Knapaliun* till tbrj tt* tbn itnam OMnioK tbdr my i tbn (l«f 
paok upthrirnlHablta — • (intll burden — and livdge of ta N^pta> 
If their bonin are buried, the; nintn, ahen tbc lara cooU>n 
buUd neir ODCi. lad caltliate a Mil iBclbanMiUj hftBh 



okri,— Street of Tombs. Tliis fitlin^ ciitninco 
ingB you itnmrdiatcly into »yro|iiilliy with tlie 
eopic who livvcl here ; for ibt* ir deuA, tliose tliey 
loved, wept, and 1 1 on o tired, are as near Lo you a* 
Uie (lead of yesterday! Tliit) street of tombs ww 
ODtside ihr gales of ibe city * ; tbe lombs axe mised 
■ereral feel uboro die geneml level, and crow-iied 
witli in 1)11 lime nil beautifully Mnilptured, attA in 
some caavs nrarly entire. 'I'lie inlcriur of the wall 
surroUDdin^ tbe tomb ia coarsely wrought in bai^ 
relief. The streets are narrow, aixl paved with 
larf^c Rat stones which bear the traces of wheels, 
but tlie pavement is unbroken and fur better than 
(bat in the older parts of New-Vork. Tliere are 
nuaed tidc-walks; a luxury you do not find in the 
Dodrrn Ituliiin cities. 

Kow, my dear C, I feel It to be quite in vain to 
attempt lo convey to you senaatiuns indefinable, 
unutterably strange, and yet thrilling us inth a 
fre!ih and uniireamed-of pleasure; I kmiwiiotwhy, 
unless it be from a sort of triumph over time ; for 
here tbe past is given back, and the dead are yielded 
up ! We passed ihreshoUls where tin words 

* Tb* Rooiani, <iatti[ in Iho cue of •minent inill'icltul*. fat- 
bade Inlemienii wiltiin the villi of Ihi-ir etUr*. Ths inihnr of 
** Bona im the Ninclrcnth CBUIurr" juttlj remarki Ihat tbt 
RoBDin cuilom of burjing on rilher fide of thfl hichwiy rsptuni 
iW coniinun InicnpIioD. " &'ii<r Cio/or.'" ('• Stop, TVirciUer!") 
•0 spjiroiiriiie fur them, uid lo ■biunl m dmiI Id *U1i|« cfturch- 
jacdi, ahfra DO InietlcT enr pawcs. 

* ^r- ' Mat ~ Sof^ ' miuafi ib aimtmt mdiUv. 
"■"■ -rtaac^t Tir-nuci. 7Mm»v«eiT prnple ISOOyan 
aei vrar -a nH. a: nVclt: xnd t«sf agua in tbe 
^tnraiiz *^ "3^ di^x in portieoes where dwj 
mm flc ^iiltni^ ic vuc Cjcsar vac ^oin^ io tLe 
3rT>rTiirf* ant Oreri t^ sijto^ in ib* Fonin. 
Tf imK^i lu zatf jrc3ih«>raExI oeavns and figures 
tdL :n. T-i->t raiiinEs nt i&r vsl&. and &naed faov 
^ ;in»<ne>ir fC uw Ar^pnin lorn br tlte dogi 
4C I>a::a. v^ioniii^E iz baring a picture moR 
WsLZTi- ''■"•' taj iC he: neijrliboDrs and hcnr bn 
iTTil irj£:i.; en* <vt_-»£ cner *«■ in the " Cnpid 
ani IXiLth^ fc<«r=i^' ec i^ dov vracatit pedcsoJ 
•t iKr f..i^ii^ W> «««n>d til* boudoir where 
an r-'" :c-soi-i: w^iiiir^ aitourd vmc discorerpd: 
IT"! k> *^ ,xii-.". i". tie rw.i iores. nrought in its 
^«iii%: raTr=:-srT- ivinerLai: ovrr a jewel caskel, 
wiL* -.-v o: •!*= draws oai a neckia<v, we ^cied 
ti* ^r" y i^^^ iiowis^ Li* s-c<vss.ful work to hii 
en:r-<-iyer. We *aw lie baby-Leir of the bouse 
creevir-f over ;ie narb^* Soot to (lie maslerpiMe 
of all mwaics. wliiie iiis nurse pointed out Alex- 
ander ar.d Lis helmeied Greeks, and Darius and 
his turbariei: PerMaas ! We luiicied the enand-boy 
reading (he luuDe, still legible, of the oil-merchant, 
and turning in to purchase oil 5xiin the jars suuken 
in tlie couuier. ar.d yet perfect. Ve saw the 
jovial wine-drinker setting down bis drinking'-cap 
on the marble slab that still bears its mark. \Ve 

tdo^rn on a semicircular stono-bencli on the sMe- 
Jk, and beard the old man tell his gossips liow 
I he fouglit ttt Jerusalem under their good Titus, 
id tlic nurse promise the listening boy lie shonid 
up to Rome and see the wild beiists light in the 
tw Flaviiin umpbitheatre. We imujipiici) tlie 
luxurious I'ompciun, after bis bath, sitting on tlie 
bronze bench over a brazier in tlie still perfect 
haitiing-rnom, and looking up witli Koniiin pride at 
the etbgies of tlie captive barbarian kings sup- 
porting the shelves on which stood the pota of 
precious ointmenta. We fiincied tlie Pompeian 
Rogers dispensing the hospitality of " the house of 
the Faun," which, from the treasures found there, 
seems, like that of our host in London, to have 
been a museum of art and beauty: and as we 
walked over its mosaic pavements made of prcaous 
nurbles obtained from elder ruins, and passed wslb 
built of the lava of previous eruptions, we heard Uie 
■otiquary of Pompeii espiaining former pioggie*, 
and the moralist prosing, ns we were, on tlio 
mutations of human affairs ! We stood in tho 
tragic iLeatre, and saw the audience stirred by 
alluMons to localities and crWiiHl phenomcnit whidi 
no roof hid from them. We heard the cries of the 
workmen in the Fonim when the eruption burat 
forth, and they let fall their tools, and left the walls 
but half rebuilt, and the columns but liulf rectored 

■ The ItilUiii thU4 drilpiUc uianiptlon. 

VOL. n. 



tbat liad becD ovcrtbrowii by an earthquake sixtMii 
years before. Wc heurd the sounds of labour in 
the narrow lanes, and, ciDCrjj^ing into a broad 
street, imagined wbal must have heen the scQsatioiw 
of those who filled it when, looking tliroiigh iu long 
vista, they ttaw the flames bursting from Vesuviasi 
and turning back, beheld them glaring on the snow- 
capped mountains opposite. And, finally, my deu 
C, after going over the ruined temples of Iius and 
llercules, we returned to oar own actual life — all 
tliat waH left of it uncxhauBted — und, sitting do«-n 
on tlic steps of the temple of Venus, we ate buns 
anil drunk our Capri, and jocosely symputbised with 
one of our friends, who idToded to fear tliat he sbonld 
outstay hU Naples dinner and his favourite omelette 
soufflee, and laughed at an unhappy Eti^ish pair 
whom we had repeatedly encountered, the man 
swearing it was " all a d — d bore, these old rattle* 
trap places," and his consort, with Madame Starke 
open in her hands, learning where she wns to give 
one, and where two notes of admiration ! 

My dear C, 
%Ve went early this morning to the Studii, and, 
bjr way of an appropriate sequence to yesterday, 
we proceeded directly to the apartments containing 
tlic pergonal ornaments, domestic utensils, &c^ of 
the Poropeiana *. There are four rooms, contaiuing 

■ WlUi then we IsMrinxugltd Um muon* IboMl to U 



sore (ban four thousand vaaes and oilier vessels of 
cotta. Tliey ar« embellislied wicli classical 
ibjecta, Biid tbrir worknnansbip murks lucccssivc 
of art. Tbe value set on iLiern you mny 
inc from two among tlicin bciiijr 4>«tiiniit«d at 
l^lbcnuanci dueuls mcb ! In anotlicr npnninent 
B collection of |ircciou« e*'"*' sapphires «me- 
tiysts, carnelians, &c., cut into fine cameos. Wliat 
you of a cup (in wbich some Pompciun 
Jlcopatri may liave melted Iier pearls and swallowed 
Item) iH laige round as tbo top of a pint-bowl, 
dc of alabaster, n'lth s rim of rardonyx, liaving 
I one side a group in bas-relief of seven figures, 
tpresenling, with wonderful exprestion, an apo- 
heosis, and on tbe other an vxqni»ite Medujia'a 
1 ! There are a great variety of peraonal 
imcnts, necklaces, bracelets, rings, pins, Sec., 
am wbidi our fashionable jewellery of late yean 
been copied. We saw the necklun- and brace- 
lets timt Diomed's wife wore for one thousand 
eight hundred years ! Yesterday we went into her 
wifie-celbtr, where «be was found with her pune 
in her band, aiid where tbe wiii«-jars are uill 
standing * ! 

There is an immense <]iiantity of brome armour, 
■ome of it beuHiifully embossed, and so heavy that 

■ Thapoor Udf iiiuppoMdIabaioQiifbi rWof* in Iba mUw. 
Tm7 far >kdrt(iiii hale becB dxmi at Tamfta. ftom vUih b 
■ppean Hut mut of (ka InhabUMia badtiMa to cupe. 

V :: 


it would Heem to require a ^fiiint's etrcngth to sus- 
tain it. One helmet WHS foun<) on a soldier who 
stood it out brerely ut bis post ; lie was discorercd 
at a gati! of his city, still on fruurd, when tJie aabes 
were removed ! 

There is an endless variety of bronic lamps 
some very beuiitiful, and smnll stoves; one, that 
seemed to me a nice conlriranee, Iiad a tire-plaee 
in the middle, pipes ninnin^ round it, and cylin- 
ders at each corner. There is every article a 
boiiscwifo could desire to furnish her kitchen ; kel- 
ties, KiiucepaiiK, culiuidera, tunneU, dippers, steel- 
yards, with bronse busts for weights ! and, io short, 
dear C^ there is everything to identify the wants, 
usa^^s, and comforts of the ancients with our own; 
surgical instruments, keys, garden tools. We ob- 
served a writing-case prrclsrly in the fasliion of a 
compuct little utfnir K. is now using, and which 
she bought at n bazaar in London. 

The drinking-cujis are various and beautiful. 
There are seventy alike of silver, small and fluted, 
which were taken from a table outspread for a din- 
ner that was never eaten ; and perhaps it was for 
this very dinner that some meat which we saw in 
a stewpan was in preparation. 

There are wheat, rice, ants, booeyi figs, pnuxt, 
and almonds, all undiai^d to die eye, except 
darkened in colour; and tlicre is dough all ready 
for the oven, and a cake juit taken out of it marked 



to slices, and looking precisely like a "composi* 

Ion-cake" prcpurr^d lor one of our rural tes-Iables 

1 did not Qute it ! — and I saw ■ littJe cake mode 

the form of a ring, and «cl Mide — perliaps — to 

for some pet child at sclioo). Strange tliouglits 

J tliGSc objects called up of liuinan projects and 

lursuiH, and of huinun blindness. 

You will be pleased to know tliat your profes- 
at Naples, though not tatu reproehe, Iiave a 
benevolent association for the gratuitous prosecu- 
tion of the causes of the poor. This society meets 
every Sunday morning, and go in a budy to church 
to ny tlieir prayers. On every Tliursday morning 
four of tbeir number are in waiting to receive ap- 
plications. Our friend L — a, who ts one of them, 
says it does not amount to much, not from the 
fault of the la«7er8, but from the reluctance of 
tlie clients, who have no confidence that tlie right 
can prevail wiiJiout tiic customary accessory of 
bribes. A bribe to the judge is about as much a 
matter of course as a fee to the lawyer ! 

