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Full text of "Letters Of John Paul Jones"

Carnegie Institute ofTbchnol^y 



-HUNT- 
LlBRMY 



PRESENTED BY 

Edward Duff Balken 



LETTERS OF 
JOHN PAUL JONES 



LETTERS OF 



OHN pAe>. 



PRINTED FROM THE UNPUBLISHED ORIGINALS IN 
MR. W. K. BIXBY'S COLLECTION 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS BY 

GENERAL HORACE PORTER 

AND 

FRANKLIN B. SANBORN 




BOSTON ; MDCCCCV 

PRINTED EXCLUSIVELY FOR MEMBERS OF 

THE BIBLIOPHILE SOCIETY 



Copyright, 1905, by 
THE BIBLIOPHILE SOCIETY 



All rights reserved 



IT is due to the generosity of Mr. W. K. Bixby that 
The Bibliophile Society is permitted to issue for its 
members this little volume of letters "written by John 
Paul Jones while in our country's service during the 
American Revolution. The original letters, which 
are now almost priceless relics of that period, form 
a part of Mr. Bixby's private collection. 

The entire cost of issuing this volume (one copy 
of which is printed for each member) has been paid 
from the surplus fund in the Society's treasury re- 
maining over from last year. There is, therefore, 
no charge for the work. 

The grateful acknowledgments of the Council are 
due to General Porter and Mr. Sanborn for their 
introductory remarks, which are free-will contribu- 
tions. 



HUNT L1BRARY- 

C -MU 



THE FOLLOWING NOTE WAS WRITTEN BY 
GENERAL HORACE PORTER, FORMERLY 
AMERICAN AMBASSADOR TO FRANCE, 
ESPECIALLY FOR THIS VOLUME OF LET- 
TERS OF JOHN PAUL JONES 

JOHN PAUL JONES'S life was an open book. 
It contained no sealed chapters. If the his- 
torical facts related of him were entirely 
destroyed, nearly all the events of his ex- 
traordinary career would be found recorded 
in his letters, diaries, and memoranda. He 
was one of the most prolific writers of the 
Revolutionary period, rivaling even Wash- 
ington himself in that respect. When we 
reflect that in that age one could not com- 
mand the services of stenographers and 
typewriters, we realize the prodigious labor 
involved in such a voluminous mass of cor- 
respondence. In the case of Paul Jones, he 
did not confine his writings to his native lan- 
guage, but employed also those of other 
7 



countries. He possessed in a high degree 
the gift of acquiring foreign tongues. He 
spoke French and Spanish, and while there 
is no authentic proof as to how well he wrote 
the latter, we know that much of his cor- 
respondence was conducted in very good 
French. While he wrote that language in 
a somewhat labored manner and made at 
times one or two drafts, with corrections, 
of an important communication before he 
prepared the final copy, he expressed his 
thoughts correctly and felt quite sure of 
himself in writing as well as in speaking 
that tongue. 

His style was elaborate and the sentences 
were carefully rounded, which gave his writ- 
ten documents the appearance of having 
been well studied. This, however, was char- 
acteristic of most public men at that time, 
and in the case of Paul Jones it was probably 
emphasized by the fact that his style was 
influenced, perhaps unconsciously, by the 
genius of the French language, which often 
requires elaborated sentences and para- 
phrases to express an idea with proper dig- 
nity and elegance. 

8 



The publication at this time of this volume 
of letters (two of which are given in fac- 
simile) cannot fail to be of absorbing in- 
terest, as they present, in a graphic and pe- 
culiarly attractive form, communications of 
rare historic value, and at the same time ex- 
hibit those distinctive traits of the man, to 
which the handwriting is often the clearest 
attestation. 

HORACE PORTER 



THE extraordinary career of John Paul 
Jones has been the occasion of so many 
biographies, the theme of so many novels, 
from Fenimore Cooper and Allan Cunning- 
ham to Winston Churchill and Miss Jewett, 
that his name is now better known than that 
of any other American naval hero. Not so 
well known, probably, is his untiring indus- 
try as a letter-writer, and his proclivity to 
quarrels; though these traits are sometimes 
dwelt on to his disparagement by his biog- 
raphers. It would be easy to explain his 
quarreling by the reason General Jackson is 
said to have given, when testifying in favor 
of a Tennessee friend on trial for manslaugh- 
ter, and upon whom the prosecution wished 
to fasten the imputation of being quarrel- 
some: "My friend Patten Anderson, sir," 
cried the old hero, fixing his severe gaze on 
the attorney, "was the natural enemy of all 
scoundrels, ever since I knew him." Doubt- 
11 



less Jones had to encounter many a scoun- 
drel in his active and stormy voyage of life; 
but he was also prone to ascribe knavery 
and small meannesses to worthy gentlemen 
with whom he had a difference of opinion, 
as in his clashes with Captain Saltonstall 
and his friend, John Adams, or with Colonel 
John Langdon. It was the impetuosity, sen- 
sitiveness, and magnanimity of Jones which 
took offence so easily, and were wont to 
be so easily appeased, in the three or four 
quarrels to which these letters, now for the 
first time printed, casually allude. These 
are of three successive year-dates, 1776, 
1779, and 1782-83; and they all relate to 
periods of his service in our Revolution, and 
to his disappointments therein. 

The two short letters of June 20, 1776, 
to Colonel Tillinghast, a Rhode Island naval 
agent, relate to a cruise in the war sloop 
Providence, of which Jones was made cap- 
tain, May 10. On June 13 he was ordered 
by the naval commander-in-chief, Esek Hop- 
kins, to convoy Lieutenant Hoysted Hacker 
in the Fly into Long Island Sound from 
Newport for New York, and then to convoy 

12 



other vessels from Stonington to Newport, 
after which he was to go to Boston. The 
first letter shows him just sailing thither, and 
indulging some spleen against Captain Sal- 
tonstall, the " master of the Alfred" and 
the " ill-natured and narrow-minded " favor- 
ite of John Adams. The " Admiral" was 
Hopkins himself. 

The muster-roll of the Providence, from 
a copy long preserved in the archives of the 
Massachusetts Historical Society, gives a 
particular value to this part of the corre- 
spondence. 

The short paper in French, with endorse- 
ment by Jones, relates to the uneasiness of 
the Dutch vice-admiral at the Texel in Hol- 
land, where Jones in the Serapis had been 
refitting since October 3, 1779, from the in- 
juries inflicted in the famous sea-fight of 
September 23. He had been closely ques- 
tioned, November 4, by this officer, about his 
French commission. " I told him/' wrote 
Jones on that date, "that my French com- 
mission not having been found among my 
papers since the loss of the Poor Richard, I 
feared it had gone to the bottom in that ship." 

13 



On December 13 he sent Franklin at Paris 
his angry reply to the French ambassador at 
the Hague, refusing a French privateer's 
commission, which was, no doubt, the " acte 
qui lui a ete adresse mentioned as " a false- 
hood " by Jones, who, at the date of his en- 
dorsement, was on board the French ship 
Alliance. This brief script opens up a long 
controversy, in which scanty justice was 
finally done to Jones by the French and the 
American naval departments. 

How the British admiralty regarded Jones 
as its most formidable foe will best be seen 
by the letter of Lord Sandwich to one of the 
British captains, the original of which is now 
among the MSS. of the Massachusetts His- 
torical Society. His Lordship, satirized in 
his day by the poet Gray and others as 
" Jemmy Twitcher," wrote thus: 

To Captain Francis Reynolds, (Lord Dude): 

ADMIRALTY Nov. 23^ 1779 

. . . For God's sake get to sea instantly, in conse- 
quence of the orders you have received; if you can 
take Paul Jones you will be as high in the estimation 
of the publick as if you had beat the combined fleets; 
the whole of the business depends on despatch. 
14 



Therefore not a moment is to be lost on any consider- 
ation. I flatter myself that after what I have said 1 
need only add that I am 

your very sincere friend & faith full servant 
SANDWICH. 

This Earl was then First Lord of the Ad- 
miralty of England; he was a descendant of 
that more martial earl of Charles Second's 
time, celebrated by Pepys in his Diary. 

Admiral Belknap, of the American navy, 
in a paper read at Concord, N. H., in March, 
1899, quoted from a song familiar to Lon- 
don streets in 1780, which linked the name 
of Sandwich with that of Jones very sar- 
castically, thus: 

Of heroes and statesmen I '11 just mention four 
That cannot be matched if we trace the world o'er; 
For none of such fame ever stept o'er the stones 
As Germain, Jemmy Twitcher, Lord North and Paul 
Jones. 

If success to our fleets be not quickly restored, 
The leaders in office we '11 shove from the board; 
May they all fare alike, and the Dev'l pick the bones 
Of Germain, Jemmy Twitcher, Lord North and Paul 
Jones! 

15 



The next ten letters relate to the building, 
launching, and giving up to the French na- 
tion of the new ship America, which Jones 
was to have commanded, with the entire 
good will of his former opponent, John 
Adams, who wrote to him from the Hague, 
August 12, 1782, that "the command of the 
America could not have been more judi- 
ciously bestowed/' and that he wished he 
"could see a prospect of having half-a- 
dozen line-of-battle ships under the Ameri- 
can flag, commanded by Commodore Paul 
Jones, engaged with an equal British force/' 
This was never to happen; for before 
Adams's letter could reach Portsmouth, 
Congress (September 3, 1782) had voted 
to give the new ship to France, to replace 
the Magnifique, lost in Boston Harbor. On 
June 26, 1781, Congress had appointed 
Jones to command the unfinished ship, and 
in August following he went to Portsmouth 
to cooperate with Colonel Langdon in finish- 
ing her. On the way he delivered the follow- 
ing letter of introduction from General John 
Sullivan, then a Congressman from New 
Hampshire, to President Weare in his farm- 
16 



house at Hampton Falls, and dined with the 
good old patriot there : 

PHILADELPHIA, July 3, 1781. 

Dear Sir, I take the liberty of introducing to your 
particular notice the Chevalier John Paul Jones, 
Esquire, sent to Portsmouth by Congress to take 
command of the America. Every mark of civility 
which you may think proper to show to this gentle- 
man will be considered as confered on, 

Sir, your Most Obedient Servant, 

JNO. SULLIVAN. 

Sullivan's own home was at Durham, on 
one of the branches of the Piscataqua, some 
dozen miles above where the America had 
been begun, four years before, on Langdon's 
Island in that river, and his friend Colonel 
Langdon had general charge of its construc- 
tion. Jones found Colonel Langdon and 
his brother, Judge Woodbury Langdon, both 
at Portsmouth, and in these letters mention 
is made of both families. At this time, how- 
ever, John Langdon was not Governor of the 
State, as might be inferred from a quotation 
from Jones's lieutenant, Hall, made by Buell 
in his Life of Jones. The title of " Gov- 
ernor" was then unknown to the Constitu- 

17 



tion of New Hampshire, and its chief magis- 
trate was called " President" until 1793. 
Langdon was President in 1785 and 1788, 
Governor from 1805 to 1809, and again in 
ISlOand 1811. 

On the following September 25, 1781, 
Robert Morris, head of the Marine Bureau 
at Philadelphia, wrote to Jones at Ports- 
mouth by John Brown, then on his way to 
Boston, "to fix on a Deputy Agent for 
Naval Affairs/' in which capacity Brown 
himself had served. Morris was then 
" pleased to learn that the work on the Amer- 
ica is progressing so well," and hoped that 
Brown would succeed in furnishing such 
funds as might be needed, etc. Brown 
seems to have remained for a time at Bos- 
ton, and through him Jones attempted to 
arrange some " affair of the heart," of which 
mention is once or twice made. This may 
have relation to "the all-accomplished De- 
lia" in France, to whom Jones had written 
December 25, 1781, from Portsmouth, tell- 
ing her that since he wrote her from Phila- 
delphia he had been put in command of the 
America, and asking her to write him "un- 

18 



der cover to the Honorable Robert Morris, 
Esq., Minister of Finance/' He professed 
unabated affection, and complained of the 
infrequency of her letters. In September, 
1782, he writes Brown, " There is one deli- 
cate subject of a private nature on which 
you remain silent, though, as I wrote you 
to Boston, I expected to hear much from you 
on that head. Your silence, I fear, carries 
with it a disagreeable meaning." To this 
hint Brown, writing from Philadelphia, Oc- 
tober 1, 1782, advises Jones to think no 
more of the delicate subject mentioned in 
his last; and, in reply to Jones's "respects 
to my fair friends, " adds, " I send my re- 
spects to all friends in Portsmouth, particu- 
larly the aimable Mrs. Langdon." This was 
perhaps Mrs. Woodbury Langdon, rather 
than the wife of John Langdon, with whom 
Jones's relations while in Portsmouth were 
civil, but not warm. Jones left Portsmouth 
early in the following November, and a year 
later (November 10, 1783) was on board 
ship sailing from Philadelphia to France, and 
thence wrote the last letter in this interest- 
ing collection. He was in Europe nearly 

19 



four years, returned to America for a few 
months in 1787, but died in Paris in July, 
1792, a little past the age of forty-five. 

While in America in 1787, Jones wrote to 
Thomas Jefferson, then our ambassador at 
Paris (September 4, 1787), forwarding 
through him a letter to Aimee de Telison, 
and requesting Jefferson to interest himself 
in her favor. He had met her often during 
his residence in France from December, 
1783, onward, and his purse was at her dis- 
posal. One of his last acts before making 
his will (July 18, 1792) was to give her a 
house in Paris and settle upon her an an- 
nuity. It has been said that they were pri- 
vately married; of that there is no evidence. 
She long survived his death, which occurred 
in Paris the very day his will was signed. 
Little is known of her after life. 

F. B. SANBORN 

CONCORD, MASSACHUSETTS, July, 1905. 



20 



Sloop Providence, 

20th June, 1776. 

Sir: I have made so many unsuccessful 
attempts to convoy the Fly past Fisher's 
Island that I have determined to give it up 
and pursue my orders for Boston. When 
I arrive there I will transmit you my letter 
of attorney. In the meantime you will sin- 
gularly oblige me by applying to the Admiral 
for an order to receive for me a copy of the 
Alfred's log-book, which I had made out 
for my private use before I left that ship, 
and which was unjustly withheld from me 
when I took command of the sloop, by the 
ill-natured and narrow-minded Captain Sal- 
tonstall. When the old gentleman was 
down here he promised to order that my 
copy should be delivered; but when my 
lieutenant applied for it, the master of the 
Alfred told the Admiral a cursed lye, and 
said there was no copy made out. On en- 
quiry you will find that Mr. Vaughan, the 
21 



mate of the Alfred, made out the copy in 
question for me before I went to New York. 
I should not be so particular did I not stand 
in absolute need of it before I can make out 
a fair copy of my Journal to lay before the 
Congress; for I was so stinted in point of 
time in the Alfred that I did not copy a sin- 
gle remark; besides 't is a little hard that I 
who planned and superintended the log- 
book should not be thought worthy of a 
copy when a midshipman if he pleases may 
claim one. I take it for granted that you will 
receive the book. I must therefore beg you 
to send it if possible to me at Mr. Jno. 
Head's or Captain J. Bradford's, Boston; 
regard not the expense. I will cheerfully 
pay it. I am, with esteem, 
Sir, your obliged and very humble servant. 

Sloop Providence, 

20th June, 1776. 

Sir: I forgot to mention to you that your ac- 
count against the Providence will be neces- 
sary to me at Boston, as I mean to transmit 
the state and condition of the sloop from 
thence to the Congress. I will also be glad 

22 



of Admiral Hopkins's account against me 
or the sloop ; and you will please to include 
in your account the articles furnished to 
the vessel by the Commissary at Newport. 
There is a bolt of canvas belonging to the 
sloop in the upper part of the store. I wish 
it could be sent to Boston together with a 
quantity of knives, four to five dozen; a 
pair of small pistols; some twine, needles, 
palms, fishhooks, lines, &c., which Mr. 
Brownell took away from the sloop and hath 
in his possession. It seems he lodges at a 
Thos. Nenner's on the hill opposite the bury- 
ing-ground on the west side. You will here- 
with receive a pair of pistols, a musket, and 
a cutlas belonging to the Alfred, which 
please to deliver. 

I am, Sir, your obliged very humble ser- 
vant, 

(Signed) J.P.J. 

COLONEL D. TILLINGHAST. 

M. le Commodore Paul Jones annoncera 

a M. le Vice-amiral R , que quoiqu'en 

qualite d'Americain il n'ait fait usage que 
de la commission des Etats Unis, il n'en 

23 



etoit pas moins vrai qu'il en avoit une fran- 
gaise qui a ete perdue lors du desastre du 
Bonhomme Richard, et dont 1'acte qui lui 
a ete adresse est la copie. M. le Commo- 
dore Paul Jones fera meme cette declara- 
tion par ecrit, et la signera, si par hazard 
M. le Vice-amiral venoit a Texiger. 1 

TRANSLATION OF THE PRECEDING 

Commodore Paul Jones will announce to 

Vice-admiral R that, although as an 

American citizen, he has used only his com- 
mission from the United States, it was not 
the less true that he had a French one which 
was lost when the disaster happened to the 
Bonhomme Richard, of which commission 
the document addressed to him [the Vice- 
admiral] is a copy. Commodore Paul Jones 
will make this declaration in writing, and 
will sign it, if at any time the Vice-admiral 
should so require. 

N.B. The above is the proposition that 
was given me in writing the 13th of Decem- 
ber, 1779, on board the Alliance at the Texel 

1 This is not in the handwriting of John Paul Jones. 
24 



by M. le Chevalier de Lioncourt to induce 
me to say and sign a falsehood. 1 

J, PAUL JONES 

PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
January 3d, 1782. 

I have, my dear Brown, duly received 
your letter of the 26th, and am much obliged 
by the letters you forwarded. I regret ex- 
ceedingly my not having seen the Marquis 
before he sailed; and it is a great addition 
to my disappointment, my having lost that 
good opportunity to write to my friends, who 
are full of zeal for my glory and the in- 
terests of America. Your long delay at Bos- 
ton, and some new circumstances that have 
occurred here, have obliged me to write by 
the last post a clear account of matters to 
the Minister. By Mr. Langdon, purser of 
the Dean, I understand you mean to remain 
at Boston till you have dispatched that ship? 
I shall console myself if you do; because 
you will then be able to make a longer stay 
here, and in the meantime I am persuaded 
an effectual arrangement will be made. 

1 This " N.B." is written in the autograph 

of John Paul Jones. 

25 



I am, with great regard, dear Sir, 
Your most obedient and most humble ser- 
vant, 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

N.B. I gave Captain Thompson a packet 
(under cover to Mr. Morris) for my par- 
ticular friend at Court. I desired him to 
take off the cover if he found the Marquis 
at Boston. It is of great consequence to my- 
self and the Continent. I pray you there- 
fore to send it on to Mr. Morris unless you 
find an opportunity you approve from Bos- 
ton, &c. 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 

Honored by Mr. Langdon, Purser of the 
Dean. 

PORTSMOUTH,, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
January 21st, 1782. 

Dear Sir: Colonel Langdon, who I under- 
stand goes for Boston to-morrow, in order 
to settle his old accounts with the Navy 
Board, does me the honor to carry this letter. 
I apprehend you have suffered my late let- 
ters to remain in the post-office, as I have 

26 



not had the pleasure to hear from you since 
the 26th of December. If you have received 
a packet of letters I gave Captain Thomp- 
son, I do not wish it to be sent by the Alex- 
ander, there being copys already on board 
that ship. If you have not received it, I wish 
you would mention this with my compli- 
ments to Captain Thompson. 

I am, dear Sir, most affectionately your 
(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

N.B. Remember you are to lodge with 
me when you come here. I wish to know 
when the Alexander is expected to sail. 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 

Honored by Colonel Langdon. 

PORTSMOUTH, N. HAMPSHIRE, 
March 25, 1782. 

I hope, my dear Brown, you got safe and 
speedily to Boston after our separation. I 
reached Portsmouth just when they began 
to light candles after tea, and the dancing 
did not end till after two in the morning. I 
have attended the America every day; the 

27 



work, so far, goes on as well as can be ex- 
pected with the few hands that are em- 
ployed. Colonel L. returned last night; I 
have seen him then, and this morning: he 
appeared civil, but did not talk of business. I 
shall endeavor to induce him to increase the 
number of workmen. I have examined the 
cable I mentioned to you that belonged to 
the Somerset. It is somewhat worn, and 
measures only 20 instead of 22 inches; how- 
ever, if we can obtain 3 more of 18 inches 
or upwards they might answer for the first 
object. I have thought of the boats; and, 
that no expense may be incurred that can 
possibly be avoided, I am willing, in the first 
moment, to forego the parade of a barge, 
and will content myself, even in sight of the 
flag of France, to be rowed in an eight-oared 
pinnace. It seems probable the Cybel had 
a good launch, which might serve as a long- 
boat for the America. I wish you could 
send me the dimensions if the boat is good. 
I have seen Colonel Hill (the other master 
builder), who says the timber is all ready 
at the head of the river, so that we shall 
begin to lay the quarter-deck and forecastle 

28 



beams, I expect, the week after next. There 
is timber enough got, he says, for the gun- 
carriages; and, as we shall have our own 
iron, the workmanship cannot be a heavy 
expense. I wish the 10 eighteen-pounders 
could be got back from Virginia, to make 
a compleat battery with the 18 at Boston. I 
hope you will secure the cannon and swivles 
of the Cybel. The cannon, I suppose, are 
twelve-pounders, and will suit our quarter- 
deck and forecastle; the swivles will answer 
for the tops, quarters, &c. If the eighteen- 
pounders cannot be got back from Virginia, 
the Cyber s twelve-pounders may be substi- 
tuted, unless heavier cannon can be had to 
compleat the upper battery. Mr. Ross 
writes me the 5th that Captain Hodge had 
only just sailed for the Havannah. You 
will therefore be at Philadelphia before he 
returns, and be able to give the Minister full 
information, as well as to determine on my 
proposal for your return. You know how 
deeply my honor is concerned in the accom- 
plishment of the important business with 
which I am charged, and how much I cast 
myself on your care, and rely on your 

29 



friendly representations and vigorous exer- 
tions. I know you will not, in anything, fall 
short of my expectations. 

I say nothing to you at present of my af- 
fair of the heart; but wait impatiently to 
hear much on that subject from you. I shall 
rely on your advice; and, as I know it will 
come from the heart of friendship, I shall 
make no scruple beforehand to promise you 
to treat it with great respect and attention. 
I am, believe me, my dear Brown, 

Your affectionate 
(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

N.B. Your servant did honor to your 
trust, and paid as you directed. 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 

PORTSMOUTH, N. HAMPSHIRE, 
April 2d, 1782. 

I wrote you, my dear Brown, by Sher- 
burne, the Smith, the 29th ult. I then for- 
got to mention to send here immediately all 
the paint and oil on hand at Boston; the new 
work is planed off, and being of green wood, 

30 



is suffering much for want of it. Major 
Hacket is gone up the river with half his 
men to hasten down the timber for the quar- 
ter-deck and forecastle, and I expect to be- 
gin to lay the beams the first of next week. 
I wish you would immediately send me, if 
you have them, from 12 to 20 or more good 
swivles and, at any rate, send some pow- 
der, grape-shot, and musket balls. I want 
to mount swivles in the gunports, &c., and 
I wish you would mention some marines for 
a guard. Pray how many, and what sort 
of pumps has the Cybell? 

I am, my dear Brown, your affectionate 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

PORTSMOUTH, N. HAMPSHIRE, 
April 4th, 1782. 

You will oblige me, my dear Brown, if 
you can send me by the return of Mr. Sea- 
man, the bearer, a piece of good linen for 
shirts, and a piece of cambric for stock. I 
have muslin for ruffles, but thread and but- 
tons are wanting. I have received a credit 
from my friend Ross on Mr. Russell, who 
will reimburse you the cost. I should not 

31 



have given you this trouble, but that I find 
no linen here except such as is both bad and 
very dear, and I know you will excuse with- 
out an apology your affectionate 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 

Honored by Richard Seaman, Esquire. 

PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
April 15th, 1782. 

I wrote you, my dear Brown, by the last 
post, mentioning Colonel Langdon's inten- 
tion to discharge all the carpenters last Sat- 
urday; and I expected to have had an an- 
swer from you, as I stood in need of your 
advice. I am disappointed. I had deter- 
mined to try all my art of persuasion on Col- 
onel Langdon, and to call in the auxiliary 
aid of General Whipple and others to induce 
him to continue. If he had obstinately per- 
sisted in discharging the carpenters, I was 
resolved to have continued them at my own 
expense till I had heard from the Minister; 
being persuaded that to stop now would be 

32 



to lose the America. Perhaps all my argu- 
ments would have failed, had he not by the 
Friday's post received a remittance of ten 
thousand dollars. Even that remittance has 
not operated to augment the number of car- 
penters, nor even to set a single caulker to 
work. All it has effected is to continue the 
few men employed when you were here; 
and part of that number are and have been 
for some time past taken off to fit out his 
private vessels. They are to receive no pay 
till a month is expired. I am greatly obliged 
by the linen and cambric you so kindly sent 
me by Mr. Seaman. Pray did Mr. Russell 
pay for the cambric? I have recommended 
to the Minister to procure not only the hull, 
stores, and materials of the Fantasque; but 
also what belongs to the Cybell. It seems 
to me they may be turned to a very good ac- 
count. He will communicate to you the plan 
I have suggested. I am, my dear Brown, 
your affectionate 
(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

N.B. Major Hacket and the rest beg 
that what I proposed to them in your hear- 

33 



ing may not be mentioned to any person 
here. 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 
Secretary of Admiralty. 



PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
April 15th, 1782. 

I wrote you a line, my dear Brown, this 
morning by Mr. Sheaf. The present, I ex- 
pect, will yet find you in Boston. I send 
it by the postman, and the intention of it is 
only to transmit you the enclosed seven hun- 
dred and twenty dollars, in bills on France 
for interest from the Boston Loan Office. 
I pray you on your arrival in Philadelphia 
to put these bills into the hands of my friend 
and attorney John Ross, Esquire. If you 
paid for the cambric you so obligingly sent 
me, he will reimburse you the cost. I have 
mentioned to Mr. Ross what you so kindly 
promised respecting the embarkation of my 
stores and baggage, and must rely on you 
and him for that arrangement. Your en- 
deavours to obtain payment of my steward's 
wages due from the 16th March, 1780, will 

34 



oblige me. He has been so long with me 
that I find I cannot well do without him. 
I shall hope to hear from you before you 
depart; meantime and always I am, 
affectionately yours, 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 



PORTSMOUTH, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
April 25th, 1782. 

I wrote you, my dear Brown, the 21st by 
the postman. Since that time I have by a 
fine political manoeuvre discovered, as I 
think, the clew to the letter I received from 
Philadelphia of the 26th ult. mentioning a 
" Respectable Gentleman/' I now see also 
the reason why " Resigning" and " getting 
clear of the business" is so much talked of. 
The scheme has been deeply laid, and if 
the successor that has been recommended 
should be accepted, I think the coffers would 
be drained, and a double fence to knavery 
would be erected. Mr. Langdon has not re- 
solved to set out for Boston before the be- 
35 



ginning of next week; so I send this by Mr. 
Greenleaf of the stage-coach, who, after re- 
maining a day or so in Boston, will bring 
me your answer. I have much serious mat- 
ter to say to you, and think it absolutely 
necessary I should see you as soon as pos- 
sible. Therefore I would propose to meet 
you at Ipswich on as early a day as you can 
appoint; you can return the day following 
to Boston, and none be the wiser but our- 
selves. Mr. Langdon never behaved with 
greater civility to me than at present; and 
as I hate to be outdone I am very polite 
towards him. I am always, my dear Brown, 
your affectionate 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, 

Secretary of Admiralty, Boston. 



PORTSMOUTH, N. HAMPSHIRE, 
August 3d, 1782. 

The bearer, my dear Brown, being sent 
by Colonel Langdon express to Philadel- 
phia, to return immediately, gives me an 
opportunity to refer you to him for some 

36 



particulars of our present situation, which 
his hasty departure puts out of my power 
to write. You will, I suppose, see my official 
account of this date to the Minister. 1 have 
not received a word from you since you left 
Boston. I shall not now urge you to write, 
even by this opportunity: on the contrary, 
I shall freely give you back all your promises 
and professions, if you repent having made 
them; because I would have them continue 
with steadfast sincerity if they are contin- 
ued at all. I presume you received the con- 
fidential letter I wrote you to Philadelphia 
in answer to your last from Boston. In the 
meantime I am, my dear Brown, your un- 
altered friend, 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

Past 2 o'clock in the morning of the 4th. 

JOHN BROWN, Esquire, &c. 



PORTSMOUTH,, NEW HAMPSHIRE, 
Sept. 7th, 1782. 

At last, my dear Brown, I am so happy 
as to receive your letter of the 14th ult. No 
doubt you had strong reasons for your past 

37 



silence; but circumstanced as I have been, 
in such tormenting suspense, I have paid 
dearly for your delicacy. I thought you un- 
kind, and am now much pleased to relin- 
quish that apprehension: you will no more 
allow me foundation for it. The loss of the 
Magnifique at Boston, which was immedi- 
ately communicated to Mr. Morris, will, I 
have no doubt, remove the chief difficulty 
mentioned in your letter. The armament of 
that ship, I am certain, can be spared, and 
perhaps also the rigging and sails; you will 
therefore follow up that object if you regard 
my happiness. I am much obliged by what 
you say respecting my steward's pay. 

I wish most ardently for an honorable 
peace; which cannot, in my judgment, be 
made otherwise than in conjunction with 
our generous ally. I would disdain to take 
repose and leave our friends to fight out our 
battles! If this is the wily scheme of the 
English Fox, I hope every virtuous Amer- 
ican will treat it with the most supreme con- 
tempt, and never consent to sheathe the 
sword till, in mercy to mankind, that inso- 
lent and faithless nation is humbled in the 
dust. There is one delicate subject of a pri- 

38 




*, /^^^ 






t^v^^X-^ 



r^" 

.^^^^/A**^^*^-^* 
{^%F.JfcM*~&' 










V*w <<-<* 




i*<+6*t**Yrt-' ft' 'to+4-04^ <&f 




rate nature on which you remain silent, 
though, as I wrote you to Boston, I expected 
" to hear much from you on that head." 
Your silence, 1 fear, carries with it a dis- 
agreeable meaning. Present, if you please, 
my respects to my fair friends, as I have 
done yours here. Let me hear from you. 
You cannot suppose I am "happy" in my 
situation; but I am, with unabating affec- 
tion, Your friend, 

J. PAUL JONES 
JOHN BROWN, Esquire, &c. 

PHILADELPHIA, June 4th, 1783. 

Gentlemen: The bearer, John Barry, Es- 
quire, Captain in the Continental Navy, 
commanding the frigate Alliance, being des- 
tined for the Texel, I beg leave to introduce 
him as a friend of mine to the honor of your 
acquaintance. As Captain Barry is an en- 
tire stranger in Holland, any civilities you 
may show him will the more oblige, 

Gentlemen, your most obedient and most 
humble servant, 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

MESSIEURS DENEUFVILLE & FILS, 
& Amsterdam. 

39 



On Board the Washington Packet, 

DELAWARE BAY, November 10th, 1783. 
Dear General: After I had the honor to see 
you last at Philadelphia, I had occasion to 
go to Princeton. General Washington did 
me the honor to read the papers I showed 
to you, and his Excellency told me in re- 
turning them " he must confess he could not 
see upon what principle of justice Congress 
had acted respecting my rank." I have, 
however, said nothing to that great body on 
the subject. The object for which I am now 
here on my way to France is to solicit justice 
to the officers and men I had the honor to 
command in Europe. When I have obtained 
proper satisfaction for them I intend to re- 
turn to America. The Chevalier de la Lu- 
zerne and Baron Steuben have proposed to 
obtain a vote of the Society of Cincinnatus 
for my admission at the first general meet- 
ing. If I am elected a permanent member 
of the Society, my friend and attorney John 
Ross, Esquire, will pay seventy-five dollars, 
the monthly pay of a colonel, which rank I 
have by virtue of my election to command 
the America. I shall place great dependence 

40 









. *_ 
' 




' 




*HHi rr> - . S&- &fr^&<' 





Je+^J+^JL 






for my admission on your interposition, and 
I beg you to believe the assurance of the 
great respect and esteem with which I have 
the honor to be, dear General, 

Your most obedient and most humble ser- 
vant, 

(Signed) J. PAUL JONES 

The Honorable Major-general 
A. ST. CLAIR. 



41 



The following is the muster-roll of the 
sloop Providence, which does not appear to 
have been printed before. Long ago it was 
presented to the Massachusetts Historical 
Society by John Lowell, Esq. (H. U. 1786), 
one of the founders of the society, and it 
has ever since remained in the archives of 
that institution. Its value consists mainly 
in showing authentically who served on 
board the first naval vessel of the United 
States which Jones commanded; when each 
officer and man entered the service, and what 
was his original rank. Some of them were 
afterwards with Jones in his Portsmouth- 
built ship, the Ranger, which, while in the 
French harbor of Quiberon in 1778, received 
the first National salute given the American 
Flag in Europe, and a few may have been 
with him on board the Bonhomme Richard 
when she captured the Serapis. 
42 



In his report to the Continental Congress, 
of which mention is made in one of the let- 
ters here printed, Jones may have included 
this muster-roll; but we can find no evidence 
that it was ever printed. 



43 



MUSTER-ROLL OF THE 



Time of Entry 


No Month 


Yeir 


Nimcs in original 


Stition 


Run, Dead, Discharged 


1 May 10 


1776 


John Paul Jones . . . 


Captain 




2 April 16 


1776 


William Grinnell . . 


1st Lieut. 




3 Feb. 10 


1776 


John P. Rathbun . . 


1st Lieut. 




4 June 3 


1776 


William Hopkins . . 


Master 




5 March 14 


1776 


Samuel Brownell . . 


Actg. master 




6 May 12 


1776 


Henry Tillinghast . . 


Surgeon 




7 June 9 


1776 


John Margeson . . . 


1st Master's mate 




8 Jan. 20 


1776 


Joseph Brown . . . 


2d Master's mate 




9 Jan. 1 


1776 


John McNeil .... 


3d Master's mate 




10 Jan. 22 


1776 


Joseph Hardy . . . 


Midshipman 




11 May 15 


1776 


Charles Short . . . 


Clerk .... 


Dis. June 19 


12 June 18 


1776 


James Rogers . . . 


Steward 




13 Feb. 17 


1776 


William Darby . . . 