L — a took us yesterday to see tbe civil courts 
bcUl in tbe Vicuria, a palace formerly occupied by 
tbe sovereigns of Naples. The lower story and 
subterranean apartments arc devoted to prisons, 
and are in a horrible contlitton. The upper story 
ts another kind of pris<m ; tliere the orcbives of tbe 
•late are kept, and among tbem predous lititoricol 


r«conU, jealoufly locked up. Foreigners are oca- 
NOnally pennittcd a fvw Iiours'' re«e«rcli anoof 
tliem, and & few fkrourcd NeajioltUuts have ke«D 
admitted for a very »hoTt time. 

In going up tlic wet itoiic ilairt-ssc we pasBeda 
faalf-fiimi»>hcd- looking woman sitting nsloep, witb 
one cliild at tier breast, in vain sieekitig food iLere, 
and aimtlier lean, pallid thing nestled closv to licr. 
Would not suob a spectacle in the precincts of 
your courts have brought down a shower of aim? i 
these people clattered past them as regardleM •■ if 
these human things were a [lart of the stone they 
■at upon. 'Hiis is "custom." God liaa not girea 
llie Neapolitans hearU harder tlian ours up in 
Berkshire. We went through several crowded 
aiite-Tooras filled with lawyers, clients, and idlers* 
huwkent of stationery, and beggars. One long ball 
n-us lined on both sides with desks occupied by 
scrivencni, who, amid such clamour as I am aan 
you never heard, were going on as undisturbed as 
if tlicy had been in your quiet office. \Ve made 
our way through three rooms where courts were in 
aesoJon, and where the business was conducted 
quietly and decently, much, as it seemed to me, in 
form like ibc business of our legal tribunals, ex- 
cept in one particular. There is one officer, caUed 
the proairatoret whose busiiiMs it is to expound 
the law and apply its principles to the cause in 
question. Accustomed as I have alumys been to 





^-tegnnl our judges a» unoomipieil and incorruptible, 
■T full a Hort of itliuilderlng in looking at these men, 
hose viccd are diseases of the heart that must 
carr)' disease and death into every part of the body 
of the state. There are /our thousand lawyers in 
Maples, including clerks and scriveners, and it 

['would seem that they, and all their dependents 
and followers, were witldn the wuIIh of this old pa- 
lace, 'llivso masses looked busy and iiitcltigcnl, 
mnd much more ro»[>ectal>le tlian tlic popukce in 
the street — as if it liiid b<'«ii iiifiocl indi-cil, iind tliis 
was the gniin, that riie chafF. I'hc lawyers are 
inarke<l by the government, as it is well known 
tliat tliey best understand the rights of die people. 
AutliofA itre miirked men too ; and with good rea- 
Mn, if they reflect and feel oa well as write *. 

* ncre !• • T0U1C Nrapolilvi «hn obtiiiinl |<rnnlHii>n tn (irtnt 
biliary nf thu kiDiclnm orNaplri. He nmi on imixilhlf till he 
cuae (o lh< Hicnlh nnCurj, when Ibe iniuion of Ibe Sannn* 
f«(e [iw lo Kiiiie |>ilrlolic ujirewlaai — Iho poblicatlOD ••■ 
Moppcil, KDit hl> MKS. wliril. Nothinf rfuintM], he bepo *(Ria ; 
Hid now, ■■ b*c u he odmplelM ■ cvrtaln portion, be fcncli it out 
of ike oomMy lo lie (irinUd. Tbcra ie an ioMilatioo here rslici 
L'Alirrfo iW Pvvtti (Aij-lum far lbs Poor), •rhuiii bat largi 
fmub, bat 10 Fnudulenilf muuged, th&l Ibe inmat** are IliUe 
beatfllrd b; ihea (U>c lum alloUcd to each perKHi u ihirlT-nliie 
4aMU a JTMr. ■ml not more Iban the half o( tbU u iptal apOD 
Un). Thi j'lung bittarlra reeolTed (o eipOM theea abate*, and 
be «tmb a t\mi poevi. in vUsb ba cuiMlaf«d aanral penoni 
oeocenied in (hem. Thii *f pffatcd ben widl • (pi«C(n *UfH 
•ertfillon- He •■■■ leind anJ Impriioncd. He conhaied the 
•ntbonhip. bui mainlalncd Uirre *at an lao fotbiddioi bia trririay 
wbU L« Koold 1 and i* to the prialini, UM (tfinUr niuC eaeBcf 



I am tempted bere, my dear C^ to copy a pat- 
sage from 's joiirital, wliich lies open before n», 

relating to a persectited author, whose popms the 
girls liave been reading witb our Neapolitiin rrii'iid 
L. It will at least serve to sbow you bow ground- 
less were your fears tbat our young people, in tht 
enchantment of these countries, would lo»e their 
sense of the advantages of ticir own. 

*' L. considers Count Leopardi the finest poet 
since Alficri, and certainly there i« great power in 
someof the things we read; and, oh! itgivesussach 
a feeling, sucli a ' rualitliig sense ' of the mental suf- 
fering endured here hy men who hare one s]iark left 
of that love of freedom which seems to be God's uni- 
versal gift, who have their eyes open to what is pass- 
ing round them, and aspirations after better things. 

*' And us we read with L., and »c« how excited 
he hccomfs, bow, from the very iuneniiost depth* 
of his soul, he responds to tlie bitter invectives and 
keen sarcasms of the poet, we too kindle into s 
glow of indignation, and feel oureelres animated 
by the spirit of uncompromising resistance; and 
when we lay aside the booh, we thank Heaven, 
more tliaii ever, that our lot is cast in a land where 

for tbic. Ui «u ftcdfut >uJ iirsTiilnl, bol be I* ■ markfi ma^ 
Una poor follow, for ■ much lieht«r oflnnc*, wm mm to ■ m^- 
boiue. planted lata (he injrno <H npma, chnne4, wmI coafiMd 
iritli tiie " tarioual; oiiil." Ha cicitrd lueb tjm^iAjimt gdM 
forth *aeb powerful inKreeinoa, thai ho iru faaHtj rrlwml. ^tk 
i* nan in P*ri>. 



ICftn tbink, speak, and act as tlic spirit movetli 
; and America rises before us in a lialo of lig;bt, 
brightening and briglitoning. As Dante says on 
liift first seeing Punidise, 

* E diiahito parte giorno a gJomo 
£uerc RggiunCo oome qgci cbo puoU, 
Aieus '1 Gi«l d'an allro i<ile idurao.' " 

For a <]itie[ person, who dacn nut rare tu run 
cr sijrhu, 1 ean imagine notliiiig^ murt- deliglitful 
to sit at the window as ] do now, and look 
IQt OR tlie buy and tlie golden clouds floating over 
resuvius and Sonitnu, urni at Vesuvius itself bathed 
purple light. Itut tli« chief pleasure of a rest- 
once in Naples, after visitinfr tb« Studii, driving 
■p the Slraiia Nuova, u superb Icrrnce-road over- 
gking the bay — after walking through the royal 
tcasure-grouods at Capo di Monte, tliroitgli tlie 
JSoscAt, a green Po&ilippo with " verd''fouf wallx," 
and looking at the king's seota hutuired peacocks 
drtgging their grceii, their white, and their azure 
blue plumes over titc green turf— and after ranging 
through (he terra cotta. coral, and luva shops — the 
chief pleasure at Naples is from the excursions 
about its rich environs. 

The girls have ascended Vesuviim, und will give 
you tlieir report. We luive, of course, visited di« 
tOQib of Virgil, hardly to he calle<l an excursion, for 
It is Just lit (lie end of llie aty, over tlie entrance 
lo Po«ittppo. 'lliefact of its being the tomb of Virgil 



is disputed. Eu-tlace argues earnestly for the not 
prmnee; but Eu&tace is an easy believer. It ia, 
however, a portion tbe poet might hare ckoseo if 
ho looked fondly buck to earth. It is in a vineyard, 
ninid |rrutcMqnv foroM of tufii, which give u pictu- 
rcfKjue eR«ct to tlie iiex, ivy, and laurel lluu luuig 
raressingly almut the tomb, as if they had volunta- 
rily grown there. There are various openings, 
affording glimpses of Vesuvius, of the glorious bay, 
and itti lovely chores. The tomb iliwlf is an ordi* 
naiy culumburiiim, witli niebes enough for all the 
I,ulin poets who linve come down to us, 

^Ve have just returned from Fozzuolit the 
ancient Puteoli. After driving to the end of tlw 
gay Chiaia, we entered tbe grotto of I'usilipo, which 
is a tunnel eut tlirougb a tufa hill, and is 2316 
English feet in length, twenty-two in breadth, and, 
where loftiest, eighty-seven feet in height It hat 
a few dim lumps, whose insufficient light is inwU- 
quately supplied by the few rays of outer day that 
pvnetrutc the arched entruncL>x at each extremity. 
The passage is wild inid impressive. The impri- 
MDed and heightened sound rcvcrbcrntiiig from the 
walls is like nothing earthly. The smiths wbo 
are working by litful fires in a deep cavity at one 
entrance, seem stationed at the throhold of Plulo*s 
realm. An almost impalpable powder, from ground 
which no drop of rain ever touches, darkens and 
thickens the atmosphere ; a carriage drives past yoa 



w]lh noise enough for a train of railroad cars ; then 
• Nc«poliiai) car, with ii little demon of n hone 
with only 11 [Kitcli of skin here and then', Knd no 
flnii, diuhes uloMj^, its nine or ten wild, ragge^l 
|iBMeiiger!4 ttiick on, duffcrin^, yelling, nnd laugh- 
ing, and all vuniHhiii|v lut »oon ilh past, seemiog 
nere diadown in a iitiiidow land. Suddenly a bright 
gleam of lamplight illumines the figure of a bare- 
beaded, grey old woman, driving an aiu n-itb 
panniers, or fall§ on a etiappin^, burele^^d girl 
following another loaded with piles of wood. 
They but appoitr, and vanish in darkiicta. There 
sre t>hrine« iiicliett in the wall, where a lamp burn* 
before un image or a crucifix; and in the vor)' heart 
of the passage i» a ehapel to the Virgin scooped in 
the rock. I have .leen tliin illuininateil ; and when 
its lights are glaring on two or tliret^ kneeling 
wonbippers, and on a haggard beggar pointing to 
the image of the Holy Mother, and siietehing his 
hand to you, it produces a startling cffecL 

It i^ remarkable that the date of this work is 
unknown. It is mentioned by Pliny and Strabo, 
and is supposed to have been done by the Cuma;ans, 
to connect Neapuliswith Puteoli. After emerging 
from the giotto this moniing — ami what a delidous 
transit it h to the open sky and earth !^we turned 
off our roa<l towards Agnaiio, a pretty, Hcluded 
eraler-lako, devoted l» the king's aquatic birds, 
bach numbers were emerging frutu it, that it teemed 



a fountain of life, tutd as if its ^vaten were at every 
moment iK-comiiig incorporate iu feathers luid wings 
^paor tilings, they liad a doomed look ! 

We left our carriage on the Uke-»bore to walk 
up a Bleep hill to Astroni, where we were admitted 
within a stonc-wall of four or five miles tn circutn- 
ference, which incloses the king's prcscrres. It 
was here the queen did that delicate bit of lady- 
like work — killed her seventeen hoars of a fine 
morning '. From tlie hill where we stood, wc 
looked down five or six hundred feet into what was 
once the crater of a rolcano, and is now a &paciotitl 
plain, overgrown by trees and walled round by 
steep precipices. I'here is no tradition of the 
volcano, and no other record of it than that which 
tlie ciu-th bears on her bosom. To an American 
eye these preserves suggest the idea of uncleared 
land, upon which the settler is beginning his work; 
(he sound of the woodman's axe comes up musiealljr) 
from tliis deep solitude. L. and I wandered aboot 
the eminences amnng tlie superb ilexes, gatherii^ 
the white heath, and catching gl!m{)!M;s of the IwTr 
the queenly Nislda, and the great St. Angvlo. 

We returned to tlie high ron<t, and proceeded.! 
along the margin of the Bay of Itala t« Pozzuoli. 
I'his, onoe a great maritime town of Southern 
Italy, is now a miserable, beggarly phuie, contaut* 
ing about !)00U inhabitanU, chieSy fishermen, and, 
as it would appear from the tniopa tliat be&iege 



on, beggkrs, dcrroni, and venders of " mtiehi," 
you are awtured tbe little lumps and bronze 
images are wliicli are tlirust into your corriugv by 
stout clamorous fellows, wbo meet you a mile out 
of tbe town, and keep pace with your horses. Ah ! 
is a horrid tariff on all out-of-door pleasures in 
Italy. Your compact made with your cicerone, 
your condiuod improvea, the venders drop off in 
despair, and the beggars etihuide, it being a part of 
\n* duty to drive tlicm off, wliieh he often does 
amufltngty enough, by reiterating tlio only English 
vrord be knows, and wliicb beggars tind all toon 
learn in the good English society tliey keep: 
"d— n! d— nl d— n ! " 

If you can forget the living people at Poiczuoli, 
you may eujoy fine remains of tlie dead. There 
are columns of travertine of u temple of Jupiter 
Serapis thirty-live feet high. Tliey bear a curious 
reconl of t)ie paMiige uf time and the work of the 
elements ; fur six feel from tlie base they are entire 
and smooth, and thus far they have been buried in 
the sand ; above that they arc nearly perforated, 
made to resemble a sponge, by pholas, creatures 
that live only in '«alt wator— «o tliiit tbe sea hm at 
one time advanced upon tlie temple, nearly covered 
it for ages, and again receded. It is surrounded 
by batlis. The sick who came to bathe in the 
mineral water brought their propitiatory offerings 
lo Uie god and to the priest 'I'lte ring to which the 

S78 kaplbs. 

victims were nttadied is stil] riretcd in Uie HtoDe : 
lie pavcnifiit below die altar is nearly perfect ; and 
all around are strewn steps, capitals, and fraj^enu 
of bas-rclicnt. 

At a short distance from tbe temple we found 
workmeD employed cxmi'alinj; »ii lun phi theatre, 
which will approach the Coliseum in client, and 
u found in a good siute of presenration. We went 
through an corridor where the masonry wn 
us perfect iis if it were done yesterday. 

But by far the most interesting sight at Pozxuoli 
is tlic yta Campagna, a part of the ancient Via 
Appia, leading hence to Gaeta. It is for two mile* 
a street of tombs. The road (its pavement still in 
perfect prc«erv«tion) n a deep cut between hig;h 
rugged biinlcs in wliieh tlie tombs were imbedded, 
two anil tlirec tient one above the other. Ilioae 
that arc opened arc made in the form of the colun- 
barium. There was nn altar opposite the entrance, 
and around the sides a double row of niches (pigeon- 
holes) to contain the urn<. Their lulies are nov 
dispersed to the H'inds, and Nature, as if to wtl llie 
sanctuaries she bad so long hidden in Iter bosom, 
has dropped orer the opening a matted drapery of 
wild creeping plants. Nothing can well be imft. 
gincd more solemn and more touching than the 
silence and solitude of this street of tombs. The 
throngs of the city tliat daily sent hither its funerea] 
train are themselves a part of the mighty congrega> 

NAFLB8. 279 

tion of Uic dead, and oblivion has cfTitccd tlioir 

" The wheel bM oone full cirole." 


Marth 20.— This morning the sun rose clear 
for tlic fintt time in many days. Our own ungeniiJ 
spring lias followed us ; and what with clouds with- 
out. Olid illiicKS and pri'sstng iinxicty within, wc 
luivc had some heavy hours. Itut this has been a 
day nf comjiensatiuns. 

We detennined at breakfast on an excursion to 
Miflcnum, and on going down stairs to our car- 
riage we met our friend L — s, who said he should 
paM tlic day at AMtrone, but if " we hud tuhed him 
he should have gone witli us!' whereupon ve 
■ Mgerly offered biin the best or tlie worst seat of 
the coach. He took tbnt on die box, the "best or 
worst," according to one's fancy. As we drore 
round the Villa Reale, strapping men, who 10 our 
country would be wrestling with Nature and sub- 
duing it, besieged us, entreating us to buy little 
bunches of violets. I^— «, who, I ohterve, seizes 
eagerly upon every pretext to evade tbe money- 
wvini;, nmilern non-giving doctrines, bought his 
hands full and threw tliem into tiio carriage. 

The Chiaia had a true NcHpoliun aspect Flqui- 
peges were in waiting at the doors of the English 
" ajppartemens mettbUt," for the Inxurious strangers 
wlio were yet loitering over their ten-o'clock 








[ claiming^, " Ecco ! ecco ! Sono Miekael Atu/elo t ' 
The ruse only brought down upon him the laugh 
of his comrades, and we drove olT with a certaia 

.Andrea, a nice fellow, whom L — b, a fancier of 

lliuinan fuces, liud at once Helecte<l from liis tribe. 
We turned ofT near the ruinf of the ancient mole 
(su|i;)osed to have been built by the CumR-ans, and 
repaired by the Roman emperor^*) to whidi Culi- 
gala attached his bridge of boats. Here we left 

I our cairiago at the Lucrine Lake, and went off by 
a foorputh to tlic Lake of Averniis, (he Tartaruit 
which Virgil describes in the si\th book of tJic 

, .£neid. It i» UJce all the crater-lakes we have 
IMeD) deep sunk amid barren and preclpitoux hills. 
On tliG shore of this lake are the ruins of a temple 
which lias been assigned to fluto ; a pretty fair 
gueaa ; for who but an infernal deity should have 
hia temple on Tartarus? We turned from tlie 
lake to the grotto of the Cumie»» Sibyl, the long- 
sooglit and honoured oracle to whom Domenichino 
^as given *uch divine grace; BRcrilicing,as it seems 
to me, inspiration to youth, beauty, and harmony. 
We know not what art has done for us till we find 
it peopling these dreary solitudes with such ex- 
quisitc forms. 'J'he grotbt is a low, vauUc<l piM- 

Ln^ (a miniature of Posilippo), piercing the hill, 
coming out on the otlier side- We discreetly 
declined groping through it, contenting ourselves 

Lwitb a bouquet of ivy-lcavcs and violets plucked 
It its eiitTuncc. 

S8S itunM. 

We returned to Oie carriage, and drore rotiBd 
the Buy of Baiit, a most iteciire shelter for shipping. 
It uiu hcTtt tiiat Pompey, Cranus, and Pompciits 
dined on hoard a gnUey, when Pompey bad not 
tlie coura^ to do tlte treaclieroua act he would 
bare permitted liis servant to do for liim *. 

Here n'iM the «cenc of Nero's piirricide ; here 
lay the elder I'liny wlten the eruption that de- 
stroyed Pompeii burvt forth ; and berc his nephew 
wrote that letter wliicli hi« madfl ui all as fhmiliai 
with the ctrcumstancea tliat uiged his unc-Ie itilo the 
scene of danger, with the curiosity of tbe philow* 
pher and the benevolence of the friend, as if botb 
uiiele and nephew were our contemporaries, and 
we liad received the letter by yesterday's post! 
We went up into the little village of Banli, on tbe 
ruins of Lucullus' villa, where Tiberim expired, 
and where the people arc now nested in little holes, 
crannies, and angles of old vi-alls. We descended 
to the foundations of a celebrated reservoir, whicb 
the Koinaiis eonstmeted to itupply their fleet tvith 
fresli wilier when tbeir fleet lay in the Bay of Baj»; 
of which forty-eight piers are still entire, to show 
bow this magnificent people could provide for an 
exigency ! We went to the Mare Morfo, a little 
inlet of the sea, tbe Stygian Lake of Virgil, and 

• "Wli^" MkfdhiifrtedmaD, "do7M[lialaMllMeablc*.Mi 
ntke youncif muter of (he world }" •• V-Ttj," ha rvfliet, •• St 
joo not do It far me vilhoul ukiag me }" 





over liis Elysian Fields ; and wherever we went, we 
turned a new leaf in tlie Mew* of this land of love- 
UncaH. M'e stooil on ihc silcs and amid the ruins 
of temples, palaces, and villas ; for here they are, 
to boTTuw again I)ewey'« most descriptive cxpres- 
eioD, " kneaded into the soil." 

As we paused on the shore nenr tlie ruins of two 
magnificent temples, ] looked across to i'ozxuoli *, 
and thought of the momentwhen St. Paul first set 
his foot on Roman ground (here. Who could then 
have proplicBlcd that the words of this tent-maker 
sliould be a l&w to the consctencc, when men stand- 
ing where we stood should smile doubtfully at being 
told, " Here was Nero's palace, there was Ciccro''fl 
villu, and there Lucullus*; and there, on Ntsidn, 
lived Brutus with Portia, Cato's daufrliter, tlie 
* well-reputed womnu,' so fathered atnl so hus- 
I'buded !^ aii<l should guess wliellier this ruin was 
B temple to Venus, or Hercules, or no temple at 
all! or this Dtlier to Mcreury and Dtana! Ima- 
gination should reconstniet these temples, rebuild 
these villas, repeople this Uomun world, and refill 
it with its luxury and pomp, to estimate the lutfa 
of the brave apostle, who, in the midst of it all, 
•'counted all tilings but loss for tlie excellency of 
the knowledge of Christ Jesus our Lord!" 

But to return to ourselves, dear C. Our carriage 
was, M usual, followed by ii train — notof loalhaoiiw 

* Tlic Kiiueul futcoll. 



beggars tlin time, but of young, Moorislt>i 
girU, who lictd up 8uucim-s with biu of 
murblcs from Uie ruiiis, u-bich, as thry truly ail, 
were " molto belb ! uolto gnzioio '." ' Tktt 
leadt-T, a joyous creature, addressed a tort of baiSn- 
a^e flattery to toe, telling me I too vna "gniica 
e bolla !" and when I ebook my bead, she slioakrf 
merrily, and suid I sbould be " if I bougbl htr 
marbles 7'" The truiii Mwrllod ns w proceed) 
aiid among tJiem was a young iniito, who had btr 
spindle and distafT, and spun as ulie walk^. &tw 
Bcemed about seventeen, n-itb a mo»t gnetfii, 
fragile figure, and with u shade of propbclic tadnm 
over feulurvs so beautiful that they reminded 
of Haphacl's »aints. 