Boatswain 




14 June 10 


1776 


Andrew Brewer . . . 


Carpenter . . 


Run Oct. 20,1776 


15 Feb. 1 


1776 


James Bryant . . . 


Gunner 




16 Jan. 4 


1776 


John Pyntcr .... 


Armourer 




17 Jan. 1 


1776 


Isaac Kimball . . . 


Disqual. cooper 


Run Aug. 10, 1776 


18 Jan. 8 


1776 


John Bettingham . . 


Cook .... 


Taken from hospital 










June 9 


10 May 21 


1776 


James Prcssy . . . 


Boatswain's mate 




20 April 17 


1776 


Lillibridge Worth . . 


Gunner's mate 




21 Jan. 4 


1776 


Farquaher McPherson 


Yeoman . . . 


Run Aug. 10, 1776 


22 Jan. 31 


1776 


Robert Brown . . . 


Seaman 




23 May 21 


1776 


Andrew Waylin . . . 


Seaman . . . 


Run Oct., 1776 


24 May 22 


1776 


Thomas Cox . . . , 


Seaman . . . 


Sent sick quarters 










JuneS 


25 May 21 


1776 


Samuel Hallam . . . 


Seaman 




26 May 20 


1776 


Samuel Chapman . . 


Seaman 




27 May 28 


1776 


John Dennis . . 


Seaman . . . 


Taken from sick 










quarters May 28 


28 Jan. 14 


1776 


Edward Donelly . . . 


Seaman 




29 Jan. 4 


1776 


John Sutherland . . 


Seaman 




30 May 24 


1776 


William Bryant . . . 


Seaman 




31 June 10 


1776 


Thomas Perfect . . . 


Seaman 




1 32] 'April 17 


1776 


William Abbot . . . 


Seaman . . . 


Run June 24 


[33] July 11 


1776 


James Robinson . . . 


Seaman 




[34] July 11 


1776 


Charles Traffarn . . 


Seaman 




[35] Jan. 2 


1776 


George Robinson . . 


Carpenter's mate 


Dis. June 18, 1776 


1 Numhrriiif! is here discontinued in unwind. 






44 







"PROVIDENCE" SLOOP OF WAR 

Tune promoted 

Turned over from Turned over to M..iih Ye.r 

[I] . Stop Alfred Ship Alfred Oct. 20 1776 

[2] . Ship Columbus Prize Brig. Britannia . . . . Aug. 27 1776 

[3] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[4] . Sick quarters Prize Brig. Sea Nymph . . . Sept. 5 1770 

[5] Sick quarters June 4 1776 

| 61 . Ship A lfred f May 12 . . . Sick quarters Oct.20 1776 

[7] . Andrew Doria, May 22 . . Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[8J Prize brig. Sea Nymph . . . Sept. 5 1776 

[9] Prize Brig. Britannia . . . . Aug. 27 1776 

[10] Prize Brig. Favourite . . . . Sept. 8 1776 

[ll| June 19 1776 

[12] Prize Brig. Defame . . . . Sept. 23 1776 

1 13 1 . Andrew Doria Chester Jail Aug. 5 1776 

[14] Sick quarters June 20 1776 

|15| Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

|16| 

1 17] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[18] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[19] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[20] . Ship Columbus Ship A Ifrcd Oct.20 1776 

[21] 
[22] 
[23] 
[24] 

[25] . Ship Columbus, June 9 . . Ship Columbus June 9 1776 

[26] . Ship Columbus Ship Columbus June 9 1776 

[27 1 Andrew Doria June 3 1776 

[28] Prize Brig. Favourite . . . . Sept. 8 1776 

[29] Shi? Alfred Oct.20 1776 

1 30] 

[31] . Ship Columbus, June 10 . . Columbus' s Prize Sept. 10 1776 

[32] 

[33] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[34] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[35] Ship Alfred June 8 1776 

45 



Time of Entry 
No. Month Year 


Nme* in origini) 


Suiion 


Run, Deid, Discharged 


[36] April 16 


1776 


James Grinnell . . . 


Boy 




[37] April 16 


1776 


Cambridge Grinnell . 


Boy ... 


. Sick quarters 


[38] May 12 


1776 


Edward Ormond . . 


Boy ... 


. Dis. Aug. 15 


[39J Jan. 11 


1776 


Samuel Askins . . . 


Boy ... 


. Run Oct. 8, 1776 


[40] July 11 


1776 


James Turner . . . 


Boy 




|41] Jan. 7 


1776 


Andrew Jemerson . . 


Boy ... 


. Run May 24, 1776 


[42] June 12 


1776 


Alpheus Rice .... 


Lt. Marines . 


. Run Aug. 16. 1776 


|43| Dec. 29 


1775 


Patrick Russell . . . 


Marine . . 


. Run Aug. 10, 1776 


|44| Jan. 4 


1776 


Cornelius Dax . . . 


Marine . . 


. Dis. May 24 


|45j June 4 


1776 


Archibald Neilson . . 


Marine . . 


. Taken from hospital 










June 4 


[461 Jan. 23 


1776 


Samuel Allen . . . 


Marine 




[47] Jan. 4 


1776 


Cornelius Conelly . . 


Marine . . 


. Run June 3, 1776 


|48| Jan. 14 


1776 


Mathew McCaffry . . 


Marine . . 


. Sent sick quarters 


[49| Feb. 8 


1776 


John Robinson . . . 


Marine 




|50| Jan. 3 


1776 


Daniel Pillegar . . . 


Marine 




|51| Jan. 5 


1776 


Bryan Ryan .... 


Marine . . 


. Run Aug. 27, 1776 


|52] Jan. 5 


1776 


Archibald Edmunson . 


Marine 




|53| Jan. 5 


1776 


Patrick McMullen . . 


Marine 




[54] Jan. 5 


1776 


Samuel Wright . . . 


Marine 




[55] Jan. 5 


1776 


James Sinncx . . . 


Marine 




[56] Jan. 5 


1776 


David Franks . . . 


Marine 




[57] Jan. 5 


1776 


William Griffies . . . 


Marine 




|58| Jan. 5 


1776 


John Mclndoe . . . 


Marine 




|59| Jan. 23 


1776 


William Rickets . . . 


Marine . . 


. Run Sept. 24, 1777 


|tiO| Dec. 20 


1775 


Frederick Win. Ruff man 


Marine 




|C1| April Hi 


1776 


Daniel Humphreys . . 


Prisoner . . 


. Sick at Prov. April 9 


|62| June 14 


1776 


James Howell . . . 


Prisoner 




|G3] June 14 


1776 


William Brand . . . 


Prisoner . . 


. Entered Oct. 4, 1776 


[64] June 14 


1776 


Edmund Arrowsmith . 


Ensign 




[65| June 14 


1776 


Elias Thomas . . . 


Sergeant 




|66| June 14 


1776 


William Babcock . . 


Soldier . . 


. Run June 28 


|67] June 14 


1776 


Joseph Nocake . . . 


Soldier 




[68| June 14 


1776 


Adin Trask .... 


Soldier . . 


. Dis. Oct. 10 


[69J June 14 


1776 


Augustus Saunders 


Soldier 




[70] June 14 


1776 


Richard Griffies . . . 


Soldier 




[71] June 14 


1776 


Elias Millar . . . . 


Soldier 




[72] June 14 


1776 


Thomas Potter . . . 


Soldier 




[73] June 14 


1776 


Jonathan Jenks . . . 


Soldier 




[74] June 14 


1776 


Nathan Munroe . . . 


Soldier . . 


. Dis. Feb. 1 


[75] June 14 


1776 


Joseph Jaqueys . . . 


Soldier . . 


. Dis. Nov. 1 



46 





Tarred over ta. 


Turned cner to 


Time promoted 
Month Yen 


[36] 


. Ship Columbus . . . 


. . Prize Brig. Britannia . . 


. Aug. 27 1776 


137J 






, . Oct. 10 1776 


138] 






. - Aug. 15 1776 


[39J 






. . Oct. 8 1776 


[40] 




. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[41] 






. . May 24 1776 


[42| 


. Andrew Doria . . . 




. . Juno 10 1776 


[43] 






. . Aug. 10 1776 


|44| 






. . May 24 1776 


[45] 




. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[46] 




. . Ship Columbus .... 


. . June!) 1776 


[47 1 






. . June 3 1776 


[48] 






. . June 6 1776 


[49] 




. . Ship Columbus .... 


. . June 10 1776 


[SO] 




. . Ship Columbus .... 


. . June 9 1776 


[51] 


. Brig. Cabot .... 




. . Jan. 5 1776 


[52| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


|53| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[54| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Sick quarters .... 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[55] 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


|S6| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


|57| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[58| 


. Brig. Cabot .... 


. . Ship Columbus .... 


. . June 4 1776 


[591 






. . Sept. 24 1776 


[GO) 


, Hospital 


. . Prize Brig. Favourite . . 


. . Sept. 8 1776 


|61] , 






. . April 9 1776 


[62| , 


. Sloop Fly 


. . Prize Brig. Favourite . . 


. . Scpt.H 1776 


|63] , 


, Sloop F/v 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


|64| , 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[65] . 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Prize Brig. Britannia . . 


. . Aug. 27 1776 


|66| . 


, Rhode Is. Brigade 






[67] . 


, Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Columbus's Prize . . . 


. . Sept. 10 1776 


[68] . 


, Rhode Is. Brigade 






[69] . 


, Rhode Is. Brigade 






[70] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Prize Brig. Britannia . . 


. . Aug. 27 1776 


[71] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Prize Brig. Favourite . . 


. . Sept. 8 1776 


[72] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Ship Alfred 


. . Oct. 20 1776 


[73] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Prize Brig. Britannia . . 


. . Aug. 27 1776 


[74] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Prize Brig. Defiance . . 


. . Sept. 23 1776 


[75] . 


Rhode Is. Brigade . . 


. . Columbufs Prize . . . 


. . Sept. 10 1776 






47 





Time of p.ntry 


No. Month 


Year 


Names in ordinal 


Station 


Run, r>ed, Discharged 


[76] June 14 


1776 


James Searles . . . 


Soldier . . . 


Run June 19, 1776 


[77] June 14 


1776 


Constant Whitford 


Soldier . . . 


Run June 29, 1776 


[78] June 14 


1776 


Richard Pearce . . . 


Soldier 




[79] June 14 


1776 


John Robinson . . . 


Soldier 




[80] June 14 


1776 


Thomas Harris . . . 


Soldier . . . 


Run June 29, 1776 


[81] June 14 


1776 


John Hicks .... 


Soldier 




|82J June 14 


1776 


Isaac Stearns . . . 


Soldier . . . 


Dis. Feb. 10 


|83| June 14 


1776 


James Merrihew . . 


Soldier . . . 


Run July 6 


|84] June 14 


1776 


Elnathan Newman . . 


Soldier fifer . . 


Dis. Oct. 10 


|85| June 14 


1776 


Samuel Peckham . . 


Drummer 




[80] Aug. 19 


1776 


John Jones .... 


Landsman 




|87| Aug. 19 


1776 


Samuel True .... 


Landsman 




|88| Aug. 19 


1776 


Michael Dcaly . . . 


Landsman 




[89] Aug. 19 


1776 


Joseph Vesey . . . 


Actg. master 




(90| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Webster . . . 


Boatswain 




[91| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Darbarrow . . 


Boat yeoman 




[92| Aug. 19 


1776 


Jesse Grossman . . . 


Gunner's mate 




|JW| Aug. 19 


1776 


Samuel Fry .... 


Cooper 




|94| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Killen .... 


Captain's clerk 




|95| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Williams . . . 


Landsman 




1 9(1 1 Aug. 1 9 


1776 


James Crawford . . 


Landsman 




|97| Aug. 19 


1776 


Ezckiel Vangilder . . 


Landsman 




|98| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Moncly .... 


Landsman 




|99| Aug. 19 


1776 


John Powcl .... 


Landsman 




100| Aug. 19 


1776 


Abraham Sing . . . 


Landsman 




| 101| Aug. 19 


1776 


Henry Young . . . 


Landsman 




[102] Aug. 19 


1776 


Mathias Grimes . . . 


Seaman 




103] Aug. 19 


1776 


Aaron Quigley . . . 


Seaman 




1 104] Aug. 19 


1776 


John Stewart .... 


Seaman 




[105] Aug.26 


1776 


Zehulon Whippy . . 


Master's mate 




[106] Aug.26 


1776 


Abel Coffin .... 


3d Mate . . . 


Run Oct. 29, 1776 


[107] Aug.26 


1776 


Casey Beruick . . . 


Landsman 




[ 108] Aug. 26 


1776 


Joshua Moses . . . 


Landsman 




[109] Aug.26 


1776 


Anthony Forrest . . 


Seaman 




[110] Aug.26 


1776 


Richard Bransdale . . 


Seaman 




[111] Aug.26 


1776 


James Foney . . . 


Landsman 




[112] Aug.26 


1776 


Anthony Anabona 


Landsman 




[113] Aug.26 


1776 


Samuel Wogs . . . 


Seaman 




[114] Aug.26 


1776 


John Coet 


Seaman 




[115] Aug.26 


1776 


Peter Patourel . . . 


Seaman 




[116] Sept. 4 


1776 


George Lovie . . . 


Actg. Lieut. 








48 







[76] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade 


Turned over to 


Tlmr promoted 

Month Year 


[77] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade 






[78] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . . 


. Prize Ship Alexander . . . 


. Sept. 25 1776 


[79] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . . 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[80] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade 






[81] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . . 


. Prize Brig. Defiance . . . 


. Sept. 23 1776 


[82] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . . 


. Prize Brig. Sea Nymph . . 


. Sept. 5 1776 


[83] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade 






[84] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade 






[85] 


. Rhode Is. Brigade . . . 


. Prize Brig. Defiance . . . 


. Sept. 23 1776 


[86] 




. Prize Brig. Britannia . . . 


. Aug. 27 1776 


[87] 




. Prize Brig. Britannia . . . 


. Aug. 27 1776 


[88] 




. Prize Brig. Favourite . . . 


, . Sept. 8 1776 


[89] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Prize Brig. Favourite . . . 


, . Sept. 8 1776 


[90] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[91] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Sick quarters 


, . Oct. 10 1776 


[92] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[93] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


(94] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Brig. Britannia 


. . Aug. 27 1776 


[95] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Prize Brig. Favourite . . . 


, . Sept. 8 1776 


[96] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[97] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[98] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[99] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Prize Britannia 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[100] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Ship Alfred 


, . Oct. 20 1776 


[101] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Prize Favourite . . . . 


, . Sept. 8 1776 


[102] , 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Brig. Sea Nymph . . . . 


, . Sept. 5 1776 


[103] , 


, Sloop Hornet 


. Brig. Sea Nymph . . . . 


, . Sept. 5 1776 


[104] 


. Sloop Hornet 


. Brig. Favourite 


, . Sept. 8 1776 


[105] 


. Brig. Britannia taken . . 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[106] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Prize Brig. Success . . . 


. Sept. 23 1776 


[107] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Prize Brig. Defiance . . . 


. Sept. 23 1776 


[108] 


Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[109] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Brig. Favourite 


. Sept. 8 1776 


[110] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[111] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[112] , 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[113] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[114] 


. Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[115] , 


, Brig. Britannia .... 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 


[116] , 


. Brig. Sea Nymph taken . 


. Ship Alfred 


. Oct. 20 1776 






49 





Time of I run- 


No. Month 


Yen 


Names in original 


Sunon 


Kun, Dead, Discharged 


[117] Sept. 23 


1776 


James Daley . . . 


. Surgeon's mate 


Sick at Newport, 










Oct. 10 


[118] Oct. 4 


1776 


Peter Diamond 






[119] Oct. 4 


1776 


Stephen Ryan 






[120] Sept. 7 


1776 


Benj. Allen . . . 


. Seaman 




[121] Sept. 7 


1776 


Barney Gallagher . 


. Actg. midshipman 




[122] Sept. 4 


1776 


James Bascum . . 


. Seaman 




[123] Sept. 4 


1776 


Anthony Lewis . . 


. Landsman 




[124] Sept. 4 


1776 


Peter Conya . . . 


. Landsman 




[125] Sept. 4 


1776 


William Tyrer . . 


. Landsman 




[126] Sept. 7 


1776 


James Bachope 






[127] Sept. 7 


1776 


William Roberts . 


. Seaman 




[128] Sept. 4 


1776 


Prince Williams 


. Landsman 




[129] Sept. 7 


1776 


John Willson . . . 


. Seaman 




1 130] Aug. 19 


1776 


William Kelly . . 


. Landsman 




|131J Sept. 4 


1776 


William Middleton . 


. Seaman 




[132| Sept. 4 


1776 


William Wells . . 


. Seaman . . . 


Run Oct. 20, 1776 


|133J Sept. 7 


1776 


William Lewis . . 


. Seaman . . . 


Run Sept. 23, 1776 


[134] Sept. 7 


1776 


Patrick Devaraux . 


. Seaman 




[135] Sept. 7 


1776 


Thomas Burch . . 


. Boy 




[136] Sept. 7 


1776 


John Traverse . . 


.Boy 


Hospital Oct. 10 


[137] Sept. 22 


1776 


John Brown . . . 


. Seaman 




[138] Sept. 23 


1776 


Benj. Hill . . . 


. Pilot .... 


Dis. Oct. 29 


[139] Sept. 23 


1776 


Jonathan Fish . . 


. Actg.midshipman 


Dis. Oct. 


[140] Sept. 23 


1776 


Tho' Brewer . . . 


. Carpenter's mate 


Run Oct. 23 


[141] Sept. 23 


1776 


George Nicholson . 


. Seaman 




[142] Sept. 23 


1770 


John Fears . . . 


. Seaman 




[143] Sept. 23 


1776 


Stephen Seamore . 


. Seaman . . . 


Run Oct. 20, 1776 


[144] Sept. 23 


1776 


Isaac Caplin . . . 


. Seaman . . . 


Run Oct. 20, 1776 



50 



Turned over from Turned overto Month Yer 

[117] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[118] Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[119] Stop Alfred Oct.20 1770 

[120] . Brig. Favour ite taken . . . Prize Brig. Defiance . . . . Sept. 23 1776 

[121] . Brig. Favourite Prize Brig. Defiance .... Sept. 23 1776 

[122] . Sea Nymph taken .... Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[123] . Sea Nymph Ship A If red Oct.20 1776 

[124] . Sea Nymph Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[125] . Sea Nymph Ship A Ifred Oct.20 1776 

[126] . Favourite Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[127] . Favourite Ship Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[128] . Sea Nymph Ship A Ifred Oct.20 1776 

[129] . Favourite Ship A Ifred Oct.20 1776 

[130] Prize Sept. 8 1776 

[131] . Sea Nymph Sick quarters Oct. 10 1776 

[132] . Sea Nymph 

f!33] . Favourite 

[134] . Favourite Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[135] . Favourite Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[136] . Favourite Sick quarters Oct. 10 1776 

[137J Alfred Oct.20 1776 

[138] 
[139] 
1140] 

[141] Prize Brig. Defiance . , . . Sept. 23 1776 

[142] Prize Brig. Defiance . . , . Sept. 23 1776 

[143] 
[144] 



The original of the following letter 
(which does not appear ever to have been 
published) is in the valuable collection of 
naval literature owned by Mr. Charles T. 
Harbeck, by whose kind permission it is 
now printed: 

L'Oricnt, Fcby 24 th 1779. 

In the fulness of my heart I congratulate 
you on your well merited elevation to the 
Dignity of a Seat in the first Senate on this 
Globe. I trust you will believe that I do 
now and ever shall rejoice in every circum- 
stance that tends to promote the honor and 
happiness of a good man, whose ambition 
it is to vindicate the rights of human Nature 
and who claims my regard and affection 
with an affection that proceeds directly from 
the Heart and is due only to the best of 
Friends. 

My correspondence with you has been in- 

53 



terrupted thro' the perplexity of my situa- 
tion since the month of May, as well as 
thro' my expectations of seeing you again 
in Europe. 

I have now only time to refer you to the 
within papers and to the letters and papers 
which I have lately forwarded and now for- 
ward to Mr Morris, particularly my letters 
to him of the 13th and 14th of Nov. last. 

I am told that Lieutenant Simpson is 
again fitting out the Ranger. I can say 
nothing on the propriety or the impropriety 
of that Measure. I will govern myself by 
Mr Morris's advice, therefore I beg of you 
to write to me. 

I hope you are in the Marine Committee 
be it so or not, I shall send you my free 
thoughts as they occur on Navy Matters; 
there is in that department great room for 
amendments, and the abuses in it at this 
distance appear so bare-faced that I am not 
very ambitious to approach too near the ob- 
ject. I shall for the present content myself 
if I can do any real service to the Common 
Cause or any honor to the American Flag 
without subjecting America to any expense. 

54 



I am obliged to be thus short as the bearer 
departs immediately and has not given me 
half an hour's warning. The within papers 
may, // you please, be laid before Congress. 

I am truly and affectionately 

Your Friend & Servant, 

JNO P. JONES 

N.B. Dr. Franklin, who honors me with 
his Friendship, will take care of my letters. 

To the Honbi- WILLIAM CARMICHAEL. 



55 



THE RECOVERY OF THE BODY 

OF 
JOHN PAUL JONES 

BY 

GENERAL HORACE PORTER, LL.D. 

Recently Ambassador of the United Stales to 1 rutice 



THE RECOVERY OF THE BODY 

OF 

JOHN PAUL JONES ' 

UPON assuming charge of our embassy in Paris 
and finding myself among the old landmarks 
which are still honored there as recalling the many 
historic incidents in the sojourn of Paul Jones in that 
brilliant capital, I felt a deep sense of humiliation 
as an American citizen in realizing that our first and 
most fascinating naval hero had been lying for more 
than a century in an unknown and forgotten grave 
and that no successful attempt had ever been made 
to recover his remains and give them appropriate 
sepulture in the land upon whose history he had shed 
so much luster. 

Knowing that he had been buried in Paris, I re- 
solved to undertake personally a systematic and ex- 
haustive search for the body. 

The investigation began in June, 1899. The first 
step was to study all the writings obtainable relating 
to him, including official documents. The certificate 
of his burial had been registered, but the register had 
been placed with other archives of the city of Paris 

1 Copyright, 1 905, by Horace Porter. 

59 



in an annex of the Hotel de Ville, situated on Vic- 
toria Avenue, and had been destroyed with other im- 
portant records when the government buildings were 
burned by the Commune in May, 1871. Fortunately, 
in 1859, Mr. Charles Read, an archaeologist, investi- 
gator, and writer of note, had made a transcript of 
the register in which this certificate was recorded, 
and I finally succeeded in securing a correct copy. 
The following is a translation of this interesting docu- 
ment: 

To-day, July 20th, 1792, year IV of Liberty, at 
eight o'clock in the evening, conformably to the de- 
cree of the National Assembly of yesterday, in pres- 
ence of the delegation of the said Assembly, com- 
posed of Messrs. Brun, President of the delegation 
of the said assembly, Bravet, Cambon, Rouyer, 
Brival, Deydier, Gay Vernon, Bishop of the Depart- 
ment of Haute Vienne, Chabot, Episcopal Vicar of 
the Department of Loir and Cher, Carlier, Petit, Le 
Josnes, Robouame, and of a deputation of the Con- 
sistory of the Protestants of Paris, composed of 
Messrs. Marron the pastor, Perreaux, Benard, Mar- 
quis Mouguin, and Empaytaz, Ancicns, was buried in 
the cemetery for foreign Protestants JEAN PAUL 
JONES, native of England and citizen of the United 
States of America, senior naval officer in the service 
of the said States, aged 45 years, died the 18th of 
this month at his residence situated at No. 42, Rue 
de Tournon, from dropsy of the chest, in the faith 
of the Protestant religion. The said burial was made 
in our presence by Pierre Francois Simonneau, Com- 
missary of the King for this section and Commissary 
of Police for the Ponceau section, in presence of 

60 



M. Samuel Blackden, Colonel of Dragoons in the 
service of the State of North Carolina and a citizen 
of the United States of America; J. C. Mountflorence, 
formerly Major in the service of the United States; 
Marie Jean Baptiste Benoist Beaupoil, formerly a 
French officer residing in Paris at No. 7, Passage 
des Petits Peres; and of Louis Nicolas Villeminot, the 
officer commanding the detachment of grenadiers of 
the gendarmerie which escorted the delegation of 
the Assembly; and others who have signed with us. 

Brun; Gay Vernon, bishop and deputy; Deydier, 
deputy from the Department of Ain; Rouyer; Fran- 
c,ois Chabot; Benard; J. C. Mountflorence; Petit; 
Cambon fils aine; Brave; Beaupoil; P. H. Carlier; 
Durvesque; Lafontaine; Sirnonncau; Jacques Briviel; 
Villeminot; Robouame, deputy; Marron ; Perreaux; 
Mouguin; Empaytaz; R. Ghiselin of Maryland; S. 
Blackden; Griffith of Philadelphia. 

Historians have differed as to the date of the death; 
the above quoted act of burial fixes it definitely on 
July 18, 1792. The best description of Paul Jones's 
last moments is given in a letter received a month 
after the funeral by his eldest sister, Mrs. Jenny Tay- 
lor (sometimes spelled in the official documents 
Jeanne, Janet, and Janette), in Scotland, written by 
his intimate friend, a witness of his will and a pall- 
bearer at his funeral, Colonel Samuel Blackden, a 
rich planter from North Carolina, who had served 
with distinction in the American Revolution, and was 
in Paris on business at the time of Paul Jones's last 
illness and death. The following is an extract from 
his letter: 

61 



But for two months past he began to lose his appe- 
tite, grew yellow and showed symptoms of jaundice. 
For this he took medical treatment and for a short 
time seemed to grow better. A few days before his 
death his legs began to swell, which proceeded up- 
ward to his body, so that for two days before his 
decease he could not button his waistcoat and had 
great difficulty in breathing. 

I visited him every day, and, beginning to be ap- 
prehensive of his danger, desired him to settle his 
affairs; but he would not take that view of it, and 
put off the making of his will until the after- 
noon of July 18th, when he was prevailed upon to 
send for a notary and made his will. M. Beaupoil 
and myself witnessed it and left him sitting in a chair 
in his parlor. A few minutes after we retired he 
walked into his chamber and laid himself upon his 
face on the bedside, with his feet on the floor. The 
Queen's physic' an, who was attending him, came 
soon after, and on entering the apartment found him 
in that position, and on trying to lift him up, found 
that he had expired. His disorder had terminated 
in dropsy of the heart. His body was put into a 
leaden coffin on the 2()th, that, in case the United 
States, which he had so essentially served, and with 
so much honor, should claim his remains they might 
be more easily removed. 

M. Beaupoil, whom he mentioned, was a major 
in the French army and an aide-de-camp to Lafay- 
ette, with whom he had served in the American Revo- 
lution. 

I was misled for some time by having been fur- 
nished with an alleged copy of the certificate of 
62 



burial published in the " Bulletin of the Society of 
the History of Protestantism," in which there had 
been omitted after the word " anciens," doubtless 
through an error of the copyist, the following all- 
important phrase, " was buried in the cemetery for 
foreign Protestants." Besides this, eight words of 
minor significance had been omitted. The fact that 
the French construction was defective without some 
additional words led to another search, and in the 
Bibliotheque Nationale was at last found a copy of 
a magazine called the " Correspondance Litteraire," 
containing an article by Charles Read, giving the 
correct copy of the certificate of burial, which he had 
made from the register referred to and of which the 
above is an English translation. The article ex- 
pressed the conviction of Mr. Read that the cemetery 
for foreign Protestants was the long since abandoned 
and almost forgotten cemetery of Saint Louis, situ- 
ated upon a street formerly called L'Hopital Saint 
Louis, at present Grange-aux-Belles. 

As some writers had expressed, however vaguely, 
different opinions, I instituted a long and exhaustive 
search to verify the grounds upon which Mr. Read 
had based his belief. 

Public records were found showing that in 1720 
the government, at the instigation of Holland, had 
set aside a lot for the burial of foreign Protestants 
near the Porte Saint Martin, called the Saint Martin 
cemetery, but which was closed in 1762. The Saint 
Louis cemetery for foreign Protestants was opened 
63 



about that time and officially closed in January, 1793, 
six months after Paul Jones's decease, although some 
interments were made thereafter. 

The custodian in charge of each of these ceme- 
teries was named Corroy, and it was ascertained from 
certain old documents discovered that the position 
had descended from father to son, which was evi- 
dence tending to show that the Saint Louis was the 
immediate successor of the Porte Saint Martin ceme- 
tery. A copy was afterward found of a decree con- 
firming this fact, issued May 26, 1781, and approved 
by De Vergennes, Minister of Foreign Affairs under 
Louis XVI, regarding the burial of foreign Protes- 
tants. From this decree have been taken the fol- 
lowing extracts: 

By an order of Council of June 20th, 1720, it was 
decreed that there should be designated a place for 
the burial of the bodies of Foreign Protestants. The 
ground which was chosen was situated near the Porte 
Saint Martin. . . . 

In the year 1762 the cemetery was transferred be- 
hind the Saint Louis Hospital. 

This description clearly designated the Saint Louis 
cemetery. To endeavor to obtain some authentic in- 
formation as to whether there were any other ceme- 
teries for foreign Protestants in existence at the time, 
and whether any further corroborative evidence could 
be found regarding the burial-place of the admiral, an 
examination requiring several months was made of 
all the journals and periodicals obtainable of about 
64 



the date of the funeral, which took place July 20, 
1792. Access was had to more than a hundred pub- 
lications which were found in the possession of 
libraries, societies, and individuals. 

The "Monitor," Tome XIII, page 192, published 
a report of the proceedings of the National Assembly, 
session of July 19, 1792, the day after Paul Jones's 
death, which contained the following statement: 

A letter was read from Colonel Blackden, a friend 
of Commodore Paul Jones, which announced that 
his friend having died in Paris, application was made 
to M. Simonneau, Commissary of the section, to have 
him buried without charge in accordance with a for- 
mality still existing in regard to Protestants. M. 
Simonneau was indignant and replied that if the ex- 
penses were not provided he would pay them him- 
self. [Applause.] 

The " formality " mentioned referred to a decree 
by which M. Simonneau, who was also " Commissary 
of the King," was charged with the burial of all for- 
eign Protestants. The letter of Colonel Blackden 
was published in the " Boston Journal " of that year 
and is as follows: 

MR. PRESIDENT: I announce to you that Admiral 
Paul Jones died last evening in Paris; that the Amer- 
ican Minister has ordered the person at whose house 
the Admiral lodged to cause him to be interred in 
the most private manner, and at the least possible 
expense! ! ! This person, on account of the formali- 
ties still existing relative to Protestants, found it 

65 



necessary to apply to a Commissary. He has done 
it, and M. Simonneau the Commissary expresses his 
astonishment at the order given by the Minister, and 
says that a man who has rendered such signal ser- 
vices to France and America ought to have a public 
burial. He adds that if America will not pay the 
expense he will pay it himself. The friends of the 
Admiral wait the orders of the Assembly respecting 
the mode of interment. 

S. BLACKDEN, 

Late Colonel in the Service of the United States 

In order to ascertain, if possible, whether M. Si- 
monneau had actually paid the funeral expenses out 
of his own means or whether some other provision 
had been made, I instituted a search in the various 
departments of the government in the hope of find- 
ing some record of the action taken. Fortunately 
a letter was finally found in the National Archives 
written by the then Minister of Justice, M. De"joly, 
dated July 22, 1792, two days after the funeral, from 
which the following is an extract: 

To THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY: M. Simonneau has 
furnished the cost of the interment of Admiral Paul 
Jones, of which the bill amounts to 462 francs. This 
is an homage which he has rendered to the remains 
of this celebrated man, and this act of good citizen- 
ship is worthy of M, Simonneau, brother of the 
Mayor of Etampes, who died in executing the law. 

This brought to light for the first time the morti- 
fying fact that the hero who had once been the idol 
66 



of the American people had been buried by charity, 
and that the payment of his funeral expenses was 
the timely and generous act of a foreign admirer. 

I made a search to see whether any needy lineal 
descendants of M. Pierre Francois Simonneau, the 
generous Commissary, could be found, with a view 
to paying to them the amount, with interest, expended 
by their worthy ancestor, as a tardy recognition of 
his noble act. Six persons of that name were dis- 
covered and communicated with, but no proof could 
be ascertained that any one of them was a descendant. 

Our minister to France at that time, Gouverneur 
Morris, who was on terms of close intimacy with 
Paul Jones and who superintended the drawing up 
of the schedule of his property the afternoon before 
his death, says in a letter dated April 19, 1793, pub- 
lished in his " Diary and Letters," Volume II, page 
46, and addressed to Robert Morris: 

Before I quit Paul Jones I must tell you that some 
people here who like rare shows wished him to have 
a pompous funeral, and I was applied to on the sub- 
ject; but as I had no right to spend money on such 
follies, either the money of his heirs or that of the 
United States, I desired that he might be buried in 
a private and economical manner. I have since had 
reason to be glad that I did not agree to waste money 
of which he had no great abundance and for which 
his relatives entertained a tender regard. 

The impression as to the admiral's having no great 
abundance of means proved later to be erroneous. 
67 



When his effects were sold, stocks converted into 
cash, and arrears of pay collected, the sum procured 
amounted to about thirty thousand dollars, and much 
more was realized afterward, which went to his heirs. 
And yet there seemed to be no ready money avail- 
able at his death to provide for his funeral. 

After finding the living successor to the notary who 
made the settlement of the estate and who was in 
possession of all the original papers in French, I had 
the detailed account examined and ascertained that 
M. Sirnonneau had not been reimbursed for the 
money he expended. The inventory found among 
these papers and made after Paul Jones's death enu- 
merates among the articles left by him, seven uni- 
forms, twelve decorations, and four swords. It was 
natural to suppose that this large number included 
all such articles as he possessed, and as in those days 
they were regarded as valuable relics to be be- 
queathed to heirs, and as it was not customary to 
clothe the dead but to bury them in winding-sheets, 
it seemed quite probable that no uniform, sword, or 
decoration would be found in the admiral's coffin. 
Buell says of Paul Jones (page 366, Volume II): 
" He was buried in a shroud, without uniform or 
trappings of any kind." In the settlement of the 
estate all the above-named articles were sold except 
the sword presented to him by Louis XVI in recog- 
nition of his heroic achievement in capturing the 
Scripts. This the admiral disposed of orally just 
before his death, bequeathing it to Richard Dale, his 
68 



first lieutenant aboard the Bonhomme Richard, say- 
ing: " My good old Dick is better entitled to it than 
any one else, because he did more than any other 
to help me win it." 