We had left our carriage and gone up tit 
a defile to get a view of the queen's oyster-eatiag 
lodge; and when we returned, our merry troops 
eLimuuriiig and laughing, met us Imlf way. WoaU 
that 1 could deM-ribe the iceoe to yon, my dear C. ! 
but I can only give you the mnterialK, aitd you moM 
make out tlie picture for yourself. Ou ooc sidr 
were the ruins of templet, on the other tbe moa- 
strouN foundations of mouldering villa« ; before m 
tlie buy, and Vesuvius with ita blue wreath of 
smoke, and the Apennines brilliant in their caps of 

■ Tliera an dill ttriklag mnmoriali of the Stnen iwiirtna if 
8au(b«rii IUI7 in tbc feitaru ind Mlouilaf of ntaj of A* 




nov, and Cnpri far off in the bsy. so soft and 
ay that it srcmi-d melting away wliile we were 
xirifr ut it; und clouds were driving over ns, 
rith fitful sunbeams glancing tUroiigli them. Our 
Deny followers were joined by an old wonuuii 
rith A bright re^l liaudkercliief tied over Iier grisly 
cks. She was the living image of Rapliael's 
ICumiean Sibyl ; the same wrinkled brow, and clian- 
lellcd checks, and unqiicnchcd energy burning in 
her eye ; the resemblance was perfect, even to the 
protruding teeth *. She was sitting on tlie 
iteot of a marble column, holding above her 
bead a tamborine, on which she was playing one 
of the wild airs to which they dance the tarantella, 
and accompanying it with her cracked voice. To 
this music the gleeful bare-legged girl 1 have 
described to you, having seized u strapping com- 
panion, was dancingu tarantella around L — «, who, 
though far enough from a Bacchus or Faun, bos in 
hU fiice much of the joyousncss of tliese genial 
and jovial worthies. My merry girl danced and 
■houted like a frantic Bacchante. I never saw a 
mouth BO expressive of glee, nor an eye whoM 
brightness was so near the wildness of insanity; 
there were cliiMreu with tangled locks of motley 
brown and gold, and eyes like precious stones, 

■ Saob oU ■AnRn art not anmBmon in lulf . t Im** Mmn 
half ■ Kore. U IcMt, ol bviag fac-timilc* ol MiohMl Angela's 



leaping and clapping their lianil», aiid }oia!n{r is 
Ui« old womiin's chorus ; and nty prrlty mute was 
among tliem, with a chMtciivil mirth and most 
eloquent silence. Apart stood four girt«, its gravr 
and fixed as Car\'atides, with immense piles of 
brush on their heads, which they- hadjust brought 
down from the liills; and we pilgrims from the 
oold North were looking on. 

L— B, who had begun bj regiuxUog our fol- 
iowevG as troublesome tellers of " cose molte cttri- 
luul by degree given bimself up to ibo ^irit 


of tlie Ncene. The floodgates of poetry, and of 
sympathy with tliese wild children of the South, 
were opened; and over hia face there was to 
indescribable shade of melancholy, as if by nuQrie 
he were beholding the older and chisbic time, and 
that were an actual perception which before 
been impcrfcclty traiismitted by poetry, painting, 
and sculpture. He threw u xliowcr of ulvvr among 
the l>a]>py creatures, atid we drove off. 

I have in vain tried to put this scene on paper 
for you. I have seen notliing in Italy so dtarac- 
teristic and enchanting ; and when L — s cune to 
US in the evening, I found I hod not exaggeretedfj 
nor even fully estimated his enjoyment. 

We hare been with our English friends to 
turn ; and, tliough it rained torrents lliruugh one of 
our three days of ab«cncc, we had quite pleasur«i 


lODgU to repay u§ for crossiag the ocean. What 
binlc yon, then, of the scale in which th^gc tlire« 
lys arc but a makc-wcight ? 

Notliing was ever better Biiited tlian the approach 

Psstuni over a wide, n-ild, and most desolate 
'plain, wiih no living tiling visible, excepting, al far 
interval!*, a shepherd, in the primeval dress of i^kins, 
lending a dock of gaunt, roggml sheep — a herd of 
buSilue^ looking, as K. faya, as if made of lh« 
refuse of all the other animals, or a solitary wrotcti 
on an a»s, who appears, like tlie snail, to carry his 
Louse and household goods with him. The ap- 
proach is suited to the ruins, my dear C, because 
tliere is nothing to divert yoiir attention for one 
moment from tlteni. There they stand, between 
the mountains and the sea, in a wide blank psge, 
scarcely ruins, but monuments of the an. wealth, 
•nd &ilh of a nation long effaced from the earth — 
templet) erected to au uukuonii God by an unknown 

I could condense pages of deikcription and speeii- 
Istion from tourists more learned than I ; hut, after 
all, they settle notlung: we are still left to wonder 
and eoDJecture, as the Emperor Anguslus did when 
be came from Rome to Piestum, nearly 2000 years 
^o, to gaze as ignorantly (and as adiniriugly, I 
flnat) as we now do, 

Tlie cork models bare given yoa an accurate 
I idea of the form of these edifices; but you must 


14 A rues. 

see them in tliis afTecting solitude trith Gwl'i 
temples, the mountains, beliinil tWin, ilie sm 
sweeping before tLem, and tlie long gran wavii^ 
from tlieir crevices, to frtl tliem— to class the 
serisulioiis tbey produce witli those excited b]p 
the tnoitt magniliccnt worka of nature, Niagara 
and tbe Alps. 

We stood before tliem, we walked tbrough them 
and around tliem, and then returned to tbe little 
Trattoria, tlte only shelter here, to comfort oar> 
selves beside tbe blazing fagots with hot soup and 
nuizo tjildo, and laugb at the euling and clatter- 
ing parties — English, Gcrnuui, and Italian— who 
seemed pouring down with the ruin upon Ps 
Bud wbo«e vehement demands our pour little bo 
tried in vain to supply. Among tliem was an 
bonest German, who seemed to bare come for 
nothing but the " Pwstum roses" whicli the elder 
poets celebrate, and vrbidi he expected to find 
as immortal as Uieir poetry. We left him still 
Uaroping over the wet grass in fruitless »e«rdi 
of them ". 

April 10. — To-MOitnow, my dear C, we leave 

■ Ann tbM my book Itentlutlng tbe puleoMdw; nadcn. 
I bat* omltird, cretptinf tbe few penpaplM ■bo«c nf }o«niil 
of our ficurnoD to PMthim. Mjr dcsetifrtieni of the lienif of 
•Mac portloQi of tbe roatg would giit« bat u> imprrftct Idaa to 
thoae wlin htn nol «■■ it ; tad thoM bIw kt*e. need not to be 
remlodod boo mucb Ibere ie U be enjojed. 

laples, and lake Uie first homeH-ard fit«p as joyful 
I the Kraelites wlieo they turned tonitrd!> llic Holy 
It)'. You may well have got the imprcuion fn>Ri 
letters tlial the begj^rsare (lie only company 
krep here, and, in truth, the b<>ggirs axi<l the 
itrt-ft donixviis (here hixzaimii, at Huroe Oiechini, 
and idlers everywhere) am the only iidjuhiuints 
of the country of whom we have much knowled^ 
There are so fen elemenlaiii iheir condition that 
" lie who runit may reuil them." All, theoretically, 
acki)owled}r<> thiit they liave "organs, dirneuaions, 
senses, alTec1i^n^ passioiw ;" bodies with human 
wants, souls witli an immortal destiny; and yet, 
while we t«iiri>l4 give volumes to ruins and pic- 
lures, the Laziaroni are slurred over with a line 
or a sneer. Wo forget tlic wrongs which hav« 
brouglit them to (heir pre»ent al)je«tne«H and keep 
tli«m in it, and quiet our sympathies by reiterating 
that " the Lazzarvni are the nkost cheerful people 
in tlie world!" and an tKey arc (except, {>erliapa, 
our slaves !) far more cheerful, as a friend of oura 
aays " than they have any right to be ;~ happier 
Uiaa you and 1, dear C-, if happiness be indicated 
by a cureless brow and merry *lu>ut>; but ts not 
tbc happiness of a reflediug being thadeit by seri- 
oufliieu, looking, its he must, )>efon- und after? 
and b not the cbeerfiilness of these people ilic 
most liApeleM thing about lliem, proring. as it 
fdots, an unconKiousness that marks the lowest 


point of htiman degradation? — no, not the Imtal 
point — I would rather be one of the Lazzaroni 
than the kiaff of the Lazzaroni, Is jt not straagv, 
dear C, that pc^^le should leave well -ordered 
oountrk-s to come hero to Ue«? 'Hiere arc many 
stnutgvrt, for (he most part Eii^li»ti, vho, seduced 
hy the allraclii>ii-i of llie climate and the lore- 
lincss of ilif adjnceiit country, reinaia here year 
after year. Life is rather too short, too full of 
import, to be consumed in mcro passive eojoy- 
oocnt* ! 

* Hf lut vtik Id N*pIiM wm Uo chartrcwriMio of Hit place I* 
b« left ODlnnacribnl from my nolo. I bad bardlf foM tea 
paeci, wken > ilccrtpit old b>g lioliblal Oii ba ttaff (<i«viU tse, 
erjlni witli brr cncked toiott '' Krctll«n -" "ul 1 ][■>« IiBr > b* 
I[r>nl IVoin isjr lidc-pooket. Her fatbli W t M ing aw inta " Pu»- 
diro," lud (urce died upon uf mTi wbon I fait a baad tlirail 
into thii tune pockcl, and, (urniag, cingkit ■ jaaogittf ja tbc act 
of dplnriiig il. I fiiricic tint be «ai Italian, and I of aoottff 
UnfW. I farcol. loo. (hat I Ujit nothing In tbU pock«l bat 
iudfpiiin forlhe lit:gg>n : aad, (otlinK aa if 1 bad b«cu nMwd tt 
all I irat ■orih in the world, 1 poond out mj indiiaaciaB ia a 
Toiler °' ">and Eagliih. everr word ai goud a* a bio*. The W 
■nlled at mj Impalenl Kiatli. drew back a litf, and p«JMc4 l» a 
tall eompaniriii in inilintd lliil be «M (bo oAwdar t ■id IhM 
■tretchinit oul bin hind, xald, In llie Uiu anlto tooe tONCt " &h, 
«0C«lea3 date mi qoikbe cum," Aa I paiMil (be Dafca of Bar- 
dtaoi' paUoci a poor wDoian naa (itting oa tb« p*TnB«nl, 1 
her bnd t^laat tlie nail, with a half-UmialHd ohiU lalevfi 
inst. SIk Hid iiotliiuE, but her louki ibauU hate 
aomething tiFlter tliin linlf|>rnce from mjr pocket. IlMaall 
mj bnfl oaaaahird u Ihr Leiitc'a ; and I *aUed rapUl; OS t» 
tteape thftc luauei of dirt; nt* aiih bunia haada, baoJa, m4 
feel, Ibit mt.n eoiniiig lonirdi nir, cr)rinf[, " Eacellca. ifttVvmat 
dl Uiu:" " F.ic«llsn,iuarodifaBi." Tbo dutMtM froan Hjr 
tu Iba itbu]) waa doI 0B«-a4xth of a mile. 

Ttmi, April 24. 
Wk hare Ml Rome*, mjr dew C, and witli 
fiB«liiif[s too mucti like purtirij^ with a fricud fur 
•rer to »ay unylliin^ nbuiit tlicm. We took good 
advice, and, instead of returning to Florence by 
tbe dreary wray we came, we are on tlie Perugia 
route, which is filled M'itli beauty, and is beginning 
to reulise my early and most romantic dreams of 
ItsHun Bccnery. Wc »e»r«'ly I;now what spring 
i«; our cliant;e oftciwon is like the Itiu^ian biitlii 
tile plttngc frtKn the miowilrift to hot water. Here 
the miiM-s iind the graces aecm to have taken the 
thing into their own hands, and all nature is em- 
bodied poetry and gntei*. 