M. Simonneau, having taken so much interest in 
Paul Jones and being in sole charge of the burial 
of foreign Protestants in Paris, would naturally have 
interred him in the officially designated and most 
prominent burial-ground devoted to that purpose if 
there were more than one in existence. The Saint 
Louis cemetery was well known and officially desig- 
nated, and as no mention could be found of any other 
in Paris for foreign Protestants at the time, the natu- 
ral inference was that the burial had taken place 
there. Certain records discovered in Paris showed 
that M. Hop, ambassador of Holland to France, had 
succeeded in securing the cemetery granted by de- 
cree in 1720, and which was opened in 1724 for for- 
eign Protestants, and that in that cemetery as well 
as in its successors all the burials of such persons 
could be made only upon certificates issued by the 
Dutch embassy. 

With a view to ascertaining some information from 
that source, a search was made at my request of the 
records of the Dutch legation in Paris and in the 
foreign office at The Hague, but it was found that 
while some useful information was obtained, no 
copies of such certificates had been preserved. 

The person who delivered Paul Jones's funeral 
oration was M. Paul Henri Marron, who had come 
69 



from Holland and was pastor of a Protestant house 
of worship in Paris called the Church of Saint Louis. 
The following is a copy of his rather florid address: 

Legislators! Citizens! Soldiers! Friends! 
Brethren! and Frenchmen! We have just returned 
to the earth the remains of an illustrious stranger, 
one of the first champions of American liberty of 
that liberty which so gloriously ushered in our own. 
The Semiramis of the North had drawn him under 
her standard, but Paul Jones could not long breathe 
the pestilential air of despotism; he preferred the 
sweets of a private life in France, now free, to the 
eclat of titles and of honors which, from an usurped 
throne, were lavished upon him by Catherine. The 
fame of the brave outlives him, his portion is im- 
mortality. What more flattering homage could we pay 
to the remains of Paul Jones than to swear on his 
tomo to live and die free? It is the vow, it is the 
watchword of every Frenchman Let never tyrants 
nor their satellites pollute this sacred earth ! May 
the ashes of the great man, too soon lost to humanity, 
and eager to be free, enjoy here an undisturbed re- 
pose ! Let his example teach posterity the efforts 
which noble souls arc capable of making when stimu- 
lated by hatred of oppression. Friends and brethren, 
a noble emulation brightens in your looks; your time 
is precious Ihc country is in danger! Who among 
us would not shed the last drop of his blood to save 
it? Associate yourselves with the glory of Paul 
Jones, in imitating him in his contempt of danger, in 
his devotedness to his country, in his noble patriot- 
ism, which, after having astonished the present age, 
will continue to be the imperishable object of the 
veneration of future generations! 

70 



It is not a little singular that, notwithstanding the 
radical sentiments expressed by this pastor, he was 
several times arrested by the revolutionists and was 
once or twice in great peril of his life. 

I found the book containing the minutes of the 
meetings of the consistory of M. Marron's church, 
but just at the date of Paul Jones's death four pages 
had been torn out. This was one of the many dis- 
appointments encountered during the researches. I 
then set to work upon the task of trying to trace the 
lost leaves. The name of a M. Coquerel, a former 
pastor of the church, was mentioned in a publication 
as an enthusiastic collector of papers relating to 
Protestantism in Paris. My search in junk-shops and 
antiquarian stores revealed the fact that M. Coque- 
rel's heirs had sold some old papers which had after- 
ward been purchased by the Society of the History 
of Protestantism, and in its library were finally found 
the four lost pages. 

I now ascertained positively that M. Marron buried 
his parishioners in the Saint Louis cemetery, and the 
fact that he had delivered the funeral oration of 
Paul Jones would be some indication that he had also 
buried him there. 

While all the proofs thus far distinctly designated 
this cemetery as the admiral's place of burial, still 
it was deemed prudent to investigate the source of 
various rumors to the contrary, however improbable. 
The elder Dumas in his romance of " The Pioneer " 
represents Paul Jones as having been buried in Pfcre 
71 



Lachaise. Notwithstanding the fact that this cele- 
brated cemetery had not been opened till thirteen 
years after the admiral was buried, yet to be sure 
that his body had not been transferred there in later 
years, a thorough examination was made of the regis- 
ters in which the records of burials have been care- 
fully kept. The only male persons found upon the 
registers bearing the family name of Jones were 
George Jones, but spelled Jones on the gravestone, 
died in 1820; John Querean Jones in 1822; James 
Jones in 1827; Charles Jones in 1829; Edouard 
Thomas Jones in 1833. It was therefore certain that 
the admiral's remains were not in Pere Lachaise. 

There was another fanciful story that he had been 
interred in Picpus cemetery, where Lafayette was 
buried ; but as Paul Jones, as recorded in his certifi- 
cate of burial, was of the Protestant faith, his in- 
terment in any cemetery of the established church 
would have been prohibited. Still a search was 
made, and it disproved the rumor. 

A letter came to me from a person who had lived 
in Scotland when a child, many years ago, saying 
Paul Jones had been buried in Kirkbean churchyard 
near Dumfries, Scotland, that his tomb was there with 
his name inscribed on it, etc. I referred the letter 
to the rector of the church, the Rev. D. W. Mac Ken- 
zie, who replied that it was the tomb of the father, 
saying: 

The inscription on it is as follows: "In memory 
of John Paul Senior, who died at Abigland the 24th 

72 



of October 1767 universally esteemed." At the bot- 
tom of the tomb appears the inscription: "Erected 
by John Paul, Junior." John Paul, of course, is the 
original name of John Paul Jones, the Admiral. I 
take great interest in the history of the Admiral, and 
local traditions or printed documents suggest nothing 
at variance with the accepted opinion that he died 
in Paris and was buried in the Protestant cemetery 
there. 

After further researches in every possible quarter 
that could furnish information on the subject, the 
fact was clearly and incontestably established that 
the Saint Louis cemetery was the only burial-ground 
in Paris for foreign Protestants at the time of Paul 
Jones's death, that he was not interred in any other 
cemetery, and that Charles Read was perfectly cor- 
rect in his opinion that the admiral had positively 
been buried in the cemetery of Saint Louis. It 
should be remembered also that the act of burial 
says, " The cemetery for foreign Protestants " lan- 
guage which would indicate that there was only one 
in existence devoted to that purpose. 

All doubt having been removed as to the place of 
burial, the next step was to make a personal inspec- 
tion of the ground beneath which the long since 
abandoned cemetery was located and to endeavor to 
ascertain its history and its condition at the time of 
Paul Jones's death. 

It is situated in an uninviting section of the north- 
eastern quarter of Paris at the corner of two streets 
now known as Rue Grange-aux-Belles and Rue des 
Ecluses Saint Martin, and covered with buildings, 
73 



principally of an inferior class. The property at the 
time of the admiral's burial belonged to the govern- 
ment, and was sold to M. Phalipeaux, a building con- 
tractor, in 1796. This quarter of the city was known 
as " le Combat," and the present station of the un- 
derground railroad close to the property is called 
" Combat." This name was not chosen, however, on 
account of the burial there of the most combative 
of men; but history attributes the term to the fact 
that this section of Paris was long ago the scene of 
all the fights in which animals figured bulls, cocks, 
dogs, asses, etc. 

A street which leads directly to the property and 
ends there is named Vicq d'Azyr, after Marie An- 
toinette's physician, a friend of Paul Jones, who at- 
tended him and who accompanied Gouverneur Morris 
on his visit to the admiral's house when he lay on 
his death-bed the evening of July 18, 1792. When 
a person's name is given to a street in Paris it is 
generally in a quarter connected with events in his 
career Whether the distinguished physician's name 
was given to the street because of its leading to the 
place which held the remains of his illustrious friend 
and patient is not positively known. 

Two old maps of the property were finally discov- 
ered, one made by M. Jaillot in 1773, and one by 
M. Verniquet in 1794, showing that the ground con- 
sisted of a courtyard with a frontage of about one 
hundred and thirty feet upon Rue des Ecluses Saint 
Martin, with an entrance on that street and a depth 
74 



of about ninety feet along Rue Grange-aux-Belles. 
There was a garden in the rear with a frontage of 
one hundred and twenty feet on Rue Grange-aux- 
Belles and a depth of one hundred and thirty feet. 
The surface of the garden was about eight feet lower 
than that of the courtyard, the descent to which was 
made by a flight of steps. Thirty years later the 
grade of the street had been changed and the garden 
had been leveled up even with the courtyard, and 
the fact seemed to have been lost sight of that there 
had ever been a cemetery beneath. There were two 
cross-walks dividing the garden into four squares. 
The whole property was surrounded by a wall be- 
tween six and nine feet high. There was a house in 
the courtyard and a shed, but no buildings in the 
garden. 

By a decree of the government the garden was 
devoted exclusively to the burial of foreign Protes- 
tants. On the 30th of September, 1777, a decree was 
issued permitting native Protestants to be buried 
thereafter in the courtyard. This cemetery, as here- 
inbefore mentioned, was legally closed in January, 
1793, but the former custodian, who had become the 
lessor, and the subsequent owners who had purchased 
the property from the government, were allowed to 
make some burials for eleven years thereafter. 

I found in the tenth arrondissement, then the fifth, 
a copy of a letter written by the mayor, dated May 
26, 1804, directing Citizen Richer to inspect the Prot- 
estant cemetery. After a long search I discovered 
75 



in another quarter of the city his report of June 8 
of that year. It was in much detail and was entirely 
in accordance with the maps heretofore mentioned 
in describing the Saint Louis cemetery. Its accuracy 
was verified in every particular when this cemetery 
was afterward explored. 

The next question was whether the dead had ever 
been removed from this abandoned cemetery, as had 
been the case in many others. Satisfactory proof 
was readily obtained that such an act had not taken 
place before 1803 or after 1830. A search of the 
registers of the Catacombs, where all the dead that 
are removed from abandoned cemeteries are depos- 
ited, showed no record of any bodies having been 
received from the Saint Louis cemetery between the 
above dates or at any other time, and there could be 
found no information in any of the public depart- 
ments showing that any removal had ever been made 
from that burial-ground except of the remains of 
Lady Alexander Grant, whose body had been ex- 
humed for transportation to England, by formal per- 
mission of the city authorities, duly recorded, May 2, 
1803. There was registered at the Catacombs the 
receipt of leaden cottins from other abandoned ceme- 
teries, and the removal there of a hand-stretcher load 
of human bones from No. 39 Rue Grange-aux-Belles 
and another from No. 4 Rue des Ecluses Saint Martin. 
These lots had once been used as a kind of potter's 
field. They were near to, but entirely outside of the 
Saint Louis cemetery. 

76 



Having established the impossibility of the leaden 
coffin having been removed by legitimate means, the 
only remaining doubt that could exist was based upon 
the suggestion that it might have been unearthed by 
the revolutionary armies to convert it into bullets. 
This unfounded surmise did not make much of an 
impression after a study of all the circumstances and 
talks with the " oldest inhabitants," to whom tradi- 
tions of a former age are handed down. The French 
have a profound respect for the dead and the sacred- 
ness of places of burial; the humblest citizen un- 
covers reverently when a funeral passes; graves are 
tenderly cared for and kept decked with flowers, and 
their desecration is a rare crime. 

At the time of the Revolution there were statues 
and busts of lead in exposed places and extensive 
lead piping to carry the water from the Seine to Ver- 
sailles, etc., none of which were disturbed. More- 
over, the metal contained in the few leaden coffins 
to be found at that date in a Paris cemetery would 
not have paid the digging or furnished bullets for 
a single battalion. 

If the admiral had been buried in a wooden coffin 
hardly a vestige of it would have been in existence 
and only the mere skeleton of the body would have 
been found. Fortunately, however, the authentic let- 
ter written to Mrs. Janet Taylor, Paul Jones's eldest 
sister, by Colonel Blackden, and hereinbefore quoted, 
contained the following valuable information: "His 
body was put into a leaden coffin on the 20th, 
77 



that, in case the United States, which he had so es- 
sentially served, and with so much honor, should 
claim his remains they might be more easily re- 
moved." The bill of 462 francs paid by M. Simon- 
neau for the funeral expenses was corroborative of 
this fact, inasmuch as the cost of an ordinary funeral 
in those days, as ascertained from the records, was 
128 francs, while that of a hospital patient cost as 
little as 89 francs, distributed as follows: Coffin 10 
francs, choristers 10, sexton 15, commissary 48, his 
clerk 6. The payment therefor of 462 francs, more 
than three times the value of that sum at the present 
day, would have provided for an unusually large ex- 
penditure and would have amply covered the cost 
of a substantial leaden coffin, a thorough preparation 
of the body to insure its preservation, and an elabo- 
rate system of packing, with a view to its transporta- 
tion by sea. 

There had now been fully established by authentic 
documents and convincing corroborative evidence the 
fact that the Saint Louis cemetery was the actual 
burial-place of Paul Jones, that he had been buried 
in a leaden coftin, that the body had been prepared 
for transportation to the United States, that the coffin 
had never been removed by legitimate means, and 
that there was no probability that it had been carried 
away by stealth or had been stolen. 

After having studied the manner and place of his 
burial and contemplated the circumstances connected 
with the strange neglect of his grave, one could not 
78 



help feeling pained beyond expression and overcome 
by a sense of profound mortification. Here was pre- 
sented the spectacle of a hero whose fame once cov- 
ered two continents and whose name is still an 
inspiration to a world-famed navy, lying for more 
than a century in a forgotten grave like an obscure 
outcast, relegated to oblivion in a squalid quarter 
of a distant foreign city, buried in ground once con- 
secrated, but since desecrated by having been used 
at times as a garden, with the moldering bodies of 
the dead fertilizing its market vegetables, by having 
been covered later by a common dump pile, where 
dogs and horses had been buried, and the soil was 
still soaked with polluted waters from undrained 
laundries; and as a culmination of degradation, by 
having been occupied by a contractor for removing 
night-soil. 

It recalls the remark once made by a gallant naval 
officer: "When we give up our lives in the service 
of our country we do not ask that our graves be kept 
green, but we should like to have them kept clean." 

Having collected all the facts necessary to justify 
an immediate attempt to remove the remains from 
such offensive surroundings and secure for them ap- 
propriate sepulcher in America, I was about to open 
negotiations quietly with the proprietors and tenants 
who occupied the property with a view to purchas- 
ing the right to enter upon the premises and make 
the necessary excavations in order to explore thor- 
oughly the cemetery, when unfortunately the news of 
79 



this intention became publicly known through the 
indiscretion of persons who had been consulted on 
the subject. Self-constituted agents immediately be- 
gan to busy themselves with circulating fantastic 
stories regarding the fabulous prices that were to 
be paid for the property, the whole of which it was 
said was going to be bought by a rich government, 
at any cost, as the only means of getting access to 
the cemetery and making the excavations necessary 
to find the body of its great admiral. Such represen- 
tations naturally created intense excitement, raised 
false hopes in the minds of those interested in the 
property, and rendered negotiations on a practicable 
basis entirely impossible. This was altogether the 
most discouraging episode in the history of the un- 
dertaking. 

There was then but one course to pursue, however 
reluctantly, which was to drop the matter entirely for 
a couple of years in order to let the excitement sub- 
side. 

At the end of that time negotiations were quietly 
opened upon the basis of purchasing the right to 
explore the abandoned cemetery by means of sub- 
terranean galleries, provided that all damages to 
houses should be repaired, any victims of disease 
caused by foul emanations from the disturbed soil 
indemnified, and the property restored to its former 
condition. After a series of prolonged and tedious 
negotiations, appeals to the public spirit of the occu- 
pants of the property and an assurance that the gov- 
80 



ernment had made no appropriation or taken any 
action in the matter, and that the work was simply 
an individual undertaking, I at last succeeded in pro- 
curing options in writing from all concerned grant- 
ing the right for three months to enter upon the 
premises and make the necessary excavations. 

President Roosevelt, whose patriotic sentiments 
are among his strongest characteristics, upon learn- 
ing of the undertaking, had asked for information 
regarding it, and upon receiving my reply giving an 
account of the project, sent an urgent message to 
Congress in February, 1905, recommending an ap- 
propriation of $35,000, for carrying out the work. It 
was late in the short session and no action was taken. 
It would not have been altogether unnatural, how- 
ever, to regard the scheme as too Utopian in its na- 
ture to receive serious consideration, the remains of 
the admiral having been long since relegated to the 
realms of mystery and given up as lost beyond re- 
covery. 

As no promise could be secured as to how long the 
options obtained would be allowed to hold good, and 
as it was quite sure that if they lapsed they could 
never be renewed upon any such terms, if at all, on 
account of changes among the tenants, the adverse 
disposition of some of the occupants, the publicity 
which had now been given the matter, etc., I deemed 
it a duty to pay at once the sums demanded in ad- 
vance to bind the options, and to proceed with the 
work. 

81 



The Prefect of the Seine kindly permitted M. Paul 
Weiss of the service of the carrieres (quarries) of 
the city of Paris to direct the work, which was begun 
on Friday, February 3, 1905. This experienced and 
accomplished mining engineer displayed a profes- 
sional skill of the very highest order, and by his 
ability, zeal, and devotion to the work greatly facili- 
tated the task. The project presented serious diffi- 
culties from the fact that the filling of earth above 
the cemetery was composed of the dumpings of loose 
soil not compact enough to stand alone, and the shafts 
and galleries had to be solidly lined and shored up 
with heavy timbers as the excavations proceeded. 
The drainage was bad in places and there was 
trouble from the water. The walls of one of the 
buildings were considerably damaged. Slime, mud, 
and mcphitic odors were encountered, and long red 
worms appeared in abundance. 

The first shaft (marked A in the plan here in- 
serted) was opened in one of the yards to a depth of 
eighteen feet. It proved clearly that the dead had 
never been disturbed. This fact was most satisfac- 
tory as disproving the predictions so often made to 
the contrary. The skeletons were found lying about 
a foot apart, generally in two layers, one above the 
other, and in some places there were three. This was 
a verification of the report of Citizen Richer, herein- 
before mentioned, saying that the dead were buried 
in a fosse (trench), which indicated that they were 
not interred in separate graves and were of a poor 
82 




RUE 



GRANGE AUX BELLES 



PLAN OF THE SHAFTS SUNK AND GALLERIES EXCAVATED IN THE SEARCH 
FOR THE BODY OF PAUL JONES 

I'he shafts arc indicated by letters in the order in which they were sunk ; the galleries excavated are indicated by r 
>cnng the rays from the ends of some of the galleries denote soundings for leaden coffins with iron liar*, bur the si 
.re not all indicated, since they were made from the ends and sides of all the galleries , all the leaden coffin* art indi 
minerals in the order of finding them, the coffin of Paul Jones being No j, but during the time occupied in the iden 



class. This led to the conclusion that there would 
be very few leaden coffins found, as they could he 
afforded only by persons in easy circumstances. But 
few vestiges were left of the wooden coffins. 

Two more large shafts were sunk in the yards, and 
two in the Rue Grange-aux-Belles, making five in all. 
Day and night gangs of workmen were employed, 
and active progress was made. Galleries were pushed 
in every direction, and " soundings " were made be- 
tween them with long iron tools adapted to this pur- 
pose, so that no leaden coffin could possibly be missed. 

The first of the four squares explored was the one 
on the right of the original entrance to the cemetery. 
Here the excavators encountered a mass of skeletons 
in three layers superposed. They were placed irregu- 
larlv, some lying face down and others on their sides, 
in one layer piled lengthwise and in the one above 
crosswise, just as one would pile cord-wood, the 
bodies being so close together that they could not 
have been buried in coffins. No explanation of the 
peculiar condition of things in this portion of the 
cemetery suggested itself until one day I came across 
a copy of a drawing by Bericourt representing the 
corpses of the Swiss Guard killed in defending the 
Tuileries, being hurriedly thrown into carts to be 
hauled away for burial. As it is known that most 
of them were Protestants, it is altogether likely that 
they were interred in the Saint Louis cemetery in 
the confused manner indicated by the position of the 
skeletons found there. This slaughter occurred Au- 
83 



gust 10, 1792, twenty-one days after Paul Jones's 
burial. If the above inference be correct, it furnishes 
another proof that although the cemetery was closed 
soon after his death there was plenty of room left 
for his coffin at the time of his burial, for the reason 
that so many bodies were interred there afterward. 

I had given orders that if not present when a leaden 
coffin was discovered I should be sent for at once, 
as I was desirous of superintending personally the 
search for an inscription plate and any other indi- 
cations that might aid in the identification. 

On February 22 the first leaden coffin was dis- 
covered. The round projecting end containing the 
head had been broken off and the skull was detached 
from the body. The remains of a water-barrel were 
found near by. As the cemetery, after being closed, 
had been used as a market-garden, the barrel had 
evidently been sunk in this spot to catch the water 
drained from the courtyard, and in excavating for 
it the head of the coffin had been knocked off. The 
outer wooden coffin had nearly disappeared and the 
inscription plate it bore had fallen on the lid of the 
leaden coffin. This plate was of copper and had 
become so brittle that when lifted it broke and a 
portion of it crumbled to pieces. It was so corroded 
and incrusted that no portion of the inscription could 
be read. Handling it with great care, I proceeded 
with it in person to Messrs. Andre & Son, the 
well-known decipherers and restorers of ancient 
enamels and art objects, who promised to apply 
84 



all their skill to the task of reading it and report the 
next day. 

In thinking over all the contingencies which might 
occur, the rather far-fetched idea suggested itself that 
there was a bare possibility that, as the news of this 
discovery had leaked out, some miscreant might take 
it for granted that the coffin contained the body of 
Paul Jones and steal it. So a message was sent to 
the Prefect of Police, who had been exceedingly kind 
in doing everything in his power to facilitate the 
work, requesting that two policemen be placed on 
duty on the premises. Late in the evening I learned 
that, owing to his absence from his office and an 
error in getting the communication to him, there 
would be no guard there that night. 1 could not 
help feeling some forebodings, and my state of mind 
may be imagined upon receiving a brief note early 
the next morning from an official saying he regretted 
to inform me that there had unfortunately been a 
depredation committed in the gallery where the 
leaden coffin was found. 1 felt like a person who had 
delayed a day too long in insuring his property and 
learned that it had taken fire. Upon arriving in 
all haste on the premises it was found that the " dep- 
redation " had been caused by an enterprising re- 
porter and photographer, who had succeeded in open- 
ing the gate, getting into the yard, and entering the 
gallery. In the darkness they had stumbled and 
broken their apparatus, and in trying to use one which 
our men had left in the gallery had broken it also, and 
85 



some of the pieces were missing. It is unnecessary 
to say that a double guard was thereafter kept on 
duty day and night while the work continued. 

By the next day the Messrs. Andre had cleansed 
the coffin-plate sufficiently to he able to read dis- 
tinctly the following portion of the inscription: . . . 
" M E Anglois, 20 de May 1790 Ans." The French 
word Mai was spelled in old style with a y. No 
further attention was therefore paid to this coffin, 
and the search which had not been interrupted con- 
tinued. 

A reporter with a lively imagination could not wait 
for the deciphering of the plate and meanwhile in- 
vented a highly dramatic story and gave it to the 
press, stating that there was such certainty enter- 
tained that this leaden coffin contained the body of 
Paul Jones that I had summoned the personnel of 
the embassy and others to the scene, including the 
Commissary of Police, who attended ornamented 
with his tricolored scarf; that the coffin was opened 
with great ceremony and solemnity, and the group, 
deeply affected, stood reverently, with bowed heads, 
awaiting the recognition of the body of the illustri- 
ous sailor, but that it was evident that a serious error 
had been made, and that, to the sad disappointment 
of all present, it had to be acknowledged that the 
body bore no traces of being that of the admiral. 
This pure fabrication was copied in America and 
France, and in some quarters commented upon in 
a manner to give the impression that the projector 
86 



of the exploration was simply guessing as to the 
identity of the object of the search. 

On March 23 a second leaden coffin was discovered, 
with a plate easily read, bearing the words " Richard 
Hay, Esq., died in Paris the 29th January 1785." 

On March 31 a third leaden coffin was unearthed. 
This, like the others, was of a shape resembling that 
of the mummy coffins, a form quite common then, 
gradually widening from the feet to the shoulders, 
with a round projection at the upper end, which con- 
tained the head. It was much superior in solidity 
and workmanship to the others. A thorough search 
was made in the vicinity, but no inscription plate 
could be found. Two theories suggested themselves 
to account for its absence. A corpse had been buried 
immediately on top of the leaden coffin, the middle 
of the lid of which had been pierced as if by a pick. 
Surrounding the leaden coffin were some vestiges of 
a coffin of wood. It may be that the digger of the 
upper grave, rinding that his pick had struck a hard 
substance, had applied his shovel, and in removing 
the decayed remains of the wooden coffin found a 
plate and carried it off as a relic, or, if of silver, for 
its intrinsic value. Or, as the death of Paul Jones 
occurred when the violence of the French Revolution 
was at its height and the streets were filled with idlers 
and excited crowds, it is likely that no engravers 
could be found at work to prepare a fitting inscrip- 
tion in the two days intervening between the death 
and burial. The latter theory seems rather more 
87 



plausible. It was decided to open this coffin, but 
as the odors were so disagreeable in the unventilated 
gallery the examination was postponed until a con- 
nection could be made with another gallery, so as 
to admit a current of air. 

On April 7 the coffin was opened in presence of 
Colonel Blanchard, M. Weiss, M. Gninet, superin- 
tendent of the work, the foreman, several workmen, 
and myself. The lid was so firmly soldered that it 
was removed with some difficulty. There was a 
strong alcoholic odor, but the alcohol in which the 
body had evidently been preserved had nearly all 
evaporated, doubtless through the hole made in the 
lid by the pick and a crack in the edge of the coffin 
near the foot caused by the pressure of the earth 
after the wooden coffin had rotted away. However, 
the earth which covered these holes was hard and 
black, having evidently become indurated by the ac- 
tion of the escaping alcohol, so that the process of 
evaporation had doubtless been exceedingly slow. 
The body was covered with a winding-sheet and 
firmly packed with hay and straw. A rough measure- 
ment indicated the height of Paul Jones. Those en- 
gaged upon the work had been furnished some time 
before with copies of the admiral's Congressional 
medal showing his bust in profile. Half a dozen 
candles were placed near the head of the coffin, and 
the winding-sheet was removed from the head and 
chest, exposing the face. To our intense surprise, the 
body was marvelously well preserved, all the flesh 
88 



remaining intact, but slightly shrunken and of a gray- 
ish brown or tan color. The surface of the body 
and the linen were moist. The face presented quite 
a natural appearance, except that the cartilaginous 
portion of the nose had been bent over toward the 
right side, pressed down, and completely disfigured 
by its too close proximity to the lid of the coffin. 
Upon placing the medal near the face, comparing the 
other features and recognizing the peculiar charac- 
teristics the broad forehead, high cheek bones, 
prominently arched eye orbits, and other points of 
resemblance, we immediately exclaimed, " Paul 
Jones"; and all those who had gathered about the 
coffin removed their hats, feeling that there was 
every probability that they were standing in the 
presence of the illustrious dead -the object of the 
long search. 

For the purpose of submitting the body to a thor- 
ough scientific examination by competent experts for 
the purpose of complete identification, it was taken 
quietly at night, on April 8, to the Paris School of 
Medicine (Ecole de Medecine) and placed in the 
hands of the well-known professors of anthropology, 
Dr. Capitan and Dr. Papillault and their associates, 
who had been highly recommended as the most ac- 
complished scientists and most experienced experts 
who could be selected for a service of this kind. I, 
of course, knew these professors by reputation, but 
I had never met them. 

While the professional examinations for identify- 
89 



ing the body were taking place, directions were given 
to let the workmen continue the excavations in order 
to explore some portions of the cemetery that had 
not yet been reached. On April 1 1 a fourth leaden 
coffin was found with a plate bearing the inscription: 
" Cygit Georges Maidison, Gentilhomme Anglais et 
Secretaire de 1'Ambassade de Sa Majestc britannique 
aupres de Sa Majest6 tres Chretienne decede a 
Paris le 27 Aout 1783 age de 36 ans." 

On April 18 the fifth and last leaden coffin was 
discovered. It was without an inscription plate and 
of unusual length. Upon opening it there was found 
the skeleton of a man considerably over six feet in 
height. 

In excavating the cemetery, the exploration had cor- 
roborated the facts inferred from the hereinbefore- 
mentioned report indicating that the main body of the 
four squares divided by the cross-walks had been 
reserved for burying the ordinary dead in common 
trenches, and that personages important enough to 
be placed in leaden coffins were buried in separate 
graves near one of the walls. The admiral's coffin 
was found in one of such spots. 

All the coffins except the one containing the re- 
mains of the admiral were left undisturbed in the 
places where they had been discovered, and the 
shafts and galleries were refilled and the property 
restored. There had been excavated 80 feet in length 
of shafts, 800 feet of galleries, and about 600 feet 
of soundings. The excavated earth had to be carted 
90 



to a distance of two miles to find a dumping-ground 
and afterward hauled back. In refilling the galleries 
it was necessary in places to use stones and blocks of 
indurated clay to give proper stability. 

There were discovered in all five leaden coffins in 
the cemetery. Four having been easily identified, 
reasoning upon the principle of elimination led to 
the conclusion that the other must be the coffin sought. 
However, the scientists were identifying the body by 
more positive means. 

When the remains arrived at the School of Medi- 
cine, the lid of the coffin, which had been replaced 
and the edges of which had been sealed with a coat- 
ing of plaster, was again removed, and the hay and 
straw surrounding the body were taken out. They 
were so firmly packed, evidently to prevent injury 
to the body from shocks caused by the rolling of the 
ship upon the contemplated transfer by sea, that in 
removing them pincers had to be used. It was no- 
ticed that there had been a hole three quarters of 
an inch in diameter in the lid of the coffin just over 
the face, and that it had been closed by a screw and 
soldered over. It is supposed that the alcohol used 
to preserve the remains had been poured in through 
this aperture. This immersion in alcohol was doubt- 
less another reason why no uniform or object of 
value was placed in the coffin. 

In order not to disturb the body or change in any 
way its position in removing it from the coffin, a 
vertical cut was made in the lead at each end which 
91 



enabled the sides to be pressed apart. The body 
was then carefully placed upon a large dissecting- 
table. Its state of preservation was such that it bore 
its own weight in handling it. The remains looked 
like the anatomical specimens preserved in jars of 
alcohol, such as one sees in medical museums. It 
was learned that a century ago this method of pre- 
serving the dead was frequently employed that the 
bodies of Necker and his wife, buried at Coppet, in 
Switzerland, for instance, were so treated, and are 
still perfectly preserved. 

The joints were somewhat flexible. In taking the 
right hand in mine I found that the knuckle-joints 
could be easily bent. 

There now took place one of the most scientific, 
painstaking, and conscientious examinations con- 
ceivable for the purpose of verifying beyond all 
doubt the identification of the body submitted for this 
purpose. 

The official and professional responsibility of those 
engaged in the task, their disinterestedness, and the 
fact that their established reputations were at stake, 
gave abundant guarantee that the labor would be 
faithfully and impartially performed. Twelve Ameri- 
can or French persons officially took part in or wit- 
nessed the work of identification, and their affirma- 
tive verdict, after six days passed in the application of 
every possible test, was positive and unanimous, and 
was formally certified to under the official seals of 
92 



their respective departments, as will be seen from 
their reports printed in the appendix. 

The following is a list of the principal persons who 
participated in the verification : 

The American Ambassador; Henry Vignaud, First 
Secretary of the American Embassy, Commander 
of the Legion of Honor; John K. Gowdy, Ameri- 
can Consul-General ; Colonel A. Bailly-Blanchard, 
Second Secretary of the American Embassy, ex- 
Aide-de-Camp to the Governor of Louisiana, Offi- 
cer of the Legion of Honor, Officer of Public 
Instruction. 

M. Justin de Selves, Prefect of the Seine, Grand 
Officer of the Legion of Honor. 

M. Louis Lepine, Prefect of Police, ex-Governor- 
General of Algiers, Grand Officer of the Legion of 
Honor. 

Dr. J. Capitan, Professor in the School of Anthro- 
pology, Member of the Committee of Historic and 
Scientific Works (Ministry of Public Instruction), 
Member of the Municipal Commission of Old Paris, 
Member of the Society of Megalithic Monuments, 
ex-President of the Society of Anthropology of Paris, 
Officer of Public Instruction, etc. 

Dr. G. Papillault, Assistant Director of the Labora- 
tory of Anthropology in the School for Advanced 
Studies, Professor in the School of Anthropology, etc. 
A scientist of rare experience in the examination and 
identification of human bodies. 
93 



Dr. George Herve*, Professor in the School of An- 
thropology. 

Dr. A. Javal, Physician to the Ministry of Public 
Instruction, Laureate of the School of Medicine. 

M. J. Pray, Chief Architect of the Prefecture of 
Police, Officer of Public Instruction. 

M. Paul Weiss, Engineer of the Quarries of the 
Seine, Doctor of Laws. 

In addition to the above, the services were secured 
of Dr. V. Cornil, the eminent microscopist, Professor 
of Pathologic Anatomy of the Paris Faculty of Medi- 
cine. 

The above scientists were not employed experts; 
they cheerfully gave their services gratuitously, 
purely in the interest of science, and as an act of 
comity between two friendly nations in solving an 
important historical problem. 

The remains had been wrapped in a winding-sheet 
of linen, the ends of which had been torn off, prob- 
ably to make it fit the length of the body. On this 
was observed a small figure 2 worked in thread. 
Upon the removal of the sheet there was found upon 
the body but one garment, a linen shirt of fine work- 
manship with plaits and ruffles. This bore no initial 
or mark. The long hair, measuring about thirty 
inches in length, had been carefully dressed and 
gathered into a linen cap at the back of the head. 
On this was found a small initial worked in thread. 
When the cap was right side up the letter was a " J," 
with the loop well rounded; when reversed, it formed 
94 



a " P." A careful search disclosed no other article 
in the coffin. On the hands, feet, and legs were 
found portions of tinfoil, as if they had been wrapped 
in it. 

Two circumstances combined to render the iden- 
tification of the remains comparatively easy: the re- 
markable state of preservation of the body and the 
abundance of accurate information in existence de- 
scriptive of the dead. 

To furnish the anthropologists with the required 
data, there was obtained upon personal application 
permission to make all the desired measurements of 
the Houdon bust of Paul Jones, a little more than 
three-quarter size, owned by the Marquis de Biron, 
a very artistic work representing the admiral in court 
dress with the hair curled in rolls upon the temples. 
These rolls were identical with those found on the 
body. 