After winding around hilU covered with home- 
looking houses, and peering down into the deep 
pUbway which (he Nar has made for itself through 
their ravines wc arrircd here at twelve uVlock 
this morning, and have Hpent tbe afternoon in 
viftiting the Fulls. " If you have seen Niagara 
and Terni," &aid Fran^-ois, " you may die content," 
Dut Terni hardly deserves this oompanionahip. 
Tbe csKMle, as jierliaps you know, is artificial, tbe 
waters that overH[ii('uct ilie country above it having 
been drawn off by the Itomaus into the Velino, a 

■ V* pwMil tlM Halj Vfttk ai Roaw. Vj T««dan irs sirtady 
fiunilUr iri4h itt tplendid etmntmin, and a* 1 canaot (he tnA 
iattrDti 10 tbom, I t«*e iuendij omitud ikem. 



small stream, aorl Mint over tlic rocks into the Nar. 
It does not ove its cluum to the amount of water, 
but to iu Iiciglit, its most g;raceful form, and, above 
kII, to it« accoMoric*; to the VKried lilopefl and 
coiu'-like mountains ; to the lovely view out into 
a gardened worlil ; and to its memories : Cicero 
came here from Home to argue a cauw about diis 
very watercourse. Wc saw the hll ut every point 
of view, from the ttiimmit to tlie base : it was lat* 
in the afternoon, and we liad the advanlagu of deep 
«hailov,-8 below and bright lights above, aiid the iii» 
playing over it, nol like 

" LoTC watohin) iStihtn vitk oiulunMt mMa— " 

but more like Love fondly hovering around Beauty. 
In truth, Byron's whole description is an exlrava* 
gains; his " infenuil surge" issosoftundsprayey, 
that you can scarce tvll whether it move up or 
(town ; it might be fonncd of the glittering wings 
of aiigeb ascending and defending. Byrga 
should liave seen Niagara, and he cotdd have 
described lU 

\\'e ciune from the tail by a lovely winding fooU 
{wth through tall cbe«nut-irees buTHting into fresh 
vi-rdure, and sliruba, and white featliery heath, aod 
sweet violets, and cherry columbines, and through 
the orange-bowers of a certain Count Cimatani. 
Ah ! my dear C, this is spring. And the girls who 
met us witli UHcs wbereoa we were to ascend the 


Mill lo Papigno, were oa beautiful m Rtiplmcl woul<l 
lltave paintfd w^oil-nymplis. Terni owe» » [wrtion 
hf its fame to tbia atmoapliere of exceeding beauty. 

Ftiigw, — TiiK day has been wann, aiid towiuxis 
loon wc CTOsRcd La Somma, a high peak of tbe 
Ajwniiineg. We lind a yoke of oxen attacbed to 
our four linraes to drag us up this tliree-mile 
ascent. K. and I walked tbe greater pan of the 
«-ay. and amuseil ourselves talking with the train 
of be^ars tbat we Boctimulutod, not *' sQYipi and 
dccbi" (lame and blind), but stout dames and 
pretty cbildren. Tbe oxen pulled sturdily (tbe 
vetturinn inking care to let ibem do all tbe woik), 
till, when wc were witbiu a few yardii of tbe 
summit, one of tbem suddenly stopped and stag- 
gered, 'llieir master delaclied tbem, wlien tbe 
poor beast g»ve a convulsive leap, and full dead. 
His owner bruke out into tlie most violent expra»- 
iiions of despair, beating bis breast, clasping bis 
hands, pluckin); off bi« bat. and throwing himself 
on the ground. Do not laiigb at me, for truly be 
n?fflinde<l me of Lciir's angultb over tbe dead body 
of Cordelia. Tliere could in no case be more 
demoRStnition of grief. Our beggarly retinue for- 
got tbemsolved, and gatlier«d round bim, expresa- 
lug (lieir sympathy roost vehemently; while b« 
continued touching gently tlic animal's horns, and 
crying out " O Gigio mio ! " " Uio mio ! " '* ebe 


LA uxaufKt. 

bccio io ! " drawing open one eyelid, and then Uw 
other, and cxcluiaing, ** k morto ! e morto ! O 
Dio mio ! " 

Tlii-t was all unaSeeted. Tlie oxen were pro- 
I>abl}' (lie only means of living the poor man po^ 
wssed— his sole dependence for bread for lun»e)f 
and his family ; bill he showed all he felt ; thejr 
are u cicmonstrativc people. "Do you remember ■ 
story Mr. tlutl'mitn tells of one of our b»ckwood&- 
mon, who, IiavinjT left his wife and children aktne 
in tlicir log habitation to go inio the forest, funiid 
thctn itU, on coming back, lyiiiv murdered before 
his door, killed by Indians? He made no more- 
inent, no gesticulation, but said quietly, " Well, 
now, if this u not too ridieulous * I " 

IjB MayioRe. — Aft<T crawling to-diiy ut a snail's 
paee up the immciuic hill on which the old Etrowan 
city, Porupia, stan<U, we were induced to retrace 
our way, by the report of tlie recent o|ieniii}^ of a 
tomb in which some of the heroes of this brare old 
eyrie have »lepi for more than two thousand yeara. 

After descending the hill in a little posUcarri^, 
and crossing a field, we de^eended u ladder, and a 
doubly-locked door being opened to us, we entered 
the tomb of a noble £tnt«can family. 0|ifKMile 

• It >i poHiUr thM lliln D4n au nrithtr a bn(B iMf a cl«l. 
but that • jcar aAarwanli h« tih iliitrd IW (ipit oCpcMHton oU 
•(r. DlOltreat nett lutrs diftteiU maaiftMatioM. 


tA )CAOK»>B. 


our entrance hitng 8u«pfn<)rcl a bronxe Divinity 
*'in little." Tfiere are nine small raiilted cliam- 
ben, built of «qiiare blockit i>f lufii, witli ii u-(.'ll><!ut 
Medusa's bead in tlie centre of each ceiling, aD<t 
about it dulpliins and dragom, I ibhik ; but our 
survey was so hasty lliat I do not vouch for iln 
accuracy. Ooo apartment only is left as it was 
found ; from the rest tbe monuments aiul ornaiDents 
have been removed. In this are several sarcophagi 
of travertine «a while as marble, and as perfect in 
H all re«pcetH as when tliey ctunc from the sculploi'a 
hands. There was a balf-roeumbeiit figure on 
eacl), suppofted to be the effigy of t)ic person wbo«e 
remains were wiibiii tlie wircoplmgus ; a curious 
portrait-gallery to be opened to exhibition after 
S500 yean, is it not? Kverylbtng is as fre«h and 
uninjured as when tlie b^nucan moiirnerH laid 
their de^d here. Wliy, tlic tomb of the Scipioc 
ii a pantHn to this ! 

We hud only lime for ■ strange, bewildering 
•cnsaiion, none to go into a palace har<l by to 
examine some very precious bronzes found in the 
tomb, aiH) removed there for safe keeping, and 
which, we were told, b> travcllera usually are on 
like occasions, were butter worth seeing than all 
tbe rest. 

We arc this evening at an iim in a strog^g 
village hiitf-way up a ateep hill, where, I fancy, 
no travelling-carriage ever •lop]>cd before. Any 



rooms, witli an inralid, are bett«r Uuin none ; aiul 
our vetturino threatened us wilh the probability 
of sleeping in our carriii^ \{vk proceede^i to th« 
roguliir »1 opping- place ; w here we arc, in the 
midst of an IlalLin rustic family, all serWnj; us, all 
curiouH. clamorous, and good-humoured. Teacup* 
hat^e been Iwrrowed from a luxurious neighbour: 
a mc<scngcT uas sent a mile and a half to bring 
milk for u«: and our tlioughtfnl vetturino provided 
butter at Perugia. So you »ec \mw extreme* 
mi*et. An »olatecl Western tetfUr, in a like 
exigency, n-ould have Itarf recourse to like expe- 
dients. Rut I wonder if ever but in ihlt bnd, 
n-here grace and beauty are native to the soil, 
there was so |)retty a rustic lass as is at thin 
moment, with the help of two strapping daine^, 
arranging our beds. I can scarce write for lnokin|rl 
at her : and, from that elective affinity which I ' 
believe we all feel, she returns my glance, ami a 
iinilc into the bargain. She is not an Italian 
braiity ; tliero i* no brilliancy of colouring : but 
snrh perfect symmetry, and such a trustful, ap- 
[lealing, touching expreHion. Slie skims over 
t)ie floor an a bird orcr tlie sur&iee of the water ; 
I never nan- motion so light and full of grace — 
it would make tlic fortune of an aetres* of pastoral- 
comedy. I must ask her name, and somelhiug of] 
her history. 

Her name is ClottMe Poggione ; and for ber 



Story rikO has none, aha aays. Her fnther » dead 
— t'very on«'« htbet Ht* sooner or later ; her 
mother U very poor, bat nciOier b tliat aoy dU- 
tinctioa here, lutti filie eum her bread with Uicw 
good pe<n>le of llie inn. " Vou have never been 
to America?" ''No," she replied with infinite 
simplicity. •* nor to I'ertigia * " She wou!d like 
to f^ to Perugui," Miid her friend, archly. " Ah ! 
you biivc a lover there, Clotilde," nid I. " No, 
■lo; I will be a nun." I luoked at her gny-colourcd 
woollen *carf b<'Comtn|{ly drawn over her botom 
and cniifiiicd ut her iileiider waiAt, and fcbook my 
head, and, inking hold of her airing of coraU, 
asked her if it were not a love-token ; she united 
and blt»hed, and her com|>aiiiDn. laughing oat- 
rigbt, uiid, ■* It ift, it i«l and ihc has a love-lellvr 
in Iwr (luckeL" Ctotildc at first denied the charge, 
but a moment afl«r ahe frankly gave it lo nw, 
bying bcr liand on my ithoulder aflectionately, 
and whktpcring tluit I might read it if 1 would. 
" Ye*," i^he auiowered to my inijuiriea, " he is 
handsoioe, and very good, but I shall never marry 
bim ; he in a profttsort." Slie Mid all tht* with a 
tWMt aimplicily lliat reminded me of the poor 
nilden of Bunu* liiie« iti a daisy. She left tJie 
letter with mc. It waa written by an educated 
■to, and had tbe due proportions of love and 
jealousy. I asked her friend, " Would the 'pro- 
fcaior' marry her?" "Oh no I Clotilde bat no 


dowry, und lii« (al\ter will nol lei Iiioi take a wife 
wiiliout a dowry ;" poor tiling ! It needs no 
prophetic eye to foresee her destiny, and, living 
in a Catholic country, she will probably end the 
lovc-talo in a convent. 

Clotilde hang about us littt night, attracted 
by her sympathy witli tlie young ForeOien, till I 
was obliged to send her away. I gave her a word 
oT adrice which I am sure, from her eager, ^rrate- 
ful expression, she means to follow. 8he wa« at 
my door i^iii this morning at five o'clock with a 
bunvh of »weet jlowem. H«tc I have pressed one 
for a raeinotiiLl of her \ Duiy it not outhist the 
innocence and loveliness of tiii» *' bonnte %em^~ 
Clotilde I'oggionc*! 

After leaving Jklagtone we wound around the 
declivities of beantifnt liilU, ami M>on came iti ught 
of ThraRymciie, the very image of peace, as it liea 
deeply iinWddt-d among these hillit. Kt'en our 
vetturino felt tliat t)ii.s waa a sight worth seeing, 
and he voluntarily halted for us to alight. We 
walked dawn to the water's edge, and I recalled 
the du\ii wlion, in our " nooit-time," at the old 

• Onttimj f niiii|[ ruui|iiiniani pro|ibMied ikuUiit l&cidnitii 
lligioiif woulil funiiiU • ttncjr for Moie Sommir of I MX It ■■■ 
■ ttropllnj bit of tan matrriil for my hiiKble cnA ; bul I fireftml 
prvMnlnf tlie unidarBcil (act to engnftiiig opOa U ■pMrjrfcd 

addiiioni [91 Uie iMtA ■f>pttltnaf Souranir 1 


school- liouse, I tiscd to crrcp unHcr niy pino desk 
lo read llie Mury of Mannibitl, and devoutly hope 
tliat h« tnijrht always be victotiout. Do not all 
children »ym[>atliUe H-iili tiie boy who swore eternal 
hatred lo llie Unmans and kept hU oatli no filially ? 
I do still. I plucked some grass, and baptised it 
in tlie coRHOcraled Ukc. The road led us round 
the margin of the lake to the tittle town of Pomi- 
puuio, which u on a promontory jutting into the 
lake, and where a moiinlaiD rises so precipitously 
as lo make it an important and dan|rerous militwy 
P&4S. This is tlie pass into whidi tlic "crafty" 
Hannibal is supposed to Imve decoyed Ftaminiua ; 
but why not the " stupid" I-'Iaminius, to lead his 
men into a trap between n rugged mountain and 
an unforditblo lake? Because probably the Itomsns 
told the ntory. 