There was procured through the courtesy of the 
director of the Trocadero Museum a copy of the 
other well-known bust of Paul Jones by Houdon, one 
of the most accurate works of the famous sculptor, 
who was also an admirer of his subject. It represents 
Paul Jones in the uniform of an admiral, and was 
found more useful for the purpose of making the 
comparative measurements on account of its being 
life-size. James Madison, in a letter dated April 28, 
1825, says: " His bust by Houdon is an exact like- 
ness, portraying well the characteristic features." Be- 
sides this there were submitted a copy of the medal 
95 



given by Congress, showing a profile of the face, and 
a mass of authentic information regarding the ad- 
miral's chief characteristics, appearance, size, color 
of hair, age, etc. 

Dr. Papillault, with his delicate instruments, made 
all the necessary anthropometric measurements of 
the head, features, length of body, etc., and found 
them so remarkably exact as to be convinced that 
the busts were made from the subject before him, 
and that the length of the body, five feet seven inches, 
was the same as the height of the admiral. All of 
the comparative measurements are set forth in de- 
tail in his report; the greatest difference between 
any of them being only two millimeters, about seven 
hundredths of an inch. 

As said before, the cartilaginous portion of the nose 
had been bent over to the right side, pressed down, 
and entirely distorted. This disfigurement was 
clearly due to the fact that when the body was put 
in the coffin an excess of the hay and straw packing 
had been placed under the head and across the face, 
and the mass of hair, about thirty inches in length, 
had been gathered into the linen cap at the back. 
This raised the face so high that the nose was pressed 
upon by the coffin lid. This pressure had been so 
great that the head itself was found turned a little 
to the right. 

Professor Papillault says on this subject: "The 
bridge of the nose is rather thin; the root somewhat 
96 



narrow. Seen in profile, the nose is of an undulating 
form on the bust; now this form depends a great deal 
on the cartilage. The bony part of the nose is quite 
compatible with it." The professional anthropolo- 
gists pay little attention to the cartilages, as these are 
liable to change, and confine their measurements to 
the solid or bony structures. 

Professor Capitan, after the examinations, had a 
photograph made of the head, but at the angle at 
which it was taken the disfigured nose is made to look 
as if it were Roman in shape, the end being bent over 
and depressed, and in consequence giving the bridge 
an unnatural prominence. 

The expression of the face is not nearly so good 
as if the photograph had been taken immediately 
after opening the coffin. The skin had shrunk and 
the lips had contracted by exposure to the air, and 
show the edges of the teeth, which were not visible 
at first. This gives the face a rather ghastly appear- 
ance. 

The hair, which was found neatly dressed, is 
in disorder and could not be rearranged, as an at- 
tempt to comb it revealed a danger of pulling it 
out. The nose presented the only positive disfigure- 
ment. When the bust was placed beside the body, 
the resemblance of the other features was remarkably 
striking. 

Professor Herve" called attention to a pecu- 
liar shape of the lobe of the ear, which he said 
97 



was, according to his experience, something very 
rarely seen. Its exact copy was observed upon the 
bust. 

Dr. Papillault, in his report setting forth the de- 
tails of his investigations, remarks: 

The dimensions of the bust, life-size, by Houdon 
are exactly those of the body; the comparison is 
therefore easier than if the bust had been of a re- 
duced size. Thus all the measurements offer an ap- 
proximation truly extraordinary. Two experienced 
anthropologists measuring the same subject would 
often make as great differences. Thus I could not 
hope to find between a bust and its model a similar 
identity. I recollect having measured some years ago 
a cast of the head of Blanqui and the statue which 
Dalon made from that same cast. Dalon was a very 
precise and conscientious artist, using and even abus- 
ing, as his colleagues said, the caliper-compass. I 
found differences greater than in this case. 

He concludes his report in the following words: 

Without forgetting that doubt is the first quality 
of all investigators and that the most extreme cir- 
cumspection should be observed in such matters, I 
am obliged to conclude that all the observations which 
I have been able to make plead in favor of the fol- 
lowing opinion: The body examined is that of Ad- 
miral John Paul Jones. 

Then came one of the most interesting features of 

the verification the autopsy, doubtless the only one 

in history ever made upon a body that had been buried 

for a hundred and thirteen years. In order not to 

98 



alter in any way the appearance of the corpse, Dr. 
Capitan and his assistants laid the body upon its 
face and made the opening in the back to explore the 
thorax and the viscera contained therein. A quantity 
of alcohol ran out. It had not evaporated, evidently 
by reason of its having been incased in the internal 
organs, which were thoroughly saturated with it and 
protected by the thorax. This accounted for their 
excellent state of preservation. The left lung showed 
a spot which was clearly the result of an attack of 
pneumonia or broncho-pneumonia. It had healed, 
but remained surrounded by fibrous tissue. Augus- 
tus C. Buell in his " Paul Jones," Volume 11, page 
235, says: "During this inspection | of the Russian 
fleet], which consumed about fifteen days, the ad- 
miral contracted a heavy cold, which almost the very 
day of his return to St. Petersburg developed into 
pneumonia. . . . Both the eminent physicians who 
attended him pronounced his lungs permanently af- 
fected and told him he could never hope to endure 
again the rigors of a Russian winter." This was in 
June, 1789. In May, 1790, two years before the ad- 
miral's death, he returned to Paris. The same au- 
thor says of him, Volume II, page 267, " the doctors 
declared that his left lung was more or less perma- 
nently affected." 

Dr. Capitan and Professor Cornil found nothing 

particularly characteristic in the heart, which was still 

quite flexible. It was contracted, and the cardiac 

walls exhibited muscular fibers striated lengthwise 

99 



and crosswise. An abundance of small crystals and 
bacteria were noticed. The liver was of a yellowish- 
brown color, somewhat contracted, and its tissues 
were rather dense and compact. There were found 
in the hepatic cells numerous varieties of crystals 
and microbes. The masses of tyrosin, appearing to 
the naked eye like white opaque granules, were less 
numerous than in the lungs. The cells of this organ 
were badly preserved, and according to Dr. Capitan, 
a positive opinion could not be given as to symptoms 
caused by its condition. The gall-bladder was healthy 
and contained a pale yellowish-brown bile of a pasty 
consistency. The stomach was contracted and very 
small. The spleen appeared comparatively larger 
than it ought to have been, considering the marked 
contraction of all the viscera. Its tissues appeared 
rather firm; it showed no anatomic lesions. The kid- 
neys were well preserved in form and presented very 
clearly under the microscope the evidences of in- 
terstitial nephritis. Dr. Capitan, in speaking of these 
organs, in his report, says: 

The vessels at several points had their walls thick- 
ened and invaded by sclerosis. A number of glo- 
merules were completely transformed into fibrous 
tissue and appeared in the form of small spheres, 
strongly colored by the microscopic reactions. This 
verification was of the highest importance. It gave 
the key to the various pathological symptoms pre- 
sented by Paul Jones at the close of his life ema- 
ciation, consumptive condition, and especially so 
much swelling, which from the feet gained completely 

ICO 



the nether limbs, then the abdomen, where it even 
produced ascites (exsudat intra abdominal). All 
these affections are often observed at the close of 
chronic interstitial nephritis. It can therefore be said 
that we possess microscopic proof that Paul Jones 
died of a chronic renal affection, of which he had 
shown symptoms toward the close of his life. In a 
word, like my colleague, Papillault, and by different 
means, relying solely upon the appearance of the 
subject, on the comparison of his head with the Hou- 
don bust, and besides considering that the observa- 
tions made upon his viscera agree absolutely with 
his clinical history, I reach this very clear and well- 
grounded conclusion, namely, that the corpse of which 
we have made a study is that of Paul Jones. 

1 will even add, always with Papillault, that being 
given this convergence of exceedingly numerous, very 
diversified, and always agreeing facts, it would be 
necessary to have a concurrence of circumstances ab- 
solutely exceptional and improbable in order that the 
corpse here concerned be not that of Paul Jones. 

Professor Cornil concludes the report of his mi- 
croscopic examinations as follows: " We believe that 
the case in point is interstitial nephritis with fibrous 
degeneracy of the glomerules of Malpighi, which 
quite agrees with the symptoms observed during life." 

To show how perfectly the revelations of the au- 
topsy agree with the symptoms of the malady which 
terminated the life of Paul Jones, in addition to the 
affection of the left lung described by his historians 
and hereinbefore mentioned, I give the following 
citations from authentic documents: Buell in his 
" Paul Jones," Volume II, page 308, after mention- 
101 



ing that a week before his death it was proposed that 
he should be called to the bar of the French National 
Assembly to answer such questions as might be asked 
of him concerning the needs of the navy and to give 
his own ideas as to how those needs might best be 
met, says: " He asked to be excused on the ground 
that his articulation was not strong and he feared 
that an effort to make himself heard throughout the 
vast chamber would so strain his vocal organs as 
to bring on a fit of convulsive coughing." That night 
Paul Jones attended a supper at the Cafe Timon. 
Capelle, a French writer, describes the affair and 
gives the admiral's speech, in which he said in con- 
clusion: "My friends, I would love to pursue this 
theme, but, as you see, my voice is failing and my 
lower limbs become swollen when I stand up too 
long." 

Benoit-Andre, who published a memoir of Paul 
Jones six years after his death, says: " The day after 
the admiral had been at supper at the Cafe Timon 
he did not rise until nearly noon. His lower limbs 
began to swell prodigiously, his stomach soon began 
to expand and he had much difficulty at times in 
breathing; all the time afflicted with an exhausting 
cough and much raising of mucus." 

Colonel Blackden's letter to Mrs. Janet Taylor, 
regarding the disease and death, has already been 
quoted. 

The official certificate of burial says he died of 
dropsy of the chest (" hydropisie de poitrine "). 
102 



The complete verification of all these symptoms by 
means of an autopsy made upon a corpse a hundred 
and thirteen years after death must be regarded as 
a notable triumph of anthropologic science, of deep 
interest to the medical profession, and a service of 
signal importance in the present instance. 

No mark of a wound was discovered on the body. 
Paul Jones was never wounded. History is in abun- 
dant possession of the most detailed records of every 
fight in which he was engaged, and there is nowhere 
a single mention of his ever having received a wound. 
Sherburne, in his well-known " Life and Character 
of Paul Jones," page 362, says: " Commodore John 
Paul Jones on the ocean during the American Revo- 
lution was as General Washington on the land never 
known to be defeated in battle, and neither ever re- 
ceiving a wound." Sands, in his " Life and Corre- 
spondence of Paul Jones," says that he was assured 
that the admiral was once wounded in the head, but 
admits further on that " he never chronicled his 
wounds in any letter or journal." It has been as- 
serted that there is in existence a draft of a letter 
written by the admiral four months before his death, 
in 1792, to the French Minister of Marine, complain- 
ing of M. de Sartine, his predecessor in that office, 
for not having asked him (Jones) if his health had 
not suffered from his wounds and fatigues; but as 
" drafts " of letters supposed to have been written 
in accordance therewith are not convincing, and as 
M. de Sartine had left the Ministry of Marine Decem- 
103 



her I, 1780, more than eleven years before, the state- 
ment does not carry weight. 

The detailed technical reports of the scientists were 
filed with my communication to the government, and 
publicity has already been given to them by the 
authors. Their production here in extenso would be 
beyond the scope of this article, so that I have con- 
fined myself to making the above summary of them, 
giving the methods employed and the conclusions 
reached. After the autopsy the internal organs were 
replaced in the thorax. 

Appended to this article are copies of the formal 
documents under seal containing the certifications of 
the official witnesses to the identification of the re- 
mains I said to them all that if there existed a single 
doubt in the mind of any one as to the absolute and 
unquestioned identity of the body submitted for ex- 
amination, I begged that he would frankly make it 
known. Not a doubt was expressed, and their de- 
cision was unanimous. 

It was now seen that some deterioration of the body 
was taking place from exposure to the air. I there- 
fore gave instructions to the experienced specialists in 
the School of Medicine to take every precaution to 
preserve the flesh intact, and made arrangements to 
replace the remains in the original coffin, and incase 
them in a casket which could be hermetically sealed 
and prepared for transportation to America. 

A leaden casket was procured, in the bottom of 
which was placed a bed of sawdust treated with 
104 



phenol. On this was laid the lid of the original coffin, 
next to it the original coffin, in the bottom of which 
the winding-sheet had been placed. On the top of 
the winding-sheet was spread a sheet of impermeable 
oiled silk and then a layer of cotton batting impreg- 
nated with phenic glycerin. The body was treated 
with a coating of the same substance, and the face 
was sprayed with the essence of thymol. The hair 
was gathered into the small linen cap in which it 
had been found. The body, upon which the shirt had 
been replaced, was then put into the original coffin 
and laid upon the cotton batting above mentioned, 
after which another layer of this material, saturated 
with phenic glycerin, was spread over the body and 
covered with a second sheet of oiled silk. The whole 
was then covered and packed with medicated cotton 
batting. There were also placed in the original coffin 
a glass jar containing specimens of the hay and 
straw which had been used in packing, and a pack- 
age of fragments of the indurated earth which had 
closed the hole and the crack in the original coffin. 
The lid, in which is a large glass plate, of the casket 
was then soldered on and seals of the American em- 
bassy affixed. The casket was afterward placed in 
an outer coffin of oak provided with eight silver 
handles, the lid of which was secured by sixteen 
silver screws. 

On April 20 this coffin was taken to the American 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Avenue de 1'AIma, ac- 
companied by the American Ambassador, M. Vignaud, 
105 



First Secretary of the Embassy, Colonel Blanchard, 
Second Secretary, Mr. Gowdy, Consul-General, and 
M. Weiss, engineer in charge of the excavations. 

The coffin, covered with the American flag, was 
placed in the receiving- vault, the rector of the church, 
the Rev. Dr. Morgan, offered a prayer, and the re- 
mains were left there to await the completion of 
arrangements for their transfer to the United States. 

For several years a search had been pressed to 
find the house in which the admiral died, No. 42 
Rue de Tournon. There had been renumberings of 
the dwellings throughout the arrondissement, and it 
seemed impossible to trace them with sufficient ac- 
curacy to locate the house in which Paul Jones, as 
history states, occupied an " apartment on the first 
floor above the entresol." This furnished another 
instance of the mystery which pursued his memory. 
It was not until the first week in July, 1905, that 
the place was found, thanks to the untiring and im- 
portant assistance rendered by M. Taxil, chief sur- 
veyor of the city of Paris. The house is now No. 19 
of that street. It is the only one in the immediate 
locality which has a first floor over an entresol. 

The style of the ironwork on the balcony indicates 
an architecture of the period of the close of the 
reign of Louis XV or the beginning of that of Louis 
XVI. The street leads toward the entrance to the 
Senate, palace of the Luxembourg. It was once a 
fashionable street, and at the present time several 
persons of distinction live there. On the ground floor 
106 



of the house a sign bears the words " Lessons in 
fencing, boxing, and the use of the single stick." 
This proffered instruction in the several arts of 
fighting in the house in which Paul Jones resided, 
coupled with the fact that the underground station 
close to the cemetery where his body reposed is 
called " Combat," looks as if fate had determined 
that he should be everywhere identified with signs 
of conflict and struggle, whether in life or in death. 

I visited this house for the first time, accompanied 
by Colonel Blanchard, July 4, 1905. Colonel A. 
Bailly-Blanchard was my second secretary at the 
embassy, and it gives me peculiar pleasure to make 
conspicuous mention of his services. 1 assigned him 
to duty as my principal assistant, and he was con- 
stantly associated with me throughout the entire 
period of the researches. His rare accomplishments 
eminently fitted him for the service, and the ability 
and zeal displayed by him entitle him to the most 
grateful consideration. 

Upon the receipt and examination of my detailed 
reports, the government recognized the completeness 
of the identification of the admiral's body, and Presi- 
dent Roosevelt ordered a squadron, composed of the 
Brooklyn, Tacoma, Chattanooga, and Galveston, com- 
manded by Admiral Sigsbee, to proceed to Cherbourg 
and convey the remains of Paul Jones to the Naval 
Academy in Annapolis, where they are to receive 
permanent interment in the crypt of the new chapel 
now under construction. 

107 



In the meantime I had consulted with the Presi- 
dent of France, the Minister of Foreign Affairs, Presi- 
dent of the Council, General of the Army, Admiral 
of the Navy, and others, as to what part the French 
desired to take in the ceremonies attending the trans- 
fer of the remains. They all manifested an enthu- 
siastic wish to pay every possible honor on that occa- 
sion to the memory of our illustrious sailor, and a 
program was accordingly arranged which would best 
carry out this desire. Admiral Fournier, who repre- 
sented the naval forces, told me that it was after 
reading the life of Paul Jones that he had resolved 
to become a sailor. So that it was the inspiration 
of our great sea-fighter that gave to France an ad- 
miral who to-day commands the admiration of naval 
men of all countries. 

Our squadron was heartily welcomed at Cherbourg 
by a French fleet, the inhabitants of the city vieing 
with the officials to pay every possible attention to 
our officers and men. In Paris a series of public 
dinners and receptions were tendered them, and they 
were feted in a manner rarely seen even in the bril- 
liant and hospitable capital of France. 

Admiral Sigsbee brought five hundred blue-jackets 
to Paris on July 6, and at 3.30 P.M. the ceremonies 
attending the transfer of the remains began in the 
beautiful American Church of the Holy Trinity, 
Avenue de TAlma. 