I have little intercut in battle Menca; but tliis, 
tliough two lititidred an<l seventeen years before 
our Chrutiau lera, waa vivid to me. The very 
form of the ground recalled the actual state of 
tnind, the di? liberations and decisions of thi« most 
inexorable hater of Rome, who to tlie pride of a 
military conqueror added ibe keen pleasure of 
•access in a personal cause. Hannibal T>ee<U'd not 
much supcKlition to have believed, when he looked 
from the sunny heigbbi where he stood down upon 
the level plain where h'w enemy was inchwed in a 
fog, thai hut tutelar 

t'inily bad spread 



for ihem. This alluviul plain ix now tliick wt wilb 
olives and^Tnin. Yeiiterday we pused die bright 
cily from which lie turned a^ide. nol daring tai 
att^ni[>t it. and probably with a feeling preludin| 
hi* final discorofiture. Peru^afctill »ls queon-ltkaJ 
on liie tlirone Nature erected for hvr, but **wliD 
now so poor to do her reverence?" 

We pu»sed over tlie little rivulet Sanguiiietio*, 
wliicli, Willi die snuill town above it, took its name 
from thv bloody work of tliis battle. We too have 
our " Itluody llrook ;" and so, 1 suppose, bave 
iialioRs had uiice Cain first b^;an the work 

VVk paused last night at Arczzo, a nier town- 
opithct that in our sense, the old Biigli&h ften 
must be cliarily bcstow-ed in Ilaly^. But Qvety- 
t)iin<r appears nice to in, in the strictest and in the 

■ Tbs Mloaisf lUgU lUnxu wtn ariiUn b^ • (iIcmI 
tliif " \Aooif rinlM." I un nol mm tbit thry an »nio^ Ufl 
poblithcil po^rj. ■ad tkcfcTon] qual« Ibfia vUkoat hit i 
■' Wc mn iibcn Icon «« mic io (Criiv, 
And aberc tlit nud «t >lnn xt i 
OIJllKoeili^. irntwrilKC^ 
Mishl ndlj leatitf U Od*. 

*' lie miu'd Ibe Rome for «hir)i ha on 
And ohat he nettt lud in |<rtw, 
Won for ths lilllr bniok 4 a»ii«, 
Itt monniful Dim? uf SaasnioMlo." 

t On people are at Ant coDfounded bf the tBodern B^Ui i 
of thu wotd, b; the"nkeocniauaane«,"«iiMr«iii,*' A«. 



ioVRKST TO njantucK. 

moRt f^norous senoe of the wwnl, Hiiire our return 
into Tuscany. We wan li«re Iwfore in the 
drearicHt montlt of tlic year; w« bad not yd seen 
the aboiiiiding, abject miwry of Southern Italy, 
and certainly we were not struck with thv fluiiti«hing 
condition of Tuscany; now it ecom« »ll thrift, 
almiidiuioe, and chrcrfulneM — u cht-^rfuUiesn to be 
coveted and pnjoyc-d. This is tlu* glad H'Mon of 
tlicyenr, iind tliis tlie gladdest of allluids, teemiu};, 
M it is. with tbe richeitt producliona of nature, and 
now gay with bloiuMiniiig trees and budding rincs. 
The Tuscan mode of training the vine is very 
beautiful ; trees are planted front leu to fifteen feet 
apart, in rows or encircling a field. The liml» 
are cut off a few feet from the main stem, and 90 
managed an to resemble the framework of a basket ; 
around tlti« tlie vine in led, with a pendant from 
eadi limb. 8ointtime« tlivy are fe«touni-d from 
tree to tree, an<l are often led in several parallel 
atraight lines. The bleixling of grace with neat- 
neai and accuracy in the Tuscun cultiration, seems 
to me to indicate 11 runil (topulaiion iiuperior to any 
we have yet seen in Italy ". 

* Tlioat of oij tEtden vbo cbuioo to be (jvoraiil m tbo tub}eet 
will thank me for tmulatlDg for (Uboi • (a« ciln«lt tiotn M. 
SliBondr* uvunte ncconni u( tli« Tu*mii pMMM, liui«*d of 
gi*1nK ibmi thr wivrHcUl obacriaiion* of uij om Twy In>lli4 
vppotiuoltlat. M. SiuDUDitl. in bi* (ftiila " .Sur U bonhoar im 
ColtiTatcun Towiint,** milMtoun to abaw (hat tbvjr w< tk* 
kirpWit t^i'plr of nil lb« pm{>lc on nrib mtu> h«*B onl; (heir 
own huiil* to d«|<nid on. Tbo Mitajtr tjMim prmD* in T«- 
canj. Tha kwOaid farnlibai th< land, bonw, ud Imjtmmt* 


iOCRXKT TO Fij>inrao& 

Had yoii, my dear C, piis«c<l this afterncmn 
itt, I tibould liavc biit to write Fhrenee, and 

" Tlii) brichtnt *»r oTitn^bfight lulf " 
would n»e before you 

" Amid btrr TuKoa fit-Id* ukd bin*,'* 
wilh tlifl Arno windinj; lliron);h her ]oveli«#t of 

of htubtiidty. Tlic pouul culutaln Uie >oll. idiI nadn* to tlw 
iMdlord h*)r (he (iroilnct. "Hi* Tmaat Mnaftr," up kl.j 
^Kmondi. "tfrnirn froin tbc bind* of Katore hii wbola wtb 
eo«e. lie bu litlle ii4Dt «t noncf, ht li# hu tctrt^f tatfk 
fijtatM 10 ouIm. tie htrdlj koowi tbc «iiilcace of Uio, i 
llMy «i« fsid bj (hs proprltMr : and lu ht Imi uothinK to qaani^] 
■boutmth tbe goternmcat, be ii ia j^encnl itucbtii toil) 
fall b« aaj intrreit to kIIIc nilh the Chunb. Tilh«a btttug I 
long abotiihcd. hii <ontcibu[ioni are Toluatary." " In tarn, I 
Uctajtr, in LI* nlallan* wirh bl* proprietor, coanldcn hsDMNdf m\ 
■ piftnoT in * eommuiiUj of in(c(«*lii 1 he hu nothiag lo Saeum- 
with hiui. L'>ii|[* hn fiit>l hi* ricliU (aJ ob)>(iiEioiu : hii coo- 
Uwl niaf. It i* Iraty b> bnilivn unj joir bf Ui tniaOMdnct; 
nperienoe ba* taiichl the praprietor Ihit ho bwC) lad nerer piavl 
bgr di*<nrilin( ■ pnunt, Tor none nil give bim more Ihw balf IteJ 
producL Hui ihe McUfcr lira npon Ibc liod ■* ir it were Ui-i 
inheritanoti loilng il de«o*edlj, laboBrlng lo inipfor* it, Inudag j 
in tti« (alnr«— b«lic>iiii tti*l the HctJi be irotki vpop wlU b«l 
cutlinKd htj bU cbildrtn and (tandchildico. Aad, ia fm, tbay 
li*« on the nme land froiD ctotmlion la gnMnrioe. Tbej 
naderitind il Biib a pteouioo that the fediag of ri«perlf aloai . 
can gttt." " 'Die terrace*, alerated one aban tltt otbar, an | 
oflni not nii>n than fnor IVet nitif ; Uir todiTldaial chancier of] 
cacb il bnovn to Uir Mttajtrr ; lUiv ii irj. tint it foU and daapi . 
bete tbe •ail » deep, ihtre it it mettlyihe iocrottation otaroAt 
■beat tbrnetbrd bin, biirlcj ilierv; httell ■ouldbeloat hbonrM 
plant tndiui coro, even bean* or ptaaet aliuU fatlbn Ail dooriakw 4 
mKiderfsIl)'. and tb» border of thi* brook i* npital for tumm | 
Tbu* }ou learn vlib lurprite from (he Metayer iliu. la a qaca tt I 
tonaeta, tbeaoll. ihc atpect. and 'ihe lay of Ibc lead' pmmt I 
bin agreaur *arir<y iliitn a rich farnxr kno«« toaxiit inU* (mij 
■f Araor kit huadred nan." 

JOtnt^BY TO rU>RKNCf[. 

Tslleys, and the Apennines in tite bacJcgTound 
H guarding her with iu furtrefta-heiglits, and pouring 

Alter enamcrBlin; winD grisiiucH in the uiiiing ■■«■ olijob 
CaoM UUc*lloni. nualioni, iiid diU|i|ifliDtoicnt* (inong ihe pr»- 
^L prieton. M. .Si*inoiiili Mp : " Tb> (antlcncM «nd bfiwioUnM 
^B ot tho Tutcan c1i>r*ct«r >ra oftn tpokm of: bot Iti« mum b BOt 
^V •uAelcntljr ipmatkcd. whiob U, (h>t ill cauin uf qutrrtl ii ra- 
^Bsotvd frore iha cnltjiaian, «tio coiutitHte ihru-qiurUti of tb# 

^P H> Slamondi, h>Tlng ui mmIc Id Tuaiwny, and raliHng Iher* • 
portioii of hli tioic. tl<r* rtam acliul obtrrtiilun, and NU aiowr, 

■ ■ fiiecuni of tkt pcunnl't llf« u utmlrablc for iu eueuiua t* it ti 
MtractiTB for ila betvtj. 
" Whru jou iBiie llie great roidi ind illmb up the failli of tk« 
*allof o(Nre*ol»,]rau meet sicnrr ■tepUille p**^.«falch,vindlu| 
amnni! (ho iloci aiul olii«. tn noier trued b; a wbeH, and wt 
only iiuhUId for luunnuln faonFi ailh ibelr load*. Auont (htM 
pathi, at ercry hundred ilepi, yon Am), apan toma llowarj fallt-dda. 
a Utile boDK. wbich pieaenti ibe aaett inagc of Mutty tMj 
NBanleA— of maa'a luie of (he land— «f afauadanoe and peoec, 
flw hooM bolK lubtlaaliallf, wllb food walli. ha* alwajii uo* 
itwf, often two. above iho gruund lluor. Uaaally tlitto an an 
tbe KTsnnd floor a kilelieti. a atable for two homed caldc, and the 
(tore raom. «htch lakci ili name (jnnui from the Urge titi in 
vblcli (be will* U frrmEnlcd irltboul jiatliuf It to pi«w. Il ti 
tMr«,aUa, (lut the Uttajer Icichi up bi* c«ak>, oil, aoJ gnio. 
Ha haa orditiariljr a abed iMaaog afalaM the boutr, *litra ha oan 
repair hii ulemila and prepare lb* proetader for bb anidula. 
•helttfed from Ibe malWr. On the ftnt ud aacood Morle* 
thtee aee ofien two, three, and c*«i fntr liedehambcr*. T\e 
wtndowa are wltbout gtmi titrf biTe only abotlen | bat «« 
mtul lenembtr Ihars U no lee In oinHr. 1'be inoti ipaclova 
and airr of iboe rouina are derated, during the moulta* of May 
and Jonr, to tkt pv*lh of the illkaom. l^r^ cbcoli for 
ehMhea and linen, and mme wooden dMir*, are Ike prtndpal 
htmitBre of the rhsaibtr*. A brido alwaji brinf* her But-wood 
bdfMO. The bade haTeaatkertortaln nor valian ; but on each. 
bvldM » good Mm* bad, nada «f the abwtie buk of the Indian 
cofD, than arc t«a melUtiae* of «oal, or, with ihe terf poorcal 



oil and wine into her etorebouscs from th.e sunnjr 
hillii that Hlope down to her fe«t. But you have 
not m-en it, and neither the word nor ull the 
descri[iti?e attconipanitDents 1 muy tuck to it will 
pve you HO much pleasure m to know we are thtu 
far on our homeward tmcli, an<l tliat we found our 
faithful friend Mr. H. on the sU-(m of tlie Hotel de 

of low, 1 food 'luilt. ibccu of tirasg bemfeii iMA, ami orar A* 
b«»t bed ■ »fmd ol nir ailk. nhiiih U &pTafci «ll IHe-^j*. 
Then u no chinmijt rxatft ia tlu liikbin. Then b alwafi la 
one room ■ Urgf irDodcD dining'Ublei «ilb bmcbn ; a kswSBf- 
trongb, in wbieb protiilMu ■re alio 1»pc : a (afficient HMilHMit«t 
eutbm Jan. dtthot, and plait* ; cne or l«o brua l«in|M, ilMljtrli. 
and at leaat li>« copfur vtuali in wlilch U htth and keep mtlUr. 

" Alltbe linen and *<iTkl(ig;-<lrMau of Iha hmll} irr fcnmn laiih 
Tb«M druna. the men'* ai well aa Uic oramfa'a, *n of a kifidaf 
•rnir Ihcj Fall Rii'Tia leaa (liDMT-v<nlK7 ?) if (biek, mth If thta. 
Tbs warp ii a co&rin threail of flu or ton ; t^ flUIng b of «uol 
or cottoo. It U dyed hj tlir ume tiniueti aho imira U. One 
can hardly iniitf inn titu c^uantitir of hnen ^ mfxwm initd abirdi tbo 
wnmrn, liji iioidiiuun ln!iour, nccumiBlato ■ bo* mtmj abetta at* ta 
the ruiDDion drpul. hon miinj cb«nMM», t««CI, faMalooaj, akirtik 
and Blfjuni, Tf girt in idea of it, w« add a part ct an ■■»— KJ<| 
of the family beit Imami la on ; a family •(ilhn' aBcng tka 
poorcit norrii'heit, but Hthi( hnppily on tb« half of tba pnMbaeC 
of la% tTian Ivti a<;rra of Iqnd. 

" IntrntorT ol the bridal ftoAo (Irauttfav) ot Jaiia, &c. Ac. : 
iS clicmiira. It gosna of coloorcd illk. I fairtn of ciiaraa taiaiiTei 
alUi, 7|0WDi of cotton etolh.'J iriotcr *iwiin|[ |<iirn( (neua lana), 
8 *Dflintr iiorkliig ("*>• "id ikirtf, i irbita ikirta, J «all«o aprana, 
I black >Uk aptiiu, 1 black merino nprao, 9 oolowad vorb^ 
aprooa, -I •rliiCt bancler«hi«b. 8 mloartd bandettUcA. I irarkt4 
wiCIt and 1 tall* TeiU 3 loml*. 14 pain of (totUiiti,2baia,l felt 
■Old I fio« itraw.— 3 gold noMOs, t pain |oU aarrinfa, 1 ^mfltt 
with two Roman plattm. 1 coral oecVtic* >Ub a (old trttt," 

W< (bonld bt proud to xa oiar fannata' itimhtiaa mUk ^ 
oullit aa niliitaolial and luitablo at tktt. 


York. wiiiMv, though the town is full of slrang^en, 
he ha.« «i*c»in-<l »^rembii> apartmentn for us, frora 
whicb we lav* a loak-out on tlit' Duomo. ite Cam- 
pAnilp, Daptistery, and gay piiuxa. 

Fi-oiiFMCK, as nil th<r worW know*, my Aenr C. 
ia almost unrivallod in tho beiiiily of iu position 
and surrounding : it is roost curiouii, a» the be*t- 
prewrved niotiuin«nl of the mi<ldte sge« ; but, apart 
from all tlii», it has interest to an Amerinin, a 
claim on tlie sympathy of tlie citizens of a free and 
Working country, that lieloii^ to do otlier part of 
Italy. Florence derived the glory aud power of its 
brilliant day Irom itit iridnatry and frt-edom ; nottbe 
freedom of a few lawlcM nobles, but tlie freedom 
of its workingcbtases*. who, in IVGO, formed iheni' 
•elves into twelve companies of "art* and trader" 
(tlic iK-vcn major arts baring their contuLs cap- 
Uin«, anil cnsifi^iit), and got do completely the 
upp«r hand of the nobiM, that a tilJe rendered a 
man inelt|rible to office. 

There is a curious memorial of the exercise of 
popular power exiting in iho arcliitectur« of the 

* The Flor«aiuku bf^n right!}. TilUni. writiag lite io iba 
thirteenlh fcfilary of Ihnir forTfaChen, alter ielint oa Uul tibe 
Aaeit of their gnod'^unei IhoiUihc UtemtolTca iItcmrI rauugh Id 
a IMTTO* gowa <A cotnc tarlei clolh, Ac, add*, " ihUi all Uiia 
•xtcrnal eoaneneai Ihejr kad Inyal nindj i itief war* faithful to 
oae aaaUwr aDd to Ihdr eountr; . In Ihvlr |xmt and rottie U*«* 
tlie7 ifid Ika oimi itnuaut iknti. anil eealribalod tar more to Itia 
biMiour uf (beir rJunlUc* and Uielr ooutlry lliaa iIium «lia Un 
mtm lBSiulaiiaI]r/' 



dty. More thaii SOO towers, which originally wvn 
tbe fortresses of the nobility, and which were, by an 
ordinance of the people, rcdaccd from the he^cht 
of ISO fcpt to 80 feet, sre nnw tiieorponited into 
otli4!r builr!!ii|rs *, and constitute a {uirt of that 
maatire architi^cture which makes Florence strike 
a stranger as *' a city of nobles of individual force, 
where the power of the public was bometioies 
feeble, but where each man was master and lord 
in his own house.** These towns were wretchedly 
lighted, and tbe nobles resorted to an espedienl 
suited to their delicious climate. Near the towen 
tliey built Lo^ie arcades, which served (hem for 
oSiocs, market-places, and drawiny-rooms. Somt 
of tliem stiil remain. The unimpaired Lo^spa 
doi I^anxi is embellii'hi.'d wiih y^a\\\A of stalnes in 
bronze, and, witli ibt Greek nrcbes and column*, is 
a beautiful sperimen of at clii lecture. Tbe Fitti 
Piilaee, the residence of tiic frran<t-duke, and fit 
for an imperial palace, wa.4 built by a mercbanl, as 
were many of the&e immense structures, which may 
stand, for aught tlmt I can see, as long as tlie solid 
foundations of nature. Tliey are built of immense 
blocks of stone, without cement, and without archi- 
tectural onuimenl; but to me their simplicity and 
•trength arc more effective than any decotuion. 

• "Tba mwcrUL" uji M. Slffft "vhkk thcts prnMa 
fcTllllculiMu fnrnitbrd >u «iiipk>f*il ht tkeeonmtM Mmtec A 
pMtian at Ihr ril^-w*!!, and (be palace of Ob ftdertK, mem a 
priion, mn Imit iriUi It." 



They tmre a curious appendage, Inr^ iron or brnw 
; rings, in wbicli thpy placf^l wax lights fnr illumi- 
iiitious, and to whicli tltcy su*peii<teil the standards 
L-Df tbc rival r«ctiori!t. 'I'liey t>uilt eimipactly, to 
Kve Ihe fxpetiM! of an exten<le<l wall. Tlic oWesl 
streets arc too narrow to allow a carriage to pun : 
across some of tlicm you ii)i;;l)t gravp buniU from 
palace to paWe. I utn wiiily ilb>up pointed in tlie 
Ariio. Itcmbellislies the city, certainly; but it is 
turliid, and, like all llie Italian streams I IuivvM.-en, 
with tlie exception of one or tworivulflta,ilappcara 
as if it had bcrn tttincd up with French chalk. 

Wb liavejuAt ictnrned from Santa Croce, and 
■re overpowered with the heat, I do not wonder 
at the proverb that no one eun die in Florence in 
tbe winter, and no one cini live here in Hummcr. 
Uut for Santa Cruce : it is our tliird vitit to tlie 
" centre of pilgrimage — tbe Pieces of Italy," So, 
in<)ced| may that Hicred place be jiutly called 
where are tlie otonunieiits of such propheU as 
Dante, Galileo, and Micliuel Angelo. Themotiu- 
ments are immense jiilet of marble ; not one of 
thciD imprewtes me with ibt execllcMoe as a work 

B of art. Hut art would be but secondary bore. 
yljtrr Westminster Abbey — after ttie place hal- 
lowed by the great Ki'iritit of nnr own langua^, 

H there is no monumental eHect like tluit of Sunta 
Croce. It is a nd lbou;;lit tlmt we have for tlie 
ost time wvlked up and down ita long line of 



ci>liiinH«, nn the marble pavemcMit trodden by 
l^iKtrntions long gene, before the manumctits of 
Machiareli ^Itcltoel Ans^lo, Daiitc, Galileo, and 
Alfieri ! 

Sjintx Croce vm begun in 1S94, nnd t« still 
uiiliiiUlied, u are all tlie facades of tlie Florence 
churches. This ia U> rave tlie heavy tax imposed 
by the pope on the completion of a church, and 
in part, probably, from ihe richness of the plan 
exceeding the ability for its execution. The 
Piazza of &iiita Croce has hiolorical association* 
that make it quite worthy of ilic church. *' The 
richeHt Fiorentino citizens" (bourgeois), says M. 
Sisntonili, " having excited one anotlier to urms, 
siuembted in the Pia/.za of Snnia Croce before n 
ehiird) ; and there, where now are tlie (oiiitM of tie 
great men of Florence, the republic of the dead, 
wa-t Hrst formed the popular state of Florence." 

We went quite to the other extrcnic from this 
theatre of popular 8Moctatian>s in going from 
Santa Croce to San Lorenzo, where are the 
splendid memorial of the Medici, the ftiud snb- 
vcrters of the liberty of Florence, llie Cappelia 
its' Principi was designed by Michael Angelo, and 
its emhclliMlinicnts in great part e\eciited by him. 
There are on two moniiment>i figures in attitudes 
that it would be difficitli for a posture-master to 
maintain; they ore called Day and Night, and 
Aurora and Twilight Doctor Bell tees in tbe< 
Aurora "a spring of tliought,' "an awakeDing- 




priiictjilc : " fflKTblr is u lutrd malvriiil fur lui alli:- 
gurical reiiii«ni«iit ! Ttie celcbruteil i>taiue of tlie 
I>uke of Urbiuo, called Peutirra, fiotn iu w-ouder* 
ful expreHsion of dc«p tliougbt, is \a this cliapeL 
I cnniioc but tbink tbut tliis and oUier iiu>st«rpiece« 
of Micluicl Angclu ibruw a dazzling trffulgvnce 
over h» iiifi-rior w»tk» : and ibnt in tbv«v stiitue* 
on the Mi-<Iicnut niuiiiiuientt aiid in ti!a Mum: be 
bulf uikvti itie Mirp frtiin Uie nublime to lb* 
Tidiculotu ; but tbiii It an durigerou* an to tulk demo* 
cracy in an Austrian kaloon! 