In the morning I had had the coffin brought from 
the vault into the church, placed in front of the chan- 
108 



eel, and covered with artistically arranged flowers. 
The church itself was tastefully dressed with floral 
decorations. The audience was one of the most dis- 
tinguished that has ever been drawn together in 
Paris. The President of the Republic was repre- 
sented by the chief of his household, who occupied 
a chair in front of the chancel. On the right of the 
middle aisle were seated the President of the Coun- 
cil and Minister of Foreign Affairs, the leading mem- 
bers of the Cabinet, and the highest officers of the 
French army and navy. On the left the resident 
American ambassador, the two special ambassadors 
designated for the occasion, Admiral Sigsbee with 
his captains and staff officers, Senator Lodge, and the 
members of the diplomatic corps. Seated in the re- 
maining pews and standing crowded in the aisles and 
doorways were distinguished persons from many 
countries. The elaborate uniforms, the exquisite 
flowers, the brilliant flags, enhanced the beauty of 
a scene which it is seldom one's fortune to witness 
and which will be memorable in history. 

After careful consultation, I concluded that it 
would be appropriate to avoid an ordinary funeral 
service, with dirges and requiems, as the occasion 
was not a funeral, but rather a glorification of the 
dead, so that anthems, patriotic airs, and marches 
gloricuscs constituted the music. After a simple but 
most impressive service had been conducted by the 
rector I formally delivered the remains to the govern- 
ment of the United States in the following words: 
109 



" This day America claims her illustrious dead. 

" In the performance of a solemn duty I have the 
honor to deliver to the government of the United 
States, through its designated representative, the re- 
mains of Admiral John Paul Jones, to be borne with 
appropriate marks of distinction to the country upon 
whose arms his heroic deeds shed so much lustre. 
It is believed that their permanent interment in the 
land to whose independence his matchless victories 
so essentially contributed will not be lacking in sig- 
nificance by reason of its long delay. 

" It is a matter of extreme gratification to feel that 
the body of this intrepid commander should be con- 
veyed across the sea by the war-vessels of a navy 
to whose sailors his name is still an inspiration, and 
that this high mission should be confided to so gallant 
an officer of the same noble profession as the dis- 
tinguished admiral who commands the escorting 
squadron. 

" An earnest expression of recognition is due to 
the accomplished savants of France, whose acknow- 
ledged skill in anthropologic science confirmed in 
every particular, with entire accuracy and absolute 
certainty, the identification of the remains which were 
so marvelously preserved. 

44 We owe a cordial tribute of gratitude to the gov- 
ernment of the French Republic for the cheerful 
proffer of facilities during the search for the body, 
the sympathy so generously manifested upon its re- 
covery, and the signal honors rendered upon this 
110 



occasion to the memory of a hero who once covered 
two continents with his renown in battling for the 
cherished principles of political liberty and the rights 
of man, for which the two sister republics have both 
so strenuously contended. 

" All that is mortal of this illustrious organizer of 
victory on the sea lies in yonder coffin beneath the 
folds of our national standard. When Congress 
adopted the present form of the American flag, it 
embodied in the same resolution the appointment of 
Captain John Paul Jones to command the ship 
Ranger. When he received the news history at- 
tributes to him the following remark: 'The flag and 
I are twins; born the same hour from the same womb 
of destiny. We cannot be parted in life or in death.' 
Alas! they were parted during a hundred and thir- 
teen years, but happily they are now reunited." 

Mr. Loomis, First Assistant Secretary of State and 
Junior Special Ambassador, received the body, mak- 
ing an interesting address in which he recited the 
most stirring events in the career of Paul Jones, and 
expressed the extreme gratification of the govern- 
ment at the recovery of the remains. Fie finished 
by delivering them to Admiral Sigsbee for transpor- 
tation to the United States. Admiral Sigsbee, in 
accepting the high mission with which he had been 
charged, delivered a brief, appropriate, and eminently 
sailorlike address, which was warmly received. 

Eight American blue-jackets now stepped forward 
and bore the coffin solemnly from the church. They 
111 



had been carefully selected for their manly bearing 
and their stature, each being over six feet in height. 
They commanded the admiration of all who saw them, 
and the Americans present were naturally delighted 
to hear the whispered comments of the French ladies, 
14 Quels beaux gar$ons! " 

The coffin was placed upon a French artillery cais- 
son tastefully adorned with flags. 

The elaborate procession was constituted as fol- 
lows: The famous French cavalry, the Garde Repu- 
blicaine, five hundred American sailors, the body of 
John Paul Jones, Admiral Sigsbee and staff, the 
American ambassadors and Senator Lodge, the per- 
sonnel of the American embassy, the high officials of 
the French government and of the diplomatic corps, 
delegations from the American Navy League and 
from the American Chamber of Commerce in Paris, 
members of the Society of the Cincinnati, Sons of the 
American Revolution, and other patriotic organiza- 
tions, all on foot. Then came a battalion of French 
horse-artillery and a battalion of French infantry with 
their famous bands. 

The column moved down the brilliant Avenue of 
the Champs Elysees and across the Seine by the 
stately bridge of Alexander III, which leads to the 
Invalides. When the body of John Paul Jones was 
seen moving solemnly toward the body of Napoleon, 
each having died in a distant land to be brought back 
after many years with every mark of honor to the 
country he had so eminently served, there was a 
112 



sentiment aroused which deeply touched the hearts 
of all participating in the ceremony. 

When the wide Esplanade des Invalides was 
reached, the coffin was lifted from the caisson and 
placed upon a catafalque erected beneath a tent of 
superb construction, the material being a rich royal 
purple velvet hung with gold fringe, the front orna- 
mented with swords, shields, cuirasses, and other 
warlike devices. Here the troops filed by the re- 
mains and rendered the highest military honors to 
the illustrious dead. The coffin was then borne to 
the mortuary car prepared for it in the railway sta- 
tion close by, and a special train bore it to Cherbourg 
that night with its guard of honor composed of Ameri- 
cans and Frenchmen. 

Paris had that day witnessed a pageant entirely 
unique in its way, and of surpassing beauty and 
solemnity. The weather was superb, and the streets 
and houses were appropriately decorated. The vast 
crowds of spectators gazed upon the cortege with 
sympathy and respect. No cheers or other inappro- 
priate demonstrations were indulged in. The on- 
lookers simply uncovered reverently as the coffin 
passed. Their bearing in every respect was ad- 
mirable. 

The next day, July 7, I went to Cherbourg to sail 
for home. A cordial invitation had been received 
from the government and Admiral Sigsbee to take 
passage on board the flagship. While this was deeply 
appreciated, it was declined, as I felt that it would 

113 



be in better taste to return by the ordinary lines of 
travel now that the subject of the mission had been 
formally placed in the hands of the navy and I could 
render no further useful service. 

The fleets of the two nations lay side by side in 
that picturesque military harbor, discharging their 
peaceful and sympathetic mission, our phantom- 
colored vessels presenting an interesting contrast to 
the black hulls of the French warships. There 1 took 
a last look at the coffin which contained all that is 
mortal of the hero, the search for whose remains had 
furnished a congenial task for the past six years. 
Upon sailing out of the harbor, the squadron honored 
me with a parting ambassadorial salute, and I now 
felt that my mission in connection with the recovery 
of the body of our illustrious naval commander was 
definitely ended. 



APPENDIX 

OFFICIAL CERTIFICATION OF THE AMERICAN EMBASSY 

AND CONSULATE OF THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE 

BODY OF ADMIRAL JOHN PAUL JONES 

THIS is to certify that we, the undersigned, met at 
the School of Medicine (L'cole de Medecine) in the 
City of Paris at ten o'clock A.M. on the fourteenth 
day of April, 1905, for the purpose of verifying the 
identification of the remains recently found by the 
American Ambassador in the old Saint Louis ceme- 
tery for the burial of foreign Protestants, and be- 
lieved to be those of Admiral John Paul Jones. 

The body was lying on a table, entirely uncovered, 
having been taken from the leaden coffin in which 
it had been found, and from which the linen had been 
removed and placed on another table. 

We had familiarized ourselves with the historical 
information regarding the age, size, color of hair, gen- 
eral appearance, manner of dress, etc., of John Paul 
Jones, and there were placed near the body the medal 
presented to him by Congress to commemorate his 
battle with the Scrapis, showing his head in profile 
and a copy of the well-known bust made from life 
by Houdon, which had been loaned for the purpose 
by the Trocadero Museum. The remains were those 
of a man, and were remarkably well preserved by 
having evidently been immersed in alcohol. The flesh 
seemed firm, and the joints were somewhat flexible. 

115 



There were bits of tinfoil adhering to the hands, feet, 
and other parts of the body, as if they had been 
wrapped with it. The body was lying on its back, 
the hands were crossed over the abdomen, the left 
hand resting on the right. It was of a grayish brown 
or, rather, a tan color. The right eyelid was closed, 
the other was slightly open. The features presented 
quite a natural appearance except that the cartila- 
ginous portion of the nose was bent over to the right 
and pressed down as if by the too close proximity of 
the lid of the coffin or by the excess of the hay and 
straw in packing the body. Several fine oblique lines 
were traceable upon the face, made by the folds of 
the winding-sheet, which had left upon the skin an 
imprint of the texture of the fabric. The lips were 
a very little shrunken or contracted, exposing the 
extreme ends of the teeth. This slight contraction 
did not exist when the coffin was opened, and seemed 
to have been caused by exposure to the air. 

Dr. Papillault, Professor of Anthropology in the 
School of Anthropology, one of the scientists who 
had been highly recommended and selected to aid in 
the work of identifying the body on account of his 
valuable experience in such examinations, explained 
to us the methods he had adopted, and showed us 
the elaborate comparative measurements he had made 
of all the important features of the body and of the 
Houdon bust. The agreement was singularly exact 
in every important particular, as will be shown in 
his report, which he read in our presence, explaining 
the details as he proceeded. The principal results 
were as follows. The word " identical " will be used 
to signify that the agreement between the correspond- 
ing dimensions of the body and of the Houdon bust 
is exact, and that the appearance conforms strictly 
to the authentic historical description of the admiral. 

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Length of body, five feet seven and three-eighths 
inches. Height of Paul Jones was five feet seven 
inches; the three-eighths is the difference allowed 
by anthropologists between a person standing and 
the same person lying down. " Was five feet seven 
inches tall, slender in build, of exquisitely symmet- 
rical form, with noticeably perfect development of 
limbs" (" Anecdotes of the Court of Louis XVI"). 
Identical. 

Principal features of face and head. Identical. 

No beard. Identical. Face presented appearance 
of one who had not shaved for several days. 

Hair very dark browngenerally speaking, might 
be called black. The front hair upon opening the 
coffin was found to be of an unnatural tan color, like 
the flesh, evidently discolored by the presence of the 
alcohol and straw. After taking some hair from the 
back of the head, where it had been protected by 
being gathered into a linen bag, and washing it, its 
color was dark brown or black. " He was of the 
complexion usually united with dark hair and eyes, 
which were his " (" Memoirs of Paul Jones," Edin- 
burgh edition). " His hair and eyebrows are black " 
("Anecdotes of the Court of Louis XVI"). See 
specimen of hair accompanying this report. Identical. 

The hair in a few places was slightly tinged with 
gray. This fact, together with the condition of the 
teeth, indicates a person of between forty and fifty 
years old. John Paul Jones was forty-five at the 
time of his death. 

Dr. Capitan, Professor of Historic Anthropology 
in the School of Anthropology, Vice-President of the 
Commission on Megalithic Monuments, member of 
the Committee on Historical and ScientificWorks and 
of the Society of Old Paris, etc., then explained the 
course pursued by him in the identification and the 

117 



autopsy effected by opening the back and removing 
and examining the internal organs so singularly pre- 
served, and gave convincing evidence that the de- 
ceased had died of the disease which terminated the 
life of John Paul Jones. (See Dr. Capitan's report.) 
In 1790 " the doctors declared that his left lung was 
more or less permanently affected" (Buell's "His- 
tory of Paul Jones"). " He died of dropsy of the 
chest" (official certificate of burial). "For two 
months past he began to lose his appetite, grew yel- 
low, and showed symptoms of jaundice." " A few 
days before his death his legs began to swell, which 
proceeded upward to his body, so that for two days 
before his decease he could not button his waist- 
coat and had great difficulty in breathing " (Letter 
of Colonel Blackden). 

The linen taken from the coffin, all in exceedingly 
good condition except stained in places a tan color, 
was then minutely examined. It consisted of a shirt 
of fine linen, handsomely made, with plaits and ruf- 
fles corresponding with the historical description of 
the admiral's fondness for dress. " He is a master 
of the arts of dress and personal adornment, and it is 
a common remark that notwithstanding the frugality 
of his means he never fails to be the best dressed 
man at any dinner or fete he may honor by attend- 
ing " ("Anecdotes of the Court of Louis XVI"). 
" To his dress he was, or at least latterly became, so 
attentive as to have it remarked " (" Memoirs of Paul 
Jones," Edinburgh edition). Identical. 

A sheet on which was worked with thread the fig- 
ure 2. A linen bag or cap neatly made, which had 
been found at the back of the head and into which the 
hair had been gathered. Upon this was a small ini- 
tial worked with thread. When the bag was held right 
side up the letter was a " J " with the loop nearly 

118 



closed; when held in the reverse position it was a 
44 P." If a " J " it would be the initial of Jones, the 
name which he added to his family name. If a " P " 
it would be the initial of his original family name, 
Paul. It may be remarked that then, as now, the 
French often marked their linen with the initial of 
their Christian name. In Paris, the admiral was 
sometimes familiarly addressed as " Mon Paul " and 
" Monsieur Paul." He often signed his name Paul 
Jones and sometimes J. Paul Jones, as shown by his 
correspondence. 

There were no other articles in the coffin except the 
hay and straw with which the body had been care- 
fully packed, and no inscription plate had been found. 
Taking into careful consideration the convincing 
proofs of identification of the body by means of the 
measurements, the autopsy, etc., the marks upon the 
linen, the fact that the coffin was found in the ceme- 
tery in which it was proved to have been buried, that 
it was superior in solidity and workmanship to the 
others, that the body had been carefully preserved 
and packed as if to prepare it for a long voyage, "that, 
in case the United States, which he had so essen- 
tially served, and with so much honor, should claim 
his remains they might be more easily removed " 
(Letter of Colonel Rlackden, the admiral's intimate 
friend, witness of his will and pall-bearer at his fu- 
neral, addressed to the eldest sister of Paul Jones, 
Mrs. Janet Taylor), and the further fact that in ex- 
ploring the cemetery there was every evidence that 
the graves of the dead had never been disturbed, 
that only five leaden coffins were found, four of 
which were easily identified, three of them having 
inscription plates giving dates and names of the de- 
ceased and the fourth containing a skeleton measur- 
ing about six feet two inches in length, we regard the 

119 



Weiss declared that they recognized the coffin and 
the body as being those found in the former ceme- 
tery for foreign Protestants and transmitted to the 
School of Medicine for the purpose of identification. 

Dr. Papillault read a detailed Report and concluded 
that the body was that of John Paul Jones. 

By the side of the body were placed the bust of 
the Admiral by Houdon, a plaster cast, loaned by the 
Museum of the Trocadero, of the original bust in 
the Academy of Fine Arts at Philadelphia, also the 
medal signed Dupre", which was struck in honor of 
Paul Jones by order of Congress to commemorate his 
famous battle with the Scrapis and the Scarborough, 
which enabled one to verify the perfect resemblance 
existing between the reproduction of the features of 
the Admiral and the corpse. 

The shirt and winding-sheet in which the body was 
wrapped were likewise examined. On the cap which 
contained his hair those present noted the existence 
of an initial which in one direction is a capital " P " 
and in a contrary direction a " J," both letters consti- 
tuting the initials of the Admiral. 

After these various examinations Dr. Capitan read 
his report upon the result of the autopsy which he 
had made upon the corpse and which revealed the 
symptoms of the disease of which it is known the 
Admiral died. Dr. Capitan and Dr. Papillault were 
both in accord in affirming as a scientific truth the 
identity of the deceased. 

In view of the perfect coincidence of all the facts 
relating to the burial and of the agreement of all 
the physical measurements, those present were unani- 
mous in recognizing the body as being that of Admiral 
John Paul Jones. 

Consequently the body was replaced in the leaden 
coffin in which it was discovered, to be ultimately 

122 



inclosed in a new triple coffin of pine, lead, and oak, 
sealed and transferred to the vault of the American 
Church in the Avenue de 1'Alma. 

In witness whereof we have drawn up and signed 
with all those in attendance the present certificate in 
triplicate, one of which will be sent through H. Ex. 
the Minister of Foreign Affairs to H. Ex. the Ameri- 
can Ambassador for delivery to the Government of 
the United States, and the two others filled in the ar- 
chives of the Prefecture of the Seine and the Pre- 
fecture of Police. 

Thus done and signed at Paris, the nineteenth day 
of May, 1905. 

(Signed) 

J. DE SELVES, Louis LEPINE, HORACE PORTER, 
HENRY VIGNAUD, A. BAILLY-BLANCHARD, JOHN 
K. GOWDY, J. CAFMTAN, DR. G. PAPILLAULT, 
GEO. HERVE, A. JAVAL, J. PRAY, PAUL WEISS. 

SEAL OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF PARIS. 



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