'Ilie goi^eouit tliougb jret unRnislied Cappclitt di 
Mfdici is also at San Loirnzo. It is dcdicjiled to 
the moiiumenu of tlie grand-dukes of Tuboiny, 
•Dd all that can hv done to glorify tlirsc migliiy 
** aocidcnta " by walls incrusted with the co»tlivst 
marbles, and tlio mont i.'x<|uinitc work in pivtra 
dura, uduiiv: but wluit t» it all, in t-lTect, to tlie 
OBine of " (iatileo " on ItU tomb, or llic iimcription 
on Danlc'ii *' Quorate T altiuimo PoL-ta?'* 

\\'e bavQ teen Mr. Grecnoiigli's statue of Wasb- 
ingtOD. It is II H-3itcd coId^mI figurv; ibc arms 
and br«aitt are bare; one band is extended iu the 
act of re«^i^ning the aword, and the other miscdt as 
if appealing to Heaven. I have tiL^ard objecliuai 
to the double actioD ; but why. since they are 
related, and produce a unity of impremon? The 
dNijivry, too, b criticiwd, and will, no doubt, be 
c<indt-iiuit;d by many of our people, who are in- 
tolerant of any degree of nudity. But what ww 


310 nxiRBxcs. 

Mr. Grrenotigli to do? As he sayA, a French 
nrii*t made a cast of Wasbin^Uin, while he vat 
living, in military costume, iiiir) nobody liked it. 
Canova put liim intu u Konijin to^ii, and Chaiitry 
into a clouk, such »s iwither Kumiin nor American 
ever woie. Noiliing remained for liicD but to pre- 
sent hiro artistically I and certainty the drapery it 
arranged with e\|>r»»ion aiid grace. Tlie head ii 
noble, expr^sMiig, almost to the point of sublimity, 
wixlont and firronesa, wiih as n^nr an approach U 
benignity as Washington's iac« will bear without a 
sacrifice of veriainiititude; good, not quite be- 
n^tiant. The nubjeds of tlic bas-relief embd- 
lishnients are liappily chosen. Aurora is on one 
side— a fitting type of our young country — and on 
the other b tlw inbnt Hercules strangling the 
serpent : a subject su^rested, I presume, by Dr. 
Fninklin*g mcdid, and saTca»lically indicating our 
struggle with t)ic mother coniilry. Mr. Grecnough, 
even with bis previous reputation, may be catisfied 
with tills work, and our country pruwl of iL It is 
something to say for otir pro-^res« in art tint, ia 
forty years from U'a>hington's death, Uie b«tj 
statue of him is by hts own countryinaa. 

I HATE been walking about Florence with Mr. 
W., who naturally first »bowed me some meraoiials 
of his hero. Mr. W. was, aa you biow, a few 
years siitee in our eongre»s— what a chluige frotn 
the aieoa of Washington to fcrretiDf oiu tbe lift 




[of Dant* from the Tuscao archive*! Mr. W. is 
ainon^ tlie few rortimutc mvn wtio, frain a filw 
pofiitioii, lias by IiU own wit ruiiiid out, and by hta 
town energy adiieved, lii» true one. Wo wont 
int to a tablet ioserud in tlie pavement of tlic 
'Piaz:^! di Dtioino, nlitch informs you tiiiit there 
I Daiilc WW ucciistomcd (o mI ; mid Uiore lie con- 
templaied tliis ctiurcli, wltii;)i, hcfure 1300, as Mr. 
^V. has discovered liy u rei^i'*Iered vote in lavour 
[of Arnolfo, iu) nrcliiicct, was pronounord " tlte 
l>no»l bvautiful cdilice in I'uscaiiy." When hhall 
I we have such inscriptions to mitrk the haunts of 
[Wushin^onaiid I-'ruukliii? Mijj;ht not the memory 
of these men be nuide more operative by nppeali 
through the sense!) lo tlie active jwpular mind of 

I our ojuntry ? 
We next visited tlie houte Daale lii-ed in before 
liis lMtni«hmeal, and then proceeded to Bnitricc's 
\lbe luid a local linliiiation ) in a street piuallel to 
that iti which Dante lived, and mi near lo Ui« that 
her lover might have siffwiliuii ber, in tlie lenman's 

• senae. 
We went, too, to Michael Angclo's houi<e, where 
a suite of npartmenla arc preserved oa he left tliem 
by the prevent potMCfMr, one of tlic house of Buo- 
narottt. We were rather iiurpn»ed to find what 
snug and comfortable aparltnenls were enjoyed by 
tliv ;irli!>l, who hu m> a«»ociated himitelf in our 
iniads with tlie vast and extravaganL Thero an 
» few dumctcristic sketches of his on the 


ftluuluwiugs of great Uiouglits ; some humble relics, 
such u liis slippers, and, wliat pleased tne more 
tlian all, a rosary, and slirinc with its crucifix, 
before wliieli be may bavc received die inspiration 
lie infused into his works. 

W'v fiiiisbcd lliv monting in the ^rdeiis of the 
Fitti PaUoe. Mit)rmf)ceiit iliey are in rxtcnt, ra- 
riety of sur&ce, and erabelliMbmenL 'I'lic vitlruuce 
is free to all. Tbey are not more lovely uuw, ex- 
ee|)ting tliat the countrj' wlucb you see from tbera 
has the frcsli aspect of spring, than ilicy vere when 
we weie here on tbe first «f December. The fuui»- 
t^iu were tJii^n playing in a warm almosphrrc; the 
statues looked perfectly comfortable out of doors; 
and there wore i^uch walls of laurel and Uurt-nUnus 
in UoBSoni, wilit a variety of other evorgreen-s that 
it seemed as if a charmed nrde were drawn around 
it, which "irinter and rough wralbrr" could not 
pass. 1'he sun was theti an enjoyment, and the 
shade to-day a positive one, utKl there wc »at a long 
time listening to Mr. W.'s romantic stories of ihc 
stormy <lays of Florence, and to his tribute to the 
cLaracler of tlir reigning duke, Leopold, of whom 
we were very willing to believe all good while wv 
were luxuriating in his grounds. He is one of ihc 
few sovereigns who have tlie enjoyments of KO«-e- 
reignty without its penalties. HJs territory is so 
small titat he is not of sufBcient couNeijuenee to be 
molested or to be dictated to by lits royal brotlivrs ; 
so be gets on very quietly, is kind and indulgent to 


a man wWha A 


Wc drove yu« » ia«y ts ike frat iHk : 
tory at ibe ViUi D«Mt», vkm i 
fat ■any of tbe proct w t * ; bst ikrre it aadmf 
tbt ol^^lHMdlMM. Tie girli 
bu-ty endtaswd with Imt ifM Doric 
petttBg • M«»4»Sn«, UokiaC. •• <^ •^ Bfce 
«B IimIbb icMplr. Thf lafaa Mmmphm i 
to llwM t» hare nMscd tl>c prinrtf^ 
[ to all poetry. TW Vitk DaoMo m a bcanoM ««. 
and it* prr««nt afFfmipmdaa rvnuada yoa brdUy 

roi~ a. 

314 FUffiSKCB. 

of die dtne wltcn tlic mercliints of FlorenM ' 
its priiici-«. 

We liavc been to Fiemte, tbe old Etruscan dtj 
to which Florence was once but a suburb. It wm 
buiitt like all the Etruscan cities, on an immeue 
height, about as conveniently placed as a city aronkl 
be balf-n'ay up Saddle Mountain. Tliose of u 
who could n-alk, walked up the steepest ascent, aod 
R. and E. were drnwti by oxen in a sort of aledge 
of the Buwl inartificial kind. When they rather 
revolted at this modeofclimbing, tliey were soothMl 
with the assurance that the grand-duke himwlf had 
tii> bettor. W« jH-di-strians stopped at a farm-house, 
where we ucre charmed with rural thrift, cheerful- 
ness, and kindliest. The womankind were alt 
cngage<l, from old age to childhood, either in wear- 
ing, spinning, knitting, or braiding straw. Ilere 
was no, misery — no begging. K. gave an oid 
woman, who fetched her n glass of water with eager 
kindness, a half paul, at which the old crone pressed 
K.'s band in bolli hers, and said earnestly, *' Die 
vi lo rimcrite." The gloss of water was tbe boon 
lliat deser^'ed tJic " God ren-ard ye!" 

On the almost iiiacn'ssible summit we found n 
church, a seminary, and a monastery, but do 
remains of the Roman FmuUe, excepting aooe 
columns of an an(^ent temple, and a grand bit of 
Cyclopean wall, made of massive stones seven or 
eight feet in length, laid together without 

<o I 



liat a comment on tlie history of man, in liti 
icial relations and Itabiliucs, tbis litUe fragment 

u wall ! 

Hut tlie thing to go to FicHole far is the view of 
lorence; truly a qticcii of beauty in tlie lap of 
ills covered lo their summiLs wiib vines, and oUvcs, 
and lovely villas, Ijuch a scene of abundance, grace, 
and beauty, of nature and art in loving harmony. I 
never bcbeld. No wonder ilic device of Florence 
was a rose in a field of lilies. 

We leave Florence to-morrow, my dear C, and 
I liavc Kuid nothing to you of what now is Florence: 
its unrivalled galleries of pictuTe<<; that of the Piu 
lano Veccbio, The Gallery, and that of tlie Pitt! 
P|]iCP, wbieh is confessedly the finest single col- 
lection in tlic world! It is in itself a world; and 
wben I am there looking at tlio«e glorious pictures 
tliat remain in unfading beauty while generation 
after generation comes bilhcr to sec tbcm, 1 feel 
fully what was so well said by the old man, who for 
seventy years ba<I shown a fiimniiti picture in tlic 
Ivtcurial, "We are the shadows, ihey are tlie 
realities ! " 

I do not now wonder at tbo love of art which 
astonished me on first coming to the Old World. 
With us it is coinpiu-a lively nothing; in Kurope it 
makes up the occupation of the idle portion of the 
world; and so mucli does (he appetite grow by 
vbat it feeds on, that I begin to feel the danger 
(the existence of which 1 bare but just learned) of 



(oTgct^ng the actual in tlie pninlci) world. Bat 
do not be alarmed, ray dear C. ; though llie vyn of 
some of uB were hair blindeil with Icsra m we looked 
at our fiivouritc pictures for the lu«t time to-daj', 
wc cnnnot yet say witli the dyin|T Mnlici, before 
wboin liU |)rieai wa» Kctling tli« joy of the hearenly 
mansions, " Caro anico, Bon contPnto col P&]ftzio 
Pitti" (" My dear friend, I am perfectly coDient 
wilb the IMtli Palace ! ") No ; wc shall once more 
to> morrow set our faces joyfully towanl-ii our earthly 
heaven— your and our home. 

Our ront* from PlorcnM to GtoM wo m tome of enebanl- 
■naoli lud, linil];',nfbrn wc fmbsikol •l(j«oMiniJ laftthi Ilalian 
ihcre, we ttlt mush ■■ 1 fancy Adtm and Ett did whim the pt** 
«f hradiM *nT doted npOD Ibrm. 

Va pimil through the loutbern |iii liiii 1 1 iif riaiiii liiTwIlw 
land, B. caoDtij ai fall of eidurnienl. In > dtffercnt wnj, u lt>lj — 
prctiKpi the only cuaotr; ihM one ran p«( Ulo from Italj' witlMot 
cnaui. At)P book u almdr too Inng t« bmk a** gnnaif aBdi I 
ItniKh it with the (Ktned *i>b thM mj itadMi bmj ban the liap> 
pincM of teeing fur tbeBudTM wcoe* abich I bate f«cU]r |>tv> 


mt-imm un wrtn. tamcH, mmriBiai. 


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